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3 2044 102 851 078 
















Member of the NaUonal Institute of France, &c. &c. 





^^WBxd. OoU^fire Librftry 



DUtriet ClerkU Office. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the eighteenth dar of March, 
A. D. 1824, and in the forty-eighth year of the Independence of the 
United States of America, Rickardson k Lord^ of the said District, 
have deposited in this Office the Title of a Book, the right whereof 
they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, to vnt : 

A Grammar of the French lAnguage, with Practical Exercises, by 
N. Wanostrocht, LL. D. Seventh American from the last London 
Edition, to which is added, a very comprehensive Table of Contents, 
and an Alphabetical Arrangement of the Irregular Verbs, wi^h re- 
ference to the places where they are conjugated, with Alterations, 
Additions and improvements, and a Scheme for Parsing, also a Trea- 
tise on French Versification. By M. De Wailly, Member of the 
National Institute of France, &c. &c. 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, en- 
titled, ^^ An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the 
Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of 
such copies, during the times therein mentioned i"*^ and also to an 
Act entitled, '^ An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, *• An Act 
for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, 
Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of soch copies 
during iht tiroes therein mentioned ; and eztendin|^ the benefits 
thereof to the Arts of Designing, Engraving and Etching Historical, 
and other Prints.' '^ 

Clerk of (he Dutrict of JfHanaehwetis. 


THE publishers of the previous Boston editions of 
this Grammar, now offer a new and improved edition 
of a work which has become generally known and 

When it was first determined to reprint this judicious 
system of theoretically and practically teaching the 
French language, a perfect conviction was felt that it 
would meet the approbation of the wise and learned 
as soon as it was known ; and the rapid sale of six 
editions in the United States within a few years has 
fully realized that expectation and given indubitable evi- 
dence of the intrinsic merit of this mode of instruction. 

In London this Grammar has passed through sixteen 
editions, and it has likewise been* printed several times 
at Paris. 

Previous to the printing of every new edition the 
American publishers have always been careful to pro- 
cure the latest English copy, in order to profit by any 
improvement which may have been made in succeeding 
editions, and this attention has always proved advan- 
tageous. Besides this, every edition has been carefully 
revised, 'enlarged and improved by the same editor, 
who, in the present, has availed himself of the altera- 
tions and meliorations liberally furnished by a worthy 
and intelligent Jnstructer. Therefore, it is confidently 
believed that this GrauHnar will continue to deserve 
the high standing it has attained, both in Europe and 
America, among the real judges of similar publications. 

This work is now introduced into some of the first 
literary institutions in the country, and particularly into 
the University at Cambridge, and St. Mary's College in 

Boston, March, 1824. 


THAT " a great book is a great evil" is generally a great tmtb, 
for the discovery of which we moderns must hold ourselves indebted 
to the sages of antiquity. In the following sheets, I have endeavour- 
ed to improve upon the ancient maxim, and bring the two ends of the 
book as near together as I pbssibly could. On this frugal plan, the 
preface might have been spared, but custom must be complied with : 
some part of our time must be spent on superfluities ; and what is 
rendered venerable by age must not too hastily be rejected. To 
enter abruptly upon the main subject is generally considered as a 
i)reach of politeness. What is useful must sometimes gixe place to what 
is convenient, and what rigorous justice cannot defend, may yet enjoy 
the security of prescription. In compliance, therefore, with univer- 
sal custom, with the general practice of the ancients, and, what is 
still more forcible, the urgent solicitation of the boolteellers, I pro- 
ceed to lay before the Reader the general Plan of the Work. 

The idea of the Practicai. Grammar was first suggested to the 
Author in the course of his private teaching. He found daily the in- 
convenience of referring from book to book, and determined to sup- 
ply the defect in the best manner he could. Whatever was neces* 
sary to furnish a tolerable acquaintance with the elements of the lan- 
guage, and point out the nature of its construction, he proposed to 
admit; and reject everything that was not esgenlially connected 
with his principal design. His first object was to comprise, in as little 
room as possible, every thing that was really useful in the grammar^ 
the exercise-book, and the book of dialogues. To this plan,he has 
strictly adhered in the composition, and has brought the whole to- 
gether in a much smaller compass than, at first, could reasonably 
have been expected. 

The several parts of speech are arranged in the usual order, and 
each part is discussed under a separate section. 

Each rule is followed by a familiar exercise, which the master may 
use in the place of a dialogue. 

The advantages resulting from the scholars learning and then re- 
peating their own tranilationt by heart must, in the opinion of impart- 
iial and disinterested miiK^s v^tejrially tend to their unproy^ment ; 


by these means, the pupils, nnithig practice to theory, not only be- 
come imperceptibly acquainted with the French phraseology, which 
in many instances differs so much from the English construction, but 
immediately know what is the English word that corresponds with 
the French, and vice versA^ which cannot absolutely be done, in a 
dialogue where the French is ready made for them. Therefore, in 
order the more fully to answer the Author's intention, he has, instead 
of fine sentences, extracted from the most elegant writers, and often 
above the comprehension of young people, preferred, and made nse, 
throughout all the exercises, of plain and easy sentences, which, at 
the same time they are withhi the reach of the young learners' facul- 
ties, will soon enable them to speak the French language with pro- 
priety and elegance. What more can be expected from an elemen- 
tary book ? 

At the close of every section, a recapitulatory exercise is given 
npon all the preceding rules. 

When there is any difference hk the order of arrangement, the 
French construction is pointed out by the small figures placed against 
the top of the words in the English sentence. 

Some of the most remarkable French idioms are noticed, and ex- 
emplified by various instances. Many others might have been ad- 
duced, perhaps, to very little profit. The idiomatical expressions 
are daily giving way to a regnlar syntactical form, and growing into 
disuse with the best masters. 

A few general rules for pronunciation only have been given. From 
all the attempts that have hitherto been made, it does not appear 
that any adequate idea of it can be conveyed in writing. The ear 
cannot be properly formed without the assistance of a good speaker* 
Throughout the whole composition, the Author's chief aim has been 
to unite ease and simplicity with accuracy and precision. That he 
has sometimes said too little where more was required, and some- 
times too much where less would have been sufficient, he does not 
take npon himself to assert. That he has sometimes failed through 
negligence, and many times through ignorance, he has also great rea- 
son to fear. His daily avocations left him but little time for study, 
and his want of a better acquaintance with the English language 
may have subjected htm to many inaccuracies in his style, and some- 
times, perhaps, to palpable improprieties. 

The author cheerfully embraces this opportunity of making his 
most grateful acknowledgments to the Public, for the favourable re- 
ception given to the former editions of this Grammar, and, in general. 


to all his other works : while he is perfectly sensible of the oBIk 
gatioD, he is also sensible that much indulgence was required to 
justify the favours he has already received, either as a teachxr or 
as an author* That generous indulgence he again solicits for their 
acceptance in this new edition, and begs to assure them, that, in 
every situation of life, it will be his constant care, as well as bis 
highest ambition, to deserve the flattering encouragement he has 
met with in this country, and never forget the obligations already 

In this edition the errors in the former publications are carefully 
corrected, the several expressions which did not so well please in the 
course of practice, have been altered, and every improvement added, 
that could tend to facilitate the attainment of the French language. 
It having been suggested, by some gentlemen, to whose judgment the 
Author pays the greatest deference, that the irregular verbs, being 
arranged in alphabetical order, in the body of the book, would be a 
considerable improvement to the work, and facilitate the progress of 
the scholar, this is done in the present edition* The primitives of 
the irregular verbs are conjugated at length, and at the end of each 
are given their several compounds, with large exercises, both upoct 
the primitives and compounds. 

Alfrtd'Houit Academy^ CamberwelU 


AN Alphabetical Arrangement of Irregalar Verbs • . xti 
An Explanation of the Abbreviations . . • • 11 

French Alphabet 12 


OfOrammar • 13 

Of the French Alphabet ib. 

Of Vowels — Diphthongs — Accents — Kinds of £ • • • 14 

Of Diseresis — Cedilla — Apostrophe .••••• 16 

Alphabetical list of French words haTiDg their initial k mate • ib» 
Variations in the pronunciation of Consonants • • .17 

Kinds of words 18 

General Explanation of their nse 19 


Of Nouns 20 

Of Articles . . .21 

Of the Definite, Partitire and Indefinite Articles ... 22 

Of Genders and Numbers • 23 

Creneral Rules for the formation of the Plural Number . 24 

OfCases 2« 

Of the Declension of Nouns 27 

Declension of the Article Definite Le^ (the) before Nouns mas- 
culine beginning with a consonant or h aspirated • • 28 
Declension of the Article Definite La^ (the) before nouns fem- 
inine beginning with a consonant or h aspirated . . Hf, 
Declension of the Article Definite L* (the) for both Genders, 
before nouns beginning with a Vowel, or an h not aspirated 29 

Recapitulation of the Article Definite t6. 

Rules for the proper use of the Definite Article with Exercises 30 

Declension of the Article Partitive ' ..... 38 

Rules and Exercises upon this Partitive • . • . 39 

Declension of the Article Indefinite 41 

Rules and Exercises on this Indefinite . • • . ib. 

Declension of (/n, m. Une^ f. a or an 48 

Rules and Exercises on this Article • . • • . t6. 

Of Noun^ Adjective ........ 50 

Of the Gender and Number of Adjectives . . • . t&. 

Declension of Nouns Adjective 53 

Rules and Exercises upon Adjectives ib» 

The Place of an Adjective in a Sentence .... 56 

Of Adjectives which precede their Substantives . . . tfr. 

Of Adjectives which come after their Substantives . . 57 
Roles and Exercises upon these Adjectives • .68 


or the Degrees of Comparison 60 

Rules with Exercises upon the Degrees of Comparison . 61 

Of Numbers 67 

Rules and Exercises upon these Cardinal Numbers . • 68 

Of the Ordinal Numbers 71 

Rules and Exercises upon the Ordinal Numbers . . 72 
Recapitulatory or Promiscuous Exercises upon all the Preced- 
ing Rules 74 


Of Pronouns 81 

Of Pronouns Personal 82 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns .... 83 
Observations on the Pronouns Jt and Jtfot\ Tu and Toi^ II 

and Luiy tU and Eux .85 

Exercises upon the Preceding Observations ... 86 

■ 87 










Of Conjunctive Pronouns and their Declensions 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns . 

Of Particles Relative or Supplying Pronouns en, y, and It 

Rules and Exercises upon these Supplying Pronouns • 

Of Pronouns Possessive, and their Declensions 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns . 

Of Pronouns Demonstrative ,••••. 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns . • 

Of Pronouns Relative 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns 

Of Pronouns Interrogative .116 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns . . . • ih. 

Of Pronouns Indefinite .119* 

Rules and Exercises upon these Pronouns . . • . 120 
Reca]^itulatory or Promiscuous Exercises upon all the Pronouns 13S 


Of Verbs and their different Sorts 142 

Conjugation of Verbs and Moods ...... 144 

Tenses 147 

Tenses of the Indicative Mood 148 

Simple Tenses of the Indicative Mood .... ih. 

Compound Tenses of the Indicative Mood .... 153>- 
Tenses of the Subjunctive or Conjunctive Mood, and their 

Compounds 157 

Numbers and Persons . 159 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb .^votr, to have . . . 161 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb Etrt^ to be • • • 163* 

Rules and Exercises on the two preceding Auxiliary Verbs . 166 
Promiscuous Exercises upon the Compound Tenses of these 

Auxiliary Verbs 169 


Rales and Examples for using these Verbs Interrogatively, kc, 170 
Pronaiscuous Exercises on Rules of Interrogation, &c. . . 172 

Remark on the Verb £fre, to be 174 

First Conjugation in «r, as in Parl-er 175 

Important Observation upon the repetition of Verbs, &ۥ 

see N. B 179 

Exercises on this Conjugation . • . . • .181 

Exercises on the Compound Tenses 183 

Second Conjugation, in tr, as in Pun-tr . . . .184 

Exercises on this Codjugation 187 

Third Conjugation, in croir, as in rec-crofV . . . .190 
Exercises on this Conjugation • . . • p . 193 
Fourth Conjugation, in re, as in Vend-r« . . . .197 

Exercises on this Conjugation 200 

Recapitulatory Exercises on the Regular Verbs of the Four Con- 
jugations . • 203 

Promiscuous Exercises on the Compound Tenses, of the pre- 
ceding Conjugations 206 

Conjugations of the Passive Verbs 208 

Of Neuter Verbs generally • ib. 

Of Reflective Verbs . 214 

Model of Conjugations for the reflected Verbs of the Four Con- 
jugations 219 

Exercises on the Reflective Verbs 222 

Conjugation of the Irregular Verbs of the First Conjugation 227 
Irregular Verbs of the Second Conjugation .... 230 
Exercises on the Irregular Verbs of the First and Second Conju- 
gations 235 

Continuation of the Irregular Verbs of tb e Second Conjugation 238 
Exercises on the preceding Irregular Verbs . . . . 243 
Continuation of the Irregular Verbs of the Second Conjugation 245 
Exercises on the preceding Irregular Verbs and their Compounds 251 
Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation .... 264 
Observation upon Jlfaj^, and Mighty when used as a Verb pr 

Auxiliary 259 

Observation upon the words Willy and Wouldy when used as a 

Verb or an Auxiliary . 265 

Exercises upon Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation . 266 
Irregular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation . . . .271 
Exercises upon the preceding Irregular Verbs, and their Com- 
pounds 281 

Continuation of the Irregular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation 284 
Exercises on the preceding Irregular Verbs and their Compounds 296 
Continuation of the Irregular Verbs of the Fourth Coniugation 302 
Exercises on the preceding Verbs, and their Compounds • 313 

Of the Impersonal Verbs 319 

Conjugation of the Impersonal Verbs ib» 

Exercises on the Impersonal Verbs • • • . • 321 

Upon the Impersonal Verb y avoiVy • • • • 322 

Exercises on the preceding Verb • 323 

Remarks on the general Pronoun On • • • • 324 
Szercises on the preceding Pronoun, &c ib» 


Remarks on ttie Impersonal Verb Falloir^ to be needful, rc^ 

qnisite, necessary ..... 332 

Exercises on the preceding Impersonal Verb • • 334 

Additional Remarks on the general Pronoun On . • 337 

Exercises on the preceding Pronoun .... 338 

Recapitulatory Exercises on the Impersonal Verbs • 339 


Of Participles ...... 342 

Rules and Exercises on the Participles Active and Passive 342 to 352 


Of Indeclinable Parts of Speech .... 353 

Of Adverbs ....... t6. 

Table of Adverbs . 354, 357, 359, 361, 363, 365, 368, 369 

Observation on the Adverb Ou . . . .370 

Table of Adverbs continued . . 373, 376, 378, 379, 382 


Of Prepositions . . . . . .383 

Prepositions governing the Genitive or Ablative Cases . 383, 384 
Exercises on these Prepositions .... 385 

Prepositions governing the Dative Case . . • 387 

Exercises on these Prepositions .... ib. 

Prepositions requiring the Accusative Case . . 388 

Exercises upon these Prepositions .... 389 

Observations on some Prepositions, and Exercises upon them, 

Move^ 392 ; Jit^ 393, 394 ; By^ 395, 396, 397 ; For^ 398 ; 

From^ 399 ; /n, 400, 401 ; On^ or Upon^ 402 ; Oter, 403 ; 

^^i/^, 404, 405, 407, 408 ; Without, . . .409 


Of Conjunctions . . . . . .411 

Conjunctions requiring^ the Infinitive Mood, and Exercises 

upon them ...... ib. 

Conjunctions requiring the Verb in the Indicative Mood, and 

Exercises upon them in continuation • . .412 

Conjunctions requiring the Future Tense . . 417 

Remark on the Conjunction Que, preceding an Infinitive or 

Subjunctive Mood ...... 418 


Conjunctions requiring the Verb in the Subjunctive Mood,«nd 

fixercises upou them . , . . . . 420, 421 

Remarks on the Conjunctions Si and Que . • 424 

Ezeicises on the preceding Conjunctions . • . 425 
Verbs requiring the Conjunction Que, with the following Verb 

in the Subjunctive Mood . • • . 427 

Exercises on this and the preceding Rules • . . 428 

Observation on the Verb Votdoir^ to wil], to wish, • 431 

Conjunctions Qin, Que or Dont^ requiring the following Verb 

in the Subjunctive Mood, and Exercises upon them . 433 


Of Intenections ...... 435 

Table of Interjections . • • . • ib* 

Exercises on the preceding Interjections • . . 436 

Remarks on the Particles Z>e, a, Pour^ when not expressed, 

and Exercises upon them .... 437 

Remarks on the Particle De, when it is to be expressed, and 

"Exercises upon it • • « . . . 439 

Remarks on the Particle d, when it is to be expressed, and 

Exercises upon it . . . • . 441, 442 

Important remarks on the Particles i)e, ^ and Pow^ with 

Exercises .•••.•• 444 


Idiomatical Expressions . • . • • 445 

Of the Verb Jtvoify to bare, and Exercises npon it . 445, 446 
Of Etrtf to be, and Exercises upon it • . • 448 

Of Faire^ to make, or to do, and Exercises upon it • 449, 450 

Of different Verbs, and Exercises upon them . 451, 452, 453, 454 
Genera] and Promiscuous Exercises • . . 455 

Of the Understanding of Languages • • . . ib. 

Of Study ....... 456 

Indolence Characterised ..... 458 


Scheme for parsing a French Sentence . • . 458 

Treatise upon French Versification • . '* 461 






To Acquire • • • • 
Avoid,^ or Shua 
Abstain • 
Attain to • 
Assault • » 
be Able . 
Absolve . 
Abate • • 

Rabattre • • 

Acknowle<lge,or? R.^^nnoitre , 
know again .3 

Accrue. Accroitre • • 

Appear Paroitre • • 


French. Conjugated like 


Acqu^rir • • • ••••••• 330 

Fuir» 238 

S'Absteoir • • ^ 

Parvenir 4 . . > Tenir • • • 246 

Pr^venir • . . 3 

Assaillir • • • Tressaillir 247 2^P 

Pouvoir^ ... . • 259 

Absoudre ... 271 

. Battre • . . 272 

>Connoitre 278 

1 Eviter^ to avoid, and assultr^ to assist, are regular verbs of tbe 
First Conjugation. 

a See Pret. p. 305, and Imperfect of Sabjanct. p. 306. 
3 See p. 259 and 260. 

ttg^tkf French. 

Admit • .^ < 
Anoint • « . 


Ctyt^u%attA like 

Faire • 
Mettre . 




Assist^ . • • 
Agree • # • 
be Acquaintcki 

with . ^ • 
be Afraid » • 
faU Asleep .^ • 
fall Asleep again 


Traire • 
Courit • 
Mentir • 







' > Connoitre 278 

Craiodre •».••» 284 
S'Endormir . j 
Se Rendorniirj 

Dormir. 234 

D6mentir . 

Deve»Jr* . 

Convenh* « 

Sarvcnir • 

Baltre . , 

ReliBtire • 

Rabattre • 

[ I BouiHir^ 
» Mentir • 

^Tenix . 
.>Battre • 





l^d^Boil . • « . • BooHJif 
Boil again •» • • RebouilliF 
Belie • * • . 
BeloAg • • • • 
Become of • • • 
Become, fit, &c. 
Befall ft •> • * 
Beat • .« • • 
Beat again' • • 
Beat dowA (abate) 
Bray ^ f * • 
Believe • < . • 
Bake, or Boil, of«l 
feu Engliahed to > Cuire • • 

1 See Remark, p. 303. 2 See Note 1 in preceding p&re. 

3 See p. 232. 4 See Note *, p. 249. 5 See p. 274 and t75. 

6 Bdtir^ td btnld, and Betnnir^ to baniflh, are regnlars cf the 
8e«oad Cooj ligation. 

Croire •••••» 285 

• >Cofidisire 276 




be Born ^ . , 
be Born again 

To Conquer 


Proscrire • 

Naitre ^ .. 
Renattre • 



Consent • • 
Cover • M . 
Co?er again • 
Contain * • 
Conte • • • 
Come back 
Clothe • • • 
Come to, Befall 
Clear a table • 

pa . . . 

nir . . . > 

• • • I 

inir . . .J- 

Conjugated Wee 
• Ecrire • SS9 
1 1 Naitre • 302 

. Aeqwf rir 330 
. Courir « 333 

•VMcntir- 339 


Tenir • 346 




Conduire 376 

Consentir .. 
Couvrir • 
Recouvrir • 
Contenir • 
Conclure » 

Construct, Build . Construire 
Circumcise • • Circoncire^ 
Chance, or Fall out echoir* • • 
Contradict • • Contredir^ 
Curse • • • • Maudire • 

a^petr: : :lc»"'W"-ic«.».an. 

Complain • • • Se Plaindre • ) 

Come tolife a8>^j^^^ 2gg 

from an egg, &c» 3 
Counterfeit • • Contrefaire • Faire . 3S0 
Compromise . . Compromettre> j^^^^^^ ^ 23^ 
Commit • • • CAnmeUre •> 
Chido .... Reprendrp . Prendre 305 

1 See Note 6 it 'preceding page. 2 See Remark, p. 249. 

Q Sea ParUciple Pass. p« 275. 4 See Participle Act. fc Pass. p. 257. 
5 See Note, p. 287. ' 6 See p. 288. » 

Confire • 

; J Dire 









To Conquer 
Convince , 

, • • Vaincrc* . . 
. • Convaincre . 


> • • Discourir • . 


To Discourse * 

Courir • 


Die . . 
be Dying . 

, . . Mourir . , 
. • Se Mourir « 

Mourir • 


Detain . , 
Disagree < 

. . D^tenir . , 
• . Disconvenir . 

^Tenir . 


Discover * 

• . • Decouvrir 

Offrir . 


Distribute . 

. . • D^partir . . 

» Mentir • 


Dissolve , 

• . . Dissoodre* • 



Drink . , 

» . . Boire* • • 

» • > • 


Debate . < 

► . . Debattre 

> Battre • 


Decay • . 

. . . D^choir . 

» • • • 


Do an ill 06 

Ice • Desservir • 

. Servir . 


Deduct . 

» . . Deduire . 

, ^ 

Do aver, wil 
tar, &c. 

. • • Detruire • « 
^'°;^^; J Enduire . 

• VCondoire 



, • . Decroitre . , 
» • « Disparottre . 

' ' Connohre 376 


, . • D^crire 

. Ecrire . 


Do . . 

► , . Faire . . . 


Do again < 

. • . Refaire • , 

.S- Faire . 


Defeat . < 

. ... Defaire . . 



. • • Feindre • < 


Dye . . . 

» • • Teindre • 1 

. > Craindre 


Draw, Desij 

;n • Peindre • , 


Defer, Put 
Deliver up 

^^' ^''{Remettre . 

. Mettre . 



• . . Deplaire . 

. Plaire .. 



. • • Distraire • 1 

• • . Entretenir 

. Traire . 


To Entertain 

Tenir . 



» • . Ezclure^ • , 



1 See Note, p. S 

11. S See p. 87& 

3 See N. B. p. S74. 

' 4 8«e p. S90. 

To Exact . . 
Enjoin .• I 
Enclose • < 
Elect . . 
fxtract • . 

To Fetch , 
Flee, or Fly 

• £uf&lre • 

• Enjoindre • 

' > Ei^ceindr^ 

• Elire • • 

• Extraite • 

. Querh* 
. Fuii^ . . 

Feel ..'... Sentir . . 

Foresee, or havea7 p^™^^*:- 
forcsightof . .^i'^essentir- 

Foresee . . . Pr^voit^ • «. 

Fic* or fit weH * Scoir* . . 

Fight • • • - Combattre 

Fear . « • • Craindre • 

Fori;;e • • ' • • Contraindre 

Feign • • « • f*jeindre • 

Forbid • • • • Interdjre « 

Fo^f^^U • . . PrMir^ . 

JFall out, pr Hap.]^^^j^ ^ 

pen • • • ' • » _ 

Feed, os'Qr^ze 
Follow . » • 

Follpw ficom 
Fine-fhraw . 

To Go . . . .* 

Go away . . 
Gather • • • 
Gather together 
Go out t* • • 

Frir^ . . 

Paltry . . 

S.uivTp • 4 


Rentr^ire * 


Allfitr • • 
S'en Aller 
Retueillir • 
JSontir • • 

1 See p. 231. 2 See p. £38, S39« 

4, -Bee the ^ri) To Beccope^ A^, 

See Note, p. 287. 7 See p. 2§7. 

Co79JmgBieS> like 
Faire • ^90 


• Craindre 

Lire « 
Traipe • 





Meirtir • 239 

Voir . 
Asseoir • 
Battre . 



Craindre 284 


... 292 
CoDfiO)tre 278 



• MeMir * 

3 See p. 264. 



fta^ IftRBMLAE TAHaS* 


ToGrow . . 
Grow less • 
Grow again 
Graze • • 
Glitter « . 
Glimpse, or 

have a giimpa 
Grind • • • • 
Grind again • • 
Give other clothes 

pse of 3 

Canjugatid like 

^Connotlre 278 

Conduire 276 
Voir . 263 

Gird Ceindre 



Croitre . 
Decroitre • 
Recroitre . 
Paitre . . 
Reiuire^ , 



Revetir 250 

• Craindrc 284 


Moudre 295 

To Hold . . 
Happen unex- 
Hear • 
Hatch . 
Hurt . 

► Tenir « , 

> Survenir . 

. Ouir« . • 
, Eclorr^ • 
Nuire* • • 

Hold on(&^s tobgue Se Taire 


Plaire • 

Hear of 

To Incur . 
Impart • 

« Invest • 
Inscribe , 
Induce • 
Include • 

1 See p. 293. 
4500 p. 30a 

5^PPi!rf,^!.^^*? Prendre 





i nouvelles 



Contrevenir k 


Revetir 250 

Dire . 286 
Ecrire • 289 






Interdire^ . 
Instruire^ • 
Introduire • 

2 See p. 24S. 

& See Note, p. 287. 

Conduire 276 

. Prendre 305 
3 See p. 288. 





1*9 Jut,iei oiity a (crm ^ 

in Arcbiteotnre VSoillii^ 
only ... .3 
Join • • • • • Toindre 

CanjugaUd like 


Crainchre S84 

. . , f4S 

"Know somehpd y cOoBBdlkre ••? r'^^^r.^*--* o-rft 

Knofv 6«iiiAthing fiuxoif® • .• 

To Lie " Meati-r 


f;ive one ^e Lie • Dementir • 

^ead • • • 
I^ead again 

licarn • . • 

Ijeap for x. • 

Laugh • • • 

Live . .• • 

I Men tip • ^9 

TiTibs^lir • 
Rijce . . 
Viiifre . • 


|"Sr. :ST»ir 

• • I Mouvoip 258 

'i^'o Maintain . 

Move • • • • Mouvoir 
Move, OP Stir up ^tnouvoir 
Mi8t^e,or be de-> M^coonoitre, Connottre ^78 
ceired . . . $ op Sc Meppendre, Prendre 305 
Make . . . . Paire . . .^ 
Make up again • Refaipe . .vFaire . ^00 
9Iiinic • . • • Contrefaipe O 

. . •• Tpatpe • • • ... '308 



To make a greapt 

Naise • • 


1 Seea>.'^48,.MB^N. B. p. 24»* 
a See p» 275. 

Bpurrc? 276 

a. See Notes, -^.Sai, 



/"nnA, Canjl^g^i^JUu^ 

TovOveft«k9 .. 


. Alt^sAre ,. .. 

CruMNice B$t 

Oflfer , ,. 
Open • « 

Pbtam . . 


. 08rir i 

.. C^ivjr ! 

Offrir . ^41 


.. Qbtm^W .. .. 

Tenir .^ (246 

do an ill offi 


. Jie^n»rir.. .• 

.Sewr ., &A5 

Open as an 

pystef M^fi^^ • • 

. ^ . 988 

Outlaw . . 


.. Pro«»rye *• . 

Eprirf ^f $89 

Omit . « 


.• iimAVi^ •• .• 

Mettne . i394 

Outlive ^ . 


«• "PHUVH^IP .• .• 

Vivff ^ SIS 

Pblige . . 


' * Astreindce* 

► . Pn^venir • .; 
• Provenir .. . i 

Ck^M^ &S4 

To Prevent 

Tenvr • ;346 


► . Preocrire .. . i 
.• Proicrira • • < 

Ecrire . ^89 

Prevail . . 

. Pr^vadoir* 

Valoir . S61 


. . Pourvoir* . . 

Voir . 263 

J^ulldown . 

• Abattr^ . • 

Battre • 272 

"Preserve . 

• Confire • • 

. . . 277 

Put out . . 

• ^teiiid«e • . ] 


Paint • 

. • Feindre .J 
. . Peindre • • | 

^Craipdre 284 

Pity . . 

. .4 Plaindre . .^ 


Part with 

. • SeD^(are / 

Fsrire . 290 

Put . . 

, . Mettr^ . / 

Permit • 

. • Perfoettre 


. . ProoMttre.^ , 

>*Melftse « 1294 

Put off . 


•|| Rcmetlre 


• '] Pr^enir . • 

Tenir • 246 


. • Produire • • 

Conduire 276 

Pursue . 

. • FouFsuivre . 

Suivre • M8 

Please • 

• • Plaire » » • 

» . » 304 

1 ^e4>.j288. 


Grows obiolcte, p. 272. 

S See p. 262. 

4 See p. 264. 


See Note, p. 294. 

^See:!fote, p. SpS. 



To Require 

fet Rid of 

Ran to 
Run o?er 
have Recoarse to 
R«n awaj 
Retain • 
Return • 
Remember, or 
Replj • 
Read . 
Read ag^n 

Rise . ) as 
Revive \ flowers 
Reach • 
Revive • 

To Succour 
make Sleep 

1 See p. 238^230, Pret. and Imp. 
3 See p. 275. ' 4 See p. 272. 



Se Defaire 
Accourir •• 
•Recoorir • 
Puir» . • 
Retenir • 
Revenir • 

I Se Souvenir* 

Subveoir • 
Ressentir • 
. Repartir • 
Se Repentir 

j Se D^dire» 

Lire • • 

Retire • • 
D^mettre • 
Se Demettre 

( Naitre 

i Renaitre • 
R^dttire • 
Atleindre • 

I Revivre . 

Secourir • 

Conjugated like 


Faire . 


» Courir • S33 


>^Tenir • 246 

Mentir . S39 

Dire . 


Mettre • 




Naftrc . 302 


Vivre . 





2 See Note t, p. 249. 
5 See Note ^ p. ftVL 


Suffer . 
Serve . 
Suit . . 
Start, Startle 
Stir up • 
See • • 
See again 
Solve « 
Sew ^ . 
Stitch . 
Sew ^gti\u 
Sct^ut . 
Set cut again 
be Sensible of 
Smell « 
Sit dpw^i 
Sit down 9gain 
Supersede ^ 
Say . . , 
Say again ^ 
Speak ill of 
Shut, or close 
Shilt, or • 
Sgrrpuiul w.ith 

walls, &c 
Satisfy • 
Sabnit • 

Fuir . 


Servir . 





Voir . 



? Goyijre 



Partjr . 



Seotir . 




JMre . 

I M^diie* 
Clorre . 



Luire^ . 




Ckmi^^i like 


Qffrjr , 241 
^ - . 245 

I Tenir • 24« 

... 247 
Mouvoir 258 

I Voir ' . 263 

Absoudre 271 

V Coudre 280 

Moudro 295 

Mentir . 239 

Battre . 1272 
Asaoair 254 

. . . 256 



^Clclorre 298 

Ecrire . 289 

Faire • sio 

Cooddire 276 

MelU>e . 294 

Prendre 305 

RlPe . 307 

1 See pw 2701. •> 

3 ^i^.«a6. 




To Seduce . . 
Suffice, or • 
Seem • » 

To Tell . . . 
Tell again . 
Turn out • 
Transmit . 
Take . . 
Take again 
Translate « 
Throw down 

To Unsew . • ' . • 
Uncover ^ . .. 
Unsay .... 
Undo .... 
Undo again • . 
Understand • * 
Unlearn . . . 
Undertake . • 


' S^duire ♦ ^ 

I Suffire\ . 

Paroitre , 


Dire ♦ . 



Demet(re • 




Traduire . 



D^coudre . 
Se Servir . 
Se D^dire* 
Red^faire ^ 

To Vanquish . . . 

To Welcome . . . 
be Worth . . • 
Wisb,orbe Willing 
Write • . . - 
Write again . . 
Whet .... 

1 See p. 908. 

3 See Note*, p. 311. 

Conjugated like 


Conduire 276 

Confire^ 277 

Connoitre 273 
Traire , 309 

Dire . 286 

Ecrire < S89 

Mettre . 294 

Prendre 605 

Conduire 276 

Battre . 272 


Servir . 
Offrir . 





Desapprendre > Prendre 
Entreprendre ) 


V^ncre 311 


Valoir . 
ecrire . 
R^crire . 


Ecrire . 

S See Note •, p. 287. •• 





m. Nouo mascaline* 

f* NoaD feminine. 

pi. Plural. 

adj. NouD adjective. 

pro. Pronoun. 

V. Verb. ^ 

p. act. Participle active. 

p. p. Participle passive. 

p. Preposition. 

adv. Adverb. 

c. Conjunction. 

int. Interjection. 

*<^ The English word tftat-ltas ibis mark 

underneath, is not to be expressed 

in French. 

The figures, % % % &c. direct to the at'rangement of the 
words it) the French sentence. 

Two words having the same figure are expressed bj 
the French word placed under one of them. 

Two or three words between parentheses { ), are ex- 
pressed by the French under them, or have been 
previously expressed. 


Roman Letteif. 



OtdPro. JVew Pro. 





ah ah 





ta^ 64 





ttay he and cc 





day de 




€ ■ 

ee a 





^i fi 





jay* ghe^nd gt 





ash lit 





te ee 





jet* je* 




kah ktth 





sU h 





ttHtn ffvt 





cHtl fit 








pay pe 





&ut . k€ 




uirr fc 





iS9 se and sft 





tay U 

•if uf 









vay ve 





eeks ke-se^ndze 





ee graik ee graik 





zaid ze 

* The two consonants g and j are sounded in the Alphabet like s 
iOi pUarure or 8 in asure* 

f U has no similar sound in English, and must be learned from a 

X In the new pronunciation e after each consonant is sounded as 
in the English word barbet^ faintly sounding the r. 




GRAMMAR is the art of speaking at)d writing m any 
language with propriety; or, it is the art of rightly ex- 
pressing our thoughts by words. 

Grammar is of two kinds, general and particular. 
Universal grammar considers language in itself, explains 
the principles which are alike common to every tongue, 
and distinguishes, with precision, between those par- 
ticulars which are essential and those which are only 
accidental. Particular grammar applies these common 
principles to a particular language, and furnishes cer- 
tain rules and observations which are, either mediately 
or immediately, deducible from its common principles. 

A grammar of the French tongue must be formed 
agreeably to the established usage, and those particu- 
lar modes of expression, to which custom has given its 
sanction. It has therefore for its object, in common 
with all other grammars, the consideration of letters, 
syllables, words, sentences, &c. 

ALPHABET; — is composed of twenty^five letters, 
of which words are formed ; five of them, a, e, t, o, ti, 
are distinguished by the name of vowels, which form a 
perfect sound of themselves. The twenty other letters 
*» c, d,/, g, ft, j, A, /, m, n,p, 7, r, 5, <, r, ar, y, z, are call- 
ed consonants, and cannot be pronounced but when 
joined with vowels, except y, which has often the soiiind 
of double I, and of which some make a sixth vowel. 


VOWELS, three sorts ; — Simple, a, e, t, o, u, which 
are subdivided into short and l^tig, the sound of which 
is more prolonged and deeper. 

Compound, of two or three simple vowels, as at, e«, ot, 
ttt, au, eu, ou^ cb, <bu : ai has the sound of e mute in/ais' 
ant^* and the sound of e close in je /tVat, as well as in 
all the verbs in the first person singular of the fature. 

Nasal, when they are joined to m or n, and when 
they form only one sound, afs an, am^ en, em, m, tm, atn, 

DIPHTHONG j— Is the union of several vowels, the 
pronunciation of which causes two sounds to be beard by 
a single impulse of the voice. JKeti, yeuxj niais^ pion^ 
tftit'e, mien^ are diphthongs : yet, Caen, tau^ paon^ craie, 
.are not so, because they are pronounced Can^d^pan, erL 

ACCENTS, three sorts;— The acute', the grave \ 
and the circumflex % 'sesve to modify the sound of the 
vowels; the office of the latter is to render long the 
vowels which are affected by it ; thus pronounce d^ ^, f, 
£, tl, by a greater opening of the mouth, almost as if it 
were aa^ ee, n, oo, u?4. It is thus we write 6gt. instead 
of aagt; this is also the reason why it is placed over 
the vowels that were formerly followed by an ^, which 
has been dropped, since it is no longer pronounced ; as 
in asne, beste^ in which the suppression of the «, requires 
that we should write dne^ biU^ in order to shew that d 
and 6 are long. , 

KINDS of E, five ; — two kinds, MuU : isU — One 
whAse dull sound is almost null in hrave^ encore^ which 
are pronounced no otherwise than brav, encor. 

2d.— -The other, the sound of which, although ob- 
scure, can be prolonged, nearly as the sound of et<, in^e, 
me, fe, revetitV^ redemander* 

3d. — Close, by the txecenf Acute^ in bortU ; also ez is 
equivalent to 6^ as in voyez^ lisez^ ttnichezj &c. 

♦ 3«e JPfltrc, page 290. 


4 A. — Open, by the acunl Grave, in Mces, sucoii, niJU^ 
which accent is suppressed id greffe, sans cesse, abbesse* 

Bih* — ^Vert open, by the accent Circumflex, in itre, iitt, 
tempite, which were formerly pronounced and written* 
estre, teste, &c. 

Middling, followed by a double consonant, and the 
sound of which is between that of 6 close and e open, in 
maisonnette, musette, pcukttem 

The DIJIRESIS, (••)— Which is placed over the 
vowels e, t, 0, and causes them to be pronounced separ- 
ately from the preceding vowel as in poete, ateul, Sail, 
and may be ranked among the accents. 

The CEDILLA, (,)— A little dash, which is put un- 
der the c, is also a sort of accent, since it serves to 
modify the hard pronunciation which it would other- 
wise have before the vowels a, o, u, and to change it 
into that of 5; it is thus we pronounce it in fran^ois, 
fagon, regu. 

The APOSTROPHE, O ;— Is only a comma put over 
theplace which the vowel e or a ought to occupy, which 
is suppressed when the word following begins with a 
vowel or an h not aspirate f thus, instead of le esprit, 

of such French Words as have their initial h mute. 













haleine, « 





to clothe 


a coai 

to inhabit 





to iue 


n fishing hook 










an Wecaton^ 

h^lat ! 

alas J 
















la amUtian^ and U homnu^ we must pronounce and 
write Pesprit^ Pambition^ Phomme. But when the h is 


furbage^ pasture 




herb or grass 






a town clock 









h6retique, ' 









to inherit 




an heir 




mn heiress 








mn hermit 


host or victim 






«n heroine 







h^roisme, <* 



\ottl or great house 


to hesitate 






an inn 












usher ©r tip staff 






mn hexagon 








hiatus^ a gap 


to civilise 









a swalloic 






^ moistening 




to moisten 


- . historical 




a buffoon 


damp^ moist 






to winter 




burnt saciijice 

humiliation, ^ 


hombre, (jeu) 



to humble 


an homily 




an homicide 







bom me. 





























to honour 



* The /i in all this familj is pnl^ aspirated in hiro9. 


aspirate, the article rematng entire ; . we must: not saj 
Ph4roSf but pronounce k b6ros^ du hiroi^ au hirot. 

CONSONANTS ;— C is pronounced hard like k before 
the vowels a, o, ti, in cficardt^ cube ; like s before e, t, in 
eiciti. There are even some words in which it is pro- 
nounced like g, as in second^ &c. 6 is pronounced hard 
before a, o, u; likej*, before e, t; when we wish to 
modify its pronunciation before a, o, w, an e is placed 
after it, as in, il gagea, nageoire; when on the contrary 
we wish to have it pronounced hard before e, t. an u 
is placed after it, as in guirir, guide* H is of two sorts, 
aspirated as in hair^ envahir ; then the consonants bj 
which it is preceded are not sounded ; it is called mute^ 
when it is not pronounced at all, as in homme^ hcrc^nti 
The h of h6ro8 is aspirate, that of its derivatives is not 
so. Q when not the last letter of a word, as in ctn^, is 
never used without being followed by ,ti, which gives it 
the pronunciation of A; as in qui^ qutlconque; yet in 
several words u has retained its ancient sound of ou^ 
and then qu is pronounced like A:ou, as in aqualiquiy (qua- 
iion* S is pronounced hard in salut^ sinai ; but between 
two vowels, it takes the pronunciation of z, as in vUtr,. 
raison^ &c. 7* followed by t and another vowel, is pro- 
nounced like c, as in partial, parlitU portion ; but if ti is 
preceded by s or a:, or if it is at the beginning of a word, 
it is pronounced hard, as in tirer, que^tion^ mixtion* X\s 
pronounced like cs \n fixer, iaxer ; likegz in examen, ex- 

hypocrite, hypocrite 

hjpoth^que, mortgage 

bjpoth^quer, to mortgage 

hypothese, hyj/otketis 

hysope, hysop 

hyst^nqne, hysierie 

In a familiar discourse, the letter h is not aspiraled in the follow- 
ing worcle, Tiz. Hanovrt^ Hollande, and Hbngrte, when either of them 
is preceded by the particle de ; for though we always say U Hanovre, 
la Hollande and la Hongrie, yet it is usual to say and write VEleetorat 
d^Hanotrt, la Reine d*Hongrie^ la ioUe d* Hollande, and the like. As 
to other national and proper names, the initial k is aspirated in most 
of them ; as in Hainaut^ Hamhourgh, Havanne, Menri^ &c. but in 
Hamilton^ Har courts Hector, Helene, Hereule, Hirodi, H&mk^i, Hor- 
ate, and Hyppolite, it is mute. 
2« ' 


ample ; and like 8 in fiXfi dix^ soixanie. Ch is generally 
pronounced like sh, as in chat / yet it is pronounced of- 
ten like k : Christy orchestre^ bacchante^ are examples* 
/J/», (hjph^ are pronounced like r, <,/, in rAuwe, theme^ 
philosopher which are pronounced rttme, teme^ Jilosofe. 

A SYLLABLE, whether connposed of one or more let* 
ters, requires, in the pronunciation, no more than a sin- 
gle impulse of the voice : ex* 6a, ms, moi^ &c. 

A WORD may consist of one syllable, or of many com- 
pacted into one meaning ; for, a word is the smallest 
part of speech which is in itself signi6cant : ex. mon, 
my ; Uvre, book, &c. 

A SENTENCE, or FBRASE, Is an assemblage of words 
arranged in their proper order, forming a sense either 
more or less complete : ex. 
Je suis votre ami, I am your friend. 

JHcrivis hier a voire tantey 1 yesterday wrote to your 


A PERIOD ma3^ consist of two or three sentences join- 
ad together, so that they depend on one another to 
form a'complete sense. Each of the sentences forming 
part of a period is called a member of the period : ex. 

Lea grands hommes soni rarest .Great men are scarce ; we 
on doit lea respecteVy et Pon ought to respect them, 
devroit ioujours 'iravailUr a and constantly endeav- 
se rendrejemblable a eux. our to resemble them. 

A DISCOURSE, or SPEECH, IS an assemblage of sentences 
(or phrases) and periods, joined together, and arranged 
according to the rules of the language. 

There afe, in the French tongue, nine different sorts 
of words, which are generally called the nine parts of 
speech, viz. 

1. L^Article, Article. 

2. Le Nom et Adjectif, Noun and Adjective. 
3* Le Pkonom, Pronoun. 

4. Lfi Verbe, Verb. 


5. Le Participe, Participle. 

6. L'Apverbe, Adverb. 

7. La Preposition, Preposition. 

8. La Conjonction, CoNJUNCTioif. 

9. 1^'Interjection, Interjection. 

Five of them are declinable ; that is to say, the radi- 
cal part of the word remaining the same, the other 
parts, but especiailj the termination, will admit of sev* 
eral variations. These declinable words are, the arti- 
cle, noun and adjective, pronoun^ verb, and participle. 

The four last, as thej never vary their terminations,, 
are therefore called indeclinable. 


The articles are certain minute words, which, joined 
to nouns, determine the extent of their signification, 
and whicli, in French, denote their gender, number, 
and case, corresponding to the English words, <Ae, of 
the^from ihe^ and to the. These in French, are 

ie, /a, hs, The 

Dc, dw, de la^ des, Of or from the. 

j3, ate, a ia, awx, To the. 

The NOUN, in^general, is a word which is used to 
name or qualify every thing which is the object of dis- 
course : ex. 

•jBon, Good. 

Petit, Little. 
. Mauvais^ Bad, &c. 

Papier^ Paper. 

Plume J Pen. 

Pairij Bread. 

The PRONOUN is a word commonly substituted in the 
place of the noun, to avoid its too freqiaent repetition : 
J^ai vu M. voire pcre^ it 1 saw your father," and 

lui ai parli^ spoke to ihtm. 

In this instance the word /m, to him, is put to avoid 
the repetition of the word ptri^ father. 

The VERB is a word which either expresses^ the state 
of the subject, or an action done by the subject, or the 
action received or suficred by the subject : ex. 


JHon frtft est molade^ My brottier t^ ilh 

Ma scsur ecrit tin« /eMre, Mj sister writer a- letter. 

Voire cousint^ e»i pwne^ Your •cousin is punished. 

The verb is varied by modes, tenses^ -persons, and 

The PARTICIPLE partakes both of the nature of the 
verb and the noun adjective : ex. 

Ayant^ Haying j Aim6^ Loved. 

Dormant^ Giving. | Pttm, Punished, &c. 

The ADVERB is sometimes joined to the noun, but 
more frequently to the verb, whence it derives its name. 
The use of the adverb is, to determine the signification 
of the noun or verb, or express some particular modifi- 
cation or circumstance of the action or quality : ex. 
Jt vous aime sincerement, I love you sincerely. 
Venez demain, Come to-morrow. 

In these instances the words sincerely and* to-^norrom 
are adverbs. 

The PREPOSITION is a word which is put before the 
noun or pronoun, and it always governs the word before 
which it is placed : ex. 

Chez mqn amt. At my friend's house. 

^ Devant moi, Before me, &c. 

The CONJUNCTION serves to connect the several parts, 
of a discourse: ex. e2, and ; car, for; mai^, but,.&c. 
* The INTERJECTION is a word which expresses the dif- 
ferent afiections or passions of the soul : ex. 

Helas ! mon Dieu ! Oh ! my God ! &<:. 

A more particular delineation of these nine parts of 
speech, and their use in the composition of a sentence, 
or period,, will be the subject of the following sections. 


NOUNS are divided into substantives and adjectives. 
A NOUN SUBSTANTIVE cxpressea a thing subsisting by 


itseir, and can make a complete sense independent of 
an V other word : ex. Dteu, God i rot, king ; maison^ 
hoase, &c. 

A NOON SUBSTANTIVE Is eithcr common, collective, or 

A coHAioN Noumf is applicable to all beings or things of 
the same kind : ex. homme^ man; m, king ; vilU^ town ; 
table^ table, &c. 

A COLLECTIVE NOUN is expressivc of many particulars ; 
yet, as these particulars are all united in the mind, and 
comprehended under one general idea, they -may there- 
fore be conceived as one individual, and, without any 
impropriety, expressed in the singular number: ex* 
peuple^ people ; foril^ forest ; armie^ army, &c. 

A PROPER NOUN is applicable to one person or thing 
only : ex. Pierre^ Peter ; Landres^ London, &c. 

jV. B. A noun is always a substantive when we can- 
not, with propriety, add to it the word personne^ person, 
or the word chose^ thing. 

A NOUN ADJECTIVE is usedto e^cpress the quality, colour, 
form or quantity, of the substance to which it belongs ; 
and is so called because its meaning cannot be ascer- 
tained without being joined to its proper substantive, 
with which it must also agree in gender, number, and 
case : ex. bon, good ; aimable^ lovely ; rougf, red ; jaunty 
yellow ; rond^ round ; carre^ square ; t4n, one i deuxj 
two ; irois, three, &c. 

N. jB. The noun is always adjective when we can 
add to it the word personne or chose^ person or thing. 
In NOUNS, four things must be considered, viz. 

Les Arlichs, The Articles. 

Les Genres^ The Genders. 

Les Nomhresy The Numbers. 

Lts Casy The Cases. 

• There are three sorts of Articles, viz. 

L* Article difini, The Article definite. 

IJAriich pariitiff The Article partitive. 

L* Article indefinij The A rticle indefinite. 


The Article iniisl always agree witb the noun is gen- 
der aod number. 

The DEFINITE ARTICLE is 80 Called, because it means 
the whole of the object to which it is applied. 


Le, for the taasculine, before nouns 4>eginni7)g with a 
consonant or h aspirated ; eic. k roii the king ; le hiros^ 
the hero, &c. 

Ld, for the feminine : ex. la reine, the queen, &c. 

L\ with an elision, for both genders, before nouns sin- 
gular beginning with a vowel or h not aspirated : ex. 
Tefi/hnf, the child; j'ftomme, the man, &c. 

Les^ for both genders^ whether the noun begin with a 
consonant or a vowel : ex. ks roi^, the kings ; les rein!Mj 
the queens^ Jes er^fans^ the children, &c. 

The pARTi<Fiy£ article means only a part of the ob- 
ject, the English word some being alwajs expressed or 


!Thes6 two articles arc used 
before nouns beginning with a 
consonant or h aspirated: ex. du 
pain, some bread ; de la viande, 
some meat. 
De l\ for both genders, beginning with a vowel or an h 
not aspirated : ex. dt Pencre, some ink. 

Des^ for both genders : ex. des amis, some friends. 

The indxfinitb akticls is de or d\ of, from, and a, 

This article i&used, without distinction, before nquns^ 
masculine and feminine 'in both numbers. Proper 
names, and the greater part of. the pronouns, are de* 
clined with it. 

Some granmariansiadmit of a fourth article, viz. tin 
for the mascuUne, and un$ for the feminine, in English 
# or an ; but it may be observed, that it is alwajs der 


clined with the indefinite article,* and therefore taket 
the nature of a noan adjective. 


There are two gendsrs, viz. the masculine and femi- 
nine. A nouli is masculine when there is before it U 
or un^ as le or tin livre^ the or a book. A noun is femi* 
nine when it is preceded by la or tine, as to or untplume^ 
the or a pen. 

There a're two numbers, the singular and plural. 
The singular number speaks of one thing only, as une 
to6/e, a table : the plural speaks of more than one, as, 
des tables^ tables. There are some nouns that are never 
used but in the singular number : as, 

1. The names of metals: ex. or, gold; arjfm/, silver j 
cutrre, brass ; plomb^ lead, &c. 

S. The names of virtues and vices : ex. avan'oe, avarice ; 
cftart^^, charity ; /oi, faith ; hainty hatred;, orgicci/, 
pride ; prodigaliti^ prodigality, &c. 

3. The names by which the five senses are denoted : 
ex. la vue, the sight ; k gout^ the taste ; Podorat, the 
smell ; le toucher^ feeling ; Tout'e^ hearing. 
. 4. Proper names, except when they era used meta- 

5. To the foregoing may be added the following, which 
are not reducible to any general rules : 












There are others which are never used but in the 
plural number only i such as, 





























old age. 


others which 

are never 

used but 



. Atours^ 





a funeral. 






de ight. 



cost. ' 


, snufibrs. 








' Ayeux^ 
' Funtrailhs^ 

And, in general, those which, in English, admit of no 

In general the plural number is formed by adding 
an s to the singular : ex« 

Le pirty the father ; Us peres, the fathers, 

La mere^ the mother j les mires, the mothers, &;c. 

All nouns, having their singular ending in s, x, or z, 
admit of no variation in the plural : ex. 

Lefils, the son ; Its fils, the sons. *' 

Unt noix, a walnut ; des noix^ walnuts. 

Le nez, the nose ; les nez,the noses. 


Nouns ending in an, eau, eu, an, teu, or ou, form their 
plural by x, instead of s : ex. 

Un chapeau^ a bat ; des chapeaux, hats. 

Unmanteau,^ cloak ; des manteaux, cloaks. 

Un lieu, a place ; des lievx, places. 

Un chou, a cabbage ; des choux, cabbages. 

^ The following difler from this rule, and their plural 
terminates in 5 : ex. 

Un matou, a great cat ; 
Un sou, a cent ; 
Un trou^ a hole 5 
Un licou, a halter ; 

des matous, great cats. 
des sous, cents. 
des irotis, boles. 
des licous, hatters. 


Nouns ending in al and ail have their plural in aux 

Un animal, a living creature; desanimauxXi^if^g creatures. 
Un cheval, a horse ; . des chevaux, horses. 

Un travail, a work j des travavx^ works. 


These only are excepted : 

Un Bal, a ball, 
Ditaily account, retail, 
Evmlail^ a fan, 

Un (3ouv£rnailj a heln, 
Un Sirailr a seraglio, 
Un PortfL^l^ a gateway. 
Which form their plural id *. 

Noutis of more than one syllable (polysyllables) end- 
ing in n(, most generally form their plural by changing 
the ^into^ ; as, 

Enfant^ a child ; enfansy children. 

CommanJemen/, command ; commandemens, commands. 

But nouns of one syllable only (monosyllables) pre- 
serve the /, and form their plural by adding 8 : as, 

Dent^ tooth; dentsy teeth. 

Pont^ bridge; '^ pants^ bridges. 

Toui^ adj. all, makes ious^ in its plural masculine ; iouU 
in the feminine gender sing, and toutes in the plural. 

The following are not conformable to any established 

Jlyeul^ grandfather ; ayeux^ grandfathers. 

Bttail^ cattle ; hesiiaux^ cattle. 

Cie/, heaven ; cteux, heavens. 

QStV, eye ; ytux^ eyes. 

■p . ^ dts ckls de lit^* testers of a bed. 
P ( des odh dt hauf^ ovals. 

There are in French several compound words like the 
last two, which require some attention from the learner, 
in the formation of their plural, the difficulty of which 
may soon be removed by means of reflection ; for ex- 
ample : 

A noun being composed of a substantive and an ad- 
jective, united by a hyphen, both admit of the plural 
formation : as, 

Un geniil'hommej a noble- des genUh-kommes, noble- 
man ; men* 

A noun compounded of two substantives and a pre- 
position, united by hyphens, the first only in French, 

* Thi« tetm it growist^ obsolete : H is better Uymj^imffmd i€ Ut» 


which is generally the last in English, admits of the plu- 
ral formation : as, 

Un arC'en-ciel^ a^ rainbow ; des arjjf-«n-cte/, rainbows* 
Un che/'d*(zuvre\tiin2isicr' des chefs-d^auvre, master* 
piece. "* ^'f pieces. 

J^. B. Some of these French compound words are 
sometimes rendered in English by one word, in which 
case the formation of the plural in the French is still 
the same : as, 

Vn cul'de-sae^ an alley (with- des culs'de-sacj alleys. 

out egress) ; 

Nouns composed of a verb or a preposition and a 
substantive, the substantive only admits of the plural 
formation: as, 

Un avani'ioit, eaves, des avant-toils^ eaves, 

Un cas^e'iioisetUy a nut- des casse-noisettes^ nut-crack- 
cracker ; ers. 
Vngardt-foUj a rail ; jdes garde-foux^ rails, &c. 
Mmseignmr^ my lord } js C Messeignetirs, my lords. 
Monsieur^ Mr. or gent, f «^ \ Jlfewicwr*, gentlemen. 
Madame^ Mrs. or madam L|i i Jlfe^clame;, ladies. 
Mademoiselle^ miss 3 x. MesdemoiselUs^ misses. 


There are six cases, vizi^ 

!. Le Jfominatif, Nominative. 

.2. Le Giniiify Genitive. 

3. UDalif, Dative. 

4. VAccusaiify Accusative. 

5. Le Vocatiff Vocative. 

6. VAhlatif, Ablative. 

The NOMINATIVE and accusative cases have exactly 
the same form, and are always declined with the same 
article ; the only difierence between them arises from 
their different positions in the sentence. 

In the natural construction, the nominative always 
precedes the verb, and the accusative follows it. The 


nomiaative is the subject of Ihe sentence, and the accu- 
sative is the objecl to which it refers: ex. 
Lit rot aime Upeuphj The king toves the people. 

In ordef to know the nominative from the accusative, 
I ask. Who loves the people ? The King (which is the 
answer) is the subject, and consequently the nomioa- 
^tive. Whom or what does the King love ? The answer 
is The People, which is the object, and therefore the 

The GENITIVE and ablative are declined with the 
same article, but the first \s always preceded by another 
word on which it depends: as, 

Laporte de la chamhrt^ The chamber door, that is, 

the door of the chamber.' 
La maison de monpere, My father's house, &;c. 

Or it is governed by a preposition, as, 

Pres dufeuj Near the fire, &c. 

The last is always put after nouns or verbs expressing 
division, partition, or separation; and after some prepo* 
sitions. The genitive is known by the articles de, du^dt 
br, des, of or of the. Sometimes the article is not ex- 
pressed in English, as may. be seen in the sentences 
before mentioned. The ablative is known by the arti- 
cles dc, duy de la^ dej, from or from the. 

The DATIVE shows to whom the thing spoken of, is 
given,or to what it is attributed : as, « 
Donnez cette ponimt a mon Give that apple to my bro- 
frere^ ther. 

This case is known by the articles a, citi, a la^ aux^ to 
or to the. 

The VOCATIVE is used only tor calling or naming the 
person to whom the speech is addressed ; as, 
Ami^ qui ites-vous ? Friend, who are you ? 


AH changes in nouns are formed by numbers and 
casee« T9 decline a noun, therefore, is to express its 


sereral variations ; and, under these variations, to point 
out its different significations. 

Some short examples are added to the nouns, that 
learners may more easily uoderstanid what has been said 
respectii^ the cases. 

Declension of the Article Definite Le {the)^ before Jfouns 
masculine beginning toith aJCor^onant^ or an h aspirated. . 


Norn. LePrincsj 

Le prince est ginireuXy 
Gen. Du prince^ 

Lis vertus du prince j 

Dat. Au prince^ 
Parler au prince^ 

Ace. Le prince J 
Aimer leprince^ 

Voc. O prince^ 

Abl. Duprince^ 
Recivoir da Utires du 

The prince. 

The prince is generous. 

Of the princQ. 

The virtues of the prince ; 

or, the prince's virtues. 
To the. prince. 
To speak to the prince. 
The prince. 
To love the prince. 
O prince. 
From the prince. 
To receive letters from the 


Declension of the Article Definite La (ihe)^ before J^ouns 
feminine beginning with a Consonant, or an n aspirated. 


Norn. Laprinceste^ 
Laprincesse est aimable, 

Gen. De laprincesse, 
Les regards de laprincesse, 

Dat. A laprincesse, 
Donner a la princesse, 

Ace. Laprincesse, 
Imitez laprincesse, 

Voc. Oprincesse, 

Abl. De la princesst, 

Eire s^ar6 de la prin-^ 

The princess. 

The princess is amiable. 

Of the princess. 

The looks of (he princess ; 

or, the princess's looks. 
To the princess. 
To give to the princess. 
The princess. 
Imit^t^^he princess. 
O princess. 
From the princess. 
To be separated from the 


l^cUnBton of the Article Definite U (the)jfor both Genders^ 
before J^ouns beginning with a Vozoelj or an u not aepi" 


Norn. V enfant^ 

U enfant est timide^ 
Gen. jDe Venfant^ 

Le temperament de Pen* 
Dat. Jl Penfant, 

Attribiur a Penfani^ 
Ace. Uenfant, 

Admirer Penfantj 
Voc. O enfant^ 
Abl. De Penfaat, 

S^cloigner de Penfantj 

The child. 

The child is fearful. 

Of ihe child. 

The child's temper; or, the 

temper of the child. 
To the child. 

To attribute to the child. 
The child. 
To admire the child. 
O child. 
From the child. 

To go awaj from the child. 
The plural of these nouns, whether they begin with 
a consonant or a vowel, '^'h aspirated or not aspirated, is 
decJin^Si both genders, byjhe article les {ihe)» 

Norn, im rots^ 

Les rois commandent. 
Gen. Jf^roisj 

Vorare des rois, 

Dat. Aux rois, 
Envoyer aux rois, 

Ace. Les rois, 
Respectez Us rois, 

Voc. Orois, 

AbU Des rois, 
Eire loin des rois. 

The kings. 

The kings comm.and. 

Of the kings. 

The order of the kings : or, 

the kings' order. 
To the kings. 
To send to the kings. 
The kings. 
Honour the kings. 
O kings. 
From the kings. 
To be far from the kings. 

Singular. * Plural. 

Mas. Fern. Mas. & Fern. Mas. & Fern. 
Nom.&Ac. Zi«, la, P; Les, ihe. 

Gen. te Ab. Du, de la, dt P ; Des, of or from the. 
Dat. Am, ale, aP; Aux, io the. 

* See the list of words beginiiiDg with on h not aspirated, page 15. 

The definite article must be placed, in French, bcffore 
all nouns used in a general sense^ or denoting a ii^hole 
species of objects, and before names of countries and 
provinces, though the English admit of ho article in this 
case : ex. 

Dhomme est mortel^ Man is mortal. 

Le DanemarCj la Suede et Denmark, Sweden, and 

PAngleterre^ sont les trots England, are the three 

rojfaumes du riord^ northern kingdoms. 


I hate idleness. • -Virtue is esthnable. - - 

Je, pro.haw,v. paresse^ f. Vertu^L est^ V. e»/tma6/«,adj. 

Gold is preferable ' to silver Do you* 

Or,m. priferabte^^dy areent^m* *o* votju^pro. 
prefer^ England ' to France ? Corn grows 

prifirez^y. An^leterre^U France^f. BU^m* croU^ v* 
for men, arid grass for cattle. -^- - Love 

|)our,p. fcomme,m. e<,c. hei^be^f. bitail^n^tfimez^v, 
wisdom. — Do »not' neglect' iTudy. - - 

sagesse^f. »o» nepas^^dv, nigligez^v. itude^ f. 
Avoid leisure. - - - She comes from church. - - 

Evitez^y. /oMtr,m. £//e,pro. vient^v. eglise^f. 

We speak of America, and not 

^ou5,pro. parlons^y* Amirique^f. nonpas^zAv. 

of Poland. Grant us peace. - • - 

PologneS* Accordez^y. nous^pro. paixf. 
Honour is due to kings. -'• - They 

Hpnneur^m* i{d,p.p. rot,m. //*,pro. 

come from Africa. - - - - Prid6 disgraces man. - - 

v%ennent^\. Afrique^t Orgueil^m. digrade^y. 
Charity patiently' bears* injuries^ 

ChariUS* patiemmentyaiy. souffre^y. injure^f. 
\ This article is ^Iso placed before nouns ^used in a 
' specific str^e, or denoting a particular object, in which 
case the article is likewise expressed in English : ex. 
-Uhomme que vmia m^avez The man whom you re* 
recommmdi ul fort ha* commended to me is 
bihj very skilful. 


Lu poirts de v^rt jardin The f>eara of your garden 
soni excelUnltSj are excellent. 

. * \ 


Where > is the master of the house f - - The 
OM,adv. est mailre^m. ^ tn«won,f. 
prioce spoke to the king. - - To the third* 
prince^nt. parla^Y. /rot9teme,adj. 
page of the book. - - The* lazy'* do ^jjot* 
pagtf. livre^m* paresstux^ij.^A* *o« 
love^ work*. - <^ - - Justice is the mistress and 
aimmi^Vm ou^ragefOt. Jttsiict,L mattrt9Bt^L 
queen of virtue. - - Send the child to school. - • 
ttine^U Envoyez^y. enfant^m* ecok,f. 
Walk in the garden. * - Tranquillity 
Promenez'vous^v. Jan«,p. jardin^. TranquilUU^ f. 
ofsou4 is the height of felicity. -- Give the tooth 
4me,f. conJfk^m^ felidli^L Di»nnez,v. cure- 
picks to the gentlemen Education is to the 

deniytn* Mtasiturs^m. EduccHion^f. 

mind, what cheanliness is to the body. • - The 

esprit^m. ce gue,pro. propreie^U eorps^m. 

life of man is short. - - The enemies were on 
vie/. couf/e,adj. ennemt,m. itoient^v. sur^p. 

the mountain. - You admire the beauty of 

montagne^f. Fbtt«,pro. admirtz^v. heauUS* 
the ladies. '> - To the thickness of the walls. - - We 

dame^U ipaisseurj* mwrailU^U 
go to the park. • - - It is the will of the em- 
allons^Y, parcyux. Cm;,v. volonti^U em- 
peror. The faie' , of nations is governed 

^erettr,m. sort^m. nation^, goti'oem^^p.p. 

by Providence. -- You play with the boys. 
|Hir,p. Providence^f* jouez^v. avec^p. gar^on^m. 

- - Revenge is the pleasure of a weak* mind^ - - 

Feiigeance,f. plai$ir^tn. tin/ot6/e^adj. 

Italy is the garden of Europe. - - Tlie most noble 
UaHe^L ' Europe,f. />/t<9,adv.no6fe,adj. ' 

* Adjeotires take no article unlese used substantire^. 


of virtues is charity. - - Carry the grammar to the 

Portez^w. grammairt^L 

bays, aod the dictionary to the.giris. He 

dieiionnaire^m* filUjlm ii,pro« 

comes from the Indies. - • Give me the loaf. 

^ vten/,v. Indt^U nioi,pro. pain^m* 

y . This article being declinable in French, and conse- 
quently admitting of different variations, ought to be 
repeated before all the substdnlivts of a sentence, as 
well as before adjectives used as substantives, and agree 
with them in gender and number : ex. 

Le sel^ la moutarde^ et The salt, mustard, and oil, 

Vhuile^ sont sur Us tables^ are on the tables. 

Le blanc^le rouge etlenoir^ yfb'iie^ red and black, 

sont irois diffirentes anur are three different col* 

Uurs^ ours. 


Prefer virtue to riches, friendship to 

Pr6f6rez,y. /> riche8se8^i.\A, am%t%6J[. 

money and utility to pleasure. - - The father, mother, 
argentyVa. utilite^f. plaisir^m. pere^m. mere^L 

and children are dead. - - The men, women, and chil* 
^»/,v.moW^,p.p. femme^f. 

dren of the village were all at the burial. 

village^mMoient^tous^2Ldj» a,p. enterrement^m* 
Children generally''*' like' apples and pears, 

ofdtnazremen^adv.joimen^v. pomme^L poire f. 
I like yellow and grey. - • Peace and plenty 
atme,y. jaiine,m. gn>,m. ahondance^f* 

make men happy Wheat and barley 

renient.v. Aeur€tix,adj. Froment^m. orge^L 

are dear. I hate milk, buttee, and cheese. - - 

cher£,adj. /at/,m. ietirre^m. fromage^m* 

Bring the knives and forks. •- - Patience 
Appvrttz^v. couttau^m* fourcheUe^UPaiience^t* 

and pecseverance are necessary The desire 

• persivirancef* nioessaire^^'y disir^m* 

• Place simple adverbs after verbs, and in compound tenses before 
Uie participles. 

33 • 

of glory, rich^, power, and pleasure, is a 
g/oire, f.rtc&e95e,f. pi. /xmvoir, in. wne 

disease of the mind Have ^ou passed 

maladie^f* dmeJ. jivez^r. passS.p.f^^ 

through Spain, Portugal, or Holland ? - ^APrc- 

;>ar,p* *Espagne^L Portugal^m. ou Hollande^f. :/ 
fer always virtue, prudence, and goo4 seise 

toujours^^dv» prudence jt 6on, adj. ims^m* 

to beauty. - - Put the wine, beer, and cider on 

Mettez^y, vin^m* Siere^f. ctWre, m. sur, p. 
the table. • - - (It is said) that America, France, and 

tabk^f* On dit que 

Spain have made peace with England. 

• o«/,v. /a27,p.p. ; 

On the contrary, this article, though expressed in 
English, must be omitted in French, before a noun 
employed as an apposition, or definition of the noun 
which precedes ; and when it precedes a noun in the 
nominative or accusative case, denoting dignity^ fffictj 
or bu8in€$$ : ex. 

Mexandre, fiis de Philipp$j ' Alexander <&e son of Phi* 

Man ami dimeure a Lan- My friend lives jn Lon- 
dres^ ville eapitale d^An- don, the capital city ^f 
gleterrty England. 


Jupiter, a god of the heathens, was the son of 
«oi dieu,m. pai*my,m.' itoit^v. /Ife,m. 

Saturn, and the father of the other gods. - * ftobert,. 
Saturnt flMfrM,adj. 

duke of Normandy, the "brother 6f 'Henry, kitig 
<2uc,m. •ATormanrfte, /rere,m. Htnri^ 

of England^ was the son of William the con- 

Ouillaume^ con- 

queror. — My lister lives at York, the cap- 
quirant^ m. JIf a, pro. stzur^ f. demeure^ v. a, p. 
ital city of the county of the same name. ^ 

cwnUjmt* f»j$tne,adj. nofR,m. 



Mr. C***^ the rector of the pnrish of St. James, and 

cure,m. paroisse^L Jdques 

his brother, the dean of the cathedral, were 
«on,pro» doyen^xn. cathidrale^f. iloient^ 

the sons of Mr. L***, the first lord of 

/»remier,adj. stigneur 
the admiralty. 
'In several instances, the definite article is neither 
expressed in English nor in French, as in narrations, 
wl^n the style is animated ; and after the conjunction 
ni, when it implies a complete negation, otherwise it 
has an article, requiring in both cases the negation n< 
before the verb : ex. 

Consmnccy honneur^ intiril. Conscience, honour, inter- 
iout est sacrifie ; il rCa est, every thing is sacri^ 
mjuHict ni humaniiij ficed ; he has neither 

' justice nor humanity, 
^t VoT nf la grandeur nt Neither gold nor greatness 
nou8 rendent heureux^ can make us happy. 


The town was taken by storm : men, 

v'tlle^t. fatyV. prise^p^p. d'^assaut^m. 
women, children, old people, (every body) was 

vieillard^m. foi4/,adj. 
put to death. - - Palaces, temples, pubjic^ build- 

mtV,p.p. a morL Palais^Wp 6di- 

ingsS private^ houses (every thing) was 

jSce,m. />flr/jcu/terc,adj. maison^f. lout 
destroyed. - - His father wilF spare^ 'neither' 

de^rut/,p.p. .,, So»,pro. ipargnera^v. ne ni 

pains r|f r^^ioney. • - • (He is) a fatherless child, 

J3emc,f.sing. C'm/,v. orphelin^ adj. «o» 

he haa neither parents . nor friends. - - Neither the 

a parent^m. ami,m. 

house nor bed are made for )|ID(k 
/if,ra. sontfaUsj 

When, in English, two or more substantives, signi- 
fying different things, come together in a sentence. 


baviDg a dep^n^nce on each ether, and having no ' 
stop between them, the last (in English) musi be plaiced' 
at the beginning of the sentence (in French), and the 
others having the sign of the English possessive case, 
thus ('s) or (') only, come after it, with the genitive of 
this article before them, according to their gender and 
number ; ex. * 

Ltfils du roi^ The king^s son. 

La couronne de la retne. The queen's crown. 

That is, the son of the fctng, the crozon of the queen. 


I have seen the king^s apartments and the 

m,Y. vtifp.p. appartementjXn. 

qoeen^s picture. - - - - The chancellor's son's wife is 

portrait^mm chancelier^m. 

the prime minister's eldest' sister^ - - - The man's 
premier^ ' ofn^€,adj. *<3eMr,f. 

strength is very great Lend me the 

foTcef. grande^zdj. Pritez^v. mot,pro. 

maid's cloak. - - - - My cousin's brother is 

stroante^f* mon(e2</,m. Jtfon^pro. coti5in,m. 

my uncle's best friend The title of 

oncle^tQ. niet7Ieur,adj. afn?,m. /f7re,m. 

Dauphin belongs to the king of France'^ eldest' 

appartient^y. aine^ 

'son. - - Modesty is a woman's greatest orna- 

Modes tie^L une fenmu^f. kpl%isgrand,2Ldj. ome- 
men^m. ^ 

The genitive of this article is often made in English 
by /o, especially before nouns expressing alliance, con- 
sanguinity^ or kindred^ witness, or inheritance ; and in 
short whenever to may be rendered by the above geni- , 
ttve definite : ex. 

Monseigmur le due de ***, My lord duke of ***, bro- 
frire du roi^ ther to the king, or the 

king's brother. 



Mr. Richard, brother to the Prince's steward, 

Mons* intendanti^m* 

has married Miss Prescot, niece to the Constable 
a,v. 6pous6^f.f. Mile. nfecc,f. connitahle^m. 

of the Tower. - - - 1 have spoken to the Marchioness 

- Tour,U />ar/e,p.p. Marquise^f. 

Qf ***^ sister to the queen's first Lady of honour. - - 

Mr. Henry, perfumer to the princess, has made 
Henn,m. parfumeur^m, fait^^.p* 

a "considerable ^fortune. - - - The heir to the 

considirable^^dj. forfune^U ' h6rifier^m» 

crown of Portugal is the Prince of Brasil. - - My 

couronne^f. du BrcsiLm* 

father was witness to that quarrel. 

a e^^,p.p. iimoin^m^ ce/(e,pro. querelle^f* 

I am a friend to "diligent ^scholars, and an 

suis^x. ^ diligent^zAy icolitr^m. ^^on 

enemy to idleness. 

ennemt,m. paresse^f* 

.4 After the adverb Uen^ when placed before a substan- 
tive and signifying muchn a great deal, many^ the geni- 
tive of this same article must always be useid : ex. 
fiten du nUrite, Much merit. 

Bien des amis. Many friends. 

Bien de Pargenf, A great deal of money* 


The children make much noise. — • This man 
f&nl^v. * hruit^m. Ce/,pro. 
has (a great deal) of money, but he has also many 


enemies They "give ^you much trouble 

donnent^Y. peine^f* 

now ; but they will" give" you* afterward 

a pr6sent^2Liv* mais^c. donntront^v*' enstiittyZdv* 

much pleasure (There were) many ladles in 

// y avoit^y, dames en 

- • ,37 

^cofflpaDy (last night). -•>->- Mr. R. has read 

compagnie hier au 50tr,aclv. ^Mons. iii,p«p* 

many books, and he haa acquired much^ know- 

ledge. To teach . youth (we must 

sances^mf.fU Pour,p. en^etgjaer,v« jeunesse^t* {il/aut^v* 
have) (a great deal) of patience. - ^ 

arotVjV.) '. 

If the second substantive in French (which is the first 
in EngKsh) serve to denote some particular commodity^ 
use^ quality^ or liquor^ then it must be put in the dative : 
ex. ^ . . 

L« pot au lait^ 'The* milk^-pot^. 

Xa femfmt aux pommesj The* . apple^- woman^ 

Une cruche a I'caw, - A water-jug. 



Tell the servant to bring* 

Dites^y. au or d /a c2ome5h*9ue,tn. & f. de apporUr^y* 

me* the tea-cannister, sugar - dish, and cream- 
me,pro. thi^tn^ hoite^L sucre^m* pot^m crimtf. 

basin. - - - Go . to the wine - cellar and brings us* the 
bamn,m. Alkz^y. rm,m. cave^L apporlez 

vinegar • bottle. (There is) the oyster-woman. - - - 

vinaigre,m. bou(eille^(* Voila huUre^.p]. 

I iive in* the hay - market, s my ' * cousin in the 

ybin,m. marche^m. ni07t,pro. 
fish*market, and my s^ister in the poultry* market. - - 
pots son jtn.sing^ fna,pro. volaiUef. 

Give me the oil-bottle, pepper - box, and mustard- 
moi,pro. huile^L poivre^m. boiU^f. moutardeS* 
pot. - - - ^The butter-boy, the greens-girl, ' the 

beurre^m* /^gwme,m,pl. 

hot^ - rolls^ man,* and the gingerbread-woman, 
chauds^^dy j)am, pain d^epkes.m. 

called here. • - - We had cabbage^oup, 

ont passi^f.f. {c?,adv. eumes^v. cAou, de la soupi^ 

* In is generally en, when inamediatrly followed by a noun, and 
dans when followed by an article or prohofin. 


a rice • pudding, a (leg of mutton) with caper 
unriz^m/pouding^m.^ gigoi,m. ciipr€, 

sauce, and ice - cream* - • We shall have pease 
de la saucers. glactf. aurons^v. pois^m. 

porridge, a salt' cod,' with egg^sauce, and a. 
delasoupe, ttne f(i/^«,adj. tnome,f. iet^,m.pK 
turbot with lobster-sauce. - • 1 bought a plocn 

Aomarc2,m«pi« at achiU raisins secs^mm 

cake, an apple - tart, and two gooseberry and 
gduau^» pommejf.pL tarttyf. groseiUe^f.pU 

cherry pies. 
cerise^f.pL iourte, 


SiNouLAR* — Masculine. 
Nom. Ace. du pain^ some bread. 
Gen. Abl. depain^ of or from some bread* 
Dat. a dupain^ to some bread. 


Nom. Ace. de la viand$j some meat. 

Gen. Abl. de viande, of or from some oieat. 

Dat. ade la vtande, to some meat. 

Masculine or Feminine. 

Nora. Ace. de Paigeni^ some money. 

Gen. Abl. d*argent^ of or from some money. 

Dat. a de Pargent^ to some money. 

The plural is the same for both genders. 

N A ^5 ^^ livresy some books, 
JNom. AC ^ j^^ auUursy some authors. 

r AK M^ iferw, of or from some books, 
uen. AD. ^ ff^^^^rsy of or from some authors. 

Y^ . ia des livres^ to some books. 

^ lades auieurs, to some authors. 

N. B. In asking a queation, the English generally 
make use ofany^ which, in French, must be rendered 
by the same article, as some : ex. * 

Y a-t-il du pain iti f Is there any bread here ? 

Avex-vous de la viande t Have yoa any meat f 


This, article most be used wherever the English word 
some, or any^ is either expressed or understood, and 
ought to be repeated before every substantive in a sen- 
tcnce : ex. 

Da pain et de Veau luisuffi- Bread and water are sum-. 

sentj cient for him. 

Apporitz du vinaigre, de la Bring some vinegar, mus- 

moutarde, de Vhuile el des tard, oil and forks. 


AveZ'Vous de Vargent a Have jou any money to 

noiu priter f lend us ? 


Bread, meat, and water, are things necessary 

sont^y. chose^* hicesiaireSj^idj* 
to man. - - I drink wine and water. - - She eats 

bois^w ^ mange^y* 

cheese. - • - Bring me some Inustard. - - - Have you 

bought some paper, pens, add ink ? - • Send 
acke(^,p.p. paptevytn* plumef. encrt^f* 

him some bread, meat, and potatoes Doyou^ 

lui pomme de itrre^U «o» 

selU fruit^ ? • * Buy some tea and sugar. - - 

vendez^y. fruitytn. Achetez^y. /Ae,m. 

Will you eat some beef with turnips and 

Voukz^y. manger^y* . 6cBM/,m. navet^m. 
carrots? - - Do you drink beer? - - (Is there) any 
carotle^f. u>t • huvez^y. 6ier«,f. Y a-t-it 
wine in the cellar ? ^ - - (Was there) any oil in the 

Y avoii'il 
bottle ? - - 1^ have^ given* him* bread, money, 

rfonn^,p.p. /}«i,pro. 
and clothes. - • She has modesty and prudence. - - 

Kabif,m. modesiie^t, prudence jf* 

He has bought some dishes and plates. - - ^ Will 

plaKm* assiette^f. . 

you have some milk or cream ? • • I eat fish, eggs, 
v<?^ .iBii^m« 

. 40 . • 

greens, artichokes, and asparagus. - >- • Bread, meat, 

Ugume^ ariichaut^tn* asperge^f.pL 

fish and vt getables, often' make* a good 

v6g6(aux^fn.p]. smivent^zdv* font^w hon 

dtner,m. . '^ 

If the substantive be preceded bj an adjective, instead 
of c2u, de Id, des^ we must use de or d* : as, 

Mas^ , Fem. Masc. or Fem. 

N. Ac. ) De mauvait rin, De bonne eaw, ' D'*exceUen( pain^ 

G.Abl. ) Bad wine, Oood water, Kxceiyent bread,, 

Dat. a de nuxv.rau rm, a de bonne eau^ a d'exceUtnl pain^ 

To bad wine. To good water. To excellent bread. 

Plural. ^ 

N. Ac. ) De Ions livres^ d^habiUs gens^ 

G* Ab. 5 Good books. Learned men. 

Dat. a de bons livres, ci d'habiUs gens^ 

To good books. .To learned men. 

N. B. This last rule i^ without exception. But some 
persons find it difficult to distinguish between the geni* 
live of the definite and this article ; now let them but 
parse, and they will perceive that in this phrase : Lort" 
res est U centre dci bon gout, du is no more than the geni* 
live of the definite article denoting what kind of taste. 


You always* read* * good books. - - "Bad wine* 

<au;ottr5,adv. listz^v. 
is* ^not^ worth* good water. - - - He speaks tu learned 
vaut^w. parkiV. 

men. I have heard good nev?)^. - • . . 

en5,f.* appm,p.p. 6onne,adj. notn?fWc, 

ou have fine fruit She has worthy 

avez^v. 6faw,adj. digne^txdj. 

friends. - - Bring rac good pens. - - Onions, celery, 

Oignan5,m. c^/eri,m# 

* Gens J preceded by an adjective, is of the feminine gender ; but 
when the adjective fellows^ it is put ia the masculine.. 


leeks, cherril, and (a great deal) of meat make 
poireaUjm* cei/eut7,iD« beaucotip^adv. /on/,v. 

what the French call good 

ce qiUjfvo. Fran(ot5,rn.pL appelhnt^T* 

broth 4 prefer good water to bad cider. - - - • 

houillon,mm cidre^m* 

I have discoursed ' with learned people. - - My father 

conrer«^,p.p. gensS* 

has in his garden good plams, fine peaches, 

5(m,pro. prune f, ie//f ,adj. piche^L 
and yery ' large apricots Miss Sharp 

/fe5,adT. gros.^Aj. ahricot^tH. MlluU 

has fine eyes. - - Paris is the centre of wit. 

6eaif, cet7,m. hel tsprii^m. 


used before proper jiames of persons and places^ and in the 
Gen. and AhU the t is cut off before a Towel pv an h 
mute, as usual. 
^ — ^ Singular. — Masculine. 

Nom. Ace. Pierre^ Peter. 

Gen* Abl. dt Pierre^ of Peter. 

Dat. d Pierri^ to Peter. 


Nom. Ace. Marie^ Maria. 

Gen. Abl. dt Marie, of Maria* 

Dat. d Marie, to Maria. 

Nonu Ace. Anioine^ Antony. 
Gen. Abl. d^Antoine, of Antony. 
Da^t. a ArUoine^ to Antony. 

Nom. Ace. Landres, London. 
Gen. Abl. de Londres, of London. 

Dat. Londres, to London. -^ 

^■^ *• 

K. B. It is necessary to observe, (hat the particle 
To, used after a word signifying coming, going, returning, 
or sending to, placed before the name of a kingdom, reptUn 
lie, country, province, or county, must be rendered in 
French by the preposition en, without any article : ei. 

■ , A2 

Monfrire est aJJi en Italu^ My brother h gone to Itaff * 
// doil bientdt retoumeren He is soon to go back lo 

Amerique^ America. 

On the icontrary, to must be rendered by de, when 
immediately preceded by the words ro(/Sy or path-way : 

Le chemtn de Lohdres, The road to London. 

Le chemin de Pari*, The way to Paris. 

It must be observed that the proper names of most of 
the islands and other countries both in* the East and 
West-Indies, and a few places in Europe, do not follow 
the above rule, but take the definite article, such as 
PMyssinie^ Abyssinia ; le Bristly Bi*asil ; h Caire^ Cairo ;. 
le Canada^ Canada^ la Guadeloupe^ Guadaloupe ; la 
Jamaiquej Jamaica ; le Jnpoh^ Japan ; La Martinique^ 
Martinico ; le Perou^ Peru ; la Virginie^ Virginia ; h 
Mtxique^ Mexico ^ and a few others : ex. 

, C de VAbyssinie^ ^ C from Abyssinia^ 

Venir < da Bresil, , / to come < from Brasil, 

{ du Cairej J ( from Cairo. 

Cd la Cfttne, > C to China, 

Aller <au Canada^ > tc^^o < to Canada,. 

( au Japonj y (to Japan» 


(Here is) John^s brother* - - Speak to Martha. - - 
Foici,adv. Jean Parlez^v. Martke. ^ 

It is Peier'^s hat. She goe% to Richmond. - - - 

• Ce5;,v. chapeaujtn. va^y* 

He comes from Paris.- - - • You have Mrr 

vieat^v. Mons^ 

Richaid^s sword. - - - When' wilP you' go^ to» 

ipie^L 9^''anc2,adv. irez^v,^ 

France 2 - - 1 know not, for my father saj» 

iatf,v. fut pas'^zAv* €ar^t. clrt,v^ 

that be (will^ send) me* sooa to Canada er 
^uetC- »/,pro* enverra^v^ Wenfd^adv. 

Jamaica* - • Giyie me Laura^s- cap* 1 (am going)^ 

Laaxt: honnet,^ vuityVm- 

43. > 

to Roxbury. I have found Andrew's waistcoat. 

She (shall tome back) to England (next year) 

rtoiendra^v. Vannit prochaine 

fo see her brother who is arrived from 
pourvoiryV. son^ qui^ipro* est^v. arrive,p^p» 

Japan and China. - - Carry that to Stephen. - - 
Portez^y. ce/a,pro. Etimne. 

(Here is) the road to Medford. My mother 

intends •to send my sister to Portugal 

se propose A,v. envoyer^v* tna,pro. 
or Spain, and thence to Rome, and my cousin (is to) 
de la rfci/,v.^ 

go to Mexico or Cairo. 

alltr^fn ou^<?i 

The genitive of this article de is used after nouns and 
adverbs of quantity^ whetber expressed in English op, 
not ; after the negation pas or poiht^ no or not ; the 
word ^ue, what, standing for, how much, or how many, 
and, quelque chose^ something, ricn, nothing ; before names 
of countries, kingdoms dnd provinces, when. preceded 
by a noun expressing a personal title, &c. or by a verb 
signifying comings arriviiigj or returning from :. ex. 

Tant de pommesy So many apples. 

Tant d^argent, So much money. 

'Point de repos^ No rest. 

Que de peines et detains I What care and trouble i 

Quelque chose* de feon, Something good. 

11 arrive de France^ He arrives /row France. 

Rien de mauvais. Nothing bad. 

Le roi d\4ngleterre, The king o/* England. 

Elle vient d'^Amirique, She comes /rom America* 


I have bought six yards of cloth. Bring 

achete^p.f^ six aune drapytn, 

me three pounds of veal, and two pounds of 

(rots livre veau^m^ deux 

* It must be observed, tluit the word chBtCj, standing bj itserf, » 
of the feminine gender ; bat, being joined to the nvord qutlque^ il ^ 
of the fflascBline. 

# 44 

muttoD. • - She has a great number of cbildreo. - - 

mouton^m* un grand fidj.nombre^m. 

He has (too much) vanity. — You have less merits 

<rop,adv. vanite^L fnotn^,adv. 

but more wisdom. - - What a noise jou make. - • 
mais^c* pZti; ,ady» sagesse. *o* hruil^tn. faiUs^v. 

(How many) fools in the world ! • - Do 'not^ give^ 

f(AA tmmdz^m. u&» ntpas^zAv. 

her* (too roanj) pears. - - P have' *no* . daugh* 
/tfi,pro. /ro/>^dv. ai ntpoint^iv. 

ters.*'- - (So much) pride does *not* become^ him*. - - 
Tiin/,adv. orguet7,m. «o« md^v. ^ui, pro* 
(There is) something noble in his physiognomy. • • 
// y a,v. «(i,pro. pkysionoftiie. 

* We have (so many) grapes. — They have a little 

raisin^m. un peuy adv. 

money.'- - 1 know the king of Prussia. - - Did you 

connoiSyV^ Prusse^L Avez^y. 

see the duke of Bavaria with the archbishop 

vti,p.p. Jt(c,m. Baviere^f* archeveque^m. 

of York ? • - He commanded an army of forty 

eommandoit^Y. une armie^f. quarante 

thousand men. She* says'* ^nothing* true*. - - - 

mille di/,v. ne nen,adv. vrat,adj. 

You speak of Alexander, king of Macedonia. - - 

parltz^v. AkxandrtyVa* Macidoint^U 

Do you* come" from Italy ? - - • No, 1 come 

-o' vtntz^y. Non^zdy, vienSyV* 

from Africa. 
De is likewise placed before nouns governed by 
another substantive, of which they express the character, 
cause^ country^ matter^ nature^ and quality / and after the 
adjectives of number, when they are followed by a parti- 
ciple passive : ex. 

Unt Timt^m de hriqife, A^ brick^ bouse*. 
Un bonnet de nuit, A night cap. 

Une cuHler if argent^ A silver spoon. 

Du poissofi de riviere, River fish. 

Du vin de Bourgogne, Burgundy* wineF. 
Oud/re de rtnvoyis, Four (sent away.) 



Your* sister* has^ a* silk^ gown* and a gold* 

Votre^ pro. saury f. «, v. une soie^ f. ro6e, un or^ m. 
thimble. •- We drink Champagne wine.- — It is a 

de, m. '^' buvons^y* C'e^*, v. 

marble pillar. — - - They have a country 

marbrt pUliir^m* , une ca,npagnt 

hpuse built with oak wood.-- 

mai^on conslruile^p,p. rfe,p. chine bois. 

Edinburgh is ihe capital city of the kingdom 
Edinbourg^m capitate^ixdj.ville^f. royaume^ xup 

of Scotland. -- Shut the fore - door. -- A lady 

Ecosst* ^ Fermez, v. , devant porte^ f. Une 
of wij^ is a jewel of worth (He is) a man 

esprit unjoyau^xn. prise. G'ea/, v. 

of honour. • - - She has bought silver buckles 

hanneur.. argent boucle^L 

and diamond ear - rings Have you 

diamant pendans-dhreille^ m. ^vez^ v» 

spoken - to the silk-merchant? -•- Give nie the 

|Mir/e, p. p« marchand^f m. 

upper - crust. — Bring -roe my straw - hat and 
dessus^ crou/f, f. monpaille cfciipecrti, m» 

my night - cap. - - - - Miss Brown's chamber - maid and 

nuit bonnet^m. Mile. chambre fille^f* 

Mrs. Rose's house-keeper are two sis- 

Mme. femme de charge^ f. deu^ 

ters. - • The rich make use of silver plate, 

richej m* fU se servent^ v. vaisselle 

and the poor ^ make us» of iron forks 

pduvre^ m. pi. font^ v. usage, m. fer, m. 
and pewter spoons. ----- The enemies had a 

ilain, m. cuilUr. eurent, v. «^>» 

hundred men killed, seventy wau^ded, and 

cent /ue9, p.p. soixante-dix IJem?, p. p» 

forty lost. 

quarante perdus^ P* P* 


*De is placed after the adjectives signifying dimension, 
as 6pais, thick ; gtosy big, large ; haut^ high, tall ; large^ 
wide, broad ; /<mg, long ; and profondj deep j though 
there is no article expressed in English : ex. 

Vnetabklonguededixpieds A table ten feet long and 
et large de huU^ eight broad. 

But there is a more elegant way, which is, to turn 
the adjective of dimension into the substantive; then 
the words of measure and those of dimension are pre- 
ceded by de ; ex. 

Une table de dixpieds de Ion- A table ten feet long and 
gueur etde huit de largeur^ eight broad. 

In this last example it may be seen, that the French 
and English are parallel with each other; therefore, in 
the following exercise, the adjective and substantive ape 
put down, that the learner may translate it both ways. 


I saw a tree eighteen feet large. 
J^ai^y* t)tr, p.p. un arbre,m. dix-huit pied^m. grot* 

I have a box four inches thick, 

feur*. uaeMu^U qualre pauce^m. ip^untur^ 

ten feet long, and six broad. - - I know 

dix pied, m. long-uiurf - large-ur. cannotf , T# 

a man seven feet high (It is) a ditch 

un sept 'haut'eur. CUsl^v* un fossi^tn* 

nine feet six inches deep and five feet broad. 

neuf profond-eur ' cinq 

(There is) a room fifty paces long and 

Foila une chambrej f. cinquante pas^ m. 
twenty broad. • • - The walls of our garden 

vingt muraille^ f. noire^ pro. 

are or (have) tUrty feet three inches high, and two 
sont, T. or ton/,v. trenU trois deux 

feet broad. • - 1 have a tree eighteen feet round 

un ar6re,m. dM-kuit gro$-seur^ f. 
and sixty high. 

* Read groj, siijeotiYe, grosstur, subttftntire, irithout separation, 
•^nd 80 of the others. See the rules to form the femiDine gender, p. 60« 
** JSet the rule upon avoir and iin next page. 


)f the learner translate this last sentence by the ad- 
jective of dimensipn, he must use the word sontj which 
is the proper word of the English are^ and follows the 
preceding rule : bat if he turn the adjective of dimen* 
sion into its substantive, the word sont^ are, is to be 
rendered into French by the verb on/, have, and de be- 
fore the word of measure is suppressed* 

Literal example by the adjective : 
Jfotre chamhre est longue Our room is long by twen- 

de vingt pieds et large de ty feet and wide hy 

douze^ twelve. 

By the substantive : 

J/oire chanibre a vingt pieds Our room has twenty feet 

de longueur et douze de in length and twelve in 

largeur, width. 

When two substantives are joined together, both 
making a compound word in English, the first of which 
denotes theybmr or u^eof the second, the latter must be 
placed before the former in French, and followed by the 
particle a, in the sense of for ; ex. 

Un moulin kpapiery % A paper' mill^ 
Une bottc kpoudre, A powder' box*. 


Gun - powder was invented by a monk. 
Canon^m.poudre.,Lfut, v. inveniee^ p.p. par, p. moine, m. 
The servant has lost the steel, and cannot 

perdujf*p» hriquet^m^ nepeutpas 

light the candle If you go to London 

allumer^ v. chandelle^ f. Si, c. " allez^ v. 

to-morrow, bring me a toupee - iron. - Have you 
Remain, adv. apporteZyV* toupet^m.fer^va. 

seen the water-mill which mj father has bought ? 
vUj p.p. fue, pro. acheti^ p.p. 

No, but I have aeen the wind-mill whiQh your 

Non^ adv. tient, m* y 


brother has built at Greenwich. — I ha%;e 

faitbdUr^v. a ' 

found your sister's work - bag. --- Wilh'am has for- 
ouvrage sac^ m. Guillaume a de- 
bidden his children to go to the dancing room. 
fendu a see dialler danser salle^ f. , 

^, DECLENSION of UN, OI. UNE, f. A Of AN. 

Singular. — Masculine. 
Nom. Ace. un livft^ a book. 
Gen. Abl. d*un livre^ of or from a book. 
Dat. a un livre^ to a book. 

Noro. Ace. tine plume^ a pen. 
Geo. Abl. d^uneplume^ of or from a pen. 
Dat. d itneplume^ to a pen. ^ 


I have a hat and a sword. — ' She speaks 

chapeau^ m. 6p6e^ f. parity v. 

of an oflScer. --- He* has' given* it* to* a 

offider^m. donn^, p.p. 2e, prp. 

sailor. - - (There are) a bird and a cage 

ma/e/o/, m. Voila oistau^m* cage^L 

An ungrateful man is a monster (in the) eyes of a 

ingratfAXi. *<^ ; monsirt^ m. aux ail^ m. 
sensible* man^ -- Alexander was a great warrior, 
stnst^ adj. AUxandrti m. e/ot%v. gi4<rr»cr,m. 

and a very . learned philosopher. - - A fine 

im, adv. savant^ adj. phUos^phe, m. belUjZij* 

flower in a garden is an ornament. 
fltur^U ornfmtnt^m. 

It must be observed, that the English article a or an^ 
before nouns of measure, weight, and number, must be 
rendered in French by the definite articles, /c, te, hs ; 
and by the preposition par^ used for txmt and spact in 
the sense of tach^ tvtry^ or ptr : ex. ' 


Deux (Aelins le ceni^ Two Bbilltngs a hundred. 

Un 6cu ]e boissedUy ' A crown a bushel. 

Citiq chelins par semaine^ Five shillings a week* 

Une guinee par mois, One guinea a month. 


Barley sells for three shillings a busmi. • • - 

Org€,L se vend^r^ «o* 
That ale (is worth) six pence a pint. - - • 

Ce/<e,pro« af7e,f. vaut^Y. sou^m. pinie^f. 

B^ef costs eight pence a pound. - - - • 

Bauf^m. couie^v. Aiii/,adj. livre^f. 

This lace cost a crown an ell. — He 

C€//e,pro. dtnitllt^f. coAta^v. icu^m. aune,f. 
sells his best cloth a guinea a yard. - * 

vmd^Wm son,pro. fmilhar drapfia* uru ' verge/* 

Burgundy wine (is sold) nine shillings a bottle. - * 

le vin ae vend^v* muffldj. 
My shoemaker sold' me^ two pair of 

jlfon,pro. cor<2onnter,iii. a Ten(Zu,p.p. poire/* 

shoes (at the rate) of 'half ^a guinea a pair. * - - My 
Soulier a raison demi 

master comes twice a week. - - My uncle goe* 

vient^y, deux /ot^,adv. va^Vm 

to France thrice a year. - • - She gives three 

iroisfois^Bdv* an,m. donne^y* 

shillings a day and ten pence a mile« 

jouryW. mille^m* 

According to the rule p. 33, n or an is not expressed 
in French before the second noun when it qualifies 
the first; the same article is likewise omitted when the 
verb itre precedes the substantive ; excepting when that 
verb has ce for its nominative : in the first instance the 
noun is employed as an adjective, in the second as a 
substantive ; thus i7 est honime signifies, he has the feel* 
ings of a man, whilst c'esi un homme means^ there Is a 

M, Z)., membre de la cham* M. D., a member of the 
bre dea camtnunes house of comwtkti^v 



Etei'Vous Anghis ? Are you an EDglisbmaa ? 

•Yon, Mw^situr^ je auis Nor, sir, 1 am a French^ 
Franqmy man. 


I i|pr the Duke of C***, a prince of the blood, 
JPai vu duc^m* sang^xn. 

who (was speaking) to Mr. P., a member of 

9ui,pro. parloiUv. 

parliament. - - His cousin is a surgeon, and hk brother 
patlttntnt^m. Son chirurgien^m* 

18 a physician. - - My sister is a milliner, 

midecin^m* marchande Se modtsf. 

my brother is a tailor, and I am a carpenter. - - - 

/at7/eMr,m. charpentier^m. 

1 have read Castor and Pollux, a 'French ^opera. - - • 

Bristol, a sea • port, passes now . ^ 

mer,f. |>or/,m. passe^w a priseni^stdv* 

for the second city of the kingdom of Eng- 

land. • - - Is she a duchess, or a marchioness ? 

Est^Y. duchtasej* marquise^L 

• - - No, she is a countess. 


Adjectives form their plural as the substantives. 

Rule (o form their Feminine Gender. 

Many adjectives in al have no plural for their mas- 
culine ; as conjugal^ conjugal ; fatal, fatal ; flial, filial } 
natal^ natal; naval, naval ; total, total; and some few 
others, with which a little practice will soon acquaint 
the learner. 

Adjectives ending in e mute are of both genders : ex* 

Unjeune homme, A youi^ man. 

Unejeunefemme^ A young woman. 



great, (all, large, 









nue, . 



A hair-pound. 
A pound and a half. 
la tile nue* 
Us pieds nu8. 

Adjectives ending with one of the foilowiiig letters, 
dy e, t, /, n, r, ;, t, and u, form their feminine by adding 
an e mute : ex« 

Masc. Grand^ Fern. 



The last two adjectives are indeclinable when they 
precede a substantive, but are declinable when they 
follow it : ex. 

Vne demi4ivre, 

Une livre et demie, 

Jfu litCj bare head, ] 

Jiu piedsy bare feet, 

There are a few ending in an, aa, el, i7, eil, ten, in, es, 
et, is, on, os, ot, and ut, that double the final letter, before 
an e, mute, for the feminine : ex. 
Masc. Gras, ^em. 







* When that adjective preceden a substaniiTe sini^ular of (he 
feminiDe gender, beginning with a consonnnt, we often suppress in 
French, both in the pronunciation and writing tho e, which is 
sapplied by an apostrophe as in the following instances. 
A grand* peiney with hard labour. 

Cgrand^ /aim, ^ ( '•erjr hungry. 

Jt»oir igrand* toif, \ to be < very thirsty. 

(granS* peur, ) ( tery mnch frightened. 

Fmre grand^ ehhe, ta live well, to fare suroptiioiisly. 

La grand* nUrt, the grand mother. 

La grand} mene, the high mass. 

La grand"* chambre, tUe high court. 

Should however the word grande be preceded by trh, fori, very, 
SUM, one, or la plu#, the most, then the final e must be added ; as, 
Une fori grmde talU^ A very large room. 








- tpaiise, 



Masc. Orosj Fern- grasse, big. 

Soij sotte^ foolish, simple. 

The following are very irregular, and cannot be com«^ 
prised. under any rule, viz. 


Masc. Beau^ bel^* 


Mou, moly* 

Fieua?, vieil,* 


handsome, fine. 



foolish, crazy. 





new, novel. 


Adjectives ending in c add he to the c for their femi- 
nine : ex. 

Uasc. Blanc, Fem. blanche, white. 

Franc, franche, sincere. 

See, - seche, dry, &c. 
The four following are excepted. 

Masc. Caduc, Fem. caduque, in decay. 

Grec, Greece, Greek. 

Public, publique, piiblic. 

Turc, Turque, Turkish. 
Those ending in / change / into ve for the femi- 
nine : ex. 

Masc. Bref, Fem. breve, 

Ka^, naive, 

J/euf, ncuve, 

Veuf, veuve, 

Vif, vive. 

Adjectives ending in x, change x into se : ex. * 
Masc. Douloureux, Fem. douloureuse, painful, dolorous. 
Heureux, heureuse, happy, &c. 

Jaloux, jalouse, jealous. 


plain, ingenuous, 

new, not old. 



* These adjectiires are used before substantives beginning with a 
'vovel or h not aspirated. 

The following arc excepted ; 

Masc* D&uxy Fern, douce, sweet. -^ 

Faux, fausse, false. 

Perplex, perplexe, perplexed. 

Pfifix, prifixe, prefixed. 

Rouxj rousse, reddish. 


ju French adjectives must agree with their substantives 
in gender, number, and case : ex. 

Singular. — Masculine. 
Norn. Ace. Le hon livre, the good book. 
Gen. Abl. Du hon livre, of or from the good book* 
Dat. Au bon livre, to the good book. 

PlORAIm * 

Nom. Ace. Les bans livres, the good books. 

Gen. Abl. des bons livres, of or from tire good books* 

Dat. aux bons livres, to the good books. 

Singular. — Feminine. 
Nom. Ace. La bonne plume, the good pen. 
Gen. Abl. de la bonne plume, of or from the good pen. 
Dat. a la bonne plume, to the good pen. 

.. Plural. 
Nom. Ace. Lis bonnes plumes, the good pens. 
Gen. Abl. des bonnes plumes, of or from the good pens.* 
Dat. aux bonnes plumes, to the good pens. 


The tall man,lbe little woman, and the 

pretty children, whom I tAet jesterdaj 

joh',adj. que^pro. at renconfre«,p.p. Ater,adv. 

with their grandmother (wore going) to London : 

they were all very hungry and thirsty. - • - The polite* 




inhabitants^ of that fine city treat all the 

habiiant^m, eette^fro, iraitent^v. 

strangers in a civil^ and frank^ manner.^ - - • 
£trang^r^m* de ti»ie maniere^t. 

Lean' sbeep^ grow fat in good 

Maigrt^^dj. les hrtbisjLpLdevitnnent^y. dam,p. 

pastures. — Constant' study^ joined to a great 
j>a/ur(xg€,m. 6tiidt^f» ^otyt<,p.p. 

application makes men learned. • - - The new' 
applicationjf* rend^v. ^avan(,adj. neuf 

coat,^ which you 'gave *me, ia 

habit^m. 9ue,pro. avez donn^,p.p. 

better than the old great-coat which mjr 

fiiet7/eur,adj. que^c. redingote^f. • 

father bad bought at bis tailor^s. - - We went 

avoit acket6e chez^p. alldmes^v. 

yesterday to the high court where we found all 

the judges already met. 

(f^ja,ad. cs8embl6s;p*p» 

As two or more substantives in the singular are 
equivalent to a plural, the verb and adjective, or par- 
ticiple past, not immediately following them, must be 
put in the plural, when they refer to two or more sub- 
stantives in the singular, and that ac^ectivc or participle 
is to be put in the masculine, if these substantives be of 
different genders : ex. 

Le frere^ fa saur^ It ncrcii. The brother, sister, ne- 
tt la niece, sont taus phew, and niece are all 
moris^ dead. 


The book, paper, pencil, and penknife, wJnch 
papieryin* crayon,m. canif^m, que 
you lent' me*, are excellent. - - - The 

avez prit6yp*p. me,pro. txcellent^^dU 

^n, ruler, ink horn and grammar which my bro* 
righif. icritoire^t 


tkerhas bought, arc very good. - - - Tbe king, 

queen, prince, and princesses were gone. • • • The 

itoient^y. 9or<t,p.p. 
corn, wheat, rye, pease and beans, in a word, aH 

seighitn. fht^U en mo/,m. 

the grains which were on the ground, 

grain^m. ftit,pro. itoitnt^v. 5tir,p. <erre,f. 

were frozen. - • • My father's bouse, and my uncle'f 
fur^ni^v* geli^p^pm 
(country-seat) are (very noiuch) alike. 

ehdUau jin. 6wi,ad?. umblahl^dj. 

When two or more substantives of different genders 
are immediately foilowed by an adjective or participle 
past, these may agree in gender aad number with the last 
substantive, particularly when tbe substantives are sy- 
nonymous or nearly so ; any other case met with in 
authors is either a poetical licence or aQ oversight : ex. 

// gouvtmt avec un pott- He governs with an abso- 
votr el tine auloriU aft- lute power and autbo* 
solutj rity. 


He studies with an incredible^ application^ and 

6tudie^v, incroyabU^H dj. 

courage". - - - He who has for his guides 

courage^m* Ce/uf,pro. ^ui^pro. «^ guide^m* 

<:onsummatc' zeal* and prudence* deserves 

con5omm^,adj* un 2:c/c,m. uneprudtnct^U mirite^w. 

the general^ esteem* and applause* of bis 

estime^fn applcujidissementyin. ses^pro. 
feTlow-cilizens. - - - I found . the doors, the 

conctlo2/en,m. ai /rout;e,p.p. porte^L 

windows, and the shutters shut. 
fimirt^L volets^m. fermt^p^f. 



Some adjectives are always placed before their 
substantives, and others after then); but there is a 
kind of Adjectives, which may either precede or follow 
their substanUves, as the euphony of the sentence 

The following are commonly placed before.* 

./ ' 

JBeau, handsome, fine. 
Bon^ good, 
ifirare, brave. 
Cher, dear. 

Ckitif, vile, poor, mean. 
Galant^ well-bred. 
Grandj great, tall. 
Gros^ big^ large. 
Honnitej honest, civil. 
Jtune^ young. 

Jolt, pretty. 
JiSichanl^ wicked. 
Mauvais^ bad. 
Meilleur^ better. 
Mvindre^ less. 
Pe/t<, little, small. 
Saint, holy, 
Tou/, all. 
Vieux, old. 
Frot, true. 


I have seen a handsome lady, who (was 

vu,p.p. <{ame,f. 9ut,pro. 

speaking) to an old gentleman. — He had 

parloit^Y. monsieur^tn. /^ro. avatV,v. 

a fine hat and a pretty sword* - - Your little 

chapeau^m. ^f^tf. Fb<re,pro. 

sister deserved a better fate. - - I Jcnow a young 

. m jri/otl, V. Aniin, m. connoxi, v. 

man who has a good horse, but a bad stable. - •• 

chtcalj m. icurie^ f. 

* No general role pan be given on this subject however, for of 
those adjectives enumerated here above, many may be placed alter 
and receive a new fignification, thus un galant homme means a well- 
bred man, tin homme galant^ a gallant, &c. Practice and observa- 
tion onlj will give that knowledge. — See next rule. 


He> has^ lent^ it' to an honest main - « The 

a prifiyp.p. 76, pro. 
apostle . Paul waft a holy man. • - • My brother has 
apSlre^ m. 

bought a good watch. — Your father was a 

ctcAe/e, p. p. montre^L itoit^r. 

brave general, and a well-bred man. - • - You have 

avez^ V. 

lost all your money Vile creature, .1 have 

perduy p.p. xriature, f. 

heard your wicked conversation. - - • Mr. A. is a 

en/endti, p.p. ^ conversation^ f. 

great man, and the best of all fathers. 


Some adjectives have different meanings according as 
they are placed before or after their substantive, as, 
tins ftmmt sage^ a wise woman : tins sage ftmmt^ a 
midwife ; and ime grosse femnuy a big woman ; unt 
femmt grosse, a pregnant womaci ; tin kfrnimt honnete, 
a civil man^; un honnete homme^ an honest man ; a lit* 
ile practice will soon remove any of these apparent dif- 

The following adjectives must be placed after their 

1. All participles used as adjectives ; as, 

Unepersonnertconnoissantey A grateful person* 
Du baufrdti^ Roast beef. 

9. All adjectives expressing the «Aa/>e or /orm; as, 

Une table ronde^ A round table. 

Une chambre carrit^ A square room, . 

3. All adjectives expressing the colour or taste ; as, 

tJn chapeau noir^ A black hat. 

Un habit rouge, A red coat. 

Unepomme douce^ A sweet apple. 

{7ne fi^eur amirej A bitter liquor* 


4. All adjectives expressing the matter of which a 
thing is composed ; as, 

Dei parties sulfureusesy Sulphurous parts. 

Un corps uirien^ An aerial body. 

5. All adjectives expressing the qualitj of hearing and 
iouching ; as, 

Un instrument sonore^ A sonorous instrument. 

Une voix harmonieusej An harmonious voice. 

Un bois dur^ A hard wood. 

Un corps moUf A soft body. 

6. All adjectives expiessing the name of nations; as, 

Uempire Romain^ The Roman empire. 

La potsitAngloise^ The jBnglish poetry. 

7. All adjectives, wfiich, when used by themselves, 
convey the meaning of a substantive, as ricK blind^ &c. 

Un homme riche, A rich man. 

Unefemmt aveugle^ A blind woman. 


An ignorant young man 19 despised by (every 

miprisi^ p.p. de^f* tout le 
body.) - - - You have an English hat, and she has a 
monde^ m. Anglois^ adj. 

French gown. - He reads an Italian , proverb. - - 

Frangoisj, adj.ro6c, f. lit^ v. //a/tcn,adj.proT)crt?,m. 

I like (very much) the German tongue and 

awne,v. &eaucou/», adv. Allemand^zAj. langue^U 
the Spanish dress. - - » - (It is) a square place. 

Espagnol^^dyhabillementyinfOest^y. carr^,adj. place^ f. 
She likes sweet wine. - - Your si^er has an har- 

atme,v. <Ioua?,adj. le vin^ m. 
monious voice. -.--I have bought a white gown 

voix^L b/anc, adj. 

and a black ^ cloak. ---You have a faithful 
;noir,adj. mantelet^ m. ^ife/e, adj. 


servant. I cat green peai^e, with 

domestique^m. €//• mangejV. vtrt^ adj. 
boiled mutton. - Bring me a pound and a half 
houilli^ p.p. mouion, m. demi^ adj. 

of cherries, and half a pound of currants. - We had a 
cerise^ L grosetlUjL ei2me^, y. 

kind reception, and we played at a di« 

favorable^ ^iy aecueil^mm joudmts^ ▼.a,p.c(ir 

verting game. - He lives in a cold cbuntry. 

vertissant^ adj. j^,m. demmre^ v. froid^hij. pays^ m. 

- - You have left the windows and the door 

/amtf,p.p. fenSlre^f* ^ , porttj f. 

open. - * Will you have a bit of roast 

v(» morceau^ m. rdft, p.p. 

chicken ? - - .Do you* read* the Punic war t - - 

pouht^ m. *^ lisiz^ v. Puntqut^ adj. gu«rre,f. 

He has made a rash vow. - - Your sister 

fait^ p.p. i^m^raire,adj. vaw, m* 
is an agreeable lady. - - 1 like a grey stuflT. • - 

agreab/^ adj. ^m^adj. iiofft^U 

(It was) really a tragical history. . 

C'e(ot/, V. rielknwnt^ adv. tragique^ adj. hUtoire^ f. 

When two or more adjectives belong to one substan- 
tive, the surest way is to place them "after it, with the 
conjunction e/, and, before the last ; and if an adjec* 
tive be used in a sentence without a substantive, this 
adjective must always be rendered in French by the 
masculine gender. 


We have a just, wise, and bountiful king. -- 

jii#f«, adj. sage^ndy bienfaisant^ ^dj* 
Mr. Brown's daughter is with a sincere and 

Monneur^m* sincere, adj. 

generous lady. •• I have a scholar of a solid, 
g^n^ reus, adj. icolier^m* solide^adj* 

bright, and lively genius. -- The wicked 
brillant^ adj. vif^ adj. tsprit^ ip. michant^ adj. pi. 

(shall be) punished. - - Miss Preston is a 

seront^ V. /mnt\ p.p. Mademoiselky f. 


young, handsome, and well-shaped lady. - - She has 

. bien-fait, adj. 
married a sober, Tirtubus, and amiable 
6pou86f p.p« sobre^ adj. vertueux^ adj. aimabU^ adj* 
man.— 'The good (shall be) praised. — The diligent 

, serontyfh /ou£, p.p. <ii%en<, 

(shall be) rewarded. 

recompensi^ p.p. 


Adjectives and adverbs are the only kind of words 
that will admit of different degrees of more or less in the 
several qualities of persons or things* 

There are two degrees of comparison : 

"i, Lt comparatift the comparative. 
S. Le superlatiff the superlative. 

Some grammarians admit of another degree, which 
they call positive : but this is. merely an adjective used io 
its simple signification, without expressing any increase 
or diminution : ex. joK, pretty ; atma&/e, lovely. 

The comparative refers to some other person or things 
and shows its equalitt/^ excess or defect : it is therefore 
of three sorts : 

1. L<s comparatif d*4galiti^ The comparative by equal- 


2. Le comparatif d*excis^ The comparative by ex- 


3. Le comparatifde defaut^ The comparative by defect. 

The comparative, by equality is formed by placing the 
adverbs autanlj as much, as many; aussi^ so^ or as, before 
an adjective ; and ^ue, as^ after it : ex. 

Voire ancle a autant d^ar* Your uncle has as much 

gen/, e/ autant c2^ami« que money, and as many 

man percj friends as my father. 

Ma saur- est aussi ambi' My sister is as ambitious a$ 

tieuse que voiiSj you. 

Monfrtre est aussi $W9(aU tiy brother is as learned as 

que h vSlre^ yours. 


'N. B. — From the preceding examples and the fallow- 
ing, it will be easily seen that when the adverbs, tant^ so 
much, so many ; autant^ as much, as many ; plus^ more, 
and 77101715, less, are immediately followed by a substan- 
tive, that substantive must be preceded by de. The 
learner will also observe that si and aussi^ so, as ; gene- 
rally precede adjectives, when a comparison is made by 
either; whereas tant and autant are always followed by 
a noun or verb, the French conjunction que, Englished 
by either as, ihan^ or that, being the term of the com- 
parison ; plus or moins may precede either an adjective, 
a noun, or verb. 

Than, after Tnore or less, plus ou moins, followed by a 
noun of number, is rendered in French by Je, and not by 
que : ex* 
/e perds plus d^un Louis et I lose more than ahouis and 

vous gagnez moins de cinq you gain less than five 

francs, francs. 


Alexander was as ambitious as Caesar. - - 

6toit,y* ambitieux,2Ldy que,c. Cesar, ro. 
I am as tall as you. — Miss D. has as much live- 
5tit5,y. Aau^adj. Mile a,v. vivO" 

liness, and she is as amiable as her cousin. — If my fa- 
cif ^,f. esl,y, sa,pTO.cousitie,f» Si, c. 

t her were as r ic h as my uncle, he (would make) a better 

etoit, V. oncle, m. feroit, v. 

use of his riches. - We have as many books as your 
%isage,m. ^e^, pro. autant,2Ldy. vos,f ro. 

brothers, and they are as learned as we. - 1 am as honest 

sont, v. not/^.pro. 

and civil as my companions. - - You ^owe *me more 

compagnon,n). devez, v. 

than two dollars, anil you pa}' me' less than fifty cents. 
gourde payez soUyW. 

The comparative by excess is formed by placing the ad- 
verb jo/u*, more, before an adjective : ex. 
Sa cousine est plus diligente Her cousin is more diligent 
que moi, et est plus savante than 1, and is more learn- 
que vous, ed than you. 



Miss A. 18 handsomer and more learned than 
Mile que^ c. 

her sisters. - - Lucia is taller and more proud 

Ijucie^i. orgueilleux^ adj.* 

than ber little cousin. - - • His sister is more 

^a,pro. f. So, pro. 

covetous than he. - - - Nothing is pleasanter to 

iit)are,adj. lui^pro. Rim 7ie,adv. agr^a6/6,adj. 

the mind than the light of truth 

esprit^xn. ^ lumitref» viriU^i. 

Nothing is more lovely than virtue, and 

nothing is more desirable than wisdom. — 

dwira6Ze,adj. eagesse^f. 

My daughter is taller than your son bj'*' two inches. — 

de pouce^m* 

Your brother is taller than you by the^ whole* bead^. - - 

taut tSte^L 
In winter the roads are always worse than 

En hiver^m* chemin^m, plus mauvdis.jaLdj* 

in summer. -- He gave' me* a more beautiful eagle. 
it£» ' donna oig/e, f. 

The comparative by defect is formed by placing the ad- 
verbmotVis, less, before an adjective ; or tant^ so much, 
eo many ; or «f , so ; with the negation ne pa$^ or point, 
not ; or ne,nt, neither, nor, before them : ex. 
Voire cousine est moins noble Your cousin is less noble 

q%i€ vous, than you. 

Iln'estpas si orgueilleux que He is not so proud as bis - 
sa saur, sister. 


Mrs. P*** is less polite than her daughter, 

Mme poli^ adj. 

but ber daughter (is not) so revengeful as she. 

n'^est pas,?iiy. mndtco/t/iadj. 
You are* *not^ so dutiful as your brother. 

e/e5,v. nepas^ndv, ob^manf, adj. 

My father is not so rich as yours, • but he has 

le votre, pro. 
* J5y, after a comparison is rendered into French by de. 


not so much selMove Miss Goodwill has less wit 


than her mother. Paris (is not) so populous as 

London. — Your companion is neither so prudent nor 

n*e$t ni ni 

so circumspect as you. 

It must be observed, that in sentences in which the 
above adverbs more or less are repeated to express a 
comparison, the definite article ihe^ preceding either, is 
totally suppressed in. French : as, 
Plus on esipauvre^ moins on The poorer* people are, the 

a d^emharras^ less care they have. 

Plus je la vois^ plus je la The more I see her, the 

hats, more 1 hate her. 


The mere » thing i$ difficult, the more honour- 
chose^ f. di^ct7e,adj. Aono- 

able^ it* is^. ^^The less you give to your chil- 

ra&/e,adj. e//e,pro. donnez^v. vos 

dren, the less they spend. The 'richer* they^ 

t7^,pro. dSpenseni^v. 
are^, the more covetous they are. • - The more a 

young man studies, the more learned he grows. 

etudie^v^ savant, adj. devient^y. 

The more a drunkard drinks, the more thirstj' he is.-- 

ivrogne^m. 6oi7,v. a/<erfi,adj. 

The more odious laziness is, the more we should 

odt«wa?,adj. paresse,f» devrions^v. 

avoid'* it*. -- The less you applyi the less you 
eviter^v. Za,pro. vous vous appliquez^v. 

learn. -- The more they know^ yo«% the less 

apprenez^v. connoitront^vJiM. 

they will esteem^ you*. 

The above comparative adverbs, 51, aussi, tant^auiant, 
phis and moins^ must be repeated, in French, before 

* Poorer^ richer^ and all similar forms are rendered into French hj 
more poor, mott rich ; observe well the construction of the above sen- 


each adjective, noun, verb, or adverb, in the sentence i 


Voire frere est aussi savant Your brother is as learned 

et aussi iclair6 que mon and enlightened as my 

cousin^ cousin. 

M. Robert rCa nl tant de Mr. Robert has neither 50 

hien ni tant d*esprit que much wealih nor wit as 

Jl/. Dubois^ Mr. Dubois. 


My father has as many (apple - trees) 

e<ti/an/,adv. pommier^tn. 

and (pear - trees) in his orchard as (there are) 
poirier^m* verger^m^ il y en a,v. 

in yours. His eldest brother (will be) more 

le v6tre4 ain6^ adj. sera^ v. 

attentive, industrious, and rich than he. — - 

flffenfi/',adj. industrieux^diA]. lui^ pro. 

Miss A*** has less wit, less liirelines9, and becom* 

vivacild agr6' 

ingness than her sister. - - She has as much virtue 
and good sense as beauty and modesty. - - My 

sens Mon^ pro. 

cousin is as merry, lively, and amiable as his 

gm,adj. er>;oiie,adj. ses^pvo, 


The same rule is to be observed with respect to the 
adverbs used in forming the superlative degree. 

The three following adjectives are comparative by 
themselves, meiWeur, better ; ;?irf, worse; and moindre^ 
less; which signify plus bon^ plus mauvats, plus petit ; and 
atnif elder, or eldest, is used for plus age, or leplus dg6* 


The watch which my grand-father has bought 

mon<re,f. fiie,pro. grand-pere^m. achet6e^p*p» 
is better than the clock which be gave to 

pendule^ f. a donnie^ p.p. 

my mother My friend's buckles are better than 

mere,f. boucle^U 


(hose of his uncle, but mine are worse 

celUs^fvo. onc/e^m* le8 miennes^pro* 

than his. The life of a slave is 

les 5fenn€5,pro« vie^f» esclave^m» 

ten tinaes worse than death itself. The 

dix /ow,adv. mort^U meme,adv* 

pain which I endure is less than that which 

peine^f que souffre^v. ce//e,pro« fut^pro. 

is inflicted on galley-slaves. 

tn^ig^6,p.p. aux gaUrien^io. 

The superlative expresses the highest degree of any 
quality. There are two kinds of superlatives : 1. The 
relative which expresses the quality of a person or thing 
ahove all others of the same kind. In this case, one of 
the following articles, /e, /a, les^ de^ du, de la^ des^ a, au^ a 
la, aux, precede the adverhsp/u5, standing then for most, 
mieux, best, moins, least, before an adjective ; or the ad- 
jectives mei//etir, best, moindre, least, j7iVe, worst : ex. 

Votre saur est la plus belle Your sister is the hand- 
et la meilleure femme de somest and best woman 
la ville, in the town. 


The vine is one of the ^most useful* and ♦agree- 
vigne^L un Us plus u/t7€f, 

able gifts* of Providence*. - - Virtue is *the^ most* pre- 
<fon,m. Providence^fm pre- 

cious^ things 1 in the world. - - * The lion is the 

cieua7,adj« chose,(. du monde^m* 

strongest and most courageous of all animals 

ybr<,adj. . courageM*,adj. animaljVn* 

(There is) the handsomest lady in London. • --She is 
Fot7a,adv. de 

so touchy, that she will not bear the least 

&ourru,adj. veut^x* souffrir^v. 

joke Miss P. is the mildest, politest, and most 

raillerie^L ' J(ma?,adj. jpo/i, adj. 

afiable of all her sisters. - • Ingratitude is 

affable^zAy ses^pvo. 

* See the gender of adjectives, p. 50. t See the note in the 
page that follows this. 


the greatest of all vices. - - - If France were as rich 

as England, (it would be) the best country in the world.* 
ce seroit,y» pays^m* 

The absolute simply expresses the quality of a person 
or thing in its highest degree. This happens when one 
of the adverbs tris^ forty 6im, very, injinimentj inBnitely, 
precedes an adjective ; and when any of the compara- 
tives by excess or defect are preceded by one of the 
possessive pronouns mon, ton, son, notre, voire, kur, ^c* 
they become superlatives : ex. 

Votre oiseau est ires-joli, Your bird is very pretty. 

Vous ites mon meilleur ami. You are my best friend. 


God is a being infinitely great and perfect. 

e/rc,m. parfait, adj. 

I am your most humble and obedient 

tris,^dvm o6e man /,adj. 

servant. The front of your house is very 

serviteur^m. fa^ade^f. 

beautiful. You are very good, but your brother 


is very wicked. - — - My uncle has a very fine coun- 
m^c/ia»/,adj. cam* 

try - house, and very spacious^ gardens' 

pagne spacieux,tidj. 

My best friend is dead. Our common 

^o/re,pro. commun,a<ij, 
enemy has Hhe^ most* inveterate* hatred^ against 
inref^re,adj. haine,f. con/re,p. 

this country. Their least embarrassments 

cc,pro. pays^m. Leur5,pro. embarras^m. 

* It may be observed in some of these examples, that the preposi* 
tion in, following an adjective in the saperlative degree, must be 
rendered in French by one of these- articles de, du^de to, dts^ accord- 
ing to the gender and number of the substantive to which it belong. 
Tht preposition hy^ when it follows an adj«ctive in the comparative 

»gree, Is rendered by rfe only. 


make their greatest delight* Pride and 

fonijV* de/ Orgueilym* 

passion are his least defects* 
colere^f. ses^pro. defaut^m* 

There are two kinds of numbers : Ist, The absolute^ 
which simply relates the number of fhe things spoken 
oi^ viz. 

Un^ (femin. wnc,) 

^Ginq^ {q is sounded,) 
Stac, (pron. sm,) 
Sepi, (pron. s^i^) 
Huit^ (/ is sounded,) 
A'cti/, (/is sounded,) 
Dia?, (pron. dm,) 

Seize^{8ei is broad,) 
Dix-sept^ (pron. diss-set^) 
Dix'huit, (pron. diz-uit^) 
Dix-neufi (pron. diz-nmf^ 
Vingt^ (gt are dropped,) 
Vingt et wn, 

C Twenty-one, 

ISj &.C. 3 



Trente et wn, 

Trenie-deuxy «J^c. 



Soixantej (pron. soissanie^) 

Soixante et tin, 

Soixante tt dtux^ <$/'C« 

^Twenty-three, &c. 
Thirty-two, &c. 
Sixty-two, &c. 

Soixanie et dix^ Seventy. 

Soixante et onzeyS/c* Seventy-one, &c. 

Quatrt'^vingts, {gts are dropped, ) pj^l.^ 
andgl in the following too,) 5 ^*&"v* 
Quairp'vingt'un^ Eighty-one. 

Quatrt'vinghdeux^ <^c. * . Eighty-two, &c.- 

Quatre-vingt'dixj ^c. Ninety, &c. 

Cen/, in cent is dropped, and > ^ ^^ * ^^^^^^^^ 

in the following too,) 3 

CmUun^ A or one* hundred 

' and one, &c. 

Deux'CeniSj {x is dropped, and ^ 
the two final consonants in # 
the following also, and be- > Two hundred, 
fore any other word, begin- \ 
ning with a consonant,) ^ 
Trois Cenis^ Three hundred. 

J^euf cents, (/ dropped,) Nine hundred. 

JtfiWc, mi/,t A or one* thousand. 

Deux milk, Two thousand. 

Trois mille^ii'C* Three thousand, &c. 

Cent mille, <$^c. A or one* hundred 

thousand, &c. 
Neuf cent mille, (/ dropped,) Nine hundred thou- 
Un million, A million. 

These absolute numbers are declined with the article 
indefinite de, a, and are always placed before the sub- 
stantive to which they are joined without any article 
intervening ; and they are invariable in their form, ex- 
cept quatre-vingt, eighty ; cent, a hundred ; and million^ 
a million; which take an 5 in their plural, when im* 
mediately followed by a substantive : ex. 
Quatre-vingts femmesj Eighty women. 

Deux cents hommes^ Two hundred, men. 

* It will be seen by the following^, that the Knglish particle a or 
one is not expressed 'm French : ex. 
Je Vai vuet lui ai parU cent I have seen, him and spoken to him a 

foit, miliefois, hundred times, a thousand times. 

I Mentioning the date of the year, we must write, mi/, and not 
nulle : ex. Dan mil huit-ctnt quinze, the year 1815. 



I was in the company of seven gentlemen and 

compagnie^f. MM. 

nine ladies. -- He has spoken to three officers and 

dame parU.p.p. 

two generals. - - If I had a hundred guineas I would' 
avois^v. guinee en 

lend^ you* eighty. - - The army of our 

priterois^v. amUt^L no»,pro. 

allies was composed of a hundred thousand 

allie^m, etoit com/)o«^e,p.p. 

men of foot, and twenty thousand of horse. — 

in/anierie ea:oalerie» 

They took fifteen hundred men prisoners, 

prtr««#jv. prisonnier^ 

kUled four thousand, wounded a thousand, 

tn tuereni^y. en bUssereniyV. 

and (carried away) above two millions in specie. - - 

emporierent^y • plus de especes. 

The battle (was fought) in one thousand eight hun- 

hataille^f. se livra^y, en 
dred and fourteen, at three o'clock (in the) morning. 
«>* /ieure,f. du malin* 

These numbers are employed as substantives, in some 
cases, as in the game of cards, and in dates : ex. 

Le huU de caur^ The eight of hearts. 

Jfous parttmes de Boston We left Boston on the fif- 

le quinze^ teenth. 

Je reviendrai le douze^ I shall return on the twelfth. 


Will you but telP me*, if you have the seven of 

seulement dire 
clubs ? - Yes, I have^ it*, and the ten of spades too. - The 
trifle F ai le pique aussi. 


nine of diamonds (Is missing) in this pftck. -- 1 (shall be) 

carreau manque ce jeu. serai 

absent for a week or two, but you may be certain, that 

«o^ pouvez 

I shall be here on the twenty-fifth. - - Tell my sister 
•o' Diies a 

that I expect' her* on*the seventeenth. You may 

attends la *o^ ^ 

date your Jelter the twenty-sixth. - The 

daier^v. du 

sixteenth (will be) her birth-day. - - - - - The ten of 

sera son jour de nayssance^m* 
diamonds is not good. - - I have the ace of spades. *- 
carreau ^ as piquu 

We (shall have) a holiday on the twenty-£fth instant. — 
aurons du courantm 

Congress met ~ on thie third of December. - - - 

s^est assemble 
We received the President's Message on Friday, the 

recumes *<^ 

^fth of this month, it is most excellent, 
ce tres 

In every instance therefore the cardinal numbers 
must be used in French when speaking of the days of 
month, though the ordinal be U£ed in English ; ex- 
cepting for le premier^ the first, speaking of the first day 
of every month: as, 

Lt premier de Mai^ The first of May. 

Le deux de Xovtmhre^ The second of November. 

Chst aujourd^hui le quatre To day is the fourth of 
d^Amit. August. 


My friend will come (to see^) us* on the fifth of 
viendra^w* voir^y. ^cn 

next^ month'. • - Lady^ - day* falls 

proc/iain,adj. mois^xn* Noire Dame jour^m. totnhe^w 
on the twenty-fifth of March. -- In the leap^ 
L<^ Mars^m* hisstxtile^'^A'y 


year* the month of February has one day more, 
annte^U Fivrkr^ m. de plm^^dv. 

which is the twenty-ninth. - - The first of November 
jtti,pro. Jfooembre^m* 

is (all-saints - day,) and the fifth of the same month 

la toussaint mifne^zdj. mot>,m* 

is the day of the ^Gun powder 'plot 

des poudres^pl. canspiraiionyf. 
Come on the first day of July, 
Venez^y* JuilUijm. 

Q. The ordinal numbers. 
ijide the simple notation, 
things, viz. 

Lg premier ou unteme, 

Le second ou deuxieme^ 

Le Iroisieme, 

Le quatrieme, 

Le dnquieme^ 

Le sixieme^ 

Le septieme, 

Le huitieme^* 

Le neuviime^ 

Le dixieme, 

Le onzieme/^ 

Le douzieme^ 

Le treizieme^ 

Le qitatorzieme^ 

Le quinzieme^ 

Le seiziemcj 

Le dix'septiime^ 

Le dix'huitieme, 

Le dix-neuvieme^ 

Le vingtieme^ 

Le vingt-et'-unieme^ 

Le vingt'deuxieme^ ^c. 

Le trentieme^ 

Le trente'deuxieme^ ^c. 

Le quarantieme^ 

This class of numerals, be- 
signifies the order or rank of 

The first. 

The second. 

The third. 

The fourth. 

The fifth. 

The sixth. 

The seventh. 

The eighth. 

The ninth. 

The tenth. * 

The eleventh. 

The twelfth. 

The thirteenth. 

The fourteenth. 

The fifteenth. 

The sixteenth. 

The seventeenth. 

The eighteenth. 

The nineteenth. 

The twentieth. 

The twenty-first. 

The twenty-second, &c. 

The thirtieth. 

The thirty-second, &c. 

The fortieth. 

* No elision is to be made in the article before onze^ onzietne ; huit^ 
huiiilmt ; for we say, ie, dw, au^ la^ dt la, a Za, &c. oumCj onxriemc, See. 


Le cinquantieme^ The fiftieth. 

Le soixantieme^ The sixtieth. 

Le soixante-^t'dixieme^ The seventieth. 

Le quatre-vingtieme^ The eightieth. 

Le cen/teme, The hundredth. 

Le cent unieme^ The hundred and first. 

Le cent deuxienuj ire. The hundred and second, 


Le deux centieme^ The two hundredth. 

Le milUeme^ The thousandth. 

These ordinal numbers are declined with the article 
definite /e, /a, &c. and are placed before their substan«'l& 
tives: ex. 

Le premier jour du moisj The first day of the month. 


On the eleventh of June I received twelve letters, 
j^ Juin ai refWjV. 

but the eleventh 'has afforded^^ * me* more 

/>rocwre,p.p. ine,pro. jpiw5,adv. 

pleasure than the others. Mrs. B. is the fifth 

au/re,pro. Mme 
lady whom I saw to day. — - The spring 

que^pro. ai i>tie,p.p.aiyouf d'Awt, adv. priniemps^m. 
begins on the twenty-first or twenty-second of 

ctjmmencejV* *c>» 

March He cannot spend the sixth 

Mars. nepeuipas^y* dipenser^v. 

part of his fortune The eleventh of No- 

partie,{» >a,pro. fortune^L 

vember, which is the eleventh month of the year, 

was Uhe* dullest* day' of the® whole^ months 
fut iristey^dj. (ouf,adj. 

Speaking of sovereigns, we use the absolute number in 
French, though the ordinal be used in English, except the 
Jirst and secottd ; and we place it after the substantive, 
as in English, without expf-essing the article the : ex. 

73 • 

George Trois^ (jftorge the Third. 

Jafmia Seht^ Lewis the Sixteenth* 

Henri Qualre^ Henry the Fourth. 

Henri Premier^ Henry the First, 

George Second, George the Second. 

and not, Henri Un, George Deux. 

We say, for the following solitary names of an Em- 
peror {)nd a Pope, as a distinction from other soYereigns, 

CharUs Quint, Charles the Fifth. 

Sixte Quint, Sixtus the Fifth. 


Edward the Sixth, the son of Henry the 

Eihuard,m. fils ] 

Eighth, and the grand - son 'of Henry the Seventh, 

was^ ^but^ nine years old when he began 
a9ot/,v. ne qu4 an *^ 9«afi«{,c. eommenga,y. 

to reign. Henry the Fifth, King of England, 

a r6gner,v. rot,in. 

the son of Henry the* Fourth, and father of Henry 

the Sixths married Catharine, the daughter of 

epousa,y. Catherine 
Charles the Sixth, king of France; conquered the 

greatest part of that kingdom, and died (in the) 

partie,L ce,pro. royaume,in. mourut,y. au 
midst of his victories. — (Long live) George 

TAilitu 5e5,pro. victoire,f. Vive,v. > 

the Third, grand • son to George the Second. - - - - 

Charles the Fifth, Emperor of Germany and king of 

Allemagne, rot,m. 
Spain ; and Sixtus the Fifth, one of the popes, were 

pape,m. 6to\snt,\. 
two great men. 
The definite arttc]^ the is also suppressed in French 
before the ordinal inmber, when it is preceded by a 
nooD used to quote a chapter, article, or page of a book ; 

• 74* ^ 

but, should the ordinal number precede the noun, the 
constrtiction is the same in French as in English, and 
the article is expressed : ex. 

Livre troisieme^ Book the third. 

' Le troisiime livre^ The third book. 


What you (look for) you (will find*) it* 

Ce 9ue,pro. cherchez^v. trtmverez^y. /e, pro. 

in the Second Book of Samuel, chapter the third, 

Samuel^ chapUre 
Terse the ninth, page the first, and line tenth. 
verset P^g^^f* ligne 

We read in Telemachus, book the 

lisons^v* ' dans Tilimaque^ 
seventh, page the hundred and twenty-fifth, that 

Mentor pushed Tttlemacbus into the s^a, and^ 

poussa^v. mer,f. 

ihrew^ himself* . X*"^^ U") afterward with 
jetGy V. se, pro. y, adv. ensuUe^ adv. 

him. - - - Our master forgives the first time, 

/ui,pro. ^o<re,pro. pardonne^v. fois^L 

threatens the second, and always* punishes* 

mtnace^w ^ £()u;our5,adv'. punit^w. 

thfe third. 


upon all the preceding RULES. Review them well be^ 

fore you writt^ 

Ignorance is the mother of admiration. 

Ignorance^* est^v. merest admiration^ f, 

error, and superstition. - - - - The covetous dc- 

«rrc?ir,f. superstition^f* arare, tn^- 

spise the poor Humility is the basis of 

prisent^y. /)aiiTre,adj. pi. Humiliti^L basest. 

Christian virtues. - Pride is generally the eflFect 
C/ir^<ien,adj. Orgu«7,m. ^ effet^m^ 

of ignorance. - • Give me some bread, meat, 

Do7ine?,v. niot,pro. 


turnips, and water. - - Merit and favour ^ ar« 
nanet, Merite^m, faveur^f. sanity. 

the two springs , of envy. Interest, pleasure, 

murce^ii. envie^f. Interil^ 

and glory, are the three motives of the actions 

molif^m. action^ 

and conduct of men. - - h^ it^ >not* 

cikiduUe^f. Est^v. ce,pro. «c pa*,adv. 

Peter's book ? Your father is gone to London, 

where he has bought some horses and cows, which 

' vache^L ^ue^pro. 
he intends to send to Canada or Jamaica. 

9tpropost^v. d^envoyer^y. ou 

The father's house and the son's, garden 

maisonj. fardin^ m. 

(are adjoining.) ------ He found the windows 

*«jotgnen*,v. trouva^y. " ' 

and the doors shut. -- Truth is the bond of 

Vir%ii,i. /ien,m. 

union and the basis pf human happiness: 

union,f. 6a5«,f. AMffMim,adj. honhtur^m. 

wUhput it (there is no) confidence in 

sana^p. elUypro. il n^y a point confiancej. 

friendship, and no security in promises. - - 

amitii^f.^ point^y. surel6 promesse,f. 

The love of liberty and independence is the 

amour^m. liberte^f. ^ 

character of noble mindB. — Iron, .. steel 

camctercm. dme.f. Fer,m. acter'm. 

and brass are more useful than gold and 

ettivre^m. tia7c,adj. 

silver. - - The smith has (at last) repaired 

«rruncr,m. enfin,ady. r4par6,p.u. 

the two jacks, and the cook (is 

iourne-brochi^Tn. cuisinierej. faU 

roasting) the meat. -- I have seen the inside of the 
'•f'^^Y.^ ^ dedan5,m. 

church Bring me my powder-box, and 

tglxstjU ma,pro. 

my toupee^iron. .- I take a lesson three times 

mon,pro* prends^ to* 


. a week, - - • The study of grammar ia? 'neither^ b6 

dry nor so dull, as (it is thought.) - • - - 

*ec,adj. trisU^^dy on se Pimagine^w 

Have some prudence and patience, and you (wilt have) 
Ayez.y. aurez^v. 

success A good conscience is to the soul 

succis^m. conscience^f, *Jme, f. 

what health is to the body. M^rlt and 

'ce 9ti«,pro. santi^L corps ^m* 

virtue are the only source of true 

Mn?5uc,adj. viritahle^zdy 

nobility. - - - Religion, commerce, and arms 
nobhsse^f. Keligion^t commerce^m. crrme, f. 

are proper instructions for a young prince. - - 

joropre^adj. instruction^f. a 
Her father has been made a knight 
5on,pro. ^/^,p.p. /at7,p.p. ch^alier^m* 

of the order of the Bath, and her grandfather 

prdre,m. £ain,m. 

wag a kBight of the order of the Garter. - * • - 

itoit^Y. Jarretiertyt* 

He has not (so much) profit, but more honour. * • 

fan/,adv. profit 
Fortune's favours are' seldom the prize of 

faveur^fm raremsnt^ndv* prix^tn* 

virtue. — ^^ Gaming is the son of avarice, and the father 

of despair This cloth is equal to some 

desespdr^m, Ce,pro, drap^m. campara&/e,adj. 
silk. - - 1 see the coast of England. - - The example 
sote,f. voisyV. . c6/6,f. extmpie^tn. 

of a good life is a lesson for the rest of man- 

vitS^ pour^f^ rtsie^m. gtnre 

kind. - The French • fleet was destroyed 
fct«main,m. Franf ow,adj. Jlotte,(. fut.v. d<<rftt/«,p.p.* 
by the brave Admiral Nelson, on the first of Augiist, 
Amiral^m. von MoSt^m* 

one thousand seven hundred and ninety eight* ---•-•* 
* For tbe agreement of participles, see p. 344 « 


The eldest^ bod^ of the king of England 

bears the title of Prioce of Wales as 
porte^v, tUre,m. ^ GalUs comm«,adr. 

presumptive heir to the crown. Xiewis 

prisomptifi^dj* htritier couronne^f. Louis 

the sixteenth was the grand-son of Lewis the fif- 
, />e/t/,adj. 

teenth. -William, surnamed the Con- 

Cruillaumt^m. 5urno97im^,p*p. Ccn- 

queror, King of England and Duke of Nor- 

qutrani^m* Duc^m. -ATor- 

mandy, was one of the greatest generals of tht 

eleventh century. - - - - He (was born) at Falaise, and 

siecle^m* ndquit^v, a 

was the natural • son of Robert, Duke of Noi^ 

narure/,adj. ^of" 

mandy, and of Arlotte, a furrier's daughter. - • - He 
mandie faurreur^m. Jilh 

died at Hernl^ntrude, in France, on the ninth of 

mourn/, V. d 

September, one thousand eighty-seven Mrs. Nel- 
son's servant knows the price of all the provisions. 

8€rv(mteS» sait^v. prixjoa. denrief. 

- - She bought yesterday some cinckens at one shilling 

and three pence a piece. — She came from America 

9tn/,v. Afniriqut 

in three weeks. Thomas was formerly a mu- 

m,p. ^'oi/ ouirefQ's^fkAv. nwr 

sician, now *" he is a dancing - master, 

stcten, d;>r^s«n/,adv. dansB^ maltrt 

to-morrow he (will be) a painter. - - This 
deniain,adv. sera^v. peintre* Ce/^e,pro. 

water is very agreeable to the smell - We 

(are going) to Coxheatb, to see the camp. - - I 
allons^v. «<» voir^v* camp^mm 

have in my ward-robe five coats, sixteen waistcoats, 


twentj-two pair of stocktogs, and forty-siz hftod- 

kerchiefs. - - - The road to Roxbury ia very bad 

ehoir chemin,m. 

in winter. • - • Bring us good wine, good beer, 

€ii,p. hiver. 

and the oil-^ttle. - • The front of the - king's 

palace (is not) so beautiful as I thought. - • • GeDc* 
n^tst pas croyois^y. Gtni" 

rosily^ excites admiratioa. * - - Charles the second, 
rasitS^U exdU^v. aJlmiration^f. 
the son of Philip the fourth, the grandson of Philip 

the third, and the great grand-child of Philip the^ 

orrtcre petit -fils 
second, lei]t his kingdom to £hilip the fifth* « *- 

laissa^y. &on,pro. 
On the eighteenth of February one thousand four 
^o^ Ftvfier 

hundred and seventy-eight, the^Duke of Clarence, 

brother to King Edward the fourth, was drowned in 
frire^m. Edauard /u/,v. ncy^,p,p. 

a butt of inaliMey*wine. - The inhabitants of the 

tonn<au,oi. mal'Meie hfAitant^m. 

city of Dublin have presented a petition to 

•fUB,f. o»/,v. jirmn/e,p.p. adrtsst^U 

the king Good cider is preferable to bad 

wine. • - T^at man always wears a green hat, a wbit9 

shirt, red shoes, and black stocking^. He has 
chtmistf* 6a^,ni« 

nany children and plenty of money. - - Tb^ 

Men^adv. - beaucoup^SLdvm argmUm. 

longer the day is, the shorter is the night. • - You have 

jour^xn. nut/,r« 

a fine hat. ^ - Shame is a mixture of the grief 

HfmU^t fnilang€fm* ^qgrm,Q|. 

and filar which infiaimy ctuses. • - Keli^ott^ 

crainUjf. que^pvo. mf<fmie^(. cause^v^ 
morality, governoient, fine arts, in a woid, 

tnorale^f. gaufBtmemmt^m. beau en,p, 

(every tbii^) is overturned. - - Hooier was the 

(oul rmveric^p.p. Homere fut^v. 

first poet who persooified the divine at* 
po€tt,m. per$onnifia,y. Awn^adj. at- 

Irihutes, human passions, and physical 
tribui^m* &umam,adj. physiqut^ij, 

causes. — Pride and vanity are often the source 

vanite^L souvent^^du 

of the misfortunes of mankind We sell 

malkeur^m. vendons^r. 

good bread, excellent meat, and very large 

, ^ro9,adj. 

fishes; but* we* have* 3^^^^,^ g^l^j ^^^ 

paisson ; mau,c. avons^v* 

silver. • - (Is there) any beer in the cellar ? -- 

Ya-t'il ^ cave,(. 

Mrs. B. is a good, virtuous, prudent, and 


generous lady : she has a daughter as beautiful as an 

angel, but she has neither so much docility nor af» 


fability as her cousin. - - Pindar (was bom) at 

Pindari^tD* ndquU^ y. 
Thebes, a city of Greece. - - Malta is a sodaU islandf 

Grice. Mallhe tk^U 

but it produces some corn, cotton, honey, 

e//e,pro. produit^w coton^m. miel^m* 

figs, and the finest , oranges in the world. -- The 
figut^U btau^zAy orange^L 

inhabitants of thai fine country are all catholics, 

and go every Sunday to bear high mass. - The 

vont^yjous ks Dimanch^ ^^ 
pleasure of the mind is greater than the pleasure 

of (be bodj, and the dtieases of the mind are 

corps^m* unaladit^i. 

more pernicious than the diseases of the body. • *- 

Health, honours, and fortune united together, 
Sant6^f* um,p.p.'*' emeni6/e,adv. 

cannot satisfy the hearty of man* • - - 

nepeuvent^v. satisfaireyY. C(sur,m. 

(It is) in the sixth page of tlie second book, chapter 

the third. - - Miss Ws. father^ a banker in the 

Strand, is one of the richest men in town, but 
Strand^m* t 

she is prouder and more haughty than 

orguet^ietta?,adj. ftautotn,adj. 

if she were the handsomest woman in Europe. - - • 

dtoi7,v. t 

Their son arrived yesterday at Portsmouth from 
Xieur,pro. arriva 

Peru and Martinico, in the St. George, a ninety- 
P6rou Martiniquejf 

gun ship. Hypocrisy is a homage which 

canon vaisseau^m. hommage^m* 9ue,pro. ' 

vice pays to virtue. • - A judicious answer 

vice^m* rend^v. judideux^^dj. reponse^f* 

does more hoilour than a brilliant repartee. ^ - - 

/ai/,v. 6ft7/a«/,adj. rtpartie^U 

Give me a knife and fork. My father has bought 

one-aild-thirty fine grey horses. • - (He is) an 

grf>,adj. Otst^v. 
intrepid man, and a man of honour and pro- 
tnfr^/>tde,adj. /pro- 
bity. Mr. C***, the q^ieen's jeweller, has a 

hiii. jouailUr 

very prudent wife, and the most faithful, indus- 

JideU^zdy indus- 

trious, and honest servant in London. -• 

irieux^didj. ftonn^/«,adj. dotnesiique t 

* See page 344. \ See the remarks on the prepositions in and 
by, in the note, in the degrees of comparison, page 66. 

81 . . • 

He found beautj, youth, riches, wiiddOH 

trouvafV* • jeuneast^ 

and even virtue, United in her per* 

m£me,adv. r<ttni,p.p, <o,pro. 

son. - Thomas has dneretion, but he has no 

discrition^i. nt point^dv^ 

wit. • - They have a quantity of apples and pears. - - 

Vienna, the capita) of the empire of Germany, 
Vienne Allemagne^ 

is a fine city. - - The more pleasing plays 

agr^ab/e,adj» i^pictaclt^m. 
are, the more dangerous they are. - - The rich, 

Jangereua7,adj. pi. 

the poor, the youn^, the old, the learned, and the 

ignorant, are all subject to death. - - True friends are 

sujtl^zAy^ mortj. Frot,adj. 
almost as rare as good writers. • - The famous 

« rare,adj« ^crivatn,m. fameux^^dy 

mine of Poto^i, in Peru, is above two hundred 
mtne^f. du j)/u5,adv. 

and fifty fathoms deep. - •> Henry the first, king of Eng- 

toise Henri 

land, and brother to William Rufuf, died the richest 

U Roux^ mounts, V. 
prince in Europe. - - Paul is taller than you by an inch, 

' ' '^ ' * pouce^m. 

but Mrs. Nicholas brother is the tallest of all. 

SECT. 111. 


There are seven sorts of Prorocrs ; 

!• £49 Pnmoms personnels^ Pronouns persona). 
2. Les Prontmis conjmutifs^ Pronouns conjunctive. 

* See the Note, page 66. 


3. Iab Pranoms possessifs^ ProaoQUs possessive; 

4. Lis Pronom^ dcmon*/ra/(/i, Pronouns tlemonstj^tive. 

5. Les Pronoms rekiiifs^ ProDOun« relative. 

6. Les Pronomf inttrrogaiifs^ Pronouns interrogative. 

7. Les Pronprns indSfinis^ ProtiouM ihdefiBtte. 


Pronouns personal are those whifch directly denote the 
persons, and supply the place of them. 

There are three persons ; 

The first is the person who speaks : ex. 
Je parle, J speak. 

Nous par Ions ^ We speak. 

The second is the person spoken to : ex. 
Tn paries^ Thou .sjl^eakest. 

Vousparlez^ You speak. 

The third is the person spoken pf : ex. 
II or elk parle^ H|5 or she speaks. * 

lis or elles parlent^ They speak* 

Both Genders. 
Singular. Plural. 

Je or moi, I. J^ous^ we. ^ 

Tm or <ot, thou. FoM*, you or ye. 

// or /ui, he, it. ^ Us, or eux, tbey; 

Elle, she, it. ' ElUs, they. 

The above pronouns are never to be used but aff 
nominatives to the verbs. The rest are declined with 
the article indefinite : ex. 

First Person for botii Gendersw 
Singular. Plural. 

G. A. de tnoi, of or frond roe. de nous, of or frcrtn us. 
Dat. a mot, to roe. i nous, to us. 

Ace. woi, me. nou^r, us. 


Second Person for both Ganders. 

Singular. Plural. 

G. A. de toi^ of. or frona thee, de vous^ of or from you. 
Dat. d toif to tbee* a vous^ to. you* 

Ace. toiy thee, vous^ you. 

. Third Person. 
G. A. de Inij of or from him. d'^elle^ of or from bcr.* 
Dat. n lui^ to him. '" d, dk^ to her.* 

Ace. Ixii^ him. c//«, her.* 


Masculine. . Feminine. 

G. A. cTewo?, of or from them. d^elUs^ of or from them. 

Dat. a eux^ to them. a elles^ to them. 

Ace. ev7, them. elles^ them. 

There are two other pronouns of the third person, 

Singular and Plural. Both Genders. 

UU G. A. A .», of or f„„ I -"^t^^ '"""■■ 
Dat. o^ soiy to oneself, himself, &c.. 
Ace. 50t, oneself, himself, &c. 

N. B. Though it have been said, tbat.the personal 
pronouns are used for the names of persons, it must not 
thence be concluded, that they are never employed for 
the names of animals or inanimate objects : this seldom 
happens in the first and second persons ; but the per- 
gonal pronouns, t7, elle, ils^ elles^ may denote every ob- 
Ject in nature, either animate or inanimate : ex. 

Ce chien est fort beau^ mais That dog is very handsome, 
il est trop gras^ but it is too fat. 

* ffer^ when a personal pronoun, is to he rendered by eWe, to, or lui ; 
but, when joined to a noun, by the |>ronottn poflaessire^ *on^ la, 9t9, 



This picture is very old, but it is 

Ce,pro. portrait^m. ancten,aclj. 

well painted. --The house trhich I bought 
frun,adv. peini^p.p. que^pro. ai acte/^,p.p. 

18 well situated, but I assure^ jou* that it 
Mltie,adj« assure^y. fii«,adv* 

costs' me* much The books which 

co&te^y* fne,pro. 6eaucotip,adv. 

'you saw id my : library are good 

vttes^y. ma,prQ. biblioihequeS. 

books, but they are. badly bound Your 

tnal, adv, re/iV, p.p. Vos^ pro. 

buckles (would be) much more in the fadhion, if 
bouc/e, f. seroient^v, a mode^L 

they were smaller^ - - - My hat is quite 

e/oi6n/,v. .Afon, pro. tout^tidy* ^ 

new, but it is.' too big^ Their 

neii/adj. /rop, adv. grand^ ^ij. £«ur,prd. 

coach ^s old, but it is as good as if . 

carrosse^ m. vieux, adj. W, c* 

it were new. ^' 

6toU^ V. new/. 

2d. The general and indefinite pronoun, on, one, is al- 
ways considered as a nominative of the masculine gen- 
der, and can never be used (in^ French) but in the singu- 
lar, though the meaning be plural; ex. When we say, 
On chante, on mange^ we sing, th^ sing ; one eats, or peb- 
ple eat \ we mean, some men or women sing, eat. 


People iniii|;ine that when they are 

On^ pro. sHmogine^ v. qu$ ^uond, adv. on €st^ v. 

rich, they are happy *, but they (are mistaken) 

on heureuxy adj. on se irompe^ v. 

very often ; for, ih.e more one has, the 

tres^ adv. souvent^ adv. car^ c.\ 

more one wishes to have. When we are 

i^eu/, V. ^ aipoir,v. on 

* S^ Hoses the i htkre t7, he ; t/r, they. 


(raised up) to honours, or we are invested 

with some dignity, we (are to) expect 

de quelque^2idj. digniti^f. dot/, v. s^aliendrt^y. 

to be criticised* (Some persons) reported 

a etre critiqu6^p*ip» On,pro, rapporta^y. 

last week, that in France they 

demter,adj, femmne,f. en 

talk of peace. 

The word wieme, self, is very often joined to the per- 
sonal pronouns, to denote, in a more special manner, 
the person spoken of:* as, 

Moi'menie^ myself. Soi-mSme^ oneself/ 

Toi-mime^ thyself. , Nous^mtmts^ ourselves. 

Lui-meme^ himself. Vous'tnimes^ yourselves. 

Elle-mime^ herself. Eux-mimes^ or eUes-mSmes 

Observations on the Pronouns Je and Moi, Tu and 
Toi, II and Lui, lis and Eux. 

Je and moi are used in two different senses, though 
both in the nominative case; Je is always followed or 
preceded immediately by a verb to which it is the nomi- 
native case, and has no need to be joined to another 
pronoun : hut moi always requires to be followed by one 
pronoun or more, either expressed or understood : ex. 

Qui a pris mon livre ? Who took ipy book ? 

Oest moi. It is /. That is, 

Oesi moi qui Paipris^ It is / who took it. 

Moi must be used instead of Je before an infinitive 
mood, or at the end of a sentence, when it is intended 
to express something si^dden, as grief, &c. ; when /, in 
English, is followed by the pronoun relative who or 
whom^ or is preceded by the verb c/rc, to be, used im- 
personally, as cVa/, it is ; and lastly, whenever any diffe- 
rence or distinction is intended between persons ; in 
which case it must be immediately followed by Je; ex. 

Moi lui parler ! I speak to him or her ! 

Moi qui vous /iime, / who love yout 


II itoii a pied tt moi films He wss on foot, and / was 
d (hvoal^ on horseback. 


Wfao (was calling^) me' ? - r It was not 

apptloit^y. fne,pro. Ce iioit nepasyadv* 
L - — The boy wants to speak^ (to you*.) - • • I 

desire^y* *o* parkr^y* vous^ 
who am older than he, I, go and speak^ 

5g^,adj. /m,pro. allergy. xy» 

(to himH) No, I will not go, (let hixn come) 

/m,pro.^on,aclv. ret(x,v. yaller^ quHl vienncyy, 
himself. - - - It is I who (am to)* he rewarded 

dois^y. ricompensi^p.p. 

instead of him. - - - My father commanded the 
au lieu .. /ti2*,pro. tommandoityy* 

horse, and I commanded the foot He 

cavalerie^L commandois infanteriej* 

could not do^ it* in one day, and I 

put^y* faire^y. /e,pro. en,p. 

did it in the space of three hours 

mjait^y. dans^p, espace^m* heure* 

When the enemy appeared, my companions 

parut^y. rnes^pvo. 
(ran away) and I remained alone. 
prirent lafuite^y. restai^y* 5eu/,aclj. 

The same rule is to be attended to with respect to 
toi^ liiij eux, &c. : as, 
Toi qui me paries^ Thou who speakest to me. • 

Lui qutje mdprise^ He whom I despise. 

£ux fue je respecie, They whom I respect. 


How darest thou answer thy 

Commen^adv. oses^y* repondre a, v. /on,pro. 

master in so^ insolent* a* manner*? thou 

de 5i,adv.uwo/en/,adj. • maniere^f. 
whom he lores, thou for whom he takes 
que^pro. ai'mcjV. ;)our,p. 9tu,pro. prend^y. 

so much pains. He and they, not (being able) 

peine,sing. p&uvant^y. 


(to agree,) were obliged to part - 

B^accordtr^"^. furmt^w. o6%c,p.p. rfe 8e siparer^y* 
It is I who wrote the letter but it is he 

at ^cn7,p.p. Uttre^L 

who ^carried ' it*. It is» 'neither* I, nor 

a por/ee,p«p. /a,pro. Ct ne m,c. m,c. 

thou, nor he, who have broken the windows, 

avons^v^ cass6,p.p* ftniire^f. 

but it is they who have^ done^ it*. 

oni^Y. fait.p,p. /e,pro. 

After these remarks, it is also necessary to observe 
here, that j'c, I, and nous^ we, never admit of an adjec- 
tive or participle immediately after it, except in ac^j, 
or deeds^ notes^ or bills^ receipts^ and the like : ex. 

Je, soussignS^ demeurant a /, the undersigned, living in 
Londres, declare^ ire. Lo'ndon, declare, &c. 

Nous, $oussig7i£s, rtconnois* fFe, the undersigned, ac- 
tons avoir regu de Mons. knowledge to have re- 
D**, la somme de — ceived from Mr. D**, the 

sum of — 


These pronouns are called conjunctive^ because they 
are always joined to some verb by which they are gov- 
erned, and are generally used for the dative or accusa- 
tive case of the personal pronouns. There are three 
persons in the conjunctive as in the personal, which are, 

For the First Person, both Gender?. 
Singular. Plural. 

Dat. or Ac. Me^ Moi^* me, or to me, J^ous, us, or to us, 
for a moi, or moi. for a nous, or nous. 

For the Second., both Genders. 

Dat. or Ac. Te, Toi,* thee, or to thee, Fbtw, you, or to you, 

for a toi^ or /oi. for a vous^ or vous.. 

• Moi and toi wmi be used instead of me or te, after the second 
person singular or plural of the imperative mood, conjugated without 
a negative : ex« 

ctouieg'fnoi^ hear me, 

W«w?-fnpt\ fpUow me. 


For the Third. 
Singular. — Masculine. 
Dat. Luij ( to him, to it, ) for a /m\ 
Ace. Lcj \ him, it, I for lui. 

Dat. Luj, ( to her, to it, ) for a elle. 
Ace. La, I her, it, 5 ^^^ ^^^^' 

Plural. — Bot^ Genders. 

Dat. Leur, ^ to them^ ) for a eux^m. a tilts f. 

Ace. Lt$, \ them, 5 ^^ eua;,m. ellts^L 

r\^i ^ A^^ c ( oneself, himself, )r - • 
Dat. or Ace. Se, J herself; themselves, } ^^^ «*'"' *""*'"• 

'^ Five of these pronouns are used for the dative or ac- 
cusative case, and are of both Genders, viz. 

^ JIfe or mot, it or for, nous^ votis, se : ex. 

Vaus toe parlez^ You speak to me. 

// vous cm/, He believes you, 

Vaus me priez dt^ ^c» You desire me <o, &c. 

In the first example, me is the dative case, because it 
may be turned by d mot, to me*, in the second, vous is 
the accusative, &c. 

Lui, and /etir*are used in the dative only,* and are pf 
both genders : 

Je lui parity I speak to him or to her. 

Vaus leur icrivez. You write tq them. 

The three others are used for the accusative, and 
may be applied to things animate or inanimate, viz. 

Le, mas. bim, it; to, fern, ber, it; and its, masc. 
and fern, ibem : ex. 

Je le T^ois tous itsjtmrs, I see him every day. 

Je le sais, I know it. ^ 

Nous la connoissons. We know htr. 

11 les envtrra ce ^otr. He will send ihem to-night'* 


Th6 pronoan pertooal may be placed before or aAcar 
the ¥eA}, agreeably to the Eoglish constraction; but 
the coDJunctive pronouns are to be placed (in French) 
before the verbs bj which they are governed, though 
tbej come after them in English : ex. 

Jt parity I speak. 

Jivons-nmis parle^ Have we spoken I 

II me parU^ He speaks to me. 

JsTous les connoissons, We know them^ 


Your brother bought yesterday a very good book, 
and after having^ read^ if, he gave* il* 

apres^p. avoir^x* /ti^p.p. /e^pro. donna^y. 
to my sister. — You speak of my cousin, 

ma,pro. tnon,pro. 

do you know him f — I see her and speak 

too connoissez^v. i3ow,v. parU^v. 

to her (every day). - - - Do you^ know* your 

toas les jours. *oo savez^v* vos^pro. 

lessons ? - - - We know them all. I (wiH carry) 

Zefon,f. savonSyV. /oM/,adj. niinerai^y. 

them to my brothers, but I (will write) 

c/iez,p. med',pro. ccrirai,v. 

to them before. ----- I find him more reason- 

auparavant^didv* trouve^y* raifori' 

able than his sister. - - Your dog (is* 

nabU^^dj. sa^pro. cAien,m* a 

thirsty,) shall' P give'' him' water ? - - They are 

soif, donnerai^v. lui 

tired, and I give them some rest. 

fatigud^p.p^ donne^y* rtpos^m* 

In the second person singular and the first and second 
persons plural of a verb in the imperative mood conju- 
gated o^rmaftre/^, the conjunctive pronouns come after 
the verb : but if the ver)|> be conjugated negatively^ the 
pronouns follow the above rule : ex. 

* Sec page 174. 


DonnezAni de Pargenl^ • Give him money. 

JVe lui donnez pas de pain, Do not give him any bread. 


Send them some apples, ' but do not sen^^ 

Envoyez^Y. *o% 

them any plums. - - I give you these books, 

pruntf. donne^v. ce«,pro. 

but do not lend them to your brother. - - - • 

loi pritez^y. votreMO. 

You may tell it to my father, but do not 

pouvez^Y. dire^Y* mon,pro. io« 

tell it to my mother. - - Believe me, go 

dites^Y* m(i,pro. Croyez^y. alltz^Y. 

and speak to them, but do not insult , them. - - 
<^» parler^Y. to, insulitz^Y. 

Have you returned (to her) the handkerchief 

renJUfp.p. moMchoir^m. 

which she has lent you ? - - Send it to-morrow, 

que jore/e,p.p, /c2emam,adv. 

do not forget it. - - Bring me some cho- 

«x^ cuhliez^Y. Apportez^Y. cho- 

colate, but bring' me^ 'no* sugar. 

When ti^o imperatives are joined by either of the con- 
junctions, el, and ; oti, or ; the conjunctive pronoun or 
pronouns may precede the last imperative by which it is 
governed ; but fhat construction is not now much used : ex. 
ChtrchtzAe, el lui diies de Look for Um, and tell him 

venir ici, or diies lui de,&c* to come hither. 

After the verbs sejitr d, to trust to, penser d, songer d, 
to think of, viser d, to aim at, courir d, accourir d, to run 
to, venir d, to come to, and some of the reflective verbs 
followed by a preposition governing a dative case, the 
pronouns must be placed after the verb, especially if 
used in opposition or contradiction to each other ; or 
denote the order in which %thing ought to be done : 
and if there be more than one dative pronoun, the first 
only may be placed before the verb, and the others 
after : ex. 


Fiez-^om a moi^ Trust to me* 

Nous ptnsons a vous, We think of you. 

Cela s^adresse a toi, That is addressed to thee* 

Jt cours a iui, , 1 run to him. 

U me park aussi bien qu^k He speaks to me as well as 
vous et a eux* to you and them. 


"Bring me my hat, or send it to me by 

the carrier. - - - - Trust to him, but do not 

voiturier^m. Fiez-vous^v. 
trust to them, and do not believe them. - - Think 

croyez^y. ^ Pensez^y. 

of usy and write to us as soon as you can. - - - 

icrivez^w /6f,adv. pourrez^y. 

Go and see her, and carry her these 

AlUz^y. »o^ voir^y. portez^y. cc5,pro. 

flowers. - - - Send me my clock, or bring it 

fieursf. penduUyf. 

to me yourself. - - - Do not give it to 

vous'tnime^fTOm donntz^y* 

my sister, give it to me. Why do you prefer her to 

•o' priferez^y. 
me, and give her all your affection ? 

When two or more of the conjunctive pronouns come 
together in the same sentence, they must be arranged 
in the following order. 

Singular. Plural. 

Me\ m. & f. me.or to me, Kous^ m. & f. us or to us, 
Te, m. & f. thee or to thee, Vous^ m. & f. you or to you, 
Se, m. & f. oneself, him- Se^ m. & f. themselves, 

self, herself, 
art to he placed before all others ; — next, 
Le, m. him, it, Les^ m. & f. them, 

L% U .her, it. 

And then, 
Lui, m. & f. to him, to her, Leur, m. & f. to them. 
// me le promit^ He promised it to me. 

Je vous les donneraij I will give them to you. 



My brother (will send) them to you, or he 

(will bring) them to you himself. - - * He likes 
apportera^y* aimCjV. 

your* hou&e" (very much') ; for tee showed 

votre^TO. fort^^dv, cflr,c. ftmei -ooir^y^ 

it to him. Carry it to them. — He will« "not* 

Portez^y, TeW,v, ne par 

sell^ it* to them*, but he will give it to 

veiidre^y* veut donner^y. 

you. - • - If they ask a favour, will yoa 

Si,c. demandent^ym grdce^L *<» 

refuse it to them ?---Why do yoa 

refuserez^y* Pourquou^dy* «o» 

give it to him ? Had you not promised 

donnez^v. Aviez^y. promis^p^p^ 

it to her ? - - - He speaks tc* me,and not to you. -- 

parlt^y. nmi pas 

If they behave themselves well, I will 

reward them. -.- He had promised it to 

recoTnpenserai^v. avoit^y. 

him, but he gave it to me. 

a c{onn^,p.p. 

N. B. There arc three other conjunctive pronouns, 
commonly called particles relative, or supplying pro- 
nouns ; they are en, y, and /e, and follow the foregoing 
rules for placing them, y taking the precedence of en, 
when they meet together in a sentence. 

En always denotes a genitive or ablative, and relates 
to some object mentioned before : it rs rendered in 
English by of or from him, her, i/, them ; about him, her, 
it, &c. ; TDtlh or zoithout him, her, it, &c. ; at it, &c ; for 
it, &c. ; upon it, &c. ; any^ one, ones, none, some, some of, 
&c. ; thence, thereof and sometimes it is elegantly under- 
stood in English, especially when immediately followed 
by a numeral adjective or a noun of quantity, though 
it-must be absolutely expressed in French : ex. 


Jfous et^ parlons^ 

J^en suisfachi^ 

DonntzAm en, 

Lui en avez-vmis port6 ? 

. ^e lui eo mvtnjez pas^ 
Xous en venons^ 
Combien avez-vous de do- 
mtstiquts ? Nous enavons 

Avez-vous un jardin a la 
.campagne ? Oui, nous en 
uvons un tres^olij 

We speak ofhim^ of her ^ of 
if, of them ; about him, , 
about her, about it^ about 

I am sorry /or tV. 

Give him some^ (of it.) 

Did you carry him or her 
any? (of them,) 

Send him or her none. 

We come from it or thence* 

Hofir many servants have 
yon? We have six, {of 

Have you a garden in the 
country f Yes, we have 
a very pretty one, {of 

In the third, fourth, fifth sentences, it should be ob- 
served, that the pronouns ofit^ or of them, &lc. are ele- 
gantly understood in English, according to tlie object 
or objects mentioned before. 


I have heard that your uncle is arrived, 

out' dire,Y. arriv6^p.p» 

and P am' very* glad* of it^ - - She spoke* to 

at>e,adj* parla^v^ 

him* of it«. Talk=» .no» more* of it^ for I» 

Parlez,v^ ne plus, car,c. 

wilP not^ hear* of it' (any more*). • - 

veux,y. ne entendre parler,y. plus^^dv. 

P thank* you" for it'. - - Do you* 'not* see' 

remercie,v. *^o* voyez,v* 

the« beauty'' of it' ? - - They are sorry for 

sont,y. fStch6,^ij. 
it - • Since you have no pears in your garden, 

Puisque,c. poire 

I (will send) you some. « - • They* have* stolen' 
enverraijV* oni^y* voU^p^jf* 


from us* the* greatest part' of them'. - - My 

brathof has-wHtten a letter to your sister, and 

ccn/, p.p. 
sbown^ me^ the* two* first* lioes'^ of 4t^ - - - 

a motttr6,p,p* ligne^f. 

Will you lend roe spme i^ooks ? With ail 
VouUz^v. preter^y* De^p. 

roy heart, 1 (will lend) you some . very pretty 

ccsiir,m* prelerai^y* 

ones. - - Do you^ think* that^ she* has' spoken 

^cn *o» croytz^y* at/,v«subj. parli^p^p* 

to him* of it® ? - - Jf I had money, 1 (would give) 
avois^y* donnerois^y* 

you some, but you know, as well as I do, 

. nia^,c« savez^y. *o* 

how ' scarce* it* is'* now. - - - - Send* 

combien^zdy. rarc,adj. .a pr£seni^^y.EnvqyeZyy» 

me* *none^*. - - - Have* you^ any* ? - - - Do *you* 
nempas Avez^y, uc» ' 

remember^ it* ? 
souvenez^y* en. 

Y is used for the dative only : it is Englished by to it, 
to them, ofit^ in t/, upon i(^ thither, there, 4^c. and very often 
not expressed in English, though it must be in French, 
it seldom supplies the place of animate objects, except 
when connected with the verbs ^cr, to trust ; penser, to 
think ; and the like in a reply : ex. 

J'y consens, I agree to iU 

Nous y penserons, We shall think of it* 

Ke vous y fiez plus, Trust them no mor^. 


I* *never5 (wifl* consent) (to' it,) and*^ 

n«j«mflw,adv. conseniirai,y. 

I* 'neither* wilP . apeak® nor' write*^ to 

neni veux,y. parler,y* nt,c. itrire,y. 
^him^» - -* Believe me, go and see them, do 

Croyez^y. allez^y, -o^ «o^ 


»not* V^onfide'' (itf it.) - - Wc» have* forced^ 

jiezvouSjYm ' anons^y* forc6^p.p» 

them^ to it^. - - - -I (will carry") my' brother^ thitheH 

myselP. - - He* (will carry*) them' to you" thither* him- 

portera^v. y 

self. — - Did you think of what you bad 

Avtz^Y. pens6^p*p^ a ceque^pro^ aviet^v. 

promised me ? - - - No, but* P will think* 

j9romu,p,p« ^on,adv* penserai^w 

(of it^.) - - (It is) a good book, wc» read' excellent* 

y C'«5/,v. OTi,pro« /i/,v. 

things^ in it.^ - - Our orchards are very fruit- 

ckoge^f. J^os^pro. verger^m. fer- 

fol, we see all sorts of fruits in 

ft/e,adj. on,pro» voit^v. sortt^U fruit 
them. - • Since those people have deceived 

Puisque^c. ces^pro. gens^pL /rom/>^,p.p. 

you, do not trust, them (any* more.) - - Often when a 

»o» Jiez^y. plxis^hiv. Souvent^Jidv, 

friend is dead we* think* of him' "no 

mor(,adj« o7i,pro. ptnu^y^ 

Lt which in English is either not expressed, or most 
commonly rendered by 50, likewise prevents the repe- 
tition of one or more words, and supplies ih€ place of 
the same. It is indeclinable when it relates to, and 
holds the place of, one adjective or more, a verb, or a 
whole member of a sentence : ex. 

Voui rn^avez cru hellt^ mais^ You have thought me hand- 
le ne le suis pas^ some, but I am not {so.) 

N0U8 6iions embarrassis^ et We were embarrassed, and 
nous le sommes encore^ are so yet. 


My * brothers were ill yesterday 

Jlfe5,pro« etoient ma/a Je,adj. i^ter,adv. 


and ar6 so still to-day I am 

encore,adv* aupurdPhui^^idv* 

satisfied with my fate, but my sister. is not. 
content^zdj. de sort^nt* ma,pro* 

I had heard that your sister was married, 

avois^Y. out dire^p^p. que eloit^v. mane,p.p. 

but my cousin tells me that she is not. - - - 

mon,pro« dil^v. 

' Our master rewards us when we deserve 

JVo/re,pro. recompense^v* miritons^y* 

it. - - - Children (ought to) apply to their i 

doivent^w. s^appliqutr^y* Iturs^pvo^ 
studies as much as they can. • • • - I thought 

au/an/,adv« peuvent^v* croyois^Vm 

your brother was diligent, but 1 mistook, 

itoit^Vi me suis <ram/)^,p*p. 

for he is not, and 'never* (will be^) so^. 

ne jamais ^^dv, sera^Y* 

On the contrary, le is declinable when it relates to, 
and holds the place of^ one substantive or more ; then 
le is used for the masculine, la for the feminine, and 
hs for the plural : ex. 

Etes-vous le jils de mon Are you my friend Mr. D's 

ami JIf. 15**? Out, je son? Yes, , I am, (ftim.) 

le suis^ 

Eles-vous la mere de ce Are yon the mother of 

bel enfant ? Oui^ je la that fine child ? Yes, 

5WW, I am, (fter.) 

Etes'vous les tantes de M* Are you Mr. BrownV 

Brown ? Oui^ nous les aunts ? Yes, we are, 

sommes^ (themJ) 

Esi'Ce Id voire livre ? Oui^ Is this your book ? Yes, 

ce I'es/, ' it is, {it.) 


(It is said) that you are the son of my neighbour 
On dt7,v. . que voisin^m* 

Mr. Peter, are you so ? Yes, Sir, I 

Picrre,m. Monsieur^ 


kmm - - - Are you the sister of Mrs. Adams ? Yes, 

1 am. - - She is very amiable, 'and so* are* you' also*. - - 

aima6/e,adj. aussi. 

Are you the ladies whom my mother expects ? 
damef* que aiUnd^Y. 

Yes, we are. - - *Are 'these ^young ^people the 

{Sont'%U)ceSy\iTQ. jeun6,adj. gen^, pl« 
scholars whom you have taught ? Yes, madam, 
icolier^mm enseignis^jp.p* 

they are. - - (Is that) the horse which you bought 

Est'Ce la cheval^m. que avtz acheti 

from my brother ? Yes, it is. - - - - (Are these) the 

S<mt'Ce Id 
houses which you built ? Yes, they are. 

itoezfait hAlir^y. sanL 

N. 6. It must be observed, that the following pro- 
nouns, nte, f£, se^ /e, /a, and, les^ can never be used after 
a preposition ; as we cannot say ^fitois avec /e, avtc to, I 
was with him^ with her ; but we must use the personal 
pronouns, mot, /en, soi, lui^ elle^ and eux^ or ellea^ and say, 
fitois avtc lui, axeG eile, &c. 


The nosegay which I gathered in our 

houquet^m. que ax ct£et7/t,p.p. 

garden is for her, and not for him* - - He 

|jowr,p. non pas ^aiy» 

was with ine when we received a letter from 

Stoii^v. re^ttmes^v. 

them. - - If he do not come soon we (will set 
«o^ vientjW &2en/o/,adv. parii- 

out) without him. - - - Your Asters have dis* 
rons^v* sans^ji. Fb5,pro. micoti" 

pleased me, I am very angry with them. 

<en/e,p.p. ' suis fdche^ady con/r6,p. 

- - Your brothers have broken these windows, I 
ont cct5se,p.p, ce^,pro. 
9 ^' 


am sure of it, for I was behind them, and 

surfid]* car,c. etois derriirejp. 

John was with me. 
Jean, etoit 

Y and en always go last in a sentence, except the 
pronoun of the first person mot, which, in the impera- 
tive mood of a verb conjugated affirmatively, is placed 
after y and en : ex. 

// vous y en enverra^ He will send some to you 

Apportez'j en moi, Bring me some hither. ' 

N. B. The above pronouns, when governed by two 
or more verbs, must be repeated, in French, before 
every governing verb ; though most generally expressed 
hut once in English, and after the last verb : ex. 

Voire fils vous aime et vous Your son loves and fears 

craint^ * yoii* 

Je le plains et Vencourage^ I pity and encourage him. 


You have very fine roses in your garden : when 
I am in the country, pray send me some hither: 

seraijV. a de grace envoyez^y. 

- - May God bless and reward her ! said 

Que Dieu benisse^y. recompense^v. dit^v, 

the prince. - - 1 'neither* wilP sell* nor'' give*® 

ne ni veuoc^y. vendre donner^v. 

Hhem® (to *you^). - - Our master rewards and punishes 

us when we desewe it. - * - Often beauty seduces 

and deceives us. - - * That child has good parents, he 

trompe^y. ^ Cet^ 
cherishes, honours and respects thero* 
chirU^y. honorc^y. respecte^y^ 


N. B. Bear constantly in mind the place of these 
wordft \u a seDtence, first the preposition, next the nega- 
tion ne^ then the pronouns in the order above mention- 
«4: ex, 

Faiies-moi souvenir de ue Remind me not to give him 
\w\ en point donner^ any* 


These pronouns are called possessive^ because they 
aWajs denote property or possession. 

There are two sorts of possessive pronouns, viz. ab- 
solute and relative. 

The absolute are so called, because they must always 
precede the substantive to which they are joined, and 
agree.with it (and not with the possessor as in English) 
in gender , number^ and case :— They are, 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. Fem. Both Genders. 

Mm^ Ma^ or Mon^ ) *1 « Qmon'dme^ Mes^ my. 

Tm^ Ta, or Ton, > |^- [1 < ton dme, Tes, thy. 

Son, iSa, or Son, ) -^ II ( *on am6, Scj,hi8,her,orits. 

Both Genders. 

J^otre, Kos^ our. 

Votre, Vos, your# 

Lewr, Leurs^ theic 

They are declined with the article Indefinite Je, a : ex. 

Singular. < 

Nom. Ace. mon pere, my father. 
Gen. Abl. de monpere, of or from my father. 
Dal. a monpere^ to my father. 

. Feminine. ^ 

Nom. AcC. ma mire^ my mother. 
Gen. Abl. de ma mere, of or from ray mother. 
Dat, a ma mere, to my mother. 

100 ^ 

Nom* Ace. mesfreres^ my brothers. 
Gen. Abl. de mesfreres^ of or from my brothers. 
Dat. a mesfreres^ to my brothers. 

Norn. Ace. mes saifrsy my sisters.^ 
Gen. Abl. de mes saurs^ of or from my sisters. 
Dat. a mes saurs^ to my sisters. 

The others are declined as the prccediBg.- 

These pronouns ought to be" repeated before every 
substantive in a sentence, though but once expressed in 
English; they must agree in. gender and number with 
the noun before which they arc placed, that is, with the 
thing possessed and not the possessor ; they must also be 
used in French, when speaking to any of our relations 
or friends, though they be suppressed in English : ex. 
J^ai perdu mon chapeau et I lost my hat and* gloves* 

mes gants^ 
Bonjour^ mon pire^ Good day, father. 

Eles^ous W, ma saur ? Are you there, sister"? 


Give me my dictionary and grammar. • - She 

dictiimnaire^m^ grammaire^U 

had lost her gloves and fan. - - - - Have 

moit^y. perdujf.p. iventail^m. Avez,y. 

you found your pen ? - His daughter is 

irouv6,p»p* plume^f. fille^f. 

older than my son, but her son (is not) 

plus dgte fils^m. n^est pas^v. 

so tall as my nephew. - - - Her brother says 

grand^^dj* neveu^m. dit^v* 

that he wilP 'not* refuse^ you^ what you ask 

refusera^v. ce que demnndez.v^ 

of him. - - Dear father, pray forgive me. - - My 

co» de grdce 

ambition is the only cause of my iropru- 

ambition^f. ^tx/,adj. caust<if* imprU' 

dence. - - - I have seen ypur father, mother, bro- 
*Zence,f. ^ a»,v. i?M, 


thers, and sisters* * - - Her affection for me is 

affection^f. pour^p. 
false. — - Good night, cousio, I hope that you 
^aux^adj* £oir,iD. espere^y* que 

(will come) soon to see my coantry- 

viendreZjV. bten<d/,adv* »o^ voiryV* 

house and gardens. - - - Your horses and carriage 

chevaljinm carrosse^m 
are very beautiful, but the queen's horses and carriages 

are much more so. 


When, in English, these pronouns are used in a sen- 
tence, speaking of any part of the body, they are not to 
be expressed in French, but the preposition in and the 
pronoun are rendered by the article definite ; the per- 
sonal pronoun being sufficient to determine in French 
the possession : ex. 

J^ai mal aux ytux^ I have a pain in my eyes, 

and not dans mes yeux, 

II se cassa le hras. He broke his arm* 

and not son bras. 


My mother has (a pain) in her head. • - - I have 
a,v. mal a,p. tiu^f. 
(a pain) in my ear, and she has (a pain) in her 

teeth. - - - When 1 eat meat, I have always 

dentS. mange^y. lmi;<Hir5,adv. 

a pain in my stomach. - - The man who fell from 

estomac^m. tomba^y. 

the roof of our house, disjointed his wrist, 

/oi7,m. se demt7,v. poignet^m. 

broke his right leg, sprained 

cIroi/,adj. jambe^f. se donna une entorse 
his left foot, dislocated his shoulders, 

au gauche^Qidj* .j9te<l,m. se disloqua^y* 6paule,L 
and hurt bis head. - - • When I run fast, 

s€ bUssa^y* coursyy. vtu^^dy^ 



1 (am afraid) of falling and breaking my 

crainSyV* tomhtr^w. dt me casser^v* 

arm or neck. ^ 

Ils^^ their^ having a reference to inanimate or irra- 
tional objects, and placed in another member of the 
sentence frrtm that wherein the object referred to is 
itself expressed, are not made into French by son^ $a^ ses^ 
&c. but by the pronoun en placed before the verb, and 
the articles le, la^ Its : ex. * 

Paris est une grande ville^ Paris is a large city, but its 
mais les rues en sont trop streets are too narrow, 
etrdtesj (that is, the streets of it.) 


Windsor is a fine town, I admire ita^ 

vt7/c,f. admire^v, 

situation, walks, and streets. - - This 

siiuation^f. promenadef* rue,f. Cc/^e, pro. 

house is well situate, but its architecture 

5i^Me,adj. architecture ^L 

docs not please me much. - - - - His coach is 

«<?i plait^v, beaucoupy^d\% carrosse.m. 

beautiful, (every body) admires its painting 
tout lemonde^m. admire;^* peintiire^^. 
and ornaments. - - - The shops of London are 

(very fine,) foreigners especially see their 

5uper&e,adj. 6l r anger ^m, £ur-tout,i\d\\ 

riches and cleanliness with pleasure and astonish- 
ment. - - - The walks of your (country-seat) #re well 

allie^f. chdteaUyXn. 

kept, I like their regularity. 
/enu,p.p. reeularitej. 

The relatives are never joined to any substantive ; far 
the substantive to which they refer is always implieU In 
the pronoun. They are. 

Stwh Plur. 

Sing. " Pi*or. 

Le mten, les miens, 
Le iien^ Us Htns, 
'.cwn, les siens^ 

la miennf^ les miennes, mine. 
la tienne^ 'Us tierines^ thiac. 
la sienne^ les aitmies, his or bers. 


Masculine. Feminine. 

Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. 

Le noire, les n6(res^ la ndlre, Us ndtres^ ours* 

Le voire, les xoires, la vSlre, Us v6tres, yours. 

Le leur. Us Uurs, la leur. Us leurs, theirs. 

They are de.ql^ned with the article definite; ex. 
Masculine. Feminine* 

Norn. Ace. Le mien, la mienne, mine. 

Gen. Abl. Dii mien, de Id mienne,o( or from mine. 

Dat. .^ti mien, a la mieiine, to mine. 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Norn. Ace. Les miens, Us miennes, min^e. 
Gen. Abl. Des miens, des miennes, of or from mine.^ 
Dat. ^tix tniens, aux miennes, to mine. 

The rest arc decllDed as the preceding. 
When any one of these relative prono^lns is used after 
the verb etre^ to be, signifying to belong to, it must be 
expressed in French by one of the pronouns personal in 
the dative; and when joined to a noun substantive, it 
ought to be rendered by a pronoun possessive absolute, 
and the substantive must be put in the genitive plural : 

Ce livre est a moi, This book is mine, (that it, 

belongs to me.) 
C\st un de mes amis, He is a friend of mine, (that 

is, one of my friends*) 


Your daughter is handsomer than mine, but 
mine has more wit than yours. • - - Her house is 

more convenient than ours, but yours is not so 

well situate as theirs* This hat is mine and 



not yours, but this sword is yours and 

non pas cette^pvo. 

not his. ^ I lost a book of mine, and a friend 

ai perdu,p.p* 
of yours found it* - <- - - He soldlne a knife, 

a trouve^p.p. couteau,m* 

but this knife was not bis, it wy a friend of his 

etoit c*6toit 

who had lent it to him. 
avoit prite^v. 


These pronouns are called demonstraiivej because 
they distinguish, in a precise manner, the persons or 
things to which they are applied. They are, 


cel/e, this, that. 
celU, she, that. . 
celle-ci^ this. 
celk'ldy that. 



Cc, at* 

Celui^ he, that, 


ce*, these, those. 
ce//ef, they, these, those. 
ulltS'Ci^ these. 
celks-ldy those. 



Ce qui^ ce que^ what. 
Cecij this ,- cela^ that.t 
The last two are always of the musculine gender, 
and of the singular number. 

* Cet is used before a noun masculine beginning with a vowel, or 
H miite : ex. cet otseau, this bird ; cet honneur^ this honoar. 

t The word ihaty coming between two verbs, and followed by a 
noun or pronoun, is then a conjunction, and must be rendered into 
French by que^ even when' implied in English : ex. 

/« sais que totrefrlu tit'marii^ I know thai your brother i* mar- 
ried, or, I know your brother is 


These pronouns are decliDed wiifa the article indefi- 
nite, de^ a : ex. 


Noiii. Ace. ce livre^ this or that book. 
Gen. Abl. de ce livre^ of or from thi3 book. 
Dat« d ce livre, to this book. 

Nom. Ace. ces livres^ these books. 
Gen. Abl. de ces livres^ of or from these books. 
Dat. a ces livresj to these books. 


Nom. Ace. cetle plume, this or that pen. 
Gen. Abl. de cette plume, of or from this pen. 
Dat. a cette plume, to this pen. 

Nom. Ace. CIS plumes, these pens* 
Gen. Abl. de ces plumes, of or from these petls. 
Dat. d cefi plumes, to these pens. 

* Singular. 

Nom. Ace. celui, he, him, that. 
Gen. Abl. de celui, of or from him. 
Dat. d celui, to him. 

Nom. Ace. ceile, she, her, that. 
Gen. Abl. de celle, of or from her. 
Dat. a celle, to her. 

Masc. Fem. 

N. Ace. ceux^ celles, they, them, those, such a)!. 

G. Abl. de ceux, de celles, of or from those. 
Dat. d ceux, . d celles, lo those. 

The othep are declined as the preceding. 


N. B. He^ she, they, him, her, them, being immediately 
followed in a sentence by who, whom, or that, used in 
an indeterminate sense, not relating to any individual 
mentioned before, and only implying any person, one or 
any body, must not be rendered in French by the per- 
sonal pronouns, il, elle, &c. but by the above pronouns, 
celui, celk, &c. 

The same rule must be observed with respecf to such 
as, such that, used in English in the same sense as he 
who, they who : ex. 

Celui ou celle qui pratique He or she who practices 

la vertu vit heureux, virtue lives happy. 

Ceux qui meprisent la sci- Such as despise learning 

ence n^en connoissent pas do not know its value, 

leprix, (the value of it.) 


He who supports idleness makes himself 

enc<mrage,v. se rend,v. 

despicable She whom you saw at my 

m6prisahle,adj. que,pro. vttes,Y. chez,^* 

brother's is not yet married. - ~. - . - You 

*o» encore,adv. mari6^p.p, 

punish him who is not guilty. - - - Men com- 

punissez,v. coupable,^dj. ordp- 

monly^ hate* him whom they fear 

nairemmt,2idy. hai'ssent,\* 9«c,pro. craignent,v» 

-She whom you ha*e is my best friend. - - - You 

ha%ssez,y. amie,fm 

have punrsbed him who did not deserve it, 
punt,p.p. iO» m6ritoit,y. 

and rewarded her who was guilty. We 

(ought to) pray for them who persecute 

devons,y» jm,pro. p€rsicutent,rm 

us. — Of all virtues, that which most^ dis- 

5ui,pro. leplus,2Ldy* dis* 
tinguishes* a Christian is charity. — This book and 


that which I lent you are the two best 

9tce,pro. at prite^p.p. 
Such as seem (to be) happj, are not 

9ut,pro. paroisstni^v. 6lrt{7. 
always so. 


Ce, cttie^ ces^ this, that, these, those, most always 
precede the substantive to which they are joined, and 
agree with it in gender, number, and case. On the 
contrary, ce/ui, ceWe, celui-ci, celle-ci^ celui-ld^ celle-ld^ (his, 
that, &c. either in the singular or plural, are never 
joined to any noun ; for the noun to which they refer 
is always implied in the pronoun : ex. 
T'oi vu It portrait du pere I have seen the father's 
et celui dufils^ picture, and that of the 



She who dines with us, is my brother's wife. - - - 
dint^Y. avec,p. femmef* 

She brought her picture, . and that of her 

a apporte^p.p. portrait^m. 

husband. I have seen the king's palace, and 

man,m. palais^m* 

that of the queen. That gold watch, which 

montreyf* que^fvo. 
you showed me, is not yours, it is that of 

avez monrree,p.p. c^est^y. 

your brother. 1 have lost my buckles and 

those of your cousin. - — Your books and those of 

your little sister are torn. - — I know this 

joc^i7,adj. d£chirh,p,p* connds^v. 

cap, it is that of yodr mother. 

bonnet yO), c'est^v* 

N. B. The pronoun that, either in the singular or 
plural^ is often suppressed in English, and supplied by 

• See the Rule, page 96. 


an apostrophe and an^, thus (^f), at the end of the noun 
substantive as above, but it must be expressed in French 
bjr the above pronouns eelui, celU^ and according to the 
gender and number of the object to which it refers : ex. 

// a pris mon chapeau tt He has taken my hat and 
celui dt monpcrej my father's, (that tV, and 

that of my father.) 


You have torn my gown, and my sister's. 

dec/wVe,p.p. ro4c,f. 
1 have found my hat and my brother's in the 


room The thieves came by night 

cAam6re,f. voltur^ni* entrerent^v. dt nut/,adv. 

into my father's house, they (broke open) my room 
dans forcirmtjV* 

jsind my mother's, and stole my watch and 

my sister's. — You may, if you please, take 

pouvez^v, vouUz^v. prendre^w 

your grammar and your brother's, but leave 

mine and my friend's. — • Our oranges and Mr. 

Savage's are the best that you can 

Saiuvage^ on,pro. puisse^y. 


Sometimes the particles ci, /a, here, there, are also 
joined to the substantive following the pronouns, ce, 
cette^ ces^ to distinguish with more precision the objects 
to which they are applie<l ; ex. 

Ce chapeau-ci^ this hat ; cette ville-la, that town, &;c. 

N. B. The two following expressions, the former^ 
ctlui'la^m. celU-la^f. ciux4a^ta. celles-ld^U / the latter^ 
ce/ui^»,m. celle-ci^t ceiia?-cf,m. celks-ci^f. referring to 
substantives mentioned in a preceding sentence, are 


elegantij us«<] in French, and agree with the nouns, 
ftistead oP kpranitr^ le second, the repetition of which 
tbey avoid .- ex. 

Un Francois el un Ecos- A Frenchman and a Scotch- 

sois St haiiirtni hier a man fought yesterday with 

* Vepiey ce!ui-la, fni blesse swords, the former was 

d r6paule^ et celul-ci a%i wounded in the shoulder 

bras^ and the latter in the arm. 


Learn this lesson, it is not so difficult 

Apprenez^w diffkile^zA'y 

as that. I prefer this way to that road, 

priflre^w. chemin^m. ' route^f. 

This room is much larger than that parlour. - - 

gran(2,adj« salon^m* 

These candies are better than those. - - *- 


(There was) a great battle between George 

// y eu/,v. com6a/,m. en/re,p. 

and Stephen ; the former had a broken^ nose', 

Etienne^ eu/,v. le cassi^p.p. nez,m. 

and the latter lost a tooth. - - - In the engagements 

perdil^y. hntaille^t 

which took place between tt)e Austrians 

gfUt,pro. eurent^r» lieu^nu Autrichien^m* 

and the French, the former lost two 

Fran(}o%s^m* perdirent^v. 

thousand men, and the latter fifteen hundred. - - - 

Among the peaches which you sent^ me* at two 

Parmi^p» picheS. que^pvo. ait ez envoy tes a 
different times, 1 observed that the former 

J*j^ercn/,adj. fois^U ai remarque^v. . 
were better than the latter. 


Ce qui^ in the nominative case, ce que, in the accusa- 
tive, \* h'Jt.|^This pronoun is never joined to any noun; 
it always may b^ turned into thai which^ or the thing 


zohich ; and eect,. cela^ this, that, are only- used when 
speaking of things, the word thing being always under* 
stood : ex. 

Jt sais ce qui est arriv6^ I know what has happen- 

Savez-^ous ce que je pense ? Do jou know what I think ? 

Ceci mtplaity. This pleases me; i. t. this 

things &;c. 

Cela mefaitpeurj That frightens me ; i. e. 

that things &c. 


May I know what causes your grief 
Puisjir. savoir^Y* cause^y* chagrin^m* 

and sadness ? - - - Your father has (a good deal) 
tristesse4* beaucoup^didv. 

of friendship for you ; for, he *never* 

air,c. nejamatV,adv. 

refuses' you^ what you ask of him. - - . . 

refuse^y. demandtz^v. «<» lux* 

You seem much dejected, teH me what 

paroissez^y. &ten,adv» a6a//u,adj. dites-mm 
vexes you. - - - Go and tell my father what 

fdche^y. _ Alltz^y* «o- dirt a, v. 

has passed here and do not forget what you 

s^est pass6^y. ict,adv. *o» ou6/ter,v. 

have seen, and what you have heard Give 

me this, and take that. - - - I prefer this to 

pr«nez,v.. prifirt;^. 



'These pronouns are called rtlativt^ because they have 
always a reference lo some other noun or pronoun in . 
the discourse, either expressed or implied.^ They are 
declined as follows : 


Singular and Plural. 

Both Genders. - 



who, which, that. 


de qui^ or dont^ 

of whom, whose,* of which. 


a qui, 

to whom, to which. 


que, qui^ 

whom, which, that. 


de quiy dont, 

from whom, from which. 

Ace. quoi, que, what. . 

Gen. Abl. de qtioi, or do7it, of or from what. 
Dat. a quoiy to what. 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Nom. Ace. lequel, laquelle^ which. 

Gen. Abl. duquel, or dont, de laqutlle, of or from, &c. 
Bat. auquel, a laquelle, to which. 

Nom. Ace. lesquels, lesqutlles, which. 

Gen. Abl. desqueh, or dont, desquelles, of or front, &c. 
Dat. auxquels, at4X9ue//e5, to which. 

The noun, or pronoun, to which the pronoun relative 
has a reference, is called the antecedent^ with which it 
must agree in gender and number : ex. 
Je connois tin homme qui doit I know a man toho is to go 
aller voir le camp, and see the camp. . 

In this sentence qui has a reference to homme, man, 
because I can say, lequel homme, which man, &c. 
J'ai lu la letlre que vous 1 have read the letter {(hat) 
m^avez tnvoyie, you sent me. 

In this last sentence que has a reference to lettre, letter, 
because it may be said, /a^ue/Ze leilre, which letter, &c. 

♦ Whost, being used interrogatively, must be rendered in French 
by o qui ,* ex. * 

A qui est ce litre ? Whose book is this ? 

t Qui, -wbo;n, is never used in the accusative but when it is gov- 
erned by some of the prepositions : ex. 

•^vec yut^'^With whom. Pcur qui, For whom* 

or when it signifies what person : ex, 

^menes qui vous voudre:, Bring whom jou please, 

that is, tphai person yon please. 


The relative que^ whom, which, or that, is sometimes 
understood in English, but it must always be expressed 
in French : ex* 
La dame que vonsconnoissez The lady (that) you know 

est arrivitj is arrived. 


The man who sold me these pens is very 

cunning. - - - The lady of whom j^ou speak 
ru5e,adj. damej. parkz^v. 

is not handsome. • - - Miss D***, whom j'ou love . 

Mile aimez^y* 

so much, is very ill. - - - The person to 

tant^zdv, . malade^^6j* personne^(, 

whom I wrote last year has answered 

ai icrii^y. passi^p^p. annee,f. re/)onrfM,p.p. 

me this morning. - - He who was with you, related 

ma/tn,m. tioil^v* a raconie^x. 

to me (every thing) that had passed. - - • 

tout ce qui s^iloit^v. passt^p.p, 

\ She will not hear of the lady whom 

r€u/,v. entendre par ler^v. 

he (is going to) marry. - - - Shun vice, and 

ra,v. ipouser^y. Evitez^v* vice^xh. 

love what is good, ^ - - Who was with 

aimez^v. lon,adj. etoit^v* avec,p, 

you ? - - - It was a gentleman, whose* name^ P 
Ce monsieur^m* nom^va* ^" 

know* ^not^ - - Men generally^ love* hina 

5aw,v. genSralement^^d v.- 

who flatters them. - - The man i sent you was 

fiatte^\. ai cni?ove,p.p. 

honest. • - Whose* sword* is^ this* ? - "- You speak 

of the lady whose husband has been so ill. 
.mari,m. 4ie,p.p. 

These pronouns, like the personal and conjunctive, 
when governed by two or more verbs, must be repeated 
(in French) before each governing verb, though most 


commonly expressed but once in English, and before 
the first verb r ex. 

Le Dieu que nous aimms The God whom we love 
et que nous adorons^ and worship. 


The man who caresses and flatters yon is^ the^ 

most* dangeroas^ beings I know. A man 

jp/u5,adv. ^/re,m. connoisse^v. 

whose manners are innocent, and behaviour 

mceurs^Lpl. tnnocen^,adj. conduite^f* 

is blameless, is the manwhom we (ought to) che- 

trre/>rocAab/e,adj. devons^y. cM" 

rish and honour The letters which you have 

rir^Ym respecter^Y^ 

written, and showed me, were tole- 

ecnfe5,p.p. mon/r^e«,p.p. ^/(nen/,V. passa* 

rably well. - - - The woman to whom I have 

6/emenf, adv. ' femmt^L 

lent so much money, and spoken so often, 

jprg|^,p.p. parle^p.f. 

is dead. - - - Servants are men or *wp-- 

fnorf,adj. Domeslique^m»et {* (m,c. 

men whpm we keep and reward - 

naurrissoHs^y. ricompensonSyY, 

for the services which they do us. 

^oiir,p. rendent^y. 

When the words to lohich^ to what^ at zohich^ at what, 
in rohkhi in what, have a reference to inanimate things, 
and when they can be expressed by zohertj whereto, 
whereat, or wherein, they are to be rendered in French 
by the adverb of place, 6u : ex. 

Je V0U8 montreirai la mat- I will show yon the house 
son ou it demeure, in which he lives ; (that 

is, where he lives.) 


The. state. of misery to which he. was reduced 

6toit r^dh<i^,p.p. 



has tmiched me to the quick. * - The town to 

touche^p.f. viffta. villej. 

which he is gone is precisely the same 

^lace through which we went in (coming up) 

placef* 7>ar,p. ou passdmes^v. en,p. venan^p.act. 

to London. - - (This is) the door through which 

the thieves %vent into the house. - - The pri- 

vokur^m. entrerent^y. 
son in which they used to shut up ^ 

ron,pro. avoit coutume^v* de renfermer^v.^ 
the priaipners, has been demolished. 

prisonnier^m* ^ d6iruiu\f.p» 

Quoij what, and sometimes thai or which^ is never 
used in the nominative case : in (he other cases it is 
generally used in an indeterminate signification, and 
is never expressed except in speaking of inanimate 
things, and especially when it has for its antecedent^ 
ee or rien : ex. 

C^ist a quoi j$ voiss conseille It is what I advise you to 

d^pmsevj think of. 

// n^y a rien a quoi il ne soit There is nothing for zojiich 

dupose^ he is not disposed. 


Of what does your sister complain ? - - • What ! 

<» se plaint-elUyV. 

you dare answer me thus ! - - For what do 

osez^v. repondre^. ain5«\adv. Potir,p. ^ 

you^ call* me*? - - Why » did you 

appellez;v* . Pourquoi^^dv. avez^r. 

bring ^hat man before lae ? what is he 

amene,p.p. devant^p* 

guHty of T • - What is your, brother sorry 

coup(rWe,adj. * yScfc^,adj. 

for? - - At what' vere* you* pTaying*, 'when I came 
eft a jdtltcZjV. stjcis 


in ? - - To wbat shalP we* applj?* ourselves - - 

miri^Vm appliquer<mSjV» nou5,pro. 

fThere? is*) ^nothing* for which he is^ not* 

II t/«a,v« neriei^adv.a sait^v. ne 

fit. - * - - In what do you intend to spend 

prG»pre,adj* a «oi proposez-vous^r* de passer ^v. 

jour holidays ? 

racance,f.pL , 

When i¥e speak of irratiemal beings or inanimate 
things in the genitive, dative, or ablative cases, we 
make use of hquel^ hquclU^ which, &c* instead of qui ; 
also after a preposition, and when who, whom, or which, 
T^fer to one or more objects on which the choice is to 
be formed : ex. 

Lt chcrai auquel vous don- The horse to which you 

nez d hoire^ give some drink. 

La /en e /re 5wr la quelle toM* The window upon which 

vous appuyez, you lean. 

Apportez lequel vous vou' Bring zvhich you please. 



The trade to which you apply, 

commerce^m* vous vous appliquez^v* 

and the profession to which you are devoted, 

profession^' devoui^f.^n 

are^very honourable. — (Is that) the horse for 

Est-ce la^r. 
which you gave a hundred guineas ? - - Lying 

avez donn6^p,p* Mensonge^m. 

is a vice for which young people (ought, to) 

gens^^h doiventjV. 
have the greatest horror. - - - The tatbie upon 

horreur^f* table^f. ,sur,p* 

wbicb y#ii wrttd, ia broken* • - - Tb% r^sons 

ecrivez^v, ^ cass ee^p.p. • . 

upon which yqu ground your system arc 

appuyeZyW. systime^m.^ 


satisfactory. - • - (There are) four drawings, . which 

saiiBfaisani^^^y Fbi7d,a(Iv« dtsstxn^va. 

do you choose? - - - (Here are) two pears, which 

•<» choisissez^v* Foic2,adv. poire^f* 

will you have ? - - They are two sisters, which 

VOUUZ^V* too 50W/,V. 

do you like the best f 

*<^ • aimez^y» le mtetcx,adv« 


They are called interrogative^ because they tire used 
only in asking questions, and have no antecedent : they 
are declined with the article indefinite. .. 

Singular and Plural. 
Both Genders. 
Norn. Ace. gut, who, whom. 
Gen. Abl. de qui^ of or from whom. 
Dat. a qui J to whom, whose. *• 

Norn. Ace. grtiot, or que^ what ;* 

Or, qu^est'Ce qui^ qu^esUce que* 
Gen. Abl. de quoi^ of or from what. 
Dat. a quoi^ to what. 


Masculine. . Feminine. 

N.A. quel^ or lequel^ quelle, or laqtulle^ what^ which. 

G. A. de quel^ duquel, dt. quelle^ de laquelle^ of or from, &c. 

Dat. a quel, auquel, a quelle, a laquelle, to what, which. 


Masculine. Feminine. 

N.A« quels, or ksquels^ quelles^ or lesquelles, what, which^ 
G.A. c(^ qu^ls, desqxuls, dequtUes,de8quelUs. of or from,&c. 
Dat.^ quels, auxquels, dqueUes,auxquelles,ioyib9it,vihich* 

* ^hen tohat^ in English, signifies HotB muck, it must be esfftt^^ 
ed in ]||encb by combien. 


Qui^ who, whom, as, rfn interrogative pronoun, al- 
ways refers to persons, and never to things; and it may 
be expressed by quelle personnt ? what person ? Quoi 
aod ^u^, what, have always a reference to things and 
never to persons, and may be e^ipressed by quelle chose? 
what thing? According to the French idiom, quoi^ can 
never be put before a verb as its accusative, it is always 
qae : ex. 

Qui esl-ld ? Who is there ? 

De quoi paflez-vous ?. What are you speaking of? 

Que -voulez'vous ? or, qu'est- What do you want ? {thai w, 

ce que vous voukz ? What is it that you wish ?) 


Who was the first king of France ? — Who can 

fut^w. peut,y» 

give credit to a young roan who does not speak 

ajouter^v* foi *o* dit^y. 

the truth ? — Of whom were* you^ speaking*, when 

viriti^L parliez^y* 

1 ^auTe ? — To whom did you lend my 

vins^y, ar«z,v. j9rc/^,p.p. 

slate ? — Whom do you seek ? Who . told 

ardoiseS* «o^ cherchez^y^ a rfi(,v. 

it to you ? - - - From whom do you know it? What* 

»o» savez^y. 
are* you^ doin^» ? — What do you say ? - - - What 

faites^y. - diles^y. 

do you ask of me ? - - Who is the man 

demandezjy. • «oi 
who can boast of being without defect ? - - 

/?cii/,v. se vanter^y. de cire^y^ *an5,p. difaut ? 

What is the name of your father? What is his 


occupation ? - - What are his' amusements ? What 

occupation^. sont^y* plaisir^m. 

is his business? - - In what city does he' live* ? 

sont^y* affaires ff,f\» xvilkyf. *o^ demeure^v^ 


What is the country in which he was born ! 

paysyin. a pris naissance* 

In the last instances it may easily be seen, ihat quel, 
or quelle^ what, is aiway,* joined to some substantive with 
which it imist agree in gender and number* 

In order to avoid repetition, hquel^ laqudle^ which are 
elegantly used as substantives for qud^ or. quelk^ and the 
substantive to which it is joined ; and then lequel must 
always be followed by a genitive, either expressed or 
understood : ex* 

Vne de mes saurs est ma- Oae of my sisters is mar- 
Wee, ridd. 

Laquelle e«/-ciB ? that is, Which is it ? ihat is^ 

laquelle de vos soturs which of your sisters 

est-ce ? is it ? 


One of your cousins is arrived from the 
cousin^m. arn've,p*p* 
continent; which is it? — An aunt of yours was 
continent^m. eloit^v* 

iir last week ; which was 

ma/aJe,adj* dermere,adj. semaine^L 

it? I have heard that two horses of yours 

out dire^v. » 

were lost : tell me which. - - My brother 

eloient^y. perdu^p.p. dites^v* 

wrote to me, that two of your sisters (are going) 
ecrivit^v. ^ vont^v. 

to learn French : wfiich are they? - - 

apprendre^Y. Trangois^m. sont^v. 

They (were speaking) of a relation of bis, and 

parloient^y. parent^vn. 

of one of my friends ; which were they ? 



These pronouns are called indefiniie or indtUrminaity 
because they generally are substituted for the name of 
a ^ague and indeterminate object. Among them some 
are used as nouns adjective, being always joined to a 
noun substantive ; others are sometimes used as pro- 
nouns without a substantive, and sometimes as adjec- 
tives with a substantive.. 

Aucun^m. aucune,f. 



Chacun^m* chacune^f. 


Uun rati/re,sing.m. 

Ias uns les aulres^ 

Vun et rau/re,sing.m. 
L^un ou /^au^re,8ing.m. 
J^i Pun ni Pautre^sing,tn* 
JSru/,m« nuUe^t. 
Pas t(n,m. pas ti7ie,f. 

La plupart Je, des^ 




Quelque chose^ 

Quelque — que^ 

Quel — 9ue,sing.m. 

Quelle — ^MCjSing. f. 

Quelque chose qui or que, 

Quoi que^ 

Quoi que ce soil que^ 

Tout ce qui^ or qiie^ ^ 

Quelqu^un^m. quelquhine^t* 

None, not any, any one. 
Other, any other. 
Others, other people. 
Each, every one, everj 

body. ^ 

Every, each. 
One another, each other. 

Some others. 

Some some. 




No one. 

Not one. 

Nobody, none, no one, any 

one, anj body. 

Many, several. 
Whatever, whatsoever. 
Some, any. 

Something, any thing. 
Whosoever, whatsoever, 

whatever, however, 

howsoever, though, &c. 

Whatever, whatsoever. 

Some, some one, 
body, any body. 



Qu^onque^ Whoever, whosoever. 

Qiii que ce soit^ or/u/, Whoever, nobofly in the 

world, nobody at all,- 
any body whatever, no 
man 'living, let bim be 
who be will, or be who 
he may, &c. 

Quoi que ce soit^ or /u/, Whatever, nothing in the 

world, nothing what* 

Rien^ Nothing, any thing. 

Tel^ telle^ tels^ telles^ Such a one, such. 

Td qui^ teh qui^ ) Such as he, she, they, who, 

Telle qui, ielles qui, ^ that, &c. 

Tout, ♦ " Every, every thing. 

Taut le monde. Every body, any body. 

Tout que. As — as, for all, although, 

however, &c. 

Observations on some of the above Pronouns. 

Aucun, aucune^ is never used but in the singular, ancf 
always requires ne before the verb ; it relates to a per- 
son or thing mentioned before ; but in interrogative 
sentences, and when it expresses a doubt, it is used 
without a negation : ex. 

Aucun ne s^est encore avisi None has jet thought of 

de tous contredire, contradicting you. 

Y a-t'il aucun (ou aucune) Is there uny of you who 

de vous qui le souffrit ? would suffer it ? 


None of ttfe books which you saw me 

avez vu.p.p. 
luyiog, pleases me. - - - Of all the apples 

acheter,y. plait,y. pomrne,f. 

which you gave. me, none is yet 

avez donn6es,p.p. encof<,adv. 

fit to e;at. - - . - Is there any of you who 

^on,adj. a manger,\\ Y ci-f-t7, 


applies fo study as much as he can ? - - - Among 
s^applique^v. itude^f. le ptut^y. 

all the ladies you know, is there any one who 

married him ? - - Philip is cer- 
ipouser^y. Philippe cev 

a very wicked man, for none 

mecAan/,adj* car,c* 

well of him. - - - - Do you 

(would have)* 
tut T(m/if,p.p* 

of his friends speak 

kno^ any news ? 
savez^v. nouvelle, 

none. - - I was in 

etois^v. dans^f. 
my friends have relieved 

, a,v. ^ccotirt/jp.p 

No, sir, I know 

monsieur^ sais^ v. 
trouble, and none of 

me. * 

Ntil^ pas un^ are always accompanied by a negation, 
and can orJy be used as a nominative to the verb : Ptr* 
Sonne is likewise attended with a negation, except in 
sentences of doubt, admiration, or interrogation : ex. 

Nul ne peut se fiaiier d'^etre 
agreable a Dieu^ 

Pas ui\ ue le croU^ 

Personne s^esUil jamais ex- 
prime avec plus de grace 
que Sheridan ? 

^0 one can flatter himself 
to be agreeable to God. 

Not one believes it. 

Did ever any body express 
himself with more grace 
than Sheridan f 


. No one in, this world is free from 

en,p. monde^m. exempt^zA]^ 

fault. - • - No one can pretend to be per- 

dc/auf,m. priiendre^v. itre^v. pQr- 

fectly happy in this land of mi* 

faitement^^iv* dans^jp. ierreS* 

f^^vy. • - All the sailors perished at sea, 

nuxielot^m. onl piri^v. 5ur,p. mer^ 

11 ^ 

uot one escaped. - - - • The soldiers are all re- 
a ichapp£^p.f. soldat^tn. re* 

turned, not one has remained behind. • - - 
vemf%p.p. €5/,y. reste^p.p. dcmcrc,adv. 

Kobody can boast of being ^ ^vitbout im- 

se vanter^v. ilre^v* sans^f. 

perfections, p - As nobodj speaks to you, 

Comme,adv. parle^v. 

you ought not to speak to any body. - - - Did 

<?CT?er,v. *^parUr,y. Jl-t-il 

ever any Body know in what happiness 

jamais connti,p.p. e7i,p. honlUur^m* 

consists ? 

Autre refers to persons and things, and is an adjective 
that precedes its substantive, unless used as a noun; 
but autrui refers to persons only, and is invariable, and 
c^n only be us^d in the genitive or dative case : ex. 

Cette plume rCest pus tonne, This pen is not good^ give 

donnez'lui en une autre> him another* 

Ne prenez pas le Wen d'au- Dp not take other peopk^s 

trui, # goods. 


Yoar brother has lost bis books, shall I 

/)erJu,p.p. *o^ 

give him others ? - - - As you broke my 

donnerai^v. avez caw^,.pp. 

penknife, you will give me another. - - Other peo- 
canif^m* donnerez^v. 

pie's opinions are not the rule of mine. - - - - 

«en/tmen(,m. regle,(* 

Do not speak ill of other people, if you 

M»». parlez^v. rwa/,adv. 

ivill have nobody speak ill of you. - - - 

voulez^v* 9ue,c. park^v. 

Always" remember' n that principle of na- 

souvenez-vous de ce principe^m. ncf- 


iaral law, do not to' others what you 

would not wish that (they should do) to you. - - 

«.«sy» voudriez,v, onfit^v» 

What arc other people's troubles, if (they be cora- 

peine^f. .si,c. on les com" 
pared) with ours. 
partyV. aux 

Chaque and chacun are not used indifierently ; ch(ique 
always requires a substantive after if, and chacun repre- 
sents a noun not expressed in the sentence, both relating 
to persons or things : ex. 

Chaque langue a ses idiorms Each language has its pe- 

pariiculiers^ culiar idioms^ 

Chacun a son lour, Every one in his turn. 


Every thing in its time. - - Every virtue has 

chose dans^p* terns ^m* 

its reward, and each vice has its punishment. • * 

recompense^L chdiimtnt^m* 

lutt every scldi«r keep his post to 

Que sc tienne^Yb a poslt^m. pour^f. 

avoid any surprise fronn the enemy. - - 

evUer^v* /ot«/,adj. surprise J* de la part de Penntmi. 
Every one thinks and acts for himself. - - Do not 

pense^Y* ^git^y* *ot. *<» 

speak all at once, hut each in your turn. - - - 

a lafois^zAy. a 

England expects (<Aaf) every roan (will do) his duty 

♦ attend^. ftra^^. devoir^m. 

in case of danger. - - Trees bear their fruits 

en Arhre^xn* porfent^v* 

each in its season. - - - (Let us give) to every 

dans^p» rendons^y. 

one what beIor>gs to him. - - - Let every one 

appartUnly* Que 

meddle with bis own business. 

semele^v, c2e proprejadj. affaires^p]* 


Lktn Pautre are susceptible of gender and number, 
and express a reciprocity in the action, and may be 
applied to persons or things ; and if there be a preposi* 
tioQ in English, it must be placed between them : ex. 

lis se haissent Pun I'autre, Tliey hate each other. 

Its parknt mal Tun de They speak ill of one 

Fautre, another. 

Les vohwrs se tltfient les Thieves mistrust one an- 

uns rfes autres, other. 


Fire and water destroy one another. - - My 

se delruisent^v. 
sisters can not bear each other. - - 

peuvent^v. se souffrir^v. 

Love one another, said our Lord 

Aimez'vous^y. dit^v. Seigneur^m* 

to his disciples. - - - The seasons follow each 

disciple^m. saisonf. se siiivent^v* 

other without interruption. - - - - Honest men 
sans^p. gens 

(ought to) esteem one anothef. - - - They 

devroient s^estimer. 

do justice to one another. - - - If is rare 

se rendent^y. rare,adj. 

to hear two authors speak well of one 

de eniendre^y. auteur^m, dire, v. du &ten,m. 

another. - - Multiplication teaches to multiply 

Multiplication^^, enseigne^y. a multiplier ^y. 
two numbers by each other. - - The columns 
nomhre^m.' par^p. colofinej. 

were close against one another. 

etoient^y. *crre,adj. cotitre^p. 

Dun et Vautre always require the verb in the plural, 
and may likewise be applied to persons or things : m 
Vun ni Vautre require the verb to be put in the singular, 
if that pronoun be placed before the verb, and in the 
plural, if it come after it ; but in both cases the verb 
must be preceded by the negation ne : ex. 


l^^iiD e£ Fautre ont raismrt^ Boih are in the right. 

Ni I\in ni Pacitre ne ripond^ ^'either of them answer* 

or ih ne ripondent ni i'uD 

ni Pautre, 

When the preposition relates to both, it must be 
placed before Vun and Pautre^ and repeated ; and both 
is not expressed in French when it precedes two nouns 
or pronouns united bj the conjunction and : ex* 

II revolt de Pargent de Pun He receives ntoney from 

et de Pautre, both. 

Son frere et sa 9imr. sont Both bis brother and sister 

morts, are dead. 


Both serve to the same purpose. - - - I 

servent^v. twcmc,adj. usage^m* 

called on jfour cousins, and I heard 

at passe^ p.p.chez cou5me,f. ai appris^f.p* 

that both had been married a week be- 

que avoient^y. n2ane,p.p* stmaine^i* au' 

fore. • - - - Honour your father and mother 
paravant^^Aw. Respectez^v* 
and endeavour to please both. - - Do you speak 

tdchez^y, de plaire^v. a *<^ parlez^Y* 

of my brother or sister ? I speak of both. - - Apples 

parkiy* Pomnu^f. 

^nd pears are good fruits, but peaches are pre- 
poirt^i. peche^* pr^' 

ferable to both. - - 1 wrote to both, but neither of 
/era6/c,adj. ai 6crity. u» 

them answered my letters, - Yesterday I expected 
*<>> a ripondu^p.p.a attendoisyVm 

my two best friends, but neither of them came. - - I 

«o» L©^ vinty* 
will give it to neither of them. - - - Both religion 
donnerai^v. k>» ^^ 

and virtue are the bonds of civil society. 


Quelque-^que. Quelque immediately joined to a noua 
followed by que^ expresses an indeterminate quality or 
quantity ; it is declinable before a substantive and inde- 
clinable before an adjective, and requires the verb to 
be put in the subjunctive mood : ex. 
Quelques /au/e5 que vous Whatever faults you may 

ayez faites, on vous par- have committed, they 

donnera, will forgive you. 

Quelque grandes que soient However great your faults 

vos f antes ^ on vous par- be, they will forgive 

donnera^ you. 


Whatever efforts people make to hide 

tffort^m. on,pro« fasse^v. pour^p, voiler^y* 
truth, it (is discovered) sooner or later. - - What- 

se decouvre^v. /d/,adv. /ar£2,adv. 
ever services you (may have) done to your 

service^m* ayez^y. rcwdti5,p.p. 

country, it will reward you for them. - - What- 

patrie^U rtcompensera^v. * 

ever capacity a man may have, he ought not to 
pume,v. doU^v. 86 

boast. - - However equitable jour^ offers^ be*, 
vanter^v. offre^U soient^y* 

I do not believe they will be accepted. - - ^Though' 

«o^ crois^y* soient^y* accep/ee,p.p. 

kings' be* (ever so) powerful^ they die 

soient^y* »«^ pui5ian/,adj. meurent^y^ 

as well as the meanest of their subjects. - - However 

6af,adj. sujet^m^ 

learned those ladies may be, they sometimes* 
5ava»/,adj. - quelquefoii^didv* 

se trompent^y» 

Quel que^ quelle que must be thus divided, when it is 
immediately followed by a verb or a personal pronoun, 
and agree in gender and number with the noun to which 
it relates ; it likewise requires the verb to be put in the 
subjunctive mood : ex. ' 

« See the Rule, p^ge 92i 


Qaelle que swt voire faute^ Whatever your fault may 
(m vous pardonnera, be, they will forgive you. 


Whatever the enemy be, whose malice^ you* 
ennenii^va. maliceS. 

dread,* you ought to rely on your 

apprihendez^y. devez^v, vous reposer^y. sur^f* 

innocence. - - Laws condemn all criminals, 

condamnent^y* criminel^m* 

whoever they may be. - - Whatever your inten- 

puissent^y. inUn* 

tioDS (may be) 1 4hink that you (are in the wrong). 
iion^L soient ^ avez tort. 

Whatever the reasons be which you (may allege,) 

raison.L alleguiez^y. 

they are not sufficient. - - - Whatever these oooks 
suffisantj^dj. /ivre,m. 

be, send them to ^ne. - - Whatever her fortune be, 

he says he *never* (will marry^) hei^. 
di/,v. epousera^y. 

Qiielque chose qui or que^ quoi que^ quoi que ce soil que^ 
lout ce qui or que^ always relate to things, and never 
to persons; with this difference, that, in French, we 
generally begin the sentence with cither quelque chose 
que or qui^ quoi qne^ or quoi que ce soil que^ with the fol- 
lowing verb in the subjunctive mood : ex. 

Quelque chose qu'on vous Whatever may be said to 
dise^ ne le croyez pas^ you, do not believe it. 

Quoi que ce soit qu'on vous Whatever they may say to 
dise^ ne le croyezpas^ you, do not believe it. 


Whatever may happen to you in this world, 

puisse^y* arriver^y. ' monde^tn* 

'never* murmur* against divine providence, for 
murmureZyy. con/re,p. car,c. 


whatever wc may suffer, wc deserve it* - - What* 

simffrions^y* mMtons^v* 

ever I (miy do,) you always blame me. - - Who is 

fasst^y* bldmez^y, 

the man who has stolen his money ? I know not ; 

but whoever he (may be,) and whatever he may say, 

8oit, ' ciwe,v. 

if my father catch him, he shall be punished. - - 

altrapptjV. puni^p^p. 

In whatever your master employs you, do it 

d emploie^Y. faittSiV. 

heartily. - » • - Whatever you may say, your 
de bon C(6ur,adv. disiez^v. 

brothers shall be punished, if they deserve it. 
seront^w * miritenl^y^ 

On the contrary, we always make use of tout ce qui 
or que^ when whatever can be turned into all that which, 
or every thing which / and may be placed either at (he 
beginning or in the middle of a sentence, according to 
its situatibn in English, with the following verb in the 
indicative mood : ex. 

Ilfera toujours tout ce q\xHl He will always do what" 
VQUs plairaj ever^ or every thing, yoii 



In whatever you do, be guided by bo- 

faites^v. ^ guidi^p.p. hoti" 

nesty* and probity ; and in whatever you say, 

niteti.f. diteSyV. 

never deviate from the path of truth. - - 

vous eeartez^v* sentier^m, 

Whateiyer is pleasing is not always useful. - - - 

agreable^^dj. ti.'i/e,adj. 

Tell roe whatever you think of me, and 1 will 

DiteSyV* pensez^v. V»- 

tell you whatever I think of you. - - Never speak 

• Si always loses the i before it, he ; Us, they. 


of whatever has passed ~ between us both. -^ - She is 

s^tst passi^y. «n/re,p« dtux. 

BO curious, that she will l^now whatever I 

curieua;,adlj. rcw/,v. savoir^v. 

do. - . Whatever glitters is not gold, - - I will pay 
fais^Vm luii^w or. paieraiyV* 

you to-morrow whatever I owe you. 


Quelque alwajs expresses an indeterminate significa- 
tion, and is generally joined to a substantive with which 
it agrees in number; and qudqu^un^ quelqu^untj make 
quelques-uns^ queiques-unes^ in the plural : ex. 

Quelque homme^ Some man. 

Quelque femme^ Some woman. 

Quelqu'un m^a dii^ Some one has told me, &ۥ 


When he comes to see us, he has 

Qtianc2,adv« vientyV. ^o* voir^v, 

always some tale to tell us. - - He prc^mised 

con/e,in. a fairCjV. a/)i'omi>,p. p. 

to bring me some filberts and chesnuts. - - - Have 
de aveline chdtaigne* 

you heard any news ? - - Somebody knocks 

apvris^p.p. noiivelle ? frappe^y. 

at the door, go and open it. • - Is there 

alUz^y, »o» ouvrir^y* ya-/-t7,v. 

any of these ladies who has found my colour-box ? 

dame^f. at/, v. troiivi cauleur^ 

- - Have you any (raspberry trees) in your garden ? I 

have some. - - Has he any vines ? Yes, he has some. 
A4»il^ vigne^L OMi,adv. 

Qui que ce soit^ speaking of persons only, may be 
Englished different ways ; but when by zvhoeter^ what 
person soever^ it must always be followed by the pro- 
nouns iK elle or quij and sometimes by both, unless it be 
governed by a verb o? preposition : ex. 
Qui que ce soil qui me Whoever deceives me, shall 
trompe^ il serapuni^ be punished. 



Whoever despises the poor, i3 himself des- 
m6prise^w» lui-merne me- 

picabte. - - Whoever speaks lo you, do not answer. - - 
prisuble^zdj, park «o» repondez^v* 

Whoever (may presume lo) ask you any question 
osera^v* question 

concerning that affair, pretend not^ to* know* (any* 
Lonchant.p* feignez^v. de savoir^v* 

thing) (about it^), - - Of whomsoever you speak, 

always speak the truth. - - «- To whomsoever you 
dites^v. vous 

apply every body (will tell) you the 

vans adressiez^v. tout It monde^va* dira^y. 
same thing. - - - W^ith whomsoever you be, • 

chost^U Avtc^'f* soyeZyV. 

always* behave* welP. 

' comporteZ'Vous^y* 

When the above pronoun is Englished by nobody in 
the worlds no man livings &c. ; it must be attended with 
the negation ne before the verb; and when speaking 111 
the past tense, qui qut ce fut must be used : ex. 

Je n'en park a qui que ce I meption it to no man 
Bokj living, to no one* 

Cesar ne vouloit se fier a Caesar would trust to no* 
qui que ce fut, body whatever* 


Charity bids us to (speak ill) of nobody what- 

ordonne^y. de m6dire^y. 
ever, and to do harm to no man living. - - I 

defaire^y. du mal^w. 
spoke to nobody whatever ; for 1 saw neither 

ai parti^p^p. . ai t?M,v. 

father, mother, nor children* - - Never speak to any 



bod J whatever of what I told you. - - He acquainted 

at dit Jit pari a,r. 

nobody in the world with his projects. - - My brother 

de projtt^m. 

iKras so honest, that he mistrusted nobody at alK - • 
itoil^v. $e difioit de,y» 

Cromwell would ' trust his life to nobody whatever. 
voulut^y* confier^y* w,f. 
The above observation is to be made with respect to 
91101 que ce soit, quoi que cefut^ only used in speaking of 
inanimate objects. Qukonque is indeclinable, always 
used in the singular, and said only of persons : ex. 
Jt ne me plains de quoi que I do not complain of any 

ce soil, thing zoha lever » 

Quiconque vow a dil cela^ Whoever told you that, &c. 


My brother enjoys so" good^ a* health*, that 

jouit de,y. si 
(for these) three years he never complained of 

depuis^p. s^est /»/am/,p.p. 

9ny thing whatever. - - - • He is so lazy, that 

be . applies to nothing whatever Yon 

may go and^take a walk in the garden, 

pouves^y* allergy. «o» vous promener^y. 
btft do not touch any thing whatever. - - Who- 

iouchez a,v. 
ever believes every thing which (he is told,) is 

croit^y. on lui dt/,v. 

often deceived. - - - He (is ordered) to stop 

trompe^p.p. a ordre^v. de arreter^y* 

every one that shall go that way. 

passera^y* par-Id. 
It roust be observed, that the numeral adjective one^ 
used in English as a pronoun indefinite, and admitting 
of a plural termination, is not to be expressed in French, 
when it immediately follows an adjective of colour, or 
any other expressing the shape or size of the object 


which it implies ; but the adjective must be put in the 
same number and gender as the substantive which is 
understood in English : ex. 

Quel habit acheterez^vous ? What coat shall you buy ? 

un bleu o\t un vert ? a blue one or a green one ? 

J^ai irouvi deux nids d^oi- I have found two birds' 

seaux ; dans Pun il y nests ; there were eggs 

avoitdes (£uf s J etdes petite in one, and young ones 

dans Pautre^ in the other, 


What kind of, a hat will you have ? a black 

C5pcce,f. ^ «^>^ wnnoir,adj. 

one, or a white one? a round one, or a 

6/anc,adj. rond,adj. 

cocked one ? - - - My father has sold 

retrouss6,zdj. x?enAi,p.p. 

one of his horses ; which is it ? the black one or 

un ^ 

the grey one ? - - W^ere there many flowers in 

grw,adj. - Y avoii-il 

his garden ? Yes, (there were) very fine ones, 

t7 y tn avail tres^adv. beau,adj« 
^hich my father had sent him from Hol- 

land. - - (Here are) several pair of shoes, WhicH 

Foid,adv. jou/ter,m. 

will you have ? the red ones, or the white 

voi rouge,adj. 

ones? I prefer the black ones. 

Tout — que. Tout, precerling a noua immediately 
followed by ^we, is indeclinable in the masculine and 
declinable in the feminine, befbre nouns beginning with 
a consonant, and must be repeated before every noun in 
the sentence : ex. 
Toui savant qu^iZ est^ Use As learned, as he is, he 

irompe quelquefois^ sometimes mistakes. 

Toote savante qnW/e «ff, For all she is learned, fb* 
tilt se trompe qutiquefois^ sometimes mistakes. 

Obstrve taell the above construction* 


For all my sister is ugly she gets friends 

/atJ,aclj« sefaitjV. 

every-where^ - - - As amiable as she is, she 

par-lout,adv. afmfl6/c,adj, 

does not please me at « all. - - - For all they are 
voi platt^y* du /ouf, adv. 

rich, they give^ ^ ^nothing^ to the poor. - - - - 
dpnnent^y. « /)auvre, 

Your mother^ although, (or for all) she is young, appears 

old. — - As generous as he is, he has not given 
age,adj. ' a, v. Jonn^,p.p. 

me one farthing. - - His aunt, for all she is angry 

liarditu* tante^L fdchi^^ij. 

¥rith him, will forgive him his faults, as great 
conlr£,p. pardonnera^y. lui faute^f, 

. as they are. « • « As young, amiable, handsome, 

'^and rieb, as my friend's sisters are, they were 

^ not yet married the last time I saw 

encore,adv. marie,p.p. foisyf* vis^y. 


N. B. This will be seen again among the conjunc- 

To the above pronouns may be added the three foI« 
lowing expressions, which are generally used in an in- 
definite or indeterminate manner : 

Je ne sais qui^ I know not who, whom. 

Je ne sau quoi, I know not what. 

Je ne sais qtiel, quelle^ &c. I know not which or what. 

Je ne sais qui is only said of persons, and signifies a 
person we do not know. Je ne sais quoi is only said of 


tbingfl, and signifies an object which cannot precisely 
be named or defined : Jt ne sais quel is placed before 
substantives, both of persons and things ; lastly, we 
sometimes put un before Jt ne sais qui^ and indifferently, 
un or le before Je ne sais quoi : ex. 

Je ne sais qui meparle^ I know not who speaks to 

me. ^ 

it parte de je ne sais quoi, He speaks of / know not 

Je visje ne sais quel homme^ I saw I know not what man* 
II parte d*UTije ne sais qui, He speaks of I know not 

J^ai lu une ccmidie intitu* I haVe read a play which 
/^e, te je ne sais quoi, has for itd title, / know 

not what, 


When I paid a visit to mj friend, I addressed 

rendisyY* «o» m'adressai^v* 

myself to I know n9t whom. • - He (keeps company 

«o» friquefite^y. 

with) I know not whom, and that displeases her. • - 

deplait^y, tui* 
Whilst she (was speaking) to him, she was 

Pendant que^c* parloit^v. ' fut 

accosted by 1 know not whom. - - There is 

a6orci^,p.p. />ar,p. // y a,v. 

I know not what mean in that behaviour. - - -' 

de 6a5,adj. conduite^f. 

He complains of 1 know not what. - - - When I 

se plaint^y, 
went in, I saw I know not what man, what wo- 
man, what pictures, what figures. - - She speaks 

porlrait^m* Jigure^L 

to I know not whom. - - - There is in that I 

know not what that pleases me. 


upon all the PRONOUNS. 

Review, well your rules and examples before you zoriUn 

I speak French. - - You speak English. - - 
parle^v^ parlez^v. 

We do not understand . what they say to us. • - 

«o^ comprenons^w disent^v. 

She speaks to you, and robs you (at the same) 

parle^Wm vole^v. en mime 

time. - - We have not seen them. - - Your 

temps ^nim avons^v. vu5,p.p. 

mother came to see me yesterday, and I 

vint^v* U50 i?oiV,v. Ater,adv. 

(will go to) see her to-morrow. - - Is there any body 

tra»,v. demain^stdv. Esi-il^ 

that esteems her more than I do ? - • Attention , 

tslime^v* «o» 

cares, credit, money, I have put' (every' thing) 
Boiny *mt>, t<mi 

in use. - - They are happy, but we are 

en,p. usage, heureuxj^dj, 

not so. - • Every body thinks I am the mother of 

* croit^Y* 

that child ; I assure you 1 am not. - - - - Ladies, 

* Mmes^ 

are you the companions of Miss le Noir t Yes, 
iteSyV, compagne^f. 

we are. - -^ - My uncle gave me a sword and 

* a donii^fp.p. 

1 owe. my life to it. - - • Whatever (may be) 
dots la soientyV, 

your troubles, you (ought to) write to me more 

peine^U devriez^v. icrire^v, 

frequently ^ - - I iirill lend you the book which she 
souveni^^dv. preterai^v* 

has sent me. - - Believe ine, he is very 

envoy 6^p.p, Croyez^y, 

ill, - - . . 1 shall be very glad ' to fro 

ma/a<Zc,adj. serai^v. at56,adj. de aller^ v. 

* Look at page 96. ^ . 


there with you ; for I have something to tell 

arec,p. carfi. acfire,v* 

him. - - I love your sister, and I owe her re- 

aime^v* reS" 

spect. • - Give me <inj hat and cloak. - ^ - 

pect^m. chapeau^jn. manteh^tn. 

I have dined with your father and mother. - - 

They* often* procure' me* that plea- 

souvent^2iiy* procurtnl^v. 

sure. • • If it be not an indiscretion on my part, 

ct tsi^y. f. dt parlS* 

pray tell me what passed between you 

dt grdce^ dites s^est pa8s6,f.p» en/r«,p. 

and them. • - They have sent you good apples-^ 

« pomtne^ f. 
Yes, there were some gdod ones and some bad 

// y avoit^v. m(ittT>at5,adj[. 

ones. - - Write to me, do not write to her. • - - 

EcTvotz^y. * t<>. 

Carry gome to your sister. - - I will do whatever 
Porttz^v. ferai^y* 

you please. - - - The Thames is a very fine 

voudrtZyV* Tamxsef* &e(iu,adj. 

river ; it divides London into two parts. - - - 
micre,f. divise^w. en,p. parlit. 

London is the capital of England, as Paris is that 

of France ; it is a fine city, but some of its streets 

*" rM€,f. 
are very inconvenient and narrow. - - - Brest 

tncoynmo£{e,adj. ^/rot/,adJ. 

is a fine sea - port,t in France, but its entrance 

mcr, /?or/,m. * tniritf. 

is difScult and dangerous. - - Brother, these 

books are mine, and not yours. - - - Youlr 

exercise is better than mine, but it is not 80 

* See page IDS. t Sqg the rule page 44« 


well written as your sister's. - - Do you think of 

ecn/,p.p« •<>» ptnsez^y.d 

me ? Yes, 1 do.* - - You do not know what vexeft 

pmse^y. *c» fdchtyV. 

me. - - I will not accept of any of the 

veux^y. accepter^v. 

terms which they offer me. - - Whom ought 

mondition^f* offrent^v* , cIeTon9,v. 

we to worship ? *God, who is the father of 

»o^ adortr^y* Dieu^ 

them that love him, and the protector of those 

that fear him. - - Of all those who contend 

craignenlyy, dispuitnt^y. 

against religion, some do it because it per- 

can/re,p. f. Its uns font^ym parceque^c* em* 

plexes them -, others, because they wish to 

barrassEyy. lea autres vtulenf^y* mp^ 

have the glory of perplexing its defenders. - - 

embarrasser^y. diftMmr^m. 

Those trees are well exposed to the sun, 

ar&re,in. tocposi^.f. soUil^tn* 

nevertheless their fruits are not good. - - I believe 
cependant yZdy. crms^y* 

your uncle is arrived. - - His ability is not so 

(mc/e,m. arriv6^p.p. habileU^L 

great as yours. - - Two rivals are generally 

gra7iJ,adj. rival^m* 

enemies of one another. - - Sister, who gave you 

a cIonn^,p.p. 
that letter ? Our uncle's servant. - - - What does 

leitre,U domes tique^m* u9> 

he write to you ? That his library is at our 

icrit^y. bibliothequt^f. a 

service ; and I assure you that he has a very good 

one. - - His letters please me so much, that I 

t plaisent^y. 

wish to increase their number. Both my 

'PttiopjV. «^ augmtnitr^y. 

^ * Look at page 94. f See the ex : p. 93^ 



father and aunt are now at Rome \ the former 

apristnt - 
writes once a week, the latter" writes 

icrit^v. unefois^t. 
to me twice a yean - - - He that wants 

dmxfoi^ manque de^Vm 

virtue, wants (all things). - - • That lady pleases 

tout. damcjf. pMt^vi 

you, for you* are^ always* ppcaking' of her*. - - * 

car,c. parkz^v. 

The beauty of the mind creates admira- 

beaut6^(* tsprit^m. donne^w. 

tion ; that of the soul gains ' esteem, and that 

Ame,f. donne^v. estime^f. 
of the body love. - - - - Most friends are more 

corps^vdM amour^m. 
attajched to our fortune, Uhan' nhey are 

<illacAe,p.p. que ne,c« 

to our person. - - - Whoever is withoot virtue, 

seldom^ values* mct» ; and whoever is 

raremen/jadv. estime^v. 

too good, values them (too much). - - - It 

/rop,adv. \ irop,adv. Ce 

is she who t^ld me that this bduse is not 

a dt/,p'p. fwawon,f. 

yours. - - You believe that Mrs. D. is in your interests, 
* eroyez^v^ inierit^m. 

and I believe nothing of it. - - - Ambition 

crois^y* ne rien,adv. 
(tramples upon) wisdom, honour, probity, and on 
foule aux pieds «*r,p. 

their ruins, it lays the foundation of its great- 

riirne,f. 6live,v. fondement.m. gran- 

ness. - - Whatever her intention (may be,) I* do 

<ieur,f. soit.v. ^ 

»not« love» hei-^ the less'' for it*. - - I assure you that 
aime^Yt ^ 

1 have answered both her letter and her brother^s. 

Nobody in the world has coniptained of your con* 
*V«/,v. j>/atni,p.p. 
* Look at page 85 and 86. 

I ■ 

duct. - - VtheD you read the history of the Roman 

Quand^c. lireZjV. hisioire^L ' JRomam, adj, 
emperors, you will find one (of them) wtfose name 
crwpcreiir,m. irouvtrtz^s* 

was Nero. - - - The study of geography is absolute- 
J^iron. geograpkie^f. ahsohi^ 

\y necessary to him who has a taste for bts- 

meni,adv» du gou^,m« 

tory. - « He that sold us this cffock did not 

^ a V6n(2u,p«p. pendule,f. a^y. 

cheat us. - - What do you think of it ? - - - 

irompes\p.f. . to^ • ptnszz^Y. 

Whoever cheats me shall repent (of it). - - • 

trompt^y. st reptniira^x. en 

Every body thinks* we shall have peace. - - When I 

croit^v. auronSyV^ paix^U 

went in, the members of the assembly were 

tntrai^y. itoient^Vm 

seated every one in his place. •-,-!, who did not 
assis^p»p. a ^d^ 

know that they were reconciled, was much 
mavois^v, que^c. r6conciliesyp,p. fas^v. ybr/,adv» 

Surprised to see them together. England owes / 

ttonni de voir^v* cwwm6/c,adv. doit^v* 

her riches to her naval strength and the encourage- 

ybrc w,f. pi. 
ment she gives to her commerce. - - We speak 

donne^v. parhnSyV* 

of what has happerred to him. - - Well ! if he* 

esi^v. arrirc,p.p. Eh 6ten,int. 

spend ^ other people's money, be does not spend 

yours. • - This illnass is much hid ; nevertheless 
maladie^f. fori cachie^p.p. cependant^Bdym 

I know Its origin and effects She who 

connois^y. t 
(was speaking) to you is «not yet mar- 

parloiljY. encore,adv. 

ried. - • Her father, mother, brothers, sisters, uncles, 

* See the note at the bottom of page 104. t Sec p. 102. 


and aunts, in short, all her relations, arc dead, 

tant€j(. enfiriyC. parent,xn. 

and bave^ left her a considerable fortune. - - - 

Those gentlemen have fine horses, but mine are 

messieurs chevaljtn. 

finer than theirs. - - Do you know ^ any of 

those ladies ? Yts, I know some of them. - - - - 

For all they are young and handsome, they have- (a 

great deal) of modesty and virtue. - - - That German 


nobleman is both poor and proud Desire 

genlilhome orgu€t7/eu:c,adj. Priez^v^ 

him to bring them here. - - - Is that the gown 
de amener^y. Est<e rohe^U 

for which you gave five guineas ? - - If I 

/>our,p. avez £{onni,p.p. 

had been in yotfr place, I (would have) 

eusse^Y, ^/^,p.p. a aurois^v. ^ 

preferred the white one to the black one 


How many books are there in that library ? -There 

y a-t-il hibliotheque^L 

are three thousand seven hundred and twenty-seven 
in the library, fifty-two upon the table, and nineteen 
in my room. • - Whose house is this t It belongs 

to I know not whom. • - There is I know not what 

// y a,v. 
in the colour, which pleases «Diuch. - - To what 

danf,p. plaiUv* 

(does he apply himself)? - - - This apple, and that he 
s^apptique-tM^v, * * 

Save you, arc very^good. - - Give me either 
onna^v. Donnez^v. 

of them. - - I will send you some thither. - - - 
M&i enverrai^Y. 

• See the rule page 112. 


I cannot . seU . it to you for so^ smalP a* 

,nepeux pas^y.vendrt^y* pour^p* 

sum.* - - I pilfer the t>eaut jr of the mind to that 
somme^f. prSfere^v. 
of the body. - - Some like music and some dancinf^, 

Lesunsaiment^Y, danstf* 

- - She says she hates that man ; many think she 

di/,v. haU^v, croient 

loves him. • - He whom nobody pleases, is more 
aime^y, * a pldit^y. * 

unhappy '^ than he who pleases nobody* • - I 

malhturtux^ziy - a 

was near your sister when * that happened 

ilois^y. aupres rfe,p. quand^c* arriva^y* 

to her. - - Both his father and mother died 

on the same day. - - - - . - As covetous as he^is, he 
tc« ai;a're,adj. 

gave me a guinea. - • - There are many people 

a donne.p.p. Hy ci 

whom we esteem, because we do not know them. • - 

parctque^c. connoiisons 

Whatever has happened to yoo, I am very sorry 

5ot7,v. arriv^,p.p. yacAe,adj. 

for it. - - He would do it in spite of any 

voulut^y. fairt^y. ew,p. dipit^m* 
body whatever. - « Learning is preferable to riches 

and virtue to both. - - - Some philosophers have 

philosophe^m. ont^y. 
thought that the fixed stars were so many 

cru,p.p. ^a76,adj. 6loile^(» itoient^y. auiant 

suns. - - See with what care, attention, and per- 

severance,^ every animal (rears up) its (young ones.) 

c7cx?e,v. j(?c/i/,adj. • 

- - (Here are) two grammars, which do you pre- 
Foici,adv. «o» 

fcr ? I prefer this to that Both are very 

good. - • - He believes nothing of what you 

croit^y. ne rien,adv. 


told him* - - - You blame him ivho does 

avez (2i/,p.p. " hlamez^v. 

not deserve it. - - * Friend, to 4¥boin did jou 

merite^y. avez^v. 

speak ? I spoke to nobody ; for 1 saw 

parli^p.p. aiparU^w car^c. ai vu^p.p. 

neither of them. - - Each country has its peculiar 

customs ; in France, they* eat with the fork, in England, 
eoutume^f. 07i,pro. 

we eat with the knife ; in France, they eat the meat 
well done ; in England, we eat it half raw. 

cuiU,p.p» a moitii crue,adj. 


Verbs are usually divided into seven sorts, viz. 

1. Les vethes -auxiliaires, auxiliary. 

2. Les verbes actifs^ . active. 

3. Les verbes passifs^ passive. 

4. Les verbes neutres^ neuter. 

5. Les verbes riJUchis^ reflective. 

6. Les verbes personnels^ personal. 

7. Les verbes impersonnels, impersonal. 

Some of them are regular^ that is to say, they follow 
the general rule of the conjugation to which they be- 
long ; others do not, and are called irregular. 

The auxiliary verbs are, avoir, to have, and itre^ to be. 
These two auxiliaries are used to conjugate all the com- 
pound trnses of the other verbs. 

The active verbs, — In this class, the action is transitive, 
that is, it passes from the subject to the object : ex. , 

Le mattre punit les ecoliers The master punishes the 
paresseuz, lazy scholars* 

'Fhe active verb sometimes governs two cases : one 

* See pfkge $4. 

, 14» 

to which the action directly refers, or which is the di- 
rect object of the action, and is therefore called the 
direct or absolute case; the other, to which the action 
refers but indirectly, and it is called the indirect or re- 
lative case : ei. 

Votre s<Bur a ecrit une Your sister wrote a long 
longue lettre a mon frere, letter to my brother* 

A long letter is the direct orabsolute case, and to my 
brother^ the indirect or relative case, of the verb wrote* 
The direct case can be no other but the accusative of a 
noun or pronoun, but the indirect is either thegemave,« 
dative^ or ablative* 

In the passive verbs^ the action is received or suffered 
by the subject : ex. 
Les ecoliers paresseux Lazy scholars shall be 

serontpunisy punished. 

In the neuter verbs^ the action is intransitive, that Is, 
it remains in the agent : ex. 

Je dors^ I sleep. I Vous voyagez, You travel* 

Jfous 6tudions, We study. | Elle soupire^ She sighs. 

In the reflected verbs^ the action returns upon the 
agent that produces it : ex. 

// se repent^ He repeats himself* 

Elle se /<me. She praises herself. 

These verbs have always se before their infinitivCi 
and are conjugated with a double pronoun. 

The personal verbs are those which are conjugated 
with three persons, in the singular and plural, through- 
out all their tenses. 

The imperso* al verbs have only the third person of the 
singular number. 

.AT. B. There is a kind of verbs which may be distin- 
guished by the name of reduplicative^ always expressing 
a repetition of the action : ex. 

Rccommencer^ To begin again. 

Rofaire^ To do again^ &c. 

Ijn these verbs, the English word again is to be 

To cal>; 


To see ; 

To build ; 


To take; 

To lie; 


To live ; 


rendered in FreDch by the syllable re prefixed to the 
radix of the verb, and not by encore. • 

All the above verbs may be simple or compound. 

A verb is simple which cannot be divided without 
losing its meaning : asj 

which would mean nothing, ;f they were divided. 

A verb is compound when it is preceded by one or 
more syllables : as, 

Rappeler, To recall, j PrerotV, To foresee. 

' RcMtir, To rebuild. Entreprencfre,Toiinrfertake. 
Demen/ir, To 6elie. ] Survtpre, To oudive,&c. 

' These last verbs are generally formed by prefixing to 
ihem part or the whole of a preposition. 


To conjugate verbs .is to give them different inflec- 
tions or terminations, according to their moods, tenses, 
persons and nunAers. 


Mood or mode, in the sense it is taken here, is a gram- 
matical term, which means the manner of affirming, or 
denoting, in the verbs, by different inflections. 

There are, in the French language, four moods, abso- 
lutely distinct from each other, by the several inflec* 
tions, or by some other difierence. They are : 

LHnJtnitiy^ The infinitive. 

LHndicatif, The indicative. 

Vimpiratif, The imperative. 

JLe su^onctif,OM The subjunctive, or con- 
conjonclif, junctive. 

Of the Infinitive Mood. 
This mood is so called, because it only expresses 
the action or signification of the vorb in an indefinite 
and indeterminate manner, that is, without affirmation, 


and without any relation as to tinie, number, or person •: 
ex. * . 

Parhfj To speak. 

Chanter, To .sing. 

Danser, To dance. 

Of iht ^Indicative Mood. 

• * 

This mood, is thus called, because it not orAj indi- 
cates the affirmation in the different tenses of the verbs, 
but likewise the time, number, and person ; without 
being preceded or governed by either a conjunction or 

JHcris une kttre^ I write a letter. 

// chante une chanson, He sings a song. 

, Ecris and chante are two verbs in the indicative 
mood, because they do not require to be preceded by a 
conjunction* or another verb to make a complete sense. 
The definition of this mood will be better understood, 
^ by comparing the little that has been said with what is 
going to be said with respect to the subjunctive mood. 

Of the Imperative Mood. 

The name which has been given to this mood, is de- 
rived from a Latin word which signifies to command ^ 
and the imperative is in fact but a manner of denoting 
in the verbs the action of commanding^ entreating, pray- 
ings exhorting, ?ind sotheimes forbidding : ex. 

Ke meprisez pas les avis Do not despise the advice 
queje vous donne, which I gi^e 3rou. 

It is easy to perceive that this manner of speaking is 

but an exhortation, as if I had said, 

Je vous exhorte, je vous prie, I exhort, I entreat you, not 
de ne pas mipriser mes to despise my advice. 


• This mood has no first person in the singular, because 

♦ Among tfie conjunctions, soin^rovern the indicative, others the 
subjunctive : this will be explained hereafter, 




it is impogsible for a man to command himself; and if 
it have the first person plural, it is because we speak as 
much to others as to ourselves; as when we say, 

Evitons tout ce quipourroit Let us avoid every thing 
offenstr Us autres^ that might ofiend others* 

Xbe second person singular and the first and second 
plural admit of no pronouus before them; as to the 
third, in both numbers, it is always preceded by the 
pronoun il or e//e, &c. and the conjunction que. 

(y rte Subjunctive, or Conjunctive* 

The name' of subjunctfve, or conjunctive, sufficiently 
conveys what its use is in a sentence* It may be de- 
fined thus ; a manner of expressing the different tenses 
of the verbs without any affirmation* In fact, the sub- 
junctive never affirms ; it is always preceded by, or 
gubject to some conjunction ; and if it should be met 
with in a sentence containing an affirmation, that af- 
firmation can only be expressed by the verb that pre- 
cedes tb^ subjunctive, which is used only to modify that 
affirmation* In the subsequent sentence, 

Je travdilk afin que vous I work that you may rest 
V0U8 rqjiosiez, yourself. 

the affirmation is only expressed by je travaille^ I work, 
and what follows only expresses the end which I propose 
by working, viz. to procure you some rest* Again, 

Je desire que vous fassiez I wish that you may do 
voire devoir^ your duty ; 

I affirm that I wish ; but it is clear there is no affirma- 
tion in these vfordsfithat you may do your duty^ since I 
do not say that you 'io, tnat you have done, that yotr 
will do your duty ; but only that 1 wish you may do it* 
My wish is not doubtful ; but it is very doubtful whether 
you will or may do your duty* 



There are, strictly speakkig, but three natural and 
proper tenses in the verbs : viz. 

Lepassi^ The past. 

Le present^ The present. 

Lefutur^ The future. 

In the French language, the tenses are divided in the 
following manner, viz. Jive in the infinitive mood; three 
of them are simple^ the two others compound. 

In the simple tenses, the verb is expressed in one 
word: ex. 

Parler, To speak. 

Chantant, Singing. 

DansCj Danced. 

The compound tenses are conjugated with some one 
of the auxiliary verbs, oroir, to have, or itre^ to be, 
joined to a participle passive : ex. 

Jvoir parli^ To have spoken. 

Ayant chaniij Having sung. 

Etre aimSy To be lovrid. 

Etani aimiy Being loved. 

Simple Tenses. 

Le prisent^ The present. 

Le participe aciif^ The participle active. 

Le partidpe passify The participle passive. 


Lepritirity The preterite. 

Le participe passe ou The participle past or com- 
compQs6f pound. 

There are ten tenses in the indicative mood, viz. Jive 
simpk and Jive compound : they are, 


Le prisenty The present. 

Vimparfaii^ The imperfect. 

Lt pfiiirit^ The preterite. 



Lefutur^ The future. 

Le condiiiahnelj The conditional. 


Le present^ The present. • 

LHmparfaUj The imperfect. 

Lepreiirii, The preterite. 

Lefutur, The future* 

Leconditionnel, • The conditional. 

.V. jB. The iliperative admits of no tense but the 

The subjunctive mood has four tenses; two simple 
and two eompoumh 

Sim PLC. 

Le pristni^ The present. 

Lepriiirii^ The preterite. 

Compound of ' 

Leprisent^ The present. 

Lcpr6t6ritj The preterite. 

Before we proceed any further on the comugations, 
it has been thought proper to explain the difierent uses 
of the above tenses, as one of the most important arti- 
cles in. a language, the precision ^f which partly de- 
pends on the difference which custom eets between one 
tense and another with regard to the sense of the sen- 
tence. We shall endeavour to be short and concise, 
and say nothing but what is useful, in hopes that the 
following explanation will be sufficient to remove a 
difficulty which constantly puzzles the learner. 



This tense is used when the state, action, or im- 


pression, mentioned by the verb, u existing^ doings or 
kappehingy at the very time we are speakiog : ex. 

Je me porte 6ien, I am well. 

Voire scBur est maladt^ Your sister is ill. 

Nnus nous promenoDS, We are walking. 

Vous ecrivez, You are writing. 

Z&jouent, They are playxngj Slc. 

The present is also used, 

1. When speaking of actions or things which we 
hahittially do, are accustomed to do, or can do : ex. 

Xous dinons toujours a deux We always dine at two 

heure9y o^clock. 

Elk etudie Phistoirt^ She studies history. 

Vous pariez Frangois, You speak French. 

Lit-t7 PMglois ? Does he read English ? 

2. When speaking of actions which are to be done 
in a very short time, we generally use this tense instead 
of the future: ex. 

Je pars ce soir pour la I set out this evening foj 

campagne^ the country. 

Que faite8-vati5 demain? What do you do to-morrow? 

Instead of 

Je partirai ce soir pour la I shall set out this evening 

campagne^ for the country. 

Que {ereZ'Vous demain ? What will you do to-mor- 

S. This tense is also constantly used in French in- 
stead of the preterite and compound of the preterite^ 
especially in orations or set discourses^ and inpoetry^ in 
order to represent a past action or event as present to 
the mind of the hearers or readers. 


This tense has two uses ; in the firsts which probably 
is the origin of its name, it expresses an action present 
or doing at the time of an action that is past : as when 
I say, 



Man frirt apprenoit sa My brother was leaHiing 
legon quand vous arri- his lessoD whdn you ar-^ 
vates, rived* 

In the above sentence, the act of learning, though 
past with respect to ray narration, was present at the 
moment your arrival took place ; therefore this tense is 
but imperfectly preterite and imperfectly present. 

In /Ac second^ the imperfect is employed every time 
we speak of actions of habit, or actions reiterated at a time 
which is not defined: ex. 

Qaand /etois ci Londres, When I was in London, I 
/allois souvent voir mes often went to see my 
amis, friends; 

that is, I often used to go, or I frequently went, &c. 

The imperfect is likewise used when we sp^ak of the. 
character, or some inherent ^nd distinctive quality, of per- 
sons or things no longer existing; and after the English 
conjunction if, though the verb be preceded by should, 
could, would: ex. 

Philippe, pere d^Alexan- Philip, the father of Alex- 

dre le Grand, etoit le ander the Great, zoa5 the 

plu» Jin politique de son deepest politician of his 

temps, time. 

Cesar avoit je ne sais quoi Cassarftad I know not what 

de grand dans la phy- of great in his physiog- 

sibnomie, nomy. 

Carthage faisoit* un pro- Carthage carried on a pro- 

digieux commerce par le digious trade bylhe means 

may en de ses vaisseaux, of her ships, which went 

qui alloient jusqu^aux as far as the Indies. 

Palmire et Persipolls etoient ' Palmyra and Per^epolis 

de grandes et belles villes, > were large and fine cities. 

S'^il venoit, je le paie^ If he woxdd come, or came, 

rois, I would pay him. 
* See Fa*»e, page 290. 


Gedrge //• etoit d^une 

tailU plutoi petite que 

moyenne; il avoit les 

ytux tris'Saillans^ le nez 

grand^ ti une belle com' 

jpkxion ; il etoit doua?, 

moderi ei humain; sobre et 

rSgulier dans sa maniere 

de vivre: il se plaisoit 

dans la pompe et dans 

Vappareil militaire^et etoit 

naturellemeni brave ; il 

airooit la guerre comme 

. soldat^ retudioil comme 

une science^ tt avoit, sur ce 

sujet^ une correspondance 

ilablie avec quelques'Uns 

dts plus grands gineraux 

^ue VAlUmagne ait pro- 


George IL wasy in his per- 
son, rather lower than 
the middle size ; he had 
remarkable prominent 
«ye8, a high nose, and a 
fair complexion ; he was 
mild, moderate and hu- 
mane ; in hia way of liv- 
ing, sober and regular: 
he delighted in military 
pomp and parade^ and 
teas naturally brave : 
"he loved war as a sol- 
dier, studied it as . a 
science, and had, on this 
account, a settled cor- 
respondence with some 
of the greatest generals 
that Germany has pro- 

From the above instances it might confidently be 
believed, that every difficulty attending the use of this 
tense will be entirely removed ; I shall however add, as 
a farther illustration, that whenever the verb, which iq 
English is in the preterite, can be rendered by the past 
tense of the verb to be, and that preterite changed into 
the participle active, or when that preterite c^n be 
turned into the verb in the infinitive mood preceded by 
/, thou, he, ^c. used to, that past tense must be made in 
French by the imperfect : ex. 

Je lisoisj 1 used to read ; or I was reading. 


This tense is so called because it always expresses an 
action done .at a time determined or specified by an adverb, 
or some circumstance in the speech, and so entirely 
elapsed, that nothing more remains of the time whea 
that action was doing : ex. 
Je fus malade hier pendant 1 was ill yesterday for two 

deux he^res, hours. 


jLadernierefoifi^tnoii^al- The last tine we wmi to 

lames U voir, nous eumes see him, we had a kind 

till acctuil favorable^ - reception. 

Vous ecrivites a votre frirt You laroit to your bro- 
il y a hull jours, ther eig/t( doys ago. 

lis essuyerent de grandes Thej underwent great 

pertes I'annee passee, losses last year. 


This tense simply expre68e3 that an action will be 
done at a time that is not yet come : ex. 

Je vous vcrrai demaii^ a I shall see you to-morrom in 

Londresy London. 

Mon frire vous ecrira la My brother will write to 

semaine prochaine, you next week. 

In French, as well as in English, we sometimes ex* 
press an action that is to be done instantlj, by the verb 
aller^ or s^en aller^ to go, immediately followed by an 
infinitive: ex. 

Je vais, or je m'en vais I am going to write to my 

ecrire a ma tante, aunt. 

Je rais or je m'en vais I am going to set out. 


Which signify, 

Je lui ecrirai tout presen- I will write to her immedi^ 

teraent, ately. 

Je partirai dans Pinstant, I will set out instantly. 

To express an uncertainty in a future tense, that is, 
to express that it is not decided that such a thing will 
be done, we make use of the verb devoir immediately 
followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, and that is 
the only instance wherein devoir does not imply obliga^ 
a'on, necessity,^ ^c. : ex. 

Le roi doit partir pour The king is to set out for 
Cheltenham vers le mi- Cheltenham about the 
lieu du mois de Juillety . middle of July, and is 
tt ne doit revenir qxCu not to return till the lat- 
lajin dfA mois £Aout^ ter end of August. 


That is, 

On suppose gue k rot par- It is supposed that the king 

tira, &c. ti quHl ne re- zoill set out^ ^c» and will 

Viendra qu'a, &c* - not return till^ ^c^ 


The name of this tense is a true definition of it: in 
fact, it is always used to express some condition or sup- 
position^ and has always a reference to the present^ be- 
cause, by supposing the condition effected, the actfon, 
mentioned by the conditional, becomes present : ex* 

Je lirois, si favois des IsAou/JreaJ, if Ihadbooks. 

' livres^ 

Vous auriez la Jlivre^ si You zcould have a fever if 

vous mangiez de ce you ate of that fruit* 


Je serois mortifii^ sHl per- I should he mortified, if he 

doit sonprocesj should lose his law-suit. 

It is sometimes used, instead of the future, after the 
conjunction que : ex# 

II a promis qxxHl vien- He has promised to come^ 
^ droit, or that he would come. 

This tense is often called the uncertain tense^ because 
it expresses an action made uncertain by the conditional 
that follows it ; and some grammarians place it among 
the tenses of the subjunctive mood, though it is very 
certain that it never is governed by any of the conjunc- 
tions which require a subjunctive mood after them* 



The compound of the present is employed in two 
different fpanners, « 
1. It expresses an action past in an indeterminate 


time but not very far distant from the time we speak : 
thus we must saj, 

J'ai vu mademoisdle voire I have seen your sister, and 

scRur tt lui ai parle, spoken to her. 

Le roi de Prusse a conquis The king of Prussia has 

la Stlisie^ conquered Silesia. 

Ctla s'est passe avanta- That has passed advanta- 

geusement pour voire geouslj for your cousin* 


In the abo?e sentence, the action is certainly past, 
but the time when it passed is neither determined nor 


2. It expresses a time definite and .determinate, but 
of which there yet remains some part to elapse : ex. 

Lea fruits ont tres^hien Fruits have very well #«c- 

reussi cette ann6% ceeded this year. 

J^ous n^avons pas eu beau^ We have not had much 

coup de neige cet hiver^ snow this winter. 

// a plu ioute cette semaine^ It has rained all this week, 

tout cemois^ all this month. 

J^ous avons vu d^ilranges We have seen strange 

choses dans ce sieck^ things in this century. 

In the above sentences, this year^ this »€e£, this 
mnier, &c. are times which still last, and are not yet 

To express an action recently past, we sometimes 
make use of the verb venir immediately followed by d«, 
and the verb in the infinitive mood : ex. 

Je viens de le voir passer, I have just seen him go by. 
Le roi vient d'arriver, Th^ king w but just arrived* 

Elle vient d'expirer, She is but just dead. 

The same tense may be expressed by the verb faire^ 
preceded by the negation n^ and foHowed by the con- 
junction que^ with an infinitive preceded by de : ex. 

// ne fait que d'arrfoer. He is hUjust arrived. 
Je ne fais que de sortir, I have but just gone ou^ 


\ U5 

If. EL This partitte de is here indispensable, because, 
without it, the expression would liave ^uite another 
sense, and would express a continoation or a frequent 
reiteration in the action : ex. 

Vous ne faites que sortir. You do nothing but go out. 
Elle ne fait que jouer et She does nothing but play 
denser J and dance. 


This tense expresses an action past before another 
which is past also; but with this difference, that the 
action expressed by this tense is the principal object of 
the person who speaks, and the following sentence is 
subordinate to that expressed by the compound of the 
imperfect. So that, though the time of that subordinate 
sentence be defined, that of the principal sentence is not 
the less indeterminate, because the former has no influ- 
ence on the latter. As when we say, 

Ifous avions dine lorsqu^U We had dined when he 
arriva^ arrived, 

our principal object is to express the action of dining 
as past, without determining at what time, but onlj be- 
fore an action which is past also, without, however, 
the latter being a consequence of the former; for, we 
do not mean to say, that be stayed, or waited, till we 
bad dined, to arrive. 

Compound op the Preterite. 

Tbis tense also expresses an action past or done 
before another which is likewise past ; and it is deter- 
mined by the following sentence, which is the principal 
object of the attention. Thus when we say, 

• Quand ils eurent acheve When they had done play- 
de' jouer, Us se mirent A ing they began singing. 

♦ 156 

We mean at first to convity that they began tinging^ 
and that it was not till they hid dont playing: in which 
case, the action of having done playing is subordinate to 
this, thi}j began singings and consequently the latter de« 
tern}ines the time of the other. 

The following observation is very plain, and will in 
some manner fix the use of the above tense, viz. that 
it is hardly ever used except after the conjunctions 

Aussiiot que^^ CApres que^ After; 

D^abord ou«, > As soon as ; < Lorsque^ } i«^. 
Desqut, ) (Quand, 5 ^^^""'^ 

which never precede a compound of the imperfect, un- 
less the verb express a custom or habit. 

Lastly, we must use the compound of the preterite 
when the adverb bientot soon, precedes or follows the 
verb was or. had^ to express an action or thing as done 
' and accomplished : ex. 

Vaffaire fut bientot /mVe, The business zoer^^oon over. 
J'eus bientot Jim de man' I AaJ^oon done eating. 

Compound of the Future. 

t The name of this tense seems at first to convey a con- 
tradictibn: what is meant by it is, not that an action 
can be future and past ^t thie same time, but only that 
the action, which is to come, will be past when another 
action, shall happen, or even before it happens : ex. . 

Je serai parti quand vous I shall be gone when you 

reviendrez^ (shall) come back. 

Quand vous aurez fini vos When you (shall) have done 

affaires^ vous viendrez me your business, you shall 

trouver^ come to find me. 

. In the first sentence, / shall be gone which is a 
^uture time with respect to the present we speak 

167 ' 

in, will be a past time by the time you will or purpost 
to arrive, &c. 

Compound of the Conditional. 

This tense generally supposes a condition, as the con- 
ditional present, with this difference, that the condition 
taking place, the action expressed by the verb in the 
conditional is accomplished and consequently in a past 
time : ex. 

Je vous aurois ecrit il y a I would have written to you 
tin mofV, si /eusse su a mohth ago, if I had 
votre adresse^ known your direction. 

The indicative mood has another tense, formed by 
the compound of the pr^senf of the verb avoir^ joined 
to a participle passive, which has not been inserted 
in the preceding tenses, on account of its being seldom 
used : ex. 

Quand jpai eu dine, je suis When I (have) had dined, 
pariij I set out. 

Bat it is more elegant and natural to say, 

Apres avoir dtne^ je suis After I had dined, I set 
partij out. 


The subjunctive or conjunctive has no future dis- 
tinguished frcfin the present^ because the present of the 
subjunctive likewise expresses a future tense : ex. 

Je ne croispas quHl vienne, I do not think he will come. 

Add the following observations to the latter : 

1. When the verb which precedes the conjunction 
is in t(ie present or future of the indicative, and nvhen 
we do not mean to express an action passed in the 
second verb, we must put this last verb in the present 
of the subjunctive mood : ex. 

Jesouhaite que vous reus- I wish you may succeed in 
sissiez dans voire entreprise, your undertaking. 
J^attendrai quHl vienne, I will wait till he come. 


2. When the verb which is before the conjunction is 
in 6ome of ihe past tenses, or conditional, and we wish 
not to designate by the second verb a past time more 
distant than that of the first verb, we mast pnt this 
second verb in the preterite of the subjunctive : 

Alexandre ordonna qtie tous Alexander ordered^ that all 

ses sujets Tadorassent 

comme un dieu^ 
Je voulois que vous ecrivis- 

siez a voire scBur^ 
11 souhaiteroit que vous 

prissiez des rusures plus 


his subjects should roor^ 
ship him like a god. 

I wished you to write to 
your sister* 

He would wish you to take 
more becoming meas- 

3. The compound of the present of the subjunctive 
mood is used when we speak of an action past and ac« 
complished, with regard to the tense of the verb which 
preceiies the conjunction ; and this tense is generally 
the present, compound of the present, or future of the 
indicative : ex. 

Je doute qu'^aucun philo- 
sophe ait jamais bien 
connu Punion de Pdme 
avec le corpsj 

II a fallu que j'aie consul- 
te tous les medtcins, 

Je n'aurai garde d't/ atler, 
que je n'aie re<;u quel- 
que assurance d^itre bien 

I doubt whether any philo- 
sopher have ever well 
understood the union of 
the soul with the body. 

I was obliged to consult all 
the physicians. 

I shall bff no means go thi- 
ther, tilr I have received 
some. assurance of being 

4. After the imperfect, preterite, compound of the 
imperfect, of the indicative, or one of the two condi- 
tionals, we use the compound of the preterite of the 
subjunctive mood ; likewise after the conjunction if, 
when preceding a compound tense: ex. 

J'ignorois que vous eussiez I did not know you had 
emi)ras8e cette profes* embraced that profes- 
sioii'la, sion. 


Vbus n^avez pas era que je You rftd not believe I 
fusse arrivee a»a»< rou^, should have arrived be- 
fore you. ' 
Nous auTions 6ie fdchis que MVe sh<mld have been sorry 
vous vons fussiez aclresse if you had applied to any 
a d^autres qu^d nou^i^ others but us* 


A tense is composed of numbers ; that is, the singu- 
lar and the plural. 

That there are three persons, has already been ob* 
served under the personal pronouns ;, we have only to 
remark, that some of these three persons are always 
joined to the verb as its nominative case, therefore the 
verb must agree with that nominative in number and 
person : ex. 

Jefais^ i do. 
Tufais^ Thou dost. 
Ilfait^ He does. 

Nous faisoyis^ We do* 
Vous Jaites^ You or ye do. 
lis font, They do. 

The pronoun T?ow*,.you, denotes the second person 
singular and plural, with this difference, that when we 
speak to a person only, the attribute, or qualifying 
noun, must be put in the singular : ex. 

Vous ites roarie, and not You are married. 


Vous 4tiez general de Par- You were general of the 

mee, and not giniraux, army. 

But we must say mariis and g6n6raux, if we speak to 

When the verb has two or three nouns or pronouns 
as its nominatives, it must be put in the plural, though 
all these nominatives be' in the singular ; because two 
or more nouns in the singular are equivalent to a plu- 
ral, with regard to verbs as well as to adjectives and 
participles passive : ex. 
Man frire et ma saur sont My brother and sister are 

partis, gone. 

This has already been mentioned in the adjectives. 


If, among these nominatives^ one is of the^rst per- 
son and the other of the second, or one is of the second 
and the other of (he third, the verb must agree with the 
first in preference to the second, and viith the second 
in preference to the third; observing that, in French, 
the person spoken to, must be namec) first ; and the per- 
son speaking is to be mentioned the last : we must 
therefore say, ' 

C^est vous et moi ^n avons 

dicowoeri tout ce comploi^ 
Ce n^est ni vous ni ma 

saur qui avez ouvert la 

Vous^ mon pere^ et moi^ 

parti rons demain^ 

It is you and I who havt 

discovered all that plot. 
It is neither you nor my 

sister who have opened 

the door. 
You, my father, and I, wilt 

set out to-morrow. 

The pronoun relative qui^ in these and the like sen- 
tences, always takes place of the first or second person, 
and only agrees with the others in number; it is for this 
reason we must say, 

C\st moi (pii suis cause de 

ce malheur^ 
Oest vous qui avez revile 

ce secret^ 
Ce n^est ni lui ni moi qui 


There arc four conjugations in the French language. 
Each is distinguished by the termination of the verb in 
the infinitive mood. 

It is / who am the cause 
of that misfortune. 

It is you who have reveal- 
ed that secret. 

It is neither he nor / who 
have done it. 

The first makes er, 
The second ,tr, 
The third tvoir, 

The fourth re, 

as donner, to give, 
as puntr, to punish, 
as vecevoifj to receive, 
as rendre, to render. 

N. B. It is necessary that the learner should be 
well acquainted with the manner of. conjugating the 
two following verbs, because of the frequency of their 
occurrence in sentences, and in forming the compound 
tenses of all other verbs. 





Present. ' 
Jlvoir^ to have. 

Participle active. 
Ayant^ having. 

Participle passive. 
♦JSw, had. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. Singular. 
J^ai^ I have. 
Tu as^ thou hast. 
// a, he has. 
Elk a, she has. 

Imperfect. Sing. 
J^avois^ I had. 
Tu avoisj thou hadst. 
II avoit, he had. 

Compound of the present. 
^voir ete, to have had. 

Compound of the past. 
Ayant et4, haying had. 

Preterite. Sing< 
J'eti*, I had. 
Tu «U5, thou hadst. 
II euty be had. 

Ifous avon&^ wc have. 
Vous avez, you or ye have. 

Ifous avionsj we had. 
Vous aviiz^ you had. 
Ih avoientj they had. 

Xous eumes^ we had. 
Vous eutes^ you had. 
lis eurent^ they had. 
Future. Singular. 

J^aurai^ I shall or will have. 
Tu auras^ thou wilt, (J^c. have. 
// aura^ he will, Sire have. 

Nous aurons^ we shall, ^c. have. 
Vous aurez^ you will, <^c. have. 
/& auront^ they will, <$/•€. have. 

Conditional. Singular. 
J'^aurois^ I should, could, would, or might have. 
Tu attrou, thou wouldst, <{/*c. have. 
// auroit^ he would, ^c. have. 

* Pr«DOQnce eu like the French letter u, throughout thif ver^. 



Vous auriez^ you i/IIm, ^c, have. 
Jls auroienty ihey would, Sfc, hafve. 

Compound Tenses/ 

They are formed by adding the participle passive, eu, 
had, to the preceding : 

Compound of the Present. 
J^ai eti, &c. I have had, ^e. 

Compound of the Imperfect. 
J^aoois eu, &c* I had had, ^c^ 

Compound of the Preterite. 
Jhus eu, &c« I had had, ^c. 

Compound of the Future. 

J^aurai eu, &c. I will or shall have had, ^c. 

Compound of the Conditional. 

Taurois eu, &c. I would, should, could, or niighl have 

had, ire. 

Ikpekative Mood. 

Present. Singular, 
•/^te, have thou. 
QuHl at/, let him have. 
Qu^elle ait, let her have. 

Ayons^ let us have* 
^ Aytz, have ye or you. 

QmHU or e//e5 aitnt^ let them have. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. Singular. ' 

Que /ate, that I have, or may have. 
tu aitiy thou mayest have. 
il ttitf be may have. 


Que nous ayons^ that we may have* 

V0U3 ayeZf 

you may have. 

Us aientj 

. they may have. 
Preterite. Siagular. 


1 feusse^ 

that I might have or had. 

tu eussesy 

thou mightest have.^ 

il eut, 

he might have. 

Que nous eussionsy that we might have. 

vous eussiezj you might have. 

Us eussentf 

they might have. 

Compound Tenses. 

They are formed by adding the participle passive cti, 
Iiad, to the two preoeding : ex. 

Compound of the Present. 
Que fate eu, &c. that I may have had. 

Compound of the Preterite. ' 
Qutfeusse tu^ &c. that I might have had. 
The learner ought to conjugate the preceding verb 
with a negation : ex. 

Je n^ai pas, I have not ; 

Kous n^avons pas, We have not ; 

always placing ne before the verb, and pas after it. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Compound of the Present. 

Eire, to be. ^voir 6l6y to have been. 

Participle active. Compound of the past. 

Etant^ being. ^yant iti^ having been. 

Participle passive. 
£;e, been. 


Indicatiye Mood. 

Present. Singular. Plural. 

Jt suisj I am. Jfous sommesy we are. 

Tu w, thou art. Vous itesj you are. 

// esty he is. lis sont^ they are. 

Imperfect. Sing. Plural. 

Titoisy 1 was. Nous itions, we were. 

Tu (toisy thou wast. Vous etiez^ you were. 

II 6toU^ be wai. lis itaientj they were. 

Pret. Sing. Plural. 

Jifus^ 1 was. Jiousfumesj we were. 

Tu/u^ thou wast. Vous fules^ you were. 

// futj he was. Ilsfurmt^ they were. 

Future. Singular. 
Je strain I shall or will be. 
Tu serasy thou wilt, ire, be. 
// ^era, he will, ire. be. 

J^ous seronsy we shall, cj/-c. be. 
, Vous serezy you will, ire. be. 
//^ seronty thej will, <^c. be. 

Conditional. Singular. 
Je serois^ 1 would, could, should, or might be^ 
Tu seroisj thou wouldst, ({/-c. be. 
// seroity he would, ire. be. 

•ATottJ ^crion^, we should, ire. be. 
Fow* seriezj you would, <Jrc..l>e. 
/& fferoien/, they would, <Jrc. be. 

Compound Tenses. 

They are formed by adding the participle passive 6f 
this verb, 6t6, been, to the simple tenses of the indica- 
tive mood of the verb avoir : ex. 

Compound of the Present. 
. J^ai 4t6f &c. I have been, ire. 

Compound of the Imperfect* 
J^avois (ii^ &c« 1 bad been, 4^c. 


Compound p( the Preterite* 
J^eus 6t6y &c. I had been, ($rc. 

Compound of the Future. 
J^aurai ele^&LC I shall or will have been, ^c. 

Compound of the Conditional. 

J^aurois tti^ &c. I should, could, would, or might 

have been, ^c* 

Imperative Mood. 

Present. Singular. 
Sois^ be thou. 
QuHl soit^ let him be. 

Soyons^ let us be. 
Soyez^ be ye. 
QuHls soient^ let them be« 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. Singular. 
Que je sois^ that 1 be, or may be. 
tu soisy thou mayest be. 
il 501/, he may be. 

Que nous soyons^ that we may be. 
vous soyez, you may be. 

ils soient^ they may be. 

Preterite. Singular. 
Que jefusse^ that I might be, or were. 
tufussesy thou mightest be. 
ilfut^ he might be. 

Que ntms fussions^ that we might be. 
vousfussiez^ you might be. 

ilsfussent^ they might be. 

Compound Tenses. 
They are formed by adding the participle past of this 
verb, 6t6, been, to the two simple tenses of the sub- 
junctive mood of t<)e verb avoir : ex. 

Compound of the Present. 
Que faie iU^ that I may have been, <Src. 


Compound of the Preterite. 
Quefeusse e/e, &c. that I might have been, &c. 
This verb, as well as the preceding, is to be conju- 
gafed with the negation : ex. 

Je ne suis pas, I am not. 

J^ous ne sommes pas, We are not. 
•AT. B. Here it is peculiarly necessary to observe, that 
(he two above verbs, avoir^ to have, and itre^ to be, 
are only auxiliaries when they are joined with some par- 
ticiple passive of another verb ; otherwise, itre may 
properly be called a substantive verb; that is, a verb 
which only expresses the affirmation, without any in- 
herent <}uality ; and the verb avoir is an active one^ 
which signifies to possess. 


Every verb must agree with its nominative case in 
person and number ; but after collective nouns, such as 
amas^foule, injiniii^nombre^ la plupart^ &c. followed by a 
genitive, the verb must agree with that genitive in 
number : ex. 
Loiplupart de ses2Lm\sP out Most of his friends havt 

abandonni^ forsaken him. 

In order to ease the learner, the different simple 
tenses are marked in the following exercises as far as the 
irregular verbs, when it is hoped every difficulty will 
be removed by practice and attention. The second 
person singular, being seldom or never used in conver- 
sation, has been omitted throughout the exercises on the 

Indicative Mood. 

Pres. I have a book. — I am happy. — He has 


a hat which is too big We have no 

(rc5p,adv. grancl,adj. 

money. - . - - We are not ambitious You have 

argent. ambitieux^zdj. 


a sword. - - You are very proud Those girls 

have modesty ; they are virtuous* 

modestie.L Der/M«iia?,adj. 

Imp. I had a friend. I was grateful My 

reconnoman /,adj. 

sister had no work, she was lazy We had 

onvrage^ paresseux^^idu 

a holiday, we were very glad of it.- — You had 
to* cong6^ a3je,adj. 

company, but you were not ready. - Your brothers 
compagnie^f»mai$^C. j>r^/,adj. 

had learning, they were loved by every body. 
£avoir^m* atfne,p.p. de 

Pret. (As soon as) I hadf a fine horse, I was 
Des 9ue,c. 

noerry My cousin had a little garden, he 

de bonne humeiiu c<m5tn,m. 

was ingenious. • - As soon as we had bread we 

6toU acfm^adj. 2>ain,m. 

were satisfied. - - You had fine weather, you were 

rassasi6,p.p* temps 

pleased. - - - - Your friends had beautiful flowers ; 
concert ^,adj. 

they were very careful of them. 

FuT. I shall have discretion ; I shall be prudent. 
- - Miss White shall have a bird which will be very 


tame We shall have no books, we shall not 


be learned. • - You shall have pens and paper ; you 

will be busy The English will have a good 

admiral ; they will be victorious. 
amtfa/,m. 'Ptc/orteux,adj. 

CoND. I could have a pietty dog. — I would 
joliydidy c/iten,m. 


not be troublesome. - - - - Mr. T^iomas would have 

good wine : it would be* a delicious thing. - • We 

ce dilicieux^^dj* chosef. 

would have a dictionary : we would not be negligent. 
.... You would have good officers; you would be 
invincible. - - - - These ladies would have a better 

reception ; they would be thankful. 
accuet7,m. reconnoman^,adj. . 

Imperative Mood. 
Have patience and be indulgent.* - - - Let her have a 
gown ; let her be happy. - - Let us have at least 

au moins^ adv. 
- 8(Ane gratitude ; let us be diligent. — Let them 

have partridges ) let them be merry. ' 
perdrixjfm joyeMa?,adj. 
Subjunctive Mood. 
Pres. That I may have riches. • - - That I may- 
be charitable That he may have scholars. - - - - 

That he may be attentive. That we may have a 

good house. - - - That we may be well lodged. — 

6ten,adv. /og^^p.p. 
That yott may have your money ; that jou may 

be paid That they may have apples : that 

they may be ripe. 


Pret. That I might have generosity. That I 

might not be poor. ----- That he might have no 

pleasure. - - • That he might be uneasy. - - - - That 
plaisir, m^me^adj. 

we might have our share. - - - That we might not 

♦ Remember the last obseryation, page 166, that the ncond pcr- 
*on plural must be used throughout the imperative moods. 


be deceived* - - - That you might have a couple 

/rompe5,p.p, * • couple f. 

of fowls. - - - That you might be pleased. - - - That 

they might have no pension. - - - That they might 
not be rewarded. 


Promiscuous EXERCISES upon iht COMPOUND 

I have had (a great deal) of (rouble ; I have not 
hitn peinB^L 

been rewarded. - - - Your brother would have had 
leave, _ if he had been diligent. - - -:If you bad 


married him, you would have had a tyrant 

c/wie5^,p.p. tyran^m. 

instead of a husband ; you never could have been 
au /ieu,p. man,m. ne jamais 

happy If we bad fought, we could not 

have been conquered. - - - Thomas has had two 

holidays, because he has been very active. ^ - -" 
cofige, parcequ$,c. aciif^^dj. 

Your friend could have had a better watch, he 

would not have been cheated. - - - Your uncle and 

my brother have been wet. - - - You could have 

^ ^ mout7/ef,p.p. 

killed a hare, if you had had a gun. 
tue^.^i lievreyXn* fusil^m. 

After these exercises, the learner ought to conjugate 
the two foregoing verbs, throughout the several tenses 
of the indicative mood only, first with an interrogation 
affifiaative, and then with an interrogation negative: 





Ai-jtf have I ? I Suis-je? am M 

A-i-il ? has he ? | Esl-il ? is he ? 

Monfrire a^t-il ? has my brother ? 

SaJilU est-elU ? is her daughter ? ^ 

yPai'je pas ? have I not ? I Ne suis-je pas 7 am I not ? 
JPorUil pas ? has he not ? | J^tsi-il pas T is he not ? 
^Ma sosur n^a-Utllt pas ? has not my sister? 
Votrt cousin nhsUilpas ? is not your cousin ? 


Jltcns-wm ? have we ? 
Jv^z^vous f have you ? 
Ont'ils ? have they ? 
Vosfrcres ont-ils ? 

Sommes'fum ? are we ? 
EUs'Vous ? are you ? 

SofkUils ? are they ? 

have your brothers ? &c. 

S^sfilks sont'tlks ? are his daughters ? &c. 


^'ai>ons-nou5 joa^ f have vr€ not ? 

Jpavez'vous pas ? have you not ? 

K*ont'ihpas ? have they not ? 

&.<? cn/iin5 n^ont'ils pas t have not his children ? 

JV« 5ommc5-noM5 pa^ ? are we not ? 

JPiteS'Vous pas ? are you not ? 

Ke soni-ils pas ? are they not ? 

Jlfw scstir5 ne sont-elUs pas ? are not my sisters f &;c. 

N. 6. In the interrogations, it must be observecF, 
that when there is a noun standing as a nominative to 
the verb, the pronouns i/, elle^ nous^ vous^ ils^ tUts^ 
though not expressed in English, must be expressed in 
French immediately after the verb, according to the 
person and number ; and when the verb terminates 
with a vowel, a -^ is to be added in the third person 



singular between the verb and the pronoun, to avoid 
the hiatus^ the noun beginning the phrase : ex. 

Yotre oncle a-t-il des en- Has your uncle ' any chil-" 

fans? dren ? 

that is, Your uncle, has he any cfaitdren t 
Moo cousin aura-t-il conge ? Will my cousin have a 

holiday ? 
that is, My cousin, zoill he have a holiday ? 

The sanne rule, must be obaerved in the conjugation 
of the other verbs : e^. 

Votre frere joue-t-il du Does your brother play on 
violon ? the violin ? 

Sa soeur dmera-t-elle id Will her sister din? , here 
aujourd^hui ? to-day ? 

But If the sentence begin with qat interrogative, or 
an advtrh followed by a noun, the pronoun is not to be 
expressed, and that noun is to be put after the verb : ex* 

Que/aif votre so^ur t What ia your sister doing ? 

Comment se porte Monsieur How does your brother? 
votre frere ? 

When, in French, we make a general interrogation 
concerning a sudden pain^ misfortune^ accident^ &c. we 
Qu'est'Ce que e^est ? What is the matter? 

But if speaking to ordf ^ person, we must use the 
verb avoir, and follow the above rule : ex* 

Qu'avez-vous ? What is the matter with 

you ? 
Ctt'a-t-il? What is the matter with 

Qu^aviez-vous ? What was the matter with 

Qu^avoit votre smir ee What was the matter with 
matin? your sister this morning? 

The learner will have no trouble in going thfough 
the other simple tenses of the indicative mood ; and as 


for the compounds, it needs only to be remembered^ that 
eu, had, or ite, been, is to be added to the simple tenses 
of the verb aroiV, to have : ex. 

Ji-je cti ? have I had ? 

N'^ai-jepas eu ? have I not had ? &c. 

Ai'je ete ? have I been ? 

JST^ai'jepas ete ? have I not been? &c. 

Promiscuous EXERCISES on the preceding RULES. 

Have I my books ? - - Am I not unhappy to 

malheureux^zdy de 
have lost his friendship ? - - Has he no money ? 

jE>erJif,p.p. . amitie^U 
Js my sister arrived ? - - Has not your father a great 

deal of friendship for you ? - - • What is the matter 
with you ? - - Have not your parents sent you 


all the money which you wanted? Have we 

dont aviez^y.besoin. 

not a garden ? - - - Are we not very happy ? - - - - 
Have you a good gun ? - - - Are you dexterous ? - • 

, . adroitjzdj* 

Have not my brother and sister a beautiful coach? - - 
Are not Paul and Thomas two pretty children ? - - 

Are your brothers arrived ? - - - Are you not glad 
to see them ? - - What is the matter with him ? 

de voir^v* 
Have they not spoken to him ? - - Had you not a 

little dog ? - - Was not your paper very good ? - - Are not 
' the English ladies generally handsomer than 

the French ? - - Shall you have occasion for your dic- 

besoinyTn, de 
tionary ? - • - - Shall I not have the pleasure to see 



^fywi toHnorrow ! • « • Were jou net in the room? • • • 

c{ematn,adv. chamhre^t. 

Shall wc not have leave ? - . - ^ - Will thej not be 
engry ? • • • Could yeu not have had a better watch ? 
- - - • If France were as rich ai England, would 

St,c itait 

it not be the best* country in the world? • « - 
Will you not be ashamed ?••-•- Has not your 

friend had bad weather ? - - - What %as the 

maupau;adj« ttmptf 
matter with him this morning? - • * - Had not our 
admiral better seamen than yours ? - - Has he' been 

victorious? - - Would not your hat be too big ? - - - - 
«ic(ortetix,adj» grand,adj. 

Is not your sister older than mine? - - Are you 

not happier than if you , were married ? . - . - Shall 

not John have a holiday, if he be diligent ? • - Has not 

Jwn est 

your cousin more money than jou ? - - Was not your 
wine very dear ? 

The learner will soon be convinced how necessary it 
is to know these two verbs perfectly well ; because, in- 
dependently of beings constantly used, the compound 
tenses of all the others are formed with them* When 
he is well acquainted with their usage, be will only have 
to add the participle passive to zjpj of their tenses .* 
ex. ' 

J^ai aimij I have loved, or did love; 

Je n^mipas ckant6^ 1 have not sung, or did not sing* 

Jli'JtparU? have I spoken ? or did I speak ? 

* See the Desveei of Coapariaon, p. 60^ te^ 


N^ai^t fas iludii ? have I not studied ? or did I ntM 

■ study. 

Avez-vou» dans6 ? have you danced ? or did you dance ? 
J^^avez'vous pas icrii t have you not written ? or did-yoU 

not write ? 
Je suispuni^ I am punished. 
Je ne suispa9 attendu^ I am not expected. 
Suis'je aitn6 ? am I loved ? 
Nt suis-je pas ptrdu ? am I not undone? 
Etes'vous marii? are you married? 
N^liS'Vfms pas cohvaincu ? are you not convinced ? 

REMARK on the Verb ETRE, to be. 

In English, when this verb immediately precedes 
any noun, signifying old^ hungry^ thirsiy^ cold, hot, or 
afraid, it should be rendered in French by avoir, to 
have, and the adjective must be changed into its sub- 
stantive: ex» 

Quel age avez-T?ou5 ? How old are you ? 

J'ai sept ans, * I arn seven years old. 
Avez-vous faim ? ^r« you hungry. 

Jfon, m«w/ai soif, No, but I am thirsty, At. 


How old is jyour daughter ? She is seven 

Quel,ipvo. Jille^f, 
years old. - - - My son will be eleven years old 
0M,m. «5^ Jils,m. 
(in the) month of April. I was very 

au mois^m. AvrxL grand,^^y 

hungry when I arrived. Were you not 

quand,z. suis ornr^,p.p. 
very thirsty ? - - He is not afraid. - - You will 

grancl,adj. ptur* 

soon be warm Are you not cold ? - - - • 

fc»en(&,adv. cfcawrf. froid. 

How old are these two young children? The 



one is three years old, and the other is not yet 


four. • Was not my sister more tbai^ ten years old 

when she died ? 

5wand,adv. mourui^y. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Parl-er, to speak. 

Participle active. *ant^ speaking. 

Participle passive. i^m. ee,f. spoken. 

CoHP0i7ND Tenses. 

Present. Avoir parity to have spoken. 
PasU Ayant parity having spoken. 


Indicative Mood. 

Present. Singular. 
Jt p^rl-e, I s^ak, or I do speak, or I am speaking.t 
Tu e5, thou speakest. 
// €, he speaks. ^ 


Nous *ons^ we speak. 
Vous tz^ you speak.' 
Us ent, they speak. 

* Verbs in thi« conjugation, the.root of which tenninates in g or <r, 
immediatelj succeeded by A or o, require, for the softening of their 
' sound, that an £ be added to the G, and a cedilla to the 9. Start 
are placed where these alterations are required. 

f When in English, a participle active is joined to any of the tenses 
of the auxiliary verb to 6e, to oppress the continuation of the action, 
the auxiliary must be left out in Trench, and the participle put id 
tlie same tense, &c. with the auxiliary that is suppressed : 

J^e parhj I am speakfng ; 
Vous parlezy you art speaking ; 
Abw* danstronsy we shall he. dan- 

Je priois^ I was desiring ; 
JVov* chantions^ we W€te singing j 
//* ccriTQient^ they would he 

and not Je wiis parlant^ rous ^tes parlant^ j'^tols priant^ ice. notis 
serous dansani^ iUs seroieut ecrivanty &c* 


Imperfect* Singular. 
Jeparl'*oi$, I was speaking, spoke, or did speak* 
Tu *oi$^ tbou wast speaking, &c. 
II *aitj be was speaking, &c* 

Jfous ions^ we wer^ speaking, &c. 
Vous ieZj jou were speaking, &c. 
lU *oientj they were speakingy.&c* 

Preterite. Singular* 
Je parl-'^at, I spoke, or did speak. 
Tu *as, thou spokest. 
II *a, he spoke. 

Jfaus *dmes^ we spoke. 
Vous Htes^ you spoke. 
lis ermt^ they spoke. 

Future. Singular; 
Je parl-erat, I shall or will speak. 
Tu eras^ thou shalt or wilt speak.- n^ 
// €ra^ he shall or will speak. 

' Nous trons^ we shall or will speak. 
Fbutf erez, you shall or will speak. 
lb erontj they shall or will speak. 

Conditional. Singular. 
Je parl-erotV, I should, would, or might speakV 
Tu erots, thou should st, ^c* speak. 
II crotl, be should, ^c speak. 

J^ms erions^ we should, 4rc» speak* 
Vous eritz^ you should, S/c. speak. 
ils eroientj they should, c^c.^speak. 

Compound Tenses. 
Present. J^aiparie, I have spolen. 

Imperfect. J^avois parU^ I had spoken. 

Preterite. J^eusparlij I bad spoken* 


Future. J^auraiparU^ I shall or will have spoken. 

Conditional. J'^aurois parity I should, would, could, have 


Imperative Mood. 
Present. Singular. 
ParW, speak thou. 
QuV/ «, let him speak. 

*o?i5, let us speak. 
ez^ speak ye. 
QuHls tni^ let them speak. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. Singular. 
Qut jt parl-e, that I may speak, or I speak. 
tu esj thou mayest speak. 
il e, be maj speak. 

nous ionsj that we may speak. 
vous tcz, you may speak. 

Us en/, they may speak. . . k 

Preterite. Singular, 
^e je pav\-*asse^ that I might speak, or I spoke. 
tu ^asses^ thou mightest speak. 
il *di^ he might speak. 

nous *assions^ that we might speak* 
vous ^assiez^ you might speak. 

Us *assent, they might speak. 

Compound 1'enses. 
Present. Que faie pnrle^ that I may have spoken. 
Preterite. Quefeusse parity that I might have spoken. 

After (he same manner are conjugated about 2700 
regular verbs. The following arc excepted : viz. 

Alltr^ being, very irregular, will be seen among the 
iirregular verbs* 


Efvooyer is only irregular in the future and condition^ 
I present ; as, ins 
c. feri'uoyerois^ I 
jugation, we say, . 

al present ; as, instead of saying fenvoyerai^ I will send, 
4rc. feri'uoyerois^ I would send, ^jp'c. according to this con- 

Singular. Plural. 

, J^enverrai, 1 will send. J^ous enverrons* 
Tu enverras^ Vous enverrez. 

II enverra^ lis enverronL 

Singular. Plural. 

J^enverrois, I would send. Jious enverrions* 
Tu enverroisj ' Vous enverriez* 

II enverroiiy lis enverroiehU 

PuER (sentir mauvais.) This verb is only used in 
the infinitive mood, present tense, imperfect, future of 
the indicative, and conditional. Formerly this verb 
was irregular in the three persons of the present tense 
of the indicative mood ^ as je pus, tu pus, ilput ; cus- 
tom has, however, reformed (he abuBe, and will have it, 
Jt pue, tu puts, it put. 

Verbs ending in aver and oyer, as tssaytr, to try, 
enroyer,to send, change the r into i wherever the letter 
y is immediately followed by an e mute : ex. fesaait^ 
iu essaks, il tssaie, ftnvoit, tu envoits, il tnvoit. Sic* 

The learner, having conjugated a verb affirmatvotltf 
and ne^aftWy, ought to conjugate two others,, with an 
inttrrogatwii affirmative and ntgativt, in the indicative 
mood only, and eo on through the other conjugations, 
before he attempts the exer^cisrs : ex. 
A£5rmatively. . 
MangtS'tu ? dost thou eat ? 
Mangt't-il ? does he eat ? 
Parlcni'tmus ? do we speak, &c* 
JVe parli-jt pas f^ do I not speak ? 

Ma sfjBur nt chantt-t'tUe pas f does not my sister smg. 
^ .AT. fi. In many verbs, common usage .does not admit 
an interrogation in the first person singular, present, of 


the indicative mood.— -lostead of sajing, Mungi-ji ? Do 
I eat ? Punis'je ? Do I punish ? &c. we say, 

Est-ce que je mange f Est^ce que jt punis ? &c* 

Some verbs, ending in e mute, in the first person 
singulaf, present of the indicative mo6d, change the 
t mute into i with an acute accent, and je after it ; as 

It has before been observed, that the compound tenses 
are easily formed, by adding the participle passive of 
the verb to any oif the tenses of the auxiliaries avcir^ to 
have, or itrt^ to be, as they have been conjtigated, either 
affirmatively, negatively, or interrogatively : ex. 

J^ai dans6^ I have danced, or I did dance. 

Je rCmpas parU^ I have not spoken, or I did nol speak. 

Avez'vous chanti ? Have you sung, or did you sing ? 

N'^a-Ulpas m«ng6 ? Has he not eaten, or did he not eat ? 
Observe; that we make use of 

Mener^ To take, to carry, 

Amener^ Td» bring, 

Emmener^ To carry, or take away, 

and all the compound verbs of mener^ whenever we 
speak of rational or irrational beings to which nature 
has given the faculty of walking, if they be not depriv-> 
ed of it through illness or accident : in alt other cases 
we make use of 

Porter^ To carry, to take, 

ApporUr^ To bring, 

Emporterj To carry, or take away,, 

and all the compounds f>iporUr. 

N. B. It* must be necessarily observed here, previ- 
ously to the learner's translating the following exercises, 
that the English tiuxiliarj/ verbs, have^ am^ do^ did, toil^ 
shallj can^ kf^ fnay^ would^ could^ should^ might, and often 
oughi^ are most commonly used, fa that language, to 


avoid that repetition of a preceding verb, or in answer 
to a question or foregoing sentence ; to avoid the repe- 
tition of that verb, and often of one or more pronouns ^ 
but in Frenrh, the verb, expressed in the first member, 
or part of the sentence, must always be repeated, as 
well as the pronouns which it maj govern : ex. 

porterai avec 

Je vous prie de porter de- 
main ce.ite Utire a Mori' 
sieur D- 

Je la lui 

Voxis ne pourrkz pas ap- 

' prendre cette legon en dix 

II me semhlt que je pourrois 

Attendez-vous vos saurs au' 

jourd*hui ? 
Ouij nous les atlendonsj 

Voire frere 6crU-il a M. 

voire pere ? 
Out, il lui 6crit a present j 

Apprenez'vous le Frangois ? 
Oui^je Papprends^ 

Avez-vous aeheli les livres 
dont vous m^avez parU ? 

Kon, je ne les ai pas encore 

J^e deoroienl'ils pas /aire 

savoir a leur pere que 

leur frere est dans la de- 

tresse ? 
Certainement, ils devroient 

le luifaire savoir, 

I beg of you to carry that 

letter to-morrow to Mr. 

I will, with pleasure, {carry 

it to hinh) understood. 
You coulcl not learn that 

lesson in ten days. 

It seems to me as if I 
could, {learn it,) under- 

Do you expect your sisters 
to-day ? 

Yes, we do, {expect them,) 

Is your brother writing to 
your father? 

Yes, he is now, {writing to 
him^) understood* 

Are you learning French ? 

Yes, I am, {learning i7,) un- 

Have you bought the 
books which you men- 
tioned to me ? 

No, I have not yet, {bought 
them^) understood. 

Ought they not to let their 
father know that their 
brother is in distress? 

Certainly, they oughu{lolet 
him knczD it,) understood. 



Indicative Mood. 

Pres. I play sometimes, but I txe- 

jou-fir^Y* quelmufois^Sidv. mais^c. ntja- 

vjtT win How much does your lirother 

mmV^aclv. gagn-«r,v. Comhier,^zAY» to. 

five for his board ? - - We do not command ; 

we entreat - - You always borrow ; you 

/?rt-er,v. <(nyour5,adv« tmprunt-tr^Y, 

never lend. - - - You are always speaking when ' 

prSt-er^v. ' (jfMand,adv. 

I write. --..,Vfhy do you not grant 

icris^y. Pourquoi^^dv. -o» accord-er^V* 

him that favour? - - - What do they ask 

gr&cef. demand-er^v* 

you ? 
Imp. I was desiring them to sing a song. - r 

/>»ver,v. de chant-er^v. chansonf. 

She was not speaking to you. - - Were we not jok- 

ing ? - - Were you not scolding tbem when I came ? 
,w-cr,v. gr(mJ-er,y. vtm,v. 

Yes, I was. - - - They were eating fish. 

mang-tr^y* poisson^m. 
Pret. I spoke to them (a long while). - - - Did 

not the king forgive ihefnfi^ No, he did not. 

rot,m. pardonn-er^v. m\ 

We wept for joy when we found her. • - - 

pkur-er^y. de jaie trouv-er^y^ 

Why. did you not play on Friday last ? - - - They 

«^ ~ ' ' Vmdredi cJcrn«er,adj. 
/astened ( to a tree, and then 

^»-«/SV. ar6rc,m. cn5t«7«,adv. 

robbed him of bis watch, gold ring, and all the 
ro/-cr,v. lo, mon/re,f. 6aguc,f. 

JQO^ey he had in his pocJ^et. - - The soldiers first 

poche^f. di^abord^dt^ 



pillaged th^ tawD, and then slaughtered without 
pilUer^Y. puis igofg-€r;v. 

pity the old men, women, and children. 
piii6 vieillari^m. 

FuT. I will buy a watch the first time I 

go to London. - » Will not your father send 
trat,v. envo^'er^r* 

you to school this winter ? - • • - What shall we give 
^co/e,f. hiver^m* • 

him ? - • - Will you not carry the children to the 

play ? - - - They will empty the bottle if you 
comidie^t. s vid-er^v. btrnteillej, 

do not take it away. 

♦ 1.^ «nipor/-er,v. «o^ 

CoND. I would lend them money if 

prit-er^V. leur 

they were not so idle. ----- Would not your 

mother despise such" a* conduct? - - Why should 

mipris-er^v. fe^adj. conduite^t. 
we send them thither ? - - - 1 aip sure you would 

marry her, if she were rich. - - - Would they 

iptms'er^v* etoit rtcfcc,adj. 

not pay us, infai|^ad money? 


Bridle my horse, and bring him to 

Brid'tr;v* cheval^m. o»i«n-cr,v. 

me. - - - Give a chair to that lady. - - Let her not 
chaise^f* dame^t* 

(come up,) for 1 am engaged Let us carry those 

mmUr^y* carfi. occupi^Jp. 

peaches to Mrs. D*** Do not neglect your 

Uchtf. Mint niglig'tr.y. 


a£^irs. -- 1 promise thati will not. • Let them hunt* 
affair e^U promt ts^\» chasser^y. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Pres. That 1 may help you. • - - Though* he 

aid'tr^y. Quoique^c* 

do not approve of my plan Provided* 

approuTT-er^y* *o* planum. Pourvu que^c* 

we avoid their company. - - • - That you may 

ez>i/-er,v. compagnie^U 

try that gun. - - - That they may not com- 


Pret. That I might changet my opinion. - - " 

chang-er^ d' opinion. 

That he might eatt an apple. -That we might not 

fall into their hands. - • - That you might 

tomb-er^y. dans^p. main. ^ 

encourage! the industrious. • That they might 

) encourag-er^y. industrieux^SLd'j. 

exercise their talents. That I might pronounce*! - - 

ex€rc-tfr,tv. taUnl^nt. prononc-tr^y. 

That we might begin.! 


Pr(miscuou9 EXERCISES on the COMPOUND 

I have forgotten to bring your penknife. - - • - 
ouhli-er^y. de canifjm. 

He has not yet spoken to us. - - Has she brought 

e?icore,adv. *<» • 
her work with her? Yes, she has. - - Have we not gain- 

ed our /cause ? - - Why have you not yet begun 
er,v. commenC'tr^'^. 

your exercise ? - - - You had taken the mustard 
ihime^m. emporUtr^v* moutard^yU 

% * ConjuDctiom which require the subjanctiYe mood, as wili be 
seen hereafter ; See page 420. 
t See the notes page 175. 


away. — - You would have jtitJgcd more favour- 
•^ j^g^r^y* fttvth 

ably of bim. - Stay ' here till* 

rahUmeni^Siiy* ResUr^v* tetrad v« jusqu^ a ce que^c* 

we have dined* Could we not have assisted 

(/m-er,v.subj. aid-erjVm 

that family ? - - They have broken all the panes 

famillt^U cass-er^v. carreati^m^ 

of glass in their windows, because they had 

vitre de^p. fenilre^f. parceque^c. 

not illuminated as it had been ordered. - - - 

illumin-er^y* comme,adv. ordonn-'er^v* 

I shall have *dined 'soon. - - - - We would have 

sen(t them (o prison, if they had resisted.- «♦ » 

envoy-er^y* en pfiso%U risisf^er^x. 

That we may have denied the fact Had you 

nt-er,v. fnit^mm 

not imitated their manrners ? - - - They had not exc«* 
tmi/-er,v. maniere^f. ixi* 

cuted bis commands. - Had I not light- 

ctt/-er,v. commandemtnUm* allu-* 

ed the fire? - - • They would have carried him to 
mtr^Y* yeu,m. 
the concert if I had not hinderedt them 

(from it). • r - We might have accepted of bi« 

en accept'tr^y^ •<»» . 

offers. - - >Vhy did you not ? 

Infinitive Mood." 
Present. Puh-»V, to punish. 

Participle active. issant^ punifthing. 

Participle passive. t,m. ie,f. punished. 

Compound Tenses. 
Present. Avair punij to have punished. 
Past. ^ant puniy having punished. ^ 

t Fer the amement of tJbcfe, see the rules oo participles^ p. 346, 3^^ 



Present. Singular* 
Jt puD-4>, I punish, I do punish, or I am punishing. 
Tu isy 
II it, 


J^ous issons, we punish, &c. 
Vous issezj 
lis issent, 

Imperfect. Singular. 
Je pun-mot«, I did punish, or I was punishing, &e« 
Tu issois^ 
II issoit^ 

Jfaus issionsy we did punish, &c. 
Voiis issiez, 
lis issoUnt, 

Preterite. Singular. 
Je pun-u, I punished, or I did punish. 
Tu is, 
II it, 

J^ous tmesy we punished, &c. 
Vous ttes, 
lis tren/, ~ 

Future. Singular* 
Je pun-irai, I shall or will punish. / 

Tu iras, 
II ira. 

Jious, irons, we shall or will punislhr 
Vou0 tr«r. 
Its irmit, 


CondiDonal. Singular. 
Jt pun-trot5, 1 should, would, could, or might punish** 
7\i irotV, 
// troi<, 


JVW ino'M^ we should, <^c. punish. 
Foti5 tWez, 

CojuPOuiTD Tenses* 
Present. J^aipuni^ I have puaished. 
imperfect. J^avtns puni, I had punished. 
Preterite. J^euspunij I had punished. 
Future. J^auraipuni^ I shall, &c. have punished. 
Conditional. J^aurois punij I should, &c. have punished. 

Imperative Mood. 

Present. Singular. 

PuD-i^; punish thou. 
QuHl ft9«e, let him punish. 


issons^ let us punish, 
mez, pttaish ye. 
QiPils issent, let tbem punish. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

F^resent. ^iog^ikr. 

Que je pun-45^e, that I maj puBi6b, or I puniftK. 
Itt me5, 
it isse^ 


nous issionsj that we may punish. 
vout %88%ez^ 

ih issent, 


Preterite. Singular. 
Que je puD-m^j tbat I might punish, or I puniihedj^ 

«^ ' 

issions^ tbat we might punish. 




Compound Tenses. 

Present. Que fate puni^ that I may have punished* 
Preterite.' Quefeussepuni^ that I might have punished. 

After the same manner are conjugated about two i 
hundred regular verbs ; the following are excepted, as 
bein; irregular : 

Ouvrir^ to open. 

Acquirir^ to acquire. 
jissailiir^ to assault. 
Bouillir, to boii. 
Cmrir^ to ru.n. 
Cueillir^ to gather. 
Dormir^ to sleep. 
Faillir^ to fail. 
JWr, to flee, to avoid. 
Mentir^ to lie. , 
Jdtnirir^ to die. 
Qfrir^ to oflFer. 

Partir^ to set out. 
Se rep^ntir, to repent. 
Sei^tir^ to smell. 
Servir<t to serve. 
Sor/iV, to go out^ 
Sauffrir^ to suffer. 
Tentr, to hold. 
FemV, to come. 
V£Ur^ to clothe. 
And their con^poundft^ 


Indicative Mood. 

Pres.. I always finish my work 

foti;our5,adv. Jin-ir^v. ou9rag€^v^» 

before the others. — Your friend doet not succeed 
avanf,p, {imt,m. ri%Lss-ir,y. 

in his undertaking. - - Do we not fiirnish arms 
dans^p* tntrepriseS* foum-iv^v. ontif,f. 

against ouri»elves ? - - Whj' do you hate bios ? - ♦ - 


Tfaey cure the diseases of the body, and 

guit'iryV. , maladit^L corps^m. 

not those of the mind. 

Imp. I was building my bouse when 

you demolished jours. - - - Was he not enjoying 

dimolir^Y* jou-ir de^r» 

a good estate ? • - - .We hated him, because he did 

' hien^m* paruqut^z. 

not act kindly towards us. - • - On 

'0g-ir,v. Aonn£/emenf,adv. enver«,p. Sur^p. 

what were you reflecting?-- Jbe mountains were 

rSflich'irjVm fnontogne,f« 

resounding with their cries. 
r€<enMV,v. de crt^m. 

Pret. I warranted them very good. - - » Did not 
your master accomplish his promise ? - - We (leap- 
accwnpl-ir^y. promesse^t. /ran- 

ed over) the ditch, and seized the guilty 

chirpy. fo8s6^va* sais-ir^y. coupabU^didj. 

Why did you not applaud that pretty act* 

applaudrir^y. a jo/i,adj. > ac- 
ross ? I did, with all my might. - - - Did not the sol- 
trice^f. d«,p. /orcca/. pi. «o/- 

diers obey the commands of their geae- 

dat^m. obi'ir^y^ aux commandenunt^m. 

FuT. When shall I banish all these 

6ann-tr,v« /ott/,adj. 
thoughts from my mind? -- This plant will soon 
pms6ty(. planttf. 

blossom, if you water it often We shall 

fleur-ir^y. arroser^y* «ouven<,adv. 

warn your relations of it. - - - «> Shall you not 

averMV,v. parent^m. 

enjoy^ as we do, -the pure plea* 

youir comme,adf» yo% dcs |mr,adj. 


sures olT the coant<ry? - - Her cbiMren will blest 

hep for tf. 

CoND. I ffouM choose this cloth, if I 
chois'ir^v. drap^m. 

were in jour place. - -'- Would he not blush, if he 

a roug'ir^v* 

acted so ? - * — We would not punish them, if ihey 

were diligent. ^ - Would jow not act with less 

OTfc,p. motn^.adv. 

severitj ? They could furnish us withr arms and 

severitS? *o» 

troop.^, if we wanted any. {zoriu^ if we had need 

tnmpe^L avoir 6e5oin,v» 

(of any.) 

Imperatite Moop, 

Do not fill the glasses, - « - • Let biqn enjoy 

rempl'ir^Vw vtrre^tja* 

the fruit 6f his labours, - - Well ! let him, I do not 
du travail,m. Eh &}en,int. 

hinder him from it. Let us reflect on what we 

emptch-er^y. a 

have to do. - - - Let them define the question, 

a faire^y* difin-ir^y^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Pres, That I may not perish. - - - 1 wish 

per-ir^y* sotLhait-tr^y. 

he may succeed. ^ --- That we may not (bear hard- 

r6u88'ir^y, ^ pdl-ir^v* 

ships). - That you m^J not hate us. - - - Provided ihcy 

do not (grow tall.) 

grand'ir^y* 'm/f 

Pret, That I might refresh my n^emory. - - • 

rafraich-ir^y* mimoirc^U 


That she might not roast the meat. - - That we might 

(become younger). - - - That you might punish the 

idle. — That they might not (grow old). 

vieill tr,v. 

Compound Tenses. 

I have filled my cellar with good wine* - - - 
rempl'ir,y. cavt^L dt 
Has he not (leaped over) the ditch?-- We had finished 
our work. - - - - They would have seized him. 

We should have perished without any assistance. - - 

san»,p. aucun secours. 
When shall I have built my house? - - 1 have 

(very much) weakened his courag^^. - - Though 

beaucoup^^dy, affoihl-ir^y . Quoiqut^c. 

they have adorned their gardens to dazzle 

aitniy embell-ir^y* jardin^w, pour ihlou-ir^y. 

the vulgar, . they have not succeeded, because 

vulgaire^m. reuss-ir^y* parceque^c. 

they have disobeyed their father and mother. 
disohi'ir^y* a 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Rec-eroir, to receive. 

Part, active. eranf, receiving. 

Part. pass. *M,ro. Me,f. received. 

Compound Tenses. 
'esent. Avoir rt^Uy to have received. 

t. Ayant requy having received. 

i^erbs of this coDJugation, the root of which terminates in c, re- 
quire for the softening of their sound, that a cedilla be added to tbe 
c, 80 (9) whene?er it is followed b^ orv. 



Indicative Mood. 

Present. Singular. 
Je req^ois^ I receive, I do receive, or I am receiving. 

II <ntj 


I/out eoonsj we receive, <Jrc. 
Vou8 evezj 
HjbT oiventj 

Imperfect. Singular. ^ 

Je rec-eoois, I did receive, or I was receiving. 
Tu evois, 


J^ous ivionsj we did receive, ^c. 
Vcfus eviezj 
lis evoient. 

Preterite. Singular. 

Je re9-ti5, 1 received, or I did receive. 
Tu us^ 

II Utj 

J^ous umes^ we received, ^c, 

*Ils urentj 

Future. * Singular. 

Je ree-eDrat, I shall or will receive. 

Tu et?ra5, ' 

It tvra, 


•ATou* tvrons^ we shall or will receive! 
Vous ebrezy 
Ih evront^ 


CondUional. fiingidar. 

Je Tec'cvrois, I shauld, would, could, or might receive* 
Tu evrois^ 
II evroitj 

Plural. X 

•A/oiw evrionf^ we should, <{rc.Teceive. > 

Vofju evritz, 
lU evroicnt, 

Compound Tenses. 

Present. J^ai r«fi4, 1 bav.e reqeived. 

Imperfect. J^avois regu, I bad received. 

Preterite. Teu$ rifu, I had received. 

Future. J^aurai regu, I shall, ^c. have received. 

CoDditional. J'aurottf refu^ I should, t!^c. have received* 


Present. Singular. 

Re9-ot>, receive thou. 
QuHl oive^ let him receive* 


evons^ let us receive. 
evez, receive ye. 
QuHls oivent^ let them receive. 

Subjunctive Mood* 

Present* -Slpgular* 
Que j€ re<;-(nt>e, that I may receive or I.rciceive. 


nous evionif that we may receive* 
voui eviez^ 
ils oivenf^ 


Preterite. Singular. 
Ipue je re9-i«5<, that I might receive, or I received, k 
in • xissts^ ^ 

il Oil, 


'nous ussionB^ that we nright receive. ' 

V0U8 nssuz^ 
Us ussenty 
-' Compound Tenses. 

Present. Que fate re^u^ that 1 may have received. . 
Treier'ncQuefeusse reguj that I might, have received. 
Recevoir des nouvelles de 'To hnar from somebody. 
qutlqu^un^ . 

After the same manner are conj^igated seven ver-bs 
only: the following are excepted, being irregulars : 

Asseoiry to sit down. 
Dechoir^ to decay. 
Falioir^ (verb impersonal,) 

to be needful. 
Mouvoir^ to move. 
Pleuvoir^ (v. imp.) to- rain. 

Pouvoir^ to be able. 
Savoir^ to know, 
Fia/oir, to be worth. 
f^oiVy to see. 
Vouloir^ to be willing. 
Andlbeir compoifnds. 

Indicative Mood. 

. Pres. I entertain great hopes from hU 

' , con(?*«t?o?V,v. esp6ranc€y(* • 

conduct. - - - I (am to) write to yotir brother to- 

conduite^f*' * icrire^v. " 

morrow, to let him know that your father is 

. pour fairt.y ., lui savoir^v* 
arrived. •-- A commander , (ought to,) be intrepid 
sommmidant^m., rf-eroir.v.* 

* When the verb to he to^ is used in the present or imperfect tenses 
of the iodicative mood, and precedes another verb in the infinkiye 
mood,. denoting a Aiturity id the action, it is to be rendered in Freacb 
bjr the same tenses of the verb rf-croir, and not by Urt : ex. 
Je dois alltr au pturc^ 1 am to go to the park. 

Jfoiu devioos lui ccrtrt, We were to wfite to him* 


194 . • 

in the midst of dangers. - - • • He (is to) go 

aji mt7teM,m. f. alUr^v* 

and breakfast at wy uncle's, next , Sunday,^ 

to* dejeuner^v. chez^p. *<^ 

and he (is to) come * and sup with us, - - - We 

J x?enir,v. ^«^ souper^v. 

*somcytime8 entertain a hatred for persons. who 

quelquefois^adv. de la hairie^L ^n 

deserve our friendship Do you not per- 

meriter^y. • amitii^. •de- 

ceive a mountain bejond that tree? - -^Yes, 

perc-evoir^y. rferWcre,p» 

I do. - - We (are to) remit him the value in 

remettre^v. taleur^f. eri,p. 

goods dr in money. - - - Are you not to diiie 

with my father and mother to-morrow ? - - Men com- 

monly owe their virtues or their vices to edu- 


cation (as much as) to nature* Are these young 

autant que^c. f. 

ladies to go to the ball,? - - - No, they are not. - • 

«//cr,v. 6a/,m. 

A young man (ought to) love the society of those who 

are the most learned and modest. ^ 

Imp* I owed four guineas to your aunt when ^he 
died. - * • Was not your brother to rec^ve that mo-' 
ney last' Thursday* ? - -We receivtid his tiresome 

Jeudi^m. ^ cmiT«/an/,adj. 

visits, because we were obliged to it. - • - Were you 

not to let' them* know* it* sooner? - -.They were 

fairty^* savoir^w 

not to stay above^ •six weeks. 
rtsUr^y^ plus Je,a'dv. 

* See note page 32, and reAiember to pjace compound' adverbs, 
fter the participles passive. 


PreIt I received yesterday, with (a great deal) 
» &ten,adT. 

of pleasure, the books yon sent me. - - As soon 

as we perceived the danger, we warned h\vA of it. 

aperc-evoir avertir^v. 

- - - They heard* yesterday from your brother. 

FuT. I shall entertain a bad ' opinion of 

conc-evoir mauvais^^dj* f. 

you if you do not avoid .Mr. ft****'8 company. • - - 

J ' eviter^v. . 

We shall owe him ^nothing 'more, after this 

• apretf,p. 
month. I hope you wiU receive all my letters dur- 

ing niy absence, and they will hear* from their 


father (in a short time.) 

CoND. 1 should answer your brother's 

t ripondrtyy* a 

letter, but 1 have not time Ought not 

h tems^m* f 

your sister to give your^ mother* (an account') 

rendre^w. . compte a,p. 

of all her actions ? - • - She woyld soon per- 

* See ths phrase following the verb recevoir, 
•\ When the word 4^owW expresses a duty or necessity, or can with 
jjropriety be turned into ought /a, it is rendered in French by the con- 
ditional present of the verb devoir t ex- 

Je devroi* clUr It voir, I i/i»uW, or otight to go and see him. 

Fous devriez le ttcourir dam ta You should^ or ought to help him 
mislrt^ &c. in his misery, &g. 

The word thould^ or oug^, when joined to the verb to have^ imme- " 
diately followed by a participle passive, must bfe rendered by the 
condHkma! past of* the above verb, with the participle passive turned 
into the present of the infinitive mopd : ex. 
•/'aurois dd fobUgtr a rester ivi^ 1 should^ or ought to have obliged 

. him to stay here. 

/fous aunoQs dA reoenir plutift, We should^ or ought to have com^ 

2)ack sooner^ 


ceire tbe daogcr, it the knew die 

of it* • • - • Cbildren tboold ev^u ilay learn 

uppt tnuTtjXm 
fometbiog b)r heart. • - - Yoa thoald not despise 

£{tur,m» mefmser^Y* 

tbe ac^rice that be girea you. — - Sboold tbej, 

after wbat tbey have done, expect to 

aprh^p, yat/,p.p. s^atiendreyX, d 

fisceive faroara ? - - - Grammar, geography, history, 
music, are sciences and arts which ladies should nerer 

Ihpcratiitb Mood* 
Receive this sm^ll present as a token * of my 



Prbs. and Pebt. Though I perceive ships 

Quoique^c, vaisseau^n^ 

(afar off,) I cannot distinguish them. - - - He 
de /^n,adv. ne eaurois^v* / 

wrot^ to U3 by the first post, so that we might 

6crivit^v» ordinaire^m. afin que^c. ' 

receive his orders (in proper time.) 
d /em^,adv. 

Mind these Compound Tenses well! 

1 have not yet received his answer. - - -^ 

encore,adv. riponee^L 

You shoi^d have (been making) your theme this 

♦ faire^v* 

morning instead of playing. ^ - He has enterlained 
ma/tn,mb au /t^i,p. 

the hope of living here all his life. - - • She ought 
vivre^y. tci,adv. t?te,f. * • 

to have thanked him for the good advice he 
K revurcier^y^ ' d^,p. 

* See the note page 1,95. 


fave her. - * - When did you hear from jour sUter ? 
Ve have not heard, from her since her de-' 

dtpuis^p. de- 

parture. - - « Your uncle should not have obliged 
partem* oncZe,m. * 

him to pay half the expenses. - • - We should 

« a mot/te,f. des frais^m. 

have owed him one hundred livres. - - I beg^ ' 

livre^L demander^Y* 

youF' pardon, I ought not to have made you 
vous * faire^Y. 

wait so long. - - - - Ought not we to have 

aUendre^y. long-tems^^dv. * 

employed our time better than (we did.) • - - - 
employ tr^y^ nous rCavons faiU 

You ought to have been less presumptuous. 

* prisomptutitx^^Ay 


Infinitive Mood* 

Present. Vend-re, to sell. 

Part, active. . ant^ selling. 

Part, passive. «x,m. ue,f. sold. 

iNDicATivfi Moop. 

Present. Singular. 

Je vend-5, I sell, I do sell, or am selling. 
Tu vend-5, 
Us vend, 

N&us ons, we sell, 4^c. 
Vous ez^ 
lis ent^ 

Imperfect. Singular. 
Je vend-oif, I did sell^ or was selling 
Tu rtw>, 
// ml, 




J^ous vcnd-ton5, 
Us • oicn/, 

we did sell, ^c^ 

Preterite. Singular. 

Ji vend-w, I ao 
Tu is, 
II it. 

Id, or did sell. 



imey, we sold, «Jrc/ 



Future. Singular, 
Jt vend-ra^ I shall, or will sell. 
Tu ras, 



rons, we sball^ or will sell. ' \ 

rez, . . 


Conditional. Singular. 

Jt vend-roff, 1 frfaould, could, would, tst might ^ell 
Tu rots, 
II roit, 

' \ 

Plural. * 

Nous rions^ we should, ^c. 
Vous riez, 
Its roienU 

Compound Tenses. 

Present. J'^ai vendu, I have sold. 

Imperfect. J^avois vendu, I had sold. 

Preterite. J^e%u vendu, I had sold. 

Future. J^aurai vendu, I shall, ^c. have sold. 

Conditional* J^aurois vtndu^ I should, 4^c. have sold* 

199 - . 

lupERATiTE Mood. 

Present. Siugular. 

Vend^^, sell thou. 
QuHl e, let bim seil. 

Plural. * 

ons^ let us sell. 
' . cr, sell je. 

QuHls ' tnt^ let them sell. ' 

, Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. Singular. 

Que je vend-e, that I xnay sell, or I sell. 

iu es. * ' 

•I '' 

il e, . 


nous ionsj that we may sell. 

vous ieZj 

Us entj * 

Preterite. Singular. 

Queje vend-me, that I might sell, or I sold. 
« tu isses^ 

il ity 


nous « issions, that we might sell. 
vous issiez^ 
Us issentj 

Compound Tenses. 

Present. Quefaie vendu, that I jn^Ly have sold. 
Preterite* Qnefeusse venduj that I might have sold. 

After the same manner are conjugated about forty 
verbs. The following are excepted as being irregular. 

Msoudre, to absolve. I £ot>e, to drmk. 
Buftre^to beat. j Ctrconctre, to circumcise. 


Conclurcj to conclode* 

Conduirtj to conduct. 
And all the verbs ending 
iu uire^ 

Confire^ to preserve. 

Connottre^ to know. 
And all those ending in 

Coudre^ to sew. 

Craindre^ to fear. 
And all those ending in 

Crairey to believe* 

Dire, to tell. 

^Ecrire^ to write. 

FatVc, to make, to do. 

Frire, to fry. 

Lire, to read. 

Mettre^ tp put, 

Moudrty to grind. 

Naiire^ to be born. 

Paitre^ to graze, to feed. 

Plaire^ to please. 

Prendre^ to take. 

/7tVe,. to laugh. 

Suffirty to suffice, ^to^ be 

Suiorty to follow. 
St taircy to hold one's 

Traircj to milk. 
VaincrCj to cdnquer. 
Vivre^ to Kve. 

And their compounds. 

M. B. Verbs of this conjugation, the root of which 
terminates in />, as romjhre^ corromp-re, &c. take a t in 
t^e third person singular of the present tense, indica- 
tive mood : ex. je rompsy tu romps, il rompt : the rest 
are conjugated as vendre. 


Indicative Mood. 

Pres. I do not mean to wrong 

prilmd'TtyV. * m>. fij^ire tort^v^ 
him. - - - Is your mother coming down ? - - •• We 
iui, pro. descend-re^vt 

expect our friend, Mr. A***. - • - Do not you 


forbid her to go there ? - - - They sell 

d6ftnd'rt,\. de allergy. 

bad fruit. 


Imp. Did I not interrupt , him, while 

interromp-re^y. . pendant j^^^c. 


he was answering ihcm ?^ - - • She was melting Into 
ripond-^re^v. Uur fond-re^v^ en,p. 

tears, whqn you arrived. - - W^re we not losing 
larme^ arriver^v. perdre^v. 

our time? - - You were aot spreading your nets. - - 

temps^m» itend^re^v. JUttjtDi 

Did they corrupt eur manners ? ^ 

corromp-re^v. tnaurs^f. pK 

Prbt. (As soon as) I had received my money, I 
Des qut^c. 
returned them what they had lent me. • - - Did 

rtnd-rt;v» priter^v* 

he oot hear you ? - - - We (waited for) ihem a 

entend-re^Vm attendrre^v* 

month. - - (For how much) did you sell it to them 2 - - 
m(n5,m. Oom£fien,adv. ^ 

They spilled all the wine^ 


fuT. I shall shear my flock (in the) 

iond-re^y. trouptau^m. au 

month of May. - - - If you do not take care, 

Mai, preneZjV. gorde^ 

the dog will bite you. - - Shall we not lose, if 

we play ? - - You will melt it, if you put 

fond-re^y* mitUz^y* 

it into the fire. No, I will not. - • They* shall^ not» 
. dans^\>. 
hear* * oP roe'' (any* more). 

entend-re parler^y. . plus^^dy. 


CoND. Should I not do him the jus« 

tice he deserves ? - - Would he not interrupt you ? - - 

We would defend them if we could. • - Why 

diftnd-tt^y, pouvionsyy, 

would you^ not answer, if 'I were speaking to 



you ? - - - Your hens wouMXlay eggs) every day, if 

p<nil€j{. pond-reyV* 

they were not so fat. 


lupERATiYE Mood. 

Give* God^ thanks'. - - - Let her not come 

Rend-ri^v. IHeu, grdce a 

down. - • Let ns (give in) our accounts faith- 

. rend-re^w* compte^m. Jidele^ 

fully. - - - Do not lose my book. - - - Let them hear 


the voice of the Lord. • 
T07x,f. Seigneur^m. 

Sdbjukctive Mood. 

Pr£s. and Pret. Speak loud, that I maj hear 

what you say. - - She plays (upon the) harpsichord, 

dites^y. du clavecinltti. 

though you forbid her to do it. " * <- < 

ouoj^i«,c. lui deJaireyVf 

He wrote to us, that we might not expect him. 

Compound Tenses. 

1 have lost my book ; have you found 

^ perd'tefV, irouver^y* 

it ? - - - She has broken her fan. • • - Have you 

romp-re^v. even tot/, m. 

not interrupted mc several times? - - - I had not 
then answered His letterr*-- - - If they (had 

a{or5,adv. a itoitnt 

gone) there, would they not have lost their time? 
Yc8, they would. - - He says he would have sold us 

dit^v. • 

very good wine. - - - Had you not forbidden her to 

speak ? - - That they might have (waited for) us. 


tUcapitulaiorif EXERCISES on the regular verbs of the 

(Review before you write.) 
fNBicATiYE Mood. 

Pres. I love attentive scholars, but " I puniah 
atteniif^dj. . icolier^xn. mais^c* 
severely laziness and inattention. - - Your 

s£verement^2iQy. paresse^L 
brother does not receive this news with.pka- 

sure. - - Do we not expect your mother to-da;^ ? - - - 

We hope (that) you will succeed in your un- 

dertaking. - - - Why do you not fulfil 

Pour^fuoijadv. accomplir^v. 

your promise?'- - Are you to expect the least 

favour from your parents andfriends? - - They per- 
grdce^f* " a- 

ceive the danger, and they do not endeavour 

percevoir^y. tdcher^y* 

to shjun it. 

de iviter^y* 

Imp. I was speaking of your aunt when ypu 

(came in), and was doing ' her the justice she 

e»/r«r,v. rendre^y* hi 

deserves. * - Mr. N. did not art towards your 

sntriier^y* agir^y. envtrsy\>. 

^on with much tenderness. - - Mr. P. and I were 

fils^m. tendresss. 

answering your letters when you arrived. - - You 

ar river ^y. 
undoubtedly ^entertained great hopes from his 
sans c{ou/e,adv. concevotr,v. 

last » voyage. - - They were spending their 

rfer/iier,adj. . . , depenser^y. 


money in trifles, insteadof buying* 

en,p* bagatelle^ au lieu </e,adr« acheter^y. 
books. ; 

^ ^ '^ ^ 

Pret: I boilt this house' in one thousand seven 
^ i maison^f* 

hundred and seventy-nine, - - Your father yesterday 

'o^ Arer,adv. 

received agreeable news. - - She burst «f into tears 

fondre^v* en 
^after your cousin was gone. - - We sent him 

aprls fue,c. parti^p.p* 

(a great deal) of money unicnown to your mo- 

a Pinsu.p. de 

tjier. - - Why did you not finish your work soon- 

cr? - - (As soon as) they perceived us, they (ran 

Dies 9ue,c. prirent la 

fuiu. * 

FuTi^ I will (give in) my accounts (at the) be«- 

ginning of next week. - - - My friend, 

prochain^ adj. semaineS^ amie^ 

Mrs. R. will dine with me next Wednesday. - - We 
Jjime Mercredi^nu 

shall seize th^ first opportunity to thank him 

saisir^Vs occasion ^L pour rerAtrcier^y* 

fof bis kindness. * ^ You will soon entertain 

de bonti^, hientdt^Rd^^ * 

a better opinion of him. - - Will not your sister 

(come down stairs) to day ? 

CoND. I would lay two guinea*, that your 

uncle is not yet ^f rived. - - If my father were rich, he 


wodd rebuild bit countrj-hoo&e. - - Should we no( 

rebdiir^v. Devoir^v. 

express our gratitude toward those whd 

txprimer^y* reconnoissance^fn envers^p. 

do us good ? - - If you would, you could rejifr 

font^Y. him^nu vouliez^y. ren- 

der great services to your country. ^ • * I am cer- 
dr«,v. f. . pays^tn. 

tain (that) they would reward you, if ydu 

deserved it. 

Imperative Mood. 

Discharge with equity (he duties of your 
Remplir^y* iquiti devoir ^m* 

office. - - - Let him receive the punishment due 
charge^f. punitian^. d^p.p. 

to his crime. - - Let us give ^God thanks^ for the 

rendre^y* grdce a de 

good news we received yesterday. - - Imitate the great 

actions of your ancestors. • - Let them enjoy the 

ancetres^m* " j(mir^y»de 

fruit of their labours. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Pres. Write to me by the first post, 

Ecrivez^ym ordtnatVe,ffl» 

that , I mdy receive your letter before my ^e- 

afin qut^c. uvant^^. di* 

parture from London. - - He does not understand yoq, 
partem. comprmdre^y. 

though he bear what you say. - - - 

quoique^Q. en/enc/re,v.subj. dites^y. 

She is never pleased, though we obey her in 

con/en/,adj. lux en,p. 

(every thing) I witVtell . it to you, pro- 

taut dtratjV^ ptmr^ 



Tided you do not speak of it to your sister. - • *- 

vu qut^c. 

He will pay them, provided they wait a little 

plus long'ttmps^Vidr. 

pRET. I wrote to your father (some time ago)^ 

tcriviSjV. il y a quelque temp^ 

that be might engage Mr. W. to come and 

afin fltie,c. lo^ 

spend the holidays with us. - - - That she might 

passtr^v* vacance^U 

reflect on her own conduct, and not on that of 

others* - - He would not come to see us, lest 

voulut^Y* *o% depeurque^c* 

we should perceive his bad desigjas. - - Your uncie 

ne onc/e,m« 

prdered that you should' sell bis two horses to 

Mr. B. - I should be very sorry if they fell 

quefi. tomber^y,zuhjm 
into bad hands. 
tn ' 

Promiscuous EXERCISES on the COMPOUND 

I have spoken to my father of it, but he bas not 
yet given me any answer. - - Have I not faith* 

encore,adv^ de 

fully executed your orders ? - • Has your sister sue* 
ceeded in her undertaking ? «• - Yes, she bas, and I 
have congratulated her (upon it.) - - We have not yet re- 

filiciter^y, en 

ceived any riemittance from America. - - Mr?:. N. told 

me you had already sold the half of your 
dijcLfZdy. moitii/* 


goodf. - - - Why did you not pay those poor 


people ? - - - He would have • been punished, if 

gens^m. e/,« 

I l^ad not defended his right. - - - They have sold 

^tt droit^m, 

him four dozen of handkerchiefs at an exorbitant 

mouchoir^ a 

price, but they have warranted them fine and 
priv^m. garanlir^w. Jin 

well worked. - - - We thought you woui<| have 

travailler^y. croyions^w 

brought your brother with you. - - - Have we not 

been obliged to (wait for) Miss A. ? - - • If you bad 

dt attendre^y\ 
ti-usted them with your goods, they would have 
confier^v. leur *o^ marchandise 

stolen the greatest part of them. - - It is for 

partiej. Ce,pro. 

that reason that my father has not (thought fit) 

juger^v* d-propos 
to send them to you. • - - Mr. D. had represented to 

him al) the danger of it. - - Mrs. F. has gained her 

cause, but she has lost all her wealth. --- Had! 

perdre^y. bierijUU 

not finished my work when she came in ? * » 

ouvrage^tn. entrer^v. 

You would have received your money (a month ago), 
^ ily a un mois 

if the mail had not been robbed. - > Mrs.'P. told me 

ma lie ^f* To/€r,p.p. 

she would have paid you (some time ago,) if fhe 

* ily a quelque Umps, 
b^d sold her goods. 



Verbs- passive are very easily conjugated ; itreiquires 
only that the participle passive of the verb, whicb |&.t o 
be conjugated, be joined to the auxiliary verb eire, ^fflft^ 
through all its nnoods, tenses, numbers, and persons* 
It is to be observed, that in French the participle pas- 
sive varies according to the gender and number of the 
noun or pronoun, which stands as the nominative to the 
verb: ex. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Je suis 
' Jt suis 


ilrt aim-^, ^e, to be loved. 

itrt pun-i, le, to be punished. 

ilant 3L\n\-6j cc, being loved. 

4tant pun-i, tV, being punished. 

avoir iie aim-^, ^e, to have been loved. 

avoir it6 pun-t, te, to have been punished, 

a^ant iti aim-^, ^e, having been loved. 

ayant 6l6 pun-t, te, having been punished; 

Indicative Mood. 
M. F. 

^e, &c. I am loved. 

u, &c. I am punished. 

Plural. ' 

6&s^ &c. we are loved. 

te*, &c. we are punished*. 

Compound Tenses. 

M. F. 

Tai iii pardonn-c,^e, I have been forgiven. 

Tai 6l6 pun-i, te, I have been punished. 

JfousavonsitesLiin-isj 6esj We have been loved, &c. 



The conjugations of the above verbs are, like all 
others, distinguished by their termiuatfons, and cooju* 
gated in the same niaonert 

J^ous sommts aim-e*, 
fN'ous sommts pun-t5. 


Learners may easily know a newber verb from an 
active one; because the latter generally bas, or can 
always have, a direct case after it; whereas the neuter 
verb never has, nor can have, but an indirect case : for 

Dormifj to sleep, 
Fientr, to come, 
Voyager^ to travel, 
are neuter verbs ; because we cannot say, 
Dormir une maisQn^ to sleep a house. 
Venir un livre^ to come a book. 

Voyager la chambre 9 to travel the room, &c. 
In the same manner, 
Jouir, to enjoy. 

Profiler^ to profit by, to take advantage of, 
Parvenirj to attain, \p reach, 
are neuter verbs, because they can only govern an indi- 
rect case : ex. 

Jouir d'tt?»e grande ripata* To enjoy a great reputa- 
tion, tion. 
Profiler du temsj To take advantage of the 

Parvenir a son but, To attain one's end. 

As it is impossible for the neuter verbs to govern an 
absolute case, it follows that every verb of this kind, 
which governs an absolute case, can no longer be look« 
ed upon as a neuter : ex. 

Pleurer^ to weep, to bewail, 

Soriir, ' to go out, 
Monter, to go up, or come up, 

Plaider, &c. to plead, 

are neuter verbs, but become active when- they govera 
any object in the absolute case, or accusative : ex. 

EAle pleure ses pichis. She bewails her sins. 

Sortez te cheval, \ , Bring out that horse. 

II plaidasa cause lui-mimej He himself pleaded bi9 



But^ there are some neuter verbs which can nevSr 
bare an active signification, and which we are obliged 
to conjugate with the verb faire^ when we wish toex- 
press an action passing from the subject who acts : ex. 

Ferai-je bouillir cu rotir Shall I boil or roast that 

cette viande ? meat ? 

FatUs4a bouillir, Boil it. 

Some of the neuter verbs conjugate their compound 
tenses with the auxiliary verb avoir^ to have ; others 
with the verb itre^ to be. 

The general rdle to know what neuter verbs conju- 
gate their compound tenses with the auxiliary avoivi 
and which are the others that are conjugated with the 
verb ilre^ is to pay attention to the participle passive of 
the neuter verb which is conjugated* 

If this participle be declinable, that is, if, it can be 
applied to a manor a woman, or any other animated 
■object, the tompounds of its verbs are conjugated with 
the verb itre : ex. 

Atriotr^ to arrive, 
Mourir^ to die, 
J^aitre, to be born, 

Tomber^ to fall, 
Fisntr, to come, ^c* 

take the auxiliary verb, (ire ; because we can $ay, 

Vti homim arrivij a man {who is) arrived^ 

Ujfitfemmt morte^ a woman dead. 

Un enfant n^, a child born. 

Un chival tombcj &c. a horse fallen. 

If, on Che contrary, the participle be indeclinable, that 
IS, if it cannot be said of any animate object, the com- 
pound tenses of that verb must be conjugated with the 
verb «wtf : ex. . 

Doffittf, to sleeps I Rigntr, to reign, 

tanguitito languish, to linger. | Vivre^ to live, ^c. 

lake the auxiliary verb avoirs because we cannot say, 


ETn hmnme dorm, a man sl«pt, (pdft. pasB.) 

Uneftmme languie, a womaa ld«guished,or lingered* 

Un enfant regne, a child reigned. 

-Uu chival v6cUi &c. a horse lived. 

The varb courir is M the last class, tvben it signifies 
the rapid motion of the body, moving in a certain di- 
rection with all the swiftness of its legs ; as we cannot^ 
in this sense, say, 

Un honme eouru., a man run, (part, pass*) 

Unefemme courue^ « a woman run, 

nor je suis courti, fitois courUi &c. but^oi couru, favoii 
count, &c. 

When we tay'in French, un homme couru, unefemme 
courue, wc mean a man or woman mnch sought after, 
a person or thing we are very eager lo see or hear : ex. 

Ce predicateur est fort couru ; 
• Cette danseuse est fort courue 5 

that is, people are very eager to hear that preacher, to 
see that daneer. 

In the above general rule are not included some 
neuter verbs, which sometimes take the auxiliary avoir^ 
and sometimes the auxiliary itre ; these are, 

Monter, to go or come up. 
Descendre, to go or come 

Sortir, to go out. 
Resler, to stay, to remain. 

Demeurer^ to live, to dwelk 

PcVir, to perish. 
Passer, to pass, to go by. 
Echapper, to escape. 

Monter and descendre often govern an abeolOte regi*^ 
men ; in which case they are considered as active verbs, 
and conjugated with the auxiliary avoir: ex. 

JPai monle les degrcs, I have ascended the stairs, 

or gone up the stairs. 
JVotitf avoca desctiidu la We have come down the 
moniagne, mountain* 


When the above verbs are employee} without regimen, 
their compounds are conjugated with itre: ex. 

Je suis descnnduj I am down. 

Eik est dej^ montie, She is up ah*eady« 

Sortir^ is conjugated with the verb 6tre^ when it signi- 
fies to quit, to leave the place wherein one was dwelling, 
or living; but it is conjugated with the verb avoir^ when 
we wish to convey the idea that we have been from home, 
and that we are come back again f ex. " ^ 

II est sorti de prison^ , He is out of prilson. 

Td\ sorti ce matin a dix I went out this morning at 

/retires, ten o'clock. 

ky^Zrvaus sorti ce matin? Did you §o out this morn- 

^ous n'avons pas sorti de We have not been out all 

tout It jour ^ day. 

Le roi n'a pas sorti dt sa The king has not been out^ 

chambre^ of his room. 

Defneurer ^nd r ester take the auxiliary ax^oir, when 
we mean that we were, but are no longer, in a place: 

J'ai demeur6 deux ans a la I lived two years in the 

campagruy country. 

// a resti vingt ans a Rome, He resided twenty years 

at Rome. 

On the contrary, they take the auxiliary itre^ while 
the person or persons are still in a place: ex. 

// est demeure a Londres He has remained in Lon- 
pour y solliciter un (v^- don to solicit a bii^hop- 
chi^ ric. 

JSou8^omme%restis aYork We have tarried at York 
pouryfinir nos affaires^ to conclude our affairs. 

Pirir indifferently takes either the auxiliary avoir or 
itre: ex. 


li ^t f(r% dmx vtiisseaHx 

Trois hommes ont p6ripar 

ctitt tempite, 
La pMpari des 6qxiipages 

sont piris dans les midts^ 

h reste est peri de mi- 


Two ships have been lost 

at sea. 
Three men have perished 

by this storm. 
Most of the crews perished 

in the waves, the rest 

perished through mis* 


It seemfi, however, that the auxiliary avoir is more 
generally osed. 

Passer sometimes governs an indirect case, or is im- 
mediately followed by the preposition par^ or som^ 
other, attended by a noun or pronoun ; in which case 
its compounds are copjugated with the aaxiltary verb 
£rz7oir, whether it be used in its proper signification or 
ia a figurative sense : en. 

Le roi a passi par Ken* 
^ingtan pour alltr a 

Nous avons passi devant 

Elk a pass6 pres du pare 

de St, Jdq^es^ 
La couTonne de Naphs a 

passi dans la maison de 


The king went through . 

Kensington to go to 

We went by the church* 

She went by St. James' 

The crown of Naples 

passed to the house of 


In all other cases, passer takes the auxiliary itre : 

Le roi est passe^ tons ne The king is gofee by, you 

sauriez it voir, cannot see him. 

Ld heau rst passe^ The fine weather w over. 

Vos vhagrins soiUpasb'6s^ Your sorrows are over. 

Wp s^ur times say, ce moi est passi, when we mean 
that it IS no longer m use; but when we say, ce mot a 
pasfi, we nnderstand has passed into ike /ongtitfge, whicb 
signifies that it ba$ been received or adapted. 


Passer is often a reflated passive verb, tbeo jte 
compouod ieoses follow the rule of the reflective 

Passer^ in several cases, becomes an active verb, and 
governs an absolute case : ex. 

Passez cela sur k feu^ Pass that over the fire.. 

Les ennemis ont passe la The enemies have crossed 

* riviere, (he rivtr. 

Passer Tepee au travers du To run one through the 

corps ^ bodj. 

Echapper has two significations : sometinies it is used 
in the sense of iviter^ to avoid, when it is conjugated 
with the auxiliary avoir^ and governs the dative case; 
sometimes it signifies to come or go out bj force or stra^ 
agem from a place in which one was confined or shut up 'y 
in this case it takes the verb iire for auxiliary : ex. 

Vans avez ichappija a un You have escaped «. great 

grand danger, danger. 

// a echappi a la mort, He has escaped death. . 

Us sont echappes de leur They haxe escaped from 

prison, or, their prison, or, made 

lis se sont ichapp€s de leur their escape. 


0/1 la tenoit depuis quel- They had her for some 

ques jours, mais elle est days, but she has es- 

echappee, or, die s^est caped, or, made her 

ichappce, escape. 

N. B. Exercises on the neuler verbs will be found 
among the irregular, whenever they occur. 


We call reflected, or reflective, a verb whose subject 
and object are the 8ame person or thing ; so that tl)e 
subject that acts, acts upon itself, and is at the same tioid 
the agent and U^e object of the action ; ex« 


Je me cannois^ /know myself, 

Tu t€ /oM«, jTAou praisest thyself 

il se 6/e5««, He wounds himself 

Nous nous chauffonsj We warm our^e/ve^, 

are reflected verl)8, because it is I who know, and who 
am known ; thou who praisest and who art praised : he 
who wounds and who is bounded, &c« 

In order to express the relation of the nominative to 
the verb with its regimen or object, we always make use 
of the conjunctive pronouns, me, te, se, myself, thyself, 
himself, herself, itself, for the singular; nous^ vous, se, 
oi^selves, yourselves, themselves, for the plural. But 
it frequently happens, that in English, the second pro- 
noun is implied, though it must be expressed m French : 

Je me souviens, I remember. 

Elle ne veut pas se marier, She witl not marry. 

J^ous nous plaignons, &c. We complain, &:c. 

The reflected verbs may be divided in the following 
manner, viz. 

Verbes reflechis par la sig' "Verbs reflective by sig- 

nification, nific^tion. 

Verbes reflechis par Tea?- Verbs reflective by cx- 

pression, pression. 

Verbes riflichis directs. Verbs reflective direct. 

Vtrbes reflichis indirects, Verbs reflective indirect. " 

Verbes reflechis passifs, Verbs reflective passive. 

A verb reflected by signiflcation h properly a verb 
wherein the person or thing that acts, is at the same 
time the object of the action : ex. 

Je me chauffe, I warm myself 

Elle se blesse. She wounds herself &:c. 

A verb is reflective by expression when we add to it 
the dcuMe pronoun, without the person or thing that 
acts being the object of the action : such as, 


Je me repens, I repent^ 

II s'en va^ ^ He is going atoajfi. 

EUe se meurt^ Bhe is dying, 

J^ous DOU8 apefcevons dt We perceive our error,'reur^ 

which merely signify Je suis repentantj il ua, elle nuurt^ 
710US apercevons noire trrtur. 

When the conjunctive pronoun is the objective case 
of the verb reflective by expression, we say it is a vtrh 
reflective direct; when the same conjunctive pronoun is 
the indirect regimen, (that is, governed in the dative 
case), we call it reflective indirect : thus, 

Je mejlatte^ I flatter myself^ 

Tu te vantts^ Thou boasteit, ♦ 

// se felicitey He congratulates himselfy 


are verbs reflective direct. — On ;the contrary, 

II se donne des louanges^ He gives himself pmse^ 

J^ous nous promettons un We promi^ etiLrselves good 

bon succesy success, 

Vous yous arrachez une You draw one of your 

dent, teeth, 

are verbs reflective indirect^ because it is 2t3 if we 
said, // donne des lauanges a soi, J^ous promettons un 
ion succis a nous, Vous arrachez une dent a vous, 

Verb reflective passive. This verb is so called, be- 
cause it not only expresses a passive sense, but that 
sense can only be rendered by a passive verb : ex. 

Cela se voit tous lesjours. That t> wen every day. 

Cela ne se dit pointj That is not said. 

Ce livre se vend 6ten, Tliat book sells well. 

Ce bruit se repand. That rumour is spread. 

Ces fruits se mangent en These fruits are eaten ift 
hiver, winter. 

(ki hamm i^esi troistt4lj^ That mati kofbeew fovmd 
nocmt du crime donion innocent of- the crimi§ ' 
Paccusoiiy with which he was ac^ 


It is as if there were ceh est vu tout lesjours^ cela n'esp 
point dit^ &c. which eractlj correspond yritb the idiom* 
of the English language. 

This last verb is of great use in the FfetttTk lafl- 
guage, because, as it has bees observed before^ thev6 
are properly no passive verbs in that langoagl, and We 
are oTtien obiigcNJ to supplj the want of them by the 
above verb, or by the pronoun general - <m, to avoid 
ambiguity or false sense : if, for instance, instead of sav- 
ing, ces fruits se mangent en hiver, 6u, on mange cesfruUs 
en hiver^ I said, ces fruits sont'mangis en htver^ one 
might understand that those fruits are already ealen ; 
whereas, I only wish to express the proper season for 
eating those fruits. 

Some authors call rieiprsque^ reeii>rocal, all thQM 
reflected verbs ; but this- deiiomtnation to me bas ap« 
peared insuflicient to determine accurately the nature 
and use of these verbs. Others limit (he reciprocal' 
verb to signify what two persons or two things recipro- 
cally do to each other : thus, 

Pierre et Jean se baitent^ Peter and John ar6 fight- 
ing, or beating each 

Paul et Robert s'^aiment^ Paul and Robert love eadh 


Le feu et fetm se defrui- Fire and watfct destrbj^ 
^enr, each other^ 

are reciprocal verbs^ because it i^ as if we said, Pierre hi 
Jean se battenl riciproquement Vun Pautre^ P-aul et> Robert 
s^aiment recipro^ement Pun Pautre. '■ \ 

This distinction of the reciprocal verbs may be 
adopted, observing '4t the' same time, that we often 


prefix the preposition enire Uf^e verb^ th^ better to 
express the reciproqily : ex. " 

PUrrt tt Jeian 5'entr'fli- 

lis s^enireloueni^ 
Elks s^entrehausent^ 
Le feu et Peatk s^enitedi- 

iruisent^ &c/ 

Peter and John love each 

They praise each other. 
They hate each other* 
Fire and water destroy 

each other. 

All the reflected and reciprocal verbs, without ex- 
ception, are conjugated with the auxiliary verb itre ; 
hence it Jhay be^ supposed how much French people 
are shocked to £ear any one, who has learned that 
language, sajsi, 

Je tn'ai achete un cheval, 
Je m'avois bless6j 
II 9*^/ait mal; 
Elle 5'avoit moque de mot, 

I bought mysel/ a horse ; 
I Aad hurt myself ; 
He has hurt himself; 
She had laughed at me ; 

expressions too commonly made ude of by many English 

people, who speak without knowledge of the princij^s 

of the language ; whereas we must say, 

Je me suis achete un cheval^ 

Je m'etois Slessi^ 

II s^eBtfuit mal^ . % 

Elle «'etoit moqiUe dejjm^ 

J^^ous nous sommes informis^ 

lis se sont promenis^ 

II a'est passi d*6tranges 

fihoses depuis votre de- 
i part^ 
II s^esi pass6Men des annies 

depuis que fai ouiparler 

de cette affaire^ 

'It^ roust be owned, that 

We hate inquired. 

They hare walked. 

Strange things have hap- 
pened since your depar-' 

Many years hwoe elapsed 
since I heard of that af- 

in the compounds of most 

part of theseverbs, the verb itre is but the substitute 

of the verb a^oir ; but it is impossible tu use avoir as 

auxiliary to a verb which has for its. objective case a 

"injunctive pronoun that relates to the principle of the 


action of that verb, and which precedes the auxitiarj ; 
for, though we say, % 

II a voulu se iuer^ He would kill himself ; 

jet, if we change the place of ihe pronoun, we must 
say, // finest vmtlu tuery which is the idiom of the lan- 


The conjugation of the following verb may serve as 
a model for all the reflected or reciprocal verbs, of the 
four conjugations. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Se promenery to walk. 

Part, act* Seprofhenan^, walking. 

M. Sing. F. 
Part. pass, promen-iy ^e, walked. 

M. Plural. F. 
Part. pass. promen'6sy iesy walked. 

Compound Tknses. 

'^Pres. S^itre prtflneniy to have walked. 
Past. S'^6lant pronunif having walked. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. Singular. 
Je mepromeney Iwalk, or do walk, or am walking. 
Tu le prominesy 
Ilsepromenej , 


^ou4»nous pronunonsy we walk, do walk, or are &c. 
Vvas vous/)ro99€nez, 
Ih se promintniy * 

imperfect. Singular* 
Je me prormnoisy I did walk, or walked, or, was walking. 
Tu te promenoisy 
II se promehoity , 


J^ous nous promenions^ we did walk, walked, op were 
Vou9 ?ous promeniez^ walking* 

Ih se prometuneni^ 

Preterite. Singular* 
Je meprammai^ I did walk, or walked. 
Tu te prvmenas^ 
U se promenOj , 

Ntmt nous promendme^, we did walk/or walked. 
Vous V0U8 promendles^ 
lis se promenirent^ 

Future. Singular- 
Je mt promemrai^ I shall, or will walk. 
Tu tej^romineratj 
II se prominera^ 

JNTottf nous ji^romenjerotu, we sb^il^or will wa)k« 
Fotw vous promenereZf 
lis se /yromeiKfon/, 

Conditioiial. Singular* 
Je me promeneroisi 1 would, should, or could walk. 
Tu te promenerois, 
II se promtneroil^ 

Plural. ' - 

vVou^ nous />rome/imonf , vre would, should, 4^c. walk* 
F(9Ms vous ^romenericz, 
i/s seprom^neroienl, 

CoMF ouNJ> Tenses. 

jPre&em* J^.me 5tm promen*^, ^e^ i have walked* 
Imperfect. Je m^ctois promen*6^ ie^ I had walked. 
Preterite. Je me fus promen-i^ ie^ I bad walked. 
jTuture. Je me.f^raipfomm^^ Ur I shall or will have 

don^itionaLJe me serois promen-i^ ie, I should, ^c. bav^ 


Imferativb Moop. 

Present. Singular. 

Fromint'ioi*^ walk thou. 
Qu'iZ 86 fromcnt^ let him walk. > 

Promenon^^nous'*', let us walk* 
Promen«2r-vous*, walk ye. 
QuHls 86 prominent, let thetn walk. , 

Subjunctive Mood. 
* Present. Singular. 

Qiuje me promint, that I way walk. 
tu te protncnes, 
il 86 jjromcnc, 


nous hous promenions, that we may walk. 
V0U9 vous promeniezy ^ 

Us 86 prominent^ 

Preterite. Singular. 
Queje me promenasse^ that I might walk. 
tu te promenasseSf 
il 86 promendt, 

Plural. ^' 

fimit Bons />rom€ft(X35tonf, that we migbt walk.- 
iw)t« vous />romen(i55wr, 
tjt 86 promennssent^ 

Compound Tenses. 

M. F. 
Present. Que je me sois promen-i, e'e, that I may have 
/ walked. 

Preterite, Quejt mefusse promen'S^ ie, that I might have 

. walked. 
The learner may here be again reminded, that it il 

* When the verb is conjugated with a negalion^ tJ^ese three f^* 
noons are put before the verb ; ex. ne vous promenez pat^ de not 
walk ; ud t9i is cbaaged into fe ; ne te pronUnepa*. ^ 

neceBsarj to cenjagftte.tbia veckiwkli a negation and in^ 

terrogation: ex. 

Jt oe me promene pas^ I do «ot walk* 
Vou8 promentZ'Vaiis f Po you walk ? 

.ATe se promene-t-ilpas ? Does he not walk ? 

CoMPOujTD Tenses. 

'. ■ j^ 

i/le suis'je promen6 2 H^Vis] w^k^d? or did I 

JVe vous eteS'Vous pas Have you not warned 
chauffi ? yourself? or did you 

not warm yourself? 
Mon cffusin sUst4l infor- Has ^; cpusin inquired ? 
mi? ' ' or did rojr CQUf ^ in- 

Voire frere ne s^est-il pas JIas not 3'our brother re** 
repenti ? pented ? or did not your 

brother repent 2 
We say in French, 
Se pronuner a cheval^ en To take a ride, an air- 
carrossey ing on horseback, in a 

Se promentr sur Peau, sur To go upon the water, on 
la riviere, the river. 


•/V. iBf y«rlf8 marked thus* are irregular: see the 
irregular verbs alphabetically arranged under each con- 

Indicative MoOd* 
Pres. 1 rise (early) every 

, ^Se lever ^v, de bonne heure^zdr^ tous Us 

motning. - - Dcfes not your brother remember se res souvenir, v.* 

td have keen me ? - - My sister is not well, she 
,dS 9{^.p. j<sttr,f.t se porter, 

t When wemeftn to express the state of a person's health, ia^ead 
€fr the -rett) me, we inust tise the reflected one se norUr : 
I ♦'. . ^^^ • 

Ma s9Uf nftte ,p9J!te pa^ bis», My sister st aot «e|L 

appii^ bersetf (loo Bmeb^ lUi'Stu^j* * - • - tWW 

rejoice iitithe good news :(whicb) be bas bFOogfat 
se rSjouir^v* dt ,t^mv^k^f. apparUyp^fi 

us. - - When do you intend to go and see 

stprcpourif. dt alUr^v* *^ iwir^r, 
Mrs. H. ? - - Do you not irepent . tvhat yoo 

«e «fpsnftr,v.* <Ic 

have done to her 7 • • i ibelieve .your bfotber^ 

yatV,p.p* '^roire^y*^ 

are not .well } tot I bave not seen them tbis 

4 €ar,c« ^i^^tp^p* 


Ij^. I w^ tidipg on Jiorseback in the paitk, t 
^ St promentr;v, purc^m* 

tvhen I met him. • - Was he not warm- 

9uandf,c. r«icon/rer,y. ;e chavf' 

ijig himself lyhen ydu (came in) ? r • We did not 
jfir,v. entr^.r^v. 

imagine he lyoald succeed so well. - - You were 

sHmaginer^y^ riussir^v. 

_ boasting (too much) of what you have done for 

se vanier^y. trap fdii^p.p. 

him. • - They did not expect that they should 

s'aiUndre^y^ iz *o^ *<^ 

meet us. ^ 

Pret. I inquired after you yesterday. • - . 

s^informer^y. dt A»cr,adv. 

Did not my son behave well in the last 

St comporter^y* (f€rmer,adj. 

war ? - - Corn was ^soid yesterday for twelve sbil* 
gtierre,f. st vendre^y* *o» 

lings a bushel. • - We saw ourselves surrounded by 

St i?bir,v.* en/ot<r^,p.p. 

more than twenty persons in an instant. - - Did yoa 


f See pai^e 346* 

not find '^ ' joorselves obliged to go 

9^tr(M'otT;9* oblig6^p.p. de allergy* 

there ? - * They did no^ stop one. minute. 

FuT« I will not complain o( you, if you 

se plaindrt^vJ^ 
promise me to behave better. - - Will your 

promeUre<;v.* de niuua;,adv. 

bird • (grow tame)? - - Shall we submit our-' 

c^eau,m. s^apprivoiser^v. je soumettre^vJ* 

selves to his judgment. - • You will ruin your-' 

jtegcmen/,m. st ruiner^v* 

selves if you continue (g^n^ng). - - Will they not 

coniinuer^v. /dejouer^v, 
perceive it (as soon as) they come ^ito tl^ 

s^apercevoir^y* en des que^c. en/rer.v.fut. 


CoND. If I were in your place, I would 

eiois a 

not ve!^ myself. - - - - Would she not (make her 
se chagfiner^y, s^ichap- 

escape) ? • - We would embark (this day) 

per^y. ^ s^emharquer^y, aujourd'^hui^ adv. 

if the weather (would permit). - - Would you embark so 

iemps^m^ U permeitoii^y^ 
soon ? - - Why would you expose yourselves to their 
t$/,adv. sUxposer^y. 

fury ? - - They would agree very well, . 

fureur^(» . s^accorder^y. bie»,adv. 

if they were not so proud. 


iMrsnATivE Moon. 

I give you leave to go out, but 

donner^. permission de sortifyy* maisjC* 

'do not overheat yourself. • - Let'^hiui amuse him- 
sHchavffer^y* s^amuitr^y* 



self a little Jd 1117 garden. « • • Let ut remem- 
unpeUfadv*- jardin^m* S€ restou^ 

ber what we are to do. - - • Endeavour to 

v'enir de^r.* • t fairt^v. S^effbrur^v. de 

please your master, and do not sq often inis- 
plaire^y. a mattrtjm* se trom" 

take in the tenses, numbers, and persons of the 
ptr^x. temps 

verb. - - Let them (fall asleep.)"^ 

Subjunctive Moon. 

, Pass. I mnst apply mjMlf to. the 

' flfwt fMet . s^appliqutT;^. 
F^^ncU language. - - I will hide it, test 

lanfiie,?. C9cher,v» i2c^ peur fiie,c« 

.f)ie ^bi^uld perceive it. - • - Provi^Mi 

tie s^aperuDoirjW* .en^pro. Paurvdfut^t* 

.icej*ei9fffijbertoatk )Um bow kh 

4e dtmand^r^y* hi commenifiiY. , 
mptfcer idpea. » - • - (In order. that) joo aaj not 

boast {so mfic]))*- - I have told them who jou 

t^ip^neer}?. I«n<,adv. i{t/,p.p. 

are, that tbey may behave better another time. 

'Prst. That I might not ruin myself. - - - 

8t ruiner^Y. 
"That/he might not meddle with my affairs. * * - 

Me mikr^r. dt 
Hiat we might excuse ourselves. • - ** That you 
• s'ia?ciMer,Vt 

might not go away That thej might not 

#'en plhr^ v.* 
repent too late. 

9t ftptniir^Yi* infi iard^diiY* 

^ * Remember that rerbi marked tbni are irre{;tilar,- 

\ t See the note p. t93. 

\ i See/otteir, imp, v. page'Saft^ 


Compound Tenses* . 
(Read vjith aiUntiori the rtmarks^ p. 218.). 
I have inquired after you and jroar sister. - - * 
sHnformer^v* d« ' 
H€ says jpo have not been well while you 

<{t/,v« pendant que^c, 

were Id the country. - - - - Has not your cousin 

a campagtit^L fou»tn,fn. 

laughed at me ? - - Did we not get up at six 

semoquer^y^ de ae Uver^r. a 

(o'clock ?) - - They have perceived the trick, but 

hexire du ditaur^m. 

it was too late. - - Did you remember f me 7 
ce se ressofivenir^r. de ' 

I had not applied myself enough. - - • H«d 

s^appliquer^v, assez^adr, ^ 

not your sister imagined, - that they would have 

found themselves obliged to go to France f - - - 
se trouver^r* ' ob/tgl.p.p. At 

He has wpunded himself in attempting to injure 

se blesser^v* essayer^y* de nutVe^v. 

me.--- We had thought ourselves able 

se croire^v.* capable^zdj. 

to resist them, but we have (been deceived.) 

di risister^r* leur mais^c^ se tfomper^v* 

- - - Dicf you not hide yourselves (in order) 

se cacher^y^ afin 

to surprise them ? - - - - When I (shall) 

de surprendre^y* Quan(2,adv. - 

have walked five or six minutes in the gar^ 

minute • jar* • 

den, I will rest myself. ^ - - - - Why did you 
c2tn,m. se rtposer^y. 

exhaust yourself as you h^ve done? • - -» - Oar 
s^ipuiser^y* • yi(}/,p.p. 

sailors would have behaved with more reso- 


t See the N. B. p. 41. 


lution* - « Would you not have excused yourself. • • • 

iVheb thejt have repented their faults, 1 

se repeniir^Y* * de 
will forgive them. - - If I had been in your place, I 

avois a 

would not have meddled with their affairs. - • • 

9e mikr^y. dt 
Your friend would not have complained of you, 

se plaindre^v.* 
aiid you never would have (fallen out) for so small 

'• $9 brouiUeTyV* si pea 

a matter. ^ 

dt chose* 

These are called trregti{ar5 because their conjugation 
'deviates from the general rule, either by their termina- 
tions, or the want of some of their moods, tenses, per* 
sons, or numbers. The personal pronouns must now be 
supplied in French by the student. 


ALLERf TO 60. \ 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Aller^ to go. 

Part. act. * AUanU goings 
Part. pass. Alli^ ee, gone. 

^Indicative Mood. 

Present. , 

Stng« Vais^ vas, va, . I go, do go, or am going. 
Plur. Allans^ alleZy vont^^ 

Sing* jf//ot#, ^ aliois^ alloit^ I did go, ot Was going. 
Plur. Allions, allitz^ alloientj 

Sing. Alkii^ allasy alla^ I went, or did go. 
PlOr. Alfdmes, nlldtts^ alUrent^ 

t After when and a few other conjnnctions itill Mid thally sifns ot 
the future, are implied in English. 






I shall, or 


rill go. 










irtZy ironi^ 

trow, tVojif, I should, could, would, or 
iriez, ' iroientf . might go. 

Imperative Mood. 
Fa, go thou ; 
quUl ailkj let him go. 
Allon8y allez^ ^jaHU oillmL 



ailleSy aille^ that I maj ge. 

alliez^ aillmt^ 

allass^f alldty that I might go. 
allasiiez^ allastenty 
N. B. The preterite of the verb itre,jeftx9^ tufut^ k/tm 
has been used by respectabie authors a od to conver&a- 
tion {or fullaiy tu alku^ but now it is thought unnecessary. 
Among the compound tenses of this verb, it is to be 
remarked, that those which are formed by the participle 
aWe, signify that we are or were yet in the place men- 
tioned at the tfme we are or were speaking. Whence 
it follows, that the first person of the compound of the 
present, - 

Je suis alli^ ' I have gone, &c. 

Tu €s alli^ &c. 
can seldom be used in diecourse; for. we cannot oatur-' 
ally say that we are still in a place ivhich can only be 
mentioned in a past time, aifer we have left it ; there- 
fore, we make use of the compound tenses of the V«rb 
tlre^ ^sfai^ 6l6^ tu a* 6t£,f€u» 6U^ favois.ite^ faurois iie^ 
&c. for when we say, 

// est alU a tiondr^Sy He is gone to L(^don. 

we give to understand, that he is 6til( in London^ or 49 
00, hi^ way, going to London : on the contrary. 


II a tie a Londrts^ * ^. He has been at London, 

means, that he has gone to London, but is returned. 

The above verb is also conjugated as a reflected one, 
with the particle en : ex. 

S'en aller^ to go away. 

Je m'en vais^ I go or am going away. 

Tu Ven vas^ thou goest or art going away* 

11 s'en va, he goes or ist gotog axcay. 

Jfous nous en alldhs, we go or ^re going avxiy. 

Vous vous en alltz^ you go or are going away. 

lis s'en vont^ they go or are going away. 


Je ne m'en vats pas^ I am not going away. 

It ne s'en va pas^ he is not going away. 

J^ous ne nous en altor^s pas^ we are not going away. 

Vous ne vous en alkz pas^&Lc. you are not going awa^^Sic. 

S'en va-t-il f Is he going army ? 
Vous en allez-vous? <t*c. are you going away ? &x* 
JsTe s'en vont-ils-pas ? 4^€. are they not going a29ay,&c. 

The imperative mood is thus conjugated : 
Fa-t'en, go thou amay* 
QhHI s'en aille^ let him go away. 


^//ons-nous en, let us go away. 

jiltez-rou^ en, go away. 

QuHls s'en aillent^ let thdn go away. 

Its compound tenses are, 

/(§ m'en suis alU^ I have goneMtoay. 
Je fli'en etois allc^ I had gone azoay. 
Je m'en fus alle^ I had gone away. 
Je m'en $era% atU^ 1 shall have gone away, &c. 
Je m'^n serois alUj I should have gone ^way. 



Infinitive Mood. 
Preaciyt. Acquirir^ to acquire. 

Part. act. Acqutrant^ acquiring. 

Part. pass. -^c^uM^^e, acquired. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Acqukrs^ acquiers^ acquiert^ I acquire or am ac- 
Plur. Acqucrons^ acquirez^ acquierent^ quiring.' 

Sing. Acqu6rois^ acquirois^ acqueroit^ I did acquire or 
P)ur. Acquirionsj acquiriaz, acquiroient^ was acquiring. 

Sing. Acquis, acquis, ac^yi^, I acquired or did ac- 
PluK Acqutmes, acquttes, acquirent^ quire. 

Sing. Acquerrai, acquerras, acquerra, I shall, or will ac- 
Plur. Acquerrons, acquerrez, acquzrront, quire. 

Sing. Acquerrois, acquerrois, dcqmrroit, I should, would, 

or CQuld acquire. 
Plur. Acquerrions^acquierriez, acquerroienij 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Acquiers, acquiere, acquire tbou. 

Plur. Acqu6ronsj aequerez, acquierent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que que que 

Sii^. Acquiere, acquieres, oc^utere, that I noaj acquire. 
Plur. Acqucrions, acquSriez, acquierent, 

Sing. Acquisse, acquisses, acqu(t, that I ^might ac- 
Plur. Acquissions, acquissiez, acquissent, " quire. 



The primitive ^f the ahpve verb is never used but in 
the present of the infinitive mood : ex. 

Envoyez-nnoi querir, Send /or me. 

GOJ^QUERIR, TO conwEK iREQUERIR, to rkqdire; 
are conjugated like ACQUERIR. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present Bouillir^ fo boil. 

Part. act. Bouillant^ boiling. 
Part* pass. Bouilli^ie, boiled. 

Indicative Mood. 

, Present. 

Sing. Bous^ bous^ 6ott/, I boil, or am boiling. 

Plur. Bouillons^ houilUz^ houillmt^ 

Sing. Bouilhis^ bouUUns, bouiUtntj I did boil, or was 
Plur. Bouillions^ bouillieZy bouilloienty boiling. 

Sing. Bouillisy bouilKs^ bouillit^ I boiled, or did boil. 
Plur. Bouillimes, bouillitts^ bauillirent^ 

Future. - 
Sing. Bouillirai^ bouilliras^bouillira, I shall, or will J>oiK 
Plur. Bouiilirons^ bouillirez^bouilliront^ 

Sing. Bouilliroisj feoutZ/tVow, feouiWiVoi/, I should, would, or 
Plur. Bouillirionsybouilliriez^bouillirotent, could boil. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Bous, bauiUe, boil thou. 

Plur. Bouilhns, bouilUz^ bouilhnt^ 


Subjunctive Mood. 
Que ^ue que 

Sing. Bouille^ bouilUs^ bouille^ that I may boil. 

Plur. Bouillions^ houilliez^ bouillent, 

Sing. Bauillisse^ bouiltisses^ froi/zV/z/, that I might boil. 
Plur. Bouillissions^ bouilHs^iez^ bouillisstnt^ 

This verb, as ^vell as. its competind rebouillir^ to boil 
again, is but seldom used, except in the third person 
singular or plural, and in its infinitive mood, which is 
commonly joined to the verb Faire to render it active 
and use it in all persons : ex. 

Faites bouilUr cette viande, Bbil that meat. 


In^nitivb MpoD. 
Present. CoiXrir^ to run. 
Part. act. Ccfurant^ running. 
PaiPt. pQBS. €ouru^ ue, run. 

iNDifeATivE Mood. 
Sing. Gours^ cours^ com% I run, or am running, 
plur. Courons^ courez^ coiirent^ 
Sing. Courois^ couroit^ couroii^ 1 did run, or was run- 
Plur. Couriofis, couriez^ couroieni^ ning. 

Sing. Courus^ conrus^ courut, I ran, or did run. 
Plur. Courumes^ courtiles^coururent^ 

Sing. Courrai^ caurras^courra^ 1 shall or will run* 
Plur. Courrons^ courrez^ courront^ 


Sing. CourraiSi 
Plur. Courrionsj 


Plur. Courons, 

Conditional. . 
courraisi^ courroit, 1 should, would, or 
courriez, courroient^ could run. 

Imperative Mood. 
Cours, coure^ run thou. 
courez, courent, 

Subjunctive Mood. 

que que 

couresj coure^ that I may run. 
couriez, courentf 

courussesy courut^ that I toight run. 

Sing. Courts 
Plur. Couriont^ 

Sing. Courasse^ 

Plur* Courussions^courussitz^ courussent^ 

The compounds of this verb are, 

AccQurir^ to run to. 
Concourir^ to concur. 
DisQourir^ to discourse. 
Encourir^ to incur. 

Parcourir^ to run over.* 
jRecounV, to have Recourse 



to succour, to 

See OUVRIR, to open. 

Part. act. 
Part. pass. 

CUEILLIR, TO cither. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Quillir, to gather. 
Cueillani^ gathering. 
Cutilli^ te, gathered. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Cueille, cueiUesj 
Flur» Cueillons^ cutillez^ 

cueille^ I gather, or am gath- 
cueillent^ ering. 


» Imperfecta* 
Sing. Cueillms^ cmillois^ ctuilloit^ I jdrd gather^ or 
Flvtr. Cueiliians^ eueitlkz^ outiltaimt^ was gathering. 

Sing. Cueillis^ cmillis^ cueillit^ I gathered, or did 
Piur. Cueilltmesj cueillUes^ cueillirtnt^ gather. 

Sing. Cteet/Zerat, cueiUeras^ cxitilUra^ I shall or will 
Plur. Cueilkronsy cueilkrez^ cueillerontj gather. 

Sjng. Cueillerois, cueitlerois, cueillerott^ I should, would, 

or could gather. 
Plur. Ciuilkrions^ cueilUriez^ ctieilteroient^ 

Imp££ATiv£ Mood. 
Sing. CneilU^ a&eille^ gather thou. 

Plur. Cudllonsj cueilhz^ cueillent^ 


Que que que 

Sing. CueiiUj cueilles^ cueille^ that I may gather. 

Plur. Cueillionsj eueilltezj eimllent^ 

Sing. Cueillisse^ cueilli9se»^ cueiUii^ that I might 
Plur. Cueillissions^ cueilHssiez^ cucillissenly gather* 

The compounds of tbisr verb- are, 
Accueiiiii^ to make wel- i Recueillir^ to gather to- 
come. \ gether* 


Infinitive M'oo5>; 
Present. Dormir. to j?Ieep. 
Fart, act* Dormant, sleeping* 
Part. pasiH-. Jiwf^mi^ i^ ^\^^• 


Sing» Dors^ 
Plur. DormofiSj 

Sing. Dormois^ 

Indicative Mood. 

dors^ <{oW,1 sleep, or am sleeping. 

dorvieZn dormentj 

dormois^ (^ottnoil, 1 did sleep, or was 
Plur. DormionSf dormiez^ . dormoient^ sleeping. 

Sing. Dormis^ dormis^ dormit^ I stept, or did sleep. 
Pliir. Dormtmes^ dormites^ dormirenl, 

Sing. Dormirai^ dormiras^ dormira^ I shall or will 
Plur. Dormirons^ dormirez^ dormiroxity sleep. 

Sing. Dormirois^ dormirois^ dormtroi/, I would, could, or 
Plur. Dormirions^ dormiriez^ dormiroient^ should sleep. 

Imperative Mood. 

jDor*, dormtj sleep thou. 

dormtZy' dorment^ 


Pl-ur. Dormons, 

Sing. Domie, 
Plur. Dormionsj 

Subjunctive Mood. 

que que 

dorm(*3^ dorme^ that I may sleep. 
dormiez:^ dormentj 
Sing. Dormisse, donnissts^ dormtt^ that I might sleep. 
Plur. DormAssionSy dormissiez, dormisseni. 

The compounds of this verb are, 
Endormir^ to'make sleep. I Se rendormivy to fall asleep 
S^endormirj to fall asleep. | again. 


Where are you going ? - - - I am going to tbe 


play. • - - 1 would go with you, if I had time. - - Why 

camidie^f* U 

are they going away so soon ? — Will not your father 

bp angry, if you go there without him ? We were 

going to Miss D— 's, when we met you 

chez^p* u3« avons rencontri^p.p, 

' - These men went yesterday from house to bouse. - - 
Believe me, sir, do not go to see them. - - Your father 
Croire^. *o» rotr,v. 

told me (that) you will go to France and Italy as soon 
as the war (is over.) - - My sister and I, went last 

serafinie. dem2cr,adj. 

Wednesday to Vauxball. - - If you had gone thither 
an hour sooner you would have heard fine music. 
plutSt^VLdv. entendre^v. 

- • Your uncle has acquired a great name in America. 


- My father went to pa/ your* unele^ a visit* 

*o* rc7idrtf,v. *o* 

last week, and he did not welcome him (as a) friend. 


- - - Did he not ? I am sorry for it. - • - Mr. Dubois, 
the king's silversmith, has brought the watch : it 

»- orfivre 
now goes very well. - - - Go and fetch ine 

maintenant^^dy. ^<^ 

the letter 1 left in my room. * - 1 have (sent for) 

/amer,v. {envoyi quirir) 

him. - - - - Boil this chicken, and roast that goose. 
poukt^m* T6tir{v. oie^f.^ 

- - - - At last we have conquered This 


water wiU soon boil Boil that meat 

* &tenf6/,adv. 
again, it is not done enouffb. - - - Do not run so 

fast, you will be tired, - - - They always run 

-^/fyadv. fatigui^pfp* 


wb0& iLey go ta §&e (heir aont* - - • Your brother 

us^ iante^L 

runs faster, that F. - • When he heard that his 

friend was in danger, he ran instantly to him. -,- - 

itoit avssitot^^iv* a 

Let us not discourse any more on that subject. - - - • I 

would assist him with alTmy heart, if I could. - - This 

gentleman is a great traveller: he has tun over all. 
Monsieur voyageur^m. 

Europe. - - Let him go away, for I do not wish to 
Europe^f. car^* veux^v. "^ 

speak to him. - • If you do it, you will incur your 

fatber^s displeasure. - - That 5voiild concur to the pub- 

deplaisirfin: . Cela 
lie good. - >When children are guilty, they getwnlly 

6ten,m. coupab/e^adj. 

have recourse to some falsehood. - • For Whotti stre you 

queique mensonge. 
gathering those charming flowers ? - - 1 gather them for 

my mother. - - Why do they not gather some roses ? - - 

Mrs, P. would have gathered some, but the gardeneir 
Mme jardinier^m*^ 

told her he would gather them himself. - - Of all nations 
noixc has welcomed the poor French clergy better 

than the English nation. ---Do not make any noise^ 

for my sister (is asleep.) -- 1 hope she will sleep better to- 
car,c. . ce 

night. - She Would sleep much better, if she were in her 

bed. - If I do not walk a little, I shall faU asleep. 

'/ii,m. se protnener^v. 

* - My mother, sister, brother, and I, went yesteiday to 

Medford, to see Miss Keen^ - • - Did you go thither 

«oi Mile 

00 foot ? - - - Noy my mother and sister went in a 
a cn^p* «^> 

coach, and my brother and I on horseback. 

a cheval^m. 

fuirj to shun, to avoid, to flee. 

Infinitive, Mood. 

Present. Fuir^ to fle6. 
Part. act. Fuyant^ fleeing. 
PHrt. pass. JF\ii, u, fled. 

'. Indicative Mood. 


Sing. Fuisy fuis^ fuit^ I flee. 

Phjr. i\ij^on5, fumzy fuknt^ * 

Sing. Fuyois^ f^jfois^ f^yoity I fled, or did flee. 
Plur. Fuyionsy f^yi^^j f^yoi^ntj 

Sing. Fuisj fuis^ * fuU^ 

Plur. Futmesj fuUts^ fuirent^ or we may say^ Jt pin 

lefuiie^ &c. 

Sing. FiuVfli, fairasyfuira^ I shall or will flee. 
Plur. FuironSy fuirtz, fuiront^ ^ 

Siog. FuiroUy fuirois^fairoit^ I should, would, Of coald 
Plur. Fuirions^/mriez^fuiroienty flee. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. ^ Fuisy fuie^ flee thou. 

I*lurt Fijyonsy fuyezj fuient^ 



Present. ^ 

Que que qie 

Sing. Fuitj Jvies^ /iiie, that I may flee. 
Plur. Fuyions^ y^t/tc^, fuient^ 
, Preterite. 

Que que que 

Sing. Fuisse^ .fuisses^ fuity that I might flee. 
PJur. Fuusfons^fuissiez^ fuissent^ or 

Je pjisse la fuite, &c. that I might Jlee^ &c. 
SUnfuir, to run away. 


Infinitive Mood. 
Present. JIfenrir, to He. 
Part. act. Meniant^ lying. 
Part. pass. Mentis te, lied. 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. Mens^ mensj ment^ I lie. 
Plur. MentimSj mentez^ mentent^ 

SiAg. Mentoisj mentm^ mentoii^ I did lie, or was lying. 
Plur. Mentions^ mentiez^ mentmntj 

Sing. Mentis^ mentis^ mentit^ I lied, or did lie. 
Plur. Menltmes^ mentites^ menlirent^ 

Sing.' Me^Uirai^ mentiras^ mentiray I shall, or will lie. 
Plur. MentironSf mentirez^ mentiront^ 

Sing. Mentiroisj men/iVot^, mcnhVotV, I would, could, or 
Flu p. MentirionSy mentiruz^ mentiroient^ should lie. 

Imterative Mood. 
Sing. jlfen^, mente^ lie thou. 

Plur. Mentonsy mentez^ menUnt, 

Sing. Mente^ 
Plur. Mentions^ 


Subjunctive Moop. 

que que 

mentes^ menie^ thai I may lie. 

mentiez^ ' mentent^ 


Sing. Mentisse^ mentisses^ mtntit^ that 1 might lie. 
Plur. Mentissions^meniisskz^ tnentissent. 

The compound of this verb is 
D6menlir^ to give one the lie, to helie, to contradict. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Mourir^ to die. 
Part. act. Mouran^^ dying. 
Part. past. Mort^ (e, died, or dead. 

Indicative Mood* 

Sing. Miurs^ mmrs^ meurt^ I die, or am dying. 
Plur. MounmSj mourez^ meureni^ 

Sing. Mourois^ mourois^ mouroitj I was dying. 
Plur. Mourions, mouriez^ mouroienty 
' c Preterite, 

Sing. Miyurus, mourus^ mourti/, I died. 
Plur. Mourumesj niourutesymoururent^ 

Sing. Mourraii mourras, mourra^ I shall, or will die* 
Plur. Mourroris, mourrez^mourront^ 

Sing. Mourrois^ tnourrois^mourroit^ I should, could, or 
Plur. MourrioHs^mourriez^fnourroient^ would <iiei£ 


Imperative Mood* 
Sing. Meurs^ meure^ die ihqiOt 

Plur. Mcurons, mourtz^ meunnt^ . 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que que que 

Siog. Meure, nuures^ meure^ that I may die. 

Plun Mourionsj tnouriez^ meurent^ 

Sing. Mourusse, mourusses^ tnotirdf, that I might die. 
Plur; Mimrussums^mourussiez^ tnaunusentj 
Se mourirj to be djing. 


Infinitive Mood* 
Present. Qjfrtr, to ofier. 
Part. act. Offrant^ oflTering. 
Part. pass. Offert^ /e, offered. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present « 
Sing. Qffrey offres, offre^ I offer, or am offering. 
Plur. Qfrons^ tffrezi offirent, 
Sing. Offroisj offrois^ offroit, I did offer, or was of- 
Plar. Offri&nsy offriez^ ^roient^ fering. 

Sing. Qffris, Offris^ offrit, I offered, or did offer. 
Plur. Offrtmes^ offrtUs^ offrirent^ 

Sing. Offtdrai^ offriras^ offrirc^ I shall, or will offer. 
Plur. Offrirons^ offriref^ ^riront^ 
Sing. Offrirm^ (ffrirois, offriroit^ I would, could, or 
Plur* Offririons^ offrirkz^ ^riroient^ should offer. 




Sing. Offre^ offr^^ offer Ihoa. 

Pkir. Offrons^ offrez^ ^renl^ . 


Que que qu€ 

Sing. Qffre^ offrtSj offrt^ that I may offer. 

Plur. CJ^rion*, offruz^ offrtnt^ 

Sing. Offriste^ offrisses^ offrit^ that I might offer. 
Plur. Offrissions^ offrissiez^offrissent^ 


This verb is never used but in its participle passive, 
joined to some of the tenses of the verb avtnr^ to have, 
preceding the verb dirty to saj : ex. 

•Tai ooi dire gue, I have heardj thdt, <^c. 
In general we make use of apprendre^ irr, v. 


This verb, as well as its compounds, 
CouTftr, to cover, JSecournV, to cover again. 

D6c,mvrir, {{J udcov«;{ is. conjugated like OFFRlA 

PARTIRi TO SET OCT, TO oo away; 
And its compounds, 
Dipartir^ ripurtitj to dis- | Repartir^ to set out again, 
tribute, to impart, | to reply ; 

243 ^ 
8e REPEjVTIR, to repent; 


A od its compounds ; 
Conseniir^ to consent, to I jRe;j<n/ir, to be sensible of, 

agree, | to resent, 

Pressenlify to have a foresight or presentiment, 
are conjugated like Mmtir. 

As soon as they saw us coming tbey ran aiv^y* 
^ussilSi que voir^v. venir^v. 

- - - Avoid bad company. - - He does not love your 

sister, because she lies. - - If you forgive me this time, 

I never will fie any more. - . I cannot believe him ; 

•^ 7>OMPoir,v. 

/or be contradtetft himself at every instanti - - Tell 
car,c. a tout momtnt. Dire.v. 

me what she has done to you ; but above all do not lie. 

- . If you do not behave better, your mother will 

se camporter^v. 
die with grief. - - Mrs. S. died at Paris on the seventh 

de chagrin^m. h ^ 

of August, one thousand seven hundred and eightr 

- - Misfortune often* seeks those who avoid it and 

Malhtur^m. chercher^v. ' 

sometimes avoids'those who seem to seek it 

gutlqutfrng^Bdv. sembler.y. ^ 

' ^'jS^aiMr"'"" ""'"^ ^hedoor for yoursisterf 

• Se€ note, page 32. 


* - Your brother was. do sooaer armed ia London, than 

p/u/o/,adv. a 
I offered him my services^* • • - Your .actions never belie 
yourvwords. - - Open the window. - - I had heard you 

patohs. V 

were going to Holland (at the) beginning of next 

au commtnceineni^in. 
month. -- 1 hope joi:^ will never discover what I have 

told you. - - Cover my hat, and put it upon that 
dire^v. mettre^v, 

chair. - - 1 Will set out to-morrow morning at seven 
(o^clock). - - Do not set out without me. - - Let us go and 
heuresm *o» 

see Mrs. D**, I have beard she is dying. — Your sUter 
repents much of having sold her books. - - Gather that 

d"" avoir 
pink, it smells charmingly. • - Her mother says she 
milkt^m. bien 6on,adv. 

' nevcjr will- consent to it. - - If you do not take 

care, you will repent (of) your imprudence soon or 

{[flfde, /6f,adv. 

ate. - - Let us die for our country, and^Otir death will 
larc/,adv. ' patrie^f. 

be glorious* - - Every citizen (ought 4o) bedispos^d to^ 

g/oneu^,adj. d«t/,v. 

sacrifice himself, for the pubUe good ; it is at this 

bten,m. c$^to* a,p* 
price only that (a man) ac^ires a lawful right 

an legitimefiij* f{rot/,m« 

to the advantages of civil society. - - - 1 should die 

satisfied, if* I knew (that) you were happy. 

eonUntMj" »apotV,v. (bythesubj.) 

You sooq felt the effect of it. - - My cousin set out 
^ . • effet,m. 

from here yesterday morning at nine o^clock. - - I 

^ ffcr yott-mji bouse, it is at your service. - - - You 
inv ^y rely upon her, she will never discovev 


your secrets. <* - 1 will n6ftr n/Str you my* horse^ any 

more'. ... He irill feel it in bis turn, when lie 

is old* 

(by the fut.) 


iNflHlTITfi H00l>. 

ri^sent* Rivltiry to iDTest with, to give other clothes* 
Part. act. Reuttant^ investing* 
Part. pass. RcvSli^ ue, invested. 

. Indicative Mood. 
Sing. Revits, rwtU^ revtt, I invest. 
Plnr. Reoitons^ rtBiitz^ revitmi, 

Sing. Revtkns^ mitois^ revitoit^ I did invest. 
Plur. Revilions^ revdiez, rtvitoimt^ 

Sing. Revitis^ revitis^ reoiiit^ I invested, gr did in- 
Plur. Revitinui^ revilUei^ revllirentj vest. 

Sing. Rwitiraij reviHras, revttira^ I shall, or will in- 
Plur. Revitinmsj revSlirez^ revttiront^ vest. 

Sing. Revitirm, reviiiroi$^ revMrait^ I should, would, 
Plur. Revitirions, revitiriez^ reviliroimtj i^c. invest. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. - Revltg^ revite^ invest thou. 

Plur. Rivitms^ revitez^ nviimU 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que que que ^ 

Sing. Refotte^ revites^ revtU^ that I may invest. 
Plur. JBevl(um#, reviHa^ revlUnL 


Preterite* , 

Sin^ RwStisse^ revitisses^ reveiit, that I might inresU 
Plur. HiPeiiisioMirt^StissHZ^revitissint^ . 

SERVIRy TO SBRyE, to help to. 
Infinitive Mood* 

Present* Servir^ to serve. 
Part. act. Servant^ serving* 
Part* pass* Servi, te, served* 

Indicative Mood* 
Sing* Sers^ sers^ sert, I serve, or am serving. 

Plur* ServanSf serveZj servent, 


Sing* Servoisy servois^ servrnt^ I did serve, or was 
Pliir# StrvionSf servUz^ servoient^ servingir 


Sing* Strvisi, £$rvis^ servU^ I served, or did serve. 
Plur* Strvima^ strvites^ servinni, 


Sing. Servirai^ serviras, servira^ I shall, or will senre. 
Plur* Servirons^ servirez^ terviront^ 

Conditional* - 

Sing* Serviroii^ seroirois^ serviroit^ I would, should, or 
Plar* Serviriont^ serviriezj. serviroitnty could serve* 

Imperative Mood* « 

Sipff* Sersy . serve, serve thou. 

\ PW. Serocnsy nrvtz^ aerventy 


ScBJUNCTirv Mood. 
Que qm fue 

Sing. Serve^ serves, serve, that t may serve. 
Plar. Servionsy serviez, servent, 

Sing. Servisse, servisses, servU, that I might serve. 
Plur. Servissions^servissiez, servisseni. 

The compounds of this Verb ^re, 
Desservir, to do an ill office, to clear a table. 
Se servir, to make use^ to use. 

is conjugated like MENTIR. 


is conjugated like OFFRIR. 

tekir, to hold, to keep. 

Infinitiv£ Mood* ^ 
Present. Tentr, to hold. 
P^'rt. act* Tmant, holding. 
Part. pass. Tenu, ue, neld. 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. Tiens, iiens, iientf I hold, or am holding. 
Plar. Tenons, itfntz, /tennen^ 

Sing. Tmois, Itnois, /cnot/, 1 did hold, or was holding. 
Plur. Tenx(ms, teniez, tmqient^ 

Sing. Tins, tins, iint, I held^ or did hold. 
Plur. Tinmes, tinies^ i\nrei^, , , 


SiDg. Ttendrat, tiendras^ 
Plun Tiindrtmt^iiendreZj 

timdra, I shsftl, or will hold. 

Sing. Timdrmi^ tUndraU, tiendroit^ I should, could, or 
Plur* Tiendrumsjtiendriez^ iUndroientf would bold« 

Imfkrativb Mood. . 

Sing. TienSy 

Plur. Tenons, ienez^ 

Itenne, hold thou. 



que que 

tiennesj iienne, that I may holdr 

temez, tienneni, 

Sing. Tinsst^ timnsj ttnty that I might hold. " 
Plur. TinssioM, tinsiiez^ im$tini, 

Sing. Tienne, 
Plur. TzmoM^ 

The compounds of this verb are, 

S^abstenir, to abstain. 
Apparitnir, to belong. 
Con/enJr, to contain. 
Ditmir^ to detain. 
EnirtUnir, to keep, to en- 

Maintenir^ to maintain. 
Obienir, to obtain. 
Rttenir, to retain, to keep. 
Soutenir^ to maintain, to 
bold, to support. 

TRESSAILLIR, to start, to leap foe. 

Infinitive Moon. 

Present. Tresaailliry to start 
Part. act. Trtssaillani, starting. 
Part. pass. Tressailli, i^ started. 






' Sing. 


243 ' 

iNDicAt^VB Mood. 


TresHiille^ tressailhs^ tressaille^ I start. 

Tf€ssaillotts^ tressaillez^ tressaiUent^ 


Tressaillois^ iressaillois, tressailloit^ I did start. 

TressaillionSj Iressailliez^ tressailioitntf 


Tressaillis^ . trtssaillis^ tressaillii, I started. 

Ttessailltmesy tressaillites, tressaillirentj 


Tressailliraiy tressailliras, tressaillira^ I ahallj or 

will start. 

Tressaillironsy tressaillirez^ trtitailliront^ 

Trtssaillinns^ tressaillirois^ tressaiUiffnt^ I should, 

would, <$rc. start. 
Tressaillirions^ tressailliriez^ iressailliroienty 

Impeeativc Mood is wanting. 

SuBjuNc«piTE Mood. • 


Que que que 

Tressaille^ iressailles^ tressailltj that I may 

Tr€3sailli(m$, iressailliez^ tressaiiUnt, start. 


Tressaillisse, - tressaillisses^ /res^at/Zf/, that I might 
TressailHssions^ tressaillissUz^ tressaillisseni^ start. 

ASSAILLIRj TO ASSAULT, is conjugated a^ above. 

SAILLlRy TO JUT, or jut out (term in architecture), 
is conjugated like TRESSAILLIR, but is only used 
in the third person of sonie tenses and its infinitive 


N. B. SAILLIR^ TO oitsh oot, (sgeakiiig of afly 
liquid,) is regular, and conjugated like PUXIR. 


And its compounds, 
Convtnir c2e, a, to agree, to 

become, to fit, to suit, 
Contrevenir d, to infringe, 
Devtnir, to become,'*' 
D\scot¥otn\f dt^ to disagree, 
Jntervenir a, to intervene, 
Parvenir a, to attain to, 
Prittrdr^ to prevent, to 

prejudice, to anticipate, 

to prepossess, 
Prcvenir J to proceed, 

Revinir^ to come back, to 

Se souvenir de^ to remem* 
ber, to remind,! 

Se ressouvenir de^ to recol- 

Subvenir a, to relieve, to 

Surveniry to befall, to 
happen unexpectedly, ta 
come to, 

are conjugated like TEKIR. 


This verb is seldom used but in the present of the 
infinitive mood, and participle passive, vttu^ clothed ; 
therefore the conjugation of its compound REVET JR^ 


given 10 lieu of it. 

* This verb in Englwh i$ mofit generally accompaniecl by t!ie pre- 
position of^ governing the noun or pronoun : but it mast be observed, 
that, in French, (he preposition must be suppressed, and the noun er 
pronoon liecome the nooiinative to the verb devemr : ex. 
JVV vous informeg point dt ce que Do not inquire about vrbat will 

je devierulrai^ become of me, 

Q«e deviendra voire cousin n eon What will become of your eouemy 

plre Pabandonne ? if his father forsake him ? 

S% ceht arrivoii^ je ne eaU ce que Should that happen, I know not 

nous detiendrifme^ • what would become ofut, 

t When this verb, in English, gorerns a noun or pronoon in the 
accusative case, it must be put in the infinitive mood, and preceded 
bj the verb ybire in the same tense, number, and person, as the verb 
to reimAnd : ^, 
Faitei-met soaV«iuc depaeeer chea lUmind me to call upott yonr 

vo/re fon/e, aunt. 

Out,/e votM ea feral soQvenir, Yes, I wiU remind yeu of it. 



Your friend Mr, H***, does not serve me well. - - * 
amt,ro« «o» 

Shall I help jou to a little bit of laml), 

Ms>i morceau^m* ogneati, ^ 

or a wing of that chicken? We would 

ailt^. poulet^vn. 

serve him with all our heart, if we could. - • • I 

de pouvoir^y* 

shall go out in half an hour. -'- If we go to-day 

' aujourdliuiy^dw 
to Richmond, we will (make use of) your coach. -- My 

se servir de ' carrosu^vsx* 
sister went out'^'this morning at nine o'clock, and is not 

yet returned. -• Nobody knows what we suffered in our 

r€t?«wir,v. fODotr^v. 

last voyage. - - If I were as ill as you, I would 

vwfagt^m. nui{a(2e,adj. 

not go out. of my room. - - Why do not you 

cAombrejf. i'our9Uot,adv. 
serve your friends, since you may do it ? - - - 

/>u»5fue,c. pouTotV,v. 
Shoaldt they forsake you, what would become of 

you ? - I would make use of your horse, if you (were 

chezal^m, avoir 

«o kind as to) lend it to me The- more we are 

la hont6 de 

abovje others, the more it becomes us to be 

au deisus <I«,p. 

modest and bumble. - - My aunt and I came yester- 

day to see you, but you were not at home. - - - I 
hope you will keep' your word, and come 

tenir^ ' parolt^. 

to-tnorrow. - * - 1 assure you Mr. R**'s father holds 
demain^^A v. ussurtr^y* 

* Seepage 154. t Turn, If (hey shoal J, &c. 


the firBt raciK it^ the town, but the son wilt never 

rang,m. ' - 

attam bis father's reputation. « • • Men acquire, by 

lopg labour?, knowledge .which often becomes 

travail^ m« lumiereS. 
fatal to them. - - - I maintain, and will always 

maintain, that jou will not be happy without 

/teuretix^adj. sans^f, 
virtue. - - We were coming to see you, but you have 
anticipated all my designs. - - She leaped for joy when 
pr6venir^\. de 

she saw her. - - At last she has agreed to pay her 

JBn^w,adv. * de 

an annual pension of twenty pounds. - - Her mother 
started up at these words, and became furious. * - - 
•^ d,p. parole^* /arietia?,adj. 

Come on Friday morning, at nine o'clock 

»0' Vmdrtdi 
This bouse will belong to me after her death. — 

a/>re$,p. ^or/,f. 

You will obtain leave to go out another time, 

ptTViission de foisS* 

if you come back soon. - - «• This box contains all 

ipj jewels. - - •* I a^ee Miss N. is the prettiest of the 

family ; but she is so proud, that I know not what will 
become of her. -- Who knows whether they will re- 

savoir^y* ^c. 
member (of) it or not ? • They assaulted the town (in the) 

middle of the night, and all their officers, even^ 
milieuym. . p - m^f?i€,ddv. 

the general^ agree that they have acquired ^ > much 

glofy- -,- Remember .that, if you infringe the law, you 

* See the neater verbs for the formation of the compound tenses, 


•■ - ' 

wilt incur tbe puntshmenis dacreed by the law. • - r 

peineyt* jpor/e,p»p« 

Your illness proceeds from a great heat. « • • . The 

first time (that) you come to see me, I will keep you- 

(by the fut.) to, 
two or three days. - - • Mr. B. desired me to tell you, 

prier^v* de 
that he will not come back to-day. - - - When tbe 
surgeon l^d opened his vein, the blood gdshed 
chirurgien^mM* sang^nu 

out with an extraordinary impetuosity. — That poor 
roan will bless you, if you (give« him" other* clothes^) 

benir^v. revitir^v. 

He is so prepossessed against me, that he will not 

conlre.p, vouloir^v. 

agree he (is in the wrong). - - We should certainly 

avoir tort. cer/m>Mmen/,adv. 

have come back yesterday, had we had time. - - You will 

Aur,adv. si U temps. 

1>ecome a great man, if you continue to study with 

continuer^y. de " 
the same assiduity. - * He would have come to see us 

assiduit6,f. Slre^v. 

last week, if it had not rained. - - The first time 
semainef. ph^p.p. fm^U 

I go out, to call on your bro- 

(by the fut.) de passer.v. ehez^p. 

thcr. . - - That hat would suit you very well, if you 

were a little taller. Do not go out to-day, you 

will suffer much if you do. -- I should not suffer 

(so much) if it were fine weather. - - Why do not 

/an^adv. faisoit^v, 
you abstain from drinking? - - • The king has invested 

that nobleman with all bis authority. - . - You may 
fc%ncMr,m. de . Pouvoir.r. 

set .out this morning, but remember to come back 

* See obeervation, p. 156. f See ihe last note, page 250. 


at Bight* - • - Were I in your place, I would detain 

him here a little longer ; Tor he always keeps 

iong-/em5,adv« caf,c» 
himself shut up in bis house. - - 1 do not think that 

en/erme,p.p. crotVe,T. 

colour suits your sister. • - When will she return 

(by the subj.) Quanrf,adv. 

from the country? - - She wrote she would come next 

campagnt^U ' 

Saturday, if the weather were fine. 



Infinitite Mood. 

Present. Asseoir^ to sit down. 
Part. act. Asstyant^ sitting down. 
* Part. pass. Assis^ ise^ sat down (or seated.) 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. AsBxtds^ a$sieds^ assitdy I sit down. 
Flur. Ais^mis^ asstytz^ asseient^ 

Sing. As9eym, asseyois, asseyoit, I did sll, or was sitting 
Plur. Asseyions^asseyiez^asseyoient^ down. 


Sing. Assis^ assis, assit, I sat down. 
Plur. AidmtSj asstle^^^ assirentj . 


Sing. Aisiirai, assiiras^assiira^ I shall, or will sit dowti. 
Plur. Asnirens^^ssiirzx^assiironti • 



Sii^. Jlssiirms^ assiirois^ CLssitroity 1 should, would, or 
Plur. Assiirions^ assiiruz^ assiiroimt^ could sit down. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Asaiedsj asseie^ sit down. 

Ptur. Asseyons^ assej/ez^ asseient^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. ^ 

< Qtu qut que 

Sing. As8iiej asseiesj asseie^ that I may sit down. 
Plur. Asseyiona^ asseyiezy asstientj 

Sing. Assisst^ astissts^ asstiy that I might sit down, 
Plur,. Assissiotiiy assissiez^ assisstnt^ 

Asseoir is active, but is most generally conjugated as 
a reflected verb^ which may easily be done, by the 
learner adding a double pronoun to the different tenses, 
and forming the compound ones by the verb d<re> as in 
stpronunery ift page 319 : ex. 

Je m*assiedsj tu Vasrieds^ il h'^assied ; 

JV*ou9 nous assejftmsj vous vous asseyez. Us s'asseienL 

Compound Tenses. 

Je me suis assis^ iu Ves assis^ il s^est assis ; 

Jfous nous aommts assis^ vous vous ites assis^ &.c. 

The compound of this verb is^ 

Se rasseoiry to sit down again. 


primitive of custoir, is never used in the present of %s 
infinitive mood ; and in its other tenses is conjugated 
only as follows : ^ 

Part. act. Siyantj fitting well, fitting, or becomift^. 
Part. pass. Sis^ (never used but in the sense of situate, 
or lying.) 



Inpica^ive Mood. 
// sied^ ih siient^ it becomes, they become, ire. 

// iiyait, ils Uxjoimt^ it was becoming, ^c, 
Prelcrite wanting. 
II siira^ ils eiiront^ it or thej will become. 

// siiroU^ ils sieroienl^ it or they would become. 

Subj. Pres. 
Qu^il siie, quHls siitnt^ that it may, ^x. 

The other tenses are neyer used. 
of seoir^ is onlj used in law, and is thus conjugated: 

Part. act. SursoyanU 
Part. pass. Sursisy ise. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present* , 

Jt 9ur$oiij &ۥ nous tursoyans^ &c. 

Imperfect. * 

Jt €ursoy<ntj &c. nous Mrsotfions^ &c. 

Je sursisy &ۥ nous surstnus^ ^c. 

Je surstoirai^SiC* nous surstoirons^ ^c» 

Je -surseoiroistf &c. nous surseoirions^ &c. 
Imperative Mood. 
j^ Sursois, &c. sursojfons^ &c. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
0|N je sufHoity &c. ^e nous sursoyions^ &c. 

Queje sursisstySLC* que nous sursissions^ Scc 



Infinitive Mood*. 

Present. Dichoirj to decay. 

Part. act. wanting. 

Part. pass. Dechu^ut^ decayed. 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. Dechois^ diehois^ dichoit^ I decay. 
Plur. Dichcyons^ dichoyez^ dechoienfj 

• Imperfect. 
Sing. Je dichvyoisy &c. Plur. Kous dichoyionsj &;c. 

Sing. DechxiSy dichus^ dichut^ I decayed,ordid de- 
Plur. Dichumesy dichutes^ d6churentj ' cay. 

Future. - J 

Sing. Dichtrraiy ' dicker r as ^ d^cAerra, I shall, or will de- 
Plur. Dicherrons, dicherrez^ dccherront^ cay. 

Sing. Dicherroisy decherroisj dccherroit, i should, would, 

or Goold decay. 
Plur. Dicherrionsy decherrUz^ dicherroientj 

Imperative Mood is wanting. , 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que que que 

Sing. Dechoie^ dtchoies^ dechoie^ that I may decay. 
Plur. Ddclitnfiom^ dechoyiez^ dechoient^ 

Preterite. * 
Sing. Dichusse^ dechusses^ rf^cAti/, that I might decay. 
Plur. D6cliU8sionSydtchu9s\ez^ dichussent^ 

.CHOIR^ the primitive of the above verb is obsolete. 

ECHOIR^ TO fall out, to chance, is conjugated 
like DECHOIR. Its part. act. is icUa^, 6chu,p.p. 

iNFiNiTfvfi Mood, 

Present. Mouvoir^ (o move* 
Part. act. Mouvant^ moving. 
Part. pass. JIfii, ue, moved. 

Indioiltive Mood. 
Sing. Mius^ mms^ nuut^ I move. 
Pliir. Mouvons^ mouvez^ meuvent^ 

Sing. Mouvois^ tnauvois^ mouvoit^ I did move. 
Plur. Mouvio^Sy mouviezy mouvoient^ 

Sing. Mits^ musj mut^ I moved, or did move. 

Plur. Munusy mut$$^ murent^ 

Future. ^ 

Sing. Mouvraiy mouvras^ mouvra^ I shall or will move* 
Plur. Momron^^ mouvrez^ mouvront. 

Sing. Mouvroisj mouvrois^ 7nouvroit; I should, could, or 
Plur. Mouvrionsy mouvriez, mouvroient^ would mo\'e% 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Meus^ meuve^ move thou. 

Plur. Mouvon^^ mouvezi meuvtnt^ 

Subjunctive Mood. ' 

Sing. Meuvi^ tnmves^ meutt^ that I maj^ move. 
Plur. Jlfpupton^, moui^tez, mtuvent^ 

Sing. Mussty mussesj mut^ that I might move- 
Pi ur. MussionSy mussitz^ mussmU 

The compound of this v^rb is, 

JSmoieKtr^fb stir up, to move. 



iNriNiTivE Mood. 
Present* Pouvoir, to be able. 
Part. act. P&uvant^ being able. 
Part. pass. Pu, been able. 

lNDi<:Afiv£ Mood. 


Sing. Puis^orpeuxypttjuc^ peuty I am able, I can or ma j.- 

*** '^ pouveZf peuventj 


pouvois^ pouvoity I was able, or I could. 
pouviez^ pouvoimtj 

pusj put, I was able, or I could. 
putes^ purtnt^ 

pourras^pourrOj I shall, or will be able. 
pourrez^ pourront, 

pourrois^pourroU^ I should be able, I 
pourrieZjpaurroient^ could, or might. 

Imperative Mood wanting, 



Plur. Pouvonsy 

Sing. Pouvoisy, 
Plur. PouvionSf 

S|ng. Piif, 
PJur. Pumesy 

Sing. Pourrai^ 
Plur» Potirran^, 

Sing. Pourrois^ 
plur. Pourrionsj 


Sing. Puissty 
Plur. Puissionsy 

Sing. Pxtsse^ 
Plur. Puasions^ 

que que 

puisses, puisse^ thut I may be able, or 

puissiez, pumenl^ I may. 

pusses, put, that i might be able, or 

pussieZy pussent, 

1 might. 

When the words can, may, could, or mighty express an 
absolute or permissive power, or a possibility of doing 
a thing, can and may are rendered by the present tense 
of tbe indicative of this yerb : ex. 


Je puis vouB vendre un bon I can sell yoa a good hois^j 

cheval^ si vaus en avez if you want one* 

hestnn d'un^ 
Vous pouvez aller au balj You may go to the ball, 

mats reoenez a dix heures, but come back at ten 


N. B. May^ expressing a wish, is rendered by the 
present tense of the subjunctiye : e|[« ^ r 

Puissiez-vouf ilre hmreux ! ^ May you be happy ! 

Could is rendered by one of the following tenses, viz. 
the imperfect, preterite definite or indefinite, or con- 
ditional pr^ent ; and might by the last tense : ex. 
Je ne pouvois pas mieux I could do no better. 

II ne pot pas venir avec He could not come with us 

nous la semaine passee^ last week. 

Fbu5 pourriez V0U5 iromper You might mistake as well 

amsi bien quelui^ as he. 

' Could or mighty being joined to the verb to have^ im- 
mediately followed by a participle passive, must be ren- 
dered by the conditional past of the above verb,*with 
the participle turned into the present of the infinitive 
mood : ex. 
J'aurois pu vous le dire I could have told it to yoa 

hier au soir^ last night. 

Vous atiriez pu le /aire en You might have done it in 

troisjours^ three days. 

SAVOIRy TO KNOW something. 
Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Savoir^ to know. 
Part. act. 5ac/ian/, knowing. 
Part. pass. Su, wc, known. 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. 5015, saisy ^at/, I know. 
Mur. Savons^ savez^ savent^ 


Imperfect. ^ 

Slog. Savois^ savois^ savoU, I did know, or knew* 
PJur. SavionSj savitz^ savoieni^ 

Preterite. / 

Smg*'.Su9^ 3u$y ffti/, I knew, or did know* 
Plur. Sumts^ suUs^ surejit^ 

Sing. ScMraif sauras^ saura^ I shall^ or will know. '. 
Pitir. Saurons^ aaurez^ sauront, 

Conditional* % 
Sing. Saurois^* saurois^ sauroit^ I eboold, would, or 
Plur. Saurions^sauriez^ sauroient, ' could know. 

lifPERATivc Mood. ' 

Sing. Sache^ sgche^ know tbou. 

Plur. Suchons^ sachtz^ sacheni^ 

Subjunctive Mood* 
Que fue qtie t 

Sing. Sache^i saches^ sache^ that I maj know. 
Plur. Sachions^ sachiezj focjuni^ 

Sing. Su$st^ . 9U9Si$y sUt^ that I might know. 
Plur. SuBsionsy sussiez^ susstnt, 


Infinitive Mood. 
Presentt Fia/otr, to be worth. 
Part. act. Valant, being worth. 
' Part. pass. Valuy been worth. 
* Thistense, conjogated negatirely, is often Englished by eaTinof / 

Je ne saarois vous U dire^ I cannot tell it to you. 

t We sometimes employ the present of the subjunctive of this verb 
instead of the indicative; but it is never to be used without the ne- 
gfttion pot, and moat commonly in answering a question : ex. 

Le rat ira-t-il a la comldie ? Will the king go to the play ? 

Pas ftitje saehe. Not thl^t 1 know of. 


Indicative Mood. 






Valois^ " 



«,, vaui^ I am worth. 


Plur. Falons^ 


valaisj valoii^ I was worth. 
valiez^ iKiloienl^ 


va/tif, valuta I was worth. ' ' 

valuUs^ vaturentj 

vaudras^ vaudra, I shall, or will be 
vatidrez^ vaudrontj worth. 

vaudroisy vaudroit^ I should, 4^c. be 
vaudriez^ vaudroieni^ , worth. 

iMPERAnvE Mood. 
Faiia?, vaillt^ be thou worth. 

Sing. VailU^ 
Plur. Valions, 

Subjunctive Mood. 


vaillisy iaiile^ that I may be worth. 

valiez^ vaillent^ « 


Sing. Falussty valusses^ valuta that I might be worth. 
Plur. Valttssions^valussiez^ valusstnt^ 

The compound of this verb is, 
Privaloir, to prevail, is conjugated as VALOIR: 
but wc say in the present tense of the subjunctive, 

Qiujt preval-f, «*, c, : ions^ hz^ mU 



Infinitive Moo^. 

Present. Voir^ to see. 
Part. act. Fojfant^ seeing. 
Part. pass. Fii, tie, seen. 

Indicative Mood. 






V0I5, 9ot<, I see. 
voytz, voknt^ 

vojfois^ vayoU^ 4 did sec. 
voyiez^ voyoient^ 




visj vit, I saw, or did see. 
vttes, virentj 




verrasy verra^ t shall, or will see. - 
verrez^ verront^ 



verroisjverroitj 1 should, ^c. see. 
, wrrtez, verroient^ 

Imperative Mood. 



Vois^ toie^ see thou. 
voytZj voient^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 



que que 

voies, vote, that 1 may see. 

Plur. Vojftons, vcyitz^ voitni^ 

Sing. Visst^ visstSy vit^ that t might see. 
Plur. Vissionsy vistiez^ vissent^ 

Entrevoir^ to have a glimpse of. Privoir^ to foresee. 
Revoir^ to see again. Pourvoir^ to provide* 

PREVOIR diflTers frbm VOIR in the future: ex. 

Sing. Privoiraif prinmras, prcvoira, • 

Plur* Privoirmis^ privoirez^ prtvoiront; And) 

Conditional* Present. 
Sing. Prevoirois, pr6voiro{s^ privoiroiU 
Plur. Privoirions^ prevtnriez^ privairwnL 

POURVOIR makes in the Preterite^ 
Sing. Pourvusy i pmirous^ paurvuU • 
Plur. PourvumtSy pourvulesj pourvxirenU 

Sing. Pourvoiraiy pourvnirasy poiirvotra. • 
Plur. Pourvoirons^ pourvoinz^ pourvQironU 

Sing. PoHrvairoisy pourvoinns^ pourvairoit, 
Plur. Pmmoirvms^ paurvoirkz^ pourvoiroienU 

SuBjuNcnvE Mood. 


Sing. Pourvussiy pourvusses^ pourvut, 
Plur. Pourvustionsj pourvussieZf pourvusstnL 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. VouloxYy to be willing. 
Part. act. Voulanl^ being willing. 
Part. pass. Foulu, ue, been willing. 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. Veutey veuxy veuf^ I am willing, or I will. 
Plur. Vaulonsj voulez^ vtuknt^ 

Sing. Voutoisy voulois^ vovloit, I was willing, or I would. 
Plur. VoHlions^tmUitZyVouloientj 


Sing. Voulus^ i)mlnsy voulut, I was wilimg, of I 
Ptur*^ VouliiimeSf voulutes^ voulurentj would. 


Sing. Fotidrat, voudras^ vmiJra, I sball be wiUiog, or 
Plur. Voudronsj vondttZj voudrantj 1 will. 

Sing. Voudrois, vtm^rds^ voudroii, I shotrld be wil« 
Plur^ Vmdriens^ toudriezj voftdroten/, ting, or I would. 

Imperative Mood is wanting* 

However, we say, 
Veuillez bien^ be willing to« 

Sing. Vtuillc, 
Plur. VoulionSf 

Sing. Voulussij 

SuBJUNCTivi; Mood. 

Present. ^ 

que ^e ^ 

veuilles^ veuilh^ th^t I may be wil* 
vtmliez^ vmillentj ling. 

v&ulustts, vQulutj tbat I might be wll- 

Plur* VouluseionB^voulussieZjVQuhLasenij 


When the nl^ords mil or would Bigoify a will, choice^ 
or deliberation in the agent, and can be expressed by 
' choose or chose^will is rendered in French by the present 
of the indicative mood, or future of this verb : ex. 


,Je veux y alUr^ et lui par^ 
ler mopmime^ 

II ne veut pa$ fmmger, 

will^ or choose to, ge 
there, and speak to him 
He will not eat, pr doe» 
not choose to eat: 

and wovld by one of the following tenses, viz. the Im- 
perfect, Preterite, Conditioiia}, ot Compound of the 


Sije voulois, je vous dirak^ If I would^ or dkose^ 1 could 

ou tilt demeurt^ tell you where she liveft. 

, II voulut absohinunt partir He would^ absolutely, or 

Mer, absolutely chose to, set 

out yesterday, 

^e voudriez-row* que je What wQuld you have me 

fisse ? do ? , 

When would is joined to the v^rb to have immedi- 
ately followed by a participle passive, they are to be 
rendered by the compotmd of the imperfect or com- 
pound of the conditional of the above verb, with the 
participle passive turned into the present of the infinitive 
mood : ex* 

5i/aVois voulu luiparler^ If I would have spoken to 

him, or had I chosen to 
speak to him. 
Vaus n^auriez pas voulu You would not have taken 

prendre lesarmes^ W, &c. up arms, if, «J/-c. 
J^ous ail^ons pu ParriUr^si We could have stopped 
nous eussions voulu, him, if we had been wil^ 

lingy or had chosen, " 



Why do not you sit down, sir ? - - You 

come' to see me very seldom. - - Let us sit down upon 

the grass. - * Do not make (so much) noise, I cannot 

Aer6e,f. faire.v. tanl^zdv. 

learn my lesson* « - Do you know what has hap-« 

apppendre^y. est arri^ 

pened to ber ? - • No, I do not. - - As soon as he savr 
ver,v. Aussitdt que^c. 

he could not make. her hear reason, he went 

enUndre^v, s^en 

away. •* - We went there ourselves, and soon knew 
mller^v. 6fen«6/,adv. 


what she asked. • • See the letter she wrote me. - - We 

will not sit down till you have determined . to 

queue se diterminer ^v.nuh}* a 

set out. - - The first time 1 saw your sister, she pleased 

ine« - ] would, six down upon the grass, if it were not so 
damp. - - Mrs. P. desired me to tell you she could 
humide^Sii], prier^w de dire^v* 

not come to see you this week, but (that) she would cer- 
semaine^f. cer- 

tainly come (at the) beginning of next 

tainemenl^^dv. au commencemeni^m. 

month. - - Cannot you lend me three or four 

mois^m. priler^v. 

guineas? - - If I would, I could soon know 

guince , bienlot^^dvi 

whether Mrs.^D. has seen your aunt or not. - - 

«»c. tante^L notim 

The last time I was in the park, 1 could -not distinguish 
her on account of the trees that were between 

d cau9e,p* 
her and me; (I had only a) glimpse of her* • - - 

je n^ai fait que k>i 

This cloth is not worth five shillings a yard, but the 

colour becomes you very well. - - Do you not see the 
defects of it ? - - When you know your lesson 
defaui,m. (by the fut.) 

come and repeat it to me. - - Did you not know that 

«>» repeter^v, . 

Mr. A. (was to) marry Miss B. ? - - - 1 knew it, but 

6pouser,y. mais^c. 

I was not willing to tell your brother of it. - - - 1 be- 

lievc you could learn your lessons much -faet- 

apprendre,v. teaucou/j,adv. 

tcr, If you would. - -^ Could you lend me your horse 



for two OP three days T - - If your brother come wUh 

j'our,m. opec^p. 

me, will he be able to follow me f - - What will yoa 

lay that he will not come without bis sister ?» - This 

room can contain about a hundred people. - • Could 

envtron,p'* ptrsonnt. 

they see so great an alteration, without bemg 

changemtni^m. sans^f. 
yexed (at it)? - - (It is) better to be unfortunate than 
/dc/j^,p.p. en,pro. valoir^y, malhtureux^^ij. 

criminal. - - He who cannot command himself^ is inca- 


fable of commanding others. - - His'best coat was not 

aux Aa6i/,m. 

worth two-pence when he arrived from Germany*^-* 

souj AUemugnt* 

We saw them yesterday. - • They did not foresee 

^bat would happen to them. - • We ought to 

arriver^y. dewnr^v. 

make a judicious choice of those friends, to 
faire^y. judicieitx^dj* choix^m. u>« 

whom we intend^ to give our confidence. - - Do yoa 

voti/otV,v. eanfianctjL 

know where Miss B. lives? - - Yes, I do (know it), 

ou,adv, demeurerjy. 

and I see her every day at her window. • - • Why will 

you not tell it me ? - - She would marry him in 

ipouser^y, 6fij>. 

spite of all her relations. -. - It is for this reason 
dipit^m* parent^m* Cs,pro« 

her father says he will never see her again. ^ - I 

have spoken of your wine to two friends of mine : 
one has money, but he will not buy; th^* other would 
buy, but he has no money. - - Some told me that 
your brother could not pay mci others told me tbsit 


he would not; in shtfi; I find that, when people 
• en^n,adv. ^en5,pl. 

will not pay^ we have much trouble. - - We regularly — 
pay all that we owe, but he says, that be will pay 
nobody* - - All the finest talents united are not 

worth one virtue. - - Virtue is a quality which we can- 

not (too much) praise. -- Severity and rigour may 

<rqp,adv. iawcr,v. ScviriU^f. rigMctir,f. 

excite fear, but not love. - - You saw with what 

craintefn amotir,m. 

goodness she received him. - - I would not tell her 
6on7e,f. recevoir^r. 

what t think about it, for fear of giving her the least 

c{e,p. inf* 

subject of complaint. - - If you foresee the danger, 

why do jou not endeavour to aVoid it ? - - They were 

iachtr^w de ivUetyV. 
willing to withdraw but your brother hindered 

se retirer^y* empicher^v* 

them (from it), and desired them to sit down again. , 

prier^v. dt 

- - You can speak to Mr. B. whenever you 

parUr^y. quand^ 

please, but 1 may not take tbit libertj. - - * 
DcmZotV,v. prendre^y* 

Why may you not ? - - - You know the esteem 

and friendship that T have for him: you know 
that his father is one of my oldest friends; 

you know yourself the merit of both. - - He would 
not sell me these buckles under four 

Ten(Ire,v. houde^L a moins c2e,p. 

gcrineas. « - I will not see (any more) your brother/ 

hut J will see you again as soon as I can. - - - 

(by the ful.) 



Everj body thinks, t%at, if #ejr would have pui'suejd 

* * paursuivretr, 

the eDemy briskly, tbey might have ended 

vigourmitmtnUdiAvm Jinir^y, 

the war on that day* - - Should we^see ourselvf 6 re- 

dueed to so great difficulties ? - - If I would have be- 

didr^y. * 

lieved bim, he would have persuaded me to go to Italy 

croirt^v* , dt 

with him* - • He could have done his work in less 

faire^y. en,p. 

than ten minutes, if he had not amused himself in 

»*amu$eryy» a 

reading* - - If you want thi^ book;, jou may take 

Hre^y. avoir bescin de . 

it, it is at your service. - • If he sold all his horses now, 

a * 

theEett of them would not be worth ten guineas. - -• - 

We m^t have danced tilt (twelve o'clock) if 

jusqu^a^p* mmuily 
that had not happened. - - Oh ! my children, may yoa 
be happy, and never bewail the moment of jour 

heureuse^didy pleurtr^y. 

birth ! - - I spoke tp her (a long while), but could 
naiesanceyi. hng'tmip§^zdy. 

not persuade her to come with me. - - - May I go 

and see him? - - - Yes, you may, but come back, 

aa> soon as you can. 
nuasitSt que^. (by the fot.) 

• After til* A^ojiiii^tioo Mi^ «liniy» vm ibe inperfiect; nem p, IM, 

and 15$. 



ABSOVDRE, TO absolve, to Acaunu 

Infinitit£ Mood. 

Part. act. 
Part, pass 

Absoudre^ to absolve. 
Absolvunt^ absolving. 
. Absotts, oute, absolved. 

InI>I<^A14V£ MoO0. 




abatmsj absoutj I absolve^ 
absohm, absolvent^ 



absolvois^ absolvoiij I did absolve* 
absolviezj absohoient^ 

Preterite is wanting. 



absoudrasj absaudra^ I shall, or will 

Plur. AbsQudronSj absoudrez, absaudronti absolve. 

Sing. Absoudrois^ absoudrois^ absoudroii^ I should, &c. 
Plur. Absaudrions^ absoudriez^ absoudraient, absolve. 

iHpfiRATivE Mood. 

Sing. Absous, absolve^ absolve thdtf. 

Plur. AbsohonSf nbsohtz^ absolvent, 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que gui que 

Sing. Mei>he^ absolves, ai«o/ve, that I m^y absolve* 
Plur. Absolvion^ ahsolvieZj abs^lventj 
Preterite is wanting. 
SODDRE, TO solve, (the primitive of this verb), is 
used only in the present tense of the infinitive <nood. 


The other compounds are, 
Dissoudre^ to dissolve. Risoudrt, to reserve. 
DtBsoudre has the same tenses wanting as ahsoudre. 
Risoitdrt has its participle passive, risolu : its prQ** 
terite is, 

Sing* R6iolu8^ risohis^ ristluU 
Plur. Risolumesj risolutes^ rtsolurenL 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Sing. Risolusse^ risohustSy risolut. 
Plur. Risohissionsyrholuesiez, resolussenU 

ATTEIJ^DRE, to reach, to hit, to attaiij, 


AVEINDREy to reach, to fetch out, 
arc conjugated like CRjiLYDRE. 

The two foregoing verbs are growing obsolete^ 

BATTRE^ TO beat. 

Infinitive Moop. 

Present. Batlre, to beat. 
Part. act. Baitant^ beating. 
Part. pass. Baitu^ ue, beaten. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Bais^ bais^ bat, I beat^ or am beating. 
Plur. Buttons, battez, baiimt, 

Sing. Battois, iaitois, battoit, I did beat, erwas beat- 
Plur. Battionsy buttitz, battaieni^ ing. 


Stng. BaiHs^ baltis, haiiit^ I beat, or did beat. 
Piur. BiMltms^ baiiiUSj baiiirtnU 

Sing. Battrai^ baitra$^ battra^ I shall, or will beat# 
Plur. Balinms^ bailrez^ butirontj 

Sing. Baitrms^ battreis, batiroU, I should, &c. beat. 
Plur. Battrions^ battritz^ batiroitnL 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. BalSj balte^ beat thou. 

Piur. BattoM, batiezj battentj 



Que aue que 

Sing. Batitj battesj balte, that I may beat. 
Plur. Battiom^ hattiez^ baiUntj 


Sing. Baitisse, battisses^ batttt, that I might beat. 
Plur. Battissions, fra/Zimej?, baiiisseni. 

The compounds of this verb are, 

Se d4ba(tTej to struggle. 
Rabattre^ to abate, to beat 

Rebattre^ to beat again. 

Jlbattre^ to pull down, to 

throw down. 
CombaHre^ to fight. 
Dibaltre^ to debate. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Boire^ to drink. 
Part. act. Buvant^ drinking. 
Part. pass. £ii, W, drunk* 


Indicative Moo9. 
Sing. Bfrisy (ai>, bott, I drink, or am drinking; 
Plan Buvons^ buvez^ boivent^ 

Sing. BuvoiSi huvois^ buvoit, I did drink, or ivas drink- 
Plur. Buvions^ buviezy buvoient, ing. 


Sing. Bus^ bus^ but, I drank, or did drink* 
Plur. BUmeSf butes, burenlj 


Sing. Botrai, boiras^Aoircu I shall, or will drink. 
Plur. Boironsj boireZj boiront^ 

Sing. Boirois^ boiroia^ boiroit^ I should, &c. drink. 
Plur. Boirions^ boiriez^ boiroient^ 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Bois^ boive, drink thou. 

Plur. BuvonSf buvez^ boivent^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que que que 

Sing. Solve, boives, fcotve, that I may drink*. 
Plur. BuvionSi buviez^ boivent^ 


Sing. Bussty busses^ bui, that I might drink. 
Plur. Bussions^ bussieZy bussent^ 

N. B. Sotre dans quelque chose^ is, To drink oiU of 


This verb is seldom used, except in the present 
tense of the infinitive mood, and the third person 


singular and plural of the present, future, and con- 
ditional, of the indicative mood. 

Infinitive. Braire^ to bray. — Present, indicative. 
// braiU Us braienU — Future. // braira^ Us brairont* — 
Conditional. . // bvairoit^ Us brairoienU — This verb ex* 
presses the discordant cry of an ass. 


This verb is used only in the present of the infinitive 
inood, and in the third person of the imperfect, indica- 
tive: U bruyoit^ Us bruyoient. Its participle activ^ 
bruyani, is often but a mere adjective. 


And its compounds Enctindrt^ to inclose, to encom- 
pass, are conjugated like CRAIKDRE. 


is conjugated like CONFIRE^ 
but has its participle passive ending in t>, we, instead oft/. 


Infinitive Mood* 

Present. Conclure^ to c,oncIude. 
Part. act. Concluant^ concluding. 
Part. pass. Conchy tie, concluded. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Ctmclus^ conclus, conclut^ I conclude. 
Plur. Concluons^ conctuez, concluent^ 

Sing. Concluoisj concluois^ concluait^ I did conclude. 
Pltr. Conclmonsj cmcltuez^ concluoimtf 


Sing. Conclu9i conclus^ cono/u/, I coBcItided, or did 
^lar« CondilufMati condutes^ conclurmtf conclude* 

Sing. Concluraif concluras^ canchra^ I shall, or will 
Plar. Conclurons^ conclurez^ conclurontj conclude. 

Sing. Ccnelurois^ cancbwois^ amcluraii, I sliould, &c« 
Plur. Cgnclurions^ concluriez^ concluroknij conclude* 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Omclus^ conclue^ conclude thou. 

Plur. Cancluonsj concluezj concluentj 

Sdbjuiiotivb Mooo.' 


^ Qut . que ^ ' que 

Sing. Cmclue^ conclues, conclut^ that I maj con- 

PlHr. Cenciui'oiu, cenc/tim, conclumt^ dude. 

Sing. Conltl'asst^ . conclusses^ conclut^ that I might con- 
Plur. Conclussions^ conclussUz^ conclwsmt^ elude. 

conduire^ to conduct, to lead, to carrt. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Conduin^ to conduct. 
Part. act. Conduisant^ conducting. 
Part. pass. Conduii^ te, conducted. ^ 

Indicative Mood. 
Sing. CondfutV, conduis, conduit^ I lead) &c* 
Plur. Coiiduisons, conduisezj conduisent^ 

Sing. Conditisoit^ cotiduisois^ conduisait^ I did lead. 
Plur. Ctmduisiohs^ c^nduisiez^conduisoientf 

' 277 

Sing. Conduisis^ conduisisy conduisU^ I Jed. 
Plur. Conduisimes^ conduisites^ conduisirent^ 

Future. ^ ^ 
Sing. Conduirai^ conduiras, conduira^ I shali, or 
Plur. Conduiroriff conduirez^ conduiront^ will lead. 

Sing. Conduirois^ conduirois^ conduiroU^I shonMySic* 
Plur. Canduirionsy conduiriez^ cbnduiroienii lead. 

iMPERArivE Mood. 
Sing. Conduisj conduise, lead thoa. 

Plur. Conduisons^ conduisez, conduisintj 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Qut que que * 

Sing. Conduisiy conduises^ condutse, that I may 

Plur. ConduisiofiSy conduisicz^ conduisent^ lead. 


Sing. Conduisisse^ conduisisses, conduisU^ that I might 

Plur. Conduisi8fion$y conduisissiez^ cbnduisissenty lead. 

Its compound is 

Rtconduirej to lead again. 

Intinitive Mood. 
Present. Confire^ to preserve. 
Part. act. Confisant, preserving. 
Part. pass. Cdnfit, /e, preserved. 

kiTDicATivE Mood. • 
Sing. Confisy con/is^ confit^ I preserve. 

Plur. Confisonsy confisez, confinnt^ 

Imperfect. » 
Sing. Confism^ confisois^ cori/^^otV J did preserve? 
Plur. Confisiansj confisiez, conjisoient^ 



Sing. Conjh, confis, conjil, I preserved. 
Plur. Confimes^ confites, confirm^ 

Sing. Confirm, confiras, confirOy I shall, or will prc- 
Plur. Confirons^ conjirtz^ confironl^ serve. 

Sing. Omfirois^ confirois, confiroit, I should, &c. pre- 
Plur. Cor^rionsj confiritz^ conjiroienty serve. 

Imperative Mood* 
Sing. Confis^ confise, preserve thou. 

Plur. Confisons, confistz^ confisent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que que que 

Sing. Confise, eonfisesy confisey that I may preserve. 
Plur. Confisions^ confisiez, confisent^ 

Sing. Confisst, conjisses, con/z^ that I might preserve. 
Plur. Confissions^cor^ssuzy confissenl^ 

CONKOITRE^ to know, to be acquainted 
WITH, somebodtf. 
Infinitive Mo<aib. 
Present. Connoilre^ to know. 
Part. act. Co/momfln/, knowing.^ 
Part. pass. Connu^ we, known. -^ 

Indicative Moodj 
Present. . 

Sing. Connois, " connois, connoll^ I know. 
Plur. ConnoissonSj Connoissez^ cormoissent^ 

Sin^. Cnnnni snis, crnnnhsdis^connoissoit^ 1 did know* 

pin'-. C->"-" '•,*.''•''• V- r-ir.ftO'''^\<'rz^rfnnH)lssnitf:f^ 



Sing. Qninug^ eonnti^^ conrmL 1 knew. 
Plur. Connumesj C(mnules, qotinurmt^ 

Sing. Conncdtrai^ connoiiras^ connotlra^ I shall, cjrc. 
PJur. Connoilrons^ connoitrez^ connoilrmt^ know. 

Sing. ConnoUrois^ connoltrois, connoitroit^ I should, &c. 
Plur. Connottrions, connoitriez, connoltroient^ know. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. Conndis^ connoisse^ know thou. 

Plur. Connoissans^ ctmnoissez^ connoissent, 

SuBj(jiy:Tivs Mood. 


. Que que que 

Sing. Connoisse^ connoisses^ connoisse^ that #1 maj 
Plur. Connoissions^ connoissiezy connoissent^ know. 


Sing. Connusse^ conmisses^ conn4^,that I might know. 
Plur. Connussions^ connussiez^ connussenty 

The'compounds of this verb arc, 

Miconnottre^ to take for I Reconnoitre^ to acknow- 
another. | ledge, to know again. 

COKSTRUIRE] to construct, to builp, 
is conjugated like COJ^DUIRE. 

• COXTRAINDREy to constrain, to compel, 


is conjugated like CRAINDRE. 






coudrej to sew, to stitch. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Coudre^ to sew. 
Part. act. Cousanty sewing. 
Part. pass. Cousu^ t<e, sewed. 

Indicative Mood. 

coudsy coudy I sew, or am sewing. 
couseZy cousenty 

consols y cousoity I did sew, or was sew- 
coiisiez, cousoienty ing. 


eousisy cousity I sewed. 
coustUsj coiisirent^ 

ooudras^ coudra, 1 shall, or will sew. 
coudrezy coudront^ 

, coudroisy coudroUj I should, &c. sew. 

Coudriousj coudriez, coudroient,, 

Imperative Mood. 
Couds^ cousiy sew thou. * 
Cousfinsy cousezy cousenly 

Subjunctive Mood. ^ 


Coils oisf 



Sing. Coudroisy 


que • 

cousiy that I may sew^ 


Que que 

Sing. Cousey couseFy 

Plur. Cousion^y eousiez. 

Sing. Cousissiy musissesy cousUy that I might sew«« 
Plur. CousissionSyCousissieZy cousissenty 

Its compounds are, 
picQudny to unsew. Recoudrey to sew again. 



I know several persons in this country ivbo 

speak as good French, as if they had been (brought up) 
frten,adv. > ^{^ve,p.p. 

in France Do you know Mr. A.? - - - 

Yes, we know him very well ; and, though he is 

Oui,adv. soit 

rich, I assure you he is not the more charitable for 
it. - - - He has been beaten (soundly). - - If you 

comme il faut^ 
knew^ the question, you would resolve it in two 

qutsiionf. ^ en 

words. - • I will soon conclude, if you think as - 
fnot^m. comm«,adv. 

your brother does. - -' We should beat them, if they 

did not fight in their own .. country. - - Do not 

beat him any more, he acknowledges his fault. - • - 

^ ^ fauU,U 

We ran for above two hours, but at last 

pendant,^, plus de,adv. ' en^n,adv. 

your brother overtook him, and brought him back. - - 

ramener^Y. »o» 

You would never see him again, if you knew him. - - - 
He struggled a long while, but he was soon obliged 

•o» iemps^m* 
to (cry for) mercy, • - This mortification has pulled 
d« demandm'yV. grdce* 
down his pride, I assure you : however, the judge 

has acquitted him of the accusation falsely 
- /fluwcni«nf,adv. 

brought against him. - - Mr. R. told me some time 
tnientiyf.p» contfe^p. 


ago, that he wotild build a ship on a iiew plan. - - *' 
What wMl you drink ? - - I will drink (nothing bat) 

ne que 
water. - • Do not drink so much. - - If your father 

were here, yon would not drink (at all.) - - - 

• du twiU . 
Let .us fill 9ur glasses, and drink our friend's health.'- - 

verrf,in. santijl. 

We beat them because our troops were better dis- 
parctqut^c. dis- 

ciplined than theirs. - - Come with us, we shall 
see whether she will know you again or not. - - If you 

«t,c. non. 

knew her, I am certain she would please you. - - - 

The English drink as much tea as the Venetians 
auton/,adv. Ih6, VinUun^m* 

drink coffee. • - - After tea we condocted the ladies 

cafe. J 

to the concert. - - - Wnen they had explained to us 
all that bad passed, we acknowledged we (were in the 
Si passerby. avoir 

wrong). - - • Vour brother's coat was torn, ' 
torU dichirer^y. 

but our tailor sewed it up again so skilfully, 

lailUur^m. *^ adroitement^zdy. 

that- his father did not perceive it. • - - Uosew 
that gown. - • I will sew it to-morrow. - * - The 
Jews and the Mahometans circumcise their 
JuifyRn .Maham6lan^vn» 

children, a few days after their birth. * - -Why 

«^ peu,adv. naissaneeyf. 

do not you preserve some fruits this^ year ? - - - He 

woold not know you, if he saw you r.ow. - . - Did 

a prisentydidy* 


you ask him whether he (was acquainted with) any of* 

these ladies? - * I know Mr. Y. but I do not trust 

, to him. - - You wHl force your father to punish you 

if you do not behave better. • - • The last 

se comporter^v. 
time we went to Yauj^hall, we drank three bottles of 
Cbampalgne-wine. - - The enemy beat us on the 

eighteenth, bat we beat thcni again two days after. ' 

--What will you drink, ladies? - - We shall willing* 

mesdames^L volon- 

]y drink some wine; for we have not drunk 

/ier^^adv. ' 

any since our departure from France. - • - • 

depuis^p* dipart^m* 

Drink, said she to me, (out of) that cup, the * 

dans covpt^U 

only token which your father has left 

stul^Ay n^rqut^* ait laisser^v. 

us of his love. - - - Virtue in indigence is like 

afftction^fn dans^p. commt 

a traveller whom the wind and rain compel to 

pluie^U de 

wrap Kimself up in his cloak. - - I would have 

envelopper^v. ^o* dc, mantea^^. 

preserved some fruits this year, but sugar is too 

dear. - - Thence we -concluded you could not come 

De /a,adv. 
to-day.-- - I know nobody in this neighbourhood. - - I 

knew your sister again as soon ds I saw her. - - Though 

you should take three dozen of them, I could 



BOt abate a farthing. - - The wind was so great that* 

liard^m. vent^m^ fort. 

It has thrown down one or two trees id our garden. 

CRAIJiDREj TO fear, to be afraid. 4 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Craindre, to fear. 
Part. act. Craignant, fearing. 
Part. pass. Craint, ainte^ feared. 

Indicative Mood. ^ 


Sing. Cramsj craint^ craint, I fear, or am afraid. 
Pkir. CraignonSf craignez^ craignent^ 


Sing. Craignois, craigr%oi8^ craignait^ 1 did* fear, or 
Plur. Craip^ionSj craigniez, craignoimt, 4ffzs afraid. 


Sing. Craignis^ craignisy craignil^l feared. 
Plur. Craigntmes, craignttes, craignirentj 

^ Future. 

Sing. Craindrai, craindras, craindra, I sbail, or will 
Plur. Craindronsj craindrez, craindront^ fear. 


Sing. Craindrois, craindrois, craindroit^ I should, 4^c.' 
Plur. Cmindrians^craindritz^ craindroient^ fear. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Crainsy craigne, fear thou. 

Plur. Craignona^ craignez, craignmtf ■ 


Subjunctive Mood. 
Que que que 

Sing. Craigne^ craignes^ craigne^ thai I may fear. 

Plur. Craignions^' craignitz) \craignenl^ 

Sing. Craignisse^ cruigmssts^ craignit^ that I might 
Plur. Craignissions^ craignissiez^ craignissentj fean 


* , • Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Croire. to believe. 
Part. act. Croyant^ believing. 
Part. pass. Crxi^ ue, believed. 

•• •** 

Indicative Mood* 


Sing. Croisj crois^ croit^ I believe. 

Plur. Crayons^ croytz^ croientj 

Sing. Croyois^ croyois^ croyoit^ T did believe. 
Plur. Croyions^ croyiezj croyolentj 


Sing. Crus^ crus^ crut^ \ believed. 

Plur. CrCLtnes^ crates, crurenty 


Sing. Croirai, croirasy croira, I shall, or will believe. 
Plur. Crairons, croirez, croiront, 

Sing. Croirois, • croirois, croiroUy I should, ^c. believe. 
Plur. Croirions^ croiriez^ croiroient, 



Sing. Crois, croie, believe ihou. 

Plur. Croyons, croytZj croient^ 

SoBjuifcTivE Mood. \ 


Q^e que qn€ , 

Sing. CroUn^ croies, croie, that I may believe. 
Plur. Croyions^ croyieZy croient^ 

' Sing. Crusse, erusses, crAt, that I might believe-, 
Plur. Crussions, crussiez^ mrussent^ 

And its compounds, 
Accraitrt, to accrue, Rtcroiirt, to grow again, 

Dicrdilrty to decrease, to 
grow less, 

are conjugated like COXKOITRE. 

CUIREy TO BAKE, TO BOIL, o//cn Etiglinhed htf 


And its compound jRecuire, to bake again; 


and DETRUfRE, to destroy ; 
are conjugated like COKDUIRE. 

DIRE^ TO SAY, TO tell. 

Infinitive Mood. 


Present. Dire^ to say. 
Part. act. Disant^ saying. 
Part; pass. Z)iV, te^ said. 


Iin>icATiys Mooo* 
. SiDg. Dis^ dis^ dit, I say, or am saying. 

Plur. DisonSf diits^ diseni^ 

f Imperfect. 
Sing. Disois, ditoisy disoit^ I did say, or was saying. 
Piur. Disionsj dUiiz^ disoient^ 

Sing. Disy dis, dit^ I did say, or said. 

Plur. Dtm^j dites^ dirent^ 

Sing. Diraij diras, dira^ I shall, or will say* 
Plur. DtVom, dirtz, dirontj 

Sing. Dirois, dirois^ diroit^ I should, <$^c. say. 
Plur. DirionSj diriez, diroient. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing. JDt5, dise, say thou* 

Plur. Disons^ dites^* dUent^ 

Subjunctive Moon. 
• '^ Que que gut 

Sing. Disej dises, dise^ that I may say. 
Plur. Disions^ disitz^ disent, ^ 

Sing. Disse^ dis^es^ dk^ that I roighl: say. 
Piur. Dissions^dissiez^ dissent^ 

The compounds of this verb are, 

Contrtdire^ to contradict. 
Se dedire, to unsay, to rc- 
itract, to recant. 

Inierdire^Ao interdict, to 

Pridire^ to foretell. • 

* All the ahore compounds {Redire excepted, which is conjugated 
like its primitive) make uez instead of ties ; lind Maudire doubles its 
4 through the whole verb ; ex. Ji^out maudUsoiUy vout maudissezy its 
miudisstnt^ Sec. 


Midin dty to slander, to* 

speak ill. 
Jifaudire^ to curse. 

R^dire^ to £aj, or tell 


This verb is seldom used but in the infinitive nnood, ' 
present tense, and the third persons of the following 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Eclort^ to open, to batch, to come to life. 
Part. pass. Eclos^ ose^ ' » 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Jl iclot., 
Plur. lU iclostnt. 

Sing. // ictora. 
Plur. lU icloronU 

Sing. // 6cl6roiU 
Plur. Us icloroknU 



• Sing. Qa'il iclo^e. 
Plur. QuHls iclostnU ^ 

It is only used when speaking of oviparous animals 
*or of flowers. 

The primitive of the above verb is Chrt^ to shot, 
to surround ; and another compound, Enclore^ to shot 
in, to surround, with walls, hedges, or ditches. 



Infinitive Mood. 
Present. JEcrire, to write. 

Part. act. 
Part. pass. 

Ecrivant, writiog. 
Ecrit^ iu, written. 








. Ecrivis, 



Sing. , 

Plur. Ecrivons^ 

Sing, ^crive^ 
Plur. Ecrivions^ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. ^ 

6crisy eerily I write, or am writing. 
6crivez^ 6crivent, 

ecrivois^ 6crivoit^ I did write, or was 
ecriviez^ 6crivoient, writing. 

ccrivis^ icrivit^ I wrote, or did write. 
icrivUes^ icrivirent^ 

icriras^ icrira^ I shall, or will write. 
icrirez^ (criront. 


icriroisy (crirott, I should, &c. write* 
(crirUzj ecriroient^ 

Imperative Mood. 

Ecrisy £crive^ write thou. 
icrhez, 6criven(j . 

Subjunctive Mood. 

que que 

icrives^ ccriue, that I may write* 
ecrivkz^ ecrivenL 


Sing. Ecriviise^ icrivisses^ icrivtt, that I might write. 
Plur. Ecrivissiom^icrivusiez, ecrivissefitj 



The compounds of this verb areif. 

Dicrirti to describe. 
Inscrire^ to inscribe. 
Prescrire^ to prescribe. 
Rccriu^ to write ag^ln. 

Proscrire^ to proscribe, to 

oatlaw, to banish. 
Souscrire^ to subscribe. 
Transcrire^ to transcribe. 


is conjugated like CONDUIRE. 

ETEIXDRE^ to extinguish, 
is conjugated like CRAINDRE. 

EXCLURE^ to excolde, 
is conjugated like CONCLtJRE. 
Its participle passive is exclus. 

* PAIRE^ to mak«, to do. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. FotVe, to make. 

• Part. act. Faisani* making. 

Part. pass. Faii^ te^ made. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Fais^ fms, fait^ 1 make, or am making. - 
Piur. Faisons*^faUeSj font^ 

Sing. Faisms^ /fli5fe,/(iw(rt/, I did make, or was nnaking. 
Plur. Faisions^famn^faisoHitt^ 

Sing. Fi«, fisy fit^ I made, ot did make. 
Plur. Fimes^ fttes, firent^ 

* In the whole of the itnperfecl and in the other cases marked with 
a *, cri is.sHent. ^ 



Sing. Ferai^ feras^ fera^ I shall, or will make. 
Plur. FeronSy fereZy feront^ 


Sing. Feroisy ^troisj feroii^ I should, <^c. make. . 
Plur. Ferionsy firkz^ feroient^ 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. FiiiSy fasse^ make tho«. 

Plur. Faisonsy failes, fassenly 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que gut que 

Sing. Fassey fassts^ fasse^ that 1 may makf. 
Plur. FasiioHiyfassieZyfassenty 


Sing. FUsiy JisitSy f% that I might make. 
Plur. FwionSy Jisiiez^ fisstniy 

The compounds of this verb are, 

Conlrefain, to counterfeit, 

to mimic. 
Difairey to undo, to de« 

8e defaire^ to get rid of, to 

part with. 

Refairey to do, or make up 

RedifairBy to undo again. 
Satis/airey to satisfy. 
Surjitfre, to exact, to ^sk 

too much* 


19 conjugated like C^AINDRE. 



This verb is more elegantly used in its present inlinl- 
Uve with the verb /aire conjugated : ex. 

Faites frire ce paisstm^ Fry thai fish. 
- rts participle passive isfriL, ite^ fried. 


and IXTRODUIRE, to introduce, 
are conjugated like CONDUIRE. 

and its compound, Enjoindre^ to enjdin, 
arc conjugated like CRjUJ^DRE. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. . Lire^ to read. 
Part. act. Lisant^ reading. 
Part. pass. Lu^ «€, read. 

Ii^ttCATivE Mood. 


Sing. Lw, /w, lit, I read, or am reading. 
PUir. Lisons, lisez^ iisent^ 


Sing. Lisais, li$oi»^ foot/, I did read, or wgj reading. 
^>ur. Lisio7%$y lisUz^ lisoi^nt^ 



' 81ng. Lus^ ' /tiff, /t4/, I read, or did read. 
Plur. Ldmes^ lutes^ lurent^ 


Sing. Lirai, liras, lira^ I shall, or will read. 
Plur. Liron9j HreZj liront^ 


Sing. LiroiSi lirois^ liroit, I should, would, ^c. read. 
Plur. Lirions^ liriez, /tVoten/, 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Ltff, Uscj read thou. 

Plur* Lxsonsj lisez^ lisent^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que que que 

Siog. Lise, Uses, Use, thai I may read. 
Plur. Lisionsj lisitz^ lUent^ 


Sing. Lusse, lueses^ /u(, that I might read. 
Plur. Luseionsylusnez^lussentj • 

Its compounds are, 

EKre^ to elect* Relire^ to read again./ 


and its compound I&luire^ to glitter, 

are conjugated like CONDVIRE; 

but take no t at the end of their participle passive: 

ex. Lut, shined. 



Infinitivs Mood^ 

Present. Mttire^ lo put. 
Part. act. MtUant, putting. 
Part. pass. Mis^ se^ put. 

iNDicATive Mood. 

Sing. Mets, mets, met, I pat, or am putting. 
Plur. Mettons^ mettez^ mettenij 


Sing. Mettois, meltois, mettoit^ I did put, or was putting. 
Plur. Meltions, mtitiez^ mettoienty 

Sing. .Ww, tnis^ mil, I did put, or put. 

Plur. Mimes, mttes, mirent, 

Sing. Metlrai^ meitras, nieitra, I shall, or will put. 
Plur. Meltrons, nuHrtZy jmcUroniy 

Sing. MeHrf>i9, meUrois^meUroU, I should, would, ^c. put. 
Pltir. MeUrions^meUriez^meltroient, 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Mets^ metier put thou. 

IMur. MttloH€, mUttZy meiUHty 

-* Jffttire, when eonjugated as a reflectire ¥€rb, expressei the bc- 
ginain^ or continuatica of an action or application ; it is then «ioii- 
stantlj Tollovfed by tb« iiartick «, and an infinitifvc laood. it is ren- 
defed, in Englkb, by .tb« v€rb /o begin: ex. 

Toxites hafeis quHl la voit, il se Everj time he sees her, he begi^ 

tD«t a rire^ lavghing. 

ll %*%iX mis tout tfe hon ^>i«ditr. He hmhtgun t9 tiuiy in tamest. 


Subjunctive Mood* 

Que fue que 

Sing. Mette^ metles^ metU, that I may put. 
Plur. MetliofiSf meUteZy metUntj 

Sing. Misse, misses, mil, that I might put. 
Ptur. Missions, missiez, misseni^ 

The compounds of tbrs verb are, 

Adnuitre^ to admit. 

Commitire, to commit. 

Comprometlre, to compro- 

Dcmtltre, to turn out, to 

Se dimtitre de^ to resign. 

OmtUre^ to omit. 

Ptrmetlre, to permit. 

Promeltre, to promise.* 

Remetire, to deliver up^ 
to put back again, to 
recollect, to put off, to 

Soumettre, to submit. 

TransmtUre, to transmit. 


iNriNiTiVE Mood. 
Present. Moudre^ to grind. 
Part. act. Moulant, grinding. 
Part. pass. Moulu, ue, ground. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. Mouds, mouds, moud, I grind, or zai grinding. 
Plur. Moulons^ moulez, movlent, 

Sing. Moulois^ mouhis^ mouloit, 1 did grind, or was grind- 
Plur. JUoulions, mouliez^ moiiloient, ing. 

• The partictpie actiTe of this verb (promuinj;), when used ad- 
jcctively and expressing the mei^l qualities of sonebody, is ren- 
dered in French bj qui promet, or pr^mUtoU beatuoup, or dont U y 
(L^'Or avoU beti'ucotip a espirtr: ex. 

Le Major A, itoit un qficier qui Major A. was a rery promuing 
promettoii beauooap, ou dont 11 qffietr^ 
J avoii beaii««iip i ccp^rer, 


Sit\g. Moulus^ moulusj mouluty I ground, or did 
Plur* Moulumes, moulutes^ moulurent^ grind* 

Sing. Moudrai^ moudrasy moudra, 1 shalI,or will grind. 
Ptur. Moudrons, mtmdrez^ moudrontj 

Sing. Moudrois^ moudrois^ moudroit^ I should, would, 
Plur. Moudrionsj moudriez^ moudroietU^ 4^c. grind* 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Moudsy tnoule, grind t|iou. 

Plur. MoulonSf mouleZf tnoulmt^ , 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que que que 

Sing. Moule^ moults^ nwule^ that I oaay grind. 
Piur. Moulions^ mouliezy moulent. 


Sing. Moulusse^ moulussesj moulut^ that I might grinds 
Plur. Maulussions^moulussiezjtnoulussentj 

The compounds of this verb are, 

Emoudre^ to wet. Remoudre, to grind again. 

EXERCISES on the foregoino VERBS and 

Do not fear to tell her what you' think of it. -. - I 
ie lui penser^y* 

will speak to her to oblige you, but I know she 

docs not fear me. - - Why do you not believe me I - - - 


Th^y (are afraicl) of lieing exposed to some daogers* 

' - We would not believe him, though be should tell 

the truth. - - Why would you not ? - - - You should not 

v6rit6^(» devoir 

-speak so imprudently before I know not whom, 

who slanders every body. - - - Thtse flowers would 

grow much better* if jou watered them oftener. - -^ * 

Put out the candle^ and do not pretend to sleep* 

eteindre^v, 0i) 

- <- - Were I in town, I would tell them all that 

€n,p. ^ 

I think (abaut it). • - - Say nothing to her, believe 

penser^ en^pro. ne rien 

me. - *- I lyiU tell it to you tonaorrow. • - I esteem , 

year daughter much, because she told me sin* 

cerely that she would do neither. - - • They who 

say all tliey know, will readily say what they 

* volontien^Bidy* 

do not know. • - Tell the truth with modesty : they 

who do not k>ve it^ will always respect and fear it, * • 

If I see your father, shall I tell him you are afraid of 

not succeeding? - *- • Do you think me capable of 

forgetting my friends so soon ? No, I da not. - - You 
always contradict me when I speak* - - - It is pru* 

dent and humane not to speak ill of any body; 


* See the rule, page 128. 


but it is a meaoness to speak ill of your bene- 
Cf,pro. bassesse^f. de fetcn- 

factors. - * We often do good to those who 

faiteur^niM souvent^TxAv, 6ien,nn. 

are not worthy of it, and harm to those who 

do not deserve it. - - - Will you tell me, after 

this, that I am not your friend ? - - I hope she 

will not tell them what happened to me y ester- 

leur ■ 
<Jay. 1 was telling it yesterday to several friends of 

mine, and every body began crying. - - - I do not 

* pleurer. 
like Miss D. because she speaks ill of every body* 

• - Her father has transmitted her all bis fortune^ but 

fiot his virtues. • - Sylla proscribed above Ibiir 

phis defiiv* 
thousand Roman citizens. - - Does Mr.< R* write to 

Romain dtagen^m. 
you (now and then) from Paris ? - - - Do yoa 

de temps en iemps^zdy. 
know his direction ? - - - Would you not write to him 

if you knew it ? - - - We were writing while 

pendant que^c* 
they slep^ - - If your brother come here, detain bint, 

and tell him that I have something to show him. 

a /aire voir 
- - - The last time they wrote to him, they desired 

him to send them the invoice of the goods, and he 

de leur' facture^f. marchandises, 

has still omitted it in his letter- - - What are you 


• See the note, page 194. 


doing now ? - - - - I am making a cap Tor your sis- 

ten - - Do not do that, I will do it myself. - - I would 

do it with all my heart if I could. - - What would 

you have done, if you had been in my place ? - - - 

sucm a, p. 

Why do you not fry that fiah f • - - Tlie 6rst time 

you come. to see me, I will show you some 

(by the fut.) 
flowers in my garden which will surprise you. - - - 

- - - Silk-worms generally hatch at the end of the 
, Les vers a soie 

spring. - - - These rose-trees grow perceptibly, 
printtmps^m. , rosier, m, a vue c(^G6t/,adv. 

and those tulips would soon open, if it were a 

little warmer. - • Though they should deduct ten 

c/iatid^adj. Quand^c, 
per cent,' they would get still enough. 

pour gffgw<*'iV« «ficor«,adv. 

- - I never buy (any thing) at Mr. P***'s 5 for, he 

acheter^v, rien cbez ccir,c. 

always (asks too much for) hi* goods. - • - I will 

surfairCyV. . niarchandise^L 

undo my gown to-morrow, and do it up again imme- 

diately. - - - The first time you mimic any 

champ^^dv. (by the fut.) 

one, I will punish you severely. - - 1 would introduce 

your sister to Mrs. F. if I knew her. - - - She would 

consent to that, if you would promise her to come 

vouloir lui de 

here. - - - They were playing while you instructed 
them. - - You truly join what Is useful to what rs 



agreteble. - - - Did not oar soldiers join dexlerify 

to valour f •; - - iryoa do not Ulce great care of 

V your flowers, tlie frost will destroy them. • - - Mr. 

S. says be will get Hd of his horse (at the) begin^ 

au commence" 

Biog of next month. - - You would put out the fire, »f, 
&c. - - - Undo that, make it up again before dinner, 

and never defer until to-morrow what* jou can do to- 

day. - - • Your daughter joins to the love of study the 

desire of surpassing her companions. - ^* • Always 

• compagne^L 
virtuous, still handsome, she malces herself 

toujours j2idy. 
more enemies than friends; but a day^ will come, 

when every body will do her tbe justice abe 

que^c. rendre^v, lui 

deserves. - - She reads the History of England every 


day from three o'clock till five. -"-I will read 

dtpuis heurt jusqu*a^p» 

j6ut letter as so<;ia as I am dressed. - - Tbe 

(by the fut.) fca6ii/e,p.p« 
inhabitaats of W*** have elected Mr. V. W. for 

their ropresentative in parliament. - • I was reading 

rtprSsentant^m* \au 
MarmofitePs Tales when you came in. - - • Mr. 

Confe,m. entrer.v. 

R. wrote to ike some time ago^ that when he 
was in London, the Earl of E*"^* told him 

a Comie^m* 

we should soon see a great chants in the 


301 , 

wiaiitry. •--£[€ often writes tome, tnd alirajs con<* 


chides bis letters tbast^(Be so kind ds. to) send me 

Avoir la honti de 
some Dews, whatever it may be. - * Put these books in 

their places ag^in. - - - I believe he did it through 

spite. - - -Shall I pat another trimming to your 
dcpiL gamiture^L 

gown ? - - I read last year a very good book, but I 
cannot remember > the author's name. - • - - What 
grammar do you read ? • • . Whatever merit a master 
has, he cannot succeed m teaching young people 

rtussir d,p« 
if he do not join practice to theory. - - • I would put 

all your china in that closet if I had 

poreelaine^f. cabinet^m, 

the key of it. * - You could not do it in too days, if 

^ en 
I did not help you. - - We could not permit him 

to go out, though they would. * - - Why do not you 
de quand^c* 

abstain from wine, since it hurts you i — 

puisque^c^ faire mal^v. 
He promised to pay me the ' tenth of this month, 

but he has now put me off to the third of Decern-* 

ber. • - • He submitted to it with the greatest pa« 

at sQumtUre 
tience. - - You promise enough, but yon seldom 

keep your word. — Mr* D. is a very promising 

young man. - - It is he who told moi that, be- 

Ce,pro. , * CF- 

• See Tth it page 86* 


fore the inveBtton of water and wiDd-mills the &n» 

cients used to grind their corn in mor« 

avoir coutume^v. de gram,m« dans mor" 

tare. - - Will they not admit Mr. Z. in thetr society ? - * 
No, they told me that they would not. - - The Eng* 

lish fleets have performed actions worthy to be 

faire^v* de 

transmitted to posterity. - - - Your brother - promises 

me every day to amend, but, &c« - • Were I 

de se corrigeryV, 
their master, I would not permit them to go out io 

leur de 
day I was writing to you when your servant 

brought me your letter. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present, Kattrt^ to be born. 

Part. act. Naissant^ being born, rising* 

Part. pass. Nt^ ce, been born. 

Indicative Mood. 


Sing. .A/atf, nais^ nait^ I am bora. 
Plur. J{aiss(m8y nalssez^ naissent^ 

Sing. J^aissois^ naissoia^ naissoUf I was born* 
Plur. Jfa^ssions^ naissiez^ naissoientj 

Preterite, . 
Sing. J^aqv's, n^quis^ nnquit^ I was boroi 
Plur. Haquimes^ naquUes^ naquirenty 


Sing. Xaitrai, naitrQs, n«£(ra, I sball^orwiJl beborn. 
Plur. J^^attrons^ nailrez^ natirontj 

Sing. JSTflf/row, nailrois^ nai/roif, I should ,<t* born. 
JPlur. Maitrionfii naitrkz^ rwitroient^ 

iBirERATivE Mood. 

Sing. J^ais, naisse^ be thou born. 

Plur. Xaissons^ naiss€Z, naissent^ 


Subjunctive Mood* 

Que ' (pit que 

Sing. J^ais^e^ naisses^ name, that 1 may be bprn. 
Plur. J^aissions^ naissiez;^ naissent^ 


Sing. Xaquisse^ naquisses^ no^uf/, that I n)]§ht be boror* 
Plur. Xaquissions^naqtiissiez^naquissmty 

The compound of this verb is, . 
Rmaitre^ to be born again, to revive. 


is conjugated like CONDUJRE^ but makes, in its 
participle passive, nut. 


This verb is seldom used, except in speaking of sacred 
ceremonies wherein oil is made use of. It is conjugated 

PAITRE, to jfksd, to grase, 


and its compounds, 

Camparcitrt^ to appear, to | Disparottrej to disappear^, 
ivake one's evidence, | 

are conjugated like CONKOITRE. 



and St Plaindre^ to complain, 

^re conjugated like CRAWDRE. 


Infinititb Mood* 

Present. Plairtj to please. 
Part. act. Ptaisanl^ pleasing* 
Part. pass. Plu^ pleased* 

IewicatiVe Mooo* 


Sing. Plais^ plais^ plaii^ I please. 
Plur. PlaisonSy plaistZj plaisent, 

S\ng0 Plaisois, plaisoisy plaisoil^ I did please, or wds 
Plur* Plaisions^plaisiez^plaisoientj pleasing. 

Sing. Plus^ plus^ plut, I pleased, or did please. 
Plur. Plumes^ plutesj plurent, 

^'^ng. Plairai^ plairasy plaira^ I shall, or wiH ple^sev 
r*^ Plairons^plairezj plaironi^ 


Sing. Plairoia^ plairms^ plairoii^ I siibuld, would, c$rc« 
Piur. Plairions^plairuz^ plairoieni^ pleas€« 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Plais^ plaise^ please tbou« 

Plur. Plaisonsy plaisez, plaismtj 

Subjunctive Mooi). 

Que que que , 

Sing. P/am, plaises^ plaise, that I may please. 
Plur. Plaisions^ plaisiez, plaiseni^ 

Sing. Plusse^ plusses^ plutj that I might please. 
Plur. Plussions^plussiez^ plussttUy 

The compounds of this verb are, 
Complaire, to humour. ^ Diplaire^ to displeas'e. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Prendre^ to take. 
Part. act. Prenani, taking. 
Part. pass. Prisj ise, takes. 

Indicative Mood. 


Sing. Prends, prends, prend, I take, or am taking. 
Plur. Prenons, premz, prennent, 

Sing. PrenoU, prenais^ prenoUj I did take, or was taking. 
FlMT. PrenionSf preniezj prenoient, 
Si»g- Pris, pris^ prU^j took, or did take. 
Plur. Primes^ priles, prirent^ 


Sing. Ptmird^ prtniras^pnndra^ I shall, or will take; 
Plar. Frendrons^ prendrez^ prenirontj 

Sing. Prendrois^ prmdrms^tndrcit^l sbouldi would, 4^c. 
Plur. PrendrUmijprtndriez^pnndrokni, take. 


Plor. Prmonsj 

Imperatite Mood. 
Prendsj prennt^ take thoui 
prentz, prennent, 

SuBjtrKCTjYE Mood. 

Qm fiM que 

Sing. Pretifu, prennes^ prttme^ that I may take» 
Plur. Prenianty prmitz^ prmmmi^ 

Sing. PrUst^ prisses^ prit^ that I might take. 
Plur. Prissions, prissiez^ prissmi, 

The compounds of .this verb are, 

Apprendrej to lea^n. 

■ de^ nouvellesy 

, to hear of. 

Comprendre^ to adprehehd, 
to understand, to in- 

Desapprindpi, to unlearn* 

Entreprendre^ to under- 

Miprendre^ to mistake, to 
be deceived. 

Reprendre^ to take again, 
to chide, to rebhke. 

Surprendrtj to surprise. 


are conjugated like COJStBUIRE^ 

RESTREIJ^JDJ^E^ to restrain, 
is conjugated like CRAJJ^DRE. 


iNi^lNlTIVfi MOO0« 

Present. Sire, to' laugh# 
Part. act. Rianif laughing. 
Part. pass. Ri, laughed. 

Ikdicatitk Mood. 

Sing* Ris, ^f *^ I iaoghi or am laughing. 
Plur* RionSy rxtz^ rient, - 


Sing. Rimsy rioii^ rtoi/, I did laugh, or was laughing. 
Plur. Riions^ riitz^ rwUnt^ 


Sing. Ris, ris, n/, I laughed, or did laugh. 
Plur. Rimes, rites^ rirent. 

Sing. Riraij rirasj rira, I shall, or will laugb« 
Plur. Rirons, rirez, riroiit, : 


Sing. Rir€is, rirois^riroU, I should, could, <Jrc. laugh. 
Plur. Ririonsj ririez, riroient, 

ItfPSRATiTi: Mooft. 

Sing. Risj rte, laugh thoii. 

Plur. Mons, riet, rieni. 

Subjunctive Moon. 

Que que que 
Sing. Rie^ ^ ries, rie^ that 1 maj laugh. 
Plur. Rihns) riiez, rtefi/, 

Preterite. "" 

Sing, Rissif risses, riU that ( might laugh. 
Plur. Rissions^ rissiez^ rissent^ 

The compound of this verb is, 
Sourircj to smile. 


IS conjugated like COJfDUIRE. 

SUFFIRE^ to suFncE, to be sufficient, 

is conjugated like CONFIRE : but its participle 

passtre is avffi. 


Infinitive Mood, 

Present. Suivre^ to follow. 
Part. act. Snivanl^ following. 
Part. pass. Suivi^ ie, followed. 

Indicative Mood. 


Sing. Su^^ suis^ suit^ I follow, or am following* 
Plur. Suivons^^ stiivez^ suivent^ 

Sing. Suivois^ suivois^ suivoit^ I did follow, or was follow- 
Plur. Suivionsysuiviez, snivoitnt^ ing. 

Sing. Suivis^ suivis^ suivit^ I followed, or did follow* 
PI ur. Suivimes^ suivUes^siUvirenii 
Sing. Suhmij mivras, suivroj I shall, or will follow* 
Plur. Suivrons^suivrtZySuivrontp 



Sing. Suivrois,' sxtivrois^ ^smvroit^ I should, 4^c. follow* 
Plur. SuivrionB, suivriezj suivroient^ 

Imperative Mood* 
Sing* Suis^ suive^ follow thou* 

Plur* Suivons^ suivtZj suivent, 

Subjunctive Mood* 
Que que que 

Sing* Suty§i suives^ suive, that I may follow* 
Plur* Suivionif suiviez^ suiventy 

Sing* Suiyisse^ suivisses^ amvU^ that I might follow* 
Plur* Suivissionsytuivissiez, suivusent^ 

The compounds of this verb are, 
S^Ensmivre^ to follow from* Poursuivreyio pursue* 

Se TAIRE^ to hold onx's tongue, 
is conjugated like PZ^/A£. 

is conjugated like CRAJNDRE. 

TRABUIRE, TO translate, 
is conjugiated like CONDUIRE. 


Infinitive Mood* 
Present* ^ Traire^ to milk* 
Part* act. Trayant^ milking* 
Part* pass* Traits aite^ milked* 


Indicative Mood. 


Sing. Trais^ irais^ trait^ I milk, or am milking* 
Plur. TrayojiSj trayezy traitnt^ 


!5ing. Trayois^ irayois^ trayoit^ I did milkyor was milking, 
Plur. Trayions^ trayiez^ trayoitnlj 

Preterite is wanting. 


Sing*. Trairaiy trairas^ traira^ I shall, or will milk* 
Plur. Trairons^ trairez, trairont^ 


Sing. Trairoisy iretiroisytrairQUy I ahould, <{^e« milk* 
Plur. Trairions^ trairitZi irairoicnt^ 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Traisj /rate, milk thouT 

Plur. Trayons^ trayez^ traient^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Que qiu que 

Sing. Traie^ traies^ traie^ that 1 may milk. 
Plur. Trdyions^ irayiez^ traimi, 

Preterite is wanting. 

The compounds of this verb are,* 

Abslrairty to abstract. 
Distraire^ to distract. 
Exfraire. to extract* 

Rentraire^ to fine draw, 
Soustraire^ to subtract. 
Retraire^ to milk again. 


Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Vaincrt, to conquer. 
Part. acr. Vainquant^ conquering. 
Part. pass. Vaincu^ tie, conquered. 

Indicative Moop. 

Sing. Vaincs^ vaincs^ vainc^* 1 conquer. , 
Plur. Vainquons, vainqucz^ vainquent^ 

Sing. Vainquois^ vainqums^ vamquoit^ I did conquer^ 
Plur. yainquions^vainquuzy vainquoitnt^ 

Sing. Vainquis^ vainqiiis^ vainquit^ I conquered. 
Plur. Vainquimes^ vainqinles^vainquirtnt^ 

Sing. Vaincrai^ vaincrasj vaincra^ I shall, or will con- 
Pi ur. Faincron^, vaincrez^ vaincroni^ quen 

Sing. Vaincrois^ vaincrois^ vaincroU^ I should, <$^c. con- 
Plur. Vatncrions^ taincriez^ vaincroienti quer* 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Vaincs^ vainque^ conquer thou« 

Plur. Vainquons^ vainquez^ vainquent^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que que que 

Sing. Vainque^ vainquf^^ vatnqne^\\\zi I may conquer. 
Plur. VainquionSfVainquiez^ vainquent^ 

* The singnlar of this tense and the imperfect are rery little used. 


Sing. Vainquisse, vain^issesy vainquitj that I might 

Plur. VainquissionsyVainquiifsieZyvainquissenij conquer* 

The compound of this verb is, 

Convaincre, to convince. 



Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Vivrt^ to live. 
Part. act. Vivanl^ living. 
Part. pass. Fecu, lived. 

Indicati'Ve Mood. 

Sing. Vis^ visy vit^ I live, or am living. 
Plur. VivonSy vivez^ vivent^ 


Sing. Vvoais, vivois^ viooil, I did live, or was UvYn^« 
Plur. VvDions, viviez^ vivoUni, 

Sing. Vicusy vicus^ vicui, I lived, or did live*. 
Plur. V6c&mesyv6culeiyv6curen(, 

' Future. 

Sing. Ftvrat, 'ovoras^ vvDra^ I shall, or will live. 
Plur. Vivronsj vivret, vivront, 

Sing. Vivrois, vivroisj vivroit^ I should, would, irc» live* 
Plur. Vivrums, vivrUz^vivroient^ 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. Fis^ vivtj live ihou. 

*lur* Fivons^ vivez^ tivenf^ 




QUe qtu que 

^ing. Fire, vives^ vive^ that I may live. 

Plur. Vivions^ vhitZi vivent. 


Sing. Ficusse, vecus^es^ vicAl, that I might live. 
Piur. Fieusfhris, vittMs$ieZy vtciuseniy ' 

The compounds of this verb are, 
Revivirej to revive* Survivrtj to outlive. 


* Mj brother was born in Paris, on the eighth of Feb- 

Fuarj, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-one. • - 

The same men who seem not to fear death when 

they are in .good health, often dread it when 

«f* redouter^y. 

they are sick. — What does your sister complain of ? 

The swallows generally disappear towards the 

hirondelltj^. vwa^p. 

end of autumn. • - Vou do not seem to pay anyv 

auiomne^* Jaire^y^ «o» 

att^[ition to what I say to you. - - This man paints 

. very well, I assure you. ^ - - Why woi^ you 

hurt him,.he never did you «ny harm ? - - I abould 

lui fairc^y. malym. 

pity and succour him if it were n^ his £atuk. « ^ - 

' f?e,pr0« ■-/ 

8T~" . / 


You shall disappear as .soon as you have »• 

(by the fut.) 
ecuted oigr orders, and take care not to speak 

aytz^w. 5atn,in« dt 
to any body, for you know that walls have ears* 

car,c. muT 

.• - - • The last time I saw your sister she ap- 

peared to tne. thoughtful and melancholy She 

roxir^ pennft^dy m6lancolique^SiAj* Ce 

is a lady that pleases every body. - - - She appears 

a » 

quite^ young: how old is she? - - - Does she not 

learn drawing ? - - Your brother has not included his 

desstin,nt, . 
tailor's bill in the account which he has 

iailleur^tn* mSmoin^m, compte^m. 

given roe. - - - I see you do not complain of him 
rentlre^v. * 

without a cause. - - I really am surprised (at it), but 

»o» en,pro. 

he always smiles at (every thing) I tell him. - - ^s sur« 

de tout ce q&t 
prising as this seems to you, yet it is true. - • 

cependant^^dv, ee 
At last the enemy surprised and defeated them in the 

space of twelve days. — Jf they had wished, they 

might have taken the town three days sooner, but the 
. soldiers were sq exhausted with fatigue, that tbey 
ipuisis^ df,p. - ' 

could not even hold their guns. - « - May these 

m^me,adv. Puitsmt 

brave men lon§ enjoy the glory which they have ac- 

jauir dt 
quired. - - 1 sincerely wish they may. - - - Children sel^' 

* Tifut^ adv. before an adjectire beginning with a consonant or a« 
ite, agrees with it. 


dom forget, when they continually 

m€ni,adv. . lorsque^c* continueltement^^dy, 

exercise their minds to study. * - If my brother do npt 


come this week, as he promised me, if you will, we 

Will go and see him in the .country. - - - Does ho^t 

Mrs. H. appear much concerned at her daugh- 

Mnu bien '^igce.p.p. de 

ter's death?- - When yoi^ see Mrs. B. I am 

(by the fut.) 
certain she will please you. - - - Did you never see 
'faert - - The children who (shall be born) from this 

iiappy marriage, will be the drligTit of their 

father aD8 mother. - • She joins to the qualities of the 

body those of the mind. - - Take some pears, and carry 

them to yaur brother. — Every time 1 sec him, 1 take 

him for a foreigner. - - My sister and I learn Frencbj 

and understand very welLall that (is said) to us in that 

ri dit 
learn all the rules, 
langueS" Quand.c. 

ihey would not (be sufficient) without practice. - - 1 did 

' s\iffirt,w. 
not understand what you said. - - - Do not undertake ta 

undeceive her; believe me, you will lose your time. 
ditrtnnper^v. - ' 

- - - Virtue procures and preserves- friendship, but 

obtenir^w conserver^v. 

vice, produces - hatred and quarrels. - - - If you 
vice^mm haine^f* qnerelle^L 

complain U> the master, 1 will complain to the 


mktres&k - - Tliough you should undertake to prove 

Quand de 

the contrarj, she would not believe you. - v Why did 

not yoQ take the same road as we ? - * - He (is not 

pleased) in his situation, now he sees all the dangers 


of it. - - He has suffered much, and none of his friends 

lias pitied iiim. - - The idea^ of bis misfortune pur- 

td^6,f. malheurjm. 

sues him every-where. - - When did you hear of him ? 
par-^ou<,adv. apprendrt det nouveltes 

^ - - Captain D. told my father that he had seen 

him and spoke to him at Madras. - - - We often 

mistake when we judge of others by ap- 

se miprendre^v* juger^y. 

pearances; and often a- person displeases us by the 

verj* quality by which another has pleased us. 

fn^me,adj. , 

-'- - The people who often ^eem the roost zealous 

g«n?,m. z6Uy^dj. 

are not always the most constant. - - - Leave nic 

that book a little longer, do not take it again. - - - 

That apple-tree pro^upes no fruit. • -They retook 

pur ship. • - Go and speak to Mr. — ; but above all 

*^ 9tir,p« 

do not laugh. - - WouljJ yeu not laugh, if you were 

in my place? - - • We laughed much yesterdajr at 

"<ry, ad?, it used here adlectiyely, and f i|;9i6e« #a^. 


tbe^ play. - • - She was all agreeable ladjr, she was 

ever smiling when any one had the honour 


of speaking to her. - - He seduced her by his fine 

promises. - • Whatever he may undertake, be never 

will succeed, he is (too much) addicted to the 

/ro/>,adv. adonn6^p.p», 
pleasures of this world. - - - Young people tell 

what they do, old people what they have done, 

and fools what they. intend to do.- - -We 

5o/,m. se proposer^v* de 

learn much more easily the things which 

we understand than those which we do not. - - If we 

comprendre ^ 
ga together to my brothcr^'s, shall . you be able 

to fallow us? - - I will follow you step by step. - ^ 
»<» pas a pas^zdv. 

Why do you follow me as you do ? - • You may set 

out when (you please), we will follow you. - • Hold 

il vous plaira 
your tongue, you do not know what you say. - - - 

What books do you translate?- • My master says I 

shall soon translate MarmontePs Works. - - We should 

have conquered them if we had fought ; and, believe 

me, you (might have^) done^ much' bettter^, if you had 
. foUowed the advice which he gave you. - - - They 



have debated, the qMslifn a Icmg time without 

(i^eing .able to) reaohre it - • They wete quite trans^ 

ported witti joy when they (heard of) the happy 

ile,p. npprendrt^y. 

iiewa of the peace* - • Every thir^ smiles ia 

fiouve//e,f.8ing. dans^p. 

nature (at the) return of the spring. - - 7 As long 

gu rtiaur^m* prinitmps^w. Tant 

as her father and mother live, they never 
9tte,adv, (by the fut.) 

will convent to her marriage with Mr. R« - - You 

will not live long if you drink so niuch* - - She lived 

afboul four years after her husband's death. • - 

enTtron,p. apres^p. 

George HI. the eldest son of Frederick) prince of 

Wales, was born on the fourth of June, 1738, and 
GalUs, «^ 

was proclaimed king of- Great-Britain on the twenty-* 

sixth of October, 1760. - - - In whatever country a 

maa may live, he is sure to be respected and 

de .> 
well treated every where, if his behaviour and 

manners are regulated by the principLed of a 

fneeur^ righr^Yi 

S0uc4 policy, aiid the laws of the counlry be 

5air},adj. poliliqmf^ 

lives in. 


Verbs which relate to no persoA or thiiigy and which, 
has been before observed, are only conjugated in the 
rdpenon singular^ 2Lre called ioipersonal verbs : they 

generally iare preceded by one of the following pro«^ 

nouns il or on : of this number are^ 

// tonne^ It thunders. 

II plenty It rains. 

On dit^ People say, or^ it is said,(^c. 

To which may be added several other verbs, which 
become impersonal when employed in the sapde man- 
ner: ex. 

JL voui convient d^itre mo- It becomes you to be md^- 

ileste^ dest. "" 

II fait beau^froidy &c. It is fine, cold, &c. 

II fail grand vtnt^ The wind blows high. 

// 5«mWc, It seems. 

// s*tnsuit que^ It follows that. 

// vautmieux^ It is better, <^c. 

These verbs, like others, whether regular or irregular 
have their diflerent tenses, and are conjugated in the 
same manner as the personal verbs from which they are 
derived. The learner having gone through the other 
eoiyugations, the verbs of this class may the more easily 
be dispensed with. It will only be necessary to select 
one that is not derived, and show the manner of conju- 
gating it, only premising, that the compound tendes are 
formed, like others, by joining the participle passive to 
one of the tenses of the auxiliary verb avoir^ to have. 


iNFim'TiVE Mood. 

Present. Pleuvoir^ to rain. 
Part. act. Pleuvant, raining. 
Part. pass. Plu^ rained. 


Indicative Mood. 


Present, Upkutj it rains, it does rain, it is raining.^ 

// nepleutpasj it does not rain, &c. 


Plent'il ? 

Jie pkui'il pas ? 

does it rain ? 
does it not rain ? 

Imperfect. Ilplenvoit^ it rained, it was raining. 

Preterite. Jiplut^ il rained, or did rain. 

Future. lipUuvra^ it shall, or will rain. 

Condilional. Ilpleuvroit^ it would, siiould, tt-c. rain. 

Subjunctive Mood, 

Present. QuHl phuvcj ih^t it may rain. 
Imp^fect. Qu^tlplutj that it raigtit rain. 

The following being of the first conjugation, J shall 
only give the third person, present tense,' of the iiidica^ 
tive mood : the learner may easily find out the rest. 

// arrive^ It happens; from arriver^ to happeo- 

// bruinty it drizzles ; bruiner^ to drizzle. 

// iciairtj it lightens ; ^c(atrer, to lighten. ^ 

// gele^ it freezes ; geltr^ to freeze* 

// grile^ it hails ; griUr^ to hail. 

// netge, it snows ; miger^ to snow. 

// tonne^ it thunders ; tonnw^ to tliunder. 

// importt^i matters, importer^ to concern » 
il concerns. 



Docs it rain? - - It rained just now, but 

it does nol rain at present. - - * • Was it not raining 

when yoa came? - - 1 advise you not to go out 

conseilUr^v^ de 

this morning, I think it wHl soon rain. • - I am 

sure It would rain if the «wind *was 'nol^ so* high^ - - 

sHl »o» - fairt^s* grands 

Do you know what happened to my cousin 

whilst he was in tpwa? - - I foresaw what 

pendant que^c. tn privoir 

would happen. - • The roads were very slippery 

chtmin^m^ glissant^zAy 

yesterday, because it, drizzled the whole day. - - - Did 

you observe how it lightened last 

r&narqutr^v. ^ co?nm6,adv. 
night? - - If it did not freeze 1 would go to siee them 

to-day - - - ft hailed this afternoon^ and it will 

certainly snow to-night. - • It thundered much 

ccite nuiL 6eaucoti/),adv. 

yesterday, and 1 think it wilt still thunder to- 

croire^w encore,adv. 

day. - - - It matters little whether you do your ex- 

que (subj.) 

crcise now or later^ provided it be well 

pounm que^c. 
done - - - It greatly concerns children to 

beancaup^^dv. aux de 

avoid idleness, because it is the parent of all vice 
£viUr^v. mere.f. 

and destroyer of all virtues, 

' 522 

The verb Avoir^ to have, conjugated intiper&onally 
With y, adverb of place, 

Infinitive Mood. * 

Y avoir. . . 

Indicative Mood. / 

Present. ^11 y a, there is, there are. 

Jl i\^y nfa»^ there is not, there are not. 

Y a-t-il ? is there? are there ? 

^AT'y a-iAlpas f is there not? are there not? 
Imperfect. // y avoit^ , there was, there were. 
Preterite. // y «u/, there was, there were. 

Future. II y aura, there ^all, or will be. 

Conditional. // y auroUj there snould, would, 4rc. be. 

Imperative Mood. 
QuUl y at/, let there be. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


QuHl y ait^ 
QuHl y fuly 

thai there may be. 
that there might be. 

Compound Tenses* 

II y a cw, there has, or have been. 

// y avoit eu, therie had been. 

// y eut 6M, ^ there had been. 

// y aura eii, there shall, or will have been. 

II y auroit eu, there should, ^c, have been. 

QuHl y ait eu, that there may have been. 

QuHl y ${it eu, that there might have been. 



There- are three ladies who -(are waiting for) you 

- attendrt^v. 
In your brother's study. - - - Is there any fire in the, ^ 
parlour ? - • No, Sir, there is none. - - There were two 

tneu below who asked to speak to jou. - - Was 

. £n 6a6,ad«(. a 

there not formerly , a (coffee-house) at the 

autrefois^dv^ cff/c,m. 

corner of this, street? - -^ - There werq great re- 
cain^m* riu^L ^ re- 

joicings in France when peace was proclaimei}. - - 
jouissance^f. proclam£e^p,p» 

I was telling you that there will be a grand concert 

and afterwards a ball and supper in the course 

ensuite^adv. * C(mran/,m« 

of this month. - - There would be no harm If you 
• ) fnal^fn» 

would learn'*' your lesson better. -» - IVly brother says 

that there has been a bloody : engagementbetireen 

sanglant^^d). comba/,m. 
an English frigate and a French one, . and there 

frigate^f. frigate 

have been many men killed on both sides. - - - There 

de part et d^autrt. 
would have been a great riot yesterday in the 

Strand, if the magistrates had not sent many constables, 

who dispersed the mob. 



* The conjunction 5t, i/, is used only before the present or imper- 
fect of the indicative mood and iheir compounds ; and sometimes 
elegantly- before the com|>ound of the imperfect of the subj. mood. 


There w, immediateJy followed by the negation^ no 
and a participle active, must be rendered by on ne petit 
pas^ onne' sauroit^ "with the participle in tbe ififioitive 
mood ; the other tenses^ as there was^ there will be, there 
would 6e, used as above, and made by the aame tenses 
•f the verb pouvoir only r ex. 

, On ne peut pas, or, on ne There is no going out to- 

saaroit sortir aujour- day because of the <raiii ; 

JPhui a cause de la pluie, that is, one cannot, &c. 

On fupouvoit Pappaiser, There was no pacifying 


On ne poorra pas jouer ite* There toUI he no acting 

main, mon pert est tres to-morrow, my father is 

malade, . very ilK 


There is (sacb a deal) of snow that there is no going 
tant, adv. 
out of the house. - You speak so low and so quick 

6(i9,adv. . vf/€,adv. 
that there is no hearing nor understanding what 

entendre,v» comprendre,\. 

you say* - - My brother runs so fa^ that tb^fe is 

BO following him. *- There was no walking yesterday 

in the streets of London on account of the ^rt« - - His 

a cat{5€,p. houe^L 

argumeots were so convincing that there was. no re- 

plying to him. • -• There wilt be no skating in the 
pliquer,v* patiner,y. 

park to-morrow because it thaws. - - There will be 

Jko going to the play next month, be- 

com6die,{. prociiitn,adj. p0rc€ 

cause the play-house will be shut. - - - There wcraiid 
9ue,c. ^6dtre,itt0 



be jio^lifiBg ^itb you, if yoa were always io the same 

6tiez^\\ dt 

honoar* " - If a horse knew his strength^ there 

U cannoilre^y* force^f. 

would be no mastering' him* 

This Verb t7 y a, when used to dehote a quantity of 
time, is sometimes i*endered in English by it w, it was* 
&c. when the English preposition since is rendered 
(in French) by q^e : but in all cases where the English 
phrase can be rendered negatively, qus must be accom- 
panied by the negation ne : ex» 

II ya irois semaines qiie tt is three Weeks sinU 

votreptrs est arrive^ your father arrived* 

II y a long'tems que je ne It is a long while since I 
vous ai 911, saw jou, or, I have not 

seen you this long 


tiowl^ong is it since we (saw one another ?) It is a 
Combteit,adv« «e voir^v.refl. 

year since I met your brother in Italy, and 

reneimirer^rh en 

it is six months since I heard of him; - • - 

entendre parUr^Vk 
How long is it since you wrote to your mother ? - « .• 

it is but . two months. « * It was a week sinte I had 
ne que semaine^f. 

seen your brother^ when I met him by chance in 

par hasard^^dv. 

a. (coffee-room.) • • How lohg was it since your friend 
ca/2,m* , / >. 

bad left France when he wi»ote to you ? i - It was 

three months. ^ - It may be two years sinbe Mr. Ilobeft 
28 ' 

set out for the Indies. - - How k^g is it sinde yon 

partir^y. Indtz* 

were in England? • - It is (such a) long while mcae \ 

learned German, thatlafamt forgot k. 


It often happens that the verb thtrt w, or it isy &c* 
is understood : in this case, one of the words, Ogo^ thtse^ 
or for thescj is expressed as ^ substitute : ex. 

II y a trots mois 91/e /o- I was in France threi; 

toi$ en Franc€^ ot^fiiw moBths agp. 

en France il y a troif 


ll y a quatre am qiu man My brother has been dead 

frtrt eat mort, these four years. 


He is the same man whom we saw a quarter of an 

C^est , quart *^ 

ikout ago. - - When did you see my father ? • - I saw 

him (a fortnight) ago. - • We have not heardt from my 

quinze jours 
brother these two years. • - You do not seem . to 

be so lively as you were three years ago. • - I would 

have written to you a month ago, if I had known 

your direction. - - - •! have not seen your sister these 


* From this iastance it. may be observed, tkftt, if the verb ilya^ 
&c. begin the sentence, the word que must immediatelj follow the 
noun of number; but, if it be transpojeed;, que must be omitte4t The 
first construction is to be preferred. The iearner must at the same 
time observe, that in the above sentence, the verb, wbich^ in Eng- 
lish, is in iheton^pound of the pre^etU,, l^.rend^red in French bjr t*ie 
jpretent of the indicative, and when in the compound of lhtis(^erfcef 
by the imperfect of the same mood. 

-(i See page 193, • ' ^- ^ " . 


jioijiir iQo&tbs. - - My fatber has been ill these 

six weeks* - - He has .been in London these five years, 

mid (itisfi^id) he therle enjoys a considerabb fortune. 

Von cfi/,v. 
.- -.- We have neither seen you nor your sisters these 

tbrfee dSys.. 

It also happens, that neither the verbs, nor any of 
the words, ago, these^ or for ihess, are expressed in the^ 
sentence : ex. - 

liy a neuf am que ma tmie 

dtmeure dans ee . voisi' 
:. ,nage^ 
11 n'*y a pas plus d^une hture 

016 nous ptchi^ns tci, 
// y Qvoit deux ans que ma 

scB^r ilM tn France 

quandfy allai^ 
,J>t^u avoit-il pas svs mqis 

qu'^elle demeuroit avec 

nous quand elk tneurut ? 
11 y aura six ans a J^oel 

que voire frere est chez 

Mohs* O. 
JTy aura-'t'il pits un an au 

mois d'Aout prochain que 

voire scBur est a Paris ? 

My aunt has lived nine 

yc:ars in this neighbour* 

We have not been above 

an hour, fisbing^bere* * 
My sister had been two 

y^ars. in France when I 

went there. 
Had she not lived six 

.months with us when 

she died ? 
Your brother will have 

been a| Mr. O's. six 

years at Christmas. 
Will not your sister bare 

been a year at Paris 

next August ? 


S6me people* have no pity on their poor 

gen5,p]. de 

fellow-crealures. • - Some people* fancy 

semhlablfj persontie^f. 5*mifigtnef,V. 

** Tbes^ sentences are the same ^B thtre arc seme people wAo, ke, 
II y a d$s ^tn* qvi^ &<?, 


that tbejT can learn a lai^uage witboBt 

studying. • - - My brother has been four years at 
Mr. W's. academy,* and my father told biai that be 

should stay there two ye^rs more. • • 1 had been three 

years in England when that happened. - - I had net 

ar river ^y. 
been three months in France, when my brother returned 

from America to London. - - Mr. N. bad only 

ne que 
learned French seven months when he wrote me 

a letter in that language. - - - Had not Mr. David 

been four years and a half in Spain when bis sister 

was married ? - - My father and mother had not been 

(gone out) above a quarter^ of an hour when 

*orfir,v. plus cfe,adv. «<>» 

he arrived. - - - We had been playing at cards 

aux carie^U 
for two hours jffhen you came^in. - - Thomas will have 

been at the college two years the . tenth of next 


The verb iire^ to be, becomes in^^ersonal when fol- 
lowed by a substantive, or one of the pronouns p^rspnal^ 
possessive, or demonstrativej and is always conjugated 
with the pronoun demonstrative ce, whether speaking 
of persons or things : ex. 

* AH the sentences in this exereise, should begin with the imper- 
sonal verb riy a, II y am/, &c. 


€PM H \oi fui Pordonnej It is the km that pfe* 

scribes it. 
Oest moi qui Pat fait. It is / who have done it. 

Chst mbn bienfaiteur, It is my benefacton 

€*est eux, or, ce sont eux, It is they who have related 
qui mt Pont fapporti, it to doe. 

From the la^t instance, it appears that it is, &c. fol- 
lowed by a pronoun of the third person plural, may be 
rendered in French' two wa^s ; but, when is it, &c. is 
used in asking a questibn, it is generally put in the sin- 
gular, thougli ^the pronoun be in the plural number : 

^st'Ce eux qui Pont fait, Is it they who have done it ? 


It is prosperity which cominonly^ makes* 

prosp6ril6,U rendre,y* 

men haughty and proud, '' but it is adversity 

^er,adj. orgtiei7/etix,acr). . 

that makes them wise. - - - It^ras the custoni 

rtndre^v^ coutume^t. 

among the Spartans to inure Ih^il* 

ekejs^p. Spartiate^h ds endurctVfV. 

children early to the fatigues 6f war. 

de bonne Aetif e,adv. travail,tn\ gutrrejl. 

- «. It is not I who occasioned the qaarref) it is 

.<Jauwr,v. quttelltf. 

you #b6 began first. - - - It was envy 

avez comfneneie le ^ envte^f. 

which caused the first murder. - - Is it not you who 

caustr^v. meurtre^m* 

wrote lo Misa A. ? No, it is Misiii Rose's sfeSer. 

tnez 6cr%t,v. * . 

- • If you do not sucdeed,. ii will not be.nj £ldt« 

.f(ussir,y. faute,t, 

" ^ If you happened to lofte the friendsliip of your 
'Btnir aperdre^r. 


parents, it would be the greatest inisfortane which 

erer* might^ happen to yoa. • - It is my friend 

jamaisj^idr. pbuvoivyY. arriver^v. 
who told me that it was your father whom we saw 

yesterday. - - Speak to my brothers, for it is they 

who told it me. - - - Why do you not accuse 

my sisters ? - - It is they who have done all the 

mischief. - - • You blame my aunts, but is it they 
ma/,m. hldmer^f. tantef. 

who have offended you ? 
' offenstr^y. 

He^ she^ thty^ immediately followed by »&o, whom^ 
or thai^ and such as^ whether separated in English or 
not, but implying people in general, are often made 
into French by the impersonal chsi^ with an infinitive 
followed by qut de before a second infinitive, and if 
the sentence be negative, c^esi nepas must be used: 
observe well these examples, 

Oesl etre fou que de He is a fool who loses his 

perdre le terns a ces time in those trifles. . 

C'est ne pas gouter les Such as love nobody, do 

plaisirs de Pami(i6 que not enjot/ tbo pleasures 

de n^aimer personnej of friendship. 

C'est trop presumer ih soi They are too cmuitisd who 

mime que d'agir ainsi^ act so* 


He is a blind man who does not 

«oi aveugle^^dj* t<^ 

perceive all the dangers which surround ns 

in thi/^deceitful . world. - - - Such as are satis- 

<romp€ur,adj. con- 


lied ' witb their lot arc happy. - - -.He 

tmi^ziy de 5on,pro« sori^m* 

does not know . .the court who relies 

connoUre^y. cour^L sefier^T. 

(on the) promises ,whicb (are m&de) there* - - They 

aux • onfaityV^ 

are strangers to the charms of society: who shun 

sociit6^L fuir^fi 

company. - They are idle who do not know the 

paresseux^^dj. connoitre 

value of time. - • They obey the commands of God 

temps^m. aux 

who love their neighbottfe, and do not reproach 

son prochain^siugm 
them v(4th their small defects. - - He is notaCaris- 
lui '<?^ ses 
tian who seeks t<» hurt his neighbour and speaks 

a ' 'Domit,m. 
ill of him on all occasions. - - - They do not under- 

dans f. 

itand tLeir own interest who neglect study. 


The verb titi^ to be, becomes also impersonal every 
time it is followed by a noun adjective used in a vague 
indeterminate sense, and relates to no particular object ; 
in which case the verb is generally; preceded by the pro- 
noun tT; and when used to denote the state of the wea- 
ther, it is rendered bj the third person singular of the 
verbyatre, to make or do : ex. 

// es/ extraordinaire^ &c. It is extraordinary, ((-c. 
//fait beau terns ^ It is fine weather. 

Nt faisoit-t7/>a^ chaud ? Was it not hot ? 


It is surprising .' to see you so hiz|r and in- 
itonnant^zAy dfs 

SUeniive after havin| been pafiisbed - sevieci^ 

ly for these faults. - - It is always dangeroiiyi 


to (keep company with) peof^e ijitbout any prin- 

d€ frSquenler^Y* . personne aucun priri' 

ciple of religioo* - - Does it nin ? No, .SiTi . 

CfM^Dii. Mansieur^m. 

it is fine iTeatber. - ^ Was it not vefy cold ? - - It will 

neither be coM ctor bot^ r - It hs(d (beeo a) h%h 
nt,c. nt,c* faire^y* granfll,adj. 

wind, and 1 think it will soon ffeese. - - It^is not so 

ccdd as it was (at the) begianitsg ofrthis euNitb.. - - 

au commencement^m* 
Do you think (that) it is hotter ih Italy than here ? 

The learner must observe, that the following verb is 
ahsohiUly imptnonal throughout all its tenses, and that 
nothing is more disagreeable than to hear young people 
say, Jefaut^ vousfaut^ onfaut^&LC. to prevent wbicb^ as 
much as possible, some examples are here set down. 

InrmfTtVE Moei^. 

Present. Falloif-, t6 be needful, reqalisite, titct^B^tj. 
Part, pa^^ Falh, been needful^ (i^e. 

Affirmatively. > Sing. 
Present.., Tlfaut quejefassej 1 must do. 

Ilfaul que tujasses^ thoii must do. 
llfaut quHlfasse^ be must do. 
II fuut quelle fasscj she must do. 


ilfaul que nous fassions., we must do. 

llfaut que.Twug fassiez^ . you must do. 

UfauiquHlsj or elUs faaunty they must d<>. 


// nefaul pa» quejefasse^ I mast not do. 

M nefautpaa que vwjls fassitz^ you must not do, ^c« 


FauUil que je fosse ? must I do ? 

Faui-il que nxmsfassiez ? must you do ? 

J^efauUih pas quejefasse ? must I not do ? 

}te fcmi'il pas que vcfusfassiez f must you not do ? 

Imperfecta Ilfalloit quHl icrivii, 
Preterite. II fallui quHl pariti, 
Future. Rfaudra quHl vienne, 

it was necessary, &c. 

for bim to write, 
he was obliged to set 

be must come,beshaH 

be obliged to oome. 

Condit* Ilfauiffni quefuUasiej I should go, or it 

would be necessary 
for me to go» 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. QuHlfailk^ »lhat it may be necessary, ^e^ 
Imperfect. QuHlfallut^ that it might be necessary. ^ -^ 

As to the compound tenses of this verb, they are 
foroied by adding its participle passive to the third pet- 
son singular of any of the simple tenses of the verb avoir, 
to have : ex. // afallu^ il avoiifallu^ &c. 

From the foregoing instances, it is easy to see, that, 
when the verb falloir is ' used in the present or future 
tense of the indicative mood, the following verb must 
be rendered by the present of the subjunctive ; but 
when it is used in the imperfect, preterite, or conditional 
present of the indicative, the verb following must be 
rendered by the •preterite of the subjunctive : ex. 

II fauti or il faudra que 
je fasse. 

I must Jo, I shall be obliged 
to Jo, or, it will be neces- 
sary for me to do. 


tl falloit, or, il fallut ^t^ I vms obliged, ofy it was 
jk parlasse, necessary for me, to 

Il/audrtni queje vendisse, Ishbuld be obliged, or^ it 

wotild be necessarjr/or 

wi«, ta selL 

iXEkciSE UPON T^iS^KCLE. * ' 

If you go to Coxheath to-daj you must 

(cottie back) to-morrow.*.- - * - Yon may ^ go 1q 
revnir^y. pouvoir^v. 

London tbis morniog, belt remember that y,ott mtt«t 

be (bat:k) at (bree o'clock. - - - -You must get 
^ retour se 

up to-morrow moroiog at four o'clock. - - • « 

Custom must not always prevail over reason. - ^ - • 

Shall I be obliged to. carry them there? -- - 

falloWyY, mener^y. 

Must I not sb6w you my work? - . - - You 

ftitintrer^v. iont'»*age,m. 

must bave been well (acquainted with) the places 

connollrB^y^ efidroit^m. 

\o expose youri^elf in that manner. - - ir h<g 

pouTyC. c{e,p. 

wished to pay his debts, he Would be obliged 
vouloii,v* «o^ dette^f* 

to sell all his property. - - If your brothers had not 

ceased to quarrel, it would have been ne- 

cesser^y* de quereller^y. 

ceseary* for them to part. - - - - You must . not 
86 8ip(]krtr^ym 

• After the wpi-ds 6e«er, ntctsiary^ ntcdful^ expedient^ goad^ «»n- 
fotaible^ 8cc, joined to the V«i4> to tt^ cooynsgkted itap^tsoUuIlj^ tH<s 
prepo8itioii/ar is to be rendered by guc, with the following irerb in 
the sabjunctife mood, either present or preterite, accordinr to tl^e 
tenie of the preceding mk. 


Have ' 'fmp ooiititfy so soob, M your frl^ndi op« 
pose it* 

The same observation is tobeiiiadcop ih^^verj^wilpi^ 
mieux^ to be better, ased impersonally ; and tbe adie^. 
fiVes houfd^ffieihi impossibk^ nict»8mr€^ u propos^ &c. join- 
ed to the verb itre, ased in the third person siogujaf 
only: ex. 

II n^est pas bon qaci v<m$ It is not good for yotf. t^ 

' soyez seul^ be aIone« 

// vaut mieuz que vcus ayez It is hetter for ym tq bpive 

• eompogm^, company. 

.^. IJ?t|BRClSI^. UtON THIS nJJhJfy 

It is difficult to y6u to improve if you 

faire d$s progifi^s^ * 
do not apply better to study. - - It fvas impo9.^it4^ 

s^appliquer^v. 6tude/. 

for you to have succeeded unless you had taken 

a moins gue^c^ne* (by tjie sub.) 
mofe convenient measures. - • It would be expedient 

conrena6^,adj. ^ aj^ropos 

for you to read this book from the beginning 

* * depuis^Yi. 

to ' the end - - Believe me, it is better 
jti«9u'd,p. finf* vaUnr mieuic^v. 

for you to go there to-morrow, for it will snow 

soon. - - i. - Will it hot be better for me to be at 
school too soon than too late? - - - Would it not 

i4^3dv• tord,adv. ^ 

be better for him to go and speak to ihem himself, 

than to sehd his servant? - • - Ft is good for us 

dt domestique^m^Si f. 

to hWp ' one anotber in our troubles. 
s^aider^v. « ^ peinej. 

The aliote verb fdllmr^ being 11164 befem ,ihe voiii 
to havt^ followed immediately by a noun suHstantiire^ 
may be rendered without expressing the auxiliary verb; 
instead of which, insert one of the following conrjuBctifO 
pronoqns, me, /e, /ui, f%ousy vous^ or /eur, according to.|Jie . 
number and person : ex. . , ' 

II mefaut des livru^ I must Aafe, or, I want 

J books* ;,, 
// lui faut un chapeau. He must have^ or, be 

wants ahat. 
11 hxifaut un bonnet^ She must have, or, she 

wants a cap* 

. N. B. If the Verb to have be expressed in Preaeb* it 
Diust be rendered by the subjunctive mood : 

tl faut que faie des livres, 1 roust'' fi^te, or, I want 

books* '■ . ; ' 

This'^inethodt however, is not so elegant as the 

feitXRCiSE UPOif TffiS KDLKi . 

i sbatl want paper, pens, and ink* - • Wha^^o 
you want ? .* - I trant nothing (for the) present, bat I 

think I shall soon want a French grainmar. - • ^ 
My brother has an old hat, and be will tfoon 

.Want a new one. - ^ If you lik^ . to 

neu/,adj. en,pro* aimez^v* a 

speak much, you must have (a good deal) of 

6i«i,adv. ^ 

circumspection not to (speak III) pCpthe|v& ^ . •> 

retenue^f. pour ne pqs midirei^y. 

Since I cannot find my book,' t tnuit bare 


another^ * * If we wisli io duccee4 ib our voiler- 


taking, we must have, (a great deal) of patience. - - - 

My brothers have lost their buckles, they must have 


Before the conclusion of this section, it will hh pro- 
per to say something about the pronoun indefinite on, 
v^hich commooljr precedes a verb used impersonally 
(viz. in the third person singular) in French, and in 
English is generally made by a passive voice : ex. 

On m^a permis de chanter, I have been allowed to 

People have allowed me, 
On lui n defendu de sortir. He has been forbidden to 

go out. 
One has forbidden him,&c. 

In this case^ the verb which, in English, is in the 
passive voice, must, in French, be turned into the ac- 
tive, when the English nominative becomes the regi- 
men of the verb in French, the sentence beginning 
with on^ and translated as if the English were, one has 
allowed me to sing, one has forbidden him to go out. 

In French^ passive verbs are seldom used. 

""* It is the same with, 

On dii, It is said, or people say. 

On mt dit^ 1 am told. 

On dit a voire frire^ YouV brother is told. 

On disoit, ) It was said, or people said, 

On rftf, ^ . or were saying. 

On dira, It will be said, or people 

will say. 
On dira a nos enfans, ' Our children will be told, 

or one will tell,&c. 
On a dit, It has been said, or people 

have said. 
On nous a dit, , Wc have been told^ or one 

has told us. 




In time of ivar, peace is always spoken of. *> - 
Where is your brother? it is not known. - - - - 

The death of the invincible admirarLord Nelson 

IS daily lamented, and will be 

tou9 les jours^^dv. regrtUtr^v^ 
so a long tiaie. - * • - I was told yesterday that 

your brother has l^een punished for his idleness; 

had your father been told of it, he would have been 

very angry with him. - - People will be eager 

con^re^p. s^empresser^Y* 

in buying your book, and it will be read with avidity. 
• - Learned men- are found in villages, as well as in 

towns. - - - It is reported on all sides that we shall 

de eo/^,m. 
soon have peace, but the news has not yet been 

received, though it be ardently (wished for), 

/ ardemment^zdv* aouhaiier^Ym 

however, it is thought that the secret expedition 

will sail in a few days« - - It will be be- 

mettre a la voile «^ peu de 
lieved that you blame me. - • it would not be supposed 

that you praise us. • - 1 have been assured that he has 

threatened him* 

* It is very import a&t cJwayi to bear in mind the preceding rule* 
and examples. 



{RevieiD them carefully before you write,) 

There is no going out to-day, it rains apace. 

a T?«r^f,adv. 
Do not make so much noise, there is no hearing 

one another. - - Is it cold this morning? Yes, Sir, it 

is very cold ; however, I am told it is not so cold as 

it was yesterday. - - "JThe weather is very inconstant 

in this country, it was very hot yesterday, it is 

excessively cold to-day: it did freeze ttiis morning, 
it hailed at noon, , it' rained in the afternoon, and 

midi^ ««« apres-midiy 

now it drizzles. - - It sometimes lightens when it 

quelquefois^adw. ^ 

does not thunder, but (as often as) it thon- 

^outts lesfois que^c* 
ders, it lightens. • - - If it be fine weather next week, 

I shall go to London, but if it be bad weather I 

shall stay at home. - - - It is a pleasure to see 

re»/er,v. au logis. • de 

bees (coming out) of their hives when it is 
abeilkyL sortir^v, rucheyU faire^y. 

a sunny day. - - - Had I known you were returned 
6n7/an^,adj. revtnir^Vp 

from the continent, I would have gone to see yon 

itre co^ 

long ago. - - - My father and mother were told you 
were in England ten years ago, but you neither saw 

|)or wrote to them* - - Everybody agrees there 



are fine women in Grest-Britain, but there is not 

dans BretagneyL 

such good winq as in France* - - r^-It greatly 

8i en heaucoupjSidv*- 

concerns children to avoid bad company.- -- 

aux dt 6vUer^y» 

If there were any real virtue in the world, should 

we (meet with) so many false friends ? • • - If he 

behaved well, there would not be a man 

se comporter^v, * *o» 

^ (in the world) that 1 should esteem more. - - - No 
au monde^ e5/tmer,v.subj* 

object is more pleasing to the eye than the sight of 
plainly. vue^L 

. a man whom you have obliged, nor* (is) any music 

so agreeable to the ear as the voice of a man 

who owns you for his benefactor. - - - Such 

as support the conduct of idle and obstinate 

. encourageryy, 
scholars, make themselves contemptible. - - They are not 

acquainted with the human heart, who rely upon 

/aire fondly* 
the vain promises of men. • - You have already been 

told that (nobody in (he world) has prepossessed me 

against you, how many times must I repeat 

con/re,p. com6ien,adv. falloir^y. 

it to you? - - I was told yesterday that you were very 

ill, and I am truly glad to see you so well. - - - - 

de bien portanU 

* R est and csM? are often nied elegantly in Freneh, htily «<» 
and y a-t-il ? 

• S41 

> * . * 

There is/ no persuading you when you have a . mind 

^ *<>» envie 

not io believe what you are told. - - • More virtue is 

requisite to • support good fortune than bad. • - - 

Much art and nicety are requisite to 

dilicatt^t pwir^'p. . 

please every body. — It noiatters little .whether it b« 

a s que ce 

my servant or yours who carries the letter to the 

post. - - • You roust honour your father and mother if 


you will live long and happy. •-^ - It is more glp- 

rious. to conquer one's passions than to conquer 

de vaincre^Vi aes . cotiquirir^v. 

the whole ' world. - - Sir, I, want a pair of boots, 

you have some in your shop that will suit 

boutiqfte^f. convjtnir^y* 

me. - - - It is reported that the Russians* have beaten 

the Turk^ ; it is said so, but it is not yet known as a 
» certain fact. - - It is thought Sweden has declared war 
fait^tn, SuedeJ. 

against France. - - - It is true; but it is much 

d ^ vrat,adj. 

feared lest the Swedes should be 

craindre^y. que^c. S^itdois ne, (by the pres.subj.) 

beatef), though they fight most courageously. 

se batlrt^w. iris ^ 
- - • - Have the letters been received which were 

expected vyesterday ? No, buf the mail is ar- 
altendre^y. / mallt^t. 

rived, and they will be delivered this morning. 
•" 29* 



Participles are either active or passive. The par- 
ticiple active^ in French, always ends in ant: ex. par- 
lant ; punissanl, and in English in ing: ex. speakings 
punishing^ &c. It is always, in its own nature, inde- 
clinable: ex. 

Jc vois des hornmes e< des I see men and women 
femnus venaAt d nous^ ■ coming to us. 


The persons whom you saw with us are people 

fearing God and loving virtue She met your 

father and sister (as she was) coming here. - - - My 

en ict,adv. 

mother was told (the day before yesterday) that 

your sister, remembering the injuries she had 

se ressouvenir^y. des 
received from your brother, refused to 

rtgues^p.p. de la part de, d€ 

see him, and we are all glad to hear it. - - 

de apprendre^w. 
Your aunt, having given the necessary orders to your 

cousins, (set out) immediately for London. - • - Did 

you not see them coming to us ? - • How many oxen, 

^ bavf^nim 

sheep, and horses I hear afar off lowing, 

6re6t>, entendre^y. de^ /otn,adv. mi/gtr^v. 

bleating, and neighing ! * - Do you not admire these 
hlUr^y. henniryY* 


Iambs, Bkipping in joor father-tn-law's meadow? 
agneauytn. bwidir^v^ prairitjl. 

N. p. In order to distinguish between active partici- 
ples, and many adjectives which are spelt alike, bat 
which must agree with the nominative, consider whether 
there is an action expressed, or whether the word im- 
plies merely an attribute of the noun, thus, in these two 

Jt vois desagneauxy bondis- I see lambs skipping in the 

sant dans la plaint^ plain* 

J^aime a voir Us agneawe I like to see skipping lambs, 

bondissans, errer dans la wandering in the plain. 


The first conveys this idea, that the lambs are nam 

skipping, whilst the second implies that an attribute of 
lambs is to skip. 

When the participle active in English is preceded by 
anotber verb, an article, or a preposition, it roust be ren- 
dered in French by the verb in the infinitive mood, and 
it is sometimes used as a substantive : ex. 

Faut'it que je parte sans Must I set out without 
lui parler ? speaking to him ? 

La pauvrete du corps est The impoverishing of the 
la richesse de Pdmep body is the enriching of 

the soul. - 


I assure you there is a great deal of pleasure in 

teaching diligent scholars. --• We are told there 
enseigneryV* * 

will not be so much danger in travelling, as there 

a voyager^v. que 
was before. - -Lewis the Great had especially thesu- 

perior and rare talent of knowing and choosing men 

of merit. • - - He left the bouse without seeing bis 


father, and even without speaking to his mother. 


- - 1 should despise a man who is capable of 

t^ fnepriser^v. 

deceiving his friends. - - After haying (waited for) her 
tromper^v* attendre^v. 

a long while, 'she (sent me word) that she was not 
•oo ' envoy tr dire^v* ■> 

ready to (go out.) - - She spends all her time in 
prit.^dj.d i- passerby. A 

reading or writing. - -Mj mother takes an infinite 

pleasure in admiring the situation of your house. - The 

d situalion^. 

grace of God will always keep us from sinnine. 

empicher^v. pichtr^Ym 

- - 1 often admire the rising and setting of the sun.— - 

/evef,m. couchtr^m. ioleil^m. 
The defending of k bad cause is worse than 

. deftfise^f. mauvat>,adj. 

the cause itself. 

The participle passive is sometimes declinable, and 
sometimes indeclinable. 

It is declinable, , . » 

First, when it is joined to the verb itre^ to be, forming^ 
a, passive verb, and agrees with the nominative case of 
the verb in gender and number ; and when it is not at- 
tended with any auxiliary verb; in this case it becomes 
an adjectiye or at least perfoMiis the same office. 

Monfrert est aime. My brother is loved* 

Ma saur est aimee, My sister is loved. 

Mes cousins sont partis, My cousins are gone. 

Mfs cousinessont parties. My cousins ftre gone. 

EUp paroit affligee, She appears afflicted. 

Elles paroisseiit affligees, They appear afflicted. 


N. B. There is no exception to the above Itile ; but 
it is very important to remember that in the compound 
tenses of the reflected yerbs, the verb i/re is employed 
for the verb avoir ; ail such cases will come under the 
next rule, as if the verb itre were the verb avoir. 


I have been told your brother-in-law is gone to 

the Continent. - - - I have not seen your mother 

since she arrived from France; does she appear 

dipuis quCyC. 
satisfied with her journey ? - - - My brothess are gone to 

de voyage^m. 

Dover, and intend to pay you a visit when 

se propOBtr^v. de rendre^Y. ««^ . 

they are (come back). - - - The houses which are 
(by the fut.) rtvenir^r. 
built in the winter are not so wholesome as those 

which are begun (in the) spring and finished (in the) 

au "^^ au 

middle of summer. - - The wicked are always tor- 

e/e,m. mdchant^^dypL hour* 

Riented, and the righteous are comforted by their 
reler^v. jvste^idj. consoUr^y. 

own conscience. - - Virtuous people are esteemed 

and respected by those who are so. - - - 1 assure you 

that Mr. Brown's wife appears much afflicted 

ftmmtS* fort^TiAv* 

at the death of her husbstnd, but her sons appear 
de mart,m. 

as much affected by it as sbe. 


Secondly, with the verb avtnr, the participle ij^stead 
of agreeing with the nominative, must agree with the 
direct object^ which is a noun or (in this instance) a,pro« 
noun governed in the accusative ccwe, hut that direct 
object must precede the participle^ otherwise that parti* 
cipie does not agree with it; thus in this phrase, j^at 
vu ma saur^ the participle does not change, because 
ma 9(sur which is the direct object, does not precede, 
but in this phrase cUst ma scdur quefai vue, the parti- 
, ciple agrees, because que relative pronoun, which repre- 
sents ma sciur rs placed before that participle. 

In the compound tenses of the reflected verbs where 
the auxiliary itre is employed instep of avotV, if jou 
suppose this last verb to exist where Stn is used, the 
above-mentioned rule must direct you. By the same 
reason that we say il Pa tu6e (he has killed her,) we say 
elle s^est tuee^ which is the same as if we could say elUa 
sqi tu6e, she has herself killed, she killed herself. 

JW vu Madame Wright ti I «aw Mrs^ Wright and 

Vai entendae chanter^ heard her sing. 

J^ai lu tons les livres que I have read all the loofci 

Vims m^aviz pretes, which you Itnt me. 

Avez-vous vu les marchan- Did you see the ' goods 

dises quefai rP9ue8, which I have nceivedm 

Vous Vavez souvent priee You often desired her to 

de passtr chez vous^ call at your bouse. 

EtUs se sont repenties de They have repented of 

kursfautes^ their faults* 


The resolution which she has taken of going into 


the country surprises me very much; I have spoken 

^ ittmner^y. tres fort^^dv* 
to her myself, but I have net (been able to) learn 

the reasons which have induced her to it. - • - Miss 

engageryV. Mile 

Farren was an excellent actress, I have seen her 



play several times. - - I am very sorry for the 

' • fdchi^Sidj. de 

trouble that affair has given tt> your aunt. - - If you 
peine^L tante^f. 

can come with me, I will show you the lady 

whom I have heard sin^. - - What stuff have 

enlendre^Y.w itoffe^L 

you chosen ? - - The letteF which you have written to 

me in French was tolerably well ; 1 have shown 

en passahhmeni^'^LiN. 

it to' your aunt, who is much pleased 

/re^,adv. confent,adj, 
(with it). - - 1 have not yet received the goods, 

en,pro. marchandist^U 

which you sent me by the iship . Good- 

Will. - - Ladies, have you returned him the letters 
^ Mesdames, rendr0^y. * 

which he had desired you to read ? - - - Where 
prier^v. de ^ Ou,adv. 

did you buy those gloves ? I bought 

them in France. - • Alexander conquered Asia with 

the troops which his 'father Philip had disciplined. 
troupe^. r 

- - The fauHs which he had committed, greatly 

increased his prudence. - - He has spent all the 

treasures which his father had amassed with so much 
care and labour. - * I shall never forget ' the good 

services which you have done to. my mother. 

seroict^m. ^ rtndre^y. 

- - Of all the letters which my brother has received 


to-day, there is not one (of them) for 


me. - - The reasons, which you have given us, have 

satisfied us. - - What books iiave you lost ? - - The 

fine aetions your brothers have done in 

6eau,adj. action^f. faire^y. en 

America deserve great praises, and (ought to) be 
Amerique m6riter^v. louange^L devoir^v* 

transmitted to posterity. - - The three country 

houses, w4iicb your father is said to have bought, 


are extremely fine and well situated. - • The 

soldiers, whom they obliged to (set out,) are 

^oldat^m. * ^ a 

(coDief back) already. - - - My sisters have 
rrtenir,v. ♦ - 

quarrelled the whole day, and are now reconciled. 
9€ quereUer^y^ 

The participle passive is indeclinable wbeo the par- 
ticiple is not preceded by a direct object j or pronoun 
governed in the accusative case. 

This happens when the object follows, as in this 
phrase J^ai vu ma saur^ or when another verb governs 
the pronoun ) as in this phrase, // nefaut jamais s^ccarier 
de la bonne route que Von a commence a suivre ; here 
sutvre governs que and not commence. ^ 

La maison que fat fait bdtir^ The house I have built. 

C^est tme belle chanson^ je It is a fine, song, 1 have 

Pai entendu chanter plu' heard it sung many a 

sieurs fois^ time. 

J^if suis alU avec elk et Pai 1 went there with liep, 

vupemdre, and saw her picture 



La tangut que fat com- The language I have 6«- 
mence d*apprendre est gun to learn is very 
fort utik^ useful/ 

In the above instances the pronouns are not governed 
by the participle passive, but by the yerbs chanter^ 
peindre, and ajffrtndrt. 


I have given him a fable to translate. « - 1 cannot 

a traduirtiV. 
forget the good actions^ which I have seen 


you do. - • - Th^ goods which you ordered me k> 

send, are arrived ; permit me to show you the letters 

de ' 

which he has seen me open from Germany. - - - 

Have you already read the books, which 1 saw* you 

buying ?----! have bought the clothes fop 

which you saw me, bargaining. - - - The history 

which 1 have b^gun to read is not entertaining. - - 

A ainusant^^idj. 

She has written i;nore books than you ever have 

read. - - The lady whom I saw singing is hand- 

some and young, but the song which 1 have heard 

sung is the best, as to words and music, that 

your brother ever wrote. - Miss B. has spent 


• Observe Hhat the participle, though it should not agree with 
books, livres^ it should agree with the pronoun.wtM, so that it should 
be spelt fue if addressed to a female. 


two or tliree dajs With yoor sisterB, and saw their 

l?otr,v, les 
(picture drawn) ; their cousins were in the next 

peindrtyV. - ' * 

room, and mj sister saw tbein painting in minia- 
ture. ' * enjp. 

It is often difficult to ascertain which is the AVec/ 
6b;>c/ ; a simple method is, to add one of these pronouns 
loho or idiai to the participle, 'and then the answer w411 
point out that object: thus, for this sentencce, ma sceur 
sUst. ca^s6 VipauU^ ask my sister, brokt — what ? — her 
shoulder; .this, then is the object, but ^sNpaule follows, 
the participle does not change. 

Sometidnes a preposition is understood, o&expressed 
by the pronoun, as in this sentence voild la dame dont 
faiparli ; the pronoun dont is not the direct object, 
with, which; only the participle can agree; it is- the- 
genitive ; besides; the Verb perler^ in this instance is 
neuter, and therefore cannot govern a noun in the ac- 
cusative case : ex. 

Les Anglois se sont ren' The English made them" 

dm fameux dans cette 5e/i^e5 famous in thia war? 

Telles sont ses objections ; Such are his rObjections ; 

j^y ai pensi^ I fcave thought of them* 


Daughter, I had warned you of it. - - You 
would have rendered yourself celebrated by your talents 

aad beauty, if you bad i^ot shown them so much vanltj. 

- - - He is the man (of whom) our neighbours have 

Oest dont 

complained. - - It is your fault. Miss, I hs^ve already 
*e ;itoinrfre,refl.v. 
Scolded you (about it). 


Lastly, when the auxiliary verb and the parti- 
ciple passive are used impersonally. Du (when nOt 
signifying owed), />u, and vou/t<, are ^Iso indeclinable: 
ex. ' 

Lespluies qu^il a fait^ The rains which we hav^ 

Je vous ai mouirt la re- I have shown you the gfa« 

connoiisanu quefai du, titude 1 ought* 

Ma sceur a fait lout ce My sister baa done every 

qu'elle a pu, thing she could* 


The storm, which we had yesterday, bafl 
done (a great deal) of damage to our 

caiLsir^v* ' beaucoup^idy. dommagt . 

ships. - - - The abundant showers which we have 

*^ pluie.^. 

had this week, have prevented me from going 

into the country. - - • The high winds which 

a gran(i,adj. ren/,m. 

tbey have had in the covnty of Kent, have (blown 
comt6^ni» renver^ 

down) many houses and trees. - - At last he has 
wr,v. £njJn,adv. • 

returned me all the sums which 1 had Jent to 
rendrtyV. sommej. 

him> and which he had owed me so long. - - - 1 

devoir ^Y* 
have not* paid all the attention which I. ought to 

the advice your father gave me. - - - She has ob- 
avis^m. o6- 

tained from the king all the favours she would. 
ienir^w frduJU 


- - - My brother might have improved more, 

fairt des progres 
but he has not o^ade all the efforts he could. 


N. B. The rules on this subject, which have been re- 
garded as being extremely intricate, and numerous, 
may be reduced to three, viz. Ist, The participle when 
attended with no auxiliary agrees with the nominative, 
like an adjective. — 2d, When attended with the verb 
eire, the participle constantly agrees with the nomina- 
tive. Lastly the participle when attended with the 
verb avoir agrees with its direct object^ only when that 
oT)je.ct precedes the participle; and in the compound 
^tenses of the reflected verbs, the auxiliary verb itre 
must be regarded as filling the place of the verb avoir, 
and subjected to the same rules, that being an anomaly 
in the language. 


J^ai re9U le$ lettres que I have received the letters, 

vous rn*ave2 ecrites au which you wrote to me 

sujet de Paffaire^ que je with respect. to the affair 

vous avois proposee : e^. which I bad proposed to 

apres les avoir lues aucc you: and after having 

attention^ fai reconnu, rea(2 them with attention, 

comrnt vous^ que^ si je * 1 perceived^ as you did, 

Pavois entreprise, fy that, if 1 had undertaken 

aurois irou\e des ob- it, I should have met with 

stacks que je n^avois pas obstacles, which 1 had 

prevus, not foreseen* 

Requ is indeclinable, because it is not preceded by 
any regimen ; icrites is declinable, and agrees in 
gender and number with its direct object, or accu- 
sative, expressed by the pronoun relative gtic, 
which precedes the ^erb and relates io letters ^ pro^ 
posie likewise agrees with ^tie, by which it is prec^<lLed, 


and which relates to the word affaire ; lues is declina- 
ble on account of its regimes ks^ which precedes it 
and relates to letters; reconnu is indeclinable, because 
it is not preceded bj anj regimeo to which it. can re- 
late; entreprise^ on the contrary, is degiiHable, and 
takes the gender and number of the conjunctive pro* 
noun l\ which is i& direct object and its antecedent, 
relating to affaire; trouvi is indeclinable, because it ift 
not preceded but followed by its accusative obstacles ; 
privus^ on the contrary, is dectinable, because it is pre* 
ceded by its direct object 9^69- whi^ relates to 06- 

Clearness is the principal quality of the French Ian- 
guage^ therefore equivocations in the use of the partici- 
ples should be carefully avoided : ex. Je les ai ranges 
en oxdrej speaking of papers, may signify 1 have sei 
them in order, or T have them and they are in order ; in 
such a case a different regular turn should be chosen 
with which this language abounds. 


^ Under this head are cotnprehended adverbs^ preposi^ 
iionsj conjunctions^ and interjections. 


Adverbs have been distinguished, according to their 
several significations, into adverbs ofplace^ time, quality^ 
quantity^ number^ order, affirmation, negation, doubt, inter- 
rogation, comparison, collectioH, separhtion, &c. But this 
classification, however ingfjnious, is far from being 
exact 2 it was therefore judged, that, if those of the 
most frequent use, and which, when compounded, form 
a particular idiom, were carefully sekcted, and arrang- 
cd in aq alphabetical series, it wqpld be more to the 
advaqt3g€5j^f ib^ learner. 



Ahondammmt^ abundanilj, plentifully. 

a PAbandon, at raiidoti), in confusion, in disorder. 

D^Ahord^ at fiibt, immediately. 

Absolument^ absolutely. 

D^Accord, grant it, done. 

AgrSablemtnt^ pleasantly, comfortably; 

Ainsi (de meme), so, thus, in the same manner. 

Aisimtnt^ easily. 

Mai aisiment, with difficulty. 

Dans tin an ^Ttci, a year hence. 

JUannit qui vienU the next year. 

En ami^ friendly. 
a PamiabU^ amicably. 

En arriere^^ tomber en arriere^ to fall backward. 
a reculons^ marcher a reculons^ to walk backward. 
Assezj enough. 
Assuriment^ certainly. 
Aujourd'^hui^ to-day. 

Time to t lyaujmrd^hui en huii^ this day se'nnigbt. 
come. ( D^aujourd^hui en quinze^ this day fortnight. 

Clly a aujourd*hui huit jours ^ this day week, this 
Timel • day se'nnight. 

past. \ Ily a aujourd^hui quinze jours, this day fortnight. 

l^Ily a aujourd^hui un an, this day twelve months. 
Autant, as much, as many. 
~^^4iutmi plusy so much the more. 
D^auiant moins. So much the less. 

Toul Ms^^' \ -l"^^ ^®' J"^* ^* '""^''' ^^^^y ^*'*^' 

Dor6navanty in future. 

a tdvenir, for the future, hereafter. 

a PAngloise, after tlie English manner, fashion, or way. 

a PItaiienney after the Italian, ^c. 

a la Fran^oise^ after the French, c^c. 

a la Turque, after the Turkish, ^c. 

• Simple adverbs arc ^enexallj placed after the verbs', alid in com- 
pound tenses between the auxiliary and the participle pal^sit«. «* < 



Our garden produces all kinds of {i^i& ^ plenti- 

fully. ♦ - Your sister left all her things in dis- ' 

order. - - You did not know me ai first. ^ - He ivould 

absolutely do it. -'• If you please, I will go to 

London with you. Done, - - I hope we shall spend 

the day pleasantly^ - - Have we not spent it 50 .^ - - - 

My brother learns his lessons easily^ and I toiih dif- 

Jiculty. ' " A year hence you will (be able to) speak 

, pouvoir^v. 
French tolerably well. - - My father'' says I shall go 

to *France next year. - - - It was done so an- 

ciently. - - 1 had tbe honour of seeing you formerly^ 

but I do not recollect where I bad that pleasure : 

se rapptler^v. 

I believe it was at Mr. P's. who received us 

friendly. - - - Your brother and mine have settled 

their affairs amicably. - - --Make two steps back- 

ward. - - He who walks backzoanISs cannot see his 

way. - - Have you played enough ^ - - - Ceriainly 

you must be tired. - - - We do not expect him 

devoir^Y. fatiguer^v. attendre^y^» 

* Sec tbe article indefinite, page 41. 


to-dttjf. • - If it be 6ne weather^ I shall, be back 

faire^y. de retour 

tfttf datf^H^iflhL - - I shall see ;ou this dujf fortnight 

if I am* well. - - This day^ wetk I was (at yoar house)* 

chez vous. 
- - o Th%8 day mtmth I met your brother. - - I came 

here this day twelve months* - - - He has as 


much money and as many friends as you* - - I was 

so much the more persuaded of what you told me, 

that I dismissed him this day three weeks. - - - 
• renvoyer^v* 

I will do it sa much the kss^ as I promised him not 

to meddle with that affair. - - - My sister has 

de se mtUr^y. c{f,p* 
JQst as mticft wit, and njust as amiable as yours. • - - 

, «i que • 

Your son has given you some trouble, but I 

peine^fm mais^c* 
hope he will give you pleasure hettafler. - - If' you 

forgive him this timt, he will not do it for the 

fuiute. ' ' " In future, I never will trust him* 

se fer^Vm 
any more. ^ « She dresses ^ter the English 

^<» ^ s'^habiUer,y. 

fashion,, but she li^es after the Fr^ch tsay. - - She 

plays afier ihe kalian manner. * - Your sister has a 

cap . after ihe Turkish fashion* • • Cone h«re, 

go there, look every where. 


* See note page 322. 



s ' - , > off/dowo, down with, below, 
a, or en basi ) 

En badinant^ for fun. 

JSeaucoup. I ^y^^jj^ many, a great deal. 

d beaucoup pre$^ nothing near, (with ne before and pas 

after the verb.) 
De beaucoup^ by much, greatly. 
Bien, well, very. 

.X)e 6on ccBur, heartily, with a good will. 
Dt bonnt foi^ ) . i 

Sincerement^ i *^ 

De bonne heure^ betinils. 
De bonjeu^ fairly. 
De bon matin^ early. 
De boiiche^ by word of mouth. 

a la bonne heure^ in good time, luckily, well and good. 
a bon droits deservedly. 
a bon marchi, cheap. 
a bride abattue^ fall speed. 
^d el la^ to and fro. 
a cause de quoi, on what account. 
a ctla pres^ that excepted. 
Cependani^ in the meanwhile, nevertheless. 
u chevaly^on horseback. 


^at8 off^ gentlemen, and sit down* - - - The^ whole* 
army^ surrendered and laid down their arms 

se rendre^y* meUre,y. ks 

upon the ramparts of the citadel. - - There is a man 
belazoy whom you will see with pleasure. - - Though* 

Quoique^ c. 
we said it for fun, he was very angry* with us. - - 

There were many ladies, and we had a great deal of 
pleasure. - - You may say what yoii please, 

jM>ui?otV,v. i/ vous plaira^Vf 

* Se« conjunctions that govern the eubjnnctive, page 490. 


but she id nothing nmr so handsome as her sU- 
ter. • - He has by much increased his CDrtune. - - - 
Whatever yon do, do it well. - - If you do not do it with 
. 41 good wiUf I will do it mjaeJf. - - He has acted very 
sinttrtly in that business* - - Do you speak meere/jf f 

- - We will get up te/«m€5. - - Have I not won 

fmrly ^ - - We will (set out) early^ that we may arrive 

^ ajin qiu 
before the heat of the day. * - - It (is 

avant ehakur^f* valeir 

better to) tell it him Jy word of mouA^ tbaa to 
mieux^v. c2s 

write to him. - - Sir, I have done my exercise. • - WtU 

and good. - - He has obtained it dtstrvtdiy* - » 'Uf 

father has bought a horse very chtap* - • jDo y«u see 

those two horsemen^ . who come to «& finll spted ? - • • 

They wandered to and fro without^ knowing wbither 

to go. - o On what account is he angry with me ? 

- - That excepted^ 1 have nothing to reproach him 

' a reprocher^Vm lui 
with. • - - I shouM speak, bnt, m Ifte niBanwhilt^ I 

«o» derdiVjV. 

(hold roy'toRgoe). - - Miss White is very handsome, 

se taire^Vy, 
neverthekvs, I do not love her* • * • Some Xfrent 

Les %mi 
io London U\ a coach, othei^ on horsthaclu 
en,p. ««« a 

* Without, tant^ requires the present iafinitivi^ 



Cmnbien^ How much, how it^i^jy h«# ? 
Combien y a-t-il que, '\ 

Cofnbien de temps y a*/-ti que, I 
Cambim y avoH-il qut, I ^^ , j 

Depws quand, C » 

Combien deiempsj 
Pendant combien de iemps^ 


N. B. 1. ^w t7if(€&, &0W fhany^ hcftVy are rendered in 
French by que before an admiration : exr 

Que vous itesjolieJ Hqw pretty you are ! *- 

. 2. We make use of conAien y a-i-il que^ when th^ 
action mentioned in the interrogation has not yet t^»* 
ed; and then the verb, whfch (in EngUsfa) is in tbd 
compound of the pre^sent, must be rendered (in French) 
by the present of the indicative mood z «x* 

Combien y a-t-il que v&ut How long have you been 
£tfs^ or, depuis quand in London ? 
it^S'Vous a Londres ? 

3. If the verb (in English) be in the con^poiindof th& 
imperfect, it is lo he rendered (in French) by the im- 
perfect of the indicative : ex. 

Combien y avoitM que tous How long had you beetf 

itiez, or, depuis quand . in Loudon^ when he 

. ttiez'vous a Londres died? 
quand il mourUt f 

4. If the action have entirely ceased, we make use of 
pendant combitn de temps^ With the fallowing verb in the 
compound of the present : ex. 

Pendanr combien de temps How long were you in 
avez'vous 6li a Londres ? London ? 


5. How longi in the sepse otfor what tinie^ is also 
rendered by pendant comhien de Umps^ with the verb in 
the sani^ tense as it is in English : ex* 

Pendant comhien de temps How long do you intend 
vmts proposeZ'V0U8 de 16 stay in Italj ? 
rester en Italic ? 


How much do you owe hi'm ? - - - You see to how 

many dangers and how many reproaches we are 

liaMe. - - - How many times shall I bei obliged to 
expos6,p»p» • ^ de 

bid you to (be silent?) • - - How troublesome 
dire^Y* de se taire^Y. importun^^dj* 

you are ! How sorry I am for* having displeased 

you ! - - How much 1 should be obliged to you, if 

you would grant me that favour ! - - How tang 

accorder^v. ^ 

have you been learning French ? - - How long have 

they been in Paris ? - - Hqw long had you been in 

London, when you married ? - - How long had you been 

se marier^Y. 
learning Italian, when you wrote to me ? - - How long 

have your parents been in England ? - - How long 

ptre et mere 
had your brother been in Germany, when we left 

* , quUier^v. 

it? How /owg were you in Holland ? - - How long 

did your cousin learn the mathematics ? - • How long 

* The prepositions; rfe, pour and d, alwayi govern the present 
infinitive and iti compound. 


have that gentleinan and lady (been waiting for) 

me? - 'Mow long has your relation been dead? - * « 

'How long had he been in his regiment, when he , 

died ? - - How long was he ill ? - - How long does your 

malade ? 
uncle intend to leave his son on the continent? - - 

8t proposer de 
How long had your father and mother proposed 

to stay in America? - - Why (are you proud) of 
de en ^ s\norgaeill%r^v • 

your beauty ? You do not know hpw long it will last. 


€omh%m y a-Uil d!^{ci ? How far is it hence t 

Dans combien de temps ? How long will it be before? 

Comme^ as, like, how. 

Comme ilfaut^ soundly, as it should be. 

Comment^ how* 

a contre'Caur^ against our will. 

d contre'setis^ the contrary, or wrong \^ay, in a wrong 

d contre-femps^ unseasonably. 
a corjfis perdu^ hand over head, desperately. 

a Pecart, > aside. 
a part, ) 

a c6le, by the side of it. 
u cote Pun de P autre, abreast* 
De ce ctti'cU on this side. 

Dfi C6 c6/c^/a, on that side. • » 

De c6ti et d^autre, up and down, about* 
De tons cdiis, on all sides, on every side* 
(hup sur coup^ one after another. 

36» . 


How far is it hence to Dbver ? - - Hotd long will it be 
Douvres ? 
before yea ^send me ^back the books I lent joa ? - - 

They are punished as they deserve. - - - My father's 

house is like yours, it is very badly built* - - - 

See how it rains. - - - Have they not been beaten 

soundly? - - - This exercise is done as it^hould be. 

- • How can you speak thus ? - - We went to the play 

against our will. - - You bold your book the wrong 

way Your brother took in a wrong sense all 

that I said to him* - - - Our master arrived very 

ce que 

unseasonably. - - • The French rushed on the 

Austrians desperately. - - Lay this aside. - - - Put 
that by the side of it. - - I perceive two ships sailing 

abreast. - - Let us walk on this side^ and our companions 

will go on that side. - - They run uj^and down all day, 


and do (nothing but) play. - - How dare you run about 

ne que 
while your mother (is waiting for) yon ? -^ - 

pendant que^c. 

The enemies were victorious on all sides. - • - We 
hear on every side^ that peace will very 

apprendre^y. bUn 

soon take place. - - - They drank three bottles of 
avoir lieu^y." 
Tgundjr wine one after another. 


Davani<^e, more. 

g,tL„ I ""■•'"»■•• 

Deja^ already «> 

Demain^ to-morrow. 

Le lendemain^ the day after. 

Apris defnaiuy the daj after to-morrow* 

DemHrement^ lately. 

Ci'dessus^ above. 

Par disstis, above, over and above. 

Srz;™.} »»^'"«»«- 

a dicouvert, openly. 

d deaseifij on purpose, designedly. 

a droite^ to the right. 

a dcubU efitente^ with a double meaning. 

Encore^ again, yet, as yet. 

Enjin^ at last. 

Ensuiiey afterward, then* 

Entieremmt^ entirely. 

Expris^ on purpose* 

a Picartj out of the way. 

it Pmtour^ round about. 

a Penversj the wrong side outwards. 

a Penvi^ in emulation. 

aux envtronB^ thereabouts. 

En nuUe mantere, in no wise, (with ne before the verb.) 

In Jw»S, } *' "*>"''' ^* '^'^■^y- 

En temps et /i«u, in a proper time'and place. 
En tau8 cagj whatever may happen. 
En un din i'ail^ in the twinkling of an eye. 
En sursaut, suddenly. 

' S64 


I know how that happened, talk no more of it. - - 

Look within and yoa shall see it; - - She was within 

and I was without^ - - Have you alrtofly done your exr* 

ercise ? - - 1 will call upon you^ to-morrow, and 

passerby, chez^p. 
the day after we will go and sec my uncle. - - - W6 

will pay you the day after to-morrow if we can. - - 

I was lately (at your house). - - You will find it above* 

chez vous. 
- - - I like your garden and walks above all. 

T - There is a stone, look underneath, you will find 

something curious. • - • Sp^ak and show yourself 

€penly. - - - We were half dead. - - - I never do 

things by halves. - - They killed him on purpose* - - 

They did say so designedly. - ' Go to the right. - - 

My brother always speaks with a double meaning. - - - 

I have told the truth, and they do not yet believe me. 

• - Jit last the rebels retired into the woods with 

se retirer^y. dans^p, boisnin. 
a great loss. - - Do first what you have to do, 

perte,{. Faire^y. 
afterward you shall go out - - - He did it tniinljf 

to please you. - - I came on purpose to see yoi*. 


- - • Take all these papers, and put them out of (he 

way. - - How can jou find the place> if you always 

turn round about ? - - - You have (put on) your 

waistcoat the wrong, side cgftf^rds. - - • My brother 
and yours work in emulation of one another. - - • 

He lives in London of thereabouts* - - • I will do it in 

nozoise* - - 1 was stopped at noon* We will teU him 

what we think in a proper time and place* - • - WhaPf 

ever may happen^ I (do not care) for it* • - He did 

se souder^v* 
it in the twinkling of an eye* - • This morning I 

awoke suddenly^ but I soon (ell asleep again. 



Facilement^ easily, 
Fidelementy faithfully. 

a hfois^ together. 

Combien defois ? how many times ? 

Vnefois^ once. 

Deuxfois^ twice. 

Troisfois^ thrice, three times. 

Tant defois, BO many times. 

Parfois^ now and then. 

Fortement, strongly. 

Fort^ very. 

Fort etferme., stoutly. 


ifondy thoroughly. 

Defond en combk^ from top to bottom, to all intents 

and purposes. 
De fronl^ a breast. 
Gatemmen^ genteelly, politely. 
Goutte a goutte^ by drops. 
Cruere ou Cruires^ (with 4|| before the verb,) little, but 

little. • 

a la hite^ in haste. 

La h / i "P there, up stairs, above stairs. 

D^heure en heure^ hourly, every hour. 

flier, yesterday. 

Hier-au «otr, last night. 

Avant'hier^ the day before yesterday. , 


Your brother learns eost'/y, but he forgets almost 

as easily as he learns. • - In the last battle our troops 


fought (with the) French, all the soldiers and 

livrer^y* aux 

officers did their duty faithfully: the enemy sur- 

rendered at discretion, and were obliged to (march 
a de sor' 

out) of the country in a filtl - - Let every one speak 
tir^T. Que 

in bis turn, for if you speak all together^ how can 
I ^ear what you say ? - - How many times did I tell 

jou to write to your parents ? - - I spoke to him only 

de pere et mere ? 

onct^ but I saw him twict. - - My father generallj 

goes to Germany thrice a year. - • I told it you /Aree 


times* - - I saw him so many times* - - Do jou go 

often to London ? I go (there) now and ihen^ - - The 
souvent^2idy. y 

king strongly opposed the enemy in the action* 
s^opposer a mtUef* 

- - - Your little sister is very pretty. - - - In all 

that (which) they undertake they always act 

stoutly, - •» My brother knows French thoroughly. - - 

savoir le Francois 
They demolished the house from top to bottom* - - 

I travelled in a post-chaise drawn by three horses 

abreast* - - Always behave gen<ee%. - - Your brothers 

came to see us, and we received them politely* - - 

The wine runs from the hogshead by drops* - - Give 

couler^Y* muid^m* 

him but little wine. - - *Ncver^ do* things in 

haste* - - Is Mr* D. above stairs ?'' Go up stair's^ you 

will find what you (look for) in the drawer 

chercher^y* tiroir, m* 

behind the door* - - After having (waited for) him 
derriere^p* attendre^y* 

hourly^ he arrived at last* - - We see the army 

increasing every hour* - - I went yesterday to London* 

- - h rained very much last nighty and it has frozen 

very hard this morning* - - The day before yesterday 


1 met 3'Ottr brother, who was riding on horse- 

se promener^^y* 


ict, here* 

let autouTj hereaboots* 

Idpres^ hard bj. 

Jfici, heDce. 

JD'tct en quinzejours^ within a fortnight. 

Par ici^ this way. 

Par id par la^ here and there. 

a Pinsiant^ immediatelj, instantlj. 

Jamais^ eirer. 

Nt jamais^ never. 

ajamai$^ for ever. 

JusttmmU just, precisely. 

Jusqu?a quand ? how long ? ^ 

JW^u'tct, hitherto, as far as this. 

Jmqut'la^ so far, as far as that. 

Jusqu^ou ? how far ? 

Dejour^ in the ^ay time. 

Dejour a autre,^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^j, 

De jour en jowr, > -^ ^ » ^ 

De deux en deux jour f^ ^ 

De deux jours Pun^ > every other day. 

Toil* les deux jours ^ 5 

Dans quinzt joursy in a fortnight. 


Did I not tell you to stay here ? - - How 

many miles is it hence to Hampton-Court ? - - 

(There must) be (a great deal) of game hert- 

II dotr,v.imp. gi6ier,m. 

ahouts* - - How long has he lived hard hy? ' - How 

far is it hence to Canterbury ? - - 1 will (call upon) your 

Caniorbiry passer chez 

brother wilhin a fortnight. - - Come this way, - - Your 


books are scattered here and there* - - Come back 

epars^ady ' 
immediately i - - Tbey instantly invited him to dine 

with them, - - I do not believe that he ever will follow 

(by the subj.) 
your advice. - - My father never will see him again. 

- - Great men will for ever be celebrated in history. 

- - (This is) ji^t what I say. - - How long^ O 

Catiline, will jou abuse our patience ? - • - 

Catalina abuser^v»de 

Hitherto the enemy has done * nothing considerable. 


- - Learn this piece of poetry as far as that. - * 

How far will you go ? - - You always come to see me 

by night, why do not you come in the day-time f • - 


We expect from day to day to receive news from 

the Continent. - - We are daily exposed to great 

dangers. - - My master comes here evfry other day, 

- - I shall go to France and Italy in a fortnights 


ia, there, thither. 
La autour^ thereabouts. 
La has^ yonder. 
De let, ? ,. 

Par Id, that way. 

Loin, far. 

De loin, afar off, at a distance. 


Long-tmnpf^ a long while, loDg time. 
Lors^ theo, at the time* 

Pour iorsj J 

DisAom^ from that time* 

Mal^ ill, wrong* 

Matntenant^ notir. 

Mtdiocrtmmi^ indifferently. 

Mimty even, yet. 

De meme^ so, in the same manner. 

Miiuxy better. 

De mieux en mieuxj better and better. 

MoinSj less. 

Moins—'Moins^ the less— «the less. 

a moins^ for less, at less. 

Au maim, da mnns, ? , ^ ^^ ^ 

Tout au moint^ 5 ' ' 

En mains de rien^ in a trice. 

^ATai'Demen^ plainly, ingenuonsly. 

NaturelUnunU naturally, by nature. 

au Jfaturel, to the life. 

•ATe m, ni, neither — nor. 

Konpas^ nepas^ fu painty nm^ no, not.* 

De nuitj by night, in the night-time. 

Ohligeammenty kindly, obligingly. 

Ou, where. 


The adverb of place, Ou^ where, is most commonlj 
and more elegantly turned into French by que after the 
two other adverbs tct, here, /d, there, to prevent the hia- 
tus caused by the meeting of the two vowels j and some- 
times after nouns expressing the place ^here sonaethiDg 
has happened, been done or committed, especially when 

• Ptu^ with the negation ne before it, merely expresses a negative, 
withoat affirming it, whereas potn/ denies and affirms at once* J'ai 
often denies but partly, or with some modification ; pointy on tbe 
contrary, always denies absolutely, totally, and without any reserve. 


the sentence begins* with the verb itre^ to be, vaed. im- 
personally, as, it if, it toas^ it will 6e, &c« : ex* 

Oest id que nous Pattm- It is here (where) we are 
dons^ waiting for him. 

Ce fut la que je le vis pour It was there (where) I saw 
la premiere fais J him for the first time7 

Cefut en plein sinat que It was in full senate 
desar fut inhwnainemeni (where, or in which) 
assassins^ Caesar was inhumanly 



It was there or thereabouts that I met him. - - Do 
you see that tre^ yonder. - - Thmee I went to France| 

and soon after to Germany. - - If yon go that way 

yoH may call at Mr. H's. - - We are yet far from 

pouvoir^v. passer chez 
our house. - - I see many ships afar o^ - - I saw him 

yesterday, but it was at a distance. - - You made me 

wait a long while. - - The fight bsted a long 

combat, m. '. 
time. - - He was ill at the time of my arrival. - - Then^ 

I believe you. - - From that time I* began to 

speak to him. • • Does your son behave ill now ? - - 

When I do wrong, I repent very soon. - - They are 

tort 6ien/6/,adv. 

now in England. • - The tree that 1 planted grows 

indifferently. « • Virtue is amiable even in an enemy. 


You blame him, and neyeMhelesci yon aci in the 

same manner* - - You work better than your sister. - • 

She reads French better and better* • - My cousin 

has less money and Inerih - - The less you work 

(by the fut.) 
the less you will improve. - - - He will not do 

/aire des progres* 
it for less. - - There are now in America 30,000 men 

at the least. - - If jpn cannot come, at kast write 

to us. - - He replied plainly to all my questions, and 

I am much pleased with him. - - What he does, he 

bien satisfait de,p. 
does it naturally. - » Miss Nicholas picture is 

drawn to the life. - - I will neither see him nor 
speak to him. - - My mother and sisters (were to) go 

next week to France, but my father says, that he 

neither can nor will expose them to the dangers of 

a journey through a distant country. ^ - I (asked 
dans 6loign6 de» 

for) a glass of wine, and not a glass of water. 

- - Will you come with me? ^o, for you always 

travel by night. - - Always speak kindly^ * -, ^Aere did 

you meet them ? - * It was where I saw your brother 

^ for the last^imQ. * * -^ It was at Caernarvon zohtre 


Edward the Second (was born,) the first who bore the 

Edouard naUre^v. 

title of Prince of Wales. - - It was near the walls of 

Galles^f, muraitle 

Corunna in Spain, where (or near which) the brave 
la Corogne 

Sir John Moore was wounded, and di^d a 

chevalier^m. Jean ^^ 

few hours after; England will long regret the loss 

of that great general. It was there also where that^ 

famous' battle^ (was foughO) (in which) both our 

se donner^v^ cu «o^ 

officers and soldiers showed so much courage. * - It is 

not amidst the pleasures of this world where (o^^amidsi 

which) wc find happiness; it is in the bosom of inno- 

cence and peace where (or in which) we ought to 

(look for) it. * - It is in the county of Huntingdon 

chercher^v. prarnnct^L 

where the best cheeses in the kingdom are made*"^ 


JD'ow ? whence ? 

Par oily through what place ? which way ? through 

which ? 
Oui^ yes. 

D* mitre en outre^ through. 
Pas dpas^ step by step. 
De pari et dPaulre^ on both sides. 
JsTullepart^ nowhere, any-where. 
a peine^ hardly, scarcely. 
Pck-mile^ helt^T-skelter. 

* fee rule?, page 337. , ; 



Peut'itre, may be, perhaps. 

Pcu, little. 

Peu dpeu, by little and little, by degrees. 

a peupres, > almost, very near, thereabouts. 

Dans peu^ in a short time. 

Depuis peu. lately, not long ago, a little while ago. 

a pied^ on foot. 

Pitds nus^ barefoot, barefooted. 

Aupis aller^ let the worst come to the worst* 

De pis en pis^ worse and worse. 

Dc plein gri^ with a good will, freely. 

De pleinpied^ on the same floor. 

a pletnes mains^ largely. 

Plus^ more, above. 

Plus — P/iiff, the more — the more. 

Plus q(i'*il nhnfaut^ more than enough. 

Auplus^ tout auplvs^ at the most. 

De plus en plus^ more and more. 

a plus forte rnison^ much rather, much more so. 


Did my brothers tell you whence they caffie? - - 

Which way are they gone? - - The hole through 

which they (made their escape) was so small, that I 

s^echapper^v. ^ 

do not know how they could (get out). - - Do you know 

your lesson? Yes^ Sir. - - The barrel is pierced 

through. - - I will follow j^ou sUp by step, - - - 

The battle was cruel and bloody, and 

combat ^m. . * san^lani^^^y 

kept up (a long time) willi an equal advantage 

se mainUnir^v^ 
o:i both sides, • - I can find my book no-xrherc. • - - 


(There is no) going any-where in winter. - - He speaks 

en . 
so low, that I can hardly hear what he says. - - - The 

Spaniards pursued them so closely that they 

Espagnol^m. de siprts.z&v. 

entered the town helter-skelter. - - - ,1 shall see you 

perhaps to-nriorrow. - - He has Utile money. - - If you 

give me a verb, I will learn it by Utile and little* - - 

She is as tall as you, or thereabouts. - - I heard that 

your sister will (be married) in a short lime. - - Have 

se marier 
yon (heard from) your mother lately 1 - - 1 received a 

letter from her not lung ago. - - I was on foot, and 

he was in a coach. - - I often pity the poor little 

chimney sweepers, who walk barefooted in 

cheminie ramoneur^m. 

winter - - - Let the roorst come to the worsts I will 

(get rid) of it. - - - Your brother writes worse 

se defaire^y. 

and worse. - - He submitted to it with a good will. - - 

se sovmettre 
All our rooms are on the same floor. ^ - He is so cha- 
ritable, that he gives alms largely. - - I shall 

never more complain of the rude reception 

malhonnete^^idj. accueil^m. 
which your uncle has given to my father. - - - 1 have 

written three letters, neither more nor less. - - You 
are above twenty years old. - - - The more we arc 
plus ie 


above others, the mon it becomes us to be 

au dtssus c7e,p. de 

modest and bumble.* - • - You give me more than 

mougk. •> - How many coats have you ? - - I have sis 

at the most. - - 1 shall endeavour to deserve your kind* 

ness more and more* - - If i have done that to ob- 

lige my frietid, 1 would much more so do it for my 



PlutSty sooner. 

Point du touty not at all. 

a point Homme seasonably. 

Tout a paint, in the nick of time. 

a proposy seasonably. 

Pourquoi ? or que ne ? why i 

Depris, near, nearly, narrowly. 

Dts a present, from this moment. 
Presque, almost, hardly. 

Presque jamais, hardly ever, (with ne before the verb.) 
Presque lovjours, most commonly. 
De propos deliheri, on purpose, purposely, deliberately. 
Par casfortuit, by chance, accidentally. 
Par derriere^ behind. 

Par dessus le marchi,. into or over the bargain* 
Par en bas, downward. 
Par en haut, upward. 

Par malice, through ill-nature, out of ill-nature. 
Par megarde, unawares. 
Par terre, upon the ground, down. 
* Se« the rule page 63. 



My father arrived jesterday sooner than we ex- 

"^ ne ' 

pected him. - - - Do you like that book ? JVo< at 

alL - - - Ypu come very seasonably^ and your brother 

came in the nick of time. - - He speaks little^ but he 

speaks seasonably* - - - IVhy do yotS not learn your 


lessons better? - - Why do not you come yourself? 

- - Your dog is so snarling, thai (there is no) ap- 

proaching him near. - - - He narrowly escaped 

b^ing killed. - - - /n the, first place, I must tell 


you, that 1 shall punish you, if you do not 

behave better. - - From this moment I begin to 

se Comporler^y. ^ 

believe that you are altered. - - You are almost 

chart ge^p.p. 
as tall as I am. - - He is hardly ever at home. - - We 

chez lui. 
dine most commonly between three and four o'clock. 

- - They killed him purposely. - - I met him by chance. 

" - That has happened accidentally. - - He struck 

. f rapper, Y. 

his enemy behind. - - - He gave me three yards of 

muslin into the bargain. - - Shall I begin dovm- 
ward or upward? Begin downward. - - He has 

torn my book through iil^ature. - - If I ha^e 




done him any harm, certainly I did it unawares. * - 

I always find yQor books and hat upon the ground* 

- • It was Peter who threw me down* 

jetet,y. , , 


Quand? when? 

Depuis quand? bow long is it since ? 

Que? wh^f how? • 

Quelquefoig^ sometimes. 

a quoi bonf to what purpose? 

Raremenl, seldom* 

Da r^te^ y 

a rebours, the wrong way* 
i recutons^ backward. 
* a la renverse, backward, upon one's back. 
Ju or a rtz de chauss6e^ even with the ground. 
Stns devani dtrriirt^ preposterously. 
^ms dessus dessous, topsy-lurvy. 
^eioussens, ? every way. 
X)e tous US sens^ j '' '^ 

Separiment^ separately. 
StulemenU only.* 
jDe sangfroid^ in cold blood. 
De suiie^ together, one after another. 

Far la suiU^ J 

Sur le champ^ directly, upon the spot. 
Suremcrti^ safely. 


Whtn shall i have the pleasure of seeing yotf? - - 

J!fow fcng is it since you lived in London? - - Why do 


♦ Only is often also M pressed, in French, by ne before the T«rb 
— 4^4U afiei itg Uteii it b^ pomes » ci>njuoclion. 


jou not come to see us sonutimes ? * • To what pur* 

pou shall I write to him t - - He writes to me verj 

nldom* ' ' As to the rtst^ do as jou please. - • You 

do (every thing) the varong way. - -. You bold your 

book the wrong zoay* - - He fell upon his back, • - - 

If you walk backward^ you will fall backward. - - Our 

eating*room is even with the ground. - - You pul all 

your things preposterously. - - She has left (every 

thing) topsy-turvy. • - - You may find it every" 

where. - - He defeated them separately. - - I only saw 

him once. - - He committed (he murder in cold 

blood. - - They go together. - - He will give you much 

pleasure afterward. • - Do directly what I bid 

you. - - We arrived safely. 


Tant^ so much, so many. 

Tant mieux^ so much the better. 

Tant pis^ so much the worse. 

Tantdt^ by and by, sometimes. 

Tantdt — Tantot^ sometimes — sometimes. 

T6t, > 

Tot ou tard^ one time or other, sooner or later, soi^n or 

Tani soitpeu^ very little, ever so little. 
Tard, late. 


a Umpa^ time enough, in proper time. 

Dt long'tempif^ for a long time, this long while. 

De Umps en tmps, ) ^ ^ f ^.^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

De temps a autre^ 3 ' 

d tort^ wrongfully. 

d tort ou a droit., right or wrong. 

d tori et a trovers, at random. 

Trop.^ loo much. 

Toujours^ always, ever. 

Pour toujours, for ever. 

Tous Its jours, every day. 

Tour a tour, by turns. 

r<m/, quite^ wholly, thoroughly, entirely.* 

Tout a coup, suddenly, on a sudden, all at once. 

Tout has, softly, with a low voice. 

Tout (Pun coup, suddenly, on a sudden, all at once. 


He has so much money, and so many goods, 

that he does know what to do (with them.) - - - 

*<^ en, pro. 

(It is) so much the better for me, but it will be so 
C^est,\\ ce 

much the worse for you. - - My father will come back 

by and by. ^ - - Sometimes you write well, some* 

times you write very badly. - - My father says I shall 
soon go to France. - - Have patience, you will suc- 
ceed one time or other* - - Tlie sun is the em- 
blem of truth, which dispels, sooner or later, the 


• This adverb takes the nature of a noun adjective, and becomes 
declinable, in French, when placed before another adjective femiDiue 
beginning with a consonant and an h mute : ex. 
Cts femmtt paroissoient tout These women seemed quite fright- 

tffrayttt tt iouits consitrnUs, eued and quite dismayed. 


vapours of slander. - - Did h^ give you any meat 1 

He gave me very little. - - You arrived lat$y but I 

came in proper time. - - I have not (beard from) my 

brother for a long time. - • Come and see us now and 

then. - - - You accuse him wro»gfuUy. - - - Right or 

wrong be will - speak, and always speaks al 

random. - - Give him a little money, but never give 

him too much. - - You always contradict me when I 

speak. - - O my children ! be ever good, and you will be 

ever happy. • • 1 bid you adieu /or ever. - - I go every 

day to town. - - We will dance by turns. - - I am 

quite tired with repeating the same things. • • My 

sisters were quite transported with joy when they 

beard the happy news of the victory. - - Misfortunes 

come sometimes suddenly upon us. • - Speak softly. 

- - - A storm arose suddenly^ and the sailors 

were quits frightened. >- - The ladies I saw at the 

play were quite young and happy« • • He has more 

brilliancy than solidity. - - • Science is estimable, 
brillant solide. 

but virtue is more so. 




Tout afaiU quite. 

Tout a Pkeure^ this minute, presently. 

Tout droits straight along. 

Tout de borij In good earnest. 

Tout de son long^ all along. 

Toutfranc^ frankly, freely. 

Tout haut^ aloud. 

Tout outre^ through and through. 

i^ lout bout dechamp,-)^^^^^^^ 

a tous coupSy J '^ 

a tous i^ards^ in all respects. 

De tontes ses forces^ with all his or her miglit. 

Par tout^ every-where. 

Par tout OM, wherever. 

a vide^ empty. 

Auplus vite, with all speed. 

Void, here is, behold. 

Voild, there is, behold. 

d vue d^ail^ perceptibly. 

r, there, therein, within, thither. 


You are quite altered. - - I will do it presently. - - 
If you do not come this minute^ I shall go and 

fetch you. - - Go straight along. - - Do you be- 


lieve it in good earnest ? - - He was lain down all 

along* - - He acts frankly^ and speaks aloud. - - He 

ran him through and through^ - - Sh« speaks 



at every turn, without knowing what she says. - - 

sans^p. savoir^y. 
Ske is better than her sister in all respects. - - He 

struck me with all his might. - - I have (looked 

frapper^y. cher^ 

for) you every-where. - - I will follow you wherever 


you go, - - - Set out quickly. - - Her misfortunes 

(by the fut,) malheur^m. 

touch me to, the quick. -- The coach was returning 

s'cn r6/owrner,v.refl. 
empty. - - Go with all speed to Mrs. Lucas, and 

tell her to come directly. - - Here is my room, and 

there is yours. - - These children grow percep- 

tibly. - - Go thither instantly. 

tout de suite^^dy. 



Prepositions are divided into the three following 
classes. First, those that govern the genitive or abla- 
tive case. Secondly, those that govern the dative. 
And, lastly, those that govern the accusative. 

First, the following govern the genitive or ablative. 

Autour de^ about, roqud. 

d cause de. because of, on account of. 

a cause de vous^ de /ui, dV//e, de nous^ Sic. on your, his, 

her, our, ^c. account. 
a coli de^ aside, by. 

d convert de^ free, secure, or screened from. 
djleur de. close to, oven with. 
a moins de, under. 


aforct de^* by dint of. 

a raisan cfe, at the rate of. 

a Pabri Je, sheltered from. 

a Pigal de, in comparison of. 

a Pigard A, with regard, with respect, as to, concerniDg. 

a lafavmr rfe, by means of. 

a Pinsu de, without the knowledge of, unknown to. 

a la fnaniire rfe, ) .^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ manner or fashion of. 

a la mode ae, 5 

KM a vi8 de^ 5 

^"t^^?' J on this side. 

^u de/rt de, on that side, on the other 8id6. 

Jlu dehors de, out, without. 

Au dessus de^ above, over, upon. 

Au dessous de, under, below, beneath. 

Au devani de, before. 

jllUr au devani de, to go to meet. 

Au derriire de, behind, in the back part. 

Au dedans de, in, within. 

Au lieu de, instead of. 

Au milieu de, in the middle of. 

Au prix de, en comparaison de, in comparison to. 

Aux environs de, about, round about. 

Ensuite dc, after. 

FaiUe de, for want of. 

a la hauteur de, (sea term,) off. 

Hors de, out of. 

Le long de, along. 

Loin de, far from. 

Pres or proche dc, ) „^^^ ^^ „• *, . ^. 
/I V 5 '> near, or nigo, bVi 

Aupres de, J ^ ^ j 

Pour Pamour de moi, de hit, d^elle^ de voiis, &c. for my 

sake, for his, her, your sake, ire. 

Tout aupres ile, close, hard by. 

a Pepreuve de, proof against, (able to resist.) 

• This proposition is ftomelimes Englished by with : ex,- 
XI phure a force de rire. He cries vrUh laughing. 



Come ibis way ; we shall walk round the meadow. - - 

I have sent nothing to your brother because of his idle- 
ness, but I forgive him on your account • • Sit down by 

that lady's sister* - - Endeavour to set yourself 

free from blame. - - - We are not yet secure from all 

danger. - - - Cut that sorrel even with the ground, 

- - - He is become a very good master by dint of 

study and practice. - - - He will not sell it tinder 

twelve guineas. - • - My brother bought yesterday 

twenty pair of silk stockings at the rate of fourteen 

shillings and sixpence a pair. - - - Under that tree 

Sous^ p. 
we shall be sheltered from the rain. - - - Your horse 

(is worth) very little in comparison o/" his. - - - WiOi 
regard to what you say, I do not mind it. 

All *i / 1 . . 9<^^^cier,v. en 

" - All the prisoners (made their escape) by means of 

the darkness of the night. - - - Your brother is 

gone to London zoithout the knowledge of your 

mother. He (left off) Latin unknown to his 

father Now the English ladies (dress themselves) 

- , „ . ^ s^habiller^v. 
after the French fashion, . . Mrs. Tart lives in 

33 ' 


the Strand cDcr^gaintt CathartAe-street. - - We now 

live on this side of the river. - - Do not you say that 
you met my father on the other side of the bridge ? 

- - Why did you stay out of the house ? - - Afrs. A. 

is very proud, she (thinks herself) above every body, 

se croire 
and consequently she (looks upon) every body as 

heneath her. - • Did you observe the elegant 

lady who ivas in the box below you ? - - There 

is a large tree before the house. * - I am 

going to meet my aunt, will you accompany me ? - > 

My uncle has a rich plantation in the back 

part of Virginia. - - There is a fine statue within the 

garden. - - He took my hat tn^ /«ad o/* his. - - Let us 

go in the middle of the meadow. - - - My house (is 

good for) nothing in comparison of hers. - - He 
walks two or three times a* day about the garden. - - 

We drank tea, after which we went to 

prendre^v* quoi.p ro. 

the play. - - I can do nothing for want of money. - - 

They were off the Cape of Good Hope when ihey* Espirance^i, 

were taken. - - Do not push me out of the 


• Remember the observations after the article tm, wic, a or aD, 
at the bottom of page 48. 


room. - - He is gone iifo»g the riv^r. We are sti* 

/iir frtm our houte. - - 1 met your friend Mr. A. 

fwar the church. - - My mothcF was buried nigfc this 

marble pillar.* - - He passed hy me without knowing 

5mw,p. connoilre 
me. - - I do it for your sake as well as for iheint, 

- - My best friend lives close to the Royal Exchaage^ 

demeurer Bourse^L 

and he lived formerly close to Su James's palace. - - 

The officers and soldiers were lodged in barracks, 

cannon and bomb-/)roo/l • - My shoemaker very 
canon^m. bQm6e, 

much wanted to n^ake me a pair of boots water- 

disireTyV. de 
proof but I had not money enough to pay 


Secondly, the following govern the dative, 
Conformiineni^ according, pursuant. 

^jZ^^a, \ ^*'"* ""*"' ^^^" *^' ^« ''^^ ^«' *^- 
Par rapport d, with respect to, on account of. 
Quant d, as for, as to. 


A candid and sincere man always speaks and acts 

according to what he thinks. » - He has been punished 

pursuant to an act of parliament. - - Yesterday we 

(waited for) him till five o'clock (in the) morning. • - 


• Up r«le, |>age 44. 


^fbey feogbt with ebfttinacy on both sides until the 

de$ deux 
beginning of ihe night. * - If I had not stopped him, 
he would have good even to Dover* - • We accompa* 

(lied them as far as Rochester, and they pursued 

their way to Canterbury. - - I will do it zoith respect 

to you, but never on account of them. - • As for me 

1 will not give him a penny. ^ • As for us we were 

(very much) dissatisfied, I assure you. - • As to what 

people may say, I do not (care for) \U 

gen5,pl. pouvoir^v. (ful.) se soucier de,v. 

Thirdly, the following require the accusative. 

Apris^ after. 

jyapresf after,* according to. 

Avant^ before. 

Avtc^ with. 

d travers^ cross, through. 

Chez^ in, to, at, among* 

Chez mot, chez <of, chez /ut, chez e//e, chez nousj Stc* at or 

to my, thy, his, her, our, ^c. house. 
Oonlre^ against. 
Dansj in, into, within. 
Z)«, about, through. 
Depuis, since, from. 
Derriere^ behind. 
jDe5, from* 
Devant^ before. 
De dessusy from the top. 
De dessous^ from under, from beneath. 
Durante during. 

• We mnke use of this preposition in the sense of afttr ia the fol- 
lowing diction and others similar : 

nn^ d^aprh un bon maiire^ He paints after a good muster. 

J5n, in, into, like, as a, at. 

Entrtj between. 

Enters^ towards, with regard to. 

Environ^ about. 

Exeept6^ > 

Hors^ > except*, but, save. 

Hormis^ 3 

Moytnnant^ for, provided. 

^al^i'^^'X notwithstanding, in spite of. 

Ovctre^ beside. 
Par^ by, through. 
Par deqa^ on this side. 
Par dtld^ on that side. 
Par dtrriire, behind. 
Par dessus, above, over. 
Par dessoHs^ under, below. 
Parmi^ among. - 

Pendant, during, for. 
Pour, for. 
Sans,^ without. 
Sauf, saving, but with. 

S0U8, under. 
Sur^ upon, about. 
Touchant, concerning, about. 
Versy towards, to. 


He arrived here an hour after ypu. - • Miss A. 

paints after nature. - • According to her assertion, it 

is false. - - Let me drink before you. - - Did you 

not see her walk with her father f ... It was 

the ancient Britons, who cut a road through 

Breton, chemin^m. 

this roountaiD. - • - Such was the custom among the 

Romans. - • I was going to your Tunuc : but ds I kave 
met jou, we will go to my house, where we shall dine* 

- - Do not lean against that wall. - - Gro and 

s^appuyer^v. mi/r,m. «o» 

take a walk in the garden. - - I am going into ony 

/aire un tour 

room. - - (Keep joursell) wilhin the limits of de- 
Se /«ntr,v. borne 

cency. - • I spoke to your father about your affairs. - • 

His father died through grief. • - I have not (heard 

from) her since her departure. - - Go into my room } 

you will find a letter behind the looking-glass » 

(be so kind as) to bring it to me. - - Fronh this mo- 
avoir la bonti de 
ment I believe you. - - Do not put yourself before 

me. • - We saw the camp/rom the top of the bill. - - 
I saw lifrom under a tree. • - He behaved well during 
your absence. - • My sister is in England. • - He be- 
haved like an honest man in that affair. - • He acts as 
a tender father who loves you. - * Tell nobody what 

passed between you and me. - - Be not unjust towards 

se passer 

your neighbours. - - It was about four o'clock when 

we (set out.) • - Take all that you please excqtt my 

sword. - - I give you all my books, but the History of 



FrtBca. • - They were all drowned xooc my frleiid* • •• 

He will do it for two guineas, * « I ^alk every day 

noiwithslar^ing the had weather. • - I. hope you will 

succeed in your undertaking in 5pt7e o/* Mrs. Slander. 


• • Beside his own money, he spends all his sister's* 

- - It is said that Gibraltar is (blocked up) (y land 

and &y sea. - - I have passed through France and 

Italy. - - We have passed through Germany. - - He 

lives on this side^ and his brother on that side of 

London. - « *He is a coward who attacks his enemy 

behind. - - Let us see whether you can jump over 

««»c. sauter^v. 

the table. - - Look under the door, and you will see 

it. - - Envy, jealousy, and slander, always reign 

among authors. - - What have you done during my ab- 
sence ? - - 1 have (been expecting) you for a long time. 

- - Your aunt has seht me some books for you. - - - 

Without him what could 1 have done ? - • A woman may 

please vsithout tbeauty, but she cannot succeed without 

virtue.t • - He always (goes out) withoui me. - - The 

army marched three days and thrie nights tvilhout 

stopping. - - He (carried away) all my furniture, smiing 
s^arreter. meubles^m.fL 

• S«e page 106. i Uae no article. 


mj hid. - - Da I not \Wt* aeeorUng to the mla 

which you have preacribed ? • - I found your buckle 
prescrtre,y» boucUfh, 

under the chair. - - - Yoa said yea had left it upon 

chaist^f. laisterjYm 

the table. - - How could I lend you a guinea ? 1 had no 

money about me. — Did not my brother write to yoa 

concerning that aSkir? - « It was towards the evening 

when he arrived. 



Above. This preposition, when preceding a noun 
expressing time or nufn6er, so as to signifjr more than 
or longer than^ is to be rendered in French by plus de: 
Le . cmnbat dura plus de The fight lasted above 

deu9i hewnn^ two hours. 


My brother was not Above twenty years old, when 

he (was married). - - He made .us wait above a week. - • 

se marier. 
My father's ' country-house is ^very handsome, but it 

coats him above six: thousand pounds. • • In the last 

sea-fight which took place between the French and 

avoir lieu 
the English, above twelve hundred men p[erished in 

the action '.(qn th^) side of the French^ aod the 


* Sf^e the N. B^ before the Exercises upon the fir&t.CoDjjogatfon, 
v>aG:e 178. Vtvrey means, to live, to ezist^ Demeurtr^ nueans, to liTe, 



EngliBb. took ahofu Siteen sfaipt of the liae* « • It k 

above a year since my cousin set off for Jamaica. 
que partir^y* Jamnnqat^f. 

At is most commonly rendered by a, and some- 
times by one of the French articles ati, d. /a, a P, aux^ 
according to the gender and number of the noun fol- 
lowing : ex. 

Koiu itioM a diner^ We were at dinner* 

EUe est a la mautm^ She is at home* 

Iljoue bien aux carUs^ He plays well at cards. 


If you be at Rome, live as they do at Rome* - - 
vivre en. 
We will (get }ip) next week at six o'clock* - - When I 

se Itver 
called upon. Mn B. he was at breakfast. - - (Every 
passer chtz 
thing) I have is at your service* - • My brother is ol 

Mr. H's. academy* - - Were you at Mrs. C's* ball last 

week ? - - Yqp always travel by night at the peril of 

your life* • • I will pay you at the end of the year. - • 

My mother is ai the height of happiness* - • He plays 

very well at chess, and his companion begins 

to play a little at draughts* - • He did it at the insti- 

gation of his friend* 

After nmms or verbs denoting angtr^ derisUm, joj/y 
provocation^ resentment^ sorrow^ surprise^ or concern^ at is 
rendered by one of the following articles, de^ dti, de la^ 
de r, des : ex* 


/{ H moque A vMtt, He laughs at you* 

Je nu rejouis de voire I rejoice at your good 

hovAniry ' lock. 

Jioua fumnus surpria de ce We are surprised at what 

que vous diUs^ you say. 


Exasperated at his conduct, he told bipi never te 

/rrt/<,adj. dt 

laugh at poor people. - - We always (ought to) rc- 

se maquer^ devoir 

joice at the good ^o^tufne Vbich befalls our neigh* 

hours. - - I arti vexed at the news which we received 

last week. - - A good Christian never shows any re- 
sentment at the injuries which are ofiered to him. - • 

He always smiles at (every thing) which is said. - • A 

patient man never grieves at his misfortunes. - • 

I cannot help being surprised at her manner 

of answering. - - I am concerned at the loss which 


you sustained in your trade. * • He was so mortified 

egsuyer^v, eommerce^m» 

at the disobedience of his sons, that he died through 


jft IS rendered by chfz^ when, in English, ft precedes 
the word house^ either expressed or understood, and the 
same rule is ;o be observed with respect to the prepo- 
sition to : ex. 

JUioKschez voire frere^ I was n^your brother's* 

/r vaU chta Madame I am going to MrSi 
Lucae^ Lucas\ 



I called upon Miss Brown this morniiig, as I liad 
passer chez 
promised your mother^ but she was not at home. • - 

Where was she then ? She was at her aunt%k • - I 

done f ^ 
thought my friend was at his father's, but I mistook^ 

se tfwnper 
for he was at his uncIe^s. - • How long have you heeii 
at Wc. H's* ? - - We lodge al my friend^s; but We board 

at the pastry-cook's. - » If you go to my brother, tell 

him to come to my cousin's, where I (am to) spend 

de ... passerby* 

the day, and we will go together lo his friend's. 

By, when preceding a numeral adjective immeJiatelj 
followed by another adjective expressing the dimtmion 
or superficies of an object, is rendered in French by sur, 
and when it precedes a verb in the participle active, it 
is then rendered by en : ex. 

Cetle chanibre a dix pieds This room is ten feet 

de longueur sur sept tt long by seven and half 

derm de largeur^ wide. 

En agissant ainsi^ vous By acting thus, you will 

vous ferez des enruniisj get enemies. 


My box is a foot and a half deep by two wide and 

four long. • - The general (drew up) his army in order 

ranger^v, en . ' 

of battle, on a plain three miles long by two 


and half wide. - -^ - Oor (acbool-roooi) at Alfred 

H«a»e, CamberweUi if forty feet long hj 

tbirtj-ftiz wide, and our garden contains above 

4m acre of land. - - You will soon ipeak Freocii 

by applying so. - - Yoi^r faitber sets a considerable 

M^appliquer fairt^y. 

fortune 6y buying cheap and selling dear. - - Hen 

acquire learning hy working and not ly sleeping. • • 

Water bellows a stone, not hy falling with force, 

but fty failing often ; so men become learned, not 

hy studying witb force, but 5y studying often. 

fiy, after tbe verbs io stll^ to 6iiy, to work, and the 
like, preceding a noun of weight or measure^ day, M 
numth^ oryeor, is rendered into French by £, au, a fa, 
d r, aux^ according to the gender and number of tbe 
following noun : ex. 
Je ne vends rien a la I sell nothing by the 

livre, pound. 

// ackeie toujours a Patine, He always buys by the ell. 
J^ou9 travaillons k I'Aetire, We work by the hour, or 

ou a la joumie^ by the day. 


Always buy tea by the pound, and never by the 

ounce, you will grl it cheaper. - - I never buy my 

cloth by the ell, but by the piece. - • It is a sad thing 

to buy coals by the bushel. - - How do you sell yonr 


brandy ? We sell it by the gallon, and not by lh« 

bottle/ *^ - H« ^cH« fak irtne iy Ae ^sea. * * - 1 p«II 

i§gi hy ihe himirifd, and chcsirats iy the qtiarter. 

- - How dkif 7<m measure ycwr cambrk ? 6y the cit, 

or iy the yard? - - Da ycm buy cidfer iSy the hogsfcead, 

ct ty iht pipe f - * Does your father work by the 

fl^eek or tfce monftb f - - Ro, Sir, he works by (he year. 

Wefl J r alwajs thought he worked by the piece. 

By, immedfately following the verbs io kitt^ to wound^ 
to knock down, and the like, is made into French, by 
cPun coup de^ when it expresses the effect, blow, thrust, 
stroke, firing,&c. of an instrument by which a man was 
either killed, wounded, fee. provided the blows have 
not been repeated : if the blows have been repeated, we 
make use of a coups <fe, in which case it is most com- 
monly rendered in English by with: ex. 

II fut blessS d*un coup de He was wounded by an 

Jleche, arrow. 

Ila Passommerent a coups They knocked him down 

dc bdlon^ with a stick. 


Achilles was killed (at the) siege of Troy by an 
AchiUe au Troie 

arrow, which Paris, king Prlam^s Son, (let fly) 


at his heel.* (Unable to) catcl the thief, 

(aion,m. M'epouvoir a</ra|l0^« 
they knocked* him^ down* with sticiis.. « ^ « At last 

4hc king, having broke his battle-axe ai^d sword 

♦ Sec rutee, pages 101 aad 401. 



was (knocked down) iy m 6toM^ and laleeo . prboMr* 

renversiyp»p. fait^p.p» 

- * - WDIiam the Sectmd was killed In/ aa arrow in tht 

New-Forest. - • - My brother was wounded by a gon, 

and my cousin was killed hjf a cannon-balL - • Edward 

bouht de canon,ai. 
the First was wounded in Palestine mtk a poisoned 

dagger. • - * He is so strongi that wUh bis fist he 
coald kDOck down an ox. - • - He threw my brother 

dosrni and almost killed bim with his feet. - ^ 

par terre, 

They killed him not with stones, but with arrows. • - 

The soldiers kill one another voith bayonets, and the 

se tuer 
officers with sabres and swords. - - He killed his dog 

with kicks. - - The city of Vera Cruz has been destroy- 
ed by cannon-shot. 

For^ after reflected vtrbs^ as also those which denote 
thanksgivings &c. is rendered by one of the following 
articles, d«, du, de la^ de T, des : ex. 

Je me rijouis du service 1 rejoice for the senrice 
^^f/ vous a rendut ei jt which he has done to 
Pen remercierai dematn, you, and will thank bim 

to-morrow ybr it« 


I am very grateful for all the kindness 

re^onnoMfan^adj. bon^^,f. 

you have bad for me. - • He is very sorry /or the 


gdef lie has cattsed you. • * When we have reached ' 

Ike age of reason, we are often sorry, but too late, 

for iH^ time we lost when we were young. • - My 

brother desired me to. thank you for the part you 

took 10 his troubles. - - Every one leaped for joy, 

peine^(. tressaillir 

when the happy news of peace arrived. - - A child 

who cares little for the author of bis life, 

se soucier^y. jot«rs,m.pI. 

is an unnatural being. - - An ODgrateful 8on will be 

(fena/ii r6,adj, 
punished (one time or other)/or his ingratitude. 

From^ preceding the name of a man or toomatts or one 
of the personal^ possessive^ relative^ or interrogathe^ pro- 
nouns, after the verbs to go^ to come^ to sendj &c. is gen- 
erally rendered in French by de la part de^ or de ma, de 
5a, de not re part, de votrepart^ &c.: ex. 

Jlllez^ de ma part chez Go from me to Mr. D. 

Mons. D. 
Je viens de sa part, I come from him or her. 


Go from me to Miss Dunkin's and tell her I shall 

be glad to see her: do, stop a little, tell her that 
de . >- 

you come from my cousin, who has something very 

pretty to show her. - - From whom do you come ? 

'said she^ to me>. - - Madame, replied I to her, 1 come 

from my parents, . who sent me. • - Well, answered 
pire et mire 


•hOf aoj oue is alwajn welcome, who comes /rom 

them* - - Send from me io Mr. Lucas, and let him 

JiBOw that I am (very much) vexed at the letter I 

tris dt 

receiTed from him ; i never could have ei^pected 

,to receive such an affront /romisdi old acquaintance. 
a eonnoissanuf* 

In requires eome attention from tbe learner, who is 
to observe that dan» is followed by the article, a pro- 
noun, or any word which may define tbe noun, when, on 
the contrary, m seldom admits of the article, whether 
expressed in English or not : ex. 

n est dans la maison^ He is in the house. 

JSlie est en AngUterrty She is in England. 


He always keeps himself (shut up) in his room. - - 

Take all the linen which I shall want in our jour- 

ney, and put it into my box. - - Walk* into the parlour. 

- - We livie in the county of Surrey. - - Is there a good 

Are in the room ? - • Ovid, one of the finest poets of 

the Augustan age, expired in the seventeenth 

jcar of our Lord, at Tomi, near Yarna. - - Is 

your sister in France f - • No, madam, she is in 

* To walk or sitp Mo is tranilated by entrer followed by dms ia 
French ; but to wUk or take a walk Is #e jirememr. 


Spain. • « How long do you intend to stay in town f - - 

Sir, do you keep house 2 - - No, we live fri 

(ready furnished) lodgings. - - When we are in 

gamt,adi. chambre^f. on 

peace, people talk of war j and when in war, thry 

on on 

talk of peace. * - Your eldest son behaved {like a) 

hero. - - If my son behave like an honest man,' I shall 

act towards him as a tender father. - - /n what does 

human happiness consist ? - • If you wish to be happy 

and esteemed in this world, live like a man of 

honour and probity. - - lie walks in the garden with 

his friend. - - He is gone to spend the winter in 

Italy. • • The American' navy' officers^ have acted 

like heroes. 

/n, after words denoting pain^ hurting^ or wminding^ 
and preceding one of the possessive pronouns in con- 
junction with anj part of the body, is to be rendered by 
one of the following articles, d, ati, a la^ a T, aux, and 
the possessive pronoun left out 5 and when in precedes 
a noun denoting a part of time, it is not to be expressed 
in French : ex. 

// lloit bless6 au bras et He was wounded in his 

mn a la jambe^ arm, and not in his leg. 

Vous le trouverez ioujmirs You will always find him 

ihtz lui le mating at home in the morn* 




Mj brother has constantly (a pain) in his head, and 

I have Tery often a pain in my teeth. - « Never e^it 

any fruit which is not ripe, for there is nothing 

more apt to give you a pain in your stomach. - • My 

companion, by jumping over a form, (fell dowo), 

6aRC,m. tomber;^* 
and was much hurt in the shoulder. - - Your brother 

was wounded in the arm, but not dangerously, and 

my cousin was mortally wounded in the head. • - 

My master comes generally in the morning. - - I will 

call upon you in the afternoon, and in the evening go 

to the play. 

On or upon. This preposition is rendered by de after 
the verbs to dtptnd^ to live^ to mbsisty and the like ; sod 
by one of the followipg articles, de, du, de to, dt f, dtt^ 
after the verb to play ^ preceding the name of an instru* 
ment : and before the days of the week and the names 
of the mouth, preceded by a numeral adjective the 
above preposition must not be expressed : ex. 

// vii de pain et d'eati, He lives on bread and 

Voui jouez du violon^ et il You play on the vioUo» 
jotie de la^ibl/e, and he plays on the 

Cela arrioa le dix-huii du That happened on the 
most dernier^ eighteenth of last moatbi 



We all depend vptm divine mercy. • • A 

good end generally depends an a good beginning. « - 

Men do not live only on bread and meat, but on the 

grace of Qod. •« * Birds subsist tipon what they can 

cateb. - - Wtiat do you live upon^ you who never eat 

any meat ? - - In winter 1 live on milk and vegetablesy 

and in summer I live upon bread and butter, cheese, and 

all sorts of fruits. - • Upon what instrument does your 

fcister play ? - - She plays very well on the harpsichord, 

and she is now learning to play on the harp. - - Come 

on Friday early, and I will go to see you on the Saturday 

following. • - Why did you not play on the violin on 

Wednesday lastf - • On June the eighth, 1376, died 

Edward, prince of Wales, the delight of the 

(in the pL) 
nation, in the forty-sixth year of bis age. - - On the 

third of June, 1664, the English obtained a great vtcto* 

ry over the Dutch o& Harwich, took eighteen 

9ur. Hollandois^m* 

ships, and destroyed fourteen more. 

Over. Thi» preposition is commonly rendered io 
French hy sur} but it must be rendered by tbe partici* 
pie passive of the verbs ^ntV, passer ^ achevw, when it 
denotes an action ended $ ex. 


n a Pavmtage tur vavt, He bas the advantage 

over you. 
Voire frere pariit des qu€ Your brother set out as 
lapluiejutp^s66ef • soon as the rain wa9 

Le dtner est-il fini ? Is dinner c^er f 


A coach passed aver bis bodj and killed him* • • 

Tttllia, Tarquinius' wife, the unnatural daughter 

Tarquin d6natur6,aSj* 

olf Servius, king of Rome, ordered her coachmafi 

ordonner d 
to drive over the dead bodj of her father. - • In 
de passerby* 
going to London, did you go aver Westminster 

bridge ? - - Yes, but in coming back I passed mr 

Blackfriars bridge. - • They dissolved the armj 

as soon as it iras resolved that the campaign was 

ever. - - In France they drink coffee as sood as 

on prendre le 
dinner is oroer. - - You may go and walk when 

(by the fut.) ^ 
the rain is oroer. - - They fought well, and the 

(by the fut.) 
battle was soon over. 

WiOi is rendered by *c?fln#, wheii it is used before 
nouns denoting the purpose, design, or motive of the 
agent : ex. 

// le fit dans PaUente dfilte He did it with sn ex- 
hkn ric^mpenei^ peclation of being we» 




He poisoned his brotlier with the hope of 

iDberiting his estates* - - Mj brother is gone to 
hifiitr^y^di 5ten,in. 

your house mth the design of scolding yon 

iwdU * - He who beats another with Che intention of 

killing him, is a murderer (at the) bottom of bis 

heart* • - He did it vnih the intention of pleasing 

jou, and not with any design of hurting you. - - I 
went last week to Mr. Olympus, with the expecta- 
tion of receiving the money which 1 lent him a 
month ago, but he was not at home. - - I live mih 
the hope of receiving it (one time or another)* - - 
He said so mih a design of deceiving yon, if he 

With fluist be made by JU after the following 
verbs, to starve^ to dit^ to do^ to dispense^ to meddle^ 
to encompass^ to load^ to cwtr^ to »trike^ and those 
denoting fulntts : likewise after the^ following adjec- 
tives, amorcuSf charuud^ pleased, ditpliusid^ mdowedi 
^c. ex* 

Elle meurt de froid et de She dies with cold and 

/(Bfim^ hunger* 

Jt suis content de ce pu I am pleased wUk what I 

fm^ ' liave. 



Lazy people (ought to) die with hunger and 
cold. - - The winter was so severe, that I was djing 

TDtth cold. - - Tbey are so rich^ that they do hot know 

what to do wit^ their money. - - I hope you will dis- 

jfue «4>« 

pense me vitk that disagreeable (piece of work). 

- - Do not meddle otA my afiairs, meddle zcith jour 

own. • It is reported on all sides that that city (is to) be 

encompassed w^ walk. •> - Do you see that waggon t 

It is loaded zoiih goods. - - Do you wish your bouse 

be covered zoith slates or tiles t • He was overwhelmed 
soUfV* tuiUjL . accabUjStdy 

with grief. - - The enemy, struck with terror and 

astonishment, ran away. - • Honour me with your 

commands. - - I have filled my cellar with good beer 

and excellent wine. - - Narcissus, seeing himself in a 

clear fountain, fell (in love) with hia own 

<kvenfr,v. amourettx,adj. 
person. • - I am charmed wUh the agreeable company 

of your sister. - - As to us, little satisfied wiik his 

answers, we took oMier measures. • • Are you not 


pleased with the behaviour of your son Thomas ? • *- 

You would be wrong to be dissatisfied. lojA 

avoir tort^ de mecon(en<,adj. 

him, for he behaved (like an) honest man in 

se conduire^y. tn 

that affair, and be is endowed with many good* 

qualities. - - The man who meddles wt<& nobody^ 

affairs, but quietly lives in peace, seldom makes 

himself enemies. 

With is rendered by emirt after words denoting 
anger or passion : and before nouns denoting the 
matter^ imtrxwunts, tools, or ezpi'essing how and in 
what manner a thing is done or made, it is rendered by 
one of the following articles, d, au, a la, a T, aux, ac- 
cording to the gender andif number of the following 
noun : ex. 

Madame voire mere est tres^ Your mother is very angry 

fdchee contre vous, toith you. 

Une table a (tVotV^, A table with drawers. 

Dessiner au crayon, a la To draw with a pencil, 

crate, with chalk. 

Se battre a Vep6e^ au pis* To fight with swords, with 

tolelj pistols. 


My brother was in^. such^ a passion^ with me, that I 
si (Oico/Ire 
thought he would have beaten me. - • I believe what 
you say, but I was very angry with her when she 

told me she would not do it. - * I live near the river, 


wai if 700 witt coiM to tee me, we will f sh znAr a 

Ml o» a line. - - Voiir biMlMf md ny eoma 

idigM frflfr 6Bbre» aad putols ; tb« fonner was 

singt» MOg. 

liModect ia- bis thigh, ani the latter in bis side. • - 

My howe be» been b^llt ukh Ikne and sand. • - Did 

Mfi» ArfoM sfaow you He picture sli^ baa draws 

with India ink ? • - No, but she ahowed me taer 

aaolbcor^i^ pictuffardana wkh chalky I assure yoo tt> is 

wry lilie. - • Do notiga scaear that waH, it is newlj 
r$ne»Miimiy9iij* micr,ni. 

paiatfid »ift (white lead^ • « I bought a penknife zoiA 

two blades. - - Tlie Americans foaght bravely 

lame. st hatire 

«i#A ibe Eagiish at New-Qrleans. 

Wiih'ifi not to be expressed after some verbs, sucb as, 
to meet with^ io trust wilh^ <o suppltf with^ to reproach vnthf 
&c. It is likewise to be suppressed where it expresses 
the situation^ position^ &(*• of a person, or wiien it is used 
in the sense of havings holdings &c. : ex. 

// a essuyi bien des cha* He has met with many 

grins^ troobhes^ 

J^Tous lui foumirons kfui ce We will supply him wiA 

dont il aura besoin^ every thing he may want. 

II se promine toujours un He always walics mA a 

Hvre a lit mainy book in his band, tfeat 

is, havir^ or holding a 



He met with (so maDy) mortifications from his 

sons, that through grief he fell ill and died 

de tomber^y. 

almost with despair. - - - When you meet 

de renconirer^r. 

a poor man, never reproach him with his poverty, 

but endeavour to furnish him with the means 

of emerging from his misery. - - I have trusted Mr. 

N. with my son^ education, with the utmost coti- 

fideiice that he will answer my expectation. - - Th^ 

New River supplies London with all the water which 

the inhabitants stand in need of« - - I reproached 

avoir besoin^v. 
her with her ingratitude towards her benefactors. - • '- 

He always walks round his garden with a stick in his 

hand. - - Never speak to any body mth your hat on 

k a 

your head. - • He is represented on horseback, toith 

a sword in. his right-hand and a horse • pistol 
V6p6$ argan pisiohty m* 

in his left. 


With(3ui {sans): this preposition is sometimes ex- 
pressed (in English) by the imperfect or compound of 
the imperfect of the verb to ie, preceded by the con* 
junction i/*, and sometimes by but for: ex. 


Sans vous, je ne sais ct que If it were not for you^ I do 
jt devkndrois^ " not know what would 

become of me. 
Sans lui, mon frcre auroit Had it not been for him^ 
itipuni^ my brother would have 

been punished. 
Sans elle, je serois tnori de But for her^ I should have 
fainij starved. 


Without the assistance of the divine Providence, 
what are we? What are we capable of? - - - Accord- 
ing to what you tell me, and what I have heard, 

she has (a great deal) of wit and merit ; and, but for 

that large scar which she has in her fore^ 

grand^^dj. cicatrice^f* 
head, she would be very handsome. * • - Had it not 

been for the help of good and honest people, what 

could you have done t- - If it had not been for me, 

he never would have paid you. - - Were it not for rich 

and charitable persons, what would become of the 

poor and needy ?- - Our neighbour fell into the river, 

and but for my father, who was passing that way, be 

would have been drowned* - - Were it not for emula* 

se noycr,v.refl. 
tion, (every thing) would languish in the world* 




Most of the conjuDctioDs are adverbs and preposk 
lions, but always attended by de or que. They have 
been divided into copulative^ comparative, disjunctive^ ad* 
versative, casual, dubitative, exceptive^ conditional^ continu' 
ative^ conclusive, &LC. Instead of following this arrange- 
ment, it will be of more importance for the scholar to 
understand, that different conjunctions require different 
states of the verb. Some require the following verb in 
the infinitive mood^ others in the indicative^ and others 
again in the subjunctive* 

These require the following verb io the infinitive 

Afin de, in order to. — 

a worn* de, or ) „,^^^^ 

a moms que de^ y , 

Avant que de,* J 

^u lieu de, instead of. 

^ecr«.««ede,or)f f f 

Depeurdej S 

Excepts de, except to. 

Faute de, for want of. 

Jusqu^a^ to that degree that, till. 

Loin de, far from. 

Plutot que de, rather than. 


In order to learn well, we must study with (a 

on devoir,v. 
great deal) of attention. - - It will be impossible for 

you to learn French unless you be diligent. - - Let us 

* This is now little used. 


breakfast be/ore we begin (anj thing)* - • A prudent 

man (ought to) think several timesi be/ore he acts. — 

He is gone to churcli. msttad of coming with us. - - • 

1 would not do it for fear of displeasing yea. - - He 

19 capable of (every thing) except of doing good. - • 

Par want of sending for a surgeon in 

envoyer cherchtr^v. chirurgien^m. i 
time, he lost his arm. - - . He carried his inso* 

lence to that degree that he spoke injurious words 

c?»r«,v. parole,!. 

to him. • - Your cousin has humbled himself, <t8 

he fell (on his) knees before the idoL - - Far frm 

exciting them to fight, I did all that I could in ordtr 

to prevent them. - - She would do (any thing) (in the) 

tout ou 

world rather than speak to him. - • Rather than studj, 

be loses bis time, or spends it in trifles. 

The following require the verb in the indicativi mooi* 

Ainsi que* as. 

Tout ainsi qucy * just as. 

Apris quBy* softer that, after. 

acameqiie,\ u__.p 

Parte que, J ^^c^^se- 

d ce que, according as, or to* 

d condition que, on, or upon condition that. 

a mesure que, * in proportion as, as. 

Jiu lieu que, whereas. 

* See the rale, page 4)7. 


Dis le fn<munt que, * the momeDt thaf. 

Jlussi long-Urns qut, * as long as. 

^tjusi loin que, * as far as* 

Aussitoi que, ^ 

D^ahbrd que, f # ^. „^^„ ^^ 
T\> * ' >*a8 soon as. 
jJts que, C 

Sitdt que, J 

Attendu que, considering that, seeing that. 

Comme, or ) „, 

En taut que, $ ^^' 

Defagon que, ^ 

De maniire que, f 

De sorte que > in such manner that, so that, so* 

Si bien que, i 

Tellement que, ^ 

Depuis qu§, ever since, since* 

Puisque^ since. 

De mime que, even as. 

JD^ou vient que, how comes it to pass that, why. 

Lorsque, ) * . 

Quand, 5 ^'^®"- 

Mais, but.t 

Outre que, beside that. 

a peine — ^ue, •hardly, scarcely — but, or when. 

P'^dantque,^^ ... 

Tandis que, 5 ^'^"^* 

Peul'itre que, perhaps. 

Tant que, '^ as long as. 
Que — de — ne, than, only. 
Autant que,* as much as. 

t This conjunction, when beginning a sentence, is always render- 
ed by mau. In the middle of a sentence, th? word but as on^ is 
always rendered by ne before the verb, and que after it: ex. 

Je n'ai parli a totre ffltt que I have spoken to y6inr brothef 
dtuxfoU, but twice. 



D^avdant ^ue, whereas, for so much as^ since. 

EPautant plus — q%u^ so much the more, the more,— as. 

Taut 9«e, for all that.* 

Toutefois^ yet, nevertheless* 

TouiesUsfois que^ every time, as often as, whenever. 

Sinon que^ except that. 

Si, if, in case, whether. (Were /, Si J'etois.) 


I called at your sister^s, as you had desired me. 
passerby* prier^v* 

- - 1 punish you as you deserve (it). - - jljler you 

were gone, I began writing. • - I love you becam 

you behave better than your brother. - - - According 

as I see, you are very well. - - He will write to you, 

on canditum that he shall speedily receive 

your answer. " • ' In proportion as we study, wc 

become learned. - - A skilful gardener pulls up 

habile arrachery^ 

weeds as they grow. - - - Your brother 

mauvaise herbe^L crottre^v. 

learns his lessons, tohereas you do nothing. - - 7%( 

moment that I saw you, I knew you again. • - I did 

not stay in Italy, as long as you did. - • I followed biffl 

(with my) eyes as far as I could. ^ ^ As soon as ihey 

Jad taken the general, the army surrendered. - * Wby 

£d you give it. to him, considering that you hdi 

promised it te me? - • I did not come to see yoti) 
* 8ee ihe rule, page 132. 


steing Ih&t I did not know that you were ill* • • - 

You (look at) me, as if I bad taken your book. • * 

I win lend you ray horse, a$ you are my friend. - *• 

So you will not come when I call you t - • • He 

beat him so that he almost killed him. - • • 

Your mother is quite altered, sinct I saw her 

last. - • - - You must stay at home, since you 
demierementj^dv. au logts, 

are not well. - - The thing happened even as I had 

foreseen it. - - How comes it to pass that^ I have not 

seen your friend until now ? - - Why, in proportion as 

we grow older, do we not grow wiser ? - • - When 

you are going to undertake an affair of importance, 


permit me to tell you, that you (ought to) consult 

your friends before you begin it, When she had 


done speaking* she (fell asleep). - • Did you not see 

Mr. Brown this morning ? - - Yes, hut I could not speak 

to' him. - - • Sometimes those who meddle with our 

affairs hut to serve us, are those who do us most 

pour u plus 

harm. - - - The misfortunes of others seem to us 
tort^m. sembler^v» 

hut a dream in comparison to our own. * - - if you 


could give me but half of the money you owe me^ I 

shoald be (very much) obliged to you. - - - Beside ihat 

he does not apply as be should, be is often absent 

from school. - - - We were hardly arrived, when it 

began to rain. - - - While jou lose your time, your 

brother improves fast Play on the harpsichord, 

beaucoup^^dv* clavedn^m. 

while I write my exercise. - - Perhaps the master will 

forgive me. • - Though you should cheapen for 

two hours, I could not abate sixpence. - - Our father 

punishes and rewards us according as we deserve. - - - 

Speak as long as you please, I will not :grant you 

what you ask me. * - He had rather do harm 

atmer^y. niteux,adv. 
to his companions them (be doing) nothing. - • - If 

you loved to study, as much as you love to play, I 

should have (no occasion) to complain. • - I avoid 

auc^m sujet^m* iviter^v. 

slanderers, as mudi as I fear them.* - - - You may 
believe me, for so much as I was present when he 

said so. - - This proceeding was the more extraor*. 

dinary, as it was contrary to the laws of the king* 

dom. - - The belief of another life appears to 



me 80 much iht more conformable to truth, its it in 

the more necessary to virtue. - v^Virtue reigns $o 

much the more sovereignly, as it does not reign by 

force and fear. - • For all that be is rich, I cannot 

esteem him. - - ^ Ail men (seek after) riches, and 

recher cherry, 
yet we see few rich men happy. - - I see the king and 

queen every time I go to Windsor. -> • He interrupts 

me 08 often ae I speak. • - Whenever I go to London, I 

meet him. - - She said nothing to me except that it 

was impossible (for her) to do what you required of 

/fii,pro* de vouloir^y. 

her. - - I know not whether he would come, even though 

you should desire him. • - /n case Mr. S. calls 

here, tell him I am not at home. •- If you do it, you 

will be punished. - - Tell me sincerely whether be 

did it or not. - • We should spare ourselves 

many troubles, were we more prudent. 

The conjunctions that have this mark * affixed, 
as it appears in the preceding ones, when followed, 
in English, by a verb in the present of the indica* 
tive mood, and connected with another verb denot- 
ing futurity, require the verb, which, in English, is 
f)ut in the present^ to be rendered in French by the 



You will be rewarded just as you deserve* - - 

After jou have done jour exercises, you shall (go out.) 


- - I will explain these rules to you, as we read them. 

- - The moment that you burn this letter, the danger 

will be over, - - We will follow you as far as you go. 

• ' As long as you (keep con9pany with) those people, 

friquenttr^v. gtns^ 

never come to my house. - • We will (set out) as soon 

as we have dined. -'^As you deserve, you will be 
rewarded. - • Send me Miss White, when she has 

done writing. - • You will write the words accordf 


ing as I dictate them. - ' As long as you behave 

St comporttr^v. 
well, you will be dear to me - - • In short, said this 

good king, I shall only (think myself) happy in as much 

St croirt 
as I cause the happiness of my people* 

It has been remarked in the degrees of comparison, 
that every comparative must be attended by the con- 
junction qut^ than ; it must now be observed, that, if 
it precede a verb in the infinitive, que is to be followed 
by de. But if the verh be neither in, nor can be turned 
into the infinitive, the conjunction must then be attend- 
ed by nt ; that is, qut before the noun or pronoun, and 
ne before the verb : ex. 


/{ vaut miiux €tre nMl- It is better to be unfor- 

heuretix que d^tire coU' tunate than criminal. 

Man pere est rtoenu My father came back 

plutot que nous ne Pat- sooner than we ex- 

tendions^ pected him. 


It is more pleasing to enjoy good health, 

than to possess a large fortune. - • It is harder (to 
grand,adj. de 

be revenged) of an enemy, than forgive him* • - - 
se venger^y. 
It is better to (make a sacrifice of) a limb, said the 

surgeon, than to let him die. - • When the thunder 

roars it is less dangerous to be in an open field, 


than to take shelter under a tree. • - Should you 

se mettre devoir 

not apply more than you do; you, especially, who 

(are to) be useful to your country ? - - - That would 

give me more pleasure than you imagine. - - Did you 

not receive your goods sooner than you thought ? 

- - How many people can say to themselves, Had I 

se dirtyV. 
employed my time httttr than I did when I was 

young, I should be (in good circumstances) now. - - - 

a mon aise 
Diseases come faster than they go away. 

s*^en retourntr{v. 


Thefdlowing reqaire the vefb io tfae svhjunctive mood* 

Mn qat, ) ^j^ j^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

Pour que, ) 

Jlvani que,* before. 

Au or en cos que, in case that, if, suppose that. 

A maifU que^ ^ 

Q}U — ne, 3 

Bien que, ^ 

Encore que^ > though, altbougfa, for all that, as. 

Quoique^ ) 

jDe peur fue, 5 

Dim veuti/e mie, God grant. 

Plaiie^ or p/uf a Z)ieu que^ please God, or would to God. 

a Dim tie plaUe, God forbid. 

goniiM ?u«, J ^^^ ^^,^g ^^^^ 

jBror»oM«, 5 ' / '/ / -n/;.^ •v' /- 

Jti^^tt^a ce qtie,* till, untiL ( ^^^^ ^i«t4^i?,yJ^f:<e^^^^ 
JLoin ftie, far from. /'^^'-/^ '< ^^ f^' '^ ^ ^* * t.e^. 

^ono&5(aitf que, notwithstandiog that. 

Pour peu que^ how little soever, however little. 

Sans que, without that. 

Soil que, whether, — or. 

Supposons que, suppose, let us suppose that. 

Tant s\nfaut queje, I am so far from* 

Tant s*enfaut qu\l or elle, be, or she is so far from. 

Tant s^enfaut que nous, or vous, we, or jou are so far from. 

* Thes« conjunctions require the negation ne before the verba fol- 
lowing them : ex. 

A moins qu*il neiefasse^ Unteu he does it. 

De crainte, or de peur qnHU nt t{cnn$nt, For fear, or hit they comfc. 



I will explain to you every diflScuIty, that you 

may not be disheartened in your undertaking. - - - 

Carry that money to Mrs, Nolle, in order that she 

may pay the writing-master when he comes. - - - A 

(hy the fut.) 
wise and prudent man lives with economy when 

young, to the end that he may enjoy the fruit of 

his labour when he is old Before you begin an 

(by the fut.) ^ 

action, consider well, and see whether you can bring 

it about; for, it is the end that crowns the work*/-''!'- 
a bout 

In case jou want my assistance, call me, I shall be 

nearyoa. - - 7/1 do not call upon you this afternoon, 

I will write to you Suppose you should lose your 

friends, what would become of you? - - You will 

never be respected, unless you forsake the bad 

company you keep You cannot finish (to-night), 

unUss I help you. - - - 1 will not lend it you,' unless 

you promise me to return it to her, as soon as vou 
de rendre.y. '' 

have forgiven^me. . . They are not happy, /Aou»A 

tbey be rich. - - The general arrived yesterday morn- 
ing (at the) camp, weary and tired, but very season- 

ably; immediately he gave his orders to 

begin the action, though be had not yet all his 

troops. - - - Although yoo have a good memory, this 

is not enough to learn any language whatever, 

you must (make use) of your judgment. - - For a2( 

St «erDir,v.refl. 
that she has no fortune, I do not love her the less for 

it. - - - As zealous as he appears, I know one 

action of bis life which is neither Christian nor 

equitable. • • I lend you my violin althwigh ydu did 

not return it to me the other day. - • - My mother 

will come to see you, for fear you should forget to 

go to the play with her. - - - t will not give you 

that penknife, Usi you should make a bad use of it. 

- - - - I will go to London to-morrow, for fear he 

should come himself. - - - I will write again to 

your brother to-morrow, Usi he should not 

(present of subj.) 
have received my last letter. -• We avoided an engage- 
ment, for fear we should be taken> their force being 


superior to ours. • - God grant yott be not disappointed 

in yoar hopes ! - - - Would to God I had been there! I 

would have conquisred or perished. - - God forbid I 

should blame your conduct. - - Your business never 

will be done properly, unless you do it yourself. • • I 

shall not go out to-day, except yon go with me. - • 

They fought with fury on both sides, 

se haitrt^v. acharnement 

till night came. - - 1 shall not set out, till 1 have 

dined. • - I am going to Write, till we go out. - • Far 

from hating him, I wish him^all kinds of prosperity. 

- - - I forgive you this time, provided you promise me 

to be lazy no more, and pay more attention to 

de faireyV* 

what you are told. • - 1 will give you leave to dance, 

permission de 
provided you give me your word of honour 

not to overheat yourself. - - Why did you tell 

de s^6chauffer,Y% 
me my father was arrived, notwithstanding you 

knew the contrary ? - - He is so quick, that 


however little he is contradicted, he (flies into a passion) 


in an instant. • - • However little you give her 

she is of so^ good^ a^ temper*, that she is always 


pleased* - - •> Can you touch it mthout my bratber 


perceiving it ? - - Suppose we dine here to^^ay, 

s^apercevoir de 

and to-tnorrow at our bowse* • • I am 90 far 

from blaming you for assisting him, that, (on the) 

(comp. of the pres. inf.) an 

contrary, I (very much) admire your conduct. • - • 

He is 90 far from despising ber, that, on the con- 
trary, he respects and honours her. - - - It is to 
far from raining, that, on the contrary, I think 
we shall have dry and hot weather during all this 

The conjunction «, if, or whether^ instead of being 
i*epealcd in a sentence, is more elegantly rendered by 
9tie, with the verb following it in the subjunctive fliood) 
as, instead of saying. 

Si votis venez chtz moi, et If you call upon me, and 
8% V0U8 ne me trouvi^ do' not find m^ ^^ 
pas^ home, 

It is more elegant to say, 

Si vous venez chez moi^ et 
que vous ne me trouviez 
pasy &c. 

Que must also be repeated in the second part of a 
sentence, as well as the pronoun, when there is a con- 
junction in the first part of it ; in this case gue requires 
the following verb to be put in tbe^me mood as the 
preceding: ex. 


Des que je Paurai vu tt As soon as I have seen liiii 

que je /tit aurai parU, and spoken to him, I will 

je.vous leferai savoir^ let you knoWit. 

Quoiqu*il stnt plus rtche que Though he be richer than 

V0U8, et qtaPil 4rit de meil' you, and have better 

leurs amisrf friends. 


If your father do not arrive to-day, and if you 

want money, I will lend you some. - - -^ 

avoir besoin de 
Jf jou should see your sister, and speak to 

her, &c« • ' If you study and take pains, I 
assure you that you will learn the French 
language in a very short time. - - Whether 
you sing, or dance, do it with grace and atten- 
tion. ' ' ' If you love rae, and (be willing to) oU 
lige me, do not go to France with her. - * If men 

were wise, and would follow * the dictates of 

reason, they would (save themselves) many sor- 

rows. ' ' • If you meet my brother, and he speak 

to you, do not answer. - . - So ifiat you saw and 

spoke to her. - - Though you have good relations, 



yoar merit be Icdowq, and yop do not yva^t 

manqutr dt 
friends, yoCir projects will not .suQoeted m^itbout your 

brother's assistance. • - Jls ijfHm as I b^ve dressed 

myself, and breakfasted, I will go to see him. - - 

WhiU^jou play and lose jQur money, yojir .aister is 

learning her lesson. - - We ,must pity him who bas 

no talent, and Qnly despite ^im w^fao bas no virtue. 

- • - Play on the organ, wh^le I read my brother'i 

letter and answer him. - • - Beside that be never 

studies, and is always ,in the coontry, he bas not 

so much wit as his sister. - - I will exprlain to you 

every difficulty (in or^der) that you may take 

dourage and learn well. ^ - Thomh you should have 

the besi master in England, and learn all the rul^ 

of the grammar, if you do Dot put them id practice^ 

you will never speak good French. • • God gra^ 

you may succeed in your pursuits, and obtaiJ? the 

favour you solicit so ardently ! - • - fVhtlhtr 

Soii ?tt« 
God (raise up) thrones, or pull them down; 

ikver^v. abaisser^Y* <^ 

whether be communicate bis power to priflce»t 

f#ti jtte puissanctyf. 


or ;wiUidrAir it to bifpself,^ onljr l^ave them 

thqir own wqakne^s ; hp t^acbiQs ihnm Shew dutf 

in a sovereign mannien - - Whether you speajc or 


(hold jour tongue,) you will Obtain nothing from 

se taire^Ym 

me ; but whatever you qoaj ^9ja ftpea^ AP ihm you 

«iay never offend any one* - * :Your brother ^old me 

he was young, and «wa«'*' 'but twenty ^years -old when 

^be was made a captain; i think he was better in- 

formed and had more experience than you have. - « 

iiistruit «<o* 

i can assure you, that both our officers and soldier? 

have behaved nobly, and performed prodigies of 

valour, 4hotj^ the enemies were superior in num- 
ber, and had the advantage of the ground. 


It is here necessary to observe, that verbs denoting 
wish, tot//, command, desirtydoubt^fear^ignorance, enlrtaty^ 
persuasion^ pretension, surprise, &c. always require the 
conjunction que after them, with the following verb in 
the subjunctive mood* 

In short, in those dispositions of mind where the will 
is chiefly concerned, or whenever we express a thing 
with some degree of doubt or hesitation, then the verb, 
which, in English, is put in the infinitive mood, the 
participle active, or the future tense, must, in French, 
be put in the subjunctive mood : ex. 

* See the remark after the Terb itrtj to be, page 174. 


Croyez-vottf qv?il soit hanr Do you believe him to be 

nitef honest? 

Je doute que vous k fassiezy I doUbt of your doing it. 
Je ne crois pas qu?elU I do not believe she will 

vienntj come. 

See Falloir^ and the rules after it, page 332. 

Pay the utmost attention to the 


You wish him to pay you ; he has no money, I am 

obliged to lend him some every day* « - I do not 

think that true philosophy may be less useful to 

women than men ; but I remark, that the most 

part of those who meddle (with it) are but 

se tniler^y, en 

very bad philosophers, without becoming better 

wives for it. • - 1 do not believe that your mother will 

arrive to-day. • - - She wishes you may succeed 

in all your undertakings. - - I fear* she (will go 

craindre,y^ s^en ait- 

away) without speaking to me. - - 1 much fear he 
will come sooner than you expect him. - - Do 

you not say you are surprised that William has not 

spoken to you (ever since) last week. • - - For my part, 
depuis Quant a moi^ 

I am not surprised at it, for he is always pouting. 


* The verbs craindre and apprikender when attended with no 
negation, require that ne should be |)laced before the verb which 
follows : ex. Jt craim quhl ne mmirty I fear he will die. 


. . Do you tbiok ht will succeed, and obtain the place 

be aims at ? • - You have had much trouble, aud we 
aspirer^v. peint^ 

all fear lest her^fter she should give you much 

(pres.of 8ubj.) 
more. - - If you believe him to be your frieiid, why 

then do not you Coliow his advice ? • - It is necessary 

for you to go thither, and assure hiin^ that I am very 


thankful for all bis kindness* - - I wonder that 

reconnoissant dt^ 

Mr* R» has not yet asked your sister in marriage. « « • 

If yon !8e.e her andfshe speaks to you, do not answer 

faer. - • Order her io do it. * - Do you imagine 

Dire^Vm sHmaginer^v* 

^we 2ae sure itbey will come 4o-^igbt ? - • - X)o you 

iHiink it is possible ior jwu to (bring it about) ? 
crotVe,v. de tn venir a bout,y» 

• • It is just we ahould BuSbri^aince we deserve it. - ^ 

I do not say I liavw seen it« «• - He (was afraid) lest 

craindre^y. que 

you liquid come vrttile be was ,(gone out). « - « 


Our master has ordeted) that we should (get up) to- 

se kver 

novrow morning:earIy. - - STou did not think that sbe 

(wanted to) deceivte you, when she told you tbat. 


- - I wottdterr you should doubt, that it is your 

iire surpris^y* ce 

daughter who told it me. • • • Do you think my mother 


will let U8 go to the ball next week f • - Were Mr. S. I 

discreet and williDg to undertake that aflfair, [ 

would communicate it to him immediately. ^ - It| 

sur le champ. 
will be better for you to go and speak to him yoiu" I 

self, while he is town, because I do not doubl*of 

his undertaking it« - - Were I certain that you wooU 

nt with the subj. pres. 
speak to him about it, I would desire him to come 

prier de 

and dine with us to-morrow; for I (am to) see him to- \ 

night at his brother's. • • I am certain that be will 

satisfy you: are you certain he will satisfy mef-** | 

Your uncle is very glad you have written to j(^f j 

father. -- 1 will give you no rest, unless you arcff- | 

que ne , . 

conciled with your mother. • • I do not believe it is i 

she who has done it. - • Do you believe it ? - * l^J I 

brother is not well, and I doubt (very mucb) of | 

his coming to see us before next spring* - " : 

Do you think he is on the road ? - - I doaW | 

<n,p. «<^ route f 
whether he will come before next weelr« ' 

I did not know you had studied geography so lo0f / 

• After the verbs DtnUgr and Mer, when these verba are attend** ) 
with a ne^tion, ne is employed with the verb which foUows: *>• 
Je newUpasfueceiane wit^ I do not deny that it ii ao* 


It must be observed, tbat, after tbe verb voulmr^ the 
verb to have is not expressed, but rendered in French by 
que. ft must also be observed, that the sign of the fu- 
ture tense, shall^ when it refers to the will of a person, 
and meaning, / choose^ I do not choose^ do you choose ? &c« 
must be rendered in French by the present tense of the 
iDdicative mood of the verb vouloir^ according to the 
xiuaiber and person, with the following verb in the sub- 
junctive mood : ex. 

Je veux quHlfasse cela^ I will have him do that. 

Je veux que vous me mon* You shall show me that 
triez cette lettre^ letter, that is to say, 

I choose you should 
show, &c. 
VouleZ'Vous queje danse? Shall I dance ? that is, do 

you choose, &c* 


You would have your daughter return to- 
vouloir^y. rercnir,v. 

morrow, but that is impossible. - - I will have your 

father know what you have 4pne : you must stay 

here till he comes. - - Your mother would have you 

come directly ; why do you not you come then ? - - I 

absolutely intend that she shall go thither 

directly, and tell bim, that, whether he be ill or 

se porter 
well, I will have him set out as soon as he has re- 
ceived my letter. - - I will have you see my house, 

and tell me what you think of it. - - She shall not go 


iMo the eonBtrjr, anless I go with ber. • « My fetber 

woaM haT0 me and my brotlMr walk all tlie 

way. - - Your sister thall go with me to Croydon, aad 


Dot you. - - Yeur father will ha?e yon go to Franee 

in a month ; I am very glad of it, however I wonld 

not have you do things loo precipitately. - - - Shall 

my brother show you his translation ? - - Your brother 

asked me whether he might go home to-morrow ; I 

told him he might go whenever he thought he 

should be wanted: but you shall remain here till 

you have learned all your lessons. - - I know a gen- 
tleman who is going to Paris ; shall I tell him to call 

upon you? I would not have you go to Germany 
without understanding French well, as that language 

will enable you to learn German much sooner than 

meltre m iiai dt bien 

you expect. - - Your brother shall not go out to-day. 

- - Will you (be so good as) to go and carry that letter 

avoir la bonti dt *<>» 
to the post ? No, I cannot leave my play. But I tell 

you, that you shall (go there) ; I would have you pay 

tnore attention to what you are told* 


Quin fti«);Or dani^ preceded by a superlative, require 
the following verb in the subjunctive mood, and when 
gui stands as a. nominative to a verb, denoting a condi- 
tion, it also requires the following verb to be put in the 
subjunctive mood : e%» 

C^st la plus belle femme qui She is^the handsomest wo- 
puisse se voir^ man that can be seen, 

Oest It plus michani gar^on He is the most wicked boy 
qneje connoisse^ that 1 know. 

Je veux une femme qui soil I will have a wife who is 
belle, handsome: 

that is, I will not have any woman for a wife, but 
on condition she be handsome. 


Do you say you are surprised, that he has not 

yet written to you t I assure you it is not to be won- 

, ffV/oiiner 

dered at ; for, he is the most negligent man I know. 

- - - It is necessary for you to go thither, and assure 

him that he has done nothing that should 
/ 1 , . devoir^y, 

(make^me* angry»). , - He is the most charitable man 

we have in this neighbourhood; his purse is open 

to the poorest men be can find. - - - Did 

you not tell me you (sought for) a master who had 

a good pronunciation, and was endowed with (a 

J done de 

great deal) of patience? • . When a father is capable 

of leaching bis children, he is the best master whom 


they can have. -^ - 1 know nobody thai improf«fl 

foitt des progris 
more than Miss K— — ; and when she was learoiBg 

French^had she learned it by mles, she would 8| 


write, and translate now much better than Miss &— , 

though she was two years in Prance. * - Has not yovur 

brother some friends whom he can trust ? - - Your 

father has bought the finest horse that I have ever 

seen. - - Is there any lady that appears more reasonable 

than she does 7 -* * If you ever choose a friend, I wish 

you may choose one whom you esteem, and who 

may be an honest man. •* « It (will be better for) you to 

valoir mieux 
go and speak to him yourself, instead of writing to 

him, because I do not doubt of bis undertaking and 

(bringing about) your adair; he is the most diligent 
vmir i boul de 
and the most careful man We have in this country. - * 

Before you begin ahy thing of importance^ coRsult 

some body who is your friend, and on whom you caa 

rely, - - - Do you know itny body Who goes to 

faire fondly* 

France ? - - I havis soihething to sedd to my sister. - « 

If you do not follow thjr ddvicei believe me, it will 


be the gireatest misfortune that can happen to yon, 

• - Babylon wai^ the finest city that ever was built. - • 

The best reason I can • give you ia, that I 

(was not) we)]. <* *> If you lend me a horse, lend me 
St porter^y, 
one that gees well. - * - The God who has created us, 

and who created the univene, is the only one 

to whom we owe homage, and the only one whom we 

(ought to) fear« 


Interjections, as before observed, serve to express the 
sudden epotions of the soul* 

There are several sorts, viz. 

Of i^^ig'^Vii'fl***? admiration^ aversion^ silena, tailings 
encouraging^ warnings &c. such as, 

Allons^ gat ! come, be cbeerfol ! 

m^ courage ! come, come on ! 

jBon ! good ! 

Ah^ man Dieu! oh, my God ! 

Ah^ ouida / ay, marry ! 

JHii, quelle joie ! O, joy I 

d'cie// O Heaven! 

f'hfi ' fy upon ! shame ! 

Hold^ ho ! ho there I 

Hilas ! alas ! 

Malheur a! wo to ! 

Misericorde ! bless me ! 

Prenez garde^ gare ! have a care J 

Paix^ chut^ St ! hist, hush ! 

Silence! silence! 



Come, friends, let us rejoice ! - «- - Good ! here are 
se rijouir^v* 
news for jou, brother. - - - Fy, (yH Robert, yoo do 

not think of wb«t you say. • - Oh ! bow^ lovelj'a* 

ptnstr^y* a que 

virtue* is* modesty^ ! Why do yon not endeavour to 

s^efforctf;^. it 
acquire it ? • - Alas ! who can express^the lonneDti 

I suffer heref • . • Man without religion, never 

having bis heart or mind at peace, can, alas! 

tsprii^rsu en,p« 
be hui a very unhappy creature. - - - Wo to yoo! 

usurers, misers, unjust possessors of (other people^s) 
Vfuner,m. ai7are,m. au(nit,pro. 

goods, hearken to these word^: The treusvtes 
6ien,m. 6couter^v. «o» parvlej. 

of iniquity (will be of no service) to you. • • 

ne servir de rien 
(lazy people), go to the ant, consider what she 

partsseux fourmi^f* 

does, and leari^ from her, wisdom and iodostry. 

Bless me ! I am undone ! - Hush tb^re ! silence! 

perdUip.p. i 

• . Oh ! the dismal effects which laziness pro- 

duces ! - - How^ tremendous" an« ofiice' is' ^"^* 

Que <srrti/e,adj. U ^ \ 

of» a* judge' ! What wisdom, what integrity, wfec 1 

knowledge, what sagacity of mind, what experif^^^f \ 


(are required !) I 

ne faut^l pas avoir^v. 



de^ d, and pour. 

Having, in ibis manner, gone through the respective 
parts of speech, there will be no occasion for a syntax. 
It will, however, be necessary to give some rules for 
ascertaining the proper use of the particle de or d, and 
the preposition pour^ before a verb in the infinitive 
mood, and then to point out, by way of exercise, some 
idiomatical expressions that most frequently eccur in 
the French tongue** 

When two verbs come together in a sentence, the 
latter, having no subject expressed nor understood, must 
be put in the infinitive mood, whether the English sign 
<o, be prefixed or not* 

In the following cases, the infinitive mood must 
never be preceded by a particle. 

First, when the verb in the infinitive stands nomina* 
tive to another verb : ex» 

Aimer egt un verbt, To love is a verb. 

Secondlt, after the following verbs, alhr^ crotVe, d^ 
voir^ faire^ il fautj savoify valoir mieux, venir^ pouvoir, 
oser^ vouloir^ and pen^er^ when rendered by to he like pr 

EXERCISE on this RUiLE. 

To know how to give seasonably is a talent eytry 

body has not. - - To be able to live with one^s self, 

and to know how to live with others, are the two 

great sciences of life. - - I had rather doit 

aimer mieux^f* 

* The great nombcr of idiomatical exprsirioivi in the Freiuih Ian* 
guage has long been considered as an almost insuperable difficulty in 
the way of its easy acquirement ; however, this difficulty is daily 
decreasing ; these peculiar expressions are now gtvSng way to a reg- 
ular construction, and are very Ht41e used by th« htpi writers. 


now than later. « - Why dare yon not undertake it ! 

I tbiok you might succeed. - - He says he will lend 

you bis gun with all his heart, because you know 

fusilj m. 
bow to make use of it. - - Aristotle, though be was 

«o» se servir^y, 
so great a philosopher, was never able to penetrate the 

cause of that prodigy. - - Tell him, that he may set 

out when (he pleases). • • You never could 

il lui plaira^y* pouvairj r. 

come more seasonably. - - We (are to) go to VauxbaU 

to*morrow. - - 1 am going to see your brother. - - 

(Is it not better) to set out now, than wait 
Valoir muuXyV, dt attendre^v* 

any longer ? - - - If you think to oblige her, 
■ plus croire^Y* 

you mistake. - - We (were to) have had a ball ycster- 
se tromptr^y. 
day, but my sister was not well. • - You did very 

right, for you ought not to speak to bim. - - 1 

5i«n, adv. car^c. dtvoir^Ym 

(had like) to have fallen twenty times (in) coining 

pemer^y. *<^ 

hither, - - To instruct, please, and move the pas- 

sions, are the three principal qualifications requisite in 

qualile nicessaire 

an orator. - - If you would read this book, I could 

voul(nr;y. ' pouvotrjVm 

lend it to you for four or five days. - - He wishes to 

learii without taking pains. 

petite, f. sing. 


^be particle de is put before a verb Id the infini- 
tive mood : First, when any of the followiog words, 
of, from or witA, are used before the participle active of 
any verb. (See the rule upon the participle active, 
page 343..) 

Secondly, after a noun substantive joined immedi- 
ately to a verb, either without any article at all, or with 
tbe following articles, le, la, or les. 

Thirdly, after the following adjectives, dacent, glad, 
impossibk, necessary, sorty, worthy, vexed, and the like. 

Fourthly, after the following verbs : to advise, to ap* 
prehend, to bid, to cease, to command, to conjure, to coun* 
sel, to defend, to defer, to deserve, to desire, to endeavour, 
' to entreat, to fear, to hasten, to long, to order, to permit, to 
persuade, to pray, to promise, to propose, to refuse, tore" 
member, to threaten, to tell, to Toarn, to undertake, <^c. and 
the greater part of the reflected verbs. 

And lastly, after the conjunction que, preceded by the 
comparative d&gr«e. 


I have desired your brother, to lend me some 
money. - • My mother ordered me to tell you, to 

go and speak to her directly. - - Did you not permit 

him to go out this morning ? - - I am surprised to 

find you so ill. - - I have not desired you tq play. » - 

Bid your sister to send roe my book. - - We 

Dire,y. a 

(were afraid) of displeasing you. - - What do you 

advise me to do in such a case ? • - My sister 


and 1 intend to (call « upon) you on Friday next* 
passer,\. chez,y* y(^ 


I im Tcry glad to hear jou ace better. - • 

She does net pretend to speak French aa well m 

Mtpupur^y* de 
you. - - We are tired of repeating to 700 the 1 

tfai»gi so often. « * If you finish your exercise soon 

you will have the pieasare of walking, while the 
others will have the trouble of working. - - Hastea 

to tell her not to go thither (any more) ; for, she 
it d* pluSf adv. 

would be in danger of losing her life. - - En- 

deavour to please your oiasten by your application to 

study. • - Do not you remember having said yoa 
would carry me to the camp ? - • I)& not they 

deserve to be encouraged, who undertake to serve 
m6riter^v» * 
the public ? - - We are all glad to hear you have 

overcome your enemies ; we should have been sorry 

to have heard the contrary. - - What a fool^ you* areF 

apprendrcj <^ 

to grieve so, when you have so much reason to 

rejoice ! - - Never endeavour to speak French on less 

you have a good pronunciation. • • I shall never refuse 

to do you a service, (as long as) it is iq my power. 

rendre^y. *^ . 

- - Have you a mind to do what you have pro- 

♦<3^ envte, 
raised me ? - - I cannot give yoir the book you asked 

* See the rule, page 106. 


aie for, my brother has not (thought . fit) to send 

»o^ juger a proposyV* 

it me back again. - - I desired you to bring your 

sister with you ; why did you not ?♦ - - I forbid 

you to speak or write to him (any more). - • Would 

davaniagey adv. 
you not be very glad to read and speak Italian ? • - 

- • Condemn the opinion of no one hastily, but 

endeavour to regulate your own by the line of 
s^tfforctr^y. «o^ 

truth. - - Who can hinder me from speaking or 
v6nl6^ f. empScher^y, 

writing to her ? - - (Give* me* leave') to tell you, that 

you do very wrong to disoblige your aunt. - • He 

ma/, adv. 
(was not contented) to demolish the temple and pull 
se conienter^ v. a- 

down the statues, but, &c. - - Is there (any thing) 
haltre^y. rien, 

more glorious, than to change apger into friendship ? 

- - - (1 long) to see your mother, and tell her all 

// me tarde^y» 
that I think (about it.) 

The particle a is to be placed before a verb in the 
infinitive mood : Firsts after the auxiliary verb, arotV, 
to have, immediately followed by a substantive or an 
adverb, expressing a futurity in the action : ex. 

J^aiplusiiurs htires d icrirej I have many letters <o write. 

Secondly, after nouns substantive joined to the verb 
arotV, or nouns adjective joined to the verb ftre, 
signifying to be addicted, apt, bent, diligent, disposed, 

*.jDo»7, 18 understood, and mutt be expressed in French. 


dreadful^ eaiy^ Jit, hard^ imUnedf qukk^ ttatiy^ wljiti, 
Uied^ &c. 

Thirdtjfj after the folIowiDg adjectives, odmtVoMc, 
good^ dexUrouSj handsome^ scarce^ the last^ the firsl^ the 
second^ &C* 

And, lastly^ after the following verbs, to amut^ to 
aspire or aim a/, to begin^ to condemn^ to continue or go 
on^ to compel or force^ to design^ or destine^ to dispose^ to 
employ or sp«nd, /o encourage^ to engage, to excite, to 
exhort, to help^ to induce, to invite, to learn, to please^ to 
serve, to take a pleasure or delight in or to^ to teach^ to 
ikitJCf &c» 


Come hither, Paul, I have something to commuDi* 
cale to you* - - We have much to fear in our present 
situation, and a (great many) hazards to run. • - ' 
cannot go to the play to-oight ; for, I have five or 

six visits to pay. - - Is there any thing pleasantcr 

rendre, v. agreable^ 

to behold than the flux and reflux of the sea ? - - We 

(ought to) learn how to subdue our passions, 

*^ subjuguer,y» 

conquer our desires, and suffer patiently the most 

cruel misfortunes. • - She is always the first io 

(find fault with)^ what I do. - - Do not gather 
trouver a redire a 
that apple, it is not yet goodto eat. - - Mr. N* ^^^ 

me you had a country-house to let. * * Mr. F.i>^ 

louer^ V. 
.very agreeably roan, always ready to serve his frienosj 

but he has the misfortune to be inclined to gamioS* 


» . « Your master ddes not love yoQ, t>eeatise yM an 

iiot diligent in learning your lesson. - - - We had for a 

long time nothing to eat but the fruits which we had 

gathered. *- <- ^^ The greatest part of men spend their 

time either in doing nothings or doing what they ought 

not to do. • •» What you say of her is very hard 

difficile^ a^. 
to believe. «• * Tell him, I have no complaint to 

make about his conduct. • - • Whj do you oblige her 

to ask my pardon, since she is not inclined to do it her- 

self ? - - - I believe she takes a delight in tormentinf^ 
me. * • - Life is so short, that we should employ all 
our days in preparing ourselves for the other world. - - 
There is no more danger to fean - * • Use yourself, 

S^aceoutumer^ v. 
said a father to bis son, to practice virtue : that alone 

will help you to bear with patience all the vicis^ 

situdes of fortune. * * ' Never amuse yourself in read- 
ing bad books. - - - Vou can never spend your time 

paher^ v. 
better than in reading and studying the history of your 

own country. - - Learn to speak well ; but, above all, 

to speak truth. - - That^ science which teaches us to 

dtre, V. 
see things as they are, is highly worthy of cultivation* 

- - - An honest man always takes pleasure in obliging 
his friends. • - - Does your master teach you how to 

translate English into F^rench ^ • • - t)o you begin 16 
translate' French^ well ^ - - - Why did you hot oblige 
him to pay you what be owes you ? - - - Why do you 


not (get ready) io set out with U9 1 - -MloTelo 

a^appriterj V. 
discoarse with polite krid sensible people. 

N. B. For the sake of euphony, the following verbs, 
to begin^ io continue^ to constrain^ to engage^ to exhort^ to 
compel^ or /orc«, to endeavour^ to obliatj may be succeed- 
ed by de, or d, as most convenient. 

The preposition pour is to be used before a verb io 
the infinitive mood, when it expresses the caust^ the 
design^ or the end, and then the English particle to mj 
be expressed by in order fo, to the end^ or /or to. Tbii 
preposition is also used after the adverbs, enough^ on pur- 
pose^ too^ too rnuch^ or less ; and before aa infinitive in 
the beginning, of a period. 


I will do (every thing) in my power to please him. • • 

Good rules are useless, if the attention, indusrry, ao^i 

patience of the scholar be not put into practice to learn 

them. - - Mrs. B. has (too much) pride to confess ishe 

(is in the wrong.) « - To understand* geography* welV 

avoir tort 
we must, &c. • - I assure you that I came (on purpose) 
on expris 

to see you. - - - She will do all that is in her power to 
oblige you, and prove to you that she is truly jo'*^ 
friend. - - The wicked live to die, but the righteous 
die to live. - - She has vanity enough to believe all 
you tell her, - - What makes the misfortunes of kings? 
is not to have friends bold enough to tell them ti^ 
truth. - - I wrote to you some time ago, to let 

you know, that your brothers were arrived. • • S^ 


promised me, that he would do (every thing) to de- 
serve the hooour of your protection. - • • I sent yea* 
terday my servant to your aunt's to desire her to 
send^ me^ back^ again' the book I lent her a month 

ago, but she was not at home. - - We did all that 

fairt^ V. 
we could to pas» the river, but could not (accom- 

en ventr a 
plish it). - - - To convince you that I am ready to do 
you any service, (be so kind as) to command me. 

avoir la honU^v. 
- - - Why did you not punish her for having done 

what you forbade her to do ? - • - A man should live 

a century at least to know the world, and many other 

centuries to (know how to) make a proper use of that 

savoifj ctmvenable^ 




ON THE VERB AVOIR, to have, &c. 

Avoir mala la t6U, * J^^,*^^'^? the head-ache, or 

' I a pam in the head. 

Avcnr mal aux oreilhs, j ** !»''y^ '°'^ ""' °'- « P«» 
' C m tne ears. 

a ' J t to have sore eves, or a pain 

Avoir mal auxyeux, J in the eyes. ^ 

Avoir mal an ntz, \ *° •»^''^'* '"^ '">«^' ^"^ » 

' I paiD in the nose. 

Avoir mal a la hmcht, \ *<» ^^"f ». ""f ™°"V^' ^ 

' ( a pain in the mouth. 

Avoir mal aux dents, ilrc. to have the tooth-ache. 



We say, after the same manner, Avoir froid aux mains^ 
auxpieda^ 4^c. to be cold in one^s Lands, &c« ex. 
Tai froid a la liUy aux My head, my bands, and 

mains^ el aux pie ds^ my feet, are cold* 

Avoir bcauj to be in vain : ex. 
Yousavez beau parler^ It is in vain for ^ou to talk. 

Avoir beaucoup de peine^ to have much ado* 

Avoir de la peine a^ to have difficulty in ; ex* 
J'ai de la peine a vous croire^ I can hardly believe you. 
Avoir besoin de^ to want, to have occasion for* 
Avoir la bontc de^ {daigner\ to be so kind as* 
Avoir connoissance^ avis de^ to have notice of* 
Avoir cours^ to take, to be in vogue. 
Avoir honte^ to be ashamed. 

Avoir la mine de^ to be like, to look like : ex* 
Vous avez la mine d'^itre You look like a man ofun- 

intelligent^ derstanding* 

Avoir pitie d«, to pity. 
Avoir part au gdteau^ to share in the booty. 
Avmr bonne mine : ex. 

Vous avez tres-bonne J you look very nell to-day. 

mine aujoura/hu%^ > o j 

Avoir plus depeur que de mal^ to be more afraid than fauri 
Avoir raison de^ to be in the right to. 
Avoir 50tn, to take care. 
Avoir tort dc, to be in the wrong to. 

xn ' r ' J ^ to have no Qccasion or business 

N'avoir que f aire de, J of or for. 

JPavoir garde dc, or 1 are ex- < to be sure not to, 

Se garder bien de, 3 pressed by ( or, by no means. 
Aller son train, to go one's own way. 
Aller trouver quelquhm^ to go to somebody. 
Venir trouver, to come to. 


I could not call upon him this morning, because I 
bad a pain in my head. - • My brother would have 
come with me, but he has a sore leg, and is obliged to 


keep bis hed. - - I heard your mother had the 

garcler h 

tooth-ache : Is it true ? No, madam, but she has 

a pain in her side which prevents her from (going 

oui.y- - - - I have not vet finished my exercise ; 

for my hands were so cold^ that I could not write a single 

word ; besides, I had much ado to find my books, I 

did not know where (to look for) them. - - It will 
be in vain for you to write to me, 1 never will answer 
you. - - - I can hardly believe what you tell me. - - 
/( is in vain for me to speak to her, she still goes her 
own way. - - - Miss N. cried very much yesterday, but 
I think she was more afraid than hurt, - ^ It has been 
in vain for him to torment your sister, she never would 
tell him what happened to her when she was at Mr. 
P^s. - - - Go to him, and tell him that, unless he re- 
turns me my books in a very short time, 1 will desire 

•oi peu 

his father to send them to me : when you have told 

him that, do not (wait for) his answer ; come to me im- 
mediately, I shall be at your mother's, where I (am to) 
dine, and thence go to the play with the^ whole* family. 
' ' ' In vain 1 give myself trouble, I am not the richer 
for it. - - - Your sister does not look so well to-day as 
she did yesterday. - - • Am I not in the right to go 
there no more ? - - - I will take care to prevent them 
from coming hither. - - - Believe me, I have long sus- 
pected them, and now I am very certain (hat both your 
cousins and they have had a share in the booty. - - - fF« 
should often be ashamed of our finest actions, if the 


world knew all the motiTcs which produce tbein. - - • 
You are in the wrong not to (ask for) his horse, be would 
lend it to yoo. - - - Why should I borrow his horse, 

when I have one (of my own ?) - - I have no occasion for 

a nun, 
bis. • - - Be 80 kind as to carry that letter to Mr. H'ff, 
but be sure not to tell him who sent you. . - 1 hope 
you will by no nuans go there again, after what has hap- 
pened to you. - - - He was so altered, that she had 

much ado to recollect him, but he now begins to lookxtry 

welL - • Somebody having advised Philip, Aleian- 

der's father, to banish from bis states a man who bad 

spoken ill of him, 1 shall by no means do it^ answered 

be, he would go every where and speak ill of me» 

Casonaise, ^ ^^ ^^ .^ ^^^ ^.^^„„. 

Etre < en bonne passe, V stances 

( Wen dans ses affaires^ 3 

ri, L- ^ J 11 (to be in favour tfiU 

Etre bun aupres dequelqu*un, < ? 

' ( some one. 

r,, , ; , ( to be out of favour with \ 

Lire mat avec quelqu^un. < ^ 1 

' ' ' ( some one. 

f tobe chargeable, trou- i 
Eire a charge a qiitlq\Cun^ < blesome, or a burden 

f to some one. I 

Etre but a but, to be equal. 

Etre de mot/ze, to go halves. 

T?i - t *A J r '1 J 5 to be within mus- 

Etrealaporiiedufusil, du canon, ^ ket-8hot,guD-8bot. 

Etre a la portee de la voix, to be within call. 

Etre 1^ ^^ ^"^'* ^^^ ? *° ^^ "P^" ^^^ brink, or very 

( sur le point de, > near to. 
Etre en etai de, ) . ^ ui * ir j 
Ivoir It moyendt, \ '^ ^* **''« '^ *«^'**' 



Your brother is in good circumstances now. - • 

Somebody told me he was in favour with the king. - - 

Yes, it is true, but heis out of favour with my father, 

because heis tioublesome to the family. - - Well, Mr. 

Eh Wen, 
R. and he are equals. • - - I thought Mr. A. and Mrs. 

D. went halves in that affair, but I beard the contrary. 

- - - Suffer me to tell you, you do very wrong to treat 

her as you do, you undoubtedly muEt have forgotten 

she 15 in the queen's/arour. - - - Well, though she be in 

the queen\s /avour, do you imagine I am not to tell her 

what I think of her conduct ? - - - The two fleets were 

within gun-shot^ and very near beginning the engagement, 

combat^ m. 
when we left them. - • We will be within call. - - 

Why do you not take a coach now and then ? said she 

to me. 1 would willingly take one sometimes, replied I 

to her, but I cannot afford it. 


Faire cas df, to value, to esteem. 
Faire un tour de promenade^ to take a walk. 
Faire le malade^ to sham sicknes?. * 

Faire Vicole buissonniere^ to play truant. 
Faire beaucoup de chemin^ to go a great way. 
Faire le bel esprit, to set up for a wit. 
Faire fond sur quel qu*un, to rely upon one. 

Faire savoir, (envoy er dire,) f '° J**,end "Trd! **" '"^'"''"' 
Faire voile, or ) . . ., 
Mettred la voile,] ^°'^^''''^' 

Faire faire, to bespeak, to get naade, to oblige one to do. 


Fairt d€ son mieux^ to do one's best. 

Fairt semblant^ to pretend. 

Faire de sonpis^ to do one^s worst. 

Kt fairt que de^ to be just, or 

Vmir de^ to have but just : ex. 

// ne fait que A^arriver^ He is hut just arrived. 

Ne fairt que, to do noxhing but. 

Se faire des amis^ des ennemis, to get friends^ enemies. 

Se faire des affaires, to bring one's self into trouble. 

a r ' C to be conceited, to have a good 

o'en faire accroire^ < • . r % ir 
•^ ' ' i opinion of one's self. 

Oen est fait de wiot, 1 am undone, it is over with me. 

CPen 6toitfait de iut, be was undone, it was over with hifflr 

r*? ^ r^-i j^ 11 ? she will be undone, it will be over 
Chnserafaiid?elle, J ^j^^ ^^^^ 

C^en sermfait de nous, ^ ^\^^^^^^ be undone, it would 
^ ' < be over with us* 

The English verb, to cause, preceding the verb lobi^ 
immediately followed by a participle passive, is render- 
ed in French, by the verb /atVc, and then the verb/o^ 
is not expressed, but the participle passive is turned 
into the infinitive mood : ex. 

/Hiu fit co'uper /a /e/e, He caused his head loht 

cut off. 


Do not lose that ring, for I value it much : it is a par- 
ticular friend of yours who gave it me. - - I would go 
and take a wallc, if I were well. - - Do you not sA<»» 
sickness now and then? - - - Did not your brother pto]/ 
truant last week ? - - - That man goes a great TDoyfo^ 
a trifle. - - Mr. P. sets up for a rvit, wherever he goes* 
You may rely upon what 1 tell you. - - He succeeds 

better in being conceited^ than in giving others a 
a a ^ 

-^d opinion of himself. - - 1 begin to be (very much) 


satisfied with fais brother, lyho now does his best^ and 
will soon be able to write a French letter to his father. 

- - - Let me know whether he will pay jou or not. - - - 
We shall set sail about the fifteenth of next month. - - • 

- - Why did not you bespeak three or four pair of shoes^ 

more ? - - - Send word to your brother, or let him 

know^ that there is a letter for him here. - - I will give 

him an exercise, and oblige him to do it in my pre- 
sence. - - - She told mc if she a?cre obliged to do it. 

she would do her zoorst* - - She pretends not to 

listen, bat I assure you she does not lose a word of what 

you say. - - We were but just (come in) when it bega» 

to rain. - - - It would have been over with us^ could the 

enemy have known what passed in our camp. - - You 

do nothing but play from morning till night. - - - - 

That young lady will get friends every where. - - - 

If you do not take care, you will bring yourself 

into trouble. - • Permit me to tell you, tbat they 

are too much conceited. • - - Your brother is undone^ 

if his master come to know of it. - - The king caus- 

ed them to be put to prison.. - • He caused a superb 

palace to be built. 


Aimer mieux^ to have rather, to choose rather. 

Se donmr bUn des airs, J '° ^**';5 ^ S^«^^ ^^^^ "P"" '^^'^ 

// nefautpas sHtonner^ it is no wonder.- 
II me tarde de, I long to. 


Petmr^ to be like. (Followed by a verb in tbe infinitive 

^, J - ?to lay the fault or blame upon one, 

S^en prendre a, J to look to one for. 

S'y Wen prendre, or Cto go the right way la 

S'^y prendre de la bonne fagon^ ^ work. 

S^y prendre mal^ to go the wrong way to work. 

e, 1 , , 4 , Cto go quite a different, of 

S'y prendre lout autremenl. J |^^^j^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

Prendre en mauvaise party to take amiss. 
Venir a bout dej to bring about, to accomplish. 


I choose rather to (set out) now than later. • - She 

told me she had rather speak to any other person than 

to Mr. L. - - They had rather hav^ bad you slay ii> 

que, eubj. 

Italy two or three years longer. - - - Do not you IhiDK 

de plus. 
Mts.H. takes a great deal vpon herself? - - - It is no von- 

der that I do not speak French so well as you ; yoabavc 
been several years in France, and I nerer was there. 
- - - I hope your brother will succeed in his undertak- 
ing ; for, he goes the right way to work^ and I amcertaw 
that he will bring il about. - - - Your cousin, on the 
contrary, will always be poor; for, he goes the wroni 
way to work in (every thing) he undertakes. - - She 
longs /osec your falher, and tell him you behaved well 

all the time of his absence. - - - I had like (to hare 


been) killed in coming here. - - If he lose, he wt/i/flj/ 
the blame upon you. - - - Why do you lay ih i^^^^ 
upon her ? she was not even in the room when ^^'^^ 
'qppened. • - - Should not your sister succeed, wbon^ 


would she lay ihe fault upon ? • • - Yaa say you 

long /o speak French ; and I tad, I assure you. <• - " 

I long to tell you sortietbing, nevertheless I do not know 

how to communicate it to you for fear of disoblfging 

you, - - - When you have a mind to tell me 

something disagreeable, you should go quite a different 

way to work* - - 1 beg of you not to take amiss what I 

prier^ ^o* 
tell you. - - Do not begin a thing, unless you are sure 

to brins it about. 

de ^ 


St passer dc, to do, to live without, or to be easy, without. 

Savoir ban gr6^ to take kindly of. 

Trouver mauvais que^ to take ill if.* 

Trouver a redire a, to find fault with. 

Tenir maison^ to be a house-keeper. 

Tmir boutique^ to be a shop-keeper. 

Tenir parole^ to keep one's word. 

^ ' (to he in a person's power : ex. 
// ne tient qu^d moi, a vous, It is in my, your, his, her,, 

a /ut, a elk, ire. power, &c. 

line tient pas a moi, a vous, It is not my, your, fault 

<J^c. que, &c. if4 

S^en tenir d, to stand to. 
Vouloir du bien a, to wish one welU 
En vouloir a, to have a spite against. 
Je souhaiterois pouvoir, I wish I could. 
// y va, il y alloit, de voire rie, your life is, was, at stake* 

II y va, il y alloU, d. man konneur. [ •"^.^tToed i;T' 
Je ne laissepas de, nevertheless, or for all that, I. 

* With the following Terb in the subjunctive. 

t With the following verb in the subjunctive, and ne before it. 



When I have wine, I 'drink some; but when I have 
none, I am easy without it. - - - If you will ht so kind as 
to write to my father, to let bim know my situation, I 
shall take it kindly o/you, and promise you never to 
find fault with what you may recommend to me. - - 
I wish I could do you ihzt service, I would do it with aH 
my heart. - - - I hope you will not take it i//, if 1 write 

to your uncle (at the) same time. - - I shall stand to 

what you say. - • - Hie has been a house-keeper these five 
and twenty years. - • He might have succeeded much 
better than he has done, had he followed his uncle's ad- 
vice and mine ; but he never was satisfied, and was cou^ 
txnu^Wy finding fault with what we were telling: him. - - 
However little you send him at present, he will take it 
kindly of you. '-'Wis in her power to live in the coon- 

try, and be very happy there. • - // will soon lie in your 
power to make us happy. - - I assure you it shall nolle 

my fault, if you do not succeed ; for I wish you well. - - 
Since it lies in your power to recommend Mr. P^. to your 

friend, why do you not do it ? - - When you see bim, 
you may assure him, that, since it is in mypomer to do 
it, I will not forget him. - - - Ymi have a spite against 
my brother ; because it was in his power two or three 
times to oblige you, and he never would. - - - I wish I 
could persuade you how sorry he was for it ; but his 
honour z&a^coitcenied in not doing it: and, though you 

be very angry with him, he would, nevertheless, {or, for all 
that^) do you service if it were in his power. - - Had 1 


thought he would have refused me that favour, I never 
would have asked it (of him ;) I might very well have 

done without it. - - You ought to have thanked him for 

that attention, instead of being angry with him ; but 

when your sisters heard that you could not obtain his 
leave, they took it amiss^ and have (ever since) had a spite 
against him. - - When they told me (of it,) I would most 

willingly have represented to them (how much) they 
were in the wrong : but I would by no means do it ; for I 
know it is in their power to do me (a great deal) of harm, 
and I do not wish to get enemies. • - - - Every body ad- 
mires her humanity; for, though he has behaved in so 

ungrateful a manner towards her, she would, neverthe- 
kss^ have done him service, if he had lived. 



The understanding of languages serves (for an) in- 
intelligencey f. de 

troduction to all the sciences. By it we come 

parvenir^ v. 
with very little trouble at the knowledge of (a great 

many) fine things, which havts i:ost those who in- 

vented them (a great deal) of pains. By it all 

times and countries lie open to us. By it 

tiecUy m. pays^ ilre^ v. 

we become, in some measure, contemporary to all 



ages, and iDhabitaots of all kiogdoms. It (enables) 

nutire en ctai 
us to coDTerse with the most learned men of all 

antiquity, who seem to hare lived and laboured for 

us. We find (in them) many masters, whom (we are 

t7 noiu 
allowed) to consult at leisure ; many friends who 
utptrmis de 
are always at hand, and whose useful and agreeable 

conversation improves the mind. It informs us of 

a thousand curious subjects, and teaches us eqoall; 

(how to derive an advantage) of the virtues and vices 

a profiter^^f. 

of mankind. Without the assistance of languages, 

seeours^ m. langw^i* 
all these oracles are dumb to us, and all tbete 

pour, p. 
treasures (locked up ;) and, for want of having the 

key, which alone can open us the door (to tbeoi,) we 

f eu/,adj« tffi, r. 

remain poor (in the) midst of (so many) riches, and ig* 

norant in the midst of all the sciences. 

We (come into the world) surrounded with a clood 
natlre^ v. * 

of ignorance, which is increased by the false pre* 

judices of a bad education. By study, the formef 

is dispersed, and the latter corrected. It g'vcs 

* See the observation on the preposition vfUhj page 405. 


proportion and exactness to our thoughts and rea- 
sonings ; instructs how to range in due order what- 

«oi convenable 

ever we have to speak or write ; and presents us with 
dire,v. »o^ 

the brightest sages of antiquitj as patterns for our 

; conduct ; those sages, in this sense, we may call, with 

I Seneca, the masters, and teachers of mankind* But 

Senique precepteur^w. 
I the usefulness of study is not confined to what we 

I: call science; it renders us also more fit for business 

( and employment ; besides, though this study 

(/ejo/M5,adv. qnand^c* 

i were of no other use but (the acquiring) a habit of 
, de t 

I labour, (the softening) the paips of iti (the pro- 
curing) a steadiness of mind and (conquering) 
t fermete^f* t 

J our aversion to application or a sedentary life, or 
whatever else seems (to lay a restraint upon) us, it 
J «<>» assujettir^v. 

would still he of very great advantage. In reality, 
it draws us off from idleness, play, and debauchery. 

rehVer,v. «o^ 
It usefully (fills up)f the vacant hours of the day, and 

renders very agreeable that leisure, which, without the 

assistance of literature, is a kind of death, and, in a 

manner, the grave of a man while he is alive. It ena- 

I These participles active are to be rendered in French bj the in- 
finitive, and the conjunction and preposition should be repeated be- 
fore each. 



bles tts to pass a right judgment upoD other me&-$ 

labours, to enter into society with men of undersfanding, 

en esprit^ 

to keep the best company, to (have a shdre in) 

friquentcTyV. prendre part a 

the discourses of the most learned, to furnish out matter 
for conversation, without which we must be sileBt ; to 

render it more agreeable and more useful, by iotermiz- 

ing facts with reflections, and setting the one by the 



As it is very essential to the thorough learning of a 
language, not to mistake one part of speech for another, 
we finish this grammar by giving a classical and methodi- 
cal scheme for parsing a sentence* The examples, 
with very little change, may suit any language. 

Article. Qaestiimt i Is it definite, partitive or indefi^ 
nite? What gender? What number? 

ExampleB. Le poiivoir du roi, the power of the king ; 
la liberie des hommes, the liberty of men ; J'ai du pain, 
de la viande, des ponames ; I have breads meat^ apples ; Is 
soeur de Pierre, Peier^s sister. 

Application. JLe, definite art. m.— dti, contraction of 
de 2e, genitive defi. art. m.«^La definite art. f.—des, con* 
traction of de /es, genitive defi. art. both genders, pi. — </u, 
in the sense of some^ part. art. m. — de la, in the sense of 
some, part. art. f. — des, in the sense of some, part, art* 
both genders, pi. — de indefinite art. both genders and 
numbers, geni. and abl. — a dat. indef. art. 

* Repeat this same preposition before each verb* 


Substantive.. Qm^imm: What gender? What num- 
ber? If the noun is singular, name its plural ; if plural, 
name its singular. 

Es^mples. Le pouvoir du roi ; la liber U des faommes ; 
le prix des denries^ the price o/* provisions. 

^plicaiionp Pouvoir^ substantive, m. pouvoirs for its 
pi. — -Libertt^ subst. f. libertes^ for its pK — Prix^ subst* 
Ills, prix for its pL — Iknrief^ subst. f. pi. denret for its 

Adjective. Questions : What gender? What number? 
What does it agree with in the sentence ? If it be mas- 
culine, name its fern. If it be feminine, name its masc. 

Examples. Un beau chapeau, a fine hat ; ces femmes 
sonijolies^ those ladies are pretty j cette fille est orgueil* 
ieustj th&t girl is proud* 

Application. Beauy noun adj. m. agrees with chhpeau ; 

it has belle for its feminine.*-^Jo/i<5, noun adj. f. pi. 

agrees with femmes; it has joli for its masculine. — 

Orgudlleuse^ noun adj. f. agrees with Jille ; it ha^ or* 

I gueilkux for its masculine. 

Pronoun. Qi^tuxns : U it persona), conjunctive, pos* 
eessive, relative, demonstrative, interrogative or indefi* 
Dite ? What gender? What number ? With what does it 
agree in the sentence ? 
I Examples. Elle a mon livre, she has my book. Ceitt 
plume ne vaut rien, this pen isg&odfor nothing. L'bom- 
me qui vous parlott, the man who was speaking to xfou. 
II y a plusieurs annees, several years ago. Quel homme ? 
What man ? 

Application. Elle^ pronoun pers. f. agrees with a. 
Mon^ pronoun poss. m. agrees with livre. Cette^ pro- 
noun demonstr. f. agrees with plume. Qui, pronoun rel. 
both genders and numbers, agrees with homme. Plu- 
sieurs^ pronoun indef. pi. both genders, agrees with 
annies. Quel ? pron. int. m. agrees with homme. 

Verb. Questions: Name its infinitive — its person — 
its number — its tense — its mode. 

Examples. Pendant qu'ils itoient ensemble, j'en/encJu 
Bonner midi ; while they were together^ I heard twelve 
o^clock strike. Quoiqu'il paroisse heureux, n^enviez pas 


BCD sort ; though he may appear happy^ do nol envj h; 

Application^, Etoient^ from etre ; 3d pers. pi. imperf. 
tense, indie, mood. EnUndilSy from entendrt; Utpen. 
sing, preterite, indicative mood* Paroisse^ frompamiTt 
3d pers. sing. pres. tense, subjunc. mood* £nvMz,froiii 
envier ; 2d pers. pi. imperat. mood* 

Preposition. What does it govern in the sentence? 

Examples* Avant midi; sans argent; before no(n>; 
without monty. 

Application. Avant^ a preposition, governs mii 
iSarw, a preposition, governs argent. 

Conjunction. What mood does it require? Name 
the verb it acts upon in the sentence. 

Examples* Lorsque le roi entra, Ti^hen thekin^cm 
m. Quoiqne vous soyez riche, though you be rick Je 
lis pour m'amuser, / read to amuse myself* 

Application. Lorsque^ 2l conjunction, requires the 
indie. Here it governs entra. Quoique^ a conjunction. 
requires the subjunc. Here it governs soyez. Po^t)^ 
conjunction, requires the infinitive. Here it govern 

Adverbs and interjections. Only name tbem. 

Examples. Ah ! mon ami, agissez prudenvmni ; ab, 
my friend^ act prudently. 

Application. Ah is an interjection. — PrudtrMMK^"^^ 
an adverb. 


LES vers, k oe les considerer que sous le rapport de 
leur mecanisme, sent des paroles arraugees selon cer- 
taines regies fixes et determinees. 

Ces regies regardent sur-tout le nombre des sjllabes, 
la cesure, la rime, les mots que le vers exclut, les li- 
cences qu^il permet, et enfiD les difiierentes manieres 
dont il doit £tre arrange dans chaque sorte de Po^me^ 
Des diffirentes especes de Vers franqois. 

Od eompte ordinairement cinq sortes de vers franfois. 
C^est par le nombre des sjUabes qu^on les distingUQ* 

1^. Ceux de douae syilabes, comme : 

Dans le r6«duit ob-scur d*a-ne al-co-ve en-fon-c^e 
S^^-le-ve an lit de plu-me a grands frais a-mas-s^e : 
Qaa-tre ri-deaux pom-peux, par un dou-ble con-toor, 
J^VL d^*fen-dent Pen-tr^e A la clar-t6 du jour. 

Ces vers s^appellent alexandrins^ hiroiqaes ou grands 

2^* Ceux de dix sjllabes, comme : 

Du peu qu^il a le sage est sa-tis-fait. 
3^. Ceux de buit syllables, comme : 
L^hi-po-cri-te en fjraii-des fer-ti-le, 
Des Pen-fan-ce est p^-tri de fard ; 
II sait co-lo-rer a-vec art 
Le fiel que sa bou-che dis-tille. 

4^, Ceux de sept syllabes, comme : 

Grand Dieu ! vo-tre main r^-clame 

Les dons que j^en ai rc-^us. 

El-le vient cou-per la trame s^ 

Des jours qu^eMe m^a tis-sus, 

Mon der-nier so-leil se l^ve, 

Et vo-tre souf-fle m''en'ldve 

De la ter-re des vi'Vans ; 

Com-qae la feuil-le s^-ch^ 

Qui, de sa ti-ge ar-ra-cb^e, 

De-vient le jon-et des yents. 

5^* Ceux de six syllabes, comme : 

A soi-m^me o-di-enx 
Le sot de tout s'ir-ri-te : 
En tous licux il sM-vite, 
Et se Irou/e en tons licux. 


Les vers qui ont moins de six syllabes ne sont guere 
d'usage que pour la poesie Jjriqae, et quelques peliles 
pieces badioes. 

La cesure est un repos qui coupe le vers en Jenz 
parties ou hemistiches. 

Ce repos doit etre a la sixieii^ syllabe dans les grands 
vers, et a la quatrieme dans ceux de dix sjllabes. 
L'esprit et I'usage de la cesure sont tres-bien exprimes 
dans ces vers de Boileau. 

Que toujours en vos vers, - le sens coupant les mots, 
Suspende rhemistiche, - en marque le repos. 
Sar les ailes da temps -la tristesse s^envole. 
Qae le mensonge - un instant vous outrage. 
Tout est en feu - soudain pour Pappujrer ; 
La v6nt6 • perce enfin le nuage, 
Tout est de glace - k vous justifier . 

II n^y a que les vers de douze et de dix syllabes qui 
aient une cesure. 

Pour que la cesure soit bonne, il faut que le sens au- 
torise le repos ; ainsi dans les vers suivans, la cesure 
est defectueuse. 

N'oublions pas les grands- bienfaitsde la patrie. 
Faites voir un regret - sincere de vos fautes. 
Mon pere, quoi<|u^i] eut-la t^te des meilleures, 
Ne m^a jamais rien fait-apprendre que mes heures. 

La cesure ne vaut rien dans ces exemplcs, parce qiie 
le sens exige que le mot ou est la cesure, et celui qui le 
suit, soient prononces tout de suite et sans pause. 
Mais la cesure est bonne dans les vers suivans : 
Ses cbanoines vermeils - et brillans de sant^ 
S^engraissoient d^une longue - et sainte oisivete. 

Ici la cesure est bonne, parce qu^on peut faire uoe 
petite pause apres un substantif suivi de plusieurs ^d- 
jectifs, ou^M^® plusieurs adjectifs qui suivent ou qui 
precedent *ur^ubstanlif. 

I. Remarque. Le dernier mot du premier hemisticbe, 
peut se terminer par Ve muet, pourvu que le mot suivant 
commence par une vojelle. 
^^'Ami lui dit le chantre encor pile d^borrenr, 
N^insulte pas de gr&ce k ma juste terreur. 
n tr^pigne de joie. il pl?ure de tezidresse^ 


II. Rem. Leg pronoms cela^ celuu ce/ui-la, efc. et de 
qui, mis pour* dont^euvent aussi terminer ie premier 
hemisticbe, ou recevdir la cesure; on souffre cette ne- 
gligence, mais il faut^ae la permettre rarement; elle 
donne toujours aux vers un air prosaique. 

il n'est fort entre ceux que tu prends par centaines, 
Qui ne puisse arrSter un rimeur m scmames : 
B^nissoDs Dieu de qui la puissance est sans homes. 

Les vers de dix et de douze sjllabes sont, comme toue 
les autres, assujetis aux regies dont il nous reste a parler. 
La Rime est la convenanc^ de deux sons qui termi- 
nent deux vers. Quelquefois on exige aussi qu^ii y ait 
convenance dWtbograpbe, que deux sons seroblables 
soient representes par les memes lettres. 
Ou me cacher ? fuycns dans la nuit infernale. 
Mais que dis-je ? nion p^re y tient I'urne fatale. 
Le sort, dit-on, Pa mise en ses iF^v^res mains. 
Minos juge aux enfers tous les p&les humains. 

On distingue deux sortes de rimes, la feminine et la 
masculine. La premiere est celle des vers qui se termi* 
nent par un e muet, soil seul, soit suivj d'une s ou d'n/. 

Traraillez k Joisir, quelque ordre qui tous pressft, 

Kt ne vous piquez point d^une folle Vitesse. 

il veut les rappeler, et sa voix les efiraie ; 

lis courent ; tout son corps n'est bientdt qu'unc plaic. 

Dans quels ravissemens, k votre sort li^e, 

Du reste des mortels je virrois oubli^e. 

Un jeune homme, toujours bouillant dans ses caprices, 

Est pr6t k recevoir Pimpression des vices. 

C^est peu qu^en un ouvrage od les fautes fourmillent, 

Des traits d^esprit semes de temps en temps p^tillent. 

Ces vers feminins ont uoe syllabe de plus que lea 
inasculins : mais comme Ve muet sonne foiblement dans 
la syllabe qui termine le vers, cette syllabe est comptee 
pour rien. 

La rime masculine est celle qui finit par une autre 
lettre que i'e muet, ou seul, ou suivi d'une «, ou enfin d'n/. 

Chaque vertu devient une divinity ; 

Minerve est la prudence, et V^nus la beauts. 

Le travail est souvent le pdre du plaisir ; 

Je plains Phomme accab16 du poids de son loisir. 

Remarque. La syllabe dient ou aient, qui se trouve 
dans les imparrails et les condttionnels des verbes, forme 


une rime mascoline, parce que cetie syllabe a le sonde 
Ve OBvert. Aiosi iea vers saivans soat maaculioa* 

Anx accovdf d^Aaphion let pierres se nonroicnt, 
£t tur Uft mors Th^baius en ordre t^^levoiept, 


Les rimes masculines et f^minines se diviaeni eo 
riches et en suffisantes, 

h La rime riche est deux sons parfai- 
tement semblables, et souvent repr^senl^s par les 
mSmes lettres. 

Indomptabk Tanreau, Dragon imp^tneux, 

8a croype le recourbe en replk tortoeux. 

De rage et de douleur le monstre bondiesant 

Vient aux pieds det ehevaux tomber en mugissant* 

An moment que je parle, ah, mortelle pens^e ! 

lU braTent la fureur d^une amante insens^e. 

II. La rime suffisante est celie qui n'a pas une con* 
venance aussi exacte de sons et d'ortiiographe. 

H^Ias ! Dieux tottt-puissanB, que no pleun toqs appaisenL 
Que ces vains ornemens, que ces voiles me p^sent ! 
Quelle importune main, en formant tous ces ncends, 
A pris BOiB sur men front d^aBsembler mes cheveox ^ 

III. Dans la rime nrfascuiine, on n'a guere ^gard eo 
g^Q^raly qu^au dernif r son des mots : ainsi maison rime 
avec poison ; pi£t6 avec pure f 6 ; proces avec succes* 

IV. Mais dans la rime femininr^oD fait une attention 
particuliere au son de Tavant derniere syllabe, parce 
que ceiui de la derniere n'est ni a$sez plein, ni assez 
marqu6, pour produire une conformity de son sensible et 
agr^able a Poreillt. Ainsi mere et mare, audace et Justice, 
estime et diadhne ne rimeroient pas ensemble, quoique 
ces mots se terminent par la mSme sj'llabe re, ce, me. 

Mais 'Bisihlt et sensible, monde et profonde, jftsiice et 
precipice, usage et partage, peuvent rimer ensemble, 
parce que ces mots ont une convenance de sons dans 
les avant-^iernieres syllabes* 

y. Comme la convenance de sons est essentielle a 
la rime, on ne saurott bien faire rimer les syllabes 
breves avec les longues, les / mouili^es. avrc les / non 
mouillees, etc. comme matlre et metre ; juute et route ; 
jmne (qui nVst pas vieux) et jtxjLne (nbstin^ocr) ^ la 
mie et la//e ; piril aipuiril, etc. Ainsi J. B. Rousseau 


a manqu^ a son exactitude ordinaire, quand il disoit & 
son ami ; 

£t sur ce bord emailli 
OvL NeuUli borde la Seine, 
Reviens aa vin d^^uviU 
Meier les eaux d^Hypocrine. 

VI. L'e ferm^, Vi et Pu, soit seuls, soit suivis dea 
consonnes /, 5, t ou z, ne ferment pas de bonnes rimes, 
si dans les deux syllabes rimantes iis ne sont pr^c^d^s de 
la meroe consonne. Ainsi bonteet donn^^vtrtus et requs^ 
amis et avis^ cultivez etportez^ ne rimeroient pas bien* 

ChoUissez des amis de qui la pi^t6 
Vous soit un siir garant de lour fid^lit^. 
Ami droit et sincere on doit a ses amis 
Garder fid^lement ce qu^on leur a promis. 

VII. L'observation precedente a lieu pour I'a dans 
les verbes: il donna et il amm, il porta et il'r^va, il 
immola et il saura^ ne rimeroient pas ensemble. Et en 
g^n^ral elle est d^usage pour tous les sons commiins k 
on grand nombre de mots. Ainsi les sons ant ou en/, eu 
et on ne riment bien qu'autant quails sont pr^c^des des 
memes lettres, comvae puissant^ choMant ; agrimmt^ rigV' 
ment ; passion^ mission ; ambitieux^ religieux ; vieux^mieux^ 

Mais Ics mots suivans ne rimeroient pas bien ensem- 
ble : puissant^ chanalani ; raison, passion ; heureux, re- . 
ligieux^ etc. 

VIII. Quand la rime est form^e par des sons pleins, 
comme ar^ asy al^ or^ 05, ot^ er, es, tty at, ei, ot\ 0ti, eau^ 
eu, ou ; par an^ am^ en, em, ton, oin ; en un mot par des 
voyelles pi ec^d^es d'une ou de plusieurs consonnes, 
alors on n'exige pas que la lettre qui precede soit la 
roeme dans les mots qu'on veut faire rimer. Par ex- 
emple, embarras et combats, gros et sots^ progris et sue* 
cw, mer et en^lr, ouvert et sovffert, soitpir et d6sir^ espoir 
et devoir, jamais et parfait^, pain et f^iam, nuit et conduit^ 
ttmoins et besoins, soutiens et conviens^ et autres sembla* 
bles peuvent rimer ensemble. 

IX. Un mot en e, a;, ou z^ ne peut rimer qu'avec un 
mot termine par Tune de ces trois consonnes. Ainsi 
admirable et tables, risible et plausibles, le secmrs et le 
jour, la vaniti et vous miritez^ la foi et les lois^ le cour- 
roux et le genou, etc. ne rimeront pas bien ensemble. 


Halt hit et Bw, ^ourroux et Ioua, cilesUs et ttt de- 
fe; /e5, vanitis et vous m6dUez^ clefs et vous rac/ez, le 4u* 
cour« et ie cour;, forineront de boones rimes. 

X. Dans les verbes ot> et oily ajant )e son de Pe 
ouvert, ne riment guere qu'avec un autre verbe. Quoi- 
que yaimois et jamais^ dannois et harnois^ pla^oit at jaceff 
man^uoi/ et banquet^ je deplaqois et /e5 ^i/cce«, se termi- 
nent par Ie mefne son, Pusage ordinaire est de ne les 
pas faire rimer ensemble* 

XI. Les terminatsons, en/, otenf ou aient, ne doivent 
rimer qu^avec des verbes qui aient les memes termi- 
naisons : ils privent^ ils 6crivent ; ils Itirenly ils bureni; 
quails surfassent^ qul^'ih effacent; etc* mais ils meprismt 
ne rimeroient pas bien avec enlreprise ; la surfact avec 
ils aurpassmt. 

XIK La convenance des sons et d'orthographe ne 
peut autoriser la rii»e du met avec lui-DieB)e, d'un stm- 
pie avec son compose, nl meme de deax mots derives 
de )a meme racine, quand ils se ressemblent trop poor/a 
tignificftttoft. Ainsi la rime est defectueuse dans ces rtni 

Je connob trop les Grand?, dans Ie malbenr amisy 
Ingratft dana ki fortune, et biestdt envsmU, 

Eile est tout-al-fait vicieuse dans ceox-ci : 

Les chefs et les soldats ne se connoissent phts ; 
J/un ne peat commander, Pautre n^ob^it plus. 

Xin. Mais deux mots entierement semblables parU 
son et Forthograpbe riment bien ensemble,, lorsqu'ilsont 
des significations difierentes. X^es derives sont dans I^ 
meme cas, sHIs n'ont plus un rapport sensible pour le sens. 

Prends-moi Ie bon parti, laisse^laL teus les Usatea : 

Cent fraacfl au denier cinq, combien font-iU ? vingt itvrei* 

Nobles, souvenez-vous qu^ime naissance illuttu 

Des sentimens di> coeur regoit son plus beau luatte, 

Dieo punit les forfaits que )e« reis ont cotnmif, 

Ceox quMlt n^ont poi-nt veii^^, et c^xjcl quails out perviuF* 

XIV. Les deux hemistiches d*un vers ne doivent pas 
rimer ensemble, ni mdme avoir une convenanc0 d^ 
sons, comme : 

II ne tiendra qn^a toi de partir avec mot. 
Aux Saumaises yWur# pr^arer des torturet. 


XV. Le dernier hemisticbe d'an vers ne dolt pas 
HOD plus rimer avec !e premier du vers precedent on du 
vers saivant. 

II faut, pour les aToir, employer tons vos totnt ; 
lis sent k moi, du ftioins toot autant qu'*k mon fi^re. 
Un fiacre, me cbuvrant d'un d^Iug« de bone 
Centre Xe mor vouin m'^rase de sa roue ; 
£t, vonlant me sauver, des porteurs tJihumaina 
De leur maudit b&ton roe donneUt dans les reins. 

XYL II faut encore etritet* la rime dans ks premiers 

hemistiches de deux vers qui se suivent. 

Sinon domain matin^ si vons le trouvez bon, 
Je mettrai de ma main le feu dans la maison* 

Quelquefois cependant la rime des premiers hemis- 
tiches D^a rien de choquant ; c'est lorsqu^elle se fait par 
la repetition d'une pensee, d'ane expression qu^en rte* 

{iroduit k dessein, pour fixer davantage I'attentioii do 
ecteur; comme: 

Qui chercbe traiment Dieu^ dans lui seul se repose ; 
£t qui craint vraimtnt JDteu, ne craint rien autre obose* 

Des termes que U vers esoclut. 

I. Les bons Poetes rejettent avec soin tout les 
termes durs, on difficiles a prononcer, oo has et pra< 
saiques. Rarement lis se servent des conjonctions que 
les orateurs emploient souvent pour Her et arrondir 
leurs periodes ; telles que cUst pourquoi^ parte que^ 
pffurvu que^puisquBy de maniire^ defagon que^ ae ^ofU que 
ou en sorte que, outre, d^aiileun, en ^et^ etc. 

II est un beureux cboiz de mots barmonienv ; 
Fujrez des mauvais sons le concours odieuz. 
Le Ters le mieua rempli) la plus noble pens^e, 
l^e pent plaire k Pesprit, quand roreille est bless^e. 

II. Un mot termine par une autre voyelle que l'« 
muet, ne peut 6tre suivi d^un mot qui commence aussi 
par une voyelle ou une h muette; ce seroit un hiatus. 

Gardez qu'une Toyclle k courir trop h&t6e, ' 

Ne soit d^une voyelle en son chemin heurt^e^. 

Ainsi les phrases suivantes ne formeroient pas de 
vers : 

Que Paimable vertu a peu d^adorateurs J 
Evitezilc soucf, et fuyez la colere. 


III. Comme la conjonclion ef a toujours le son de Ve 
ferme, elle De sauroit non plus dans le vers etre suWk 
d^uoe vojelle. Oq ne pourroit pas dire en vers: 
Qai sert et aime Dieu, possede toutes choses. 

Mais on dira bien : 
Qui connoit et sert Dieu, possede toutes choses. 

lY. Les voyelles nasales qui, dans la prononciation, 
ne doivent pas etre liees avec le mot suivant, ne peu- 
vent avec grace etre suivies d'un mot qui commence par 
one voyelle* Ainsi la rencontre des voyelles nasales 
et des voyelles simples est desagreable dans ce vers: 

Un grand notn est un poids difficile l^ porter. 

Ah ! j^attendrai long-temps, la nuit est loin encore. 

Cependant cette rencontre pcut se souffrir, quandia 

I>rononciation permet de pratiquer un petit repos entrc 
e mot qui finit par un son nasal, et le mot qui com- 
mence par une vojelle ; comme dans ce vers de 
PAthalie de Racine : 

Celui qui met un frein a la fureur des iiot?, 
Sait aussi des m^cbans arr^ter les complots. 

V. L'e muet final et precede d'une voyelle, comme 
dans donneen aimSe^ Asie^ eyivie^ la />ate, la joie, la prait^ 
la rut^ entrevue^ etc. ne peut entrer dans le corps do 
vers qu^au moyen de Pelision j ainsi )es yers saivaDS 
8ont mal construits : 

Au tracers du Soleil, ma vue s'^blouit. 

lis Yous louent tout haut et Tomjouent tout bas. 

II avout sa faute et demande pardon. 

Mais C€ux-ci sont reguliers k cause de Pelision, 
La joie est naturelle aux dmes innoc^ntes. 
A quels mortels regrets ma vie est r^serv^e ! 

VI. L'e muet, dans le corps du mot et precede d'anc 
voyelle, est compte pour rien dans la prononciation; 
sou vent meme on ne Pecrit pas. 1 1 agriera, critra^ loutra^ 
rehiement^ devouement^ etc. ne font pas plus de sjllabe^ 
que agrirUy crtra, loura^ rentment^ divoAmenU 

Les vers n'ont ni grace ni harmonie, quand on rcjette 
au commencement du second vers des mots qui dependent 
necessairement de ce qui se trouve a la fin du premier* 


Quel qae soit voire ami, sacbez que mutuelle 
Doit etre ramiti^ ; naeme ardeur, iiieme z^le. 
n n'^est done point d^amis, pour la derniere fois 
Je le r^p^te en€or : pea connoissent les lois 
D^une Traie amiti^. . 

Dans le premier vers, mu/tt«//e depend n^cessairement 
de ces mots doit itrt Vamilii. 

Dans les derniers, ces mots i^unt xrau amitie sont de- 
pendans de ceux-ci, les lois^ et Ton ne pent les s^parer 
dans la prononciation. 

Ces enjambemens sont proscrits dans la haute po^sie, 
mais ils se tolerent dans les fables et dans les autres 
pieces de style familier. 

SI n^annioins la depcndance d'an vers s'^tendoit jas- 
qu^a la fin du suivant, en sorte qu'a la fin du premier il 
y eut un petit repos, Pharmonie loin d'etre^bless^e n'en 
seroit que plus sensible. 

L^ git la sombre enTie, k I'oeil timide et louche, 
Versant sur des lauriers les poisons de sa boucbe. 
Ce malbeureux combat ne fit qu^approfondir 
L^abtme dont Valois vouloit en vain sortir. — Volt. 

Des licences qu^on se permet dans les Vers. 

Ces licences consistent dans certaines dispositions de 
tnots, dans Pemploi de plusieurs termes dont la prose 
n'oseroit se servir, dans le retranchement d'une lettre. 


L On place avec grace les regimes composes avant 
les mots et les verbes dont ils dependent. 

Ji la Religion soje2 toujours fiddle, 
Les mceurs et la vertu ne sauvent point sans elle. 
C^est Dieu qui du niant a tir^ Tunivers ; 
C^est lui qui mr la terre a r^pandu les mers. 

Sans Dieu rien n^eilt 6t6^ 
Et lui seul det morttU fait la f(6)icit^. 
Ji voiu former U ccsur appliquez-vous sans cesse. 

IL On place entre Pauxiliaire et le participe, entre 
le verbe et son regime, des mots qui n'y seroient pas 
so^fierts en prose. 

Un vieillard v^n^rable avoit, loin de la Coury 
Cherch^ la douce pais dans un obscur s^jour : 
Dieu fit daru en dUett desceadre la sagesse. 


Les transpositions, qdand ell^ sont naturelles, et 
qu^elles n'embarras^ent pas le sens de la phrase, donneiit 
de la grace et de la nobiestse a la po^sk ; mw elles ne 
▼alent rieo, lorsqu'elles- i;endeDl le vers dor, on qu'elles 
obscurcissent la pens^e, coniine dans les vers suivaBS : 

Quoi ! Toit-on rcTetu de P^tote sacr^e 
lie pf§tre de Vauitl 8^ait6ter & Tefitr^e ? 
Craignez 4e voire orgtteil de vout rendre la dupe. 
Que toujoors ]a fierU, Phonneur, la biens^ance 
De cetlefoUe ardeur s^oppose k la naissance. 

Dt8 moisprcpres a la Poiskm 

La po^sie 0e ser t en g^n^ral des memes mots que ia 
prose ; cepeadant il y a qoelqnes expressions que fes 
Podtesempioient heureaseinent,etqui8eroient d^ places 
dans la prose. Telles sont an/if ue pour oncten .* coursur 
pour cheval: PElerntl^h Tres-Huut^U Taut-Puissani pour 
Dieu : Ufianc pour U snn^ le vtnir^ : le glaive pour r^6e : 
les humains^ les mortelsi la race de Japei pour Its hommes: 
hymen ou hyminie pour mariage : espoir pour espirance: 
le penser pour la pens6e : jadis pour autrefois : naguere 
ou nagueres pour il v?y a pas long-lemps : labeur pour 
travifil : repeniance pour repeniir : soudain pour atissiioi: 
ombre clernelkj somhres lords pour Venfer^ etc. 

O^ sont, Dieu de Jacob, tes antiques booths ? 

On fait cas d^on coursier, qui, fier et plein de cceor. 

Fait paroitre en courant sa bouillante viguear. 

L^Eternel en ses mains tient seul nos destinies. 

C^lebrons dans nos chants la gloire du Tr^s-haut. 

Si quelque audacieux embrasse sa qnerelle, 

Qu^^ la fureur du glaive on le livre avec elle. 

Souvent d^un faux espoir un amant est nourri. 

Les Dieux m'en sont t^moins, ces Dieux qui dans mon flatic 

Ont allum^ le feu fatal k tout mon sang, 

Ces Oieux qui se sont fait une gloire cruelle 

De s^duire le coeur d^une foible mortelle. 

Soumise a mon ^poux, et cachant mes ennuis, 

De son fatal barmen je cnllivois les friiits. 

On n^aime plus comme on aimoit jadis. 
Va dans T ombre eternelle, ombre pleine d'envie ; 
Et ne te mSIe plus de censurer ma vie. 

La lecture des boos Poetes fournira une foule d^autres 
expressioQs propres a la po^sie. 


Nous eerWons eo prose je crois^ je vm^ je dis^ je sais^ 
je vis^ yuverlisy etc. Le^ Poetes, selon le bespio, em* 
l^ioiefit ou retranchent 1^; dans ces mots* lis ecrivent dc 
meme jusque ou jusquesy encore ou encor^ grace au del ou 
grdces au CieL lis eoiploieni aussi alors que^ pour lorsque^ 
cependant que pour pendant que^ avecque pour avec^ etc. 

Les bons Poetes se servent rarement de la plupart de 
ces dernieres licences ; et ceux qui se liyrent a la poesie 
ne doivent pas oublier le precepte de Boileau. 

Sur tout qu'en vos Merits la langae r^v^r^e, 

Dans vos plus grands ezces vous soit toujours sacr^e ; 

Knvain vous me frappez d^on son m^lodieux, 

Si le terme est impropre ou le tour vicieux ; 

Mon esprit n^admet point un pompeux barbarisme, - 

Ni d'un vers ampoul^ Porgueilleux soUcisnie. 

Sans la langne, en un mot, Pauteur le plus divin, 

Est toujours, quoiqu^il fasse, un m^chant 6crivain. 


Dans les dlfferenles manieres dont les vers doivent 
etre arranges, il faut eonsid^rcr la rime et le nombrc 
des syllabes. 

Le nombre des syllabes est arbitraire dans les pieces 
libresetdans la poesie Ijrique ; mais il est determine 
dans les autres pieces serieuses, qui sont la plupart ecri- 
tes en vers de douze syllabes. Ainsi dans le Poeme 
^pique, I'Eglogue, PElegie, la Satyre, I'Epitre, et dans 
la Trag^die et la haute Com^die, il est d'usage de n'em- 
ployer que le vers Alexandrin. 

Quant a la rime, deux vers masculins peuvent Strc 
suivis de deux vers f^minins, el vice versa ; ou bien un 
vers masculin est suivi d'un ou de deux feminins, et no 
vers feminin d'un ou de deux masculins. 

On appelle vers o rime* plates ceux qui sont disposes 
de la premiere fa90Q, comme les suivans. 

De figures sans nombre, eg^yez votre ouTrat^e ; 
Que tout y fasse aux ycnx une riante image : 
On peut ^tre k la fois et pompeux et plaisant, 
Et je hais un sublime ennnjeux, languissant. 
Un po^me excellent oii tout marche et se suit, 
N'fest pas de ces travanx qu'un caprice produit : 
11 vcut du temps, des soins ; et ce p^nible ouvrage 
jamftis d'un ^colier ne fut Paprentiseage. 


On appelle vers a rimts eroUies ceux qui sotit ordoQ- 
n^de ia secoode fnaniere^comine ceux-ci daus lesquek 
Rousaeao dit en parlant de Circe furieose : 

S& Toiic redootable 
Trouble les enfers, 
Un bruit formidable 
GroDde dans les airs, 
Un Toilcf effrojable 
Cottrre PUmver^. 

Mais quand on n'observe d'autre regie qne de ne pas 
mettre de suite plus de deux vers masculins oy feminins, 
et qu^on fait suivre un vers masculin ou femintn d'an ou 
de deux vers d'une rime diSerente, alors ils s'appellent 
vers d rm%8 melees^ comme ceux-ci : 

Ah I HI d^une panvret^ dure 
Nous cberchons k nous affranchir, 
Kapprochons-nous de la natiire. 
Qui seule peut nous enrichir. 
For9ons de funestes obstacles ; 
R^servons pour nos tabernacles 
Get or, ces rubis, ces m^taux ; 
Ou dans le sein des mers avides 
Jetons ces richesses perfides, 
1/unique aliment de nos maux. 

Lorsque les vers sont en rimes plates^ ils ont ordi- 
nairement le /neme nombre de syllabes* Mais lorsqu'its 
sont a rimes croisees ou a rimes melees souvent ils ont 
nne mesure in^gale. 

Dans ies vers a rimes plates, oVst on d^faut de faire 
revenir deux rimes masculines ou fifminines deja em- 
ployees, de maniere qu'elles ne soient s^parecs de deux 
autres semblabies que par deux rimes d'one espece dif- 
ferente, comme dans cet exemple : 

Soudain Potier se Uve et demande audience .* 
Chacun, i son aspect, garde un profond iilence. 
Dans ce temps malheureux par le crime infeciSy 
Potier fut toujours juste, et pourtant rerpeclL 
Souvent on l^avoit vu, par sa m&Ie iloqueneSy • 

De leurs emportemens r^prkner la licence^ 
£t, conservant sur eux sa vieille auioriti^ 
Leur montrer la justice avec impuniti. 


L'oreille est aassi choqu^e par la convenance de sons 
dans les rimes masculines et feminines qvi se suivent) 
comme dans ces vers, d'aiilettrs pleins de belles images. 

* . Tel des antres da Nord 6chapp6$ sur la terre^ 
Pr^c^d^s par les vents, et suivis du tonntrre^ 
D^un toarbillon de poodre obscurcissant les airs^ 
liCB orages Ibagueax parcourent VUnw$ra, 

On compose a rimes plates les grands poiemes, tels que 
r£pop^e, la Trag^die, la Comedie, PEglogue, TEUgie, 
la Satyre, I'Epitre ; a rimes crois^es, TOde, le Sonnet, 
le Rondeau ; et k rioies melees, les Stances, PEpigram- 
me, les Fables, les Madrigaux, les Chansons. 

11 n^y a d'autres regies k observer dans les grands 
poemes pour la distribution des rimes, que d'^viter la 
consonance, et de ranger les vers masculins et feminins 
deux a deux les uns apr^ les autres. Nous ne nous ^ten- 
drons done pas davantage sur cet article par rapport a TE- 
pop^e, a la Trag^die, etc* Nous ne dirons rien non plus 
des autres regies de ces poemes. Ces dissertations nous 
mdoeroient trop loin. ConsultezTArtpo^tique de Boi- 
ieau, et les meilleures poetiques anciennes et modernes* 

Mais Pordonnance des vers dans plusieurs petits 
poemes a des regies fixes et particulieres* Ce sera le 
sujet des articles suivans. 


Une Stance est un certain nombre de vers, apres les* 
quels le sens est fioi. Dans une Ode elle s^appelle Strophe. 

Une stance n'a pas ordinairement moins de quatre 
vers, ni plus de dix. La mesure des vers y est arbi- 
traire; ils peuvent etre ou tous grands ou tous petits, 
ou bien mel^s les uns avec les autres. 

Les stances sont appelees regulieres^ lorsqu'elles ont 
un meme nombre de vers, un meme melange de rimes, 
et que les grands et les petits vers y sont ^galement 
distribues. Elles sont appelees irrtgulieres^ lorsqu'elles 
n'ont pas toutes ces convenances. 

Pour la perfection des stances, il est nteessaire, 
1^. Que le sens (inisse avec le dernier vers de chacune. 


3^« Que le dernier vers d'une stance ne rine pas 
avec le premier de la suivante* 

3°. Que les stances d'une meme piece commenGefit 
et finissent par des rimes de meme nature; c^est^-dire, 
que si le premier vers d'une stance finit par une rime 
masculine, les premiers vers des strophes suivantes doi* 
vent ^galement etre mascuiins, II est cependant boo 
de remarquer que quoiqu^en general il ne soit pas per- 
mis de mettre de suite quatre rimes de meme espece, 
cependant plusieurs auteurs I'ont fait d'une stance a 
Pautrc, parce quails ont regarde chaque stance d'uoe 
piece comme Isolde, et comme independaote de ceite 
qui suit. Mais nous crojons que cette licence ne peut 
etre toler^e que dans les chansons. 

Si une stance est seuFe, elle prend un nom particulier, 
du nombre de vers dont elle est compos^e. ElJe s^af- 
pelle Quairain^ si elle en a quatre ; Sixain^ si elle en a 
six ; Dixain^ si elle en a dix. Et quelquefois a raison 
du sujet, c'est une Epigramme^ nn McdrigaL On ap- 
peloit autrefois Octave une stance de butt vers. 

On voit que toutcs ces stances sont du nombre pair. 
II y en a aussi du nombre impair, de cinq, de septetde 
neuf vers. 


I. Stances de quatre vers* 

Ces stances sont plusieurs quatrains joints ensemble, 
ri li^s par un sens qui dure jusqu'a la fin de la piece* 
Entre le premier vers masculin ou f^minin, et celuiqui 
Jai repond,on met un ou deux vers d'une riuie differente, 
comme dans ces versou I'Amiti^fait elle-meme son por- 

J'ai le visage long, et la mine naive, 

Je suis sans finesse et sans art. 
Mod tetnt est fort uni, ma couleur assez viTe, 

£t je ne met9 jamais de fard. 
Mon abord est civil ; j^ai la boiicbe riante, 

£t mes yeux ont mille douceurs : 
- 'Mai« quoiqae je sois belle, agr^able et cbarmante, 

Je regoe sur bien peu de cceurs. 


On me protette uses, et presqne toos les honmes 

Se vaotent de suivre mes lois : 
Mais que j*en connofs peu dans lemMe oik nous lommes^ 

Dont le oceur r^ponde a mi^oiz \ 
Ceux que je fais aimer d^une flamme fiddle^ 

Me font Pobiet de tous leurs soins ; 
Et qnoique je vieilhsse, ils me trouvent fort befle, 

£t ne m^en estiment pas moins. 
On m^accuse pourtant d^aimer trop a parottre 

Oik Pon voit la prosp^ril^ ; 
Cependant il est vrai qu^on ne me peut connoStre 

Qu^au milieu de TadTersit^. 

Autre exemple : 

Dans ce gallon pacifique 

Od president les neof eoeurs, 

Un loisir philosopbique 

T^offre encor d^autres douceurs. 

lA^ nous trouverons sans peine 

Arec toi, le verre en main, 

L^bomme apris qui Diog^ue 

Courut si long- temps en vain. 

£t dans la douce all^gresse 

Dont tu sais nous abreuver, 

Nous puiserons la sagesse 

Qu^il cbercba sans la trourer. — ), B. Roussbau. 

Remar^uc* Les veritables quatrains n'ont aucune 
liaison pour le sens, et la morale eD est ordinairement 
la matiere. Exemple : 

Ne demandez h, Dieu nt gloire, ni ricbesse, 

Ni ces biens dont P^clat repd le peuple ^tonn^ : 

Mais pour bien commander, demandez la sagesse ; 

Avec un don si saint tout vous sera donn^. 

Ecoutez et lisez la celeste parole, 

Que, dans les livres saints, Dieu nous donne pour loi. > 

La politique bumaine au prix d^elle est frivole^ 

£t forme plus souvent un tyran qu'un bon Roi. 

II. Stances de six vers* 

Elles sont composees d'un quatrain et de deux vers 
d^une meme rime, qui se mettent au commencement oa 
a la fin. D'ailleurs les vers d'un quatrain se melent de 
la meme maniere que ci-dessus. 

Si les deux vers d'une meme rime sont au commence* 
ment, alors a la fin du troisieme, on met ordinairemeDt 
un repos, et le sens ne doit pas s^etendre jusqu'au qua- 


trieme. Ce repoa donne beaucoap de gr&ee el d^bar- 
rooDie a cette aorie de stances. 

On peut voir, par lea exemples Buivans, qae ce repot 
peat etre plus ou moins marqu^, et qu'il n^est pas 
rigoureusement exigi dans les sixains. 

Ce n^est done point assez que ce people perfide, 
De la tainte cit6 profanateiir stupide, 
Ait dant tout POrient port4 ses Standards ; 
£t paiflible tjran de la Gr^ce abattue, 

Partage k notre vne 
La plus belie moiti^ du trdne des C6sact* 

Des TeiUes, des traTaux un foible cceur s^^tonne. 
Apprenons toutefois, que le fils de Latone, 

Dont nous soivons la cour, 
Ne nous vend qu^^ ce prix ces traits de vive flamme 
Et ces ailes de feu qui ravissent one 4me 

An celeste s^jour. 

La place de ce repos varie^ et est taotot apres ie 
second, tantot apres le quatrieme vers, dans les sixains 
ou les deux vers d'une meme rime sont a la fin de la 
strophe, comme dans les stances suivantes* 

Seigneur, dans ton temple adorable, 

Quel mortel est digne d'entrer ? 

Qui pourra, grand Dieu p^n^trer 

Ce sanctuaire impenetrable, 
Oik tes saints inclines, d^un oeil respectneux, 
CoDtempIent de ton front P^clat majestueox ? 

Ce sera celui qui du vice 
Evite le sentier impur. 
Qui marcbe d'un pas ferme et silr, 
Dans le cbemin de la justice ; 
- Attentif et fiddle k distinguer sa voix, 
Intrepide et severe k pratiquer ses loix ; 

Celui devant qui le f>uperbe, 

Enfle d^une vaine splendeur, 

FaroSt plus bas dans sa grandeur 

Que Pinsecte cacb^ sous Pherbe ; 
Qui bravant du m^cbant le faste conronn^, 
Honore la vertu du juste infortun^. 

TIL Stances de huit vers. 

CeB stances ne sont ordinairement que deux quatrains 
Joints ensemble. Le sens doit finir apres le premier i 


et les vers de tous les deux s^entrelacent, conome nous 
I'avons d^ja diu Exemple : 

Tel en un sacr^ vaIlo», 

Sur le bord d'une onde pure^ 

Croit i Tabri de PAquiloa 
Un jeune lys, Pamour de la nature. 
Loin du monde eleve, de tous les dons des Cieox 

II est orn6 d^s sa naissance ; 
Et da m^cbant Pabord contagieux 

I9^altere point son innocence. 

Racine, ehtturs d!*Athalit^ 

Si quelqne jour ^tant rvre 

La mort arretoit mes pas, 

Je ne voudrois pas revivre 

Apr^s un si doux tr^pas : 

Je m^en irois dans PATerne 

Faire enivrer Alectoo, 

Et b&tir une taverne 

Dana le manoir de Plyton*— Maitrb Adam. 

Ces stances peuvent aussi commencer par deux vers 
sur tine meme rime, et les six autres sont sur des rimes 
crois^es. Quelquefois aussi ces stances n'ont qu'un six- 
aiu sur deux ou trois rimes, apres quoi viennent deux 
vers de meme rime. 

Ces melanges de rime peuvent ais^ment se concevoir, 
sans qu^il soil n^cessaire d^en citer des exemples ; d^ail- 
leurs lis ne sont pas communs* 

ly. Stances dc dix virsm 

Les stances de dix vers ne sont autre chose qu'uu 
quatrain et un sixain, dont les vers s^entremelent selon 
les regies ordinaires. Elles tirent leur harmonie d^un 
premier repos plac^ k la fin du quatrain, et d'un second 
apriis le septieme vers. Ex. 

C^est un arret do Ciel, il faut que Phomme meure ; 

Tel est son partage et sop sort : 

Rien n*est plus certain que la mort, 
Et rien plus incertain que cette demi^re heore. 
Heoreuse incertitude, utile obscurity, 

Par ou ta divine bont^ 
A Teiller, k prier, sans cesse nous convie ! 
Que ne pouTons-nons point aveo un tel secours^ 
Qui nous fait regarder tous les jours de la vie 

Conuoe le ^erpier de nos jours S 


Les Cienx iDsirQisent la teire 
A rev€rer leur auteur ; 
Tout ce que leur globe ensevre. 
Calibre QQ Diea Cr^ateur. 
Qael plus sublime cantique 
Que ce concert mag^iiSque 
De tous les celestes corps I 
Quelle grandeur infinie ! 
Quelle divine harmonie 
K^sulte de leurs accords ! 


Lc8 Stances de notnbre impair ont toutes, trois vers 
Bur une meme rime, ford ouna nee des vers y est 
d'ailleurs arbitraire, cxcepte qu'on ne peut mettre que 
deux rimes seroblabkjs de suite, et qae fe quatrain par 
lequel commencent les stances Je sept W de neuf ren, 
doit eUr^ tetmn^ par im repos* 

Stances de dnq vtn. 

O rives du Jourdain ! 6 champs aim^s des Cicox I 
Sacr^s monts, fertiles valines, 
Par cent miracles signal^es, 
Du doux pays de nos ayeux 
Serons-noue toujours exil^es ? 

Pardonne, Dicu puissant, pardonne k ma fbiWesW, 
A Paspect des m^chans, confus^ ^pouvant^, 
Le trouble m''a saisi, mes pas ont h^stt^ ; 
Men z^le m*a trabi, Seigneur, ye le confesse, 
En vojrant leur prosp^rit^. 

Stances de sept vers* 

Si la loi du Seigneur vous toucbey 
Si le mensong? vous fait peur^ 
Si la justice en votre cceur i 

K^gne aussi bien qu^en* Totre boucbe ; I 

F«rlez, ^]s des hommes, pourquoi 
Faut-il qn^une haine farouche 
Pr^ide aux jugemens que vous lanc^z sur ipoi f 

Stance de neuf vets. 

Quel rempart. quelle autre banian 
Poiirra d^fendre Pinnocent 
Centre la fraude menrtridre 
De Pimpie adroit et puissant? 
S» laogue aux feintes pr^pai^, 


Reii^mUi k la fl^ehe ac6i^e 
Qui part et frappe en un moment 
C^est un feu lig^er dans Pentr^e, 
Que suit un long embr&sement. 

Boileaa feitit qa^Apollon, 

Voulant pouster k bottt toua les rimeiin Aran^ois, 
Inventa du Sonnet les rigoureases lois, 
Vottlut qu^en deux quatrains de meture pafetUe, 
La rime avec deux sons frapp&t buit Mt I'^reilk ; 
Kt qti'ensuite six vers artistement rang^t 
Fussent en deux tercets par le sens partag^s. 
Sur-tout de ce pod me il bannit la licence, 
Defendit qu^un vers foible y p4t jamais entftr^ 
£t qu'un mot d6jk mis os&t B*y remoatrer. 
Dn reste il Penrichit d^une beaut^ si^rSme : 
Un Sonnet sans defaut raut seul un long Podme. 

Le Sonnet est compost de quatorze vers d'une me- 
siire ^gale, et pour Fordinaire de douze syllabes ; ces 
vers sont partag^s en deux quatrains et un sixain. 

Les rimes masculines et f^minines des deux quatrains 
sont semblables, et on les entremeie dans Pan, de la. 
meme maniere que dans Pautre. 

Le sixain se coupe eh deux tercets, c^est*a-dire, en deux 
stances de trois vers. Ces tercets cofnmencent Pun et 
Pautre par deux rimes semblables, en sorte que le 
troisieme vers du premier, rime avec le troisieme du 

II faut eviter que le melange des rimes, dans les quatre 
dernlers vers du sixain, soit le meme que dans les qua« 

Le second vers de cbaque quatrain doit avoir un 
l-epos. Les deux quatrains et les deux tercets doivent 
etre terminus chacun par un repos encore plus grand. 

D'ailleurs tout doit etre noble dans ce Poeme, pen- 
s^es, style, elocution. Point de repetitions, point de 
redondance. La force et I'elevation en sont les princi- 
paux caracteres. 

On voit cependant des Sonnets, dont les sujets ne 
sont pas sublimes; le style alors en est mediocre, et 
doit I'^tre. Voici deux exemples du Sonnet. Le pre- 


inter dans le genre simple, exprime la nature meme dc 

Doris, qai sait qu^auz vers quelqoefois je me plais. 
Me demande od Sonnet et je m^en d^sesp^re. 
Qttatorze Ters grand Dieu, le moyen de lea faire ! 
En Toil^ cependant df|^ quatre de faits. 
Je ne pouvais d^abord trouver de rime, mait 
En fesant, on apprend 4 se tirer d^affaire. 
Poursniv^ons ; les quatrains ne m'^tooneront gu^re. 
Si du premier tercet je puis faire les frais . 
Je commence an hasard, et si je ne ro^ abuse, 
Je n^ai pas commence sans Taven de ma Mnse, 
Puisqu^en si pea de temps je m^en tire si net. 
J^entame le second, et ma joie est extreme ; 
Car des vers commandos j^acD^ve le treizi^me. 
Comptez s^ik sont quatorze; et voild le Sonnet. 


Grand Dieu tes jogemens sont remplis d^^quil^ : 
Tonjours tu prends plaisir a nous 6tre propice ; 
Mais j*ai tant fait de mal, que jamais ta bontd 
Ne me pardonnera qu^en blessant ta justice* 

Oui, Seigneur, la grandeur de mon impi^t^ 

Ne laisse k ton pouvoir que le choix du supplice. 

Ton int6r£t s^oppose 4 ma fi6iicjt^, 

Et ta d^mence m£me attend que je p^risse. 

Contente ton d^sir, puisqn^il Oest glorieuz ; 

Offense-toi des pleurs qui coulent de mes yenx : 

Tonne, frappe, il est temps, rends-moi guerre pour guerre. 

J'adore, en p^rissant, la raison qui Oaigrit : 
Mais dessus quel endroit tombera ton tonnerre 
Qui ne soit tout couvert du sang de Jesus-Cbrist. 


Le Rondeau n^ Gaulois a la nairete. 

Tel est le caractere de ce petit podme« Toutea sortes 
de vers y sont propres, excepte les Alexandrins qui ont 
trop de gravite* II y entre treize vers de meme mesurey 
sor deux rimes. 

On peut faire dans le Rondeau ce qu'on ne fait point 
dans les autres Poemes. Cbmme il ne doit y avoir dans 
les huit derniers vers que trois rimes f^minines, on peot 
mettre de suite sur trois rimes masculines le cinquieme, 
le sixieme et le septieme. Mais on fait rarement ce 
melange dans les cinq derniers vers. 


Le Rbndcati a ieux repos nfecftssaires, Tun aprfes le 
cinquieme vers, I'autre apres le refrain. 

Le refrain qui sc place apres le huilieme vers,ct a la 
fin de la piece, n'est autre chase que la repetition d'un 
ou de plusieurs mola du premier vers. II doit avoir un 
sens lie avec ce qui precede, et etre amene delicate- 
ment. Le premier des deux Rond^^aux qui suivent, ex- 
plique les regies du poeme. 

Jlla/ot, c^tsifaii de iiioi,^ar Tsabean 

M^a coDJuM de Itii faire un Rondeau : 

Cela me met en iine peine extreme. . ^. , ,^^^ ^ 4^^^/ / 

Quoi treize ver»> huit en eau, cinq en erne ! ' ' ^ 

Je lui ferois anssi-t6t un bateau. 

En voila cinq pourtant f^n im moncean : 

Fesons-en huit en invoquant Brodeau, 

Et puis mettons par quelque etratagdme, 

J\Safoi^ c" est fait. 

Si je pouvois encor de mon cerveau 
Tirer cinq vers, Pouvrage seroit beau : . 
Mais cependant me Toilsl dans Ponzieme, 
Et si je crois que je fais le douzidme : 
En yoWk treize ajust^s au niveau. 

Mafoi^ c^tHfait, 

Lt hel esprit^ an siecle de Marot, 
Des dons du Ciel passoit pour le gros lot ; 
Des grands seigneurs il donnoit accointance,. 
Menoit par fois a noble jouissance, 
Et qui phis est fesoit bouillir le pot. 
Or est pass^ ce temps ou d'un bon mot. 
Stance ou dixain, on payoit son ^cot ; 
Plus n'en voyoDs qui prennent pour finance 

Le bel etprit. 
A prix d^argent Pauteur, comme le sot, 
Boit sa cbopine et mange son gigot ; 
Heureux encor d^en avoir snffisance ! 
Maints ont le chef plus rempli que la panse t 
Dame Ignorance a fait enfin capot 

Le bel esprit, 


L^Epigramme pins libre, en son tour phis bom^, 
N^est souvent qu^i^n bon mot de deux rimes orn€. 

Cette piece ne doit contenir quVutant de vers qu'U 
en faut pour exprimer vivemeDt la peosee on le boo mot 


qui en est I'^me. C^est pourquoi le nombre n'en est 
pas determine, non plus que U mesure et le melange 
des rimes. Ezemple: 

Ci-git ma femme : ah ! qu^elle est bien 
Pour son repos et pour le mien ! 

Vn Mapster s^empressant d^etouffer 
(^uelque rumeur parmi la populace, 
D'an coup dans I'oeil se fit apostropher, 
DoQt il tomba, fesant laide grimace. 
Lors un frater s^ecria : place, place ; 
J'ai pour ce mal un baume souverain. 
Perdjrai-je Poeil f lui dit messer Pancrace ; 
Non* mon ami, je le tiens dans ma main. 


Entre Racine et PaSn^ des ComeiUea 
Les Chrysogons se font moderateurs : 
L'un, k leur gr6, passe les sept menreilles ; 
L'aatre ne plidt qu'auz versificateurs. 
Or maintenant, Teillez, graves anteurs, 
Mordez tos doigts, raroez comme corsaires, 
Pour m^riter de pareils protecteurs. 
On pour troover de pareils adversaires. 


Le Madrigal plus simple, et plus ndble en son tour, 
Respu« la douceur, la tendresse et Pamour. — B011.SA17. 

Ce petit poeme ne differe que par-^ de PEpigramme, 
dont la pointe est souvent aiguisee par la satyre. 
Ezemple : 

L^autre jour Tenfa&t de CjthdM, 
Sous vfifi treille a demi gris, 
Disoit, en parlant i sa mdre : 
Je bois k toi, ma ch^re Iris. 
V^nus le regarde en colore : 
Maman, oalmez votre counrouX| 
Si je Tous prends pour ma bergere, 
J'ai pris cent fois Iris pour tous. 

NoTA. Le Sonnet et le Rondeau ont aujourd'hui perdu toate leur 
Togue, et il est tr^s-rare que Ton s^exerce dans ces denz genres de 




IjKanaal of Jftntcfr ^fft^^t^, 




ContaiDing an extensive collection of words and dialogued 

under each rale, with examples ftom the 

best French Authors. 

UtiUiiB bomiiii nihil eat qakm rect^ locnii. 

FJuRd. Lib. IV, Fab. XIL 



LONG experience has shewn, that to acquire the habit 
of conversing in a foreign language, the surest method for 
the learner, is to commit a great number of phrases em- 
ployed in conversation and adapted to the rules of the 
Grammar which he goes through. 

Most persons, who har^ studied the French language 
ivith care, find little, or no difficulty, in reading our Authors, 


bat very few indeed find themselves able to con Terse with 
flaencj. For the purpose of rerooviDg this difficulty, a list 
of many books, or manaals of coDvcrsation, has been pub- 
lished ; some containiog ^iseful matter, many without 
method or accuracy, all arranged in chapters, or under 
heads, taking the most common subjects which may be the 
topics of conversation, as if the mind, transformed into a 
mechanical engine, could apply snch chapters to all cases 
which may occur in discourse. A book therefore is still 
needed, which being adapted to one of the best Grammars 
in use, may — ^First, give to the learner a number of phrases, 
placed under each role, anali^ous to the exercise which is 
to be written. Second, incorporate with those phrases all 
words in common use, arranged, as far as possible, accord- 
ing to some fixed principle. Third, introduce gradually the 
idioms of the language, banning with the most simple. 

Such is the plan of the Manual which we have added to 
Wanostrocht^s Grammar. Every number, or division, co^ 
responds to a rule, and we have added a quotation, from 
some of our best poets, to almost every paragraph. For 
the phrases, our principal source has been the last edition 
of the Dictionary of the Academy; the Grammaire des 
Grammaires has been onr guide throughout ; for the selec- 
tion of words we have consulted mapy vocabularies — that of 
Mr. PorriiETON has appeared to us to be the most ctimplete. 


The French Kondeau consists of thirteen 
lines. The burden, or refret, should be placed 
after the eighth line, and also at the end, and 
should contain one or more of the words of 
the first line. It should also have a connected 
sense with what precedes, and be introduced 

Ma foi^ c^est fait de moi, car Isabeau 
M'a conjui^ de lui faire un Kondeau : 
Cela me met eu une peine extreme. 
Quo! treize vers, huit en eauy cinq en erne ! 
Je lui ferais aussi-tot un bateau. 
En voil2i cinq poujtant en un monceau : 
Faisons-en huit en invoquant Erodeau, 
Et puis mettons par quelque stratag^me. 
Ma foi, c*e8t fait. 

Si je pouvais encore de mon cerveau 
Tirer cinq vers, I'ouvrage serait beau: 
Mais cepehdant mc voil^ dans I'onzi^me, 
Et si je crois que je fais le douzi^me,. 
En YoUk treize ajustes en niveau. 

Ma foi, c*est fait. 

* Tis done with me, for my fair Isabeau 
Has called upon me for a French Rondeau. 
This task imposes on me pain extreme : 
Eight lines must rhyme with eau, and five with 

I'd sooner build for her a huge bateau. 
Yet here are five lines in well ordered row : — 
To eke out eight, I must invoke Brodeau, 
And then^resotting to some stratagem, 

' 2Vs done, my I^abeaut 

From my exhausted brain could I make flow 
But five lines more, the tiling would really go; 
I'm in the line eleventh it would seem, 
And could I reach the twelvth, I'd surely deem 
The whole" arrangad precLssly *conime il faut.' 
' Tis done, my Isabeau. 
c. F. B. 

/r r 

i 1^ r 




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(A.B. 1869, M.D. 1873) 

August 23, 1917