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Mare Island. Calif. 





















Entered according to Act of CongreM, in the year 1844, bj 

in the Clerk'f Office of the Diitrict Coort of Maaiachnsetts. 




^FHAEL KuHNER, the author of the fbllowing Grammar, was 
bom at Gotha, in 1802. From 1812 to 1821, he studied at the 
celebrated gyimiasium in his native city. Among his classical 
teachers were Doring, Kost and Wustemann. From 1821 to 1824, 
be enjoyed, at the University of Gottingen, the instructions of 
Mitschcrlich, Dissen aUd Ottfried MuUer. While here, he pre- 
pared an essay on the philosophical writings of Cicero, which re* 
ceived a prize. Since 1824, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum 
at Hanover. The principal works from the pen of Dr. Kuhner are 
the following : 

1. Versuch einer neUen Anordung der Griech. Syntax^ tnit Bei- 

spielen begleitet 1829. "Attempt towards a new Arrange- 
ment of the Greek Syntax,** etc. 

2. M. Tull Ciceronis Tusculan. Disputationum Ubri. 1829; ed. 

altem 1835. 

3- SammtUche Anomalien des Griech. Verbs in Attisch. Dialecte, 
1831. " Anomalies of the Greek Vefb,'* etc. 

4. AusfiirUche Grammatik der Griech. Sprache» in 2 TheileUj 1834, 
1835. " Copious Grammar of the Greek Language, in two 
Parts.** The second Part of this grammar, containing the 
Syntax, translated by W. E. Jelf, of the University of Oxford, 
was published in 1842. The first portion is now in press. 
This work is, however, only in part a translation, Mr. Jelf be- 
ing the author of the remarks on the Cases^ the particle av, the 
compound verbs, etc. 

6. Schulgrammatik der Griech. Sprache, 1836; zweite durchaus 
verbesserte u. vermehrte Auflage, 1843. " School Grammar 
of the Greek Language^ second edition, improved and en- 
lai^ed.** The present volume is a translation of this Gram- 
mar, from the sheets, furnished for this purpose by the author. 

6. Elementargrammatik der Griech. Sprache. Dritte verbesserte 
u. verm. Aufl. 1842. " Elementary Grammar of the Greek 
Language.** A translation of the second edition of this Gram- 


mar, by John H. Millard, of St John's College, Cambridge, 
has been published in England. The Exercises, which are 
omitted in Mr. Millard's translation, will be retained in the 
translation of the third edition, which the editors of the pre- 
sent voliune will prepare as early as practicable. 

7. Xenophontis de Socrate Commentarii, 1841. 

8. Elementargrammatik der Lateinischen Sprache, 1842. 2d Aiifl. 


9. Vorschule zur Erlemiing der Lat Sprache, 1842. 

10. Schulgrammatik der Lat Spr. nebst eingereihten Deutsch. 
Uebersetzungsaufgaben, 1842. " School Grammar of the 
Latin Language, with a Series of Exercises for Translation." 
From the above statements, it will be seen, that Dr. Kiihner has 
enjoyed the most favorable opportunities for preparing the work, a 
translation of which is now presented to the public. The names 
of his early instructors are among the most honored in classical 
philology. For thirty years, he has been a teacher in one of the 
principal German gymnasia, and has thus had ample faciUties for 
testing in practice the principles which he has adopted in his 
Grammars. At the same time, he has pursued the study of the 
classical authors with the greatest dihgence, in connection with the 
productions which his leajmed countrymen are constantly publish- 
ing on the different parts of Latin and Greek grammar. Of coiurse, 
his works might be expected to combine the advantages of sound, 
scientific principles, and a skilful adaptation to practical use. The 
" School Grammar of the Greek Language," being his latest pubU- 
cation, contains the results of his most mature studies. Its chief 
excellences/ it may be well, perhaps, briefly to indicate. 

First, The grammar is based on a profound and accurate know- 
ledge of the genius and principles of the Greek language. The 
author adopts subtantially the views which are maintained by 
Becker, Grimm, Hupfeld and others, and which are fully unfolded 
in the German grammars of Becker. According to these views, 
the forms and changes of language are the result of established 
laws, and not of accident or arbitrary arrangement Consequently, 
language may be subjected to scientific analysis and classification. 
The multitude of details may be embraced under a. few compre- 
hensive principles, anid the whole may have somewhat of the 
completeness and spirit of a living, Organic system. Dr. Kuhner's 
grammar is not a collection of detached observations, or of rules 
which have no conneot]iD> except a numerical one. It k a natural 


ciassificaition of the essential elements of the language, an orderly 
exhibition of its real phenomena. It is, at the same time, a tmly 
practical grammar, fitted for its object, not by a theorist in his closet, 
but by an experienced instructor in his school. 

Second, The author has adopted a dear and satisfactory arrange- 
ment of his materials. This can be seen by an examination of the 
table of contents. To those, indeed, who are familiar only with 
the common distribution of subjects in our Greek grammars, the 
arrangement of Dr. Kuhner may appear somewhat obscure and 
comphcated. A sUght acquaintance, however, with the plan on 
which the Syntax, for example, is constructed, will show that he 
has followed the true and logical method. Abundant proofs of the 
jostness of this remark may be seen in the exhibition of compound 
sentences. The particles are treated, not as isolated, independent 
words, but as a component and indissoluble part of discourse. 

Third, Fulness and pertinence of illustration. The correctness 
of every principle advanced, especially in the Syntax, is vouched 
for by copious citations from the classics. If, in any case, a* prin- 
ciple is stated in an abstract form, or if a degree of obscurity rests 
npon the enunciation of it, its meaning may be readily discovered 
by reference to the illustration. The paradigms contain much 
more complete exemplifications of conjugation and declension than 
are to be found in the grammars in common use in this country. 
In this connection, it may be stated, that Dr. KiJhner has chosen a 
pure verb as the model of regular inflection. He can thus exhibit 
the stem unchanged, throughout the entire conjugation. 

Fourth, The perfect analysis to which the forms of the language, 
especially of the verb, is subjected, may be mentioned as another 
excellence of the granunar. In learning a paradigm, in the man- 
ner which the author points out, the pupil first resolves the verb 
into its elements, and then rearranges these elementary parts into 
a complete form. In this method, and in no other, can he attain a 
mastery of this most difficult portion of the subject. 

Fifth, Every part of the grammar is equally elaborated. The 
closing pages exhibit the same fulness and conscientious accuracy, 
which characterize the forms, or the first portions of the Syntax. 
No part can be justly charged with deficiency or with superfluous 
statement. The view of the Third Declension, the scientific Ust 
of Irregular Verbs, the Dialectic peculiarities, the observations on 
the Use and Position of the Article, on the Middle and Passive 
Verbs, and on the difierence between the ussge of the Participle 


and Infinitive, may be refeired to as specimens of careful observa- 
tion and nice analysis. 

The Appendix on Versification has been supplied by the trans- 
lators, the grammar of Kiilmer containing nothing on that subject 
The materials were drawn from a variety of sources. A more full 
view is less necessary, as a work on Metre, translated by Profs. 
Beck and Felton, is now in press. It was the intention of the trans- 
lators to subjoin some remarks on the Pronunciation of Greek, and 
on the Accents, together with a short system of Prosody, but the 
fear of enlarging the volume too much led them to abandon the 

Much pains have been taken in verifying the almost innumera- 
ble references to classical authors. The very few exceptions are 
those cases where the author made use of an edition of a classic 
not accessible to the translators. In this verification, the following 
editions of prose authors were used, viz. Kuhner^s edition of the 
Memorabiha ; Weiske and Tauchnitz's editions of the other works 
of Xenophon; Schafer and Tauchnitz*s editions of Herodotus; 
Bekker and Tauchnitz's editions of Thucydides ; Dobson's edition 
of the Oratores Attid; and Stallbaum's Plato. There are slight 
variations in numbering the lines of poetry in difierent editions, par- 
ticularly in the tragedians. 

The references to sections in the grammar itself, as well as those 
in the Indexes, have also been verified. 

The small enclosed figures on the right of the section-marks, re- 
fer to the sections in the first edition of the grammar. 

In conclusion, the translators Would acknowledge with gratitude, 
the encouragement and aid which they have received from several 
gentlemen. Especial obhgations are due to Professor Felton of 
Harvard University, to whom a large portion of the manuscript, in- 
cluding the whole of the Syntax, was read. His accurate know- 
ledge both of the Greek and German languages, and his experience 
as an instructor, enabled him to suggest many valuable confections 
and improvements. 

If the Grammar shall prove to be an acceptable present to the 
Public, much credit will be due to the enterprising publishers, who 
have spared no pains or expense in regard to the typography, and 
the entire external appearance of the volume. 

Andover, Jant 1, 1844. 



SscT. I, — Letters and Sounds of the Language. 

Alphabet § 1 

Sounds of the Letters ... 2 
Aiticalation of the Sounds . 3 

Vowels 4 

Consonants 5 

Spiritus Lenis and Spiritos Asper 6 
Changes of Letters ... 7 
Changes of the Vowels . 8 — 16 

Hiatos 8 

Contraction of Vowels 9 

Crasis 10,11 

Sjnizesis 12 

Elision 13, 14 

AT '£tf>t2jr. ; cvrm{g) ; i^ and ix ; otf 

and oOm 15 

Strengthening and Weakening of 

Vowels 16 

Prolongation, Shortening and Va- 
riation § 16 

Influence of a Vowel or Consonant 16 
Syncope, Omission of a Vowel 16 

Euphonic Prothesis ... 16 
Changes of the Consonants 17 — 25 

Mutes 17 

Liquids 18 

Mutes and Liquids, Liqs and Mutes 19 
Sibilant a with Mut. and Liq. . 20 
Change of Consonants separated 

from one another ... 21 
Metathesis of Liquids ... 23 
Doubling of Consonants 23 
Strengthening and Addition of Con- 
sonants 24 

Expulsion and Omission of Conso- 
nants 25 

Sect. II. — Syllables. 

Ifatore and Division of Syllables 

Qoantity of Syllables . 

Qaantity of the Penult 

Accents . . . . • 

Change and Removal of the Accent 
by Inflection, Composition and 
Contraction .... 

Change and Removal of the Ac- 
cent IN continued Discourse 31-35 


1. Qraye instead of the acute . 31 


II. Crasis 31 


111. Elision .... 31 


IV. Anastrophe ... 31 

V. Atonies or Proclitics . 32 

VI. Enclitics . . 33—35 


Division of Syllables ... 36 
Punctuation Marks — Diastole 37 


Division of the Parts of Speech, — Inflection. 

Sect. 1. — The Substantive. 

Nature and Division of the Sub- 
stantive 39 

Gender of Sabstantives 40 

Nomber, Case and Declension 41 

First Declension .... 42 

I. Feminines .... 43 

II. Masculines .... 44 
Quantity and Accent . 45 

Second Declension ... 46 

Contraction of the second Dec. 47 



Attic second Declension . . § 48 
Accentuation .... 49 
Remarks on Gender . . 50 

Third Declension ... 51 

Remarks on the Case-cndings 52, 53 
Paradigms 54—63 

Quantity 64 

Accentuation .... 65 
Gender 66 

Anomalous Nouns . . § 67, 68 
Defective Nouns ... 69 
Change of Form in the Declen- 
sions .... 70 — T2 

I. Redundant Nouns 70 

II. Heteroclites ... 71 
UI. MeUplAflts ... 72 

Indeclinable and Defective Nouns 73 

Sect. II. — The Adjective and Participle. 

Nature, Gender and Declension . 74 
Accentuation .... 75 
Summary of the Adjective and Part. 
Endings .... 76 — 80 

I. Adjectives and Participles of 
three Endings . . 76, 77 

II. Adjectives of two Endings 78,79 

III. Adjectives of one Ending 80 

Comparison of Adjectives . 81 

A. -Tc^o;, -T*pa, -TtQoVf -rarof, 

TuTtj, rarov . . . 82 

B. -/ow, -lor, -wy, -oi' J -lOTOf, 

-ij, -Of .... 83 

Anomalous forms of Comparison 84 

Comparison of Adverbs . . 85 

Sect. III. — The Pronoun. 

Nature and Division of Pronouns 86 

I. Personal Pronouns . 87 — 90 

II. Demonstrative Pronouns . 91 

III. Relative Pronouns . 92 

IV. Indefinite and Interrogative 

Pronouns ... 93 

Correlative Pronouns ... 94 

Lengthening of the Pronoun . 95 

Sect. IV. — The Numerals. 

Nature and Division of Numeralf 96 t Summary of the principal classes 96 
Namecal Signs . .97 Remarks on the Numerals . 99 

Nature and Division 

Sect. V. — The Adverb. 

. 100 I Fonnation of Adverbs . 

Sect. VI. — The Verb. 

. 101 

Nature and Division of the Verb 102 

Classes 102 

Tenses 103 

Modes 104 

Infinitive and Participle 
Persons and Tenses 
Conjugation of Verbs in -w . 
Stem, Augment, Reduplication and 

Characteristic .... 

a. Tense-characteristic and End- 





b. Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels . Ill — 114 
Conjugation of Regular Verbs in -<u 115 
Remarks on the Inflection-endings 116 
Remarks on the Formation of the 

Attic Future .117 

Accentuation of the Verb . .118 
Special view of Aug. and Red up. 119 
Svllabic Augment . . 120 

Temporal Augment . 121,122 

Reduplication .... 123 

Attic Reduplication . .124 

Aug. and Redup. in Compounds 125-6 
Formation of the Tenses of 

Verbs in -oi . . 127 — 167 

Division of Verbs in -co according 

to the Characteristic . 127 

Derivation of Tenses ... 128 

I. Formation of the Tenses of Pore 

Verbs 129 

a. With a short Characteristic- 

vowel .... 130 

b. With a in Aor. Pass, and Perf. 

Mid. or Pass. .131 

Paradigms of Pure Verbs . 132—137 

A. Uncontracted Pure Verbs . 132 

(a) Without a in the Mid. or 

Pass 132 

(b) With a in the Mid. and 

Pass 133 

B. Contract Pure Verbs . 134—136 
Remarks on the same . 137 

II. Formation of the Tenses of Im- 

pure Verbs .... 138 



Strengthening of the Stem . § 139 

Variation of the Stem-Yowel 140 

Remarks on the Secondary Tenses 141 

A. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs . . 142--144 

Remarks on the CKiaracteristic 141 
Paradigms of Mate Verba 145^148 

B. Formation of the Tenses of Li- 

quid Verbs .... 149 
Paradigms . . 150—153 

Peculiarities in the Formation of 
Single Verbs . .154 

Syncope 155 

Metathesis 156 

Verbs in -o} with Stem of ihe Pres. 

strengthened 157 

I. Verbs witli t inserted . 158 

II. Verbs with the syllable rt . 159 
HI. Verbs with dv or atv . . 160 

IV. Verbs in -rr/ta, -(o^-w 161 

V. Verbs in -^« ... 162 

VI. Verbs with Reduplication . 163 

VII. Verbs whose Pure Stem- 
rowel a is strengthened by t 164 

VIII. Verbs which assume • 165 
Verbs which assume an ■ in form- 
ing the Tenses .... 166 

Verbs whose Tenses are formed 
from different Roots 167 

CoirjUGATIO!f OF VbRBS IR .Mi 168 

Division of Verbs in -^( . .169 
Characteristic-yowel and Strength- 
ening of the Stem of the Pres. . 170 
Mode-vowels .... 171 
Personal-endings 172 

Formation of the Tenses 173, 174 

Paradigms .... § 175 

Remarks on the Paradigms . 176 

Summary of Verbs in -fit . 172 — 190 

I. Verbs in -^t which annex the 

Personal-endings to the Stem- 
Vowel 177 

(a) Verbs in -o . 177 

C*>i;^i' 178 

Deponents . . .179 

(b) Verbs in -I ... 180 
(cS Verbs in -i, «ui. »ffiL . 181 

II. verbs in -fti wnich annex nv 

or rv to the Stem-vowel 182 

Formation of the Tenses . 182 

Summary of this class of Verbs 183 — 88 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel . 183-186 

(a) in -a . . 183 

(b) in -« . . 184 

(c) in -t . . . 185 

(d) in -0 . . 186 

B. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Consonant .187, 188 

(a) in a Mute . . 187 

(b) in a Liquid .188 
Inflection of xifjuat and ^nat 189,190 

Verbs in -w analogous in Formation 

to those in -/it . 191—196 

I. Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 191-2 

II. Perf. and Plup. Act. . 193, 194 
olSa and ?<Mxa . . 195 

III. Present and Imperfect 196 
Summary of Deponent Passives . 197" 
Summary of Active Verbs with a 

Fut. Mid. 

Sect. VII. — Prepositioits, Conjunctions and Interjcctions 




A. Sounds. 
Digamma or Labial Breathing F. 200 
interefaange of the Vowels . . 201 
Interchange of the Consonants, 202-204 
Change of the Vowels, . 205-207 

Contraction, Diaeresis . 205 

Crasis, Synizesis, Elision, N. itetlx. 

Hiatus 206 

Lengthening and Shortening of the 

Vowels, ^ncope. Apocope . 207 
Prothesis and Insertion of Vowels 207 
Changes of the Consonants . . 208 

Quantity 209 

B. Forms. 
Declensions .... 210-214 
Homeric Suffix ipi or 9:(v . 210 

First Declension .211 

Second Declension' . .212 

Third Declension .213 

Anomalous and Defective Words, 
MeUplasts .... 214 


The Adjective .... 216 

Comparison 216 

Pronouns . .217 
Numerals . ... 218 
The Verb .... 219-230 
Augment and Reduplication 219 
Personal-endings and Mode- vow- 
els 220 

Epic and Ionic Iterative Form . 221 
Contraction and Resolution in 

Verbs 222 

Formationof the Tenses . . 223 
Conjugation in -fit . . 224 

EifiinndElfii . . 225,226 
Verbs in -w with a Sec. Aor. an- 
alogous to Verbs in -^i . . 227 
Verbs in -oi with a Perf. and Plup. 

Act. like Verbs in -^t . 228 

Verbs in -ui with a Pres. and Impf. 

Act. like Verbs in -ut . 229 

List of Dialectical Ver^ . . 230 

Ridteal Wank, Btenu, Dprirati 
A, Dehvalioii . . ■ : 
I, Verb. , 
11 Substantirea 

in. Adjectivi 
IV. Advc-rba 
CompniiiKt* ' 

if CompBiiiid* 217 

cT. l.~Pitnt at i SiBPLE Sextesck. 

Natitre ors 3eiilence, Subject, Pre- 

dieiilB 2ie 

Comparisoa, Altiibiito snil Object ?.<n 

Agrermcnl """ 

Excpplioiw to rule* ofAgrcpment 
Agpeemenl ofieveniJ Subjects 
Retnuki on pcculiarilica in ubp of 


Tlie Article . ... -Hi 

Position of Ibc Arliola . 

U«e of the Anicle witb P.ronoiini 
•nd Numerals 

Ai ■ Demon, and Rel. FionouD 
ClaiKa of Verb! .... 

A, Active form ... 

B. Middle ft 

C. Pmsive .... a 
RemBTkii on Detionenlg . 2 

Penses and Modes ... 2! 

A. Particular View of lbeTen«cs 3 
(n) FriDciiial lun«o», Pre«., Perf,, 

Fut a 

(b) Hist. Teoiea, Aor., Impf., 

Plup 2 

Tcatea of tbe Subord. Modes . 2 

B. Puticular View of.tlie Modei 3 
Um« of the S^bj., OpLand Imp. 3 
Tbe Model witb »• . . 2 
Pofitioaand Repetition of u> . 2 

St«T. 11 — ATTRlBtntK*. 


(b) Attributii-eGptiitirt , . aft) 

(a) AtlribiitiTe AilJBctive . 


(c) Apposition . . . «*■ 

PFfT, in.-Ofljrc 


Relation nr SrnTciioiB. 

I. The CMf. ... - 


Two Accuaativea . 280 


. Remwts OB UieAcc. with the 

(1) Genitive .... 
A. Relation* of Space , 


Pa«ive , . . . asi 


{III) Datire .... 383 

B. Csasal Relation 


A, Loco! Dative .' . 3*3 

(b) Gen, an llie eipresiran of 

B- Dative a* a perwinal Object Z3l 


C. Dative of the thing -. . 385 

(b) Causal Genitive 


11. ConntcuctionorPrepotitions 366 

(c) Oen. denoting inalual lela 


(0 Prepositions with the Gen. 
onf7 . - . , 887, 383 

(11) AccusatiTe 


(9) Wiih tbe Dative onlv . . 2?9 

A. RelBtions of Space , 


m With the AcconativD only . QWI 

B. Canrol Eolations of tbe Ace 


(4) Wilh tbe Gen. and Ace. . 3»1 

(■) Ace. denoliOB effect, 


{□) Wilh tbe Gen., Dal. and Ace. 292 

(b) Ace , of the Object on which 

Remarkii on pecuharities of the 

the action la pertbnned 


Prepoailiona .... 203 

SucT. IV, — ThkProbovs *s Si 


, PhEdicjiti!, AvTRiBrTl: A.tD Object. 

1, Peiaanal Pronouns . 



of the Pronoun .... 304 



Sect. V. — The Ixri9iTiTB ahd Particiflx uskd as an Attributk aud 


A. The InEnUive • § 303 ' 

(I) liif. as an Object without the 

Article . ' . .306 

Noin., Gen., Dat. and Ace. 
with tlie Inf. . . . ;i07 
(If) Inf. witli the Article . :M)S 

B. The Participle . . 'Mi 

(1) Tht> Part o^ the Cooipletion , 
of the Verbal Idea . . 3101 

Remarks on the Difference 
between the Use of the 
Part, and the inf. . § 311 

(II) Part, used to express Ad- 
verbitl Subordinate lU*la- 
tions . .312 

Special Peciiliaiit'es in tlie 
Participial Constructiuu . 313 

Sect. VI. — The Adverb. as exfressiho the Objective Relation. 

aa( ...... 315 

B. ConfirniatiTa Adverbs . 316 

C. Emphatte Suffixes, y** ^^V> ^^^^ ^^ 

D. Negative Particles . . 318^ 

Sect. VII. A. — Co6rdii(ate Sentences. 

Oi&rent Forms of Coordinate Sen- 

tences 320 

Im Copulative Coordinate Sen- 
tences .... 321 
II. Adversative Coordinate Sen- . 
tences .... 322 

III. Disjunctive Coordinate Sen- 
tences . . • . 32i^ 

IV. Causal Coordinate Sen- 
tences .... 324 

Remarks on the Asyndeton 325 

Sect. VUI. B. — Subordi.nate Sf.!ttences. 

Prioctpal and Subordinate Sentences 326 
Sequence qf Tenses in Subordinate 

Sentences .... 327 
I. Substantive SeiUences . 32d 

A. Introduced by on or bi(, that 329 

B. Introduced by n a, so thU, etc. 330 
U. Adjective Sentences • 331 

Agreement of the Rel Pron. . 332 
yhden in Adjective Sente'hces . 333 
Connection of several Adjective 

Clauses . < . . 334 

Exchange or the Subordinate 

Clause with the Adj. Clause 334 

III. Adverbial Sentences . 335 

A. Adverbial Sentences of Place 336 

B. Adverbial Sentences of Time 337 

C. Causal Adv. Sentences 33d— 340 

I. Denotin^r Cause . 338 

II. Conditional . . •^39, 341 
HI. D«?noting Conaeqnence or 

Effi-ct . .341 

D. Adverbial Clauses denotinor 

Way and Manner and Quan- 
tity . .342,343 

I. Comparative Adv. Clauses 

whjch express Way and 
Manner .... 342 

II. Comptirative Adv. Clauses 

which express Quantity 343 

Sect. IX. — Interrogative Sentences. 

I. Intcrrogatives . .344 

II. Oblique Discourse . 345 
HI. Special Peculiarities in the 

Construction of Words and Sen- 
tences .... 346, 347 

Ellipsis, Brachylogy, Contraction, 

Pleonasm 346 

Anacoluthon .... 347 



Sect. X. — Position of Words 


Appendix— Versification . . Page 569 I Greek Index . Page 685 

Index of Subjects . 575 1 Index of Uie Forms of Ve'rbt • ^^ 

Abbreviations. — Aesch. AtKhyluty Ag. Agamemnon^ S. Saatem adv. Th. — Ar. 
Aristophanes. — Dem. Demosthenes, Ol. OlmUn., Ph. Phiiipp., Cor. Cbronay Chers. 
Chersones., Aph. Aphobus. — £uf. Euripides^ M. Medea, C. Cyciops, H. Hecuba, 
O. Orates, H. F. Hercuies Fwensj Hipp. Hippolytus^-^-Her, Herodotus, — Isae. 
Iseaus. — Lys. Lysias — PI. Plato, Cr. CrUo, L. Leges, Th. Theages, Men. Meno, 
Soph. Sophista, Cni. Cratylvs, Prot. Protagoras, Vh'iLPkiiebus, Rp. RcspnbUca. — 
"Soph. SophocieSf OC. Oeftjpus Colonais, OR. Oedhmr Rex, Ant. Antigone, Ph. 
Pkilocietes, Aj ^M'^f ^^- ^^ctra. — X. Xenophon, C. Vommentdrii, An. Anabasis, 
H. Uellenita, 8. Symposium, R. Atb Respublica Atheniens., R. Xj. Respubl. Laee^ 
dmem.^ O. OenmorrMCtcf , Ag. AgcsUaus, R. £qu. ft. Equestris, ' 



1. The Greek language was divided into many different 
dialects, the most highly cultivated of which were the JEoUcy 
Doric, Ionic and Attic. The iEolic prevailed in Boeotia, Thes- 
saly and in the iSolian colonies in Asia Minor; the Doric, 
throughout the Peloponnesus, and in the Dorian colonies in 
Asia Minor, Italy and Sicily; the Ionic, in the Ionian colonies 
in Asia Minor; the Attic, in Attica. 

2. The ^olic and Doric dialects are characterized by hard- 
ness and roughness, being the opposite of the Ionic, which is 
distinguished for delicacy and softness. The Attic dialect holds 
a beautiful medium between the two former and the Ionic, as it 
skilfnlly combines the soft and pleasant forms of the Ionic with 
the strong and full-toned forms of the Doric 

3. The Ionic dialect is divided into the Older and the Later 
Ionic The Older Ionic is the language of Homer and of his 
school, although these poets were not satisfied with their own 
dialect merely, but knew how, in accordance with the true prin- 
ciples of art, to select, from all the dialects, those forms which 
corresponded to the nature of their poetry; and to employ— ^ince 
the regular laws of versification had much influence in forming 
the language — a peculiar and definite poetic language, called 
the Epic or Homeric. This had a great effect on the language 
of all the Greek poets even to the latest times. We find the 
Later Ionic in the works of the historian Herodotus, bom 484 
B* C, and of Hippocrates, b. 460 B. C. 



4. The Attic dialect is divided, in accordance with certain 
peculiarities, into the Older, the Middle, and the Later Attic 
The Older is used by Thucydides, b. 472 B. C, the tragic poets, 
^schylus, died 456 B. C, Sophocles, b. 497 B. C, d. 405 B. C, 
Euripides, b. 480 B. C, and the more ancient comic writers, 
e. g. Aristophanes, d. 390 B. C. The Middle Attic is used by 
Plato, b. 430 B. C, and Xenophon, b. 447 B. C. The Later 
Attic is employed by the orators, the later comic writers, cmd 
the prose authors in more recent times, who sought to preserve 
in their works the language of the earlier writers. 

5. After the freedom of the Greeks had been destroyed by 
Philip, king of Macedon, the Attic dialect came to be the com- 
mon written language. As it extended, not only over all 
Greece, but also over the Macedonian provinces of Syria and 
Egypt, it lost much of its peculiar stamp by the introduction of 
foreign forms and words, and it then received the name of the 
Common or Hellenic language, i/ xot^iy or 'EUspfixtj diaXenrog. 
It was used| e. g. by Apollodorus, Diodorus, and Plutarch. 





Letters and Sounds of the Language. 

§1. Alphabet. (lO 

The Alphabet of the Greek language consists of the follow- 
ing twenty-four letters: 


























e short 










e long 







































o short 

*0 fAlXQOV 













ff S 

































16 BOUND OF THE LETTERS. [§§ 2, 3« 

Remark 1. Sigma a takes at the end of a word the form «, e. g. 
ctuTfiog. This small g may also be used in the middle of compound words, 
if the first part of the compound consists of a word ending with Sigma, 
e. g. nQogq>i(fm or nQoaq>8Qtif dvgyew^g or dvayirtig. 

Rem. 2. When <t and t come together, both letters may be expressed by 
one character, ^, Sti or Stigma. 

§2. Sound of the Letters. (3.) 

The sound of the letters is indicated by the Roman characters 
opposite. The following things only need be noted : 
7 before the Palatals* (§ 5.) /, x, x> l> where it is used instead 

of the nasal r (§ 19, 3.), is sounded as ng* in a/ng'el, ayye- 

ioff, Lat angelus, l^yx^^* Anchises, ovyHon^, syncope, 

IcHwySj larynx. 
C is sounded like ds or o, soft r. 
^ is the English th. 
ax never form one sound, like the German 5cA, but are always 

pronounced separately, like the Latin, e. g. Aits^iljog = 

Ais-chylos; so in Lat Aeschylus = Aes-chylus. 
u is sounded like ti, without a hissing sound, as FaXatUx. ; it 

is never sounded like the Lat ti before a vowel, e. g. 

Gblatia = Gralashia. 

§3. Articulation of the Sounds. w 

1, The sounds of language are articulate or organic, i. e. such 
as preserve a definite form by means of the organs of speech. 
Hence by the articulation, or organization of sounds, is to be 
understood the forming of the voice by the organs of speech, so 
as to express sounds of a determinate kind. The organs of 
speech, in addition to the cavity of the mouth, are the throat, the 
tongue and the lips. 

2. The sounds which cure emitted almost without any action 
of the throat, tongue and lips, and which proceed in the freest 
manner from the breast, are called Vowels ; the rest are Con- 

* CruUvrals in German, as the Germans pronomice these letters in the 
throat— -Tr. 

^ 4.] VOWELS. 17 

§4. Votaels. (4.) 

1. The principal vowels are, «, a, v, which may be short or long. 
The subordinate vowels are, « and o, which are always short, 

17 and 0), which are always long. 
The « is intermediate between * and a, the between a and v; 
^ and • are produced by lengthening « and o. The short vow- 
els are indicated by w, the long by -, e. g. a, a. The marks, 
\/, show that the vowel may be either short or long, e. g. S. 

2. When two vowels are so combined with each other, that 
tiiey form but one sound, namely, a mixed sound, this sound 
is called a diphthong. 

3. The Greek diphthongs originate from the union of the 
vowels, cc, e, 0, v, ^, w, with the vowels t and v, thus, 

• +• • or 1; =B o«, av, pronounced m, cm as in laudf aR, yaC^ ^ 
«-j-*orv = et,«u, ** ct,ett, deeyoc, mlsvaa 

-|- » or V = 01, ov, " ot, oii as in otir, xoivo^, ovffarog 

V -j- » = vt, ** ttt, nearly like toy, fivia 

ij-j-*' =^i ** ouaain ym, f^vlov 

« -f~ V = ^i'* '^ <^ like ou in aoumiy or Germ, ou, q>^(!(, 

Ionic only. 

Here belong the three improper diphthongs, «, i?, <p,— i. e. a + 
I, ^ + i, w + «, — e. g. alcxQ^, oiign, rj, rep. 

Remark 1. The pronunciation above given is that proposed by Erasmus 
in the 16th century. That defended by Reuchlin in the same century, 
and which accords with the modem Greek pronunciation, sounds 17, v, ci, 
•I, v» like e, a» like e in md; av, fv, im fl0v,xare intermediate between qfsnd 
at, efand ev, i^and «9, o/*and ov. It cannot be determined with certainty 
how the ancient Greeks pronounced these diphthongs; yet the Erasmian 
pRHiUDdation seems to be nearer the truth than the Reuchlinian.* The 

* For the benefit of those who may wish to compare the two modes, the 
foilofwing explanation of the Reuchlinian is extracted fix>m the Greek Gram- 
mar of Sophocles: **a and ^ are pronounced like a in faUier; after the 
sound / (iy 199 <«i ot, V, vi) it is pronounced like a in pKuUcBrity. a» like & av, 
n/, ijv, mv, before a vowel, a liquid, or a middle mute (fi y d) are pro- 
nounced like ov, ev, era, ov, respectively ; in all other cases, like of, ef, etf, 
off, ft like V. / before the sounds E and I is pronounced nearly like y in 
ye$y York ; in all other cases it is guttural, like the German g in Tag. yy 
and yu like ng in stnmgat. y^ like nx, yx like ng-k, nearly, d like th in 
OiaL B like e in fellow, nearly. «« like ». ev, see en;. ^ like z. 17 and 17 like i. 
ifii, see av, S" like tib in thin, i like t in mackint, x like A^ X like I; before 
the sound /, Hke U in fftUianu fi like m. fui like mfr, as tfmgoo&ep pro- 


following ejounples will show how the Romans sounded these diphthongs : 
ai is expressed by the diphthong oe, e» by i and €, v by y, oi by oe, ov by 11, 

*^al8^og, Phaedrus, Ev^og, Bums, OQuxtg, Thraces, 

ritttxog^ Glaucus, Bothnia, Boeotia, Oq^ccu, Thressa, 

2VjbUo(, Nilus, Mowra, MQsa, T^o/^do(,tFBgeodu8. 

jiwHoPf Lyceum, JEHstdvia, Ilidiyia, 

In words adopted later, the Romans expressed 9 like 6, as ^drj, ode. The 
diphthongs ^ 17, 9, do not differ in pronunciation iVom the simple vowels o, 17, 
(0, yet the ancient Greeks probably gave the » a slight sound after the other 

Rem. 2. Where utioaf, i. e. capital, letters are used, the Iota subscript of 
?> Vi 9> ^ placed in a line ynih the vowels, e. g. TSU KAAIII «= tc^ jcoX^, 
T^ "Atdfl, but ^drj. 

Rem. 3. Ov is numbered among the diphthongs on account of the com^ 
bination of two vowels* 

Rem. 4. When two vowels, which, according to the rule, form a diph- 
thong, should be pronounced separately, it is indicated by two points, called 
dUuruis, placed over the second vowel, i, v, e. g. atdoi, for aldol, ok, 
avnvog. If the acute accent Lb on the » otju, it is placed between the 
points ; if the circumflex, over, as atdijgj xXeidi, Ttgavg, 

§5. Consonants. (5.) 

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the differ- 
ent organs of speech, by which they are formed, into : 

Palatals, 7 a x 
Linguals, d t '& r X q <s 
Labials, ^ n ap fi. 

nounced hfibrosthen, fitp (fintr) like m&». y like n; before the sound J, like 
n in oMnu The words Toy, T^y, ip, avp, before a word beginning with » 
or (, are pronounced like toy, ttiy, iy, cvy before x or | (see yx, y^), e. g. 
toy naiQov, iv ^Xo/^, pronounced xoyxaiqov^ fy^vX6x(^ ; before n or ^ they 
are pronounced xbfi, irifi, ift^ ffvfij e. g. tow noyfiQov, avp ^vxfjy pronounced 
jofAnopfiQW, trvfiif/vx^' m like nd, as miftog pronounced htdimoa. { like x 
or ka. o like in porter, o* like 1. ov like 00 in moon, xr, ^, like p, r. a like 
8 in soft ; before fi, y, d, /i, g, it is sounded like £, e. g. xocfAog^ vpiaaij Sfivq^ 
vfit pronounced xo{Juo(, ifiicai, ZfMVQvti ; so also at the end of a word, Tot^ 
fiaeiWig t^^ yrig, pronounced JovifiaciXug tiHyilg. t like t in tdL v like «. 
i/ft like i. 9 like ph or/ x hk^ the German cA or Spanish j. yt like pa, u 
and qi like o. aiv, see crv. The rough breathing is silent in modem Greek. 
So far as quaniUy is concerned, all the short vowels are equivalent to the 
long ones. The written accent guides the stress of the voice. The accent 
of the enditie, however, is disregarded in pronunciation. But when the 
attracting word has the accent on the antepenult, its last syllable takes the 
secondary accent ; e. g. dii^ov fioi, pronounced d^ovfioh but XiXttnai /io» has 
the primary accent on the first syllable Xt^ and the secondary on NTcri."— Tr. 




Remark 1. The consonants, which are produced hy the same organ of 
japeech, are called homonymous consonants, L e. of the same class. 

2. Ck>nsonants are divided again, according to the greater or 
Xhe less influence of the organs of speech in their formation, in- 
^o the three following classes, which are called, 

(a) The Breathings or Aspirates, which make, in some de- 
gree, a transition from the vowels to the consonants. The 
Greek language has three, namely, the lingual breathing 
ff, the Spiritus Asper *, corresponding to our A, § 6, and 
the labial breathing, Digamma Fy on which see the re- 
marks upon the Dialects. 

(b) The Liquids, X fi p q^ which are so called, because they 
easily coalesce with the other consonants and form one 

Rkm. 2. The Breathings and Liquids are, also, included under the com- 
mon name of semivowels. 

(e) The Mutes, L e. the consonants which are formed by the 
strongest agency of the organs of speech, namely, ^ y 9 S' 

3. The Mutes are divided, 

(a) According to the organ of speech, into three Palatals, three 
Linguab and three Labials; 

(b) According to their names, into three Kappa-mutes, three 
Tau-mutes and three Pi-mutes ; 

(e) According to the stress of articulation, into three smooth 
Mutes, three medial Mutes and three rough Mutes. 




















Rem. 3. The consonants, which stand at the same grade of articulation, 
are said to be of the same order. 

4. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the Breathing cr, 
three double consonants originate, — 

20 BREATHINGS. [§§ 6, 7. 

yr fiom %c fia fpa^m TWfm [na), x^"^ O^X Mnc^iUvr (910-), 

I irom wryftx^tVA mqo^ (ntr), JUfoi {/a), avvi {xv)t 

i is not, like tft and I, to be regarded as the sound of two compound 
consonants, but as a soft hissing sound, to be pronounced like a soft 
z. Only in the adverbs in £, is {^ to be considered as composed 
of ad, e. g. 'A&rivaifi instead of ^AdrtvaidB^ also, fiiCsr, clote, for fiw- 
dfip, from fivpito, to slop, Perf. pi^wfun. It may be regarded, per- 
haps, as a transposition of sounds, as when the .Ak>lic and Doric dia- 
lects use, in the middle of a word, cd instead of {^ e. g. (ulMstm 
for fuXiCnai, 

§6. Spiritus Lenis and Spiritus Asper. (C) 

1. Every vowel is uttered with a Breathing (Spiritus). This 
is either a smooth, or a rough Breathing. The former, Spiritus 
Lenis, is indicated by the mark ' ; the latter, Spiritus Asper, by 
the mark *. Either mark may accompany the initial vowel of a 
word, as l^mlkfov^ Apollo, ictoQta^ historia. The rough Breath- 
ing answers to our h. The smooth Breathing is connected with 
every vowel which has not the rough Breathing. 

Remark. In diphthongs, the mark for the Breathing— -as it belongs to 
both vowels which are united in one sound — ^is placed over the second 
vowel, e. g. oiog, Bv&vgf airtlMa, Still, in the improper diphthongs, ^, 17, 
^, the mark for the Breathing in the uncial letters, is placed over the first 
vowel, as these three diphthonj^ are regarded, to a certain extent, as sim- 
ple vowels, e. g.*^i^, $^c; ^h '^h Jl* V* 

2. The liquid q has the rough Breathing, and hence retains 
at the beginning of words the mark of the Breathing *, e. g. qo^- 
dog. In the middle and end of a word, however, this mark is 
omitted, e. g. Xvqo, ibIq. When the letter q is repeated, the first 
is pronounced with the smooth Breathing, the last, with the 
rough, e. g. Tlv^^^ Pyrrhus. 


§7. General Remark. 

Both the vowels and consonants are subject to a variety of 
changes. These changes occur in part firom the tendency of the 
language to euphony ; they have in part a grammatical signifi* 


cance ; and, finally, they result from the difference of dialects. 
The last will be considered in treating of the Dialects. 

I. Changes of the Vowei.s. 

§8. Hiatus, (16.) 

The concurrence of two vowels in two successive syllables or 
■words, occasions a hardness in the pronunciation, which is call- 
ed Hiatus. Various methods have been sought in order to 
prevent this Hiatus, namely. Contraction, Crasis, Synizesis and 
Elision. The poets, particularly the Attic, were decidedly 
averse to the Hiatus of two vowels in two successive words ; 
among the prose-writers, the orators sought most carefully to 
avoid it 

Remark. In the Iambuses of the tragic poets, the Hiatus is allowed in 
the interrogative rl ; quid, what ? e. g. xl ovy ; t/ tlnsg ; among the comic 
poets, its use is mostly confined to i/, on, ntgl, o), e. g. ou ig^ ou ovxl, tibqI 
vftih^ also in ovde (fifiH) tig {^y\ nt umu qmdtm^ to distinguish it from ov- 
Hdg, nuUus. In addition to its use in the Iambic measure, the Hiatus is 
found firequently even in the Tragedians, who endeavored to avoid it when 
possible ; still it is mostly limited to special cases, e. g. to interjections and 
imperatives, e. g. it is found in ai, val^ Sva^ up! t&i, as V&i, td^i fioi Traioir, 
Soph. Ph. 832 ; aX£ ara^ i^ idQaptor, Aj. 194. On the Hiatus in the Epic 
dkJect, see the observations on the Dialects, § 200. 

§9. A. Contraction of Vowels. (9.) 

Contraction is the union of two successive vowels in the 
same word, into one long sound. These contracted sounds are 
either such as arise from the natural coalescence of two suc- 
cessive vowels, in accordance with the laws of euphony, or such 
as have also undergone grammatical changes. The importance 
of the grammatical ending, prevents the usual contractions, es- 
pecially if the form of the word would thereby become doubtful. 
The first species of contractions is called euphonic, the latter, 
grammatical. In the Common Language, the following con- 
tractions occur : 



L Euph 

ic Contractions. 

(•)" + " 

= ri 


: aikaa wm oiXa 

. +. 

= tt 


iflhi 9%i (Comp. No. n.) 

■ + ■ 

= 1 


ftoQui = nopti 


t>oo« »oti(_ 



= o 


T^« = jlflU 

" + 1 


jifianiJt ■■ -iifiixu 

o +• 

— 7 


y^QaX => ne? 

K +0 


^ ai 


Tl^OOfW =. Tl,U*)|U.r 

O +« 



Ti;-«Wr T,,..S^t» 

. + 1. 


*= . 

I<,<W« = t<^o( 

' " +v 



Tifiwpc = n;.^; 

. + 0. 

= ¥ 


Ti^n'oipi = iiyypi 

Tl^lioU ^ Tifllii 

(0) . + »" 

= 1 


«/?(« = jilxv (Comp. No. n.) 

• +«" 

=■ a 


Xoii =xou 

» + » 

ttlxti ^ «»/" 

I + 

>K OU 


Vilio/iei- ^ ipiXoviuf 

1 +« 


= " w 


(pOiio = Ttiiu, onitf _ oirey 

t + at 

= ? 

Tiwteai = Tviiiji 

t + H 



' +5 

= fl 


>piXiit^ = 911IS1; 

1 + 04 

I— ot 


ipilion = ipiloij 

. +o« 

3> ov 


<piie'oii = ipiioD 

(a) » + • 

— 1 


■vl^eaaa = tlijtnro 

1 +' 

= 3 


eptjMrffa = egfinaa 

, +.. 

— 5 


^l|i^us = Tififit 

(e)-. +. 



noQUat = nopii( 

t + < 


nJjiKj = nopiis 

(f) . + . 

= <u 


a><Taa = aidtu (Comp. No. U.) 

+ • 

»< OK 


jila^ot fiiv&ov 

o +^ 

= IK 


unffldiiH utadmti 


.= Ot 

mS6l^ aiJoI 

o + a 


-" w 


ma&oa -^ (iiaQut, nild^ _> nlf 

> + u 

unJliiai ,^ unldi 

+ t( 



/iia&ou ^ fua9al [Comp. Rem. L) 

• +3 


E= 0( 


piaSoji =1 lua&oX 



fita9i>oi(u itio9oiftt 

+ ou 

IE otr 


(8)1- +" 


V + t 

= v 


ix^^if = i/ffi's 

» +1 


fliiKn-Vat = fltutiiiini (rarely) 

(h) » + . 

^pwB = '^fti (only in Ace. of eome 

« + . 



Xdiiinot = Iwaiof. [of 3d 


n. Grammatical Contractions. 

(a) 8 -|- « = 17, particularly in the third Dec, e. g. jgitjQBs = rgnigfij 

yivtz = yirri. 

(b) c + a 3B a in the second Dec, e. g. o(nia = ocrra, /^iWfa == ZQ'^^i 

and elsewhere, if a vowel precedes, e. g. UegucXi-Ba as 
JltgutUay xXi-sa = xXsu , vyi-ia = 'v/ta ; in the Ace 
PL Fern, of Adjectives in iog, ta, toy, e. g. xQvcri-ag =x 
Xgvaaq ; finally in the Fern, of Adjectives in so;, eo, 
eoy, when these endings are preceded by a vowel or 
A ?) ^- ^* ig^-fog, e-sa, £-eoy ^ ^^eov;, igea , igeovp^ 
agyvgiog, so, cor = ot;;, a, ovr. 
« + a :ss <i in Accusatives PL in tag of third Dec, e. g. caapi-ag sa 
<raq>Hg, so 9i6iUi$, nr^x^^^ i/Z^^' 
(c) + a == o in Adjectives in oof, oij, ooy, e. g. oTrilo-a = aTiila. 
4" ij s= 17 in Adjectives in oog, 01?, oov, e. g. oTrilo-); = anXv, 
o + 8 asxs ov in Accusatives PL offiovg, also offuiCovg. 

RiKARK 1. The contraction of oei into ov is found only in the Inf. Act 
of verbs in ov, and is accounted for from the fact that the Inf originally 
ended in ey, not in cii*— -consequently not (ita^oHv = fiKr&ovv, but fna&otv 
as fua^ovT — and in adjectives in oct^, e. g.^Onoug =='Onovg, in which the 
root ends in otrt, and consequently the t does not belong to the root. On 
the accentuation of contract forms, see § 30. 

Rem 2. The Attic poets sometimes neglect the contractions on account of 
the measure, e. g. xaXia Aesch. Ag. 147. rgofiitav Prom. 542. ytUsog Sept. 
936. iTtto Soph. OC. 182. svga Trach. 114. 

§10. B. Crasis. (13.) 

1. Crasis, xqclciSj is the coalescence of two vowels, in two 
successive words, so as to form one long sound; one vowel ends 
the first word, the other begins the next word, e. g. to ovofia = 
fovvoiiay TO hog = tovnog. 

Remark 1. The mark of the Crasis is that of the Spiritus Lenis, and is 
Darned Coronis. It is placed over the vowel or diphthong formed by the 
Crasis, but is omitted when the word begins with such a vowel or diph- 
thong, because it would then coincide with the Spiritus Lenis, e. g. %a aya&i 
ss taya&a ; a av ^=sav\ (a av&gwtB = Sp^gtane* On the accentuation, see 
{ 31, n. ; on the change of the smooth Mute into the rough Mute before 
the Spiritus Asper, as to vdotg = ^ovdag, see § 17, Rem. 3. 

2. The Crasis is found only in such words as are closely 
connected, and the first of which is unimportant; hence it most 
frequently occurs, (a) in the article, e. g. am^g = avf^g, rov dvdgog 
=s tardQog ; — (b) frequently in ko/ and the interjection w, e. g. kcm 


OQetij = xaQSTi^y 0) ird'Qmne = mi^d'QcoTief w ayad'i= foyad'iy w ai^o^ = 
ciSyoS ; — (c) somewhat often in iyta with oVia and oifuu, e. g. 
«V^5a, «V^/*a*;— (d) less often with the neuter of the relative 
and a, with to/, fievroi, ovroi, particularly in connection with 
avy aqa, e* g. rav, toQCL, fievtav, avroQa, rarely with ngo, e. g. nQovQ- 
yw) for nqo i^ov^ especially in composition, as nqovdoaxa. 

3. Hence the second word, being the most important, has 
properly a greater influence on the form of the Crasis, than the 
first ; hence, also, it is evident, that the Iota subscript is supplied 
only when the i belongs to the last of the two vowels, e. g. xai 
tlta = xata^ iyoj olda = iyqpda ; on the contrary, xai inBira = xa- 
nBircL, cd ayad'oU = ayad'ou, r<p ox^(p =■ r^x^^' 

4. When the Crasis occurs with the article, and an a follows, 
the vowels of the article— * even ov and w — are combined with 
the following a into a long a, and, if the article is aspirated, the 
Spiritus Asper is changed into the long a, e. g. o avr^ «= ivriQ^ 
oi avdQeg = ardgeg, to dhfi'sg = rdhid^sg, ra aXXa=zraXXay rov if- 
dQog = tavdgogy T(p avdgi = rdrdgi 'j also, tov avtov = ravrov, rep 
avr^ 3= tavrtp. 

Rem. 2. Also with the word hsgog, the forms of the article ending in a, 
o, oVf to, 0), o», at, among the Attic poets, combiae and form a long a ; hence 
this Crasis includes such cases as the Doric ait^og instead of rrs^o;, e. g. 

TO hega = -d^ax^qa 6 ^ttQog = axtgog tov kxigov = •^crra^ot; 
T^ ktiga = ■&i%iqtj^ ol titgot = attqoh al Bttgai = attga^ 

5. In the particle xai, the cu in the Crasis is absorbed by the 
following vowel, e. g. aou ixelvog ss xdxeTvogf xal av = xavy xou iv s= 
xavy X€U iym = xdyoi, xou ei=B xelj xou Big == xsig, xou f^X&av == xtiX&oVt 
xal ov =s xov, xcu evdaifjuov = xevdaifjuof. 

§11, Summary of the most common instances of 

Cr asis ^ (14.) 

(a) The following cases conform to the rules of contraction 
given in § 9 : 


ossfi; «-{■* = «; ci-4-o = o>; + = 01;; 
ssBsOv; o-f-* = oi; ij-j-sasi^; oi-|-a=soi. 

(b) The following instances belong to Crasis only : 

^ 12.] 8YNIZESI8.— ELISION. 25 

-\-v z=zov as : TO vdfOQ == &ovd(og (§ 17, Rem. 3.) 






- 01 

= ? 




= W 




= *? 


w - 

- < 

=s •» 


M - 


= to 


0« - 


= a 


0* - 

- « 

= 01; 


OV - 


= ov 


ov . 




ov - 


= ov 


^ - 


= ij 


M . 

- 01 


OV - 


= ^? 


•V - 


s OV 


at - 

- n 

= a 



to aino =b tovto 

TO atuor = T^TfOK 

o o?yo^ = cfpog 

TO ^/megov =s ^rifditQOv (§ 17, Rem. 3.) 

T^ ifi^^=tAfAOf 

TQi 6<p&al/ttu =3 Tai<p^aX/iOj 

fiivtot Sv = fuvrav 

fioi idoxH = fiovdoxtt 

nov Btrtiv =s nrovoTiy 

ToD opofiotiog = jovvofAajog 

Tov vdaxog = ^oi/JoTo; (§ 17, Rem. 3*) 

tJ ^/u^pa = ^fjusQijt {§ 17, Rem. 3.) 

i/(u ol^a = iy(jida 

TO? {/i8Tc^ov = ^r/jun^^ov (§ 17, Rem. 3.) 

<• 3 

TOV ovQayov ss Tov^ayov 
xal iixa =s x^ra. 

(c) Here belong the examples which are particularly given 
Tinder §10, 4 and 5. 

§12. C. Synizesis, (n.) 

1. Synizesis is the contraction of two vowels into one sound 
— ^mostly into a mixed sound — ^which is not written out, but 
contracted only in the pronunciation ; e. g. when iiri ov is pro- 
nonnced as a monosyllable. 

2. In the Attic poets, the Synizesis is confined almost wholly 
to, (a) inei, ij, 17, with ov or ovdeig following, e. g. intl ov, ^ ov 
^ttff, dissyllable ; also, fi^ ov, monosyllable, ^^ aXXoiy iyoj ov, dis- 
syllable; (b) single words and forms, e. g. ^£o* = ^o/, mono- 
syllable, ioiQuna = (Sgcuia, trissyllable, dveqpyfiivog = dvcpyfiivogf four 
syllables, particularly in the Ionic- Attic Grenitive emg, as Gtjaemgy 

§13. D. Elision. (is.) 

1. Elision is the omission of a vowel before another short or 
long vowel. The following vowel remains unchanged. 

Remark 1. The mark of Elision Lb that of the Spiritua Lenia, and ia 
called apoatrophe, as tovt luniy, yivoi-i Sp. 

2. The Elision occurs generally in a succession of separate 
words ; often also in compound words, where, however, the 
apostrophe is omitted. 


Rem. 2. In Elisioii, the vowel is omitted ; but in Crasis, the sound is 
prolonged, e. g. la alia = talloy Cnisis, ali af/e, Elision. This distinc- 
tion, however, does not hold, when the second word begins with a long 
vowel or diphthong, e. g. to avto =sTavto« 

3. In prose writers, the Elision is confined mainly to the fol- 
lowing cases, where it often occurs : 

(a) In the prepositions, which end in a vowel, with the exception of niql 
and TT^o, but rarely in cyexo, e. g. di oUov, in oimov, but ntgl oijcof, ngo of- 
Kov, The same holds in composition, e. g. ivtk^M^ but nti^ioif^if ; 

(b) In conjunctions and adverbs, aiUUr, a^o, af^a^ a/ta^ klxa, enretror, fMxAo, 
fialitna, and in many other adverbs ending in a before Sv ; also in the fol- 
lowing adverbs and conjunctions, lyo, yi, li, di (with the compounds, ovdi, 
fAffdi), olcre, 0T8 (not ou\ noxi (with the compounds, as aivnou), Tott, »vi, ot- 
Mri,/x^Ti; e. g. aiU' a^o(, af>' ovr, fialitn ay; 

(c) In forms of pronouns in a, o, a, as ravra, toiavxa, nana, SlXa, tiva ; 
nouQa more rare ; lovro, avjo, ifii, ua (never in to lef), e« g. Ton^r avro, 
ivoyx' aya&afitavxt^ oaa; 

(d) In 9i2^s ol^a, ola&a, and especially in verbal forms in fit, (ri, «, a, 8, 
o, e. g» qfi^fl iytti, old^ aydga, iliyet orv, iivittovx ay, yivoit ay ; of the 
forms which can admit the y iqitlxvtrunoyf § 15, in prose itnl only often 
suffers elision ; 

(e) In certain familiar forms of speech, as yij At I917. 

Rebl 3. A vowel, foUowed by a punctuation-mark, cannot be elided. 
Hence, in words closely connected, as yr\ At S917, the comma is omitted, 
for in such cases, without doubt, tiie ancients pronounced the words in 
quick succession. 

§14. Use of Elision in the Poets* (i».) 

1. The use of the Elision in the poetic language is very fi^quent, and is 
much more extended than in prose ; yet the foUowing points are to be 
noted : A word ending in v is never elided ; neither is the article to nor 
n^l — at least among the Attic poets— -nor or«, tl, and substantive adverbs 
of [dace ending in ^» (od-i excepted), and very rarely the Optative ending ei€. 

2. The Elision of the 1 in the DaL of the third Dec, particularly in the 
Sing, is, in the Attic poets, very rare, and is even doubted by many. 

d. The verbal endings, ftai^ to*, ^ ^a^ ^vdiich are short in respect to the 
accent, are rarely elided in the Attic poets ; the Datives iiol and col never 
sufRn* elision. 

4. In the verbal forms which may take the y tfq^eiUraoTixor, the poets oie 
the Elision or the y according to the necessities of the verse. 

§ 15.] A'^ 'Eqiehcvatixop, 27 

5. Sometimes in Attic prose, a weak and grammatically unimportant 
cjOable is excluded by a preceding long vowel ; this is specially the case 
i¥ith the augment c, e. g. laxii *noQ9vaaPy Soph. OC. 1602, iml '^cucfwa, 
X^hiL 360. This omission of the vowel is called aphaeresis, aquii^sfrig. Still, 
such cases may be more properly regarded as Crasis or Synizesis. 

^15. A'^ iq)e}.xvattx6p, — Ovr(o(g). — !E5 and ix. — Ov(x). 

(21. 92.) 

1. Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels 
in two successive words is by appending a «', called a y ig^eX- 
^€VGnx6p, to certain final syllables, viz. 

(a) to the Dat PL in ct, to the two adverbs, mqvai^ in the last 

year^ navjoTiaai, universally^ and all adverbs of place in 

Ch as naciv SUl^a] ^ Ukatoudaiv riyB(iovia\ 
(§) to the third Pers. Sing, and PI. in (xt, as rvrnwaiv ifii, tidji- 

6iv ip T^ TQOTieXv ; so also in icri; 
ij) to the third Pers. Sing, in e, e. g. Uvmtf ifie; 
{d) to the numeral efxocxi, although even before vowels the r 

is often omitted, e. g. eixoaiv ardgeg and eixoai ardQeg ; 
{«) to the Demonstrative i but rarely, and then always after 

c, e. g. ovToaiv, ixeivoaiv, rovtovaiVy ovrcoaiv ; 
(0 to the Epic particles, rv and xe, and to the Epic suffix qih 

hence vocqiu 

BxMABK. The poets place the v iq>elx, before a consonant so as to make 
a ihoit qrllable long by position. In the Attic prose, it stands regularly at 
the end of complete sections ; it is, also, sometimes found before punctua- 
tioii-marks, and sometimes elsewhere for the sake of greater emphasis. 

2. The adverb ovtcdc, «o, always retains its fuU form before a 
vowel, but drops its final consonant s before another consonant, 
e. g. mircog moif^csv, but ovroo ttouS ; still wrong may stand also be- 
fore consonants, when it is to be pronounced emphatically, e. g. 
ovtiog y£, Xen. C. 3. 6, 9. 

3. In like manner the Prep. «5» ex, retains its full form before 
vowels and at the end of a sentence, but before consonants takes 
the form ex, e. g. «5 ^i(m^> elQi^g ij, but ix r^g eiQ^vt^ ; sp also in 
eoimpofiition, e. g. i^avvuv^ but ixtflth, 

4. The eajue holds, finally, of the negative <wx^ not, e. g. 
h uiax(^y and before a Spiritus asper ovxt e. g. ovx ^ivs, but ov 


xuXo^ ; so also, by analogy, of oi-xiu : ur^xiti (instead of /uy tti). 
But when ov stands at the end of a diacourse, or of a sentence, 
and is to be pronounced with empha^i?, then or may be marked 
with the acute accent even before a vowel : in which case there 
must be an actual break in the discourse, as occurs when ov 
stands at the end of an answer expressed interrogatively, with- 
out connection with what follows, a? /7w>' yao ov; l-Zo ovr xta. 
Xen. C. 4. 2, 37; or when it is found in the answer only, and 
corresponds to our Xo ; it is found especially in antithetical sen- 
tences, e. g. Tu'/a&iCj rudi xaxa ov: 'Ear di xtL Xen. C. 1. 2, 42; 
uiiOovg £iV 'Tov noTUfiop iQQiTnovr, ihxtovrzo di of, ovre ipuunov ov- 
dtra. An. 4. 8, 3. If, on the contrary, the following sentence is 
closely connected with the preceding, then it is written oi'x, e. g. 
V X, dD,a xrX. Xen. C. 2. 6, 1 1. 13. 4. 6, 2 ; ovx, (r xrl. Hell. 1. 7, 19, 

§ 16. Sirengtiiening'j Weakf^ning-j Prolongation^ Sharteninffj 
Transposition and Variation of Voirels. — Influence of a 
Vowel or a Consonant on another Vowel. — Syncope. — 
Omission of a Votael. — Euphonic Profhesis. 

The chaDges, which further take place in vowels, are, 

1. Strengthening of vowels, which consists in changing a weaker vowel 
into a stronger. There are difierent degrees of strength in the vowels ; the 
weakest is e. The strengthening of a sound takes place, e. g. in words of 
the third Dec in og, Gen. -tog; the simple stem of these words is changed 
into tg ; in the Nom., however, which prefers fuller forms, the weaker e 
is changed into the stronger o (in Latin into ii), e. g. yiwog^ g^v^j Gen. 
yiptog, instead of /«Vco'-o;, gtMr-is. In yovv and doqv^ Gen. yowax-og^ do- 
^OT-oc, a, tlie final vowel of the stem, is changed into the stronger v. 

2. The weakening of vowels, which is the opposite of the change just 
described, occurs, e. g. in substantives of the third Dec in k> ^9 v;* v ; in 
these, the stronger vowels of the stems * and v are changed into the weaker 
c, e. g. noXig, nokwg ; nrjxvgj n^ttog ; aiwam, otraneog ; aorv, S(ntog. The 
same is true of adjectives in t;;, t;, e. g. yXvxvg, yXvxv^ Gen. -tog. 

3. Prolongation of vowels, by which a short vowel is changed into a long 
vowel, or a diphthong, viz. a into 17 or a», * into ioru; v into v or tv; t 

'^fl or h; into lo or ov. This prolongation takes place either for the 

of euphony, or on grammatical principles, or fix>m both together ; in 

9ti often on account of the metre. The usage of protracting aoundi 


is very widely extended in the Greek language. One instance only is here 
mentioned, namely, the strengthening of the Present tense in Mute and 
Xiquid verhs, e. g. xgtvotj nlvvta, ilij^ai, <palpot, Xsinoiy q>Bvy(o instead of 
ac^f yct>, nXvvot, X^&m, (pSvut^ Xtnoa^ (fvyoa. — The reason of the prolongation is 
"very often found in the omission of a y with a Tau-mute, rarely of a mere y, 
or of a cr after a Liquid, or in the omission of a final Sigma, e. g. odovg in- 
stead of odovrg, didovq instead of didortg, (iovXttxay instead of fiovXBvong ; 
fiiXag instead of fdXavg ; urqnriXa instead of lij^alo-a, ^yyiiXa instead of ijy^ 
jrthxaf tip^nga instead of ccpd^tgaa ; (i^itoQ instead of ^iJto^^, noi^r^v instead 
of 9rof/iiy;, dalfioiP instead of dalfiovg, aiddg instead of aldoag, aXri&iig instead 
of aXfi&dag. 

4. Shortening of vowels. See the remarks on the Dialects, § 207. 

5. Transposition of vowels ; this consists in the softening of a long vowel 
into a short ; and to compensate for it, the short vowel immediately following 
is lengthened. Thus in the Ionic and Attic dialects, eo) instead of ao, e. g. 
iXtwgj (k)r, instead of tXdog, ov, Xftog instead of Xdog, vmg instead of vdog, Msvi- 
Xttag instead of MiviXdog ; further, in the Attic dialect, PaaiXitag, PaaiXid 
instead of the Ionic paaiXijog, ija ; so also, noXtagy ^^fff^g^ Attic, instead of 
noXiog, n^x^og ; « is weaker than i, and v, see No. 2. 

6. Variation, L e. the change of the radical vowel s into o and a, so as to 
form the tenses, § 140, and the derivatives, § 231, 6 ; when the radical 
Towels £ and i in the Present tense are prolonged into ft, o is substituted 
b the first case, oi in the last case ; e. g. t^s^oi, T€T^o<]pa, ixqaqftiv ; Xilnvt^ 
liXoma', tp^ilgtHy up^oga^ iq>&oigrip; tpXiyu, q>X6$; fQ^X^i ''Q<*X^Si tqitftOj 
1^091}, iQWftvg^ TQa(ptg6g. Comp. Germ, stehle, gestohlen, stahl, etc. 
The 1} is cnanged into 00, e. g. igtiyw, agotyfi. 

Remark 1. Whether the a is to be regarded as a variation, or rather as 
a euphonic change of e, introduced by a preceding or following Liquid, 
particularly q and A, sometimes even ^ and y, may be doubted. Comp. 
hgoJior, hgd(priv, itngdqnjp, i^gixriv, iddgtiv, iif^dgfjif, iardXriVy haftop, Ix- 
ToroF with iipiyriv, hixor. 

7. Change of a vowel by the influence of another vowel, or of a conso- 
sanL Here belong two special cases. 

(a) The Attic writers change the Ionic tj into a after the vowels a and * 
and the diphthongs ending with i, sometimes even after other vowels, 
and after the Liquid g, e. g. idia, aotpla, /^e/a, Vi^iga, agyvga, inidva, 

(b) t, as a union-vowel, is changed into o before the terminations of the 
inflections beginning with fi or v, of verbs in 00, e. g. povXsvofier, fiov^ 
Xevwtat^ ijiovXtvoiuv, ifiovXevovio. 

9k Syncope, irvynojtfiy L e. the omission of an a in the middle of a word 


30 MUTES. [§ 17. 

between a Mute and a Liquid, or between two Liquids, or between m ; 
the same, also, occurs in certain substantives of the third Dec, e. g. na- 
igog instead of naiigog ; in the forming of the Present tense of certain 
verbs, e. g. ylywofiai instead of yiyirofiaif ninna instead of ntTTCTO), ^/^rc» 
instead of /ut/usVoi; and in the formation of the tenses of some verbs, e. g. 
V/QOfiriv from iytlga ; Syncope rarely occurs after cr, e. g. eo/cw, bano/ifiv. 
Bat at instead of lijf/oy, iartnofiriVy Btrttat. A striking example of Syncope 
is found in liX&ov instead ofrjkvx^ov, from ^EAET&fL Comp. § 155. 

9. Apocope. See on the Dialects, §207. 

10. One of the vowels a, f , o is prefixed to several words, for the sake of 
euphony. This is caUed euphonic prothesis, e. g. cLaifgonri and ore^oTitj, 
iaTaq>lg and araqlgy ix^^i «^d ;|f^eV» ixiiyog and xtirog, i&iX(a and ^'- 
Xto, oxQVostg and xQvog, odvQOfiai and dvgofiaif oxiXXa and xiXXia, etc. 

Rem. 2. Care must be taken to distinguish the a from these euphonic 
sounds, when it stands for ano, e. g. i-fivvtiv^ to overt, also /uuri?, comp. 
munirt^ or when used instead of avaiy e. g. afivaativ, to tear up, or instead 
of the a or a copulative with the meaning of a/ucr, from which also the so- 
called a intensive has been formed to strengthen the signification ; further, 
the f, if it is used instead of ^| or iv, e. g. iydgsiv, to wake up, igtvynr^ 
eructare, igi&up, tmtare ; finally, the o with the meaning of ofiov, e. g. o/ift/li;. 

II. Changes of the Consonants. 

§ 17. a. Mu tes. (33-s7.) 

1. The changes of the consonants arise, in a great degree, 
from the tendency of the language to assimilate different sounds. 
This assimilation is either a mere resemblance in sounds, e. g. 
when 'kik&y'Xou is changed into ^Ifixzcu, since the smooth Mute 
T and likewise the medial y is changed into a smooth Mute, 
e. g. into X ; or it is a complete identity in sounds, e. g. when 
avv'QiTnto is changed into cvq^injto, — Sometimes, however, the 
language shuns even a sameness in sound, and seeks to remove 
it by changing similar sounds into dissimilar, e. g. fre-cpHt^xa for 
qie-ifiXtjxay 2JafT(fci for ^^aqiqico. 

2. A Pi-mute, n § cp, or a Kappa-mute, >iy x* before a Tau- 
mute, r d'&f must be homogeneous to a Tau-mute, i. e. only a 
smooth Mute, 7t x, can stand before the smooth Mute r ; only a 
medial, ^ 7, before the medial d ; only an aspirate, qp x^ before 
the aspirate -^i; consequently, nt and xr ; ^d and yd ; qp^ and 
X'^> e. g. 





p before 

) T 

into 7r 


from jgl/Sfo 


— liiQinjai 

9 " 


" n 





= yiyQttTtxav 

r " 


" X 





= Xiksxrai 

/ " 


" X 





— pilJQtxTai 

n " 


" /? 





— xvjSda 

^ « 


" /? 





= ypa/5 V 

X « 


« y 





s= nliydr^v 

/ " 


" / 





= Pqiydfiv 

n « 


" 9 

(( » 




= ijiifi(p&fjv 

/J " 


" 9 





= ijQlcf&ijy 

X " 


" / 





= inkixd^fiv 

y " 


" X 





= ilix^riv. 

Remark 1. The preposition /x does not undergo this change, e. g. ^x- 
^^yoi, ix&nwaiy etc, not iydovvaiy ix^iivat* 

3. The smooth Mutes, ;r x t, are changed into the cognate as- 
pirates, qi X ^> not only in inflection and derivation, but also in 
two separated words before a Spiritus Asper, since the smooth 
Mute receives the breathing, and the vowel loses it ; the me- 
dials, P 7 ^y however, are thus exchanged only in the inflection 
of the verb ; in other cases they remain unchanged ; hence : 

in ov = i(p ovy tJtijfifQog from inl, ^ftiga = icprifitQog 
invipalvm from ini, vqxtivfa = i(pvq>aiv(iiy jiivji-u =. iiiv(pa 
OIK ocr/oi; ^^ oi'/ oGtoiCy dsxrjfifQog from dixuy vfiSQa ^ dsxVP^Qog 
avi OIF = av^ tav from arti, aniXx(o = av&iXxon from aviiy iXxa 
tXkoy-a = ttXoxa, but Xiy irsQuv not Xix higav 
tixQi^-a ^ Tci^Kjpa, but t^I^ oviiaq not T^T(p oi/to)^. 

Rem. 2. The negative ovx(ov) thus becomes ot/, e. g. ou/ tjdi;; ; yet this 
principle does not apply to the aspirate ^, e. g. ov ^/jitoi. In some com- 
pounds, the smooth Breathing is retained in the Attic dialect, also, accord- 
ing to the Ionic usage, e. g. anriXimtiq, the east wind^ from ino and i}Xioqy 
Xtvxtniiog, one who has a wkUe horse, from Xtvxog and Xiinog, Kquximioq, etc. 

Rem. S. This change of the smooth Breathing before the rough takes 
place also in Crasis, § 10 and 11, e. g. la txtga = (^artqa, to IfiaTioy = 
daiftatiov, xal ht(}og =z xattQog, xal oocx, ogtig, unag = /cuo'a, /(u^ri;, /oiTrea^. 
— ^When two smo6th Breathings precede, both must be changed into Aspi- 
rates, No. 2, e. g. iq>itf)fifQog instead of knTtjfAiQog from hnia, ruAiqa, vvx^ 
oXfiv instead of vixi oAijy. 

Rem. 4. In some compounds, the aspirated liquid q changes the preceding 
smooth Breathing into the Aspirate, e. g. (pgoifiiov, formed by Crasis from 
itffoolfuopj from tt^o and oi/uo(, x^gdaaru from Ta^aovo) ; so qtgovdog from 
ngo and bdog. 

4. On the contrary, before an Aspirate, the same Aspirate can- 
not stand, but the first, in that case, is changed into the corres- 

32 LIQUIDS. [§ IS^ 

ponding smooth, e. g. ^ancpoi, Baxxog, nr^r^j 'At^ig ; but not 
^agpgpoj, Banog^ rid^d^Tj, 'Ad^^ig ; for the same reason, the first As- 
pirate disappears, where the q is doubled, e. g. Uv^Qog. 

5. A Tau-mute, r d ^, before another Tau-mute is changed 
into (T, but before a x, it disappears, e. g. 

inti^'&rip from n$l&io becomes indiT&riP 

nud-'iiog ** ntl&io ** nEitniog 

fjQBld-'&tjp " igtldto " * riQsUr&riP 

nimi&^xa " nil&o> *^ ninBixa. 

6. The r, which in the Attic dialect, usually passes into (X, is of- 
ten changed into o by the influence of a following «, e. g. nXwaiog 
instead of nhwuog, fi-om nXovrogy l4fAa{^ovau)g instead of 'Afia- 
d'ovvT'iog, MiXiqciog from MthjTog^ Ax^Qovaiog instead of 'Axe- 
Qorr-iog^ ovcia instead of ovr-ia^ yeQwaia instead of yegorr-iaj 
iviavaiog from inavrog. Also in the case of other Tau-mutes, 
as well as in the case of the Palatals, i has sometimes this power 
of assimilation ; thus in the forms of the Comparative in cc(op 
and fow, e. g. ^Qadvg, ^qaaaoiv poet, naxvg, nouaatov poet, i^iyag^ 
fiei^atv instead of fcay-iiw, tajigy d^dcaoiv instead of rax'itov. 

§18. b. Liquids, (34) 

1. The Liquid i' is sometimes changed into a. This takes 
place, e. g. in the Ace. Sing, third Dec. of substantives, whose 
steiTi ends with a consonant, since the Greek does not, like the 
Latin, use the union-vowel, e. g. xoqo^, xogax-a, htfiTtdg, Xaimad-a, 
The same change, also, sometimes takes place in the third 
Pers. PI. Perf. and Plup. Mid. and Pass, of mute and liquid 
verbs, which properly should end in vrai and Pro like pure verbs, 
e. g. ^e^ovlev'vrai, i^ePovXev-vto, e. g. retQiqiarai, itetQicparo, tie- 
nXs^oircUf rszdxoircu, icxsvdSarcUf xexcoQiddraiy icp^dQarat instead of 
tirqi^vToUj irezQi^vrOf etc., from tQi^-a}, 7t}Jx-a}, rdaa-m, axevd^-o), x^' 
Qt^-to, cp^eiQ'Oi. See § 116, 15. 

2. A^ before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid, e. g. 

avr^loylito becomes trvlXoylf^ia avy-fierQla becomes avfifisxqla 

Remark. An (q)pareni assimilation takes place in oXIv/ai instead of 
olpVfiL — *Ef before q is not assimilated, e. g. ivqlitrot ; yet 6^(v&fiog is more 
frequent than wgv&iiog; on the contrary, Metxxcvoi stands instead of eiUax. 




3. M initial before a Liquid is changed into ^, e. g. 

fdlrjMf fi-om fiiXt becomes (Ulrtetf 

fiXioaxoi ^ fioXilw '^ pidaxoit 

Hgoioq *' fJtoQog, mors ** Pgonog. 

§19. c Mutes and Liquids. -—Liquids and Mutes. 

(31. 33.) 

1. A Pi-mute, ^t fi (p, 

before f* is changed into f^. 

a Kappa-mute, x y jf, 

" fi 

" 7» 

a Tau-mute, t d'&j 

" fi 

" " (T, e. g. 

(o) Pi-mute : ihQifi^fim 

from iQlfto) 

becomes rhQififtM 


« Xiljta 

" XaXf^fifiat 



" yiyga/jifiM 

ifi) Kappa-mute: ninXix-fiat 

" nXixia 

^ ninXtyfiai 


« Xiyto 

remains XtXiy^ah 


" /99«/w 

becomes ^iPg^yiiai 

(/) Tau-mute: rjwvt^ftai 

" ai^Toi 

" ^ivvGfiai 


" igslda 

" tjQfiafiai 


« wa'^w 

** ninH(T(iai 


'< XO/li^lO 

^ xtxofiia/AOt. 

Remark 1. In some words, the Kappa and Tau-mutes are not changed 
before fi, e. g. ixfi^, n6ifAog,'Xaxi*ogj xev^fiwVf etc. In some words, even x 
stands before fi, instead of the original x or /, e. g. Iwxfiog from icmcoi, nXox- 
(iog from TrAixo), n o/yi? from Ttoty-^vai, The preposition ^x, in composition, 
forms an exception, e. g. ixfiav&avm. 

2. The medial ^ before p is changed into fi, e. g. 

at^-vog from aiflofia^ becomes atfAvog 
igtfi-yog " iQiflog " iqtfjLVog. 

3. A'^ before a Pi-mute, « (3 qp i/;, is changed into f*, 
A^ before a Kappa-mute, x y jf 5> is changed into y, 
A'^ before a Tau-mute, r ^ -^j is not changed, e. g. 

h-neigla becomes ifinttgia 
h'PdXXa ^ iuPdXXw 
h^Qtav ^ Bfifpffuty 
ir^ynixog " ^y^X^^ 
but avntlv^f avpdit), avy'^iot. 

(TW^xaXifa becomes avyxaXici 
cvw^yiypwrxat ** uvyyiyvwnua 
avy-xQovog " avyxQovog 

Rem. 2. The enclitics form an exception, e. g. oy7r<^, tovyB. 

Rebi. 3. Also at the end of a word, v before a Pi-mute, as well as before 
fL, was, without doubt, pronounced like /u, and before a Kappa-mute, like 
/; and so it is found in ancient inscriptions, e. g. TOMJIATEPAKAI 
THMMHTEPAj TOFXPHMATIZMON L e. xov naiiga xal t^v lifffiqa, top 


Xifilfiotiafiop. So also X and a are used instead of v befbre X and (r, e. ^* 
^EAAHMNOIy *E22AM0I L e. iv yirjftvfff, h Sdnt^. 

§20. d. The Labial Breathing', or Sibilant <^»wi 

Mutes and Liquids. (aa. 

1. A Pi-mute, n ^ cp, before <j is changed into V^, 
A Kappa-mute, x y ;f, before a is changed into J, 
A Tau-mute, r d d^, disappears before a, e. g. 

(a) Pi-mute : 



1 Xiinm 


1 XiUpfa 

JQ 1^(1(0 





(P) Kappa-mute : 
(y) Tau-mute: 

I nXauroa 















Remark 1. The Prep, ex before o- is an exception, e. g. iwrtaCoi, — ^In nov^^ 
Gen. nod-6qy and in the Perf. active Part in w?, Gen. ot-o$, after the Tau^ 
mute disappears, the preceding vowel is lengthened. 

2. A^ disappears before a and C; but when v is joined with a 
Tau-mute, both mutes disappear before <t, but the short vowel 
is lengthened before a, namely, « into €«, o into oy, «, f , v into d 
r, v, e. g. 

(TW'ivyla becomes trvj^vyta dalfior-ai becomes dalfioai 

jvq>&iyT-(n " jvq>&tiai Xiovx-ai " Xiovat 

(Titivd'afo " (msl(T(o {Xiiiyd^m " tXfitfrt 

TVif/avt-tn " Tvipuffi Sero<fuvi-^t " S(vo<p6i(n. 

Rem. 2. Exceptions : 'JSr, e. g. ivfnttigm, ivj^ivyvvfn ; TruXiy, e. g. naXlv- 
axtoQ ; also some forms of inflection, and derivative forms in aai and (rt^ 
from verbs in aiVo), e. g. Ttitpavtrai from q>alv(»i, ninuvaig from ntJiahfOj and 
the substantives, { tXiiivg, earlh^wormy tj ntlqivg^ tpagon-bcuketj ^ Ti^t;y$.— In 
composition, the v in criv is changed into a before cr, e. g. avtra^ta, from 
avi' and (roiCot) ; but when a consonant follows a, a disappears, e. g. avp~ 
aififia becomes av<rtfif4a. — ^In xoiQltaiy vt is dropped ; on the contrary, in 
taXaq^ fiiXag Gen. -apog, xttig^ fig Gen. kvog. sk, and in the third Pers. 
PL of the primary tenses, e. g. povXfvova^ instead of PovXtvovai, the omis- 
sion of the simple v is compensated by lengthening the vowel. 

3. On the contrary, in the Aorist of Liquid verbs, (T is omitted 
after the Liquid, but the omission is compensated, by lengthen- 
ing the stem-vowel, e. g. 


ifyyil-^a becomes vyytika Syf^aa becomes Irei^a 

The same takes place in the third Dec. with the final Sigma, 
'^Rrhen a I' or ^ precedes <t, e. g. slxdv instead of elxov-g, noii^i^ in- 
stead of noifitp-g, ^j^teaQ instead of QfjtoQ-g, oddriQ instead of aiOiq-g. 
The Future in «5 of Liquid verbs is formed by inserting e be- 
"tween the Liquid and the ending cto, for the sake of softening 
"the pronunciation, by dropping c and contracting «w into <o, 
«. g. ayyek-i-afa, dyyelio. — T and (X, are omitted in substantives 
«md participles ending in ojv, Gen. ovr-og, but, as a compensa- 
tion, o is lengthened into w, e. g. 

Xiofi-^ becomes IsW (iovXtvort-g becomes povXtvtav, 

Rem. 3. In iwvfii — ^instead of ftr-vvfiiy ves-tio— the a is assimilated to the 
Allowing r, and in tifil — ^instead of itr^itl-'^-ij is omitted, but c is lengthened 
Into H. 

§21. e. Change of Consonants which are sepa- 
rated from one another . (S8.29.) 

1. Sometimes a consonant has an influence on other conso- 
nants, although they do not immediately follow one another, but 
are separated by a vowel or even by two syllables. Thus, one 
i changes another i into q, e. g. McpoXaQyia instead of yiB(pakaXyia 
from oXyEiVt yhatscaqyia instead of yhoaaakyia, aQyaXtog instead of 
alyaXiog from aXyelp ; the suffix ooXjy becomes w^jy, when a ^ pre- 
cedes, e. g. ^ahroQrj. 

2. When, in the reduplication of verbs, whose stem begins 
with an aspirate, this aspirate is to be repeated, then the first 
aspirate is changed into the corresponding smooth Mute ; thus, 

(pt-<piirixa from q>iXim is changed into 7tf(piXfjxa 


The two verbs, ^vuvj to wcnjwty and if&irai, stem OE, to pUuXj also 
foUow this rule, in the passive forms which begin with ^ : 

M-^ffT, TV-^»Jao^ot, iii-S^riP, ti-^ilaofiai instead of idv-^riv^ i^i-^fir. 

For the same reason, the Greek avoids the reduplication of ^, and instead 
of it writes i^^ e. g. i^vrixou 


" xioi 



** ^Vftl 



stem OE 



3. In words whose stem begins with r and ends with an As- 
pirate, the aspiration is transferred to the preceding smooth r, 
when the Aspirate before the final syllable beginning with <t, t 
and f«, must, according to the laws of euphony, §§ 17, 2 ; 19, 1 ; 
20, 1, be changed into a smooth consonant; by this transposi- 
tion, t is changed into the Aspirate d; Such a change is called 
the Metathesis of the aspiration. 

Thus, rqitp-a, jiTQoqta Perf., is changed into ('d^gin-aot) ^giipoi, &gi7t^(f, 

('&Qi7t-fAa) 'd'gififta ; 

Tatprj, TA*P'(Oy Ta(p*Jva&, second Aor. Pass., into -^d^ci), S-an-x^ 

(T«^a7r-/ucri) ri^afifiaiy but third Pers. PL XiTa(paiat^ e. g. Her. 

6, 108, with one of the better Codd. is to be read instead of ts- 

tgv(fog, TPT0~(a into -d-QVipfo, S-gyn-TOi, (ji&Qvn^ftai) Ti&(fVfi/iai ; 

T^6/'0) into (&Qix-<TOfiai) ^gi^oftai^; — igix^og into -^^/|, S^Qi^ir; 

laxi'g in the Comparative becomes '^daatav. For the same reason, 
the Future c^o), from ^o), to ^^at^, is the proper form, because 
the SpirituB Asper is considered as an Aspirate. 

Reuark 1. Tev^a from Tei;/a), and rgvlto from t^v/o), remain unchanged. 

Rem. 2. Where the passive endings of the above verbs, iQiqxo, TA^PJl 
(^(XTiTQ)), TPT0JI (^gvmw), begin v^rith ^, the aspiration of <p^, the two 
final consonants, changes t, the initial consonant of the stem, into ^, e. g. 

Rem. 3. In the imperative ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both syl- 
lables should beg^i with &, namely, ^17^^, the first aspirate remains un- 
changed, but the last is changed into the corresponding smooth mute, thus 
i9i^«, e. g. tv(p^tin. 

§22. Metathesis of the Liquids. 

The Liquids, and also the Lingual r, when n precedes, often 
change place with a preceding vowel, for tlie sake of euphony. 
The vowel then usually becomes long. This lengthening of 
the vowel constitutes the difference between Metathesis and 
Syncope ; the latter being the mere omission of e, e. g. fu-firi^cxoii 
from the root f*«y, comp. mens, ^f^cyxw from '&aif'eiv, rirfttjxa from 
refA-eiPy ^e^Xrjxa from ^aX-etv, ffn^aofiai from nhofiou, 

§23. Doubling of Consonants. (37.) 

1. Consonants are doubled, in the first place, for the sake of 
euphony, e. g. ^a&v^goog from ^ctihi and ^«oi ; l^^eov instead of 


fQeof- in the second place, in consequence of the concurrence 
of like or assimilated sounds, in the inflection and derivation, 
e, g, ir-voftos from h and voftos, il-lelna instead of «Vi„ av(i-{tajos 
instead of ffw/i.. Xii^tfx-ita* instead of Xtlunfi., Xijft-itit instead of 
3Si7ifni, xoft-fta instead of xoaitu, raa-ao} or tot-tm instead of ray-O' 
CO, tjaaarr or ^rrw* instead of ^-iwr, fiaiJ-ov instead of [lal-tor, «i- 
iotf instead of ahoe, alius. 

2. In the Common Language, only the Liquids, i, f, r, p, the 
Sibilant o, and the Mute t, can be doubled; moreover, w and 
a* are also doubled in single words, e. g. innog, a korse, xoxnot, a 
berry. It has already been seen, ^ 17, 4, that two Aspirates, in 
Greek are not doubled. 

3. Q is doubled when the augment is prefixed, e. g, I^qhov, and 
in compoailion, when q is preceded by a short vowel, e. g. ag- 
^xTiv, fJafliipgooff ; but iv-Qoxnog from tv and eoiiw/ii. 

Rekare. In imitaiioD of Homer, the Tragic writers also double the a, 
y«t much less frequently then Homer, e. g. loirirav, Soph. Aj. 165; hiiaaat, 
390 ; iiraidn, 294 ; /.tW,-,, Ant. 1223 ; iaaaai, Aesch. Pera. 122 ; bo also in 
the DbL pi. of the third Dec. wot 

^24. Strength ening and Addition of Consonants. 

1. ConaoDatitB are frequently Htrenglhened, in the inHectioti, by the addi- 

tKntDfa corresponding consonant, namely, 

(<) The Labials, ^ n ip, by t, e. g. ^lan-^-ta inalead of ^lu^-ti, ■tvit-^-a 

Instead of lim-a, (f/n-r-ai instead of ^I'gi-oi; sometimes also by a, 

which assimilates tho preceding Labial, liierefore aa, Attic ii, e. g. 

Kimru, Act. ncTid), Fulure niifim, the poetic oaaoiiat. Put oifiOfiaii in 

lifia instead of degiiD, <p and a are changed into ifi; 

(b) the Palatals, y x Xt °^^ strengthened by a, which assiinihites tlie pre- 
ireding Palatal, therefore hit, Atl. ii, or, though more seldom, the Pala- 
tal unites with the a and is changed into £, e. g. -taa-a-io, Att. taX'X-a 
instead of Id/- lu, tft/Ur-a-a, Att ifqli-x-ia instead of qcftix-ut, ^na-n-oi. 
An. |3ij<-t-0) instead of (Jij^-u ; yp kJoj instead of upti/oi, ^qV^m instead 
of i(/^oi; a Kapi»-mnio willi a is seldom changed into J, e. g. avlia, 
ftug-eo, ali^u, oiaia and lia^ia; the strengthening t is found only in 

(c) the Linguals, 9 z Q, are strengthened by a, wluch with ihe preceding 
Lingual is changed into f, e. g. tfifa^to instead o( ifqaSai, or, though 



more seldom, o* assimilates the precediog Tau-mute, e. g. llaaofim% 
and Xltoitat'f iQiaaUj igitxta instead of igiiti, xoQvaata instead of xo^v^ok 

2. The concurrence of fi^ and vq in the middle of some words, which 
was unpleasant to a Grecian ear, and was occasioned by the omission 
of a vowel, is softened by inserting a /? or d, thus, in futnifA-P-^a formed 
from lUGrnitqia^ inar^iqla^ ya/u-/J-^o^ from yafi-t-gog, /r/fc^o;, av-d-gog 
from ariQog, avgog. 

3. IV also is used to strengthen consonants, namely, the Labials, espe- 
cially in poetry, so as to make a syllable long by position, e. g. ivfrnavov 
from TiTT-T-w, Gjgufi^og from (ngiqioi; ^afijSog, i(X(fog', xo^t/i/9i}, xo^i*9ij ; 
'^QOfi^ogj igiqitiv; ofKfrjy elniip; yifitpri, nubere; o^Qi(iog and on^fmAogy 
vfuvvfiog and vwrvfAvog, In the present of many verbs, this strengthening 
is found, e. g. nvfOavofiai, ^lyyaroiy Xafi^Savw instecul of nv^o^ai, ^iyvtf 
lal3(o. On the change of y, see § 19, 3. On the y ^(psXx., see § 15, 1. 

4. 2 also is prefixed to many words, but mostly to such as begin with 
/[i, e. g. fibtdt,^ and (r/ia>^(|, fiixgog and agiixgog ; further, a strengthening o* is 
inserted before fi and t in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and before ^ in the first 
Aor. Pass., e. g. tnile-fr-iiaiy rtjiXi-ff'Tai, ijfli-c-'&fiv, § 131 ; also in the 
derivation and composition of words, o- is frequently inserted for the sake 
of euphony, e. g. crii-cr-fiog, instead of cr, & also is inserted before ^ e. g. 
/ivxri~&-ii6g, o(iyri-'&-li6g^ crxag^'&'fAog from axalQta, noQ-"&'fi6g from ttc/^w, 
nav^cr-ayffiog, /uo/o-c-Toxog, etc. 

§25. Expulsion and Omission of Consonants. (7.8.) 

1. It is an important grammatical principle, that, in the inflection, a is very 
often omitted between two vowels, e. g. imTj^, ixvntov, rimxoio instead of 
limtt-^-m or iVTrnj-cro*, iivnit-a^o, Twrroi-ff-o ; yivt-og^ yevi^tov instead 
of yeVe-cr-ofi, y«y«-<r-wi', comp. gene-r-is, gene-r-um. At the end of a word 
and after Pi and Kappa-mutes, it is retained, e. g. yivogy ritpta »= jvn-am, 
TrXe^Q) = nXix-aWf but afier the Liquids, in inflection, as well as commonly 
at the end of a word, it is omitted, e. g. iiyy$ila instead of t*///€iL-cr-o, ay- 
ytXia instead of a/ytil-e-cr-w, iyytX-i-m^ ^yJto)^ instead of ^ijro^-?. Comp. 
§20, a 

2. What has been said of tlie omission and retaining of a in inflection, 
holds in general of the Digamma softened into the vowel v, § 200. This is 
omitted : (a) in the middle of the word between two vowels, e. g. i6v(wF6y)y 
ovum, oig(oFtg)y ovis, al<av (aiFwi'), aevum, viog (vBFog\ novus, trxaiog (oxai- 
F6g)j scaevus, ^oog (PoFvg)j bovis ; ^eo), nXiwy ttWoi, iXaa instead of ^eJVu, 
etc. ; (b) at the beginning of the word before vowels and ^, e. g. ohog (Foi- 
yog\ vinum, mi^ (Fiag), ver, i^ (Fig) vis, olxog (Fdixog), vicus, idiiv (Fidiiy), 

ndere, ioSi'ii (Fdrtfije), vestift, if^yvvfu {F^i'iyvi'iii), fnmgo. On the rotiini- 
ly, il ifl expressed iii connection with a preceding a, t, o, wirh whii-li it 
tben coalesces 8iid Ibmis a diphthong, (a] at Ihii end of a word, c g. ^av 
instead of fiuF, jtaaiXii, etir. ; {^) before a coiisonant, e. g. ^oli [(iuFii, b6v8, 
bos), ratf (t«/V), navis, ^oi», §oimI, ^ttvikiiii, jlaniiiiai, &tvcofiai, nltiiro- 
/ini, nniao/Aai, ilairoi. But when an i or v precedes it, then it disaf)pearB 
berore a consonant, but lengthens tlie i or v, e. g. tils instead o{*lFs, aif 
insCesd of viFf, i^dis instead of IxSiFt, Ace. xl*, avv, t^Siv ; but it dJB- 
^ipean, even In this case, in the middle of a word 1)otwcen vowels, e. g. 
A-oi, xl-o;, oC-ot, i/5B-of instead of jfiF-os, xif-ds, auF-of, (/tfiSP-oj, 

3. Ab the Greek language admits an ace iini illation of only three eonso- 
Dsnls in conipoaition, and In siiiiple words, oidy when the first or the last 
ii ■ lAqmA, then, if in tlie inflection of the verb, a lomiination beginning 
with »9 ia appended to the consonant of tho root, the ir ia excluded: 

XOjit-n&iiiy from %.iiit-iis becomes liXflifdtav (§ 17, 3.) 
UUY'Oitai " ii;--iB " UUx&ak \% 17, 2.) 

tmair-aSm " iniX3.-ei " /ai'USai. 
Rexakk. On the omission of a Tau-niute, and a. p and vi before a, and a 

« after a Liquid, see §%. In com{>o$ition, v i» ofti^n omitted, e. g. Ilvdo- 

tnorof, 'ditoiio-luQoi instead of /luOoym., 'Anolloi'S. 

4. Sevcra] words can drop their final consonant, either to avoid an accti- 
inulatioD of coneonaiila, or, in verse, to prevent a sjllable becoming long 
b; pocition. In addition to the words mentioned imder § 15, naniely, olv 
{a'v\ iX (/■), o'itms (oviai), which usually retain their fuial eonsonant before a 
TOwel to prevent the Hiatiitu, but drop it before consonants, there belong here, 

{•) adverbs of place in 9tv, e. g. -n^oaSfy, Sitta&tr, 'intiQdiF, etc., which 
never drop the y before a consonant in prose, hut very oileu in Epic 
poetry, more seldom iu the Attic poets ; 

(b) ftixB'S and axfiii, which, however, in tlic best classical writers, have 
dropped their <r, not only before consonants, but commonly before 
vowels, e. g. /jy"? i 'Araiayofov, Pi. Hipp. Maj. 281, c. /''XS' '""''^o, 
Id. Symp. 210, e. ^c>;i otov, X, C. 4. 7, 3. jut/^i ifva^St ^aldiinc. 

Id. cy. e. 6, ao ; 

(c) the adverlis, aXQiftas, ffttag, ittmiyii, oirixpvf, area?, S<fyt<>s, which in 
poetry can drop tlieir it, but never in prose ; in the Ionic dialect, nu- 
metal adverbs in atiit also frequently drop the a before consotiants, 
». g. noUuHi. Her. 2, S. 

5. A pure Greek word can end only in one of the three Liquids, v, a 
(^ f, L e. nir, *a) and (. The two words, am, not, and i*, md nf, Ibrm 
«(ly an apparent exception, since, as Proclitics, §33, they incline to the 
fcJiowingword,ttnd,Mit wre,beconieapKlofit. Thi« law of etiphraiy 


occasions either the omission of all other consonants, or it changes them 
into one of the three Liquids just named; hence, aoifia^ Gen. aafitn^oq in* 
stead offfufiax, yaXa^ Gen. yaXaxx-og instead of /oAoxr, iUW, Gen. liorr-o^ 
instead of Xaorr, ipovXsvop instead of ipovXivovx '^ — xigag. Gen. tiqaT~og in- 
stead of ligat, xigotg, Gen. xsgiXT-og instead of m^ot, fiiXi^ Gen. fuht^oq in- 
stead offiiXiT. 


§26. Nature and Division of Syllables. (4i.) 

1. Every vowel, pronounced by itself, or in connection with 
one or more consonants, is called a syllable. 

2. A word consists of one or more syllables. When a word 
consists of several syllables, a distinction is made between the 
stem-syllables and the syllables of inflection or derivation. The 
stem-syllables express the essential idea of the word, the sylla- 
bles of inflection or derivation, the relations of the idea. Thus, 
e, g. in yi-ygaap-a^ the middle syllable is the stem-syllable, the 
two others, syllables of inflection ; in nQay-fia, the first is the 
stem-syllable, the last the syllable of derivation. 

§27. Quantity of Syllables. (4»-45.) 

1. A syllable is short by nature, when its vowel is short, 
namely, e, o, a, l, v, or when a vowel or single consonant follows 
a short vowel, e. g. 'hSfaad, *en$&ero. 

2. A syllable is long by nature, when the vowel is a simple, 
long vowel, rj, w, a, * , v, or a diphthong, e. g. ''^Q(ag, xQiv(a, yi<pvqa^ 
layvQOvgy ncudev^g, hence contracted syllables are always long, 
e. g. ^axow formed from aeicaw, §6zQvg formed from ^otQvag, 

3. A syllable with a short vowel is made long by position, 
when two or more consonants or a double consonant, C J V', 
follow the short vowel, e. g. 'ixarilhoy Tviffavteg, xogd^ (xoQaxog), 

Remark 1. The pronunciation of a syllable long by nature, and one long 
by position, differs in this, that the former is pronounced long {produeUur), 
but the latter not When a syllable naturally long, is long also by positian, 


it must be protracted in pronouncing. Hence a distinction is made in pro- 
nouncing such words as ngania, ngaliq, nga/fia (a) and tdrtta, lali;, to/- 

4. But when a short vowel stands before a Mute and Liquid, 
it commonly remains short in the Attic, inasmuch as the Liquid 
sounds are less distinct than the Mutes, and hence are pro- 
jnounced with less hesitation, e. g. attxvog, anlnXog^ 'axfii^, fiStQvg, 
^idgaxfMg. Such a position is called a weak position. In two 
instances, however, the position of the Mute and Liquid makes 
^e short vowel long : (a) in compounds, e. g. 'exvefjua ; (b) when 
one of the Medials, § y ^9 stands before one of the three Liquids, 
^ fi f , e. g. pi^h}g, evddfiog, neTtUyficu ; also -^1, in Tragic trimeter, 
lengthens the preceding short vowel. Finally, it will be evi- 
dent, that a vowel long by nature cannot be shortened by a 
JVIute and Liquid, e. g. ^jJwt^<w. 

5. A syllable which contains one of the three doubtful vow- 
els, a, «, V, cannot, in the same word, be pronounced long and 
short, but must be either long or short. 

§28. Quantity of the Penult. (48,47.) 

It is important, in order to pronounce correctly, to be able to 
determine, with certainty, the quantity of the three doubtful 
vowels, a, i and t>, in the penult of words of three or more syl- 
lables. The following summary will present the principal in- 
stances, in which the penult is long. The quantity of the syl- 
lables of inflection will be considered in treating of the Forms. 

The penult is long, 

1. In substantives in aoir, Gen. ^aovoq or -actfyo;, in substantives of two 
or more syllables in ioir, Gen. -^ovoq ; but ioiy, Gen. -Xtavoq^ and in forms 
of the comparative in iwy, ioF, Gen. ^lovoq^ e. g. oTrcioiy, ^ovoq,, o, ^, comr 
pamony nwrudamr -tavoq ; xi oiy, -woq^ ^, pUkar^ flgaxttot, -ovog^ o, carm, Afk- 
ffiwfy "Wog'^ but AtkntaXiiov, -o)yo$; nalliuiv, xaiUioy, mart beauUfuL 

Exoqftions. The two oxytones, ^ ^fiojy (I), shorty and generally ^ /iolr, 
now. Homer always uses the comparatives in Itor, loPj as short, where the 
versification admits. 

2. In oxytoned proper names in avog, and in compounds in uyog from 
ayw, to had, and Syrvfn, to hrtakj avuiq and xqavog, e. g. 'Aariarogy Xoxayog, 
tapUnUy vavayig^ naufirftgus, J9«ayc0^, dlngafog, having tioo honu. 


3b In adjectires in oi^ Fern, ok, derived from verbs in aoi, in proper 
namee in axrift in substantives in in/f, Fern. Irif, and in those in vrijc of the 
first Dec, Fern, vitg, and in proper names in irij, e. g. a/^ai}^, utUouthed, 
£vq>Qaxfig, Mi&Qidittigj noltirig, -ov, ciKzen, Fem. noliti^j nqwptxff^^ -^ov, M 
man, *A<pQodiTii, 'Afi^ijQttti. 

Exceptions : (a) to the proper names in uxrig : ralStrig, Jal/ASi^g, 2a(^ 
ftHtfigj all in Parrig and tpattig, and compounds formed from verbal roots, 
e. g. S(axQSjrig;^^(h) xQlxi^gj jvdge, fit)m the short root ic0, ktItiJ^ 
InMar, and ^ ^ t 17 (, on« u^ aaaificts, 

4 In Proparoxytones in iXo^, iXof, iyo;, ifoy, in words in i rij, t ro, 
1/ y ^, V y a, in those in i; y (, when a does not precede the ending, in Pro- 
paroxytones m vqa, and in adjectives in tf ^ ; with a preceding long syl- 
lable, e. g. 

'O oii}Xi>q, mtdtitude dontvtij gift 6 uMvyag, danger 

ni^oVf shoe AXyiva, yi<P^QOtf bridge 

^ xafiivog, oven . aiax^Vy shame laxvQogj strong 

oiXiyoy, pardey afivya, drfence but hxvqoq and ix^goiffanu 

Remark 1. The following may be added to the Proparoxytones in i v o c 
and V Q a, namely, o /aAivo;, rem, o ^^ivo;, wHd Jig-tree, and { xoXlvga, 
coarse bread. 

Exceptions. ElX ant V 71, feast, and compounds in yvpog from yvvrj, 
tifoman, e, g. irdgoyvvog, and xoqvpti, dub, 

5. In substantives in vxog, whose antepenult is long, and in compound 
adjectives in liaxqvxog and xqvxog from liaxqioa, xqioa, and also in sub- 
stantives mv iia,vyfi and vy to v, and in adverbs in 1; ^ o y, e. g. 

o xtaxvxog, wailing ar^tJro;, indettructUde oloXvyi^, tUtdatus 

idaxqvxog, without tears ^d^vfia, -oio;, seat oXoXvyoty, ululatus 

poxQvdov, m dusters. 

Exoqftion, MaQfiayvyfi, splendor, 

6. In dissyllabic oxytones in iXog, Ifiog, ipog, io(, vXog, vfiog, 
vvog, and in Paroxytones in v/u 17, v y 17, e. g. 

ifiiXoq, bare i} 6iy6g, skin o (vfiog, pale ^vyog, common 

o xiXog, fodder 6 log, dart y^ifiog, mind Xvufi, injury 

6 Xifiog, hunger o zvXog, juice so, u&vfiog, etc ftvpti, excuse, 

Exc^ftions, Biog, (o), how, nXUpog (o), waMng4rough, 

7. In dissyllables in aog, avog (oxytoned), and in dissyllables in » «, 
which begin with two consonants, e. g. 

o pdog, ianpU <pay6g, briOiant axta, pebble <pXii, door-pod, 
RsBf. % The following may be added to dissyUables in <a, namely, xoiAm, 

§29.] ACCENTS. 43 

9kedy aviOy trotMcj xovia^ dud, and to those in dog, the variable Ykaog, and 
proper names ia aog^e. g. 'A(iq>id^aog ; OivofAuog is an exception. 

Exceptions, Tuog or latig (o), peacock^ axtd ({), shadow. 

8. The following single words should also be noted : 

L a. 


Augaiogj unmixed veavig, yovmg girl udga, turhan 

a¥idg6gj troublesomt onddog, attendant q>aXdQogf dear 

av^adrigf self-st^fficient aivdni, muslard 6 q>XvdQogj tattle. 


Also the proper names, **A(iduig, *'dvdnog^ ^Aqdxog Ari^aqdiog^ Oidvdij 
lafftorj Ilqidnog^ iSii^un<^(Serapi8), SxiufpdXog^ ^dgadkog. 

n. i. 

*AxQ\piig, exact ivijiri, rebuke naqdtyontnr^^ gdtUrnL 

r<p^t/io$, strong igi&ogy day-kiborer 

to tdgixogypiddedjish 6 ^ /eAidcui', swaUaw 

Also the proper names, ^Ayx^^V^y rgdvixogy £vginogf Kaixog (l), ^Oalgig^ 
Bovaigtg, The following dissyllables should be noted for the sake of the 
compounds : Ti/iij, honor ^ yixi;, mctory^ ^>^^^y tribe, *'vXti, forest, Xitog, little, 
fdxgog, small, e. g. StifAog. 

m. V. 

^AfiifjKav, Homeless igvxta, to hold hack Xdq>vgov, hooty 

aavXop, asylum h iXvog, den rj ndnvgog, papyrus 

a'vTii(v), war-cry iyytti, the ha$n nltvgoy, bran. 

Also the proper names, ^'Aflvdog, ^Agxinag, Bi&vvog, Jiorvaog, Kaftpiafig, 
JCigxvga, KontVTog* And the dissyllables, yn^xVi ^oul, u ivgog, cheese, 6 nv- 
gog, wheat, o XQ^^^t g^^ Xvnri, grief, ^tvxgog, coUL 

§29. Accents. (48-5i.) 

1. The accentuation of a polysyllabic word consists in pro- 
nouncing one syllable with a stronger or clearer tone than the 
others. By this means, the unity of the connected syllables is 
indicated. The accentuation of the Greek is principally rhyth- 
mical, and in this it differs from the accentuation of the Grer- 
man, for example, which is almost wholly logical, and also 
from that of most compound English words, which is generally 
logical. The logical accent, which refers to the meaning of the 
syllables, gives emphasis to the stem-syllable, which expresses 
the essential idea of the word, in preference to the syllables of 
derivation and inflection, which express only the relations of 

44 ACCENTS. [§29. 

the idea, as the German, verd^rblicher, unvergisslicher, entfal- 
ten, and the English, destructible^ imm&rtaL The rhythmical 
accent, which expresses the relation of the tone to the syllables of 
a word, has particular reference to the quantity of syllables, and 
very often emphasizes the syllables of derivation and inflection, 
in preference to the stem-syllable, without regard to the signifi- 
cation of the syllables, e. g. natriQ^ natQogy yqaqioiuvog^ yQa(po[unij 
ysyqacpa, yByqaqidg, yeyQaniiivog. 

2. The English and Greek accent differs also in this, that in 
the former the accented syllable is always considered long,* 
but in the latter it can be either long or short, e. g. yQaq)6(Merog, 
ysygagxag ; and that in the former, the accented and unaccented 
syllables are distinguished by the strength and feebleness of the 
tone, in the latter, by the rising and falling of the tone. 

3. Even a monosyllabic word must be accented, so as to form 
in connected discourse, an independent sound. 

4. The Greek has the following marks for the tone or accent 
(nQog(pdicu) : 

(a) The acute {ngogcpdia o $ e Ta, accentus acvius) - to denote 
the sharp or clear tone, e. g. Xoyog ; 

(b) The circumflex (jtQogcpdia neQianonfAtvtj, accentus cir- 
cumjlexus) -to denote the protracted (as it were the 
windiriff or long'draton) tone, e. g. (rcU^a. This accent 
consists in uniting the rising and falling tone in pro- 
nouncing a long syllable, since, e. g. the word crcIJ^a was 
probably pronounced as aoona ; 

(c) The grave (^^ojcp^/a |3 a^ 6 1 a, accentus gram) -to denote 
thefallinff or heavy tone. 

Remark 1. The mark of the falling tone was not used. Hence the 
Greek did not write, ap&Qwnogy Xoyogj but ay&Q(onogj Xoyof. The mark 
of the grave was used only to distinguish certain words, e. g. ilg, aliquis, 
some one, and ligj quis ? who ? and, as will be seen in § 31, 1, instead of the 
acute on the final syllable of words in connected discourse. 

Rem. 2. The accent stands upon the second vowel of diphthongs, and 
at the beginning of words commencing with a vowel the acute and 
grave stand after the breathing, but the circumflex over it, e. g. ana^, av- 
litog, av ditrjij €v^o(, atfia. But in imcial letters, in connection with the 

* In English, however, the words long and short refer only to the em- 
phasis. — ^Tr. 

§>^B^ ACCENTS. 45 

diphtboDgs ^, ji. If, the acceot and tlie Breathiag Rtand upon ilie firtil 

*owel, e. g.'ijidi);. On ihe dkereaiB, see §4, Rem. 4, 

Rem. 3, In pronouncmg a Greek word, two things musl be uoled, Ilie 
atxmt and the quantity. Hence on effort should \m made to uidicate the 
Accented syllable by rsiging the voice, but especially to niahe the long and 
abort, as well as ilie accented and unaccented syllables, perceptible. But 
in many instances, it is not possible tor us to express the nicer dietinctione, 
'which the Gret-ke must liave made in their pronunciation ; thus, e. g. in 
v^ij and 11^,^, yrifiiu and yyu/taii. 

5. The accent can stand only on one of the last three sylla- 
bles of a word, because the raising of the voice is impossible 
beyond the last three syllables. The English in many words 
disregards this law, e. g. ampUfication. 

6. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
this is long or short, e. g. iwXog, uv&iiwnov, tioT^nof] yet upon the 
aniepL>nult, only when the last is short, and is not long by posi- 
tion, e. g. (tvOgamos, but arffpaJwou. 

7. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two syllables, 
hut that syllable must always be long by nattire, e. g. tov unifia; 
it stands upon the penult, however, only when the ultimate is 
Rhorl, or long only by position, e. g. tuixog, xi-ijtta, n^a%ii, avJ.«S, 
Gen. -u*oi, xaXavgotp, xat^Xi^p, iitjiimra^. Also in substantives 
ending in i| and t'l. Gen. -txiw, -vxos, the < and v long by nature, 
are, according to the views of the ancient Grammarians, treated 
as short in respect to the pronunciation, e. g. tpoivi^. Gen. -ixoSi 
1^1, Gen. -vxotf. 

8. If therefore the aniepenull is accented, it can have only the 
scale; but if the penult is accented, and is long by nattire, it 
most have the circumflex, when the ultimate is short, e. g. Ttr/of, 
jrpone, but the acute, when the ultimate" is long, e. g. rtixovs, 
■paTTto ; if it is short, it has tmiformly only the acute, e. g, tajzo), 

* Hence the accent often enables us to determine the (|uantity of sylla- 
blea, e. g. from the acute on the antepenult nf Tioi^tQia, lia-BiiT^ia, we infer 
thai the idtitnate is short, otherwise the accent could uol stand liirtber back 
Ihaa the penult, No. G, above, — from the circumflex on trTioc and npolK, 
that those syllables ore long by nature, 7, — from the eircumflei on iioiqa 
and <ntlga, tltal the ultimate is short, 7, — fr'om the acute on /p'lQo, oipo and 
Vfo, tlial ilie ultimate is long, ollierwixe the penult of these words must 
be eircumfiexed, B, — from the acute on ifiXos and noiKtlof, that the penult 
' ' \ short, otherwise they must have been circiunflexed, &— Tk, 


rdrie. On the ultimate, either the acute or the circumflex stands, 
e. g. nat^Qy nat^v. 

Rem. 4. In the inflection-endings, a i and o *, and in the adverhs, nQona- 
Xai and ixnaXai, the diphthongs, in respect to the accent, are considered 
short, e. g. rgantiatj TVTrrevaA, ykuaaaij av^QtoJioi, x^Q^^ "^^ optative end- 
ings, o« and at, are exceptions, e. g. nfitjaai, ixXdnoiy Is/tio*, and the adverb 
ofxoty doml, at homty on the contrary, oIkoi, houseSy from oiko^. 

Rem. 5. In the old Ionic and in the Attic declension, since o> takes the 
place of o, it is considered as having only half its usual length, and hence, 
in respect to the accent, is treated as short, e. g. Mevilewgy ifbtyiav ; — tto- 
Xtmgy noXniiv : — 'tXtoti, a/riQUKy Gen. Uco), o/ij^co : but if such adjectives are 
declined according to the third Dec, they are accented regularly, e. g. q)i- 
XoyHfogy q>doyiX(OTog ; so also in the Dat Sing, and PL, as well as in the 
Gen. and Dat Dual, where the penult is long, e. g. u/ij^cd^, opif^oty a/17^01^9 

Rem. 6. In the words, ii&fy O ihaty ra//!, certatrdyy the penult has the 
acute, apparently contrary to the rule ; but these must be treated as separate 
words. The accentuation of the words, clVf, ovit, itgntgy tJTi;, jot'^e, etc^ 
is to be explained on the ground, that they are compounded with Enclitics, 

Rem. 7. According to the accentuation of the last syllable, words have 
the following names : 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute, e. g. leTwpug, xaxo^, ^ij^ ; 

(b) Paroxytones, when the penult has the acute, e. g. ivmu ; 

(c) Proparoxytones, when the antepenult has the acute, e. g. ap^Qianogj 
rvmofisro^y Spd^Qomoiy rvniofiii^oi ; 

(d) PerispomSna, when the ultimate has the circumflex, e. g. xaK&g ; 

(e) Properispomena, when the penult has the circumflex, e. g. Tr^er/fux, 
q>iXovaa ; 

(f) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented, e. g. nQa/fiaxay n(^yfi€u 

§30. Change and Removal of the Accent by In- 
flection. Composition and Contraction, (sa-^ii.) 

1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in the quan* 
tity of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, then, 
according to the preceding rules, there is generally also a change 
or removal of the accent 

(a) By lengthening the final syllable, 

(a) a Proparoxytone, as nolefiog, becomes a Paroxytone, 

e. g. TToXtfwv ; 
(|3) a Properispomenon, as teixog, a Paroxytone, e. g rei- 

Xovg ; 
(y) an Oxytone, as -^Bog, a Perispomenon, e. g. ^€<w. Yet 
this change is limited to particular cases. See § 45, 7, a. 


(b) By shortening the final syllable, 

(a) a dissyllabic Paroxylonc wilh long penult, as Cfevyto, 
becomes a Properisporaenon, e, g. tftvya, but rattia, 

(^) a polysyllabic Paroxylone, whether the penult is long 
or short, becomes a Proparoxylone, e. g. ^ovXevto, pov- 

(c) By the accession of a syllable or syllables at the beginning 
of a word, the accent is commonly removed towards the begin- 
ning of the word, c. g. t^tevym, tf-evyo* ; the same occurs com- 
monly in compounds, e.g. ofld,' avroSoii, &ws <fii.6&eos,Tifi^ 
aTiftae, <f£oye dnoquvye. By an accession of syllables at the 
end of a word, on the contrary, the accent is removed towards 
the end of the word, e, g. ti'jitm, ivmofttSa, Tv<f9ija6[iet}a. 

RzxAfut 1. The particular caees of the change of accent by inflection, 
and the exceplious to ilie geuenii ruled here etoted, will be seen below un- 
der the accentUHtiou of tlie several parts of speech. 

2. In respect to contraction, the following principles apply : 

(1) When neither of two syllables to be contracted is ac- 
cented, then the contracted syllable also is unaccented, and the 
syllable which, previous to contraction, had the accent, retains 
it also after the conuaction, e. g. tfiJ^B == (piUi, but ^ih'ti = qnXet, 
jini^ yiwei, but ytrtoiv =i j'«m>>. 

(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is ac- 
cented, then the contracted syllable also is accented, 

(a) the contracted syUable when composed of the antepenult 
and penult, taltes the accent which the general rules re- 
quire, e. g. 

ayandopat = ayanSfiai ifiliofiivot = ipiloi';UEvo( 

vl^taaa = l).^(Taa iifiaayiair ^ ii^iuVttuvi 

(b) the contracted syllable, when it is the ultimate, takes: 
{«) the acute, when the last of the syllables to be con- 
tracted has the acute, e. g. iara^i = iarmg ; 

{§) the circimiflex, when the fast of the syllables to be 
contracted, is accented, e. g. wo* ^ vz"'". 
IK. 2. The exceptiona to the principles slated, will be seen below un- 
der the etntnicted tieclenmons and conJugntioDS. 




§31. L Grave instead of the Acute. — IL Crasis. — 

III. Elision, — -IV. Anastrophe, (55-57.) 

L In connected discourse, the Oxytones receive the mark of 
the grave, i. e. by the close connection of the words with each 
other, the sharp tone is weakened or depressed, e. g. Ei fi^ fiTi- 
r^i7 neQixaXkrjg 'Hsgi^oia ijv. But the acute must stand before 
every punctuation-mark, by which an actual division is made 
in the thought, as well as at the end of the verse, e. g. *0 (mp 
KvQos imgaas tor Ttorafjioy, oi ds noXtfuoi aniqivyov. 
Exaptums. Tig, t/, quis? who^ quid? tchatf always remain oxytoned. 

Remark 1. When an Oxytone is not closely connected with the other 
words, L e. when it is treated grammatically, the acute remains, e. g. el to 
fiTI liysig — TO ayt]Q ovofia. 

IL By Crasis two words are united in one, § 10. Hence, 
words united in this way can have but one accent, namely, that 
of the second word, which is the more important ; this accent 
does not change its place, e. g. rdya&ov from to dya&ov. When 
the second word is a dissyllabic Paroxytone with a short final 
syllable, the accent, according to § 30, 2, (2) (a), is changed into 
the circumflex, e. g. to inog = tovnog, td aXXa = talXa, to e(fyov 
= tovQyov ; td onXa = ^o^rla, iyoJ o2fcat := iy^ficu. 

III. When by Elision^ § 13, an unaccented vowel is elided, 
the accent of the word is not changed, e. g. tovt ictiv. But if 
the elided vowel is accented, its accent is thrown back upon 
the preceding syllable, as an acute ; yet, when the word, from 
which a vowel has been elided, is a preposition or one of the 
particles, dild, ovde\ fif^da, and the poetic i/^«', llfs, the accent of the 
elided vowel wholly disappears, and also when the accented 
vowej of monosyllabic words is elided, e. g. 

nolla ma&op *= n6X£ bjto&ov nagi ifiov &= nag ifiov 

duvd igax^g c= dily iganag ano iavtov = a<p iavtov 

q)fjfil iyd == (fv/I iyta ilka iyi = aii iyta 

aiaxgd slBiag = alax^ tUJ^ag ovdi iyti = olS" iyoi 

knta riaaw s=s Ittt fiactp tj diog ssa^ f ig* 


IV. Anastrophe. When a preposition is placed after the 
word which it should precede, the tone of such preposition na- 
turally inclines back to its word, and hence, the accent is 
removed from the ultimate to the penult ; this drawing back of 
the accent is called Anastrophe, dfoatQocp^y e. g. 

f*^XVi ^^^ hut inl fidx^i vioiv Sno but ino ymp 

^I&axtjr itaxa ^' xata ^l&axriy xaXtiv niqi " ntql xaXiiy, 

REBf. 2. The prepositions, u^<pt, upxl, avdj dia, and the poetic vnal^ 
vjKtfff dialy naqai^ do not admit Anastrophe. If the preposition stands be- 
tween an adjective and a substantive, according to •^istarchus, the Anas- 
trophe is found only when the substantive stands first, e. g. Ziv^t^ tni> d«- 
nserri, but dtyijcyri inl Zdyv^^. Other Grammarians reject the Anastrophe 
in both cases. 

Rem. 3. Prepositions, moreover, admit Anastrophe, when they are used in- 
stead of abridged forms of the verb, e. g. dva instead ofavdarri&i ; fUiOy nugaf 
»!*, vno, Tra'^ft, sir* instead of the indicative present of ihai, compounded 
with these prepositions, e. g. iyit ndga instead of ndgnfUj nigt instead of 
nigUau ; further, when thie preposition is separated from the verb and 
placed after it, which is often the case in the Epic dialect, e. g. oXiaag Sno 
ndptag iiai(^ovg. But the accent ofdno is drawn back without any reason, 
in such phrases as ano ^aXdaariq olxtXvj ano (txotiov, an iknldog and the 
like ; in such cases it is properly on the ultimate. 

§32. Y, Atonies or Proclitics. (ss.) 

Some small words are termed Atonies or Proclitics, being, in 
connected discourse, so closely united to the following word, 
that they, as it were, coalesce with it, and lose their accent 
They are : 

(a) the forms of the article, o, jJ, o/, at ; 

(b) the prepositions, «V, in, elg («V), into, i^ (e'S), ex, w?, ad; but 
if «5 is after the word which it governs, and at the end of a 
verse, or before a punctuation-mark, it retains the accent, 
e. g. xaxwy 15 H. S, 472. 

(c) the conjunctions, oS^, as, that, so that, tvhen, bI, if; but if oJj, 
as, follows the word which it should precede, it has the 
accent, e. g. xaxol (Sg, for dg xaxoi; 

(d) ov (ovx, ovx), not; but at the end of a sentence and with 
the meaning No, it has the accent, ov (ovx). Comp. § 15, 4. 


§33. \\» Enclitics. (s».y 

Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, which, in. 
a connected discourse, are so closely joined, in particular cases, 
to the preceding word, that they either lose their tone, or throw 
it back upon the preceding word, e. g. q^ilog rig, nolafAog rig^ 
They are: 

(a) the verbs eifil, to he, and q>rifAt, to say, in the Pres. Indie, except the 
second Pens. Sing. <7, thou art, and 917^, Viou sayest ; 

(b) the fbllowing forms of the three personal pronouns in the Attic 

L P. S. fiov 

n. P. S. aoC 

m. P. S. ou Dual, aq^my PL aipht (r) 

(c) the indefinite pronouns, rig, %i, through all the cases and numbers, to- 
gether with the abridged forms tov and to!, and .the indefinite adverbs niog, 
Tita^ nri, nov, no&l, no&iv, noi, nori ; the corresponding interrogative pro- 
nouns are, on the contrary, always accented, e. g. i/^, i/, noig, etc. ; 

(d) the following particles in the Attic dialect, ri, to*, /«', vvv, neQ, ^rjv, 
and in the Epic, xs, xiv, vv, (a, and the inseparable particle, di, § 34, Rem. 2. 

Rebiark. Several small words, which are so combined with enclitics, as 
to have a peculiar meaning, are written together, e. g. the, ovxe, /uijie, &gie, 
iignsQ, ogjig, etc. 

§34. Inclination of the Accent. (flo,6i.) 

1. An Oxytone is so combined with the following enclitic, 
that the accent, which is commonly grave in the middle of a 
sentence, § 31, I., again becomes acute, e. g. 

^Q Jtg for &iiQ xlg xaXog imv for xaXog iarh 

Kttl uvsg ** nnl nyig noiafiog ye " noiafiog ye 

naXog te *^ xalog ti noxaiiol iiveq *' noia/jiol rivig. 

2. A Perispomenon coalesces with the following enclitic 
without further change of the accent, e. g. 

ifotg T* for q^oig tl q>iXei ii^ for q>dsl ug 

q^&g iiTTiv '* ^(5( icilv xaXov Jivog " xaXov upog. 

Remark 1. A Perispomenon, in connection with a dissyllabic enclitic, is 
regarded as an Oxytone. Long syllables in enclitics are treated in respect 
to the accentuation as short ; hence (Art$poi>v, oinrtiwrnr are viewed as sepa- 
rate words, e. g. icoiliiiii^ T^yoiy. 

3. A Paroxytone coaleaces with the following monosyllabic 
enclitic without further change of the accent, though there is no 
incJination when the enclitic is a dissyllable, e. g. 

iftlot (lov for ipikoi fiov, but ipUoi iinlv, tpUot <paalr, 
Slioi xuf " bUo; ntig, " aU.o( iroif, SUur taSir. 

4. A Proparoxylone and a Proper! spornenon coalesce with 
ftie following enclitic, since they retain an acute accent on the 
last syllable, so that this syllable forms liie lone-pyllable for the 
following enclitic, e. g. 

Sr9ft»t6s Tie for afSqbiitoi iij ffiu/iu n for aSifia iJ 

aiSqiBTtul Jiris " aySiiia^ioi Tive'f tlUfia ianr " aiaya tailr. 

Eie^ition. A ProperiapomeiiOD, ending in £ or ^, does Dot admil ihe !□- 
dinaiiou of a dissyllabic CDclitic, e. g. avkoS to'OCi avXai imh, fiotri; imlr, 
"Ipi'i inlr, Xailuifi /aiir, 

RiH.2, The local euSix iJi (&), which expresses Ihe relation of (o ajilaa, 
uUUer, coaleeces with subetuDtlves accordlDg to the rules of inclination, e. g. 

'Olv/tnorSt £<fijttirdi olf/ayoySi TtvdSiSc from Ilvdio 

i^l^iit 'JQjv<H*a&t MtyafaSt SoflovSl. 

So'jSj;»o£> i. e.'A3^rntSi, nlajaiSii (maToio/),/«fioJ. ixofiat Acr). The 
iiffii 3i wbeo appended to llie Demoo. Pronoun drowe the aceent of 
ibii proDouD to the syllable before 3i. In the oblique coses, tl)eBe aircufillt- 
^tml prooounB arc accentuated according to the niles for Ox^-toncs, $ 45, 7, 

liaot — lOffOiSi, loaovii, ToaoiSi, loa^rSc, roamySr, 

in6{ — JOiosSi, iTjllKot — TtjXixoiSi, luuri — Toiir/df, 

5. When several enclitics occur together, each throws back 
is accent on the preceding, e. g. ttntQ rls at ftoi quiai aorf. 

§35, Enclitics accentuated (dpfforofoy/ifrni). (ra.) 


L Tlie enclitics at the beginning of a sentence, retiiin their accent, e. g. 
*V" r'yi loEio. — Tirii liyowtr, — Eial &tol. — But iuHtead of /or! (c) 
'< ihe begioDlng of a sentence, the form tan (r) is used, also, if it gtands in 
<Mineciian with an Infi for i^itni (»), and after the particles «J1, «', ovx, fitj, 
if, »/, ftir, on, Jioji, also after the pronoun lovr , e. g. Jirri 3io(. — /iFii 
tifit on'ig. — "iJstir otioij. — 'Dnir iSii»,litit laiir, licet videre. — JSImir, 

i. ^ml and ibe odtcr persons of the Indir. retain the accent, if tliey ore 
ipuued from iLe preceding word by a puucIUBlioit--inurk, e. g''Eai'* ""ig 


3. Of the enclitic Pers. pronouns, the following retain their accent, namely^ 
ffov, (Tol, ffi, olf ff<fiin (y) : 

(a) when an accentuated Prep, precedes, e. g. Tro^a (rot), futa <ri, nQo^ 
aoL In this case, instead of the enclitic forms of the Pron. of th9 
first Pers., the longer forms, regularly accentuated, are chosen, e. g. 

noQ ifiov not naga fiov, ngog iuol not ngog fiOt^ 

xttT ifii ^* xaxd /le, ne^l ifiov " mgl fiov. 

Remark. The unaccented prepositions are united to ^ the enclitic forms, 
e. g. Ix /ioVf sv fioif ig at, sq ^e, ex aov, bv aoi. 

(b) afler copulative or disjunctive conjunctions, e. g. ifti xal aa, i/ii ^ ere, 
especially when the pronouns are emphatic, e. g. in antithesea 

(c) The forms ov, o\ f, are accentuated only when they are used as re- 
ciprocal pronouns. 

4. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the 
enclitic rests disappears by Elision, e. g. naX6g f i<nivy but xakoq di iff" 
tip — noXXol S* tUrlv, but noXkol di tlaiv. 

§36. Division of Syllables. (64.) 

1. Syllables end with a vowel, and begin with one or more 
consonants. Hence if a consonant is between two vowels, it 
belongs to the following syllable,* e. g. no-ta-fjioSy o-xpo-fjuu^ i- 
ctQa-rsv-aa-fif^f s-cxov, i-^Xa-xpa, xi-xfirj-xa, 

Excepthfu A compound word, or one formed by a syllable arising from 
inflection and derivation, is best divided, according to its constituent parts,f 
e. g. avv^fx-qxoyfjaigf twt-tw, TtQo^atavfigy ngog-ajBixot, 

2. If two similar consonants, e. g. TiTiy H, etc., or a smooth 
Mute with a corresponding Aspirate, ncp xx r^, occur together, 
or if a consonant follows a liquid, ^ f^v q, (with the exception of 
fxy,) then one consonant belongs to each syllable, e. g. Tar-Too, 
Bdx'XOSy aX-yos, iq-yov, yet d-fivi^ [but with us dfi-vi^], 

§37. Punctuation-marks — Diastole. (65.) 

1. The colon and semicolon are indicated by a point above 
the line, e. g. Ev eXe^ag • Ttdvreg yoQ dfioXoyijaav, The interroga- 

* The more usual division in our schools is nor-a^fiogy not no-ta-nogy 
oiff'O'fiai, etc. See also Appendix on Accents and Pronunciation. — ^Tr. 

f When, however, the first part of a compound word ends with a vowel, 
and the first vowel of the simple word is short, the first consonant of that 
word is united to the preceding vowel, e. g. nQo&^Baigj and not ngo-^ivigf 
ivdli-aaig, not iva-pacigy afi-arog, not a-paiog, — Tr. 


dom-mark is our semicolon, e. g. Tig ravra inoitjcav ; who did 
ihi^? The period, comma and exclamation-point have the 
fiatme characters as in English. 

2. The Diastole, or Hypodiastole, which has the same charac- 
tex as the comma, is used to distinguish certain compound 

words from others of like sound, but of dissimilar meaning, e. g. 

0, 'n, whatever, and ort, thcU, since; o, tZj whatever , and ore, when. 

Such words are now merely separated in writing, e. g. o rt, 

T«, TO «. 



i38. Division of the Parts of Speech. — Inflec- 
tion. (66.) 

1. Grammatical forms relate to the nature and inflection of 
the Parts of Speech. 

2. The Parts of Speech are : 

(1) Substantives, which express an object, — ^person or thing, — 
as man, rose, house, virtue ; 

(2) Adjectives, which express a property, as great, small, red, 
dutiful, hateful; 

(3) Pronouns, which refer to an object, as /, thou, he, this, 
tluU, mine, thine, his; 

(4) Numerals, which express the number or quantity of an 
object, as one, two, three, mam>y,few; 

(5) Verbs, which express action, as to bloom, to wake, to 
ikep, to love, to censure ; 

(6) Adverbs, which express the relations of place, time, man- 
ner, quality and number, as here, yesterday, beautifully = in a 
beautiful imnner, perhaps, often, rarely; 

(7) Prepositions, which express the relation of space, time, 
etc of an object to an action or thing, as before the house, after 

sunset, before mourning ; 



* - 

(8) Conjunctions, which express the mutual relations of sea- 
tences, as and^ btUj because. 

3. In addition to these parts of speech, there are in the lan- 
guage, peculiar organic sounds, called interjections, as alas f 
oh! ah! 

4. Words are either essential words, i. e. such as express a. 
notion or idea, which are the substantive, the adjective, the verb, 
and the adverbs derived from those parts of speech ; or fomuii 
words, i. e. such as express the different relations of the idea ; 
these are the pronoun, the numeral, the preposition, the con- 
junction, the adverbs which are derived from those parts oV 
speech, and the verb dvaij to be, when, in connection with an. 
adverb or a substantive, it has the inflection of a verb. Inter- 
jections express neither an idea, or its relation, and hence are 
not properly regarded as words. 

Remark. Prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs derived from pronouns^ 
are included under the conmion name of particles. 

5. By inflection is understood the variation or modification 
of a word in order to indicate its different relations. The in- 
flection of the substantive, adjective, pronoun and numeral, is 
termed declension ; the inflection of the verb, conjugation. The 
remaining parts of speech do not admit inflection. 

The Subs tan ti ve. 

§39. Nature and Division of the Substantive. (294.) 

1. The Substantive is used to denote a person or a thing, e. g. 
manj woman, lion; earth, flower, virtue, wisdom, host. 

2. If a substantive indicates an object, which has an inde- 
pendent existence, it is termed a Concrete, e. g. man, woman, 
lion, earth, flmoer, host; but if the substantive indicates a 
simple quality or action, independent of a subject, it is called 
an Abstract, e. g. virtue, tvisdom. 

3. The Concretes are. 


(a) Proper nouns, when they refer only to individual per- 
sons or objects, and not to a species, as Oifrus^ Plato^ Hellas^ 
Athens ; 

(b) Appellative nouns, when Ihey indicate an entire species, 
or an individual of a class, as mortal tree, man, tvoman, flower ; 

(c) Material nouns, when they indicate the simple material, 
e. g. milk, dust, water, gold, coin, grain; 

(d) Collective nouns, when they designate a number of single 
persons or things as one whole, e. g. mankind, cavalry, people, 
herd, fleet 

§40. Gender of Substantives, (295-237.) 

The Gender of substantives, which is three-fold, as in Latin, 
is determined partly by their meaning, partly by their endings. 

I. Determination of Gender by the Meaning. 

1. The names and designations of males, names of nations, 
the months, rivers and winds, are masculine, e. g. ^aaiXevg, 
the king, xdngog, the boar, oi "EXXtjveg, 6 rafir^Xidv (January 
nearly), like fitjv, the month, 6 '^Icpeios, the Alpheus, like noxa- 
f*6g, the river, evQog, the south-east ivind, like 6 avefiog, 

ExctpUofL Diminutives in o v, which are not proper names, as to fitiQa^ 
MOV, the lady also to aydqanodov, a slave, and some rivers, as ^ ^/f&rj. 

2. The names and designations of females, names of countries, 
islands, cities, trees and plants for the most part, are feminine, 
e. g. Tj ^aaiXeiu, the queen, ^ Xeaiva, the lioness, ^ uityvTttog, like ij 
xdQay the land, ^ *P6dog, like ij v^tsog^ the island, 1/ Tqoi^tJv, like ^ ni- 
hg, the city, ^ Ttv^og, the box-tree, 17 afirnXog, the vine, jJ ^v^^og, 
the papyrus, jJ Qcicpdvog, the horse-radish, r; vaqdog, the balsam-tree. 

Exceptums, A. Countries and cities according to their endings ; Of the Mas- 
culine are, (a) nouns in -13?, Gen. -ijto^, e. g. o Maariq ; — (b) in -etc, e. g. o <Pa- 
woiivg \ — (c) in -0*, PL, e. g. ol <l>ilUmioi ', — (d) those which vary between -og, 
(Gen. -ov), -on', ~ovg and -of. —Of the Neuter gender are, (a) those in -a, PL, 
e. g. Tof Aivnqa f— (b) in -oy, e. g. to *'lliov ; in -09, Gen. -eoc, e. g. to *'Aqyog. — 
R Trees and plants ; igtviog, the wUd Jig-tree, q>BXX6g, the cork-tree, o Xta- 
To^ the htua, o Mviiavg, (he unllow, o q>oipil^, the palm, 6 mxtog, the ixy ; of the 


Masc. and Fern, gender are, o { nanvgog, the pofyruB^ o { xoilyo^, (he wUd' 
oUvCf 6 { xofAagogy the strawbeny4ree, 6 ^ nigaaog, Ihe chary-irtt, 

3. Of the Neuter gender are the names of firuits, diminutives, 
with the exception of proper names of females, e. g. ij ^eovtiop, 
the names of the letters, infinitives, all indeclinable words in the 
Sing, and PL, and all words used as the mere symbol of a sound, 
e. g. TO [lOQov, the fruit of the mulberry {r^s fjioqeag), to fJojXw, the 
apple, TO fiei^dxioVf Dim. of (JidQa^, boy, ro kofi^da, to rvftrsiv, the 
striking, ro ftiyrj/^, the word mother. 

4. The names of persons which have only one form for the 
Masc. and Fem. are of Common gender, e. g. o j/ -O^edj, god and 
goddess, ^ nalg, boy and girL 

Remark 1. Moveable substantives are such as change their ending so as 
to indicate the natural gender, e. g. o fiatnltvg, kingf ^ paalkua, quetrL^^ 
The change of the ending itself is called moUon, 

Rem. 2. From nouns of Common gender, those termed Epicenes (inUoiya) 
must be distinguished, L e. such substantives as indicate both the natural 
genders by only one form of gender, either Masc. or Fem. To these epi- 
cenes belong, first, most of the names of beasts, e. g. tj ail(u;nj|, thefoXj 
whether the male or female fox, ^ a^xrof, ihe hecuTy v^ xafttilog, the camd, o 
[Avg, (he tnoiiM, ^ /ejlidoiy, the stcalloWf ^ olg, ihe iheqty 6 fiovgy ihe ox; in the 
PL, however, commonly ol (iotg, al Vnnoi ; but when the natural gender is 
to be distinguished, £^^, male, or ^ijXvg, female, is added, e. g. Xayoitg o 
^ijXvg, the female hare, alomtil fj S^v, ihe nude fox ; or the gender may be 
indicated by the prefixed article, or by another a4iective, e. g. tj ^ovg, the 
cow, 6 agxTog, the male bear, — ^Here belong, in the second place, the Masc. 
names of persons in the PL, which include the Fem., e. g. o« y op tig, the par 
rents, ol naldig, the Mdrtn, liberi (sons and daughters). 

n. Determination of Gender by the Endings. 

1. The difference between the Masc. and Fem. gender is de- 
finitely developed in the adjectives and substantives of the first 
Dec. only, the characteristic of the Masc. being <t, of the Fem. 
a or ^, e. g. ^ixa<-a, alcxQ-fiy itaX-i^, 6 veavia-g, ij (pa)v-^. But in 
substantives of the second and third Declensions, the two gen- 
ders are determined only by the signification, the final c being 
common to both genders, e. g. o Ttoga^ and ^ gj>U)5, o loyog and ^ 
viaoq, etc. Still, this a, which is the sign of the Masc. and 
Fem. genders, is often omitted, as wiU be seen in the third Dec, 
e. g. liftjjy instead of lijuvg^ Gen. hfiev-og, 6 ^ ai^i^Q instead of 
m^sQS, Gen. oi^iQ-og. Comp. ^§ 16, 3, and 20, 3. 


2. The Neuter gender is characterized by exhibitmg the naked 
stem, e. g. Masc. fiAdg instead of fiiXavg, Gen. iiikiv-og, Neut 
f^ikdv. Often, however, for the sake of euphony, the pure stem 
undergoes a change, as will be pointed out in the third Dec. 
This subject will be further treated under the particular declen- 

§41. Number^ Case and Declension, (ass-aao.) 

1. The Greek has, in addition to the Sing, number, which 
cj3cpresses unity, and the PL, which expresses plurality, a parti- 
cimnlar number for duality, namely, the Dual. 

2. The Greek has j&ve Cases, namely, 

(1) Nominative, the case of the subject ; 

(2) Grenitive, the whence-case ;• 

(3) Dative, the where-case ; 

(4) Accusative, the whither-case ; 

(5) Vocative, the case of direct address. 

Kkmark. The Nom. and Voc. are called casus recti, dirtd cases, the 

^Kliers, casus obliqui, Mique cases. Substantives and adjectives of the Neu- 

^ gender have the same form in the Nom., Ace. and Voc. of the three 

lUimbers. The Dual has only two forms for cases, one for the Nom., Ace 

tnd Voc, the other for the Gen. and Dat 

3. There are in the Greek three different ways of inflecting 
substantives, distinguished as the First, Second and Third De- 

§42. First Declension, \ (231.) 

The first declension has four endings, a and tj feminine ; dg 
and ijg masculine. 

* See a f\iller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, § 268 seq-^^Tiu 

t The following ^ Remarks on the Formation of the Cases," are trans- 
bled from the Larger Greek Grammar of Kiihner.-— Tb. 

L The Nominative Singular. The Third Declension is, undoubtedly, 
the oldest and the original form. Subsequently, the two other declensions 
w^re developed from it with few alterations ; and the three declensions are so 
distinguished from each other, that words whose stems end in a conso- 
maty or in the vowels, i, v, are inflected according to the Third Declen- 
IIOq; but thofe, whose ftems end in a, according to the First Declension; 













or jy 

dg or fig 














? n 






dv 7jV 







a tjf a. 



Remark. The original ending of the Dat PL was oiai(p)f aa'm the se- 
cond Dec. o la t(v)fe, g, dixaia^, taUri^ naimaUrtj ^soitn, afmcQoUn^ aya&ourt. 
This form is also found in the Attic poets, and is not foreign even to 
prose, at least to that of Plato. 

and, finally, those whose stems end in o, according to the Second Dec 
Stems in e are not fomid. It is Very probable, that in the original develop- 
ment of the language, all substantives had but one form of declension for 
both genders, and that the forms of the first and second declensions, which 
denote the gender, a (rj) and aq (rjg), and o;, are wholly foreign to substan- 
tives, and belong exclusively to adjectives. Now the form of the first and 
second declensions is precisely that which occurs in adjectives of the three 
genders, and, besides, in very many substantives of these declensions, the 
adjective meaning is not easily to be mistaken, e. g. nogog and xof^tj, lad and 
lass, ^iog and v^^ce, god and goddess, dovkog and dovXri, etc. 

2. The Genitive Singular. The characteristic of the Gen. Sing, is g pre- 
ceded by o, thus og, e. g. xoga^, x6(}ax-og (in Sanscrit, s, sya, as and as). 
In the feminines in a and ij of the first Dec, the vowels a and 17 coalesce 
virith the ending og, and form ag or rjg, e. g. ayoqa-og =x ayo{tag, lix^r^-og =s 
tixyfii- In the second Dec. and in masculines of the first Dec. ending in 
ag and t^g, the a disappears from the ending og, and o is appended to the 
stem-vowel a, and is contracted with it, e. g. Xoyo-og, Xo/o-o = Xoyov, viaviag, 
Gen. viavia-og, vfayla-o = veavlov. The Thessalian Gen. of the second 
Dec. has i before the ending, e. g. Xoyoio, like quojus (cujus), illivs, solius, 
isHus. The g is still found in the Dor. dialect in the Gen. of the pronouns, 
ifiovg, ^fiiog, ^lifvg, riog, itvg, etc., instead of iftio, ^fiov, aio, aov. 

Remark 1. The ending oio corresponds to the Sanscrit Gen. ending in 
sja (tlie Indian a is equivalent to the Greek 0), which have the masculines 
and neuters in as and in Am, whose stem ends in d, thus Xoyo-aio, lexvo-aio 
= Xoyoio, rixvoio = Xoyov, livov, roto, Indian ta-sia, BoQid-aio, BoQtd-io, 
BoQSu-o, noXtiu-aio = noXhaio, noXlxdo, Att noXiiov, Dor. noXiid, The 
accentuation of Xoyoio instead of Xoyoio, noXlraio, TtoXhdo, instead of noXi- 
jnlo, noXiiao, is analogous to the accentuation of ivvoia instead of ivvola, 
iXi^^tia instead of aXrj^fia, 

3. Dative Smgular. The characteristic of the Dat Sing, is t, e. g. xo- 
gax~t, ayoQa-i = dyog^, Xoyo^h = Xoyot ; so still in adverbs of place in 0*, 
e. g. nv&ol, otxoi,aiid in the pronouns, ifxol, aol, ol, quoi(cui). In the Com- 
mon Language, the o of the second Dec. is lengthened into (o, e. g. Xoyoj. 

Rem. 2. The Greek differs altogether in the inflection of the Sing, and 


§ 43, L No uns of the Feminine Gender, (aaa.) 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in d or a, and the « remains in all 

the cases, if it is preceded by g, the vowel e, or t, e, g. X'^9'^' 

I tand, Ifltft, form, aorpia, wisdovi, xtjita, utility, eavota., benevoltnce ; 

I'liere also belong the coniracta in a, see No. 2, c. g, ^*a. Some 

TL Dative from the otJier loupioges of ihe Iiido-Gerraanic fumil}', in which 
die Dat. Sing, ends in a long vowel, in tlie Indiau in i {ae) and ai, in Lot. I. 
The Greek Dot. correaponds rather to the Indian ikreolioe, botli in the Sing. 
I, and in the PI. ni or a»u (Greels ci, tat, uii\ e. g. pat, pa, nalq, noH-oi, 
~ Sillg. p''ti^ ■» pcfc, Tioi-l, Loc. PI. ptUmi, 7iu5-ai, noal or noJtiri, 

Soi^f, datrisii, Soiiigci. The Loc. fomi of ttie original language has 
accordingly altered in the Greek to the Dat. form, since tlie DaL, at 
time, pcrforine tlie office of the Locative. 
4. AccUBntive Singular. The cheractcristic of the Ace. Sing, is f, e. g. 
/pair. Ml*, Ijr, nuiiv, i^flw', ayogar, tixrt^r, Id/of. The » corres- 
to the Lat., Saniscrit and Zend »i iu the Aucusallve (^rt, tht motin- 
Acc, glrtm), hut wliich in Greek must be changed to ►, pince the lan- 
guage doea not admit fi at the end of a word. But when the stem ends in 
a coDSon&nt, the Ace. in Sanscrit endu in dm, e. g. inud, ptaet. Ace. miidSim. 
In Greek, the Ace. of such BUl)stantiveH must, consequently, end iu or, e. g. 
RaiJ^aVf^otrciTi, Suns-pibfrdm; but the r is omitted, and ttic a only, eufficcs 
to denote the Ace, e. g. ■nan^a. 

5, The Vocative Singidar. The form of the Voc. Sing, is commonly 
Kke that of the stem, e. g. /JoC, SaXiiav, niiifQ, if the laws of euphony per- 
niL The first Dec. forms the Voc. Fem. like the Nom. In the «ccond 
Dec the Voc. is either tike the Nom., or lum the form of Ibe stem, still, bo 
Ihal the fidlcr o is changed into the weaker t. 

6, Nomiuslivc Pluml. The characteristic of the Nom. PI. is (j, yet it 
rMains this letter only in the tliird Dec, e. g. xdpox-c;. In the Arat and 
Mcond declensions, the ; is omitted, the ( is cliauged into i, and coalesces 
with the stem-vowels a and o, and forms ut and oi. The JEal. dialect still 
riuiws these contractions in the second Dec. by tlie accenL, e. g. <pii,oaoipoi, 
Hrvdaoi, nailovfitroi, nalorfiiroi, Saqoi'/iiroi. 

7, Genitive Plural. The cliftracterislic of the Oen. PI. is aiv (originally, 
lerimpa, wur, like the old Lat. rnim, e. gr lapiderum, rtgtnim), e. g. koqox- 
mr. In the first and second declensions, this ending coalesces witli the 
■em-vowele a and o, and forms m*, e. g. tifti-mv JRo\., iifii-iav Ion., ti- 
fwr Att ; JLo^d-oir ^ loymr. I'he first Dec. still shows the contraction by 
&e accent, and in the second Dec., the Doric writers, except Pindar, often 
hire the circuniflexed ending, e. g. umuf, ffmnir, iovtib*', from oikos, avxor, 

8l Dative Plural. Tlie characteristic of tlie DaL PI. is eq (characteristic 
of the PL] and i or iv (tlie characteristic of the Dat. Sing.), thus tai (r), 
e. g. ptU-taatr, nr-tat; so iEol. afifiiiriy initead of ij;itiri», fjfilr. The At- 


substantives in a, e. g. dXaXd, taar-crp, and some proper names, 
e. g. 'AvdQOfuddf Ari^d, Fekdy ^dofii^Xd, Gren. -a^, Dat -a, Ace -«». 

Remark 1. The following words, whose stem ends in g, take the ending 
§1 instead of a, xo^i}, tntdden, xoq^, cheeky digri^ neck, addgri, waUr-grud ; the 
17 then remains through all the cases of the Sing. If another vowel, as c or 
i, precedes, the Nohl and all the cases of the Sing, have 17, e. g. 0x0^, ^vij^ 
muvfj, Cwri ; exceptions are noa, Pf'^^ xqoo, calory moo, por^ yia, fidd, <r»- 
mva, gourd, utaqva, UHdnvt4ree, ikaaf olivcriree, aJuoa, thresking-^floor, Navauwa, 

(b) The Nom. ends in a, but the a remains only in the Ace 
and Voc. ; and in the Gen. and Dat, it is changed into ^, if Ae 
a is preceded by ^ U,, <j, ca, (tt), f, 5> V* 

Rem. 2. A commonly occurs when r precedes ; though ij is often found, 
as is always the case in the suffix trvmiiy e. g. ivff>goavvfi, also &oln^, nQVfani 
and nQVfiva, miptj and nuva, 

(c) In the remaining cases, the Nom. ends in ^, which re- 
mains throughout the singular. 

2. If a is preceded by e or a, ia, is contracted in some words 
into ^, and da into a in all the cases. The final syllable remains 
circumfiexed in all the cases. 

tic writers reject c before giy, e. g. pHeat, xval, xo^a^i, ^fuv, vfu». In the 
first and second declensions, the b is changed into », thus iof (Sans. {9chu\ 

9. Accusative Plund. The characteristic of the Ace. PL is y or o (chA- 
racteristic of the Ace. Sing.) and ; (characteristic of the PL), thus vq or a(, 
but the y before q is changed into a, thus ag, e. g. mt-q. Ace PL id-vq ==■ «i- 
ag, ix^^Qy Ace. PL Ix^v-vg b= Ix^v-aq, naxig^aq. In the first and second 
declensions, the v ^sappears, but the preceding short vowel is lengthened, 
e. g. rixvapq = tixvdq, as fiilapq s= /iiXdq, Xoyovq s= lo/ov; (comp. tvirtovai 
firom Tt'7rToy<ri)i In the iEol-Doric dialect, an » is inserted as a compensa- 
tion for y omitted, e. g. xixvaiq, Xoyovq, 

10. DuaL The characteristic of the Nom., Ace and Voc. Dual is t 
which in the first and second declensions coalesces with a and o, and 
forms d and a>; the characteristic of the Gen. and Dat is iv. In the In- 
dian, the characteristic is du, which in the Veda dialect is often abridged 
into a, and conmionly in the Zend dialect into a or a ; this d correspond! 
to the Greek « ; thus Svdgt is in Veda nar-d, and in the Zend nar-cu The c 
in the Gen. and Dat of the third Dec, o«y, seems to be a mere union- 
vowel, comp. xoxvXridoP'O'iptv. 





a. (] through all Ihe a 




F„.«. 1 





























Plut. Nora. 


Six- at 
























Dual. N. A. V. 









-"-«- 1 

b. a Ihmigh aU tlu auf». 

c. « G. It. 



(a) long a. 

Bbsdow. Counlry. IVlenl. 

7 axi-u jroiea /»»-(««)« 

*5S cxi-ae x^e"? /'*'■"* 
Vf a"'-? x'ie'f /»-? 

jy ffx.-«* );we«» fif-a,' 
01 axt-K ztopw /*»-« 

(b) BhoM a. 
Hammer. Mate. LioncM, 
a(f:VQa Movad XfOtvi 
acfiQig Movaiig lEaivjit 
aifvQ^ laova^ IfrtiVp 
a(pVQav Moiiadi' Xt'aivav 
atpvQd Movad Xtatru. 


ai axt-al );*"?'" /"-"t 
k5* tfxi-m.' jiDjewr /<»-w.' 
toa? oxt-ois Jiwpais /Jf-wiV 
ras axids ^"^"S /ir-a? 
w ffxi-at );(u(»ai ^c-nr 

atfUQat MoBOcu Xi'aitou 
acpv^v Movatov leatrar 
acfVQaiS Movaais leaivms 
a(fVQdg Mwadi Xeaivag 
aqivQat Movaai iJatvat 


i« oxi-d Z^pa (tv-d 
Toiv axt-aiy x'^C'* pr-cur 

afvqd Moved. Xtalrd 


J 44, IL Nouns of the Masculine Gender, {ms.) 
The Gen. of masculine nonns ends in ou ; those which end 
in as relain the a in the Dat, Ace. and Voc, and those which 
end in ij? retain the i; in the Ace. and Dal. Sing. The Voc. of 
nonna in -)?e ends in a, (1) all in -rijs, e. g. «'o|o'n?c, Voc. 
mSora, spoifi^tjf, Voc. iTQOtf-^td; (2) all substantives in -'IS 




composed of a substantive and a verb, e. g. yecofiitqfig^ Voc yeoo/i/- 
rgd, fivQonoiXrjg, a salve-seller, Voc. fivQOTttaXd ; (3) national names 
in 'fjs, e. g. ndQarjs, a Persian, Voc. niQcd. — All other nouns in 
't^g have the Voc. in rj, e. g. IliQatig, Perses, Voc. ilei^criy.— The 
PL of Masc. nouns does not differ from that of Fern. — The re- 
marks on contracted Fem. nouns, § 43, 2, apply to Masc. nouns 
contracted from -eag^ e. g. 'EQfiijg, ^oQQog, In ^OQiag, the ea is 
contracted into a, and not into 17, since q precedes, § 43, 1, (a). 
The doubling of the q in ^oQQ&g is merely accidental 

Remark 1. Contrary to the rule given, § 43, 1, compounds in lUrgfig end 
in 17; inetead of a; ; so likewise several proper names, e. g. the ending of 
JUiXonldag and /(rradag, a noble^ is in -ag instead of -i;;. 

Rem. 2. Several mascidine nouns in -o; have the Doric Gen. in a, name- 
ly, natQaXolag, fAtjigaXolag, patricide, matricide, oqvi^od^iqaqy favoUr ; also 
several proper names, particularly those which are Doric or foreign, e. g. 
"jUffff, Gen.*'riltf, 2iit6nag, -a, *Ayplfiag, -a, JSvlXag, -a ; (the pure Greek, and 
also several of the celebrated Doric names, e. g. *A(fx^og, jitoavidag^ *Efta- 
fitivtovdag, navaavlag commonly have ov) ; finally, contracts in ag, e. g. 
fio^agj derived from fiogiag. 


Sing. N. 


Plur. N. 












































Rem. 3. The Ionic ending of the Gen. -eo) of Masc. nouns in -17;, § 211, is 
retained also in the Attic dialect in some proper names, e. g. OaXtta from 
OaXr^g, T^^£o> fit)m Triquig. — The contract §o^^ag, is also found in the Attic 
writers in the uncontracted form, thus, fioqiag X. An. 5. 7, 7. PL Phaedr. 229, 
b. poqiov Th. 3, 2a ^oqiav 3, 4. 

Rem. 4. The ending 179 occurs, also, in the third Dec. To the first Dec 
belong (a) proper names in ^Idrig and -adi}(, e. g. Oov%i6i6rig, ^AiQtldr^g, from 
^Atqt and ibfig, MiXuadrig, also the gentile nouns, e. g. Snagjiotrjg ; (b) de- 
rivativeg firom verbs in -tijc^ e. g. 910112117; firom noiito ; (c) compoimds form- 


ed by the union of a substantive with a verb, or with a substantive of the 
third Dec e» g. natdBtQtfirfgj Pifiliontaltig, aqx^^^' 

§45. Quantity and Accentuation of the fir st De- 
clension. (334.) 

a. Quantity. 

1. The Nom. ending a is short in all words, which have the Gen. in ^c ; 
but long in those which have the Gen. in -cr^, e. g. nrcileo, fntWy aoq>la, 9rai- 
9tia^ Xffitij XQ^^ ^^^> ^f^^i ^12^4 iJ^ola, etc. ; the same is true of the 
Fern, ending of adjectives, e. g. iUv^iga^ dixaid. 


(a) Dissyllabic, and some Polysyllabic, names of places, have -^la^e.g. 
*Ifnlai€tf iHatma; 

(b) Trissyllables and Polysyllables have -« i a, e. g. aXij^cio, Mrideia^ 
PavlXtiOy quetriy yXvxua, except abstracts from verbs in -s ^ eo, e. g. 
PcunXilOf kingdomj dovXtlij iervitude, from PaaiXevto, dovXtvw ; 

(c) the names and designation of females, etc. in -JQia, have -* o, e. g. 
}ffaljQiaty afanak musician, words in -via, e. g. ftvloj Tiiwpvla, the nu* 
meral fila, and, finally, some poetic words ; 

(d) Trissyllables and PolysyUables have -o t a, e. g. evyoia, apoia ; 

(e) words whose penult is lengthened by a diphthong, (except erv), by 
v, or by ^^, have -^a, e. g. ntlQa, liaxaiga ; yiq>vQ€t, aq>VQa ; Jlv^fa ; 
exceptions are, Iraj^a, naXaictQa, At&(fa, ^aldQa, xoXXifQou 

2. The Voc. ending a is always short in nouns in -rig ; but always long in 
nouns in ^ag, e. g. noXIja Crom noXlttjgf peapid from ptaplag. In Fem. nouns 
in -o and -a, the Voc. is like the Nom. 

3. The Dual ending a is always long, e. g. Mowra from Moma. 

4. The Ace ending av is like the Nom., e. g. Moveap, /o^^ay firom Mo^ 

ca, x^Q^» 

5. The ending ag is always long, e. g. fa; iqaniCdg from jqantCa, o pea-- 
vlagf jovg putptag, tijg ohiidg, tag ohdag. 

b. Accentuation. 

6. The accent remiuns on the tone-syllable of the Nom., as long as the 
laws of accentuation permit, § 30. 


(a) The Voc dienota from ditmotfigt lord; 

(b) The Gen. PL always has mp circumflexed* on the last syllable of the 

— , _ I I ■ I ^ 

* This 18 caused by the contraction of the old form aaw or ^en^.— Tr. 




first Dec^ e» g. ImwAp from Xiinm, yiarM*r from moi^^.— -But tb6 
substantives, jt^ctt^ endUor^ i^v^f mdhonoy^ infaln^ monmoiu, lyid 
xkovff^^ wHdrhocar^ are exceptions; in the Gen. PL they remain Par- 
ozytones, thus jt^^crrair, affviav, 

RxMARK. On the Adjectives, see § 75. 

7. The accent of the Nom. is changed, according to the quantity of the 
final syllable, thus : 

(a) The Ozytones become Penspomena in the Gen. and Dat of the tlii«e 
numbers, e. g. t^/u^c, -^, -Wt -aip, -at; ; this holds, also, in Che fldcefid 
Dec. ; e. g. &i6g, -ov, -^, -iCi', -oiv ; 

(b) The Paroxytones with a short penult remain so through all the cases, 
except the Gen. PL, which is always circumflexed on the last pliable ; 
on the contrary, Paroxytones with a long penult become Properis- 
pomena, if the last syllable is short, which takes place in the Nom. 
PL and Voc Sing, in a of Masc nouns in -17;, e. g. Y^ifi% /pw/juti^ but 
/vvifiwf\ nolUf^ noliiUf noJiiTCUj but noln&y] on the contrary, 9tmi, 
dfxai, but dtx&r ; 

(c) Properispomena become Paroxytones, if the last syllable is long,e.g. 

(d) Proparoxytones become Paroxytones, if the last syllable is long, e. g. 
XicupOf Iwlpfif, 

§46. Second Declension. ca37.) 

The Second Declension has two endings, os and of ; nouns 
in 'Og are mostly masculine, but often feminine, § 50, nouns in 
'OP are neuter. Fchl diminutive proper names in -or are an 
exception, ^. g. 17 /Ivx^uw, § 40, 3. 








og ov 


















og and a ov. 




RsMMix 1. On the form of the Dat PL oia^{v), see § 43, Rem. 







toy X6^^ 
10* Xov-ov 


Tug viiao» 

Tlyf CjffO*- 
0) ytiat 


Tfp #t^ 


zm avxip 


ai X6j-ot 
Tois loj'-otf 

rc3p #ft5» 
a fl-toi 



rta* (nfxmr 
Ti»i; avKOts 


loif loy-oiv 

I air n^ffoic 

7»> #eo) 
roi> flforF 


jijtf aixotr. 

RuL 2. The Voc. of words in -os conunonly enda in *, though often ii 
-^.e. g. M ifilt, and oi qiUo;; always a &t6s. 

\iy. Contraction of the Second Declension, (sns.) 
1. A Bmall number of substanlives, where an o or an c pre- 
fsdea the case-ending, suffer contraction in the Atlic dialect, 



oalooi fti.ovs 
tiloov tilov 
ttXoip nAiji 
nXoov nloiiv 
aloe iiXov 

Circumniivigatioii. Bone, 

iniQmioos xt()!aXovi tooati'ov 
TteQifiloov fteQiTtlov oaiiov 

7ieQl7ti.6(fl irtQITTi-fp doTiifi 1 

ne^i'nlooy m^inXovv oatfov 
irtQinXoE nsQinhiv oati'ov 



filoot nlo( 

ftlooii nXoie 
ttloovs TtXovg 
itXoot TiXoi 

ntfilnhtoi ntplfiloi oatt'a 
negmXoav neQitihot oaritav 

acQiTtloovi ae^'aXove aorta 
acQiaXooi titQi'nXoi 6<nta 



ttloto nXm 
aXooif Tii-oir 

itfQinXom ftiqlnXm oart'to 
acQuiXooif ne{iinXot* oti'oi* 



Only ibe foUowuig nouns are contracled in thia manner : u voo;, vovs, Oie 
■md, o ^aoi, ^oCi, a Jtreorn, o /fdoe, ^miJf, (foim, o aSHtfiStoi, -6ovt, a ne- 
J^i»,h9vjrmf litis, -ioviigraruUon, hanifiaims,-3ovt,»oni:ffati3itr'tdald. 




Remark. Uncontracted forms sometiines occur in the Attic dialect, though 
seldom in substantives, e. g. yo^i, Plato, Prot 344, a ; much ofiener in ad' 

§48. The Attic Second Declension. omo.) 
Several words, substantives and adjectives, have the endings 
w?, Masc. and Fem., and ow, Neut, instead of og and 099 and 
retain the w through all the cases instead of the common vow- 
els and diphthongs of the second Dec, and place under the w 
an Iota subscript, where the regular form has q? or ot ; thus, w 
and a become w; ogjW and ovg become ooff, iov and fog] oi^otg 
and ow become tp, c^g and c^ ;— «i <p and tav remain unchanged. 
The Voc. is the same as the Nom. 


Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 




17 xdX'Cog 




to avoiye-iov 





















G. and D. 





Remark 1. Some words of the Masc. and Fem. gender reject the p in 
the Ace. Sing., namely, o Xaytag, (he hare^ toy Xaytuy and Xayio, and common- 
ly fj atfC) if^ daunif ^ dkdg^ a ihrtshing'Jloor^ { Kitaq^ ^ Xai;, "d&tog^ v Hing^ 
and the adjectives 0/17^01;, not old, inlnX6toq,ftdl, vniqxQ^^^ S^'^' 

Rem. 2. This Declension is termed Attic, because, if a word of this 
class has another form, e. g. Xziog and Xaoq^ vmg and vaog, MeviXiVig and 
Msrilaogf the Attic writers are accustomed to select the form in -en;. On 
the expulsion of the long vowel in this declension, see § 16, 5. 

§49. Accentuation of the Second Declension. 


1. The accent remains on the tone-syUable of the Nom. as long as the 
quantity of the final syllable permits; the Voc. adeXipe from adtXtpog, hro- 
tker^ is an exception. 


2. The change of the accent is the name bb in the first Dec., ^ 45, 7. The 
Gen. PL is not unifonnly a PeriapomeDon, as in tlie first Dec, since the 
■cceni retains the place which it )iaa in the Norn. See tije Paradigma. 

3. Exceptions in the contract dedenmons, to the rules slated ^30, 3, 
ire, (a) nXou^jilu, doti'id ^ o tr t m, instead of nlio, oifti ; — (b) com- 
pounds and polysyllabic proper nanjes, which retain the accent even on 
Ibe penult, when as a circumflei it should be on tlie contracted syllable, 
<■ g. 7irfinX6-ov = niflni.ov, instead of ntpinloii, fi'om nipi/iiooj = ni- 
{inlotv, nufiS6-ov = nng 19 ov, instead of niifi3aii,{immlItiQi3oot^^ 
BiifiSovi; »Iso adjectives, e.g. cvfa-ov ^ 1 1 r o v, aol rl'rov, from t'Cvooq 
= ivrcvs ; yet the accent is never removed to the antepenult, thus, Tii^laloi, 
nol nifiniicii, xaxoroi, not xoxoroi; — [e) io nai-hot ==* a ¥ o v y, meiead of 
uraiv, iotieC ; — (d) similar words in -Sio; = Sav;, e. g. aSilipiSioi =: aiil- 
ifiiavs, n^pfiftc, ioateai o[ aSilipiSovf. All alniple substantives and adjcc- 
livra in -tog and -cog take tlie eirciunflex on tlie contracted syllable, hence 
anh, aSiXif lioi-s, /piwoi^s from jtpi'iri-oj. 

i In the Attic Dec the Proparoiy tones retain tlie acute accent on the 
■niepenult iliroiigh all llie cases and numbers. See ^29, Rem. 5. The 
t'ljlanes in -<u{ retain tlie acute accent in the Gen. Sing., contrary to ^ 45, 
'i (a}, e. g. ltd. The absorption by cu of o, the inflection -vowel of the Gen., 
KMuDts for this untisual acceDttmtion, thus lai instead of tiw-o. 

|50, Remarks on the Gender of the Ending oe- 

Mattutives in -of are regularly Masc. ; yet many ore Fein. Id addition 
'" du luunee of lands, cities, islands, trees and plants, mentioned under the 
pBttsl rule in 5 ■10, the following exceptions occur, which may be divided 
tHo general clas-ies : 

|i) Substantives which denote certain products of trees and plants, e. g. 
'litiiat, aeom, ^ ^alarog, acorn, t] ^iaoo;, JcM linai, i| Soxog, a beam, r\ 
iiSlas, a aaff; 

(b) Such OB denote stones and earths, e. g, o 17 ll9ot, a rionc, ^ Udoi, par- 
bciihuly a prtdoua sfonr, ^ ^^i^oCi c trnaU (font, ^ ^acarog, a loudistone, ^ 
linnfot, tUttrtim, 17 a/iaQuyllog, a gmara^dus, ^ fl^log, tee, j; yi\fioq, gypmim, 
\ ralof, f^au, i( Tiiorof, chalk, i) up/iiof, day, ij nlitSog, brick, tj ua flolog, 
M, q ioii(oe, mtid ; 

|c) Words which denote a hoBotu or cavUy, e. g. t^ xo'f Jonoc, kneading- 
luTof and n x^Xut, a box, ij iropo;, a eo^n, i] lijroq, a tcine-pmf, 
ml'^oA, if ttajinog, an oven, tj iftagiafiof, a chrst ; 
iuch fll^reui the idea of a uxn/, e. g. i'( oS6(, a road, ij uiiaS- 




to;, 80. o^, a tmriagt^roady ^ tglftog and li axganog^ sc. odi^f a JbaUptAj 
i| taipgo9f a (MUh ; 

(e) Bfany of the above substantiYeSy were originally a^jeotivefl, and ap- 
pear as feminine nouns, because the subetantivea with which they proper- 
ly agree are feminine. There are also many others, e. g. i} «i/lti«(, so. ^v- 
^a, haust-docr^ n Srvd^ogj sc yH^ thinly kmdy demi, 19 piog^ sc jpio^ afaXhit 
Jiddf ^ yiicFoc, firom yaly, sc. ;^, an idandj ^ dtiXmti>gy sc ^MTQy a diakd, 
^ diafutQog, sc /(^aftfi^^ dktmder^ etc ; 

(f) Several feminine nouns which stand alone, and henoe speolaUy to be 
noted, c g. ^ voaog^ ndcntss, { yra^ogf jaw-bontf { l^^wrog^ iew^ ^ fuifMy^ec^ 

(g) Some words which have a different meaning in different gendoB, 
e. g. 6 (vyog, yohey n H^ot, halanot, o utnogf honey ^ rnnog, more, also emaby, 
o Ua&og, peoj ^ Oa^og, iht yolk of an egg. 

Remark. On the diminutives in -oy, see § 40, 1, 3. 

§51. Third De clension. (at*-) 

The third Declension has the following Case-endings : 






Neut — 

tg ; Neut a 








01 (r) 



V and a 

Neut. — 

ag; —a 



mostly as the Nom. ; 

Neut — 

eg; — a. 


Remarks on the Case-endinos. (945.) 

§52. A. Nominative. 

1. Masculine and Feminine nouns in the Nom. end in g, 
§ 40, II, e. g. HOQo^ instead of Hogax-g, jy XalXaxp instead of lai- 
Xan-g. Still, the laws of euphony in Greek do not always al- 
low the g to be annexed to the stem, but either reject it, or, as 
a compensation, lengthen the short final vowel of the stem, 
§ 16, 3. But, when the g is annexed to the stem, the usual 
changes, which the laws of euphony permit, § 20, occur in the 
stem ending in a consonant 




2. In this manner all Masc. and Fern, nouns may be divided 
into three classes: 

(a) The first class includes such words as in the Nom. take 
9 as characteristic of gender, e. g. 





yiyart « < 

p6F{ftov,hw) ^ 

r c 


MQal (§ 20, 1.) 
Ufindi (§ 20, 1.) 
y/p'ac (§20, 2.) 
daq>U (§ 20, 2.) 
fi p6F'i(hih)-B) /9ovc,6d9(§25,2.) 
o JtF-q ^if(§25,2.) 

o ylyavj-f 
o dtX(ptv-g 

• mm J 




(b) The second class includes such words as in the Nomina- 
ve reject g the characteristic of the gender, but as a compensa- 
tion, lengthen the short final vowel of the root, viz. e or o into 
^ or », §§ 16, 3, and 20, 3, e. g. 


o {Xiwn) Xivp 
^ aldiog 

d 1 Xiovt^og 
O ^r^jo^og 

(c) The third class includes such words as in the Nomina- 
"^ve have the stem pure, since it neither assumes s, the charac- 
teristic of the gender, nor lengthens its final vowel, e. g. 





r < 

« o < 


o^ilQ instead of ^o-c 
*' auuv-g 


o aitay 


(?jQo><r-og) i^Qtih-og 

3. Neuters have their stem pure in the Nominative, § 40, II, 2. 
Yet the euphony of the Greek language does not permit a 
Word to end in r. Hence, where this is the case, the r is either 
"Wholly rejected, as in the masculine i«W, Gen. Xawr-og, or is 
changed into the corresponding consonant s, § 25, 5, e. g. 


o •< 

TO nintQi 
TO viXag 

TO (amfiat) ffafia 
^jo (Tt^or) tsQag 


7t tni(fi-og or c-og 

RxMA&K. The stem nvg is lengthened in the Nominative, contrary to the 
nile : to nv^, Gen. nvg^og. 



§53. B. The remaining Cases. cm6,sbi7.) 

1. The remaining cases, with few exceptions, which will be 
particularly treated in the sequel, are formed by appending the 
case-endings to the stem, e. g. 

Stem utoQOLx Nom. %6qal Gen. noqan^oq PL Nom. itoqan-'^Q* 

2. In forming the Dative plural by appending the syllable 
<r* to such stems as end with a consonant, the same changes 
take place, as have been noticed in the Nominative of these 
words, § 52, 2, (a), e. g. 

The following principles should also be noted : 

3. (a) The Accusative singular has the form in f with mas- 
culines and feminines in -is, -vg, -avg and -ov^, whose stem ends 
in 'h '^9 -«v and -ov, e. g. 

StemyroXi Noin.7ioXi$ AccnoXiv Stemporgv Noiil|9ot^v^ Acc fioj^vif 

poFpav paFgpavg vaFvvavv fioFfiov fioFg fiovg fioFwfifAf. 

But the Accusative has the form in a, when the stem ends 
in a consonant, e. g. g)^£^, cp^stpg, qjXe^a-^xoQaXf xo^o^, xoQctx-a 
— -itofc^rad, Xafindgf Xafmad-a. 

(b) Yet bary toned substantives in -ig and -vg, of two or more 
syllables, whose stems end with a Tau-mute, in prose^ have 
only the form in p, e. g. 

Stem i(fid Nom. tgig Ace Iqw poetic BQid~a 

ogvid' ogytg ogviv ** ogr^-d-^a 

xoqv& x6(fvg Jtogvy ^ x6gv^~a 

XogtT X^9^i X^9^^ ^ jlfo^^i-d. 

There are but few exceptions in prose, e. g. riqyi^a^ X H. 3. 1, 
15, and elsewhere, instead of rigyiv from Jy riqyig ; xoQvta in- 
stead of XOQiv, lb. 3. 5, 16. rini^ay X An. 7. 3, 27. The goddess 
Xaqig is always written Xaqir am the Ace. 

Remark 1. Oxytones of one or more syUables have only the regular 
form in o, e. g. (nod) raov;, Ace. nlda ; (ikmd) iXnlg, Ace iXntd-a ; Gf^a- 
fivd) j)fXa/utv, Ace. x^ofivd-a. The monosyllable xXdg, Gen. xXsid-og, con- 
traiy to the rule, usually has Miv in the Accusative, instead ofMidou 


4. The Vocative is like the stem, e. g. doufjuov, Gren. ^odiiov-og^ 
Voc doufwp. Still, euphony does not always allow the stem- 
form to appear. Hence the following principles should be 
noted : 

(1) The Vocative is like the stem in the following cases : 

(a) When the final vowels of the stem are lengthened in the 
Nominative, viz. « and o into 17 and w, the short stem-vowel 
reappears in the Vocative, e. g. 

dalfitap Gen. dal/ioy-^ Voc. daifiov 

yiQViv /igorr-og yiqov instead ofyigort 

^uix^axfjg Sanqix^og instead of ecr -o; SwuQaxkq. 

Exceptions. Oxytoned substantiTes— -not adjectives— -retain the length- 
ened vowel, e. g. 

noifiriy Gen. noifdr^og Voc. noifii^v — ^not noifiiVf 

except the three oxytones, ttot^^, aytjQ and do^^, which, in the Vocative, 
take again the short stem-vowel e, but with the accent drawn back, e. g. 
« naxf^j artQj datq, — ^The three substantives, ^AnolXtiv^ Gen. -o)yo(. Ho- 
asidHry "wrog^ and <ra>Ti}^, -^Qog, according to the analogy of the sub- 
stantives mentioned imder (a), shorten, in the Vocative, contrary to tiie 
rule, the original long vowel of the root, o) and 17, but also virith the accent 
drawn back, thus, 

tti "AitoXXoVf nofreidofTf amtq. 

According to this analogy, even *HQax}{Migj stem ^Bgrndstg^ is shortened, 
in the Vocative, by the later vmters, into HqaxXBg. 

(b) Adjectives in -dg, -avog, and also adjectives — ^not partici- 
ples — see Rem. 5, whose stem ends in rr, have, in the Vocative, 
a form like the Neuter or the stem, e. g. 

/lilac. Gen. uv-og Neut and Voc fiiiav 

Xogltig irt-og X^9^^ instead of /a^^rr, § 52, 3. 

So substantives in -dg, Gen. -avtog^ have the Vocative in -ivt 
instead of -a*^, § 52, 3, e. g. 

ylyag Gen. avx^og Voc. ylyav instead of yly art 
Kalxog art-og Kalxciy 

Mag art'-og Alav, 

Ren. 2. Some substantives in this class, with the x reject at the same 
time the p also, but as a compensation, lengthen the short a, e. g. ^jiiXag, 
Gen. arX'Og, Voc. "Axla, IToXvdaftdgy Voc. llolvdafid. 

(c) Substantives in -v, -vff, -avg, -svg and -ovg, whose stems 


end in -*, -v, -av, -cv and -ow, have the Vocative like the root, 
since they reject the g of the Nominative, e. g. 

fiimgf Voc. fuirti ; nQBa/ivt, Voc. nqiafv ; /uv^, Voc. fii; ; <fv(, Voc (H;; 
iU(, Vocili; p^^av;, Voc/^av; paaiXtvg, Yoc fiaadsv; fiovg, Vocfioi* 

The word ^afe, Gen. naid-og, has flroi in the Vocative, since, by 
rejecting the d, [comp. the Ace. of substantives in f, under Na 
3. (b)], the stem seems to end in a vowel. 

Rem. 3. Substantives in ~ig, -vg^ -ovg^ whose stems end in a consonant, 
have the Vocative like the Nominative, e. g. on o^k* ^gvfj novg. Yet 
some in -k, Gen. -iro;, have the Vocative like the stem, e. g. i3 dsi^^r, 
also dtX(pig, from dtX(plg, Gen. -%vog, 

(d) The Vocative is like the stem in all words, which, in the 
Nominative, have their stem pure, e. g. -^^q, ouciv, etc 

(2) The Vocative, according to the laws of euphony, is not like 
the stem, but like the Nominative, in most words, whose stems 
end in one of the consonants, which, according to the laws of 
euphony in the Ghreek language, cannot stand as the final letter, 
§25,5, since after the stem-consonant is dropped, the stem 
frequently cannot be distinguished, e. g. from o (poig^ Gen. 
iponog, the Vocative would be giw instead of gxwr, from rnf'i 
Gen. viqi'og, Voc. vi instead of vi(p, from ouq^, Gen. ao^x-o^, 
Voc <ra^ instead of ooqx, from «Jv> Gen. oj^r-o^, Voc. w instead 
of ^7t, from Ttovg, Gen. ftod-og, Voc. m. 

Rem, 4. The Vocative of Spall, Hvup, in common discourse, is like the 
Nominative, en ayo|, or by Crasis, wroS, but in the solenm language of 
prayer, a ava, in Homer and the Attic poets, e. g. Soph. OC. 1485. Ztd oya, 
aol (pviP& or cSro, instead of araxr, according to § 25, 5. 

(3) Substantives in -w and -w^, whose stem ends in -o^, have 
the Vocative neither like the stem nor the Nominative, but, 
contrary to all analogy, in -or, e. g. 

Stem^o; NonL^;f(o Gen.f;/o-o( for t/^oa-o^ Voc.f/;fo» for ^Jtoo"-*, ^o-« 
aidog aiddig aido^og *' aldoa^og aldol ^ ald6<r-ij aido-^ 

Rem. 5. The Vocative form of aU participles is like the Nominative, e. g. 
M tvmoir, tnvfpfig, rv^ag, Tvy/oiy, dnnrig, ^A^x^^t Voc. tf^/oy, when it 
becomes a substantive, is an exception. 





§54. L The Nominative adds o to the root. (949-aaQ.) 

(a) The stem ends in X ; thus, ^ dX-g, Gen. oi-o^, Dat PL 

(b) The root ends in a Pi or Kappa-mute — §, at, 9 ; 7, yy, x, 
^ (1} (To^, aoQX'og), and x- See § 52, 2, (a). 

Sing. N. 

^ G. 




7), Storm. 0, Raven. 6, Throat. tj. Hair. 

XouXd^ff xogd^ ^d^vy^ '&Qi^ 
XaiXdn-og xoQdx'og Xaqvyy-og XQiX'og 
XcuXdfi'i xogdx-i Xaqvyy-i ^^Of-* 
XaiXdfi-a xoqdx-a Xd^yy-a ^Q^Xrf^ 
XcuXdxjj xoQa^ XaQvy^ ^Qii 

Plur. N. 

XcuXdn-eg xoQdx-eg Xdqvyy-Eg rgix-eg 
XcuXaTt'ODV xoQax-tov XaQvyy-dov T^ty-oSy 
X(uXd\pi{v) x6Qd^i(v) Xdqvy^i(v) ^Qiii^v) 
XouXdn-ag xoQdx-ag Xagvyy-ag TQir-ag 
XcuXdn-eg xoqdx-eg Xaqvyy-sg rqix-eg 

Dual. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 

XcuXan-e xoqdx-e Xaqyyy-e ^Q^X'^ 
XtuXan-oiv xoqSlX'Oiv Xaqvyy-oiv xqiX'oXv. 

Rkica*^^ 1. The stem of those in ^ and | commonly ends in the smooth 
n and n ; the stem of those in yli ends in //, except 6 { Xvyly Gen. Xvyn-o^y 
^fix, but 1} Xvyli, Gen. Xvyy-og, hiccough, — ^Instead of (paqvyyog from 17 9a- 
^f, ftrocrf, the poets are permitted, on account of the necessity of the 
rerse, to use qmQvyog also. On ^qI^ see § 21, 3. 

Rem. 2. The word t^ uXg^ Gen. aX-og, signifying aea, and in the feminine 
gender, is only poetical, and the singular ail;, signifying saUy is only Ionic 
and poetic, elsewhere, merely 01 aXtg^ salt, occurs. PL Symp. 177, b, Lys. 

(c) The stem ends in a Tau-mute — d, t, xt, &, v&. See 
§52, 2, (a). 




Sing. N. 


Plur. N. 


^, Torch. 






ij. Helmet. 



6, Tjf Bird. 


oQPig , 

6j King. ij Eaith-worm. 


































Reh. 3. Here belong also the contracts in -t;/;, Gen. -q/^o ; ■= -17 g^ 
-^dog, e. g. Y} nagyst <^i^dc, nagfidog. 

The stems of neuters belonging to this class, end in t and xt. 
On the rejection of r and xr, and the change of t into <y, see 
§ 52, 3. On the omission of t before ai in the Dat PL, see 
§ 20, 1. In the words, to yow, knee and to do^, spear^ from the 
stems ywar and doqat, a, the final vowel of the root, is changed, 
in the nominative, into v, § 16, 1. 

tdy Body. 




rd, Knee. 


rd, Milk, rdj Wonder. 

ydXa rigag 

ydXaxt'Og rigat'Og 

ydXaxt'i rigat-i 

ydXa reqag 

rd, Ear. 

(fljff) wg 




ydXaxj-a tiqat-a 
yaXdxt'ODV regdr-tof 
ydXa]^i(v) rsQa-ai(v) 
ydXaxt-a regar-a 





ydXaxr-e regat-e 
yaXdxt-oiv regdt-oip 



Rem. 4. The word to ligag usually admits contraction in the plural, after 
T is dropped, e. g. rigu, ifgatyj but re^ara X. C. 1. 4, 15; to ysgag^ reuford 
of honoTy TO yfigagj old age, to xgiag^ JUsh, and to xipa;, horn, reject the t in 
all numbers, and then suffer contraction in the Gen. and Dat Sing., and 
throughout the Dual and PL, except the Dat PI. ; besides these forms, how- 




ever, fiigag has also the regular forms with t. When in the poets, a con- 
tracted from aa is used as short, it must be considered a case of elision, 
and not of contraction ; the same is true also of neuters in -ag, ^aog^ -og, 
-«o(, e. g. mtina instead of crxeTKi, xXia instead of xiUo. 


to xtQog 



and (MQa-og) xtpcog (xQsa-og) 
and (xtQa-i) xeqcc (xQeaA") 



Plur. N. 

xsQat-a and (xBQa-a) xiqd 
xeQat-fov and (xegd-oiv xegdiif 

xsQar-a and (xtga-a) xeqd 

(xQsa-a) xqid 
(xQea-fov) xqemv 
(xgea-a) xqid 

D. N. A.V. 
G. and D. 

xiqat'B and (xiqa-e xegd 
xeQat'Oiv and (xega-oip) xeQ(pp 

(xQea-e) xqtd 
(xQed'Oiv) xqe^. 


(d) The root ends in y or tr. See § 52, 2, (a). 

Sing. N. 

* G. 




^, Nose. 

^tg ^ 

«- r 


6, Dolphin. 


deXq)ig{ ip) 

6j Giant. 






6, Tooth. 






Plur. N. 

G. and D. 
























Rem. 5. Here belong also compounds in -6 Big, Gen. -o « y t o f = -avg, 
-ovrroc, e. g. o nXcotovgj cake^ Gen. itXaxovrtog ; in -^ « * ;, Gen. -i} « y t o ; = 
-g^, -firro;, e. g. xi/ij^, horwrabU, uiirivTog, 
' Rem. 6. For the irregular lengthening of the voWel in xrc/g, ug^ /Aildg and 
tttldgj see § 20, Rem. 2. 

§55. II. The Nominative rejects o, but lengthens 
the short final votoel of the stern^ b or o into rj 

O r W, § 16, 3. (253, 254.) 

1. The stem ends inPyrr and q. For the omission of f and 




rt before cri, see § 20, 2, and for the omission of tr in the Nomi- 
native of stems ending in rr, e. g. lAw, see § 26, 6. 

Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 



o, Shepherd, 

6, A Divinity, 



Of Lion. 


d, Air. d, Orator. 




















^OQ-OiP I 

Remark 1. The substantive { x^^Qi hand, belongs to this class of sob- 
Btantives, and differs from them in not lengthening « of the stem, x^Q^ ^^ 
1}, but into ei, e. g. x^h instead of xfQii and is irregular in retaining h in 
the inflection, thus, x^hi X^^Q^^^ ^tc., except the Dat PL and the Gen. and 
Dat Dual, x^^'i^'h X^Q^''^^' ^^^ i° poetry, both the short and the long form, 
through all die cases, is used, as the veree requires, e. g. x^^9^9 ^^^ X^9^9 
j)re^o*y and xf^Qotvy x^Q^^ <^d jifc/^ccri. 

Rem. 2. The following in "for. Gen. ^opogj reject the y in particular 
cases, and suffer contraction : { tlxoiV, inujgty Gen. tixorog and titovg, DaL 
f Mori, Ace. Butova and ilxtu. Ace. PL tixorag and cexov;,-— the irregular ac- 
centuation of eixoj and tlxovg should be noted ; { ifidtavj mghHngaU, Gen. 
iridovog and iridovg, Dat iridoi ; ^ x^^^^j swcMow^ Gen. x^XMwog^ DaL 

2. The following substantives in -^ are added to the preced- 
ing paradigms, viz. o nariiQ, father^ n f^ifttjQ, mother, jJ dvyar^q, 
daughter, ^ yaatt^Q, belly , *? ^rjf^^'^^Qi Demeter (Ceres) and o anj^, 
97km, which difier from those of the above paradigms only in 
rejecting e in the Gen. and Dat Sing., and in the Dat H., 
§ 16, 8, and in inserting an a in the Dat PL before the ending 
at, so as to soften the pronunciation. The word dv^Q, stem aw^, 
rejects e in all Cases and Numbers, except the Voc. Sing., but 
inserts a d> § 24, 2. 





6, Father. 



i„ Mother. 

;„ D-ughter, 


.., Miiii, 


Plur. N. 











).N-A.V.I naiiQ-t 
G. andD.j TiaziQ-oiv 



Kek. 3. To ihiu class belonp iiiao tlie won) d i^ 'API/n, lanj}, the Noin. 
of wliich beiug obsolete is aiippU(>iI by o i] iuvot, Gnu. apfd;, DuL a^v^ 
A£C Bfvo, Nom. PI. o^yif, Geu. Bpcajf, Dat. afrifoi^r), Ace. a(iv(i;; Air- 
iher, tlie word o anj^g. -igog, ttar, which beioDgs tu this class on accountof 
Uw DnL PL, ameaaiir), is not syncopated. By Syncope, the Bcceut of the 
Gen. and Dal. Sing., and, in the word av^g, also tliat of the Gen. PI. and of 
Ibe Gen. end DaL Dual, is removed to tlie last syllable, and lliat of the DaL 
VL in die penult, e. g. Ttaigot, naigl, avd^xuv, natg&irii*). The word ^ Jt/- 
paiti^ has a varj'ing accent, viz. J^fiijTgof, J ^fttjigt, Vac. Jr,firitiQ, 
Imt Ace JtifiijicQa. So also ^iyaTtg firom &vyaTijQ. For the Voc. of 
4Karq( and arijp. see J 53, 4, (1), (a). In poetry, according to the necessities 
of tlie verse, $1701^1;, SvyaigUr, Ji'ifititga, as well as, on tlie contrajy, 
tKKiigott &vyaiiQos aud ^ijiif t, are found. 

^56. IIL The Stem of the Nominative is pure. t*a) 
The e ia omitted without changing the final vowel of the 
stem. The stem enda Jn *', ri, q, and in qt, but only in SdiioQ, 
wift. The case-endings are appended to the Nominative witli- 
oni change. On the omission of « in sterna ending in rt and 
f- see t) 25, o, and on the omission of *, *j before «, sec ^ 20, 3. 




S. N. 

P. N. 


o, Paean. 






o, Age. o, Xenophon. o, Wild Beast, ro, Nectar. 


















\Bvo(fmn-Eg ^tiQ-eg 

[evoqjoivt-oiif &t]Q-(iSif 

[evoq)(a-a^v) '&tjQ'a{(v) 

[eyoq}(ovr'ag d^tj^Q-ag 

:evo(ip(avr-sg d^t^g-eg 








Remark 1. The three words in 'cuy, Gren. -tavoq^ viz. ^AnolXiav^ Uoau^ 
d&Vf { aXaVj tkreshing-Jloorj drop v in the Ace. Sing., and suffer contrac- 
don, thus, ^AnokXbi, Jloatida, olXoi; on alta, comp. §48, Rem. 1, on jcvxeai, 
§213, 11. Also the Ace. /XiJ/oi from ^ yXiix^iiy or /9Xi}/a)y,|>fni^rt>ya2, Gen. 
-ct^o(, is found in Aristophanes. 

Rem. 2. The neuters belonging to this class all end in -p, (-ap, -op, -«ip, 
"^9% ^* S' ^^ vixtaQj i}Top, niXtuQt ^^Q^ €ren. nvq-og. The word to Ssp, 
spring, can also be contracted, e. g. f\Qog. 

B. Words which have a Vowel before the Ein)U7o -o; op the 


§57. I. Words in -svg, -avg, -ovg. (xsl) 

1. The stem of substantives in -evg, -avg, -ovg, ends in v, 
which is formed from the Digamma F; g is the characteristic 
of the gender. On the omission of v between vowels, see 

2. Those in -evg have -sd in the Ace. Sing., and -edg in the 
Ace. PL, formed from eFa, eFag ; the omission of the F length- 
ens the a and off. These same have the Attic form in the Gen. 
Sing., viz. -€w? instead of -sog, and in the Dat Sing, and Nom. 
PL, they admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace PL 
When a vowel precedes the ending -evg, as, e. g. ;f06tJ?, Ev^oevg, 
the endings -smg, -ewf , -sd, -idg, are also contracted into -wff, -wf, 
-a, dg. Those in -ovg and -wg are contracted only in the Ace PL 


DEC. — WORDS IN ■si'ff, -nvi, -avi. 

|6,King. i.Ameuure. ri, rj, Oi. ,„AnoldWor 

N. \^ciaiXtvs ^oevi fforj, Ws for bdva ypntis 

G. ' ^aaiXe'-tog );o[ftd)oJs (to-iig, bfiv-is ypn-off 

D. j (JcuitJUr jfosl fioi'-, bftv-i J'P"-' 

V. (JafftUci' xoiv ^ov yQttv 

G. I ^aadt'-mr j;o(f'Qj)a(»' jJo-oJc, biWim yQU-av 

A. \paadi-as{andtTi;]xoWd]tts tjinai] ^oCs lfQd-af)y()avii 

I jirtoilt'-* 
, paadi-o 

Xotoir [io-o 

Bemark 1. The Gen. Sing, of noune in -tit, among tlie Attic poets, 
Kimeiinies erid.4 in -I'o; iiutletid of -iuit, thus, Gijaioi, npiare'ot ; and tlie Ace. 
Bing., not only among the Attic poets, but among all the )K)els, Bometimes 
1b in -^ inetead of -ia, e. g. Uf/rj, ^vy/Qaifti. The Nom. mid Voc. PI. in 
ifibe older Attic writers, in Thucydidce, for example, end also in -^$, e. g. 
fiavil^t, Itt^t, nkattu^t instead of niatiutif. The Accusative ending 
—lis iDSlead of -im(, is found not unfrcquenllj in Xeuophon, e. g. jotf mi- 
>, C. a 5, 19. Toie /oriit, 2. 2, 14. yraqius, axvtiif, xalxut, 3. 7, S. lotj 
fiwriltts, 3. 9, 10. and elsewhere, but more seldom among the other Attic 
lee writers. The Accusative form viiig is regular among all the Attic 

Rem. 3. The following are declined like jro"';t viz. HiwaiiVi, Gen. Tlct- 
^tut, Ace Uiifnia, o ayvuit, aUar bqfort the door, Gen. ayi'i^i. Ace. ayu- 
mi, PL Ace ayviat, and several proper names, e. g. "fipttpiwi, ^xiiQimg, Mij- 
lia, £t]3oEiif, liv^oa, Kv^ooi, IJiajaiag, JufiSg ; yet the uncontracled forms 
oare frequently found in pro|>er Humes, e.g. enrniiaif, GKrtiiat,STHfiea, 
JUataiitm', nlaiaiiai, 'Eftiijitaiv, JaiQiiiuv, tlHpaiiatr, in Tli., X., PI., Dem. 
The UDContractcd forms are regular in akuCg, Juhmnan, ahitof, iXiia, 

Rkm. 3. Among good Attic \^Titers, the Nom. PL of /!ovs and ygavs are 
alwiys uncontracted, ^oif, yfSit; in tlie Ace, on the contrary, only jtovs, 
Jfifavi, tavf, are generally used, fioaf very seldom, 

Rkm. 4. Only o j[otJj, congiia and a Tntmmi, and i) ^ott, miugarATtt, hto 
declined like ^ovg, but both without contraction in tlie PI. ; only t] yati 
(>«P{, navia), which, however, ia in many instances irregular, is declined 
'^fi^vt. See §68. 

80 THIRD D^c— WORDS IN -lyi? AND -eg, [§§58, 59. 

§58. IL Words in -^ff, -e^, Gen, -eog; -mSy Gen, -mog^ 
-(Off and -0), Gen. -oog; -ag^ Gen. -aog^ -off, Gen. 

- € ff . (857.) 

The stem of words, belonging to this class, ends in ff. On 
the omission of the a, see §25, 1. In the Dat PI. a cr is 

§59. (1) Words in -rjg and -«ff. (ssz.) 

1. The endings -lyff, -eg, belong only to adjectives, the ending 
-fjg being masculine and feminine, and -eg neuter, and to pro- 
per names in -qidvfjg, -fAet^gy -yivijg, -nqarrigy -jwij^ff, -nudjig^ -crd/- 
nig and (-xWyff) -x^^ff, having the termination of adjectives. The 
stem of the neuter is pure, § 52, 3 ; but in the masculine and 
feminine, the short final vowel of the stem is lengthened, « 
into ^, §52, 2, (b). 

2. The words of this class suffer contraction, after the oniiso 
sion of <T, in all cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and the 
Dat PL, and those in -x^/^ff, which are already contracted in the 
Nom* Sing, into -x^^, suffer a double contraction in the Dat Sing. 



Singular. Plaral. 

cacpiigy clear. caq)ig {<jaq)i-eg) caq>eTg ((xagie-a) <Ja(pSj 

(<jaq)i-og) aaqiovg {(jaqie-fov) aacpdiv 

{aaqii-l) caqiBi aaipi-ativ) 

(aaqii-a) aaq)^ aacpeg (caq}e'Cig) caqteig {6a(pe'a) craq)^ 

caqfsg cacpdg (aacpi-eg) aaq)eig (caqii-a) aaqiii 

Dual N. A. V. aacpi-e caq)ij 

G. and D. aafpi-oiv caqxHV, 

Singular. Plural. Dual. 

jy TQi^Qtjgy trireme. (rgii^QB-Bg) tQiVQeig {tQi^Qe-e) rQitjQtj 

(T^(J7^C-0ff) tQl^QOVg TQU^QB'OJIf and JQi^QOSP (tQir^QS'0lV)rQl1]Q0tf 

(TQime-i) TQingei tgn^ge-aiip) 
(rgitige-a) rgirigrj (jgivge-fig) rgtngetg 
rgiijgeg (rgifige-eg) rgiijgeig 



Hoixgdrrjg (TlegixJjT^g) negixXijg 

2(axgitovg (TlegixXsS'Og) UegixXeovg 

£(oxgdrBi (TlegixXBe'l) (TlegixXeei) TlegixXeT 

2<xixgatri (TlegixXh-a) TlegixXid 

2coHgatBg (Ilegixl^Bg) UegixXBt^. 




ReMiiut 1. Oti the CDntractioa in the Dual of te ioio i] — Dol »— and in 
ibe Ace. PI, of ^Bt inco -us, we ^9, D. Wben a vowel precedeB ihe enil- 
injB -i^, -((, in proper nmneB in -ui^s, -to is always conlracled into -a, and 
coounonly also in adjectives, §9, D, e. p. iZt^mJln-a = i7(ptKl^ ; axit^f, 
mtkoul /anu, uxlei-a ^ axUa, i/iijf, heailhy, v/Ua = vyw, Mtt'is, poor, 
irSiia = Mm, vufQ^tr^d fupematurol, imti/qiiiia =^ iniQipiia, Ace. Sing. 
maBculine, and Nom., Ace. and Voc PI. neuier ; but eonictinies also the 
contraction inin -i] Is found, e. g. lyi^, Siipvti, aipv^, alxo<fiiij, X. K. Equ, 7, 
11. in all Codd- 

Rem. '2. Proper names with the above endingn, and gleo'lAQtit, form tlie 
Ace. Sing^ both according to the first and tliird declcitsions, and ure there' 
Ibre called Heteroeiilv, e. g. 2W(ari) aod 2'oirfai7iy, according to the tirst 
Dec.^ .Jixafiirtj and -fiirriy, ^yjwdcrt] and -aSirtjii, 'jiQi) and -ip, etc. ; Plato 
commonly iiiwh tlie form in -tj, Xeoophon that in -^r, other writerB both 
fbrmH wilboul distinctjon. The Genitive of jti/ti^, in good prose, ia A^uof, 
often in Plato ; among tlie poets, however, 'dfiot ie bIbo used, according to 
the Dccetcilies of the verse. Among later writers, the Ace. of words in 
~xliit usually eoda in -iblijr. The Ibriimtion of ttje Ace. PI. is dotibtful, 
aliboiigli the inflection, according to tlie first Dec, aeetim to be prcdotni- 
■iBnl,e.g. tov{ 'Agiaio<faritf,'tat\ieKoin,a.\Bn'Afiatoifarat,ioiiiJiifioa9crixs- 
Rejc 3> Tlie Gen. PI. ofigi^gtit occurs also in the uncontructed form, 
«k g. ifUHiiiiiy ; but aU the others are uniformly coiitmetcd ; tlie Dual also is 
CH0id UBContnicted in words of this claes in the Attic dialect, e. g. Siy- 
^rof, Bod tlie TragediaUH use tlie iincoritrarted forms of proper names iu 
—idiiK ^ -KX'it, according to tlie necessities of the verse, e. g. 'tlQanUtis, 
Hat. -alLici, Voc -tilitt. The contract Ace. in -xJtJ is seldom found. The 
"Voc. » "//ponite, as an exclamation, belongs to Ihe later prose. 

Rem. 4. Tlic irregiUar accentuation of tlie Gen. PI. rpi^puv instead of 
-agnffttr Irom igitj^iar, a wortliy of notice. In addition to this word, ad- 
jectives in -flflijf and the word atTiifiini;, e. g. avMj&ien' ^ o-iinjfloir, al- 
vef Bur ^ ainafxair, liave this ai 

^60. (2) Words in - 

(a) -we, G 

ren. - (u J . 




o,cdiu'.',Jackal. Pl.3ai-eg 

#0)-.' i)u>M*) 

A. V. &M-f, G. and D. -Ra-oiv. 

S. iftiwe, Hero-Pl.^pw-es 
D. tjQbi-t, ijQm-oty. 

(b) -ME and -s, Gen. -oo;. 
Substantives of these endings are always feminine. The 
Mem ends in -oe; the short final vowel o is lengthened into oj. 




according to § 52, 2, (b). The ending -(og, however, is retained 
in the Attic and Common Language only with the substantive 
aidoig, stem aidogf and in poetry wdth rjcig, morning, (in Eurip.), 
in all other words it has been changed into a smoother form, 
so that the Nom. ends in -w, e. g. fjx^, stem ^x^g- On the Voc, 
in -or, see § 53, 4, (3). The Dual and Plural are formed like 
substantives in -og of the second Dec, thus aidoi, iJxo*, etc 

^ aiSdig (Stem atdog)f shame. 
{aiS6-og) aidovg 

icuSo'i) aidoi 

aiSo-a) aiSdS 
{cudo'i) cUdoi. 

jj i7;i^Q)',Stem ix^g), echo. 
(tjx6-og) r^x^g 

{tixo'i lixoi. 

§ 61. (3) Wo rds in -ag , Gen, -ao g, and in -off, Gen, 

-eog. (359.) 

(a) -Off, Gen. -aog. 

Only the neuters to aelag, light, and to binag, goblet, belong 
to this class. 

to aihigy light. PI. atka^a and ctkd Dual, adla-e 
aika-og GBka-(av aeXd-oiy, 

(Tela-i'and askct aeXa'ai{v) 
aikag aiXa-a and atXd 

Remark I. On the poetic shortening of the contracted a, see § 54, Rem. 
4. In the four following neuters in -o^, the a in the Gen., Dat and in the 
PI. is changed into the weaker f, according to the Ionic usage, e. g. 

pqijaq (poet), vmagt^ Gen. fi^iifog, PI. pqixta and Pghri, /J^ercW 
xmag [poet), JUecCf PI. in Homer, xcafa, xmadv) 
ovdag (poet), ground, Gen. ovdfog, Dat ovdt'i and ovdei (Horn.) 
Kviq>ag (poet and prose), darkness, Gen. xpi(paog Epic, xviipovg Attic, 
Kpi(pai Epic, xviq>^ Attic. 

(b) -og, Gen. -«off. 
Substantives of this class are all likewise neuter. In the 
Nom., fi, the stem vowel of the last syllable, is changed into o, 
§ 16, 1. 


THIRD DEC— WORDS IN -IS, "fft •«, -V. 














to yivog for yivBg, genus. 
(yivB'Og) yivovg 
(yivB'i) yivu 

TO xXiog for nXiegy glory. 
xXiB-og) %kiovg 
^'nXiE'i) xXsei 

(yive-a) yepij 
yevi'iuv and yevaiv 
{ysve-a) yevrj 

ixXse-a) xXsd 
xXee-ODV xXediv 
(x>l££-a) xXsd 

(yive-e) yivi} 
(yevi-oiv) yevoTv 

{xXee-e) xXirj 
(xXss-oiv) xXeoiv, 

REBf. 2. On the contraction of u into ri instead of ti, and of la into a in- 
stead of 1}, when a vowel precedes, see § 9, 11. On the poetic shortening 
of the contracted a in xAca, see § 54, Rem. 4. 

Rem. 3. The uncontracted form of the Gen. PL is not unusual, e. g. 
ogi^Py ftiXiotVf xs^dsoiy, and almost without exception avditav ; in PI. Polit. 
260, a, the uncontracted Dual form in £< is found, toxnto tw yiptt. 

nL Words in -ij, -vf, -», -v. 

§62. (1) Words in -fg, -vg. 

Substantives in I'g and vg, originaUy ending in iFg, vFg, 



Sing. N. 

xtg, corn-worm. 

jy cvg, sow. 

6 lyfivgi fish. 


XI 'og 

XI -i 









Plur. N. 









av-ag and 

avg ix^v-ag, rarer ix^g 





Remark. The contracted Nom. PL al agxvg is found in X. Yen. 2, 9. ; 
6,2.; 10,2.19. 


THIRD DEC. DWORDS IN -« ffi -« i -vg, -V, 


§63. (2) Words in -is, -ly -v^, -v. cm.) 

The stem of these substantives ends in i or v. The stem- 
vowels i and V remain only in the Ace. and Voc. Sing., in the 
other cases they are changed into «, § 16, 2. In the Gren. Sing, 
and PL, substantives denoting persons take the Attic form in -oi^ 
and -ow, in which the cu has no influence on the accent, comp. 
§ 29, Rem. 5. In the DaL Sing, and in the Nom. and Ace Pl.^ 
contraction takes place. 

Sinff. N. 

Plur. N. 





6, Cubit. 

TV, Mustard. ro, City. 

/ - 




















Remark 1. Here belong all substantives in -liq^ -ytiij most in -^ig and many 
others, e. g. { Kortg^ dud^ o liartiq^ prophdj ft Sfpig, serpent, { niaug, fcdSk^ if 
vPqiq, abuse ; o niXixvgy axe, 6 ngtaflvg, M man ; to ninBgt, pepper, to tiy^ 
ydfiagi, cinnabar, to ntiv (poet), hard, without contraction. Adjectives in 
^dg, 'tXa,'^ are declined in the masculine and neuter like Tr^/tv Aiid atrw^ 
except that the Gen. masculine takes the regular forms -ioq, -ifop, not -tng, 
-tar, e. g. i}dvg, ^diog. 

Rem. 2. Among the Attic poets, yet probably only in Lyric passages, die 
Gen. in -eoc from substantives in ~i^ ; occurs, e. g. noltog. 

Rem. 3. In X. An. 4. 7, 16, the contracted Gen. nr^x^if is found. Instead of 
the Dual form in -c« also one ini; is used, e. g. noXriy q>vafj ; also a form in -u 
instead of -c6 is cited, by the ancient Grammarians, &om Aeschines. — ^The 
Ace. PL of nouns in -v; are sometimes found uncontracted among the At- 
tic poets, e. g. nrixfag. 

Rem. 4. Neuters in -i and -v have the Attic Gen. Sing, very seldom, e. g. 
StnfOii Eur. Bacch. 838. (831). Or. 761. (751). 

Rem. 5. Adjectives in -ig, -r, e. g. id(fig, tdgC^ ^cUftd, and some sub- 
stantives in -iV* wliich are partly poetic, have tlie regular inflection, e. g. 
1-0$, i-i, i-sg, etc., or both forms togetlicr, e. g. { firjrig, anger, also fif^vidog, 
etc., o ^ olg, shup, to nintQi, Gen. -igiog and ~iog, pepper, o fi nogrig, calf, 



&2,L(5. i(^ 1.), finally one noun in -i;;, ^ fyx'^v^t l>ut only in the singular. 

Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 


0, ^ noQtigy calf. 
TtoQji-i and noQTi 

iyXBkvg, eel. o, ij olg, sheep. 
tyxAv-og olog 





fiOQii-eg and nogrig 
noQtt-ag and nogtig 
ftogri-eg and fioQiig 






olag^ rarer olg 






Reil 6L Xenophon uses the Ionic forms of oZp, viz. o'ir, oug, otmp, o'iag 

§64. Quantity of the Third Declension, (aea.) 

I' The inflection-endings -o, -i, -v and -a( are short 

^ftfUon, The a in the Ace. ending in the Sing, and PL of substantives 
^ -n!^ is long, e. g. tor Ugiof jolg Ugiag from o Sf^n^;, ^Triuf. 

^ Words whose Nom. ends in -oJi -*l, -i^5, -«^, -«^» -v^» -*C and -iv> 
^ the penult of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according 
** the vowel of the above endings is short or long by nature, e. g. o ^oi^af, 
^ of maSj -^xog, o ^t% reed, ilnog, ^ axug, ray, -Ivog, but ^ p&lalt dod, 
'*'K i Untg, hope, -tdog. See more fldl explanations in the Larger Gram- 
n>tf, Part L § 291. 

i65. Accentuation of the Third Declension, cxa.) 

L The accent remains, through the several Cases, on the accented syllable 
^iftbe Nom. as long as the laws of accentuation permit, § 30, e. g. to ngay- 
^1 dttd, ngayfunog, but nqayiiaxtav, to ovofia, namt, ovofimog, but oyo/ia- 
tiiTf ^ /fjlidoty, awaUoWy ;)f(Xtdcyo;, ZtPO<p&¥^ -iivTog, -(SyTc^, ^tartiur. The 
pvticular exceptions have been noticed in the paradigms. 

^ Words of one syllable are accented, in the Gen. and Dat of all Num- 
ben, on the final syllable, and the long syllables atv and oiv are circumflex* 
«d, e. g. o fnir, (inrogy fnivi, fvoh, fifjvw, f»ircri(r). 




(a) The following nine substantives are paroxytoned in the Gen. PL and 
in the Gen. and Dat Dual : ^ dag, torch, 6 dfiojg slave, 6 i) ^tag, jadud, to 
KPA2, poetic, Gen. xqaxog, head, to ovg. Gen. cjto?, ear, 6 ^ naig, ^hUd, ocnj?, 
9710^, 6 T] T(}wg, Trojan, ?^ q>Mg, Gen. qxadog, a Jmrning, to q>wg. Gen. <)poiTos, 
light ; e. g. dadmy, dadoiv, boaav, xgditoy, miay, wxoiv, naldotr, naidoit, 
aitav, Tqcuo)v, (fMdotv, qxaKoy; on the contrary, tav dfimCtv from al dfiwd, 
TcSv Tgoi^v from ai Tgual, jStv qxoiwv from o qxog^ man, Totv •^(uoiy from 
1/ -d^iorj, injury. 

(b) The following contracts, according to the nature of the final syllable, 
are either Properispomena or Paroxytones, in the Gen. and Dat of all Num- 
bers, as in the other Cases, viz. to r^q. Epic, from tag, spring, %iiq. Epic, 
from x£oe^, htart, 6 lag from luag, stone, 6 nqmv from nqri(av, hill, e. g. tiQog^ 
V9h ^^Qog, xrjgi, Xaog, Xai, Xatav, ngioyog, ngtayi. 

Remark 1. The following contracts, on the other hand, follow the prin- 
cipal rule (No. 2), viz. aiiag =i (nijQ, tallow, ariaiog = otijto;, q>Qia(}, todlf 
q>Q6ajog = q>Qrji6g, PI. (pQrjxay, Ogal^, Ogfjl^, Ogifixog = Ogaxog, and Ogfixogj 
olg, olog, oil, oiaiv, oiaHv), 

(c) Monos}'llabic participles, as well as the pronoun t / ( ; quis ? retain 
the accent, through all the Cases, on the stem-syllable, but the pronoun 
nag and o Ildy is an Oxytone in the Gen. and Dat Sing., in the other cases, 
either a Paroxytone or a Properispomenon, according to the nature of the 
final syllable, e. g. q>vg, q>vytog, oiV, orro;, orti, oyrtay, ov(n(y)y onoiy, tig, ilyog, 
%lyi, etc. ; nag, namig, nani, ndrtaty, ndyxoiy, naai(y), 6 Jldv, Ilayog, loig 

3. The following are accented in the Gen. and Dat of all Numbers, like 
monosyllabic substantives: 

(a) ») yvy rj, woman (ywaixog, ywaixl, ywaixoiy, yvyaixcjv, ywoi|/(y) ; but 
yvyalxa, yvyalxtg, etc.) ; 6 ^j xvtov, dog (xvyog, xvyi, xvyoly, xvy&v, 
xvol[y)', but xvva, xvytg, etc.); 

(b) syncopated substantives in -vig, on which see § 55, 2 ; 

(c) compounds of tlj, un-us, in the Gen. and Dat Sing., e. g. ovddg, ovds- 
vog, ovdtyi; but oldiymp, ovdi<Ti(y), so fjtr^ddg, firidtyog, etc.; 

(d) the Attic poetic forms, dogog, dogi from dogv. 

4. For die accentuation of substantives in ^ig, -vg, Gen. -twg, see § 63 ; 
of those in -w, §60, the irregular accentuation of the Ace. Sing, of ^/oa = 
f^jjfoi instead of ^jjfoi, should be noted. 

5. (a) In the Vocative of syncopated substantives, § 55, 2, in -i^, the ac- 
cent, contrary to the principal rule, is drawn back as far as possible, e. g. 
01 ndtfg, d-vyUTig, /Jrjfirjxtg, aytg ; so also in the following substantives, 
^A7i6lX(ay, -oiyog, lIoatida}y, ^cjyog, Ofoitjg, -iigog, ^Afiiflwy, -loyog, darig, -igog^ 
thus 0} *'AnoXXoy, Jloatidoy, omtg, *'Apq>ioy, ddsg ; and in compound substan- 
tives and adjectives ; in adjectives also in the neuter, e. g. ^Aydfiffivor from 
^Ayapi fiy(iiy,^Agiax6y moy {rom *AgiaToyiliiav, ^wxgaxfg, Jfjfioo^sysgGrom^fa' 
xgdiTig, AtifAoa-^iyfig', av&ddrig, w and to avdadsg, q>iXaXri'&rfg q>ddXfi^ig (but 
aXri&rig, ••ig, uncompounded), avrdgxrig airtagxtg, xaxoijdrig xaxot^dtg, and so 
all adjectives in ^aifjuay and -i)^oir, e. g. iUr^inay iXirifioPj iidalfnay Bvdatfior ; 


d» Mine holds true of comparative in -iW, -ioy, e. g. u and lo xdUuiti. 
The AUaning are exceptions: oi jdwiSaipoy ftom jianhSaifitar, coin|>oiiiids 
in -^(nr, e. g. a Avxocfgor Irom Aaiocfiji»r, Ei^vtff/ov from Hl&iifQBiy, 
AsMpguf ^a'ifpoK, and adjertivKB and siibsiantiTeH in -nidi;;, -ciigf, 'ujijc, 
-n^;, -q^C, e. g. liiiiS^i nwSii.a/iifirnjf iftifmlt, naytikiK nciniuLff, vtu^tj^ 
RM^Ef, fi^^fii; fiv''!^!!, ^(teptKi HJ j^iai/tg. 

Rek, 2. On llie contrary, nalal/imv flalaipov, Ifliitj^ow 'PiiJ/'OF, JVoij/iwi' 
n^fnw, 'Inuxaar 'itaxaar, Mnxaar Maxior, 'AQtlam Aljiiov, 'laaem 'laaar, 
ifinian''Jptiu[n', nol Rompniinded, and alwi all in -lat, Inlii coinpoimd 
md simple, e. g. olnntia^ -V'^^t Holvfi^tnoiQ -il<rtof, avio»tiaiioi[ -aiop, 
S.nt,n>tg -t,roii, Antiruif} -^roQ, JZpDnufiup -dtop. 
lb] The Vocative of nouna in -oi's, -Ms, -ovi, -oj and -raj ia Perisporoe- 

^66. Gender of (he Third Declension. (saa.) 
Tbe natunJ gender — the mnBCuline and leminlne — is diHtinguiabed Ui 
•Iw third Declension, ns has been seen above, 4 40, not by a special form, 
Iw party by the aignification, partly by the forms, and niso in part by 
iwp done. The folloning rulea wilt aid in determining the gender : 

!■ [») SulWantivea in -ay, -vv, -ag, Gen. -neo;, -anoi, -iv(, -jjl, 
■RRiiacuilne, without exception; — (b)also tliose in -))v, -tar, Gen. -ufoc, 
-1f.-(ip, -up, -oip, -1JS, Gen. -ijtos, -ovg.-ug. Gen, -wins, and -i/i, 
"Ml ll» following exceptions : 
(') in -q V : ij aS^r, -cvog, gland, and ^ ipp>if, diaphragm ; 
}fi)\ii-uv. i aloif, Ihruhing-fioor, t} ^h'lxair or /jlij/tui-, /rninjrnj^, ^ 
fpwr, ptjipy, Ij rpijpMV, ;n]i>Ton, o q aiiXoiy, ditch, u i] ■niiliui', brll ; 

vliD-qp; ij ^cEirriip, ietfji, ^ x^p, xq^oc, yiite, ij ^aitri^p, hairanrr, and 
"""^fs eontracled from -inp into -ijp, e. g, lo tn^g, laliow ; 
('1 hi . f I p : i) x'h^ fcinrf ; 
[■lin-D(i: nmu,fn; 

\il ID -Dip, [he oeulerB IXShiq, irith, tliag, bootii, Tiilai/, motuter, mcup, 
""own*, Tn^atp, oijwi, vSmfi, uxdtr ; 

(t) in . 1] f , all aliatracts in -oi<);, -iitijti e. g. ^ ^f^aiaxift' -oTiitog, firm- 
"^VA », ^(rdq(, -^rot, vctta ; 
w)in-o(r{; iDoif, eor,- 
I') ia - »( :_ 10 ipw, ivfW. fl iiue, iirifl ; 

(i) ia -yi: q xnt«tpov<. cnrait, q xbi^iIiv, nw/, ^ Xallniii, hviricanu, ii oifi, 
^^ 4 vU<f , t«in, q jt>f 'iVi UKuhing-waUr, i), seldom o. tuVt ^■ 
■^(■) SubstanliveB in -li^, Geo. -uSog, -avf, -ivf, -vrg, -tu and 
"*6-oo{, otietrBCts in -diijt, -iijyig, are, without exception, feminine; 
|~|ti)ib(Me in '>>;,-•; and 'tf, -v$ and -w », -ova;, with the follow- 
■•g cReptiona, are feminine : 
[■) in - 1 1 c : D xi!(;, mmi ; 

(ji) in - 1 ; and - 1 * i o iK, Gom-tconn, o ylmiig, a kxitd of Jiah, i Hi;, Epic, 
Si™, Gen. -io« ; o SiiqpJ; or iiiipiii, dolphin, o luiiv, kilf-, u ij &C(, heap, o tiI- 
flt,mitd, Gen. -iroc; o mnis, dagger, o S^x't, IfMidr, i oipif, ttrpent, Gen. 
-Mft fti and a! jtvpjSnf, -euv, tate-tabta ; and many names of animals of the 



common gender, e. g. o i} o^vis, ^i&og, hirdy 6 ^ rfyf^^y -tog, -idog^ tiger, 
o t? c/i^, -f (»(, viper, 6 { xoqig, -eo);, bug ; 

(y) in ~vg: o porgv^, duster, 6 ^Qtivvg, footstool, o ix^^y f-^ o fivg, 
numse, 6 yixvg, corpse, 6 ardxvg, ear of com, otivg or ovg, swine, Gen. -vog; 
o niUxvg, axe, 6 ni^x^g, cubit. Gen. -co)^ ; 

(d) in - (0 y, Gen. -ovog : o axfitav, anvU, o %awm, rule, o ilsxtgwop, eoek, 
o 1} xlonv, pillar. Gen. -opog. 

Remark 1. Thoee in -| vary between the masculine and feminine gen- 
der, except those in ^^, Gen. -tptog, which are masculine, and Properispome- 
na in ' o f, e. g. »; fioiXaJ^, -ay |, -ayyog, - » I, - */ 5, - v I, - vy |, which are 

nL Nouns of the Neut gender are, (a) all substantives in -ot, -fj, -oq, 
-log, -og, -i> and -v ; and (b) those in -uq and -ag. Gen. -oro;, -aog, and 
contracts in -17^, except o tpaq, starling, and lag, stone. 

§67. Anomalous Nouns of the Third Declension. 


All substantives, whose inflection differs from the rules and 
analogies above given, are included under the irregular sub- 
stantives of the third Dec. All the anomalous forms of the 
third Dec. may be divided into three classes : 

(a) The first class includes those substantives, whose Nom. has a fcmn 
which cannot be derived, according to general analogy, from the Genitive- 
stem, e. g. ij yvrrj, woman, Gen. yvpaix-og. 

(b) The second class includes those substantives, which, with one Nom. 
form, have in particular Cases, or in all the Cases, two modes of formation, 
both of which, however, may come, in accordance with the general rules, 
from one form of the Nom., e. g. 6r^ vQvig, Gep. -i&og, a fowl, PI. oqv^sg 
and oQvtig, as if from oqvi^. Gen. -eo)$. These substantives may be termed 

(c) The third class includes those substantives, which, with one Nom. 
form, admit, in particular Cases, or in all the Cases, two modes of formation, 
one of which may be derived from the Nom. form, but the other supposes 
a different Nom. form, e. g. ^BQantoy, -oviog, a servant. Ace. ^tqanovxa, 
and poetic ^i^o9ra,as if from ^iqaip. This formation may be called 
Mdaplasni, and the substantives included under it, MeUqdasts. The Nom. 
form, presupposed in this case, is termed the Jlieme. 

§68. Summary of the Anomalous Forms of the 

Third Declension. asm.) 

1. rivv, TO, kfiee, and ^oqv, to, spear, see §54, (c). 

In the tragic poets, the Epic forms, yovpata and yotya, yovvaai, occur ; 
also, in the Attic poets, the Gen. doQog, Dat dog I, and even dogn, and 


PL doiffi instead of doQaxOy are formed fix>m dogv ; and in the phrase, dogl 
hXuv, to take apriaonar of war y this Dat form is retained even by the Attic 
prose writers. 

2. rvvii^ jy, woman^ Gren. yvroix-off, Dat ywoux-i^ Ace. ywcuH-a, 
Voc yvpou ; PL ywouxeg, yvvain^v, yvfai^l(v\ ywcuxag. 

3. JoQv, see yow, No. 1. 

4. Zevg, Gren. Jiog, Dat ^it, Ace. ^ia, Voc. Zbv. 
Poet corresponding forms are Zriyog, Ztp^l, Zr^va, 

5. OeQaTtcav, 6, servant, -ortog. In Eurip. Ace. '^iQana^ PL 
S^iQoneg, §67, (c). 

6. Kagay roy head, an Epic and poetic word, Gen. >c^ar-o?, 
Dat xgati and xo^^e, Ace. to adgay to xodta (rw XQciray §214) ; 
Ace. PL roifg xQoitagy § 67, (c). 

7. KXeig, ij, A:ey, Gren. xA««^-off, Dat x^t^-/, Ace. xXcti^-a, and 
commonly xXsh^y § 53, Rem. 1 ; Nom. and Ace. PL xXcfe, and 
nleidsgy xXet^agy § 67, (b). 

Old Attic, jcXfigy xXfjdogy idfjdiy jcXfjda. 

8. Kva)Vy6, ^y dog', Gren. xvp-6g, Dat xvw, Ace. xtJra, Voc. xtJoy ; 
PL xweg, xwioi^y xvai, xvvag. 

9. A in oLytOy oil, fatness, in the Epic dialect always in the 
phrases, dXeixpac'&ou Mii iXouqpy XQ*^<^ a^nd XQi(^tiad'ou Xin iXatqpy and 
so also in the Attic prose, aXeiapBa^cUy XQisad^cu Xina ; Xina is thus 
an abridged Dat instead of Xlnaxy Xinay from to Xinay Gen. -aogy 
but iXaiov must be considered as an adjective from iXaa, olive, 
so that Xina iXaiw means olive-oil. 

10. Maqxvgy 6, toitness, Gen, fioQtvQogy Ddit fidQtvQi, Ace. fidg- 
tvQOy rarer fJuxQiw ; Dat PL fiaQtvat(v), 

11. Navg,^y ship. Gen. i^eoigy Dat i^ii Ace. vavvy Voc. want* 
ing; Dual, Gen. and Dat veoTv, Nom. and Ace. wanting; PL 
tfjegy vewr, vavai(v)y vavg. Comp. yqavg, § 57. 

12. "OqvigyOy Tiy tifd, Gen. oQvld^-og, etc. The PL has a form 
declined like noXig, except the Dat, oQvl^eg and oQveigy oQri^mv 
and o^eatv, oQvmy oQvWagy and o^sig and oqvlgy § 67, (b). 

In the Attic writers the i is sometimes short, o^viq, o^Hr, Aristoph. Av. 
1& 270. 335. but o^y ogHy, 70. lOa 7a 

13. n vv^y^y place of meetiriff, Gen. nvxv-ogy Dat m;xn, Ace. 


14. -2*1/ ff, 0, moth^ Gren. (S6'6g] PL aisg. Gen. <TfiW, etc 

15. -2'xa)^, TO, diV^, Gren. aHatog, etc. 

16. ^r^o)^, TO, toater, Gen. vdatog, etc. 

17. 0&6lig, (fd^oig, 6, art of cookings Gen. qt^oi-og and (from 
(p'&otg) q)&otd'Og ; PL q)'&6eig and (pd^otSeg. 

18. X V ff, 0, a ?7ta55, xo<^ff» Z^^ Jf^*'» Z<^*^> Jfow^> jfovcrt, jfoaff like 
j3ovff, § 57, also Gren. ;foa)ff, Ace. x^^* Ace. PL ;:oaff, as if from x^^^- 
The later forms are preferred by the Attic writers ; x^^ with 
the meaning of mounds is inflected only like ^ovg. The form x^^ 
is Ionic, Dat. jfOfiV. 

19. Xgdg, 0, skiit, ;f^coT-off, ;f^wT«, x^cutcc. Corresponding 
forms in Ionic and the Attic poets, are. Gen. jf^off, x^ot^ XQ^^ 
like at^coff. The Dat XQ^ is found in certain phrases with w', 
e. g. «^ ;f?<P xsiQEad^ai, Xen. Hell. 1. 7, 8. 5v^* «V X^^> to &^ »» ex- 
treme peril j Soph. Aj. 786. 

§69. Defective Nouns of the Third Declension. 


Some nouns of the third Dec. are wanting in one or more of the Cases, 
and are, consequently, called Defectives. Existing forms, however, of such 
substantives, are found, for the most part, only in certain phrases, e. g. 
Xqiotg, TO, debty Ionic- Attic form for the Nom., Gen. and Ace. ; the defec- 
tive forms are supplied by to /^e'o^. Gen. xQ^ovg and /^eo)(, PI. ra XQ^» 

Change of Form in the Declensions. 

§70. I. Redundant Nouns. (272.) 

The term Redundant is applied to substantives, which have 
double forms in the Nom. (but often only in the Nom. PI.) and 
throughout all or in most of the Cases. 

A. In the same declension, 

(a) with the same gender, e. g. 

o lifoq and Xaog^ people, o viiLq and vaoQy temple, 6 Xaytag and Xayog, hare, 
6 xdlfog, rope, PI. also xaXot, y along, thresMng-fioor, PI. also ai aXoi. 

(b) with different genders (heterogeneous), e. g. 

o vmog and to vmov, houk, (the last form was regarded by the Micista 
as the only proper form, still lov v^tov Xen. R. Equ. 3, 3.) ; o ^vyog and 
TO ivyov, 2/oAe.— 'In the PI. of these heterogeneous nouns, the neuter form is 
predominant, and ol ivyoi is probably not found. 


B. In different declensions, and commonly with different 
genders (heterogeneous), e. g. 

o (p^oyyoq and { ff^9yy% voice, 6 x^Q^ ^^^d ^ /(u^or, ijpooe, { d/^a and to 
d/^ov, <^b^^, { ytfTii; (the older form) and to vanoq, vaUey, etc. Still, it should 
be mentioned, that the word o nqia^vq, dder, has only Ace. nqiapvv, Voc. 
nf^iafiv, the other three forms are almost entirely poetic, of which nqtapv^ 
jiQog and nqw^viaioq, are in most frequent use ; in the Conmion Lan- 
guage, 6 TiQfajSvnjg, -ov, elder, (in the meaning of messengeTj the Common 
Language uses in the Sing, o nQtal^ttm^g, ~ov ; in the PI., however, oi and 
Tov; ngia^sig, nQta^nop, nQia^iai); also, to dotxQVov and to Saxgv, tear. 
The later and the older forms are retained in the poetic dialect; still, the 
Dat PL daxgwTi is found in the Attic prose-writers, Thn. 7, 75 ; Dem. c. 
OneL L § 32. 

§71. IL Heteroclites, (273.) 

Heteroclites, § 67, (b), have a double form, either of the same 
Dec, namely of the third, or of different declensions. Hetero- 
clites of the third Dec. are placed together, § 68. Heteroclites 
of different declensions are, e. g. the following : 

A. Ofthe First and Third Declensions. 

Several substantives in -//? arc inflected, either in whole or in 
part, according to the first and third declensions: 

(a) Some in -17$, Gen. -ov and -rixoq, through all the Cases and according 
to both declensions, 6 /uvxij^, mushroom, Gren. fivxov and /uvxi^toc* and some 
proper names, e. g. Xagtjg, The name 6aX7jg, in the ancient Attic writers, 
has, together with OaXritog, the Ionic Gen. form Ooili(o, Dat BaXrin and 
SaXfj, Ace. OaXtfEa and OaXtjv; 

(b) The proper names mentioned, § 59, Rem. 2, have rj as well as r^v in 
the Ace. Sing. only. 

B. Ofthe Second and Third Declensions. 

(a) The Common second and third declensions. Several 
substantives in -og as masculine are inflected according to the 
second Dec, but as neuter, according to the third Dec, e. g. 
o and TO oxos, chariot^ tov oxov and oxovg, rbv oxov and to oxos ; 
and TO axozog, darkness. 

(b) Compounds of the second and third declensions : 

nf^oxoogy ^, watering-pot, Att ngoxovg. Gen. ngoxov, etc., Dat PL ngo- 
Xovoh like fiovg, povaiv. 

Oidlnovg, Gen. Oidinodog and poet Oldinov, Dat Oldlnodt^ Ace. Oidir- 
noda and Oldinovy, Voc. Oldinov. 


(c) The Attic second and third declensions : 

In the Ace. Sing, o /siloi^, lavghter, yiXonog, yiXonif Ace. yiXata and 
yilotyy and the three following, naT^tag, patruus, fsriTQtag, awmaduSj and 
MivfOQi which, in the Gen. and Ace. Sing., are inflected according to the third 
Dee. and the second Attic ; in the other Cases, according to the third Dec. 

noTQtag, Gen. TrcrT^oi and itargotog, Dat naxgati, Ace. itargoiv and natQna; 
Mlvfog, Gen. M/roi and Mlvaog, Dat Mhan, Ace. 3f/ro>, § 48, Rem. 1, 
Mlvmp and Mipwou 

§72. III. Metaplasts. (^^) 

Metaplasts, § 67, (c), like Heteroclites, have a double foima- 
tion, either of the same declension, or of different declensions. 
Metaplasts of the same delension have been treated, § 68, under 
the third Dec. Metaplasts of different declensions are, e. g. the 
following : 

(a) The Common second and third declensions, 

J ivdgov, TO, free. Gen. diydgov, etc. ; but in the Dat PI. among the 
Attic writers, diwdgsffi (from the stem to JENJPO^ and SivdQotg; the 
first form is regarded by the ^Micists as the better. To this stem belong, 
also, the forms t^ dhdgu and xa divdgrif which occur in the Attic poets, 
and in later prose-writers. 

Koiv oivog, o, partaker^ Gen. xoivavov, etc. ; Xenophon uses the forms 
of noivoipsg and tovg xotpojyag, from KOINIIN. 

Kglvovy TO, lUy, Gen. uglvov, etc., with the corresponding form in the 
Dat PI. xglvtfft, in Aristoph. from the PL xglvta^ (in Herod.). Comp. dMqov. 

Aag, o, stone, Gen. Xaog and in Soph. O. C. 196. Xdov. 

'0 ovB^gog and to ovs igov, dream, Gren. ovelgov and ovdginog. 

Uv Qf TO, Jire, nvgog. PL, however, ta nvga, watchrfires, according to the 
second Dec. 

'Tiog, 0, son. Gen. vlov, etc. Together with this formation, there is 
another according to the third Dec, much in use, particularly in the Attic 
writers, from the theme *TIET2, Gen. vHog, Dat vUl, (Ace. vUa is rejected) ; 
PL vUTg, Gen. vUfav, Dat vUat, Ace. vUag, commonly vUlg ; Dual i;Ufi, Gen. 

(b) The Attic second and third declensions, 

The three substantives, { ajloi;, ihresking^floar, o xatog, peacock, and o ivtpfig, 
whirlwind, have, together with the conmion inflection according to the Attic 
second declension, another, according to the third declension, in ^tovog, etc, 
e. g. TtHpcuyo. 

Rebiark. The words ^ a il oi ; and o t o oj c are generally declined ac- 
cording to the Attic second Dec, Ace Sing, ajlow, Tawy ; still, the v is com- 
monly rejected fix>m aXmg in the Ace, § 48, Rem. 1. But the forms aXtavog, 
aXfovig, aXviai(v\ lacHyi, ta&vsg, toatrtv, etc, are used on account of their 
greater perspicuity. 


§73. Indec Unable and Defective Nouns. (»?5-l 

1. Those BubstanlivcH fare termed indeclinable that have but one form to 
denote tlie Cose. Besides liie foreipi proper nonies, like o 'jlflqaap, lou 
'Afi^aofi, and inosl cardinal numbers, all indeirliiiable nouns of tlio neuter 
sender are iacludtKl. Thus, e. g. indeclinable nonns are, 
[a) The names of the letters, e. g, lo, tou, i^ ulifa; 
(b{ Most of the cardinal iiunibors, e. g. Sena atdftiy ; 
^1^) To, loi. T^i /ptitip, nectsrity, daiiny, and de/ii{ with tlym and several 

foreign words, e. g. tit, lov, t^ niiir/o ; 

(d) The subetantive iuliiiitives, e. g. to, lot!, tu p'^a^riv. 

i Some eubetanrives are used only in the Sing., or only in the PI. Such 

"onla may be termed DeftdUva numcro. The reason of it la found, eitlier in 

^ nteoniug of the word, or aimply in uaage, e. g. 6 aldi,Q, ether, ol Injalai, 

^ Elaian tBindi, al'A&^rai, ^Oiaw, ta'Oli'/iiiia, the Olympic gama. Cotnp. 

'i«TW, SfDiax, 5 a4a 

3- It has been already noted, § €9, that some Bubsianlivcs are found only 
in single Cases {De/tdtva taru). 

The Adjective and Participle. 

S^i. Nature, Gender and Declension of the Ad- 
jective and Participle. (ins.) 
1- The Adjective and the Participle express a property, which 
is considered as abeady belonging to a subject, e. g. the red 
lose, or as now first affirmed of a subject, e. g. the rose is red. 
In both instances, in Greek and in Latin, the Adjective and 
Participle agree with their substantive in Gender, Number and 
Case, cg.o a.ya9og urt^q and 6 nar^Q dytt&of Mtw, ^ a j- « ^ ^ 
WTp and V f^ie « ? « * ^ iariv, to dya^o* ttxtor and to «'»«* 

3. Hence the Adjective and the Participle, like the Substan- 
tive, have a three-fold inflection for the gender, which is termed 
TmtUm, ^ 40, Rem. 1. Still, many Adjectives have only two 
wdingE, namely, one for the Masc. and Fcm. gender, the other 
'or the Neuter gender, e, g. a aaiqipoi*' ac^p, »J aa><f^<i>f /ffij, 
» amtfQo* rf'xTOf. Many Adjectives, still, have but one end- 
ing, by which they commonly indicate only the Masc. and Fem. 



genders, rarely the Neuter gender, and never the Nom., Ace 
and Voc. Neuter, e. g. o cpvyag avriq^ ij cpvyag yw^. In Ad- 
jectives and Participles of three endings, the Masc. and Neuter 
always belong to the same declension, and the Neuter varies 
from the Masc. only in the Nom., Ace. and Voc. ; the Fem. is 
always declined like the first Dec. 

3. The declension of Adjectives and Participles differs only 
in a few points from that of the Substantive; these will be no- 
ted in the following pages. It may be remarked as an essen- 
tial deviation in the Participles, that the Voc. of the third Dec. 
is always like the Nom., § 53, Rem. 5. 

§75. Accentuation of Adjectives and Participles. 


The accentuation of Adjectives and Participles is like that of Substantives, 
with a few exceptions, which are now to be noted : 

1. The Fera. is accented on the same syllable as the Masc through 
all the Cases, where the nature of the final syllable permits, e. g. naXoq^ xa- 
Ai}, xalor ; xovtpogj xovipfj^ xov(pov ; /ot^iei^, /ot^/f (ro'a, /a^iW ; (AiXngf fiiXaiva^ 
fiiXav ; ti^fp^t tiQsiva, xiqw ; jiagvg, ISagiiOj fiagv ; fiovXevaag, povlewaac^ 
fiovlivaav ; n&klg, ti&tura, xi^iy, 

Reiiark 1. In Adjectives in -o;, -17, -oy, or -og, -o, ~oy, the Fenu, on ac- 
count of the length of the final syllable (17, a), must be a Paroxytone, when 
the Masc. is a Proparoxytone, or a Properispomenon, e. g. av&Q(aniPog, av- 
'^qtanirn, iv&gcmiyoy ; iXtvd^egog, iXtv&iqd^ iXsv&tQOv ; xovq>ogf xoixpri, xot^- 
(pop; mtovdalog^ tmovdald^ anovdaiop; but, when the final syllable in the 
declension is short, it again takes the accentuation of the Masc., i. e. it be- 
comes again a Proparoxytone, or a Properispomenon, e. g. av&gcinipat, 
iXtv^sgaij xovqiaiy (ntovdaia^y like av&gtonivoi, iXsv&egoi, xov<poi, anovdaiou 

2. In Participles, when the nature of the syllables permits, the same sylla- 
ble is accented in the Neuter Nom. as in the Masc, e. g. 

qnXwr q>iXovp Xindv, Xmov, 

REBf. 2. Yet Adjectives, sometimes deviate fit>m this rule, see § 65, 5. 

3. Contracts in -oUj, -ij, -ow, from -eof, -ea, -tov, -oog, -oj^, or -oof, -^ov, 
(except the Nom. and Ace. Dual of the Masc. and Neuter genders, which 
are oxytoned, § 49, 3), are Perispomena through all the Cases and Num- 
bers, though such as are derived from -tog in uncompounded forms, are 
Proparoxytoned, e. g. agyvgtog = igyvgoiigf aqyiqiov == agyvgovv. On 
contracted compounds in -oog, ~ow^ e. g. eiVov;, evyow, see § 49, 3. 

4. In the Oen. PI. the Barytoned Fem. is a Perispomenon, § 45, 6, (b), on- 

ly in those ArijcctiveB siid PariicipJeB, who 

whiie ill die renioioing Coses, retain tlie a 

/Sopi's, -tin, -V Gen. PI. ^agiav, Paiftimr 

Xafiiiiq, -Uaira, -hv " j^apiiViuii', /a^Ktn/wc 

liilas, itiiaiya, fiiiat " itelavtiv, ft i k u i v <ii y 

Jiof, naaa, Jtar " novnuii, aaauy 

tiHf&ilf, -liaa, -if " iiipdintir, ivip&iiaSiif 

Tvifia$, ii'if/aim, lui^av " iViliaytiot,Tvipaaiay; lilit, 
arSf/iuaitoi, -irti, -ivov " av^^xun/voiv, &a Mobc., F. and N. 
llii'Sigo;, -ifu, -iijov " iXiv9 iqav, as Maec, F. nnd N. 

tvnoiuroq, -ir^, -iray " i u n i o ^ e >■ w f , oh Msbc., F. and N. 

Rra. 3, On the acwntnatioii of tho monoMyllnlilo not, and of monoBy^ 
WiieparticijJeH in the Gen. and Dat., see JfS. 2, [c). 

RtH. 4. On the Hcc^nttiatioii of tlie Nominative form of compound ad- 
jert»«, the following tliing« are to be noted : 

(«] lltoee in -ot, when the laet port is fbnned of a substanltve or adjec- 
dve, fhllow tho general rule, ^30, 1, (c), and are Proparoxytones, e.g. 
fildiijo'oc, irom liievor, itayxawg, Irani xaxof. But if tlie last part ia 
foniied of a verb, then those odjcctivea, whose penult ia long, are 
Oxytonea, e.g. iliv];o7iOfi!ios,pclonoiat,Siirii>n6!,68rj)'6!', but those, 
whose penult is short, ore commonly Paro!iyloneB, if they have an ac- 
tive sense, but if a jiaggive, Pro]iaro.\yloneB, e. g. 
it&o^oloi, one cattatg itojm, hdo^oioi, ctut doom by stones, 

injjgoxtoyog, imifHcufe, /irjzfoxzofoq, slain by a molhfr, 

^fOTfoifOi, nourishing vrSdbfosIs, iSijpuifo^iDc, novnAedbymidbtaMs. 
Those compomida lliol «re formed of prepositions, o privative and 
btensive, tv and dvf, and ii(i, u/nv, u^i, a^ii, iqi, !}iu, fu, nay and 
nolv, are exceptions to the rule which oiipllcs to lliose words tliat 
hsve a short (tenult; words eoinimunUed with these [Mrticles are al- 
ways Proparoxylones. 

|b) Verbal adjectives in -ids remain Oxjtones, in compound words, if tliey 
have three endings, but are ProjiaroxytODes, if they have ouly two 
endings. See §78, !, (c). 

le) All compounds in -jiiiiJ, -pi^, -ip«J, -cynii are Oxytones. 

\%. I. Adjectives and Participles of three 

Ending's . (zm—sm.) 

!• -Of, -»), -Of. Nam. aya&og, ayad^, ayadin, good, 
Gen. ayaSoii, ayadiii;, aya&au 
Noin. 0/^00$, oySoij, hySoor, aghik. 
Gen. Fl. oyUay, oySouy, iySoiiy {^75, 4.) 
Norn, y^aifofttroi, yifaifofiiy^, ytjafofityaf 
Gen. PL ygaq>ofuriiiy, ygatfofiiyvy, y^aifofiiiiuw 


-o(, -o, -oy: Nom. dlxaiog, dixalaj dUaioVj jttdf 

Gen. dixalov, duiaiuQf dixalov 
Gen. PL d^a/oiy, dutaliary dtxuUir 
Nom. ix^Q^Sy h^fi^i ^X^90Py hadiU^ 
Gen. ix&ifoVf i/^Qa^, ix^QOV 
Nom. a-d^Qooq^ itd^qoa^ ad^Qoov^fvU^ 
Gen. tti^^oov, a&Qcagy a^qoov 
Gen. PL a&qotay^ ad-goonf, i&goap. 

Most of the adjectives belong to this class. The Fern, ends in a, when 
preceded by i or ^, § 43, 1. Still, adjectives in ^oog have -6a in the Fern., 
when a q precedes the o, elsewhere -oi}, e. g. i&goay yet oydiij. On the 
accentuation of adjectives in -og, -fjid), -or, see §75. 

Adjectives in - s o ;, - s J, - e o y, which indicate the maUrial^ e. g. /^urco^ 
goldaij agyvfftog, silver, xigdfuog, earthen, and multiplicative adjectives in 
- 6 ;, - 1}, - o o y, e. g. anXoogy single, diitloog, doMe, suffer contraction. 
On the accentuation of adjectives in -tog, -ia, -tov, see §75, 3, and on the 
contraction of adjectives in -co into -a, -o^ into -i}, and -oo into a, see 














9 M 



9 itf 






Remark 1. Attic writers rarely omit the contraction, e. g. /^aecs, Xen. 
Ag. 5, 5 ; yet a&googy-ody-oov, crowded, is rarely found contracted ; 
dixgoog, -oa, ^oov, two-pronged, is commonly contracted in the Masc 
and Neut, (iixgovg, dixgovv, but in the Fem. the uncontracted form ^is 
usual, ij dixgoa ; oydoogiB always uncontracted. 

n. ^^g, -sla, -d: Nom. yXvxvg, yXvxiia, yXvxv, sweet, 

Gen. yXvxiog, yXvxtlag, yXvxiog 
Gen. PL yXvxitop, yXvxtiwv, yXvxioiv (§75, 4). 

The declension of the Masc. is like nrjxvg, but with the common geni- 
tives in -iog, -coiy, the declension of the Neut is like aarv, yet always vat- 
contracted in the PL (-ia). The only deviations from the regular accentua- 
tion are, vifAavg, iifAictia, ^fittrv, half, ^ijXvg, female, ngiu^vg, eld (used only 
in the Masc.), and some poetic forms. 

Rem. 2. The adjective ^i^nvvg, in the Attic writers, has both the con- 
tracted and uncontracted forms, ^(ilattg and ^fiheag in the Ace. PL ; also 
the Neut iifjdata is found in several passages in Demosthenes in the con- 
tracted form fniUni» Sometimes the Ionic Fem. form -ca occurs, e. g. 
nhnia^ X. R. Equ. 1, 14. (in all Codd.). ^fufriag, PL Menon. 83, c in the 

TO, -Urt Nom. Scarvt, Suuriva, tmcfir, i 

Gen. ^(iNfrfTo;, diixriVigt, SHniinOi 
Gen. PL SiiDtvyjiar, lin»vvauy,&tuitii'tuv {^7b,A.) 
Nom. q)if, ^ii'o-n, ipiV, producing, 
Gen. qitWos, ^tVii;, ^ I'l^o; [5 65, 2, (c).] 
Gen. PI. q>vyTBiy, qivaiav, (fWiiur. 
So the paniciplei of the Pres. and seeond Aor. AcL of verba in -^i. For 
the declension of the Muse, anil NeuL, isee ^ M, (d). 

IV. -tis,'Htaa,-ey: Nom. xaplrit, xfe^'oaa, xa^l", lovdij, 
Geu. x"ll^'"°*f jf«pi('aiTijc, xaqlinot 
Gen. PI. /afiiWur, xotj^'oaHv, xoqiiniav. 
For ihe decleariou of the Mosc. and NeuL, sce§54, (d), only that the 
Dsl PI. ends in -icti, not -ttat, e. g. ^oeifoi. The Mbbc. and Neut. ie in 
ilieNom. a Paroxyione, in the Fem. a Pro [>aroxj tone. 

RiH. 3. Some adjectives in - 1] e i f , - li f ir ir a, ' if c v, and -on;, -oiir- 
•». -»(>', admit e> 

Kom. ii^^'iis, iifi^-iaaa, iifiTj-n', honond, 

Gen. TifiijtTot, iiiir,a<rijt, ii^^noj 

Nom. fulno-iii, iiilti6-i<Taa, pilno-tv, honUd, 

fiilitait, fiilijoivaa, fiilnoiy 
Gen. /itkitovytot, fukitoiaatit, fiiiiiouyxoi. 

'■ -ii[, -ttoo, -<>': Nom. ltiq:9tig, XiufSfica, luffSiy, relictus, 
Gen. XiirfSirtot, XttcpSnar^t, kuifSirioi 
Gen. PI. Inif9iyiar, Xuif9na^r, kcitfSinety 
Nom. i.OcU, TiffMon, t(3(>, ;j(i«nff. 
Gen. TiOivjog, TiStlata, Tidiyrot. 
'Or ihe declension of the Masc. and NeuL, see § 54, (d), and also in the 
""■ PL, e. g. TvifSiiiri. So likewise the Part. Pass, of the first and seconil 
^"i BDd the Pres. and second Aor. Active Part of UStifu and Viifii, e. g. 
ffcuiiia, iiy, ri'ft (UFO, ly, fli/f, 9iiaa, Siy. " 

•l -Bft-airo, -Bft Nom. /iiXut, /liXatra, /iilay, blade, 
Gen. pilayof, fiilalrrit, fiikaros 
Gen. PI. /itliiriar, ftrlaiyiay, fiilSyav. 
« the nme manDcr only iRj,a(, luXaira, lalav, unhappi/. For the de- 
^lawoti of the Maw. and NeuL, see §54, (d), witli Bern. 6. 

^H. - u {, - u ff o, 'Sv: Nom. jib(, jibitb, nay, ati, every, 
Gen, jiovioj, irmrtjc, novioj 
Gen. PL jianaic, naauy, ndnuy. 
■0 (be same manner only the compounds of not, e. g, unuf, aTiaira, 
*^tt, oufinJ;, nf tinu$, and the remaining compounds which have a short 
■ in the Neut See § 54, (d), for ilje declension of the Mosc. and NeuL, and 
ifi, a, (c), for the accentuation of llie simple adjective in the Gen. and Dat. 




Gen. Idipartogy Uiipaarjg, Ultpavtog 
Gen. PL IxinffAvxwv^ iHipaaoiv, lutpartar. 

So the first Aor. Act. Part, and also the Part Pres. and second Aor. 
Act of ZjTi}/ii, iaiagf ~tt<ray -or, orcr^, -SuTa^ -ay. For the declension, see 

Gen. tigtvoq^ TB(fdrrjgf liQtvot 
Gen. PL ttqhtav^ Jtqnv&v^ Tf^oir. 

No other adjective is thus declined. For the declension, see § 55, 1. 

X. 'Ov;, -ovcra, 'oy: Nom. didovg, didowrtt, didoPj giving^ 

GJen. didortog, dtdoiatjf, didortog 
Gren. PL didoyimp, didow&v, didortmp. . 

Thus only the Part Pres. and second Aor. Act (-dov(, -^tkrer, ^^, Gen. 
-doyrof , ^dovar^y Gen. PL in Fem. ^dovu&v) of verbs in -cojUi. 

XL -(uy, -oi/aa, -oy: Nom. ixcoy, btoma^ htop, wQUng^ 

Gen. IxovTo;, ixovatigy htovrog 
Gen. PL faeoyTQiy, ixowrwp, htortotp. 

Thus only the compound oexo>y, conunonly axo>y, axowa, a«or. For the 
declension, see § 54, (d). 

Xn. -o)v, -ovo-a, -or: Nom. ItintaVy Xtlnowroy UTnov, leavings 

Qen. XBlnovtog, Itinovmig, Xtlnortog 
Gen. PL Xnnovtfayy Xunovcwvy Ittnoprwv. 

So, also, the Pres. Part, Fut and second Aor. Act For the declensioii, 
see § 54, (d). In the same maimer, the Present participles of contract yerbs 
in -era), -co> and -oo), e. g. 

Nom. ttfi&f, -cDcra, -cSy Nom. (p^XoSy, -ovaa, -ow 

Gen. xiikSinogy -titrrigy -utrtog Gen. PL iptilo^Qiy, -avawp, -^inrimp. 

Gen. PL ttfifiptmfy ^omtAp, -wptfutp* Nom. fiUT^upy -ovaa, -oxfp 

Gen. PL fAi(r&ovptotPf -ourcdr, -ovrrctr. 

The Fut Part Act of Liquid verbs is declined like tpdcSy, ^iXowra^ ^pi- 
Zovy, Gen. <piXovpTog, etc., e. g. tmtQuPf -ovcro, -ovy, formed fix)m cnre^ewr, 
etc., from ansigtUy to sow, 

XDL -01^, -via, -0$: Nom. tBtviptigy tnvq>vla,TeTvq>6gf having ttrutkf 

Gren. TCTv^oTo;, TeTt'<pt;/a$, tmnporog 
Qen, PI. T8Ti/groToiy, Tervcpvioiy, tnvg)6twp. 

On the form larci^, -aiaa, loro^ and -oj , etc., see below, § 193, 3. 

Xiy. The adjectives, fiiyagyfiiyaXfi,fiiya,greatf noXvg, ttoXX^, 
noXv,mwhjandnQaog,7tQae'ia,nQaoPfSoJlj deviate in their declen- 
sion from the usual fbrmation ; even noXXop instead of 7roJli;y or noXv, oc- 
curs in the Attic poets; Aeschines, p. 824, uses the Voc. fiiyaXt, Ilqaog 
has, throughout the Fem., in the PL and Dual Neut, as also in the Gen. 
PL Masc, and sometimes, also, in the other Cases of the Masc. PL, a form 
like nqavg^ ^iim^ -tl (comp. yXvpig, ^tla^ -v,) which occurs in the Dialects. 
See the Paradigm. 



S.N ayaS-oS 
G. aya^-mi 
D. i aT'aft-^ 

V. iaj-«a-* 

uyaO-mi, good 







Dual. aja&-io 

N. dya&-oi 
G. I aya&-^ 
D. I ayaS-Qig 
A. \uyaO-oii 
V. I aj-aO-w 











ap « £ ( « wprii*, soft 
aQUt tile TiQicna 

D. j ylvKiat{r) 

V. yiliMUS 






tiQaoii, ago. 

Tlftaovg, TlQtt 

figaoi, iTQa 

G. iit^uproi 
D. jitfitm 
A. xa^itrta 

XK^'f^tsau i 
Xa{H*aotiS t 
■Xttfinaan ; 

^- N. 'lofitrzts 
A. lai^mas 







Xtiq&i'y II 





r faQuaaaif 







r XnifOtiaair 













/ - 
































OTiXo'Ov, simple] 









































noXv, much 

























fieyoy great 






































(rrai', standing 


















fftavtoiv araacup aravzoiv. 











XiTTov, learing 






















§ 79. II. Adjectives of two Endings. (wa-) 

L -o(, -or; o ^ Skoyoq, to Sloyor, iiralionaL 
To ihia class beloDg, 

(a) A iVw 8ini|ile Adjectives without porliciilur derivativc-etidiiigs, e. g. 
i q flaf^m^ai, not Grtek, ia^Qog, vthtmtnt, ij^'po;, gtnlle, itoi'do^o;, ealvmnia- 
Hug, tiDaaog, tiald, x^S^of, unfrttil/ul, ijai'XOi, silent, J(inai'oj, extraimganl, 
ialoi, yetterdiy ; 

(b) Most simple Adjectives witJi iJie rterivBtive-endings -lOf, -noj, and 
-l/ntf, e. g. o ij auiT'ifioi, laving, o t) ^aollnof, rtgiua^ -a, a ^ yyaiqiiiot, Tt- 

(c) All compounds, e. g. o ^ nXoyot, tu Sloyov, inviional, o ij op/u;. in- 
■tcad of atp/o,-, iTiodiye, but aQycg, -^ -0¥. ikil/ul, o >i aayxaXoi, very fair, 
\mxakot, -Tj, -or, o ij TrtiUti'XD;, venfiAiyvl, but Idvo;, -i], -of, ^(onrd'trio;, 
-or, dxvinthf iiupind, but nviitrid,-, -^, -dc i Adjectives compounded willj Ad- 
jectives in -lilt are ProparoxytoDes, e. g. o i) ^tudanixo;, nolptm JUtic, but 
jfmxuci '>ji -c>', 1] jiiirofiEpirixoc, bul /IiQiriro;, -q, -or. 

Adjectives derived from compound verbs witli tlie (ierivniive-«n dings 
-KC ;, - T o;, are excepted ; tbese remain Oxytones; those in - ie'o;, also, 
(which remain Paroxytones] are excepted, e.g. iniStminos, -ij, -or, from 
imSfln'fiii, ratamtvaaiag, -ij, -dii, from xaiaattvaini, orwidj, -ij, -or, from 
iri/ai. (Some words in -tof, which lake a pure Adjective meaning, have in 
tbis case only two endings and ore Proparoxyionea, e. g. I ij Halfitof, pre- 
fmnai/, inUr^^iof, blmnacorOiii, TiiQilioijiof.Jamilwr, vnorttaf, lutpicunig, 
etc.). But when compounds in -lo'c, -jq, -idf, are again compnunded, they 
have the regular endings, and are Proparoxy tones, e. g. u ij axataautiuajot, 

Kemarb 1. Comparatives and Superlatives have three endings, even 
when ifae Positive has but two, though there are some rare exceptions, e. g. 
tmqumgot >i iqyif, Thu. 5, 110. 3v;iiiPoiiiiiiin)g >> Aoxfii, Id. 3, 101. 

Adjectives wiili these endings are, 

(a) Those compounded witli the contracted Substanlivca roxic and TiiloCf, 
ud lienc« in the Ma«c. aod Fcm. are declined like these, but in the Neuter 
ike ovtovr, § 47, yet the Neuter PI. in -oa does not admit conlraclion, 
cooaequently n> li/ron. On the accentuation, see ^ 49, 3. 

Rem. 9, Attic writers aomelimes omit the contraction in ilie PI., c. g. xa- 
Kinoii X Cy. a a, 1. nei'^irdous X. Ag. 11, 5. Odrooi X. H. 2. 1, 2. 

(b) Such as are coni])oundcd with the Substantive noF;, e. g. o ^ noXC' 
tit, to neli-itovr, and alfo like OlSlnov;, § 71, B, (bj, admit a double in- 
Bwlion, and follow partly compound nouns of the second Dec, and partly 
lho«e of the third Dec, e. g. Geo. nolimoBof and noilL'nou; Ace nolimoda 
ind noXvTioxir, etc. 

Rem. 3. In many Adjectives of this kind, o. g. Snov!, /JpoSunous, dinovg, 
irmixovs, die inflection does not follow the second Dec. 




nL - Q) ;, - 0) y ; 6 11 ilto)^, to Uf cdv, compassionate. 
Adjectives of these endings are like the Attic second Dec, § 48. 

Rem. 4. The Ace. ends commonly in -ojy, but in a number of compound 
words, it ends in -ta, § 48, Rem. 1, e. g. a^ioxQBoHf avdnliot, ayrigia (in re- 
spect to the accentuation, see § 29, Rem. 5), inlnXBto, vntQXQ^^* 

Rem. 5. The simple Adjective nlitag^ nXia^ 7tXiuiv,fuU, Gren. nXiat^ nXiag, 
TiAe'o), PI. nXio}, nXiai, nXia has three endings, ; the compounds are either 
of common gender, e. g, o i] iyaitXifagt to ardnXfoiv, PI. oi ai hmXtm (l/nralff «- 
7tXf(o X. Cy. 6. 2, 7. BxnXfta Tgdnfiat X. Hier. 1, 18), to ixnXfta X. Cy. 3. 1, 28. 
1. 6. 7., and even the Nom. PL nXita, of the simple Adjective is often used 
for the Masc. and Fem., or they have, (yet more seldom), three endings, 
e. g. drdnXftog^ ivaiiXia^ PL Phaedon 83, d., dvomXioiv. Eur. Ale. 730, has 
nXiov^ after the example of Homer, as Neuter Sing. So, likewise, the plural 
compounds, e. g. tfAuXioi PL Rp. 6. 505, c. and very often in the Neuter, 
e. g. hmXia X. Cy. 6. 2, 7 and 8. ntginXea 6. 2, 33. Also from liUw? PL 
Phaedon 95, a. has 'tXia as Neuter PL 

Rem. 6. 'O i; (t w j, to aai y, salvuSf is formed from the old word 2A02 
by contraction. This word forms, in addition to the Nom. aaJ?, ctwi', only 
the Ace. Sing. aCiv like the Attic second Dec. ; it has also the Ace. a&ot. 
The Fem. oa occurs in Eurip. Fr. 629. (Dind.) The PL is combined of 
forms from acjy like the second Dec. and from forms of the lengthened 
aStoq^ namely : 

PL N. ol a\ (TQi^, from vrnq., and ol atioi, ai aoiai^ N. ctaa,t rarely aa, firom cda^ 
A. Toi'( Tag a&g^ from (rcua;, and Toi;^ aoiovg^ N. ada, rarely aa. 

Rem. 7. The compounds of x e ^ a ^ and yiXtag are partly like the Attic 
second Dec, partly like the third Dec, e, g, 6 r^ /^t'o-oxf^co;, to /^ivoxf^oir, 
Gren. xQ'^'^oxfQta and xQvaoxiganog ; o ^ q>iX6y(Xaig, to ^titu/fZoiv, Gren. <piJlo- 
yiXta and ^iito/iJloiToc ; fiovxtgaig, Gen. (iovxfQO) and Povxiqoixog^ so aixf^o);. 
The Adjective di/^e^o); follows the third Dec only, e. g. di'^c^oiTo^, etc 
Forms like the Common second Dec. originate from forms of the Attic 
second Dec, e. g. dlxsgov, viixsgoi, axtqa. On the accentuation, see § 29, 
Rem. 5. 

rV. -wy, -oy;N. o^ (r(u<p^(iiy, to awffgop, prudent. 

G. tov xr^g xov a(a<pQovog, according to § 55, 1. 

Rem. 8. From o { nluvjfat, comes also the Fem. form nUiga even in 
prose- writers; so also nq6q>gaaaa from o r{ nqofpgtov^ occurs in the poets. 

Rem. 9. Here belong, also, forms of the Comparative in -ojy, -ov, -iwy, -lor, 
in respect to the declension of which, however, it is to be noted, that, afler 
the rejection of y, they suffer contraction in the Ace Sing., and in the Nom., 
Ace and Voc PL See the Paradigms, § 79. In the Attic writers uncon- 
tracted forms in -o y a, -o y a 5, -ovag^ frequently occur, e. g. fulCora, iXai- 
TWO, xalXlovay iXdxxovsgy xaxiovig^ fjulioveg, (iEXxiovig^ nXslovegf ijxxovagj fitl- 
tlopag, iXdxxovag X. Cy. 5. 2, 36. 7. 5, 83. 2. 1, 23. 2. 1, 13. 5. 2, 36. HeU. 
6. 5, 52. Cy. 7. 5, 70. On the accentuation, see § 65, 5. 

V. - ij J , - « J ; N. o t; oAij^iJc, to aXiid^igj true, 

G. TOV T^; Toi7 iXii&iogf aXrj&ovg, § 59. 


On die conlractiou o{ -ia into - 5, instead of - ij, where a vowel pre- 
cedes, see $ SP, Real. 1. 

Rem. 10, Compouuds in -hrjt, from ho(, are either of ihe common gander, 
t- f- itofitiai' /iiUei^ Pt. R]>. 10. 615, a. jiigioSif t^ jfiilimt, Phaed. 349, a., 
or ibey take d particular Foni. form, namely - ^ t i s. Gen. -iiiSot, e. g. 
IniiTi);, F. InTt'ii;; tQiaxoyiavtlduir iritorSaiy Th. 1, S7. 

Rksi, U. Simple Adjectivee are Oxytones, except nA'Ifije, ni^pis, full. 
On llie atxenttiation of tlie Voc. ami of the Neuter, see § C5, 5, and on the 
ucentualion of the Gen. PI. ^ 5^, Rem. 4. 

VL - ij r , - « > : N. ») o'ci^ip', 10 «e^i», 

G. lov tfig lov BQ^irot, f .^5, 1. No oilier word like lliis. 

VH - m p, - o p ; N. o >( DiroToip, to aTtajoq,falhvits3, 

G. Toij T>K 10V aTtaioQot, ^ .'ST), 1. In like mnnner only, 

VUL ~ 1 (, - 1 ; (a) N. i' Mpif, to Hpi, Atwu'ing', 

G. ToiJ TiJ; loD l'J((0{, § G3, Rem. 5. 

In like manner, only rqvti ;, lanprraU, aiid ipdipi;, nouruW. In addition 
lo the form in -loj, these Adjectives have another in -i3d(, hut rare, aiid 
on]} poetic, e. g. iSgiBa, V3^i5ig. 

(b) N. o i; ftjfupij, 10 tt'xaQt, agrttaliU, 

G. idD I'^f lov clxaQiTOg, 

Here belong ilie comftounds of xagig, natpif, eiTtif, qipdwij, which are 
QMliDed like the simples, e. g. ei'iItik, (i^(, Gen. tuiXntBot ; ifiloTcargit, 
*"■). fulondTpido;; but compounds of noht, when tliey reier to persons, 
*" laQerted in the .^ttic dialect in -i3o(, e. g. tpilunolii, Geo. -idog, yet in 
'"^Are., fnXdnolivand-ida; still, as epithets of cities, etc., they are inflected 
"" toiift e. g. xallliohs, 8ixai6noli(, etc., Gen. xoilireDiiiue, etc. 

K. -v{, -v; (a) N, o i) aSaxfVf, to uSaxgv, Uaiiem, etc. 

In like manner compounds of SiixQv; yet llioso inflect only tlie Ace. 
Srag, Uke the third Dec, e. g. uSaxiivr, Neul. nSnxpu. The Ibmi uJw*- 
(i^o;, -or, Gen. -ov, according to the second Dec, is used instead of the 
"Uirr Csses, 

(b) N. 5 iin^vg, lo Siittjxv, lico eUt lottg, 
G. ToiJ Ti)S toi' Siniixios. 

Here belong the compounds of nJjxvsi the declension ie like ylvmit, 
rlvti, ^ 76. II. and 77, except that the Neuter PI. in -lo is contracleil into 
Ti like ainij, e. g. Smt'ixi. 

S. - u (, -Of; N. o i] fioroSoi'i, to fioyoSoy, oju-toothed, 
G. toi' cij; TOLi fiat'CBot'iog, 

So ilie remaining compounds of oSois. For tlie Dec, see § 54, (d). 




§79. Paradigms, 



EvnX[0'Og)ovg &inX{0'Ov)ovv 



evttXoi svnXoa 


EVTiXovg evnXoa 

evnXot evnXoa 






















svdaifiova svdaifiov 


evdaifiovEg Evdaifiova 



Evdotifiovftg EvdoufJtova 

evdcufioyEg evdaifiova 


ix&iojv Ij^diov \fiEi^(ov fjtsl^ot 

ij^d-iova '1(0 iidiov 



fiEi^ova '(o fut^op 


iy&iovEg EY&iova fifl^ovEg fjts^ova 
Ex^iovg Ei{>l(o fiEiQovg ^ lui^to 

iX^ioat(v) ^ fiEi^(Mi(y) 

h^iovag iy&iova fJtEi^ovag fUtXopa 
EX^i(wg Ex&i(o fiEi^ovg (iei^(o 

like the Nominative, like the Nominative. 







aXt^&ng dXr^d'ig 


aXii{^i'a)ri aXri&ig 

aXrid\i'Eg)Eig dXrfi{i'a)>j 

dX7^E'(oy](Sif • 

dXtid{E'ag)Etg dXijO{E-a)ij 
like the Nominative. 


• but iSwri&i'(ov =■ (rvrq^cav^ § 59, Rem. 4. 

v/ti/ff vyug 

vyi{E'a)dj iyiig 

vyi( i'Eg)ETg vyi[i-a)d\ 


vyi{t-ag)Etg vyt(t'a)d 
like the Nominative. 



t § 59, Rem. 1. 


^SO. IIL Adjectives of one Ending'. (bss.) 

In poetT)', these aiJjectives Bometimes occur in Chscb where the NeuL 
form 18 like iliHt of tJio Muse, and Fuiii., i. c. in the Geo. mid Dau ; ulso in 
TounectioD with Neuters, e. g. fianaait Uiriri)iiaiii>i, Eur. Or. 264. iy ni'nj- 
Ti (Tu^uii, Id. El. 375. But tJiey very Bbldoiu take q particular form for 
theNeuL, e. g. i:itikvs,inrikvSa td»(a. Her. 8,73. 

L - at, Gen. -oi/: £ fiarlai. Gen. itorlov, single, Parox31nDeB. 
These adjectivi>H occur only qb Maeculiuos, i. e. in conneciion with eub- 
■■uitives of the Mese. gender. 
JL -ut. Gen. 'aviof: oq axa^iat. Gen. -nno;, unuxMned, ParojtytoiieB. 
Dl- -It;, Gen. -aioi: h ij cpvya^. Gen. •fvfodat, fugitive, Oxytonea. 
These adjectives are commonly fotmd otdy in connection with Bub- 
tontives of the Fern, gender, e. g. jioliy '£UoJa, and where the aubBtan- 
^'^K is underaiood, they are used as subalautiTes, e. g. i] 'EiXat sc. yi). 

rv. -Bp, Gen. -opoj; only ftanaq, tliough the Fem. form (tuxatqa ia 
'■'iQetimes found. 

v. -m. Gen, -ov: ^diJ.orT^f, Gen. idcXoniav, mdunian). 
These adjeclives generally occur with subHtantiveB of the Mbbc. gender 
"'^•y, jet some take, iu connection with Fem. substantiveB, a peculiar Fem. 
rarij] in _(5j Gen. -iJo;, e. g. chainrjt, Fein, tlSiniStfair-iooldng. They are 
raroij-tones, except ^iljAoi'i^e and Uontit. 

*L -fjf. Gen. -ijioj: o ^ op/'iVi Geo. opj^ioc, triae. 
So all compounds in -9>'^«, -J^ij'e, -fSA^ri -"'''(S ond -nfj^'t, and some 
•wnple adjectives, e, g. /u^njj, luAtd, x'Q'it! "^y, "iy'lSi po"', nioft^, 
'^nidtring, etc. 

VU ~nr. Gen. 'iivo;: d i] ii^iitjv. Gun. ujii^fo;, un/eotAn'n/. In like 
"•"•nner no other. 
Vol -as, Geo. -aiTof. o ^ ayrtig, Cien. ayvutoi, tenkninim. 
So all compounds in -/J^iuv, -yrtnf and -^^u;, and qIbo anxois,JiTm. 
K. - ( ;, Gen. ' 1 1) o c : o ^ avuliU!, Gen, ordtxido;, pouxrleM. 
thfae adjecttvea are commonly used only as Feminines, and when the 
"ilMtntire is omitted, as EubetantiveB, like tiiose in -as, -aSot, e. g. ^ na- 
■(!(, M. yij, native land. 
X. - ii s, Gen. - 1 J o j ; u i) Mijiv;, Gen. w^iiJof, one laUlg tmne. 
In like manner only a few other com|>oundB. 
XL - i, Gen. -yas, -xat, -xof. o ij SpuuJ, Gen. -yot, rapaaovt 
i) ijiliS, " -xof, tfluol 


Xn. - yfj Gren. -nog: 6 ^ aiylXnp, Gen. -mogj high, 

Xni. Such as end in a substantive which has undergone no change, 
e. g. anaig, ckildUsSj fjiaxgoxi^i long-handedy avjoxeiOj done with ont^s oum 
hand, fiaxQalotyf long4iv€d, lAaxgavxv^i long-necktd, Itvxaanigf hewing a whUe 
shield. The declension of the adjectives is like that of the substantives, 
e. g. fiaugavx^vog. On the compounds of novg, comp. § 78, 11, (b). 

§81. Comparison of Adjectives. (989.) 

1. The property expressed by an adjective, may belong to 
several objects, either in the same or a different degree, since 
one object has this property in a higher degree than another, or 
one object has it in the highest degree. The language has a 
particular inflection, which is termed Comparison, in order to 
express these degrees of Comparison, the higher and the highest 

2. That form of inflection, which expresses the higher degree, 
is called. Comparative, and that, which expresses the highest, 
Superlative. The Superlative, in Greek and in Latin, often 
expresses only a very high degree, and may then be called JEla- 
tive. That which expresses the simple idea, without Compari- 
son, is called Positive ; e. g. Plato was learned ; Plato was more 
learned than Xenophon ; Plato was the most learned of the dis- 
ciples of Socrates. 

3. Only the adjective and adverb are susceptible of compari- 
son ; participles do not admit it, except in a few rare cases, where 
the participle has the meaning of an adjective, e. g. i^Q<o(iii^, 
'iatEQog, 'iararog, 

4. The Greek language has two forms to indicate the two de- 
grees of comparison ; the one, and by far the most common, 
for the Comparative, is -tc^o^, -Tegdy -tsgovy and for the 
Superlative, -Taroff, -TaT?7,-TaT0f; the other, which is used 
much more seldom, for the Comparative, is - 1 wy, -I oy, or - coy, 
-Of, and for the Superlative, -latog, -iart], -icrov. 

Remark. Instead of the single forms of the Comparative and Superla- 
lative, the Greek, like the Latin, can prefix fiaXXov (magis) and lAoXuna 
(maxime) to the Positive. This periphrasis is necessary in all adjectives, 
which, for the sake of euphony, have no Comparative form. 

^82. A. First Form of Comparison. (nao—aan.) 
Comparative, -repos, -it'^a, -Tipov; 
Superlative, -ravog, -jairi, -raroi'. 
The following adjectives annex these forms in the following 
manner : 
I Adjectives in - o *•, ■!)(-«), - o ». 

(a) Most Qcljeclives of this class, after dropping a, annex 
'he above forms to the pure alem, and rt-tain the o, when a syl- 
lable long by naliire or by position, ^ 27, 3, precedes, (a mute 
snd liquid always make the syllabic long here), but o is length- 
ened Jmo oi, when a short syllable precedes, — which is done to 
prevent the concurrence of loo many short syllables, e. g. 

tutif-ot, '%^> Cum. xoiKp-o-ifpof, Sup. »ovtf-ti-JttJoq, -i], -oy, 

w/rp-oc, ilrong, " iir/rp-o-Kpof, " MT^fp-o-iaioe, 

inri-il;, Win, " ileni-i.'-iFeo(, " Ami-D-Toios, 

9?oJ)p-t5, vdament, " <r(fo5p-d-ifpof, " aifoS^-o~iaiot, 
«np-o<, bitUr, " Titip-o-TFpa;, " nm^-o-laios, 

Bo^-cVi '**»'i " aoep'oi-ttgo!, " o-oif-ci-Tnios, 

(lip-os,jfrm, " //I'f-oi-ifpos, " ^/yp-w-iniot, 

SS-og, teorthy, " a£i'iu-TC(D$, " oJ(-tu-ialo(. 

KimitK 1. The Atlic poets Bometiniea, od account of the verse, diare- 
P'd the law by which a mule aad liquid mokee a vowel long by po- 
"■lioD, t. g. tinaraittiof fmin cvturyo!, Eur. Uec. 579. 618. (Pors.), iltiSTioT- 
CiirjB, Id. Ph. 1367. 

(b) Contracts in -tot = -oui and -oos = -oi'tf suffer contraction 
in ihe Comparative and Superlative also, since in the first, e is 
sbfoibed by m, but those in -ooi, after dropping o»"> insert the 
syllable «, which is contracted wilh the preceding o, c. g. 

ttffif-lOi ^ nopif fp-DTs unk-iot = anl-ovt 

nof^Vf'laiitffog i= Tiopipi'p-w-ifpos uiio-((7-TfpO! ^ ojii-oiV-ilpoj ' 
ito^ifp-tcuiaia; = nop^tp-oi-jotof OTfio-iff-ioioj ^ uni-oio-ioioj. 
Ilere belong also coiitraclB of two endiogs in - o v ; Hod -ovt,e. g. nr- 
'^■^fvr-ovt, 'Sent, ivv-aor ^ ivp-aw. Coin. ivro-iv-Tifos ^= ily-ava-ic- 
Wi Sup. tiro-ia-iaio( ^ ivr-oia~iatos. 

Rem, a. Adjectives in -oDf take also the nnconimcted and regular fomiB of 
'*C(in)paralive and Superlative in -oiuTtp oj, -ouroior, e. g. tinrototi^oi, 
t-R. EqiL 1, 10. ivxfotiTifos, X. O. 10, 11. 

(c) The following adjectives in -aiot, viz. ysQaiot, old, 
"liaidff, ancient, TtsQaTnt, on the other side, axoXaToi; at 


leisure J drop -og and append -teQog and -rarog to the root, 
e. g. 

ysgai^og, Com. ytgal-TtQOf, Sup. ;^c^a/<«ToTO(, 

Rem. 3. Uttlaioq and o';ifoitorToc have also the usual forms of the 
Comparative and Superlative, naXaioxiqoq^ a/oitaioTc^o;, so also ytqaiitiqcg^ 
Antiph. 4. p. 125, 6. 

(d) The following adjectives in -Off, viz. evdtoff, ca/w, 17 (Tv- 
;f ff, ^t6^^, Td 1 ff, peculiar, laog, eqnal, fiicogy middle, ogd'Qiogt 
early, o\piog, late, and ngdlog, in the morning, after dropping 
-Off, insert the syllable at, so that the Comparative and Superla- 
tive of these adjectives are like the preceding in -aioff, e. g. 

fiifT'Ogj Com. ^c-al-TiQoq, Sup. fua^al^iarog, 
tdi-og " idt-al-tiQog, " idtr-ai-TaTog. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes also the common form is found, e. g. ^avxdxtQogj 
TiCVXfutuTog ; q>iXaiJSQog, <piXd'TaTog. The adjective tpilog has three forms, 
(pdmiQog, -muTog, (pilalrtgogj -a/iaro;, and (plXrfQog, (plXiatog, the last of 
which is the most usual, hut the second also is frequently found among the 
Attic writers ; the first occurs very seldom. In addition to these three 
forms, also the Superlative q>iXiitTog (as in Homer the Comparative tpiXlotv) 
is found in Attic poetry. 

Rem. 5. The two adjectives, fii a og, middle, and riog, young, have a 
special Superlative form, ^ 8 a a t ;, y a a t c, but which is in use, only 
when a series of objects is to be made prominent, fiiacnog denoting the very 
middle of the series, and viarog the last or most remote, whereas fnaaljBQog 
expresses the idea of the middle in general, and vmrajog retains the pri- 
mary signification of the adjective, young, ntw. In prose, viatog is used 
only in reference to the tones of music (viarog tpdoyyog) ; and then the 
Feminine is contracted, ri\iri, the lowest line or string, 

(e) Two adjectives in -off, viz. i^Q(OfABvog, strong-, and axgd- 
rag, unmixed, after dropping -off, insert the syllable fiff, e. g. «^- 
^oi(Mv-ia'T£Qog, iQQtofuv-tC'TaTog, UxQUr'Sa-regog, anqar-ia'tarog. So 
also aftotff has aidoitazatog in the Superlative. 

Rem. 6. Further, the adjectives, a q>&ovog, rich, onovdalog, zeahus, 
and aafiBv og, glad, take the above form, aq)&ovi(TTfQog, -itnarog, together 
with the common form, -msi^og, -maxog. From uofurog is formed acr/ievo^- 
tiQog, and the adverbial neuter, ovfuvotiittxa and uafi(vi(naxa. Several 
other adjectives, also, have this formation, yet for the most part only in 
poetry, e. g. ivj^agog, unmixed (of wine), ildvfiog, sweet, inlntdog, flat (^w*7r«- 
diaxiqog, X. H. 7. 4, 13), and all contracts in -ovff, comp. (b). The forms in 
-ivxtQog, -iaxaxog, belong properly to adjectives in -tig and -oiy. 


109 ■ 

(f) The following adjectives in -»c, viz.laXoe, talkative, 
liorotpayot, eating alone, o f o gj a 7 o s, rfmWy, andffTWZoei 
poor, after dropping o?, iiiaerl the syllable if. e. g. i-ahas, Com. 
laX-la-rt^og, Sup. lol-iff-raTos. 

Ruf. 7. These endings properly belong to adjectivcB in -ijf, Gen. -ov. 

n. Adjectives in -^e, Gen. -on, and liEiffl'}*-, -*'tf. Gen. -tw, 
shorten the ending -^s into -itf, e. g. xlt'iri-tji. Gen. -ov, thievish, 
Cora. xi«r»-<'ff-«^'. Sup. Jtifffi-iff-ritio,'; T^iyAnrfpof, ijitviiaraTO];. 

Eatjition. '//JpKTTijs, -oil, insoieni. Las ^iS^iciotifo;, I'lSpioiuiaroi, 
X. An. 5. 8, a C. 1. 2, 12. 

m. Adjectives of the third Declension: 

(1) Those in ■vg,-tta,-v, yg, -ts, Gen.-«off, a«, -a*, 

and the word ^tixap, Aa/i/jy, append the endings of Compari- 
«m iramedialfly to the pure stem, which appears in the Neuter 
fomi, c. g. 

jrlvxi't, NeuL -u — ylvuv-Tifog ylwi-taiot 
altjdtis, Neirt. -ij — «iijSt(r-ifpoj altiSia-tatot 
fii'la;, NeuL -ur — jiilar-irgot /Ailuy-jmot 
idlaf, NeUL -o» — luiuc-ifpoi iiiiBr-toioS 
ftaxa^, — naxaij-ifijoq /ioxap-iaiot. 

Rw. 8. Tlie adjectives vSvi, tojijf and noilv; are compared in 
■Jwind-inr. See §83,1. 

(2} Compounds of x«**f insert w, e, g. 

Inixa^tt, Gen. hrixagii^og, pitaaant. 

Coin. ^i/ncn-fu-iEpa;, Sup. ^irijifaptT-w-TOTo;. 

(3) Adjectives in - w »■, ■ o »■, Gen. -ovoe, insert t s, e. g. 

ivSb/^wi', Neiit. ti.'Sai[ior, happy. 

Com. tvdaifjuf-Hr-Ti^Df, ivSaipof-ia-MtiO!. 

(4) Adjectives in -S sometimes insert eg, sometimes tf. e. g. 

afqlif, Gen. aijpnilix-o;, ^oun'n^oU, agitaS, Gen. apna^-o;, rapax, 
Com. Bipjjiix-t'tr-Tfpo!, Com. aguay-ia-iii/ot. 

Sop. Bipi;ini-«(r-Toiof, Slip. (ipjia/-i(r-ioio;. 

(5) Adjectives in - e 1 «,-«•'. insert a, the f of the stem be- 
ing dropped, § 20, 2, e. g. 

Com, j|;api«'-oiipDe, Sup. jfopis-inaio;. 


§83. B. Second Form of Comparison. (ssa.) 

Comparative, -toav, Neut - i o y, or - w »', Neut -oi^. 
Superlative, -latog, -icttj, -laroy. 

Remark 1. On the quantity of c in -fW, -toy, see § 28, 1, on the declen- 
sion, § 78, Rem. 9, and on tlie accentuation, § 65, 5, (a). 

This form of Comparison includes, 

I. Some adjectives in -vg, which drop -i^ff and append -mw, 
etc.; this usually applies only to ^dvg, stveet, and raxvg, stri/t 
(the other form of these adjectives in -vzeqag, -vtatpg, is some- 
times used, but not by Attic writers). Taxvg has in the 
Comparative {^aaatav, (Att d^artfav)^ Neut. ^aaaov (^dtrw), 
Comp. §§ 21, 3, and 17, 6. Taxi(ov is found only among the 
later writers. Thus, 

^^-vff. Com. tid'tfov, Neut rid-iop^ Sup. ijd-icrtogj -i?, -w, [urtog, 

xaX'Vg " ^oaaoii', Att -^avuavy Neut 'Qaaaop, Att ^afrToiy, Sup. to/- 

Rem . 2. The others in -r^, as Pa&vg, dup^ (Sagvc, heavy y flgadvgj 
sUno, fi Q a X V g, shorty ylvxyg, sweety d a a v fy tkicky svgvgyundey o^vg^ 
sharpy ngitrpvgy My anvgy swifty have the form in -vrtgogy - vrurro;, § 82, 
ni; in Attic poetry, however, single examples of these adjectives ore 
found with the other form, e. g. jSgaxtarogy ngiaPunogy ixKnog. 

XL The following adjectives in -Qog, viz. aiaxQogy basCj 

ix^Qog, hostile^ uvdQog, honarable, and olxrQog, laretched 

(but always in the Comparative, olxtQoteQog), the ending -Qog 

here also being dropped, e. g. oUcxQog, Com. aiojr-jcjy, Neut. 

oucx'lovy Sup. aicxujTog. 

Rem. 3. Besides this form, which is preferred by the Attic vmters, the 
above adjectives have also, though seldom, the other form in -oiigog 
-oTOTOf, e. g. ix^qotatogy oUtxQoxaxogy in Demosthenes. 

§84. Anomalous Forms of Comparison, (294.) 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

1. iya&ogy goody afulifioPy Neut. afMtyov agiajog 

fidxltav ^ilxmog 

(fiaxtqogy Poet) (/JiixoToc, Poet.) 

xQBlaatoPy Att Kgdxxiov xgaxitrxog 

i^fiw' IbitTxog 

^ (<piQriqogy Poet) (^igxaxogy q>igi^ogy Poet) 

2. Mxogy body Haniwp aaxiaxog 

fjcrcroiy, Att ^tt9»w 





4. alyupot, painful. 





5. /«E«pi«, lofg. 



(/<il(7(rwF, PoeL) 


6. ^.xjis, »™.a, 



^iUiDirair, AtL^lo 

7. lUrot,/a^, 



a ^i^-Bi, ^rrwrf. 



9. nol^, mucA, 

nXtlmy or jiiiu^ 


10. i^J.o(. «»;,, 



11. ninoo', np<r, 



12. »Ja,.,/,ri, 



Reiurk 1. The poetic Superlative 7 

f 1 tr T D ; is found in Plato, in the 

nclamitioD u •pipioi 

I Omostuwihy! 

The irregular fomisof /itxpc'tf, viz. 

iimdiir, iXozi'^o^i express liolli [lie itlca of miailnt$s aiid ftwnat (oHi/as); 

bulfiiluT generally expretises ihe idea of/ticnas, seldom that of imaUr^tst ; 

Aie regular forms of fiinQot, \>z. ftixij6tii/a(, -taiot, slwayi) retaio their 

mginal idea of tnmllnxti, and also aXlyiotot thai of/eimtM, oltliough hXl/Of 

ofttn eignifieB nnii^ 
Rm, i The use of the longer and shoKer form of ihe Comparative 

"hiBr, nJjeir, deserves to be particularly noted. The Neuter TiXiov is 
<'>°re Ireqiienl tlian nliiox, csjtecially when it is used adverbially ; nXioyoi 
'^i nlilmoi, ttXiovt and nXtiort, Ace. itXiia, nXiavu and nhlm, are ueed 
"oliKriniiDBtely ; PI. Norn, and Ace. itXilovt is usual, also nXtlorit and 
i^i'ora( (but uot niton;] ; nXtuo is much more frequent ttian jiXiia ; nXiia- 
•w iDd nXiioai are more IreijueDI than nltafaii' and nXioai. Finally, 
'^ Biionened form of the Neut Sing, nkw (formed Irom nXftov), but 
V«si la such phrases aa nittiv ^ fiupiai and the like, requires to be men- 
Imcd IS ■ special JUlicism. 

Several adjectives which contain the idea of an order or sc- 
"«,have only ihe Comparative and Superlative forms, because 
"" account of their signification they cannot be used absolutely, 
''lit oaly in comparison. An adverb of place is usually the 
niol of these forms of Comparison, e. g, 
"Wa wpo, jrpcKpoe (prior), mptuinf (primus ),/rf(. 

" u>«, arwtfpl>c (superior), urtdinio; (aupremus). 

" vniii, iTiipi(po([superior),A^^£r, [iJiipioTOf, PoeLtJioTOf (supremiiB). 

" vno i iaiifoi (posterior), later, iViuio; (])ostreinuB), /arf. 

" 'ii Jirjfotos (exlreiims), ou/trmorf. 

" al^/vc (prope), (nlijiriof, Homeric), nlija-iaiitpo; or nliTiriioTE^Dc 
(proprior), tirarer, nXijataltatoi, -immoq (projtimus), nearal, 

" nf(iirDj,yiir, n^oouiif^oc^ar'W, n^ooiuiaiof. 

Riit 3. Other adjectives iu the Com|mrative and Superlative, which 
J" il»o derived from adverlw, have no Positive form of the adjective, e. g. 
1(iia,qwliy, iit/ifUaiii/ottii^iiiiiiaiac, n^oviiyov, utefui, Jifovgytalitfos, 
"n-iurf'al, nfoiiQj'ialiajo!. 


Rem. 4. The Greek forms Comparatiyes and Superlatives from substan- 
tives also. Here two circumstances are to be noted : (a) when the substan- 
tive, both in form and signification, has a Positive firom which the Com- 
parative and Superlative may be formed, L e. when the substantive can be 
considered as an adjective, e. g. dovkog, dove, dovXotfgogy more dcaauh ; — 
(b) when the substantive, in respect to the signification, does not have a 
Positive, but only in respect to the form can be considered as the basis of 
the Comparative and Superlative, since the proper Positive form has been 
lost (comp. xQattatoi from the Epic ngaTvg, iliyx^arog from the Epic ilty- 
Xva)' Examples of the last kind may be found in great numbers in Epic 
poetry. See § 216, Rem. 2. 

§85. Comparison of Adverbs. (M7.) 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, when compared, have 
commonly no independent adverbial ending, but, in the Com- 
parative, use the neuter singular, and in the Superlative, the 
neuter plural of the corresponding forms of comparison in ad- 
jectives, e. g. 

ao<p&g from aoipog Com. ao<pmiQOP Sup. aotptotata 



Remark. But sometimes these adverbs also retain the adverbial endini^ 
of the Positive -oi;, in the Comparative, e. g. x^^^^'^U^^y aht&sniQmg^ 
fiox^figotigag, nalXiovmg^ especially (iiiiovfog, etc. The neuter singular 
is seldom used in the Superlative, and belongs mostly to poetry. 

2. All original adverbs in -w, e. g. av<a, xarco, IJw, fow, etc, 
retain this ending regularly in the Comparative, and for the 
most part in the Superlative, e. g. 

ayo), above Com. aviatigio Sup. oycafa7ft> 

xoToi, beUno naxwtign xctttnata. 

In like manner, most other original adverbs have the ending •» 
in the Comparative and Superlative, e. g. 

^yx^^y ***^ Com. iyxoTigta Sup. ayxotatio 

nigd, ultra ntgaiiigti Sup. wanting 

TflXoVjfar jrilojigta ifilordrto 

htag^far knaaiigti htatnata 

fy/^i ^^^^^ fyyvtigm iyyvtaiu and 

iyyvttgor iyyintnou 

aaipwg ^ aaq>vg 


Xagurtfog '' X^Q^S 
wdatfiopittg '' tvdalfjionf 
ouaxoig ^ ourxQog 
^difog " ^Hg 
taxiotg " toxvg 



The Pronoun. 
J36. Nature and Division of Pronouns. caw.) 

1. Pronouns do not, like Hubstanlivcs, espreas the idea of an 
object, but only the relation of an object to the speaker, since 
the^ show whether Ihe objcet is the speaker himself {tlie first 
fwtson), or the person or thing addressed (the second person), 
or the person or thing spoken of (the third person,) e. g. / (the 
leather) give to^ow (the scholar) it (the book). 

2. All Pronouns are divided into five principal classes: (1) 
Personal, (2) Demonstrative, (3) Keiative, (4) Interrogative, (3) 
iiclefinite Pronouns. Pronouns are again divided, according 
to their signification, into Substantive, Adjcclivc and Adverbial 

•""onouns, e. g. */w 
Q*^«, my father said I 

t inwiaa, I did tliis. 

uf, he did so. 

eft OS aanjQ ftot 

A. Substantive Pe 

§87. (a) The simple iyia,ego, av,tu, 

fimi (/«w), ijtov, of me 
ftoi (/Ml), e/mi, to me 
fii ills), lilt, me 

no, we both, lu both 
'CP'' "f"* ^^ '" I" 


oiiov), of hhn^elfe^ 
01 (of), to kinaelf, cti 
I [i), hinatif, etc. 

<,oiiiao>,), of thee 
aoi (croi)> to thee 
ad (ae), Ihee 

acpei, you both I 

aq)qJf,o/jouio(A, aipmy {a(fatii'], of them 
to you both I both, to them both 

ij/ih, to u* 

Vftmr, of you (u) 
iijih, to you iv) 

acpeii, Neiit. dcpii 
aq.nur, qf them 
a^!mi,v) (atfim), i 
tfqBUi", NeuL a(fe< 


(off id), i 

Remark 1. The ibrnis siiscepiible of iuclinalion are piil in a ]jarciillieBi9, 
•ilbout any mark of HCcenluatioQ. Comp. §§33, (b), and 3-'i, .1. On the 
MceniuatioD and use of the third Pers. of the Pronoun, see § 303, Rem. 3. 

114 THE REFLEXIVE PRONOVNS tfiavtW^ (TtOVTOV, 9aVtOV. [§ 88« 

The Vocative is here, as in the following paradigms, omitted, because, 
when it occurs, it is always like the Nominative. 

Rebi. 2. The Gen. Sing, of these three pronouns, in imitation of Homer, 
often has, among the Attic poets, also the forms i/Ai&srjai&sWjt&Bv; 
these forms are always oxytoned, except when ^&bp is not used as a re- 
flexive (sui)y but as a pronoun of the third person (^us), Comp. § 35, 3, (c). 

Rem. 3. The Ace Sing, and PI. from ov has in Attic poetry also the 
form yiV (rir) signifying Asm, her, U^ PI. (Aem, e. g. Soph. OR. 868. 1331| in- 
stead ofavtovg and avjag. See the Dialects, §217. 

Rem. 4. The endings of the Dative and Accusative plural -«y, -o;, of the 
first and second Pers. are sometimes shortened by the poets and then writ- 
ten, {/i/y, ^if^ag, t'/i/y, v/idgj or also ijfiir, ti/Aog, vf^^i^i vfioq. The shorter form 
of the pronoun of the third Pers. is used in the Dat and Ace PL by the poets 
(also by the Attic writers), e. g. DaL (T(fl or atplp instead of QtpUn^ to them^ 
Ace. (rq>i instead of trq>agt thtnL Both forms, atpi and <r<p/y, although seldom, 
are used as the Dat. Sing., the fbrm cr^e, on the contrary, is used much 
more firequently as the Ace Sing, instead of ovior, -i^y, -o, also as reflexive 
instead of iot/ior. 

§88. (b) The Reflexive Pronouns j ifiavrov, aeav* 

TOVy iaVtOV. (309.) 

1. The Reflexive Pronouns of the first and second person 
decline in the PL both pronouns of which they are compound- 
ed, each by itself, e. g. rffuow avtw ; that of the third person is 
either simply iavxw, avitaw, etc., or a(foiv ovrcji^, etc. 



ifiovrw, -^^% qf 
ifiovtfpt 'fly to 

to oundves 


(jsavTOVy -^s% or 
(TovTOVy -^y, ofthftdf 
aavrtpy -p, or 
aavTi^y 'jyto %wjr 
Ciccviiry -f/F, or 
aavroity -j;^, thfsdf 


* « 


ilfta^ otrroiVi hi»% 

> • 

Vfto»9 ctirro^r, fifyowr* 

vfihf ai^TOi^y -oiv, to 

♦ •« 

pfta^ ovroiVi -«v% 

ittVTOVy -iftf, or [adf 

avTOVy -^v', ofhimadfy ofhar- 
iayj^y -5, or \toiUdf 

aiT^\ -g, to kanteif, to hend/y 
ia^nov, -j^f, -o, or [it^tff 
array, -1^, -o, kimtd/y htrmif^ 

i(xvT(ar or itPToiry or 
(rgcJr avTciry oft 
iavtoi^ -«jV, or airoi^ -ai^y or 
^ijriVnr ot^r oiV -oi^N to tktwu^ves 
*«rroiv, -a^*, -a, or arrov;, 

-u^y -«, or 
ffffm^ «rrois% -o^', cqia mf 

tm^ tknmhu. 


§89, (c) Reciprocal Pronouns. om.) 

To express reciprocal relalion, the Greek has a special pro- 
nominal form, which is made by the coalescence of aXloi aXXar, 
ailiH mUoiv, ulJ.01 uXXoi'i, into one word. 


«Uf «r, ./. 


Dad «Ua« 


lillrkoif, -a'i 




iU.l,>.m,: -«. 


§90. B. Adjective Personal PronounH. (3m.) 

PeisoDal pronouns having the form of adjectives are called 

Possessive pronouns, Pince lliey denote jiossession. They are 

formed from the Genitive of substantive personal pronouns : 

//Bf, -ft, -or, meut, a, um, from ipov; ^/liitgos, -n'^u, -trgor, notfer, -Ira, 

-tnan, from iifiur ; 
»"t. -'i. -o*. (""at -a. -""". f""" foE ; vfiiii^oi, -iii/u, -iiQoy, vattr, -Ira, 

•trma, from v^ur ; 
<fT<i(p«, -wpu, -Kfop, iwu, -a, -wit, from nqidiv, used in Bficakiiig of 
mtny; when sioglc persons or ihinge are spoken of, the AlL prose 
ilways 1 • " - 

e Gen. taviov, -tn 
5 91. IL D E M 

! Pro 





ipse ipsa ipsum 

ij ro 

OVZOi avjl} TOVTO 

avtog airrij atno 


r5tf 70y 

lovrov raoTTjS tovtou 

aVTOv avTiig aviov 


Tt( Tiy 

1t)in<f TIMTp lOVtlp 

ttVTtp avTV itvitu 


*!?* TO 

TO.-TW T««^ T0£« 

avzop wvttjp oLwo 

Plunl. 1 



«( T« 

ovtoi avTot Tuvza 1 arroi' avrai uvia 



Ti^ I<Jv 

TOVTOi* Tovtmr toitwp avrur airmy avtuf 


TttlV lOIs' 

ToiiTot; laviaii jovioie avtats avrwi avroit 


tovtovstavia^ tavza lavTovsuvtdi avta 


K-A. iTw 

Ta) T(o iTDtlroi fTK^TR) rovro) 1 Ki!rw' avia avtd 

CD. UcV 

jal* T0.> I ToiSr-if i«»i«,.. td^'to,* [ a^xo.r avtah airoir 

Lilu 0, i), lo is decliaeii, oSi, '^8i, loSi, -loi'Bi, t'lfli, PI. o'iSc, a'iir, tqJi ; 

w ai>i«{: TooatiTo;, loaavitj, Ta(roD[i>(v], tanlia, -a, -um, TDiDiio;, loiavi^, 
o{t), UdU, -e, uiliKoitQt, ti)l.iKaiitj, itjlixovtciy), to great, to aid; it 
X noted, (a] tbal the Neuter Sing, besides the form in o, hu also 



[H 92, 93. 

the common form in or ; (b) that in all forms of ovrag, which begin with 
T, the T is dropped ; 
like ttvtog : ixUvog, ixtlmi, ixwo, he, shty Uj aXXog, SUfi, Silo, alius, aUa, 

Remark 1. The Neuter form in o seems to have rejected a d, as may be 
inferred from the Latin, is, ea, iet, iUe, a, -ud, alius, -a, -udL — ^The Dual forms, 
ra and tavia, seem not to have been in use among the ancients*— Instead 
ofixBivog, the Ionic xiivog is also used in Mic poetry ; this word occurs 
somewhat frequently in Mic prose, but always after a long vowel or diph- 
thong ; hence Crasis, § 14, 5, must be assumed here, as ^ 'xtlvtag PL Rp. 2» 
370, a. 




roaovtog roaavtTj togovt€(v) 

rocovtoi toaavtai roaavra 

/ / / 


Toaovrov rocavrtjg toaovtov 

toaovro)p roaovTO)p rotJovToap 


TO<TovT(p toaavT'd rotrovrq) 

roaovToig toaavraig roifovtoig 



toaovTovg toaavtag toaavra 

Dual. 1 

N. A. 

toaovto) roaavTa rocovtoD 


tOGovToip roaavrouv roaovzoiv. 

Rem. 2. The Article usually coalesces by Crasis, § 10, with avtog and 
forms one word, viz. avtog, instead of o avtog, idem, avttj, xavto, 
usually tavtor, instead of to avto, tavtoif, hut tfjg avtiig, Tovtf, 
javtj (to distinguish it from tavttj^ this\ but tor ainov, i^y avt^v, avto I, 
avtal,tavtd, instead of ta avta, (to distinguish it from tavta, haee), but 
Toiy avtw, tolg avtolg, etc. 

§92. m. Relative Pronoun. 






9 9 

OS 11 

ov 5S 

? % 

ov tjv 


































9 • 










§98. IV. Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns. (3oe.) 

The Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns are indicated by 
the same form, but are distinguished by the accent and position} 
the Indefinite being enclitic, § 33, and placed after some word 
or words, the Interrogative being accented and placed before. 

Remark 1. When the Interrogative Pronouns stand in an indirect ques- 
tion, they place before their stem the relative o, which, however, (except in 
the case of ogtig), is not inflected, e. g. onolog, onoaog, onottgog, etc 




Plot. N. 



tva and ana 

TiV; quia? Ti jqiiidl 
Ti'eos or T(W 
7m or iqj 

lim rita 







WU, tBAoewr 
Wiitoi or oVff 
Jtm or orip 


jTO or, 
A. W7.M, ai 

omtfs amtts uxira. or arra 
MVn»M». (rarer or(o») [t.o<j») 
o*VriiTi(r) (raj-er ornii) «(t.Ti<n(>') __0(i,'- 
ovitirni uitifas axira. or aitu 
*f, G. D. orwivoir, alrTimr. 

"nt 2. The form Hiro not enclitic {Ion, Saaa) \b often used instead of 
*"" in conneetion with Adjerlives, e. g. Suva ana, /iikiju n'liu, or placed 
^^e.g.^r yiip Jij oira ioibJ« PI. PhnedoD. 60, e. On tlie accentuation 
of ■nicdji', ai'Ttroir, ainiioiy. Bee J 34, Rern, 1, The negative com[H)iiudB 
"'I'tiTiz. oL^if, otJii, p^iif, fi^ti, no one, nothing, inflect the simple \\( 
"*"')'> P" g. cSiifof, otiiiTtc, etc. 

^94. Correlative Pronouns. 

1. llnder Correlative Pronouns are included aJI those which eipresB a 
Dutiiil relation (correlHtion) to each other, and represent this relation \<y a 
'wwsponding form. This mutual relation is either a general one, as in 
''(1' til quia? (piidf li;, 11. aliquit, oliquid, so oSi, ovios, be, this, oi, who, 
"^ or it is a definite relation. 

2. The definite correlntion has four different forma, viz. the Interrogative, 
'"vfiaite. Demonstrative and Relative. This fourfold correlation l>elongs 
"ih to AdjciClive and Adverbial Pronouns. All the four forms come from 
'w «me ttwl, but tliey are distinguished, partly by a different nrcent, partly 
"! ■ different iuitial, since the Literrogative begins with rr, the Indefinite 
^ibe same form, thoiigh wiili a different accent, the Demonstniiive be- 
PUHitli T, aud the Relative with the Spiritus Asper. The indirect intcr- 





rogatives, as shown above, § 93, Rem. 1, place the o, which comes from the 
relative, before the initial n. 

3. Correlative Adjective Pronouns express relations of 9110111% and qiuM- 
ty, correlative Adverbial Pronouns, the relations of pUux^ iimt and mamur 
or condition, 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 


noGog, rjy ov; 
how greats how 
much ? quan- 

nolog, d, op ; 
of what kind ? 
quaiis ? 

Tn^Xinog, tj, ov ; 



noaog^ ri, ov, 
of a certain 
size, or nvm- 
her, aliquantus 

roaog, t/, of , so greedy so 
much, tantus 

Tioiog, a, or, of 
a certain kind. 


roiog, d, of, of such a 
kindy talis 

toiogde, toiddey roiovde 
roiovrog, -avrtj, -ovto(i') 

Relat. and De- 
pend. Interrog. 

oaog, t^y ov and 

onoaogy jy, ov, 

as greaiy as 

muchy quantus 


oiogy dy ov and 

OnOlOgy dy Ofy 

of what Jdndy 

7ijXixog,rjyOV,sogreat,80 o 
TTiXiHogdey -jj^fi, -ovde 
TtjXtxoviogy -avrri, -oi/To(y) 


OTttfUxOg ytlyOVy 

as grtatyos old. 

Remark 1. The simple forms liaog and tolog are seldom used in 

(b) Adverbial Correlatives. 

Interrogative. | Indefinite. 

nov ; where ? 

ubi ? 
7t6&€v; whence'} 

unde ? 
nol; whUher} 


TtoVy somewhere, 


pUuXy alicunde 
noly to some 

pUuXy aliquo 

noTB ; when ? 
quando ? 

notiy some tune, 

TtrjVMa ; quo ! wanting 
temporis pun- 
cto ? quotd ho- 


ntag ; how ? ndgy some how 
tiij ; wkUherf n^ytosomeplacey 
how f (hiiheryinsomeway 


wanting (hie, 

wanting (hinc, 

inde) ' 
wanting (eo) 

7076, iheuy turn 

0VTO3(g) (odSy so 
r^de i hither 
tavfq \ or here 




, wherey 


oly wkUhery 





onoiy whi- 

ihery quo 

07£, when, 

* f 

quo ipso 


trAen, quo 
ipso tem- 


OTtoagy how 
OTnjy wherey 


RUL SL The forms to expresa llie idea of hm, thtre, (hinc, ibi), omitled 
in llw Common language, arc 8upj)licd by inaiSa, itQaSi, and iIir idea 
of henee, by irdiiii, tnivdir; itOa and tt9ty in tlie old poetic language 
have both a deinonstralive Dnd relative seDee, but in proae only a rela- 
tite Bense, except in rertaiu phrases, e. g. irSo fiiv — £r9a Si, bic, illip, 
hStr Kai tfOir, bine, illinc, and when tlie signifituition of plaee is cbanged 
to that of time, e. g. ir3a liyit, then he aayi, tr9ir, thereupon. Tlic formn 
itic, liuit, i^, hUher, here, are poetic ; m;, instead of o'iitis, is also for tlie 
moat pan poetic ; in prose it is confiiied olmofit wholly to certaiu plirasee, 
t.g.xai w$, Tel sic, evIF (/iqf ) ai$, up sic qiiidein, and in comparisona, lug — 
■i. in — sic, PI. R|i. 7. .-yO, d. ProL 320, d. 

§9-5. Lengthening of the Pronoun. (aifl.) 

SoDie small worda ore so appended to liie Pronoiina for tlie purpose of 
giving a particular turn to their significuiion, tliat they coalesce and fomi 
"" word. They are the following : 

(i) The enclitic y i is joined to tlie Personal Pronouns of tbe first and 
'^(wid person, in order to nuilte tlie person emphatic, Tbe Pronoun tyat 
tl>e>i<lnwB back its accent in the Noni. and DaL, e. g. lytayi, tfioi-yi, 
'l"iift,tfiiyt, aiiyr. As yi con be joined with any other word, so also 
*ith my otiter Pronoun, but is not so united with it as to form one word, 

(Ii) Tbe particlea S ^, more commonly Stlnart, and o S r, are appended to 
Sfluivee coin|>ouaded of Interrogotives or Indefinitee, as well as to otroj, 
1' inter to make tbe relatiTe relation geueral, i. e. to extend it to everything 
pnbraced in the object denoted by the Pronoun, e. g. oimSi'i, a^i^dijnaif, 
"*■'»«, iiitol-r, otiovr, quicuiique (Gen. ovttvofoiii- or ujovoiy, !isjirosotv, 
"^ fiirtoi))! or uiuoDk, etc.) ;— onoffosifj, onoaosoir, onojfliijroit, qiiantus- 
^"pK; — otttjlixotovp, hoiBtver gnat, hotc old toever. 

ic) "nie BUfiix d t is joined with some Demonstratives for the purpose of 
"fBOgtbeniiig their demonstrative relation, e. g. o3c, ^5i, toSi ; loioc^i; to- 
'^l trjlinoiSi, from loio;, Totro;, jijUxo;, which change tlieir accent afler 
'■ii appended, $34, Rem. 2. 

(d) The enclitic n ^ ^ is appended to all Relatives, in order to give the 
'''•tivB relation slill more prominence over a demonstrative ; hence it de- 
"olW, CTen irhn, iMck, e.g. ofTttl/, iiitQ,'6ncg{Geo. ovnff, etc.); oaoinig, 
"kltf (Gen. oaovniQ, oiovue^, etc.) ; oSinip, oSimiQ, 

|e) The ineejwrable Demonstrative t, is appended to Demonstratives and 
'°ai« fi!w otber adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative sense. 
lltUes the ac4:ent and absorbs every ebon vowel inimedialaly preceding 
"lUd also sbortens tlie long vowels and diphthongs: 
'iioat, Ihit here (hicce, celui-ci), oCi^'i', lomi, 

Ceo. loutoiri, iovii;iTi, DaL Tol'i([ii, lali^i, PI. oviolt, aviali, TOttii ; 
^1, ijdi, lodi from '63t; u3i from cu^e; ovitnri from oiiiuc; 
inevSari from irtriidty ; iv9aSi from itSaSt ; rwi from vvr ; Sivfi from 



The Numerals. 
§96. Nature and Division of Numerals. (313,314.) 

1. Numerals express the relation of number and quantity. 
They are divided into the following classes, according to their 
signification : 

•(a) Cardinals, which express a definite number absolutely, 
and answer the question, hoio much? e. g. one, two, three. 
Almost all other Numerals are derived from these. The first 
four Numerals and the round numbers from 200 (diaxocxioi) to 
livQioi and its compounds, are declined ; but all the others are 
indeclinable. The Thousands are expressed by adverbial Nu- 
merals, e. g. TQigx^lioij 3000. 

(b) Ordinals, which denote a series and answer the question, 
lohich one in the series ? They all have the three endings of 
adjectives, -og, -tj, -ay, except d&ireQog, which has -og, -a, -or. All 
up to 19, except 2, 7, 8, end in -rog and have the accent as 
near as possible to the beginning of the word. From 20 up- 
wards they end in -<Jr6g. 

Remark 1. Mverhial OrdinalSf which also denote a succession, are ex- 
pressed by the Neut Sing, or PI. with or without the article, but sometimes 
also with the adverbial ending -(og, e. g. n^ditov, to n^mor, n^cura, to n^u- 
JOy ngmoag. 

(c) Multiplicatives, which show the number of parts of which 
a whole is composed, and answer the question, hotv many fold? 
They are all compounded of n^ovg, and are adjectives of three 
endings, -ovg^-rj^'ovf, §§76, I, and 77. 

anXoi/g, -fi, -oUi', single, dmXovg (2), rginXovq (3), mganXoifg (4), irsvra- 
9rilot;( (.5), i^anXovg (6), inianXovg (7), oxraTriloi;; (8), iwanXovg (9), dam^ 
nXovq (10), batxovxanXovg (100), x^^^anXovg (1000), iivqianXolg (10,000). 

Rem. 2. The adverbial Multiplicatives in answer to the question, hovr 
many fold ^ or into how many parts'^ are formed from the Cardinals witlm 
the ending -/o or -x^ «^<1 "X^^y c* g« niviaxa, ntviaxfj, mrtax^g. 

(d) Numeral adverbs, which answer the question, hotv mangf 
times? Except the first three, they are formed from the Cardi- 
nals with the ending -axtg, e. g. nevtdxigy five times^ § 98. 

(e) Proportionals, which denote a proportion, and answer 
the question, htno many times more ? They are all compounded 
with the ending -nldaioi, -id, -lov, more scidoin -Tilaaiiuv, -o*, e. g. 
aarorraiti-aatmr, -09 : 

omlamot, twitx at much, ifmXiiatoi (3], ifT^anloaios (4), Tttrianlaaios 
['•\'^anlaaiag {G),iniajtlaaiog {'), oxinJiiiitrio; (8), irtanlixaioi [9], flfjtB- 
nUiot (10), ixaiortanXiaiOS UOO), ^ii.o/iio,r.6f (1000), p™,oniuffio( 

([) Substantive Numerals, which express the abstract idea 
of number. Except the first, they are all formed of the Cardi- 
nals with the ending -di. Gen. -liSog : 

^fMiu;, &Dni fiaro;, alime, more seldom >j irag, unify, Svat, duality, igias 

(3), inf«t (4), Titrta'c or nifitiu; (5), iiiit (6), i/S Jo^u's (7), oySuaQ (8), /»»(iij 
0). il«« (10), f iraj (20), i(.iu"»u( (;»), «iii<eB»oMu[ (40), n5"i,«0«us (50), 
'wiono'f (100), /*i,oe ilDOO), ^I'p.uj [10,000) Alo /iv^iuSfg [ao,000> 

2. la addition to the Numerals mentioned above, there is 
itillaoother class, which does not, like those, express a definite 
nwnbei', but eitlier an indefinite number or an indefinite quan- 
'i'yi e. g. (woi, jOTne, warTES, fl//, nolXoi, many, oXi'j'ot, feio, ohyot, 
"^W liltle, ovSeti-, no one, ovde'y, nothing; etc. 

"■ Numerals, like pronouns, are divided, according to their 
wgnificatioQ and form, into Substantive, Adjective and Adver- 
ts! Numerals, e. g. /psiV t/}.9ov, 6 TQt'iog aci/p, rpi'tf. 

■■ The Numeral Signs nre tlie iwentj-rour letiera of the Greek Alphat>et, 
■""hichlbreeoliBolele letters are added, viz. after r, iinu or tlie Digamina F 
'*^il,i;— Kon It a, 5, as the siini tor 90; — ^ouni, ^T^i, bb Uic sigu for 


^The first eight letters, i.e. from n tod ivith the Bnv or 2u, denote the 
^"'l*; the followiiig eight, i. e. from i to n with tiie Kirnia, the Tens; the 
*" eight, L e, from p to w witli the Jn^nl, the HuiidredB. 

^ Vp to 993, the letters, aa numeral signB, are dial ingiii shed by a mark 
P"^ ova- them, and when two or more letters stand together,, aa nu- 
""nl Bigns, only the lost Uae tills mark. With 1000, the ;Vl|ilisb«t begins 
*Pui, but the tetters are distinguished by a mark placed vndtr them, thus, 
•'=1, 0=1000, .■ = 10, . = 10,000, UK /,(?■ = 574a, a (0 /.(*' = 1842, 
»*.10(i, _( = 100,000. 




§98. Summary of the Principal Classes of Nu» 

me r a Is. (316-319.) 





IS , 



1 a' 

4 ^ 


7 r 

9 & 

10 1'^ 

11 la ivdixa 

12 i^ doidexa 

13 c/ TQigxaidexa 

14 10 reitccQa^Hcudexa 

15 u tievteHcudexa 

16 ig' ixHoidexa 

17 «^ imaxaidaxa 

18 Iff oxjoaxaidexa 

19 id-' infeaxatdexa 

20 x' e'xo<yi{f) 

21 xa' iixoaif eh, fua, iv 
30 1' tQiaxavxa 
40 fi' rerro^axoiTa 
50 / nBvtrixoma 
60 f ej^xoira 
70 iSoofA^xorra 
80 ;r' oydo^xorra 
90 5' ivev^xovta 

100 ^' 
200 (t' 
300 t' 
400 t;' 
500 g)' 
600 X 
700 v^' 
800 w' 

TiQfaTog, -tj, -w, primus, -a, -um 
devTeoo^f -a, -w 

rtttccQegj -a, or rtaaoQiff -a rtragtog, -tj, -ov 

niimtog^ -ly, -oy 
/xrcv, -jy, -w 
fBdofjiog, -ly, -of 
oydoog, -jy, -w. 
ivarog, -tj, -ov 
dixarog, -ly, -w 
ivdexarog, -iy, -or 
doodixarog, -iy, -or 
TQtgxaidixarog, -iy, *©#' 
rettccQaxcudsxajogf -ly, -01^ 
nevtexcudixatog, -t^j -or 
ixxcudixarogt -ly, -oi' 
intaxcudfxatogt -ly, -or 
oxroDxaidfxaro^y -jy, -or 
ifveaxaidtxarogf -jy, -or 
elxoGJog^ jy-, -or 

elxoctog, -ly, -or, ngwtog^ -rj, -op 
TQidxocjogt -jy, -or 
Terro^oxoiTTO^, -jy, -or 
fteptTjxoatogf -ly, -or 
e|axo(rrd^, -ly, -or 
ijidofifjxoarog, -ly, -or 
07doiyxo(T70^% -ly, -or 
ipevtjxoatogf -ly, -or 
€xaro(rro^, -jy, -or 
dmxocTiocrro^S -ly, -or 
r^iaxocreotrro^, -jy, -or 
rer^axocTuxTro^, ly, -or 
7rBviaxo<ji4XJt6g, -jy, -or 
il^axoGioaTog, -jy, -or 
f xraxocTiocrro^, -ly, -or 
oxraxo(Ti<>(TTo^, -w, -or 
iwaxoGioarogf -jy, -or 
jfUiocTTOff, -t/, -or 
btgxihoarogt -jy, -or 
T^rv;t(Xi0(T70^, -jy, -or 
Tcr^axt^;|filiO(TTO^, -», -op 
nBvraxigxiXiOiSTog, -tj^ -iv 

i^axt^X'^^^^''^^^9 'V> '^ 
ifnaxigx^ioctogf -ly, '^ 


didxoaioi, -ai, -a 
TQidxoaioi, -a«, -a 

rer^axocTioft, -ai, -a 
nevtax6<5U)iy -aiy -a 
e|axo(ri<>«, -oi, -a 
£;rr(Kxo(Tio«, -ai, -a 
oxraxocTioc, -oi, -a 
900 nT>' iwaxocioif -at, -a 
1000 a jfdiot, -a*, -a 
2000 ^ dtgxihot, 'OUf -a 
3000 ^y TQigx'h^h -cu, -a 
4000 d rerqaxigxlhot, -at, -a 
5000 ^€ Tievtaxigxihoiy -cu, -a 
6000 ^g e|axi^;^c3Uof, -ou, -a 
7000 ^C a^rroxt^j^iliot, -oi, -a 

^99.] BEMARKS 






8000 ^ oKtaKn-xii-iot, 


oxraxtsxiiMaros, -j, -6v 

ttOOO > ii^axuixiltoi. 

-fu, -a 

ifranitxihoaTOt, -5, -6y 

10,000 ( ^I'lpiQi, -at, -a > s,itive<oi,-tu 

BufivQioaTOi, -ii, -Of 

100,000 Q StXUKI'iflVQIOl 

-«(, -« 

StxaxiiiiVQWoioti, ->/, -0 

',000,000 tQ ixttTorTaTtn;/! 

e""- -«*- -« 

ixatovtaxiifivQioOToi, -f,, -of 

2,000,000 Kfi diaxoataxiil't 

[HOI, -«., -a 

Biaxoataxt^fiVQioarot, -1 



19 fWfaxmSexciiut 

3 a*,-, (wi« 



3 »-e/f _ 


elxoadxn ana^ 

* Terpaxis 


tUo<fax,s 6h 

S ncnccxi; 



! ••",'■■ 



' tnratds 



6 ojWBxif 



jj i^ttmn; irfajttt 


'" dextuu; 






J« «plCXBt4tMli)t(ff 




™ f^tntitatSeMaMi 



jo HxBiJcxaxff 



* ' t'naxoiSexuxfs- 









1. The rarer subordioate forme of 13, 14, e 

re, are dtxaiaiU, Neut Snm o!a. 

'fimagic, -o. Smtmim, elc 

. — In TiixaatgxalStita, the first part i 

9 de- 

^'"*d, IhuH, TEiiap axui'Jua ii 


Sixa ettair. 

a. Mij„,, 10,000, when PnroKyloiio, ,. v ( 

r wfore Ihe Wger, often also llie larger witlioul xal is placed first. 


1 '^»iih.„f,e.g. 

P 35 ; TCBrn xa2 eiitiHTi, 

or itxoai niy 


k 345: n^m xoi iiTrt.^ 


oxiiirioi, or t^ibx. tut. n. 

■'I'f SMDe boldfl of the OrdinalB, e. g. 

nifurtoq xoi iixoino; 

r I'aoaiot tic/ihto;. 

!■ The Tens compoundeil with 8 or !! 

are frequently expressed 


of the participle of Sily,to want, referring 

"^ "lif larger number, e. g. 

49T>r(K.^xorToi™f a 

onu iTfi. unikqviiupuigiiila anni, 

48: niitipiona Svoir 

39: r^t(/((Jj dJotiFcii 


urule^purdr^nUt navea. 





So in the Ordinals, e. g. 

49 : hog di<a¥ nsmjxofnog ayiiQ, undequinquagesimus vir. 

5. Declension of the first four Numerals: 


eig fua tv 
ivog uidg ivog 
evi fiia evi 
Eva (Juav ?v 


dvoiv, very seldom dvsTr 

dvoiv, dvai(v) Ionic and Th. 8, 101. 



jQeig Neut rqia 


iQEig Neut jQia 

rezraQEg or jiaaoQBg Neut rdzjaQa 



TsrraQag Neut rirroQa 

Remark. Like h$ are also declined oxbdq and fttidflg, no one, ovSugj ot- 
dffila, oldiv, Gen. ovdfyCg, ovdffiiagy Dat oldivi, oldf/na, etc., PL ovdifiq 
{fiiidiysg\ -fVoiy, -i(n(y), -ivag. The irregular accentuation of fudg, fitq, 
should be noted. Comp. further §65,3, (c). The form dvot instead of ^w 
seems to be foreign to the Attic dialect jvo is often used as indeclinable 
in all Cases, ^jifupa, hothy is declined like dvo. Gen. and Dat ifupdiv^ Ace 

The Adverb. 

§100. Nature and division of Adverbs. (aao.) 

Adverbs are indeclinable words, by which a relation oi place 
or time^ or the relation of manner^ modality^ and of intensity and 
repetition^ is denoted. These are formed either from essential 
words, viz. Substantives, Adjectives, Participles, or irora formal 
words, viz. Pronouns and Numerals, 

(a) Adverbs of place, e. g. ovgavo^sv, coelitus, navraxVy ubivis ; 

(b) Adverbs of /tm«, e. g. ytxrop, noctu, vvv, nunc; 

(c) Adverbs of manner, e. g. xaXaig, oviwlg); 

(d) Adverbs of modaltiy, which, e. g. vai and ot{x), express an c^ffamudiofm- 
and negation, or e. g. /u>jy, to/, 9/, ri pTjv, di], I'aag, nov^ av, navjoag, etc-i* 
which express certainty, defintteness, uncertainty, condUionality ; 

(e) Adverbs of intensUy and frequency, e. g. ftdka, ndvv, noXv, oVoy, etc 9 
TQlg, three times, av&ig, again, noXldxig, ojlen, etc. 

§101. Formation of Adverbs (3ai,328.> 

1. Most Adverbs are formed from Adjectives by the ending 
-ooff. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the Adjective, 


and as the stem of Adjectives of the third Dee. appears in the 
Gen., and as Adjectives in the Gen. PI. are accented like Ad- 
verbs, the following rule for the formation of Adverbs from Ad- 
jectives may be given : 

The ending of the Adjective in the Gen. PI. namely, -ow, is 
changed to ■•»;, e. g. 

fU-ot, tow/y, Ce 

. PL vU-ixr 


. q>U-ias 


" jiBi-ir 


■nt^i-o;, timdy. 

" x»,e(-«. 


iuii6-ot)ovf, titi^e. 

" aal{o-m)ui* 


iv^o-^)oi:g, btntmJtvl, 

" (nVo-u*) ivr 


{ilr6-ag) tvrBif 

naq, aU, nartoi. 

aiifsuv, pnuktd, 

" ou»ipeoi'-o»i' 

XaeUif, plrataiU, 

" 2'afitVi-w>' 


mjtV, «qfl. 

" jaxi-ay 


Itiyat, gnat. 

" fiyai-oiy 


«l7,*.if, true. 

" ^^d(i-^y)S>r 


" (^vy^9i-m)<T 


{avyfiai-ag) ci-yiiS<as 

Rehakk 1. Od the accentuation of conipiiiui<ls in -^Om^, and oftlic com- 
poiad ainagsais, see § 59, Rein. 4, also on the accentualjon of tvtia;, insteaii 
">f nidij, § 49, 3, On the comparisoD of Adverbs, see § 85. 

2. In addition lo the Adverbs that end in -wtf, there are many, 
which have the endings of the Gen., Dat or Ace. 

(a) The inflection of the Gen. appears in many adverbs in 
1i and -Of, e. g, *S^, ifpe^/e, in order, i^aniv^g, suddenly, nov, aJi- 
(*^iiov,vhi? onov,mi,vhi,uvtov,ibi,ovS(t.tiov,noichere; n^omoe, 
(from «Qoi^, gift^ ^atuUomly. 

(b) The DaL, or an obsolete Abl. inflection and forms de- 
wiing p/ace, occur in the following Adverbs, 

l')Iii Adverbs vvith the ending -i, e. g. ^^i, tn the tpring, comp. i^q, 
•pring, aeipl, unfuuonatifj, uijit (Dor. tioii), uix^ti, ixattt, aaoyit ; 
in Adverbs of manner iu -»' and -l, ftom Adjectives in -oi and -i^, 
knd almodt exclusively in Adverba compounded of a privative and 
no; or alioi, e. g. itarogptl and nuxo^/ii. Oo the use of both forms, 
B«e l«rge Gmmmar, Part 1. ^ 3fi3, jf, 

if)hi local Adverbs in -ol, commonly derived from subslaDlires of the 
•Econd Dec., e. g. 'icSfiot from 'la-d-nos, Jlv9oi from IlvSti, Mtyagol 
(iQ Mij'aga), iZfi^aioI, Kixarrdl from ij Klxvyya), ot, dhoi, ijuo, whither, 
obot, domi, from olxog. 

KuL 2. Adverbs in -oi, derived (rom substantives, denote an indefinite 
"*«, bui those derived from pronouns commonly denote the direction 
"tWu, yet oometimes tlie indefinite uAtrt. 

126 CLASSES OF THE VERB. [§ 102. 

(y) In local Adverbs in -ai. This ending occurs only in a few forms, e. g. 
Xoifiai, humi, nalai. To this form corresponds the PL of Adverbs of 
place, ~fiat(f\ or -da^v preceded by i, derived from substantives of 
the first Dec. ; this ending origLnally belonged to plural substantives 
only, but was transferred later to substantives in the singular number, 
e. g. OriPtjai from 0rj/3ai, ^A&r^vriat, from ^A&rivai, lHataiaah finom 
IlXataial ; Jligyaarjai fi'om ntgyaarj, 'Olvfjurldai from *OlvfinUu 

(d) In Adverbs in -fj and -a, e. g. SXXii, higri, n^Piy onfooty xpv<]f^, Xa^Qa, 
wnjf iemare, ovdagAriy drigAoaia, publice^ xoti^, in commoHj idia^ privatmi, 
xofiidfi, dUtgenter ; also nrj, otti}, ndrtrj^ i;, t^, jijdt, tovtij, etc. ; i) and 
a commonly have an Iota subscript 

(c) The Ace. inflection occurs in the following forms, 

(a) In the endings ~rjr and - cr y, e. g/ TtQdnjv^ liaxgav, toiddy^ nigctr and 
7tigi}v, trans, but nigaj uUra, etc. ; so also of substantives, e. g. dimpff 
instar, axfii^v, (acme) scarcdy, doiQtdv, gratis. 
(13) In the ending >- o y, e. g. dfigov, diu, arj/jugovy hodie, avgiovj to-fnorrmo, 
(y) In the endings - d o y, - J f; y, -do, (Adverbs of manner), e. g. avtoa- 
jiffldoy, cominus, x**^^ov, innoigoxoidriv, itnoinadd, 

(d) In some substantive forms in the Ace. of the third Dec, e. g. x^^^^tfi"^ 
the sake of, gratia, Tigolxa, gratuitously. 


The Verb. 
Nature and Division of the Verb. 

§102. Classes of the Verb. (67,68.) 

1. The Verb expresses an action, which is affirmed of a sub- 
ject, e. g. the father torUeSj the rose blooms^ the boy sleeps^ God 
is loved. 

2. Verbs are divided, in relation to their meaning and form^ 
into the following classes : 

(1) Active verbs, i. e. such as express an action, that the sub- 
ject itself performs or manifests, e. g. /^a^oo, to toritey d'ok- 
^> to bloom; 

(2) Middle or Reflexive verbs, i. e. such as express an action, 
that proceeds from the subject and again returns to it, 
i. e. an action which the subject performs on itself, e. g. 
^wlevofuu^ I advise myself ^ I deliberate. 

(3) Pasaive verbs, L e. such as express an action that the sub- 

^ 103, 104.] VERBS. THE TENSES AND MODES. 127 

ject receives from another subject, e. g. rwttofAcu am nvog, 
lam smitten by some one, 
3. Verbs, which are used only in the Middle form, are called 
Deponent They have either a reflexive or intransitive mean- 
ing. They are divided into Middle Deponents, which construct 
their Aorist and their Future with a Middle form, e. g. xf^^ofuxi, 
gratijicor, Aor. ixoQUsantiv, Fut. jfa^/ovfioi, and into Passive De- 
ponents, which construct iheir Aorist with a Pass, form, but 
their Fut commonly with a Middle form, e. g. ir&v[MOficu, mecum 
reptUoj Aor. aVa^^j^iyy, mecum reputavi, Fut iy^fniaofiouj mecum 
reputabo. Comp. § 197. 

§103. The Tenses. (69,7o.) 

1. The Greek language has the following Tenses : 
I. (1) Present, ^ovUvg), I advise y 

(2) Perfect, ^e^ovlevxa, I have advised; 
II. (3) Imperfect, i^ovXsvov^ I was advisinffy 

(4) Pluperfect, i^e^ovlsvHeiv, I had advised, 

(5) Aorist, i^ovXevca, I advised, (indefinite) ; 
III. (6) Future, ^ovXevamy I shall or tuill advise, 

(7) Future Perfect only in the Middle form, ^b^wXevgo- 
ficu, I shall deliberate, or I shall advise myself. 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses. Present, Perfect and Future ; 

b. Historical tenses, Imperfect, Pluperfect and Aorist 

Rehark. The Greek language has two forms for the Perf. and Pluper£ 
Act, two for the simple Fut Pass., and two each for the Act, Pass, and 
Mid. Aorist ; these two forms may be distinguisbed as Primary and Second- 
ary tenses. Still, few verbs have both forms ; most verbs construct the 
above tenses with one or the other form. No Verb has all the tenses. 
Pure verbs, § 108, 5, form, with very few exceptions, only the primary 
tenses. Mute and liquid verbs may form both the primary and secondaiy 
tenses. The Fut Perf., which is found in but few verbs, is almost entirely 
wanting in liquid verbs. 

§104. The Modes. (7i.) 

The Greek has the following Modes : 
L The Indicative, which expresses an action or effect, e. g. 
the rose blooms, bloomed, will bloom. 


II. The Subjunctive, which expresses a condition. The Sub- 
junctive of the historical tenses may be called the Optative. 
jComp. yQaq)oifu with scriberem. 

Remark. See § 257, Rem. 1 and 4, for the manner in which the Aorist 
may use both fonns of the Subj. and how the Fut. may have an Optative. 

III. The Imperative, which is a direct expression of one's 
will, e. g. ^ovXevBy advise, 

§105. Participials. — Infinitive and Participle. 


In addition to the modes, the verb has two forms, which, as 
they partake, on the one hand, of the nature of the verb, and, on 
the other, of the nature of the substantive and adjective, are 
called Participials, namely, 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive participial, e. g. 
i&slm ^ovXeveiff I wish to advise^ and to ^ovXevetr, the 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective participial, e. g. 

^ovlevrnv dv^Q, a counsellor. 

Remark. These two participials may be caUed verbum infinitum ; the re- 
maining forms of the verb, verhumJinUwn. 

§106. The Persons and Tenses. (73.) 

The personal forms of the verb show whether the subject of 
the verb be the speaker himself, J, first person ; or a person or 
thing addressed, thou^ second person ; or a person or thing spo- 
ken of, Ae, shCj it, third person. They also show the relation of 
number. Singular, Dual and Plural, comp. § 41, 1, e. g. ^ovXein^ 
/, the speaker, advise ; fiovXevei^f thou, the person addressed, ad- 
visest; ^wXeveh he, she, it, the person or thing spoken of, advises; 
Povieietw, ye two, the persons addressed, advise ; ^ovXevovci^ they^ 
the persons spoken of, advise. 

Rebiark. There is no particular form for the first Pers. Dual in the Act. 
and Pass. Aorists, but it is expressed by the form of the first Pers. PL 

§107. The Conjugation. (74) 

Conjugation is the inflection of the verb designed to denote 
the Person, Number, Mode, and Tense. The Greek has two 


forma for conjugation, that in -at, which includes much (he 
larger number of verbs, e. g. ^ovXtv-ta, to advise-, and the older, 
original, conjugation in -fu, e. g. uFtr,-(ii, to station. 

4 108. Stem, Augment and Reduplicalinn. — Char- 
acleristic. om 

1. Every verb is divided into ihc stem, which conlaina the 
ground-form of the verb, and into the syllable of formation, by 
■which the relations of the action expressed by the verb, are deno- 
ted. See ^^ 102 — 106. The stem is found in most verbs in -oj by 
calling off the ending of the first Pers. Ind. Pres., e. g, ffouitu-tu, 

2. The syUables of forraalion are eilher annexed as endings 
'o the stem and are then called inflection-endings, e. g. ^ovXev-ta, 
i^isB-ffw, ^ovXev-aofiat, or are prefixed to the stem, and arc then 
"^ed Augment and Reduplication, e. g. i-^ovlevov, I was advis- 
"(g-, ^-^oiXevxtt, I have advised. An euphonic change, which may 
^ c^ed Variation, occurs in the stem of many verbs, e. g. 
'f«r-B, ti-T(»o<ji-a, i^qda-j]v. See \ 16, 6. 

3. The Augment, which belongs to the Indicative of all the 
^Morical tenses, i. e. the Imperfect, the Aorist and tlie Pluper- 
■wit, is e prefixed to the stem of verbs which begin wilh 
'Consonant, e. g. i-^ovJ.evaa, I advised; but in verbs, which 
'*gin with a vowel, it consists in lengthening the first stem- 
^owel, a and e being changed into j; (and in some cases 
•"to «), I and v into i and i', and o into o>, 

i. Reduphcation, whicH belongs to the Perfect, Pluperfect 
Mid Future Perfect, consists in repeating the iirat stem-conso- 
"Mt together with t, in those verbs whose stem begins with a 
'^^Wsonant; but in verbs whose stem begins with a vowel, it is 
"egame as the augmenl, e. g. ^e-§ovXtvx(i, I have fuivised/ixt- 
"**«! / have supplicated-, from 'ixertv-to. For a more full defini- 
tion of the Augment and Reduplication, sec ^ 119 sq. 

5. The last letter of the stem, after Ihc ending -w is cut off, is 
tilled the verb-characteristic, or merely the characteristic, be- 


cause it determines the class of verbs in -oo; according as the 
characteristic is a vowel, or a mute, or a liquid, verbs are divi- 
ded into pure, mute and liquid verbs, e. g. ^ovlev-ca, to advise^ 
ufid-my to /umoTj TQi^'O), to ruby qtaif-my to show. 

§109. Inflection-endings. (so.) 

In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation of 
tense, mode and person, there are three different elements, 
namely, the tense-characterisdc, the mode-vowel, and the per- 
sonal-ending, e. g. povXev'6'O'fAcu. 

§110. (a) Tense-characteristic and Endings, (bb.) 

1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands 
next after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark of 
the tense. In pure verbs, x is the tense-characteristic of the 
Perf. and Plup. Ind. Act, e. g. 

that of the Fut and first Aor. Act and Mid. and the Fut Perf. 
is <T, e. g. 

PovXnh-G^m (iovXeV'iT'^fiai pB-PovXiih-a-ofiat 

i-PovXev^a-a i-PovXiv-a-dfitjv ; 

that of the first Aor. Pass, is ^ ; the first Fut Pass, has, in ad- 
dition to the tense-characteristic <t, the ending -^^ of the first Aor. 
Pass., thus. 

The primary tenses only, see § 103, Rem., have a tense-cha- 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending follow- 
ing, is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form ^ov3l«J<y«, 
<y, the tense-characteristic of the Fut, and the syllable (to>, are the 
tense-ending of the Fut The stem of the verb, together with 
the tense-characteristic and the augment or reduplication, is 
called the tense-stem. Thus, e. g. in ipovleva-a, i^ovXeva is the 
tense-stem of the first Aor. Act 


§111. (b) Personal-endings and Mode-vowels. 

The personal-ending takes a different form according to the 
different persons and numbers ; and the mode-vowel takes a 
different form according to the different modes, e. g. 

1 PerB. Sing. Ind. Prea. M. ^ovkii-o-fiat Subj. ^ovltv-ei-fiai 

3 " " " Fut " /5oi/i«t-iT-8-Toi Opt, fiovliv-a-oi-jo 

1 " PI. " PrcB. " povliv-o-iAt&a Subj. ^ovXtv-ii-/iiaa 

2 " " " " « jiovliv-e-aSr " jiovltv-ij-ir&c 

1 " Sing. " A. L " i^ovliv-a-a-firi» " ^avXci~a-iu-ftai 

3 " " " " " t^ovUi-a-a-to Opt, povXii-a-ot-to. 

Remahc In the above forms, povltv \e tbe verb-etein, anil fiovliv, ^ov- 
in^ir BU(] ipovXtoT are tbe lense-Btenia, namely, of tlie Prea., Fuu and tiret 
Aor. Mid.; the endings -/lai, -tat, etc., are the personol-tndiiigB, oud tlie 
'i^'^ela D, M, (, 01, <!, a, oi, are the mode-vowels. 

§112, Summart/ of the Mode-vowels . 









A... Mid. 









«, « 








A.I.M. .'^'^f^X!"' 


A. I. A. ana M 

.\. 1. A. .nd M. 

B, 1, 


« 1 "i 




? i «: 







« a 




133 VEBBS.^— •PBBSONAL-ENDINOS OF VERBS IN -<0. [§ 113, 114. 

§113. Persona 


of Verbs 

in -w. (M.) 

I. Active Form. 

11. Middle Form. | 

A. Ind. and Subj. B. Xnd.andOpt. 
the Princ tenses. the HisL tenses. 

A. Ind .and Subj. 
the Princ. tenses. 

B. Ind. and Opt. 
the Hist tenses. 

Sing. 1. 

\Vy OptfU 













Dual I. 










Plur. 1. 








(vti) a I, a IV 

Vy cap 

f rat {atai) pto (aTo) 

C. Imperative. 

C. Imperative. 

Sing. 2. 
Dual 2. 

3. too 
rov 3. TOW 

Sing. 2. (<Jo) 3. a^m 
Dual 2. (Jd^op 3. a^top 

Plur. 2. 

te 3. tcDaav 

Plur.2. (T^e ^ G&a}<jaPyadt9P 

D. Infinitive. 

D. Infinitive. 

9 Pres., Fut and Aor. H. 


vcu Perf. Act and Aor. I. and II. Pass. 


on Aor. I. 

E. Participle. 

E. Participle. 

Stem vty with exception of the Perf., 
whose stem ends in -ot. 

f^tepog, fASprj, fjupop ; 
fiipogf lAevtj, fjitpop, PerC 

Remark. The Personal-endings follow so directly the mode-vowel, and 
are often so closely joined to it, that they form one whole, e. g. fiovXiia^-jiQ, 
instead of povlsva-rj-ig, povXev^ti, instead of /9oi;iUv-6-ai. 

§114. Difference betxoeen the Personal-endings 
in the Principal and the Historical Tenses. (».) 

1. The difference between the Princ. and Hist tenses is important The 
Princ tenses, form the 2d and 3d Pers. Dual in - o y, e. g. /9oi;iUv-«-f«r 
fiovXtv-t-Tov ; povlnf-t^ad^ov povliv^t-a^ov ; the Hist tenses also form die 
2d Pers. D. in - o y, but the 3d in - iji', e. g. 

ifiovX(v-B-zop ifiovXiV'i-tijp, ipovXiv-t-a & o v ipovXtv-i-^^fip, 

2. The Princ. tenses form the dd Pers. PL Act in - cr & ( y ), from -y t«, "Pfft, 
and the Mid. in -p tat; the Hist Act in - y, and Mid. in - r t o, e. g. 

fiovXnh-o-i^ a I ae jiovXnh'Ovci{p) i-poyXsv-o-p 
fiovlii-o^ tai i'PovXtV'O-p t o. 

3. Tlie Princ tenses in the Sing. Mid. end in -^o*, ^vah^ -rai ; the Hist 
in -fci^y, <-<ro, -to, e. g. 

fimiUi-Hr' a a « MSB (knilti-^^ ifiavXiv-i- ao wb ifiovlii^ov. 


! 115.1 


the Ind in ibe saiae lenBes ; llie OpL 
3 uut 3 Ou. bid. Pr. fiaeXi ii-iot 

3 PI. " " l3ovlivov'ai(r) 

2" " " fiovliii-ti 
3" " " fiovlivt-iai 

3PL " " i^oiUi'O'y 

i^oi'Uiio- r T o 
IS. " " iflovlfvo-iiiiy 
3" " " [/jioflnt-ao] (^othi- 
2" " " i^avUi-i-%0 

Subj, /5otlit ij- ** v 

" §ovl.t.iia- in( » ) 
" §ovUvm-rlcn 

Opt. (Sot'lfVOl- T O f, -of- T )J » 

fj» " PovXivoi-iT9ov,-ot-a9i)r 

" povltvoi-tf 

ov " (ffovXivot-va) povt-ti-oi-o 

ills. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -m- 

teoses, § 103, Rem., theso 
le verbs and one li(|uicl verb, 
, Mti-rn .irn, faly-tt, 1'ATi. 

1* Snce the pure verbK do not form tlie Si^c. 
(■^wacapplied in the Pnrndigtn from two mm 
M«U exhiUt a fiill Coiij., e. g, ipi'^-oi, Xiln-ti 

3. In learning the table we are to note, 

I'l T)i« the meaning in English is opjioiiie the Greek fomis. 

1^1 Thai ibe Greek forms may always be resolved into, (a] Pereonal-end- 
"* (b] Mode-Towel, [c) Tense-cbarncteristic, (d) Tense-Btem, (e) Verb- 
"">^{f^ Augment or Redupliration. 

1^ Tbo ^^Mcw/ forms, e.g. jiovltv-itor, povUi-tiJoy, 3d Pcrs. Du. Ind. 
"w Suhj. Pres., may call nttentioo to the differeiices between tlie HisL 
""^ in the Ind. and OpL and ibe Princ. lenses. 

(^1 Similar forms, as well as tbosc that dilftr only in accentuation, are 
"•"inprished by a star •. Tlie learner should rompare these logetber, e. g. 
fnUivu, I. S. lud. Flit. AcL or 1. S. Subj. Aor. I. Act ; ^oiXivaai, 2. 8. Imp- 
*"■ I. Mid^ jJovUiaai, 3. S. OpU Aor. L Act, jiovlivaai, Inf. Aor. L Act 

(S) The Bcceotuation, § 118, should be learned with the form. The fbl- 
"wilig general rule will suffice for begiimera; The accent in tbe verb is 
"ArSom the end as the final syllable will permit. Those forme, whose 
*WBiuatioD deviates from this nde, arc indienled by n cross t, 

I'l) Wlwii the paradigm is iliusilioroughly learned, the pupil may firet re- 
**« Ae forms either of (Sovliiwi, or any pure verb, into their elements, i. e. 
"Winsl-ending, Modc-vowcl, etc., observing this order, viz. fiovkiivw is, (1) 
Js PenL, (2) Sing., (H) Ind, (4) Fiit, (5) AcL, (6) from ^ovinia, to admx ; then 

* <n«y arrange the elementary parts of the form, and in tbe following order, 
n)V«rb.gtero, (2) Augment or Reduplication, (3) Teuse-cbaractcri«tic, (4) 
'"ue-rteni, (5) Mode-vowel, (B) Tense-steni with Mode-vowel, {7] Personal- 
•Kding, (8) Teitse-Biem with Mode-vowel and Personal -ending. E. g. What 
•""Id he the form in Greek of the phrase, he adviml /drntty, using the Aor, 
^<in Frea^ ^uUv-ai, lo advite ? AJiswer : The Verb-etem is povltu-, Aug- 
•"M, i, thus 0avliv ; tlie TenBe-cliaracterisiic of the first Aor. Mid. is a, thus 
Tte" -^rn IB i-povUv-a ; the Mode-vowel of the first Aor. Ind. Mid. is a, 

* - 1-0 ; the Personal-ending of ibe third Pers. Sing, of an Hist 

d. il 10, thus t-^avltv~a-9-\o. 







E .- 

9 « 

i5 ft- 




of the Principal tenaei. 








^ovXbv-(o,* I advise, 
^ovXsv-eigy thou advisest, 
^ovXev-ei, he, she, it advises, 
^ovXev-erov, ye two advise, 
^ov}^-8 7 0V , they tvoo advise, 
^ov}^'OfJL%v, we advise, 
^ovXev-ere,* you advise, 
^ovXeV'O vat(v), they advise. 

^ovXeV'O),* I may advise^ 
^ovXsv-'dg, thou mayest ad. 
^ovX£V'Xl*he,8he,it may ad. 
^ovXev-ritov, ye two may a. 
^ovXeV'Tj 1 vjOCy two nCya 
^ovXeV'ODfiBv, we may ado. 
^ovXfv-rfZB, you may adv. 
8ovXEV'G}ai(v),they may ad. 











i-^ovXeV'Ov,* I was advising, 
i-^ovX^v-eg, thou wast advising, 
i'^ovXBV'e{v),he,8he, it was advising, 
i'^ovXei-etov, ye two were advising, 
i-^ovXeV'i rt]v , they two were adv^g, 
i-^ov}^V'OfA€y, we were advising, 
i-^ovXev-ers, you were advising, 
i-j^ovXiV'Ov,* they were advising. 

Perfect /., 



Perf. IL, 
Plpf U., 






S. 1. 









X'O, I halve advised, 
x-ag, ihou hast advised, 
X'^v),*he,8he, ii has advised, 
x-arov, ye two have admsed, 
x-ar ov, they tu:o have adv. 
x-a(iBV, we have advised, 
x-atB, you have advised, 
X'd a i(v),they have advised, 

^B'^ovXBV'X'Gjflm^y Kve a. 

^B-^ovXaV'X'Xjgy thoumay- 
id have advised, etc., 
like the Sub). Pres. 


x-Biv, I had advised, 
X'Big, thou hadst advised, 
X'Bijhe, she, ii had advised, 
X'Bitov, ye two had adv. 
X'B it tj V, they two had ad, 
X'BifiBV, we had advised, 
X'BiTB, you had advised, 
X'B aav, they lusd adv. 

Ttt-cprjv-a,^ I appear, 
B-nB'(fiiv-Biv? I appeared. 

nB'Cf^-ca, I may appear, 

^orist L, 


S. 1. 








a, I advised, (indefiDite) 
ag, ihou advisedst, 
^v), he, she, ii advised, 
atov, ye two advised, 
arrjv, they tuH) advised, 
UfABV, we advised, 
atB, you advised, 
av , they advised. 

^ovXev-g-o},* Imayadmt^^ 
^ovXEv-a-Tug, thou nuxyed 

advise, etc., like the 

Subj. Pres. 


B-Xm-ov, I left, 

i-Xi7i-Bg, etc. declined like ImpC Ind. 

XiTi'OO, etc., like the Subg. 

^iSdure, S. 1. 1 povXEV-a-OD,^ IshaU advise, 
vXbV'O' I like the Iodic Pres. 

"he inflection of the second Perf. in all the Model and Paiticiplef, is like that of the tot Perf. 





^ovlev-t, adoiit, 
liofJlev-tna, let Mm advin, 

^0fi.ev-eT0T,yt tipoadviM, 
liovXeu-eToty, kt them both ad. 



! ftovln-oi^ / might adpitt, 
I ^thi-oti, Hiov mightat adv. 

iWlrt-oi, At, tAt, it mtghl adv. 

^Iti-oitor, yc two imglit ad. 

(WItv-aifiM', tut might aihitc, 
|fWliv-D(H,^ou tnighl advitc, 


'o yt adviM, 

V, UBually fiovltti-t 

I ffotiira-ow 
I ^oiiXev-ovaa 


I ^oi'ilti'-otinjf, 


[§e-^iyvlev-x-t,'] etc^ like 
the Imp. PreB., yet only 
a few Perfects, and surli 
as have the meaning; of 
Ilie Pfes., form an Imiwr- 

ff-^ltv-ii-oii.lhou mightal 

hart advittd, etc., like the 


tUfK/r-OtiU, I might apptar. 

fttUvn-iaiu, Imightadvix, 
\^lti-a-ttii or -ei«v ^ovXfv-o 

:f9iitp-tt- « « T li ' ^ovXev-a-d- 




dovhv-a-a.Ttoaa.T, usually •auvjinv* 


LB Am PliLperf., both In 




haviTig advittd, 





1 = 1 





TeDB&«lera i 

S. I. 







fiorir^-B' [an. mhrited, 




({ovlev-^ltui, I mas 


jiovXev- t»»rui 


Tense^em : 

S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 



r-jimiXev-6 Hlv, 1 uxu delibe- 
i-§ov}.iv-ov [nling, 





Tons&fltem : 

S. 1. 





P. 1. 


^f-fioiiev-ntti, Ihavedtlibtro' 
lit-iioiUx'-<,ai [Ud, 



f(e-ffoiiiH'-;(fVoe w, / 

Tense^Iem : 






P. 1. 



S. 1. 



D. 1. 


p. 1. 



t-pi-[tovXtv-m [trvUd, 





i-^ovXev-a-aiitiv. I ddibtra- 


i-^ovXev-a-aiit &a 


^owUJ-fl-B' [ddOeraU, 
eic, like Pres. aul^. 



i-hn'6fi3}*, 1 remained, like 
iDd. Iniperf: 

like PpeiSubj. 



like Pres. Indie. 



ende, like Pres. IncUc. 




^ovXtv-ov, ddiberale. 


^ovXev-e'a0a«jttr, usually i^ktv-taOatt' 







lu-ao, MiUrale, 


aitai,'! (o jiifiovXtv-ptTii 
havcddib- fjtjiouj.tii-fit- 
ror,] hairing 

^t'^ovXKV-a9i* ^ ^ 

fJa-JtoniUii-ggiuqar, usually fa-fjontm-gfltot-' 

wigKt ddibtndc. 

to ddibtr- 




having delibe- 

JUfl-i>v,t-c<iOo>ilihe Pres. 









of the Principal tenses. 


S. 1. 



P. 1. 



i-^ovXeV'&'Tjv, lung admsedy 

i'^ovXev'd^- ijaav 

^ov}£V'd'-(ay ImigU heme 
povXeV'd'-ig [been adv. 

^ovXBV"&-ritB • 


S. 1. 

^ovXeV'^j'ff'OiJUU, IshaU he admsed 
^ovXev-^-a-fl, etc., like the Ind. 
Pres. Mid. 


S. I. 

i-TQlB'tiVf I was rubhedy 
i'rQi^'Tjg, etc., like the first Aor. 
Ind. Pass. 

tQi^'iZy IrrCyhaoeVn t^Vd, 
TQi^'is, etc., like the 
first Aor. Subj. Pass. 


S. 1. 

TQi^-n-a-oiAOUj I shaU he rubbed, 
tQi§'ij'<J'tlf etc., like the first FuL 
Ind. Pass. 

Verbal Adjectives: ^ovXev-tog, -rj, -6v, iuhiaedj 

§116. Remarks on the Inflection-endings, (se-so.) 

1. The personal-endings of verbs in -co are apocopated forms, as may 
be shown firom the older conjugation in -jtit, and in part fix)m the dialects ; 
thus, -jtii in the first Pers. Sing, first Aor. Ind. and -ti, in the third Pers. 
have disappeared, e. g. povkav-ti instead of fiovXtv-o^fAi or PovXnf^oh-fjUj 
Povlw-H instead of povXtv-e-u ; in the first Pers. Sing, first Aor. Ind. Act, 
r has disappeared, e. g. iflovXsvaa instead of ipovUtHray ; in the second Pers. 
Sing. Imper. Act, except the first Aor., -^i has disappeared, e. g. poiXtv^e 
instead of povXti-B-d^i. 

2. The second Pers. Sing. Act has the ending -ad' a in the Common 
language in the fi)llowing forms only : 

olc-d^a, nodiy fix)mthe Perf. olda; tjdBia&a and jjdrjff&a, Plp£of 
olda; €9170-^0, Impf firom qnjgjUy to say ; ijcr^a, Impf. fix)m ilfii^ 
to he; yeia^a, ImpC firom ttfn, to go. 

3. There is no special form for the first Pers. Dual Act, or for the first 
and second Aor. Pass. ; the first Pers. PL is used for this purpose. Comp. 
§106, Rem. 

4. The original form of the first Pers. PI. Act is - jti s c (not -fAtv). Comp. 
the Dialects, § 220, and the Latin ending -mttf , e. g. /^a^-o-^, scrib-i-ii»ti«. 




Participiale. | 






BauUi>-{t-dr,r, I might be 
^liv&-ti,is [advind, 


0ov}.ev-&-eiijitsv and -stfur 
^itv-^'djjte and -she 

^ovUv-9-i^zi, bt Uou ad- 

^ovltv-^-tjToj [vised, 


^ovXev-e-rne • 

to bead- 


povUv-»-iv t 




ie adeued, etc., like the 
Imp£ Opt. Mid 

T^t^-eirji, etc, like the Rnl 
Aor. OpL Pasa. 

TQi^'JlQt, -ijzia, etc 


te'^-eii.i etc., 
like first Aor. 
Purt. Pnss. 


rQi^-JI-a-oi'itii*. 1 themld be 1 
rubbtd. etc.. like the first 
Put. Oi>t. PasB. 

^ovXtv-tioi, -tia, -Tt'ov, to be ailviatd. | 

5. The original form of the third Pers. PI. AcL nf the Principal lenseB is 
-ft*; wlien i was clionged into u, v was dropjied, e. g. ^oi'lti-oyn ^ 
povUi-ovai. On the irregular lengtlieniug of the vowel preceding the v, 
see^SO, Rem. 3. 

6. In the first Pera Sing. Plup. Act, Attic writers use, together with the 
form in -^i*, a form in -ij, wliich arises from the Ionic ending of the Plup. 
-(B, e. g. tpt^ovlcm-7i iDSlead of -i-hy. The mode-TOwel ei in the third 
Pera. PI. is commonly shortened into f, e. g. iptpovlEu-»'t-ijar instead of 

7. The first Peia. Sing. OpL Act has tlie endbg -;Ui in verbs in -«i, e. g. 
iim3(v-o(-^i, JioiJiwr-iK-^i; but tlie ending -)j» in the first and second 
Aor. Pass., according to die analogy of verbs in -/it. This i) remains 
through all dje Persons and Numbers, though it may be dropped in the 
Dnal and PL, and then, tiri/icp = ufiiv, i/ijie ^ rlii, thjaav ^ iliv, e. g. 

aiHiuScltKiiv and naiSivSiificv, firria&ibiJi and -9iTie, ipayiitiirav, X. H. 6. 
5,25. jrpoxf iSt/ini'"'. Ibid. 34. ntiitf&iltiaar,'ni. 1,38. and -Outr {-riir). 

8. The Optative endings -jjc, -ijj, -ij, etc., and the tliird Pere. PI. -ic 
[rarer— (jirar) take the form in -m, in the following cases, which is called 
the Attic Optative i 


(a) Most commonly in the Imperf. of contract verbs, e. g. xi/iwi^v, ^lAo/ijy, 

(b) In all Futures in -oi, e. g. q>avoifiv, Soph. Aj. 313. igolri, Xen. Cy. 3. 
1, 14, fix)m the Fut q>av6ij igm ; 

(c) Somewhat often in the second Plup., e. g. ixni(pevyolfiP^ S. O. R. 840. 
ngoiXiiXv&olfiij X. Cy. 2. 4, 17. nmoi&olti^ Ar. Acham. 940 ; 

^d) In the second Aor. cxolriv uniformly {Jsaxof from %x^) 5 ^^ °®^ gene- 
rally in compounds, e. g. naf^axotfAu 

9. The forms of the first Aor. Opt Act in - « iag, -« * «( f ), -e*« r, in- 
stead of -Hnii, -ai, -air, have passed fix)m the iEolic Opt in-eiiv, -tta;, 
etc, into conmion use in all the dialects, and are employed by die Attic 
writers more frequently than the regular forms, e. g. (hvXive- eiug^-BiB (y), 

Remark. The second Pers. Dual Act ofthe Historical tenses often ends, 
among the Attic writers, in - «/ y instead of -oy, e. g. Hnijfjp, PL Symp. 
189, c. inidtifitiaaTfiVy Euthyd. 273, e. ^orip, 294, e. iktyiv^, L. 705, d. 
ixoiPoirtivaTrjpy lb. 753, a. On the Dialects, see § 220, 9. 

10. Hie Middle endings -a at and -co, when immediately preceded 
by a mode-vowel, drop o-, § 25, 1, and then coalesce with the mode-vowel, 
except in the Opt, e. g. 

fiovXiv-i-irat povXiv-t-ai = PovXfv-tj 

PovXiv-ri-vai jSovXtv^-ai = PovXiXHfi 
fiovXiv-ot-ao fiovXiv-ot-o 

iPovXBV'B-ao i/iovliV'S-o =e= i/iovXti-ov 

ijiovXev<T-a-ao i/iovXeva-a-o == iflovXiva^oi, 

11. In tiie second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Fut Mid. and Pass., the Attic 
writers use a subordinate ending in -a, together with the ending -17, e. g. 
fiovXttr-p and -«*, PovXtva-p and -e^ (itpovXtia-fi and -ti, povXtv&^a-rj and 
^«, TQipiqinj and -6i, noip and -cl, oXj and -cZ. This form in -si passed fit>m 
the Attic conversational language, into the written language ; hence it is the 
regular form in the Comedies of Aristophanes, .but is avoided by the trage- 
dians. Thucydides and Xenophon use it ; other writers, as Plato and the 
orators, employ both forms, yet three verbs always take the form -e«, namely, 

povXofAai povXtk (but Subj. flovXri) 

oiofiai oVtt (but Subj. oVfi) 

oipofiat Fut oipti. 

12. Together with the endings ofthe third Pers. PI. Imperative Act and 
Pass. -troKray, -axoKroy, -cr^oxray, the abbreviated forms -oyTuy, -ajcir, 
- 9 ^ « r, are used ; and since they are employed very frequendy by Attic 
writers, they are called Attic forms. These abbreviated Imperatives ofthe 
Active Voice are like the Gen. PL of the Participle of each tense respect- 




ively, excepl die Perfect ; and Hie Middle form -aSuv is like the tliird 
Pen. DuaJ, c. g. 

Preg. Act floulii'iiDiaar and flovXivorjoiir 

Perf " ntrtotSiiaaar " ititoi-&6yitiiv {Geit. Pari. jiiJioi5onu>) 

Aor. L " flovlniiaitMrar " flavln'Oalaiw 

Pre*. Mid. ^ovi-ivitrdoiaur " flovln'ia&iar 

Aor. " iTxufniaSiiiaaT " axiijiaaSiuy. 

The Aor. Pa»t. ending -ivtair or -tjiur, nbridfjcd from -ijiun/or, is 
Ibund in PI. Logg. 85<i, d. jiifitpSirjiiii', and Ibiil. 737, c. 3iavi(itiSi]ti«r (ac- 
cording to several Codd.). 

13, Besides the simple form of Uie Subj. Perf, and tlie OpL Plup. Act, 
a poriphraHis, formed by the Perf. Part and Subj. or OpI. of ilmi, to bt. i, 
I'ljf, is very frei|uently used, e. g. nvtmStvicmg la, edvarmrim, ninaiSevnaiq 
tiqr, editfauMem. Yet this fiirtn eeeniH to denote a drcumitance or amdilion, 
more than a simple comp1ett.'d action; comp. PL Hipp. M. 302, a. li »t%ii%~ 
xtut Ti, q zcTqufiiros, i'l ninltffiiivot, ij ak^ aiiovr niaov-9dis ixaiipoc 
^■Sr ttt), ov xal afiifaif^oi av toito n i n u v # o i fi i r ; e:iampleB of the 
rimple forms are, onitXijipi), PI. Rp. 614, a. ilXijifUHiir, Polit 3(i9, c. ifinin- 
tmai, X. An. 5. 7, Sa xaTniaDJnoiO', II. .t. 3, 8. anoxt/Dipqiiai, 5, 3a vni)- 
ftziuot, 5. 3, a ni>ioi>;ii)<, Th. 8, 108. tt^tlll^Kottr, 3, 48. — The Imp. Perf. 
is very seldom found, c. g. yiyant, Eur. Or, 1320, 

14, The Perf. ond Plup. Mid. or Pass, append the personal-endiugs to 
the tenee-slem without u mode-vowel, and hence they raiinot form the Subj. 
and 0|iL (wiih few exceptions which will be furtlier treated below), but 
must also Iw cTpresscd periphrastically by means of the Particijile and 
ftrai, e. g, TimaiSevftiret oi, ii'qt>, tdvaituM tim, tsiein. 

15. The third Pern. Ind. PerK and Plup. Mid. or Pass, of pure verbs ends 
in -rt at, -yto, e. ji. ^ifloikivnat, i^ipoilivfioi but in mule and liquid 
Terbe, this formation is not possible. Hence the Atiic writers usually ex- 
pKBS this [>crM>ii periphrafitically, by means of Ilie Perf Pan. and t!al(v), 
lunt, ^nar, eravi ; tlie older ond middle Attic writers, however, BometimeB 
use the Ionic form -o loi, -liio, instead of -ttai, -no ; tlio o of these endingH 
is aspirated before the Kappa and Pi-inutes, but uol before the Tau-mutes ; 

T(Ii!-Dii,(orub, Perflit-tp(fi-fJOi3P.r«rp/ip((T«i for m^ i^rrai I 
nU>-a, fo ticint, ni-nlty-liai " njnly-nini " Tiinltsnat 
titt-a>,loarrangt, ti-Tay-fiat " Tczaxatai " liiaytiai 

XIBSji^-ta,Ui*tparaic,*t-xtaijui^fai'' Kij(agl3arai" lUfuifiSria 
ifSii^-nittodeatrog, [-(fdof-fial " ('^5apaiH( " tifSa^rint 

16. The TWO Aorists Pass, follow the analogy of verbs in 
they cannot be fiinher treated here. 


§117. Remarks on the Formation of the Attic 

Future. (looo 

1. When the short vowels ci , e, I, in the Fut Act and Mid. of verbs in -<ro>, 
'•aofAai^ from stems of two or more syllables, precede a, certain verbs, instead 
of the regular form, have another, which, after dropping o", takes the circmn- 
flexed ending -cS, -ovfiai, and because it was frequently used by the Attic 
vrriters, it is called the Mie Future, e. g. iXaio (usually iXavvio), to drive, 
^Xa-a-Qi, Fut Att iXa, -^g, -$, -axov, -afitt, -utc, -aKri(i') ; uXitay tofinUhj 
tiXi-fT-u, Fut Att. T€Jl(3, -«7$, -«*, -tliof, -oD/icv, -«Iie, -own(i'); TcicV-o^a* 
(TeiU'o/iai), TtXovfAai, -fi, -itjat, etc. ; xofAiCto, to carry, Fut. nofiata, FuL Att. 
xofAiw, -itig, -ul, -ulxov, 'iovfA$v, -iiirt, -iot;(rt(y) ; nofiiovfiat, -it*, -iCiicri , 
'-lovfisd'ov, etc. 

2. This form of the Fut is found only in the Ind., Inf. and Part, never in 
the Opt, thus, TCil&j, TtXtir, TsXav ; but jBXiaotfjku The verbs which have this 
form are the following: (a) iXdu (iXavvm), to drive, teXim, to finish, xa- 
licii,io call, and, though seldom, aXi(a, to grind; — (b) all polysyllables in 
-/{^co; — (c) a few verbs in -ef((u, very generally ^ijiaZfo; — (d) of verbs 
in -^^ all in ^avrvfn and aft<piivrvfAi,todoihe(ifiq>i&,-u'ig, etc.). 
Exceptions to this Fut are found also in the Attic dialect, e. g. iXdaa, X. 
Cy. 1. 4, 20. jfXiaovait, 8. 6, 3. xaXiaug, 2. 3, 22. yoiilaova^, 3. 1, 27. (ac- 
cording to the best Codd.) ynjiphta^B, Isae. de Cleonym. hered. § 51. 

§118. Accentuation of the Verb. (104,105.) 

1. Primary law. The accent is drawn back from the end of the word 
towards the beginning, as far as the nature of the final syUable permits, e. g. 
fiovliVB, fiovXtvofiat, navi, xtntti, ^oiXtvaov, navaor, jvipor, but PovXtviig, 

2. This law holds good in compound words, yet with this limitation, that 
the accent cannot go back beyond the syllable of tlie preceding word, 
which, before the composition, had the accent, nor beyond the first two 
compounded words, neither beyond an existing augment, e. g. 

(pBQ8 nq6g(ptq8 Xtina anoXeinB dmiitr Bvdtofitr 
q>tv/6 htfpsvys olda avvotda ijfiat xd&iiftai; 

but nqogEixop like eljifof, naqiaxov like taxov, i^fiyov like ^yw, nqogiixov like 
fjiwr, aml^yoy like ilffyop (not Ttqogttxov, ndgsaxov, etc.), but Imp. SntiQ/B. 

Excqrlions to the Primary Law. 
8. The accent is on the ultimate m the following forms: 
(a) In the Infl second Aor. Act as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Neut 
ffiiig.P«rtof the tame tense as acute, e, g. Xvneit, Xmior, -op, and in these- 


cood Pere. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Ai^L of tiie five Terle, ilni, i3.9i, t£(i, 
lo^i and I3i (bui in compoaition, anrmi, anola^i, anilSt, (Jict^t. 

(b) Also Id the Inip. second Aor. Mid, as circumflex, e. g. la^ov, 9i>v 
from %l9rjiii. 

Reuahk 1. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participiale) of tlie second Aor. 
Act draws back the accent in all verbs according- to the primary law, c. g. 
a^aXt, £feil<9(, tJciTo;, (jcdorc, anoSo^, otto^oie, ^eiu^o;, [taaSoit (but not 
aaodot, fiiraSoi, see No. 2), but ix^aliiv, iit^ulmv, ixlmily, iiiX9eir, etc. 
Bui in ilie Itnp. Sing, second Aor. Mid. of verbs in -ai, the circiiniflcx re- 
mains on the ultimate in compounds aleo, e. g, txjloiov, a<fitiov, ixlntei, 
inilaOov, aifiilov, htriyiioi; so in verbs in -fu, when tlie verb is com- 
pounded with II monosyllabic preposition, e. g. ni/o5ov, lrSov,o(fov; yet 
the accent is drawn bark, when the verb is compounded with a dissyllabic 
preposition, e. g. aaoSov, Htna&ov, ait69ov ; but in tlie Dual and PI. of tlie 
second Aor. Mid., the accent is in all cases drawn back, e. g. ttipaktaSi, 
aitoluput St, iifoSoaSf, tfSiaSe, utfiaSi, xaiaSia9i. 

(e) TliB acute stands on the ultimate in all pnrticiplea in -{ (Gen. -iO(), 
consequently in all active Participles of verbs in -^i, as well as in those of the 
first and second Pcrf. Act and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs, e. g> 
fii/lavlivx^. Gen. -oio;, Tiiiptgrtj;, Gen. -oio$, jSovXtvOiig, Gen. -irtos, rvntlf. 
Gen. -iVioe, unag, Gen. -aytoq, u3fl(. Gen. -inot, SiSoig, Gen. -ocios, Stmrvf, 
Gen. -vnug, diaatdi, ixSils, ni/oSovg, Gen. diairidyiog, ix9eno(, ti^oSonoS' 

Rem- 2. The first .Aor. Act Purt, which is always paroxylone, is an ex- 
ception, e. g. naiSiCaof, Gen. aaiSeiijurtoi. 

(d) In the Sing, of tlic tint aud second Aor. Subj. Puss, as circumflex, 
e. g. PovlivSai, tpi^iu. 
4 The nccoDl is on tlic |>enult in the following forms: 

(a) In iLe Inf of Perf. Mid. or Pass., of first Aor. Act and second Aor. 
Mid. ; also in all infinitives in -vat, hence in all active infinitives according 
to the formation iti -/ii, as well asin the Inf. of first and Hccoiid Aor. Pass, and 
of tbe Perf. Act. of all verbs, e. g. iitiqi9m, jli^ovliva&ai, ituft^aSat, nc- 
<pii^(rdai, fiipiaduiaSai ; — (prJluftK, PovXivaot, ii^iijiroi, tfArjaai, ftiuSaaai ; 
— Imiadat, irSiaSat, SiaSoa&ai; — Imamt, ndirai, SiSorai, Scixrirrat, orij- 
TVi, imnijrai, Siiritt, itSiirat, iovrai, linoiovrai:, — (iovXtvUijvat, Tpi/!^vai \ 
— fll^ovliviarai, Xiioiniyai. 

(b) In all Optatives in - o t and - a t , eeo § 39, Rem. 4. 

Rem. 3. Tbe three corresponding forms of the Inf first Aor. Act, Imp. 
first Aor. Mid. and the tliird Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act-, when they tx»n- 
rist of three or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distin- ^H 

guished from one another by the accent, in the following manner : ^H 

ln£ first Aor. Act ^ovltiirai. Imp. first Aor. Mid. povltvaat, ^^H 

Opt finit Aor. Act ^ovliiaat, ^^^^^^H 

144 • VERBS. ^THE SYLLABIC AUGMENT. [§§ 119, 120. 

But when the penult is short by nature or long only by position, the Inf. 
first Aor. Act corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt, first Aor. Act, 
e. g. q>vXa^ai ; but Imp. first Aor. Mid. <pvla^ai, 

(c) In the Part Perf. Mid. or Pass., e. g. PijiovXevfiivogf -fiivri, -/ueVor, t«- 
UfArifiivog, nttpdfj/jiirog. 

§119. A more particular vieia of the Augment and 

Reduplication. (76.) 

1. After the general view of the Augment and Reduplication 
in § 108, 3, it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

2. As has been already seen, all the historical tenses, viz. the 
Impf., Plup. and Aor. take the augment, but retain it only in the 
Ind. There arc two augments, the syllabic and temporal, 

§120. (a) Syllabic Augment. (76.) 

1. The syllabic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem 
begins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing «* to the 
stem, in the Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication in the 
Plup. In this way, the verb is increased by one syllable, e. g. 
^avX&ioDy Impf. i-^ovXsvovy Aor. i-^wXevaa, Plup. i-^e-^ovlsvxsi'r. 

2. If the stem begins with Qy this letter is doubled when the 
augment is prefixed, § 23, 3, e. g. ^iWw, to throta, Impf. iqqmtovy 
Aor. BQQixffa, 

Remark 1. The three verbs /JovAojtiai, to wiUy dvrafAaiy lobe ahUj 
and ftilXiOyto be aboxU to doyto intendy take among the Attic writers 17, in- 
stead of e, for the augment; still this is found more with the later Attic 
writers, than with the earlier, e. g. ipovlij&riv and if^ovXri^tiv ; idwafttiv and 
ffdwaiAflPy idwrj&ipf and 9jdvvrj&fiv (but always idwaadriv); c/ieilioy and 
ijfitXXov (the Aorist is very seldom rjfiiXXrjaa), comp. X. H. 7. 4, 16. 26. 

Rem. 2. Among the Attic writers the augment e is often omitted in the 
Plup. in compounds, for example, when the preposition ends with a vowel ; 
in simples, when a vowel which is not to be elided, precedes, e. g. ava- 
fitfirfUBt X. An. 5, 2, 15. xaradidgafirixnTav X. H. 5. 3, 1. xaxaXiXBimo X. 

^ According to analogy, we may suppose that $ is prefixed to all verbs 
in the augmented tenses, whether the verbs begin with a vowel or conso- 
lianL If the verb begins with a consonant, e appears as an additional syl- 
lable, e. g. B-nQoiJovy but if with a vowel, £ is assimilated with that vowel 
and lengthens it, if it is not already long, e. g. ayaty Impf. Bayor = ^yop ; 
i&Hto, Imp£ ii^iXov = riasXov ; oxa'Uo), Impf. ioxtUov = cSxcUoy. If the 
word begins with a long vowel, it absorbs e, e. g. ^Aofo-xoi, Impf. i^Xaaxov 
Hi ^kaaxop ; cot^^oi, Impf. iw^iiov = u&i^op* When the verb begins with 
% the augment a is sometimes contracted with this Into si, e. g. ilx^i instead 

of jj;piy«— Tr. 





















ou Bnd (I, 


Dot admit 



^§ 121, 123.] VERBS. TEMPORAL AUGMENT. 145 

Cy. 4. 1, 9. xaiamnxiinu TJi. 4, 90. at amafjKm yiyhi,rjo X. Cj. a S, 24. 
(according to the best Codd.); hut in the linpf aiid Aorists, (lie Byllabic 
augment is omitted only ill poetry, und very seldom even here ; the Iropfl 
X^^l", which together with i/( )7>| is used in prose, is on exception. 

§121. {b) Temporal Aug-ment. rs.) 

The lemporal augraeni belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 

wilh a vowel, and consists in lengthening the first atem-vowel ; 

thus the quantity of the word is increased, e. g. 

a Iwcoracs ij, e. g.*'oyw Impf iiyot Perf. iixa Plup. ^x"* 

I " ^, " lluK" " niitiiop '- ■ 

" u, " ufjiiiu " iifiliovp 

i' " V, " v^gi^ni " "v^fiior 

at " ji, " olps'oi " fiQOVi 

av " ijii, " aiiliia " tjvkol-y 

Of " If, " oiitr/Jiii " ^ixlijoc 
Reuahk. Verira which begia with >;, T, ' , , 
BUgmenl, e.g. ijiiUD^ui, (o 6r otw«omc,Impf ^ihu/hiv, PetfAjiirifiai, Plup. 
lin^uiji'; 'rnooi, (o press, Aor-'rntmro; 'v'tvou, to riap, Aor. "vnvtaaa ; 
(u<fiil«w, lo benefit, hnpf. )iHfil.ovy ; ovjal^a, to wound, Impt^ olJiaCor; 
f iKU, Utyidd, liiipf. luor, Aor. (!f a ; (ihbj^uj, to Iiit«n,ieaiiexceptioi], wiiich 
among the Attic writers, though seldom, is aiigtiietiled, e. g. (iiia£bK, seldom 
^■a^ov; flifaa'a, seldom ^^mitra; [iii(i(r;iiii, seldom ^natr/jni. Also lliose verbs 
whose stem begins with il', are usunJIy without an augment, e. g. ivtonai, 
lo tuppHade, tv/ofi^, more rarely ))i'/o/iijt>, but Per£ tjiyfiai, not lu^^ni; 
(ipJinai, Uijixtd, ill good prose, always omits the nugmcut. 

5 123. Remarks. (is.) 

!. Verbs Iteginuing with a followed by a vowel, have a inateai! of ij ; but 
tlioee beginning witli a, ov and m followed by u vowel, do not admit llie 
augment, e.g. 'a'lfti, lo ptnxite (poetic), bapf."aiar ; 'nijJ/Jo/iiii, to have 
an vnpUiutail tensalion, lmpf.'aT,SiZnfiifr; avaiym. to dry, Impf. aiuiyov; 
DiHNi^tti, to xteer, Impf. oldni^oy; al«a ayiillaHm, lo datroy, altliough no 
vowel follows a, iiBK atulwaa, atalaxa as well as avliloiaa, ayijliaxa. But 
otofiat, lo bdieet, and tiie poetic atl&ta (prose ifSta), to sing, nod o'inatii (Att. 
iaaw), Ut ruth, lake the augment, e. g. ^o/iriy, fieiioy (prose i;Jo»), qijo (AtL 

S. Some verbs, also, beginning with oi and followed by a consonant, do 
BOl lake the augment, e. g. o i x o b (i < ai , to guard the hoiae, Anr. o'lHovifijan ; 
otroa, to mtoricaU, Pprt. Mid. or Pass, oivai/iiro; and ^roi^iiyoq; oioi(t oi, 
to tiudujiaioui, Aor. oiinfriaa. 

3. The twelve following verbs, beginning with i. Lave ci instead of t; for 
the augment, viz. dau, lo ptrmit, Impf. truii', Aor.; dSl^u, to oc- 
niton, (lo which belongs also il'taSu, to bt acciudotntd, from the Epic tda); 
' a , poetic Aor. [stem 'EJ), to pltset, iWfiir in prose, / tttabii^vd, found- 
iiicaw, tovAadi tlxai, totkaw; Aor. lUnuva (stem '£JAI7; itlor, 


to takey Aor. (stem 'JEA) of alQioi ; tnofiaiy to follow; iQ/aCofiai, to 
toork ; ^gnm, i^Trvfoi, to creep, to go; ioiidoi, to entertain ; B^oi, to 
have ; on the Epic EliAut, see § 230. 

4. The six following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, 

ayvv fn,to break, Aor. ea|a, etc. 

aXlaxo/Aai, capior, Perf. kaXoma and iiXtoxa. 

a>davm, to please, (Ion. and poet), Impfl iavdavo¥, Perf tuda^ Aor. 

ovQivi y mingere, iovgow, etc. 

i^ 8(0, to push, iu&ovv, etc. sometimes without the augment, e. g. dito^ 

^ovPTo Th. 2, 84. il(oa^fi<Tar X. H. 4. 3, 12. 
ivioiAOi, to buy, Impf iuvovfAtiv (ivovftriv Lys. Purg. Sacril. 108. §4. 

i^atvovvto Aeschin. c. Ctes. c. 33. ayttaveito Andoc. p. 122.), Aor. 

iuytioauTiv (see however $ 192.), Perf itoprjfiai, 

5. The verb ioQTaC(»>,to celebrate a feast, takes the augment in the se- 
cond syllable, Impf itagtal^or. The same is true of the following forms of 
the Plup. : 

£IKSl, second Perf boixo, I am like, Plup. it^xBip, 
sknofiai, to hope, second Perf eoXna, I hope, Plup. iiiXntit. 
EPrH, to do, second Perf BO(fya, Plup. io^gysit. 

6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at 
the same time : 

6 Q a (a, to see, Impf ktagmv, Perf idgaxaf ituQaftai. 

avolyia, to open, Impf. iviayop, Aor. avitol^a (Inf. aydi^ai), etc. 

aXlaxofAai,to be taken, Aor. kuXatv, (Inf. aXwvai, a) and tjXoiy. 

§123. Reduplication. ( 

1. The reduplication is the repeating the first consonant of 
the stem with e. This denotes a completed action, and hence is 
prefixed to the Perf.,* e. g. Xi'Xvxa, to the Fut Perf., e. g. Tts-xoa- 
(i^aofjLcu, I shall be adorned, from xocfisoi), and to the Plup., which 
as a historical tense, takes also the augment € before the redu- 
plication, e. g. i'§8'^ovXevx€iv. This remains in all the modes, 
as well as in the Inf. and Part 

• Strictly, we may say that the first letter of all verbs is repeated in the 
Perf, whether the verb begins with a vowel or a consonant If the verb 
begins with a vowel, the vowel is doubled and the two coalesce, if the ini- 
tial vowel is short, and thus form a long vowel ; but if the initial vowel 
18 long, it absorbs the other, e. g. 

Sym, Perf properly Saxa = ^/a 
iytlgm, " " iiytQxa = ijyfgxa 

oixia, ** " ootkfjxa = a»xi/xer. 

Sometimes when the verb begins with e, the double t, instead of coalescing 
into -^ is contracted into -««, e. g. Hw, Perf itaxa, instead of ijaxa, — ^Ta. 

2. Those verbs only admit the reduplication, whose stem be- 
gins with a single consonant or with a mule and liquid ; verba 
beginning with q, yf, jX, fJl,' except ^t^Xurfct, ^^Xanftat from 
^lonTM, to injure, ^e^laaf^ftiixa from ^htatfr^fifco, to blaspheme, jSe- 
^XaoTTjKa and i^Xairrrjua from ^Xuaiavio, to sprout, are exceptions, 
since ihcy take only the simple augment, e. g. 

Ivu, to hoK, PerC Xi-Uma Plup. i-Xt-limuv 

^iia, to samjkc, " li-Ovxa (^ 21, 2.) " i-u-&v)uiv 

<fvtiiia, to plant, " nJ-ipinttiHi (^ 21, 2.) " i-ai-tpvnvxtir 

/DfEiJui, to darux, " x(-jcof(iwo(§2l,3.) " l-»i~xaqii-ntii 

yi/o<pai, la leriU, " j/i-yi/aifa " t-yi-yQiiifiiv 

rlirai, to bend doum, " xi-xlixa " i-Ki-Klliiiir 

Mflria, tojad^, " xi'Ht^ma " i-xi-i^Uny 

jiria, to bnaihe, " jii-nnmot " i-m-Tinixiir 

fliooJ, to firuiJt, " T£-3inxB52I,2.) " i-ri-SXaxny 

fiiti)o, to throie, " tQJ/i([.a " fg^liftir 

jTft)f i Joj, to nwfe tTioipn, " i-yyoifixn " i-ynoi/ltitv 

fllaxiibi, to be slolhfal, " /-(Jiiinf tma " /-^laxtiiuir 

ylitfai, to taret, " t-yX\ifa " i-yi.viftil'. 

3. The reduplication is not used (the cases mentioned above 
with Q, y*, |3i, yX, excepted), when tlie stem of the verb begins 
with a double consonant or two single consonants, which are 
not a mute and liquid, e. g. 

Zuloio, to tmvialt. 

Pert: ^t.ii^uJia 

Phip. H^i^ui^ 

Itrota, to tnierttan. 

" l.U'^„n 

" ^fifojuir 

ifaUia, to nJtg, 

" f-v^alxa 

" i-ifiahii,y 

Ottilia, to tmc. 

'• r-,;,»e»« 

" i-tmaQxf,r 

xilZot, to bttild. 

" l-IT^II' 

jnwtrw, lofoid. 

" t-mi-za 

" i-niL'Xilr. 

Remabk 1. The tw. 

t verbs fitii*r,a»w 

, stem MiV^, to remW, and 

taofim, to acquire. 


ough their stem 

begins wiih two conBOiianw, 

wbtcli are not a mute and a liquid, still lake the redupticalioti, /ji-fir^fiai, 
M-vnifioi, i-fit-pniit7pi, i-at-mijiti*. The regular fiirm iKuj^oi, is Ionic, but 
it is fouDd oiso in Aescb. Prom. 792, and sometimes also iu Plato, likewise 
ID Th. m. ^ nfOitKitjfUya (as it is according to the Codd.). PerfectH 
formed by Metathesis or Syncope, are seeming exceptions, e. g. diStrrpm, 
xiitratiai, etc., ^ 16, 8, and 32. 

4. Five verbs beginning uith a liquid do not repeat this let- 
ter, but take ei for the augment : 

laii^arta, to toAf, Perf. filfjif n Plup. i'di]ifitr 

la/j-anti), to oblain, " I'llyiy " lilrjXUf 

* Words beginning nitli these letters are excepted on account of the 
difficulty of repealing them. — Th. 

>r the ^H 


liya, avkXiyoUt to coUed, PerC avvtiloxa PI up. avpttXoxBiv 

'PEJl, to say, " ttQtixa " iigrixBip 

fiilQCfiaij to ohtcdrif '^ tifiaQTai (with rough Breathing), it is fated. 

Rem. 2. The regular reduplication is sometimes found in the Attic poets, 
e. g. liXrififii^a, ^vlitXtyfiivoq, — J i, aXiy ofAat , to converse^ has Perf. 
ditlXByfAui, though the simple Xiya in the sense of to say, always takes 
the regular reduplication, XiXfyfiat, dictus sum (Perf. Act wanting). 

§124. Attic Reduplication. (84— sa) 

1. Several verbs, beginning with a, c or o, repeat, in the Perf. 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of 
the stem. This augmentation is called the Attic Reduplication. 
The Plup. then very rarely takes an additional augment ; jJx- 
tjKoeiv has the regular Attic reduplication. 

2. The verbs, which in the Attic dialect have this reduplica- 
tion, are the following : 

(a) Those whose second stem-syllable is short by nature : 

aXiotf -6), to grindy ifiiatf -w, to vomit, 

(aX-fiXfxa) aX-rjXtafitti ifi-rj/ifxa ifi-rifAiafiai 

(aX-fiXixuy) aZ-ijilcor/iijy ifi-rmixnv ifi-rjfiiafjirjy 

aQoa, -Q), to plough, iXata (iXavvot), to drive, 

(aQ'fjQOxa) aq-riqofiai, eZ-ijAoxa iX-fiXttiia^ 

(oLQ-riQOxuv) aQ-rjQCfiriP iX-riXdxHP iX-tiXdfifiP 

^OMOSl, ofivvfii, to swear, ^OAEfi, oXXvfii, to destroy, 

o/A-dfiOxa OfA-dnoaiJiai, oX-iuXexa Perf. IL o^-cuilei ( OASl) 

Ofi-oi/AoxHi' ofi-Gifioafifjp oX-atXixeiv Plup. IL bX-dXttv 

iiiyXfa, to cormnce, oqvxxta, to dig, 

(iX-riXtyxa) iX-vXtyfiat 0Q-<aQVxa oQ-taqvynai and Agvyfiai 

(iX-rjXiyxnv) iX-^Xiyiiriv OQ-iagifXiiv oQ-otQvyfifiVBLDdAqvyfifjp, 

Further: kXlaa(a,to wind, (iX-riXixa), iX-vXiyfActi (the rough breathing 
being rejected), and eiXiyfiai ; o ^ cu ('OJSl), to smeU, od-toda ; q>iQa i^ENE- 
KJl), to carry, iv'-^voxoij iv-ri^syfiat', i a ^ i m ('EJJl), to eat, i5^fjdoxa, id^ 
lidstTfi&i ; ay fa, to lead, Perf. usually i]XO', rarely aytioya, instead of a/ij- 
yoxa, so as to soften the pronunciation ; but Perf. Mid. or Pass, always riyfiai. 

(b) Those which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel 
long by nature, and shorten this after prefixing the reduplication 
(except igsidia) : 

iXBUpm, to anoint, ixova, to hear, 

aX-riXupa aX-i^Xifjifiai ax-^xoa flxova/jiat 

al-fiXkpftv iX-riXlfifiTiv Tjx-rixoetp ^xovcfifiv 

*EAETOSl, egx^l^^h ^o come, igddia, to prop, 

iX-TiXv^a ig^riQetxa iQ-i^gnafiat 

iX'^Xv&tip iQ^rjQflxstv iQ-fiQiUriAfiw 

iytlgoi, to coded, lynqta, to wake, . 

ay-^ytQxa Ay-ijyiQfiai i^y-vy^Q^") iy-iqyegiMat 


So from iyilgai comes ilie eecom] Pcrf. iyi/'iyoQa (on account of eiipliony 
imlead of /y-iiyoQa), I wake, pecond Piup. ^/^/dpiiv, J aicokz. 

Remank 1. The fomta included in jmreiilheBeB are such bb ore nor uaed 
hj ibe older writers. 

Rem. 8. In iinitniion of the Epic dialect, the verb u/m, to lead, forma iha 
second Aor. Act and Mid., and rfcgta, lo amy, fbrnis all the Aorists with 
tIiib reduplication, with tlie difference, liowevor, that ihe vowel of the re- 
dupllcntion talies the temporal augment only in the ]nd., and the vowel of 
the stem remains pure : 

ay a, lo laul, Aor. n.ijy-iiyoy, Infl ayayihi, Aor. II. Mid. ^yayoiUjP 
(Aor. I. ^fo, njai, rarely); 

ifigio,toamyf stem'zir/f, Aor. II. ijc-t^-xor, Itif. ir-ryfttv, Aor, I, ^r- 
lyna, Inf ir~iytuu, Aor, Pens. i/K-i/fliiv, Inf. ir-tji^^tai. 

§135. Augment and Reduplication in Compound 
Words. (w.) 

1. First rule. Verba compounded with preposiUons lake tlie 
aagment and reduplication between the preposition and the 
verb; licre prepositiona which end with a vowel, except «??(' 
and n(fo, suffer Elision, § 13, 3, (a) ; nt>6 f^quenlly combines mtli 
the augment by means of Crasis, § 10, and becomes ffpou, and 
h and ovr resume iheir v which had been assimilated, § 18, 2, 
or dropped, §20, 2, or changed, § 19, 3, c. g. 

OTO-jJolim,IoIftrotr_frmn,Im.Bn'(^nUoi' ¥i.aTio-,'iiplj)xaY\\\'i!t-t§i^h',%nv 
niqi-^alla), to tima around, niqi-i^allav nFp»-,9(^iijxu niQi-rpr^lijxnr 
Ufo-palXu, to OtTow htfort, Tjfo-iflaXlov nfo-flijilijxa ngO'ifli^liixfir 
nfo-^aiim, lo Ikrow befort, itfov^allor Tieo-pii3}.tpia ■nQoi'^i^ktiitir 
/fi-^iiUo), (0 throw in, ir-iffallov 4ii^^ipi7)xa ir-ipipUitnv 

ty-yiyroaat, lo bt in, tr-tyiyiuiiipf iy-yiyora tr-iyryovur 

<ni'mtvai«>, lo padc up, ovr-Knivaiar avT-nnnana mir-iaxtvuKto' 

av^-^ltiu, lo throw lo/relhtr, avr-i^uijor ai't-if^irpa avr-i^l^tit 

mi-iiym, to coUtd togdher, avt'iliyor inir-ilXoxoi aiV'iiXex'iv. 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with 8vi, take the aug- 
ment and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem of 
the sim|de verb begins witli a consonant or a vowel which does 
not admit the temporal augment ; (b) but in the middle, when 
the stem of the simple verb begins with a vowel which ad- 
mits the temporal augment, e. g. 

itf-tvjltw, bt be uafarlunatl, i-Hi'tri-xovr Si-Sv^rvxipui t-^t-Svgivg^mr 

Snt-tfiif, to mate tuhamxd, i-Si'^unovr 

6ii(-aftiniiii,lobtdispliaMtd, Sfg^tigiaiovT ^Lf-i^unqui. 

RcMAkx 1. VeriM compounded with ti may take [be augment and redn- 
plicitiaD Bl the beginning or in Ibe middle, vet ibey unmnixily omit i] 
■I dw htpmutig, and tvifyniu umallv in the middle, e. §. 

150 VERBS.— REMARKS. [§126. 

ev^ruzifo, to beforttmaiej ffi^tifxovr, cominonly nr-rvjifovF 

tv-wxiofiai, to feast todly sv-axovfi^p 

ev-8^/eT60), to do goody iv-fiffyixoWj Per£ BV'ii(f/itfixaf commonly fi- 

3. Third Rule. All other compounds take the augment and 
reduplication at the beginning, e. g. 

fiv^oloyia>j to reUde, iuv&okoyovr fttftv&oXoyfpta 

oixodofiiia, to buUd^ (axodofiow (uxodofArixa, 

Rem. 2. Lycurg. c. Leocr. § 139. has Innotnqoiftijxtr. 

§126. Remarks. (88.) 

1. The six following words compounded with prepositions take the aug- 
ment in both places, viz. at the beginning of the simple verb and before 
the preposition: 

afinixofim, to dotht one^saelff Imptijunttxoiirip or a^inux* Aor. lifinioxoftrir 

avixoiiai, to endure^ " r,vttx6iifiv " tjy^crjlfo^i^y 

ifi(piyvoitat to be uncertainj ** rifiq>fyv6ovr andi)u<ptyif, 
avoff&owy to raise upj '^ ijyfu^^ow ¥erf,t}yfuQ&taxa ** ijvtogdioaa 

ivoxXiotj to molest, ^' iivtaxlovr " ^rw/ili^xa ^ iivtux^ijaa 

nagoivita, to riotf '* inagoivovy ** nsnagiavrixa " inagwniaa. 

2. The analogy of these verbs is followed by three others, which are not 
compounded with prepositions, but are derived from other compound 
words, viz. 

diOiTocD, from dtaitOyfoody (a) to feed, (b) to he a judge, Impf. idtyjuy and 

di^jtor, Perf dBdtj^Ttpia 
dimtoviai, to serve, from dhixo9og, servant, Impf. idttixovovr and difptovow, 

Perf. dtdifjxoytjxa 
afi9<(r/9i7Tca), from AM^LSBHTHS, to dispute, Impf. ^^c(r/9»jTovr and 

Sb Exceptions to the first rule. There are several verbs compounded 
with prepositions, which take the augment before the prepontion, since they 
have nearly the same signification as the simple verbs, e. g. 

a/191/yoeai (yoio)), to he uncertain, Impf. ijpipiyvoovy or ^iijuptyvoow (No. 1) 

ifupUvrviii, to doihe, Aor. fj(iq>U(ra, Perf. tifiapUaftai 

inlaianai, to know, Impff/Tiiaccx^ijr 

og>fiyu, to dismiss, '^ uq>iovy and ^tplovy or i}q>lup 

xa^^oi, to set, "" ixa&iiov, old Att xadliov, Pf. K$Ka&wa 

nad^iioiia^, to sit, *^ ixadtZonrpf and xa^f£^ (without Aug.) 

xi&fifiai, to sit, '* ixa^riiAr^v and xa^ij/uijy 

xa^ei^ai, to <2eg», '* ixax^evdov, seldom xa^i^vdoy. 

4. Thoie verbs are apparently an exception to the first rule, which are 
not formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but by 
derivation firom a word already compounded, e. g. 

Irarrsof/fMr*, (0 oppose one't se(fto, from havxioq Impf. fiparttoiptp^ 
ipududm, to d^md at law, ** inldtxog *' tivudixow 

^pndoiiy to estabUih, ** fyntdog ^ ripnidoty. 

5. Many verbs, however, which are formed only by derivHtioa, are treated, 
even by the beat classical writers, as if tliey were compounded of a Biiuple 
verb and a preposition, eiuce tlie Greek considera tlie preposition by iteeW, 
and does not regard itie conipotind as a whole. Thus, nagaroiilai, nn^ij- 
Topovr and Jia^iropovr, na^ijvD/iiju'a, Perfl Ttafoyofujxa, although it is not 
from nafd and aroiiiu or vafitta, which two verba are not in u»u, but frotn 
the compound naQarafiat; so further, iyx'^fii'i *•■<"" ^nrxiilPOS, to 
UAc m hand, Impf. ^rt^ti^oiv ; ^ni Ju/iiti, from '^77/0rMO2', to dairK, 
Impf. (nt&v/iovr ; sattiyofiM (from naifj^op a;), to ocntae, Impfl xtntiyo- 
govt, Perf. xaiij^upipmi n f o -9 v fi o i' u a i [from ngo&vfiot), to desirt eam- 
taOy, Impf^ JipoSfft'/ioij/jijv and jipoi>i'fioi'/<il»; so ^/xoi^tnfdf, jipoifjjKiW, 
buSqrLnr, ixxX-qatatfy, etc. 

§127. Division of Verbs in -w according to the. 
Characteristic. (ino.) 

Verba in -w are divided into two principal classes, according 
to the different nature of the characteristic : 

L Pure verba, whose characteristic is a vowel; these are 
again divided into two classes : 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, ex- 
cept a, «, o, e. g. ncuStv-m, to educate, Xv-a>, to loose; 

B. Contract verbs, whose characterislic is either «, e or o, e. g, 
tilia-Bj, to honor, fpdt'-a, to love, fua&o-ia, to let. 

IL Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant; these 
are again divided into two classes: 

A- Mule verbs, whose characterislic is one of the nine mutes, 
e, g. l*iW-w, to leave, nXs'x-ca, to twine, aeiO-ta, to persuade ; 

B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four 
liquids, i. /*. f, Q, e. g, dyYtXX-oi, to announce, fip-ta, to di- 
vide, (futir-oi, to skaif, ijOti'g-w, to destroy. 

Reiure. In respect to tlie accentuation of the first Peru. Pres. IniL Act., 
■11 verbs are divided into, 

(a) Barytones, whose final syllable in the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act. if 
accented, e. g. lit-ia, 7ila-a, etc.; 

(b) Prrispomena, ivhose final eyllable Ib circunifieied in the firat Pera. ; 
theae are consequently contract verba, e. g. ti/ku, ipilu, piaSw. 

§128. Derivation of Tenses. m.) 

AU tenses are formed from the stem of the verb, Binee the inflecdoD- 
endingB mentioned above, are appended to thia. Only the Primary tenaea 


have a distinct tense-characteristic, § 110 ; this is always wanting in the Pres. 
and Impf., since the mode-vowels and personal-endings are sufficient ; but 
the Pres. and Impf. very frequently strengthen or increase the pure stem, 
e. g. Tvjn-uij pure stem T177, afiagt^uva, pure stem 'AMAPT; the Second- 
ary tenses never admit such an increase, but are formed from the piu:« 
stem, and without the tense-characteristic ; yet, in certain cases, they admit 
a change of the stem-vowel. Hence, certain tenses, which are formed from 
a common stem, may be classed by themselves. Tenses included in such 
a class, may be said to be derived from one another. The principal 
classes are the three following: 

L Tenses, which can strengthen the pure stem. These are the Pres. 
and Impf Act., Mid. or Pass., e. g. 

(pure stem TTH) tvn-t-a lUTr-i-o/wa* 

n. Tenses, which have a tense-characteristic. These are the Primary 
tenses, e. g. 

(a) First Perf and first Plup. Act, e. g. {ni-^gad^xa) ni-^Qa-xa, i-nB- 
tpga-xBiv ; 

(b) Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass. These are, in most cases, derived 
fit)m the first Perf. Act, and do not have the tense-characteristic ; 
frt)m them is derived the Fut Perf, e. g. xi-xvfi-itvn instead of 
thwifiat, itervfifiTiVf %i-tvt//o/im ; 

(c) First Fut and Aor. Act and Mid., e. g. rvtpia tvipoftai 

t-tvipa i-xviffd/iiiv ; 

(d) First Aor. and first Fut Pass., e. g. i~tvip~^ipf rvtp-^aofiai, 

UL Tenses, which are formed fit)m the pure stem without a tense-charac- 
teristic, may yet, in certain cases, admit a change of the stem-vowel. 
These are die Secondary tenses, e. g. 

(a) The second Perf. and second Plup. Act e. g. ri-tvn^a, i^ti-ttn-HV ; 

(b) The second Aor. Act and Mid., e. g. l-Ao^-oy, i-la^-ofitjp from 
Xav&avm^ pure stem uiAO ; 

(c) The second Aor. and second Fut Pass., e. g. tf-ivTi-i^y, rvn^ao/iai. 

§ 129. L Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs. 


1. In pure verbs, both Bar)rtoned and Perispomena, the tense- 
endings are commonly appended to the unchanged verb-cha- 
racteristic, e. g. §ovlev'GG}, ^e^ovlev'xa. Verbs very rarely form 
the Secondary tenses pure, but only the Primary tenses ; the Perf. 
with X (xa), the Fut. and Aor. with o (<tw, aa). Pure verbs, how- 
ever, are subject to the following regular change in the stem : 

2. The short characteristic vowel of the Pres. and Impf., viz. 
^ and V in Barytones, and a, e and o in Perispomena, is length- 
ened in the other tenses, viz. 

1 into I, e. g. iitjyiat, to be angry, fu/yi-atii, i-^ijiiffot, etc 

v " ti, " xailC-iu, to hiiuier, xuki-oai, ia-inal,vpai, etc. 

* " 1i " (piii-oi {<pilm), lo love, qidti-aw, ni-ipil^iia, etc. 

o ** 01," fiiado'ia [fitaSui], lo Itt out, luaSiU'Oai, fU-filaSio-Ka, etc. 

a " <i, " iiji3-a> [jifii), to honor, iifirj-iToi, tc-jlfiis-xa, etc. 

Rehakk 1. a is lengthened into a, when c, i or ^ precedes it, comp. § 43, 

^i!'<u, to pmnjt, ia-aia; fcrriu-ti, to mtertain, iirtiB-o'iii ; ^woo-u, Id Htal, 
fiai^a-iru; but iyyva-u, to gnre (U a pltdge, fyyv-ijiroii /Sdom, to call out, 
fio^aofiai, ijioTjaa, like oySoij, 

The followiug belong to those in -tiiia, ~iaai, -paid, viz. 
oloa-ot, to ffrkb, to potnul, old Att. FuL aitoa-aiu; but usually aXo^oia; ' 
ixffoa-ofiai, lo hear, Fiit ax^oaaafim, Aor. iixi/Maafnif, like otf^oa. 

Rek. 2. The verba / p n tu, to g^'iK on oraele, ^(loafiBt, fa wK, and T i- 
T p B u, to bore, although a q precedes, lecgtliea a into i;, e. g. /^ijiro^cii, J^^aiu. 

§130. For VI a Hon of the Tenses of Pure Verbs 
with a short Characttristic-vowel. (loe— no.) 
The following pure verbs, contrary to the rule, § 129, 2, retain 
the short characteristic- vowel, cither in forming all the tenses, 
or in particular tenses, viz. the tinconlrdcled verbs retain i and 
*, the contract pure verbs, «, e and o ; most of these verbs, in 
the Pcrf. Mid. or Pass, and first Aor. Pass., as well as in the 
tenses derived from these, assume a n, which appears through- 
out the Pass, as a, see § 131. 

X ( fw, to prtot, FuL jipi iTti), Aor. E/pIaa, \nf. x^lom. Pass, wltli a; but 
jf ( i ID, lo anoint, Fut j^pitru, Aor. ^^ ic7ii. Inf. jg^plo'at, Aor. Mid. ^jfjii- 
aufirjr; PerK Mid. or Piiss. xixsiofiai, tuxsiaOai; Aor. Pshb. t'x^laSur. 
Kkiuhk I. ^ifaliiB, to percei'vc, of the Ionic dialect, belongs here, $230. 
The poetic a&t is fouud only in the Pica, and Im^i^'aioy, § 12S, 1- 
lb) -S„. 
'[.'Awv a (also old Alt avuiia), to compute, Fut or'iJtfu; Aor. ^'ruao. Pass, 
with a. 
ifv a (alno old AtL u^ijio)), to draus water, FuL aijuaa; Aor. qpuiTa. Pate. 

with a. 
.fl<B a,tocloit,e.g. the eyet, Fut fti/imi, Aor. tfiiiaa; bulTerr.fiffivKa,tol>eiiltTil. 
Mlto>, to tpU, Fut. jiivoBi; Aor. tu-titra. Paas. with a. 
Xifiiu, to caum to tU, FuL I3(ft<ru ; Aor.^SfV(ra[[atct i3pJiaiii,tSevua); 

Aor. Pass. tS^vSiip; but Perf. Mid. or Paes. i^pi'/im, luf. ISgiadat. 
._ 2. The fbUowiiig dissyllablee in -vu lengthen the short chttracieristir- 
Towel in the FuL and Aor. AcL and Mid., and diai also in the Perf. and 
, Vhip. Act., hut they reaume the short vowel in tlie Perf, and Pliip. Act, 
(except Sim), also in the Mid. or Pass., and in tlie Aor. and FuL Pnsa. 
iiia,loitrapup,F\i\.Siaa Aor.iBvaa Perf.SiSitia SidlJitai AoT.PaBB.iS'i'9ii' 
fiiia,totturi/ict, " Sttrot " t&iiaa " liSvnaUOvfiai " " hS^tir 
iiu,loU)OH, " iiVu " iXiiaa " UivKU kilvfiai " " 


Rem. 2. When the vowel in the Fut Act is long, and short in the Peril 
Mid. or Pass., the FuL Perf. resumes the long vowel, both in uncontracted 
verbs and in contracted pure verbs, e. g. Xv», XiXwrofiau 

(c) '&<o. 

reXaWyto laughf Fut yiXaaoficu (seldom ytXatrto)', Aor. iyilaaa. Pass. 
with a. 

ilato (usually iXavvoi)^ to drive, Fut iXaam (Att iXw), etc. See § 158. 

^ il a 01, to bruise, d^Xaata, etc. Pass, with a. 

MXaa,to break, KXaaoa, etc. Pass, with a. 

XaXa(a,to loosen, xoXii<ro>, etc. Pass, with a, 

dagiata (usually dafjiaito), domo, Aor. idaiioiaa. Pass, with a, 

neQa(a,to transport, to sdl, Fut ntguaot ; Aor. inigaaa ; Peril neniifaMa ; 
but mgaot, to pass over, Intrans., Fut ntgaaa', Aor. inigaaa. These 
seven verbs have a liquid before the characteristic-vowel a. 

an a a, to draw, anSaui, etc. Pass, with a. 

axfita,to loose, to open, axaam, etc 

(d) 'SOU. 

1, Aid 80 fiat, to reverence. See § 166, 1. 

inio/iai, to heal, axiaofAai^, i^xeacrfiijy ; Peril Mid. or Pass, ^xscrfiai ; Aor. 

Pass. ^xia&tiP, 
iXim, to grind, to beat, uXiaa, Att aXw; Perf. Mid. or Pass. iX^Xtauai, 

§§ 117, 2. and 124, 2. 
aQxiio,to svffice, etc. Pass, with a (also to be student). 
ifAiw, to vomit, Fut ifiiaui, etc; Perf Act i^i}/iexa; Perf Mid. or Pass. 

ifififiiaiia^, § 124, 2. 
(a 01, to boU, usually intrans., and ^ivvvfAi, usually trans. Pass, with <r. 
|f 0^ , to scrape. Pass, with a. — t « X c oi , to accomplish. Pass, with a, § 117, 2. 
J g i ta , to tremble, — ;)fio), to jMnir. See § 154, Rem. 1. 

2. The following have in some tenses the long, in others, the short vowel : 
a I y 8 Q» , to praise, Fut aipiam ; Aor. fjvHra; Perf fjvtxa ; Aor. Pass, ^ri&tip ; 

but Perf Mid. or Pass, ^yijfiai. 
a * ^ 8 01 , to choose, Aor. Pass. ^Qi&rip ; also t; ; ot^iiaoi, ^^17x0, f,Qiifia$, 
yaikita, to marry, Fut yafia', Aor. lyriyiVL', Perf ysyafitpia', Aor. Pass. 

iyafi^l&Tiv (I was taken to tnfe), 
did, to bind, driaw, Bdipra, idtiaotfitiy ; but didexa, dide/jiai, idi&rjy ; Fut Perf 

dtdriaofMat, which takes the place of the Fut Pass, dt^iqao/iai not 

used by the Attic writers. 
naXioi, to call, Fut xaiUVoi, Att »aX&, § 117, 2.; Aor. ixdXtaa; Perf Act 

MxAi}xo ; Perf Mid. or Pass. xixXrjfiai, lam called ; Fut Perf xtxX^aofiat, 

I shall be adUd; Aor. Pass. ixXi'i^ffv ; Fut Pass. xXrj&riaonai ; Fut Mid. 

MaXov/jiai ; Aor. Mid. ixaXtaaftrpf, 

nsnoinpia in both senses. 

(e) -001. 

^f o«i» to plough, Fut agoaoi, Aor. ijooaa; Perf Mid. or Pass, ignoouai, 
5124,2.; Aor. Pass, ^pctoiyy. 


§131. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. Pass., and 
Ptvperf. Mid. or Pass, toiih a- []ifl-ii4.) 

1. Pure verbs, which retain the short characteristic-vowel in 
foniiiag the tenses, unite, in Ihe Aor. and FuL Pasp., and in the 
Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., the tense-endinga #»/*, ftai, etc. 
to tile lense-forma by iiiBerliiig tf, § 130, e. g, 

T(U-(D i-ifU-irSti» ts-jile-a-itai 

ult'a-3r,aa[iai /-tt'JtU-a'fiijr. 

2. Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have 
a long characteristic- vowel in the stem, or lengthen Ihe short 
characterislic- vowel of ihe stem in forming the tense, take the 
same formation, viz. 

axoiu, to htar, Aor, Pass. ^xov-a9i}r, Fut, Pass. uxoV'iT'ffiJoajiBi, Perf. 
Mid. or Pass. Jixoti-O'iiat, Plup. ^*oi'-a-fiir ; iravai, to kindle ; * ikivu, 
to eommand ; nr aia, to Krai A ; xvkt at, to roll ; ttvio , lo atone ; via 
(secoodary form rtjOiii), to spin, Ptrf. Pasa. rtVij^oi mid rtVijir^oi, but Aor. 
Poa^ trifSti* and the verbal adjective rrilof, ivia,to atrapet italiii, to 
ttrike ; nalalu, to icrtstle : nle di, to mil ; Jtfiiu, to sate ; 7iTalm,lo strike 
agauitt, to slumWe : ^alm [poctii'), to drstroy ; atibi,lo iluilte ; i'<a,to rain, 
Aor. Pass. vadi]r, 1 was raiwd upon, Perf. Pu§b. vo/ioi {itpiaiiivog X. VeD. 
9, 5.), FuL vaopat, insteail of ivbi'iiTafiai; tpgia, to let throtigh, occurring 
only in eompouads, e. g. ilaqi., /tqi,, Fut ff-i'iaia, etc., Mid. (fQ'iao(iai, Aor. 
Pass. ttpftjtrSijv ; jf □ u , to heap vp ; xfi^i to give an orade, § 1S9, Rem. 3 ; 
7 ( t n , to anoini, § 130, (a) ; ifiavm^lo toudi ; 

3. The following vary between llic regular formation and 
that with ff : 

ytum, to cauat to task. Mid. to lastt, to enjog, Perf. Mid. or Pass, yiyn-ftai 

(Eurip.); Lul Aor. PoMt. probably iyiiird^y. Conip, ynpa, but ycw- 

itOK, yilvimof, 
Sfav, lo do, FuL SQaaot, etc.; Perf! SiSQuiia; Perf. Mid. or Posh. SiSga- 

fim and ScSqi'Iiuxi (Th.) ; Aor. Pasa. iS^audiir (Tli.) Verbal adjective 

i^amot, Ugaaiiog. 
Sfava, lo break in pieces, Perf Mid. or Pass. jtSgavniiai (PlnL USQav- 

fiai}; Aor. Pass. i^gaioOiiy. Verlml adjective iffpiitoiuj. 
slalu, Att. liluai, lo wetp, Perf Mid. or Puss, nixlavpai and naXawfint. 
*ltla , to shut, Perf Mid. or Pass, Att, w'xiiifiai and nixiiio-^oi ; Aor. Pass. 

t<tUUi»Tfl' and (xXjiadtiy (Th.) 
xolo vcu, to mouR,- Perf Mid. or Pass. xaoXovftat and itmolovaiiai; Aor. 

Pass. ^KoioLvSiji', more rarely dtokoiSiir. 
xgoiai, to itriki upon, Perf. Mid. or Pass, xtxf av^ai and xagowitat ; Aor. 

Pasfl. {xgoiaSi)!: 
riai,lo htap up, FuL r^aai, etc.; Perf Mid. or Puss, rirr^ai and rirtflpat; 

Aor. Vam. ivi'idiir. Verbal adjective figio;. 
ifiaa, to rait, Perf. Mid. or Pass. iipr,iiiti and IfTjitfiai ; Aor. Puss. iiin]9ifr 

and iifniadiir. 



[§ 132- 

4. The following verbs assume a in the Aor. Pass., but not 
in the Perf. : 

^(/uyij(rxQ) {MNA-Il)f to rtmind^ Pf. fiifivtifiat, I remember , A. P. ifiirlladtp^ 
9ryco), to bloWf ninvvnai (poet) invtva&tjw 

XQOOfiai {xQ&iJiat), utor, xi/Qfifiai ixQfiod^rjv 

navat, to cause to cease^ tofinishy ninavfiay inamdrpf 

and inav&tiPy Tiav&i^trofiai in Th. Verbal adjective nav<nios> 

5. The following verbs, although they do not retain the short 
characteristic-vowel, never assume <t : 

dvta, SiKOf kvu, § 130, (b), 2, iXaa, § 130, (c\ aivioa, oi^s'o), deoi § 130, (d), 2, 
igota, § 130, (e), ;)f£a), § 154, Rem. 1, <78 v ai , to excite, § 230. 

Paradigms of Pure Verbs. 
A. Uncontracted Pure Verbs. 
§132. (a) without o in the Mid. and Pass, (ns.) 

waXvoOf to hinder. 



Ind.xaiAtf-oD Subj.xcoAtl'-Q) lmp.x(aXv-8ln{,x(aXiS'€iy¥wrt.xiaXv'0DP 
Ind. i'XoiXv'ODv Opt. xoXv-oifii 


Ind. xe-xoiXv'Xa Inf. xe-xiaXv-xsvai Part. xe-xcoAv-xoo^ 
Ind. e-x€-xaiili;-x£ef^ 

Ind. xoiXv-aoD Opt. xcoAv-ao^fu Inf xooilv-aeif' Part. xoaXv-aoDv 
Ind. e-xQ}^i;-(Ta Subj. xooXv-aoD Opt. xo}>li/-«Taifu 
Imp. x(oAt;-(rof^ Inf xtaXv-aai Part. xoiAv-da^. 




Ind. xoDXHS-ofiai Subj. xcoXv-iOficu Imp. xooAil-ot; Inf xo}>li)^-e<T^af 

Part. xcoXv'OfUvog 
Ind. i'XtaXv'Ofitpf Opt. xtaXv-oliirjv 


S. 1. 






Ind. xe-xoo^t^-fioi 






xe-xa)lv'fuu}g cJ 
xe-xcoXv-a&oDcav or xe-xtoXv-a&OM^] 


S.l. i'Xe-xoaXv'firjv D.a-xc-xwW-^ci9^oy P.«-xfi-x<»W-fe€^a Opt xc- 

2. i-xe'X(oXv'GO i'xe-xoiXv-c&ov i-xe-xciXv-ad^s [xooXvui 

3. «-x«-xai^t;-To i'XS'XoaXv'CdTjv i-xs-xuXv-vto [vog eitjv 


Ind. x(oXv-(JOfiou Opt. xcoXvaoifjij^v Inf xodXv-geg&cu Part. 

Ind. i'XoaXv'adiJitjp Subj. xojXv-ijoDficu Opt. xaXv-aaifiTjif Imp. 

xoi)At;-(Tac Inf xooAi^-dacT^at Part. xoiAiJ-fTa/ifi'o^. 



i. i-x<aXv-(hjr Subj. xm^u-^u Opt xwiS-ffe/i,i' 
Imp. xtoii-^riii Inf. xcolvSijfni Earl. Km}.v-&eii 

i. xwlv-Qijaofitti Opt. xtuXv-Qiiaoinr^v Inf. ru^Xu-G>ta&a&M 
Part. ;«ailiJ-tfi;ad^tyoi;. 

§133. (b)wi(/i cr in //,e Mid. and Pass. §131. en.) 

Xf^iO), to command. A C 

Pres. xeJ.£i!-£o Perf. 

Impf. i-Ktlev-oy Plup. *'- 

ind. 2. 

Impf. i-iteXev-o/iiiv 





O pL 


e-tteXev-a-iiriV D.i- 


x£- xcXtv-e-fit'yog 

-.-xeXev-a-fttvog w 

..^ ^i-i.. „„„„„,, „■ ^^-xtXev-aOtav] 
■xeijiv-o-fie.&oi' P.i-xe-xeltv-a-fitOa 
—"'— -"-- ''xe.-xflktv-aO^s 

■xeXtv-a-fie'rot ijaa* 


xtXevaofitti Ful. Perf. xe-xiXev-aofiai Aor. e-MfXtv-adjajr. 

i-xcXev-a-&i;i' Future KeXev-a-&^aoftat 

§134. Preliminary Remark. (iia.) 

Contract pure verbs are such as linve Tor tJieir cbaracieristic either a, ■ 
or 0, 5 127, nod contract these willi tlie inodc-vowel following. The con- 
traction, which is made according to the rules elated above, § 9, belongs 
only to the Pres. and Lnpf^ Act and Mid., because in these two lenses OO' | 
If, ia the characteristic- vowel followed by another vowel. On the teo«»- j 
Ibmwlion, see $^ 139—131. 



§135. Paradigms of 

= 1 

Clinractcristic «> 

Cluiracleriinic t. 


D. 2. 


P. 2. 

Ti^it-taju, to honci, 



■e)a-Twffa» or 


qn^t'-ov;( w-gi(*) 


tfOSt^t-t^i-xtanoit or»riui' 



fi Mfl(o-oj)<J-ff<>) 

or ^(iJi9(o-d)or-tT( 















Contract Verbs. 




CTmracierisiir «. Characteristic t. 

Cliemtteristic o. 



















































iifi a-ij)d-a&s 




Tifi a-03)ta-yTM 



Ufl «.(nr)w 



T4^ «-a-)«-«ff" 



Ttf a-t)a-(i{toy 



wfi a-t]d-aOoit' 



rifi a-t)a-a&t 
x^a-fta-aOfotfaf or 



<fi}J,e-e)ei'-aito]aar or 



fiintHo' (jou-fffloj r 



















In^p^r/ect. | 




















rjuaifi, o-6)ov -;i*ffn 















Imp t rft c t . 

Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 


S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 





Tefi( a-ot J^-Tjyy 

















S. I. 


D. 2. 

P. 1. 











fuadi 0'Oi)oi'mov 

fuci^i 0'oi)oi-rjfi£r 











Tifn^ao) q)a}QdaG} 




izifjitjaa icpoiQdaa 




Aorist, infii^&t]v iaprnQad-riv 

1 i(fikri&riv 


Verbal adjectives : rtfci 

I'tiogt -Tf'a, 'tiovy g? 

oDQa-riogf -tiuy 'tdap. 

§136. With short Vowel 





Tenses. Characteristic a. | Characteristic £. | Characteristic o. 

a7i[d'G})(S, to drawt 



r£^e'-Q) )qji, to com- 





a^o-Q})a), to ploughf 






icnd'a"&tiv \ ijelB-a-d^tiv \ ^Qc&r^ 

Verbal adjectives; ana-C'teog, -wo, -rcW, 





Characteristic a. 

Characteristic 8. 

Characteristic o. 





(ptX{ E-oi)oi'iiB^ov 





fjiiadi O'oi)oi-fjw&or 



fua^ 0'oi)oi-fu0^a 










rifi^GOfJUU q)0!)QUGOfUU 

hijATlGdiMfiv iq)G)Qdadfif^ 





Terifjii^aoficu ftefpcagdaofiou 




1 Future, rifit^&i^aoiJiai qicoQd&^aoiiai (filti&riaonai fua&oD&^ffOfjLai 

qjihj-riog, -tea, -tiov, fiiaO-oD'tiog, -ria, -riov. 

in forming' the Tenses. 



Characteristic a. 

Characteristic £. 

Characteristic o. 









Future, | ana-a 'd^^aofiai \ TiXB-a'^riGoiiai \ aQo&i^iiOfMU 

tiXt-a-tiog^ -ia^ -/w, aQo-rioSf -«a, -iov. 



Bemark. On ibc IbrniatioD of llie Perf. and Aor. with a, see §^ 130, 131 ; 
on ihe omiHsion of tlic a in afngotiai, t'lQb&tiv, see $131, 5; tini) on the 
Allic Reduplication in ag-f,ifOf.iu, see ^ 124, 2. The further inflectiou of 
iirna-a-nat, iana-a-fiTir, luili-a-iiai, itiitXi-<i-ii>i*, is like that of tmiiiiv^ 
a-fiai, § 133. On tlie Attic FuL, tiUau = iii^, -lis, etc., tiXiaofiai i^ 
itiof^o^ T.i^,[E7,]eIc.,Bee5U7. 

§137. Remarks on the Conjugation of Contract 
Verbs. (lai.) 

1. The Attic dialect oniiia conirnction only in Poetry, and there very 
eeldoiii ; yet verbs in -e'dj with a monosyllabic stem are a unijbrm exception, 
e. g. nliia, to tail, itfiu, lo blow, Sia, to run, etc, which are contracted only 
into-«i(froin -Ml or -ft); in llie reniuiiiing fonns they ore uncoil Iractod, e. g. 
Act Pr. lud. niLidi, nlitq, nJtd, niioftev, ti^itc, Til,iov<ri{y),'w, 7.i^ij«, Tiit,^, niio,^(v, nlt.jTi,ni(QHiilv). 

Imp. jiltl. Inf. nhir. Pun. TiXiaiy, 
Impf. Ind. £ nil toy, inhig, inht, iaiiofAir, inliUi, tnitot, *) 

Opt al«oi;i.,7tlto.(,elc ^m 

Mid.Pr.lnd. n I. i o fi a i, ulitj, nXiUat, nil 6 fit S or, jilei99op, eta. ^^M 

Infl nltiifSai. Paix. nltoiitnoi. Impf, in lioftfiv. ^^^ 

% The verb 3iia,U> bind, is conuiionly contracted in all the forms, par- 
ticularly in compounds!, e. g. to Joi-*, toiJ flofno;, Siadai'iiM, Katidsi'i'. 
But 1 11, nitase al, SLixii 3 e fi tt I, lo need, follow the analogy of veriw in 
-<u, with n monoayllabic stem, e. g. to dioir, Sio/im, Suadai i imcoutracted 
forma of Sio/iai occur, instead of those contmcted into -t i, e. g. Jurat, 
Sita&ai, iSino, Xen., and sometimes also tbrnia of Aljier verbs belonging 
here are uncontracted, e. g. inluf, X. H. 6. 2, 27. niiti, Th. 4, 28. 

3. Soveml verbs deviate in contraction ftom the 'geueral nilea, e. g, 

[a) -ae and -an ore contracted into -q and -ij, instead of into -n and -f, 
e-g. £(« -wl<u, to live, CfiS,-^, -'jio*', -qif, Inflf^f, Imp. J;i;, Impf. I^ur, 
-VS, "1i -^roii, -((iiff, -i/ic; — n civl,a- oi)£, to kimgtr, hif. ntir^v, 
etc.; — Siii/{a-ia)u, to thirst, Siiffif, elc., inf. dtifii,v ; — iip{a-u)i, 
to KToUh, Inf. xii.^r; — a'/i(tf-cu)Di, to ran, \vt.a(ti,v; — >^(a-m)Z, 
to Tuh, \a(. if'T,y; — /p(«-o)uJ-f*n t, to uk, XQlt^ Zli'i'""; XS'I"^"'"' 
go a ji DxUDiiiri i,to have enoveh, uno/^qirdrii ; — a nijiev (abridged 
from u;io2f ji], H mffices, hiC a-ioxfjiV, Impf. ani/^q; — /^[a-u}v, 
to give an arade, to prophe^, xQ'i, XUJi''- 

(b) -00 and -o< are contnicled, in the Ionic manner, into -m, instead of 
inlo-ov, and -oij into-oi, instead of into -oi, e.g. ^iy{6-tii]m,toJhese, 
hit iiyur, Aristoph,, but ^i/oili', X. Cy. 5. 1, 10, Part G. ^lyanoi, 
Anstoph., but ^tyoiimar, X. H. 4. 5, 4. and ^i^'uiira, Simon, de mu- 
lier, 36, Subj. ^lyVi P'- G^ofg- 51?, d. Opt iiyiii^v, Hippocr. 

Remark 1. TIte Ionic verb lSgoBi,lo twtat, corresponds with ^ lyiu, 
tofrtat, diough wilhan opposite meaning; iS^aat, id(b'i)v, tSiiiaira,\iiiaiwits. 

4, The following thinga are to be noted on the use of the Attic forms of 
the Opt. in -^., 5 116, 8, namely, in tlie Sing, of verbs in -it, and -6a, the form 

oltjr is far more iu use than ilie common form, uiid in verbs in -am it is 


used almost exclusively ; but in the Dual and PL the common form is more 
in use. The tliird Pers. PL has always the shorter form, except that 
Aeschin., 2. § 108. Bekk., uses Honoli^av. 

5. The verb lovwyto washy though properly not a contract, admits contrac- 
tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act and of tlie Pres. and Impfl Mid., which 
end in -e or -o, e. g. tkov instead of eXot/e, iXovfifv instead o£ iXovofisPf Mid. 
XoT'fiatj (lou), Xovraij etc., Imp. XoVj Inf. Xovad^ai, Impf iXovfirpf, iXot, iXovxo^ 
etc., as if from the stem AOESl ; still, uncontracted forms are found, e. g. 
Xovoiiaiy iXovortOj Xen. 

Rem. 2. On the change of the accent in contraction, see § 30, 2. 

IL Formation of the Tenses of Impure Verbs. 

§138. General Remarks. (ise.) 

Pure and Impure Stem. — Theme. 

1. Impure verbs, i. e. those whose characteristic is a conso- 
nant, undergo a variety of changes in the stem ; a part of these 
are occasioned by the formation of the tenses ; the stem of the 
verb admits, 

(a) Either a Btreogthening of the consonants, e. g. tvti-t-oj, stem 7T/7; 
x^ai^-c0, stem KPAT] (pgaCa, stem ^PAJ ; even an entire syllable is 
inserted, e. g. agAagx-dv-ta, stem \4MAPT; 

(b) Qra ilreiigthening of the stem-vowel, e.g. ^ei^-co, stem ^TF; Jl^^-o), 
memjLie; Tf/»^oi, stem TAK; 

(c) Or a chftnge of the stem-vowel in the tenses ; this change may be 
called a Variationy § 16, 6, e. g. xXiTtr-my i-xXan-fjr, tti-xXoq>-'a ; comp. 
Eng. stetdj stoUj stolen. 

2. The two stems of verbs, which are thus changed in 
the formation of the tenses, are to be distinguished, namely, the 
original and simple stem, and the strengthened stem ; the first 
is called the pure stem, the last, the impure. The Pres. and 
Impf. of these verbs commonly contain the impure stem ; the 
Secondary tenses, when such are formed, and specially the 
second Aor. as a general thing, contain the pure stem ; the re- 
maining tenses may contain either the pure or the impure stem, 

Pres. tvTT-t't), to strikty Aor. IL Pass. i-tvTt-rjy Fut Act tvipu {rvn-trtii) 
** Xiln-oiy to leave, " Act b-XiTt-ov " " Xtiifjo) (Xdn-aia) 

" cjiai-w, to kill, " Pass. ^-(r<pof/-i?y " " (r<pa^<o 

" qiaiy-(o, to show, " " i-fp&v-r^v ** Mid. (pay- ovfjiah 

" fp^tig-oi, to destroy " " ^ - 9 1^ df ^ - lyy " Act q>&eg'm, 

3. For every form of a verb, which cannot be derived from 


the Pro8. tense in use, another Present is assumed, mostly for 
the ni(?rc purpose of formation ; this may be termed the Theme^ 
Oiiia, and it is printed in capitals, so as to distinguish it from 
the fonn of the Pros, in actual use, thus, e. g. ^eiJyoo is the Pres. 
form in use, ^UTF^ is the assumed Pres. form, or the Thene^ 
in order to construct the second Aor., e-gpvy-or. 

§139. Strengthening of the Stem. (»?•) 

1. The strengthening of the stem by a consonant is merely 
th<5 8tn»ngthening of the simple characteristic consonant of the 
stem by means of another consonant, e. g. 

Ti'-Tiro), to striJcej Aor. II. Pass, i-ivn-tiy 
luiio), to arrangey " " i^tdy-^r 

xgdiitij to cnfj " Act i^xga y-or. 

2. Yet tin; stem, strengthened in this way, is found only in 
th(^ Prt»s. and Impf. ; in the other tenses the simple stem ap- 
j)earH, i\ g. 

Pn!H. jvjtjfo Irnpf. ixvmoy Aor. 11. Pass. iiiunfiP Fut tv^ {tvnam\ 

Kkmark 1. Tho cliaracteristic of the pure stem, e. g. ir in TTXT-JZii 
cAiWvA tho pure cliaracteristic ; that of the impure stem, e. g. m in tian-^ 
tlio impure cliaracteriHtic. 

3. In ()rd<»r to strengthen the stem by the prolongation of the 
stern-vowel, the short stem-vowel of many verbs is lengthened 
in tlie Pres. and Impf.; this short vowel reappears in the second 
Aor., and in licpiid verbs in the Fut Thus, 

a iH changed into 17 in mute verbs, e. g. ( c - 1 a ^ - o y ) l^&m 

« " ai liquid " " (yoy-w) fpahm 

• " « " " " {q>^eQ-&) ifdiiQm 

I " n mute " « (r^ilw-oy) Uiitm 

« " I « and liquid verbs, « ( rf-T^?/J-ijy) t^M« 

V " i u u u u u [i^q>Qi^y^fi9)q>ifirm 

V " tv mute verbs, « ( c - ^ v / - o y ) 9C170. 

Rem. 2. Tho difference bet^veen the Impf and tlie second Aor. Ind. and 
Opt., and iM^tween the Pres. and second Aor. Subj. and Imp., depends upon 
this strengthening of the stem, e. g. cx^ofov ixQoyof, xgdj^oi/n xgayoifth 
ngd^to xgdyta, x^ofs itgayt; — Ufinow iXlnoyj Ulnoifit itnoifih ^i^v il*w«» 
Xiini Xtnt. 


4140. Change or Variation of the Stem-vowel. 

(133, 134.) 

1. The change or variation of the stera-vowel, § 138, 1, (c), oc- 
curs only in the Secondary tenses, except in a few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute, as well as liquid, verbs, wilii a monosyllabic 
stem and with « as a stem-vowel, take the vowel of variation, 
namely, short a in the second Aor. instead of *, e. g. 

Tptir-oi, io (urn, Aor. D. Art. t-jgan-or 

xXtJt-T-ai, to sleid, " Pnea. t-ula n~t)i> 

i^ttf-Bt, to nourish, " " ^ - t ^ n ip - ij» 

ti7fitf'(o,lol-um, " " /-(Tip tJ ^-i]» 

(Sfix-tn, (o art, " " t-^eSx-V 

dig-oi, tofiatj, " " i-SS Q-Tfl 

iniX3.-ti>, to send, " " t-atSk-tif 

<rn ilfj-ai, lo fow, " " i-tmSf-rir 

qiSitg-a, to destroy, " " i-tpS^Q'jjV 

jcfiy-ia, to cut, " Act. t-ia/i^oy. 

(The Aor. II. Itafio* is very rare aiul tnosily doiibifiil, commonly itifior.) 

But polysyllables do not undergo ihis change, e. g. ttyyilov, 'lyyiXiiy, miffXov, 

ijjflfOfitjr. Tho first Aor. Pass, ofigenia is ijgiipSjjy, o{ leiq>ia,t9Qi<f9iiy, ia- 

ifitfSTir is ratlier poet., ixUifdtiv ie Ion. and Eur. Or. 1380. ; but i^t/ix^^]" 

is prose, i§gajct[» is rare ; the firsl Aor. Pass. a{Si{jia, ajiiXio, antl^a, ipSUgta, 

Remark 1. This chnnge or the stem-vowel does not occur in the second 
Aor. Pass, of some verlis of this class, (the second Aor. Act. not being used], 
because the second Aor. PotiE. cannot be mistaken tbr the Impf, see §141, Kera., 
e. g, jSlinu, tone, Impf. t-jJlin'Or, second Aor. Pass. i-fHia-tpr (first Aor. 
Paas. ia wantiug); It/u, to colled (in compouuds], second Aor. Pass, laic- 
idj'-ip', avftlipjp (and avfiXixdiiv, iiiXtxdijv; witli the meaoitig la say, al- 
ytays iUxSTp); so also Ij'ti-cd, to peal, i-Xi!t~i)ii first Aor. Pass, nanting; 
nlix-w, lo braid, i-nlan-iiy and i-TtXix-iiv (first Aor Pass. titXix&iiv 
Aescb. Eum. 259.]; (pXiy-u, to bum, t-ifXiy-7ir, rarely iiflix^W't ^'yoi, 
(o tenguTt, t-ifiiy-^y, first Aor. Pass, wanting. 

Rkk. 2. Ttie verb nl^Tiu, to $trike, retains tiie q in the second Aor. 
Fan. OB a simple, but when compounded, it takes the vowol of variation, 
namelf, a, tlius, i-ni.ijy-itP, iU-iXSy-tjy, Kaxt-TiXay-t}^. 

3. Liquid verbs with monosyllabic stems and with the stem- 
vowel «, take the short n, not only in the second Aor., but also 
in the first Perf. and first Plup. Act, and the Perf. and Plup. 
Mid. or Pass, and the firsl Aor. Pass., e. g. 

VtiXla, to letid, Fut. ind-oi Pf. i-maX-xa i-inaX-fiai Aor. /-cnoi- 
tf^tUftto dtttroy, Fut. tp&ig-u Pf t-tpSog-iia itpSog-fiai 
But polysyllables do not undergo ihia change, e, g. ^;';'filiia, ^yyiX&ipi 
iyyillBi, ayiiyt^iiiu, T\yig9tiv from aytl^w. Comp. No. 1. 

'-maX-dtp' ^^1 

'H&rpi from ^^M 


4. Those mute verbs, which have an < in the final stem-syl- 
lable of the Pres., take the o of variation in the second Perf. ; but 
those which have « in the final stem-syllable, take the o«; 
liquid-verbs, which have e or eiin this syllable, take the o, e. g. 

digxafioij (poet) to see, dido^a digoi, ioflay^ didoga 

tqifpta, to nofuruh^ tiiqo(pa iytlgoi^ to wakey i/ff^yoQu, lawokty 

XUnoiy to leave, Xiloma ondQvty to sowj urnoQa 

Trdd-fa, to persuade, ninotd-a, I trust, qtd^slffOi, to destroy, up&oga. 

Rem. 3. Here are classed the following anomalies in the second Perf., 
B&a (Epic), ttot&a instead of n&a, to be wont, ilwdivat, iUad^dg, Plup. eic^ 
^siy ; — *EI/iSl, video, olda, I know ; — ^KIKSl, toiua, to he like, to appear, 
Plup. icoxfir; — tlnw (poet) to cause to hope, toXna, I hope, Plup. itLlntiv, I 
hoped; — 'EPrSl, to do, togya, Flup. imgytir ; — v^i/^rvp, to break, t^mya, 
I can broken, 

6. The following take the o, the vowel of variation, in the 
first Perf., contrary to the rule in No. 1. 

%Uvnoi, to steed, first Perf. ninlotpa, but Perf. Mid. or Pass, xexilc/i^a* (very 
rare and only poet xsxila^juai). 

X^/tti,<ooo22ed, firstPerf. fi/ye/iojlfa, i^sllox^'^ but Peril Mid. or P&ss. 

nifinoi, to send, first PerC tt btt ofi 9 a ; but Perf. Mid. or Pass. nijttfM/i»$. 

jQsntit, to turn, ^ '* titgoqia, (like the second Perf. of rgiipa, to 
nourish, and ihQaq>a ; still, this last form is rare, the more usual form is 
jitQOipa. The a in the Perf. Act is not found elsewhere, and is pro- 
bably here used only to distiBguiBh it from titQoiptt Perf. of f^^M. 

6. The following mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem and 
with the stem-vowel «, take, like liquid verbs, No. 3, the a of 
variation in the Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; still the a is not found in 
the first Aor. Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs, e. g. 

OTQiq^ti, to turn, P£ Mid. or P. eatgafAfiui, but first A. P. imgitp^hpf 
tginta, to turn, ^ xixgafjinat, ** ^ ijQitp&tiw 

tQiqtu, to notarish, " xi&gafifAat, " ^ i&Qi<p^fir, 

On idisna, see No. 5. 

§141. Remarks on the Secondary Tenses. (135,136.) 

1. The Secondary tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting the 
tenie-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal-endings, 
-•r« -0/117^, -^, -liaofiai, -a and ^tiv, to the pure characteristic of the verb, 
•• g; second Aor. »4l9r-0F, but first Aor. i-naidev-a-a ; partly in being forro- 
fi diroughout from an unchanged pure verb-stem, (except the Peril which 
pvefen a long voweli eee No. 2X e. g. Uinw »-Xl)v-*or, fpBvyn s-^ijy-w; 


and partly in taking the vowbI of variatmHi fl> g. *i^iu i-trtfS^-tir 
V 1 f ii <p - tivofiai, but i'infiip-3i]y. 

2. The aecoud Pcrf^ lengthens llie short stem-vowel, i. e. n into i), and, 
when it stands after other vowels or after f, into d, c. g. 

n^rifiu, to iry out, serond Anr. t-miaj'-oy second Pcrf! xi-KQiiy-ti 
^fjUiaot, lo tkudikr, sloni: <I>PIK (i) " ^i-ipgix-a 

^aUw, lo bloom, FuL 3al~i " U-Stik-a ; 

so, Tiiiftiya, Xilii^a from I'ATf'Bi, ^i.49-io; or it retains tlie long vowel or 
dipbtliong of the Pres., e. g. jiiipivya from ipiiyiH, but second Aor, Act 
iifvyoy, ntJjua from iiJudi, bill second Aor. Pass. /jSxtiy ; a. short vowel oc- 
curs only in the cases referred to in ^ 124, and ^ 140, 4. 

RnuKK. Tliose verbs whose second Aor. AcL would not be distinguiah- 
ed from the Imjifl, or at least, lie dislinguislied only by the quantity of the 
stem-vowel, have no second Aor. AcL and Mid., but only the second Aor. 
Pose., since this last form has a different ending from the Itnpf., e. g. 
yfSip» L (j^^aijpov A. I. lygoifia A. U. Act. want. A.ILP. /yfiSify]v (A. I. P. does 

^lw» " iWiwr " aXiva " '• " ^xiirij. (A. L P. t^t~ 

Jijr in Aristoph.) 
fix"! " iifivxov " t^iv^a " " " iipix^ PlaL [in later 

writers {ifiiy^pi ; A, L iipix9tpi Plat.). 

3. The following things are to be noted ; (a) There is no verb which forms 
the liiree ftrst Aorlsts, together with the three second Aorists ; (b) There 
is no verb whicli has in use at the sanie lime tlie second Aor. AcL and 
Mid., and the second Aor. Pass. ; but all verbs, wliich form the second Aor., 
have either tlie second Aor. Act. and Mid. onJy, or the second Aor. Pass, 
only. A single exception in regard to botli tlie particulars specified, is seen 
in llie verb jfiina, to turn, w*hicli has diree first Aorists together with three 
second Aorists, Ei^iinov (Ion. and poeL) ^ipuno/jigv, titfUitiir, hfcijia (the 
common form in Attic prose), /iQnimftrp' transitive, e. g. rfii/iaaSai ilg 
f I'/qv, to ptU to Jlight, iTfjitf-Srif rarely ; but in coiniiounds, c. g. tntTfuplHj- 
»i Antiph. 4. 1211, 4. 127, 5. 

On this last point (b) there are but few exceptions, since either the second 
Aor. Act and Mid. or tlie second Aor. Pass., occur but rarely, and mostly 
in the poet dialect, e. g. hCnor Eur. and iitnrir; dAnor and iUnTpr Horn. 

4. It is rare that a verb has twth Aor. forms in the Act, Pass, and Mid.; 
where this is the case, llie two forms are used under certain conditions, 

■ tuunely : ^h 

H (a) The two Aor. forms of the Act and Mid. have a different meaning, ^^M 

H L e. llie first Aor. has a transitive meaning, the second Aor., an iitlraiiiBi- ^^U 

H tiT«, as will l>e seen below. The same thing is true of [he two forms ^^M 

H of the Per^;, where they ore constructed from the same verb. ^^M 


(b) The two forms of the Aor. belong either to difierent dialects, or dif- 
ferent periods, or to different species of literature, prose or poetry. Thus 
the older Attic writers prefer the fuller form of the first Aor. Pass. ; the 
later, on the contrary, the softer second Aor. Pass., e. g. tax&riyai and ja- 
^wai. Still, in some verbs both forms occur in prose, e. g. anriXXax^fjv 
and anrilXSytiP, etc. Several verbs in poetry have a second Aor., which 
in prose have commonly a first Aor. only, e. g. xre/yo), to kUl, Aor. prose, 
txtupaf poet, sxtafop and txtctr, 

(c) The two Aorists stand in such a relation to each other, that the forms 
of one Aorist take the place of the forms of the other not in use, and in 
this way each supplies, respectively, the place of the other, as will be seen 
under the verbs tidtifit and dldwfn, 

A. Formation of the Tenses of Mute -Verbs. 

§142. Introduction. (137.) 

Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three classes, 
according to their primary sounds; in each of these classes, 
verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres. and Impf. are dis- 
tinguished from those with an impure characteristic, § 139, 2. 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi-mute, ^, ^, 9 pure char- 

acteristic ; «r,§ 24, 1, impure characteristic, e. g. 
. (a) pure characteristic, Tte/in-oj, to sendj tqi^-fOy to ruby ygaqf-my 
to lorite; 
(b) impure characteristic, rvTir-at, to strike^ pure character- 
istic n, pure stem TTII, ^Xcmt-ta, to injure^ (^, BjiuiB)^ 
^int'ta, to hurly (9, !P/(J>). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute, x, 7, x pure char- 

acteristic ; 06 or Attic rr, § 24, 1, impure characteristic, e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, Ttlex-oj, to weave^ ay-m, to lead^ ret/jf-w, 
to prepare ; 

(b) impure characteristic^ 9^**I(T-w, Alt q)Qin-ojy to shudder^ 
pure characteristic x, pure stem fPPIK, tdoa-oj, Att 
rdrt'G), to arrange^ (7, T^iF), ^^aa-ta, Att /3jJrT-(o, to covgh^ 

3. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute, r, d, d; pure 

characteristic; C, § 24, 1, impure characteristic, e. g. 
(a) pure characteristic, avvt-aty to completej «d-w, to sing^ 
fiti&'Cii, to persuade ; 

(b) impure characterislic, qspaf-ia, to say, pure characteristic 
H. nnrp stpin fbPA/l. 

S, pure stem ft>PJ4 

^143. Remarks on the Characteristic, (laopiao.) 

I. The following route verbs in -jii« and -airtt (-trw) form the Secondary 
tenses, especially the second Aor. Pass., and have for their characlerislic, 

n: xlini-Eu, to altal, xont^oi, to ad, Tijit-a, to ttrUu, second Aor. Paea. 
/-■Zefji-^., etc. 

fi: filani^iii,lo injurt, andxfVnt-ia, to conceal, second Aor. Pass. i^flliS^- 
1)* and i^lu(fSrir, i-xQlifi-rjv and tutivipSijy, 

<f: ^lini-ai, la ttjigr, Saii-ai, to bury, i*jwii-oi, to break, ^ajit-oi, to aew 
togtiiuT, ^Im-m, lo cajl, inonT-irj, fo dig, second Aor. Pass, i-jiii ip- 
i| », i-jJ ip-tjv, /-If i) ip-i)V, iQ-iju ip-7j*, if-^tif-Tiy and 
i^^lipSiji', 4 -axil! If -Jir, 

M : (fQlaaw, to shuddtr, second Perf. ni-qj^lx-a. 

Y : alXaaaia, to change, second Aor. Pass. aXi,a y- ijrai, Arat Aor. Pass. 
aXlaxSijrat, Soph., Eiu'., Aristojili., ^uiriru, lo knead {fia y-^*ai),. 
ofiaaai, to dig {oQiy-iiyat and opi'^fl^fai), iXiWaa, to ilrike (t- 
Tiiri/-!)*, i^i-nlS y^^pi), Tlfttaaia, lo da {ni- n ij a y - a), iTtfaijv,U> 
kiU [i-iTifa y-iiy, rarely linpaxS^'')t taaaai, to arrange {tayilt, 
Eur., elsewhere ^lo/diji'), (pfiaaoi, to htdge round [iiffjay-yin and 

S; Tno veria Htrenglljen the pure characteristic n by t, like verbs with 
the iuipuTB characteristic nz: 

nint^m (coinmonly nixn'tu, also ntlnoi), lo shear, lo comb, FuL nifm, 
etc. ; still xilgnv is commonly used for nixTtiv wilh tJie meaning 
to thtar, and ncrl^iy and {aiciiv with the meaning lo comb; 
Tuct-v [formed from t»-i«-oi), (o begel, Fut. itjo/toi, second Aor. Act, 
iiaiov, second Perf. liioin. 

3. The following verbs in -triTio, -itoi have n Tan-mute — not a Ka|>- 
pa-mute — for the pure characteristic ; asfiotim (Bpjjojnj), to Jit, FuL -6am ; 
— filiuia, lo cut hoTuy combs, FuU -t'lrtu ; — flQuaaiii (rarer fli/a^io), la 
rimke; — itjiatru, to rota, Ftit. -iaia; — aaaaoi, to scalttr, FuL -aa'cu; — 
niiiiootri, to form, Fut. -airoi; — ntlaaa, to pound, FuL -jcru; — and 
Poel. I fin a am, to wAip, Ful. -licriu; ■ ruutru, lo 3ltep,FaL -uati ; livaaat, 
lo took, FuL kivau; klaaofiai (especially Hom., also I it o ft at), lopray, 
Aqt. tXurafi^v, iiiiefitjy; vlaaofnti, ulaaojiai, logo, FuL vt/tro/jm ; 
nofvffaa, to rust (Epic Perf. kc- ko^v 9-fAai). 

Here are classed derivatives in -(u'iihj: i i fi a t t ti, to hunger, o r tt- 
fmttat, to dream, -unvuiiiu, tote attepy. 

4. The following verba in -aaia vary between the two formationfi: 
r air a 01, lo press logtlhrr, la draic, FuL vafni, etc.; Perf Mid. or Pass, vi- 
raafiai^ Ferbnl Adj. fatnof, — uq>v<roii) (Pot!.), (o drau> tealtr, Fut, -ijoi, 
Aor. tjifioa, jjifvaafiJir, 

5. Of verlis in - ju, whose pure characteristic is a Tau-mute, commonly 
S, there are only a few primilivea, e. g. t'JIofi a i, Poet., Kndi^ofiai, prose, 
I seat ttu/tdf, Vfiu, commonly nn&l^oi, lo seat, ir/ijliu, lu scparidc, X'Z"' 
oftnan dtjicen ; yet there are inany derivatives, namely, ull in 'a'bU' and most 
in -ftv, e. g. iSIiti, t'uaita, etc. 



6w Verbs in - 2^f», whose pure characteristic is a Kappa-mute, commoDly 
y^ are mostly Onomatopodics, i. e. words whose sound corresponds to the 
sense; the greater part of these denote a call or sound, e. g. aiaiiOjto 
gro€my Fut ald^tn; aXalat^w, to shout; (avda^aa&aij to speak, Aor. 
wanting in Her.); xot^Wfto squeakj to grunt (like a swine), Fut.xo<^ai; 
9^1x2^01, to screoMj Aor. ex^a/oy; KQwim, to crash; fiaaxiiotjto iMp; 
oddCa, to scrakh; oi/AtuC^j ^ kanent, FuL oifiw^fun ; oXolvj^n^to 
howl; ^vatdioif to tease; ataj^u and axaldCoijto tritkle; aTivdim, 
to sigh; atfiQliwjto make firm; atiifa^to stick; avQll^u,to whistle; 
Fut avf^l^ofiai, etc.; avglaio, etc., later and not Att; aqtdCv (Att 
agxiTTO)), to kill ; aq^vim^to undulate ; igll^Wjto chirp [litqhyn) ; 9 X v £ oi, 
to bubble, and the Poet /9 a £ oi, to chat, Fut /9o|oi, third Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
fiifiaxtai; ji if t i a, to dumber {fiffl^ai) ; daif^aytodwiiUy tokUl; ilellia, 
to whirl, to tumble ; ivagiin, spolio ; (i^m (properly, to stretch, to stir), to 
do (Ib^/a). 

7. The following verbs in -2^» vary between the two modes of forma- 
tion: flaatttl^u, to bear, Fut ~dav>, etc., Aor. i^aatdx^it^ \ — ^ioidim, 
to doubt, dimdaia, from which the verbal Subst durrayftog and dUndatg; — 
9vatd!^w,to nod, to deep, Fut -ocrfu and -a^w ; — nulitA, to jest, Fut 
nai^vfiat and nai^ofAai, Aor. Att enataa (in later writers in&i^a), Perf 
Mid. or Pass. Att ninatofiat (in later vmters ninaiypat) ;-— «^7raCo>, to 
rob, Att igndaopai, ijndaa, etc. (but in the Epic and Common language 
agndl^fo and -dao), etc., second Aor. Pass. ^Qnd/rjv); — pvf^a, to groan, has 
0. S, 20. inipvlav, but in Hippocr. tpvaev. 

8. The following verbs in -j^o) have for a pure characteristic yyi %Xd- 
(fti, to sound, to cry, Perf. xi^xXayy-m, Fut xldy^w, Aor. (ktleiy^a ; — nldim, 
to drive round, Fut nAap^^oi, etc., Aor. Pass. ^;rila//^^;— aaXjcij^o), to 
blow a trumpd, Fut -//$o>, etc (later also "lam, etc)^ 

^lii. Formation of the Tenses. (las.) 

Mute verbs form the Fut and the first Aor. Act and Mid. 
with the tense-characteristic <t, and the first Perf. and first Plup. 
Act with the aspirated endings -a and -elv, when the charac- 
teristic is a Pi-mute or a Kappa-mute ; but with the endings 
-xa, - xeiv, when the characteristic is a Tau-mute. Still, the 
Tau-mute is omitted before k, as also in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, 
before fi, § 19, 1 ; and r, § 17, 5, is changed into tf ; but this <t 
is omitted before tf of the personal-endings, e. g. 7tei^(o, to per- 
suade^ nensiapah -orai; gp^ajlto, to speak j ftiipgaafiai, -(ncu', still, 
the second Pers. is irwrei-tfo*. The vowels a, h v are short in 
the verbs which have a Tau-mute as a characteristic before 
endings with the tense-characteristic cr and x (-xa, -xar), e. g. 
9^{o>> W^tfw, itpQaaa, TteqjQcixa; nldaooj, to fornt^ nX&<SG}', POful^, 
to thinky irofuaa; xXv^od, to wash^ xXSaoj, etc. 

$140.] PARAOtUMa OF MUTE VERBS. 171 

RcHASK 1. Od the cliangeB ivhich tlte MuIcb undergo by the addition 
of Ihe endings begiuniug with a, &, ji or t, and before tlie aspirated end- 
inga -a, -fir, see ^ 17, 2 and 3. 19, 1. 30, 1 ; on tlie lengthening of -i into 
~u betbre a of verba in -tViIcii or 'iV^iu, e. g. imhd-ti, to make a libation, 
Fut, [vjtiyd-triii} aniiant, Aor. cmtaaa, Perf. Mid, or Pbbb. lonnvfiai, see 
{20, 3; on tlie omission of 17 in endings l)egiiuiing witb <r9, e.g. KixQiufSat 
instead of xaifvitiOiu, nttlij:9a;i instead of nntUf^pi, aee §33, 3; on tlie 
endinp of the third Pera. PI. Ferf. and Plup. Mid. or Paaa., - a i a 1 and 
- o TO instead of -rtai, -no, see ${ 18, 1 and 116, 15; 011 the TOwel of va- 
riation in the Secondary tenses, and in some first Perfecta and Perfects 
Mid. or Paas., see ^^ 140; on the Atl. Ful. of verbs in -o'Jm and -I'Jui, e. g, 
pijldica, Fitt. /Si/Saaiu, jii/iw, -^j, -11, -Sioy, -afity, etc., xofil^a, FuL xofiTaai, 
ko/iiw, -uif, etc., see § 117. 

Rem. 3. When fi precedes a Pi-mute, wliich serves at a cliaraeteristic, 
e. g, in jtifm-w, tlie fi la njecied in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, before endings 
beginning with /i, thus, jiifin-ai, lo tend, ni-nt/i-ftai {'insletd of Tti'Ttifin- 
lioi, ni~nt[i[i-fiai), niaifiiimi, ninifiitTBi, etc, Inf. ntTtifi^Sai, Part ittntfi- 
fuTot; so xo/j^TT-w, to bend doum, xi-xap-iun (inaleod of xi-xafiJi-fiai, ■['- 
Mifip-itat). When ilio letter y would be regularly repeated before /;, one 
jr is omitled, e. g. atplyy-m, to tit, t-aifij'-fun (instead of t-nifnyy-iiai), 
iaiftyiai, ■(T<pi;'iiiiii, etc., In£ i<rifly/Sat, Part, /aqiiyfiim; so iitlkiyyai, to 
eDnvintt, i^iit'jlfyfia, (inste-ad of iiti^lty^fiai, iiil^yyfiai), J^iXiiliyiat, etc. 

§145. A. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Pi- 
mute, §, «, 9!. (139.) 

Tpfffw, to rub. 

Aor. I. 

■ Pres. 
I Impf. 

Ind. tQt§-6i SiibJ. iqili-co Imp. Tpiff-f Inf. tQi^-eiy Part. Tp/ji-oj 

Ind. t-7()(fi-o* Opl nii^-oiju 

Ind. {Ti-tfii^-a.] ■ti-j(iitf-a Subj. te-i(itcf-m Imp. not used, Inf. 

li-tqisf-ifw Part. *e-rpiqi-o)tf 
\aA.(i-it-T(ti^ Opt. tt-jQt<f-(»ni 
lad. iTQi'^-aai) ZQiiIra Opt. Tgitpoifii Inf. rgiii'iiv Part. TpiV 
Ind. Z-rpiUrK Subj. jQiipta Opt. rql^iaifii Imp. tqi^pov I 

TpiU'at Part. rQiU'ai. 

Ind. TQi^-ofiai Subj. T(_»§-io(iai Imp. r^t^-ov Inf. Tpi^-£i 

Pari. TQi^-oi'itog 
Ind. s-ipi^-d^jjc Opu TQi^-oifJjy 

fi-Ba&ai ^1 






S. 1. 





P. 1. 







tB'tQiii'iiivoi iiai(v) 
or re-tQi(p-dtai 



or re'rQiq)"&(ov 


re'TQifi'fJLBvog, -ly, -ov 

rS'tQiiJL'fidvog w 



S. 1. 

i'te'TQifi-firiv D. i'te'TQiji-fied-or P. i-re-rqifji'fied^a 

i'ti'TQiTt-ro i-rB'jqiqi-'&rjv te-rQtii'fJLiroi> r^aav 

TB-rQiii-fiivog eiriv [or i-re-TQlq^-ato 

Ind. TQixfJOficu Opt. jqixpoluriv Inf. tQixpea'd'cu Part, tgixpofievog 
Ind. i-roi\lfduijv Subj. rqixpcanai Opt. TQixpcufitiv Imp. rqixpcu 

Inf. rgixlJaO'&cu Part. rQixvdfuvog 
Ind. re-tQixpofuu Opt. re'rQi\poiiJitjv Inf. rB-tQiipEa&ou Part t 

Aor. I. 

F. Pf. 


Ind. (i'TQi^-{hiv) i'rmq)-'(hiv Subj. TQiq)-d^ta Opt. TQiq)"&eiti9 
Inf rgitp-^vcu Imp. 7Qiq)"&tiri Part rQiq)-'&e{g 

Ind. TQicp-'di^ooficu Opt rQi(p"&j^aoiiifiv Inf. rQiq)'^i^aea'&ou 
Part. rQiq)-'&tja6fi€vog 

Ind. i-rgt^'Tiv Subj. rQi^-m Opt. tQi^-Birjv Imp. rgt^-ij^i 
Inf. TQi^'tjvai Part rqi^-eig 

Ind. rQiQ-ricouai, Opt. rqlp-f^aotfiriv Inf. tgl^-iqaeij^cu Part 

Aor. I. 
Fut I. 



Verbal adjective : (r^/^-roff) rQin-rog^ -i^, -of, TQUi'tBog, -««, -eoi'. 

§146. (b) Impure Characteristic, ttt in Pres. and Impf. 

Fut. -y>«. (140.) 


Perf I. 
Plup. I. 
Pef f II. 
Plup. II. 
Aor. I. 
Fut Pf. 



(x«-xo;r-a| xB-xogj-a 

xB-xon-a (Horn.) 
(xo;r-<Tw) xot^oj 





xi-xoii'iiai, like ri-TQififjicu 
i'XB-x6[ifiijv, like i'TB-TQififu^ 



A. I. £-xogp-^i7r 

F. I. xocp'&i^aofjicu 

A. 11. i-XOTt-KV 

F .II. X07l'tJ<70flCU 

Verbal adjective : xofT-rog, -jJ, -dy, xon-riog, -ria, -tb'op. 



Inflection of die Perf. MiJ. or Paw. 

xatfUt-t-ta, to bend down {nfxaii-fiai for xtxafii-jiai. § 144, Rem. 2), 


S. 1. 



















xtxaiiftfroi etaHf) 

Mtxd/tf&mjav or xfxdtt<p9ia*] 1 

Verbal adjective : nitfuiTOii, -tj, -6v, Kuiuniog, -tia, -rio*. \ 

§147. B, Verbs, tc hose Characteristic is a Kappa- 
mute, y, X, j_- ('<!■) 
(a) Pure Cbarac [eristic, y, *, j. (b) Impure CliaracleriHtic in tbe Pree. and 
Impf., OCT, AtL IT, rarer t 
nXix-tn, to weave. Fut. -lu. Tiiaam, Alt. tbttw, to arrange. 











F. U. 





Verbal Adj. jT).cxt6i, -i], -o* ; nXex-tto';, - 

nv; TRxrotf , TKxrf Oi'. 

Inflection of tbe Perf Mid. or Pass. 
TflffffQ), to arrange, and ai^tyyoi {^ 144, Rem. 2), to bind. 



leiaYfieyot tl 










Inf. reia^^ai 

T ttiayfifov. or io<f if x^"^* 

ic<fiyx(fai Part, reiayfu'rog iacpiyfteroe. 



[§ 148, 149. 

§143. C. Verbs^ whose Characteristic is a Tau- 

mute, 9, r, ^. (i4s».) 

(a) Pure Characterifltic, d, t, ^. (b) Impure Characteristic in Pres. and 

Irapf., t rarer aa, — Fut crw. 





Aor. I. 

to deceive. 



to lit, 



to say, 


to think. 

!• / 






xpeva-^t^aoiiai \ q)Qaa"&TiGOficu 

Verbal. Adj. (xpsvd-TtOi;) rpevn-Tiog, -ria, -tiof ; q^yatj-reog, -ria, -riav. 

Inflection of Perf. Mid. or Paas. 

Ind. S. 







i\pev<7'fiBPoi slaljv) 




i'Xpeva-fidvog, -^, -w 

i'Xpevff'fiivog «. 


i\pev'6&(o<7av or ixpev-iyd^fav] 

§149. Formation of the Tenses of Liquid-Verbs. 


1. Liquid verbs, i. e. verbs whose characteristic is one of the 
liquids ^ fiy v, q, form the Fut Act and Mid. and the first Aor. 
Act and Mid. without the tense-characteristic cr, § 20, 3, but the 
Pert Act with the tense-characteristic x, e. g. 

eqp«iUM, stem 2^AA, Fut (r^oil-o), first Aor. t-cfffik-a, Perf. c-a^ol-xa. 

Remauk 1. The endings of the Fut in liquid verbs, namely, -oi, -ovfiai, are 
contracted from -siroi, -caofioi after the rejection of cr, § 20, 3. The inflection 
of these contracted endings is like that of contracts in -ea> in the Pres. 
Act and Mid. 9iJU», ^li-oH^a*, § 135. The Fut PerC is wanting in liquid 


2. The Present tense of the above verbs— with ihe exception 
of a few whose stcm-vowel is t — is strengthened, cither by doub- 
ling the characteristic 1, or by inserting iIib liquid t after the 
characteristic, or by either lengthening ihe short stem-vowel, as 
is the case in all verbs in -(I'M, -wwa, -vqw, or by changing it into a 
long vowel or diphthong, § Ifi, 3, c. g. atfiil-l-co, Tf/t-r-a, tqiir-w, 
aitvi'-oj, xT«V-(u, ijoiV-M, stem £fl>^^, TEM, KPIA[C), JlMT!\'{v) 
KTJIV, '1*j4N) ; but /ttr-oi, vi'prm with a pure stem. 

3 All the tenses arc formed from the pure stem, yel the vowel 
in the final syllable of the stem in Ihe first Aor, Act. and Mid., 
is lengthened, see No. 5, e. g. rr qs « i 1 - w {£fl>yij4), Fut. ctpaX-^, 
second Aor. Pass. i-aifS).-ir, first Aor. Perf. t-atfahxrc, first Aor. 
Act *- tf T V 1 -a- The second Aorista Act. and Mid. rarely oc- 
cur, and very seldom in prose ; on the contrary, the second 
Aor. Pass, is more in use than the first Aor. ; the first Aor. is 
wholly wanting in many verbs. 

4. In liquid verbs with an impure characteristic, the ground- 
form of the stem is not borrowed — as is the ease with mute- 
verba — (rora the second Aor., but from ihe FuL, since only a 
few verbs of this class form a second Aor, Act. and Mid. 

5. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes according as the 
slera-vowcl of the Fut is «, e, i" or u before the ending -w- In 
ihe first Aor. Act. and Mid., « is lengthened into jj, e into «, 
into (", V into v, ^ 16, 'S. Thus : 

J. ClasB with a in the Future. 

e<fdli.'t}, lo dtctive, 
*aii»-w, lo IrAor, 

ifalr-u, to ifioai, 





n. CUb; 

B with , in tbe Fut 

■ urB. 

^w-M, to rtmain, 
u//Bii-(B, la amwutux, 
liltl'U. lo ml, 
n/t-u, to divide, 

ifMt^u, to dmrt. 




in. Clas 

• with Tin Ihe Fu 


Kfif-ti, (0 ttparale. 


IV. Class with t; in the Future. 

Pres. Fut. Aor. 

avQ-oif to draw, irvQ^u t-^vg^a 

ifivp'ia, to defend, ifjivv-^ rifivp-a. 

Rem. 2. The following verbs in -aivio of the first class take a in the Aor. 
instead of % namely, Urx^alpta, to make emaciated^ (lo/yaya, ic/royai), xigdcUrw^ 
to gain, (ixiffdapttf xtgdapai), nodaiv(a, to hollow out, (ixoiXapa, xoiXofyai), Inf- 
xaipwj to wkUen, ogyalpca, to enrage, neitairu, to ripen ; also all verbs in -^alri«, 
e. g. negalpei, Fut nsgavoi, Aor. inigava. Inf. mgavat (except xetgaivtat to 
bore, ixiigripa, tngijvai), and all in -lalpw, e. g. malpm, to make fat, inlipa^ 
niatpai (except /nalpw, to stain, fAirjpat, rarely fAidpai), — ^The verb atifialpm^ 
to give a atgnal, has both arjfiTipai, which is usual among the Attic writers, 
and amiapai. Also atgw, to raise, and aXXoftat, to leap, are formed vnth a, 
agai^ aXaa^at, but in the Ind. the o is changed into i} on account of the 
augment, e. g. 17^0, '^Xofitip (second Aor. ^XofitiP is not used in the Ind. and 
very rarely elsewhere). Comp. on a, § 16, 7. 

6. The first Perf. Act of verbs with the characteristic r, ac- 
cording to § 19, 3, must end in -yxa, e. g. /lefuay-xa from fuaiiwi 
instead of fu-fiiav-xa, mq)ayxa from qiouvoy, noQd^xa from noQ' 
oD^vf'OD, to excite. But this form is found only among later wri- 
ters. The best writers endeavor to avoid it, sometimes by drop- 
ping the V, e. g. xBXfQddxa from xBQdoUvco, or also, as in ntema, by 
using the form of the second Pert, e. g. ixrova, in the sense of the 
first Perf., or, as in the case of verbs in -eW, by not forming any 
Perf., or, as e. g. in fieVw, by forming it from a nciw theme, as 
lAefiertjxa from MENEfl, 

7. The three following verbs with the characteristic r drop 
that letter, not only in the Perf. and Plup. Act, but also in the 
Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, and in the first Aor. Pass. : 

xglpta, to separaie, xixgixa xixgii/Aai ixgld^rip 

xXlpta, to bend down, xixXixa xinXlfia^ ixXtOtjp 

nlvpta, to wash, ninlvxa ninlviAoi inlv&rip. 

Rem. 3. Tilpot, to stretch, and xtdpia, to kUl, form the above mentioned 
tenses from new themes, viz. TJJl, KTANSl, KTAJl, thus: 

ihaxa TBTafiat ixMrjp 

IxTofjeo and txjayxa txTttfiai ixja&rpf {ixjup&fip among the later writers); 

yet the forms of xxdpfa here presented, are not Attic. The Attic vmters 
use hnopa as the Perf. Act, see No. 6, and instead of exra/uo* and ixta^ffp, 
substitute li&ptjxa and ani&apop in passive phrases vnth vno and the Gen. 
Rem. 4. Kghta, xXlpto, Ttlvpca and xxtlpm, among the poets, often retain p 
in the first Aor. Pass, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. IxiUr- 
•&fj[P, inXvp^rjp ; in prose these forms seem to be doubtful, yet xattxUr^fi is 
found in X. Hell. 4. 1, 30., in all the copies. 

" 4150.1 


8, On the formation of the Perf. Mid., the following things 
should be noted : 

Verbs in -ai'vto and -wro, usually drop the * before the endings 
beginning with f, and insert o to strengthen the syllable, e. g. 
^KiV-oi netpa.-a-iiat tte-Cfa-d-iit&a — arjfialrto ataijfiaafiai — ittqatym nt- 

IvtJ/tai — i.viiaipoiiai Xehifiaiiiitrot ei<Tif — piaito) fieiuaaiiM ', but 
some verba of this kind assimilate the f to the following f, e, g. 
liTpoiW), i^i§Ufir[titi and e^ftaofiai inatead of i^Qav-fiai, Tta^o^voi, 
to excite, auQoi^ufiitru, oiVjwm ^ffjiv^/jai; a very few verbs drop f 
without substituting a slrengthening a ; the vowel, however, is 
made long, e. g. tQaj^vv-on, to make rovg-k, te-TQaxv-i'ai also teiQtL 
jyefMU and Ttrga^^f^'"- It i^ evident, that in the personal-end- 
ings, except those beginning with fi, the * remains, e. g. ni- 
<fcaj-fteu, nirfav-aai, ni(far-tm, i^tjQafi-iiat, -aracu, -avtai, ^axvp/iai, 
■vttscu, -vi^M, -vp'ite&o)'. See qiair^ and ^JiQCcnto, page 179. 

Rim. 5, On ilie omigaion of a in eodingB beginning v/'nh <t5, see §25,3; 
on tlie a, the vowel of variation, in the first Perf. Act. and Mid. and in the 
first Aor. Pass., and also in Ibe Beeond Aoriits of liquid verbs with a mono- 
iyllabic stem and the atem-vowel i, see ^ 140; on tlie Perf. of ayti^at and 
fyiifu with AtL Bedup., see § 134. 

9. In the second Perf., which, however, belongs only to a few 
verbs, the short stem-vowel before the ending -a, is lengthened, 
Bs in the first Aor. Act., except in verbs with e in the Put, which 
take 0, the vowel of variation, ^ 140, 4, e. g, giaiV-w, first Aor. 
tiprit^, second Perf. iii-<f^t^a; but (tniiQ-a, Fut. aneg-ia, second 
Perf. e-G7io^-a, 

§150. Paradigms of Liquid-Verbs. (ncj 


, Ind. dyyfiX-ia Subj. u'fyi}.X)a Imp. ayyiiXe Inf. ayyt^ti 
Part. ayytVMV 

Ind. TiffO.'i.-w Opt. ay ytiXoifit 

d. tfyyek-ita Subi. tjyyihtea Imp. not in use Inf. Tjyythieva 
rt ^yiXxtos 

0,-Mi¥ Opt. ^yytl-xoifu 
t, perdidi, from qptfag-ia, perdo ; Plup. II. i-cf&oQ-tt', 





Fut Ind. 

S. 1. dyyeX-di 

2. dyysX'Stg 

3. dyy€X'€t 
D. 2. dyysX'€tiov 

3. dyysX'Shov 

P. 1. dyyeX-ovfiev 

2. dyyeX-ehs 

3. dyyeX-ovai^p) 
I Inf. ayyciUry 

Opt dyyaXoifii 















Part. dyyiXmv, -ovaa, -wv 

Aor. I. 
Aor. II. 

Ind. tiyytiX-a Subj. dyyelha Opt. dyyeiXcufu Imp. ayyeiXov 

Inf. ayy^r^ai Part. dyyeiXag 
Ind. nyyeX'OP Subj. dyyiXoa Opt dyyiXoi/u Imp. ay/cZa 

Inf. ayycJUry Part ayyfiAoJf, -ova a, -ov. 



Pf. Ind. 

Ind. dyytXXroiicu Subj. a;'^€lilQ)fiai Imp. ayyeW-ov Inf. ay- 

ye/J^(T^at Part a;'^'^^^^^''^^ 
Ind. i^yyeXX-ofAt^v Opt dyyBXXoifitjv 

S. 1. 





P. 1. 









t^yyeXrfisvoi eial(v) 




tjyyeli&GXTav or tjyyfX-^ODv] 


tjyyeX'fUvos en 

Pip. Ind. 
Fut Ind. 

riyyiX-firjVj -<ro, -to, -ftt^ov, -^oy, -^i^,-/i«d«, -^e, riyytXfiivoi ticaw 

S. 1. 




P. 1. 




dyyeX'^ or -€» 








Opt dyyeX'olfjit^ 



Aor. I. 
Aor. n. 

Ind. rjyyeiX'dfiriv Subj. dYytik-onfiai Opt dyyetX-atfifi^ Imp. 

ayyei'Xcu Inf. dyyatiraa&ai Part. dyvtiX-dfAirog 
Ind. ^eX-Ofifir Subj. a^^el-oifiia Opt ayyeX-otfiSjP Imp. 

ayycX-ov Inf. ayyci-e'tf^o* Part a/^Cil-o/fei^. 



^mX-^ SdW. «n7<iU^a9 Opt iyyeXr&aiipf Imp. ay- 
/eXr^^ InC 9tfju^-&yHu Part wyytX^^lg 

^"nl^ Imp. ot^Ah^ 



Shorter Paradigms, arranged according 
to the stem-vowel of the Future. ii4t.i 

l\i a \aiheF mate, a (fKlXia, l&Wo; (' to, to »how, 






















«-ae-q-,f; »-«»•, I appearrd, 



IfdV'tH 1 (fUf-OV/IKfl 



i-(fi^T-a f-(fi,r-an>^ 

' / ihall apprar, Anoif , / ihall n/firm • Pr<i«e nntif , .1 irat a^rmtd by mr.. 


Aor. I. 


i-tpdr-'&m', I apprartd, 



i-tfiiv-ijV, I appeared. 


7iu>-i/ffO;lKl, / irili npptar. 

Verbal adjective; fiif «i-T*o,', -Tt'«, -n'or, qui--jii)V. 

liitleFlioD of the Peri: Mill, or Pius, of 

(fait-w, to show, S'lCair-ia, lo dry, and reiv-io, §li9. Rem. :), 









nt-if ttv-rui 












i-lilQU^-OE _ 



itE-ifaa-jitvot m^*) 













P. 2 




ff£-(p«c-tf wffKff or 

i-^ettr-»ioaat or 

Te-ia-o9aiBar or 


i-^riQat-&ai ■rt-Ta-aitut 


i-hiCait-tif'ros \ Tf-jd-pfroi. 



§152. (b) with e in the Future, ''fjieiQ-o) (Ion. and Poet.), 

to desire, and areXXoD, to send. (148.) 


Pip. I. 
Pf. II. 


Aor. I. 









i-cp&OQ-a fr 




,q)&8iQ-a).Ih(we destr. 

I had destroyed, 



Aor I. 
Fut. I. 



i'Otdk'&rfv A. II. i-atdX-rj^ 

ota},"&tjaofiou F. II. CTdX-^aofiou 

Verbal Adj. Ifieg-tog, -ly, -ov, Ifieg-tiog, -tea, -teof, (7TaX't6s,(JtaX'teog, 
Remark. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is like i^eX-ficu. 

§15a (c) With r and v in the Future, 
(a) tiU.'(o, to pluck, avQ<o, to drcao, (aoIvv-oj, to defile. 





Aor. I. 

A. LP. 





«-Ti A- a 





Aor. 11. and Fut II. P. i-aiSq-riv, avg-i^aoficu 







Verbal Adj. tiX-rog, riX-tiog, cvq-rog, cvQ-teog, fAvXyp-tog, fMvXvp-r€og. 
Remark 1. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of ti-tiX-fiat, ifi- 
<rvq-fiai, is like fj/ytX-fiat, and that of fit-fioXva-fiat like iti-^aa-fiat, that 
of ,?o/Vi" -/"«*> formed from aMr/vy-oD, to shame, like i-^ijQafi-fiat, 

(|3) xXip-oi, to bend dawn, nXvp-ta, to wash, with p dropped, ^ 149, 7. 


Aor. I. 
















Aor. I. 

A. n. 

i'xXt'd^rjp Fut. I. xXl'&jaofiai\ i-ftXif'&Tip nXv'&tjffOficu 
i'xXtp'tjp Fut. II. xXip-rjaofiai \ 

Verbal Adj. xXi-tog, -^, -op, xXi-teog, -ria, -riop, nXv-rog, nXv-riog. 
Rem. 2. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of xB-xki'iiat and ni- 
nXv'fim is like ri-jd-fAai, and corresponds with that of pure verbs. 


^15i. Special Peculiarities t'» the Formation of 
tingle Verbs, both Pure and Impure, (isa-isa.) 

1. The Future of very many Active verbs is in the Middle 
farm, e. g, axoiiu, to hear, FuL dxovaoiicu, I shall hear, Aor. 
qKouiTa, I heard. See ^198. 

2. The following verbs in -ai'w or -«m and -tMi whose stem 
ended originally in -av and -si' {aF, eF), resume the v in the 
Aoriat and Fiilore, §25, 2 : 

Kalm, A.tL xBoi (without coaimction), fo turn, Fut. xoiW; Aoi.aiawa; 

Perf. jaxaaia; Perf. IHiil. or Pbbb. xtxarfiat; Aor. Pubs, txaidijr; Fut 

Paaa. navOi^aofiai ; verhal Ad], xawniot, lavtnog, tiautot ; but second 

Aor. Act. ixarir, Ibtimed, liitraaB., in the Ion. nnd later writers, 
itlii/u, All. xXaio (without conlmctioD), to teeep, xlavvofiai or ulawroviiut. 

No. 3, alavaa, etc. See 5 106, 18. 
9iti}, to run, Fut. Stvaofiai or &tvaoi'fiai, No. 3; ibc other tenses ore 

wanting. See ipi/w, 5 167. 
rim, to mrim, Fut vn-aofiai or i-fviroiiiutii, No. 3; Aor. irnwa. 
jitiiB, to and, Vol nliiaoiint, usually nilivaof^ai, No. 3; Aor. ^nliiHra; 

PerC ninJlEinn; Purf. Mid. or Pass. nenilEL*(r^ai ; Aor. Pass, ^nilii'cidijv ; 

TerUal Adj. nlnwrt'of. 
nrt'ia, to i'dU', Fut nriiVo^ni or nriucror^at, No. 3, but the compounda, 

e. g. ou^-, ip^nvtiaai ; Aor. larnva ; Aor. Pass. ^7ivc(v&^*. 
^iiii, tojhie, Fut ^(Licra^ai ; Aor, tg^ivaai neitlier form belongs to the 

Aitie, whkh uees inatcad oTtliem ^v^ao/iai, if'^t-qr, ^193, and ao also 

the Perf. t^^iiipia. 
Remark 1. Tlie verb ;f«'« [xiFm, 2"J")i Utpour <ml, differs from the pre- 
cediog verliB ; Fut ;t(u ; Fut Mid. j'i'o/iat, see No. 4 ; Aor. Ifia, Sutij. xi^h 
loi. xiai. Imp. /itw, ^lOTOj, etc.; Aor. Mid. ^jtio/iii*, see No. 7; Perf! Act 
Ttxvxa; Perf. Mid. or Pass, M/i~fja( ; Aor. Pass. ix'^Otp', $2S3. Tbo forms 
with (II beloug only lo the Epic ; Fut /tiju ; Aor. E/(i<a. 

3. Doric Fulare. The circumflexed Fut. form of liquid 
verba is uaod by the Doric UTiters with verbs whose tense- 
characteristic ia d, c. g. luif'Ctf, -tts, -et, -ovfur, ■ctTt, -ovm; ivtpov- 
(iM, elc., and this form prevails in common use in the follow- 
ing verbs, yel only in the Middle form, with the signification of 
the Fut. Act. : 

tftvy-ut, tojia, Fut q>ivSovfiai and tpcviofiat 

nitl!^-a, U> sport, " naiSovitai " Ttaiiofiat 

xMt-", alvum exonerare, " xiaoiftai 
nijij-u. to fall, " niaox'noi {nliTJl) 

II, lo iiiquirt, " nivaovfiaii usually j^ivoo/ioi 
those mentioued under No. 2, xiaia, itlim, nWat, 



4. Future without the tense-characteristic. The following 
verbs have a Future, which, as it wants the Future character- 
istic <r, and has the inflection of the Present, takes, throughout, 
the form of a Present, viz. 

sd-Wy Epic, usually itf^ltOy to eat, Fut td^ofiai ; nlv-w (/7/JZ), to dnmky 
Fut ftl^ofiai ; /sod, to pour outj Fut /so), x^ki X^h ^tc. ; Fut Mid. x^V^^ 
see Rem. 1. 

5. Also two mute verbs take the Future form of liquid verbs 
in 'OVfiai without <t: 

fAiX'^t^^h ^fg^9 Fut finx-ovfum, formed from the Ion. fia/-caofiai* 
l^ojuffi ^EAJl\ to lit, Fut {kH-ovfiai) na&td'otfjiai. 

6. The Fut Perf. of the following verbs has an Active form : 

^rhmtn, to du, Perf. ji&vfpca, I am deadj Fut Perf iii^nf^w or "^fuu, 

I shaU be dead ; 
xicffMy to cry out, Perf xixXayyUy I am crying out, Fut Perf ntttliy^ or 

"^(iaij I shall be crying oid ; 
laTtifii, to station, Perf ttntpuii, I stand, Fut Perf hm]lai or -|o^a», IshaU 

stand. \ 

7. The three following verbs, which are not liquid, form the 
first Aor. according to the analogy of the second Aor., without 
the tense-characteristic (t: 

thtup, second Aor., to say, first Aor. sin- a ; qtigta (EFK/l), to bear, first 
Aor. Tivtyn-a, second Aor. tjye/xoy ; /ew, sx^a, see Rem. 1. 

• 8. The verb ;f«f-«> (XEJi^), alvum exonerare, forms the 
second Aor. according to the analogy of the first Aor., i. e. with 
the tense-characteristic (T, viz. sxbcop. The first Aor. Ix^aa is 
more frequent. 

Rem. 2. In the second Aor., Mnsaop, from JJET-ta (nlnxui), to /all, the a 
is not the tense-characteristic, but belongs to the stem, since the t has here 
been changed into a. Dor. tnixov. The first Aor. ineaa is later, but is 
found in Eurip. 

9. The following verbs, pure and impure, but which by as- 
suming an e as their characteristic in forming the tenses, are 
analogous to pure verbs, form the Perf. Subj. and Plup. Opt 
Mid. or Pass, without the aid of an auxiliary verb : 

xtd-ofjLai,to obtain, Perf HSMTfiftai, I possess, Subj. xtxtafiai,. ^fj, -^tai ; 
Plup. ixBXTi^firpf, I possessed. Opt xtxTjifitiv, xsmfjo, luxtfjio or xixttuitfif, 

-0)0, -^TO. 

fiifivfiaxo) (MNAJl), to remind, Perf fiifirtifiai, I remember, Subj. fuit- 
v&iiai,, "fi, -t^iay ', Plup. ifiifivi^fiTiv, Opt ^^/lyij^uip^, -po, -Jto or fitfaf^- 
fifjv, -^o, -^To, and in X. An. 1. 7, 5. (Ufipoio. 

§^155, 156.) VERBS.^-SYNCOPE. METATHESIS. 183 

/JdHu, to thraa (BAA), Perf. pipii\itai, 2 Pera. Ft. Fer£ Subj. Jtu^i- 

pi>,adt, Andoc. p. 32. §24.,tormmt, Varf. nhAtifiai, lanruanai; Flap, ixail^it^, Opl. xt~ 

Rm. 3. /nnpiia&oi' may be found in PI. Rp. 564, c ; ol present, liow- 
ever, the right reading in CodJ. is iKjnuijtriadov. 

§155. Syncope. (im-i 

1. A few verbs, ia certain forms, suffer Syncope, §16,8. 
The following prose words, c. g. belong here : 

nno/int, tojly, Aor. imo/Mji', jijia&ai 

iyiii/a, to walu, secoiid Aor- iiys°l"l'' (^'^ ^^ ^^- tytjf&ai, witli the 

accent of tlie Free.), 1 moofe. 
E^jlfofiiii, (o go, second Aor. t',Xdor, lu£ il&ilv, etc., from 'kAKT&SI, 


2. This Syncope occurs moat frequently after the reduplica- 
tion ; thus, e. g. 

a. In the Preeenl: 
flyyofiot, lo breomt, instead oi fi-yivofiai, stem VETfJl. 
Iilfira, to remain, Poet,, instead ot fit-fii»i>>. 

Tiimu, to fall, instead ofni-niiaj, stem llETSL 

b. In the Perfect: 
xtTaniJ/ii, to aprtad out, niniaiiai. 

§156, Metathesis. (iss.) 

1. Metathesis, §22, occurs in the formation of the tenses of 
several verbs, most frequently in the Perf, Plup., first Aor. Pass, 
and first FuL Pass., seldom in the second Aor., sometimes also 
in the Passive, both for the sake of an easier or more euphonic 
form, and, in poetry, for the sake of making a syllable long by 

2l In ibe Common language, the following verbs are subject 
' to Melalheeis : 

(liiXti, to throic, Flit, lialai {ffalXiioa, Aristoph.) ; Aor. ijSalo* ; Aor. Mid. 
ifialo/ttiy; BAA; Perf. j3»(5iijxo; Perf Mid. or Pass. f»»jSl»;>io(; 
Aor. Faaa.ifilt,&7iy. 

ni'a, aeaaWy dafiaZu, to tanu, Fut Saftaaia ; Aor. idapaoa; JMA; 
*" e »ii..^,„- Perf. Mid. or Pass. iJia/iijfi o i; Aor. Paaa. tifiri- 

ly Poet, and Ion., Aor. iSti[ui; Aor. Mid. iSiinaiiti*; 
l^i)ita; Perf. Mid. or Pass. diSfiijitai. 


^y ^ (T X «, to dUf Aor. %&avov ; Perfl t < ^ y i} x a. 

S" Q fa a % ta^ to leap, Aor. b^oqov. 

Malita, to call, Poet xixXrifrxui, like ^yri<ntn, Fut xaXa ; Perf. x ^ x il ij x a. 

Mafivo), laboro, Aor. ixufiof ; Perf. x«x^ i} x or. 

crxaZZo), oxcXeo), to moAre dry, second Aor. e a x X i} y ; Perfl e cr x it ijx a ; Fut. 

a X X ^ (T /i o (. 
T^/ivo), to cut, Aor. hffiov, Perf. t s t /i i} x a. 
T i 9} (To/u 01 i, /tiTiZt ieor; Aor. eiii^y; Perf. t aril 17 x a, from the stem 


Reicark. When the stem of the verb is dissyllabic, then the vowel trans- 
posed by Metathesis coalesces with the following vowel ; (a) In inflection : 

xigi-prvfii, Poet, xf^a-o), to mingle, Fut xe^a ao) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, x < - 

xffa ^fiat instead of xB-xQia-fiat ; Aor. Pass. ixQa-^fiv, 
nm^aa xw, to sell, instead of THJUQaaxto, ninQtaax(a, from ntf^to, 

hence Fut ntguao); Perf. ninqaxa, ningufiai; Aor. Pass. 

inQoi&fiv; Fut Perf. neTtgaaofiai. 
ojOQi-vrvfii, to strew ; secondary form axqojpvvfn instead of (rtQfo- 
. 9Wfii; Fut ajQtaaa; Aor. taxqaiiaa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Bargoa- 

(iai; Aor. Pass. iaiQa-dijy, 
ndaioi, appropinquo, to bring to, TtfXd^w, nXu'&w; Aor. Pass. intXaa^tiP ; 

Poet Att ^Trila^ijy; second Aor. Att inXafifiP; Perf. Mid. or 

Pass. Att ninXa fiat. 

(h\ Also in the stem of the verb &ginot, to disturb, formed from taqaun, 
tgaattm, secondary Attic form of xagaaaoa ; Aor. t^ga^a. 

§157. Verbs in -w loith the Stem of the Present 

stre ng thened. (ise.) 

1. It has already been seen, §§ 138 — 140, that the stem of 
many verbs is strengthened in the Present; but this strengthen- 
ing remains only in the Present and Imperfect Besides the 
mode of strengthening there mentioned, by r (nt, xr), a, (<y(T, f), 
and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are others, which 
will now be specified. 

2. In this specification, all the forms which are assumed for 
the sake of constructing the tenses in use, are indicated by capi- 
tals, § 138, 3. As many verbs do not form the Fut. and first 
Aor. Mid., every verb, which has these tenses, is denoted by 
the abbreviation, Mid. The abbreviations, D. M., signify De- 
ponent Middle, and D. P., Deponent Passive, § 102, 3. The 
fciy placed in parenthesis, shows that the form standing before 
it, is analogous to the conjugation in -/»*, to be treated more at 
large below. See § 191. 


§ 158. I, Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. 
aiid Imp/, by inserting * before the ending: (iss.) 

P&eliminartResurs. fafvw lias lenglheDcd the atem-vowel a into at ; 
Haivet, a inio av ; Stpni and nivto, v and i into i and i. 

1. j3«Vm, togo, {BA-), Put fiifffo^Ki; Perf. ^i^n*^ § 194 ; second 
Aor. ipnv [in, § 191) ; Pass, in compounds, e. g. ava^alvofiat, ana- 
^i^d/iM, Tiuqa^tj^itum, «rt^a-&7jv, nuQi^udir, §§ 130, (c) and 131, 5. 
Verbal adjective ^atos. 

Remark. First Aor. AcL E^ijiro, and Ful. fiijiiat, are Iransilive, / brought, 
%mU briTig, aod belong only to the poetic lonji; and later writers. 

2. Svra, to go in, to go under, to emerse, to put on. The un- 
atrengtheaed verb 6'u(a {xaraSvia) FuL Svaco and first Aor. Act 
cAvtrcc baa a transitive signification in the Pres., to wrap vp, to sink ; 
Aor. Pass. tdS&r;r, § 130, (b) 2. But the Mid. Svoiita, didvum, 
ivao/tai, iSvaofiJir, to wrap up one's self, togo into, or v»der,to clothe 
one's self; the Perf. St'Svxa and the Aor, «3w [)"■, § 191), have 
the same signification. 

3. ihtvna, to drive, secondary form ii-<a, -?s. etc, poetic, yet also 
in X. Cy. 8. 3. 32. uniXa Imp., Ful. iUao>, All. tW, -«s, -«, Inf. 
il^r, fj 117; Aor. Jlaflw; Perf. il^ldna, i}.^Xaft«t; Inf. iltj3.aa9ai, 
§ 134 ; Aor. Pass. ijiiiSif* [d in the tenae-formalion, § 130, (c) ; 
without a. § 131, 5]. — Mid. — Verbal adjective iXaros, ilarios 
(X. Hipparch. 2, 7,). 

4. flicM and S'iiia (poet), (o rage, FuL diata, etc.; second Aor. Part 
9vitaoi [ill), raging. 

5. ni>tt, to drink, nioitat, § 154, 4, among the later writers nioii- 
lutt. but also, in X, Symp. 4. 7. meia&B; second Aor, imov, In£ 
ttutr. Pass. wKo*, Imp. niffi, § 193, poet, m't; UO- Perf. ntWxa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, ntjiofiui ; Aor. Pass. inoO'i^r, ^ 130, (c) and 
131, 5. Verbal adjective nmas, norios- 

6. Tivia, to expiate, to satisfy, yatTiata; Aor, mna; Peril Act 
Tt'tixa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. -rtTiafiai, Aor. Pass. tiia9r^t; § 131. 
Mid. nVofioi, to avenge, to punis/i, tlaofiw, iilaa.iitjv. 

Tut, la honor, iiVcu, iiiira, litiiiai, PoeL 

7. if&ano, to anticipate, Fut. cf&i'tooiiai, more rarely cf&Mw, 


e. g. X. Cy. 5. 4, 38; first Aor. ecpd^aaa; second Aor. scpd^riv and 
iqid^dfi^ {fu, § 192) ; Perf. Iqt&axa, 

8. (pdtpoi (poet, rarely prose and only in the Pres., e. g. PL Pbaedr. 246, 
e. Symp. 211, a.), to perish^ (seldom to constant), Fut tpd^aoa and Aor. liqp^cra, 
trans, to ooruwnt, — Intrans., Fut <p^Urofiai ; Perf. €q>^ifta^, &p&ivtai ; Plup. 
and second Aor. itp^tftijVj Subj. (p^luficuy Opt <p&ifjnpf, q>&iio, Imp. fp&ia" 
^01, Inf. q>^UT&aif Part tp^lfitpog, e. g. X. Cy. 8. 7, 18. tolg <p&ifiapoig, to 
the dead, (fit, § 192). Verbal adjective qt&ixog. 

Here belong also three verbs, whose pure stem ends with a consonant : 

9. ddxvm, to bite J Aor. idaxov; Fut di^^ofiai; Perf. Aor. dddtjxa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. dsdi^fAai ; Aor. Pass, idfixd^iv. 

10. xdfjivm, laboro, Aor. exdfwp; Fut xofiovfuu ; Perf. xixfjupia^ 
§ 156, 2. 

11. WjUfOJ, to cut, Fut TCfMo; Aor. Irsfiov (etafwv, §140, 2); 
Perf. ririAtixa, § 156, 2) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. titfitifKu, Subj. rer- 
fitjtj'&av, § 154, Rem. 3; Aor. Pass. itfJi^dTjv; Fut Perf. rerfi^ao- 
fuu, — Mid. 

§ 159. II. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. 
and Impf. by inserting the syllable ve before the ending, (leo.) 

1. §V'vi(o, to stop up, Fut §vaa) ; Aor. e^vca; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
pifivofia , Aor. Pass, i^va&fjv, § 131. 

Pres. fivo9, not used by the Attic writers. 

2. ix'viofuu, (the simple is seldom used in prose, e. g. Th. 5, 
40. Pi. Phaedr. 276, d., the compound being generally used in- 
stead of it) dcpMVBOficu, to come, Fut dq)i^ofi€u; Aor. aiplx6fi$jf, 
dqiixia&cu; Perf. dq}Tyfiai, ag)i)r^ai; Plup. dq)iYfitjv, d(pixto. 

3. xv-vm, to kiss, Fut xvaco ; Aor. ixvffa, § 130, (b). But fiQog- 
Kwdco, to worship, Fut 9tQogxvi^a(a ; Aor. ftQogexvn^a (also poetic 
fiQogexvaa, Inf. ftQogxvijou). 

4. vnusx'vioiiai {ynlax'Ofiai Ion.), to premise, Aor. ineax-o/ifif, 
Imp. vmaxov; but Fut vnotrx^aoficu; Perf. vrnffx^cu. So, Oju- 
nufxrovficu or dfimxoficu, to clothe, from dfintxa, to surround, Fut 
«jug)e5w, Aor. ^/micxov, dfmiaxelv, Fut dfAqje^oficu ; Aor. ^finurxofifif 
and ^im^axofirjv, § 126, 1. 


§ 160. IIL Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres. 
and Liipf. by insejiing the syllable «*, more rarely air, before 
the ending: iia.) 

B. ar or aiv is inserlec] without anj change. 
PitELiMifiAiiT RxHAKK. All Verbs of this kind form their tcnsee from a 
three-fold alem, viz. the Prca. and Liipf from the Htreogthcued stem, the 
second Aor. from the ptire stem, the Fut. and Perf &oin a third stem, con- 
aieting of a pure fiiem aiidE,whiFh is changed in llie inflexion into ij. — The 
« in the ending -ara is short Attic, but the Epic is long ; in Ixavtii it m long 
both among the Attic and the Epic writers. 

1. aia&-dr-oiuu {seldom aia&oitat), to perceive, Aor, ^oO-oiuji; 
ttiadt'a&ai; Perf. ^a{yr,jiat ; Fill. ai<i&>i<^n[iai. 

2. ufia^dvat, (o viiss, AoT. JjfittpTOf ; Fill. a/iOQjtjtiofiat ; Pcrf. 
iltaertptai Perf. Pas3. Vfa^»//*ni(; Aor. Pass. ^/iapt^fl'J^i' (X. An. 5. 
9, 21. Vect 4, 37). 

3. dnej^S-avonat, to be hafed, Aor. dnijx&oitijv (poet, ^x^ofttjr) ; Fut 
ttoeX&^oofiai; PcrC, im^x^T/fiai, lam haled. 

4. aijS«'»> (and ai'Soj), to increase, Fut. aii|ijo(o; AoT.ijv^oa; 
Perf. loiiin; Mid. and Pass, to tlirive, Perf. riv^itai; Fut ed^- 
wpu; Aor. tii^^Or^r. 

5. §laind,i'io,to sprout, Aor.l§i.aaTOP; Fat ^lafft^ffoi ; Terf. i§liia- 
mpca and ^t^ldaniKa, § 123, 2. 

6. ia^dra, commonly in composition, xataS., to sleep, Aor. 
k«h'8«P#o» (xaTaSoQ&ivTu. Aristoph. PJut 300.) ; Fut >iaTadaQ&^- 
aofiat; Perf. xaTa5«fl<t(v8j;xa. 

7. tZdfOi and xaffiCwfO), secondary form from if™, xa&l^ei. 
Bee (j 166, 16. 

8. »(il.'£j7««D, used of dogs, a secondary form from xi-di^ia, to cry 
out, Fut nXdy^a ^xexXdj^otiai Aristoph. Vesp. 930, see ^ 164, 6) ; 
Aor. ixlayla, ixldyof Eur. Ipli. T. 1062.; Perf. xexia^-j-a (old 
form x»xl»,7o). 

9. oiddiHo, otSoitoi (also oiSttto, oiStta), to swell, Fut elS^ata. 

10. oha&dto} (-ouVm not used by the Attic, writers), to slip, Aor. 
mAta&or; FuX. ohal}fjija} ; Perf. tiJJjffCTyxa (first Aor. ojitW'/oa later). 

11. 6arp(>airoiitu, to smell, Aor. (aatpQOfqv ; Fut 6a<fQi}oofiai. 
Pres. ha^^aa&ai was a rare Altic form ; Aor. loaifpiiffBfiJii' and mripgi'r- 

StiYOi later. 


12. 6q)h(jxavoi), (Inf. oifXeiv, Part oq)Xo)v, seldom), to be liable to 
a fine, to incur punishment — the double strengthening «<tx and 
av is to be noted — Aor. aqtXov; Fut. ocpXi^ao); Pert cSgpX^xa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^(pXT^fiai, 

First Aor. oipXr,aai later. 

b. av is inserted before the Tense-ending, and y is in- 
serted before the Characteristic-consonant 

of the Pure Stem. 

pRELiMiNART Remark. The short vowel in the middle of the pure stem, 
is changed into a long one, in inflexion. The v suffers the usual changes 
before the Pi and Kappa-mutes, § 19, 3. 

13. igvyyavoDy instead of iQv-v^avm, ructor, Aor. i^Qvyop ; Fut 

14. ^lyydvG), to touch, Aor. l&lfyov; Fut ^i^oficn, 

15. layxavfo, to obtain by lot, Aor. ilaxw ; Fut Hi^oiiou ; Perf. 
Btkrixay rarely '^^'^oyxa from jiEFX-, comp. ninov&ay na&eiVy niv^og\ 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, si^yfiai, § 123, 4 ; Aor. Pass, i^x^- 

16. Xafi^dvoi, to take, Aor. eXa^ov, Imp. Xa^e and Attic ^^«, 
§118, 3, (a); Fut Xi^ipofiai; Perf. eHrjqfa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
etl^fifiaiy § 123, 4; Aor. Mid. iXa^ofitiv; Aor. Pass. iXriqi^ipf, 

17. lav&dv(o (poet and also X. O. 7, 31., also ^ij^ai), to be 
concealed, Aor. ala&op; Fut Ai^ctcd; Perf. XAti&a, I am concealed^ 
Mid. Xav&dpoficu (Ion. and poet also ^f/^of^oi), to forget, Fut 
hjaofiai ; Perf. XAt^OfJiai, § 131 ; Aor. iXad^oiArjV, 

18. ^ifATraro), rare secondary form from XctW. 

19. fAav&dvo), to learn, Aor. Ifia&ov; Fut fia&i^aofiai; Porf. 
fMfid&tjxa — The « remains short, and the Fut and Perf. are 
formed from the stem MAQEy according to No. a. 

20. mfvO'dvofiai, to ask, Aor. inv&ofirjy ; Perf. mTtvffficu, ninvaou^ 
etc, § 131 ; Fut. nevaofiai (very rarely nsvaovnai, § 154, 3). Ver- 
bal adjective never 6g, nevatiog, 

21. rvy/ayft), /o happen, Aor. frv/oy; Fut rcvjojiuet (T^rX-); 
Perf. Tcrvx^xa {TTXE- according to No. a.). The transitive of 
this verb is the poetic revj^oj, paro. 

22. apvyydvdHy secondary form from q)evy(Of to flee, Fut q^ev^oficu 
and -l^ovfiai, § 154, 3; Aor. lq)vyov\ Perf. nicpevya. Verbal adjec- 
tive gpfivxroV, 'tiog. 

23. x^"^"*""' to take, Aor. tiiiSo*-^ Perf. with a Pres, signifi- 
cation Kiiatta-., Fut. Xttaofim^ stem XEA'ji-, comp. iftaOo*, nelco- 

§ 161. IV. Verbs^ loliose Pure Stem is strengthened in the 
Pres. and Impf. by annexing the two consonanls ax or the syl- 
lable lO)t. (Iia, 163.) 
—a is annexed, when the Btem-cfaaracteriBtic is s vowel, and unc, when it is 
ft conaonant ; n>'«nDi, aud xQV'^^P"^ ^re exceptions. Moet verbs, whose 
pure Blem ends with a I'Oii sonant, ronii the future, etc, according to the 
analogy of pure verbs, e. g. tvQ-hxiOt FuL tiig^-a<o from 'ETPE- ; afi^liaxa, 
Fut aiifllu-ita from 'ambAO'. Some of these verbs, in tlie Pres. and 
ItnpC, take a reduplication also, which consists in repeating (lie first con- 
■onant of the stem witli i. 

1. d).-iax-oftai, to be taken, to be conquered, Impf. ifitaxofiij* ; 
(AjIO-) FuL aXiiaoiiai ; aecond Aor. ^har, Att. taXtov and ^^w 
(/a, § 192), I was taken; Perf. ^icuxn, and All. iai-mxct and ^Xto- 
Kit, I have been taken ( Aug., ^ 122, 4 and 6). The Active is sup- 
plied by wQeir, signifying, to take captive, to conquer. 

2. a/t^h'aKta {seldom dfi^Uta), to miscarry, 'AMB-dO-, Fat 
if^hoca ; A.OX. ^u^lroaa ; Perf. fjf^Xetxa. 

3. dra^taaxofiai, (a) to recall to life, (b) to live Ogam, Aor. 
in^uoaafajr, I lived again; but aecond Aor. dve^itav (;u, §192), 
/ recalled to life. 

4. dpdliaxci (also a*aioo>), to Spend, to consume, Impf. «wf- 
lunow (avttlovv without Aug.) ; Fut irdloiaw ; Aor. dv^Xaaa and 
iwdXtaacL, xatrjvaJk^aa • Perf. dv^}.o)Ka and dvdixoxu ; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, dr^i-oiftoi and dyuXtofiat ; Aor. dtdlMdijr. 

5. dqiixta, to please, Fut oeeaw ; Aor. ^fsffo, § 130, (d) ; Perf. 
{i^^xa is mentioned as in use) Mid. or Pass, ^e«ffft<« ; Aor. 
Pass. iieia&r,v Mid. 

6. (JijJeojffxw, to eat (Fut. Att Wo^ni from ia&lm, second Aor. 
t(f<iyo*), Perf. pi^Q<oxa ; Part Me<^s, § 194 ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
^^Qmfuu ; Aor. Pass. e^Qdihir. 

1. fiyavlcita, mosdy PoeL, Ui tail, b> make known, FuL /f^-ftir^Voi ; Aor. 
iytyirtfia; Perf yifura, with a Present signification ; — further, yi/biyihra, 
Xen,, ftyui'itr, Poet, seldom proae, e. g. PI. Hipp. M. 2^^, U, troiu the 
Fnia. rSTJOfSIi. 



8. piQoiaxos or y^(?a«, to grotv old, Fut. yr^Qciaoficu^ seldom yij- 
Qcicoi) ; Aor. ipjQdaay in Aesch. Suppl. 901., Trans, to cause to 
groto old, Inf. yiiqaaou (also yrjQcivai from an old second Aor. 
lyriQaVy (ai, § 192) ; Perf. yeyr^QUxa, 

9. yiyifdaxm (yivdaxo)), to knoxo, {FNO-) Fut. yreacrojua*; second 
Aor. iyifcov (fti, § 192) ; Perf. cyreaxa; Perf. Mid. or Pass, lytoiafiat, 
§ 131 ; verbal Adj. yvmarog (old form yvmxog), yvcoariog, 

10. didQuaxo), to run aioay (usually in compounds, e. g. anod., 
ixd,, ^tad.), Fut. dgdaofjuti* Perf. d^SQuna] second Aor. IdQcip 
(fUy § 192). 

11. evQiaxoa, to find, second Aor. svqop; Imp. evQt, § 118,3, (a); 
(ETPE-) Fut. evQtjcjw] Perf. evQ?^xa] Perf. Mid. or Pass. svQtjftai] 
Aor. Pass. svQi'&t;v, § 130, (d) ; Aor. Mid. evQOfifjv (Aug., § 121, 
Rem.) ; verbal Adj. evgetog. 

12. fi^mxtOj to become marriageable, Aor. ?J|3//(7a (t^^do!), to be 
young, but avri^atxiy to become young again). 

13. 'Ovriaxoij commonly dno&v^axm, to die (Metathesis, §156, 
2), (0-^iV-) Aor. dni&dvov (Poet, i&avov, O^avoip, oi ^avovteg^ 
the dead, also in prose) ; Fut. dftod^apovfiai. Poet, ^avovfiai-, Perf. 
riOvrjxa both in prose and poetry, rs&vdfiep, § 194, etc.. Inf. red^vd- 
vai; Fut. Perf. reOpr^l^oiy old Att, § 154, 6, and re&v^l^oiJiai, I shall 
be dead, 

14. iXdaxoficu, to propitiate, Fut iXdaofiai] Aor. iXdadiAfjv. 

15. xvtaxta and xviaxoficu, to conceive, inchoative, from ww. 

16. fu^axoif to intoxicate, Fxxt fie&vao3] Aor. fV^Wcxa. But 
fAedvcs, to be intoxicated, borrows its tenses from the Passive, 
e. g. ifiBdvc&riVy § 131. 

17. fAiixvtjaxoif to remind, (MNA-) Fut. jur^cra); Aor. /^MJ^ycTa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. iJiiiArriiAcu, memini, I remember, I am mind- 
ful (Redup. §123, Rem. 1), Snhj, fjiefivwfiai, -i, 'ijrai, §154^9, 

Imp. fASfAvriao) Plup. iiiBfiv^firiVy I remembered, Opt. fiefivifjitir, -Jo, 
'fto, or fi€fiv(pfjLriVy -^o, -cpro, § 154, 9; Fut. Perf. fUfirtjaofica, I shall 
be mindful; among the Tragedians also, / will mention; Aor. 
ifAv^a&r^, I remembered, iiAvt^adfitiv Poet; Fut fArTi<y{>ii(70ficuy I 
shall remember. 

18. ndaxG), formed from fid^axco, by transferring the aspira- 
tion to X, to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor, Indd^or ; 
(IIENQ-) Fut fiBusofuu ; Perf. ninar^a. Verbal Adj. fia&r^og. 

4^ 162, 163.J VEnB3.— aECONDARY FORM IN -Om. 191 

19. Ttmiaxa, to ^ii^e to drink, Fut. mata ; Aor. tnica. 

20. ffiJiiiKffXM, to sell. Put. and Aor. in thf Common hngiiage 
expressed by anoStaaofiai, afieSoitijf • Pcrf. nfiiQdna, Ij 15G, Rem.; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. ninQilfiai {Inf. nm(;a.a9at oflen instead of the 
Aor.); Aor. ini>iiOrjy- Fat Perf. nt^Quaopcu in the sense of iho 
simple Fut. nQatti'/aopat. 

21. aitQKSxo) (seldom artQta), to deprive of, Fat. oreQ^am; Aor. 
iaTiQtjaa • Perf. iattgiixa ■ Mid. and Pass, att^i'axoiiai, are^irftai, 
privor, ati^ofuu, I am deprived, Ful. ffrtpijao/iwe ; Perf. iatfQijitat; 
Aor. iareQ^Otj* ; Fut. flTfe^Oijffo/mi. The simple occurs moat 
frequently in the Middle form; in the Active, the compomid 
ttjToart^KiXM is more frequent. 

32. TirpcJuMO), lo v;ovruI, Fut. TpoJffw ; Aor. hgwaa ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. *eVpoj/*«(, Inf. reipuffOrei, Part. rerpw^itVof ; Aor. irQw-Oip' • 
Ful. riioiOijaojiai and ipoJao/iai. 

23. tpiwxw, (o sai/, to thiiik (Ind. not used), Impf. dfaaxDy^ 
Fut. qfijaoi; Aor. irpiiaa.. 

24. x""""- 'o Ifcipe {Xyij\'-, among the later writers ^wiVw), 
Aor. ijaciw; FuL ^afoiipaf ; Pcrf. xfjiz/ra, (o stand open. 

Rehamk. In 3iS aaiit>, doc-co, tlie x belong^ing lo the etem is stretigth- 
eaed by 9 prelixFd ; liencu llie » reriinins iu forming the tensee, Fill. St- 
Kojw; Aor. tSiSaXa; Porf. iiSHaxa; Perf. Mid. or Puna. Simaypa,; Aor. 
Pb«8. tdiiiixSir. TliU is found in the Epic and poetic vcrbe, ol^ijiniM, 
aikioMiit itunittj. Sue ^ 'ZXI. 

§102. V. Verbs which haw a Secondary Form 

in -&<n. (188.) 

Sereral verbs, particularly in poetr}-, have secondary forms in -9a, e. g. 
ifliyi9iir, poetic, instead of ^kiyiir, to bum ; tiytiii9ortai and tjifi- 
#Miai, Epic, jiiBlead of aytii/onai and ailforxai. Here belong also the 
Prea. and Impf. endings, -aSur and -aSor, which ore iised even in Attic 
prose, e. g. ulefiu, to UKtrd off, tragic Inf. ahtadtiy, Bloni JjIK; apifu, to 
leard off, ifivraSitr, hn]if. ^iiiruffoi' ; — 3iuxia,to purgue, SianaSiiv, Impf. 
iOiuitaSoy, alao jiroae; — linia, lo yield, Impf. iixaS or; — i>^^t<i, lo thul vp, 
Impf. and Aor. it^yaSon ; — Jf lo, lo havt:, o/adtir, ia Horccr axt&ietv as Aor. 

§ 163. VL Verbs, whose Pure Slem is strenglhcned in the Pres. 
and Impf. by prefixing the Reduplicaiion. < 

The reduplication congists in repeating tlie firsl consonant of llie 
irilh the atem-vowcl t. In the Epic and poetic dialects, there are also verbs, 


192 VERBS WHOSE PURE STEM TAKES & [§§164, 165. 

which take the Attic reduplication, L e. they repeat the first two letters of 
the root, see oxa/^oi, inafpiauoi, aQagioMmj § 290. 

1. ^ifid^o), to make gv, to convey^ Fut ^t^dcmy Alt §i§m, -ag^ -^. 

2. yiyvoficu (commonly ytvoficu) instead of pyevoficUf § 155, 2, 
to become J {FEN-) Aor. iyevofiiiv; Fut yev^aoiuu (PI. Parm. 141, 
e. yei^(TeTcu,Jietj and moreover ysve^i^aetcu, efficietw) ; Perf. ytyi- 
piifuu, I have become jfacttis sum, exstUi, and yayava with a present 
signification, lam^ 

3. nhnm, instead of ^wreTO), § 155, 2, to fall, Imp. mnti ; (/IBT-) 
Fut necovfiaif § 154, 3 ; Aor. wrecroy (very seldom first Aor. tneaa)^ 
§ 154, Rem. 2 ; Perf. rn'mmHa with irregular vowel of variation 
(Part neTnoig, nemdirog Poet, § 194). 

4. titQouo, to bore, Fut tQ^cm ; Aor. itQtjaa. More usual the 
secondary form terQcupm, Fut. rcr^aw; Aor. iret^cLj § 149, Rem. 
2 ; Perf. th^xa, tet^fiou. — Mid. 

Several verbs of class IV, § 161, belong here, as ytynaoKa, and sevenil 
verbs in -/ii, as dldvtfu. 

§ 164. VIL Verbs, whose Pure Stem-vowel a is 
strengthened in the Pres. and Impf. by *. (i67.) 

Here belong the dialectic verbs, mostly Epic and poetic, iyaiafiat, to he 
indignant, daUit, to divide and hum, fiaiofiat^ to rage, rain, to dujelL See § 390L 

§ 165. VIII. Verbs, whose Pure Stem takes e in the 

Pres. and Impf. (i?©.) 

1. yofAea, to marry (of the man), Perf. yeyc^xa; but Fut ya- 
fico; Aor. iyrnia, yrifjuu {iyafju^aa in Lucian.; yafju^cBuig with the 
better reading yofit^cBmg in X. Cy. 8. 4, 20), Mid. yafiovfiai (with 
the Dat), to marry (of the woman, nubo), Fut yafiovficu; Aor. 
iytlfAOfAi^. Pass, in matrimonium ducor, Aor. iyafii^-^rfp, etc., 
§130, (d) 2. 

2. yrj&eto, usually Perf. yeyr^a, (also prose), to rejoice, Fut 

3. doHm, to seem, videor, to think, Fut dofw ; Aor. Ido^a ; Aor. 
Pass, i^oi&t^i Perf. Mid. or Pass, dedoyfiou, visus sum. 

4. ntvnia (Poet), to resound, Fut -rjaa, etc. ; second Aor. inwtop (Epic 
and S. O. C. 1450); first Aor. ixtintiaa (ib. 1606). 

i. fia^VQto), to tffitness, Fut. nufftvg^aoi, etc. Bat futurv^ofteu, 
Dep, Mid. to call as witnesses. 

6. JifgMn, lo shave, Mid, ^QOfiai ; Aor. i^QOfuip ; but Perf. «|i!- 

7. d&fto, to jmsk, Impf. ita&ovy; Fut. cunw and wfffjaiu; Aor. 
Jnaa, euaot i Perf. ««xa; Perf. Mid. or Pass, tmaiiai; Aor. it^a-O-jj* 
(Aug., § 123, 4).— Mid. 

1 166. Verbs, lohose Stem is Pure in Ike Pres. aitd Impf. but 
toliick assume an e informing the tenses. (ics.) 

This rliBDge has laken place in tlic foruiatioD of verbs in -(W, partly iVotn 
neeessil)*, as is the r«se with verba whone cluiracteriHtic is J, f, partly for 
ibe Bake of perspicuity, tliut the root may not wholly disappear by the in- 
troducaon of coDsonants, as in verlia whose characteristic is mi, x9, aiid 
pBTlly from mere choice or the desire of euphony, as in vcrlw whose ehnr- 
idmstic is a, I, {; 1, p, TT, X, x> ". "*, h «'■ The i ia clintiged iuto ij in in- 
flexion. Exceptions: aXSojiai, Sx^afiai and fiaxaiiai, $ 190, (d). 

1. olSo^M, to he ashamed (Pres. and Imjif. old poetic, in the Common lun- 
gnage oiSioitat), Impi^ alSofopr without Aug. ; PiiL aliiuofiat anil -tjiro^UDK ; 
Aor. tfimaiii^Y, to rtgard a nipplianl, and pHaStiv, I was ashamed. 

2. aXt^tt. lo icard off, Fut. aXi%^ato; Mid. to ward off from my- 
self, Fut. «i«SiJoo^ai, seldom illi^ofiai (from ^JEK-) • Aor. ijie- 
lafnj* (Inf. second Aor. «Xxa&etr, used by the Trag., § 162). 

3. aiIS«, lo increase, sec av^arm, ^ 160, 4. 

4. ax^opai, lo be vexed, Fal. ilx^taofim ; Aor, fix^^oO-tif, § 131 ; 
Fnt. ax&ta&i'iaoiivu having iho same signification a.^ ux&f'ao/iiu. 

01, lo feed, Fut. ^offxijow ; Aor, t^oaxfjaa ; Mid. / fed, 
\ intransitive. 

6. ^oiXoftai, to wish, (second Pers. §ovXei, § 116, 11), Fut. ^ou- 
u; Perf. fi«^(wl<i;*«i ; Aor. tffouJ.i/fl^» and ij^fwi. (Aug., ^ 120, 
J Bern. 1). 

•int, lo need, usually Impers, Sei, it is wanting, it 
7, 2, Snbj, S^V' Part, Seof, Inf. fleif; Impf, Idei, 
ei ; Aor. ilftjjae(y) ; Perf, 8BStr,xt(v) ; Mid. 5eo- 
imm; Aor. iB^^&riV. 

I loill, Impf. ^fteioc and rflEioc; Fnt. i9e- 
gOtXijoii and (ffel^ira; Perf. only jj&elqxit. 


9. efiLw, ei3JL(o, i5Jlw, also «fl«o, to press, to shut tip, Fut etk^am ; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, eih^fiai ; Aor. Pass, sil^&tp^. 

10. AxWf to drata, Fut. «i?w (which more commonly has the 
other form iXxvcm from 'EAKTQ) ; Aor. ci-lxvcra, § 122, 3, ihwctu 
(more common than tl^a) ; Aor. Pass, and Perf. Mid. or Pass, 
only tihwa^riv, cilxtfcTfiou..— -Mid. 

1 1 . 'EI POM A ly Aor. nQotirjv^ I inquired^ iqic^ou^ iQmfuth iQoif^rpf^ 
iQw, tQoiuyog ; Fut BQ^cofiau The other tenses are supplied by 
iQmrav; but the Aor. ^Q(6rti<ya is rejected. 

12. e^^, to go forth, Fut. i^qfiam ; Aor. ^()^^(ra. 

13. «v^w, commonly xa^ev^w, to sleep, Fut. xa^cv^jjcxw (Aug., 
§§ 121, Rem. and 126, 3). Verbal adjective xa^evdr^riov. 

14. ix^, to have, to hold, Impf. eJxov, § 122, 3 ; Aor. fojf^* in- 
stead od'Oexot, Inf. ox^tp, Imp. <tx*!?» ^o^a^^Z^ff according to verbs in 
ftt (in composition also noQaaxe), Subj. <T;fd), -]/tf, noQaax^^ naQa- 
fsxqg^ etc.. Opt. ff;toi'j7i' (^«, § 192, Rem.), Part, ax^^v ; Fut «Sw and 
<yK<^w; Perf. Icxtixa; Aor. Mid. iaxof*^, Subj. <x;fc5f*ca, Opt ffjfoi- 
f^jyi'i Imp. cTjCOv, nccQaaxov, Inf. axBoO^aiy 7t(tQaax£a{^My Pass, cxofuvog ; 
Fut axv<^ofAou; Perf. Mid. or Pass, i^x^ficu; Aor. Pass. iaxdOTjf. 
Verbal adjective «xTdff and (xxcrdtf. 

15. fit/^w, to cooA:, Fut. «VjJ<tw. Verbal adjective eg)^off or »V^- 
«rd^, ixpTiriog. 

16. *&», commonly xa&i^oi), to seat, to sit, Perf. exa^iftw, 
old Attic xa^ijof ; Fut. xa^ico ; Aor. fxa^iaa, old Attic xa^ura^ 
§ 126, 3; Perf. xsxdOixa; Mid. / seat myself, Fut xa^iJlii^cTo/uxi ; 
Aor. ixa&usoifit^, I seated for mi/self, I caused to siL But 
xaOeXofioUy I seat myself, I sit, Impf. ixa&sl^ofjupf ; Fut xa- 


17. xi;^(o, to m^e anxious, (Act. only Epic), Fut x^dJitm; Pedl 
xexTjdoy lam anxious; Mid. x^doficu^ to be anxUm$ in ivour ''^nlst 
^res. and Impf. ; in Aesch. S. 138. is fmr* 


19. itdxo(iai, tojiffhti Fut. [laxovftai, § 154, 5; Aor. (naxaaufasv ; 
Perf. fUftiixit^M. Verbal adjeelive ftuxerioi and fiaxipiot. 

20. /lAJ-w, in intend, to cnnsidei; to be about to do, hence to delai/, 
Impf. i^iioc and ^fttlAo* ; Ful, t^H^aoa ; Aor. iittlXijaa ; Pass. 
fiAUat>m, lu be put off, {Aug. \ ISO, Rem. 1). 

21. f«sl«|Uo(,cHrae mihi est (rarely personal plw), Fut. f^tlvoei ; 
Aor. ifith}tjt{v) ; Pi:rf. ;iffi(l»;sM(r) ; JVIid. /teXofiai, commonly iVi- 
fiiXo/tai (and imiiei-oufitu) • Ful. iniiuh]aoitai (sometimea iniiteXi}- 
■&^aofiiu)- Aor. i>'ifti'',l*'i*' 

llic coinpounda, e. g. fiitafiiln potniltl, are used as linpcr^onalB noly. 
Epic Perf iJifi^r, 1 am coivtmed about; pifitjla has iu ))rasc ibe sense 
of the Pres, as well us ol'iJie Perf., euro, tvravi, infitjltit, cariiigfor. 

22. (itifw, to suck; Fut. ^I'D/t"", etc. 

23. o!^u, fo 5/»c//, Ful. dC^ooi; Aor. wtlia; Perf. oJwia with 
the meaning of ihc Pres., § 124, 2. 

24. oTo/jot and o?|«n(, to think, second Pcrs. o'", §116, II; 
Impf. vofiiir a.i\il Vl"i*'< Fat.olqaoftai; Aor. tp/J £>(/>', oiz/O^fai, (Aug., 
§ 122, 1). 

Tlie abbreviuted fomiB, olfiai, u^t/*, are used iu prose as a mere 
parenthetic cxprciieion, like the Lat credo, and bcnce are oSieu employed in 
an ironicBl sense; oio/iai, on die contrary, has such a sciisu, only when 
it is ft governing verb; still, ibia difierencc of usage is not fuUy observed 
even hy the best Attic writers. 

25. o'xoiiai, to go atcaif, abii, Inf. ^X^fV' ^ went aivay; Fut. 
olxi'ioonai ; Perf. ^)xijitai, in the Common language only aa a com- 
pound, e. g. n«eq>;ii^«i. Ion. and Att. Poet, oqoixa, (so origi- 
nate, oJxtt, oiVoj/K, o'j;-«xa, comp. the Epic oxtu/a from fj;w, § 230). 

26. ofeih^, to be obli^Pil, to owe, debeo, Fut. o<fiiO.!jaoi ; Aor. 
litftthiaa ; second Aor. m^jeJ-oc, -tj, -e(i') (first and second Perg. 
PL not used), in forms expressing »c(sA, imprecation, utinam. 

27. naiatita strike, Ful. ffwiffw (Alt. secondary form »«(^<»(o 
inArisloph.); Aor-fVciffa; VarLmTiat^a; Pass with o, § 131, 2. 

28. niQltit}, emitlerejlutum, Aor. tna^Sw, Fut. Ho^ijffoftot ; Perf. 
m'lfOQda, 5 140, 4. 

29. nt'To/iai, to Jlij, Fut. (ffST^ffofwu, Arisloph.) commonly »rnj- 
ao/ioi ; Aor. iaionrjy, nii'a&cu (rarer IJirij* and wraffij*', § 193, 2) ; 
Perf. tnaortjiteu. — Syncope, § 155, 1. 


30. axAlw or <Jxel«o, to dry^ Aor. foxl^, § 192, 4, and Perf. 
iaxktjxa and Put. axX^aofAcUy intensive, to dry up, — Metathesis, 
§ 156, 2. 

31. Twrro), to strike. Instead of rvypm the Attic dialect has 
tvnriiao!)^ but Aor. itvxpo^ second Aor. only in Eur. Ion. 766 ; 
Aor. Pass. Mft^. Verbal Adj. rvrmj^riog, 

32. xaiqtoy to rejoice^ Put. x^^^^^) Aor. ixi(niv (^ § 192, 8) ; 
Perf. JWjfo^jyxa, I have rejoiced^ and xex^i^w^f lam ff lad. 

Remark 1. Of the preceding classes, there belong here verbs in >ar«i, 
§ 160, and ^Jticr/Wofiai, mentioned in § 159. 

Rem. 2. With these verbs several liquid verbs are classed, § 149, 6 ; s^lly 
these form the Fut and the Aor. regularly, e. g. 

fifiVfo, to remotm, Fut/ucyoi; Aor. s/iexya; Per£ fitfiirfjna. Verbal 

Adj. fitvetiog. 
rifia^to divide^ Fut vtfiu; Aor. mi/ia; Ferf. nrifirixa; Aor. Pass. 
ittfAi^d-riv, — Mid. vifiOfAaiy Fut vtfAovfjun ; Aor. ipHfiafAfjp ; Perf. 
Mid. or Pass. vBrifirifiai. Verbal Adj. ptfitixiog. 

§ 167. Verbs, whose Tenses are formed from different Roots, 
and tohich are classed together only in respect to Siffnift- 
cation. (17L) 

1. oi^/q}, to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Impf. i^ow] Fut 
a^(T09 ; Perf. J^xa ; Aor. (from ^EA) Bikav^ iktXv ; Aor. Pass. 
if^i^', Fut Pass. ouQB&^aotuu^ § 130, (d). — JVEd. to choose, 
Fut ouQ^aofAou ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^Qfi/Mu ; Fut Perf. ^Qi^aafuuj 
PI. Prot. 338, b. Verbal Adj. algtrog, -tiog. 

2. Iqx^H^> to go, to come, (the remaining modes and partici- 
pials are borrowed from eJjWi, § 181 , thus eQXOfuu, So, J^*, «Va«, iw), 
Impf. iox^f^^f commonly ^biv and ia, Opt toifu] Fut cJ/o, I shall 
go, ij?w, I shall come ; — (EAET0-) Perf. €;ij5lv^a, § 124,2; Put 
iXsv<TOfAou almost exclusively poetical and later prose, still also 
Lys. p. 165, § 11 ; Aor. ^l&ar, a^w, iX&oifii, iX^i, § 118, 3, (a), 
il&eiv, iX&oiv. Verbal Adj. iXevareov. — "EQxofJuu has in conunon 
the signification of to come and to go ; the idea of coming com- 
monly belongs to the form from ih&Eiv, and the idea of going 
to that of eJfu, But in compounds, each of these three verbs 
expresses both ideas, and only the preposition limits it to the 
one or to the other signification. 

3. eWiw, to eat, Impt ^(t&iop ; (f^w, Ep.) Fut. c^ofioi, § 154,4; 


Perf. id^ioxa; Aor. itpayor, ifayeTt; Perf. Mid. or Pass. i3ij8ca- 
fttu, § 124, 2; Aor. Pass, ^diaBrfp. Verbal Adj. iSsaroi. 

4. o^cew, (o see, Impf. iraQtav ■ Perf. itoQuxa, Poet, also iofjaxtx, 
{Aug., ^ 1 22, 6) ; Aor. (from 'l^-) flSov, 'Boo, t&oi^i, ISi, ^ IS, 3, (a), 
tStiv.iSiav. On the second Perf, oWa, /A-Btw, see § 195. Fut. 
(from '0/7) atpoi'tu, 2. p. otpei, § U6, 11, — Mid. or Pass, ogwpu; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. «'wp«f(ai or w/4/<a(, wij'af, etc.; Inf. wqifliw; 
Aor. Mid. Btdopiiv, IStaOcu, ISov (and with the meaning ecce, I'iw), 
as a simple only PoeL ; Aor. Pass. m^9iiv, oipfUjf ai ; Ful. 6tp0^ 
coftttt. Verbal Adj. ogato-; and ottioe- 

5. ref'x<a, to run-, (JPF.M-) Ful. dQUfiov/tou- Aor. tSqafiov; Perf. 
diSQiifnixa ■ Perf. Mid. or Pass. SeSQiifiijfuu. 

SgiSoiiat, 'iSfria very rare. — Epic second Perf, tiSi/Ofia [JPEMJl), 
G. <ptQO), to bear, (0I-) FuU tn'ow (Aor. Imp. oiae, alahw, bring, 
in Aristoph,, see §230, under q^f'e") ; — (EVK-) Aor. f/cf^ox 
(rarer fivtyxa), -ts, •*(»>), -o^£v, -«te, -oc (and -afuv, -are, -av), § 124, 
Rem. 2, Opt, ht'yxoiiu, etc. {rarer -«'/**> etc), Inf. cvtyxiTv, Part. 
irejiuup and iniyxas. Imp. eveyxe, -tVto, etc. ; — ■ ('ENEK-) Perf. 
it^Xa, §124, 2; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ir^nyfiai, -jiat, -jxrai, or 
cnpcxTRi; Aor, Mid. ^M^'xrt'/iijr, iVf/xai, -nff&rti, -KfMt'o; ; Aor. Pass. 
^ix&rjV ; Fut. irtx&'iooftai, rarer ous&iflOftai. — Verbal Adj. oiaros, 
ounios. Poet cfEfnog. — Mid. 

7. qciifu', § 173, /o iay, Impf. «9^ with liie meaning of the Aor., 
also <favm and qt«s*. § 17S, Rem. 2; — (^^-) Aor. s?ffM, *'ffio, it- 
noi/w, «W, § lis, 3, (a), {the other forms of the Imp. are rarely or 
never used, compound nQoeim), eineir, etntiv, first Aor. e7na, not 
very frequent in Atlic writers, more frequent ehiag, very frequent 
tinarc, rarely tlnar. Imp, elnov rarely, very frequent eindtoi, e'aa- 
ton, daoLTiov, and always einare ; all other forms wanting in the Att. 
From the Epic Pres. eigw, come FuL ('piu, Perf, eipj^xtt, Perf. 
Mid. or Pass, t'eJificu, § 123, 4 ; — (^E-) Aor. Pass. i^Q^-Siji' (i^- 
^If appears to be not Atlic), Qrfiijvat, qij^ei's ; Fut. Pass, e^' 
aofMu and eiQ^tsoftai — ^Mid. only in compounds, Fut datQovfiai 
and fir.^t Aor. anurtaa&at, to deny, to despair, like anti}tii¥. — 
Verbal Adj. ^{toi, QTjttos- 

Compsre anayofititii, to forbid, aniinor, I forhade; artiUym, to contra- 
diet, sriiiiiov, / emdraduitd, oltciier then a-itiiyo^tvaa and ofTiJUfa. So, 
iyoftiu Tivd lutxus, but ai^iiaaf xaxiuc. 


§168. Conjugation of Verbs in -f*** c^?^) 

1. Verbs in -fu are principally characterized by taking in the 
Pres. and Impf., (also in the second Aor. Act. and Mid. of seve- 
ral verbs) personal-endings, different from those of the conju- 
gation in -<o, and also by omitting the mode-vowel in the Ind. 
of the tenses just named. The formation of all the remaining 
tenses of these verbs is like that of verbs in -w, with a few ex- 

2. Several verbs in -p, which have a monosyllabic stem, 
take, in the Pres. and Impf., a reduplication, § 163, which con- 
sists in repeating the first consonant of the stem with i, when 
the stem begins with a simple consonant, or with a mute and 
liquid ; but, when the stem begins with ar, nr, or with an as- 
pirated vowel, * with the rough Breathing is placed before the 
stem. These verbs are the following : 

XPA tU^xQV'f^^ ^^ (d/-^-/!!) diJsWi 

£A (pi^Pfi'fu) Pifiig OE T^^f^-fi* 

JITA X^nta-ftM *E 1-1^-/14 

nAA nl^fi^nXfj^fu AO dl-^i»-/n. 

Remark. Most verbs in -(u do not follow this conjugation throughout in 
the three tenses above named, but only in some particular forms ; four verbs, 
tl^flfn, to pUuty ?(7f ij/ui, to station^ didai^, to give, and iijfii, to send, have this 
conjugation complete, though even in these verbs there are forms in use 
(together with several forms of the inflexion in -/ii), which are borrowed 
from the conjugation in -c». See § 172, Rem. 8. 

§ 169. Division of Verbs in -f«*« 0^) 

Verbs in -fu are divided into two principal classes : 

1. Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-vowel. 
The stem of verbs of this class ends, 

(a) in a, e. g. X-imj-fii, to staiumy Stem STA- 

(b) ** «, « li-^n-fu, to place, « OJS- 

(c) " o, " JWw-p, to give, " AO- 

(d) "1, " ilfUytOgO, « 7- 

(e) <" or, <" 4ii, instead of ^(Tfi/, to 6e, << *E2-. 

2. Such as annex to their stems the syllable -wv or -w, and 
then append to this syllable the personal-endings. The stem 
of verbs of this class ends, 

§ 170.] VERBS IN -fil. STEM OF THE P 

A- In one of the four vowels, a, t, t, o, and a 

(a) in a, e. g. antda-ryv-fu, lo Ktitler, 8tein SK£JA- 

(b) " t, " Hogi-rtv-tit, to tatiafy, " KOPE- 

(c) " I, ovAy iL'-ni-pL, to aioat " TI- 

(d) " o, e. g. tngtu-vri-iii, lo »prtad out, " ZTPO-. 

B. In a consonant, and assumes -fv. 

(a) in a mule, e. g, SiU-rv-fii, to thow, Stem JEIK- 

(b) " liijuid " ofi-rC-fii, to swear, " '0M-. 

Remark 1. W)iBn a dijihUiong iirecetlea the final cooeonant of the Btem, 
then that consoiianl is omitted Itefore Uie -fv, except it is a Kappa-ntute, e. g. 

Snf-viyit " JAIT [comp. Salt, Jnii-o{) 

tttd-vvftai " KAU from KAA (coinp. Perf. tiimaS~ftat, wtaa^un) 

*iil~niiAi " JCTi/ZVfrom ifr£IV(FuL xttF-<S); biit 

SiU-rv/ii, tif/-wviu, Sfvy-rvf)!, ofy'ri'iii. 

Rett. 2. Verba of [he second class — those in -v^i — tbrni outy tlie Pitb. 
and Impf like verba in ^i, and e\-en in these tenaes, fbmie in -v/u and -vu 
oAen occur iadbcrimiuBtely, and id the Sing. Inipf. the accompanying foruiB 
in -{u are predominant, and in the Pres. Subj. and in the Impi^ Opt., 
these are the regular forms. The verb a^i-vfv-fu from the Btem SBF.-, 
is the only verb of iliis class which forms the second Aor., namely la^riv ; 
there are, also, several verba in 'Oi, which form tlieir second Aor. sccordiiig 
to the analogy of tfaeee verbs, e. g. dint, SSvii. 

§170. Char acteristic-vowel and Strengthening 
of the Stem of the Present. (m.) 

1. In verba of ihe first class, the short characterisiic-vowel of 
fte stem, a, e, o, is lengthened in the Pres., Impf. and second 
Aor. Act., as follows : 

a and t into i;, and o into a. 
Still, this prolongation extends in verbs in -e and -o only to the 
Sing. Ind. of the three tenses above named, but in verbs in -a, 
to the Dual and PI. Ind., and also to the entire Imp. and Inf. 
of the second Aor. Act. In the second Aor, Inf. Act of verbs 
in -t and -o, the ■« is lengthened into -«, and -o into -ov, e. g. 
Ki, dov-vta. In the second Aor. Mid., however, the short 
characteristic-vowel remains throughout. 

2, In verbs of the second class in -fffi, the stem ending in a 
Towel, and which annexes -w, retains the short characteristic- 
■vowel, except those whose stem ends in -o, e. g. aTqto-v*v(u, 

200 VEBBB m -fU. MODE-VOWELS. [§ 171. 

2TP0- \ bat ibe stem ending in a consonant, which annexes 
-w, is strengthened in the Pres. by prolonging the slem-vowel, 

a becomes % as in nrff-wfu, Becond Aor. Pbm. inSy-ipi 
a " ct, " ai-rvfit instead of ai/rviiai, aiem AP, AIP 
.1 ** fi| " dilx-rtiftt, Rem JEK, hence Ion. tSBia 
V " ni, " ifvy-rvfu, second Aor. Pass. iZtty^^. 

J171. Mode-vowels. ["s-) 

1. The Ind. of the Pres., Impf. and second Aor. do not take 
the Mode-vowel, § 168, 1, and hence the peraonal-endingB are 
annexed to the verb-stem, e. g. 

i-iiia-fu9a t-it-^i-nt9tt i-d6-fit»a. 

2. The Subj. has, like verbs in -m, the mode-vowels o> and 
^, bat these vowels coalesce with the characteiistic-vowel, so 
that the following deviations from the verbs in -» in respect to 
contraction are to be noted, namely, 

Ml) and aji coalesce into q and ^ (not, aa in contracts in -aa>, into i and f ] 
i^ coBleecea into ^ (not, as in contracta in -out, into ot), e. g. 

f-ind-ai = t-inili l-<rTii-i;c ■» l-VTf,( l-aia-^^iu ^ l-vnf-iiu 

i^8o-ta —c S^-9ii it~9D-^ = Si^d^s di-ll6^ •= jt- j^. 

RuuBK 1. Thia fwrn of the Subj. of un^fu and il9^/u is like the Sutj. 
of Ae two Aorists of the Pass, of all verbs, e. g. Tt^doi, -pt, -^, eld, 
nm-u, '^c, -^, from Tvn-rai, (na-A&, -^ti ~Vi fivni ^mjpt. 

Rem. 2. The Subj. of verbs in -lyii is like that of verbs in -Mt, e. g. 
iiuttna, -vi;(, etc 

3. The Impf. and second Aor. Opt. have the mode-vowel t, 
which is annexed to the characteristic-vowel, and with it fmna 
a diphthong, e. g. 

Opt. Inip£ A, i-cno-i-ijc = i-tnoi-ijy Aor. 11. A. inal-rir hnpf. M. i- 



§173. Personal-ending's. (ua-ne.) 

1. The personal endings for the Act. are the following: 
(a) Indicative Present, 
Sing. 1. 

-i (properly -tr») 
M") properly -i.) 

Dual S. 

Plur. 1. 




-fat (liroperly -fiti) <--(rto-^w 

[-,»,(,)] (proi>erly -w,) [V-,no-n. r-<r.a-w.(»)]. 

The ending of ihe third Pera. PL -» tr i (») is chonged into -«(«{»), aDil tljen 
is contracted with the preceding stem-vowel of the verb. Still, tlie Attic 
dialect admila cuntmcrtion only in the sieina ending in -a, thus: 
, &ora 'i'ttta-rai ia fomied l-rnam {J-ffro-no't) 

" ^l-&^-*a^ " -n-Qiiat AtL %i-Si-aat 

:icd form in -idai, -oavi, -vdat, is the com- 
I, though it, al«), occurs in tlie Ionic dialect: 
>iN7f, -iiai, is the usual form of the Ionic and 
, also, of writers in the Conunoo language, 
tinea ihe Altic laai, contracted from i-^ 

Behaiii 1. The 
mon form of the Attic writt 
the contracted form in -iiai, 
of the older Attic writers, i 
From iij;*! — Slem'Ji — to avnd, 

(b) The personal endings of ihc Pres. and second Aor. Subj, 
do not ditfer from those of verbs in -oi, 

(c) The following are ttsed for the Impf. and second Aor. 

Impf. i'-tnij-r 

Dual '. 
Flnr. ] 

-rW A, n, f-oiij-ioi' 

-/tw (properly -fitt) s-irt^-(ity 

^1 Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of h.11 verbs ia like the second 
■ ttmt-ypi, i~<nS-&i)i; -i;(, -ij, -ijioy, -Jitijf, -ijfio', -iji(, -ijo-o*. 

nal-endings of the Opt. Impf, and second Aor. 
Pers. Sing. — differ from those of the Opt. 
aaea of verbs in -w only, lliat in verbs in -f^, l 



precedes the endings mentioned under (c) above, comp. Opt 
^ovlevoifu, ^ovlevaaifu, etc. with 

Rem. 3. In the Dual and PL Impf. Opt, the -i; in the Attic dialect is 
commonly rejected, and the ending of the third Pers. PL -tiattP is regulariy 
shortened into -ev, e. g. 

ji&il^rjfiiP = Jt&t'lfiBP hnal^rftt = Unalit 

The same holds of the Opt of Pass. Aorists of all verbs, e. g. nttidev^tltifup 
=> naidtv&'-ufitv — ^wholly like Ti&sltiv, — On the contrary, in the second 
Aor. Opt Act, the abbreviated forms are very rare, except the third Pen. 
PL, which is commonly abridged. 

Rem. 4. The forms didtativ and dtarpf also occur, 
(e) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. Imp. are, 











Dual 2. 










PL 2. 










or V-atayjup 



Rem. 5. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. rejects the ending -^ft, and 
as a compensation lengthens the short characteristic-vowel, namely, or ints 
fl, s into et, o into ov, v into t;, 

X-tna-^i becomes i-crrs xI-^b-^i becomes xl-d-rt 

dl-^do^&t « dl-dov diU'Pv-'&i. " dsixpy. 

The ending -^t in the Pres. is retained only in a very few verbs, e. g. 
<pa&t from 917/1/, ttr^t from ilfil, t&i from ilfHj and some others ; also in 
simple forms of the Perf. of verbs in -u, e. g. xi&pa&i. 

In the second Aor. of 1/^17/ii, litjfii and dldwfn, the ending -^t is softened 
into g, thus &i^&i becomes ^ig, c-^t = tg^ So-'&i = dog ; but in the second 
Aor. of 7<ntifiiy the ending -i^^ is retained, thus axij-^i, also in the two 
Aorists Pass, of all verbs, e. g. xvjtrj^-&i, naidev^fiJi, instead of 9raid(v^-Y^i, 
§ 21, Rem. 3. In compounds of criii^i, in the Poet dialect and in other 
Aorists belonging here, the ending -^Oi is often shortened into o, e. g. 
naqaaxiy anoaxa^ nqopi^ ttaxa^a, 

(f ) The ending of the Pres. and second Aor. Inf. is -foi. 
This ending is appended in the Pres. to the short characteristic- 
vowel ; but in the second Aor., to the lengthened vowel, a l)e- 
ing lengthend into ly, e into «*, o into ov, § 170, 1, thus, 

Pres. l^fna-pai, xir-^i-pat d^^di-pat dux^pv-rat 

Second Aor. fntj^pai ^i7-ya* Soupm, 


Rem. 6. The Inf. of Pass. Aorists of all verbs is like crr^yoi, e. g. tvti^- 

(g) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. participle are 
•wff, 'vraa, -vt, which are joined to the characteristic-vowel ac- 
cording to the common rules, thus, 

i-<na-vtg s= t-trtagy t-ajaauj i-fnSp era;, araaay cnav 

dt^do-yig = dt-dovg, -ovaOf -6v dovg, -ovcra, ^6r 

dux-pv-ng = dtix~rvg, -vaa, -vv. 

Rem. 7. The participles of the two Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like the 
P^urt u^flg or d-tlg, e. g. jvn^dgy -tltra, -«V, fiovkevd^-ilg. 

2. The Personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of verbs 
in -w, except that in the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf. Ind., 
and in the Imp., the Personal-endings retain their full form, 
-<Tai and -ao, almost throughout Still, the following things 
are to be noted, 

(a) The second Pers. Pres. Ind. of verbs in -a is, in the Attic prose 
writers, only -naat ; the contracted form is found, from the earliest period, 
only in the poetic dialect, e. g. inlaiif from iniatafiai, in Aesch., ^t^i}— 
from the Ionic ending -eai — ^instead otdvvif, in Soph, and Eurip. — In the 
second Pers. Imp. and in the Impf. laTCD, initrtot, ^tt/ctto), dvyoi, 
flSvv^y are explained by the old grammarians as used instead of the bet- 
ter Attic forms uriaao, inUrxatrOy etc. ; still they are very oflen found in the 
Attic poets. 

(b) In verbs in -a, both the uncontracted and contracted forms of the 
Pres. and Impf. are used, e. g. rl&taai and Tldjjj iri&tco and itl&ov, rl&iao 
and ji&ov ; the regular forms of the second Aor., both of verbs in >« and 
-o, are those which are contracted, e. g. b^ov, ^ov, tdov, dov. But in verbs 
in -o, the contracted forms are not used in the Pres. Ind., though in the 
Imp£ and Imp. both forms occur : iSldoao and ididov, dldoffo and dldov. 

(c) The contracted forms are uniformly employed throughout the Subj. ; 
in the Opt, as in verbs in -oi, the a is always omitted, yet the form remains 

Rem. 8. The Sing. Impf. Act of ji&fi/n and didoifAi is generally formed 
firom TIBEfl and Jl/iOJl with the common contractions. Of verbs in - v^^y 
the corresponding forms of -vta may be used throughout the Pres. and Impf, 
and exclusively in the Pres. Subi. and Impf. Opt, e. g. deixy tw, o/irvoi, crrfi- 
fuyvvn, together with diUyv/Ai, ofivvfii, avfMfilywvfn, — In Attic poetry, there 
are also contracted forms of rid-tjin and Vijfii in the second and third Pers. 
Sing. Pres. Ind. Act, e. g. u^tig, UTg, ti^cI, UL 



§173. I. First Class of Verbs in -pt. im.) 

1. In forming the tenses of the Act., as well as of the Fat 
and first Aor. Mid., the short characteristic-vowel is lengthened, 
namely, a into i, e into i?, and in the Perf. Act of tiihj/u and 
hjfu, B into et> and o into w ; but in the remaining tenses of the 
Mid., ajid throughout the Pass., the short characteristic-vowel is 
retained, with the exception of the Perf. and PInp. Mid. and 
Pass, uf ti&^pi and itnu, where the et of the Perf. Act, ti&tuM, 
ie9afiai, iha, upat, is retained. 

2. The first Aor, Act and Mid. of ti&iita, uj/u and didmfu, has 
X for the characteristic of the tense, not a, thus, 

t-&ij-X'-a, ij-x-a, l-ioi-K-a. 
The forms of the first Aor. Act t&i?xa, (?x« and IScixa, are, how- 
ever, used only in the Ind., and, for the most part, only in the 
Sing. ; in the other Persons, as well as in the other Modes and 
Participials, the Attic writers used the forms of the second Aor. ; 
still, the first Aor. is sometimes employed in the PI. Ind., and 
somewhat often in the third Pers. PI., e. g. i^^xoftep, X. C. 4. 2, 1& 
idmnizfitv, O. 9, 9. 10. tfluixaTe, Antiph. 138, 77. iitonav, X. Cy. 
4. 6, 12. eV^xKc, H. 2. 3, 20. a^f^naw, Cy. 4. 5, 14. Also the 
forms of the second Aor. Mid. of ri&tjiu, t^/u and didtofu, are 
used by the Attic writers instead of the first Aor. On the coa- 

U75. Paradigms of 

/tO- to give. /tEIK- to AotB. 



and Tt-^£iai*) 






tc, cepeciallj 3iiia'vovai(v). Alio Impf^ iSiiMn/ar, 

§ 174.1 



trary, the fonns of the second Aor. Ind. Act of ri^rjfii, irjfit and 
didaiu, namely, i&t^f ^v, Idcovy are not in use. 

3. The verb hzr^fii forms the first Aor. Act and Mid., like 
verbs in -oo, with the tense-characteristic ff, e. g. i-ctri-c-ay i-drtj-a- 
dfAfjf. The second Aor. Mid. iaroifir^ is not used. This tense 
is formed, however, by some other verbs, e. g. inrdfiriVf i/iQidiitjv, 

Rebiark 1. The second Aor. Mid. and the second Fut Mid. are wanting 
in these verbs, also the Fut Perf., except in Xmrifiiy the Fut Perf. of which 
is iarYjIoi old Att, and l<rTi2|ofia^ § 154, 6. 

Rem. 2. On the meaning of the verb co-rt/fii, the following things are to 
be noted : the Pres., Impf., Fut and first Aor. Act have a Trans, meaning, 
to station ; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Perf. and Plup. Act, and 
the Fut Perf., have a reflexive or Intrans. meaning, to station one^s self, to 
siandj namely, iattjVy I stationed myself , or / stood, {ori^xa, / have stationed 
tmfsdfy I stand, sto, icmjxciy, stabam, Icrri^lo), kartUoiiuij stabo, — a<peirTt}|oi, 
/ shall withdraw. The Mid. denotes either to station one^s self, to stand 
ertdj to stand, consistere, or to let one^s s/df be stationed, L be stationed, 

§174. IL Second Class of Verbs in -fit. (i79.) 

The formation of tenses of verbs of the second class, § 169, 2, 
has no difficulty. All the tenses are formed from the stem, after 
the rejection of the ending 'Wv^u or -wfit. Verbs in -o, which 
in the Pres. have lengthened the o into w, retain the w through- 
out the tenses, e. g. ^TQci-wv-fii, ^oi-vpy-fu, gd-vvv-fu, Fut (Tt^o)-(Tw, 
etc. But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, take, in forming 
some of the tenses, a Theme ending in a vowel, e. g. ofi-w-fju, 
Aor. (SfA'O-acty from 'OMOfi, The second Aor. and the second 
Fut Pass, occur only in a few verbs, e. g. ^evy-nf-fu. See § 182. 

Verbs in -f«*. 



2TA' to station. 

QE' to place. 

AO' to give. 

AEIK' to show. 




ri'd-e-acu and ti'&jj 














'Vsg, -^f(r]^ and the Participle usually dtufpH-mw, -ovea, -or, § 173| Rem. 8. 









0E- to placf. 





^ ■£ 

S. 1. 
















D. 1. 












P. 1. 












S. 2, 







(from Si'SoOi] 

[from Stiiirv9i) 





fltrx »P-r» 



Si- So- tot 







P. 2. 












el St-SivTbir 










Sftx-rvi; vca, if 

G. atjoq 


G. 6vJ<K 

G. vfToe 

S. 1. 










I- at)} 





D. I. 






t-Sclx-rv -ro» 








P. 1. 

















S. 1. 

















D. 1. 



Ti-&ei-tov ' 

Si-Hol-Tov ' 






P. 1. 











S. 1. 

>'.0,-*) 1 A.I. 

[l-6t,>-f] ) A.I. 


e-ffrV-f [''"x'. 

[l-&,j-S) \ i>sed 




D. I. 


[i-{hj) jforil 

U--a<B) )foril 
















P. I. 












3. 1-arri-aa.v i-Oe-aa* t-So-aav 

8m $ 173, Rem. 3. ■OiitlMirr«gulBrftCcentiutioDof'nIirT«^iu,«t&,iM$176tL 

§ 175.] 




2;TA' to station. 

QE' to place* 

^0- to give. 

JEIK' to show. 

I'Cr^'liai * 




























i'<nd-ao and 

ti'&E-ao and 

di'do-ao and 





















i'C Ttta&(oaar and 

ti-'&B'ad'maar and 

di'do-a&oDaav and 





and dBiX'VV-G(ytMf 





t'Ord-iuvog, ij, or 

U'i^i-fievog, ly, ov 
i-ri'Oe-ao and i-ri- 

di'do-fiBvog, jy, Of 

dBlX-VV-flBVOi;, ^, 



i-di'd6'[itjp [dov 


I <nd'O0 and rarco 

i'di-do-ao and B-di- 














i'ffrd' J'd'Tjv 
















l-arcu-firjv 3 

Ti'^oi'H^v ^ 

di-doi'firiv * 





























(i-ard-fir^v does 

l-^B'fir^V ^ 


not occur, but 

B'^OV (from B&BGO) 

B-dov (from idoao) 



B- do-to 

















i'do-^fto . 


^ On the acoenta 

atkm in inUnatOf etc. 

, see § 176, L ^ 1 

9ee§176,2. | 










£TA' to station. 

0E' to place. 

^0- to give. 


S. I. 

atdi 1 
























P. 1. 












S. 1. 




















arcu'titov ^ 


d^ei-nrof ^ 

doi'tirop 3 

P. 1. 














Hg ({yi^i) 4 

dog {do^i) 4 



atti -TOO 




art^ 'TOW 
artj -TOW 








P. 2. 

a TV -re 
aTTj 'Xtoaav 





'&i'tcaaav and 

do'tmaar and 

and atavrtov 









arag^ daa, &v 

'O'eig, elaa, eV 

dovg, ovaat 6v 

Gen. ararrog 

Gen. d-irtog 

Gen. dofiog 





Aorist I. 

l-attjaa, I sta- 




Instead of these forms tbe second Aor. is 

used in the Dual and PI. Ind. and in the 

other Modes and Participials, $ 173, 9. 


f-atrj'xa ^ sto 

ri' ^ c 1 -xa 

ds' d 09 -xoe 


i-arn-xeip and 


i'de- d oJ 'Xeir 



Fut. Perf 






A or. I. 


i'ti'd^ 6 i'd6'&ij9 

i'9eix'^^ 1 

1 The comi 

Munds, e. g. inoc 

nwy Ik^o), diadii, have the same ai 

ccentuation as 

the simp] 

es, e. g. anotntuo 

r^ iu&rijov, diadoi/Atv. ^ See < 

) 172, Rem. a 

3 In comi 

M>8ition, naQU(nii\ 

9ty naQaaid ; anoatri&tj anoatd, 

§ 172, Rem. 5. 

^ In com] 

K>8ition, ntQl&eg, 

tr&tg; anodoq, atdog; ntffl&m^ 

htdojB, §118, 


hl 1. 

5 See §176,3 

L 8 M^ai 

id tB&fiaoiwi inat 

ead ofi&i&np 



r, but ;r^'iii- 


bui ngia-aa 




&i-a9aiaaf and 

Sia- niOoT 




So-a&iaoav and 

[atd-aSm ) ngitus. 

[aTtt-funos] nQia 


^*'^J'Tit^^ for 
nsnl by Uw Allie «r 







w Bating. 



81 VE. 

and '5c0i|iTi)fiai, ^21,3. ^ Also in compoBitiou, irdifiai, -p, -itai, 

etc, anodufiBi, -p, -^thi, etc, itS^fiat, -b>, -wiiii, etc., aitaStauai, -d', 
-Hioi, etc. 8 See § I7G, 2. ^ In coinpo^ilion, taiadov, anoSov; 
nfQlSiiv,an63av; taidSiaSr, iiifl3oa9f ; iy3ia9i, itijaioaSt; but ftfloC, 
^tdav ; nqoSol; ivSoi; ^ 1 16, Rem. 1. 

210 SUMMARY OF VERBS IN 'fU. [§§ 176, 177. 

§ 176. Remarks on the Paradigms. 

1. The verbs dvvafiai, to be able^ iniinafiat^io know, /^c/iorff ai, to 
hang, and nglaa&ai, to buy, have a different accentuation from urtufiai in 
the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt, namely, Subj. dvywfiaiy inloTbtfjtaiy-Tiy -firat, 
-i^^oy, -ria&i, "Otyjai ; Opt dwalftriv, ijna7aifiif¥, -ato, -oiio, -aKr&ov, 
-aitrx^it, -aivto ; so also ovaifitiv, -aio, -auo (§ 177, 4.) 

2. The forms of the Opt Impf. and second Aor. Mid. in -oi, viz. xi^oljitiv^ 
^oifAi^p, are more common than those in -c i, viz. uddfifjv, -cTo, -Hto, etc., ^n- 
(jirip, -iio, 'tito, etc. In compounds the accent remains as in simples, thus, 
i9\tulfiti¥ [iy^Blfifjv), iy&oio {iv&iio), etc. The same is true of compounds 
of dolfiiiv, e. g. diuiolfiTiv, diudolo, etc. 

3. On the abbreviated form of the Perf. and Plup. : t-ina-Toy, t-aia-fuy, 
F-<rra-T«, F-aro -<!■«(•'), see § 193. 

4. The forms of the Impf. iti&ovy, -«/f, -«», idldow, --ovg, -ov, are con- 
structed according to the Conjugation in ~iw and -ocd. The other forms, itl- 
^7iy, -i}(, -ri, ididtay, -cd;, -o), are not used, § 172, Rem. 8. 

5. Verbs iu -vfn, as has been seen, form the Subj. and Opt like verbs 
in -vfti. Still there are some examples where these Modes follow the anal- 
ogy of verbs in -/ii, ontog (iri d laaxBduyyvta I'-^instead of -tijiai .•>^P1. 
Phaedon. 77, b. fvxoixo it xal neyyvxo (from vno, instead of voito) Ibid. 
118, a. 

6. In later writers the Perf. and Plup. are found with the Trans, meaning, 
I have stationed, namely ccttoxo, hoxaxeiy. 

Summary or Verbs in -f»f. 

L Verbs in -/iiwhich annex the Personal-endings to 

the Stem-vowel. 

§ 177. (a) Verbs in -a, (i-arrj-fu, I^TA-). (isa.) 

1. xl'XQV'l^h to lend, to bestotOj XPA-, yuxQavai, Fut x^^<tw, etc 
Mid. to borrow, Fut. xQ^<^oficu — Aor. ixqricanTip in this sense is 
not used by the Attic writers. To the same stem belong, 

2. xQn^ opoHet, stem XE4- and XPE^, Subj. xQfh I^f- /e*>o*, Part (to) 
XQf^9 ; Impf. ixQV^ or XQ^^i ^P^ XQ^*'^ fro"^ XPE^, 

Inf. X9]l^% ^^oxQjiv, in Eurip., by contraction from xQoiny, 

3. anoxQTii it suffices, sufficit ; besides those formed regularly from XPAJl ; 
inoxgrnoiv, Inf. inoxQ^y; Impf. inixav^ Aor. inixqrio^v), etc Mid. oiro- 
jt^wfioi, to haoe enough, anoxQiio&at, inflected like xQ^ofiai, § 129, Rem. 2. 

4. ovivfiiu, to benefit, 'ON A-, ovivdvai; Impf. Act wanting: 
Fut ovj^ato ; Aor. cJi^aa, Inf. orijaai (for ovtjvai, like ct^vou, in PL 
Rp. 600, d.). Mid. MvafAoi, to be profited, Fut on^aoficu ; Aor. 
df^fuif {civttfAt^ later, but also in Eur. <3vaa^e), -tjco, 'tjto, etc, 
Imp. oi^tfo, Part onifievog (Hom.), Opt ovaifitif, -ouo, -euro, § 176, 




1., Inf. oraaSai ; Aor. Paps. wrrii>^ instead of vr^fttpi. The re- 
maining forms are supplied by w^tltiv. 

5. m-fi-nXri-fu, to Jill, Tl^ji-, nifinXavai; Impf. inifinJ.^; Fut 
hI^hm ; Aor. lahjua ; Mid. wi'/urlaficH, nl)inXaa&at ; Itnpf. iittfia'i.a.- 
ftijy; Perf, Mid. or Fasa. ninltjafiai; Aor. Pass. (VJ.iJfffl^i^ § 131 ; 
second Aor. inlijfiijr Poet. — Mid. 

The /4 in the reduplication of Ihis and tlie foUoiving verb ia uBunlly 
oniicied in composition, when a ^ precedtB tho reduplication, e. g. Ifintitlu- 
ftai, but irmiiialuftiir. Contrary ici ihis rule, howcvor, fornia with and 
without ;i are both used by the jKWts, according to the necessities of the 

6. m'fMipijfii, to bvrn, Trans., in all respects like nift7jXr,iu. 

7. TAH-MI, to endure, Pres. and Inipf. wanting, (instead of 
them vnofif'vai, drt'^ofuu); Aor. et^v, (licij,) rXm't^v, ri^tfi, riaf; 
Ful. rX^aofiM ; Perf. tizlipia. 

8. fi-H', to say, {stem 't'j^-), has the following formation : 

§ 17S. (iw.) 



I^f. 1 


S. !. 



P. 1. 






S. I. 



P. 1. 






9". n'i> m> (Fn'""' ?<"?■"'• 

(pdQl or tfaOi, tfthoi, tpa- 

anr and epdvioiv 

efdi, (f&aa, t«'c 
G. (tdyToi;, qiKffv? 


and gmiTov, (fui^Tt/v and 
fiev, ipaiJiit and giairc, -ifr 



Perf. Imp. ntqaadot.lei 

t be mid. Aor 
adjective g«TOi; 

Pari. (fiifiSfoe, (iffirming. 1 
ij.nTf'oi-. 1 

RxMAKK 1. In Uie Mcond person <pfl'c, both the 
Jotoiubwriptiacomraryioallnmilogy. In compounda it 


OB the nhimtf, e. g. mru^yg^ but Wfifyii, aasfy i, wip^m^^g, etc On 
the inefinatioD of tfais verb in the Prea. lad. (extepc 95$^ ^'^ § ^ 

Sjcjl 2. Tbii verb fatt§ two «gmlifati oo a > (a) It jay in gcnenJ, (b) io a^ 
Jbw, (mo) It flMBri, etc The FoL ^4^ii^ bowvrer, fatt§ oidr tlv bst s^nifi- 
catioo; die fine »ez|veaaed bgrii$HvlfMu The InqiC i^ f y with ^ « v « « 
and ^of, » used also at an Aorisc 

Rem. 3. With ^lyu the verh j ^ i^ imqmam may be compared, which, hke 
fJayainB, » used in the spirited repetitiaB of what had been aaid; the imper- 
fect mWf^'m oaed in the phnaes ifr f ipi^ / joa^ i^ ^ og^kt 9aH to desczibe 

§179. The following' Deponents also belong- here. 

1. a/ofuuyto wonder J Impf. ^afapf; Acwr. lyyatf^iyr; Fut a/i- 

2. 9vrafiaij to be abky second Pers. ^iwaaai (darg firom the Ion. 
dmof. Poet and later,) Snbj. ^vrmfiotj § 176, 1, Imp. dmuro, In£ 
9iwaa^aiy Piurt. 9vrafU9os; ImpC i^vwufu^ and ^^»^; second Pers. 
dvftti (-«<io more raiely), OpL Ihmuiujv^ dvMtio, § 176, 1 ; Fut 
Ihr^ofioi; Aor. idvwti&ijPf ^d. and idvraa&ijw^ the last Ion. and in 
Xen. (Aug., § 120, Rem. 1.); Pert dMrmuu, Verbal adjective 
(hwatog^ able nnd possible. 

S. imarofuu, toknaWj (properly, /o itouf tipon somethings to be 
distinguished from iifictafMu)j second Pers. imotaatu {inun^ sel- 
dom and only Poet), Subj. oiiamiiaij § 176, 1, Imp. atiarm (more 
seldom imaraao) ; Impf. ^una§up^, ^nunta (more seldom ^iara' 
co)y Opt inuneufup^, inuncuoy § 176, 1 ; Fut iniati^ofim ; Aor. 
i}«MFT7i^, (Aug., § 126, 3). Verbal Adj. imcx^og. 

4. iqanaiy to love, (in the Pres. and Impf. only poetic, in prose 
igaiD is used instead of it) ; Aor. ^Qoa&tir, amavi; Fut iQoa&^o- 
luuy amabo. 

5. xQifmfuuy to hangj pendeo, Subj. xQifuafuuy § 176, 1, Part 
XQtfidfUPog ; Impf. itQeftofitify Opt nQe/utifirir, -cuo, -mto, ^ 176, 1, 
(Arist Vesp. 298, xQtiuHa{ye, comp. fiaQrafiouj § 230, and fUfifoi- 
{juiP, § 154, 9; Aor. ixgefiaa&rip; Fut Pass. xQefioa&^aofuUj I shall 
be hung; Fut Mid. xQe(ii^aofi4Uy pendebo, I shall hang. 

6. nqiaa^fUj to buy, in^uifAijp, (the Attic writers employ an 
Aor. Mid. of this verb, instead of the Aor. of civeofjuu^ viz. ««m^ 
cafitiv, which is not used by them, § 122, 4, Subj. fiQicaiuUt 
§ 176, 1 ; Opt ftQiaifuiWt 'cuof -oito, § 176,1 ; Imp. rrqiaao or *f^; 
Part nQuifAepog. 



§ 180. (b) Verbs in -B (i!-&n-{tt, QF.-). (ise.) 

'I-^-fu (stem '£-), to send. Many forma of this verb are found 
only in composition. 


Ind. 'V'' fS*'' T''.-^ ' '"?t'' '*f^l^''*^*• '««'(►),"' ieioil^f)- 
Subj m,iij,-,ig; l^tov ; iufiev, iTjie, iuai{v) ; ilfici, af*(>-, 

acpii^ (licpiv in Xcn.), etc. 
Tinp. {ieOi),jii, it'ita, etc. — Inf Ji ra i. — Part. Ui 'v , Uiaa, it'v. 
Ind. luvv (^oin 7£fi), ag-iW or nip, wi'( seldom im*, ff^rFtf, 

Opt. U!r,r (aecmd Pers. PI. «V/(M«f Plat.). 

EMB. — Pl.ip. e.wrv. — Fm. ^rioj. — Anr. I. f,xn (§ 173, 2). 

Iiid^ Sing, ia supplied by Am. I. (^ 173,3); Dual fi'tov, 
Mtjv ; Plur. (7'Cf, comnionly with Aug. tf/icr, xafltinir, ect, 
cniiimonly kltr, itveitc, taiw, commonly naav, aifeitjar. 

Subj. (u, 5tf,^ «i|nu, aij w. etc^ 

Opt. tN;»', ilr^i, iirj ; Mtor. erfijf , ii^itv, tlrt, tim. 

Irnp. /V, reiTfs'. mm; h-o)", triu*' ; ftp, ttmijiiy and ivrtov. 

Inf. iirici.itfpeivtu. — P. «(;, wire, iV.Gen. (ivw, nrni',«q:M'fni'. 

Remark 1. On ihe Aug. ofi'.qilrifii, see ^ 126, 3. 

Ren. 3. The form of the Imp)'. ii,r is very doubtful, and also the forms 
6k, 07 are very rare. The form 7nr hns the ending of the Plup., as the 
Imp£ of ((/ii, to go ; it is Atl. and Ion., a secondary form from Voir. 


Pres. ' Iiifl. iffiai, 1 

aliai. — Part, h'fitrot, •rj,-or. 

tmp& itfuir, t<Jo, ( 

Aw.IL lad. etfiijv 

tiao, litfeiao 

Perf. HjUOM, liexttijitu 

-Opt. Ui'itijr, AtL loi'fUjt, ioio, (ifpioia, el 
Subj. at/jKf, aq'w^Mi, ];, aijig, t/rnt, uip _ 
Opt. jipoo/jUJ;*, -ofii, -oiro, -(>//«&«, -OKftff, 

-nivTo ; (rtpDtiro, ngoBiaOe, ngothto 

are rarer forms), 
Imp. oil, taO'm, etc. 
Inf. j'oftrti. — Part, 'fievot, -i, -o*. 

; Inf. tiaGui, /uOtiaiiai. — 
^aujiai. — Aor. I. tixikiiTiV 




A. I . tlO<,v, P. t'i'ifiV.— FuLtft^flojiKi.— Ver.Adj.f'toV,f'»'<n,-,(H7i(Fo,'|. , 

Rem. 3. Besides the tivo verbs liSfy/Ji and 'iT,fii, only the following dia- 
lectic verbs belong here, viz. '.4II-MI, Jl-Jft-Ml ( Jt^ (Si3ia<n, Lowever, 
from the lut ia found in X.), Siiti/iat and JUI-MI. 





§ 181. (c) Verbs in -«, only elfii (7), to go. 

PRELimNART Remark. The verbs el/i*, to go, and eifil, (o ftf, are 
presented together, though the last, on account of its stem 'J^, does not be- 
long here, in order to exhibit to the eye the agreement and disagreement of 
the two verbs in their formation. 


D. 2. 
P. 1. 

slfJUj to be I Subj. oi 





> ^ 









BlUly to' go 



ft ' 



Subj. Too 


D. 2. 
P. 2. 




Inf. ehcu 

Partcaf , ouaa, 





P. 2. 


(seld. nQogei) 
iro), nqogiifo 

h(06av or 
iortoDV (tT(ov 
Aesch. E. 32.) 

Inf. uvcu 

Part. KoVjioS- 

auy iov 
Gen. iortog, 




Opt I 



S. 1. 






|<y^a,§ 116,2. 
11V (from jye-f) 
riGTOf (jyTOf) 
natriv {fj^fip) 





eiTjfAev (seld. el- 
eM^£(seld. elre) 
Bifiaav and bUv 









j«y or ^a, I went 

^eig, us'ly ^stC'&a 

ijeirofy ua^y ijTOV 
'Qeijr^v, " ynyr 
yeifieVf " jiMay 
^ciTC, " tire 

toifu or 






FuL ioofiaif I shall be, iaxi ^^ *<^^*> fo^at, etc. — Opt. iaoifii^. — Inf. 
iaea^cu, — Part iaofievog. — Verbal Adj. iatiov, avveazeop. 

Middle Form, Pres. <V^> '^^^ ^^ 'V* t^^cuy etc., Imp. leaOf Inf. Tecr- 
•d^m. Part. Ufievog ; The Impf. Ufifiv, nao, etc., signifying to hasten, 
ought probably to be written with the rough breathing, which is 
strongly confirmed by the manuscripts, and to be referred to wiu- 
— Verbal Adj. irog, itiov or irrjxov, irt^rtov. 

§182.] VERBS WHOSE STEM ENDS WITH «, fl Or O. 215 

RcHABK 1. On the inclination of the Ind. of il^^ to be (except ihe second 
Pera. il), see ^33. In compounds, the accent is on the preposition, as fsr 
bock as the geuersl rules of acceutuntiou permit, e. g. nafuiit, nd))ii, jia^- 
taii, etc., Imp. TtofitrSi; but uapiji' on sceount of the temporal augment, 
naifiatai on occount of tlie omission of t (nB^trnoi), nafurat like inliui- 
tives witb the ending -rai, naga, -^i, -fi, etc., on account of tlie contrac- 
tion ; the accentuation of tlje Part, in compound words should bo particu- 
larly noted, e. g. jtagmy. Gen. no^orio;, so also no^iur. Gen. nit^iorioi. 

Rem. 2. The compounds of ii^t, eo, follow the same rules as tliose of 
^/tl, sum ; hence seveml forms of these two verbs are the same in com- 
pounds, e. g. Ttafei/ti, Jtafii and ndgnat, third Pers. Sing, of n/ii and third 
Per& PI. of (^^; but Inf. nai/iiyai, Part- Tropitut'. 

Rem.3. The form eiiv, esto,&c i'lfo,g'aoi/,shonened from Fi'tj and strength- 
ened by a r, must be distinguished from the shortened fonn ihp instead 
of il'i)a'af of the third Pers. Pi, Opt, inipf A secondary form of tlie third 
Pers. Imp. tjiiu instead of urrm is found once in PI. Rp. 361, c. The form 
of itie first Pere. Itnpf is alien i], among the Attic poets, and aometinjes 
also in Plato; tlie form ."^ijc is rare, e. g. X. Cy. 6. 1, 9. The form of the 
second Pers. Impf. >]; is found frequently in the later writers, and rarely 
in lyric paBSOges of tlie Attic poets. The Dual forms with a are preferred 
to those without (T. 

Rem. 4. Theformof the third Pers.Sing.Impr i;((>> instead of ^ii is found 
iu tlie Attic poets only before vowels, Arist. PluL 696. 3tgoaf,iir {Saiaritui). 

Ren. 5. The Pres. of t)fu, to go, particularly the Ind., also the Inf and 
Part, among tbe Attic jirose writers, has almost always a Future eignificB- 
^n, I thall or icill go, or comt. Hence the Pres, is supplied hy igx"!"'^ 
5 1()7, 2. 

§182. Formation of ike Tenses of Verbs wkos 
Stem ends with a, e, o, or with a Consonant. 

A. Verbs whose Sleni e 



a. Stem in a. 

b. Stem in e. 

c. Stem 




xoe*-r«i-/M ■ 


U-fM ' 

t-axeBa-rrv-v * 

M-noQe'tn-v ' 




. le-Jfope-xa 








Att. xoew, -its, ■» 













A or. 

F. Pf. 





Pass. A or. 




Verbal Adj. 





• And (nttda-vpidf imtdu-rrvoi 
www, i-tn(fi0'9PV09 (v alvyays shor 

f — xo^c-yy vol, i'xogi'vrvoy — aiQW^ 

R Verbs whose Stem ends with a Consonant 

Perf. I. 

Perf. II. 
Plup. 1. 
Plup. II. 
Aor. I. 


o^-^v-fM,* perdo, 

ok'dle-xa [^OjiESi), peirdidi, 
^ §124,2. 
o^-oi>l-a, peril, 
oX'OiXt'xeiv, perdideram, 
6X-ciX-etVf perieram, 

A. IL dX'OfAtiP 

Of*rPV'fU * 
(Sfl-VV'V * 



ou'OVfAca, 'Sl 






A. L P. oiftO'G'd'nv et fonodijf 
L F. P. ofKha-Or^aoficu. 

* And ollv-n, cSilv-oy-— o/irv-oi, ufipv-ov (always v). 

Rebiark. ''Oiilf/ii comes by assimilation from oil-yr/ii, §18, Rem. For 
an example of a stem-ending with a mute, see dnxrvfii above, under the 
paradigms, § 175. The Part Perf. Mid. or Pas& of ofiWfn is ofiwfioa^ 
ftivog. The remaining forms of the Perf. and Plup. commonly omit the a 
among the Attic writers, e. g. ofAWfioxm^ Ifiwfiojo, 


The Stem ends, 
A. In a Vowel and assumes -yyi/. 
§183. (a) Verbs whose Stem ends in a. 


1. xtQd^wv'fii (poetic secondary form xiqvdfo^ xiQrtjfu; Epic 
and Poet, xc^aw), to mix^ Fut xegdcm, Att xeQto; Aor. ixtQuca; 
Perf. xixQdxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. xixQ&iuu ; Aor. Pass, ixqa^tih 
Att. also ixBQda^ — Mid. — Metathesis, § 156, Rem. 

{§ 184, 135.] VERBS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN £ and (. 217 

2. KiititdrvvC-fit, lo hang-, FuL xQi/iaam, Att. KQittia ; Aor. ix^i- 
liiaa; Mid. or Pass. itQinavvvfiuf, I hang mi/se/f or am hung' (but 
ttQifidiiat, to liang, ^179, 5); FuL Pass, *fieftaaS>i}at>iiat; Aor. 
iKQeitaaOijv, I was hung, or / /H*ng-. 

3. itira-Tfv-fu, to spread out, lo opejiy Fut. nn&ata, Att. neioJ ; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, mntufiat, ^155, 2; Aor. Pass. mitaaOtpi. 

4. a>tESa-ivv-[u, lo scatter, Put. (Wtflitnw, Att. ffxeSw; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, iaxeSaaiiai ; Aor. Pass. iaxiSuaOij*. 

§184. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in £. 
PitELiHi.iAHT Remark. The verbs trrviti, ajUtrxiu, and also Curvt'/it, 
{186, do not properly belong here, Btuce [lieir Hlem origiually ended in a, 
£S-, comp. vu-tirt, Jflt^"-, comp. ua.Hnt-ioc, ZJLS-, comp. jnio-iijp, JuJir- 
t(oF, fiwr-iijs, toiir-ros ; bul by the omiiBion of Ihe ff, they berome aualogoUB 
to verba in -i and -o. 

1. e-yri-pt, lo clothe, in prose uftifuvnfu, Impf. OjUipHWuc with- 
out Aug. ; VwX. oLfiffUaia, Axt. iptfi^; Aor. VW*'^'*? Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. ijfKfieapcu, rjitrfi'taai, ^/ttpi'Mtai, etc., Inf. ^fi<pUa&at; FuL 
Mid. dpfu'cofiat, Alt. af<ip(o5/i«[. {Aug., §^126, 3. and 230). 
As in aft(ftiit'iiiii, so gonenilly in other compounds, the preposi- 
tion is not elided, e. g. inteaaa&iu. 

2. tt'-fyC-fu, to boil. Trans., FuL ?*'««; Aor. iZ^aa; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, /feff/iw; Aor. Pass. iZ^a&^. — (T*'". on the contrary, is 
Qsually intransitive). 

3. »o(tc-*»v-fu, to satiale, FuL xope'ffm, Alt. noew; Aor, ixo^aa; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. Ktxoqtafiai; Aor. Pass. *xo()/aO^. — Mid. 

4. a^i-vfv-ftt, to exlinguish, Fut. oj^/oo); first Aor. tartan, lex- 
tinguished; second Aor. h^'j*, I ceased lo bvrn; Perf. i<j^r}xa., I 
have ceased lo burn. — Mid. o^ifwvfiat, to cease lo bur'h Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, la^eapai; Aor. Pass. ia^iaOtjv. No other verb in 
•nfti has a second Aor,, § 19] , 2. 

5. oioQt-r*5-fu, to spread out, shortened form atngvvju, FuL aio- 
^01, AtL aioQbi; Aor. eatOQeau. The other tenses Eire formed 
from aredrvvfu; iazQ<i>iiai, iacQta&iiv, aigoizoi [not AtL iajoQiaS'iv 
and (ffTopijftij*), See § 132. 

§185. (c) Verbs, whose Stem ends in t. (iw-> 
tt-nv-fit (T/-), to txpiatt. Mid. ji-nC-fiai, to panith, lo avengt, second- 

218 YERBS^^TEH ENDING IN A KUTE. [^§ 186, 137. 

aiy Epic form of i/vm and ilrofiai. — Id Attic poetiy the Hid. is oneo found 
and with one t, itrviiat. 

^1S6. (d) Verbs in o, toitk the o lengthened into w. 


1, J^flj-mi-fii, to gird. Put, fwdoj; Aor. *C<o<fa; Peif. Mid. or 
Pass, l^uofiat, § 131. — Mid. 

2. ^-iw-fM, to s(rc«g-Mc«, Fut, ^oKfoj ; Aor,^e«wa; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, lo^fuu, Imp. i^^o, farewell, Inf. i^a&eu; Aor. Pass. 
i^fiuci9^, § 131. 

3. <neoi-vw-fu,^lS2, to spread out, Fulrtrqmam; Aoi. vrifmia, 
etc See ttroQo^fu, § 184, 5. 

4, xe*"-**"-/". to cotor, Fut j:ew<i«> ; Aor. Ix^ioea ; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. MiQmfuu. 

B-VerbBwhoseStemends in s Consonant and aasumes 

§187. (a) In a Mute. (sm.) 

1. af^-ftt, to break, FuL «Sw; Aor. ia^a. Inf. «Sa« {P, Lys. 
100, d. nan^mntt with the Aog.) ; second Perf. tija, lam bro- 
ken; Aor. Pass. i&Ytr> (Aug., § 122, 4.)— Mid. 

2. Stix-n-fu, see § 175. 

3. a^-rv-fu (or I'lpj^), to jAui in, FuL itq^; Aor. u^o, Int 
H^<a, Part. (>|af (Pi. Polit 235, b.), tn^^artti (Th. 5, 11), 
Jw^awoff {Pi. Rp. 5. 461, b), Sabj. xadtl^^^g (with the variation 
Kct»ig^lis) PI. Gorg. 461, d; Aor. Paas. ttez#i»; Perf. aerfuu. 
{But ii'CTw "VJ""' «1p5b. «'«*?'. to MmI oiii, etc) 

4. Cwr**-/"- to >oi« toother. Put Jw£«; Aor. ttwla; Pert 
Mid. or Pass, i^nj^ftta; Aor. Pass, tjerj^^r and more frequently 

5. f"r**-fM.toM«r,(fH«i7»»,Poet8econdaiyfoim),PnL^HSii^ Aot. 
*>"?«. ft^ftt; Perf. fM>ujr«: Perf. Mid. ot Pass. wwjTtoi, ^m^»^[#«; 
Aor. Pass, ^r^f* more freqaendy ^n*; FuL Perf. fupi^o/iat. 

6. oJj'-ri-fM, osQally as • oooipCKiDd, wwtt*^ (but instead of 
il u«.iy« is nwiv fn-qurni!y ii*ed in the IV-s^ and or/qiTor alw^vs 
iu the linpt'.), ft» (>pn», FuL «mw^ ; Aor. cin'qi^ «tnu|«i (in X. 
Hdl. ^r«, »»«£• ngnifying Jp jm«( fo wo, to ip<^ owrAor); 
first Tcif. awVz«. / A^M ifimrf; seoood IVrf. snVrts / ftoinf 


open, instead of which Alt. aftipjfiat; Impf. Mid. artipyoii^r; Aor. 
Pass, dni^x^l*'' uyoixOijfai (Aug., § 122, 6). 

7. oiiOQY-rv-ni, to wipe of, Ful. ofioQ^w ; Aor. ufioQ^a. — Mid. 

8. n^-rv-iti, to fasten, Ful. ?ijj?w ; Aor. tfff,|a; first Perf. /it'mt- 
Xi^ I have fastened ; aecond Peri, ne'trtja, I standfast; Mid. niiV 
rvjua, I stick fast ; Verf. m'jr^inu, I stand fast ; Aor. Pass, attt/i?* 
(more seldom in^x^h*') i Fut Pass. jiajijao(iM, — Mid. 

9. ^^-n-fu, to rend, Fut ^ilw; Aor. «ee^|a; second Perf. t^ 
qnjtt, I am rent, & 140, Rem. 3 ; Aor. Pass, ig^dy^v ; Put paj'if- 

10. (p^dyvv-ni, secondary form of (ft>daaoi, ijQiiTTa, § 143, 1, to 
shut up, \mpf. ffgdyrvr {T\mc. 7,74); Fut lyereltj; Aot. e<fQa^u ; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. nc'(p(tayt""i Aor. Pass. tVe«j;''(*(*Ve '*?'■!?'' among 
the later writers). — Mid. 

^188. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in a Liquid, (am.) 

1. Sg-ri-ftat (F-jjic and also Id Plalo), to lake, obtain, secondary form of 
i^o/iai, and lued only in particular pLrases, la oblain, lo aeqiiirt, tiamelv, a 
Ttvard, spoiU, etc. Impf. tignifiiit. The remaining foniiB come from alfio/iat. 

2. xTei-vv-fii, commonly wrillen, Jin'tw/w in the Codd,, to pvt 
to death, All. prose secondary form of xxeiVw, is used in the Pres. 
and Impf. The stem is KTEIN-, lengthened from KTEN-. 
The » of the stem is omitted on account of the diphthong, § 169, 
Rem. 1. 

3. oTAv-iu instead of oim-jii, to destroy. See § 182, B. 

4. oti-rO-fu, to swear. See § 182, B. 

5. ffTop-rii-f«, to spread out. See ajoQeyrv^ti, ^ 134, 5, 

|189. Inflection of the two forms of the Perf. 
xtljiiit and rjiiat. laia.) 

Premmibart Remark. The iwo forms of the Perf. niXfiai and ^{ini, 
■re po esaeDtially different, Id their formaliun, from the other verbs in -^i, 
that tbey require to be treated by iliemselvea. 

a. Ji:B,>a., to lit. 

■'-"•"I. properly, I have laid myself down, I am lying' dottm, 
?, (e. g. d»d.Mi(iat, I am consecrated, nvyxeixM, com- 
constat, but avniSujon vno rtvoe, it has been agreed 


bp some one) ; this verb is a form of the Perf. without redu- 
plication, from the stem KEI-, contracted from KEE-. 

Perf. Ind. muiini^ utiaairy xf7rai, xf//is^a, xtUr&e, xuvrai ; 

Subj. xioifjMi, xifj^ xii]Tuif etc. 

Imp. xntro, xdai^to, etc ; — Inf. xfUr&iu ; — Part xtlfxtvog, 
hnpf, Ind. ixilftrip^ ixttaOj ixf ito, third Pens. PI. txHvio, 

Opt xfoifitiv, xioto, xioito, etc. 
FuL xihofiai. 

Con^Mnmda apaxHuai^ xntaxufiai, xorruxcKrai, etc.; — Inf. xataxHa&at ; 
— Imp. xaJoxfiaOf c/xc«ro. 

<5190. b. ^Hftai, to sit. (203.) 

1. TliAouj properly, / have seated myself^ I have been seated^ 
hence to sit^ — also Ion. and poetic of inanimate objects, instead 
of tdQVfJiai, I have been established, erected; — ^this verb is a Perf. 
form of the Poet Aor. Act eha, to set, to establish. The stem 
is 'HJ'f comp. ^a-rcu instead of ^d-rai, according to § 17, 5, and 
the Lat. sed-eo. 

Remark 1. The active Aorist forms oftura are dialectic, § 230, and Poet, 
but the Mid. signifying to end, to establish, belongs also to Attic prose, 
thrafii^v] Part liaafttvog Th. 3, 58. laaafitpog; Imp. Mnt,taiTai(t(pKT(Tat]; 
Fut poetic ^aofiai, titaofiai (i<piaa-o(iai). The defective forms of this word 
are supplied by idgtcn. 

Ind. Yjiioi* fi<Fai^ Y/(rra», ijfis&a, ijtr&t, i^rrai ; 

Imp. lijjo, titFt^oi, etc.; — Inf. turdm\ — Part tifitvog. 



2. In prose, the compound xaiyr^ficu, is commonly used instead 
of the simple. The inflection of the former differs from the lat- 
ter in never taking a in the third Pers. Sing., and in the Plup., 
only when it has the temporal Augment : 

Perf. xa&tifjini, xa&r^rai, xa^fitai, etc ; — Subj. xadoifiai, xtt&tj, 
xddriJtti, etc.; — Imp. xd&r^o, etc.; — Inf. xad^isl^ai; — 
Part xn&ijfAfrog, 

Plup, ixadi]f/ii» and xadrifirjp, ixadtfao and xnt^iltro, ixn&tito and 
xu&ijfTTo, etc. ; — Opt xu&olfitip, xdOoto, xd^oiio, etc. 

Rem. 2. The defective forms of ^/lat are supplied by fCfv&ai or ^tadatj 
prose nadiita&ai, xa&likadm. 


E SECOND AoR. Act. a 

E Perf. a.hd PtiES. Act. 

U91. I. Second Aor. Act. and Mid. (sol) 

1. Several verbs with the diaractmslic «, e, o, v, form a 
second Aor. Act and, though rarely, a second Aor. Mid., accord- 
ing to the analogy of verba in -/*!, since it wants the mode-vow- 
el, and hence appends the personal-endings to the stem. Eat 
all the remaining forms of these verbs are like verbs in -<n. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act., through all the 
modes and parliclpials, is like that of the second Aor. Act. of 
verbs in -j". The characteristic- vowel, with some exceptions, 
is lengthened, as in iff*;;*, viz. « and i into fj, o into m, t and v 
into ' and i-. This lengthened vowel remains, as in tan/*', 
throughout the Ind., Imp. and Inf. The third Pers. PI. in -t^aac 
(Char, a) and -vtav shortens the vowel, when the poets nae 
the abridged form in -v, instead of -aar, e. g. tJJrt». tSir. 
The Subj., Opt, and Part., with some exceptions, which 
will be noticed in the following tables, are like verbs in -fh e. g. 
§(ti'>^ {oTai'i^r), a^etijr {&iii^), yroiijv (doii/r), yvnii [Sovi). The Imp., 
like ffTji^i, in the second Pers. Sing., takes the ending -Oi, and 
the stem-vowei remains long through all the persons; in com- 
pounds of ^atro], ^ijOt is also abridged into j9«, e. g. naid^d, i»p(>- 
§d, Eii^u, et'^u, im'§d instead of xaju^r,{ti, etc. 

b. t'lmCDcleriBtici 

c Cliaraclcnstico 


!inc! BA-n.Sal^u,, 




to ^r«p up. 

Ind.S.I.I^Vl^1■, /««!(, 

ia^r,v, I uaatd 

tyvar, 1 kntw, 

edvp. lo go 



iatSijs [to bum, 



















(Poet, lytmf) 



Subj. S. 






Imp. S. 

D. 1. 

P. 2. 



2. ^airjg 


flalr^fitv ei atfisv 
fiatrju et aits 
^ultv (seldom 

(itlT(oaav and 

^dgy dffa, dp 
G. ^dvTog 

ad(OfifVf rjre 



apdrixov etiixov 
a^Htjiriy et tltriP 
a^ilrifiBV et tifAfy 
ajSfiijtt et ft re 
aPtitv - 

G^firaaav and 
a^Big, etauy iv 

yvdSfiEPf cuiT£, 

yiohjv *^ 

yvolrjxoy et ditoy 
yvon}n}v et otiiyv 
yvoinn^tf et oT/iEv 
yvoirirs et oTie 
yvouy (rarely 

yvdiroVf (ozmv 
yvdraauv and 

yvovgy ovaa, ov 
G. yvovTog 



G. a^ivzog 

1 Compounds, e. g. ayafiu^ avaPfiCy etc. ; inocjSvj ; diayvw ; uyadCotf 
8 Aeschyl. Suppl. 230 (215) (rvyyvtarj; but in the Mid. form avyyioiro. 
3 Compounds, e. g. a va/9i;^^ oyd/9i}r8 ; anoe^^i; didyytadi; dyudvdi,. 

Remark. The Opt. form d^ijy instead of ^v/ijv, is not found in the Att 
dialect, but in the Epic, § 227. 

§192. Summary of Verbs with a second Aor. like 

Verbs in -f*t. (205-210) 

Besides the verbs mentioned above, some others have this form, 

1. did^aaxo), to run away, § 161, 10, Aor. (JPA-) tdqavj -aj, -«, 'afity, 
-^T8, 'daay (tdQuy Poet), Subj. dgot, Sg^g, dga dgaioyy dQWfiiy^ dgars, dgd^ 
in(y), Opt l^qalfiVy Imp. dgad'ij -aroi. Inf. dgdvai, Part ^^a;, -aaay -ay, 

2. nixofiai, to Jly, § 166, 29, Aor. (IZTA-) emrjy, Inf. ntTiyai, Part ntdg ; 
Aor. Mid. iTttdfiriyf maad-ai, 

3. nglaa&ai, see § 179, 6. 

4. cncsililoi or crxeilia), to c2ry, second Aor. (SJCdA-) effxXtjy, to wUhery Intrans., 
Infl axXfiyaty Opt anXnlfjy, 

5. q>&d-y<o, to comt beforty to anticipaUy § 158, 7, Aor. Bqi^tiy, (pdijyaiy q>d^dgy 
ip&Wy q>&alriy, 

6. xa/ctf, to &um. Trans, § 154, 2, Aor. (KAE-) ixdriyy J bumedy Intrans. ; 
but first Aor. hiawray Trans, 

7. (im, tojlowy § 154, 2, Aor. (PTE-) ^hpfy IJUmwL 
a x^h^i to re/oice, § 166, 32, Aor. (X4PE;-) ix^griy, 
9. oliaxofAaiy Aor. (AAO-) ijXay, Att lailoiy, § 161, 1. 

' »i9ai 

VERBS IN -til LIKE VEBBd IN -pi- 223 

10. /J(0», (o /I'w, Aor. i^ltar, Subj. ^m, -^c, -^, eie., Opt. /? i ^ jjf , {not 
Piolp; flB yrolipi, lo distinpuish if from the Opt, Impf. /Sio/iif), hiC /iiturai, 
Part.i?«ue; but Ihe Cnsca of (iioi'j are supplied by ihefirel Aor. Part. (Jiowar. 
UlUB, inpiav, to rtcall lo life, from afa^iioattofiai, § 161, 3. The Prea. and 
Impf. are but little ii«ed by tlic Attic writers; instead of tlieso,t]icyeiriployj;iii' 
of which ouly Uie Put ir,anr wns in good use among Attic writers ; the re- 
mainiog tenaes were borrowed from /iiow ; tbua, Pres, Jiu ; Im|if. t^iav, 
§ 137, 3 ; Put. ^tuaoiitti, more rarely {T^Vid ; Aor, iSlmv ; X 0. 4, 18. hoe also 
/(HoMrir : Perf, ^ijiiaixa ; Perf. Mid. or Pnas. /Sf^tWoi, Part (!s^iw(j»Voi. 

11. 91'iu, to produce, second Aor. i(pi'y, lo be produced, lo be born, ifvyai, 
9v;, Subj. If vol, Opt wonting in the Attic dialect; but tlie firsi Aor. eipvira, 
to produce ; Put tpfam, I mill product. The Perf. iiiifvxa, also hae on iii- 
tratintive scnae, so also tlie Prea. Mid, tftofiat, and llie Put. ifvaoiiat. 

RxMiHK. Here also belong the forma axis and ir/oiigr of ibe second 
Aor. taxor from e/oi, to have, J llifJ, 14, and n i*» of tlio second Aor. titioy 
from nicM, to drink, ^ 158, 5. 

§193. II. Pp.rfecl and Pluperfect. mi) 

The Attic dialect, in imitalioii of ihe Epic, forms a few 
Perfects of pure verbs immediately from the stem, e. g. Jl-ii, 
to fear, 8t-Si-a, and then, in the Dual and P], Ind. Perf. and 
Plup., and also to some extent in the Inf., rejects the mode- 
vowel, e. g. Se-Bi-fity instead of 8s-Si-a-!ttr. In this way, these 
forms of the Perf. and Plnp. become wholly analogous lo the 
Pres. and Impf. of verba in -/'i, e. g. i-ara-fiev. The slcm-vowel 
remains short, e. g. le'Siiier, tt'ilufiey, teildtai ; but in the third 
Pers. PI. Perf., the mode-vowel is not rejected, e. g. Ss-Si-am ; 
L^th verba in -«w, however, a is contracted with the stera- 
^Arowel, e. g. Te-rl«-itcri = re-jla-ai. 

. Except the forma of diSiimi and iaiarai, all the other Per- 

tbia kiad belong lo ]>oetry, particularly to the Epic. 

I. 2. The Imp. of these Perfects ia also in use, since it not only 

I the mode-vowel, but takes the ending -ffi in tlie second Pers. 

la conforming wholly to ilio analogy of ibe Ibmis iti -fu. So tbe 

h append their terminations lo the short stem-vowel ; BtSiivai is 

^OD. Tbe Subj. Pert: and tbe Opt. Plup. of verba whose slem- 

i formed like verba in -fu, since tlio Subj. Perf. admits tbe 

It of llie stem-vowel with tbe ending, and tliu Opt Plup. enda jn 

b (. hnd-ai, imi, -^i, etc., TttXairjy. The Part of verba in -am 

I t with tbe ending -ui and -o;, e. g. ima^ = 

toToq, nnd also have a peculiar feminine form 

le Cases retain the a, e. g. ^otwiD;, lataHnig, etc. 




Rem. 3. The uncontracted form in i is retained in some participles, 
in the Ionic dialect, e. g. laitiui, lUmdittg firm, and so ttSruu^ (tiever 
Tfdrtii), together with it^njiEu; from it&^xa, ie retained in the Attic 
dialed also. Id these fomiB, oi remsinB in all the Cases, e. g. 

iuKiuc, luTiuuR, taiicui, Gen. iaiiiiiiof, -mr^(. 

iiSrtoii, tiSnmaa, nSrtwt, Gen. 7fS»&ios, -limK- 
Bifiipta and wi-nita never liave this form of tlie participle. 

1 Perfect. \ Pluperfect. 



lad. S. 1. 


























dc-S1-daii,f) ldiSi<tarfatdidE8ieatt»> 




di-6i-&t, SidtTca, etc. 

t-<na-&t, etc, 3. pL 

Subj. 1 ie-Siia, -%i, .5, eic 

eaTdTtoaar and -anmf 





8d-di-i6e, 'Via, -Of, Gen. *OTof 

i-iSTtis, -toira, -eif and -of 
Gen. -cSiof , tioTit 

Subj. Pf. 

*ffTw, -D(, -ij, etc. 


sorai'i^. Dual eatai'i^or and -aitm 
fUt, etc^ third Pers. PI. eenaier 

, PL eataiiifter and ■«*■ 

Ren. 4. Tbe Plup. of ^n^t, in this form never takes the strengthened 
augment ti. Tbe Imp. Perf. toja9t,v\e., and tbe Opt. Plup. inul^, etc^ 
an poetic only. But the ln£ iinSrai aeems to hsve taken tbe place of 
ibe fiiU form fanipuvai throughout 

§194. Summary of Verbs toilk a Perfect like 

Verbs in -/«». ffii) 

Besides these two, the following rerfas have this form of the Petftci: 

1. /i/rojuoi, (o iecoMC, rrrAA, stem rA ; Perf. (Sing, ri/on, -««, -*) 

•fifSfaf, -ail, -iivir, ln£ 7>/>/uf (Epk). P»rt 7i/«J(, ytyiam, jtytit, Geo. 

3. ^Btrw, to go, Perf fliflf**, BEBdA; V\. fifiifia, -ixi, -am, tUid 
Pen. PL Sub). ^(/iMrt, PL PfaMdr. SSS, e, ln£ {t,fl3,mi. Put. fhfltit, X. 
HelL7.3,3, (hjlvu, [/hpitm^rL Fhrnmit. 9H. b), fi,{hit, GtnL fitpmH; 
Ptup. ifli/Uiitrr, -in, -«n 

■lid dinli't' 
a J-. 

: Pan. wffHikJiAmi^ W*HMt. or ntfxw;, uflrtMra, 

§ 195.] IRREGULAR VERBS Oldu AND fiOfXa. 225 

Demosth. 40, 24., jt&viiugj Inf. it&v&va^ Aesch. it&vavai from jtdvaivai ; 
Plup. iti&yaaayj Opt K^ya/iji'. 

4. TAAJl, to hear, Perf. n'liiyxa, TETAAA ; Dual wriaTOi', PI. TSTla ^ey, 
TiTXore, irrAoai(y), Imp. liiXa&i, -aroi, etc., Subj. wanting. Inf. rstXavaij 
but Part TCTilf^xoj;; Plup. iiirXafiiv, iisiXau, iiixXivav, Dual iihXaxov^ 
hnXaripfj Opt T«Tila/i}y. 

5. Here belong the two participles of, 

/9i/?^akrxoi, $ 161, 6, to eat, Perf. fii^gcDnaj poetic firPgatg, Gen. -cSto;. 
niniu, § 163, 3, tofallj ninjfana, Att Poet Tre/rroj;, comp. § 230. 

Remark. There are also found, in imitation of Homer, xixQayfAtv and 
the Imp. mixqax^h ^^m the poetic Perf. xixguya (from x^dj^o), to cry out) ; 
also the Imp. ninsKr^i, from Trs'rioAi^^a, to trust (from tzh&o), to persuade), is 
found in Aesch. £um. 602. See § 230. The Perfects ol8a and Moixa require 
a distinct consideration. 

§195. Old a and eoixa, (Si5,3i6.) 

1. old a, Perf. from 'ETJSl (second Aor. Bldov, I saw, Inf. Idtiv, videre), 
properly / have seen, hence / know. Its inflection is as follows : 


Ind. S. 1. 



D. 2. 3. 

P. L 



olda Subj. eldoi Imp. 

oJaO^a 1 etd^g tabi Inf. 

larov, larov eidtjrov,'^ov larov, taroiv 
icfjiev eiddSfiei^ Part 

iCTB aidfJT^ 11 ate 6idoig,'Via, 6g 

iad<ji(9) eiddiGi{v) taroaaav 


Ind. S. 1. 

vdeiv '^ Dual PI. xi^eiiuv, Poet mnev 

^deig and -Bic^a ^ vdeitop, Poet narov fideiTS " vote 
ydei(v) ydeirt^v, " ^art^ ^deaav " ^cray 

Opt. Sing, eidelr^, -rig, -ri ; Dual eidfiTjTov, -^tr^v ; PI. eldeififiev (seldom 
eidetfifv), sideirjTB, sidelav, (seldom eidtirjaav). 

Fot. eiaofiai (Ion. eid/jaoiy although Isocr. avvtidi^aeig), I shall 

know. — Verbal Adj. iaxhov. 

Svvoifia, compounded of olda, I am conscious, Inf. avveidsvai. Imp. 
aivusi^i, Subj. avveid^, etc. 

1 §116,2. 

8 First Pers. rfiri, second jjdrio&a, third fidij, are considered as Attic 
forms; yet ftdnv, yfina&a (also r^^Biq), rfiii, are found in the best Attic 
writers. Ol'dafAiy, otdair, oldnai, instead of ta/itv, etc., are rarely found 
in the Attic writers. Comp. X. An. 2. 4, 6. Antiph. p. 115, 3. PI. Ale 
141, e. Eur. Suppl. 1052. X. O. 20, 14. oldag occurs in X. C. 4. 6, & 

226 PRE8. AND IMPF.— -DEPONENT PASSIVES. [§§ 196, 197. 

Remark. The Perfect, / have known^ is expressed by c/yoixa, and the 
Aorist, / Aneu7) by tyvfav, 

%*'Eoixa, I can like^ Iseem, Perf. from *ETKIl («7xe, the Irapf. of which 
is used in Homer), poetic ilxa instead of Bouta, ilxivai instead of ioixivaiy and 
(instead of ioUaai) the anomalous Att third Pers. PI. el'^aai, even in prose, 
Part, ioutaig, in the Attic writers only in the sense of like, Att (ixfag^ only in 
the sense of probable, likely, right, hence especially in the neuter iixog, as ^ 
iotog, as is nalural ; Plup. iatxtiv, § 122, 5, FuL c»^oi. 

Here belongs the abridged form iotyfisy, among the Tragedians, in- 
stead of ioixafiiv, comp. t&fuy. The poetic Mid. forms fi'i^at, Eur. Ale. 
1065, second Pers. Sing. Perf., and il'ixxo, tliird Pers. Sing. Plup., are con- 
structed according to the same analogy. 

§196. III. Present and Imperfect. (218.) 

There are also some Present and Imperfect forms, mostly in the Epic 
dialect, which, according to the analogy of verbs in -^1, take the personal- 
endings without the mode-voweL See § 230, under avvoi, tavvta, igiw, 
crcvtt, idto, q>i(f(o ; otfia ^ § 166,24, of the Common language, belongs here. 

§197. Summary of all the Deponent Passives. 


^jiyafiai, to wonder, diaXiyofiat, to converse, f|do/iai, to rejoice, [hotf 

aidiofiai, to reverence, diavoiofiai, to think, ^igoftni (Foet,), to become 

aliofiai, to toandar, dvvafitu, to be able, xgifAafiai, to hang, 

afuXliofiai, to contend, dvgagHniofJiai, to be dis- fialvofiai, to be mad, 
aFnoofio((Poet.),adyersor, satisfied, fivadttofiai, to loathe, 

inowoiofiat,tobedistraded,ivant6ofjiat, to resist, vtfifaaofun, (Poet.), to be 
anoqioftai, to be perplexed, iy&VfjiiofAai, to reflect, justly indignant, 

aQioJouQajiofiai, to have iyyoiofioi, to consider, oVofiai, to suppose, 
an aristocratic govern- tnifiilofiai' and -iofiat, oXiyaQX^ofiai, to have an 
ment, to take care, oligarchy, 

agyiofjun, to refuse, iniyoio/jiai,to reflect upon, nHQuofiat, to try, 

axd^ofiai, to be displeased, iniaiafiai, to know, TiQo&vfiiofiai., to desire, 

povXotiai, to wish, tgafiai (Poet), to love, iTQoyoiofiaL, to foresee, 

pQVxaofiai, to roar, tv&vfiioftai, to be happy, aijiofiai, to reverence, Aor. 

diofiai, to want, ivXapio/iai, to be cautious, iai^diiv, PI. Phaedr. 

diqxofwi (Poet), to see, tvyoftiofjtai, bonis legibus 254, b. [tious, 

dtifioxQariofiai, to have a utor, q>iXoiifAiofiai, to be ambi- 

democratic government, tvnogiofia^, to be opulent, vnoionio/Aat, to conjecture. 

Remark 1. AvXll^opai, to lodge, imyoiofiai, to r^ed upon, Xoidogiopat, 
to rtproaiA, oQiyofiai, to desire, have both a Mid. and Pass, form for their 
Aorist Several verbs have a Mid. and Pass, form for their Future, e. g. 
diaUyopai, colloquor, has the Fut ^^aXix^V^ofia^ and ^MtiU^ofcai ; ax&opai^ 


§ !3ti, 4 ; Ini/iHaftai, § IGG, 21 ; T,3oiiai, to r^om, has only ^cS^aofiai ; the 
poetic ffo/iai, § 17!), 4, has dgatrO^ao/iai. 

Rem. 3. All tlie oilier Deponents are Middle Deponents, or are used only 
in the Pres. and lnip£, and almost all arc confined lo poetry. 

Bem. 3. Among the Deponent Paflsivca, are very many Active verbs, 
Tvhich in tlie Mid. express a reflexive or inlraiiBitire action, but have a 
Passive form tbr iheir Aoriet ; on the contrary, a Middle Ibrin fbt their 
Future, e.g. ifoliia, IPrr«o, to ternfy, (po^igdiffni and ifo^i\<jiaQat, 
timere, (o_ftai". Here belong all verbs in -ulreir and -irdr, derived 
from subslanltves and adjectives, almost all in - o ti r, and most in -l^ttv, 
e. g. tt'<ppn/f(tr, to glclddtit, ivipgarSiirai, ti^flfayi^irOoi, to bt hapfiy, Jtinai- 
rtiy, to maJte ript, nrnavOiirai, ninariiaSai, ina.t\ireei:eTe,lo ripen, alax^- 
ynr, lo shamr, aurj^tfi'L'iji'oi, aia^vriiaSai, tojiel tkaine, /l.aJiovr, lo nudce lett, 
tlmtvd^rai, iliaitiianidaL, to be in/irwr, to be eotiquertd, /oiloiir, to mate 
angry, joloif^cai, ^oJluwKrSni, succensere, to be angry, iiaXatti^nv, lo make 
tfftndrude, ^aXnxtaS^rat, nalamila&ai, lo rnaJre one's itif e_fftminate, ofyl^fii 

lo makt angry, op/.o^Scoi, iQyifur9ai, SQCcen 

sere, to be 

dFiifrif; there are 

very many others also, of which only lliose mo 


Syiir " ioTif v itlauy 



ayriyat ft'u/tii' Xitiy 



ariiiv ^n«r /itSinniiir 

nogr uety 


ai^Fii' id^iciy piyrurni 



aUu'iTdf i(i(i>< fiifirtiinisiy 



upfio;f.f idlyiiy tQtijy 



acrxoliiy noipify oxtly 



al'iiirny xoiii^HV 7ii!9nv 


*oi tpSilgiiy 

(laHi.y xQlvny nr,y»vyat 


intlyny liyeiy aXaZny 



§193. Summarf/ of the Active 

Verbs : 

most in vse 

with a Middle Future 

e, §154, 

, 1. PBO-) 

'Ayyoita, nof to kmne, yijgaaiita, lo grow old. 

dT)Qa)o, Sr,iiti(o, lo hunt. 

S3»i, to ting, yiyytiatia, lo kitovr, 
BxouM. lo hear, danroi, to bUt, 

Siyyaym, lo touch, 


,, to die. 

hlal^Z", to cry otit, aoe^arw, to tleep. 

jJpoliTjHu, to leap, 


lo labor, 

inaytdu, to mrti, SiSQaanu, to run auxty. 

, xlaiiD, to vxtji. 

ttitolava, to enjoy, SiowKo, to pwntc. 




lo punish. 

P«<VCu, to go, li^i, to be, 


(talya, to go, inaitifi, to prain, [mlf, layxay 

B, to obtain, 

Piom, lo live, inioQxiix, to perjure one't lapjlay 


pXina, to 3U, iadlta, to eat, 


, to tide. 

fioaa, lo cry oat, &avfjai<a, to icojuler. 

pay&aya), lo Itam, 

yilain, to laugh, dita, to run, 

"'"• '" 


L ^li'iTu, to 3te, ia9!u>, to eat, Xixpnoi, lo tick, ^H 

H fioaa, lo ery out, Savfia^ia, to icoiuUr, pay9ayi>>, lo Itamt ^^M 

H /cidv, to laugh, 9ita, to run, re'u, to ateim, ^^M 

H ■ From ayayiiy come ara^diirtii and ayayiiyia9at in the sense of in ^H 

H vtcrtprovthL ^^H 


oldoj to know, nXioi, to scdl, [nrivam, avQlxTO), to whiath, etc., 

oififoZta, to lament, nvitaj to blow (but vv/i- tixtoh, to product, 

oXolvita, to hotciy nrlym, to strangle, T^f/oi, to run, 

ofirvfii, to swear, no&ita, to desire, igfuyca, to gnaw, 

OQnu, to see, TtQogKwioi, to reverence, rv/xorfa, to obtain, 

nalita, to sport, ^ita, to flow, Toi^d^o), to rail at, 

naax^y ^o suffer, aiyaat, to be silent, (pfvyu, to flee, 

n^diiu, to leap, aianuta, to be silent, (pdarta, to came before, 

nlvvi, to drink, andnto), to sport, j^dcrxo), to gape, 

nintn, to fall, anovdaiw, to be zealous, x^Qiw, to contain. 

Remark. Some have both the Active and Middle form for the Future ; 
the Middle, however, is preferred, e. g. ayvoim, dioncio, inairim, etc. 


§199. Prepositions and Conjunctions. (323.) 

Besides the Substantive, Adjective, Pronoun, Numeral, Ad- 
verb and Verb, there are also the two following parts of speech, 
viz. Prepositions and Conjunctions. On the forms of these 
nothing need be said ; hence these parts of speech are treated 
in the Syntax, so far as it is necessary. 





I ma or Labial Breath in 

§200. Dig 


1. Ttie Greek language had originully, iu addition to the Spititua Anper 
J, and llic Liugiiul Breathing <r, a Labial Breathing, the sound of which 
correaiwnds uearly lo the Eng./. Iii accordance with its form, F, which 
is tike one Ciaimiia titaiiding upon another, it i^ named Diganima, and as 
the vEoliana retained it longer than the other Grecian tribcc, it is called the 
£olic Dignmnia. It Ima llie sinh place in the Alphabet, namely between 
i and f, and is named Bav. Cum)). ^ 25, 2. 

2. This cliaractcr disapiieared very early iWt its sound, was in some 
cases changed, in some of the Diitlecis, into tlie smooth Labial /9. e. g. 
filu, via, Fit — Inter Fs; in other instances it was softened into the vowel r, and 
after otiier vowels, naalesced witli uand formed the Dijihthongs av, iv, ijr, ov, 
mu, e. g. rait — wPc — nnvia, jftiw [ziFu), Mo\., (Sou; — poFi, — Mvb, Iws, 
Gen. bAvis; in others still it was changed, into a mere gentle breathing, 
which at the beginning aCa word is denoted by the Spiriliis Lents, but in the 
middlf' of a word nnd before g is not indicated, e. g. Flf, vis, 1; ; oFig, ovis, 
Siti (kUu, volvo ; FfoSor, i^oSor, etc; it was also changed in the begin- 
ning of some words, into a Hharp breathing, which is denoted by tite Sjiiri- 
lu« Asper, e. g. 'o-Tt^o;, vapfnu, irrvpi, vfitio. 

3. In the Homeric jKtenis no character exists to denote the Breathing j*; 
bnt it is very clear tliat in the lime of Homer, many words were KOimded 
with the Digamma, e. g. Syyvfit, Syai, avuaaia, aySarei, tag, ver, the forms 
of'lilJJl, video, foitia, rfnaiTi, li^iiti, Tifio, veslis, clnilr, Smilos, trrviii, vea- 
tio, io^ and vf, huiu, ov, ma, ol, Hibl, fantgot, veeperus, olxog, vicus, aJiioi, 
vinum, etc.; this is olivioue troiri the following fiicts; (a) words that hare 
the Kganinia cniiBe wo Hiatus, e. g. jrpo iSn =111/0 Fian; (b) hence also 
a vowel capable of Elirion, when placed before such a word, cannot be 
elided, e. g. Uniy 5i k = !i Ft, oni fa = -Ino Fio ; (c) the .■ i<fihn 
is wanting before words which have the Digamma, e. g. iSaii 01 = daU Foi ; 



-^d) ov instead of ot'x or ovxj is not found before tlie Digamma, e. g. inst 
ov kdiv iaxi xfQf^v =■ ov Ft&iv; — (e) in compounds neither Elision nor 
Crasis (contraction) occurs, e. g. diannifiiv = diaFstnifAiyf aa/rig = aFaytjg; 
^-(f) a word, having the Digamma, makes together with a preceding con- 
sonant, a vowel long by position, e. g. yiig i&tv ; — (g) long vowels are not 
shortened before words tliat have the Digamma, e. g. KaXXti'ts ailXptav xaf 
tifAaair s=a xal Fdfiatn II. y, 392. 

§201. Interchange of the Vowels. (38.) 

Preliminart Re&iark. The dialectic peculiarities in tlie change of 
vowels, as well as of consonants, never extend to all the words of a dialect, 
but are uniformly limited to certain words and forms. 

1. The three vowels, e, o, rt, called — § 140, 2, and 4 — vowels of Varior 
ftbn^T^cipa), TET^o^flT, iiQaqtriv) undergo various changes hi the dialects. 

o is used instead of e , Ion., e. g. r^aTro), to^vo), fiiya-&og instead of tQinta, 
jifira, (Aiyt^og ; so also Doric tQuqua, (rxiagcg, *'A()rafiLg instead of, T(i£- 
901, (FxifQcg, ^'Agjffiig ; and in several particles, e. g. oxa, toxa, noxa ia- 
stead of otf, tots, noie. 

8 instead of u in the Ionic dialect in tlie following Liquids, e. g. Tf cro-f^f 9, 
BQar^Vj vtXog, fiiQt&QOv, Ion., uistead of riaaagigj four, uQafjVy a male, 
vaXog, glass, ^dga&gov, gulf; besides in very many verbs in -aoi, e. g. 
(pomo), ogita, Ion., instead of qiOijdoi, ogda, 

8 instead of o, Doric, e. g. kfidsfi^^xovra instead of ipdofiiixopta, 

o instead of a often, iEolic, e. g. argotog instead of aigaxog, army. 

a instead of 0, Ion., in ag^tadiiy instead of Igguiduy. 

2. The following cases are to be noted in addition : The long is a spe- 
cial peculiarity of the Doric dialect, and causes, in particular, the so-called 
Platdasm, L e. the broad pronunciation of the Dorians, e. g. ufiiga, xanog, 
advg, Jafidtrig, The Older and the later Ionic have softened this grave 
a into 1}. The Attic writers use the letters, o and ^, interchangeably, § 16, 
7. Comp. Dor. dfiiga, Ion. ^fiigfji Att iifiiga; Ion. uofpiri. Dor. and Att 
QO<fla ; Ion. datgr^^, Dor. and Att ^(aga%, — So, also, a in tlie diphtliong av, 
in the Ionic writers, is changed into % nfug, ygtitg, instead of vavg, ygavg] 
likewise in the diphthong at in the DaL PI. of the first Dec, 17$ and rjtn Ion. 
instead of atg and aitn, — Still, in certain words, the Dorians retain the 17, as 
the lonians do the a. 

fl instead of ei iEolic and Doric, e. g. aafir^ov, rrtvog, olija, so the Infin- 
itires, e. g. XaP^v, xaXiiv instead of arj/AHOv, xityog, oltia, XaPiiy, xaXtty. 
a» instead of e», Doric, e. g. q)&alg(a instead ofq>&iig(o, 
V often instead of o, iEolic, e. g. av(f>6g, oyvfia instead of aoq>6g, oyofia ; 
so in Homer ayvgig instead of iyogd ; and in the Common Langiiage, 
ficirvfioffy naytiyvgig, etc. 


01 inslead of oti before a Liquid and a, and at the end of a word in the 
lenniiiBtioDB of the second DcCt aud in the atem of several words ;—©( in- 
stead of ou before the Breathing <t in the tliinl Pers, PI. oiiri(v) inslead of 
ovtri{r] and in tlie Participlf ending -otaa instead of -ovaa, and in nivlaa 
and 'A(>(Ouiaa uislead of AJotaa, aiid'-'f^Efimira; tlie tiral is Dor., yet not 
in Pindar; the lust is .£olic and in Pindar, e. g. 

_ 7'iu /ipojSu instead of roii iifi'tjiov, tuy (bIho Ion, and Pindar) instead of 
eir, SMo^ iuKiead of Sovlot, oj^iui'dc uistead of ov^arii, fiCii instead of 
jSoi'f — iCitioiiriit) instead of[y), tiijotaa instead of tiniovaa, 
ifiiioiair instead oi tftlovftr, ixoma histead of tj(oi.tra. 

Some otiier instances will be considered below in treating of the Declen- 
aiona and Conjugutiona. 

§202. Interchange of the Cimsonants. (39, mo 
The change of consonants in the different dialects depends on the two 
following Imvs: 

CoDHouauls of the same order — ^ 5, Rem. 3, — interchange with each 
other ; and the consonants which are called homongmovs, $ 5, Rem. 1, 
interchange with tlic luimonynunti. 

§303. L I nler change of Consonants of the same 

A. The Mutes ; (aj The smooth Muted n and n. The interrogative and 
ixidcJiiiile pronouns, ti(U{, nan, nclot, onoloi, etc., are in Ion. lu,', NOit, etc. 

* instead of i ; noit. noii, on, tiu, onott, ukXoit, are in Dor. jioko, jioxa, 
oio, TuxB, unoxa (PoeLoniixxa), SHoku; so iixa [sliortened from bxaica) instead 
oraiui'. On the contrary i instead ofx, e. g. iijro; Dor. insleail of vEiroc, ixihos. 

n instead of i j£ol. and Dor., c. g. Tii/ixt inslead of ntrii. 

(bj Tlie Medialsjiaud y; e. f. |9ii!/(iii', pennj-reyirf, Alt., is in Ion. yl^^tuj', 
piitfagitr, ryr-lath, is yli<faQay. 

S instead of y Dor., e. g. Ja instead of yii; hence /trjfiiij^g instead of 

S inslead off!. Dor., in oSiXof instead ofopiXof. 

(i instead of S in tlie JEo]. words ^iXiflf, Bti(fol instead of 8cX<ply, /tiXrpot^ 

[c] The ARpirates dand tf, e. g. i9i)p, beaxi, SX^r, Ullfliiy, ovdai/, udder, 

are iu Dor. f'li/, fil^v, ifkl^iiy, ouifag (uber); qDi)(> and i^U^fii' also in Homer. 

X instead of 3 ; i'Ufia is in Dor. I'xfi'' and opriflo;, etc. (from o^ytt) is Spy* 

B. The Liquids ; (a) The Liquids interchange with onesnolher: 
of i before & and i otien in the Dor. dialect, e. g. t]y9oy, (iiminoi 
stead of ^Ad(n<,{5i7t(()ta;; also Ion. and Att. niLfu/iair, puliiio, instead of 
fiuy, kiiQoy instead of n'rpof. 

f , udder. 
;) is Spy* _ 

r instead ^^| 
Dor. in- ^M 
of nvtv- ^^1 



^ 18 rarely used instead of 1, e. g. xgi/iarogy oven, Att, instead of xXipavog. 

(b) The Liquid q and the Breathing a in the Later and oflen in the Mid. 
Attic ; ^^ instead of the Ion. and old Attic ga, e. g. o^cnjy and aqi^v, a tnaUy 
noQOfi and xo^^ri, bade 

§204. IL Interchange of the so called Homony- 
mous Co nsonants , 

(a) The Palatals / and x, e. g. %vaq>ivq, fuller, is preferred by tlie Attic 
writers to the other form, /yaquvg. 

n and x ^ dixoiiat, Ion., instead of dixofia^. 

(b) The Linguals d- and t, e. g. avjig Ion. and Epic, instead of av^iq^ 

Remark. In some words a change of the aspiration, from one syllable to 
the other, occurs, e. g. xtdtav Ion., instead of /ifcuy, iy&axTa, hie, ip^itrtiv, 
bine Ion., instead of inav&a, iyuv&iv ; ntv&iffi Ion., instead of jifi^^a, pot. 

tr and t, e. g. Ilottiddf, sntjov, tlkocn, iv, li Dor., instead of HooHday, 
htwoy, ffKooi, Gv, ai. The Attic forms xtmXoy, bed, %riXla, sieve, (from (r^~ 
^oi), Tvq^ri (from ovqfo), turba, irjfifQoy, to-day, and T^re;, this year, (the two 
last only in the comedians, but in tragedians and in other Attic writers o^- 
fugoy, frriTtg), is in the Ion. and Common Language oivxloy, aijXla, avg^rj. 

oo and tt. The Later, and often, also, the Middle Attic dialect uses, in 
most words, tt, instead of aa, which are employed by the older and the 
later Ionic, and in most other dialects, e. g. laaooi, yXwaaa ; but Att Tarroi, 
ylmfa. Still, the Ionic forms prevail, not only in the older Attic writers, 
but are, also, found in other authors, as some words always have oa, e. g. 
naaam, to scatter, niriaoia, to crouch, pvaaog, a deep, nfiaom, to stamp, 
mioaw, to fold, figdaoa, to move, Tnaaaa, to cower, iqiaata (iqirta is reject- 
ed), etc. 

a and y in the Dor. verb-ending -fitg, e. g. rvmofitg, instead of the 
common form ivjfjofify, see § 220, 6 ; also aiig Dor. instead of aisV. 

dd instead of { in the Lacon. dialect, e. g. fwvalddsiy instead of fiv&i^tty, 
fiidda instead of fitiia. 

trd instead of ( JEol., so also in Theoc., but only in the middle of words, 
e. g. fitXladetat, fiiodwf instead of fnXliftm, fiiiiay or fisiSon^, not at the be- 
ginning of words, nor if-B" precedes, or o- follows, e. g. ftoxO^lCorti, inKp&v- 

( and TT| avQirttiy, aQfioTttty Att, instead of avglisiy, agfioiuy. 

Here belong, 
If and ff and <nr, e. g. |vy Epic and old Attic instead of avy ; 9t^6g and 
t^tfog Ion. instead of duraog, iqiaaig ; iulo| Dor. instead of xXai^ (nXiig) ; even 

in lite Fut. and AorJBts, the Dorians, and dao Homer, in several verbe, use f 
inaead of u, aee § 234, 4. 

(c) The Luhiate ip and n, — the first AtL, the last Ion.— e. g. uatfiii/nyBi 
All., ittniif/ayos Ion. So Mii\. and Dor. n, itiHTend of if, e. g. aftnl .,£ol., in- 
stead ol' afiifi; hence iu tlie Coiunion languuge, o^Tic^Eir, etc. 

fi and IT, e. g. nfSa Dor., iuslead ofpna. 

(d) The double connoDanisEand yundtlie iwoofwiiich they are composed, 
though transjioaed, in tlie .^k>l. diulecl, c. p. atiros, armXit instead of ^irot, 
ifialii, IiLit only at llie begiiiDiDg of a word. So aif and ^, e. g. ifi Dor. in- 
steail of arfi. 

^'ZOo. Contraction and Diaeresis. d"— ia,i 
1. In the Dialects, the following coo tractions, whieh diffi;r tVoni those 
mentioned in ^ 9, ore to be noted ; — id Rtid tov, sometinicB, sido, oo and oa 
ar« contracted into iv in Dor. «nd Ion. — not, ss connnonly, into oi>; ao no, 
xtoii and oou lun. are contracted into tv — not, ns \n usual, into to and or, 
e. g. 4>iJLEt! from tpAiov^ifiXov; nXtvrtt from nliorti; nXJi^tT-tn^fram 
TiXtj^Qonti = nhjQiii-inii\ iSiraliufram t&txalat = iStjtalov; n^iuitvy from 
itfitutaof =! tipuTOiv ; ytktvaa from p'Etefttt'O'R =: /tilbHra ; AiiRKtoi from Jt- 
Kaiaovai^iiiuiiouai. Butcommonly tlie Dorians contracted oi into (u — Instead 
of ou — e. g, TVijifna = tvfiairta instead of ivpoC*To, ^(/w» inaleftd af^iyovr. 
3. ^o, Bou and aw are contracted in tlie Dor. dialect into li — instead of 
w, — namely, in verhs in -lioi, in genitives in -no and -awv, in suttstantivea 
in -auv, Gen. -aoroi, and iu proper names in -iooft e. g. ifvaanti, /alavi, 
yikSr from ^itruomt, /oiliiOMn, ^finuir; — lur xoqSy from itiiur lo^iitair 
^ Twv Kopur ; — flwruBar, — avo^, AtL Iloatiim, — airos ; — Mirii-ai, Afj- 
Kialkat, Gen. -a, DuL -i^ 

3. Ai and oti ore contracted in the Dor. (but not in Pindar) into ij and ij 
instead of a and ij, in verbs, e. g. iipoiiii, qjoit,^; instead of ftpalta, quoiiff. 
See^2^m,(l). See SSI. 

4. The Attic dialect is the opposite of the otlier dialects, particularly of 
the later Ionic, as it almost always admits contractions, while the other dia- 
lects, and tlie later Ionic commonly, avoid them. The tendency of the later 
Ionic towards uucontracted syllables ia bo great, that it even resolves the 
long sounds (which are never resolved iu the other dialects) into tlieir sim- 
ple elements, e. g. ^ilt'tiii instead of fiil^^, which liad been contracted from 
ifilij). Epic poetry often uses, indiscriminately, contracted and uncon- 
iracied forms, according to the necessity of the verse, e. g. ai'wiv and anmr, 

5. On the contrary, it is a special peculiarity of the Ionic dialect, that 
wbiie it delights to avoid contractions, it still, in particular cases, admits 


them, where the Attic dialect does not, e. g. i^og (l)t iffsig, i^sl(Taa& ai Iod., in- 
stead of isQogf etc., and especially the contraction of oi} into oi, particularly in 
the verbs fiony and voilv, e. g. tpmra^ BvoHra, (iyy(U(Ta(rxfvHom. from ayyoiw), 
iyrit'Oiixa, instead of i^oritra, ivor^tray iyyiroijxa ; so oyddxovia in Homer, in- 
stead of o/^oiJxoyTo. 

6. The opposite of contraction is diaeresi&-^io/^£a<( — ^which separates 
a diphthong into its vowels. Diaeresis is specially used in the iEol. dialect 
The use of it in Homer, also, is not rare, where it is found, most frequently, 
in such words as separate the two vowels by means of the Digamma, namely, 
ai in nuig; av in airr^YJ, breath (from SFrjfn), aiaxaXiog, dirty; u in Aaxoi, 
to make likey smto, tixtoyf itxxr^y ; ei) very often in the adverb tv (= ci', xDeU)j 
e. g. iv xgiyagf ivxtlfuyog ; when ju, y, ^ or (r follows iv in compounds then 
they are doubled, e. g. ivfm%kirigy iijyyijtogy ivqi^oog^ ivaasXfiog ; o'i in oig 
{oFig, ov{s)t otofiai (comp. optnor), oitnog, &i%a, wi^ay (from ot/yvfii). 

§206. CrasiSj St/nizesis^ Elision, N iq)eXxvarix6if. 

Hi atus. (15, 16, 17, 19, ai.) 

1. In particular instances tlie Dialects differ from the laws of Crasis stated 
in$§ 10 and 11 ; namely, in the Ionic dialect and in Pindar and Tiieoc., the 
o of the Article coalesces with a and forms o), and with ai and forms ^, e. g. 
TO ayaXfia = iSyaXfia, so idtXtj&igt toiiio, diyi]Q, biydgsgf wy&gtaJiOi^ f^noXoiy 
from TO aXij&ig, to auro, o ayt'ig, oi Sydgig, oi ay&gtanot, ol aliioXot, In 
Herodot occur, Sgiaiog, owtog^ atXXot^ with tlie Spiritus lenis, instead of the 
Spiritus asper (from 6 aQimog, 6 aviog, ol SXXoi)', Homer uses the Crasis 
seldom, namely, only in oI^ioto;, uvxogf taXXa, ovfiog instead of o ^fiogj lov- 
yexa, ovvtxa instead of ou evueix; xuyto is doubtful. 

2. Instances of Crasis in Doric are, iwXysogj imyjQta instead of rov tiXyfog, 
TM ayTQO} ; so o and e = oi, oi and < := 17, e. g. o iXaqtog = (uAcKpo^, o ^| = 
(u|, xal ix = x^x, xai ilns = xijttc, xa* day or jjy = x^r, which last is also 

3. Ionic writers admit the common Crasis in ov, in the Masc. and Neut of 
the Art and in itfgog, e. g. oirttgog, rovitgoy. 

4. The use of Synizesis, § 12, is very frequent in the Homeric poems, 

(a) In the middle of words, it is oflenest found in the following connected 

vowels, car, ea, cat, tug; to, toi, tov; tut, tot; e, g, (TTij&ta, ijfti^ 

ag, Otol, xQvaboig,it&ytbJTB; much rarer in at, ta, iul, itj, itj, ^o, e. g. 

at&Xtvbty, nuXiag, noXiog ; 00 only in oydooy ; voi only in daxQvota; 
rji in driioio, dtjlatv, drilotaiy ijia ; 

(b) Between two words in the following connected vowels, ij a, 17 1, 
VVi V ^h V ^^i ?7 o* 9 H ov; n Oj ti ov\ The first word is either 


^, ^, 3ij, /iij und iittl, or a word willi tlie iiiflexioii-endirigB, i;, o_j, e. g. 
q, oi', Jij ulpvfioititof, pi^ iilkoi, itXanirrj i,i yaiio;, ua^iamj otf uior. 

5. Elision, ^§ 13 and 14, is found very often iti Homer; usmRly, 

(n) The a in tlje PI. Neut and the Ace. Sing, of the third Dec, rarely 
in the Aor. ending -<ro, e. g. oilii^' Ifti Od. {i, 300; comtnonly in the 
pnrticle aQa ; 

(b) The t in the person al-endingH, -ifii -itt -oi, etc., in tlio Voc. of the 
third Dec, in the Dual of llie third Dec, in verb-endinp and in par- 
ticles, e. g- Si, It, loK, etc. — but nerer in i3i; 

(r) The I in tlie Dot PI. of the third Dec ; much rarer in the D«L Sing^ 
and only when it could not be misluken for itie Ace. e. g. jjfaT^e Si 
TV ofyil^ 'Oivaci'f, IL x, 277; in ofifii, t/iiit, aad tript; in ad verba 
of place in -Si, except those derived from eulwftantiveB; in f&uwt ; 
finally in all verb-eiidinga i 

(d) The in uno, vTto, but never in npu, iu Siv, in the Neut of pronouns, 
except tliose in -jo, nnd iu all Terb-eudings ; 

(e) Tlie at iu the verb-endinga -pai, -lai, -altm, am only in ijo-' oXip)- 

■ntUvir IL 0, 245, and ai in the Nom. of tlie lirsl Dec. in ufii' ISCrat 
a i,27a; 

(f) The 01 ill not, bt me, and in the particle, loi. 

a The r iifOMmimov, § 15, is commonly rejected in Ion. prose, e. g. 

7. The HisTua, § 8, is admitted by Homer in the following csees, 

(a) in long vowels or dlpliiliongs either in the Arsis* of the verse, e. g. 
aniHi [ u 'oiv \ iriji; or in the Thesis, in which case the long vowel 
or diphtliotig 18 short, e. g. DtiDi I \ aar ; 

(b) When Hie vowel does noi admit Elision, or but rarely, e. g. Jtatdi S/iv- 

(c) When iwn words are swimnited by a puncluaiion-mark, e. g. al£ ara, 
M iiiitnrat yi ; 

(d) In tbe Fern. Caesura, (i. e. the caesura succeeding a short syllable) 
aAer tlie ftr^ short sjlloble of the lliird foot of the ver»c, e. g. 

Min) I Si Tfrtpa \ Xiitt {{ ii[i | JirrfTO | Z"e' "" I X'^ll "■ /• -^G- 
T«j 01 I ij /yi\ rorio || ^ [ ct /ityu \ faunyi \ ytSlij II. i, 270. 

(e) In tlie Diaerettis (i. e. the division of the verse which is occasioned by 
a foot ending wiili a woni) afU:r tlie first and fourth foot of the verse, 

• Arsis is that part of a foot on which the weight or stress of the voice 
fills. The rest of tlie foot is called Thesis. The Arsis is on the huig 
nltoble ofa foot. E. g. the Arsis of the law bus /it *w is on u; the Arsis 
of the DtMtyle nira/iir is on at. — T*. 



£//ci I 'idofityijog ayavov JBVxaXidao D. ft, 117. 

Ttififai in ^Argtldtj^Ayafiifivovt \ ovloy*'OyHQoy H. /9, 6. Comp. 1^ 422; 

(f) Where the first word has the apostrophe, e. g. diifdgi t&alley ; 

(g) Sometimes in proper names ; 

(h) Words, which have the digamma occasion no Hiatus, § 203, 3, e. g. 
ov\ds ovg I naidag £ | atrxsv (= ovdi Fovg). 

§207. Lengthening ^and Shortening of the 

Vote els. 

1. The following vowels are lengthened : 

A in Homer is sometimes lengthened into at ; this occurs in alsiog, aul^ 
ayalofiai, instead of aero;, etc ; so also nagal (also xaiaiPatai), in the Tra- 
gedians dialf and the analogous form vnal instead of ;ro^a, 8ta, vno. 

a into ri in Homer in iitQi&orrai^ fjytgi&oytat, ^yffioug in the Arsis, con- 
sequently on account of the metre. 

a into ai. before a, JEoL, in the Ace. PL of the first Dec as also in fiilaig 
and Tfxilai^ instead of fiiXag, raXaCy taig instead of tdg^ jtuXalg instead of 
xaXag ; in Pindar in the first Aor. Act Part, e. g. jvipatg, ^aiaa instead of 
-aC) -aca ; but always nag, 

Av into oil), Ion., in T^at/ia, S-avfjiaj and its derivatives, e. g. in iQdvfiaj 
S-iovfia, i^cdi;/io{o), and in pronouns compounded with ainogj e. g. kavroVf 
(reoDiTOu, ififoiVToy instead of iavrot/, etc. ; so also toivto instead of tovto. 

E into H in the Ion. writers before a Liq. in a number of words, e. g. 
iXytxa — also in Attic prose— xciyo^, C^lyog, axtivog, HQwtau. Homer uses 
this lengthened syllable according to the necessities of the verse in other 
words also, which in Ionic prose have c, e. g. dy, vniig, nugag, end, (pgiUna, 
from (pgiag, a tveU ; also before vowels in adjectives in -tog, e. g. xgvatiog, 
in substantives and pronouns, e. g. antiog, ifino, in verbs in -e'oi, e. g. xe- 
Xe/o), nyilta, also in tifog instead of itag, unto, sometimes a]so in the Augment 
and Reduplication, e. g. %]XriXov&a, tloatviai,, dndta, dfidixarat, 

E into 17, in Hom. and in the Dor. dialect, in the Dec of substantives in 
-tvg, e. g. fittiTiXsvg, Gen. -fjog, etc ; further, also. Ion., in adjectives in -f < 0^, 
e. g. paviXriiog, regius; finally, in single words, e. g. xXr^tg^xXti'i^og, etc, 
instead of xXtlg, Ion., in very many substantives, e. g. aXri&fil'fj instead of 

JI sometimes into at, iEoL, e. g. S-vniaxio instead of ^yi]ax(o, 

O into ot. Ion. and Hom., before a vowel in several words, e. g. nolr}, 
noi^fig, xQO"h (oti^j ^^c. ; in Homer in the Gen. of the second Dec, e. g. 
^(oio instead of ^iov, and in <poiyt>og, xogonvnifj, odomogt^ty, ayxoiyrfaiv 
and fiyyoiti<re. 


O is cliangeil into or, Ion. and Hom., liefore a Liq. or Sigiue, mill only 
in B certain number of words, and, in the JDor., before a Liq. into oi, e. g. 

noQOi Ion. xoiQog Dor. xiui/ot fiovof Ion. fioiToq 
ofofia " ovyo/in " larofia Oii'/iios " Ovi.vfinot; 

also the oblique cases of iu^v and yovv. But substanlivea, which have the 
vowel of variation o, cannot be thus lengthened, e. g. -noiot from nirofiai, 
Sofioe from Siiim. 

into Qi in Homer, on nccotuit of tlie verse, in ^xavvaog, xijiuui;, tfnixata, 
KUTitofiai, and also ifia/oia, najaofiii. 

r into DU oDen, Dor., e. g. Sovyuiijg insteiid of Svyatiiq. In lEomer in 

a. The Epic dialect resolves llie contracted sounds, namely, u into aa, 
^ into aa; ijinto o), iii), i^q; « into ooj, itio, uu; paniciikrly in declining 
verbs, e. g. o^n^; instead of o^iii;, xfijiiror instead of x^ij^or, u^ooi instead 
of o^a, yiluorit; instead of yiitififs, ij^iuowu instead of ly^akrtr; also tpuoi; 
instead of tpuf, lighi, Iroin fao;, and proper najnes in 'ipcuf, e. g. ^^[KKfiuv. 

3. Tlie Epic dialect has n ditfereiil lengthening of the vowel, which 
arises &oin the resolution of hm original Digamma or a Spirjma Asper into 
a vowel, e. g. ivnijlot and ijnjila; {Fixtilas) of^o; instead of o^o;, bound, ov- 
ist iostcail ofoloi, viliof inetend of ilLot, tinot instead of iao;, t'dlaam in- 
stead of illatroi, camp, volvo, tfiig instead of i'oit- In Ihe Ionic, and some- 
times in the Epic diolect, the w, contracted from ao anil aai, ia resolved by 
I, e. g. iKiniu instead of uctiao, TivXiuf instead of nvlatuv. 

i. The following vowels are abridged, 

M into a before a vowel often in the jEoI. dialect, e. g. uQxvOf, 'Alxaot, 
instead of a^jaui;, 'AXtalog; in Homer in tiapo;, UaQ% haglinrSai. 

£i into ( before Uquids in the Ion., and in Horn., in the forms x'l/°f'X'll^ 
from /e(p, hand, so also AtL /ffoTi', Z'Q"^ t ^^ l""- ^""l I*or. before a vow- 
el, in a Proparoxytone in -iioi, and in Propcriapomena in -iXa; in Homer 
only in a few Fein, adjectives in -vs, e. g. 

iitiitiicot,-iri.-im Ion. instead of -hoc w>a'ri instead of cuvtia tromiint'C 
t&tof, -*lj, -tor " " -eios ^aditj " ^aStla " /SaSif 

ivfi^fronnvfvi " " -mo daait) " daaiia " datrif, 

so also in Horn. '£ffiiif instead of 'EqiuIi; ; also tt in loa. is abridged into 
I, when iwo consonatils follow which make the vowel long by position, 
e. g. anoSihi Instead of onuSniii, fii^iur instead offKifoiv, neiaaiav instead 
of xpi/irauii'; finally in llie Dor. verb-forms, e. g. aiUft instead ofailSiif. 

'MJkRK I. In the jEiiI. dialect, ft before n liquid is very often shortened 
r, and liie Liq. is doubled, e. g. xiirrai, oni^u, toiiXXa, instead of xttt- 



H is changed into e in Horn, in aqynt^ a^/Jia, from tf^/>Jc, -^to?, shining, 
and in the Subj. ending -nt instead of -tjTf, so also -ofitv instead of -wfjitVy 
e. g. iidiTe, •^oi^^^o/ity. 

Ot into o often in the Dor. and iGol. dialects, e. g. ttooj instead of noi^. 

Ov into o in Horn, in the compounds of novg, e. g. afXlonoc;, agxlnog ; 
often in Theocritus in the Ace. PL of the second Dec, e. g. loig Xixog in- 
stead ofiovq Xvxovi; also iEol. p6XXu instead of flovX'^, and so also in Hom. 
fioXttai, PoXiadi from povXoiiui. 

5. On the Ionic-Attic change of the vowels, see § IG, 5. 

6. Homer often uses Syncope, § 16, 8, namely, in verb-forms, as will 
be seen below ; he also has t/txts instead ofilnois, yXaxTO(puyog instead of 

7. Apocope — anoxom] — ^is the rejection of a short ultimate vowel before 
a word beginning with a consonant. It is employed by the Epic and Doric 
poets, sometimes also by the Ionic, and in a few single forms even by Attic 
prose writers. It occurs in the prepositions, e. g. arof, xara, naga, rarely 
in ino and vjto, and in the Epic conjunction aga. The accent is then 
thrown back; ay before /?, tt, fp,,(i, is changed into a^, §19,3, e. g. a ^ 
fitifioun, afjtfialvtiv, afi niXayog, a/i q)6roVf afifiivto; the t in xcct is always 
assimilated to the following consonants, except that the corresponding 
smooth mute stands before the aspirate, § 17, 4, e. g. xitd dvrafiiv, xais 
tpaXagay xix xt<paXfig, xuy yivv ; examples of into and vno are, annifupu, 
ippaXXuv, Hom. ; examples from Attic prose, o/i/?aiij;, ift^oXag, X. Cy. 
4. 5, 46. 7. 5, 12, a fin tat ig. 

Rem. 2. In the concurrence of three consonants, assimilation is omitted, 
and one consonant is rejected, e. g. xaxiayc, xaax^df, ufivooH, instead of 
MDcxraye, xacrcr/s^f, otfifiydfTH. 

8. The Prothesis, § 16, 10, occurs in Homer in itrtsgoni^ and attgoni^, 
i&Hm and -^iXta, ixtirog and xilvog, igvofiai and gvoftai ; Homer also often 
resolves the F into the vowel ;, namely, iigtrtiy ledya, hUotriy turog, utnor, 
iikdo/itti, isQfiiyog. 

9. Sometimes, for the sake of the metre. Homer inserts e, e. g. idiXq)s6gf 
xiytog, instead ofudiXq>6gf TUvog; so also in die Gen. PL Fem. otrsW, tt^oh 
tiiay. To prevent the accumulation of short syllables, he inserts in several 
compound words ani^ in place of a short vowel, e. g. lavrjXiyiog, ini]poXog^ 
intinayog, oli/ijTieiU'oi, iXaqtripoXog, instead of tayvX,, inl^., imn., oXiyon,, 
iXaipop6Xog, An i is found in Homer after oi> in ofioltog instead of oftoiog, 
and in the Dual -oiiy instead of -of r. 

10. The Later Ionic, also, sometimes inserts an 6 before a long vowel, 
namely, (a) in the Gen. of some substantives, in Fem. pronouns before (d, 
and in ovjog^ joiotuog and avid; before long inflection-endings, e. g. or- 


Sfinir, grjriav, ixiinciy, tovjiior, ainiur, nvni^; (b) in Bome verb-forms 
before a long vowel, e. g. iariam, Svviaftai, Sviiitaptai ; (c) aome verbs in -w 
have forms as if from -(to, c. p. ^«ii» affiflaJJitofiivoi, Inif^alltHf, 
jtt«Jtii nuSfCficyo^ (aieo id Horn. Trit'td* inslead of ijiitiior); also T^m, 
iyeix", aiflft, from ryitu, /ve/u, wiploi'; finally the three foniis of the Perf. 
in -ei instead of ~i, olxiaHii, onanii, itiStc. 

§208. Changes of the Consonants. (aa,96,37.) 

1. Id tbe Ion. dialei^I, ihe rouf^b Breathing lias no effect on the preceding 
amooth mute, e. g. an ov, ^Jitj^f^o;, ovx oaiiKt etc. 

2. In llie Ilom., Ion. and Dor. dialects, a ^ or d remains before fi in cer- 
tain words and phrases, contrary to ^ 19, 1, e. g. od/i>) instead of oir^i), tSpai 
lgX1^l'''i< inini&fiiy, xixo^vd/iivot ; also in the Horn, dialect, the r remains 
before a, contrary to j 20, 2, in ayata^, ayaxi&iny, Tiayavdlii instead of 
jianavSlrf, linully x before ft, contrary to ^ 19, Item. 1, in axaxfieyog, acute. 

3. The Metathesis, §SS, of q often occurs in Horn, and in other poets, 
e. g. upaSltj inslead of xafSla, Aeorf, xagiifog and k^uk^o;, »tnmg, not/iiir- 
TOf, /}a^Siirzoi, from ^^udi;, dow, also in tlie second Aorists tnqaSoy, iS^a- 
9o», fSijanoy, from nifSei, perilo, BoQSarai, to ilup, Siijxo/iat, to Me ; here 
belong also ij/ijS^oioy inaicail of ^^^aiar ^ ^|UOf ror, according to § 24, 2. 

4. Homer doultles a consonant, comp. §23, Rem., after a short Towel, 
according to ilio necessities of the verse, namely, in the follomng cases: 

(a) The liquids and Sigma on Ihe addition of the augment, mostly wben 
there ore three HUccessive short syllables, e. g. tXlajloy, tpfiaSoy, tr- 

(b) In cotnpouiids, also, the liquids and Sigma are doubled, e. g. riol- 
itoviat, from vEor and lavu; a[ipogo;,iptlofiiulSrii; ayyiip3ios,fvyriiioc, 
IJadiQ^ooq; fvaailfiof, 

(c) In the inflection of the Dat. in -iri, and of the Flit, and Anr., e. g. 
rinamai, Siuyaaai ; *ali.aira, ofiuaaat, ipgaairoiiai, iSilnaaa ; 

(d) In the middle of several words, e. g. otraov, laaaov, oniWco, n^o^irai, 
fiiifaot, ripiaaa, ytfit<r<ii)Siis, Svaaayoiti. 

Homer doubles the niute n in Interrogative prououns which begin witli 
in, e. g. oTiJiiii;, etc.; — ■ in niicKxoy, ntltiaaiti ; — i in orii, otko, iittEU ; 
— d in iSSnai, ncqiiSiloaiia, uSSiif, aS&tir. 

'be doubling of p, which always takes place in the Common 
^B when the augment in prefixed, and in compounds when a short 
Yowel precedes, may be omitted in the Epic dialert, according to tlie ne- 
' ' 3 of the verse, e. g. ifiioy from ^iCo, jtpi'crij^iiio;. For the same 
reason, one of the consonants, which is elsewhere doubled. Is omitted in 
the Epic dialect, though rarely, e. g.'odvatvs, ^Azdii% tpasvyof, instead of 
'Odvwtvt, 'AxdUis, q/ain'Yyoi. 

5. Homer often places a consonant before a syllable, so as to make a 

240 DIALECTS.— QUANTITY. [§ 209. 

short syllable long by position, namely, p in vwri*(ivog, anaXafivog, IdQvv^ijy 
ifivvy&fjy VTTtfivtjiivxe ; a t after n in nioXfiiog, moXig, niolUdqov ; a -d^ aAer 
X in /^cr^olo^, dix&fii jgixSa, ingax&a, and afler 1 or p in ftdk^axoc, 
iygijyog&afTi ; or he places a y before d in iQiydovnog, iydovnr^ty and a a 
before (a and x in e/uxgog (also Att, § 24, 4), axsdaryvfii, comp. xldrnn^ 
fffAO/Eg&g, comp. ^oytgiag^ fT/itgdaliog. Here belongs the Epic prefix of /u 
(= y, according to § 24, 3), before words compounded with -Pgoiog, so as 
to strengthen the long syllable, e. g. afifigoiogf tigtpift^gotogf and in a/i(pa- 
iFifi instead of itq>aaiti. 

§209. Quantity. (45.) 

1. In Epic poetry, a mute with a liquid, § 27, 4, commonly makes a syl- 
lable long by portion ; a shortening of the vowel occurs, for the most part, 
only when the form cannot otherwise be suited to the verse, e. g. Tct/coi- 

2. The final syllable of a word in verse, is uniformly long by position, 
(a) when it ends with a consonant, and the following word begins with 
a consonant, e. g. xa&t \ qov TgH | ag ; also (b) when the final syllable 
ends with a short vowel, but the following word begms with a double con- 
sonant, or with two single consonants, which are not a mute and liquid, 
t. g. idfit] I tipfj ffv I ovna V \ no ^vyov \ r/yayiv \ ayrig IL x, 293. But a mute 
and a liquid in this case, always make the syllable in the Arsis long ; on 
the contrary, the syllable in the Thesis, may be either long or short, accord- 
ing to the necessities of the verse ; e. g. fit] fioi \ dutg iga \ ta ngotpe \ ge 
Xgv\ cirig 'Aq>go \ ditrjg S. /, 64 ; on the contrary, in the Thesis, ainag '6 \ 
nliitylov I kfTiri | tch II. d, 329 ; but avdga \ ^vrj^tov i \ crra, na \ Xat nt \ ngta- 
fiipop I aVarj S. tt, 441. 

Remark 1. In the names I^xa/iardgog, Zdxvp^og, Ziltia, ax, and i even, do 
not make a syllable long by position in Homer; m \ tit a axi \ nagvop Od. 
i, 237, also occurs. 

3. A long vowel, or a diphthong at the end of a word, in Homer com- 
monly becomes short before a word beginning with a vowel, when it is in 
the Thesis, but it remains long when it is in the Arsis, or when the follow- 
ing word has the digamma, e. g. vt^^vij \ h jSir \ ^laaip II. a, 358. vug, o \ 
fitp Ktid \ 10V, 6 if ag* \ Evgvtov \ *Axxogl \ mvog D. /5, 621. avxdg 6 \ l/rw | 
flfTip i I vl fpgfffl I (ptorri | aiv ib (/yaiv = Ffftriv), Exceptions sometimes oc- 
cur of the shortening of a long vowel in the Thesis before words which 
have not the diganuna, namely, in the fourth foot of an Hexameter, e. g. tij^ 
fi^ I fioi naii \ gag no&* o \ fioljj \ tv^io \ Ti/wjJ D. d, 410, and before a punctu- 
ation-mark, e. g. xiifrd^al, \ dl£ in a | fivvov II. e, 685. 

4. A lon^ vowel or a diphthong before a following vowel is shortened by 

§210.] DIALECTS. HOMERIC SUFFIX (pi ((piP). 241 

the poets in the middle of a word, yet seldom, and, for the most part, 
in certain words and forms ; thus, e. g. in Homer, iniiill ( v/ v^ . ), c^- 
tKttio^ ( * ^ vy ), olo^ (^ ^ X fli^iirjat ( v^ o . ), and oAen in the Iambuses of 
the Attic dramatists, e.g. oio;, notog, lotovjog, rofo^de, oiW(from otofiai), noi~ 
a»r; and always before the demonstrative i in pronouns, e. g. tov70vi\ avrait, 

5. A short syllable, which is in the Arsis, and which is regarded in Epic 
poetry as long, may stand at the beginning of a word, e. g. atmidog |'axa^a 
I toy nv^ n. (, 4 ; or at the end, in which case it is followed either by a li- 
quid, i, ^, 1^, 9, or a (T or a d, the sound of which is easily doubled in pro- 
nunciation, or by a word with the digamma, e. g. xal Jttdi { o ilo) | itvna S. 

Rem. 2. A syllable in itself short, may be used as long or short in the 
same word, according as it is or is not, in the Arsis, e. ^.^Afjtg^A \ qig pqo- 
TO I Xoiyi ; — avdqfg X \ aatny and nXilova \ Xaaaiv. 

6. Not unfi-equently in Homer a short vowel is measured as long in the 
Thesis, when a short vowel stands between two long vowels, from the 
mere necessities of the verse. This occurs in the middle of a word, and 
oftenest in ^ e. g. vno \ dill 1 17 II. i, 73. r^a^ nqo \ ^vfit \ jjai D. /?, 588 ; this 
is rarely the case at the end of a word, e. g. nvxvu \ ^tayaXi \ tip Od. ^, 198. 
T^ d* inl IfAtv Fog \ yw ^Xoav \ qoimg \ iartipu \ viuro II. Xj 36. 


§210. Homeric Suffix 9* (9*^). (sae.) 

1. In the Homeric dialect there is, together with tlie marks for the Cases, 
a Suffix, q^i(v), which properly and originally denotes the indefinite where, 
like the local Dat, see the Syntax, but which is, alk), used to express other 
relations of the Dat, namely, the Dat of the instrument, and which may 
also be used in connection with prepositions, (that in the Lat govern the 

« AbL) instead of the Gen. 

2. The Suffix qti is found in substantives of the three declensions, and 
is always annexed to the unchanged stem of the word ; 

L Declension only in the Singular: (a) Dat o/e7i}-(pf, ayXai'ricpi, -dvqriq^i, 
(in several ancient editions i^qpt is incorrectly written with an Iota 
Subs, lyqpi); (b) Gen. (Lat Abl.) ano vivqriquv IuXXhv, il tlvr\(fi &oqhv. 
JL Dedension both Singular and Plural. All these forms, without respect 
to the accentuation of the Nom., are paroxytone (-6q>iv)y (a) Dat daxgvo- 
ipiy, ^tofpiy, before the gods ; — (b) Genitive (AbL) ano or ^x natraaXo- 
9»y, ix ^i6q>iy, an laxiofpiv. 


IIL Dedension almost exclusively in the PL fPiv is here used in a small 
number of neuter substantives in -o^, (Gen. -fog), also in xoTvXrjd(ur and 
vavg^ e. g. HOTvXi]dov6q)iy (with the union vowel o\ ravqn ; in words in 
-0?, the ending -05, must always be restored to its original form -ej, 
since qn is always annexed to the pure stem, thus oxf<Tqn(v)j avr ox^fT<pi, 

§211. First Declension. (235.) 

1. (a) The Epic and Ionic writers use 17 instead of the original long a, 

(which the Dorians use) through all the Cases of tlie Sing. e. g. "Hfiu, -cr;, 

-§, -fiy Dor. ; ao(flrj^ -ijf, -rj, -tjr, O^vgtj, -i^^, ytavlrjg, -rj^ -rp' Epic and Ion. ; 

so JlijyiXoJtdrigy llfiviXoTislfj, from IlrjviXonBioi, ^pgriTQrjj Bogitig, Bogif], Bogiriv, 

Exceptions in Homer are &itt, goddess, ~o;, -$) -oy, Navaixda, ^ild, also 
Alvddg, Avydagy ^EgiAilag^ and some other proper names in -a? pure. The 
Voc ofyvfiq>fj is vv^tpa instead ofvvfjKpij II. /, 130. Od. d, 743. 

(b) In substantives in -tia and -oia, derived from adjectives in -rjg and 
^ovg, as also in certain other feminines, the short -a in the Epic and Attic 
dialects is changed into -17, e. g. aXfi&ilrj, avaidUij, limXolfjf xviaarj instead of 
iXr^&Hot, araidita, ivjiXoiu, xviaaa, 

(c) The iEol. and some other dialects have -er instead of -17$, as the 
Masc. ending Nom. Sing., like the Latin. The Epic also uses this form, 
according to the necessities of the verse, in a great number of words, par- 
ticularly in -Ta, e. g. Innoia, alxf^ritS, xvapoxalxa, ttipsXtiytgiia, innriXdja, 
fttitUja, elgvona. The Voc. retains the ending -d in all tliese words. 

2. The Gen. Sing, of masculines in -17; and -ag originally ended in -do ; 
^0 was then contracted into -01 (Dor. into -a). In Hom. both the uncon- 
tracted and contracted form is found ; besides, Hom. resolves the -o), origi- 
nating from -ao, by means of t, comp. § 207, 3 ; it is further to be remark- 
ed, thai the -o) in respect to accent is considered short, § 29, Rem. 5, and 
the a is always pronounced with the Synizesis ; -f o) becomes -cd when a 
vowel or g precedes (still AlysUoD II. e, 534). Thus there occur in Homer 
*EgfjLilag, Geiu'Egfjuldo and'£gf4tlb} ; Bogir^g, Gen. Bog id and Bogioi ; ^ATgti- 
dr^g *ATgUddo and ^Aigildso), ixitao and ixa'ieo) ; ivfifieXia, ^Atrio), The Gen. 
ending -co), becomes, in the Ion. writers, the usual ending, e. g. noXlum, 

3. The Ace. Sing, and PL of masculines in -rjg is commonly found in the 
Ion. dialect like tlie third Dec, e. g. Toy dtanoTia, tovg deanoj^ag firom difr- 
notfig, ~ov, MiXxiddBa from MiXnddrig^ -ov. 

4. The Gen. PL of all the endings was originally in ^dtav ; -oo)y was af- 
terwards contracted into -wy (Dor. into -or). Homer uses both the uncon- 
tracted and contracted forms, e. g. &id(oy and d^ec^y, nagHuar and naguuty. 

Ho alao, in the Gen. Sing., again resolves iLe -oJr originating from -non', by 
means ofi; tLus 'iuiv, wliich is commonly pronounced nith llie Sj'uizcsis, 
e. g. nvXioit, Ovgiuir, a^opetuv. The Gen. ending -iair becomes in the Ion. 
HTilera, the common Ibrin, e. g. Movaiaiv, Tifiiair. 

5. The DbL pi. originnlly ended in -iiiirifi'); the same ending is found, 
a]EO, in Homer, in the Dor. writers, iu the Alt. poeis, and even in tbo older 
Att proee writers ; in ilie Ion. writers, -aiiri was changed into -tiail*) and 
"jic; end in the Att. and Common LnnguagE,-aiij't was shortened into -ais. 
These three endings are, also, found in Homer, yet tlie last only in 9tiiis 
)uid axjtiti. 

6. The Act. PI., iu the j^ol., ends in -aif, [as in tbo second Dec in -oif 
instead of -ote), and Dor. in -of, as in the second Dec. in -oj instead of 
-oif, e. g. Tolf Tifiait MoU, instead of iu;it^ac, but Dot. PI. ii/fnuri; noon; 
jU)VQU( Dor., instead of nucru; xoi/(iu{. 

§212. Second Declension. law.) 

1. NominativB Sing. Proper names in -lao; are changed in the Dnr. 
dialect into -Ids, (Gen. a, Dat. ^), e. g. Mirikai instead of JUiriXaog, iVud- 
las, 'jii/x[ollii(. 

2. Genitive Sing. Homer usee Iiotli the common fonn in -ov, and tlial 
in -010 ; the tragedians, also, ui the lyric passages, use the enduig -oio. 
Theocritus has tlie Dor. ending -tu. 

3. Genitive Sing, and PI. There arc some forms of tlie genitive analo- 
gous to the first Dec. (a) Hi^rodolus has some Muse, proper names in -a; 
with tlie ending -tu of the Gen. Sing., e. g. Bdtttv instead of Baiiov, 
X^ltfiai, Klioii,^{iojnii, Miiipiiiigtiii, and some Masc common nouns with 
the ending of the Gen. PI. -imr, e. ^, Tifaaiuir ; (b) The ending -noir instead 
of tlie Ion. -itny belongs to the Dor. (conip. alyar instead of atyaivv from 
all 5 213. 5). 

4. Tbe Gen. and DaL Dual in the Epic dialect ends in -our instead of 
•^ir, e. g. iifiouv instead of Upaiv, § 207, 9. 

5. The DaL PI. originally ended in -oioi(r). This form is found, to- 
gether with the abridged form in -ai{, in Homer and in all the poets, and 
in the Ion. prose. 

6. The Ace PI. enib, in tlie Dor. writers, except Pinilor, in -u;, and iu 
-«C, like -ac ill tlie first Dec, § 311, 6, e. g. tus yofuag, vo/iot, eo uleo lo'i; 
htyis, Oit Aim ; .^>l. iu - o i ; , e. g. -naaiialoit inslutid of -oi';. 

7. Attic Declension. The GeiL Sing, iu the Epic dialect ends in -ud iu- 
■tead of -u iu /Zijvtlfuo II. $, 4&J ; still, most Codd. have flijnUoio from 
nijrilius, and Ilniuu from Ucjuot. In yiikeit, tuUr'in-tatD,''ASBis uud Ka?, 
the m originating by contraction, h resolved, in the Epic dialect, by means 


of 0, yaXootg, \4&6oig, Kotag, Gen. -ooi. On the words yiliag, idgwg, iQwgy 
see § 213, 7. 

8. Ck>ntracted forms of the second Dec. are rare in Homer, namely, povg 
only Od. x, 240, (elsewhere p6og\ x^'l^^^ovg II. X, 493, yet p, 138. /ec/ua^- 
(oog and /e/^a^^ot S. d^ 452, also Jldy&ovg^ Ildv&ov, ndrdta. Homer does 
not contract other words ; in words in -tog, -tov, he lengthens either the a 
into f I, § 207, 1, or employs Synizesis, as the measure requires. 

§213. Third Declension. (afi5,266w) 

1. In the Dor. dialect the long a here takes the place of 17, e. g. ftiv, /ia~ 
pogy etc, "EllaPj "EXldptg, noifiap instead of Troi/i^y, Gen. -ipog, Ptorag, 
-aTO( instead ofriotfig, -titog. 

Excepted from this usage of the Dor. are ai&i^Q, &^q^ ^VQfg and aU 
names of persons in -t^^. 

2. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, on the contrary, 17 commonly takes the 
place of the long a, as, also, elsewhere, e. g. ^(u^5, otti^, ^^ instead of 

3. The Dat PI. in the Epic dialect, ends, according to the necessities of 
the measure, in -a^^p), -cai^p), 'eo'i(y) and -ifririip). The ground-form 
18 - a 0- i(y) and tlie strengthened form is •> a a a »(i^) . This ending is always 
annexed, like the other Case-endings, to the pure stem, e. g. xvp^wm from 
m»y, Gen. xvp^g, pvuv-^vin from phtvg, -v^og. The ending -air* is found 
in Homer only in Xpiaip, olaair, /a«^« and ipaxt-tcip from ara|, arawr-o;. 
In Neuters, which have a rftlical tf in the Nonu, the tr is omitted when it 
stands between two vowels, §25, 1, e. g. ini^nnn instead of iine-tairt 
fiom TO airro^ dtna-nnnp from to dinag. In stems in -crv, -at*, -ov {oF, lF, oF) 
the V (F) must be omitted, according to § 25, 2, thus pi~tcai instead offioF- 
mnrtj Imt^-ioci instead of wrmjF-airo'c. The ending - ir cr 1 is annexed almost 
exclusively to the stems which end in a vowel, e. g. yaxv-inri finom pixvgf 
.v-o( ; but also tfft-tnftp from T^ig {^tdog) and commonly noovi from nwg 
{nad^Y The Dat form in -airi does not admit this doubling of ir. The 
ground-form -airi is exclusively used by the Dor. poets and prose-writers; 
also the Ion. prose has this form frequently in stems ending in -y, e. g. 

4 The Gen. and Dat Dual ends in - 1 1 y (as in the second Dec^§212, 
4)^ in the Epic dKalecC, e. g. wSoiat, S^^t^pottw. 

5u TheGen.PLindbelQiLdUbeCoAeiie]idBin-taiy,e. g.Jrvm•r,•9- 
||iaMP^$907^la ]llThaoantooev9fir^r«^iMto^ of T£r«^»Ffitm 


7. The words yiiaKi laughter, iSfut, rweai, iQat, Unte, which are properly 
like llie tlitrd Dec, rollow iu Ilamer, ill particulur inetatjces, tlie Attic second 
Dec, e. g. lifoi, iSe^ iualead of t^pdiia and ISquxi, yHu and yiluv, yikig 
inHIcsd of/ildiio and yilioii, ti/a inBtead of t^uTi, 

a To 454," (c) belong -ij. Gen. -..Joe. The llonu. Ion. and Dor. 
dialects often inflect these substantives, particularly proper names, in -log, 
e. g. nijjiioq Horn., Gipio^ Herod., 0irtot, Dau 0hi Horn. Of those ending 
in -ii,-i3oi,the Epic dialect has tlie DaL only in -i instead of -df. The 
aubslaDlives in -ijfj, -tjiSoi, are sometime a contracted in the inflection, 
by the poctfl, c. g. wnpn'ij, naQ'iSo;, iVijpiji;, JVij^qJcf. 

9. j 54, (c). The Neut. ai'f, aitot, far, is in Dor. Siq, cuio«, etc, and in 
Homer ovat. Gen. ovatoi, PI. ovaia; the Neuters, <nia(f,fal, ovSoii, iiddtr, 
■nd aiifaf, end, havB -aiot in the Gen., namely, aiiajot, ov^aja, ntlgaia, 
mlfairi, Li the words itpa;, taijat, tiqias, the Epic nrilere reject t, e. g. 
liffaa, -aojr, -nHrcri ; Kif^ DaL ; PI. xtQa, xf^anic, -aiaai and -avi ; PI. ■(((■, 
jtpEUMV, Mfibtr and x^iiiur, xtiiacrtr. Among the Ion. writers iheae words 
are like (Sgirof, etc, § 61, Rem. 1. The a is oAen changed into i, e. g. xi- 
(lo;, flifta, nifiitiv, ia tigia, nfiiaaii/, 

10. ^ 55, 2, n a T ^ p . etc. In words of this kind, Homer either retains or 
rejects the t through all the Cases, according to ihc necessities of tlie verse, 
«. g. urigoi and aySfoj, artQt and atSgl, etc., but only aySgar, arSifoai and 
~iinni yaaiiiQ, yaauQoi, -ipt and ymrriioi, yauTfl, yaotifa, yairtifrt', ^1- 
M'Jt^Pi -'pot """1 -^'Vft Jijptiiifa; Svyatfjf, -liQOt and -iQag, etc, Jii/a- 
Tigiftnri, but 9vyaiii<ur; fi'iilQ and naTijg, -ii'po; and -tfot, etc. 

11. j 56. In Homer, the word ijroip, blood of the godt, has in the Ace iyu 
faistead of i/tupn, and iri<irtcui', o, miiai drink, has in tbe Accnvmu or KimiiS. 
Comp. 4 5G, Rem. 1. 

12. 557, -ovj, -«tJt, -owi. From ygavt in Homer, there occur on- 
Ij tlie Nom. y^rjvs and yfi'vi, Dat. ^^ijtand the Voc. yfiv and j'gijV. In 
tbe Ion. dialect, also, the long a is changed to ij, thus. Gen. ygiot, PI. ygij'i ; 
Ibis, also, appears in rai't, navis, see the Anomalies. The word /JoCs, 
ioea not admit contraction in tlie Epicr and Ion. dialects. On the Epic Dal. 
pCKTai, gee No. 3. In Doric, the Norn, is fiut, Ace. flar. This form of the 
Ace, also, occurs in the IL ij, 338, in the sense of buW» hide, a ikitld made 
^a buITt hide. 

13. In common nouns in -tit, and in tbe proper name ^/ilJUi';, tj is used 
Head of 1 in the Epic dialect in all the forms in wiiich v (F) of the stem 
omined, in order, by the length of ihe vowel, to compensate for the omit- 
d u [F), thus, ^aa.Uiq, Voc. -iv ; Dat PI. -tiai (except aquniitirair from 


ifiviiit), but -flos, -iji, -flo, -JIN, -^•"'i -^oc- Vet in the Att dialect the 
kmg a in the Ace. -m, -to;, again becomes sborL Of proper oameB, the 
following ore to be specially noted, e. g. 'OSvaaiig, Geo-'OSvaa^os or'OJwo^os 
and 'oSvaaiot, also 'Odvatif Od. u, 396, Dat 'OSvaTiX and 'Odu7i>, Ace 
'Odwro^ii and 'OBvaaia, also 'Odfir^ Od. t, 136; JlijUvg, 7Ti]j,i)of and Ilti- 
lw$, iJ))l^i and TZijUi^ /Zijlija;; the remainder, as 'Ajijiiq, TuStif, retain the 
-• for the most part, and contract -loq in the Gen., by Synizesis, and some- 
times -la in the Ace, into -ij, thus TMoq, -ii, -ia and -^. The inflection 
with 1] in common nouns in the Ion. of Herodotus, ia very doubtfol ; in pro- 
per names, the ■ is regular, e. g. Utqaiot, jftafiiit, ifioaivy, jloUas. 

14. §59, 'i);,and -ec. Gen. -«<>«. In Homer, the Gen. Sing, remains 
imcoutracted. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, both the uncontncied form 
-ttf, and the contracted fmtn -ti; is used for the Nom, PI. The Gen. and Dat. 
remain uncontracted (except when a vowel precedes the ending -ion' ; coD' 
traction then takes place, e. g. J^axQtimr from Caj^^iji tuy) ; also the Ace. PL 
ending -lo; tor -ng. "A^^ has in Honter*^)^; and Afiof, Aif^i or Afj^, 
'Aifii, 'AgTj and 'Affiv H. e, 909, \iQtg and 'Agiff § 209, Rem. 2. 

15. In proper names in -*k!is, the Ejiic dialect coutracts tt into t/, e.g. 
'BfanXiijt, -^v<'t, -^K -qo, Voc.'HQanlHf, but in adjectives in -I'lj; it varies 
between -it and -ij, e. g. ayaxlr^g, Gen. ayanlijoi, but ^iixilETit; (Ace. PL) 
ftom iindrif, iv^e^g, Gen. t'ii^tiot. The Ion. and Dor. -writera, and Bome- 
times the poets for the sake of the Twatt, reject an t in these words, e. g. Jlt- 
(ikUo;, -4i, etc ; so also in Homer, dvviUa H. p, 1 15, and tTii^dta B. g, 330. 

16. §60, (a) 'MC, -wo;. In Homer, the contracted forms, i"pei DaL 
and MiVm Acc occur, (b) -tig and -m, Gen. -oo;. Words of this kind 
hBV«, also, in the Epic and Ion. writers, as well as in t)ie Atdc, always the 
uncontracted form, except xC't and its compouoda, e. g, Zf/oog, XV^ Xf^' 
The Ion. dialect forms tbe Acc. Sing, in -ovr inMead of -oi, e. g. 'lio,'Xovr, 
^lig, ifovr. The MoL Gen. ends in -ug, e. g. ntSui;, Santfoit instead of ai- 
dovg, Sttnipovg, thus in Hoschus, uit'Axmg. 

17. §61, (a) -ag. Gen. -aog. In Homer, the Dal Bing. is either un- 
oontracted or contracted, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. /if- 
fm and r^f<f, Sinif, aiXif. But tbe Nom. and Acc PL is always coolEKted, 
e. g. Saia. On those in -of. Gen. -mc, see above § 61, Rem. 1. 

(b) -ocGen. -tog. Tbe Epic dialect, according to lliii IwiliMWli— nf 
the verse, has sonittjnies the iiucontrntltd miiI smimtinics die rtnimelA 
fonns. except m llie Geu. PL, wliicli in always tiLic<.T}rntrt.'d. Tl... On. i 
Sing, ia also uncontracted, except in i^iiuieeiilialiiiiilvun \>lik-li ('<'iilni<-t -lot, 
as ID Uie Dor., into -tuf,i]iw '£^i^svt,&ufOtvt,yinvf. ffofi^'W.ititH'Si 
commonly rem 

aesis, i. e. as one syllable, e. g. ytlnta, jiiXcit. Tlie Ion. dialect is like tlio 
Epic ill aiteo;, xlia;. Bias, XC'^it '^^ Ejiir, dialect len^ieus t, iomelimca 
iDto u, sotiietimes into tj, e. g. Gcii. miiiovg, Dut. vaij'i. Ace. aitioq aud vniUit, 
Geo. PI. <fiitl(sp, Dat, aniaai and ait^saai ; /^'d; and Xi^'Oi i I'^'tii und sXfia. 

18. fea. -f(, Gen. -loe; -Cj, Gun. -vos, Tl.e Epic diJeiit contrBCta 
those iu -ve, in tlie Dot Sing., e. g. oO^vl, nXtjavl, yinvt ; the Ace. PI. 
Bp[ieBrs nitli the cootracted or uucoutracted fonns, according to the 
BecessitieH of the verse, altliougli more iiauolly contracted, e. g. tj[9vi in- 
stead ofljfSiaf, Sftfi ritivai is always uucoutracted; tlie Nom. PL never 
BulTers cuntTBction, but is prououuced witli Syuizeais. The Dat. PI. enda 
in -vaai and -viaai (disBj'llHble), e. g. ix^iaatr and Ix&iiaaiy. 

19. $63. -{;aud-f, Geii. -fo{, Alt. -tdi;; -v i and - l, Gen. -uo;, 

(a) Tbe words in -ic, AtL Gen. -etu;, iu die Epic aud Ionic diulcct, re- 
tain 1 of the stem ihroiigli all the Cases, and in the Dat. Sing, always EjiiQcr 
coutraction, and usually iu tbe Ace. PI. in the Ionic writers, and eometimea 
bIbu iu Homer, viz. -ii = -i, -la^ ^ -if, e. g. noXiq, -ios, -i, -if, -itf, -luv, 
-ifft, -ia( and -i(. In the Dat. Sing., however, the ending -ti aud -Ei is 
found iu Homer, e. g. noatl and itian from nouis ; in some words, the i of 
the stem is changed into » iu other Coses olao, e. g. indkifi instead of 
tttiilSias, 4nal}wir, especially in nolic, which, moreover, according to the 
aeceBsities of the verse, can lengtljen ( into n, thus. Gen. noilio;, a6).tat and 
iioli]0(, Dat. noitt, nolsi and itohii, Nom. PI, milni and itohjtg, Gen. jio- 
Utar, Dat. noliiain. Ace. itihat, itoUit, noXtjaf, from oi;, ovis, Dat. PI. 

(b) The words in -is, whose Gen. in tlie Attic ends in -(m;, in the Ionic 
e the Gen. in -hi;, e. g. n^^tof, except i^/cili.<$. Gen. -no;; in the DaL 

Kng., both the contracted and uncontracted fbrms are found iu Homer, e. g. 
I nfU) nijj^ii, nitauT. In the Nom. PL, the form can he cither contracted 
< or uncontractcd ; in the Ace. PL, the uncoutractcd form in -tiif is regular, 
j vhich, when tlie verse requires, can be pronouiici3d as n nioiioayllnhle, e. g. 
1 %tiauaf (trissy liable). 

§214. Anoviatous and Defective Words. — Me- 

taplasts. (9J0.) 

I; /"ofu, 10, iiiff, aud S6fv,jo,$ptw, §54, are declined in Homer us 

il yavrog dovQazof and Sovqos Sovfaji and Sotifl 
^oijfu Sovf/aia " Soii/a — Dual i!oi'(i 

* doiiiaiy 

and ywrtai Sovijam and Sovfjiaat, 

vt D. I, 488. q, 451, SG8, boa little authority. 

248 DIALECTS. METAPLAST9. [§ 214. 

S. The following tbnns of * if a, to, httut, § 66, 6, are found in tbe Ho- 
DMric dialect, 
Sing. Nom. tia^tj Gen. xuptiioc aof^arot x^oiof xpanioc 
DaL na^iiti nitf^au xfatl xqiiati 
Ace. *aQ^, lor Kgata Od. 9, 92, and iai nag JL n, 3BS£. 
PL Nom. ■Bail xof ^ota ; secondary form tia^ra 
Gen. Kffaim' " ■a^^vwf 

Dat. R^atrj 


B. jl a a t, 6, tlont, Hoai., mBteai of lot, Gen. ISoi, Dat. lit. Ace. liar. 
Gen. Fl. laair, Dat. lanroi. 

4. Milt, o,numlh, GeB.pTjrit, Ion., inBteadof fiqr, -isi but bIso in Plato. 

5. Na v(, ^, jft^, is inflected in the Epic, Ionic and Doric dislecta aa 

Sing. Nom. Ep. and Ion. ngu; rtjtt Dor. fiiv{ 

Gen. mot (aloo Tragic] rro; raiftalao Ttaf.) 

Dat njt „ vai 

Ace. ' n7a no vciv and rar 

Dual Nom. Ace Voc. rq> *ai 

Gen. and Dat rmr ratSw 

PL Nom. rfi; titi 'Btc 

Gen. ri)ui'(vai)9ionly£p.]i'[iSi' four 

Dat r^vai " " vqitfoi, ritwi raval 

Ace r^oj HBf vat^. 

6. 'Ogrit, o {, bird, Gen. o(rt9-of, Doric opri/-!);, etc., $ S03. 

7. Xi^, ig, Adtu^ Ion. jft^e;, jfi^J, x'fi Dual jfti(i, Jlfffoif, Poet also x"' 
folr, PL ^'(({, Z'9"' ix'V^ xtlfiaif and -wai» in Homer), z^"!- 

Reiiark 1. Heiaplasm, §73, occurs in Homer in the following yioris, 
mbrq, i|, tlrtngth, Dat. vJLxi from Nom. JUIX ; AiStjt, -ov, o, Geo. aiSot, Dat. 
bIJi, 'dIS; AmipatiK, -oo, o, Acc'Amifaitia, 'ANTI^ATETS; um■^,^, 
pwttat, Ac'i.i&*a,'lSlt ; ivfitn), t], hattit, 'Da\.\ir^vt{laiAii); — ninf/mu-ot, 
Gen, i7ui(CMlDi;and -xiiios, Acc-xlo* and -tXna, yoc.-xlui, IIATPOKAHS; 
itSfunoSor, TO, tlavt, 'Da.t.Pi.awSe'"ibdtiriri\ nf6aanor,io,faee, Pl.jifOtw- 
Ttaia, TiQtKUJiaat; via;, o, Mm, hae from 'r/fiTJand 'TIS the following 
forma, Gen. viiof and i^of, Dat. vwi and I'm, Acc. vua and via; Dual ti*i 
Nom. PI. vuf; and vui[ and ritt, Dat. iriatri, Acc. vUnf and via;; — OW- 
woi'i;, Gcii. OiOftiSao, 'OlJinO^H^. 

Rem. 2. Tlie following ore defective in Ilomcr, liil Dat. ntid i« ITin, 
/iMCTi ; ilj and Alt' = limy and It'oria ; fiairti and /lomiv = fiaaiiyt uliil -o ; 
viijifOf, fTt'^r;, ajixai, foai ; Zaai, tot, Nom. and Acc. Dual, JioiA wea ; ti^rlo;, 

nifranlt^, and (jfloj, pUraure, in tlie Nom. only ; >!(<i, *r— "" »— ^«- 

and d^>i(, /orm, in the Acc. only ; ''iso's, It/ooling " 
fooltd; Unolly, iIdi, xgt, aJl^i, as No[ii. iiii'l Ai'<'. Siil)[ 
forma doifia, Aoum, k(i^, Wigi, uiLf^iiDC, liv^ hirfg 


§215. Adjectives. (97fl.S8a.) 

1. Some ailjectJveB in -I'c, -ria, -v, have soiiieliines in the Homeric din- 
lect, the feminine form 'Ib or 'irj, viz. flaSiijf and paSiim, ^a9i>\t, utiia ; 
to also in HenHlolus, -in, seldom -ita, e. g. paSia, -cjj and -iTo, Pagia, 
tvqia, I9v(, -ia and -iia, &t)i.ia from d>)iltv, v/iiaia. 

Rehahe. Ill the Epic and Doric poetry, some adjectives of this kind, and 
bIbo some in - D ( I ( nnd -ijii;, are of the cammnn gender, e. g-V/^qfltj- 
Ivs tot-aa I]. I, 97 ; BO ^3uf «lJr^^ Od. fi, 309, and the irregular noitf, no- 
Ivr ^<{i v/^i?*' II- ■> ^ i ^o ly/indoii;, ofdr/iorfg, up/iroric, noi^Fic, agreeing 
with feminine subetHntivett. The Epic fiii or ijrf, NeuL ^t — fv and i)u on- 
ly in ail adverhial aenae — wants llie leminine lorm ; in il. a, 528, ia (bund 
^aipuv ola Sldomi mixir, ttmos 5i iiiar [»c itagwr), therelbre iatir aa 
lliB Gen. PI, NeuL, unleio peihupa from Suiiiuy the cognate Siaiur is lo bo 
nipplied for iiiuc to agree witli, as in Jiiii^^t; iaair sc. dooiBir ; Gen. Sing. 

2. Adjectives in -I'ltit, -r,iaaa, 'ricf, are often found in Homer iu the con- 
tiBcted form -q;, -ijaaa, -^>, e. g. tififii and iifii^tif, tifiijna ; those in -onq, 
-imaa, -atr, contract -o> into 'tv, e. g. niSia kariltja. 

3. In the Epic dialect, nolig is regularly inflected in tlie maaculine and 
neuter, viz. Nom. nokis and novlvs, NeuL noili', with the secondaiy forme 
noHog, noXXor, Geo. aokiof. Ace. icoiluv and novkvr, nokv und jiolkoy; 
Nom. PI. Ttoketg and nolug. Gen. noZi'u*, Dat noUirtv, noltirirtir and no- 
Xftwi, Ace nokiag and nolf!;. The Ionic dialect inflects Tioiiof, -q, -or, 
regularly throughout. 

4. Compound adjeciivcD in -ot often have in Homer a feminine ending, 
I Ttz. -q, e. g. oSataxij, iapimtj, nokmfoell'), agi^^lti (but also aflZr,loi av/al 

TL X, 27), BfJ^ply9poIfJ, ayxiaitj, Bp^-ueontja, Bjuqiiprnj i on the contrary, xlvios 
as a feminine is found in II. /!, 742. Od. f, 422, from the simple xkvtot, -^, 
-iw. Also the ending -at ol the superlative is sometimes luimd as femi- 
nine, e. g. o^oc'toidc 0^)^)1 Od. 3, 443. xbtu ngtiuinoy oniuiii)>' H. Cer. 157. 
1^ Comp. 5 78, Bern. 1. 

i. Compounil odjectives in -nuuf, -nov». Gen. noSos, in the Epic dialect, 
n ahorteu -tout Into -nof, e. e. /pi; oiililonot H. d, 409. i^fno; H. jgf, 443. 
{ from ^piijfOf, ^pwriip/iarfj and -a{ from lijvaaQfimot, are ei- 
lelaplastic Ibrms of adjectives in Homer. 

216. Comparison, (a9i,2M.) 

:t, the endings -luirpo; and -(uibto; are used for the 

1 the vowel of the preceding ayllable is long, 

UHoJiivtuiipot, InpuTBTOf. Aviiifos, troubU' 

ivitfor Od. fl, 190, and o^af^ifi ditagrttabU, 



[§ 217. 

axtHflfmQog Od. v, 392. Comp. § 82, Rem. 6. Adjectives in -vq and -Qogj 
in the Homeric dialect, form the Comparative and Superlative in -eoiy, -toy 
and ^iojog, -17, -Of, sometimes also regularly, e. g. ika/vg^ little^ iXaxunogy 
yXvicvg ykvxltovy fia&vg pd&urjogy xvdgog xvd^tTTog, olxr^o; ouniaTog and oix- 
jgotatogf Ttaxvg naxurtogf ngia^vg nQBa^iarog, wxvg oixunog. 

2. Besides the anomalous forms of comparison mentioned under § 84, 
the following Epic and dialectic forms require to be noticed, 

ay a&og^ Com. igtlajv, Imotp, XtHiSQog, (Ion. x^cVaoiy, Dor. xoQ^aiP,) 

Sup. xaQturtog. 
xaxo g, xcatmiQogy /Si^OTC^oc, /e^f/oiy, /e^ciOTe^^o; (Dor. x^i^^i ^^^ ^^'' 

ffoiy), Sup. rixwtog, (fl. y/, 531, with the variation ijxuTxog, which Spitzner 

oliyog^ oXiSoytg tftraVf populi suberant statura minores, S. a, 519 ; (i^otP 

Bion, 5, 10. 
^tl'tdiog Ion., Com. grfitegog (Ion. ^i}('<uy), Sup. (ijltatog and ^ijurro;. 
p galivg, slow, Com. Pqawiov, Sup. pugdnrjog (by Metathesis). 
fiaxqog, long, fiaaatov ; — naxvgt thickj ndaaoty. 

Rebiark 1. The positive XEPII2 {xigvh X^QV^i ZW*5» /«P^«) found in 
Homer, and belonging to /f ^e/cav, always has the signification of the Com- 
parative, less, haser, weaker. The PL nUig and Ace. nUag are found in Homer 
from the Com. nXitav, 

Rem. 2. In the Epic dialect, the forms of the Comparative and Superlative, 
in many instances, are derived from Substantives ; some of these forms have 
been transferred to the common language : o fi atrtXevg paaiXeviEQog ; to 
xig d og, gain, xigdiov, more lucrative, xiqdiaxog ; to viX/og, pain, dXyUip, 
more painfid, aX/unog ; to ^Z yog, cold, qlyiov, colder, more dreadful, ^iyia- 
tog ; 10 xrjdog, care, x^dtmog, most dear ; 6 ^ xvutv, dog, xvntgog, more 
shatndess, xinaTog, 

§217. Pronouns. 

(301. 906.) 





^/caand( before a vow- 
el) iydv Epic ; s/oi 
and eytov iEolic 

ifiio, ifitv, fitv i/itv) 
Epic and Ion. 

ifiiio Epic 

ifii&w Epic 

ifiBvg, ifAOvg Doric 

i(iol,fiol{(AOi ), c^oiiEoL 

i/itv Doric 

ifii^ni (fit) Epic 

av Epic ; iv Dor. and 
iEol. ; Tvvrj Epic 

jsv Dor.; aio (cfo), 
atv ((7ct;),Ep.andIon. 

aeio and nolo Epic 

ai&iv Epic 

tivg, TEovg Dor. 

aol Epic 

ttp Dor. ; TftV Dor. et 
Ep. (usuallyOrthot.). 

lol (101) Ep. and Ion. 

ai (as) Ep. ; t8 Dor. 

Ti; (tv) Dor. 

Th in Theocritus 

to (io), cv (sv) Epic 
aud Ion. 
HO Ep. ; kfio later Ep. 
t&tv (k&ey) Epic 
kovg Dor. 


Dor. (usually or- 

koT, oI,(oi)Ep.(Reflex.) 
ki, e (l)(as Neut B. a, 

Wj'(i'«y) Dor.(and Att 

Poet) (fdm, her, it) 
(ily [fiiy) Ion. (Mm, her, 

U ; seldom PI.) 
aqte Dor. et Att Poet 



D. N. 

«=' ) 


vC-iy \ ^P'" 

mpu(, <7»poi 1 

G. D. 

tfifuir, afoiy f 

aq>u'a', aqitair 



atfoii, aifii 3 

<"e<«, <'9'-' i 


^p« Epic ;5^eS Ion. 

if,H( Ep. ; iV"« I""- 

o^(Dor.; afifirfEp. 

w^t's Dor. ; vfinn E|i. 


{fittur luD. aud Epic 

i-^M.» loD. aud Epic 

and p:pic 

a<fuy Ejiic 

Vfuloiy Epic 

vfiflmr Epic 

(T,*;..^ Epic 

i/ipim JEol ; 0|uwy 

iV^iwy jEoL 



V'''. ^/"v. ^f*' '^Pic 

Vfiiy, vyir, vfUr Ej>ic 

u>j/ii(»);Eol. Biui Ep. 

!;^^<(») Epic 

aipl, a<pi Ion. ; irqpiffi. 

o^I» und o;t.V Dor. 

atfiai, oipi'v, (nfif, 
fl^/, my. Ep. i uinpi 

opfiiai /EoU 


iifUas Ion. and Epic 

v/iinq Epic aiiil Jon. 


'V"!- W"'? Epic 

Iftaf, I'liiiq Epic 

oqins, triftias Epic 

BfifiE Epic ; ofii Dor. 

EjUfw Epic ; ifii Dor. 

ocpi Epic (11. T, 2()5.) 

iav. ^1. 

Remarjc Tlie rornis suecc] 

tible or iucliimlion sre tlioee (vrJttco wilhoui 1 

nnacreiL | 

2. The com(Hjuud forma of tlie reflexive prociouiis, ifiainov, aravjov, etc, 
ore never found in Homer; instead of tliem, he usea the pergonal pronouns 
and tlie pronoun aviot together, e. g. t/i atiov, i/ioi avt^, i/Aiv ai-iijc, i av- 
T^f, ol outfl. Wlicn the pronoun ovioc stands tirst, it aignifies hrnarlf, her- 
telf, iltdf, even. But the Ion. writers two the compound forme ifiiuvtot, 
amvjov, iuvtov, etc., Coinp. § 207, I. 

3. PosscBsive pronouns; iioj, -»[, -oFDor. and Epic.iriBtcnd of oo';; iof,-^, 
-6t and a{, <i, or, suua, Epic ; apot, -ij, -or Dor. and Epic, apfto;, afifitiigns 
^EjoL, inslead of t^^cx^Dt; vcuiTipo;, o/'ui &af^ Epic; v^o;, -^, -(!>' Dor. and 
Epic, vfifio^ £ol., iuFlead of i/iitrgaf, ircpuf'rtfo;, qf you both, 0. a, S16; 
oifos, ->], -ox ^ol. and Epic, iiiatead of a<pi'tf(o;. 

4. DentoiiRtrative pronouns; (a) o tj i6; Dor. 'a instead of^ ; Gen. tiS 
Dor., TOM and iiii Epic, lat Dor. ; DaL i$ Dor. ; Ace tav Dor, ; PI. to/ and 
vd Dor. and E))ic; Gen. lauy Epic, lay Dot.; Dat. Toiai, Toiat, i^vi and 
tjf Epic ; Ace. 1014, joj Dor. 

[b]S9i; Epic Dat PI. lOfjilwi and loitffwoMniJtcad ofroKflt; Epic Dat. 
TOurlSi instead ortotfdi is found also in the tragedians. 

(c) ovfot and aiiif, an i etanda before the lung iudcction-endinga 

252 DIALECTSd ^THE NUMERALS.— -THE VERB. [§§ 218, 219. 

in the Ion. dialect, § 207, 10, e. g. rovriov, taviirigf tovtcoi, tovt€ov;, ovrnj, 


(d) ixtivog is written in Ion. and also in Att poetry xeivagf iEoL xfjyog, 
Dor. Ti/yo;. 

(e) On the Ion. forms mifiog, tavro instead of o avxog, to avxo, see §§ 206, 
1, and 207, 1. 

5. Relative pronouns ; o Dor. and Horn., instead of og ; olio Ion. and Epic ; 
oov Epic seldom, ^rjg JL n, 208 ; juri and jig instead of alg. Besides S^, ^, 
the other forms of the pronouns are supplied, in the Dor. dialect, by the 
forms of the article, e. g. to instead of o, rov instead of ov, trig instead of t^g, 
etc The Epic dialect uses both forms promiscuously, according to the 
necessities of the verse. In the Ion. dialect also, the forms of the article are 
frequently used instead of the relative. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronoims; (a) Ttff, it; Gen. tco (teo) 
Epic and Ion., ttv {xev] Epic, Ion. and Dor., Dat lito (tcc^), rf (rqi) Epic and 
Ion. ; PL u<T<ra Neut, onnoi* aaaa Od. t, 218, €ren. titov (uanf) Epic and 
Ion., Dat Tiotai Epic and Ion. {joitn S. Trach. 984). 

(b) T^, ri; Gen. t^o Epic and Ion., jbv Epic, Ion. and Dor. tci^ Ion. 

(c) ogtig, Nom. ot<(, Neut oTi, oiTt Epic 
Gen. oTcv Epic and Ion. oTeo, 

oireo, 0TT6V Epic 
Dat ouoj, oT(p Epic and Ion. 
Ace. ouva Epic, Neut of i, 

oirt Epic 

Neut PL oTiva Iliad. 
oTcoiy Epic and Ion. 

oxioiai Epic and Ion., orirjct Her. 
ouyag Epic, Neut axiva and aaca 

§218. The Numerals. 

The iEoL and secondary form of (ila is ta, tijg^ Vrj, Totp; also m^ IL {; 422, 
is instead of kvL Jvo, and dvoi are indeclinable in Homer ; the secondary 
forms are doito, doiol, dowif doid, Dat dootg, dodUri, Ace dotia, dotovg, -lig, 
-o. Jliavgig, -a iEoL and Epic, instead of jiaaugfg, -a, Jvwdtxa and 
dvoxaidtxa Epic, and dtadtxa, *EtUo<n Epic, instead of ftxoai, * Oydtuxovra 
and ivvrixovia Epic, instead of o/^oijx., ipfv^x, 'Jivrfdxdoi and dixdxilo^ 
Epic, instead of iwaxigxlUoi and (iVQioi, The endings -dxovta and ^axo^ 
ffioi in the Epic and Ion. become -ijxovra, -tjxovtoi. The Epic forms of 
the ordinals are t^/toto;, tirgcnog, ipdoinnog^ oydoaiog, Bvarog and itvcnog. 

The Verb. 
§219. I. Augment. — Reduplication. (77, so, 83, ss, sc) 

1. All the poets, except the Attic, may reject the augment, according to 
the necessities of the verse, e. g. kv<rt, anllavto, diaar, ogaro, fila. The 
Ion. prose, as well as the Epic dialect, may omit the temporal augment ; it 

may also omit it in the Peril, e. g. a/i/iai, igyaa/iai, oiinj^oi, wliich ie done 
by tlie Epic writers only in tlic case ofant/a nnd igx"'"' f'^'" tfp/M. 

2. Ou tlie omission of the Epic dialect to double the ( when tlie augment 
ie prefixed, e. g. cpt^n;, and on the doubling the semi-vowels, e, g. trima, 
eee ^ 308, 4, and Rem. 

3. II in the Dor. writi^rs \k changed into u by the augment, and at suf^ 
fers DO cliange, e. f;. ayoy infltend of tjyov, mgior itifitead nf'^qiov. 

4. Verbn which liave the Digumma, alwaya take, in Homer, the syllabic 
augment, according to the mic, e. g. arSariD, to pUaae, Intpf. lafSofOy, Aor, 
laSav ; — iiJa/iai, videor, itiaainji; alMi In the perticipie iiiaafitrot. On 
account of the ver«e, the i aecma to be lengthened in etotiaiia, ivaSe [iFaSi) 
&oni aydayia, 

5. In Homer, the verba olroxoim and atdavai, take the syllabic and tem- 
poral augment, at the same time, viz. ioin>x°"'i U- tli 3, yet more frequently 
afroxaii ; i'irSan and i'lySart, 

(J. The reduplication of g ia found in Homer, in ^tQuitaifiivof, from ^fncEu, 
to make dirty. Ou the coninuy, the Ejiic and poetic PerfeclB, iiiftoqa. from 
fiilQOfiai and ttrtni/iBi from aivta, are formed according to the analogy of 
llioae beginning with p. The Epicand lon.Perf. of xiaofrcii ie cxnpai. A 
strt^ngttiened reduplication is found in the Ilom. forms iiiiixinai and dit- 


7. In the Epic dialect, the second Aor, AcL and Mid, ulw often takes tlie 
reduplicjition, wliich remains t)ut>ugli all tlie moilea. In tlie Ind, (ho sim- 
ple augment t is comnionly omined, thus, o. g. Ku/tru, to groiDwtary, Sub}, 
Aor. kcko^n; Kckoiiai , to command, inttloiitiy ; xlvta, to hear, Aor. Imp. 
idxlvdt, xakvii; 1 a/; o v (ti, (a obtain, XiXaxoy, Xa/tflay bi, to receivt, 
IdajSivSai ; lay ft ay at, lateo, Ula^or; ntif>a>, lo ptrsundt, itimSoy, 
icfniSofifjy ; tign <i> , to delight, inqanofttjr ; TU^/effui, to obtain, invstiy, 
-ia&ai; 'PEyJl, to rnun^, i!ie<pyoy, itiipyoi' ; q>pa£iu, to say, to thow, 
niipgaSoy, itiipgaSoy. Aiirifits with tlie AtL reduplication, comp, § 124, 
Bern. 2, commonly take the augment, e. g.'dPJl, toft, ^f-agor; 'AXSl, 
lo grittw, ilv-n/of ; aiiia, to tsard off, iiX^aXxor, alalyut; oqyv)ii, to 
erctte, ufj-o^oy ; tyimm^to diide, Ir-itlnov. Two verbs in the Aor. take 
the reduplication iu the middle of the word, viz. lyLit\a, ^r-inanci-, and 
Ifjinia, to Totrain, iii/ii'itiixoy, Iqataxitir. Comp. the Presents, oylvfjiu, 
Biiiaillai, OTtititiia. 

6. In the Dialects, tliere are still other forms of the PerC and Pliip. with 
the Att reduplication, § 134; thm, e. g. a'm i la , to take. Ion. ag-ai'ftiita, 
af-aiftifiai; alaofiai, (o unnifer. Epic Perf. with a Pres. siglill^cation 
al-alitfiai; APSl [agaqSaxti], tofit, PoeL a.Q-agn, I Jit, (Inlrans.) Ion. oq- 
•jgu ; A X Ji iataxiiai), to ffriete. Epic and Ion. an-tjx'/tot, ax-ii/tjfiai ; 


'JRNEKSI (q>iQ(a), to carry , Ion. iy-iivnyfiat ; igBlnto, to demolish. Poet. 
iQ'f}Qtna, Epic ig-iginxo ; igiioi, to contend. Epic ig-riQiafiat, 

§220. Personal-endings and Mode-voiaels. (102.) 

1. First Pers. Sing. Act The original ending - /i « of the first Pers. Sing., 
is found in the Epic dialect in several subjunctives, e. g. xttlyonfii, iyaytafttj 

2. Second Pers. Sing. Act In the Dor., and particularly in the i£ol. and 
Epic dialect, the lengthened form -a&a is found, § 116, 2. In the Ind., 
this is retained almost exclusively in the conjugation in -/ii, e. g. il&ria&a^ 
ipriff&a, dldoia&a, TtagtifT&a. In Homer this ending is frequent in the Subj., 
e. g. i&iXrja&a, ftnrffT&a, more seldom in the Opt, e. g. xkaioia&c^ jSuXota&a, 

d. Instead of the ending - e < ?, the Dor. firequently has the old form -eg, 
e. g. iVTtTfg instead of xvnxtig ; so in Theocritus avgladtg = avgiiug. 

4. Third Pers. Sing. Act In the Epic dialect, the Subj. sometimes has 
the ending -0-i formed from -ri, e. g. idiXfj<ri(v)j uyrjat, iXaXxfifri', the Opt 
only in naQaq>&alTi(n, 

5. Instead of tlie ending -n in the Pres. Ind. of the Dor. dialect, the form 
-fl is used, though seldom, e. g. didaxxfi instead of didatntti. In the second 
and third Pers. Sing. Perf. Act., Theocritus uses the endings -i^c* -17 instead 
of -a(, -c, e. g. TtBTtovdiigf ontanij instead of ninov&agf otiwtib. 

6. First Pers. PL Act The Dor. dialect has retained tlie original ending 
"(itg, e. g. rvntofitg instead of xwiiofitVy § 204. 

7. The third Pers. PI. Act of the principal tenses, in the Dor. dialect, ends 
tl^x>ughout in -rTi, e. g. jvnTovxi (instead of tvnjovai), ivipovxi, TtTiTo^yrf (in- 
stead of tvTixoHn), JitvipavTi, inrnvionh H^anatoiPTi, In the iEol. and Dor., 
this ending in the Pres. and Fut is -oia^ instead of -own, e. g. neginvioi-' 
<n(v)t valoi<ri(v). 

8. Personal endings of the Plup. Act In the Epic and Ion. dialects, the 
following forms occur: 

First Pers. Sing., "ta the only Epic and Ion. form (-17 old Att, § 116, 6), 

e. g, iiid^i^nia, ^^ea, ntnol&fa instead of 
iit&riTtHVf etc 

Second *' ^ -tag, e. g. iit&jiniag Od. o>, 90, instead of HtdT^nHg, 

Third ^ ^ -*<<('')» c* S» iyfyopti, xataJaloinit, iflf/igafxtiy, . 

Second ^ PL -saTf, e. g. avrjidiaxt Her. 9, 58. 

Remark 1. The third Pers. Sing. Plup. Act in -ei, as vrell as the same 
Pers. of the Imp£ in -^p is found in Homer before a vowel with tlie v itptl-^ 
Kwrtutop, thus, ifftfixtip IL yf, 691. fiifikfiKtip IL «, 661. &, 270. |, 412. de- 
9unpn»»p Od. Q, 259'r^^aniip IL /, d8a 

9« The i#cand and third Pen. Dual of the hiftorica] teniKs are sometiinea 

exchanged for each other. Thus ia Homer, ihe forma -tor and -if 9 at 
stand inslead of -ii;r and -rr-9i]f, e. g. Minimal' 11. x, 364. Xwfi-aotxov L. <r, 
583. 6<ai/tiaaiador II. r, 301. Ou the AlL exchange, see § 116, Rem. 1. 

10. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Ind. and Siibj^ Impf. Ind. and OpL Mid. 
or Pass., tlie tiisl Aor. Slid. Ind., oppenr lo be unconlmcted in Ihe Ion. and 
often in the Epic dialect, after a is dropped, c. g. tniiilktat ; Homer uses 
either these Ibmis, e. g. hiitfai, likaltatt n<fbtiiat, Iqivamt, ^noi'^ijai, vnt- 
Xiaaojiyiivao; or tlie contract forms, -i; {from -toi), -iii(from -to\ -m (from 
-oo},e. g. iitltv, tijxn', tfiialtv, ix^ijuo. When tlio cliomclerislic of die vert) 
is (, it is Teiy frequently omitted in the Ion. dialect, before -fui and 'lO, 
e. g. filial instead of qpiAiiBi, tfiXio instead of ifiiito; so in Homer, IxXi H. 
M, 2Q2, yet with die variation itXt from xica^m. Comp. ^ 22S, B, (3). The 
ending -ID in Homer is lengtliened into -t lo^ b- B- '?«°i "''■""i ^"1 '''^ 
ending -iioi is commctcd into -iini, in ver1>s in -('ui, e. g. (ivSiiai, vtUu. 
Homer Bomciiines drops a in the second Pers. Sing. Perf. and P!up, Hid. 
or Pass, also, viz. jiifinat and fi/ifii, ^i^Xriat, iaavo. 

11. The Dual endings -if)*, -aBiiv, and first Pers. Sing. -^<iv, in the 
Doric arc, -Tur, -addv, -pay, §301, 3, e. g. Itpfairafiar. In tlie later 
Doric, the change of i; into u is found, though seldom, even in the Aor. 
Pass,, e. g. ilinity instead of iii'irijf. 

13. Tlie Dual and PI. endings -fii3or, -ptSa, ill Epic, as well as in Do- 
ric, Ionic and Attic poetry, oAen have ilie original forms -fttaSov, -fiia&a, 
e. g. jfniaftiaiiot>, ivitiuiitaOa. 

13. The tliird I'ers. PI. Perf and Pliip. Mid. or Pbm., in the Ionic and 
Epic dialect, very generally ends in -atui, - nio, instead of -jrai, -no, 
e. g. jtmiiSaiai, niitaiaiai, i^i^ovXiiato, iaialaro ; very often also the third 
Pera. Fl. Opt. Mid. or Pass, -olajo, -alato, instead of -oi»id, -oirro, 
a. g. ivnTolaio instead of juuioino, upijmii'am (Homeric), instead of np»i- 
aairto. Also the ending -ayto, in the Ionic dialect, has this change, yet tho 
isses into i, e. g. iiSoviiaio instead of ifhiioyjo. In verbs Id -o'iu and 
, the I) in llie ending of the Perf. and Fliip. -i^ioi, -i^o, is ehortened 
in the Ionic into t, e. g. ouiatai instead of (jiitqriai from oixim, iinifiiaTo 
instead of /riTf^t^fTo trom iipaa. Also instead of -ayToi, the Ionic dialect 
'I'arai instead of 'da toi, e. g. nrnTioToi instead of ninrayrai. 'AnUa- 
in Herodotus, from the Perf. aifiypai, Pres. uifniyiopai, is the only 
exnmpte in which the nile stated § 116, 5, is not Dl)ser\'ed. 

Rem. 2. Two Perf. and Plup. forms are found in Homer with the ending 
-dotal, -Saio, from verbs whose characterislic is not 3, viz. iloiyu 
{Omu) Hi'ilapai ti.i)laSato Od, ij, 8li, and axaxiiw oirj/r/iai caaixiSatai 11. p, 
637; yet it is to be noted, that the reading is not wholly settled; the fonns 
i^^^Kiat and /^jotaio, ftxim ^alva, must be derived from the stem 
fPJZA, comp. ^dirtroii Od. v, 150. 


14. The third Pers. PI. Aor. Pass, -ruaav is abridged into -ey, in the 
Doric, and also frequently in the Epic and poetic dialect, e. g. iQaq>ev in- 
stead of iTQaiprjaav. In the Opt this abridged form is regular in the Com- 
mon language, § 116, 7, e. g. rvqt&iUv instead of rwp&tltiaar, 

15. The third Pers. PI. Imp. Act in -loiaay, and Mid. or Pass, in a&wrop, 
is abridged in the Ionic and Doric dialect, and always in Homer, into -XMr 
and '^fT&ioVj $ 116, 12, e. g. tvntorttay instead of tvnjijaaav^ mnoi'&orttnf 
instead of nBitoiditwraVf rvmiadviv instead of ivniia^wrav, 

16. The long mode-vowels of the Subj., viz. o> and i}, are very frequendy 
shortened in the Epic dialect into o and e, according to the necessities of 
the verse, e. g. tofur instead of Toi/icy ; ip&i6(Uff^a instead of ^tifu&a ; <nQBq>- 
eTo» instead of -ritaij § 207, 4. 

17. The first Aor. Opt Act, in the JSolic dialect, ends in -cicx, -eio;, 
-f«f, etc, thiid Pers. PL -nav instead of -oi/m, -aig^ -cxi, etc., third Pers. 
PL -aup. See § 116, 9. 

18. Infinitive. The original full form of the ln£ Act is -fiepatf and 
with the mode-vowel, -ifuvaij which is found in the Epic, Doric and i^lic 
dialects. This form is sometimes shortened into -/i«y (^ifup\ sometimes 
into -rat. But in the Epic dialect, the ending -hp also is found, formed 
fix>m 'ifttPf and in contract verbs, and in the second Aor., also the endings 
"ieiv and -cZk The Pres., Fut and second Aor. take the mode-vowel e 
and the ending -fup, hence -c'fiay, e. g. Tt/Trr-c-fify, jviffifiepy ilnifup. 
Verbs in - a oi and - ^ ai, as they contract the characteristic-vowel a and 
a with the In£ ending "ifupaij have the form -^^ a r a i, e. g. /ortfuvai (/oaw), 
ifd^tpai (9>iZieD), (poq^ifispat ((j^in). With the ending "tifitpat corres- 
ponds that of the Aorists Pass., e. g. tvntifttpai instead of rvn^ya*, ooAiUa- 
^ifitpai ; so always in the Epic dialect ; but the Doric has the abridged 
form in -f7/iai', e. g. tvnfifitp. In the Pres. of verbs in -fu, the ending -fiw 
and -fiaya* is appended to the unchanged stem of the Pres., and in the 
second Aor. Act, to the pure stem, e. g. n&i-fitPf tiOi-fuvaij Una-fitp, 
inu'/upaij dido^fup, dido-fupai^ duxpv-fup, dtix^th-fupai ; ^i-fuvy ^a-jucyoi, 
do-fiiPy d6-ft(pa$ ; so also in Perfects derived immediately firom the stem of 
the verb, e. g. rsi^yafiay, Ptfiifup. The following are exceptions, viz. t»i^- 
lupai n. y;, 83— with which the forms of the Prea Part Mid. ji&tifupo^ 
Wjpifiayoff, correspond— ^i^owa* IL cu, 425, also the Inf second Aor. Act of 
verbs in -« and -v, which also here retain the long vowel, § 191, 2, e. g. 
tn^'/upfu, Pfi'iupaty dv'fopaij instead of trrf/vcK, dvpai, 

19. Besides the forms* in -ififwm and -a^iay, the Doric dialect has one in 
-ay abridged from, these, e. g.5ytp instead of ayup; Fut agfioatp; second 
Aor. Idip instead of idup^ ka/iip mstead of lafiiiPj etc. In the Doric of 
Theocritus, the iEolic ending -^ is found, e. g. x^^n''^ second Aor. lafiifp, 
instead ofx^lqup^ Xapiip. 


20. The Inl^ ending of the Aor. Pntw, -tj^ffai, -ii/tcr, is abridged into -i)» 
in the Doric writera, yet only after a preceding long syllable, b. g. iu&vadt\r 
instead of -St\rat. The InE ending of tlie Perfl Act. varies between -ijc 
and -fir in the Doric and iGoUc writera, e. g, ii&tafi^*iiy, ytyovdir, in- 
Btead of Tidfiu^iiMVoi, ytyoyirai. 

21. Participle. The Ma\ie. dialect has the diphthong o t inaiead of ov 
before o m participles, and oi instead of «, e. g. Tvnioir, linioma, jvn- 
Tor, Xa^iiiaa, hnoXaa insteiid of -euro ; tvijiaif, -ataa, instead of tiifiai, 
-iaa, ^5201, 3, and 207, 1. The Epic dialect can lengthen the accented o 
into u in the oblique cobcb, e. g. |U»juo6Jtos, Tufvitaq. The Perf Act 
Part., in the Doric dialect, sometimes takes tlie ending of the Pree^ e. g. 
nigipuovif; instead o{ nn(iQi*0Ui. 

§221. Epic and Ionic Iterative-form. iiw.) 
Tlie Ionic and particularly the Epie dialect, and not unlrequently, in 
these, the Tragedians, have a Bjwcial Impf. and Aor. form with 
the ending -ctjiof, to denote an action often repeated in time or upace. 
This is called tlie lltratiw-form. It is usually without the augment 

3. But it is generally found only in the Sing, and in the tliird Pers. PI. Ind. of 
the above named tenses, and is inflected like the Impf, since in the Impf and 
second Aor. Act and Mid., the endings -trKov,-<nitt,-tni^r),-'t*ofi7iy,-a)ioti(io, 
III), -axno instead of -of, -djutir, are commonly preceded by i (which is 
• union-vowel), and in the first Aor. Act and Mid., the endings -aamy, 
-ainofitjr are used instead of-o, -n/iq*, e. g., 

(a) Impf. Sivfv-iaror, tUX-iimif, iit-itm^v), nil-imijo, potn-imiorjo. In 
TCrbs in -oai, -aimior m abridged into -aaiior, ivliich, according to the ne- 
cessities of the verse, can be again lengthened into -aoaxoy, e. g. vawaxofiiv, 
tmittaatnioy. Verbs in -ioi have -iimay mid -laxoy, e. g. xali-ttnii, /Sou- 
tnUimii; or/iiirxor, naiUimiTo, xoUitiiid; when the verse requires, -ifirxoi' 
can be lengtliened into -iiimioy, e. g. riiniianior; verbs in -on do not have 
this Iterative-form among tbe older aittliors; verbs in 'fit oniii the mode- 
Towel tiere also, e. g, iiSi-anor, SiSo'inter, SiUrv-mor ; in some verbs the 
ending -amoy tian taken the place of -tOKor, e. g. (jljii-aasor, nqvnt-anoy, 
from ^(Diw, ii(ivitiw ; 

(h) Second Aor. ti.-i<m, jiak-Hnitf tfvy-am; in verbs in -^i, witliout a 
BKKle-Towel, e.g. ctU'inii = '""!' tatft/iaaxi = na^dfJtj, Soau, Biiriii; also 
•n Iteralive-lbrm of the second Aor. Pass, is found, viz. ifayimi, instead of 
ipdx) a ;i.G4. Od.ji.,241, 242; 

(c) First Aor. ilair-oir*ir, avS^a-a(mr, tta-tum, jAtria'aimio, ayrB.a^ 
aaai, instead of ayrotiaatnit from ayvoita. 


§222. Contraction and Resolution in Verbs. 


L The Epic dialect In the Epic dialect, verbs in -aoi, -im, -ooi, are 
subject to contraction, but not to so great an extent as in the Attic. The 
contraction is made according to the general rules, with few exceptions, as 
will be seen in the following remarks. 

A. Verbs in - ec ai. (1) In these verbs, the uncontracted form occurs only 
in single words and forms, e. g. nigaov, xaxiaxlaoy, vautaovat ; always in 
vlaio, and in verbs which have a long a for their characteristic, or whose 
stem is a monosyllable, e. g. diipaav, nnvioiVy ^^op, ixgutte firom /^awy 
to attack, 

(2) In some words, a is changed into c, viz. fievolvtov from fitvoivam^ fjv- 
XHtv from uriaflD, vfioxktov from o/ioxldoi. Comp. §201, 1. 

(3) Instead of the uncontracted and contracted forms, there is a resolution 

of the contracted syllable, as often as the versification requires it, since a 

vowel similar to that formed by contraction, commonly shorter, more seldom 

longer, is placed before that vowel ; in this way, a is resolved into ad or 

aa, and oi into out or tata, § 207, 2. The short vowel is used here, when 

the syllable preceding that contracted is short, e. g. {ogat) ogvui ; but if this 

syllable is long, the long vowel must be used on account of the verse, e. g. 

^pdwra. The resolution does not take place with the vowel a before a 

personal-ending beginning with t, e. g. oQa-iat, oga-ro. Thus, 

oga(ig) og(jtq ogaag (oQaat) ogw ogow 

(agaiiTi^ai) ogaa&ai o gd aa^a^ {ogaovaa) ogtoaa ogouaa 

ifuwoivati) (ityoiv^ ftsvotva^ {^ouovai) ^oukti ^ootaai 

(iaj^i) i^g ^^ag (ogaotfti) ogotfii ogoiafAi 

{fivata&ai) iivdad^ah fivaaad'at (dgaovai) dgoMn d gtottai. 

Rebiaiik 1. In the following Dual forms, as is contracted into 17, ngog- 
ttvdtltijv, ai/iliJTi^y, avi^aptiJTfjv, (fomjTfjp instead of -ajrjv ; so also in the two 
verbs in -io), o/ia^iijfijK, unHXTJtuir instead of -e/iijy. 

4. When rt comes after a contracted vowel, a short vowel may foDow 

such a contracted syllable, e. g. rfioiorta instead of {/Jcurrtf, ytXwovTtq, nvvt- 

ovio ; in the Opt also, the protracted -to 01 instead of -to is found in i;/9cM>i- 

lu instead of {/9ao/fit s= vPw^- "^^ following are anomalous forms, raic- 

xataaoL instead of -ookto, acto), second Pers. Imp. Pres. Mid. and third Pers. 

Sing. Impf. Act from SASl^ to save. 

Rem. 2. On the Inf. in -rifAtvoi of verbiT in -ooi and -eoi, see § 220, 18, 
and on the Epic and Ionic contraction of 017 into «», see § 205, 5. 

B. Verbs in - ^ «». The coiyugation of these verbs includes also all Fu- 
tures in -iM and -^dyios all seoond Pbibqimi in -so, -la* and -^i, second 
Aor. Iii£ Act in «^^m«. md tii^ a^ ^ flribj. in W» and -sim. 

§223.] DIALECTS.— 


VERBS. 259 1 

(1) Contraction does not take plaice in all foimH in which { is followed fay 
iho vowels fii, y, tj, ji, 01 and ov, e. g. ipilitiiitr, tftlioifii, etc.; yel such 
forma must commonly be read with Synizesis. In otber instances, the c 
traction is either ouiitted aceording lo the neceBsities of tlio verse, e. g, 
(filiiL, ii/iia FuL, oifvyiovaa Fut, ffaXitir second Aor. Act., TiKrimOtH Fut 
Mid., fuyiatai Hecond Aor. Subj. Pus& ; or contraction takes place, in which 
case it is also to be noted, that uhan to is contracted it becomes iv, ^ 205, 1, 
e. g. aiQnp^¥, avuvr, yinv ; except arigilntovr and inufSoi-r. 

(S) Bomeiiniea t is lengthened into fi, $307, 1, e. g. iuXiiiro, iiikitov, 
jiUUtr, exnlw; — Saniliu instead of Safiai, fiyiltt instead of (iiy^, second 
Aor. Sulfl. Pass. 

(3) In the ending of tlie second Pera. Sing. Pres. Mid. or Pass., either 
two Epsilons coming together are coutmcted, as in the lliird Pers., e. g. 
liiiOi-iat ^ pv9fliu, like livditzoi, rtlai, like vcTini, or one t is elided, e. g. 
fivSiai, Tiuliai. This Elision commonly occurs both among the Epic and 
Ionic writers, in tlie second Pers. Inipf. and Imp. Pres. Mid. or Pass., e. g. 

(, J 320, 10. 
in the Dual, si 

) the penult. 

: Rem. 1 ; on the Int^ 

n rules of c 
intracied, tut lengthen 

ifOJSio, axio, aiiio, itiyio. In t 
whether the word ends witli -lai 

Rem. 3. On the trregular < 
in -iiiarat, see j 230, Ig. 

C. Verbs in -o k. Those verbs fallow either titc ci 
tractioD, e. g. yovroZjiiit, yovrovaSai, or they ai 

into (u, BO thai the forms of verbs in -oia resemble those of verbs in -not, 
e. g. lifoiona, M^oiovatt, unruorin; (comp. ii^iaona), or tliey become whol- 
ly onalogoiis to verbs in -aoi, since they resolve -otai — third Pers. PI. Prea. 
— into -d tu o- 1, -01*10 into -a u ri o, and -oiir into 'd oi t r, and consequent- 
ly a conlmction like tliat of vurlw in -ii'u ia supposed, [aQoovai] agovat 
a Q a u a I {cornp. It/ioiat). {S^ioorio) irjiovmo dqiouvio (comp. ufomno) 
(Sr^iCoiir) Siiohr St/'ioiiiiy (comp. oQotiin). But thia resolution into -du 
or -a» is confined to such Ibrma as admit it in verbs in -aiu; hence, e. g, 
the Pns.aQai(, a^oi, afoi-it, and the Inr a^ovy do not admit this resolution, 

II. Ionic dialect. (1) In liie Ionic dialect, only verba in -u ai and -6 oi suf- 
fci contniction; verbs in -iu commonly omit it, except the contraction of -co 

I and -mil into -fi>, which frequently occurs, j 205, 1, e. g. tftht'itfy instead 
if ^lUofitr ^-^ tfilovfiiy, itfUivr instead of ^^/itaqr^/^iUoiv, fiiiltii instead 

lof ^Ueou ^ ifilol. 

1 (2) The uucoutracted forma exhibited in tlie table, ^ 135, of the second 
i. Sin^. Pres. and Impf. Mid. or Pass, in -re'i). -o'lj. -dtj. -ioi', -liov, -oov, 

\. g. tptU^, ritiiiji, fiiirOoTitqdiov, tiftaov, fitaOoaa, etc., are found in no 
iaiect, and are presented merely to explain the contraction. The Ionic 
pritera also use here the contracted forms of verba in 'ia and -ota, e. g. 


Tifi^j fiw&ol, TijUQ), fua&ov, etc ; but of verbs in -eai» as also in barytone 
verbs they do not use the endings -17, -ov, but ^tat, -to, e. g. ttntr-iat, ixum 
-co, (fili'tai, iq>iXi'to, — On the elision of e in the ending -«eo, see above 
No. 1, B, (3). 

(3) Verbs in -an follow the common rules of contraction ; but in the on- 
contracted form, the a is changed into s, e. g. oQita^ ogio^iv instead of o^m, 
Xi^iejtttf Xgionai instead of/Qartai, etc. Comp. § 201, 1. 

(4) Ao in the uncontracted forms is frequently lengthened into ita, § 207, 
3, e. g. /^fioirroi, ixtitnrtOy oqitantq, ntigtiafiivog instead ofixQiortai) /^cSf- 
TOi, etc 

(5) From the change of the o into t, as in o^soi, it is evident, that the Ionic 
writers sometimes contracted ao and aov, and also to and eov in verbs in 
-^01, into -<v, § 205, 1, e. g. tigmiVM instead of tlgmaov^ ytUvea instead of 
ytXaovaOj iyanivniq instead of ayanaorxtg. So also in the Doric dialect, 
e. g. ytktvvTi instead of yrkaowri. This contraction into iv instead of otr is 
often found even in verbs in -ooi, e. g. dixaiivai instead of (diKaioown) di^ 
naiouri, dixauvp instead ofdutatow, idtnaitvv^ <TTiq>avnvTai from (rt€<par6^ 

(6) In Ionic prose, the Epic resolution is found but seldom in veiiis in 
-dai, e. g. xo^ooKTA, ^/o^ooikto, Herod. 

m. Doric dialect (1) Contrary to the conmion usage of the Doric, a« 
and at I are contracted into 17 and rj, §205, 3, e. g. ufAfjjt instead of ufiint 
Mi u^axt, (poirfig instead of <potT$;, o^i7y instead of oq&p. The In£ is writ- 
ten without an i subscript, as the uncontracted form originally ended in -air. 
Comp. also II, 5. 

(2) The Inf. in verbs in -eo) has a double form, either the abridged ibim 
in -/y instead of -dr, e. g. noiiv instead of yronXy, or according to the anal- 
ogy of verbs in -a», a form in -tjv from -cV) ^ E* 9>(^>7r instead of ^littir 
aa (piXiiv, xo<r/u^v instead of xoafitiv, ipQoyrjv instead of 9^omr. 

(3) In the Doric and 2&lic dialect, -ao, -aov and -an are contracted into 
a, § 205, 2, e. g. nttvafitg instead of nutafur (neipaofitp), nuvavn instead 
of nHv(a'Ov)oMT$^ ytXaf instead of ytl(a-n9)uv, q>vaanig instead of 9Ui(a-o) 

Rem. 4. On the contraction into -tv instead of -ov, see § 205, 1. — ^A strik- 
ing peculiarity of the Doric dialect, especially of the later Doric as used by 
TJteocritus, is, that it frequently has a long a even in the inflection of veibs 
ill -ibit e. g. inovaaa instead of ^noyi^aa Gromnovioa, iipllaaa instead of iipi^ 
Iriau from tpdito, 

^223. Formation of the Tenses. (13l) 

llvildes the verbs mentioned § 130, in the Homeric dialect, the fbUow- 
I rttftin the short characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, m. 

xoiita, to hmx a grudge, yiiiiiia, lo quaird, lawta, to ttreich, ifSio, to draw. 
On the contrary, inaifia, lo approvt, lias ini'/ftjaa. 

2. In ihe first FiiL and first Aor. Act and Mid. of pure verbs, which re- 
tain the short characleristic- vowel in forming the tenses, aiid in the same 
lenses of verbs in '^ei, -traei (-ttm), the tr can be doubled in the ending, in 
Homer and otber poets not Altic, §208, 4, e, g. fyilaaai, tioTiaaaftno;, 
ofioiioai, iiarvaai, Sitaaaat, xo/iuiaf. 

3. The Attic Flit., oa it is called, § 117, occurs in the Homeric dialect in 
verbs in '/£u, e. g. xiifiovai, aylaiitfrd ai, bIbo oQfiivirofuv, xonglaaoiTCi, 
Moriacovoiv. From verba in 'ioi, -cfoj, -I'u, Horn, forms Futures which are 
•imilar to those in -('i>J, viz. in verbs in -t'ui, he often usea the ending -iu 
inelead of -iata, e. g. Kofici R. S, 379. KOQtei; II. f , 831. fiaxiovtai H. ^, 366 ; 

— in verbs in -am, after dropping a, he places before the vowel formed 
by contraction, a corresponding sliorl vowel, e, g. avttoa, iXiitaai, Sufiaa ; 

— in verbs in - vu, igvovat and taviovai are found. 

4. In the Doric dialect, all verbs in 'Cm take £ instead of a in those 
lenses, whose characteristic is o, L e. iii the Fut. siitl Aor., e. g, dixofoi, 
Sixa^u, iSlxa^a, instead of dmoiru, iSlxuaa. ItuI the other tenses of verbs 
with the pure characteristic S, follow the regular rorranlion, e, g. iSutaattrpr, 
not iSmaxSiir. This pecutiarilj* of the Doric appears also in single verbs 
in -tioi, which, in forming the tenses, retain the short a, and in this respect 

analogous lo those in -Cu, which liitewise liave n short vowel, e. g, 
fildu, iyila^a instead of lyiXaaa, yet not ctxaoi, rinajiu, but vixuau (AtL 
a). In Doric poetry, the regular fonn of all these words can \m used, 
ucording to the necessities of the metre, 

5. The following verbs in -foi have, in Homer and tlje Ionic dialect, 
I instead of », through the whole formation, viz. u^qoTaZni, lo vandtr; 

T a t », io rmfiii, Fut. oi-anaia, eta, also Xenoph. ; iroTitti.iZti>,to 
§hAt; Ba'iica, lo divide, lo pd lo dtalh ; (yyvaliiu, lo givt; /yafiiiiit, 
to Ipmi a diad many ; &q vlliiw, lo break in piaxa ; /»ip//>ip iCw, to re- 
fid; ntltiil^ta, lo shake; !ioliiilZlit,to eontend; ajv if ili^u, lo beat. 

6. Liquid verbs in -a I* a, which in the Attic dialect form the Aor. with 
be ending -ova instead of -i)V(i, ^ 14!), Rem. 2, have (i in the Doric, and 
I ID the Epic and Ionic. The following liquid verbs, in the Epic and 
MKtie dialect, of all periods, form the Fut and first Aor. with the ending 
'»w and -tra, viz. nillti, to land, tiikoai, comp. xiraai from uttjia, lo 
toad; tilai, to erowd logdher, liaai ; xiga, lo «itet, lo fall upon ; apa^i'irjHi], 
iP-Jt, to Jit, tiQoit, agtrai ; o(/-rVfii, lo ezdlt, ofiao), (upon ; Sta(p3ilgii>, to dt- 

' ••diijatu in Homer ; xi/pw, to shavt, 'iitigoa in Homer, but first Aor. 

>: ifigio, to mix, lo knead, ipvQaio, iipvgaa, ntifiQaoiiai, Epic 

; second Aor. Pass, {ifigtir in Lucian, who also has tlie 


poetic Per£ niq>VQfiai, while in prose the verb (fVQdoHf iq,vQaaaf jfi<pvQa(iatf 
etc, is used. The Opt offiXXtur Od, fi, 334. II. ti, 651, is formed accord- 
ing to the usage of the iEolic. 

7. To verbs which form the Fut without the tense-characteristic <r, 
§154, 4, belong the following forms of the Epic dialect, viz. piofiai or fiiiofiaif 
second Pers. /^iij, / shall live, perhaps from fiaivviy to go, to live, also from 
JAJl, to know, to learn, and KJIISI, xttfiat, to lie down, diju, diifig, dtfOfitPf 
dtjfjt, J shall view, find, and xc/m or xcoi, xiUfiBv, xflav, xitov. 

8. To verbs which form the first Aor. without the tense-characteristic it, 
§ 154, 7, belong the follQwing forms of the Epic and poetic dialect, viz./fai,(a 
potxr out, l/ei'a Homer ; Att tx^a ; aeioi, to shake, waiva and ionfvaiAfiv 
Homer., iliofiai and aXtvofiai, to avoid, iiUvato, etc, §230; xulia, to bumf 
Ixija, hxtia Epic, txta Tragic, § 230. 

9. To verbs which have an active form fbr'the FuL Perf^ § 154, 6, belongs 
also the Epic xfxaQiiata (and xtx^QV^Ofiai), tthtM hejojjjul, from jfa/^w. 

10. The exchange of the endings of the second Aor. with those of the 
first Aor., § 154, 8, is somewhat fi-eqiyvit in the Epic dialect, e. g. fialrUf 
to gOi ifiriaBjo, Imp. /9i}(reo ; dvofiat, to plunge, idva$JO, Imp, dCato, 
Fart dvaofiewog; Sy<a, to lead, oIbtc, (t^fu^; ixrso^at, <o come, I|oy; 
iUyfir^v, I laid myself down to dup, Imp. Xi^o, iU^so; oq^vi^ exeito, Imp. 
Off a to, oqaBV, (piga, to hear, olae, oTcrfTc, oiffitu, oworrtiv, olaifurf 
olaifiipat, olat is also Att ; aUdm, to sing, Imp. a el 9 to, 

11. Several second Aonsts, in Homer, are formed by a Metathesis of the 
consonants, § 156, in order to make a^d^ctyle, e. g. idgaxov instead of idag- 
nor from digxofiat, tnga&or fi^m ni^^m, tdga&ov from dag&aiw, ijfiflgoTOP 
instead of tl/ua^Tov from afia^Tovw. For the same reason. Homer synco- 
pates the stem, § 155, e. g. iygopityog from iytgia&ai (aytigta, to colled) ; 
tygtio, lygio Imp., fygoiio, tygnf^^ with, the accent of the Pres., i/goiu- 
9oq from iytgia&ai (iytlga, to wake); niiftfiv, iniofitip, niitrdai, niofurog, 
nitofiai, to fy; ixixleto, nixXtto, mxlufitpog, xiXofAot, to awake; nitpvov, 
tnt^ppov, 4>liNJl, to kilL 

12. In the first Aj^r. Pass. Homer inserts a v, according to the necessities 
of the verse, not only as other poets, § 149, Rem. 4, in xglrto and xUrn, 
e. g. diaxgnf^ijit, xgiy&tlg, ixXlv&ti, but also in Idgvto, to tstablish, and nvita, 
to blow, e. g. idgvr&fiv and Idgvdniv, afinyvvdr}. 

13. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impure 
verbs as in the tense-formation assume an f , § 166, or are subject to Meta- 
thems, § 156, 2, e. g. xalg» xtxignxa from XAIPE-Sl, fialXm jiiftXrixa from 
BAA, Moreover, he forms only second Perfects wliich belong commonly 
to intransitive verbs, or have an intransitive signification.; but also in pure 
verbs and in the impurs verbs pientioned above, he rejects the x in single 


§ 223.J 


persona an J modea, ond regulnily iu the Pan,; in tliia way, these forms 
become analogous to llioso of the geconiJ Per£ These pnrticiplea either 
lengthen a and e into ij, e. g, (lf(9nf ijiuj, bunkTuit, front BAPhil, Mixtiptjoij 
firom Ko^i-ftir^i, irtiioiijoij from xoitw, Tdnjn'^, trottliltd, from Tllifl, jiilT/iat 
from TjtJ/l, icfKuipr,(iif, lo fcatp for brtnth, from KM'l'JUl, xh^ijdii from no/j- 
»u, )iinn)iu« from ^irijirffoi, fo jAn'nA Ihroueh/fw, iidttjiig, mntjoTi, ir^fufiigiuf 
from j^BJ^Di; or they retain, tlioiigli more seldom, the stem-vowel without 
change, e. g. ^ifSaiai from ^alrm, BAJl, ttytyuiiia from ylympai, I'ASlf 
iiiaui from Hiiumtai, J.-Ul, nupi/vla from 9™, iiriau; from liirij/ji, 2'T^Jl, 
/iifiaiuf and /it/jHui,- ajd ptfiaottt from MAIL The aecented of the ob- 
lique cases ran, in "tfie lirBt instance, aceoriling 10 the necessities of tliQ 
Terse, be lengthened into u, hence leQyijlioi; and -iixoi, iiSvtiota and -aija, 
K»{U<)oia and -uia ; but when the Nom. lias a short penult, ta is always 
used, e. g. ^rflaSiot. The ending -uc, formed by contraction, is resolved 
by ( into nitituio from Tiiitei, tiShCiu, and according to the necessilieB 
of ihe verse, t can be leiigtliened into », e. g. itdrautag. The feminina 
form -iaa is found only in pi^Ciaa Od. v, 14 ; in some feminine forms, 
llie antepenult, which properly would be long, is shortened on account 
of the verse, e. g. oQaqi'ia Fem. of apijpaic, from aQafiujxta, fiifiutt^a of 
fiFfiijKu; from pijtiioiiai, jtdalv^u ofjidtiliat from Sallu, liXaxviu of iliil>|- 
xiifc from kuma, ntiia$via from natrjfu. 

REHAax 1. The form resolved by (, in the Ionic dialect, belongs to some 
participles, e. g. iaiiwg, danding frm; so riff «(u< (never tiflcwe) and ti&- 
riftbti from tittnpta, remains even in the Attic dialect, iu these forms, Iho 
a remains through all the castas, e. g. 

iariiai, iaiiiuaa, iafmK, Gen. tatiujot, -cuiTq; 
i(ff»Hu;, jfSvuiaa, tt^rttas. Gen. tt^vfiijiac, -ojq-ijf, 
Bi^ipui and mirim never hav^hese forms. Comp. § ISO, Rem. 3. 

14. Some verbs, which in ffe stem of the Pres. have the diphthong 11', 
shorten it in the Epic and poetic dialect into v, in the Perf. Mid. or Pass.) 
and in the first Aor. Poss., e. g. 

nii'tfo/ioi, fo Oik, jti-rt vafiai; atiio, to shake, M\d. at\i\ Pass, lo hailm, 

Xffovfiai, first Aor. Pais. iiro-Ctf ij*; ni'^w Poel., [mro, Perf liivy- 

fiai, Aor. itSx^V' Tt'7«'i lo/u, Perf. nupvy/iiyot. 

Rem. 2. Xiu (formed from /iFoi, jjiijoi), (o pour out, follows the analogy 
of these verbs, in ilie forms njfijxu, xt/iifiui, fxSSfpi ; these forms have 
been transferred to the Common language also, 4 154, Rem. 1. Contrary 
to the analogy juat stated, the u is long in the Homeric fbrm niatvuai from 
nriai (nrifin), to blotc. 

Rem. .3. In Homer, Od, tr, 938, the third Pers. Opt. Plup. XiXvio instead 
of Mifiro is found, according to the analogy of nij^-piiTo, SatrvTo. 

Rem. 4. The Homeric Perfects anaxnptroq, alal^pivog, a^tiftiinot, iki)- 
lofurot, OMaxyjcOai, alalijtrSai, have the accentuation of the Pres. 


§224. Conjugation in -f**. (isa.) 

1. On the lengthened fonn of the second Pers. ji&ijtr&a, diddia&a, see 
§220, 2; on the BeraUve forms in -ax oy, see §220; on the Inf. fonns in 
"fuvMf -fier, see § 221, 18. 

2. In the Epic, Ion. and Dor. writers, forms of -ita and -ood, § 172, Rem. 8, 
are fi^quent in the second and third Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf., e. g. ii- 
<&Bigf jt&iij didoig^ didoij hi&Hy idldovg^ ididov, ai ; — contracted forms of 
TonjjUi are very rare, e. g. una instead of unriai Her. 4, 103. Resolution 
takes place in the Ion. second Aor. Opt Mid. ^solfifiVfaaif from OEfl, 
e» g, n^og^iotJOj TCQog&BOKT&B. 

3. Verbs in -vfti form, in the Epic dialect, an Opt^ not only in the Mid.^ 
as sometimes in Attic writers, e. g. dalpvto D. ai, 665. (comp. lUvro, § 223, 
Rem. 3), from daipv/iai, but also in the Act, e. g. ixdvfiev (instead of iKdvlii- 
fuv) from ixdim, fpihi instead of tpvlij from q>va ; so ip^to^ 9>^7io Opt of 
iij^lfiflP from ip&ica. ^ 

4. The third Pers. PL Imp£ and second Am*, in -s-crai', -i^-aoy, ^<Hoap^ 
-coHToy, -tMray, are abridged in the Epic and Dor. dialects into -«y, -ar^ 
-ay, -vy, e. g. tn&ti^ instead of itl&iamf^ l^cy, div instead of t&uTav\ taxavj 
Qj&p instead of coxijo'ay, f^uv instead of Btp^tiaoTf t^ap, fiiv instead of 
ifir^av ; tdidov, dldop instead of idldoaaVf edoy, dop instead of adoaap ; iipvp 
instead ofttpvaav. 

5. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. Act has in Hom. the common form 
Itnrjf but n. t, 202. xa&Una', noxl&iy in Theoc. instead ofnotl&tg or n^ig^ 
^tg from TIOESL In the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and second Aor. Mid. 
Imp., Homer rejects the c and admits the uncontracted form even when it 
could be contracted, e. g. dalpvo, fia^ao^jpao, avp^io^ tw&io. In the Ion. 
dialect, the first a of the ending -acrat, secffl} Pers. Mid. or Pass, is changed 
^into e, after the rejection of the tr, e. g. iniajBat, dvptatf instead of 
inUnaaaiy dvpaiTMj §172, 2; hence the contracted forms inlcji^ in the 
Ion. poets, and also dvprj in the Tragedians. 

6. The short stem-vowel is sometimes used as long before personal- 
endings beginning with ju and y, according to the demand of the measure, 
e. g. xt^fjfuvog; didovpat; so also dlda^i^ Ufi&i, instead of'ila&t, 

7. The third Pers. Sing. Subj. has oflen in the Epic dialect the ending 
HTt, §220, 4, e. g. d^ici and dtajiat (instead of d^), fAs&itjat. 

8. The contracted Subj. of verbs with the characteristic a and « is some- 
times resolved in the second Aor., Epic dialect, and regularly in the Ion. by 
means of 0, 

(a) Verbs in -a (unri(ii)i 

(mttoi-) fcFTCtt Ion. MFTt-fti, UTTs-i^;, uTii'-cifUP, -«-ijTe, -^-coa* 
(cTTo-) otw " (Fii-w, oiiH};, (ni-wfwyj etc 



265 ' 

Remark 1. 8a also in Ilerad., JiQOtatiau (ind ttrttDo-i, firtiia;, iiiBtead of 
-aam, -aei;. Gen. Acrittuio;, Neul. iuifsi;, Feni. iaitdicru. So alao in the 
Ail, icShuis and iiSrr^moi, iiSyeiuaa, Tf5«u(, Gen. Ki/riajiof. 

(b) Verb, u, . (,;»„,), 

ii9a loiu ti5»-<a, iii)('-i;(, riff»-<»^()i, -i-ijk, -i-aat 
ti&ai/ioi " Tidi-oi/ioi, iidc'-i|, etc. 

&ia " ^t'-tti, fls'-ij!, de-w^i)', etc. 
&aifiai " Oi-titfiai, cir. 
Rbb. 2. Here also the two Aorisia of tlie Pnss. of all verba are like the 
verb tiSrifit, e. g. 

Tunu, -^; Ion. Timtfti, -iiit, -iiitfuv, -i^t 
Sa/iB', -jj " Sapiui, -^pt, -imitir, -('i]t> 
tt^tSu, -^f " ti/^iSiai, ~i>;(, etc. 

(c) Verbs in o (ilWoj^i); tbe eonlmcteil second Aor, Suhj. ie resolved in 
Homer by meiuiH of in, e. g. Sumri instead of Smai. 

9. Id tbe Subj. second Aor., Homer uscn tbe following forms, accordin); 
to the nature of tlie verse : 


S. 1. 


mtui, <rti/w, ^tlopai 






<"''>!i- 'f^^s- ms, ^ff^'ji 




p. 1. 


tnioifur diesjllnbic, mtlofuv, taTaPelofiiv 





aiimai{y), nigiaiijiaitt H. p, 95. 

S. 1. 


9io>, Slim, Saailai 



&i^t, flijijj and Oiljfi 



9i^. St'ts, Jnifl and (it»tlT, 




P. 1. 


Sivpn, Otiofiiy 





5ai^») - 

*.Wc{4 af/BW.(-) 

S. 1. 






daiij<ri and doii; 

p. 1. 




1 3. 



J Rem. 3, Thr resolution by nicana of > is found in verbs with the slem- 

fowcls a or 1 ; the i is commonly lengthened, (d) into ii beibre a Pi-raule : 

<I before q in verbs with tlie stem-vowel a; (r) sometimes into ((, 

ftnietimes into i; before rj, in vcrtie witb the stem-vowel t. Verba with the 

-vowel o are resolved by a. 

ho. The Impf. lilSri*, or commonly hl9ovy, has in tbe Ion. tbe 

(I it Idea (tike ^iiiu^Ka Ion. iiialead of jmv^fir, $ 220, 8), itl&tis, 

266 DIALECTS.— <IONJUGATION IN -fU.^'^ElfJUf T O B E . [§ 225. 

11. In Homer a shortened form of lattjvavy first Aor., is found, name- 
ly tataaa¥, they pkuxd, II. /u, 56. Od. /, 182, ir, 307 ; also arn^re (with another 
form sariTTc) II. d, 243| 246, instead of miutb {itrtrixau). 

12. In the third PI. Mid. or Pass, the v before the personal-endings "tai 
and -TO is regularly changed, by the Ion. writers, into o, § 220, 13, e. g. 

u^iuraif dtdoaiai, idtixvvaro Ion., instead ofTld^ivrai, etc 
But when an a precedes the y, the a is changed into e, and v into o, e. g. 
{oTCcrraf Ion., instead of lijravrai, IcTTcaTO Ion., instead of lirravro. 

13. The third Pers. Sing, is like the Dor. -tt, e. g. 'iaiuxi, jl&ftrt, dldwi, 
ddxpvttj and the third Pers. PI. ends in -yrt, e. g. urtartij ii^ivti^ dtdovii^ 

14. The forms of the first Aor. Mid. idrjuafitiv and idmtafitjv and the 
Part ^tpiifuyoq are found in the Ion. and Dor. writers ; on the contrary, 
the Att writers use here, the forms of the second Aor. Mid. The remain- 
ing Modes, as also the Part daxufitvog^ are not found. 

15. From didtofu Homer has a reduplicated Fut dtddaofit^ and diddaup. 

§225. EifiiCEi:-), to be. 



S. 1. 


P. 1. 

iftfil iEoL, instead of iv-fu 
iaul Epic, also Eur. Hel. 1250. 

tig Ion. 
ifti Dor. 

lifiiy Epic and Ion. 
iiTfi regular 
taai(9) Epic and Ion., hrl Dor. 

Tfif, ffitrat, tufiirai^ IJusy, tftfitv Epic 
iifiip or ty^f^, ci/ucr or tlfisg Dor. 


1. coi Ep. and Ion. fitttla Ep. 

2. tfjg Ion. 

3. %, ijjai^ j/atf iVp Epic, tfj 
Epic and Ion. 

PI. ttafMfv^itjTrjMn Ep.and Ion< 

S. 2. XatTo JEo\. and Epic 
P. 3. iovToiv Ion. 

itLvy iuvan^ iov Ep. and Ion. 


S. 1. 


D. a 

P. 1. 




£0 (comp. iil&ta)f ij0, toy, lorxor Ep. and Ion. 
tfia&a Epic, tag Ion. 

ei^y Ep. and Ion. ^irfp, titp, tone Ep., iig Dor. 
K<rri}y Epic 

tj^cf or TifiBg, ilfuv or (7^fff Dor. 
Ifiie Ion. 

cirar (sirrfacry) Epic and Ion. ; itdxo instead of 
f}vio Od. V, 106. 



h)t Epic and Ion. 

tht Epic 
uty Epic 

FuL S(rofia» and linroffoi, etc Epic, according to the necessities of the 
verse, 2. firggt, 3. Juntah iatitat, 

§^336, 237.] DIALECTS. VERBS IN -0) LIKE VERBS IN -f«. 267 

§236. £(>((■/-). to go. (i«j 

Pre*, bid. 8. a iJirSo Epic, iJe Ion. Su}^. S. 2. ijjffflo Epic 
/n/^ Xjuyai, ifiiti Epic 

An^ 7tid. S. 1. ijiB (and ^fir) Epic and loo., ^ior Epic 

2. ijiif (am] ■'('(), be Epic 

3. »Jm (and i^u) Epic and Ion., tiur Epic, ji^r), Xir) Epic 

P. 1. jiop* 

3. iilor Epic, ijiiraf and ijcav Cpic and Ion., Xaaf Epic 
D. 3. riq* Epic 
Op/- S. 3. to. Efiic, Utn II. T, 309. (»."-,» and iIi) D. o, 83. u, 139. 
Od. £, 4<I6, come froui tlfil). 
Fat. and ^or. Jliiii. t'itfopai, trirciio, third Pen. Dual ifuraaSijr D. o, 544, 

Veabs in -o], WBICB iir the Pheb. xao Ferf. akd iff the second Aoh. 
Act. ahd Mid., foixow the AnALosT or Vekbs i.t -/it. 
§2:37. (!) Second Aor. Act. and Mid. {aw-sig.) 
In addition to tlie Aor. forms menlioned ^^ 191, 192, the poetic and eipe- 
cially the Epic diulect has the folloning: 


(a) Stem-Vowel u il^iiiy, BA-):, Id tiiroa. Epic accond Aor. AcL [ISjfA-, i^lir) ivpfili'iii]y Od. 9, 15, 
In£ SvfijilLi'i[tcvai instead af-i)vai II. 9, 578; Epic second Aor. Mid. {^jllij' 
(iij») i^ltiio, 5i'|Uj5iiirro II. J, 27, Intt plTjadai, Part, ^h'nittot, Sulij. {i'^- 
^kijTm. ,Ji.;»toi instead of lHi,r,'i',, Od. p. 472, Opt. ^lilo (from Byi-E-, 
conip. ni/inlijiii] II. r, S8S. Hence the Fill. pii]aofiai. 

jntgau, or ^-ijpaaiiu, to grow old, second Aor. third Pers. Sing, fpii/a H. q, 
197, »iii(/npj Herod. C, 72, Inf. (Ail) yyi^atai, Part (Ejiie) ^-ijsoe. The u 
is used instead of ij on nceount of the preceding p. See SiSQiiatti, § 192, 1. 

xiitVai, b> W(, Epic and Poet second Aor. AcL [KTA-)\ iitrur retaine the 
short Towel, tlms Uiufiir, uruit, tliird Pern. PL iileo utur inaiead of 
txiiaay, Suhj. xtu, (Hrsl Pere. Pi. ■rci.ificv Epic), OpL xtb/i;*, Inf niivai, 
Epic retafiai, Ktafitvm, ParL xiii;; Epic second Aor. Mid. with Pass, 
sense, unixiaTo, HiiiaSai, KaTaxiafityof. 

oltaoi, to mound. Epic aecood Aor. Act. euro third Pcrs. Sing., Inf. ovni- 
furai, aitapir (iliei a remains shorl as in tuiur) ; Epic second Aor. Mid. 
omuitirof, woundtd. 

niliiiJH, to approach. Epic second Aor, Mid. inli'niTiv, (Atl, irtka/t^r), niijxo, 

nl^ttu (HipitX^pi), taJiU, Epic second Aor. Mid. inlijio and nltjio, ml^no, 
also in Aristopb., in the following fonni alto, Imp. nlCoo, Port. ifinlr\~ 


fiivog. Opt ifinXfifitiv with the variation ifinXdfitjVf as XQ^^V fi^ni XQ^'l" 

(doi) and fiXtXo from i^ltinriv (BAA-), 
ntfi<r(Tfa, to shrink with fear, Epic second Aor. Act (nTA-) (c;rTt;y) xaxaiftrittjy 

third Pers. Dual. 
9^ayQ), to come before. Epic second Aor. Mid. q>&afjLiPog. 

Remark. From tfiipf ((ialvm) are found in Homer the forms pSxriv (third 
Pers. Dual) and vniQpaaap (third Pers. PL) with the short stem-vowel. 

(b) Stem- Vowel e (ccr^iyy, 2'J5£-) : 

JASl, Epic, stem of dcdacrxo), to teach, second Aor. Act (JAE-) idatjr, I 
learned, Subj. daoi. Epic dailio, Inf. datlvai, Epic dat'ifisvat, 

(c) Stem- Vowel i: 

ipdl-vw, to consume and to vanish Epic second Aor. Mid. itf&tyiffv, (f&la&ttt. 
tp&l^U9oq, (p&la&ta, <p&Uifiat, Opt q>&tfiijv, (pd%io, 

(d) Stem-Vowel o (f/yw, TiVO-): 

fiifigtooKfa, to eat, Epic second Aor. Act ifiQcav. See § 161, 6. 
TcZfljw (Epic and Ion. corresponding form of nlioi), to saU, Epic second 
Aor. Act enXciP, mXtaiAtv, Part nXiag, Gen. nXavtog, 

(e) Stem-Vowel v(6dvv), 

itXvia, Poet, to ^eor, Epic Imp. second Aor. Act xXv&i, xXirts and x&tlv&i, 

nixXvit, § 219, 7. 
2v«, to loose. Epic second Aor. Mid. Xvio, Xvno, 
nriu, to hrealhe, Epic second Aor. Mid. (nNT-, from nriFu, Trpiiw) Sfinvvto 

instead of avinpvto, to hreaihe agcdn. 
aivo), to shake. Epic second Aor. Mid. iaavfjnjv, I strove, taavo, crvro. 
Xiw, to pour. Epic second Aor. Mid. (XT-, from /aJVi, jifevoi) /t^o, j|ft)/icyo(. 

B. The Characteristic is a Consonant. 

aXlo/iaf, to 2eap, Epic second Aor. Mid. aXao, aXxo, inaXfitvog, iitiaX/iSPog, 

Subj. aXrjtai. 
iffuf^hnua C^IP), toJU, Epic agfisvog,JUted. 
yivto, to take. Epic, from JViLro, since the Digamma is changed into / and 

the radical X before t is changed into v, § 203, B. 
ylyvofiai, to become. Poet c/cyro, yirto, 
dixofiat, to take. Epic ei^exro, Inf. 8ix&ai, Imp. ^e|o. The first Pers. idiyfifjr 

and the Part diyfitvog have, like the Perf. dide/fiat, the sense to expecL 
iXiXiito, to whirl, Epic iXiXiuio. 

Utpiofjiai, to come. Epic itro, Hxfisvog and ix^^yo;, favorable, 
AEXJl, to lie down, EpiciXiyfifiP, tXono, (same sense as iXt^afitiv), Imp. Xi^o. 

Aiyw, to ooUedf to doote, to omuU; Od« i» 335. Ii^;'^iijy, Od. d, 451. Xixto 

agi^ftoff he nomrnkd fti 

fuahra, to mH, Epic itiaw&rjii (cliird Diiul, instead ai {fnav-adti*). 

fiitrfoi Iftl^rvfu), to tnir, Epic fiitiio. 

iljrtia (oprvfii), to excite, Ejiic m^ta, Inf. ii'^dai. Pare uQiutoi, Imp. oqco, 

■nailw, to branditk. Epic naXta, he tirticL 

jtifSm, to ikalroy, )>eriIo. Hotner uses jtigdai iusleaU of ntfid-ir^oi. 

JlKTJt {ni'iyrrfii), to fit, Epic tii'kio, xaxintpno, 

§228. (2) Perf. and Plvp. Act. {Comp. ^^ 193, 194). 
(u) Tbe Stern enJB io a Vowel. 

jiyyofiai, la become; FfSFAA, Stem FA, PerE (Sing, yifora, -aq, -t) Epic 
oiiil Poel. yiyaitfr, -on, auatr, laf. Epic ytyvfuv, Perf. Part, yiyaif, yt- 
yiaa, yiyoii. Gen. yiyHnoi; ; — Plup. Epic iuytydnp/, 

/SuiVw. io go, Perf. /J^ij.u, HHBAA, Epic nnd Poet PL ^ifla/ur, -an, -om 
■nd l5t(SuSai.; third Pera. PI. Sulij. l^(it(SSmi (PI. Phaed. 252, e), Lif. /9e- 
/Sncoi., Part Epic ptPoiui (also Attic proEse (SjfSuls, Xeii. Hell. 7, 2, 3), -uio 
{pf(luim Pi. Phaed. 354, b),Gcii. ^tjSiij;io;(AtL/3(^iuTa;); — Plup. ^jJ/^J- 

SilSm, to fear; besides tlie forms mentioned § 103, the fnilowiiif; Epic 
fom.s are lo be noted, e, g. SilSifm, StiSiji; hif. iti&iiitv instead of Si- 
iiivm; Imp. StlSi&i, SeidiTi; — Phip. iSildiftn, /dildiaar. 

%lXopai, lo atme, Perf Epic ilkt'/louSa instead of lliii.u&a. Pi. iU.iiiov&fay. 

*ri«w, to Ae, Perf. liOn^xa, TJiOTfA/i; F\. liOripir, ji9rihi, uSriai, 
Imp. lidya^i. Part. Tf flriinnij, itSnivia ztOvtims or jtO-ynat {itSriaiaa. 
DemoBtli. 40, 34), u&rttus (Epic Ttflrtjiiie, -anoj, -ijdtot), Inf. itdriirot 
(Aescli. K^urni Iroin icdmirai, Epic. jtOfofuit, -afiirai) ; Plup. ixi9ra~ 
aav. Opt. i(Jra/t)f. 

TAASL, lo eadurt, (second Aor, tiltjr), Per£ ii'i1i;xd, TBTJAA ; Dual Tt'tila- 
io»i Pi.«rio>f».i(iiBi(, tfrl«oi(^). lmp.i(ii«&^-5ioi, etc., Subj. want- 
ing, lof. Trrlarm (Epic jnlafiir\ but Part Epic T(iili)aj; ; Phip. Dual tzi- 
ilaTor, ttnl&iiiv, V\. ijiiXiiiitr, iiiilatt, iiitlaaar, Opt mlalriv, 

MAJl, to itrivt, Peri^ fiifiova ; MEMAA ; Epic pifia/ttr, -aior, -art, -aatri. 
Imp. fttfiata. Port fit/iauf, Gen. fufiaitog and ittpiioiet, tliird Pers. PI. 
Plup. /tifiaaar. 

Here belotig the two participles of 
Pipfumm, to tat, (second Aor. ^ptuf), Peri^ ^i^Qwna, Poet ^c^giii. Gen. 

nfmw, to /n/', Ttirrraniti, Epic ntmnuf, Alt PoeL hihtu;. 

(blThe Stem ends in a Consonant. 
Tlie following is to be noted in respect to the formation ; When the con- 

Paf, Ind. S. 
D. 2. 

p. I. 




sonant of the stem comes before the personal-ending begining with t, the t 
is changed into ^, and thus these forms assume the appearance of a Mid. 
form, e. g. 

nrc/^o), to persuade, ninoi&a, to trust. Epic Plup. inimdfitv. Imp. in AeschyL 
£um. 602, ninsiad^i instead ofnima&i. 

Remark. So the Epic form ninou&tf stem IIEN0 with o the vowel of 
variation (nONO), instead of ninoy&ajf from naa/oi ; from ntnor^ats 
comes TiinoyS^t; and hence (ninovtne) nino<nt, (comp. td-if = Vm); final- 
ly, this form, as has been seen, assumed the appearance of the Mid. form 
i&i) and so became ninotrOt. 

xixQaya,-ag,'^v)(MQaio»,tolHitv[),T\up,ixiJtgdyny, -fi^, -e* 
xtxgayajov uixqax&ov ixtxQaynroy ixixgaxd^op 

xfXQuyatoy xixqax&ov ixfXQayelrtir ixfXQax&fiP 

xixga/afiff 7tixQa/ft(v ixtxQayttfiBr ixixQa/fuy 

xixgayart xixQax^s ixtx^ayiut ixixgaz&t 

xiXQuyairi(v) ixfxQtiyeiaay, -tcav 

hnp. xixgax& I, -a/i^o), -a/i^f/etc. Infl xixqayivai. Part xtxQayf»q, 

So the Epic Perf. avtaya with the sense of the Pres. / commimdj Sptiyug^ 
avtayt, PI. avayfAsy; Imp. aytayt and Syu>x^ i-, avfayitta and a y m- 
X^tOi aytaytu and aytox^f, Subj. uytuyn ; In£ aytayifuy ; Plup. i^yfiyuSf 
tiyiay fi ; Opt aytayoiq, 

iyilqta, to aioaken, Perf iyi^yoQa (stem ^ETEP with the variable o\ to wakt 
up ; from this. Homer has the fbmiB, Imp. iygtjyog&t instead of iygrtyo^ 
Qau, Inf. iyqriyoqd^cn (as if from if^^yoqpai) and iyqriyuqd^aciv instead 
of iyqriyoqaaty third Pers. PL 

olda, I know, the regular forms otdaiav, otZart, €^daai are found but rarely 

in the Ion. and Att writers, § 195, 1), second Pers. oJdag in Hom. and 

Ion. (rarely Att § 195, 1). The form td-pey is Epic, Ion. and Doric Inf. 

tdpeyai and idpey Epic, Subj. idita Epic instead of ddii (Ion. udcw]^ Pbrt 

idvitt Epic and iidvla. 

Plup. 1. Pers. Sing, rjdta (hence the Att ildti) Epic instead of tldiiy 

2. ^ ^ fitldtig and liiidtig Epic instead offidng [Herod, 

a ^ '^ Titidn and ^ttdri,fjdt9, jjdtip "Ep. instead of ^du'f^-^nii 
a ^ PL iijoy Epic instead of tidi(rav. 

Fut cA^ijoro) Epic and cloro/ictk 

sbcxa, / am like, Epic, Itxroy, Dual, iuinjy Plup. Dual ; hence in Plup. Mid. 

or Pass. Tunc, 

§229. (3) Present and Imperfect. («i8.) 

FinaUy, there occur certain forms of the Pres. and Impf mostly in the 
Epic dialect, which after the analogy of verbs in -pi, take the personal* 
endings without the Mode-voweL Thus, 




Bviu to mmjAde, in Theocritus Imptl ovv-jtM;, instead of qrrofici', uvC-io, 

instead ofi^rt'ero. 
tnvi'Dit, to itndA, to tpan, IL p, 393. Toru-rai, inatead oftannuh 
ifia, to ifraio, Ti^iiiiii, iifvto, epuio, ff luo, ^iJirSiii, § 230. 
atim, to thakt, Epk Pres. civrai and, by VBrialion, oottoi. Imp. ffoiwo and 

abridged aov, irovvSi, irovo-Stu, to mow out'* idf, to haiten. The Imp, lias 

passed into tlie common language of conversotioii. 
SSa, commonly iadla, to tal. Epic, Inf tificyat. 
ifil/a, to carry. Epic Imp. f tfin ioslead ofipiqcti. 

§230. Alphabetical List of Verbs in the Dialects 
to be specially noted. 

'dam [aFaa], to kiai, to dvxivt ; Horn, 
has the Iblloiving Ibnus, Aor. aaaa 
and aaa; Pres. Mid. uuioi, Aor. 
atiaaiitir, Aor. Pass. iauS^v. Verbal 
Adj. trOTo; (u-aoroe). 

ifttiojtat, Ep. and Ion. prose, $ 164, 
and a^aofuii, Ep., to tamdtr, and in 
ibe Pres. Ep. also to g7tu{ge, to mny, 
FuL nj'airopai ; Aor. iiyaaaftrjf. 

aj/iifm, to eoUrd, Ep. second Aor. 
Hid. ayiforro, Part, aygofttrof, 
$333, 11; Plup. h^'ij/i'^otd; Aor. 
Pass, a^cfffq, llijrd Fers. PI. Sj"!/- 
■9ir; Ep. Pres. ^yffii&ofiai, § 1^ 

ttpwa, to be ignorant, Ep, Aor. ^;-- 
ro/if<n, $ 207, 1, D;'*<(^tr<»rxf , ^^ 30,% 5. 

Syrvfti, to brtaif Aor. Ep. i,fii instead 
oftaia; third Pers. PI. Aor. Pass. 
Syiy Ep, insEead of rfd/ijo-iir, 

Syta, to f«u^ Ep. second Aor. Imp. 
SSnitbttaii/uvaijuii/itr, jSQ3, 10; 
first Aor. Hid. aiavSf, ufurio. 

atldn, prose adut, to n'l^, Ep. second 
Aor. Imp. aiww, 5223,10, 

atipai, prose atgtif to rout, Ep. first 
Aor. Act. aiii/a, Mid. aiipufnir. Pass. 
iifS^ ; Ep. second Aor. Mid. agc- 
fi^r from atfta; Ep. Plup. ow^io 
instead of tj(iia with ihe vowel of va- 
riation, and trans|Kieitioii of the aug- 
n>enl; Ep. Pres. ijifi^ofiai, il&L 

'jtwur, {■-*&,) to btoui ; in Homer are 
the following forms, e. g. Part, ailt, 
iinot; tlurd Pers. Sing. Impf. Si), 

ail. Stall ^AEH.) ; in the remaining 
forms, the >) remains, Rontraiy to 
the analogy otzlSijpi, §234,6, nip 
TOf, aijtai, arifiiyai; Mid. and Pass. 
ui)/4ai, to Idow, vofitrof no! aij/itrof, 
led tltraugh and cold ipUli wind ; 
Impf Mid. Sijio. 

atSoitat and nidiDfiBi in Horn., to lie 
aahtanrd, Ep. aiSriaojiai, 'iSiaOriy 
and tiitooiitpr. 

aXH'pi, Ep,, to tofte, instead of siipvv- 
fidt, 5 Ititl, Rem. I, only Pres. and 

a'lQia, to lake. Ion. Perf. aqal^rpia, 
a^aJ(il/'«i, ^21U, 8; Ep. second 
Aor. Mid. yivio instead of ikuo, 
§237, B. 

BiWiu, Ep. (o, but vaa'tin II, 9, 136; 
i) instead of ^ffow, to n«A, Ep. forms 
^Cia, Subj. d'i^u. Part, aiias ; Aor. 
Pass, ^'tx^nrt Inf. Ri^fiqrai ; the Alt 
Trsgedions use the following forms, 
^^airai and Saam, commonly Iftltt, 
aiiu, jjfa, if^oi and ijfa, afiit. 

dial, Ep,, to A«ir, only Pres. and Impf 
aior. Comp. ^o'ki. 

dxajrij^u, Ep., to trouhte, stem '.rfXJZ, 
second Aor, iiiajfof; Fut. aNu/qtriv, 
first Aor. ^Ko/ijiro; Mid di((i/Z£a- 
fim, a^opat or d^iykii, to be md, 
Aor, ^Ko/o^ij*, §319, 7 ; Perf. dx^- 
jfr/tm (§219,8, comp.Bp^(if^<ii,a(i(t(- 
o(/ia») and uxd/i;^ai, lliird Pers. PI. 
oNiuidoTiK, §220, Rem. 3, and dm]- 



jftaioi. Part aiaa'p"^ and nin/q- 

pcrof, li>r. axaxiaitai, $22^ Rem. 

4 ; Plup. Ep. axa^flaro. 
anuj^fiiro;, Ep., aharpened, pointed, 

from 'AKJl, aeuo, instead of axu/- 

fiii<at, ^10, Rem. ], and 208, 3. 

The / comes from ihe Perf AcL 
aKtjSiio, to negtai, Aor. a*iSiair. 
aiaofiai, to aandtr about, Ep. Perf. 

(ila^il^ai, ^ Sig, H, alalr^ittroi.ala- 

liia&m, § ^£i. Rem. 4. 
ilialru, to matt inmiae, Ep. Aor. 

aU!«, to keep off, Ep. second Aor. 
qiaiiac, ^ 31LI, 7, from 'aAKJI, 
ilahtl^r, alalxay; PuX-alalici^aia. 

iliofKH and iiii-ofiat, Ep., (o shun, 
Aor. ^ifwifdjr, Subj. aJLt'igmi, OpL 
oUotio, Imp. aiino'dr, Inf. oitLwr- 
daiand aiiatrffai, §223, & 

■Idijmei, ai9iv%tt. Ion. prose, (o Acaf, 
Ful. al&ila,Btc. 

ilnaUa, Ep. and PoeL, to Wn, Fut 
alii^w; Aor.i]iUio>,<iiliiOft^,(irl(- 
itff9ai; Per£ ajii^^rot, tinful, 
§233, Rem. 4. 

fiUo/iai, Jo tpring, Ep, second Aor.<i(i,etc.,§227,B. 

(uLimiu, lo fre gnaUg Irovhitd, Ep. 
Ferf Biolisiii^iiri, §21!), 8. 

ilivuti, Ep., to tatapt, oliffw, qJifs. 

■Ifs/i'M, Ep., lo^find. Sec. Aor. al^ iiv. 

a^ci^ioi'N, lo niM, Ep. Aor. tijAflffo- 

wftilou'iTitu, Ep. and PoeL, lo or, 
FuL a/tvlwinimii Aor. i]/ivlmiov. 

■Htorw, Ep., PoeL and Ion., to pltatt, 
Impf iarSmror Herod., i^ti. and 
jjrd. (Ep.); Aor. fv Aor Herod., nAor, 
(Ep.); IdT. idiir; PerC £id>; FuL 

criiii^MFJf : K|..Apr.i«aof. i^-iV.: 
4, and 307, 3. 
■v^vaAi, IB 4ipuv ■?>, Epi. PetC whli 
AtL Redupliealkai, i*^t. 8. ftoni 

■n-M. »» iKftt, Ep. ijraoj. j-.m, .1, 


aroij'a, Ep. and PoeL Perf to eotn- 
tnand, oroiyftty. Imp. arutxit, etc., 
j228; Plu|>. ^niyia, §220, a In 
certain fomia tliis Perf ia changed 
into tlie inflection of the Pres., 
e. g. tliird Pers. Sing, ormyn, Impf. 
i|v(u/ov and Sruyer; FuL avwfN; 
Aor. ijytafii. , 

inaii/aoi, Ep., la lake otDiai, hapC 
antjCfuif, -og, -a; first Aor. AcL 
Part, dnoi'f n« ; first Aor. Mid. anrji- 
(iiiio, Pass, anovgafiirog. 

artaifloiiiii, Ep., lo deceivt, FuL ano' 
^ijafti, second Aor. Act ^HtKfor, 
OpL Mid. diiBipotio. 

oniilini, Ep. onfilqrijr, §222, Rem. I. 

anoifiri, an Ep. Aor., he hurried along, 
Subj. oniKftri), OpL anoifiatii. 

uRioi, to join to, Ep. Aor. Pass. I09- 
*ij,ya/ on, 

Bfiip^ki, Ep., lo /t, Mem.4/>fl, fitM 
Aor. )j^B, a(<rai, §223,6; liratAor. 
Pass. afSn instead of ^f/dtjaaw; 
peeond Aor. ijpipor, § 219, 7 ; also 
Inttans. to bt adapltd, toplaue, more 
usual than the firet Aor. ; PerC afi- 
pa, Ion. Sfiifo, § 219, 8,1am jUd, 
Intrans., Ep. ifa^i^a, §223, 13; 
Perf Alid. or Pass, afi^fu/imi, afif- 
^fifrot, § 223, Rem. 4 ; Aor. Sffo- 
pof, adopted, §227, K 

'APAJh, ai/aopai, to prog, EpL BecODd 
Aor. aQi'ifAirai Od. 7, 322. 

nprifint, lo gvix, § 1^, 1. 

'Ml, Ep., (a) to blow, see >V" ! (b) to 
flop, Aor. aura, Bcro/itv; [c)to M- 

1({^, also IntraiHL to it BtrfigM, 1b£ 
'Dfui'u instead of a^fi*); F^ 
Sam ; Aor. aao, S*m»9mt ; mlii 
Act). **tBCi oioc- 

B<.;>w. f.v ^^-.f'!', f'. L-ii. EtL R*t«.P 



fiaadmr, (o atolk, Hirenglhcned cor- 
recponding rorrti from ^alra; also 

from BIlillMI; linally, Imp. (Sotrxi, 
and Intl Ini^aaxifitv. 
fliillBi, to throm, Ep, second Aor. 
((Siijc, ^t^iii/Jiif, § 227, A, (h), Fill. 
ph'iaoititi ; Ep. Perf jitjJoiriiial, used 
of lite mind; but pifSliJiiai, of the 

^afiiui, Ep., (o 6e Amrjr, fiifiagijioi, 

i20, 13. 
ffi/igoi9otf, Ep., Id »i/, inBteod of jji.- 

fliopai and ^tleftai, to Hvt, Ep, Fui. 

/!E'<j,^ro^(cr.?a, ^333,7. 
ptaopiu, Ep., iasiead of jVio'^n^oi, (o 

yorcc, i/liijaaja, ^t^IijKi. 
pilSgdmv, to tat, Ep. Aor. f,l^rii>', 

§227, A, (d); PeH! Pnrt, ^f^p A, 

-cviDC, $ 328. 
|SJliu(n(i>, Ep. And PoeL, toffo, iiistend 

of /iltacriiAi, ^ IS, 3, Aor, ehoiIoi', fjo- 

Jtir, ^oloir; Pert: jUtfifiioiiiu instead 

of fi!fii'iloiiiu ; Flit. ^oinrjUMi. 
^im'iu, (o ar^ out, E)). Aor. t^mira m- 

slead of ^^dijiro, § 205, 5. 
Povloiiai, to ibUI, Ep. fJoiEioi, jJcilrirSt, 

§207, 4, ;ipo,S<(Sui'ift, (0 prt/(T. 
Pfi-xnopai, to roar, E|i. Perf Si^^vx", 

with the sense of ihp Prcs. 
/'d/i('u, /o moTTy, Ep. FttL^nfieui; Ep. 

FiiL ^n^iWtTBi II. I, 'S)A, will pm 

in tnarria^. 
]ritvfiai, Ep., to bt duerful, ^orutai; 

Jvt/1, Ep. Perl'., jrcyitfiif, to have be- 

yi/vra, Ep. nnd Poet. Perf. with the 
■enseofthcPres-fom/oui; itillom., 
third Pera. Sing, jiiymvi, also with 
the wmsp of the Aor., Pan. ;-f;'w- 
ni;, blf. yfjftarificr; PlU|i, iytyaint, 

Vrma the Perf. a Prea. tins been 
■fcmiod. of which there ore in Iloni. 
iIm r'TTiLs Int' ytyiaru*, Iltijif. tyi- 



yirro, to tekt, ^ 1ti7, B. 

yifiim, to grow old, eceond Aor. ipj- 
e«, etc., ^227, .4, (a). 

yoaui. Poet, to wail, Ep. third Pera. 
Pi. Aor. yoov. 

Jaitifii, Ep., to tnUHain, to feedf 
inatend of d«/T-vi'fii, 5 169, Rem. 1, 
Fut SaUrai; Ht'id. daifvpai, toJiaM, 
to spend, aecond Pera, Sing, Impf. 
]lid. lultv, Saino inatead of iSai- 
rfoo, 5 224, 5, liiu'd Pers. Sing. OpL 
Salri'To instead of -i'ito, third Pera. 
PI. Baiviaro: Aor. ^Saiaaii^r. 

Saim, Ep., (a) lodieide, § KM, FuL 
iiiaoiiai; Aor.,a.\eapTOBe,iiaaafiip'; 
Perf, Pass. dtSalatai, to be dx-mded, 
hroktn; (b) to bum, to inflame, Perf. 
diSijt, he burnt ; Mid. lo Uaze, Li- 
trans., second Aor. Subj. Siititai. 

Safiraa and Saiinjiii, Ep. secondary 
form iTom iapam, lo mhdue, from 
which comes third Pers. Sing, Pres. 
Siipt^ ; third Pers. Sing. Impf, 
iHafiva and Sapra, SapraaKt ; se- 
cond Pers. Sing. Prea. Mid. Sapr^i 
— Saprijai, Siiprapai, etc. 

Su;/Sanii, lo alef, F.p. Aor. iSga9o¥, 
V^a, H, 

Banopai, F.p. secondary form, used 
in the Pn's. and Imp!!, trom daio- 
pm, lo divide. 

JAJl, Ep. and Poet., (a) to Umk ( = 
Si5i''a*ax\ (h) to leam[= Sidaaxo- 
pin ; to (a) tielong the Ep. second 
Aor. SHiit Hon)., iSni Theoc. and 
Apoll.; lo (h) belong Siiubiq Horn., 
Jiiliiuoiinotherauthors; Ep. second 
Aor. Act. tiaipi, I learned, $237, 
A, (li), from which Ep. da^iropai, 
didatjua, diSaripiroi, From the 
Perf! a new Ep. Prcs. has been 
formed, diSaaadat Int. Here be- 
longs also the Ep. FllL Si/oi, abmU 
to fnd, to meet urith, dqti;, S^optv, 
^.jfH, 4223, 7. 

Siaro, Ep., it naned, Aor. Soaaaara, 
third Pers. Smg. Subj. Bodaanai 
instead of-f)Toi. 

StlSm, to fear, the Pres. occurs only in 
ihc first Pers., FuL diltroptxi; Aor. 


ci^siao, Ep. tddfiaa (as is probable dovniiaf £p., to sound, Perf. dtdov- 

originally BdFHtra), Perf. £p. dd- nonog ; Aor. idovnrjaa and iydov- 

doixa instead of didoiHOf and dudia nijaa from VJOTII-y comp. jvntvi 

£p. instead of didta, § 228. and xivnita, 

dtUvi'fn, to show, Ion. (JEK) di^w, dvvafiat, to he able, second Pers. Ion. 

Bds^a, etc. ; Mid. dHxwfiui, in the dvvBa$ ; Aor. £p. idvpaa&tpf and 

£p. dialect it also has tbe sense, to idvyrjaotfiriv. 

greet, to welcome, to drink to; ao also dvta, to wrap up, Ep. dvfiBvat instead 

in the Perf. deldf/fiai with the sense of dvvai from tdw, Ep. second 

of the Pres., dudixaiai third Pers. Aor. Mid. dvatto, dvuBo, dwrofAiPO^ 

PL ; Plup. dtidfxto, to welcome, dur- § 223, 10. 

dixarto. ^Eyitqia, to awake, Ep. Aor. c/^ero, / 

diQxofiui, to see, Ep. second Aor. awoke, etc., § 223, 11 ; Ep. forms of 

tUqaxov, § 223, 11. Perf. iy^riyoqa are i/Q^iyoQ&t, etc, 

dixofiai, to receive. Ion. dixofiai; in §228. From the Perf has been 

Hom. this verb signifies also, to formed the Pres. iyQtjyoQotav, watdt- 

take, excipere, to await, e. g. an ing, Od. i;, 6, as if from iyqiiyoffOLio. 

attack, a wild beast, in the following tdta and tadta, Ep., to ea< (= iadiot), 

forms, dixajoL instead of dixortai, Inf cd/ie^ai, § SS29 ; Impf tdov and 

§220, 13, II. fi, 147; Perf didsyfiai tdtaxop; Perf. idriddjg', Perf. Mid. 

with the sense of the Pres., Fut or Pass, idfjdoxai, 

didi^ofjiai, excipiam, second Aor. *£©/!, from which come the Ep.e^ttir, 

Mid. idfxTo, etc., § 227, B ; Perf. u)ont, accustomed, and the Perf cSok 

Mid. dfdoxrjfiivog, awaiting, lurk- -^a, § 140, Rem. 3. 

ing, II. 0, 730. ^EIJSl, 'IJSI, Aor. ildov, I saw, Ep. 

Ssvta instead of diFta, Ep. instead of Idov, Inf. idiny, Subj. tdufjii ; Ep. 

d6tt>,touwEn/, which comes from ^^fi^ Pres. Mid. fidnai,it seems, iidofii" 

OB, he wanted, driaey, he was in want vog, appearing, making like ; Fut 

of; Mid. dsiofiai, to be wanting, Fut iXiTo^iai, ; first Aor. cMra/iijr and iftco" 

divi}*TOfAai, priv, Haap.ivog.BnA itiaaptpog, §219, 

JUHMIiJE-), Ep. and older Ionic- 4; second Aor. IJo/ji^y, I saw, 

Att, Xen., corresponding to Siw, ^EIKSl, third Pers. Sing. Imp£ cuts, 

to hind, dtdiaat Xen. ; Impf dldrf it appeared, II. or, 520 ; Perf totxtt, 

instead of ididi] II. I, 105. / am, like, Ep. third Pers. Dual 

dlCvpoi, Ep. and Ion., to seek; it re- aixtov and Plup. itxifjv, §228, Part 

tains the rj, (contrary to § 170, 1, ioixdtg and II. q>, 254. tixfog, nxvia 

comp. ^AHMT) ; idlZriTo, idi^Tivio, and II. a, 418. tioixvlai ; Ep. Plup. 

dl^Tiad^ai, di^i^fityog in Herod. ; dl- Mid. i'fixio and tixio, it was like, 

ifiai Hom., dl^fai Theoc. ; Fut tlkvo), Ep., to cover over, fllvaat, hIv^ 

dif^mopai; Aor. idiitiaapriv, pai, third Pers. PI. siliSajcn; fiom 

JlHMI, J IE-, of the Act only iv- iXvot comes Aor. Pass. iXva^tiv, 

dUaay, third Pers. PI. Impf, II. a, eHtai, to press, to drive, from which in 

584, they drove away ; Mid., to make Hom. only nkoptvog ; in the same 

onerun,to make flee, oftener to scare,to huxhot, tlXiia, idUov \ the rest are 

chase (specially with the Inf), HUv- from ^E^, e. g. tkaav, Inf Xlaai and 

TOi II. V") 475, ^uadat. II. p, 304, iiXaai, Part tkaag, §223, 6; hlpa^, 

Subj. ditjxai, dltavxai. Opt dlouo, hXfiivog ; second Aor. Pass. toXi^r 

comp. jl&oiTo. from I'JliLo), third Pers. PL aier, 

d/oi, Ep., toflee^ die, Sudu, dlor, I fled, aXfi>ai> and aXripsvai, aXsig. 



Ofd, to be, ^035. 

dpi, lo go, ^ 2a& 

tifym, to »hut out, Ep. Impf. ifj/aSoy, 
§ 163. Conip. teya. 

tffoitat, Ep. and Ion., (o ash, Injpf. 
tifopiir; Yul. ilf^aofiai ; Becond 
Aor. ^foprp', Siibj. iQeifirSa, Opt 
t^oito, Inf fgrirdnt in Horn, wilb 
Ihe Bcc«Dtorthe PruB.; — Ep. cor- 
ree])oiidiii)r fomjB of the Free, (a) 
tfjiofiai, ifiiaSin ; Impfl /fiono ; 
(b) /(fiu, Sub), /^lafttr, OpL igioi- 
fin; Part tfiaiv. 

'UFlMt, see tfvta. 

trpu, Ep. aitd Ion., sera, to ilnng, 
fint Aor. iiilfas, exsereiis, Ilcrod. 
3, 87 ; Ep. Perf. Mid. or Pags. Efp- 
fiai, 4tepi¥0t, in Herod, i^iiivot, 

PI up. iff TO, 

£f<o, to lay, Prea. only Ep., FuL /pdJ, 

Ep. /^.o.. 
ffcfa, Ep. Aor. Iplaixd, from the stem 

'Kd-, coinp. Bed-eo, Opt, aviaatfii, 

Imp. liifoF, Part JVos (at(<Toi'7f;; 

M..«raf Her. 3, 136. (i, 103), Inf. 

iifiaaat; Aor. Mid. tnn^ijr and ^ec- 

iriiTD, Part tiptciraficyot [Her. 1, 66. 

ilaaptyet). Imp. ^^iWat ; Fut. iqi^O' 

tlai-ria, to drive, Pres. ftnoi, Ep. iXow ; 
Impf. Ep. limy; FuL Ep. ^Houiri 
instead of flowi ; Ep. Perf ilr,la- 
ftrvo;, ^033, Rem. 4, third Pers. 
Sinp. Plup. a^iuaoio, ^220, Bern. 
Q; Ion, Perf ^it^'Jloff^oi and Aor. 
PasB. ^laaSip: 

iXiUita, to whirl, Ep. second Aor. 
Mid./Ul»io,§397, B. 

Ma^ or /rfintu, Ep., (o «n/, to fdf, 
Impf with the sense of the Aor. 
trtnor, lurnior, Aor. eyiaitoy, (comp. 
itntepqv from iio^cti), Imp. hlani^, 
Biil^. trUintii, Opt trlirnoiiu, Inf 
Jriintitv, Fut irlifita nnd ^ticrTTtKriu. 

iv^9a, Ep. Perf from 'C7Vei2 or 
'EKEeSl witli the sense of the 
Pres. and Impf., t-aniitoSi, bttiton, 
I). /J, 319. to (ic on, H. Cer. 380. 

irJfiTa, Ep., to thidt, geeond Aor. tv- 


tni'iii, to dolhe, Ep. and Ion. ttyvfii ; 
Ep. Fut iiio-u ; Aor. Strtrn and fira, 
JcrifUfjii»|, iifrtraio, taaaSat ; Perf. 
(i^oi, tuTRi and (ircrni, (iiai, etc., 
(ifiiVoe; second Pcrs. Plup. firo-o, 
third PerB.rcrioiind tiaio, third Pers, 
Duol ladTiT, third Pers. PI. iioio ; — 
oa Uaaaio, tiaio, coinp. §31^, 4. 

toijco, /am iiU, 5 338. Comp.'iVK/L 

^noiiu, to unJeritajid, Aor. ^n^iira (l) 
Herod, and Apollon., 5 l.'W, Rem. 1 ; 
the Poet. Bi'ui is found only in Prea. 
and Impf 

inai'elaxofiai, Ep. and Poet, to n- 
cave advardagt or injury/rom a llting, 
Aor. iniivgopity, tjiarfiiadai, first 
Aor. t-imi'^Bjiij* in Aeschyl, end in 
tlie later writera; FuL InavQijaoiiai. 
The Act in the seuse, to loutA, io 
irtftire, is found in Homer, e. g. se- 
cond Aor. Siibj. Inaifp, hit. lnav- 
filr, iitovQtfitr. 

ittlaiofiai. Io tnoio, second Pers. inla- 
71] Ion. Poet 

laiii, as a simple, in Act only Ep, in 
the sense Irado aliquid IL £, 331 ; 
generally iiHcd as a compound, 
e. g. niQiina, Simm, etc., second 
Aor. Act tanov instead of lO'inor, 
in Homer Iniurtor, iitianilr, /rtia- 
noiv ; Fut Ep. iifiiiitit ; Mid. also as 
n simple, generally si|rnilying, tojbl- 
/oif ; Impf Ep. iJiofiip' instead of 
nitofiriv; Putf^fiRi; second Aor. 
Jilid.tirtoiifir,tmia&at; Ep. forms, 
anile, initiada, Subj. EtniM^ai, Opt. 
laTtoifitjv, Inf ianiirdai and uTria- 
^oi. Part ianofitrat. Herodot has 
from Ttrgiintit alao niftKfSitrcn and 
nffitftadai Inaleod of Ttifuqid^- 

tljY^a, cominoidy iii/Yia, Ep., instead 
of Mp^-oi, to thvt in and Aid out, nith 
the corresponding ^tf/riifji,/(i^adai, 
/rp/o5iu, Aor. ([.Jn; Perl. Mid. or 
Pass, iigyfini, third Pers. PI. igx"- 
loi, third Pere. PI. Plup. «(i/«i> 
and (p/nro ; Aor. Pass. tyxSilf. 
s^dai and ^ffui, Ep., to do, Fut ^c'foi, 
Aor. f^itia and e^eJh, or t^f m, ilpE" ; 


Perf Ki^ii, Plup. imff/uVf § 1^9 ^m> ^o hattj Ep. Aor. tffxf&ov^ 071 5or 

Bern. 3, Per£ MkL or Pass, ifff/- and lij/oy, § 1G2 : Efi. PerC o/wnt; 

^'ro^ Aor. PaflB. (tzi^ikf ^^X^i^*^ ^P* I^lup. ^xm/oto, Agf imtv Ho^ttd, 

ifddm, to prop, Ep. Per£ i^r^^ataij IL /«, 340. 

$ 219, 8. '^/Atf^ 'o «if, arrai, faro Ion. and (£■- 

i^lnm, PoeL and proae, to throw dowti, iul, t7aio Ep., irMtead oTiiirTM, ^no. 

Ep. Plup. iffiffinjo, 6 219, 8. ^M^**** ^P*v ^ "'"^ Per£ i-MiftrigpvMtj 

i^ahm,Ep.toJighi,AoT.M\±d^idn^ to id the luad shUt, IL Z, ^l- This 

eao&a$, form has the An. reduplicatkwi 

iQiiM, tofght, Ep. i^iiopai^ Ferf. MkL ifi^ipvMt, § 219, 8, and strei^gtbeiied 

if^ffiapai, § 219, 8. by y, § 208, 5. 

fj^fli, lo trayMfer, Ep. Aor. Ij^ai, OiffOftai, Ep., lo iMmn one^i jcj^ FiiL 

hurry away ! § 223, 6. ^iigaojiai, $ 223, 6 ; Aor. i^i^^w, 

i^vdaipm. Poet, <o reitien, FuL /^v- Subj. ^tgitt. 

&fiat». ^i^'m, Ep. and Poet to tpnndj FuL 

i^vxta, to btep off, Ep. second Aor. Act ^i}ii}(r«, etc. ; PerC li^^ (t f^a> 

{^ivaxor, iQvxtixuiw, § 219, 7. Irla Ep., $ 223, 13 ; second Aor. 

i^^vm and il^via. Ion. and Ep., to draw, i&aXor. 
Fut. igtaw (aa) and Ep. dgvofai; OUnSt, Ep., to <fim, Per£ n^^pur; 
Aor. IJ^t/aa (aa) and cfipiVa; Fut Plup. ^Tfi^^irca; second Aor. (finom 
MkL iffvaoftat and Ep. igvw^ai ; TA'l*Jl) iraq^ow. 
Aor. igiaufii^v (aa) and f i^ttra/iiir ; i^r^airA), <o c^ie, Perf. ji&nput, PL ts- 
Per£ Pass, third Pers. PL uQvaiai x^vaptv, etc, § 228. 
IL I, 75, and Plup. ttffvwjo U. a, G9. OgMnw, Ep., Ion. and Poet., to Jprti^, 
tif^varo II. o, 654, (of ships drawn to Aor. idoQ09 ; Fut ^ogovpai, EIp. 
land, V long in the Arsis] ; Plup. ^oQiofiai ; Peril ri&o^a. 
Mid. fIJpvTo (q>aayavor, had drawn 'Jdgow, Ion., to Jtcieot, idgwn^ idgSiwng, 
the meord, v long in the Arsis); Od. idgtiaa, Id^onjw, § 137, Rem. 1. 
X, 90. Secondly the Mid. in Horn, nifti, to tend, Ep. and Ion., Aor. vpta ; 
and Poet takes tlje sense to save, Fut. tjaa, but Od. a, 265, aviau ; in 
to «Ad!^(froui danger); in this sense the Ep. and Ion. dialects, there 
there are the following forms, iqv- are several forms from the theme 
ao, ffljptro and i^vjo, which are to 'IJI, e. g. apiu instead of avl^^ 
be regarded as syncopated forms of Her., I^vpior instead of ^witvop 
the Impfl The sense, to guard, has Horn., iptrUto and lupnipiifoq He- 
two Mid. corresponding forms, (a) rod., instead of fiB^Uxo, pt&ufti- 
Ep. ^EIPTMJ, Inf. tigvptyat Hes. vo^. 

Opp.816;Mid.C(ipt;aTaitogtictr(/,in- lxviofiai,to come, Ep. Pres. txM and 

stead of H(ftfVTai, Inf. tQva&ai, it- Impf woy ; Ep. Aor. ISoy, § 223, 10, 

gva^ai ; — (b) Ep., Poet and, though and Ixto, etc., § 227, K 

very rare Att prose ^vofiai. Inf. *!r//7/M/ instead of/^^l, to &e iiierc|/W. 

fva&ai instead of ^madai ; Impf. Of the Act only the Ep. Imp. Xkn^i, 

third Pers. Sing, tqxno, wom waUhed, he marcifvl (in addresses to the gods) 

Hesiod. Th. 304, third Pers. PI. instead of ila^t, § 224, 6, as in 

^i^oT uistead of i{/vorto [were pro- Theoc. 15, 143, Subj. Ep. Lt^xi^cr* ; 

tected); Aor. i(l^v<rafitiv and I^p,^v- Plup. Opt Ep. U^xoa; Mid. Poet 

adfiipf, but fl. o, 29, ^vadfifip, lHo/iai, to appease. 

tQx^H"^^ ^ /?^* ^P* ^^^^' tUi]Xov&a, tadfn, Dor., to know, tofig, TaocTi, fcro- 

iirst Pers. PL iili^kovd^fAiy; Ep. Aor. fitv. Part, taag, 

ijXv&ov, Kaiytffjiai, Ep., instead of Koldrvfjiaif 


$160, Rem. I,rrom tlie tiieme Kji J, am anxioiu ; Ep. Fut xmadijatifiai 

fe txoil, Perf. Kixaaitai; Plup. {*t~ IL », 35.'!. 

KturfitjV. xlSraiiai, Ep. correEponding form of 

icaiw, fo dim, Ep. Aor. uiijii, Trag, atiiSarvffiai, la toatter, only Pres. 

ima, Sub). ii>io;iiir inHtead af-w/ifr, aud ltn|it^ 

Opt. tliird Pers. Bing. x^ori, tliird titrvfiai, Ep., instead of Kivi'o/iai, to 

Vera, PI. xq'aicr, Inl^ x^ai (in die ttir otu't itlf, to be movtd, Vam. xi- 

Odyw. also ifTbi, iielofitr, titlanit); rvfitrot. 

Aor. Mid. ixjiii/iyiv, xtjiiiuwof (in Uie ugtdu and ilgr-r^i, Ep. correspoiid- 

OdyBK. laiafiirai, xtiayjo] ; Micond iiig form of xE(iaff r^ii, to mtr, from 

Aor. Act. i»ai]r, I bimwii, IntrtuiB., which conies the Part. Kif/rui, Inipl! 

luf xa^pmai. Mgra and x/p>i]. 

■afirH, lo uviiT^ OIK*! »e(/; Ep. ■otfiij- mxaina and xi^ava^m, Ep. and PoeL, 

ei;, -uio;, -oru;, ^ 333, 13, Ep. se- Id nocA, Aor. (jfi^oc, Fiit. xix^aofiai, 

rood Aor. Subj. xna/tai, $ 319, 7. not fouod elsewhere in the Alt. 

xiifiot, to lie, in Hom. xionai, ae if poets; but Ep. Imjif ixlxanor, se- 

from x>a/iai; Ep. and Ion. mttai, cond Pers- Itlxtif (from A/X£-)j 

taiaSai ; second Pere. Sing, xiiaai second Aor. Subj. x^jlil and rixtlv, 

and xiini, third Pers. PI. miriai and OpL ■i;i/);r, Inf. «j;'>ii(, Part, xi^t/g 

Ep. xtlaini, and Ion. xi'iiiai, Subj. and Mid. M^^/urog; Aor. Mid. hi- 

nw^oi, third Pers.giug.xi) tot; Inipf jfqimio. 

■Eoio anil xtlmo Ep., inslead of x/u, Ep., to gu, only Pres. and linpf. 

tiatno; lUmao; Ep. FuL xt^oi, xiu, The Purt. xiojv is accented like m* ; 

xiUar, xiav, xiiififr. Aor. iiiTviia&oy, § 162, 

«/pM,fo>A(ar,Ep.ic'fi7Di,eM(irii,§233, iiiliifloi, fo aiuru^ Ep. PcrC with The 

G, but ixiifo/itir. sense oftlie Pres. xcili]}'o,xfiil))^(u;, 

k£Uu, fo f^'iK, Ep. txilaa, ^ 233, 6. PI, xmi^yanis (as if from auiil^^w] ; 

Kilopai, Ep. and Poet., to urge, FuC Aor. ttloyox. 

xtlifloiiat, first Aor. /Ktiloffa^fif ; xki'iu, to iffui, Ep.and Ion., xlijioi, Aor. 

eecond Aor. txmkoftrti', etc, j2^, Mtjtua (t), Niiiurai; Perf. Hid. or 

11. Pubs, xtxliiiiiui, third Pers. PI. ii- 

mrriN, Ep., to sling, slimulo, Aor. xiltaiai instead of xixliimai; Aor. 

lu'ririii, ^ 233, 6. VaEa.ixltjtaStit; from ttic Ion. xili/ioi 

Mtfarr£(ii, to mtr, Ep. xiQtioi {xtQia*- comeihe JbrmaollenfoundiutheAtt. 

Mit)Bndi>t(Bfw,(Inip.iiiputi),xip>'uu writers, viz. xX^nt, ixh,<ra, xixliifiai. 

{ufr^, Impf. tulfro) and tiignifH kUbi, Ep,, to cd^iratx, of which only 

(Imptl ixlfni, xti/rat); Ep. Mid. xi- xUfiai, IinpC iidio instead of /xl^'io, 

^risi (as if from xigaiiai); Impf. $^£20, 10. 

wfiuairTa E))., iuelead of ixfgmfo ulrw, Ep., fa Amr, Imp. xjlijf, xlinu ; 

from ■(paoi. second Aor. Imp, xltSi, tiXvie and gain, in Ion. and later wri- xixivSt, kuijIi>ii, ^237, A, (e); tlie 

ten itifSijira ; xigSiiaurSat and xe^- Jmpf ixivov ia used instead of the 

dtnioiiir in Hemd. lud. Prea. 

tuiSti,Ep.,toroiuraI,Futxtvaiii,AaT. xontet, to Jirtfe, second Perf. xufojio 

_ fxf ma ; Perf. xixci'dn ; second Aor. in Horn., instead of xinoifa. 

^ aiidor, xiSor, Subj. mxiSia, § 319, ND^ivrufK, to Mati^n, Ep. FuL xocea 

H 7; Mid. only Pres. and Impf BndxDpiiriu,PeH'.i(xop)j/ia(,Iowhich 

H Kq'dMitoinoiefrnriou*, in tite Act only tlie Part xtxn^uf, ^^03, 13, in re- 

H Ep. Fut niSiiaa; Perf. xt'xtjJa, / epect to its meaning belongs. 




xoTfw and xoiso/ua^ £p^ to he cmgry^ 
first Aor. Part noxivaq ; Perf. Part 
xfjroTi^ci}^, § 223, 13 ; Mid. Fut xore- 
trofkai (qo) ; Aor. inoTKrufiriv {aa). 

K^fi^ai, to batvl, Poet Perf. utim^dyu^ 
nixQayfitv^ etc., § 228. 

ngahtu, Ep. and Poet, /o compLdt^ Ion. 
commoDly x^ertaiVoi, Impf. ixgalai- 
tor; Ep. Fut x^aWoi; Aor. Ix^i;'''' 
and Ep. ixgiiiflfa, Imp. x^yoy and 
Ep. x^^i^yof, Inf. xQfjvai and Ep. 
x^ij^rtf ( ; Ep. Perf. Pass. ittxQaavtai> 
(Eur. xixQarrai) ; Ep. Fut ^\d. xQa- 

%tilv(Ot to kUlf Ep. Fut xrttio) (Ep. 
Part, xtaviovta, xaTnxiavioi*aiy and 
Tuexaxtuyifa&a with the variable a); 
Aor. Ep. and Poet, hnavov; Ep. 
second Aor. Act IxTay, etc., § 227, 
A, (a) ; first Aor. Pass, third Pers. 
PL Bxra&ir Ep., instead of ^xrer^ij- 

uvQBtOf rarely xt^o), Ep. and Poet, to 
Jind, to reach, Aor. txvQaa, § 223, 6, 
and more rare ixvQijira, Fut xvQaio 
and more rare xvQiiata ; Perf. xtxt- 

Attyxavoiy to partake^ Ion. Fut Zdlo/iat; 
Ep.Aor. Subj. IdaxfOy § 219, 7, Trans. 
io make partaker in the phrase ^o- 
yoKTa ;Tt;^o( ; Perf. Xtlo/x** ^P** ui~ 
stead of chf2;if o, Od. it, 304. icAo/^a- 

AAZTMAI » XiiopM, to take, Ep. 

XapPavto, to receive, Ion. lapipo/jiat, Xi- 
Xa^Tflta, XiXappat, XtXoptp9ttt, iXafi- 
<p&rjr, Xapntioq ; also Dor. XeXalirpca, 
but XikapiMat, XtXaq>&ai. ; in Drama- 
tists XiXrippai ; Ep. Aor. XiXapi<r&ai, 
§ 219, 7. 

lar^ayo), Ep. often it^^o), to he hidden ; 
Ep. second Aor. Act Subj. XtXa&ot 
and Mid. UXa&ofjLtiv, § 219, 7 ; Perf. 
Mid. XiXiMapai ; in Theoc. Xaa&ijptv 
^B li}<r^fivaft instead of Xad^iadai ; 
lirilfjv^w and iKXti&ai, to cauK to for- 
ed, Ep. Aor. iniXtiaa ; ixliXax^ov, 

laaxw, Ep. and Poet, Aor. $iaxop; 
Sp. P«r£ AiiliTxa (Pml Xildna and 

^xleilaxa even in Demos.) witb 
the sense of the Pres. ; Ep. Pass. 
Xflfixtag^ XtXfixvin, §223, 13; Fut 
X(txrfaopm ; first Aor. Poet iXuxnoa, 
Ep. Aor. Mid. XiXdxorio, § 219, 7. 

AEXSl, Ep., to cause to lie down, JbXi^a, 
iXt^dprjv, I laid myself down, I lay, I 
rested, Ep.Aor. iUyfiJiv, etc., §227, B. 

Xovta, to wash, Ep. iloecii, Xovioh Impf. 
iXovBov, 4X6tov; Aor. Inf. Xoiaaai, 
Part Xoiaaag; second Aor. Act 
bXoov, third Pers. Sing. Xot Od. x, 
361, Xoov, Mid. Pres. Inf Xoviadai 
and Xova^ai ; Fut Mid. Xoiaaopai ; 
Aor. Mid. Inf. Xoiaaaa&ni', Part 
Xowadpivog; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

Xi'Oi, to loose, Ep. second Aor. Mid. 
Xi-To, Xvvjo, § 227, A, (e) ; Ep. Plup. 
Opt XtXvTo, § 224, a 

MuUopai, to rave, (ixpalvta, to make 
raving, also Aor. E/iijva Arist) ; se- 
cond Perf. ftifiTjva, I am raving, 
(Theoc. 10, 31, pffiuvi^pai). 

fialofiat, Ep., to »uk, Fut piaofta^ 
(impdaattui); Aor. ipaadpfiP, 

pav&dvm, to learn, Fut in Theoc. pa- 
^ixpai, like paxovpai. 

pdgvapai, Ep., to fight, only Pres. 
and Impf., like dwapat, but Opt 
paQPolptiv Od. X, 513. 

pdxopai, to contend, Ep. paxiortat, 
paxntai, paxioito ^paxioivio. Part 
paxiiopBvog and paxtovptpog; Ep. 
Fut paxriaopai and pa/iaopai ; Aor. 

MAIL, Ep., to strive, Perf. with the 
sense of the Pres. in Sing, pipora, 
comp. yiyopa with FEFAA, pipO" 
TOP, pipaptp, etc., § 228. 

pilqopai. Poet, to obtain, Ep. tppoQt 
third Pers. Sing. Perf. (and II. ii,278) 
third Pers. Sing, second Aor. Act 
(Augment, § 219, 6); Perf. Pass. «- 
paQxai, it is determined, § 123, 4. 

piXta, commonly Impers. piXn, it 
concerns, Ep. Perf. ptpriXt, Part 
ptprikmq\ Ep. Perf Mid. pipfiXnat 
and Plup. pipPXuo instead of ptpr^ 
Xi[%ai, iptpiiXfjiOf tomp. pXdicxn. 


lUijy ; Ep. Aor. Mid. oif/io, etc, ^ 237, 
B ; Ep. Perf. optv^mi, SuliJ. q(icu- 


furoi*ai, (ino'irioy, ^ SS3, 1, A, (3). 

/iiptuOfiai, to bleat, Ep. I'erC ^ifitpia 
wilh the sense of tlio Pres., ^fidt- 
xt'io, § 323, 13 : Aor. f<a Kiuf ; from the 
Per£ ilie Iitipf. tiii/iijiiot ia forinctl. 

fiiai'yiUtlotlain, Ep. second Aor. ^loy- 
aijr, 5 227, R 

fif/fufii, fomu', Ep. Aor.fiJino, §237,B. 

/iL'.a'n^Di, fo roar, Ep. jiifivxa, i/tvuov, 

yata, Ep. aiid Poel., (o diwH, first 
Aor. fyinTtra, / muttd to dictU ; Mid. 
together wiith Aor. Pnes. fo mi- 
tie doom; raaaofiai, unij'aoaafiii*, 

miiiu, Ep., PoeL and Ion. to qwarel, 
FuL ftiu'iru; Aar.iyilxiira,Y£lS,\. 

yiaaoiiat, Ep., lo go, FtiL viVo^oi (Ilie 
form vdWa/im is rejected). 

'OJT^^OMAl, Ep., Aor. wJwoHfnjF, 
A) ie (inj^,DJiinru^(>'a£; Perl! oiai- 
Smfini witJi tlie sense of the Pres., 

oldn, to tnow, $ 228. 

ouuiBi, lo fUnA:; Ep. ofu, o'iw, oiofiai, 
Bur'fiip', utbiro; Aor. Mid. ourd^iii' ; 
Aor. PnB8. uuT?!]!-, liiaSik. 

Syaftai, Ep. and Ioil., fo Minif, nrmrai, 
tliinl Pers. PI. uroyiai, ]inp, iiVoira ; 
Impf iyo/tiy, Opt. ovoifjiir, oroiio; 
FuL ordmifiot ; Aor. oitanu^iir and 
uvMrflip' ; Ep. ovrttrSt H. u, 241, in- 
stead of Srevfi and lliis instead of 
oreatfiicamji. ouHc/itroclfroiu'OiV-; 
Ep. Aor. Mid. urato. 

oqaui, (□ «Et, Ion. opi'w, Impf. Di^iov; 
Ep, second Pers. Sing. Pres. Mid. 
op i| ui> thinl Pers. Siug. Impf d^ijid; 
Ion. Perf. oibjih. 

'OPAT.vnW/, from wiiieh Ep. ofr/- 
yif.itrtklunffoiii; ojfiyia.lotlrdeh ; 
Mid. to strelrh one's self, lo readi after, 
Ep. Pcif Mid. opupf/fiBi, tliird Pers. 
PL ufwpt/uiai, J 21<l, 8, Plup. third 

hlTS. PI. 0(DI(>C/Uta. 

ofrFfti, I'oel., to exrilt, F<iL uftriii. 
Aw. B(Ht.i. i^ 923, 6 J Ep.- Perf. In- 
tAU. upturn, j 219, 8, Subj. oi/oiq^, 
Plup, ioii— - 'J B«p(i(ptt ; Ep. Aor. 
cvfini, to /j/I oik'» 
•(iiiiai, Aor. ufo- 


§ aiy, f 

ia<fQuhofiat, lo tmdl, Ion. Aor. Mid. 

oitRoii to tMund, Ep. Aor. ovia, etc., 

^4227, A, (a). 

Of ii'ila, to int«, oi^M, miuf. Ion., Poet. 
(except in ttie draniatic dialogues 
of Att wrilera) and in luier prose 
tiptXoy, -ft, -(, Ep. £ifti,lor, oipilkor 
ill forniB wliicli eipress n i€ra'\ 

oipiilbi, Ep., to tfumuf. only Pres., 
Impf. and OpL Aor. iifiUtuy Od. 

/ZuUoi, to thake, Ep. second Aor. Act. 
aiintjialwy, ^ 207, 7, and 219, 7, and 
second Aor. Mid. niijLia, § 227, B. 

noo/ui, la niffrr, Ep. ntnadvlij, as if 
from ncnadu; Ep. Perf. ntnotrAs, 
§228, Rem. 

naiiaftiit. Ion., to taftc, to etil, Aor. 
(UBiiu/iiiv ; Perf. iTEna(r/ini. 

nil3a, to permiade, Ep. second Aor. 
ApL niniSoy, Sulij. niirJAu, Opt, 
ntn^Aaipi. Inf. ncmOuy, Port, ntiti- 
9a>>, Imp. TiitiSi, ^ 219. 7 ; second 
Aor. Mid. /jjifln/itjf, (o Inut, OpL 
miitfloiio; from tlie second Aor. 
come ntOriOBi, lo be obedient, nin- 
iSr'tata, lo be ronvinenl, nidi,aai, 
obrdiettt; on Inini&fity and 111^1111- 
5i, see 5 228. 

ntiltiirc'i, to draiB near, Trag. iitltt~ 
3ta, niiiSoi, Fut. njininu, Poet, 
commonly ■aiXu; Ep. Aor. Pus& 
inrliiaStir, Poet Att inliiOriy, Ep. 
i7th'ifit]v, etc., AtL inlaiitiw, ^2S7, 
A, (a); Ep. Perf. Tie^lij^iuVoc, AtL 

niQSoi, Poel., to dt^ray, Fut. nt'piru; 
first Aor. tnc^ffa, §223, ti; second 
Aor. tn^iaor, >i'£^, 11; Ep. sec- 
ond Aor, Mid. nit/5ai, §227,8. 

niio^ai, to fiy, second Aor. /nto^ijr, 
etc, §223, II. 

nit'dofioi. PoeL instead of nvrSayo- 
pat, Ep. second .Aor. Mid. Opt ni- 
ni'dotTo; Pi-rC ni'niir^ni, §223, 14. 

niipyor,iiiKftoy, Ep. secondAor.AcL 


of 0ENSI, to kiUf^ 219, 7, Pass, (revo), Poet, to move^ Mid. to hasU, £p. 

yn'^yoiy with irregular accentuatioD ; Aor. taaiva and atva^ iaotvafitp 

£p. Perf. Pass, mq^atai, itfcpda&ai ; and veva^ijy, § 223, 8 ; Peril eaov- 

Fut Per£ mqnjaofiaij (comp. ^edi)- fiai, § 223, 14 ; Plup. i(Tavfjifjv ; seC' 

aofiat from didefiai). ond Aor. Mid. iaavfirjy, etc., §227, 

n^yvvfAtf tofix^ Ep. Aor. niqitxo, xotc- A, (e) ; Aor. Pass, iaovdnv, Soph., 

nrpixo, § 227, B. i^said^riv, Horn. — On the Ep. aeiJ- 

nikyafiaij Ep., corresponding form lai, croviat, etc., see § 229. 

€rom nduio), to draw near only Pres. <rx/^ra/iat, to scatter , Ep. correspond- 

and Inipf. ing tbrm of ajuddyvvfAair, only Pres 

nlftnXfigu^ toJUlf Ep. Aor. Mid. tiA^to, andluipf. 

etc., § ^7, A, (a). ore^fio), to rob, first Aor. Inf. tntf^ai 

nlnrta, to fall, Ep. ntnittag, § 228. Ep. instead of atigficrai, 

nnpttvi and nirnifii, Ep. correspond- OTv/eo), to /ear, to Aoto, Ep. second 

ing form of Txsrayi'v/it, to iprecu^ oui, Aor. unvyov\ first Aor. Icrtv^o, 

firom which come Impf. nixvu in- Trans., to tno^e fearfvL 

stead of inltpa, and Pass, jujvas. TAFJl, Ep. second Aor. mayup, 

niijaao), to ^(riftc, Ep. second Aor. seizing. 

Act ininlfiyovj ninlriyop and tts- TAAAJly to endure^ Ep. Aor. liaiUi(r«, 

nXfiyofAtpfj § 219, 7. Subj. lailaairoi ; second Aor. IrJli^y, 

irXiua), Ion., to Mzi^, Ep. second Aor. § 194, 4 ; Perf. jiiXipia, titXafUP, 

Act InAoyy, etc., §227, A, (d) § 228 , Fut TAijcro/ia^. 

nrica, to breathe, in Hom. Perf. ninpv" tavvo}. Poet, to jireto^ Ep. jmnjtm, 

fiaiy § 223, Rem. 2, to &e animated, § 229. 

inteUigent, ; second Aor. Act Imp. taQaaaea, to disttarb, Ep. second Perf 

SfmwB, second Aor. Mid. Sfinyv- jit^rjxa, I am disturbed. 

TO, § 227, A, (e) ; Aor. Pass, a^^ TEMJl, to m^et, Ep. Aor. hetfiop, § 

npvp&fl instead ofifmrv^fj, § 223, 219, 7. 

12. tsQnai, to delight, Ep. itdQq>&fiv, iiag^ 

Mt^aau, to shop down, Aor. iTnijIa ; ni/y, iiguntjp, Subj. first Pers. PI. 

second Aor. ttonamdntav, Aeschyl. jQanelofur ; second Aor Mid. ^i^a- 

Eum. 247 ; Perf. ^nrfjxa. Part Ep. noiAipf and teiagnofitiv, § 219, 7. 

neTiTijoi;, (Sioff, § 223, 13 ; Ep. se- tsvxot, Poet, to o&toin, Fut jtv^a ; 

Gond Aor. i(oro7iTi7Ti}y, § 227, A, Aor. hsv^a, Perf. Ep. Jtrfv/tag, haxh 

(a). ing obtained; Fut Mid. TcvCo^ai; 

*JRoe/yQ), to sprinkle, in Hom. i^ada- Aor. Mid. tev^aa^ai ; Perf rcrv/- 

TOi, §220, Rem. 2. ^a*, §223, 14, third Pers. PI. Ep. 

^(0, see sgda. Trrev/arai, Inf. jtivx^tu ; Plup. ^t€- 

^»/^Q), Ep. and Poet, to shudder, Fut tvyfirjv, third Pers, PI. Ep. ^lerci^- 

^ip^croi; Aor. i^^lyriaa; Perf Ep. /oio; Aor. Pass, hvx^rjv, Fut 

^^lya, Perf xtxii^ofiat ; — Ep. Aor. trrv- 

^oow, (Fwm and <ro». Epic, to «we, wiy, Ten^xoyro, tnvxia&ai, § 219, 7. 

(oB aiwfw); fit)niaaoa), Fut attcuiro}; T/fiTi, Ep. Perf Act tcui^o);, -oio^, 

Imp. Pres. Act craw, §222, I, A. anxious, and Perf Mid. /am onrtouf, 

(4^; third Pers. Sing. Impf Mid. second Pers. Dual inlriadov. Part 

aoot; instead of ^(Tooe and aao); Aor. Kurjfiivog, 

iaimaa ; Fut Mid. aawrofiui, Aor. thrvfiai, Ep. corresponding form of 

Pass, iaam&ijv ; from aioio Part aw- tlvoftai, to punish ; in the Att poetiy 

oinsg and Impf omaxov ; fixwn <roo» with one v, ttyvfiai, § 185. 

Subj. Prts. aofif cotfg, tfowrt, '^M'Vy^t Ep. corresponding form of 


iiliva,lo ail, SiTBl Aor. Tfiij^as; Aor. at); Aor. l<f&iaa; Mid. / nu* 

Puas. lliird Perw. PI. ifiayir. away, Ful, ipSiaofiai ; Perf. t^ai~ 

ifiipoi. la noiD-uA, Ep. eccorid Aor. fiai; Plup. iipSIfujii; E]i. Aor- 

iipuifor, / tunaishat, PerC tEipo^ia, ^^Slfn)r, etc^ ^ ■^i ^^i l") ! Ep. 

IntrHDK. ; Aor. Pbsh. ^ipcfqiiir, iliird Aor. Pass, third Pers. Pi. ani^t~ 

Pen. PL ipti^pfi'. i^f». 

4airw, la iWi, Ep. ipoEJriitf, erilighi- qiiUia, to love, Ep. Aor. itpi}.a(air{ifil- 

ening; Ep. Aor. Paas. /^iioi'^qt ; leirtiii, qiUai). 

Peri! Mid. or Pass. Ttiqiaitjiai, lliiril tppafoi, (o apeak, Ep. Aor. nifi^otlof, 

Pere, Siiig. nt^artai', Fut, nuprjao- ^219, 7. 

fiai ; wscood Aor. fparrmiti', It. iL, (>4. ^u^tu, to knead, Ep. and Poet. ^ vp om, 

ipcHafuii, lo tpart, Ep. second Aor. eic^^22i.ti. 

Mid. jie(pi3ot^i)>', fiiipiiJ*'(f9ai, 521^1 9''»'. *" prodiux, Perf. ne'qifxa, Ep. 

7; from which comcB n[gii3ijun/ini. third Pera,PI. ik^i'dui, ParLnfqju- 

9(^01, to rarnf, qjt'^re Ep. inelead of (ura«, n!ipvi>(a,^223, 13; Impf. Ep. 

tfifjtitj^'m; loD. and Ep. Ibrma iniifimov. 

are, Aor. i\nixn, ivtixai, etc., ^rii- Xafoftcit, Ep-lo^teU, Aor. Mid. mxo- 

mfi))!' ; Perf. ^r^fEi^^Bi; Aor. PoBiL fovTo, ^219, 7; Aor. Act. ■Exoilai' 

ijnix^iir; — Ep. second Aor. Im)), and Ful K«o3ij<fiu, Tnins,, to roi. 

oiire, luf. oiaifiiy, $223, 10; first jfoi^u, to re/oicc, Ej>. Ful. if/ncij- 

Aor.di-aioiii, Herod. 1, 157. Comp. aoi, wjfKf ijirofioi ; first Aor. Mid, 

6, 66. artui'iriof instead of uroVirio;. ^^oto; second Aor. xi;(agorio, 

<piv/ui, to Jlw, F.p. Tinpvyitifot, aaxped, njufouo, ^219,7; Xf/afiiu!, §223, 

§233, U. 13; Perf. taxagfiifot, Eur.; verbiJ 

ipSariu, to come before, Ep. tfSafiiyot, Adj. X''Q''°!- 

$227, A, (a). jfordafftj, Ep., to AoU, to rudw, Aor. 

ifSelifia, lailtalroy, Ion. FuL Jin^^a' t/oiloii; Perf! withttie seuse of the 

fio/uii iDBtead ofif^afiaoiiai ; Aor. Pre>i.*{xaySa ; FuL j^Etoo^nt, comp. 

Jutfdi'po'Bt, §^3, C. , tno^Dv, nilao/iat. 

9?ir«i, n>rutu)K, and Ep. 9^101, to ^ftu, to pour, Ep. Fut j^ii^oi; Aor. 

(on*ume, and commonly to prriik, yfivn ; second Aor. Mid. jiJio, jfi- 

[Ep. first Pert, long), FuL ifai- jituji, §227, A, [e). 

■ tbei 

B radi 



J231. Radical words, — Stems. — Derivatives, (aat) 
'1. Worda areformed,(B] by derivation, and (b) by compoaition, in accco^- 

witli certain Ihwb. 
2. Tliose words, Urom which other words are derived, but which are 
tbeuisolves underived, are call«l radicol words (vocabuia primitiva). A 
radical word has two perta, the root and the uiflticlion'eDdiDg, e. g. tfiip-m, 


3. All radical words are either verba or pronouns. The roots, L e. the 
letters, the articulated sounds, which remain, afler the rejection of the in- 
flection-endings, are all monosyllabic Still, roots are not always pure, but 
often appear in a strengthened form, e. g. dan-p-m, I x -W-o/uat, av^ 
-flfy-oi, T i; (/)/ -oy-w> « ^ -Urx^oiAai^ in- nqa -oxoi. Comp. §§ 139, and 157, 
1. Yet, these strengthened forms extend only to the Pres. and Impf. 

4 Those words, (vocabula dearwaia) which are derived from radical words, 

(a) either Stems, i. e. such words as are formed from radical words by 
substituting, in the place of the inflection-ending of the radical verb, a de- 
clension-ending either of a substantive or adjective; this declension-ending 
is designed merely to give the general meaning of the verb to the substan- 
tive or adjective, but it does not indicate the precise nature of the idea 
exp^ssed by the substantive, e. g. the idea of persons, things, the ab- 
stract, or the precise nature of the idea expressed by the adjective ; here 
belong several endings of the third Dec, e. g. -$, the marie for the gender 
(o/yy/, ^ fSy/, o fiiil^ri tttvI, /> vav-q^ o v; fiov-g, 6 fi nal-g, instead of nai^-^ ; 
in many words the g is omitted, see § 52, 1) ; the endings -ig(fj aniv^ig^ 
iMyU, fi iXn~ig\ and -v^ (o tnax-vg^ t; ^Jt'^O) ^'^ ^® endings of the first 
and second declensions, e. g. -i}, -a, -og, -oy (y^-17, Xin-fi^ ^I(-a, nXovx^og^ 
voa-og, ^6d-ov) ; finally several adjective-endings, e. g. -o(, 17, -ov (t^il-og, 
-^, -oy), -I J, -ao, -u (/Atx-t'f, -€i«, -v), etc; 

(b) or Derivatives, L e. such words as are partly formed fix>m radical 
words, partly fit>m stems, by assuming a particular derivation-syllable with 
a paiticular signification, e. g. /(uir-o-ai, to gUd, ^^itag, orator, yqa<^txog, 
MUd in painJtifig, 

5. The root is often lengthened ui the derivative word, § 16, 3, e. g. lti& 
"11 firom Xa^^tiv, /fjr fix>m jifoy-eTy ; or it requires the vowel of variation, § 
16, 6, e. g. T^s<p-a>, r^oqp-^, T^o<p-o(, iqoip-ifMg, tga(p-tg6g. There may be, 
also, a strengthening of the consonant, §§ 139, 1, and 157, sq. ; or a doubling 
of the final consonant A, e. g. xaXXog fix>m xaXog ; some stems also take a redu- 
plication, e. g. o;r-o)7i-i;, ^d-a>d-f), ay-aiy-ogy^i-avqt-og Grom JX*^>JZ, comp. 
owp-6g. Finally, stiU other changes are made in the root, as has been 
seen §16. 

6. The change of « into o (seldom into a) and of h into 01, § 16, 6, requires 
special attention. It occurs, (a) in oxytones of the first Dec in ^ and aT>f 
more than one syllable, e. g. T^oqp-17, nouriahmentf Grom T^s<p-co, (iow-tj, a re- 
motnuig', Grom (iip-w, q^Q^a, a oarryingy firom ifig-ut, aloiq^-i}, salvty Gcom 
iUtip^to; — (b) in dissyllabic Ixuytones of the second Dec, which denote a 
result of an action, e. g. Xoyog, word, fix>m Xiy-n, q>6p-og, fnwrdary firom 
^EN-Jl, comp. tntfftov^ vonog, a ktw, fix>m rt/i-w;— (c) in dissyllabic oxy- 

lODed substantivea of ihe secoDd Dec, in -^o;, which, for llie iTiost part, 
denote au active object and often liavc a GulisUntive inetining, e. g. niojf- 
/lof, plaii of hair, from jiitn-a), aiol-itat, garment, from atiiX-a ; iiofin-c{, 
aUtndimty from itiftn-a, aotf-oi, iruc, from ^L'f^-Jl, aapio, t^oip-i;, nouruA- 
in^, noura}Kr, rrom i^iif-a; — (d) in mnnos^tlabic gubstunlii'es of the third 
Dcc^ e. g. ifXul.Jlamtjiroin ifXiy'ia; 3upJ, OTildopc, from BigK-Ofiai ; — (e)in 
oiytonedBiibBtantiveain -i if and Adjectives in -at, which, however, have 
BometimeB a substanlive sense, e. g. j^oif'tvi;, nmiriAtr, from Tfiif-u, aitog 
-a;, tcatlernl, from aniQ-iir, loy-a(, chonn, from Kiy-a, J^ip^-nf, running', 
from JPE'ysSl, coinp. Sijafi-iXt; — [f) in ell derivatives of the forms men- 
tioned, e. g. in sulMlaotivea in 'Oftoi, edjectivea in -tfioi, verbs iu -du>, -ioi, 
-uu, -ti'u, -/fdi, e. g. nldi'R/io;; ipoqi-'i,uo; ; if9o*'m,fmf\t ifSiv-oi, itaii.- 
ttu, (from Siifi-oi, and this from Sift-ai), elc- 

Rehark. The change off into n, comp. ^ 16, 6, ie found onl; in a few 
old poetic derivatives, e. g. ipnip-i^o;, 

A. Derivation. 
§232. I. Verbs. (3sb.> 

1. All derivative veriis end in -aw, -iia, -tv, -iu, -vta, -rvu, -aiv, 
~lZti>, -6!^M, iCu; 'alyu, -uru, -alft), -itgm. All these verba 
must be considered ob denominative, i. e. as derivslivea from BiibelBiitlveB 
or adjectives; for although the stem -substantive ibr several verbs of this 
kind is not in use, yel the analogy of the others requires that the stein of 
these also should be assumed. Many of tliese derivative verba, especially 
many in -ta and -am, take the place of roots which are not in use, e. g. 
ifiliia, lifiiiiu. — On tlie tbrmalion and Hignilicalion of tliesa, the following 
things are to be noted: 

(a) Verbs in -a a and -u f oi, which are mostly derived from suhstanlivea 
of the firat Dec, and diose in -l^ai which arc derived from BiilistantiveB and 
adjectives of all declensions, are partly transitive, partly inmrnsilive, since 
they denote eitlier a rondition or the exercite o/agt-ncy or aetivilt/, e. g. loX- 
fuioi, to bt bolil, from lolftii, boldness, xolau, to be aitgry, from ^oi^, gall, 
yoou, to icap, from yoo; ; dixH^ni, to judge, from Ji'vi; ; /IniHai, to hope, from 
tlnli, oc'Cni, la limil, from ogo;, uiriVoi, to beg, from ut'ri;;, btggar ; — Verba 
in -of ai and -i J tu formed from proj)er names, express the striving to be 
> single individuals, or to whole nnlions, in custom, nature, lan- 
guage, sentiment. Such verl>a are called Imilatirt verba, e. g. Smgiaiat, to 
be a Donan, i. e. to speak or tinnk as a Dorian, Jwpifi'f; Ulign'soi, to per- 
il the custom or language of a Greek, f^S'iui, to be a Mede in itnlimenL 

Remahk 1. Verbs in 'ifsi often signi^- tha making iomelhing into that 
whith iha root deaotes. See (c^ 


Rem. 2. Verbs in -ofw and -rfcu are very rare, e. g. er^ftofo), iofi, kQniim, 
to creep, — By the ending -afo) also, verbs are formed, which denote the 
repetition or strengthening of the idea expressed by the simple verb ; these 
are called Frequentative and Intensive verbs, e. g. ^mru^a, jacto, from ^(tttod, 
jacio, ajiml^fo, to sigh miuJi and deeply, from ativtOj to sigh, efxcf^a), properly, 
to compare on all sides, hence, to conjecture, 

(b) Verbs in -i a and -eva are derived from substantives and adjectives 
of all declensions, and commonly express the intransUive idea ofiheprimi' 
tive, for the most part, the being in a condition, or the exercise of agency, but 
they are sometimes transitive also. When the stem ends in -tg, which 
is the case, e. g. in adjectives in -rjg, -e;, this -eg is omitted, and when it 
ends in -ei;, this -sv is omitted, when the syllable iv is appended, e. g. (ptlim, 
to he a Jritnd, to love, from <ptkog, orvxiotf to be unfortunate, frtim irvx^g, 
stem uTVx^gi evdaipoviott to be prosperous, frtim (vdalp.(av, stem evdaifiow, 
iyoQtvto, to speak in public, from iyoga, market, ^aaiXfvoi, to be a king, from 

(c) Verbs in - o oi , which are mostly derived from substantives and ad- 
jectives of the second Dec, those in -a Ivta, which are commonly derived 
fit>m adjectives, more rarely frtim sulistantives, and those in -vpoj, Grom 
adjectives only, generally denote the making or transforming something in- 
to that which the primitive word signifies ; in like manner several in -Zm, 
see Rem. 1, e. g. /^vaoo), to gUd, frt)m /^i/(ro$, iyvi^ta, to make pure, Grom 
iyvog, nXovriita, to make rich, to enrich, fi*om nXoinog, Xsvnalvca, to fnake white, 
fit>m XevKog, fioQivoi, to bttrden, fi*om Pagvg, 

Rem. 3. From the Fut of several verbs, are formed verbs in -ailw, 
which denote a desire for that which the primitive word signifies ; these are 
called Desiderative verbs, e. g. ytXaatlo}, to desire to laugh, from ytXata, to 
laugh, noXefiiatio}, to desire to engage in war, Grom noXtfUCoi, nagadtoirdia, to 
be indined to surrender. 

§233. 11. Substantives. (396,397.) 

Substantives are derived, 

1. From verbs and substantives, and express, 

a. A concrete idea, i. e. the idea of an active person : 

(a) With tlie endings ^evg (Gen. -«o)?) for the Masc., -eio or ^laaa 
for the Fem.; -ti?? (Gen. -ov) mostly Paroxytones, -ti}^ and -tw^ 
Paroxytones, for the Masc, -XQia Proparoxytones, -TQtg,~ttg and -ig 
(Gen. -tdog), - t e t ^ er Proparoxy tone, for the Fem. ; - oi y for the Masc, 
- a ft y a for the Fem. ; > a> ; for the Masc, - taig and - 01 *> ij for the Fem., 
e. g. ifQtvg, priest, Fem. Ugua, fit)m l*^o^ ; alXv^tig and -^\q,fl\de'player, Fem. 
ovXtjr^ia, alXijTQlg, Grom alXita; aonTfjQ, deliverer, ametQo, from aotCoD; «o- 
Utijg, citiun, noXlug fit)m noXig; ^tw^, orator, from'P£-JI; ^e^intor, ser- 
ffont, ^tganaipa, from Mqatp, 

((J) Willi [he ending -of (Gen. ~ol\ aeldom, and only from verbs with Ihe 
vowel of variation, j 231, 6, (c), e. g. aofinof, atUndant, from aefinBi, 6 n Jfo- 
90t, tutia-uliar, nurse, from rpiipd), agayas, an aUif, from aiitiyai. 

b. They express die abstract idea of what is signified by the primitive : 

(a) From verbs, 

(a) with the eodiogs -irt; (Gen. -iteiu;) and -aia, siibstanlives which 
denote the active idea of the verb, e. g, Tt^ofic, actio, an ading, from n^aTioj ; 

((9) with the ending -^o; (Gen. -ol) such as denote tlie intransilive idea 
of the verb, e. g. oSi'^fiog, waping, from oflufo^ai; 

{/) witli the ending -/i a , such as denote tlie effect of what is signified 
l^ the tronritive action, e. g. ngayfta, somdhiYtg done, fiyijpa, monunientum, 
lamething ukiek raninds ; 

{S] with the endings -/iij, -ij, ~a, (all for ihe most part Oxylooea], and 
(from verbs in -iiiia\ -cla, such as denote sometimes a transitive relation, 
attd sometimes the effect of lliaC relation, e. g. ro^q, a cutting, from tb^cu, 
aoiili), Jong', from atlSm, ipSogo, nai3il<t; 

[t] with Ihe endings -o; (Gen. -ov), -to; (Gen. -tdv) and -o; (Gen. 
-ovt\ such as denote partly, and indeed generally, an intransitive relation, 
partly also a transitive, and partly the etfect of thai relation, e. g. loyof, 
mrd, from liyti, luaKViig, lamentalicn, lo niiSog, cart. 

(b) From adjectives (and substantives, which are sometimes used in an 
attributive sense), 

(a) with the endings - la , from adjectives in -or, and some in the third 
Dec, e. g. voipla, iriadom, from ao(pit, cvSaifiaria, happinax, from tv!ial[iiay, 

(/J) - 1 B (Proparoxytones) from adjectives in -t)f and -ovi, whose stem 
ends in e and o, with which the i of the ending coalesces and forms ii and 
01, thus -tia, -oia, e. g. al^Sna, truth, from ali]9ijc. Gen. 'i-0{, tvyoia, be- 
Mto/encc, from ivrovf, Gen. ivyo-og ; 

(?) - f r » )] from adjectives in -im (Gen. -oroj) and -ot, e. g. troiippo-ffin;, 
Wiodaty, from aiMpgaiy, Gen. -o>-o;, Sixaio-uivii, jxtaliee, from Sluaiof, 

(3) -Tijs, Gen. -rijiof (commonly Pare xy tones) from adjectives in -of and 
-^, e. g. laitiig. Gen. -oiijio;, tqualiiy, from iaoi, naxviin, iMdutoi, from 

(t) 'Of, Gen. -IDS ^ -ot^, from adjectives in -vt and -i^, and such as 
fbnn the Comperotive and Superlative in -lav and -iittoc, e. g. lo/o;, lo, 
lo/oif. tmijlnat, from lo/if , yfujof, to. Gen. -otf, fahrhood, from 
yctiJiff, Qio/oc, TO, btunuis, from ausx^og, autxlaf, 

(f) - a E -udoc, only in abstract numeral Bubatuntives, e. g. ^ (iovas, umty, 
y, Tpia'f, a friod 
K I. &> ■betraota in -tla, which express bolli a transitive and in- 


transitive relation, from compounds in -xog and -TTjg, Gen. -6v, the t is com- 
monly changed into cr, e. g. a&Xod^sxla and ^ala (udXodht^g), a^uvaula 
(i^avaTog\ ina&aqala^ o|v/5iLe^/a, etc. Comp. § 17, 6. 

Rem. 2. The older Attic poetry sometimes makes the a long in the end- 
ings -£ia and -oia^ e. g. avaidtla^ ngopola. 

2. From substantives alone, the following classes denoting the names of 
persons and things, are derived : 

(a) Gentile nouns, i. e. the names of persons derived from their country, 
in - e V ff , (Fem. -ig, -idog\ -iirjg, (Fem. -it*^), -aiii?, (Fem. -axig^ -ijti}^ 
-WTi}^, e. g. /fojQitvg, JaQlg^ ^vPagixrjg, -«T'J* 2naQiiuTrigf etc. 

(b) Patronymics, L e. the names of persons derived from their ancestors, 
with the endings -idtig, Fem. -ig, Gen. -Idog ; also -ladrigf but sub- 
stantives of the first Dec. in -^g and -ag, and many of the second and third 
Dec. whose stem ends in i, and some others, have ^ddtjg, Fem. ~ag, Gen« 
-idog, e. g. Jlgiafi-idfigf Fem. Jflgiafi^ig frx)m nQlafi-og^ nr^Xsiihig fi-om iJi}- 
Xtvg, Gen. IIf}li~og, KtxgtmlSrjg from KixQOip, Gen. -ott-o^, Ilawdoidfig from 
nip^oogj -ovg ; Ttkafitav-iiHtig from Tleila^odi', ^mcc^jj; from ^lyeag, dea- 
TMT^;, Fem. 0£OT»-er$ from dcorio;. 

^ (c) Diminutives (vTroxo^iorixa), frequently with the accompanying idea of 
contempt, with the endings -toy which is the most usual, - er ^ t o y (-ocrioy) 
and -vXl.iov^ -vXXlg^ -vdgtop, -XKpiov ("OKpiov) which belong 

mostly to the language of the conmion people and lo comedy ; ig^ (Gen, 

-^off and -Idog), -t d 1 r formed from -Ig^-^-lcxog^ -iaxii (-/oxioy, 
-//vij, -Ixviov) i-^-tdevg, (but only of the young of animals), e. g. futgdu- 
toy, youlhy frx)m (uiga^, -<xx-og, naid-lor, a litUe Md^ from naig^ naid^g ; — 
nai^-dgiov ; -aaiov instead of ^dgiop only in xogdaiov (from ito^o, young 
tooman) because g precedes ; fitigax-vHioyf axav^'vUig from axav&cty thom^ 
ma^vdgiop, idetj J^mv-q>ior, lUtU animal^ /^va-d^foy Grom xgvaog'^ — tti- 
vax'lg^ litUe tabids from nlwa^, ofia^^f little iDOgon ; vnff-tdiov, tsief, from 
iniaog, xgtddtov instead of -i^diov from xgiag, olxtdtov instead of olxi- 
Idiop fix>m olxla ; — yeory/-axo(, v%avl-uxfi from viariag ; -iaxiop seldom, 
e. g. xoxvXlaxioy from xotvX^ ; -ix^Vi -Ix^^^^ <^nly in TroXi/nj, noUxfiW 
from Ti&li^, xvl/jifyij, xvUxviov from xvXtl; — lay-idsvg^ young hartj from Xa- 
/c^, an-i^f tff, young eagle, from octo;. 

(d) Designations of place, with the endings - i o r (in connection with the 
preceding vowels -aior, -noPf -for) and - « » o y , which denote the abode 
of the person designated by the primitive word, or a place consecrated to 
a Divinity or hero ; - « y (Gen. -cSvop)^ seldom - e u y , and - « y la , which 

• This fbnn is med, when tibe qflisble pfeoeding the Fatronymic ending 
is long, odierwiM tfM ivoH « ^ *^ AdapiBd to hexameter verse, since 
^m ^ifin I^Uibles, thus, XE^^c. 



denoio the residence of permns or a place fiJIud witli plnnlB, e. g. l^yoa- 
Tqp-ior, work$hop, from ((i^oin^p, and bo others in -Tq^ior from -iijo or 
-Tije; Bometimea also this ending ia usej wiUi reference to vessela, e. g. 
itoTqptoi', ibiakii^ vatei ; xovifiio*, barber's shop, from tiovf tig, -i-otf, several 
in -IOC (-tior) Iluvc another si(,'nificaiion, e. ii. igo(piior, tmgts of a nju-jt, 
from Tpoi^ti';; ^tiatio* from Oijiiiq, -i-iii;,'A3^yaioii, MoiHitlor; — iySgmr 
and j'vyatKat, apartmtnts for mtn and women, ikhiuv, ttabU for harsa, ^oSiur 
and ^oSariu, hidge ofrosa, ntgiati^iiiy and nt^iaiigmv, dovt-colc 

(e) Subslanltves whicli denote an iuslrument or a means of accompliBhing 
same object, vrilh the endings - 1 ^ o * und - t p a , e. g. fi'mpa, eurry-mmb, 
SiSaxtfOJ', luitioji-rmma/, lovt^ov, tuater for leaiking, iMvtgot', balh ; also to 
designate place, e. g. o(i^^(ri(ia, dandjig-room, instead of the ending -t^^ior. 

§234. III. Adjectives. (saB-aao.) 

I. From verbs are derived adjeftiives with the ftiUowing endings: 

(a) With the ending -os, which is annejed to the stem of the verb. 
Theee adjeelivea express the transitive, intmnaitivc or passive idea of the 
verb from which tbey are derived, e. g. ifavog, briUianl, from ipahiii, lotnof, 
tte remawuier; the verb-stem of many is not in use, e. g. xaKoi. 

(b) With the endings -kos, -^, -o» and -ifioi, -09 , -i/toi, -t;, 
-o» or -vifOf, -or, which denote alnliii/,Jilnesi,aplnat. Of these, those 
in -iKos Iwve ti transitive signification, tlioso in -i^or both r transitive and 
passive, e. g. y^aif-iKoi, fi "r ablt to painl, igof-ifiot, nulriiivf, la-tripot, 

(c) With the fndings -»of, -^, -ov with an intransitive or passive signi- 
l fimlion, e. g. 8ii-TCi,fnghlfvl, \, aip-nog, honortd, honoraidt, {oi^opai), 
I tny-^oif, krdtd, haUfitl, {STTrjl), noSurot (no9eiii), drtirtd. 

(d)With the ending -loe with a transitive signification, -atXog, -ij, 
> and (from verbs iti -oat) -igUo';, -ij, -6* witli a transitive and in- 
|il(ansitive signification, e. g. Sci-los, timid, ixnay-log [instead of iimlayios 
wf:Uoiaiit!iX'^au),fnghlfiil, ipn3-tai.6g, sparing, aipnijlos, siletit, ajcarqlo;, deceilfvL 
' (e) With the endings -afof, -d , -6v [from verbs in -dm and -oiru) 
o signification, e. g. xoi-^Qag, iladc, fiiu^of, itained. 
(f)Wltli the endings -((iu», -par {Gen. -orot) with an intransitive 
dgmficBtion, e. g. iiv^-pmr, memor, (MXifl), foiipair, itdtUigetd, (noim). 
(g) With the endings - )) ; , -it [Gen. -coq), e. g. nililpije, pleniis. 
(h) With the ending -of 9 (Gen. -dSot), with a transidve, intransitive or 
e. g. tftf-ai, bearing, [<fifu), dgo/iag, running', (JPE- 
' lofvc, eholfn, (liyiii). 

the endings -to;, -t^. -toc and -Tt'ot. -lia, -xiof 
stives; [hose in -loc denote cither a completed action as the 


PovXtv-Tog, 'xiog 








nXat'jog, -riog 




do-Tog, 'tiog. 


Perf. Pass. Part, e. g. Xtx-tog from Xiyaty didus ; or the idea of posBibility, 
which is their usual significatioD, e. g. oga-tog, visUtU. In their formation 
most of these follow either an existing or an assumed Perf. Pass., e. g. 








jtlv-a (TASl) 

8i'8(a-fAt (z/0-i2) 

REBfARK 1. Very many verbal adjectives, however, follow the analogy 
of other forms of the verb, not according to any definite rule, but take 
precisely such a form as suited the ear of the Greeks. Thus a considerable 
number followed, for example, the form of the first Aor. Pass., e. g. aigi^n, 
^gi-&flVj algt-i64 ; wov-w, i-nav-a-dijv^ nav^a-i6g, -xiog ; xgo-^fjuti, ^X9^ 
<T~dfiv, ;if^i?-a-T05, -liog ; <ngi(p-w, f-(ngi(p-dtir, ingm-tog ; igin-a^ i-rgiti^ 
d-fiv, igfit-riog; Tgiq>-ttif ^-^^ecp-^iji', &gen-tiog'y i-cwy-^i, i<na-&fp^y ora- 
tog, -tiog; inaivi^to, injivi-driw^ inmvi-iog '.f—'eoxne the ^rm of the second 
Aor. Act, e. g. ^Ifw, l-trjfc-Toi', cx^-xog ; aigita^ « iXc-roy, iXi-xog ; ijy/ix, tr-%of 
(commonly Jioy), ay-f-iao^, ^y-e-io?; il&rjfii^ t^ds^joPj ^«-Tc5f, -t«05^— 
some the form of the Pres. Act, e. g. ^eVa>, fiip-tiov, (itye-jog, -riog ; ttfu^ 
l^Toy, Uxiog ; so iit^BVXi-tog from ^ETXE-TON («i//o/MOi) ; dwa-xiq (^w«- 
/lai); fprifAlf (pa^jop, (pa-rog. 

2. Adjectives are formed from substantives and adjectives ; 

By the ending - 1 o c (in connection with the preceding vowel of the stem 
"Otog^ ^Hog, -OLog, -(^og, -viog), and ^txog, (when v precedes, nog, and when 
I, -axog). These adjectives have a very general signification. They fre- 
quently indicate the mode by which the agency denoted by the adjective is 
expressed, often also, and very generally, that which proceeds firom an ob- 
ject and is connected with it, e. g. ovgav-tog, ptrUnmng to hecfveuy xa&ag-tog, 
cleanly, but xa^agog, dean^ iXtv^igiogf liberalis, but iXivdigog, liber; i/9- 
gatog, belonging to the market pUtce, {ayogd), ^iguogy summer-like, {^igog, -^-og), 
aldolog (aidtug^ -6-og), ^g^og and tigoiog', tgim]xvtog; dovXtxog; ^fiXvxog, 

Rem. 2. In several words, the ending -aiog, § 17, 6, is used instead of 
-T-ioj, e. g. q>iXox'^(TU)g ((fiXoitig, -tjxog), kxownog (kxtav, -opxag), 

3. Adjectives are formed from substantives alone, 

(a) With the ending - e « o ff (mostly Paroxytones), which are formed frwn 
names of persons, especially from proper names, but in respect to their 
signification they are like adjectives in -mog, e. g. avdgtlog, yvralxeiog, ar- 


(b) With the endings -eos ■= -ovt and - i v o ; , which denote the ma- 
terial of which anything is made, like the English ending -en, e. g. /^I'tr-io; 
^ jfpiHrou;, goldtny 2tfli(D;<" j^niliotc, hrtatn, EtiUiroc, loOM&n, mvttyoi, 
made ofltalher, ladhem. 

(c) With the ending -irof, Beldom -iyot, derired from substantiTes. 
These express certain retations of time, in some coeee, also, an ahtindance 
or fullness, e. g. kanif-irot, vespertinus, jfdnr-ivo;, hesternuB ; igttfOf, 
nuninlainotia, {ofot, Gen. -i-o;). 

(d) With the endings -ii;, Gen. -eyios, always preceded by a vowel, 
riz. 1) from words of the tirst Dec, and a from others ; -pot, -ei/6t, 
"*lP*(i -aliot, which denote fiUInesa or abundance, e. g. iiX^-nt, 
taiwfy, jtvQO-nt,fo'en/ ; our^-^o;, hue ; toa'Ci/ct,^i'i roir-tifog, morbid, rick; 
^Bi|U-aiUof, strong. ExcepUons to those in -ti;, are diySfijiit from dirS^^r, 
Xa^Uii from ^Bf If. 

(e) With tlie ending -i]'^io$ with the transitive sense of verbal sub- 
tlanlivc« in -ijp and -ijs, e. g. amtiiqiof, prarrving, Ihai pruenxt. 

(f) With tlic ending -elJjjs, NeuL -luStj (formed from -o-iiJiit from 
-tMo;, fona, qual^\ These adjectives denote a quaUty or resemblance, 
but often also n fiillncss or Bbimdance, e. g. ifXoy^Sin, raanbling Jlame, 
nouadiji, abounding in grrus. 

(g) With the endinp - » o s (Fern, -la), -xoj, -moi (Fem. -n^', -ixij), 
-i)»o((Fem. -i*''i), and when t or p precedes, -droj (Fem. -awj), -trot 
(Fem. 'i»i). Gentile adjeclives, which are also frequently used as subslsn' 
lives, but particularly, adjectives in -ijroi, -atiq and -tvn;, wliirli are form- 
ed only from names of cities and countries out of Greece, e.g. KoQlt9-ioi, 
-Jn, 'Ad'ijraXoi, -otii, Xios instead of-lios from Xlo(, Atf/floi from Ag-yof, 
-i-o( ; jiaiuSaifiov-iiiof ; Kt>JiK-ij»os, -ijnj (Ki'Jixot), Safit-aiot, ar^ 
{SagStit, Ion. Gen. -l-ar)^ Ayxvqayiij [Aynvija), Taqayx-lrot, -lyfj [Tafat, 

^235. IV. Adverbs. (sai.) 

1. Adverbs are formed from verbs: 

With the endings -d i) r or, when the radical wor<l has the variation o, 
-iSlfy, which denote manner, e. g. ■piJ/JJtji', wcreUy, (npi/nioi), ypo'j)-3iii', 
■cribendo, [ygatfa.'), anog-aitiy, Bparsim. 
3. From verbs and substantives: 

With [he ending -Soy or -aioy, -tjlfo*, mostly from gubstantiveB. 

Vnae also dcttote maimer, or, when derived from substantives, the eternal 

. aratpaySoy, eperte, BuuiiiSoy, disttTuUg, ^oiijviov, grape-like, ire 

>m), ilaBoT, cateri-atim, uycXiiiSoy, gregetim, iivyTjSoy, like a dog. 

bstanlives, pronounB and adverbs, adverbs are formed to denote 


the three relations of place, viz., whence, wkiihtr and whtre, by the endiDgs 
"& EP, "dt (-a t) and ^& i, e. g. o\)(^av6~&iv,from hutven, ovQaPow^de, ifUo or 
to heaven, 0VQar6'^^) in heaven, aXXo^ev, aliunde, aXXoHTt^ alio, aAilo-i^iy 

Remark 1. Words of the first Dec. retain their a or i? before -^tv ; thoee 
of the second, their o ; and those of the third, the o of the Gen. ending, e. g. 
*0Xv/A7iiddty, JSnaQTrj-&(y, oixo^ip, aXXo-x^iv ; but the vowels a, if and o 
are often exchanged with each other, e. g. ^lio-d^Bv from ^/(a ; Mtyaqo^w 
from Miyaga, id. 

Rem. 2. Adverbs in -od, and also others append the endings to the un- 
changed vowels, e. g. avat-^fp, xdiat-dir, 6^(a-x^tv, ixii-^BVf iyyv^^L, Mvdo- 
^iv, tvdo-&i. Some forms of the comparative in -itgog lengthen o into en, 
e. g. afiq>oiiQ(a'Otv. In some of the above forms, a> can be shortened into 
o in poetry, and then rejected entirely, e. g. t^o^ir, ngotr-^ip, instead of 
&^o)^ey, TiQoafu&tP, and in imitation of Doric usage, a is often omitted be- 
fore ^, e. g. oTTi^ey, exxodtf, instead of onia^sv, extoa&Bv, 

Rem. 3. The ending -dt is commonly appended to substantives only, 
and to the unchanged form of tlie Ace, e. g. aXadt, to or into the seoy (aXg), 
Ilv^mds from Jlv&ta, olMovds only Epic, elsewhere oi'xadB from the stem 
'O/r, as q>vyade from (PYS, mstead ofq>vyi]vdB which is not in use, *JElewl- 
vdde. In pronouns and adverbs, -a* c is appended instead of • de, e. g. ixu-'Ct^ 
SXXoiTB, kiBgoaaB, ovdafioaB, itjlocB, more seldom in substantives, e. g. oucocrt. 
— In plural substantives in -ot;, (fdc becomes fe, e. g.^A&iivaSt, Ori^f^B; 
but some substantives in the singular, also, follow tliis analogy, e. g. 'OZt^ 
nla^B, so the poetic adverbs, Svgal^B, foras, Bga^B, jifot^o^e, humum, fitnn the 
obsolete substantives, bqu, x^t^^i earth. 

Rem. 4. Instead of -^e or -cb the Epic dialect has ^dig also, e. g. x^i- 
dig instead of jjfot^fxfE, aXXvdig instead of aXXofrt, and oVxadig, domum. 

Rem. 5. Several pronominal forms with the usual suffix, have, between 
the stem and the suffix, the syllable ax, which is to be accounted for by 
the ending -axig coming before the aspirated relative, e. g. noXX-ax-^^tf 
from noXXdxig and o&bp, Tian-^ax-oaB ; this occurs also in nooet pronominal 
adverbs of place in -17, ~ov, -oi, e. g. iXX-ax^ov, alibi, noXX-ax^ov^ itapt^ 
aX'Vi 7toXX-ax-fi, Ttotvi-ax-oi. 

§236. B. Compounds. (332,333.) 

1. Every compound consists of two words, one of which explains the other 
more definitely. The explanatory word usually stands first, e. g. vav^ftaxivt 
sea-Jight, The word which is explained by the other, shows to what class of 
words the compound belongs, L e. whether it is a substantive or verb, etc ; 
thus, e. g. vav-fiaxla is a substantive, vav-fiaxBiv a verb, puv-fiaxog an ad- 

Remark 1. The explanatory word takes the second place in the com- 
pound but seldom, and mostly in poetic words, e. g. dBioidalinav, L e. Sb^ 
aag rovg daifiovag, 

2. Both words stand either in an attributive relation to each other, (a sub- 
stantive with an adjective or with another substantive in the Gen.), e. g. 


Mij'-t|b = xnxri tilt, had amditum; inn-ov^l^ ^ 'innov olfa; or in bh 
o&/«ditw relation, (n verb, ndjective or ttiibalanlive wilh the Csae of the 
Bulmluntive or with aa adverb), e. g. innoj^oq/iip, innoi^oqio;; vavfioxuv 
(L e. mt'trt naxnjBai), vavitaxot, vempoxla; lirrvxiii', ivivjti;; iminarai, 
i»aatato(, araatamii. 

3. Tlie verb c*n be i^ompounded with prepositions only, e. g. otto-, in-, 
am-, nf o.-, ^ju~, iia-, vara-, Ttai/a-, n^oa-^alvuv; comp. § 237, 5 ; tliesiib- 
atantive and Bdjcetive, eitiier ivitli suhstanlives and adjectiveH, or with pre- 
paeitioDs, or wilh separable and insepuralilc ndverba aiid pre&ics, e. g. uiu- 
funoifvXa'i, i\liv-loytK ; TitQi-inaaic, iia-lnitet; iv-rt^t, av-aitiOf, the 
adverb, with the preposjlions only, e. ^. 'll^Q^-lttaSov. 

Rem. 2, All other cotnpoiinils arc formed by dcrivaiiDn from word* (ire- 
noualy compounded, e. g. to-rvxtiii and li-tv/uis from lU'ii'jpjt, 

Rem. 3. (a) Beparnhle adverbs are surh as are used alone, as well as in 
compoHLtion, e. g. a.\ tetU, nlijr, txee^ Sfta, at the tarm time, Syx'i '■""'i °('H 
nou, nemi^, ayay (n/n-), very, naXiy, agatii, nalai, long titux, Slf from ili'o, 
Wb, or the enme as SIxa, dis, npamldif, tiuv, vHmUy ; tvivxny, ilivx^^i, Aap- 
pOg; nlijfificlfii {"Xv"! fiXoi), violating harmortii ; nlq^/iiltTr, nJrfiu^iliifri; ; 
afiatgoxiiia, to run togtllur, itfiaji/nxia ; o^/ij9aiM>>, (a ffo ntnr (a, aj'/i^d- 
ioaaot, nuiri propinquud ; agtiSakin, noui blooming; o/aaSirtji, nyd^^oat, 
ayayviipoq, vrry mottn/ ; Ttoll/iillamot, thid huds again ; Tialalcpntot, planted 
longtintt; Sifxlkioi, two Ihotaaiid ; Si(f9oyyog, having a double iound ; itay- 
voifoi, aU-mit. 

(h) iDoeparable adverbs are such oa are used only in composition. Tliey 
Me tts Ibllowa: 
(n) ii/K', ha^, Bemi, e. g. tj^/qDitmo;, eemiusius. 

[P] ivf- expresses difficulij, adversity or aversion, and is often the an- 
lilliesia of (f, e. g. Svf^vxilr and ivivxilv, 3v(3aifiorla, nuiforlune ; 
' {/] a Privative, usitally av- liefore n vowel, baa the force of the Latin tn, 
and expresses the negation of the Idea contained iu the simple word, 
e. g. oiro^a;, UTuHnr, aii^iu, dishonor, aitaif, chUdifU, uraitios, in- 
[i] a Collective {aSgounmor) and Intensive, like the Latin con in enmpo' 
sition, expresses communiti/, equality, or a roUtelive idea, and hence 
also infciuAy, e. g. (community, especially in the names of kindred 
and coin^mniona) aicltpoc, brothtr, fh)ni Siltpig, uromb ; (e<|uality) uiii- 
larroc, of the tnmt utigfU, S-ntBos, etien; (iu a collective sense) a5poo;, 
"ided. (#(iiu>, dfio/iat, to sound), uoUij;, colUdtd, fram alii; or ul^;, 
Iqu, uyilii; (intcnsily) uicni;, intentus, aamot, very »hady, Sjifo- 
\king a loud noite. * 

yt, "nic Euphonic a, ^ IG, 10, must be distinguished from the Col- 
- - - - laxi'S and aajaxi'i, an ear qf gndn, atigon^ and amtga- 

irmation of Compounds. (?ai.xa.} 
of thecompoiuidiea verb, j23G, Rem. 1, the pure. 



sometimes also the strengtheDed, stem of the verb remains unchanged, if 
the foUowuig word begins with a vowel, e. g. <p6Q-avyf)g, nu&-a(jfxup ; or 
the final bowels e, o, », also the syllables at, ca, tai, ao, are annexed to the 
stem of the verb, if the following word begins with a consonant ; o- also is 
annexed when the following word begins with a vowel, e. g. dax-i-^v/ios, 
hn-^-Taxifig and iUw-o-idxTi|5, TBifn-i-xigawogjiye^^al-ysXtitg, q^eQ-ia-flios^ 
jafA-eiTi~xQf>^i» kXM-wi-:ii7iXog, fti^oPugPaQog = fity^ao^p., (iipaanig = ^/jr- 
fT-aaniq^ nXrilinnog = nXriy^a-mnog, 

2. When the first part of the compound is a substantive or adjective, the 
declension-stem of the substantive generally remains unchanged, e. g. first 
Dec. viKfi-fpoQog, iyoga-vofiog ; second Dec. Xoya-ygafpog, la^vfjugog by 
Elision, xaxovQ/og by Crasis, laytuPolog (laytug) ; third Dec. atmh-vofiog^ 
^dt}'X6yog, Pov-q>oQp6gi vaV'fiaxla y nvg-q>6Qog, ftday-xoXla, nan^yvgig ; in 
some, the union-vowel o is annexed to the stem, e. g. amfiai^o-ipvXa^, ^wt- 
ih-Xoyog, dtfdovxog by Crasis, instead of 5^5-o-f/off ; in neuters in -oc, Gen. 
-e-og, the t is elided before o, e. g. |i<p-o-<po^oc, or the declension-stem in -«;, 
§61, (b), is retained, e. g. jtXtc-^ogog ; so also in other neuters, e. g. xigag-- 
fioXog^ (patg-ipoQog, 

Remark 1. In the first Dec, however, the union-vowel o is often found 
instead of the declension-stem, e. g. dix-o-yQafpog [dlxtj), Xoyx-o-tpogog ; so 
also the ending -tj or -a is annexed to words of the second and third Dec, 
e. g. ^avatfj-ipoQogy i(Tnidri-q>6Qog\ neuters in -05, GJen. -eo^, PL -ij, fiie- 
quently vary between the o and tjj e. g. ^upofpogog and ^itpfjipogog^ (nuvwpO" 
gog and (TXivriq>6gog. 

Rem. 2. In some words of the third Dec, more seldom of the first and 
second, i is annexed to the pure stem, as a union-vowel, e. g. ntfQinvovgi 
alyiPoTTjg ; fiXHTimoXog (fAwni^g)^ fivglnwovg. In several words a euphonic a 
(a») is inserted, e. g. fioyo-a-Toxogj ^io-Q-tx&Qlcty together with the regular 
^eoe/^^icE, vav-ai-noqog, 

3. When the first part of the compound is an adverb, only those changes 
take place, which arise fit)m the general rules respecting the change of 

4. Respecting the second part, it is to be noted, that the words beginning 
with o, f, o, in composition, regularly lengthen the three vowels, (if the last 
part of the compound is a simple) into 17 and oi, e. g. evi^vefiog from artfiog, arga- 
Ttiyog from Syta, tvrivtaQ from avrjQ ; (c) dvgjiQnfiog fit)m igtifiog, dv^i^Xaiog 
from iXavyta ; (o) ap(o<psXifig from o(psXog, navaiXsdgog fix>m oXXvfUy iptarvfiog 
from ivofia, 

5. In relation to the end of the word, the following things should be 

A. In the Greek language, as has been seen § 236, 3, a verb can be com- 
pounded only with prepositions ; but if it is necessary to compound a 


Terb with osolher part of speccli, ihis is never done immediately, but by 
meana of a derivation from a compound word either actually existing or 
aaauined. Then the derivative-ending, commonly -itu.iB regularly ap- 
pended lo this compound word, e. g. from innovt i^iipiiy, to kap horaa, the 
derivative is uol amot^iifitv, but by means of the compound subetsntive 
umoi^oqio;, il is ijmoidoifita ; so Siovifiia from ^toaip^f, vavfioxetn trom 
rav/ia/ot, iinvxiiii (torn (irfjTjt. 
B. The compound word is an adjective or substantive, 
a. The second port is derived from a verb, and boa the Ibllovring endings, 
(o) MoBt fpequently -oi, -o^, e. g. ^ijpoipofpos, noiirlsking wild bauU, 

^rjfOTgoqKK, nouruhtd by wild brtutt. See 5 73, Rem. 4 ; 
W -IS (-"is) oT-a( [Gen. -ov], -ijp 1-iijf), -mi p. commonly as 
Bubalantiveti with a tranaitivo Bigniticalion, e. g. iL'iQyiirjt, benefaiior, 
yoiioStjtji, legislator, iivgoniiiliis, 0f»tSo0r,iiai, naiSoltJuig; 
iy) -ISr -<S, commonly with a passive or intransitii-e signilication, e. g. 

&cocfikns, bdovtd of God, ctifiaSi];, docilis, ivn(fCJir,t, becoming ; 
{d) -J (-1), e. g. •fitvSufiaftvs from MAPTTIl, rO[ioifi-l,ai. 
h. Or the second pnrt is a substantive, 

(a) Both parta of the compound stand in an altnbulxve relation to each 
other, since tlie first contains a more definite explanation of the last The 
Bubatantive remains unchanged. The first part is an adverb or preposition, 
sometimes also a siihstantirc or adjective, e. g. ofioSoiiloi, a fdlow-tiavc, 
povlt/tot, WiiTM/, axfOTtohi, citndd, 

(b) Both parts of the compound stand in an objtdivt relation to each other, 
since the last Jcooies the object of the first. Tliis division includes a large 
number of adjectives, the first part of which consists either of a verb, or, 
though more seldom, of an adjective, of a aeparable or insepambte adverb 
or of a prci>ositioii used as an adverb, e. g. SuifiSalfitar ^ u lor; dalfieyas 
Siiaat, inixaigaitaios =^ o loif xoxoi; imjiatfair, jnuodaJfiwr ^ o tiaxov 3al- 
ftera '/wi", Svtif/oii, one who hat an unhappy lovt, tV^ras ^ o jor Siot h iau- 
1^ ^aw. anomot = o ono tov orimu Zv, anai; = o nalSat ovx lijfOii-. In all 
these examples the fonnof the substantive remains imchengcd, where tlie 
substantive has a form which does not difier from the masculine and feminine 
form of the adjective, but where this is not the case, the substantive assumes a 
corresponding adjective-ending, viz. -of (Oen. -tw), -uj, (Gen. -u),-ijf(Gen. 
-»«), -i( (Gen. -Jo*,) -01' and (when it ends in -v) -?, e, g. avrSiinvot (Siiit- 
9W,) a fiUoui-^vat, liaiStxot (3uiij), Sitfiot (jifin), dt^^pifot {^piea). ipiio- 
Xfrilftot {xfilfa, jreij'/iOto), S<nofio! {aiofia), iiijmoi (/^), having a fertik 
«enl, Utnoveui [yait], one toha dettrh the tlcip, aria^fltii [to oifiX'K\ aytduit 
(oixfi), axQnf«y, aSax^f, Gen. -voi (lo Sa*fv). 

c Or the second part i* au adjective, 


The selective ratainB its form, except that those in -vt commoul; taka 
ibe ending -^ ; the first pan consiBta either of a subcmntive or an advert^ 
«. g, invytitttw, urbi vicinua, ttirvo^ot or nmraofof, -w, vay mm, apofwiag, 
-mr, tmlUx, ttfoS^iUt, -or, «i)<)qc from ^Hvs, luAvrnx from mav. 




Parts of a Simple Sentence. 

§238. Nature of a Sentence. — Subject. — Predicate. 


1. Syntax treats of sentences, A sentence is ihe expression 
of a thought in words, e. g. To poflo* &a)lei ; o «f ffpatjiof Ovr^iii 
ianr. The conceptions of tlie mind are related parlly to each 
other, and partly lo the speaker, — these are combined together 
and fonn a thought Conceptions are expressed by what are 
called essential words; their relations to each other, partly by 
inflexion and partly by what arc called /orj/ki/ words, §33, 4, 

llius, e. g. Id ifae Bentenco To nalbr ^d^ov Sdli'ii Ir tu lot' najij-ot 
x^Ti-u, there^ &re five eegenlial norib, viz. naloi, fo3oy, SaiXtiy, nai^g, 
v^itoc; their relationa to each other are expreaaed partly by their iiiflesioa 
and partly by the formal words to, (y, tbi, toii. 

2. Every sentence must necessarily have two parts, a subject 
and a predicate. — The subject is that of which something is 
aOirmed; the predicate that which is affirmed of the subject, 
e. g. in the sentences, to ^diw flaiU.Ei — o ap&Qtanni ^rriiot iariv, 
to ^odo* and a ar^Qtaaos are the subjectS) #ailiUi and &rTjrtit iavir, 
the predicates. 

3. The predicate properly contains the substance of the sen- 
tence; the subject is subordinate to it and can be expressed by 
ft mere inflexion-ending of the verb, e. g. diSto- /i i, (1) give. 

4. The subject always has tlie force of a substantive, and 
beooe can be expressed either by a sabslantive or a substantive 



personal pronoun or numeral ; or by an adjective or participle 
used as a substantive ; or by an adverb which becomes a sub- 
stantive by prefixing the article ; or by a preposition followed 
by the case it governs ; or by an infinitive ; finally every word, 
letter, syllable, and every clause can be considered as a substan- 
tive, and hence, with the neuter article commonly agreeing with 
it, can be used as a subject The subject is in the Nom. 

To ^odop ^akltt, 'Eyi yqiifn^ av ygaqa^g, TgBlg riX&ov. 'O 
troq>bg sldaifjuar iarlv* 01 (pd-ovovpTBg ftKrovrtai. Ol naXat iih- 
dguoitiaav. Oi ntgl MiXt ladriv naXStg ifiaxivarxo. To dtdaanBiv 
xaXop iaxiv. X. R. L. 9, 2. Enerai tjj agetfj ataisa&at dg tov nliloij 
Xgovov littXXov, i} rfj xokIo, To bI awdta/iog i<niv. To fix a fiaxgop ia^ 
tip. To ypoa^i atavtov xaXov ianp. 

Remark 1. In all languages, the abstract is very frequently used for the 
concrete (metonomy), so that the same word can denote the one as well as 
the other. Thus in Homer, yipog, yBPtrj, yovog instead of i;»o(. 
IL I, 201. *Sltteav6v re, x^e&v yivsatv, parentem ; also in the tragic and 
other poets, the following words are used to denote persons, viz. novogf 
ajvyog, oti}, nfifAo, yoaog^ ^Q^Qt f^S^^^i f^V'^^^y Ti/ia/,etc; 
ayefAoytvfia instead of {/(juoiy, y v^^st/^a instead of 10^1917, i;/9^t (T- 
(i a , etc. ; in prose, yiXotg^ a ridiculous man ; Xijgogy nugae instead of 
nugator ; oXt&Qog , pemicies instead of pemiciosus homo ; piog^ very 
commonly signifies the means of living, to o^siloc, strength (robur), etc ; 
also the collective nouns ngeaPila mstead o€ ngiafing, IvniAaxln in- 
stead of Iv/ifta/of, (pvyri instead of q)vydd fg, (pvXaxrj instead of <pi;Za3C€^ 
In like manner the name of a place is sometimes put for the persons in it, 
e, g, &iaTQOv instead of ^taial, Sldtav^^'Apvdog instead of ^idtupiot, 
etc The name of the inhabitants is very frequently put for the name of 
the place, as in Latin, e. g. Th. 1, 107, 4>anc£W cngauwrttrtiop ig/toagtagy 
tiiv jiaxidaifiopiatp (iriiQolnoXir. 

Rem. 2. Where the Acx^usative with the Infinitive occurs, the subject is 
in the Ace, as will be seen, § 307, 3. In indefinite and distributive desig- 
nations of number, the subject is expressed by a preposition and the Case 
it governs, e. g. Eig titTag ag ^X&ov, aboni four came. X. Cy. 8. 3, 9. 
unaaay nq&iov fuw tStv dogvqtoqoiv ilg XBtgaxigx iXlovg, e^ngoa&iv 
dk x&v nvXc^y tig licGagagy digxiXioi 5i kxaii(}(o^(v 1&9 nvXiiy. X. H. 
6. 5, 10. lipvyov eig Aax^dalfAova i&p ntgl Stacmnov Tiytat&v ntql ox- 
taxoa iovg, Soxai9^ ixaxnovg, singuli, xaia t&rti, singulae gentes. 

Rem. 3. In the following cases the subject is not expressed by any spe- 
cial word, 

(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is not expressed, unless it 
is particularly emphatic, e. g. Jn^o<pcti, ygafpftg, yqutpH ; 

(b) The verbal idea contained in the predicate is such, that it cannot ap- 
propriately belong to every subject, but only to a particular one, the sub- 
ject being, as it were, implied in ^e predicate. Thus, oivoxoevtk 
in Horn. gc. oipoxoog^ Hit ciig^4teanr pours out (he trine; &vBi'm Her. 

^238.] flYNTAX.-^-aUBJECT. PREDICATE. 297 

K, i &vtis. X. An. 3. 4, 36. littl iylyvaato* avtaiif aV'EiXrivct ^avlo- 
/lirovf amirai Kai SiayyMo/iitavt, /ti^QVii{ec. b mjpi'f ) toi; "£1- 
l^i nai/airxivaaa(r9ai. So irtjiialrii 1 fi train i yy i, iaiilnt' 
yity, HO. aiiXaiinrit. So we must explain vci, rlipn, figoyTif , 
aai^aintt, bc. o Ztif. Th. 4, 52. eaiiot, Oim waa an larih- 
qvakc X. Cy. 4. 5, S. o-i/a-xoTafii.^u ifont. 
(c)Tlio Bubjert is eaHily supplied from the conteKt; IhuH in ilesignationa 
nf time, e. g. t\* iyyiit ^liav SvapCit' (sc. ^ if^"). In this way tiie 
word D deo; is very fivqiienily omitted in certain phrases, e. g. nafi- 
Xti fioi, SC. Scof, God permits, affordt an opportunity ^ litet, e. g. 
Her. 3, 73. iifiif teu ^e { tt ayii<iiaaa<r9atiij* aQj-iir; also jtQoarjiial- 
n», BC.D^Eo;; nQoxfitt'l fioi {ae. ta Tifaypatu), Umigs proiptr lo 
me, / nuxud, comp. Th. I, 109. In BUch exiiressioiiB as <paal, Xi- 
yovat, etc., llie subject uV^poraoi is regularly omlltcd, as it is easily 
supplied by the mind ; 
(d) Sometimes the BuLjecI is supplied from some word of the sentence. 
Her. 9, 8. to* 'la&fibr tttlxio* ical a<fn ij^ npof nlii, sc. to tiixot- 
X. Cy. 2. 4, 34. nDpcrira^ni ivdv^ TtijOi ta ^aalkiia, hoi tfr pit itv- 
dioTijiai, sc. o /JotfUii's, So also in other coses, e. g. PI. L. 864, d. 
1ltt^i^^f xgoiiiciroi, ovSet na Kur loiovTtty (sc. na'tJoiv) Siaifigayi 
(B)Witli the third Pers. Sing, of ilie verb, the indefinite pronoun lij is 
fiequently omitted. PI. Critoti. 4.1, c. oiftt ariB^iiiiTf iil, ovte naxus 
noutv oviha urtf^uTui', olS" a* otidvt naaxji vii aviiat; so often 
with the ln£ ; but if a participle stands in connection witli the Inf , 
e. g. Eur. M. IDIS, noii^iu; ifiptiv jffij dfijior ovia ov^^ a(>uc, the 
participle must be construed as the Buhject. 
Rkm. 4. Impersonal verbs, i. e. such as in English agree with the indefi- 
nite pronoun v(, are not used in Greek; for such expressions es Jti, /pij, 
ionii, nfiitu, e^Etmfr), irSixitat (it u potfiblt), italaif, tu txn, tx" loyo* 
(consentaneum ea), liyirai [it it mitt}, etc, the Greek language always coo- 
n as peraanal, the following Inf. or substantive sentence being regarded 
le subject of these verlm. The indefinite pronouns, one, Ihey, are com- 
awnly expressed by i»(, or by the third Pers. PI. Act., e. g.Uyovai, ^orifi, 
or by the third Pers. Sing. Pass., e. g. li/tioi, or by the personal Pass., e. g. 
^oviiai, ipil^, etc., Ihei/ love me, yott, etc., or by the second Pers. Sing., 
paiticularly of the Opt. with u v , e. g. ipairjs Sr, dicas, you vta^ My, one 

5. The predicate is always a verbal idea, and hence is ex- 
pressed either by a finite verb, or by an adjective, participle, 
mbslantive, pronoun or numeral with the format word that, 
vhich, in this relation, is usually called the affirmation or copula, 
e it connects llie adjective, subslantive, etc. mth the subject, 
and forms one thought, e. g. 

To (iSor 9aHn. '0 SrSgianoi Sytjroj lazir. 'A&avaxol 

ffiF ol &loL 'H aijcti) itaX-ii iatir. 'Aya&ii na^alfaali taxiv 

tfmlfov. KvifK rir fiaailiV!. Touio lo n^ayfxa iati t63i (in this 


case an essential word must always be supplied with the pronoun, e. g. 
jode to JiqayfAa). 2v ria&a naPKarnqoitog. OiSpdqeg titrar rgt%g. 

Rem. 5. The finite verb denotes both the thing affirmed (id quod putdi- 
catur) and the relation of that which is affirmed to the subject or speaker ; 
the relation to the subject, is denoted by the personal-endings of the verb ; 
the relation to the speaker, by its Modes and Tenses, e. g. the ending of 
the verb Xiya shows that its subject is in the fii^t person, and its being in 
the Ind. mode Pres. tense, indicates that the speaker asserts something di- 
rectly, at the present time. But if the predicate is expressed by an adjec- 
tive or substantive with iJvai, the thing predicated is denoted by the ad- 
jective or substantive, and its relation to the speaker by Blvai, e. g. iifdalfiwf 
Hfd =s svdaifioyi-oij ivdalfioiP tl = ivdaifiorB-ng^ tvdaifiorsg wovtai sss ii- 
datfiOvri~ao vaiv. 

Rem. 6. It is necessary to distinguish between the sense of the word i^ 
vaiy as a formal word, and as an essential word ; when used in the latter 
relation, it lias the idea of heing or eru^ence, ofianyingj living, being in a cer- 
tain condition^ etc., e. g. unt ^iog = &e6g iaiip &v, as in Her. 3, 106. tov 
^tiov ^ ngopotTi itrtl ioijaa Goqn^. 

Rem. 7. In order to give greater emphasis to the predicate, the simple 
idea expressed by the verb, is resolved into the participle and cx>pula flycn. 
This mode of expression, however, is more usual in poetry, although it is 
found also in prose, particularly in Herodotus, comp. Rem. 5. Eur. C. 381. 
n&g. Of xaXalnviq ijys naaxovxig Tads; Id. H. 117. ijy aircvdvf. 
Her. 3, 99. anafjveoutvog iati. Id. 9, 51. ^ njfrog icti into tov 
*Aaomov dixa aiadlovg anixovea, PLL. 860, e. ti taina otrtug e/ o y t a 
itrttv, Dem. 01. 3. (v. 1.) 11, 7. tovt op iyvtaxoteg ijcray, thof would 
have been corwinced qfthege things. 

Rem. 8. The copula tlwai'iB sometimes omitted, though commonly onfy 
in the Ind. Pres. ; tlpai is sometimes omitted, even when it is not a copak, 
but properly a verb. The following are the cases where this ellipsis most 
frequently occurs in Greek, 

(a) In general propositions, observations and proverbs. Eur. O. 330L o 
(iiyag ilfiog ov (lopifiog iv fiqatoig, X. Cy. 2. 4, 27. or^aTi^f /iq ij 
(txaiii (odog) laxltnti ; 

(b) Very often with verbal adjectives in - t i o ; , as also with other expres- 
sions denoting ncce^nfy and duty, e. g. aya/xij, X9'^^9 ^iV'^> 
slxog, also with xaigog, utqa and the like. Dem. Ph. 3, 129, 70. ^fU9 
y vjiBQ tfjg iXiv&SQlag iyavietiov. Id. Cor. 296, 205. iiifdag"^ 
iv dovlsvovvji ifj noltt (pigsir ardyxfi', 

(c) Often with certain adjectives, e. g. € t o < ju o ; , nQO &v fi o c , o lo ^Tf . 
dvvaiog, ^^dAoi', /aAsTrov, dijlov, aJ^iov, etc PL Fhaedr. 
252, a. ({ V'Vjif^) dovXsieir itolfifj, Dem. Ph. 1. 48, 29. iyi ndvxwf 
oxiovv Bxoifiog, X. C. 1, 1, 5. driXow ovv, oti ovx up (Setn^avis) 
ngoiUytv, el /u^ inlarsvep aXtix^evaHV* Comp. ib. 2, 34. 

Rem. 9. The Ind. Impf. is but seldom omitted, e. g. Aeschin. Cte& $|71, 
rvJ^ iv fjiiata (sc. 9}r) xal nai^/jav ij vaitgaiiit ilg Tf/r ixxXfialap ; the Ind. Pres. 
also b not very often omitted after conjunctions, e. g. onoit, intl (comp. X 
C. 1, 46.) ; on the contrary, very ftpequently after oii and ^g, that^ e. g. X 
C. 1. 2, 52. XiytaPy ug ovdip iq>tXog, The subjunctive is but seldom omitted 

after the relative o« ta, and especittlly after conjuncliond, e. g. PI. Rp. 370, 
e. vr ar avTolt xfiia (bc. ij). Also the ellipsis of the Opu is not of very 
fi«queiit occurrence, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 12. tic yuq atr, tipaaav, troi yt uiBriu- 
m^ friMTdi (bc (iq) ; lb. SL 3, 2. <gt f4«> ig/iti; rixu^tt', ^tjilo>>, on oi re noU- 
^M «)' ^fiitifoi (sc. I'lprar). The ellipsiH of the Imp. is very rare, c. g. S. 
OC. 1480. llnoc, w da^uur. X- An. 3. 3, 14. toi; ovy Siols X^'( (b'^ wiw), 
Sti ov ahr nall^ ^'^f,']) "^^^ <''" oUyotf T)i!>or. The participle is very of- 
ten omitted, especially after verlta inUUigendi and detimvn^ e. g. X- S. 3, 7. 
^jlor yi, on ^nt'ilDC (sc. a*) <fuvovna^, but elsewhere nlso, e. g. X. C. 3. 3, 
15. utona li/ttf nal oliafiui jigof aov (sc. ofio), el niiUo modo tibi conve- 
nientia ; even in such ceaca as Th. 4, 135. j'Fi^tucD; idiuTiuKto; nal n^o; eat) 
^di) (sc ortoj). The Inl! is often omitted after Soxtir, ityilaSat, yo^ijdv 
and the like, e. g. Th. 7, 60. pavUvzia iSotni. X. Cy. 1. 6, 14. amorxa fK 
U)MXtat tolt ai^jtnuyatait (sc, ilvtrt) ropiZoi4imi( aySfaai dtaUyiaSai. 

§239. (7offlpori*ofl. — Attribute and Object. (xa.) 

1. When it is necessary to indicate, that the predicate belongs 
lo the sabject in a higher or lower degree than to another ob- 
ject, this relation is denoted by the Comparative, e. g. '0 nariiQ 
Itti^tof ioTiy, ^ 6 viog. — 'O aoifoe ftaXlof );«i'pe( 75 ojrrB, Ij 
tote xeif""*- And when the predicate belongs to the subject 
in the highest or lowest degree, as respects all other objects 
compared, the Superlalive is used, which commonly takes with 
it a partitive Genitive, e, g. XmxpaTi?? narriat 'EXX^tmr aotftota- 
rot I*- — 'O (Jo<fOi navTtov paliata iniftvuti tijg ap^r^j. 

Remirk 1. Tlte Comparative is strengthened or more definitely etalf^d in 
the Ibllowing ways : (u) by e 1 1 , tliii, even, elium, e. g. /ii^tirr it 1 , atUt gnat- 
er,'(b]byfiaiip(ii, oili^^i, nokXif , tji noXX^, oirai, ioodut^; 
/iiya. oiiyoy, -noli, oaor, looovio, which show how mwA more 
or leaa of the quality expressed by the adjective is intended, e. g. n a iL i u 
fM^oM'itnuIto major, /or greottr, noil u ftt ^(I'^ovi;, multo mujoresetiam; 
(c) sometimes by ^uoiiof. Her. l.aa.pSiioe oXfiiaifQ^t iiru [far). 

Rem. 2. The Superlative is strengthened or more definitely stated in tlie 
Allowing ways: (a) by xaf, vel, men, e. g. xoi fiakicta, very greaUy indeed ; 
(b) b; words denoting measure, viz. noiliLu, ^axp^, nolv, napa 
nolii, oa^ , toaoitu, e. g. aolk^ apurioc, mullo prBestantiseimus, 
ft9»g^ agiajoi, longe praestanlisaimus ; (c) even by llie Superlatives 
nltitrior, /tiytaiov, fialiaza, e. g. S. OC. 743. Tiiilirjoy ar- 
&fiintap naxiino;. Th. 7, 42. fialiaiu Siiwaiet ; (d) by tlje relatives 
is (onuc), DTI and n, oiof, $343, Rem. 2, e. g. u; la/iaro, quam 
cvlerrlnie, 1 1 fiaiitrta, i; afi(noy, e. g. PI. Apol. 23, a. aoiXai fiiy anix- 
9lial /lot yiyoyom xal ofm jfaUnuiaiiii xnl fioQvjaiat. X An. 4. 8, 2. 
X^loy 1 r jj^trltnuiaiov ; (e) by lie, unu«, signifying the tme, e. g. Her. 6, 
i37. ^61 Z/iHitvflS^i ^i/fia^i-iijt, OC ^i Tillltrtov Si] x^iSiit 'If <<>QP 
amlmiro. X. An. 1.9,^ Sufa itltlvta ilf yc oi^p at Uaiiliart (C. 
raac. 2. 26, 64. ampliltidinem animi unani esse omnium rem puleherrimam) ; 
(f) & peculiar mode of strengthening tlie Superlative, is by joining iy to tc 

300 8YNTAX.r— AGREEMENT. [§ 240. 

with it, in which case the Superlative must be repeated, e. g. *0 *'£Q(oi i v 
toXg nQtafivjaJoq iaxt (i. e. h toig nfjia^tnaioiq ovai). Her. 7, 137. 
fovTo lAOi ir To7(T* '&Bi6ta'top (paiyBiair yivia&ai, PI. Symp. 17^3, b. 
SwtijQLXovq igaaiTig uy iv xolq fiaXtaxa j&¥ Tore. The constniction 
with the Fern, is found only in Thuc, e. g. 3, 81. (fnaaiq) iv xolq tt^uti} 
fyiveto. Ib.17. ^i' lotg nXtlfrjat viiBg, Insuch instances, to 7^ must 
be considered as Neut In like manner, the expression ojuo*a TOi( was 
used with the Superlative. Her. 3, 8. (riportai, de ^JgaPioi nhiig ip&Qwnwf 
ofAola Toiai fiaXifrt a (sc (nliofuroig\ ut qui maxime. Th. 1, 25. X9^ 
liittav dwifin opug xor ixBiror Tor X9^^^ ofiota tolg *£lXfipap nXoih- 
citixij oig. 

Rem. 3. The relation of the Superlative is often expressed more emphati- 
cally by employing negatwe adjectives or adverbs of the Superlative form, 
preceded by o v {lAtdtes^ instead ofposUive adjectives or adverbs of the Su- 
perlative form, e. g. ovx fJxiorTo, ov xaxiatogj oin iXa/^aTo;, 
stronger than naXuna, piXiunog, fkiyivxog. Sometimes, also, it is expressed 
antithetically, e* g* oiix ^xAtrfa, aXXa fittlKrta, 

2. A sentence consisting of a subject and predicate may be 
extended by defining the subject and predicate more exactly. 
This more exact definition of the subject, (which is called an at- 
tribute), is caused, either by the addition of an adjective, e. g. 
TO xalop Qodop, or by a substantive, which maybe either in 
the Gren. — an attributive Gen. — e. g. o rov ^actXecos xijnast 
regis hortus = regius hortus, or in the same Case as the subject, 
i. e. in apposition, e. g. KvQog, 6 ^aciXeig. The more exact defi- 
nition of the predicate (which is termed the object), is made 
either by the Cases of the substantive, by prepositions with a 
substantive, by a form of the Inf , or by an adverb, e. g. *0 co(p6g 
tiiv aQetijv dcMi. IleQi r^g nargidog fAax6(ied^a. ^Anii- 
9 a I ini'&vim, KaXmg yqaqtBtg. 

§240. Agreement. (3m.) 

1. The predicative verb agrees with the subject in Person and 
in Number ; the predicative or attributive adjective, participle, 
pronoun and numeral, in Gender, Number and Case. The 
attributive adjective agrees with its substantive in all the Cases. 
So a predicative or attributive substantive agrees with the sub- 
ject, when the substantive denotes 9l person^ and hence it either 
has a particular form for the Masc and Fem. gender, or it is of 
common gender ; but when the substantive denotes a things it 
agrees with the subject only in Case; the gender and number 
may be different, e. g. 

4 240.] SYNTAX. AGREEMENT. 301 

'Eyoi j-i/aipti, trv yfa^ut, ouiO( yfdipu. 'O SfSgiottot 9>rrii6( /any. 'll 
apiiq muLiJ ^(TTii'. To n^ayita ataxfor iarty. Oi "ElXijyft noXipaiataioi 
^aw. O Kolttg nai(, ^ aoifii yvn], lo /iixgoy taivor. Kugoi t/y Paailtif. 
Teitvftt iir paallua. A'upoc, o ^aailivt, Tofiv^if, ^ ^aaUeia. On the cod- 
trary,it(» dvyaiiga, Stiyor ii xujljlat xal fiiyiSoi, llayoiy 
ttSt Unty (fcu daughter a leondtr in btavly and nzt) X. Cy. 5. 2, 7. 

2, The predicative adjeclive or substantive agrees with the 
subject in the manner above stated, when the following verbs, 
which do not express a complete predicate sense, take, as it were, 
ihe place of the copula : 

(a) The verb iftoQitii', to be the cause of, lo exist; 

(b) Verbs which denote ^oiciMg-, becoming; e. g, yiyvta&at, qiv. 
poi, ai'^avea&at ; 

(c) The verba itiytiy, to remain, and xataat^yai, to be establish- 

(d) Verbs of seeming, appearing, sfiovoing one's self, e. g. iouti- 
fai, tpairttj^iu, BqXoHa&at ; 

(e) Verbs of being named, e. g. Ka}xia&ai, ovofia^ea'9ai, Xtyia- 
&at, axovett, to be esteemed, like audire ; 

(f ) Verbs which signify, to be appointed to something, to be 
chosen, to be named, e. g. aiqiic&ai, dnoSeixyva^ai ; 

(g) Verbs which signify, to be regarded as something, to be 
recognized as something, to be supposed, e. g. w/iiteoSai, 

(h) Verbs which signify, lo be given out as something, to be 
received as something, to be east off, and the like, e. g. 

Kvifot iyimt ^amkivs liv tlifitruy. Toiioit o ^NXiTtJiog fiiyat 
L ySr aoJlaxt; xat ifcoi! iySqal anovova ir [aiuliunt] Dem. Cor. 341. 

untioned under (e), {f ), (g), (h), have ihe 

t 1. When tlie verba r 
e form, ibey take two oi 

■M. 2. The verb tlyai, when used as an essential word, ^ S38, Rem. 6, 
11 as several of the verbs above named, may be joinetl with an adverb, 
Lwhen they expre^ a complete predimte Bcnse, and thus be made more ile- 
f 'fiiulc, e. g. Zoafaitii t) y (livtd) dtt trvv lotg riotq. Kalas, naicuc ia- 
it imU, etc.). Jtiv&i laar it ifvXmii,it oX B(tlivlaaioi (iWi^axet 
cuslodla) Her. 3, 152. h'lyat is very often connected, am 
B the verbs ylyyiaSai and ntqivxiyai, with adverbs of place 
I and degree, when there are no corresponding adjective forma, as Slxa, 
i ^mfitt (>■£> ftaitfay, na^jw, lyyit, nltjtrfo)', o^ov, aiit, 


oL yv&iAai> (sententiae in diversas partes dUcedebant) Her. 6, 109. 

3. When a Demonstrative, Rel. or Inlerrog. pronoun is the 
subject of a sentence, and the predicate is a substantive with the 
copula fiiyat, or one of the verbs mentioned in No. 2, the Eng. 
sometimes use a Neut. pronoun, e. g. t/ is a good man ; on the 
contrary, the Greek commonly, and the Latin regularly, put the 
pronoun by means of attraction, in the same gender and number 
with the substantive to which it belongs. The same thing 
takes place when the pronoun is in the Ace. and depends on a 
verb of naminffy or when the pronoun is a predicate, e. g. 

Ovtog imip o ayiiQ. Avtfj i<nl ntiyti xal iff XV navitav t&v xa- 
xaty. Ovioi dij ^A&tjyalol y» dlxfiv avxf\¥ xalovcrirj alXa / ^ a 9 ij r PI. 
Eutyphr. prioc. Jlaga iSiv 7iQoyeyerrifiipt»r fictv'&dptre' avrti yaq iff lax f^ 
d&daa*aXla X. Cy. 8. 7, 24. Tig iati ^fiyv ^9? ogetiig; Ilavtig 
ovToi voftot iUrlrj ovg to nXij&og trwiXd'or xal doxtfidaav tyQaipt X. C, 
1. 2, 42. *Eav tig tplkog fioi yspo/ABPog tv noiflp iOiXfi, ovtog /lOi fiiog iatt 
(hie mihi est tnctua) 3. 11, 4. 

Rem. 3. Still, the Greeks often place the pronoun in the Neut Sing., e. g. 
*'JCati di TOVTO tvffarrlg PL Rp. 344, a, where in Lat it would be, Est 
tiiitem haee tyrannii. Tovto iatir ^ dixoioai/yi} lb. 432, b. Tovto 
ntiyii xal agxv xivrjaimg Phaedr. 245, c. *'£y(oys fprifil tavta uh fpXva- 
Qlag ilvai X. An. 1. 3, 18. The Neut PI. is sometimes used instead of 
the Neut Sing. See § 241, Rem. 3. The Neut pronoun denotes the nature 
of an object ; on the contrary, the pronoun that agrees with a noun, denotes 
the quality of the object Hence there are cases where the two forms of 
expression cannot be interchanged, e. g. Tl iau fp &6vog; qvnd estinti- 
diaf andT^; iati tp&orog; quae eat invidiam 

§241. Exceptions to the general rules of Agree- 
ment. (364-374.) 

1. The form of the predicate in many cases does not agree 
with the subject grammatically, but in sense (Constructio 
%ata avvectv or ad inteUectum). This construction is found 
very often in .Collectives, also with the names of, cities and 
countries, when they are employed for the inhabitants, and 
in Abstracts which are used instead of Concretes, §238, 
Rem. 1. 

Her. 9, 23. TO nXrid-og imPoii^fiaav, Th. 4, 32. o aUo^ atfja- 
T0( anifiaivov. 5, 60. to atgatomdor oyfji^u^o vy . 2,21. 


attributive ndjectiv-ea,'lhia FoDBlrucCJon ia rare and only poeiic, e. g, 11. x, 
84. ifllt TturaK; tint it is very cotntiion in prose with a Part which stands 
in a remoter Bltrihutive relation, e. g. Th. 3, 7!). hil tifv jtokiy tnialtoy 

— itnolJi^ ta^axf, xai ipo^tf oktoj. X. Cy. 7. 3, 8. oi iyadli uai nitnti 
V^X^i <^XV ^'1 nnoiltniu V q/iBf. X. M. 1. 4, 13. o tx lou Sirteog ox^of 
^3Qoia3ii npa; xas rats, dav/la'Coyit; xal iStly povlofiiro i ihr 
''^xilluiSijr. It is very frequent n'itllUleproIlouui^ Hi. ],13fJ. qiiiyii if Ki^- 
xvfur ii aviir (hc. Kit/xvfaiaiy] ivifyiiii;. 4, Hi. ig i!,* JFn a ^ i <]> 
is iiyyii-Oi TB ytytrtijiira nfpi nihtr. tiaitv q v i d T c (sc. 1014 ^napiui lot;). 
X.Cy, 3. 8, 14. avyxoXiaaqnayto vi t/allutixof tltitnqos avt oil ( loia- 
it. Also with the relative pronoun ; see on the adjeclive-Bentencea, ^ 33S, 5. 

Remark 1. When the subjecl is e^tpreased by the Ncut. of the article to 
or to in connection with a Huhstantive in the Gen. PI., tlie predicate com- 
tuoniy agrees with llie attributive genitive. S. Ph. 497. iii ituv diano- 
tav — IOC oi*aS' ^ itnyof aiokor. PL Bp. 8. 5G3, e. 10 imv d tip I air 

— ikivSifaiifa tain [the Sing. Vtri/v is used on account of iliu NeuL 
PI. tl%v8i^atfi)a, according to No. 4). 

Rem. 2: Closely related to the construction juet stated, is the following, 
namely, when a aubstantive Buliject with an Httributive substantive in tlie 
Gen. PI. expresses per ipli radically a subetantivc idea, the Particiiile which 
Stands in a remoter attributive relation to the subject, agrees in Case with 
Ifae subject, hut in Gender and Number with the sulwtniitive in (he Gen., 
which expreasea the principal idea of the periphraBia. Od. i, 90. ?(15( f tnl 
yv^q Bij^aiov T c i ^ e a i a x^ifior anij mgor i x tii y . 11. fl, i3i), f - . 

•iSuv iiiTiijriur i9yia noXia — crSa xoi ctSa noturtai ayallo- 

lECBi mtfvyiirair. 

2. When the subject is expressed, not as a special and defi- 
I nite objecl, but as a more general idea, the predicative adjective 
I is put in Ihe Neut. Sing, without reference to ihe gender and 
I number of the subject (In English we sometimes use the 
wrords, thirty, or ant/ thing; or any things). Sometimes the pro- 
noun »J, or the subslantivea xf^pa, niidyfia, are connected 
with the adjective. When the adjective is in the Superlative, 
the English inserts the article the, or a. 

n. A204.8wo/offi» noltiKOipoc/q- I'n Kolfarot imti. Eur.O. 
760. liivor oi nokXol, xanavQyovt otar ej-otot ii(>oviaia^ M. 329. 
nXiir yag ji*roiy 'jioiyi ipHj at or t olti. H. F. 129.'>. al /ii^ afloXal 
■ itin^por. Her. 3, 82. 15 (lovyagxh x^aiiirioy. PI. Rp. 2. 364, 
B. xaioy [lit >i a aif^oavyii 11 *i>\ iTiiiaiaovri), jfalmiir fiiriot 
■■1 inlitoyoy . Also in abbreviated adjective senteiiceB, e. g. Her. 3, 
lOa i\ littmo, toy ((rj-tipoTOTOf noi 9 favvTatoy, ana£ h ty 


jKy tUtn &. PL Rp. 4. 420, c o! oq>&aXfAolj xaXXiator or, ow 
i^Tft^ ivttlflXififdpfu uaiif. Her. S^ 50. JVQowlg x ^-^ f* ^ a9aZ«^0K PL 
Th. 122, b. ffVfipovXri S«^ov X9V(^^' Dem. OL 1. 21, 12. anotg iup loyogf 
iv inr^ fit nqayfAajo^ fiataiop 1 1 <paivtiM no* » f r o y . 

3. When the subject is an Inf. or an entire sentence, the 
Greeks usually place the predicative adjective in the Neut PL 
instead of the Sing., where the English use the pronoun t/, e. g. 
U'vs pleascmt to see the sun. This occurs most frequently in 
verbal adjectives in -tog and -riog ; in those in -tiog and in many 
in -Toff, the Inf. is implied in the word itself; where these verbal 
adjectives are followed by the DaL, the Dat is to be translated 
as a Nom., and the verbal adjective as a Pass, verb, e. g. dfivrtta 
iatiuph some one is to be helped; msta hri, rois cpHoig, friends 
are to be trusted^ e. g. 

Her. 1, 91. r^r ntnqmfdnpf fioiqav ad v vat a iaxh anoipvyiiiv utal t^e^. 

3, 83. ^ i} il o , St* de! Fr« yi tiva {^W fiaffdia ytvia&au Th. 1, 86. ovg ojf 

naQodotia to% *A&riraioig imh, wdi *al Xoyoig dtaxgitia aXXi 

t&fit$(ffitia h %ax9i, A^\. advrata nfv h tcS naqovth %<Ag Aontqwg 


Rem. 3. In like manner, the Greek very often uses the PL tavta^ ladt, 
Bometimes also iiuiva^ to ejrpress an idea m the most general manner. 
Th. 6, 77. mm^It»v%q tadt wrlp, wf *£XXrign6rtioiy aXXa JtiQi^g, AeschuL 
* Ctes. p. 55. otm Junt lavta Aqx^, this is not an <iffuxr. Id. Leg. p. 50. 
tavx Vni9 nqodoxf^, PL Phaedon. 62, d. ailil' o awif(tog Sp&qmnog 
tax «P oiri\^dri lavra, <pevMxiov ilva^ Ano tov dBonotov, 

4. The subject in the Neut PL is connected with a verb in 
the Sing., e. g. 

Tec J^ua T^«/«». Ta nQayfiaia iaxtnaXa. Od. i, 438. mi2 
TOT mtna vofiovlt iliaavxo SqtrBra fitiXa. Eur. M. 618. *axov yaq 
aroQog 0»q ovr^iv one a / 1 » . 

Rem. 4. This construction holds also in adverbial participial phrases, 
e. g. do^av Tui/f o, quum haec visa, decreta essent X. An. 4. 1, 13. 
Ho^av di Ttfi/To, hniqv^aif ovtvnoiur. Yet, X. H. 3.2, 19. do^o^TO 
di xavia nal Titqav^ivta^ la ftip (nQaxBVfAOta aniiX^iP. 

Rem. 5. There are some exceptions, however, to the rule just stated ; they 
may be for the most part referred to the following cases, 
(a) When the subject in the Neut PI. denotes a person or living crea- 
tures, the verb is very often put in the PL in accordance with the con- 
strvdiouata avptaip. Th. 4, 88. to tiXfi, the magistrates^ ofio- 
aurta i^insfiiffap. 7, 57. toaadi una 'A&fjvaitop l^yif 
ivrQativop. PI. Lach. 180, e^ tii fiBiQaxta dimXsyifispot 
intfiifiriiPtai Somgaxovg nal 9(^dqa ina&povaiP. 


(b) When the idea of a division inio pnns, or of b plurolity composed of 
sereral parts (these parts havtiig relation to vorious plsMH atid tiinea) 
is to be ronde prominent, e. g. X. Ail 1. 7, 17. Tai'tj; t,^ vfii^a ovx 
i/iaxiaaio ^aailtiif, all' vnoxaHfO^'""' fan^a yaar lat 'inJiar xal 
arUfiaHiBr ixftl n o iL Jl a, many traces hat and Uirt. Cy. 5. 1, 13. 
TO fiox^^Qo a 7 9 fniTi ia nairur, oi/iai, twy tai^ffiiar uxyain 
dvri, xaniiia iginiit atiidiviai, the ehtirge it maJt in a Sfferenl 
manner and at diffirenl limes. Th. 5, S6. ^m (praeter) lovtwr npo; lov 
ilfnyririxov xal Jimdavgior nolipoy xoi /; alXa afufojifoit afiafi'i-- 
II at a iyivofTO, mistaka at varima poinlt and timet. 

(c) The poets from Homer down, except the Attic, very often use ilie 
PL simply on aecount of the metre. 

RxM. li. The phiral subject, masculine or femiuine, is connected in tliQ 
poel^ though rarely, with a verb in the Sing. Find. Oi, II, (]0.}princ. /ii- 
li^apvi; v/irot wii^urii^^ai lo^iui' ziliti m. This construction 
ifl very limited in prose-wiitere ; it occurs with taji and <; v, whkh then 
become, as it were, impersonal eipressiona; this takes pluce only at the 
beginnmg of a sentence, (comp. it eM cait umget). Her. 1, Sfi. lau /iiiafi' 
T^{ u nolai^t ttiliot nai tov nptv Inia trraSmi. PI. Rp. 5, 46S, c. eitti xal 
tr TOtj SlXait nolnriF iqxo'^ii i' ""» S^pof. In like manner the Greeks 
regularly ssy ra-iir, oi^ sunt, qui. See ^331, Rem. 4. Tlie construction 
mentioued J 242, Rem. 3, is difierent from this. 

5. A subject in the Dual very often has a predicate in Ihe PI. 
e. g. '^"o org arm arejia>()>jaav. 

Rbm. 7, The Dual is not used in nil caws where two objects are spoken 
of^ but only where two similar objects are mentioned, eitlier naturally con- 
necled, e. g. nuBi, xifpt, eijt, or such as we conceive to stand in a close 
■nd reciprocal relation, e. g. two combatants, tivo friends, etc. 

Rem. 8. The Dual is very often exchanged for the PI,, csprdally in par- 
txiples, e. g. 11. 1, 021. toi 8' ISqu an iipixono jfinufftir atari i 
woiJ nroi^v. PI. Euthyd. 273, d. iyilaaaitir Sfiqiai ^kiifuptit 

Rem. 9. A subject in the PI. sometimes has a verb in the Dual, when 
two objects mutually connected, or two pairs are s|ioken of, e. g. 11. 3, 4.'52, 
Bqq. Bit l^ ou x'^fffioi It ot a ftol, nai oi/ntipi ^larTi;, isfuaya}^ 
■tisf trvftjldilnoy S^^ifiar iiJiop, — b1{ i<uv iiaryofiiyio]/ yimo lo/ij m 
tfo^ot u, (two Blreamsrunningon opposite sides are compared with two hos- 
tile parties). II. 5, 185, sqq. Ia*9t u xai av IloSagyr, xal AiOiav yla/int t« 
Sit, ri-r poi iljv xopiSii* an otlrrjof, — 191. uii' ttfOfAafteXtor xul 
vntiSti v, (fun point), 

RxM. 10. Two additional instances of the attributive relation, which re- 
spect Iha Dual, are yet to be noted, 

(a) A substantive in the PI. is very often connected with Ihe Dual Ji'oi, 

6vo. ivoli'. n. t, 10. aioi vliis. n. 1, 4. ow/-ot JtD. Aescli. Ag. 

It olptayfxa'Tir. PI. Rep. G14, c. iio xiffiaiu /j'O^tVoj uJi'j- 

(h) Feminine suletanlivea in the Dual are commonly connected with 
the attributive in the Masc. Dual, since the Dual ending of attributives 
is regarded as, at the same time Masc. and Fern, (of eoinmim gender), 


^ g> aju<po9 Tw noilec — Tcu p^vralxe — 0^901 Toi/ro) tm {^'pa — ToTr 
/cyiaeoiy — » Tovroi tw W/ra — Tovroir i o«r x*M^«oiF — t<w odv. PL 
Phaedr. 237, d. fifi&v h kxoetff^ dvo Jiri iajov Idea ff^/oyTC *al 
«yoFT«,oIy inofiB&a — ^-tovtw di x. x. A. The Fern, form of 
the article t «, is extremely rare. e. g. ta d* ovr koqu S. Ant 769; 
oftener in the form ralr, e. g. X. H. 6, 4. 17. PL Tim. 79, d ; so iu 
Ta»yde f ov e a ly naqdipoir S.OC. 445. tavt a IP fi OP a IV ih. 
859. ^x tavtatp 1149. tavtaip di tatp dwSiiKatP Isae. 5, 15; 
but xavxa seems not to occur. 

6. When the predicate is a substantive with fi2ra«, or one of 
the verbs mentioned § 240, 2, the verb sometimes agrees by 
means of attraction, as in Latin, with the predicative substan- 
tive nearest to it, e. g. 

Her. 3, 60. to fiiinog lov o^vyfunog hna crtid tol titri, 2,15. a{ ^- 
fiat Al'yvntog iiiakitTO. Th. 3, 112. ^ a t o y dvoi I0901 ^ 7Jo- 
f*if^ VifftiXto. 4, 102. TO x^Q^^ touto, ontg ngottffop *Ep pia idol ixa^ 
^oCrxo. Isocr. Paneg. 51, b. c a T i o^/inoiTccTcc tap i&pw xal fit^ 
yUnag dvpamelag f^x^pxa ^xv&at xal Oq^Tug xal niqaau So also in the 
paiticipial construction, e. g. Th. 5, 4. xajaXaft^apovet xa\ ^qixtpplag^ o p 
X^VfAo ip Tj} jieortlpji, PL L. 735, e. lovg /iiyima i^fiaQtrptoTag, avMi- 
tovgdioptag^ fityiatfip de ovuap piafitip noUmg, inaXlatuip eSo»- 
^tPf instead of orro^. So also Her. 3, 108. { Uaipoy iop ifrxvQoraj op 
nal ^gatrvxatoPf ana^ ip r^ fiUf* xlxiti fV, instead of iotaa, Comp. 
No. 2. 

7. A superlative connected with a partitive Gren. commonly 
agrees in gender with the subject, more rarely with the gender 
of the partitive. 

IL 9, 253. (aiitov) og^ afia xaQXicrrig jb xal Sxiatog nna^ 

v&p, /, 139. x/^xo(, ila ^g ox ax og ntxBtiPwp. Her. 4, 85. o i7oy- 

To^ ntkaymp anartmp ni^vxs ^avfiaaiiotaxog, Menandr. p. 198. 

(Mein.) yo(ro»y / aie^roSiaTo; <p&6pog$ X. C. 4. 7, 7. o riliog xop 

napta X90POP napxtop XafinQ ox a tog iSr duifitPti. PL Tim. 29, a. o 

xoafiog xdXX^trxog xHp ytyopoxofp. Plutarch. ConsoL ad ApolL IL ij 

Xvnfi /aZa^wTOTi} na^&p. On the contrary, Isocr. ad Nicocl. extr. avyi- 

povXog aya^og /^isfar^fiwTaToi' xal xvQappixtoxaxop anapxmp 

MXfifAaxmp iaxL 

Rbm. 11. When the idea of personality in general is to be expressed, the 
Masc may be used in relation to a Fem. name, e. g. SvpiXriXv^afrip ng i/d 
iunaXMXtlfJ^f^ipa^ adtXfpal x» xal idiXtpidal xal avtipial xofrainat, o>^' tlpai ip 
xp olxlq xBtrcraQtgxaldtxa xovg iXiv&iqovg (free men) X. C. 2. 7, 2. *H 
axi^fog ovaa noaxog ovx api^txah xlxxopx ag aXXovg, ovxtxow avtr 
trntPOf the ctmnU endure (hat other» (Masc) ^undd bring forth young, Eur. 


Aadr. 711. So, oleo, the tragic poeu use tlie MaBC.,when n wntnan speaks 
of herself id the PL, e. g. 3. £1. 391. Electra Boys ofherBelf, ntaoviit&' , tt 
jlffil, noi^t tiftuQovfuvoi. 

RsM. 12. SoiiietimeB the tirst Pers. PI., or the Fere, pronuun lirst Pen. 
PL is used, for the sake of inodealy, inBteail of the Sing., since tlie speaker 
repreaeDts hia own views and actioiu as common to others. Tliia usage, 
which ia very frequent in Latin, is rarely found emoii); the Greeks in the 
Conunon language, Jl'Ai.Ki^ialh),iial ^ftilt t^iUiioZioi tyiif Sttroiia tbi- 
ana ^foy, and I wm at thai agt iharp m thorn matlart, X. C. 1. 2, 46. "Er- 
muaTtoff >^fi»r(mihi) tyinto Cy. \. \,\. Iltgi iiir ovr tirniiux&irtttr 
it T^iia(iiniMtti-i iixofti* linut. Among tlie poets, (laniculerly the 
tnigediauB, this use of tlie PI. is more frequent, and a transition from tlie 
Sing, to the PI. often takes place, e. g. Eur. H. F. as^-'llhor iiaqwqi- 
fitoita dgaa, ii Hi/i/r oil jioilopai. Hipii. 24i. alSovfit9 a yuf xa 
llUyftira fioi. 

Rem. 13. In an address directed to a number of persotts, the Greek em- 
ploys several peculiar turns, 

(a) The Sing, of the Imp. ilni end some others, which denote a suni' 
mone or animating call, e. g. u/i, if iQi,l8i , is frequently eim- 
nected in the Attic writers with a Voc. PI., or with several vocatives, 
e, g. PI. Eulhyd. SB3, b. tint ^0>, m StMfaiis it lui Vfiii; m uUm. 
Dem. Chers. 108, 7J. lini fioi, /loihviaat. 

(b) In an address directed to several persons, the predicate in the PI. is 
oflen connected witli a Voc. wliich denotes only one of tlie persona 
addressed, so as 10 make the principal person prominent. Od. ^, 
310. 'Avtlfo, otJniii; toiiv vnti/ifialouii /u^' ipir SatnvOai. /i. Si. 
yT,a idirrri, ifiiiStii' 'OSuaaiC . X. 11. 4. 1, 11, Ti, ttftj, 
ifitlt, Bi 'HgiiiJi tSa, nui StSaantji ahor flovltiBfirat aniQ 
^fiiif oi fiir Si) ariiaiaytt( iSiSaaxor. A cliange of tlie Sing, and 
PL often occura among the tragedians, when tlie chorus ia either ad- 
dressed hy others, or spenka itself, since the poet has in mind, at 
one moTncnt, the whole chorus, at another their leader, e. g. 8, OC. 
ll)7.{(iva>, fij; d^i aSinTiitiu aoi ninjivaas, 

(c) The second Pers. Imp., instead of the tlitrd, ia rarely connected (some- 
times in the Attic dialogue), with the indefinite pronoun tiV or n o c 
tif, or with a substantive and ii;, c. g. Ar. Av. 1186. / tupii iiifo 
naf bnijpeiqc ' lo^iui TTOf Ttf. Hence, also, the transition from 
the third Pers. to the second, e. g. Eur. Bacch. 337. [34S.) (riii/f'iu 
TIC ^ '(■/Of, ilSair Si Saxovt lai'cd', iV oiairoirioiitT, /lojrloli jfialmv 
xuriii f iipor ifttaiir, xai — iii9i(. Coinp. Larger Grammar, § 
430, 2, lyy 

§242. Agreement of Several Subjects, i^s—sn.) 
1. Two or more subjects, have a plural verb ; plurals of the 
Neut. gender, have a Sing. verb. When the subjecls are of like 
gender, the adjcdive is of the same gender and stands in the 
PI. ; but when the subjects are of ditferent gender, the Masc. 
in proper names, takes precedence of the Fern, and Neut., and 


the Fem. of the Neut ; but in common nouns, the adjective 
is often in the Neut Pi. without respect to the gender of the 
subjects, e. g. 

^iXmnog wm 'AXiiapS^og noXXd xb »al ^avftavxa sf^ya airt- 
dBiHapto, IJoXli t$ *al xaXi xal i^rnvfiuati iyirtto. 2m^ 
s^fiTij^ xoi nXaxmp ^laar croipol and 2, %^ n,^ aofpol orttq. *H 
ft^tfiQ nal^ &vydjri(f titrap xaXaL *H ogyii xal 19 aavvBtrla 
$l<rl xaxal, '0 ipfiq xal 91 yvrii aya&ol datp. lLfi^\26,aidi 
nov ^fdiiqal t aXoxot xal ptinta tixxa tiM hi fityaQoig notidiyfn^ 
y 11 1 • X. Cy. 3. 1, 7. d»$ Mb najiq a tt xal fiijri(fa xal adtXipovg xal 
jffp iavnv yvpauia alxfiaX tot ovg ytytPfifiipovqyiHaxqvatp. Her. 
3, S7, tjv 11 ayoQO xal to nqviapfjiop JlaQlta Xl'&tff r^axrifiip a. X.C. 3.1, 
7.Xl^oi It xal nXlp&oi xal ^vXa xal xigafiog iiaxttog ifftfi" 
/nip a oidip X9V^^(*^ iaxiP* 

Rejiark 1. The agreement of the predicate is often determined by its 
position. Here the three following cases occur, 

(a) When the predicate precedes the subjects, it often agrees with the 
first subject, e. g. PL Lys. 207, d. ^ijlsi as o ttot^^ xal ^ /uijn?^. 
Her. 5, 21. €i7r«To afpk xal ox^liaxa xal &^anopttgxal fi naaa 
noXXri naQaaxtvii ; 

(b) But when the predicate follows the subjects, it sometimes agrees with 
the last subject, e. g. X. R. Ath. 1, 2. oi nipfitfg xal o dijuog nXiop 
c/ei. PL Symp. 190, c. al tifial airtolg xal Ta le^o xa naqa x&p 
ap^qvmmp i\(papli9X0\ 

(c) Yet when the predicate stands after the first subject, it always agrees 
wilh it,e. g. Til. 3, 5. MiXiag Aaxvtp itpixptlxai xal 'JEip/itt- 
wdag SriPalog. 

Rbm. 2. Sometimes the verb, though it follows difierent subjects, agrees 
with the first subject, so that the remaininff subjects appear subordinate, 
6. g. X. An. 1. 10, 1. /JacriZct;; di xal ol avp avtf d tioxmp ilgnln^ 
til. So, also, with the attributive adjective, e. g. X. An. 1. 5, 6. inxa 
ipoXov g xal ^fiiofioXiop *Axxixovg. 

Rem. 3. The verb sometimes stands in the Sing., when several conunon 
nouns in the PL precede, if it is intended to represent those nouns as mak- 
ingup one whole, e.g. PL S. 188, b. xtfi 9Tix/y a i xa2 /a ilo 2^0 » xal igv- 
trip at ixnltoptllag xal axocrfUag nigl alXriXaxcip xoiovxmp ylyptxai 

Rem. 4. When the subjects are connected by 9| — ij, aid — otif, xal — 
xaiyd — d, o i/Ts— 01; re, ne^ue — fie^ue, the predicate agrees with the 
gubject standing nearest to it, if each subject is regarded as independent, e. g. 
$ oi/roc, ^ ixilpog aXtidri Xiytt, aut hie, aut ille vera elicit; but if the sub- 
jects are not considered as independent, but as a connected plurality, then 
the predicate Is in the PL, e. g. Dem. Aph. 817, 12. cl Jfifioq>w fj Gtjqmnl^ 
hfg tf/ovai. 

2. When several subjects of different persons are connected, 

ibm first person takes precedence of the second and third, and 


the second of the third, and the verb is cummonly put in the 
PI, e. g, 

£j'a. xal av jrQBCfiofUr, ego et lu Bcribimua. I'^jioi xai ixilyos yfaifofiry, 
ego et ille scribimus. 'Ji/a ral a'v xai ittlros yfaipofiry, ego et tii el ille 
ecribimuB. ^'v xal itiifot ygaipnt, tu et iilc scribiliB. 'Jiyai xal ixiiroi 
YfBipoiiiv. Sv lat ixtivoi yi/aipczi. H/icls «i! ixiim jrifuipofiir. Tfiiif 
KB I ^xiirof yfaqiizi. 

Reh. 5. Sometimes the person of the verb agrees with the subject near- 
eM to it, e. g. X. C. 4. 4, 7. ntgi lov Bitalov niirv al/iai rlr ixtir ilittlr, npo; 
Sovualovt Of alios ovOfrif iiyaii ini^nAr. Fl. Phaedon 77, 
d. opttf 6i (loi Sit%i%i ail it nb! 2ifipUis iiSiatt a» not Tovnr Sian^ayfia- 
■tivaaa9ui (peitTHCtare) toy ioyor. 

§243. Remarks on Certain Peculiarities in the 
use of Number. law.) 

1. The Siag. bus sometimes a collective sense and takes the place of the 
PI.; thuB in the poets, Sa x q vor , ant Ig, atayoi*, a ja/vf, hnrval, 
etc.; in prose, ttv/ia, (ir&ijs, XlSot, itllv&ot, S/iTtclof, i) lu- 
jioj, cavalry, ij aaji Is, a body of troops, etc. 

2. Entire nations, that live under a monarchical government, are some' 
times designated in prose, by the Bing. e. g. o nifiriji, the Peraiant, 6 
'AfaPio(,QAvS6g,o 'Aaaiigtoi, etc. This rarely occurs in respect 
to nations that have a iree government, e. g. iQv"£lil(;>'a tpUor nQo^di- 
ndai Her. 1, 69. The words or^aiioiii);, itokipios and the like, ore some- 
tunes used in the Sing, instead of the Pi. 

3. T)ie PI. properly lielongs only to common nouns, not to proper names, 
names of materials, or abstracls ; still, such nouns in certain relations take 
the PL, namely, when they express ilie idea of llie common noun, thus, 

[1) Proper names, (a) in indicating several individuals of the same name, 
fl^g.^i/o KnTvloi; (b) in denoting persons that possess the nature or 
the qualities of the individual named, e. g. PI. TbeaeL 169, b. oi 'itq a*~ 
lte$ Ttuii eijaitq, mtnlike H. and Th. 

{2) Names of materials occur somewhat often in the PI., since either the 
ringle parra,whicli make up the material, or the different kinds of which 
il is composed, are contemplated, e, g, ifiafia&oi, nttfoi xai xfiSai; 
^iiei, gun^beams, like sola ; arifioi nal vSata, oiroi nokvttlut, oiroi 
Moluiol; ft'lu xn> llSoq, etc. 

(3) Abstracts in the PI. denote classes and specific instances, particular 

conditions and circumstances, e. g. Herod. 7, 158. vfilr luyaXai iinpi itai 

*t Kui ijt avgiatii yiyovaai. 3,40. ffioi at aai fiiyulai ilrvxl"* 

mm ifiaxotiin. So 'X^l, ininiicitiac, <7TD<riic, seditiones, ftJl/ai, 


310 SYNTAX. THE ARTICLE. [^344. 

jaXainnqlaty aerumnae, ^aratoi^ mortes, ^vxv f^ol -^aXntij 
S-vfjiolj aninv, ipofioij ipQovi^aeig , r^fledionSj anix'^^^oii ir^ 
dqiaty brave deedsj vyiBiOh, xal sli^lai Tc5y aoi/iaTCDr, like valetu- 
dioes, etc. nlvxtig^ testimonia, zvtolaq dovvm, largesses^ honorcarygiftSf 
/ o ^ « T e ; , presents ; in many cases, the PL denotes a plurality of parts, e. g. 
nXovjoif divitiae (nloviog, rUheSf abstract), yufAQt, nuptiae, yvxjigf 
horae noctumae, xatfaly funera, etc. So, e. g. in English, How long 
these nights are ? when one night is meant 

Rebiark. The Greeks commonly use the PL both in Abstracts and Con- 
cretes when they refer to a PL Adj. e. g. xaxol lag ipvxdgj xaXol tit awfiataj 
Sgurtoi rag (pwrstg, xal ralg yptafiaig xal rolg adifiaai atpaXXontroi X. Cy. 1. 

4. When neuter adjectives, pronouns and niunerals are used as substan- 
tives, the Greek, like the Latin, always employs the PL The Sing, of ad- 
jectives used substantively is put in the Neut when an abstract idea is ex- 
pressed as an independent whole, e. g. to xaXov^ the beavtiftd in the abstract, 
TO xaxovj the bad. The PL, on the contrary, denotes a concrete idea, L e. 
the different parts, classes or conditions which are implied in the abstract, 
e. g. tit xaXoj res pulchrae, to xaxa, maia^ the eml deeds, thingSj etc 

§ 244. The Article. , (419-498.) 

1. The substantive as a subject, as well as in every other re- 
lation, has the article o 17 to, the^ when an object is pointed out as 
definite, or when viewed by the speaker as an individual of its 
class, or the class itself, or the material, and the abstract idea 
when regarded in a definite point of view, (the idea being con- 
ceived by the speaker as limited, or as defining the entire na- 
ture of a person or thing). The substantive without the article 
expresses some indefinite individual of a class, the class itself, 
the material, or the abstract idea, in a manner altogether gene- 
ral, without limiting or defining that of which the idea is com- 

'^Ay^ffmnog, (a) a man, as an individual, L e. some one of the race of 
men ; (b) man, a man, as a species ; o av^qtunog^ (a) the man, as an 
individual, the man whom I have in view as an individual, distinguished 
fit)m other men ; (b) the man as a class or species, as I conceive him to be 
flomething limited and defined in respect to his entire nature or constitu- 
ti6n; — yaXa, milk, to yaXa, themHk {as a particular substance); ao<pla, 
Imfefom, { aotpla, the unsdom, (as a d^nite attrihuk). When the Inf is to 
be eOD^dered as an abstract subscantire, it has the article, e. g. to yqa^ 

f jiy. The abetracl nouo lakes the article when it expreesee a 

idea, e. g. tj aiiiaii, Iht Iparticufur) tvmvU, to Tti/Sypa, the (particular) 

ittd ; hence also the PI. a! ht aat if, ta nifayiiata. 

Rem. 1. From wlini has lieen said, il follows, (a) That tlic Hiibwiiitive, a» 
iJie subject of a Bentence, may stand witli, or witliout, the orlicle, accorUiug 
Bs il is Uitentled to be expressed, either as a ttefiaitc, or an iijdefiuite, ob- 
ject; (h) on the coiitiury, that the substantive bh a predicate niuat be gtm- 
eralty witfaoul the anicle, since the predicate does not denole a definile 
individual, but only the abstract idea of a qiiatity in general. Hi-r. 1, 103. 
vi>% il iiitiifa iyirtto, the day became nighl. lw>cr. Nicocl. US, a. Xoyos 
vltjQiif nal yoiiifios nat Bhtatof ifivxi}f a/aditt wti niirin; iXiuXor iim. 
But when the jiredicalo denotes a definite, a before tneiitionud, or a well- 
known object (No. 6), it of course takes the anicle. Her. 1, 08, atfilSdlXno 
Tor 0^(iTii]v lovjof urai, he condtiiled thai Ikia umi the Oreila,name- 
ly, Ou ant bf/ort mmtioiMJ. 5,77. at S' litnolioiai ixaUmio o'tJiazifS, 
tilt rjek bore the namt of inno/Jutoi, (bf/brc moifioiui/). Li ]>aE8ages like 
X. Cy. 3. 3, 4. ^ir laCin iiatan na^ijitaoti' ' a ■)■ Agpiyiog oVjiJifOimiiiat 
wa'i ol Siilot narif(arSQU!ioi,atioiialoiyifi lor ivit/yitri)', tor art fa 
tit ay a So*. — An. G, fi, 7. ol ti aklot oi tiagoviis tioy oTfaiiuiwr 
taijtigoZiit jialliiy io* JiUnnoy, ayaxaX^X-ytii toy iti^oSojtjy, tlic arti- 
cle denotes, that ilie ideas expressed by btnefattor, tionttt man, traitor, poiut 
to B definite ai^tion either before named, or well-known. 

2. Hcnee the article is used in order 1o denote the whole 
compass of the idea, since all which belongs to il, is taken to- 
gether and expresses, as it were, n definite whole,e. g. o at&Qia- 
noi &vijt6s iati, man, (i. e. all men) is mortal, ^ «y^e^'^'"'' 
lij iariv, i. e. a// wliieh is understood by the idea of uvBgeia, 
»o yd). a tjSv iatir. 

Rbn. 2. The Elnglitdi indeiinile article a lies a iwo-fold significalion. It 
denotes either a. class generally, as a mnn, where tlie Greek uees the Bub- 
•tnntiTe only, c. g. ayOgtmioi — ; or it denotes, like the definite article, an 
individual of a class, bul not one who is distinguished from the others; 
heie also the Greek employs tlie substantive alone, e. g. StSgiatto;, L e. 
tame sum, it not being detctmined what man ; still, a subsiantive is often 
used with the indefinite pronoun li;, quidaia, e. g. Sytf^ioTtot Ji{,homo 
qmdam; /t;r^ ti; ofnr f'/fr. Ti(, as an enclitic, coiiiHionly followB its 
■abstantive, but, sometimes, in connected discourse, it stands liefore. 

Rek. 3. Common nouiw sometimes omit the article, where, according to 
die Btateotent iu No. 1, it would lie inserted. This omiasion lakes place, 
(«) In appellations, denoting kindrtd, and the like, where the particular re- 
htion is obvious of itself^ e. g. tioiiiq, ftr/itig, vio;, aStltfog, naiSe^, yoyilf, 
^^ti hvtlnmd, ^iwij, wi/e, etc. Comp. the expreasions, Father has $aSd it, 
MbOw toma ; (b) When two or wore coordinate substantives are united to 
ibrm one whole, e. g. naiSts ■«» yvyalxtf {like English wi/e and Aiid, horte 
and rida-), irolit ""l oulci {db/ and hnaa) Th. 3, Ti; (c) When common 
vouns are, at the same lime, used as, or instead of, proper nouna, e. g. 
$Uo(, oiftnvt, iirtv, attd ^f .Sthent, nolic, qfa paiiieular aiy, which is known 

312 SYNTAX. ^THE ARTICLE. [§ 244. 

from the context, /^, of a particular country, paatXivq, of a particular king^ 
eomnumly the king ofPenia, etc. ; other like expreesions are arffiog, ^alaa'- 
era, etc The omission of the article is altogether natmnl when a common 
nowi has an abstract signification, or expresses an action, or the manner 
of an action, most frequently in connection with prepositions, e. g. r,yiia&at 
^toig, to account (hem gods, 'Enl dtlnroy iX&nv, to come to supper, L e. to eaf, 
X. C. 1. 3, 6. ^Etp uinov iivai, horse-back. *£ni ^r^guy l|ieVai, L venan- 
dum, X. Cy. 1. 2, 9. IlouQor iniaiafttvop tivtoxtiv inl ^tvyog Xafinr x^cTi- 
Tor, ij fill ijitaiafiiroPj ad vthendunij X. C. 1. 1, 9. 'Unl vdutq tirai, aquaium 
ire, Her. 3, 14. 

Rem. 4. The names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and vices, of- 
ten omit the article, even where they occur in a definite relation, since, as 
well known appellatives, they have come to be used as proper names, e. g. 
Jlarra fiiv ovv t[fiOtyt doxfi ra ttaXa ttal la aya&a aaxrjja tlrat, olx tjxKrra 
di aoKpQoavvTi. X.C. I. 2, 23. 'Entl ovw ta it dixata xai ia uXXa xaXa 
J6 Mat aya&a navra agsif) ngdxxejaij dijXov tlpai, on, xal dixaioavnii xal 
{ aXXii naaa agixfj ao<pla iail 3. 9, 5. 'Kti i a i ^ /u 17 aga ao<pia iaxiv 4. 6, 7. 
Maliata yag ^p/uUfjxei avrcp innixiig Cy. 8. 3, 25. The article is of 
course omitted when an abstract conception is expressed as an action, e. g. 
!fiy (ptXoao<pl<f l^otaiv, in pMtosopkizing^ (in pkUosophando) PI. Phaedon. 
68, c The substantives fiiyt^ oQj nXij-^ og, vkpog^ tvgog, j9o- 
^o(, y irog and the like, are very often found in the Ace. or Dat. with- 
out the article, since they are used, as it were, in an adverbial sense, e. g. no^ 
tafMg Kvdpog ovopa, Bvgog dvo nXi&gfavj tutoplethra trtde, X. An. 1. 2, 23. 

3. The article is very often used with common nouns, in or- 
der to show that what belongs to an object, or is requisite for 
it, which stands in relations of indebtedness or of hostility to it, 
is so necessarily. 

X. Cy. 3. 3, 6. *ErafiliB yag^ si tnaatog to fiigog a^iinaivov noi^aut^ to 
Hop orvT^ xaXiig ^ciy {partem, cui praeest ; cetUuriam nuzm). 8. 3, 3. vtlfiag 
di TOVTooy (laiy atoX&y) to pigog ixaaii^ x&v tiyipovmrj ixiXtvtrer aviovg 
Toitotg xoaptlp rovg axn&v <plXovg (partem debitam). An. 7. 6, 23. aXXiiy 
ipalfftt Spj bSh xa ivixvga Tore XajSHP, otg ptjdi ti ifiovXtJO idvpoxo ap 
TovTtt iianat^p^ the necessary measures to guard against decqition, 5. 6, 34. 
ol argatwiat rntlXovp avit}, d X^ipoptat inodidgaaxorta, ot» t^^ d/xi^y, 
ini&fjaour, the due, deserved punishment. 

4. Hence the article very often takes the place of the posses- 
sive pronoun, when it is connected with such substantives as 
naturally belong to a particular person, mentioned in the sen- 
tence. In such cases, the English uses the possessive pronoun. 

OS yopiigta xinva axigyovaiPj parents cherish children, i. e. thar chil- 
dren. aigcntiyog joig ajgajidtag inl tqvg noXffilavg Syn. Xv- 
f6g TB MOJtmtid^aag ino tov agpatog tov ^tagatta ipidv tta* awa/iag 
MToy tnno9 %i nalta ik'^ig X^'^Q^f Clo/^sX. An. 1. 8, a 

5. Since the article may make one of several objects distinct 
and prominent, it is ofien employed, when an object stands in 
a diatribulive relation to the predicate of the sentence. 

IjQOtalTot'ai di fiiaSoy o KZ^os vitiaxruioi Saaur aril iJa^EiioiJ ifUt 
^IttiuQeiKu TO II fiTifos Tbi iftgatiiatt! {singuiia mrnsibiu singvlii militi- 
hu, thrct kalf-Darica a month to each miidur, rnmp. Eiiglisli to mueh the pound] 
X. An. 1. 3, 21. (comp. 5. G, 23.) Ja^nxlv riuoiof Diirii toiJ ;ii]vo; I'/iui' 
7.6,7. Si a\.'nStaOtig icy tya foijioy ir! o^i npojit'^niir, iiti ^i; 
xafilij noli-a, Biratt at aliiniat 1(^1 iyl /pijoSot {singula panis frutla, to 
dip eack morsel into the difftrtnl $axuxs) Id, C, a 14, 6. 

6. Since ihe article was properly and originally a demonstra- 
tive pronoun, it follows of course, that it is often used in a de- 
monatralive sense. The simplest case is the following, viz. when 
an object is first mentioned, as an indefinite individual, it does 
not take the article, but when it is named the second time, it 
has the article, because it has been already referred lo and is 
known, e. g. Elioy dySQa- o di dv^g /loi eXt^ey. Hence the arti- 
cle is used when the speaker points to an object, e. g. <t'tQe pot, w 
wor, TO ^ I ^X i v,lhe book = this or that book. In similar cases 
the article may be used with material nouns, e. g. Mi fioi to 
/aJLtt, the milk, which had been poinledoul; and even when a 
part only of the material is referred to, the article is employed, 
though such nouns elsewhere are always without the article, 
e, g. /7iVu jov oirov, of this wine. The article is often used 
in speaking of persons or things known and celebrated, where 
the Latin uses the pronoun ilte, e. g. 6 xaXog itaS;, that beautiful 
boy; this is very frequent in proper names. See No. 7. 

"On Jj^f^f aytlnaq !«»■ ayufiSpriJoy nTgaiiay tjI&iv ini lijy 
'EiXiia [that nwnba-lesa hoM) X. An. 3. % 13. 

7. Proper names as such, i. e. so far as tliey in ihemaelveB 
denote individuals, reject the article. Still, they take it, when 
they have been already mentioned, and then the article serves 
to point them out, No. 6, or when they have not before been 
named, if it is intended lo designate them as well-known and 
distinguished, No. 6. 

SuMfoliK SifTi, 'Evlxtiaa* Brfialoi ^amdaifunlovt. 'Jjffoxiiia( ot toSl 
iMolifitr, bU' tint fjxovt Kv forty Kdudf Swta, awunfi^s ix « a t r i ■ q t 

314 SYNTAX.— THE ARTICLE. [§ 244. 

noQu fiaaiUa an^Xavptr X. An. 1. 4, 5. Kvqov di finaTtiftnerm [JaQiiog) 
-— ttro/^a/fa ovr 6 Kvgog X. An. 1. 1, 2. 'Ano tov ^lltaaov Xiysttu 6 
BoQsag t^v ^JIqbI&viuv aqnaaai PL Phaedr. 229, b. 

Rem. 5. Proper names, even in connection with an adjective, do not com- 
monly take the article, e. g. aoifoq Stmqaxvfi, the uMt Socrates, 

Rem. 6. When a noun in apposition, accompanied by the article, fbllowe 
a proper name, the latter does not take the article, e. g. /C^oicro;, o f(3r 
Avdmv fiaaiXtvg, Still, the article is used if it has a demonstrative sense, 
e, g. Kgoleog^ 6 tcuv AvdSiv PatriXivgf and designates the proper name 
as one already mentioned or known. The noun in apposition is accompa- 
nied by the article, when the latter serves to distinguish the person or thing 
mentioned from others of like name, or when the person or thing named is 
to be pointed out as one known ; on the contrary, a noun in apposition 
does not take the article, when it gives only an indefinite explanation, e. g. 
Her. I, 1. 'Hgodotog ^AlinaQvacang, Herodotus of Halicamassus, Th. 1, L 
Sovxvdldtjg ^A&firaiog, 7% an Athenian^ or of Miens. The names of rivers 
are commonly placed as adjectives between the article and the word noia- 
fuig, e. g. 6 "AXvg notafiog (the river Halys) Her. 1, 72. o 'Axfl^og nota/iog 
Th. 2, 102. inl tor ^dgor noxafiov, inl top Jlvga/iov Ttoiafwr X. An. L 
4y 1. inl top EvfpQarfjv notafiov 11. ngog jov Agd^rjv notafiov 19. The 
same holds of the names of mountains and coimtries (rarer of islands), 
when these are of like gender with the words in appomtjon, yij, axgov, o^o^ 
r^aog^ etc., e. g. inl Tr)^ Solvyiiav xatftrip Th. 4, 43. to JSovwiov axgov, ^ 
Ssangonlg /fj, f; Aijlog vilaog ; tov JSxofA/Sgov ogovg Tli. 2, 96. But if the 
gender is not the same, the noun in apposition must have the article, e. g. 
Tip ogn jfj Ftgavilif Th. 4, 70. xtiv Sxgar to Kvpog arifia 8, 105. tijg ^'idijg 
TOV ogovg 108. 

S. When adjectives or participles are used as substantives, 
they take, (according to No. 2,) the article. The English, in 
such a case, either employs an adjective used substantively, as 
the good; or a substantive, as the speaker; or the indefinite ar- 
ticle a or an; or resolve the participle by who, lohich, (is, qui). 
This usage is very frequent in Greek, and extends not only to 
present participles, but to the others. 

*0 ao<p6gj the wise (man), a wist (man), oi iya^ol^ ol xaxoi, ol dixdComg, 
(he judges, oi Xiyovxtg, the orators, to aya^ov, to xaXov, id xald, 6 Povlofitrog, 
qmvis, o tvxtap, whoever happens, *0 nXsifna oKpsXwv jo xoivov fity uncap 
ttfA&v a^iovrat, *0 nXiUrta cuipsXriaag to x, /a. t. i^tovxai, *0 nXiUna 
iquXiiavtr t. x. fi, t. d^ta^aitat, Av^tg 5i o ^yriaofABrog oidug 
smai (deindt auiem, qui nobis viam numatret, nemo erit) X. An. 2. 4, 5. 

But when only a class in general, or a part of a whole, is to 
be expressed, the article is omitted, e. g. dya^oi, good, qnlaao- 
^wrtB6^ fia^opteg ; xaxd xal ai(TXQa ingaJ^ev. 

9. Bul the participles take the article when the dijBcoufse re- 

latefl lo definite individuals in ihe sense of those, who; a parti- 
ciple with the article is very often appended lo a preceding sub- 
stantive in the way of apposilion, in order to give prominence 
to the attributive meaning, somewhat in the sense of earn, earn, 
id dico, qui, quae, quod, or et is qvidem, qui. 

Her, 9, 70. TT^wroi l^Xdov 7>y(^riii tq to tUxo?, koJ Tii» innjMji' tdE Moq- 
iwlov ottot taav oi Si af/nua art it, and Ikat an Ifia/ Uuii nAbrd, etc. 
X. C. 2. 6, 18. ov [loror oi ISiaiai loiio naiorini', allu in! Ji6i.nt a I Jian it 
»aiip fui),i<na iji i ficlafi erai, not xa aiaxi/a ijxiina ti fo i tcfitvat 
noilloitic nolr/iixiai i^oiai n^og a^T^lnt. 3. 5, 4. Iloianol fiiy, o i nfiaSa/ 
ovd i» tg laviiay toX fiavTis 'ASip/aloig Syiv jlaiiiSaiyovliiiy Ti nai tmi 
sliUii' ntlonorfrialani arxtxatiia&ai, rvr anttXovaiy avtol naff iaviavi ifi- 
fialuv ilf liiv'dtuxi'ir. 

10. The Greek may connect adverbs of place and time, more 
seldom of quality and modality, with substantives by means of 
the article, and tliua give lo adverbs the sense of adjectives ; and 
so, also, the Greek may change adverbs into substantives, when 
a substantive is omitted. In like manner a preposition with its 
Case may be made to express an adjective or substantive 

II Sra nolis, ' /iiTaiii tinog. 01 iy9a3i Sr&i/eiiioi or ol h&aSt. '0 
tvr fiaailtig. 01 naiat aofoi uriT^ie. 01 toii. 'tf a'vQiov (sc. vfiifa). 'U 
iSalipnit findataiig. 'O ail, what it alimyt; so to and id rvr, tioic, i. e. 
d the prettnl lime,io nalait/ormerli/iin the Jormtr time, lo njiiV, lo oi'liVir, 
MuneJtofdy. Ol Tiarv lar aiQaiioirar, the but of the mldirra. To xagta ifiZ- 
t. II iiyar ajiiltia. ' Ipoko/ai'iiiriiif Sovloi, TIi. 6, 80. iijr amvSn- 
i; Sovltlar. Bo lo na/in-ay and to Tiafanar, omnino, to xiii/ta, lu na- 
fatioiv, ' Tiq'ot loli niqaas noiiuoq. Oi Ttigt ipiloaoif tai',lht philompheri. 
d if otntt. '// ir Xi^^Of^iro,) tvgarvls. 

11. The Neuter article, to, may be placed before every 
word or part of speech, when the word is considered, not in re- 
lation lo its meaning, but is used as a form of speech, or when 
ft preceding word is repeated without regard to the structure of 
the sentence. The Greek, by prefixing the article, may give 
even to whole phrases the form and meaning of an adjective or 

To iiiita,io timitt. Dem. Cor. 355, 4. V;u»Ts, oi SrSgtt 'ASijra'iof lo 
f Vfttlt oiai' ttaio, till' TioXtT Uya. PI. Rp. 337, c. ir i'lt hiitnai, to 


^v nBlffOf/Aiv vfiag, i5^ /pi^ ^fia^ a^eXya*. Her. 8, 79. aTacrca- 
iBirntffl xov oKOtBQog ^(iimt nkion aya^it x^v nar^ida iq^ 

§245. Position of the Article. (4»0 

1. The article is sometimes separated from its substantive by 
particles, e. g. f«V, d/, /«, r/, yaq^ d^, by the indefinite pronoun 
rig (in Herodotus very often), and by avtog iavrov, 

Tov fiBP Spd^aj xriv di yvratxa; if a preposition stands before the article, 
the prose-writers say either, n(f6g di tow avdqa^ or nf^og riv u^dga di^ but 
not TtQog J09 de Spd^a. T&v xig IltqnviP Her. 1, 85. Toig avxog avxov nvf^ 
fiuatr paqvvnay AeschyL Ag. 845. 

2. When several substantives are connected by xa* or ti — ^ai^ 
the article is either repeated with each, in which case the sepa- 
rate notions expressed by the substantives are considered inde- 
pendent of, or as contrasted with, each other ; or the article is not 
repeated^ in which case the separate notions are considered as 
forming one conception. 

2'o}x^e(Ti7$ nana ^ytixo &eovg ildipai, la re Xfyofieya Mai itQatJOiiiffa nal 
xa aiyfi PovXevo/ieva (the first two members form a whole, but the last is 
contrasted with them) X. C. 1. 1, 19. At ((fdiovgylai xal in xov noQax^Vf^ 
^dorai 2. 1, 20. Ai inifiilBiat xotp HaXatv xt xiyn^w ^ytov ibid. Ta re 
avfi<p»Qorxa xal ntxaQicfiiva 2. 2, 5. Ol triQairjyol xal koyayol Ad. 7. 3, 2L 
TId fityaXojtQtnig xt xal iXsv&igior xal xo xantiror xt xal aptXev^tgov (here 
the first two and also the last two form one conception) X. C. 3. 10, 5. 
Tovg ayqovg xovg kavtov xal olxlag Th. 2, 13. Oi naldig xb xal yvrauttg 
(so many Codd.) PL Rp. 557, c 

3. When the substantive having the article, is connected with 
attributive words, viz. the adjective, participle, adjective pro- 
noun or numeral, a substantive in the Gen., an adverb or pre- 
position with its Case, § 244, 10, then, in respect to the position 
of the article, the two following instances are to be distinguished 
from each other : 

(a) The Attributive is united with its substantive to express 
a single conception or idea, e. g. the wise man = the sage, and 
denotes an object, which by the attributive belonging to it is 
contrasted with other objects of the same kind. In this qase, 

the attributive stands eilher between the article and Ihe substan- 
tive, or il stands after the substantive with the article repeated, 
or the sobslanlive stands first without the article, and the attri- 
butive follows with the article, 

'O ayaSii atni) or d ayiig o uyaSof or H>'j)p o ayaSag (in contrast wilh 
the bad man); ainloimot iiojirot or ai TtoHrai oi jtloOaioi (in contmst with 
poor citizens) ; o i/iui naiijQ or □ TTitTijp v tfOi, oi ti/ti; Splqig or ol urdgit 
o! Tpt;; u TUf AStiraUip Sijjio; oro Bri/ioi o laic Adijraltit (Id controiil with 
anotlier people) ; ol rtn urdgiintoi or ol arSfmnin ol yvt ; o nflit kv( nig- 
caf noXifiot or <i noliftog nfiog joufllifaaii alto SaXaamji j^g lavufi 
Tl'pai'iii; r) ir XcQirOv^aiji. 

Remake 1. In tlie first position (o ayaSot at^/p) the emphaaiB ie on the 
allribuiive, e. p. JfJ nmiilug xotvuriir to &ii Iv yiroi ij//if i^" tiu» ag^i- 
y u v {yim) PI. L. 803, d. In the last position (d ariid q iyaSo^ or urtjp 
o ayal/ui) on ilie contrary, the iilen expressed by Ilie subHlanlive is, at the 
aame time, contrasted with that of another substantive, e. g. Tl Siatpii/ti 
ar9geiit 0( axsar'ig Stjflov lov attQajartaioti X. C. 4. 5, IL 'fl ttgi- 
til ainan fiir dioT;, tnWirii Si a r9f/iinoif io7( ayaSolt 2.1,33. 
Ti ai/imor ov lo if yoftovf imir laj(vtiv, nii' uvSga toy pnu ipQon]- 
o-foif pamliitoy PI. P. 2£*1, a, Jiaixovrtui al fiir i vgarr 13 i; xal o i »- 
yoQxlai loit r p d ir o 1 f ttiii' ^ipnrnjKdTM», alSi noiei f (republics) 
at S^oxgaTQviiiyai toXq roftoiq ToTf nnpiyaic Aeschln. 3, 6. To i ti n t ■ o v 
10 huiran' [kc ziiy ^KvScuy) a'i'ia [lajitai, to Si oitlnmbrio yt lity 
*£Uqvuv, wc iyii Uya Pl.Locb. l!)l,b. ' Eya ftir olv txilrovg lovt arSi/ag <ft)- 
pi oi fioror Tdiv irup a t air tdiy isiiciigait naiigag tlrai, akXa nai iq$ iitv- 
9rglas rq; ii ^finigaf ral ii'injdyjar, jiuv it Jijdr j^ t)<iilgbi P\. yienex, 
240, e. /^i(|t(ijfomi( idt ic avfiifogas rat i* jov n olipov tot' n^itic 
iUr,iovt 'iitir yfyiriififyat tiai taf aiptlilat iii; & ti); a j gai clag Ti\g 
in tniroy taaiityai Isocr. Paneg. 43, 15. Sometimes the fiosition varies in 
the same sentence, e. g. Tat (iiydlat i^doruc xot x a ay nSa to 
fliyaln ij Tififfo'i nai ij xagUQla xoJ oi iy loJ jfoipoi noyei xat nirSvyoi ita- 
ffijCorlai {grraf pUatura and ailvanlaget) X. Cy. 3. 3, 8. Iliiit noTi <j nx- 
fnio; ilixnioiTvvij jiQOt aS ixlar itjc nxpaioF (/fi / PI. Rp. 
555, a. Then tlie Nccond position docs not differ from tlie ArsL 

Rem. 2. When a substantive denotes an action in the abstract and hence 
IB also n verlml notion, the attributive expressed by a preposition and 
Its Case, is placed alter its substantive without tlie repetition of the article. 
So also, when an attributive explanation comes between the article and the 
gubst&niive. V/oi/xo/iifl^ />■ itl^ ayga>y ig jo oinv Th. 2, 52. 'll yvy viic- 

a ogyn /{ JHitulijKiioi'e 3, 44. 

(b) The attributive is not connected with its substantive lo 
express an independenl or complete idea, but is to be regarded 

i the predicate of an abridged subordinate clause. In this 
; the attributive is not contrasted with another object of the 
same kind, but with itself, it being designed to show that the 


object is to be considered, in respect to a certain property, by 
itself, without reference to another. The English is here gen- 
erally like the Greek, and uses the definite article. In this case 
the adjective without the article is placed either after the article 
and the substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

*0 iri}^ uyad^og or aya&og 6 nrrjQj the good man = uyadog wr, the 
man who is good, inasmuch a«, because^ if litis good. Ol ardgtanoi /iiaovai 
tor Spdga x axov or xaxoy lov aydga, they hate the bad many i. e. they 
hate the many inasmuch as, because, if he is bad. On the contraiy, toy xaxov 
Svdga or toi' urdgn jov xaxop, the bad man, in distinction from the good ; 
hence, rovg fiiv aya&ovg iv&Qomovg ayanoifttv, lovg di xaxovg fiiaovfity, 
*0 paaileig iidi(ag xoglinai tolg nokiiatg ay ($^oXg, good citizens, i. e. if or 
because they are good ; on the contrary, tolg iya^oig noXixaig or lot^ noXi^ 
laig rolg ay a& oig, good citizens, in distinction from bad citizens. 'Od^iog 
T^r ipvpiv xgotTiatfjy i^t av&gtiata hiqtvakv, a soul, as it is the most ex- 
eellent, X. C. 1. 4, 13. Ol vao tov ^Xlov xaiaXafinofiivoi li ;{;^o>/uorTa fi e- 
Idvjsga exovaiv, a blacker skin ; the blackness of the skin is the conse- 
quence of the xaTaXafima&at vjio lov ^Xlov 4. 7, 7. ^ Jjlvingriaav tc tag 
axTivttg igrifiovg xal ja XQVfiata diiignaaav (quia deserta erant) Th. 1, 49. 
'i^^icD (postulo) Tot'^ ^tgdnonag ifioi /Aira^p^ova id inmidiia nagaa- 
MBvdZ$i9, airtovg 5i liTidivog tovtuv Unua&ai (*« &gts aind atp&opa tlvai) X. 
C. 2. 1, 9. 

Rem. 3. If a substantive having the article is constructed with a Gen., 
the position under (a) occurs, only when the substantive with its Gen. forms 
a contrast with another object of the same kind, e. g. o itatf ^Adrjvuioir ^^'- 
(tog or o dtifiog o j^v ^A^r^valtav, in contrast with another people ; the em* 
phasis here is on the Gen., e. g. Olm iXXoxgiov ^yntai thai o'Adrivalmt 
diigAog xov filial (aw dijfioVf dvafttfiyriaxftai, di xal rug t m r ngo^ 
yovtar twv iavxov tig xoifg Ofjj^aiovg ngoyovovg ivtgytciag 
Dem. (Ps^phism.) 18, 186. On the contrary, the Gen. without the article is 
placed either before or afVer the other substantive, when the substantive de- 
notes only a part of that expressed in the genitive, in which case the em- 
phasis is on the governing substantive, e. g. 6 dr,(Aog Tcuy ^A&rivaUav^ or T«y 
A&fivaiiav 6 dijfiog, the people and not the nobles. Hence, witli this posi- 
tion, not an attributive, but a partitive genitive is used ; tiie Athenian peo- 
pie is not here considered in contrast with another people, but a part of 
the Athenian people is contrasted with another part of the same, viz. the 
nobles. Compare further, t; J^taxgdiovg (piXoaoifla or ^ (piXoaoqtia t; J'one^a- 
jovg, i. e. the philos. ofSoc. the Socratic philos., in contrast with the philos. 
of another, e. g. Plato's, the Platonic, with { qnXoaotpla ^laxgdrovg or 2'o»- 
K^oTov^ t; <p., i. e. the philosophy of Soc. and not something else of his, e. g. 
his life. "Jlgittg oixlag xa xdrmd-sr (domus infimas partes) laxvgoTa- 
ta tlvai dti, ovTQ> xal twv ngd^tiav idg agxdg xaX tag vnod-iaeig 
ilf^iig xal duiaiag e&cu ngoa^th Dem. 2, 10. Tovxov iv i&gitpi xal inal" 


dtvvtr, <w SaKu 'AS-ijvaltar x^ nl^&ii,tal}ie maitUude, not (o (Ae in- 
UUigenl, PL McDon. tlO, b. To ilSos tov naiiof (coutraHted with 
toirofitt Toil naiSct) PI. Lyekl. !!204,e. 

Rem. 4. When ttie geuilive of the aubBtantiTe pronouDS is used instead 
of the poGKBsiveB, the reflexives //fcvioii, aincToE, etc. ore placed accord- 
ing to (a), e. g. o /fioviov nai^p or o natr,f i tn«vtav, utc. ; but the aimple 
persona) pronouns pov, uok, etc. stand without the article, eiilier after or 
before the substantive which hns Ihc article, e. g. o naiij^ yov or /lati u na- 
(>)(, natritj <rov or trau o ninijp, u noii))) avioi' [avt^t) or niToii (nvi^;) o 
norqp, m^ ttj, Ail {ejua) fathar, a natiffj ijfiair, vyur, viar, nuini)' or fl^iur, 
^i^r >\ur, dviwr o aniin/, ow, yow, their (eoruin) /athrr. In the SJng. and 
Dual, the enclitic forms are always uaed, and tltese can stand before the 
Btibataattve only in connected dlacourse, but not at tlie beginning of it. 

Rem. 5, The illlTercnce between the two caiws mentioned is very mani- 
feat in the ndjeciivea an^of, pioas, ?<r;ato(. When tjio position 
mentioned under (a) occura, the aubiitanlive with its attribute forms a cod- 
traK with other objectH of the same kind, e. g. >j fiia^ ttoUt, Ihc ittiddU aly, 
in conmsl with other cities, tj /o^ati) f^iro;, the metl remoli island, in con- 
traat witti other ielands. £t tu laj-aTot ifVfia t^; *r,aov, in contrast willi 
other igifiaoL TIl 4, 35. When, on the contrary, the position mentiotied 
under (h) occurs, the aubstanllTe ta contrasted with itself, since the altriba- 
live defines it more clearly. In this last esse, we umially tninslnie llieae ad- 
jectives into English by aibstantives, and llie auhstanlives with wliich Ibey 
agree as though they were in the genitive, e. g. /ni im ofn uxfip or /a Sufif 
T^ opti, oit the lop of the mounfcrin, properiy on the monrtain where it is 
the higliesl ; {f flimg r^ nolit or ir r^ noild /liirp, in liie middle of the tity ; 
tr iagatti iji njij^ or in njffw »j ii^xa'J!, on the border of the itiand. 'A> fu~ 
aois Jo'k lohfiloK aniSanX. II. 5. 4,' 33. Kaia piaow lo* xi-xlor Cy. 2. 2, 
3. /7f(ii anQnis irT; /fptrJ 8. 8, 17. 

Rem. 6, In like nmnncr, the word jUora; Jios the position mentioned un- 
der (a), when it expresses an oclital attribuTive explanation of its substan- 
live, tr. g. e /loro; nai;, Ihe otdy mm ; on the contrary, llie position mention- 
ed under (b], when it is a more dslinite explanation of the pj'edicatc, e. g. 
*0 jtntt /lorot or ftorof i naif naliii, the boff playi alont {teithotil aimpany). 
Monfn tair uvd^iuTaui (yluixay) /•ioiri<rarloi3nii]o\ar afiBqovr rijf fur^, 
L e. q latc arSi/. ylmuu fiofij iailv, Tjv inatijaur outv ». t. it,, they jnade die 
XttaiTn tongue only, rapahh qf iniiculating launda, X. C. 1. 4, 12. 

Rem. 7. When a substantive has two or more attributives, one of wiiich 

liinita Ihe other, § 264, 3, cither the limiting attributive with the nnicle 

Hands first, and the second follows with tlie article and substantive, or the 

I fiinited attributive with the article stands first, and the limiting attributive 

Ibllows with the article and subsiantive. Ai SUiti otl xoto to aHfia 

^doral, the othet bodily pUamra, PI. Rp. 565, d. 'Ey tvli Slloi^ totg 

ifio it x^t^°'f ^y^ '^1- '^'' ^P '°^ i'lof tp firylatti iagifi Th. 1, 

IX. 'He althv lor 4ni t^ otofiatt jov i,i/iirog toy tJifoy nvgyoy 8,90. 

I '£rt^afz»l9 ^fl f,iiijii/tf tpoirg PI. Cratyl. 3U8, b. To h 'AQxaSla i o 

I %ovJtotii(o' Kp.565,d. The limiting nitribultve can also stand be- 

) tween tlie aulistantive and the limited attributive ; in this case the article 

' ia placed before each of the three parts, e. g. ia x'lxV •■" '" 

I Mf a aaniXtotiv Th. 1, 108. Finally, the limiting attributive with the 


cle 18 placed first, and is followed by the limited substantive and its attri- 
butive, both without the article, e. g. IlQoq %aq ndgoid^t avfiipo^ig bv^ 
dalfiovag Eur. Hel. 476. Talag iyit xr^q iv fiaxfi ^vupoli} g (iaQBiag 
Ar. Acham. 1210. ^Ano iStv iv rji Ev^tonri n6l%vi¥ JUXfjyl diop X.H. 
4. 3, 15. Tag v7to rfj oixovaag nolBig^Elltivldag 8, 26. 

Rem. 8. When an attributive participle has a more definite explanation 
belonging to it, their relative position is as follows, 

(a) *0 ngog xov noltfiw aigt^stg aiffaxtiyog 

(h)*0 atifajriyog 6 ngbg Tor noXtftov aiQB&tlg. 

When there are two of these more definite explanations, one stands either 
after the substantive or after tlie participle, e. g. Trjv nqog Jivfiovlor ytrofU" 
pfiv TtUruy vfAly Aeschin. 3, 25. Tajv hu^ vfidg ntnf^ayfiiyoir xakw rfjno- 
X 8 i Dem. 18, 95. Trig vvv vnaQxovarig aifj^ dvyafiiag 4, 4. Tec; na^ 
v/A&r vnagxovaag avxt} ri/iug 20, 83. 

(c)*0 alQi&tlg ngog tow noXifiOP (FTQatfiyog 

(d)'0 aiQB&slg aiqnifiyog ngog xow noXfftov 

(e)*0 ng. t. n, aigainiyog al^ct^e/; (this position is most fi^quent, 
when the participle has two explanatory words belonging to it), 
(c) Tf\ V VTtdgxovaav x? ^oXh dvvafiiv Dem. 8, 10. (d) T»; v ngog^ 
ovaav ado^lavrtu ngdyfiart 6, 8. (e) Tag vno tovjov jiXaaiptifAlag 
sigiifiivag 18, 126. At ngo tov (nofiarog vijsg vavfiaxovaat Th. 
7, 23. To ngog Aipirnv fiigog iBtgafiftirop 58. When there are 
two or more explanatory words belonging to the participle, they are either 
placed between the article and the substantive, e. g. Tfjv jotb Ofj/ialoig ^ w - 
fAilP not do^at vndgxovaav Dem. 18, 98; or they are so separated, 
that one is placed either before the participle or after it, e. g. O i naga lov^ 
Tov Xoyo^ xoxB (fj&irjBg Dem. 18, 35. Tavtrpf tifp ano toif tonov 
aa(paXnttv indgxovaav tfj noXsi 19,84. 

§246. Use of the Article toith Pronouns and Nu* 
merals^ with and without a Substantive, 

1. The article is sometimes used with personal substantive 
pronouns in the Ace., either when the personality is to be made 
prominent instead of the person merely, or, what is more fre- 
quent, when a person previously mentioned is referred to. 

Tov iavtor dri Xiyutv fidXa atfipwg xal iyxtaftidZwv (Ms important pet" 
9on) PL Phaedr. 258, a. Atvgo dtj^ ij S* Zg, bI&v ^fi&v. Iloi, upiiv iy<i, 
liyiig, xal naga xhag tov( v/ua((Le. xa\ xlptg turlr ovTOt, ovg Xiyeig ^ifiag) 
PL Lys. 203, b. 

2. The article is used with a substantive, which has a pos- 
sessive pronoun belonging to it, when the object is considered 
as a definite one ; the position of the article is according to § 245, 
3, (a), so that the adjective pronoun stands between the article 
and the substantive, e. g. o ifiog nati^g, 6 aog Xoyog, thy toord (de- 


finite), o ifios nitis, my son, a definite one, or the only one; on 
the contrary, the arliele is omitted, when the objcet i3 consider- 
ed indefinite, fftog dSelfpos, a brotfier of mine, it not being deter- 
mined which; ifihi; Ttali; ffwnros ^/impos Lya. Andoc. (sub fin.}, 

3. A substantive to which ihe demonstralive pronouns euros, 
is I, ixeiros and uiirotf, ipse, belong, regularly has the arti- 
cle ; as these pronouns are not conaidered as atlribulives, but 
either as substantives (he, the man), or are laken in a predicative 
sense (the man, who is here), they stand either before the article 
and the substantive, which is then in apposition with the pro- 
noun, or after the article and substantive, comp. § 245, '6, (b) ; 

ourof arrjQ or o av^ii ovtog, not o o^tos drijQ. 

ijit 7/ yvoiiit} or tj yfoifiii tjde, 

ixutos avriQ or □ wj-^p ixeivog, 

avroe 6 ^aailevs or d ^aatXevi avtog, bul 6 avrog §uaii.sii signifies 
idem rex, the same Icing. 

Remark J. The Bubstanlivo doea not take the article, 

(a) When ilie pronoun is used as tlie subJBCI, and the snhatanlivc as the 
predicate, § 244, Rem. 1, e. p. oi'iij tarly arSfOf liptii}, this is the viHut 
ijfa man, PI. Men. 71, e. A'iiri anai iiarij anoloyla Apol. 24, b. Kt- 
rqtrif a'tnt) fif/laiij Sri !oU"JiXXiiaiy iyimto, this tmu thegrealal agitalmn, 
Th. 1, 1 ; hence a. distinction must be niede between tovnu i^ di3ai>~ 
miiio xt^'Ttti, Ouy ham tiiu ttatker, and toina Sii. /^., tiicy ham Ihia 
mm for a ttacha; Ttxfiti^lai loiitji zQiifiroi; {which Bigiiiliea tsiJio fa- 
il Tu^tjpiov, If ixiftiio) X. C. 1. 2, 49. Tuuiqy ^ru^tji' t/ia (which aig- 
nities avtij imit i/ ynafttj, qr ej;u) An. 2. 2, 12. If, however, the predi- 
cate aubstantjve denoiea a defmile object or one already mentioned, it 
tahea the artirle, e. g. '0;ioiE (.SVui^ui)];) II i^ i'Oyif Sii^loi, 3ia Tuy 
fialioia oiioloyoviiiyoir inofiluo, pojili^ior laVTrj* i >) f aaipaltiar iirai 
layov (hanc esBO firmam Ulam diapiitaiidi ralinneni, viz. auch a mode 
aa had been clearly shown by preiiotis examplea) X. C. 4. )>, 15. 

[b) When the aubelastive ia a proper name, e. p. otio;, /xiiro;, aviot Zia- 
ni/aiiji. JivdiSijfiot ovjoal X, C. 4. 2, 3. IfmiieuTOv loi'tou Symp. 2, 
3. XaQittSjjf otimrl a, 19. jJtioi' Minavtt An. 1. 5, 13; or when a 
common name ia uaed inatead of a proper name, e. g. Avmv ^aaiiias 
An. 1.7, 11. 

(e) When the idea of an objecl is to be expressed absolutely, the aubatan- 
tive is joined with the pronoun aiiot without the article. Avtii 
iianoula aviTjt SovUla; PI. Parmen, 133, d. J It lit iniiri^fnti; oli 
linixo/ur 134, b. Oik aiiToii Siaaoiov flqnoi', o iaxi, Stanoti^, lutl- 
rov Saulot iaut 1.33, d. 

(d) When ouio; «'*^e is used to denote emotion, especially cooiempt, 
inatead of the pronoun vv. Ovjoal arfiii 


^jfi fiOit flo J'filx^af e^ otm ala/vvn ov6(AaTa ^gevav = bioekhead, toky 
dorUyou cecutf PJ. Gorg. 489, b. Ovx old* axja Xiysig^ cu SdixQuttg^ 
il£ alXov uvu iqwta, 2. Ovtog avrfif ovx vnofiivei mipikovfiivog 
as this fellow cannot bear to be benefited^ Ibid. 505, c. 
(e) The poets often omit the article, where the prose-writers must use it 
Rem. 2. When the pronoun ovtog belongs to a substantive having the ar- 
ticle and an attributive, it is often placed between the attributive and the 
substantive, e. g. M reSy IleXoTtoinnprioitp avtai r^eg Th. 8. 80. */7 aieni 
avtrf odog X. An. 4. 2. 6. 

4. The article is used with a substantive, with which rot- 
ovjogf loiogdEf toaovrog, tf^Xixovrog, agree, when the 
quality or quantity designated by these, is to be considered as 
belonging to a definite object, one before mentioned or known, 
or as belonging to a whole class of objects previously named. 
The article commonly stands before the pronoun and substan- 
tive, e. g. '0 rotovtog dt^Q ^avfiaatog iariv, ra toiavta nqdyfiara 
KoXa icriv. On the contrary, the article must be omitted, when 
the object is indefinite, ani/ one of those who are of such a na- 
ture^ or o/re so great^ e. g. Toiovrov avdQU ovx dp inaivoirig. 

Ail ^^^ dvraio lor roiovtor SfUfiniov q>iXov rofil^Hr; (L e. talero, 
qualis antea descriptus est) X. Cy. 5. 5, 32. Zldtg uv ovy 6 xotoviog itrtiQ 
duttp^iigoi rovg piovg (i. e. talis vir, qualem descripsimus Socratem) C. 1. 2, 8. 
T£v toaovjoap xal toiovtuv ayad^wv vfiv xot tdig iXXotg ^Ad'^vaUng 
^oyu; /cr^ir (in relation to what precedes) Dem. Cor. 327, 305. *OQwr 
jovg Tfjltnovtovg <pvXdttoviag fidXiata rig yvyaixag (relating to the 
preceding ytQutt}^ but at the same time designating^ the whole class of the 
y!9^ioi) X. R. L. 1, 7. 

5. When ndg, Ttdvtsg belong to a substantive, the follow- 
ing cases must be distinguished, 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is consider- 
ed as altogether a general one, the article is not used, e. g. nag 
arOQCDTiogf evert/ inari^ i. e. every one to whom the predicate man 
belongs, ndvteg dp&QcoTtoh att men. Then, nag in the singular, al- 
ways signifies each, evert/. Hag is often translated by mere, or 
filter, e. g. '0 "EQtog iv nday dvoQXia xaJ dtoida Jlwy PL Rp. 675, a. 
ndvta dyad'd aal Kold dneQyd^optai Polit 284, a. 

(§) When the substantive to which ndgj ndvreg belong, is to 
be considered as a whole in distinction fi"om its parts, it takes 
the article, which is placed according to § 245, 3, (a), e. g. 'H mi- 
tnt y$, the xohole earth, ol ndvteg noXirai^ all citizens without ex- 

cepHon. This usage is more seldom tlian that under («). This 
conatniclion occurs also with Sloe, but it is still rarer than with 
watf. Here ihe singular nds always has the sense of whole. 

ntivaadat[xiiii)KOirj,iia>^ifiii* iiuo-of i'i<i»if o» Th. 4, 61. "ESo- 
itr atToTs ov Toi'c na^iyrtat (tiro* ijtontX*ai, alia nal tdv; anafiaf 
JMiivl^aJotv 3, 36. To oiox ayaynt} rn nana jiifn ''"" PI- TlieaeL 
304, a. Ard^tjoiaoiat jrag talg ji act miYiiy lov^a/xagjanir B, AnL 1023. 
'Hutytiis ftoi tpalfiiat, oijufp la ToD ii^o;iu;ioii poQia ix" ''Q<'t ^o oloi- 
nfocainat- PI. PrnLS'ZI, e. Hence it xi^ilies, in all, the whole. 2'ut'injti]- 
fi»9i}afiy v^t; at jtiiaai dita /loiiaxa xai txnioi' Th. 3, 66. 

(j-) When the words taiiole or all, intended merely as a more 
explicit ejtiilanation: belong to a definite object and hence one 
which has the arlicle, ««»■ is then placed according to § a4<>, 3. 
(b). This is by far the most frequent use of ««?, nurtee. 
The word Slot also is usually constructed in the same manner 
in connection with a subslanlive and the article. 

Oi oT^RiKuiat iilov Tu azgaion tS oy a n ay oroTiav lo itt^ii- 
lontioy. Olaigatiuiiai nilyitf or a liv 1 1 ( ot a t gaT la- 
ta i xalois iitaxiaa¥tQ. Jta t S/y Jioliy dIijv or iia ol^y iifv tio- 
Xiy. jtiajlalyofiii TiatTii ti; lo Bv^anior oi ai gai taitai X. An. 
7. 1,7. iii vnii i^t 'ElkaSot jiooijt bJioij in' agnf, &av^^aSai, 
tiiy'Ei.l.aSa niigajtoy il noiily X. C. 2. 1, 28. 

6. When inuatos, each, every, belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, as wilh nat m the sense of each, every, when 
the idea expressed by the substantive is conisidered as general, 
e. g. tta& ixdazi]y r,iii'g«y, every day, each day ; when, on the con- 
trary, the idea contained in the substantive is to be made pro- 
minent, then the article is joined with it, and is always placed 
according to § 245, 3, (b). 

XoTu iqr iifiigav in n<r i <; >> Dem. Cor. 310, 249, or Ma9' liiivTqr 

tsqv il II eg ay, entry tingle day, hitl oin iUya iitJi tad' ixaan^y ^/ligvn 
Iquotidit) joiaita ogiii' tt Kat aioi;tii' X. C. 4. S, IS. "a ixdaip ijitK/a 
nfoetitUKTat noiftr, diq/ijtro^tAa X. Cy. 1. 2, 5. Tvgarrovrtat ini Sim 
iriginr, ovi Ai<a<iyigDi xaiintiaty ir I k a c 1 1) n d it 1 1 H- 3. 5, 13 ; but 
'O II ay if I p yfi ixaaiji yalor ij aya^oy g, fuiiy^aoytm, in tvtry tin- 
^ land, Cy. 8. 6, 6. Kai ^/ifiiiy fiiy t^y u iltonoiijc lan'tfiqc iqg o»- 
,las An. 7.4, 14. 
7, When ixartoot, each of two, a/itfu and unifotiiiot, both, be- 


long lo a substantive, the article is always used with it, since 
here only two knotvn, therefore definite objects can be spoken 
of. The article is here placed according to § 245, '6, (b). 

*£nl t &v nXiVQ&v ixai igav X. An. 3. 2, 36, or int knatig av 
%&v nltvgoivj xa vat a afi<p6xeQa or a fji<p oxega ia anoj a gi" 
qiolv Tolr x^Q^^^ ^^ tolv /e^oTy ifiq>oty. Ka^ kxdt igor 
Tor ignXovv Th. 4, 14. Tt^ atxi kxaxigt^X. Yen. 5, 32. 

8. In respect to the pronoun avrog and the indefinite pro- 
nouns or numerals aXXogy eregog, nolvg^ nXelmv, ttXbi' 
arog^ the following things are to be noted, 

(a) Avjog preceded by the article signifies the same^ idem, e. g. o avrog 
Sp&gianog, idem homo^ TavTo^fhe same ; but u Sp&gianog avjog or avxbg 6 
Sv&gmnog, homo ipse. 

(h)*'AXXog without the article has the sense of the Lat. alius, being the 
opposite of ipse [airtog), but with the article it signifies the rest, reliquus, ihe 
others, ceteri, e. g. { iXXri"EXXag, rtliqua Graeda, oi aXXoi av^gtonoi^ the other 
men, in relation to definite individuals, or (he others, celeri hommes ; tttgog 
without the article signifies one of two (it not being determined which], or it 
forms a contrast with 6 oi^to^ and denotes difference or contrast ; 6 eregog, 
(he other, i. e. the definite one of two, e. g. { higa x^lg ^fi kxigtji ;if^^Tai ; o I 
^Ttgot in reference to two parties. 

(c) The following cases of noXvg, noXXoi are to be distinguished, 
(a) in noXvg novog, noXXri onovdrj, noXvg Xoyog, nolXol av^gtanot without 
the article, an object is denoted as indefinite, e. g. IloXvr ^ovcroi nor or 
aitXeig Trig toij ovjog ^iag inigxortai PI. Phaedr. 248, b. IIoXXol av- 
&gianoi rov nXovtov ogiyovtai ; (/9) but if the object is represented as 
definite, or one previously mentioned or known, the article is used with 
the substantive, and noXvg is then placed as an attributive between the 
article and the substantive, e. g. t; noXXri anovdij to aXfj&iiag idsip nt- 
dlo¥ (magnum iUud, de quo dixi, studium) PI. Phaedr. 248, b. ^Jlp nigh tov 
noXvv Xoyov inoitixo ^Ava^ayogag (muUum ilium sermonem, e sariptis ejus 
Mrfu cogm^um) 270, a. 'EvTolg noXXalg /« y « a £ cr i (among many gen- 
erations mentioned) Phaedon. 88, a.; ol noXXol Sy&gtanoi signifies 
either the many men named or a multitude of men belonging together in oppo- 
sition to the parts of the whole, hence also oi noXXol,the many, the popu- 
lace, piebs, e. g. "Ooa oi oXfyoi Tovg noXXovg p) ndoavTfg, aXXa xga- 
Tovrug ygafpovQi X. C. 1. 2, 45 ; what is true of the Positive, is true also of 
the Comparative and Superlative, e. g. *Eav <plXovg »/ noXiv iiq^Xny dirj, 
noiigo^ tj nXiiwr oxoXi) Tovitay ijrifiiXiio&ai, tw a»g iyo) vvv, tj iw ai^ ah 
fiwcagll^tg dioiToi/icV^ (the greater leisure, considered as a definite thing, or 


aa a definite wliole) X. C. I. 6, 9. 1^1 iSISov, tal lovjif ar /aiSov, onw 
ifioi dov; piXov fiij aTioSoli} vjiir to jiIcio* An. 7. 6, 16. "A'Jiiini Tq 
ifiiji aiuiia9ai tiq lan Tiliiei xQovcv /lolloi', ij jp Kaxla R. L. 9, 2 ; 
ot nlclovi Bignifies the mojori^ in npjHDsition lo tiie rainonly {oliiaa- 
aoit), therefore a definite wliolo; oi nliiirTo i,the moil, also lo lie con- 
sidered bb a defliiite whole ; Hgnin, nolv; is joined with the sulisuntii-o 
having the article ocrordiDg lo the posilioa mentioned in § 245, 3, (b) ; tio- 
iLr; is iheD 10 be taken in a predictitive sense, e. g. '£iEi tfupn Tioklu rii 
Mfia ijksh m great abundancr) X. Cy. 1. 3, 6. 2:tf{ai nolu to ajjoga 
ivfijif^tiMia {bc. ofArti^) Th. 1, .12. noHi,r ii}r aiTlav n^o- [(% 
had cenjrart in gnat abuadana, i. e. were very severely censured) 6, 46. 

{d) ' O 3l I y I, ffie, e. g. oUyoi ar&Qoitoi ; ot oily ai,tkeftiii, i,e. either 
the few meotinned, or to be ronBidered aa a definite whole, viz. emphati- 
cally IA« 0J^7ir/%, considered aa a whole, in opposition lo oi noiiilai; 
e. g. IlQtajitif 01 JHij/ioi npos /lir to nl!i9o( ovx ijyayoy, ir Si tois opj^aTc 
NoiToT; llyoig Uyety /xthvor Th. 5, 84; but when only an indefinite 
idea is eipreased by the word iltyog the article is omitted, e, g. IlfoStrSii- 
»oi tiji' riolir v!t oliya r, by aligurchs, not by the oligarchs. 

9. When a cardinaJ number belons^s lo a aubslan live, the ar- 
ticle is oinilled, if the idea expressed by the substantive is inde- 
finite, e. g. TQtTs afSQSi- ^l&oii ; ihe subslanlive, on the contrary, 
takes the article which is placed, (n) according lo J 245, 3, (a), 
when the substantive with which the numeral agrees, contains 
the idea of a vnilecl whole ; hence also, when the number of 
objects is lo be represented as a sum-total, after the prepositions 
a^cpi, nc^, tin, iintQ ; but the article is here used most frequently, 
when a preceding substantive (without the article) is referred 
to, which has a cardinal number agreeing with it. 

D( Tiuv pauiXiwv oltoxooi, fliJoHoi rois ipioi SauiiXo tq axovrjtt 
tijr ^laXtjr, i. e. with the three fingers, i. e. the three generally used, X. 
Cy. I. ;t, 8. '//>■, olf iitititaf u/Kpl ia it ryt^xona fii,he had raichr 
td ohoul the turn ofJ\fhj years, X. An. 2. 6, 15. 'intiiU 'if loiig lerga- 
xttx'^lo^i ifiTfW/ono niiw, Koi TofoTat lit rovf ftv^iov; Cy. 3. 
% 3. To7( Kipxupniois idir ttxoat viur ou napowrui', (referring to the 
jireceding words oi Kifitv^aioi lixoai t a voir ovrotic i^ei^afiooi Th. 

(^) Bat the article is placed according to § 245, 3, (b), when 
the ntuneral is joined with the definite object, merely to define 
it more explicitly, and when the numeral had not been previ- 


ously mentioned, e. g. ^Enaxicavro oi (ura UsQixXiovg onXitai ;|rilioi 
or %iktoi oi fteta 77. onXitcu. 

§ 247. The Article as a Demonstrative and Rela- 
tive Pronoun. (4i6.) 

1. The article u «/ t o had originally the sense both of a demonstniti?e 
and relative pronoun. 

2. In the Homeric poems, the pronoun o i} to has almost wholly the 
sense of both a substantive and adjective demonstrative pronoun, which re- 
fers to an object and represents it as known or already spoken of, or brings 
it before the mind of the hearer, e. g. H. «, 12. o yag rjl^e ^oag inl viiag 
'^/aMt)y. 29. Tt) y ^ iyat ov Ivcia, Od. x, 74. ov yag fioi d^ifiig iail xofu- 
liifut ov5^ anonifinHv ardga tov, of xs ^tdUriv anix^^ii^at fiaxagsaaiv. 
Hence, in Homer, the substantive is found in very many instances without 
the article, where later vmters, particularly the Attic, would use it. Comp. 
n. a, 12 seq. with PL Rp. 393, e. Yet there are, in Homer, evident traces 
of an approximation or agreement of this apparent article with the 
real article, which was not fully developed before the time of the At- 
tic writers. Thus in Homer, as in the Attic writers, it gives the force 
of substantives to adjectives and participles, e. g. 6 aQiaioq^ o ri}n]iTag, o 
yigmog ; so also, to nglvj to nqoa&tv ; it is found in connection with a sub- 
stantive and an attributive adjective or adverb, and the attributive is placed 
between the article and substantive, e. g. %mv nqoiigtav iiiiav D. A, 691. tov 
d^liov Hitnov kp, 396. oi tvtg&s S-eoi |, 274. to aov yigag a, 185. to (fov giivog 
a, 207 ; so it is used in case of apposition, e. g. Od. X, 298. not jiridtiv udor 
tfiv Tvpdagiov naganoixtr. Od. |, 61. avaxug oi wioi ; fiutljer, uvrvytg ai 
vngl dUpgop H. X, 535. ardgmv rmr toti h 559. vieig oi JoXloio Od. qd, 497 ; 
also with the demonsttative, ai xvveg aidt t, 372 ; it also takes the place of 
the possessive pronoun, e. g. D. Z, 142. vvv fih dij jov nai go g anxia 
tlafJB le^/9i7r, of your father, and denotes what belongs to an object, e. g. Od. 
o, 218. iynocfisht ia t$vxi Iral^oi, vrjl fiiXalrji (the xtvxta belonging to the 

3. The demonstrative use of the adjedive article is not unfrequent in all 
the post-Homeric writers, § 244, 6 ; but as a demonstrative substantive pro- 
noun, it was retained, in certain cases, through every period of the lan- 
guage ; thus in Attic prose, 

(a) To ys, to di (on Vie contrary), very frequently at the beginning of 
a sentence ; o fiiv(is quidem), o di (is autem\ oi di (it atdem) very 
frequently at the beginning of a sentence; ngo lov (ngoxov), 
formaiy ; often *al xovyxt^v, et eum, d earn, at the beginning of a 


9. tial tor Mltvoai davrai. Bui in the 
e umd, $ 334. 

( toy, TO Ko! to, ihi* nam and that num, 

■ a 1 m', varia, bona tt nuda. 

() 348.] SYNTAX.- 

sonieiiee, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 1 

Nom. xoi o;, noi i;, lul oT 

( b) III BUch iitiTBseB DB, T u r * 
Ihii Ihmg and thai thing, i 

(c) It is ii^ed imiuediale]}' lielbre a iicnience iniroduced by o ;, oao g or 
oiof, whicli HCDteDcc expresses periplimsiically tlie Ibrce of ait adjec- 
tive, or eapecialiy, au Dlwtmct idea. PI. Pliaedon. 75, b. upi'/fiui t o v 
o tattr taor (^ loti Taov aviof). ProL 320, d. Vx ^(J; xai ntipo; /t/{av- 
Ti^NoiiMv Sim ni^i Mft j'_q xi(i(rria>tai. Soph. S41, e. (*» ^t/itj^ii- 
Tdtv, ctii favinafiaiu* aviiSf ij xai jiiqI T(;rriui' TiSti, oirai nifi taii- 

(d) In Biich phrases us, o ft i v — o fl *, o i pi y — o I 6 i, the one, — the other, 

tome, the alhtri. Isocr. Pancg. 41, tU fiy loi's l/ifl^ovtig, loTs 8i Sov- 

Irvortii. Very frequently to fiir — ro Si, to /it» — to 3i, parity 

— parity, j f, /li v — t q Si, on one vdt~—on the other ride. 

4. In the Homeric lanj^uBge, tlie deinonslralive o ^ td, is frequently used 

in place of the relative. 11. o, 135. alia ta nit nollav i^tnijd&oitit, to Si- 

doncii {quM Qx urbibus praedati sttmus, ca sunt distriliuta). The relative 

use was tranaferred from Homer lo the Ionic and Doric writers also; so 

tlie tragedians lake Iliis liberty, tliougb rarely. Her. 3, 81. to fUr 'Otartit 

ilat, lili;c9u xipal tavia ' t a d' ^; to JilijSot atiayi tptfttr to x^ciTO;, /rdi- 

fii]; iq; d^ I'lrtijf ii/iaQiiixi. Comp. Larger Grammar, Port IL § 482. 

The predicate or verb, in reference to the subject, can be ex- 
pressed in different ways. Hence arise different classes of 
verbs, which are indicated by different forms, 

(a) The subject appears either as ocdre, e. g. '0 nttic j^aipti, 
ru ai^o; ^aXlei . — But the active form has a two-fold signifi- 
I cation, 

(a) Transitive, when the object to which the action is direct- 
ed, is in the accusative, and therefore receives the action, 
e. g. Tvnrio roe natSa, yQiifm ti^v fsicToi^t', 
(^) Intransitive, when the action is cither confined to the sub- 
ject, e. g. To avOoi OiiXXet, or when the verb has an object 
in the Gen. or Dat., or ia constructed with a preposition, 
e. g. 'Em&vfi^ rijg atjejije, X'"9^ ^ aoipif, ^adS^m tie fiff 


(b) Or the subject performs an action, which is confined to, or 
is reflected upon itself, e. g. TvTitofiai, I strike myself; ^ovXevofiou^ 
I advise myself or I deliberate ; vinrofiou Trjv :(eq)aX^Vy 1 strike my 
own head; nataatQiqiOiiou t^v y^v, I subjugate the land far myself; 
dfivvofjiai rovs noXefiiovgy I keep off the enemy from myself — Mid- 
dle^ or reflexive verb. 

Remark 1. When the reflexive action is performed by two or more sub- 
jects on each other, e. g. Tvitrortatj they strike each other, dtaxtXtvortai^ they 
eahort each other, it is called a reciprocal action. 

(c) Finally, the subject appears as receiving the action, i. e. 
the action is performed upon the subject, e. g. Ot crQaruarai vno 
t£v noXeiuoav idifix&tiaavy were pursued^ — Passive, 

Rem. 2. The Act and Mid. have complete forms. For the Pass., the 
Greek has only two tenses, viz. the Fut and Aor. All the other forms are 
indicated by the Mid., since the passive action was considered as a re- 
flexive one. 

Remarks on the Classes of Verbs. 

§249. A. Active Form. (338.) 

1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion, 
have besides a transitive signification, an intransitive or re- 
flexive sense ; comp. the birds are moving^ the carriage is break' 
twg*, the snow is meltings and the Lat vertere, mutare, declinarei 

'Axigoir notafiog igfiaXXtt ig T^y Xlfivrpf Th. 1, 46. *H BoXpti Xi/iPfi 
iilfltrtpig ^aXaatrap 4, 103. ^Eyyvq f\/oy ol ^EXXri;ifiq (comp. to draw near) 
X. An. 4. 2, 15. So also apiytnf,to go back, to uMdranD, diaytip, per- 
Btare, are found in prose; — iXavynp or iXavpttp Unnt^ (X. An. 1.8,1.)^ 
to ride, nQostX€tvp8t.p, adequitare ; — many compounds of PuXXhv, e. g. ifi" 
piXXetp and tlgfiaXXetP, tofaUupon, inPuXXsty, to spring forth, fi«- 
tafiaXXtip (like mutare), dtapdXXetv, to cross over, nqog^aXXttv 
tipi, to seize hold, avfifiaXXnp tiW, manus conserere, inifidXXetv, to 
fall upon, VTfQfidXXt^p^ to project, to go over; — xXlrtip and its com- 
pounds, e. g. inuiXlpny, to indine to something, anoxXlptip, declinare \ — t ^ « - 
mip, like vertere, imTgimip, se permittere ',-— cr tgifpsiv (like mutare) and 
its compounds ; — n xaUiP, to strike against, to stumble, nqogmaitiv, e. g. 
fuyiXtoq ngoginxaurap, to sv^ a total shipwreck, Her. 6, 95 ; — i naXXdj- 
%9iP, to get 0^}— compounds of did op at, e. g. ixdMpai, to discharge it- 
M{f(of a stream), inidtdopat, proficere ^—compounds of iipai,e. g. ipti^ 


rai, to demtl, iifiitai iax^lfV y^'^''^ (indulgerc) PI. Rp. 388, e ;— compoundB 
af fiitryitx, fiijryv»ai, e. g. avfifilaycir, commiBceri, n^offiiyrvfai, to 
fighl tnUh, also oppropiaqiiarc, e. g. -nqotiitilar t^> nJ/(( Th. 3, 23 ; aXQUv, 
to TtoM, to break up, to set ouf, (of sbips, fa wtigh anchor), also compotmds, e. g. 
01 pag^aQoi uni)fav ix J^g Ji]lov {to stt aaii) Her. 6, 99 ; uvtaigiiv iiyl, to 
fghtjto teiihttand ; — avvam iir, nianus conserere; — ^X'^'i '' '"""'i *,If"*' 
Tiwif [deaislere)Th. 1, 112; »/(!»' wilh adverbs, as (u, Koiius, kuxu;, like bene, 
Utale habere ; ^fir afiipi ii, in aliquo re oeeupatum esse ; n^oft/iiv, anen- 
dore, or appeUere, to land ; ngoizur, prueslare ; ^ne/tiv, ee suBtinere, or ex- 
Bpecture, in niente habere, e. g. inCtxor mQaxtvialfai; xnif/nv, se retioere, 
also (o land; Tiaf/ixitv, e. g. i^ poiviiq, mtieicae se dare; aitixur, lo htdv- 
tantjrom ; anixetv, reaisten: ; — it p u i t e i v with adt-erba, e. g. tl, nmuiq, or 
vith the Acr. of adjectives, e. g. xaXo, xaxa, to bt happy, to be mistrabU; — 
Oialflji iiy [fojoumere), versari ; — coiiipotinils of ifiig iir.e.g. Sinqiifiir, 
to be differetil, diiferre, vntgffigcir, (eminere) nilotiiai ; — araXa/ifla yitr, 
refici, recreori ; — oixilv, ndministrari, c. g. nokit oixiT Plai.; — iiliVT/fv, 
Ut end, to die; — naiogSoiv, lo succeed ; — mxar, lo prrmril, e. g. trlxa ^ 
jftipu* iii|i yftifiiair (like vincit sententis) Her. 6. 109 ) — i IXtimiv, officio 
suo deesse, arti>i.iJiuii, lo remain behind; etc. 

2. Several active verb? \viih a transitive signification, which 
form both Aorisl.s, have in the first Aor. a transitive significa- 
tion, but in the second Aor. an intransitive; 

iuia, lo lerap up, tirsl Aor. eSCaa, lo wrap up, second Aor. idvf, togoiTi, doim, 
tairifii,lo ((a/ian, " emipta, I ilalional, " ItriTir, t flood, 

tpvn, lo produce, " i(pvca, I produced, " ttfvv, I waa produced, 

nHXtt, lo make dry, " (li7Ki)JlQ,Poet./nia(ic dry,) " tmcliii', / imikertd. 

So severaJ active verbs wiih a transitive signification, which 
form both Perfccli!, have in the first Perf. a transitive Bignifica* 
tion, but in the second an intransitive : 

iytlqio,lo u<ake, tirgtV(.iYriyi^xii,lhavewaked, BecoodPfl/>'(iq;'0(a,/( 

ckXHiitiperdo, " oXbtktxa, ptrdidi, " oloiXa, perii, 

MiiSu, to persuade, " TiiTHina, I have ptrguaded, " TtinoiSa, 1 InuL 

Moreover some second Perfects of transitive verbs, which do 
not form a first Perf., have an intransitive signification ; 
ayyvfti, lo break, aecood PC tdya, lam broken, 

ftlj-yvpi, lo tear, " iqgaya, I am lorn, 

T^KDi, (a smeit (iron), " liiTjxa, I am amf.lled, 

nriyfiipi, lo /atten, " nirniya, I amJialcTied, 

o^nm, to make rottejt, " oiotina, I am rotten, 

ipaiym, to >hou>, " ni<fij*a, I appear, 

Kemabk 1. Tbe Pass, aklaxoftoi, to be taken, has an active form in 



the Perf. and Aor., viz. kdlmxa, I have been taken, kdXiary I was taken^ 
§ 161, 1. 

3. Intransitive active verbs are often used in the place of the 

*£teXtvtTjaap vn ^A&rjpaUnp (interfecti sunt) Her. 6, 92. MiyaXa n «- 
aopta (eversa) ngriyfiaTa vno iiaaottav 7, 18. Jhvoibqov ivofiiCov «va* xa- 
xbig vno t&v noXitiiy axovtiv [avdire), rj xaXoig vne^ xriq noXEcag ano&rria~ 
x$iv Isocr. Paneg. 56, 77. So ixnlntsip vno iivog, expelli ab aliquo ; 
very often <ptv/Bip vno itvog, fugari ab aliquo, or in a judicial sense, accu- 
satum esse ab aliquo, e. g. daBfitlag (psi'/HP vno tipog ; — ndtjx^i>p vno xipog^ 
affici ab aliquo. 

Rem. 2. It vnll be seen, § 279, Rem. 5, that intransitive active verbs are 
frequently used in poetry in a transitive sense, e. g. aaxQamtip aiXag, pair- 
PHP noda. 

Rem. 3. The transitive active is not unfrequently used, v^hen the subject 
does not itself pertbrm an action, but causes it to be performed by another ; 
yet this usage is admissible,i only when it is evident from the context or 
from the nature of the case, that the subject does not itself perform the ac- 
tion. X. An. ]. 4, 10. Ki'Qog top nagadeiaop i^ixoipe nal ta paaUua 
xaxixavaBP* So frequently dnoxnlpttp, ^onrtup, olxoSofuip and similar 
examples, often also diddaxiiPj naidsvup, comp. PI. Prot. 320, a. 324, d. 
Menon. 94, b. 

§250. B. Middle Form. (339-343.) 

1. The Mid. denotes an action, which is performed by the 
subject, and is reflected upon or confined to the subject Such 
verbs may be called reflexive. The two following cases are to 
be distinguished, 

(a) The Mid. denotes first an action, which the subject directs 
immediately to itself, so that the subject is at the same time also 
the object of the action. In English we here use the active 
verb with the Ace. of the reflexive pronoun, e. g. rvfttofuu, I 
strike mi/self, irvyjafjiTjv, I struck myself^ rvxf^ofiat, I shall strike 
mi/self. This use of the Mid. is more rare than that mentioned 
under (b). The following verbs, which will be presented in the 
Aor. form, belong here : 

'Anixa, to keep off, anoaxead^a^y se abstinere, to keep one^s self off, to 
abstain; inay^a^ %ipd,to throttle, to hang some one, indylaa^ah, to 
ihntile or hang on^s sdf; tvipaa-^at, x6y/aa&ai,to beat one^s self, 
olxlaaa&ai, rmgrare, ini/JaXia&ai tipI, to apply one^s self to some- 
Mngf na^aaxivaaaa'&ai, se parare, "id^aa&at, to place on^s self 


M order of baltk, e. g. otnu fiir Ktgxvgulot itaiano, Th. 1, 48; jifos- 
$ia&ai , «e aifjxingere, to agne u-ilh, uqfilaaaQai, xoi-9oijiilvaa- 
&at, lo lanil, conip. Tli. 4, iH, xxmldaaaihai, to cTm/rU, coiap. Th. 5, 
72, bul HtaduSiiroit, lo ttand or place one'« self in a cirdt, tq oTiia&at, to 
turn om'» »elf,{Th. 5,'ii}.7^); tyyv^aaa&ai, to pUdge one'a ui/ ; nai- 
oaadai, to txaat, from nav^, to cause lo raiwK, isliita&at, lo ihow 
one's self; purticularly vcrliB wliicli express au action performed by ihe 
Bubjecl upon hia own hady,e.g. lovaaa Sat, tlipaaS at, alti- 
t/iaiiltai, XQ^t""^"'! ibiaaa &ai, y via- aaao& ai, xalv- 
^aa&ai, KOiffitiaaa& ai, a/i if liaaa-Oai, iviia aaO at, {k- 
ivitaa S a I , »ilQaa-3 a t, anoito^iaa&ai, se ohsta-gin, an o- 
fiiiaaS a t, se tmurtgere, anoiiriioaaOai, se lAsUr^a-e, oMtfaroi- 
oaaSai; atiilaa &ai, to gft rtadii,to/it ont'i sd/oid; aho eoine kvi 
verba which express euch a reflexive acliou, as correBiHtnds wit)i an in- 
tran»live one, e. g. ip vi.uiaa& ni, lo be on one's ^lard, to be aiutiota, 
but ^ifilfiTiii^ ri^u, to guard some one, ^ ovi,tiiaaa 9 ai, lo deliberale, but 
fiovlivHV Tifi, to advise some one, y I i a a IT S a t , to taste, yii'iiy, to eausf lo 
taste, lo give a taste o/, 1 1 fi 01 Q ij a a a O a I , loavenge; ihe recipi'ocjils i)in-, 
MOTaliitraif^ai ngo( lira, to bt retonciltd to ani/ one, irvpSiirSai, 
to bind one's self, to agree with any one, amiatmSai, paaid ; here be- 
long, also, most deponent middle vcrbH, j 197, Rem. 2. 

Remiiik 1. Tliia immediate reflexive relation ia also expreesed (a) by 
middle verbs with a Pass. Aor., e. g. Staliti*,lo Kpmrale, SiaivSijrat, SiaXv- 
amSat to separuie one's st\f, disoedere, see § 197, Rem. 3; (b) by the aotive 
fbrni e. g, pita^allnr, lo change one's self, see 5 249, 1 ; (c) by ilie active 
form whh the Ace. of the reflexive pronoun, e. g. tnamly iavrur, aragr^v 
isiTOC, lo Jiutie onc'j self depend on any one, ajiexifCnuir (aiior, idi'Sur lav- 
w, TtagixHy cnuiov, unolvur iaviay, to fret one's sty, anotripaiitii' iavior, 
iaomtltHf jni'ioy; the Mid. then lias ibe flignification of the Pora., thus, 
tnatvituSai, anoaipaTUoSai, loudari, interfici, jiigulori ab olio, and lias for 
■Is Aor. and Ful. a Peaa. form. 

{(1) The Mid, dfiiotcs an action, which ihe Bubject per- 
forms upon an object within its sphere, i. e. upon one be- 
longing to it, or standing in immediate relation or contact wilh 
Iit. In English, we commonly use liere eitlicr a possessive pro- 
noun or a preposition with a personal pronoun, e. g. 
Tmro/tui, ttvi^afuiv ri'ir xttpult'ir, J tirikt, / struck my head, tinitii' *., lo 
$lrike the head of another, lalixaoOai Toii; TtoSat, lo leasli one's otcnftet, lai-- 
U¥ t. It., lo vmsh tlieftet of another, anox^i'if/aa^ni jo iaviov, lo conceal 
own t^iari, 7tH!i^'',iaa9at x"BJra, saam vestem, lo rvoA one's oicn garment, 
stfi^itiai, aliiu, that of anollier, nafaaxiaSai ti, lo give something from 
Ott^t own meant, e. g. ravi, hence also, lo aftoir, e. g. ivroiar nufixfo&i 

en garment, 

thing from ^H 

iXfo&ai, on ^H 


the contrary Tia^c/aii' im nga/fiaTa, upcpov^ etc. to cause trouble, fear, etc., to 
some one; — anodil^aa&al t», e. g. tgyov, yvwfAtiv, dvvafiiVy to show on^s own 
work, etc., inayyilXaa&al u, to promise ; reciprocally, vdfiaad^ai Ti, aliquid if^ 
ter se partiri, to divide something untk each other, so fitQiaaa&ai ; — noijjaa" 
a&ai Ti, to do or make something for one's self, e. g. (l^fjvijv, OTiovdag, (nomv, 
to do or accomplish,) ikia&ai it, sibi sumere, hence to choose, agaa&ai tt, to 
take up for one^s self, to lay on one^s self, atgup ti, to take up something in or- 
der to lay it upon another, nQij^aa&ai XQVI*^^^ riva, sibi ah aliquo pecuniam 
ejngere, fiia^(uaaa&ai, conducere, to hire for on^s self, but fiia&oKrai, hcare, to 
let out, (UTanifiyjaa&ai, to cause to come to oniis self, to send for, xcnaoTQi- 
tpaa&ai, xatadovXoHTaa&ai yijv, sibi subjicere terram, avaqttiaaa&ai tiva, sUfi 
denndre, to make dependent on one's self, inoXvaaa&al uvi, to free for on^s 
self, to ransom, noQiaaa&al ti, sibi aliquid comparare, (noQl^Hv il uvi, alii ati- 
quid comparare\ xofAlaaa&ai, e. g. nXaraiiig nalSag xal ywalxag ixxexofiia^ 
(iirot float ig rag ^Ad^vag Th. 2, 78 ; xrriaaa&ai, naQaaxsvdaaad'al n, sibi 
comparare; ^ia&ai and ygdyjaa&at vofAOvg are used of one who makes laws 
for himself, or of a law-giver, who is himself, also, subject to the laws which 
he has made for others ; on the contrary, &fivai and yffdipai vofiov are used 
of one who is not subject to the law which he has made, or generally of 
one who gives laws to others, without expressing any further relation, e. g. 
*'Exoig av iiniiy, on ol av&gianoi lovg dygdifovg vofiovg 6 ^ e y t o ; 'Jiyat fiiw 
^tovg olfAoi tovg yofiovg toviovg tolg dv^f^tunoig &Hvai X. C. 4. 4, 19; — 
ifiVpaa^M lovg noktfilovg, propulsare a se hostes, dntMraa&ai xoxec, a se pro- 
pulsare mala, dnonifupaa^al xiva, a se dimittere, dnoatlaaa^al n, a se depeOere 
naQanriaaa&ai, deprecari, dia^ia^ai, anodoa&ai, to seU, anoTQitf/aadai, 
inopaXia&at, anoxQovaaa&cti. This is much the most frequent use of the 
middle. Several deponent middle verbs also belong here. 

Rem. 2. The Mid. in the same manner as the Act, § 249, Rem. 3, can be 
used, when the subject does not itself perform an action, but causes it to be 
done by another. There is this difference, however, in the two cases, that 
in the Mid. the action always refers, in some way, to the subject *0 narijQ 
tovg naldag ididd^aro {inaiditaaTo), which is either as much as to say, (he 
fodher educated the children for himself, or, if it is clear from the context, he 
caused them to be educated, (like X. C. 1. 6, 2 ; on the contrary, diddaxttf, 
natdfVHv are used without respect to the subject, § 249, Rem. 3.) ; xdqaa&ai, 
to shave one^s self, or to get shavetL Aqytioi aq>i(av tixovag n o itjadfitpoi 
avi&iaav ig AsX(povg, Her. 1, 31. TTavadviaq xgdnB^av IliQaixiiv naQsii^no, 
caused to be set before him, Th. 1, 130. Oi Aaxidatiiovioi, xi/jgvxa nifupavttg 
tovg ytxQoi'g diexofilaavto, caused to be removed, 4, 28, 

Rem. 3. The reflexive relation of the Middle to the subject is often so 
slight, that in our mode of considering it, it almost disappears, and some- 
times consists only in a very gentle intimation, that the action will be com- 
pleted to the profit or loss of the subject, e. g. H. o, 409. ovrt noii Tg&tg 
Jttvawy idivavio q>dXayyag ^r}$dfAiro^ (in suum commodum) nXial^i 

fityil/irrat. Hence the reflexive pronoun in not aeldom used with the Mid- 
dle, pBTlif ulorly in antiiliesea, in order to bring out eniphaticnlly the reflex- 
ive Betiae which exists in the Middle only in a general and indelinttc man- 
ner, e. g. ^troipiar (iovltvtitti — k a VI at oiOfia xal Sirafitr iripittOlif- 
vaaSai, to gain a name and power /or himtelf, X. An. 5. 6, 17, 'fii i- 
diiSayio jag alzaiv optiiis Isocr, Paneg, 58, 85. 'PiiSviiov otiols 
saTiffTijiriri'io jor plot 63, 106. Tr,¥ ifiavioii yrdfin' anotpai- 
ro/t ttofld. PerniuL 309, 23. 

Rem. 4. In many ver1>s, the Active and Mid. appear to have a similar sig- 
nification ; but on a closer invcHtlgation, the difference in Ihe meaiiiiig Is 
obvioufl ; the Active exiiresses the action absolutely, or objectively, without 
any aci^eesary idea -, the Middle, on the other hand, expresses the same ac- 
tion in relation to the subject, or aubjectively. Heoce the Middle is em- 
ployed when the literal meaning is changed into the figurative, e. g. dioniiir 
«f an outward arrangement, SioitaiaSai of an intellectual ; oflZfir literally, 
cf/iZitrdai figuratively, atuSji^v only in a literal sense, lo metuure, but tria- 
SfiairSai also in a figurative signification, aliquid secuni perpendere ; so in 
derivative verbs in -tine and -tvofiai, the active form is used absolutely, fo 
be in a nrioin ttale ; the Midille, on the other hand, signifies, to ad Iht part 
q/" thai which is indicated by the root, lo fAow one't tdf at sucA, to Aon the 
tendaio) orAoiif, to mi la roA, e. g. not^iiai, to ht bad, nuvigpti/ofjoi. lo de- 
mean oiie't m'/ badlif, noliifim. la be a eilizen, no).iTtiepai,ta livtand art as a 
eilizat, lafiitt'ia, to be a manager, tafinvofim, (o eonduet butinai, lo arrange, 
efl)ieciall]- in a metaphorical sense, e.g. tovf rofiov^. Derivatives in -linfiai 
correspond in sense to those in -tvouai, e. g. avii'iZopai, lo demean n^trlf 
tu a cUaen, xai/iiy'liofoi, la ad in a polilic manner. Still, derivatives in -IS^ 
of names of nations reject the Middle, e. g. Sai/lioi, to dtmeafi myielf, or lo 
tptak like a Dorian. 

^251. C. The Passive. (} 

1. From the reflexive signification of the Middle, the Passive 
is derived. Here the subject receives the action from another 
subject upon itself. Hence the subject of Ihe Pass, always ap- 
pears as the receiver of an action, e. g. 

Mamiyovfiai, iti/iiovfiai ivnp iifo;), I rreeive hlowt, puni^mtTd, Tlel nyieff 
ht alruek, puniihed == J am itrack, panithed {\iy tome one), piaiiofitti, aSi- 
aovfiat, I ittffer injury, injvttice, SiHaatopat, I lei myttlfbe intruded, I reeeive 
wAiutuin, / lenm, hence vno iiroi,/rom tome one ■= doctor ab oliquo, nil- 
Oopat, I persuade ni^sef/*, or I permit mytelfto bt pertaaded, Ino tiros, hfMDU 

2. Still, there are but two tenses, the Put. and ihe Aor., for ^^ 

which special forms are provided to express the passive sense ^H 

of an action ; the remaining tenses are expressed by the Mid. ^H 

13. Hence the following rule, viz. The FuL and Aor. Mid. ^| 

have only a reflexive (or intransitive) meaning; but all the ^H 


Other tenses of the Mid. serve at the same time to express the 

Remark 1. Still, the Fut Mid. has sometimes a Pass, sense. Matrn- 
ytoaet ai^ atge^Xwastaty dedrivftat, ixxavditaitm jmtp&aXnta, xiXiVt^p 
ndvia xaxct na\^o)y avaaxivdvXtv&riasTai PI. Rp. 361, e. Tfj lay jif^i^/utToiF 
andfH xbiXvtTOVjai Th. 1, 142. *'Hy iig PovXrj&fj xaxog ytviudai^ noXaa- 
^rjtmai ifj nQsnovtrrj Zw^^ ' ^^ ^* dya&ot t t firia ovtai rot; nQogriitovffiV 
S&Xot^ TtJ^ dQiii)c:, hut the brave shall be honored with the befitting rewards of 
valoTf 2, 87. Jlfgl rav acptugoiv (pgovQioiVy utg inipovXivaofiivtav, 
noXXiixig ngdyfAOLxa uxov X. Cy. 6. 1, 10. Oi'x iyvoolviig, ot* iyt^giv^ 
aoivj o vjib T&jy noXffiitav II. 7. 2, 18. So always dXavofiai. But in 
many instances, the Puss, sense is only apparent, e. g. 7/ TioXig ^gaxia ija- 
^hioa lAfydXa (tifuwasTai, shall suffer great loss therefor, in contrast with 
Pgaxia ija^* '^h. 3, 40. ^ov Zuinog, ^iXiiov ^giiffOVTat xal n a tdtV" 
eoviai^ they shall grow up better and educate themselves, PI. Crito. 54. a. 

Rem. 2. The use of the Mid. Aor. instead of the Pass, is, in all instances, 
only apimrent ; so Od. ^, 35. xoi'^oi di dvu xal 7isvTf)KovTa xq ivd a d^af 
xatd drifioy, means, let them select themselves ; on the contrary, 48. xovqoh dk 
XQiv&ipT i dva x. mvi., the selected Hes. Sc. 173. xdngot doiol a tt o v- 
^dfAtvoi tpvxdg, they had deprived each other of life, PI. Phaedr. 244, e. 
T^ oQ&btg /uayfiVri xal x a t a cr/ o ju a y q>, ** in fine phrenanf* and in ecstasy. 

Rem. 3. It has been shown, § 197, and Rem. 3, (comp. $ 250, Rem. 1\ 
that the Aor. Pass, of very many verbs is employed by the Greeks to denote 
a reflexive and intransitive action, e. g. fiovXoftah I wUl, ifiovXtj&fiv^I 
Ufilledy tvfpQaivia, I gladden, cheer, svq^gaivofiat, I am glad, tvq>Qdp'd'ijp, I 
was glad. In a few verbs, the Pass. Fut is used in die some way, e. g. 
fidofAtti, I rejoiced, m^rjp, I r^oiced, ^ad^ofiai, I shall rejoice. See § 197, 
Rem. 1. 

Rem. 4. The author or cause of any person or thing being in a Pass, 
state is generally expressed by the Prep, vno with the Gen. e. g. Ol atga- 
iimat vno xiiv noXtfiltap ididx^fiaav. Instead of vno, ngof with 
the Gen. is used, when at the same time a strong and direct influence of a 
person, or of a thing viewed as a person, is to be expressed, e. g. ^AxifidJ^" 
^at, udixiia&ai n gog xivog. Bavavaixal xix^at tlxoioig a^o^ovrta^ 
ngog twv n6XfiavlLOA,2; also nag a with the Gen. is used when the 
author is exhibited as the one from whose vicinity, or through whose means 
internal or outward, the action has come ; hence used specially with ne/iirs- 
ad^at, didoa^ai, iq>tXtUy&ai.^ avXXiyta&ai, Xiysa&ai, ifioXoyna^ai, ofifuuvi^ 
a&ai, ini9(lxvv<r&at (demonstrari), e. g. *0 ayytXog inifAq>'d'tj nagi 
PaaiXitog, * H iityUnri ivxvxla lovKa loi dvdgl naga &Boiv dedota$. 
IloXXa jif^iffiara Kvgtf nag a rur q^iXatv aw (tXty/ABPa t^v, T^ 
d&ga nifAntrai nagd rov pa(riXivovjogHer,7,106. Ta nagi 
t &y ^B&v arifjiai-vofAeva X. Cy. 1. 6, 2. Ilagd n dp i (ov 6 fioXo^ 
yelxai An. 1. 9, 1. Oi/uot ydg fis nagd aov aoq>lag nXijgat&riat'- 
Q& at PL S3m[ip. 175, e. 'jEx is st'dl stronger than nagd; yet it is seldom 
' used by the Attic writers, e. g. IExfaVo) avxtj { x^Q^ ^^ p aa iXi tag ido- 
^fl X. H. 3. 1, 6 ; in Her., however, ^x is very often used instead of vno 
bimply. The use of vno with the Dat is almost wholly poetic, e. g. dafAtjpai 
vno Tiyi, in Attic prose only in certain connectiong, e. g. viog in o x^ 

xaTfi Tidpoju^iro; PI. Rp. 538, d Tu^-^nKt iino naiSojQijiji aya- 
S ^1 THJiatdm/iiyoi Lach. 184, e. Wlieu tlie Passive condiiiou ie iioi cuub- 
ed by persons, but liy tLiiig^ tlie DaL is commonly iigcd = Lut. Ablutive, 
e, g.'H :i63.ig itoklaXg a VfUpogaJs imiZtTo. 

Rem. 5. The Dot., Imwever, very often Htnnde wliere persoiiH nre spoketi 
of, pnrticularly in tbe Pcrf. tetiae, and regiilai-ty with verhnl sdjcclives. The 
Pasa. has in such inslonces an iDlraiiititivc or reflexive secse, uiil tlie Diit 
indicntea the jwraon lliat takes ]mrl id die oction, or for nhoiii tlii.' action is 
performed. While i* n 6 witli the Gen. denotes merely the author of Ihe 
passive action, the Dat., at the same lime, denotes that this action stands in 
a retatioo to the author, e. ([. "Jl; [i o i jigottfav dtdtiXairui, i. e. at the thing has 
hten bt/orr poinled out b\f me, andforiat now standi at poinhd md,l\eT.G. 123. 

4. It is a pcculiarily of Greek, ihat llie Act., not merely of 
Iranaiiivc verba wilh the Ace, may be changed inio Ihe personal 
Paas., like llie Lalio, but also the. Act of intransitive verba with 
the Gen. and Dat. 

^& arovfiat vno iif o; (from <f9ovnv tin, tnvidere nlicui), i. & / txpc- 
ritnce envy front some oiir, (in Lnliti, on tiio contrary, iuvidetiir tuihi ab ali- 
quo), niinii.'0[iai nttd an lai ov/iai vno iirot (from nitnivny and 
animni tiri\ I am truattd, / am diOniaUd. Th. 1, 82. ^/itlj Itt UOTiralmr 
i,tijiovXtvifii&ii {iiiiltovi.ii-Hv TiW). PI. Rp. 3. 41?, b. »al im^oiiXti- 
on,(,fal i7i,^oviiv6pivoi Siaiomi nana j6» fliot. 6. 551, a. aaxil- 
tai Ail TO atl iifiiifittot, ifitXttzai Si lu oii/iaj^dfjivar. X- S. 4, 31. oh- 
MJTi aniilovitai, alt 'liij antilai uUoif. So afx9i)vat, xgatii9^- 
fai, iij'ifioytv^tirai, ■« r(nppo»i;i?^i'at iwo xii'Of (from np/iiv, 
nganlr, t^jr^ofiuMV, xniuippowic tiiv;), ^»i/e((H|55»o( (from ^ni^eif ((» 

Rem. 6, The Greek may, also, form a Pass. fVom other intranHitivea, yet, 
for ibe most part, only when the aiibjecl itt a thing, particularly a NeuL pro- 
noun, or a ParL when used as a NeuL subslanlive, e. g. Kat fiixg a u/iap- 
fqS ima [vel paraa pt/xata) X. An. 5. 8, 20. j(T[i;['i]ff«rioj>' [rerum in- 
fdicUrr galarum) Dem. Cor, 298, 319. 'EjiI toijiois iyai aXt, »tvopi*oit 
diSmfil not th* ifh* Siilur {ta conditione, ul hiac vert diamtjtr) X. Cy. 4. 6, 10. 
2it«*Sat nanfuPi^daSai [migrata om pada) Th. 1, 123. 'J!f Iri arSft 
noUfui' aQfta; KirSuycicaSai {in ptriaUiini vorari) % ti5, Ol ^^Sior 

Iti imo JiolXuv turSvytv&iriaiip iro; ^ijd^rai Lya. 5, 112. 
§2-52. Remarks on the Deponents. <3«.) 

it has been seen above, § 102, 3, that DeponentB ore simply verbs, wtiich 
occur either in the Mid. only, or in the Mid. yet wilh a Pass. Aor^ and with 
a reflexive or intransitive signification ; and, also, that they are divided into 
Mid. or Paso. Depoucnts, according as their Aor. has a Mid, or Pass, form. 
The reflexive sense in many Depooenti is so alight, that they seem to be, 

336 SYNTAX.— SENSES AND MODES. [§§ 253, 254. 

in our mode of regarding tiiem, merely transitive verbs, e. g. dixofial Ti, / 
take (namely, to mysdf) aomdhingj ig/dt^ofial ti, fiidiofial rtra, etc. Such 
Deponents are often used in a Pass, sense, particularly in the Perf. and in 
the Pass. Aor. Examples of the Pres., Impf. and Fut are very rare, and 
are found only in such Deponents as have in single examples an active form, 
e. g. ffid^ta^aij irtiadai. 

ndvia antlQya(Tta$7(} &f^ PI. L. 710, d. MsfAiiififiivog (ad imi- 
tationem expressus) Her. 2, 78. Ev iptt&vfujfAivop (weU-cormdared) 
PL Crat 404, a. Nijfg ovx ixQV^^fl(roy (adhibitae sunt) Her. 7, 144. 

Remark. Several Deponents have both a Mid. and Pass. Aor. ; the Pass, 
form has then a Pass, sense, e.g,idt^dfiijv, excepi, idix^fjy, exceptus 
sum ; ifiiaadfitjVy coegi, iptda&tiv^ coactus sum ; inxr^aaiifiv^ mihi 
comparavi, ix 1 17 ^17 y, comparatus sum (I wa8 gained) ; oXoq>VQaa&at^to 
lamentj oXofpvQ&rjyaif to he lamented ; dxiaaa^aijto healj cf x £ or ^ {- 
y a i, to fre healed ; dnoxQlvaad-at, to reply, anoxQi^tivai^to be 9epar 
rated. In a few verbs only are bodi Aorists used without distinction of 
meaning, § 197, Rem. 1. 

§253. Tenses and Modes. 

The predicate or verb may be divided in relation to its sub- 
ject, into the following classes, 

(a) Tenses, by which the relation of time of the predicate 
is expressed, since it is designated either as Present, Future or 
Past, c. g. the rose blooms j will bloomj bloomed; 

(b) Modes, by which the relation of* the affirmation con- 
tained in the predicate is expressed, inasmuch as the relation 
of the predicate to the subject is denoted either as an actual fact 
or phenomenon, as a conception, or as a direct expression of the 
will. The mode which expresses a fact, e. g. the rose blooms^ 
is called the Indicative ; the mode which denotes a conception, 
e. g. the rose map bloom, is called the Subjunctive ; the mode 
which denotes the direct expression of the will, is called the Im- 
perative, e. g. give, 

§254. A. More Particular Viexo of the Tenses. (378.) 

1. The tenses may be divided, in accordance with their form 
and meaning, into two classes, namely, (a) into Principal tenses, 
which, both in the Ind. and Subj. always indicate something 
present or future ; (b) into Historical tenses, which, in the Ind. 
always denote something past, in the Subj. (Optative), some- 


times that which is past, and sometimes that which is present 
or fnture, 

2. The Principal tenses are the following, 

(n) The Present, (a) Indic-Btive, e. g. yijaifoiur, Mriltimus ; ((J) Subjunctive, 
e. g. yi^atfiaiiiy, scribamuH ; 

(b) Tbe Perfect, [a) Indicative, e. g. yiyi/aifapc*, BcripsimuB ; (/!] Siitijnnc- 
tiTe, e. g. ytfga^Bifttr, Bcripserinius ; 

(c) The Future, Iitdicalive, e. g. /gaifiofiir, ecrilteinUH, uc thall vriU ; 

(d) The Future Perret^t, Indicative, e. g. Pi^ovliiaoiiai, I ihall ddibemte, I 
Aali be advitoL 

3. The Historical tenses are ihe following, 

[&) The Aorist, (a) Indicative, c. g. lygaifia, I terolt ; {^) Optative, e. g. 
ygaifiaifu, I mighl trrite, or / mtgU have uvitUn ; 

(b) The Imperfect, (r) Iiidicalive, e. g. ly^acpoy, Bcribebatn ; [fl] Optative, 
e. g. yi/iiifoifii, Hcriberem [ 

(c) The Plupettect, (o) Indicative, e. g. tytyqaiftiv, scripscrani ; (^) Opta- 
live^ e. g. yiyfiuifoitit, ecrigiaisaem ; 

(d) The Optative o( the simple Future, e. g. yqafoip^ I uxnild write, and 
of tbe FuL Perf., e. g. ^i^ovlnaolixiii; I thoiM htax deliberated, or / 
haoe ban adviaat, wJien in narration, (and consequently in rererence to 
the past], the conception of a future action, or of one to be completed 
at a future lime, is to be expressed, e. g. u Syytkot iXtyir, on ol noXi- 
ftiot yixJiaour, the messen^r said, that the enemy vxndd etmqmr, 
Qt/fv, ux nana Ino loii ujQai^yov iv j3$ffovXiiaotJo, lie said 
that everything imuld be tcelt planned by the general. 

§255. (a) Principal Tenses, Present, Perfect, 
Fu ture. t^o-a^i. ass, aw, aw.) 

1. The Pres. Ind. represents the action as present to the 
speaker. In the narration of past events, the Pres. is often used, 
particularly in the principal clauses of a sentence, and often in 
subordinate clauses, since in a vivid representation, past time is 
viewed as present {ihe Present Aijitoncffi)- 

Tovi^» tiii" ia<fipoi' ^aailivt f'ys nont nvil iQVfiaiot, titnSii ttw- 
Marital Kvi/or TigOiiiavi'OfTa \, Ad. 1.7,16. Itr iis ITQiafiiSui- »u- 
lOTo; IJolvS<aiio!,'J^ufl>ignali,oyi*TQoiatifiai7tatiiQ SlSeiai tlqia^oq 
h tifioiq TfiipurEur. Hec. 1116. The Pres. Hint. Bomctimes xtnnde in 
paaaagea wliere, in addidon to the narration by adverbn, like noii, nalai. 
Poet, nafot, the time is considered as past, o. g. Zturt lUifo'Vi naiSa, ov 
ixai!>iii ROTi Eur. El. 419. 

Rehahk 1. An action ia often viewed in Greek as present, which belongs, 
indeed, to the past, but at the same time extends to the pfeaenl, or in iw 
remilla reocbee to tbe present In this maimer, the following verbs ' 



larly are used, (a) verbs of perceiv^ing, e, g, axovoi, nvyd-arofjiat, ala- 
^ avoiiai^ y lyyatTxcj, fjiav&dv(Of like Lat audio, video, etc., and Eng. 
to hecnr, to see, to perceive, to observe ; (b) q>sv/oi, T have given myself to flight, 
and I am now a fugitive, hence to live in exile, v ixoi, I am a victor, {' t t (u - 
fiui, I am vanquished, yiyvofiai, I am descended, etc. ; (c) in poetry, 90- 
yevfo, I am a murderer, e. g. S. Ant 1 174, ^vfjaxm, lam dead, S. El. 113, 
T / X T 00, ytrvbi, I am a father or mother, Eur. Ion. 356. Her. 209., etc. This 
usage extends to all the Modes and Participials of the Pres. as well as to 
the Impf. Of/naioxlia oix axovsig aydga iya&ov yeyopoia PL Gorg. 
503, c. Ilavta nvv^ avoiievoq 6 Kgolaoq tnfjtne ig J^JiaQjTjv iiyyiXovg 
Her. 1, 69. Tl di', ah ixuvo axrixoa^, on Mvaol xa\ Uiaidai iv rf, ^aatUtag 
Xf^ga xaiixovifg iqvfiva navv xfOQlf* dvvaviai ipy iUv^igoi; — Kal tovjo y, 
I91}, ixovd), hast thou heard ? axovot, yes, I have known ofii,JLO, 3. 5, 26. 
'AnayyiXXnt^Agialoi, 011 viitig ytvixoifAsv paaiXia, xai^ ig ogaie, ovdilg ^fu» 
eii fittxitai An. 2. 1, 4. Toiy v ixatvtoiP iarl xal to iavtw¥ atainv xal to Tc5y 
i^TXOifiivoiv Xafi^dpdv 3. 2, 39. AaQsiov xal naqvaaxidog naldsg yly- 
povxa I difo 1. 1, 1. 

Rem. 2. OixofAai and ij x oi, with Pres. forms, are often translated in 
Eng. by Perfects, namely, oi'xofiai, I have departed, and v x<a^ I have come ; 
yet o Ix ofiat, properly means, lam gone, and tj xoj, I am here, (adsum), e. g. 
Mfj Ivnov, ou 'Agdanag oTjifeTai tig lovg noXtfjUovg, that •^. is gone(= 
transfugit) to the enemy, X. Cy. 6. 1, 45. "Hxto vtxQoiv xtv&fioiva xal oxotov 
nvXag Xtntav Eur. Hec. 1. 'T/itig fioXig dq>ixvHa&e, onot VH^U ndXai ijxofisr 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 4. 

Rem. 3. But the Greek oflen considers an action as present, which, though 
not yet accomplished, is either still in progress, or is considered as begun. 
This usage also belongs to all the Modes and Participials of the Pres. as 
well as to the Impf. It specially holds of the Pres. of « Ip i, which, in the 
Ind. has regularly the meaning of the Fut, / shall go ; the Subj. includes 
the meaning of the Fut in itself, § 257, Rem. 4 ; but the Inf and Part have 
the meaning both of the Pres. and Fut **£7tet,ja xd xt vtv ovxa ip x^ 
naqadila(f^ &riqia dldojfil aoi, xal aXXa nayxodanu avXXi^w'K. Cy. 1. 3, 
14. MixvXrjvaloi inl Mfi&vfivav wg ngod idofAiyrjv iajgaTBvaay (putan- 
tes parari ibi proditionem) Th. 3, 18. In like manner oflen the Pres. Part 
after verbs of motion, e. g. 'H ndgaXog ig xdg ^A&tivag inXivaty, inayyiX^ 
Xovaa xa ytyovoxa X. H. 2. 1, 29. Kal xio qlyti anwXXvfit&a, xal 
Xtiiv nXilarri i^y, we expected to perish, An. 5. 8, 2. Ovx iv&vg a <p t) o- o) av- 
X09, ovS* a It 1 1 fA I, uXX igrjaofAtti avxov xal i^ ex da at PL Apol. 29, e. 
^Ensl 1) Mavdavfi nagiaxtvaj^BTo (ag in lovaa ndXiv ngog xov avdga, idiixo 
avxijg 6 ^Aaivdyrjg xaiaXintiv xov Kvgov X. Cy. 1. 3, 13. 

Rem. 4. But actions or events wholly future are sometimes indicated as 
present, by the use of the Pres. tense, when in the view of the speaker tlie 
action or event yet future is vividly apprehended, or when he is so firmly 
convinced of its occurrence, that it appears as already present, e. g. ^£v gn^ 
[idxii xfjvdt Tiyy jjfoi^ay ngogxxda&B xal ixtlvt}v fiaXXov iXtv & Bgovxt 
Th. 4, 95. "^y ^dyrjg av, naXg o^ ixipsvyti fiogov aov d* oi &iAovatjg 
nax&aviiv, xovde xxivoj Eur. Andr. 381. 

2. The Perf. Ind. represents a past action as present in rela- 
tion to the speaker. The action appears as completed at the 


lime of speaking. A\so in narratives, ihe Perf. is sometimes 
used, since llie action is separated from the past, and is piaci'd 
in the present view of the speaker. This relation is lilie lliat 
indicated by the Historical Present. 

riyi/ntpa tijc /minoltir, I have imtlai the letter, the letter it now vrrU- 
fcn, whether written now, or BOtne time ap>. 'n jioiis IxticrTai, The 
etty it nnw built, it itanib now bvHt. 'Airrvayin lay h Mi'i5oit niinar Sia^ 
noTiji' ini'io*' 7iintilt]«ir X. Cy. 1. 3, 18. oCSiv iirri niQSakiaiitQor lav 
tinar ■ yai/ K^aiaiy afia Ttayja avrtjgnart, xal ioii( urii/af, xal jag yv- 
rn^ioe 4. 3, 2(!. Toi'ia tw» buo fftiuiovnjijou nrpoTijyii'c ttiXiyopitiai', 
ilriXv9t Dvi)f '^fiijyaior, n/^Ejll(i)vijx((t'TDi'^u;i!a(oti/;l4[Tix^>', an Athe- 
nian ii tome and is hrrr, iiiBtund ofeamc. Her. 8, 50. 

Rem. 5. Since llie Porf lirings jmst time into close connection with tlie 
present, the Greeks in many Perfects contemplated less the peculiar act of 
completion, tlian its result us enfaihited at the pret«ut moment, and hence 
they used the Perf., in order to indicate u condition that whs occB^iuned by 
the rompletion of the action. In English the Perfects of many verba are ex- 
preaaed by ttie Prcs. and Impf., e. g. rcdniKa (t have died), / am dead, 
joKTijjioi (I have obtained), /jWMtM, ntfai'^mm (1 have beeii wondering), 
I ant tutonithed, ^tjloikivfiai (1 liave taken rounsel with myMlf), I mn dtler- 
aintd, niipririi (I have shown myBclf), I apptar, i»ia, novi (I have seen), f 
knoxo, li&TiXa (I have blossomed), / bloom, itijtei9a (I have convinced my- 
self), / Irvsl, piSijua (1 have gone away), / am going, ftifivtifiai, nieniini (1 
have remembered), I am mindfvl, rnxkiifiai (I have been named), I am tidied, 
VK. Many verbs, especielly such us exprens the idea of to tound, to call, em- 
ploy no Pm. and Impf, or but very seldom, so that the Perf and Plup. 
seem to take throughout the ploco of the Prea. and Impf., e. g. tixi/aya, I 
try, properly, / am a crier, /liftuxa, I roar. 

Rem. 6. The transition from tlie completed action to the condition ac- 
complished by it, IB more obvious in the Pass, than in the active, Comp. 
' q 6vfa KixliiaTai, the door has been shut, and it t* now xhul. So 
panlculariy the third Pcrs. Sing. Perf Imp. Pasa. is nflen used, when one 
would declare with em|ihasis, that the thing spoken of should remain filed 
in its place, e. g. UliltpOio, retirpium cslo, nentiiiaaSu, lei H bt tried, rHv 
Si toino TrtoXiiiiaSa itTiiiv. So the Inf. in the Omlio obliigua, X. H. 5. 4, 7. 
^lOPitt Si liiiov, ih' ^vQar xtidtlirSai, let it be $kvt, and remain »hd. 

RxM. 7. The Perf in all the forms is used with special emphasis, even 
of future actions, since the occurrence of such actions is affirmed with the 
Hioe definiteness and confidence, as if they bad already taken place. II. 
o, 128. fiaiyofitu, ^^eVa; ijii, Jit^ dapaf.' Sooilwita, like pcrii, in- 
terii, Bctuni est de me. PI. Phaedon. 80, d. i} if/vxri 11"' V ToisLrq ini ai;tai 
nKfiiivia, anailannfiiri xov mojunog, il-9it iiannf vatitai lut 

3. Tlic Flit. Ind. denotes an action as future in relation to 
L the present lime of the speaker. The Greeks very often i 


the Fut Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an Hist tense, 
to express that which should^ rmist or can be, where the Latin 
employs the Subj. ; the other forms of the Fut, particularly the 
Part., are also so used. 

Nofiovg vnaglat dii toiovxovg, di atv rolg fiev aya&oig snifiog nal iXsv^e^ 
gog 6 fiiog naQaaxsvaad^ijasjaiy tdig di xaxotg lanuvog it ital aX- 
ytivog nal ifiltatog 6 alaiv inapaxeiatta^ X. Cy. 3. 3, 52. Oi tig T^r 
paaiXixriV Tc/i^y naidtvo/iBVOi xi diaffiqovut x&v i$ iyd/xfig xaxoTta&ov^xoPf 
uysnBtvijaovffi xal diyjf}(rovai xat ( lyiuaova i xal ay Qvnpi]'- 
aovat^ if they must hunger, etc, C, 2. 1^ 17, "EdoU toI dij/uqi xgiaxorta 
avdgag kXia&at, oixovg narglovg vofAOvg ^vyygaff/ovaif xa^ ovg no^ 
X^xevaovtri H. 2.3, 2. 

4. Commands, exhortations, admonitions, entreaties, and, in 
connection with the negative ov, prohibitions, are often ex- 
pressed by the Fut Ind. since the accomplishment of what is 
affirmed is not demanded, as is the case in the Imp., but is 
made to depend on the will of the person addressed, and is 
only expected. On the contrary, the Fut is used, in connection 
with the negative ov, interrogatively, when, in a strong and in- 
dignant tone, the accomplishment of that which is stated, is ex- 
pected necessarily, 

"Oga ow xal ngod^Vfiov xaxiSuVj iav ntog ngoxegog ifiov Idrjg, xal (iot 
^gaang PL Rp. 432, c. "iflg oty noi^atxs xal n c l&taS^i ftoi Prot 
338, a. Ol dg aaetg xovxoy thou wilt not do tkis^ as I hope ts^do it not ; 
butov dgiat^g xovxof wilt thou not do this f = do it. Ov navtrrj la- 
yuv ; non desines dicere ? instead of desine dicere. PI. Symp. in. ov ntgi- 
/urtig ; mU thou not wcai ? Dem. Phil. 2,72.01^ tpvXalBo &', ^yfl^ on»g 
(iii d(ort6xtiv svgrixt. But when in this manner, a negative command is to 
be expressed, the negative ju^ is to be used with ov ; and when two sen- 
tences of this kind, one with an affirmative meaning and the other with a 
negative, follow each other, ov stands in the first sentence, fitj in the last 
Ov (iv (plvagrftritg ; Ov fii] XaXijoBigj aX£ axoXov&'fjfreig ifiol ; in- 
stead of 1171 q>Xvdgu, fAti XdXit, dX£ axoXov^st. PL Symp. 175, tu ovx ovr 
xaXttg avxov xal n^ a (priang, 

5. The Fut Perf. Ind. expresses an action as completed in 
future time in relation to the present time of the speaker, e. g. 

Kal loioi fitiil^txai io&Xa xaxolotv Hes. Op. 177. 7/ noXixda xtXing 
usxoafii^atxaij iav o xoiovxog avxtj^ intaxonfj q^vXa^ o xovxatr iniax^- 
fimw PL Rp. 506, a. The Fut Perf. of those verbs whose perfects are trans- 


Uted by the preseot lensee of other verbs, see Rem. 5, mumt be translated 
by the Huiiple Put, e. g. fiipr^aofiai, meminero [i dvM remenAtr), I ahaU be 

Rem. a The FuL Perf., like the Peif., Rem. 7, is tued inalead of the 
nmple FuL, to express a thiDg etuphBtically, e. g. ■^aCt,xai ^lnqa%^^tll^ 
At. P!uL 1027. 

Rem. 9. The FuL Perf is used in Greek only in the principal clnuses of 
a eenlence, and in aubordinate clauaea introduced hy ok und tu;, Ihnl. In 
all other subordiiintc clauses, the Aor. Subj., (more seldom tlie PerJ^ Suhj.) 
is used instead of it, in connection with a conjunction compounded ofu'v, 
w tar, 4nai', tattSar, oiar, ti^i* Sv, tg% Sf, ot a*, eti%, e. g. 'Ear loEio 
m^!, si hoc dlxeris. 

§Sd6. Historical Tenses, Aorist, Imperfect and 
Pluperfect. (3sa, xi, asa, 3S7, ass.) 

1. The Aor. Ind. expresses past time, separate from the pre- 
sent of the speaker, in a wholly itideBnite manner, with no oth- 
er relalion, e. g. tyi>a\f}a, J wrote, Kvqos wolia lfinj irixijair. It 
thus stands in contrast with the other lenses which e-tprcss past 
lime ; slill, so far as it indicates past time indefinitely, it may be 
used instead of either of these lenses. 

2. Both the Impf. and Plup. Ind. express, indeed, an action 
as past, but always represent it as having relation to another 
past time. The Impf. expresses the action as contemporary 
with this other past time ; the Plup, expresses the action as al- 
ready past, (finished before this other past time). 

'Et la av in a I it i, tya iygaipor. "Oji iyyvi fiaar <A ^ag^afoi, 
oi'KU.Ti"i ffaxorio. "Oti oi /Jap^ojo. tntlii3.v9rtiar, ot'lfiUijyts 
i/iaxorio. Toil (or ly larii; ifi fi a xfi) oVEXXtirfq ^aiJiaXnoiaia 
tfittx orio. 'EmiSn oVUlmrit in iltjkv&iaar, oi noUiiiot aniiti- 
ifivyiattT. "Oti ol Dtifiiiaxoi inltialaior, oi .AStiyoioi lovf IJiQaac 
trirmtjKnrar. 'Eyiyfiiifiir njr iiturtoi^r, I had arilten thtUtUr 
{h^ort Ike friend tami). 

Rim. 1. It is lo be noted that the Greeks, when the relation of the past 
time to another past lime can be easily inferred from tlio context, and no 
special enipbasis lies in this relation, freely use the Aor. instead of the 
Plup., e. g.'J5,'7i(i3ij oi'iXlijrif i-iti)X9or, oljioUfiiotanmiquvyKrar. The 
Aor. is often employed even instead of tlic Perf, when the relation of the 
post time to the present oeed not be expressed emiihalirally. 

3. Henc« the Aor. Ind. is used in historical narrations, in or- 
der to indicate the principal events, while the Impf. Ind. is used 



to denote the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. narrates, 
the Impf. describes. Hence in the narration of past events, the 
Aor., which introduces the principal facts, is very often ex- 
changed for the Impf., which describes and paints ; the Aor. is 
often, also, exchanged with the Hist Pres., which, like the Aor., 
relates the principal events, and places them vividly in the pre- 
sent ; the Aor., not seldom, is exchanged with the Plup., some- 
times with the Perf. By this interchange of the tenses, the nar- 
ration has the greatest liveliness of representation, and the finest 
shades of expression. 

Huoq S* *£tog(p6Qog ilfft q)6(ag igitav int yataw, ivfios nvQxaXri iiAUQalvt^ 
TO, navaato di 9X0I II. yt, 228. Tovg ndtainag idd^ayto oi fiaQpaQot 
xat i(jidxoyjo' ind d* iyyvg i}aay ol onXhai, ixqanovto' naltA 
mXTatnal zv&vg ccttofto X. An. 5. 4, 24. Svriptj i0 idoxijtta wd 
i^anlyfjg i(ji(poiiQVt&BP lovg ^Aduivalovq '&ogvPri&tjvat' xal to flip ivtupV(MOP 
xigag avrcjy, onsQ dri xal ngoxsz^QV^^h Bv^vg Sino^^ayhv B<pvyt' xal 
o Bgaaidagj vnoxotQOvnog iljdfi avtovj ininagiiiy t^ de^/^, njQtoaxttai' 
xal maoyxa avrov oi (tip *Ad-ipfaiot ovx aiad-dvoytai, ol di nXiyrlw 
Sgartig inr^v^yxav xal fih KXioayfag to ngwtov ov Hi tvotl to lu-- 
PHPf fv&vg (ptvyay, xal xaTaX'nq>&ilg vno Mvguvlov ntXiaajoVf airo^yi}- 
(T X »' oi di ainov ^wngaq>ineg onXltai fjfivroyjo x. t. Z. Th. 5, 10. *0 
fiiv TtoXfuog anarttiv vfuig iwy iigfifiiraty annTjiQfixa' xal yag xoi ntn-- 
tnsQOvg nBnoltixBf xal noXXovg xivdvrovg wiofiivtiy iipdyxaae^ xal ngog 
%ovg''£XXtjpag dtapiliXtjxB xal ndpta tgonop JtJaXaiJiiaQrixBp ^fiag 
Isocr. Pac 163, a. 

Rem. 2. Inasmuch as the Aor. Ind. represents a past action as inde- 
pendent and completed, unconnected with any other past time, and as the 
Impf. Ind., on the contrary, represents a past action as always connected 
Yfiib. another past action, being, consequently, employed in exhibiting an 
action in its duration and progress, and hence used in description,— «o an 
exact moment, or point of time, is denoted by the Aor., while tlie IropC, on 
the other hand, denotes duration or continuance. Yet these two significa- 
tions do not exist in the tenses themselves, but rather in the nature of the 
principal facts, which are expressed absolutely, as independent and com- 
pleted, and in the nature of die attendant circumstances which are repre- 
sented as continuing. Nothing can in itself be described as momentary or 
continuing ; the action of the longest continuance can be expressed by the 
Aor., as well as one of the shortest continuance by the Impf., when the 
former is to be represented as the main idea, the latter as an accompanying 

4. On the use of the Impf. and Aor. Ind., the following things 
are to be noted, 


(ti) The Impf. appears sometimeB to slend instead of the Pres., aiiice an 
action which continues into the present time, is referred to a [laat time in 
which it ocTurred, or was known to the spetiker. Klfo? iiilairii — ini 
10V XaXor Ttoia/ioy, vna to icpoc nXi9iiov, nktigt] S ij/S I'Bir luyaltar Kai 
irpoion', oi; oi ^vQoi&foig irofitior xal a3iial¥ oln itnir, which the 
Syrians kdd for gods, namely, as I ilicn saw, X. An. 1. 4, 0, 'A<flKovTo 
«pof TO Mijiia; xai.oipcyov iJijfos ' — dnilx' 3i BaflukSyoi ol TtoXv 2. 4, 
12. Tg ii Ttfuiiti tifiign aiplKono ial tuv itoia/ioi', og u^tCi Ti|t> ti tcuv 
Afmpiiuvnn' [j;<u^ai'] xai irir tuir ^xvSiviiy 4. 8, 1. jiiaf lu ttalgt, n^' ov tuiIi 
I) r TO SirSgot, if onif tfyif ^/liis VL F\\aeiir. 230, a. Oun up ayaSug la 
xoinina nifixliijg ijv At ToiTTnu tdC Ic^oi', namely, when lie eo appeared 
to UB, consequently ^ oiti u^ aya&Lg imm, ug iipalvito Gorg. 51G, d. 

(b) The Aur. \k often uaed in general |>ro{M>BitionB, whicli express a fact 
borrowed from ex|>erience, and which in Engliah is translated by tlie Pres., 
«r by the verb it teoni, or u aecutloinrd, with on luf. The Greek, instead 
of repeating tilings or facts in detail, selects a single cose, which it describes 
fblly, and in this manner eniboiiies tlie general idea. 11. f, 177. a'ul tt /Jiuf 
Kiftlaam' voos aiytoxoio, ogte lai aXxifiov aySi^a ipojSei, xal a tfilku o 
ritaiy (^laig. X. Cy. I. 3, 3. ai fiiy ya^ ulciajui jioitig Jif oeraiioiwi rote 
xolliai; fA'i xUiEKiv, /iq aQuaittv, xal laUu lu loiat-ia ugaitarg- f/y Si ti; 
tovTon' Tt THiQa/iairii, C^ia; atiroi; ini&taay. Dem. 01. 1(2). 20,9. 
oxay in nXtav^iag kou Jroyii^iag tij, ucti^ avrog {'Pli.iK7ios\ iaxiajj, »1 irpuit) 
ttfotpaaif Kal fiiK^y mttla,ua iiaana avixuiTtat xal dtilvvi v. 

Ben. 3. When t)ie idea of icing' woni lo do, at found in Ibe Aor., is to be 
made prominent, or when a lurfi've habil is to be expressed, the Greek uses 
the Terbs ^iiltT>' and tOikrir. Her. 7. 10, .5. iptliii yaq o &eoq to imipJ- 
jCOVTa jtana ttoXoiuy. 157. lui cv jiovhvdiytt npv^/ioti TiXevrli uif to inl- 

^narXfl""^ '*'■'" {"tyiriaSai. 
(c) Hence in poetry, and often in comparisons, tiie Aor. is used instead 
ctf the Pres., since comparisons contain facts that are known and Ibunded 
on often re|)ealed experience. D. /, 33 — 36. luj S" (In i/{ rt Sgaxoyja iSay 
irallyaQtoi aniaitj ovgiog /y ^iiaaiig, tn6 it i^ifiog illu^i yvla.SijiT 
ari/upqct v, oyff of ti ^ir tile nagnag' a; avttg na^ ofiiXor cSv Tfu- 

^mr uyifioxiuy (sc. JlaQig), U. ti, 482. q^ini S , lag oic ti; 8fv; tjg latv, 
(d) The tragedions often use the Aor. in dialogue as an impassioned or 
cmpliatic expression of a judgment, which has respfct, Indeed, to the pre- 
flenl time, but which the Rpeaker wishes lo represent as already confirmed ^h 

in his experience. The English often translates such Aorists, in a very im- ^^M 

perfect manner, by the Pres. Here belong esjieclally verbs expressing ^^M 

I passion, etc., e. g. uti inivira, ty iXrtaa, in-^ytaa.^iftiaia. 1 9ai- ^^H 

■ fiaaa, ajtafioaa, JjaStir, 8. PhiL 1434. a d' uv iaflijS ai oiiiJla xov- ^^H 

k^ JP - S 


di tov ffTQaroVf to^ar ifiuy [irrjfitict^ nqog nvgay ifiiiv xoiitf^B' xal aol rairty 
t4;fiiU€a»$ xixifOP„ naqjiviQa^ this 1 counsel thee = Id this counsd be given 
to thee hy me. Eur. Med. 223. /^ij da |«Voy fdr xagTu 7iQogx(ugHy (se accom- 
modare) nolti ovd* atnoy jiVic^ o^rtf ald-ddtig ytymg ningog noXhoug ia- 
lip ufia&iag vno (nee laudo, nee unquam laudavi). Hec. 1276. Polym. xal 
in\v Y ird/jtfi nalda Kouraaydgay d'oviiv, Hecuba, aninxvca^ this thought 
I abhor ass a thought which I have abhorred. 

(e) With like effect the Aor. is apparently often used by Attic writers, in- 
stead of the Pres. in urgent appeals, which are expressed in the form of a 
question introduced by ti ovv ov or tl ov. The speaker wishes, as it 
were, to see the desired action already accomplished. X. Cy. 2. 1, 4 t/ 
ovy, iqtri o Kvgog, ov xal Tijy dwafnv tlt^dg fio«, quin igitur mihi — re- 
censes ? uhy hast thou not already said iito mef instead of m^^ U to me forth' 
with! 5. 4, 37. J I ovy, Iq^, tu radaiOj ovxl fd /ley tsi/i; (pvXaxji ixvgi 
inolfjaag; PL Phaedon. 86, d. c* ow Ti( vfiolty timoQmfQog ifiov, %l ovx 
inBxglpato,' is quam celerrime respondeat The Pres. is, also, so used ; 
still it is in cases when the expression is far weaker, e. g. Tl ovy,^ d* og, 
ovx iQWJ^g'f stronger than iqma, but weaker than Tl olr olx ii ^ iuti}- 
aag or fJQov; PI. Lysid. 211, d. Tl ovv ov axoTrov/icy X.C.3.1, 10. 

(f ) The Aor., like the Perf, § 255, Rem. 7, is used, when the speaker 
confidently considers a future event as already taken place. XL d, 160 — ^162. 
^ntQ ydQ T« xal alnlx *Olvfmiog ovx hiXwatPf Ix t« xal oipe JtXtij avv xe ^ 
ydhf aninaav avv a<p^aiv xt<paXjjai ywaill it xal t&iemtnv^ i. e. ihtn ha» 
thofpaid its penalty. Eur. Med. 70. anak6fieir&* Sg, ei xaxov n^ogolao^ 
fisp piop naXai^. 

§257. Tenses of the Subordinate Modes, (so.) 

1. As the Aor. Ind. expresses a past action as independent 
and completed, and as the Impf. Ind., on the contrary, repre- 
sents the action in its duration and progress (since it always re- 
fers to a past action which is related to another past action, be- 
ing used in description and delineation), so the Aor. of the sub- 
ordinate modes, viz. the Subj., Opt and Imp., together with the 
Aor. of the Inf. and Part, are used when the action is repre- 
sented as completed ; the Pres. of the subordinate modes, to- 
gether with the Pres. of the Inf. and Part, and also the Opt 
Impf, are used, on the contrary, when the speaker would de- 
scribe an action in its duration and progress. In this manner 
the following forms stand contrasted. 


(a) Tbe Aor. Sulij. and ihe Pres. Sulij., e. g. (piytaiitr and q:ii-ytiifur, Ui ui 
Jite; liyt), 'ira /la-Sijj and 'iva fiay^o rpi, in order thai thou mai/at 

(b) The Aor. Imp. and tlie Pres. Imp., e. g. (pvyi and ifev/t,fu; dot 
and S I S V liot ^0 fii^iior, gwe. JIfq &ofv^tixt, i Sr5git'A9rt- 
raioi, a)X i/tfitlvati ftoi, oh iSifi&tjf I'fiiuv, fii; ^o^i^eiv f^' olg av 
Xiyti (Uic principal faci ia liere contained in ifi/uiyart, the more exact 
Bpecilication in Sogv^ilii] PI. Apol. 30, c ; 

(c) The Aor. Inf and the Pres. Inf., e. ipvyilr and ipivyitv, 
IwishtoJUt,>aXii!uai Solriti and BiSorai fiot to (SijSliov. KaU- 
aat 6 Ai'pDf 'AQuanipi Mi,dor, xoiiioi' /laXivat tiatpvlaiai ai/ia xi,y 
It yvyttlxa sal irJF (Txi'irrji' X. Cy. 5. 1, 1 ; likewide 5, I, 2. taizijy our 
ixiltvaiy o Kvfaf Sia^vlattitr toy 'Jfavntjr, tai; Sv hi^tj (in re- 
latino to the subordinate rlauae). The Aor. and Prea, Inf. may, how- 
ever, refer to a past actioo ; in this case, the former, like the Aor. lod^ 
JB used to expresx the principal fiictB, the latter, like llie TmpC Ind., 
the accompanying rlrcumstanrps, o, g. 'A&ijvaloi JU/dmti, St»aliai ili- 
Id a at [roi'i Ihka'iyovs)' natouajpirovs yalj to"s nrlaayoiq vait tw 
jytjoatTi, irSfiier Ifptoiftirof^, a3 ixiiiv idSf ^oii^y yiig aitX 
tb; irftn'^a; i9t/aripa; Jt xai tdu; natBa^ in idaf ov yuf tJrat 
TOitov lof ^/Qoror a(fiai vei oucto; ' oxui; Si ikSouy aviai, lot.'; IIAao- 
yoi's vnii v^^ios ^laa&ai aqiiag x. i. X. {Or. rcctn, 
oXydii IJilaayoi i)d[xovy idSf iipoltiav, etc) Iler. 6, 137; 

(d) The Aor. ]*Brt. and the Prea. Part,; coinp. Xd&t ifvyay and IdvSayt 
fiiymy. Hifiinliuoy Soirtov, fioi'lofurot tfO^rai onixofiirot it 
to SiTtv Her, 6, 115, Still, it id to be noted, that the Part, of Ihe Aor. 
IB commonly used of past time; 

(e) The Aor. OpL and Impf Opt,, c. g. tliyot, ha iidS-oig and an ^ a v- 
&drotg, in order thai thou mia/at Itam, tit diBceres; ^9i loiita yi- 
yoiTO and yiyyotzo, Othat thu might bt ! 

2. The Aor. of the subordinate modes and participials forms a 
contrast to the subordinate modes and participials of the Perf. 
and Plup. ; the former dpiiolcs an action as absolutely past or 
ended ; the latter, on the contrary, represents it as related to the 
finite verb ; by this relation the subordinate idea of the duration 
of what is denoted by the verb, i, e. the eonseqnences of the ac- 
tion, is naturally derived. In this way the foUowing forms stand 
(b) Tbe Aor, Sulg. and the Perf Subj., e. g.'O* oc/rcJpipw (xiioiv XS^), 
a<rTtdiitat, my ft^Siy nmiau iat uvtov aya^ir jteTtorSi] PI. Rp. 



376, a. "Encn avayxaiw naliv i^tiitiv, art av xtxk6(ptoal fiov Ar. 
£q. 1148 ; 

(b) The Aor. Opt and the Plup. Opt, e. g. ^EdiuraVy fn) Ivaaa rig wgntg 
xvclp ^i(juy ifiniaoi and iiiTttTtrtoxoi X. An. 5. 7, 27. ^Ayriailaog 
id$rj&fj T^^ 7i6l(0}g, aq>Hyai ainov tainrig Tilg (nQctTtiylag^ Xiytay, on t^ 
tuxtqI avTov noXka VTtrjQBitixoi t} rav Mantvioav nolig h rolg ngog 
Mia<n\rr(v noXifioig H. 5. 2, 3 ; 

(c) The Aor. Inf. and the Perf. Inf. ; comp. ano&avtiv with ttdyrpdvai ; 

(d) The Aor. Part and the Perf. Part ; comp. ano&avtoy with TtOyrpifig. 

Remark 1. From the above explanation, it is evident why the Aor., 
though an Hist tense, has still a Subj. meaning together with an Opt ; 
the Aor. Subj. stands contrasted on the one hand with the Subj. Pre& ; on 
the other, with the Subj. Perf. 

Rem. 2. Verbs of thinking, hoping, speaking, swearing, willing, denying, 
delaying, entreating, convincing, commanding, prohibiting, hindering and 
the like, whose object may be viewed as future, are connected at one time 
with the Fut Inf., at another, with the Pres. Inf., and, .at another still, with 
the Aor. Infl The Aor., which is used most frequently, denotes an action, 
as absolutely ended ; the Fut is employed, when the idea of future time 
should be made specially prominent ; the Pres., when the idea of a perma- 
nent condition is affirmed. 

Rem. 3. The infinitives and participles exhibit merely the condition of an 
action, as either continuing, or completed, or future and impending ; but 
the period of time (the present, the past, the future,) to which the circum- 
stances of any given time belong, is indicated by the lad. of the verb, which 
is the predicate of tlie sentence. Hence every Inf. and every Part may re- 
fer to every Ind., whatever be the period of time to which the Ind. relates, 
®* ?• 9^P i^ffV^t q>fiaiii) afiaoTavHVf ijfiaQTrptivair, ufiaQjiiaiad-ai ; cilda afiaq- 
tivtavt fifiaQTTjxbtg^ afiagrrjaofjitvog', ytltav U/h^ t!if/e, iijct, etc. 

Rem. 4. The Imp. always belongs to tlie present time, but points to the 
future. The different forms of the Imp. exhibit only tlie different condi- 
tions of actions, comp. No. 1, (b). The Greek Subj. points universally to 
the future, and is never used of present or past time, like the Eng. and Lat, 
e. g. / ikink the matter may bt in a good staUy or if the thing he in a good sUde, 
Hence the Greek Fut has no Subj., but an Opt, since there is oflen a neces- 
sity in narrations of expressing the conception of a future action by a past 
tense, e. g. vyyiiXtv, on ol Jioliftioi vtxijaoitVy^* that the enemy toovld 
conquer/* Where it appears to be used of past time, it must be expressed by 
the Fut Perf. The Greek Opt, indeed, belongs, according to its formation, 
to the historical tenses, but it is used not only of the past, but of the present 
and future. 

§258. B. A more particular View of the Modes. 

(391 f.) 

1. The Modes are three in number, the Indicative, the Sub- 
junctive (the Optative) and the Imperative, § 253, (b). 

(a) The Indicative is the mode which expresses a fact or a 

Ta ^6doy 9aHth '0 naiiif yiyqaift xliy tTnunol^. Oi noiitfiMX 
an iipvyov, Oiitolixat iov( aoiiftiovt viKtivova iv. 

(b) The Subjunctive is the mode which denotes conception. 
The Subj, of the HisL tenses may be called the Oplalive. 

'lafuji ! tamtu ! Ti notuifu* ; quid/odamiu f Ot-x t/u, ouoi Tganm- 
fiai, nescio, quo mo vtrtam. Otx tixor,o^oi tp onoi^ tjii, iieBticbani, 
quo me neriertm, jliyu,'it ii3fl(, dico, ut aeioM, in order that ^ou may 
foioiB it. iXt^a, ly ilStlin, dixi, ut tdrta, in ortUr that i/ou should know it. 

(c) The Imperative is the mode which denotes the immedi- 
ate expression of the will, directed as a command eitlier to a 
person present, or to one absent, e. g. yQutfor, YQatpe, u-rile, yqcl- 
(phia, let him write. By command, is not always to be under- 
stood one of an urgent natnre, but entreaties, admonitions, 
counsels, may be expressed by llie Imp. 

2. The Modes exhibit the relation in which a thought, that is 
e.xpressed, stands to the mind of the spealter. Hence they de- 
note nothing objective, i. c. they never show how an action is 
in its actual occurrence ; the Ind., in it.'^elf, denotes nothing ac- 
tual ; the Subj., in itself, nothing possible; the Imp., in itself, 
nothing necessary ; the language represents these ideas by spe- 
taal expressions, e, g. ahiOug, dvvaaOui, Oti, zp»;, etc. The modes 
express subjective relations solely, i. e. the relations to the mind 
of the speaker, since they show how the speaker conceives of 
an action. A mental operation is either an act of perception, 
an act of conception, or an act of desire. The Ind. is the mode 
of perception ; it' indicates that which the speaker conceives or 
represents as a thing seen or appearing, whether an actual, ob- 
jective fact, or a conception ; even the future, which, in itself is 
something merely imagined, can be conceived by the speaker 
as a fact, and hence is expressed by the Fut. Ind. The Subj. 
is the mpdc which expresses conception ; it indicates that which 
the speaker conceives and represents as a conception, whether 
it has an actual objective existence, or is a mere menial concep- 
tion. The Imp. is the mode which expresses desire ; it denotes 
that which the speaker conceives and represents as something 
desired, whether it be an actual objective necessity or not. 


|359. Use of the Subjunctive^ Optative and Im- 

perative. (400-408.) 

1. The Pres. and Aor. Subj. are used in Principal sentences, 

(a) In the first Pers. Sing, and PL in exhortations and warn- 
ings (and may be called the adhortative Subjunctive), where 
the Eng. uses let^ let uSy with the infinitive ; the negative is 
here /*«/. 

(b) In the first Pers. Sing, and PL in deliberative questions 
{deliberative Subjunctive), when the spealver deliberates with 
himself what he ought to do ; the negative is also f«v. 

"Iiofur^eamus! Idu8 go! Mrj ttofiiv, "Jys ((pigs^ ta) tutfiBr, ^qB 
t9a) Her. 7, 103. ^iqif ^ij, ri d^ og^ nnqad- {a ngog vfmq inoXoyytrair^ou 
PL Phaedon. 63, b. Such a summons is very often expressed in the form 
of a question preceded by fiovXei ; yet in this case, the subjunctive is a sub- 
ordinate clause dependent on /Soviet, e,g, Bovlst oly, dvo Bidrf •^iS/ier 
nsid-ovg ; PL Gorg. 454, e. Tl noiu fisy; quid faciamus f trhat $hcdl toe 
dof EtnofAevjij atySfisyf Eur. Ion. 771. In llol tiq q>govtidog e X- 
&fjf S. OC. 170. tig is used instead of the first Pers. (=:;ro7 iX&oi or 
Jtld-tofiiVf like not (pgey&v eXd-at ; 310). JVi?) egtofiat ; shaU I not ask ? X. C. 
1. 2, 36. "Otra oi oXlyoi lovg noXXovg fiii nshaneg, ilXa xgarovvTsg ygd<pov- 
(Ti, noTtgov piav (pufisy, ij fiii <p(i5/ueF slvai,' 45. 

Remark 1. In the second and third Pers. the exhortation takes the form 
of a command or wish, and hence is expressed by the Imp. or Opt Od. 
;f , 77. 6X-&oifitw d^ avi oinv, /Joi) ^* olxicrra ;^cyo*To. Yet there are 
also passages in which the second Pers. Subj. stands in connection with 
ayz and (piqe instead of the Imp., e. g. ^ig, ta xiitvov^ vvv xal xo zr^g in^trov 
/lo^ijf S. Ph.300. 

Rem. 2. On the use of the second Pers. Subj. with pj to express a prohi- 
bition, e. g. fill ygdiffjigf ne scribas, see No. 5. 

Rem. 3. A wish is very seldom expressed by tl'&B with the Subj. instead 
of the Opt Ei&* al&igog ayw TtKaxadsg i^vroyov dia TtviVfiatog ^Xwal 
(ly Mithout variation, (o si aves me sursum in aetherem per auras striden- 
tescapiant) S. Ph. 1094. Comp. EV^t tivig tvval dixaluv vfuvalotv iv^Aq- 
ysi (pav ^ai xixyowiy Eur. Suppl. 1028. Et&* — aXaxtov tldog irtl lov 
naXov lap 01 (in some Codd. Xafis^y) Hel. 262. 

Rem. 4. In the third place, the subjunctive is somewhat frequently used 
in principal sentences, in the Epic language instead of the Fut Ind. though 
with a slight difference of meaning. Both express a present conception of 
a future action ; but the Fut Ind. represents what is still in the future as 
known and ceriain in the view of the speaker, while the Subj. represents 
what is future as merely a concession or admission of sometliing expected. 
IL Cf 459. xo/ noti ug ifntiaiy, and one mat say = admit thai one will scy. 


IL q, 1!>7. ov yuQ tli fu jJIji yr Uuv ainovia Slijiai, one leiU nol force me 
auxn/ ^ I irili not admit that one wilt, elv. a, SiS. cu ydg tiu idi'oi>; i'Sov 
avigas. ov5i ISafiai, nor do I trpttt that I shall Ke such men, nor am 1 to 
Kt; oudt tipofiai, nor shall /(cerlaiiilyJKt Od. J, 301-oux tirr oUoi iiyi,f 
Su^oi jlffOTot, ovUi yiyTjTai. n, 437. oiw iat otnot art'ig, olS' taatiat 
oMi yir^Tai, ilUnotlobe arpecUd Omt he will be. 

Rem. 5. The Ireqitent u«e of tlie Siibj. wilh oiSi ;itj in thn Attic nii- 
ten in wholly anulogous to the principle just stated. See under § 318, 6. 

2. The OpL Impf. and Aor. is also used in principal sen- 
tences, to denote deliberative questions, (i. e. such as express 
doubt and propriety), but in reference to the past. 

Theocr. 27, 24. jioXkol ft f/iytmvro, voo* S t/iov nvri; ladt ' — xal ti, ifl- 
lof, ^ii a I fill yafUH TiX^d^ovaiy arla^, L e. quid faeerem ? ae. turn, quum 
inulti nupiinB meaB anihiebant, sed eorum uullue mihi placebat, uAol could 
I Oendof 

3, Besides the above usage, in which the act of concpption 
belongs to the past, the Subj. of the hisloricat tenses {Opt.) is 
also used, where the act of conception is a present one. Wlien 
a present conception is expressed by the subjunctive, c. g. 'wfifc, 
eamus, *' *"iw/*ef ; tfuid dicamvs ? then the realization of what 
is conceived may be assumed or expected from the present 
point of lime. But when a present conception is expressed by 
the OpL (Subj. of the historical lenses), the speaker places him- 
self as it were out of the present, and no longer keeps up the 
living connection between the present and what actually exists, 
and represents the conception as one separate from his present 
point of lime. Hence a present conception expressed in this 
■way connects itself very naturally with the subordinate idea of 
vncerlaifily. Accordingly, in relation to present conceptions, 
the Greek uses the subjunctive of the historical tenses (Opt.) in 
principal sentences, in the foLowing cases. 

(a) Generally to express a presupposition, a present or future 

nncertainty, an undetermined possibility, presumption or adniis- 

Bion. The prose-writers here commonly use the modal adverb 

&w with the Opt., § 260, 2, (4), (a), but the poets Very frequently 

L use the Opt without av. A negation is here expressed by ov ^H 

I («<;'<]■ ■ 

■ "O Si airro atrtu avifuuor (I'l) not Siatpoifor, <r/oitij yi Ttoii tm c^ilqi o/ioi- ^^| 

I or ^ tfUoj yiyoi%o, that would scarrely be lila or friendly to anolhtr, ^^t 

I J 


PI. Lysid. 214, d. AitoXofjiivrjg de trig ynjj^ijg rot Ijdi} rijv q)vaiv tiJ? aai^e- 
rtlag in t dsixrvo i> to aojfia xal ta^v aaniv d to ixo no (animo ex- 
stincto turn vero corpus imbecillitateni siiam ostendat et intercidat) Pliacdon. 
87, e. id fiiv Ivfi^ovXsvotfiir, a §iXii(na fioi> doxii (Ivaij nolXd (iot xayad-a 
yivoLTO' el ds fiij, javavxla^ then many blessings tooidd attend me, X. An. 
5. 6, 4. 

(b) To express a wish, fii^ is here used in a negation. 

11. Xi ^^« t^h f^^ ifmovdl yi xai, axXudg anoXolfiriVj may I not perish ! 
S. Aj. 550. w TTttT, y iv 10 naigog tirvxiaTegog, xa d* uXX ofioiogl xal yi- 
voi uv ov xaxog, may you he more fortunate than your father, but in other ihings 
like him ! then you would not be wicked, X. Cy. 6. 3, 11. *AXX\ cm Zbv fiiyiTiB, 
Xa^iiv fioi yivono avTov, wj iyoit jiovXofiai. The wish is commonly in- 
troduced by it^Sj il yag, Od. /, 205. ti yag ifiot Toaarjvds &soi dvvafur 
naga&elsv! X.Cy. G. 1,38. si yag yivouo! (Poet dig like uti- 
nam. Eur. Hipp. 407. ^g anoXotto nayxaxwg !) 

Rem. 6. When a wish is expressed, which tlje speaker knows cannot be 
realized, the Ind. of the historical tenses is used, e. g. JuS^e tovio iyiyvsio! 
iXd^B Tovxo iyivtto ! utinam hoc factum esset ! O Uud this were done, or com- 
monly, O that Qds had been done ! ^ &<ftXtg ygatfHti ! O that you had 
written ! X. An. 2. 1, 4. alii' aq>sXB fdv Kvgog J^fjv / O that Cyrus toere 
still alive ! Also ca^;, ti ydg wg iiq>eXoy, eg, ^v) with the Inf., par- 
ticularly in poetry. On the wish expressed by nwg av with the Opt, see § 
260, 2, 4, (d). On the infrequent use of the Subj. to denote a wish, see 
Rem. 3. 

(c) A command is also expressed in a milder way, in the 
form of a wish. 

Od. I, 408. jixiaji fiot Bvdov kroilgoi cley. H. xrigv^ rig ol inoh- 
1 ytgahtgog, Arist Vesp. 1431. tgdot Ttg ^V exaarog tidBiti jixnpf, X 
An. 3. 2, 37. (i idv ow aXXog t^ (HXtiov og^, aXXwg i/er oo * u di ^ii}, Xt^ 
glaoq>og fity riyotto, 

(d) Generally the Optative is used to express a desire, wish 
and inclination. A negation is here expressed by f«ij. 

Theocr. 8, 20. rairtar (Ti)y avgiyya) xat&ilriv, I should desire to fiaety 
T« ^« Tw natgog ov xata&rjota. Her. 7, 11. fiij ydg sTrjy ix Jagdov yfyo- 
rdig, lifi TifAfogriadfieyog, *A&tivalovg, I would not be descended from Darius^ 
unless, etc. 

(e) In direct questions the Opt is used, when a mere admis- 
sion or presupposition is expressed. 

(o) In Homer the interrogative clause then forms a kind of antecedent 
to the conditioned clause, L e. to the clause depending on the condition ex- 


pressed by ihe questioo. 11. S, 93, gq. ^ ^a >>u ^i ti nl&oi o, jlauiorin 
vie Saupnor; Tlaiiji xiv Mailaif tiintpoifuriaxi'vUy, nuat Him 7'ou< 
tarn jfoptv *al xlSot aqom (Uic nunic as (fii uot nl-tt oio, t Xaln^ *ir, 
etc.^ Hero nl&oio, etc is ihe inierrogiitive clause coutaiuing the condi- 
tion, and tIkiij;, elc. the conditioned cluuse depending on tlie preceding. 
When tlie question hns tivo members, tLe first, B;tpresscd by the OpL with- 
out an, coDtains the condition, the Inst, expressed by tlio Opt. with ay, con- 
tains the conditioned elause. 11. £, l!ll. rj ^d vii fioi n ni&oio, ifUov ii- 
Kot, a Ttt Hv (fjiiu, i,i' xfy aQniaam xoiuTaafiin] jayt ffiyiiji ; (^) In the 
Attic writers, die OpL is also used In a question without reference to a 
conditioned clause. These questions, however, always imply a negslive. 
Aesch. Cboepli. oli' vai^zolfiar arSiio^ ipgovijfia i/j liyoi; mho could 
deacribef — no one, i. e. who can you tuppost could describe? S. Ant. 
601. inb', Zcv, diraaiv tig ovSymv vniy^aalif xaiu'<T/oi; aha amid re- 
jfnnn? i. e. wAo eon be xuppoaed Umriminf Ariat. Plat. 43S. nfuj '^oitiloi' 
xu( &iui, 71(11 iw If vyoi; Dem. Phorm. ri31, 1. xnt oaa fiiy tlntfara t^; 
altjdtutg, fii) ji?^"^' toijUtjftqi- u S ii/itvaatei to voitfoy, maiojifii jaZff 
inola^out iiyiti; liaec vos veriom existimftturofi quia piitet! PI. itp. 
437, fa. dp oif — Tiayta lU Toiailia iHy ifayilaif alXiikots &ilrii ; canyon 
cotuidar aO, meh Ihinga to beoppmilt to eaA oltierl I e. can Initumt thai you, 

Rem. 7. The deliberntiFe Opt No, 2, differs from this. 
Rkn. a All Ihe cases mentioned under (a) [b) (c) (d) (e) are to be regarded 
■a elliptical sentences, which may be unalyzed like the conditional sentenco 
(in txoit, A 1 1) ; uV, ifyoa liad, you ttotUd givt. 

(4) The following tilings in addilion are to be noted respect- 
ing the Imp., ^359, 1, (c). Although the Imp, always refers lo 
the present time, or that which the speaker considers present, 
yet the Greek has several Imp. forms, viz. a Pres., Perf. and 
Axir. These forms, however, do not express a different re- 
lation of time, but only the different condition or circum- 
stance of the predicate. The difference between the Imp. 
Aor. j^aV"*' fnd the Pres, j'paqiE, has been e,\plained, ^257, 
1, (b). The Imp. Perf. has always thb sense of the Pres, e. g. 
fu'pr^ao, memento, be remembrring, remember, rt &vQa kenZei- 
ff fr M, let the door be shut (and remain shut). See § 255, Rem. 5. 
5. In negative or prohibitive expressions with ^ij {ne), llie 
Greek commonly uses only the Pres. Imp,, not ihe Aor. Imp., 
bat instead of it, the Aor. Subjonclive. ^^ 


Mij y Q acpiT w or fi r, y q n ip v, ne scribiio, (hut neither fiii y(tn(prf, nor 

^1, yQutfjurw). Mij jjoi uvjlXfyi or ju»i fiot uvriXi^rjg, Dem. Mid. 

582, 15. /i ij' xwr« loic tvfuivg dtxuaijif, w u»d{)tg dixaaxtxl' fit} ffoff'- 

^ 1} (F 17 T e 701 ne^oi duit, 6nru' ftij f i* ^ x * » t f * fifilv 5orc T9]y x^Q^^ lav- 

Tijy; Id. Cor. 294, 11K5. xk/ hov — ^jli] d fig it)v vnfQ^olijv (verba mea om- 

rum modum excedentia) &avfiaaTjj ukXu fnx ivvoing, its/o), ^soi^ija'aTai. 

Th. 3,39. %oX^zfJ^r^lwaav di xal vlv u^lwg rf/^ udtxiag, xal /I9| toig fU9 oil- 

yotg ij uhia n Qogr t^ fi^ lov di d^ifiov unokvarjjf. 

Rem. 9. Yet sonietinies in the Epic poets, though very seldonn in other 
poets, fit] is found with the second Pers. of the Aor. Imp., e. g. II. dj 410. 
Tw /u*i fiOL niMTfgag noft^ uftoit] ivx^io ^vfiM, Frequently even the third 
Pers, is found in the Attic prose writers. X. Cy. 8. 7, 2(>. firjdilg idixa, 

6. The third Pers. Imp. is very often used, the second more 
seldom, to denote that the speaker admits or grants something, 
the correctness or incorrectness of which depends upon himselfl 

Ouzbtg ix it (lit dig ah liyttg^ admit that it is as you say^ PL Symp. 201, c 
Eoi,xiTbi dh j *pvx^i ^r^iptTO) dvrufin viomiQov ^evyovg le xal tjvtoxov 
Phaedr. 246, a. Atyixu ntgl avtov^ dig ixaiTTog yiyrwaxn^ admit that U it 
said, Th. 2, 48. 

Rem. 10. The Imp. in the formula olad^ o dQuaov — olaS^ dtg Tro/ijcror, 
usually in the Attic writers, is to be explained by a transition, frequent in 
Greek, from the indirect to the direct form of construction. The use of 
the third Pers. Imp., not only in dependent questions, but also in other sub- 
ordinate sentences, is according to the same analogy. Her. 1, 89. vvw w 
noiTjiToy bide, h toi itQiaxot, xa iyot Xiyia ' xaxiaoy xoir doffVfpoQoty inl ni" 
ai/ai xjlfn n vXr^m ^>vXuxovg, o* Xiyovxtav — , iag a(psa (sc. xQ'if^ota) avaf* 
xalbig ^£< dtxuxtvdijvui xoi /Ju(oi Xfyovxbir sssixal ovtoi XByovjttf), 
Th. 4, 92. du^ut, cTt — xnia^aiaar, may they be permitted to retain! 

Rem. 11. On the transition of the third Pers. Imp. to the second, seef 
241, Rem. 13, (c) ; on the use of the Fut instead of the Imp., see §255, 4. 
and on the Opt with ur in the sense of the Imp., §260, 2, (4) (b). 

§260. The Modes in connection ivith the Modal 

Adverb Slv (xe, x/y). (393-39S.) 

1. The Modal adverb dp, together with which the enclitics xf, 
x«V, Doric xa, xay, are used in the Epic and Lyric language, de- 
notes the relation between a conditioning expression or sen- 
tence and a conditioned one, since it indicates that the predicate 
of the sentence to which it belongs, is conditioned by another 
thought either expressed or to be supplied. Hence the realiza- 
tion of the predicate depends upon the realization of another 
predicate. Therefore, where a predicate is accompanied by iff 
the predicate seems to be conditioned. 


2. A complete view of the use of av cannot be presented un- 
til conditional sentences are treated of. Yet, aa it Ib used in aU 
kinds of sentences, it is necessary to explain its construction 
here. It is connected, 

(1) "With the Fut, Ind. The predicate expressed by the 
Fut Ind., seems to the spealcer, at the time then present, always 
to depend on conditions and circumstances. Whenever tiiis 
idea of dependence is to be made specially prominent, (h (Epic 
xe) can be joined with the Fui., yet this construction is rare in 
the Attic dialect. 

Od. p, 540. (i y 'OSvaeig il9oi — , aii^ii mavr (.' jtuiJl jSioj o:Iot/<rl- 
T a I ayHgiiiy. 11. f, 267. alX 7d , /ybi Si ■ c tot XufliBiv [ilay unJoKpoew 
iuiTu oTtviiiitvat, dubo, scil. si Ubi lubtierit. X. Cy. 6. 1, 45. ipt/iatitf aw 
vo/iJ^Biv atnuy, eu oiif liii a-ifiiro? ay jipos uHlfo, o'wg ov ii, a nullayt'i- 
otTUi (so in the beet Codd.). 7. 5, 31. orccv Si xal atirdiayiai rfiiig iiSov 
onus, nolv a y tri finUur, ij vL'f, u/piTot itroci ai v-^o lou /iinin).ilj;3ai 
{ay is wonting in only two Codil.). 

Rehahb 1. With the Pres. and Perf. Ind., ay ia not iiscd. For tbol which 
the ipeaker expresseB aa a prtsunt objerl, cannot at the same lime be ex- 
pressed as eoniethiDg, the reallzslion of wliich is dependent an another 
thought Id iIio^ paesogos where ay is found with the Pres. and Perf. Ind., 
either the reading is questionable, or ay must be referred to anolJier verb 
of the eemencc, e. g. Oix oW ay il ntiaaipi instead ofrl -nclaatfu ay Eur. 
Med. 937; so often yoidHia Sy, olfiat ay and the like, followed by an Inf., 
where Sv belongs to the Inf ; or il is to be connidered as an elliplical mode 
of expression, as in X. 8. 4, 37. iyii Si oiiia noilila fj-w, m$ (talit aviti xal 
fyot S y ai'iui li'ifiaxai, I have to many tidn^ thai I wUh dfffiadti/_fijid thtm, in- 
decd if I thould iuk/or Iheiii ny&el/, I should not fnd Uieiti. Nor is ur used 
with the Imp. For what the speaker expresses as his immediate will, can- 
not tie considered as dependent on a condition. The few passages referred 
ID in proof of the use of Sv with tlie Imp., are all, critically considered, 
questiooalile and prove notliing. 

(2) '-^v is used wilh the liid. of the hislorical tenses, and in a 
two-fold relation, viz. 

((t) To denote a dependent action, the reality or possibility of 
which is denied, i. e. it is affirmed that something might 
take place under a certain condition, but did not take 
place, because the condition was not fulfilled. The con- 
dition is then expressed by ei with the Ind. of the hislori- 
cal tenses. 

^TOVTO Sj^-fe (ilija;), riitaiiMXYti ("niuqiiq) b », i, e. if nou aaid 




ihiSi you toere wrongs or in English we sometimes use the Plup. and say, if 
you had said tkisy you untvld have been wrongs but now I know tliat you did 
not say it, consequently you are not wrong ; Lat si hoc dixisses, errasses (at 
Don dixisti ; ergo non errasti). Juri, sl'xofisv, ididofi6v(tdofiev)ay 
if wt had anyUdng, tvc tooidd give it to you, or if toe had had anything, we 
would have given it to you ; si quid habuissemus, dedissemus. Also without an 
antecedent sentence, e. g. ixaQi^g ay, laetatus fuisses (soil, si hoc vidisses). 

Rem. 2. Here belong also the expressions, atofirjv av, tyvtav av, ittr- 
S-QfAtjy av and the like, as in Latin, pntares, crederes, diceres, cemeres, vi- 
dares, you (one) could believe, or you (orit) looxdd have believed. Here h nagij" 
a&a, er rtg eXiye, n tlSsg, il idwdfiTjv and the like, as conditioning antece- 
dent clauses, are to be supplied. *'l£v&a dij t/vo) rig av tovg ofxoiifAOvg 
nsnaidiVfiivovg, wg du (turn vero videres) X. Cy. 3. 3, 70. "Ev^a dt) tyvta 
Tt? av, oaov a^Lov iXri xo (piXBla&ai aqxovTa vno rutv a()xofiivbiv 7. 1, 38. 
£v&vg avv Tovioig dgnrjdriffavjeg sig xov TirjXov d'artov, tj wg Tt^ av mbto, 
utTiojQOvg ilfulfiioav rag afiu^ag (celerius, quam quis credent) An. I. 5, 8. 
JUnsQ^wa'd'rj ^' av rig xaxuva idcav (one might be encouraged if he saw 
those things) Ag. 1, 27. 

Rem. 3. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, av is often omitted. Then 
the speaker has no reference, in his representation, to tlie condition con- 
tained in the protasis or antecedent, on account of which tlie action ex- 
pressed in the apodosis or conclusion could not be completed, but he em- 
phatically represents tlie predicate as an actual fact. X. An. 7. 6, 21. lunoh 
drj Tig av • Ovxow aiaxvvfi oinoi /loi^oi^ i^a7iai(afiivog; Nal fia J la jto x^- 
vofirjv fiivroi,, el vtto nolsfiiov ys ovTog i^rjnaTrj&rjv ' (plkai 5' ovtl i^anaj^v 
aXax^ov fiot doxsi iJvai, ij i^anaiaad-ai, Lycurg. Leocr. p. 154, 23. €» fuv 
ow Jwy tTvyxavsv o ^Afivvrag, ixetvov aviov naQsi.xoftrjv' vvv di vfuv xo- 
lai tovg avvsidoTag. There is very frequently an ellipsis of av in expres- 
sions, which denote the idea of necessity, duty, reasonableness, possibility, 
liberty and inclination, e. g. / ^ ^ v, sdsit wipeXov, verbal adjectives in 
jiog, 71 QogijxB, xaioog r\v, ilxog ^v, xaXov tjy, alaxQov r^v, 
a^iov i]V, xaX^g ««/«, ^l«J*'» ^^VQX^ SfieXXsv, i(S ovXofifiv, 
Lys. 123, S. xQVy ^« ^^ — » ^lyitQ r\a&a /^lyorog, noXv ixaXXov — firpfvxiiv 
ysviii&at * vvv di aov ra tqya cpavtQa yfyivrixai, x. t. X., you ought or you musL 
X. C. 2. 7, 10. H fiiv Tolvw aUrxQov ta efjisXXov igydaatr&ai, d-dvaxov dri 
avTOV TiQoavQtxiovriv' vvv 5' a fiiv doxit xdXXiara xal ngtiKadiarfQa 
ywai^lv slvai inUnavrah otg loixs x. t. X., mors praeferenda erat. So also 
with the Inf. lb. 1. 3, 3. ovts ydq d^Bolg tcprj xaXtag 6/ e t y, f » talg fuydXatg 
'&vaiaig (idXXov rj xalg afiixqaig i'xf^f^QOv. Very often without an antecedent 
sentence, e, g, alax(fOV r\v tavxa noiiiv, turpe erat, it would be bast, i^fiv 
ravja noisiv, licebcd ; xaXciig e 7/ f . 

Rem. 4. In all the above expressions, however, av can be used ; so also in 
Latin, the Subj. is sometimes found instead of the Ind. Dem. Phil. I. 40, 
1. si ydg ix tov nQOfXriXv&oTog XQovov to diovia oviot awi^ovXevaav, ovdiv 
av vfidg vvv tdsi PovXevsad-at, 

Rem. 5. The Pres. tense of xQVy ^**> ngogrixBi, xaXbig exBi, etc, is used of 
things, which can yet take place. Comp, possum commemorare, perhaps I 
can do if, and potercan commemorare, but it could not be done. 

Rem. 6. 'Ay is very nstunilly omitteil, if iu the n|KtdoBiB tliere is an \aA. 
of an Listorical tense of Ihe verb xiyflvyt utiii, (o te m dungw, (o seeni, 
since the verti by itself deniee the existence or reality of the action exprei- 
sed by tlie IitC connected witli JL Th. 3, 74. r[ noAic ivuvivvtvas noira 
Siaqi^ap^roi, El arf^uo; ^nt/tVno i^q gilo;-! ^n'i))0|iD; 1% uli^v. Aeschin. c. 
Clea. 515, R. ti /iij itpo^i^ /ii^ilic diiifyj/oftry uf ^bli^ov^, ^xivdwiviriifto' 
anoUtrtfnt. So if in tlie ajHidagis, o if^a v, fioipot', Tii/a, fieaiig,t^ 
nuMt, are joined with the Ind. of a historical tense. Plat. Synip. p, 1!I8, C. 
Syioyt irSvfioifuroi, on ainoi ouj^ ow; i laofua olif iyyig jovrum ovSir na- 
liv ilitfiv, ti!t aiaxwr,^ ollyav a it oSf/ it? i[5jifO(ii|»-, (Tun Cgoy, With- 
out n prolasia, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 6. *al iiiuf ^lanij^air ai/riji u inno; ninrti 
CI)- /Di'ura, xui ;u I M (> lI ■uirrTvc?)' ^ftt^ojf pita's r. Gomp.Ihe \M.propt 
(paeac) ctddi, I camt near falling. 

{|J) To denote that which lakes place in certain cases, under 
certain circumstances, i. e. a repealed action. The his- 
lorical tense most frequenlly used here is either the Impf. 
or the Aor. ; the PIup. is used, only when it has the sense 
of the Impf. The condition under which the action is re- 
peated, is either actually staled, and is then expressed by 
ti, oTt, etc. with the Oi>t., or il must be supplied from the 
Einur ay, ht imu arcialomed la lay, hi tcovld toy ai oJUn at Iku or ihtd hap- 
perted, as ojlen as U taa nKoiary, and the like. X. C. 4. 6, 13, t > Si xiq av- 
T^ nii;i 10V ayjikcyoi, inl itjr v'i69iatt' inay^y it ay na>>ra toy 
loyoy, oji oJJai ai tmx amlradidtd. 1. 3. 4. f i din doiiitr ttiitio(2:uxga-' 
xti) ir^alytaSai naga -iCiy ■&iuiy, ijiroy Sr iTtila&tj tirnia: tu arjiiatyojitra 
noiijffiii, (f iX Ti; aujov iTi(i9iy ciov lajicly iiytfioya Ti'if Jtcy — ani fiki^ovio;, 
An. 2. 3, 11. tf IIS avtif Sotmli) Tmy flpoj lovto tixayfUi'uy jSimuwif, — 
fnaity Sy. 1. 5,2. ol ftiv ovoi, tut! tt; ditmoi, TifoSgafioyiti iir taia- 
aay,ai oJUn 03 any tme punued than. 3. 4, 22. uTion Be Siaaxouy al nJUc- 
fal tov Ttlaiaiov, lu piaoy 5y lSintfni3.aaar. 

3. With the Subjunctive. As the Greek Subj, always re- 
presents the object it describes as something future, ^ 257, Rem. 
4, the connection of this mode with av is very natural ; ay repre- 
sents the future object described as conditioned and dejKsndent 
on circumstances. The following cases are to be distinguished, 

(a) The Subj. expressing exhortation, §259, 1, (a), ia never 
used with ur (nt). 

(b) The Subj. expressing deliberation, § 359, 1, (b), is used 
wilh «» ("f), though but seldom in direct, more frequently in in- 
direct questions, if there is a condition to be referred to. 



Ti nox uv ovy Xiyoifisv — ; what shall toe iherefore say, if the tliiog is 
80 ? etc. PI. L. 655, a. iyw yag tovto, q) Ilgorayoga, om otfirpf didaxrov cl- 
yai^ aol di Xiyom ovx ^o) on ojg Sv anicTw (i. e. u ah XiytLg) Prot. 319, b. 
'l4v ^ av ^fistg vmoififVy XeXv/iirrig Tijg ytcpvQag ovx tlovaiv intuvoi, onov av 
q>vyojaiy (only in two Codd. onov (piymaiv) X. An. 2. 4, 20. it ^8 ao* 
fiij doxti, axiipaij iav (i. e. si av) rode aoi fiaXXov agiaxtj C. 4. 4,12. 

(c) The Subj., which is often used in the Homeric language, 
instead of the Fut Ind., § 259, Rem. 4, is frequently found with 
ay, which is to be explained in the same manner as it is with 
the Fut Ind., No. 2, (1). 

El diice fiv dtaojaiv, iyoi di xsv avrog eXaiiaiTL a, 137. Ovx av tot 
X Q^^^ f^V XAt^-a^A? U. /, 54. 

(d) In subordinate clauses in the writers of all periods. In 
this last case, av (xe) usually stands with the conjunction of the 
subordinate clause, or combines with the conjunction and forms 
one word. In this manner originate idr (from el av), inavy oraVf 
onoxavy nqiv av, ev& av, om av, ov av, onov av, oi av, OTtoi av, iq av^ 
ontj av, o&ev av, ono&ev av, etc., og av (quicunque or si quis), oiog 
onotog av, oaog av, onoaog av, etc. In all these expressions, the 
thing assumed is considered possible ; it is assumed that some- 
thing is possible in the future ; the future occurrence of it de- 
pends upon the assumption of the' speaker, e. g. iav tovro Xiy^g, 
if you say (shall say) this, viz. according to my assumption, or 
as I expect, afiaQTjjajj, you will be torong. 

(4) With the Opt, very seldom with the Opt Fut, e. g. Ly- 
ciirg. Leocr. 146, § 15. 

(a) The Opt with av is used to denote a present or future 
uncertainty, a mere undetermined possibility, presupposition, 
admission or conjectiire, § 259, 3, (a), dependent on a condition. 
This condition also commonly expresses a mere presupposition, 
admission or conjecture, e. g. Bin exoig, doi^g av, if you had an^f 
thing, you taould give it (you may perhaps have something, and 
then you may give it to me). But the conditioning protasis is 
very often omitted, and is supplied either by the context, or, if 
the condition is general and whoUy indefinite, it is left to the 
judgment of the hearer or reader. The Attic writers in particu- 
lar, use this mode of expression, to denote firmly established 
and definite opinions and views of anything, and even to de^ 


note actual facts with a degree of reserve, raoderalion and 
modesty. A negation is here expressed by ov(>t). 

Her. 3. 83. uyS^og kros lov aglajov (i. e. li a(>iiTiog ri'q) ovdir ufinrryr u r 
ifavili), nothing vxvld seem heller Ihmi. 9, 71. laL'to fiir xal ifttiim ur 
I In our, they miglii have laid Utese Ihingi/rom envy. 1, 3. t i'ljonv 5 uv 
oDiot Ktfijift, that migid have been Crttaru ; bI»i uetid of the prt.'tjent, Ihcy 
might bt. 7, 184. TiSi/ uiv iivSQct u v tltr iv auToXat tiirai^ii /itxnaiit xui 
lixoai. 5,9.yitieiio S' at nHv iv ml fiaxfi^i /gcli'^, all might happen. 
X. Cj. 1. 2, 11. dijcurifc oi'ic u r agiatijiiater, while hunting they might 
not brtaijaat ^ lliey do not hreakfoM. 13. iiritSar ra nirii xai li'toatf irti 
iiatilirrttimy, liijaav fiiy iiy oi'ioi nittiu*' Tt ytyavoifi ij Jiiri^Mna ii^ 
una ffrrus. PI. Gorg. S03, d. ^ig^ij/o^i'a aga rlf imir i) noiijiuij. Call. 
^atrnai. Socr. Oiixouy ij ^ijro^ixij SiJiiT^yofla a y i tt/. 

Bem. 7. If the Opu iH used without uV, as § SSO, 3, (a), the actian is ex- 
preMed with givater emphuBis luid defiDileness, since the speaker hsB no 
refereuce to tlie coiiditioiiing cin;uinsttinc«B, whicli might prevent the reali- 
ZBtion of the thing conceiced. Comp. ^'ta Stot y Oiliuv nal iiiXotln' ItuSQit 
aaiiia ai, the propitioue deity, I think, cad tave, Od. y, 931, and itiio'iaui Sn, 
coDiJ), MIGHT tave, if he wished. Hence tJie omission of "ir in the freer 
tangUBge of poetry, ia far more frequent llion in prose, wliicb has more re- 
gard to the precise relation of the things described. 

(b) So also the Opt. is used with «». as a more modest and 
mild expression of a command or requeat, since the thing de- 
sired is represented as dependent on the will of the person ad- 
dressed and is conditioned by him. Here also a negation is 
expressed by (tv(x). 

PI. Phsedr. 227, c, Xiyoii ay instead of liyt, properly, yov might speak, if 
it pteoMil you. Tim. 19, h. axoioit at ^Ji) ta pita javia nipi tij; no- 
itiiiiBf. S. EL 14!ll. /(u^olt ur, ^u might go. H. ji, 250. with a degree of 
irony, ©fpffii — ^"X'o — -' <"•' yag fyoi aeo qttjfii x'f'ioirgov ^goTvr ulloy 
t/ititrai — ' Tui oi'x or flairiliiai aya aiiip ix<^y a yogi v o it. xal aqiiy 
oTiiSia It ngo<pigoig,y6irioy 11 tfvlaaaoiq! instead of ;j^ ayognir, 
etc. In the form of h question, X. Hier. 1, 1. ag ur fioi iSili'iaait, <u 
'jigar, Sifiyiiaiia9ai, a tiiiig FiMtVnt ai (iiktioy f/iol ; would ^u be inrlinrd, 
»iz. i/ 1 thovld oak you. WitI] ol in the form of a queetion, D. t, 456. olx 
Sr 3ii lirS' aySga fi'ixiii igiaaio (imiSiit i might you not, could you 
not ratrain the man, instead of, rutratn him. In a sharper and more urgeot 
tone as nil exclamation, II. cu, 'MS. ovx Sf Sij fiot iifxa^ity iif on liaaant 
taxuna, lavJii It niiyi in i & itz i, "lya .ngi'iatriitfiiy vSolo i mould you not 
gd ready, if I commanded it ? 

(c) The Optative with a» has the same force in interrogative 
- 47 



as in other sentences, and may commonly be translated by the 
auxiliaries caw, could^ tvould. 

U. 0), 367. Bt rig at tdono — , tig av dr, to* voog i tri ; how watdd you (hen 

fedf li.r,90.aXXarl xer ^i^a^iii; what could I do9 S. Ph. 139a W 

d^r av rinuq d got [Air; Dem Phil. 1, p. 43, 10. liynai ri xahow; yivoi- 

To yaq av Ti xairougov, fj Maxtdoir itiiQ^A&i^vatov; xtttaTtoXtficir ; can 

(here he any stranger newSj than — f 

Rem. 8. Comp. 71 oi TI? g)«i'y« ; whUher does one Jleef Arist Plut. 438. tioI 
TIC (fvyoi; wkither may one JUt^ (more definiw than with at\ Eur. Or. 
5^8. nol tig av tpvyoi; whithar would one flee ? whUher could onejlee ? S. Aj. 
403. 710% Tig ovv q>v/ij ; whUher shall onejlu or is one to flee ? 

(d) The Attic writers often express a wish, in the form of a 
question, by Ji<ag and the Optative with av, since the inquiry 
. then is, how something mighty could, icould take place under a 
given condition. 

Soph. Aj. 338. 0) ZeVj — niog av tor olfivlmarov — oliaaag tilog S a- 
voifjit xavtog; how mighty could, would I die^ instead of^ O that I might die! 
Eur. Ale. 867. nag av oXolfAriv', PI. Euthyd. 275, ctiioc av xaXatg 
aoi difj/fiaalfjifjv; 

Rem. 9. When the Opt is used to express a wish, the conditioning adverb 
av is omitted, §259, 3, (b). D. St 281. oi; xi oi av&i yata /aroi is not 
properly expressed as a wish, but as a doubtful condition, thus (&g = oi*- 
10)^) the earth should then open for Mm. 

(5) a 9 (xfi) is used with the Inf. and Part., if the finite verb, 
which stands instead of the Inf. and Part., would take it 

(a) The Inf. with a^ after verba sentiendi and declarandi, 
verbs of feeling or declaring, or, when the Inf. is used, as a sub- 

JBTri HX^v, tqnjf dovvai av, or in direct discourse, tlti fixov, tdotxa 
av, he said that \fht had anything, he would give it, dixit, se, si quid habuis- 
set, daturum fuisse. JStti ^oi, liqpi}, dovvat av, or in direct discourse, ffn 
^oifii, dolriv av, dixit, se, si quid haberet, daturum esse. Olfiat yag ovx av 
axaglaiwg fioi ^^nv, I think you ujovld not he unihankful to me, if I entreated 
the king, etc., or in direct discoiu'se, ovx av axaQtatutg ytoi F| o i t i ; instead 
of the Fut the Pres. or Aor. is generally used, f/oir?, axoirjn X. An. 2. 3, 
18. "OoM yaq fAflSia dvvagitv sz^t ^ a^/t), toaointj^ fiUXXov av i/;i5o'oto aliiv 
not uatanXii^eiv toig noXltag R. L. 8, 3. Il^g txfig ngbg to i^i- 
Xbiv av iivat axXrjjog inl diinvov; (the same as n&g i/fig', i&iXotg af 
Uvai axXijtog inl dtinvov ;) PI. Symp. 174, b. JEl olv Xiyoiiii, tv old\ on 
dfififiyoQtlv av fu q>alf}g PI. R. 350, e. 


RsN. 10. la L^tin ihe Inf. wjtli Sv is expressed as follows, 
y^aiffiir ay >= scripluriini esse, yt/gaiferai iiy ^ ticri|itururii fuiese, 
ygailiai ay = (e) scriptitrum fuiirae, or (b) as Pres. Bcripturuni esse, 
yqaiptit av = scriptunim fore. 

(b) The Participle with «»' afterrerftdiert/iendt, verbs of feel- 
ing, or when ihe Participle can be resolved into a subordiimie 

Her. 7, 15. ivqIoxw 3i ioS% av yivofitra tamo, il ka^ois liif l/tii* 
muvr,v, reperio, sic Imec/ufura tait, hi Biimus vustee ineas. X. C. 3. 2, 3. oi 
itolns tnt loli luflaioti uSuuifiatri iriflar dayoioi' ncn oiijmiirii', <u; otix av 
fiil^oyot iiaxai ipiiiii itiy aSixiay n a v itoi-k ;, exlHtimanies se uou gra^i- 
oris ninli metu iiijurinm coercitvna /arc Th. 6, 38. ovtc ovro, oiJit at yi- 
r6fi4ya loyonoioiaiv {i. c. a oCii wiiV, ovt ay yiyono). Isocr. 
Arcliid. 139, 62. iitlma/iai loi^'ASiivaiovt iaii) yi tiJs (rwiijpJos lijs Vftai' 
pare ouoZr av ttoi/iaoytai, $0, also, Willi [lie case abeoluic, X. An. 5. 
% 8. iaMitiito, noiiQor li'ij rgiinoy aniiyiiy xiit loic Siapi/itpioiat, ij xal 
Toi( onlilnt dta^i^iiitiv, as alovtos av jot xof'"" l^ vofii^v, on to 
gUflor aloltj av). 

^961. Position and Repetition of av. Jlv without 
a Verb. {39B,mt.) 

I. When av stands in connection with a conjunction and the subjunctive, 
§260, 3, (3) (d), it either iiuiles with the conjunction Bi«i forms one word, 
e. g tinir. fbr lit' nr, so inav, ImiSav, or it la placed immediately afler tlie 
conjunclion, e. g. ngh Sr, o( av. lu the last case, however, amall parll- 
clea like Bi, re, [dy, yag, sometimes come between, e. g. t( S Sv. 

% As a» represents the predicaU as coniiitiona], it ought properly to be 
joined with tlie predicate, e. g. liyoift av, tiiyov av ; jet it commonly follows 
that member ofa senlence which is to be made emphatic, e. g. PI. Criloii. 
53, c, Ko! oi'k oiii B<r/?j^oy uv tfavfioSat io Tov ^aixQaiovg ngayfia- 
Bence it is regularly Joined to such words ns change the idea of the sen- 
tence, viz., to negative adverbs and interrogHtives, e. g. ot« of, ovif av, ov- 
■01 av, ouSiitot ay, etc. — i!g av, iC av, it S" av, zi Kit av, niai ay, nait 
jrif Sv, a^ av, etc. \ — also lo adverbs of place, time, modality and other 
mdverbe, which, in varioue ways modify the expression contained in the 
predicate and define it more exactly, e. g. tvtaZ9a Sv, tot av, fUoiiiif Sv, 
IVHS av, Tajr av, fialun av, iJxiitt ar, /lohf av, irj;ol^ av, ^qSla; av, i}^<n 
Sv, Taji'OT av, afiSij av, iiSiai^ uv, xar instead of xai av, etiam, vel, etc. 

Remailk 1. In certain constructions, the OpL with Sv is removed from 
Ibe dependent clause, and joined with the principal clause ; this is putic- 


ularly the case in tlie phrase, oiit old* uv hi PI. Tim. 26, b. iyii /d^, a 
luv x^^S ijxovaa, ovx ay olda li dvralfirj¥ iinavia iv fii^ilifJtfl naXiv kujiilv. 

Rem. 2. In certain parenthetic sentences, orr, which is joined with the 
Opt, is placed first, thus particularly, ay ug etVroi, (palfi. PL Phaed 87, 
a. li ovy (,) uy (pairj 6 Xoyog (,) tii ani<rttXg; 

3. ''Ay is very oflen repeated in the same sentence, xi very seldom. The 
reason of this is two-fold, 

(a) It is used once at the beginning of the sentence, in order to show, in 
the outset, that the predicate is conditional. This is particularly the case, 
when the principal sentence is divided by intervening subordinate clauses, 
or when several words precede the verb to which ay belongs. &at ay, el 
a&iyog Xu(}otfjii UriXtaa aifi ay oV aviolg npqovta^ S. El. 333. 

(b) The second reason is rhetorical. *'Ay is joined with the word which 
requires to be made emphatic. If the emphasis belongs to several words 
in one sentence, ay can be repeated with each. But besides this, ay can be 
again placed after the conditioned verb to which it properly belongs. PI. 
Apol. 35, A, <ra<p&g yaq ay, il JiBl&otfAi VfjLag, &tovg ay diddtrnoifAi fitf 
fjytla&ai vfiag sly at, Eur. Troad. 1244. a(p ayelg ay orrtg ovx ay vfiyfi^ 
& el (A By ay Moivaig, 

Rem. 3. Homer sometimes joins the weaker xc with cry, in order to make 
the conditionality or contingency still more prominent U. r, 127 sq. ic- 
%avxo (pakayytg — , ag ovr ay xev *'AQfig ovoiraiTO fiettX'&civ, ovte x *A&r];yair^ 

4. *'Ay is very frequently found with a conjunction or a relative without a 
verb, when the verb can be easily supplied from the context ; thus especially 
&g ay, Stgneq ay ei, n&gyaqay, n&gb* ovx ay, ogneq ay 
and the like. 0o(iovfAgyog, &gneQ av el naXg (i. e. Stgniq ay ipofioao, ti 
natg dfj) PL Gorg. 479, a. 


§262. Attributives. (4io.) 

Attributives serve to explain more definitely the idea contain- 
ed in the substantive to which they belong, e. g. to xaXov qodw, 
liiyag naTg. The attributive may be, 

a. An adjective or participle, e. g. to xaXov Qodov, to ay^og 

b. A substantive in the genitive, e. g. oi t o v devSgov xaq- 

c. A substantive governed by a preposition, e. g. jjir^o^r^r 
noXip odog; 


d. An adverb, e. g, oi fir av^Qtanot; 

e. A substajilive in apposition, e. g. KQolaog, 6 ^aailtvs. 

§263. Ellipsis of the Substantive to lohich the 
AltibutivE belongs. hu.) 

When the aubatanCive which 'a to be more fully explained by the nttribu- 
tive, coDIaina a general idea or one wliich can l>e eusily supplied from tija 
context, or one which is expressed by a. previous word of tlie seatence, or, 
by frequent usage in a particular connection, may be foipposed to he known, 
then tlie substantive, as it is subordinate in the idea to be cixpreeecd, 'a of- 
ten omitted, and the adjective or participle is used as a aubstantive. Sub- 
stantives which ore oDeu omitted witli oiiribulive adjectives, are tbe follow- 
ing, ardqainoi, arSgiayioi, ar^f, aySfis, yinrri, yvraixit, xdW"- XQ'il^'"^ 
nga/fta, iiQayfiaia, 'ip'f ", YHt /"pn, ttoii/a, oSui, ^rip, y^oi/iij, i^ijipoj, ly^Tj, 
■niiXiftOi, etc.; tliose omitted with the attributive genitive are, nniii^, fi>{ir,Q, 
v'uii, nut;, QxyatTi^, aSiXipo^, a*nq, husband, yvri], tpift, oixia, oixo;, x"*!/", 
yi), land. 

a. The attributive adjective, adjective pronoun and participle without a 

(a) Such as denote persona, oi SvijTol, raortales, oi ffoipoi, ol ynyapfroi 
instead of yoriHf, ol (/orii;, (Ac rich, ol (pvliiitotnti [ifvlanis), ol Duta^omi, 
jvdga, ol Xiyovittt oratort, etc. 

(P) Such as express names of things, tu ifUTi^u (x^t'n/ant), res nostrae, 
TO /[iOf res meae, tvciything which rdattt to me, i.l xaiu, re* ptUdirat, t« xa- 
aa, mala, § 24.3, 4, i) latEiiala, ij ijtiovaa, i] n^utq, Seuiif/a. etc {tifiigu); i) 
jioli/iia [/cupa), the tnantji atwitry, ij tpiVut, a friauSy covntry, r, oixovfiiin] 
{yTi), the inhabUed earth, i( arvSgoi [yii), a destri, tj i!/9iia [iSai), liiv m/turiiv, 
quam celerrime; jijyi<np'{fio7iiiir)aiioSi8ijvai,t, nmfiiifiirrilfioiQa); i, fl»i«i, 
^ u^uTTrpn 1/(1^); tj yiKoiiia[yymit>]); tiiy ircniiar liiiijifOf)iiSeiiSat; ij i>l' 

{y) Such as denote abstract ideas, ia xalor, jo ayaSor, or tuyaSay, the 
beatdi/ut, the good, tu ri-ir/if, good Jbrturu, to arala9tjtoy, want of Jibing, 
lit KoiroF, commonicealtk, e. g. luiy —aftl^iiy, lo dugaoly, con/ultnct, 

IS] Sucli as denote d collection or class of persons, lo IrayTiov, the enn?^, 
TO vniitooy, the tubjedt. Adjectives in - ixo* esjiecially belong here, e. g. 
10 noiiTiKov, the cUisem, io unliiijcuc, lo o'tufrixly, to ''txoy, tu fiaffloQ- 
ixoy, TO iTiniKoi', etc. The plural of such adjectives is often used to denote 
■ number, collection or series of single events, e. g. ici Tqaiixii, the TVo/on 
uor, TU 'LlXritixd, the Grecian hiitojy, lo t-avitxa, navd-icar, but also n 



b. The attributive genitive without the governing substantive, e. g. ^AXi- 
^otydgog, 6 fPiXijtTtov (viog) — iv ^dov (ohu^) iJvaij tig ^dov {olxoy) iX&Ht — 
ug SidouTxaXoVf tig nXaTotvog (poiiaVf nifinuv^ etg tijv Kvqov (yriv) iX&tiy — 
TO riig ivx^^i ^ cvtnis of fortune, t« if/j noXfoig, the affairs of state, to jov tto- 
Xi/MV, the whole extent of the war ; la. ^A&rjvaiatv q)Q0Vi'iv, ab Atheniensium par- 
tibus stare ; to t^; o^/fi?) ta trjg ifintLQlag, to tav im&vfii^v, thai which per- 
tains to anger, the nature or essence qf anger, etc. ; to rap naldatv, the custom 
of hoys, TO rav uXdfor, 

c. The attributive adverb is used without a substantive, e. g. ol vtv, ol tort, 
ol ndXai, oi iv&udE (uv&Qomot), ra oucoi (nga/fiaja), res domesticae, { i^g, 
(flftiqa), the following day, etc. 

d. The attributive substantive or substantive pronoun with the preposi- 
tion by which it is governed, e. g. oi xad^ Vf^^^t ^^"^ contemporaries;^-^ afi- 
q>i or iieQl riva, e. g. HXartava, signifies (a) a person with his companions, 
followers or scholars, ol afupl IliuiUnqwiov, Pisistratus and his troops ; ol 
afjupl ©aXtjv, Tholes and other philosophers of his school ; Aqa Uyti^ xiip tSiv 
&eiip xghiv, liy ol ntql Kinqona di iiqtTr\p htqlvav, which Cecrops and 
his tribunal on account of their excellence, decided, X. C. 3. 5, 10.— (b) more 
aeldom the companions, followers or scholars alone, without the person 
named. — Further, ol avv tivi, ol fitid rivog, ihe followers, etc. of any one, ol 
into Jirt, the subjects of any one, ol nno xivog, asseclae ; ol iv aaift, ol nfgl 
fpiXoaoffiav, ol ntql jIjv &fjQav, ol dficpl Toy noXffiov, etc. ;—— tot noLqd utog, 
intelligence respecting any one or commands of any one ; — ^to xot ifti, to in 
ifU, as far as in my power, as far as in me lies. 

§264. a. Attributive Adjective. (4ia-4i5, ses.) 

1. The attributive adjective (participle, adjective pronoun and 
numeral), expresses a quality which belongs to an object, e. g. 
the beautiful and blooming rose. On the agreement of the ad- 
jective with the word which it defines, see § 240. 

Remark 1. The participles Xtyofuyog and juxXovfievog are used, where the 
Latin has qui dicitur, vocatur, quern dicunt, vocant, etc and the English the 
phrase so-called, e. g. jiaxidai^povioi. tov Ugov xakovpsvov noXifiov iaxqi- 
jevaav Th. 1, 112. 2xon&v, onwg o xakovfisvog vno juiv aocpiaT^v xoapog 
tffv X. C. 1. 1, 11. 

Rem. 2. It has already been stated, § 245, Rem. 5, that the adjectives ok- 
gog, (daog, Uxaxog, must in certain cases, be translated into English by 

Rem. 3. Many personal nouns which denote an employment, station or 
rank, are treated as adjectives, and the word avriq is joined with them, if 
tiie man is to be considered in relation to his employment or station ; but 
the word avr^q is omitted, if the man is considered as merely performing 


the duties of ti particular office or employment. Tlius arijf iiavtt^ BignificB 
a man who is by profeBsion a prophet, and fiarrig witliout anjp, a man who, 
for the time hein^, acta as a prophel ; thus ari'ii/ paaiUig, ayltf Tvi/aviio;, 
ivtlp noiftqr, ir^f ^^loif, ixtc ; also iu the rcBpectful thnn of addreia among 
the Attic orators and hisioriuna, e. g. ardgig Sixaaiai, avSfig or^iaiiii'jTiii. 
So likewise with national names, e, g. avijt/ 'jf3^yaloi,'j1^5tjglnji. This 
usage is still more extensive in poetry. See Larger Grammar, Part n, ^ 477. 

2. When two or more allributive adjectives belong lo a sub- 
stanlive, the relation thus expressed is two-fold. Tlie relalion 
is (a) coordinate, when each adjeclivc is a more full explanation 
of the substanlive, in which case they are commonly connected 
by K Of /, ri — x a /. Where there are several adjectives, the con- 
nective is used only before the last ; (b) the relalion is subordi- 
nate, when a substantive with one or more adjectives forms, as 
it were, one idea and is more definitely defined by another ad- 
jective. In this case there is no connective between the two 
adjectives. Comp. § 319 sq. 

^MXpinii; si/aSu; koi ito^oj ariig »]v. UaXloi uya9ol SrSgii or nal- 
lat ayaSai lud aiKfoi nrS^t^. Ilolka xaXa tpya. 'O ifiot liaifog ao- 
<f6(. OvTog u u*i)g ayaSoi. Tftti liyaSol afdgit. To itQutor xa- 
Xof itQayfio. Od. (, 332 sq. Unag njos ftmaaogoio [Ailaltrig. 

Rem. 4. AdjectiTe pronouns and numcrnlB stand most frequenlly in the 
subordinate relation. The numeral noJllai is used in Greek, like mu/ti 
in Lntin, generally in the coordinate relation, while the English conJnionly 
uses the subordinate, e. g. naJljttt xai xaku 'ig/a, multa et praeclaTB faciiiora, 
many noUc deedg. 

Rem. 5. In llie Greek, the ntlribulive adjective, verj' frequently tjiksB the 
force of a subatanlive, and the sulmtantive to which the adjective properly 
belongs, is put in the nttribuiive genitive. Here the following cases tnust 
be distingniahed, 

a. The eubslanlive stands with tlie plural adjective which lakes the gen- 
der of tlie substantive, e. g. o! /f ijcrioi tCir ardt/ia^diy, la ajiovSata jiuy 

b. The adjective which becomes a aulietnntive is Bometitnes in the Neut. 
Sing., BometinieB in tlie Neut. Pi. Th. 1, 119. o'l'ASTjvaioi /nl piya txia- 
lliffm' SvydfiKog. Thus many phraees witli nur, e. g. (if nav naxov 
itpao'iarS-ai, iy Jianl xaxov tirai, rig nac nQotk^lvdi fiox^lfii't. 
Moreover, the NcuL pronoun is very frequently joined witli the getiitive, 
especially in proBC. Th. 1, 49. ivfiiiiaov tg lo via ova/xi);. X.An.1. 
7,5. /f iDioi'iM loE xiySCrov. Dein. Ph. 1,51.«\- roCff' v^gcag 

c. The adjective is in the Sing, and lokca the gender of the aubstantive 
which it governs, inatead of being in the NeuL, e. g. ij itolk^ lijg Tlrlojior- 
r^0Oii instead of TO nojlv T^E //. The word ?i[itavg is moat frequently 
tiled in this manner, often idso nolii, niiiuv, ;ii,ttirtos tad oUier 


superlatives, e. g. 6 iift^avg jov xQovov, inl jjj fjfiiaeitf Tijg ytjg, X. 
Cy. 4. 5, 1. TrcjUTTfra rov uirov tov ijfjLtavy^ tav agrwr rovg i/fiiang. 
Th. 7, 3. Ti/y nXflffTfjy Ttjg orgaTiag TiagsTale; so jioXlii rt/g x^Q^^y 
Tcv nXilaTOV lovxQovov. Th. 1, 2. jt^g yiig '^ aQicjfi ail xug (itia^o- 
lag Tftiv olxrjTuQfuy a/ty. 

3. The Greek like the Latin, frequently uses the attributive 
adjective to define the subject or object, not by itself, but only 
in reference to the predicate. In this way the relations of place, 
time and number and also a reason, condition, the way and man- 
ner can be expressed by adjectives, which agree with a sub- 
stantive in gender, number and case. 

a. Adjectives of place. Od. q>, 146. l^e (ivxolxaxog aitl instead of 
iv fiVxonaTa. Also, tt^cuio;, vcrraro?, fAhog^ nlaytog, fjmiuigogt axgogy ^t^- 
galog, ^oAucraio^, etc. S. Ant. 785. q>onag vmgn opt lo g instesid of 
Vfiig Tor novtov, Th. 1. 134. IVa fii\ vna I&q lo g (sub dio) ja)Mi7t(OQoiti^ 
Here belong also nag, exacTTo;, kxdtfgog, ufi(piafafji(p6jiQog, etc. 

b. Adjectives of time, e. g. oipiog, vv/iog, fiiaovvxnog^ ^tgivog, jjf^tfof, 
iaQivog, /f i/uf^if o;, etc., especially those in -or 7 o g^ e. g. divT((}aiog, XQiiaiogj 
etc., xQOviog, etc. D. a, 497. ^ e v ^^ ^' avi^tj fiiyav ovqavov instead of ^^i, 
early. X. An. 4. 1, 5. anoTialovg ditX'&fiy to ntdiov^ in the tvnlight, 
Tex agtalogf ntfinxalog a<plxtxOf on the fourth, Jjflh day^ XQov^og 
^X&tPf aflar a long time. 

c Adjectives denoting manner and other causal relations, e. g. o|tV> to- 
Xvgt aUpvldiog, (igadvg, t'noanovdog, Saitovdog, ogxiog ; Ixoiy, Sxtor^ aoxrogy 
i&iXovxTig ; i'ifrvxog ; (Tvxvog, noXvgf a&googj nvxvog, anaviog, fnovog, e. g. 
vnoanovdo I injitaav = vito anovdalg. Th. 1. 63. tovg vexgovg vnotT" 
novdovg inidoaav xolg Jloxidai-dxatg. 

Rem. 6. But when the above qualifying terms cannot at the same time 
be referred to the subject or object as qualities, but belong solely to the 
predicate, the adverb must be used. 

Rem. 7. The distinction between nQb}xog, TTQdxijv and n Qwxor, 
(iop og^ fjLovrjv and fiovov xijp iniajoXiiv tyqttipt appears when the sen- 
tence is analyzed ; irg aix og^ fiovog mean, lam the first, the only one of all 
uho has toritten this letter, like primus scripsi ; ngo^xfiVf fiov fjv xriv inta- 
ToXiiP tyqoupa, this letter was the first, the only one I have written ; the adverb 
TiQtaxop on the contrary, is placed in contrast with a following (or at least 
an understood) tnttTa, f Zra, e. g. n g cjx op flip xi^p intaxoXtiP lygaipOf 
f TT e»TO( alXo Ti inolriaa, or nguxop means, ^^i, the first time ; so the ad- 
verb HOP OP places the predicate in opposition to another predicate, h o- 
row fyguifja xijp iniaxoXriP, I have only written the letter, (not sent it). 

5^65. b. Attributive Genitive. («s,«3). 

1. The attributive genitive represenls the substantive, particu- 
larly as an active, efficient object, i. e, such as calls forth, pro- 
daces, gainst and possease?, includes another object, so that Ihe 
substantive, which i» addi-d in order tu limit ur define, appears 
as a thing called forth, produced, gained and possessed, in- 

Ol Tov Sh-Sgov xopiroJ or a! xaf/aol ol roiJ dirS^av or tov SirSfov oi nof- 
nol or 01 xatfnol jov SirSifov — tj tod —aixgiiiofg aoifla or tj aofla t, lav ■?. 
or lov X li aoifla or i; aoifia lov £. Od the posiiioD of tbs article, see 
j 345, Rem. 3. 

9, The attributive genitive is named, according to the mode 
of its origination from the sentence, the Subjective, the Ob- 
jective (Causative), or the Passive geniiive. 

(a) It IB called the Subjective Gen., when it uilieB the pince, in llio sen- 
tence, ofthe Bubjert,^. g. ot TOV d i r S ^ V tiiiQTioi, BtKiBg fmm 1 diy-- 
9 for ifE(Fi icufTDv; — TO T^; aoipiag nallo:, iiriBLiig from !j aotf'ia 
m»(//Fi xniUof — TU lou Ofivfov nou}[Aaza — v loG paaiiiui lio^ — •) loii 

(b) Ii is named the Otgective or Causative Gen^ when it takes in a sen* 
lence, tlie ])lBce of the object of on iniraiisitlve verb, e. g. ^ ti|; aoflat 
iTti&vfiia, the detin for icUdont, ii-7ii9viia -nji troipuig), 6 Tijf agai,g igvif, 
lirtutis ainnr, tte lovt for vtrtue, [t^a iijs BperiJ;), ivvoia nvo;, good-aiU to- 
vxmU one, {ivrovg ilfil iivi), iicififhia riar nolit/uKuii igyoiy, cum renmi bel- 
licanim, l/nifidoi/iai rur JioltfiiKiar i^/aiv). 'H iiir IJiaiatiav inuijgmtia 
ioeteatl of nfot lov,- a. Tli. 1, 108. in ano^aau t^; /q; iusleud o( l:ii itjc 

(c) It ii called the Pussive Gen., when it tokcH, in a sentence, ihe place of 
the objccl of n trniisilive »erl), and so expresspB an object afiectcil, or causetl 
and produced by a transitive action, e. g. q lij; TioXtoit xtlait from xilCti Tij* 
noXiv — t'lS tuimaliji yifuifiv; from y^ipci tniirtoiiir — ij tuv naXav i^- 

Rehahk. a deeper inaighl into the stibject of ihe attributive Gen. may he 
beat obtained in the remarks on the Cases. Hence, U) order not to treat of 
llie Gen. in a detached manner, only a tew general observations are hero 

§26G. c. Apposition. (<w.) 

L A substantive is said to be in appodtitlon, which, for the 

366 SYNTAX. APPOSITION. [§ 266. 

— — ■ < 

sake of giving a more exact definition, is put in the same Case 
with another substantive or with a substantive personal pronoun, 
and even with a personal pronoun which is implied in a verb ; 
when it is the name of a person, it is also put in the same gen- 
der and number, § 240, 1. 

X. Cy. 5. 2, 7. ti)v d v/miga, dnvov is xaXlog xal ^liy t-d^ og^ t^aybiv w5» 
Binev, Th. 1, 137. OsfjLiaxoxXijg tjxw naga ai. Luc. D. D. 24, 2. o d a 
Ma lag tiig ''ArXartog diaxorov fiai alxoig instead of fyd o Maiag 8C. 


2. When a substantive in apposition is connected with the 
possessive pronoun, it is put in the Gen., since the possessive 
pronouns take the place of the Gen. of the personal pronouns. 

^£l»lg jov i'&Xiov jSlog — lufia lov dvari^vov xaxa — aij tiJ? xaXXlartig 
evfAog(fla, In English such a Gen. with the possessive may be oden ex- 
pressed by an exclamation, e. g. 'llBaigto ivv aov tov i&Xiov fiiov, I pity 
Ouf lifty O wretched one /, or by an accessary clause, e. g. / pity thy life, thou 
who art so miserable. The Gen. of apposition is to be thus explained where 
adjectives stand in the place of the attributive Gen. PL Ap. 29, d. */< i^ ij - 
valog £r noXtiag irig [ity Itntj g instead o{*A&fiyuv,n6Xtiag. On the 
expressions o lifiirsgog, vfjUTegog, cfphtgog aiftoiy nat^'ig, see the re- 
marks on the pronouns. 

Remark 1. On the ellipsis of the words viog, naJg, ^vyartiQt yvrti^ etc in 
apposition, see § 263, (b) ; on the use of the article in apposition, see § 244, 
Rem. 6. 

Rem. 2. A substantive in the Nom. or Ace. sometimes stands in apposi- 
tion with the whole sentence ; in the Nom., when the noun in apposition ex- 
presses a judgment on the whole sentence ; in the Ace, when the noun in 
apposition denotes a thing accomplished, a result, a determination, or a 
purpose, e. g. Eur. Or. 496. iml yag iUnvnvsp ^Ayaiii^vtav ^ioVy nXtj/dg ^v- 
yargog riig ^fiiig vnig xdga, — aXa x^aiov tgyov! II. ai, 735. ^ xig 
jixaioiv (aliov) gitf/fi /(i^c^ iXmv uno nvgyov, Xvy gov oXid- gov, Eur. 
Or. 1105. ^LXivnv xiavotfitr, MiriXtot Xv7tf}y n ixg dv, i. e. iigxe tltai ilviriTr 
nixgav. Aesch. Ag. 225. hXri xtviiig ytvic^a^ ^vyargog^ noXifioty, apw- 
yap (i»gjt drai dgtuyfivy In like manner, a Part or adjective is somedmes 
added as a clause in apposition to a whole sentence, e. g. fliidn CAnolXvr) 
^OgiaiTiV (Hfrig , tj r<jp* iyilvaiOy xrarat, ngog ovx an ay rag fvxXtiay 
tpigoy^a deed that brings no fame, Eur. Or. 30. Kal dii nagsltat aafia, col 
fiiy ol ffiXoy Suppl. 1070. 

Rem. 3. The Inf. is also sometimes used as a clause in apposition with a 
word, especially with demonstrative and relative pronouns, so as to define 
more exactly an idea before expressed in a general manner. Ov yug inl 
tovjf na^rfiai, o (iixaaxiig, inl t^ xaxaxagiita&ai Ta dUataFL 


Apol. 35, c. Aao tov aiTopiirov ay ![i'v tot'ts /■/imo, //li ii9 yiivat 
vij 36, c. A S'l ntjotxijittaai. tj paytag, ta laxoTtiXv toI'i 'ligtajai tal 
laj^tvtir Syrup. 188, c 

3. With a substantive, which expresses the idea of plurality, 
one or more aubsluntives thai denote the pans of that pluraJiiy 
or of that whole, are often connected in apposition in the same 
Case, while the noun expressing the whole or plurality ahoutd 
properly stand in the Gen. This kind of apposition may be 
called distributive or partitive. Here belong especially the 
words tHKUTOi, ixictfQOi, nai, even/ one, ol fii'v — of 5i, nlXoi alJ.of, 
alius alium, one this, a/totker that, one another, or vice versa, 
ali.oe alloOer, alius aliunde, one from one way, another from an- 
other ivay, or one on one side, another on another. The subject, 
which denotes the whole, may be implied in the verb. 

Od. o, 424. dii TOTc xtamlovjii ijlay oinorSe txaatot. in sunm qiiisqufl 
domumsese coululeruiiL Her. 3,i58.ipiyoy /rr^ ioilnov rail fxaaiof, 
in 8U0 quistjue online mniiHemnt. Tb. l,S9. otxlat al fiiv naikal 
ijtmtiiaiaay. ui-lyai Si nuiii'iany. X.R.L.G,l./y imT; uXXait iru'lnri 
lay taiiov iitdffiof xni nniSuiy nai oixnair unt j:fijfiuTmr ugjiovaiT, 
Buie qui»tue liberis imperanl. Cy. 3. 1,3. SnilStjuaxay >jdi) itntatot 
ia\ to iauiav, ^itvli^fiiroi lu ona (tmoSit* noiAtlim. C. 2. 7, 1. i o f u n o- 
flatyt I"!* qiUii"f ins /liv 3i uyyaiay i:tnfaTO yyoifif/ umiaOai, ruii Si 
St trSuay SiS-'taxfv iiaia !H)vn[iiy oiiijioie ^Tiip«(ic. PI. CI i arm. 1S},6. xai/» 
iii ttSoy txttoyja {\ u.T^Ofilintqiai!, eudif noq^otSiy tianaZayto aXXoi 
SlloSty Still, in Iliis mae the verb Homulimes ngrcea, not with the ap- 
propriole subject, Imii with IIip wordi fxatnot, tiu,-, But)ji)ined. X. An. 1. 8, 
9. ndmg aiioi xaia i9yil /r itlaialvi itl^gnaySfianiay ^Kitntoy ittyos 
ino^t Clio. Tho partitive appoailion is often Hcrorapaiiied by a pnrtiri- 
pie. X. Cy. 3. 1, 25- Tftot qia^oiifityui, pij ).i]ip9iyiri I'moSaTBHiiy, mo 
tot <pi>flov n^oanoSyi-movaty, ol fity ^inToDvtG; lavtoiq, oi Si 
anu;'/of((>'Oi, u! Si anaaipaxti.(iirok Her.3,82. n £to; fia- 
OTi>s P'lvXiipiyui KOtjvifoioi lirai yyuiftrfll ii rmqy, /^ i;(9ia /iiyaku uk- 
l^XouTt uTdNfiuricK. Here buloiig ihose passages, in wbiith, aller the 
piineipnl itubject, another Btibject in the Noin. and connected with o Port, is 
mentioned, being ex|ire»ied by a Bpeoial substantive, wliicli, however, ninke* 
a part of the prinripul siibjei-L Th. 4, 7a (o i '^ 9 1; r n ■ o i) i)if i/o^w, Xoyt- 
^o fit r 1 Kill ol /mieoiy orpoiij/oi fiii aylinitliyy tlyat a<furi luv xiyOv- 
poy, tht vfihenunu jtr/rf sUtnct, nact even Ouir generals, namtly, the Jtitaraan, 
mppom tltai, etc. 

RjEM. 4. In the same manner in poetry, cEpecially in Epic, but very aeldoni 


in proee, two objeeu (commonly in the Ace.) are joined to one verb ; the 
first of these denotes the entire thing, the other, that part of it to which the 
action of the verb is particularly directed, both being in the same Case. 
This figure may be called a/ fj /I o xa&' *6Xop xal liigog. The whole 
expresses a plurality, yet so that a distributive apposition may take place. 
Iloiuv a i BTiog q>vyty tguog 6d6vTup Od. o, 64. Tgotag d$ rgoftog atvog 
vnr^kv&B y via fitaaxov U. v, 44. 'Ax a tola ir di fiiya a^iyog ffiflaif* 
ixdarta xagdlji akXtjjXior noXffiiisit fjdi fiaxtadai D. |, 152 sq. 


§267. The Objective Relation of Sentences. («.) 

As the attributive relation of sentences serves to define the 
subject (a substantive idea) more particularly, so the objective 
relation serves to define the predicate more particularly. By 
the object, is to be understood all that which, as it were, stands 
over against, (objectum est) the predicate, i. e. everything by 
which the predicate is more particularly defined, namely, (a) 
the Cases, (b) Prepositions in connection with Cases, (c) the 
Infinitive, (d) the Participle, and (e) the Adverb. 

§268. I. The Cases. <«.) 

1. All the relations, which the language denotes by the in- 
flection of the substantive object, were originally relations of 

2. The action of a verb, qjs connected with the substantive 
object, is contemplated under the idea of motion. In this man- 
ner the object of the verb appears in a three-fold aspect, namely, 
first, as that out of which the action of the verb proceeds, second- 
ly, as that towards which the action of the verb tends, thirdly, 
as that by or in which the action of the verb takes place. In 
this way three Cases originate, namely, the Genitive, denoting 
the motion or direction whence^ the Accusative, whither^ and the 
Pative, used not to denote the duration, but the place, where. 

31. The relations of time were viewed in the same man- 
ner as those of spac \ Thus the Gen. (the whence-cfise) de- 
notes the time,/rcwi which an action is conceived as proceeding; 
the Ace. (the whither-case), the time to which, or over beyond 


■which ibe action is conceived as proceeding ; and the Dat. (the 
where-caaej the time in which an aclion is conceived as oxlaling, 
4. The relations of causal ityt also, w«re regarded as denoting 
the relalions of space. The cause (the ground, the origin, the 
author), was conceived as the outgoing of an aclion /roni an ob- 
ject in jipacc (Genitive) ; the effecl (the result, the consequence), 
as a motion in space towards an object (Accusative) ; the means 
(ihe inslruraenl), as the resting of an action at, in or icifh an ob- 
ject in space (Dative). 

§269, Remarks on the Nominative and Vocative. 

(437, m.) 

1. The Noni. and Voc., so far ne they do not exprees any olijeciive rela- 
tiom, cannot be cousidered aa Chsch; ilie Norn, is the rorm for ilie sub- 
ject, niid the Voc. is ihe form whirh is useil in a din^cl addruiM to b perHOO 
or a lliinp. But llie prcdicnlive nHjeciivo or sulwiantire, which ie joined 
to the stibjecl l)y the copula eifni, is eK[iresBe<l, os in otlier Inngutigea, 
by meuns of agreement, by tlio noininative ; and even the objecljve rela- 
tion of an aclion, aa seen in tlie verbs rcferrerl to in 5 240, 2, is viewed in 
the Greek and Latin Dsn relation ofagreenient, and is expr^Esedhy tlie nom- 
inative; the English language in most of these Tertjs may ex|>rcBa this re- 
lation as objective by means of prepositions, e. g. He is tnmed to a brggar, 
be 13 ntade or cliosen/or a general, he is Itnown/or a dorr fellow. 

RENiaK 1. In the verbs ucofin'fcir, iroitaicaSat and the like, the Inf iivia 
is often connected with the Nom. or Ace, and thus in some degree ihe re- 
lation of the action is indicated. Her. 4, 33. tof Ivopdi^tii'ai Jiilioi iirat 
'Taigipp' re xat jiavUliajr, 5, 09. aifaifiyoif Sllovg aniSiit instead of 
aniiiiSi, Atiliiilmv tlvai. 

Rbm. 2. When the object oftlyat, andyljfvta&ai is an nbsimct, the Latin 
iiaeB the Dat. inslcad of the Nom., id mihi honori est, hut the Greek alivnys 
emptoys the Nom. Her. 3, 156. i/m tiilv ii,tua fiiytatoy ay aSor, Ja- 
ftla Si rai jjj ajgtiiij xai lli^afifi fiiy uriov Katiu*. X. C. 2. 3, IJ> 
Xai^Kfuv /fUil ^Tj/ilu fiallot,!) infiinii taiiv. 

Rem. 3. As the Nom., being the Case of the eulijeci, denotes an oliject as 
independent, the Greeks reodily use it in tlie quotation of a nome, com. 
Btoniy in connection wliti otofia, iauvvfJa, particularly in the ]>lirnse«, tro- 
^a imi fioi, urofia i/oi, but even also without tliese snliatantiveB, in connec- 
tion with verl)B of naming in the active, though in tint instance the name 
may stand in apposition in the Ace Her. 3, 83. ^aprtu Si i/r itidxh^o;, 
*^ LTo^u tyr Oi^ai/iii. 1, l!t9. Jlfvliiia 3i Kulievirt tiir Aif^DSiitiv. 

2. Sametimes the Nom. seems to stand instead of the Voc. in connection 
with a direct summons or call ; but in all instances of this kind, tlie Nom. 
eODtains an explanatory exclamation, which itself becomes i 
Here belong particularly the following instances, 


(a) OvTog either alone, or in connection with the Noro. of a proper 
name, is often used when one calls out to another, in the sense, ho there ! 
PL Symp. 172, a. o ^akrjQivg, Itp;, oviog^Anokkodatgog, ov nfQi- 
ftivng ; which means, su ! this is that ^poUodorus, the Phalerean^ td^ comes 

(b) Very often in this way, the Norn., with the article, standing in appo- 
sition, is subjoined to a c^ll or direct address. 

PL Symp. 218, b. o ^ d e o i x & t a i, xal iV tig akXog iml fii^kog t« xai 
aygoixogj nvkag niivv iifyakitg rolg dnjip inld'ia&t (the same as, I'/itT^ diy oi- 
Ttijat ovjfg). X. Cy. 4.5, 17. i'd-i fiiv ow av, ifprj, o ngBafiviarog, in- 
stead ofcVfOg tl ^^0* 

§270. (1) Genitive. (440.) 

The Gen. is the Whence-case, and thus denotes, (a) in a lo- 
cal relation or in a relation of space, the object or the ]K>int from 
which the action of the verb proceeds, e. g. etiaeiv odov^ cedere 
via; (b) in a causal relation, the ground, origin, or author, es- 
pecially the object, which calls forth, produces, excites, occa- 
sions, the action of the verb. e. g. im&vfjidi r^g oQei^gy § 268. 

§271. A. Local Relation or Relation of Space. 

(441, 443.) 

1. The use of the Gen. expressing a purely local motion is 
rare and only poetic, e. g. El firj rovde neiffavTsg X6y\^ ay if to 
fTiaov [ab insula abducerent) S. Ph. 613; this relation is com- 
monly indicated by prepositions with the Gt;n., e. g. ano^ from^ 
£x, out ofnaQa, from^ from the vicinity of an object, etc 

2. But the Gen. very often denotes the relation of separation 
{separative g^enilive), namely, in verbs of separating, disjoining, 
loosing, keeping one's self from, desisting, ceasing, keeping 
off from, freeing, depriving, differing from, missing, devia- 
ting from ; thus in prose, nagaxoaQetv, vnoxouQEtvy etxeiv and vm- 
yeiv, vnaviataa^ou and i^ifftaa&at, voaquXBiv, jjoo^/C^/f, dioQiXeir; dqn- 
ivai; dq)iE(j(^cu, amx^iVy dnex^tj&aif navtiVy naveff&ai, xtoXvetf, fgriTv&v, 
etgyBiP, Ivei-v, iXtvO^tQovv, dnakXdzTetVf areQeiP, dnoategeiVy x^^Qovv, igt^- 
IwvPj diaq)fQeiv, dfiaQzdpeip, aqidXlead'ou, xpevdead^ai, etc. ; diiieip and 

dftix^ip, to be distant, etc. 

Her. 2, 80. 01 vrnttgoi alxifavToUri'JigwpviiqoKn awxvyxnvovxfg eTxo v- 
9i t^g obov. X. Cy. 2. 4, 24. vnox^g^lp tov ntdlov. Hier.7, 


it, jia^ajru'e'^'' ^dot'- Syinp. 4, 31. vnavlaTurTai Si ftoi ^3tj uit 
i^BKCir nai u8ir iilarariai ol nloi-aioi. Vectig. 4, 4ti. u nt/i t 
tap agyvfilair (j iyyitma nolig Jiti/aiia tibIh ■ni.iior toif TiffnmuffiW 
ffioJiW. I'L Mcnex. 246, e. tniini',fiTi /mpiJ^ajK' vi) Sixaioifiri)!. 
HaCofia, ^oiou. ^ia, inakldttm t,k1 ■ o i u r. Her. 3, 81. 
y Kafitit Jiii a Q la tiji i,(ia gtiixi. 5, 03. ti-Quyriar ilrvSifii^Ti' 
var. 3, &'). T^c ^uatXijirfi iaiifiiiiai, X. Hit-r. 7, 3. iloxit ^lu rutrai 
diu^ifilf uylj^ I UF a ki.tav Ziuiuy, iiii iifiitt li^iyiaOtii. Vi iSo- 
fiai, aipalkofiai Hn ISot, SuStji, li'X^S- '-liipin/ii iifa lijl 
BIT I a f. ATtoaiiQiii lira j a y uy ait Siv. 

Remakk 1. Many of iltesc verbs are oilen Foiinerted witlilhe prejioBilJona 
una and i», e. g. lltvQii/ai-r, Xin*, ti'^/tiv, aailqyny, llii^yur^ Itjifiiiiy. 

3. Also with adjectives, adverbs and substantives expressing 
the same idea, e. g. iXtvOfQot, fiuvoi, xa&oQas, xsfdtf, t(ir,fuis, p'/ipos, 
ofitfatoi, \pt),6i — SidifOQos, d}J.6TQU)i, dXXoioi, tngoi ; with many 
adjectives compounded of a privative ; with uf^v, j^co^Vt hAv*. 
i^oi, ixtt^; di^a, at'gar, etc. 

£. El. 367. al Bi oii^xt; ttl xiral iffirmv ayaiftat uyo^at tiaiy. 
Her. 3,147. an ad ij; nani^y. Th.l,^8.tftioitnoitialliit iic'(iai/; tuv 
jitf oriBii'. X. C. 4. 4, 2S. noif^or Titif 5ioi's I'^p »u Sixuin voiiaSuiir, 
SI alia Tuv ddBtur. Cy. 3. 3, .''iS. u n u i Jt i;i o ; ^ouoixvf- So 
ajtfiog in air an. ^va i;, Hi v-&it}la ■ubwc. Her. S, 144. in as 
jf for OK (used of time iiiBtoad of pluce). 6, 103. n if tit tiis uSov. 
Detn. PhiL 1. 49, 34. x o v jioazi" oiiul xaiiaii * j™ yni]ataSi. 

4. Here are classed verbs of originating and beginning, e. g. 
ugx^Ctat, KgiEif, vtiuQ](ety, HaTtigxnf, (|«ft(;*"'' 

lip/ciT^at iirafe. g. lov noli'/ioi', meons in general to begin 
lomdhmfr, 2'1-y tdti Sioii u'f/(ff5-ui XVH ""Mot tiiyav; but n^/ctv, 
t'lTu^/fii', x a t rffi/E 1 V mcuns, among other tilings, to du Miuulhiag 
Jir»l,to i(giii,heiice to 6e(fte eauae araulhor.'ll ijfit'tia i«Ic'!EliijrTi fiiyoluw 
nan ay upfli Tlu 3, 13. 'rnap/Eir udixdir tp/ui', tvigyiaiaf. 

Reh. 2. "^pj^toflni ano iiyog, e. g. lino tiu)' oTOi/t/ui' means. 
eetdjhim a thing, and iLus lo b^'n. 

§272. B. Causal Relation. 
Tiie Gen. ill the causal relation signifies, also, a gwi;^ dm/, 
proceeding from, but not, as in the local relation, a mere out- 
warU relation, but an inward and active one, sijiee it expresses 


the object by whose inward power the action of the subject is 
call^ forth and produced. 

^27'S. (a) The Genitive as the general expression 

of action, (444—459.) 

1. The Gen., expressing action, stands, in the first place, as 
the Gen. of the origin or the author (Genitivus originis or auc- 
taris) and is connected with verbs of producing, arising, having 
originated or arisen, e. g. ylyvBo^ai, q^vetv, qvpcu, dvou. 

Her. 3, 81. uqlaviv avdg up olxog (consentaneum est), aqiara fiov^ 
Uvfiaxa yiyi<rd-ai. X. Cy. 1. 2,1. naTQog ph 8ii liytxai o Kvq^g 
yivia & ai Kaupvaov^ JIfQ<raty fiaailitog * di Kafifivatig ovjog tot 
Hfgatiduv yivovq i;y* fifiTQug di ofiohiytttai Maydavtjg yepi" 
C'&ai. PI. Menex. 239, ^ mag firjxgog narifg adiXtpol fpvpxtq. 

Remark 1. Commonly the preposition ^x, more seldom ani^ is connected 
with ike genitive. Hence the attributive Gen., mentioned above, § 265, 2, 
may be explained, e. g. 6 xov fiaaiXiotg vtog^ L e. o [ix) jov flaailing 
(ytppfi&ilg) viugf ta tup av&qtanwp nqtiyfiaia, 

2. The Gen. of action stands, in the second place, as that 
object which has gained another, made it its own and possesses 
it, as the owner, possessor (Genitivus possessoris ox possessiws). 
This Gen. stands, (a) with the verbs dpa^ yBpiaOcu, nouus^cuy to 
claim to one^s self; (b) with the adjectives idiog, oIhuos, Uqos, xv- 

Antiph. 5. 140, 92. to fuv axoiviov afinqir^a xiig tvytig iatL^ro di 
ixowriop Jijg yptofitig. Lys. Agor. 135, 6i. i y i p ex 6 Evfiaqriq ovtog 
Nixoxliovg, belonged to Nxcotks^ was his slave. Th. 5, 5. iyiptt0 
Mia<rtipri Aoxq (ap tipa xqopop, Tr^g avtijg ypdfirig dpai, ejusdem senten- 
tiae esse. *£uvjov «ircu, to be one^s own master, Dem. Phil. 1. 42, 7. yp 
Vfitip avtav i&iXiiofiTs yspiaS-aij non ex aliis pendere. Also tipol 
upog^ alicujus esse, alicui addictissimunf esse, e. g. tipai ^uinnov, tlpiu 
toil ptlxiaxov^ studere rebus optimis. X. Ages. 1, 33. xi]P *Aalap kavx&p 
itoiovpxat. Isocr. Puneg. 46, 29. fj noltg lifiup xvqI a yivofiiyfi t o «- 
ovTwy iya&oip ovx itpdovriat xolg nlXoig. X. An. 4. 5, 35. rixovtnp 
aviop {xop mnop) Ibqop ilpai xov 'flXlov, 5.3,13.0 liQogxf>*Qog 
Ttig *AQXBfildog. Dem. Ol. 1. 26, 28. 01 xcV^wot xup i<p6oxfjx6tnp 
(ducum) f J 1 1, fiio&ug S" ovx taxip. 2. 32, 16. TotvTi^^xv^io^Tij; 
Xngag yipi]etitti. In the attributive relation, § 265, 2, e. g. o rov /iaci^ 
li»g nrinog, 91 J^oittqatovg agtxv^ninfiq Nionxolifiov. 

Rbm. 3. The Gen. is connected with verbs of dedaring and jut^tng^ as 


it is with Jvai. Dem. Ol. 3. 34,21. SiKaiov ttolttov ngltu tiir iHr 
Kfaytiatiar atmifiay aril t>J; iy iip Xiytiy j^b^iioc aifiiuSai. 

(c) Hence ihe Gen. denotes in connection with fivtu (a) the 
object to which anything peculiarly bclonga, which peculiarity 
is commonly expressed by an Inf.; {j3) a properly or condition 
of the subject (GenitJvus qvalitativus). 

'AySfOS iaiiv aya9ov lu noiiTi' tolt tpllov;. In English ihis 
Gen. is tranBlnleil in vnriouB wnys, e. g. it is tlie hiieiuesB, maDner, cuslom, 
peculiarity, duly,inarkof a bravBinan; it beomrBahravenian; il boapeaks 
a brare man ; a brave man is wont, and the like. Dem. Phil, 1, 54. k a if 
ovfyov tail *Qi9iyi , bring acnleneed, aJtoQaytiv, (tt^oiij/oi' Si fta~ 
xijityoy To'n nolffiioi;. Ol. 1. 18,3. tan tuv alaxQiiv (NeuLjijiaililar 
6i Tuv a tirjf /oiai V, nul.(iar, air iifiiv nort xvqioi, ifalyiaQai TtijoUiiirovi. 
Ctiers. 102, 4B. Jdui ToriB NQi Sanayiji fiiyolTjs xal jrovoir nol- 
lu» xal n^a-jf (laitiai; ilvai. Aphob. 1. 814, 4. tfti iitT ii bi* 
o * T a. X. An. 7. 4, 16. Silay'oi Mamrruis, irmv onTUKatSiiia &y, 
c^fiaiyti iij aolniyyi. 1. 4, II. o Ev^gaiiji nozo^ti; tu tvfo; ioji ttiio- 

Rbm. O. Here, also, l>«Iong the expresaions i,yria-9at, noitiaSat, &tiyat 
tioHov, jililcTov, Lliyov, iH i>/f<ri o v, utc, since the wonh ora 
thing is conceived as a property, 

3, The Gen. of action stands, in the third place, as that ob- 
ject which embraces one or several other objects as parts be- 
loaging to it; the Gen. represents the whole in relation to its 
parts (the partitive Gen.). This Gen. stands, 

(a) With the verbs,e7vKi and ji'jrea&at; ri^trat, ti- 
fiea&at, noteladai, ^y Bt a i^ a. i, nnvibcred aviottg, accounted, 
and with many others, 

Th. 1,65. KOI avioqtjdiXt Tuv pfv6y%Diy tlmi, ont oflhoM remain- 
ing. X. An. 1. 3, 3. <) f xo( — uxpoiijc lai)' t/fUfi Jlrtlijio» oiparifo- 
/liyatr. Cy. 1. 2, 15. oi ur av iv loT; teiftoie {arSqatu) Stayirarmi 
amiiijntoi, ottot tu* y iquu iqmy yiyyoyiat, rtckontd amovg the 
tUerw. Dcm. Phil. 3. 122,4a q ZOtm /tri t t^; '^a Ja;. Plat. Phaed. 
68, d. TO* dayaiov tiyovrjai nayttiol allot tuv fitylaiav xaituv il- 
vai. PlRp.37G,e. [to vtr mil i^,ilnoy, Ti9 tit Xoyovgi ad niusicam 
rpfenoie sermonesP Phitel). GO, d. (fgaytpiir xai ali]i)^ dojcv i^g avt^t 
ISiat Ti&i/ityoq. Rp.S. 5G!,e. rtoicla&ai uya tuv Sofvqio^ 
fur. Her. 7, 6. taiihye lu* j^pija/nuf, recitabal vaticiniorum sc. par- 
tem^ So liiiyuy y^i, devustare terrae, bc. partem. 


Rem. 4. The partitive Gen. is very oflen used in the attributive relation , 
§ 265, 2, thus, 

(a) With substantives, e. g. axayovtg vdmoq^, aoi^arog fiigog ; 

(b) With substantive adjectives, in the positive, comparative and superla- 
tive, when the partitive expresses tlie highest degree ; with substan- 
tive pronouns and numerals, ol/^i^tno* itav avd^Qbtnutv, oi tv (fQovovw" 
jBg i(av uy&ifMJtotv — noXXoly uh'yot, ririg, nXiiovfgy TrXtlaToi i^p av- 
•^QOinoiv. In addition comp. above, §264, Rem. 5. On the contrary, 
oi dvfiTol avdQbmot, since the property of mortality belongs to the race ; 
noXloi or uXiyoi av&Qomoi expresses a whole consisting of many or 
few (a great or small number of men), noXXol or uUyoi uvdftdnoiy de- 
notes the many or few^ as a part of the \^ole ; so 7^*7? ^i^itg hf'^^^f 
i. e. we tvere three in all, where in Eng. it would be, there were three of 
vs, TQHg ii}t(uy Tftjav, i. e. tJiere were three of us, (of our number) there; 

(c) With adverbs, as follows, (a) of place, e. g. ttoD, ttoi', ttiJ, nodiVj oi', 
fjy ovda/jov, nnvTaxijy noQ^M and ti^octq), further^ etc. Her. 2, 43. ov- 
d ttfiij Ai y^ 7ETOV. PI. Rp. 3. 403, e. ndivat, onov ytig ^ot». 
*Evtav& a %rig i}X ixlag, lov Xoyov. 'Oquti^ o i ngotXriXvi^tP 
a atXytiag Dem. JJavxaxov lijg yri g, ubivis terrarum. // 6 ^- 
^(0 ffo<p lag iXavvuv or %]%tiv, — (/?) of time, e. g. o ^ e t T/ ^ tj fi e~ 
Qag, jovxQoroVj tiig ^iXixlag. Tglg xtig i^fiig ag, 11 oX- 
Xaxig Tijg fifiig ag» 

Rem. 5. The partitive Gen. with a superlative, sometimes refers, not to 
the superlative, but to the subject Her. 7, 70. ol ^x tijg uli^vrjg Aldiomg 
ovXoi at ov 7Qlxu*fJta Bxovtrt Tturxtiy av'&gtanotv. So always with 
adverbs, X. Cy. 3. 1, 25. navKtav tStv dtiv&v o ipC^og fidXiaja xa- 
tanXi]TtH lag ipvxotg- 

(b) With words which express, (a) the idea of participation, 
sharing in, of community, of having things in common, e. g. 
liBziXUv, fiheaii fjioi, dtdovat, fieTudidovai, nQogdidopaiy diadidovcuy xoi- 
foivetv, xoivova&aif inaQxeiv, to communicate, avveQyog, afioi{)ogj etc. ; 
and the three words, xoivog, ii<jog, ofAOiog, which commonly, how- 
ever, are connected with the Dat. ; — (^) those which express the 
idea both of physical and intellectual contact, of holding and of 
laying hold of, of being connected and of hanging together, e. g. 
'&iyyavHVy yjaveiv, aTttsa&ai, dQatrsad^at ; lafA^dfead^aiy fiera-, avlXofi' 
pdveip, ini'y avrihtfi^dvea^fiu ; avpaiQead^ai ; Ix^cOai, to adiiere to, 
to harder upon, uvz-, neQisxea&cUf yUx^a^ai ; imx^^Qiogy qiiXogy also 
with the Dat, aMgjoV, diddoxog, often also with the Dat., i^s, 
i(pe^9, more rarely with the Dat., nQoa&eVy IfJinQoa^evy 07na{>evy fti- 
irajt;, and many other adverbs; — (y) those which express the 
idea of acquiring and attaining, e. g. tvyxdvetVy acquiring and 
hitting, layxavuvy iquxvsic^cuy xXtjQovonBlv (with Gren. of the thing, 
to inherit; with Gren. of the person, to be the heir of some one; 

with Ace. of the thing and Gen. of ihc person, to in/ierit some- 
thing' from one, nQo^^xei [(loi riros, something belongs to me) ; (fl) 
those which espresa the idea of striving lo acquire Bomelhing, 
e. g. o^tjEo&at, i(pUa&tti, dvrmotiia&ai, ad aliqidd contendere, po- 
tiri, tnqi'ata&tu, la turn one's self to something; Co regard, lo 
have respect to, oro/afeffffw, to aim at something. 

X. Cy. 1. 3, IS. t^fOTt toiToif vat a (i;(ar nai tijivv fiiiixi'y- R. 
L. 1, 9. lou fiiy yirovi yitl iqj dvyaftta^ Koiy titrotai, zoit Si 
Xf^inijaroi* a I'j iTiaiovyi ui (sxbi vindimnt]. Cyr. 7. 5, 78 gq. fl a i- 
novs pir xal ifii'xov^Kai allaiy Kal iroiiv xal iinvov aviipai ml 
totg Soiioii lit! adi doy a I, n oXifimTJ^ S in luiv/iiis tiaX pilixiii 
ov ftnuSoziov. C. 1. 2, GO. JTux^urq; nuaiy a(p96yiai ia^({Xii luf 
laiTioi'. Cy. 1.3, 7. Tur xptuv Jtadiddrni toi; ^iQaniVTali- Tli. 
6, 39. ikiya^x^ i to f /it* xtySvvur toT; noXioif fitTaiiStiai, idiv J 
iiKfiXi/taiy ou TiXtoyixTci (layny, olka Hal fv^nar aqiilopivi/ ^((. PI. Pliaiitlr. 
238, b. lu to vim V aitltpa (horuoi aimilia). X. An. 4. 1, 17. ij noQila 
oftoia tpvyfis iyiyiio. Hel. 4. 4, 6.(oSto»i^tm) iur/( xalXlaxuv koX 
(itylajuy uyaituiy oiityopeyovt df dnai voiuitj; iiliviiif 
Ti-X'ty. 4. 8, 18.1,1' u &i^iiay3gog ov /wyof aiXrjTiii a/a&u(, alXu nul aX~ 
K^i irtinoiclto [ad fortUudlncm enUebalar). Cy. 1. 2, 3. norqpou 
t(vO£ ^ aiujipou e^/ou ^iptto'dai. 3. 3, 10. i':Titiriito'i xai ua^ta- 
ifiyiai at joioltoi {ai'fipaj;oi) loi'f ifiolaig, yo/iliortig avyiQyovs aiiolf 
that loi- xoiyoi iyaSot: PI. Sjtiip. 181, c. il,Jp!(ut a>o*(.oE. 
Alencx. 241, e. tfyor tioiyoy AautSaifiotluy tt nal 'AffJiyalm* 
(like rommunii alicujus rei). "Aazoiiai i(;i x"9°t- Her. 1, U3. li/ji'i) 
i/ctui toE ffij^oioj fuyiHii, bardtri on. 3, Ti. tQyov ixiipi3a, 
opUB a^grediuriiur. II ci/iixiifial iiva;, cu]iidu Biiquid uinpluutL Tli. I, 
140. T^i yviafuii lijf BUiij; cxofiai. 4, 10. ardiir; oi rffopu/ii- 
ro( tdC'iIe iou xiKd^rai'. PI. Rp. 2. 362, a. aXi9ilat ixofiiroy, 
cum veritate r.oiijuuctuiti. 'AyriXai'iia &ai iiSc Tt^ayfiaioiy, captsatre. 
bocr. Nicocl. 22. b, c. ^nnii) &ynxol auifiajosisvxtt, a9ayuiov 
it ifittjf flE, jiHpti TJis ^'I'/iJe UL*a>'arov firr./iip- xtttahnuy. Tvyjiayny,Xay- 
j^antr xiV^""*' ""I'X^tS — ii'^i'r iiXmitig, uyofiaiot, elc. Iiiocr. Paneg. 
80, 187. ovK iifiityovfiai loi /it^iflous, bc. tiu* mjay/iataiy, non as- 
ttqtior. V\. Crit. '&, c. oi-t iiulyuvi toiit Xoyovt aiaxiyii, oiki ^ftiiy, laiv 
ro/Avr, tttqinri. X.C. 4. 5,11. Sormq fioi Xiytiy, uiat&ijl ijiion tioy 
iik \ov oiifiuioi ifioyvtr na/i7iay ovdifiiaf afftf,i 7t fosijxt i. Dcm. 
in Aristocr. li!H), 14. oiioi xlijpavo/ioEo'i iq; vfinifas <)ufv; "ui 
twy vfiitifBiy aya&ay. 

Rem. fl. In verbs exprosBJiig panicipalion, BOmetimeB the word deDo- 
liDg a put Btanda in the Ace, e. g. X. Hier. 3, 6. at tu^arvot T«r 



luyUrtdnv ayad^tav nlslata fABiixovai. An. 7. 8, 11. rrc fiij fiexa- 
do2ty TO fiigog /^/lorioiy. AccordiDg to the analogy of verbs of touch- 
ing, verbs of entreating and conjuring, are connected with the Gen., which 
denotes tFie person or thing, by whom or which one entreats or conjures, 
e. g. Ihffead^m, UmBveiv, IxvBlaS^ai, since the suppHcant, touching the knee 
or the image of the divinity, utters his prayer. Od. /5, 68. Xiaaofiai ^/lir 
Zrp^og 'OXvfiTilov Tjds Oifiiojog, So liaaia&ai naxQog, Toxiioir. Comp. IL x, 
454, o fiiy fiiv ifttXls ysvtlov x^^^ '^^X^h ^^^i^^og llaasa^at. 

Rem. 7. The poets connect many other verbs with the Gen., among which 
are tliose mentioned under (b). II. 17, 56. fiiacov dovgog ildv. Od. 
y, 439. jSovy S* a/ijfjy xbqokov, II. oe, 197. fay^^c di xofi^g lis 
JltiXuuva, In phrases, like XaPnv jiva yovywv, anrta&al Jiva ytvtiov^ etc, 
the knee and tlie beard are conceived as the objects, on which the person 
wlio touches and lays hold, hangs, and, as it were, depends. Here belong, 
also, in poetry, 

(a) Verbs of tasting physically and intellectually, grasping, reaching to, and 
hence of striving afler an object, e. g. inifial6<r&ai mumiXov, 
d(aQtaVy vooTOV. 

(b) Several verbs, which properly express tlie idea of a very hasty motion 
towards an object, and are then changed so as to express an intellectual 
effort, and longing, e. g. intlyiiT'd'ai^ 6Qfia<r&aij intPaXl&x&aij inauT" 
<rHVy rushing upon someihing, etc. II. t, 142. inetyo/ABvog neg "A^ffog, 
n. I, 488. agfii^'d'rj d^ 'Axdfiavjog, H. j^Gd. fi^K yvy ivagmt 
ini^ aXXofiivog fjuronur&ir fitfirira, 

(c) Verbs of aiming, e. g. joUvtiVj uxovxIChv (in prose with tlq^ and with 
the meaning, to hiiy to wound, with the Ace). H. o, 304. "JiKTutQ ^ avt 
AXavTog imovtifrt dovqi (pasiva, II. y^, 855. t/ g Sg ivtayu t {- 

Rem. 8. According to the analogy of verbs of aiming and striving, above 
named, so we find xocra x^^^^ o/ifiorroc Tiij^cei, nXiiv int 2afA0V, to seal towardi 
SamoSf as if setting out for it, (on the contrary, inl ^dfjiov, to Samos). The 
Gen. of mm, object, occurs in the attributive relation, e. g. in odog, roarog 
tonov Tivog, toay, rttum to a place. 

Rem. 9. There also belong here, (a) the adverbs tv&v (Ion. 1^), ttrtdghi' 
forward to something, (iixqh ^t ^P ^ 9— {b) verbs of meeting and ofapproadk- 
ingj which, still, in prose, are commonly connected with the Dat ;-— (c) ad- 
jectives and adverbs expressing the same idea, e. g. dvtlog, ivayxiog, naga- 
nXilcruyg, still oftener joined with the Dat., dnlov, nXr^loy, etc. Her. 6, 95. 
^oy (dirigebant) to; Wa^ i'&if tov *EXXfign6viov xal xtig Oqrfitng. 
^, ^. ^} JXyvntog xf^g hqiivrig KiXixlag fAoXiard xfj artiii meiot. 
Dem. Ph. 3. 117,27. nXti a low ©ly/Swf xal U&rjvcir. 

4. The Gen. of action stands, as the Gen. of the place at 
tvhich, and the time laherij an action happens. The fact or the 
event belongs, as it were, to the place and the time, proceed 
in a certain measure from them, and are supported by them; 
hence the place and the time are conceived as supporters of the 


(a) The Gt?ii, of place is almosl exclusively poetic. 

IL Q, 372. viifOt 3" ou tpalrtio natrijs yati)s, oiff ifiior. II. i, 219. 
atFio; S anlor iitv 'OSvaa^of Silout Toi/ov to? cTipou. Hence, 
especially In Epic poetry, wiih Terbs of going, or of motion, the place or the 
way to wliich the going or the motion lends, ond to which, se it were, this 
action belongs, stands in the Gun., e. g, IL j9, 801. tfi/orTM aiS loio. j^i -^ 
■ditiii nrStoio. ii,Gi, miioiu Sumir o^fitw. So the prose, ieVui tdu 

Rem. 10. Hence tlio adverbs of place, on, nov, not', Snov, oi'iDii, oiSaiio^, 
allax^^i <^t<^'> °"<1 henre, also, adverbs of pluce with the sutlix 9ty appar- 
ently instead ofadverbs of place with the suffix &^, e. g. irdo&tv, iyyv&tt, 
TTjXo-div, txioaSey, etc, e. g. 11. p, 58S. Etnoija d iyyvdiy imaitifoi uit^u- 
vir AnoXi.iai'. 

(b) The Gen. of lime often occurs both in poetry and prose. 
The space of time within which something happens, as if the 
BupportcT of the action, may be expressed by the Gen. 

'AvSti 9aXlii lov fapoc, the spring ia conceived ob Uie producer or 
supporter of flowere. So &[gov;, xiipoiyog, npfSfS' *';s «iT^S VP'ft, vixtoi, 
ddl^i, onu^f, Hs Eng. of a niorning, Ac did it of a fiat morntn^, also fiiiroi, 
iriotnov, etc. willi attributives, e. g. jov avTov, tov npoTipoi', ixainov, etc. 
Hence the adverbial expreeslunB u^/^f, <d the beginning, and toii Xoinov,for 
IhtJidvTt. Her. 4, 48. tmqoi 'iaoi ail ayijot iia'ijCi ^t'tt ttai Si govt nal 
Xtiftivot- 6, 12.105 loiJioiT (jq THiS-ifU&a ahav. PI. Phued. K), 
d. i%iil9ofuv tov &i(Tfi<iiiiiflov iaTtigaf. Ov pax^ov xs^'OViWxroijnoi- 
Jkov, Tiktlaioi; oXlyov xQorov, jioilw* i]ftfqZ», tTov, etc. Her. 3, 134. toStb 
iliyov xQOvov tmai ■tdivfiira. X. An. 1. 7, 18. ^aaiXils ov /la/tiTat 
SUa iifitQ^y. PLSymp. 172,c. Roii^f l^&v 'Aya9m ty^iSi ovx 

Rem. 11. By Ilie Gen. of time, the Gen. absolute may be esplnined, e. p. 
lav KvQoti ^aaiktvovtos noila ii xbi xala cfya vno tiuv IliiiaSiv 

Rem. 12. Prejiosllions are often used to define this relBtion more exactly, 
c g. Ix -Jtollalj /(ibKDU, nip laniqaq, iiFi Kifiov, Cyri oetale, Sia TioXlov xfo- 
rov, ivTOi or tau nokXov xQoyov. Comp. tlie remarks on the prepositions. 

Ren. 13. On the distinction between the Gen. and Ace. of place and 
time, see the remarks on tlje Ace, §279, G. 

5. The Gen. of action, finally, stands as the Gen. of the ma- 
terial out of which anything is made, formed, and, as it were, 
produced, or the source out of which something is drawn. 
This Gen. stands, 

(a) With verbs of making, forming, etc. 



Her. 5, 82. /aZxov noiioyrai ta ayaXfiaTa, 2, 138. iaTQtofiirn icnl 
odog ll-9^ov, Th. 4, 31. igvfia avro'S^i i]v Xld^ (ov Xoyddtiv nsnoirifiivov. 
In the attributive relation, e. g. aenoa/Aa ^vXov, Tgansia agyvgiov, <ni<pavog 

Rem. 14. This relation is very often expressed by the Dat, and more de- 
finitely by the prepositions i^ and anOf also dta, 

(b) With verbs of fulness and want, e. g. nXij&eiv, TzXtjoovr, 
niiATiXavaiy yefuiv, Pqi&eiv; vaaaEiv, (jdtreiVj evjiOQuTv, etc.; dnoQEiVf 
mpead^ai, dula'&ai, dsi, CTtavi^eiv, /qi^, etc. ; TrXeog, n^Qtjg, iiaoiog, nXov- 
aiog, dacjvg, etc. ; mvrjg, ivdtfjg ; dhg (^satis). 

X. Symp. 4, 64. asaa/fiivog nXovtovTiiy yrvx^iv woftat, PL Apol. 
26, d. Ttt ^Avalayoqov flipXla y ifiti i ovziov j iav X6y(av, Evnognpf 
anoQHV, Tiivta&atf anayi^nv twv /pi^/MiTcoy. X. Cy. 3. 1,3. dira&foyroty 
xal iXavyoyTtoyjo ntdlov fiscxoy. An. 2,4,1^.9 aavg divdg toy. An. 
1. 2, 7. nagdidtiaog fiiyag, aygl tay ^iiqitav nXrigrig* 1. 4, 19. iyiav&a 
fjtray xo)/iat noXXal, fisaial aixov xal oivov. In the attributive rela- 
tion, e. g. dinag oiyov, 

(c) With verbs of eating, drinking, enjoying, satisfying one's 
self, and in the figurative sense of having the enjoyment, use 
and advantage of something, ia^UiVy cpayelvy evmxeuj&cu, nivaiVy 
yeveipf xoQsaatjd^ai; anoXaveiVy etc. 

*£a&hiy xgiciy — xoQiffa<r'&ai (fOQPfjg — niyety oTyov. 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 4. dvdyxTi aoi aTtoytvead^ai jovroiy Twy navToSanoiv jSgrn/Ad' 
Toiv. 1. 3, 10. xal Tt dijt o) /Cv^e, laXXa lAifiOVfttvog luy Saanay^ ovx aneg^o^ 
(ftiaag jov oVvov, C. 4. 3, 11. anoXaveiy ndvtojy tay dy a&uy, 
but inoXaveiry nvog Tt, e. g. aya&d or xotxd, to receive good or evUJrom 
someone, riVtO'd'at tifjirjg — ysvBiy Jivonifii)g, 

Rem. 15. The Ace. stands v^^ith verbs of eating and drinking, (a) v?hen the 
substance is represented as consumed wholly or in a great quantity ; or (b) 
when the common means of nutriment is indicated, that which every one 
takes. Od. i, 347. KixXanpf iri.nle olyoy^ iml (pdytg aydgofisa xgia 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 9. ovx ixTi loftai avrog roy olvoy. },Sy6, xgia ys fv tax o v, 
he ate heartily, 6. 2, 28. vdaxi fiffiiyftivrjy utl rijy /AaZay itrd-ltt. Ibid. 
fifjd ds Toy (Tiroy idy oJyoy inmiywfiey^ ovdh fifioy txovaa ri tf/vxt] 
dyanamfjai {s^ken of a habit). So ia&lEiy xgia and xgiosy, nlytiy 
olyoy and oVvov, PI. Symp. 176, c, noXvy nlysiy olyoy. 

(d) With verbs of smelling, emitting an odor, etc., nfBir, 
2£e<f , nQogpdXXeiv, 

^O^Bty toiy, fivgov nytly^ngogpdXXziv fAvgov^ ny(7y rgd^ 
/ov, oCeiv xgofjtvfuy, Ar. Ran. 341. ug ijdv fiot ngoginysvire /ot- 


Rem. IG. The Poetic Longiiftge connects many other verbe with the Gen. 
of ihe material, e. g. anoariXfliii' akiltfmoi, [rtxia^, ntf u; fiiilttrai- 
ftii',l,ovia&at {'i'f^tio; noiufioio. Bee Lnrger Grammar, IL ^ 537, Rem. 

(e) With several verbs of sensation and pcreeption, namely, 
axov£iii, axQoaa&ui, lutoii'iBa&ai, (o assent to ; alaOui'ea&ui, oc^poi- 
vEoOm ; avturat, to comprehend, wilh Gen. of ihc person ; so like- 
wise, with verbs of remembering and forgelling, niiivi\amtr {tma 
Tivog), [Ufi.vijaxEaO'ai, iniXuyOdreaifai, henee laQQa, 'ia^qulaii and 
x^ifa ttvog. 

Her. 1, 47. xni xaif ov a fr I ijfit, xai ovrfoirivyiof axov ai. 1, 80. 
if oa<pQayio iiixtaia tiuj' xHjUiiiiiiv o'l 'ii^tot, xal ilBor nlitig, o!rlati> 
arimgufoy. X. II. 4. 4,4. liif xQnvyiii; fio&ovto. An, J. 1, 8, (?»<«- 
Iff; iqc fiiy HQuq iiivjor In i^ovXrii oi-x ijirdufiTO. Cy. 1.3, 10. 
Din ax^oi»)iivoi TOV ri^ocTO; la/ivytxt aSity ttQiinit. Phaed. 93, d. 
fn/ri tfiavtoi) ia,j aiXov unoSi/^ca&itl Xiyovjo';, B,i t} ifvp] iVriv ai^jtovla, 
U> ogrtt aith, AxoLitr dt'n];, to hear a cauK, alaQaytuQai tfiovm, oajt^q, 
s^ai'/qc, Qofit''(iav, ^otjatla?. 'Tno fivfiaui nrniov loyov. X. Cy. 
8.3,6.10^ if&urov intliltjaTo. In the attributive relation, fiTijfiii 

Ren. 17. The attributive Gen. hns 8 far greater extent of nironin^, e. g. 
ayyilia rijc Xiov, de C'lilo, iiiiiiiiais iivo;, like t|uaet!tio nliciijiis rei, iniitead 
of de aliqua re. 

Reu. 18. With verbe of Amrin^,and prrcriviTtg, there stand (a) tlie person 
tdime in ihc Gen., which rcprctOMiis the person as Ihc source from which 
(he perception appears, e. g. nioi'tu ^'uipdroiv, Ihcar Socrata, i. e. Ail latrdt : 
(b) the thing alonr, and this ia put eitlier iu the Gen., which expresses tlie 
eiiiistance us a whole, of which one sees, as it were, single parts, or the 
meaning and contents of which bo perceives intellectuolly, c. g. aiaSarr- 
ffSot K(oi'/qc> to ptrttim, as it iDtre, tingle lona qflhe cry, aiaSiirfaOni ini- 
fioiAiit, to ptrttivt aoiaelhing qf Ihi plot ; or in tlie accusative, wliich shows 
that one perceives with his BeDses, tlio lolnlity of u tiling, e. g. Ji aiy al- 
a&arortiu {oi av3Qatnoi) ^xbittb, the wiuts bi/ ufiich mat obaerM evtry 
oij'td, X. C. 1.4, 5. 'Jlf ijaOoyta ■zi}v ^ai'i-S- tiay, lehen they noticed tht 
appmadiing mecor = map wilh Ihe tya, tlicrefore, also, iiaQtay Th. 2, !M. Ou 
the contrary X. H. 4. t*, ti}. tiia&iaSai rij e ^ott^iiat, IheyobteretH lome- 
llting o/tht moor. The Ace. of the jiersou seldoHi occurs with ulattiire- 
wfidi, which then has the mi^aiiinp aftlSfyai, e. jr. JiaSarofiai H xai i v- 
eavvovg tirai, o'i o'itia ntiiiTiirt /ei);jnioi» X. S;inp. 4, 36, Verbs of 
iieariag, pereeiving, obaerpinff, aa well as remeirdiering, often govern the Ace. 
of the thing, soinetimeB, also, of the person. They ore often cotmecled 
with the Gen. of the person and the Ace. of the thing. See under (f). X. 
Cy. 3. 1, 1. D 'Affisnoi, u; ijxoivi tol' ayyiiov ia naga toC Kt'fov, 
titnXayti, he in tJie Lot audire aliquid ex aliijuo ; so avriirat nvot Ti, e. g. 
iJTOt. flfjftrijiiS'ni TO itgayfia. " * 

Rem. W.'Aitoittv, vnaxoitiy, xitiaxoviiy wilh the meaning 



to ohey^ often take the Gen., and according to the same analogy mld-s- 
e-d^ aif yet seldom, and anei&slv; so also xixt^xoo ^, vtivJ xooc with 
the Gen., more seldom with the Dat Her. 3, 62. ngoa/oQtvH tjfjuy 2fiiq~ 
diog jiaailijog axovsir, 3, 101. Jaqtlov fiaailijoq ovdagia 
vnrjxovaap, 1, 1, fi6. vvv wp i fi i o n sid-o (iBvot ylvBtr^s iltv&£(^ou 

(f) Finally, the Gen. of the material stands with verbs of 
seeing, hearing, experiencing, learning, considering, knowing ; 
of judging, examining, saying ; of admiring, praising, blaming, 
oQaVf d^eaad'cUf oxonelvt vnovoeiv, iwosipf yiyvoiaxeiv, imcraad^cu, sidi- 
fCUf iw&vfjieltj&ai, etc. ; Ttvvd^dpead^ou, ah'&dt'ead^tUj fiavd'dveiv^ xgiveiff 
i^era^Biv, Xayeiv, d^hwv, etc. ; dyac&ai,^ d^avfid^eipf inaiveiv, fi8ficpe<j0cuj 
rpeyeif, and the Gren. indicates the object (commonly a person) 
about which or whom, one perceives, sees, contemplates, 
knows, examines, an action, external indication or some single 
circumstance ; or of whom one learns, hears, affirms some- 
thing ; or in whom one perceives something to admire, praise 
or censure. That, which is perceived in the object, or affirm- 
ed of it, is added in the Ace. of a substantive or substantive 
pronoun, or in an accessary clause, or in the Gen. of the Par- 
ticiple, which may, at the same time, denote the person. 

X. C. 1. 1, 12. Jlgmov fdy avrwv (^toxgaTtig) iaxonei, noTsga noxh 
tofilaantq liiiav(aq r^dti xav&qtamva tidiyai cip/orra» inl to ntql roioviuip 
ipgopilCfipy fj ta flit av^gtinsta naQineg, xa dat/AOVia d$ mtonovvTBg^ ^yovr^ 
Tai Ttt nQogtjxvoia nQatuiy. 1. 6, 4. iniaxstptifii'd'a, xi ;(faZ<7roy ^ <r ^ i} <r cr * 
tovfiov jiloVfinmy manner of life. An. 3. 1, 19. dia&Btofitvos av- 
T (S r, oofiv fih /of^ory xal oiav ^otfy. Cy. 7. 2, 18. tyvti xal fidla Stoma 
ifiov noiovvxog, he perceived in me Viai I uxu doing an absurd thing. PI. 
Gorg. 463, d. ag ovv av fia&o ig inoxg ivafiirov ; instead of ag otfr 
Sp fiov fna&oig, a anoxgivofiai ; unit thou then have understood my answer f 
Th. 4f6,inv&opxo xijg IIvlov xaxttXfjfjtfiivtjg, instead of inv&. 
riig IIvlov, oxi xaxidrififispri t;r. 5, 83. ^(T t!^ o vt o XBix^iorxmp, instead 
of^a&, ffvroiy, on xeixlSoiiv, The Gen. of person alone, PI. Phil. 51, c. «l 
(lov fiapd-dpttgj instead of it fiov (ji., a Xeya, Her. 6f76,ayaad'at 
TOV^Egaaipov ov n godtdopxog xovg noXnixag, Th. 1, 84. to figa^ 
dv xal ftUXoPf fiifiifovxai fidXiaxa ijfjiav, fiij aUrxvyBO&e, X. Cy. 3. 
1, 15. el ayaaat xov naxgog, tj oaa pipovXsvxak, tj oaa ningaxt, ndru 
901 avfjifiovXtvta xotxop fiifiHod^ai. Ages. 2, 7. xdd* avxov Sya/iai, oxt 
nagsaxtvaaaxo, 8,4.iyo» xal xotxo inatpm*AytjatXaov, to ngog xo 
agiaxeip xolg^'JEXXfjaiv vntgidnv xrjv /SaaiXitog ^iviap. PL Men. 95, c. JTo ^ 
floVfiaXurxaxavxaSyaiJiai. Theaet 161, b. S ^avfidito xov ixal- 


(ov. Criton, 43, b. aov nalai SaVfiuioi, aia&ayofiiroi, a( I'dcufna- 
■diMiis. Rp. 383, a. aolla 'Op^^ov inaivovvjcf SUa toito olm 

Rem. 20. The verbs above named imply in ihemselvea on Ace. e. g. ofa 
■tifa or II, mtoirdi urn or ii, ^nmydi, ifii/u, fii/iipopai, Syafial tiio or ii. 

(g) In expresaiona of being acquainled with, ignorant of, of 
being skilled and un-^killed in, of making trial of, of ability .and 
dexterity, e. g. ffifftipoe, aneiQOi, {mirtr,fiaiv, intdTafievot, dre/t'crriptar, 
Tgipra*, avyfPKittov, uSai]s, dnui'Si-vtos, iduorijg, rKi^ia&tu, dnci^as, 
I^KBff Ixifi with adjfclivea in •«os (derived from tranaitive verbs) 
which express the idea of dexterity. 

'Efijtn^oi; or imaTtniar I'lfu i^tTijriTje. Her. 3, 49. i ^ c Svalag 
laiTTif ov» a 8ailti olX t/in 1 1^ o;. — AnalSiVTOi a^ijiK, jiov- 
tf inTJ;. X. Cy. G. 1, 37. avyyy^pmt tup ay-dfiaiririarnQaj'- 
/laitiv. — An liQiat (jfii* tico;. — Ait onugaaS a i p-a/itji. (In 
the'poeta this use of the genitive is sliU more exteasive.) D. o, 41S. tiiao- 
To;, of ^a T[ Tiainjt iv tiS^ iroipi a(, Ji.C3.1, S-TtaQaanivanTi- 

inm)3tltaf loU oTpuiioiinii. PI. Eutlijphr. 3, c. 4 1 d u tr x « it i x o ; Tijt 
ottioii irof fa;. PI. L. G43, d. j iki los iiji jov Tifuj/fiaioq afiitit, akouiing 
one's ttl/pcrfcd in a Ihing. 

^274. (b) Causal_ Genitive. (m-At^.) 

The second division of the causal genitive includea the geni- 

live, which c.xprcsaea the cauae, 1. e, the objcet, which calls forth 

and occasions the action of the subject This genitive stands, 

1. With many verbs which denote a state or aifection of the 

mind, viz. 

(a) A desire and longing for, int&viitiv, egjv, ('^cotinu,' cx'iv, or 

(b) A care for, a concern for, imiiiliia-Qat, <fQort(Xeir, x^Sea&m, 
iiE^(aof>Eu, aQoopny, vtrtQOQiji', to despise, n^otoeh, fitlei, [ifTafiAei, 
ofieiiiv, oltYmQeir, qiti'dea&ai ; 

(c) Pain, grief, pily, oXorpveea&ai, frE*>9ix(Uf Ix"* ; *'ifsiV and oix- 
niQiir with the Ace. of the person and Gen. of the thing; 

(d) Anger and indignation, ogYi^ta&at \vilh the Dat of the 
person and ihs Gen. of the thing, zttiewtoff cpt'ctit; 

(e) Envy, (pQofsiy wilh the Dat. of the person and the Gen. 
of the thing, imtp&opois 8ta>ftia&at; 



(f) Admiration, praise and blame, ^av/£aj€iy and iyaa^m 
(with the Ace. of the person and the Gren. of the thing, some- 
times also with the Gren. of the thing and the Gen. of the per- 
son, which depends upon or is governed by that thing, see Rem. 
2), ^r^Xovv, evdaifioviXeii'y incuvetr, fAffjicpecj^cu, all with the Ace of 
the person and the Gen. of the thing. 

PI. Rp. 403, a. 6 oi^d^og igtag niqtvxe xoafiiov tc xal xaXo^ ampffo^ 
vvg re xal fiovaucug igay. 438, a. oldug notov ^TTi^v/iel, alia 
XQfjtr'iOV YTOTOV, xal ov (t/tov, aiXa /^i^frTOt; alrov niar^ 
jfg yag Sga t&p a/a&wv in i^vfiovtrtv, Symp. 181, b. ol 90V- 
iU>i Torr avd-qvmfov xiav (rtafidrfar fAaXXoPf tj twv ipv^^y ig&a^p, 
186, b. TO iroftoior avofiolutv inid-vfiel *ai ig^ 216, d. ^v- 
ngatfig iguxixaig diaxeitai rmv xal a v. X. Cy. 3. 3, 12. {Kvgog) 
xaxilrovg inoltiotv igtiJixug e/cf fov f^dti tt 1 e 7 y t*. X. O. 13, 9. 
frcinuat jov inalvov ov^ tiTJov tvianiiv (pvaButr, fj aXXai x&v ai" 
T « y TS xal nojciv. Attributive, e. g. ig(»>g, ini&vfda a^eW/^, amor, eypir 
ditas virttUis, Th. 6, 14. xijdecr^ai rvg noleng. Her. 3, 151. inohog^ 
uu {BafivXon'iovg) (pg ovtiiovT ag ovdiv Jtjg noXtogxiri^, 3, 159. tov 
citov ngoog^y* X. Cy. 1. 2, 2. Ufgatav vofioi (agxorrai) tov xoipov 
aya^ov inifiBXovfAtyot, MiXit fioL tivog, 5. 1, 22. r'oi^^vf sat- 
gaaofiai nonlv (jii}noTB fjieTafitXfi<Tai> trjg ngog ifii odov. Id. C. L 2^ 
9. vnegog^v inoUi %mv xad-sajmrav vontoy jovg avvorxag. Tb. 4, 
124. Bgaaldag tfjg Miydrjg negiogiafi By og. X.H.5. 4, 1. t^o* ova 
jwy ifTBpovyTaiy, OVIB T ay ayoffia noiovyxoiy afiBXovat, Cy.8. 
7, 15. kavTov xrjdBtat 6 ngoyouy ad BXipov, Attributive, e. §> 
qfgoyxlg rmy naidoty, cura liberorum, can for children. So inifjuXi^g xirog. X. 
Cy. 5. 4, 32. o Kvgog axovaag tov iiw nad'ovg ^xjtigsy avtor, 5. 2, 7. 
T^r S-vyariga, nBy&ixwg txovaay xov a^BXipov XB&ytixotog, 
i^ayoiy ids tljiey. Symp. 4, 37. rovtovg olxxBlgto rrj g ayay j)faA«irii( 
yoaov. Attributive, e. g. aXyog halgoay (de amicis) ; moreover with adjec- 
tives also (though only in poetry), and especially in exclamations with or 
without interjections. Eur. Or. 413. Tfi 01 d itoyfAciy, oig iXavyofim fa- 
lag! X.Cy,S,l,d9, q^BV tov ay dgog! PI. Rp. 509, c.*U7roiUor, ^«*- 
fioy lag vnBg^oXr^g! X. Cy. 2. 2, 3. t ^ ; "^^X^^i ^o 4^ ^^^ xlifiin* 
Mgo tvxfiy ' O ill fortune, that I am called hither at tins tune ! Lys. c PhiloD. 
187, 11. xa&Borrjxi ti h&og dlxaioy naaiy ay^gianoig, tvty avToly ib^t^* 
ft a jay (AaXiaxa bgy ij^Ba-d'at tolg fiaXuna dvya/jiiyoig ^ir^ aduttuy, tok hi 
niyt}<ny fj advyuTOig tc5 ataiiaxi avyyyatfiriy BXBt-y, dia to ^yBur&at axoyioi 
avjovg afAagxayBiy, In poetry, the Gen. is much more frequent with verbs 
expressing anger, e. g. IL i, 266.*HgaxXiiog 9ie^»;i^(»aaTo, naudog kio^ 


Od. It, &l.lnoauSdair) Kmlamos xtxolBtiat, ov <nf9akfiov aXaoiafv. S. 
Antig. 1177. Tioi^i pi)yiiTai <|cd>'OL'. Eiir. Or, 749. umit ooi Siyaiigoi 
Qv^ovfiivoq. Attributive, e. g. x^^^i '»™(, im aliaijiu lasleaA o^ dt idi- 
quo, anger respecting sonic person or thing. 1>&i>vtiy nn tiji oiHjia,-. Th. 
1, 75. niioi /iTfi'ti Bp/?jf yt ijs t^fo/ifi' io«°tjU);ffi./iij oi^ms Syay ^ni^do' 
raig Sittxtiirttai, it is not jiat that we ahovid be tnined on aecoiinl of our 
ttmtrtigntii. So iilso in poetry, /i f/ a i ^ u, e. g. Aesch. Prom. (H7. ov p t- 
yttifu TotSi iTDi SioQ^fiaio?. Auribulive, e. g, (f&iroi jirii. X. Cy. 3. 
3, 31. TOBior ovy i KvQog ayav9els i^S " npttoiTjios no! t^t 3i- 
Saanaltui nai T^f (jtipckilag, ixaUamai TOtTi)* iijy taiiv titl to 
Stinvov vit T(! Tajiop/w. Symp. 4, 45. Jfjiti « loE niowTou, PL 
Sjn]p.l94,e. Joxowrinn'nfStousHj'SpoJnoi'j Ei'iltii/iorJilciy ti3>' liyot- 
^bjf, (uv 9fo; niJioT; aiTio;. Ion. 530, b. naUnxic ^i iitjloia a vpag 
%oii jaiptfSoit I'K ^'/"IS. Dem. Cor. 290, 204. ik ovx or ayaoaiio 
itur ay Sgiar Imlyiov i^$ aq tjtji; itlorum vironan virtuieTO. Lys, 
Simon. 100, 44. &avpaZii pahina io izov ti7; Siaroiag, hujus men- 
Ian. Id Eroloaib. I2i, 41. I &a<ipaa a t^g lilfi^s ii5r ).iy6ytiay. 
So Willi odjeciives, e. g. Pi, Pliaedon. 58, e. liSalpwr /loi o ariiQ lipal' 
mo luu tau i^onov sal luv iio^iuv, ui; b^((U{ xnt j'OmJai; ^irltinii. 

Remakb 1. The Gen, with the above verbs is often governed by prepoai- 
noBB, e(>peciully niql, e. g. inifulturdai, tpgorrli^iiy itigi nro;. Some verbs 
wliich denote a stale or an aSeclion of Ibe mind, do nr>t govern the Gi'D., 
thus ao&tir, to long for, to fed the teanl of, alwnys govcme tlie Arr., 
and m> tpiltlr, ayaJiny, atiqyriy, ta lovt ; tlw East two also in the 
sense of Io be contented teUh, take the DaL = Lat. Abl. Several of the above 
verbs have aUo difiereDt comtnictions, in whieli cuse Ihcy cojnmonly ex- 
press difierent ideaa, e. g. ipgovTiiftr iivog or :iiqI iirof X.C. 1. 
1, 11.4.7,6. tobtanitoiu/or something,hiH v^oviiCeivit, tcrulon, invu- 
tigart ; — n porottr, n^oo^^v it, lo perceiee be/oreKand, lo eamidtr be- 
JbrAand ; vit tqoif^v ri and 1 1 y o c> dapiixre, in the same sense. In poe- 
try, pikit sonictimefl takes for its euhject a noun denoting a tiling, in the 
Nom.; but in prose, it takes only a NeiiL pronoun in the Nom. The verb 
is then used persotially, J1fiIq'(routr>v S' /^ot i'nnot H. x, 4S1. Tav- 
xapivovr9i^ prl^attVl Phaedr. 336, d. 

Rem. 2. The verbs &avpaiini and ayaaSat have tlie following 
CVnstriKlioDB) (a) the Ace. of the person or the Acr. of the thing alone, 
when the wonder or admiration extends lo the wliole person or thitig, or 
10 the whole nature of a person or thing, e. g. duvpifui lov inqutiffDv,&av- 
ftaZia iqr aotfiav; — (h) the Gen. of the |>ers«ti and tlie Aee. of the thing, 
when one admired something in a person, e. g. Saf/ia^ ^uHgaioit jr,» ao- 
tflair ; — (c) tlie Ace. of the person and Gen. of tlie thing, when one admires 
a person on account of some (|iuility, e. g. Savpalja Suyqdtn ii,i aoiplaf, 
see 1, (f); — (d) Gen. of tlie tiling and the Gen. of the person depending tip- 
on it, when I wonder nl tlie quality of a iiersnn, nr admire the qttality of a 
person, e. g. &aipdiio —axgariovi i^; aoiflaf, see l,(f); — (e) the Ace. 
person, and instead of the Gen. of the thing, a prepoMtioo, 
wilb tbe DaL., e. g. SavpdZa Sun^dni Ini tp aoipif. 

7C.ofthe ^H 

lonly iiti ^^M 


2. With verbs which express the idea of requital, revenge, 
accusing and condemning, the Gen. denotes the guih or crime 
which was the cause of the requital, revenge, etc. Hence this 
is true of ufjuoQeurO^ai which governs the Ace. of the person and 
the Gen. of the thing, as well as of verbs relating to judicial 
proceedings and of accusing and condemning, e. g. alttacO^ah 
inaiTida^yai, dioixsiVy tl^ayBiv, vnayeiv, yQcicpEGx^aif nQogxah-iad^ai, all 
with the Ace. of the person and the Gen. of the thing, infJ^itvai^ 
iyxaleiv, imaxrintBa^aiy all three with the Dat. of the person and 
Gen. of the thing; cp^yuvy to be accused; dixd^eiv, xgiveip, aiQeh, 
to convict^ all three wilh the Ace. of the person and the G«n. of 
the thing, and dlavai, to be convicted. 

Her. 3, 145. jovg inixovgovg Ttfiu}gfi<rofiai xrig iv&ddi initio g, on 
ofxount of the invasion of this land, 'Enauiao^ ai iiva <p6vov. Her. 
6, 104. {MiXxtddea) oi ix^i^ol id la^av rvgavvidog Ti\ g iv Xtqaorriaoj, 
^Ens^iivai tivl <p6vov. rqaqitad-al tiva naQarofnov, 0tv^ 
ysiv xlonijg, <p6voVf aas^iiag, KqivtO'd'ai doiPslag, X. 
Cy. 1. 2, 7. IJiQaai dkxdiova i xal i/xXi] fAatog^ ov mxcr avd-qianoL fit- 
aovat liip alX'tikovg fidXi(na, dixaiovtat^ de fJxMrra, ixotqiaxlag. C. 1. 2, 
49. xond voftov (i^tart) nagavolag kXovxi xal tov nailqa dijoa^. Dem. 
Aphob. 846. intoxriTtTiO'd'al rivi iwv yfevdoiAagjvgi^w, 861, 
58. (psvynv y/$vdoiiaQTVQi<av v no Xivog, 'Aloivai xlontig. 

Rem. S. Also the punishment for guilt is put in the Gen., but this 
Gen. is to be considered as the Gen. of price, § 275, 3, e. g. ^avdrov xql^ 
vsir, xqlvto^at^ dmxuv. Sometimes the prepositions ntql and fyrxcr are 
joined with the verb, e. g. dmxi^v nva mql (p6vov\ and ami with xifitaqua^au 

3. Finally the G«n. of cause is also used in the following 

(a) With xov fi^ and the infinitive. See ^ 308, 2, (b). 

(b) With the adverbs av, xaXwgf fAti gitog, and the like, also with i g^ 
ntigfOnttg, 17, onjj, ovttog, adg, ugavjug, connected with the verbs 
l;(f e » y and tixnv, sometimes also with elyori and other intransitive verbs, 
the object by which a condition is caused or occasioned, is put in the Geo. 
KaXa g bx^ nodap, I am loeU in respect to my feet. Her. 6, 116.'^^- 
paloij a.g nodSv sl/ov, raxurta ifiovi&toy ig to Sarv, 5, 62. XQVf^^^ 
Ttav iv fixovjBg. So Ev, xaXaig, iittqltag tx^iv fliov, (pQivaty, yivovg ^ 
pifuiag, OfJEXXfivsg ovjotg «I/or ofiovolag ngog iXXr^Xovg. X. Cy. 
7»5, 56. ovToi jgonov fj|r«K. H 4. 5, 15. wf rdxovg &09T09 etj^tn 


§275. (c) Genitive denoting^ certain Mutual Re* 

lationS. (466—470.) 

The third division of the causal Gen., includes the Gen. by 
which certain mutual relations are expressed, e. g. the relation 
of the ruler to the subject. As a ruler necessarily supposes a 
subject, and a subject a ruler, the one may, in a measure, be 
considered the cause or occasion of the other. Hence the Gen. 
is used, 

1. With verbs which contain the idea of ruling, preeminence, 
excelling, prominence, and the contrary, viz. such as contain 
the idea of subjection, inferiority, to miss, e. g. an opportunity, 
oQl^Biv, xQateiv, deffno^eiVy rvQavveiv, tvQavvevetVy atQateyeiVy inizQonev- 
etPf iniaTUTeiVf ^a(Jt},eveiv, Tjyefiovevaiv, rjyela^ait etc. ; with the adjec- 
tives, iyxQaTyg, dxQati^g ; — nQOij^iv, nEQiiivaiy neQiyiyvEa^ai, nQoara- 
reip, vTieQ^dkXeiv, vneQcpfQEiv, nQcozevEiv, nQea^evEiv, TZQOxQivetv, ttqou- 
fiaVf TiT^ote-ATEir, etc.; — Tjizdax^cUf vgteqeTv, vaxEQil^Eiv, iXartova&ai, 
lutova&ou, fieiovexTElv, vgxeqov ahai, ^ztova eIvui, etc. 

Her. 7, 97. lot/ vavxixov tutqaxriyBov dide, 99. fiysfiovsvB 
'AXixaQv[ria(ri(av, Stl5.i7iitQ07tivBivAiyvjiJov, 142. otrc/io* 
JJolvxQairig fJQfaxB dsanoiaiv ardgtay 6 fi o I ta v k(a'irt(^. Th. 1, 69. 
o Xoyog lovBgyov ixQ dtHy fama superabat rem ipsam. X. Cy. 1. 1, 
2L a^/oyre? fiiv tiai xal oi fiovxoXoi tatv /? o (u y, xal ol Irniotpoq^oi t uy 
inn 01 y, xal ndvitg di ol xaXovfiivoi vofitlg, (uv ay in laiat acri ^(atov 
uxoToi^ uv aqxovjtg tovtoiv vofiiSoivro, A, ly li, ifiol ds doxsl i ij g 
fity latfig i}dovijg noXh fidXiara avficpSQitv iyxQaji] Etvai, 5.1,14. 
la fiO/^riQa av&QtaTita n acr o)V, olfiai, j tuv in t&VfjH(av uxg ati} itrti, 
Uer. 6, 61. xaXXitntvaB t to naidlov naaioiv tbiv iv Zjiuqiri yv~ 
vaix^v, Th. 1, 81. loig onXoig avi at v xal itu nXi}&€i vntgipigofisv, 
X. Cy. 3. 1, 19. Ttf/«i nsQieyivov aiiov, PI. Gorg. 475, b. ax^^cu^s- 
^Uj aga Xvnjj vnsgP aXX ti lo adixuv rov ad ixelad^ a tj xal aXyovat 
futXXov ol adixovvug, ij ol adixovfjiiyoi (the Ace. is more usual with vntg^ 
fidXXur). L. 752, e. ngtcr^sv sir tbiy noXXar noXt tay. So also 
arix ttf^ai- t ivog usually with a participle, to tndurt, PI. Rp. 564, e. 
ovx ivixit at xov aXXa Xiyoytog. Apol. 31, b. uvix^(f^ot t oiy 
oixelay dfisXovfiivdjy, 'JItta ad" ai, luy irti^Vfitbty, Dem. Cor. 
908, 244. ovdafiov ii it ijd Big anijXd^oy t d) y naga 0iXinnov ngia ^ b^ 
m y, hting overcome hy or yielding to the envoys, X. C. 1. 3, 3. ^axgdir^g ^v~ 
ciag ^voay ^uxgag ano fiixgoty ovdsy ijyBho fistovtrd^ ai J oiy ano noX- 


Xwp xal fityiXfoy noXli xal fifydla •&v6vTwy. Hier. 4, 1. fnyaXov 
aya&ov fjiBiov bxtbu 'TaiBglCeiP tur naiga v^ t&r tg/wr^ 
X. Hier. 1, 18. zavtij t^ svipgoavrri tijg iXnldog ftt lOvexTovai tvgavpot 
twv Idiwt&f* %1. fisioptntovriag xal aliwv xal noiiiv xal 

HevlakkI. *JIyt ft OP sveiv and fiyttc&ai in the sense of to go be- 
fore, odop, to show the uxxy, govern the Dat; xgaxelv in the sense of (a 
conquer, regularly governs the Ace., but in the sense of to rule, the Gen. 

Rem. 2. That in which one excels another, in prose, is usually put in 
the Dat, though it is often expressed by prepositions, e. g. tv rtvi, ttg t^ 
xatd T^ ini tivu — 'Tno governing the Gen. is often used with ^ao^ai^ 
e. g. Th. 1, 62. TO tngatonidow {crcraTO vno t&v *A&rjvaliav, 

2. The comparative and adjectives in the positive, which 
have the force of the comparative, e. g. numerals in -aatog and 
-nXovg; devzegog, negntog, etc., govern the Gren.of the object used 
to express the comparison. 

X. Cy. 7. 5, 83. ov drjnoviov agxorta twv agxofjtiwvtv Yrofij^oxe- 
gov ngopptei hpou Eur. Med. 965. /^wo( Si xg elaawv fjtvglanf 2o- 
yt»v PgoTolg,. Her 7, 48. to 'EXXiivixoy oTgdrtVfAa ipaivtiai noXXanXtj^ 
oiov tata^ai xov rifiexigov. 8, 137. dinXijaiog iyhftxo ahxog 
i wv TOVy he loastunce as great as before, 6,120, vojsgdi anixofuroi x^g 
ovfAPoXil g (proelio) Ifislgoyro ofi(og S^triacur&ai rovg M^Sovg. Ov8ip6g 
devjtgog. OvStPog vategog. Tuv a gxovvtwv negnti xn]" 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the object of comparison is denoted, like some re- 
lation of space, by ngo and artl with the Gen., or by naga and ngog with 
the Ace See prepositions. 

3. With verbs of buying and seUirtffj e. g. cwwur^ot, ayogd^eip^ 
ngiaad^cu, xraad-cu, TgagaXafi^dveiv ; natXeip, dnodidoa&ai, TieQididoa- 
^cu, didivai; — also with verbs signifying to eaxliange and bar- 
ter ^ e. g. dlXdttBit, dXXdtTBa^ou, diafiei^ea^ai, Xvbiv, etc. ; — with 
verbs of valuing', e. g. tifiav, niJMad^cu, noida^ai, d^iovv, O^iova-^oiy 
and with the adjective aJ^iog (Gren. of price). 

Her. 3, 139. iyvi tavtrpf nnXita fup oifdevoQ jjf^i^jtioToc. 5, 6. {oi Ogrjtxtg] 
iviovtat tag ywaixag naga xav yovimv /^jucrroir fuydXatw. X. C. 2, 1, 
20. T&v novwp ntiXovaiv t^fiv nana layd^ ol tS^eot. Cy. 3. 1, 36. erv di, 
99 Tiygdvri, Xi^op fioi, noaov Sp nglaio, &gTt Ti;r yvvalxa anoXaliiiv, 
'Mym fup, I(pi7, CD Kvge xap ti}g ^xijg ngialfAiiv, wgts fti^TioTt Xatgtvoai 
tmitfiP, TL i, 236. itvxi a fieiPtp, xQvria xoXxgloifP, kxatofiPoi ipvea^olvp, 
TL Cy. 3. 1, 37.xa2 av di^oi ^AgfuyUf andyov rr^p it yvpatxa xal avrovg ntS^ 


dot, ftl3ir avzar Kaia&tig, nulla ni pro Hm depos'ita. Dem. PhiL % 
66, 10. KaigHT9i /itjd i yo; by xigSous la xotva tar '^Uii'vuir n p oe- 

tti I'll/ «ts lou; '!£iJijiios liyoiay. 11.1,514. ii|Tpo( yag uriig itollmw 
ayja^iot a XI lay. Her. 3, 33. o jivxinpfoiy onSi ar axgla io( f,il~ 
■to-e lof <f4goyia ilif ayyiUiiv. 6, 112. //in'/ovto aSivitloyoii. Irfjt- 
oE* tua Tififi (. X. Cy. 2, 2, 17. lyioyt oirSiy avioiiueoy FOfii'Joi Tuy /f 
or^punoif itrot loii tdiv itroti' lev Tf xoKuy kut o^'bAui' nfioiJudai. 
Ti^^f tipl jiyo! aod urn tivo;, v. g. 3ixa tolayitir, tov ffayoiov, to Jme or 
punith one uM, to stnlcna out to a punishmeni, to consider oiw icorlhy o/pwn- 
iehmenL So the Mid. zi paadal iiyiagyx'^icv, Saraiov, to impose ajine 
or penally of death upon one ; commonly, however. Unify in Ucre sujipiicd. 

Rem, 4, With verba denoting to barter, lo exchange, the relation is uau- 
•lly considered [ike a rclalion of space, and is denoted liy uytl with the 

Rm. 5. The Gen. with substantives (attrihulive Gen.) expresses n much 
greater variety of relatione, thsD the Gen. with verbs. For where tivo ob- 
jects arc immediately connected with eucli otiier, there is always a mutual 
relation between the ideas tliey express; the one depends upon the other, 
seetoB united with it, to proceed from it or in eotne way to belong to it. 
Hence tjie rule ; Wien two suhslanlivt* are eonnaUd mth eatk other. Die nih- 
Hmttm wladi eamjiiUi the idea of Ox other and d^na it more ftiUy, u put in 
(Ac Gen. As adjectives or participles are, in their nature, nearly related lo 
Ibe Bubetaniive, many adjectives also govern the Gen., when the verbs from 
which they are derived, take the Ace, e. g. xfttilaioti natf/6i 'UJliJvon' 
tgaipil; (like natus aliciijus). 9. Ph. 3. 

Rem. 6. Sometimes one substantive governs two genitives expressing 
difierent relatione. Her. 6, 2. %Tin7oi Snfflw! i mv 'idymy j'ly I'.yipoyl- 
i)r lou Tifog Jagiloy nolifiOV,the command of tlie loniant in the tear 
agaimt Ihriut. 

§276. (2) Accusative. (ki.) 

The Ace is the WItither-case, and hence dcnolcs, (a) in rela- 
tion to space, the goal, limit or point to which the action of the 
Terb is directed, e. g. atnv fioXeT*, lo n-o lo the city ; — (b) in the 
cansal relation, it denotes the effect, consequence, resuh of an 
action, as well as the object on which the action is performed. 

4 277. A. RELtTions op Space. (■its.) 

The Ace, expressing the relation or space, denotes the boundary, place or 

object towards which the subject moves. Hence this Ace is used with 

verbs of motion, going, coming, etc.; yet this usage is found only in the 

poets, especially in Homer. Od. y, 102. oi (liy ujiomgiipayuf t^ay wot 


dfiifuUaaaQj they toent to (ht skips. TL a, 317. xvUrari S* ovgavoy utt, carose to 
heaven. Od. a, 176. noXlol t&uv uviqtq rifthtgoy dci. S. OT. 35. iarv Ka8^ 
fifiov (loXiiv. Eur. Med. 7, Miideia nvgyovg yfjg tnltwf ^loiXxiag. 

Remark. In prose and usually also in poetry, the Ace. is governed by a 
preposition, which defines still more definitely the relation indicated by the 
Ace, e. g, sig, in — into, cu^, to, xcrra, doumwardSy ay a, upwards^ vnig, orfr, 
inl, upon, negl and i/iq>l, around — round abovi, firra, into the middy €^Ur^ 
nQog, to, into the presence of, nagd, near to, vno, under, e. g. Uvai 4g t>V no- 
Xtv, nQOtldfip wg lov PnoiXia, ntgl or npq>l xViV noXiV Palvtiv — in\ jov 
^QO¥ov ayajSalvHv — iX9(iv fjLtjd Tgotag — iivai naga PaaiXia — Uvat ngog 
*'OXvfAnop — iivixi vno yutav. 

B. Causal Relations of the Accusative. 

§278. (a) Accusative denoting Effect. (473-475.) 

The Ace. denoting effect is used as in other languages, e. g. 
yQaq>oi inusroX^. The original and simplest form of the Ace 
denoting effect, i. e. the Ace. of the object produced, is where a 
verb either transitive or intransitive, takes the Ace. of an abstract 
substantive, which is either from the same stem as the verb, or 
has a kindred signification, e. g. fta/^y fidxeai^ai, to fight a ftght^ 
pugnam pugnare. An attributive adjective or pronoun com- 
monly belongs to the Ace. 

PI. Symp. 181, b. ovrog iativ (o %q m g\ ov 01 fpavXoi rotv ivd-gdjioir igS^ 
aiv. T\,lj.680, naa^y dixaiordTijv fiaaiXivofAtvoL 
Prot 325, c inipeXo iivxai naaav iniftiXeiav. Dem. Aph. 845, 4 
diofiai vfiwv dLxalav dirjatv. X. An. 1. 3, 15. o-T^arij/iio-oyTo 4fd 
javrriv xijy ajgaTtiylav. 6.3,6. evTV/ijcrayToDro to eixv/ijjMa. 
Id. H. 7. 1, 5. nXiloTovg xal fifylarovg ay^vag ^/(ayiaiiiyoi xcrra ^a- 
Xarray iXdxiaia pkv anorervxrixtae, nXiiara di xcntogd^otxatB. Andoc Myst 
5,S1. agaadfABVoi Tag fjisyitnag a gag Vfiiv. So xaXag ngdleig ngdrtuf, 
igydita^ai tgyov xaXov, dgxii>v dixalay dgxh^, ahrxgdv dovXtiav dovXtvtif, 
idyav TtoXtpov noXtfjiuv, /aileTri^y voaov voauv. 'J^^xdrifiovg ajgatsiag 
i^^saav (like t^odov i^Uvai). Th. 1, 112. ^axsdaifAOvioi rbv Ugby xaXov- 
fitroy noXtfiov iargdrevaay (like aigaisiay fngaT$VHy). So ogxovg 
o/iyuvai, aadeysly yoaoy, f^v fiioy. X. Hier. 6, 7. Tioioy di xiva vnyof 
ixoi>iA^. If the idea of the verb permits, the passive construction also can 
be used, e. g. *0 otxelog tipiy noXtfiog otntag inoXkfii^d-fj PI. Menex. 
843, e. KaXal ngd^eig ngdrtovtai. So also with adjectives^ e. g. 
XoKol navttv xaxlay PL Rp. 490, d. 

2. In place of the substantive from the same stem as the verb, 


or having the same signtiication as the verb, an altribute of such 
a substantj ve can also be used ; in this case, the verb frequenlly 
has a pregnant signification {conslructio praeffimnx), since the 
verb, at the same tinne, contains another idea in addiliun to 
lis obvious one. 

TfiK^r itnxVi l" (onqwr a battle, i. e. to win a bidlit ; ao 'Olvfinui raSv, to 
amquer in the Olympic game*, Th. 1, 126. yixay raviiaxla;, to gain a notwl 
vidoty, 7, fiC; rmifr yriitfiTjr, senteniiam sincere, rit^r dlxtiv, to cany one's 
opinion triumphantly; like ^v/ia dviiv; i« imriiua, ivayyiXia, itaflitx'i^ta, 
ftri^lia, ia Ai-xata, ya/iovs 9iny. to offer a sacrifice on acaiunt ofvidory, a 
JtMlitt offering, etc., i. e. to ctlebrair the victory, ctr. by a Moerjfice ; lo IIiQaixor 
wp/tiro X. An. d. 1, 10; Topunriv nohfioy, \. e. tarbando helium concitare, aa 
it ia said, bellum mircere, PL Itp. 3>7, a. Pawivcly, n oXifio; ngat lavf 
'jtfttfiaaiK iiaqax&'i Dem. Cor. 277, 151. 

3. Special notice, in like manner, should be taken of the fol< 
lowing constructions, mostly confined to |>octry, where, also, 
instead of the subalantive from the same stem as the verb, or 
with a kindred signification, the altribute of such kindred sub- 
stantive is put in the Accusative. 
(s) Verbs which expteas ilie iJea of to »lant, to kam, to Jhir, lo pour, to 
thoot or tpring forth, e. p. umpa'jitdv yoi/ynmov irHat, to lif^hten a 
fearfuBy bright tight, i. e. crating a bright and Itrrifie light, Aescli. Pr. 356 ; 
■SalXiir ^lop Pers. 617. 'Fgtpror aifi i 3 tv it a, I poured out blade 
blood, 8. AJ. 376. Tiyyiir, ataZiii' Sanqva, ai/ia, Xafijtiir ai- 
la;, fur yala (all oDliQed lo poetry). 

(b) Verbs whicb eipreas tound, laughter, panting anil tmdling; here, In- 
Head of tlie gubstanlive, commonly on adjeclite memly, or even a 
pronoun is uwd, e. g. tf& iy yia& at lantircr, aa9tnt; t,liv yt- 
iar,iidiinrilr,furia ti r t i o r 1 1 i 'Axaiot, 'jtfia Tiriir, Mattem 
spiru«, oCdv ^Sv; dtijiror It xat kiyv^r vituxttio t6nog)jM lot, 
jmiyu* x^f ^^ Phaedr. 230, c 'A rtxayxooi xi pala aaflofur, 
Rp. 337, a. 

(c) Verb* cignilyinfr lo tee, to look. Od. i, 446. irt'C nv^ oip9iiXit<Siri 9t' 
Jdpxn'f. SoplixtiT, ii^nia&ai 'jfi/tjr, agar ilxt^r, Si^ie- 
a3 at inrCr, afUfSaUor, laupa ; tfolior jUintir. II. /3, 2(0. axfuev 
13 lir, looting fooli^ PI Ion. 535, e. atalortaf ti xai duror ipjSli- 

RENAka 1. By thU use of ibe Ace. mauy sdrerbia] expressions can be 
ezplaineil, noce tlw place of ibe Ace with the adjectiie belonging tc if ■■ 
Mijfilied either by a pronoun akme (levia^ idAc, mvia, tmit, tl, tI, . 


fjtridir, o, a, etc), or by a neuter adjective, e. g. Tavxa Xvniitr&ai xal t a v- 
T fx /fx/^cii' Tol^ noXXoig, to grieve at the same things and to rejoice at the same^ 
Dem. Cor. 323, 292. OavfiacrTa ixnlfirroviai PI. Symp. 192, c. Ta 
nQOTHTTa r^vd-fiaav Th. 1, 19. ^ fianqov xXaUiv ; navia Bvdcufioviir ; 
iKptUiv, pXmtJHV^ ^i^fiiovp fitydXa, fAixgdj ivsgyitHv ra fiiyiQTa^tidv 
ytX^Vf fiiya or fitydXa q>Q0VHV, 

Rem. 2. Several adverbial expressions have originated from this usage, 
e. g. /a^if > gnitia, x^9^^ ^f^V^t ^V'^'i ^^^j tua gratia, df^^gsav, gratis, dutjlvrir, 
^Qouta, fiOTipff incassum. So also toDto, xavja, therefore, t^ why, o, therefore, 
Eur. Hec. 13. vsmctrog d^ riv nQiafiidoiv * o ual fit yijg vniU^ffupar, PI. 
Prot 310, e. aX£ avTU ravTU vvv ^xoi naqa ai, on this very cuxount. 

4. The Ace. denotes also the object merely aimed at, the de- 
sign of the action. Such an Ace, however, is almost always a 
pronoun or a neuter adjective, — a preposition, e. g. n'g, nQog, ini, 
being commonly used with substantives. The following words, 
in particular, belong here. 

XQtja&al Tivi xi originating from /^fjcr^a/ Xhvi x^^^oiVt to use same- 
thing for something ; nsi^eiv originating from nti&nv uva ntiatVf inal- 
Qitv, inoTQVveiv, ngoxaXe'ia&aiy drayxdj^eiv Jhyd ti, etc 
Oim ^0), ti XQV^^t*^^ avxw, Ti diixQfiOOfie-d'a jovto} ; 7^ *Q^V^ 
TO nUlmov a|ia ixQoivTO, ad res maximi mamenti, Th. 2, 15, Ilsia^ 
&7iva$ Tt)y avaxd^Qflffiv (instead of the usual construction iig t. ava- 
Xfi^Q') ib. 21. Ta vjd ae inotQvyw, ^Aniqxoiia^ nf^lv vno aov 1 1 ft cT- 
iov ivayuaQ-^r^vai PI. Phaedr. 242, a. Tovxo ovn enet^t xovg 
0wiauag Her. 1, 163; but inotgwHv eig ftdxV^, 

Rem. 3w The Ace denoting purpose, applies to the manner according to, 
or in whidi something takes place. Here the fundamental idea is that of 
striving for an object Thus rginov, toirtov lor xqonov, hunc in modum, 
ndvxa xgonor, xlva xqonov, dlxrjVj in morem, ofioia, in like manrurj imxiidigt 
eonsulto, xdxpg and xaxa xdxog, celeriter. Commonly, however, preposi- 
tionfl are used with such adverbial expressions. 

^279. (b) Accusative of the Object upon which the 

Action is performed. (476— «3l) 

Only those verbs will be mentioned here, which, in Latin, take 
some other Case than the Ace. or are constructed with preposi- 

1. The verbs flig^eAfrtp, aimtdvcu, ovivota^ou, dgiaxBiv, commonly 
with the Dat, ^Xcmeiv, adiasTv, v^qCCbiv, IvfiaivBc^cu, koapda&cu, cl- 
nad'Oh }4)tdo(^iff to chide; evae^eTf^ dae^eip; Xoxav, ivedQ&ieiv; u- 
fMQf^^iu; •0'€Qanevu», doQV(po(^Biv, mitQOTievuv, to provide with a 


guardian; KoXttxivci*, dwnvn* {^tamuv PoeL), fpOi-xtTW*; aeiOeit; 
Ofitii^&ta (Foet. repponderc), remuncrari; ^XatiM^ai, tvla^i- 
tfff.ti ; fuiaiia&iu, v^^iri', to emulate. 

X. C I. 2,6L {^mufanji) ^mtfog ijiiSifajiivmr tovc aSaraiovf. 
Aeschin. Ctes. t!18. tii aiitij Supaywyiit loiotio^ ofrif tor /lir S^fior & i- 
Xd'irat ffiTBiip, 101*; Si iciii^i^ tr eii tjv aii^ia&ai tijC nolir, uno^iio; 
JZf t'^dv TO iti^So;. X. Hier. 4, 3. di noilrat do^tigxipoi'iri /lir 
ttllqlov; oriv fiivdoi'- R. L- 12, S. funurrpKltntt^iMymi/ /( (of ^mt- 
^/•orifli) ^ijr niicrn iHu tot a irtaSat Toig noliiiiovt iVoui, ul 
T*£ Mfriiirioi-fftiLoir;. C. 4.3,15. ^»o H a^'/iw, «i> ^oi dom! 
■ ■{ Twr dtMC f V( pj'ifri'ac oi'f ar lig :ii>if nrS^inwr aftait jco^urip 
m^ti^taSai. Her- ti, I3>^. iXCxr^aar to; iur'J9iiTBMi>r p-vmiicaf. 
Th. I, ISH. n Alia I op/ot', tor ^utriSov, orio ^oiTiiLiu (ut rior 
H4, /s( rpo n till r |o //uivaruif). \. li. H. I, 17. li iidtor, ^ fmSira 
mrdfmjurt »oi.aniviir, jOiit'Ll.l.^m, ftmt fiaf^anor, laraa /tiaSoi \ 
—afo;^crilr ?aailia. PL Rpu 331, h. »» (i.Ir ^r loii »»- 
la r; (fcnt] { Suaioai-ni, ^Jlasitiv ii toifix^lfois- '-dSiiiir 
to if ^Hov^ i^tt'*"* TO i's ualSaf. //oiUinut «ai Soiloi ti/im- 
fofrtmi loi't udiMoi-s SiaTtoTUi. X. Cy. 1. 4, 8. oi f tlaxEj f «oi- 
iifovr altur (bin die Depoaeol ImdofaaJai tin, (o rcproodlj. 

Kr"-"*' I. Sotoe of the abore vertw take a Daijve or a preposjtioti with 
■Mpraitrreiae, la] i^iliir itti ihoufli ven* Beldoio aiDWig Ute pocta ; (^] 
ittmttr til, wfit,*od xifi tuv; f;-j av i^iit tU, and niyi iiro, i vv i- 
^(Srrf^n»iB,a«fi,x^iiMi; (Ajlir^Biriv ffni ii« &^i>enlly; (i)iw 
fmwOmimw* •otneliinea ; (f) v^pi£it r (t;TtMi oAen; (igjimtpoat I'- 
ll r nrar aoaiewliu finiuently, ^ 275, L 

Kbl 1 Jmfla 9 ai, like lh« Laiid dmara, faM ■ ilouble conelniclioii, 
•ttarivilu, to/n«n(«D«ctfMf te*Mir MWiDrnnaii*!, to frtmtd imttnik 

2. Verbs whicli express the idea of doing good or eii-il to any 
ooe, by w<^ or deed, e, g. ipt^mir, xaxor^u*, tuaumouir ; tvX»- 
jftf , xvaakoijtir ; w, kkiIm;, x(txw>- Ujitr, wmr, BSoTopcvMV. 

8. Aj. 1151. vrJVfw-n, ^^ d^a tor; it4i>i|Koi<i{ aauM^ X. Cv. 
L6| S-saiarp/iir toe; f flor;. frtpT-tiitr t^r nnt^fdo. 
X. C 2. 3, ^ Uf 4' mr ifit mrrmivtijfmr ^V ^^'^^ Zt^^"*' f^'l^f"^ 

(•r fiarMi naiio/vf w if/f Mii^M/iirar ifii ori^r on n frr«^pfr 
•n f P liftir, •!! laxaiclr. So also avid, BaoBi vomct, ^^^-m imb. 


3. Vrcb« signifying lo penerete, endure, lo ^rsii, aod ihc 
«ary,e.g. peKw,«(>pim*r,««^^; ^arp**, i>n ^ * ija w, mm 



Mfi iptvye toy xlySuroy. Oaq^uv ^ivtnot^ non reformidare mortem. 
X. An. 3. % 20. to; /uiy fjidxt^9 ^aQgelit, endttre. Cy. 5. 5, 42. ffr^ 
wg at xifAwaiy, avatmaiov koi cvcu/e^ avToi;^, Xva as xal d'a^fi^aavty^ 
that they may confide in you, utjiducia ie compUdantur. *0 6ovXoq anidqa 
xov dtanoTfjv. PI. Symp. 216, b. dgamxevo) ow avxov %al (pivym. 
Dem. L Phil. 50, 37. oi rwy ngayfiaioiv xaigol ov fiivovai T^y fifiijiQur 

Rem. 3. After the analogy of q>BV/8iv, other verbs also, which contain 
the idea of fleeing, e. g. those signifying to turn hackfromj to retreat fronij to 
ahhor, are constructed with the Ace, though but seldom, e,g.v7iox^(^itv 
Toy o/itoy ; ixatfjvat xMuvoVt reformidare ; VT[i»'tgine(T-&aiyixjgi-' 
nsff&ai, vnB^igx^tT&aij unoaxgiq>iad'au Oag^eXy T»y» sig- 
nifies to have confidence in something, 

4. The verbs to be concealed, and to conceal^ Xar&avBit^ xQwt' 
tBiVy eelare, ^qyjnea&ai ; — also the verbs ap ^ aveiVy antevertere, 
Xeineiv, iniXeiTteiy, deficere ;— verbs of swearing or swear- 
ing by. 

PL Rp. 365, d. 'd'sovg ovre XaV'&iveiVy oSre §iioaa-dai, dwaiov, 
KgvnjBiv nva t<, see § 280. Her. 6, 115. ntgiinltaov 2ovyiov flovXo^ 
fityoi (pd^ijvai zovq^Ad'r^valovq anixofieyoi ig to aorv. ^En iXelnBi 
fu 6 XQ^^^Si V Vf^Q^* X. An. 1. 5, 6. to aTQat tvfia 6 aijog iniXtnB, 
^OfivvfAt nay Tag &B0vg. Hence fia^ ov jAa^yal fia, yii Jiau 

Rem. 4. The two impersonal verbs HbX and / ^ ij, in the sense of to netdy 
are constructed with the Ace. of the person and the Gen. of the thing or of the 
person, of which or whom one is in need ; this construction, however, belongs 
only to poetry, e. g. Od. a, 124. fiv&rjasaij uttco (tb xQV* Aesch. Pr. 86. 
avToy yuQ trs SbI IIq ofitj^Btag, Jsi with the Dat. of the person be- 
longs to prose and poetry, e. g. PI. Menon. 79, b. SbI ovy oot tijg avt^g 
igtmiioBtag, In the sense of necesse e^, opus e^, with an infinitive, the Ace 
of the person is conunon with both verbs, e. g. SbI ixgfj) (tb tovto notny] 
the Dat is much more rare, and with xQV belongs only to poetry. X. C. 
a 3, 10. bV (Toi dioi didaaxBiy. Comp. X. O. 7, 20. S. Ant 79a aXX^ 
yaq ri *fiol X9V y^ ^^5^' aqx^^v X'^oyog, 

6. Many verbs denoting a feeling or an affection of the mind, 
e. g. (po^ua^axj deujcu, rgBiy; alaxvyea^ai, revereri, artcur^ai; dvg* 
XBQoivBiv ; ix7iXijrre6'&ou, xaranXi^tea&ai ; 6Xoq>vQea&ai, 

X. Cy. 8. 1, 28< fiaXXov rovg aldo/jiByovg aldovyrat rcuv ayatdwf 
oS ar&i^wtoi. An. 1. 9, 6. Kvqog agxroy noti iniipBQOfjiiytir oi* 
tx^BCBy. Cy. 3. 3, 18. [oi noXifitoi) fiaXXoy ^fiag ipofii^ooyjai, oxaif 
anowrowtyy oxi oix ^g (poPovfisyoi nrrj oaofABy avxovg oJkoi xa&$j(iByok 
AicxvyofAat loy &t6y. R. L. 2, 11. aldBlod-tti loitg a^jf oyTa;. 
Cy, L 3, 5. Koi trip co naTtnB, fivaaxxofiifoy xavxa xi figtofAaxa 


Ofu. PL Symp. 173, c lOVf ijaiQovt iiiii. Dem. Cor. 290, 185. 
KaTanlaytjvai tov ^IXinnor. In poeiry this use of the Ace. is 
much more e: 

Rem. 5. Verbs which ex]>ress the ides of motion, like transilive verba, 
ioiuetirnes take the thiDg pul in motion liy them, as a |)BeBivc object in the 
Ace; lliis construction is used in poetry, Beldam in prose. The following 
verbs especially belong here, ^alytir, aitfiriiv, ttiQ^r, nliir, ^i- 
ntir, aniiiSiiv, etc. S. Ant. 1156. tvpi xaia^^inii io>' ti'iti- 
xovvia. 'Jixpairiir, inaia atir no^o, ataatir /epn, fJotriv, 
XEf^f noda, all poetic. Th. G, 39, xana a it ti 3 tiv, aeetlerarc In thia 
way, verbs expressive of sound, with the rotulnuHo prargnam, notnetimes 
Inke the object which is put in motion and mounded, in the Ace. II. ^ IIJO. 
innOiKilr' o/!« nfiataXiioy arit n/oW^ioio yeifi'iiai. Her. 6, 58. li- 
fitija Kfoiiovai, [iiilsant. So with the corutrurtio pratgnant, the poets 
alsn Buy, 3 lev jfopitiir, iXiaaitr, deum choreis, sallando celebrare. 
Comp. Larger Graininar, Part IL J 552. 

6. Verbs of motion lake the space or wai/ in the Ace, these 
being the ohjeels on which the action of the verb is performed ; 
80 also the time during which an action takes place, in answer 
lo the question, Hoio lon^? is put in the Aec, as being the ob- 
ject measured by the action ; so too measure and weight, in an- 
swer to the qiieslion, How much ? are put in the Ace., these also 
being the objects on which the action of the verb is performed. 

Balmy, ntf/ni; ^i/nny, jto^ii'iaSai oSur, like fo go Ihi may, comji. itque 
redilque viam. Eur. Med. 1067. uJl' il(itya;! S'l TlijfioviatuTtiv uJov. 
X. Cy. 2. i, 07. fiT^ji IB Siti^aia noffiiov, aUa laiji'i nono'uq i/yi- 
(loyaq I)]* ^nmijf [oSuy] Sjy ftaS at. An. 4. 4, 1. tjiotfuidna av Sia i^s 
'J^fifvlaq ^iSioy ttTtay xnX Itiovf ytiliifovg. R. Eqil. 8, 10. .7>. a 
fiir ifiiyij /nl loD 'iitJiov n a viola /uptn, per varia toca. Cy. 1. 6, 43. 
■ Synr [aTfauay] ij aitva; i; tilajtia; iSui'(. Dem. L Phil. 40, 34. 
ay uy uaiif tQOiy ioi( jiXior tat iijf daXuitar. Xfoyoy,joyxfoyoy,a 
bmg (wK, [different from xgorm, aiy Z9°*'l'< '^ '"™^' "uHy), yana, iifiiqav. Her. 
6, 137. ij Jt'/Jnpif iJit^dCB ToiJTOr tov xQoyoy italiaia. X, An. 4. 5, 24, 
xatalapflayii jT,y Sfyalipa zoo mapogx"'" tyraxtir ftpiqay yiya/ttifii- 
ytjy, icho had bten marritd nine dtDfs. Cy. G. 3, Jl. xal x^'i ^* ""^ if/in)v 
^/isfay JO atiii loDio inQotToy. Dern. Phil. 3. 116, 2S. laxvaay Si jt xai 
Gr,liaU)i 10 1' s xiXiVTaiovg loviovcJ /(di'oue /itia lijy tv jiiim- 
tpots (lax^r. Her. 1,31, ataSiovg niyti nai TfaatgaHoyia 8ia- 
noiuaayilq un^xorio it jo \^oy. 6, 119. oni/fiv Siita xui 5m*oti iovq 
axaSlavi. G, 135. Jl/uliiu Jq; ajiinXii nufay noliogiaiuat i> ' f "oi t I'n o- 
irt ifisQas. X. C. 3. 6, 1. oidinai tinaaiv iiij yfyovus (like viginti 
annos nalus. Here Ijelongs the Ace, with Ivyaa&ai, (o be u«riA. Her. 



3, 89. TO Bttfivlwy^w TaXayrov dvvara^ £vfioi'dag ifidoiifixorta 

Rem. 6. In poetry the Ace. of space is sometimes used even with verbs 
denoting rest, e. g. miiad^ai^ <nijvai.j fifr^ai, S^aaaeiv, na&iQuvy etc., instead of 
h with the Dat, as in prose. Here also the Ace represents the space as 
the object which receives the action of the verb, or as the object taken posses- 
sion o^ e. g. S. Phil. 145. (tonov nQogidttv i^ileigj) ovitra mtxaij quem 
jacens occupatum tenet). Comp. Larger Gram. Part IL § 554, Rem. 3. 

Rem. 7. The following prepositions are joined with the Ace. to define 
more fully the extension in space and time, viz., ivajjrwn a lower to a kigh" 
er pkux, e. g. ava noiafiop nXtir, ara yvtaa; — xora, from a higher to a 
lower place, e. g. xaxa noxafiov nXiivj naia top piop] — a(Aq>i and tibqI, round 
abovtf e. g. ^aivuv afi<pl (or tkqI) %$iv noXiv, aiKpl top /ct/iajya, ntgl ta Mtf^ 
dtxcif — vxro, under, vtp tJiUov, ino vvnxa, sub noctem; — vire^, orer;— 
nagd, near hy, along, hy the side of, e. g. naga top noxafibv noQBvta&ai, nuq 
oXop TOP piop ; — ini, upon, e. g. inl pwTa ^aXdaarig nXtip, inl noXvp XQ^>~ 
yop; — did, through, e. g. did dwfiaxa ^aipHP, did pifxra; — fierce Tauro, pot- 
tea ; — ngog ianiqap, tovoards evening. 

Rem. 8. From this use of the Ace. to denote space, time and quantity, 
very many adverbial expressions have originated, (a) Tr^p Taxiatrjp (odop), 
cdarritne, Ttiv nqtartrpf, primum, T»)y tv&iiap, rede, fiaxQdp,far, dXXtp^ xal ail- 
Xip^, sometimes here, sometimes there, etc. II. ip, 116, noXXd d* apapT a, x a- 
xapTO, ndqaPTd Tt, doxfi^d t tiX&op; — (h) aijfisgop, to-day, avqiop, 
to-morrow, iqx^'p'y T^y dqx^ip, properly ai first, omnino, TtXog, to riXtvialop, 
finally, tiop, lately, ngoTtgop, ngaxop, to ngmop, to ngiy, xo avxlxa, topvp, to 
TxdXat, TO naXai6v,To ZotTioy, etc. ; — (c) noXXd, saepe, to ^roAilci, plerum- 
que, noXv, (iiya, fitydXa, fuyiara, hXiyop, fiixgov, fiixQa, avxpd, fiaxgd, t&or, 
ToaovTo, ndrxa, etc. So also fiflxog, nXTi&og. 

7. Finally the Ace is used with intransitive or passive verbs 
and intransitive adjectives of every kind, to explain these more 
fully. Here, also, the Ace. represents the object as acted upon 
or suffering, since it denotes the thing to which the action ex- 
pressed by the verb or adjective, refers or is directed. This 
Ace, which explains more fully the word to which it is joined, 
is used most frequently in reference to the body and mind. 

Her. 2, 111. xdfiptip Tovg otpd-aXfiovg, 3, 33. to^ q>Qiv ag v/tal- 
PUP, X. C. 1. 6, 6. dXytip Toifgixodag. 4. 1, 2. (pctviQog r^p ^taxqdtff; 
ov tCkp Tfx ooiftaTa nqog Stqap, aXXd TViP Tag tpvxdg ngog dgtrriP si 
nfq>vx6xtop itptifupog, PI. Rp. 453, b. dtaq>iQH yvpt] apdgog Tijp q>vatP. 
462, d. o ap^iftinog top ddxTvXop dXytl KaXog iari to SfiftaTO. 
Kaxog ioTi Tijy^v/ijy. So aya^og, aocplg, tpgopifiog, /^^rijuo^, /^lyoro^, 
dbuttog, etc., with the Ace ^Aya&og TBXPfjp T%pd, Her. 3, 4. d^ern^ 
nai yptaftflP ixapoc, xal to noXiftia SXxtfiog ijp, X. Cy. 2. 3, 7. iwtr- 
T^ ^tgavXag to a&fia ovx d(pwig,xal Ttip y/vxvv oi'x dytppu drdgH 


ioiniis- 8. 4, IS. iuyo{ zaVTtiv iqf xixrTiv. So &avfta<nit lo fii~ 
/t9o{, 10 xaXXof. The Eoglisli conunonly uses prepositions to ex- 
prees the force of thie Ace,, e. g. in, in resptd lo, of, or nheD ii Btuods with 
»B Hitjeclice, the Eagliah somctimeB changes tlie Acc> or lli? thing uilo a 
personal sulMtauIivB, und makes Uie adjective aa an attributive B,gTee with 
it, e. g. ayaSos fs/i'iji', « good artiit, conip. Eog. ht ia a good shot, i. c. 
maiimuin, or the pre|>osilious o/or unlh are placed before llie subslancivo 
denoting llie tiling, and tbo attributive adjective is made to agree niti) thai 
Bubstautive, e. g. ytarlag loilof ii)v V"/^') "/ °' ^^ " ^""'^ift'^ »ovl. 

Rem. 9. Sometimes tlie prepositions ws, nedr, xoiii are used witl> llie 
Ace., in whicli eaHe the relalioti is Biialogous to an Ace. uf fpace, denoting 
direction, au SiaTitjuy i\'i it, e. g. lU o^iiiiv. X. C. 3. 5, 1. dyioioiiga >} 
xoil>; tig Tii jiolt/iiKa taiai. ^'070$ nfot it. 

Rem. 10. From iIiIh uhc of the Ace, many adverbial expressions have 
originaled. Thus tiie expressions of measure, ivfoi, vifoi, [icp&oc, ^a9og, 
ltf,iios, itXii&of, ugi&fioy, also yivoc, oro/ta, fltQOg, jo trov iiifos, nQOfaair, 
under prtleaa, lu altjffis, yfiii/irif d/iiiy. Her. 6, 83. KXiurSfios fi r oi iuiy 
^lytiXiir; an 'jQiiaSiijs, 7, 109. Xlfiyrj iovou ivyxata lucii ipit|xoi-Ta ma- 
dim* rtjr ittijloSot, in rircum/ennce. }L Au.% 5, ]. fina jatTtt aifi- 
norto ini TUf Zaflaiop noiajior to tvfof if iruf Mr nkidfwv. 4. 2, 3. oi 
ftiv lnoi/lCorjo 10 alij&oi uig Si^x^'O^ MoTt-aver lovraftio*, Toranla, 
«n the contrary, juXXa, in rtsptd to other ihmgt, tu aXor, omniiio, ojiipoTfQa, 
lovio (toCto) (itf — loiTo {loDia) Si, oiSir, in 110 raptct, tJ, in somt raped, 
nolXa, nana, etc. To in' tfii, loJjt' tfii, laiml at, 10 tis tpf, qiienluni sd 
me (te^ 

^280. Two Accusatives. («*— »&) 

In the following instances ihe Greek puts two objcela in the 
Ace with one verb. 

1. In ihe construction mentioned above, § 278, 1, if the verb 
has a Iransilive sense, e. g. ^li^'ac ifthit, the idea consisting of 
a verb and subBtantive, with which an adjective usually agrees, 
being blended into one, at the same