Skip to main content

Full text of "Grammar of Greek language, for the use of high schools and colleges"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 


OCT 9 1940 

Ektbbkd, according to Act of Congress, in the year ISSi, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 
for the Southern District of New York. 


Raphael Kuiiner, the author of the following Grammar 
was bom at Gotha, in 1802. From 1812 to 1821, ha 
studied at the celebrated gymnasium in his native city. 
Among his classical teachers were Doring» Rost and Wiiste- 
mann. From 1821 to 1824, he enjoyed, at the University 
of Crottlngen, the instructions of Mitscherlich, Dissen and 
Ottfried Miiller. While there, he prepared an essay on 
the philosophical writings of Cicero, which received a 
prize. Since 1824, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum 
at Hanover. The principal works from the pen of Dr. 
Kiihner are the following : 

1. Versuch einer neuen Anordnung der griechischen Syntax, 

mit Beispielen begleitet 1829. <' Attempt towards a 
new Arrangement of the Greek Syntax," etc 

2. M. Tull. Ciceronis Tusculan. Disputationum libri. 1829 

ed. altera 1835 ; ed. tertia 1846. 

3. Sammtliche Anomalien dcs griechischen Verbs in Attisch. 

Dialecte, 1831. " Anomalies of the Greek Verb, etc. 

4. Ausftihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, in 2 

Theilen, 1834, 1835. " Copious Grammar of the Greek 
Language, in two Parts." The second Part of this 
grammar, containing the Syntax, translated by W. E. 
Jelf, of the University of Oxford, was published in 
1842; the first Part in 1845. A second edition of 
Jelf s translation of this work was published in 1851. 
This '^^i:k ia» however, only in part a translation, Mr. 


2- o- c^ 


Harvard CoUege 

By Exchange 

3 2044 102 849 031 








Dli. lUFfliHL KlJUNKlt, 










649 & 661 BROADWAY. 



Quantity and Accentuation . \ 45 

Second Declension 46 

Contraction ofthe second Dec. 47 
Attic second Declension .... 48 

Accentuation 49 

Remarks on Gender 50 

Third Declension 51 

Remarks on the Case-endings 52, 53 

raradigms 54 — 63 

Quantity 64 

Accentuation 65 

Gender 66 

Anomaloos Nouns 67, 68 

Defective Nouns 69 

Interchange of Forms in the 

Declensions 70 — 73 

I. Redundant Nouns 70 

II. Heteroclites 71 

III. Metaplasts 79 

Indeclinable and Defective 

Nouns 73 

CuAFT. IL — Thb AjxtbctiItb iKD Pabticiplb. 

Nature, Gender and Declension 74 

Accentuation 75 

Summary of the Adjective and 

Part. Endings 76 — 80 

I. Adjectives and Partici- 
ples of three Endings. . 76, 77 
IL Adjectives of two Endings 78, 79 
III. Adjectives of one Ending 80 

Comparison of Adjectives 81 

A. -rcpof, -rioa, -rtpov] •rorrot, 
-rdni, -rat wv 8S 

B. -ittif, 'WW^ -mVi -01' J -MFTOf, 1|, 

•oy 88 

Anomalous forms of Comparison. 84 
Comparison of Adverbs 85 

Chapt. III.^-The Pbonoun. 

Nature and Division of Pronouns 86 

L Personal Pronouns 87-90 

U. Demonstrative Pronouns 91 
III. Relative Pronouns 92 

IV. Indefinite and Interrogative 

Pronouns 98 

Correlative Pronouns 94 

Lengthening of the Pronoun 95 

Chapt. IV. — Thb Numebals. 

Natnre and Division of Numerals 96 I Principal classes of Numerals .... 98 
Numeral Signs 97 | Remarks on the Numerals 99 

' Chapt. V. — The Advbub. 

Natnre and Division of Adverbs 100 | Formation of Adverbs 


Chapt. VI.— The Vbrb. 

Nature and Division of the Verb 102 

Classes 102 

Tenses 103 

Modes 104 

Infinitive and Participle 105 

Persons and Numbers 106 

Conjugation of Verbs in -» 107 

Stem, Augment, Reduplication 

and Characteristic 108 

Inflection-endings 109 

a. Tense-characteristic and 

Tense-endings 1 10 

V. Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels Ill — 114 

Fall Paradigm of a Regular Verb 1 1 5 
Remarks on the Inflection-endings 116 
Remarks on the Formation of the 

Attic Future 117 

Accentuation of the Verb 118 

Further view of Aug. and Rcdup. 119 

(a) Svllabic Augment 120 

(b) Temporal Augment. . 121, 122 

Reduplicauon 123 

Attic Reduplication 124 

Aug. and Compounds 125-8 
Formation of the Tenses of Verbs 

in-« 127—167 

Division of Verbs in -•» according 

to the Characteristic 127 

Derivation of Tenses 128 

I. Formation of the Tenses of 

Pure Verbs 129 

a. With a short Characteristic- 

vowel 13C 

b. With 0* in Aor. Pass, and Perf. 

Mid. or Pass 181 



Pkndigms of Pare Verbs \ 132—137 

A. Uncontracted Fare Verbs.. 132 

(a) Withoat 0- in the Mid. or 

Pass. 132 

(b) With 0" in the Mid. and 

Pass 133 

B. Contract Pure Verbs... 134 — 136 
Remarks on contract yerbs... 137 

IL Formation of the Tenses of 

Impore Verbs 138 

Strengthening of the Stem 139 

Variation of the Stem-Towcl. ... 140 
Remarks on the Secondaiy Tenses 141 

A. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs 142—144 

Remariu on the Characteristic 143 
Paradigms of Mute Verbs 145—148 

B. Formation of the Tenses of 

Liquid Verbs 149 

Paradigms 1 50—153 

Peculiarities in the Formation of 

Single Verbs 154 

Snicope 155 

Metathesis 156 

Verbs in ••» with Stem of the Prcs. 

strengthened 157 

L Verbs with y inserted 158 

U. Verbs with the syllable yt 159 

IlL Verbs with &y or a<y 160 

IV. Verbs in -«'««, 'IvKm 161 

V. Verbs in -dw 162 

VL Verbs with Reduplication. 163 
VTL Verbs whose Pure Stem- 

Towelais strengthened by I 164 

VnL Verbs which assume c . . . . 165 
Verbs which assume an c in form> 

ing the Tenses 166 

VerM whose Tenses are formed 

from different Roots 167 

Coniogation of Verbs in -^ . . . . 1 68 
Division of Verbs in -pu 1 69 

Characteristic-vowel and Strength* 
ening of the Stem of the Prcs. 1 1 70 

Mode-vowels 171 

Personal-endines 172 

Formation of £he Tenses. . . 173, 174 

Paradigms 175 

Remarks on the Paradigms ..... 176 
Summary of Verbs in -/u. . 172 — 190 
1. Verbs in 'fu which annex the 
Personal-endings immediate- 
ly to the Stem- vowel 177 

(a)Verb8in-a 177 

^fd 178 

Deponents 179 

/b)VeAsin-f 180 

(c) Verb8:r-i:Er/u. — EIm^.. 181 
n. Verbs in -fu wht<^ annex tw 

or rv to the Stem- vowel . . 182 

Formation of the Tenses 182 

Summary of this class of Verbs 183 


A. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel 183—186 

(a) in -a 183 

(b)in-f 184 

(c) in-i 185 

(d)in-« 186 

B. Verbs whoso Stem ends in a 

Consonant 187,188 

(a) in a Mute 187 

(b) in a Liquid 188 

Liflection of jrciftai and fjuw 189, 190 

Verbs in -w analogous in Forma- 
tion to those in -fu . . 191 — 196 
L Second Aor. Act. and Mid- 
dle 191, 192 

II. Pcrf. and Plup. Act. . 193, 194 

OlBa and (otKa 195 

III. Present and Imperfect .... 1 96 
Summary of Deponent Passives. 197 
Summary of Active Verbs with a 
Mid. Fut. 198 

CoAPT. VII. — Prepositions, Cokjunctionb aitd Ixterjkctions 199 



Digamma or Labial Breathing F. 200 
Interchange of the Vowels ...... 201 

Interchange of the Consonants 202-204 

Change of the Vowels 205-207 

Contractioi, Diaeresis 205 

Crasis, Synizesis, Elision, N Par- 

agogic, Hiatus 206 

I^ingthcning and Shortening of 
the Vowels. — Sy ncope. — A po- 
eoyd . 207 

Prothcsis and Insertion of Vowels iOT 

Changes of Consonants 208 

Quantity 209 


Declensions 210* 214 

Homeric Suffix ^1 or ^w 210 

First Declension.... 211 

Second Declension 212 

Third Declension 213 

Anomalous and Defective 
Words. Mctaplasts 214 



The Adjectire §215 

Comparison 216 

Pronoans 217 

Kumerals 218 

The Verb 219-230 

Angment and Rednplication . . 219 
Personal-endings and Mode- 
rowels 220 

Epic and Ionic Iterative Form 1221 
Contraction and Besolntion in 
Verbs 222 

Formation of the Tenses . . . f 

Conjugation in -;u 224 

ElfU and ttfu 225, 226 

Verbs in -« with a Sec. Aor. an- 
alogous to Verbs in -;u . . . . 227 

Verbs in -« with a Perf. and 
FIup. Act like Verbs in -fu 22€ 

Verbs in -m with a Pres. and 
Impf. Act. like Verbs in -/a 229 

List of Dialectic Veite 290 


Badical Words, Stems^Derivatlves 231 

A. Deriration 232-235 

L Verbe*. 232 

IL Substantives 233 

in. Adjectives 234 

IV. Adverbs 235 

B. Componnds 236 

Formation of Compounds 237 


Chapt. L — Pabts of a Simple Sbntuncb. 

Nature of a Sentence. — Subject 
and Plicate 238 

Comparison. Attribute and Ob- 
ject 239 

Agreement 240 

Exceptions to the general rules of 
Agreement 241 

Agreement when there are several 
Subjects 242 

Remarks on Peculiarities in use of 
Number 243 

The Article 244 

Position of the Article 245 

Use of the Article with Pronouns 

and Numerals 246 

The Article as a Demon, and 
Rel. Pronoun 247 

Classes of Verbs 248 

A. Active form 249 

B. Middle 250 

C. Passive 251 

Remarks on Deponents 252 

Tenses and Modes 253 

A. Particular View of the Tenses 254 

(a) Principal tenses: Pres., 
Perf., Fut 25ft 

(b) Hist Tenses : Aor., Impf., 

Plup 256 

Tenses of the Subord. Modes 257 

B. Particular View of the Modes 258 
Use of the Subj.,Optand Imp. 259 

The Modes with ftr 260 

Position and Repetition of ip 251 

Chapt. IL — Attributive Constbuction. 

Ellipsis of the Substantive .... 263 
(a) Attributive Adjective .... 264 

(b) Attributive Genitive 

(c) Apposition 


Chapt. III. — Objective Constbuction. 

I. The Cases 268 

Nominative and Vocative . . . 269 
(1) Genitive 270 

A. Local Relation 271 

B. Causal Relation 272 

(a) Active Genitive 273 

(b) Causal Genitive 274 

(c) Gen. denoting mutual re- 
lations 275 

(2) Accusative 276 

A. Local Relation 277 

B. Causal Rehition 278 

(a) Ace. denoting effect . . . 278 

(b) Acc.of the Object on which 

the action is performed . 279 



Two AocnmtiTQi 1 Tl . . . f S80 
Bemarks on the Aecwith the 

Passive S81 

(3) Datire 282 

A.LocaI Dative 283 

B. Dative as a personal Object 284 

C Dative of the thing 285 

CL Constraction of Prepositions . 286 

(1) Prepositions with the Gen* 

onlv S 287, 288 

(2) With the Dative only .... 289 

(3) With the Accusative only . 290 

(4) With the Gen. and Ace 291-294 

(5) With the Gen., Dat. ana 

Ace. 295-299 

Remarks on pecnliarities of the 

Prepositions 300 

CHArr. lY. — The Pbovoux as Subject, Psbdicats, Attkiouts akd 


L Personal Pronouns 302 I Prospective and Retrospective 

IL Remaining Pronouns 308 | Use of the Pronoun 304 

Geaft. v. — The Ltfieititb avd I^abticiplb uf xd as ax Atteibutb 

AMD Object. 

A. The Infinitive 305 < 

(I) Inf. as an Object without 

the Article 306 

Nom., Gen., Dat and Ace 

with the Inf. 307 

(n) Inf. with the Article .... 308 

B. The Participle 309 

(I) The Part, as the Comple- 
ment of the Verb .... 310 

Remarks on the Inter- 
change of the Part and 

the Inf. 31 1 

(II) Part used to express Ad- 
yerbial Subordinate Re- 
lations 312 

Special Pecnliarities in the 
Participial Construction 313 

Chapt. yi — The Advebbzal Objectite. 

Btd 315 

B. Confirmative ^Adverbs 316 

C. Emphatic Snfilxes, 7/, irip^ roC 317 

D. Negative Particles 811 



Different Forms of Coordinate 

Sentences 320 

L Copulative Coordinate Sen- 
tences 321 

n. Adversative Coordinate Sen- 
tences 322 

nL Disjunctive Coordinate Sen- 
tences 323 

IV. Causal Coordinate Sen- 
tences 324 

Remarks on Asyndeton 325 


Principal and Subordinate Sen- 

tences 326 

Sequence of Subjunctive Tenses 

in Subordinate Sentences 327* 
Use of Modes in Subordinate 

Clauses 327b 

L Substantive Clauses 328 

A. Introduced bj 8ri or &s, that 329 

B. Introduced hj Ipa, ao thatj etc 330 
II. Adjective Clauses 331 

Agreement of the Rcl. Pron. . . 332 
Modes in Adjective Clauses . . 333 
Connection of several Ac^ective 

Clauses 33« 

Interchange of the Subordinate 

Clause with the Adj. Clause 334 
III. Adverbial Clauses 335 

A. Adverbial Clauses of Place 33b 

B. Adverbial Clauses of Time 337 

C. Causal Adv. Clauses . 338 — 34i7 



I. Denoting Gfoand or 

Cause § 338 

n. Denoting Condition 339, 340 
IJLL Denoting Consequence 
or £ffect 841 

D. Adverbial Clauses denoting 

Manner and Quantity 342, 343 
L Comparative Ady .Clauses 

denoting Manner 342 

IL Comparative Adv.Clauses 
denoting Quantity 343 

Chapt. IX. — Imte&booatits Sentences. 

I. Interrogatives 344 

IL Obli<|ue Discourse 345 

ni. Special Peculiarities in the 
Construction of Words and Sen- 
tences 346, 347 

Ellipsis, Brachylogy, Zeugma, 

Contraction, Tlconasm 346 

Anacoluthon 847 

Chaft. X. — Position of Wobdb 848 

Appendix A. — Versification Page 574 
Appendix B. Abbreviations 
in writing 587 

Index of Subjects Page 589 

Greek Index 60S 

Index for the Forms of Verbs 614 


Aesch. Aeschylus^ Ag. Agamemnon, S. Septem ado. Th. — Ar. ArislophaHet,-^' 
Dem. Demosthenes, 01. CHymh^ Ph. Philippe, Cor. Corona, Chers. Chersones^ Aph. 
Avhobus, — Eur. Euripides, M. Medea, C. Cvcfops, H. BeeubOy O. Orestes, H. F. 
aerades Furens, Hipp. Hippolytus. — Her. Herodotus, — Isae. Isaeiu.'^hyt. L^ 
sias. — PL Plato, Cr. Crito, h. Leges, Th. Tkeages, Men. Meno, Soph, bophista^ 
Crat. Cratjflus, Prot. Protagoras, Phil. Pkilebus, Rp. Respubiioa. — Soph. Soph^- 
diet, O. C Oedipus Coloneus, O. R. Oedipus ReXf Ant Antigoitk, Ph. Philodetes^ 
Aj. AjoXf ^* Plectra. — X. Xenophon, C. Commeniarii, An. AnabanSf H. Hetien- 
MO, S. f^m/wifiiiin, R. Ath. RespubUca Atheniau^ R. L. RespM. Laeedaem^ (X 
Oboonomicut, Ag. Agesilaus, R. Equ. 72. E^uestris. 



1. The Greek language was divided into many different 
dialects, the most highly cultivated of which were the 
/Eolic, Doric, Ionic, and Attic. The iEolic prevailed in 
Boeotia, Thessaly, and in the ^olian colonies in Asia 
Minor; the Doric, throughout the Peloponnesus, and in the 
Dorian colonies in Asia Minor, Italy, and Sicily ; the 
Ionic, in the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor ; the Attic, in 

2. The ^olic and Doric dialects are characterized by 
harshness and roughness, being the opposite of the Ionic, 
which is distinguished for delicacy and softness. The 
Attic dialect holds a beautiful medium between the two 
former and the Ionic, as it skilfully combines the soft and 
pleasant forms of the Ionic with the strong and full-toned 
forms of the Doric 

3. The Ionic dialect is divided into the Older and the 
Later Ionic The older Ionic is the language of Homv 
and of his school, although these poets were not satisfied 
wdth their own dialect merely, but were able, in accordance 
with the true principles of art, to select, from all the 
dialects, those fonns which corresponded to the nature of 
their poetry; and to employ — since the regular laws of 
versification had much influence in forming the language 


— a peculiar and definite poetic language, called the Epln, 
c»r Homeric. This had a great effect on the language of 
all the Greek poets even to the latest times. We find the 
later Ionic in the works of the historian Herodotus, born 
484 u. c, and of Hippocrates, b. 460 b. c. 

4. The Attic dialect is divided, in accordance with cer- 
tain peculiarities, into the Older, the Middle, and the Latei 
Attic. The older is used by Thucydides, b. 472 b. c. ; the 
tragic poets ; ^schylus, who died 456 b. c. ; Sophocles, 
b. 497 B. c, d. 405 b. c. ; Euripides, b. 480 b. c. ; and the 
more ancient comic writers, e. g. Aristophanes, d. 390 b. c. , 
by several orators, e. g. Antiphon, b. 479 b. c, and An* 
decides, b. 467 b. c. The middle Attic is used by Plato, 
b. 430 B. c. ; Xenophon, b. 447 b. c. ; and the orator Iso- 
crates, b. b. c. 436. The later Attic is employed by De- 
mosthenes, b. 385 B. c, and other orators, the later comic 
writers, and the prose authors in more recent times, who 
sought to preserve in their works the language of the earlier 

5. After the freedom of the Greeks had been destroyed 
by Philip, king of Macedon, the Airtic dialect came to be 
the common written language. As it extended, not only 
over all Greece, but also over the Macedonian provinces of 
Syria and Egypt, it lost much of its peculiar stamp by the 
introduction of foreign forms and words, and it then 
received the name of the (Common, or Hellenic language, 
17 icoi^vffy or 'EXkffvucti Sui\6KTo<;, It was used, e. g. by Apol- 
lodorus, Diodorus, and Plutarch. 






and Sounds 

1 of t:ic La]>guage 

M. Alp 


The CSieek Alphabet consists of twenty-four letteia 

























c short 

















































o short 












































c long 




Remark 1. Sigma at the end of a word takes the form s, e. g. vtto/Utf in 
most editions of the classics. This small s is also used in tlie middle of com- 
pound words, if the first part of the compound ends with Sigma, though such 
a usage is contrary to the authority of the manuscripts, e. g. xpos^4p» or 
rpocr^cpo*, Bvsyty^s or Bucyfi^s. 

Rem. 2. When a and r come together, both letters may be expressed by one 
choracier, r, Sti, or Stigma. 

Rem. 3. Besides their use as alphabetic characters, c and v were originally 
osed as mere marks of aspiration, the former for the spiritns asper (f 6), for which 
in the earliest times H waa also employed, the latter for the Digamma (f 25; ; 
hence, as letters, they were called, in opposition to their use as aspirates, I ^iX^r 
and d^iXdy, L e. unaspirated. Omicron and Omega (small and large o) derive 
their name from their relative size. 

Rem. 4. The principle on which most of the inters of the Greek alphabet 
are named, is entirely different from that adopted in this country and among 
the European nations, at the present day. We name each letter by the sound 
It represents, as a, 6, c, adding a vowel to the consonants in order to vocalize 
them. But among the Orientals, from whom the Greek alphabet was derived, 
the name was not determined by the sound of the letter. They gave their 
letters the name of some familiar object, the first sound or syllable of which 
was the alphabetic character to be represented. For example, the Phoenicians 
and Hebrews called the first letter of the alphabet Aleph (Greek Alpha), which 
means an or .* now the first sound or syllable of Aleph is the character or 
element to be represented. The second letter was Beth (Greek Beta), a Aoum, 
the first sound of which is the character to be represented. The third is Gimel 
( Greek Gamma), a camel. This mode of naming letters, undoubtedly originated 
from the custom of designating those letters by the picture of the object from 
wliich they derived the name, instead of by the characters now used. Thus 
Aleph was represented by the picture of an ox, Beth by that of a house, etc 

k 2a. Sounds of particular Letters, 

The sound of the letters is indicated by the Roman characters opposite to 

them. The following remarks on particular letters are all that is needed in 

addition : — 

Remark. The sounds given to the following letters are those more usually 
adopted in pronouncing the Greek in New England; but the usage is not 
CLitiroly uniform. 

A has the sound of a in fan, when it is follDwed by a consonant in the same 
syllable, e. g. x«^-«^y; the sound of a in fate, when it stands before a single 
consonant which is followed by two vowels, the first of which is c or i, e. g. 
hfcurrdfftm, erpmi^^s; also, when it forms a syllable by itself, or ends o 
syllable not final, e. g. fity-d-Kri^ <rTpa-v6s] it has the sound of a in father, when 
it is followed by a single p, in the same syllable, and also when it ends a word: 
but a final in monosyllables has the sound of a in fate, e. g. Bdfhfiorpos, y^ 


7, before 7* ir, x* ^^^ l> ^^ ^^^ sound of ng in oit^/^, or nasal n in anci«, c. g 
fryTcXtff, cmg-g'hs ; KXayy^f clangor ; *Ayx(tniSt Anchiaes (Angchiaes) ; ovyfc^mri 
syncope ; xdpvy^, larynx, y beforo vowels alwajs has the hard sound, like g in 
gel ; also before consonants, except 7, k, x» {» c. g. 7^yar. 

c has the sound of short e in met, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same sjUable, e. g. ijJrf^a^ firr-d ] the sound of long e in me, when it ends • 
word or a syllable, or when it forms a syllable by itself, e. g. 71, ;^^-«, /SonA- 

If has the sound of « in me, e. g. /aof^. 

d has the sound of lA in thick, e. g. ^dtwros, 

I has the sound of t in mine, when it ends a word or syllable, or fomu a 
s/Uable by itself, e. g. iXtrt-e-i^ 9n, «c9-(-of; the sound of 1 in pin, when it li 
followed by a consonant in the same syllable, e. g. xptV, Kiy^vyou 

K always has the hard sound of k, and was expressed in Latin by c, e. g^ 
KtXucta, aiida; Khcpcnpf Cecropa; Kuc4p»y, Cicero, 

I, at the beginning of a word or syllable, has the sound of z, e. g. l^yos] else- 
where, the sound of x, e. g. 9ia{^w, vpS^if , &»«{. 

has the sound of short o in not, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
Hune syllable, e. g. \6y-os, Kv-pos ; the sound of long o in go, when it ends a 
word or syllable, or forms a syllable by itself, e. g. t6, M, ;^o-^f , ro^-^-nyf . 

^ has the sharp sound of s in son ; except it stands before ft, in the middle 
of a word, or at the end of a word after t; or «, where it has the sound of z, 
e.g. v)nHy» rifufffjuiLj 7>|i, Kd\»s] before 1 it does not have the sound of wh, as in 
Latin, but retains its simple sound, e. g. "Aata ^A-si-a, not A-ahi-a. 

r followed by i has its simple sound, never the sound of sh, as in Latin, e. g. 
T^karta =■ Galati-a, not Galashi-a ; Kpvrtas ^Kriti'Os, not Kriahi-aa ; A}y(nmot, 

V has the sound of m in tidip, c. g. r^x^ ; but beforo p the sound of ti in pvre^ 
e. g. ir^p, yiipvpa. 

X has the hard sound of ch in chasm, e. g. rax^f • 

fl» has the sound of long o in note, e. g. iyw» 

i 2b. Brief history of the Alphabet, 

1. The Greeks derived most of their alphabet from the Phcenicians. Ac- 
oording to the common tradition, letters were brought into Greece by Cadmus, 
a Phoenician. The Phoenician alphabet, being nearly the same as the Hebrew, 
consisted of 22 letters, the names of which are, Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, 
He, Tan, Zain, Heth, Teth, Jod, Kaph, Lamed, Mim, Nun, Samech, Gin, Pe, 
Tsade, Koph, Rcsch, Schin, Thau. Van, the 6th letter of the Phoenician 
alphabet, was rejected by the Greeks as an alphabetic character, and used only 
as the numeral sign for 6. Koph (Greek Koppa), the 19th letter of the Phoe- 
uician alphabet, was abo rejected, because its sound so nearly resembled that 
of Kaph (Greek Kappa), and was nscd as the numeral sign for 100. Zain 
and Tsade were modifications '^^ the same sound ; Tsade. like the Greek Zeta. 

18 - ORGANS OF SPEECH. [) 2l 

repreaenCfl the sound of both, and takes the place of Zain, becoming the 6th 
letter of the Greek alphaheti while Zain (Greek San, Sampi), was rejected as an 
alphabetir character, and used as a numerical sig:n for 900. Thus 19 letters of 
the Phoenician alphabet were adopted by the Greeks, as alphabetic characters. 
These are the first 19 letters of the present alphabet. To these the Greeks 
themselves added the five last letters of the alphabet, viz., v, ^, Xi ^» *• '^^ 
seems to be the most rational view of the formation of the Greek alphabet, 
though somewhat different from the common legendary account, which repre- 
sents Cadmus as bringing only 16 letters into Greece, viz., «, jS, 7, 9, «, <, «>, A, 

^ F, O, «, P, 0-, T, V, 

2. The alphabet was not brought at once into its present complete form. 
The old Attic alphabet contained but 21 letters. H was considered merely aa 
a breathing, and the place of i| and « was supplied by c and e, and that of ^ 
and ( by «2 and X2, e. g. AIBEP (a2%), EXaPON {ix^y), «2TXAI l^uxal), 
XXTN (l^y). The alphabet is said to have been completed in the time of the 
Persian war, by Simonides, who added B, V, and A, and changed the breathing 
H, to the long vowel n. The lonians first adopted the present full alphabet 
of 24 letters, and by them it was communicated to the Athenians. This full 
alphabet was first used in Attic inscriptions in the archonship of Euclidcs, 
B.C. 403, before this period only the old Attic alphabet is found in Attic 

8. The early Greeks used the capital letters exclusively, and left no spaces 
between the words, e. g. M£TAA£TOrrON£in£X£IPao*ca, I t,p^it ik rod- 
rov cTre Xttpiao^, The cursive, or small character, was not introduced till 
very late. A document has been found in Egypt written in the cursive char- 
acter, 104 B. c. But cursive writing was not in general use till long after that 
time. It is first found in manuscripts in the eighth century. 

4. The early Greeks commonly wrote in the Oriental manner, i. e. from 
right to left, as may be seen in several inscriptions. Other inscriptions, how- 
ever, of equal antiquity, arc written from left to right, proving that both modes 
were in use. A third method was from left to right and right to left alternate- 
ly. This was called /Sovorpo^ijMir, because it resembled the turning about of 
oxen in ploughing. Solon*s laws were written in this way. But in the time cf 
Herodotus, the Greeks wrote only from left to right. 

{3. Organs of Speech. 

1. The organs of speech, used in forming or articulating 
w^ords, are the palate, the throat, the tongue, and the lips. 

2. The sounds which are emitted almost without any action 
uf tlie throat, tongue, and lips, and which proceed in the freest 
manner from the breast, axe called Vowels; the rest, Conso- 

)4.] VOWELS. 19 

♦ 4. Vowels. 

1. The Greek has seven vowels, a, i, v, which may be 
long or short, € and o, which are always short, 17 and to 
which are always long. The character C) over one of the 
vowels a, i, v, shows that the vowel is short ; {") that it is 
long ; {') that it may be either long or short, e. g. a, a, a. 

Rmmabt 1 % 4, and v are called the principal Towol8,,bocaaaB tiiejr denote 
the principal eonnds; the other Towela are called sabordinate, becanae their 
sonnds are the intermediates of the principal sounds. Thus, the sound of c is 
intermediate between a and 1, the sound of • is intermediate between a and v ; 
i| is produced by lengthening c or a, « by lengthening 0. The relation of these 
Towels may be illustrated by the following diagram : — 


2« When two vowels are so combined as to form but 
one sonnd, the sonnd so produced is called a diphthong. 
When both the vowels are soimded, the diphthong is called 
proper ; when only one, improper. 

3. The Greek diphthongs originate from the union of the 
vowels a, €> o, v, 17, », with the vowels t and v, thus: — 

a 4" ' =" cUf pronounced like at in aisU^ e. g. ol^, 

a 4. V » ov, " « 

, 4- « = «, " " 

v + v^nvf } 

o 4. , = «, " " 

o + y=iay, « " 

v + i^m, " 

fl» -4- V » yv, (only Ionic,) " *' 

proper diphthongs, f, p, y (i. e. a+ 1, if + 1, » + 1) ; 

Rem. S. The pronunciation of the diphthongs f, p, y is the same as that of 
the simple rowels a, if, 0, though the ancient Greeks probably gave the 1 a 
slight sound after the other Yowel. 

Bex. 3. With capital 'letters, the Iota subscript of f, p , y, is placed in a 
line with the vowels, but is not pronounced, e. g. Tfil KAAai» r^ trnKf^ rf 
AiSp, but |8]7. 

ati in Ittudj " 


«i in tUighti " 


eum feudal, '* 

ivKwaa, nH^y* 

oi in oil, " 


oti in sound, " 


whi in wMne, " 


ott in sound, '* 

mMs; also the im 

-•.-+•); " 

oi<na4t «^/>»f rp» ff 

20 VOWELS. [♦ 4. 

Rex. 4. The Iota subscript, which in tho most floorishiDg period of the 
Greek language was always pronounced, at length became a silent letter, and 
was either omitted in writing, or was written under the vowel to which it 
belonged. It was first written under the vowel in the thirteenth centoiy. 

Hem. 5. The foUovring examples will show how the Romans sounded th^ 
diphthongs: oi is expressed by the diphthong oc, ci by I and i, ot by oe, ov by h 
V was generally expressed by y, e. g. 

♦cuSpof , Phaedms ; ESyws, Eums; epfxcf, Thraces; 

rAovfcof, Glancus; Boutrtoj Beeotia; Syi^o'o'a, Thressa; 

NciXof , Nf lus ; Movcoy MOsa ; rpayf^f , tragoedni ; 

Aviccibr, Lycfiuqi; Ei\c£^ia, Ilithyia; Kupott Cjfrm. 

In words adopted later, the Romans expressed y by o, as 4>Ht ode. 

Rem. 6. When two vowels, which would regularly form a diphthong, are tr 
1)0 pronounced separately, it is indicated by two points, called Diaeresis^ placet 
over the second vowel (h v), e. g. €u96t, for cu8o7, its^ Aiynvos. If the acute 
accent is on the i or v, it is placed between the points ; if the circumflex, over 
them, as ktBiis, ^cXtf 8f, irpoAs. 

Rem. 7. The pronunciation given under f 2a, as well as that given to the 
diphthongs above, is the one more generally adopted in New England. The 
original pronnnciar.;n of the Greek is lost. It is, therefore^ the commoa cus- 
tom for scholars (in each country) to pronounce it accoixling to the analogy of 
their own language. Tliis is the method proposed by Erasmus in the sixteenth 
century, and is generally adopted in Europe at the present day. The pronun- 
ciation defended by Reuchlin ' in the same century, corresponds nearly with 
the modem Greek. 

* For tho benefit of those who may wish to compare the two modes, the fol- 
lowing explanation of the Reuchlinian is extracted from the Greek Grammar 
of Sophocles : " A is pronounced like a in faiker^far, /9, 7, 8, like 6, g hard, 
d; in later times, like Romaic /9, 7, 8. Before x, 7, x> (> 7 ^^ ^^ sound of 
n<7 in hang. c. like Romaic c, or Italian e. C ^i^c 2, but stronger. 17, like French 
^, as in f^te. ^^ like th in f/im, ether, saith. t, like i in machine. «, like it. 
\, ft, like /, m, respectively, v, like n. At the end of a word it was often pro- 
nounced and written as if it were a part of the next word. |, in the Attic 
dialect, like (f ; in the other dialects, like ks. In later times, the sound ks pre- 
vailed, o, like Romaic 0, or Italian o. «-, like p. p, like r. At the begin- 
ning of a word it was rolled; when it was doubled, only the second one was 
rolled. It was rolled, also, after ^^ ^, x* ^''t ^^^^ ' ^^ ^fi% P^- Before u, it 
was, in later times, sounded like (, and even changed into ( in writing ; as 
Ziitpvoy for 2/i^pya, in an inscription, r, like t in tdl^ strong, t, like French ti. 
^, likoyi bnt stron/icr. x» ^^^^ Romaic x» German cA, or Spanish j {x). 4'» in 
the Attic dialect, like ^s ; in the other dialects, like irf. In later times, the 
sound Ts prevailed, w, like o in note, nearly. When a consonant was doubled 
in writing, it was doubled also in pronunciation. During the most flourishing 
period of the language, both the vowels of a diphthong were distinctly heard 



f 5. Consonants. 

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the dif* 
fereiit organs of speech, by which they are formed, into — 

Palatals, ^ fcy^ 
Linguals, Zr^vXp a. 
Labials, fi w ^ fjk 

Hemabk 1. The consonants, which are prodaced bj the same oigan of 
speech, are called cognate consonants ; thus 7, ic, x ^i^ cognate consonants. 

2. Consonants are divided again, according to the greater 
or the less influence of the organs of speech in their forma- 
tion, into breathings, liquids, and mutes. 

(a) The Breathings form a kind of transition from the 
vowels to the consonants. There are three breath- 
ings : the lingual o*; the Spiritus Asper ('), correspond- 
ing to our A (§ 6) ; and the labial F (Digamma) ; on 
the last, see the remarks npon the Dialects. 

(b) The Liquids, \ fAP p, are so called, because they easily 
coalesce with the other consonants. 

Rem. 2. The Breathings and Lianids are also included under the commo.i 
name of scmivoweiSf forming a klna of transition to the full vowels. 

During the brazen ago, and probably during the latter part of the silver age, 
the diphthongs au, ci, ov, had each the power of a single vowel, oi, like ai in 
(lule; in latei^ times, like if, or French 6 ; during the latter part of the brazen 
age, like c. ow, like cu in our^ house ; in later times, like ov, af, «, like et in 
frtighi^ nearly ; in later times, like c. During the silver and brazen ages, € was 
often prefixed to 1 long, merely to mark its quantity ; as «rf»c(iw, rcaroi, rcift^o-ou. 
And when quantity began to be disregarded, even short 1 was represented by 
fli; as El^r^pof, tXaoK^A:n\%^ Tvftvotf'ffiapxVcv* <v, like eAnio rapidly pro- 
nounced ; in later times, like eo^ ef. 01, like oi in ot7, nearly. «v, like oil-00 
rapidly pronounced ; in later times, like oo in moon^ or like French on, Italian u. 
When the Boeotians used ov for v, they pronounced it long or short, according 
as the original v was long or short ; thus, in offSwp, aa^Vy it was short, like 00 in 
hook; in oi^Xi}, a<rovX/a, long, like 00 in moon, m, like trt in twist ; di, like vohi in 
whip; in later times, like v. As to the diphthongs f, p, y, dv, i;v, »Uy they 
differed from oi, €«, 01, au, «>, ov only in the prolongjition of the first voi»el. 
In later times, f, p, y were pronounced like d, ij, w, rcspeeiively.*' — Tb 





(c) The Mutes are fonned by the stiougest exertion of the 
organs of speech ; they are, /SyB^KTrrf^x* 

3. The Mutes are divided, 

(a) According to the organ of speech used in pronouncing 
them, into three Palatals, three linguals, and three 
Labials ; 

(b) According to their names, .nto turee Kappa, three 
Tau, and three Pi-mutes ; 

(c) According to the force of articulation, into three smooth, 
three medial, and three rough Mutes. 

Rbm. 3. ^ Hence each of the nine mutes may \ye considered in a threefold 
point of view, e. e, y may be called a palatal, a kappA-mute, or a medial, ac- 
cording as we wish to bring into view tne oi^gan by which it is pronounced, its 
name, or the force of articulation, a medial mute requiring less force to artica« 
bte it than a rough mute. 


















Hex. 4. The consonants, which are produced by the same effort of the 
organs, arc called coordinate, e. g. the smooth mutes, k, x, r, »rc coordinate. 

4. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the Breath- 
ing <r, three double consonants originate, — 

1^ from vv^^t^ 'T^ (»»')» X^»4 {^)^ KoeriiXv^ (^), # 

t from M fr x*"* " «^/w^ («^)» ^^ (t^)* **^ (X')» 

f is not, like ^ and (, to be regarded as a sound compounded of two cod- 
* sonants, but as a soft hissing sound, to be pronounced like a soft a. 
Only in the adverbs in {«, is f to be considered as composed of ^, e. g. 
*AM|ni{c instead of 'Ad^yatSc; also, f^^ (c2oie), for /3^9i|i' (from fUn4m^ 
to 8U)p^ Ferf. fi40wiMu). It may be regarded, perhaps, as a transposition 
of sounds, as when the .^lolic and Doric dialects use, in the middle ot 
a word, trB instead of C> o* S- ^XiffVcrcu for fuXt{rrau 

i 6. Breathings. 
1. Every word beginning with a vowel has a smooth or 
a rough Breathing; the former (Spiritus Lcnis) is indi- 


H 7, 8.J HIATUS. 23 

cated by the mark ( ' ) ; the latter (Spiritus Asper) by the 
mark ( ' ). The rough breathing answers to the English 
and L^tin A, e. g. taropla, historta^ history. The smooth 
breathing is connected with every vowel which has not th«> 
rongh; but the smooth has no influence on the pronuncia> 
tion, e. g. ^AwoXKjuv, Apollo, 

Ttttwtmt 1 . With diphthongs, the breathing u placed oTer the second yowel, 
e. g. oUsf Misf tArUuu Bat when the improper diphthongs, f, p, 9», are capital 
lettexB, the broathing ia placed over the first rowel, aa these three diphthongs 
«e regarded, to a certain extent, as simple Towels, e. g. "AiS^f (|9vs) ; ^H<t^XU 

Buf. 2. Originally, the Greeks had no mark for the smooth breathing. The 
loogh breathing was at first denoted bj E or H. Bat when H came to be used 
as a Towel, Aristophanes of BTzantinm, about 200 years b. c, divided it into 
two characters !■ and i, the former as the sign of the rough breathing, the 
latter of the smooth. Later, these became (') and ( ),andatlast (')and ('). 

Rbm. 3. The liquid p at the beginning of words has the rough breathing, 
e. g. fdfi^. When two p*s come together, the first has the smooth breathing, 
the last the rongh, e.g. U^ffos^ Fyrriius; but some editors omit both l»eath« 
ings, e. g. n^yijpar. 

Bbm. 4. At the beginnuig of a word, v always has the roqgh breathing, 
eacept in the JSolic dialect 


i 7. General Remark, 

Both the vowels and consonants are subject to a variety of 
changes. These changes result from the tendency of the 
language to euphony, from their grammatical significance, and 
from the diJOTerence of dialects. The last will be considered 
in treating of the Dialects. 

I. Changes of the Vowbls. 

i 8. Hiatus. 

The concurrence of two vowels in two successive sylla- 
bles or words, occasions a harshness in the pronunciation! 



called Hiatus. This is avoided by Contraction, Crasis, 
Synizesis, and EUsion. 

Kexark 1. The poets, particularly the Attic, were decidedly averse to the 
Hiatus of two vowels in two successive words ; among the prose^writen, the 
orators sought most carefully to avoid it 

Rem. 2. In the Iambuses of the traeic poets, the Hiatus is allowed in the 
interrogative rts what 9 e.g. ft oiy ; rl cTircf ; among the comic poets, its use is 
mostly confined to r(, 5ri, irepf, 2, e.g. 9ri is, Zri ovxU *'<pi ^/t^r, also in oud4 
(Aii)8i) €Ts (ly), ne unus quidem^ to distinguish it from oiiSetst mmus. In addition 
to its use ;n the Iambic measure, the Hiatus is found frequently, even in the 
Tragedians, who endeavored to avoid it when possible ; still, it is mostly limited 
to special cases ; for example, it occurs with inteijections and iknperatrres, e. g. 
Z^yatj tiva {up I), H^i, as t^t, l&i ftot iraU^f Soph. Ph. 832; iJJC Sm, i^ 4^ 
ymy, Aj. 194. On the Hiatus in the Epic dialect, see | 200. 

i 9. A. Contraction of Vowels. 

Contraction is the union of two successive vowels in the 
same word into one long syllable. These contractions arise 
either from the natural coalescence of two successive vowels, 
in accordance with the laws of euphony, or from grammatical 
principles. The first kind of contractions is called euphonic» 
the latter, grammatical In the Common language, the follow- 
ing contractions occur:'— 

L En 

phonic Contractions. 

(a) a + a 

s» a 

as* adkaa^ o-cAA 

• +• 

= Ci 

'^ ^IXcc » ^^ei (Comp. No. IL) 

« +' 

= 4 

" fSpTU a=s ir6pri 


S3 OV 

** w6os = tfOVf 

(b) a + * 



•* rifUM =» rl/ta 



" y^lpoX =* y^fxf 


=» m 

" rifido/Aty s TifcMficy 

a 4" c* 
a +p 



" radius B rififf 
" Tulips = rififi 

a + o« 

= y 

** TlfidoifU ss flfl^fU 

a -}- eu 

Bs w 

^* Tifjidov s» r</i£ 

(c) . + « 

= n 

" Tcfx** = T«ix»» (Comp.»aIL) 


= d 

" xo<« = X»« 

. +• 

= CI 

" T€(x«« = T*OC** 


= ov 

" ^i\4ofx«y Bx ^iXov/icy 



= «(v) 

" ^i^^w » ^iX«, d<rT^ B irrf 

f + eu 


" rvTTtai — rvTTjj 




• +« 

ca M 

as: ^^»» ^iXmi 



" ^^J = ^iA|,f 


ss 01 

'* fiA^oii » ^iAo«f 

1 +W 

*s OV 

** flX^:=^l\oO 




** <A^M»«A^M 



•• e^tS^o-a =• e^eam 



** r^^if « rv<pf 


. +- 

= r 

" •w6prua = v^Zr 

1 +« 

" w6pTus « ir^fs 


• +« 

=s » 

*' ' flOSifa = a2» (Comp. No. n.) 


= OV 

** fUffdoM s fiiUr^ov 


SB « 

" /ua^^nTM = /ur^&T9 

• +• 

=» OC 

*« a;a<(7»o;8o« 


= -(»-) 

" fU(r3^ — fuo^lM, tX^ -b vAf 


B Ol 

" &rA^ s iarXM 


" /ue^i ^ fAitr^oI (Comp. RcolS.) 


— 01 

^* /iur^6y s= fuff^ 


** luffb6oiiu = fjMr^ifti 


=3 OV 

** fiur^6ovffi = fuff^vvi 



" 2x^^^ = «X*5j 


= V 

" Ix;^ft«/X35f 


" Sctiry^ai =» Sfuy&rai (rarely) 


» + « 

ss « 

" 4)pcMi = iifw (onlr in Ace. of soma Sab. of 


=« V 

** A^toTOf » ?uf<rros. [Sd 1>6C 

Rbxaxk 1. The abore contractions take place in accordance with the fol- 
lowing piindples: (1) Both vowels are retained and form a diphUiong, e. g. 
Tf (x<7 =■ ^c^X'^ aA^7 » a28or. (2) Both rowels coalesce into a coenate long 
▼owel or diphthong, e. g. rtfAdotiw » rifaAfitr, atB6a » oiiA. (3) A snort vowd 
is absorbed bj a diphthong or long vowel preceding or following it ; e. g. 
fiA^ = ftKStf ^iA/ov « ^(Aov, ^A^co-o-a =» ^A^o'o'a. (4) The short vowels, «, i, 
V* absorb the following vowel and become long ; e. g. Hutu b ri^A^ Ix^^ » 
Jfxdvf. (5) A short vowel coalesces with the first vowel of a diphthong, ac- 
cording to the preceding principles ; when the second vowel is t, it is subscribed 
with a, 71, fl», bat if it is any other vowel it is dropped ; e. g. ri^f » ri^s, 

n. Grammatical Contractions. 
(ii) € + € ^ iif particularly in the third Dec, e. g. rptiptt » rpt^, y4yt9 

(b| f 4* fl *^ & ^^ ^® second Dec, e. g. 2<rr/a »» iara^ xp^*^ '^ XP^*^ 

(Fl.), and elsewhere, if a vowel precedes, e. g. IlfpucAZ-ca »- 
ncpucA^d, irA/'ca » KA/d, ^i-^ » ^m ; in the Ace PL 
Fem. of Adjectives in -cof , '4a, -wt^, e. g. xpw^-as » xp*'^<^i 
finally, in the Fem. of Adjectives in -cot, -4a, -tw, wlien 
these endings are preceded by a vowel or p, e. g. ip4-fos, 
9'4m, 4'foy = fptovs, ipta, iptow, hpyiptot, 4a, coy =» oift» 
«« ovr. 

ZO CRASI8. [i 10 

• ^^ « "= ^ in the Fem. Sing, of adjcctiTos in -cot, not preceded bj • 

Yowel or p; e. g. j(jnw4a = x^^> XP**^^"* *= XP***^*- 
ff ^^ * ^ « ii^ AccnsatiYes PL in car of third Dec, e. g. tr«up4ta = o-a 
^«i ; 80 v^Xcis, v4x<*^f ^7X^^c<'f ^Ta x6\€as, etc. 
(<!)• + A ^^ a in AdjectiTes in Us^ Atif iov^ e. g. oirA^ » orAiL 

• + If s If in Adjectives in ^, ^, ^y, e. g. oirA^ » avX^. 

+ a = ov in AccnsatiTe PL of fiws ; so also ful(oas =^ /ul(ovst ani 
the like. 

Rem. 2. The contraction of oct into ov i; fonnd only in the Inf. Act of 
fcrbs in ^, and is accounted for from the fact- that the Inf. originally ended in 
ly, not in ciy (consequently, not fuffS^tiy b futr^Wf bat itmlUw » ;u0';^aur), 
and in adjectives in 6tis^ e. g. 'Ov^cis b 'Orovf , in which the root ends in ocrr, 
and consequently the i does not belong to the root. On the accentuation of 
contract forms, see f SO. 

Rem. 3. The Tragic poets sometimes neglect the contractions on account 
of the measure, yet only in the lyric and anapestic passages, not written in the 
pure Attic dialect, e. g. ira\/«, Aesch. Ag. 147 ; Tpo/i4my, Prom. 642 ; yc^rcof, 
Sept. 936; crco, Soph. OC. 182; titpii, Trach. 114. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes the grammatical importance of the ending, or the form 
of the nominative, prevents the usual contraction, especially if the ending 
would thereby become doubtful. 

i 10. B. Crasts. 

1. Crasis (/epoo-t?) is the coalescence of the final and 
initial vowels of two successive words into one long sylla- 
ble, c. g. TO ivofia=Tovuofia, to e7ro9=To57ro9. 

Remask 1. The mark of Crasis is the same as that of the Spiritpi 
Lenis ( ' ), and is named Coronis. It is placed over the vowel or diphthong 
formed by Crasis, but is omitted when the word begins with a vowel or diph- 
thong so formed, because it would then coincide with the Spiritns Lems, e. g. 
rk iiryai^ =» rATodi ; & Ky = A' ; 2 ta^fttun » #ydp«irf . On the accentuation, 
see i 31, n; on the change of the smooth Mute into the rough before the 
Spiritus Aspcr, as r^ V^ = ^fS^, see 4 below, and f 17, Rem. 3. 

2. Crasis is found only with closely connected words, the first 
of which is unimportant; hence it most frequently occurs, (a) 
with the article, e. g. 6 diojp = m^ rov ai^pi^ = r&i^fioi ; — (b) 
frequently with icat and the interjection ^ e. g. koI dper^ = jcdpcnj, 
2) SySptam = aiy^ponrc, & dya^^ = djyaSit Z apa$ ss Zivai ; — (c) some- 
what oflen in ^a> with olha and oT/iac, e. g. cy^&i, cy^yuu; — 
(d) less oflen with the neuter relative o and a, as d jy«S, & ^=3 
ovycu, dyw; with to4 ftevroi, ovtoi, particularly in connection 



with &% Spa, e. g. ray (seldom in prose), fumyi rSpa and oMlpa 
(poetic) ; but seldom with vpo, e. g. irpovfryov for vp6 tpycv ; fre- 
quently in composition with the augment c, as vpov&oica. 

3. As the second word is the most important, it has properly 
a greater influence on the form of the Crasis, than the first ; on 
this principle it is to be explained, that the Iota subscript is 
used only when the i belongs to the last of the two vowels, 
e. g. Kol clra = KfTOf iyta otSa =: iyif8a ; on the contrary, KOi lirci- 

4. When Crasis occurs with the article, and an a follows, the 
vowels of the article — even au and « - - are combined with the 
following a into a long a, and, if the article is aspirated, the 
aspirate is transferred to the long a, e. g. o amip = aviip, oi av^cs 
= SvSpt^y TO 6XqSis = rdXiqSiif ra aXXa = rlAAo, rov ivSpo^ =s rdvSpof, 
rf ay2|pi = r6»8pC', also, rov avrov =» Totnrov, rf aiW^ = ravr^ 

Rkk. 2. Also the forms of the ftrticlc ending in a, o, ov, », 9^, 01, ai, among 
the Attic poets, combine with the first vowel of trtpos (Doric tfrcpof], and 
form long a; when the second word has the aspirate, as here, the preceding 
smooth mute mnst be changed into the cognate rough; see also § 17, Rem. 3 

rk rrtpa =» ^&rc/Mt 6 tT€pot » Srtpos rov kripov =» bieripov 

ry Mp^ 3a bier4p^ 9I rrc/wx »» Sr€po$ td Ircpcu s Srtpeu 

5. In Crasis, cu of the particle koi coalesces with the follow- 
ing vowel, the a being sometimes retained and sometimes 
absorbed, e. g. jcoi ixuvo^ = KoxtCvo^f koI ay = Kay, fcoi iy = K^y, koX 
iyta = icdyio [koI d = K€l, koI ck ^^ iccl;, poetic], koX ^XSoy = i^XSov 
[tal ov = Kov, Kol ev&ufuuv = JccuSflUfuov, poetic]. 

J n*. Summary 0/ the most common instances of 


(a) The following cases conform to the rules of contractiov 
given in ♦ 9 : — 

(b) The following instances belong to Crasis only : — 

c -|- V B ov as: T^ 88wf> = i^nt^p (\ 17, Hem. 3.) 

• + ow == a» " T^ mn6 = rovrrf 

• + OI «= ^ ^ ofrtoi' =s rf rior 

28 STNIZESI8. BLISIOlt. [H 12, 13 

• -f- 01 S3 y as : 4 obfot » fpos 

» + 1 = II " T^ iifjJrtpoy = ^iiirtpov (^ 17, Rem. 3.) 

01 + a = o ** iiirroi Ky =» /upt&p 

oi + < ^ ov " o-o/ ^0Tiy » ffoZmiff fwi HSku » /loMtfirci (both poedc. 

oif + f = ov ** Tw Horuf = voSoTiy 

ov ^ B Otf " roS hvifueros :» roM/iotTos 

•w + w = ow " Tov 58arof =* ^(^Soros (§ 17, Rem. 3.) 

H +11 =11 " Tf Wp» =• ^A*^p? (§17, Rem. 3.) 
» -f- 01 ss f *( fjrjii o78a => #7J8a 

ov + 17 =s q ** rov j^/tcr/pov » ;^/tcr/pov, poetic (^7, Rem. 8.) 

ov + ov =3 ov " rov ohpaiHW =» robpcawf 

(c) Here belong the examples given under MO, 4 and 5. 

} 12. C. Synizesis. 

1. Synizesis is the contraction in pronunciation of two 
vowels into one syllable, e. g. when fii^ ov is pronounced aa 
a monosyllable. It can occur only among the poets, but 
may have been used in the common colloquial language. 

Rehabk. The difference between Contraction and Synizesis is, that in the 
ordinary Contraction and also in Crasis, the contraction is made in writing, 
c. g. ^iXm from ^t\4», rolpayov from rod abpoyoZ ; bat in Synizesis, it is made 
only in the pronunciation, both vowels or diphthongs being written ont in fnlL 

2. In the Attic poets, Synizesis occurs almost exclusively 
between two words, viz., with hru, 4 9> M* followed by ci, ov, a, 
oi, e. g. hrii ov, ^ ov5c/9 (dissyllable), /i^ o^ (monosyllable), |L^ 
oAAoft, lyu) ov (dissyllabje), and ^ c^u S. Ph. 577 ; also^ in a 
few single words and forms, e. g. '^coi {=^^oi, monosyllable), 
cctf/xuca (=a|paicay trissyUable), ayetayfilvoi (ssfbu^ficras^ four sylla- 
bles), particularly in the Ionic-Attic Genitive ^tm, as ehyriias 
(dissylkible). On Synizesis in Homer, se6 i 2D6. 

♦ 13. D. Elision. 

1. Elision is the omission of a short final vowel before 
the initial vowel of the following word. It occurs also io 
compounds, but the apostrophe is then omitted. 



•R«^«»y 1. The mark of Elision is tue same as t&as of the Spiritiu Lenia, 
and is called apostrophe, as roW loriy, yitwr* &y. 

BsM. 2. Elision differs from Crasis in that the former elides the vowel, 
fdiile the latter lengthens it, e. g. AAA* ftyt (Elision), rh, 6xXa » rdiWa (Crasis). 
This distinction, howeyer, does not hold, when the second word begins with a 
long Towel or diphthong, e. g. rh vini s rafrr^ 

2. In the prose writers, Elision is confined mainly to the 
following cases, where it often occurs : — 

(a) In prepositions which end in a vowel, except w^fi and irp^; also /*/xp* 
and ixP** 1^^ ^^ prepositions, bnt rarely in ^ ycica, e. g. 82 oZitor, hf abrov, bat 
npi flZiKor, vp^ olkov. Elision is regular in composition, except with ircpt, «-^, 
and sometimes ii^i^ e. g. ArcAJ^Zr, but «-cpiopfir; 

(b) In conjnnctions and adverbs, AAXi, $fo^ ^fpo, Jlfia, cTto, frtiro, /i^Uo, 
idiAitfTo, rdCxo, and in many other adverbs ending in a before &y ; alio in the 
following adveilM and conjnnctions, &■, 7/, W, 8/, o&8^, /ii}8^, firrc, Irt (not 
Iri), wr^ (with the compoonds, as oArorc), r^#y Iri, •vir^i, /ciiic^i ; e. g. iAA' 

(c) In forms of pronouns in a, o, c, as rovra, roiaSra, ^UAo, tIm ; irdrtpa 
more rare ; rovro, afrr^, ifJf ir4, ffd (never in r6, rd) ; also in nouns and adjectives 
of the second and third declensions, ending in 0, as A^iapriifiaray etc; ipivraf 
etc ; IjPTa, e. g. rovr^ sM, ircbV a^o^ xTtf"^ *^ ^^^ 

(d) In ^Kifdt olBn, oT^da, and generally in verbal forms in fu, 0«, i^'a, t, o, e. g. 
f^lft ^, oir MfMh ^A^yvr* Ir, ^^irroi^ Ir, t^j^mt* ii^; of the forms which 
admit the r Faragogic (§ 15), in prose, only ivrl often suffers elision ; 

(e) In certain fiuniliar phrases, as r)^ Af f^. 

BsM. 3, The above elisions are most frequent in the orators, particularly 
Isocrates, much more seldom in the historians. 

Rsx. 4. A smooth mute before an aspirate is changed into the correspond* 
ing rough, as wdifd^ tea. 

KBM . 5. A vowel, followed by a punctuation-mark, cannot be elided. Hence, 
in words closely connected, as r)^ Af 1^, the comma is omitted, for in such cases, 
without doubt, the ancients pronounced the words in quick saccosslon. On 
aeoeat in Eliaion, fcee 4 31, IlL 

{ 14. Use of Elision in the Poets* 

1. The use of Elision in poetry is very fieqnent, and much more extended 
than in prose ; yet the following points are to be noted : A word ending in v is 
never elided; nor a, 1, o in a monosyllable; hence the article r^, and the pro- 
nouns r\ and rf, are not elided ; and rcpf in no case, — at least among the Attio 
poets, — nor Src, iUxpt% Kx/m» nor substantive adverbs of place ending in di 
(&^ excepted), and very rarely the Optative ending in «i«. 

S. The Elision of the 1 in the Dat of the third Dec, particulariy in the 
Bingi, is ve^y rare in the Attic poets, and is even doubted by many. 

8. The rerbal endings, pai^ rm. v^m^ which are short in respect t» thr 

30 N Pabaoooic. [I t& 

accent, are rarely elided in the Attic poets ; the Datives fwl and ffoi are nerei 

4. In the yerbal forms which may take the y Faragogic (l^cXimrrijc^»)i the 
poets use Elision or the y, according to the necessities of the verse. 

5. Sometimes in Attic poetiy, a weak and grammatically unimportant 8yll»- 
hle is excluded hy a preceding long vowel ; this is specially the case with the 
augment «, e. g. tax^'^ ' *6p€vcay. Soph. O C. 1 602, hn\ *ldKfwtra, PhiL 360. This 
omission of the vowel is called aphaeresis {iupoip€<rtt). It can also occur after 
a punctuation-mark, e. g. ^p^w * 'wmMi 1i^» - Vl to^^mv. 

J 15. 'S Faragogtc (^^cXicvo-tijcov). — OvTta{i). — ^( and 

iK. — 0{,(K). 

1. Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels 
in two successive words is by appending a v, {v c^eXicvcmicoy, or 
Faragcgic,) to certain final syllables, viz. : — 

(a) to the Dat PL in at, to the adverbs v€pv<n» marrdvaxn, and 

all adverbs of place in o-i, as iratriy 2Xc^; ^ TlXarataaw 

rpftijuovta ; 
{P) to the third Pers. Sing, and PL in o-i, as runravaw ifU, 

riSryriv cy t^ rpaviig ; so also with iarC; 
(y) to ihe third Pers. Sing, in ^ e. g. crvvrev i/U; 
(8) to the numeral cZkoo-i, though even before vowels the v 

is often omitted, e. g. ctKoo-iy av8pcs and cZkoo-i avSpts ; 
(c) to the Demonstrative C (i 95, e) but rarely, and then 

always after o-, e. g. ovrocrtv, ixtiyoarw, rourovaw, ovrwrof ; 
({) to the Epic particles, vv and ic^ and to the Epic suffix ^; 

hence also to voo-^u 


IIbmabx. The poets place the y Faragogic before a consonant, so as to make 
A short syllahle long by position. In Attic prose, it stands regularly at the end 
of a book or section ; it is, also, sometimes found before the longer punctuatioo- 
marks, and sometimes elsewhere for the sake of a more emphatic pronun 

2. The adverb ovtwi always retains its full form before a 
vowel, but drops the final 9 before a consonant, e. g. ovmK ^iro^ 
crcv, but ovrcd Trocco ; Still, ovnoq may stand even before consonants, 
when it is to be made emphatic, e. g. oimi>9 7c, Xen. C. 3. 6, 9. 

3. So the Prep, i^ retains its full form before vowels and at 
the end of a sentence, but before consonants becomes Ik, e. g 
i( cl^n^, but he r^s 1^017^179 ; so also in composition, e. g. c^cXav- 



PMTy but iKTcXciy. It also has its full form when it stands ailai 
the word it governs, and is then accented, tlfr^iyri^ t^, 

4. So avK has its fall form before a vowel, e. g. ovk altrxpoii 
before a vowel With the rough breathing it becomes ov^, e. g. 
ovx 'h^ 'i ^u^ before a consonant, o^ e. g. ov koAos ; so also fii^in 
(instead of fof hi) after the analogy of ovKm. 

Bxif. 2. When oh stands at the end of a disconrse, or of a sentence, and is 
to be pronoonccd with emphasis, the form off with the acnte accent is used 
eren before a Towel ; in this case there mnst be an actual break in the discourse, 
as when otf stands at the end of an answer expressed intcrrogatircl^r, without 
connecdon with what follows, as TlAs y^ o6\ '^Kp* oZy rrA. Xcn. C. 4. 2, 37 ; 
or when it is found in the answer only, and corresponds to our No ; it is found 
espedallj in antithetical sentences, e. g. TAyoA^ rh, 8i Keuch. oH: *£^ 94 jtrA. 
Xen. C. 1. 2, 42 ; Ail^ovs cct r^y wotq/iIw iffCwrouy, i^ucpovm t^ off, ofh* tfiKaar- 
Tw oMvtu An. 4. 8, 3. If, on the contraiy, the following sentence is closeljr 
connected with the preceding, then it is written o^ir, e. g. o&jc, &AA& jtrA. Xen. 
C. 2. 6, 11. and 13 ; 4. 6, 2 ; o&ir, <{ or ffy irrA. Hell. 1. 7, 19. 

t 16. Strengthening, Weakening, I^olangation, Shortening, Inter* 
diange, and Variation of Vowels, — Ji^tienee of a Vowel or 
a Qmsonant on anotJier VoweL — Syncope. -— Omissiim of a 
Vowel — JBi^homc Prothesis. 

The changes, which further take place in rowels, are : — > 

i. Strengthening of Yowels ; this consists in changing a weaker yowel into a 
stronger (see 4 ^i Rem. 1). There are different degrees of strength in the 
Toweb ; the weakest is c. The strengthening takes place, e. g. in words of the 
third Dec in of, Gen. -tos] the pure stem of these words ends in «; in the 
Kom., bowcTer, which prefers fbller forms, the weaker t is changed into the 
stronger o (in Latin into ti), e. g. yivos, genut, Gen. y4i'€os (instead of y4w€ff-os)^ 
genXr^M, In y6vt and ti6f» (Gen. yivtn^n^ 96p€tr-os)f a, the final vowel of the 
stem, is changed into the stronger w. 

2. The weakening or attenuation of Towels ; this is the opposite of the 
change just described ; it occurs, e. g. in substantives of the third Dec in -7«, -Z, 
-€r, -C; in these, the stronger stem- vowels c and v are changed into the weaker f« 
e. g. «^Xif , ir6\€9ts\ irrjxvs, r^x**'* triptnrt, fftrdrtos] tiarv^ tfrrcof. So with 
adjectives in -i^, -C, c. g. yKmcCs, y\vit6, (Sen. -tof . 

3. Prolongation of vowels ; this changes a short vowel into a long tow«1 or 
diphthong, via. a into if or oi ; i into r or ex; v into vor cv; t into t| or ci; o into* 
or mr. This prolongation takes place either for the sake of euphony, or from 
grammatical reasons, or from both together ; in the poets often on account of tfas 
metre. The prolongation of vowels is very prevalent in the Greek langnaga, 
One instance only is here mentioned, namely, the strengthening of the P r os eat 

in Mute and Liquid verbs, c. g. icphm, whbiw, X'f^n, ^ym, Ktiwrn, f t^ ym^ 



N Pabaoooic. 



accent, are rarely elided in the Attic poets ; the 

4. In the TCihal forms which may take thr 
poets nse Elision or the y, according to iJie n ' 

5. Sometimes in Attic poetiy, a weak anr\ \ 
We is exclnded hj a preceding long towc • } ^ 
augment €, e. g. raxc7'vtfpcMray, Soph. ^ ' ^ 1^ 
omission of the rowel is called aphaer \, ^ ^ 
a pnnctnation-mark, e. g. ^fiam * 'vt i^ ^ \ 


\ 15. "S Faragogtc (^^c>^ 

f ♦ 

1. Another means off''*\ 
in two successive wor<' * i V 
Faragcgic,) to certair ,/^% 

(o)totheDat T]f<\^ 
all adverbs { r 

(iS) to the tl* 




won or thepir 
\final Sf 


^ of rW,, M*;^^ 
^wr, jSofl-iA^d instead ci^ 
^ittic, instead of vJ^Mf, 


vowel e into o and «, for thtf 

aves (^ 231, 6); when c< in th« 

.«, becomes ot in the second Petfl, bat 

i e. g. T/>^, rirpo^ irfAfnfw; Acfvw 

fM^r. Comp. Germ, stehle, gestohlen, stahi 
/ is changed into «, e. g. ifiiyot, itpcoy^. 

(7) to the 

(8) toth;' 
is o^ 


^ a is to be regarded as a yariation, or rather as a 

jx>daced by a preceding or following Liquid, parties 

jies even fi and r, may be donbted. Comp. tr^um , 

.fip^Xt^i ^8c(pi}y, i^difnp^ iardKiiy, frofwy, tgrcofw tridi 



P . a vowel bj the influence of another vowel or of a consonaa^ 

two special cases :— 

je Attic writers change the Ionic if into a after the vowels t and i aad 

^e diphthongs ending with 1, sometimes even after other towcIs, and 

^er the Liquid p, e. g. t^U (Ion. 28^), o'o^ xp<^«» Wipo* V7>lA 

Xbe onion-vowel c in verbs in « » is changed into o before the terminationa 
beginning with /a and y, e. g. /SovAc^/ack, /3ovX«^Kr«, ffiovKt^furt ^0ov 

8. Syncope (tfvyiic«v^), L e. the omission of c in the middle of a word between 
^ Kate and a Liqnid, or between two Liquids, or between irr; the same, also, 
0ccaxs in the declension of certain substantives of the third Dec, c. g. warpds 
jBStead of vvrr^s; in the forming of the Present tense of certain verbs, e. g. 
yfyrofimi instead of 717^/101, wlwrw instead of ircrrrw, /dfum instead of /Ax/jt4tm, 
and IB the foxmation of the tenses of some verbs, e. g. iryp^/ap' from iytipm, 
Syncope rarely occnrs after <r, e. g. tvxov^ ivrSpLtiyf farat, instead of fo'cx<»'- 
itrww6iaiPf f^rrmu A striking example of Syncope is found in ^Ai^or instc^tf 
«r f\idar, from *EAETOa. Comp. \ 155 


1 17»| J ^iDS. 35 

^***^^^ ^^ ^ect very often becomes <r, is 

^ -Hiis 18 aJ |fluence of a following i, e. g. 

'v^, HI IJ W05), 'A/io^ovcrtos (instead 

''81 ^«^ ^"^J* *A;(^ixr*o« (instead 

* h^ S ^$ y€povaCa, (instead of 

^ A» ^^ /^.J 5' sometimes changes 

*v "^ A "^^ ^> "^ 5^e Palatals, into <r; 

^ r •^ ®y^ ^ j? .^y and -{cw, where 

^ ^ ^ /^ \^ or Palatal to ir 

"* ^ i the i to (T, e. g. 

*j.. Change '^ '< •(iraxioir'x inur- 

U7. a.. ^jW). T«x»«i 


1. The changes of the consonants 
from the tendency of language to assimii. 
This assimilation is ^ther a mere resemblan^ 
when kiKey-racis changed into XcAcxrai, the smo^ 

ing the medial y into the smooth x ; or it is a complete ^ 
in sounds, as when aw-pimia is changed into o-yppCirT^^ 
Sometimes, however, the language shuns a sameness in sound 
and seeks to remove it by changing similar sounds into dissim. 
liar, e. ^. irf^iXi^ica for ^e-^tXi/KOy Sair^ for ]Sa^^<a, 

2. A Pi-mute (ir ^ ^) or a Kappa-mute (t y x) before a 1\iu- 
nmte (t 8 S) must be coordinate with the Tau-mute, i. e. only 
a smooth Mute (v k) can stand before the smooth r ; only a 
medial (ft y) before the medial 8; only an aspimte (^ x) before 
the aspirate S; consequently, ttt and xr; /38 and y8; ^ an 

9 before t into v fts ! 

: (Irom rpf^) 


^ T&rptwTtu 

f « r •« » « 

/ u 



■■ '/'/#»■'■* 

y « r « « « 

I ** 



■■ X^jcrm 

X " T « JC " 

^ u 



« fidfipticrm. 

« <• 9 ** fi ** 

/ u 




f « 8 ** ^ ** 

/ (t 




, « » " 7. " 

V 1: 



^ « } U ^ M 

f a 



^ fip4y9fi9 

w « » •* f « 

/ u 



B MfjupdriP 

# " ;> •« f •» 

/ u 



— irpi<pbri¥ 

« - » " X " 

/ u 



« ^irAcxdi;* 

» " * " X" 

/ (i 



»• iKix^P 

S4 tfUTES. [t 17 

Hbkakk 1. The preposition ix remains nnchanged, probablj bj nrtoe of an 
original movable v, thus 4ks, e. g. ^icSovyw, iK^taw^ et<x, not ^ySoumu, ix^a^tu. 

3. The smooth Mutes {ir k t) before a rough breathing, are 
changed into the cognate aspirates (^ x ^)> ^^^ ^^7 ^ inflec- 
tion and derivation, but also in two separate words, the rough 
breathing being transferred from the vowel to the smooth Mute; 
but the medials {p y 8) are thus changed only in the inflection 
of the verb ; elsewhere there is no change, hence : — 

kn^ eZ = &^* oZ, 4irfiii9pos (from M, ^fUpa) » f^fitfnn 

hrv^tdpw (from lr{, d^o/nv) =» i^v^aitw, rirvw^L ^s rirv^ 

ovK bcitts » ovx ^i»St B^ieiifUfMS (from S^jco, i/t^pa) » Btxht**P^ 

kmiXKts » &i^^AiN» « from Ayrf, SXicotf), but oMctf (not od^(5, from ov8* and €ls| 

c2Xoy-a = d^^a, bat X^ JT/poo^ (not X/x* Mpoof) 

rirpifira «» riTpupctf but rp$* o0r»y (not rpii^* o&rws). 

Rem. 2. The negative o&jc (ov) thus becomes o^, e. g. odx i^^s; yet thn 
change does not occur before the aspirate p, e. g. o& ^(«tw. In some com- 
pounds, the smooth Mute is retained even in the Attic dialect, according to 
Ionic usage, e. g. lanfiu^nis {ecut wind, from iar6 and 4{XfOf ), Ktiianras {one wfta 
rides a tohUe hone, from KtwtSs and T«vof ), Kpdriwwos, etc. 

Rev. 8. This change of the smooth Mute before the rough breathing takes 
place also in Cnuia (^ 10 and 11 ), e. g. t& ertpa » ^ir^paj rh Ifidrior b M/Ji- 
riov, irol trtpos := jfircpos, Ktd Zaa tffrtSf 8ira»r ss x^^ X^^^^f X^^S' Yet 
this Crasis is only poetic When the smooth Mutes irr or rr precede the rough 
nreathing, both must be changed into Aspirates (No. 2), e. g. ^^S^^pMpot instead 
of iwrfifitpos (from iierd, iitifpa), rix^ '^^ instead of y^xr* tkifw. Attic prose 
•jscs also the fall forms, e. g. y^iera Z\iiP, 

Rem. 4. In some compounds, the aspirated liquid p changes the preceding 
smooth Mute into the Aspirate, e. g. ^polfuot^f formed by Crasis from wpootfuw 
(from ifp6 and otfuts) ; r^^ptmrov (from rdrpa and fnroi), ^pd/rvtt from To^dEavM; 
80 ^p«iS9os from 9p6 and Mt. 

4. On the contrary, a rough Mute caxmot stand before the 
same rough Mute, but is changed into the conesponding smooth, 
e. g. Sain^ai, Bokxos, rtr<9i7, 'Ar^is; not ^SfiufKfHo, BdjQ^o^, riS3ii, 
A&Sk: on the same principle, when p is doubled, the first 
Aspirate disappears, e. g. Ilvppos, not Uvppo?. 

6, A Tau-mute (r 5 ^) before another Tau-mute is changed 
ir^o o* (comp. clau^trum from claudo) ; but it disappears before 
K (in Perf. and Plup. Act), e. g. 

irtt^-dny (from vtidm) becomes ivtlcdrip 
Tcid^^s ( " ircldw) " murrdos 

iip€lB'dw ( '' ip^i^) " 1ip€Urdn^ 



f 18] LIQUIDS. 35 

6. The Ty which in the Attic dialect very often becomes ov is 
ftequently changed into or by the influence of a following i, e. g. 
vXawnos (instead of irAourco9> from wkovroi), 'A/ia^ovtrtos (instead 
of *Afui5oiW-io$), .McXiTo-co? (from MtXi/rof), 'A;(cpoixrio« (instead 
of 'Ax^M^-cos), owrCn (instead of 6vrHa), ytpovcia (instead of 
ytpcvr-Cpi), iyiavaws (from l^iavros). The i sometimes changes 
by assimilation the other Tau-mutes, and the Palatals, into a; 
thus in the forms of the CJomparative in 'omav and '{jury, where 
there is a double change, first of the Tau-mute or Palatal to a 
by means of the f» and then the assimilation of the t to 9-, e. g. 

PpaBvi {fipaZuav, Ppturluw)^ ppdccrfav, poo«., 9ra}(vs (iro^uur, vcur* 
Uai), irdo-arwv, poet, fJifyK, /i.Ci{o)v (instead of lurfiaii), Ta;(v^ 
Sdaatov (instead of ra^'iiay). 

k 18. b. Liquids. 

1. The liquid v is sometimes changed into a. This takes 
place, e. g. in the Ace. Sing, third Dec of substantives, whose 
stem ends with a consonant, e. g. Kopai, icopaic-a (not ic(^xuc-iy), 
Aofi^ra?, Xa/xir(£8-a. The same change, also, sometimes takes 
place in the third Pers. PL Perf. and Plup. Mid. and Pass, of 
mute and liquid verbs, which properly should end in -yrot and 
-vro (as in pure verbs, e. g. )9c^3ovXcv-vrac, ^/Sc/SovXcv-kto), e. g. 
Tcrp(!^Tai, h'trpii^rOi ircnrX^aroi, Tffra;(aTai, ^o-iccvaSaraiy KX)(iapt&SLTfu^ 
If^dparai (instead of rh-pipyraif ir^rpiPyro, etc., from rpipio^ 
rXcK-tA, nunr-iOy (nccvo^-m, ^iopZ'iOf it^Stip-u), See i 116, 15. 

2. N before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid, e. g. 

trwXiTjfLifit becomes 9vhkirfi(jt» ewf/trrpU becomes wfiftrrpta, 

Comp. URnOj imniineo, instead of !n/iiio, inminco. Assimilaticm 
place in iWvfii, instead of tKwviu. — *t,v before p is not assimilated, e.g. 
; jet tffv^f is more frequent than Ij/pud/xos ; on the contrary, ivAoK- 
atands instead of ^AAomcc^. 

8. M initial before a Liquid is changed into fi, e. g 

ftkhrtty (from fUxi) becomes fi?JrTtaf 

uporSs ( " /aSpost mors) ** fiperSf. 



♦ 19 c. Mutes and Liquids.— -Liquids and Muti s 

1. A Fi-mute (v /? ^) before /i is changed into /a, 

a Kappa-mute (« y x) " f* ** " 7* 

a Tfiui-mute (r 8 .») " f* '* " cr, e. g. 

{a) Pi-mate: 


^rom Tfifim) 


( ** Xtfm) 

** \i\§iftfuu 


( " ypi^) 

" T'7P«W« 

[H] Kappa-mvte 

: v4w\§K-fim 

( *' 9\4Km) 

** v^Xcy/coi 


( " Kh^) 

remains X^Xey/coi 


( " ^X-) 

becomes fitfipeY/uu 

\y) Tan-mate: 


( '< &iH^») 

** liyvfffuu 


( " ^p«<8«)' 

** if4ip9urfua 


( " irc£&«) 

^ w4vtwfuu 


( " KOfxiM 

** K€K6fiuriAau 

Remark 1. In some words, the Kappa and Tan-mntes are not changed 
before ^, e. g. &icf(^, r^rfios, XaxM^s, Ktv&fA^y, etc. In some words, even x 
stands before ft, instead of the original k or 7, e. g. Ivxf*^^ ^i^™ 2cS«c«, TXaxM^ 
from irX^icw. The preposition ix, in composition, is not changed, e. g. ^j^air> 

2. The medial ^ before v is changed into /i, e. g. 
vtfi-v69 (from iH^futi) becomes v^iivis 

<. N before a K-mute (t ^ ^ ^) is changed into /*, 
N before a Kappa-mute (#c y x ^^ changed into y, 
N before a Tau-mute (t 8 ^) is not changed, e. g. 

ifiMTciplet becomes 4/iirttpta 
4^fiiXX» ** 4ftfid\\» 
ttHppvy ** Hfipfwp 

bat wyrttywj cw^iv^ <nfy^4w. 

trvvKoXiti becomes ffvyKoX4t 
frvv^vyvAintti " tnrffvywiHnm 

Comp. im&no, im^^rimo. 

Rsx. 2. The enclitics are not changed, e. g. 9pir<p, T^ryv, not {f^vcp, etc. 

Rem. 3. Also at the end of a word, v before a Pi-mute, as well as before ^ 
was, without doubt* pronounced like ^, and before a Kappa-mute, like y ; and 
10 it is found in ancient inscriptions, e. g. TOMIIATEPAKAITHMMHTEPa, 
rorXPHBiIMlSMON (i. e. rhy iraxipa kojL t^p fiiiT4poLy rl» XF'lf'^^^'^)' So also 
X and sr ore used instead of y before \ and <r» e g. *£AAHMNOI, *E22AMOI 
•1 e. 49 A^fu^, 4p Idfti^)- 


4 20. d. Use of the Sibilant a, with Mutes and 


1. A Pi-mute (v fi ^) with or is changed into ^i 
a Kappa-mute («c y x) '^^ ^ ^^ changed into (, 
a Tku-mute (t 8 ^) disappears before <r, e. g. 

(ft) Pi«matc: 

Kttmm 1 

from Xt/fof) 

bocomea x^i^w 

rptfiaw 1 

' " rpifim) 



7F<i^<«» 1 

I " 7/x^) 



(3) Kappo-mate 

: TXcmrw i 

[ " 9\4itm) 



X/Ttrw 1 

" X^Tw) 




[ " /5P^X-) 



[y] Tau-mutc: 

iarvrffw I 

[ " Av*r«) 



iptSicw 1 

*« ^p€(8«) 




** irc(»«) 



^XirfBir» 1 

[ " iKxlM 



Kbmark 1. Ooinp. duxi, rca*i, cozi ; from daco, ie<^, co^ao. The Prep, in 
before <r is an exception, e. g. iKC^{w, not i^^ot, — In iro6s. Gen. iro9-^f, and 
b the Ferf. active Part, in -ds, Gen. -Sr-ot^ after the Tan-mute disappears, the 
preceding rowel is lengthened. 

2. N disappears before a; but when v is joined with a Tau- 
mute, both disappear before <r, but the short vowel before <r, is 
lengthened : e into ci, o into ov, iSL,X,v into a, X, v, Comp. Hem. 3, 
e. g. 

rv^iyr-ci becomes rv^lri X/oyr-ri becomes jJovai 

ffvip^-^M ** n-ff/tf-M IX/Aiyl^-o-c ** ^KftXai 

RsM. 2. Exceptions : '£», c. g. iyffwttpv ; «vr> before 0r with another conso- 
nant, e. g. w^MiFKoros, in some words is assimilated; c. g. niveous ia used as 
weU as inbvo^i, etc. (in irixiy the nsage yaries) ; also in some inflective and 
derivative forms in -o-oi and "Cit from verbs in -oTiw, e. g. ir(^«a^ai (from 
fo/yw), Wvonris (from irc^'o/iw), and in the substantives, ^ IX/uvt, earfA-tronn, ^ 
vifpivf, vngon-basHxt, ^ Tlpuys, r is retained before <r. — In composition, the r in 
#1^ is changed into & before 0" followed bj a vowel, e. g. irv9a'6(w (from ff^ and 
#^flv) ; but before v followed by a consonant, or before (% i^ disappears, e. g. #^ 
rrq/ia becomes <r^oT)|/M, trvy-Cvyla becomes irvCvyla, — In xop^co'tt >^ is dropped ; 
on the contrary, in rdUdf, /i^Xdf (Gen. -^of), icrcfr, cff (Gen. -irSs)^ tcf, and in 
the third Pers. Pi. of the principal tenses (see \ 103), c. g. /SovXc^ovo'c (instead 
of ^Xc^rcri), the onission of the simple r is compensated by lengthening 
dw vowel. 

3. On the contrary, in the Aorist of Liquid verbs, a is omitted 


after the Liquid, but the omission is compensated, by lengthen 
ing the stem-vowel, e. g. 

liyytK-ffa becomes liyytiKa Hytfi-aa becomes tvtipa 

Reu. 3. Sigma is likewise omitted before » in the fattiro of liqnid yerbs, t 
being inserted before <r for the sake of an easier pronunciation, and ut being con- 
tracted into d, e. g. &77fX-^«, iyytXM. So too in the Nom. of the third Dec 
the final Sigma is omitted, when r or p precedes, and the short yowel is 
lengthened, e. g. cijcc^y instead of thcSy-St voiftiy instead of roifJ^-s, Urm^ 
instead of pitrop-s, eud^ip instead of ttt^p-s. — T and c are omitted in the Nom. 
of sabstantiyes and participles in -«y, Grcn. -otn^s ; bat, as a compensation, • b 
lengthened into w, e. g. Kioyr-s becomes \i«v^ fioikofom-'t becomes fiovXt^y, 

Bbm. 4. In Jlyyu/u (instead of ttr-yvfu, ves^) the tr is assimilate^' to the 
following y, and in tlfd (instead of iv-fit) <r is omitted, but t is lenj;thened 
into ct. 

i 21. e. Change of separated Consonants, 

1. Sometimes a consonant afiects another consonant, though 
diey do not immediately follow one another, but are separated 
by a vowel or even by two syllables. Thus, one X changes 
another X into p, e. g. ice^aXa/>yta (uistead of Kc^oXoXyia from 

aXyc7»'), ykto(r<rapyta (instead of yXoxrotiXyui), Sipyakw (instead of 

dXyoXcos from dXyciv) ; the suffix coXi} becomes co/mJ, when a X pre- 
cedes, e. g. SaXirtopi^, 

2< In the reduplication of verbs whose stem begins witli a 
rough mute, instead of repeating tliis ' mute, which would be 
the regular formation, the first rough mute is changed into the 
corresponding smooth, thus : — 

^t-^ikriKa (from ^i\4w) is changed into T«^fXi}ica 

X^X^** ( ** X^*) " " K4xyKa 

»4'^Ka ( " 3A») " " r4^Ka 

^l-^fu (stemeE) ** "" ridripu, 

I/ikewise in the yerbs, ^9tyf to sacrifice, and ti^/mu (stem OE), to place, 5 ol 
the root is changed into r, in the passiye forms which begin with d : — 

irthdnyf Tv-diico/uu, irl^y, re-^trofuUf instead of i^&-dfiy, id4'^y* 

So also, for the sake of euphony, the p is not rednplicated, and instead of it 
ifP is used, e. g. iff^Kou 

3. In words whose stem begins with t and ends with an 
Aspirate mute, the aspiration is transferred to the preceding 


smooth r, when the Aspirate before the formative syllable be* 
gimung with c, r, aad /&, must, according to the laws of euphony 
(H 17, 2; 19, 1; 20, 1), be changed into a smooth consonant; 
by this transposition, r is changed into the Aspirate i, Sach a 
change is called the MUathecis of the {upiratum, 

Ttas, rf4^^ {rhpo^ Perf.) is changed into (l^phe-^v) 3p^, dpcr^p, (bfit- 

r«^, TA*^, ro^nu (second Aor. Pass.), into 3^, A^v^-nt, (riiftOT^ 
uai) r&oftfuu (but third 'Pcr% PL Ttrt t far a i, e. g. Her. 6, 103, with one 
of the better MSS. is to be lead instead of rtSdptertu) ; 

rpA^os^ TST^hw into ^p6^f bp^-rm (r/dpinr-ftcu), r^pv/i/ioij 

rp4x'^ into (dp^ie-«'o/iai) bp4lofttu\ — rptx^s into dpij, i^pc{fy ; 

TBx^, in the eompanuiye, becomes ddrffmr. Por the same reason, the 
fntnre l|«», from Ix^i ^ ^''^ ^ the proper form, the aspiration of 
the X being transferred to the smooth breathing and making it 

Rbxabx 1. Tf^« fix>m rc^«, and rp6^» fW>m rpi6x»t remain nnehanged. 

BjbjlIL Where the passirc endings of the alwye yerbs, rp4^t TAM 
(adUmj, TPT^A (dp^rrw ), begin with b^ the aspiration of the two final conach 
aants ^, changes r, the initial consonant of the stem, into 5, e. g. 

BxH. 3. In the imperative ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both sjlla* 
Ues should begin with 5, namely, difi^i, not the first, but the last aspirate matt 
is changed into the coiresponding smooth ; thus diiri, e. g. fiouKt^diiru 

{ 22. Metathesis of the Liquids, 

The liquids, and also the lingaal r when v precedes, oflcn 
change place with a preceding vowel, for the sake of euphony. 
The vowel then usually becomes long. This lengthening of 
the vowel distinguishes Metathesis from Syncope (tlie latter 
being the mere omission of c), e. g. iu'i».vrpnm (from the root /acv, 
oomp. mens), Svifnut (from <9ai^cu'), rh-fArjKa (fiom rtfi-w), 
PipXajKa (from )3aX-civ), irrq(roiuu (from vcrofuu). 

I 23. Doubling of Consonants, 

1. Consonants are doubled, in the fiirst place, for the sake of 
euphony, e. g. fiiiSvppooq from pcM and pcu; $/>cov instead of 
^jpior; in the second place, in consequence of the concurrence 


of like or similar sounds, in the inflection and derivation, e. g 
4&/-yo/xo9 (from iv and voyuosi), ik-Xtima (instead of iv\.), avfi-fuixoi 
(instead of ow/i.), Xtkufi-fijiu (instead of \cXccir/i..), X^fi'fua (in* 
stead of A^fia), Kofi'fui (instead of m^fia), rcur-cnii or rar-ni 
(instead of roy-otu), ytnrwv or ijmay (instead of i^JC-MkiF), ftoAXop 
(instead of fuiX-cov), aXAo$ (instead of 0X109, alms), 

2. In the Common language, only the Liquids, X» fi, v, p, the 
Sibilant <r, and the Mute r, can be doubled ; yet ir and k are 
also doubled in single words, e. g. »nro9, ahorse; kokko^ a berry. 
The Medial y is often doubled, but this letter thus doubled is 
softened in the pronunciation ({ 2). Two Aspirates are not 
doubled (♦ 17, 4). 

3. p is doubled when the augment is prefixed, e. g. $^or, 
and in composition, when it is preceded by a short vowel, e. g. 
i^pvfKTo^t fioJ^ppooi ; but cu-poxrros (from cS and p^vyvfjui). 

Hehabk. In imitation of Homer, the Tragic writers also doable the ^>T<Bl 
mnch less frequently than Homer, e. g. rSca-ow, Soph. Aj. 185; ^/«vat, 890; 
Arff^, 294 ; fUaoni^ Ant 1223 ; Iro-rrw, JSach. Pers. 122 ; so also in the DaL 
PL of die third Dec tacu 

i 24. Strengthening and Addition of Consonants, 

1. Consonants are frequently strengthened, in the inflection, by the additiott 
sf a ooiresponding consonant, namely :— 

(a) The Labials O t f ) by r, e. g. fixhe-T-m (instead of fixifi-m)^ r^w^^ 
(instead of T^ir-«), flx-r^m (instead offi^^) ; sometimes also by ^, which 
assimilates the preceding Labial (thus trct Attic tt), e. g. W^-o^ (root 
vfv), Att. whr»^ Fat. irc^, the poetic iecofuu. Fat. l^/uu; in S<^ 
(instead of S^foi), ^ and ^ are changed into ^ ; 

(b) The Palatals (7 k x) '■'B strengthened by o*, which assunilates the pie 
ceding Palatal (thns o-^, Ait. tt), or, thongh more seldom, the Palatal 
unites with the c and is changed into (, e. g. rd^-a-'W, Att Tdr-T-«> 
(instead of rdyno)^ ^Ur-ff-w, Att ^irT-m (instead of ^6c-«), fi^tr-e-^ 
Att ^-rtt (instead of fi4iX'^) i icpd{v (instead of itpd,yt»), rpl(m (instead 
of rplyt») ; a Kappa-mate with 9 is seldom changed into (, e. g. a/^ 
(ang-eo), Aa./{«, M^iu and MC»\ the strengthening t is found only it^ 
leiierw and t(ktq9. 

(c) The Lingnals (8 t ;^) are strengthened by ^, which with the preoedina 
Lingnal is changed into Ct e. g. ^pdEC» (instead of ^fx^^M), or, though 
more seldom, v assimilates the preceding Tau-mate, e. g. xWiroiuu and 
Xfro/iof, ip4ec»y ipirrv (instead of ip^rn), KopiOactt (instead of icop^dw). 

2. The unpleasant concurrence of ^ and vp in the middle of some wordifc 
occasioned by the omission of a vowel, is softened by insertmg /) between ^ 


and S betvi«en yp, thus, in iiMOian'fir-pim (formed from fuerifuplat f^^f/^)* 7f^ 
^■pis (from yafi-t'p6st y9f»p6s)j iut^p6s (from i»4pos, i»p6s). 

3. N also is used to strengthen the Labials, especially in poetry, so as to maka 
a syllable long by position, e. g. riparayop (from r^-T-«), orpi/ifios (from rr^ 
^)\ ddftfios {rdnpos)] Kopi6fififi {KOpv^)] ^p6fifios {Tp4^ty)\ Ifup^ {thrw)' 
wift^ (nnbere) ; b^Mfuts and Sftfip^McSf tf^yufws and tf^yvfuros. In the present 
tens« of many yerbe, this strengthening r is found, e. g. wydctro/uu, bvyyiimt 
XapfiJam instead of v^U^iiyiai, fSiyt^^ kdfia. On the change of r, see \ 19, 8. On 
the p Paragogic, see \ 15, 1. 

4. 2 also is prefixed to some words, bnt mostly to such as begin with m* e. g 
/iw8i| and ayc»8i(, fwepSs and fffiuep6s \ a strengthening <r is also inserted before ^ 
and T in the Pert Mid. or Pass^ and before d^ in the first Aor. Pass., e. g. rrrdKf 
ff'fimi, rcr^Xe-^-Tot, 4Tt\4-c-&np (4 131); also in the derivation and composition 
of word?, a is frequently inserted for the sake of euphony, e. g. <rci-or-ft^«, tov- 
ff4t^/toSf /Jtayo^-rdKoSf etc ; instead of ir, ;^ also is inserted before /^ e. g. 
Iiviai-b-i»6sf ipxyt^^'t fTKop-^fUs from CKolpttt iro^^fUs from w^tpm. 

I 25. Expulsion and Omission of Consonants. 

1. In inflection, a is very often omitted between two vowels, e. g. r^Trp, 
irivrovf r^rroio instead of r^vrt^-ai or rinmt^uiy IrinrrM-a-o^ T^irroi-«'-« ; 
y4p€^Sf 7cy^y instead of y^pt-o'-osf 7fr^-«r (comp. gcne-r-is, gcnc-r-um). 
At the end of a word, and after Pi and Kappa-mutes, it is retained, e. g. T/rvt, 
r^i^ (»T^r«i), irx/|« (arx/K-tfw), bnt after the Liquids, in inflection, as 
well as commonly at the end of a word, it is omitted, e. g. IfyytiKa (instead 
of ifyy€K-ffKt)j A77ffXA (instead of iyy^X-d-ctt, kyytX-d-^)^ p^rmp (instead 
of pirop-s), Comp. § 20, Bem. 3. 

2. The Digamma softened into the vowel v (4 200) is omitted : (a) in the 
middle of the word between two vowels, e.g. it6y {ifF6v)y ovum, 6xs {iFis)^ oris, 
Mp (a2F(£y), aevum, r4os (W/oi), novus, cxatSs {ffKatF6s)^ scaevus, fio6s {fioF6s)i 
bovis ; &4m^ v\4t0, wvUt, 4\dm instead of d4F<», etc. ; (b) at the beginning of 
the word before vowels and p, e. g. otyos {Foiyos)y vinum, Hap {F4ap)^ ver, fj 
[Fls) vis, oUos (Foacoi), vicus, ISny {FiStty), viderc, 4cHs (Ff^d^s), vestis, 
jH^Tirv/u (Fpfryyvfu)t frango. On the contrary, the Digamma (this softened v) 
is retained in connection with a preceding «, «, o, with which it then coalesces 
and forms a diphthong : (a) at the end of a word, e. g. fiou (instead of fiiF)^ 
^otf'iXcv, etc.; O) befbre a consonant, e. g. fiovs lfi6Fst bovs, b5s), yews (ydFs)^ 
navis, fiovy^ fiovaif fiaoriK^Si fiaffiXwi^ ^t^ofuu, wKw^aoiuu^ Tyf^trofuu^ ikavym. 
But when an i or v precedes it, then it disappears before a consonant, bnt 
lengthens the i or v, e. g. kTs (instead of KiFs)y «i;f (instead of «r^Fs) lx<^ 
(instead of Ix^Fs)^ Ace. xTy, ow^ ^x^i ^^^ ^^ disappears also, in tliis case, 
b the middle of a word between vowels, e. g. Ai-6sf ici^f, ff\y6s, Ix^^^ (instead 
•f AlF-rff, KiF-6s, trdF-ds, Ix^F'Ou 


3. Since the Greek language admits an accnmnlatioa of three consonaatii 
onlv in composition, not in simple words, unless the first or the last is a 
Liquid^ then, if in the inflection of the yerb, a termination beginning with 9d 
is appended to the consonant of the root, the o* is dropped:^ 

XcXc^T-o'i^y (from \c(iF-«) becomes XcXtf^ii^y (§17,2.) 
\i\4y(r^ai ( " X^) " XcX/x^oi (§17,2.) 

iardX-a^cu ( " aTcXX-«) ** itrrd^ai. 

Hemaiul. • On the omission of a Tan-mate, and a r and rr before ^, and a • 
after a Liquid, see § 20. On fehrttmai^ Ir^rxfuu, etc instead of xitrtfiftftai, 
(a^vyyfuut see { 144, K. 2. In composition, y is often omitted, o g. IIu^okt^ 
¥0St 'AiroXXi^wpoi, instead of Uv^oyicr,, "AiroXX^yZ, 

4. Some words ma^r drop their final consonant, either to avoid an accumula- 
tion of consonants, or, in Terse, to prevent a syllable becoming .bng by position. 
In addition to the words mentioned under § 15, namely, oIk {ob), i^ (^k), ofhms 
{oirtt)^ which usually retain their final consonant before a vowel to prevent 
Hiatus, but drop it before consonants, here belong, 

(a) adverbs of place in l^cr, e. g. irpSa^tUf trur^wy, Ihrcpd^ci', etc, which never 
drop the r before a consonant, in prose, but very often in Epic poetry, 
more seldom in the Attic poets ; 

(h) fi4xpts And &XP<'> which, however, in the best classical writers, drop 
their <r, not only before consonants, but commonly even before vowels, 
c. g. M^XP* 'Avo^oTf^pov, PI. Hipp. MaJ. 281, c; fi^xpt iyraS^ Id. Symp. 
210, e ; /i(xp( ^ov, X. C. 4. 7, 2 ; fi4xpi ifw^pas ^axdmitt Id. Cy. a 

(c) the adverba ierp4fxas, l/Airar, /iccnr/^s, iurrucp^Sf Hy^us, l^iws, which in 
poetry may drop their s, but never in prose ; in the Ionic dialect, numeral 
adverbs in -dxts also frequently drop the a before consonants, e. g. 
iroXXcUf. Her. 2, 2. 

5. A genuine Greek word can end only in one of th^ three Liquids, r, a (^, 
(, L e. ir<r, icff) and p. The two words, o&jr, not, and ^jc, oat of^ form only an 
apparent exception, since, as Proclitics (§ 32), they incline to the following 
word, and, as it were, become a part of it This law of euphony occasions 
either the omission of all other consonants, or it changes them into one of the 
three Liquids just named; hence, o-dfia (Gen. irif/iar-of), instead of «l^^«r« 
7dXa (Gen. TijCXajcr-of), instead of 'yi£XajcT, \imy (Gen. x/oyr-or), instead €f 
Xkn/yr^ ifiovK^voy instead of ifioi\tvorT\ — ripas (Gen. r/jf>otivos), instead of 
rdpar^ xdpus (Gen. tcdpter-ot), instead of ir/par, ficXc (Gen. /Uxivos), inflti«4 
of ^Afr. 




126. Nature and Division of Syllable:. 

1. Every vowel, pronounced by itself, or in connection with 
one or more consonants, is called a syllable. 

2. A word consists of one or more syllables. When a word 
consists of several syllables, a distinction is made between the 
stem-syllables and the syllables of inflection or derivation. 
The stem-syllables express the essential idea of the word, the 
syllables of inflection or derivation, the relations of the idea, 
"nras, e. g. in yi-ypau^-a, the middle syllable is the stem-syllable ; 
the two others, syllables of inflection : in irpayfAo, the first is 
the stem-syllable ; the last, the syllable of derivation. 

t 27. Quantity of Syllables. 

1. A syllable is short or long, by nature, according as its 
vowel is short or long. 

2. Every syllable is long which contains a diphthong, or a 
sunple long vowel, or two vowels contracted into one, e. g. 
/SooXcvoi ; 17PC09 ; "oKtaif (from ^Jxiay), fiarpiv^ (from ftorpvas), 

3. A syllable with a short vowel becomes long by position, 
when two 0£ three consonants, or a double consonant ({ ( ^), 
follow the short vowel, e. g. oriXXoi, ri^arrMs, Kopaf (icdpcueoc) 

RsxjkSK 1. Tho pronanciation * of a syllable long by nature, and of one 
long by position, diflfen in this, that the fonner is prononnced long^ bat the 
latter not When a syllable long by nature is also long by position, its pronun- 
ciation mnst be protracted. Hence a distinction is made in pronouncing such 
words as irpdrrm, irpa^if, irpayfui (d), and rdrrtt, rd^tSf rdryfui (d). 

Rbm. 2. But when a short TOwel stands before a Mute and a Liquid (Fositio 
debUu)y it commonly remains short in the Attic dialect, because the sound of 
the Liquid^ being less distinct than the Mutes, they are pronounced with mora 

' The method of pronunciation stated in this remark is adopted in many of 
the German gymnasia, and in some of the schools in England and Scotland, 
bnt not to any extent in this country. — Tk. 


ease, e. g. SrMKyos, ArfrXos, 'diefj^, fitrpus, Ztiptixptoti yet in two ciims the poi^ 
tion of the Mute and Liquid lengthens the snort vowel : — 

a) in compounds, e. g. *cicW/m» ; 

b) when one of the Mediids {$ y 8) stands before one of the three Liquids 
{\ fi y), e. g. fiifiXoSf tM/tos, vitrkiyfuu *, in tragic trimeter, ;^x also lengthen 
the preceding short vowel. 

It is obvious that a vowel long bj nature cannot be shortened by a Mute and 
Liquid, e. g. ififynrrfw, 

4. A syllable, which contains one of the three doubtful 
Towels (a, (, v), cannot, in the same word, be pronounced long 
and short, but must be either long or short 

y 28. Quantity of the Penult. 

In order to a correct pronunciation, the quantity of the three 
doubtful vowels, a, i» and v, in the penult of words of three or 
more syllables, must be determined. The following are the 
principal instances in which the penult is long. The quantity 
of the syllables of inflection is treated in connection with the 
Forms : — 

The penult is long, 

1. In substantives in -cmv (Gen. -oovos or -auyos)^ in substantives of two or 
more syllables in -mv (Gen. -lovos; but -Zwr, Gen. 'Xmvos)'^ and in forms of th* 
comparative in -Zwr, -Iw (Gen. -iokos), e. g. htiiMv, 'oyos, 6, ^, oompanum, Ho^ct- 
Zdmy, -mros ; kW, -oyos, i^, piUar^ fipaxjt^y, -wos^ 6, arm^ 'A^i^W, -OMf ; bat 
AnicaXtvy, 'wyot ; iraXX^r, KdXKiov, more beauHJkL 

Exceptions. The two Oxytones, ^ lit^y fi), shore, and generally ^ x»<^» fw**- 
In Homer, the comparatives in -Uty, lor, are always short, where the versifica^ 
tion admits. 

2. In oxytoned proper names in •dv^t, and in the compounds in •dy6s (from 
frycf, to lead, and iyyvfu, to break), -otrnp and -Kpenfos, e. g. *Affiai^f , Aox^7^'» 
captain; yavay6s, naufrdgut ; Biiiwp, S^pdrot, having two horns. 

S. In adjectives in -mis (Fem. -dlj> derived from verba- in -in, in proper 
names in -irns, in substantives in -hyis (Fem. -ins), and in those in -Anji of the 
first Dec (Fem. -Otis), and in proper names in -^nj, e. g. &x/^^^ unXoudud; 
E&^nif, VLA^Hrns, woktrnSf -ow, citizen (Fem. iroXfrif ) : wp^afibrns^ -ov, di 
nan ; 'A^poBhiif *Afi^trphi^» 

Exceptions: (a) to the proper names in -arris : Ta\inii, ^kaXfiArris, Sop^nvf, 
til in 'fidrns and -^njy , and compounds formed from verbal roots, e. g. ^t^Kptr 
ms ] — {}}) kpXt4is, judge, from the short root it/>T, ictIt^j, builder^ and ^6ri|ff, 
one who sacrijfices. 

4. In Proparoxytones in -fXoy, -IXov, -Ivof, -Iroy, in words in -frii, -Tr*, 
4r«, -wvo, in those in -vros, when w docs not precede the ending; in Pro 


Pkoparaxytones in -Up a, and in adjectiTes in -d^or with a preceding laag 
•jrlUble, e. g. 

'O tfdXost muUUude ; iarbni, gift ; 6 KtyMpof, dmgtr; 

949aj»f8hoe; Aiyu^ yifbpa^bridge; 

4 K^iijpof , men ; aiox^i'Vt 8^>ne : l^xPp^'t atrong ; 

r^\Dnor, potrdeif ; ifOtfOf defence ; ( bnt ^xM* '^^ ^XPp^h fi^^ 

Rbxaxk 1. The following may lie added to the ProparoxTtonet in -Troj 
and -vpfly namely, A xa^^'i ^"/ ^ ipii^St wild fig-tree; and 4 m^a4^ oootm 

Exeeptaane. Elkavfpiif/eaaijtMil compoandj in^yHpos (f^omyfo^, wonum) 
e.g. Aydp^7l/roff, and xoptwiit dub. 

& In snbetantiTes in -vros, whose antepenalt is long, and in oompounil 
adjectiTes in -daxpfirof and -rpHros (from ttucpdtOf rpbm)^ and also in snb 
•tantiTea in -vfia, •vytit and •vytiy, and in adverbs in "OZdr, e. g. 

I SMcGr^, wotlM^; irpfirsty tadiMfFHetiUt; iAoXiry^, Wti&rfHt; 

Miprrot, wiitAoiil Ceori ; Opv/io, -dros, seat ; ^XoAOy^r, ulukdue , 

0aTp6^6if^ in duaten. 
Exception. MapfiapCyHi eftendor, 

6. In dissyllabic Oxytones in -IX ^i, -r^^t, -ly6sf -16 1, -6A^f, -0^^*. 
«F^r, and in Paroxytones ia 4|ift -4rf, e« g. 

i^iX^r, &ars ; ^ /^Ij^t» slm; 4 fOi^f$ pole : |iWt, ooMmon; 

k-xpJlt^fiidder; S^Ut^dari; 4d^, mtiul; A^» m/ary; 

AAi^, Aini^; ijfikisf Juice; so, iiHyior, etc.; ^iln|, eaEOMs. 

Zacqgftont. Bi^ (4), 6oio; vA6f«^ (4), mis&in^-froi^ 

7. In dissyllables in -do t, -dv^t (oxytoned), and in dissyUablea in ia, whidi 
Vgtn with two consonants, e. g. 

4 mif, tempU ; ^iat6sf brUUani ; «t£i, pebble; fAlii, door-poet, 

Rkm. 9. The following may be added to dissyllables in -«a: acoAlcC, eked, 
iadti, trouble; Kotda^ duet ; and to those in •dot, the variable IXoof, and the propei 
names in -do f, e. g. *Aft/^tdp&os ; Ob^^idM is an exception. 

Exceptions. TA^f or r&At [6), peacock; mad (7). ahadtw, 

8. The following single words should also be noted: — 

I. d. 

*AirpdTos, unmixed; vuuns, young girl ; ridpo, furboa ; 

bjnap6st troubleeome ; inrMsf aUendant; ^dkapof, dear; 

ab^iJhls, edf-tuffident ; ^p6»i, nmtUtrd; i ^XlApotf tatUe. 

Also the proper names, "AfuLrtf, "Ayaros, "kpSiros^ AnttdpdTos^ 8cdn$, *li^«» 
Upl&ros, XdpoMis (Sertpis), Srufi^dXot, ^dpoSfios. 

II. i. 

*AKp0fis, exact ; ivlw^, rduhe ; wap^wortwiif, gaUanL 

tfS^tpM^ ttrong; IpS^of, day-kdmrer; 

f4 rifix^* piddedfiah ; i ^ x*^2^» ewaBom; 

46 ACCENTS. H 29. 

Al80 the proper names, 'A>x^'> rpdvucoSf Ei^pSiror, KJukos (;)/0ir2^, Bo^tf^ob 
The following dissyllables shoold be noted for the sake of the componnda: 
rift^, honor; viicrj, victory; ^Kfi, tribe; \\n, forest; XlrSst iittle; tiucpdst tmaU; 

ni. C. 

*A/albfian^t UamduM ; ^fvdicti, to hold back ; Xi^tiyMy, booty ; 

i/ovKuf^ asylum ; I tMi6sf dok 4 «^«<^f > papyrus ; 

iSr^ (v), war^ry ; lyi^» tks hoM ; wlrvpoift bran. 

Also the proper names, 'AjSuSof , *Af>x^af , Bidiy^r, AtSrwros, Ka/ifiboJis, K4^ 
KDpa, KatKvrSs, And the dissyllables, fvxAt '^i ^ ^^p^» cheese; 6 irvpdst wheat; 
i XIMT^St sold; Kb-KJij grief; ^^vxp6s, ooid, 

i 29. Accents 

1. The written accent designates the tone -.syllable, according 
to the original Greek pronunciation. The accented syllable 
was pronounced with a particular ^/re^ as well as elevation of 
voice. The same is true of the modem Greek. In English, 
too, while the stress of the accented syllable is more particu- 
larly prominent, there is often also an accompanying elevation 
of the voice, but not so much as in the modem Greek. 

2. In the pronunciation of Greek prose, the accent and quan- 
tity were both regarded ; thus, in avSpmrot, while the accentual 
stress was laid on the a, the proper quantity of the penult a* was 
preserved. Compare analogous English words, as sumising, 
outpSBring, in which both the accent on the antepenult and the 
length of the penult are observed. 

3. How the Greeks observed both the accent and quantity in 
poetry, cannot now be determined. But as it was generally 
sung or recited in the style of chanting, the accent was probably 
disregarded, as is constantly done in singing at present 

4. The Greek has the following marks for the tone or accent 

(a) The acute (- ) to denote the sharp or clear tone, e. g. 

(b) The circumflex (- ) to denote the protracted or ivinding 
tone, e. g. o-w/Aa. This accent consists in uniting the rising 
and falling tone in pronouncing a long syllable, since, e. g 
the word o-w/xa was probably pronounced as o-oo/ia ; 

(c) The grave (-) to denote iYiQfaMng or heavy tone 

• 29.J ACCENTS. 47 

ItwifAgw 1. The maik of the falling tone was not nsed. Hence not i^/A- 
vity X^5, bnt iif^poeroSf xiyot. The mark of the grare was used only to 
distingnish certain words, e. g. rlx , some one, and rtt, who f and, as will be seen 
fai § 31, 1, instead of the acute on the final syllable of words in connected 

BolS. The accent stands ^Km the second vowel of diphthtrnffi; at the 
beginning of words commencing with a TOweL the acote and grare stand 
after the breathing, bnt the drcnmflez over it, e. g. ftra^, aftvciof , iof civpf/ 
tiposf ti/uu Bnt in capital letters, in connection with the diphthongs f» p, y, 
tibe accent and &e breathing stand upon the first Towel, e. g.'AiSvs* On the 
diaeresis, see § 4, Bca. 6. 

Rex. 3. The graTO aceent difiisred from the acute as the weaker from the 
stronger accent in ddrimMalj or in the Latin^/iSieral^nim, the penultimate accent 
in both words being much strong e r than the preceding one. The circumflex 
aceent denoted a tone like the drenmfiex inflection in English. 

Bbx.4. In iba United Stetes and Great Britain, Greek is not generally 
pronounced by the accents, no regaid being had to these so fiur as the pronun- 
ciation is concerned. In a few institutions, howerer, the pronunciation is 
regulated by the accent ; bnt when this is the case, the grave and circumflex 
accents are pronounced in the same manner as the acute. No dilSerence is 
therefore made in the pronunciation of r^ and ri^, nor between yimfuu and 
y^iAfuus. In these and all similar cases, the Greeks must have made distino* 

6, Qdie accent can stand only on one of the last three sylla^ 
bles of a word ; it was not any natural difficulty but merely 
Greek usage which prevented the accent from being placed 
further back than the antepenult 

6. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
this is long or short, e. g. koAos, 6vSfHinrov, woA^ios ; but upon the 
antepenult, only when the last syllable is short, and is also not 
long by position, e. g. ai^i^^xmro^* but Ai^Sfnanw. 

7. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two sylla- 
bles, and the syllable on which it stands must always be long 
by nature, e. g. rw^ (rSifui ; but it stands upon the penult only 
when the ultimate is short, or long only by position, e. g. rcXxof, 
^(p^ftOf wpa£i9f aZXa(f Gren« -cUos, fcoAavpo^, KWrrfXaj/, Ai^/mjvo^. 

RsM. 5. Also in substantives in -I^ and •&( (Gen. -Jicof, -Cirof), i and v long 
by natore, are considtrcd as short in respect to accentoation, e. g. ^ivi^, Gen. 
-flrof, KTJffOl, Gen. -vkos, 

8. If, therefore, the antepenult is accented, it can have only 
tbe ac^te ; but if the penult is accented* and is long by natiu^. 

€8 . ACCENTS. [{ 29. 

it must have the circumflex, when the ultimate is short, e. g. 
T€ixo^, TT/oaTTc, but thc acutc, when the ultimate ' is long, e. g 
r€t;)(ov9, TTparrui ; if the penult is short it has only the acute, e. g 
TaTTw, Tarrc. On the ultimate, either the acute or the circumflex 
stands, e. g. iran^, vaTfmv, nominatives accented on the ulti- 
^ mate usually have the acute, e. g. imrcvs Trora/M>4 ^p. 

Rbv. 6. In the inflection-endizigs, -«i and -oi, and in the adverbfi, vpiwoXmL 
and linrciAai, the diphthongs, in respect to the oocenl, are considered short, e. g. 
rpcCrc^oi, rivrerai^ yMoccM, tu^penroi^ X^P**^ ^^® optative endings, -c t and 
•a 1, e. g. rifi'tfom, ^KXefvoc, Xcfvoi, and the adverb of icoi, domi, <tf Aom^ are long; 
on the contrary, oTkoi, houses^ from oljeos. 

Rem. 7. In the old Ionic and Attic declension, m is considered as short 
in respect to accent, having only half its nsnal length, as it takes the place of o^ 
e.g. MffWActff, hfAy9W¥\ — v^Xf«r, x6\tw9 — ; XkHts, trpipmst Gen. ViMtt^ iyfipm\ 
bat if adjectives like t\c»9 are declined according to the third Dec, thej are 
accented. regnlarly, e. c^. ^iXoy^X«»f, ^iKorfiXvrot ; so also in the Dat. Sing, and 
PI., as well as in the,(}en. and Dat Dual, where the pcnnlt is long, e. g. tkynprns^ 

Mw» Mm»»» Mw- 

Rem. 8. In the words, c£^c, thai^ i^Xh certainljff the penult has the acute, 
apparently contrary to the rule ; bat these must bo treated as separate words. 
The accentuation of the words cfrc, o<^c, £sirc/», fjru, roi^sSc, etc., is to be 
explained on the ground, that they arc compounded with Enclitics (f 33). 

Rem. 9. According to the condition of the last syllable with respect to 
accent, words have the following names:'— 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute, e. g. rrrv^s, icojc^s, i^p ; 

(b) Paroxytones, when the penult has tlic acutc, e. g. T^hrrtt ; 

(c) Proparoxytones, when the antepenult has the acute, e. g. &y^pwrotf rw- 

(d) PcrispomSna, when the ultimate has the circumflex, e. g. Kaic«t ; 

(c) ProperispomSna, when the penult has the circumflex, e. g. vpSyiMf ^ 

kovca j 
(f ) Bazytoncs, when the ultimate is unaccented, e. g. woayfiaroy xpuyfia. 

' Hence the accent often enables us to determine the quantity of syllables, 
e. f;. from the acute on the antepenult of irot^^w, fw^^ptoj we mfer that the 
ultimate is short, otherwise thc accent could not stand further back than the 
pcnnlt. No. 6, above; — from the circumflex on viros and vpa^is, that those 
syllables are long by nature, 7*, — from the circumflex on funpa and «TcZpB« 
that the ultimate is short, 7 ; — from the acute on x^lp^ ^P^, and 'Hpa, tliai 
the ultimate is long, othen^ise the penult of tlicse words must 1>e circumtlcxcd, 
B; — from the acutc on <pi\07 und itoikIKos, that thc pf^nult of these words is 
short, otherwise they must have been circumflcxed, 8.— Tu. 


130. Change and Removal of the Accent by Inflec 
tion, Composition, and Contraction. 

1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in tlie quan- 
tity of its final syllable or in the nnmber of its syllables, there 
18 generally a change or removal of the accent 

(a) By lengthening the final syllable, 

(o) a Proparoxytone becomes a Paroxytone, e. g. n-oXe/iofi 

(fi) a Properispomenon, a Paroxytone, e. g. Ttixos, tcixows ; 
(y) an Qxytone, a Pcrispomenon, e. g. ^cos, ^coG. Yet this 
change is limited to particular cases. See } 45, 7, a. 

(b) By shortening the final syllable, 

(a) a dissyllabic Paroxytone with a penult long by nature 

becomes a Properispomenon, e. g. ^cvyw, ^vye, wparri 

(but TttTTc) ; 
(fi) a polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult is long 

or short, becomes a Proparoxytone, e. g. fiovXiwo, fiov" 


(c) By prefixing a syllable or syllables to a word, the accent 
is commonly removed towards the beginning of the word, e. g. 
^cvycD, €<f>€vyov; SO also in compounds, always in verbs, com- 
monly in substantives and adjectives, c. g. o^^ a-vvoBo^, Beoq 
^cXoi^cog, TifiT^ arlfio^, ^€vy€ aTro^cvyc. But whcn syllables 
are appended to a word, the accent is removed towards the 
end of the word, e. g. tvwtoi, rmrrofjLt^a, rv^^iToro/ic^a. 

HsKAKK 1. Tho partictdar cases of the change of accent by inflection, and 
the exceptions to the general rules hero stated, will be seen toIow, under tho 
ft2oentaation of the several parts of speech. 

2. The following principles apply in contraction : — 

( 1 ) When neither of the two syllables to be contmcted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is unaccented ; and tho 
syllable which had the accent jjrevious to contraction, still 
retains it, e. g. <^iXc< = j^tXct (but <^tA€<t = </), ylvci = ycVei (but 


(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is accented, 

(a) when the contracted syllable is the antepenult or penult, 
it takes the accent which the general rules require, e. ^. 

ayaxdo/uu = iyearupuBu ^>iXf6fi€P0S = ipiXovfuyos 

(b) when the contracted syllable is the ultimate, it takes the 
. acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted had 

the acute ; the circumflex, when the first of the syllables 
was accented, e. g. coraois sb iarw^, VX^ ^^ ^X^^* 

Rbx. 2. The exceptions to the principles stated, will be seen below, nndet' 
the contract Declensions and Conjugations. . 



J 31. L Grave instead of the Acute. — II. Crasis, — 
IIL Elision. — IV. Anastrophe, 

I. In connected discourse, the Qxytones receive the mark of 
the grave, i. e. by the close connection of the words witJi each 
other the shsurp tone is weakened or depressed, e. g. £i /i^ 
firjTpvirj ir€pucaXXrii 'Hcpt^Soia ^. But the acute must stand before 
every punctuation-mark by which an actual division is made 
in the thought, as well as at the end of the verse, e. g. *0 /acv 

Kvpo^ iiripajcr€ rov ircnxLfjuov^ oc 8i voXif/uoi aTTc^vyov. 

Exceptions. The InterrogatiYes r(f, r/, quis? who? quid? whaif always 
remain oxvtoncd. 

Beit ABE I. When an Oxytono Ss not closely connected with the other 
words, i. e. when it is treated grammatically, the acute remains, e. g. tlrh fii 
K4y€U — rh iyftp 6yofuu 

IL Words united by Crasis (§ 10), have only the accent oi 
the second word, that being the more important, e. g. T&yaSav 
from TO ayaSov. When the second word is a dissyllabic Paroxy- 
tone with a short final syllabic, the accent, according to i 30, 2, 
(2) (a), is changed into the circumflex, e. g. to «ros = tovito?^ 

tA oAXa = t^AAo, to Hpyov = rovfyyov ; ra oirXa = ^coTrXo, cyui otfjucu = 


IIL When an unaccented vowel is elided {i 13), the accent 
of the word is not changed, e. g. tovt cotcv. But if the elided 
▼owel is accented, its accent is thrown back upon the preceding 
syllable, as an acute ; yet^ when the elided word is a preposi- 
tion or one of the particles, dXAo, ov8^ /^^^< (and the poetic 
^ iSc), the accent wholly disappears, and also when the 
accented vowel of monosyllabic words is elided, e. g. 

tuffxP^ IXc|af :== titrxp tKtfyu olXA iyti = obV ky^ 

IV. Anastrophe. When a preposition follows the word which 
it should precede, the tone of the preposition naturally inclines 
back to its word, and hence the accent is removed from the 
ultimate to the penult; this drawing back of the accent is 
called Anastrophe (dmar/io^i^), e. g. 

f^Xt' ^^^ ^Qt M /idxyis rtuy &ro bat Axb y§ih 

*I^diaty xdra ** jcar2t *I^({injy koX&v leipt ** ir%p\ koXw. 

Bbic. 2. The prepositioiiB, Af&^, krri^ i^d, Btd, and the poetic ^o/, ^f ^/», 
SmJ, vapai, do not admit Anastrophe. If the preposition stands between an 
adjective and a snbstantive, according to Arutarchus the Anastrophe is found 
only when the substantire stands first, e. g. Edb^ Uti SiH^ckti (but Su^cm M 
B^bdy). Other Granunarians reject the Anastrciphe in both casesw— In poetiy, 
wtpt la snbject to Anastrophe only when it goTcms the Gen., bat then verj 
often, and even when the Gen. and wwpt ore separated by other words. Sec 
S 300, (c.) 

Rem. 3. Prepositions, moreover, admit Anastrophe, when they are used 
instead of abridged forms of the verb, e. g. &nx instead of kt^derbirri \ fi^ra, rdpa. 
In, (hro, ir/|f»i, Im, instead of the indicative present of clnu, compounded with 
these prepositions, e. g. iyit -rdpa instead of rdptifu, w4pi instead of vf^cm; 
also, when the preposition is separated from the verb and placed after it, which 
is often the case in the Epic dialect, e. g. ikiffat &ro wimas kroipwt. Bat the 
accent of kir6 is drawn back without any reason, in such phrases as kith ba}Juir' 
nif oiirciy, kwh ^kovov, h$f ^Xvf^of, and the like ; in such coses it is properly on 
the ultimate. 

♦ 32. V. Atonies or Proclitics, 

Atonies or Proclitics, are certain monosyllables which, in 
sonnected discourse, are so closely united to the following 

52 ENCLITICS. [f 331 

word, tliat they coalesce with it, and lose their accent Hiev 
•re: — 

(a) the forms of the article, 6^ ^, oi, <u; 

(b) the prepositions, ly, eis (U), Ik (i(), oW> ad; but i£ i( ia 
after the word which it governs, and at the end of a verse, 
or before a punctuation-mark, it retains the accent, e. g. 
KOKiov cf, II. (, 472 ; in prose, 1$ does not stand after its 

(c) the conjunctions, Ctq (as), c2; but if <us follows the word 
which it should precede, it has the accent ; this position, 
however, is found only among the poets, e. g. kojcoc w^ 
for a>f Kojcoi; 

(d) ov {ovK, ovx)t if^^l ^u^ ^t ^^6 ^^^ of a sentence and with 
the meaning No, it has the accent, ov (oj/jc). Comp. 
i 15, Hem. 2. 

} 33. VL Enclitics, 

Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, wliich, m 
connected discourse, are so closely joined, in particular cases, 
to the preceding word, that they either lose their tone or tliiow 
it back upon the preceding word, e. g. ^tXos rt?, 9roXc/t<>$ rts. 
They are : — 

(a) the verbs tlfii, to be, and fviftl, to «zy, in the Pres. Indie., cxcq>t the ftecond 
Pcrs. Sing., cT, thou art^ and ^f, thou sayett; 

(b) the following forms of the three personal pronoans in the Attic dia- 
lect : — 

I. P. S. ftOV 


II. P. S. trov 

IIL P. S. o5 Dual. <r^fy PI. aptai {p) 

I, Ay ; 

(c) the indefinite pronoans, rXs, rl, through all the cases and nmnbers, 
together with the abridged forms rw and t^, and the indefinite adverbs mif, 
9A, irfi, vo^, %(A(, %od4y, %ot, inrr4 ; but the corresponding interrogative pro- 
nouns are always accented, e. g. rit, rt, t&s, etc. ; 

(d) the following particles in the Attic ditlect, t4, ro(, y4, y(nf, Wp (and in 
the Epic, k4, k4v, v<i, ^£), and the inseparable particle U^ S 34, Rem. 3. 

Heuabk. Several small words are combined with these enclitics, forming 
with them one word, with a meaning of its own, e. g. fire, oiht, inffrt, firrt, 
itrtp, Urns, etr. 


♦ 34. Inclination of the Accent, 

1. Au Qxytone so unites with the following enclitic, that the 
accent, which is commonly grave in the middle of a sentence 
{i 31, 1), again becomes acute^ e. g. 

diSf res for ^p rls KoXit iartw for ko^^s iarlp 

Mai TUfff ** co) r»4f vvrofUs yM "^ iroriyi^ff yi 

icakis re ** loiXbt r4 wtrmftmt rtwn ** wrc^wl rcWf. 

2. A Perispomenon unites with tue following enclitic without 
further change of the accent, e. g. 

ffifrc for fdfrl f(A«irif for ^iX<7tU 

fAt Itraf ** ^t l0T/r miA»v riror ** koXov tu^s. 

l^EiLUiK I. A Perispomenon followed by a dissyUabic encliiic, is ir^anl d 
as an Ozytone. For as fAs iwra^t for example, are considered as one word in 
respect to accent, and as the circomflex cannot go farther back than the penult 
(4 29, 7), the Perispomenon most be regarded as an Oxytone. Long syUablci 
in enclitics are treated as short in respect to the accent ; hence ohrmHift thm- 
\ are riewed as separate words, e. g. aeoXAr rumv. 

3- A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabii- 
enclitic without further change of the accent ; but there is no 
inclination when the* enclitic is a dissyllable, e. g. 

fb<ot iiau for^ ^Uoff /tov but ^iXjK iffrltf^ ^(\oi ^atritf 
JUXoff vwf ** JUAm v^ff ^ JUAos vor/, HAAwy ruwy. 

Rex. 2. It is evident that if there was an inclination of the accent when a 
Paroxytone was foUowed by a dissyllabic enclitic, the accent would stand on 
the fourth syllable, e.g. ^'Aoi-^offiy, which is contrary to the usaxu uf \ 

4. A Pioparoxytone and a Properispomenon unite with tlio 
foDowing enclitic, and take an acute accent on the last syUa- 
ble; this syllable forms the tone-syllable for the following 
enclitic, as aySpvt'^os ri?* e. g. 

liw^ptnr^s rts for tb^ptrnt r\t ff&fid rt ibr irdfui r\ 

ii^pmrol rcrcf ** iy^penr6t ruf4s a&fid itrrir " ^«fia i^rty. 

Exeqftion. A Properispomenon, ending in | or ^, does not admit the indi- 
■ation of a dissyllabic enclitic, e. g. oSao^ Tty6s, o^Ao^ i^bf, ^6^ i^ty, ic^vi 
irrSMt AoiXfl^ i^rty. 


Rem. 3. The local suffix 9c ((c), which expresses the relation to a fiaoBt 
wfiither, coalesces with substantives according to the roles of inclination, e. g^ 

''0\vfiir6vlif 2^irrT<(vSc ovpeuf4yBt Ilv^a^c (from IXudift) 
tlp€$6sB€ 'EXcvffiMlSc Mtyupdlk 8<J/iorSc. 

So *Adijya{€ (i. e. *A^vas9€)j nAoreua^c (nXcrraiaf), x°^C^ (x<V^ Ace.) The 
suffix 8c when appended to the Demon, pronoun draws the accent' of ihM yro 
noun to the syllable before 8c. In the oblique cases, these strengthened 
pronouns are accented according to the rules for Oxytones, \ 45, 7 (a), e. g. 

r6<r9s—roa6^, rocoi^f To<r^9c, ro<Hp^§f iwrmf^^ 
Totos — roUs^t, njAiicof — njXuc^sSc, TooTi — ToufiJe, 

Ma — iv^dlk. 

5. When several enclitics occur together, each throws back 
Its accent on the preceding, e. g. ct wtp rk a-c fioC <lnj<ri vdrc 

i 36, Enclitics accented. 

Some enclitics, whose signification allows them to be in a measure indepen- 
dent, are accented in the following cases : — 

1. 'E<rr( (w) is accented on the penult, when it stands in connection with an 
Inf. for l|c0T< (r), and after the particles &XA*, ct, obm^ ft^f &s, lad, fth^ Brt, wov, 
nnd the pronoun rovT\ and also at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. 28car Imr 
(licet videre), cl IWir, o&jc lirriy, roiV lorir, lirri ^t^ etc; the other forms of 
tlfil which are capable of inclination, retain the usual accent on the ultimate, 
wlien thej stand at the be^nning of a sentence, e. g. thrl ^wi. 

2. The forms of ^fd which are capable of indination, retain the accent, 
when they stand at the beginning of a sentence, and also when they are sep- 
nratcd from the preceding word by a punctuation-marlc, e. g. ^/ul iy^, — "Erruf 

3. The enclitic Fers. pronouns, ^oD, cro(, vi^ of, a^i (v), retain their accent: 
(a) when an accented Prep, precedes, e. g. vc^ o^ou, /icrjt W, vpbs o^oT. But 

the enclitic fonns of the first Fers. pronoun are not used with accented 
prepositions, but, faistead of them, the longer and regularly accented 
forms, e. g. 

my* iyuov not vofkC fuw iep6s ifioi not Tp6s fun 

Remark 1 . There are, however, a few instances of enclitics of the first Pen. 
pronoun standing with accented prepositions, e. g. irpSs /it, i^L Symp. 218, c 

Rem. 2. When the emphasis is on the preposition, there is an inclination 
of the accent, e. g. M cc ff tr6y ^oi, X. An. 7. 7, 32 (o^tiuf you, rather than with 
you). — The enclitic forms are used with the unaccented prepositions, e. g. 6i 
iiovy tv fjuu, Us (Tc, Us ftt, Hk 0*0 V, |y aou But when the emphasis is on the pro* 
noun, there is no inclination, and instead of fiov, ftoi, fU, — ifioVf iiJuti, 1/*^, 
used, e. g. iv fnol, oAA* ov< ir ooL 


(b) The enclitic pronouns generally retain their accent when thej ate em- 
phatic, as in antitheses, e. g. i/i^ xal a4] ^ft^ 1^ 0-^ ; hence the forms oS, oT, 
I, aro accented only when they are nsed as reflexive prononns. 

4. The pronoon rls is accented when it stands at the beginning of a sentence, 
a. g. TtAs A^yovo'ir. 

5. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the encllde 
rests disappears by Elision, e. g. imX^f 8* itrrty^ but KoXhs 94 ifnuf-^voXXol 9 
ffk(r, bat voXAo) U ctcriy. 

4 36. Division of Syllables, 

PRKUMixAitr Remaskb. The dirision of syllables, according to onr mode 
of prononncing Greek, depends in part upon the place of the accent The 
term aecaU and accented^ thronghout these rules, is used with reference to oar 
prononciadon of the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek words* 

The accent (stress) is on the penalt in dissyllables, and on the antepennlt In 
polysyllables, when tne pennlt is short The accent on the penult or antepennlt 
ii called the primary accent If two syllables precede the primary accent, thers 
Is a secondary accent on the first syllable of the word. 

The following rules exhibit the more general method of dlTidiag syliabkii 
except where the pronunciation is regulated by the Greek accent : — - 

1. A single consonant between the vowels of the penult and ultimata b 
)oined to the latter, e. g. Ik-yttt 'A'P^t /u(-Aa, T-vo, l-^6s, t-x^t ir6k9'tti0Sf ffTpirt»» 
/a, x^^C"*^'! ^X*0^'» ^o\A-fiAif, 

ExeepHom. In dissyllables, a single consonant following t or e is joined to 
the first syllable, e. g. X^y-os, r^k-os, r9p-(, 8r-i, iroX-^, ^*^$ tf^rtfX'-w. 

2. The double consonapts { and 4^ are joined to the vowel preceding them ; 
e. g. rdtf«, Zti^s, vfla^'a, iitrrrrai'dfuwos* But ( is joined to the vowel following 
it, except when it stands after c or 0, or after an accented vowel in the ante* 
pennlt, ^^ in which case it is joined with these vowels; c. g. pofd'(u, rd/u-fc, 
kfvdr(m ; bnt r/Mbrrf-o, SC'^s, vofii(-ofuVf afrrdi-ofui^* 

3. A single consonant (except in the penult) before or after the vowels a and 
I having the accent, and also a single consonant before or after c and having 
the accent, is joinel to these vowels ; e. g. iy^dt, Tor-^fiis, fia-^tK-da, i^roXr 
mfidtt^ h^fifTHpoSt ri^o/icy, A^op-lo, fb^ucUi, ivi-rifi-ta', for a single consonant 
after a long vtfcI, etc, see 4. 

JExeepiim, A single consonant preceded by a, and followed by two vowels, 
the first of which is c or 1, is joined to the vowel after it ; e. g. ^rpa-rid, hwrrJ^ 
rc»t, tfrpa-Ti^rqf (not crpen-'id, etc.). 

4. A single consonant after a long vowel, a diphthong or v, is joined to the 
vowel following; e. g. Atottj-A^i, i^fuposy ^tX^tpos^ ^oXov-Mo, iuco^-aarts 

Exemption, A single consonant following long a or 1 in the antepenult, and 
having the accent, is joined with the vowel preceding; e. g. Air(Mrp6^«ro, lrf> 


5. Two single consonants coming together in the middle of a word, an 
f eparated ; e. g. vok-Xd, io--T((yau, re^-yjjKOi do^^oAcctfr , ffXirroTc^-nji. 

Exoqpdon, A mnte and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowel 
e. g. MTfwaxoy. 

6. When three consonants come together in the middle of a word, the last 
two, if a mute and liquid, are joined to the following vowel j if not, the last 
only ; e. g. &y-^pavos, &K-S/>fa, but ir4p^^y, 

7. Compounds are divided into their constituent partS) when the first part 
ends with a consonant } but if the first part ends with a vowel followed bj a 
•bort syllable, the compound is divided, like a simple word *, e. g. iicfiabm^ 
^vytK'^yriffiSt rp^co'is, &i^-a<ric, but ^o-^^n|f, not Wo^k-^n^s\ so wofmr 

i 37. Punctuation-markb-'^DiastSle. 

•• The colon and semicolon are indicated b/ the same mark, a point above 
the line, e. g. e5 tkt^as • vdyrts yhp liiMXiynvtut, The interrogation-mark is 
our semicolon, e. g. Tls ravra ivolrjfrtr; who did this f The period, comma, and 
mark of exclamation have the same characters as in 'English ; the marie of 
exclamation Is rarelj used. 

2. The Diastule (or H3q>odiastule), which has the same character as the 
comma, is used to distinguish certain compound words from others of liko 
sound, but of dissimilar meaning, e. g. 5, n, vohatecer^ and Sri, that, since ; 8, re, 
whatever^ and Ih-c, when. More recently, such words are generally separated in 
writing icarely, e. g. t n, 5 re. 



i 38. Division of the Parts of Speech,^^ Inflection 

1. Etymology relates to the form and meaning of the Parla 
of Speech. 

2. The Parts of Speech are : — 

(1) Substantives, which denote anything which exists, any 
object (person or thing) ; as man, rose, house , tirtue; 

(2) Adjectives, wliich denote a property or quality; as ^rcat^ 
smallt red, beautiful, hateful; 


(3) Pronouns, which denote the relation of the object spoken 
of to the speaker (( 86) ; as I^ iho^ he, Hdi, Hua, mine, tliWfi^ 

(4) Numerals, which denote the number or quantity of an 
object; as one, two, three, many, few; 

(5) Verbs, which denote an action or state ; as to bloom, to 
tcake, to sleep, to hve, to censure ; 

(6) Adveibs, which denote the way and manner in which an 
action takes place, or the relations of place, time, manner, qual- 
ity, and number; as here, yesterday, beautifully (= in a beautiful 
manner), perhaps^ often, rarely; 

{7) Prepositions, which denote the relation of space, time, 
etc. of an object to an action or thing; as (to stand) before the 
house, after sunset, before sleep ; 

(8) Ck>njunctions, which connect words and sentences, or 
determine the relation between sentences ; as and, but, because, 

3. Words are either essential words, i. e. such as express a 
notion, or idea, viz. the substantive, adjective, verb, and the 
adverbs derived from them ; or formal words, i. e. such as 
express merely the relations of the idea to the speaker or some 
one else, viz. the pronoun, numeral, preposition; conjunction, the 
adverbs derived from them, and the verb cTvai, to be, when it is 
used as a copula, with an adjective or substantive for its predi- 
cate; as o MfSfxatrsK ^vqroi icriv. 

Remask. Besides tb« parts of speech above mentioned, there are certain 
erganic sounds, called inteijections ; as aku I oh I ah I They express neither 
an idea nor the relation of on idea, and hence are not to be considered as proper 
words. — Prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs not derived from atyectivcs 
«nd snbetaatives, are included under the common name of Particles. 

4. Inflection is the variation or modification of a word in 
order to indicate its different relations. The inflection of the 
substantive, adjective, pronoun, and numeral, is termed Declen* 
sion ; the inflection of the verb. Conjugation. The other parti 
of speech do not admit inflection. 



The Substantive. 

♦ 39. Different kinds of Substantives. 

1. When a substantive (( 38) indicates an object, which haa 
an actual, independent existence, it is termed a Concrete substan- 
tive, e. g. fnan, woman, Hon, earth, flower, host; but when the 
substantive indicates an action or quality, which is only conceived 
qfvLS being something actual or independent, it is called an 
Abstract substantive, e. g. virtue, wisdom. 

2. The Concretes are, 

(a) Proper nouns, when they denote only single persons or 
things, and not a class ; as Cyrus, Flato, Hellas, Alliens; 

(b) Appellatives, when they denote an entire class or an 
individual of a class ; as mortal, tree, man, wonum,flower. 

Bbmabk. AppellatiTCS are called material nonns, when they indicate the 
simple material, c. g. mUk, dual, water, gold, coin, grain ; collectiTe noons, when 
they designate many single persons or things as one whole, e. g. mankind, 
cavalry, fleet ; nouns of quantity, when they denote measnre or weight, e. g. a 
hiuhd, a pound. 

MO. Gender of Substantives. 

Substantives have three genders, as in Latin ; the gender is 
determined partly by the meaning of the substantives, and 
partly by their endings. The last mode will be more fully 
treated under the several declensions. The following general 
rules determine the gender of substantives by their mean* 
ing: — 

1. The names of males, of nations, winds, months, and most 
rivers, are masculine, e. g. 6 ^ouriXcv?, tJie king; ol ^lEAXi/vcf, o 
rofu^Xouv (January, nearly) ; 6 'AA^to9, the Alpheus ; o ci^, tlte 
toutheast wind. 

Bemaxk 1. Exceptions: DiminatiTes in -oy, which are not proper names 
(these vat conceivea of as things and are neuter) ; e. g. rh fuipdKtoy, tite lad 
jbut proper names of females in -or are feminine, c. g. ri A€6yrioy) \ also rh 
Mpdvoioy, a dave^ mancipium ; rk xaiitKd, a favorite ; and some rivers, e. g. 
^ 2t^{, and also some according to the ending, e. g. ^ \4^. 

2. The names of females are feminine, c. g. 17 /^-T^fr/p, mother. 

140.] GfiNDEA or STTfiSTANTIVES. 69 

3. The names of the letters, infinitives, all indeclinable 
words, and every word used as a mere symbol, are neuter, e. g. 
TO XofipSa, TO rvwrtiv, tfu striking; to fJLT^rqp, the word motJur, 

Rem. 2. Tho gender of the names of moBntains is determined by their 
endings ; hence (a) nuttcuUne^ 'EAZjh^, -mkoi , etc ; those in -of, Gen. -ov, e. g. 
Iliypw^f : in -M, H», e. g.'A^wy (d^pu^ deriyed from tho name of a person, 
is particnlarly to be observed) \ (b) feminine^ those in -^ (»), Gen. ^tf e. q» 
Afrm, M8i), Ofni ; those in -if and -vf , e. g. 'AXny, Gen. -ca»y, "hXwtiS^ -m^i^, 
Kilpsyi^s, -i3os, "Odfvf, -mrs (maflcnline in Lat), Ik^t, -fdoy j (c) nsuter, those 
in -09 f e. g. A&Koiovy Il^^ioy. 

Rbm. S. The gender of the names of places also is determfaied almost entirely 
hj the endings ; only a few of these are feminine, properly agreeing with the fem- 
inine appellirtiTes 79, X^^ i^as (i. e. vimffa x^)i «^^^ to bo supplied wlUi 
them ; (a) names of cities and islands in -«y, -ov, e. g. ^ K^pmAof [WXis], 4 'P^Soi 
[v^of], 1^ AijXas [rnaosl (except 6 *Oyxn^6s, 6 ^O^onr^r, 6 AiyioA^f, 4 KAimvQSi 
nsnally S *Opxotuv6sf S AXiapros \ but generally ^ Tl^\os and i ^ZwtStofpos) ; and 
the following names of countries : ^ A^nnrror, 4 XtMytiaoSf i llTcipor, ^ IlcXa- 
WmiffVf ; (b) names of cities in -m^, e. g. ^ Bo^vA^r, -mms, ^ Amniaiptnff -«awf , 
4 'A9di|8^r, -«yof, i^ Xa^jofi^f -^raf, i^ Kaf»x*l^t -^v (except 4 Oirt^r and ^ 
Bpovpitr, -dyos, usually 4 Mofia^ciy, -tfpvof : but commonly ^ iuev^Pf -drof) ^ (c) 
4 Tpotj^r, 'npos. The gender of the otnens is determined by the endings. 

(a) An names of countries in -of. Gen. -ov (except those named above), art 
masculine, e. g. 6 B^oropor, 'Iirdm^f , n^yrof , 'EAA^nroKrof , AfyioA^s ; all plural 
names of cities in -01, Gen. -«y, e. g. ^fxnnrot ; names of cities in -oC; , Gen. 
-oSrrot, e. g. 4 T^vs (some of these are used both as masculine and femininoi 
e. g. #iXovf ; *Afui^ovs, KcpewoCs, 'Pa/Krovf , 2i8ovf , and Tooirc^oSf , are feminine 
only) ; those in -of. Gen. -oKroi, e. g. 6 Tipas] those m -cvi. Gen. -cwi, e. g^ 
6 #ivoTf^t ; finally, ^ Mdtoirt, Gen. -ifrof ; 

(b) All names of countries of the first Dec. and those of the thfard, which 
have feminine endings, are feminine (see ^ 66, II), e. g. ^ 'EXcMrli, -<iwf, 4 
SoXiyJs, -lyoT, ttc : 

(c) All in -or, Uen. -ov ; plurals in -a, Gen. -«nr, and those fai -osi Gen. -svi, 
are neuter, e. g. t^ "lAior, t^ A««Krp«, r^ "Apyos^ Gen. -twy. 

4. The names of persons which have only one form for the 
Masc. and Fern, are of common gender, e. g. 6 i) ^w, god and 
goddess; 6 ^ inu9, 6oy and^^ 

Bbm. 4. Jfoi»6£0 substaatives are soch as change their ending so as to 
indicate the natural gender, e. g. 6 fiaffiKt^^ king; ii fiarlKtia, quten. Sco For- 
mation of Words. 

Rbm. 5. Substantives (mostly names of animals) which have but one gram- 
matical gender, either Masc. or Fem., to denote both genders, are called 
Epieenet (frfitoira), e. g. 4i itKAwii^, the/ox^ whether the male or female fox ; q 
HfKTUy tM hear; ii ttd^tdKM^ ike camdf 6 fuh, ike mouse; ^ x*^^''^) ^ ewaUow ; 
il 0&, the tkeep ; ^ /Sovi (collectively), al fi^s, cattle; 6 twwos, hone (indefinitely), 
but in Fl., al hnroi ; but when the natural gender is to bo distinguished, iff^^ 
male^ or b^Xvs,femaley is added, e. g. Xoyvbt 6 dijKvSf fAs female mrt ; AXihri|| 4 
t^^tpf^ the maUfox ; or the gender may be indicated bv prefixing the article, or 
hy^ another adjective, e. g. 6 Apmos, the male bear. Some masculine names of 
a n im a l s have also tho corresponding feminine forms, e. g. 6 \4mw^ a Uma: % 
X^oxra, a lionets. Sco Rem. 4. — Here belong, in the second place, the Masc 
names of persons in the PL, which include the Fcm^ c. g. ol yoyusj tfye partnte 
al vwSff, liberi, the ckildren (sons and daughters). 



Ml. Number f Case, and Declension. 

1. The Greek has three Numbers ; the Singular, denoting one 
person or thing ; the Plural more than one ; and the Dual, two. 

Rbmabk 1. The daal is not often nsed^ it is found most frcquentlj in thm 
Attic dialect ; it docs not occur in the .£ohe, nor in the Hellenistic Greek 

2. The Greek has five Cases,^ Nominative, Genitive, Dative, 
Accusative, and Vocative. 

Rem. 2. The Nom. and Yoc, as thcj represent an object as independent of 
any other, are called independent cases {casus rwH) ; the others, as tfaey rep- 
resent an object as dependent on or related to some other, are called dependent 
cases {casus oUiqui), 

Rbu. 3. Neuter substantives and adjectires have the same form in the Nom., 
Ace, and Voc. of all numbers. The dual has only two case-endings ; one for 
the Nora., Ace, and Voc, the other for the Gen. and Dat. 

3. There are in*the Greek three different ways of inflecting 
substantives; distinguished as the First, Second, and Third 

^ Rem. 4. The three declensions may be reduced to two principal declensions, 
viz. the strong and the toeak. The case*endings of the strrnig are prominent and 
clearly distinguishable, while those of the weak are less distinctly marked. 
Words of the third Dec belong to the strong, those of the first and second to 
the weak. In the third Dec. Uie case-endings uniformly appear pun; in the 
first and second this is less so, because in these declensions tne stems end in a 
vowel, and hence combine with the case-endings which begin with a rowel. 
The inflexion of both the principal declensions, in tlie Masc. and l^em., is m 
follows : >— 



DnaL 1 









I— n s 








V and a 










} 42. First Declension. 

The first declension has four endings, a and 17 feminine ; as 
and 7f^ masculine. 

See a fuller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, f 868, seq. 

♦ 43.] 












d t or iy 
i»f d* ^ff 

V f V 
&y ay rfv 

d & n. 

d» or Iff 

f V 
d If, d. 










Remark 1. It will be seen from the above terminations, that the plaral as 
well as the dual endings are the same, whatever may be the form of the singa- 

Rex. 2. The original ending of the Dat. PI. was aivi (v), as in the second 
Dec. o((ri(y), e.g. Sfiraxtri, rculin, Kafurcutri^ ^toTa-tf trynKpoim, iLya^t&t. This 
form is also found in the Attic poets, and is not foreign even to prose, at least 
to that of Plato, especially in the second Dec. Even tbe Ionic form -p^i {r) 
IS sometimes used by the Attic poets. 

} 43. Nouns of the Feminine Gender, 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in a or a, wliich remains in all the 
Cases, if it is preceded by /)> e, or c (a pure), e. g. x^f^ ^<^^^>* 
V^fOyform; a^la^wisdom ; xp^ia^vtUity ; ^ouaL, benevolence; here 
also belong the contmcts in a (see No. 2), e. g. /Ava; some sub* 
stantives in d, e. g. ^iXoAa, war-cry, and some proper names, e. g. 
'AyfipofieSo, K-qha, PcXd, <>iXofi^Xa, Gen. -a$> Dat -^ Acc. •av. 

KsHARK 1. Th? following words whose stem ends in p, take the ending i| 
instead of a: /r^pii, maiden; xSfi^y chedc; iiprj, neck; i^dprj, water-grud; and 
some proper names introduced from the Ionic dialect, e. g. *L^6pvi ] the iy then 
remains through all the cases of the Sing. — If any other vowel than c or i, 
precedes, the Nom. and all the coses of the Sing, have 7f, c. g. dxo^, ^v4> triccv^, 
f«^; except irrfa, fpxtss; xp^t color f <rr6a^ porch; yia, field; ciitla^ gourd; 
Kap^Of walnut-tree ; ixAa, olive-tree ; iiAMdy thresldng-floor ; Naucurday all Gen. -of. 

(b) Tlie Nom. ends in a, which remains only in the Acc. and 
Voc. ; but in the Gren. and Dat, it is changed into rj, if the a is 
preceded by A, AA, cr, ara- (tt), f, (, \j/. 

Rem. 2. The ending is commonly in a whoa r precedes, c. g. Hx^*^ (^^ ^' 
pecially in words in -atya) ; but ri is often found, as is always the case in the 
suffix ir6yii, c. g. tv(ppoir6;/7j, also do/iny, Tpifumi and Tpifipa, wtltni and wtuta, 
Atatra is the only word ending in a preceded by a sin'x'e t. 

(c) In other cases, the Nom. ends in rj, wliich remains 
throughout the singular. 




2. If a is preceded by c or a, -ca is contracted in most worda 
into Vf SLnd -aa into a in all the Cases (coinp. fiopfiois, i 44, 3}. 
The final syllable retnains circumflexed in all the Cases. 

Bem. 3. The first Dec. is called the a declension, as its nninflected fonns 
end in a, e. q. yv^firi from the nninflected yy^fua (coinp« oiw/a), rwyiat from 
the nninflected ytavia, voxirris from To^trta; the second, the o declension, aa 
its nninflected foims end in o, e. g. \6yos, nninflected form A^ ; the third, the 
eoruanani declension, as its nninflected forms end in a consonant, and the vowels 
and V, which originated from consonants. 





through all the cases. 

b) d through 


c) Af Gen. i|f. 1 







S. N. 




























































































Remark 1. On the form of the article rt& instead of ri, see § 241, Hem. lo. 
On the declension of the article 4, see § 91. The i standing before the singa* 
lar and plnral Voc. is a mere exclamation. 

Bem. 2. On tlie conti-action of -ca into -i|, see § 9, II. (a) ; in the plural and 
dnal of the first and second declensions, however, -ca is contracted into a. 
Comp. 4 9, II. (b). Nouns in -aa are contracted as follows: K. fiyda, fiya 
{mina)j G. fivdaSf fiyasy D. /u^, fiya, A. ftydos , uyay\ PI. K. ^lyai, etc. 

i 44. IL Nouns oj' the Masculine Gender, 

1. The Gen. of masculine nouns ends in -ou; nouns in -as 
ret; tin the a in the Dat., Ace, and Voc., and those in -179 retain 
the 7j in the Ace. and Dat. Sing. 

2. The Voc. of substantives in -179 ends in a : — 

(1) All in "rrp, e. g. roiorrj*:, Voc. to^oto, 7rpo<l>-qn^, Voc. irpo^- 

t4 ; (2) all in -179 composed of a substantive and a verb, e. g 

y€Q}fi€Tprj^, Voc. ycoj/xcrpa, fivpowiaXrjs, <» ScUvC'SeUcr^ Voc. fivpo 

• 44.] 

«asc(;line nouns. — fikst declension. 


vStka; (3) national names in -179, e. g. n^xn7«, a Persian, Voc. 
Hifxra. -^ AH Other nouns in -17s have the Voc. in 17, e. g. Tl4poTf^ 
JPerses (the name of a man), Voc. JUptnj, 

3. The remarks on contract feminine nouns (i 43, 2)» ap- 
ply to Masc nouns contracted from -«&$, e. g. 'Epft^, )3o^pas. 
In fiopia^, the ca is contracted into a, and not into rf, since p 
precedes, i 43, 1 (a). The doubling of the p in /So^mi? is merely 

RxKABx 1. Contmy to f 43, I, compoimcU of pMrpiw {to mecuwre)^ m 
y99»fUrpfiSjead in -i|s instead of -at ; on the contrary, ievoiral proper names, etc., 
as lUKomSias and yanfUas^ a nobUy end in -at instead of -qs. 

Rem. 2. Sereial masculine noons in -as hare the Doric Gen. in a, name?/, 
iuTp9^jtiaSf fofrpaXolaSf pabidde, matricide; hfm^od'^pas, fowler; also sereral 
proper names, particnlarly those which are Doric or foreign, e. g.^TAoi, Gen. 
"Yaa, Sic^off, -d, *AindfiaMt -d, St^AAof, -d; (the pare Greek, and also seyeral 
of the celebrated Doric names, e. g. 'Apxfir^t AtmrlZas, notwarfar (also the 
Boeotian 'ET^M(v(6y8as), commonly have w\) finallj, contracts in as^ e. g. 
BofipSa, Gen. fio^ 


Sing. N. 










1 lif^l 




Plur. N. 




















Rex. 3. The Ionic GenitiTe-ending -c» of Masc. noans in -^s ff SIl), is 
retained eren in the Attic dialect in some proper names, e. g. e(U«« from 
9aX9f»T^» from T^p^f. — The contract fiofi^ is also found in the Attic 
writers in the nncontractcd form ; thus, fiopdas, X. An. 5. 7, 7. PI. Phacdr. 229, 
b. fiop4o0f Th. 3, 23. fiopiw, 3, 4. 

Kem. 4. The ending t^r occnrs, also, in the third Dec. To the first Dor. 
belong : (a) proper names in Alfis and -f(9i|s» e. g. 8ouiri9(8i}f , *Arp«^T (from 
'Arpc and ^171), MtXTu(9i}f, as well as gi:ntilc noans, e. g. Sraprt^Trrt; (b) nouns 
in -Ti|f derived from rcrbfi, e. g. 'roi^n^r from woi4a»\ (c) compounds consisting 
of a substantive and verb, or of a substantive compounded with another of th« 
fint Dec, e. g. wwJ^f^^Sy i9ijBAwrr<6Aijs, kpxMa\t, 


4 45. Quantity and Accentuation of the First 


a. Quantity. 

1. The Nom. ending a is short in all words, which have tlie Gen. in -lyf [f 43, 
1 (b)] ; bnt long in those which have the Gen, in -at, e. g. irrfX^ tntiif «v^to, 
woiSc/d, xp^fd, XP^ *^ Vt^^p^ Aaifiit dAoAd, etc ; the same is tme of the Fem. 
ending of adjectives in os, e. g. iKw^^pa, tucaia. 


The following classes of words have a short in the Nom. :— 

(a) Dissyllables, and some Polysyllabic names of places in -atS^t.^. 'lorCom, 

(b) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -cift, e. g. iiXfi^tiOj M^cio, 0atrl\tuL, 
queen, yXvKttdj except abstracts from verbs in-t^Vf c. g. jSairiXete, kh^ 
dom ; ZovXflot servitude (from /IcwcAciW, 9ovA€^) ; 

(c) the names and designation of females, etc. in -rpia, c. g.^dUrpio, afimtde 
piusician, words in -v?&, e. g. fivlo, rcrv^io, the nnmcral /dd, and, finaDj, 
some poetic words ; 

(d) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -oift, e. g. tfhwof Atfoia; 

(e) words in -pfi whose penolt is long by a diphthong (except ov), by, y, or 
by fPf e. g. rei/Mt, fidxaupa ; y^^i^a, o^pa ; n^^^ *Zralpa, waXadrrpa^ 
A&pa^ ^oT^/w, KoWtpetf are exceptions. 

2. The Yoe. ending a is always short in nouns in -^f ; but always long it 
nouns in -ds, e. g. woX2r(i from yoX/inff, ytayla from rfoWot. The quantity of 
Fem. nouns in -d and -a, is the same in the Voc. as in the Kom. 

3. The Dual ending a is always long, e. g. Mo6ird from Movnu 

4. The Ace. ending ok is like the Nom., e. g. MoSo'&y, x^P^ ^^^"^ Movvi^ 

5 The ending as is always long, e. g. rkt rptar4(as from rpdTtCeit 6 pwA&s^ 
rovs y€ayids, rris olxlaSf rhs oIkISls* 

b. Accentuation. 

6. The acc«nt remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom., as long as the lawi 
bf accentuation permit {\ 90), 


(a) The Voc. 8^itnror« fVom Vcrr^r, lord; 

(b) The Gen. Fl. of the first Dec always has the final syllable top circum- 
flexed, which is caused by the contraction of the old ending datv, e. g 
Xccuyfiy from K^aiya, vtaofAv from vttufios, — But the substantives, xp^ 
Tift, creditor; i/piti, anchovy; irriiriai, monsoons; and x^**^*^'* vnld-boar, 
are exceptions \ in the Gen. PI. they remain Paroxytones, thus XF^^^^x 
h/^{m¥^ inivitty (but &^m»k, xftumw from i^v^f, wiapt; XfiV^rrSt, us^ul). 




On the accentuation of Adjectives, see f 75. 

7 Tho accent of the Nom. is changed, according to the quantity of the final 
■jUable, thus: — 

(a) Oxytones become Fcrispomena in the Gen. and Dat of the three num- 
bers, e. g. (Nom. rifiii) rtftys, -fy -&v, -cuy, -cusi this holds, also, in the 
second Dec.; e. g. «^c^f, •oG, -^ -«y, 'oTy^ 

(b) Paioxytones with a short penult remain so through all the Cases, except 
the Gen. PL, which is always circnmflexed on the last syllable; but 
Farozytones with a long penult become Froperispomena, if the last syl- 
lable is short, as In the Nom. Fl., and in the Voc. Sing, in a of Masc. 
nouns in -nis (f 44), e. g. 71^/117, yiwftaif but yiwnM¥\ T&Khjis, iraATro, 
voXTrcu, but roXirAr ; on the contrary, 8fici|, Sficoi, but Surdr ; 

(c) Froperispomena become Faroxytones, if the last syllable is long, e. g. 
MoMrft, fHoiinis ; 

(d) Froporoxytoncs become Faroxytones, if the last syllable is long, e. g. 

M6. Second Declension, 
The Second Dedension has two endings, os and ov; nouns 

in -0$ are mostly masculine, but often feminine {k 50) ; those 
m 'Qv are neuter; except Fem. diminutive proper names in -ov, 
e. g. ij FAw^iov (♦ 40). 



























and c w. 




Remask 1. The Gen. and Dat. endings of the different genders are tho 
same in all numbers; neuters hare the lAom^ Aec, and Yoe. alike in aQ 
ntcabers, and in the plural they end in a. 

[.2. On th3 form of tho Dat Fl om-i (r), see S 4S, Bern. & 








b xAy-os 
TOW XAy-ov 
T# Xiy-ip 
rhv x4y-oy 
i X&ft 


^ yTieos 
rris yiivov 
rn yinr^ 
tV yrjcoy 
A rqrc 


rov ^tov 

r^ ^v 
rhy ^6y 

& ^€^1 


6 iiyytXos 


rh 9VK9y 
rov o^icov 

rh ffwtoy 
& rwmr 


ol xSyot 
r&y X^y^y 
rots X6y-cis 
& X^oi 

al yriffoi 
r&y y4iffmy 
r^s y^aovs 
& y^aoi 

ol t^tol 
r&y »€&y 
ro7s ^o7s 
rohs ^€o6s 

& ^€0l 






rk cvKu 
r&y rinty 
rois 0^Mf 
T& crvnt 
& irvKo, 


T& Xiy-w 

T& r4ia'99 
reuy y^troty 

ri» bnA 
roty btoty 


rif o^Km 
roof ffvKQty, 

Rem. 3. The Voc. of words in -os commonly ends in f, though (ftcn in -os, 
c. ^. & 4)(Ac, and & ^ixos ; always & d«^s in classic Greek. 

i 47. Contraction of the Second Declension. 

1. A small number of substantives, with o or c before the 
case-ending, are contmcted in the Attic dialect (♦ 9). 




6 wx6os vXovs 
rrXSav rrXod 
wX^ frX^ 
vX6oy wXovy 
irXSt irXou 


6 wtpbrXoos ittpiwXovs 
irvpnrAoov it^pntXiow 
w(ptirX6^ TtptvX^ 
TtpiirXooy irtpiirXovv 
wtptirXof w(plT?iOV 


rh hcr4oy hffrovy 
iar4ov 6€rov 
h<rr4ip h<rr^ 
iffr4oy hcrmhf 
6<rr4oy oaro&y 


wX6oi irAoi 
irA^i' wX&y 
irX6ois irXoiS 
wX6ovf vXovs 
TX6ot irXot 

wtpiwXooi irtplirXoi 
irtpivX4wy wtpiwXaoy 
wtpnrX6ots irtptwXois 
irtptirXSovs TtpiwXovs 
frtpixXooi vtptwXoi 

hcr4a Ivra 
6<rr4uy hirr&v 
6ffr4ois hffr^s 
6or4a iera 
6cr4a 6ffra 


wXSv wXA 
irXioiy wXouf 

V€parx6v wtphXM 
w^parXiouf wtpiwXoty 

har4m Jrn6 
ioT4tuy ^aroty 

Onlj the foUbwing noons besides the above are contracted in this manner: J 
yAos, roDr, ihe mind ; A ^s, ^oSt, a stream ; 6 bpovt, noise ; h xyovs, doisn ; S iSeA* 
^8ovt, a nephew; 6 dvyttrptiovs, grandson ; 6 iu^mMfs, ton of a nster^t duld, 

KexARK. Uncontractcd forms sometimes occur even in the Attic dialect 
though seldom in substantives, e. g. i^, Plato, Prot 344, a ; much oftcner in 
adjectives, partlcalarly neuters in -oa, as t& fti^oo, ir^pixXxxi. On the contrac 
lion of ca into a in the PI. see 4 9» H* (b). 

H 48, 49.J 



f 48. The Attic Second Declension, 

Several substantives and adjectives have the endings an 
(Masc and Fern.) and cuv (Neut), instead of o« and ov; they 
retain the ta tluongh all the Cases instead of the conunon 
Towels and diphthongs of the second Dec. and subscribe i 
under o> where the regular form has <p or oi ; thus, ov and a 
become w ; os» ov, and ow become loi, mvy and 019 ; oc, 019, and otv 
become 1^ <^, and <pv ; — as y, and ^y remain unchanged. The 
Voc. is the same as the Nom 


Sing. N. 

^ G. 





1^ jci(A-«r 


6 Aoy^ff 




rh iufdy9-my 


Plar. N. 









D. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 



• KdX-n 



Bemark 1. Some words of the BiUsc and Fem. gender often reject the v 
in the Ace. Sing., namely, b Kayt&s, the hare; (Ace. rhv Xaeydy and Aoyci), and 
commonly i^ tus, the dawn ; 4 'tAwf, a threshing-floor; ^ K/»f, ^ Kms, d^ASpf, ^ 
Tc«r» and the adjectives Synp^s, not old; MwXnvs^fvM; Mpxp^w^ guiUy. 

Rem. 2. This Declension is termed Attic, becanse, if a word of this class 
has another form, e. g. Ac^y and Ao^x , yc^s and mJi, Mcy/Ac«»t and Mci^/AdoT, 
the Attic writers are accustomed to select the form in >ce»f ; though, in the 
best Attic writers, the non- Attic forms also may be found. On tlie interchange 
of the long vowel in this Declension, see f 16, 5. 

M9. Accentuation of Second Declension. 

1. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the qnan 
tity of the final syllable permits; the "Voc. &8cA4>c from &8cA^y, brctiur^ is 
an exception. 

2. The change of accent is the same as in the first Dec. (S 45, 7); in the 
Qen. PI., however, only oxytones, e.g. I^c^f, are perispomena; the rest are pro 
paroxytones. See the Paradigms. 


S. The following exceptions to the rules given for the accentuation of con 
tracts in ^ 30, 2, should be obsei-vcd : (a) the Dual in « of words in hms^ -cos. 
-coy, has the acute instead of the circumflex, e. g. ir\^ = irAc^, ootcm = iaT^, 
instead of irX», oaru] — (b) compounds and polysyllabic proper names, which 
retain the accent even on the penult, when it would regularly stand as a cir 
cnmflex on the contracted syllable, e. g. w«piwK6'0v » vtptwKov (instead of 
w9piwXod)f from wtplirkiios =^T^x?iovsj Uttpt^-au ^^Tl^iptdov (instead of 
nttpt^ov)y from Tlftpl^oos s= Xltipl^ovs j also adjectives, e. g. cvy^-ov s=^9liyov (not 
wrov), from ttvoos = ctfyovs ; yet the accent is never removed to the antepenult * 
thus, irtplirKoi, Lot v4ptir\oi\ KcutSyoi, not kJucopoi] — (c) t^ Kdytoy^ houket^ takes 
the circumflex on the ultimate, in the contract forms; hence k^ot s jcay^ovy 
(instead of nivow) \ — (d) words in -8c^s ^ iods denoting kindred, have the cir- 
cumflex instead of the acute on the ultimate, e. g. AScA^idt^s « iScX^SoOy, 
nephew (instead of &8cA4)i8o^s). It may be stated as the rule, that all simple 
snbstantiTes and adjectives in -cos and -oos take the circumflex on the contracted 
syllable, hence KoyovVf &8cX^<8o05, xp^^^ (from xp^^'^f)* 

4. In the Attic Dec^ PropaFoxytoncs retiun the acute accent on the antepe- 
nult through all the cases and numbers. See § 29, Rom. 7. Oxytones in -As 
retain the acute accent in the Gen. Sing., contrary to § 45, 7 (a), e. g. Ac^. fl 
bere absorbs o, the inflection-vowel of the Gen. (e. g. \6yo-o =■ xJyov), which 
accounts for this unusual accentuation, thus Xm6 instead of Xci^-o. 

♦ 50. Remarks on the Gender of the Ending os. 

Substantives in -os arc regularly Masc. ; yet many arc Pern. In addition to 
the names of countries, cities, and islands, mentioned under the general mle 
in S 40, the following exceptions occur, which may bo divided into general 
classes' — 

(a) Substantives which denote ccrtaii products of trees and plants, e. g. 
ri &ci/Xos, acorn ; rj fi4^Ju'0Sf acorn ; ^ fivtrcos, Jine linen ; rj toK6s, a beam ; ^ 
pdfi^os, a staff; rj filfi\os, bark of the papyrus; ^ ^la^os, rush mat; 

(b) Such as denote stones and earths, e. g. 6 t^ Ai^x, a stone; ij 7<i^os, partic- 
ularly a precious stone; ri ^7i<poSf a small stone; ^ y^dfifiosy sand; ^ <nro9^s, ashes; 
^ fitKroSf red earth ; ri KpvardWos, crystal (6 Kp^aXXoSf ice) ; ^ $da'&yost a towA" 
stone; ri ^Ae/crpos, eledrum; ri afidpcey^s, a smaragdus ; ^ $uXos, a dod; tj Tt^t, 
gypsum; ri 0&Xor, glass; ^ rlr&yos, chalk; ^ &pyl\oSy day ; ^ irAii^^or, brick; If 
&riBoXor, soot; ri Kdvpos, ordure; ^ AciftaXToSf bitumen; 

(c) Such as denote a IwUow or cavity^ e. g. ri KdpSorosi kneading-trough ; ri xi/3<^ 
T^f and 11 Xfl^^^i ^ ^^/ ^ orop6sf a coffin; rt \Tjvrfy, a wine-press; ^ A^kCi^os, an 
cil-Jladc; ri Kdfuyos, an oven; ij ^upiofiSs, a chest; ri irt^cAof, tub; 

(d) Such as express the idea of a tcay^ c. g ^ 6^6$, a road; rj afjut^r6s (sc 
iS6s)y a carriage-road ; 7; rpl^os and ^ &Tpiivos, afoot-path; ii rd^pos, a ditch; 

(e) Many of tlie above substantives were originally adjectives, and hence 
appear as feminine nouns, because the substantives with which they properly 
•gree are feminine. There arc also many others, e. g. ^ afj\(ios (sc. d^pa). 

rt 51, 52."» 



»ouse-door; ^ livttpos (&c. 7$), the mcutdand] 19 &sd;8pof (sc. 7^), t^tr^y 2and, cEewrt ; 
^ ycof (sc-x^pa)* afaUowfidd; ^ ir^oroy (from yclv, sc. 7^), an island; ii ltiiK.€K 
ros (sc ^«i^)i a d!uiZec< ; ^ 0-^ic\i|TOf (sc. /iovX^), tenate; 11 fidpfitros (sc. Xi(/mi), 
lyre; 11 Ztdfurpos (sc ypo^^), diameter; ^ (more seldom ^) &Karos (sc i«vs), 
ftoctf ; ^ d6Kos (sc o2k£b}, nwiu/ building^ etc; 

(f ) SeTerel feminliie noumi which stand alone, and hence speclallj to be 
noted, e. g. ^ yi^r, saidbiess ; )^ yy^^Sf jaw-bone; ^ Zp6vo9^ dew; 1^ fiiipwd^Sf 

(g) Some words which have a different meaning in different genders, c g. 
J fnrof, Aorse; 4 Tn-of, mare, also cavalry; 6 XiKi^os, pea-soup; 4i X/icS^of, <A< 

Remask. On the diminutives in -oy, see f 40, Hem. 1. 

♦ 51. Third Declension. 
Tlie third Declension has the following Case-endings : — 









f 17eut. — 



9 and a Ncut. — 

mostly OS the Nom. ; Ncut. — 

ct; Ncut. a 



af; — a 
fj; — a. 





k 52. A. Nominative, 

1. Tlie Nom. of Masculine and Feminine nouns ends in s, 
e. g. 6 Kopai (instead of itopcuf-5), 17 \mXaafr (instead of XaL\air-«) 
Still, the laws of euphony do not always allow the s to be an 
nexed to the stem ; it is either rejected entirely, or, as a com 
pcnsation, the short vowel of the stem is lengthened (♦ 16, 3). 
But when the stem allows 9 to be annexed, the usual euphonic 
(i 20) changes take place in the final consonant of the stem. 

2. In this way all Masc. and Fem. nouns may be divided into 
tliree classes : — 

(ay The first class includes words, which in the Nom. assume 
the gender-sign 9, e. g. 

















<p\4^ (§ 20, 1 ) 
K<Jpoi(§20, 1) 
kaiiTds (§ 20, 1) 
7(7dj (§ 20. 2) 
li€\<pis (§ 20, 2) 
6 h fiSF'S {bdi'-s) finds, bds (^ 25, 2) ^ 
U AfF'S A/j(^25, 2) 



' <l>\t0'6s 



'( AUs 




(b) The second class includes words, which in the Nom. 
reject the gender-sign 9; but, as a compensation, lengthen the 
short final vowel of the stem, c into rj, o into a (H 16, 3, and 
20, Rem. 3), e. g. 


I " hr^^p 

6 ToifiJiif 
g 6 (A(«»rr) \4mp 


§ 1 6 ^wp 

B Xiotn-ot 




.. \drip-6s 
s J a2fl»r-os 

fc) The tliird class includes words, which in the Nom. have 
the stem pure, since the stem neither assumes the gender-sign 
9, nor lengthens its final vowel, e. g. 

6 d^p (instead of d^p-s) 
6 Mp ( " *' tdiys) 
6 ^po0s ( " " ^P^'s) 
BofLOfT ^ (ii idfup ( " *' 94fmpr'Sf ^dftapr) [^ id/utpT'OS, 

3. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nom. ; still, euphony 
does not permit a word to end in r (§ 25, 5). Hence, in this 
case, the r is either wholly rejected (as in the Masc. Xitav, Gen. 
Xcovros), or is changed into the corresponding a- (i 25, 5), e. g. 

^ j (^p«^-or) ^pm-o% 



' wtwfpX 


rh Thrtpi 
rh <r^Aar 

^ rh (rdpar) r4pas 


' ircr/pi-or or c-m 
{triXeur-os} ir4Xa-os 

^ ripoT-os. 

Remark. The stem ii^p is lengthened in the Nom., contrary to the mle : 
rh wvp. Gen. wf/p-^s* 

i 53. B. The remaining Cases. 

1. Tlie remaining Cases (with a few exceptions, which will 
be specially treated), are formed by appending the endings to 
the stem, e. g 

Stem KopoK ^om. nSpai^ Gen. ttopoK-ot PL Nom. K^Mur-fs. 

2. In forming the Dat PL by appenfling the syllable m to 
stems ending in a consonant, the same changes take place as 
have already been noticed in regard to the Nom. of sinular 
words [} 52, 2 (a)], e. g. 

yiyayr-iri = yiycUrt 

KlpOK^l — K^pa^i 

fioF-ct = fioval. 

The following points also are to be noted : — 

d. (a) The Ace. Sing, has the form in -v with masculines and 


feminines in -ic, -w, «av9, and •ovs, whose stems end in •!, -v, hiv 
and -ou, e. g. 

Stem voAi Nom. irikts Ace. rj^Aiy, Stem /ior/w Nom. fiSrpus Ace fi&r^w 
mFwau rdFspwh pdFr twhf, fioFfiw 06Fs fio^ fiiFr 0om. 

But the AcKX has the form in •a.J when the stem ends in a con* 
sonant, e. g. ^Xtfi, ^Xi^i ^A^jSa^^ffopax, jcafm^ jc^pcuc-a— Xs^ftvoj^ 

(b) Yet barytoned substantives in -ic and -tt^i of two or more 
syllables, whose stems end with a Tau-mute, in prose have only 
the form in v, e. g. 

Stem ipt$ Nom. Ipu 

Ace. I(pl|r 

ifm^ Ijpm 


(poet, tfprid^) 

KOpV^ ic6^ 


(poet jci^pu;^) 

X^ptr x^is 


(poet. x«^«T-a). 

In prose there are but few exceptions, e. g. TipyiS^ X H. 3. 1, 15, and else 
where (instead of T4fyu) from ^ T4pyis\ x^^^ (instead afx^^h i^ 8. 5, 16 
in constant nse rpbnioy tripod. (X. An. 7. 3, S7, rwmlZ^ is to be read instead 
of T«CriSa.) The goddess x^P" 1^^ xipir^'uii^ Ace ; still, in Iac Deor. d. 
15, 1 and 2, t^k X^' 

TtcifAnw 1. Oxytones of one or more sjllables have only the regular Ibrm 
in •«, e. g. (iroS) wobt^ Ace. ytfS-a; (^AircS) i\v(f. Ace. ^Xv(3-«; (xAcM'vS) X^*^ 
|i^ Ace xAiM<^B* ^0 monosyllable it\c(r. Gen. ttkuM-it^ contrazy to the 
rule, nsqally has the Ace. Kkutf^ instead of xXcIS-o. 

4. The Voa is like the stem, e. g. W/uuf, Gen. fia^fior-o9» Voc. 

&u^v. Stilly euphony does not always allow the stem-form to 

appear. Hence the following points should be noted : — 
(1) The Voc. is like the stem in the following cases:. — 
(a) When the final vowels of the stem, c and o, in the Nom. 

are lengthened into 17 and co, the short stem-vowel reappears in 

the Voc, e. g. 

SadupT Gen. ht^uatHts Voc. So^y 

yfym^ ydp^tn-os f^pw (instead of yipmfr) 

^eoKpdnis ScMrfMCrt-os (instead of ht-os) "X^Kpar^s, 

' It is probable that the Ace. Sing, in the third declension as well as in the 
iiBt and second, originaUy ended in y : hot where the stem ended in a conso- 
nant, the p conld not be appended without a nnion-yowel ; a was used for this 
purpose ; hence, e. g. Klpanw ; the termination y was at length omitted The 
Aoc ending a, may therefore strictly be regarded as a nnion-yowel. 



Ezeq^Hona: Oxytoned sabstantiyes (not adjectiTes) retain the lengthened 
vowel, e. g. 

irotfiiiVf Gen. voifity-oSf Yoc. votfi^r (not ito^Uw), 

except the three oxjtones : yor^p, ^p» and hdip, which, in the Voc.» tako 
again the short stem-vowel c, but with the accent drawn back, thns : vdrtp, 
tuf€pf 9a(p, According to this analogy, eren 'HpaKX{iiif)iis (stem *HpdUcXfff ) is 
shortened in the Yoc. by the later writers, into^H/Nue\ts. 

(b) Adjectives in -ds. Gen. -oyo?, and also adjectives (not 
participles, see Rem. 5), whose stems end in -vr, have in the 
Voc. a form like the nenter (or the stem) ; ims and its com- 
pounds are exceptions, e. g. 

fi4\&s. Gen. Ar-of Nent. and Voc. /t/Adr 

XopltUf cKT-of X^^^ (instead of x^^^^t f ^i S)« 

So substantives in -at. Gen. -avro^, have the Voc in 'Sv (instead 
of -okt), i 62, 3, e. g. 

ytyas Gen. orr-os Voc. ylyi» (instead of ylyarr) 

KcUxAS uirr-os KiXxJ^ 

Rem. 2. Some substantives of this class, with the r reject also the y, but as 
a compensation lengthen the short a, e. g. "ArKas^ Gen. -aM^f » Voc '^ArAd, 
TloKMfjASf Voc. noA.v8<^ 

(c) Substantives in -i9, -V9, -av9« -cv9f and -ovs« whose stems 
end in -i, -v, -av, -cu, and -ou, have the Voc. like the stem, the 
s of the Nom. being rejected, e. g. 

udifTis Voc. ftdyri ; wp4crfivs Voc. rrpdfffiv ; fiw Voc. fw ; ovy Voc. av j Al* Voc. 
Ju] ypavs Voc. 7pa0 j jBcuriXcvf Voc. jScuriXcv ; jSoi/f Voc. fiov. 

The word Veus, Gen. raS-^r, has iro? in the Voc, since, by rejecting the gender- 
sign Sf the stem would end in 8 ('reuB)i a letter which cannot end a word, and 
must be dropped. 

Rem. 3. Substantives in -tf , -vf , -ovs, whose stcny end in a consonant, have 
the Voc like the Nom., e. g. i 6pyts, K6pvs^ wo6s. Still, some substaatiTes in 
'iSt Gen. -lyof, have the Voc. like the stem, e. g. £ 8fA^(y (also dc\^(f ), from 
Zfk^ls^ Gen. '7yos, 

(d) The Voc. is like the stem in all words, which in the 
Nom have their stem pure, e. g. Srjp, atwv, etc; but 'AiroXXwv 
(Gen. -(in^os), Iloo'ciSoiy {'(ovoi) and a-ayrrjp (^rjpo^) are exceptions, 
the Vocatives beinff *• 'AttoXXov. TToo-fiSov, owcp, with the accent 
drawn oack 


(2) Tlie Voc. is not like the stem, hut like the Nom., in most 
words whose stems end in one of the consonants which cannot 
enphonically stand as the final letter {k 25, 5), because afler 
dropping the stem-consonant, frequently it could not be de- 
termined from the Voc. what the true stem was ; e. g. from 
<rapf. Gen. crapK-oi, the Voc. would be crap (instead of crolpic) ; from 
6 i^tas. Gen. ^4ur-oc, Voc. ^ (instead of ^tar) ; from v{^. Gen. 
M^-o% Voc. vt (instead of vt^) ; from cS^^ Gen. «Mr*os, Voc. ai 
(instead of onr) ; from voTk, Gen. iroS-og, ''^oc. in, 

Rbm. 4. The Voc. of Km{, king, in the Common language, is like the Nom. 
( tfi«|, or by Crasis Am^; but in the solemn language of prayer: A liyA (in 
Hom. and the Attic poets, e. g. Soph. 0. C. U85 : Ztv i^a, vol 0«W»), or &^ 
linstead of Ibwrr, according to f 25, 5). 

3. Substantives in -&> and -cos, whose stems end in -o9> have 
the Voc. neither like the stem, nor the Nom., but, contrary to 
all analogy, in -oi, e. g. 

Stem ifx^ ^* ix^ ^' ^X^"^' (instead of iix&^-os) V. ^x**' (instead of ^x^'i 4x^^} 

Rem. 5. The Voc. of all participles is like the Nom., e. g. 4 r^^wrmy, zterv 
fAsf T^fof, T^fwF, UucwCt. "Apx^"^* Voc <px<>i'i when a substantive, is an 


i 54. I. The Nom. adds o- to the stem 

(a) The stem ends in X ; tlms : o 17 0X9, Gen, dX-o^, Dat. PI. 
aX'a'i(y). See Rem. 1. 

(b) The stem ends in a Pi or Kappa-mute — P, «", ^; y, 77, 
K, pK (4 a-dp^, (ra^x-o$), and x« See i 52, 2 (a). 

(c) The stem ends in a Tau-mute — 8, t, kt, 5, v.^. See 
* 52, 2 (a). On the Ace. see } 53, 3 (b). 

The stems of the Neater, belonging to this doss, end in r and rr (yoXoirr), 
bat, according to § 25, 5, reject the r and kt ; thus : aAfia instead of ir&itary and 
yiXa instead of ydkaitT ; or, according to § 52, 3, they change the r into 0^; on 
the omission of th») t before <n in the Dat. Fl. see 4 20, 1. 

(d) The stcjii eucls in v or vr. See k 52, 2 (a). 


Sing. N. 



Rut. N. 

Q. and D. 

^, Storm. ^, Torch. ^, Helmet, r^, Body. ^, Nose. A, Tooth. 

XtuKSa^ KofLwds k6ous ffSifm fit i9o6s 

Aa/Aftir-of Xo^iri(8-os KO(nfd^s ir^/tar'os piat*6s Mtrt'Ot 

XcdXiSar-a XafAwdl^ k6ow tntfui flhha M»frHt 

XdXftff^r Ke^tM-tM itA^nSb^s ffAfion-'a fISihn Mrr-^s 

XaMhr-vp XAixM-^nr KOoUi'^v a-ttfjdr^mif pu^-wf Mrr-ttw 

Xat\d^i(r) X«iuM(-0'i(y) irtf]pv-0'i(r) V((^-0'i(y) ^l-irl{v) ^ir-tfit(r) 

XmikSat'Ot Xi^vrfl-of itioiA'^^ ir^iutr^m j^uMU Mrr-ms 

AaUAT-«s \iViar«{^ef Kopv^€t ff^fuer-a fiiv-^s Mrr-^s 

AoiAAv-mt Xa/ivdH-otif KopH^Tmf <rf»/iir-MV ^i^ocy Mrr-our. 

So: 6 Kd^^, -^Ueof, moen; 6 A4pv>|» -vyyofy lAnxrf; ^, ^ l^y, -I3*f, 6M; 4 
&Mi{, -arroi, ih'n^; ^ lAfuys, -w^os^ tape-worm ; I 8t\^, -irof,da(p^; ^T^yif, 
-ai^oi, ^uui^, etc. 

Bexabk 1. The stem of nouns in -^^ f^nd -^ commonly ends in the smooth 
T and K \ the stem of those in -y^ ends in -77, except 6, i^ K^^, Gen. Xvyic-^f , 
jfynx (but 1^ A.^(, Gen. XvyT^f , Aiocoti^A). Instead of ^d^vyyot from 1^ ^6.pvy^^ 
throaty the poets, according to the necessities of the verse, use ^dpvyot also. On 
il ^pl^t rpixif, hair, see ^ 21, 3. 

Rbh. fi. The word 1^ lUf, Gen. &x-^>, signifying mo, and in theJ'em. gender, 
is only poetic, and the Sing. 6 ^, signifying waU^ is only Ionic and poetic ; 
elsewhere, only o2 B\ts, saltf occurs (PL Symp. 177, b. Lys. 209, e). 

• Bbm. 3. To class (c) belong also the contracts in V'l Gen. -vilios — -[/r, 
f9ost e. g. 4 vcyif'f cheek, mpfBos, 

Rem. 4. The stem of rh cSs, ear, is «r, thns : Gen. ihr6t, Dat M, PI. ira, 
Armif, &ai{r). The word rh ripas, according to the rule of the ancient gram- 
marians, usaally admits .'>(m'. faction in the ploral, among the Attic writers, 
after the r is dropped: ripa, rcpAr (bat X. C. 1. 4, 15. PI. Phil. 14, e. Hipp 
300, e. ripaero) ; — rh yipas, reward of honor; r% y^pas, old age; ih KpUs, fleeh, 
and T^ K4pas, horn, reject r in all the Numbers, and then suiFer contraction in the 
Gen. and Dat. Sing., and thronghont the Dual and Plural (except the Dat PI.) ; 
yet Kipas, besides these forms, has the regular form with r\ Thucyd. uses the 
contracted forms ; the uncontracted ndparu occurs only in 5, 71. K^/mt is uni- 
formly employed in the phrase M K4pvs, in column. When the a, contracted 
from oo, is used by the poets as short, it must be considered a case of elision, 
not of contraction ; the same is true also of Neuters in -us, -oot , -of , -cm, e. g 
(fir. ajc/rof ) instead of eniira^ kk4& (fr. kkios) instead of «\^. 




Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 



T^ rc/Nu, wonder. 

rh K4peUf horn. rh icp4as, flesh. 

it4paT-os^and^ K4p»f {Kp4a-^n) Kp4ws 
ic4p9r't iad k4p^ {Kp4a'l) .iip4^ 

r4paeT'a and r4pa K4par-a and «r/pd lKp4a-a) Kp4a 

r4ptt€i{p) tcfym-^iiw) a^^-0%(r) 


K4par'€ and icZ/pd (fcp^a-c) tp/d 

Ktpdx'Oty and ic«fi^r ( fC|Mc(-oiy ) irpc^ir. 

HsM. 5. To class (d) belong also the contracts in -^tf, Gen. ^^eyror » ovs, 
•vKTOf, e. g. 6 vXeucovtf cake. Gen. vAoirovKrof ; also in -^n, Gen. -^yrot » -^f, 
-qrrof , e. g. rtfif », fumorMe^ rtfiSirros, 

Rsac. 6. For the irregular lengthening of the vowel in tcrtisf cTi , /i/xof , and 
rdUos, see ^ 20, Rem. 2. 

I 55. IL T/ie Nom. rejects 9, ^t// lengthens the short 
final vowel of the stem € or o into ti or to {\ IG, 3). 

1. The stem ends in -v, -vr, and -p. For the omission of f, 
and KT, before <ri, see § 20, 2, and for the omission of r, in the 
Nom. of stems ending in vr, e. g. Aiuv^ see i 25, 5. 

2. The following substantives in -igp: o van^pyfat/ier ; ^ lu^ 
nipj mother; ^ Svydrrjp, daughier; ^ yaari^ heUy; ly Aijyun^nip^ 
Demeter (Ceres), and 6 di^p, tnaw, differ from those in the above 
paradigms only in rejecting c in the Gen. and Dat. Sing, and 
Dat PL (4 16, 8), and in inserting an a in the Dat PI. before 
the ending 0-1, to soflen the pronunciation. 

The word ^r^ (stem AWp), iKyects f In all Cases and Numben, except the 
Toe. Sing., bat inserts a 8 (§ 24, 2), thus : Gen. &v9/>Jr, Bat. &y8pf, Ace. Mpa^ 
Voc tb^cp, Fl. ^^Spci, hfZpSov^ &v8pd<ri(i/), &y9/>as, etc. 

Sing. N. 

^ G. 




4, Shepherd, d, Lion. 

woiyifiv \4w 
Toifi4y-of \4orr'OS 

'W0lll4lf't X/OKT-I 

'roifi4p-a \4opr-a 

6, Orator. 


6, Father. 






4, Daughter. 


Plur. N. 

wotfUvmv Xf^-«y 
'woifi4y-tf \io¥i-9t 












'rotfi4if'§ XcovT-t 







Kexask 1. The substantive ri x^^py ^nd, belongs to noivis of class No. % 
and differs from them onlj in not lengthening the c of the stem (x^p) into % 
but into «, e. g. x<^ instead of x^'' i i^ '^ irregular in retaining the ci im 
inflection, thns : x'^Pi X^V^h c^c** except in the Dat. PI. and the Gen. and Dat. 
Dual x<^^(*')i X*P^' ^^^ ^ poetiy, the short as well as the long form is used 
n all the Cases, as the necessities of the verse require, e. g. x^f^' ^^'^ X^P^^t 

X*P^ <^^ X^*P*'^i X*P^^ ^^^ X*^^^ 
Rem. 2. The following nouns in -mp, Gen. -opos, reject the p in particular 

Cases, and suffer contraction : if cmc^, itnage, ck^ras, ukSpi, €ucSpu, cIk^mv, etc., 

together with the Ionic and poetic forms : Gen. luraGf , Ace. cwcci, Ace. Fl. mUoCs 

(the irregular accent is to be noted in mIkA and thcovs) \ ^ iafi^pf nightingale^ 

Gen. ktfi6pos and ktfiovs, Dat. hifi6i\ ii x*^<'^^y f^^^o^^y Cen. x^^^^^y ^^ 


Rex. 3. To class No. 2, belongs the obsolete Norn. 6, ^ *APH'N, land} ; the 

Nom. of this is supplied by 4 ^ jkfir^y, Gen. iif»i^s, Dat ^/, Ace Hpiw, PI. 

Nom. ^yfs, Gen. ^kpiwr, Dat AfM^i(i'), Ace ipvva'^ farther, the word 6 k^rrfi^ 

'4posy star^ though not syncopated like vsr^p, etc belongs to this class on account 

of the assumed a in the Dat PI. iiffrp&n{p). In substaatiTes belonging to 

class No. 2, the accent of the Gen. and Dat. Sing, (and in the word &i^p, also 

that of the Gen. PL and Gen. and Dat Dual) is removed by syncope to the last 

syllnble, and that of the Dat PI. to the penult, e. g. Torp^s, inrr/>(, MpAw, 

warpiciip). The word Aii/i'^p has a varying accent, viz. A^fiiirpost A4m9* 

Tpij Voc. A^ifirirtp (but Ace Aiifitir^pa), So also &iyaT€p Voc. of ^vydnip. 

On the Voa of Torr^p and hr^p^ see § &3, 4 (1 ) (a). In poetry, according to the 

necessities of the verse, are found d^ynrp^s^ ^vyarpvp^ A^firiTpai and also, on 

the contrary, Tar4pos^ ^vyardpost iJOfripu 

k 56. IIL The Stem of the Nom, is pure, • 

The s is omitted without changing the final vowel of the 
stem. The stem ends in v, vt, p, and. (only in Bdfiap, tcife) in 
pr. The Case-endings are appended to the Nom. without 
change. On the omission of r in stems ending in vr and pr, see 
^ 25, 5 ; and on the omission of v, vt, before <rc, see i 20, 2. 

Sing. N. 

^ G. 




5, Paean. 


*t Age. 


5, Xenophon. 



6, Wild beast rh, Nectar. 

d^ip pinrap 
^p-6i pditrap^s 
^p-l p4Krap't 
^p-a pixrap 
b^ip piitrap 

Plur. N 






























1. I%e three words in -wr, Gen. -wposi *Awi\k»y, norciSAy, i^ 
lUnr, thrMmg-flooTy drop w in the Ace. Sing., and suffer contraction; thns, 
{*A«iAA«ra, 'Av^XXipa) *At^AA», IIoo'eiSM, IUm (on £a«», comp. 4 48, Rem. 1, on 

«MKd, 4 213, 11). Also the Ace yX^x^* ^^m ^ y\'hx»* or fiK^x^t P^f^y- 
royal. Gen. -tnios, is found im Aristophanes. 

Bbm. 2. All the Neoters belonging to this class end in •^ (tip, opt «p, vy>), 
c. g. T^ p4kt0p, ^op, ifiXmp^ irvp (Gen. iri^s). The word r6 (up, spring, may 
also be contracted, e. g. j{pp Gen. ^pos. 


♦ 57. L Words in -cvs, *avs^ -ovs. 

1. The stem of substantives in -nfe, -aDs, -ov?, ends in v (from 
the Digamma F); s is the gender-sign. On the omission of v 
between vowels, see i 25, 2. 

2. Substantives in -cus have -ca in the Aec. Sing., and -cds in 
the Aec. H., from iFa, iFas; the omission of the -P lengthens 
the a and a«. These nouns have the Attic form in the Gen. 
Sing., viz. -€0)9 instead of -loq, and in the Dat. Sing, and Nom. 
PI. admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace PI. When 
a vowel precedes the ending -w, as, e. g. xom» 'Evfiom, the end- 
ings -c(i>s« 'iioy, -<dy -cds are also contracted into '(a^, -(ay, 'Si, -ds. 
Nouns in -avs and -oCs are contracted only in the Ace. PL, which 
is then like the Nohl PL, as in all contracts of Dec. IIL 

Sing. N. 





6, Ameasmne. 



e, ^ Ox. 

/3ovs, bds for bSvs 
^o-^s, buy-is 
iBcht, bov-i 


^, Old woman. 






riur. N. 

fiarnXd-Ai (and 

c7f ) x<>(^a)ay 











Remasx 1. Among the Attic poets, the Gen. Sing, of nonns in -c^s some* 
times ends in -^os instead of -^«t ; thns 9nff4os^ kpwr4ot, and the Ace. Sing., 
not only in the Attic, bat in all the poets, sometimes ends in -^ instead of -^d, 
•u g. UpSif IvyTpo^. The Nom. and Yoc PL in the older Attic writers- 

1 Commonly written x^h contract x^vi. 

78 THIRD DECLENSION. [H ^8, 59. 

especially in Thtiejdides, end also in -^y (fbnned from the Ionic -^ts), e. g. 
BafftXSjs, frrQs, IlAaranis instead of W<araittf, The nncontracted Nom. efff/cs 
occnn in FI. Theaet 169, 6. The Ace. ending -ctr instead of -^ is Tery 
common in Xen., e. g. robs bnrust C. 3. 5, 19. fo^ Tvmr, 2. 2, 14. >yf i» , 
vKvrusy xa^<<''> 3- 7, 6. rohs fioffiKth, S. 9, 10. and dsewhensi bol more seldoin 
among the odier Attic prose writers. The Ace vfei^ is regnlar in all the Attic 

Rem. 2. The following are declined like x^^' ttttptut^f Gen. li^ipmUh, 
Ace. ncipcua, 6 ieyvttisf altar before the dooTy Gen. Ayvcdf, Ace ftTvio, Ace. PI. 
ayvtot, and several proper names, e. g. *Eprr]pids, Srci^df, MifAiS, Eit/Sod*, 
E&/^, E6/^s, XlAaraiof , A«pms ; jet the nncontracted forms are often fonnd 
in proper names, e. g. B€<nrt4»iff ec<nri/cu, Srcipi/s, TtXcerm4mif, *Eprrpi4tir^ 
A§0pi4ctwt Tl9tptu4mr (in Thn., X, Fl., Dem.). The nncontracted forms are 
regular in ikit^s^Juherwianj iXti^^s^ oAi^ oXi^os, 

Rbm. 3. The Nom. PI. of povs and ypaHis are always nncontracted in good 
Attic writers : B^f , yjAts ; on the contrary, in the Ace. only the contract forms 
ypms and pm occur ; the Ace. PL 0cifs is the common form ; 06ag oocnrs only 
very seldom. 

Rbx. 4. Only 4 x^'*''* <> fneouvre, a mound, and ^ ^wr» vineffor^ne, are de- 
clined like fiovs ; bnt in the PL both without contraction ; only ^ rout {fdFs^ 
imvis), is declined like ypavs ; still, this nonn is qnite irregular; see § 68. 

§58. II. Words in -17s, -cs (Gen, -cos); -a>5 ((?e«. 
-ctfos), -©s'anci -ci) (Gen. -oos^; -as (Cen. -aos), -o« 
(Gen. -cos). 

The stem of words of this class ends in s. On the omission 


of cr, see { 25, 1. In the Dat PL, a o- is omitted. 

{ 59. \1) Words in -17s and -cs* 

1. The endings -17s and -cs belong only to adjectives (the 
ending -1^ is Masc. and Fern., the ending -cs neuter}^ and to 
propoT names, tenninating like adjectives, in ^^^bn^ -/mvi^s, 
•7«o;s, -upan^s, -ftij&TS, ircfSiTs, -o-^onj^ -rc\i7s> -loJSi^, -aF<9i7s> -^«n;(> 
'fidpTjq, 'dfnji (-17/np), -^V'OTS, -veun/s, •Xiytwi^, -otlUi/s^ ^"^X'T^ ^"^^ 
(kXcits) fcXQs. l^e nenter exhibits the pure stem (i 52, 3) ; but 
iu the Masc and Fern., c^ the short final vowel of the stem, is 
lengthened into 19 [i 52, 2 (b)]. 

2. 'Die words of this class, after dropping <r, suffer contraction 
in all the Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and Dat PL; 
and nouns in -kXc^s, which are already contracted in the Nom. 
Sing, (into kX^), suffer a double contraction in the Dat Sing. 

f 69.] TntftD DECLENSION. 79 





Singular. Ploral 

0'a^f, dear, ca^s (<ra^^*cr) captts {9tup4-fn) aapri 

Dual N. A. V. I ^o^c ^n^l^ 
G. and D. | vtipi-ow* <rfl^«!V. 

Singular. FluraL Dual. 

{rprftp^-ot) rpsiipovs {rpaipi-w) Tpt^iptty rpiiip4-ow rpiiipow 

(rpc^pc-a) rpuffpfi {TpvfuM-as) rpi^ciff 

rpaiptt (I'/MiJijpff-ffv) rpt:fiptis 


a tii y i iriii (IIipncK^) Ilf^wXif 

SoMtpdrovf (IIcpMcX^c-os) IlcpucX^ouff 

"Zaucpdrtt {UtpikKdft) (TlffpticX^ci) Tttpticktl 

ImKpdni {ntpiK\4t'a) lltpucK4d (Poet also Utpuik^) 

V. I ^Aitpvrts {Xl9pU^t9f) ntplitK§ts» 


RsHABK I. On the contraction in the Dual of •< Into i| (not into ti), and in 
the Ace. PI. of -fos into -€if» see ^ 9, IL When a rowel precedes the endings 
'TIS, -€s, then -ca in prober UAmcs in 'KXrjs is always contracted into -df and 
commonly also in adjectiTOB (§ 9, IL), e*g. ntputx^t-^ » H9puc\4a; AicXc^f, 
without Jhme, AicXcw » AkXco* l^^t^, htaUhff^ iyUa a l^io, ^i^f , foor^ iMta ^ 
^yScoy ^cf^i/^s, tupematuraHy (nt^ppvia » ^tpfva (Ace Sing.Masc, and Norn.) 
Acc^ and Voc. PL neuter) \ but sometimes the contraction into -^ occurs, e. g. 
^iJI, 8i^, it^t a^opvri, X B. £qu. 7, 11 (in all the MSS.). The Ace. I^ 
Hasc and Fern, has -f i* , e. g. i^tcTf , cdnopwiis. 

Rex. 2. Proper names in -irpinif, fg^rtis, -T/i^r, "^cb^t, ete^ also ''Kput 
{Y^c^ApU^Uum, thaAcc. Sing, both accord ing to the fiiat and third Dec., 
and are hence called HtUrodiU$ (L e. of different declensionfl), e. g. %»KpdTn 
and a<MCfN(Ti}y, according to Dec. I., *AAiccMi/n| and -/i^yiiif, *Ama^4ir/i and 
ir^4jnir/Ap^ and -irv, etc. ; Plato commonly uses the form ini|, Xenophon that 
in -^y, other writers both, without distinction ; Sn words in •m^t, the form in -ytip 
U preferred to that in ^ni. (The Gen. of^kpns in good prose is ^hptms [often in 
Plato], yet in the poets ''Apcos is also used according to the necessities of the 
rcne.) But in words in -ttKiis, the Ace. in 'jcA^r is first used in later writers. 
The PL is declined according to Dec. L, e. g. 'Apurropdifai, rots AcwxpcCrotj, roht 
*AptffTopdimSt 'Tohs Aiifioir^4yas ] still, 'HpcucX^ef occurs in PL Theaet 169, 6. 

B>M.4« The Gen. PI. of rpM^r oceurs, also, in the uncontracted form, viz. 
rpnip4mp; but in all the other Cases it is uniformly oontiBeted; the Dual 
also in words of this class occurs in an ancontraoted form in Attic writers, 
e. g. {v77ffVc«, and the Tragedians use the uncontracted forms of proper names 

' ffap4-os from caip4<r-os, the a of the stem being dropped \ and so in fho 
other Cases, except the Norn, and Voc. 

BO Tm&t) DECLENSION. [(i 60, C^. 

Ih 'K\4iii « KkrjSf according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. 'HpaxXhif, Dftt 
irX/ci, Voc. -K^ce^. The contract Ace. in -icA^ is rare The Voc, 2*, 
as all exclamation, belongs to the later prose. 

Rex. 4. The irregular accent of the Gen. PI. and l)uul is to he noted, tij. 
rpvfipos¥ (instead of rpnjywr from rpnip4»p)^ Tpt4ipow (X> II. 1. 5, 19> 5. 4) 56). In 
addition to this word, adjectives in -ri^s and the word wnd^KtiSj have the liktt 
accent, e. g. avtm^ivy =» vw^uPt a!brapK4tty «■ a^dptaty. 

k 60. (2) Words in -cds, Oen, -wos, and in •wy and -», 

Gen, *-dos. 

(a) '»i. Gen. '»os» 

Thus, c. g. 6 ^ Sw^fjackalf Gen. ^taos, etc. Polysyllables have 
the Ace. Sing, and PL either contracted or iincontracted, e. g. 
6 ypios, kerOf rbv ijpwi and ^po), tav^ i^pams and ^p<u9* 

{h)-ots and -»y Gen* "oos. 

Substantives of these endings are always feminine. The 
Stem ends in -09. The short final vowel, according to } 52, 2 
(b), is lengthened into «. The ending -w^i^however, is retained 
in the Attic and CommoQ language only in the substantive 
ci&kW (stem otSos), and in poetry in ^cSs, rtwrning (in Eurip.) ; 
but in all other words, it has been changed into a smoother 
form, so that the Nom. ends in -w, e. g. ^x^ (stem ^x^)* ^^ 
the Voc. in 0% see h 63, 4 (3). The Dual and PL are formed 
like the ending ^09 of Dec. II. ; thus, ai8oi> j\ypLy etc. 

Sing. N. 

^ ai8(^5 (stem cuSos), shame. 
(ai$<{-of) cuSovs 

i^ ^>X<* (stem ^xo')> echo. 



(^yx^w) ^xow 


(cu8<$-t) WL^ot 

(«X<J-*) *Xo* 


(afS^a) aiSS 

(^yx^-o) ^x«* 


(al8<^i) a/80?. 

(*x<J-?) *xor. 

♦ 61. (3) Words in -aj, Qen, -ao5, flit^ in -os, Gen. -cos. 

(a) -as, Gen. -aof. 

Only the Neuters to o-cXas, /^/a^, and to Sarasi goblet, belong to 
this class : Gen. <rc\a-o9, Dat. orc\a-i, and ccX-^ ; PL cre\a-a and 
irA-a, Gen. o-^Xa-wv, Dat. o'6Xa*o-t(v) ; Dual crcXa^t, (r€X(£-oii'. 

Remark 1. On the poetic shortening of the contract a, see 4 54, Kern. 4. 
In the following four Neuters in -aj, the a in the Gen., Dat., and in the Pl^ if 
changed, according to lotiic usngc, into the weaker c, viz. 




Bph-as (poet), image, GeiL ppirtoit PI. fipirta and fiphrf, pper4mw 
uSas {poet,)^ place, PI. in Homer, K^ta^ K6«(ri{p). 
Mas (poet.), ffrmmdj Gen. o08coj, Dat. o(/8c? and ol^cc (Horn.) 
iaf4^ (poet and prase ^ darhtess^ Gen. icv^^s Epic, kp4^s Attic, icy^^ 
Epic, icy*^ Attic. 

(b) -Of, Gen. -«or. 

AM substantives of this class axe also neuter. In the Nom., 
c, the stem-vowel of the last syUablevis changed into o {H6, 1). 


Plur, N. 


rh y4ros (instead ofy4vts), genus, rh Kk4os (instead of KX^cs),gloi7. 
(T^TfM) yivuvt (irX^c-os) k\4ov9 

{y4p^t) yivu (icX/c-r) kkUi 

ywpi^p and 







Rev. 2. On the contraction of cc into i| (instead of ci), and of «a into « 
•(instead of ^), when a Towel precedes, see ^ 9, IL On the poetic shortening 
jf the contracted • in jcxlc^ see ^ 54, Bern. 4. 

BsJi. 3. The nncontracted form of the Gen. PI. is not nnosnal, e. g. 6p4wtf^ 
^K4ttyy K€fZ4«ty, and almost without exception iu'^4wy\ in PI. Polit. 260, a., the 
^mcontracted Dual in cc occurs : roi^v rit 7^ycc. In the Ijric portions of the 
Attic tragedians, wd^soj &x*<b <^^* occur. 

m. WOBDS IK -^r, -vs, -f, -». 

♦ 62. (]) Words in -Is, -iis. 

The substantives in -t?^ -vs originally ended in -XF^ -S-Fs. 
See { 25, 2. 

Sing. K. 

4 Kit, corn-worm. 

4l 0'vf , sow. 

6 /x^^fish. 

















Plur. N. 














vt-as, Attic o-Gs 

^XJ^^-off Attic ^x^f 








(Jx^c) 1x^5 




Remark. The contracted Nom. PI at ipKvs occurs in X. Yen. 2, 9 * 6j 4 
W.2, 19. 




} 63. (2) Words in -is, -i, -vs, -U. 

The stem of these substantives ends in 4 or v. The stem- 
vowels I and V remain only in the Ace. and Voc. Sing. ; in tlio 
other Cases they are changed into c (i 16, 2). In the Gen. 
Sing, and PL, masculine and feminine substantives- take the 
Attic form in -a>9 and -tdr, in which the u has no mfluence on 
the accent (comp. k 29, Bern. 7). In the Dat Sing, and in the 
Nom. and Ace. Pi., contraction occurs. 

Sing. N. 


71 iroAls, city. 

I vqx^> cabit. rhffhfdari^ mustard. 

T^ HrrS, city. 





















Flnr. N. 




Arm ' 



vqX* ■"' 



























RsMABK 1. Here belong all substantives in -|(f , -^is, most in '^rta and many 
others, e. g. ^ x^rit, dust; 6 ftayrts, prophet; i K^if, serpent; 4 vUrrUffiUk; ^ 
IffipiSf abuse; 6 WAcKvf, ore; 6 vpitrfivs^ old man; rh whrtpty pepper ; T^rryyi- 
fiapi^ cinnabar; rh w&O (poet), herd (without contraction). A^jecdvta in -df, 
-CM, -t are declined in the Masc. and Neat liice v^xvs and Arrv, except that the 
Gen. Masc. takes the regular forms -4oSf -dmy (not -tvs, -co>y}, e. g. ^^y, i^#os. 

Rem. 3. In the Attic poets, thongh probably only in the lyric passages, the 
Gen. in -cos, from substantives in -is, occurs, e. g. ir6\t9s, 

Rbm. S. In X An. 4. 7, 16, the contracted Gen. V9x&» Is found. Instead 
of' the Dnal form in -cc, one in -ly is also used ; likewise a form in •«! (instead 
of -cc), is quoted by the ancient grammarians from Aeschines. — The Ace. FI. 
of nouns in -vs sometimes occurs uncontractcd in the Attic poets, e. g. ir^xc*^- 

Bbm. 4. Neaters in -t and -v have the Attic Gen. Sing, very seldom, e. g. 
Utrrtws, Enr. Bacch. 838 (831). Or. 761 (751). 

Rem. 5. Adjectives in -is, -7, c. g. fSpIs, {8pi, aldlfidy and some substantives 
in -If, which are partly poetic, have the regular inflection: i-os, i-i, t-cs, etc., 
or both forms together, e. g. ^ /i^yisy anger (also fi^viSos, etc), 6 ^ oTs, tiheep ; t^ 
ir^rcpc (Grcn. -ipios and -fos), pepper; 6 ^ trSpriSf calf; 6 i^ vScuj spouse (Gen. 
nSirios, but Dat. always ir6<ru) ; ri rpSris, keel (also rp6vti9$, etc.); ^ ^pirif, 
fou«r (G^n. r6po'ios,X. An. 7. 8, 12. r^pvw, ib. 13, but Plliral rvperttSf rip^tai^ 
etc.) ', ^ fJiyaZis (Gen. -los, Dat. fuxyddl, X. An. 7. .3, 32) ; some proper names, 
e. g. Sw/wftrij, *l/»«s (Gen. -loj, etc.), X. An. 1. 2, 12; 6. 2, 1 (5. 10, 1), finally 
one noun in -<ls, 17 Ifyx'^^') ^^^^ ^*^^y ^° ^^*® ^'"S* 

« 64, 65.] 



Sing. N. 

6, 4 v^if , calf. 

^ PyXfXvff eel. 

5, ^ oTf , sheep. 






vteris and v^pTi 











Plur. N. 

«^pTi»-tf and wSprtf 












wtoTt-as and vmrris 
w^nt-ts and Tdprls 


olar andcli 











Bem. 6. Xenophon nses th€ Ionic forms of o7i : Sty, SUs, itmPf SUa, and lb. 

♦ 64. Qt^an^i7y of the Third Declension, 

1. The inflection-endings -a, -t, -v, and -as, are short 

JBamirfiaii / The « in the Ace Sing, end PL of sebeCantiYcs in -t^ is long, 
«. g. tW iap4^ robf ItfAff from 6 Itpc^, prietL 

S. Words, whose Nom. ends in -a|i -i(, -v|, -ofi '4t 'W'l '<^ ^^^^ "vyt l^ft^e the 
pennlt of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according as the 
rowel of the ahove endings is long or short b^ nature ; a, i, v, are long in all 
GenltiTCS in -orof , -vos, -wof , e. g. 6 i^pfi|, brecutptate^ -dims ; 6 ^, reed, fbr^t ; 
4 ^Utrfr, ray, -ant, bat i^ iSdXOI, thd, -Aicor, 4 l\ir^, Aope, -fSor. See ftdler 
ex|4enation8 m Laiger Grammar, Fart I. S S91. 

} 65 ^ccen^i^a^ion o/^Ae Third Declension, 

1. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the laws 
of accentuation (§ 30) psrmit, e. g. t^ vpSyfu^ deed, wpdyiugros (bnt wpayfjJrw), 
rh Im^io, ntxme, Mfutros (but lyofAdrwy), 6 4 xcAtScfv, suxxUow, xcXiS/ivt, Bero- 
fwy, -wrroSf -wrrts, -ivrw. Farticular exceptions have been noticed in the 

2. Monosyllables are accented in the Gen. and Dat of all Numbers on the 
final syllable \ the long syllable up and oiy having the cirt umflex ; the others, 
the acute, e. g. 4 i»ihv, M^^^f fV^it f^ivoip, tirivAyf /iij<r((y). 


(a) The following ten substantives are Paroxytones in the Gen. PI. and Gen. 
and Dat Dual : j^ ^s, torch ; 6 Zii&s, slam ; 6 rt ^tis, jackal ; rh KPA2, poet. 
(Gen. Kpcer6s), head; rh oh (Gen. orrSs), ear; 6 ij tm, child; 6 ff^s, moth; 6 ii 
TpAs, 7h>Jan, Trojan woman; ii ^s (Gen. ^^^i), a turning; rb ^s (Gen. 
^urSs), Ught; c. g. 9<ptoVf ZtfSoiy, bdtooy, Kpirw, &Twy, &rotv, TcdBwy, TcdBoty, 
wUam, Tp^y, ^^y, 0c^«y (on the contrary, rwy 9fuo&y from cu 8ucmu, r&y 
Tpmnf from al Tpmal, rAy ^wT&y from 6 ^s, man ; r&y ^w»y from ^ d«4. 

^4 THIRD DfiCLENSiOir [f 65 

(b) The following contracts, according to the natorc of the final sjllatilc, art 
either Propcrispomena or Paroxytoncs, in the Gen. and DaL of all Numbers, 
R.S in the other, e g. rh tap (Epic ^p), 8prmg; inip (Bpic from K^ap), heart f 
6 Kas (from Knas)^ stone; 6 TpAv (from irpff^), kiil, e. g. lipw (rarer 4apos), fipi 
{nrvr tvpi)., t^os, K^pt, Amos, \m, Xdmf, wpAtroSf wp&ru 

TiEMAJiK. The following contracts, on the other hand, follow the priadpal 
rule (No. 2): wr4ap = arrrjpj iaUow; oridTos = <mrr6sf fpiopt wtUy ^fiorot and 
ptnfrist Vlk ^fifrwy, 9/^(> ^pplt ^p^iucos = Sp(fK6si and djpjric^s, oU, oUs, o<I, 

(c) Monosyllabic participles, as well as tlie pronoun rt% ; quist retain tlie 
accent, through all the Cases, on the stem-syUable ; bat the pronoun «&s and 
6 Xldy is an Oxjtone in the Gen. and Dat. Sing. ; in the other Cases either a 
Paroxytone or a Properispomenon, according to the natnre of the final syllablo, 
c. g. 0V5, ^^yroSf fify Syrof, Hvri, trrmv, oSa'i(r), Srroiv, rts, rbfoSf T/n, etc. ; was^ 
frtunSsf vayrtf xdrrwrf vdrrouf, Tairi(y), 6 n^, Ilanfy, rati TfSun(y). 

3. The following are accented, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, like 
monosyllabic substantives :•— 

<a) ityuv^i^ wife {ywuut&i, yvpuudf TvmwtOiv, ywmuc&r^ yvtmt^i{p) ; bat tvmu- 
jco, yuytuK€Sf etc.) ; Sij jc^wr, dog {icmSf lewij kiwoiW, tanrnp, kvcI{v) ) but 
uri/yoy K6r€Sf etc); 

(b) Syncopated substantives in iip, on which see ^ 55, 2 ; 

(c) Compoands of cDr, untis, in Gen. and Dat, Sing^ e. g. o^(s, odSei^f, 
o&8cW; but oifB4twVf ou8^0'i(y), so fojMs, lafiMfis, etc.; 

(d) The Attic poetic forms, ^op6t, Zopl^ from I6pm, 

4. For the acoentaation of sabstantiTes in -if, -vs, Gen. -ciir, see ^ 63 ; of 
those in -c& (^ 60), the irregular accentuation of the Ace. Sing, of ^x^ ^ 4x^ 
(instead of 4x^)i shoold be noted. 

5. (a) In the Voc. of synoopat3d substantives (4 55, 2) in -i|p, the accent, 
contrary to the principal rule, if drawn back as far as possible, e. g. 2 viCrcfs 
biyaertp, A^unr^pt Ai^ep; BO also (a) in the following substantives; *AWxXc»y 
twos), TIoiTctSdy ((»*«'), trvrfip (^pof), 'Aft^Cwv (/ovo»), Sdip (^jpos); thus, 2 
'AiroAAoy, n^<rci5or, (rSrcp, ''A/i^ioy, '^cp; — (b) in compound substantives in 
•«v, Gen. -offoSf in adjectives in -«y, Gen. -orost whether simple or compound ; 
nlso lu comparatives in -fter, -wr (in adjectives and comparatives, also, in the 
neuter gender), e. g. 'Ayi/itfiyov from *Ayafi4fiyotyy ^hpurriyttrw from *AptffTtf 
%<lTttv (but *I«ror, IlaXaF/uor, ^iX^/ior, etc. as simple) : 2 and t^ MatfMVf 2 and 
rh Mriftoy, & and t^ KdWior ; (the following are exceptions : i Aam^atftaw from 
AaH*Zaifiȴf compounds in -^ptcy, c. g. 2 AuxS^pov from Avic^pwr, Euj^i^^ipor from 
y.ui:>inppuy, i and r^ Soi^povfrom Sat^pwy ;) — (c) in the compound Paroxytones in 
•qs, mentioned in § 59, e. g. Swic/xirci, Anpuiirbtvts \ 2 and r^ olS^oScs from a£^- 
Sij;, ^iAcL\i|i^cf from ^lAoX^dijf (but oXiy^/f from iAiyd^s as a simple), ofn^cr, 
vaic<(i}.^cs. — (Adjectives and substantives in -tniSf -c»8ijs, -«»Xiyf, "Wp^s* -i||n|f» aiv 
exceptions, e. g. cD(i)8i}s, cvwScs, ifi^^s jifi^cy, iraM(Ai}s roydAcs, yccipijs rcfipcs, 
|i^pi;f {i^qpcf, 4 'rpiiipris rpt^pcs, Ati&pris 2 Ai&pts. 

(b) The Voc of nouns in -ovi, -cvr, -ovs, -«, and •«$ is Ferispomcnon, o. g 
Vpav, /ScuriAcG, /Sots 2air^o<, cuSox. 

|6().] TUlltD DECLENSION. M 

♦ 66. Gender of the Third Declension. 

The natwroL gender'— the masculine and fcmmine — ie distiogaished in tho 
third Declension, not bj a special fonii) but partly by the significatiozii partly 
by the forms, and in part by usage alone. The following rules will aid in 
determining the gender z*— 

L AlascuUnes: (A) all nouns whose Nom. and stem (which can be recognized 
by the Genitive) end in -fly. Gen. -dy-os ; -mv. Gen. -^tn-os and -wm-os j -vy, 
Gen. "iar-os (only i ftoca^, tower) ; 'tis, Gcn» -cy^of (only 6 icrtlst cotnb) ; -ar» 
Gen. -mrrniSf -•wf, Gcen. 'orr-os^ -ovyr^of, Ht^-ot {6 iroOs) \ 'mp. Gen. -op-osi -€yf» 
Gen. -CMT ; -i|s, Gen. (-cnys) -ous ; -»f , Gen. -o»-os j 

(B) the following with exceptions : --- 

(a) in ^y, Gen. ijyos ; bat 6 ri x^y, ^oose; — in -ijy, Gen. -cy-ot j jut 4 ^ iS^yi 

^lonJ^ and ^ ^p^y* diaphragm ; 
{h)\iL -«yp Gem -ivr^sj but ^ iXww^ threshing-floor; ri MlX»v or yK^x^t 

pennjf'rojfcd ; ^ ftcAcS^ (poet), care; rj fA'fiKcty, poppy; ^ itkKray^, raUle 

(but ^ tA. petal of the popp^) \ ^ rpiifmwf pigeon; i^ a^A«6y (poet, bat prose 

^), rofVM; 9 ^ Ki68«fy &etf; 

(c) ini|p, Gen. -i|p-os ; but ^ iciip^fate (on account of ^ ic^, goddets of fate) \ 
6 ^ ptuffriip, hammer; (those in -Tip contracted from -tap^ are neuter: rh 
ir^p (poet.), Gen. ic^pos, heart; rh iap. Gen. j{pof, spring;) — in -i}p, Gen. 
•/ioy; but i^TooT^p, yaarp6st heBy; — in -^p, Gen. -c^s; but 4^ aid^p, 
fCAer; h ii ie^p, air; 

(d) in -^tp. Gen. -«i/>-osi ^^ 'h X^^pt ^^'^ (regularly, & hnix^ipf the thumb) ; 

(e) in -mp. Gen. -^p-os ] but rh cA»p (poet.), &oo(y ; rh xiXwp (poet), monger; 

(f) in -0VJ, Gen. •d-o», see f 57, Rem. 4 ; 

(g) in •«;, Gen. -flrr-«f ; but t^ ^s, %^; 
(h) in -^y Gen. -xof, -/3of» 

H. Femininess (A) oi/ nouns la -is^ Gen. -d8H»$; -etf, Gen. -«t8^» (only ^ 
«\«if , ibgf ) ; -cvy, Gen. "c-os ; Hvsy Gen. -irj^s ; -vys> Gen. -w^^s \ -iff, Gen. 
irr-«j; -ly. Gen. -ir-of (otly ^ x^'*) J ""*» Gen. -v8-of and -u^-os; •«{ and -lii. 
Gen. -^f ; 

(B) the following nonns with exceptions ^ -^ 

(a) in -(f , Gen. -(-os ; but 6 x^^^y P"^^ ^"'^ / ^ ^<(AKif , a part of a ship ; 6 
ipTiSj catpmte/^s tod; h iti**, com-irorm ; 6 ykdviiy a kind of fish ; h XTj 
(Epic), /ion, Mid b i\ ots, <A«ep; — in -tf, Gen. -tus, but & SpxtSy testicle {ti 
6pXUf a land of olive) \ 6 6^ts, serpent; 6 (later also ri) Hx^s, viper; 6 (later 
4) xSpts, bug ; ol and dl K^p^tu^ law-tables; — in -u, Gen. -iS-of j but 6 ^6lt, 
'i9ot, a kind of cake; ^ 6 rlypis, Gen. -tos and -iZos, tiger; — in -is, Gen. 
-t^os] but 6 7f BpytSy bird; — in -it, Gen. -ly-oj; but 6 Ztk^ls, dolphin; A 
hcrtsj weasel; 6 ij dls, heap ; 6 reX^fy, marsh-mud; 

(b) in -wfp Gen. -v-os] but 6 pSrpvs, duster; 6 ^pijws, footstool ; 6 ixl^is,fi8h\ 
6 /aSs, mouse ; i r^KvSf corpse ; 6 crrcCxw* cur of com ; 6 (tkSxXvs, mode of 
tonsure ; 6 rT^vSf the night-mare; 6 KiCySvs, a Median garment p i iiZs or tfCf^ 

m THIRD DBCL£NSI05. [i 6' 

BUfuie; 6 iUKi»Zpvs, tun-Juh; 4 (later also 6) iyx^^vs, ed; 6 xp^t"'', o 
Jish ; — in -vi , Gen. •99»s ; but 6 ir4\9K»Sy axe ; 6 r^x*") ^^^'^ / 
(c) in -tfy, Gen. ^ovos; bat h Huctimv, anvil; 6 trploty^ saw; 6 icore^y, rule; S 
i^ofv, axle ; 6 acttrwy. earthen^vessd ; 6 in^tiup^ Jlag ; 6 ^i <rW, piUar ; 4 
kKoHAv and iucp4fiot¥, bough ; S Xcryc6r, gtdf; 6 w^Mpyy^Ap^ doU ; 6 fivpiafiSp^ 
an^s nest ; H kKticrpv^^ cock and fien. 

Rbkakk 1. Nouns in -l are partlj mascoline, partly feminine, except those 
In -a| (Gen. -diror), which are mascaline ; most of those in -( arc feminine; the 
lat^r part of those in -^ are mascaline, bat many are feminine, e. g. ^ KoXot^ 
po^, 'Oirof, shepherds crook; ri XcuXoif', tempest; ^ S^ (vox), Ms^ voice; ^ (rarelj 
*) *4'i &fir6s,face; ii 0A^, ^\€i8<Jr, cwfn; ^ xh^^i hdy-waier; ^ icar^Xi^', -i^», 
K;];per ftory, etc. 

III. Neuters : (A) oZf in -a, Gen. -ar-os ; ij, Gen. -TjT-of (only rh irc^) ; -«, 
Gen. Ht'os (only t6 ^^Xc with its compoonds) ; -vp, Gen. -vp-oi (only t5 riijp, Gen. 
frvp-6sijire) ; -op, Gen. -«r-oy or -i|p, Gen. -lyr-of j -op^ Gen. -op-oy ; -«i Gen. -or-oi ; 
-OS, Gton. (-«-of ) -ow* ; -i, Gen. -taf ; -v, (Jen. -v-oj, and -toj, and -or-w, § 68, 1 ; — 

(B) the following with exceptions : (a) -op, Gen. -ap-os ; bat 6 4^ s^r* 
/m^; (b) tir, Gen. -oros] bat 6 aSt, sfone; (c) -wp, Gen. -or-oy (except 6 &x^Pi 
^X^P) c<rro(p, 4\/rra0p, § 68, 15). 

Keu. 2. The following single words may be noted in addition : i^ Zais, Gen. 
9euT'6sf feast ; rh trrms or <rra/f, ffrmrSsy dow/h; rh o5j, Gen. ir-^j, ear. 

i 67. Anomalous Forms of the Third Declension, 

All substantives, whose inflection diflfers from the rules and 
analogies above given, are included under the irregular substan* 
tives of the third Dec. All the anonialous fbims of the third 
Dec. may be divided into three classes : — 

(a) The first class inclndes those sabstantires whose Kom. cannot be derived, 
according to ^ncral analogy, from the Genitive-fitem, e. g. ^ 710^, to(/^ Gen. 

(b) The second class incades those substantives, which, with one Nom. 
form, have in some or ali of the Cases, two modes of Ibrmatioii', both of these, 
however, may come, in accordance with the general roles, from one form of the 
Nom., e, g. 4 fi SpPUi Gen. -i3os, bird, FL tppi^s and 6pyus, as if from 6ppis^ 
Gen. -cMi. These snbstantives are called Heterodites (i. e. of different declcn* 
sions or irregularly declined). 

(c) The third class includes substantives, which, with one Nom. form, admit, 
in some or aU of the Coses, two modes of formation, one of which maj be 
derived from the Nom. form in use, hot the other supposes a different Nom. 
form, e. g. ^tpdmop, 'Optos^ seruantj Ace. ^pdwopra and poet, i^paira, as if firom 
d/po^. This formation is caUcd Metaplasm (transformation), and the substan- 
tives included under it, Mttaplasts. The Nom. form, presupposed in this cose. 
Is called the TTteme. 


{68. Anomalous Forms o/ the Third Declenion. 

1. Vow (to, knee), and 8opv (ro, spear), see ? 54 (c). 


In the tragic poets, the Epic forms, yo^mnm and ToDm, yoivaO't, occur ; 
also in the Attic poets, the Gen. iop^f^ Dat* 9oplf and e^en 96p€if and 
n. 8^/»i| instead of ^Sfwra, are formed from B^; and in the phrase, Sfljpl 
l^nr, lo fdbe a prisoner of uxor, this Dat form is retained even oy the Attic 
piTOM wnters. 

2. Vvvq (19, «;(>man), Gen. yvmuc-os (as if from yvvaii), Dat 
yiiFaac-4 Acc yumuc-o, Yoc. yvFcu; PLyvvoZkcv, yu»^uicwv«yvKU^i(v), 
yvraXkos; on the accentuation, see { 65, 3 (a). 

3. ^6pv, see yow^ No. 1. 

4. Z€V9, Gen. Aco$> Dat Act Ace Am (as if from jk*?), Voa 

Poet corresponding forms are Zipf6s, Zitpi^ Z^wa. 

& 0cpairo»v (o> ^ervane), -oinrof. ]bi Eorip. Ace dipava, PL 
^^pavcsy t 67 (c). 

6. Kdpa (rif head), an Epic and poetic word. Gen. Kpar-oi, 
Dat Kparl and Kop^ Ace. t& ic4pq» to apara (tdf Kparo, f 214) ; 
Ace PL T€nf9 Kparais, i 67 (c). 

7. K\€Cs (17, iSiey), Gen. icXaS-o^ Dat icAci^i; Aoc. mXgh^ (i 53, 
Bern. 1), later icXcDSa; FL Mom. and Ace. kX^ and kAcSScs 
«X^&i$. f 67 (b). 

Old Atde, KAjff, irA{yM»,#iXirtf) nkfStu 

8. KvcDF (o, <$, ^^)i Gen. icw-o«, Dat kwC Ace. kwo, Voc. kvov; 
PL jcvKcSt Mvi^, fcvcr^ #nVa9. 

9. A lira (ro, oil, fatness), in the Epic dialect always in the 
phrases, dXct^roo-Joi Xiir iXoLa, •)(pixrax and ^(ptaxur&cLt Xar IXaup, and 
80 also in the Attic prose, dXcii^co-Joiy ypUff^ai Xtira ; X/wa is thus 
an abridged Dat instead of Xim; XJhc^ from ro Xur«i» Gen. -aos^ 
bnt IXacor must be considered as an adjective ftom ^AtCa, oHve, 
so that \iira Pjoxov means a^e-oU, 

10. M^pTvs {^» wUness)^ Geo, fuipTiyMfib Dat paprvpt. Ace. 
a^j^poy and in Simonides /m^itw; Dat PL pidpTvn{v). 

11. Navs (ij, skip). Gen. vtw, Dat myt Ace. vavy, Voc. want- 
ing; Dual, Gen. and Dat vcoiv (Nom. and Ace. wanting); PI 
in^9, v€wvy yava-C (v), vavs. Comp. ypavs, § 57. 

Li Attic poets and later prose also, prt6s, ytil, v^o, etc 


'2. "OpvLi (o, -q, bird). Gen. opvl^-os, etc. The PL has a col- 
lateral form declined like xoXts, except the Dat : opyiBti and 
6pv€V5f 6pvi&4»)v and opvcoiv, opvun, opvlSaSi opifofs, and opnnst k 67 (b). 
So *Ayd)(afxns, 'Ava;(afxrt8o99 and *Ava;(apa-€0)f . 

In the Attic writers, the i is sometimes short, iprJst BfurXy, Aristoph. Ar. IS. 
270, 335 (bat tpvU, 6pviy, 70, 103, 73). 

13. Ilvvf (^, place of meeting)^ Gen. irvicv-os, Dat irvKvl^ Ace 


14. 2^s (o, moth). Gen. o-c-o?; PI. <r€€s. Gen. o^cwv, etc. ; in the 
later writers, Gen. ctttos. 

15. 2«cd)p (to, £&V^), Gen. <ricaT09> etc., and vBtop (rb, water), 
Gen. v8aT09, etc. To both of these belong : — 

16. ^piap (ro, a well), and (rriap fro, tallow). Gen. -ciaros -Uid 
-i/rds (a long in Attic, short in Epic). 

17. ^^dis, ^ocs (6, art of cooking), Gen. ^oi-os and (from 
i^ofc) ^o£S-o9 ; PI. ^dcis and i^otScs. 

18. Xov9 (6, a ^n^ofur^), x^< X^ XP^* X^^> X^^^ X^'^'*'''' X9^ 
like )3oSs (^ 57) ; also Gen. xpSk* -^cc. x^^ Ace. PL xoas> as if 
firom xocvs. The latter forms are preferred by the Attic writers ; 
Xov9« with the meaning of mound, is inflected only like /Sous. 
The form yp€v9 is Ionic, Dat xpit. 

19. Xp(i)9 (6j 5/;fn), xp<in'-d9» XP**^^ )(pwTa, Collateral forms in 
the Ionic dialect and the Attic poets, are. Gen. xpo-o9> XP^ XP^ 
like oi&Ss. The Dat xpi is found in certain phrases with Ik, 
e. g. cv xp^ icc4>€o'<Seu, Xen. Hell. 1. 7, 8. ^pci cf xpo> t^ shaves close 
to th ikin, it comes Jiome, Soph. Aj. 786. 

i 69. Defective Nouns of the Third Declension. 


Some nouns of the third Dec are wanting in one or more of the Cases, and 
are, conseqnentlj, called D^Mvet. Existing forms, however, of snch mbatan- 
tives, are fonnd, for the most part, only in oertain phrases, e. g. 

Xp4»s {rh, dtU), Ionic*Attic form for the Nom., Gen., and Ace.; also rl 
XP*os, Gen. x^^vt, Fl. rk xp^ Gen. x:pf£y ; the Dat and Dual are wanting ; 
irap and fhrap (only as Nom. and Ace.), in dreaming and leaking ; t^Xos (onlj 
as Kom. and in the construction of the Ace. with the Inf.), advantage ; iiiiK% 
onlj in tlic phnisc vrh uAkris, under Hie arm. 


Remarks on the Declensions. 
t 70. L Redundant Nouns. 

Nouns are called Redundant, which have two moden of 
inflection in all or in most of the Cases : - 

A. They belong to the same declension, 

(a) of the same gender, e. g. 

i XnAs and KBiSstpeopie; 6 ptAs and His^ temple; 6 keey^s and AoyJs, haref 
6 Ki\mSi ropey Fl. also ircUoi; ^ £a»t, threahing-Jloor, PI. also al BXm \ ii Topyd 
and TofTfAv. 

(b) of different genders (hence called heterogeneous), e. g. 

6 rBrr9s and rh vurrov, hack (the last form was regarded bj the AUiatU as the 
onlj proper form, still rhv vSrrw Xen. R. Eqa. 3, 3) ; d (vy6s and t^ (vySv^ yoke, 
— In the FL the neuter form of these heterogeneous noons is more frequently 
used, e. g. d vhos, rA trhai o/ Scv/io/, and more commonly rk SccrfriC; 6 ora^fiSsf 
a staUonj b ak m ce^ oi ffra^ftai and rk areS^iiAj ttatUmM^ and rk orti^fidf sometimes 
also balances; ol (vyol does not probably occur. 

B. To different declensions, and commonly of different gen* 
ders (heterogeneous), e. g. 

6 ^d^yyos and ^ ^oyrht voice; 6 x^P^' ^^^ ^ X^^P^ space; ^ Sx^ti and 6 
ix^'t rising ground; ri Zb^ and t^ il^os, thirst; j^ ydir^ (the older form) aid rh 
p^roff vaUofj etc. It should be observed farthcr,^thiit the word 6 v^vfiuty dder, 
has only Ace. vp^afivr, Voc. "wpivfiv^ these three forms are almost entirely 
poetic {'rp€0'fih'(pos and Tpccr/Svrarof formed from this, are in frequent use); 
in the Common Language, 6 vp^cfi^s, -ov, elder \ in the meaning of messenger, 
envoy, the Common Language uses in the Sing, i vptcfitvHiSt -ov ; but in the 
FL ol and robs 'rp4oP€iSf vpiofit^^v, rp4oP€Ot\ also, rb 8cLc/»uoy and rh ScLcfw 
tear. The latter and older form is retained in the poetic dialect ; still, the Dat 
Ft. ddxpoot is found even in the Attic prose-writers (Thu. 7, 75 ; Dem. c. Onet 
L 4 32). 

f 71. XL Heteroclites. 

Heteroclites [i 67 (b)] have two modes of formation; they 
are either of the third Dec., which have been already presented 
together (i 68), or of two different declensions. Those of dif- 
ferent declensions are, e. g. as follows : — 

A. Of the First and Third Declension. 

Several substantives in -17s are inflected, either in whole or in 
part, according to the first and third declensions : — 

(a) Some in 17s, Gen. •«» and -r^os, through all the Cases according to both 


declensions: 6 M^«n}r, vmshroom, Gen. /i^kw and iiAmfros^ and dome proper 
names, e. g. Xifrns, The name BdK^s^ in the old Attic, has thd Ionic Gen. 
form e(Uc«0, Dat. 0aXp, Ace. doX^i^} in the later writers, BaXov and ^dxifm^ 
OdUirri and e^irra. Observe that the accent is drawn back on d^c«. 

(b) The proper nomea mentioned, \ 59, Bern. S, haTO % as well as ^ in the 
Ace Sing. only. 

B. Of the Second and Third Declensions. 

(a) Of the Common second and third declensions : several 
substantives in *09, as mascTiHne, are inflected according to the 
second Dec, but as neuter, according to the third Dec, e. g. h 
and TO 0^09, chariot^ rov o)fpv and o)(pitK, rov Eixpv and ro o^oc ; o 
and TO o-KOTos, darkness, 

(b) Of the contract second and third declensions : — 

irpiixpos (^, waierin^pot), Att v^p^ovr. Gen. 9p6x!0ivt ete^ DoiL PI. w^dXMvi 
(like fiovs^ iSovr(r). 

OiBiwv¥s, Gen. OiUvoBos and (pod.) OlBfirMi, Dat iMni$h Aoe. Oll(ar*ate and 
OiZivoWf Voc. OlSfirov. 

(c) Of the Attic second and third declensiona : — 

In the Ace. Sing., i jiKnSf laughter^ yikmroSf yiKtarif Ace. yiK9»ra and 
7/Xwy, and the three following: irixprns^ patruusy fi'^pofs, avunculuM, and 
Mfiwt, which, in die (3en. and Ace. Sing^ are inflected according to the thixd 
Dec. and the Attic second Dec. ; in the other Cases, according to the third 

w^pvsy Gen. vdrpv and rdrpttost Dat. Tdrpuif Ace. wdr/mw and Tdrpcaa ; 
Ul^ws, Gen. MCkw and VUrwos, Dat Vlbmt, Ace. Wtym (| 48, Bern. 1), Mlrwr 
and MfyoMx. 

i 72 IIL Metaplasts. 

Metaplasts [i 67 (c)] like Heteroclites, have two modeis of 
formation ; they are either of the third declension, which have 
been already presented together (68), or of two different declen- 
sioiis. Those of different deoleBStons are, e. g. as follows : -— 

(a) Of the Common second and thkd declensions :*-• 

Aivlpop (r^, finfie), Qen. 9cV9/>ov, etc.; bat in the Dat FL among the Attic 
writers, BMptci (from the stem rh AENAP02) i»nd S^vS^cs ; the first fbnn b 
regarded by the Attidsts as the better. To this stem beKmg^ also, the forms 
r^ 94ytpei and t& S/v^fn;, which occur in the Attic poets, and in later prose 

Ko ty toy 6s {6 f partaker) ^ Gen. Kowwyov, etc.; Xcnophon uses the forms m 
MiM#rif and r^hs Kotrm'os (from KOINAN). 


Kplyotf {rh, ISy) Gen. Kplifov, etc., with the secondary form in the Dat PL 
xpiptfft in Aristoph. from the PI. Kpivta (in Herod.). Coinp. 94vlipor, 
Afti (^, sione)^ Gen. ?uu>s and in Soph. 0. C. 196. ?idov, 
'OSwttpos [and poetic rhiy^ipoy]^ dream. Gen. hp^ipov and 6vtipcetos, 
Uvp ['rhfjire), 99pis. Bat PI., rk wpd, wakk-firts^ according to the second 

^i^f (d» son), Gen. Wov, etc. Together with this formatioOi there is another 
according to the third Dec, much in use, particnlarlj in the Attic writers, from 
the &eme 'TIETS, Gen. lAioi^ Dat vlu (Ace. vlltL is rejected) ; PL vhhf Gen. 
vi'^r» Dat. »tfnt Ace. (Mif)^ Auic nifth (i 57, Bern. 1 ) ; D«al, itf^, Geo. 

(b) Of the Attio seoond and third declensions : — 

The three snbetantiTes, ^ ixmi, ihreafang-floor ; 6 roitr, peacock f and 6 rv^^, 
wkithtmadf haye, together with the common inflection according to the Attio 
second declension, another according to the third declension, in -wws, etc, e. g. 

"Reuxrk, The words ri &\»s and 6 ra^s arc generally declined accord- 
ing to the Attic second Dec, Ace Sing. 2\»v, ra£y j still, the r is commonly 
rejected from Sxms in the Ace, f 48, Bem. 1. But die forms Skm^s, ikm^^ 
lAMn(ir), rowMy towms, rcmctp^ etc*, are used on account of their greater 

4 73. Indeclinable and Defective Nouns. . 

1. Substantives which do not vary the termination, but retain in all the Cases 
the form of the Nom., are called indeclinable. Except foreign proper names, as 
6 'AfipadfLf rod 'AfipadfL^ and the indeclinable cardinal numbers, aU indeclinable 
nouns are of the neuter gender. Here belong especially : — 

(a) The names of the letters, e. g. rh, rod, rf, ix^ ; 

(b) Most of the cardinal numbers, e. g. S^xa Mp&v ; 

(cjTT^, rov, rf, xP^^Vy necemty, destiny, and ^4/u$ with itrrty and cTyoi, and 

seyeral foreign words, e. g. t^, toD, rf vdtrx'^i 
(d) The substantiye infinitives, e. g. t^, toD, r^ ypd^iy, 

2. Some substantives are used only in the Sing., or only in the PI« Such 
words may be termed defective in number. The reason of it is found, either 
in the meaning of the word, or simply in usage, e. g. i ai^^pt eiherf ol fnjrfoi, 
the Eiaian wind; td 'Adiinu, Athena; rA 'OKifivta, the Olympic games, Comp. 
Airther, Syntax, ^ 243. 

3. It has been already noted, S ^^i ^^^^ some substantives are found only in 
tingle Cases {Defediva eatu). 



The Adjective and Participle. 

4 74. Gender and Declension of the Adjective 

and Participle:. 

1. The Adjective and the Participle, like the Substantive^ 
have three genders, being varied by inflection to agree with 
the gender of their substantive. But all adjectives have 
not separate forms for the three genders ; many have but 
two endings, one for the Masc. and Fem., the other for the 
Neuter, e. g. 6 iT(o<l>p(ov ajn^p, 17 aw^ptnv fwrj, to a&(f>pop 
rkicvov. Several, indeed, have but one ending, commonly 
used only for the Masc. and Fem. See § 80, e. g. 6 ^1/7 a 9 
avrip, ri ^1/7^9 71/^17. 

2. In Adjectives and Participles of three endings, the 
Masc and Neuter belong to the same declension (second or 
third), and the Neuter is like the Masc. in the Gren. and 
Dat. ; the Fem. is always of the first Dec 

Rbmabk 1. Hence, in an Adjective in -os of three endings, the Masc. 19 
declined like K&yQs (§ 46), the Fem. like Sfjoi or vkiA (S 44), and the Ncut 
like CVKO0 (46). 

Rex. 2. The declension of Adjectives and Participles differs only in a few 
points from that of the Suhstantivc ; these will be noted hereafter. Bot it may 
Tje remarked here, as an essential deviation, that Participles always have the 
Voc. of the third Dec. like the Kom., § 53, Rem. 5. 

\lb. Accentuation of Adjectives and Partieiples, 

The accentuation of Adjectives and Participles is like that 
of Substantives, with a few exceptions, which are now to be 
aoted : — 

I. The Fem. is accented on the same syllable as the Masc. through all the 
Cases, where the nature of the final syllable permits, e. g. icoAis, jcoA.^, iraXoy; 
Kov^s, Kol^j Kov^v\ Xapluif x'M^^^^f'^9 X'V^^'^'i M^^tt^» /i^Aoiyo, ii.(Xwf\ '^4p^w, 
r4ft€Uf9f r4p€if ; fiap6s, fiapua, fiapi \ ^ovAc^ar, jSovAc^HTcUra, $ou\9vcaif ' ridf ^i 


Remabk 1. In adjectires in -of, i|, -it^t or •ot, -d, "W, the Fern., on account 
of the length of the final sellable (17, d), must be a Paroxytone, when the Masc. 
is a Propaioxytone, or a Properispomcnon, c. g. dy^p^vuros^ iLy^ponrtyn, iuf^p^ 
'vsror; iXtA^poSj i\€v^4ftdt ^^cud'cpoK; icaS^of, ko^^, iroGAoy; airtn9di0St (nr«v- 
iai&9 0vov8ai4»r; but, when the final syllable in the declension is short, it again 
takes the accentuation of the Masc, 1. e. it becomes again a Proparoxytone, or 
a Ptoperispomenon, e. g. ifdyM^mu, Ac^cpoi, icav^, ovovHcudt, like i^oiwi' 
rm^ iXM^btpoiy Kovfoi, otovSomm. Hence the difference between *P6iiai, AvKtai 
(Tvnukcs), as adjectives, and 'PoS(ai, AvKiat, as substantives, according to 

2. Participles accent the same syllable in the Neuter Nom. as in the Masc., 
when the nature oi the syllable permits, c. g. 

waiit^pf va»Z9vo¥ riff^trwyf rrfi^iroy 

Rem. S. Yet Adjectives sometunes deviate from thi.s rule, see \ 65, 5. 

3. Contracts in --ovf, -i}, -ovj^, from >cot, -^, -coi^, <foT, >^, or <(a, -^i^ (except 
the Nom. and Ace. Dual Masc. and Neuter, which arc Oxytoiics, ^ 49, 3), are 
Perispomena through all the Cases and Numbers, though the uncontractad 
fonns of those in -wt are Proparoxytones, e. g. h^y{>ptos ~ ofr/vpoSi, ifryip^tw 
■B ifyvpow. On contracted compounds in -oos, •oom, e. g. tthnvs, tHyoWf see 

* 49, 3. 

4. Barytone feminines of adjectives and participles, whose Masc. is of the 
third declension, are Perispomena [^ 45, 6 (b)] in the Gen. PI., but all the 
other Cases retain the accent of the Masc, e. g. 

/3«^i, -M, '6 Gen. PI. fiap4»v, $apti&y 

/UKaSf fU^utya, fi4?ueaf ** lUKJamy, ii9\aiy&y 

vitf , mro} wtty '* irijnuy^ vavvy 

rv^^tSf -^Tintf '4y ** rv^/rrenr, Tv^d'ffi<r»r 

T^as, r^l^do'a, r^ay " rv^dyruy, rv^atr Ay \ hntj 

kydp^imtfosj -(yri, -tyoy " ky^pwwlywy^ as Masc, F., and N. 

^A«^pof , -/pa, -cpor ** iKtv^iptty^tiA Masc, F., and N. 

imrr^fuyost -iyff, 'tyoy ** rvTroft/y»y, as Masc, P., and N. 

Rex. S. On the accentuation of the monosvUable was, and of monosyllabic 
participles in the Gen. and Dat., see ^ 65, 2 (cj. 

Rem. 4. On the accentuation of the Nommative of compound adjectivoi, 
the following things bo noted : — 

(a) Those in -of, when the last part is formed of a substantive or adjective, 
follow the general rule [^30, 1, (c)], and are Proparoxytones, e. g. ^lAi- 
rcfcyos (from t/kiw), wiyKcucos (from k4kos). But if the last part is 
formed of a verb, then adjectives with a long penult, are Oxytones, e. g. 
y^vxoroiar6s^ fitXarotSs, 1ittyw6sj 69riy6s ] but those with a snort pcnidt, 
are commonly Paroxytoncs, if they have an active sense, but if a passive, 
Proparoxytones, e. g. 

Xji^fi6\oSy one casting stones ; \tb6$o\oSf cast dovm by stones ; 

infrpoKr6yosy matricide ; fAjyrp6KToyos, dain by a mother ; 

driporp6ipoSf nourishing wild betsts : ^p6rpo^5y iw trisned by wild U ufts. 

Words compounded with prepositions, a privative and intensive, td and 


Mvst ^^^ A*(> iiy^f ^h ^<f fyh hfh Co» *'Vf and voXv, are alwajs Pft> 

paroxytoneg, and hence exceptions to the role respecting words with a 

short penult 
(k) Verbal adjectives in -r^s remain Oxytones, even in compounds, if they 

have three endings, bat are Proparoxytones, if they have but two. Sec 

i 78, L (c). 
(e) All oompoonds in -vA^t «p^9 ^^t "^^M* ^*^ Oxytones. 


t 76. L Adjectives and Participles of three 


L -Off -iff "or: Nom. 

Gen. PL 
Gen. PL 
•Of, -4^ -Qp: Nom. 
Gen. PL 
Gen. PL 

Most of the adjectives belong to this ckss. The Fern, ends in a, when pre- 
ceded by I or p, ^ 4.3, 1. Still, adjectives in -oos have -^ in the Fem., when m 
precedes o, otherwise, ^, e. g. Adp^ yet iy96ii. On the aecentnation of 
adjectives in -os, -q (d), ^or, sea f 75. 

Adjectives in t of, Wa* -foy, which denote the maienal, c. g. x^C^tos^ 
golden; iify^p^oSf silver; Ktpdfuos, earthen; and mnltiplicative amectives in 
-^of, -^if, -ooy, e. g. &irxA>r, tingle; 9tw\6os, double^ are contracted. On the 
accentuation of those in -^os, 4s, -cor, see f 75, 3, and on the oontmctioQ of 
those in '4a into -«, 4)} into -i|, and 4a into -a, see ^ 9, XL 



Ayol^r, ^oodl 






Iy^oot, e^^M, 



*yW«r (§75,4.) 






Miraioir, jusf, 









^Xdp^r. AottiZe, 



















BsxAKX 1. Contraction is seldom omitted in Attic classic proset not jakfn- 
qnently in the TrAgedians, e. g. xp^<a« Xen. Ag. 5, 5 : yet &;^p^of, 4d, 4 or, 
ovicdkf , is rarely found contracted; BiKp6ost 4a, 4or, two-pronged, is com- 
monly contracted in the Masc. and Ncut., Suc^Sr, Suc/wOy, but in the Fem tha 
nncontracted form is usual, ri 9ucp6a) 7 So or is always uncontroctcd. 

n -<!f, -fTd, 't: Nom. ykvKis, yXvKua^ yXw^, noecl, 

Gen. y^vl^4ost 7X«Kciaf, yXuK^ 
Gen. PL y\vK4»Vi ykuKft&t^^ y\vK4^v (f 75, 4) 


The dedension of tho Blase is like «%cw, though with the common eenitirei 
in -<oj, Wtfir ; the declension of the Neut. is Kke itm, yet always nncontracted in 
the PL i-itk). The only deviations from the legohir accentuation are, flfOtrus, 
n^cM, m^iMrv, half; dnkWy ^Acio, drjKvj female; ft^fivsy old (used only in the 
Masc.), and some poetic forms. €^Avs is sometimes used as feminine in Homer 
and in llie Tngeduins. 

Rem. «. The adiectire ff^ii r u s, in the Attic writers, has both the contracted 
and nnconfinacted forms in the Aoc. PL, iiitUrm and judtrfosx also the Neat. 
Wiio-ca is found in several passages in Demosthenes in the contracted form 
^dni, Sometimes the lomc Pem. form ^a occurs, e. e, HtKarieu X. B. Eon 1 
U.(inaUMSS.) ^litrsat, PL Menon. 83, c in the best MSS. 

ni -6f, •vo'a, 'ty: Norn. ^tucyis, ^tut^ua-at ^u»^, showing, 

Gen. Sciaa^mror, 8f acy<iffi}r, dfiicWWot 
Gen. PL 9€ucy6rTmy^ BciicyMnSir, Scwytfrrwy (^ 75,4.) 
Kom. ip6s, ^vca, ^6r, produced. 
Gen. t^WM, ^inmsy ^(nrros [S 65, 2 (c).] 

Gen. H. ipirrmw^ ^vow^ ^^wrmv* 

So the Pres. and second Aor. Act participles of verbs in -lu. For the de- 
denaion of the Masc and Neut, see f 54 (d). 

IV. -c 1 1, -c tnr a, -ff I' : Nom. X9pUt$, xapUffffo^ X«P^«»'» lovdy. 

Gen, x«^*^<»'» X«P«^<^«»»» X^*^os 
Gen. PL x'P'^^"^* x«V*«'^*>'» X«V*'»^»»'« 

ITor the declension of the Masc. and Neat, see f 54 (d), the only diffeience 
being that the Dat PL ends in -tri, not -ti^i, e. g. xcfW— The Masc. and 
Neat is in the Nom. a Paroxytone, in the Pem. a f^paroxytone; yet the 
ancient grammarians prescribe that the Neat of x<^«' should Be accented oa 
the antepenalt, hence xipiMM. 

Bbm. 3. Some of the adjectives in -^cis, -^f 0*0-0, -qcv, and -Jcit, -^tr- 
ro, -^cr, admit contraction, e. g. 

Nom. Tifc^ftf, Tifiii-ttnTOy ri^^ci', honored, 

Tift^tf rtfiiiaira, ti/m^ 
Gen. rifnjrroSf rtpJitrajis, ri/t^rros 
Nom. fMAir^f 19, /if AiT^c(r0-a, iUkiu6^Wy honeyed, 

fuKsTovs, fitKn-ovce'ti, fitAjrow 
Gen. /tcArr^vKTOs, pL*\tro6<r<nis, fuktroumes, 

V. f (t, -«i0«, -^ir: Nom. Xct^c/r, Aci^fZoro, Aft^y, relictus, 

Gen. \€i^4yroSf Aci^ff/0^f, Xci^^Kroi 

Gen. PI. Ku^^mw, \tup&§ur&y, \tup&4trrt» 

Nom. Tt^Mls, Ti^uffti, Tid^y, placing. 

Gen. ri^^^yrof, ri3«t0t|r, ri^^os. 

For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see $ 54 (d), and also in the Dat 
PL, e. g. rwp&tiiri. So likewise the first and second Aor. Pass. Participle, and 
the Pres. and second Aor. Active Part, of rtdryu and Tn/a, e. g. Ult, Utffo, Ut\ 
cXf 9 Jaa, cr, dtls, ^titra, ^4y. 

VL -df, -aiyd, -ay: Nom. fUfios, fi^Kouya, fU?Jbf, black, 

Gen. fUx&yos, /AMKadyiis, fi4\&yos 

Gen. PL fuhJbwy, nMkcuy&y, /itXiyuy. 

In the same manner only rd\as, tdKasya, rix&y, unhappy, the feminine Voc. 
ef which has also r^oy. For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see 4 54 
(d), with Rem. 6. 



VII. -ug, -a^Qf •ay: Nora. vos, vSiro, tot, afl, etxery, 

Gren. trorn^Tf vdt^nyr, vai^^i 

Gen. PI. wdtrruiff vcwwr, vJunwr. 

In the same manner only the compounds of vas, e. g. ^rdr {iwara, brwf), 
e\tfiirds, irp6vas, etc. ; these compounds have a short a in the NeaL, in dae- 
trlic and anapestic yerse. See ^54 (d),for the declension of the Masc and 
Neat., and f 65, 2 (c), for the accentuation of the simple adjective in the G«a. 
and Dat PL and Dual. 

VIII. -&Sf 'aaA, -&y: Nom. W4«r, Acifourft, Aci^rov, having left, 

Gen. Aic/)|rarrof, Kto^Anis^ Ktb^carros 

Gen. PI. Xctif^cbTMy, Ktv^ojcrav, Ktv^Janvv. 


So the first Aor. Act. Part, and also the Fres. and second Aor. Act Part of 
Immu: hfrdsf -wro, -d^ ; crds, -«^a, -dr. For the declension, see f 54 (d). 

IX. -i|ir, -ciyo, >cy : Nom. r^y, rcpctyo, r^y (poetic), smootk, 

Gen. rtptvost T€ft€ipiiSf r4ptyos 
Gen. PI. Tcp^ywy, rtptiyiiVf t%^vw9* 

Ko other adjective is thus declined. Por the declension, see ( 55, 1. 

X. -• iJ s, -o G 0" a , -^ y : Nom. SiSo^s, di^Dira, 9j^y, oiving^ 

Gen. 8i3<iyroff, ti5o(/0-ifr, 5<8oirro5 

Gen. PI. Si&fyrwyy StSowrvy, Zv^dvrmv, 

Thus only the Part. Pres. and the second Aor. Act (8o^i, Soi^a, 3^, Qe& 
8iyr»s, So^s, Gen. PI. Fern. Zovavw) of Terbs in -o^fu. 

XI. •A¥t-ov/ra^'6u'. Nom. I«c«iy, ijcootfo, iic^y, willing^ 

Gen. iK6rros, kKovtms^ kw&mm 
Gen. PL Mmmv^ iKoww^ Mtrrw, 

Thus only the compound hiicmv^ commonly &ir»y, f^Mouca^ hcov. For the 
declension, see ^ 54 (d). 

XH. -wy, -oufffi, -oy : Nom. Xc(ir»y, Xtivawra^ \ciiroy, leaving^ 

Gen. Xc£iroyror, Aei»o^<rTiJ, XeftroKfoy 

Gen. PL \ciir((yrofy, KtvirovirCav, Xftr6rrf¥, 

So olso the Pres., Fut., and second Aor. Act. Part., the last, however, with a 
different accentuation : -kjy, -ot/o-a, -6y, e. ff. Xm^v, -owro, -iJy, For the declen- 
sion, see if 54 (d). In the same manner, the Present participles of contract 
Terbs in -<lU», -^o^, and •6<0f e. g. 

Nom. TifiioMf -MTtt, -«»y Nom. ^tA,dy, -oGcra, -ovy 

(rcn. Tifiinrrosy -(iin^Sf •mmot Gen. PL ^fXoiJyrwy, H>wrSf¥t -c^ptomf, 

Gkn. 1*L riyi^vrwVy -wraWf -^vrmy, Nom. fua^Avf •^wra^ -oDy 

Gen. PL yLurbovvroov^ -ovcwif, -ovrruy. 

The Fut. Act. Pnit. of Liquid verbs is declined like ^tkvr, ^ikovtra^ ^iXoDy, 
Gen. ^tXovKTos, etc., c. y, aicMpwy, -oDo-o, -ovy (formed fn>m ffxtp4ioy, etc*')) froin 
inrflpw, to sow. 

Xm. -ws -v7a -6s: Nom. rtrv<puTy rcrutpiuay reru^y, having strucky 

Gen. Trrw^cfrot, rcri^u/^ar, rtrwpdros 

Gen. PL rtrvipiruv, rerv^oiStyy rvrv^irtav. 

On the form jcrriis, -wiro, Iittwj and -^y, etc., sec below, ^ 193, Hem. 2 and 3 

♦ r/.] 



XIV. The adjectives, fiiyasy fitydKri, fiiyoy gi'eat^ »oX^j, voWiif 
« ox ^, muchy ard irregular in the Norn., Acc^ and Voc. of the Masc. and Neat 
S.og.; the other parts are regular; bat even vo AX ^r instead ofvo\vy or voA^» 
occurs in tho Attic poets; Aesch. S. 824, uses the Voc. fi4ya\t', vpaos, 
vpacta, -rpaor^ tojiy U also irregular; it has, throughout the Fern., in the 
PL and l)aal Neat., as also in tho Gen. PL Masc., and sometimes, also, in the 
other Cases of the Masc. PL, a form like vpal)s, -cZk, -t (comp. yXMtis^ -fia, -^l, 
which occars in tho Dialects. See the Paradigm. 

♦ 77. Paradigms. 




itya^'6s ieyti^^ 
kya^ kyay^ 

krYa^6tfi good 










kya^HMf kysA-aiy 


















yXxncvs yKvKtta 

7XiNt/-of 7Xvirf/ds 

7XMM1 yXwetl^ 

yXvK^ y\uittt99 

V. yXvKV yXvKtia 


P. N". yXvK€7t yXvKt7at 
G. yXvKitiif yXvK€t&¥ 
I). yX»K4«ri{y)yXvMlais 
A. yXvKtit yXvKttas 
v. yXvKtTs yXvKilat 






rpoos vpatTa vpaoy, soft 

rpdou v pa* ids Tpdov 

wpAtp ftpati^ ^P^ 

irpSaiy vpattay irpaay 

irpoof(«) irpatia irpaoy 

TTp&ott Tpafftf vpactai vpada 
wpa4t»y irpa*t&y irpai^y 

vpdoit, TTpaiffi vpatiats 7rpa4<ri 
vpdovSf TpacTs wpatt&s vpa4a 
rpaoi, 9pat7s vpattat rpa4a 

Dual. yXvK4t yXvKtla yXvK4t 
yXyn4oiy yXwcttaty yXvti4oty 


•r pat Id wpdiof 




X^^i^os x^^^^^ x^"^^' 
X9pi*vr^ X'f*^^^ X^^**^^ 
Xa(fltyTa x^^^^^^i^ X^^*" 
















\xotpi4yTOi» x'-P^*^^^^ 

















Xf t<^/vT« r 
Xfip^ey^t i 

Xft^ivi y\ 

Xrt^cureu Xu<p&4yTa 
X€i<f>^tiiruy X(iipb4yro»y 
X€t<p^ti<rais X€i^^€7<n{y) 
Xttip^tlaas Xei^/yra 
Xtt<f>^€i(rat Xutpb4yra 

Kti<p^fl(rd Xei<p^4yr9 
X€i<p^tlff<uv Xti(p^4yT0iy, 








JCpwrf . 

Xp^Mw^ golden 


















«r\6vs inrXon iatKSoky single 

arXovs itwkii ar\ovr 

kw\6ov inrXiris k'r\j6o¥ 

hwkov air\^s carXov 

earK6^ hrKSj^ &vX^y 

airX^ oirA^ &rXf 

kw\j6ov avX^y hr\6oy 

iar?<ovp atKrjp iarXow 

doubtful a3rA^| a-v\6or 

kirKfi kwkovy 







































kpyCp€oyf silver 



















it X ^, much 


roXXwv • 

















fjiiya, great 

























fU^ay^ black 

was vcura 

iray, aU 




wayrSs Tdtnis 





-rayrl rrdtrg 





vdrra wuraif 





v<u mura 





vdarrts ftaffai 





•xdrrwy 'uutrw 









irdyrat wdffat 





vdyrts irnroi 





•KdyxM irdffa 





vdyroiy vdaaty 




trriv, standing 

Xnc^y Anrovtra 

KvK6yy leaying 




hjit6yrat hnro^aris 





Anri^KTi Ktiro6aTf 





Xtfdyra hnrowrtty 





Xiire^y ktnovtra 





\nr6yrts Xtrrovirai 





KKw6yruv XnrowAv 





\twov<rt(y) Xnr&dtraif 





KnrSyras Ktwof&ffds 





\tir6yTts XjTovffoi 





\nr6yrt A.nro^<rd 




\vw6yTovy Xtwoiaaiy 




^orouK, about to 

(wyy^s (fuyywa 




^arovyros [show 

^vyyArros itvyy^ffrfs 
{tvyy&yn {tvyyio^ 









C^vyy^a (tvyywray 
(tvyy^s (tvyyvfra 









(fvyy6yT€S (tvyywrai 




ifvyy^yrvy Ctvyyvirciy 
(tvyy^vt (tvyy^trats 









(tvyy6yras (tvyy^as 





(evyviyrts (tvyyvaai 





Ctvyy^yrt (wyy6(ra 
iMvyyCrroty (tvyy^ouiy 



' pcofolfrojuf 


' (tvyy6yrwM, 

Rbxaxk. All participles in -us are declined like \§upAtU (see ^ 76, Y.) • all 
pftrticiples in -vs, like Ztucy^s (see $ 76, III.) ; all participles in -or, like mds (see 
4 76, Tin.) ; the Pros. Fut. and second Aor. Part. Active, like Xnr^y {\ 7% 
XIL) ; the Fut. Act. Part, of Liquid verbs, like tnrtp&y (^ 76, XII.) 

i 78. II. Adjectives of two Endings, 

Adjectives in -o? of two endings are declined like AyaSAs, 
except that they have no separate form for the feminine, the 
same form being used for the masculine and feminine. 


I. -0 J, -0 K J 6 7) &\oyos, rh &Koyoy, irrational. 

To this class belong, 

(a) A few simple adjectives without particular derivative endings, c. g. A ^ 
fidpfiapoSf not Greek; XAfipos^ vehement; ^/ac/ms, gentle; KoiHopoSf calunmiaiing ; 
rt^offos, mild; x^P^'^^y unfruitful; 4}<rvxo^> silent; ScCirovos, extratxigant ; coiAaf, 
yetterday ; 

(b) Most simple adjectives with the derivative-endings >ios and -cios, an<t 
-i/ior, e. g. d -^ trvrfiptost saving ; S4i /kur(A.cioff, regal; 6 ^ yy^ftosy recogmzaUe ; 

(c) All compounds, e. g. 6 ^ Kaotot. r^ &Koyo¥^ irrational; h q hfy6s (instead 
of &co7^s), inactive (but &n^s, -^t -^y> might) ; ^ ^ vc^xfraAoi, very fair (butmiA^Sy 
^, -tfy) : 5 ^ iniXXcvfcos, very white (bot Xevir^s, -^, ^^k) ; dtimnvaroSf -oy, divinely 
inspired (but tkcvot^t, -^, -^y) ; adjectives compounded with adjectives in 
-«cos, which then become Proparoxytones, e. g. 6 ^ ^cvSttrruror, no< /nire .^tfw:^ 
bat ('ATTiic^y, -^, -rfv) A ^ fufforfpciKOS (but ncp«rifc^r, -^, -6y), 

Exceptions are adjectives derived from compound verbs with the deriva- 
tivc-cndings -k^s, which remain Oxytoncs; those in -r/oi, which remain 
Paroxy tones, e. g. ^Tt5c(«rri«c^s, -^, -^y, from ^rtScf/cvu/a ; those in -r Jy vary 
between two and three endings, e. g. ftyfirr^r, -^, -6y (from Ay/xv)i ^^^^ tu^itrisf 
'iy, sec Lobcck, ad S. Aj. 1296. Paralipp. p. 482, sq. Poppo aa Th. 2, 41, 4^ 
But when compounds in 't6s, -rfi, -rSy, are again compounded, they have bat 
two endings, and are Proparoxytones, e,g.Sii hKoraffics^curros. 

Remark 1. Comparatives and Superlatives have three endings, even when 
the Positive has but two, though there are some rare exceptions, e. g. &7o/Nrrc-> 
pos ri A^tf'if, Thu. 5, 110. ^vstfifioX^raros ii A6Kpis, Id. 3, 110. 

Ih -ovs, -ovy'j 6 ii ^HyovSf rh €Cyovy, benevolent. 

Adjectives with these endings are, 

(a) Those compounded with the contracted substantives yovs and rXovs, and 
hence in the Masc. and Fern, are declined like these, but in the Neuter liko 
iirrovy (M?)* 7^^ the Neater PL in ^oa does not admit contraction, consequcntlj 
r& tiyoa. On the accentuation, see $ 49, 3. 

Rem. 2. Attic writers sometimes omit the contraction in the PL, c. g. irajco- 
i^otf X. Cy. 8. 2, 1. Kp\fi^iy6ovs X. Ag. 11, 5. Z^svooi X. H. 2. 1, 2. 

(b) Such as are compounded with the substantive ftous, e. g. 6ii troKhrmn^ 
rh iroXvrovy, and are inflected like it, but in the Ace. Sing., even as OiSfvovs 
[^ 71, B. (b)], are partly of the contract second Dec. and partly of the third, 
c. g. Gen. vok^oBos and jroK^ov ; Ace. voAi^oSa and voA^ovy, etc 

Rem. 3. In several adjectives of this kind, c. g. dirov;, fipaJiihrovst Uvovs^ 
&riirT^r«vr, the inflection docs not follow the second Dec 

III. '»s, -ay] 6 71 tXctff, rh t\ca>y, compassionate. 

Acyectives of these endings arc like the Attic second Dec. (§ 48). 

Rbm. 4. The Ace commonly ends in -wy, but in a number of oomponnd 
irords, it ends in •« (^ 48, Rem. 1 ), e. g. ^t6xp*^i &yri(TAc«, teyrifm (in respect to 
the accentuation, see § 29, Rem. 7), iwlvXtatf Mpxp^tf* 

Rem. 5. There arc three endings to the simple adjective : — 

nA/«s, irAca, w\4wy,full, Gen. tA^«, v\4aSf tA/w, PL tA^9», rK4ai, irA^a; the 
compounds arc either of two endings, e. g. 6 ^ db^vAcws, t^ iurAvK^my^ PL ol ai 
l/cirAc^ (iTVctT linrAcy X. Cy. G. 2, 7. ^ktAc^ rpdvf^cu X. Ilier. 1, 18), rii ImrAcv 
X. Cy. 3, 1, 28. 1, 6, 7, and even the Nom. PL trA/<y, of the simple adjective 
is not seldom U5cd for the Masc. and Fern., or they have (yet more seldom) 


three endings, e. g. M^Xttn, hmx\4a (F!. Phaedcm 83, d.), iofiwKtwy, Ear 
Ale 730, has v\4oy, after the example of Homer, as Neater Sing. So like* 
wise compomids, seldom In the Sing., e. g. rh ffivXtoy, Soph., oftener in thi 
PL, e. g. fftMktoi PI. Rp. 6. 505, c. and very freqnentlj in the Neuter, e. g. 
&nrAf« X. Oy. 6. 2, 7, and 8. ireplrKta 6. 2, 33. Also from IXcvf, Plato PhaedoD 
95, a. has tXca as Nent PI. 

Rbm. 6. 'O ii ^ws^rh a&pf talvuSj is formed from the old word 2A02 by 
contraction. In addition to the Nom. (r£f, (r£ir, this ti'ord forms only the Ace. 
Sing, vtfir, like the Attic second De& ; it has aUo the Ace. ^&ov. The form <ra 

ifrom <rdU), occurs as Fem. Sing, in Eurip. Fr. 629. (Dind.) and as* Ncut. PI. in 
'lat. Critias, 111, c. m the best MSS. The PL consiste of forms from c&s of 
the second I^ec and of forms from the lengthened auoSf namely: — 

Fl. N. ol al v&s (from <ra»cs), and ol cAot, al tr&ait N. trwoj rarely vcU 
A. robs rhs a&s (from <r»as), and robs tr&ovty N. o&a^ rarely oa. 

The Singolar forms of vSt^s aro very rare in the Attic writers, e. g. ffAos, X. 
An. 3. 1, 32. 

Bbx. 7. The compounds of k 4 pas and y4\ws are partly like the Attic 
second Dec, partly uke the third Dec, e. g. h^ xp^'^*P^*t ^b XF^^*^*P^^* 
Gen. xpvo'^^ptf and xpiwoic/fMrros ; h i\ ^ix6y^XMS^ rh ^oJytXMv^ Gen. ^oJytXv 
and piXaqf4x»iros; fioOK^pmSf Gen. ^•iiufm and fi»vK4pmros, so tiKtovs. The 
adjectiTe 9vs4ptts fi:>llows the third Dec. only, e. g. Zvs4p9tros, etc Forms like 
the Common second Dec. originate from forms of the Attic second Dec, e. g. 
ZiKtpm^ 9i^9poiy luttpuu On the accentuation, see S 29, Hem. 7. 

IV. ••f; -of; N. ^ ^ tr&^ptav^ rb om^pw^ prudent^ 

G. rod rris rov cA^povos (according to S ^^i !)• 

Rex. 8. From b 9 Tttty^fat, oomcs sllso the Fem. form rfcipa, even in prose 
wiiters; so also wpii^pavva from 6 4i vpi^pny^ occurs in the poets. 

Rbm. 9. Here belong, also, the Comparatives in •«ir, -or, >W, 'lov\ but in 
tespect to the declension of these it is to be noted^ that, after the rejection of 
r, they are contracted in the Ace Sing., and in the Nom., Ace, and Voc PL 
See the Paradigms, f 79. In the Attic writers, the uncontracted forms in -oyo, 
-tfirfff, "oyart frequently occur, e. g. /ui(ora, ixJenovOj iraXXforo, ixArrotfts^ 
murtoFfff, fui(oytSt fithfioyts, irXcforcs, ffrrovoT, /ScXrfoMU, iXjitroyas, X. Cy. 5. 2, 
36. 7. 5, 83. 2. 1, 23. 2. 1, 13. 5. 2, 36. HclL 6. 5, 52. Cy. 7. 5, 70. On the accen- 
tuation, see f 65, 5. 

V. -ij», -ff ; N. d ^ iXTfi^f, rh i\'n&4sj true^ 

G. rod rrjs rod AXij^^os, itXri^ovs (^ 59). 

On the contnustien of -4a into -a (instead of -^), where a vowel precedes, see 
i| 59, Rem. 1. 

Rbx. 10. Compounds in -^mt (from trost Gen. 4rovs\^ are either of two 
endings, e. g.woffioy x*^*^^* ^l* ^P* 10. 615, a. vtpUB^ rp x^^*^* Phaed. 249, 
a., or they take a particslar Fem. form, namely, '4TtSf Gen. -^riSoy, e. g. 
iwr4TiiSf F. iwr^s^ rpuucoyroiKlUvy OTny^tty^ Th. 1, 87. 

Rem. 11. Simple adjectives in -rtt aro Oxy tones, except vkfipfis, wKfjptM^ 
fvXL On the accentuatien -^ the Voc. and of'^ the Neuter, see \ 65, 5, and oa 
the accentuation of the Gen. i?l. \ 59, Rem. 4. 

VI. ^y, -co; N. 5 ^ Vhl^t 'rh &^^«y 

G. Tov rfyr roS &fP*yos (^ 55, I ). No other word like this. 

VII. -atr/y, -op; N. 4 ^ iewdrwpf rh Araropf fiuherless^ 

Cltov ttis rov iardropos (^ 55, 1). In like manner onhr 




Vin. -ist -i; (a) N. d 4 %», rh tSpt, kfiowing, 

G. rod r^s rav tUptos (| 63, licm. 5). 

In like maimer, only ii^oru, temperate, and T^p^if , nourished. In addition to 
the form in -coi, these adjectiveB have another m -iJ^i^ but more rare, and onlj 
poetic, e. g. Hbpio^ ISptits, 

(b) N. 4 ^ eifx^put "T^ <^ap(> agreeable^ 
G. Tov r^f rov cdx^pirof . 

Here belong the compounds of xipis, vdrpiSf IXvir, ^pinfru^ 'which are 
declined like me simples, e. g. etfcXvis, c0cXvi, Gen. cWaviSoi ; ^ikMceerpts, Gen. 
^lAoir^r^iSof ; the Acc. ends according to f 53, 3, in -ly, e. g. ctfcXTir, cf^cwir ; 
but compounds of ir6ku, when they refer to persons, are inflected in the Attic 
dialect in -iSoy, e. g. ^iX<firoXif, Gen. 'f^ot, jet in tbj Acc, ^txAwoXiw and -iSa; 
still, as epithets of cities, etc., they are inflected like trikis^ e. g. mAX(voX<s« 
Succu^oXcfy etc.. Gen. /caXAnr^Xtftts, etc. 


IX. -vt, -v ; (a) N. ^ 4 lESoir^, rb &Saitpv, tecaiess. 

So compounds of S^pv ; yet these inflect only the Acc. Sing, like the third 
Dec, e. g. iZoKftWt Neut &kucpv* The other Cases are supplied by &3^/iuros, 
-Of', Gen. -ov, according to the second Dec. 

(b) N. 4 ^ Zlwrixvsy rh 8/«i}xv« two dU long^ 
G. TOV T99 rov lir^x*^'* 

Here belong the compounds of irnx^f ; the declension is like yXvic^f, T^^f*^ 
(^ 76, IL and 77), except that the Neuter PI. in -ca is contractea into -if. Ilka 
iony, e. g. 8nr^. 

X -o VT, -or ; N. 6 4 iioyS9ovs, rh fwyHoWt one-loothed, 
G. rov r^f roi; fioymyros. 

So the remaining compounds of iMs. Por the Bee, see ^ 54 (d). 

♦ 79. Paradigms, 

















ZbnSa and ^hrow 






































Paradigms of adJ£cTiv£S. 



9CwK{ihos)ovs t^\(o-ov)cvy 

tXc«i IXCMT 












tXcflvs lXe«r 


c^rAoi cftrAoa 

^C4> lKt» 








cl^Aovf tlhrXoa 

lXf»f 1X€« 


fSvAiH fffrXoa 

!Xc^ t\e« 







cfrSofftoiy f1S9ufioy 



fAtl(vy fjLu(ov 











t^Balfiova §l!BaifMv 



fiti^oyu fiti^w yLit^ov 






^iMiiorts Maiiun^a 



/ittCoyts /ittCoya 
fui(ovs iuii» 









, ^X»i 




ftiiaifiovat 9l9ixiftaya 



fitlCoyas fiufoya 




§v9iilfior9s fi9aifA0va 

like the Nominative. 

like the Nominative. 










kKr^s iXn^is 

d^f^s i^i^ff 






iKf^ii-a)^ ^i^U 

?o'«(^«)s• M» 





h\i^(i'«)M kKri^(i'a)ri 

M^-^O^' d7i(^-a)a* 






hXf^{4-as)u$ iJvi^{Un 

' ^i(4'as)ta 671 (^ a) a 


like the Nominative. 

like the Nominative. 






^ixapts c'fx^' 

iardrup &warop 






^hxdpn-a and ^hxfyiv ^Hx'P^ 

ieirdropa tanerop 





c^X^'f'C Mbx^ira 

inrdropts iiwdropa 







tirxdpiras titxytra 


i^vdropts iardropa 







I * but trvyji^f'ooy ~ evir^tavy ^ 59. Holll. 4 


* \ 59. Kom. I. I 


i 80. Ill Adjectives of one Ending, 

Adjectives of one ending have no separate form for the Ncii 
ter, partly because their meaning is of such a nature that they 
generally occur in connection with persons, and partly because 
their formation admits of no separate neuter form. In poetry, 
however, these adjectives sometimes occur in those Cases in 
wliich the Neut form is like that of the Masc. and Fern., i e 
in the Gen. and Dat, even in connection with neuter substan* 
tives, e. g. futywucrw XwroTJfixuriy, Eur. Or. 264. cv irhrqri a-iafiart, la 
El. 375. They very seldom take a separate form for the Neut, 
e. g. cTTiyXvs, cTTijXvSa e^co, Her. 8, 73 ; a derivative a-ijective is 
commonly used, where the neuter is to be denoted* 

I. -aSf Gen. -«v*, 6 iiovias. Gen. fjMviou, single (Pilroxytone}. 
II. -as, Gen. -avros: 6 ii ijcdfxca. Gen. -ovros, unwearied (Paroxytone)* 
in. -(£;, Gen. -i^6i\ 6 ^ ^vyds^ Gen. ^tfydZos, fugitive (Oxytonc). 

IV. -ap, Gen. -apos: only ftdxapf though the Fern, form ftdxatpa is sometimei 

V. -ij J, Gen. -ov: 6 i^cKoyriiSf Gen. i^tXotmd, vduntaty. 

Some of these adjectives toko, in connection with Fem. substantives, a sepA* 
rate Fem. form in -is (Gen. -tSos), e. g. c&c^r, Fem. ^t&wis^ fair-looking. They 
are Paroxytones, except ^c^okt^, Ixoi^f, and tfipuniis, 

VI. -7j», Gen. •iirof. 6 ri hpyfis. Gen. hprpj^oi, vokite. 

So all compounds in •dy^t, -^/i^^* *^A'6^» irA^s, and 'Kfflis^ and some simple 
adjectives, c. g. TV/o^r, nahsd; x^P^'t needy; vivrfs, poor; irKdyris, uxtndenng^ 
etc. , 

Vn. -^iv, Crcn. -iipos'. 6ri ivr^r, Gen. iarr^ifosy unfeeOhered, In like mannor 
no other. 

Yin. -d6i, Gen. -^ros: 6 ri iiyr^s. Gen. tie/y&rosy unhioum. 

So all compounds in -fip^sy -yyt&s, and -xp^St and also hrr4>s, firm, 

IX. -ir, Gen. -i)os : 4 ^ &y«Uicis, Gen. ay(£AxiSor, jmcerlesa. 

These adjectives after the omission of a feminine substantive to which they 
belong, are, like those in -ib, -(£5of, e. g. ^ *EXX(is (sc. tq), used as substantiveti 
e. g. ii warpts (sc yrj), fatherland, 

X. -Oj, Gen. 'Hi OS', irj v4ii\vs. Gen. v€^\vBos, one lot fit/ vome 
In like manner only a few other compounds. 

4-81.] <?0»M»A.R1S0N OF ADJECTIVES. 105 

XL -|, Gen. -70*, -motf-xos: 671 Hpraf, Gen. -dyosy rapacious, 

^ ^ f Ai{, " -acoSf tqwL 
6 71 fi&yO^, " -Oxof, one'h9ofed, 

XIL -^, Gea. htas : 9 ^ cut^^i^, Gea. -^irosy Ai]^ 

X l lT . Sach as end in an unchanged substantive, e. g. JSarais, childless ; /MucpS* 
X**Pf lonff-Aanded; albr6xftOf done with on^s own hand; fuucpaiay, hng4ived; 
uoKpaipcn'^t^ hna^ecked ; Xfoiccanris, having a white shield. The declension of such 
adjectiTes'is like that of the substantives, e. g. fuucpa^tyos. On the oompoundj 
«f »«^f, however, corap. \ 78, IL (b^. 

♦ 81. Oomparison of Adjectives, 

1. The quality expressed by an adjective may belong to 
€ui object in different degrees : — 

(a) When the quality belongs to one object in a higher 
degree than to another, the form is called the Comparative, 
e. g. Plaio wets more learned tliain Xenophoru 

(b) When the quality in the highest degree belongs to an 
object, the form is called the Superlative, e. g. PkUo teas 
the MOST LEARNED of the disciples of Socrates, 

(c) The form of the adjective which expresses its simple 
meaning without any comparison, is called the Positive, 
e. g. Plato was learned. 

2. Only the adjective and adverb are susceptible of com- 
parison; the participle does not admit it, except in a few 
rare cases« where the participle has the meaiiing of an 
adjective, e. g. ippoaiievo^, -iarepo^, -iararo*;* 

3. The Greek has two classes of terminations for the 
Comparative and Superlative. The first, and much the 
most common, is -t€/309, -repd, -repov, for the Compara- 
tive, and -TaT09, -TaT97, -rarov, for the Superlative; the 
second is -(^)o)v, -(i)oi/, or -coi/, -ov, for the Comparative, 
and -(t) 0-T09, - (/) (Trrj, - (t) a-rov, for the Superlative. The 

i is the union-vowel. 


4. The first class of terminations is appended to the stem 
of the adjective by the connecting syllables a (o)), cu, t9# €9; 
hence the general rule : In most adjectives^ the usual end' 
i$igs are appended to the stem by means of the connecting 


Remabk. Instead of the ungle fomu of the Compamtire and Sapeilatirei 
the Greek, like the lAtin, can prefix fuiWw (magis) and fJiKiora (mazime) to 
the Positive. This periphrasis is necessary in all adjectives, which, for the sake 
of euphony, have no Comparative fonu. 

i 82. A. First Form of Comparison, 

Comparative, -rcpos, -rtpfi, -rcpov; 
Superlative, -raros, -rax 17, -rarov. 
These endings are appended to the stem of the adjective; 
(he stem is found by rejecting o? in the Nom. of the second 
Dec, and the same syllable in the Gren. of the third Dec. 
L Adjectives in -os, -rj (-a), -ov. 

(a) Most adjectives of this class annex the above endings to 
the stem by means of the union-vowel o or » ; the union*vowel 
is o, when a syllable long by nature or by position {i 27, 3), pre- 
cedes, but (I), when a short syllable precedes, — 01 being then 
used to prevent the concurrence of too many short syllablesi 
e. g. 

icov^s, Ught, Com. icov^i^rcppf, Sap. §tov^-6-raTos, -if, -or. 

UrxPp^Si strong^ " lox^p-^^pos, " Wxy^-^orm^ 

XcvT-^s, Min, " \eirr-6^€poSf " Aflrr-^aroj, 

ir^o9p-6sf vekementy " a-^o9p-6^tpoSf ^^ ir^c9p-6^«eros, 

vucp-6st hitter^ " wuep-^^tpos, " wucp-^^airoSf 

K^-os, worthy^ " i^-e^tpos, " &|t-i&^raros. 

Hbmabk 1. A muto and liquid here always make a syllable long hy poai* 
tion, thoogh the Attic poets, on account of the verse, sometimes consider sack 
syllable as short, e. g. c&rcm^arof from fftfrticiwf. Ear. HJec. 579. 616. (PorB.X 
Sunror/i^cpo, Id. Ph. 1367. 

(b) Contracts in -€os = -ou? and -oos = -ous are contracted also 
it the forms of Comparison ; the first contract c and <u the union- 
vowel into Q> ; the last assume tlic imion-syllable cs and contract 
in with the preceding o, e. g. 

mp^i6p-ws s= TTop^vp-ovs iirX.-4os e= orA-ovs 

wop^up-9^€pos = mp^p-^^tpos amX»-4ir-r9po% = oirA-o^ir-rcpoy 

99p^vp-€^vros — Top^vp-^^aros iar\o-4<r-raTos = &TA-oif(r-rorof . 

Here belong also contracts of two endings in -ovs and -ouy, c. g. cinr^or »« 
fffr-ovy, Neat. t(fy-oo¥ =5 tUv-ovvj Com. thyo-ttr-rtpos ^^ €ly-o6s^€poSf Snp. t lwi 
4<r-raTos=^ ftty-owr-rceros. 


Bbx. S. Adjectives in -on take also the uncontracted fomu of the Comparo* 
tiTe and Soperiatiye in -o^tpos, -o^arosf e. g. ^inryo^tpoit X. B. £qn. 1, 10. 
t^XP'^^P^'* X. 0. 10, 11. 

(c) The following adjectives in -atos: y€pai6% old; iraXai* 
6% ancient; irtpalos, an the other side; axoXatos, at leisure^ 
assume tc/xos and ^raro^ without a iinion*yowel, e. g. 

y€puL-4s^ Com. y€pai-rtpos9 Snp. y^pai-rarosf 

ra\eu'6sf ** inXal-rtpoSf " iraW-TciTox. 

Rex. 3. IlaKaUs and o-xo^atos hare also the usual foims of Comparl* 
■on i voXoi^ffpos, ffxo^M6r€pos, so also ytpoi6r§poSf Antiph. 4, p. 125i 6. 

(d) The following adjectires in -o«: cv8io$> calm; ^o-v^o^^ 
tpdet; (fi(09> peeuHar; tcrof, equal; fiiaos, middle; 6pSpios» 
eaarhf; ^^(09> /!a^; irapairX^o-ios^ similar; and irpwios, tn t^ 
i9u>r9t»^, assume the miion-syllable oi, the Comparative and 
Superlative thus becoming like the preceding words in -cuos^ 
e. g. 

fUff-os, Com. fufftdT^poSf Sap. fua-alTaros, 

Pit-OS, " l8i-a(-Tfffiosy " tdi'oi-^aros* 

Rkx. 4. Sometimes also the common form is fonnd, e. g. ^oyx^eposy 
(javx^aros] ^iKwrtpos, ^tX^aros are the nsoal forms in the Attic writers. 
Here belong also the adverbial forms irpwair^poy, irptttaiTeret, from wptilos ; thus 
in Plato; likewise itp94T€poif and vptitrora; thus always, as it seems, in Thn. 
fPopp. ad 7, 19, 1), also in Xen. Anab. 3. 4, 1. irpwhtpw according to the best 
HSS. (on the contrary vprnUdrara, Cj. 8. 8, 9). The atljective ^i\0t has 
three forms: ^iX^rtpos seldom (e. g. Xen. C. 3. 11, 18.), and ^i^tSraros, 
^tXahtpos seldom in prose (e. g. Xen. An. 1. 9, 29, though one good Ms. has 
fi)idr9pop)t and ^lAaf raroi seldom in prose (e.g. Xen. H. 7.3, 8.), ftXr€pos 
poetic, and ^iXraros very frequent ; the Comparative is usually expressed by 
/hUXot 0(Xof . In addition to these three forms, also the Superlative ^Iktaros 
(as in Homer, the Comparative ^iM«k) is found in Attic poetxy. 

Bkx. 5. The two adjectives, fi4vos, middle, and r4oSi young, have a special 
Svpcriative form, fjk4<raros, pdaros', but this is in use only when a series 
of objects is to be made prominent, fUcciros denoting the very middle of the 
■eriet, and Woroy the last or most remote, whereas fuffairmos expresses the 
idea of the middle in general, and vt^aros retains the primaiy s^niiication 
of the adjective, young, new. In prose, yiaros is nsed only in reference to the 
tones of music {y4aros ^6yYos) \ and then the Feminine is contracted, yfimt 
the lowest line or string, 

(e) Two adjectives in -os: ippto/iivo^, strong, and aKparos, 
unmixed, append the imion-syllable cs to the stem, e g. ipputpLty- 


(xr-Ttpo^t ip^fuy'iar'Taros, <lKpaT-c<rT€jpo9, oKpar-c<r-7xiT09. So also 
ai8oi09 has aJtSoi-ict-Taroi in the sViperlative. 

Rem. 6. Farther, the adjectives, A^^oyoSfHch; awovHatos, xaioua; and 
tffli€vosj ^ad, Bometlmefl take the above form,* as h^oviffr^pos, -^tfracros^ 
together with the oommon form, *^€pos, •Artr^s. From ixrfitwos ia formed 
ktrfurAT9p9Sf and the adverbial neater, itrfawahm-a and Ar/Mi^^4r-^«rM»— Soveral 
other adjectives also have this formation, yet for the most part only in poetry, 
e. g. 9ff(mpos, unmixed (of wine); fi8v/zos, sweet; Mwtdos, flat {IrnrtBivrtpoSf 
X. H. 7. 4, 13), and all contracts in -ovs\ comp. (b). The forms in -^rr^pos^ 
'49X9X09^ belong properly to adjectives in "Hs and -wk 

(f ) The following adjectives in -os: XaXo9, talkalive; fjLov(y 
^dyoiy eatinff alone; ^^o^ayost dainty; and tttoix^s* P^(^9 
drop 09, and append the syllable vs, e. g. AaX-os, Com. AoX-to'- 
TMpoi, Sup. XaX-iicr-raroc ; Tmoxoi lias also Sup. «T«t»xoraros. 

Keu. 7. These endings properly belong to adjectives in ^t, Gen. -ov. 

n. Adjectives in -rj^. Gen. -ou, and ^evSrqs, -&, Gen. -cos, drop 

•-lyfyand append the syllable -is, e. g. kXctit-tts (Gen. -ou), t/iievisit. 

Com. #tXe7rr-fo--Tepos, Sup. fcXcrr-Mr-raTos ; ^euS-wr-repos, ^evS-ur' 


Exceptions. **rfiptffr^s, -ov, insolent^ has hfipiO'T^epos, X. An. 5. 8, 3, i^pivri' 
voTOf, X. An. 5. 8, 22. C. 1. 2, 12. From &«(/Mrr^s (Gt:n. -(os) is the Com. ije/>a- 
xiffTtpoSf to dlstingoish it from hxparicrvros^ No. (e). 

Ill Adjectives of the third Declension. The Comparison- 
endings are appended to the stem of the adjectives, either 
directly or by inserting the syllable -€s (also -ts). 

(1) Those in -vs, -cia, -v, 17s, -cs (Gen. -€o^^='Ofv<s), — -ac^ 

-av, and the word /Aa«cap, Juippy, append the endings of Com- 
parison directly to the pure stem, which appears in the Neuter 
form, c. g. 

yXwcltt Neut. -^ — yKxfie6^9pos ykvK^eeros 

&A.i)d4s, Nent. '4f — &Kri&4ff-r€pos itXti^^tr-xceros 

fi4\as, Neut. -ay — fitKdihrtpos fuKdih-raros 

rdAdOSf Neat, -ay — ru\dihrtpos roKip^aros 

pi^iMtpy — pMcip^tpos puucdp-raros, 

Bkm. 8. The adjectives 7; 8 ^ s, t a x v ; , and ir o X u f are compared in -Imv and 
«r. See § 83, 1. 

(2) Adjectives in -wv, -ov (Gen. -ovo^), assume -€s, c. g. 

-fvSaifun^ Nciit. ft!fiatfJtoy, fu^PP^' 

Com. €l9ai/xo9-4ff-rwpoif Sip. cu8oafioK>/<r-Tirr«f. 


(3) Adjectives in *f sometimes assume -c^, sometimes -ti^ 


A^A!|, Gen. l^Xuc-ost growing old^ ^a{> Gen. B^ayos, rapaz, 
Com. i^qAuc^iTTcpof » Com. ofntay-Ur-rtpos^ 

Sup. it^TiKuc-iv-rttrotf Sop. itfnraY'^^-^aros, 

(4) Adjectives in -ciy, -ev, whose stem ends in vr, append the 
Comparison-endings directly to the stem, the last r being 
changed into a, and the preceding v being then dropped (i 20, 2). 

Xop^cif, -lev. Gen. xaf>ftKr-ot, pieasant. 

Cora. x<iF^c(7-T«/>of, Sop. xv^^'^^f^^^ 

(5) Tlie compounds of x^^^ assume w, e. g. 

iwtxapiSf Gen. Irixdftr-osy plecuant 

Com. ivLxaptT'ilt^€poSf Sup. firixaptT «$^(rr«s. 

. ^kx^pivr^^f^s in Homer, comes from &x<V^'^*^'^' » comp. No. U)> 

♦ 83. B. Second Form of Comparison, 

Comparative, -c'cdv, Neut -lov, or -cuv, Ncut -or. 
Superlative, -loros, ^CcTtj, 'nrrov, 

lUv AKK I. On the quantity of i in >/wy, -iok, see i 28, 1 ; on the declension, 
) 78, Rem. 9 ; and on the accent, ^ 65, 5 (^). 

This form of Comparison includes, 

L Some adjectives in -vs, which drop -ws and append -(wi 
eic; this usually applies only to ^Svs, sweet, and ra^v^ «rj^ 
(the other form of these adjectives in "vrtpo^, -vraros, is some 
times used, but not by Attic writers). Taxvs has in the 
Comparative SAr^wy (Att Sdrrttiv), Neut. ^airxrov (Sarroy). 
Comp. H 21, 3, and 17, 6. Ta^t^odv is found only among the 
later writers. Thus, 

i^^y. Com. iiZ-icnf^ Kent. ^S-foi^, Sup. Ijl^-iaros, -ri, -ov, 

ttx-^j ** ddo-o-onr, Att. ^drrotyf Ncut. ^ao-iroK, Att. ^arroi', Sap. rdlx^^^o' 

Rax. 2. The other adjectives in -^S) aa fia^is, deep; fiap6sy heavy; fipu- 
<K ^iw; fipax^*9 thort; yAvit^s, tweet; iafflt, thick; thp^s, wide; ii^s, 
dioTv; 9p4irfivs, old; &)c^f, swijl^ hare the form in 'irtpes, -^ttrot (^ 82, 
ni.| ; in Attic poetry, however, single examples of these adjectives are found 
with the other form, e. g. fipdxioroSf 9piff0trros, &Ktrrot^ 

II. The following adjectives in -/) OS : ala-xpos,base; ix^P^^* 
hostile; jcvSpos* ?umorable; and oiKTp6^,tv?ctc7icd (but always 


Ar-T^x)?, ippfafuy'^a-'Taro^, dKpaT-«r-T€jp09, dicpaT-ccr-7xiT09. So also 
ai8oi09 has aJtSoi-ict-raroi in the sYiperlative. 

Rem. 6. Further, the adjectiyes, A^^oyos, rich; <rTov9a7ost atxxloug; and 
Afffitfos, gladf sometimes take the above form,* as i^ov^ffrtpoSf '4&reeros^ 
together with the oommon form, •dtrc/ws, -i^oror. From ir/uwos is formed 
Aff-fici^cpof, and the adrerbial neater, Ar/wvafrora and ArfAtr-^o'-^arak— SoTend 
other adjectives also have this formation, ^et for the most part only in poetiy, . 
e. g. §&(»pos, unmixed (of wine); fiUv/ios, sweet; Mirtioff fiai {Irnrft^crtpot^ 
X. H. 7. 4, 13), and all contracts in -ovs; comp. (b). The forms in -d^rtft^ 
-iffraros, belong properly to adjectives in -^s and -wk 

(f ) The following adjectives in -o?: XaXo9» talkcUive; /loi^o- 
^dyo^, eatiriff cUcme; ^^o^ayos, dainty; and irrtax6^^ poor^ 
drop 09, and append the syllable k, e. g. AaX-09, Com. XaX-ur- 
Ttpo^y Sup. XoX-icr-raroc ; 9mi);(os has also Sup. fmaixpraxos* 

Rem. 7. These endings properly belong to adjectives in ^y, Gen. -otf. 

11. Adjectives in -i;?. Gen. -ou, and ^cuSiJ?, -&, Gen. -cos, drop 
•^^and append the syllable -is, e. g. icXctit-tts (Gen. -ou), t/UevisIif 
Com. icXcTTT-fo'-Tepos, Sup. icXtnT-tcr-raTos ; ^cvS-ur-rcpos, ^cuSrwr- 

Exceptions. ''CfiptarfiSf -oS, tn^o^enf, has ^fipiffrSrttpos, X, An. 5. 8, 3, 6$piffrS- 
Teeros, X An. 5. 8, 22. C. 1. 2, 12. From &«(/Mn^s (Gen. -^os) is tlic Com. iucpa- 
^trrtpos, to distingoish it from ijcpeer^ffreproSf No. (e). 

Ill Adjectives of the third Declension. The Companson- 
endings are appended to the stem of tlie adjectives, either 
directly or by inserting the syllable -cs (also -ts). 

(1) Those in -vs, -cia, -v, 17s, -cs (Gen. -to^^-ovs), at, 

-av, and the word fiaKap, /uippy, append the endings of Com- 
parison directly to the pure «tera, which appears in the Neuter 
form, e. g. 

ykuK^s^ Neut. -^ — ykpicif^tpos ykwc^^arof 

dtXr^^iSy Neut. -^f — iKti^d^-rtpos &\ii^4a'-^aTos 

fi4?MS, Neut. -ay — /i9\Jiihrtpos fitXAimaros 

riXttS^ Neut. -ov — raXJoHrtpot TaKitMraros 

pudieapf — pMcip^tpos puucdp^aros. 

Bkm. 8. The adjectives Y}5^f, rax^^i and iro\vs are compared in -Imp an J 
«r. See \ 83, 1. 

(2) Adjectives in -wv, -ov (Gen. -ovos), assume -cs, c. g. 

■tv^cdficftf Ncnt. tdSatfAoy, ftappy. 

Com. thZfUfxop-ier'Ttpost Sap. cu8oa/AOK>/<r-T«r«r« 

! e3.J ADJfiCTIVfiS.'-'SfiCOND PO&ll OV COMrAUlSON. 109 

(3) Adjectives in *f sometimes assume -C9, sometimes -ii^ 
c. g. 

AfJiAll, Gen. i^Auc-osi growing old^ ^^i Gen. ifntocy^s, rapaz, 
Cora. ii/pti\iK'^<r^€pos, Com. ofntay-lff-rtpost 

Sup. ik^i|Aiir'^-TaTOfy Sup. h^te^ij-^fgroM* 

(4) Adjectives in -ay, -ev, whose stem ends in vr, append the 
Comparison-endings directly to the stem, the last r being 
changed into o-, and tlie preceding v being then dropped {k 20, 2). 

XB^ifitf -fw, Gen. xaf)ffKr-o(, pheasant. 

Cora. xof^*^'^^po^t Sup. x<i'p^'<'''^<>'>'<>^« 

(5) The compounds of x^V'^^ assume w, e. g. 

hrlxatpiSf Gen. iTixdftr-os, pleasant 

Com. iirix€iptr-ilf-rtpoSf Sup. iirixaptT A^aros* 

. *Ax««p^^'''Cfios in Homer, comes from &x^^'^'^<^'} comp. No. '4). 

♦ 83. B. Second Form of Comparison. 

Comparative, -t^wv, Neut -tov, or -wv, Ncut -or. 
Superlative, -toros, -icmy, -kttov. 

Hbmabk I. On the quantity of c in -Imy, -loy, see i 28, 1 ; on the declension, 
( 78, Bem. 9 \ and on the accent, ^ 65, 5 (^). 

This form of Comparison includes, 

L Some adjectives in -vs, which drop -ws and append -(wi 
cic; this usually apphes only to ^Svs, «rcei, and ra^v^ «ri/l 
(the other form of these adjectives in -vrcpos, -vraro^, is some 
times used, but not by Attic writers). Ta^vs has in the 
Comparative Sdtr&wv (Att ^cittwv), Neut. SSuxrau (Sarrov). 
Comp. M 21, 3, and 17, 6. Taxttov is found only among the 
kitcr writers. Thus, 

q^^f, Com. ri^'itty, Kent. fiZ-Io^, Snp. ^8-«rroj, -17, -oj'. 

TfiX'^»» " ^iffo-tty, Att. i^cCrrflfK, Neut. ^otriroi', Att. barroy. Sup. rdlx*"'®' 

R2X. 2. The other adjectives in -^t, as fia^^s, deep; fiap^s^ heavy; fipa- 
iiSf doiw; fipax^99 short; yTiVK^t, sweet; ^airis, thick; tipis^ wide; i^^s, 
sharp; vp4irfivst old; &)eisy swifi, haye the form in -^tpoSf -^eeros (S 82, 
ni.| ; in Attic poetry, however, single examples of these adjectives are found 
with the other form, e. g. fipdxiorosf irp4<f0tirros, Akuttos, 

II The following adjectives in -/) OS : ala-xp 6 Sybase; lx^P^^» 
hostile; Kvdpost Jionorahle; and olKTp6^,wretc?iecl (but always 


dKTpoTMpoi in the Comparative), — the ending -pos here als« 
being dropped, e. g. oMrxpo^, Com. al(rx*iii)v, Neut aur^-iOK^ Sup 

Bbm. 3. OtKTtaroSf JcvSfc^y, K^ieroSi are poetic. Besides this form, in -Smf, 
etc., which is preferred by the Attic writers, the above adjectires hare also, 
Chough seldom, the other form in -^tpM, •6t9tqs^ e. g. ix^p^rtmn \ but ahraTSi 
in prose, oherp^teros 

i 84. Anomalous Forms of Comparison* 

1 myo^Stgoodf 

2, KaK6s, badf 

8. icaX6sj heautiftd^ 

5. /uuepSs, bmgi 
€. /UKp6st smalli 

7. 6\lyoSi/eWi 

8. /UyaSi fff^ 

9. W9k6sf muchy 

10. f4$mi eanft 

11. whretPf ripe, 
la. wlw,faii 

iifuitmy^ Neat (kfjtxumf 

(/3/Xrcpof, Poet.) 
Kptifftrmy, Att. tpttrrwif 

{^pTtpoSi Poet.) 

fjtfVwri Att. 4(rTB»r 


{ftiffcwf, Poet.) 

ikiffcmff Att. iAdrrtfy 

irKtUtyf or irA/atfy 


{p4\TaTos, Poet.) 

• {f4pT9T0Sf ^ptTiit, Poet.) 

Adr. liiuora 




iXiiXMrros • 



Remabk 1 . The Superlative tipunos (from ''Api^r, the god of war), and the 
v>omp. iifutymff have particularly the idea of hraoery, boldness; /3cAr(«y, like tht 
Latin mdior^ signifies better^ in a moral sense, though by no means confined to 
tliat ; AqJ4irr is mostly used in snch phrases as K^ ^rri, it is beUer, and x^^rws 
mostly in the Voc. & A^crrc. The poetic Superlative ^4ptvrof is foondin 
Plato, in the exclamation £ ^pwrt 1 O most worthy I The ifregnlar forms of 
puitpSst viz. ikirffwy ixAx^^^^h express both the idea of smugness and fiwums 
{Myos)\ but fuUtr generally expresses the idea cffewMsst seldom that of 
smaUness; the regular forms of fUKp6st viz. fwepSrtpos, -^raros, always retain 
their original idea of smaUness^ and also 6?dy»ffTos that oT/eumesst thongh 6Myos 
olten signifies snudl. 


Rem. 2. The use of the longer and shorter form of the ComporatlTe vA«(wr, 
rA«»y, should he particnlarljr noted. The nenter w\4w is more frequent than 
wXtioPy especially when it is used adverhiallj ; irKiovos and vXc^vos, irA^of^i 
and rnXdmn^ Ace. xXim, jtKiova^ ^^^ trAc(», are used indiscriminately ; Fl. Nom. 
and Ace, nsuallj vXciovf, also jtXtiwts and irXc(oyas (but not vXiws) ; vXcf« 
k mnch more frequent ihaa vx4» ; trXci^vwir and vXhImti are more ftequent than 
vXf^PMT and 9\4on, finally, the shortened form of the Nent Sing. vKw 
(fsnned from vAcSnir), but limited to such phrases as vAci> fi idpi/oh shoald be 
mentioned as a special Atticism. 

Several adjectives, which express the idea of an order or 
series, have only the Comparative and Superlative forms, 
because, on acxK>unt of their signification, Jiey cannot be used 
absolutely, but only in comparison. An adverb of place is 
usually the root of these forms of Comparison, e. g. 

^from vp6), irpSrtpos (prior), vpSrros (primus), ^rsf. 

" ibw], iuf^tpos (superior), hfAraros (supremns). 

*^ ivip), Mprspos (superior), kigheTf Mprvrot, Poet, tvaros (supremns). 

^ M?), fhrrtpos (posterior), later, Scrvros (postremns), last. 

** H)i tax*ros (extremus), outenuai. 

** vXifO'loi', prope), (vAi^los, Homeric), vXnivudTtfos^ or wXiiaUartpos 
(proprior), nearer, xhrtamiTaroSt -iffrmoM (proximus), neareai. 
I ** Wf6ff0),/ar, irpoff^fpoSf/eaiher, wpoffAraroSf/arthetL 

Bek. 3. Other adjectives in the Comparatire and Superlatiye, which are 
abo derived from adveriM, have no Positive form of the adjective, e. g. 4p//<a, 
qme^f iipt/Uarepos, iiptfiitrreeros \ irpoCprfoVf vteful, irpohpyudrtpost more v»efulf 

Bkx. 4. Comparatives and Superlatives are also formed from substantives. 
Here two cases are to be distinguished : (a) when the substantive, both in form 
and signification, is the Positive from which the Comparative and Superlative 
may be formed, L e. when the substantive can be considered as an adjective, 
e. g. SovAoff, iUxve, SovA^cpo*, siors dcmah; — (b) when the substantive, in 
respect to the signification, is not really the Positive, but only in respect to the 
fonn can be considered as the basis of the Comparative and Superlative, the 
proper Positive form having been lost, (comp. Kpdrurros from the Epic irp«r^f, 
lA^tfTos fix>m the Epic lAcyx^s. ) Knmerous examples of the last kind may 
be (bund in poetry, particularly in Epic. See S 216, Rem. 2. 

Rem. 5. Eor the sake of greater emphasis, the Comparative and Superla- 
tive are sometimes compared, e. g. t^xKret (Superl.), iex'^'^^P^^* itrxer^O' 
TOf ; so itfArrtrree from vpSros, This is frequent in the Comic writers, seldom 
in Homer and the Tragedians, still more seldom in prose. 


♦ 85. Comparison of Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, when compared, havo 
commonly no independent adverbial ending ; the Comparative 
is expressed by the Ace Sing, neuter of the Comparative 
adjective, and the Superlative by the Aoc. PL neuter of tha 
Superlative, e. g. 


[from vo^s) 

Cora. e0^^€potf 




: " tra^) 



XKpUrrvs 1 

" xV««) 



tiiiaifiiyut 1 

' " €ifiaifAM^) 


mffxp&s 1 

[ " OlVxfHJs) 



ifi4w 1 

[ " ^^s) 




[ " raxfis) 

deunror^ -rror 


Rema&k 1. The Singuhr of the ComparatiTe is used, becanse only two 
objects are compared, and it is affirmed that one of these is better, etc. thaa 
the other; bat the Plural of the Supciiative, becanse the object Compared is 
the best, etc. of many others. 

Rem. 2. But sometimes these adverbs also retain in the Comparatire tiio 
adyerblal ending of the Fosidve -«r, e. g. x^^'^^'^^^P^^i it^ft^^ffr^pt^s^ f>ox^vp^ 
ripwsj KoXxUvmSi e8peda% /Mc(<frws, etc The Kenter Singular is seldom used 
in the Saperlative, and belongs mostly to poetry. 

2. All original adverbs in -o, e. g. Syta^ Kdn}y 1^ Ibw, etc., 
retain the ending -co regularly in the Comparative, and almost 
uniformly in the Superlative, e. g. 

&IW, abow^ Com. hwr^pv Sup. iufurdTct 

Kdru, Mow, KarofT^pu Korwrdrm, 

In like manner, most other original adverbs have the ending 
•0) in the Comparative and Superlative, e. g. 

iiyxov, near. 

Com. kyx'^^^P^ 

Sup. irfx^rrdxm 

Wpd, ultra, 


Snf wanting 







iyy^f near, 



tyY^rra: (rajrely). 

« 86, ST.] 




The Pronoun. 

♦ 86. Nature and Division of Pronouns, 

1. Pronouns do not, like snbstantiTes, express the idea 
of an object, but only the relation af an object to the 
speaker; L e. they show whether the object is the speaker 
himself (the first person), or the person or thing addressed 
(the second person), or the person or thing spoken of (the 
third person), e. g. I (the teacher) give to thee (the scholar) 
it (the book). . 

2. All pronouns are divided ijito five principal classes: 
(1) Personal, (2) Demonstrative, (3) Belative, (4) Interrog- 
ative, (5) Indefinite Pronouns. E^onouns are again di- 
vided, according to their signification and form, into (a) 
Substantive, (b) Adjective, and (c) Adverbial Pronouns, 
e. g. ^7ei> ravra hrovqaa\ (a) J, (hov^ Ae, she^ it; (b) my^ thy^ 
his; (c) Aere, there^ thus. 

I. Personal Pbonouvs. 

A. Substantive Personal Prononns. 
k 87. The simple lyco, ego^ av, tu, ov, sui< 





/uw (fMw), '/cov, of me 
luA (/iM)t '/»o/» to flW 
fi4 (/If), iii4^ mo 

rAf we both, i» both 
w^ifj of us both, to VM 

ilfiMiSf we 
4ifutr, of ttf 
ifuif, to us 
rifJMSj us 


(T^, thou 

vov (flrov), of thee 
vol (<roi), to thee 
W (tf-c), thee 


tr^f you both 
a-^y, o/uou bothy 
to youooth 


ifuls, ye{v) 
Ifx&y, of you (O) 
6fuy, to you ( v) 
^ftust you {0} 


oS (o6), of himself etc. 
of (o/). to himself etc 
^ {i), himself etc. 

tr^»4f Ace. (Poet), them both 
ff^ty {ff^ly), of them both, 
tothem both 

c^tis, Nent. v^ia (Poet.), (vf^m) 
(T^ir, of them [thsy 

<r^f0-i(v) ((T^urtfy]), to them 
ff^ij Ncut 0-^<a (<r^a), them. 


Remaek I. Tho forms susceptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, 
without any mark of accent. Comp. \^ 83 (b), and 35, 3. On the accentnation 
and use of the third Pers^of the Pronoun, see § 302, Rem. 3. The VocatiTA 
is here, as in the following paradigms, omitted, because, when it occurs, it is 
always like the Nominative. 

Rbm. 2. The Gen. Sing, of these three pronouns, in imitation of Homer, 
often has, among the Attic poets, also the forms ifi4^9y, (r^^^cy, l^^cif : these 
forms always retain their accent, except when li^cir ia not used as a leflezire 
(till), but as a pronoun of the third person {ejus), Comp. § 35, 3 (b). 

Rem. 3. The Ace. Sing, and PI. of tZ ha« in Attic poetry also the form 
y(r (riy) signifying him, her, it, PL (ftem, e. g. Soph. OR. 868. 1331, instead of 
•6ro<(9 and airrds. See the Dialects, 4 217. 

Rem. 4. The oblique Cases of iifuls and ^luh, when not emphatic, some- 
times undergo a certain incUnation among the poets, being written in the fol- 
lowing manner: I^mv CfMv, lifuy Siilv, or fi/Jr Zfup] still, this inclination 
cannot take place if a Paroxytone precedes. The shorter fqrm of the pronoun 
of the third Pers. is used in the DaL and Ace. PL by the poets (also by the 
Attic writers), e. g. Dat. <r^ (or a^ly) instead of v^tffi(¥)i fp them, Ace a^ 
instead of ^^as, them. Both forms, a^l and o-^(y, though seliom, are used by 
the poets as the Dat. Sing.; the form oi^/, on the contrary, is used mnch more 
frequently as the Aoc. Sing, instead of ofrr^y, -^r, -6, also as reflexiye instead 
of kaxn6y* 

♦ 88. (b) The Reflexive Pronouns, ifiavrov, o-cavrov, 




ifjuanov, -ris, of 

myadf ^ 
i/mvr^, -p, to 



ifimtf abrStP, of 

^I/UM abrois, -tus, 

to ourselves 
^fjMs abrois, -is, 



ircoirrov, -^s, or 
(fai/rov, -^r, ofthysdf 
atauT^, f, or 
ffavT^, p, to thyself 
cta\n6¥, -^v, or 
oiun6v, '^p, thyself 


hi»&p air&p, of youT' 

bfup airro7s, -^us, to 

tfjuu ubTo6s, -ds, 


iturrov, -1}*, or 

tdrov, -Tjs, of himself, of hersdf 

ksan^, -p, or \}^*4f 

a&T^, -p, to himself, to herself, to 
kcanifp, -4iP, -6, or ^ l«^*6j^ 

€ubr6v, -iip, -6, himself, herseff'. 

ksarrmp or tArifP, or 
v^p aJbrmf, of themsdves 
kmrrois hus, or oibrois "ois, or 
treaty abrots hus, to themsdaes 
Uuno6t, -ds, -d, or airovs, -4$, 

-d, or 
e^s sBtrrovs, -ds, tr^ia abrd, 


H 89-91.] KEcipaocAL and d£hon8Tiuti\E pronouns. lid 

} 89. (c) Reciprocal Pronouns, 

To express reciprocal relation, the Greek has a special pro- 
nominal form, which is made by the coalescence of 8XK01 oXXoif, 
oAXoi aXXoi9, a\Xo( fl[XAov9, into one word. From the nature of 
the relation^ this word can have no Singular. 

Fiona Gen. 

iiiiK^kmvt of one etnotier 

hjJl\OtS, -iUl, -OlS 

&AA^Aovr, -Of, -a 

Dual ^MJikUMf -cuy, -oiy 

4 90. B. Adjective Personal Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns, liaving the fonn of adjectives, are called 
Possessive pronouns, since they express possession. They are 
formed from the Genitive of -substantive personal pronouns : — 

ilUs^ -i^» -^K, mem^ -Oy -urn, from ^fiovi i|^<^f» «t^ ^c^oir, noster^ 4ra, -irum^ 

from i^/Mnr ; 
<r^f , -4, -<(y, ttfttf, -a, -um^ from crov : 6fA4rtpoSf -rdpa^ -rtpoy, vester^ -/m, -(rum, 

from 6fiAy ; 
4r^4r€poSf 'r4paf -rtpov^ suttf, -a, -urn, from 0^9 (used in speaking of many ; 

when single persons or things are spoken of, Att. prose always uses the 

Gen. Iwrrov, *jff ). The Epic form, Ss, 4, 5i^, futts, -a, -ton, also occurs in 

the Tragedians, though seldom. 

§ 91. n. Demonbtbative Pbokoukb. 




haee hoc 





h ^ ri 


a0n| rovTO 





rw Tii» rov 


Taints TO'&TOu 






raOrff ro^^ 






ToJbri\y rovro 





ol td rd 


iJiTM ravra 





tAp tSȴ ruy 


roirmy ToCr<»v 





rott reus rott 


radrtus robots 






ruiras ravra 






rd {rd) t6 


{ra6Td) to^Jtw 




G. D. 

Toly rauy ro7y 


Todruy rovroiy 




1. The pronoun oVros is composed of the article d, 17, r^, and the pronoun 
oiris\ where the article has 0, «, or o<, they combine with tlie first syllable 
of tdnis and make ov ; all other yowels of the article are absorbed by the 




Arst sjrllable of aMs. Hence the first syllable of ofnoi ends in ov where tb« 
article has o, u, or ot ; elsewhere in ov. The same rule holds when oAr^t is 
compounded with an adjective pronoun, e. g. roaovros (from T6<ros and mrrSs). 
Examples : 6 avr6s = otrros^ ^ canit = adn;, rh fdn6 = tpOto ; tqu a^oS = 
roinou, t^s o^r^f :i=s rtvlmis, etc. ; so T({<ros aJbr6s = rocrouros, 7 i»0if cJrrli sss TO<r- 
a^n;, r6aoy ain6 ss ro(rovro, rSoov qvtov = roeoltToVf etc 

2. Like 6, ^, r<{ is declined, 55c, f}8e, t^8c, roSSe, r^s8c, PI. otBt, cuSt, rcCSc ; 
Like ot/Tos are declined, roaoGrof, rotradrti, roo'ovTo(i'), ton^iu, -a, 'Um, rotot- 
roSf roia6ni, roiotfro(y), ftx/tf, -e, nyXurotrrof, rqXurai^, nyXucovrofy), mgreat, 
so oid; it is to be noted, that the neater Sing., besides the form in o has 
also the common form in o¥\ 
Like ainos is declined, Ikwos^ iK^Uni^ iKuyo^ he, she, it, IUAos, IUX9» &^Xo« 
alius, alia, a/tW, the neuter Sing, here also ending in 0. 

Remabk 1. The neuter form in seems to have rejected a 8, as may be 
inferred from the Latin, is, ea, id, ille, -a, 'ud, alius, -a, h<c/.— On the Dual 
tonus, rd, rau», rah-a, raArauf, see ^ 241, Rem. 10 (b). — Instead of ^irccyos* the 
Ionic Kciifos is also used in Attic poetry; th|^ word occurs somewhat frequently 
in Attic prose, but always after a long vowel or diphthong ; aence Apliacresis 
(i 14, 5) must be assumed here, as 4^ Vcliwr, PI. Bp. 2. 370, a. 



roaovros roaa^rri roa'ovro(v) 

j Toeroirou twra(/Tt\s tovoinov 

j TOiTovTtf roffodrp ro<ro^<^ 

I ToarovToy roffadrT^y TO<rovTo{v) 

N. A. 


rotrovroi rocaunai roaavra 

rwrovruy Toooinwy rttaoinunr 

ToavvTois rotretvTots roaoCroa 

toaoirmts roo'w&ras romvra 


TOffovTu roaaina ro^odru 
roffouToiy roffaintuy roiro^oiy. 

Hkm. 2. The article usually coalesces by Crasis (§ 10) with aurrSs and forms 
one word, viz. a^rds (instead of i atnSs, idem), avr^i, rabrS, usually rav' 
r6y (instead oirhavrS), rouhrov, but t^j airnis, ratr^, rabry (to di8tingnis»h 
it from TavT];, this)^ but rhv aMy, r^y aMjy, abrot, ai/rat, rahrd (instead of 
tA aind, to distinguish it from ra^To, haec)^ but ruy axn&y, to7s tdrroist etc. 

i 92. III. Relative Prokotjn. 





8s ^ 









ot fs 









9 a 









$y ^y 













The Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns are denoted 
by the same form, but are distinguished by the accent and 
position, the Indefinite being enclitic 33) and placed afler 
some word or words, the Interrogative being always accented 
and placed before. 

Hexabk 1. When the fnterrogative pronouns Btand in an indirect question, 
the relative Z is placed before their stem, which, however (except in the case 
of SsTis), is not inflected, e. g. ^nCor, itwivn^ itw6rtpos^ etc 

Sing. N. 



VUxr. N. 




Dual N. A. 

(5. and 1). 

rh, »ome one 

N. rl, some thing 

ra^Sj or rov 

riW» or 





N. rtyd and ter^a 




N. rufd and irrtk 



rlsf quisf 
rfpoSf or rod . 
riVii or rf 






ri; quidt 






Srruj whoever ||Tif 5 n 
eZru^Sj or 8rou ^srivos 
fruft, or Sry frwt 
Sifrum, %rrwa S rt 

irufOj or irra 

otrtyts aJrwtt 

ivriimv (rarely Zrmv) 

otsriet{ v) ( rarely troi^i[tt] ) e2tfruri{v) oTrrun{p) 

oUsTufos isrurat Amno, or Srra 

Dual N. A. firiyc, irtye^ G. D. iXmyowy tlvrtwow. 

Rm. 2. The fbrm ftrra not enclitic (Ion. Ihffem) is often used instead of tihC 
in connection with adjectives, e. g. Uipk Arra^ fuKfii Arra^ or placed first, e. g. 
fy yiip ^ &rra roiiSc, Fl. Phaedon. 60, e. On the accent of £yruw, oTyriyoiy, 
aTmyoiv, see 4 34, Rem. 1. The shorter forms, Zrw^ 5rqi, etc. are used by tho 
dramatists almost always j 5tou, trtp are also used by the orators ; but Zru,* , 
troo'tiv) are very rare in prose. The negative compounds of rlf, viz. ofrw, 
•Uru /I'kftSf M^'i «« <w»*i nothing^ inflect the simple tIs merely, e. g. ofhwos^ 
•Uriwts, etc. These forms are poetic ; instead of them, prose writers use oft^lr, 
fai$9it ; only oUri and /d^i are used in prose with the adverbial meaning, in no 
reeped, not at all, and in the i^irase, o(hlye^ {fi^i y^ WJ), kt alone then, much 

6ii rh dclni, aome one, sotne thing 
rov rris rov itwos 
r^ Tp T^ itivi 
rhy r^¥ rh 8(?nt 

Plur. o/ ^tt¥€S 
rSky HtUmv 
rohi 8c<Vat. 

Rbm. 3. Huva is also used indcclinnbly, though seldom, e. g. rov ry row 



It 94 

J 94. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under Correlative Pronouns are included all tliose which 
express a mutual relation (correlation) to each other, so that if 
one implies a question, the other with a corresponding form 
contains the answer. 

1. This mutual relation is either a general or a definite one. The general 
correlation la expressed by r/f; rlj who 9 what? rls, rl, wme one^ mme thing; 
Mc, oZros, he, thia; 4te§un9, thai one; oMc£s, no one; Si, who, which^ etc Here 
the forms of the correUuives do not correspond with each other, except in the 
case of rts. For example, if a question is asked t j Wr, the answer may be bj 
rlf , 25ff, ovr«f , etc 

2. The definite oonelsiion has foor different forms, tiz. the InterrogatiTe, 
Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Relative. This fourfold correlation belongs both 
to adjective and adverbial pronouns. All the four forms come from the same 
root, but they are distinguished, partly by a different accent, partly by a differ- 
ent initial ; the Interrogative begin with ir, the Indefinite have the same form, 
though with a different accent, the Demonstrative begin with r, and the 
Relative with the Spiritus Asper. The indirect interrogativcs, as shown above, 
§ 93, Rem. 1, place the relative 6 before the initial ir. 

3. Correlative adjective pronouns express relations of quantity and qtuditg; 
correlative adverbial proaoans, the relations of place, time, and maimer, or 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 


houforeaif how 
mucnf quiin- 

irmos, -d. -oy ; 
of wliat hindi 
qualis ? 

«i|Xf«rof, -ij, -ok; 
how greats how 


irov6s, -^, -^r, 
of a certain 
size, or number, 

wm6sj -«L -^if, of 
a certain kind 



r^of , -If, -w, so greatf so 
much, tantus 

TOOovTOs, "sdnni, 'WTo[p) 

rowSi -d, -09, of such a 

kind, talis 
rotSsSe, roidZe, rotStfit 
routvTos, "M^ri}, -oSro(y) 

n)X/jcos, -ij, -oi', so great, so 
rri\tK6^,'^e,'6p9e [old 
TTlXucodros^ -atrrri^ -oihe^y) 

Relat. and De- 
pend. Interrog. 

ZaoSf -i|, -ow and 
&r6oos, -ij, -oy, 
as great, as^ 
much, quantus 

oToi, -d, -oir and 
^oToT. -d, -OP, 

of what kt**d, 


flkiKos, -nif -or and 

&tni\lKos, -HI, "Wj 

as great, as old. 

Remark 1. The simple forms r^os and rolos are seldom used in Attie 
prose ; rSoos nud ro7os are found tn 'the phrase, rotos 9i rowr, PI. Phaedr. 271, 
d, and elsewhere ; r6(ros koI tSoos (PI. ib.) ; 4k tScou (so long time since], PL 
Leg. 642, at end ; rSo^ with a Comparative, corresponding to the relative 1^ 
«. g. Th. 8, 24. X. Cy. 1. 6, 26. Vect. 4, 32. 




(b) Adverbial Correlatires. 






«w/ icAovf 

vo^, «oin«t0iAcre, 

wanting (hie, 

•S, where* 

Ihrov, where. 






Wl^tir; whemxf 


wanting (hlnc, 

U^, whence. 



place, alicunde 




«o«; vMherf 

wet, ioiomeplaee^ 

wanting (eo) 

of, vEhither, 






v^c; when? 

wvrijBome time. 

rifrc, then, turn 

8rc, wheti, 






wipfUa ! quo 




ilAna, when. 


tol quota ho- 



quo ipso 

when, quo 




ipBO tem- 





wms; howf 

T^s, sotne how 

o2!(r»(s) 25c, «o 

&s, now 

5tws, how 

«^; icftdAerf 

vfi^iowtM place. 

reeLrp \ or hen 

f, where, 

5nij, where, 


tfttiAer, tn mnne way 



Bem. 2. The forms to express the idea of here, there (hie, ibi), wanting in 
the Common language, are supplied bj iyreui^ iv^dZ^f and the idea of hence, 
thence (hinc, inde), bj ^y&Mc, ^yrcwj^cy; (tf^ and |yd«y in the old and poetic 
language have both a demonstrative and relative sense, but in prose only a 
relative sense, except in certain phrases, e. g. Ma /iiy — l»i^ {/, hie, iUic, 
(pb€r Kot If^y, hinc, illinc, and when the significatioxkof place is changed to 
that of time, e. g. Ma xiyu, <^ ^ ^y'l li^cy» thereupon. The forms r^s, thus, 
T^, hither, here, are poetic ; tks (instead of oOrms), is also for the most part 
poetic ; in prose, it is confined almost wholly to certain phrases, e.g. ical d(t, vcl 
sic, ovf (muS*) 6t, ne sic quidem, and in comparisons, &s — d(t, ut— sic, PI. Bp. 
7. 590, d. Prot. 326, d. ; also &s oly, so then, Th. 3, 37. 

i 95. Lengthening of the Pronoun. 

Some small words arc so appended to the pronouns, for the purpose of giving 
a particnlar turn to their signification, that they coalesce and form one word. 
They are the following : — 

(a) The enclitic 7 ^.is joined to the Personal pronouns of the first and second 
person, in order to make the person emphatic, oy putting him in contrast with 
othen, e. g. lywyc, I for myjpdrt. The pronoun iy^ then draws back its accent 
in the Nom. and Dat. e. g. C7«7ff, iftovyt, $fAoiyt, ^/a^c, 0^71. As y4 can be 
joined with any other word, so also with any other pronoun, but it does not 
form one word with the pronoun, e. g. o^6s yt, 

(b) The particles 5^ (most commonly S^orc), and oSy, are appended to 
relatives compounded of interrogatives or indefinites, as well as to itros, in 
order to make the meaning general or indefinite, i. e. to extend it to everything 
embraced in the object denoted by the pronoun, e. g. dmsUi, drrtsS^orc, dsris' 
lifrorovr, dsristwy, rfrtsovy, driovy, whoever it be, I know not who, nescio quis, qui- 
cunque (Gen. ourtyosovy or irovow, rirru^osovy, Dat. ifnyiovy or &Tw>vy, etc.) ; — 
Ivo^aiS^) ifwocoiovy^ daosiifwoTf, quantuscunque j — AniKucosouy, however ^eat, 
ham eid soever ; so also itrrtpovy [comp. (d)]. 



(c) The suffix 8ff is joined with some demonstratives for the purpose of 
strengthening their demonstratiye relation, e. g. SSc, 4S$ff, r^c ; roi/sSc ; roads- 
8c ; Ti}Xiir^f5c, from roior, rSaos^ njX^KOf, which change their accent after 5 c is 
appended (^ 34, Rem. S). 

(d) The enclitic '^4p is appended to all relatives, in order to strengthen the 
reference to a demonstrative, and thus to connect the relative more clmelj with 
its antecedent ; hence it denotes, even who^ whichy tie very manj tohoj etc e. g. 
tnrcp, V^cp, Sircp (Gen. ovi-cp, etc.) ; 5tf'osrcp, oUswMp (Gen. mvsvp, otouwep^ ^tc.)} 

(e) The inseparable demonstrative f, is appended to demonstratives and some 
few adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative sense. It takes the 
acute accent (which yet, according to ^ 31, 1., is changed into the grave in con- 
nected discourse) and absorbs every short vowel immediatciy preceding it, and 
also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs : — 

o&roai^ this here (hicce, celui-ci), a^riH rovrU 

Gen. rouToCfy ram-qdf, Dat. rovr^, ravT^i^ PI. oiroti, tubrcSt^ rmrri\ 

dSf, rftiy rM from 88ff ; M from £^e ; obrwrt from otr»s ; 

ivTtv^vt from ivTw^€¥\ ip^oittrom ^yj^c; wyt from yw; Uvpi from Mf, 


The Numeiala. 

♦ 96. Nature and Division of Numerals, 

1. Numerals express the relation of number and quantity. 
They are divided into the following classes^ according to their 
signification : — 

(a) Cardinals, which express a definite number absolutely, 
and answer the question, /una rruiny ? e. g. one, two, three. The 
first four Numerals and the round numbers from 200 (^cucoo-iot) 
to 10,000 (jivpioi) and their compounds, are declined; but all the 
others are indeclinable. The thousands are expressed by 
adverbial Numerals, e. g. rpKxCXwi, 3000. 

(b) Ordinals, which denote a series, and answer the question, 
which one in the series ? All have the three endings of adjec- 
tives, -OS, -i;, 'ov, except Scvrcpos, which has -os, -d, -ov. All np 
to 19, except 2, 7, 8, end in 'to^ and have the accent as near 
as possible to the beginning of the word. From 20 upwards 
they end in -otos. 

Remark 1. AdveiiAoL Ordinalsy which also denote a series, are expressed bj 
the Neut, Sing, or PI., with or without the article, but sometimes also with thu 
adverbial ending -«s, e. g. trpwrov, rb wpwroy^ wpwra, rob irpwra, wp<&Tus, 


(c) Numeral adverbs, which express Iwfw often, or Jiow many 
times anything has happened, and which answer the question, 
how many times 7 They are formed, except the first three, from 
the ordinals with the ending -oict^, e. g. vvrraxki five times 
{\ 98). 

(d) Multiples, which show the number of parts of which 
a whole is composed, and answer the question, how many fold? 
All are compounded of irXov?, and are adjectives of three end- 
ings, -ov^, -^, -ovv (H 76, 1, and 77). 

orXovf, -j|« -our, titigU; SivAoCs (2), rfnM\ovs (3), rfrparKovs (4), vcyrmrXoSf 
(5), i^tarXovs (6), hrT4Kw\ous (7), ^xrcnrXovs (8), iwvtarh/nk (9J, $cicairXoDs (10), 
InrrorrnrAovs (100), X'XuatXovs (1000), tiMptavKovs (10,000). 

Rbx. 2. The adverbial Maltiplea in answer to the question, how many 
fMf or uito how many parts f are formed from the Cardinals with the ending 
-X' or -%^ and -X'''* ®' S* ^^^rax^^ ircyrox^y "wtmax^s* 

(e) Proportionals, wliich denote vl proportion^ and answer the 
question, how many times mme ? All are compounded with the 
endings -xAoo-co?, -/a, -lov (more seldom -nXaartury, -ov, e. g. hcarov 
ravXao'iojv, -ov) : — 

inrXio'wSf twice as much (as another which is taken as an unit), rpntxds'tos 
(3), rerptarXdinos (4), vsrrmrXAotot (5), if/BorKirtos (6), hrrmrkiaiot (7), Juro- 
wAi^iof (8), iwptatxdnos (9), d«iccrXd(<riof (10), iKOToyrnrXcb'ioff (100), x*^*^ 
wAdffws (1000), fufptowkdo'tot (10,000). 

(f ) Substantive Numerals, which express the abstract idea 
of nimber. Except the first, all are formed from the Cardinals 
witft the ending -a?. Gen. •o&)«: — 

1^ fun^ (from /t^vos, only)^ more seldom 4 Ms, unity ; 9vds, duality; rptds (3). 
rerpds (4), irtyrds or irtiiirrds (5), <((<s (6), ifiiofjids (7), ^TSiMU (8), /yyctts (9), 
5c«c«b (10), ciKcd (20), rpioKds (30), rrrropaKorrds (40), T9vniKoyrds (50), lira- 
rorrii (100), x^A^b (1000), /wpi^ (10,000), $^o fivpidZts (20,000). 

Bnf . 9. In addition to the Numerals mentioned above, there is still anothei 
class, which does not, like those, express a definite number, but either an 
indefinite nnmber or an indefinite quantity, e. g. Ifyioi, aoms ; rdrrMS, all ; wok' 
>si, many (4 77); iklyoi, few; 6\iyw, hklya, a little; Mtis, -no one; oMr, 
wothing, etc 

2. Numerals, like pronouns, are divided, according to tlieii 
signification and form, into Substantive, Adjective, and Adver- 
bial Numei'Jils, c. g. rpch r^X^ov; 6 rptros ayt]fi\ rpU. 



[« 97, 98 

k 97. Numeral Signs, 

1. The Nameral Signs aro the twentj-four letters of the Greek alphabet, t« 
which three obsolete letters are added, viz. after c, Bov, or the Digamma F, ot 
2x7, r ; the last character is taken from the figure r, which is a mntUated form 
of the Digamma, bnt which has only an accidental resemblance to the abbre- 
Tiation of o- (r) and r (§ 1, Rem. 2) ; — Komra, 5, as the sign for 90; — 2afartf 
?^ , as the sign for 900. 

2. The first eight letters, L c. from a to ;^ with the Bad or 1x7, denote the 
nnits ; the following eight, i. e. from i to «■ with the Ki&wira, the tens ; the last 
eight, i. e. from p to » with the SoftTi, the hundreds. 

3. Up to 999, the letters as numeral signs, are distinguished bj e mark 
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral 
signs, only the last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but 
the letters are distinguished by a mark placed under them, thus, i^ « 1, ^ a 
1000, / « 10, ^ » 10,000, ,9^fifi^ =» 5742, jstttftfi^ » 1842, ^ » 100, ^^ 

i 98. Principal Classes of Numerals, 

1 a' cff , /il&, U 

4 S' r^rrofpcs, •«, or r^inraftts, -a 

5 c' w4rr9 

fir' re 

8i|' 6ict6 

9 ;» irvda 

10 / 94Ka 

11 M^ Mtka 
12iir 8(65cjrt 

13 rv rpus {rpta) koI 9^ffa ' 

14 iS' r4rTaf€s{a) ttti 8^«ra* 

15 ic' TttrrtKolSfKa 

16 ir' licKofScira 
n tC JrreurofScKa 

18 iV dJCTMra^Ka 

19 ly inftoKoJSfKa 

20 Kf ^oai{v) 

Tp&roSf -If, -oy, primus, -a, -nm 
9t6T9pos, -d, -w 
rftrotf -i|, -or 
T^aprof, -nif -ow 

CICTVf , -If, -•I' 

c/38o|ior, m, -or 

J^ySoos, -1}, -or 

trvrot, -If, -or 

t^oroy, ^, -or 

MdKaros, -iy, -or 

SttfS^icarof, ^, -or 

rplros, "fit -oy koI 8/ic«to», if- -or* 

r(raproSy -i|, -or ffol 94Keeros, -i|, *^r 

v^fiicTos, -i|, -or Kol S/iraros, -i|, -or 

Irros, -i|, -or icol S/mcror, -if, -or 

l/SSoyKOf , -If, -or ical MKaroy» -i|, -or 

878001, -11, -or Kol 8^«aTo«a -iy, -or 

Imrof , -17, -or Mil 8^iearoy, i|, -or 

cijcooTiff, -^, -^r 

' The rare Attic form rptsKotifKa is indeclinable. 
' The non- Attic form r<o'0'apaira£8cica is indeclinable. 
' The forms given from the 13th to the 19th are preferable to Tpfr«rat8/irBrM 
vcTT«(Mucoi8^ffciT0f , ircrrcKoiS^KaTor, etc 




21 td «' *•. Alia, c# 

80 X' rpiimrra 

40 ff TwrrapiKorra 

50 / warHiKoyra 

60 ( ithKom 

70 o' 4^8o^Korra 

80 s^ ^tMkm^a 

90 5' hfnrfymrrok 

100 p' JK&ri^r 

200 0^ {loici^ioi, -cu, -a 

300 7^ rpuxSirtot, -oi, -a 

400 i/ rrrpiK6etoif -oi, -a 

SOO ^' vcrHUcifirioi, -oi, -a 

600 j(f 4{&K^ioi, -oi, -a 

700 ^' twrixSaiotf >«, -a 

800 •/ 3rHUr^i0i, -oi, -a 
900 7^' ivwix^ioif -m, -a 

1000 ,a x^^*9 '*'') ** 

2000 ^ Scsx^ocy •«» -a 

3000 // rpux^Xioc, -«u, -a 

4000 Ji rtrpdiusx^^h -^» "^ 

5000 ,c vffKr&ci5X^^'^<» '<>'i '^ 

6000 ^ 4{a«isxIXioi, -OI, -a 

7000 ,C frrAjKisx^Xioi, -cu, -a 

8000 fl liCT&Kisxi^Mit •«, -a 

9000 p irriucisxi^Mt, -oi, -a 

10,000 / fUpuH^ "Oif -a 

20,000 ^ 8tT/i^pioi, -cu, -a 

100,000 / Scxairi5/i^pio(, -oi, -a 

1,000,000 1^^ iKteroirrtuctSfi^ioi^ -oi, -a 

1,000,000 If/ 8iaxo0'iairif/;(-'''ptoi, -cu, -a 

fhcoffrhsf -^, -ky, irpwros, i, 
rpaK0ffr6sf -^, -^r 
TCTTopdxcNrriff , -^y -ify 
9€jmiiK0irr6s, -^, -iJy 
4{aJcodrr($i, -^^ -i(y 
4i38o/ii7fro(rr<(5, -^^ •6y 

iy9niKOffT6st -it -^h 
iiaiTo<rr6sf -4, -^y 

rpiaKoa'UHrr6Si -^t -otf 
rrrpoKOffioffrSsf -4, -iJy 
•nrrwtociocrSs, -4, -^ 
4{aico<rwHm(r, -4, -<(y 
ifrTaKoauHrrSst -^, -oy 

X(AlO0T^f , -4, -({y 

8i5X<^'<'tf*''^'t "^f '^'^ 
rpiJXfAioar^f , -^j -^^ 

rcT/Mucux<^<M7^s, -^ -ir 

vcyroicifx'^o^'^^f I "^1 "^ 
4{«cux<AiO0<r^f, -4, -^r 

4irraicisxiXMaT^f^ -4, -^ 

^ivairisx<^<>'^^'> "4} "^ 
fufpiocrds, -4i -ifr 

9isiwpto<rr6Si -i, '6p 
i9KaKtSfAvpio(rr6ti -4, -^i^ 
iKormnoKisiivptoirrSst -4i -<(y 
SMur(Hriaicif/ivpuNrT<(f , -4, '6r. 

1 &ra(, onoe 

5 Sfy, f irtc0 

3 T^ 

4 frrpdnu 
b ircyrdbrtr 

6 l^dticif 

7 frrdUrir 

8 imdKis 

9 ipwtdKiSt ivdxi^ 

10 SciAirif ■ 

11 ^rScjciUiS 

12 5c»Scic^«s 

Knmeral Adverbs. 

13 rpisKoiZticdias 

14 Tfrro^firaiSdc^kif 

15 vffyrfKcu9fir(Lris 

16 Iicieai8c«r({jctf 

17 IrreuccuititdKts 

18 ^KTvicaiSfK^kif 

19 /Kyffaiccu9e«rcii(if 

20 tlKOtrdKis 

21 (Mto<r<(icis Sira| 

22 chtoo'dKts His 
30 rpuucorrdxis 

40 rrrropaicoyTcU'if 

50 wtirniKoyrdKU 
60 l|i}irorr<(ica 
70 li38o/Ai}ie0iTiUa 
80 J799i}K9rnlieis 
90 iptviiKOrrdias 
100 Ijcoroirrtdcif 
200 iieucoffidicts 
300 rptaKotridHU 

1000 x<^M^<' 
2000 8ifxiA<^<T 
10,000 /AvptdKiS 
20,000 BisfivpiJucis, 


§ 99. Remarks. 

i. The rarer subordinate forms of 13, 14, etc, used by later writers, 
Bcffar/>c(5, Neat. Sficfltrpfo, BtKarirrapts, -a, ^cjcair^vrc, ete. 

2. Mpioif 10,000, when Paroxytone (/Avp/oi), signifies innumerable, 

3. In compound numerals, the smaller number either precedes the laiger, 

and then always with koI, or it follows the lai^r, usually with mJ, sometimes 

without it. The first order corresponds with the usage in English, e. g. Jive 

and twenty; the second only in part, e. g. twenty-Jive^ e. g. 

25 : Wrrc icol cijcMn(v), or cXkoo'i ical irirrc, 

345 : v/yrc fc«l rerrapdKoyra Mil rpuuedtrtoif or rpuuc, rcrr. «ca2 v. 
The same holds of the Ordinals, e. g. 

wiforros iced fiicoarSs, or ciirotrr^f leal v/^Airror. 

4. The tens compounded with 8 or 9 are frequently expressed in the ibim of 
euUrcbdion^ by means of the participle of 8f 7y, to iMuif, which agrees with tht 
larger number, e. g. 

49 : xfyrfiKoyra hhs 94orra ^*, undequinquoffinta anni, 
48 : wtPT^Korra Zuciiy S/ovra Ifn}, duodequinquaginta anni, 
39 : y^cs /Aiaf 8/oiMrcu TrrrapdKoyTOj undequadraginta naves. 

So with the Ordinals, e. g. 

49 : Jr^s S^wy ircin'i}fro<rrbr &i^p, undeqmnqnagesimus vir. 

5. Fractions are usually expressed by ju/pos or iioipa. These words, as 
denominators of the fraction, are put in the Gen., depending on the numeral 
which denotes the numerator. If they are expressed as denominators, they are 
understood with the numeral denoting the numerator; if they are expressed 
as numerators, they are understood with the numeral denoting the denominator, 
e. g. f is rmif Wi<t« iitpmw rk Z^ [ft^pil]) or rw virrw [/(cp«y] rh Zlo /UpTj, iwc 
parts of the Jive; | is r&v Ixria /wtp&p al w4rrt \fuupat\f or tup iier^ \junpmy\ ei 
96o ftoTpat, But me half is expressed by compounds with ^fu, e. g. ^fuiapmc6r, 
half a daric ; so in the PI. rpfo, iriyrt ^fuiapeucd, a daric cmd a hodf two darice 
arid a half, — Fractions are also expressed by an ordinal with yApiov or ikipos^ 
e. g. rpiTTifiSptoy or rpirov fi4pos = i, iriyarrov fi4pos = ^ j a mixed number is 
also expressed by nt^i preceded by a numeral, e. g. Wyrc ijfu9ap€ucd — 2^ darics, 
also by irl prefixed to an ordinal, e. g. Mrpvror « 1|, Mwtforror —l^. 

6. The Cardinal numbers compounded with ^v are equivalent to the Latin 
distributiyes, e. g. trivivo (bini), two together, two at a time, each two, 
(temi), avfXKem (qnini), etc. 

* Fifty years, wanting one. 

f 100.] 



7. Dedenaion of the first four Numerals : — 


tTs pda ffv 
Ms /uoi iy6s 
M /uf M 

9voiy (very seldom 9vuy) 

9vouf (hfai[v] Ionic and Th. 6, 101.) 



rp€st NeEt Tfia 



rpuM Neat, rfla 

rhrms, or ritrcwp^s Nent wirrttpa 

r4Trapag Nent. r4rrti^ 

Like mTs are also declined ov9c/s and fti)8c/r, no one; like ds too 
(hey hare the irregnlar accent, e. g. oUtlSf o^tc/ifa, ovS^y, Gen. o68cy^f , oMc- 
fuoy, Dat. oMcW, o&8c/uf, etc ; bat in the PL oM/vcs (fii|8/rcf ), -^iwr, -#0't(rjt 
Wivs;. Comp. farther, § 65, 3 (c). The form 5^, instead of 8^, seems to be 
foreign to the Attic dialect. A^ is often nsed as indeclinable in all the Cases. 
"Afiupaiim boA, is declined like 8^« (Sen. and Dat. itft/^oiy, Ace. ifi/ptf. 


The Adverb. 

i 100. Nature and division of the Adverb, 

Adverbs (§§ 38 and 314) are indeclinable words, denoting 
tbe relations of placcj time^ manner^ modality ^ irUensity^ and 
repetition. They are formed either from essential words 
(§ 38, 3), viz. Substantives, Adjectives, Participles, or from 
formal words, viz. Pronouns and Numerals, or they are 
primitive words, e. g. ov, firf, teal, fui^v, fj, av, etc 

itk) Adverfaa «f phoe^ e. g. •dpor^idfr, coelitus, wamj^t ubivis; 

(b) Adreibs of (tme, e. g. y^rrwp, noctn, m, nnnc^ 

(c) Adverbs of manner^ e. g. icaXds, alSrtt{s) ; 

^d) Adverbs of modaUtyy ^rfaich, e. g. W and od(ic), express an affirmaiion and 
mefftttknj or e. g. pif/p, rot, 4, Ij ft4iv, 9^, florws, «o^» &^, «irr«r, etc which 
express certainty, d^finiteness, uncertainty^ conditionaUty ; 
«(e) Adverbs of intensity and Jrequene^f e. g. /mUo, wdyv, iroX^, So-oiTy etc rpdf , 
Uree times; oSl^tr, c^n; iroXXclirir. often. 




♦ 101. Formation of Adverbs, 

1. Most Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the ending 
-0)9. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the adjective ; 
hence, as the stem of adjectives of the third Dec. appears in the 
Gen., and as adjectives in the Gen. PI. are accented like 
adverbs, the following rule for the formation of adverbs fiom 
adjectives may be given : — 

Change -nsv, the ending of the adfective in the Gen. Fi., into 

^(\-of , lovdy^ Gen. F] 

I. f^lK-Wf 

Adv. ^(\-«»i 



KoX-mv m 


Kolpi'OSt timd^. 




&irA.(^ff)oSf, nrnpUf 




«(^(o-os)ovs, henevcienty 


(cM-«y) ctffwy 

(cM-Mf) cAwf 

Tos, oS, woprSst 




ff^pvr, prudent f 




Xopfcif , pUxuant, 




Tox^y, smft. 




/Jyas, great. 




&\i}d4y» true. 




wr^f , aoauUmted, 


(twii^i'my) ffwljjbwf 

{<rvn}i^^f ) ffvriidwf. 

Rbmabk 1. On the accent of componnds in -^i^ws, and of the compomid 
wurdfKws, see § 59, Bern. 4, also on the accent of fCy»s, instead of cftWtf , § 49, 
3. On the comparison of Adverbs, see $ 85. 

2. In addition to the adverbs with the ending -io^, there are 
many which have the endings of the Gen., Dat, or Ace. 

(a) The Gen. ending appears in many adverbs in -179 and -ov« 
e. g. c^x ^<^€^, in order; iiavwrfi, suddenli/; irov^ alicubi; irov, 
ubi ? oTTov^ ov, ubi ; avrov^ ibi ; ovSajiov, nowhere. 

(b) The Dat, or an obsolete Abl. or Locative^ ending, oocnrs 
in the foUowing adverbs, 

(a) In adverbs with the ending -7, e. g. j|^, in Im momuig, comp. 4^ nruM, 
iio^, unaeaaonaUu; Ztntri (Dor. Iirari), A^miri, 4icoin-f, itKotnli in aavem 
of manner in -ciand 4, from adjectives in -us and -i}f, and almost excla- 
sively in adverbs compounded of a privative and vas or tdnSs, e. g. 
TttMopfiel and wwopfd. On the use of both forms, see Lam Grammar, 
Tart I, ^ 363 {0). 

' The Locative Case, is one which denotes the i>lace wkem 

I 102.] CLASSES OP TI1£ VERB. 12T 

{$) In local adverbs in -o<, commonly derived from sabstantivcs of the sec- 
ond Dec.) c. g. 'Io-d/M»« from *l<r^fji6st Uv^ot from IIm^c^, Mtyapoi (tA 
Mryofw), Ilci^or, Kucwyoi from ^ KUtnnm), oTi 8ir»(, quo, tofttfAer, o&My 
domi, from oucos, 

Rbx. 2. Adverba in -o<, derived from substantives, denote an indefinito 
where, but those derived from pronouns commonly denote the direction whiiha^ 
jet sometimes the indefinite vSk/ere* 

(y) In local adverbs in -uu This ending occurs only in a few forms, e. g. 
X»tudf humi, irdUoi. To this form corresponds the PL locative form 
-If 0-1 (y), or where i precedes, -cIo'ik, derived from substantives of the first 
Dec.; this ending originally belonged to plural substantives only, but 
was transferred later to substantives in the singular number, e. g, 6^i9t^ 
9i{w) from e^/9«i, *Ad4<^i|<n(tr) from 'Adn^u, ltKmmla»i(9) from lUoroca/ } 
n<p7aoVi('') ^i^in ^*fyoff^9 *OKvtarUkn{y) from 'OAv^iWo. 

(8) In adverbs in ^ and -d, e. g. tfXAir, ^r/pi;, vc(Q, onjbot; irpv^, Acti^pd, 
c2ki|, temertf; 0^80^11, Sqyiodo, ftiito; iwfi^, m comtmm; iiim, privatimf 
KOfUri, diUgtnUr ; also t^ ^n|, irc(m|, (, r^, t^c, ra^t}, etc. ; 1) and a com- 
monly have an Iota subscript. 

(c) The Ace. ending occurs in the following forms, 

(a) In the endings -ifr and -av, e. g. irpfl^y; luucpJuf^far ; Hpay and Wf>i7i^) 
frans (but "r^ta, vUra), etc.; so also of substantives, c. g. 9/inir, irutearf 
ijcfvfiv {acme)f scarcely f dt^ptdPf graHa, 

{fi) In the ending -opj e. g. dijptfy, cnu; iHifMMr, hodie; dfpunf, to-morrow, 

(7) In the endings -Bok, -8i|f% -8a (adveros of manner), e. g. a^rMrxcS^, 
commus; y^M^, bnnrpoxn^i iMoortM, 

(8) In some substantive forms in the Ace of the third De&, e. g. x^^» fi^ 
the sake of; irpouca, gratuitauslif. 


The Verb. 

Naturs akx> Ditibioxc or tr& Vbbb. 

♦ 102. Classes of the Verb, 

1. The Verb expresses an action or state, which is af- 
firmed of a subject, c. g. the father writes^ the rose Hootm^ 
the boy sleeps^ God is loved. 

2. Verbs are dMded into the following classes : — 

(1) Active verbs, which express an action, that the sub- 
ject itself performs or manifests, e. g* ypd^, to writer 
^oKKo), to bloom (comp. § 248) ; 

(2) Middle or Reflexive verbs, which express an action 
that the subject performs on itself, the subject being, 

12B VKRDS.-^tENSBS. [} 103 

therefore, both agent and object, e. g» fiovKeuofuxi^ 1 
advise myself j I deliberate; 
(3) Passive verbs, which express an action that the sub- 
ject receives from another object, c. g. rvTrrofjuu trfri 
Tiv6<i, lam smitten by some one. 
3. Verbs, which are used only in the middle form, are 
calltd Deponent. They have either a reflexive or intransi* 
tive meaning. They are divided into Middle Deponents, 
which have a middle form for their Aorist and Future, e. g. 
X^OSpfMUi gratificor, Aor. ixapurd/iijv, Fut. 'Xftpun/fuu ; and 
into Passive Deponents, which have a Passive form for 
their Aorist, but commonly a middle form for their Fut, 
e. g. ii/^fUofiaii mecum repvtOy Aor. ive^fii^^v, mecum 
reputavif Fut ii/^fii^arofuu, mecum repiUabo. Comp. § 197. 

i 103. The Tenses.. 

1. The Tenses denote the time of the action of the vetb. 
The Greek has the following Tenses : — 

L (1) Present, fiovXewo, I advise^ 

(2) Perfect, fiefiovKevKo, I have advised; 
11. (3) Imperfect, ifiovKevop, I was advising^ 

(4) Pluperfect, ifiefiovXeiiceiv, I had advised^ 

(5) Aorist, i^ovXjevo'a, I advised (indefinite) ; 
IIL (6) Future, fiovXeva-o), I shall or vnll advise j 

(7) Future Perfect (almost exclusively in the mid* 
die form), fie/SovKeuaofAoi, IshaU have advised my* 
self, or I shall have been advised, 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses : Present, Perfect, and Future; 

b. Historical tenses: Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Aorist. 

Remark. The Qreek has two formfl for the Peff. and Plupeif. Act., two for 
the Btmple Fat. Pass^ and two each for the Act, Pass., and Mid. Aorist ; these 
two forms maj be distinguished as Primary and Secondary tenses ; i. e. the 
first Perfect is a primary tense, the second Perfect a secondary tense, etc 
Still, only a very few verbs have both forms ; most verbs construct the aboTO 
tenses with one or the other form, bat not with both. No verb has oil the 

11104,105.] VSRSS. MODES. F&BTICIPIALS. 1^ 

tenses. Pore rerbs (4 108, 5) form, with very few exceptions, only the primary 
tenses. Mute and liquid verbs (§ 108, 5) may form both the primary and 
secondary tenses, but no verb has all the forms in use. The Fnt. Ferf^ which 
is fonnd in bvt few verbs, is entirely wanting in liquid verbs. It Is seldom 
foand in verbs which have the ten^ral augment (§ 121), e. g. o^m, to takey 
iffficofioit PL Prot 338, c, ^H'^fJduf to dishonor , Ifr^fiia'ofuuy Dem. 19, 284. 

♦ 104. The Modes, 

The Modes denote the manner in which the action of 
Hie verb is represented, whether as a direct affirmationi a 
condition, or a command, etc (comp. § 258, seq.) The 
Greek has the following Modes : — 

I. The Indicative, which makes a direct affirmation, e. g 
ihe rose bloamsj bloomed^ will bloom, 

IL The Subjunctive, which expresses what is merely 
conceived, or conditional. The Subjunctive of the his- 
torical tenses is called the Optative. Comp. ypd^cfu with 

BicMABX. See § 257, S (a), \h), and Rem. 1, for the maimer in which the 
Aorist may use both forms of the Sulj., and how the Future may have an 

IIL The Imperative^ which expresses a command, e. g. 
fiovkeve, advise, 

I 105. Participiah {Infinitive and Participle^, 

Besides the modes, the verb has two forms, which, as 
they partake both of the nature of the verb and also of 
the nature of the substantive and adjective, are called 
Participials : — 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive participial, 
e. g. e^eXxo fiov\€V€i,v, I wish to advisCy and to fiovXeveiv, 
ihe advising'. 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective participial, e. g. 
0ov\€v<ov airqp, a counsellor, 

Rbmabk. These two participials may be called verhwn infinitum; tho r» 
Biaining forms of the verb, verhum finitunu 


♦ 106. The Persons and Nurhbers, 

The personal forms of the verb show whether the sub- 
^^ct of the verb be the speaker himself (/, ire, first person) ; 
or a person or thing addressed (thou^ you^ second person) ; or 
a person or thing spoken of (Ae, she^ Uj third person). They 
also show the relation of number: Singular, Dual, and 
Plural (comp. § 41, 1), e. g. /BovKevmf /, the speaker, advise; 
^ov\ev€i/ii, ihouj the person addressed, admsest; fiovXeue^ hcj 
she^ itj the person or thing spoken of, advises ; fiouXeiieroy, 
ye twOy the persons addressed, advise; fiovKevown, the/gj the 
persons spoken of, advise, 

BsMARK 1. The student will at once observe that the ending, or personal 
forms of the Greek rerb, determines the person and number without the snbjed 
being expressed. So in Latin. Bat in English, as the rerb is not raried so 
as to indicate the person and number of itself, the subject most be expressed. 

Rex. 2. There is no separate form for the first Fcrs. Dual throughout the 
Act, and none for the Pass. Aorists ; in these instances it is expressed by the 
fonn of the first Pers. PL 

\ 107. Conjugation. 

Conjugation is the inflection of the verb in its Persons, 
Numbers, Modes, Tenses, and Voices. The Greek has 
two forms of conjugation, that in -cd^ which includes much 
the larger number of verbs, e. g. fiovkev-a, and the older, 
original conjugation in -/u, e. g. Zartf-fu, to station* 

Conjugation of Vbbbs ih -• 

♦ 108. Stem, Augment^ and Reduplication, — Char- 


1. Every verb is divided into the stem, which contains the 
ground-form of the verb, and into the syllables of formation, by 
which the relations of person, number, tense, etc. are denoted. 
The stem is found in most verbs in -co by cutting off the ending 
of the first Pers. Ind. Pres., e. g. povkcv'<a, Xey^io, rpCP'io. 


2. The syllables of fonnation are either annexed as endings 
to the stem, and are then called inflection-endings, e. g. jSovAcv-fu^ 
/SouXcv-oiiiy jSovXcu-oo/xoi, or are prefixed to the stem, and are 
then called Augment and Reduplication, e. g. i-Pmktvov, Itvaa 
advising; /Sc'/^ovAcvica, I have advised. For a change in the stem 
of many verbs, e. g. rphr-m, ri-rpof^'a, i-rpdTr'rjv, see ♦ 140. 

3. The Augment is c prefixed to the stem of verbs which 
begin with a consonant, e. g. I'^oCXxvau, I advised; but in 
verbs which begin with a vowel, it consists in lengthening the 
first stem-vowel, a and c into rj (and in some cases into ci), I and 
V into I and v, and o into a>. The Augment implies past time, 
and hence belongs to all the historical tenses (Imperfect, 
Aorist, and Pluperfect) ; but it is confined to the Indicative. 

4. Keduplication consists in repeating the first stem-conso- 
nant with c, when the stem begins with a consonant ; but when 
the stem begins with a vowel, the Kcduplication is the same as 
the augment, e. g. )3€-)3ovXcvKa, I have advised; "uc^cvicay / have 
suppKcatedf from "uccrcv-u). The Reduplication denotes the cofri' 
pletion of the action, and hence belongs to the Perfect, Pluper- 
fect, and Future Perfect For a fuller view of the Augment 
and Reduplication, see f 119, sq. 

5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending -co is cut ofl, 
is called the verb-characteristic, or merely the characteristic, 
because, according to this, verbs in -co are divided into difierent 
classes ; according as the characteristic is a vowel, a mute, or 
a liquid, verbs aie divided into pure, mute, and liquid verbs, e. g. 
PavKtv-io, TCfia-(i) (pure Verbs), rpCfi-ia (mute), ffxiivia (liquid). 

i 109. In/lection- endings. 

In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote tlie relation 
of tense, mode, and person^ there are three diflerent elements : 
tiie tense*Gharacteristic, the mode-vowel, and the personal • 
ending, e. g. /SovXcu-c-o-fuu. 

f 110. (a) Tense-characteristic and Tense-endings. 

1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands 
next after the stem of tlie verb, and is the characteristic mark 


of the tense. In pure verbs, k is the tense-chaiacteristic of th« 
Perf. and Plup. Ind. Act., e. g. 

the characteristic of the Fiit. and first Aor, Act and Mid., and 
the Fut Perf. is cr, e. g. 

the characteristic of the first Aor, Pass, is 5; the first Fut 
Pass, has, besides the tense-characteristic <r, the ending of the 
first Aor. Pass. -^, thus, 

The primary tenses only (} 103, Rem.) have a tense-charac- 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending follow- 
ing, is called the tense-ending. Tims, e. g. in the form fiov 
VcMTds cr is the tense-characteristic of the Fut., and the syllabic 
ooi is the tense-ending of the Fut The stem of the verb, 
together with the tense-chamcteristic and the augment or 
redupHcation, is called the tense-stem. Thus, e. g. in ifiov' 
Kev(r-a^ ifiovXeva- is the tense-stem of the first Aor. Act 

♦ 111. (b) Personal-endings and Mode-voivtls, 

The personal-ending denotes the person of the verb, and 
takes a difierent form according to the difierent persons and 
numbers; the mode-vowel connects the tense-stem and the 
personal-ending, and takes a difierent form according to the 
different modes, e. g. 

1 Pers. Sing. Ind. Pres. M. fiov\t6-o-fjLou Sabj. fiav\€^<ffuu 

3 " »* »» Fut " fiovXt^frau Opt. ^vKt^-oi^o 

1 " Pi. " Pres. •' fiovXfv-O'fu^ Siibj. /8owA€v-cS-/t€3a 

2 " « « " " fiov\t6-f<rbt " fiou\t^^ft<r^ 
1 " Smg. ** AL "* ifiovKnHr-d-imiv " fiovXt^-cn^-fuu 

3 " ** u u u ^jBawA€^<r-a-T» Opt. i3«uA.e^-ai-ro. 

Kemabk. In the above forms, fiou\w is the rerb-stem, and /BovXcv, fiovKtw^ 
and ifiovk§v9' are the tense-stems, namelj, of the Fres., Fat, and first Aor. 
Mid. *, the endings -/lai, -r«, etc., are the personal-endings, and the Towela «, 
Uf c, 01, 1} a, Of, are the modo-yowels. The modc-YOwcls c and o of the Indie 
are lengthened into t} and m in tlio Suhj. 

H 11.2, 113.] MoDE-VoWELS. — rfinSONAL-ENDlNGS. 


♦ 112. 


arj/ of 











VnB. aod Fat 

Impf., A. 11. A. and 

Act. Mid. 

S. 1. 






CI, c 

























P. 1. 



















A. I.1L 

A. I. A. and 

A. I. A. 



A. I. A. and M. 


8. 1. 







o a 


D. 1. 













A. I. A. Mid M. 
and Ft A. 

P. 1. 
















♦ 113. Personal- endings of Verbs in -co. 

I. Active Form. 

IL Middle Form.' | 

A. Ind. and Snbj. 
tba Pxioe. tcnws. 

B. Ind. and Opt. 

A. Ind. and Snbj. 
th« Piinc. tenses. 

B. Ind. and Opt 
the Utet. toDses. 

Sing. I. 


Dual 1. 


Plur. 1. 








{PTI) fft{p) 

Pf Opt./i( 


^ • 




y, 0-ay 






prat (aTOi) 





yTO (oTo) 

C. Imperative. 

C. Imperative. 

Sinp. 2. 
J)aal 2. 
Plur. 2. 

3. -'w 
Toi' 3. Ottfy 
TC 3. rmretp 

Sing. 2. {vo) 3. v^m 

Dual 2. a^op 3. odwy 

Plur. 2. irbt 3. o^^oMroy, vISmp 

D. Infinitive. 

1). Infinitive. 

p Preg., Fnt., and Aor. II. 

pat Perf. Act. and Aor. I. and IT. Puss. 

1 Aor. I. 


P:. Participle. 

E. Participle. 

Stem KT, with exception of the Perf, 
whose stem ends in -or. 

ft§pos, ftdprif fi€POP ; 
ftdpost it4prif fiipopj Perf. 

134 FfiaSONAL-ENDlNGS. [i 114. 

Bemark. The Pcrsoual-cndings follow so directly tlio modc-TowcI, and 
lo closely joined to it, that often the two do not appear separately, but 
united together, c. g. jSovAc^-pf, instead of /3ovA«iSa'i|-is, ^ovAc^, instead of 
6ovAc^*«u (a and c coalescing and i being subscribed). 

♦ 114. Difference between the Personal'endings in 
the Principal and the Historical Tenses. 

1. The difference between the Principal and Historical tenses is important. 
The Principal tenses (Pres., Perf, and Fat) form the second and third Fers. 
Dual with the same ending -ov, e. g. jSovAt^-ror ^vAc^ctoi'; i3ovAc^-03or 
/SovAc^-ai^oy ; the Historical tenses also form the second Pers. Dual in -or, 
bnt the third in i^y, e. g. 

2. The Principal tenses form the third Pers. PL Act. in iri{r)j from -wrt^ 
'Vffif and the Mid. in -y r ai ; the Historical tenses in the Active, in -y, «nd Mid., 
in -rroy e« g. 

Bou\96'0'y T a i ifiouKf^-o-y r o. 

Remark. In $ouXt6oy<n the y is dropped, and as a compensation the o pre- 
ceding it is lengthened ; so also in the Fat Act Comp. 116, 5. 

3. The Principal tenses in the Sing. Mid. end in fuu, nrm^ -rm ; the HiatOfl- 
cal in 'lofy^ -eoi -ro, e. g. 

/SovAc^c-iraf » i8ovAcv-p, ^/3ovAc^-c-0'o ss ^/BovAc^-ov 

/SovAc^c-rai ffimfKi^t-r o, 

4. The Personal-endings of the Sabj. in the Principal tenses are like thoea 
of the Ind. in the same tenses ; the Opt are like those of the Ind. of the 
torical tenses \ 

8 and 3 Da. In 1 

. l*r. i3ovA«^-roy • 

Sabj. iSovAci^-Toy 


" 0w\§ifi^^op 

3 PL " 

" fiov\€^ov^t{*) 

" ^vAcW^i(r) 


** iSovAc^rrai 

1 Sing. " 

^* /SovAc^o-^iai 

** fiov\«6wfiat 

2 *• " 

" fiw\€^ 

" p<w\^ 

3 «* " 

" /3ovA«^e<ra< 

" /BovAc^^rac 

tand3Dn. *' 

Impf.^iSouAc^Tor, 'i-ri^p 

Opt. /3ovAcdof-roy, -of-rif r 

ifiovKt^t-^^oVf -^-0-^1} 1 

I' " /BovAe^i-ff-i^oy, -o/-0^i|r 

3 PL " 

" i0o6\tvo-p 

" /BovAf^i-tr 


" iBovAc^t-yro 

1 Sing. " 

" ifiovKtvS-ikiiv 

" fiovKfvoi'fiiiw 

n u It 

" (^/3ovA€t;c-0-o) ^/SovAc^oi/ 

" ()3ouA6^i-0'o) jSosAff^-o 

3 w « 

** ifi0U\(^§-TQ 

" /3ouA(^oi-ro. 



§ 115. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in •» 

Prblimikakt Rbuabks. 

1. Since pure rcrbs do not form the secondary tenses (§103, Rcra.) these 
tenses are supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs and one liquid 
verb {rplfi-v, Arfr-M, stem Mil, ^aiihrn^ *AN), so aa to exhibit a full Conju- 

2. In learning the table, we are to note, 

(1) That the Greek foilns may always be resolved into, (a) Personal-ending, 
(b) Mode-vowel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d) Tense-stem, (e) Verb-stem, (f ) 
Augment, or Reduplication. 

(3) The spocetf forms, e.g./lovXc^c TO y, $ov\€^roy, third Pers. Du. Ind 
and Snbj. Pres., may direct attention to the difference between the Historical 
tenses in the Ind. and Opt, and the Principal tenses. 

(3) Similar forms, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are 
distinguished by a star (*). The learner should compare these together, e. g. 
fiou\ie6ffm^ 1. Sing. Ind. Put. Act. or 1. Sing. Subj. I. Aor. Act.; fioiK^vcai^ 
2. Sing. Imp. L Aor. Mid., jSovXc^oi, 3. Sing. Opt L Aor. Act., ^ovAci^ai, 
Inf. L Aor. Act 

(4) The accentuation (4 118) should be learned with the form. The follow- 
ing general rule will suffice for beginners : The aaxnt of the verb is as far from 
lAs end as the final mjfkiJU wiU permiL Those forms, whose accentuation 
deviates fh>m this rule, are indicated by a dagger (t). 

(5) When the Paradigm is thus thoroughly learned, the pupil may first 
resolve the forms either of ^ouXf ^w, or any pure verb, into their elements, i. e. 
Personal-ending, Mode- Towel, etc.; observing this order, viz. ^uXc^oi is, (1) 
ftrstPers., (2) Sing., (31 Ind., (4) Put., (5) Act., (6) from jSovXcdw, to adoiae; 
then he may arrange the elementary parts of the form, and in the following 
order: (1) Verb-stem, (2) Augment, or Reduplication, (3) Tense-characteristic. 
(4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel, (7) Per 
sonal ending, (8) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel and Personal-ending. £. g. 
What would be the form in Greek of the phrase, he advised himself ^ using the 
Aor. of the Pres., /SovXc^, to advise f Answer: The Verb-stem is /3ovX«v-, 
Augment, i, thus ifiov\tv ; the Tense-characteristic of*the first Aor. Mid. is a-, 
thus Tense-stem is i-fiovKivc ; the Mode-vowel of the first Aor. Ind. Mid. is a ; 
thus, 4'fiov\€v-9-a\ the Personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing, of an Historical 
tense of the Mid. is to ; thus, ^-/SovXc^^^a^ro. 

Rehabk. By making himself familiar with the above elements, the pupil 
construct from the root any form of the verb ho may wish. 



[i 115 








S. 1. 














Ptnf, If. 

Pipj: n. 

Aorist /., 

stem : 

Aorist If.y 


S. 1. 





S. 1. 












S. 1. 

S. 1. 

/SovAc^fii, thou advisest, 
fiavKt^i, he, she, it adciaes^ 
fio¥K.€v-mp, ye two advim, 
BovXtihtroyf thof two advise^ 
fiovK§6^fitv^ we advise, 
iSowXf^rrc,* wm advise^ 
/3ovX€<^ou<ri(y), they advise, 

fiavK€^f* I mai/ advi$e, 




i-fioixtvop,* I was advising, 
i-fio^kw§s, thou wast advising, 
i'fio6\tv-€{9f), he, she, it was cuv, 
i-fiov\t6-rroPf ye tiDO were adv. 
i-fiov\€v-4r^p, they two were adv. 
i-fiou\§ ^ Qf M Vf we were advising, 
^-/9ov\c^-cTc» you were advising, 

i-fio^\tv-op,* they were advising, 

iSc-ZSo^Xcv-jc-o, I have advised, /3f-jBovXc^ic-«,/MayAac«<b 

fi€'fio6\tv-K-us, thou hast adv'd, 
/Iff-jSovAc^ic-aTor, ye two have a. 
/3«-i9avX«^ic-a r • «, they two have 

fi€'0ovkt^K-apttv, we have adv^d, 
/3e-/3<wXf ^ir-«Tc, you have adv'd, 
/ic-j8owXf^ic'd<rt (»), they have a. 

^-/9f-i3ovXcv-ic-ciir, I had advised, 
i'fi€-fiou\e^K-€Ug thou hadst adv. 
f'$€-fiou\e6'ic€i, he, sfte, it had ad. 
i-$€-fiovkt^it^n'op, ye tun had 

i-fif'fioykev-it^ Ir q w^they two had 

4-$€'fiov\€v-K'tifi,€P, we had adv. 
i-fiw-0ov\t^K-€tTf, you had adv. 
i-fie-fiouKfi ic-t oar, they had a. 

of thePriodpid 




$€-fiouKtCHMI TOP 




W-^K-o,* I appear, 
i^t-f^p-ttp* I appeared, 

i-fioiktv-o-Ot I advised (indef.), 
i-fioik9v-<r'as, thou advisedst, 
i'fio6k9if-ir't{p), he, she, it adt^d, 
i'fiovkMv^-oTOp, ye two advised, 
i-fieukw-tr-driip, they two ad^d, 
i-fiot^fO-^-ofup, we advised, 
^3«uXc^-crrc, you advised, 
i'fio6ktv^'a p, they advised. 

f-knr-ov, I left, 

('kiT-ts, etc. declined like Impf. 
Ind . 

fiovkfv^'M,* I shall advise, 
like the Indie. Prcs. 

irc-^y-tf, / tnay appear, 

/iouXciW-«,* / may advise^ 



X(ir-«, etc., like the Subj. 

> The inflection of tho 2J Pcrf. In rU the Modes nnd Partldples, is Ilko titiit of Ihc M Ptorf. 

♦ I lo.] 




I Optative 



fiavKf^HHfu, I miyki advise^ 


fimf\tv-o i€r 



Infin. Particip. 

•ir, !j3ovAcb-oi4 
to G.fiov\€6-mrna 

fi&6ktv^, aduiae, 
fiouXw^ctf let him ad, 
$ov\g6-€TOpfye two ad, 
/9ovAffv-^»r, let them 
both advise^ 

fiouX€v-rr€,* do ye ad, 

/SovAcv-^aKroy, usaally fiov\t\r6irr»yf* let them a. 


fi€-fiov\9^'OtfUt 1 miff, have a. 

fit-fiouXtv-K-o iriiy 

/Sr-jSovAc^ir-o ( c r 

t-^i^MUfUf I might appear^ 

/9BvAcv-<r-avu, I might advise^ 
fiouXt^-ats, or -«Mtf 
fiovXt^-ai^* or -«i»(v) 
fiovXtv-ffHi tt Iff or -€t ay 

like the Imp. Tree, 
yet only a few Per- 
fect8| and such as 
have the meaniDg 
of the Pres., form 
an Imperatiye. 




G. -If-rfTOJ, -If 

uiast having 

v4-^y^, appear. 

xiv-otfu, etc^ like the Opt. 

fiovXt^-c-oifu, I would advise, 
like the Opt. Impf. 

$o6x§v-ir-oy, advise, 


fiovXtv-ff-dTOHray^ usually •adyrwy'^ 






having advised. 

a/v-c, etc., like the 
Imp. Prcs. 


CiV, t 


Aiir<-i$y,OMra, 6yl 
G. 6yTos, o6inis, 


C'fty, etc. like Pr, Pt. 

9 Tb« Inflection of the 2d Plnperf. is like thatof thv Iflt Pluperf., both in the Intf snd Opt 


Paradigm of the reoulab verbs in -w. 







oflhe Prlndpai tenses. 



8. 1. 







S. 1. 







S. 1. 







/SovXc^-ojuai, I deliberate^ or am 

iBwXrt^p ♦ [advised, 






fiovkfv^fiatf I ma^ d&- 
iSovXcv-p * [Hbexatey 
/BovXc^TOi 1 

fi0Vk€V-^fl9^0P j 

/SovXc^-ifff-^y 1 




fiovkt^-^ PT at 



i'fiovKw6ii.MiPy I tau dMeT' 

4-fiov\9^v [oting, 











fie-fio^Xev-fi a i, I have deliberated, 








fit-fiovktv-fi^pos, 2, /majf 
fi^-fiovkev-fi^pos ^f [have 
fie-fiwkw-fjJposp [deHb- 

Be'fiwkw/jJw i|roy 
fie-fiovkw/idprn ^or 

fiS'pOOkWft4w9l ifUP 

fiS'fiovktV'fUpot fn 
fit-fiavkev-ftdpot i^t 




S. 1. 







i'fi€-$ovk€^fiflP, 1 had deHber- 
i'fi€'$o6\€v-<ro [ated, 









S. 1. 







S. 1. 

i'fiovktv-tr-dfAiiPf I deliberated, 
i'fiov\t^9-m [(indefinite) 
i-fiovkev-tr-d a^iip 


/SmXff^^* [/ifteroff, 




/SevXf ^<r-if 9^ OP 





i-ktw-^fAiiPj I remained, like Ind. 

X^ir-«^«a<, / maif memoiJi, 
like Pres. Sabj. 


S. 1. 
S. 1. 

0ovkt6-ff-of»aij I shall deliberate, 
like Pros. Indie. 



fi€-fiovk€VHr-ofuUf I shall have de- 
h'beratcd, like JPres. Indie. 

« 115.] 





kf O D E 8 . 1 

Farticipials. 1 





fiwKw'Ov, (^liberate, 



to delibef' 


0wktv4(rdmerap^ nsnally fiovX£v4a&mp* \ 

$ovAffi^o(fii|y, / might 
fimtkw^ i [ddibenae, 





fit-fioiXttHTo, deliberate^ 




have deHb- 


popf^ having- 

fif'fiouXt^^wo'aif, usual 

7 fit-fiovXt^^p * 1 

$t'0ovKeitji4pot tfflP, I 

fiffiov\€9-f»4vos ^s\mpt 

fit-fioukethfUpot fffi) \de- 


fit-fiou\fv^fi4pt0 tiipiip 

0€'fiov\tV-fl4pdl tfflfAfP 

fi€''fiov\ev-fi4pot cfirrc 
fi€-fiovK9Vfi4pot cli}<ray 


fiovKfiMT-aifiri r, I might 
$ov\f^-ato [deliberate^ 
fieu\ev(r-a ia-^iiP 


$o6X€v-ff'aii* deliberate, 

fiovXtiho^da^wp * 



to deUber- 




having ddiber- 


fiovXtv^-^btfCay, usual 

[y fiovXtv-o^^p* 1 

knr-o(firiP,Imight remain^ 
like Opt. Impf. 

Xtwov^t '^trdw, like Pres. 


Xar-SfAtPos, •O' 

0o9\9u^-o(^yiPfI m.have 



POSt -HI, •OP 

delUterate, like Opt. Imp. 



jUCVOy, -71, -OP, 





Future L 

Aorist H. 


S. 1. 



P. 1. 



S. 1- 

S. I. 

S. 1. 



i'fiovk^^-y^n^j I was advited, 
i'$ov\€^-iy-ii trap 

$ouK*v-d^-C'Ofuu, I shall be adv. 
^ovXcv-d^-p, etc.| like the 
Ind. Fres. Mid. 

of the Friadpal 

/3ouXct^^^, / might have 
fiov\t»-^^s [been advised, 




i-rplfi-^y, I uxis rubbed, 
i-rpi$'ris, etc., like the first 
Aor. ^d. Pass. 

Tpifi^tr-ofiatf I shall be rubbed, 
Tpi/3-^-<r-p, etc., like the first 
Fnt. Ind. Pass. 

rpif^f I may have been rub*d, 
Tpi^-^s, etc., like the first 
Aor. Subj. Pass. 


Verbal Adjectives : /Soi/Xcv-r^s, -4, -^y, advised^ 

$ 116. Remarks on the Inf le ction- ending s , 

1. The personal-endings of verbs in -m are apocopated forms, as may l^ 
shown from the older conjugation in -yny and in part from the dialects (§ 220, 
1 ) ; thus, 'III in the first Pcrs. Sing. Ind. and ^ubj. Act. and ti in the thinl 
Pers. have disappeared, e. g. jSovXc^oi instead of /3ovXc^o-/u or i3ovXcv-«^, 
/SovXc^ci instead of ^ouXc^-crt (by the dropping of -/u in /SovXcv-o^, the • is 
lengthened into », and by the dropping of -ti in /3ovX(^c-ti, c is lengthened 
into ci) ; in the first Pers. Sing, first Aor. Ind. Act., v has disappeai^d, e. g. 
i^^Ktwra instead of ifio6\(vaaM \ in the second Pers. Sing. Imp. Act., except 
the first Aor., -3i has disappearcd, e. g. /Soi^Xcv-c instead of jSoi/Xc^«-;&i; but the 
first Aor. Imp. Act. has a difix^rcnt ending -oy, e. g. ^ovXcv-<r-ol'. 

2. The second Pers. Sing, Act. has the ending -<rj^a in the Common Ian 
guage in the following forms only : — 

oitr^a, nosti, from the Perf. oI9a; f^tia^a and fijiffda^ Plpf. of oTSa, 
^pria^at Impf. fiom ^/J, to say; ^ff^Oy Iropf. from tlul, iobe; ^ckt^^o, 
Impf. from c7/u, to go. 

3. There is no special form for the first Pers. Dual Act, or for the firet 
and second Aor. Pass. ; the first Pers. PL is used for this purpose. Comp. 
S 106, Rem. 2. 

4. The original form of the first Pers. PI. Act. is -/*«» (not -luv). Comp 
the Dialects, \ 220, 6, and the Latin ending -m«», e. g. 7p«(^-o-/ict, scrib-i-miM. 

5. The original form of the third Pei-s. PI. Act. of the Principal tenpcs wa* 




L e. Snbj, of the UM. tenaea. 

^vXcv-d^/iyr, / might be 
fiovKMvd^irit [advised, 

^ovXcv^c 1 4 r 1| »r 
fiouXMv-^-<li^fr and -cv^y 
^wXffv-d^/i|r« and -crr« 

AmXci^dir-^-ol/Ai|ir, / shoidd 
be advuedy etc., like the 
Impf. Opt Mid. 

rpifi^iipfy I miqht be rubbed, 
Tptfi^his, etc., like the first 
Aor. Opt. Pass. 

Tpi^^il^'olfATftf, I should be 
ni6M, etc., like the ftrst 
Fnt Opt Paie. 


fiovXfi-^ifrif be thou ad' 
fiouktv-^'^tg [vised, 

fiov\t6'^^ifr9 * 

rolfi-ri^i, -^oi, etc., like 
the first Aor. Imp. Pass. 


Infin. { Participle. 





Greniiive : 

being odvised. 

Tpifi-tis,^ etc., 
like first Aor. 
Part Pass. 


fiavKsv-r4ot, -r4ay -r^oi^, to be advised. 

•PTi] whea r was changed into a, v waa dropped (4 20, 2), e. g. ^ouXf^orri » 
^tnKsbomn » /Sov^fi^owi. On the irregular lengthening of the vowel pre- 
ceding the y, see 4 20, Rem. 2. 

6. In the first Pers. Sing. JPlup. Act., Attic writers use, together with the 
form in -tir, a form in i}, which arises from the Ionic ending of the Plap. •««, 
e. g. ^^«/3ovXcv«c-i| instead of nt-wt. The mode-vowel ct in the third Pers. PI 
is commonly shortened into c» c. g. ifitfiouX^v-K-eirw instead of ifi^fiovXs^'K' 

7. The first Pers. Sing. Opt. Act. has the ending -/u in verbs in •«#, e. g. 
irotSf ^a fu, vaiMtr'ai'tu] bnt the ending -17 r in the first and second Aor. Pass., 
according to the analogy of verbs in -fit. This 17 remains throngh oil the per* 
sons and numbers, tb Migh it is often dropped in the Dual and PI., especially 
in the third Pers. PI. and then, c/17/Acj/ -= t'lfJity, tlrtrt = circ, cfijcray =: c7(y, e. g 
vmitv&tiilfify and •waillfv^t7fity, yLytiff^uyfrt and 'h%iT%y ^aycfijiray X. H. 6. 5, 
25., rpoKpi^tifiaeuf Ibid. 34., wtfi^ftyicay Tb. 1. 38, and (more frequently) 
•t^cicr (-€7«m). 

8. The Attic Optative endings -iji*, -ris, ij, etc., and the third Pers, PI. -«► 
(rarer 110'ay) which appropriately belong to verbs in -fu, are used with verbs in 
•*, in the following cases : — 

(a) Most commonly in the Imperf Opt. uf contract verbs, e. g. ri/id^r, 

^iAo(i)y, nxcboi-i\v \ 
(h) In all Futures in -w, c. g. ^ayoir^v Soph. AJ. 313., ipoi-n Xcn. Cy. 3. 1, 

U, from the Fut. ^a»S», ipA', 
(c) Somewhat often in the Kctond Plup., e.g. iiext^vyolriy S. 0. R. 8^^, 

9po€\iiKv&oiris X Cy. 2. 4, 17., wtwtudoiri At. Aehani. 940; 


(d) In the second Aor. cxoiriy uniformly (l^xoy from fx») i ^^^^^ ^^^ S^^ 
erally in compounds, e. g. vap^x^^f"* 

9. The forms of the first Aor. Opt. Act. in -ciar, ^cic (v), -ciav, instead of 
•Oil, -ai, -my, have passed from the JEiolic Opt. in -cia, •cias, etc., into com- 
mon use in all the dialects, and are employed by the Attic writers more fr^ 
qucntly than the i^egular forms, e. g. i3ov\fuo--ciaf, -ci t (r), -ciar. 

Kemabk. The second Pers. Dual Act. of the Historical tenses often cndB, 
among the Attic writers, in-niw instead of -op, e. g. tUhijy PI. Symp. 189, c^ 
iwthiiuirdfnfir Euthyd. 273, e^ ^jfcm^r 294, c, i\ty(niy L. 703, d., ^Kowmmtadr- 
vn¥ Tb. 753, a. On the Dialects, see S 220, 9. 

10. The Middle endings -cai and -co, when immediately preceded by it 
mode-vowel, drop c (^ 25, 1), and then coalesce, except in the Opt, with the 
mode-vowel, e. g. 

/SovXc^-drcu 6oukt6-ii-M s=3 /SovAci^p 

fiovKii-ot-tro fiov\tv-ot-o 

ifiovXt^-orVO ifiouXfiv-a-o = ifiovkw^-^, 

11. In the second Pers. Sing. Prcs. and Fat Mid. and Pass., the Attic writers 
use a subordinate ending in -ct, together with the ending -p, c. g. /SovAc^ji and 
-ci, /SovAc^ii and -ci, fitfiwXt^^ and^ci, iSovAcvd^-p and -ct, r/M3i^» And •«, 
■wotp and -c?, oA^ and •€?. This form in -tt passed from the Attic convenational 
language, into the written language ; hence it is the regular form in the Come- 
dies of Aristophanes, but is avoided by the tragedians. Also Thucydides 
and Xenophon use it; other writers, as Plato and the orators, employ both 
forms ; yet three verbs always take the form •«, namely, 

fio{*\o/juu fioik€t (but SubJ. fio6Ky) 

oXofuu ofcc (but Subj. ofp) 

J&^oyju Put. tp^tu 

12. Together with tlic endings of the third Pers. PI. Imperative Act and 
Pass. -4rof(raM, -drturay, -c^wraof, the abbreviated forms -^yr«is -d(rr«r, 
-ff^uy, are ttscd; and since they are employed very frequently by Attic 
writers, they are called Attic forms. These abbreviated Imperatives of the 
Active Voice are like the Gen. PI. of the Participle of each tense respectively, 
except the Perfect ; and the Middle form -e^uy is like the third Pers. Dual, 

Prcs. Act. 0ovKev4r€6aay and fiov\tv6yrtty 

Perf. " wacot^hwray " vtwoASyrMV (Gen. Part. ir€irot&6Tuy) 

Aor. I. " ^uXtvffdrwray " ^vKwviyrw 

Prcs. Mid. fiovXtvta^c^ay " iSovAcvcV^wM 

Aor. " 0rK€i^<j((r^ciMrav " (rK€^6jrb<ov. 

The Aor. Pass, ending -ivttay or -^twi^, abridged from -^roMray, is found in 
Pl. Lcgg' S56, d. v(fi<l>^4yT»y, and lb. 737, e. ^taytfAt^^vy (according to scvora] 

♦ 117.] VERBS. ATTIC FUTURE. 143 

13. Besides the simple form of the Snbj. Fcrf and the Opt. Flup. Act, a 
periphrasis, formed by the Perf. Fart, and the Sabj. or Opt. of tlvm (to be), 2, 
cfffTy is Teiy frequent, e. g. ftewmt9€VKi>s A, eduoaverim ; trwwaJitvKits cfip', educa- 
muem. Yet lSbaA form seems to denote a drcumstanee or condition^ more than a 
simple eooipleled aetion ; oomp. FL Hipp. M. 802, a. ci KtKfiriK^s rt^ 1^ rerfM»- 

r%fOi mi rwr§ wtw4p^9ifi9w ; examples at the simple forms are, iantkiifp, FL 
Rp. 614, a., dX^^MVir Folit 269, c, ifarwwr^koi X. As. 5. 7, 26., KorvXukoiwotw 
X H. 3. 2, 8., iBtntKxiffiKM ik 5, 23., ^peHjicoi ib. 5. 2, 3., vcvvii^ Th. 8, 
108., 4«|9^nii^cir ib. 2, 48. — The Imp. Ferf. does not often occnr in the Act.. 
e. g. T^^yvM, Ear. Or. 1220. 

14. The Feif. and Flnp. Mid. or Pass, append the personal-endings to the 
tense-«tem without a mode-TOWcl, and hence they cannot form the Sabj. and 
Opt. (with few exceptions, which will be farther treated below, § 154, 9), 
bat most also be expressed periphrasticallj by means of the Participle and 
cZmu, e. g. veraiiwfiiyos «S, cfifv, educatta nm, esfem. 

15. The third Fers. Ind. Pezf. and Flap. Mid. or Pass, of pare verbs ends in 
'¥Tai^ -WTO, e.g. /3€)3oi$AcvKrai, ifi€^6\tvrrQ] bat in mate and liqaid verbs, this 
foimation is not possible. Hence the Attic writers nsoally express this person 
periphrastically, by means of the Fcrf. Fart, and tM(v), nmt, ^o»y ercud; the 
older and middle Attic writers, however, sometimes ase the Ionic forms -Arm, 
-iro (instead of -yroi, -vto) \ the a of these endings is aspirated after the 
Slappa and Pi-mutes, and hence changes the preceding smooth Kappa or Pi- 
mute into the corresponding rough (comp. 4 144) ; but this a is not aspirated 
after the Tau-mutes ; thus, 

rpi0-m, to mft, Ferf ri-rpi^-iuu 3 V.rtrfti^M (for r4rpifirr€u) Pip. irerplftliro 
T\lif«, to twine, wd-^kvy/tM *' vtrkixBerat ( ** ir^Acucrrai) 4rrfK4xSfro 
rdrr-ttf to carange, rl^erffiot " rerdx^rtu ( " rirmyrroi) irerdx^o 

XwpiC^f to separate, Kt-x^tC'/iot ^ iccx«p^8^« ( " Ktx^p*^tu) iH^mpSM^ro 
^S^i^'0^ to destroy, (-^op-ftM " i^ddpSrtu ( ** l^dv^rroc) i^ddpSro, 

16. The two Aorists Pass, follow the analogy of verbs in -fu, and hence ani 
not treated Iiere. 

♦ 117. Remarks on the Formation of the Attic 


1. When one of the short vowels &, «, 7, in the Fat. Act. and Mid. of verbs 
in -tf-tf, -cofiMu, from stems of two or more syllables, precedes o", certain verbs, 
after dropping &, take the circumflexed ending -S, -ov/uu ; because it was fre- 
quently used by the Attic writers instead of the regular form, this is called 
the Attic Futwre, e. g. ixdu (usually iXoAvu)^ to drive, ikd-^-to. Put. Att. tX&, -$j, 
•f , -ttToy, -<v/Acr, -<4Tf , 'wn(v) ; rtXiw, tojini^ TeX/-«r-«, Put. Att. reXiSt, -c«j, -cT, 
•vropf "Oviuv, -€rrf, -oD«fi(v); rt\4'<r'0fuu {rt\4ofuu), rtXovfuu, -f?, -eiroi, etc.; 
touiCw, to carry, Fut. KOfifff-a, Put. Att. KOfiiQ, -itts, -lu, -leiroy^ -lovfuv, -i€4T€, 

144 VERBS. ACCENTUATION. [t 1 t8w 

tovai{v) ; iro/uoDftai, -le?, -leirflu, -loAfis^tfy etc. This Fut. is inflected like the 
forms of contract verbs. 

2. This form of the Fut. is found only in the Ind., Inf., and Fart. ; never ia 
the Opt., thus, Tc^ctf, reKfiy, reXcuy ; but r9k4<roi/u. The verbs which have this 
form are the following: (a) i\^ {4Xm&vmjj to drive; rcA^w, tojiniah; KaK4mp 
to call; and, though seldom, kxiw^ to grind; — (b) all verbs in -{(m (character. 
9) ; — (c) a few verbs in -^C^** ▼^'7 generally fitfidCu ; — (d) of verbs in -fu^ all 
in-^yyvjui and also iifApt4prvfiiytoclothe{ii4A/^,-ttis,etic,), A few exceptions 
to this Fat are found even in ihe Attic dialect, e. g. i/uiartt X. Cy. 1. 4, 20., ^A^ 
rsrrotf X. An. 7. 7, 55., rf\4<rov<rar Cy. 8. 6, 3., icaX4v€is 2. 3, 22., poftio'CMn 3w 
1, 27. (according to the best MSS.) 4^^i<rc(r^c, Isae. de Cleonym. hered. § 51. 

i 118. Accentuation of the Verb. 

1. Frixaut Law. The accent is drawn back from the end of the word 
towards the beginning, as far as the nature of the final syUable permits, e. gu 
/So^Acuc, /3ovXe<^/Ltat, fioiXtvcav^ vavtrov, r^oy, but fiovKt^tis, fiovK^iP. On 
the ending su, see f 29, R. 6. 

2. This law holds good in compounds, c. g. ^cpc vp^s^tptt 4><vyc fff^ciryf, 
Xerire itjr6\ttite ; also in words in the Subj., when they are not contracted, e. g. 
Koxdax^f KordcxV^f icardto'xwM*''* 4wi<nrtt^ ivltnrps (but ityaficif itroffrii, BtaSS, 
iropaSo), iyafiHufy, etc., on account of the contraction, iiya$du, iyafidufjuyf etc.). 
Still, this rule has the following exceptions: (a) the accent cannot go back 
beyond the syllable of the preceding word, which before the composition, had 
the accent, e. g. hrSBos {iLv6 the preceding word being accented on the ultimate), 
cvfAMpSts, hricrx^s, hrlSts (not &T0809, tf-^/iirpocs , fwurx^s^ IriSct) ; (b) the accent 
cannot go back of the first two words of the compound, as in the examples 
just quoted, and also avyix^oSf irmp4yS€s (not tr^ytKtos, but like tidiof] not 
vdpty^Sf but like ivd§s) ] (c) the accent cannot go back of an existing angment 
(this holds of the Impf., Aor., and Flop, as well as of the Ferf.), e. g. irposuxof 
like clxovj vapiirxoy like Hcxoy, i^riyoy like ^tov, i^rjy like ^y (not rpiMixoy, 
rdptirxoy, Hnyoy, ^V^) j so also vpos^KO* like fiKoy, iar^ipyoy like cTpypr, bat 
Imp. ivtipyt, also dupiKTcUf A^mcto, like Tjctcu, firro. 

Exception* to Uie Primary Law. 

3. Tlic accent is on the ultimate in the following foi^ns: — 

(a) In the Inf. second Aor. Act. as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Nen4. 
Sing. Fart, of the same tense as acute, e. g. \iirt7y (from AiWciy), Aiv^y, -^y] 
and in the second Fers. Sing, Imp. second Aor. Act of the five verbs, ciW, 
4x^4, t6p4f \afi4y and li4 (but in composition, &irciirc, dviSAa^c, &ircA^c, cbiSc). 

(b) Also in the Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex, c. g. AoiSov, 3ov (from 

Hbmaisk 1. In compounds, the Imp. (not Farticipials) of the second Aor 
Act. draws back the accent in all verbs according to the primary law, e. g. 
^/cjSoAc, ^^€A^€, (ic$0S) ckSotc, av6So5, &ir<{8oT€, fitrdHos^ fAtrddort (yet not &« >Sof, 

f 118.] VERBS. — ACCENTUATION. 145 

fdnBos, see Ko. 2), bat ^ic/SaXciy, iKfiaK&¥^ iKXnruy^ tf^cAi^r, etc. Bat in the 
Imp. Sin^. second Aor. Mid. of yerbs in -«, the circamflcx remains on the 
nhimate^ in compounds also, e. g. iKfiaXovt i^ucovf ^KXuroO, iviXa^ov, iuptXov, 
iptvwyKov ; so in verbs in -/a, when the verb is compounded with a monos jUa- 
hie prenosition, e. g. rpn^ov^ ip&ovj A^O ; yet the accent is drawn back, when 
the verb is compoanded with a dissvllabic preposition, e. g. &irdSov, icar^ov, 
km^dou ; bat in the Baal and PL of toe second Aor. Mid., Uie accent is in all 
cases drawn back, e. g. iKfidK^^e, iiro\dfit<rdf, wp6io<rdf, ^i^e<rdc, &p€e^f^ 

(c) The acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -s (Gen. -rof), con- 
■eqoently in all active Participles of verbs in -/u, as well as in those of the first 
and second Perf. Act. and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs, e. g. fitfiov 
XciMc^f (Gen. -6Tos)y vc^j^$ (Gen. -oros), fiovKtv^is (Gen. '4yros)i rvwtls (Gen. 
-4rros), hrds (Gen. -dmos), ri^^ts (Gen. -^rro$), 9iMs (Gen. '6tfTos)t 8<iici^ 
(Gen. '{nn-os), Zuurrds, iic^€is, vpoio^s, Gen. iuurrdrros, inhirros^ wpMrras, 

^ Rev. 2. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep- 
tion, e. g. wmh^aiSf Gen. irai8c^^aia-os. 

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex, e. g. 
flmiAcvdw, rpi0& (« being contracted from '4»), 

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms : — 

(a) In the Inf. of Perf. Mid. or Pass., of first Aor. Act. and second Aor. 
Mid. ; also in all infinitives in -vai, hence in all active infinitives according to 
the formation in -/u, as well as in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and 
of the first and second Perf. Act. of all verbs, c. g. rrri^aij /St/SovAcSo'dai, 
reri/t^a&ai, «c^iA^<ri^, fufAur^Aff^ai] — ^xA^ai, fiovktwrm, rtfiriaai, ^lA^^oi, 
iMrdiMrcu ; — Aiv/trt^oi, iic^4<r^cUi BuMir^ai ; — Iffrdytu, ri^^yoi, StSoyoi, Scuer^MU, 
ar^voi, iKor^yeUf ^cTyou, ix^uycu, SoDyoi, /icraSovKU ; — ^ovAcvj^yai, rpi0^vm] 
— 09$ov\tVK4ifiu, AcAonr/vw. 

(b) In the Participle Perf. Mid. or Pass., e. g. $§$ov\tvfiiyos, -ftdprif 'fi4yow, 
TftrifoifjJyoSf Vf<p'i\rffi4yos. 

(c) As circumflex in the Dual and Pin. of the first and second Aor. SubJ. 
Pass., e. g. /3ovAcv3£/Acy. 

. Rbk. 3. The three corresponding forms of the Inf. first Aor. Act, Imp. 
first Aor. Mid., and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act., when they consist 
of three or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished 
from one another by the accent, in the following manner : ^- 

Inf. I st Aor. A. fiouXtvcatf Imp. 1st Aor. M. jSo^Aciwai, Opt. 1 st Aor. A. fiw\ti<raif 
trotrjeca, irotriffai, iroi4<ra4« 

Bnt when the penult is short bv nature or long only by position, the Inf. 
first Aor. Act. corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Cipt., first Aor. Act., e. g 
fvA^ai ; bnt Imp. first Aor. Mid. ^^Aa|ai. 

146 VERBS. SYLLABIC AUGMENT. [{} 119, 120. 

i 119. Further view of the Augment and Redu* 


1. After the general view of the Augment and Kediiplicatjon 
(i 108, 3), it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

2. As has been already seen, all the historical tenses (the 
Impf., Plup., and Aor.) take the augment, but retain it only in 
the Ind. There are two augments, the syllabic and temporal 

i 120. (a) Syllabic Augment. 

1. The syllabic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem 
begins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing c^ to the 
stem, in the Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication in the 
Plup. In this way, the verb is increased by one syllable, and 
hence this augment is called the syllabic augment, e. g. jSov 
Xcuctf, Impf. i'povXtvov, Aor. i-povXevau, Plup. i'p€-povXevK€tv. 

2. If the stem begins with p> this letter is doubled when the 
augment is prefixed (i 23, 3), e. g. pCirr<a, to throw, Impf. ^ppurrov, 
Aor. ippv^ Perf tplk«l>a. Plup. ippLi^w, 

Bbmauk 1. The three verbs fio^Kofiai, to will; BCpafAat, tobeabU; amt 
u4k\M,tobe about todoyto intend^ among tlie Attic writers take i|, instead of c, 
for the augment ; still, this Is found more among the later than the earlier 
Attic writers, e. g. ifiovKfi^ / and iifiovKfidriP ; iZvydfoiP and ^Hvyd/niVf iSuyi^^r 
and iiZmrfi^p (bat always iSwda^p) ; ffitXXw and ff/uAAoy. The Aorist is 
Tcry seldom lifUkXnaa (comp. X H. 7. 4, 16. 26). 

Rem. 2. Among the Attic writers, the augment c is often omitted in the 
Pluperfect; in compounds, when the preposition ends with a vowel; in aim- 
pies, when a vowel which is not to be elided precedes, e. g. iy^3«/9^irci, X. An. 
5, 2, 15 ; KaToHeBpofkiiKeffay, X H. 5. 3, 1 ; KaraXcXctirro, X Cy. 4. 1, 9; Kcfra 
rcxr«i>Kci, Th. 4, 90 ; aZ ffvy^Kcu ytyirqvrOf X. Cy. 3. 2, 24 (according to the 
best MSS.) ', but in the Impf. and Aorists, the syllabic augment is omitted 

* According to analog, we may suppose that c is prefixed to all verbs in the 
augmented tenses, wheuier the verbs begin with a vowel or consonant If the 
verb begins with a. consonant, c appears as an additional syllable, e. g. t^par* 
toy, but if with a vowel, c is assimilated with that vowel and lengthens it, if it 
is not already long, e. g. Ayu, Impf. ^070^ == ^yov ; i&4XM, Impf. i^fXoy s= ^€- 
\oy ] 6k9W», Impf. iSxeWoy = &Kt\Xoy. If the word begins with a long vowel, 
it absorbs c, e. g. iiXAo'Ku, Impf. i'fikeurKoy = 1jXxurKoy\ S^i(»f Impf. i&i(ay ^ 
ti^iCoy, When the verb begins with e, the augment c is sometimes contracted 
with this into ct, c. g. cTxoi', instead of ^xoy- 

ii 121, 12i.J VERBS. TEMPORAL AUGMENT. 147 

ovly in the lyric parts of tho tragedies, and here not often ; in the dramatic 
portions it is nunely omitted, and only in the speeches of the messengers (H^ta 
kyytKuud) ; also at the beginning and middle of the trimeter, and likewise at thfl 
beginning of a sentence, and eren in these cases but seldom. The Impf. 
XP^^t which, together with ixprif^t^ us^ in prose, is an exception. 

i 121. (b) Temporal Augment. 

The temporal augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 
with a vowel ; it consists in lengthening the first stcm-voweL 
This is called the temporal augment because it increases the 
lime, e. g. 

a becomes ij, e. g. "dy^ Impf. Jjyw Pcrf. iJx« Plnp. ffx«u 















































































Hbmark. Verbs which begin with i|, 7, v, «, ov» and ti^ do not admit tlie 
angment, e. g. ^rriio/Aai, to 6e overcome, Impf. ^jrAfirir', Peif. limifuu, Flap. 
iirrfifnpf\ *iw6uf to prets, Aor. "iruffa; 'vw¥6m^ to lull to sleqp, Aor.^viriw^a; 
m^f\4t9y to benefit J Impf. u^4\9oif] o(frd(m,to toound, Impf. olhaCor'y cfjc«, 
00 yiWIc/, Impf. cficoy, Aor. c1{a; c2Ki(a», to /tfeen, is an exception, which among 
the Attic writers, though seldom, is augmented, e. g. ttkaCor, Ateuroy cfjco^/ioi, 
seldom ^ica^or (e. g. Th. 6, 92. fxaCort in the best MSS.), fKwra, ^Koff/mt. 
Also those Terbs whose stem begins with cv, are usually without an augment, 
e. g. fUxofuu, to supplicate, cvx^/Ai}r, more rarely v^x^f""!^* ^^^ Perf. riiyfuu (not 
cfx/uu) ; ^vpiffitm, to find, in good prose, always omits the augment 

i 122. Remarks on the Augment. 

I. Verbs beginning with ft followed by a vowel, hare d instead of iy, e. g. 
ft£w, (poet.), to perceive, Impf.^oiby; but those beginning with d, av, and oi fol- 
lowed by a Towel, do not admit the augment, e. g. 'aifSrC^fiai, to have an un- 
pteaaant senrntum, Impf. ''&ifii(6f»!iiy\ ahalru, to dry, Impf. olktwov'y olaKlCmf to 
deer, Impf. oldKi{ot^; also AjwA/o-itw, to destroy, though no vowel follows d, has 
MAMO'a, hfiKvKOf as well as hrfikutra, ky^XuKo, But the poetic &f(9« (prose 
fSw), to A'n^, and itorcrtf (Att. fo'trw), to ru«A, take the augment, e.g. 4^«i8oy (prose 
jSor), ^t^a (Att. ^(a) ; ofo/icu, to believe, tf6faiy, etc. docs not belong h?re, sinof 
the o following oc, id not a part of tlie stem. 


8. Some verbs also beginning with ot and followed by a consonant, do noS 
take the augment, c.Q.olKovp4»,to guard the house, Aor. ouro^pi;<ra ; o2r((«, to 
imdl of wine, Impf. <A¥t(ov ; oiv6»yto intoxicate, Perf. Mid. or Pass. ocMMUra* 
and ^ytifUvos ; otffrpdwyto make furious, Aor. oiitrrpvxra. 

3. The twelve following verbs, beginning with c , have c< instead of ly for the 
augment, viz. iA.^, to permit, Impf. ctiwK, Aor. ^tautra.', i^l{»,to accustom (to 
which belongs also cf»i^ to be accustomed, from the Epic £^)', tlaa, poetic 
Aor. (stem 'EA), to place (in prose only, Part» Aor. Mid. ivdfiMifos and §iffdfUP9S9 
establishing, founding) \ iKltrcWfto wind; (A.k«, to draw; Aor. ttKicCa'a (stem 
'EAKT) ; €i\oy, to take, Aor. (stem 'EA) of alpda; cirouai, tofiihw; ipyd- 
iofiaiytowork; tpww^ ^pxl(<»itocreep,togo; I an 6. », to entertain; f x*> ^ 
have (on the Epic cffiai, see ^ 230). 

4. The six following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, 
augment : — 

iyvvfiif to break, Aor. Ik4»9 etc. (^ 187, 1). 

aKlcKOfiai, capior, Perf. iiXuKa and ^KofieOf captns sum (^ 161, 1). 

kpddpVfto please (Ion. and poet.), Impf. Icu^oror, Perf. coSo, Aor. «S3tr 

(♦ 230.) 
oh pita, mingere, iodpovy, iovp^Ko, 
m^itty to push, i^i^ow, etc. (sometimes without the augment, c. g. SiMdovrr*, 

Th. 2, 84; ^|<^;^wr, X H. 4. 3, 12 ; 6^u, PI. Charm. 155, c). 
urionatyto buy, Lnpf. ivpoifiii¥ {wmCfiTiy, Lys. Pui^. Sacril. 108. 4 4; i^ 

yovtrrOf Aeschin. c. Ctes. c. 33; irrvyttro, Andoc. p. 122.), Aor. iwyntrdr 

foiv (see however § 179, 6.), Perf. i^yti/ieu. 

5. The verb iopTd(u, to cddrate a foast, takes the augment in the second 
syllable, Impf. i^praCoy. The same is true of the following forms of the 
Plup. II.: — 

EIKfi, second Perf. Ibixo, lam like, Plup. i^Ktty. 

HKKofuu, to hope, second Perf. IbXira, I hope, Plup. ^i^Xircir. )p 

EPrft, to do, second Perf. Hopya, Plup. idpytiy, } 

6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at th« 
same time, the Spiritus Asper of the stem being then transferred to tlic c of 
the augment : — 

6pdat,to see, Impf k6p»y, Perf. iJ^ptuca, i^poftm. 

kyolyv,to open, Impf. hviYfoy, Aor. kyitp^a (Inf. am|ai), etc. 

aA.((ricojttai, to be taken, Aor. kiXatv (Inf. aXAfw, &), and IpUfr. 

{ 123. Reduplication. 

1. Eedu plication (i 108, 4) is the repeatmg the first conso- 
nant of the stem with c. This implies a completed action, and 
hence is prefixed to the Perf.,^ e. g. Xc-Xvko, to the Fut Perf., 

• Strictly, wc may say that the first letter of all verbs is repeated in tb« 
Perf, whether the verb begins with a vowel or a consonant. When the conso* 

1 123.] 




e. g. ice-jcoo-fiiTcrofuu i(£rom Koa-fuut), and to the Plup., which, as an 
historical tense, takes also the augment e before the reduplica- 
tion, e. g. l'P€-Pov\€VK€iy. This remains in all the modes, as 
well as in the Inf. ajid Baxt 

2. Those verbs only admit (he reduplication, whose stem 
begins with a single consonant or with a mute -and liquid ; but 
verbs beginning with p, yv, yA, jSA,i take only the simple aug- 
ment, except pXdima pipXat^ pXainfyrffilai ^Sc^SAoo-^ij^i/Ka, and 
pXaoTovia jSc^Xacm/Jca and IpKajcrrqKO, c g. 

X^, to hose, 
^vrc^, topUuUj 
X«fc^t to donee, 
ypdpm^ to write, 
laJtm^ to bend down, 
jtp&Wy to jvdge, 
nfim^ to breathe, 
dxdmf to bntiae, 
fhrm^ to throw, 
yrtfplCaf^ to maJcehmm, 
0KBU€€Coa, to be tlothfid, 
yX'b^th to carve, 

Ferf. \l-\vKa 
"" r4-bvK*i^ 21, 2.) 
vf^evKa (4 21, 2.) 
tct'xipwiea (4 21, 2.) 

ri-&Koaca (S 21, 2 J 




















" 1-7x1^ 

3. Besides the verbs just mentioned beginning with p, yv, p\^ 
y\y the reduplication is not used, when the stem begins with a 
double consonant or with two single consonants, which are not 
a mute and liquid, or with three consonants, e. g. 

fi}A^, to enudaU, Perf. i-f^kauea 

Flop. ^OiXi^jrcor 

4<i^, to entertain^ " i-iitmuu 

** t'^tP^KVM 

^dXXm, toeing, '' l-^wXica 

" li^dJuttuf 

imlpmj to mw, '^ f-<nrefpKa 

" i'ffwdpK€Uf 

terliw, to buiUl^ *' f-fcruta 

** 4-KrUc%t9 

vnfo'frw, to fold, " f-vrvxa 


oant is repeated, c is joined with it in order to Tocalize it If the reib beg[inf 
with a Towel, the Towel is doaUed aad the two eoalesce, if the iaitial Towel is 
short, and thna fonn a long towcI ; bat if the initial vowel is long, it absorhi 
the other, e. g. 

Sytt, Ferf. properly Aaxa = ^x« 

Pytipv, " ** i^fpKa =s liytpHa 

Sometimes when the verb begins with «, the donble «, instead of coalescing 
inte -1}, is contracted into -«i, c. g. l^, Ferf. daica, instead of ^a. 

* IVords beginning with these letters are excepted on account of the diA 
colty of rejpeating them. 


Rbmaek 1. The two verbs fiifip^aicct (stem MNA), toremind, and jcrio- 
t. ai, to acquire^ though their stem begins with two consonants, which are not a 
mate and a liquid, still take the reduplication, fi4-funfifuut Kd-ierrifuUf i-iu-fufiitaiw^ 
i-KM-icHi/joir. The regular form Hicnifuuy is Ionic, but it is found also in Aescb. 
Prom. 792, and in Plato with K^-irni/uu; likewise in Th. 2, 62. wposutnifUpm 
(as according to the MSS. it must probablj be road, though elsewhere, Th. 
olways nses jc^icti|/mu). Perfects f >rmed by Metathesis or Syncope, are toein- 
ing exceptions to the rules of reduplication, e. g. S^fiifica, vhrrofuu, etc. (4§ 22; 
and 16, 8.) 

4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat tliis 
liquid, but take a for the augment : — 

Xofifidtfw^ to iake^ Peif. dXif^a Plup. clXi^cn^ 

\4yt,trvMJy0yU}CflUct, ** cm^thax^ ^rvyttXeyfuu " tftwtiAix*"' 
'PEA, to «^, " ^fyfiKm '* •Iffkn^w 

fulpfaaif to obtain^ " cl/uymu (with rough breathing), ii UJated, 

Rem. 2. The regular reduplication is sometimes found in the Attic poetSi 
e. g. AcA^ft/iCi^a, {vXXcA«7ft/yof, also in Xen. hn\€\wy/Uim occurs, Cy. 3. 3, 41 
(Altorf, inrti\€yfi4fn>i)j and iK\tk4x^9t, H. 1. 6, 16. — Ai aX^yo/iaiyCo oonwrte, 
has Perf. Sic^Acy/iai, though the simple A^yw, in the sense of to mty, always 
takes the regular reduplication, AcAcy/iiu, dictus sum (Perf. Act wanting) 

i 124. Attic Reduplication, 

1. Several verbs, beginning with a, c, 6r o» repeat, in the Pcif. 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of 
the stem This is called the Attic Reduplication The Plup. 
then veiy rarely takes an additional augment; e.g. SuupaynMcro^ 
X. An. 7. 8, 14 ; so ^K-rfKotw, but sometimes aKrjKotiy. 

2. The verbs, which in the Attio dialect have this reduplica- 
tion, are the following : — 

(a) Those whose second stem-syllable is short by nature : — 

&A^, -«, to grinds 4^<v, •«, to vomit^ 

(dA-4Ai«ca) iLK'iikt&fJmi 4fi'4ifUKa ifi'^/uafAtu 

[iiX-TikiKtw) &Ai}A^07iijy ifi-fift4ie«i¥ ifffifU^/npf 

hp69ty -«, topbugh^ ixdu (iXa&im)^ todrive^ 

(&p-^f>oica) iip^pQfuu i\-^Keuea ik-^^iKafuu x 

'OMOfi, ifun/fUf to twear, 'OAEO, 6x\»fu, to datrmfj 

hiAr^lUHta Ifi-^fUHTfuu ^A-f^Aciro Perf. II. 5A-wXa (*OiAXI) 

ifitffASKtiy 6fi-»fi6irfiriif oA-ctfA^xcu^ Plup. II. oA-c^Acu^ 


iK4yX», to convince^ hflrrm^ to dig, 

(iK^rfXP) iXr^iKtyftai hp-^pvxa ip^pxryftai and Hfnryfiai 

{i\-^9YX^^) ^A.-i|A^7^y ip'»p6xtiy 6p-t»p^fA7iy and &ff6yfiijr. 

IWther: Ixftf'o'w, toiciW, (^A-4\<xa}, iX-iiKtyfuu (the rough breathing bo 
ing rejected), and in good usage among later writers, clXiyftai ; t(» (*OAA), 
to smdi^ tJhtOa ] ^4p» ('ENSKA), to oany, ip^poxsh ii^yryfuu \ iir^l» ('£Afi), 
to tat, ^S-^xo, ^S-^Scor/uuj iywytolead, Ferf. nsnally ix^i ^"Yh^x* (instead 
of hy^frf^X"^ so as to soften the pronunciation) is later, and is rejected by the 
Attldsts as not Attic, though in I^jsias ; but Perf. Mid. or Pass, always ^ficu. 

(b) Those which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel 
long by nature, and shorten this afler prefixing the reduplication 
(except lp€(J^) : — 

iXei^, to atioint, Aic0^, to heart 

*EA£TBO, fyxo/uUf to come^ iptU»i to prop, 

iK^Kv&a ip'iipniKm ip^ptuTfUU 

i\-7i\6d€Uf dp'tiptiKMty ip^pttayatiP 

iy^ipVf to ooUed, ^y^p^t to wtJoe^ 

iy-frf^ptca ^-rhypfutt (iy^pKa) iy^iytpfiai 

drriTY^piew kyny^pfUfP idyiry^pictiv) iynyipikiiv. 

Bo from ^ip« comes the second Peif. iypi^yopa (on account of euphony 
Itistead of #yH^yo^), I wake, second Plnp. Act. iypny6p9w^ I awoke. 

Remajkk 1. The forms included in parentheses are such as are not foimd 
in good Attic prose. 

lisM. 2. The Terb Jiyto, to lead, forms the second Aor. Act. and Md., and 
fipm, to carry, forms all the Aorists with this reduplication ; here, however, the 
reduplicated rowel takes the temporal augment, and that only in the Ind., and 
the Towel of the stem remains pure : — 

&7», to lead, Aor. II. fjy-ayoy, Inf. AyaycTi^, Aor. II. Mid. ity^fV'^i 
f4p», to carry (stem 'EPK), Aor. IL ijv-ryicoir, Inf. itr^ryKWi Aor. I. Hv-tyiem, 
Inf. iyiyKvu, Aor. Pass, ^y^x^^t ^^^' ^v-«X<^'W' 

t 125. Augment and Reduplication in Compound 

* Words, 

1 First rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take the 
augment and reduplication between the preposition and the 
verb ; the final vowel of prepositions, except irtpC and vp6, is 
elided [i 13, 2, (a)] ; wpo frequently combines with the augment 
by means of Crasis (♦ 10), and becomes irpo(;; he before the 
syllabic augment is changed to cf (}]»'), 3 ) ; and iv and avp 


VfiUbS. — EElAARKS. 

U 12& 

resume their v which had been assimilated ({18, 2), or changed 
(♦ 19, 3), or dropped (20, 2), e. g. 

iaro'fidWm, to throw from^ Im. &ir-//3aAAor Pf. &wo-fi4fi\TiiKa Pip. ivc/k/BX^jrcir 
wtpi'fidxxu, to throw around^ %§pi-ifidSKw xtpi-fitfiKiiKa wtpt-^fitfiKfyuMm 









ifpo-fiiWoifj to throw before, 

4K'fid\Kttj to throw out, 
rvA-AryM, to collect together, 
ovf-plTr», to throw together, 
iy^tyyofuu, to be in, 
ifi-fidWrn, to throw in, 
ov-eK€v4iCvf to pack up, 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with Sv9, take the aug 
ment and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem 
of the simple verb begins with a consonant or with 17 ori»; (b) 
but in the middle, when the stem of the simple verb begins 
with a vowel, except ly or w, e. g. 

5vs^vx^W} to be unjbrtunate, ^vr-r^x^"^ 9c-Svs^X^Ka Mc-Svt-rux^iccii' 
d»S'Cgr4t», to make ttahamed, ^-SviHtrovr 5c-5vsH^«ca ^-5c^vf-«v^icctr 
9vs-apt<rt4v, to be cUtpleaBed, 9us-7ip4erTovj 9vsifp4aniKa 9vsi|f»ffrH}Kcir. 

Kemakk 1. Verbs compoonded with c3 may^ take the augment and rodapli- 
cation at the beginning or in the middle, jet they commonly omit tliem at the 
beginning, and tbtpyer4m nsnally in the middle, e. g. 

tlhrvx4»i to bejbrtunate, Lnpf. iy6-r^x'^''i ^^t commonly cW^x^^i^ 
cv-c0x^^*'^^> toykut wdl, ** cv-«x'<^A'?>^ 

€h'€pyer4», to do good, " %lh7ipy4r9op^ but commonly cfr^cpT^rcoy, Per^ 

nhiilpy4riiKaf bat commonly 9b-tpy4rrttca. 

3. Third Rule. All other compounds take the augment and 
reduplication at the beginning, e. g. 

fiv^\oy4», to relaiL\ 4fiv^o\6ytop ut'/w^KiyriKa 

ohcoiofi4»f to build, ^xMyiMov ^KcdSfiJiKO. 

Thus Taffuimdiofmt {horn, wappn^ia^ and this from iw aad ^n^u), to spmk 
openly, Aor. i-mfP^uurJ^tiv^ Perf. Te^afpfftrtoaiuu, 

Rem. 2. 'O9oiroi/w has the Perf. i^oirmaivhaii, X. An. 5. 3, 1. Lycnig. c 
I<eocr. 4 139, has bnr&rerp6^Kw» 

\ 126. Remarks^ 

1. The six following words compounded with prepositions take the angmcnt 
In both places, viz. at the beginning of the simple verb and before the preposi* 
tSon: — 

4 126.] VERBS. REMARKS. l^,i 

^fKrixPitat^ to datke oiu?s leK Impf. iifxtrux^fitir,^ or ifurux- Aor. ^tiwvrxAp-'n^ 
-^Mtxo/tMy to endure {not iMtxv) J ^* V«X»Mil»' " iivwx^my 

<d^ryiWiw, to he vnceriain^ *^ fifuptyy6oup and ii/uptyi^Sovv 

wMJpd^, to mite up, *' ^I'^pk^ouy Perf. iiittipdwKa " 4iy^p^wffa 

^ptlxK4^t to molett, " V^^X^ ** *w^Au«a " ^t^x^Vff 

wapo»4a»f to riU^ ^ ivap^yow " vcira^n}ira ** iwap^miffa. 

2. The analog of these yerbs is followed by three others, which are not 
compoanded with prepositieas, but are derived from other compound words, 

^twrJm (from Mgura^food), (a) to feed, W^ to he n judge, Impf ibairw and 
Zeirtnr^ Aor. i9^rjica and Si^fnjcra; Perf MtjfniKa ; Impf. Mid. ZijfrAitmp 

Suurorto, to Mrve (trom SuUoyoy, fermutf), Impf. ^Sn^ic^your and Sn^ir^iwir, 
Peif. {c8n|ir^ii9iMi 

iftiptfffiitrrdm (from AM^I2BHTH:2), to dispuU^ Impf fifi^trfiiiTow and ^/a^io'- 

9. Exceptions to the first mle. Several verbs compounded with preposidons, 
take the a^gment before the ^preposition, since they have nearly the same 
signification as the simple verbs, e. g. 

ifu^typolm (iW«), to he uneertaifiy Impf 1ift/piyy6oWf or lyi^rYyiovy (Ko. I) 

hfupUwrupUf to doihe^ Aor. ^jju^Uaa, Perf. iift/^&rftm 

iirivraftat, to knoWj . Impf. ^urrdfiriP 

itpbuuj to dismuMy ** i^low and ^(ovr, or ^^fciif [l^uca 

«idlC«> to M<, *' 4Kd&iCw (old Att also Kad7(ov), Pf Mjri- 

KeA4(ofuUf to at, " ^«ta3cC($fii}yand<ea^cC. (without Aug.) 

mddniiat^ to sit^ ** hcn^iLifif and Ko^fivir 

ira;^c^8», to sfe^, " ^jctft^cvSoy, seldom ica^^vSoy. 

4. Those verbs -are apparently sn exception to the first rale, which are not 
formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but l^y deriva- 
tion from a word already compounded, e. g. 

VnvTiovfuu, to oppose one^a eelfto (from ivtwrtos) Impf. iiyeumo^foiy 

IrriSuK^f, to d^end at law I " iLyrtBucos) *^ ^mS/irovy and iyrtZUcw 

hm0o\4w, to hit upon ( " hrrifioXli) '* ^rri/3<{Aoi;y 

4ft!ropde», to <7ain &y fra^ ( *^ iftKOfdi) " ^fjotipwv 

^nrcMor, to estaUvm \ ** I^KTcdof ) " iifxrdZow. 

5. Kanj verbs, however, which apparently are formed only by derivatwn^ are 
treated, even by the best classical writers, as if they were compounded of a 
simple yerb and a preposition. Thus, irapayoft^op» irafniySfiovy and ira^r^ftovy, 
wapnt^fiiloUf Perf. wamw6fiiiKa, although it is not from wapd and iyofi4m or 
wo/Jmf which two yeros are not in use, but from the compound vapdyoftos ] so 
further, iyx*ip^ (from *ErXEIP02), to toibe in hand^ Impi. ^rcx'^*^* ^''^v* 
fi4t> (from *EnieTM02 ) , to desire^ Impf ivt^vfwvy \ iv^vfi4ofiai, Aor. iif^^fi'^ 
di|F, Perf. ^rrci^fti]{f««u; Kurtiyop^w (from KaH^^o^s), to accuse, Impf. Korny^' 
Mvr, Perf ircinrx^pnffa; xpo^vfiovfiat (from vp^v/ior), to dicnre eani«k/y, 
Impf. Tpo^vfioifiriP and rtpd^yuolitj\v\ so iyKaiud(tiy, wpo^y/irt^tty, iy^Zptituff 
iKKknautCftPt ihroirrc^iy, ^nnyScil^ctr, ifA/payt(tiyj avytpytoff etc. 

' So PI. Phaed. 87, 6, according to most and the best MSS. 
* £nr. Med. 1 128, and Aristoph. Thcsm. 165. 


l&i VC7JSS IN a».— DERIVATION OF TENSES. [H 127, 128 

FoBMATioir oir the Tbksbb of Vebbs IB ^M. 

♦ 127. Division of Verbs in -« according to ike 


Verbs in -a> are divided into two principal classes, accord* 
iiig to the difference of the characteristic (§ 108, 6) : — 

L Pure verfjs, whose characteristic is a vowel ; these arr 
again divided into two classes : — 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, 
except a, e, o, e. g. TrcuSev-co, to educate; Xu-w, to loose ; 

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic is a> ^ or o, e. g. 
Ti/id'to, to honor ; tpiXA-m, to hve ; fua^o^, to let out 
for hire. 

II. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant; 
these are again divided into two classes : — 

A. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine 

mutes, e. g. Xe/Tr-o)* to leave ; ifKbc'to^ to twine ; irefir^w, 

to persuade ; 
B« Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four 

liquids, X, fi, p, p, e. g. arfyiXX-o), to announce ; v€^-a>p 

to divide ; (paiv-ay, to show ; ^ff^eCp-co, to destroy, 

Bbmabx. According to the accentuation of the first Pcrs. Trea. Ihd. Act^ 
all yeibfl are divided into : — 

(a) Baxytones, whose final syllable in the first Pers. Fres. Ind. Act is not 
accented, e. g. x^, «rX^ic-«, etc ; 

(b) Ferispomena, whose final syllable is drcumflexed in the first Fers. ; theM 
MB ooBseqoently contract yerbs, e. g. ti/u», ^iA«, furM. 

i 128. Derivation of Tenses, 

AH tenses are formed from the stem of the ycrb, the infiection-endings men* 
tioned abore (§ 113), being appended to this. The Primary tenses only haTQ 
n distinct tense-characteristic {\ 110); this is always wanting in the Prea. 
tind Impf., the mode-TOwels and personal-endings being sufficient; bnt th« 
Trcs. and Impf. very frequently strengthen or increase the pvre stem, e. g^ 
T^nr-at (pure stem TTH), ofUMpr-dyu (pore stem 'AMAFT) ; the Secondary tenses 
never admit such an increase, but are formed from the pure stem, and withoat 
the tense-characteristic ; yet, in certain cases (§ 140), they admit a change of 




the stem-Towel. Hence, certain tenses, which aie fonned from a common stem, 
may be distingnished from each other and classed hj themseWes. Tenses, 
included in such a class, may be said to be deriyed from one another. The 
principal classes are the three following: — 

L Tenses, which may strengthen the pnrc stem. These are the Pits, and 
Impf. Act, Mid., or Pass., e. g. 

(pm« stem TTII) t^t-o* t^t-ojmu 

l-Tv»-T-or l-nnr-T-^/iijy. 

II. Tenses, which hare a tense-characteristic. These are the Primary 
tenses, e.g. 

(a) Fiist Perf. and first Plop. Act, e. g. (W-^^pofi-im) v^-^poira, i-^t^pA- 

(b) Perf. and Phxp. Hid. or Pass. These do not have the tense-charac« 

teristic; from the Perf. Mid. or Pass, the Put Perf. is farmed by 

leiecting •/!« and annexing -^ofuu, e. g. ri^rvfi-fuu (instead of r^nnr- 

futt)y irt-riftfapf, rhv^iuu, (instead of rrr^mroiuu). The Perf. has 

a diort Towel, bat &e Fat Act and Mid. a long Towel, e. g. ximf 

AIXSko, XiK^iuut XtaWf kbao/uu^ 94wf dihiKa, 9499fitUf SiJ^v, 9t0'ofuu ; 

so the Pat Perf. has a long yowel, e. g. Xtkbarofuu, 8f 8^jmu ; 

(e) First Fat and Aor. Act. and Mid., e. g. r^n^ r^o/im 

(d) First Aor. and first Fat Pass., e. g. i-ri^p-^w rv^-^iaoftau 

IIL Tenses, which are formed from the pore stem without a tense-character* 
istic, may yet, in certain cases, admit a change of the stem-TOwel. These 
are the Secondary tenses, e. g. 

(a) The second Perf. and second Plnp. Act e. g. T/-r1hr*a, l-rt^tw^of ; 

(b) The second Aor. Act and Mid., e. g. f-A&^-or, ^A&^uiyir from Aar> 
Mw (pore stem AAO) ; 

(c) Ths second Aor. and second Fat Pass., e. g. ^-r^^iir, rCir^ffip/Mu. 



X. In pure verbs, both Barytoned and Perispomena, the 
teuse-endings are commonly appended to the imchanged chai* 
acteiistic of the verb, e. g. ^SouXcu-o-aj, )9c)9ovXcvica. Piire verbs 
oonmionly form no Secondary tenses, but only the Primary 
tenses; the Perf. with #c (ko), the Fut. and Aor. with a and 3 
\ (o-cii, on, 3tfy, Sr/cro'fiiu), Pure verbs, however, are subject to the 
following regular change in the stem : — 

2, The short characteristic vowel of the Pres. ?md Impf, is 
lengthened in the other tenses, viz. 

I into 7, e. g. /uqvtm, 1o be angry^ faivt-irw, i'fiiiyUroy etc. 

• * u^ " KatA^m (v commonly long), to Kinder^ KwXb-ottj Nc/cc^Ai/fto*, etc. 


t into iy, e. g. ^^-00 (^<Aw), to love^ ^lA^-o-ep, vc-^(Ai7-ira, etc. 

o ** w, ** fuff^6-w (fU€r^)y to let oat/or hire, /utr^^ntf fi§-ftLar}ia»-tca, etc 

& " tj, *• t<;i2k-t» (Ti/i6), to honoTf ti/i^-ffv, Tr-r</ii|-ica, etc 

Remark 1. & in lengthened into a, when c, 1, or p precedes it [comp. 4 4% 
li (a)], e. g. 

iirtfy to permit^ ^d-<r«, cfotfu, cfojco, cXc^uof, ck(di|y ; lmjl-«y to entertain^ i^ntd 
r« ; ^«pjfc«, to <toa/, ^npk-vtt ; bat fy7M(-«, to^'ve as a pledge, iyfv^ffm ; /io&f, 
to call out, fiofyrofuUf ifi^a (like iy9^). 
The two following imitate those in -c«k», -ii«, -p«(«, viz. 
A\od-M, to sfrifes, to threah, old Att. Fat &Xod-0w ; bat nsnallj iAoi|0i« ; 
Jkicpoll-o/iiAi, to ftflor, I^t. Jbitpod^fl>|«ax, Aot iiKpoSufifair (like idp<^). 

Rbm. 2. The rerbs xP^^f to give an erode; xp^of^^h ^ v^; and rirp^m 
to bore, though p precedes, lengthen & into 19, e. g. XJP^^^^^^^* rpfiev, 

4 130. Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs with 

a short Churactcristic-voweL 

The following pure verbs, contrary to the rule (i 129, 2) re- 
tain the short characteristiovowel, either in forming all the 
tenses, or in particular tenses. Most of these verbs assume a 
o- in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, and first Aor. Pass., and in the 
tenses derived from these, and also in the verbal adjectives ; 
such verbs are designated by : Pass, with <r. 

(a) 4ca, 

Xptu,to sting, Fat. xP^^f -^o'* ^Xp(<r<h T^' Xl^^^* Pass, with e\ (bat xp'*S 
to anoint, Fat. XP^ff», Aor. txp^^ ^^' XP^^^t -^^^^ 'Midi. ixp*^^''V\ Peif 
Mid. or Pass, ieixpi-^'pai, iccxp«Tdai; Aor. Pass, ixp^-a-^rpf, ycrbal adj. 

RbmaIik 1. iirdtiu, to perceive, of the Ionic dialect, belongs here <4 2S0). 
The poctie &tw is fonnd only in the Pres. and Impf. C'alor, ^ 122, 1). 

(b) -«». 

1. *Aptv (also old Att. iurh-w) to complete. Fat. Mcv, Aor. ijfrCcra. Pass. 
with xr, 

kptv (also old Att. ^kptrw), to draw water. Fut 2ip6tft»*, Aor. ijfpOo-a. Pass. 

with <r, 
ttd»(0), to close, e.g. the eyes, Fut. fcAirc^, At)r. ?/iCa«; bnt Perf. u4/»Mcay to is 

dosed, to be silent. 
rrt»{l}^ to spit, Fat. irrtew, Aor. firrCo-a. Pass, with o* (^irT^0'-di}y), Terbal 

adj. rrw-ir-TiJy. 

2. The following dissyllables in -d« lengthen jthc short characteristic-Towel 
m the Fat and Aor. Act. and Mid. and in Fat. Perf. Mid., and ZU» also in tha 
Perf. and Plup Act ; but they resume the short vowel in the Perf. and Flap. 

f \3X).] TfiNS£S Of PUIIE VERBS Wltll SllOllT VOWEL. 167 

Act (estcept S^}, Mid. or Pass., in tho Aor. and Fut. Pass., and in verbal 
adjectires : "^ 

h^tffio wrap up, Fut ^bvm Aor. tfivva Pcrf. MvKa Zi^tixM AorSPass. AAdifr 

K4m,taloo$e, '' xd«r« " IXMra " \4\C'icu K4Kiifuu *" • ** ^XA»i|r. 

Bev. 2. The donbtfnl vowel v is commonly used as long in the Pres. and 
Impf. by the Attic poets: but in prose it must be considered as short; hence to 
be accented pAt^ vrw, hit, etc., and not pSk, rtCc, XDc, etc. 

(c) -iu, 

T€\d», to laugh, Fut ytfJiffopat (seldom ytkitrv) ; Aor. iy^k&ra, Paas. 

with c, 
ixdw (usually iXaii^), to drive^ Fut ixMff^ (Att ^Xw), etc. See § 158, 3. 
^A iC«, to bndte, ^xiffat, etc Pass, with <r (r/i&Xa-(r-fuu, ^dX^-(r-di}f^). 
vXiCw, to ftneoX:, KXArttf etc. Pass, with 0- (WucAa-ir-fuu, ^icA^-0r-diyF). 
t aXiw, to looseny xaXi<''»» etc. Pass, with o* (^x^Xi^'*'''!^'^)* 
)aM^w (usually 8a^^«), domo, Aor. iidp&ira. Pass, with a. 
W€pda0j to transport, to adl, Fut x€ptav\ Aor. iwipiaa] Perf. vnr^pdxa (but 

««p«(«, to pass over, Intrans., Fut xtpirw ; Aor. Mpara). These seven 

verbs have a liquid before the characteristic-vowel eu 
^wda^^to draw, 0vjk(r«, etc. Pass, with v {iffrd-ff-dTitf). 
trx^Vfto loose, to open, trx^*»t etc. 

(d) -^». 

1. AiS^o/iai, to reverence. See ^ 166, 1. 
ktt4opaifto heal, iut4&ofuut iiKtadpriy] Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^Kt-a-pM\ Aor^ Pass. 

kx 4wf to grind, to beat, &X^-a^«, Att, yet seldom ix« ] Aor. ffXt^a ; Perf. Mid. or 

Pass. iJJiKttrfuu (H 117, 2, and 124, 2). 
kpK4wt to suffice, etc Pass, with r. 
ipi4u,to wmUy Fut ip^wtt, etc.*) Perf. Act ipiipMKtL \ Pcrf. Biid. or Pass, ipipte* 

fuu {\ 124, 2). 
(4mj to boil (usually intrans., and C<Vyv/u, usually trans.). Pass, with ir. 
^ /», to scra|». Pass with e»^^r§K 4ts, to accomplish. Pass, with ff {\ 117, 2). 
rf4vfto irembk, -ftrm, etc.; verbal adj. rpt^'r6s.^-^x^^9 ^ pour. Sec i 154, 

Rem. 1. 
S. The following have in some tenses the long, in others the short vowel: — 
SI r /• (in Attic proso /iratWiv), to praise, Fut aty4vtt ; Aor. ^v«0tt; Perf. frwa] 

Aor. Pass. jv4^v ; Fut Pass, oly^dlfvoiuu ; verb. adj. tdvrr6sy 't4os ; but 

Perf. Mid. or Pass, frripeei, 
stp4a$, to dwote, Aor. Pass. iip4d7fv ; also ^piil^v ; sipfiertHf fpntn* i^pifcoi. 
yap4m, to many, Fut 701 c£; Aor. fy^pa] Perf Try^iiica; Aor. Pass, iyupidiip 

(/ inis taJbsn to teife). 
Ilci, to &tnd!, S^O'w, f8i]^a, ^tfiil^ir; but Mcira, 9^e/iai, 48^r; Fut Pert 

ScX^d'd/uu is commonly used for 9§d4ifropat (tho latter is used by Dcm. ana 

later writers). 


ta\i»y to call, Pat. JcoA/irw, Att. ica\» (^ 117, S); Aor. ^xi\f<m; Feif. Act 

itiKXiiKa ; Ferf. Mid. or Pass. K4K\iifuu, lam called; Fat Ferf. jcck^^/ukIi 

I Mkall be called; Aor. Fass. ^xA^i^; Fut. Foss. jcAi^d^o/iiu ; Fat Mid. 

ffoXov/iOi j Aor. Mid. ^xaA((r(l(fii}i^. 
rod 4»i to desire^ iro^iffoiuui^ Lys. 8, 18, Fl. Fhacd. 97, a. j iirS^t&a, Isoc. 4, 122. 19, 

17; elsewhere, xo^ffwy iir6!hi(rm'f Ferf. Act irnr6^Ka\ xnr6^fim] Aor« 

Fass. ifriA4vbTiiy» 
rop4», laboTO, Fat woy^aw, etc. {to teork) ; mv^aw {to be in pain}] Ferfl wr^ 

nfjca in both senses ; Mid. and Fass. always hare ij, e. g. itrorncdtuit^ and 

iwoy^fiv, Ferf. werF6yiifMm 

J«) -o«. 

Ap^w, fo plough^ Fat ^<f^», Aor ^poira; Ferf. Mid. or Fass. ^po/uu (i 12^ 
2) ; Aor. Fass. ^pSdrir, 

i 131. Formation of the Aor, and Fut, Pass., and 
the Ferf,, Fluper/, Mid, or Pass, with <r. 

1. Pure verbs, which retain the short characteristic-vowel in 
forming the tenses, in the Aor. and Fut F^s. and in the Perf. 
and Plup. Mid. or Pass, (also in tlie verb, adj.), unite the tense- 
endings Sriv, fiai, etc. to the tense-forms by inserting cr (i 130), 

2. Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have 
a long characteristic- vowel in the stem, or lengthen the short 
characteristic-vowel of the stem in forming the tenses, have the 
same formation, viz. 

kxo^Wf to bear, Aor. Fass. i^KO^-d^y, Fat Fass. iutovc-^^ofuut Feif. IVlid. 
or Fass. f|icou-0>-;uu, Flap. ^Ko^'/aiy] iva^», to kindle; jccXc^m, to command; 
the Deponent SictrapajceAc^o/uu, to arouse; Kvaiw, ki^«, to maraidi {ic4§ami-^-fia$f 
Kinvrf^iuu^ immiir'^Wy im^'^) \ KvXtoo, to roU; htim^ to stone {ikti-w^d^t 
Per£ seems to be wanting) ; |^«», to scrape; train, to strike; wnXaiw, to tarestU 
(^aAa(<«'-di7y) ; it\4m, to sail; irpitt, to saw; irratrnf to strike against, to stum-^ 
■Je; ^aim (poetic), to destroy; ircfw, to shake; 0«, to rain, Aor. Fass. G-r>i^, 
I was rained upon, Ferf. Fass. V^'/tat {4^v^'^U»os, X. Yen. 9, 5), Fat ffroyuu 
(instead of b-v-b^t-v-oikcu) ; fp4», to send (only in compounds, e. g. c*^., 
iftip,, to lead in), Fat pffhav, etc., Mid. ^frfyrofuu, Aor. Fass. 4^p4tir-^v ; x^^f ^ 
/latip up {k4xo9^'/uui ix^'^'t^) i XP^^*^^ 9^^ <"> oracle {K4xpn-ir'fuu, ixpk'^ 
^, 4 129, Hem. 2) ; XP^^^ '^ awnnt [§ 130, (a)] ; ipav«, to touc/i (I4«v-o--/mu, 
Hippocr.). ' 


3. The following vary between the regular formation and 
that with or : — 

7c ^ «, to cause to tasU^ Hid. to UuU^ to enjcyy Pcrf. Mid. or Pass, yiywfuu (Eurip.); 

bat Aor. Pass, probably iyeu-^-drir, Comp. ytvfuL^ but ytv-e^4oy, 
8ptf«, to do^ Pnt Spdtf'ci, etc ; Perf. i49p&Ka', Pcrf. Mid. or Pass. SApdfuu and 

Mpa-ir-ficu (Th.) ; Aor. Pass, ^pdv^rpt (Th.). Verbal adjective Spo-^T^f, 


bpti4mj to break in pieces, Perf. Mid. or Pass, r^^pav^-ftm (Plat. r4^pav/uu) ; 
Aor. Pass. £^^0^-^-1^. Verbal a<yoctiye dpov-o'-r^t . 

«Aa/w, Att. KXiatf to weep, Perf Mid. or Pass. KixXmritai and KixXmHr-fuu. 

mXe(mt to t^ Fcrf. Mid. or Pass. KittX^ifuu commonly, ic^/cXci-0'-/uu Aristopb.; 
c^K\^/iai Tragedians, THn., sometimes PI., rarely Xen. ; Aor. Pass. ^icAc^ 
tf*-!^, Attie iKkif-v-Anw (Th.) ; Fnt. Pass. irAcHr-i^irofiai. Verbal adjective 

«oXo^«, to maim, Perf. Mid. or Pass. kchc^Aov/mu and Jceic^Aou-0'-/iai ; Aor. 

Pass. iKoko^-drir and ^itoAo^^ijr. 
Kpo^atf to stri2» ti/xm, Perf. Mid. or Pass. ic/ir/>ov/Mu and (seldom) KiKpov^-ftai 

(X H. 7. 4, 26) ; Aor. Pass, ixpo^-^ipf, 
r e w, to Aesp iip, Put y^orw, etc ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. y4p7if»m {ifhnf^-tuu donbt- 

I11I) ; bat Aor. Pass, ivk-c^^ CArrian). Verbal adjective vrfrh, 
rcw (ooUatend form Hjdw), to i^, Perf. Mid. or Pass, virn-tr-iuu] but Aor. 

Fftss. Milbrfif, Verbal adjective mp-^s. 
^ii», to ni6, Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^J^^uui and Hrpit-ir'/uu ; Aor. Pass, ii^^i^if and 

^f^->^y (instead of which the Attic writen ose f^ny!"^* ^^X^ ^^^ 


4. The following verbs assume a in the Aor. Pass., but not 
in the Perf.: — 

fu/u^^jw (MNA-O), to remind^ Pf. fUfjtyrifuuy Iremember, A. P. itiy^-<r-d7i¥ 
w p4 mj to How, irinnffuu (poet.) iwriv^-^p 

Xpdo/utt {xp&/uu), ator, K4xpflHM ixp^-dfiw 

•rafo, to cause to cease, to finish, irhnmfuu #v«i^-difp 

and iva6^t iraudrfiffofui. Ion. and Th. Verbal adjective irtat-ir-rAot, 

5. The following verbs, though they retain the short charac- 
teristic-vowel in the Perf. and Aor. Pass., do not assume o- : — 

Nw, d^, K{m [S 130 (b), 2], ijJm [4 130 (c)], a2y^«, fdplfs, Z4» [§ 130 (d), 2\ 
k^im [§ 130 (c)], x^ [h IH Bern- 1]) «'<^«i ^ arc^« (i 230) 



Pabadiomb of Pubs Ybbbs. 

A. Uncontracted Pure Verbs. 

{ 132, (a) without a in the Mid, and Pass. 

cwX«», to hinder. ACTIVE. | 


Ktf\t-w 1 Peif. 


Fat. icwA6-ow 


i-K^M-^a 1 



KmXt-^fuu Perf. 








KmKv d^o/imu 1 

{ 133. (b) with €r tn the Mid, and Pass, (i 131). 

Perf. 8.1. 




Mid. 2. 



or 3. 




Pass. 1. 
Ind. D. 2. 







P. I. 


Jcc-jccXciMT-^yos A 







ice-ircXcv-^3<Mrar or irf-irffXc^dwr] | 

Plupf. c , 
Mid or ^* *• 


D. l-K9-K€\tt-^'iiiAo» P. ^-icf-ircXc^-fMda 

Pass. t- 
Ind. ^• 


" i-K^-xiKwchw " i-it9^4Xw-^bt 


*^ ^'ice-jccXc^di}v " ieff-icffXffv<«^.tt^roi 4ff«r 




Aorist Pass. IhccAc^-i^ 

Futore Pass. iccXcv-0'-dVfly«o<. 

B. Contract Pare Verbs. 

♦ 134. Preliminary Remarks, 

1. The characteristic of contract pore yerbs is either a, c, or o (4 127) ; these 
arc contracted with the mode-vowel following. The contraction, which is mado 
according to the rules stated aboYO (\ 9, 1.), belongs only to the Pres. and 
Impf. Act and Mid., because in these two tenses only is the characteristio- 
rowel followed by another rowel. The Paragogic r in the third Pers. Sing 
Impf. Act disappears in the contraction. On the tense-formation, see §4 


2. The contract forms of verbs in -d» in the Indicative and Subjancvive ore 
the same ; contracts in -^ have the same form for the second and third Pcrs. 
Sing, in the Indie. Opt. and Snbj. viz. -o7r, -ct, 

3. The contracted Infinitive of verbs in -du^ which, in onr editions of the 
classics, is more commonly written with an Iota Subscript, is without that letter 
in the ancient inscriptions, being contracted finom -atr, e. g. n/iSr, not ri^r. 

4. If only one syllable follows the parenthesis in the paradigm, the termina- 
tion of the nncontracted form is the last syllable in the parenthesis, and the 
■yllable after the parenthesis is the termination of the contracted form, e. g. 
TVA(di-«)d =» riftdoff rifiS^ Tt^(i(-€tr)ay &» rifulciy, rtfuaf\ bat if more than one 
syllable follows the parenthesis, the syllable, or syllables, after the last hyphen 
is the common ending of the contract and nncontracted forms, the uncontraded 
word embracing all the letters of the form except the vowel after tho 

; the contract, all withont the parenthesip 


[» laa 





Characteristic t. 





P. I. 


TM.(i*)*, to honor, 


wa(*-)i. b> fct, 




, 3. 


P. 1! 




P. a. 



3SI' li 


fA 4'n]v-r» 
fA /--)«,( »J 



^ •-i)t(-™ 
fA /-.).W«. 


uiffa i-«)os-T» 
ii«>a wio^w 





»"'» ^'"I'S' 




7..p.r/„l. 1 

P. L 

^4»A{^i)t7-T«r l^i i-,)tii-TBt 
i1,Al4-o)oi-^v 'l^i i^)o5-^t. 


Contract Verbs. 





a ■ • 



Characteristic a. 

Characteristic c. 

Characteristic •. 



S. 1. 







S. 1. 



















^(A.( c-of ) of i|Tor 


fiur^ o-o/)o(-i9r 
fiM"^ o-oOof-19 

fu(ri^( ^()o7-fy 














Aorist, 1 #ri/i4di|r 4^pi^y i iiptk^P \ ifiur^^^w , 

Verbal adjectives : rifnrr^os, -ria, -rioy^ ^pd-rtoSt -r^ -rUy^ 

i 136. With short Vowel 









Cliaracteristic a. 

tnr{d-^)w, to draw^ 




Characteristic c. 

rfX(/-»)w, to com' 
ir4K[ ^•oy)oiuy\pltie^ 


Characteristic o. 









1 <T«X<-tf'-;^7ji' 1 ^/nteiyr | 

Verbal adjectives : ffTa'V'r4Qi, 'T4ay -t^k 

t I36.I 

TAKAViaUi i 

Imperfect. | 

Cbancteristic <l 

Chsnutcriatic a. 

^ ■ 






/rv'l^n'- /^fKUrW 




^D-T&i, -rfa, ^iw, /ufffttMfe, -t/h, thr. 

n farming the Temet. 


Characteristic (. 

CharacleriBtic ■. 

81VE. 1 

TtKt-a-^iat, -/m -/m-i ipo^in, -U, -itr. 


Brhark. On the formation of the Perf. and Aor. Pass, with <r, see §4 I90 
131 ; on the omission of the 9 in hf^i^nax^ iipidvy, see 4 131, 5 ; and on tlie Atdb 
Rednplication in ap-^pofuu, see 4 124, 2. The furtlicr inflection of (tnra-ff-fJuaL, 
iffrd-c-'fiipft TST4?<§'tr-fuUf irer^ki-ir-yaip^ is like that of KtictX^vv-fuu^ ( 133. On 
the Attic Put, rt\4<rm = rt X«, -««i, etc., rtKiirofUu = rtKovfiai^ttXf [tt]^ 
etc., see § 117. 

♦ 137. Remarks on the Conjugation of Contract 


1. The Attic dialect omits contraction only in the cases mentioned 
4 9. Bern. 3 ; but verbs in -^« with a monosyllabic stem, e. g. irx/», to saS, 
to bhwj ^Wy to fvn, etc. are uniformly uncontracted, except in the syllable ^-m 
(from -ffci or -cc), e. g. 

Act. Pr. Ind. •k\4u, irXccf, irXc?, trX^o/Acv, irXcirc, irX^overi(y), 

Subj. irX/»« irX/27'» »X^|7, irX/»^cif, vX/ifrc, w\4t§ffi{r). 

Imp. vXct. Inf. irXciM. Part. vX/wy. 
Impf. Ind. HirKtoy, tvXtis, lirXci, 4ir\4oii9y, hrKtht, lirXcor. 

Opt. irX^oi^i, irXcois, etc. 
Mid. Pr. Ind. irK4ofiai, trx/j'* *'^<«Ta<> w\*6fi€^oy, vXcSoi^or, etc 

Inf. irXcta;^au Part trXc^/Acvor. Impf. ^vXc^/tifr. 

2. The verb B4»tto bind, is commonly contracted in all the forms, particu- 
larly in compounds, e. g. t^ iow, rov iovvToSt BtaXiov/ieu, JccrrcSovr. But ZtT^ it 
is necesacary, and <^o/Aai, to need, follow the analogy of verbs in -Af, with a 
monosyllabic stem, e. g. t^ 94ov, h4ofuui h%t&^tu \ uncontracted forms of S^o^mu 
occur, instead of those coatracted into -c 1, e. g. 8/crai, Z4wbtu, 494tTOt Xen^ 
and sometimes also forms of other verbs belonging here are unccmtracted, e. g. 
frXcof, X. H. 6. 2, 27 ; irX^ci, Th. 4, 28 ; irw4xf€y, PI. Bp. 379, e. 

3. Several verbs deviate in contraction from the general rules, e. g. 

(a) -atf -aci, •a;?, arc contracted into -ri and -p, instead of into -a and -f, e. g. 
f (4-«^ «, (0 live, C§s, -ip, •Cn'f^oy, -ftr*, Inf. (^y, Imp. fi, Impf. iCwtf -u»t 

(<{-»)£, to MtVst, 8(i^f, etc. Inf. Zp^¥\ — icr(i-)«, to scratch. Inf. jtnpr; 
— <r/4 (<C- 0) », to jmear. Inf. <r/i^i'; — ^ (^-«*) A| to rub. Inf. ^^; — x^ (^-o) 
w-/i,ai, to use, xp?* XP^^* XP^^^\ ^^ ^voxpfl^MO't to have enau^^ 
kiroxp^(f^^'i — ^v^XP? (abridged from avoxp^)i t^ suffices. Inf. Airox^jir, 
Impf iirixpn 1 — X P (<^ " ») »> to <;it?g an orade, to prophesy, XfV^y XPV9 XP?**- 
b) -00 and -oc are contracted, as in the Ionic, into -«, instead of into -ov, and 
-iff into '^, instead of into -o?, e. g. piy(6-w)&, to freeze^ Inf. ^ryw* 
(Aristoph., but Pvyovv^ X. Cy. 5. 1, U), Part G. ^lySavTos (Aiistoph., but 
piyovyruv, X. II. 4. 5, 4), and piywra (Simon, de mulier. 26), Subj. pgy^ 
(PI. Gorg. 517, d.), Opt. piy4n (Hippocr.). 

Bemaek 1. The Ionic verb 19 p 6 a, to sweat, corresponds in respect to con- 
traction with ptySco, to freeze, though with an opposite meaning: jSpmri, 
Vbptf^v, IBp&ffa, iSpwyT€s. 


4. The following things are to be noted on the nse of the Attic forms of tha 
Opt in -i|r (( 11«, 8), viz. in the Sing., especially in the first and second person, 
of TObs in -«i and -rfo*, the form in -oftji' is far more in use than the common 
fonn, and in verbs in -^ it is used almost exclusiTcly ; but in the Doal and 
PL the common form is more in nse. The third Pers. PL has always the 
shorter form, except that Aeschin., 2, 4 108, Bckk., uses 8oirolij<ray. 

5. The rerb Ko6w,to toosA, though properly not a contract, admits contrac- 
tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act and of the Pres. and Impf. Mid., which 
hare •« or -o in the ending, e. g. f\ov instead of Hkow, iXoufuw instead of lAo^ 
o/icr. Mid. Kovfioi {x6§t, Aiistoph. Nub. 835. according to MSS.), Aovrcu, etc., 
Imp. A«v, Inf. Aovtrdw, Impf. i\o6/A7p^, ikov, iXovro^ etc., as if from the stem 
AOEA ; still, nncontracted forms are found, c. g. Kadofuu, i\o{ovrQ (Xen.). 

Rem. 2. On the change of the accent in contraction, 8e« \ 30, 2. 


k 138. General Remarks, 
Pure and Impure Stem. — Theme. 

1. Impure verbs (J 127, II) undergo a variety of changes in 
the stem. In the first place, the stem of the verb is strength- 
ened : — 

(a) Either by an additional consonant, e. g. r^v-T-«, stem TITI ; k/mCC^, stem 
KPAF; ^pd(u, stem 4PAA ; and even by inserting an entire syllable, e. g. 
iifMofT-dpHfff stem 'AMAPT; 

(b) Or by lengthening the stem-vowel, e. g. ^^», stem ^TF; x^«, stem 
AAe; t4ic-«, stem TAK ; 

(c) Or secondly there is a change of the stem-vowel in some of the tenses ; 
this change may be called a Vanation (4 l^i G)i o. g. icX^rr-«», i-ickitw^y, 
mi-icXo^ \ comp. Eng. rin^, rangy rung. 

2. The original and simple stem is to be distinguished from 
the strengthened stem ; the first is called the pure stem, the 
last, the impure. The Pres. and Impf. commonly contain the 
impure stem ; the Secondary tenses, when such are formed, and 
specially the second Aor., contain the pure stem ; the remaining 
tenses may contain either the pure or the impure stem, e. g. 

Pres. riw-r-cfi, to strike, Aor. II. Pass, i-rtw-iiy Fut. Act. rAfw (t^-itw) 
" \ttww, to have, « Act l-Xir-oy " " Xcfi^w (Xt(«^«») 

" tr^tt^tokitt, " Pass, ^-(r^iy-i^ir " " ff^v (<ri>irrirm) 

** ^aiy-^, to shoWf " ** i'^itf'tiy ** Mid. ^aK-ou/ioi 

<* ^i^-m^ to desttvy, " " i-tf^^ip^r " Act^J^c/»-w. 



3. When a form of a verb cannot be derived from tke Pre& 
tense in use, another Present is assumed ; this assumed Pre& 
may be termed the Theme (^c/xa), and is printed in capitals^ 
to distinguish it from the Pres. in actual use ; thus, e. g. ^€vf6 
is the Pres. in use, OYTO is the assumed Pres., or the TAemc, 
desigi^ed merely to form the secon^ Aor., c-<;^vy-ov. 

} 139. Strengthening of the Stem^ 

1. The stem is strengthened, ^st» by adding another conso- 
nant to the simple characteristic consonant of the stem, e. g. 

r^wrtt (ruv), to strike^ Aor. IL Pass. i'Tt'w-^v 

rdrrv {rcty), to arrangef ** •* i-rdy-i^p 

Kp^tt {Kpay)t to cry^ " Act. f-Kpay-ov. 

2. Yet the strengthened stem is found only in the Pres. and 
Impf ; in the other tenses the simple stem appears, e. g. 

Pres. T^rr» Impf. Hrvrroy Aor. IL Pass, iriwrip Fnt. n^ (r^ro*). 

Remark 1. The characteristic of the para stem, e. g. t in TTII-fl is called 
the pure characteristic ; that of the impnre stem, e. g. wr in r^mr-^t tiie imporo 

3. The stem of many verbs is strengthened also by length- 
ening the short stem-vowel in the IVes. and Impf ; this short 
vowel reappears in the second Aor., and in hquid verbs, in the 
Put. Thus, 

a is changed into 17 In mnte verbs, e. g. (tf-XAI^-or) Xii3« 

6 *' cu in liquid verbs, " (^&y-A) ^cdtm 
« ** €< in liquid verbs, ** (^;^cp-«> ^Ipm 
I ^ CI in mnte verbs, ** (f'\tir-op) AcAr» 

7 " 7 in mnte and liquid verbs, ^ (i-rptfi'iir) rpifiaf 
'^ V in mute and liquid verbs, " {i'^ptyn^) ^fh^ 
" cv in mnte verbs, " {H-^byor) p*h^ 

Rem. 2. This strengthening of the stem distinguishes the Impf. Ind. and 
Opt from the same modes of the second Aor. ; likewise the Pres. Snbj. and 
Impf. from the same modes of the second Aor^ e. g. Upa(oy Uptegw, npifim 
Kp^oifu, Kpd(t0 KpdyWf KpdC* Kpdyfj — IXciiroy IXlirojr, Xcdrocfu KhmfU, Af/w 
XArw, Aciire Afire. 


♦ 140. Change or Variation of the Stem^vowei 

1. The change ot variation of Uie stem^vowel [i 138, 1 (c)], 
occurs only in the Secondary tenses, with the exception of a 
few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute and all liquid veibs, with a monosyllahio stem, 
and with c as a stem-vowel, take the variable a in the second 
Aor., e. g. 

rpir^f to tumt Aor. U. Act t-rpdnc-w 

K\hr^-Ui to aeal, ■* Pass. ^-irXAr-i|r 

rp4^-^, to nourisL ** ** i»rpiL^'iiy 

rrftf^, iotem, ** *^ i-^rpt^'^ 

fif4x-^.towet, ** " ^i5f4x-V 

l4p^,toJlay, • '* *' i'i&p'iip 

9r4\X-^f to tend^ ** '* i'lrriiK'iiy 

tfvc^yfoaotf, ** " i'ffwip'iip 

^dtlf-m^todatng^ ** '' ^^»4^-# 

rii»-m^ to eiOj ** Act. f-Ta/i-or. 

The second Aor. frititiw (from rifum^ to cut), is very rare in Attic prose (Th. 1. 
81. ri^mfMf) \ regnlar tfrc/ioy ; the second Aor. ifipixv^ (from 0p4x^9 to toet), is 
poetic and l«te ; common form i0p4x^y» The first Ao: Pass. irp4fl^ (from 
Tf^vw), &p4^difif (fir. rp4^)i ktrpi^biiif (ft. crpl^\ belong more to poetiy than 
prose ; htkti^S^ (fr. ukiwrm) Ionic and Ear. Or. 1570 (nAc^f (i ). Jjkipm^ 9^ipmt 
and ^^lpt09 hare no first Aor. Pass. The vatiaUe a does net occur in polysyl- 
lables, e. g. f77€Xpr, ^Tflkfiif, ^cAor, IfytpSfinr. 

Rbmabk 1. As this variabie Towel distingnishes the Impf. from the second 
Aor. Act., e. g. Hrperop (Impf.), trpancov (Aor. II.), in some verbs of this class 
(2, above), whose second Aor. Act. is not in use, the variablo vowel does not occur 
in the second Aor. Pass., because that tense cannot be mistaken for the Impf., 
tee i 141, Bem., e. g. i3x 4ir», to sm, Impf. f*^Aff«^«r, second Aor. Pass, i'fikh* 
ipf (first Aor. Pass, is wanting) ; X/yw, to coBiKi (in compounds), second Aor. 
Pass. Mrrc-X^y^iiif, 9vp4\vfif¥ (more seldom Aor. I. rvMX^x^qr, i^%Kix^\ with 
the meaning to say, always ixix^v)\ so also x/r-», to ptal^ ^Xtfv-i|y (first 
Aor. Pass, wanting); vX^jr-cr, lo &rauf, usually I^XdUr-qyt but also tf-vX^-fF 
riat (first Aor. Pass. Hxi-j^v^ Aesch. Enm. 259) ; ^x /7-O0, to bum, i-^kfy^v 
(mote seldom ifkdxdtip) ; ^/yw, to oouure, f^^y^iyy, first Aor. Pass, wanting. 

Bsx. S. The verb vX^rrw, to strike^ when uncompoimded, retains the if 
In the second Aor. and second Put Pass., but when compounded, it takes the 
variable A; thus, i'trh^ry^y, vXtry^ofuu, i^c-irXAy-ijv, iraT€-irX4y-ijK, iK-^Xay^- 
vofuu', fHff^t to make rotteit, and t^icw, to melt (trans.), also have the variable a; 
hence Pcrf. viaitita^ I am roUen^ second Aor. Pass. icdiwy\yy second Put. Pass. 
wivlivofuu \ Fut. r^{«, Aor. Ptn^a ] second Perf. r^ijxa, lam mdted; second Aor, 
Pass. irijaiv\ also first Aor. Pass, krhx^m^* ^^- Tim. 61. b., Eur. Supp. 1033. 


3. Liquid verbs with a monosyllabic stem and with c for a 
stem-vowel, take the variable a, not only in the second Aor., but 
also in the first Perf. Act, in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and the 
first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

ar4?i\iUf to send, Fut. 0rcX-d Pf. l-oroA-ica I'-oYaX-^uu Aor. i-ardx-bii^ 
^%ipf»y to destroy, ^euLtp^p^t Pfl ^^l^ica i^ap-fuu. 

Tho first Aor. Pass. iorJi)i^ is poetic ; the first Aor. Pass, of 9^, enrtip^, 
4t&€ip» is not in nse ; but instead of it the second Aor. Pass., thns, ^8^^, 
iaicipyriv, i^^dpnv. The variable a does not occur in polysyllables, e. g. 
ffyycXxa, iiyy^^^f from ayy4?i\»f hyhy^piiai, ^ipdnv from ky^lptt. Comp. 
No. 1. 

4. Mute verbs, which have c in the final stem-syllable of the 
Pres., take the vanable o in the second Perf. ; bnt those which 
have cc, take oc; liquid-verbs, which ha\e c or ci in this syllable, 
take o, e. g. 

ZipKoyju (poet.), to se^, Mopxa i^p^t ^fi^y^ BtBopa 
rpi^tfff to nourish, rirpo^ ^^p^t to wake, iypfyyopa, I awoke, 

Xc(r», to leave, X^Xoitra weiptt, to sow, tffiropa 

vcd^w, to persuade, ithtoilba, I trust, ^c(p«, to destroy, tl^opa poetic, (^(^dt^Nra, 

Bbm. 3. Here are classed the following anomalous second Perfs.; &m 
(Epic), cfflpdtt instead of c£^, to be wont, cjevj^yoi, eimf^Sy Plnp. cic&dfir;— 
'EIAn, rideo, olSa, Iknow;—^*ElKIl, HoiKa, to be like, to appear, Plup. i^Ktty',-- 
IXtrw (poet.), to cause to hope, foAro, / hope. Flap. i^Kir^w^ I hoped; — 'EPm, to 
do, topya, Plup. it&pytw, — p^yvfu, to break, Hffcoyei, Icon broken (but on eirm, 
see Bern. 2). 

5. The following take the variable o in the first Perf. also, 
contrary to the rule in No. 1. 

Kkivrco, to steal, first Perf. jc/icXo^a, but Perf. Mid. or Pass. KticXttifLgt (very 
rare and only poet. K^tcXofifuu). 

K4yti, to collect, first Perf. o-urc/Xoxa, ^{f/Xoxa; but Peif. Mid. or Pass. 

wd/iirtt, to send, first Perf. v4vofA4>a\ but Ped; Mid. or Pass. v4we/»itat. 

rpiww, to turn, first Perf. rdrpoipa (like the second Perf. of rp4<p€$, to nourish)^ 
and rirpojpa ; still, tliis last form is rare ; the more usual form is rirpo^ 
The variable a in the Perf. Act is not found elsewhere, and is probably 
here used only to distinguish it from rirpo^, Perf. of rpi^. 

6. The follo\i'ing mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem, and 
with c for a stem-vowel, like liquid verbs (No. 3), take the 
variable a in the Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; still, the a is not four-Al in 
the first Aor. Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs, e. g. 


&rpi^f to tumj Pf. Mid. or Pass, liffrpafifiai, but first Aor. Pass, iarpd^dn^ 
Tptwm, to twm, " " rirpaikiiai^ " ** irp4^^9 

rpd^^ to nourish^ " " rd^panfiai, *' ** i^p4^pdnr. 

On K\hru, see No. 5. 

i 141. Jtemarks on the Secondary Tenses, 

1. The Secondaij tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting the 
tense-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal-endings {-w, 
-4faf9j -ify, -^ffOfuu, -a, and -ciy) immediately to the pure characteristic of the 
Terb, e. g. i-XXw-ow, second Aor., but ^-ira(8ci/-0--a, first Aor. ; partly, in being 
formed throughout from an unchanged pure verb-stem (except the Pcrf. which 
prefers a long vowel, see No. 2), c. g. Xc(ir», f-\l[v-ov, ^t^yw If-^ey-oK; and 
partly, in taking the variable vowel, c. g. trrpi^ i-trrpA^'riy trrpi^-'iiirofiai, 
bat i-irrp^-dnr (§ 140, 2). 

2. The second Perf. either lengthens the short stem-vowel 7 into I, & into ly, 
and, when it stands after other vowels or p, into d, e. g. 

KpdCoo^ to ay out, second Aor. l-irp&y-oy second Pcrf. Ki-Kparf^ 
^iffffwt to shudder, stem : ♦PIK (I) " W-^K-a 

ddXX^t to bloomy Fut.dA\-d " T/-di|X-a; 

so, vc^ifFo, A^AifJ^ from 4AN-», AAO-« ; or it retains the long vowel or diph- 
thong of the Prcs., e. g. W^cvya from ^^y» (but second Aor. Act. l^i^M), 
r^Ti|«ca, a4g^fra from r^jco*, aiprw (but second Aor. Pass, irijcriyt ivAmiy, see 
^140, Bern. 2) ', a short vowel occurs only in the cases referred to in 4 124, and 
} 140, 4. 

Remakk. Those verbs whose second Aor. Act could not be distinguished 
from the Impf., or at least, only by the quantity of the stem-vowel, have no 
second Aor. Act and Mid., but only the second Aor. Pass., since this last form 
has a different ending from the Impf., and could not be mistaken for it, e. g. 

Tyidftf Impf. typ6/tpov A. I. iypco^ A. IL Act want A. II. P. iyptpv^ (A. I. P. does 

not occur in classical writers). 
jcA/yw " r«Ai>0K « ricAiVa " " A. II. P. ^/cAftnj»' ( A. I. P. ^jcA/- 

driy in Aristoph). 

Aristoph. Nub. 152 [with the variation i^x<^^] ^^^ often in the later writers; 
A. I. i^ypnvt Plat.). 

3. Tlie following points, also, are to be noted : (a) There is no verb which, 
together with the second Aorist, forms the three first Aorists; (b) There is no 
verb which has in use at the same time the second Aor. Act and Mid. and the 
second Aor. Pass. ; but all verbs, which form the second Aor. have either the 
second Aor. Act. and Mid. only, or the second Aor. Pass. only. A single 
exception, in regard to both the particulars specified, is seen in the verb rphrm^ 
to turn, which has three first Aorists together with three second Aorists : frpdvoy 
(Ion.), irpdirSfniy, irp&tniy, trpt^^a (the common form in Attic), irpv^dfiriy 
(transitive, e. g. rp^ao-^cu cif ^vyi^y, to put to flight), irptip^y (used more by the 


poets, 8e« § 140, 2) ; but in compounds, e. g. iirrrpt^t^vm, Antiph. 4. 120, 4 
127, 5). 

There are but few exceptions to the statement under (b), since the secouo 
Aor. Act. and Mid. and the second Aor. Pass., occur bat rarely, and mostly 
in the poet, dialect, e. g. Ikvwow Eur., and Irihrrip \ HMvoy and Mmiy ; Ac/^dipry 
and very seldom i\tir6fi7iy. 

4. It is rare that a verb has both Aor. forms ; where this is the case, the two 
forms are used under certain conditions, namely : — 

(a) The two Aor. forms of the Act and Mid. haye a different meaning, L c. 
the first Aor. has a transitive meaning, the second Aor., an intransitive. The 
same is true of the two forms of the Perf., where they are constructed from the 
same verb. See § 249, 2. 

(h) The two forms of the Aor. belong either to different dialects, or differ* 
ent periods, or to different species of literature, prose or poetry. Still, in some 
verbs, both forms occur even in prose, e. g. iani^xdx^t^t and usually l«i|AA^kyi|r, 
fiAo^d^roi and iBxa^^ysu, both for ex. in Thuc Several verbs in p^try have a 
second Aor. Act, which in prose have commonly a first Aor. only, e. g. mtiim, 
to killj Aor. prose, Ifrrccya, poet iier&yoy and llrrar* 

(c) Tlie two Aorists stand in such a relation to each other, that the ftyrmi 
of one Aorist take the place of the forms of the other not in use, and in this 
way each supplies, respectively, the place of the other, as will be seen nnder 
the verbs rtdri/u and Zidm/u. 

A.FOIIMATXOV or the Teubbs of Mute-Ybrds. 

i 142. Classes of Mute Verbs. 

Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three 
classes, according to their characteristic ; in each of these 
classes, verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf. are distinguished from those with an impure charac- 
teristic (§ 139, Rem. 1) : — 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi^mute (/8, tt, ^ pure 

characteristic; ttt ([§ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 

e. g. 

(a) Pure characteristic: irifiTr-co, to send; rplfi-m, to 

rub ; 7/}a0-a>, to write ; 

(b) Impure characteristic : tvttt-g), to strike (pure char* 
acteristic tt, pure stem TTII) ; pKiwr-w, to injure 
(y8, BAAB) ; phrr-to, to hurl (<^, 'PI^). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute («, 7, \ 


pure characteristic ; aa or Attic tt [§ 24, 1] impure 
<diaTacteriBtic), e. g. 

(a) Pure characteristic: ttXck-co^ to weave; &)f-(a, to 
lead; reux-^* to prepare; 

(b) ^pure characteristic: ^piao-'^i Att ^pirr-eo, to 
shudder (pure characteristic k, pure stem ^PIK) ; 
riia-a''0, AtL rdrr-ta, to arraiiffe (j, TAF) ; P'/jfra-ta, 
Att /8iJTT-fli>, to cough {x, BHX). 

3. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute (t, S, &, 
pure characteristic ; ? [§ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 


(a) Pure characteristic: oi/vr-iv, to complete ; aS-©, to 
ting ; iTB^'Cd, to persuade ; 

(b) Impure characteristic: <f}pd^'af, to say (pure charac- 
teristic hy pure stem ^VAA). 

k 143. Hemmrks on the Charactetistic. 

1 Hie following mute vtrbs in nrrw and -r^w (-ttw] ^onii t!ie Secondary 
lenses, es{>ecially the second Aor. r.iss., and have for their chaHicteristic : — 
«•: irA/«T-«, to steal; KStrr-Wf to cut; r^irr-w, to strike (second Aor. Passive 

i-KXiw'iiWf etc.). 
IB: fiKirr-^2 to lujttre, and i^^^vr-fla, to concetU ^second Aor. Pass. i-fiKAfi-rir 

^iPdwr-Wf to tinge; idwr-Uf to bury; ^purr-tt, to break; fdirr-w, to sew to- 
gether; ptwr-^t to cast; oKArr'Uf to dig (second Aor. Pass, i-p&ip-fiv^ 
i'TiL^"^w^ i-rpt^-iiy, if-piip-V^t ^P'ptp'^v &nd iffip^v^ i-VKiip' 

« : ^ploir»f to shudder (second Pcrf. ir^-^plK-a). 

yi iwdffirn, to change (second Aor. rass. hw&y-riydtf first Aor. Pass. 
JJiXax^'^^i poetic )f ftdfftrv, to knead (/i&7-^va4), opdtrow, to dig {hpHy'rjyai 
«nd ^fwx^fw), irX^cro*, to strike (i-wkiiy^y, i^9'W\iiyfip), wpiiffom, Att. 
wpitTTWf to do {xi'irpay' «), ^^(to (Attic mostly o^rrw), to kiu (^•o- ^dv - 
i}r, rarely, and never in Attic prose, i^^x^^^li fi^wm, to arrange (rdTtir, 
Eur., elsewhere irix^^)^ ppdffffttj to hedge round {ippiiy^ and ippAj^y), 
-S. Two verbs strengthen the pore characteristic x by t, like verbs with the 
Impure characteristic vr: — 

*4icT'm (commonly irc/tr/di, also «€(«•), 1o shear, is comb, Put. ir/|«, ete. , 
fltiU, Kklpety is comraonhr nsed for wdicrtty with the meanihg to shear, and 
KTfylC^tp and ^oTvciy witn the meaning to oomb; 
rUer-m (formed from rt-riK-tt), to beget, Fat. rl^optai^ second Aor. Act 
h-^KW^ second Pcif. rh-oKo, 
3. The following verbs in -tnrti, -rrw have a Tau-mnte, not a Kappa 
nmte, for the pnre characteristic: apuSrru (non- Attic kpfi6(»), to Jit, Fat 
'6em\ — /3xfrT*, to take honey. Put -^o*; — ppdinrw (non-Attic ppdCw), to 
skate; — ipioa<», torow^ Fnt -^w; — itifftrn, to scatter, Fut -dto-w; — vA.^cr- 
rii» tmjorm, Fut -iirw\ — irr (ir«-«» tn ^vjufe, Put 'ivm\ — and Poet, tfidtrerw, to 


wfupf Fat. -daw] Kv^trvw, to sleep, Fat. -tvaw] Xc^atf'w, to lookt Fut. Xc^»; 
KitnrofAai (poetic, especially^ Horn., also Afro^ai), to pray, Aor. ixicdfoirf 
iXirSfifiPj pitnrofiaif rc/o'cro/Aiii, to go. Fat. ye^crofuu; KopCtnrm^ to egvip 
( Epic Perf. Kc- ic ^ p V d^ -/ioi ). 

Here are dassea derivatives in -cHrTctf*. Xtpd^r r tit to hunger ; i^^ip^rrw, 
to dream ; hirv&rrto^ to he sleepy. 

4. The following verbs in -o-trw vary between the two formations : pdvam, 
to press together, Fat. rd^», etc : Ferf Mid. or Pass. wivnrpM ; verbiil Adj. vnrrSs \ 
— ik^Affcw (Poet), to draw, Fat. -^u, Aor. li^GerOf ii^Hadliifv, 

5. Of verbs in - ^», whose pare characteristic is a Tan-mate, commonly 8, 
there are only a few primitives, e. g. I^o^ai, Poet., Kt^Cofuu^ prose, / «ra< 
myself, X(cot commonly KcAiC^, to seat; ffx^i^t '^ separate; x^C^* ftl^m 
dejicere ; yet there are very many derivfttives, namely, all in -dCm and most in 
'^C^9 e. g. i&l(uf tucdCcOf etc 

6. Verbs in - («, whose pore characteristic is a Eappa-mnte, commonly y, 
are mostly Onomatopoetics, i. e. words whose sonnd corresponds to the sense; 
the greater part of these denote a caU, or sound, e. g. aldC^^t to groan, Fat 
aldfyf] ikXaXd(9f, to shout {aM^atr^tu, to speak, Aor, yrantitig in Her.); ypH'^t 
to grunt; jr ot(«, to squeak, to grunt (like a swine), Fat jcolj^w; jcoa^M, to 
scream, Aor. txpdiyw, Kp£{co, to caw, to croak; fiatrrtCu, to wup; iziim, to 
scratch; otu£(v, to lament, Yat.olfi^ofuu\ 6\o\6(u,toayout,to shout; fve^- 
rd(m, to arag about; ordQw and orra\dC», to trickle; trreydC^t to noA, 
ffTiipi(», to make firm; crr^^w, to mark, to prick; trvpi^m^ to wlasde (Fat 
avpi^oftau, etc.; ovolau, etc, later, and not Attic] ; <r4pd(to (Attic mostly v^dr' 
7<»),tokul; ffipviv, to throb; r pi (u, to chirp (rirptyat, Jon. end poeU); ^k^(m, 
to bubble, and the Poet 0d(v,to prate. Fat /3d(», third Pers. Perf. Mid. or 
Ptiss. jS^/Scueroi; fipf(»9 to slumber (jSpi^ai) ; Sat(m, to divide, to kiU; iK€\t(m, 
to whirl, to tumble; iyapl C», spolio ; ^ ^ v^, to do (topya). 

7. The following verbs in -^m vary between the two modes of formation: 
fiaffrd (u, to lift up, to support, Fat -diru, etc, Aor. ifiaardx^r 1-^9 iff Td(», 
to doubt, iurrderw, from which the verbal Sabst ZttrrayiiuSs and 9l<rrSa'is; — rvr- 
rd(wtto nod, to sleep, Fat -i<r«, Aor. iv^trrwra, in the later writers wfrd^m, 
etc, e. g. Plat Brat 36; — irafC», to jest. Fat irai|ovfuu and urai^opm^ Aor. 
Att ticatoa (in later writers lrou(a, irhraxxo)y Perf Mid. or Pass. Att thmapax 
( i n later writers w^nuypm, iTcedx^y) i verbal Adj. weuar4os ; — Sipwd (*«*) to nb, 
Att apwdirofuu, fjptr&ra, etc (bat in the Epic and Common language apwdipt and 
'dau, etc., second Aor. Pass, iiprdytiy) ; — p-^i^^ to moan, has IL S, 20. hr4p»>i», 
but in Hippocr. tpuvw. 

8. The following verbs in -^» have 77 for a pure characteristic : KKd(m,ts 
sound, to cry, Perf. Kd-nXayy-^ Fat K^Jry^v, Aor. lirXoy^a; — vX 4({^» (po^t.) to 
couse to toancfer, Fat vKdy^Vf etc Aor. Pass. iwKdyx^y i — cr ^w, to bUno a 
trumpet. Fat -f7|», etc. (later also '(<rw, etc.) 

{ 144. Formation of ike Tenses. 

Mute verbs form the FuL and the first Aor. Act and 
Mid. with the tense-characteristic <r, and the first Perf. and 
first Plup. Act with the aspirated^ endings -a and -elv, when 
the characteristic is a Pi or Kappa-mute; but with the 

* The Perf. Act of all verbs properly ends in ira, bat where k is preceded by 
a Pi or Kappa -mate, that mate combines with k and is changed into the co^ 
responding roagh. On the contrary, a Taa-mate before «c is dropped, e. g* 
TtruvKa = TfTwpa ; irhrpaiyKa =■ viwpdxa, bat ir^cuca instead of treircii^a. 


endings -ico, -Keiv, when the characteristic is a Tau-mutc ; 
thongh the Tau-mute is omitted before k (§ 17, 5). 

Bemask 1. For the change of a Tau-mute into cr, before /a in the Ferf. Mid. 
or Pass. SCO § 19, 1 ; for the change of a Tatt^mute into cr before r, see M7i ^ 
bat this 9 is omitted before r of the personal-endingSi e. g. whrttfffuuf -«Ta«» 
w^^pariuUf -crai \ bat second Pers. •w4ir€i'ffeUf wd^panru instead of vhcmv^mk^ 
vi^pwr-^ai. The Yowels a, i» v are short in verbs which have a Taa*mate as a 
characteristic before endings with the tense-characteristic tr and «c (-xa, -Kcir), 
«. g. ffJi(*»t ppir99j f^pAsro) fi^p^ita \ TrhAaffWf to form^ wXitru ; Wfd(«t, to think, 
4p6/un } KXiCot, to uxuh, K\ta-w, etc. ; in like manner, short vowels remain short, 
c. g. hpfi4(t$f lip/xoffo. 

Bxx. 2. On the changes which the mutes undeigo by the addition of the 
endings beginning with tr, ^, fi^ or r, and before the aspirated endings •&, -dv, 
fee §f 17, 2 and 3. 19, 1. 20, 1 ; on the lengthening of -c into -ci before a of 
rerbs in -^p^m or Wwdw, e. g. ww4pB^, Fat. (<nr^yd-irw) awttau, Aor. ^drrcio'a, 
Ferf. Mid. or Pass, itnrturfjuu^ see § 20, 2 ; on the omission of ^ in endings 
beginning with v^, e. g. jccjcp^^j^ instead of KtKp^nff^ai {K€Kff6^^ai)f ireirX^x* 
5ai instead of frewX4(^ai, see 4 25, 3 ; on the endings of the third Pers. PL 
Ferf. and Flap. Mid. or Pass., -Arai and - At o instead of -rrcu, 'rro, see ^ 18, 
I and 116, 15 ; on the variable vowel in the Secondary tenses, and in some first 
Pexfects and Perfects Mid. or Pass., see 4 140 ; on the Att. Fat of verbs in 
-i{«, and '((off e. g. fitfidCo^t Fut fiifiient, fiifiH, -f r, -f , -otok, -d/ter, etc., iiOfjd(mf 
Fat. mofd&to, »oiu&, -iclf, etc, sec 4 117. 

Rex. 3. When n precedes a Pi-mute, which is the characteristic of the 
verb, e. g. in w4ftar-», the ^ is rejected in the Ferf. Mid. or Pass, before endings 
beginning with fi; thus, v^fAx-w, to send, iri-wtfi-fjiu (instead of wi^tfiv-fuUf wi" 
vc/iff/ioi), wirtfo^f r/rc^vrof, etc., Inf. vcr/ft^t^, Part. imrffAfidvof ; so 
itdftrr-mt to bend dovm, Kd'KOfi-fiM (instead of Ki-KOfjar-iAoi^ kI Kou/i-fuu). Also 
when two gammas would stand before /s, one y is omitted, e. g. a^lyy^^ to tie, 
t-^^ny-fiML (instead of t-^^iyy-ftai), Icr^y^oi, Itr^ryitrcu, etc., Inf. iv^iy^^at^ 
Part. i^fe/fUpos ; so i^€\4yx»3 to convince, i^tkfiXtyfuu (instead of ^|cA4^«7x/>mu> 
i^-^jyfim), iitkiKty^ etc Both the ;i and y are here dropped to prevent 
tJbe ooncnrrence of three consonants 



[i lU 

Parabioxs o^ Mutb Yerbb. 
♦ 145. A. Vefbs, fvhose Characteristic is a Pi-mutt 

(a) Pure Characteristic, /3, ♦, ^ (Put. *♦•). 

rp43«, to ni6. 



Aor. I. 

Ind.Tpi)3-tf Sttbj. T^ii8-ft» IiBp.T^i)9-c Inf. r^i^ttr Part, rfl^BHir 

Ind. c-roi^-oir Opt rpifi-otfu 

Ind. (W-Tpi^&) H-rpl^a Subj. T€-Tp^-« Imp. not used, Inf. re 

rpi^^poi Part. Tc-rpil^y 
Ind. (^ff-rpi^&r) ^^ff-rpA^iy Opt r^^pi^ifu 
Ind. (Tp</B-ff«) Tol^ OptW^i^ Inf.7p4ff(y Partrp<^y 
Ind. t-rpi^ Subj. rp/^^ Opt. rpi^^aifun Imp. Tf<ifor Infc T^:fc( 
Part rpif^s. 



Ind. Tpifi^itftat Snbj. rpifi-u/Mu Imp. rpifi^ov Inf. rpifi-t&l^ Part. 

Ind. i-rpifi^fifiy Opt rpi$-o(fi7i¥ 


S. I. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 














S. 1. 

or rt'Tpttb-Sreu or Tc-rp/A-dwy 







f€Tplftrp4p9f i 

d-rt-rplfi-fiijy J), i-tf'Tptfi'fAt^p P. i-rt-rplfi-fu^ 
l<i-rpv^ i-r4 Tpt^^p l-r4^pi^-^ 

i-ri-rpttr-rt ^rc-rpff-diyr r€'^ptfirfUtw ^(fay 

r€-rptf»rfUyos fSifK [or i-rt-rpji^Sfr^ 

Aor. L 


Ind, rp(infuu Optrpc^ro^iiy Inf. rp{fc<rd«i Partrpi^^yot 
Ind. ^pt^diaiy Subj. rpi^fuu Opt rpe^fiTiy Imp. Tp2^ Inf 

rpii^air^tu Part, rpnf^c^tcyof 
Ind. rt-rpl^iuu Opt r^-rpt^liiriy Inf. rc-^pr^tfdoi Part, rt-rpt^ 



Aor. I. 
Put I. 


Ind. (^-rpfiB-diiy) i-rpl^^y Snbj. rpt^B Opt. tpt^-^lny Inf. 

rpi^d^Mu Imp. Tp^^-i^i Part, rpi^cfs, (instead of I. Aor. 

Pass., commonly II. Aor. Pass.) 
Ind. Tpc^d^o/uu Opt rpi^>-diqaolfAyiy Inf rpt/p-b^i<rt(rdtu Part rpi^ 

Ind. i-^plfi-^y Subj. to?^-» Opt rpifi-tliiy Imp. rpffi^t Inf. rpifi- 

rjycu Part Tpris-cif 
Ind. rpifi^trofuu Opt. rpifi'iifrolfjLriv Inf. rplfi-^vtv^at Part. rpi/B- 

Verbal adjective : (rpiiB-r^j) TpMr-rrfy, -^, -rfr, rpiw-rdos, -^o, -^. 

H 146, 147.] PAKADIGMS or MUTB VERBS. 


^ li& (b) Impure Characteristic, vr in Prcs. and Inipf. (Fat. -fv). 
• jr^vTOA, to cut 



Aor. L 

K^'K^fT-a (Horn.) 


K4'K0fi'fuu, like r4-Tpifificu 

A. I. ^ic^^-diyr 
F. L jro^-d^ffo/ioi 

A. II. i-K6w'1l¥ 

F. II. iroir-^iro/ucu 

Verbal adjectiye : icov-r^f, -^j -^y, iroir-Wof , -rlo, -rloy. 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
jciiiar-r-«, to batd daum (ichtjtfi-^fuuL for KdKOfi^-ftaif i 144, Rem. 3). 


S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 



KtKOfifidyot tlvHp) 


' Sabjunctive. 

Km4iip^wffQ9, or KtKdfu^ibm¥\ 

Verbal adjectiye : xo^mn^f , -4, •^v, KOfAwr^os, t^ -r^y. 

f 147. B. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Kappa' 

muU <7, fc, x). 

(a) Pore Characteristic, 7, ir, x> (b) Impure Characteristic in the Pres. and 

Impf., «v, Att TT, rarer (, 

v\4tM»f to iceaoe. Fat -f«. rtrtrw, Att. rlrrfli, to ormn^ 







(rA^iMTv) TA^a> 







Aor. I. 

A, n. 

F. n. 

i^xdn-riP and 4-^\4k-^v 


Verbal adjective : irAcrr^, -^, -A' *, irAcur-r^oj, -r^a, -r^or ; Toipr^J, Tcurr^f . | 



[f 148. 

Inflection of the Peif. Mid. or Pass. 

riiffew, to arrange^ and c^ityyw (^ 144, Rem. 3), lo bind. 

Ind. S. 1. 



Imperatiye. ^| 











D. 1. 













P. 1. 







terceyfi^yoi clo-^l^i 

^(piyiUvoi c<V/(y) 


or rrrdx^Toi 

or rerdx^^y 

or ic^yxdmr 

Inf. TCT^X'^ 

ic^iyX^tu Part. rrreeyfi4yos 


Remark. The student will observe particularly the changes which take 
place in the inflection of the Peif. Pass, of these Terbs : rh-ptfi-ftai (instead of 
r^Tpifi'fjm)^ fi before /i being changed into /i \ Tirpcpat (instead of r^pnr^tti), 
T and <r forming fft] rirpuw^ai^ the characteristic v remaining nnchanged; 
rfrpt^^y (instead of rirpnr^y), the characteristic t being changed into ^, to 
be of the same order as the 3- following (4 17, 2) ; so others similar. In like 
manner, rh-ayfuu : r^o^oi (instead of r^oy-crai), y and cr forming ( ; riraicrat 
(instead of r4rvyrai)f y being changed into ic, to be of the same order as tho 
r /bUowing ; rhax^oy (instead of r^oT^oy), y being changed to correspond 


♦ 148. C. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Tau- 

mute (8, T, ^), 

(a) Pore Cliaracteristic, 9, r, ^. (b) Impure Characteristic in Prcs. and Imp£, 

f, rarer irtr, — Put. ^w. 










to deceive. 

to lie. 





. 4-^tv^6firfif 


























Aor. L 









Aor. I. 



(i-^pii^v) i-ppdif-diir 

Put. I. 




bal Adj. : (^vS-r 

4os) 4'«w<r-T/of, •r4i 

B, •r4Qp ; ^par-r4oSf -r^o, -r^. 



Inflection of the Feif. Mid. or Pass. 

Ind. S. 1. 

















i^fme-fidmn tlai{y) 



i^€vff»/UyoSf -i|, -or' 

i'^twr-fUyos i. 

i^^^adwawf or ^i-a^y] 

Rbxjlbk. S^C''* ^ '''t'^f ^^ ^ ^® ^^''^ ^^* O' Pass, c^trm-fuu from irclw 
(Attic), and o-^cMr/uu, bnt Aor. Iv^iShfy^ rerbal Adj. ffttffr4os. 

f 149. Fob II AT ION OF xna Tsnbbs of Liquid Vebbb. 

1. liquid verbs (§ 127, 11. B.) fonn the Fut Act and 
Mid. and the first Aor. Act and Mid without the tense- 
characterisfic cr (§ 20, 3) but the Perf. Act with the tense- 
characteristic K, e. g. 

ff^dMM (stem 2«AA), Fat a^aX-u, first Aor. ^o'^A-a, Perf. ^o-^oA a.«. 

Remabk 1. The endings of the Fnt. in liquid verbs, namely, -A, -oD/uu, arc 
formed by contraction from '4trm, -dtrofuu after the rejection of o* (i 20, 3). The 
inflection of these contracted endings is like that of contracts in '4m in the 
Pres. Act. and Mid.: pi\-&, ipiK-ovfiM (§ 135) ; o* is omitted in the Fnt of liquid 
verbs, to prevent the harshness occasioned by the combination of that letter with 
the preceding liquid. The Fat Peif. is wanting in liquid 'verbs. 

2. The Present tense of Liquid verbs, with the exception 
of a few whose stem-vowel is e, is strengthened, either by 
doubling the characteristic X, or by inserting the liquid v 
after the characteristic ; also^ by lengthening the short stem- 
vowel, as in all verbs in -fva), -ipto, -ipo), or by changing it 
into a diphthong (§ 16, 3), e. g. cr^X-X-co, rifi-v-(o, Kptvrto, 
afidv(o, /crelv'tD, <f)alv'(o (stems S^AA, TEM, KPIN{t), 
"AMTN{v), KTEN, ^AN) ; but fiep-o), vifi^ca with a pure 

3. Except the Pres. and Impf. the tenses are formed from 
the pure stem, but the final vowel of the stem is lengthened 
in the first Aor. Act and Mid. (see No. 5), e. g. a<f>d\\'(a 
{S^AA)y Fut cr(j>a\-&j second Aor. Pass. i-<r(j>d\-i]v, first 
Perf- Act. e-a^fxtK-KOy first Aor. Act e-cr^iyX-a. The second 
Aorists Act. and Mid. rarely occur, and scarcely at all in 




prose ; on the controrj, the second Aor. Pass, is more in use 
than the first Aor. ; the first Aor. is wholly wanting in many 

4. In liquid verbs with an impure chafsEcteristic, the 
ground-form of the stem is not borrowed, as in the case 
of mute verbs, from the second Aor., but from the Fut, 
since only a few verbs of this class form a second Aor. Act 
and Mid. 

5. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes aceohling as 
the stem-vowel of the Fut» is a, e. If, or t; before the ending -&, 
In the first Aor. Act and Mid. d is lengthened into 17/ € into 
€1, 1 into 4, V into v (§ 16, 3). Thus : — 

I. Class with d iii the Fnturo. 




<r0dUA.-c0, to deccice^ 



K(^», to labor. 



TtK/taipm, to point mC, 



^Ktiif^f lo$hou>f 





with € in tho 


fi4i^io, to remain. 



AyyAA-tv, to anncfmoe. 




• n/ar-»f to cut, 



W/i-», to divide^ 



K1 t/v-w, to klQ, 



lfi*tp-^, to desire, 





with 7 in the 


ftAA-m, to pluck. 



fip/r-M, to separaie, 





with C in the 


<r60-», to draw^ 



ofibvu^ to defend. 



Hem. 2. The following verbs in -mtm of the first class take d in the Act. 
instead of i|, namely, Itrxf^t^f to make emaciated (Xirx''«u«, tax^nprn) ; KtpS^pt^ 
to (jain {MMafo, K^fXavm) ; KoiAodw, to ImUowout (/jcoI\dya, koiAomu) ; Acviraiiw. 
to whiten ; hpytdrm, to enrage ; wtiraiyto, to ri])en ; also all Tcrbs in -pclvm^ C. g. 
TTtpaiiWi Fut. Tcpayw, Aor. /ir^ora, Inf. vcp&Mu (except rwptiiim^ to fore, Mrpr 
)'a, r€rfn;yai), and all in -to/i^c*, e. g. wiaitmf to tnalce fat, iwiojmf irmrtu (except 
iuidyto, to stain, fu^rai, rarely /uaydu). — The verbs crifoiim, to give a signal^ and 
KcAaip»t ^o P^fSt l^&^c botli <n}fi^v(u (which is usual among the Attic writers), 
KoAijpai, and tnnjuavvi, Ko&apcu, Also cdpw, to raise, and vJ^oitm^ to ^tfji), sre 
formed with a : Spoi, fiXo^l^ai, but in the Ind. the a is changed into t| on account 
(if the augment, e. g. ^pa, riK^jopf (second Aor. iiKipaiv is not used in the Ind 
and very rarely elsewhere). Comp. on c, ^ 16, 7 (a). 

f 149.] FORMATION OF tllfl TfiNSfiS OF LIQUID VGRBS. ' 181 

6. The first Perf. Act of verbs with the characteristic v 
(according to § 10, 3), must end in •7/ca, e. g. fMidarf-Ko^ 
Plut. (from fuaiiKa instead of fA€'fUaif'Ka)y ire^ary/ea, Dinarch. 
(from <paiiw)^ frapti^vy/ca^ PoIyb< (from irapo^iiw», to excite^* 
But the form in -7/ca is found only among later writers. The 
best writers endeavor to avoid it, sometimes by dropping the 
V, e. g. tcettpyca, KetcKLica from Kpiina, tcktva (so also fce/eepSa/eot 
among later writers, also /cexipSarfKa, but Kexep&rjxa, Dem. 
56, 30. from KepBaiva) ; or also, as in tcrelvto, by using the 
form of the second Perf., e. g. atriicrcvci, in the sense of the 
first Perf. (lictor^Ka^ etcrcueot from ihe time of Maenander)^ 
or, as in the case of verbs in "iua, by not forming any Perf., 
as, e. g. in fievca, by forming it from a new theme, as fiefie- 
mfxa from MENEI2. 

7. The three followmg verbs with the characteristic p 
drop that letter, not only in the Perf. and Plup. Act, but 
also in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, and in the fiirst 
Aor. Pass.: — 

icfiim, to separate^ Kiicpiica KiKpiyuai iicfi^w 

kXbm^ to bend down, WfcAlica K^iMftM iioJ^ (tbo 2d Aor. iKjdlnfif is rare). 

wXJbimf to uxuh, (WvAtea) vivXCftM ivKtbrfW (Hippoc.) 

Bem. 9. Tf fyw, to stretch, and tcrtlvu^ to hilly form tho above-mentioned tenMf 
from new themes, viz. TAfl, KTANO, KTAfl, thus : -^ 

tbcTuKa (and tierayKa) Irrajucu iieri&rip {imdtfdTir among the later writers) { 

yet the forms of tcrtipu here presented, are not Attic The Attic writers 
Irrom as the Perf. Act f see No. 6), and instead of fm-ofuu and iierd^y^ snb- 
stitnte ri^niKa and Air«l&aror in passive phrases with M and the Gen., or 
hrAnfuu and oypp^r, without a preposition. 

HcM. 4. Kpipw, itkifm, wKlnmt and KTcdw, among tho poets, often retain r fai 
the first Aor. Pass, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. ixxiwhitw^ 
iwxMrfif] in prose, these forms seem to be doubtful, yet iwrtKKU^ is fonnd in 
X. Hell. 4. 1, 30, in all tho copies. 

8. On the formation of the Perf. Mid., the following 
points sbotdd be noted: --** 

Verbs iif --ahm and dyw, nsnally drop the r before the endings beginning with 
/^ and insert e to strengthen the syllable, e. g. ^y-» rd^-V'/uu irt^-0'-/Md«; 
A^a&w i^aapM] futptSvtt putni^uffim (Luc.) ; ^fudrm ^to'^ipatr/uu ; vtpaiiw 9tir4* 
fufffmt f ftdnt ff^cuTfuu ', ittk/ffivm vvtdxwrfMoi ; ^Zv¥» ^Zwfuu ; X^irrvrc* XcA^- 
Tuv^MM ; ^vM» A^wTfJuu \ ^\vim •'•d^v^/MU (Luc.) ; wtaiim wtwlaffftm ; rpax^rm 



[i 150. 

rerpdxvtrfuu (Luc); Xvfudvofuu X^kv/Acur/iiyoi cio'/(y); lualim fitftSatrfmii bat 
Bome yerbs of this kind assimilate the p to the following /i, e. g. {i|palr-«»« 
i^pofi-fuu instead of i^'fipea^fuu (also miKurfMi)^ *ttpo^6yatf rapA^u/ifuUf mtrx^v-^ 
ffirxvfifuu (Homer) ; a veiy few rerbs drop p among the later writers, without 
snbstitnting a strengthening o* ; the vowel, however, is made long, e. g. Tpvxjhhm^ 
to mahe roughs rfrpdxv-fuu also rerpdxyvfioi and rtrpdxvftfiou. It is evident that 
in the personal-endings, except those beginning with fi, the p remains, e. g. 
W^cur-fuu, v4<pay-0'cUf tti-^tarraXf mpa/i-/Mi, 'tanrtu^ •amaif fax^fifieUf 'HfCat^ 
-uKTcu, '^/I'fit^oy (see <paip-« and ^paltw, § 1^1) > still, it is to be noted that the 
form of the second Fers. Sing., in -yo-ai, is rare ; instead of it the Fart with 
r7 is used, e. g. wnpaa-fi^pos cT, etc. 

Rem. 5. On the omission of tr in endings beginning with a^, S(« ^ 25, 3 • 
on the variable a, in the first Ferf. Act. and Mid. and in me first Aor. Pass., and 
also in the second Aorists of liquid verbs with a monosyllabic stem and the 
stem-vowel c, seS ^ 140, 8 ; on the Ferf. of kytipvy and lytiptt with Att Bednp^ 
sec § 124, 2 (b). 

9. In the second Perf. (which, however, belongs only to 
a few verbs) the short stem-vowel before the ending -a, is 
lengthened, as in the first Aor. Act, except in verbs with e 
in the Fut, which take the variable o (§ 140, 4), e. g. (fyalv-of, 
first Aor. e-ffyrjv-a, second Perf. 7r^-^i/-a; but aireip'O), Fut. 
(jirep'S), second Perf. e-a^op-a. 

Rem. 6. Second Aorists Act. and Mid. are rare in liquid verbs, ^^. l)S&X«r, 
ifia\6 fitly, HK&yoy, twr&pop (doubtful in prose) from fidhhM, Kotvu, irraipu, ter^l- 
mo ; Aorists are also formed from some irregular veibs ; a few verbs, also, have 
a second Aor. Fass., e. g. those with monosyllabic stems, as S/fw, itdpftpff ^3«l' 
pQ), (Tf^AXw, ^xdyWf fwiyw, K\iyc9, etc. 

} 150. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs 

&77^AAm, to atmaunix. 


Pres. A77^AX» Perf. I. liyy^K-Ka Perf. II. l-^op-o, perdidi. from ^tlp^ 

Fut. Ind. 

Aor. I. 

Aor. II. 


S. 1. 


1). 2. 

P. 1. 





Opt. ityytXaitfu 

or iiyytKolfip 










Inf. iyytXtiy rait, kyy^Xuy, 'owro, ■o5» 

^TTTCtX-o, &77«(Afi0, iyytlXaufit, Byy^iKoy, &77ciXat, iyytlXas 
fid. fiyy€\'oy Subj. &77CA09 Opt. iLyyixoifu Imp. &77CXC 
Inf. kyyfXfTy Part. i77«Ai6r, -owra, -^y, 


i 151.] 




F^. Ind. 

S. 1. 




















iiyytk-fUros & 

F. I. 






liyytk'fUrot tM(v) 

1rr/4\^ta<ratf, or iiyy4k'buy] | 

Flap. Ind. 

^ryy^K-fiv^i -vo, -to, -fudw, -doy, -di|i', -^m^o, ^, ^rmf^Ktiivoi ^troM \ 

Fat. Ind. 

S. I. 


Opt. iyy^k-oifiiiy | Infinitive. | 


iyy^k-ff or -ft 







D. 1. 










F. 1. 









Aor I. 

lad. ^^>7ciX-4^ip', etc. 


Ind. iiyy^'SiifiP Sttbj. iyy^k'^fuu Opt iyy^K-olfiriif Imp. 
jtyycA-ov Inf. &77cA-<ff3ai Fart. kyyMXSfiwos. 


Verbal adjective : iyyt A.-r^05, t^ -r^or. 1 

♦ 151. Shorter Paradigms, arranged according to the 

stem-vowel of the Future, 

(a) with A in the Fatnrc: cr^iAX*, fallo; faiym^ to show. Mid. 

to appear. 


Pcrf. I. 
Aor. L 


tft^dX-d, c7t, ct 







w4-^v^ I appear f 

appear, &ro^., / aAoi? q/^rm. ' Frose Avt^., t< totia affirmed 6y me. 


Aor. L 
Fut. L 
Aor. II. 
Fat. IL 

i-v^-driy (poet.) * 
o'^ak-^^ofuu (poet.) 


i-^dy^pf I appeared, 

i-^ia^y^ 1 appeared, 

Verbal adjective : v^uk-^ios, •r4a^ •r4oy, ^oy-r^os. 



Inflection of the Pcrf. Mid. or Pass, of 
^atywf tothow; ^tipaiy-^ftodry^ andrcfy-ci (f 149, Rem. S), fa it^vteft. 

Ind. S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 





irf-i^-fi4yot tMif) 








i'^ilfmfi'fi4yoi ftV/(y) 









Imp. S. 2. 


D. 2. 


P. 2. 




irc*^<iK-d«#<rari or 

i'lripdy-^wnyf or 

r4 rd-<ro 

TCTi-odwo-oy, or 








f 152. (b) with « in the Future: *ifi9tp-» (Ion. ind Poet.), !• 

desire, and o-r^AAfli, to send. 





Perf. 1. 
Aor. L 











Aor. I. 
Fut. I. 


i-ffrdX-^rpf A. II. 4-irrik-rpf 
ara\-d4i<rofuu F. IL rrSX.'^infuu 

Verbal Adj. tfitp^Sif -^, -dy, t/itp-r4oi, •r4a, -t/ok, oroA-rdf, ffroA-r/ot. 
Hbmarr. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is like ihy^x-ftau 

§153. (c) With r and C in the Future, 
(a) rlw-u, io pluck; atpw^ to draw; ftoA^r-w, to dcfih. 



Aor. I. 
A. I. P. 


TlA-d r7A-o9/buu 
l-TlA-a ^-riA-4^1^ 


Aor. n. and Fnt. II. P. i-<rtp-iiyj vvp-^voiuu 




ffUp-A trUp^vfuu 
t-(rvp-a i-cvp-^^tfy 



i-fAoKvPHt i-ftoKvy-dftifif 

Verbal Adj. TiA-T<Jr, tiA-tcos, <rvp-r6s, <rvp'T4os, fM\vy-r6s, fio\vyr4os. 
Remark 1. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of T^-riA-fuu, c4-^v^ 
Italy is like ^TyeA-fuu, and that of iit-iUKva-iuu, like 94-^ucr'fiaif tliot of ^9X>V** 
juat (fn)m cuo-x^f-w, to shame)^ like i-lfipofi-fuu. 



{$) tcXiy^f to bend doum; vX^y-c^, to vxtsh^ with v dropped (f 149, 7). 


Aor. L 






ir Adr-d/uu 



Aor. L 
Aor. II. 

#-jcAf-di|y Fut. I. ff Ar-;H^ofiai I 
i-KJ^MiP Fut. II. KXJiy^trofuu \ 

i-wKt^jftf irAC-3^0A«a« 

Verbal Adj. Kkt-risf -^, '6^, kAi-t/oj, -ria, -riov^ irAv-T({f, irAv-r^os. 

Rem. 3. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. W-kAI-^uu and ir^At^ 
lim \m like r4^Srfuuj and corresponds with that of pare verbs. 

f 154. Special Peculiarities in the formation of 
single Verbs, both Pure and Impure, 

1. The Future of very many Active verbs is in the Middle 
form, e. g, okowo, I hear ^ Fut &KowroiJLat, I shall hear, Aor. ^kovo-o, 
IJteard, See ♦ 198. 

2. The following verbs in -aio) or -oo) and -e<D, whose stem 
ended originally in -av ' and -cv {oF, cJF"), resume the v in the 
Aorist and Future (i 25, 2) : — 

itdm (old Attic xim seldom, and without contraction), to 6fim, Fat. KaUrm\ Aor. 

tKOBuo'a ; Perf. K^KowKa ; Peif . Mid. or Pass, ic/jcav/iai ; Aor. Pass. iKo&diir \ 

Fnt. Pass. Keafl^<rofuu\ verbal Adj. iccaHrr4os, imvim^s, irovr^s; but second 

Aor. Act. iidrfPf I burned^ Intrans., in the Ion. and later writers. 
mXalw {K\i» seldom, and without contraction), to voeep^ icXadcrofuu or irAatwoD/uu 

(No. 3), kAb^m late ; first Aor. Act ^kAowo, etc. ; Perf. Pass. W/rAov/ioi; 

Aor. Pass. tieXev&ffdiiy late. See ^ 166, 18. 
^Wy to run^ Fat. ^tvaofuu or ^tvirovfuu (No. 3), ^9vam late; the other tenses 

are wanting. See rpix^i h 167, 5. 
yiwy to swim^ Fat. ptiaofuu or yciMTov/uu (No. 3) ; Aor. Crcvo'a; Perf. Wycvira. 
wxim, to soiZ, Fvt. rAc^o/Mu, nfittally irktveovfim (No. 3); Aor. IrAcvra; Perf. 

v/rAcura ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. iriirktvafMi ; Aor. Pass. iwAjtiffdrftf ; verbal 

A^. vAciMTr^of . 

' The V in the Fnt. of these verbs is occasioned by the reappearance of th# 
Digamma {F) softened into the vowel v. The Digamma would regularly 
stand in the Prcs. before the personal-ending 00, but is omitted where it comes 
between two vowels ; it appears, however, in the Fut., as it there stands before 
tiie consonant a". This is analogous to the disappearance, in the Pres., of some 
aspirate, perhaps h (comp. reAo), in the Latin verbs fluo, tttrtto^ and the reap- 
pMunance of the same in the Pnrf. before s, with which it combines and forms z 

i8G feculiahities in the formation of veubs. [i 154 

wp4v, to btoWy Fut. ryt^trofuu or mmfffovfuu (No. 3); AoT.fvytwra] I'crC 

nirmvKa ; late Fut. irvc^/crw, and Aor. Pass, inytvtr^v, 
^4mt to flow, Tut ^f6aofuu\ Aor. t^^€vffa\ both forms extremely rare in the 

Attic, wliich uses instead of them fvfiffofuu, ifP^if (^ 192, 7), and so also 

the Pcrf. ip^dniKo. 

Rehask 1. The verb x^<» (x<'^^> X<^)i ^ P^"'' ^ differs from the pre- 
ceding verbs: Put. x^^\ ^^^- ^i^- X^^f*^ (^^ ^^- ^)i '^^^' fx<(>> Subj. x^«s 
Inf. x^of, Imp. x^*"'* X*'^^'** c^<^ > '^o''* ^^* ^X*^''!*' (see No. 7) ; Pcrf. Act. 
* K^X^'A} ^c^* ^i<^* ^^ Pass. «e/x*'A^} -^o^- P<us. i^d^"] ^^^' P^^* X"^^^/*''* 
(^ 223, R. 2). The foims with cv belong only to the Epic ; Fut. x«vw ; Aor. 


3. The circumflexcd Fut in -ov/tat which properly belongs to 
liquid verbs only, is used by the Doric writers with other verbs 
also, whose Future would regularly be in 'ona or -o-o/iac, e. g. 
TOfjfSi, -€i9, -ci^ 'OVfuv, -circ, •ovimi ; rv^ov/ioi, etc. ; tliis is called the 
Doric Fut. and is in common use in the following verbs, yet 
only in the JMiddle form, with the signification of the Fut 
Act : — 

^c^fli, to flee, Fut. ^v^ov/uu and ^^(o/mu 

V€d(-»t to sport, " wai^ovficu " ira/|o/cm 

X^C~^i alTum cxoucrarc, " x^^^^t"^ 

vlm-'U, toflttt, " irtffovfuu (IIETfi) 

irwdiCvottax, to inquire, ^ vciHrovfuu, usually irc^oficu, 

and also in those mentioned under No. 2 : KXai», tk4», ht^w, rlw, 

4. Future without the tense-characteristic. The Fut of the 
following verbs, !)cing without the Fut characteristic a-, and 
having the inflection of the Present, takes entirely the form of 
a Present, viz. : — 

18-w, Epic, usually itr^lw, to eat, Fut. ^-ofuu] vlr-» (niO), to drink, Fut. v(- 
ofuu ; x^*f '^^ 7^"'' *>"^ Fttt. x^«»» X'**i X<*» etc. ; Fut. Mid. x^^A^u (jjce Rem. 1 ). 

5. Also two mute verbs take the Future form of liquid verba 
in 'ovfiai without a : — 

yuiX'Oiuut to fight, Fut. /lax-oS/uu (formed from the Ion. lAax-^oitm), 
tioym ('EAH), to sit, Fut. ( j8-otVtai) Jcoi^S-oS/uu. 

6. The Fut Pcrf of the following verbs has an Act foi;m: — 

^v4iCKv, to die, Pcrf. rc^n^ica, lam dead, Fut. Pcrf rtdv^w or -(oficu, I shaU 

be dead; 
tmifu, to station, Pcif. con^xa, / stand, Fut Perf c<rr4|fli or -{ofuU| / sAotf 

I 155.] VERBS. SYNCOPE. 187 

Mkmd, *Zar^» and rtMi^w are old Attic ; ^rrft^ofuu and rcdn^io/uu an 
only in the Attic, X. Cy. 6. 2, 17. 

7. The three following verbs, though not liquid, form the 
first Aor. according to the analogy of the second Aor., without 
the tense -characteristic <r : — 

fjrciV (second Aor.), to aay^ first Aor. cTr-a; ^fw ('ErKO), to beary first Aor. 
^rcyic-a (second Aor. I^i^ko^) ; x^^i fx*^ (^^ Rem. 1 ). 

Rem. 2. In the second Aor. itr^coy^ from n£T-» (vfvr-tf), to fatly the o* is 
not the tense-characteristic, but belongs to the stem, the r having here been 
changed into a (Dor. Irrroy). The first Aor. Irco-o, is late *, in Enrip. Ale. 471 
And Troad. 294, the readings are not sufficiently confirmed. 

8. The following pure and impure verbs form the Perf. Subj. 
and Plup. Opt. Mid. or Pass, without tlio aid of the auxiliary 
c^; the impure verbs by assuming an e as their characteristic 
in forming the tenses, become analogous to pure verbs : — 

mrd'Ofiat, loUmn, Ferf. KiimifMi, I possesSy Subj. icfrr»/iai, ^p, -^cu; Plup. 
^jccicT^/iijr, / possessedy Opt. KtKTjffiriVy KtKTyo, kcict^to or Ktier^fitiyy -^, 

/Hfir^CKw (MNAfl), to remindy Ferf. fUfunifmt, IremembeTy Snbj. /itfttmfuuy -p, 

-^w ; Flup. 4fi€/utfifiriy, Opt fic/u^fii|y, -po, -pro or fuiuf^iaiyf -f o, -^o, and 

in X An. 1. 7, 5. fi4ftyoto (in all the MSS.). 
fidKKtt, to throw (BAA), Ferf. fi4fiKiifuuy second Fers. Fl. Ferf. Subj. iiafif 

fiXrjir^ty Andoc. p. 22. \ 24. 
ma\4», to namey Ferf. K4K\rifuuy Tarn named; Flop. iiciKX-fifiriyy Opt. KtK\fiiriVy 

-^o, 'pro, 

Reit. 3. iKteriAfia^ov may be found in Fl. Rp. 564, c ; at present, however, 
the right reading is ^irrcr/i^o'c^^oK, according to most MSS. 

§ 155. Syncope. 

1. A few verbs, in some forms, suffer Syncope (§ 16, 8j. 
E. g. the following words in prose : — 

vcTo/Aot, to fly y Aor. irrSfiriry vr4<r^aiy Fut. «t^0'o/«u (c syncopated). 

4yt(fWy to waHxy second Aor. ^p6iaiy (also the Inf. lypro'dai with the accent 
of the Fres.), I awoke {iry4pdny9 Twos awa]lce)y (ci or i syncopated.) 

tpxofuuy to goy second Aor. flx^ov. Inf. cAJ^cty, etc., from *EAETea {0 synco- 
pated), (^ 167, 2.) 

9t/uUf to sttpposey instead of ofo/fuu, ffopf instead of ^/iiir. 

188 VEUBS.^-o^ METATHESIS [i 156 

2. This Syncope occurs most frequently after the reda« 
plication ; thus, e. g. 

A. In thQ Fresent: 

yfyi^flu, tQ bwnae^ instead of yi-y4pofuUf stem FENfi. 
fiifunt, to remain^ Poet., instead of fu-fi4ym» 
wiwrmy to fall, instead of n-ir^Wy.stem HETfi. 
9trpdaic» from vcpcU. 

b. In the Perfect: 
•TfrdyyvfjUt to spreaa out, Tiwrdfuu] vhrrwKa (from nETH), to JUL 

k 156. Metathesis, 

1. Metathesis (§ S2) occurs in the formation of the tenses 
of several verbs, most frequently in the Perf., Plup., first 
Aor. Pass., and first Fut. Pass, (seldom in the second Aor, 
Act), sometimes also in the Pres., both for the sake of an 
easier or more euphonic form, and, in poetry, for the sake 
of making a syllable long by position. 

2. In the Common language, the following verba are 
Aubject to Metathesis : — 

/3<£aAc0, to throw^ Fut. fiaXSt {0a^J^^hffu, ArUtoph. Vesp. 222); Aor. Ilfii\»r} 
Aor. Mid. ifidfiSfiriv] BAA: Pcrf. /3e/3Ai)Ka; Pcrf. Mid. or Pass. 040^$- 
[nai] Aor. Pass. i0Kii^'^y\ 'FnfPass, $\ri^ffo/MM; Fut. Peif. fi*fi\ieafUtu 

Za/idu, usually 9afid(ta, to tame, Fut. So/i^w; Aor. i^dttaffa', AMA: Peril 949" 
/ii}ira; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 94Zfififiai \ Aor. Pass. ^d/ii};^i}y, iZifiip^, 

Z4fjt», to build (mostly Poet, and Ion.) ; Aor. Act. IBcvm; Aof. Mid. Uttfadfjoi^"; 
AME: Perf. 8^8/ii)Ka; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 8^ S/x 17 /i a i. 

^p'flvKWtto die, Aor. dew4^ayo» ; Perf r4^yfiKa, 

dp^vKWf to leap, Aor. i^opov, 

KaX4w, to call (Poet. KiK\4iffK0f, like dyfiaKu), Fut. icaXu', Perf. K^icAijica. 

Kdfxyw, k^xnv, Aor. tlKoixoy, Perf jcric/iiiira. 

qk4\Xw, OKtK4<a, to make dry, second Aor. ffrKkrjy, Perf. HcKkiiKa; Fut 

r4fi»u, toad; Aor. Urtfioy; Perf. T^r/irjica. 

ta4 0" o/i a t, Iicill bear ; Aor. ?t A tj v j Perf. t ^ t A ij « a, from the stem TAAA. 

Remahi^. Wlien the stem of the verb is dissyllabic, then the vowel tmns* 
posed bjr Metathesis coalesces with the following vowel; (a) In inflfiction: — 

Ktpd-ypvfu (Poet. Ktpd-u), to mingle ; Fut. Ktpia'u ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, k ^acpd 

fuu instead of Kt'Hp4a'iMi', Aor. Pass. iKp&^tiy. 
wirpd^KWjto sell (in.stead of wurtpdrKWt wnrptderKw), from ircpiw (hence Fut 

fl 157, 15^] VERBS IN -m WITH StRENuT0ENED STEM. 189 

99piatf)l Feif. vcrpdira, vcirpdMa*; Aon Pass. ^wpi^iiP] Fut.Pec£ 

mrtfl-ryOfUf to atrw ; secoodary fonn erp^yyv/it (instead of arp§6yyvfu)\ 

Vut.ffrpd>ffu] Aor. fffrpoura] Perf. Mid. or Pass. Hirrpwuai] Aor. 

«iMC«* i^ppropinquo, to bring to, w9Ki^^ v^d^w; Aor. Pass. ^cAio-diir; 

Poet. Att 4ir\A^iiy\ second Ao^. At^ iwkAfin^i Pcif* Mid. or Van» 

Att. v^vXdftai. 
(b) The same holda also in the stem of the verb ^pirrwf to dliiwrb (forme4 
from ropdCrrw, rpcJ/rrm), an Attic form of Topda-ffm ; Aor. i^pa^a. 

I 157. Verbs in -«» with the Stem of the Present 


1. It has already been seen {W 13&-140), that the stem of 
many verbs is strengthened in the Present ; but this strength- 
ening remains only in the Present and Imperfect. Besides the 
modes of strengthening ahready mentioned, by r (irr« icr), or ((nr, 
l)y and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are others^ which 
will now be specified. 

Rbhabk. AU the forms ^rhich are aaaumed for the sake of constnicting th« 
tenses in use, are indicated by capitals (i 138, 3). The abbreviationa, D. M., 
signify Deponent Middle, and D. P., Deponent Passive (§102, 3). The /xi, placed 
In parenthesis, shows that the form standing before it, is analogous to the con- 
JBgation in -fi I, to be treated below. See § 191. 

♦ 158. I. Verbs, whose Pure Stemis strengthened in the 
Pres. and Imp/, by inserting v before the ending. 

Psxuif iKABT Bkmask. Bo^vw lengthens the stem-vowel a into w ; ^Ao^i^ 
a into av; ^bvte and tW, ^ and \ into v and L 

1. BcuVw^ to go (BA-), Fut. pr^cropm', Perf )8c)8iyxa (§194, 2); 
second Aor. Iprp^ (m«» i 191); the Pass, occurs in compounds, 
e. g. avaPaxvop.aiy dvapifio^iw^ 7raf>aj3e)3a/juu, dve/SiBrp^, ?rap€j9a^ip^ 

[« 130 (c), and 131, 5]. Verbal adjectives, ^Slto^, fiarw. 

Remabk. First Aor. Act. l/3?j<ro, and Fur. Mo»^ are transitive, Z brought^ 
w3l bring, and belong only to the poetic, Ionic, and later writers 

2. Swo), to go in, to go under, to put on. The unstrengtlieiied 
verb Svu) (KarcSSw) has in the Pros., in the Fut Swrw and first 
Apr. Act. eSvo-a, a transitive signification, to wrap up, to immerse^ 


fo sink; (so also Perf. in X. An. 5. 8, 23, diroScSvxcv;) Aor. 
Pass, l^v^rjv; Fut. Pass. Sv^aofiai [i 130 (b),2]. But the MiA 
8vo/juit, SiSyfuu, dwrofJMx, €Bva-dfji.rjv, signifies to w^rap uj) ones self, to 
go into, or under, to cloUie one's self; likewise tlie Perf. SeSvica 
and the Aor. ISw (/u, k 191), have an intransitive significatfon, 
like Svofjjon. Verbal adjectives, Svm, Svrm. 

3. IXavyoi, to drive (secondary form iXSi, -519, etc. poetic, yet 
also in X. Cy. 8. 3, 32. airtXa, Imp.) ; Fut cAocrw (in later writers, 
though also X. An. 7. 7, 55, cXoo-on-as), commonly Att cXa>, -^9, 
^, Inf. iXav (} 117); Aor. rjkacra; Peif. ik-QXaxa; Mid. to drive 
from me, Aor. rjXaa-dfirp^ ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. cAi^Xa/uuu ; Inf. cXiy- 
Xoo-^oi [i 124, 2 (a)] ; Aor. Pass. r/XoBrp^ [a in the tense-forma- 
tion, M30 (c) ; without <r,i 131, 6], — Verbal adjectives, IXam, 
iXarios (X. Hipparch. 2, 7). 

4. i^^yw and ;^i^ (poet.), to rage^ Fut. i^^<r», etc.; second Aor. Part ^/itpos 
(/tt), ro^^. 

5. irtVcD, to r/Wn^, Fut TrioimL (i 154, 4), among the later 
writers irmvfjuai, but also, in X. Symp. 4, 7. iruur^c ; second Aor. 
hrXov, Inf irictv. Part, vuav. Imp. irJ^ (i 191), poet., and seldom 
prose TTtc; IIO- Perf vimaKa; Perf. Mid. or Pass, xciro/uu; Aor. 
Pass. cVo^, Fut Pass, iro^^o/uu fH 130 (c), and 131, 5 J. 
Verbal adjectives, irord?, totcos. 

C. rtvui, to pay, to expiate, Fut tio-cd; Aor. crura; Perf. Act 
TtTLKa; Perf Mid. or Pass, rerwrfiat, Aor. Pass. irurByjv (♦ 131). 
Mid. TivofmL, to get pay from, to avenge, to punish, rtaoiuuy h-urd^ 
firjv. Verbal Adj. rurriov. In the Pres. and Impf. the penult is 
long in Epic, short in Attic ; in the other tenses, it is long in olJ 
the poets. 

Tio;, to houoi\ rkrta, fhiaa, rdrtfuu. Poet. 

7. <f>Sdv<M), to anticipate, Fut. xl^S-qa-ofuu, more rarely ^cutqi, e g. 
X. Cy. 5. 4, 38. 7. 1, 19; first Aor. c<^oo-a, and (in prose more 
seldom) second Aor. c<^^ (fii, i 191); Perf €tf>SdKa. In Pres. 
and Impf d in Epic, a in Attic. 

8. <p^iuw (poet., rarely prose and only in the Pres., e. g. PI. Phaedr. 246, c. 
Symp 211, a.), to perish (seldom to consume), Fut. ^tau and Aor. fulcra, trona. 
to consume. — In trans., Fnt. ^iffo/uu; Perf. f^lfuu, l^ivrcu; Plnp. and second 
Aor. iip^ffx-ny, Siiltj. iAlw/jLot, Opt. ip^itiriw, tp^no. Imp. ^itf-dw, Inf. ^r3ai. 


Put. fd^icivsy e. g. X C]r. 8. 7, 18. tm ^i/Utws^ the dead {/ju, \ 192). Verbal 
adjective, ^ir6s. 

Here belong also three verbs, whose pore stem ends with a consonant : — 

9. BoKyto, to bite, Aor. SSoKiJv ; Fut ai^jbfuu (late ^i/^) ; Perf. 
Aor. Sc&Txa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ScSi/yfuu; Aor. Mid. iBij^dji'qy 
(Hippoc.); Aor. Pass, i&iix'^* ^^^ Pass. Srqx'^^H^' 

10. Ko^mo, to labor, to be weary, Aor. oco^aof; Fut/ jcofiovfuu; 
Perf. Kitcfoyca Q 156, 2). 

11. rtfo^ to cut, Fut Tc/iAi; Aor. Sryioy (erofiay, i 140, 2); 
Perf. TtTfafKa {i 156, 2) ; Mid. to cii< for one's self (something) ; 
Aor. Md. h'€iJL6firiy; Perf. JMQd. or Pass, rerfuifuu (Subj. rerfjiiyr- 
Scv, i 154, Rem. 3); Aor. Pass. h-fi-qSriv, Fut Perf. rcrfHTo-o/ioi. 
Verbal Adj. Tft^ro?, riirfrm. 

f 159. XL Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Fres. and Impf, by inserting the syllable va 
before the ending, 

1. Pv-vm>, to step up, Fut jSvoxi) ; Aor. tfiwra ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
pifivfTfuu; Aor. Mid. ipwrdfirjif; Aor. Pass. Ipwr^ ({ 131). 

Fres. ^dw, not used bj the Attic writers. 

2. iK'i4ofuu (the simple is seldom used in prose, e. g. Th. 5, 
40. PL Phaedr. 276, d., the compound being generally used 
instead of it), d^ucvcopu, to come, Fut ^l^^fuu; Aor. Aif^ofi'tfy, 
a4iUla-SaM,', Perf &fl>2yfuu, d^tx<^<u; Plup. d^y/uu^v, d^iicro. Verb. 
Adj. iicro9. 

3. Kwiut, to kiss, Fut Kvo-ta) : Aor. ocixra [^ 130 (b)]. But wpo9- 
Kvyiia, to worship, Fut v-posxwi^a) ; Aor. wpocdcuKTcra (also poetic 
wpo(€icva-ay Inf. 7po$fcvoxu). 

4. inrux-vtofijou. (yjrifrx'Ofiai Ion.), Strengthened form of vir^(Ofuu, 
properly, to hold one's selfwnder, to promise, Aor. \nrwx-6iMpf, Imp. 
vrooxcv ; but Fut wroayrfa'oiijai ; Perf. ^at/^fuu. So, dfiirurxym)' 
lioi or dfLnixpfuu, to clothe (from dftW^co^ to At«rf(?M9t^), Impf. dfivc?* 
^(OF, Fut. dft^a^, Aor. iqikirtayovt ^maywr, Fut dft^^/xcu; Aor. 
^jgtxKrxpfirp^ and r/fiir^axpfi-qy (i 126, 1). 



} IGO. IIL VerhSf whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pros, and Imp/, by inserting tJie syllable ar, 
more rarely akv, before the ending, 

a. 2y or aiv is inserted withoni anj change. 

Freumikabt Rsmakk. All verbs of this kind form their tenses from « 
uireefold stem, viz. the Fres. and Impf. from the strengthened stem, the second 
Aor. from the pure stem, the Fnt. and Perf. from a third stem, consisting of a 
pore stem and an assumed «, which is changed in the inflection into iy; hence 
the Fut and Perf. are formed like the same tenses of yerbs in -/«. — The a in 
the ending -d[yo0 is also short in Epic (except in the three yerbs, fedbw, f3^i«u 
and Ktx^^) \ ^^^ lo^6 ^ Ucifta in Attic 

1. aMT^'ay-oiuu (seldom drcr<9o/iai), to perceive, Aor. 'jjaS-o^ip^, 
alcrS€(T'^ai\ Perf. ^^dTj/xou; Fut. cutr^^T^ofiai] verb. Adj. alcrSrfroq. 

2. apjoLprrayfo, to miss, Aor. Tjfjuaprov (late ^^jMpnyra) ; Fut. ofjuap' 
n^ofjuu (ofitaprn^, only in Alexandrine Greek) ; Perf. ^/ul^mfna; 
Perf Pass, '^fuifrqiim; Aor. Pass. ^fjMpti^Siiv (X. An. 5. 9, 21. 
Vect. 4, 37). Verb. Adj. a/jLafrrfrioy. 

3. air€)(SayofULLf to be JuUed, Aor. airq^ofjiTiv (poet. ^X'^^f^^) > 
Inf d7rcx"5co-^at with irregular accent; Fut. cbrcx'^^o/ioi : PerC 
mrfi\BriiJuaiy lam hated, 

4. av^ayta (and avfci)), to increase, Fut avfi/o-a); Aor. yfitfyr^', 
Perf rfiiriKa ; Mid. and Pass, to thrive, Perf rfiitffim ; Fut. aufi^ 
aofiajL and av^'^^o'o/Aeu ; Aor. rjviyjBrpf. 

6. pXturTavu), to sprouty Aor. i^Kaxrrov (later ipXaxmitra) ; Fut 
pXacm^ti; Perf c/^Aocm^ica and /^c^Xdum^ica (^ 123» 2). 

6. &if)^ai/<i>, commonly in composition, icaraS., to ^/eep, Aot. 
KorcSop^ov (Karo&i^a^ra, Aristoph. Plut. 300) ; Fut. icaT«i&ip^o- 
/juzi; Perf fcaToSc&xp^ica. 

7. i{[aKo> and Ko^t^ai^^ secondary form of f^tu^ Ka$Q/a. See 
i IGG, 16. 

8. KXayyoyfOt Used of dogs, a secondary form of KXaim, to cry 
outt Fut. kXdy((o (iccxXay^o/uuxi, Aristoph. Vesp. 930) ; Aor. hcXayia, 
LiXayov, Eur. Iph. T. 10G2 ; Perf K^xXayya (old form KcicXTTya). 

9. oi&u/(ii, otSoiVot) (also oiBom, ol&iu), to swell, Fut oiSifoto; Perf 

10. okixrSdvo) (oXurSaivdi used by later writers), to sUp, Aor. 
cl)Xur<^ov; Fut. oXwr-^iyo-o* ; Perf wAio-^i^Ka (first Aor. ^iKLa-^nyra 

^ 160.) VBBBS IN •» WITH STftfiNGTHSNED STEM. 199 

11. ItrtppoMvofuu, to smeB, Aor. A<r^>p6fjL'rfif ; Fnt. oa^f^trofjuiu, 

Bres. ia^puff^ai was a rare Attic form ; Aor. inffpftr^iiy and ^^pcvd^par 

12. ^^X«r«ai^ (rare Inf. o^Xcif, Psurt ^^Amk), to &« ^ia6i<s to a 
Jhie, to incur punishment (the dmible strengthemng utk and ai^ 
» to be noted) ; Aor. J&^Xor («^Aa|0«, Jjys. 13, 6&, mad by later 
writers); Fut ^k^; Perf. iS^Aa^; PerC Mid. or Pass. 

b. Ar 19 appended to the pnre stem, ^ad w is inserted before 

the Characteristic-eonsonant. 

PssuiUHABT Rbmabjc. The short Towel in the middle of the pare stem 
ii changed into a long one, in inflection. The r is subject to the usual changei 
before the Pi and Kappo-mntes (§ 19, 3). 

13. if/vyyayta (instead of ^-y-Tono), ructOf Aor. i^pivyoif, }?ut 

14. ^lyycbtti, to touchy Aor. Wyo¥; Fut Slio/AM. 

16, Xayx^> ^ obtain hj lot, Aor. tXax€V\ Fut. Ai^^fUK; Perf. 
c^37;(a (rarely XAoyxa from AEPX-, comp. w€irov3a, ira3€iv, iriv 
Soi) ; Perf Mid. or Pass. c£\^fuu (} 123, 4) ; Aor. Pass, ^i^x^* 
Verbal Adj. kfim-ios, 

16. Xofufi^bi^ to take, Aor. IXai/3oy» Imp. Xafit and Attic Ao^i 
[I 118, 3 (a)] ; Fut X^oyuu; Perf ctXiy^; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
dkiffAfuu (4 123, 4), (A^fMu Aesch. Ag. 876) ; Aor. Mid. iKafiofngyi 
Aor. Pass. JX^^^ ; Fut Ptiss. Xi;^^.^i}(ro/«a«« Verbal Adj. Aiprrog^ 

17. Xoy^dUts (poet and also X. O. 7» 31, also Xi^oi), to 5« con** 
ceaied^ Aor. lAo^oy (L Aor. 1X790 late in simple words) ; Fut 
X^oi; Perf XAaj^o, / am concealed; Mid. Xoy^^avofuu (Ion. and 
poet also Xif^ofuxi), in prose lircX. (seldom ^X.), io/orget, Fut 
X^fuu\ Perf X^TCTfuu (k a31) ; Aor. IXo^/up^ ; Fut Perf XcXit- 
frayuu, Eur. Ale. 196h 

18 Xifurosw, rare secondary form of Xcuno* 

19. fioatSavfo^ to kam, Aor. ifuu^cfy; Fut fui^troftm; Perf 
§ufLaSi)Ka. — The a remains short, and the Fut and Perf are 
formed from the stem MA0E, according to No. a. Verb. Adj 

20. iruvSwoumt to inquire^ to percei9€, Aor. hrvSofiiiy ; Porf. W^ 


nva-fuut trmxrai, etc. (i 131) ; Fut. ir€wro/Juai (very rarely rcvirov* 
li4Mi, J 154, 3). Verb. Adj. ircwrrds, n-cvorm. 

21. Tvyxavto, to kaj^pen, Aor. ervxov; Fut. rcv£o/iai (TEYX-); 
Perf. T€Tux»7«o (TYXE- according to No. a). The transitive of 
this verb is the poetic rci^, paro. 

22. ^v/yayas secondary form of ^cvyoi^ to ^e6, Fut. 4^€v$o§juu 
and -fcivfuu (J 154, 3) ; Aor. I^uyw ; Perf. W^cvya. Verb. Adj 

23. x^u^^oi^* ^ ^^ contain (spoken of vessels), Aor. ^aSov; 
Perf with a Pres. signification jc^vSa; Fut x^^M^ (stem 
XENA-y comp. oro^ov, ircuro/uu). 

♦ 161. IV. VerbSy whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres, and Impf. by annexing the two conso* 
nants, o-k or the syllable lo-ic. 

tit IB annexed, when the stem-rsharacteristic is a vowel, and uric, when it is a 
consonant ; Kv-icKta and xfni-tirico/Mu are exceptions. Most yerbs, whose pore 
stem ends with a consonant, form the Future, etc. according to the analogy of 
pure verbs, in -du, -/cp, and -^, e. g. tb^laKw^ Fut. tOp^w from *ETPE- ; ifAfixi^ 
Kfl0, Fut hfifixdi-ffw from *AMBAO-. Some of these verbs, in the Pres. and Impf., 
take a reduplication also, which consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with i, and may be called the improper reduplication. Most of these verbs 
correspond to the Latin Inchoatives in soo : ytytf^Km^ ifidffxwt yiipdattm, 

1. oX-tb-jc-ofuu, to be taken^ to be conquered^ with this meaning, is 
used as the Pass, of ou/seu, Impf. "^XurKOfirpf; ("AAO-) Fut aXwrofioi ; 
second Aor. ^Xu¥, Att likiav and ^Aaiv (/A^ i 192, 9), Iwas taken, 
Perf ^XcDica, and Att coAowca and ^Xomco, I have been taken ( Aug , 
^ 122, 4 and 6). Tlie Active is supplied by alpu^^ signifying, ta 
take captive, to conquer. Verb. Adj. oXajm. Xen. uses both 
lahav and ijfXuiv, An. 4, 4. 21. ; Thu. only cdXoiv and laXcmca: Plato 
also only coXwica. 

2. &fip\L(rK(D (seldom dlfi/3Aoo>), to miscarry CAMBAO-), Fut 
iilipkiMrui'y Aor. rj fipXtixra ; Perf. ^/ijSAxMca; Perf. Pass. ^fi)9A<i>fMu; 

. Aor. Pass. rjfAfiXMSrjv. 

3. avapiwaKnpm, (o) to recall to Hfe, (b) to Hve again, Aor. 
It^efivwrdfLriv, I recalled to hfe ; but second Aor. ivtpuay Qil, 4 192, 
10), J Uved again. 

4. avoKixTKia (also ivaXota), to spend, to consume, Impf. ajn^Xurxov 
(MXmnf without Aug.); Fut &yaXu)(rto; Aor. dn^Xoxra and aiu- 


XbNroy KanjvnXuxra ; Perf. avrjXoMca and omXcDica ; Ferf. Mid. or Pass 
am^Aiufuu and <iyd!Xc0fuu ; Aor. ayaXiaSTp^, dvrfhoSrfy; Fut Pass. 
araXii>S7(rofuu. Thu. and the Tragedians preferred the unaug- 
mented forms ; Plato and the orators, the augmented. 

5. ipujxmy to please, Fut dpcoto; Aor. ^pccra [i 130 (d)] ; (Perf 
«pi]pcjca in Sext Emp. ;) Mid. with Accusative, to appease, to 
satisfy, Fut opifroitm, Aesch. Suppl. 654 ; Perf Mid. or Pass. rifMxr- 
jM4a\ Aor. Pass, ^p^driv, Soph. Ant 500. Verbal Adj. d/>coTds. 

6. PifipwTKO), to eat (Fut Att cSofuu from itr^ifo, second Aor 
l^yw), Perf pifipiDKa; Part, fitppilk (♦ 194) ; Perf Mid. or Pass 
piPp^aiuuL (Aor. Pass. iPfMrpf, and Fut Pass, ppto^rjcofuu non 
Attic ; instead, the forms of ia-^iu are used). 

7. yryttrUrKu (mostlj Poet.), to call, to make knoum, ¥ut. yryt»v4iirw\ Aox 
#yryi6rif0'a; Perf. y4y9tva, with a Present 6ig;nification ; — farther, ytywrtlrw, 
Xen., yrymtw. Poet., seldom prose, e. g. PL Hipp. M. 292, d, from the Prim. 

8. yrfpaxrKta (or yqpoMi), senesco, to grow old, Fut yrjpacrofiai (sel- 
dom yrjpdxm Piato) ; Aor. cyrjpaaa (in Aesch. Suppl. 901., Trans. 
to cause to grow old), Inf yrjpaauL (instead of it yi^pavot, from an 
old second Aor. hffipav, was preferred by the Attics, fu, ^ 192, 1) ; 
Perf. ycyijpajca* I a/m old 

9. ytyvwTKia (yiiwiRD), cognosco, to know (FNO-), Fut yiwo- 
luw; second Aor. lyv«0y (jtx^ k 191); Perf hfvtaKa; Perf Mid. or 
Pass. Ir/ywrfjuu (( 131); Aor. Pass. iyvwrSriv; Fut Pass. yvwrStf' 
Q^>fUMJu Verbal Adj. yvwords (old form yworos), yvwrrw, 

10. &S^Dao-icii}, to Tt^n away (only in compounds, e. g. diroS., IkS., 
&a6.). Fat Bpdo'ofAat', Perf ScSpojca; second Aor. Bpay (ju, i 192, 


11. €vpCfrKtDy to find, second Aor. ^pov\ Imp. ^pi [t 118, 3 
(a)]; CEYPE-) Fut cvpijoto; Perf cvpiyica; Perf Mid. or Pass. 
wprupjoA', Aor. Pass. €vpt3Tp^ [i 130 (d)] ; Fut PeLSS/tvprjSi^/juai; 
Mid. to obtain, Aor. ^vpopjtfv (Aug. 4 121, Rem.). Verbal Adj. 

€Vp€r6^f tVpfffTW. 

12. ^Paa-Kta, pubesco, to become marriageable, Fut 'qprjaw ; Aor 
^pTjou; Perf ^j^i^Ka (rjPdia, to be young, but dyffPdm, to become 
young again). 

13. ^^Tcrjcb}, commonly dTro^n^o-KO), to ^ie (Metathesis, t 156, 
2), (8AN-) Aor. air4Sayw (Poet l^avoV, Savtav, ci ^ayovrcs, «4« 


dead^ Raso in prose); Fut i^tol^ww^uu, (Poet AiMnyMti}; Per£ 
'MwfKa (not hnjTjil^y^Ka^ both in prose and poetry, riSvofim 
(k 194), etc., Inf. rc^voim; Fut Perf. tc^i^ (i 164, 6), luid 
among later writers reSv^^oytoi, / skaU be dead. Verbal Acij. 
'^vi/roS) fnortuL 

14. ^fftfo-jco) (( 156, 2), to springy to kaip, Aor. I^o^oi^; Fut. 
i9<^M>&fMu ; Pcrf. T&ofo, 

15. UAo-fccyMUy^jprt^uz^, Fut (A^unyiai; Aor. I. lAocra/is^; Aoi. 
Pass. iXoov^v. 

16. fbiSva-Kta, to intoxicate, Fut /ic^Mow; Aor. ^^i^SixFa. But 
fu^^wa, to be tntosdcaied (only Pres. and Impf.), borrows its teases 
from the Passive, e. g. ifu^vo-Srjif (i 131). 

17. fUfunQorKio, to remind (MNA-), Fut fivqato ; Aor. Hfonfjaa ; Mid. 
to remind one's self, to remember, also to mention; Perf. ^yunqfuju, 
menUni, I remember, 1 4Wi mindful (Kedup. i 123, Bern. 1), 

Subj. fJL€/JLV(a/JUU, -^, -7701 (^ 154, 8), Imp. fU/ivrjaro', Plup. ^^i^pqy- 
lu/pf, I remembered. Opt ft^ftygfuipr, -jo, -fro^ or px^an^iis^, -^« «fro 
(^ 154, 8) ; Fut Perf. fi^iinTcro/uu, Ishedl be mmdfid (among the 
Tragedians also, / vriU mention) ; Aor. lfi.vrprB7(v, I remembered 
(ifMnicrdfji'qv Poet) ; Fut ^jon^ST^trofim, I sJiaU remember (am^iv^ 
crofiai, Th. 1, 137). 

18. irwirxto (formed from m^p-Mo, by transferring the aspiratioD 
of ^ to 4c), to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor. oro^ov; 
(HEN®-) Fut iriuro/tcu; Pexf. ircstx/^^a. Verbal Adj. m^^, 

1 9. TrmUrKiA, to give to drink, Fut ^iitcd ; Aor. cn-ioa. 

20. m^rpoo-ica), to sell, rare in Pies. Act (Fut. and Aor. in the 
Common language expressed by diro&tfo-ofuu, ^cSd/xip); Peif. 
n-cirpdxa (^ 156, Rem.) ; Perf Mid. or Pass, iriirpdfuu (Inf. ircirpacr- 
dou, oflen instead of the Aor.) ; Aor. hrpdSi^; Fut Pei£ vmrpi- 
a-Q/uu is\ the sense of the simple Fut vpaJ^rjaofMLi^ which is raze 
and not Attic. Verbal Adj. irpdros, irpdr«09* 

21. trp^purKia (seldom aryilta, AjroartpowTa^ Isoc. 12, 243, 
according to the Ms. Urb.), to deprive of, Fut or^n^; Aor. 
iavifnyra; Pexf. itmpn^a; Mid. and Pass, artpiaicofuuj artpavfuUf 
privor; but crripofjuu, lam deprived, Fut €rT€pvj<rof*m, rarer or^nf- 
SfjaofioL {airoaT€p€urS€, Andoc. Myst 149); Perf iarifnyjucu; Aor. 
loTcpi|3i7v. The simple occiurs most frequently in the middle 
(brm; in the Act , the compound anvar€plaK(t} is more frecjucnt 

)4 162, 163.] VERBS IN -cp WITH STRENGTHENED STEM. 19*) 

22. TtTpiaKM,to vxnmdy ^^^ T/Nkxr(i>; Aor. /r/xDqra; Perf. Mid 
or Pass, rlrptofiai. Inf. rer/MKri^aiy Paxt rerptafUyos ; A.or. iTpw9rp^ ; 
Fat. rptaiijtrojiai and rpwroftjax* Verbal Adj. rpurros^ 

23. ^wta^to 9ayyto thmk (Ind. and Imp. very rare), Impf 
c^ooxov; Fut ^lycna; Aor. Z^ifo-a. — (Pass. i^da-Kcro, S. Ph. 111). 

24. xwrmtt, /o ^ope (XAN-« among the later writers xp^wa), Aor. 
ci^cvor; Fut xoi'oilj/Kai; Perf. Kixijm, to stand open. 

Rbxahk. In 9t8i0'ica», diioeo, the ae belonging to the stem is strengthened 
by a prefixed ; hence the ir remains in fonning the tenses, Fut. 9i^u ; Aor. ^8f- 
&^; perf. Zt9(iapca; Perf. BCid. or Pass. teHiayiicu', Aor. Pass. i9»M,x^*^» 
Verb. Adj. St&cucr^, -r^or. The same nsage is found in the £pic and poetic 
Terba, ^aS^o-kw, kkuaicMt xAamtt. See § 230. 

♦ 162. V. Verbs which have a Secondary Form in -^». 

Seyeral yerbs, particnlarlj in poetry, hare secondary forms in -dw, e. g. 
fJ lr y ^ ir, poetic (instead of f\4yttr)f to hurn; iiytp^borrat and ^tp^- 
^•rr«i. Epic, instead of ky^ipoifrm and iudp^vtmu Here belong also the end- 
ings -ci5«r and -^(^i/u of the Impf., and -i^w of the Pres. Inf., which are used 
eren in Attic prose, e. g. &X^{«, to ward off, tragic Inf iiXx^uf (stem *AAK) ; 
i^uOtmy to ward offy iifiwdi^tafj Impf. lifA^t^o^; — di^rn*, to pumie, ^tMirdl^fr, 
Impf. 9iAnfAo¥i also prose ;— f&w, lo jfiieU, Impf. ^oS^t ^MS^otfu-y^^ ^(pytt^ 
a&of vp, Impf. and Aor. dSp^aoJ^oi'; — l^w» l9 Aove, ^x^<^ (li> Homer irx^Uv 

i 163. YL Verbs i whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres, and Impf. by prefixing a Reduplication. 

The ledaplicati^n consists in xepeati^ <lie first consonant of the root with 
Ae Towel «. In the £pic and poetic dialects, there are also verbs, which take 
€ho Attic reduplication, i. e. they repeat the first two letters of the root ; see 
^uo^cV**! Aro^^iWi kpapivKtOf § 230. 

1. P^dlfa, to make go^ to cowvey, Fut Att fit^, •^^f -f (still 
also p^acrto, X. An. 4, 8, 8. 5. 2, 10). Verbal Adj. pifiaarw. 

2. yiyvqftai, (yivofuu) instead of yiyiyojtm Q 165, 2), to become, 
to be, (FEN-) Aor. ly^M^ (late Attic iytyij^yiv) ; Fut ycv^fuu 
(PL Paim. 14 If e. ytmgaeratjfet, and moreover yci/c^ijo-cnu, effidc' 
tur); Perf. yiyhnrjfuuy I have become, foetus sum, exstiti, and yiyova 
with a present signification, lam, implying lam by birth; cycvo- 
iu|F and yfyova are also used as preterites of uyl, to be. 

3. mmo (instead of iriireru, ♦ 155, 2), to faU, Iiap. irwrre; 
(IIET-) Fut vtxrov^uuL i^\ 154, 3) ; Aor. ciPcot>v (very seldom first 


Aor. hrmra), i 154, Eem. 2 ; Perf. ^-errciMca with irregular vcariabU 
Vowel (Part ircTmus, ireinwos, Poet ♦ 194, 5). 

4. rvrpdui^ to bore, Fut t/jtctco; Aor. hprrpra. More usual the 
becondary form rrrpavm^ Fut rer/>anl>; Aor. hrh-prjva (^ 149, Rem. 
2) ; Perf. rerpriKOL, Terprjfmi, Verbal Adj. rpfrfm, 

Sereral verbs of class IV (§ 161) belong here, as yiTrcSo-jw, and screnil verbs 
in •/u, as srSwfu. 

♦ 164. VIL Verbs, whose Fw e Stem-vowel a is 
strengthened in the Pres, and Itnpf, by i. 

Here belong the dialectic verbs, mostly Epic and poetic : &7a(o/iaf , to he in 
dijnant; Saiw, to divide and bum ; ludo/uu, to rage; voltt, to dwdL See § 230. 

i 165. VIII. Verbs, whose Fure Stem assumes c in the 

Fres, and Imp/. 

1. yofiim, to marry (of tlie man), Perf ycyc^i^jca; but Fut 
yufuo; Aor. e^/Mi» yijpu (tydfjirja-a first in Menander, then in 
Lucian. ; yofUTo-oas with the better reading yofirjo^Uvs in X. Cy. 
8. 4, 20). Mid. yofiovfuu (with the Dat), to marry (of the 
woman, nubo), Fut yofiov/uu; Aor. iyrffm/irp^ ; Perf. yeydfLiyML 
Pass, in matrimonium ducor, Aor. iyaiixfinjv, etc. [♦ 130 (d), 2]. 

2. yi/^cw. Poet, usually Perf yeyjT^a (also prose), to rejoice, 
Fut yi^/oxD. 

3. 8oKCQ)^ to «eem, t^i^^eor, to think, Fut 3o^ (Sojctoiu poet) ; 
Aor. cSo^ ({8ofci7(ra Poet) ; Aor. Pass. icaroSox^c&j Antiph. 2. 116, 
2; Perf Mid. or Pass. ScSoyfuu (8c8ofci7/iuu, Ionic and Eurip.), 
visus sum, 

4. KTwkf (Poet), to reeound, Fnt -^aw, etc. ; second Aor. tnrvrw (Epic and 
B. O. C. 1450) ; first Aor. iierirnira (lb. 1606). 

5. fjMfnvpiia, to hear witness, Fut p,aprvfrq<rw, etc. But fiopr^po- 
fioi, Dep. Mid. to co/Z a« witnesses, 

6. fupco), to «^ar, to shave. Mid. (vpofim ; Aor. i(vpdfiriv ; but 
Perf i(vp7ffjMi, 

7. co^co), to J92/5A, Impf. ^a)3ow; Fut oxno and (o^i/ati); Aor. 
Sioau, Shtoi ; Perf. Icjica late, Pkit ; Fut Mid. wa-ofuu ; Aor. coxra- 
jiTjv; Perf. Mid. or Pass, laxr/iai; Aor. Pass, ^ajo-^iyv; Fut Pasa 
wBrfTOfim (Aug. } 122, 4). Verbal Adj. «m7T(>s» -tcos. 


♦ 166. Verbs, whose Stem is Pure in the Pres, and 
Imp/., but which assume an c in forming the 

This change has taken placo in the formation of yerbs in -/», portlj from 
necessity, as is the case with Tcrbs whose characteristic is (, ^ ; partly for the 
sake of perspicnity, that the root may not wholly disappear by the introduction 
of consonants, as in rerbs whose characteristic is (Tk, x^ i <^i>d partly from mere 
choice or the desire of euphony, as in Tcrbs whoso characteristic is B, r, (^ \, 
p, v» K, Xf a* «<, ff, w. The ff is changed into ri in inflection. Exceptions : 
a280|uu, &X'^(^tfa<, and fiixofuu [§ 130 (d)]. 

1. eiiofuu, to fed shame^ to fiar (Fres. and Impf. old poeticf in the Common 
language vSlUoitm)^ Impf. aiS^fnjy without Aug.; Fnt. tuMvoimi and -^oiuu 
{fwoMB^o-^itrofuUf Eur. Iph. A. 889) ; Perf. •jZwiUws, Dem. Aristocr. 646, 1 ; 
Aor. ^adfopf (with Ace), as a law-term in Attic prose, signifying to pardon a 
tuppUani; but also in poetry, signSfying to be tuhamed of to fear ; but in this 
sense ^^^n" ^ commonly used. 

2. a>J(u), to ward off. Act seldom in prose, X. Cy. 4. 3. 2, oAc^ 
ccv; Fut dXcfi/ot0 (Aor. ^Xl^a, Horn.); Mid. to ward off from 
one^s self Fut 6kt(ri(roiiai {aXi^fuu as Fut of *AAEK- is rare, 
e. g. S. Or. 171. 539. X. An. 7. 7, 3) ; Aor. ^Xc^itv (^(i^trdpaiv, 
Horn, and X. An. 1. 3, 6. in all the best MSS.) (Inf. second 
Aor. dXirciJctF, used by the Trag., f 162.) 

3. av$ta, to increase; see av^iii^ i 160, 4. 

4. ^x^opm, to be vexed, Fut ^x^iaropm^ and in prose usually 
iiX^ur^rfropm (both with the same signification); Aor. ^BixrBypf 
{\ 131). 

5. PoaKM, to feed, Fut fioaicvjayo ; Aor. ifioaiaiau ; Mid. intrans. 
to feed, to eat. Verbal Adj. fioroi, PwrKqrio^. 

6. PovXofiM, to vnsh (second Pers. fiovXti, i 116, 11), Fut fiofw 
krjtroiiM ; Perf. jSc^ovAi^/yuu ; Aor. ^avkrfirfv and 17)8011X7^71' (Aug., 
k 120, Rem. 1). 

7. Scoi, to want, to need, usually Impers. ^i^itis wanting, it is 
necessary (♦ 137, 2), Subj. Seiy, Part Siov, Inf h€w\ Impf ISc^ Opt. 
Zm\ Fut SciTcrci; Aor. iUri(r€{v) ; Perf Se8c)7icc(v) ; Mid. Uopxa, to 
need, Fut. Sc7(ro/uuu; Aor. Ihe^Bip^', Perf Mhffuu, 

8. iSiXjta and J^tkio, to wiS, Impf ^^cXov and l^cXov; Fut 
c^cXtoxii and &€kii<no] Aor. rfSfktyra and i<^^ri<ra; Perf only 


9. €iX(i>, tiXXio, iXXia, also ciXco), to press, to shut up, Fut ciXi^, 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, c^i^/uu; Aor. Pass. ciXi^JV* 

10. cXka^ to £^rau^, Fut l\^ (which is preferred to the other 
form ajcixrco from 'EAKYO); Aor. ctXmNra {i 122, 3), tXxixrtu 
(more common than ctX^) ; Perf. e(X#n;Ka; Mid. to dratv to one^s 
self, cXjcvo-ofuuy tlXMwrd^r/y.; Aor. Pass., Fut Pass., and Perf Mid 
or Pass, only clXicucr^ip^ iXxva-^rfaofuUi ciXmio'/MU. 

11. 'EIPOMAI, Aor. VftofiJii/, I inquired, ipitrSai, yna^Mai, ipoifUfVp 
ipov, ipofLtvoi ; Fut ifri(rofiai. The Other tenses are supplied by 
ipitrrav] but the Aor. rfptHmp'a is rejected. 

12. $p<i>, to go forth, Fut ippTja-to; Aor. r/ppTfou; Perf ^pprjtca. 

13. cu&D, commonly kcu^cvSq}^ to ^Z<?rp, Fut. ica5aiS7(ni> ; Aor. rare 
and late; Perf wanting (Aug., i\ 121, Hem. and 126, 3). Verb. 

Adj. iC€L3€V^ft]TW, 

14. txto, to have, to hold, Impf. iTxanf 122, ^) ; Aor. cax°^ 
(instead of ^-crc^ov), Inf. trxcti'i Imp. oxc^, irapdxr^ according to 
verbs in fit (in composition also <yx4 as Karwrxh ^ifopojcrxt), Subj. 
o^(S), -{$, 9ra^fU7;(tt>y 7nif)aa;(i;Sy etai Opt frxoCqy {fu, i 192, Rem.), 
but in compoimds irapacrxoifu, etc.. Part oy^M^; Fut. c£w and 
grxj^am; Petf. &x9fBa; Aor. Mid. itrxpp^qv, Subj. ay^pait Opt o^oi- 
p^. Imp. €17(0 V, irafM£trp(ov, Inf. ayi&Buif va(Kurxw&at, Part, irxp/jbwoi ; 
Fut l^o/ioi and trxqa-opm ; Perf Mid. or Pass. 2cfxi3(^u9* ; Aor. Pass. 
iax^^ (not used in good Attic). Verbal Adj. hcr^, and oflcner 
poetic (rx€T69, -Tcof . 

15. c^ to cook, Fut <^ri^ (Fut Mid. c^o/uuu. Plat Kp. 372, 
c.) ; Aor. r/ifnjau ; Aor. Pass, yij/i^v ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ytfnjfiOL 
Verbal Adj. c^or, or hjrrfros, c^iyrcos. 

16. iiia (Plat Symp. 196, 6), commonly Ko^t^cD, to «ea^, to ni^ 
Impf iKa3ti(fy, old Attic ko^^ov; Fut mu»io> (117, 2); Aor. 
iKoSum, old Attic mt^um (f 126, 3) ; (Perf iccKo^a;) Mid. I seat 
myself, Fut KoJ^tlrja-opm', Aor. iKoSurdfiriv, I seated for myself, I 
caused to sit. But joo^ctofiai, I seat myself, Isit,lm'pf, ixaSiiofiriv ; 
Fut JcOf^eSoi^^iai. 

17. Ki$8tt>, to mo^e .ansdaus (Act. only Epic), Fut Ktfii^ ; Perf 
K€Krfia, I am anxious; Mid. ciTSefiai, to he anxious, in prose only 
Pres. and Impf ; in Aesch. 8. 138, is found Imp. Aor. Mid. 

18. Kkaiuiy to weep (kAou. seldom, and without contraction') 


Fat leXAwro^cot (icAoviraDfMic, i 154, 2, in Aristoph.), rarer (in* 
Dem.) icXcui^crtiH or icXdi^cnu; Aor. IxAaixra; iKXava-dfirp^, S. TraclL 
153; Ferf. KCKXav/iai, and ^ater KixXava-nai (^ 131, 3). Comp. 
t 154, 2. Fut Perf. jccicXawrmM, Aristoph. Nub. 1440. Verbal 
Adj. leXaajoTos and KXaom, KXavcrr«o$. 

19. pu&xpfm, to Jighty Fut jKax<n)/uu, f 154, 5 (Epic and late 
prose lULxqcroiuu) ; Aor. ifui)(ardfirp^ ; Ferf. fMfjiaxffJMi ; Aor. Fass. 
€fUk)(itrSfpf late. Verbal Adj. /[ia;(cr€09 and /laxriTm, 

20. ftcXAoH to t«^e«4 to ^6 ^0Z£^ to d<a, hence to ^^y, Impf. 
^^BBcAXor and ^ficAXov^ Fut ficXXi^cru) ; Aor. ifiiXXiffra ; Fass. /xeWccr- 
Jcu, to 6« ^^ qffl delayed, (Aug., i 120, Bern. 1.) Verbal Adj. 

21. /tiOUt fUN, curae mihi est, it concerns me, J lay it to heart 
(rarely personal ficXtu), Fut ftcX^ei; Aor. iik(krjo^€{v) \ Ferfl 
ficfMX3^c(y) ; Mid. fji4Xofiaiy commonly hr^jLiXofiai (and -^c/acXov/aoi, 
but Inf. probably hrtfiiXMo-Stu) ; Fut hnfi^Xijo-Qfim (sometimes 
hnfukilSi^trofim) ; Ferf. hnpLtp.tXrjfiai'; Aor. cTrcficXi/^i/v. Verbal 
Adj. <vi^ft^i7T€ov. 

The compoandB, e. g. fterafii\§i, poenitet, are used as impersonals onljr ; sel- 
dom fierofUk»fuUf to repent (ThucJ, Aor. jurtjitKiidrir (late) ; fitfirixds, caring 

22. ft.i^<bi^ to 5wc^, Fut ftvfijoro), etc. 

!23. 55», to 5me/?, i. e. to emit an odor^ Fut 0(170-0) ; Aor. tairjca 
(Ferf. oScdSa with the meaning of the Fres. in Homer and the 
later writers, ♦ 124, 2). 

24. diofKu and o^xoi, to tkink, second Fers. oUi (i 116, 11); 
Impf. ffofitfy and wfirp^ ; Fut oii/o-o/juu ; Aor. wi^Srp^, olrjSTJvai ; Ferf. 
wanting. (Aug., ♦ 122, 1.) Verbal Adj. oirp-io^. 

The abbreyiated forms, o7/ia<, ^firif, are used in prose as a mere paren- 
thetic expression, like the Lat. credos and hence are often employed in an 
iroxucd sense', ofoftai, on the contrary, has snch a sense, only when it is a 
goreming rorb ; still, this difference of usage is not folly observed even by the 
best AtUc writers. 

25. olxofuu, I am gone, have gone (with sense of Ferf), ahu^ 
Impf. ifixpfJt''qv (sense of Aor,, also Flup.), I went away, Itadgone^ 
Fut iH)^j(TQfuu] Ferf ^^y^i, commonly as a compound, e. g 
wop^X^fjLfu, X. An. 2. 4, 1. in the best JViSS., Ion. and Att Foot 


*diX!^Ka (so originate, otxa, ouc-coxo, oix-coko, comp. the Epic oioaxm 
from 1^(0), } 230). 

26. o^ciXfo, to owe, debeo, I ongJU, must, Fut wf^iXxftm ; Aor. 
iu^cXTcra; Fcrf. ^t^iXi/jca; second Aor. cS^cXov^ -C9» -c(i/) (first and 
second Fers. PL not used), in forms expressing a toish, utinam. 

27. mwa, to strike^ Fut traJurm ( Att secondary form iraiiqina in 
Aristoph.) ; Aor. hrajura.\ Perf. TcinuKa (the simple kite); Aor. 
Mid. iiruurdfiriv ; Pass, with a (i 131« 2) ; yet instead of vctomt- 
M4U and liralcT^rjv^ cirXi/yiTv and TrhrXrjyfML were commonly used 
Verbal Adj. TroMrrw. 

28. T^sSo), usually ir^p3o/Aiu, enuUere Jlaium, Aor. lirapSov ; Fut 
7raf)$i^ofuu; Perf. viiropSa (♦ 140, 4). 

29. Trirofuu, to fly, Fut. (ircnTo-o/iocy Aristoph.) commonly trrq- 
crofuu ; Aor. commonly in prose and in the Comic writers, Im-o- 
fvqy, vT&rSai (rarer hrrdfiTiy ; hnmp^t ^rn^ imu'qvf ttt^voi, vras* poet 
and in the later writers (( 192, 2) ; Perf. imron^/juoLi (Aristoph.). 
— Syncope (i 155, 1). 

30. (TKfXXu) (or (rjceXid)), to dry, Aor. h^icXrpf (i 192, 4), and Peril 
w-KktiKo, and Fut (rfcXiTo-o/iocy intrans. to dry up, to vntJier. — Met- 
athesis, k 156, 2. 

31. Tvarrw, to Strike, Fut Attic rvirrqaxo (rv^ Homer) ; (Aor. 
L ervtmyra late ; Irv^ Horn. ; Aor. II Irvxror, Eur. Ion. 779 ; for 
the Aor. of this word, the Attics use hrdrata, araura ;) (Perf. 
rcrwrnyKo, Pollux) ; Fut Mid. Tvirrqaofuu, Aristoph. Nub. 1382. 
Pdss. blows wis be inflicted; Perf. Tervfifuu, Aesch. (reruBnjfuu 
late) ; Aor. Pass, hwrqu (cruim/^iTv late). Verbal Adj. l uu t ifiw i ^ , 

32. X'^P^ ^ rejoice, Fut x^^ifi^otn (xap^/cro/uu late) ; Aor. ^XPC"!^ 
(jjUf i 192, 8); Perf. KcxdpvjKa (Aristoph. and Herod.), I have 
rejoiced, and K^xofniftm (poet), loan glad. Verbal Adj. -xofnoi, 

Rbmabk I. Of the preceding classes, there belong here yerbs in -Jam (§ 160), 
■nd {nrurxpiofAtti, of those in § 159. 

Rem. 2. With these Terbs seyeral liquid verbs are classed {S 149, 6) ; still, 
t ley form the Fut and the Aor. regalarly, e. g. 

lU¥», to remain, Fat. luvSt; Aor. I/aciwi; Ferf. fitfiirtiKo, Verbal A^ 

fuver6s, fi^ytrdosm 
r4fM, to(timde,Ynt. ytfui; Aor. Hytifxa; Ferf. vty4fniKa; Aor. Fass. Jrc* 

/n^biiy, — Mid. y4fiofiau. Fat. ytfiovfuu] Aor. iyufiifL'^y, Ferf. BCid. €t 

Fass. ytyi/ii^fiat. Verbal Adj. ytfiiir4os. 


♦ 167. Verbs, whose Tenses are formed from different 
HootSf and which are classed together only in 
respect to Signification, 

1. alpLiy to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Impf. ^pow; Fut 
alfr^; Perf. 'jfnjKa; Aor. (from *EA) ctW, cXctv; Aor. Pass. 
gpcJ^v; Fut. Pass. alp€^rproiJuajL [k 130 (d)]. — Mid. to choose, Aor. 
cIXo/xiTv; Fut Gup^o/buu; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ifnjfuu; Fut Perf 
Qpi^fuu, PL Prot 338, b. Verbal Adj. alpem, -rcos. 

2. Hfsxpfjuu, to go, to come (only the Indie, of the Pres. in use in 
Attic, the remaining modes and the participials being borrowed 

from c^ (i IBl) ; thus, fy^yuai, Zoi, t^c, Uvai, uuv), Impf. rjpXpfJi-rpff 

commonly 'Qtty and ^ Opt Zoc/u; Fut cT/ju, I shall go (^^u, I shall 
cowie); — CEAEY©-) Perf. ik'^vSa [♦ 124. 2 (b)] ; Fut iX^Caofuu 
almost exclusively poetical and later prose, still also Lys. p. 
165, HI; Aor. ^XSov, tXSio, VC^oifu, iXSi [i 118, 3 (a)], iX3€ly, 
iXSuy, Verbal Adj. /AcreXcuorcoK. 

*Zf>xofuu has in common the signification of to come and to go ; tho idea of 
coming commonly belongs to the form from iX&tTy, and the idea of going to that 
of ffTfu. Bat in compounds, each of these three verbs expresses both ideas, and 
only the preposition limits it to the one or to the other signification. 

3. iaSuo, to eat, Impf tjo^Svov; (Soi, Ep.) Fut ISo/mu, (i 154, 4) ; 
Perf l8i78oica ; Aor. lfl>ayav, ffMytiv ; Perf Mid. or Pass. iSr^jSar/juu, 
(4 124), 2 ; Aor. Pass. ^ecr^. Verbal Adj. i^aroq, i^€arioi. 

4. opdto, to see, Impf l(op<jov; Perf. impoKa (Poet also lopojca, 
Aug., ♦ 122, 6) ; Aor. (from lA-) cTSov, i&o, ISoi/w, 8^ H18, 3 (a), 
ISctv, cSitfv. (On the second Perf oTSo, I know, see i 195.) Fut 
(from *0n) oil/ofMi (2. Pers. o\l/€t. Hi 6, 11). — Mid. or Pass. opS- 
fuu; Perf Mid. or Pass, laipofuu, or 2/ji/luu, S^rai, etc. ; Inf SnfiSat; 
Aor. Mid. eiSofuyK^ tSco-^ou, IBov (and with the meaning ccce, IBov), 
as a simple only Poet ; Aor. Pass. &tf>^, w^Bijivai', Fut 6^.Si}<r- 
Ofioi, Verbal Adj. opim^ and dirro^, otttcos. 

5. r/!>^(Q>, f<7 run, (APEM-) Fut Spafjuovfuu; Aor. cSyMx^iov; Perf 
MpdfjLfiKa; Perf Mid. or Pass. IwtBtSpd/ATjfjML (X. O. 15. 1). Verb. 
Adj. BptKriov. 

bpl^ofuu, H^pc^a, rare and poet — Second Ferf. only Epic Mpofxa (APEMfl). 

6. €fi€poi (only Pres. and Impf), to bear, (*OI-) Fut o&tw (Aor. 
Imp. olar€, ourcrci), bring, in Aristoph., see i 230, under ^^) ; — 

StVl t;ONJrnOATIOH OF VBEfiS IN -fU. [i 108 

(TSrKO, cr 'ENErKO) Aor. 11. r/yeyKw (rarer Aor. L ^c)icai), 
-€(i'), *o/&fi'9 -€r€, -ov (and -oficv, -arc, fov), (♦ 124, Kem. 2), Opt 
iycfKOifu, etc. (rarer -o^ti, etc), Inf. htyicay. Fart ivryKuw (rarer 
^r/icas), Imp. S^cyicff, -crw, etc. (and -aTio, etc.) ; — (*EN£K-) Perfl 
ivrpfoxx (i 124, 2) ; Mid. to carry qffl cany awaiyy t^, Fut o&ro- 
tuu ; Ferf. Mid. or Fass. Iin^vcyfuu (-yi(M» •yqxu, or a^vciotu) ; Aor. 
Mid. i^FcyKa/xiTv, ^cyiceu, •oo-Jac, -o/acvos; Fass. (a) to -^e 6orn«, 
carried^ (b) to icor <?;«;*« 5e^ toJ^astm,' Aor. Fass. v^^*^; Fut 
cvc^^i^o/Aou (rarer cLrSi^ofuu). Verb. Adj. otcTTos* oarrco? (Foet 

.7. ^i;/it (} 175), to ^«y, Impf. fifngy with the meaning of the 
Aur. also ^mi and ^ {i 178, Eem. 2) ; -r- CEII-) Apr. cSrori 
flnxu, fiTToviiy ciTTc [M18, 3 (a)], (the other forms of the Imp. are 
mrely or never u^ed, compound ^rpociTrc), dTrtly, aItuo/ (first Aor. 
ffero, not very frequent in Attic writers, more freqnept .clarw. 
very frequent curare, rarely €tvav, Imp. €lxov rarely, very frequent 
cl?rarci}, ctirarov, ciTrarcnv, and always ciirarc ; all Other forms want* 
ing in the Att). From the Epic Fres. cSpai, come Fut ipia^ Ferf. 
tifnfKo, Ferf. Mid. or Fass. cifwy/^iu (4 123, <) ; — C^E-) Aor. Pass. 
ipfnfiTjp^ {ipplSrp^ appears not to be Attic), frn^^vtu, ^^^l Fut 
Pass. prtjST^fioi and c^tn/o-o/uu. — Mid. only in compounds, Fut. 
dir^Miv/Mu, and first Aor. /darciiracr^^ac, to ^7i^, to &« wearied out, to 
give upt like i.w,Trtw, Verbal Adj. frqro^t (nfrw, 

Inetcad of the Pres. ^^, other words are lometimcs used, pardcularly m 
oomposition. Compam iLiTBryopc^, IJbrbH AfcrTor, I forhade; irrtX^ym^ I 
c^Bir^adicL, k^uxov, I cumtradided^ the oompovnds of thrw in .the Aor. being 
more freqacnt than kinf)f6pwira and kmix^fyiu So, ityoptvot rtvk, kokws, I speak 
ill of one, but h^uvor kouc&s, 

i 168. Conjugation of Verbs in -fti. 

1. Verbs in -/m, the number of which is small, difier froni 
those in -a>, principally in taking different personal-endings 
in the Pres. and Impf., several also in the seoond Aor. Act 
and Mid. ; and also in omitting the mode-vowel in tJie Ind. 
of the above tenses. The formation of the remaining 

' The first Aor. is preferred to the second, in the first Fers. Sine. Indie., when 
the next word begins with a consonant ; abo in the persons of the Imp. which 
have a ; hence %¥rpc€, bat ivrptifrm* 

S 169.] OIVISION OF V£R&8 IN -/u. 200 

tenses is like that of verbs in ?fi», with a few exceptions. lu 
omitting the mode-vowel, these verbs are analogous to those 
in 'cua, -ixa, and -oa>. 

2. In the Pres. and Impf, most verbs in -/** with a mono- 
syllabic stem, take a reduplication (§ 163) ; this consists in 
repeating the first consonant of the stem with 4, when the 
st«m begins with a simple consonant or a mute and liquid; 
but, when the stem begins with <rr, ttt, or with an aspirated 
vowel, I with the rough breathing is prefixed to the stem. 
These verbs are the following : — 

BA {$l'0ti-fu) fitfids OE ri^'fu 

HTA Tirra-fiai '£ t-tf^fu 

nAA wUfi-^Kfitu AO il-li0-iu* 

Rbxabk. Most verbs in -fu do not follow this conjugation throaghont in 
tiid three tentcs abore named, bat only in some particular forms ; four yerbs, 
Ti^fu, to put ; Tcmifu, to pbu»; 9l9t»fUf to give, and Tii/ai, to Bend^ hare this 
oonjugation most full, though even these have forms in use borrowed from the 
conjugation in -«, together with several forms of the inflection in -^ See 
S 17S, Bern. 8 

♦ 169. Division of Verbs in -/tt. 

Verbs in -/lm are divided into two principal classes : — 

1. Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-voweL 
The stem of verbs of this class ends : — 

(a) in a, e. ^ T-or^fu, to pihce, Stem STA- 

(b) " €, " r(^^iu,toput, ** e^ 

(c) " o, " «i'-^-/u, to ^/iv, ** AO- 

(d) « I, " f^i, to go, « '1- 
,(e) " (T, " fl^, instead of ^<r/*/, to 6?, « 'ES-. 

2. Such as annex to their stems the syllable -wO or -vv, 
and then append to this syllable the personali^ndings. The 
stem of verbs of this class ends : — 

A, In one of the four vowels, a» €« i, o, and assumes *iw 

(a) in a, e. g. aKM-ytni-fu, to scatter^ Ste^i 3KEAA- 

(b) " c, " Kopi-tvO-pu^ to Botiify, " KOPE- 

(c) *^ I, only rUwityfUf to atone, ^ TI- 

(d) " 0, e. g. 4fT^w^m^ to tpnad onI, ** STPC 


B. In a consonant, and assumes -vv. 

(a) in a mate, c. g. SetVvv-fu, to akoWj Stem AEIK* 

(b) " liquid, " Sfi-vO-fu, to swear^ " 'OM% 

Rbmabk 1* When a diphthong precedes the final consonant of the stem 
that consonant is omitted before the -lo;, except it be a Kappa-mnte, e. g. 

t^-y^fuu Stem *A1P (comp. fldTp-w, ip-pCfiat) 

tai-yvfu " AAIT (comp. SoTs, 9aiT'6s) 

Koi-pHfiM " KAIA from KAA (comp. Perf. KiKaS-fuu, K4Kaa'fiai) 

KTtt-pvtu '' KTEIN from KTEN (Fut icrci^) ; but 

ZtU-yvfAif €Xpy-yvfUf (tiyyvfUf o1y-yvfu» 

Keh. 2. Verbs of the second class, — those in -v/ii, — form onlj the Fres. 
and Impf. like verbs in fUy and even in these tenses, only a part of the fonnf 
are in -v/u, the others in 'tv, in the Sing. Impf. the forms in -(« are pTedomi- 
nant, and in the Prcs. Snbj. and in the Impf. Opt., these are the regular forms. 
The verb afi4-vyv-fUt from the stem 2BE-, is the only verb of this cla^s which 
forms the second Aor., namely, Hafiriy ; several verbs in -«, form their second 
Aor. according to the analogy of these verbs, e. g. 8^00, fiw* 

♦ 170. Charactertstic'Vowel and Strengthening of 

the Stem of the Present, 

' 1. In verbs of the first class, the short characteristic-vowel 
of the stem, a, €, o, is lengthened in the Prcs., Impf., and 
second Aor. Act. : — 

a and c into 1}, and o into «». 

Still, in verbs in -c and -o this lengthening extends only to the 
Ind. Sing, of these three tenses ; but in verbs in -a, to the Dual 
and PL Ind. also, and likewise to the entire Imp. and the 
second Aor. Inf Act. In the second Aor. Inf Act. of verbs in 
-c and -o, c is lengthened into ei, and o into cw, e. g. '^cr-voi, &>v- 
voi. But in the same tenses of the Mid., the short character- 
istic-vowel remains throughout. 

2. Verbs in -iifu, whose stems end in a vowel, and hence 
annex -vvu, retain the short characteristic-vowel, except those 
whose stem ends in -o, e. g. crrpw-vw/u (STPO-); but verbs 
whose stems end in a consonant, and hence annex -w^ are 
strengthened in the stem of the Pres. by lengthening the stem- 
vowel, namely, 

a becomes i|, as in TrfryyviUy second Aor. Pass. Mrf-rpf 
a " «» " t^'pCfuu instead of lEf»iH}/im, stem *AP, 'AIP 
ff " ffi, " itlK-yvfUf stem AEK, hence Ion. i^a 
V " ev, " (tvy-rvfu, second Aor. Pass. i(ty^y» 

M 171, 17?.] VERBS IN -fU. PE&SONAL-ENDINOS. 207 

§ 171. Mode-vowels. 

1. The Ind. Pres., Impf., and second Aor. do not take the 
mode-vowel (f 168, 1), and hence the personal-endings ara 
v'nexed inunediately to the stem of the verb, e. g. 

2. The Subj. ha& the mode-vowels ia and rj, as in verbs in -cd ; 
bat these vowels coalesce with the characteristic-vowel and 
form one syllable ; this coalescence differs from the contraction 
of verbs in -o)» as follows : — 

Si and djf coalesce into i| and f (not, aa in contracts in -^, into S and f ), ^ 
coalesces into ^ (not, as in contracts in -^, into m), e. g. 

l-crirm = l-crd t-ffrd-^s = I-orJf i-vrd-^if^eu = /-or^-rot 

Rbjkask 1. This form of the Subj. of tmifu and ri^rifu is like the Subj. 
of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs, e. g. rv^u, -ys, -$, etc., nnr-S, -ps, -p, 
fit>m T^-r«, 0Ta-dw, -pf , -p, from T<m7fu. 

Rem. 2. The Subj. of verbs in -6/m is like that of verbs in -<te, e. g. Sf ucv^w, 
-^f, etc 

3. The Impf. and second Aor. Opt. have the mode-vowel i, 
which is aimexed to the characteristic-vowel, and with it forms 
a diphthong, e. g. 

Impf. Opt. A. l-crori'^ = l-irral-fiw Aor. II. A artd-iip Impf. M. l-irrtU'/Aiiy 

Bem. 3. The Opt. of verbs in -t (rfyrifu) is like the Aorists Opt. Pass, of 
aU verbs, e. g. rra-de(-^y, rv^-^i-^Vf rvn-'ti-ffp. 

Rem. 4. The Impf. Opt of verbs in -vfu^ like the Snbj. Pros., follows tha 
ibm in -«, e. g. Ztucwioifu. The fev exceptions will be considered below. 

♦ 172. Personal- endings, 

1. The following are the personal endings for the Act. .— 
(a) For the Indicative Present, 

Sing. 1. 




-* (properly -at) 



'ffi(y) (properly -ri} 





Dual 2. 

Plur. 1. 




'fitp (properly -fus) 


The ending of the third Fen. PI. 'pai{v) is changed into -Av^j^)* And the* 
is contracted with the preceding 8tein*>yo,wel of the rerb. Still, the Attic di». 
lect admits contraction only in the stems ending in -a, thus : — 

from T-ora-ivc is formed /•orm (l-<rrd-:&n) 

" rl-^f'wrt " rt-^tun Att. TL'd4-wri 

<t ni^9-yn " 8i-8oD(n " Si-dJ-d^i 

** ScU-yiMVi " 8<ur-yvo'« -" tccit-r^-4«*« 

Remark 1. The uncontracted form in -lain, -^oUrt, -^oo-i, is the only one 
used in Attic prose, though it also occnrs in the Ionic dialect ; the contracted 
form in -cio-i, -owri, -vn, is the usual fonn in .the Ionic writers, very seldom in 
the Attic poets. But from Ti}/u (Btem *£), io ftmd, this Attic form (oca <cob- 
tracted from I'd'Wi) always occurs. 

(b) The personal-endings of the Subj. Pres. and second 
Aor. do not differ from those of verbs in -cd. 

(c) The following are used for the Impf. and second Aor. 
Tnd. : — 

Impf. t-ffrrt-ff 

A. II. t-anf-rw 

'l»M¥ (properly -/acs ) lP^nj-/ifr 

-tror t^mi-^oy 

-Kkm. 2. The Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of all vei^ is like the second 
Aor. loTifr, e. g. ^Tdr-itK, i-frrir^v^ -ijj, -ly, ifroK, HjriyK, -i^/icv, -?it«> -V^oy. 

(d) The personal-endings of the Opt Impf and second Aor. 
(except the first Pers. Sing.) difier from those of the Opt of 
the historical tenses of verbs in -w, only in being preceded by 
i; ; comp. the endings of jSovXcvoifu, jSovXcv^Ttufu, etc. with those 

Kem. 3. In the Daal and PI. Impf. Opt, the -t} is commonly rejected in the 
Attic dialect, and the ending of the third Pers. PL -i^ar is almost always 
shortened into -ci^y c. g. 

Sing. 1. 


Dual 2. 

Plur. 1. 


3. J 




» 172.] 



The MOM holds of the Opt. Pass. Aorists of all veifoe, e. g. iem9fv^ttruu^ » 
vwScul^iJMr (wholly like ridf/yr). — On Uie contrary, in the second Aor. Opt. 
AoC of Imiiu^ ftS^mUf ^iZmtu^ the abbreyiated forms are very rare, except the 
third Pers. PL, which is commouly abridged. 

Rem. 4. The forms diS^riiir and S^ijy also occur, 
(e) The hidings of the Pres. and second Aor. Imp. are:-»> 

Sing. 2. 






















or /-ariUTMr 

Rex. 5. The second Pers. Sing. Imp. Pros, rejects the ending -^i, and, as a 
compensation, lengthens the short characteristic-vowel, namely, a into q, c into 
ft, • into ov, fj into v, 

r«Tft-^i becomes l-crri rl-^-^t becomes ri-btji 

The ending -;^i is retained in the Prea. only in a very few verbs, e. g. ^dUh 
from ^n/df ig^t from tifd, tS^t from dfUf and some others; it also occors in cer- 
tain Perfects of verbs in -w, e.g. r^l^nidi. 

In the second Aor. of rtdiuu^ Iruu^ and 8^/u, the ending j^i is softened into 
s; thus, dtf^i becomes d>^, l-di =» U, Z64h ^ 96s \ bnt in tlie second Aor. of 
ttmifMiy the ending -v^t is retained ; tiins, (rr^-di ; also in the two Aorists Pass, 
of all verbs, e. g. rhnrdit iroiSc^ri (instead of irai8c^-^, 4 21, Rem. 8). In 
oompoonds of or^c and firibi^ the ending -^i is often abbreviated into A, in 
the poet dialect, e. g. wap^ffrd, iar6ar&f vpSfiOf Kmrdfid, 

(f ) The ending of the Pres. and second Aor. Inf is -roi. 
This is appended in the Pres. to the short characteristic-vowel ; 
but in the second Aor., to the lengthened vowel (a being 
lengthened into 17, c into ci, o into ov, ( 170, 1) ; thus, 

Pres. l-ffri-ycu n-^i-ycu di-S^rcu Ztucv^t^yoi 

Second Aor. orrj-poi bu-yeu iov-yau. 

Rex. 6. The Inf. Pass. Aorista of all verbs are like rrqMUy .e. g. rvr^riw, 

(g) The endings of the Res. and second Aor. pavtioiple are 
-ITS* -vnm, -KT, which are joi| ed to the characteristic-vowel 
according to the common rules ; thus, 

l-^rd-yrs == l-orAs, /-arSira, liirriv 

ii-i^-yrs =3 8i>8oiSs, •owra, '^y 
9§uc'y^yTS = Btuc-yts, -wro* •^- 

grist •TM'a, grip 


Kbm. 7. The participles of the two Pass. Aorists of all ve/hs are like the 
Part, ri^tts, or ^Is, e. g. Twr-cfj, •cmto, -^k, fiovXev^^ts, 

2. Tlie personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of verbs 
in -Q), except that uniformly, in the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and 
almost always in the Impf Ind. and in the Imp., tlie personal- 
endings retain their full form, -o-cu and -ao. Still, the following 
points are to be noted : — 

(a) The second Pers. Pres. Ind. of verbs in -a (as Tdmy/ii, Z^yofuu)t is only 
in Attic prose ; the contracted form is found, from the earliest period, only 
in the poetic dialect, e. g. Mtrr^ from Marofmt in Acsch., S^ (from the Ionic 
ending -€«) instead cf 8^i^, in Soph, and Eurip. — In the second Pers. Imp. 
and in the Impf., To-tm seems to be only poetic ; bat, ivtcrm^ iivic^rtt, S^ir««, 
1lZiy§ff are tne regular fonns in gooa prose, and the uncontrocted forms 
scarcely occur except in the poets and later writers. 

(b) In verbs in -«, the contract forms in the Imp. Pres. are poetic and rare, and 
in the Indie. Impf. not at all in use j thus, Impf. iri^wo. Imp. ri^wo (ribov) ; in 
the second Aor., both of verbs in -< and -o, the contract are the regular forms, 
e. g. Indie €^ov, Imp. doi; ; i^v, Zov, In verbs in -o also, the oncontactcd 
forms seem to be the usual ones in the Impf. and Imp. : ^lioco^ 8£Bocra. 

(c) The contracted forms aro uniformly employed throughout the Subj. ; in 
the Opt., as in verbs in -«, the <r is always omitted, yet the form remains 
uncontracted. • 

Rem. 8. The Sing. Impf. Act of rt^fu, is Ird^r, 2 Pers. irf^Uf 3. 4ri^i 
(from TI8EA), iri^us and iri^tt being more frequent than ir(^§, iri^; on 
irifUt see 4 180; the Sing. Impf. Act of BiZwfu is always iitScw (fr. AIAOA), 
iilBovSy etc. (X. An. 5. 8, 4. is to be read i9iBovs instead of Hidws, according to 
the best MSS.) In yerbs in -v/u, the forms in -tm are usual throughout the I^*es. 
and Impf., especially in third Pen. PL Indie Act, e. g. Scim^iwiCj^), and 
the only forms in the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt, e. g. 8«uci^, ifiyim, avft^irf 
rCvf together with 8c(irw/iu, 6fiyvfu, trvfifdyyufu. — In Attic poetry, there 'arc also 
contracted forms of rt^fu and hi/u in the second and third Pers. Sing. Pres. 
Ind. Act., e. g. ri^us, Uh, ri3««, ifZ — But the Middle admits the fonnation in 
'6m only in the Subj. and Opt. 

Formation of rns Tbkbeb. 
♦ 173. I. hirst Class of Verbs in -m, 

1. In forming the tenses of the Act., the short characteristic- 
vowel is lengthened, both in the Fut. and first Aor. Mid^ 
namely, a into 17, c into rj ; also in the Perf. Act. of rvSri^ and 
irjfu, € is lengthened into «, Eind o into cd ; but in the remaining 
tenses of the Mid., and throughout the Pass., the short charac- 
teristic-vowel is retained, with the exception of the Perf. and 
Plup. Mid. and Pass, of riSrffu and iiy/xi, where the ci of tho 
Perf. Act. (rc-^ciKo, tc^ci/juu, euca, elpu) is retained. 

2. The first Aor. Act and Mid. of riSrjfUy tyjfju, and SiSufu, faaa 
K for the characteristic of the tense, no*, o- ; thus. 


The foTins of the first Aor. Act c^i^ko, ^ko, and cScoica, however, 
are usual only in the Ind., and generally only in the Sing. ; in 
the Other persons, the Attic writers commonly used the forms 
of the second Aor. ; in the other modes and the paxticipials, 
the forms of the second Aor. were always used. 

Examples of the first Aor. m the PL Ind. are: ^leafuy, X. C. 4. 2, 15. 
^Axttfurt X An. 3. 2, 5. O. 9, 9. 10. ISifirarc, Antiph. 138, 77. HSwcom, X. Of. 
4. 6, 12. &i|jray, H. 2. 3, 20. i^icoy, Cj. 4. 5, 14. 

Also the forms of the second Aor. Mid. of riSrjfu, Irjfii, and 
SfcSufu, are used by the Attic writers instead of the first Aor. ; 
^KoiiTjiy from Ltj/u occurs, though but seldom. On the contrary, 
the forms of the second Aor. Ind. Act. of TtSrifu, hjfu, and StSu/a 
{iSrjv, ^, IBoiv), are not in use. 

3. The verb Zon^/a forms the first Aor. Act. and Mid., like 
verbs in '<a, with the tense-characteristic o-, e. g. l-ony-cr-a, i-amf 
cr-ofopf. The second Aor. Mid. iardfirjv is not used. Some 
oUier verbs, however, have a second Aor. Mid., e. g. hrrdfirp^, 

KsMAXK 1. The second Aor. and the second Fat. Pass, are wanting in these 
rerbs, also the Put. Perf., except in Tonj/it, the Pat. Perf. of which is Iot^Im 
and ItfT^ofiox, ^ 154, 6. 

Rbm. 2. On the meaning of the verb Torvy/ii, the following things are to bo 
noted.* the Pres., Impf., Fut., and first Aor. Act. have a Trans, meaning, to 
pfooe; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Perf. and Plap., Act. and the Put. 
Perf., have a reflexive or Intrans. meaning, topicux oni» ielf, to stand, namely, 
Urrupy I placed mytdf, or / stood; lonjira (witn present signification), / have 
placed m^seUl I stand, sto ; ioT^ccu^, stabam; Irr^^w, icrii^ofuu, stabo {iup^or^w, 
I shall loUhdraw). The Mid. denotes either to placeyor one's sdf, to erect, to stand, 
oonsistere, or to place one^s self; Pass, to be placed. *£<m}ica and iar^ear nsnally 
take the place also of the forms corayMu and iordfiriv, which occur bat rarely. 

J 174. IL Second Class of Verbs in -pn. 

There is no difliculty in forming the tenses of verbs of the 
second class (i 169, 2). All the tenses are formed from the 
stem, after rejecting the ending -wv/j^l, or -vvp.i. Verbs in -o, 
which in the Pres. liave lengthened the o into ci>, retain the oi 
through all the tenses, e. g. arpfo-vyv-fiLj {w-waJ-fti, p^a-vyv-fu, Fut. 
arpfO'crto, etc. But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, in form- 
ing some of the tenses, assume a JTieme ending in a vowel, 
c. g. opL'VV'puLy Aor. (ufi-o-o-a, from 'OMOO. The second Aor. and 
the second Fut. Pass, occur only in a few verbs, e. g. ieiy-vv-pL 
See * 182 



H 17A 

♦ 175. Paradigms of 




1 s 


TTA' ibjAaot, 

eftfto put. 


AO- to give. 

AEWr to thtw. 



& £ 

S. 1. 




ZtU-p^iu * 









' ar-8»-<ri(i^) 















P. 1. 











(from fffrd-dfl^i) 




and ri-^riiri(r) 

and 8k-8oMri(y) 


S. 1. 






























P. 1. 










ri-i^w-<ri( y) 


S. 2. 





(from Ttfradi) 

(from T^J^cdi) 

(from StSai^i) 

(from ZtikyvS^i) 

















P. 2. 












and i'Ordifrwv 

and ri-d4yrtav 

and Zi'Ziymy 

and 8ciJr»i'^Kr«r 





2-<rrds, atro, dy 

ri'ddSj flo-ft, ^p 

ttt-Zo6Sj oVaat 6y 

Scur-i^s, v&a, tv 

G. ({yros 

G. 4yfos 

G. Syrox 

G. ^yroj 














4-Zi-Zov * 










• 2 







P. 1. 


































l-aTM-Toy * 

TI-J^cT-TOV * 

Zi-Zo7-Toy * 
















pccially 6«ucyvov 

vi{y). Alsolmi 

~^ And Jcur* 

■v-w, -ftj, etc., es 

>f. 4B«(Ktni6v, -iSti', 

-^(y), and the Fart. usually 8< 

uKyt-cay, -omra, -( 


J). M172.RCIT 


♦ 175.J 



Verbs in -fii. 


IgtK" to phee. 


tX}- to give. 

AEIK' to dmo. 























































i-<l*l JIHTwOI' 






IHI'I If'if9€ 






l-ar&'iro aod 

rl-^9^0 and 

8/-<o-«'o and 




















l-^rAnrdw^aif and 

rh^4'c!^0om^ and 

Si-S^dwo'ai' and 





and 9fifc-i^(r;^»i' 





h^rd-futntSf fly 0¥ 

Ti-^4'fityosy i|, w 

Zt-96'fiMyoSf 1}, oi> 

I ffrirfUflP 




t-VT&^o and T'#r« 




T-otA-to . 




t iirri'iu^o0 




I T-9ra'<rdor 




1 l-^rir<r^v 

i Ti'^4-<rbtiP 
















Bt-Sol-fUiy ' 




























5. ^ 4 172, Bern 8. 

^S 172, Rem. 3. 

* On the irreg. ac 

>ccnt of MrrofutL. 

•tc^ see S 176, 1. • 

* On the accent in i 

irio-Toio, etc. aeo 4 1 

76, 1. » f 176, 2 








STA-lo place. 

»E- to /luf. 




! . 

1 '. 

] ! 

(!■-*„-,) J A. J 

(?-»«.) 1 A 1 
{l-S--. > used 











D. 1. 





If! If III 






«. a. 


P. 3. 





Gen. trrirrot 




Gen. S/rro. 

Gen. Wrra. 






utd Id ttaa Dul, 




Ti-i,i-Ma 1 i^-S«-« 






1. ftrf 

J-ai^tBOldAuJ wumiTiB, 1 wanting. 



the eimplcs, c. c. iirofrrJffi, />»4t», SwUm*'- 'Scd t lT^R«ni.3. *Ia 
• See t 176, 3. ' MH^y «o<i r,H'">i«u inMpnil of «/ifl. nnrt »,»VoMm, 

♦ 175.1 






STA- tj place. 


AO- to give. 

AEIK- U> show. 

{i-^rrd-iaip docs 



not occur, bat 

fdov (from C^co'o) 

f-^ov (from (ioffo) 



















[wrA-fuu does not 



occur, bat irpUt- 



iuu^ f^ -ir«t 






(tfTo^^nr does not 



oecnr, bat irpud" 



fopf^ -ato -mrOf 








(mrdrvo, or ord 

dov (from ^iao\ * 

8ov (from Z6ero) ' 

does not occur, 



bot lepia-cOf or 




^4'a^wfcuy and 

Utrhwvar and 

{^rdrabm) wpicur. 



{^rd-futfos) xpta- 

bi-iuvotf -i|, -oy 

id-fuposf i|, -or 









Instwid of thcue fonns, Um leeond Aor. Mid. it 

UMd by the Attic writozs, f 178, 2. 





i-irrirfiiiyf ^ 173, 




Rem. 2. 

^-tfT^o^ioi,'^ wanting. 




^ JFW. 1. 1 trr&'^iffo/uu 1 Tc-d^iroftoi' | So^ito/mu | 8c(x-i^<''<>^mu 

^ 21, 2. "* Also in composition, iy^fuu^ -p, -^cu, etc.. inro^&fuu, ^, -^ru. 

eCc^ ^«8e»/ia<, -^, -wrcu, etc., &ro8«fMU, -^, -wroi, etc. " See 4 176, 2. * In 

composition, Kord^ovt Ar^ov; xcp/Sov, &t^v; jeartCj^tfri^, irfp(8o<r;^; fn^cr- 

a«, irp^doir^ ; bnt iv^ov^ cisdov ; rpoSov, ^yfov» ^ 1 1 8, Rem. 1 *<* U 54, 6, and 

S 173. Rem. 2 


216 SUHHART OF VERBS IN -fU. [H 176, 17V 

4 176. Kemarks on the Paradigms. 

1. The yerhi B^ya/iai,tobe able; 4iri(rrafiai,toknow,»xidxp^tiattoittohamff^ 
havo a different accentuation from Iffrofuu, in the Fres. Subj. and Impfl Opt^ 
namely, Subj. Zvyvfuu, Martofjuu, -^, -ifrcu, fia-^oyt ^<r^«, •wrrtu'j Opt. 8vMi(/ftt|ry 
iwurrcdfiriy, tuo, -auro, -aur^oif, -ajur^tf -auno } so also hvtdita^pf -om^ -«iiro (4 1 77, 
4), and ivpid^riv (§ 179, 6). 

2. The forms of the Opt Mid. Impf and second Aor. in -o«, viz. rido(^i|r, 
Mui|>, were preferred to those in fc, viz. ri^cZ/ii^r* -cm, -crro, etc., ^cifnyr, -«Sb9 
-crro, etc. In compounds, the accent xx^mains as in simples ; thus, iwSioUatr 
{iybtlariy)i iy^oio {iy^tto)^ etc. ; so also in compounds of 9oltA7fy, e. g. ^taSoUa^^ 
SioSoib, etc. 

S. On the abbreviated form of the Perf. and flap. : ^-m-^-rotf, t-ojirmm^^ 
€'<rrii,'r€t ^•0'rd"<ri(y), see ^ 193. 

4. Verbs in -vfu, as has been seen, form the Subj. and Opt like veriM hi -tfw. 
Still, there are some examples where these modes follow tne analogy of rexbm 
in-/u: Siros/i^ iiacK^idyyvrat (instead of -^ou), PL Phaedon. 77, b. f^otr^ 
Tc K«d vtyyvTo (from '^iro^ instead of -^oiro), Ibid. 118. a. 

5. In the later writers, e. g. Polybins, a Perf. and Plop, are ibond with the 
Trans, meaning, / Aat;e p/acea, namely, co'tAko, iariic§iy, 


I. Verbs in -fn which annex the Personal-endings immediately 

to the Stem-vowel. 

i m. (a) Verbs in -a (t-o-riy-fit; STA-): 

1. Ki-xpri-fu, to lend, to bestato (XPA-), Inf. taxpavai, Fut XPV^'^ 
Aor. cxpi;oti. Mid. to borrow, Fut. xfrljaofuu, (Aor. IxpeqaaiL'qv in 
this sense is avoided by thd Attio writers.) To the same stem 

belong : — 

2. xp^T i^ ^ necesaary^ oparUt (stem XPA- and XPE-), Subj. xPV* ^^^' XP^"^* 
Part, {rh) xP^^y (usually only Kom. and Ace.) ; Impf. ixpnt^* or XP^^ (with 
irregular accent), Opt. xp^Iti (from XPE-) ; Fut. XP^^'^^ ^ Soph, (but not 

Inf. xPVt^i ^^oxpvy, in Eurip., by contraction from yjpiiunv, 

3. 6.v6xprit it suffices, sufficit; the following also arc formed rcgnlariy from 
XPAA: &Toxp«a'<(i')j luf. &troxpn>'i Part. &Toxp»f > -cMra, -di^ ; Impf.&v^x^i ^^^ 
&iroxp^<rffif Aor. &WxP*l'*(>')t ®^c. ^lid. iflnxp^fuut to abuse, abutaTf or cormjuo, 
Inf. ikToxpv^r^Mi is inflected like xp^ftat, ^ 129, Kem. S. 

4. oviyrffU (with Attic reduplication instead of ovon;^), to ben* 
ijit, ('ONA-) Inf. ovtmvcu; Impf Act wanting, lu^eXow being 
used for it ; Fut on/o-w ; Aor. {avqa-a^ Inf oi^oxu (for it Mjiytu^ like 
^Tt^voxy in PI. Rp. GOO, d.). Md. ovivafiai, to get benefit, be benc' 
fitted, Fut. ovqaroiiAi ; Aor. (inj/xiyv ((ii/oi/xi/v later, but also in Eur. 
'Ivao"^^, ^rjcro, -tfroy etc., Imp. oirqa-o. Part, on^ficvo^ (Hom.), Opt. 
waiiL'qvt -aco, -euro (^ 176, 1), liif Svaxr^tu ; Aor. Pass, cun^^ip rarer 

) 178.J S0M1IARY OF VERBS IN ^iU. 217 

instead of M^Lrfv, Trie resnaining forms are supplied by 

6, vt'fi'vkif'fu, to JiS, (HAA-) Inf. irijiirXayai ; Inipf. hrLfjujrkqy ; 
Fut vAijcm; Perf. vhrXiyca; Aor. lirXiycra; Mid, to Jill for one*s 
le^ vcf»-Aapuy Inf. ir^AfluTi^; Impf. hrtft^rkofiify ; Aor. lirAifa-A- 
«i.ip ; Fut. vXryrofuu; Perf. Mid. or Pass. irca-XiTcrfuu ; Aor. Fqsb. 
hrXijtrSriy 131); Fut Pass. 7r\ifir3^ofmL (i 131); second Aor. 
hrX^fiapTf Poet Verb. Adj. vXa/yrrw. 

The /I in the lednplication of this and the following verb is nsaall/ omitted 
in composition, when /a precedes the rednplication, e. g. ifiwtwkHfuu^ but ^ytiri^ 
irA;«^i|ir. Contreiy to this rale, however, forms with and without fi are both 
Qted hj the poets, aoDoiding to the necessities of the tctn. 

6. vfyarfTifu, to burn. Trans., in all respects like vfyivkrjfu : vpiq^ 

7. TAH-MIy to endure, Pres. and Impf wanting (instead of 
theOl viTD/t^^ dy€)(pfAai); Aor. ^rXqy, (tAxu,) rXalrp^, rXrjSl, rXds 
(rXacra); Fut rXiyo-o/Mu; Perf rerXi^Ko. Verbal Adj. TX7T09. (In 
Attic prose this verb is rare.) 

8. ^Ti^ ^ ^ (stem ^A-)» has the following formation : — 

» 178. 

Prtsait. ACTIVE. 

ImperfieL ] 



















ifilSt usually f^<r;^ 
1^ ((♦116,2). 


♦*> ♦P** ^» 4^0V, ^fl€V, 

^(, or ^1 (ir^/i^&^t), ^r«, 
troir and ^dyrmp 



^T}y, ^iff, ^^9 fcdiiTw 
and fflSror, ^vtlgnpf and 
^o/rfy, ^^riftMf and ^cu- 
fiei', ^ifTf and ^eurr, ^cucy 


*-.^ — 


Perf Imp. irt«Ar;^ (PI. Tim. 72, d.), Utithei 
Pragm. 3. [X. Cy. 6. 1, 21, is a fake reading 
687, in chorus. Part, ^iixtvos (rare), affirmm 

Verbal adjective, ^tards, 5 

ou/. Impf. Ind. I^orro, Lys. 
] ; Inf ^dirdat, Aesch. Pen. 



* In com])OHition : iunl^fu, trCft/^fu, iarri^iifai{y), 0^fi^<ri(y), etc., but ianf 
^^ (accent on ultimate), trvfA^s, and Subj. krri^, iarri^s, etc. 


Remark 1. In the second person ^]f s» both^the accentuation and the Iota 
subscript are contrary to all analogy. On the inclination of this verb in tbe 
Pres. Ind. (except 4»ifr), see § 33, a. 

Rem. 2. This verb has two significations, (a) to «ay in general, (b) to affirm^ 
(aio) to asaert, to custtre^ etc The Fat ^icvf and Aor. H^riau, have only the 
last signification. The Part. ^ is not used in Attic prose ; still, ^ PI. Ale. 2. 
139, c. ^drrts. 

Rem. S. With ^rifd the verb ^fi(, tn^uom, may be compared, which, like 
inquam, is used in the spirited repetition of what had been said ; the imperfect 
4r, 1i is used in the phrases Ijp 8* fyi6, aaid /, j| 8* Zs, §cnd he^ to describe a coOf" 

i 179. The following Deponents also belong here, 

1. ayofmi, to iDonder, Impf. rjrydfirjv; Aor. rj^wrSr/y (rjyaardfLTit^f 
Epic and Dem. 18, 204) ; Fut Ayaa-ofjim, Verbal Adj. Syatrroi. 

2. Svyofjuu, to be able, second ^Pers. Suvcurai [S''^7? from the Ion. 
Swcoi, tragic and later, * 172, 2, (a)], Subj. Sww/aoi (* 176, l),lmp. 
8tWo-o, Inf. Svvaa-Sait Part Svva/jievo9 *, Impf. iSwd/irpr and -q^uvdfuffyf 
second Pers. c8iW (not iSvvaxro, i 172, 2), Opt^SuFoufiip'f hwaio 
(i 176, 1) ; Fut Svi^o-ofuu ; Aor. i^wiQSriy, rfiwiiSriy and Hwao-STfif 
(not ^&Wo''9ip'), the last Ion. and in Xen. (Aug., i 120, Rem. 
1) ; Perf. ScSum/fuu. Verbal Adj. &;varo9, able woid possible. 

3. hrurrapm (Hke urrofuu), 2o A;not<7, (properly, to stand upon 
something, to be distinguished from iffHorrafim), second Pers. 
cn-urraovu (ivun^ Seldom and only Poet), Subj. hrunwfuu (II 176, 
1), Imp. hrtarto [seldom and only in the poets and later writers, 
hrUrrturoy k 172, 2 (b)] ; Impf. rpruTTdfirjv, yiriarto [seldom and 
only in the poets and later writers, vpriuraxroj h 172, 2 (b)]. Opt 
iirurT€UfA,7p^y hrumuo (k 176, 1) ; Fut orton/cro/uu ; Aor. t j ir u n i / ^y* 
(Aug., § 126, 3.) Verbal Adj. iirumjTOi, 

4. Upofiai, to love (in the Pres. and Impf. only poetic, in prose 
Ifidjfa is used instead of it) ; Aor. ^pacr^v, I loved; Fut'cpoo-^if- 
aofiaty I shall love, [Pass. Ifuofmi (from ^mud), / sliaR be loved] 
Verbal Adj. ipaaro^. 

6. Kpifjuifjuai, to Jiang, he suspended, pendeo, Subj. xpifuofuu 

(♦ 176, 1), Part. Kp€fJLdfJU€VO^ ; Impf CKptfJLOpnjV, Opt Kp€fimfLTJV, -oio, 

•<uTo (♦ 176, 1), (Arist Veap. 298, Kpifjuour^t, comp. fjApvafim, 
t 230, and fxtfivoCfjuriv, i 154, 8); Aor. iKptfLaucr^nyi Fut P^s 

I 180.] 



Kp€fLajirSi^ofjLai, I sIulU he hung; Fut Mid. Kpefi^ofuu, pendeho 
I shall hang. 

6. irpioo-^ai, to buy, iirpuxfirjVf second Fers. hrpua (an Aor. Mid., 
and found only in this tense, which the Attic "ivriters employ 
instead of the Aor. of oivco/uuu, viz. iunn/jaufAtiv, which is not used 
by them, } 122, 4), Subj. Trpuofxai (♦ 176, 1) ; Opt jrpuufiriy, -ato, 
•euro (t 176, 1); Imp. vpua; Part vptdfuvo^. 

♦ 180. (b) Verbs in -e (Tt-Sti-fn, 0E-) 

•l-Ty-/u (stem *E-), to send. Many forms of this verb are foimd 
only in composition. 




Aor. IL 


Ind. A}M<i ^'> ^hia'i{y)f Irrw] Tc/ity, Tcrc, leun{p) [/cun(y)]; 
Sabj. I£, IpSf tjl ; i^otf ; i&fityf Ifyr** i»ffi{p) \ &^<«, aipi!§St 

Imp. Tec, I4r»f etc. — Inf. icW. — Part. 2e/f, /tri^o, Uy. 

Ind. tow (from 'I£A), ii/^low (rarer li^tow, rare Teiy, xpofco', ^^/cn'), 
TA, Tct, &^fc( (rarer 4^/ci); Teroif, i^i|v; 7cficir, Trr«, Tcff'ai', 
ib^Uaay (rarer ^^fctroy). 

Opt. (efi}if (second Fers. PI. &^(oitc, Plat.; third Pcrs. PI. iuplotty, 
2k. H. 6. 4, 3). 

Ciira. — Plu^ cZkcu'. — Fut. IJ<r«». — Aor. L ^mi (^ 173, 2). 

Ind. Sing, is supplied by Aor. I. (^ 173, 2) ; Dnal cTrov, iupurov, 

ttniy] Plnr. cFmcy, Ko^cifiei', efrf, dycrrc, f<rar, commonly 
, cftf'air, iL^uray, 
Snbj. 2, f f, &^, &^f, etc. 
Opt. cfiyy, cTiyr, cfij ] §XToy, iupwoy^ tlriiy ] 9tfiMy, &^c^y, cfrc, &^ci- 

Tc, cfci', d^cicv. 
Imp. cf, &^T, crw ; Irov, K^rroi^, ervi^; $rc, A^rrf , rrcMTor and trruy. 
Inf. tXycu, iut>uyM. — P. fti^ cfdro, d^itro, ci^, A^^i^, Gen. Zyros, dfinys. 

B EM ASK 1. On the Ang. of &^(i}/4i, see § 126, 3. 

Rbm. 2. The form of the Impf. hiy is very doabtfbl, and the forms 2i}f , Ti| 
arc rery rare. The form Uuf has the ending of the Plup., like the Impf of fTjfu, 
l9 ^ ; it is Att and Ion., a secondary form of 1mm, 







Aor. IL 

Ind. Tcfuu, TfO'ai, Trrai, etc. — Subj. im/aoi, A^wfioi, fpt a^<^f etc 
Imp. Ua'o, or Tov. — Inf. Tetr^ox. — Pan. Ufurosy -17, -or. 

Ufififf Uffo, etc. — ' Opt. Uifirir, Att. io(fii|ir, /olb, i^ioio, etc. 

Ind. cl^inr 

•IjfAcda, etc. 

Opt. Tpootfiffiff -010, -orro, -ol/i^^ -our^c, 
-oirro («]pocrre, xpociSri^, irpocSrro 
are rarer forms) 

Imp. oZ (&^v, Tpoov), second Pars. PI. 
Itrdf (Ji^r;^, iniN^dc), laAw, etc.). 

Inf. Itrdw. — Part, tiityos, i|, -or. 

Perf. er/iai, /ici^ci)uai ; Inf. cfo'J^, /if^cTtr^^oi. — Plap. cTfAiir, efo-o, &^ 
— Put 9^o/4cu. — Aor. I. iiKd/itiv (rare, ^ 173, 2). 

^"iaOf etc 


A. I. t'&JiP, P. £d^Mu, etc — Fut. i^o/uu, — Verb. Adj.Mf, fr^of ((t^croi). 

Rem. S. Besides the two verbs ridiifu and tif/u, only the following dialoctie 
verbs belong here, viz., *AH-MI, AI-AH-MI (AE), (though Si8cari(y). from the 
last is foand in X.) ; S/^iifuu and AIH-MI. 

} 181. (c) Verbs in -i, only clfii (*I), to go. 

Pkeliminabt Remark. The verbs e7/ii, to go, and <//i^ ^ 6«, are pre- 
sented together (though the last, on account of its stem *ES, does not belong 
here), in order to exhibit to the eye the agreement and disagreement of tbft two 
verbs in their formation. 


Ind. S. 1. 

tlfd, to be 

Subj. i 


c^i, toga 

Subj. tm 
















P. 1. 



P. 1. 















Imp. S. 2. 


Inf. §hat 


t^i, rp6sAt 

Inf. iVroi 



(scld. wpSsu) 




Part. opr.tfwOf 








fror, frp6stToy 

ott, 2^r 

P. 2. 


G. tyros, ofhrns 



Gen. I^rrof, 



{wap^y, irapov- 

P. 2. 

fre, irp6sn€ 


(rare lirr«iy; 

fftLj VOpoVf 


IrttvoMy or 

irrw. Plat. 

G. wup6yTos) 

lAyrwy (fr«r 



G. vopi^^of ). 

i 161.] 






^ir, IwtU 

2. Vda(in^s) 

3. ^p (from ^e w) 
D.2. ^i9Tw{^w) 

P. 1. i^'fuw 

S. n^tuf 

Fat. fof/iot, /fAol? &e, 
— Part imipAvr 











cAf^MF (seldom cT/mv) 

P. 1. 

f&ir« (add. poet cZrc ) 


cfi|<ray and f Tci^ 



S. 1. 

^ciy or ^a, / tM^ 
^cfs and ittff^a 
fttropf ns'ly j^tov 

jlfc^ay ( ^<raK poet ) 


loifu or 


Itrp, or Irci, fareu, etc. — Opt ^o'o(/ii}>'. ^Inf. (fff<rbeu. 
. — Verbal Ai^. iffr4op, aw^riw. 

Middle Fobm : Pres. fc/uu, Xt^m or fp, fcrou, etc., Imp. Ifco-o, Inf. Uc^tu^ 
Part {^ficvos; the Impf. Ufitiy^ fc^-o, etc., signifying to hasten^ ought 
probably to be written with the rough breathing, which is strongly 
confirmed by the manascripts, and to be referred to %mu, — Verbal Adj. 
irh^i Iriw^ rarer knrior. 

Rbmabx 1. On the inclination of the Ind. of c{/J, to be (except the second 
Peis. cl), sae ^ 33 (a). In componnds, the accent is on the preposition, as far back 
as the general rules of accentuation permit, e. g. TcCpet/u, irdpci, 'irdpwri{y)y etc. 
Imp. mpur^i, |tvruri^i ; but wofniy on account of the temporal augment, Tapirrcu 
on account of the omission of c (vo^o'crcu), irap«7ycu like infinitives with the 
ending -rat, vapd, ^r, -$, eto^, irap««rc, TopcTcv, on account of the contraction ; 
tiie accentnotion of the Part, in compound words should be particularly noted, 
e. g. fnp^f Topov^a, 'rap^y. Gen. rap4yros (so also vapi^y. Gen. trapiSyr os). 

Rem. 2. The compounds of ff7/a, to ^, follow the sann rules as those of 
tl/d^ to be; hence several forms of these two verbs are the same in compounds, 
e. g. «ipci/u, vdpti, and ir^uri{y) (the last being third Pers. Sing, of §Jiu and 
thud Pen. PL of ^ifd) j but Inf. wmpUmif Part vapt^. 

Rem. 3. The form cTcr, esfo, &« tf ao! good! shortened from cfi; and strength- 
ened by a y, must be distinguished from the shortened form tUv instead of 
«f«0ar of the third Pers. PL Opt Impf. — A secondary form, yet critically to be 
tejected, of the third Pers. Imp. 4|rr« instead of Irrw, is found once in PL Hp. 
361, c, with Uie varying reading trrw, — The form of the first Pers. Impf is 
•ften 4» Among the Attic poets, and sometimes also in Plato ; the form fii».riy is 
tare (Lys. 7, 34, X. Cy. 6. 1, 9). — The form of the second Pers. Impf. ^s is 
Ibnnd frequently in the later writers, and rarely in lyric passages of the Attio 
poets. -^ The Dual forms with o- are preferred to those without a"! on the con- 
trary, ^< is preferred to V^c (Aristoph.). 

Rem. 4. The form of the third Pers. Sing. Impf. ffcty instead of |^», from 
fLu, sometimes occurs, even before consonants, Ar. Pint. 696. vpovjuy (in 
Semrius) ; PL Crit p. 114, d. (in the best MSS.) ; ^eir, PI. Crit 117, e. (in the 
test MSS.); vp^Wy PL Tim. 43, 6 ; &i^c(y, ib. 60, c ; iiq^co', lb. 76, b. 

BcM. 5. The Ind. Pres. of cT/ti, to 90, has regularly in the Attic prose- 
writers the meaning of the Fat IshaU or wtU go or coim ; hence the Pros, is 
supplied by Mpx'^iuu {S 167, 2^ ; the Inf and Part, have likewise a Pres. and 
Vat raeaoJDg. 



'f 182. 

TL Verbs in -;ii which annex the Syllable vpv or pv to the 
Stem-Towel and append to this the Personal-endings. 

« 182. Formation of the Tenses of Verbs whose Stem 
ends with a, c, o, or with a Consonant. 

A. Yerbs whoso Stem ends with a» c, or •. 


Tenses. a. Stem in a. 

b. Stem in f. 

c. Stem in • («). 








i-mcM-pyv-p ' 
Att <rjr(M, -f 5, -§ 

KOffi'pyv-fu ' 
i-KMi-pyv-y ' 


Att. KOp&f -«4J, -€* 
















i 9rpm nft-foiw 





Verbal Adj. 




' And ffic^orPrCmf kntM-pyvw— 
trrpA-tww (v always short). 


■Kop€-nfC», i'Kop4'nrvw — crrptfrrAm, ^1 

B. Veibs whose Stem ends with a Consonant 


Perf II. 
Plup. I. 
Plup. IL 
Aor. I. 

6\-\v-iu^* perdo, I Sx-M-fuut pereo, 

iX-^KfKm ('OAEA), perdidi, 

♦ 124,8. 
tK-mk-a, peril, 
j\-«»\c-«rcir, perdideram, 
ikr^x-uy^ perieram, 

• % M M M 

A. H. u\-6/Kiiw 

4 124, 2. 

^•o^imf '§1 





A. L P. mfij^^c^n^ (et upj^) 
F. L P. Jyio-0--d4«noyiai. _ 

And oAX^, Hxxv-op — h/ip^^f tf/dv-er (always 6). 

Remakk. "OWvfu comes by assimilation from i\-pvfu (418, Bem.). For an 
example of a stem-ending with a mute, see d^UpOfu aboye, under the para 
digms (§ 175). The Part Perf. Mid. or Pass, of IfurOfu is hfjM/ufffi4p9$. Thn 
remaining forms of the Perf. and Plup. commonly omit the <r among the Attio 
writers, e. g. ^pjAfurcu, o/uS>«oto. 

f 183.] SITHHARY OF SOME VEABS IN -fit. 223 


The Stem ends, 
A. In a Vowel and assamos -rrft. 

k 183. (a) Verbs whose Stem ends in a, 

1. Ktpd'yvv'fu (poetic secondary form KtproM, Kipvrffu ; Epic aiid 
poet Kipdua), to miXj Fut. K€paatt}, Att K€p(o; Aor. ck^oou; Perf. 
KCKpojca; Mid. to mix for one^s self, Aor. UfpacrdfLTp^ ; Perf. JNlid. 
or Peiss. K€icpafjLiu (KtKipaa-fAMf Aoacr. 29, 13 ; Inf. KtKtpaaSai, Luc. 
Dial. Meretr. 4, 4); Aor. Pass. hcpa^Tiv, Att. also iK€pda-$rpf 
(Metathesis, i 156, Hem.). 

2. Kp€iJLd'vyv-fu, to hang, Fut. Kptfjb&uio, Att Kptfua ; Aor. ixpifia* 
tra ; Mid. or Pass. Kptfiaannifuu, to hang otWs self, or be hung (but 
Kp€fuSifuu, to hang, i 179, 5) ; (Perf. Mid. or Pass. K^KpiiMjtm in 
later writers ;) Fut Pass. Kf^iuurBrfroitM. ; Aor. iKp€fiMr^rp^, I teas 
hung, or I hung, 

3. irerd'vyv'fu, to spread out, to open, Fut irerifrut, Att irrru ; 
Aor. hra-acra (Perf. Act ireirereuco, Diod.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
trnro/Acu (} 155, 2) (ircircrooTMu, non- Attic and Luc.) ; Aor. Pass. 

4. oTKcSa-vKu-fu, to scatter, Fut dccSoo-cDi Att (nceSo) ; Aor. ^crx^* 
8tim; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ^o-icc&urfuu ; Aor. Pass. c<riceSao'<^. 

♦ 184. (b) Verbs whose Stcm^ends in c. 

Pkbuicinabt Bemark. The yert)S civvfu, ff$4yifOfu, and also (i^mi^ 
(4 186), do not properly belong here, since their stem originally ended in «-, 'EX' 
(comp. Mt-<ui0), 2BE2' (comp. I^/Sco'-tos), ZOS- (comp. (Iwo'-r^p, (ma-^pov, (dfr- 
nff , CoMT-T^f) ; bat by the omission of the ir, they become analogous to verbs in 
•f and -0. 

1. Vwv'/u, to clothe, in prose ufufiUyvv/u, Impf. dfixjueyvw with- 
out Aug. ; Fut dft^co-d), Att <S/i<^ca> ; Aor. rjfju^Utra }» Perf Act 
wanting; Perf. Mid. or Pass. rififl>Ua'fJMi, ripi<f>Ua'ax, rjikf^<rrax, etc., 
In£ ^fL^Mcr^ou; Fut Mid. afuf>UxrofjLai, (Aug. H 126, 3. and 230.) 
The vowel of the Prep, is not elided in the Common language, 
hence also hrUaixa-&<u, X Cy. 6. 4, 6. 

2. il'vyv-fu, to boil. Trans., Fut {ccroi; Aor, ciCc<m; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. ctecTfuu; Apr. Pass. i^ttrSriy. — ({cw, on the contrary, is 
usually intransitive). 

224 SUHMAftY OP 80ME VERBS IN |tt. [M 185-187 

3. Kopi'vyv'iJLL, to scUiate^ Fut. Kopia-to, Att. Kopto; Aor. Iicopccrz; 
Aor. Mid. iKopanrdfiijv; Perf. Mid. or Pass, xocopccrfuu ; Aor. Pass 

4. a-fii'WV'fu, to eocHnguish, Fut. irfi^aw ; first Aor. er^era, J 
extinguished; second Aor. &r/3i7F« J ceased to hum; Perf. ^UrPrpca, 
IIuxvs ceased to hum, — Mid. afieyvv/Mm, to cease to hum, intrans. 
Fut. frPtfcropm; Perf. Mid. or Pass. urPttrfuu; Aor. Pass. I<rj9«y^ 
&7JV] Fut. Pass. <r)3c<r^T/<rofuu. No other verb in -wfu has a 
second Aor. Act (§ 191, 2). 

5. aropi'WV'pji, to spread out (shortened form oroprv/u. Poet. 
and X. Cy. 8. 6, 16), Fut oropcoKii, Att crropui; Aor. con^pccra; 
Mid. to spread out for one^s self. The other tenses are formed 
from trrpfawviu'f iarpwrdfup^ ; itrrpfopjax, iarptaSrp^, urporrot (non< 
Att. fxTToptapjoji, l(Tropl(TSjp^f and laropq^npi). See h 162. 

} 185. (c) Verhs whose Stem ends in t. 

ri-ypV'iu (TI-), to pay, to expiate, Mid. rt'vyl^fuuy to get pay, to punish, to avenge^ 
secondary Epic form of riy» and riwoftmi, — In Attic Doctry. the Mid. is often 
found, and witli one v, rtyiifuu, 

i 186. (d) Verhs in o, with the o lengthened into «•• 

1. i^'WV'pu, togirdy Fut{oxr(D; Perf. tjCfUKOL, Pans.; Aor. l2>iKm; 
Mid. to gird one^s self, Aor. Mid. l^(uxrapLrpr\ Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
Itf^pm {k 131). 

2. pia-wv'p^ to Strengthen, Fut ptMrm ; Aor. tppwm ; Perf. Mid 
or Pass, ippmpm. Imp. Ippwroy vale, faaeweU, Inf. ipj^wr^hu; Aor. 
Pass. i^f^Shp^ (^ 131) ; Fut Pass. ^B^ofuu. 

3. arpta'Virb'px ($ 182), to spread out, Fut ot/mmtqi; Aor. &rrpai- 
oti, etc See aropiyvv-pA (i 184, 5). 

4. ^(p^-wv-px, to color, Fut ^(pwria ; Aor. Ixpwra ; Perf Mid. oi 
Pass. K€)(pwrpjax\ Aor. Pass. t^pwa-Stp^, 

B. Verbs whose Stem snds in a Consonant and assumes -irtr. 

§ 187. (a) In a Mute. 

1. ay-vv-fu, to &rea^, Fiit ^; Aor. htia. Inf. Situ (Part Lys. 

100, 5. icaTcojiavrcs with the Aug.); second Perf. cd-yo, lam 

broken; Mid to hreak for one's self, Kot. ia$dp.7/y; Aor. Pass 
i^yVv(Aug.,« 122,4). 

f 18?.] S^MHA&T OF SOMB VERBS IN fU. 23d 

2. Scuc-vu-fu, see i 175. 

3. €ipy'VV'fu (or c2fiyci>), to s^u^ in, Fut cijo^ot; Aor. 4p^<^ ^^ 
Jlpioi, Part ^? (PL Polit 285, b.), ^cpt^ajrcs (Th. 5, 11), 
{uy^afovros (PI. Ep. 5. 461^ b), Subj. ico^cijp^ (with the vanatioD 
maSlpirgi)^ PL QoTg, 461, d; Aor. Pass, tipx^i Perf. tXpyjuu. 

(But ccjpyck), Cijp£ii>, cljp^ cif>x<^j ^9 <^^>^ ^a^ etc.) 

4. ieuj-vv-fu, to jxnn together^ Fut £ci^ ; Aor. %cv^ ; Mid. to 
jam to or for one*s self^ Fut {cvfb/iuu ; Aor. c^cv^afiTv ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass €lC€fiffjMi; Aor. Pass. i{[cvx^^, and more frequently 


5. /Ar/-n^/u, to mtx (/iccr/ci), secondary form), Fut /u^; Aor. 
^^Z^ fu£(u; Perf. fie/&Ixa (Polyb.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, fiifuy/iai, 
futfux^oM. ; Aor. Pass, ifux^rp^, and i/uyqy ; Fut. Pass, fux^^io-ofiai ; 
Fut Perf. fi^fjii^ofiai, 

6. oty-vv-zu, usually as a compound: (The Attic use of the 
Ibnn diyvvju is not certain) AyoCyvvfu,^ huoLyvvyLi (but instead, 
uyoiyta, Btmyu), are more frequently used in the Pres. and ayiigyw 
always in the Impf), to open, Fut dyot!fito; Aor. &y€to(a, iyoiiai (in 
X. Hell, ^oiyov, rjvoi$a, signifying to put to sea, to iceigh anchor) ; 
first P^f wh^x^ ^ ^^^ opened; seoond Perf. dvc<pya, I stand 
open, instead of which Att Mtpy/Mu; Impf. Mid. &vttay6iJLrjv\ Aor. 
Pass. ayc^<9i^, ivoex^TJyajL (Aug. i 122, 6.) Verb. Adj. dvotKrcos. 

7. ofwpy-vv'^ to vnpe oJJ\ Fut 6fi6p$(o ; Aor. &fwp^ ; Mid. to 
ir^ off from one^s self; Fut 6fjL6p$ofuu; Aor. tl}fjLop$dfirpf ; Aor. 
Pass. ^/jtopx^T^- 

6. v^vv'fu, to fx^flaten, freeze. Fat wiyfa); Aor. hrrjia] first 
Perf. vhrtfxP^ I have fastened; second Perf weTnyyo, J standfast, 
am frozen; Mid. 7nyyw5/«ii, I stick fast; Perf vhnfYfjuu, I sta7td 
fast; Aor. Pass, hrayrp^ (more seldom cTr^x^'P)^ second Fut. 
Pass. iray7(ro/Mu. Verbal Adj. -jnyiCTo?. 

9. p^vv-fu, to rend, Fut /oi^cj; Aor. tpprjia; second Perf 
itppfjjya, I am rent {i 140, Rem. 3); Aor. Mid. ij^pfrfidfLrjv; Aor. 
Pass. ipl^A/r/y '(ij^prfx^ rare) ; seoond Fut payrfvoitm. 

10. ft^pdy^-fu (commonly ^pajcT<rw, tfipdma, h 143, 1), to break 
Impf if^payvvv (Thuc. 7, 74. S. Ant 241); Fut <^/>a^; Aor. 
Ii^pa{d; Perf Mid. or Pass, -jritf^paypxu,', Aoi. Pass. ltf>pa.x^ 
(ii^parffjy first used among the later writers). 

226 VERBS. -^icc^ AMD ^fuu. [^188, 189 

i 188. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in a Liquid. 

1. Ap-pi^fuu (Epic and also in Plato), to take^ obtain^ secondaiy form of tSpor 
fioi, and used only in particular phrases, to obtain, to aogftire, namely, a remtrd, 
tpoiUj etc. Impf. Iifuft/im^. The remaining forms come from tSpofuu, 

2. KT€L'VV'fjiiy commonly written xrivvvfu in the MSS., to put to 
death, Att. prose secondary form of icrciVto, is used in the Pres. 
and Impf. The stem* is KTEIN-, lengthened from KTEN-. 
The V of the stem is omitted on account of the diphthong (f 169, 
Rem. 1). 

3. oK-\v'i>x (instead of oX-w-/u), to destroy. See k 182, B. Li 
prose, only in compounds. 

4. o/i-vu-fu, to swear. See § 182, B. 

5. op-viJ-fu (poet), to rouse (♦ 230). 

6. OTop-vv'^ to spread out. See uropmvfu, k 184, 5. 

k 189. Inflection of the two forms of the Perf K€ifkat 

and ^fiac. 

Frxliminast Hemabk. The two forms of the Perf. ircT/cai and f /««i, 
are so essentially different, in their fonnation, from the other verbs in -|u, that 
they require to be treated by themselves. 

a. Kct/xac, to lie. 

Kcifuu, properly, I have laid myself dotvn, hence I He down; 
then Pass. I have been laid dojvn, I am lying dawn (e. g. dvoKo* 
uoiy I am laid up, i. e. consecrated, ovyicciroi, it has been agreea 
typon, compositum est, constat, but awri^tam, vno rcyo^ it hai 
been agreed by some one) ; this verb is a Perf without reduplica- 
tion, from the stem KEI- ^contracted from K£E-). 

Perf. Ind. Ktifuu, jtcmtcu, ircrrai, ircCftc3a, Ktiff^^ Kturrat; 

Sabj. ic49tftaLf k4j^, k^titcu, etc. 

Imp. Kuiro, Kttff^, etc. ; — Inf. ircZiri^ai; — Part. Kf(tupn» 
Impf, Ind. Ikc^i^v, Ire 10*0, tK^no, third Pcrs. PL tiKtrro, 

Opt. KwifOflf, k4oio, KiotrOf etc. 
I*wL Kfitrofuu, 

Compounda iydxtifim, irorcUci/tcu, irirrdEiccKrai, etc.; — Inf jcaroiccMr^ai;— Imp 

Kordkruro, l<yircieow 

H 190» 191.] VS&BS IN -01 WITH TENSES LIKE THOSE IN -/U. 2/0 

i 190. b. ^UfjLai, to sit. 

1. ^HftMUj properly, I have seated mi/selfl I have been seated, 
hence, I sit (Ion. and poetic, also used of inanimate objects, 
instead of TBpvfjMx, I have been JSxed, established) ; this verb is 
a Per£ of the poet Aor. Act. cloa, to set^ to establish. The stem 
is *HA- (comp. rja-rmi instead of i^roi, according to i 17, 5, and 
the Lat sed-eo), 

Bemabx 1. The actiye Aorist-forms of ttra are dialectic (§ 230) and poet, 
bat the Mid. signifjing to erects to ettabUth, belongs also to Attic prose, tUrdftnitff 
Part ^M/upoM (Th. S, 58, i^^dfuwos] ; Imp. l«-ai, tavm (li^tf-oi) ; Fat poetic 
iffoftoif to-o-ofjMi {i^4o-a'ofuu). The defectiye forms of this yerb are supplied by 


hid. t/MUf i^'flU, {ffTOI, fiflfdv, ((Ti^f , {kTOI } 

Imp. Jo-o, Ijcdm, etc. ; — Inf (tf-dcu ; — Part, lifupos, 
^jfOfF, iiro, iaro, ^bu^a^ iv^*t (rro. 


2. In prose, the compound KoSrffjMi is commonly used instead 
of the simple. The inflection of the compound diflers &om the 
simple in never taking <r in the third Pers. Sing., and in the 
Plup., only when it has the temporal Augment : — 

Perf. K^idrifuus Kodritraif ic^^iyrax, etc.;— >Sabj. jvadS/ra/^ icad^, Kodf- 

rai«etc; — Imp. K^dnao^ etc.;— Inf. Kc&rif^cu] — Part jradif- 


/%9iu iK€Ai/i9pf and mid^/nvy, ixddiiffo and ml^o, iKidriro and 

Ka^fiffrOi etc.; — Opt «ado(/Ai7y, ic^t^M, xd^Trtf etc. 

RsM. 2. The Opt forms: KtA^fitpfy -fo, -fro, etc. are doabtfuL— The 
defectiye forms of f/ioi are sapplied by l^c^dcu, or TCc0«^ (prose mii^^^ctf^^, 


f 191. L Second Aor, Act. and Mid. 

1. Several verbs with the characteristic a, c^ o, v, form a 
second Aor. Act and (though rarely) a second Aor. Mid., ac- 
cording to the analogy of verbs in -/u, — this tense being without 
the mode-vowel, and appending the personal-endings to the 
stem. But all the remaining forms of these verbs are like 
verbs in -w. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act., through all the 
modes and participials is like that of the second Aor. Act of 



verbs in •/«. The characteristic-vowel, with some exceptions, 
is lengthened, as in iarrpf, viz. a and c into ^, o into ««, X and v 
into I and v. This lengthened vowel remains, as in Icmpr, 
Uiroughout the Ind., Imp., and Inf. The third Pers. PI. in 't/traw 
(Char, a) and -vo-ar shortens the vowel, when the poets use the 
abridged form ii|, -t^ instead of -<rav, e. g. ^av, Svy. The Subj.. 
Opt, and Part, with some exceptions, which will be noticed in 
the following tables, are like verbs in -fu, e. g. ^^an/v (oroup}. 
tr/Seu/v (^€ti/v), yvoiipf (SoCipf), yvovs (&>vg). The Imp., like ar^t^ 
in the second Pers. Sing., takes the ending -^i, and the stem 
vowel remains long through all the persons ; in compounds of 
/?aiW, firfSi is also shortened into /3d, e. g. Korafia, irpofid, tUfid^ 
€fLpa, impd instead of Kar^y^i^ etc. 




a. Ckaracteris. a 

BA-n, Mkwi 


Ind. S. 1. 
D. 2. 
P. 1. 

Subj. S. 

Opt B. 1. 



P. I. 



Imp. S. 

D. 1. 

P. 2. 





(Poet, t^) 


fialrrrop Ct airoy 
/Soi^nyv et cUrifv 
fialiift€w et aifU¥ 
ficdrir§ et aire 
fiaut¥ (seldom 

fiftfTv<fw and • 


fiisi Sura, «y 
G. fidvros 

b. Charactcris. c 

SBE-a, irfi4rrvfu, 

to extinguishm 

ivpnv^ I ceased to 
Ibrfiris [bum^ 





fffittflToy ct ctrov 
trfiw^niif ot €(niif 
irM^fitp et wtftar 
afitirfrt et f <t€ 

afiiirwraf and 
trfitls, c<ir«, 4^ 

c. Charactcriik o 

rNO-fi, y Tycty- 

«rw, to Amoii7. 

d. Character. 6 
to icmp up. 

I^yyoty, Iknew^ 





(Poet. $yimif) 
ytrv, yy^s, yi^f^ 

yyHfjLty, wrc , 

yyoiriv * 

yyolffroy Ct oTroy 
ypotifrny et o^n|r 
yyoiiifuy et o^^cr 
yyolTiT§ et o?tc 
yvouw (rarely 

7r&^t, <6rw' 

yy^MFcar and 


yyoisf oStro, ^ 
G. yy^yros 

l<Suy, I went m 
&VS [ortmder, 


(Poet ISfir) 




Svf , MTo, ^r 
I G. {^01. 

G. afiiyros 

* Compoands, e. g. kyafi&, &yappsy etc. ; ajrofffiw j 81071^ ; &ra8^. 

* Acscliyl. Snppl. 230 J215) vvyyy^ ; but in the Mid. form trvyyvMro, 

* Compounds, e. g. Mfii^i. h^i^r^ \ knivfi^i ; hdytw^i] Mav^u 

H 192. 193.] VBABS IN *W LIKB VERBS IN •fU» 229 

The Opt. form 9^r (imttcail of Iwdir) is not found in tUe Attic 
dUiOcct, bat in the Epic {\ 227). 

i 192. Summary of Verbs with a second Aor, like 

Verbs in -/ti. 

Besides the verbs mentioned tboT«« some othen have tills fonn:** 

1« &l^c«, 1o npi awag H 161, 10, Aor. (APA-) l%itr, -ast -d, ^vtuv^.-Ar^t 
^^4V (O^ Toet.), Salj. 9pm, ipfsf 9(4, 9parwy ^pAfitt^, 9fStT€, 9pAai{yl Opt 
Mpabp^f Imp. 9pa^i, -^ru. Inf. Spoi^ai, Fart. Spdf , -otf**, -^, Gen. 9pdrTou 

2. Wr«fiai, lo^y (§166, 29), Aor. (IITA-) frn^v, Inf irr^nu, Part.vrds*, Aor 
Mid. i^rSftniWf mdvl^au 

S. wptardeu, see § 179, 6. 

4. siUkXm or 0'K«A^ to d!ry, second Aor. (2KAA-) fovXiiy, to iri(A^, Intnins., 
Inf. ncX^nu, Opt tf-cAofiir. 

5. f;^i-ya0, to ooflie hejhrt^ to antictpate (i 158, 7), Aor. Ifdirr, f^WK, ^dAf» 

6. ni<»« to &«ni, Trans. (4 154, 2), Aor. (KAE-) Mii^, / bunted^ Intrans. ; bat 
first Aor. iMwstt, Trans. 

7. ^cw, tojhw (f 154, 2), Aor. (*PTE-) ^^^r, I flowed. 
6. x«W> ^ r«/oice (§ 166, 32), Aor. (XAPE-) ix^BifVy* 

9. a^^KOftai, to be taken^ Aor. ('AAO-) f/Awy and 4dXwir (H6\ i), liAAraH 
bUi, -^T, -f , etc., kkUnr, hksCf (always A, except in the Ind.). 

10. fiiovj to Uve^ Aor. ifittw^ Sabj. fim^ -fsf -$, etc., Opt fittf^f (not /Sioftivi 
as yvoliiyi to distinguish it from the Opt. Impf. ^m(i)i'), Inf. fiiStmu^ Fart /9i«i^ 
(oiia'a, ovr] ; but the cases of fiwis are supplied by the first Aor. Fart fitAvas* 
Thus: AM/3£«r, Iniumed to life, from JkMi^«(^ir«/uu ($ 161, 3). The Pres. and 
Impf. offiiStf are but Uttle used by the Attic writers ; for these tenses, they em- 
ploy C^ ; besides these tenses, only the Fut. (fitrtu^ was in good use among Attio 
writers } the remaining tenses were borrowed from fii6o» ; thus, Fres. (A ; Impf. 
f^wr (f 137, 3) ; Fut fit^ofuuy more rarely ffl<^m\ Aor. ifiUty (X. 0. 4, 18, has 
also 4$(mw) ] Ferf. fitfiimKa] Perf. Mid. or Fass. fitfiietrcu, Part. fitfitmfUyos, 

11. ^vw (u or a), to produce, second Aor. li^iir, Intrans., to be prodacedt be bom, be 
waturalli/y ^wfUf ^5, Subj. ^6m (Opt wanting in the Attic dialect) ; but the first 
Aor. t^vefOf Traxia, I produced $ Fut fbffn. Trans./ wUl prodaoe. The Ferf. 
rdfvKOy I am produced^ also has an intransitive sense, so also the Fres. Mid. 
^6^MMf Fat ^^o>tai. 

Rbmabk. Here also boloQff the forms <rx^t and ex^t^w of the second 
Aor. fSff-xwfrom (x*i to have (f 166, 14), and ir?;^! of the second Aor. firtov 
from vi^mt to drink {\ 158, 5). 

i 193- IL Perfect and Pluperfect. 

Hie Attic dialect, in imitation of the Epic» forms a few Per- 
fects of pure verbs immediately from the stem, e. g. AI*0, fv 



[i 193 

/ear, Bi-Bi-a, then rejecting the mode-vowel, in the Dual and PL 
Ind. Perf. and Plup., and to some extent in the Inf., e. g. 8€-&* 
fLty instead of Sc-Si-a-ficv. In this way, these forms of the Perf 
and Plup. become wholly analogous to the Pres. and Impf. of 
verbs in -/u, e. g. l-ara-ficy. The stem- vowel remains short, e. g. 
BtSifi^, rirXiafLfv, rcrXcum ; but in the third Pers. PL Perf, the 
modo'Vowel a is not rejected, e. g. Sc-fii-cUn; with verbs in -ano^ 
however, a is contracted with the stem- vowel, e. g. Tc-TAa-acrt=« 

RjCHARK 1. Except the forms of Alfi and tirny^, all the Perfects of tfaia 
kind belong almost exclosively to poetiy, particalarlj to the Epic. The Sing. 
t4Bta is not Attic. 

Rem. 2. The Imp. of these Perfects is also in ose, and, since it not only 
wants the mode-vowel, but takes the ending -^i in the second Pen. Sing., it ia 
wholly analogous to the forms in -fu. So Uie Inf. Both append their termi- 
nations to the short stem-vowel ; 9tBt4ym is an exception. The Snb|. Perf. and 
the Opt Plnp. of verbs whose stem-vowel is a, are formed like reiiMi m -jtu, since 
the Subj. Pen. admits the contraction of the stem-vowel with the termination, 
and the Opt Plup. ends in -o/itv, e. g. itrrd-mf iarw, -gs^ etc, rcrAo/iyr. The 
Part, of verbs in -iw contracts the stem-vowel a with the ending -i6f and -^s , 
e. g. iara&s = kcr^i, kcra-Ss = ^orcSs and kcr6s, and also have a pecnliar 
feminine form in -mto, e. g. kmStca ; all the Cases retain the w, e. g. lorwros, 
ker^tvus, etc. 

Kem. 3. The form resolved by c is retained in some participles, in the Ionic 
dialect, e. ^. kart^i^ standing firm ; so from r^S^ira, rt^^dts fnevcr rcJ^M&y ) 
together with rc^^inir, is retained in the Attic dialect also. In these forma, 
d» remains in all the Cases, e. g. 

kffTt&iy iiTTfcMray iffrt<&5, Gcn. i<rr§ciT0Sf -^trris, 
rcl^c«&f , rtl^twrOf t^ptAs^ Gen. rij^cdroy, -^tnis. 

B4fifiKa and rirXriKa never have this form of the participle. 





Ind. S. 1. 
D. 2. 















U-Bfi-^i, ScSftw, etc 
9c-9^e0, -pj, -]7, etc. 

$-<rrA-i^i, etc, 3 Pers. PI. 
loTiraMray and "drrmf 


8c-8i-c6y, -v<a, -65, Qen. -^os 

Gen. -arroi, -cSo^f 

Subj. Pf. 
Opt Plup. 

iarA, ps, -v, etc. 

k^rraiipf^ Dual iffredirrop and -cA-or, PL karahiftw and -at/iMp, 
etc., third Pers. PI. itrrcuw. 

rf 194, 195.] VERBS WITH A PERF. LIKE VERBS IN -fU. 231 

Rbm. 4. The Opt Flap, third Pers. Sing. Muiii^ FI. Fhacdr. 251, a. is re- 
stored according to traces in the MSS. The Flap, of r<rn}fti, in this form never 
takes the stren^ened augment ci. — The Imp. Ferf. trr&^t, etc., and the Opt 
Plnp. ioraiipff etc., are poetic onl j. Bat the Inf. irribw is in constant use ; 
yet {0Ti|ic^Mu is yery seldom; also the Fart ier^s, -Skrof is far more freqncnt 
than ItfT^ic^fy -vSa : the nenter lonyic^s, on the contrary, is more frequent than 
I^T^f. ^tead or tlie Ind. Sing. Ferf., Flap., and Fart of ScBio, the forms 
of MoMa are more frequent; beiides the Indie. Ferf. and Flap., particolariy 
in tiie Sing., the Inf. and Fart, were nsed. 

} 194. Summary of Verbs with a Perfect like Verbs 

in 'fit. 

Besides the two verbs above, the following have this form of the Perfect : — 

1. yfyvofuu, to become^ TETAA. (stem FA) : Ferf. (Sing. T^yora, -or, -c), TryA 

juFf T^T&rc, y4yd&ffi{y), Inf. ytydfttp (Epic), Part 7«yd(s, yryinra, yr/As, Gen 

2. fiaiwm, to go, Ferf. $4fiiHt^ BEBAA: PI. fiifiifur^ -Arc, -a4ri(y), third Fen. 
PL SnbJ. ii»fi€fiAai{w) (PL Phaedr. 225, e), Inf. fi^fiirat. Fart, fitfi^s (X. HclL 
7. 2, 3), fi€fivui {fitfiAffo, PL Phaedr. 254, b), fi90As^ Gen. fitfi&ros ; Plnp. 404- 
BUftM^f -Sr9, -iuffOM, These abridged forms are almost wholly poetic and dia- 
lectic 230). 

3. dri^ct*, to die, r4^Ka, TEONAA : PI. r^Mi/ur, r^i^ydrc, Tcdycuri(ir), Imp. 
TtMl^tf Part rwbvtiK^Sf raj^irvia, rcdy^iK^f, or rc^^i^s, rt^wt&ffa (Lys. and 
Dem.), Tf^rc^f, Inf. rt^Anu (Aesch. rt&vnyou from r§^ya4wai) *, FIup. irt^vd- 
rw^f Opt rfdraTi^r. 

4. TAAO, to Aeor, Feif. r^Xi|ica» TETAAA: Doal rdrkStroTf PL WrAd/icy, 
rirxArts rtT^Siai{r), Imp. r^rX8di« -4r«, ett, SnbJ. wanting, Inf. rcrA^kiw, bnt 
Part rcTA3|iN(f ; Plup. MrKSLfutf^ irirTJrt, irirXAraif, Doal Irhx&ror, irerfJi 
r^r. Opt rrrAody V. 

5. Here belong the two participles of, 

fitfipAtntm (^ 161, 6), to eat, Ferf. fi40fmica, poetic fitfip^. Gen. -Arror. 
vfrrw (4 163, 3), to^oi/, xhrrwKo^ Att Poet Tcvrctf (comp. f 230). 

Bexasje. There are also fonnd, in imitation of Homer, k4kp ay fi§v and 
the Imp. K4Kpax^h from the Ferf. K4KpSya (from KpdCatf to cry out) ; also the 
Imp. 'w4ir€i/9^f from t^oi;^ to (rtis< (from vcCdw, to penuade), is found in 
Aesch. Earn. 602. See S 230. Tl*e Perfects olSa and foura require a distinct 

i 195. OTSa an^^ loi«ca. 

1. OTSo, Ferf. from *£IAa (second Aor. §tSo¥, I saw, Inf. iSciy, riifere) 
properly I have teen, hence / know; for the syllable oT, see M 40, 4; for the 
change of 8 into o* in forov, etc., see 4 17, 5; for the change of 8 into r ia 
IrjMr, see § 19, 1. Its inflection is as follows: — 


02&I AND €ouca. 



Ind. S. 1. 
D. 2. 3. 


t&TOVt tffrov 

SubJ. cl8« Imp. 

flips iir^i 

fUig for* 

tt^TWt -^ov XtrroVf Xffrwv 

tti^t 1ffr§ 

§tSikri{p] ttrrwray 



Ltd. S. 1. 

^€tif' DobI pi. fhfiUMv (Poet ftriuw] 

^8f 15 and -cco'da ^ |f8f iroy, Poet jToroir ^'Sctrc ( ** f'^c) 

Opt Sing. c28c(iyv, i)r, -ij; Daal ciScfirroy, -^v; PI. f<8c(i}fici' (seldom clBc?- 

fiffv), citcfirvci c28«<cir (seldom fMi^a-av). 
Fat cfirofuu (Ion. fJS^^w, though Isocr. cwffMiatu)^ / <AaZf iaaov or 

experience ; sometimes also c»8^wu, ct8», ci8cfi|y, have the same 

meaning. — Verbal Adj. lcr4ov. 

S^iSo, compoanded of aZSo, / am conscious^ Inf. mntfiiitmif Imp. aifinaht^ 
Subj. oi/vctSc^i etc. 

* i 116, 2, oTSot Bcareelj occon in Attic. 

'First person ^8i}, second fBrta^ third j)f9i|, are considered m Attic 
forms j yet pSciy, (9tiffda (also ^Scu), ^8ct, are found in the best Attic wri- 
ters. OtdafAtVf eXittrff ot9aari{if)y insteaid of Xcr/ucr, etc, are rarely found in 
the Attic writers. Comp. X. An. 9. 4, 6. Antiph. ]p. 115, 8. Pi. Ale. 141, 
e. Eur. Suppl. 1047. jS. O. 20, 14. ol9at occurs in X. C. 4. 6, 6. The 
shortening of the «i into c in the Dual and PI. of the Opt ffitfitr, is poetic 
and rare. S. O. T. 1232. 

Rbmask. The Perfect, / have hunm, is expressed by I^omto, and the A«MisC| 
/ kneWf by fyrmw* 

2. 'E o I jr a, /am Uhe^ leeem, Peif. of *£IRn (of this the Impf. cIkc, is used in 
Homer), poetic ttica instead of Ibuca, tMtmi instead of ^ouc/wu, and (instead 
of ioUeari) the anomalous Att. third Pers. PI. cX^oiri, even in prose (Plat), Part 
ioue^s, in the Attic writers only in the sense of like ; Att tiir^f and §Uc49m 
(instead of 4oik(&s, iouc^tm) commonly in the dramatists, only in the sense of 
probable, likdy^ right; hence especially in the neuter ciic^s, as Ls fhcSs, om i» 
fuUurcd; Plup. i^Kttw (^ 122, 5), Fut ^u (Ar.). 

Here belongs the abridged form floiy^tP, among the Tragedians, instead of 
ioiKttfitP'f comp. ftriutf. The poetic Mid. forms fft^ai (Eur. Ale 1065), second 
Pcrs. Sing. Perf., and fftxro, third Pers. Sing. Plup., are constructed according 
to the same analogy. 

4 196. 111.. Present and Imperfect* 

There are also some Present and Imperfect forms, mostly in the Eptc dialect, 
which, according to the analogy of verbs in -^, take the personal-endings 
without the mode-vowel. See \ 230, under Mm, toi^, 4^^ 0-c^, lt«, f/jp« * 
#Jiiai {\ 166, 24), of the Common language, belongs here. 

» 197.] DEPONENT PASSIVES. 23>? 

k 197. Summary of the Deponent Passives 

102, 2, 3). 

AyufuUf to wonder, Z^ya^juUi to be aUe, icp4futfteu, to hang, 

tSUoitaij to reverence, Tusaptar^ofiaif to be dtssat' )u9iSap4ofuu^ fo reoilej 

ixiofuu^ to wander, i^fied, ftalpoiuu, to be mad, 

afu?iXiofu»t to contend, ivopTtSofAat, to renat, furofiiKofuu, to regret, 

iim6ofuu (Foct.) adoertor, iw^/Uofuu, to lay to heart, (werdrrofimf to loathe, 
hropoUianh to be dittraded, i¥ro4tuut to amtider, trnfu^dofitu (Poet.), to be 

Aarof / g^ i , to be perplexed, iwtfUXo/iai and '^•fuu^ to jvadg indignam, 
hpuroKpterioftai, to have an take care, cXofuu, to iuppoee, 

arUtocraa/, htvoioiuu, to reflect upon, dkr/ofxiofuUf to have an 

i^o/Mi, to refute Mareifuu, to know, oUgarchg, 

Ax^f^f^i ^ ^ diepleased, Ijpa^uu (Poet), to Unfe, vwipdo/uu, to try, 
fio^kofAoif to wish, tlf^fi4ofuu, to be happy, wpo^iUoiuu^ to deeire, 

0pvx^i»nh to roar, thKafi^o/uu, to be oautume, wpopodofuUf tojbreeeet 

Mofiw, to warn, ebpoftdo/ioi, borne legibuM ^dfiopm, to rtu an n e e (Aor. 

SepKOftm (Poet.), to see, utor, M<pdriP, PI. Phaedr. 

^mioKparioiJML, to have a ^bwopiofuu, to be opulent, 254, b). 

democracy, f}8ofuu, to rejoice, ^iKortfjJofuu, to be amU' 

iujjyofuuf to converee, d4pofuu (Poet). 4o beoome tioue, 
9iaro4oiuu, to think, hat, hworowdofuUf to conjecture, 

Rkk ARK I. The Aor. of several verbs have a Mid. as well as a Pass, form, 
e. e. aibxiCofuu, to lodge; XoiHop^oftM, to revile; 6p4yofuu, to strive after; Tpeeyfiw 
rMftatj to carry on Ifusiness (Pass, rarer); ^tKofpoi^dofuu, to treat kindly. Also 
several of the above verba belong here, yet they more seldom have a middle 
Aorist, e. g. Syofioi, Aor. Mid. in Dem. om^o/mu, see § 166, 1, ofuWdoftmt Aor. 
Mid. in later writers, kpvioiiai in Herod. Aesch. and in later wntcrs, ZuxKiyoi»m 
in non-Attic writers, hriyodofjuu in later writers, Xoi9op4ofuu, Aor. Mid. in Isae. 
6, 59, TcuMb/iof often in Thn., 9popo4ofuu, Enr. Hipp. 683. Pans. 4. 20, 1. ^cXo* 
rtfi4ofuu m Isoc. and Aristid. — Se^'^ral of the above list of verbs have a mid« 
die aa well as a Passive form in the Fat : ailiotuu, ^ 166, 1, ix^t'Oh § l^^i ^• 
ScoXryo/ioiy to converse with, iiaXd^ofuu and rarer 8taXcx^0'o/ua<9 iuMyo4ofuu, to 
think, ^tfi4xofuu, f 166, 21. Tpa^fUofioi, to desire, rrpo^fviiao/uu and rarer xpo^v 
fiafitiiaopMu Both tj^oyioi, to rejoice, and the poetic Ijpcytai, to love, have a passive 
form for their Fat: ^diio-ojioi, 4paffd^oi»M, ^ 179, 4. 

Rem. 2. All the other Deponents are Middle Deponents, or are nsed only 
in the Pres. and Impf. 

Rem. 3. Among the Deponent Passives, are veiy many Active verbs, whidi 
in the Mid. express a reflexive or intransitive action, bat have a Passive form 
for their Aorist; on the contrary, a Middle form for their Futare, e. g. ^/3c«, 
terreo, to terrify ; ^o$n^riyat and ^fi^atc^M, timere, to fear. Here Mlong all 
verbs in -aly 9 iy and -iytiy, derived from substantives and adjectives, almost 
eMm 'ovy, and most m'tCtiy, c. g. €hspaty§ty, to gladden, fd^poK^Mu, eb^p* 
rturbai, and c^payd^c0-;^ai, to be joyful^ to be happy ; Trtrcdyfty, to make ripe, 
wewaydriyai, wnraytio'Siai, maturescere, to ripen; aurxvvcty, to sliame, tdoxvy^iyat, 
maxyytio'^ (rarer aitrx^^^^^^^^h ^ fi^ ihamt ; iXcerrovy, to make less, iXar- 
TttdiiPat, iKXerr^HT^ai, to be inferior, to be conquertd; x^^^^t ^ *"<^ ^f*9'7i 
XoKsA^ym, x^^^^c^*^* tuceenaere, to be angry; ftakBUclitty, to makeeffemina/0, 
uaXtuuffdijym (rarer tm\aitiffaffdat\ uoKiuctuodai, *o make one's self ejfeminate, t» 




he effeminate ; 6py({€ty, to make angry, ipyur^vM, ^pyitia-^cu, and ^pyurd^cadoi, 
Buccenserey to be angry ; there are very many others also, of which only those 
most in use will be mentioned here : — 

"Ky^iv (from hydy^iVf come, iurax^ycu and avarfteyitr^aif signifying to he carried 
to sea, in mare provehi, but Fut. ianiltadai), iy€(p€ty, 6yviyai, ^^po^^ciy, €U(rxfip€itrf 
itviuv, atptiy, a\A.((rrciv (&AAa7^<ro/uu, often also dAXcC^cirdai), apfi6(tty, iurxoJi€u^, 
uif^^fWi ii^eiyi(ttyj — fidWfWj — icarayayf Sicutoj'; — 4^i{€iyf hrtlytip (^e/x" 
^y)<, iirruv, €lwx*^i — ^rray (F. rymidii<roucu and rarer tirHiaofuu) ; — i&i^<r ; 
— KiyWf tdjytuff Koifiav, KOfdi^w (jco/uo'^nu, to travel, but KOidawrhm, sUn recu- 
perare, to recover for one^a ad/), Kplytiy, KvXlyZtty'f — \4ytiy, Ac(ir«iy, xi^a^, 
Xvwtiy] — /ud^CKuyf /uyy6ytti, iu/ur1i<rKuy ] — 6piy€ip {Sptx^yaif and rarer 
op^aritu), 6pfMy, Ix^tyf^^^ff^iy (Fut. irtltroficUf I will obUsy, but rcurd^fl^iai, / 
will be persuaded), ir/ryyiyait vXopayf vX^xcir, vA^rrcir, voXitc^ut (also voAnrc^ 
aour^ou), Troytv^iy, — ftfyv^ou, fwnrOyau', — ctUuf^ o^ciy (car^yw, trcaHvr^abpu)^ 
aK€9aymat, OTray, trrttpayj airttptty, oT^AAciy ((rroX^i^eu, <rraX^<re<rdai)| orpi^tw 
(irrpa^iyuL^ arpa^o'ta'Sfcu), a^oXXtw (v^oX^voa^ <r^aA^€<rdai, seldom it^WxAcmt- 
hau), v^{€iy iaudriyat, to save one^s self, but tf-c^oirdai, to save for one^s self, sibi 
servare) ; — re^Mtrrciy, rip/wtuf^ rplwtw (rpor^iw, totwm one^s self, to tum^ rp^^aa-' 
^tUj to put to JUght), Tp4Atiyj — ^yuy (fcan^yox, iparfyrttr^at and ^ayuadm^ to 
appear, but ^or^d^nu, to he shown), ^carrdi^iy (^oi^«rdi6<rcirdai), ^ptw (^i^x*^^ 
ycu, oKtr^a^ai and iy€x^<fw^m, rarer tlvi^oitM), <p^(p€iw {^situniym, ^&tip4ia€v^ 
^eu [^puffdatt Ion. and poet], ^$w {^^w^ai and ^/Si^d^rco^l^) ; — i^v- 
9ciy {^vffd^yat, ^wad^oftai^ to deceive one^s self, be deceived, but i^c^ca;^, i^^ 
ffair^f to lie) ; — xcty. 

♦ 198. Summary of the Active Verbs most in use with 

a Middle Future, i 154, 1, 

"AtSw (fSw), to sing, 
ixoiv, to hear, 
hXaXACot, to shoiit, 
ofuxprdyw, to miss, 
imtayriw, to meet, 
htoXwlm, to enjoy, 
apwdCn, to seize, 
fioBlCu, to go, 
fiahw, to go, 
Bi6»f to live, 
fiK4irv, to see, , 
fioJw, to cry out, 
ytki»i to laugh, 
yripdo'Kw, to grow old, 
ytyyAcKw, to know 
8c(icM0, to bite, 
9ap^dy», to sleep, 
9f7ffat, to fear, 
Jiuurduf to live, 
Mpdo'KVf to run away, 
Zi^icm^ to pursue, 
iyiwfudCvi to pnisc 

tlfdf to be, 
iniy4vf to praise, 
ic^tot, to sat, 
^avudCvf to wonder, 
3^«, to run, 

dripAu, dript^m, tc hunt, 
^lY/dyct, to touch, 
dv^tTKv, to die, 
dp^Ku, to leap, 
Kifjom^ to labor, 
khaltt, to weep, 
KXhtrta^ to steal, 
K»fid(uf to revdy 
Xayx^aw, to obtain, 
Xcmfidtw, to take, 

XiXM^i ^^ ^^ 
fu»y^dy«Of to leam, 

y4co, to swim, 

y€6w, to nod, 

oUa, to know, 

otf»iA(w, to lament, 

6\o\6{u, to howl. 

ifufvfu, to swear, 
ipdatf to see, 
obp4»f vrinam redere, 
TcdCa, to sport, 

irdox^t to suffer 

vifidatf to leap, 

wlvm^ to drink, 

rfvTw, tofaU, 

'r\4t», to sail, 

ry4uf to blow (but f¥fs 

wytyctt to strangle, 
T0^4mf to desire, 
'irposKtfy4m, to reverence, 
p4n, to flow, 
^o^^w, to gulp down, 
vriydwy to be silent, 
ewrAu, to be silent, 
ffK^irTUf to mode, 
arroMCu, to be zealous, 
avpirrtt, to whistle, etc* 
tIktv, to produce, 


rp^x^i to ruii, Tifd^^w, to raU at, X^*^^* ^ 9<^P^ 

Tp^ym, to ffnaw, ^^y<»t tojlee, X^C^y ^ ^'^"^ '''*^'' ^/^ 

TvyximBj to obtain^ ^^dyoif to come be/ore, X^P^^i ^^ contain. 

Remark. Some have both the Active and Middle form for the Future ; the 
Middle, howeyer, is preferred, e. g. fSw {^urm non-Attic), ipirtEC*, ^i^, fnf^' 

T£rro», x'^P^* — ^p^y diip€{my KoKd(ao are also us^d with the middle form. 
The following compounds of x^P^ ^▼^ <ui Active and Middle form in the 
Fat : hn-i avy- wposx'^^i but ium- and wpox»p^ have onlj the Active form. 


♦ 199. Prepositions and Conjunctions, 

Besides the Substantive, Adjective, Pronoun, Numeral, 
Adverb, and Verb, there are also the two following parts of 
speech, viz. Prepositions and Conjunctions. On tlie forms of 
these nothing need be said ; hence these parts of speech are 
treated in the Syntax, so far as it is necessary. 




f 200. Digamma, or Labial Breathing F. 

1. The Greek language had original] j, in addition to the Spiritns Asper (' , 
and the Lingnal Breathing #, a Lahial Breathing,' the lound of which corre* 
•ponds nearly to the £ng./ or the Latin v. In accordance with its fonn (F) 
wliieh is like one Gamma standing npon another, it it named Digamma (double 
Gamma) ; and as the .Aolians retained it longer than the other Grecian tribes, 
it is called the .£olic Digamma. It has the sixth place in the alphabet, namely, 
between c and (^ and is named Bov. Comp. ^^ 26, 1 and 25, 2. 

2. This character disappeared yery earlj ; bat ita sound was in some cases 
changed, in some of the dialects, into the smooth Labial fi, e. g. /3(a, vis, Fit 
(later U) \ in other instances, it was softened into the rowel v, and, after other 
vowels, coalesced with these, and Ibnned the diphthongs «v, «v, ifv, av, tw, e. g. 
wws (i^Ff ), naviMy x'^m (x^Fm) Mo\^ fiovs (/S^Fi), b6v$, &0s, Gen. hdvis ] In 
others still, it was changed into a mere gentle breathing, which at the beginning 
of a word is denoted by the Spiritus Lenis, but in the middle of a word and 
before p is not indicated, e. g. /Ti, Ws, fi; 6Fis, om$. Sis] 9lK4t9, votvo; FpH^w, 
^^S«r, etc. ; it was also changed, in the beginning of some words, into a sharp 
breathing, which is denoted by th** Spiritus Aspcr, eg. ?0irepof, vespenu; ivwfLi^ 

d. In the Homeric poems, no character denoting the breathing F any longer 
exists ; but it is very clear that, in the time of Homer, many words were 
sounded with the Digamma, e. g. Ityruyu, b^ol, ivJuFcUf iMiWf (a^ ver, the 

* " The Van, or Dieamma, an important ngcnt in early Greek orthography, 
less, howerer, a principal than a subsidiary letter, rctainea much of its preyious 
character of vowel-consonant, or, in the technical language of the Oriental 
schools, of qniescible letter. It was chiefly used as a liquid guttural, or aspirate, 
somewhat akin to our English toA, to impart emphasis to the initial yowel of 
words, and possessed the power, with certain limitations, of creating metrical po- 
sition. But these yague and indefinite properties, were not such as to entitle it to 
a regular or habitual place in the written texts of the popular Epic poems. It 
was retained by the Boeotian states in monumental inscriptions till the 145 
Olympiad." — Mure^s Hist, of the Language and Literature of Greece, yol. i, p. 85 ; 
Tol.iii,p. 513. 

238 DIALECTS. [t 20L 

forms of 'EIAH, video; loura, cfxoo-t, viginU; cf/uo, vestis; e2«rcir (comp. eooore), 
I^K/iKoSf €yyvfu, vestio ; Us and 5f, suus ; oS, nn ; fit, sibi; Irrc/wt, vespena ; •Icof, 
Dtois ; oTyof , tnnum, etc. ; this is obvioas from the following facts : (a) words that 
hare the Digamma cause no Hiatus, e. g. v/A S^cr (=» rpit F4^€y) ; — (b) hence 
also a Towel capable of Elision, when placed before a digammated wotd, cannot 
bo elided, e. g. Xlrw 14 i {^ U A), hrh to (» kwh F4o) \ — (c) the paragogic w 
(i 15) is wanting before words which hare the Digamma, e. g. 9€u4 of (^ luU 
Fm); — (d) ob instead of o&k or o&x» ^ fonnd before the Digamma, e. g. Mi 
•0 i^4w icrt x'pc^'' (=* o' /f3«r) ; — (e) in compoonds, neither Elision 
nor Crasis occurs, e. g. 9uune4fiw (=> 8iaFc<W/icy), Aoy^f (» ifoy^f) ; — (f ) a 
digammated word with a preceding consonant, makes a Towel long bj pocitioo, 
e. g. ydp £^ffy (where the p and the Digamma belonging to cl^tr make a long 
by position) ; — (g) long Towels axe not shortened before words that hare the 
Digamma, e. g. jnUxrf re oriKfimif xat Afuuri (= ml /c^uun), B. 7, 392. 

J 201. Interchange of Vowels. 

FSBUMiXABT Hbmabk. The dialectic pecnliarities in the change of vow- 
els, as well as of consonants, never extend to all the words of a dialect, but are 
nniforml J limited to certain words and forms. 

1. The three vowels, e, o, S, called (§ 140, 2 and 4) variable vowels (rp4^, 
r4Tpo^ iTp4i4nip) undei^o various changes in the dialects : — 

a is used instead of f (Ion.), c. g. ro^«r», rd^aw, u/yodof instead of rp4xm, 
r4tuw, fJyt^s ; so also Doric rpi^^ <netap6st Afnofus instead of rp4^^ 
WKtepisf "AfrrMfui ; and in several particles, e. g. &ca, r^xo, w4tca instead of 
Jt«, rSrtt »<^rf. 

e instead of a in the Ionic dialect, when followed by a Liquid, e. g. r/o-o'cpcs, 
fpmip, ffcXof , fi4p€^poy (Ion.) instead of r4a'a'apts, jour^ ^ip<rriv, a nude, fioXof, 
^flaasj fidpa^pwj gidf; also in many verbs in -dm^ e. g. ^wr4t»j 6p4w (Ion.) 
instead of ^trdm, dpdu, 

c instead of o (Doric), e. j;. ifiSffifiKovra instead of ifi^oftfiKotn-tu 

a instead of o (Ion.), in afpt^uv instead of hppvZuw. 

2. The following cases are to be noted in addition: — 

The long a is a special peculiarity of the Doric dialect, and causes, in par- 
ticular, the so-called Plateiasm (i. e. the broad pronnnciation) of the Dorians, 
e. g. hfi4^, fcctiror, aZ^St Aofidrnp* The older and the later Ionic have softened 
this grave d into 17. The Attic uses both the Doric a and the softened if, (§ I61 
7). Comp. Dor. hfUpti, Ion. W/^^ Att. iifi4pa (with the Ion. iy and Doric a) ; Ion. 
voiplrif Dor. and Att. oro^ia; Ion. ^^^^ Dor. and Att. iM^. — So, also, io 
the diphthong ov, among the Ionic writers a is changed into if : rrfist yfi^y 
instead of wOs, ypavs\ likewise in the diphthong at in the Dat. PI. of thd first 
Dec, pj and po-i (Ion.) instead of cur and atat, — Still, in certain wonls, the 
Dorians retain the 17, as the lonians do the d. 

i| instead of « (^oHc and Doric), e. g. era^tijoyj r^wy, h^rjoj so tlio Infinithre. 
e. g. Kafirjy, xoX^y, instead of o^/icToy, KuvoSf 5|cia, Kafiuy^ Kttk§7y. 

m instead of c( (Doric), e. g. ^alpm instead of ^cip«. 


» often iflatead of o ( JEolic), e. g. ev^s, imtfuk instead of #o^r, tyofut, bo in 
Homer tffvpts instead of iyopdf and in the Common language, cMyv/Mi, voHh 
yv p a , ete. 

m instead of ov before a Liquid and 0-, and at the end of a wcrd in the tenni- 
nations of the second Dec^ and in the stem of several words; — oi instead of 
•w before the breathing o* in the third Pers. PL oici{p) instead of oiwi(r), and in 
the participle ending -oura instead of -cmto, and in MoZra and 'Ap4^owa instead 
of MoSvo, and *Ap&waa\ the abore use of » instead of ov is Dor., yet not in 
Pindar; the use of oc instead of ov is iEolic and Pindaric, e. g. 

T« i^dfiat instead of tov iftfiov, i» (also Ion. and Pindar.) instead of •Sr, 
Utikn instead of SovAos, itpaM6s instead of ovpay6sy fiAs instead of fiovs\ — riv- 
rom{w) instead ci r6wTov(n{y)f rinrroi^a instead of r^wrovaa^ pt\4ouri{if) instead 
of ^i\j^atMf tjp*^^ instead of Ixovorcu 

Soma other instances will be considered bolow, in treating of the Declensions 
■id OoijiigatioDS. 

\ 202. Interchange of Consonants. 

The change of consonants in the different dialects is according to the two 
following laws : — 
Coordinate consonants (4 5, Rem. 4) interchange with •ach other; and cog- 
nate consonants (\ 5, Bern. 1 ) interchange with each other. 

♦ 203. I Interchange of coordinate Consonants. 

A. Thb Mutbs : (a) The smooth Mutes v and k. The intervogatire and 
indefinite pronouns, «wf, v^e, voZat, ^o2»f , etc., are in Ion. jcdt, k^c, etc. 

K instead of r: Wrc, nr^y Ire, r^c, ^^c, ftAAore, are in Dor. v^o, vwc^, 
Sni.- rActty Mica (Poet. Mkho)^ JiAAojca ; so 5«ra (shortened from Sica«m) instead 
of %rwf. On the contnuy, r instead of k ; r^iws Dor. instead of kwos^ iicwot. 

w instead of r {MoL and Dor.), e. g. W/irc instead of Wi^c. 

(b) The Medials $ and 7, e. g. /SA^x^i^ (Att.), peMiy-rcyal^ is in Ion. yA^x^i^f 
pki^apWy mfe4a8h, is y\4^a(toy, 

9 instead of y (Dor.), e. g. 8a instead of yyj ; hence Atifi^rup instead of 

8 instead of fi (Dor.), iS§\6s instead of 6fitX6s. 

(c) The Aspirates d and ^, e. g. diipf beasts ^\&y, ^klfitty, ol^ap, udder, ara 
in Dor. ^p, ^Xai^, ^hifitivy oZ^ap (nber) ; ^p and ^xtfitw also in Homer. 

X instead of d : t3/ia is in Dor. tx/uif <^n<^ iftri^St etc. (from ^pyxs) is ipnx^f, 

B. Thb LiQt7iDS : (a) The Liquids interchange with one another: y instead 
of X before 1^ and r, often in the Dor. dialect, e. g. liv^oy, fiivrurros (Dor.) 
instead of i{AJ^y, fiiKriffros\ also (Ion. and Att. ) «A«^/m0v, jndmo, instead of 
wrwC/utyf Jdrpow instead of vlrpop, 

# is rarely vsed instead of A, e. g. KplfiopoSf oven, Att, instead of K/dfiatfot. 

240 DIALECTS. [i 204. 

(b) The Liqiud p and the breathing # in the later and often in the mid41e 
Attic : ff instead of the Ion. and old Attic pc^ e. g. JSpniv and S^^, a male ; 
K6pffri and K6ffri, back; but pp remains where the aiigroent is nsed, and in com- 

t 204. XL Interchange of cognate Consonants. 

(a) The Palatals y and k, c. g. Kvwptvs^fulUr^ is preferred by the Att writers 
to the other form, yvapf6s, 

K and X in Hkoiuu. (Ion.) instead of t4xofMu 

(b) The Lingnals ;> and r, e. g. aJhrts (Ion*, and Epic) instead of af^s, again 

Kemark. In some words a change of the aspiration, from one syllable to 
the other, occurs, e. g. lalb^y (Ion.) instead of x'^^^^ iv^vra^ Hie, ipbtvraff hinc, 
(Ion.), instead of iyrcuida, ^KrcSdcy; K^pti (Ion.) instead of x^P^po^ 

& and r, e. g. IlorciSSy, Hrerw^ ^ttrif r^, r4 (Dor^) instead of TiM ft i i mt, frc 

ffoVf (iKoarif iri, a4. The Attic forms TcurXor, beet ; nfXfa, doe (ftonr v^^K 
rvpfiri (from ffvpm), turba ; Hifupw, to^y^ and r^cf , this year (the two last only 
in the comedians, but in tragedians and in other Attic writers a^ifupoy^ cirrus), 
are in the Ion. and Common language (TcCrXof^, <n|Aia, <r^p/3iy. 

CO" and rr. Instead of arfft employed in the older and the later Ionic, fn old 
Attic and in most otiier dialects, — the new and often also the middle Attic 
in most words uses rr, c. g. rtito-tro^, yKOvcra] but Att. rdErr», yXHrra. (Bnt 
when acr results from composition, it remains unchanged.) Yet the Ionic 
forms prevail, not only in the older Attic writers, but are also found in other 
authors, some words always having 0^0*1 e. g. vdo'trw, to KoUer; «Ti^#«« to 
crouch; fivtrffos, a deep; Trriaau, to husk; rrlctrto, to fold; fipdtnratf to sluUbe; 
wn&fftyoff to cower; ip4a(r» {ip4rrtt is rejected), etc. 

0- and V in the Dor. verb-ending -ficr, e. g. r^mroftts (instead of the common 
form rhrrofiw^ see $ 220, 6) ; also alh Dor. instead of aXiv. 

0-9 instead of ( (^ol., so also in Theoc.) but only in the middle of words, c. g. 
ficAfo'9rrcu, pl4(tZwv instead of /icXf ^rrcu, iii(,mp or fu({vyf not at the beginning of 
words, nor if ^ precedes, or er follows, e. g. fiox^iO^'^h ^wt^b^oiaa, 

(and. rr, aupirreip, opfA^rruy (Att.) instead of cvpl(tiv, kpftiiitv. 

Here belong : — 
{ and <r and 0-0-, e.g. Iw (Epic and old Attic) instead of<rvv\ li^6s and rptlAs 
(Ion.) instead of Zur(r6si rpiaais ', K\iii^ Dor. instead of frAoTs (<cAc7f ) ; even in the 
Fut. and Aorists, the Dorians, and also Homer, in several verbs ( instead 
of a, sec § 223, 5. \ 

(c) The Labials ^ and t, — the first Att., the last Ion., — e. g.<pdpayos Att^ 
iurirdpayos Ion. So JEol. and Dor. t, instead of <p, e. g. St^iiri ( JEol.) instead of 
kfi^i \ hence in the Common language, i.fiv€Xftyt etc. 

fi and T, c. g. Tf^d {JEo\. and Dor.) instead of firrd, 

(d) The double consonants | and i^, and the two single consonants of which 
they are formed, though transposed, 'in the JEol. dialect, c. g. vk4vos, tfw^ii 
instead of (cVos, ^oXfs, yet only at the beginning of a word. So e^ and ipr, 
e. g. ^4 Dor. instead of 0-^^. 



♦ 205. Contraction. — Diaeresis. 

I. In the DUlects, the foUowitig contractions, which differ from those men 
tloned in \ 9, are to he noted: 90 and cov, sometimes also 00 and oc are con' 
tncted into cv in Dor. and Ion. — not, as commonly, into ov; so ao, wu^ an4 
Mv (Ion.) are contracted into cv — not, as nsnal, into w and ov, e. g, ^cvfrom 
^A4ev =» ^ov; vXcSytr from vKdowtf] irKtip^dtntt from vKiipSorrtt «■ vKiipow' 
rcr; ^utattv from iiuado^ ss iiiKedov; tlp^tvw from Mlpdraop » cip^vir; 7^ 
Acuira from ytXiov^a =* TcAikra; 9iiraicuri from diKeuoovat =s BtKotowru But 
commonlj the Dorians contracted o« into « (instead of ov), e. g. rvpS^pra » 
rupwjrra instead of rvpovtrrOf ^tyw instead* of piyovv, 

S. Ao, oov, and aco are contracted in the Doric dialect into d (instead of m), 
namely, in yeihs in -dw, in genitires in -ao and -dwif, in suhstantires in -ioMf, 
Gen. -dCoyof , and in proper names in -Xoor, e. g. ^vo'Syrcf , x^Xao'i, 'yiXoF from 
^ooitorrcf, x*>^''<'*'^» ^cAicvy;— -tof jco^Miy from rdoav Kopdtty &» rAv irop£y; -— 
Tlotr9tSSyf -upos, Att. Iloircidwy, -wyos] — Mrv^Xdf, *Apjirco'(\df, Gen. -a, Dat f. 

3. Af and ofx are contracted in the Dor. (but not in Pindar) into 17 and 9 
instead of d and f, in verbs, c. g. i^ini, ^nfs instead of i^lroj ^trfs. See 
f 222, m. (1). 

4. The Attic dialect is the opposite of the other dialects, particularly of the 
later Ionic ; since, while the other dialects often avoid contraction, and the later 
Ionic commonly, the Attic almost always admits it The tendency of the later 
Ionic towards uncontnicted syllables is so great, that it even resolves the long 
sounds (which .are never resolved in the other dialects) into their simple ele- 
ments, e. g. ^^flu instead of ^(Ap» which had been contracted from ^tKdp, 
Epic poetry often uses, indiscriminately, contracted and uncontracted forms, 
according to the necessity of the verse, e. g. k4Kuy and iKvp. 

5. On the contrary, it is a special peculiarity of the Ionic dialect, that while 
it delights to avoid contractions, it still, in particular cases, admits them, where 
the Attic dialect does not, e. g. tp6s («), ipc^s, Ip^^eur^at Ion., instead of Itp^Sf 
etc., and especially the contraction of of| into «, particularly in the verbs 0oa9 
and yocTr, e. g. tfin^<h ^9wra (kryy^enffitw Horn, from ivy^o4w), iyr^pwta instead 
of ifi^trth ip^e<h ^ivffi^«ra ; so hrg^Kovra in Homer, instead of ^yMitmrra. 

6. The opposite of contraction is Diaeresis (Sia/^orii ), the separation of a 
diphthong into its vowels. Diaeresis is specially used in the iEoL dialect 
The use of it in Homer, also, is not rare ; most frequently, in such words as 
separate the two vowels by means of the Digamma, namely, oT in wiXs ; aO in 
A0r^4, hreaih (from &Fi}/u); &OoTaX/or, dirty; cI in itffkm, to make like, IWro, 
iucrw, it$iTiiy ; cG very often in the adverb ^0 (» cS, treff), e. g. it Kplvua, ifkeri* 
putwos \ when fc, y, p, or <r follows 4d in compounds then they are doubled, e. g. 
i^HluXimSy iCyyriros, itffl^oosy iii<r<r€\i»os \ ol in its {^FiSy opts), itofiM (comp. opt- 
nor). wUrrdst ^(;a. iiir'ilay (from otyyvfu]. 

242 DIALECTS. H 20(k 

f 206. Crasis, Synizests, Elision, N Paragogic, 


1. In particular instances the Dialects differ from the laws of Crasis stated in 
if 10 and 11 ; namely, in the Ionic dialect and in Pindar and Theoo, the o of 
the Article coalesces with a and forms », and with «i and forms y, e. g. r^ ftyoX- 
IUI.S r&ya\fUL\ so rii\ri^4ff rmh'4t &viip^ £v8/>cf, fii^dptMrpi, fKr^AM, from t^ ^-9- 
^^s, T^ a^^, b ^P» o2 M/WT, o2 ii^pmwou al aiwixau In Herodot occnr, Hpurfs, 
mbrSs^ 2aAo<, with the smooth insteac. of the rough breathing (from 6 Apurras, 
i abrdsi ol AxXm) ; Homer nses Crasis seldom, namely, only in ApicroSj tmrSs^ 
tSaAo, o&ft6s (instead of 6 i^tSs), roHytKOy oHytxa (instead of ol lytica) } xkyA i» 

2. Instances of Crasis in Doric are : r&Kytos, r&yr^ instead of rov ikyws, 
r^ iyrp^ \ so and c =» «, oi and c » 17, e. g. 6 IXa^s = &XmpoSf 6 4^^^ £i£, csl 
4k » 1H1K9 tcai clrc =» x^vf , ical 4dif or ^r =» icffv, which last is also Ion. 

3. Ionic writers admit the .common Crasis in ov, in the Masc and Kent, ol 
the Art. and in Ircpoi, e. g. o0rc/ws, rt^tpov. 

4. The use of Synizesis (f 12) is very frequent in the Homeric poems: — 

(a) In the middle of words, it is oftenest found in the following combination of 
Towels (the vowels over which the line is placed being pronounced as one 

syllable, whether consisting of two or more vowels) : ca, cf , cat, car; co* 

M(, cou ; tm, cy j e. g. or^co, ^/i/ar, i^co/, x^v<r/oif , rc^cdre ; much rarer 

in oc, M, 101, ny, 117, m, e. g. &fd^\c^«r, ^^Xios, irifxiof i 00 only in 

fySooK] uM only in 9tucp6ourt ; i|t in 811(010, 8iy(«y, 8i|(o«r(, ffia ; 

th) Between two words in the following combination of vowels : i| a, n «» i| 9, 

H CI, 1} ov, 1} Of ; cft «v ; w a, « ou ; the first word is cither ^, ^j ^, /d|, and 
^vcl, or a word with the inflection-endings, if, y, e. g. ^, ov, tii lupFuSrverof, 

6. Elision (§f 13 and 14) is found very often in Homer, particularly as fol- 
lows: — 

(a) The a is elided in the PI. Neut and the Ace Sing, of the third Dec, 
rardy in the Aor. ending -«-«, e. g. Kxci^* 4fU Od. fi, 200 ; commonly in 
the particle ipa) 

(b) The c in 4/^4^ ^4^ w4, etc. ; in the Yoc. of the second Dec, in the Dual of 
the third Dec, in endings of the verb, and in particles, e. g. d/, W, r^c, 
eic (but never in d/). 

~ (e) The x in the Dat PL of the third Dec; much rarer in the Dat Sing., 
and only when it could not be' mistaken for the Ace, e. g. x^ ^ ^ 
^1;^' *O8v0'c^f, II. «r, 277 ; in iSf^u, Cftfu^ and <r^ ; in adverbs of place in 
-4^ except those derived from substantives ; in c(ico<ri ; finally, in all end* 
ings of the verb ; 
(d) The o in &v^, M (but never in Tp6)^ in 8^, in the Neut. of pronouns 
(except r^), and in all endings of the verb ; 


(e) The ai in endings of the verb ftM, rai, v&m {<rm only in fir' ^AryiircA^', 
IL 0» 2245, and cu in the Nom. of the first Dec. in i^t? M^rai, H. A, 272) ; 

(f ) The Of in ;um, to me, and in the particle, roc. 

(L The r paragogic {\ 15) is commonly rejected in Ion. prose, e. g. waff 

7. The Hiatns (f 8) is admitted bj Homer in the following cases : — 

(a) In long rowels or diphthongs either in the Arsis of the verse, e. g. 
jun-ii^^l^ *Odv\^Xf or in the Thesis, in which case the long rowel or 
diphthong is considered short, e. g. oIjcm f\ vw \ 

(b) When the rowel does not admit Elision, br bnt rarely, e. g. wwXi t^ww\ 

(c) When two words are separated by a pnnctnation-mark, e. g. iXA* Asm, d 

(d) In the Fern. Caesura (i. e. the caesura succeeding a short syllable) after 
the fint short syllable of the third foot; — as this caesura here divides the 
line into two parts, it is opposed to the dose connection which would 
arise from eliding the final vowel, e. g. 

• cdid^ I 84 rpv^ | Acta (I t^C \ ^ewrro \ xcxpl va 1 x<^Pt ^- 7i ^76. 

rdr •/ 1 1( f)^ I twn-o ^i\y\ /uyd \ potffi yt \ i^^Aiy, II. «, 270; 

(e) In the metrical Diaeresis,' after the first and fourth foot of the verse, o. g. 

iyX^^ 1 'l8<V*crqof iytivov AcviroAiSoo, H* /i, 117. 

W/i^ iw* 'Arp€i9if *Ayafi4fUfQyi \ cZ\0¥''Ov9ipo¥, S. /i, 6. Comp. £ 428 ; 

(f ) Where the first word has the apostrophe, e. g. 8/ySpc* C^oAAcr ; 

fg) Sometimes in proper names ; 

(h) Words, which hare the digamraa occasion no Hiatus (S 203, 3), e. g. 

oh 1 84 clbs I VfluSoi t \ ojfKtv (= oM4 Fo6s), 

♦ 207. Lengthening and Shortening of Vowels. 

I. The following rowels are lengthened: — 

A in Homer is sometimes lengthened into ai ; this pccurs in oicrJs, oic/, kytl" 
ofitUf instead of lurSs^ etc. ; so also xaptd (also <caraii3aTa/), in the tragediani 
9ud, and analogous to these, ^ira/, instead of wapdy 8mI, M. 

A into II in Homer, in li^pd^orrai, ^p^t^orroi, in/iStit in the Arsis, c<mse- 
qncntly on account of the metre. 

a into at before tr (Mol.) in the Ace. PI. of the first Dec. ; also in fUxau and 
riKtuf instead of /i/A&y, rd(Adf , rats instead of rif , KoXatt instead of koa^s ; in 
^ndar, in the first Aor. Act. Fart., e. g. r^i^ais^ -aura instead of -df, -4wk; but 
always wu$. 

Av into «0 (Ion.) in rpavfui, daS/ia and its deriratires: rpa^/ia, 
bm&/id(tf ; and in pronouns compounded with aWf into «v, e, g. Iwvrov, 
rav, ffjumn6y instead of iavrov, etc. ; so also T«6r^ instead of rabrS, 
, E into et in the Ion. writers before a Liq. in a number of words, e. g. cIWkm 
(also in Attic prose), icciy^y, (tiyosj rrcivid, ^Iptndm, Homer lengthens c inW 

' Metrical Diaeresis, is where n word and a foot end togethci . 

244 DIALECTS. [i 207 

ci according to the necessities of the rerse, in other words, also, which in loois 
prose hare c, e. g. eiy, 6ircfp, vttpas end, ^pttara (from ^p^ap^ a well) ; also befora 
Towels in adjectiyes in -cos, e. g. xp^o'^'o^ \ in snbstantiTes and prononns, e. g 
nreiof, ilAtio \ in verbs in -4», e. g. tc\c(», irycf«, also in cT«t instead of tmt^ 
until; sometimes also in the Augment and Reduplication, e. g. ciX^Aovda, cmc 

E into 17 (Hom. and Dor.), in the Dec. of substantives in -ci^s, e. g. jSeuriXe^r, 
Gen. -^05, etc.; farther (also Ion.), in adjectives in -ciof, e. g. /ScwiA^tor, roya/; 
likewise in single words, e. g. irATiff, KKifi^os (Ion.), etc., instead of jrAcfr, and 
in very many substantives in a of Dec. I., e. g. hXjihuitri instead of hx4ibiieu 

H sometimes into ai (^ol.), e. g. dvalaKoo instead of ^vifcxee, 

O into 01 (Ion. and Hom.) before a vowel in several words, e. g. vodj, vonrcir, 
Xpotiit foffif etc. ; in the Gen. of the second Dec. in Homer, e. g. dtoTo instead 
of ^€OVf and in ^Ivios, xop^^'^virfi}, S^otxSptoy, &7fcofy|7(ri(v}, and ^ymbi<r€{p). 

O is changed into ov (Ion. and Hom.) before a Liq. or Sigma, still only in a 
certain number of words *, and, in the Dor., before a Liq. into w, e. g. 

K^pos Ion. Kovpos Dor. K&pos ftSifos Ion. luvpot • 

also in the oblique cases of Z6pv and 7iJia/. — But substantives, which have the 
variable vowel 0, cannot be thus lengthened, e. g. v6¥os from T4yo/uu, 96fus from 

O into o» in Homer, on account of the verse, in Au&wtros, mrr^tts, rpwx^t 
vvrdofuu (and also tpoxduf totoo/juu)* 
T into ov often (Dor.), e. g. ^ovydnip instead of ^vydrrip* In Homer, in 

2. The Epic dialect can resolve contracted syllables, when necessary, 
namely, d into an, f into aq, ] 1} into ci|, eiij, ipi ; tt into <w, «»o, cm ; particalaiiy 
in the inflection of verbs, e. g. Spd;^ instead of Spfs^ Kp^vov instead of xp^yvr, 
6p6n instead of jp», y^xAovrts instead of TtAwrrcs, iifiAwra instead of i^/Sdra 
also ^»« instead of ^5, %A2 (from ^of ), and proper names In -^Sr, e. g. 

3. Another mode of lengthening a vowel in the Epic dialect is by resolving 
an original Digamma or a Spiritos Asper into a vowel, e. g. ctfm^Aos and ImiXoi 
(FiKfikos)^ ofyos instead of Spos, bound; odxos instead of 5Xor, ^i\tw instead of 
ffXios] iiaos instead of laos ; tUJ^o'm instead of ifda-ffct (comp. tWiv), ^i&s instead 
of {c»s. In the Ionic, and sometimes in the Epic dialect, the « (contracted 
from ao and cm), is resolved by c, e. g. {Uc4rm) Uirfm instead of iKirao, wK4m 
instead of wvXimy. 

4. The following vowels are shortened : — 

Ai into & before a vowel, often in the .£ol. dialect, e. g. &px^'* 'AXxte 
instead of hpxoSosy ^KKkoxos ; in Homer, in tr&poSf ^^, it^((€a&au 

El into c before liquids (Ion. and in Hom.), in the forms x^P^'t X^A ^^^^ 
Xtipt hand, so also Att. x^P^^^f X*P^^j "^^^ (Ion. and Dor.) before a vowel, in 
Proparoxy tones in -cms, and in l^perispomena in -ua] in Homer, only in « 
few Fem. adjectives in -vi, c. g. 


^OTT^ftfeor, o^, -cor Ion. instead of -dot «Wa instead of otKua from &ie6s 

cdp^ from tvpOs *'^ ^ -eta Scur/if ^ 8ao-f <a *' 800^5 f 

so also in Horn. 'lEpfi^if instead of 'Epu.fiq, \ also ct in Ion. is shortened into e, 
when two consonants follow which make the vowel long bj position, e. g. 
darHt^is instead of &ir^ci{u, fi4(ooy instead of futCuy, Kpitrawv instead of irpc(«^ 
'^ finally (Doric) in forms of the verb, e. g. &€(8er instead of ktfZtts, 

Rbxabk 1. In the i&ol. dialect, ti before a liqnid is very often shortened 
ioto c, and the Liq. is doubled, e. g. ier4vym, arifia^ wTt^Xd, instead of KT^ly»^ 

H b changed into c in Horn, in iipy^ri, iffyha^irom ipyfiSf -rfTos^-^ining^ and 
ia the Subj. ending -crc instead of -^t \ also -o/icv instead of -w/aci^, e. g. cfScrc, 

0« into o often in the Dot. and .£o1. dialects, e. g. to& instead of 'woiw, 
Ov into o in Hom. in the compounds of vodst e. g. i€\MSvos, iiprixos ; often 
in Theoeritns in the Ace. PI. of the second Dec, e. g. ritt \j6kos instead of roht 
JIafam; also J&oL fi6?Oia instead of $ouk^^ so too in Hom. jB^Xcrw, /S^ctrdc 
ftom jSo^Aojuoc 

5. On the lonio-Attie interehange ef the vowels, see 4 i6, S. 

6. The nse of Syncope (f 16, 8) is frequent in Ifomer, particularly in forms 
«f the verb, as will be seen below ; ho also has Tfvrc instead of rivart, yXajtro- 
pJiyos instead of yakairro^dfyos, 

7. Apocope {htoKoftrff) is the rejection of a short final vowel before a word 
beginning with a consonant It is employed by the Epic and Doric poets, 
sometimes also by the Ionic, and in a few single forms even by Attic prose 
writefs. It ocenni with the prepositions, e. g. Am(, itwrd^ "ntpd^ rarely with &v^ 
and M9 and with the |Kpic) conjunction A(ku The accent is then thrown 
back^ Ar before 0, n, ^ ft, is changed into &^ (| 19, 3), e. g. &fi fiotiuiivt, 
kftfitdntMf ftfi WAoyos, ftfi ^^OK, itftfU^oti the r in xdr is always assimilated 
to the following consonant, except that the corresponding smooth mute stands 
before a rough mute (^ 17, 4), e. g. itiii Hpofuy, x&v ^cUo^ia, xiuc Kt<pa\5is^ 1C&7 
7^iv4 •examples of iar6 and &w6 are, ^nr^tt^fi, vfifidWew (Hom.); examples 
from Attic prose, ^fidriis, ifxfiokds, X. Cy. 4, 5, 46. 7. 5, 12, ifirwris. 

Bem. 2. In the concurrence of three consonants, assimilation is omitted, and 
the final consonant of the preposition is rejected, e. g. urtUram, KArx*^^^ i/tyd' 
mttf instead of irLckt«v«, tcdtrax'^** i^ifiydatu 

8. Prothesis (f 16, 10) occurs in Homer, in iurrtpoirii (irrcpoir^), £^X«(;>/\«), 
4K€Uf09 \iiwos)i ip^ofjuu '(^ofuv)^ Homcr also often resolves the F into the vowel 
€, namely, Uprni^ If Sro, hUcwri^ titros^ itrwoy, U\9ofuu, itpfjJpos, 

9. Sometimes, for the sake of the metre. Homer inserts t , e. g. iti€Kip€6sj 
Ka^6s, instead of i,if\<p6si K€y6s\ so also in the Gen. PI. Fern, abrrinv^ rpwri^v. 
To prevent tlie acoumulation of short syllables, he inserts in several compound 
words an ij in plaee of the short vowel, c, g. royqAcT^of, MjfioKos, iini^xy6s, 
tfAry^TcA^fipij t\aprifi6Xos^ mstead of roio/X., Mfi., ivirr,, ^Aiyoir., i\upofi6Ko§, 

246 DIALECTS. H 20a 

An I is inserted in Homer after m in 6/aoUos instead of tfUHos, and in tlie Dual 
-otiw iiMtead of -oiwm 

10. The later Ionic, also, sometimes inserts • before a long roirel : (a) ia 
some genitiyes of substantives and Fem. prononns before «, and in eZros, rof 
ovToSf and aln6s before long inflection-endings, e. g. Mp4»v^ X^^**'! ^Kct'^M'i 
rovriwfy ain4cey, wtn^tf ; (b) in some forms of the verb before a long yowel, e. g. 
iffr4(urtf 9w4ufuUf 9uif4wrrai] (c) some verbs in -w have forms as if firom -/», 
o.g.fidWct avfifiaX\€6iJt*yos, OirtpfieLWdtty] wt4(m vuCf6fitros (also in Horn. 
Tt4(§vp instead of iwi4Cwp) ; also t^, ip€ix**f 4^A««> from ?^, Mx^f ^^'^^^i 
finally, the three following forms of the Ferf. in -cc instead pf -€ : ofxci«rcc, 


} 208. Change of Consonants. 

1. In the Ion. dialect, the rongh breathing has no effect on the pr e ceding 
smooth mute, e. g. &v^ ot, iwiifupos, obx 6ai»tf etc 

2. In the Horn., Ion., and Dor. dialects, a S or i^ remains before ft in certain 
words and phrases (contrary to ^ 19, 1 ), e. g. Hfi^ instead of ^/u^t XS/mt, ifx^ 
fiSs, iwiwt^fAMy, K9KOfm^u4ifos ] also in the Hom. dialect, the y remains before 
(contrary to ^ 20, 2) in iawrds, drtrxij^cir, wwevitp instead of vortfvS^; 
finally x before m (i ^^t Bern. 1) in iucaxtt^yos, acute. 

3. The Metathesis l\ 22) of p often occnrs in Horn, and in other poets, a g. 
KpaJSiri instead of KopBia^ heart, Kdprtpos and icpdnpoSf ttnmg, ttdprumSf fidfiurns 
(flrom fipniist dow) ; also in the second Aorists iwpa^w^ IB^odor, fBjpoicar {horn 
w4pdw9 to dedrojfi SopiMUw, to s2eep, 94pK0fuu, to see)-, hero belongs also ift0poro9 
instead of i^iiporw (=» 4}/M^rov, according to 4 24, 2). 

4. Homer doubles a consonant (comp. S 23, Bem.j after a short ToweL 
according to the necessities of the verse in the following cases :— 

(a) The liquids and Sigma on the addition of the augment, mostly ^en 
there are three successive short syllables, e. g. IXA«/3or, f/u^ioftur, Avvor, 

(b) In compounds also, the liquids and Sigma are doubled, e. g. rff^tAXovrtt 
(from w4os and Xot^) ; ii^ioposy ^iXoiifuf^s\ hn4^\oi^ ithnnfros\ fitAif^ 
Poos\ itiratXfios'f 

(c) In the inflection of the Dat. in -tn, and of the Fut. and Aor., e. g. t^icu^vt^ 
9Afiaffvi\ Kdk9Vff»f ofjuifftnuf ^pJiff^QfiM, i^tlnfftra] 

«d) In the middle of several words, e. g. Siro'oyt rdffwuf, hrtev^t «p^ir«wt, 
f»4ffffoSt M/iAr<ra, pMfuffoi^tst bvC9Wf6*u. 

Homer doubles the mute v in Interrogative pronouns which begin with ^» e. g. 
hnms, etc. ; — k in WXcitJcoy, vfXcitirtiU; — r in Srri, trrco, Ikrcu; — 8 in lttcir«| 
ircptMcforao'a, iXSt4s^ iXB^v. 

Keicark. The doubling of f», which always takes place in the Common 
language when the augment is prefixed, and in compounds when a short vowci 
precedes, may be omitted in the Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
verse, e. g. ip^Cw from ^^C^, xP'w6pvios. For the same reason, one of the 
tonsonants, which is elsewhere doubled, is omitted in the Epic dialect, though 

I 209.] QUANTITY. 247 

tmljy e. g. *09iwc^» *AxiXc^s ^dfnjyotf instead of 'OSiMro'ff^r» Ax<AXc^f, 

5. Homer often places a consonant before a short syllable} to make it long 
by position) namelji a r in nfyvfuvr) kwdXafuw^ iip^i^^ ifu^^pdii^ (nrtiuf^futK^ \ 
a T after v in vrJXcfMs, vr^Ais, vroXlcd^por ; a i^ after x in x^M^'^o'i ''X*^ 
rpix^4^ rerpax^ and after A or p in /MUdtucos, iyptrt^fh^m ; or he places a 7 
before B in ^f»fy8oviror, fySo^o'e, and a v before fi and k in afwcpis (also Att. 
f 24, 4), tfKcMryvfu (comp. ief8n7fu), Cfioytp&f (comp. fxoytp&s)^ fffitpid\9os* 
Here belongs also the Epic prefix of ft (=» v, according to § 24, 3), before fipo^ 
tit in composition, so as to strengthen the long sjllable and give falness to the 
vord, e. g. Afifiporost rwff^tfifioorost and in kfi^airlii instead of i^curfij. 

i 209. Quantity, 

TtuvLiuufAXT Bbmabk. OnljT a few general mles will be given here \ the 
quantity of particular words, not embraced in these mles, may be learned from 
rules prerioasly given, or by observation. 

1. A syllable which has the vowels f or 0, followed by another vowel or a 
single consonant, is short by nature, e. g. rixdr^ ^iisf finfi, 

2. A syllable which has the vowel n or «, or a diphthong, is long by nature; 
so all contracted and circnmflexed syllables are long by nature, e. g. *1!pt»tf 
9^aif6s, tucoty (instead of JUicaiF), Mfui (from irtfi&M)^ vSf, ceros, ^vxosi pw» 

3. A syllable which has a doubtful vowel (a, 1, v), followed by another vowel 
or a single consonant, or at the end of a word, is short by position, e. g. 'dcf* 

4. A syllable which has a short or doubtful vowel followed by two consonants 
or a double consonant, is long by position ; e. g. Mff^atf iKarififiri, 8l|dad«u> 
tx^lvroSf ^KKoy, 

Bzceptlons to No. 3. 

(a) a of nouns of the first Dec, which have the Gen. in -of, is long in all the 
Cases in which it occurs, e. g. Wp<b 0<V*> "^^ 'f > "^^ ^^' (Comp. \ 45.) 

(b) a in the Dual of all nouns of the first Dec.^ is long, e. g. Nom. Sing. 
X^curS, Dual XndvA, 

(c) a is long in the Gen. Sing, in -99 and Gen. PI. in -doapt e. g. 'ArpctMit 

(d) the ending -of of the first Dec Is long, both in the Nom. and Gen. Sing., 
and in the Ace PL, e. g. Nom. ro^iidi, Gen. ffKlds, Ace. Fl. 8^{dn 

(e) a of masculine and feminine participles in -as is long; so also other words 
in -Of whete rr or r have been dropped, e. g. hco6a<Ar [iutwvvrrt), Ako^ 
(TcUro, Urris, fiis ; ylyas (yiyams)^ fl4^Jat {fuXaifs). 

(f) a in the third Pers. Fl. Perf. Ind. Act, e. g. rcr^^d^i. 

I'g) V is long in the Sing, of the Pres. and Impf. Ind. Act of verbs in -vfu, 
also in the masculine and feminine Sing, of the participle ; e. g. ^tUtpOfu^ 
i^UwOi^t 9ciicy#i, Scuryvo-a. — Other exceptions may be learned by obser* 

348 DIALECTS. [i 209 

6 In Epic poetry, a mate and a liqnid (§ 37, Rem. 2) commonly make « 
syllable long by position ; the rowel is shortened, for the most part, only when 
the form cannot otherwise be suited to the verse) e. g. rcixtcriirAirra. 

6. The final syllable cf a word in rerse, is uniformly long by position: (a) 
when it ends with a consonant, and the following word begins with a conso- 
nant, e.g. k4^i I trdtf Tp» | as; also (b) when the final syllable ends with a 
short Towel, bnt the following word begins with a double consonant, or with 
two single consoDonts, which are not a mute and liqnid, e. g. iB/Ji \ nir, V I 
•<hr» i I Tft ("7^" I ff7«y<^ I ^Fi ^- '^1 29^ ^^ ^ mate and a liquid in this 
case, always make the syllable in the Arsis long; on the contrary, the syllable 
in the Thesis, may be either long or short according to the necessities of the 
verse ; e. g. /i^ ^mi | 9Ap* ipa \ rk «p^ | p# Xf^ | v^s 'A^ | Stnys , II. 7, 64 ; 
on the contrary, in the Thesis, wrkp 'd | rAi^Wor | iuHi \ xci, II. 9, 329 ; but 
JSuf9pa I ^yjtrhy i | dyra^ v^ | Xai vc | xpttfUifoy \ dXtrpf II. v, 441. 

Rbm. S. In the names 2Kdfuaf9pos^ ZdUvydvr, Z/\cia, even cric and ( do not 
make a syllable long by position in Homer} so also iv \ crrfi aire | inywor, Od 
r. 237, occurs. 

7. A long vowel or a diphthong at the end of a word, in Homer, commonly 
becomes short before a word beginning with a vowel, when it is in the Thesis, 
but it remains long when it is in the Arsis, or when the following word has the 
digammo, e. g. ^/i^ | iy fi^y \ ^^craty^ H. a, 358. vUs, 6 | fi^y Krfd \ roOy 6 S 
ip* I ZvpiroU I *AKTOpl I cevos, II. fij 621. a^hp 6 \ iyy& \ fffiy i \ y\ ^ptal \ ^tnf 
\a4v re {fffty «= F^aiy). But sometimes a long vowel in the Thesis is not short- 
ened before words which do not have the digamma, especially in the fourth foot 
of an Hexameter, e. g- r^ fi^ | fun var4 | pas wodr* 6 | fwif | $y^€0 | riftp, II. 8, 
410, and before a punctuation-mark, e. g. Ktta^cut \ &AA* iird | ftuyoy, H. c, 685. 

8. A long vowel or a diphthong in the middle of a woi-d before another 
vowel is but seldom shortened by the poets, and for tlie most part, in certain 
words and forms ; thus, e. g. in Homer, iwtiii C*"), ffiiratos ("'*'), wos C"), fii- 
fiKffcu C"'), and often in the Iambuses of the Attic dramatists, e. g. oTof, woits, 
rmoirroY, tqc^sSc, ofci (from ofo/iw), wotuy j and always before the demonstrative 
I in pronouns, e. g. rmrrovf, o^oit 

9. In Epic poetry, a short syllable in the Arsis is usually considered long, 
if it stands at the beginning of a word, e. g. ijrwiZos | ^axd^ | ror wvp^ U. e, 4 ; 
or at the end, in which case it is followed either by a liquid (X, /i, r,/), or a ^ 
or 8, the sound of which is easily doubled in pronunciation, or by a word with 
the digamma, e. g. icel irc8( | d Aw | rcGyra, II. ft, 283. dvyarc \ pa fiy (== f^it^)* 
H. X, 226. 

Rem. 3. A syllable in itself short, may be used as long or short in the same 
word, according as it is or is not, in the Arsis, e. g.'^Afcs "A | p€s fipvro \ ^017^; 
— &ybp€s "^ I ffairty and w\ttoya \ *i<rairiy. 

10. Not unfreqnently in Homer, from the mere necessities of the verse, 
A short vowel is measured as long in the Thesis, when it stands between 
Iwo long syllables. This occurs in the middle of a word, and ojftenest with 
I, e. g. t^^* Jhro I 9t(f I t|, II. t, 73. fvi wpo \ bvfii \ pirt, H. /S, 588 ; this is rarely 
the case at the end of a word, e. g. itvkvc^ \ ^cr/a\4 | lyy, Od. f», 198. rp 8* M I 
itky Top 1 yit BKoav | panris | i<rrt^ | vt»Tn 11. x. :\f\ 

9(210,211.] FIRST DECLENSION. 249 


i 210. Homeric Suffix jn, {ft>iy), 

\. la 'the Homeric -dudect there is, besides the Case-iniiections, a Sa£Sx ^i(y), 
which properiy and origiimllj denotes the indefinite where^ like the local Dat. 
{see the Syntax) 9 it is also lued to express other relations of the Dat, as the 
]>at. of the instmment, and ivith prepositions (snch as in Lat goyem the Abl.), 
It expresses those relations of the Gen. which in Latin wonld be denoted by 
the Abl. 

S. The Snffix ^ is ^ond with substantives of all the declensions, and is 
alwBfs annexed to the vnchanged stem of the word : -— 

LDsdension only in the Singular: (a) Dat. ky4\ii^t, kyXdltnf* {in the 
-ilaTf), ^p^f before i)r trtYftoof the tioor (in sereral ancient editions 17^ is 
incorrectly written with an Iota Subs, jnpt) ; (b) Gen. (Let. Abl.) kwh 
y^vpri^w UxXtiv {to shoot an arrow from the ttring)^ i^ cdi^i J^opcur (to spring 
from beef), Kpeertfiipi $lii4n, II. ^, 501 (ut'tA great force)^ 9ifjC iioT 4>atyo/i4rn' 
^ir, Od. 8, 407 {as soon as the morning daumed). 

IL Dedeneion both Singular and Plural. All these forms, without respect to 
the accent of the Nom., are paroxytone {-^ty) : (a) Dat. laKpv6^» {with 
iears)^ fi'finvp hr^iXayTos ^6<pti^ {an adviser equal to the gods) ;— (b) Geni- 
tive (Abl.) 4arb or iit TaoffaX6<^y {to take from the pin)y in df6^ty [through 
the gods), &ir^ orrt6^ {frwn the bones). 

HL Dedension almost exclusively in the PL ^tu is here used with not a largo 
number of neuter substantives in -of (Gen. -«of ), also with Korvkii^^y and 
i«tf5, e. g. 'Tflhs KoTv\ifioit6^{v) (with the union-vowel o), to the arms, vav- 
^{y) {at the ships) ; in words in -0s, the ending -of must always bo restored 
to its original form -cf, since ^1 is always annexed to the pure stem ; thus, 
4x'^^{^)i ^ ^X*^^^{^)i ***'*'' ^P«<r^(>')» 4*^1 **^» 4k o*Ht^ur^t{v). 

1211. First Declension. 

1. (a) The Epic and Ionic writers use tj instead of the original long a (which 
the Dorians use) through all the Cases of the Sin^., e. g. rx^ui, -as, -^, -om 
<Dor.) ; tro^ri, -n*, -77, -vv, ^'i5pty, -ijj, veiyvfTjj, -1;, lyv (Epic and Ion,) ; so niji^c- 
Korttfis, niycffAoirffj', from UiiydXowfta, ^frfrpVi Bop/qf, Bop^, Bopini^. 

Exceptions in Homer arc ^ti, goddess^ -af , -4^, -Ay* Not/o'tircCd, ^tioL, also A/vci&f , 
A^/df, 'Zpfuids, and some other proper names in -as pure. The Yoc. of y^/t/fni 
is y^fA^ instead of yi^^, H. 7, 130. Od. 8, 743. 

(b) In substantives in -cm and -oio, derived from adjectives in -nis and -ovf, at 
also in some other feminines, the short a in Attic is also changed into 11 in 
Ionic, e. g. iikii^hi, 4r«i8e(ij, c^Aofi}, KviaoTi instead of Ax^^cxfi, .ii«f8«<&, 
€ChrAo<d, kyltrvd^ 

(c) The -ffiol. and some other dialects have •& instead of -rjj, as the Masc 
ending in the Nom. Sing., like the Latin. The Epic also uses tliis form, accord- 

Z60 DIALECTS [) *4lt 

log to the necessities of the Terse, in a great number of words, particolarly ia 

The Yoc. retfuns the ending -A in all these words. 

2. The Gen. Sing, of mascalines in lys add -at originallj ended in -d«, -d« 
was then contracted into •« (Dor. into -a). In Horn, both the nncontiacted 
and contracted form is found; he also resolyes the -«, originating finom 
•oo, hj means of c (comp 4 S07, 3) ; it is further to be remarked,' that the •« 
in respect to accent is considered short (4 29, Bern. 7) and the e is always pro- 
nounced with the Sjnizesis; -cm becomes •« when a yowel or p precedes (still 
AiVc(r«, IL c, 534). Thus there occur in Homer, 'EpputUa^ Gen. 'B^teo an4 
'Epfi9(at\ Bopirity Gen. Bop4ao and Bop4v] 'ArptOhis, *Arpc(8do, and *Ar^lB«ii, 
(fccroo and lic^rc« ; ^D/ificAiw, 'AtrUt. In Homer, then, the QetL endings of noons 
in -Of or -mst are -oo, -«, or -«» (not -ov). The Gen. ending -«•, beoomes, in 
the Ion. writers, the usual ending, e. g. voKhuf, 'Arp€(9*m. 

3. The Ace. Sing, and Pi. of masculines in -1;$ is commonly formed in the 
Ion. dialect like the third Dec, e. g. rhf dtoir^ca, rchs Scotr^cor from Scovvni 9, 
-ov, MiArnidca from MiXTwiSqf, -ov. 

4. The Gen. Fl. of all the endings was originally in -duMf ; -ioM^ waa after- 
wards contracted into -«r (Dor. in -or). Homer uses both the nncontiacted and 
contracted forms, e. g. d^danf and ^tw, wup^Jmp and v^^ifiir. He caa also, 
as in the Gen. Sing^ again resolve, by means of c, the -Up originating from 
■4mf\ the ending thus becomes -4mVf which is conunonly pronounced with 
Synizesis, e. g. iru\/o»j^, dvp/wy, i,yop4tty. The Gen. ending -4^^ becomes in the 
Ion. writers, the common form, e. g. Motw/wv, ri/Umy, 

5. The Dat. PI. originally ended in -aMri(v) ; this ending is found in the Dor. 
writers, in the Att poets, and even in the older Att prose writers ; in the Ion. 
writers, -ourc was changed into -|y^i(r) and -^s] and in the Att. and Common 
language, -ouri was shortened in -tus* In Homer, the Dat. PL ends in -3101, -|yf, 
and -oil, yet the last is found only in dvoTf and iueraa. 

6. The Ace. PL, in JEoL, ends in -019 (as in the second Dec in -mi instead 
of 'ovs), and in Dor. in -Sa (as in the second Dec in -os instead of -ovf ), e. g. 
Tcuf rtfitus (^oL) instead of t^ rifUb (but Dat. -PL n/ioMri); vaeas mwoos 
(Dor.) instead of trda-ds Ko^pas. 

i 212. Second Declension. 

1. Nominative Sing. Proper names in -Xaos are changed in the Dor. dialect 
•nto -Ads (Gen. a, Dat. f ), e. g. Mcv/Adf instead of McWMwf, Nuc^Xif, *Apttwi' 

2. Genitive Sing. Homer uses both the common form in -ov, and that in -cto ; 
jhe tragedians, also, in the lyric passages, use the ending -mo. Theocritus has 
(lie Dor. ending -« and -cto, 

3. Genitive Sing, and PL Some genitives are formed according to the 
analogy of the first Dec (a) Herodotns has some Masc. proper names in -os 
with the ending -cw in the Gen. Sing., e. g. B<lrrc«» instead of B^rrov, Rpo(rc«% 
KKt9iifip6T€u, MtfifiXidptv, and some Masc common nouns with the ending 


in the Gen. PL, e. g. vwedow, (b) The ending -ioMf instead of tie loa 
belongs to the Dor. (comp. atymp instead of oiydUy from a2t, \ 213, 6). 

4. The Gen. and D«t Dual in tha £pic dialect ends in -mv instead of -ou^ 
CL g. Jj^iour instead of fi^Mv (^ 907, 9). 

5. The Dat PL originally ended in-o<o'i(y). This fonn, as well as the 
abridged fonn in -Mf is Ibond in Homer and in all the poets, and in Ion. proso 

6. The Ace, PL ends, in the Dor. writen (except Pindar) in -ws and in -oi 
(like -ds in the first Dec, 4 211, 6), e. g. rin vdimt^ p^pm, so also t^s \ay4s, the 
ham ; JEoL in -oxs, e. g. irmrtrd\Mt instead of -out, 

7. Attic Declension. The Gen. Sing, in the Epic dialect ends in -Ao, instead 
of •«, in IIiimAmm (IL |, 489 ; though most M8S. hare ^1|n^^lo) from Ilifyt* 
Arm, and in HcrtiM from n^rcvf • — In ydXwSf aiaier4n4aWt 'A3«f and K«s, the 
m originating hy contraction, is zesolred, in the Epic dialect, by means of o] 
hence y^ktmSf *Ad^St K^t, Gen. -^m. On the words yiXms^ *^'t fy^s, see 
f 213, 7. 

8. Contracted forms of the second Dec. are rare in Homer, namely, rovs only 
Od. jc, 240 (elsewhere p6os)^ x«M*^M^ovf» I^* ^» ^^ (^nt y, 138. xcM<4(^') &iict 
X^ftuffoh IL i, 452, also Ildi'dMtf, ndi<dov, n«Udy. Homer does not contract 
crther words; in words in -tor, -c«r, he either lengthens the c into ci (f 207, 1 ), 
or employs Syniaesis, as the measure requires. 

}213. Third Declension, 

1. In the Dor. uialect the long a here also takes the place of if, e. g. .tiy, 
/uu'6s instead otft^y^ faii^^f§ ctc.,*£AAai', 'EXAdrfs, voi/idy instead of voi/i^y, Gen. 
-^rofy niras, -dros instead of wtSniSf -iirof. 

Aibipt iHh <^f « *°<1 *11 names of penons in -tV) cuie exceptions to this 
Dor. usage. 

2. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, on the contrary, if commonly takes the place 
of the long a, as also elsewhere, e. g. i^^if^f tib^, lpi|| instead of diSpd^, l4pA^, 

3. The Dat. PL in the Epic dialect, ends, according to the necessities of the 
measure, in -fftfy), -4r#x(y), -c^cfy), and •c##i(r). The ground-form is -ff#i(y) 
and the strengthened form is •c0'ori(y). This ending is always annexed, like 
the other Case-endings, to the pure stem, e. g. ir^r-co-o'i (from «rvwy, Gen. icuk-^s), 
jnf«^-«tf#« (from Wirvf, -vos]. The ending -10-1(1^) is found in Homer only in 
&«9iy, ofcfi, xc/pc(ri, and ib'dicT-co'iy (from <b«{, &wcr-of ). In Neuters, which 
hare a radical # in the Nom., the c is omitted when it stands between two 
Towels (^25, 1), e. g. M-wvi (instead of Mir'Win from r^ ^os), ZrwJu'^aaw 
(from T^ S^oi). In stems in -av, -cv, -ov (oF, cF, oF), the v (F) must be 
omitted, according to 4 25, 2; thus, fi6-wiri instead of fiSF-Matrt, lirw^-§wt 
instead of hrw^-wvu The ending -cr 0*1 is annexed almost exclusively to 
stems which end in a rowel, e. g. r^iev-aai from Wurvt -v-^f ; but also fy^-cat 
from tpis (-1809) and commonly iroo'a'l from irods (voS-^s ). The Dat. form in 
•dtri nerer admits the doubling of 4r. — The gronnd-form -ttrt is rery common 
in the Dor. poets and prose-writers; also the clonic prose has this ftrirm fre 
quently in stems ending in -r^ c. g. ^^K-co-i. 

«52 DIALECtS. P213 

4. The Gen. and Bat. Dnal in the Epic dialect, ends in -^tr {«& in tiie 
second Dec, § 212, 4), c. g. xoSotiy, :Cc<p^our. 

5. The Gen. FL in the Ion. dialect often ends in -^»y, e. g x^rloir, iu^pimtf 
<§ 207, 10). Theocritns has rav oiyw (instead ofr&w ofywr) from 4i cd(, a goal 
filler the analogy of the first Dec 

6. The Epic dialect sometimes forms the Ace. Sing, of words in -vf (stem v) 
in a instead of f, e.* g. €bp4a w6vrov^ ^x^^ ^^ ^^™ '^'* 

7. The words yi\ws, laughter; IBpAt, stoeOt; f^s, itn^e, which properlj belong 
to the third Dec, in Homer follow the Attic second Dec. in some of the Cases, 
e. g. (8p«, Z8p^ instead of /SpwTa and Apvrc ; y4\M and yiKmv^ y^^Vt instead •£ 
yikwTa and y4XMri, %p«p instead of %pwn, 

8. Words in -ir,* Gen. -ilos. The Hom., Ion., and Dor. dialects often 
htflect these substantives, particularly proper names, in -lof, e. g. /t^nor, Hom.^ 
e^/itos, Herod., e^rrof , Dat. 6M, Hom. Those ending in -«f, -iSor, in the Epic 
dialect have the Dat. only in -i instead of -8<. Substantives in -i}ff, -iftdot, 
are sometimes contracted in the inflection, by the poets, e. g. fnpults, vupigdos 
(instead of ira^lBor), Jhtprftsj Hifpipd^s, See 4 54 (c). 

9. The Kent, oh^ &r6s, ear^ is in Dor. 2f, »r<$s, etc, and in Hom. oSat , Gca 
tft^ros,' PI. ot^ara; the Neuters, criap^Jbt; oft^, ue&isr, and wnpapj end, hare 
-aror in the Gren., namely, <rr4aroSf oi^ora, wttpcera, *^tpma-u, In the words 
r4pas, Kipasy Kp4ai, the Epic writers reject r, e. g. r4pau, -duy, -dtc-aiiw) ; ic/pf 
Dat; Fl. ic/po, KtpiMv^ -dtc0'0'((y.), and KMrt(F) ^ PI. /rp/a, Kptiwr, KpeAwj and Kp^ui^^ 
Kp4curi(v). Among the Ionic writers these words, like fip4rea^ etc. {\ 61, Rem. 
IJ, often change the a into c, e. g. ic^cos, ic^ca, Kfp4uiy^ rh, r4p€ay Kp4€&&i{ry. 
See 4 54 (c). 

10. In the words warfip^ H'h^pj ^^"> Homer either retains or rejects the ( 
through all the Cases, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. iiy4pos and 
h^p6sy hf4pi and &i^pf, etc., but only iySpSr, ityBpdat and -4<r<n] ywrrlip^ yas' 
T4posy '4ptf and yaarrpSs^ ywrrpi^ yacrripayyaffr4p9S'^ Ai}/i^ti;p, *fiT4poSy and -n^pes, 
A'fjp.TjT4pa] i^vyeirijp, •r4pos, and -r/K^r, etc., dvjaT4pf<nn{p)j but ;^vy«rp6r; fii^iip 
and Trarfip, 'r4pos^ and -TpJj, etc. See 4 55, 2. 

1 1. In Homer, the word Ix^P^ Hood of the gods^ has in the Ace lx& instead of 
iX^po, and KVKt&Vy 9, mtreef (fnn^-, has in the Ace kvjccm or icvircid. See f 56, 
llcm. I. 

12. In -avf, -CDS, -ov$. Of 7paDs, there arc found in Homer only the Nom. 
ypnivs and yprt]tiSy Dat. ypfift and the Toe ypffi and 7/>i}d. In the' Ion. dialect, 
also, the long a is changed to tj; thus, Gen. 7pi}^s, PI. 7f>^cr*, this also appears 
in faSj, nam, see the Anomalies. — The word fiovs is regularly declined in 
Her., hence Nom. PI. /S^cs, Ace. )3oSf ; in the Ace. PI. Homer uses both ^6«a 
and /Sous. On the Epic Dat. fiSffftri^ see No. 3. In Doric, the Nom. is fiih, 
Ace. fi&y. Ace. PI. fias. This form of the Ace Sing., occurs also in the H. % 
2.38, in the sense of btdts hide, a shield made of buWs hide. See 4 57. 

* The student may consult the first part of the Grammar, where similar 
words are declined ; references fb the particuhir section will be given at the end 
of the paragraphs here. 

4 1^13.] TItiaD t)£CLt2NSlON. 2^ 

IS. In common nouns in -^s, and in the proper name *Ax<XA«^, ir is ttsed !■ 
tb« Epic dialect, instead of f , in all the forms which omit v (F) of the stem, 
tliis is done to compensate by the length of the, vowel for the omitted v {F)\ 
thus, fiaffdiMvs^ Voc. -cS; Dat. Fl. -itvert (except iLfHar^«r<ri{») from ^nrre^), but 
fi&a\X^t ^r, -n&, -^(f , •^wf', 'fjas* Yet the long « in the Ace. -co, -c«f of the 
Attic dialect, again becomes short. Among the proper names, the following 
are to be specially noted : 'Odvo'o'c^r, Gen. 'GSwnnios or 'Oiwrijos and *08vatr^f , 
also *09vo'cDf (Od. », 398), Dat 'OBwrji and *08iMrc7, Ace. 'OSiwo^a and *08v^ 
•^ also *OBvffri (Od. r, 136) ; IlijXc^f, Uri\yios and tlf^A/^r, IlqA^r and nri\4ly 
HifAiva; the others, as ^Arpc^r, TvSc^s, generally retain the -c and contract -cos 
in die Gen. by Synizesis, and sometimes •tu in the Ace., into -ii ; thus, Tvd^r, 
-^i, •^ and *ir» — In tlie Ion. of Herodotns, the inflection with i} in common 
noons is veiy doubtful ; in proper names, the c b regular, e. g. Htpa^s, AvpUtSf 

14. In -ifi and -cs, Gen. -los. In Homer, the Gen. Sing, remains uncon- 
tracted. In tho Bpic and Ion. dialects, both the nnoontracted fbrm -«try and 
the contracted form -€u is used for the Nom. PI. The Gen. PI. remains uncon- 
tracted (except when a vowel precedes the ending -^wr, e. g. ixxFn*'^ itouk 
Ckxt^^ ; so also the Ace. PL ending -cos. "Affns has in Homer ''A^of and 
^Afcas, "A^ or "Apf}, "Aptlf^Afm and "A^r, II. c, 909,'^A/Mr and "Apci (§ 209, 
Bern. 3). See § 59. 

15. In proper names in -icA^s, the Epic dialect contracts fc into i}, e.g. 
'HfMurA^f, -jcA^M (instead of irX^cof), -^7, -^a> Voc. 'HpddcActs; but in adjectives 
m Wi|f it varies between -ci and ii, e. g. ^tokXc^Si Gen. iywcXiios, but ^GicAcias 
(Ace. PI.) from iDK\efis, iv^^s^ Gen. iv^tos. The Ion. and Dor. writers, and 
sometimes the poets for the sake of tho verse, reject an c in these words, e. g. 
ntpaeX^os, -41, etc.; so also in Homer, ivsKK4&^ II. ^,115, and inetp^ioLi B. p, 330. 

16. In (a) •«;, Gen. -mou In Homer, the contracted forms, fip^ Dat., and 
M/yw Ace. occur. — (b) -^s and -w, Gen. -605, Words of this kind even in the 
Epic and Ion. writers, as well as in the Attic, always have the contracted form, 
except xp^^ Ai^d i^s compounds, e. g. XR^^f XP^"^* XP^ — ^^^ ^^^' dialect fre- 
qnetitly forms the Ace. Sing, in -ovv instead of -my e. g. *lAf *Iovi', 1i4s, ^ovr. — 
The JEoL Gen. Sing, ends in -005, e. g.oJfSw;, Xdir^s instead ofatiovs, Sor^oi/y, 
thus, in Moschus, ras *Kx»s> See \ 60. 

17. In (a) -af, Gen. -aos. In Homer, the Dat. Sing, is either nncontractcd 
or contracted, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. y^tptilt and yitp^, 
S^, acAf. But the Nom. and Ace. PI. is always contracted, e. g. S^mu — On 
those in -cu. Gen. -cor, see § 61 (a), and Rem. 1. 

(b) In -Of, Gen. >cos. The Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
verse, has sometimes the nncontracted and sometimes the contract forms, 
except in the Gen. PI., which is always uncontractcd. Tho Gen. Siag. is also 
nncontracted, except in some substantives which contract -cos, as in the Dor., 
into -CVS ; thus, "Ep40tuSf bdp<rws, y4y€vs, bdfxfitvsj d^pws ; Dat. Sing. d4pu and 
^ptt, iniAAcr and ic^tAAci. Nom. and Ace. Plurals in -ca, commonly remain 
QDContracted, but they mast be pronounced with Synizesis, i. e. as one syllable, 
e. g. ptUtK, iS^Aca. — The Ion. dialect is like tho Epic. - - In <nr^os, icA/or, Uos, 

354 DIALECTS. [i 214. 

xM^i ^® ^P^^ dialect lengthens c, sometimes into ci, sometimes into ii; thm, 
Glen. «yf(ovs, Dat. tfir$7, Ace. tnr4os and inrf «by, Gen. PL aittiwv^ Dat. €tt4wi(p) 
and 0T^c<rv((y) ; XP^^'' ^^^ XP*'9^ i "^^^ ^^^ «A«7au 

18. In -75, Gen. -los ; -vf* Gen. -ibot. The Epic dialect contracts those ia 
'fit in the Dat. Sing., e. g. luCvt^ irXtS^l, v4kvi\ the Ace. PL appean with ths^ 
contracted or nncontracted forms, according to the necessities of the yenc, 
though more usually contracted, e. g. ixbvs instead of 1%^^% ^t i Wkmbs is 
always uncontracted ; the Nom. PL never suffers contraction, hut is pronounoed 
with Synizesis. The Dat PL ends in '^ci and -Wo-i (dissyllable), e.g. Ix<^^ 
irof and Ix^^^vtv, See § 62. 

19. In -If and -I, Gen. -loi, Att -€«r ; -Of and -0, Gen. -Cos, AtL -cmt:— 

(a) The words in -7f,^tt Gen. -Mtf, in the Epic and Ionic dialect, letun i 
of the stem through all the Cases, and in the Dat Sing, always suffer oontrae-> 
tion, and usually in the Ace. PI. in the Ionic writers, and sometimes also in 
Homer (-u — .f, -ms bs -tr), e. g. ir^Acr, ir^AiOf, ■r6hX^ ir^\iy, w^ci, iraX(iir, wiKun^ 
wiKmst and fr6>Ss. In the Dat Sing, however, the ending -cl and «« is fomid 
in Homer, e. g. ir^; and %6ir9t. from wivts ; in some words, the i of the stem is 
changed into c in other Cases also, e. g. ^ir^cu instead of #irix|i«s, MJi^<tat[w)^ 
especially in ir^Aif , which, moreover, according to the necessities of the verse, 
can lengthen c into ri ; thus. Gen. ir^xioi , ir^Acoi , and irdXi|Of, Dat ir^Af i, v^Xm, 
and ir^Ai}7, Nom. PI. w6\9ti and ir^Ai^ci , Gen. iro\(»r, Dat. wohi^ccrit Ace. v^Ams, 
r^Acis, WAitos; from 575, ot;ts, Dat PI. ^c(r(ri(r), 0fe(rt(r), 5ca'<(r). See \ 63. 

(b) The words in -(^5, whose Gen. in the Attic ends in -c«5, in the lonie 
make the Gten. in -co5, e. g. iHix^oi^ except (^cXv5, Gen. -vof ; in the Dat Sing., 
both the contracted and uncontracted forms are found in Homer, e. g. c2pA^ 
iHix«<] irXorc*. In the Nom. PI., the form can be either contracted or uncoil* 
tracted ; in the Ace. Fl., the uncontracted form in -cof is regular, which, when 
the verse requires, can be pronounced as a monosyllable, e. g. vcA^/ccor (tri- 

} 214. Anomalous and Defective Words.-^Metaplasis, 

1. r6i^v {rhf hnee) and 96pv (t^, speary § 68, 1), are declined in Homer as 
follows ; — 

Slug. yoAimTos and ywv6s 9o6pvros and 9ovp6s toCpart and imrpi 

PL Nom. To^Mira " ywpa Mpora ^* 9odf>a — Dual So v^ 

Gen. yoinmv Mpwif 

Dat yo^wri{y) and yoiyetrailv) 9ovp(un{i^) and 9ovpt4rffi{if). 
The form yo^yeurfft (II. i, 488, p, 451, 569) has critically little authority. 

2. The following forms of xdpa (r^, head, ^ 68, 6) are found in the Homeric 
dialect: — 

Sing. Nom. tdpii Gen. ledpTiros Kop^teros itporAs Kpiarot 

Dat KdpTfTi ffop^^i Kpterl updmn 

Ace. Mfpi? (7^r KpSfn, Od. », 92, and M Kip, IL «, 392). 

I 215.] ADJECTIVES. 265 

FL NoatL jedfpa mfiara ; secondaiy form irtl^iiMi 
Gen. Kfdrmf ** xnpitmw 

Ace. xyMtcRTB ** Kdfffim 

S. ASaf (d, fCone, Horn., Instead of Aaf)| Gen. Xoof, Dat. xSr, Aco. XSor, Go» 
Fl XifliT, Dat ?Me(ri{r). 

4. Mcfs (4, monfft), Gen. tivif6sy Ion., instead of fiiw, -^s^ but also in Plato. 

5. Navf (j^, sAif>) is inflected in the Epic, Ionic, and Doric dialects as 

8. Nom. Ep. and Ion. mvs m^' w Dor. pmit 

Gen. mis (also Tragic) m^j po6f (also Trag.) 

Dat. wni ^ wtd 

Ace. y^a Wa mwp and niir 

D.Nom. Ace. Yoc. y^c ra 

Gen. and Dat. ytoiy wwiuf 

P. Norn. yif«f y^i ms 

Gen. nydr (raS^ only Ep.) rf£r rafir 

Dat. mvo^ (yoi^ionlyEp.) iHivrai(v)^ rUffai(v) yavtf/(y) 

Ace. yqor r/or raof. 

€. ''OjpMf {i 4, 6trd)i Gen. H^S^s, Doric ipvlx^h etc (4 203). 
7. Xil^ (i Aomf), Ion. x«/»^J, X«pt X^/Wi I>n*l X«V«i X«l>«> (poet. also x*ip9»)^ 
PL x^pcvf X^P^^i X*P^(^) (x^^^(^)i <u^d -f^^<(y) in Homer), x^jpof* 

RKMAmc 1. Metaplasm (f 7S) occurs in Homer in the following words : 
AAidft, 4, sAnnMCA, DaL ^Jud (from Nom. 'AAS) ; 'Atti|f, -ov, i, Gen. lUSof, Dat. 
tfiSi (*Aa); *Am^«(n|f, -«o, 6, Acc. 'Aj^i^ar^a CA2>ni«ATET2) : 2««4, h^mar- 
tmt^ Acc ififctt (*IfiB) ; hayAri^ 4, Lottie, Dat. hviM^i (haidt) ; — nar/MJcAof, Gen. 
IkrrpAcX0v and -icX^os, Acc. -kKow and -icAiva, Yoc -kXcu (IIATPOKAH3) ; Mpir 
waSw, rhy dove, Dat PI. MpmitSSwfft{p) ; v^torror, r^, >^i PI. wpos^arOf 
wposiwmn'y i^oi, 4, son, has from 'TIEY3 and TIS the foUowing forms : Gen. 
vi49f and vlbf , Dat vfci and jXl, Acc. uf/a and tXa ; Dual vTc ; Kom. PL v2^cr and 
wfccr and i^cr, Dat Mn^ Acc vUum and vIIeu ; — ■ OaS^tovi, Gen. 028iv^8ao 

Rbm. 2. The following are defective in Homer : Xnt Dat. and t& xTro, /tncn ; 
Aif and Xly = x/wy and \4orra ; fuLrri and f^daruf »» fidtmyi and -o ; mx^s, 
rrlx^Sy artjcuy row ; jav«, rd^, Nonn. and Acc. Dual, both eyes ; 6^kos, advantage 
and 4^, fiBOMure, in the Nom. only ; ^po, womeiking pUannpy and 94fULSyJ'ormy in 
the Acc only ; i^c^i , infatuated^ Yoc. i^^ and ^Xf / *, fimdly, S«, icp7, &\^i, a^ 
Nom. and Acc. Sing., from which come the forms 8«fta, hmaey lepidiiy barle^y 
iXi^or, dried barley. 

4 215. Adjbotitbs. 

1. Some adjectives in -vt, -«ia, -u, have sometimes in the Homeric dialect, 
the feminine form -fa or -cij ; viz. &K4a (instead of viccia), fia^a (instead of 
fitAtui) ; Gen. fieAhis (and fiadtlns) , Acc. fiad^nf ; so also in Herodotus, -co, 
seldom -cio, e. g. fia&4€Ly -iti and -«ia, ^op^o, cvp^o, £^^f, -fa and -f<a, d^Xca (from 

Bemabk. In Epic and Doric poetry, some adjectives of this kind, and also 
some in '4ns and -4<t'i Are of the common gender, t o. they have but on* 

266 DIALECTS. [i 21<k 

termination for the Masc. and Fem., e. g.*Hp7i dijKvs ^sDra, II. r, 97 ; so 4^ 
&0Tf(4, Od. fi, 309, and the irregnlar woMs: iroA^y i^* iypiii^, 11* «, 27 ; so ^^ui- 
d^tf , ir3«/A^6<r, ijvyty^cif, voi^cir, agreeing with feminine substantives. — The 
Epic iii9 or iits, Nent. ^d (^l) and cd only as an adverb), wants the feminine 
form ; in U. «, 528, is found 9^fwv ota 9lBwrt kqkw^ trtpos ihidvw {sc Siipcwr), 
therefore idtfw a3 the Gen. PI. Nent, unless perfaa])s from S^jpvy the cognate 
Z6<r9w is to be supplied for idM¥ to ^gree witlL, as in Swr^er iduv sc. 96vt»v\ 
the Gen. Siqg. is ii\os, 

2. Adjectives in -^is, -^c^-cra, -rjcv, arc often found in Homer in the contracted 
form -ply '^ffcOf -^r, e. g. rtfi^f (and rt/i//cis), rift^Kra ; those in -6€ts, -^e-trof 
•Jfy, contract -oc into 'Cv, e. g. Tc8(a Axmrcvyro. 

3. In the Epic dialect, wo\6s is regularly inflected in the masculine and 
neuter, viz. Nom. 7ro\6s and TovKif, Kcut. iro\v, with the secondary forma 
iroAA^r, iroAA^v, Grcn. toX/os, Acc. voK^m and irovA^, iro\^ and iroXXtfy ; Nom. 
PI. iroA./cf and roXcir, Gen. To\4«Vf Dat. iro\/(7i(r), iro\c<r<r<(v), and wo\4€c^<ri[v)^ 
Acc. iroX^ftf and iroAc7r. — The Ionic dialect inflects irowis, -^, -Sp, rcgnlarlj 

4. Compound Adj. in -os (comp. § 78, 1.) often have in Hom. a feminine ending, 
Tiz. -i|, e. g. i^opdrri, iurfi4tmi, iroXv^ppfi, ftpi^Xii (but also &p(Ci}Xo( o^yocf, XL 
Xt 27), itp/ptfipSrri, &7Xi({Ai}, hpyvpotcidnt ikfjupipCrji ] on the contrary, icXvr^r as a 
feminine is found in II. fi, 742. Od. e, 422, from the simple k\vt6s, -4, -^i^. Also 
the ending -os of the superlative is sometimes found as feminine, e. g.«A«^rarpt 
iifi-fi, Od. 8, 442. Karh vp<&rurrop 6ir<0iHir» H. Cer. 157. Comp. 4 78, Rem. 1. 

5. Compound adjectives in -irovy, -nvvr, Gen. voSos, in the Epic dialect, can 
shorten -irovr into ^nt, e. g.'^lpis &cAX^t, U. ^, 409. rplwos, IL x» ^^3. 

6. 'ZfArjpts from ipCrjpos, ipwrdpfuerts and -cu from 4pva-dpfuiTos, are examples 
of Metaplastic forms of adjectives in Homer. 

« ■ 

i 216. Comparison. 

i. In the Epic dialect, the endings -^tpot and -^^aros are used for the sake 
of the metre, even when the vowel of the preceding syllable is long, e. g. 
6i^p<&r9poSf 6i(up^ctroSf icairo^ctyc^rfpos, XapcSretroi.'— ^Aviiyfi^r, trmAleaomey haa 
the Comparative kvvqpiarepov^ Od. ^, 190, and tx"^^^ disagreeaJt^^ itx^^P^^P^** 
Od. V, 392. Comp. ^ 82, Rem. 6. Adjectives in -us and 'p9s, in the Homeric 
dialect, form the Comparative and Superlative in '(w¥, -lov, and h^t^s, -ii, -©f, 
sometimes also regularly, e. g. iKax^St little, ikdxt^^os, y\vK6s 7\vic(o»y, fla^s^ 
fid^urrosy Kv9p6sy le^urros, ohcrpSs oficrurros and ohcrpirarost vax^f irdxt^ros^ 
wp4irfi»s ■rp4ir0urToSf mnis Akuttos. 

2. Besides the anomalous forms of comparison mentioned nndcr § 84, the 
following Epic and dialectic forms require to be noticed: — 

iiya^6s^ Comp. hptUtv^ Xmiw, Xuirtpoi (Ion. Kp4<rff»p, Dor. xd^^mp), Sup. 

xaKOSy Kcuc^fpoSy x**P^^*P'*^» X*P*^*''» X^f^^^'^'^P^^ (Dor. xemfwr, Ion. «r<ran'). 

Sup. fiKitrros (II. 4^, 531, with tiie variation liKurrot, which Spitzncr prefers). 
^klyosy Comp. 6Ki{wp (6\tCopts ^up, populi subcrant statura minores, II. r, 

519); firiMPf Bion, 5, 10. 
ffltHios, Ion., Comp. pritr^pos (Ton. fvitwp), Sup. ^tfetros and pfilar&r» 
^f a8vr, s/otr, Comp. fipdxrcup^ Sap. /B^i«t«y (by Metathesis). 
$MKpd J, /(»i^, fidcravp ; — t ox ^ »t tAiclr, t^^vw. 




1. The positlvo X£PH2 (x^prih X^pn^ pc^PV^s, X'P^^) ^ovaxd in 
Homer, and belonging to x^P^^^^t always has the signitication of the Compara- 
tive, /ea, (cuo*, weaker. The PL irXces and (Ace.) ir\eas arc found in Homer 
from tho Comp. v^/twr. 

Rem. 2. In the Epic dialect, the forms of the Comparative and SnperlatiTe, 
in maiij instances, are derived from Substantives; some of these forms have 
been transferred to the Common language: 6 fiatriKtis fiaffiKt(ntpos\ t^ 
K4p9ofy gain^ KfpJiiop, more lucrative, K4fiiurTos] rh Axyos, pain^ iiKyloop, moie 
painfid^ iXyto^os', rh fiyos, ccidj ^fyioy, colder^ more dreadjfuly piyurros: rh k^- 
8of, care, teifit^rot^ vmst dear ; 6 ^ tmnff dog^ icC^tpos, more shameless, itmntKrou 

\ 217. Fbokoukb. 









#7c6 and ( before a vow 
el) iyfiv Epic; fyw 
and J4yȴ JSoIic 

cfi/o, ^ficD, ficO (ficu) 
Epic and Ion. 

ilAMM Epic 

ilU&w Epic 

^/uvs» iiiovs Doric 

4fJL0t,flot (/bUM),l/bU>l JEol. 

ifdtf Doric 

ifU, fU {fi€) Epic 


^/wlf'Epic; V^crlon. 
^tDor.; ^/icrEpic 
illUwv Ion. and Epic 
ifMiwf Epic 
ikfi4i4tfv .£oUc; hiMv 

^fwfj lifUPt riidv Epic 
tilitu(w) JEol. and Ep. ; 
hiwf and ifJy Dor. 
&fi^0'i(y) .£ol. 

iltUas Ion. and Epic 

^^Mtf, iiiiiis Epic 
if^ixM Epic ; aii4 Dor. 

^ Epic; T& Dor. and 
JEol.; r^Epic 

Tfw Dor.; do (irco), 
ccv («'«;), Ep. and Ion. 
<rc<o and rcoio Epic 
W^9 Epic 
T«Of , Tf ovs Dor. 
<ro( Epic 
rip Dor. ; rtft' Dor. et 
Ep. (usually Orthot.) 
roi (roi) Ep. and Ion. 
0-/ (ct) Ep. ; r^ Dor. 
ri (tw) Dor. 
t/v in Theocritus 

0*^7, 0"^ 


^/AMt Ep. ; V^c Ion. 
biUs Dor. ; i^f s Ep. 
bikitow Ion. and Epic 
6/Ac(wy Epic 
iflJLtkiw JEol. 

v/iiV, SfUK, tyS» Epic 
tffifu(ir) Epic 

£/a/cu Epic and Ion. 

an accent. 

9^4as {ff^tas) Ion. 

and Epic 
0'^ar, o^uas Epic 
(flr^f) Epic (IL-, 265.) 

&0-^c iboL 

. The forms susceptible of inclination are those written without 

Sftof , ifiis Epic 
0/ififf Epic ; inU Dor. 

?o (Jo), cS (c&) Epic 
and Ion. 

cfo Ep.; 4c2b later Ep. 
£»cy (A^cir) Epic 
4oOj Dor. 

U Dor. (usually or- 


4oi, of (o2)Ep (Reflex.) 
U,t{i) (asNeutU. 

vlw (vuf) Dor. f and Att. 

poet) (him, her, ii\ 
fuy [fuv) Ion. (Aim, her^ 

it; seldom Pi.) 
<r^c Dor. et Att. poet. 

<r^4, 0-^c \ Epic 
0*^, 0'^a» 

9^4^09 (o'^cwy) Ion. 
and Epic 
ir^w Epic 
iri^im¥ Epic 

0'^( (0'^i) Ion.; a^U 

Jkff^i JEol. 

£58 DIALECTS. [{ 21& 

2. The compound forms of the reflexlTe pronouns, ifuorrov, 0'eavrov, etfr, 
never fonnd in Homer; instead of them, he writes the personal pronouns and 
the pronoun mn6s separate, e. g. Ifi* alniPf i/ioi axrr^, i/uv alrr^Sf I ovrfi'y of 
o^r^. When the pronoun a^6s stands first, it signifies himself, hendf, iladfl 
even. But the Ion. writers use the compound forms ^ucwvroD, trct^vrov, imm rei v f 
etc Comp. 4 207, 1. 

3. Possessive pronouns : tc^s, -4, -^v Dor. and Epic, instead of erSs ; Uu -^ 
-^y, and Zs, H, 8y, mus , Epic ; V^t , -4, -^y Dor. and Epic, ififtos, itftfUr^pos JEoL, 
instead of ^fUrtpos ; iwtrf/ws, q/* us 6oeA, Epic ; 6/ufy, •^, -^y Dor. and Epic, 
CfAftas JEol^y instead of ifiirtpos ; o-^trcpot, o/* jfou boih^ II. a, 216 ; vfis, -4, -^ 
^£ol. and Epic, instead of c^tpos. 

4. Demonstrative pronouns : (a) 6iiT6 (Dor. 'a instead of i^) ; Gen. rm Dor., 
Toib and rtv Epic, ras Dor. ; Dat rf Dor. ; Ace ncbr Dor. ; PI. ni and rof Dor. 
and Epic; Glen, rdaty Epic, rw Dor.; Dat. rourc, rauri, Yfori, and r^i Epic; 
Ace. r4s, r6s Dor. 

(b) <9c: Epic Dat. PI. rocsSc^t and roaScco-i instead of roSft*; Epic Dat. 
roiir(8f instead of rotidf is found also in the Tragedians. 

(c) olros and air 6s: an c stands b«ft>rB the long inflection-endings in the 
Ion. dialect (4 207, 10), e. g. rmniw, rwarhiSy rovrd^^ rovr^vf, «^^, s^^mt. 

(d) 4kuvos is written in Ion. and also in Att. poetry iccZros, JSol. jHSpm, Dor 

(e) On the Ion. forms w^rJr, rwftrj instead of 6 9in6s, rh o^r^, see f4 206^ 1, 
and 207, 1. 

5. Relative pronouns: Z Dor. and Hom., instead of Zs\ oTo Ion. and Epic; 
Zav Epic seldom, tms II. ir, 208 ; j<ri and fs instead of off. Besides If, f, the 
other forms of the pronouns are supplied, in the Dor. dialect, b j the forms of 
the article, e. g. r6 instead of 8, roS instead of oS, r^s instead of %s^ etc The 
Epic dialect uses both forms promiscuously, according to the necessities of the 
verse. In the Ion. dialect also, the forms of the article are frequently used 
instead of the relative. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronouns: (a) rlf, rl: G^en. rio (rto) Epic 
and Ion., rev (rev) Epic, Ion., and Dor., Dat. r^y (rrQ»), r^ {r^) Epic and Ion. ; 
PI. iSurv Neut, imnot trtra^ Od. r, 218, Gen. Wwj^ (rcwy) Epic and Ion., Dat 
ri(Mi9i Epic and Ion. (roTvi^ S. Trach. 984). 

(b) r(f, rl : Gen. rio Epic and Ion., rcu Epic, Ion., and Dor., ri^ Ion. 

(c) 8ms: Nom. 8rt5,Nent.8ri, Srri Ep. 
Gen. 8r<vEp.and Ion.,8rfo, 

8rrffo, 8rrcv Epic 
Dat 8rcy, 8ry Ep. and Ion. 
Ace. irwa Epic, Nent 8r<, 

8tti Epic. 

Kent PI. SriMi Biad. 
Zr99»w Epic and Ion. 

hriaun Epic and Ion., ^^i Her. 
ZfTtpos Epic, Nent. ferom and 9uraa Epic 

4 il8. The Numebalb. 

The JBol. and secondary form of iiU ia 1a,fns,fjf,ioaf\ also l^, B. £ 422, u 
twtead of 4W. A^ and 8^ are indeclinable in Homer ; the secondary fbrmt 


are 801^ (indecl.)i <oiof» Smo/, fou(, Dat SoMtk, S010Z9', Ace. 9o»A (indecl.), 9cmis, 
-41, -^ — lUtfvpcf , HI .£ol. and Epic, instead of r^avo^, -a. — Av^Scim and Siw 
ira^Bcica Epic, also 8<iScira. — *Ec{icoa'i Epic, instead of ftkocri. — *Oj94icorra and 
^^y<^ » p r tt Epic, instead of ^ySo^icoyra, htpfytwra. 'Erri^x*^^ '^a^ ^iritx'^* 
Epic, instead of ^ivaicifx^^' ^^ /"dpiau The endings -dUrorra and -ow^mm in 
Ae Epic and Ion. become -^oyro, -trx^oim. The Epic fonns of the ordinals 
are TyfT TOf , r^rptrott I^M^/Mrrof , ^tMatm, Imrtfs, and cli«r«f . 

The Verb. 

♦ 219. Augment, — Reduplication, 

1. AU the poets, except the Attic, may reject the angment, according to the 
neeessitiea of the Terse, e. g. kvat, ertOawroj t^icwf^ SpStn, IXc. The Ion. 
prose, as well as the Epic dialect, may omit the temporal angment ; it maj also 
omit it in the Perf., e. g. Ififuu, Kpyarfuu^ efbniftm^ which is done bj the Epic 
writers onlj in ^vrya and fyxoerm from ^tpym. 

S. On Ae omission of the Epic dialect to donble the p when the angment is 
prefixed, e. g. fjpc|«f, and on the doubling the liquids, e. g. fo-crfvo, see f 2S08, 
4, and Rem. 

3. A in the Dor. writers is changed into a by the augment, and cu snffers no 
change, e. g. iyow instead of liyop^ ellp€w instead of ffptow, 

4. Yeibs which hare the Digamma, in Homer take the syllabic augment, 
according to the rale, e. g. &vMrw, to please, Impf. idi/^oyw, Aor. IdSor ,— ctB«- 
ptuj videor, Uurdftiiif, also in the participle Uwiiuwos, On account of the rerse, 
the « seems to be lengthened in ctoucvoi, cilaSc (%Fq3U) from heMim. 

5. In Homer, the verbs otpoxo4m and iMiw, take at the same time both the 
syllabie and temporal augment, yiz. i^rox^tt, H. 8, 3, yet more frequently ^r^ 
X^< ; I'^i'Sdyt and I)y8«i*t. 

6. The reduplication of p is found in Homer, in ^pinrmpA^ot^ from ^vwim^ to 
make dirty. On the contnuy, the Epic and poetic Perfects, iixftopa from futp^fuu 
and f^avfuu ftom crc^, are formed according to the analogy of those beginning 
with pt i. e. by Metathesis ; hence f/ifiopay etc., instead of fi^/MfMu— The Epic 
and Ion. Perf. of Krdofim is ficni/uai. A strengthened reduplication is found in 
the Horn, forms t^iiix^trm and MZ^kto, 

7. In the Epic dialdct, the second Aor. Act and Mid. also often takes the 
reduplication, which remains through all the modes. In the Ind. the simple 
angment c is commonly omitted ; thus, e. g. ic^ a^mw, lo grow weary, Subj. Aor. 
«€ic4fM»; K4Kofiaifto command, iMKX6yaiv\ kX^w, to hear, Aor. Imp. ic^icXfii^, 
k^kKut^] Kayx^ff^f ^ obtain, X^AaxM'; Xafi/S^rw, to receive, KtKafi4e^at\ 
\apddp9ff lateo, to eacape notice, K4Xadop'j wti^m, to persuade, ir^idor, vtwi^^ 
fiTfP', r4pTm, to deli^, rrrptariiaip \ rvyx^P^t to obtain. rervKUP, rrrvK4adai\ 
♦ENa, to nntrder, In^wir, 94^pop\ ^pd{tt, to say, to ahoif^ wi^paZov, hr^ptJ^, 
Aorists with the Att. reduplication (comp. 4 124, Rem. 2) commonly take the 
augment: *APA, toJU, ffp-ofioir; 'AXXl, to grieve, ffic-ax^*'} &X^|«, to ward off^ 
fX-oAicor, iXaXnw \ 6p¥vut, to excite, Ap-opov \ iylwrtf, to chide, ivh'nov. Twa 

260 DIALECTS. [1226 

verbs in the Aor. take the rodapUcatton in the middle of the word : viz. iviv-r m, 
V^ovvK, and ipixw, to restrain, iip^-Konow^ ipmcaKUw, Comp. the Presents^ 
hfipi^iu, kririXkM, oiriirrcvw. 

8. In the Dialects, there are fitill other forms of the Perf. and Plop, with tJie 
Att. reduplication (§ 124); thus, e. g. alp4», to take. Ion. Ap-W/nfira, mp mJfftpmt ; 
&\c(o/Aa<, to uxinder. Epic Pert with a Pres. signification &\-^i|fuu; 'APA 
(&paf>(<ric»), tojity Poet. Ap-ifa, IJU, (Intrans.), Ion. ipnp^; 'AX a (iieax^(«)f U 
grieve, Epic and Ion. &ic-^x<A^^t ^"^X^fuUi 'ENEKA {^4pu), to cany, Ion. ^ 
^I'ctT/uu ; iptlTrm,io demolish, Poet, ip^ptwa, Epic ip-iptwro *, ipl{cff to ootUend^ 
Epic ip4ipiffiuu, 

1220. Personal' endings and Mode-vowels, 

1. First Pers. Sing. Act. The original ending -fii of the first Pers. Sing., is 
found in the Epic dialect in several subjunctiv^u^ e. g. xrc^w/a, &7^7u>/u, r^mfUf 
Xk»iu, id4kB0fu, {Soffu. Comp. § 116, 1. 

2. Second Pers. Sing. Act. In the Dor., and particularly in the .^ol. and Ep. 
dialect, the lengthened form -<r;^a is found (§ 116, 2). In the Ind., tlii:i 
belongs almost exclusively to the conjugation in -fu, e. g. ri^rj^^ei^ ^liirda, 
mota-^a, wapri<r^€u In Homer, this ending is frequent in the Subj., c. g. i^Kj^a- 
^a, fffrpo'^ more seldom in the Opt, e. g. icJiaiow^ fid\ourda. 

3. Instead of the ending -c is, the Dor. frequently has the old form -es, e. g. 
r^iTTts instead of r^irrcis ; so in Theocritus ffvptffbes = irvpl(€ts. 

4. Third Pers. Sing. Act. In the Epic dialect, the Subj. sometimes has the 
ending -at (arising from -ri) appended to the usual ending of.tho Subj., e. g. 
id4Ki^<ri{v), Ayjifft, iL\dkKii(rt\ the Opt. only in vapaip^tiiru 

5. Instead of the ending -ci in the Pres. Ind. of the Dor. dialect, the form -ti 
is used, though seldom, e. g. SiSddnnj instead of fiiScCfficct. In the second and 
third Pers. Sing. Pcrf. Act., Theocritus uses the endings -9|5, -n instead of -as, 
-c, e. g. wtir6ydris, oircl>Ti} instead of irixoif^as, ^onre. 

6. First Pers. PI. Act. The Dor. dialect has retained the original ending 
'fifSf e. g. r6wTo/ies instead of rvrrofieif (^ 204). 

7. The third Pers. PI. Act. of the principal tenses, in the Dor. dialect, ends 
throughout in -mn, e. g. riwroprt (instead of t^ttowti), rvt^om, rimrwrti 
(instead of r^rrwiri), rrrC^airn, liraiyhvri, ^{airarwim. In the .^ol. and Dor., 
this ending iu the Pres. and Fut. is -oivi instead of -own, e. g. T€pivy4oun{if), 

8. Personal endings of the I'lup. Act. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, the 
following forms occur : — 

First Pers. Sing., -ta the only Epic and Ion. form (-i; old Att, ^ 116, 6), e. g 

ir€^'fl'rta, -f^ta, vexol^ta instead of ^cd^aw, etc. 
Second " " -cof , e. g. ^rcd^ear, Od. «, 90, instead of ^rcHvctf. 
Third '* " -<«(>')? c. g. iyeySver, kotoXcXo/itcc, ifi^fip^xtof (not Horn.). 
Second " PI. -^ot€, c. g. auypUaTt, Her. 9, 58. 

Revark 1. The third Pers. Sinjr. Plup. Act. in -€i, as well as the same 
Pbts. of the Impf. in -«, is found in Homer before a vowel with the y paragogic; 


Jtfir^My, n. ^, G91. i3«/3x4«eM'. IL c, 661. ;>, 270. {, 412. Mcnri^ctiy^ Od 
^ 359 }— i^wf 1^, 11 7, 388. 

9. The second and tliird Pcrs. Dual of the historical tenses arc sometiniM 
exchanged for each otlier. Thus in Homer, the forms -rov and • vbov (second 
Feis. Dual) stand inst«ad of -n}ir and -cbrir (third Pert. Dnal^, e. g. ZiAmtrw^ 
H r, 364. %aplffeerov, S. tr, 583. ^phvcw^w^ II. r, 301. On this inter- 
charge hi Attic, see f 116, Bem. 

10. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Ind. and Subj., Impf. Ind. and Opt. Mid. ot 
Pass., the first Aor. Mid. Ind., after dropping o-, remain uncontracted in the 
Ion. and often in the Epic dialect, cf. g. imiKXtai ; Homer sses either these 
forms, e. g. Ac/ir#cu, Jdkautai, i^ticqai, ip6a<r«ai, iraBfnfca, dirc> ^foo, ^b«o, or 
the contract forms, -p (from -ecu), -cv (from -€0)^ -m (from •«a), e. g. fir\cv, tpx^^t 
f^{(Vt iKpifM. When the characteristic of tile yerb is «, it is very frequently 
omitted in the Ion. dialect, before -^at and -co, e. g. ^i\4eu instead of ^iX^«cM, 
^4X4o instead of <l>i\4to \ so in Homer, iK\4't H. «, 202, yet with the variation 
IkAc' from Kktaiua, Comp. { 222, B (3). — The ending -co in Homer is 
lengthened into -cio, e. ^. Ipcio, orcTo, and the ending -/coi is contracted into 
-cloi, in verbs in -^w, c. g. fiu^uu, ycToi. Homer sometimes drops r in the 
second Pers. Sing. Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, also, viz. fi/^o^ou (and ^/kvj?)i 
B4fi\iiaji, tcavo. 

11. The Dual endings -rrjy, -c^v, and first Pers. Sing. -/Ai;y, in the Doric 
are, -ray, -tr^dv, -fiap {\ 201, 2), e. g. i^peurdfioM, In the later Doric, the 
change of 1} into d is found, though seldom, even in the Aor. Pass., e. g. Irimw 
instead of trmiv, 

12. The personal-endings -fA€^ov, -fitda, in Epic, as well as in Doric, lonie, 
and Attic poetry, often have the original forms -/xco'J^ov, -/tco-J^, e. g. rvwrSfu^ 
^oy, rvrr6fit<r^a, -^ 

13. The third Pers. PI. Pcrf. and Plup. Mid. or Ploss., in the Ionic and Epic 
dialect, very generally ends in -otoi, -aro, instead of -ktoi, -kto, e. g. vciref- 
^oTcu, TCTcvarou, ifitfiovXtiaro, iardkaro] very often also the third Pers. PL 
Opt. Mid. or Pass, is -ofaro, -afaro, instead of -oirro, -mrro, e. g. nnrroforo 
instead of t^Woivto, ii^ffalvro (Homeric), instead of iiffiircuyro. Also the 
ending -oyroy in the Ion. dialect, has this change, though the o before y becomes 
c, e. g. ifiovkiaro instead of 4fio6\oyro. In verbs in -<U and -^ai, the 1} in the 
ending of the Perf and Plup. -riyrcu, ijKro, is shortened in the Ionic into «, e. g. 
0U4arai instead of ^Kiiyrcu from ohc4w, 4renfi4tero instead of irrrtfitiyro from 
rtftdm. Also instead of -flurrcu, the Ionic dialect has -/oroi (instead of -<(arai), 
e. g. wnriarai instead of jriirrayrai. *Air(iraTai, in Herodotus, from the Perf. 
4^ry/xai (Prcs. oj^iKyioiuu) is the only example in which the rule stated § 116, 
6, is not observed. 

RSM. 2. Two Pcif. and Plup. forms arc found in Homer with the ending 
'^tLrai^ -8aro, from verbs whose characteristic is not 9, viz. iXaifw {iKdm) 
taJiXMiLu i\Ti}JkZaro, Od. 17, 86, and htaxiCf^ ijc^x^k^^ iin7x<S<rr<u> H- Pi 637 ; the 
d seems to be merely euphonic ; yet it is to be noted, that the reading is not 
wholly settled ; the forms ippdiwrai and ippJtBwro (from poi^m) must be derived 
from tlie stem 'PAZA (coinp. ^dkrtrarc, Od. v, 150). 

262 DIALECTS. ^ [4 220 

14. The third Pers. PI. Aor. Pass. -iTcrar is abridged into *-cy, in the Doric^ 
and also frequently in the Epic and poetic dialect, e. g. rpAp€P instead of hf^ 
^ifror. In the Opt. this abridged form is regular in the Common language 
i^ 116, 7), e. g. rv^cici' instead of rv^eiriaaM. 

15. The third Pen. PI. Imp. Act in -rwratf, and Mid^. or Pass, in tf-dwror, is 
abridged in the Ionic and Doric dialect (always in Homer) into -rrm^ and -ad«# 
(^ 116, 12), e. g. •nnrrSyrmf instead of imrrhiaaoM^ itrwiuS^^mp i^^fftfttid of Tcnt> 
^rtHTtuff rvwr4ffdm¥ instead of ttnrriffbmaay. 

16. The long mode-vowels of the Snbj., yiz. m and n, are very frequently 
shortened in the Epic dialect into o and c, according to the necessities of the 
verse, e. g. byucy instead of Xwficy; ^Miuvba instead of -flS/icda; vrpi^em 
instead of ifrat (4 207, 4). 

17. The first Aor. Opt Act, in the ^olic dialect ends in -cm, -««, -etc, etc^ 
third Pers. PI. -c«air, instead of -cu/u, -cui, -oi, etc, third Pers. PI. -oicy. See 
S 116,9. 

18. Infinitive. The original full form of the Inf. Act. is -ftcj^af, and with 
the mode-vowel, -ifuvtu^ which is found in the Epic, Doric, and JEolic dialects. 
This form is sometimes shortened into -/uci' (-//acv) by dropping cu, sometimes 
into -pat by syncopating yut (c^c). But in the Epic dialect, the ending -ccr also 
is found, formed from -//acv, and in contract verbs, and in the second Aor., also 
the endings -iMtw and -up. The Pres., Put, and second Aor. take the mode- 
vowel c and the ending -/Acy, hence -ifitw, e. g. rvwr-d-fitp, Tv^4/A^f ^tw^fLtw.-^ 
Verbs in -^w and -^v, as they contract the characteristic-vowel a and the 
mode-vowel c of the Inf. ending -4fi§pai, have the form -^ficrai, e. g. ya^/uwtu 
(70^), ^iX,'fifi€vai (^<A.^d»), ^of4iiu¥ai (^opiti). — With the ending -ii/tMPut corre- 
sponds that of the Aorists Pass., e. g. nnr^cnu instead of nnrqnu, ftoAAitf' 
d^/icycu ; so always in the Epic dialect ; but the Doric has the abridged form in 
•^/ucy, e. g. rmifAw, — In the Pres. of verbs in -fu, the ending -/ity and -/tcyw is 
appended to the unchanged stem of the Pres., and in the second Aor. Act, to 
the pure stem, e. g. ti^/up, ri^d-fAfyai, Iffrd-fuy, lard-fityau, 9*li6-tu¥f 9iB4-fupm^ 
ifucyv-fifVj 9tuafv-fuyiu\ i^^-/Acy, &4-fu¥tUf Ii6-fuy, BS-fitratf 60 also in Perfects 
derived immediately from the stem of tlie verb, e. g. rcdw^i^, fitfiduMw. The 
following are exceptions, viz. ri3^/icyfu, II. ^, 83 (with which the forms of the 
Pres. Part Mid. rid^furos^ ictx^ficKor, correspond), iiZovyat, B. m, 425, also the 
Inf. second Aor. Act of verbs in -a and -v, which also retain the long vowel 
(§ 191, 2), e. g. err^fuyatf /S^-M'iw, 86-/icnu, instead of ffr^voi, Siwcu. 

19. Besides the forms in '^fierat and -^fier, the Doric dialect has one in -ci> 
abridged from these, e. g. iytp instead of Syeuf, Put hpiUtrw instead of itpftj^ 
fftip ; second Aor. 28cV instead of tifh', Kafiiv instead of Aa/3c<y, etc. In the 
Doric of Theocritus, the Mo\. Inf. ending -mv is found, e. g. x^'W''* ^^ond 
Aor. Ka&riVt instead of x<*^P^"^i A«j3c7y. 

20. The Inf. ending of the Aor. Pass, -^fupm, -^fMy, is abridged into -^ in 
the Doric writers, yet only after a preceding long syllable, e. g. ficd^difi' instead 
of -d^yoi. The Inf. ending of the Perf. Act. varies between -i|r and -cir in 
the Doric and ^olic writers, e. g. rc;^c«^in}if, yty6¥€w instead of rc3c^«i(^i«i| 


21. Participle. The JEohc dialect has the diphthong oi instead of ou before 
0" in participles, and at instead of % e. g. r^irrwir, r^vroi^o, r^hrror, KafioS&Uf 
Ktwmrm instead of -ouar«; rinlnuff -aura, instead of r^^, -cura (44 201, 2, and 
207, 1). The Epic dialect can lengthen the accented o into « in the oblique 
cases, e. g. iMfUMvrof, vff^viiT«f. — The Pcrf. Act Part, in the Doric dialect, 
iometinies takes the ending of the Pres., e. g. vc^dcorrci instead of irc^puv^cs. 

f 221* Epic and Ionic Iterative form. 

I. The Ionic and particularly the Epic dialect, and not nnfreqnently, in 
imitation of these, the Tragedians, hare a special Impf. and Aor. form with the 
ending -tf-it or, to denote an action often repeated, or continued. This is called 
the Iteraiipe foruL It is regularly without the augment 

S. It & generally found only in the Sing, and in the third Peis. PL Ind. of 
the Impt and Aor., and is inflected like the Impf. ; for in the Impf. and 
second Aor. Act and Mid., the endings •^'cor, -^ictf, ^icc(ir), '^tc^nr, -«iM«(to, cv), 
•nrrro, preceded by the nnion-TOwel c, are used instead of -or, -^mv> <uid in the 
first Aor. Act and Mid. the endings -o^icor, -a^KSfup^ are used instead of -a, 


(a) Impf. Strf^co'iroK, i^^X-co'icfs, cr-ff0'irc(r), vcX-^irero, fioffK-^icm^Q* In 
terfas in -^, -^U^icor is abridged into -alitor, which, according to the necessities 
of the Tose, can be again lengthened into -tCo^icor, e. g. ruccCo-icoficr, roMr^too'- 
«or. Verbs in -^ hare -^co'iror and -«^Kor, e. g. ira\^cvicc, /SouKoA^icf ; ofx^^cv- 
«or, vmXitnttTo^ KaKdmtrro \ when the Terse requires, -dwisoif can be lengthened 
into -cUriror, e. g. rcuFffco'Kor; Torbs in -^ do not have this IteratiTe form 
among the older authors ; verbs in -fu omit the mode-vowel here also, e. g. 
rS^f^Kw, S/So-ricor, ^iiofv^Kow \ in some verbs the ending -oo'iror has taken the 
place of 'texow, e. g. pimfurKov, icffCrvcuncwj from ^(«t«, Kpincrv, 

(b) Second Aor. cA-c^kc, iSiA-co-icc, ^vy-co-irc j in verbs in -/ai, without a mode- 
vowel, e.g. &rd-<rKt (= Itrri;), wap€fidffM (» 'Kap4fiii)j S^urt, S^icc; also an 
Iterative form of the second Aor. Pass, is found, vis. ^dawrm instead of '^dtni, 
Il.A,64. Od./4,241, 242. 

(c) First Aor. ^Ai^-oo'Kcr, aM^^-a^rircy, d^o'-ao'icff, lunntr-JuirKrro^ ityy^iv^urM 
(instead of iyFofyraiirKt from iyi^af). 

i 222. Contrqction and Resolution in Verbs, 

L The Epic dialect In the Epic dialect, verbs in -i», -/«, -^, are subject 
to contraction, but by no means so generally as in the Attic. The contraction 
is made according to the general rules, with a few exceptions, as will be seen in 
the following remarks. 

A. Verbs in -^«. (1) In these verbs, the uncontracted form occurs only in 
certain words and forms, c. g. w^paor, tcartaKtaoy, roicr^vo'i ; always in 6Ai«, and 
in verbs which have a long a for their characteristic, or whose stem is a moncr 
syllable, e. g. 84d«r, vcirdwr. Kxp^t ^Xf^* V^^ XP^* ^ attack) 

264 DIALECTS. [i 22Z 

(2) In some words, a is changed into c, viz. fitvotytoy from /uyov^ 
from krrdmi ipu&KXtw from bfuuchAu. Comp. \ 201, 1. 

(3) Instead of the uncontracted and contracted forms, the contracted 87nal)le 
is resolved, as often as the measure reqoires it ; this is done by inserting a simi- 
lar vowel, commonly shorter, more seldom longer, before the vowel formed 
by contraction ; in this way, a is resolved into Aa or oA, and w into 9m or mm 
(§ 207, 2). The short vowel is used here, when the syllable preceding the 
contracted one is short, e. g. (6p&) 6p6u] but if this Syllable is long, the long 
vowel must be used on account of the verse, e. g. ^/3<^o-a. The resolution does 
not take place with the vowel d befora a personal-ending beginning with t, 
e. g. Spa-rUf 6pa-To. Thus : — 


















fi b^mat 













Remark 1. In Od. |, 343, the form Zprieu (from dpdtai) occurs instead of the 
dprjeu, which Enstath. cites. In the following Dual forms, a§ is contracted into 
If : jcposeaMrTiPt (TwA^ttjv, trvyoarrfirriv, ^iHrni^ instead of -drriy j so also in the 
two verbs in -^f, Spjoprirniy, arctX^niv instead of -clnjy. 

4. When rr comes after a contracted vowel, a short vowel may bo inserted 
between rr and such a contracted syllable, e. g. ^/Sc^orra instead of fifim^rm, 
ytK^otnrtSf fiv<&oyro] in the Opt. also, the protracted -uoi instead of -^ is found 
in fjfi^oifu (instead of ^ifidoifu == i^/3^jtu). The following are anonudons forms: 
KcucT(i»(ra (instead of -Sma-a), cAi», second Fers. Imp. Pres. Mid. and third Pcrs. 
Sing, Impf. Act. from 2Afi, to save. 

Hem. 2. On the Inf in -^fitvou of verbs in -dof and -iv, see § 220, 18, and on 
the Epic-Ionic contraction of oi) into », see § 205, 5. 

B. Verbs in - 4m, To this conjugation belong also all Futures in -im and 
-tofuut all second Persons in -to, -cou, and -1701, second Aor. Inf. Act. in -c'cir, 
and the Aor. Pass. Subj. in -/» and -cfw. 

( 1 ) Contraction does not take place in all forms in which c is followed by the 
vowels oiy w, 1}, |}, 01, and ov, e. g. <pi\4wfityf ^iXcoi/u, etc ; yet such uncontracted 
forms must commonly be rcad^with Synizesis. In other instances, the contnus 
tion is either omitted according to tiie necessities of the verse, e. g. ^^€i, ip4m 
Fut., ^pwiovtfa Put., jSoXcW second Aor. Act, frwUtr^ai Put. Mid., /uycWi 
second Aor. Subj. Pass. ; or contraction takes place, and then, when co is con- 
tracted, it becomes fw (§ 205, 1 ), c. g. mptlfiriv, atrrew, y4vfv ; except ity^^vrow 
and iir6f^ovv, 

(2) Sometimes the open e is lengthened into tt (§ 207, 1), e. g. irtKtUroj 
ir4\€iov, vKtUiy, hnyelco \ — Btmtito instead of Zofiw, tiiytifi instead of fityp 
(second Aor. Subj. Pass.). % 

(3) In the ending of the second Pers. Sing. Prcs. Mid. or Pass., two Epsilons 
coming together are either contracted, as in the third Pers., c. g. livd^nu 
>M fui^fuUy like auJ^ctToi, yc?cu, like vc?rai, or one € is elided, c. g. poAitiy 


This elision commonly occurs both among the Epic and Ionic wiltmrs, 
in the second Pore. Imp£ and Imp. Pres. Mid. or Pass^ e. g, ^0dof Mo^ uhiof 
^flTf^' In snch cases, the accent is on the pennlt, whether the word ends with 
-cat or -co (4 220, 10). 

Rsx. 3. On the irregnlor contraction in the Doal, sec Rem. 1 ; on the Inf. 
in -^uifpai^ see \ 220, 18. 

C. Verbs in -^ar. These yerbs follow either the common rules of contrac- 
tion, e g. TovroD/uu, Tovyovvdoi, or they are not contmcted, but lengthen o into 
«, and then the forms of yerbs in -^ resemble those of verbs in -<(«, e. g. 
%iiorro, IBpfliovro, ifrv^rras (comp. rifiiiotrra, 4 above) ; or they become wholly 
analogous to verbs in -4m, since they resolve -oSo-i (third Fers. PI. IVes.) into 
-^««r(f -cvrro into -^cvi'to, and -oTcr into '6^€v, and consequently suppose a 
contraction like that of verbs in -i»: {d.p6aua'i) iipovin hpdmtrt (corap. 6^6^91)^ 
{i^iiorro) hfimhrr* inX^vyro (comp. 6p6«tyTo)f {hfi6oi€v) h; iiSk BriXi^§r{comp. 
ip^p). Bat this resolution into -4m or -mo is confined to such forms as admit 
it in verbs in -iw ; hence, e. g. the Pres. ipo7s, ipo7, iipovrf, and the Inf. iipomf^ do 
not admit this resolution. 

n. Ionic dialect (1) In the Ionic dialect, only verbs in -^«i and -im suffer 
contraction ; verbs in -^m commonly omit it, except the contraction of -m and 
•«ov into -cv, which frequently occurs (§ 205, 1), e. g. ^iXcD/icv instead of ptk4o' 
fuw => ^iKw/urf i^(\Mvy instead of ifi\toi^ = i^lXow, 91ACV instead of ^iX/ov 

(2) The nnoontracted forms exhibited in the table (§ 135) of the second 
Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf. Mid. or Pass, in 'i^f, -4^, -Ap, -4ou, -<(ov, -^ov, e. g. 
^i\^i rtfidpy fiurbipf ^iX/ov, n/fUiov, fUff^6oVj etc., are found in no dialect, and 
arc presented merely to explain the contraction. For even the Ionic writers 
use here the contracted forms of verbs in -dm and '6m, e. g. n/tf, fuv^oif ti/am, 
fus^mi, etc. ; but of verbs in 'dm^ as also in barytone verbs, they do not use the 
endings -];, -«v, but •««u, -co, e. g. r^rr-taiy irinrr-^o, ^iX^-cai, i^iK4-*o, — On the 
elision of c in the ending -^co, see above, No. 1, B (3). 

(3) Yerbs in -4m follow the common rules 6f contraction ; but in the uncon- 
tracted form, the a is changed into c, e. g. hp4m, 6p4ofuv instead of Spdm, xp^erat, 
Xpdorroi instead of xp^^i, etc. Comp. § 201, 1. 

(4) Ao in the nncontracted forms is frequently lengthened into 4m (^ 207, 3), 
c. g. x/>^*"^<u, iKr4mirrOy 6p4myrtSy wtiptt&fityos instead of (xp^orrat) xp*^^^i 

(5) The change of the a into c, as in 6p4m, explains the usage among the Ion. 
writers of sometimes contracting ao and mv, and also to and cov in verbs in 
<^, into -cu (4 205, 1), e.^. tlp^tvy instead of cl/xiraoy, y^Ktvffa instead of 
7«A4oiwa, ijartvmts instead of iiya'wdoinfs. So also in the Doric dialect, e. g 
ytx^vyrt instead of y€?Ju}va'i. This contraction into cv instead of ou is often 
found even in verbs in -6m, e. g. Stjccucvai instead of (Sijccu^oucri) Sorouovo-i, 
iuca»€V9 instead of SixcuoDy, i^ucedtvyf mrc^ayci/vrflu from ert^aM6m, 

(6) In Ionic* prose, the Epic resolution is found but seldom in v.rbs in -dm, 
e. g. KOfUmaiy riyop6wyTo^ Ilcr. 

266 DIALECTS. H 223 

HL Doric dialect, [l) Contrary to the common usage of the Doric, a< and 
acf are contracted into i| and p (§ 205, 3), e. g. rifi^t instead of rtfiier* » 
ri/iSrc, ^irps instead of ^irf f, dpijif instead of 6pw, The Inf. is written 
withoat an i subsf'ript, as the nncontracted form originally ended in -wr 
Comp. also IL 5, also 4 134, 3. 

(2) The Inf. of verbs in '4m has a double form, either the abridged form in 
>^r instead of -ciy, e. g. iro«cV instead of itmcim, or according to the analogy of 
verbs in -i», a form in -tip (from -^), e. g. ^^ir instead of ^/cir » ^tXcSr, 
KtHTfoiv instead of Kocfitu^, ^pow^r instead of ^porta^, 

(3) In the Doric and .£olic dialects, -oo, -oov, and -cm are contracted jato 4 
(§ 205, 2), e. g. wtufofies instead of •K§ty&fi9p (vcmio/ici'), vcuurri instead of 
W9a^d'0v)&-(rif ytKay instead of y€K{d-mf)»Pj ^vcarres instead of ^vff{d-o)m- 

Rem. 4. On the contraction into -cv instead of -ov, see § 205, 1. — A striking 
peculiarity of the Doric dialect, especially of the later Doric as used b^ The- 
ocritus, is, that it frequentlv has a long a evQu in tiie inflection of verbs in -^ 
c. g. Mtwra instead of Mwnva from wop4mf iftkaaa instead of i^ik^irm ham 


i 223. Formation of the Tenses, 

I. Besides the verbs mentioned (4 130), the following also in the Homeric 
dialect retain the short characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, via. awr^, fo 
have a grudge; yciic/w, to quarrel ; ftaitw^ to stretch ; iptt^ to draw. On tUe cOti> 
trary, iiraw^w^ to approve^ has inijlrriira, 

8. In the Fut. and first Aor. Act and Mid. of pure verbs, which retain the 
short characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, and in the same tenses of verbs 
in -^», -ccof (-TT»), the v can be doubled in the ending, in Homer and other 
non-Attic poets (4 208, 4), e. g. #y^Xa<r<rc, KorMvdfjMfoSi ifiArtfw, Marvo-vt, 
ZucdaetUy nSfUirert, 

3. Th6 form of the Attic Fut. (HI 7) occurs in the Homeric dialect in verbs 
fn 'i(otj e. g. KTtptowrtj ityXcutic^at, together with the common Futures hpidve^ 
fitpj Korpto'a'ovrfSj Koyiff<rova't{y). From verbs in -^, -^, -^, Hom. forms 
Futures which are similar to the present of these words, vis. in verbs in -^, ho 
often uses the ending -/» instead of -^irof, e. g. jrop/ct, H. ;^, 379. ir«p/ctf, H. r, 
831. futx^oirreu, H. ;9, 366 ; — in verbs in - ^», after dropping ir, he places before 
the vowel formed by contraction, a corresponding short vowel, e. g. ii^rjm^ 
i>Moiriy Sa/uCf ; — in verbs in - ^ w, ipCowri and rayiown are found. 

4. In the Doric dialect, all verbs in '(m take ( instead of a in those tenses 
whose characteristic is cr, i. e. in the Fut. and Aor., e. g. Zuci(w^ Suca^, ^Stmi|a, 
instead of Zixiffm^ iZlKcura. But the other tenses of verbs with the pure cbarao 
teristic 9, follow the regular formation, e. g. Hucdf^briPf not J8ur^x<^* '^^^ 
peculiarity of the Doric appears even in certain verbs in -du^ which, in forming 
the tenses, retain the short a, and in this respect are analogous to those in •{«, 
which likewise have a short vowel, e. g. TcXiw, iy4\a^a instead of f/^Aa0«, yet 
not vixduy vtica^w, but yiKcur& (Att. yutff^rv). In Doric poetry, the regular form 
of all these words can be used, according to the necessities of the metre. 

5. The following verbs in -f« have, in Homer and the Ionic dialect, £ instead 


of w^ throng the whole fonnation, viz. iifipordC^yto wamders &\a«^C«»j ^ 
empbf^ Fat. iXtar6fyt^ etc. (so also Xenoph. An. 1 . 1, 29) ; SroTAXf («»> ^ thdhi; 
Zai(my to divide^ to put to death ; iyyvaXiCw^to give ; 4 yap I C»i to spoil a dead 
ememuf; dpvWtC^f^io break in pieces; /i^pfitvpiC^j to reflect; wtXtfii(», to 
tkahe; voXtfiiC^ft to contend; ffrv^§Kt(v, to smite, 

6. Liquid Teiiw in *a/y«, which in the Attic dialect form the Aor. with the 
ending -dr« instead of -^m {S 149, Rem. 2), have d in the Doric, and i| in the 
Bpic and Ionic The following liquid verbs, in the Epic and poetic dialect of 
all periods, form the Fat and first Aor. with the ending 'vm and -«'«, vis. 
tf^XXm, to land (jcAtf'ai, comp. ic4va-aA from Ktrtiw^ to goad) \ ^CKm^ to crowd 
together (IXo^cu) ; ar^, to meet, to/all upon; ipapiatm (*AP-a), toft (j)p^«, ipaoi) ; 
lfp-p«ipu, to excite (ipcm^ itpan) \ ^mp^tlpttf to dcstrog {^tap^dpvtti in Homer) ; 
rndprn, to shave {Hxtpaa in Homer, bat first Aor. Mid. inetpd^fiy) ; ^6p»^ to mix^ to 
hnaad (f&pvmf t^opoot v€^paof»atf Epic and old poetic; second Aor. Pass. 
i f ^ n w in Lacian, who also has tne poetic Perf. w4^vpfuUf while in prose, the 
verb ^vpdm, ^^paura, vt^^piyuu, etc., is nsed). The Opt. o^dWeiey, Od. /S, 334. 
IL ir, 651, is formed according to the usage of the ^olic 

7. To verbs which form the Put. without the tense^iharacteristic 0* (§ 154, 4) 
belong the f<^lowing forms of the Epic dialect : fi4oftai or fieioiuu, second Pcrs. 
iWp9 / shall Uve, perhaps from fiolpmf to go^to live, also from AAA, to know, to 
Uam^ and KEIA {mifiatf to lie down), t^*** ^»» Ho/mw, Hrre {I shall view,Jind}^ 
and mSm or lUmt irci//4cy, Kcf«y, ir^ir. • 

8. To x^rbs which form the first Aor. without the tense-characteristic or 
(§ 154, 7) belong the following forms of the Epic and poetic dialect: x^t to 
pmr out,tx^^ (Homer; Att Ix*^)* 0«^, to shake, Iro'cua and icvMvdiapf 
(Homer), kklofuu and hXxOoiamt to avoid, iiKt^aro, etc (§ 230) ; Kdo0, to bum, 
finro, Ivffia Epic, Irca Tragic (4 230). 

9. To verbs which have an active form for the FuL Per/. (§ 154, 6), belongs 
also the Epic ircxopik*' (with u^xupfioofuu), I shall bejosful, from X'^^P^ 

10. The exchange of the endings of the second Aor. with those of the first 
Aor. (4 154, 7) is somewhat frequent in the Epic dialect, e. g. /3aW, to go, 
ifiilfftro. Imp. fififfw ', 8^/uu, to plunge, ^ 8 ^ <r c r o, Imp. h^vto, Part. 9vc6fuyos ; 
Sym, to leadf A^trt, h^4fi€¥; hcvioitm, to come, Xiov, ikiyfoiw, I laid mgsdfdawn 
to sleep, Imp. \4^o, \/(co; 6pwfu, exdto, Imp. 6po§o, Spcev, f4pu, to bear, 
•J a 9 (o7(0-c is also Att), ^fo-rrc, ote4Tw, oicirrmy, ola4nw, oMfuyat] ocfStt, to 
sing, Imp. htlireo, 

11. Several second Aorists, in Homer, are formed by a Metathesis of tne 
consonants (§ 156), in order to make a dactyle, e. g. f^poKO¥ instead of (ia^op 
(from ZipKoiuu), tsptAop (from Wfit^»), t^pcAoy (from lof^Jam), Ijfiifipevor 
(instead of lifioproy from hfupr^itm). For the same reason Homer syncopate* 
the stem (4 155), e. g. 4eyp6i»Mvot from hy*p4ffhai (hy^iptt, to collect) ; fyprrOf 
lypco (Imp.), typovro, typw^w (with the accent of the Prcs.), iyp6ftMyos from 
iyfp4o^cu {iytipw, to wake) ; iFr6fi,i^y, 4irr6tiri¥, irr/irdai, 7rT6fityos (ir4rofuu, to 
Jig) ; /jc^kXcto, ir/icAfTo, K€K\6fifyos (ic/\o/uu, to summon^ excite) ; ir4^yoy^ firt^voy 
{4ZSa, to kiU). 

12. In the first Aor. Pass. Homer inserts a y, according to the necessities uf 

268 DIALECTS. [\ 22Z 

tfao iRene, not only as other poets {\ 149, Rem. 4) in Kpttn* and tcxUit (iiacMv- 
brtrti K^tf^lSi 4ic?d¥dri)i bnt also in /8p^, to eatabUsk, And vWm, to blov ((^i^rdifv 
and tdpCdriVy i/jorv^bii). 

13. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impure verbs 
as in the tense-formation assume an c (§ 166) or are subject to Metatheair 
is 156, 2), e. g. xf^P^ K^x^iM (from XAIPE-H), fidKXot fi4$\$iKa (from BAA). 
Except these, he forms only second Perfects (which belong commonly to 
intransitive verbs, or have an intransitive signification) ; bnt even in pons verbs 
and in the impure verbs mentioned above, he rejects the #r in certain persons 
and modes, and regularly in the Part. ; in this way, these forms become analo- 
gous to those of the second Perf. These participles either lengthen a and c into 
fly e. g. /Sf/3opi7iSr, burdened (from BAPEfi), MKopnAs^ aatutfied (from ncop^-jvuyu), 
«c6«r<m}<6f, enraged (from icor^), rertfi^Sj troubled (from TIEA), rcrAifiif, enduring 
(from TAAH), KtKo/prit&Sy gasping for breath (from KA^EH), xeKfiiiAsj wearied (from 
Kdfum)^ xfimycSt (from vr^tf'^w, to shrink through fear)^ rcdinf^f, Kcrri}^!, XX"* 
tniAs (from x<^P^) i "^^^ ^^^7 i^tain, thoucrh more seldom, the stem-vowel without 
change, e. g. fiffii^s (from jBofrw, BAA), ^leyey&uTd (from Tfyroyuu, TAA), Scd&ts 
(from 5i8d(^«c«, AAA), irc^ihita (from ^^), loT&(r (from TtmrAU) TTAfi), /ufjJU^ 
(with /ifft&As and fitfutSr^s from MAfi). The accented o of the oblique cases 
can, in the first instance, according to the necessities of the verse, be lengthened 
into w, hence r^in^os and -^os^ rci^n^ra and -wra, KtufntiSTa and »mra ; bat 
when the Nom. has a short penult, « is always used (except in iordAros)t e. g. 
^r/S&wTor. The ending -iSr, formed by contraction, is resolved by c in irtTrr^Ara 
(from ir(«TM), TcdytctfTi, and according to the necessities of the verse, « can bo 
lengthened into «(, e. g. r^yttAros, The feminine form 'Avals found only in 
fif$wra^ Od. V, 14 \ in some feminine forms, the antepenult, which properly would 
bo long, is shortened on account of the verse, o. g. itpA/wia (Fem. of VifP^ ^'^'^ 
ipapiaKw), fUfA&KVM (of ftefuiK^s^ from ftificdb/Mu), TCiM\v<a (of r«5i|X^f, from 
;^dUA.»), XcX&irvia (of AcAi}ic<6f, from xiffirw), wcvtfdvui (from wdrx^h 

Kemask 1. The form resolved by c, in the Ionic dialect, has become the 
permanent one with some participles, e. g. i<rrt^s -, so tc^kc^s (never rcdmis) 
and r^^yriK^s from rd^iniKay remiuns even in the Attic dialect. In these forms, 
the et remains through all the cases, e. g. 

iffTt^Sy kartwrcL, Ifrrt^s^ Gen. ^irrwroi^ -^tnit 
rci^Kf(6f, Tf^ccMTo, Tci^ciSr, Gen. rci^cdros, -^n^s. 

^4fiHKa and rirhriKa never have these forms, Comp. § 193, Bern. d. 

14. Some verbs, which in the stem of tlie Pres. have the diphthong •«, 
shorten it in the Epic and poetic dialect into C, in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and 
In the first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

xfA^/Mu, to ashy w4irvarfjLafy (rt^w, to eliake, Mid. and Pass, to hasten^ fwH" 
fi a I, first Aor. Pass, itrat^ffp] revx» (poet.), paro. Vert, r4rvyfi a i, Aor. 
4r 6x^11'^'^ ^^yof^ to JleeyVcrf. w(^vyfi4pos» 

Rem. 2. X c« (formed from x<^<»> X<^)< ^ P^*"^ *^i follows the analogy of 
these verbs, in the forms K^x^KOy Ktx^fuUy ixif^v ; these forms have been trans- 
ferred to the Common language also (§ 154, Rem. I). Contrary to the analogy 

t224. CONJUGATION IN -fU. 263 

Wit stated, the vis long in the Homeric form irirvvfuu from irycw {ryiFm)j to 

Rek. 3. In Homer, Od. 0-, 238, the third Fers. Opt. Flap. AcAuro instead of 
AcA^o is fonnd, according to the analogy of vriyyvroj Zauvvro. 

Kbm. 4. The Homeric FerfecU iucaxh/^*yoSj i\aX4iftwosy i^p4furoSt ikfjkdfit- 
«vx, ixdxn^^^ iKd\ria&Ut have the accentuation of the Frcs. 

i 224. Conjugation in -jii. 

t. On the lengthened form of the second Pera. rd^i^i^a, Zldourd^ see § 220, 
S^ on the Ikrative forms in -r«roir, see § 221 ; on the Inf. forms in -^cyoi, -^ic/, 
see S ^0, 18. 

2. In the Epic, Ion., and Dor. writers, some verbs in -fu in the second and 
third Pers. Sing. Prcs. and Impf., frequently have the contracted forms of verbs 
in •/» and -^f (S 172, Rem. 8), e. g. ni^ctr, ridc<; 9iSo7s, SiSoi, irt^t, 4B(9ovs, 
Ac8m#, Ifj4 — contracted forms of tarrifu are very rare, e. g. lrr§ instead of 
Imia-tj Her. 4, 103. In the second Aor. Opt. Mid. the Ionic writers have the 
resolved form i^c (/aijit, as if from eEA, e. g. wpos^4otroy irpos^our^f, 

3. In the Epic dialect, verbs in -S/u form an Opt., not only in the Mid., as 
sometimes in Attic writers, e. g. 8atW>r«, II. «, 665. (comp. AcAvro, ^ 223, Rem 
3), from Zalyujmi, but also in the Act., e. g. ^/cSv/Acy (instead of MvlfifA.§y) from 
^«r5vw, ^di| (instead of ^vlri) from ^^; so ^ro, ^iro Opt of i^lfoir from 

4. The third Pers. PI. Impf. and second Aor. in -M-aav^ -1^^ay, -ohtw, 'c^-cray 
-v<ray, are abridged in the Epic and Dor. dialects into -cr, -&y, -ov, -i>v, e. g. 
iri^w instead of iri^tffw^ £^cv, ^iy instead of f^ttroM \ tordy, arSitf instead of 
/(TTf^ay, fditf instead of t^^aay, l/Sor, fidif instead of (fin^w\ fdtSov, BiBw 
instead of tStSoacuf^ Vhr^ B6y instead of tBofrcuf ; i^vy instead of f^vtray. 

5. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. Act. has in Horn, the common form 
Ximr, bat II. «, 202. Ko^iara ; wori^tt in Theoc. instead of 7rori^§s or irp6s^9s 
from TI8BQ. — In the second Fers. Sing. Pres. and second Aor. Mid. Imp., 
Homer rejects the v and admits the nncontracted form even when it could be 
contracted, e. g. So/mw, /lipyaoy ^doy ffty^tOy Mto. — In the Ion. dialect, the first 
a of the ending -cvcu, second Pers. Mid. or Pass., is changed into c, after the 
rejection of the o*, e. g. ^vf o'tc ai, 9^y cat, instead of iwtffrcuroiy Z^yuvai'^ hen 00 
the contracted forms dwitrrp in the Ion. poets, and also Ziyff (f 172, 2) in the 

€. The short stem-vowel is sometimes lengthened before personal-endings 
lieginning with ft and r, according to the demand of the measure, e. g. ridiii^' 
rot ; Movyai \ so also 9(8«di, iKri^t instead of IXd^i. 

7. The third Pers. Sing. Subj. has often in the Epic dialect the ending -ci 
\^ 220, 4), e. g. 8^4 and 8(^t (instead of 8f ), fit^ljitru 

8. The contracted Subj. of verbs with the cliaractcristic a and t, is sometimes 
resolved by c in the second Aor., Ej)ic dialect, and regularly in the Ion. 

^a) Verbs in -a (tonj/it) : — 

.{Urrd*^ IfrA Ion. lar4'Wy /orZ-pi, krrd'Vfuyy -c-ijt€, -/-ttKri 
(0t4-) €rm " ar^'U, <rr^-jji, ar^-wjiw^ etc. 




Rkmakk 1. Sd also in Herod.: wpowrker^ and kcrituri^ icrtAs, instead of 
^dari, -flu^T, Gen. irrfuToSf Neut Iotc^s, Fern, iarttiaa. 80 also in the Att 
T^yt^s (with Tf^iffiK^s)f T^vtwrOf rcdrcdSs, Gen. rc^cdros. 

(b) Verbs in c (ridriiu)'.^ 

ri^ Ion. Tt^ct, Ti^i-^s, rA4ttfitpf "^-V** -^rttai 
ri^Afuu " ri^4-tofim^ Ti^4'jif etc 
^ " 3^, ^4^s, 3l-«/i€ir, etc. 
;M/«ai " ^inttuut etc 

Rem. 2. Here also the two Aorists of the Pass, of all verbs are like Ihm 
verb rOijfu, e. g. 

Ti/irS, -^j Ion. rvTt^t, -ipSf -dwfuv, -Ayrt 

cdJMdd, -^f " ff^pc;^^, -^f , etc. 

(c) Verbs in o (SrSwfu) ; the contracted second Aor. Snbj. is tsotved ia 
Homer by means of w, e. g. B^^wri instead of SSo-i. 

9. In the Snbj. second Aor., Homer uses the following forms, accordicg to 
the nature of the verse : — 


Resolved and lengthened forms, 

Sing. 1. 


(Tr/w, arti», fittoiixu 






^i^'kpt ^f^fivVt ♦^f ♦^^ 



Phir. 1. 


ar4miiw (dissyllable) rrc^ofifr, nrafittofiaf 





ar4w<n{y), wwpurrfiwffit IL p, 95. 

Sing. 1. 


;^^, dcU, iofuUt 



^hsf 3^f , and Mvs 
^, d^, iK%, and Aw^cfp 




Pliir. 1. 


^4mfuyt Mo/My 




3#w<n(v), ;^c(fiMn(y) 

Sing. 1. 






8«i27<ri(ir) and Sii|y 

Plur. 1. 








•Rsx. 3. The resolution by means of c is found in verbs with the stem- 
vowels a or c; the t is commonly lengthened, (a) into ci before an o sounds 
(b) into 11 before 11 in verbs with the stem-vowel a; (c) sometimes into C4, some- 
times into 71 before 1}, in verbs with the stem-vowel c. Verbs with the stem- 
vowel are resolved by «. 

10. The Impf. iribjiv^ or commonly drt^ovyf has in the Ion. the form 4rlb(9 
(like irrr^m Ion. instead of irtr^iy, § 220, 8), ^r(3ccs, -c«, etc. 

11. In Homer, a shortened form of the first Aor. (<miirayy is found, namely, 
tvrSffw^ they placed^ II. /a, 56. Od. 7, 182, 0*, 307 ; also c<mrrc (wi& the variation 
tfonrrc), H. 8, 243, 246, instead of tcrirt (^(rH&icarc). 

ft 225, 226. J CONJUGATION IN 'fU.-^hifU, TO BE» — ETfu,ro GO. 271 

12. In the third Pcrs. Fl. Mid. or Pass, the p before the perronal-cndings -roi 
and -TO is regnlarl/ changed, by the Ion. imtcrs, into a (^ 220, 13), e. g. 

rid/orw, 9t!66artUi HtucyioTQ Ion., instead of rfi^yroi, etc. 

Bat when an a precedes the y, the a is changed into c, and y into a, c. g. /aT^arcu 
lon^ instead of Tcrrorrou, Urr4vro Ion., instead of Xcrramo. 

13. The third Pera. Sing, in the Doric is Ti, c. g. TdrfiTi, rtoirri, srSwri, 8«(ic- 
•orri, and the third Pers. PI. ends in -m, e. g. ItrrdyrL, tibirri, StS^Kri, 8ff<iryt;m. 

14. The forms of the first Aor. Mid. idi^Kd/iriy and ihtiedfiiiif and the Part, 
dific^wvof are fonnd in the Ion. and Dor. ^mtcrs j on the contrary, the Att. 
writers nso here also, the forms of the second Aor. Mid. The iximaining 
Modes, as also the Fart SA^icd^crof , are not foond. 

15. From ilJiufu, Homer has a rcdnplicatcd Fut. 8i8tiS<rofi«y and SiS^ctr. 

♦ 225. Elfii ('ES-). '^ ^c- 


S. 1. 





ifi/d JEol.^ instead of iir-ul 
iffvl EpiCf also Enr. Hel. 1250. 

«7f Ion. 
iml Dor. 

tlfih Epic and Ion. 
ivr4 regolar 
Ia0't(r) Epic and Ion., ivrl Dor. 

Inf. Kfuvuj l/uftcFoi, f^icK, Ifi/ucr Epic 
ifup or lifuSf ttfuif or ctfics Dor. 


1. I« Ep. and Ion. /mtc^w Ep. 

2. l]7rIon. 

3. fo, ^pffiCr), ?o'»(i'), rfi^ Epic, Ij? 
Ep. and Ion. 

PI. f«/ii«r, lirrC) tcMTt Ep. and Ion. 

S. 2. 1'tf'o'o JEoL and Epic 
P. 3. Uinuy Ion. 

ii&Vf iowraty 46y Ep. and Ion. 


S. 1. 





Ha (comp. iri^tajy ila, W, fiTKoy Epic and Ion. 
tfjir^a Epic, fas Ion. 

Iqjr Ep. and Ion. ffi^i^, ^ci^, l<rirc(i'), Ep., ^s Dor. 
iiarrip Epic 

^ucv or t)^;, cTficy or c7ftc5 Dor. 
fcrrc Ion. 

I«ray (frccraiO Epic and Ion. ; cfxro (instead of 
^rro) Od. V, 106. 



Im Epic and Ion. 

th§ Epic 
cTci^ Epic 

Fut. tffoiiM and ttrffofuu^ etc Epic, according to the necessities of the verse, 
2. Iirffac. 3. Iff'trcu, ^ircrrcu. 

♦ 226. ET^t (l-)* ^0 ^O' 

Pres. Ind. S. 2. fTffi^ Epic, •?* Ion. ^a^j/. Sing. 2. Pcrs. Xjfc^ Epic 
/r/I fficmu, iiiw Epic 

iM^ /fuf. S. 1. 

ffSct (and ^ciy) Epic and Ion., ffiov Epic 

ffict (and jfcis), fcs Epic 

ffrc (nnd ^«i) Epic and Ion., ff4€(v) Epic, ^t (r), r«(i') Epic 

272 DIALECTS. [i 227 

8. Ijtoy Epic, ij^ciy aud ^vai' £pic and Ion., tvaif Epic 
D. 3. trrip Epic 
O^. & 3. toi Epic, l«ri} II. T, 209. (cV and cfi? H. •, 82. w, 139. Od. i, 494 

come from cl/t/). 
/^{it and ^or. Ji{</. ^ffoftai, «f(raTo, tliird Pcrs. Dual Uurda^dripy II. o, 544. 


Mid., follow the analogy of VfiRBS in -fu, 

i 227. (1) Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

In addition to the Aor. forms mentioned (§§ 191, 192), the poetic and 
especially the Epic dialect has the following : — 

A. The Characteristic is a Vowel. 

(a) Stem-Vowel a (c3i}i', BA-) : 

9«UXw, to UitoiVj Epic second Aor. Act. (BAA-, iSfiKiiv) |v/<i3A^y, Od. ^, 15, 
Inf ^vfifix.'fif».€you (instead of -fivm), II. ^ 578; Epic second Aor. Mid. {ifixif 
fifiy) t0\itrof (u/ij9AnKr«, B. |, 27, Inf. fiXrjff^oi, Part. fiKfifurot, Subj. ^v/ifiKtf 
rot, 3A^cr« (instead of fih'fprrcu)^ Od. ^» 472, Opt. jBAcio (from BAE-, comj>. 
xlforKiifu), II. y, 288. Hcnce the Fat. fiK-ficofxai. 

Ynp^* or yiipJurKUf to grow old^ second Aor. third Pers. Sing, iyhfto^ U- Pi 197, 
Korey^pdf Herod. 6, 72, Inf. (Att) yi^ponu. Port. (Epic) ynpds. Tlio d in 
iyflpd, etc. is used instead of rj on account of the preceding p. See Mpda-K»^ 
§ 192, 1. 

KTflyVf to kill J Epic and poet, second Aor. Act. (KTA-) f^icray retains the short 
Yowel ; thus, itcr&fury ticrarty third Pcrs. PI. also jficrdy instead of Ikraror* 
Subj. /rr» (first Pers. PL lerivfiw Epic), Opt. icraiijv, Inf icrirai, (Epic icrdfuvf 
KTdii€vat)f Part, icrds ] Epic second Aor. ^iid. with Pass, sense, iWirrfltro, 
fcrder^m, ircrroirrdfjuci^s. 

ovri£a>, to wound^ Epic second Aor. Act. ohta third Pers. Sing., Inf. «^fllftcMnt 
ofrr^ficy (the a remains short as in X^rdLv) ; Epic second Aor. Mid. ohrd^yw, 

ircAcEC<B'i '0 approach^ Epic second Aor. Mid. ^vXil^y, (Att. ^irAi^iijr), vX^q^ 

v-A^^^w (ir(/iiirAi7fu), to ^/, Epic second Aor. Mid. IrAvr* aad vAqro, ItAiij^o 
also in Aristoph., who uses the following forms also : Imp. vA^o, Part. dperKk 
/ityos. Opt. ifurkiffifip with the variation ifi7r\tlfiiiyy as xp^iri from xp^{^) ^^*^ 
fi\uo from ifi?Jit*^t^ (BAA-). 

nT^cTtf-o), to shrink with/ear^ Epic second Aor Act (ITTA*) (^xnji') icarccirH^f 
third Pers. Dual. 

ip^dyv, to come before^ Epic second Aor. Mid. ip^dfi€yos. 

Remark. Prom (0riy (jSo/kw) ai^e found in Homer the forms fiAryje (ihird 
fen. Dual) and Mpfi&rw (third Pcrs. PI.) with tlio short stcm-vowcl 

mZ7.l VER!B« IN -m LIKE VERBS IN -fU. . MIZ 

(b) Stem-Vowel e (Ufinv^ 2BE-): 

^AA, Epic, stem of 8i8ao-it«, to tetick, second Aor. Act. (AAE-') Mriy, I learned^ 
•Subj. 8a«, Epic 8ac(», Inf. Ss^foi, Epic Sd^/icyio. 

<c) Stem- Vowel t: 

t^i-ni, to consume and to ixxnisi, Epic second Aor. Mid. i^ffirjy, ^[tr^cu, <pdl- 
#i€iws, ^^3m, *p^l^fuu^ Opt ^tfojy, tp&iro, 

(d) Stem- Vowel o (iTPwy, rNO^): 

ikfipAcMiy to eat, Epic second Aor. Act. Il0pvv» Sec § 161, 6. 
wXjAtt (Epic and Ion. secondary form of wx^w), to sai^ Epic second Aor. Act. 
-ittXitnfy frXmfiof, Part. w?i^s. Gen. irXttrros. 

(c) Stem- Vowel v {iZOy): 

€X6w -(poet-), to Aecfr, Epic Imp. second Aor. Act kKu^i^ Kkvrt j and KticKidit 

«^kA«tc'(4 2t^, 7). 
A^, to &xwe, Epic second Aor. Mid. Xvro, A^rrv. 
«rM#, to AmKAe, X^ic second Aor. Mid. (DNT-, from irW/«, iryc^) ^f^tryvro 

instead of &y^ni>r«, to fireolAtf o^otn. 
tf«^, to sAoi^e, Epic second Aor. Mid. ifftrifniy, latnvcj fcavo^ virro. 
%4», to^MHtr^ut, Epic second Aor. Mid. pCT«e, from x^^^y X«^) X^Of X"^/«wj. 

B. The OsAKAOTEmisTio ib a Consonant. 

2AAo/iai, to ^ecip, I^iic and second Aor. Mid. 2Airo, 2Aro, ivd/i/Atyos, ividXfuvoSf 

Sabj. &\i7Tcu. 
Mpap(a-Kw (*AP-), to^f, Epic fyfityos, Jitted. 
yerrOf to take, Epic, from /Yato, the Di^^amma being dliangcd into y and the 

radical A before r into y (§ 203, B). 
ylyvofuUf to become, poet lyerro, yivro. 
UxofMi, to toZ:e, Epic £Sficro, Inf. S/x^^S ^^P* '<{<>• "^ho first Fers. Sing. 

^Zrpta/fy and the Part B^fuvos have, Uls^e the Pcrf. UBey/itUt the meaning to 

expect, awcuL 
AcA/^tf, to 4cAtr4 Epic MKucto, 

ucydofuUf to come, EpicTwro, Xxfityos and Ik^uvos, favorahle. 
A£XA, to lie down. Epic 4\4yfA'ny, f Ackto, to /ay one's se//* down (same sense as 

Ac|4u'>y*')) Iinp. A/|o. -— Ai^yoi, to eo&ef, to chouse, to count, Od. i, 335. ihiyya^f 

I counted myself, Od. 9, 451. A/irro kptS^v, he counted the numJber, 
U4aitmt to soil. Epic fxidvdny (tliird Pers. Dual, instead of 4fitdy-<rdTiy). 
^doyof i/jJyrvfu), to mix. Epic fdiero, 

ify6t9 (tpyvfu), to excite. Epic Spro, Inf. Sp^m, Imp. |{p<ro, Bpato, Part 6pfuyo9m 
vkCaAa^ to brandish. Epic ir«[Aro, /(« sprang, 

trcfidwi to destroy, perdo, Ilomcr uses Trfp^cu insteid of wip^-o^eu.. 
CHra (Ti^Tnyu), to y/x, Epic itijkto, icar^in|fcTo. 

274 DIALECTS. [♦ 228w 

}228. (2) Ferf, and Plup. Act, (Cofnp. H 193, 104). 

(a) The Stem ends in a Vowel. 

ylyyofuu^ to become; FEFAA, Stem TA: Perf. (Sing, yiywa^ -as, -«) Epic iii»d 
poet yiy&fiePj -Urt, -<(flun(y), Inf. Epic y^ydfity. Part. poet, yty^s, Teywv-*, 
yty6sf Gen. yrywros ; — Plup. Epic ^Kyeydrrfy, 

Badyu, to go, Peif. fi4$riKtif BEBAA: Epic and poet. PI. fi4fidfuVf -drf, S4n{y), and 
8t0dairt{y) ; third Pers. PI. Snbj. ifi0tfi&<n (PI. Phaed. 252, e), Inf. /ScjS&mu, 
Part. Epic fitficu&s (also Attic prose fie fids, Xen. Hell. 7. 2, 3), -vta ifiefiAa-Oj 
PI. Phaed. 254, b), Gen. fiefiauros (Att. i9c/l£ros); — Plap. ifi4fi&tuw, -Arc, 

5€^8», to fear; besides the forms mentioned (§193), the following Epic forms 
are to be noted: SflBifiw, 8c/5tTc; Inf. BtiUlfuy instead of Mi/yai; Imp. 
ielZi^ SctSiTc; — Plup. ^dcifit/Acv, iMBuray, 

tpxoiMU^ to come, Perf. Epic ciX^Xouda instead of iktiXv^Of PI. c2\4\ovdyicr. 

l^H^icw, to die, Perf. T^;^ica, TEeNAA : PL r^^vo/icv, r4i^yArc, T«3yfi<ri(r), Imp. 
ri^ySAi, Part. rc;^i^K(6y, tc^^jcvio, rfdvqic^f or rtdvffc&f (rcdwdo-a. Demoath. 
40, 24), rt^e<&t (Epic rcdini«6s, -^ost -fi6ros). Inf. rcMbw (Aesch. r^Mumt 
from r^ytUyai, Epic rtdrydfity, -dfieyai) ; Plup. irdMSuffay, Opt rcj^fotiiy. 

lAAA, to ensure (second Aor. IrXi^i^), Perf. r^Ai^ica, TETAAA: Dual r^AAmr ; 
PL rirXSifitPf rirXdrt, T€T?<jafft{y), Imp. r^Ad;^ -^hw, etc., Subj. wanting-. 
Inf. rtrXiym (Epic rrrXofiey), but Part. Epic r«TXiri£s ; Plup. Dual ir^fKSror^ 
irrrkSn^yt PL irirklifuyf fr^A&rt, 4r4r\&irayf Opt rcTAo/ijv. 

MAO, to sfirtve, Perf fi4fioya ; MEMAA : Epic fU/i&fAtr, -aroyf -^tm, 'iain(r), Impu 
fjL§fjuSertt, Part. fUfiUds, Gen. fUfi&Srrot and fufioAros, third Pers. PL Flap. 

Here belong the two participles of 

Bifip^Kv, to eat (second Aor. 4fip«y), Perf. fi4fipuKtif poet fitfipdsf Gen. -i^ai ; 
7r(«T», to ya//, 1r/1rr«ire^ Epic ircirrccfts, Att. poet Tcvri&f. 

(b) The Stem ends in a Consonant. 

It is to be observed in respect to the formation, that when the consonant of 
the stem comes before a personal-ending beginning with r, the r is changed 
into ^, and thus these forms assume the appearance of a Mid. form, e. g. 

irc£^, to persuade, tr^oi^a, to trust, Epic Plup. 4v4in^fuyf Imp. in AeschyL 
Eum. 602, w4xtia^i (instead of ir4irt(r^i). ^ 

Hemabk. Thus the Epic form w4roff^9, stem IIENe with the variable • 
(nONe), instead of wtwiyhare from wcb-xMi from TrrJy^arc by dropping the 
connecting vowel a, comes ir^oi^i^c; and hence as a Tau-mutc before another 
Tau-mate is changed into v (^ 17, 5, comp. IS-rc =^ ftrrc), wittm^^TM beeomes 
ircir«Mr3«, and as r is dropped before ir, ir4iroar§ ; finally, this form, 88 has been 
pcen, assumed the appearance of the Mid. form {^c) and so became t4woc&€, 

K4Kpaya, -as, -e(K) {Kpdfoo, to bawl] Plup. 4KtKp4Ly€iy, -«is, -€• 
KtKpdyaroy ie4Kpax^y 4K9Kpdy§tToy 4K4Kpex^9y 

KtKpiiyaroy xinpax^w ^ireKfNrye/njy 4KtKpd)^ii9 

Per/. Ind. S. 



} 229.3 VERBS IN 'iO LIKE VERBS IN -fit. 279 

P.I. Kticpiyoftw K^Kpayfitv iKVCpdytifuv dtciKpayfMP 

2. K€KpirYaT9 K^Kpax^ ixMKpdyftT^ ixdxpax^ 

3. KtKpiryofftiif) 4KtKpdyfiffat^f 'Wtrcty 
Imp. Kixpax^h "^X^t "O-X^^t ^^^' ^^' K€Kpay4yat, Fart. KtKpay^s, 

So the Epic Perf. &Kcrya with the sense of the Pres. Icomnumdj tumyas, ftywyt, 
PL ivmyfittfi Imp. Ibwyt and ip^x^h itmyirm and &iri&x<^''> ib^rrc and 
tkvwx^^i Sabj. &M^; Inf. Ajwy/fMr; Plnp. ^i^to, ^m^i; Opt. Ai^i^Toif. 

iyttpeat to awaken^ Peif. irff4ryopa (stem 'EFEP with the variabk o), 7am awake; 
from this, Homer has the forms: Imp. iy^^yop^t instead of iyfnjySptertf Inf. 
iypftiyif&fu (as if from iyp4iyopi»m) and #7pin^p3a0'i(y) instead of iypvy^* 
a-ilw) third Pers. PI. 

•28m, IknoWf the regular forms otSafMir, Mvr^, €ltiaai{y) are fonnd bat rarely in 
the Ion. and Att writers (M^^i !)« second Pers. oZBos in Hom. and Ion 
(rarelj Att f 195, 1 ). The form li-fuv is Epic, Ion., and Doric. Inf. Vtfuym 
and IS/icir Epic, Snbj. i8f« Epic instead of ci5« (Ion. cI8/a»), Part. ISvia Epic 
and ffiSvia. 

P/icp. 1. Pers. Sing. jjfBca (hence the Att. ff^ri) Epic instead of pSciv 
8. ** ^* i^£8«f and ^fSiis Epic instead of pdcis 
3. ** ** ^fffSci and V^9i7, i^S«f(y), Epic instead of jfBci; — i$cidf» 

3. ^ PL {itror Epic instead of fttaov. 
Fat. ciS^^ Epic and also tttrofuu. 

louro, /am like, Epic, Aktoi^ (Dual), jftrn^i^ (Plnp. DoaI) j hence in Plop. Mid. 
or Pass. Imcto. 

♦ 229. (^) Present and Imperfect, 

finally, there are certain forms of the Pres. and Impf. mostly in the Epic 
dialect, which after the analogy of rcrbs in -fu, take the personal-endings with- 
oat the Mode-TOwel. Thos : — 

kw6»^ to ampkte, in Theocritus : Impf &W^/ics (instead of ^v^fuy), ftWH-o (instead 

of lir^ero), 
rcu^, to ttrelch, to span, H. p, 393. rirO-rcu (instead of rai^crai). 
ipCm, to draw, fyvreu, fl^vro, IpOro, fpOeo, fikr^ai (f 230). 
¥€^f to shake, Epic Pres. ^fvroi and (by variation) cavrat. Imp. wowro and 

abridged trov, ffova^w, <ro6vht» (to move an£e self, to hasien). The Imp. has 

passed into the common coUoqnial language. 
$^ commonly Iv^^fw, to eat. Epic, Inf. tifitvat. 
f, to carry, Epic Imp. ^prs instead of ^ptrt^ 

S7G biALfiCTs. [} 230 

♦ 230. Alphabetical List of Verbs in the Dialect* 

to be specially noted, 

kdu (&F(Ltf), to hurt^ to deceive; Horn. ^vou\ the Att. Tragedians uee thf 
)ias the following forms : Aor. &cura following forms : favct and 6i^ffm, 
and idra ; Pres. Mid. iarm, Aor. iaad- f^m, i^cu and j({d, i^at, 
foiv, Aor. Pass, iiiiirl^y. Verb. Adj. itu (Ep.), to Aear, only Prcs. and Imfi' 
iuiT6s {i-daros). iiov. Com p. iwdUt. 

lycdofioUi Epic and Ion. prose (^ 164) iucaxi(to (Epic), to trmtble^ stem 'AXA, 
and i.ydoiiiai (Ep.),to be an^ry a/, and second Aor. ffcaxoi^; Fnt. iutaxit^^ 
in the Prcs. Epic also to grttdge, to first Aor. -^ic^x^a i ^^^ Axax^Cv^oi, 
envy, Fut. hydaofjuu ; Aor. ^curcifiijK. tixottm or &x''i'^<^t '^ ^ ^^ Aor. 

hytlpw, to collect^ Epic second Aor. Mid. 4iKax6fifitf (§219, 7) ; Perf. iuehx*t*«u 
hyipovjo^ Part &7p<$;icvof (§ 223, 11); (§ 219, 8, comp. iLpfipt/uuj dpa^pc/Mu) 
PI up. kyrryipato ; Aor. Pass. ky4p^, and iuedxiiftat^ third Pew. PL oirsx*- 
third Pcrs. PI. ftycfu^cr^ Epic Prcs. Soroi (§ 220, Hem. 2) and iuaix^vroi, 
ity€p4&ofjuu (§ 162|. Part, iucrixt/i^yos and iueaxhtJ^i^s^ Inf. 

iTvo/w, to 6c iVnomn/, Ep. Aor. '?^ofij<r€ &«ceExY<^'^«u (♦ 223, Rem. 4); Plnp. 
(§ 207, 1), kyudtaaaKt (§ 205, 5). Epic iacax^ioro, 

iryvvfu^ to break^ Aor. Epic ^^o instead hxAxM-wos (Epic), sharpened^ jiointcil^ 
of ca|a; third Pcrs. PI. Aor. Pass. from *ARn, act/o, instead of Ajctt7^M»s 
Jkytv Epic instead of idyiiiray. (H 19, Kern. I, and 208, 2). The x 

Ityw, to ^ocmI, Epic second Aor. Imp* comes from the Perf. Act. 
&(6Tc, Inf ii^ffitycuj ii^^ixty (4 223, iiajficw, to neglect^ Aor. &«r48circ(r). 
10) ; first Aor. Mid. ifyLxrb^^ 6J^ayro, i\dofuu^ to wander about. £p. Perf. &\^ 

&c{8» (prose ^(Sw), to sm^, Epic second Xrituu (4 219, 8), dAa\<!^/ACKos, hKdXm^' 
Aor. Imp. &cr(rco (§ 223, 10). 3m (4 223, Rem. 4). 

kii(m (prose a]/>w), to raise^ JSpic first ixSofi^ctf, to »{aA:e t;tcrea5€, Epic Aor. 
Aor. Act. &ctpa, Mid. i,(ipdfiriyt Pass. ffA-Sovcty). 

iL4p^v \ Epic second Aor. Mid. &^ &X^|c0, to keep off^ Epic second Aor. 
/iiyy from oTpctf; Epic Plap. ^^o ^XoXkov {\ 219, 7), (from 'A/VKO). 
instead of i^^o with the variable &AaXjcc(i^, &AaXjn5y ; Fat. ikAoAjc^^ti* 
vowel, and transposition of the ang- &A.^o/uu and iJ<e6ofiai (Epic), to sAim, 
mcnt; p]pic Prcs. '^cpc^/ucu (§ 162). Aor. ^Xcuc^/itjy, Subj. &A.^ai, Opt. 

*AHMI, (As-,) to ^U7; in Homer, arc: &A^curo, Imp. dXccur^c. Inf. AJU^oo'^iw 
Part, iff J, i^vToy; third Pers. Sing. and a\4<ur^at (§ 223, 8). 
Inipf tti}, &CI, Si^fi (*AEn) ; in the kA^o-Ku, oAi^tofrw (Ion. prose), to Aafd^ 
other forms, tlie ri remains contrary Fut. &A3^|«», etc. 
to the analogy of ridTjfJu (§ 224, 6): &\iralt^u (Epic and poet.), to sin, Fut. 
iriToyy iLtjueUf &^;icvou ; Mid. and Pass. AXir^o-w ; Aor. ffXir^i^, AAirtfjKi|r, dU^ 
&Y7AMU, to 6/ou;, v^/icf'or Kol ^mcvot, WiTi^cu', Perf. &XiT4/icyor,«u>/W(§ 223, 
drenched with rain and beaten with Vie Hem. 4). 
wind; Impf Mid. &rp'o. iWofuu, to spring, Epic second AoT. 

oKSo/iou and alB^ofxeu in Homer, to &e Mid. di\a-o, etc. (4 227, B). 

asltamed, to respect^ Epic ai^^ofuuy iXvirr^, to 6« «n frcmUe, Epic Perf. iA» 
«}8e(rdv}K and ^nardfiiiy. Kiicryfuu (4 219, 8). 

vXyjfu (Ep.), to tol:e (instead of a]^vt;/uu, &A.v(rico0 (Ep.), to escape^ &A.v|c0, ijfAv^a. 
4 169, Ucm. 1), only Prcs. and Impf ii\<pcdvw (Ep.), tojina, Sec. Aor.&Ai^<>. 

oip^w, to tcJcej Ion. Perf ipaSfniKay ipMod- o/Aoprcbw, to miss, Epic Aor. iifMfipor<0 

SniJuu i\ 219, 8); Epic second Aor. {\^ 223, 11, and 208, 3). 
lid. y4yTo instead of (ktro (§ 227, iifiT\eucl<nw (Ep. and poet.), to «rr, Fut 
B). iifjarXxucfiaot \ AoT, ^fiwKaucoy, 

kta-a-ct^ Epic (d, but ^rdf^ct, II. ^ 126 ; oyJ^dliw (Ep., poet, and Ion.), to please^ 
t) instead of ^fo-o-tt), to nufA, Ep. forms : Impf 4<U^wov (Herod.), 4^y8. and 
im,a., Suhj. &t{». Part. &t(as; Aor. J}i^. (Ep.); Aor.coSoK (llcrod.), ttw 
Pass. ii*X'^»' (also in Plat.), luf iix- (Ep.); Inf. odc^j Perf IdSa: Fut 


iMi^w, — Auir., ^ 219) 4, 9. In The- Mid. Trans., to lead, tfifi&Oj ifin^i- 

ocrinis lo8c \ £p. Aor. tioXiov (44 21 9, t»^^ ; second Aor. Mid. ifi^jaero. Imp. 

4, and 207, 8). ivi^ffto (4 223, 10). £p. seconda^ 

ior^ro^, to gprtTty tip, Kp. Perf. with fonn: fitfida-^ctv, to stalky strength- 

Alt. Rcdnpiiration and iYi^varialle ened secondary form from fitdv»\ 

o (44 219, 8) and 140, 4), from oL«o ^iSa, ^ijBMrro, iSw3£ca and (fttim 

'ANEOa BIBHMI) fiifiJis', finaUj, Imp. /klff^icf, 

kmiju^ to meef, Epic ffvrcor [4 222. A and Inf. 4vi$airK4fuy» 

(2)] ; ^vpoMrrfyrny (4 222, Rem. 1 ). fi^ikXta^ to throw, £p. second Aor. (fiKriP, 
&y^, to complete. Epic Impf. in Theoc. iMfivr [4 227, A (a)], Fut. fiKf)vo'' 

ipvfus, AvvTtf (4 229). fuu'j £p. Perf. ^^Ktiftai (used of tho 

^ufvya (£p. and poet. Perf), to command, mind ) ; but fi4fiKr}/icu (of the body). 

&yary/A«jr, Imp. &raixi^<> etc. (4228); fiapta {Ep.}, to be hrniy, fi(fiafnj<&s {^ 223, 

Plnp. ^vc^yfa (4 220, 6). In certain 13). 

forms this Perf. is changed into the fitfipi^ois (£p-), to cut, instead of fii' 

inflection of the Pres., c. g. third 0p<&erKois, 

Pcrs. Sinpf. dytS^ei, Impf. ffroryoy and 04ofuu and fitiofjtat, I will (jo, tciU liir, 

(Sumov'y Put. iarA^u ; Aor. tjvot^a, £p. Fut. ^ci;, Btifuada (4 ?23, 7). 

ttTovpdw (Epic), to take away, Impf. fitiofuu (£p.) instead of ^ i(ofuu, to 

kini6pt»y, -Of, -a; first Aor. Act. Part, force, ifiiiicarro, fit$lvK9, 

awoifos ; first Aor. Mid. hmtitpaero, Mp^tcta^ to eat, £p. Aor. tfipw [4 227, 

Part. hMouod^upos. A (d)] ; Pcif. Part, fitfipvs^ -Aros 

kva^aKtt (£p.)i ^ deceive, Fut. Ato^^^ (4 228). 

<r«, second Aor. Act. i^ien^y, Opt. /9Ai6«rin» (£p. and poet.), to go, instead 

Mid. &vc(^fro. of fiXdaxw (4 18, 3), Aor. tfftoKoy, 

iarttx4e» (Ep.), to tltreatm, A«-«fX^ir /aoA«cW, ^Ac^ (also X. An. 7. 1, 33, 

(4 222, Rem. 1 ). ft^XtMrw) ; Perf. /i^fA/8A»ica (instead of 

4r^pir€, an Ep. Aor., he hurried off, /ufidKuKa) ; Fut. fioKovfxai, 

Snbj. &To/^v]7, Opt. iaro4pffU9* fiodw, to cry mit, £p. Aor. IjSoMra instead 

fiiTTw, to join to, £p. Aor. Pass, id^t^, of ifidtitra (4 205, 5). 

yW/ on. /3ot$Ao/ttai, to tct//, Ep. /S^Arroi, fi6\§ff^ 

Ifuphxtt (Ep.), to^, stem APfi, first (4 207, 4), Tpofi^fiovXa, I prefer. 

Aor.^p^o, Apaau (4 223, 6) ; first Aor. fipt/xdofuu, to roar, Ep. Perf. fitfiffvxch 

Pass, ip^p instead of fff»9^ay; sec- with the sense of the Pres. 

ond Aor. Ijpapor (4 219, 7; also In- TofjJu, to marry, Ep. Fut. yafA4m\ Ep. 

trans, to be adapted, to please), more Fut. yaiiivavrui, IL i, 394, will give tn 

nsnal than the first Aor. ; Perf. ipa- marriage, 

pa (Ion. &p7ipa) (4 219, %), I am fitted, ydyv/juu (Ep.), to he glad, y^yvrat \ Fut. 

Intrans., Ep. iip&pvta (4 223, 13), Perf. yaw^ircMrat. 

Mid. or Pass, iipfiptfuu, itprip4fuyos TAXI, £p. Perf., y^yoftty, to have become^ 

(4 223) Rem. 4) ; Aor. &f>/«cvot, adapted etc. (4 228). 

(4 227, B). 7C7«ya Ep. and poet. Perf. with th« 

APAa, kpiayuut to pray. Epic second scnseof the Prcs.tocry ou£; inllom., 

Aor. hplifitvatj Od. Xt 322. third Pen. (^ing. y4ywy€ (also with 

iLprvfuu, to gain (4 188^ 1 ). the sense of tho Aor.), Part. yey»y^s, 

Mi, Ep., (a) to blow, see &^/u; (b) to ln£,ytyvy4fuy',Vl\xp.4y9y<&yu, From 

«/crp, Aor. Kctf'a, Avafi«y*y (c) to sa/tV- the Perf a Pres. lias been formed of 
fff (also Intrans. to be satisfied), Inf which there arc in Ilom. : Inf. 7rytt- 

"ofityat instead of &//acwbi: Fut. iam', kc<V, Impf. iyty^ywvy,' 

Aor. iffOt fttf-curdcu. Verb. Adj. iaros, y^iyofuu (Ep.), to be bom, to be produced, 

ires. Aor. IVlid. to 6e^el, to 6ear, Subj. 71/* 

Ba/(w, to traU;, to <70, Ep. forms : Perf. phu instead of ytiyffM, 

^fiofixpf etc. (4 228); second Aor. yiyro^ to seize (4 227, B). 

Dual fidrriyf third Pers. PI. {nripfia- yripdu, to grow old, second Aor. iy^pa^ 

ray (4 227, Rem.), third Pers. PI. etc [4 227, A (a)]. 

l/3av, fidy (4 224, 4), Inf. ^fAeyoi, 70(i«» (poet.), to my?//, Ep. third Pers. PL 

Suiij. besides fiw^ etc. : fitlof, 3^, fiti- Aor. y6oy, 

ofx/ty (4 224, 9); first Aor. Act. nnd Aaiyvpa (Ep-), to entertain, to fxd (10 

278 DIALECTS. H 230 


stead of 8a/r-yv|u, S 1^9, Rem. I), ere, to await (e. g. an attack, a wild 

Fat. 9aiew ; Mid. So/iof/iai, to/east, to beast), in the following forms : l^x^ 

omnime, second Pcrs. Sing. Impf. Ind. roi instead of Scxovroi {S 220, 13), 

9aiytf {daiyvo instead of ^So/ytwo, IL ft, 147, Perf. ScSryfuu with tbii 

4 224, 5), third Pers. Sing. Opt. Bat- sense, of the Pres., Fut. 3cd/(o^uu» 

yvro instead of '^iro, third Pers. PI. excipiam, second Aor. Mid. l^«ro, 

ZaufCtcro] Aor. iZtuffifiriv, etc. ($ 227, B) ; Perf. Mid. €c8oci|^ 

Ba/», £p., (a) to divide (^ 164), Fat pos, awaiting^ lurking, 1\. 9, 790. 

zirofiai] Aor. (also prose) 4Zairdfiff¥\ 8cu» (instead of 8/F«), £p. instead of 

* Perf. Pass. 8/8a<r/Mu, am </iPic20(f,frrt>ileii, 94u, to toant, from which come iMif 

9f9aivrat ; (b) to frurn, to inflame, Perf. <rc,A« wanted, S^ircy, Ae toos la icnnC 

9/^c, A« burnt; Mid. to (mm, 6^jz«, o/*; Mid. 5c^o/mu, to 6e wanting. Fat. 

Intrans., second Aor. Sabj. S^irrcu. S^v^o^mu. 

5of(v<(» and Zd/xyrifUf £p. secondary AIAHMI (AE>), £p. and older Ionic* 

form of HofidM, to subdue, from Att.^ (Xen.), secondary form of MW, 

which come third Pers. Sing. Pres. to bind, ZiZiatri (Xen. An. 5. 8, 24) ; 

Zofir^ ; third Pers. Sing. Impf. iZdfira Impf. i[9ri instead of ^£817, IL A, 105. 

and 9dfum, HfuforKt ', second Pers. 9l{iifuu (Ep. and Ion.), to eeek; it n>-> 

Sing. Pres. Mid. Zofiyf', — Sc^u^i, tains the iy (contrary to S 170, 1, 

84f(ya/uu, etc. comp.'AHMI): iBiCiro, WCw^Oy U" 

lap^d^m, to deep, Epic Aor. tBpd^op C^ir^oi, Sifi^Mci^S' (iii Henxl) ; UCtut 

is 223, 11). (Horn.), Bi(€<u (Theoc.) ; Fat. 8i(i^o- 

ittriofuu, Ep. secondary form, oscd in fuu ; Aor. iBiCn^dfOflf. 

the Pres. and Impf., from Zalofiai, to AIHMI (AIE-),of the Act. only ^i^« 
divide. ( third Pers. PI. Impf.), II. c, 584, theg 

AAA (Ep. and poet), (a) to teach (= drove away; Mid., to moite one run, to 
StSdM'irw), (b) to /earn («= 8<8d(<rico/uu) ; make free, oftencr to ware, to cAom 
to (a) belong the £p. second Aor. (specially with the Inf.), Ziwmm^ II. 
S^oc (Hom.), ISoff (Theoc. and ^, 475, Zlea^m, II, /l^ 304, Sabj. 
ApoU.); to (b) 8«8ac6s (Hom.), 8c9c(- 5(irra<, BIuptm, Opt. S/oiro (comp. 
00-1 (in other anthors); £p. second rl^tro). 

Aor. Act Mny, I learned [§ 227, A S/« (Ep.), to ^, a^c, Scftic, SW, //M. 
(b)], from which Ep. Zcdicofuu, ScSoih Zovwim (Ep.), to sounef, Perf. ScSomrox ; 
ira, S«8en}jLi^i'os. From the Perf. a Aor. iZiiinia-a and f)r8o^nf^a (from 
new Ep. Pres. has been formed, 8cSiC- rAOTII-, comp. n^inw and tmnrdm). 
00-^01, Inf. Here belongs also the Z^ratJuu, to be aUe, second Pers. Ion. 
Ep. Fut 8^00 (I shaU find, meet with), Sumcu; Aor. Ep. idwAardriv and iSmnt 
Hus, Hofiw, Hrrt U 223, 7). trdfitir (§ 179, 2). 

S^OTo (Ep.)) '< seemed, Aor. Murtraro, Z6t9, to go in, to wrap up, Ep. diftewai in- 
third Pers. Sing. Sabj. iodaffrrcu stead of Zvtm from (Sw ; Ep. second 
(instead of -rrrai). Aor. Mid. Svo-cro, Ziceo, 9va6fuvo9 

8ff(8w, to ykir, the Pres. occnrs only in (§ 223, 10). 
the first Pers., Fat 9e(<rofuu ', Aor. '"Eytlpof, to awake, Ep. Aor. fypcro, he 
IScio-o, Ep. I^etott (as is probable atooJbe, etc. (§ 223, 11)} £p. forms of 
originally GiFtura), Perf. Ep. StiBoiKo, Vert, iypffiyopa are ^yp^rvop^^* ®^ 
instead of S^iico, and M9m Ep. (§ 228). From the Perf. has been 
instead of i4Bta (§ 228). formed the Pros. iy^nyop6w, watch- 

Mxirvfu, to show, Ion. (AEK) 8/(«, I8«(a, tn^, Od. v, 6, as if from iymefidm. 
etc.; Mid. 8c/ina;/uai in the Ep. dialect I8e» and lir^w (Ep.), to oit jT^ ^tf<^<«), 
has also the sense, iopreet, to welcome, Inf. tZfuvat {\ 229) ; Impf. D«r and 
to drink to: so also m the Perf. M- l8co-Koy; Perf. ^8i}8^s; Perf. Mid. or 
8c7;mu with the sense of the Pres., Pass. ii^Zorat. 
BeiB4xorai third Pers. PI. ; Plap. M- 'Edfi, from which come the Ep ^my^ 
8c«rro, to welcome, 8ci8/xaTO. wont, accustomed, and the Perf. ^Imdm 

UpKOfuu, to see, Ep. second Aor. (BpSatoy (§ 140, Rem. 3). 

(^ 223, 11). *EIAA, 'lAO, Aor. clSoy, I saw, Ep. 28«r, 

l^ffcai, tore(%tt«,Ion.8/ico/uu; inHom. Inf. UiUiy, Sabj. timya', Ep. Piraa. 
this verb signifies also, to ta^ excip- Mid. ffStroi, it seemff, ci8^/icMt, ap 


maringy making like; Fat. tftro^iai; iphrtt or hnfiwrn (Ep.), to My, to Idl, 
first Aor. tlwdtapf and iturd/jai¥, tied- Impf. with the sense of the Aor. 
ftMPos and Utedfuros (4 219, 4); sec- iifnrotf, tvwnrw, Aor. tptvirw (comp. 
ond Aor. t^iap^j I taw, kffitSfKiiv from iwoi»ai)y Imp. iywwtst 

. third Fen. Sing. Impf. tlirt, it Subj. Mmw, Opt. Jyiffroyu, Inf. ivur- 

mpeandf IL o*, 520 ; Ferf. ffoum, lam vcZr, Fnt it^m and ^i^wiHi^w. 

bke, £p. third Pers. Dual iiierov and ^i^yodv, Ep. Ferf. from 'ENan or 'EN- 

Flsp. Acnip (4 228), Fart, ^bucitf and Een with the sense of the Pros, and 

IL p, 254. mIkAs, theuM and H. «', 418. Impf., ^fi^yo;^, to sit on, Iir/S, 21». 

cIsunrMu; Ep. Flap. Mid. Ifuero and to Re on, H. Cer. 280. Comp. ^^y»> 

Itrrvy it lAu 2t2%. i^ above. 

tl\^ (Ep.), to cover, envelop, wlxteu, iifbrrm (Ep.), to chide, second Aor. ^p- 

cl^tVicu, third Fers. PI. elkoarai ; from 4yiicoy, iv-iwarty {S 219, 7). 

iKim comes Aor. Pass. ^A^di|y. iyyvfu, to dothe, Ep. and Ion. c7yv/u ; 

«]^, to fTett, to </nve, from which in Ep. Fat. ^ff» ; Aor. tw<ra and S^ra, 

Horn, only tMfuyos; in the same l^<rd^i|ir, i4actKro, ?0'a<rdai; Ferf. 

anthor, tiX^r, /«(\cor; the rest are clfuu, «r<rai (and crrcu), cItcu, etc., 

from *EA, 0. g. lAo-oy, Inf. IXiroi and etfjJyos : second Fers. Flap. IWvo, 

44krm, Part. IXffor (§ 223, 6) ; IcA/aoi, third Pen tero and ^c^ro, third Fers. 

UXfiiyos'f second Aor. Pass, idkriy Dnal l^*;^! , third Fers. PL dhrro;— 

(from IXXtf), third Pers. PI. &Acy, on kUffvro, Ifirro, comp. ^ 219, 4. 

&X^nu and &x4/icwu, &Afflff. louca, /am ^ ^ 228. Comp. *£IKn. 

eifdy tobe,^ 225. #ir«^, to widertiand, Aor. #«^20« (i), 

cj;^ to ^, 4 226. Herod, and Apollon. (^ ISO, Rem. 1 ) ; 

c^>w, to thU ouf, Ep. Impf. (pyq^y the poet AAw is fonnd only in Pres. 

(§ 162). Comp. IjpTw. and Impf. 

<iJpo/uu (Ep. and Ion.), to osil, Impf. IwopoiffKotuu (Ep. and poet.), to receive 

Ap6iKtjiy ; Fat. df4t90iuu ; second Aor. aavantage or tnjvryjrom a thing, Aor. 

ilp6faiy, Sabj. ipAftM^a, Opt. ipovrOf iinivp6fiify,in'aup4o'dmi{^m Aor, iwiiv 

Inf. Ipeffdoi in Ilom. with the accent p4^ir^ in Aescnyl. and in the later 

of the Pres. ; — Ep. secondary forms writers) ; Fat irwpiffoiitti. Of the 

of the Pres. (a) ip^oum, Mw^m ', Act in the sense to toiicA, to injure, 

Impf. ipdofTO', (b) 4p4u, Snoj. 4pe^ Homer oses, second Aor. Snbj. fwa^" 

#i€y. Opt. 4p4ot/Aep, Fart. 4p4my, p|i. Inf. iwwipny, 4vavp4fity, 

"EIPTMI, see ^^. 4wioTatuu, to know, second Pers. 4v(ffrp, 

ttpm, Ep. and Ion., eero, to arrange in a Ion. poet 

row, to thing, first Aor. 4^9lDas, exee- ^va», as a simple, in Act. only Ep. in 

rent, Herod. 3, 87 ; Ep. P^rr. Mid. or the sense tracto aUquid, to take care of 

Pass. IcMMi, 4§pfUyos (in Herod, ^p- (H. (, 321); generally used as a 

/tiyot), Flop. IfpTo. compoand, e. e. w€pi4m», Si^mt, etc^ 

djpw, to tag, Pres. only Ep., Fnt 4pA, second Aor. Act Imroy instead of 

Ep. 4p4m. Cr-cvor, in Homer 4w4cvoy, 4wvnrtiy, 

dtoy Ep. Aor., Ifiaoed, from the stem 4www^ ] Fnt. c^, Ep. 4^4<^is ; Mid. 

'EA- (comp. sed-eo), Opt ky4ffmfu, also as a simple, generally signifying 

Imp. ttooy. Fart, co-ot (kyifayrts ; to follow ; Impf. Ep. Mpany instead 

ihrt (ffor, Her. 3, 126. 6, 103), Inf. l^tr- of ciT^Tyy ; Fat cif^o^iw *, second Aor. 

#ai ; Aor. Mid. kvdfjaty and 44irwaro, Mid. 4int4fi,fiy, <nr^<rdai, <nro«l (^Tt<r- 

Part #^^4r«^Mvof( Her. 1,66. ^ov^- «vv); Ep. forms: ^irc<i», 4ow4(r^, 

mm), Imp. f^vffot ; Fat 4^wvieu, Sabj. Mowctfuu, Opt. Imrof/iirir, Inf. 

IXo^pw, to tfrive, Pres. ^Ai«, Ep. 4x4m ; imriff^at and aw4ffboi. Fart, ^ffv^- 

Impf. Ep. I\«y ; Fat Ep. ^A^mti rof. Herodot has from wtptiww also 

instead of 4xA<n', Ep. Ferf. 4\ii\d' wtpie^driyui and vcpt^^rcirdai instead 

fityos (4 223, Rem. 4), third Pers. of vepit^pH^terdat, 

Sing. Flvp. ^AiyAiSaro (§ 220, Rem. Ip^w, commonly ^/fryw, Ep., instead of 

2) ; Ion. Peif. 4K^keurfuu and Aor. titpyv, to shtU in and shut out, with the 

Pass. ^X^dipr. secondary forms 4ipyyOfu, ioyd&m, 

4KOdC»^ to whirl, Ep. second Aor. Mid. 4tpyd^, Aor. fy^a; Ferf. Mid. or 

4\4XucTo (§ 227, B). Pass. Upyitm^ third Fers. PI. Iipx«r« 

280 DIALECTS. [i 23%- 

third Fcrs. PL Plop. Upxvro and AtUc Bedap.); £p. P]«p. iwAx^» 
fyXKTQ ; Aor. Pass. ^x^«*s^ *^ ^'"^'^ daied^ II. /jl, 340. 

^8« and ^4(w (Ep.), to do. Fat ^C0, ^'H/mu, to sit, larcu, caro (loo.), and cSa- 
Aor. I^c(a and Ijpf^a, or l^w, jfjp^a ; rcu, cZcrro £p., instead of Wa<« ^^o. 
Pert tofrya, Plup. i&pyttv (§ 140, V^ (Ep.), to nnky Perf. ^^|kj^mm(«« ^ 
liem. 3), Perf. Iftid. or Pass. ^cpTytc- ^ Me «««/ sink, IL x* 491. The 
yof , Aor. Pass, ^fx^^h A«X«^*w* above form has the Att rodaplication 

iptiSet, to prop, £p. Perf. iotipMrm ifi-^ftvKe (^ 219, S), and is strength- 
319, 8). ened by p (4 208, 5). 

iptiirtf (poet, and \iiroaey, to thrmo down, B4pofuu (£p.), to warm on^s stif. Put. 
£p. Plup. ^p/pnrro (4 219, 8). ^4p<ro/juu (§ 223, 6); Aor. id«^, 

^^Wiw (£p.), tofyht, Aor. Mid. ^pi9ih ^ubj. ^tpdm. 
ffourbm, ^\it» (£p. and poet.), to sprout, Fnt. 

^^(C«i ^ fiS^ Ep. ipiCofiotj Perf. Mid. ;^X^, etc. ; Perf. ri^nkm. {rtboKtHa 
4frfip*rfuu (4 219, 8). £p. 4 223, 13) ; second Aor. £daAor. 

IJ^, to vxmder about, £p. Aor. Ipo-oi, to BHIia (£p.), to stun, PerC. r«^irra ; 
/lurry ainiy (4 223, 6K Plap. irMprta', second Aor. (from 

ifiv^yta (poet), to redden, Fut. ipv^tra. TA^a) irifpov, 

ipvKv, to keep off, £p. second Aor. Act Miok^, to die, Perf. rcJ^m^Mn, PL Wd^^ct- 
^phimcw, ipuKotcUw (4 219, 7). ilw, etc (4 228). 

4pvw and c«^m» (Ion. and £p), to draw, ^p^Kt» (£p., Ion., and poet), to sprin% 
Fut ^^iMrw (0-0') and £p. ip6mMnf Aor. £^0^01^ ; Fut i^opov^Mu, £p. i^tpi^- 
Aor. ipCffa (off} and <2jpO<ra; Fut o/uu ; Perf. rci^po. See 4 161, 14. 
Mid, iptvffuu and £p. ip^&^tw, Aor. 'I8p^ (Ion.), to sioea^ ISpwo't, iS^wrrcst 
4p^iia\v {fire) and ciViNrtt^iyy; Perf. iSpw^a, l^otf^y (S 137, liem. I). 
Pass, third Pcrs. PL tlp^toxm, U. 4, 7i|/it, to sena ^Ep. and Ion.), Aor. r^ma : 
75, and Plup. %Xpmrro, IL o-, 69. cif»o- Fut V*** DUt Od. <r, 265, AW^ti ; in 
oro, IL 0, 654 (of ships dravn to the £p. and Ion. dialects, there ai-e 
land, u long in the Arsis )^ Plup. sererai forms from the theme 'Ifi, 
Mid. cfpvro {^iffyww, had drawn the e. g. iu^iu instead of ityiifn Her., 
sword, V long in the Arsis), Od. Xt {vrioy instead of ^wU<rap Ilom., ^c- 
90. — Secondly, the Mid. in Hom. Wrro and /ic/icriM^yor Uerod., instead 
and poet, takes the sense to save, to of fit^rro^ fu^ttpdvos, 
shelter (from danger) ; in this sense iKydofuu, to 00mA, £p. Pres. Um and 
there are the following forms : llpOffo, Impf. tKor; Ep. Aor. l^oy (4 223, 10) 
ttpvTQ and fyvro, which arc to be and Irro, etc. (4 227, B). 
regarded as syncopated forms of the 'lAHMl (instead of 'lAA). to be merciful 
Impf. — The two following Mid. Of the Act only the £p. Imp. tkiibi, 
secondary forms have also the sense be merciful (in addresses to the gods) 
of to guard: (a) Ep. *£U>TMI, Inf. instead of IX&^i (4 224, 6), as in 
dp^/EMMu, Hes. 0pp. 816, Mid. to Thcoc. 15, 143, Subj. £p. bJiiami 
quwrd, ^kpvarm. instead of fljpvvrai, I^lup. Opt. £p. JX^koi*, jiid. poet. 
Inf. tpvahcu, ^tpua^ai ; — (b) £p., t\A/Mu, to appease, 
poet and, though very rare, Attic fo-Ofu (Dor.), to know, Enyi, trori, Src^cr, 
prose pioptu. Inf. hvo'Sirai instead of Part teas. 

^ttr^ai', Impf. tuinl Pcrs. Sing. Kaiyvfuu (Ep*) instead of niirufjuu 
&Cro, was watched, Hesiod. Th. 304, (4 169, liem. 1) from the stem KAA, 
tnird Pcrs. PL piar instead of 4p6oy to ejxk, Perf. ximrpuL ; Plup. itct- 
ro (thty protected) ; Aor. ddfwrdpriy Kdepny. - 

and Ep. ^Co-^iiv (bat IL «, 29. ^ikri- Koiw^ to burn, £p. Aor. HtcipL (Trag. 
piiy). ^Kffo), Subj. Kiiofup instead of -mptv, 

fpxofuu, to (JO, Ep. Perf. ciX^Xom^o, first Opt third Pers. Sing, ickoi, third 
Pcrs. PL uKiiKov^iiw, Epic Aor. Pcrs. PL K^aicr, Inf. icnox (in the 
^Aud»y. Odyss. also kuu, K€iofi€P, Kfittyr^s) *, 

tx»t fo have, Ep. Aor. fax^^ov, cx^^ov Aor. Mid. itatdpii^i Ktidifityos (in the 
and dox^'^ (4 162); Ep. l*ert6x»Ka Odyss. iccidi^cxws, icc/oyro) ; second 
(for JKOfxa, K and x being trans- Aor. Act ixdanv (I bwmod, Intmus.), 
posed, and the word having the Inf. icd^eyoi. 


ij to weary one's tdf^ £p. mk/joi^s, kKiC»»* to aound, £p. I'crf. with the sense 
-mrts, -Sres {S 223, 13), Ep. second of the Prcs. ic#icAirya, kckXitt^s, PI. 
Aor. Sabj. xwdfuf <i 219, 7). KwKiryorrts (as if from KtK/Jry^) ; 

K€4fiaif to lie, in Horn. Kiovrm. as if from Aor. iKK&yoy. 

Ttu and (Ion.) K^arai, 8uhj. k^^uu, orcuiDsteadoficcic^^aTai)', Aor. Pass, 

third Pers. Sing, tnfrai ; Impf. k^oto iKKrftadTiv ; from the Ion. KKfjtta come 

and mUcto Ep. instead of lic(irro; the forms often found in the AtL 

Kitrinro ; Ep. Fnt kc/m, k/w, kciW, writers, viz. KXif«, IxAp^'a, K^K^jf/mi. 

ircW, Kci^/ucK ic\4v (£p.), to c&timite^ of which oulj 

icc<pa», to Meor offycutoff^ £p. fccjpo'w, icA^/mu, Impf. ^icXco instead of itoUt^ 

itnpcti (i 223, 6), but iKftpdfuny. (^ 220, 10). 

KixXm, to drive, £p. l«r«A0-a (§ 223, 6). xAi/w (£p*)i to hcar^ Imp. ic\v«, icA^c ; 

KiXoiMJOi (£p. and poet.), to vrge^ Put. second Aor. Imp. <cAi«^i, jcXtrrc; and 

iccA^o'o/uu, first Aor. iK^Kjiadfiiiv \ xiKKStbi, k^kAih-c [^ 227, A (e)] ; the 

second Aor. iKtR\6fi.riv^ etc. (4 223, Impf. ^kKvov is used instead of the 

II). Ind.Pi^s. 

Kwrim (£p*)t to pricfc, stimulo^ Aor* K<$irr(v, to strike, second Perf. xiicowa in 

Wivw (4 223, 6). Horn., instead of k4ko^ 

ictpdMfufu, to aiijr, £p. letpda (Ktp&rras) ttop4Myv^ to satis/ify Ep. Put. Mop4» and 

and K9paU> (Imp. W^c), Kiptfw {tufh in>p^<r«, Perf. iccir<{pivcai, to which the 

r^, Impf. ixtpra) and ic/pni|u (Impf. Part. KexopviAs (4 223, 13) in respect 

4fcion^ fH^irif) i £p. Mid. Wpwrrcu (as to its meaninc belongs, 

if from ic4pat*at) ; Impf. Ktp6vrro £p. kot/m and Korio/uu (£p.), to 6e an/Trjf, 

instead of iKtpAvro from «rcp^. first Aor. Part, icor^irar j Perf. Port. 

Ktp^ahmy to gain, in Ion. and later wri- Kftcorri^s {\ 223, 13) ; Mid. Put. kot4' 

ten: ixi^tfoa; K9fl64^whw. and k4^ ooficu {cff)x Aor. 4KortoJinrjy {ffo)' 

Uuf4fa/ty in Uerod. «^C<Vi to bawl, ay out, poet Perf. ictKpd- 

Kcu^tf (£pOf to concmLy Fut. ircvtrw, Aor. 70, it4Kpaytur, etc (§ 228) j Put. kc- 

tK9v9a \ Perf. ccKc»d« ; second Aor. f^^o/ioi, Aristoph. 

tiO&oy, Kvdoit, Sabj. ircKvdw {S 219, n^iw (£p. and poet), to complete, ae- 

7); Mid. only Prcs. and Impf. oomplish. Ion. commonly Kpaudtm, 

a^Sm, to iiuiJl:« anxious, in the Act. only Impf. 4Kpaiaufov', £p. iuL KpoWW; 

£p. Fut. jni^o-w ; Perf. K4ieifia, 1 am Aor. itcfniva and Ep. 4Kpiinya, Imp. 

anxious ; £p. Fut. Perf. KciraS^o-o/uu, Hfnjvoy and £p. tcp4*l^oy, Inf. i^yoi 

II. ;^, 353. and Ep. #rpi|^mu; £p. Perf. Pass. 

tr^Sra/uu, £p. secondary form of cxtMy- KtKp6an<u (Eur. K4Kpcanai}\ £p. Put 

iruyioi, to Matter, only Pres. and Impf. Mid. itpaM4ouai» 

Khf^mi (£P') instead of uytofut, to stir lerdiw, to iaU, Ep. Fut Krw4w (Ep. 

ant^s self, to he moved, Pass. Kiy6fuvos. Part Kr9y4orra, icartutray4ovot(») and 

KipM&w and iriprnM') Fp* secondary form i(cirafrrW«0^J^ with the variable a; 
of jcfpdbviimi, to mtx, from which comes Aor. £p. and poet. Irrdiwir; Ep. 
the Part xipyds^ Impf. ixipya and second Aor. Act tmiy, etc. [4 227, 

ir(pn|. ^ (&)] i An^ -^o^* ^^s- ^^^'^ ^^^' 

Ktxhm and Kix^Mfuu (Ep. and poet), PL iieroS^tp Ep., instead of 4KTi^ 

to reach, meet with, Aor. ikixoi^^ Fut oaif, 

KixhooftM, other forms not found in Kvp4to, rarely «r6p« (Ep. and poet), to 

the Att poets ; but £p. Impf. 4K(xor fif^d, to reach, Aor. fKvpaa (4 223, 6), 

yoy, second Pers. ixix^^f (from and more seldom iic6fnioa, Fut. ic^pow 

KIXE-) ; second Aor. Snbj. «rix«» ftnd and more seldom tcvfrtiott ] Perf. kcicii* 

irix«^i Opt Kixflrji^i Inf. tcix^v^i pi}««- 

Part ffixcis and Mid. kix^jucws ; Aor. Acryx^^i ^^ partake. Ion. Fut. Ai(o/icL , 

Mid. ^mx^oTO. Ep. Aor. Snbj. AeAix<f (S 219, 7), 

rl<» (£p-)i to 5P0, only Pres. and Impf. Trans, to nutke jtartaker in the phrase 

The Part fct^i^ is accented like W ; day4yra •Kvp65, to give the dead the 

Aon furtKia^ov (4 1C2). honor of fire, i. c. make him partaker 

282 DIALECTS. H 230 

of; Fed x4\oyxa Ep^ instead of MAa (Ep.), to strive for, Porf. witS tb« 
fflXnxa [Od A, 304. \€\6yx&(ri]. sense of the Pres., in Sing. fUfuorm 

AAZTMAI {== \d(ofuu, to take), Epic (comp. 7^Ka with FEFAA), ^^/iorcr, 
i\d(uTo, fi4fiafity, etc. {\ 228). 

\xtfi0dyct, to receive. Ion. \dfv^fuUy\t?Ji- /uipofuu (poet.), to obtain, Ep. $s»pu>p€ 
firiKa, \4\&fifuu, KtKdfjup^ai, iKdfu^dipf, third Pers. Sing. Perf. (and 11. a, 
\afiirr4oSf also Dor. Kt\d0fiKa, but 278), third Pers. Sing, second Aor. 
K4\afAfuu, \c\a0i^cu; in Dramatists Act. (Anient, ^ 219, 6); Perf. Pass. 
\4\ijfAfuu ] Ep. Aor. \t\a$4ir^cu (^219, tX/Juifyrcu, U is determined {^ 1 23, 4 ). 
7). fi4\», commonly Impers. /*^Ac(, tie con- 

KtvStdyu, Ep. oftener X^i^w, to be hidden^ cems. Hay it to heart, £p. Peif. ft4fti^ 
concealed; Ep. second Aor. Act. X€,Part.fic^i)\c6f ; Ep. Perf. Mid. /i^/a- 
Snbj. XtXd^ and Mid. \^\a^6fiiiy fiKerou and Plop. ai^/uJbActo instead of 
(4 219, 7); Perf. Mid. K4^Atrfuu] in lieft^Xiyroi, ^/ic/i^Xirro, comp. fiKAa- 
Theoc. Xa0r;^/i€i' (= \>}<r^i7iw) in- k»\ yet these forms were more 
stead of Ka^tv^tu'^ hriXii^ and properly considered as a Pre*, and 
iicKi^tt, to cause to forgets Ep. Aor. Impf. 
Mkrio-a ; ^kA^X&^ov. fuwtydu, fitvoit^or, \ 222, 1, A (2). 

h^Ku (Ep. and poet.), Aor. l^kSueovi /iiyiriio/icu, to &2ea/, Ep. Perf. fi^/ii|ica with 
Ep. Pen. \4\fiKa (poet. \4\aKa and the sense of the Pres., fiwfMiStKvSa, 
4K\4kou€a even in Demos.) with the (4 223, 13); Aor. ftOtcAr; Itom the 
sense of the Pres. ; Ep. Part. XcXiy- Perf. the Impf. tfUfofiew is formed. 
icc6r, XcX&rvia {\ 223, 13) ; Fat. Aoici^ /ualtWf to stain, Ep. second Aor. /ams- 
ffofuu ; first Aor. poet. iKdmioUf Ep. d^p (4 227, B). 
Aor. Mid. \tjJbcopro (^ 219, 7). f^yyviUt to mix, Ep. Aor. fcirro (4 227, 

AEXA (Ep.), to cause to lie down, IXc^Ot jB). 
iKf^i/iriv, I laid myself doum, I hw,I funcdo/uUf to rootr^ Ep. ft^iea, Aor. 
rested, Ep. Aor. i\4yfi7i», etc. ( § 227,8). tijJ^ov, 

Xo^, to i0c»A, Ep. Ao^w, Aov^w, ImpC No/w, Ep. and poet, to (/imS, first Aor. 
4Xol€ov, ikitov] Aor. Inf. Ao^irai, iyourtra, I caused to dwell; Mid. with 
Part. Ko4o'0'as\ second Aor. Act. Pass. Aor., to settle down: pdr<rofuu, 
fAooy, third Pers. Sing. A^c Od. « iLwtiwrtrdtifiy, iydffbi^v. 
361, \6ov\ Mid. Pres. Inf. Ao^dw fcik^cv (Ep., poet., and Ion.), toquarrd, 
and Kowrhai] Fat. Mid. aWito'o/mu; Fat. ytiK4<rt9, Aor. iyeUtca (§ 223, 
Aor. Mid. Inf. Ao^ererflWi^ -, Part. I). 

Xofovdfxtros \ Perf. Mid. or Pass. W^w, to tcosA, Pres. and Impf.; the other 
\4\ovfuu. tenses are formed from wi^rw, which 

A^, to hose, Ep. second Aor. Mid. amon^ the later writers came to be 
A^ro, A^KTo [4 227, A (c)] ; Ep. Plap. ased m the Pres. and Impf. also; 
Opt. AcADro U 224, 3). thus, Fut. yft^, Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

Medyofuu, to rave {itcfiatyw, to make ¥4infifuu, poet; Aor. Pass, ivi^difit^ 
ravina, also Aor. l^/irjva, Arist. ; doubt- Hippocr. 

ful A. H. 3. 4, 8) ; second Perf. /t^*^ vUrvoftai (Ep.), to go, Fut. y^o/iai (the 
pa (Soph.), / am ravntg (Theoc. 10, form ptlffaofuu is rejected). 
31, fAtfidmituu) ; the Fat is putpovfuu *OAT220MAI (Ep.), Aor. cUlu0id^ui|r, to 
in Herod, {fuurfifrofuu in the later be angry, iivtrdfityos ; Perf. oi^var/tm 
writers ) . with ^the sense of the Pres. ( § 21 9, 8 ). 

Iiaiofuu (Ep.), to seek, Fut fxdarofuu oTSo, to ibwir, ^ 228. 

{4irifidff<r9Tcu) ] Aor, ifuurdfxriy, ofo/uUf to think; £p. <Aiw, itw, ^llvyMi, 

fiovJ^cEvw, to learn, Fat in Theoc. ftai^v- MfiiiVf etotro ; Aor. Mid. izr^iiyr ; 

Acm (like ^x^'i^/'tt^)* Aor. Pass, wta^y, 6t<r^ls, 

'^ftdpyofuu (Ep.), to ^^At, only Pres. and liyofuu (Ep. and Ion.), to 6£anie, fifocrai, 
Impf., like i^yofuu, but Opt. ftapyol- third Pers. PI. tfrorrai, Imp. ^roo'o ; 
fATfy, Od. A, 513. Impf. »y6fiiiy. Opt. iyolfuiy^ iyotro; 

udxofuu, to contend, Epic fiax^'^^*'? Eut hy6<rofam\ Aor. myovdfAiiy and 
lULXtirm^ fjuix4otTo, futx^otrro. Part ' &y6<r^y ; Ep. odyMr^ (comp. oiA^^ 
ftaxfi^f^^yos and futx^oiutyos y Ep. cvot), 11. w, 241, instead of Sytir^ 
Fut. ftaxfio-ofAoi and /mx^^o/icu; Aor. and this instead of 6ye(r3« from *ON- 
^iutxc<r(4»)''. Ep. Aor. Mid. &yaro. 


<p^, to 9ee, Ion. 6p4vy Epic ip6u, Impf. first Aor. Jhrwpea {\ 223, 6) , tecond 
Apcov; £p. second Pcrs. 8in^. Pres. Aor. hrp6^v{^ 223, 11); £p. second 
Mid. ^oc, thini Pcrs. Sing. Impf. Aor. Mid. Inf. ic4p^ (S 227, B). 
^p%ro ; Ion. Perf. Jhronra, irdrofjuu, tojiy^ second Aor. ^rr^fii}i', etc. 

OPEFNTMI, from which £p. apryy^f, {i 223, II). 
sirOching out ; ip^yw, to stretch ; Mid. vcn^fuu (poet instead of 'Kwbdifoiuu), 
to tirttdi OM^s aef/l to reach a/Ur, Ep. £p. second Aor. Mid. Opt. ircir2^oc 
Perf. Mid. ipApryfuut third Pers. Pi. ro] Perf. w4wwr/uu {\ 223, U). 
opt9p4xarttt {\ 219, 8), Piap. third iri^pw^ twe^por, £p. second Aor. Act. 
Pers. Fi,6pc$p4x9ro. of ♦ENfl, to hU (4 21 9, 7 ), Part ir^ 

tfint/u (poet.), to excite^ Fnt V^«» Aor. ywy with irregaUr accentuation ; £p. 
^pau {\ 233, 6) ; £p. Perf. Intnins. Perf. Pass, v^^arai, ire^i^oi ; Put. 
Sfwpa (4 219, 8), Snbj. 6p^ptft Plap. Perf. irc^i^ofi«u (comp. 8c8^ro/Mu 
3pwpci and ifp^t ; Ep. Aor. A.fop«y ; from d^Scftcu). 

>0d. SpyC/uUt to rouse on£s sdf^ to stir, HjytntfMty to fix^ Ep. Aor. v^kto, jcar^- 
Ep. Fat ipwrai^ Aor. &p6nri» ; Ep. «i|kto (^ 227, B). 
Aor. Mid. ipro, etc. (f 227, £) ; Ep. wUt^ofiat, £q. secondary form of rcAii^M, 
Perf. hpAp€rai^ Subj. ^^cSpifTaj ('. 219, to draw near^ only Pres. and Impf. 
8). wlftMkiifu, to JUI^ Ep. Aor. Mid. irA^o. 

im^palifoftmy to smdl^ Ion. Aci. Mid. etc. [^ 227, A (a)]. 

irppsuno, wirrwy to fall, Ep. irtirrt^s {\ 226). 

o^iCw, to wound, Ep. Aor. c^/./, etc. wtrpdat and ir(Tn}/r(i, Ep. secondary form 
[4 227, A (a)1. . of wer^bvvfUf to spread out, from 

^^£Am, to owe, be under obligattc t^ caqhi, which come Impf. irlrva instead of 
must. Ion., poet (except ir. tUs dra- Mrwa, and Part, wtryds, 
matic dialogues of Att wiitCfE), and wkiiira'v, to strike, Ep. second Aor. Act 
in late prose 6^€Xoy, >c;, -c, Ep. hr4w\rrYoy,v4w\.7iyoysaL(ifrrr\fiy6i4riP 
A^€XXop, 6j^\Xoy, in 'iO/tai which (^ 219, 7). 
express a wish. wXAv (Ion.), to sail, Ep. second Aor. 

I^AAw (Ep), to ina-eafi, only Pres., Act ItAmv, etc. U 227, A (d)]. 
Impf., and Opt. Aor. hp^AXuw, Od. vyim, to breathe, in Hom. Perf. wiwvv^ML 
$, 334. U 223, Rem. 2), to be animated, intei- 

TldXXm, to shake, Ep. second Aor. Act liffent; second Aor. Act Imp. ifiw" 
iforeraX^y (H 207, 7, and 219, 7) and rvt, second Aor. Mid. Afimnrro [f 227, 
second Aor. Mid. wd\ro [^ 227, B). . A (e)] ; Aor. Pass, i^wvwdfi instead 

wdax^'f f^ »»fery £P' I*erf. Part ircra- of itforyt^ (^ 223, 12). 
^(ri, as if from w4wa^a; Ep. Perf. vr^<r<rw^ to crouch, shrink fi-om fear, Aor» 
WTo<rd€ (§ 228, Rem.). Hrj^a; second Aor. fcaravrdx^ir, 

irar/o/iai (Ion.), to fcuto, to onf, Aor. Acschyl. Eum. 247; Perf. fimixa, 
/va0'^;&i)i^ ; Perf. ir^rsur/ioi. Part. Ep. vtimy^s, Arof {\ 223, 13); 

vffC^, to persuade, second Aor. Act. Ep. second Aor. KorairrffTiiy [§ 227, 
iwi^ov, Aor. Mid. Iwi^Sfi-Tiv, only poet. A (a)]. 

in the Att writers {wAou is a false Paitw, to mrinkle, regular Aor. ^^aya ; 
reading in Plat Phaed. p. 117, a); Perf. Mid. or Pass. U^iua, In 
Ep. second Aor. Act. fivibw^ Subj. Hom. i^^JZarai (S 220, Rem. 2). 
itfjti^n, Opt. irnri^ipA, Inf. vntib^iy, p4(tt, see JfpSw. 

Part. ir^AAy,\m^.iehril^e (4 219, 7); ^iyim (Ep. and poet), to shudder, Fut 
second Aor. Mid. iind6fAiiy, to trust, ^lyfjctf ; Aor. if^lynoa ; Perf. Ep 
Opt. irfir£^iTo ; from the second Aor. (d^lytu 

come tti^ajt, to be obedient, irtvi^^99, 2a6», <rdm and orJw (Epic), to save 
to be convinced, wu^a-at, obedient ; on ( =: oA(n) ; from oaln Fnt oau&om i 
MiFf^ftfy and rt^nuri^t (see 4 228). Imp. Pres. Act. odn [\ 222, I, A 

9'kdCto, to dmw near (Trng. ircXc(dw, (4)] ; thirtl Pcrs. Sing. Impf. Act 
irKii^ot), Fut.TcAu<rft», poet sometimes <riou and 0-^ instead of itrio* ; Aor. 
wtKu\ £[1. Aor. Pass. itttxAo^y, itrincak', Fut. Mid. ouAootuu^ Aor. 
poet. Att ;r\A^i,Mid.Ep.^w\^^i|y,' Pass. ^<ra<&^y; from <rdm Part, o^*^ 
etc^ A*t *Trki;i7iy [^ 227, A (a) J; oyrts and Impf. (rcico^jcoi^ ; from o6m 
Ed. Pzrf. iTfTAtj^/yoy, Att. v4irKdfiat. Subj. Pres. o*^, o-^ps, o6wiru 

siiAn (port.), to destwif, Fut. ripou; otxm (poet), «<» \mt in violent motion 

284 DIALECTS. [i 23& 

Mid. to hasU^ £p. Aor. ^o'crcva and ^liofuuj to spare, Ep. second Aor. 
w^va^ iffo^tvdfiiiy and awdfiypf (^ 223, irc^i8af/.i|c, irc^t8^^;^aj (§ 219, 7) , 
8); Perf. iaaufua (§ 223, 14)*, Plup. from ^iBofjuu cornea xtpMiaofuu. 
^ffiuniv ; second Aor. Mid. ivvvymiv^ ^p^% to entry, i^frrt £p. instead of 
etc. h 227, A (e)]; Aor. Paas. 4<r<rv- ^pcrt (§ 229); ion. and £p. forma 
^¥ Soph., i^tfrv^r Uom. — On the are : Aor. ffrciira, /v6?«cai, etc., ittftutd- 
£p. tf-cDroi, <rovrai, etc, see ^ 229. fuii^ ; Perf. iif^ptiyfuu ; Aor. F 

ricl8ya/buu, to ccotter, £p. secondary form ^ytix^nt^i — £p* second Aor. Imp. 

of iric<8c(yyv/uai, only Pres. and Impf. itat. Inf. otatfitw (§ 223, 10); first 

TTtpiv, to rob^ first Aor. Inf. m^picai Aor. iuf^ffcu, Uorod. 1, 157 (comp. 

Ep. instead of 0-re^0-ai. ' 6, 66. Avciid^of instead of oik^otm ). 

rruyccv, tofear^ to hate, £p. second Aor. ^iym^ to fiee, £p. Tt^vyfUroi, e$capem 

tirrvyo¥\ first Aor.i<rrii|a, Trans., to (f 223, 14). 

make fearful. ^Jum^ to come be/brty antidpaie, £pie 

TAra, £pic second Aor. rwr^y^f ^^^ros [^ 227, A (n)]. 

seizing. ^c(/n0, to datrwf, Ion. Fuu lta^l^npl»$i^m 

TAAAXl, to endure, £p. Aor. irAXaara, instead of ^Siufrfyroftat \ Aor. 9tafSk^ 

Subj. raX<£0-o'«; second Aor. IrAiyi^ <rai (^ 223, 6). 

(^ 191, 4); Perf. rirXiiica, r^rKa^iutp ^hfw, to. vanish, and ifip. ^tw, to eon- 

(^ 228), Fut. rKtiffOfjuu, sttme, and sometimes to vamsh, perish 

ray6c» (poet.), to stretch, £p. rib^ai (Ep. first Pers. long), Fat. ^i»f. 

(4 229). Aor. i4>^Itra] Mid. to perish. Fat 

rapdairot, to disturb, Ep. second Perf. ^i&oftat ; Perf. Iffp^Xpuu ; Plup. 4^^ 

r4rfnixa, I am disturbed. fup^; Ep. Aor. i^iftniv^ etc [^237, 

TEMXl, to reacA, overtake, Ep. Aor. ^rr- A (c)| ; Ep. Aor. Pass, third Pers. PI. 

fiov (^ 219, 7). . iar44^i^0, 
r4fnrw,todeligla,'Ep»h'dp^^nyyird(nn}y,^t\*t0, to love, Ep. Aor. i^ikifinif {pi 

^pdmiif, Subj. first Pers. PI. rpawtio' Kenrrai^ ^7Kcu), 

pM¥ j second Aor. Mid. irpaw^fiTiP and ppdC<0, tc speak, Ep. Aor. w4ppaBom 

r€Tafnr6iAfiv (^ 219, 7). (^ 219, 7). 

Tt6x» (poet.), to make ready, to obtain, p^pw, to knead, in prose, forms its tense* 

Fut. rc^cv ; Aor. Ircu^o, Perf. Ep. from ^vpdu, e. g. ^vpiaot, etc, Aor 

rrrcvx^&'t having cUained; Fat. Mid. Past, i^wpd^^. Plat. Theaet. 147, c 

rc6(o/iflu; Aor. Mid. r(6|«urdiu ; Perf. (bat ^^fidi|i', Aesch. Ag. 714); jrec 

rhvyfuu (^ 223, 14), third Pers. Pi. Pcr£ wipvpfuu, and in Aristoph. rc- 

Ep. TCTf ^x^'''^) I*^f- TCT^X'^ } Plup. ^t^po^Mu ; Fat Perf. vc^vp<rc4rd«i 

^Trr^/iijv, third Pers. PI. Ep. ^rrc^ Pind., Epic and poet. 4»6peu, etc 

Xoro; Aor. Pass. Wx^" J t'ut- Perf. (§ 223, 6). 

Tcr(<i(ofuu ; — Ep. second Aor. tctv- ^^w, to produce, Perf. iti^Mt, Ep. third 

icecf', Tcrviroin'o, rrr vKcV^ou (4 219, 7). Pers. PI. vc^iWi, Part, vc^vwtm, 

TIEn, Ep. Perf. Act. Tcni^c^f, -<(tos, tc^uvm (^ 223, 13); Impf. Ep. heS- 

anxious, and Perf. Mid. / am anxious, i^vicop, 

second Pers. Dual TCTfi|<rdoy, Part X^(o/mu (Ep.), to retreat, yi'eU, Aor. Mid. 

rernifi^vos. MiciZovro {\ 219, 7); Aor. Act kcjco- 

rlvpvpm, Ep. secondary form of t/vo/acu, 8oy and Fut. irciraH^cv, Trans., to de- 

to punisn; in Att. poetry with one prive of, rob. 

V, rtmfftm (^ 185). X^P^i ^ rejoice, Ep. Fot xtxy^*'* 

Tfinyw, £p< secondary form of rtfiytt, K^xap^^ofuu ; first Aor. Mid. xip^^ 7 

to cut, first Aor. Tfi^^as ; Aor. Pass. second Aor. K^x^tTo, tctxapoiaro 

thii^ Pers. PI. T/ttiycK. (4 219, 7); icfxapi)<4» (§ 223, 13)* 

rp4^, to nourish, Ep. second Aor. Perf. KcxapM^)'^"! Ear.; Verb. Adj 

Ihpaipov, I nourished, Perf. rirpo<pa, X'f^^^* 

Intrans. ; Aor. Pilss. irpAn^y, third x^^^^ (£p-)t 'o hold, to contain, Aor 

Pers. PL rpdcptp. l^xoSoy ; Perf. with the sense of the 

#cUk«, to sAo2<;, Ep. ^auvtou, enligJUening ; Pros. Kix'^'^'t ^^^^' X*^^^!"'^ (comp 

Ep. Aor. Pass, iipaivbti^ ; Perf. Mid. (va^otf, ir*ltrofiai). 

or Pass, irtipcurfuu, tiiirl Pers. Sing, x*'*'* ^ l^^*" ^('^ I'^P-i ^^^^^' X<^ i -^^^^ 

r^^oKroi : Fut. ire^<ro/Aflu; second ^x**^? ^^^^"^ ^^^*- ■^^^' X'^^'* X^<*^ 

Aor. ^iffKW, 11. A. 64. Kos 1^ 227. A (cM. 

4 S31.] rORHATION OF WORDS. 28^ 



{231. Primitive words. — Stems. — Derivatives, 

1. Words are formed, (a) by deriyation, and (b) by composition, in accord- 
aace with certain laws. 

S. Those words, ftom which other words are der ved, but which are them* 
•eWes underiTed, are called primiiivea (vocabala pnmitiva). Primitive words 
are either verbs (which constitute the greater part), substantives, adjectives, or 
fMonoons. A primitiye has two parts, the root and the inflection-ending, e. g. 
Tp^^-m^ ypda^f ^p'-m, X^t^^, XU^-ot ; miX-ir ; it»r4» 

3. The roots, i. e. the forms which remain, after the rejection of the inflection- 
endings, are all monosyllabic. Still, the roots do not always appear pure in 
the primitives, but often with a strengthened form, e. g. diCic f-«, /K-y^/iai, 
a&|-(£y-«9, Tv(7)x-<ii^«» kK'taic-ofuay vt'irpd'triccg, Comp. 4§ 139, and 157, 1 
Yet these strengthened forms extend only to the Pres. and Impf. 

4. Words which are derived (vocabnla derivaia) from primitive words, are: — 

(a) Either Stems, i. e. such words as are formed from primitives by merely 
assuming another inflection-ending, which is without any special signification. 
To these indefinite endings belong several of the third Dec, e. g. the gender- 
sign s {6 7^, 1^ &^, ri fih^t V ^^H* V vad-if 6 ri fiov-s, 6 ^ frcu-s, instead of xcu^s ; 
in many words the s is omitted, see § 52, 1) } the endings -i t (^ awdyis, uxmtj 
^ iKw'ls)^ and -vs {6 ordx-vst 4 Itrx'^s) \ also the endings of the first and sec- 
<md declensions, e. g. -i), •«, -os, -oy (Wjc-ij, X^ij, pii-a^ wKovr-os, t^-ot, ^-ov) ; 
finally, several adjective-endings, c. g. -of, -iy, -or {^(\h>Sj ^, -«y), -^s, -cm, -i 
{yXvH'^Sy -c<a, -^), etc. ; 

(b) or Derivatives, i. e. such words as are formed either from primitives, 
or tcom stems, by assuming a special derivation-syllable with a special ^ sig- 
nification, e. g. xfv^'^f ^ make golden^ togiJd; pi^vpj orator; Tpo^ue^T, dciUea 
.'n painting. 

5. The root is often lengthened in dcri\%tion (f 16, 3), e. g. X^-iy (lYom 
^'><^c<i')i X^y (from xw^c^") ; or it takes the variable vowel (§16* G)) ^- g- '^p^^ 
«», rpo^t Tpo^'6st rp6<p-tfios, rpa^p6s» A strengthening consonant (^ 139, 
1, and 157, scq.) may also be added; or the final consonant A be doubled, e. g. 
a^AAof from Ka\6s ; some stems also take a reduplication, e. g. ^ir-onr-^, ^8-«8-^ 
Ay-or/-^;, ISi-av^os (from 2E«-A, comp. co^s). Other changes also may be 
made in the root, as has been shown in ^ 16. 

6. The change of c into o (seldom into a) and of ci into oi (4 16, 6} requires 

' By comparing the examples under (a) and (b), it will be seen that the 
InrminationS of the former are not sigmficant^ while those of the latter are. 


special attention. It occurs, (a) in Oxytones of tho first Dec. in ^ and d of 
more than one syllable, e. g. rpo^^ nourishment (from rp/^-«) ; /torW}, a remain^ 
ing (from fi^y-u) ; ^p'd, a carrying (from ^^p-ct) \ iAot^, talce (from &X<(^ 
^j- — (b) in dissyllabic Barytones of the second Dec, which denote what i» 
done, or the result of an action, e. g. \dyos, word (from \4y-w) ] ^>6¥-o$, nutrder 
(from ♦EN-n, comp. Irr^y) j r^/ios, a law (from y^/A-«); — (c) in dissyllabic 
Oxytones of the second Dec in -fUsf and in dissyllabic oxytone adjectircs of the 
second Dec. in -Ss, which, for the most part, denote an active object and often have 
a substantive meaning, e. g. vKtX'fds, plait of hair (from irX^it-«») ; aroK-fsSs, 
jarmenA (from or^^X-w) ; irofiir'Ssf attendant (from Wfiv-«) ; vo^s, wi$e (from 
ZE^-a, 9apio)\ rpo^s, nourishing, nourisher (from rp4^-m) ]^» (d) in monosyl- 
iabic substantives of the third Dec, e. g. ^x^, flame (from fX^y-i*) ; S^pl, 
antdope (from i4pK-ofuu)] — (c) in oxyto?e substantives in -c^s and adjectiyes 
in -ds, which, however, have sometimes a substantive sense, e. g. rpo^-e^f, homt^ 
isher (from rp4^v) ; ovqp^, aea t lend (ftom mnp^Ttf) ; AothU, oAomh (ftma 
kfyu) ; Zpoft-dsy running (from APEM-O, comp. tpflyi-ciy); — (f ) in all derivatiTCS 
of the forms mentioned, c g. in substantives in -oftot, adjectires in h/ms, Terbs 
in -du, '4», -dm, -c^, -((Wf e. g. irA^tM^iot; Tp6^faos\ ^dM^lv (from fd^'^^t), 
8wfi-^ (from S^/A-ot, and this from 94fi't»)y etc 

Remabx. The change of c into a (comp. f 16, 6) is found only in a few old 
poetic derivatives, e. g. rpaip-tpds. 

Rem. 3. Words derived from verbs are called verinb; those derived fimm 
Hubstantives or adjectives, denominatives. 

A. Dbbiyation. 

i 232. L FcrS*. 

1. All derivative verbs end in -dm, •/«», -f«», -^w, -^w, -c^«», -<(C^» -^f*t 
^C^> '^C^ j -o^yw, -^I'M, -aipcfj 'tlptt. All these verbs must be considered 
as denominatives ; for though the stem-substantive for several verbs of this 
kind is not in use. yet the analogy of the other verbs requires that a substan- 
tive should be assumed as the stem of these also. Many of these derivative 
verbs, especially many in -im and -iw, supply the place of obsolete primitives, 
e. g. ^lA^, riftdu. — On the formation and signification of derivative verbs the 
following points are to be noted : — 

(a) Verbs in -dtv and -dlCw, which are mostly derived from substantives of 
the first Dec, and those in -i(w which are derived from substantives and 
adjectives of all declensions, are partly .transitive, partly intransitive, since 
they denote either a condition or tho exercise of agency or activity, e. g. roA^iii*, 
to he bold, from r^A/xa, boldness; xo^dn, to be angry, from x^^4» 9^* yedm^ Is 
weep, from ySos ; 8i«rc(^w, to judge, from ZIkii ; t\7ti(ia, to hope^ from 4\iris ; h^Cm^ 
(o limit, from tpos; eurifu, to beg, from oXrris, beggar; sometimes those in 'dm 
denote fulness, abundance, e. g. xo^doo, to be full of bile, Itaue much bile. — Verbs 
in-d{» and -ICv formed from proper names, express the effort to resemble 
singly individuals or whole nations, in custom, nature, language, sentimcnv 


Such verbs are called Imitative vesha, e. g. 9ttpi4(uj to be a Dorian^ i. e. to jpeoft 
9r think aa a Dorian, Ampuls ; iWifylCu^ to personate the custom or language of a 
Greek, to be a Greek in custom, etc. j iitfiiiu, to be a Mede in sentiment, 

Bbmask 1. Verbs in -i(v often signify to make something into that which 
tha root denoles. See (c). 

Sem. 2. Verba in -iC^ and -^ are very rare, e. g. ift*S(mi toJU ; kp/w^C*^ to 
ereep,^'Bj the ending •d^os also, verbs are formed, whien denote the repetition 
or strengthening of uie idea expressed by the simple verb ; these are called 
lYeqnentatiye and Intensive TeriM, e. g. ftwrdfu^ to throw to and fro, jacto^ from 
^tmrmyjado; rrcp^«, to sigh much and dupUf^ from ot^mv, to sip& ; ciic^^w, properly, 
to liken again and again^ to compare on all sides ; hence to tn/er, conjecture, 

(b) Verbs in -itt and -c^w are derived from substantives and adjectives of 
all declensions, and commonly express the intransitiife idea of the primitive, for 
the most part, the being in a condition, or the exercise of agency, the practising of 
that ifbich is signified by the primitive ; bnt they are sometimes transitive also. 
When the stem ends in -cs, iidiich is the case, e. g. in adjectives in -i}r, -es, the 
ex is omitted, and when it ends in -«v, the ev is omitted before the ending -c^, 

»e. g. ^lAitf, to be a friend, to hoe, from ^iXos, hrvx^^ to be tmfbrtunate, from 
iervxhf (stem irvx^s), §b9tufu>r4w, to be prosperous, from t^iatftmf (stem eNkufioy), 
kyope^, to speak in public, from kyopd, market, Koafi4of, to adorn, from kSc/aos, 
BoffiXeSctf to be a king, from fiairiktis, 

(c) Verbs in -^«, which are mostly derived from substantives and adjectives 
of the second Dec, those in-aiy», which are commonly derived from adjec- 
tives, more rarely from substantives, and those in -^ir«, from adjectives only, 
generally denote the making or transforming something into that tohich the primitive 
word signifies; in like manner several in -(^00, see Rem. 1, e. g. xpvo*^) ^ 
make golden, to gild, from xp*^^h 9nk699, to make evident, from ZtiKos, &ywi(u, to 
malx pure, from a.yy6s, wTiovrtCat, to make rich, to enrich, from wKovros, koiXo^kv, 
to make hoBow, from iroiXos, XcvkoTiw, to make white, from ktvK6s, fiaptvtsy to 
burden, from fiapis, 

Bem. 3. From the Fut. of several verbs, are formed verbs in -0-c(«, which 
denote a desire for that which the primitive word signifies ; these are called 
Desiderative verbs, e. g. y^Keurflv, to desire to laugh, from ytxdu, to laugh, iroAc 
paiaein, to desire to engage in war, from iroA'cjuf («, wapaSt^tim, to be inclined to sur- 
render. There are also other Desideratives in -a«» and 'iam^ e. g. darar^, to 
unsh to die, fuAriridu, to tvish to become a disciple. 

Hem. 4. Some verbs in -okw have an inceptive sense (beginning to be), and are 
called Inceptive or Inchoative verbs, e. g. ynpdffKw, to begin to be old, to grow old; 
yereiicTfcw, to begin to have a beard ; i^fiJurnmy pubesoo. 

k 233. II. Substantives, 

Substantives are derived : — 
1 From verbs and substantives, and express — 
a. A concrete idea, i. e. the idea of an active person (concrete nouns) : 
(a) With the endings 'tis (Gen. -^ms) for the Masc, -ciaor -^cro-a for tho 
Fern.; -rijj [-irni, -irris, -itris, -^nft] (Qen. -ou) (mostly Paroxytones), -t^^ 
and -T«p (Faroxy tones) for the Masc, -roid (Froparoxytones), -rpii, -ns, 


288 FORMATION OF W0KD8. [i 233l 

and -It (Gen. -i8or), 'Ttipd (Froparoxytone) for the Fem. ; -«ir for the Mi 
• aiy& for the Fem.; -cts for the Masc^ ^mls and -wtyi} for the Fent, e. gv 
Ic/Mvf , pn'est, Fem. Uptut, from l€p6s] abkifr^t and -^ptflute-pk^ery^eautAx^ 
rpia, aitKirrpist from aiAcw; aurfip^ deliverer^ tr^tipa^ from cri6^«i voX/nfs, 
citizen^ voXtrtf , from vtiAir ; ^^a>p, ora/or, from *P£-a ; ^pdirttw^ aenxmt^ 3cp^ 
voiwK, from ;^^pa!f> ; oMrriSj a slave, from olicof ; S^fi^T, oii€ of iMe peopitf from 
{^/ws ; ^Xirris, a Jioplite, from hXov ; arpart^hiiSf a soldier, from crpartd, 

(/3) With the ending -^i (Gen. -oG), seldom, and onlj from verbs with the 
variable vowel [\ 231, 6 (c)], e. g. irofifr6s, attendant, from irdfivm j 6 v rpo^s, 
nourisher, nurse, from rpc^ ; ipuy6s, an ally, from ^ip^TOf. 

h. Thej express the abstract idea of action, L e. action or enei^ apart frona 
the person who manifests it. These ore abstract noons : — 

(a) From verbs : 

(a) with the endings -cis (Gen. -v^ms) and (more seldom) -o-to, substantivea 
which denote the transitive or active idea of the verb, e. g. vpa^is, actio, an actings 
from wpdrrot ; woinais, a making, from iroi4c9 ; ZoKifusrUi, a proving, from. loxtftdCm ; 

(/3) with the ending -1165 (Gen. -oG), such as denote the intransitive idea of 
the verb, e. g. i^upftAsf weeping, from Mpofuu ; 

(7) with the ending -/a a, such as denote the effect or result of the transitive 
action of the verb, e. g. irpSyfio, something done, ftyrifuif numumentum, iroliiftat^ CA« 
thing made or done ; 

(8) with the endings -firi, -ij, -a (all for the most part Oxytones), and (from 
verbs in -c^os), -cfa, such as denote sometimes a transitive relation, and some 
times the effect of that relation, e. g. rofifi, a cutting, from W/aw ; ioiS^^ *>n^ 
from &cf8«, ^opd, destruction; ircuScto, education ; 

(c) with the endings -or (Gen. -ov), -ros (Gen. -rov) and -os (Gen. -ovs) 
snch as denote, generally, an intransitive relation, also a transitive, and partly 
the effect of the action of the verb, e. g. \iyos, uxmi, from \4ym \ Kwcvris, 
lamentation ; rh tc^Zos, care. * 

(b) From adjectives (and substantives, which are sometimes used in an 
attributive sense) : — 

(a) with the endings -la, from adjectives in -os, and some in the third I>ec., 
e. g. iroipta, wisdom (from v^s) ; cdfioi/ioyfo, happiness (from Mtdtimv^ GSen. 
-ovos) ; 

(iS) -la (Froparoxy tones) from adjectives in -ij; and -ovs, whose stem ends in 
c and 0, with which the 1 of the ending coalesces and forms c< and 01 (thns -cat, 
-Ota), e. g. &\^cia, truth (from kkril^Si Gen. -i-os), ^tvouL, benevolence (from 
tCyo-os, fCyovf) ; 

{y)'dyil mostly from adjectives in -«y (Gen. -oyos) and -os, e. g. ^'v^yw- 
ff^yi^, modesty (from <r<&<pptty. Gen. -oiMts) ; 9iKtuo-<riy7i, justice (from ZiKoMs) ; 

(B) -rifs. Gen. -n^ros (commonly Faroxy tones) from adjectives in -os and 

* Nouns derived from the first Pers. Pcrf Pass, denote the result of the action 
of the verb, e. g. (f^/ni.uoi), evpif/io, the thing found, the discovery ; those from tho 
second Pers., the abstract act, e. g. (cff/njo-cu), tSptirts, the act of finding; thosa 
from tho third Pers., the agent or doer, e. g. (c0/n}Tai), cdpcr^f, the discoverer. 


e. g. la-inis, Qen. '6rirrot, equality (from Xtrot) ; irax^S) thicknem (from 

(ff) -or. Gen. -c«s s= .«vs, from adjectives in -vs and -171, and rach as have 
the forms of comparison in -fa»r and -wrot, e. g. rdxot, r6, Gen. rdCxovf , sm^ 
nor (from rax^r)) i^i^s, t^» Gen. -wij/aUikood (from i^cv^t), alSyxo'f "r^ 
kvoies (from olfxp^s, curx^apr) ; 

(0*<(^-^'«' (only in abstract nnmeral snbstantires) e. g. i^ /mmUj «m(y ; 
Msf duality; rptdsj a triad, 

Rexakk 1. In abstracts in -rlo, which express both a transitive and intran- 
sitiTe relation, from oomponnds in -^os and -rift (Gen. 'ov)^ the r is commonly 
changed into ^, e. g. AdA«od«rk and -r^a (&^A«d^rtf ), Jid«Mw(a (4aMb«ros), iucw 
bapaia, ^ufike^lot etc So also with adjectives in -us, e. g. Mt\^u>s (MUirrof ), 
inaictas {4»iain6s). Comp. 44 17, 6, and 234, Rem. 2. 

Rem. 2. The older Attic poetry sometimes makes the a long in the endings 
-cid and -Old, e. g. AnuSc^d, wporota, 

2. From substantives alone, tlic following "losses denoting the names of 
persons and things, are derived : — 

(a) Gentile nonns, i. c. the names of persons derived from their country, in 
-«^f (Fem. -ij, -(Sof), 'irns (Fem. -rru), -^-nyj (Fem. -Srij), -frrtit, -^sriis^ e. g. 
hmpuis (a Dorian^ one from Doris), ^npis, 'Zvfiapl'Tus, -rrif, ImafTi&nis, *Axyu4t 
T19T, *Hir€ip^f. Comp. § 234, 3 (g), etc. 

(b) Patronymics, L e. the names of persons derived from their ancestors, with 
the endings 'iZnt (Fem. -is. Gen. -iZos) \ also -itins^ ; but substantives of the 
first Dec. in -qs and •«, and many of the second and third Dec. whose stem 
ends in 1, and some others, have -i8i}s (Fem. -Jis, Gen. -Jiios) ; these endings are 
appended to the stem, and where the stem ends in c, this c and 1 of the ending 
-«8i|i combine and form a diphthong, as in ni|Ac(8i|f, e. g. Tlprntk-ilns, Fem. npu^-is 
from Ufiaik'n, nifXc/9i|T from IIiiAc^f , Gen. ni}A^-cof, Kutpowl^s from KcVpo^, 
Gen. •oT'Of , Uup^oihts from n^;^oo5, -ovs \ TtXafunfidhis from TcAo^i', AiVci- 
his from aWsu , 9€flrru£8i}i, Fem. Sttm-ds from B4<mos, 

(c) Diminutives (frequently with the accompanying idea of contempt) with 
the endings -toy which is the most usual, -Ip toy [-do'ioy] (seldom) and soma 
few with the endings -^AAioy, -vAAfs, •^8f>ioy, -6^ioy {-4/pioy) (which 
belong mostly to the language of the common people and to comedy) ;— - - (s 

(Gen. '(Bot and -iBot), -tiior (formed from -(r); (o'ices, -Iokii {Iokw^, 

iywnt '^X^^^h iSe^s (but only of the young of animals), e. %,iuipdKtop, youth, 

\rx)m. imT^j Huc-ot, vatZ-ioy, a littU child, from wcus, 'wmi-6s ; — wat^-dptof \ 'dot op 
Instead of -dpioy only in Kopdatoy (from icJpa, young uwnan) on account of the 
vreseding p-, futpaic-iWioy, iitcay^-vWis from lUoi^a, thorn, rno-vipioy, islet;- 
(mt^-^v, Utile anitnal; xp*'^'^^^ from xp^*^^\ — vuwt-Zs, little taldety from 
T£ra|; ofuiC^'t ^^^ wagon; nio-l9i0¥, islet, from yrjoos', icpt6Ztov (instead of 
-^dioy) from Kpdas, oixtSioy (instead of ohei-iSioy) from ohcia ; — ytwl-OKOs, year(> 
r«iy from vcoyks; -fo-nctoy seldom, e. g. KorvXioKiov from Kor^Ai}; -^X^^Vi 

* This form is used, when the syllable preceding the Patronymic ending is 
long, otherwise tlie word wonld not be adapted to hexameter verso, since one 
short syllabic would stand between two long syllables ; thus, ni^A^fftff. 


'Ixyioyovlj in iro^/x^t voXix^iw from v6?iUy tcvA^x'^f HitXix^">p from kwA^; 
— Xoy-iSc^x, youn^ Aare^ from KeeyAs ] Arr-tSc^y, youn^ tti^^t from &cT^f . 

(d) Designations of place, with the endings -ipy (in connection with tbe 
preceding Toweis -aioy, -cmit, -^f) and •cioy, which denote the abode of th« 
person designated by the primitive word, or a place consecrated to a diirinlty 
or hero ; -i6y (Gen. -iiyos)^ seldom -c^i^, and -ttpid^ which denote the resideooe 
of persons or a place filled with plants, e. g. if/ynrr^ioy, workshop^ from ipyrn^ 
rfip, and so others in -^ptoy from -r^p or -rris] sometimes also this ending is 
nsed with reference to yessels, e. g. nr^pioyf drinking vessd; tcoupMy^ bari>er*M 
ihop, from Kwpt^^ -4-^$ (several in -toif [t <oy] have another signification, e. 0. 
rpo^Toy^ wages of a mtne^ from rpo^t^) ; etitf-ccby from ei^c^, •^-««t,'*AJ)i|paMr« 
MoiMTcioy; — ia^p^y and yvycuKt&y, apartments fir men and women; hnrAyy wtabit 
fir hones; ^o9d&tr and peiuytdf bed of roses; w^ptartptAy and wtpiwrtp^^ dove- 

(e) Sabstantiyes which denote an instrument or a means of accomplishing 
some object, with the endings -rpoy and -rpo, e. g {^<rrpa, curnf-comb; 3.dac> 
Tpoy, tuition-money; kovrpoy, vxUer fifr washing; Xovrpov^ bath; also to designate 
place, e. g. bpxhfrrpa, dancing-room^ instead of the ending 'r4ipioy. 

$ 234. III. Adjectives. 

1. From verbs arc derived adjectives with the following endings:— 

(a) With the ending -or, which is annexed to the stem of tiie verb. These 
\ adjectives express the transitive, intransitive, or passive idea of the veib from 

which they are derived, e. g. ^av6s, brillicmt, from ^ya»; XoiWr, the remainder ^ 
the verb-stem of many is not in use, e. g. icoic^f. 

(b) With the endings -ik6s, -^, -6y, and -ift.or, -oy, -i/tos, -if, -of of 
-o'lfAoSf -oy^ which denote ability, fitness^ aptness. Of these, those in -uc^t have 
a transitive signification, those in -ipjos both a transitive and passive, e. )^. 
ypa/p'uc6st Jit or able to paint ; rp6<p-tfA05, nutritive ; Id-trifAOt, cwrdtie. 

(c) A few with the ending -y6ti -4\, -6y with an intransitive or passive 
signification, e. g. 94i-y6st frightful (AEIA), ff€/i-y6t, honored^ ItonoraUe {a^fiofuu)^ 
arvy-y6s, hated, hateful (TTTTn), vo^ttvds (toI^^w), desired. 

(d) A few with the ending -a^j with a transitive signification, -taXis, -^, 
'6y and (from verbs in -dm) ->}A^s, -^, -6y with a transitive and intransitive 
signification, e. g. ttt-xSs, timid; ixway-Kos (instead of itcrKaykSs from ^jnrA^- 
vm)^ frightful ; ^€i8-wA^r» sparing ; a-iyriKSs, silent ; duraTtiXds, deceitful, 

(e) AVith the ending -&p6s, -d, -6y (from verbs in -du and -albw) with an 
Intransitive signification, e. g. xoAApiif , slad: ; fu&p6s, stained; also in ^^^oMp^r, 
envious; yoayip6sf diseased ; olierpSsj pitiable. 

(f) With the ending -ficty, -fioy (Gen. -oyos) with an intransitive significa- 
tion, e. g. iiyfi-fuay, mindful, mentor (MNAH), yo^fuay, intelligent {yo4w). 

(g) With the ending -iy y, -cf (Gen. -90s), e. g. vK^ipfis, plenus. 

(h) With the ending -ds (Gen. -dZos) with a transitive, intransitive, or pas* 
five signification, e. g. ipop-ds, bearing {^4p») ; IpopAs^ running (APEMfi) ; Kv^, 
chosen {\4yi). 


(i) With the endings -rrff, -t^, ^riv^ and 'tiot^ -ria, -r/oy (verbal 
fidjectiTes) ; those in -r^ s denote either a completed action like the Peif. Pass. 
Part, e. g. Atur-r^ff (from \4ym)^ dkba; or the idea of possibility » Engliiih 
Mimination -6/e, which is their nsnal signification, e. g. 6pa-r6st capable of beinj^ 
seen, visible. In their formation, most of these follow either an existing or an 



/SouActHT^r, -r/ot 















TAcir-T^f , -r^of 







Tcfr-** (TA-n) 



Zi-^m-fu (AO-n) 


8o-T<Jf , -T^Of. 

Bexask 1. Very many Tcrbal adjectives, however, follow the analogy of 
other forms of the verb, not according to any definite rule, but take precisely 
such a form as snited the ear of the Greeks. Thus, for example, a considerable 
number followed the form of the first Aor. Pass., e. g. ojp^, ]fp4'&ri¥, alpt-T^f i 
TB^, i-^nviHr-^riVf wavtr^dSj -tIoj: xP^'^f^^t ^•XP^"*'"«^*'» J(fi'fl^-T6s^ -r^osj 
9Tp4ifi^, l-<rrpi^r^v, orptv-r6s ; rplwHOj i^p4^br\Vy rpntTios ; rpd^tt, i'^p4^ 
^qr, S^ptT'^4os\ l-imffUf ^(rrdl-di^y, ara-ris^ 'r4os] 4vcuy4'V, 4ir0¥4-^v^ imurt' 
r^y:—- some the form of the second Aor. Act., e. g. Ix^* ^-^x^^^^^ <rxc-T^f ; 
jiptrnt ct\ff-r0ir, 4\9^6s \ l^/u, i-^ov (commonly tLXrov)^ &^«-T^05y 4y-^-r4s\ riSht 
ju, f-de-Toy, ^t-r6s, -t4o$] — some the form of the Pres. Act., c. g. fjL4yao, fitv 
rrovj Iitv9-^6sy ^4os\ ^tiu^X-rov^ l^4os\ so kw-t^x*^^^ from *ETXE-TON (e(?x« 
fMm) \ ivwoftSf l9^afMm) ] ^n/jU, ^ttr6y, ^ttr6s. 

2. Adjectives are formed from substantives and adjectives : — 
By the ending -tof (in connection with the preceding vowel of the stem 
-mtos, -«cot, 'OtoSf •^ot, 'vws) and 'Ik4s (which, when v precedes, becomes -k^i 
and when i, often -oir^s). These adjectives have a very great variety of mean 
ings. They frequently indicate the mode or manner of the adjective idea, 
often also in a very general manner, that which proceeds from an object and is 
connected with it or related to it, c. g. obpdytoSf heavenly, pertaining to heaven ; 
Ko^dp'toSf deanlif (but Ko^upSs, clean) \ 4\tv^4ptoSf frank^ liberal, liberalis (but 
4X€{f^tpoSf liber) *, iyopeuos, belonging to the market-place (iyopd) ; d4ptioSt summer- 
Uke {b4poSf -fos), alboTos (aI8»s, -4-os), iipfos and rip&os\ Tpirrfixvtos \ SovAur^rj 
^}iVK6s, fiayiaK6s. 

Rem. S. In some words the ending -ahs also -taSot occors, e. g. xs^aSvty 
WKormn and vKtmaios, In several words the ending -cws (^ 17, 6) is used in- 
stead of -T-tos, e. g. ^(Aor^<rtos (^lA^nys, -tjros), iKoittrios (4icdiy, -Jrroi). 

8. Adjectives are formed from substantives alone : — 

(a) With the ending -c tot (mostly Paroxytones), which are formed from 
words denoting persons, especially from proper names \ but in respect to their 
signification they are like adjectives in •w^r, e. g. Mf>cZ»r» bdongintj to a mau, 

i>/jf, TVMUJceibs, iu^^p^etosj 'O/i-fiptios, 

292 FORMATION OF WORDS. [i 2^^. 

(b) With the endings -c«fs-ovs and -trof, which denote the 
of which anything is made, kke the English ending -en, e. g. xp^'*^ 
^•Sst oolden ; x^^cos ^ x"^^^* brazen ; ^vKiv^t^ wooden ; <rici»Tu«i, wadt of 
leaiher. leathern, 

(c) With the ending -iwSt (seldom -ir^f ), derived from substantives The8« 
express certain relations of time ; sometimes, also, an abondance or fulnesa, 
e. g. iov€p'i¥6s, vespertinus; x^«''*u^f» keatemus; ip€w6st nunmtainous (SpoSf Geo. 

(d) With the endings -cit, Gen. -cvras (always preceded by a vowel, w 
when the substantive from which the Adj. is formed, is of the first Dec, and •, 
when it is the first or second); 'p6s, -tpSsp 'iip6s, -dX^os, which denoto 
fnlness or abundance- e. g. dx^-cts, wood^f ; wvp6-€is, fiery ; tiffxf^** ^^'^ » "^^ 
tp6sy and yoff-rip6s, unhealthy ; ^»n-a\4ost strong. Exceptions to those in •cis, 
are 9€v9p^tis from idv^poy, x"P^*<' from x^"* 

(e) With the ending --^piot, which have the transitive sense of verbal sub- 
stantives in -IIP and -iis, e. g. auT'fiptos, preserving, that preserves. 

(f) With the ending -168 i|r, Ncut. -wdcx (formed from -o-ftSi^s from cZSor, 
form, quality). These adjectives denote a quality or resemblance, but oftca 
also a fulness or abundance, e. g. ^Xoyt^r, resembling Jlamejjiery ; w prtt dy , 
abounding in grass, grassy. 

(g) With the endings -lof (Fcm. -i&), -ic^s, -ikSs (Pcm. -«c^, -orij), -ify^s 
(Fem. -1}!^), and when 1 or p precedes, •ar6s (Fem. -ayi), -tpos (Fem. -tifn) ; 
these are Gentile adjectives, which ace also frequently used as snbstantivesi 
particularly those in i^v^f, -drtft, -?iw, which are formed only from names 
of cities and countries out of Greece, e. g. Koply^ios, -/a, 'A^Muas, -«Ja, Xioa 
(instead of -Uos from X/05), 'Apyttos (from "Ap-^s, -c-oj) ; AoKt^atfuu^-ucSs ; Kv^oe- 
ny6si -Tirfi (K6(iK0s)i :iapii-ay6s, -arli {^dp9€is. Ion. Gen. -l-wf), * A y K vpt u 4t 
{*AyKupa), Tapayr-iyos, 'Ivn (Ttlpos, -cw^-of ). 

J 235. IV. Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs are formed from verbs : — 

With the endings -Iriy or, when the primitive has the vanable 0, -dCSiiy, 
which denote mode or manner, e. g. Kpifihiy, secretly (Kp^wrw) ; ypdfi-9iiyy by 
writing, scribendo {ypd/pv) ; (nrof>-i£8i|v, scatteredly, sparsim. 

2. From verbs and substantives : — 

With the ending '96y or •a96y,-ri96v (mostly from substantives). These 
also denote manner, or, when derived from substantives, the external firm, e. g. 
h i mtp aM v^ openly, aperte; tuucpMy^ distinctly; fiorpMy, grapoMhe, in dusters 
(fiirpvs), lXai6v, in troops, catervatim; iytXtibSr, in herds, gregatim; tcmnfiim, 
like a dog. 

3. From substantives, pronouns, and adverbs, adverbs are formed to denote the 
three relations of place, viz., whence, whither, and where, by the endings -d^ci^, -St 
{'fr9)i and -1^ 1, e. g. ovpatf6-^y,from heaven ; obpat^y-^e, into or to heaven, ovpeay6' 
3i, in heaven ; iKKo^v,Jrom another place, aliunde, 6x\o-^t, to another place, alio^ 
JUxo-i^i, at another place, alibi. — Rules in respect to the accent of those i& ^^ 


ttnd -^: (a) Dissyllables are either Paioxytones or Fropeiispomena, o. g. 
wp4^^€P^ yii^af, aSdi; (b) poiysyllaUes are Paroxjtoiies, when the penult is 
short bj natore, e. g. A^fi6dtp from Adafiost Kvwp6&9if from K^pos, oi/pay6^y^ 
mbpta^i^ from vkpta^s] exceptions : olxo^^cir, olic«d«, Mv^o&tp, it/M^i^ wdmo^tw^ 
MaxmAw^ Msrafttr, and some poetic words ; (c) polysyllables whose penolt ia 
long by position, an withoQt exception Proparoxy tones, e. g. hToa^9y, iwur^w ; 
<d) polysyllables whose penult is long by nature, are Proparoxytones, when the 
primitiTe was a Barytone, o. g: ^tA€lf {i(^), Irdpm^w (^cpot), ^A^rti^w 
{*Adnpai)'y but Properispomena, when the primitiTe was an Oxytone, e. g. 
ntSm&ww (ntM), Bpi^¥ (9p(^)- On the accent of those in -8c (-ire), see 4 34, 
Bern. 8. 

Kexask 1. Words of the first Dec. retain their a or t; before -;^«y; those 
of the second, their o ; and those of the third, the o of the Qen. ending, e. g. 
*OKufar(a^v, Xtrdfrnr^v, c/tKO-^w, A\Xo^€yj but the vowels a, i), and o are 
often exchanged with each other, e. g. pti6'^€» from piia\ Vityap6^€v from 

Rem. 2. Adrerbs in -«, and also others, append the endings to the un- 
changed TOwels, e. g. itm-^y, Dc^rwn^cy, l(«»-;^cy, iitu^yj iyyS^i, Mo^w, 
fw Be ^ Some forms of the comparative in Tcfwt lengthen o into », e. g. 
iipuf9r4pm-^9w. In some of the above forms, « can be shortened into o in poetry, 
and then rejected entirely, e. g. I^o-dcv, frp6a-^p (instead of ^w^^y, xp6aw^fy)f 
and in imitation of Doric usage, c is often omitted before ^, e. g. irAty^ Ikto- 
h€P (instead of Swia-I^Wf Ihtro&^y). 

Rem. 9. The ending -^t is commonly appended to substantives only, and to 
the nnchanged form of the Ace., e. g. jUaSc, to or into the $ea (Sxt), IlM^Adc (from 
nt<di6), oUMt only Epic, elsewhere dtmait (from the stem *OIE), as ^^yoSf (from 
♦TE) instead of ^vy^yftc which is not in use, *E\tv&7ydit), In pronouns and 
adverbs, -o'c is appended instead of -8c, e. g. ^icc7-<rc, &AA(Krc, ir^pwrt, o^Sc^a^c, 
TJiKiat ) more seldom in substantives, e. g. oUqa^. — In plural substantives in 
-asj o'Sc becomes C«« 6* g- *A^yaC*, ^0a(f ; but some substantives in the singu- 
lar, also, follow this analogy, e. g. *OXvfAir(aCc ; so the poetic adverbs, l^pa^c, 
to the doar^faroM^ ^/mi^c, ro^^c, to Me ground, humum (from the obsolete sub- 
stantives, Ipm x<W« ^T^- 

Rem. 4. Instead of -de or -o-c, the Epic dialect has '9 is also, e. g. xa^<f 
instead of x^^C^i AxXi^is instead of &AAo0'c, and oXkoBis^ domum. 

Rem. 5. Several pronominal forms with the usual suffix, have, between the 
stem and the suffix, the syllabic axi which is to be accounted for by the ending 
-wrif coming before the aspirated relative, e. g. iroAA-^X'^*'' (from iroKKdKts 
and Idcy), narr-ax-^* ] this occurs also in most pronominal adferbs of place 
in -^, -ov, -oif e. g. AAX-ax-oVi alibis iro\X-ox-ow, irayr-ax-rii roW-ax-Vi irco^-ax-o*. 


t. Every componnd consists of two words, one of which explains the other 
more definitely. The explanatory word nsually stands first, e. g. vav-fiaxio, 
^ea-Jightt as b usual in English in composite words. The word which is explained 
by the other, shows to what class of words the compound belongs, i. e. whether 
it is a snbstantive or verb, etc. ; thus, e. g. yav-imxia is a substantive, mv-fuexcrir 
a verb, yav/tAxos an adjective. 

REMARK 1. The explanatory word takes the second place in the compound 
imt seldom, and mostly in poetic words, e. g. 8ci0'i8a(^«y, i. e. itleras robs 8a^ 


2. Both words stand cither in an attribuHve relation to each other ( s=s a j 
tive qaalified bj an adjectiye or by another sabstantire in the Oen.), e. g. 
c|fa (« «ca«c^ t^ii^had condUUm) ; vKUtfpa/^ia (» VKtSa ypap^)^ painting inH^amd 
rhade; hnr^vpis (» fmrcv chpd)^ h0ne4ailed; or in an cbfecUve reUtion (^s a 
rerb, adjectiye, or substantaye with the Case of a snbstantiye in &e relation of 
an object, or with an adyerb in the same relation), e. g. hntvrfofw (» fnrw* 
Tp4^uf)j Inrorp^y; pauftaxf^ (i« e. wutrl /Uxtc^m), pmffidx<n, wm»imj^\ 
tfrrvxcTy, ^Invjcfis \ ityurrdtHU^ h/ArrttroSf iuMarturts, 

3. The yerb can be compounded with prepositiona only, e. g. Aso-, <«-, jb^i-, 
TfMt-j 4fi', dia-, mrra-, *apmry vpovfiti^uf \ comp. ^ 837, 5; the snbstantiye and 
adjectiye, either with sabstantiyes and adjectiyes, or with prepositions, or wiA 
separable and inseparable adyerbs and prefixes, e. g. o-os/ioro-^^Xa^, ^v-A^yos; 
wf pl-irrcuris, ttd'KwKot ] ^inrvxhsi hMdrtos ; the adyerb, with prepositions only, 
e. g. rtpi-irrai^t^. 

Rem. 2. All other compounds are formed by deriyation from words pr»- 
yionsly compounded, e. g. cjhtvx*''^ ^^^ cv*rvxc0s from €ihTvxhs, 

Rbm. 3. (a) Separable adyerbs are sncTk as are used alone, aa well as ia 
composition, e. g. c2, well; wK-fpf^ except ; iftn^ at the dame time ; &7X<t iiieaT; ifrn^ 
now, recently; irfur (&7a-), very; mUir, again; vcUou, long nnee; Us from d^ 
&f s, or the same as Sfxc^, (f is, separately ; vor, wholly ; ^rvx^Uf, c^i^^X^i promerouM $ 
wKrififAtkfis {irK'fiy, ficXos), violating harmony ; irAiy/tifccXcuf, vXtfi^Ajf<rit ; atnarp^- 
X^t to run together, ofiorpoxta j ayxi^rtivy to go near to ; ityx*^^JixaffVot^ mart 
propinquus; iipriSn^4\s, now blooming; &yaffSlwr^s,ivyd^oos,iydnn^s,veryMnowy; 
waXifi$\eurros^ that bade again; traXed^vros^ planted long since; 9tsxi^<»ai, two thot^ 
tand; Zi^^oyyos, having a double sound; w£^o^s, aU-wise. 

(b) Inseparable adyerbs arc such as arc used only in composition. They are 
9fi follows : — 

(a) iifit', half, semi, e. g. rifd^Xtxros, half-burned, semiustus. 

(fi) ivs' expresses difficulty, adyersity, or ayersion, and is often the antith 
esis of CO, e. g. 9vsTvx*ii' And cvrvxcTi', ivs9atpoyla, misfortune; 

(y) a Privative (usually dor- before a yowel) has the force of the Latin in, and 
expresses the negation of the idea contained in the simple word, e. g- 
Jiffo^Sy unwise; iiTifila, dishonor ; Arcus, childless ; iradrios, innocens, 

(8) a Collective and Intensive^ like the Latin am in com|)osition, expresses 00m 
munity, equality, or a collective idea, and hence also intensity, e. g. (commn 
nity, especially in the names of kindred and companions) iitK^s, brodter^ 
from 9ek^is, womb; (equality) iird\arros, of the same weigid ; iit€Zos,€cen; 
(in a collectiye sense) Mp6os, collected {^otw, hpiofuu, to cry cdoud), iaWlis^ 
collected (from hxt^s or &\^f ), i^y^ipv, irvtXri ; (intensity) arcW}r, intent, in- 
tentus ; iffKtos, very shady ; i^fMs, making a loud noise. 

Hem. 4. The Euphonic a (4 16, 10) must be distinguished from the Cb&o 
five a, e. g. ardxvs and iaraxvs, an ear of grain; irrfpoHi and iurrtpoiHi, Ugkbting. 

} 237. Formation of Compounds, 

I. When the first part of the compound is a yerb (4 236, Rem. 1), the pure 
(sometimes also the strengthened) stem of the yerb remains unchanged, if the 
fuUowing word begins with a rowel, c. q. ^(p-axry^s, Tti^-dpxf^y ] or the final 
vowels c, 0, 1, also the syllables <n, c<r, ttri, eo, are annexed to the stem of the 
yerb, if the following word begins with a consonant ; o- also is annexed whea 

i 237.] PonMATION OF COMPOUNDS. 296 

the fQUowing word begins with a rowel, e. g. Swc^^^/iof, Afr-o^^icnis and Act** 
#- f A l l i |t, rqnr-i-K/fwvPoy, iytp-fri'^Kmf, ^f>>^<r-/9Mff, rafi-^vi'XP^^i lAit-tr^-ircrAos, 


2. When tko first part of the compoond is a sahstantire or adjectire, the 
deelensjon-item of the snbstaQtiTO generalij remaioR onchanged, e. g. (first 
Dec) p u tit^6 f ^y iyopm-wSfiot ) (seeond Dec.) Xayo-yp^^poSf iv^futtpos (by Eli8ion)i 
moKovfjos (by Cimsis), Affyw/B^Aos (Xmy^s)] (third Dec.) &a«rv-rtf/Mf, ^v-X^f , 
fi9v^opfi6s, tmu-iunxiti] wp-^^pof, fukce^x^^^ ''^"^^tVP*' i i^ some, the union* 
Towel o is annexed to the stem, c. g. ff«/tar-o-^^A«{, fv^t-^xiyos^ 9f^vxos (by 
Cnuls, instead of SfS^x®') i ^^ neuters in •<», Gen. -c^^r, the c is elided before 
9, e^ g. |i^a-^^f, or the decknsion*8tom in -cs [f 51, (b)] is retained, e. g. 
rtA«ff-^4ptf ; so also in other neaters, e. g. K€p9ffi6K9t, ^ws-^4p0s, 

Remabk 1. In the first 'Dec, howeYcr, the onion-rowel o is often fonnd 
instead of the dedenMon-stem, e. g. tut-o-ypdi^ ('^)i ^^"TX^^P^'A ^ ^'^ 
the endinc -q or -a is annexed eren to words of the second and tnird Dec, e. g. 
^aanenfipooos, iunnhi^pos\ neuters in -os (Gen. -co^ Fl. -17) frequently rory 
between tne o and vi, e. g. ^i^o^pos and ^i^ij^por, ^xwo^pos and anwri^pos. 

BsM. S. In some words of the third Dec, more seldom of the fint and 
second, 1 is annexed to the pore stem, as a nnion-rowel, e. g. wpfvyovt, 017^1- 
$6ryis ; iivoratiiKas (fuwri^s), fivpliryovs. In sereral words a euphonic a (ffi) is 
inserted, e. g. fioyo-tr-TSKos, d'fo-^-cxJ&^pfo, together with the regular dtotx^P^^ 

3. When the first part of the compound is an adrerb, only those changes 
take place, which arise firom the general rules respecting the change of 

4. Respecting the second part of the compound, it is to be noted, that the 
words beginning with d, c, 0, in composition regularly lengthen these rowels 
(if the last part of the compound is a simple) into ri and u, e. g. (a) tt^vtfios 
from iy^pios, ffrpaTrfy6s from Ayt^t tirfitmp from Mip] (f) ivFfip€rfAOs from iprr' 
u6st ivsiiXaros from i\a6yc9 ] (0) iu^fXiis from $^\oSf irov^Xt^pos from 5aAi;/m, 

5. In relation to the end of the word, the following points should be noted :— 

A. In the Greek language, as has been seen (4 236, 3), a rerb can be com- 
pounded only with prepositions ; but if it is ncccssaiy to compound a verb with 
another part of speech, this is never done immediately, but by means of a 
derivation from a compound word either actually existing or assumed. Then 
the derivative-ending, commonly -^ 00, is regularly appended to this compound 
wori : e. g. from hnrovs rpi^uf^ to keep horses^ the derivative is not bnrorpd^uff 
hut by means of the compound substantive linrorp^s, it is hnrvrpo^lm ; so 
^foo^fi4m horn ^§o<rtfiffiSf vwffJMxi^v from paiuyuixosy tbrvxiw from ff&rvx4f . 

B. The compound is an adjective or noun: — 

a. The second part is derived from a verb, and has the following endings : 
(a) Most frequently -or, -oi', e. g. driporpS^St nourishing wild beastaj ^p&rpO' 

^off, nourished by wild beasts. See ) 75, Rem. 4. 
(/i) -i|ff (-riyt) or -as (Gen. -ov), -rip (-rifp), -rotp, commonly used as 
substantives with a transitive signification, e. g. t^tpydnis, benejactrri 
voiAC&4n\s, legidator; p.upowt&\riSt ipy*^o^ipas, rcuSoA^rcvfr , 

296 FOlUtATION OF WO&D8. [i 237 

(7) -4 '9 -**i commonly with a passire or intraiuitiTe significftiioo. 0. g, 
j^w^tKfiSy hdooed of God; tfifiod^Sy quxdc to leam^ docUk; ^mpvttlgw^ 

(8) -s (-(), e. g. ^tMftofrvs from MAFTTQ, yofto^iXa^, 
b. Or the second part is a sabstantive :-^ 

(a) An aUrffmiive relation exists between the two parts of the oomponnd, the 
first containing a more definite explanation of the last. The sabstantiTe 
remains unchanged. The first part is an adrerb or preposition, sometimes also 
a substantive or adjective, e. g. SfUBavXoSf afeOmothm ; /9o^Ai^uw, exoemw kta^ 
^er, huHmjf ; htpifwoKis, eUadd. 

(b) An objedive relation exists between the two parts of the oompoond, the 
last denoting the object of the first This division includes a large number of 
adjectives, the first part of which consists either of a verb, or, though mors 
seldom, of an acUective, of a separable or inseparable adverb, or of a preposi- 
tion used as an adverb, e. g. tct^ida^fupr ^ 4 ro^i 9mLMws 8civ«f , frixaip/«wr*ft 
B= 6 ro7s KOKoTs iitixcupmtf, KtucoHaifmr &= 6 Kokhv daifAova Ix^i 9vr/p«f , one vhn 
hat an unhappy love^ Ik<^cos =» 6 rhy i^c^ iw Uunf ^X^'^t iroucos =■ 6 irh ram 
dbeov Aiff itnus » S nSiat o&c fx""^* ^ ^ these examples the form of the 8nb> 
stantive remains unchanged,' where the substantive has a form which is appro- 
priate for the Masc or Fern, of the adjective, but where this is not the case, the 
substantive assumes a corresponding adjective-ending, viz. -os (Gen. -«v), -m% 
(Gen. -•), n^t (Gen. -«v5), •» (Gen. -iSor), -tfp and (when it ends in -v) -t, e. q 
or^yScivyos (BcTiri'ov), a fiHow^esty tif^iZucos (8£ini), Srtfxos (rift^), H^xfw^f^* 
{ilfi4f>a)j ^tKoxp^t^o^os {xpVM^ Xf^M<>^c()i ^(FTOfios (or^/ia), ttytws {yy)i having a 
fertiU toil; Ktiir6y€c$s {pwm), one who deserts the ship ; ^am^^Xlis (r^ K^Aos), &yaX- 
KU (iAir^), ^XP^hl^^^f &8airpvt, Gen. -vos {rh tdxpv). 

c Or the second part is an adjective : — 

The adjective retains its form, except that those in -vs commonly take the 
ending -i)tj the first part consists either of a substantive or an adverb, c. g. 
krrvytlruy, near the city^ whi vidnvs; yrdvao^s or irdera-o^s, ^oy, very wise; ky^^ 
ItoMs, 'Wy unlike ; wpSSriKosy -oy, &i|d4f from ifi6s, iroS^icijs from »ic^i. 

* For example, iturMiwy is an adjective of two endings, the ending -my 
being both Masc. and Fern., therefore the substantive Zaiymy is not changed io 
composition ; but vMttwyos takes a regular adjective termination, as the salh 
itantive tummy has neither a Masc nor FenL 





Parts of a Simple Sentencee 

1238. Nature of a Sentence, — Subject, — Predicate, 

1. Syntax treats of sentences. A sentence is the ex- 
pression of a thought in words, e. g. To poSop ^aXKei,] o 
SJ^poyirty; ^wpi^ i<m^. The conceptions of the mind are 
related both to each other and to the speaker. The con- 
ceptions or ideas themselves are expressed by Essential 
words (§ 38, 4) ; their relations to each other, partly by 
inflection and partly by Formal vi'ords. 

Thus, e. g. in the sentence T& iroX^y ^69oy ^JiW-tt iv r^ rod Tcerp^s itfpr-Vt 
there are five essential words : mAtfr, f6lioy, ^dWtiv, Tcerfip, ktiwos ; their rela- 
tions to each other are expressed partly by their inflection and partly by the 
Formal words r^, ir^ r^, rod, 

2. Every sentence must necessarily have two parts, a sub- 
ject and a predicate. The subject is that, of which some- 
thing is affirmed ; the predicate that, which is affirmed of the 
subject, e. g. in the sentences, ro poBov ^dXKei — - 6 av^payrro^ 
^vifro<: i<mv, to poBop and 6 av^poyrro^ are the subjects, ^dX- 
Xei and ^1^69 iariv, the predicates. 

3. The predicate properly contains the substance of the 
sentence; the subject is subordinate to it and can be 

298 SYNTAX. (♦ 235 

expressed by a mere inflection-ending of the verb, e. g 
iiBoi>'fii, (J) give. 

4. The subject is a substantive or a word used as n 
substantive, viz. a substantive pronoun or numeral; au 
adjective or participle used as a substantive; an adverb 
which becomes a substantive by prefixing the article; a 
preposition with its Case ; an infinitive ; finally, every word, 
(etter, syllable, and every combination of words can be con- 
sidered as a substantive, and with the neuter article com- 
monly agreeing with it, can be used as a subject The 
subject is in the Nom. 

ZciitwviirrL — Ol ^^oyovyres futrovrrcu, — Ol xdKai Ai'Spcroi^o'ar.— 02 rcpl 
MiXritidify KoXwr iiMX^ffcano, — X. Cy. 8. 3, 42. Ofkoi othws 198^ #0Ti r^ 
(X*^^ XP'hl»o!Ta^ ws ianafUnf rh iwofidXK^tP. — T^ BiBdtrK^tP naXAw i^rtp, 
— X. R. L. 9, 2. IvcTou rp hprr^ ar^i^ar^ai %ls rhy vAc/v xp^"^^ fiaXXop, ^ 
rp luuci^ — Tb c2 ffMttrikis i<my. — T^ ^ra ftaxpSp 4crtp. — T^ ywmS^i ^tav 

JIbmabk 1. In the constmction of the Accusative with the Infinitive, th9 
mibject is in the Ace, aa will be seen § 307, 3. In indefinite and distribotiTO 
designations of number, the subject is expressed by a preposition (c/f , w^pi^ ttm-d) 
with its Case, e.g.Els.r4TTapas ^AJ^ov, as many asjintr came (with round nnm- 
bers €ls also signifies aboutj at moat). X Cj, 8. 3, 9. tcrajrw^ *pmrow ftkp vmm 

irvXmp *ls rdacrapas, 8isx^«>< ^^ iKortpt^tP r&p wvX&p, X. H. ft. 6, 10. 

f<puyop CM Acucflicdfioya tup irtpl ^Zrdifftinrop Ttytcer&p ir^pl iKraKOcrtovs. 
So KcA* iKd(rrovs, each one singly^ one by one^ sinywi; JcarA £^yT7, singulae gentet. 

5. In the following cases the subject is not expressed by 
any special word : — 

(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun and is not particularly emphatic, 
c. g. rpd^, ypdtptis, ypd^ptiy 

(b) When the idea contained in the prcdiciitc is such, that it cannot appro- 
priately belong to erery subject, but only to a particular one, the subject 
being, as it were, implied in tlic predicate. Thus, olvoxoe^ei in Uom. 
mf. otpox^s, the cup-beetrer pours out the wine ; ^iti in Her. sc. 6 i^vr^. 
X. An. 3. 4, 36. ittl iyiypwCKop avrovs oflLKKiiPts fiou\ofUpovs itxtipoi lai 
Zutyy^XXofiipovSf ixiipv^t (sc.6 in^v|) rois *£AAi7<r{ vapaffKrvdaao'^au So 
trfinalpet rp ard\iriyyiy iadKwty^^p, sc 6 iro^nrr^s (the mgmd u 
[toKu] given by the trumpet). So we must explain words which denote the 
state of the weather or the phenomena of nature ; as € 1, d rains ; y f ^c 1, 
itsnouXyfipopr^, ittrrpdvrti, BC, 6Zt^s. Th. 4, 52. I<rci0'«, M«re tea* 
an earthquake. X. Cy. 4. 5, 5. av<rKOTd(ti, ii is dark; 

(c) The subject is easily supplied from the context; thus, in designations of 
time, e. e. Ijp iyyifs 17X10U Zwrfimp (sc. if rijUpa), ''Hp ini^l isyopkp vA^iidoMrctf 
and the Tike \ xapix^i fiot, sc. Ktup6s^ it is lime, it is alloweid, one can » liceL 


Ci j^ f er. a, 73. lifiuf wap4^tt iam/rA^mr!^ Hr hp-xifif. In this way the 
w^jiv ) bUs 18 TCfy frequently omitted in certain phmses, e. g. spoaTi* 
fialf* if BC 6 dt^s ; rpox^p << f»oi (sc. rib rpirfiucra)^ thinga pro$per to wUf 
Ituentd^t eomp. Th. 1 ^ 109. In snch expreMions as^ao'l, A<7Qtf«'i| etc.. 
the salject t^bpttrm is regnlarlj omitted, as it is readily apparent ; 

(d) Sometimes the subject is sapplied from some word of the sentence. Her. 
9, 8. vh¥ *lffbiiJtt¥ irtlx^or Ktd apt ^r xphs r/Act, sc. t^ tcixot, thep 
walled the Itthmu»^ and the [uni/] VfoSy etc. X. Cy. 2. 4, 24. teop^iKroita/L 
cidHf Vjp^s T^ /3a<rfA«ia, inuj^y /iiy i«'^(<mfrcu, sc. 6 fiturt\t^s. So also 
other Cases as ivell am the Nom. are thns supplied, e. k. PI. L. 864» d. 
wat9tm -xf^pntwos^ ^94^ irw r&¥ roioirmv (sc. vaiJ^mv) Zimp4pttv\ 

(e) With the third Pers. Sinf^. of the verb, in a subordinate clause containing 
a general idea, and in definitions, the indefinite pronoun r 1 f is sometimes 
omitted. PI. Criton. 49, c. <H^c drroduMilr S«r, o0t« mucws iroc«i> M4ra 
AvdM^vwr, ovST lkr ^lovr ir^<rxil ^* a^Av^ not even if any one shoidd 
suffer Jrom them; so often with the Inf.; but if a participle stands in 
connection with the Inf., e. g. Eur. M. 1018. ko^^s ^/pciy x^ ^riirh^ 
t9t a ffvft^opdsy the participle must be a nsidcred as the subject. 

BsH. 2. Such expressions as 8c7, xp^> Soirci, wp^-ru, l{c<rrf(y}, M^xereu {it i$ 
^ntnUe), atoAwf, €$ lx«i ^X*< ^^yw (oonsenfiMeum eff), A^creu (t< » saicf), etc., 
the Ght!ek language always aonsiden as personal, the following Inf. or snbstan- 
tiYO sentence being regarded as the subject of these verbs. 

6. The predicate is a verb, an adjective, participle, ad- 
jective pronoun or numeral, or a substantive with the 
Formal word dvcu ; eZvat, in this relation, is usually called 
the copula^ since it connects the adjective, substantive, etc. 
with the subject, and forms one thought, e. g. 

Tb pi^etf 3iAAf i. — 'O ta^pmttf hpfir6t 49rt¥, — *hbiparoi alriy o4 
^€oL — *H iiptrii icaA^ 4irriv, — *A7aJ^^ xapau^curls 4<rriv iratpov. — Kvpos 
^y fiaOBhais,'~'TovTOTO%payfui 4ffTi rSZa. — 2v ^aba TJarrmf xp&ros, 
— D/Mlpcs ^oar rptta, 

Bbm ;». The finite verb denotes both the thing affirmed (id quod praedioaiwr) 
■ad the »lalion of the affirmation to the subject and speaker; the relation to 
the subject, is denoted by the personal-endings of the verb; the relation to the 
speaker, br its Modes and Tenses ; e. g. the ending of the verb X4yw shows 
that its subject is in the fint person, and its being in the Ind. mode Pres. tense, 
indicates that the speaker asserts something directly, at the present time. But 
if the pjfedicate is expressed by an adjective or substantive with «7yai« the 
affirmation is denoted by the adjective or substantive, and its relation to the 
speaker by abnu^ e. g. cv8a/fM»r «ifJ =* cMoi/uor^-w, wiBalficnf «? =a eMoifim^^if t 
Mtdiimns feorrtu »» fv^aifiotHi-trnv^uf, though there is a dificrcncc between the 
two mode9 of expression. 

Rem. 4. It is necessary to distinguish between the use of cTmu, as a Formal 
and as an Essential word *, in the former relation, it is merely a copula, con- 
necting the subject with the substantive or adjective, etc. (^ 238, 6); in the 
Atter, it has the idea of being or existence^ being in a certain condition^ etc., c. g. 
Kert ^6s » btSs 4tmv &r {there is a God^ Gad exists), as in Her. 3, 108. vor 
ttiov ^ irpo¥oifi 4orl 4ovira tro^. 

300 s JNTAX. {♦ 339 

Rbm . 5. In order to f^ve greater emphasu to Iho predicate, the simple idea 
expressed by the verb, is resolved into the participle and copvla cZpvu. This 
mode of expression, howerer, is more osual in poetry, thoogn it is foand aLm 
in prose, particularly in Herodotns, oomp. Xlcm. 3. Knr. C 381. wma d raXd- 
wmp\ j^rff irdtrxoyrws T<i8c; Id. H. 117. ^p o'Tc^3«r. Her. 3, 99. kvap' 
vtoutySs iarru Id. 9, 51. ii injirSs icrri iwh rov 'Atrvirov ScVa trraSiovt 
krixovaa, PI. L. 860, e. cl rairra otrms tx^"'''^ 4<rrtr. Dem. OI. 3. 
(v. 1.) 11, 7. Tovr* Ikr iyymKSrts ^irar, they would have been convinced t^tMag 

Rem. 6. The copnla c f vai is sometimes omitted, though commonly only in 
the Ind. Pros.; that is sometimes omitted, even when it is not a copala, bat 
properly a verb. This ellipsis is most frequent in the following cases : — 

(a) In general propositions, observations, and proverbs. Ear. 0. 330. i M^yos 
6\fios ov f»6rifju» iy fiporois* X Cy. 2. 4, 27. rrpart^ ykp 19 ^^719 (^') 

(b) Very often with verbal adjectives in -r^oj, as also with other expres- 
sions denoting nccesstfy and t/if^y, c. g.&yd7Ki7, xp*^^» ^^f-is, cic^s, 
also with icoifSf, &pa and the like. jDem. Fh. 3, 129, 70. iifuy 7* iwkp riys 
i\€vd€plas kyvpitrrioy. Id. Cor. 296, 205. arifdas — iy iwKtvoCap t§ 
v6\u ^dptty itvdyKTif 

(e) Often with certain adjectives, e. g. Uroifiosj iep6^bik9s^ oXitre^ Bpya^ 
r6s, pi^iov^ XA^***^^* ^n><oy^ ^k^^^^ ^^^ ^^* Phaedr. 252, a. (^ 
^vx^) ZovX^^iv iroi/iri* Dem. Ph. 1. 48, 29. iyif v<i<rxctr Snovy trof 
/los, X. C. 1, 1, 5. 8^ A ay o3r, Sn obn tiy '{^mcpdmis) wpoikey^y, tl pAi 
Mrrtwy hXt^tinruv, Comp. ib. 2, 34. Here belong also the expressions 
^mfftoffrhy tcw^ it is very wonderful (» ndrum qwintum)^ hfttixBtPoy tr^y^ st 
IS quite impossible^ inconceivable (=» immane quantum), see ( 332, Rem. 10. 
On ovScU osTij od (= nemo non), sec ^ 332, Uem. 12. 

Reu. 7. The Ind. Impf. is but seldom omitted, e. g. Aeschin. Ctes. f 71, yh( 
4y lUvtf (sc. ^y) Kol vaa^iuy rp 6<rr€paiq tts t^y ^iricXt^Mv; the Ind. Pres. also Is 
not very often omitted after conjunctions, e. g. 6w6rt, 4T€i (comp. X. C. 1, 46); 
on the contrary, very frequently after iri and in {that), e. g. X C. 1. 2, 52. 
\4ymy, &s ov8iy 6^\os, The subjunctive is but seldom omitted after the rela- 
tive ts &y, and especially after conjunctions, e. g. PI. Rp. 370, e. £y hy axrrotg 
Xpcfa (sc. ij). The ellipsis of the Opt. when iy belongs to it is more frequent, 
c. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 12. ris yiip iy, t^curcaf, aov yc UcayArtpos Tttitrm (sc <Af); Ibu S. 
3, 2. V M<v Vfitts yuc&fity, S^Xoy, Sri oX rw voXdfuot hy iifi4T€poi (sc. fft^oy). The 
ellipsis of the Imp. is very rare, e. g. S. O. C. 1480. IXoor, A 9aitu»» X. An. 3. 
3, 14. Tott o9y ^90is x^" (^c* derrw), Sri oO aby iroAXS fi^tff iXXii trhy ^Afyan 
^K&oy. The participle is very often omitted, especiaUy after verba inktiigendi 
and dedarandij e. g. X. S. 3, 7. 9fiKiy 7c, 0ti ^avAot (sc. iky) ^evom/toit bat else- 
where also, e. g. X C. 2. 3, 15. Aranra X^is luA eMofms Tp^s 909 (sc. fm), <C 
nuUo modo tibi convanentia ; even in such cases as Th. 4, 135. xc<^u«ror rvAcvrvr* 
ros KoX Tfhs i^p 4^8if (sc. Jhrros), The Inf. is often omitted after dsKcty, ijrTfitf'- 
&CU, yofditiy and the like, e. g. Th. 7, 60. fiovKwria iB6ic€t, X. Cy. 1. 6, 14. 
iirufrra /&f iniXtva-as rots errparnyucM (sc. tlyat) yofufofiiyots iai9pdtn ZtaK^yt^- 

♦ 239. Comparison, — Attribute and Object. 

1. Wlien the predicate belongs to the subject in a higher at 

jower degree than to another object, this relation is denoted by 

he Comparative, e. g. 'O varTjp /^o>v icrrivt rj 6 van.— *0 


cro^oc ftaXXor xaLpti rj dpcrj, rj roif xPVfAoa-iy, And when the 
predicate belongs to the subject in the highest or lowest 
degree, as respects all other objects compared, the Superlative 
is used, and commonly takes with it a partitive Genitive, e. g. 
SwiKpaTi}9 vdynaiy 'EAXipooy tro^cararos ^v.— -'O cro^os iravnav 

RsMAKK 1. The Comparative is stren^hencd or more definitely stated in 
the following ways: (a) by In, stilly even^ etieun^ e. g. fui(»y In, stiU greater f 
(b) bj fiaxp^f ikty^f vo\K^, In voAX^, Bcr^^ toctoi/t^; M^7^ 
i\lyop, ToK^f ia-ovt TOffou to, which show how mucA more or less of the 
quality expressed by the adjective is intended, e. g. «'o^^^ t^tlCt^y, widto viajor^ 
far greater, voW^ llrt /uiCoytSf mnlto mojores etiam ; (c) sometimes by fi a A. - 
A. or. Uer. 1, 32. fiaWow ixfitirtpSs iari {far). 

Rem. 2. The Sapcrlativc is strengthened or more definitely stated in the 
following ways: (a) by ica^ vel^ even., e. g. Kal /i^Mrra, vd maxime, very great!^ 
indeed; (b) by words denoting measure or the degree of difference, viz. iroXXw, 
uaxp^f iroA.^, wttpk iroX^, ta^, r^aoirip, e. g, xoW^ ipurrosy multo 
itratstanilttimuSy the best bgfar; /laKpf iptffTQSj limge nraestantissi^nus ; (c) even 
by the Superlative: fidXiffra {ir\€iaroy and t'^dyiarroy f Mt), e. g. S. 
O. C. 743. wXcTtf'ror hf^p^^wtnf icdKUrrof. Th. 7, 42. fidKic-a iw^rceros] 
(d) by the relative: &t* {OTwt), tin and f, oTos U 343, Rem. 2), e.g.&s 
rdxt^ra, quam ceUrrime, 0ri fxd\tffra, f Apirrof, e. g. 1*1. Apol. 23, a. iroXXal 
fUp aw4x^eud fwi yrydrawt jral oTai x«^c^<^<>^m *cU fiapArorau X, An. 4. 8, 
2. x^^P^^ oTov x^'^^'^^foy i (c) by cfs, unus, e. g. Her. 6, 127. '^Xi^c 2/ur- 
tvptHris XvfiapfrniSy hs M vXfiO'roy ^ X^^5 ctf ia^p iariKtro, X An. 1. 
9, 22. 9eipa rXciO'Ta cfs jm iviip &y ^X^jBorc, he received the most gifts, at least 
considering the fact that he was but a sin^ individual (C. Tnsc. 2. 26, 64. amplitn- 
dinem animi unam esse omnium rem pulcherrimam); (f ) a i>eculiar mode of 
strengthening the Superlative, is byjoming iy rots with it, in which case the 
Superlative must be repeated, e. ff. *0 '^pvs iv rots Tp9afiirar6s 4m 
(i. e. ir TMS irp€a'livrdrois olat), the wdest among those who are very old. Her. 7, 
137. tovt6 fiet iy roTari ^tidraroy ^ytreu yty4abcu, PI. Symp. 173, b. 
ScMCfMfrovy ipusriis t^y iy rots iidKtarra rSgy r^rc. The construction with the 
Fem. is found only in Thuc, e. g. 3, 81. (<rr<(o*«) iy rols xpArri iyiytro, lb. 
17. iy ro7s vXcid'Tai yfjts. In such instances, to is must be considered 
as Nent. In like manner, tJie expression Buoia (^^alon.) rots was used 
with the Superlative. Her. 3, 8. aifioyrcu 8« *Apdfitot vIctu iiy^p^cty 6fioia 
roiffi ftd\ixrra{8C. atfiofiiyois), like those who respect very much, ut qui maxime. 
Th. 1, 25. xffn/idertty Zvydfui 6yr€S hot* iKuyav thv xp6yoy Sfioia rots 'EXX^wv 
irXova-fofTcCroif. The Superlative is also intensified by joining a positive 
with it, c. g. *AycAuy imriuy Kpdrurros, the best among the good horsemen = the 

Rem. 3. The Superlative relation is often expressed more emphatically by 
negative adjectives or adverbs in the Superlative, preceded by oft (JjitHes)^ 
instead of pieitive adiectives or adverbs in the Superlative, e. g. o^x ^Ktara, 
not the least, especiailg, ob kcCki^tos, obx iXax^o-ros, stronger than ftA- 
Xi<rra, fidxrurros, fi4yi<rros. Sometimes, also, it is expressed antithetically, e. g 
obX liKiffTo, &XX^ fidXtarra, 

' 'fly, Zrt are not in themselves intensire particles, but merely connect some 
part of h^vttftat understood, and in that way may be said to give intensity to 
the Superlative. Sometimes H^&yofuu is expressed, e. g. Ecvo^r iwlcrarut 
iirraXfifyos iir\ T^K^uty &s iB^waro KdKXtera, 

302 (SYNTAX. 'i 24« 

2.. A sentence consisting of a subject and piedicate may l>€ 
extended by defining the subject and predicate more exactly. 
The word or words which define the subject more fully, is 
called an att^ihute^ or aUribtUive. The subject is more exactly 
described, therefore, (a) by the addition of an adjective (attrib- 
utive' adjective), e. g. to «caXov ^oSov; (b) by the Gen. of a 
substantive (attributive Gen.), e. g. 6 rov /Sao-iXcws nrpn^y 
regis hortus (^regius hortns) ; (c) by a substantive in the same 
Case as the word wliich is more definitely described, e. g. 
Kvpoi, 6 pajcriXev9. The explanatory word is here said to be in 
apposition with the word explained, and may be called an 
compositive of that word. The predicate (which is termed the 
object), is more exactly described, (a) by a Case of a substan* 
tive ; (b) by a preposition with a substantive ; (c) '^y the In£, 
(d) by an adverb, e. g. *0 (rotftoi r^v aperriv tio-Kct. IIcpl r^s 
irarpiSo9 fui)(6fJL€Sa, *Airi€vai, €iri3vfjua, Ka\a)$ ypdff>€iis* 

i 240. Agreement. 

1. The finite verb agrees with the subject in Person and 
Number; the adjective, participle, pronoun, and numeral, in 
Gender, Niunbcr, and Case. The substantive, as a predicate, 
agrees with the subject only in Case ; in Gender, Number, and 
Case, only when it denotes * a person, and hence either has a 
particular form for the Msisc. and Fem., or is of common gender. 
The same principle applies to substantives in apposition (♦ 2G6, 
1). But when the substantive denotes a thing, it agrees with 
the subject only in Case, e. g. 

'Eyw ypd<l>co, ov ypdfptis, oZtos ypdpei, — 'O ii^pmros ^nrrSt ^cmy.— 'H hper^ 
icoA^ itnty. — T^ irpayfM ala'xp^'^ itmy. — Oi "EAAt^kcs vokefiuctifTaroi i<ro». — 
'O KcjCbs reus, ri <rwp^ ywii^ rh fiucphv riKvov, — *Ey€y4ardTjv rii iv9p9 ro&rm 
{Kpirias Koi *A\Ktfii4Zrjs) tpwrtt ^tKoTifwrdru vdyrotv * ^^Tjycdeov, X. C. 1. 2, 14. 
— • Kvpos ^y /ScurcXc^f . — Tofivpts ^y fiofflktm. — Kvpos, t ficuriXevt, T^ftlOpiSj ^ fiaai 
\fta. On the contrary, r^y dvyar4pa, B9ty6y re KdKXos icol fi4y9' 
^os, i^dyvy w5e cTirei' (his daughter a iponder in beauty and sue), X. Cy. 5. 2, 7. 

' When the adjective merely ascribes some qaalitj to the substantire with 
vrfaich it ^^es, it is called an attributive adjective, bat when it belongs to tha 
predicate and is used in describing what is said of the subject, it is called • 
predicative adjective, e. g. in the expression 6 &7ad^s ity^o {Ae good man) ^ kyvf 
MS i.« attributive, but in 6 ayi\o iffri ayad6s (the man is gooa)j it is predicative. 

i 840.] AGREEMENT. 303 

2. The predicative adjective or substantive agrees with the 
subject as above stated, when the following and other similar 
verbs, which do not of themselves express a complete predicate 
sense, have chiefly the force of the copula:-*- 

(a) The verb vrr^x^^* ^ ^^ ^'^ cause of, to bc^ to exist ; 

(b) Verbs signifying to becomef to increase, to grow, e. g. yLyvo- 
fjju, Sff>w, avidyo/juu; 

(c) The verbs fUvta, to remain^ and Karfxmiy, ^ ^^ establisJied, 
appointed, to stand; 

(d) Veibs signifying to seem, appea* show one^s self, e. g. 
hHKOL, ffxiiyofijai, SijXovfUu ; 

(e) Verbs signifying to be named, e. g. miAovfuu, SvofidiofuUf 
keyofuu, ojcovu), to be called (like audire) ; 

(f) Verbs signifying to be appointed to something, to be c/tosen, 
to be named, e. g. aipov/ixu, 6anS€uarvfuu ; 

(g) Verbs signifying to be regarded cu sometJdng, to be recog- 
nized as something, to be supposed, e. g. vo§uflofimf Kpm>' 
fjLOif wrokofipdvofjuu', 

(h) Verbs signifying to be given as sometfiing, to be received as 
something, to be abcmdoned, cast off, and the like, c. g. 

Ki^Mf iyivtro fituriXtbs r&r Tltpamf, — Toirois 6 ^(Ximros fi4yas lyv^^^iy 
(Dem.). — *AAici^kUh|f ^p4^ii xnpvntyi/t, — 'Amrl ^b<mtf kcA ^4y»y vvp kSKoku 
ttaddwis ix^pf^ iKo6ovffiP {audiunt)^ they, hear thenueloea called Jhtteren, etc., 
Dem. Cor. 241. 

Rbmahk 1. VHicn the verbs mentioned nndcr (c), (f ), (g), (h), hare the 
tetire form, they take two occiuatives (f 280, 4). 

Rek. 2. Several of the verbs above named, arc also joined with adverbs, 
bat they then express a complete predicate sense ; e. g. 'SuKpdTtis ^r {livtd) &ci 
r^ roTs Won. KuK&s, KaK&s iartv {it is tcv/i. etc.). Atip&s fcav iw 
^vXuicpffi ol Bafivfi^pwt {diligenter veraabantur ta autodia), Ucr. 3, 152. 
Mdrjfy ttyeu, to be in vain. Elyat, as well as the verbs yiyvn a^ai and irc^v 
K 4 pat, is very often connected with adverbs of place and degree, of which 
the corresponaing adjective-forms are not in use, as3(x^X^P^'> iicds, fiaK' 
edpf w6^pm^ 4yy^Sf irXifO'ioy, 6/aov, &Aff, fiaAXar, ft^Ai^ro, e. g. 
I'oMTi *AShiPol»p orpaTifpiifi iyipopro S^x"^ yp&ftat ( tententlao in divena* 
fortea dixedebant), Her. 6, 109. 

3. When a Demonstrative, Relative, or Interrogative pronoun, 
either as a subject or predicate, is connected with a substantive 
by the copula cTvat, or one of the verbs mentioned in No. 2, 
the Greek commonly, as the Latin regularly, put the pronoun 
Dy means of attraction, in the same gender and nun\ber wilJi 

304 SYNTAX. [f 241 

the substantive to which it belongs. So too, when the pronoun 
is in the Ace and depends on a verb of naming^ e. g. 

OtrSs icrtr 6 iiif^p, — Atrii itrrl viiy^ jro2 &f>X^ xdrr^v r&p komiw. — 
OSrot 9^ ^Adi^trmoi y€ Bdcify a^riir KoKowroff hwii ypa^4iv, PL l&ntjfhr. 
piinc — IIi^ r&v TpoytytmyUpwr iw»^Jafrr%* aZrri yi^ iplirr^ SiSancc- 
X(a, X. Cy. 8. 7| 24. — Tls iirri viiyij rris ip€Trjs] — n<£vT«$ oStoi it6fim4 
ct<rfv, ots rh »Aij^s trweX^hy icol ioKtfJuLrcw iypw^, X. C. 1. 2, 42.— *E4£r rts 
^\os /Ml y€v6iMPot ffd woiftt^ f^4Xrj^ oZr6s fioi $(os iari (iktM is my nuans of 
UfCf hie mihi est victvu) 3. 11, 4. 

Bem. 3. Yet the Greeks not nnfreqacntly put *hc pronoun in the Nemt 
Sing., e. g.'EoTi tk rovro rvpavyls, PL Itp. 344, a, where in Lat. it would 
he^ Eat Butcm haec tifrarmis, Tovr6 4<rTUf ^ BiKaioffiyTitih.ASiL^b. Tovrm 
ini7^ Kid iipxh irii^cws, Phaedr. 245, c. The Neut. PL is sometimes used 
insteaid of the Neat. Sing. "Eysry^^fii raura pJkp ^Kvapias tlinUf X. An. 
1 . 3, 1 8. See § 241 , Rem. 3. The natter pronoun denotes the nature of an object ; 
on the contrary, the pronoun that agrees with a noun, denotes the qmUiiy of tlio 
object. Henoe there are cases where the two forms of expression cannot be 
interchanged, e. g. Ti icrri ^b6vQt: quid est invidiaf {what is its naturtt) 
and rls dcrt ^^6vo$ ; quae est invidia ? {v>hat is envy f ) The neuter demon- 
strative is also always used, when it is more fally explained by a word in a|qK>- 


sition, e. g. Ou rovr ^» tvBtmAwla^ &s (louce, iceucov iwaWayiij PL Goi^. 47tt, c 

f 241. Exceptions to the general rules oj Agreement. 

1. The form of the predicate in many cases does not agree 
with the subject grammatically, but in sense only (Constructio 
icara o-vvco-iv). Hence, after a collective noun in the Singular, 
when it is used of persons, as well as afler the names of cities 
and countries, used for the inkabiXoMs^ and also with abstracts 
which stand for concretes, the Plural is used, and such a gender 
as belongs to the persons denoted by these words. 

Her. 9, 23. rh xXri^os iw^fioi^ii^ar, Th. 4, 32. 6 ikXos arpetrhs 
iw40atyop. 5, 60. rh trrpardirtBop kw^x^povy, 2, 21. fwrrl rpAnp 
iurnpt^ta^o 4i T6\ts vol rhy Tl9ptKX4a iy 6pyp ^Txoy. With attribdtiYe adjec- 
tires, this construction is rare and only poetic, e. g. II. Xi ^* ^^c r4Kyoy (Hec- 
tor) ; but it is yeiy common in prose with a Part whish stands in a remoter 
attributive relation, e. g. Th. 3, 79. M r^y vdxiy ir4w\tow iy voAAg ^apaxS 
«rai ^fitp $yras, X. Cy. 7. 3, 8. & £70^^ iral irurr^ ^vx^i o^XP ^ &iroXt- 
wity Ti/JMS. X H. 1. 4, 13. 6 ix rov iirrtos tx^^^ ii^potffdri xpbs rks ravt, 
^av/i(((oirTcs KttX tBtty fiov\6fA€yot rhy 'AXm/Si^y. It is very freqoent 
with the pronouns, Th. 1, 136. 4>c^ci 4s K4pKvpay 4^9 aur&y (ac Kcpjcupof 
uy) (V€py4rns. 4, 15. 4s r^y ^^irdprijy &s iiyy4\^ rk y€y€yrifjL4ya TtpH TlCKey, 
tBo^fy a u T o 7 $ ( sc. rois IZirapridrus) . X. C3'. 3. .3, 1 4. avyKoXtiras vay rh arrpti» 
rtvriKhy f Ac^c vphf air oh s rotiZt. Also with the relative pronoun ,* see 00 
a4i<^tivc-scntences, i 332. 5. 


Rkwabk 1. When the sahject ia expressed by the Neat, article r 6 or i din 
connection with a snbstantivc in the Gen.Pl^ the predicate is commonly in tlio 
Pi^ being conformed to the attribtttive genitive ; the predicative adjective or par- 
ticiple takes the gender of the attributive genitive. S. Ph. 497. t^ r&r 9iaic6' 
wmv r^y fibaX ^-wiyov vriiKmt (fhreiyoi^ which has the Neat. PI. rcC for its 
sabject woold regularly have been in the Sing, according to No. 4, but is con- 
formed to the plurality in ^iaK6¥^v\, PI. Rp. 8. 563, c. r^ T»y ^npttap 
i\tvdtp^T€pd iffrw (the Sing, itrrlit Is used on account of the Neut. PI. 
iXmi^pArtptiy acconSing to No. 4, while iXtv^p^tpa is conformed to the idea 
of bnpia contained in Sripimy), 

Rex. S. Closely related to the construction just stated, is the following . 
When a substantive subject with an Attributive substantive in the Gen. PI. 
expresses periphrastically a substantive idea, as ^x^ Tcipco-foo, the Participle 
which stands in a remoter attributive relation to the suojcct, agrees in Cose 
with the subject, but in Gender and Number with the substantive in the Gen., 
which expresses the principal idea of the periplirasis. Od. x, 90. Ijx^t Z* 4w\ 
fj!*xh d7}j9a(ov Tftptatao xp^«>^ aicri-rTpor tx^^t ^^ thade of the Theban 
Tdresias cnme^ having a golden sceptre (here fx'^*' agrees in number with ^oxht 
but in gender with Ttiptariao). 11. fi, 4^^ hpvl^mv vtrfriy&y l^irca voAA&, 
iwbv. arol li>ida vor&irrai iiyaKX^fttyai imp^fff<rw. 

2. When the stibject is expressed, not as a special and defi- 
nite object, but as a general idea, the predicative adjective is 
put in the Neut Sing, without reference to the gender and 
number of tlie subject. 

(The English sometimes uses the words Ihing^ or something. Sometimes the 
pronoun rl, or the substantives xpVi^^ vpayMA* ^re connected with the 
adjective. When the adjective is in the Superlative, the English uses the 
article the), 

Tifi, 204. obx iyabhy ■KoKvKoipaylii (a muUiplidty of rvHers \s noiagooa 
thing): iff Kolpeeyos ttrrm, Eur. 0.760. htiyhy ol woKKoif Kcucoifpyovs tray 
fX"^ w y orr tt Tat . Id.'hL329.irX}fyyitpr4Kyt»y(itoty*^(KTaroyw6\is. Id.H. 
¥.1295, at fitr a fioKal Kvr IIP 6 y. Her. 3, 82. ^ /tovyapx'^ KpdriffToy {a 
momtrchy is the bed thing^ or most desirable). PL Rp. 2. 364, ^ xaKhy u^y ii 
9w^por^yil re jrol 8iica<o<r^vi}, x'^*'^'' /Umu irol iwiwoyoy. Also 
in abbreviated adjective sentences, e. g. Her. 3, 108. 4i K4aiyat ihy Ivx^^^ 
raroy lecd ^paff^raroyf 2[ira| iy r^ 0[<p t/ktci ty. PI. Rp. 4, 420, c. ot 
i^^aX/iotf KdXKiffToy ty^ ovk iarpti^ 4ya\iikififUyi flffiy. Her. 3, 53. 
mpwrb xpVf'» ar^aX^pdy. PL Th. 122, b. ffvfifiovKh Isphy XP^MO. Dem. 
OL 1. 21, 12. Arot fiAy kSyoSf &r kirf rk irpdyfuerot ftdratdw ri fsdyrrtu iro} 

3. When the subject is an Inf or an entire sentence, tne 
Greeks usually put the predicative adjective in the Neut. PI 
instead of the Sing., where the EngUsh uses the pronoun tt, 
e.g. it is pleasant to see tJte sun. This occurs most frequently 
with verbal adjectives in -tos and -tcos; with those in tcos 
and many in -tos, the Inf. is implied in the word itself c- g. 

306 • SYNTAX. 1*241 

^wTca iarl rtvi, some one is to be helped; Trurrd hm rots ^iXoKt 
friends are to be trusted. 

Her. 1, 91. Tj^y T€Tp»fi4tr^ fuupay hi6pard imt (it is imptmsSiU) 
KoX hf^, S, 83. B^Xa, 8ri 8cf twa yi riya ^fiimf fiatn\4a ytpiabou Th. 1, 86. 
otii oh rapa^oria roTs 'A^wilots iarly, ov9^ koI \6yots ZiaKpir4a, iMM 
TiuupiiT4a if TcCx"* ^1 ^* i^^^yfiTa ^y ir r^ vrapArri roifs Aot^ht i^t^* 

Rem. 3. In like manner, the Greek veiy- often nses the PI. raDno, r& 
(sometimes also ^icciva), to express an idea m its whole extent or in the most 
general manner, the plural bringing before the mind all the particnlars involved 
m the idea. Tb. 6, 77. o&ir Iwcs r ^ 8 c thty, ovS* 'EAAi^rnvrioi, &XAA AMM^f , 
it {this) is not lonians, etc Aeschin. Ctes. p. 55. o&k Ioti ravra itpxA ('^ i<f 
not an office). Id. Leg. p. 50. to St* (<my A Tpo1i6rriSf this is the traitor. FL 
Fhaedon. 62, d. 6 iySriTos tufStpogxos rd.^ tw olij^lii t a S t a, ^vtcriop cIvcb &v^ 
ToO ZtfTK&rpu. In the English these plurals arc generally translated by the 
singular, as this^ that. 

4. The subject in the Neut PL is connected with a verb in 
the Sing., inasmuch as a plurality of objects in the neuter, was 
regarded by the Greeks as one connected whole^ the individual- 
ity being lost sight of. 

TA ffio rp4x*i' — TA irpdyfiard icri koKL X. Yen. 12, 11 ohp t^ 
96Ktt<rti(tTat Koi iLw6K\vrai rit oiiccia linirrop. Eor.M. 618. Kwrovy^ 
Mphf 9ap* ityrfiTiV otfK Ifx*'* 

Rem. 4. Also in adverbial participial phrases, a neuter plural is joined with 
a participle in the singular, e.g.^6^ay tavto, qwtm haec visa, deareta esaent. 
X. An. 4. 1, 13. Z6fay Zk ravra, itc^pv^ay o0tw voiciv, when these things had 
been agreed upon, orders icere given, etc. Yet, X. H. 3. 2, 19. 96^apra M rav* 
ra Kol wtpay^4yTafTh /liy arpartifiara iirijAJ^cv. 

Rbm. 5. There arc some exceptions, however, to the rule just stated ; most 

of Uiem may be rcfeiTcd to the following cases: — 

(a) When the subject in the Neut. PL denotes persons or living creatures, 
the verb is very often put in the Fl. in accordance with the Construct io 
Karh ffly^viv. Th. 4, 88. tc^ riKii (^^ magistrates) rw AoKtZtfteiyimy 
6fi6crayra Bpa/rilkty i^4xtfi^ay. 7, 57. roo'dZs furk 'Adipv^wr 
i^yri iarrpdrtvoy. PL Lach. 180, e. tA fici^^Kia SiaXcy^^croi 
ixifi4fiyiiyTai JUoKpdrovs lad crtpdZpa inatyovcriy, 

(b) When the objects contained in the plural are to be represented tneRmdnh 
ally rather than collectively, or when the idea of plurality composed of 
several parts (which may also have relation to different times ana places 1 
is to be made prominent,* e. ^. X. An. 1. 7, 17. ra^ rp rifi4ptf oIk iiutx^ 
<raro fiturtKiitSy aK>C {nroxotpowrvy <payfoii ^tray Ktd ttnttov km hw^p^fwwgp 
tX'^V ^oWd [many tracks here and there). Cy. 5. 1, 14. rk fiox^Vpk 
i.ybp&'Kia vacr&y, olfiaif rS»y iirt^vfu&y ixparrj itm, Kdfrttra l^pvra aivi- 

* It will often, therefore, depend upon the view in the speakcr^s mind, whctlia 
like Sing, or I'l. is to bo used. 


mrt ah ^ sinmdar 4<rrl is wed here boDOiue mouJand is ttf&nd to as a 
dasSf but the plural eurt&irrutj to denote that sach individual blames love, the 
eharye being made too, in a different manner and at different times. Th. 5, 
26. |(« {praeter) jo^nwf wpbs rhv Hurrwuchy irol 'ZTtia6puaf viKiitw ica2 is 
HMjciitfu^ipots kfiapr^fAm^a iyiyopro, mistakes of ea^ of the two^at 
various points and times. X. Axu 1. A^4. ^vaw U rwra 96o rtlxfl' 

'c) The Hon- Attic poets from Homer down, very often use the PI. simply on 
acGoant of the metre. 

RsM. 6. The plural subject^ mascolinc or feminine, is connected in the poets, 
though rarely, with a verb m the Sing. Find. 01. 1 1 . ( 10. ) princ. /itKi^dpvts 
ilipo^ ^^Ttpmtf ipx^ KAy^Mf riKKtrau This construction is very limited in 
prose-writers; it occurs with ton and j{y, but only at the beginning of a sen- 
tence (comp. il est cent usages), which then assume the character of impersonal 
expressions. Her. 1, 26. ion kcUL fi«ra|i» r^s re woKauoit ir6Xios iro2 rw ¥f\ov kwrh 
TrdButu PI. Bp. 5, 462, e. (art koI iy reus iWais ir6\90iy Ap^orr^s t« irol 8^/ios. 
In like manner the Greeks regularly say (oriyf of, sunt, gm. See § 331, Rem. 
4. The construction mentioned S 242, ^m. 2, is very different from this. 

5. A subject in the Dual, as well as two subjects in the Sin- 
gular, very often have a predicate in the Pi., e. g. Auai arparu 
dvc;(d)pi7a'av. Tiov avrCiV 8covrat #cal ^ y vv^ #cal 6 dv^p. The 
rale seems to be, that when the affirmation is made of each of 
the two separately, the Dual is used, but when of both together, 
the Plural, e. g. Mivios icaX AvKovpyoi vopovs l^^rtiv (eadi 
gavelcncs)\ iihovri <roi koi \viri/ ^tjJwc^Xci jSao'iXcvo'crov. 

Bbu. 7. The Dual is not used in all cases where two objects are spoken of, 
but only where two similar objects are mentioned, cither naturally connected, 
e. g. tAc, x<<iP*» ^^i ^^ Buch as we conceive to stand in a close and reciprocal 
reUtion, e. g. two combatants, two friends, etc. 

Rem. 8. The Dual veiy often interchanges with the PI., especially in par- 
ticiples, e.g. II. A, 621. rol tt tipM iiT t^^xoyr e x"^^*^'' ordyrtTorlTyotiiy, 
F\.Euthjd.273,d, iytXaodr II y tip^m fik4}^ayr€s tls iiKKiKw, 

Rem. 9. A subject in the PI. sometimes has a verb in the Dual, when two 
objects mutually connected, or two pairs, are spoken of, e. g. II. 8, 452, sqq. &s 
V 9rs x*^f^*fP*** vorapoi, Ksn^ ipeo'^i pioyreSf is pioydyKttay ovpfidK' 
XcTor ifiptpoy SScfp, . . At ruy puryop4yi»v yiyero laxh t« ^fios r« (two streams 
running on opposite sides are compared with two hostile parties). II. 3, 185, 
sqq. Hd^ii^c t« Kot <rh ll6fiapyt, nai A&»y Ad^wt re STe, yvy poi t^v Kopi^y ivo- 
rlytroy, — 191. iXX* i^opapr itroy Kid ovtiH^roy {tun pairs). 

Rem. 10. The following points also are to be noted in respect to the 
Dual: — 

(a) A substantive in the PI. is very often connected with the Duals 8^«, 
8^0, but seldom with HvoTy. II. c, 10. 8^« vUts, H. i, 4. (kytpoi 
i6o, Aesch. Ag. 1395. ivoiy olpAypaoiy, PI. Soph. 244, b. vpof - 
j^pdpieyoi 9vo7y 6y6pao ty. PI. Rep. 614, c. 8^o x'^'^'M^'''' ^X^t"-^' 
y» iLKKl\\oiy\ 

(b) The Duals rA, roTy, r(68«, roiySc, tovt«, to^oiv, a»n^, airoiv, &, tXy, in 
prose are used both as masculine and feminine (i. e. they are of common 
gender), e. g. $p/^ rit — rif yvymne — Spiipt0 ro&rt^ rit hy^fysL "— rtSt 
yeyfvioiy — roOru ri^ t^X*** — roirQiy joty Ktviioioty — rit 6i^, The Fcm 

108 SYNTAX. |i 241 

fonn of tho article rd^ is extiemelj rare, e. p:. rA 8* o9y tcipoj 8. Ant. 
769 ; oftencr the form ra7r, X. H. 6, 4. 17. PI. Tim. 79, d; so ik ra7y8« 
8* 00* air vapd4yoty, 8. O. C. 445. Ta^ra occars At. Pac 847, bat 
ra^racr is more frequent, c.g. ra^ratw fiSpaiyf S. O. C. 859; ^ic ra^- 
ratPf 1149; ra^ratv 8i ra7p Btad^KOtp, Isoe. 5, 15. A0ra, S. Ant. 
570. Besides the prononns mentioned, sometimes other attribotives also 
in the Dual are used as of common gender ; the participle but seldom. 
PI. Phoedr. 237, d. ^fi&y iy ixtifrrtfi 8vo rtyi 4<rro¥ 19 4 a ipxopr^ Hal 
iyoyrt, otv irSfie^ — * ro^rm Z4 k, r. A. 

6. When the predicate is a substantive connected to the 
subject by cTmi or any other verb having the character of a 
copula (i 240, 2), the verb often agrees by means of attraction, 
as commonly in Latin, with the nearest predicative substantive. 

Her. 3, 60. t^ fiTJKOs rod ipvyiMTos iwrii ffrd9iol flai. 2, 15. at dif/Scu 
KXyvvros iKa\4tro, Th. 3, 112. ivrhy 8v« \6^» ii*lZofA4inii 6^nfX^. 

4, 102. rh x^P^^^ rovTOt tirtp wpSrtpoy *Zyp4a 69o\ iicaXovpro. Isocr. 
Paneg. 51, b. I<rrf ipXiKd^rara r&y idw&p ical fuyUrrsis Zvyairrtias fx^rra 
2ki&^ Kol Bp^Kts KoL Tlfpaau So also in the participial construction, e. g« Th. 

5. 4. KoxaXafifidyovart ical fipucwylaSf hy tpvfia iy r^ Asoyrlyp. PI. L. 735, e. 
robs fi4yurra i^ttiAapriiK&raSt hudrous Si tyros , fityiarriiy 8c oZ<rav fi\dfiri» 
ir^A.c«t, hxaXXdrray cYcA^cr (instead of trras). So also Her. 3, 108. i^ X4tu»a^ 
4hy Itrxvporatoy Ktd ^patriraroy, &wa^ iy r^ fii^ rtmu er, instead oi 
iovira. Comp. No. 2. A similar attraction occurs sometimes in sentences 
denoting comparison, e. g. r&y Koivuy ri Spa ZuyoovivtiVy &y ov8iy trh fMAAor, f 
rts iWos (x^h PI- Theaet. 209. a. (?x«* liere agreeing with tis instead of «i6^. 
In Latin this is much more frequent. 

7. A superlative connected with a partitive Gen. commonly 
takes the gender of the subject, more rarely that of the partitive 

II. 0, 253. {altrov) 8s;^* fi/xa Kdpri<rr6s re ical &Ktarros ircTci|vwy. x» 
139. KipKOf, 4\a^p6raros irereny&y. Her. 4, 85. 6 n6yros %€Kaey4my 
hrdyruy w4^vk9 ^wvfiatri^raros. Menandr. p. 193. (Mein.) ydvmy x^^*' 
wtiraros ^^6yos, X. C. 4. 7, 7. 6 1JXio» rhy vdyra xp^^oy Tdyrvy Xa/ATpd- 
raros &y Btati4y€u PI. Tim. 29, a. 6 kSothos KdWicrros r&y yryovdrmy, 
Plutarch. Consol. 102. c. ^X^»ij x^^^^^'*'^'^^ va^y. On the contrary, 
Isocr. ad Nicocl. extr. cvfifiovXas iLyai^hs xp^^^f^^'''^'''^^ *^^ rvpayyiK^' 
raroy avdyrwy Kriifidrvy icri (the Superlative here taking the gender 
of the partitive Gen. tcnindr^ay). 

Rem. 11. When the idea of personality in general is to be expressed, the 
Masc. form may be used, referring to words denoting females; (in this and 
other similar irregularities, less regard is had to strict grammatical principles 
than to the gener^ idea to be expressed,) e. g. 'ZwtKiiXx^ajiriy &s 4pA iraroAcXct/A- 
fUyui &8cX^ Tc Kol &8cA^i8ai Kcd iiyt^ied rmravTot, &sr tlvat iv r^ aheitf, refffftf 
ptSKoiitxa rovs ik€v^4povs {free w«i), X. C. 2. 7, 2. 'H crttpos o&ro fiaaxoa 
a&K iw4ltrat rlKroyras AWovi, o6ic ixow<r* avrii rtxyo, slie oamtoi erHitnrt 


tkat otkerpenotu (Masc.) ahcvld bring Jbrth young, Eur, Andr. 711. So alM> the 
tragic poets use the Masc, when* a woman speaks of herself in the PI., e. g* 
S. EL 391 (Electra sajs of herself) %feo6fu^\ tt xyh^ varpl Tifi»po6fi€yoi, 

Bem. 12. Sometimes the first Pers. PI., or the Pers. prononn first Pcrs. PI 
is used, for the sake of modesty, instead of the Sing., the speaker representing 
his own views and actions as common to others. This usage, which is verj 
frequent in Latin, is rarely found among the Greeks in the Common language. 
*A 'A?uu$M9, aol i^ficif nikueovroi tfmref ^unA rit rotaSra ^/ity (I also was at 
that age tharp vn tkae matters)^ X. C. 1. 2, 46. '^yttotd Todr' iifi7y iy4prro {the 
thought once occurred .to me), Cj. 1. 1, 1. IIcpl /iiy o9y r&p frm.^4»nmv iv r^r 
waipim ratV cfx^'MC civciy. Among the poets, particularly the Tragedians, 
this use of the PL is more frequent, a transition from the Sing, to the PI. 
often ocean, e.g. Eur. H. F. 858. "HX^oy fiaprvp6/Atff^u Zp&o^, h Bpw ot 
fioiXoiAou Hipp. 244. ai9o6fi€^a yiip r^ AcAryyi^Mi fiou 

Rem. 13. In an address directed to several persons, the Greek has several 
peculiar idioms: — 

(a) The Imp. Sing. €It4 and some others, which denote an exhortation or 
animating call, e. g. &7c, ^ dot, 194, is frequently connected in the Attic 
writers with a Voc. PI., or with several vocatives, e. g. PI. Euthyd. 283, 
b. €M HOI, & 'XAKpards re icol d/ic7s ol &\Xo{. Bem. Chers. 108, 74. *h4 
fiMi 0ovKtitcrb€. 

(h) In an address directed to several persons, the predicate in the PI. olten 
refers to a Voc. which denotes only one of the persons addressed; this is 
done for the purpose of making the principal person prominent. Od. /3, 
310. 'Avrlwo'f otfrws $orv &w9p^td\oio'i ut^* ifi7p Saiyvo^au fi, Sfi» yija 
l^^ytrt, <f>al9iti '08v<r<rcD. X. H. 4. 1, 11. fr^, 1^, 6fitis, & 
'HptiTTtBa, lad BiBdffictr€aibrhyfiov\r^yM&Ttp4ifuTf ol fi^y Bii hvaff' 
Tibrrcf HtBuffKow, An interchange of the Sing, and PL often occurs 
among the Tragedians, when the chorus is either addressed by others, or 
speaks of itself, the poet having in mind, at one moment, the whole 
chorus, at another their leader, e. g. S. O. C. 167. {cTvoi, /a^ Sqr^ hZucvf 
36 <roi irirrf^rof. 

(c) The second Pers. Imp. instead of the third, is sometimes connected with 
the indefinite pronoun rls or xas ris, or eve^ with a substantive and 
rU; this idiom, which is not common, occurs mostly in the Attic dia- 
logue, e. g. Ar. Av. 1186. x^P*^ (instead of xvp*^^**) Btvpo was ^vrip4- 
nis {every servant come hither): to|cvc (insteaa of ro^cu^w) vas tm 
{every one use his bow). Hence, also, the transition from the third Pcrs. to 
the second, e. g. Eur. Bacch. 327. (345.) 0-tcix^v » ris &s rdxos, iK^itw 
8^ bdKOvs ToC^, 1/ owyocKowu, fiox^ols rpudvou xitydrpt^oy tforoXaf^ 
irol — flints, Comp. Larger Grammar, f 430, 2 (7). 

f 242. Agreement when there are several subjects. 

1. When there are two or more subjects connected together 
there is a double relation to be distinguished : — 

(a) The subjects are regarded as expressing multitude ^ and 
the predicate is referred to all the subjects equally ; then 
the predicate is in the Plural, and when there are but two 
subjects, in the Dual or even in the Plural (coinp. k 241, 

310 SYNTAX. [i 242 

5) ; the gender of the predicative adjective is determiaed 

according to the following niles : — 

(a) With words of like gender denoting persons, tiie 
adjective has the same gender; with words of di£* 
ferent gender denoting persons, the gender of the 
adjective is conformed to the mascuhne subject 
rather than to the feminine or neuter, and to the 
feminine rather than the neuter ; in both cases the 
adjective and verb are plural. 

(/?) With words of like gender denoting things, the 
adjective is either in the same gender and in the 
plural, or is in the neuter plural; with words of 
diferent gender denoting things, the adjective is in 
the neuter plural. 

(y) When words denoting persons and things stand in 
connectioii, the adjective is plural and takes the 
gender of the words denoting persons, when the 
persons are to be considered as the more prominent 
idea, or the things are to be viewed personallf/; but 
when both are to be viewed merely as things, the 
adjective is in the neuter plural . 

Eol X^i^i} 'i Kol i^v/iia iral 9vsKo\la iico2 fiarta ToXXixu voAXotf 9ik 
tV rov ff^ftaros iraxcC^oy c^s rV 9tdyouuf ^/iirf irr o vo'iv, X. C 3. 12, 6. 'Xtucpd- 
rei S/AiKTiTk ytvofiijfw Kpirias r« kcH *A\Ktfiid9iis wXtiara Ktuch r^r 
wSkiv iiroiriirdrfip, ib. 1. 2, 12. 'HpaicA^s irol Siia^hs fi6yoi tmww^vf 
yfyrjfi^ytty iv^p rod filov rod rQv iy^p<&ir»p iL^Kijral Kar4<rrfitrap^ Isocr. 
Pan. 212. Ka2 ^ y^v^ «ca) 6 hv^ip ^yahol ^lany, PL Men. 73. A/ Z4 vov 
il/i^rtpai T* &A0X01 Kid r^wia rtxra €tar* iv\ fuydpou woriZ4yfi€wait 
II. /3, 137. *Cis c78c war4pa r< icol /i^r4pa icol iB^K^ohf jral r^ iuinov 
yvyaiKU alxi^*^^''''*^f y€y(r7ifi4yovs, iZducpvo'ty, X. Cy, 3. 1, 7. *H 
ipyh ic<dyi i^ffvy^ffia tlol KaxaL — X^fueros^KdKKos jcol Icrx^f ^*^f i^ok 
Ktuc^ ^vyotKovyra irp^vorr a ^o/yfTcu, PI. Menex. 246, e. Eiy4y§ial rt 
Ktd Hvyd/itis iral rtfi»l ZrjKd 4(rrty iya^ii tfvra, PI. *Hy ^ kyoph Kalrh 
xpvray^ioy Haptip x£^ ^arKii/i4yaf Her. 3, 57. Ail^ot re ica2 irX(ri^oi 
«co2 ^6\a jca) K4pafios irdmus 4fPi/iti4ya oHhy xp^^^f-^ i&rtM^ X. C. 
3. If 7. 'H r^x"*! ko) ^tXtiriros ^ccty rwy tpyvv K^pioi^ Aesch. 'H ataA* 
\itrrn ToKtrtia re kolL 6 KdKXiaros iy^p Kotxh &v 4jfuy cfi} BccX^Zr, 
*vpayyls re icol r^fpayyus^ PI. Rp. 562, a. 

(b) Each subject is considered separately and ly itself; then 
the predicate is confined to one of the subjects and 


agrees with it Thiis construction is also used, when one 
of the subjects is to be represented as more prominent 
than the others. There are here three positions of the 
predicate: (a) before all the subjects; (b) after all the 
subjects; (c) after the first subject 

FLLys. 207, d. ^iAc« at 6 war^p ical ^ fnh^P* Her. 5, 21. cTvcrif <r^ 
ffol 3x4m>'>'<b Jcol btpJarorrtt atol ij iroffa iroAXJ^ TopcWKCiH^. X. B. Ath. 1, 2. 
W whmrws fuH 6 9^/lot vXdw fx<(* ^^* Symp. 109, c. at rtfuit airtSs ica2 r^ 
l«p* rkw^fArSw iuf&p^frmy ii^ari(tro, Th. 8, 63. ol 4pt§ MiA^ry atol d 
'Arr^oxos. . . ^^ipo'ifirf. Th. 3, 5. McA^af Adicww k^iKPttrai koI 
'E^ui/Awias 9tifiaSos. X. An. 2. 2, 1. ^aKtPos ^x*^^ ''^ ^2 triw tdrrf. 

Rbxabk 1. Sometimes the verb, though it follows different subjects, agrees 
with the first subject, the remaining subjects being then represented as subor- 
dinate, e. g. X. An. 1. 10, \,fiaatX9hs 9^ KoL ol aby airr^ 9i^Kmr tlswlw' 
re I. 8o also with the attributive adjective, e.g. X. An. 1. 5, 6. hrrii 6fio- 
Kohs KoL iifuofi6\unf 'Amiro^s (the adjective hero agreeing with i/SoXo^t 
rather than ^fuo$6\toy), Th. 8, 63. 'Airr^X''^ iw^tro ror "Xrpofifitxi^Vf 
«al r^s pavs ikwt\fiKv^6ra. 

Buf. 2. The verb sometimes stands in the Sing., if several nouns in the 
PL denoting things precede, when it is intended to represent those nouns as 
maldng up cne whole, as a condition, state, etc., e. g. PL S. 188, b. jial irdxy*^ 
col X"^*Ca' '^ ipvfflfiat iK ir\tw^ias jcol ittcoafdas ircpl &XAi|Aa Twy tmo^ 
rwy ylyytrai ipon-uc&p, 

Rkx. 3. When the subjects are connected bpr ff — ff , attf — aitf , at a ( — xat, 
St — et, oi^rc — olfrc, neque — neoue, the predicate agrees with tiie subject 
standing nearest to it, if each subject is to be regarded aeparatdy and ly mdft 
e. g. 1^ ^of, fj iKwos &Xif&9 A^7ci, ant hie, ant illo vera dicU; but when the 
subjects are not considered separatelv or as independent of each other, but as 
expressing pluralitv, the preaicate is in the PL, e. g. Dem. Aph. 817, 12. A 

Bem. 4. The attributive adjective commonlj' agrees with the substantive 
nearest to it, e. g. 'Afi^or/poif ol abrol SpKoi md ^v^fiaxi» atar^mr, Th. 
But where perspicuity or emphasis requires it, the adjective is repeated with 
each substantive, e. g. vcCyrct ipipts leat xatrai yvvatrntsi or the con- 
structions stated under Ko. 1 are observed, e. g. 'Hf)a«cA^faca2 Siiaths fUyot, 
nariip Kol iiiirrip acol AScA^ol aiXM'^'^'''^* Ycyeynft/i^oi, etc. Sc^ 
examples under No. 1. 

2. When several subjects of different persons have a com- 
mon predicate, the verb (which is commonly plural) is in the 
first person rather than the second or third, and in the second 
rather than the third. 

*Ey^ iral av ypdipofitVt egoeitu 9cribimus, — *E7^ acol ^acciVof ypd/^fup^ egoetilU 
tcribimus — 'E7& irol 0^ ica) ixtiyos ypd^fuy, ego ettu el ille scrilnmus. — "Xb koI 
iKMOfOf ypap€rt, tu et iUe scribitis. — *Eyi» koL iicttyoi ypd^fity, — H&koI ixttyot 
ypdiprrt, — *HfuTs xol inuyot ypd^fuy. — 'T/mis accd inuyos ypdi^rrt. 

Bxx. 5. Sometimes also for the sake of a more forcible contrast, the person 
«f the verb agrees with the subject nearest to it, e. g. X. C. 4. 4. 'f. ircpl to9 


312 SYNTAX. [♦ 2-13. 

tucaiov wdyv otfuu vvv lx<*^ €lw€iv^ -wf^s K ofirt ah oUr tjf &XXos oht^Xt 8^« 
I' a IT* hmnctiif, PL Phaedon. 77, d. tfuts 94 fut Soiccti a6 re irak X^t^Ums 
fili4ws ty Kcd rovroy iiavpayfiareCa-acr^ai {pertractare) rhy K&r^foy, X. An. S. 1 , 
1 8. 0- v re 7^ "^EAAtiv c7 koI V<^^- Comp. Kcin. 4. 

\ 243. Remarks on certain Peculiarities in the us€ 

of Number. 

i. The Sing, has Bometimes a collective sense and takes the place of the 
Pi.; thus in the poets: ZAKpvov^ kKris^ vrayAp, trrdxvff ianxtl^tUw^ 
in prose: icG/ua, iir^^is (like vegtis)^ Ki^os, vKlr^oSf &/ivcXof» ^ tw- 
wost oavalry^ ii iiirwlSf a body of trooptj etc* 

2. Entire nations, that live under a monarchical government, are sometimes 
designated in prose, by the Sing., c. g. 6 n4p<niSjthe Persians^ 6 ^Apdfiios^ 
6 Avd6s, 6 'Airiripios, etc. This rarely occurs in respect to nationi that 
have a free govcmmcnt, e.g. rhy 'EAAiyi^a ^Ikoy wpos^adai. Her. 1, 69. Also 
the words a-rparuirnst ToKtfuos and the like, are sometimes used in the Sing, 
instead of the PL 

3. The PL properly belongs only to common nouns, not to proper names, nor 
to the names of materials, nor to abstracts ; still, even such nouns in certain rela- 
tions take the PL, namely, when they express the idea of a common noun : — 

(1) Proper names: (a) to denote several individuals of the same name, e. |^. 
Zio Kar^Xoi; (b) to denote persons that possess the nature or the qualities 
of the individual named, c. g. PL Thcaet. 169, b. o2 'HpaK\4§s tm mal 6i}- 
ir4€Sf men like Hercules and Theseus, 

(2) Names of materials occur not seldom in the PI., since either the single 
parts, which make up the material, or the different kinds of a given material^ 
are contemplated, e. g. &\ts, salt ; y^dfia^oi, sand ; wvpol irol Kpt^at] &y9 
fios Kot SSara, olyoi iroAvrcAcis, oJyoi wakaioi] ^^Aa koI \(^os, 

(3) Abstracts in the plural have a concrete signification, since the plural is 
used when the separate kinds or circumstances or relations of the abstract idea, 
arc denoted, or the manifestation of the abstract action, as repeated in different 
places or times ; hence also when the abstract idea relates to several persons, 
e.g. Herod. 7, 158. &fuy fieydkeu ar^cAfai re koI iwavptatis y^ylywsu 3, 
40. ^/io} a/ o'o) /LtcTttAoi cdrvx^ai ohx hp4ffKova'i, So tx^Vt i^^^f^citio^! ara» 
anst scd'itiones; ^lATai, TaAaiir«»/>fai, a^rumno^; ^dyarot, mortes; ^vx^il 
KoX ^iAiri7, ^vfioif anim; ^6fioi^ ^poyfiatiSf reflections; &ir^x^<<<''« 
&v8f>tai, brave deeds; ^ylttai ical cvc^fai ruy actfidroty, like valetudineSy 
etc.] irtffTtis, testimonia ; tuyotas Zovpai, to show acts of kindness ; x^P^'*'^^^ 
presents; in many cases, the PL denotes a plurality of parts, e. g. »Aa5To», 
treasures^ divitiae (tXovtos, ricJies, abstract) ; yd fiat, nuptiae; v^fcres, thehoun 
or watches of the nighty horae noctumae ; ra^at, funera^ etc. So, e. g. in Eng- 
lish, How long these nights are f when one night is meant. 

Kemabk. The Greeks coramonly use the PL of Abstracts as well as Con- 
cretes, when they refer to a PL A4in the idea contained in the sbstmct term 

i 244.] THE ARTICLE. 313 

being then applicable to seTeral persons, c. g. koicoI r^s ^vx^*; icakoi rk 
w^fiara'^ 6purroi rhs ^^ircis; coi raia yif^fiais ical rots a^tiairt 
9faAJi6f$it9ot, X. Cy. 1. 3, 10. 

4. When neuter adjectives, pronoans, and numerals are used as substantives, 
Ihe Greek, like the lAtin, alwajrs employs the Fl., when several individual 
things, individual relations or circmnstanoes, a whole which is represented as 
consisting of single parts, are to be understood by these words ; the English often 
OSes the singular here, as Mis, t^ (ravra, ^KCiirai). Comp. § 241,Rcm. 3. The 
Sing, of adjectives used substantively is put in the Ncut., when an abstract idea, 
a whole as such, is to be expressed, e. g. rh jmA^k, the becmtifid in the abstract, 
vi KOK^f the bad. The Pl^ on the contrary, denotes a concrete idea, L e. the 
different parts, dasses or conditions which are implied in the abstract, e. g. rk 
itaXd, res pulcKrae ; vii Kcucd^ mala^ the evU deeds^ thingSf etc. 

4244. Thb Articlb. 

1. The subject as well as every substantive, takes the 
article, when the speaker wishes to represent an object as 
a definite one, and to distinguish it from other objects of the 
same kind. The substantive without the article denotes 
either an indefinite individual| or it represents an abstract 
ides in the most general manner, without any limitation. 

"Ay&pttwos: (a) a man, as an indimdudl^ i. e. some one of the race of menj 
(b) Mon, a man^ as a spedes; 6 iy^pttwot : (a) the man, as an individual, the 
man whom I have in view and consider as an individual distinguished from 
other men ; (b) the man, as a class or species^ as I think of him as something 
definite and limited in respect to his entire nature or constitution; — ydKot 
rniUc, rh yikOfthemilk {as a particular substance); irQ^lo, wisdom,^ ffo^lot 
the wisdom {viewed as a d^nite property or particular kind of wisdom) ; ^tXocopiof 
pldlosophy in general, ri ^tXo<rwpta, as a particular science or a particular branch of 
philosophy. When the Inf. is to be considered as an abstract substantive, it has 
the article, e.g. r^ ypd^sir. But the abstract nonn takes the article when 
It expresses a concrete idea, e. g. ^ ^rd^ts, the (particular) sedition; rh 
xpayfiOjthe (particular) deed; hence also the PI. al ^rdirsiSf rk wpdy 

Kemark 1. From what has been said, it follows: (a) That the substantive, 
as Uie subject of a sentence, may stand with or without the article, according 
as it is intended to be represented, either as a definite or an indefinite object; 
(h) on the contrary, that the substantive, as a predicate, must be generally with- 
-it the article, since the predicate does not denote a definite individual, but only 
the abstract idea of a quality in general. Her. 1, 103. y ^^ i^ iifi4pa iyivtro^ the 
iay became night, Isocr. Nicocl. 28, a. \6yos &X)}d^s jto) ySfUfios koI itxatos ^vxnt 
ir^^s Kol irurrris €tliu\6y ioru But when the predicate denotes a definite, 
a before-mentioned, or a well-known object (No. 6), it of course takes tho 
article. Her. 1, 68. <rwtfidWeTo rhv *Op4<rrriif rovroy thai, he concludid that 
litis vns ihe Orestes, namelu, tlie one before-mentioned. 5,77. oi 8* lvTofi6rat 
ikoKiopro oi irax««*» fhf irch Lore the name of {before-mentioned) iTvofiSTcu. Ir 

314 « SYNTAX. [k 244. 

jMsmff^es Ilko X. Cy. 8.3,4.6 fthf raSra thrity Ttt^hAfif 6 8c 'Apfiinot ^vfip- 
voo&w€fjar€ koH ol AkKm irc(yrcy Av^ptnroij iunucaXovirrts rhif cvcpy^rify, riv 
iyBpa rhy kya^6y. An. 6. 6, 7. ol Zh AkKot ol vap6yT€s r&y vrpanmrmm 
iwix^tpowri fid\K€iy rhy A^(iinrov, &iwra\ovKres rhy vpoSiirijr, tho article 
denotes, that the ideas expressed by benefactoTy honest man, Umtor, point to a 
definite action either before named, or well-known. — When the pr^icate is a 
snperlatire or a substantire with a snperlatiye, the article b not o^ed in Greek ; 
the English, however, uses it here. Oi ^ami^h-ai thi irovnp6raroi iuf^o^wwy 
Kot iBiK^raroi {the most wicked^ etc.), Dem. 25, 2.'Ay8p2 koXj^ K&ya^ ipya- 
via KparicTfi i<rr\ ytotfr/la, X. Oec. 6, 8. Comp. 4 241, 7. 

2. Hence the article is used to denote the whole compass of 
the idea, everything which can be included under the term 
used; one object is here considered as a representative of the 
whole class. 

*0 Ay^puiros ^mp-^s iart, men (i. e. all men) is martaL Xf9i •> mrh ^&^ 
ywdm rhy fiiropa ical rhy if6/ioy, Aesch. Ctes. 16. 'H iiyZpsltn teoK^ 
ivruf, i. e. eyerything which is understood by the idea of iuSp^teu T^ ydka 
fjiv iirrip, 

Bem. 2. Where the English nses the indefinite article a or an, denoting 
merely a class, as a many or an individaal of a class who is not distingnished 
from the others, as some man, it not being determined what man, the Greek 
omits the article ; hence hf^pwos in both instances. 

Bek. 8. Common nouns sometimes omit the article, where, according to the 
statement in No. 1, it would be inserted. This is the case: (a) In appellations 
denoting kindred and the like, where the particular relation is obvioos of itself, 
or is sufficiently definite from the connection or the context, e. g. ircrH^p, u^knip, 
vl6s, &8cA^s, wcuitSy yoyfTsy ity^p, ku^tandy yvrlt^ wifoy etc. Comp. the expres- 
sions, Father has said t/, Mother comes ; (b) When two or more independent sub- 
stantives are united, forming one whole, e. g. iroIScr Kot yvyaucts (like English 
wjfe and childy horse and rider)y t6\is koL olxtoi {city and houses)y Th. 2, 72; (c) 
When common nouns are, at the same time, used as proper nouns ; these being 
definite from their nature or from usage, do not need toe article, e. g. fiXios, ovpay 
yds, &rrv, used of Athens, irJA.ts, of a particular city, known from the context, 
y^, of a particular country, fiaariKevs, of a particular kingy commonly the kina of 
Persia, etc. ; other like expressions arc Ikytfiosy MXafftra, etc The article » 
often omitted also with words denoting time, though this is generally the case 
only in connection with prepositions, e. g. iup* iifiipasy fi^xpt yvKr6s, &/ia Sp^p^, 
w€pl iiXiov ^wTfidSy fi€Th *lMov &Kt»ffiv. The omission of the article is altogether 
natural when a common noun has an abstract signification, or expresses an 
action, or the manner of an action, most frequently in connection with prepo- 
sitions, e. g. ^€ur;^ai ^ovsy to believe in gods. *Eir2 luirvoy ik^ttyy to come to 
supper, to a feast, X. C. 1. 3, 6. *£^* Xnrov Uvaiy horse-back. '£▼! biipay i^idrat 
(i. e. ad venandum). X Cy. 1. 2, 9. u6Ttpoy iirurrd^fyoy riyioxf^ M C^^yos 
Xafitiy Kpurrovy ^ fiii imffTdfityoy {ad veliendum), X. C. 1. 1, 9. *Eirl de^p l4yM 
{aquatum ire), Her. 3, 14 

Hem. 4. The names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and vices, often 
omit the article, even where they occur in a definite relation, since, as well- 
known appellatives, they have come to be used as a kind of proper names, e. g. 
Xldma /Jtty oty f/xoiyc Hoku rh KoXh hoDl rk iayv&k haieiirh ^Xyaiy obx fjicurra 84 
ato^poalyti, X. C. 1. 2, 23. *Eirel oZv t<£ re ZiKotaKajL rk &XA.a iroA^ re koSl 
kr}/Si^ 'whn a i^ry vpdrrtraty BijXoy cTi^cu, Hn Koi BtxatoiT'Oyri jvol ^ i^kti vciv* 
kprr^ tro^ia iarl, 3. 9, 5. 'Eirto-r^/ii; &pa ffo^ia iarly, 4. 6, 7. Md[A.irr« 7^ 

f 244.] THE ARTICLE. 315 

ifufifi?Jitcfi air^ IwriKriSf Cy. 8. 3, 25. The omission of the article is natuial 
also, when an abstract is to be represented actively^ e. g. *£y ^iKoffo^l^, (wriy, 
in phikiKpkizmg (in pkilosonhanao)^ PL Phaed. 68, c. But where a particular 
ait or science, etc is to be distinguished from another, the article is used, e. g. 
^^opuri}, 4&pi3fi|7r«r4. The substantives ti4yt^os, rKTJ^os, 0^os, eS- 
poT, fid^os, y 4 if OS and the like, are very often found in the Ace. or DaL 
without the artide, as they are to be received as a kind of adverbial expression, 
e. g. woTofihs K^ros Svofta, tdpos Bvo wKi^paw, two pleihra tinde,i.An. 1. 
2, 23. 

3. The article is very often used with common nouns to 
denote what belongs to an object or is requisite for it, what is 
due to it 

X. Cy. 3. 3, 6. 'Eyo/i/^c ydp, ci tKorros rh fi4pos h^itwatyoy iroi^tf'cic, rh HKop 
airr^ koXms Ix'iv (partem^ cut praeest; centuriam suam). 8. 3, a ytlfias 8i rolrrw 
(rw aTO>M») rh fi4pos kKdxrr<» r&v ^lytfiSywy, MXtwrw ahrohs roiroii KOfffUiy 
rous cuurr&v ^i\jovs {partem debitam). An. 7. 6, 23. iiKKd, ^rirt &y, fSti tA 
iy4xvpa r&r^ Xafitar, &s fjorfih c2 ifiovKtro iBi&reero ttp reaha i^eararw {the ntflOf- 
ureM requisite to guard against deception). 5. 6, 34. ol ffrpoeruircui ifw^Oiovy airr^ 
cl Kfy^yroi hiwu^iZpiffKoyra^ tii r^y ZiKiiy iwtd^ouy {the due, deserved pun' 

4. Hence the article very often takes the place of the posses- 
sive pronoun, when it is connected with such substantives as 
naturally belong to a particular person, mentioned in the sen- 
tence. In such cases, the English uses the possessive pronoun. 


Oiyoy€7s r& r^jvya ffr4pyovffiy {parents love THEin children). 'O arpornyhs 
rovs trrparK&Tas M robs To\ffAovs tfyci {leads HIS soidiers), Kvp6s tc 
Ktcram^aas Airb rou &pftaros rhy ^wpana iy49v JvcU iumfiiis irl rhp 
fvwoy rii TaXrk elf riis x^'P^' lAo^e, X. An. 1. 8, 3. 

5. As the article may make one object prominent, by indi- 
vidualizing it and presenting it apart from others, it is often 
used, when an object is to be represented in a distributive rela- 
tion to the predicate of the sentence. 

TkposoiTovffi h\ fua^hy 6 Kvpos inurxyfirm i^tiy iurrl Hap^iKOv rpia ^fiiZap€UciL 
row firiyhs r^ <rrpari<&r'p {singulis mensibus singulis militSbus^ three half' 
Jhria a month to each soldier^ comp. English so much the pound), X. An. 1. 3, 21. 
|Comp 5. 6, 23.) Aapwuehy tKwrros otfftt rod firiyhs ^ft&y {each of you shall 
»tave a Doric each month), 7. 6, 7. 'O Sh avyt&urb^ls rhy tya i^wfihy hi Hijf^ 
rpotir4fiwfiy, Zre fi^ iraptiri voXX^, S^vcur* tat &X^»r r^ M xpV^^^ {singula panii 
frustra, to dip each morsel into the different sauces). Id. C. 3. 14, 6. 

6. Tlic article is properly and originally a demonstrative 
pronoun, and is still often used in a demonstrative sense. Thi« 

316 SYNTAX. ^ [i2A^ 

is particularly the case in Homer, where the article almost uiii- 

formly has a pronominal relation. Comp. i 247. 

The simplest of the article as a demonstrative, is as follows : An object 
not before described or referred to, when it is first mentioned as an indefinite 
individual, docs not take the article j bat when it is repeated, it takes the article, 
bccatisc it has been already refcrred to and is known, e. g. tSiw ip9pa ' A tt 
ikP'fip ftoi IXc^cv. Ilcnee the article is also used when the speaker poinis to an 
object, e. g. *4p^ /ioi, & weu, rh fi i0\ioy {the book =» this or that book). In this 
relation, the article may be nsed with material noans, e. g. a6s fiot rh yaKa {the 
milk^ which had been pointed out) ; and even when a part only of the material is 
referred to, the article is employed, thoogh material nonns elsewhere are always 
without the article, as they contain no idea of indiridoality, e. g. Tllpm to9 
oivov (ofOiis wine). The article is often used in speaking of persons or things 
known and celebrated, where the Latin uses the pronoun iUe, e. g. 6 KoXhs wms^ 
tJuU beautiful Unf ; this is very frequent with proper names. See No. 7. 'Ore 
U4p^s ity§lpas rify ikyapl^/mroy crpariky ^A^cy M rV '£AAi£a {that 
numberless host), X. An. 3. 2, 13. 

7. Personal proper names as such, i. e. so far as they in them- 
selves denote merely individuals, do not take the article. But 
they take it, when they have been already mentioned, and 
arc afterwards referred to (No. 6) ; or even when they have not 
been before named, if it is intended to designate them as well- 
known and distinguished (No. 6). Plural names of nations, 
and afso the names of countries, districts, and festivals, are 
l)oth with and without the article. 

'ZuKpdrris t^. So also where an adjective is joined with a proper name, 
e.g. 0-0^^1 "iuKpdryii, the wise Socrates, ^ZyiKfiffety Brifiaiet AaiceSai^o- 
viovs, *AfipOK6fias ob rovi' iirotrio'tVf &AA* ivtl ffirovc Kvpoy iy KiAiirif 
Syra, kycurrp4r^as 4k ^oiuIktis irapk fieurtX4a iirfiXavyfVf X. An. 1. 4, 5. Kv- 
poy 9l fieTatr4fiirtTcu {Aapuot) . . iyaficdyft otk 6 Kvpos^lSi An. 1. 1, 2. *A«^ 
rov *l\te'<rov \4yrreu S Bop4at rifv *tlp€l^vtap opirclo'ai, PI. Phaedr. 229, b 
(cm well'knoum names). 

Rem. 5. When a noun in apposition, accompanied by the article, follows 
a personal proper name, the proper name does not take the article, o. g. 
Kpotaos, 6 r&v AuS£y jBdurcXc^s. But. yet when the article is nsed, e. g. 
h KpoTcos, 6 rAy Av8£r fituriXt^Sf it has a demonstrative sense, and desig- 
nates the proper name as one already mentioned or known. The noun 
in apposition is accompanied by the article, when it serves to distin- 
guish the person or thing mentioned from others of the same kind, or 
.when the person or thing named is to be pointed out as one known, e. e. 
J^KpdrriSt 6 ^i\o<ro<po5\ itaKpdTijs, 6 *A^yauoSy SocnUes^ the philosophu^ the 
Athenian; X^iphopof, 6 Awcfbaufiiivtos \ on the contrary, the noun in apposi- 
*: A .. *_!... .1 :..!_ „.!-__ !. , ,. attribn- 

*Opxon4yioSf Cleaner of Oi-chomenus^ X. An. 3. 2, 4. The names of rivers ars 

f 244.3 "^"^ ARTICLE. 317 

eonimonly placed as adjectives between the article and the word TorofiSst e. g 
S'AXvs 'TorrtMfjJs {the river Halys), Her. 1, 72. 6 'Axc^^os woroftSs, Th. 2. 108. 
M T^ lidpw wrofidMt M rhy li^paiwv warofidif, X. An. 1. 4, 1. M rhv Eif^>pd' 
niif voTafi6v, 11. wp^s rhu ^Apd^riv irtyrafi6vf 19. Examples like the following 
are more seldom : irrl r^ Torofi^ Kcuevrdpet, Th. 7, 80. ivl rhy toto/x^i^ rhf 
*£pcyf^y, ib. 82. Sometimes the article is wanting : ^irl "Vdpoy iroTofidy (uccord> 
ing to the best MSS.), X. An. 1. 4, 1 ; ^irl "Apiratroy irorofiSy (according to the 
best MSS.), ib. 4. 7, 18 ; voroft^y 2cX<revs-, 5. 3, 8. The names of mountains, 
islands, seas, cities, etc, are also placed between the article and the noun, wl)cn 
they are of the same gender or, at least, of the same declension as the nouns to 
which they belong, viz. 7^, ixpoy, tpos, yrjcos, etc., e. g. M r^v ^Xvyfiay Kt&iaiv^ 
Th. 4, 43 ; rh 'Zovyioy &Kpoy, ii &f(nrp€or\s yrj, ^ ArjKos yiiffos ; rod J^KOfifipov Spous^ 
Th. 2, 96: rov Alfuw 6pouf, Th. 2, 96 {6 Alfios)] ii B6\fiii Xifivji, Th. 1, 58. 4, 
103; 4 MMfi v^ts, Th. 4, 130. But if the gender (or declension) is not the 
same, they mast be regarded as in apposition with the nouns to which they 
Ijelong, and are placed before or after them, e. g. ry 6p€t r-g rcpavcff , Tli. 4, 70 ; 
T^y tutpoM rh Kvphs tnjfio, 8. 105 ; Trjs^li'ns rov ipovs, 108 ; ^ AiiKv^os rh ippo^ 
pury, 4, 113 ; r^ xttf^w o2 *Eyy4a i9ot, 1, 100 ; r^y ir6\i.y rovs Tap<ro6s, X. An. 1. 
2, 26. The article is seldom omitted, e. g. inrh 'Afihipwy 'ir6K€vs, Th. 2, 97. 

8. When adjectives or participles are used as substantives, 
they regularly (according to No. 2) take the article. The Eng- 
lish here either employs an adjective used substantively, as t/ie 
good; or a substantive, as the speaker (= tJie one speaking) ; or 
resolves the participle by he ivho^ they who, thai which (= to the 
Lat M, qui). This usage is very frequent in Greek with all the 

'O ffo^s^ the wise {man)^ a wise {man), 0I aya^oi^ ol Koxoi, ol ^iKdCoyres {those 
who jvd<ie), the j'ttdi/es ; ol \4yoyrfSy t)te orators ; rh iuyaAiy^ rh Ka\6yy rh Ka\di, 6 
fiouKS/AtyoSt quivis; 6 rvx^y^ wftoever fiappens, 'O irKttirra wiptkuv rh Kowhy 
fuyUrroty riftuy i^iovrcu. *0 irXc<<rra J>^cX^<ras rh k. fi. r. i^tovrtu, *0 xAei* 
era tf^cA^crw r. k. fi. r. a^to»d^<rerat, — 'O iptriiy tx^^ irXovrci pXy Syroty 
^iK»y roKh&Vf wKovrti Sk Kol AKKwy fiov\0fi4ycoy ytyie^ai koX tZ fjiky irpdrrwy Kx^i 
rohs irvvfiff^fi<roft.4yovs, iiuf ^4 ri ir^oXp^ oh tnraylCfi ray Pori^rjir6y' 
r « y, X. An. 7. 7, 42. But when the adjectives and participles arc designed to 
express only a part of a whole, the article is omitted, e. g. iiya^oty good men ; 
^Aotro^vyrts, fial^6yr(s ; Ktuch iral alirxpit Ihrpa^ty, 

9. Participles also take the article, when definite individuals 
are spoken of, in the sense of those, who; a participle with the 
article is very often appended to a preceding substantive, in tlie 
form of apposition, in order to give prominence to the attribu- 
tive meaning, somewhat in the sense of cum, earn, id dico, qui, 
quae^ quod, ox et is quidem, qui. 

Her. 9, 70. xp&rot isrjK^oy Ttyerircu is rh rtlxos, ical r^y trKTiyiiy toC MapBoytou 
mUroitvaM ei hiapvi,ffayr^s {andtheaeareAeyiJiatvobbed^^iii.l* X. C. 2. 6, 1& 
0^ ftAyoy ol IZwrai rovro woiovaiy, &AAa iced v6Ktis a I r&v re KoX&y fiikurra 
IviMcXo^/icyai, Koi rit cuVxp^ iKiara 'wposi4fi§yat woKKixts iroAc/uKwi 

318 SYNTAX. [♦ 240. 

txowr^ *^P^' &AA^Aar. 3. 5, 4. Bouorol fUif, o/ Tp6ff^€r oJiflT #r rf imnSnf t#X 
Tciri^ai, yw kwttXjoutrtp atnol Kad^ itwrohs iftfidKw §ts rj^y 'Arrud^y. 

10. The Greek may convert adverbs of place and time, more 
seldom of quality, into adjectives or substantives by prefixing 
the article. In like manner a preposition with its Case may h» 
made to express an adjective or substantive meaning. 

'H tuw ir6\Ut the upper city. *0 fura^b r6wost the intervening place. Of MiO* 
Av^puvot or ol 4v^^. *0 ww fiariXt6s, O/ wdkat ve^ Mpes. Ol t4vm, tht 
rnen of that time, 'H aJBptoy (sc ilfi4pa). 'H i^ed^yis /urdtrreuru. 'O Acf, an m- 
mortaL So rh and r& yw, now^ i. e. of the present time; rh TdKaUfJormeriy^ in (&» 
firmer time ; rh TpUf, rh aJbrUa, inmediaidy, Ol «tbv r&y arpartmrmrf the bed of 
the tofdien. Th ndpra ^vxos. 'H ttyay iifa4ktt€u *0 6/tokeyovfi4pms 9oSkn, Th 
6, 80. riir ijtuf96ytts SovXc/or. So also rh wdfiway and rh ftopJaroM^ omnino, r} 
ndpra, rh ir9(Meiro\6 used adverbiallj. Even: 'H rw y^^p&y ob 9tdKuau, tkt 
not destroying of the bridges. 'O wphs robs n4po'as r6\t/tos. Ol vcpi ^i^otrof lor, 
the philosophers. Ol 4v Hrrtt, 'H h X^p^vttir^ rvpawyis. 

11. The neuter article to, may be placed before every word 
or part of speech, when the word is not considered in relation 
to its meaning, but is used only as a form of speech, or when 
a preceding word is repeated, without regard to the structure 
of the sentence in which it is repeated. The Greek, by prefix- 
ing the article, may give even to whole phrases the form and 
meaning of an adjective or substantive. 

Th r^irrw, rh r^wrtis. Dem. Cor. 255, 4. bfuis, 2 Mpts ^Adritmof rh I* 
6ft c if Zrcof cfir», r^v T6\iy \4yu. Fl. Bp. 352, d. ob wtpi rod iwervx^y^^s (de ft 
Uvi) 6\Ayos {iffTly)y^^Xii'W€pi rov tvriya rp6woy xph Cv'^* 

5 245. Position of the Article. 

1. The article is sometimes separated &om its substantive by 
intervening particles, e. g. pAv^ $c, y4 re, 7^ ^ \ ^7 ^^ indefinite 
pronoun rls (in Herodotus very oflen), and by avm caurov. 

Thv fihf Mpoj r)iy th yvyeiuca. When a preposition stands before the article, 
the prose-writers say either : vphs Bh rhy Mpa, or wphs rhy Mpa 94, bat not v^ 
rhy ih Mpa. — T&y ris Utpff4wy, Her. 1, 85. Tois ednhs abrov w^fuun iSt^^rrrai, 
AcschyL Ag. 845. 

2. When several substantives are connected by ko* or «— 
Kui, there arc two Cases : (1) the article is repeated with each; 
then the separate ideas expressed by the substantives ore con* 

♦ 24d.J POSITION Of Tll£ AETICLB. 3l9 

sidered independent of each other, or they stand in contrast « 
or (2) the article is not repeated; then the separate ideas ax 6 
considered as forming one single conception. 

Hwcpdnji viyfa fry^tro ^sobs cfS^rax, rd n Xty6iuva ira2 itpttrrSiiepa Kot rh 
s-typ $av\Mv6fuva (the first two members form a whole, bat the last is contrasted 
with them), X. C 1. 1, 19. Al p<fitovpyiu K<d in rov wapax/nifM fjtorcd, 2. 1, 20. 
AI Irifi^Aciai rmy KaX&t^ Tc tcitya^y ^/Tv* >b. Td re crvf/updpoyra, Kid Ktxa^" 
iUpoj 2. 2, 5. O/ ar^cenrfoi Kcl \oxayoi, An. 7. 3, 21. T^ fuya\ovpnr4s re Koi 
iXnf^^ptoy koI rh rmt€uf6v re koX &ycA«^<^cpoy (here the first two and also the 
IbsI two form one single conception), X. C. 3. 10, 5. Tohs iypohs rohs iainov icat 
^(as, Th. 2, 13. Ol vwS^s re koL yvnuK€s (so many MSS.), PL Rp. 657, c. 


3. Wlien a substantive having the article has attributive 
expletives joined with it, viz., an adjective, participle, adjec- 
tive pronoun or numeral, a substantive in the Gen., an adverb 
or preposition with its Case 244, 10), then tlie article has a 
different position according to the idea to be expressed, as will 
be seen from the two following cases : — 

(a) The attributive is joined with its substantive to express 
a single idea, as the vnse mem = iJie sage, and is designed to 
contrast the object denoted by its substantive with other objects 
of the same kind. In thij case, the attributive stands either 
between the article and the substantive, or after the substantive 
with the article repeated ; or the substantive stands first without 
the article, and the attributive follows i with the article. 

O iiya^hs hyiip or 6 hof^p 6 iya^Ss or iuf^p 6 iya^6s (in contrast with the bad 
man). See Hem. 1. 0/ wKo^cioi woXTrcu or ol voXXrai ol irXo^toi (in contrast with 
poor citizens). *0 ifibs war-fip or 6 irarijp 6 ifiSs, Ol rptts Hy9pts or ol Mp*s ol rp€is, 
'O r&r 'Adyi^aitcy Brjfios or 6 S^/tos 6 r&v ^A^uedotv (the Athenians in contrast with 
another people). Ol wv Hy^ptnoi or ol &if^pwroi ol pOp. *0 vfh$ robs n4p<ras 
T6\ffios or 6 ir6K€fjios d vphs robs Tl4pffas (Uterally the against the Persians uxar^ i. c. 
the war against the Persians, in contrast with other wars). 'Awb dcJ^urcris rrjs 
*li&pwy, Tvpayyls ^ iv Xtppovi^a^, 'H ^i' SoXa^t iro^f rbv Tldpariv vavfiaxiof ^ ^^ 

* Where the attributive expletive consists of several words, or where the 
expletive is itself qualified by another expletive, it is usually placed after ita 
substantive, otherwise too long a phrase would intervene between the article 
and its substantive ; such expletives involved the idea of some such phrase as, / 
fiuan^ etc., e^ g. nfbxlc^aap iy reus K^fuus ra7s Mp rod wtZiov rod wapii rhy 
Ktrrplmiy wrofUy (ihof encamped in the villages [I mean] those above, etc.). Here 

rht X. An. 4. 2, 14. 

820 STNTAX. [i 24d 

Sahmis against the Persian tea-fight^ i. c» l3ie sea-fight in Salamis against^ etc Then 
last examples show that a substantive with its Case has an adjective force* 

Kemark 1. In the first position (6 ityd^hs &i^p), the emphasis is on the 
attributive^ e.g. Au irouScfos Koivwyttv rh ^^\v y4yos rj/uy r^ r&y it^^4p€00 
(y^i^ei), Fl. L. 805, d. But in the second position {6 iufiip 6 kyti^s)t the idea 
expressed by the substantive is represented as a definite one or one already 
mentioned, or is contrasted with that of another substantive ; In the third posi- 
tion [h^p 6 &yei^6s)i the idea expressed hy the substantive is represented as in- 
definite, but in contrast with another. Ti Sio^^pcc itf^pt^wos ixpariis ^^pi ow 
roD &KpaTC(rr«(Tot;, X. C. 4. 5, 11. 'H ipvr^ tr^yfcm fdy ^toTs, aiirtari i^ 
itp^p^irois ro7s iky a^ois, 2.1^32. Th&piarroyov tovs ySftovs iirrUf Icx^ 
c(v, &AA' &yZpck rhy firrit (ppoy^ctus /SatriAiK^y, Fl. P. 294, a. Auuteovyrai ai 
tikv TvpayylBts koI 6\iyapx^ai rots rp6w9*s r&w i^9trri^K6r9t9^ ol 84 
ir^Xcis (repubUcs) al 9fifiOKoaro^fi€yai rots y6fiois rots Kttfiiyogs, 
Acschin. 3,6. T^ IrcwtKhy rb iK^ivnv (sc. r»y TtKu^w) ovrot fidx^'^*^'''^ 
8i 6x\iTiKhy r6 7c r&y 'EK\-fiymy, &s iy^ A^, Fl. Lach. 19i| b. 'E7A 
fi^y ody ixtlyovf rohs Ay^pas ^fd oh /A6yoy r&y <ro»fidrcty r&y riii9r4pm9 
99r4pas cTkou, dAAck iced rris 4\tv^€pias r^s re ^fi€r4pas Kcd IvftvcCfrofy, 
r&y iy rpi§ rp ^c(p^, FL Menex. 240, e. Ai9^4pxoyrai ras rt cvfi^opits rk» 
4k rod iro\4fiov rod irphs iiWiiKovs rifuy yty€y7ifi4yas ica2 r^Ls inp€* 
Kflas riisiKrris crparetas r^s iir* ixeiyoy ^<ro|i/yay, Isocr. Fane^;. 
43, 15. Sometimes the position varies in the same sentence, e. g. T&i /i^yd* 
\as ^Zoyiks ical rit iiya^ii r& /jL€yd\a ri rct&it jvcd 4i Koprtpla Kal 0/ ^r 
r^ jvoup^ w6yoi koI niyBifyoi 7rap4xoyrm {great pieaswres and aaoatUaaes), X. Cy. 3. 
3, 8. U&s wort ^ iicparos iiieaioaiyii wphs iiiiKlay r^y inparow 
Hx^i ; Fl. Bp. 555, a. Then the second position does not differ from the first 

Reu. 2. "With a verbal substantive, the attributive expressed by a preposi- 
tion and its Case, is often placed after its substantive without the repetition of 
the article. So also, when an attributive explanation comes between the article 
and the substantive : *H cvyKoyuZ^ 4k r&y iyp&y is rh iarv^ Th. 2, 52. 'H ivr 
Jbfitr4oa hpy^ is MtrvXriyedovs, 3, 44. T^s r&y yvyauc&y ^nKlas wphs rovs iy^pas, 
X. Hicr. 3, 4. Also the more definite expletives of an Inf., Fart, or adjective, 
frequently are not placed between the article and these words: Tijy ao^lap 
rohs hpyvpiov r^ fiovXopAyfp vvAoGrrar ffo^urriLs kTOKoXowruf, X. C. 1. 6, 13 
(instead of rohs rV tro^tau . . . iruKovyras, in order to make prominent the idea 
in r^y (rofplay). 

(b) The attributive is joined with its substantive not to 
express a single idea, but is to be regarded as the predicate of 
an abridged subordinate clause ; then the attributive is not con- 
trasted with another object of the same kind, but with itself; it 
being designed to show that the object to which the attributive 
belongs, is to be considered, in respect to a certain property, by 
itself, without reference to another. In this case the adjective 
without the article is placed either after the article and the 
substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

'O iiy^p aya^Ss or kyabhs 6 Mip^ a good man (= iuya^hs Gy, the man who 
is good J inasmuch cm, because^ if he is good). Oi tiv^pwiroi fuffovm rhy iy^pa ita- 
k6v or KaKhy rhy tybpa, theg hate the had nvan^ i. e. they hate the man, inasmmJk 
a, because, if he is bad. (On the contrary, rhy Kcuchy liySpa or rhy iyBpa rhy 
mauciy^ the bad man, in distinction from the good \ hence, rohs fdy ieytii^cin &a^ 


hft^om irYvr&fi§Vy rohs dh KaK<^s futrovfuy.) *0 fiaa^^K€hs iiB4ots x^^C^^ fo^s 
woxItois iyadoiSy good citizens, i. e. i/or becattse they are good (on the contrary, 
rots inya^Ts voAircus or toTs itoXItcus rois iiyal^ots, good citizenSy in distinction 
from bad cttizoos). 'O d«^s r^r ^xV icpm,r iarnv r^ tu^p^tp ivi^wrty (a 
aouLy cuitisthB most excellent), X. C. 1. 4, 13. Of ivh rov iiKiov KaTaXaftx6fMPoi 
rikxp^t^o^ot fLf\dyr€pa Uxowru^ (a liacker skin; the blackness of the skin is 
the consequence of the icoraX^ircvdai inth rod ^Xtov), 4. 7, 7. *Eu4irfnia-dy tc rhs 
•mp&s ifiifiehs Koirh xP^f"'"^^ it^piraffay {quia deserta erant), Th. 1, 49. *A^m 
(postuh) robs hepinrovras ifiol fuy Hcp^ova rk ^irir^Scia iropcuricfvdt^ety, a^ohsih 
0aifi€vhs ro^my hrrwbai (^ &rrc aJlnk t^ova Civeu), X. C. 2. 1, 9. 

Rbu. 3. If a snbstantiTe having the article has a Gen. or a preposition and 
its Case connected with it, the position under (k) occurs, onl^pwhen the sub- 
stantive with its Gen., etc. forms a contrast with another object of the same kind, 
e. {?. 6 rmy *A^fiyaS»y t^futs or 6 ^ptos 6 r&y *A3i}mJ»v (the Athenians in contrast 
with another people) ; the emphasis here is on the Gen., e. g. Ovk iXKirptoy ifywrtu 
c?nu 4 'Adifya(«y Bij/ios rhy Brifialwy Z^fiovyiumfiiftrfiirKeratihKalria 
r&w W09y6ywp r&y kavrov €is rovs Biifiulovs vpoy6yovs tbtpy^ffUis, 
Dem. (rsephism.) 18, 186. 'E^ayar^^ iwh r&y 4y r^ Sv^priy r^K&y, X. 
An. 2. 6, 4. On the contraiy, the Gen. witliout the article, is placed either before 
or after the other substantive, when that substantive denotes only a part of that 
expressed in the genitive ; the emphasis is then on the governing substantive, 
«. g. 6 ZrifMs *Ji^yaie»yy or ^Abriyaiuy 6 ^iifiosy the peome and not the nobles. 
Hence, with this position, a partitive and not an attriontive genitive is used ; 
the Athenian people is not here considered in contrast with another people, but 
a part of the Athenian people is contrasted with another part of the same, viz., 
the nobles. Compare further, fi liWKpdTovs ^i\o<ro^ia or ^ ^i\oeo<pta ij XuKodrous, 
i. e. the philosophy of Socuates, the Socratic ptdloaophy, in contrast with the 
philosopny of another, c. g. Plato's, the Platonic, with ^ ^ikocoipta 7,o»Kpirovs or 
StftrfxiTovs yi ^tKoaofloy i. e. the FUiLOSOPnr of ihcrates and not something 
else of his, e. g. his life. *flnr€p otKlas rk kat u>^§y (domtis infimas partes) 
i<rxvp6rara cTyw Sc?, effro* Kcd r&y vpd^tuy rks &px"' '^^ '''^^ vrrod4' 
ertis ii\ri^M Ktd BiKotas ttycu irpos^fcci, Dem. 2. 10. Toirroy c2 l'^pfi|/c koI hrod' 
ficvcrcF, &s 9oKt* ^k^Jivaiay r^ ir Xij^ttyiothe multititde, not to the intelligent^ 
Pl. Mcnon. 90, b. T^ cT8es rod irat1i6s (contrasted with roCfyoua roDircu- 
^s), PL Lysid. 204, c. 

Rem. 4. When the genitive of the substantive pronouns is used instead of 
the posaesflivcs, the reflexives iftamov, <rcairrav, etc. are placed according to (a), 
e. g. Thy i/uanou iraWpa or rhy irartpa rhy ifutvrovy etc. ; l)ut the simple personal 
pronouns futv, aov, etc. stand without the article, either after or before the sub- 
stantive with the article, e. g. 6 inerfip ptov or fiou 6 iror^p, 6 woerfip vov or aov 6 
voT^p, 6 irar^p aWov (ckbriis) or avrov (o&r^s) 6 iror^p, my, thy, his (ejtis) faUier, 
6 voT^p ^pt&yt IfpAy^ y^yy airr&yy or J7^y, ifi&yy y^y, ain&y 6 irar^ipy our, your, 
their {emvm) father. But when the substantive has another attributive joined 
with it, these pronouns can stand between the substantive and that attributive, 
c. g. 'H v^Uoi riiju&y ^6<ris. In the Sing, and Dual, the enclitic forms are always 
used ; these never stand at the beginning of a sentence ; but in connected dis- 
course they can litand before the substantive which has the article. The Gen. 
of demonstrative and also of reciprocal pronouns, have the position of (a), e. g. 
4 ro6rou (ix^tyov) irariip or 6 Tor^p & rourov (txtiyov). T^ iSjJ\Kuy fvyoU^ The 
demonstratives are sometimes also found without the article after the substan- 
tive with the article, e. g. O/ iyayKcuoi ixdyovy Isoc. 9. 10. T^ itpk intivovy \\i, 
W. ToD »(rrpbs rolrwy IC 3. Tp vvv tpptt rovrov, Dem. 4, 3. 

Bbu. 5. The difference between the two cases mentioned is very manifiMC 
with the adjectives ixpos, fidaos, iT^rxaToi. When the position mentioned 

322 SYNTAX. [i 246. 

nndor (b,) occurs, the sabstantive with its attribative forms a coDtrast with 
other objects of the same kind, e. g. ^ fU<ni t^Ais or v6?u5 ^ ft^init the uiddlb dtjf, 
in contrast with other cities ; ^ icx^'rn pijcos, the most bbmotb idcmd, in oontn^l 
with other islands. *Es rh ivxctrov Upwiia rQs i^ov (in contrast with other ipA- 
/uwi), Th. 4, 35. When, on the contrary, the position mentioned nnder (b) 
occurs, the substantive is contrasted with itself, the attributive then only defin- 
iDg it*raore fully. In this last case, we usually translate these adjectives into 
Knglish by substantives, and the substantives with which they agree as though 
they were in the genitive, e. g. M r^ 5pci &tpy or h^ Hucptf r^ ^i, en the top 
of the mountain (properlv on the mountain where it is the tughcst) ; iy fidc^ rp 
w6K€i (seldom iv tf wokti fi^<r^)y in the middle of the city; iy iffxin^ rp r^y 
"r ^i' rlifftp T§ i^X^Vf* ^^ ^ border of the island. *T,v fidcois rots woktfdots 
dW;^ayff, X. H*. 5. 4, 33. Kark iiieov r&y k^kKov, Cy. 2. 2, 3. Ol U^patu rc^ 
&Kp€us reus X^P9^ X^H^^^ 8a<rcfas fx^^^^'^t ^' ^t ^7. 

Rem. 6. In like manner, the word fi6yos has the position mentioned nnder 
(a), when it expresses an actual attributive explanation of its itthstantire, e. g. 
6 lUvos musy the only son; on the contrary, the position mentioned under (b), 
when it is a more definite explanation of the predicate, e. g. 'O vuZr iM/Asms or 
t/uiams 6 rreSs v€d(aj the Imf plays alone {toithoui company). M^nfr r&y Jb Op ift g w r 
(yXjStfray) hrolffffoM {ol b^ol) otaof ip^pow r^ fofi^t i. e. ^ rSp &9dp. yX&m 
fi6yri itrrlvy %v iwoiricoM olay ir. r. X., they made the human tongue only^ capable o/* 
articuhtinff sounds^ X. C. 1. 4, 12. 

Rbm. 7. When a substantive has two or more attributives, one of which 
limits the other (4 264, 2), one position majbe as an English, e.e. Ol IUAoi ityar 
M Av^pmroiy 0^ other good men ; or the limiting attributive with the article either 
stands first, and the second follows with the article and substantive, or the 
limited attributive with the article stands first, and the limiting attributive fol- 
lows with the article and substantive. 'OvaurtKhs 6 r&v fiapfidptttf ffrpa 
r6s. AliX^xual Karh rh ffu/ia fiZovatj the other bodily ^easureSyVl.BLp, 
565, d. 'Ef^ roTs AxXois rois 4ftoTs x*f^<"^« ^J?* ^^1* (Wlieni&XX«s is 
joined with an adjective used substantively, the article is commonly repeated, 
c. g. rdiKKa t& woKirucd, X. Hicr. 9, 5. Ol AxXoi ol wmrvyxiawrreSf X. ApoL 
11.) 'H obx fiKurra fiKdj^affa ii Koifit&^ijs y6ffOS, Th. 1, 23. 'Ey if rod 
Atos rg fjueylirry jopr^, Th. 1, 126. *£; avrhp rhp M r^ irrSffart rov XtfUwos 
rhv Ircpor wipyoy, 8, 90. *Ev rp iipxoi^ fp iifitr^ptf, ^wyp, PL Cratyl. 
398, b. Th iy 'ApKoSff rh rod Aihs Up6y, Rp. 565, d. The limiting 
attributive can also stand between the substantive and the limited attributive ; 
in this case the article is used before each of the three parts, e. g. rii f^ix^ 
r& imrrwy r^ fiuKpk iircWxco-oy, Th. 1, 108. (But the article is omitted with 
a limiting demonstrative standine between the substantive and the limited 
attributive, e. g. Ti/y rovron raurjin r^y daoftaiirriiy irc^aX^y, PL Symp. 213, C.) 
Finally, if the limiting attributive with the article is plaiced first, the limited 
substantive and its attributive follow, both without the article, e. g. n^s r^ 
wdpot^t aufi^opiis €iZalfioyas, Kur. HcL 476. Td\as iy^ r^s 4y /mxS 
^vfifioXris fiapflas, Ar. Acham. 1210. 'Ar^ r&y iy rf Evp^hrp ir^Xcwr 
*E\\fiyl9»yt X. H. 4. 3, 15. Ths ^hrp ep^ olKo6oas v^Aeiy 'EAA.i|f»(- 
8a5, 4. 8, 26. 

Rbm. 8. When an attributive participle has a more definita expletive belong* 
tng to it, their relative position is as follows : — 

(a.) *0 wphs rhy ir6\€fwy a/pei^fli orpariiyds, 

(b) 'O arpariiyhs 6 wphs rhy ir6k€fioy alpe^^ls. 

When there are two of these more definite expletives, one stands either 
ifter tlie substantive or after the participle, e. g. Tj^y wp^s ZSfiovKoy ytyopAr^f 
wUrruf ^fiTy, Aeschin. 3, 25. Tivr ko^* bftas -wwwpaPfiUymy naXiSty rp viXf i, 
Dem. 18, 95. T^y vvy {nrapxovffiis airr^ ivydfitms, 4, 4. T^ inip* {i/uh imw^ 
}io(fcas a&T^ r^vis, 20, 83. 


(c) 'O aipcxydr xfAs rhif ir6\(fio¥ irrpaTriy6t, Ti^v iwipxcvaay tf 
r6\€t Zvpafity, Dcm. 8, 10. 

(d) 'O alpt^tls trrpariiyhs irpht rhif wSXtfioif, Tiiv vposovvay &8o(- 
iav r^ trpdyfiofrt, Dem. 6, 8. 

(e) 'O rphs rhy 'w6\Mfioy trrpariiyhs a/pc^c^f (this position is most fre- 
quent, when the participle has two more definite expletives). Tks M 
ToCrmt fi\aa^ii/ilas 9lpiifi4yas, 18, 126. At irph rod irrifupros v^er 
pavfiaxoutratf Th. 7, 23. ThxphsAifi^y ii4pos rerpafiAi/iroy, 58. 
When there arc two or more explanatory words belonging to the partici- 
ple, they are either placed between the article and the substantive, e. g. 
Tiltf r&T* BrifiaUts ^Afiiip ic«U 96^ay ivdpxovtray, Dem. 18, 98; or 
they are so separated, that one is placed either before the participle or 
after it, e. g. Oi mpk to6tw \6yoi rSrw ^i^^/yrci, Dem. 18, 35. 
Tninpfr^if hrhrovriww itc^dktiay iwipxovtray rp w6\§t, 19,84. 

RiM. 9. When a participle used sabstantively has predicative expletives 

£* »ined with it, these are placed between the article and the participle. Thos, 
r example, vp^cpos, irp£rej, tvrtpoSf 9oraros {he came first^ etc.), becomes : 
I vp^rcpof {irp&roSf Hvr^pos^ t^raros) i^tK6fityos (he who came 
J6nrt); iicBgy ofuurdyti becomes: 6 Akww kftaprdyuy] AySpcibs yofiiCeraii 6 
aydpcios yofAli6fi§yosj aurhs muctii 6 abrhs iiZtK&y (one doing wrong of 
his own acoord\\ rotovT6s i(my: 6 roiovros Ay] fi6yos iarrty: 6 fi6yos 6p, 
When the predicative expletive consists of an a4jective and substantive, the 
aobstantive is nsnally placed directly after the participle, e.^. vp&ros reray 
nivQS ra^iapxos (he who had been placed as me first centunon). 

♦ 246. Use of the Article with Pronouns and Numer* 
als, with and without a Substantive. 

1. The article is sometimes used with personal substantive 
pronouns in the Ace., either when the personality is to be made 
prominent instead of the person merely, or, what is more fre- 
quent, when a person previously mentioned is referred to. On 
6 Toibs, see i 344, Bern. 3. 

T^y iavrhy 9^ \4y»y fidXa fft/ums kcU iyKUfudCtoy (his important person), Fl. 
Fhacdr. 258, a. Acvpo 8^, ^ 8* tr, 9tfdh ii/i&v. Tloi, t^y iy&, A/yciT, ical vapA 
rfwu TO iff i&/uas (i. e. Ko} ri^cs curly t^oiy o6s \4ytu ^fias), Fl. Lys. 203, b. 

2. The article is used with a substantive which has a pos- 
sessive pronoun belonging to it, or the Gen, of a personal or 
reflexive pronoun (§ 245, Rem. 4), when the object is considered 
as a definite one or as relating exclusively to possession ; the 
possessive is placed between the article and the substantive 
[\ 245. 3 (a)]. 

'O ipuki wterfipf 6 ehs kiyos^ thy word (a definite or particular one), 6 i/^s ircus, 
wy son (a definite one of several, or even the only one) ; also 6 xiyos ffov\ thy 
rfttvroD war4pa or rhy war^pa rhy awvrou ] on the contrary, the article is omitted 
when it is to be denoted, that the object named belongs to the possessor in 
eommon with others of the same kind, or when the substantive with the posses* 

324 SYNTAX. [J 246 

sivc 18 a pi'cdicatc or in apposition : ifjihs &8cA.^f or iZtK^s fiou, a tnviher of 
wine (it not being determined wliich); ifths rtus or tcus ftovi out6s iaTi{^) 
ii8cA4>is ir6s or aZ€\<p6s ffov \ ovtos, itJSfK<phs 4fi6s or itBeKip^s ftav, 

3. A substantive to which one of the demonstrative pronouns 
ovTo^, oh€i iK€ivos9 aud even avro^fipse, is joined, regularly 
has the article. As these pronouns are not considered as at> 
tributives, but either as substantives (he, the man)^ or are taken 
in a predicative sense {Uie man, who is here), they stand either 
before the article and the substantive, which is then in apposi- 
tion with the pronoun, or afler the article and substantive [comp. 
1245, 3 (b)]; thus: — 

^tnos 6 iiyfip or 6 Mip oZtos (not 6 olros iv^), 
^c 71 yrAfjoi or ^ yyt&fifj fjBf (not rj f|Sc yy^firi), 
iicfTyos h hf^p or 4 kv^ iKH¥os (not 6 inuwos iHp), 

minhs 6 $curiK§6s or 6 fiwnKths alrros (but 6 mMs fiariKt^s [seldom (6) fimn 
k€V5 6 avr6s] signifies idejn rex, the same king). 

Remark 1. The substantive does not take the article : — 

(a) When the pronoun is used as the subject, and the substantive as the 
predicate (§ 244, Hem. 1), e. g. aSrri ivrXv iiyBp^s kp€T^ (this is the virtue of 
a man)^ PL Men. 71, e. Affri) l(rr» Iircu^ iiroAoyfa, Apol. 24, b. lC/>i|aiff 
«0n7 fityiiFTri 8^ T(Hs''EWn<riy iyivvro {this was the greatest agitation) ^ Th. 

I, I ; hence a distinction must be made between ro{n«p r^ 8i8airic^U« 
Xp&rrcu {they have tfiis teacher), and rovnp tiBaarKdKfp XP^^'''^ (^^ ^^ ^^ 
man for a teacher). TtKfiripla^ roirrtp XP^M-^^^^ (which signifies tovt6 icrt 
TfKfilipiov, f 4xprrro)f X. C. i. 2, 49. Tairtiv yv^firiv tx^ (which signifies 
«(5ni icrlv i? yvd^fM}, %¥ tx*)i An* 2* 2* ^^* lA however, the predicative 
substantive is to be represented as a definite object or one before-men- 
tioned, it takes the article, e. g. 'Oircfrc (Swko^tt^s) re w^ K6yea Zu^oiy ZA 
T&y fiAJuerra 6fw\9yovfi4y»y iwopt^rro, PQfdi»y ravrriv rifv i4r^td\€tap 
cTkcu \^ov (banc esse firmam illam disputandi rationem, viz. such a mode 
AS had been clearlj shown by previous examples), X. C. 4. 6, 15. 

(b) When the substantive is a proper name, c. g. oZros, ixu^os, nxnhs iMxpir 
Tt\s, £udv9T}/iOf oWwrl, X. C. 4. 2, 3. HiKtipdrov rourov, Symp. 2, 3. 
XapfilZiis ovrotrl, 2, 19. Aiirhy M^vvya, An. 1. 5, 13 j or when a common 
name is used instead of a proper name, e. f;. Avrov fiaariXws, An. 1. 7, 

II. 'Eiri T^KT^j'Je IjX^fiw (with the variation M rhv yvf^ t.), Th. 2, 
74. Tlie article occurs but seldom, and then with a demonstrative force. 
T( S^r* iKtTyov rhy BaKrjh &mffAd(ofiey ; Ar. Nub. 181. T6y9t rhw 
^l WIT 1 11 y fitrtiTffvi^dfu^a, Her. 5, 9 1 . Comp. 8, 27. 

(c) When the idea of an object is to be expressed absoliUeli/, the sul^stantivo 
without the article is joined with the pronoun avr6s, Comp. § 244, 1. 
Avrii 8c<nroTcfa ait tt^s Sov\tlas, PL Parmen. 133, d. Avrris ^irurr^ 
firis olt firr^xofify, 134, b. Oux airov Zf<nr6rov 8^ov, S itrrt 8c<nr^r^, 
ixdyov tovKos darty, 133, d. 

(d) When ovros i,yfip Is used to denote emotion, especially scorn or con- 
tempt, instead of the pronoun ai. O^roal hyifp ob vaia-tru ^\Mipmm\ 
Zhri /Ml, & ^KfiaTfs, ovk ai<rx^^ M/iara driptimy] { = blocJchead, u^y doui 
yoit cease f) PL Gor^. 489, b. Ovk oTS* &Tra \4y(is, i> Xt&Kparts, cUX* &\Xo9 
TU^ ipdirra^ 2. Ovros ay^p ovx ^ofi^yfi i^tKoi^fi^vos {^=^ you, oh 
can tfou not hear to be henpjitedf lb. .%05« c. 


{e) In passages liko OZrw, ots ^mtc, fidpfiapoi noKciut&repoi riySv ^corrtu, X. 
An. 1. 6,* 16, the relative clause supplies the place of the article. But 
there arc few passages like: ♦«©€ \afi&)tf xirAvaf fihv rovrowrl and the 
fbllotringTa^sSff x^"""^^^^*^- ^7- ^' ^) ®) where the demonstratire is 
used like a deictic {that whidt points out) adverb {here^ there). The poeti 
very, often omit the article where the prose-writers must use it. 

Hev. 2. When the pronotin oZrot or iKttvos belongs to a substantive having 
the article and an attributive, then these pronouns are often placed between th% 
attribotivc and the substantive, e. g. Ai r&p U^Xofroyyriirlonf air at i^es, Th. S. 
80. 'H <rT€r^^ aSrij Woj, X. An. 4. 2, 6. 'O Aifivs iKt7yos X/«v, Ad. H. A. 
T, 48. So 6 aurhs oZros irrfXe/ioT, Luc. do hist, conscr. c. 14. So also with tha 
genitives ftov, eov, attrou, etc. (^ 24.5, Rem. 4) ; likewise with irat, iKos, e. g. A 
irya^6s fAOu xvHip ] ij rmv *A^vala»y Totra (8A17) ir6Kis% 

4. A substantive with wliicli toioGtos, rotdsfie, too-ovtoc* 
TtfXiKovro^i are joined, takes the article placed accordiiig to 
♦ 245, 3 (a), when the quality or quantity designated by these, 
is to be considered as belonging to a definite object, one before 
mentioned or Imown, or as belonging to a whole class of objects 
previously named. 

'*Ap' abv Zitvmo rhv roiovrow Afitumoy ^ikoy yofd(9ty ; (i. c. talem^ qttalis antea 
desenptas est), X. Cy. 5. 5, 32. U&s tar oZy 6 rotovros Ai^p Ztwpdttpot robs 
p4mfs (L c. talis wV, qualem deacripsimus Socratem)^ C. 1. 2, 8. t&y rovo^rwp 
Kol roio<irvy ityabUy hyuy ko) roa KAXaxf 'AdTjraToiff ^x^vrcr x^^^ (^^ relation 
to what precedes), Dem. Cor. 327, 305. 'Opfir rohs rrtKiKodrovs ^vXdr* 
ropras lidxunu rits yvytuxas (relating to the preceding vcpoi^, but at the same 
time designating the whole class of the yfpcuol)^ X. II. L. 1, 7. So also when 
taken substantively: 6 rotourosy rh Totavra. On the contraiy, the article must 
be omitted, when the object is indefinite : any one of those who are of such a 
nature, or are so great, e. g. Toiodroy iydpa ovk tiy iiraiyotris. 

5. When ira?, irdvT€s, 5\o5. belong to a substantive, the 
following cases must be distinguished : — 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is considered 
as altogether a general one, the article is not used. 

na* fky^ponros (seldom iy^fwros iroj), evertf man (i c. every one to whom 
the predicate inaii belongs ; rrJun-ts &»'.^pviroi, all men. So also 8Aij t^Ais, a 
WHOLE caVy, v6\is Saij, a whole city. Then was in the singular signifies each, 
eeery. Ila* may often be translated by mere, or ti«cr, c. g. 'O "^pwf iy wd<rj) iyap- 
Xt? K«l iiyofd<i. fwy, ri. Kp. 575, a. Udtrra aya^h koI koA* iiirtpydCoyrai, Polit. 

(p) When the substantive to which iros, truvrc^ belong, is to 
be considered as a whole in distinction from its parts, it takes 
the article, which is placed according to ^ 245, 3 (a). Here iras, 
vorrc? are emphatic. 

52b SYNTAX. [i 246 

'H nasa yfj, the "WHOLB earth ; <4 wiyrts vvAiroj, all dtiaens without 
This ciflage is more seldom than that under (a). This constmction occma also 
with 5x o-f, bat it is still rarer than with nas, e. g. ^ Skti w6\is, wS^u ii SXaf, iht 
WHOLE city. Here the singular vas always has the sense of tohole, ncyoo'dai 
(X^) f^^**^ v<i((iy T^y waffay ^iK€\(aVt Th. 4, 61. ^tdo^^y abrtSs o& to^ 
9ap6rTas fiSimif iiiroxTunu, i}^ Koi robs iwavras MirvXiyyafovs, 3, 36. T^ 
t\ov hvdyKfi r^wdyra fi4pfi c7mu, PI. Theaet. 204, a. *A y^pdtwoi^i yiip ▼ o7s 
iratri Koiyhy rov^a/xttfriiyuy, S. Ant. 1023. 'Ekelyws fiot ^tdytrat^ &sT€p rk rw 
wpos^firov fi6pia lx«i 'fp^s rh Z\oy vpSsctwoy, PI. Prot. 329, e. Henoe it 
signifies, tn all. Tl^fiwowri x^^ovr robs rdyras SwXlras, a thouMond hop' 
htes IN ALL. ^vyew\iip^idria'ay yrjts a I «- a 0* a t S^ica fidkiffra Ktd ktcardy, Th. 3, 66. 

(y) When the words way, woircs, intended merely &is a more 
definite explanation, without any special en^)hasis, belong to a 
word denoting a definite object and hence having the article, they 
are then placed according to i 245, 3 (b). This is by far the 
most frequent use of vas, Trovrcs. The word oAos also is usually 
constructed in the same manner, in connection with a substan- 
tive and the article. 

Ol oTparicoTcu ttkoy rh ffrparSirtlioy iiray or &iray rh crparS'Ttior, 
01 trrpariwrai wdyrts or wdyrts ol (rrpari&rat Ka\ms i/iox^t^ro, 
Aiek riiy wdXiy Zkriy or Ztk Z\7iy rify wSkiy (simply (^rou^A the whole 
city, whereas 8i& rify i\7iy 'tr6\tyj through the whole city), ^mfiaiyovai jtdwT€t 
tls rh 'Bv(dyTioy ol ffrpariurat, X. An. 7. 1, 7. E2 6ir^ rrjs 'EwdBos 
w do IIS h^iois iv* ipcrp ^avfid(fa^at, r^y *ZWd9a ictiparioy c? iroicTr, X. C. 2. 
I, 28. 

6. When cicooros, each, every, belongs to a substantive, thr 
article is omitted, as with 7ras in the sense of each, every, when 
the idea expressed by the substantive is considered as a general 
one ; but when the idea contained in the substantive is to be 
made prominjent, it takes the article which is always placed 
according to k 245, 3 (b). 

Kar& r^y fifi4pay kKdoriiy, Bern. Cor. 310, 249, or koSt* kKdorii9 r^» 
!lti4pay, every single day, but obK hxlya tori ko^* ixdaTriy iiiiipay (quotidU^ 
each day, every day, general) roiavra bp«y t€ kcI hcoiuv, X. C. 4. 2, 12. 'A 
kKdor-Q tiKikI^ vposriraxrai wouiy, ttriyrio6fit^ X. Cr. 1 . 2, 5. T^jpcwodr- 
rai bwh 8cica iiy^pwy, ots A^orctyBpos Kcn'4or7jO€y 4y Ik dorp ir^Aci, H. 3. 5,13; 
hut^Orihfiy r-g 7 p iKdorfi KoXhy fj iytAhy JI,»fitfiyiitroyrM, in every single 
land, Cy. 8. 6, 6. Kai rrYtuity pjkv ^y 6 itovSnis iKdorrfs t^» olarfaf. An. 
7. 4, 14. 

7. When exarcpo?, each of two, ofij^ and afi^arc/x>9j boih^ 
belong to a substantive, the article is always used, since here 


only two k?uncn, therefore definite objects can be spoken oT. 
The article is here placed according to i 246, 3 (b). 

*Ev2 Twr vXcvpwr 4icar^p«ir, X. An. 3.2, 36, or M kKaripnv tup 
vXcvpAir. T& ira &fi^^rcpa or &/i^^rtpa r& &ra. *Afiipoi¥ roTp 
Xt^otr or r'oip x^P^*^ A^^olr. Kod' ixdrtpoy rhw isvXotp, Th. 
4,14. T^ Arl 4Kar^py,X. Yen. 5,32. 

8. In respect to the pronoun avros and the indefinite pronouns 
or numerals ctXXo;, crcpos, iroXvSj ?rXct<i)v> ttXccotos/ the 
following points are to be observed : — 

(a) 'O avr^t signifies the same, idem, e. g. 6 abrhs Ay^pwrros, idem homo; rah 
rijlhe same; bnt 6 Sybpwros oirrSs or ahrhs 6 Hif^pcewos, homo ipse. 

(b) 'AXA.of == alius, another, in contrast will ipse {abrSs) ; 6 6x\os = rdiquuh 
Ae other; d tXXot » rdiqui, eerteri, the rest, e. g. ^ &XAi} 'EAXor, reZi^ua Graecia 
the rest of Greece, in contrast with some part before named ; ol SxXoi Sy^fwwot 
the other men or the others, in relation to definite individnals. ''A *Apia7c irai oi. 
ftXXoi Zo'ot IJTs Kdpov ip^^Mt, Ariaeus and the rest. Bnt 'O TXa)vs iire^tdini /ikr 
&XAwr, Glus appeared with others, in contrast with himself; — trtpos = vm 
of two (it not being determined which), or it forms a contrast with 6 abrds and 
denotes difference or contrast; — 6 trtpos ^the other, i. e. the definite one of 
two, e. g. 4 Wjpa x<ip ''f ^^P9 XW'^i ol trtpoiin reference to two parties. 

(c) The following cases ofiroX^f, voWoi are to be distinguished: (a) 
When wokOsf voAXof belong to a substantive without the article, as woXhs %6uos, 
vnXX^ OTovS^, iroXhs KAyos, toXXjoU Ay^pwrot, an object is denoted as an indefi- 
nite one, e. g. HoKbr tx"*^^^ vSror &TcAcif r^s rov tvros ^4ta itvipxoyreu 
{having much toi7), PI. Phaedr. 243, b. IIoXXol ir^pwxoi rod v\o6rov hp4' 
yorrai (mamf men, general) ; (jS) bnt if the object is represented as definite, or 
one preyiouslj mentioned or known, the article is used with the substantive, 
and iraX^s is then placed : (1 ) as an attributive between the article and the sub 
stantive, e. g. ^ iroXX^ cirovZ^ rh iiKri^tias IScu' irc8/or {moffmtm tUud, de quo 
dixi, studium, that great mail, of which I have spoken), PI. Phaedr. 248, b. *av rrdpi 
rhw iroXbp \6yov hroiuro "AyaleeySpea {mtdtum iUum sermonem, e scrtjxis ejus 
satis oognitwn), 270, a. *Ey toTj voKKais ytpitrttri {among the many genera- 
tions mentioned), Phacdon. 88, a; ol voKXol iy^petiroi signifies either the 
many men named or a multitude of men bdonging together, in opposition to the parts 
of the whole, hence also ol wo Wot, the many, the multitude, the populace, plebs, 
or even the most, the majority (in contrast wiUi the separate individuals), e. g. 
"Ova ol hxiyoi rohs woWohs y^i rtioayr^s, &XX& Kpaxovyrts ypd^vri {what the 
few prescribe to the many [the majority] not by persuasion but by force), X. C. 1. 2, 45 ; 
rh ToX^, the greater part, e. g. twy woKtfjduy rh fi^y xo\h Hfiwty, fi4pos 8* a&- 
rmf Mivra ro7s KOfrh rk tucpa {most of the enemy remained), X An. 4. ft, 24. What 
U true of the Positive, is true also of the Comparative and Superlative. *E^ 
fUotff fl 7r6Kiy ^cXcTr d/p, rorip^ ^ wXtitty cxoXh roirwy Ari/tcXcur^oi, 
v^ its iyit yvy, fj r^ its ffb fiaKapl{tis 9uuTwfi4y^ (the greater leisure, considered 
H a definite thing, or as a definite whole), X. C. 1. 6, 9 E2 &l9ov, M rovr^ 

828 SYNTAX !i 246 

|y ^SlSov, 9w»t ifuii Ms fu7op ftii &ro9o(i} ^fuy rh irXctor, An. 7. 6, 16. 'Etctoi 
rg hprrf aJtCta^at tls rhy ir\tiu XP^^^^ fioAXov, ^ rg koki^ R. L. 9, 2; oi 
w\€iovs or rh 'w\4oy signifies the majority in opposition to the minority {ol ikJuv 
o'ovr), therefore a definite whole; oZirXcro'Toi, themott^rh wK^lvroy^thegrettteM 
part, also to be considered as a definite whole. — Or, (2) vaX vs is joined with 
the substantiro having the article, and is placed according tA \ 845, 3 (b) ; 
woKCs is then to be taken in a predicative sense, e. g. *£irc2 i^pa woWk rk 
Kp4a (when he saw the Jlesh that it was much, the flesh in great abundance)^ X Cy 
1 . 3, 6. "X^lffi ToWh rh &iropa IvftfiffiriKAra (sc. Spwyrts), Th. 1 , 52. 11 oX • 
\^y*r^y air lay cTxov {they had censure in great abundance, L e. were very 
weverdy censured), 6, 46. 

(d) *0\iyotyfeWy c. g. hxiyot &y^pwrot\ oi hkiyoi, the few, u e. either the 
few mentioned, or to be considered as a definite whole, viz., emphatically the 
Oligarchy, considered as a whole, in opposition to oi roXXof, e. g. np4^fi€ts 
oi f/l'^XMi vpihs fiky rh wASj^os ovjc liyayoyf ir 9^ rats itpx^^ koI roTt oKlyots 
K4y«ty iK4\evoy, Th. 5, 84 ; bat when only an indefinite idea is expressed by the 
word oXlyoSf the article is omitted, e. g. Tlpoiodiiyai r^y v6\iy ^ hxiymr {hy 
oligarchs, not by the Oligarchs). 

9. When a cardinal number belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, if the idea expressed by the substantive is 
indefinite, e. g. r/ici9 avBpt^ ^X^ov ; but the substantive takes the 
article wliich is placed : (a) according to ^ 245, 3 (a), when the 
substantive with which the numeral agrees, contains the idea 
of vi united wJiole; hence also, when the number of objects is to 
be represented as a sum-totcd^ ailer the prepositions dl/t^ w^ 
CC9, vir^ ; but the article is here used most frequently, when a 
preceding substantive with a cardinal number agreeing with it, 
and without the article, is referred to. 

ol rSty fiofftkdofy olyox^oi Iiili6a0'i ro7s rp lal Sairr^Xotr ^x^***^*' ^^ 
^td\fiy {trilk the three fingers^ i. c. the three generally used), X. Cy. I. 3, 8. '^Hv, 
5tc ^rcXcvra, Afi^l.r Jb fr4yr^Koy^a $rii {he had reached about the sum of 
fijly years), X. An. 2. 6, 15. *Iinrc<s tls rohs rtrpaxisx^^^ovs trvy^kt- 
yorro avr^t «« ro^6rai tis rohs ftvpiovs^ Cy. 3. 2, 3. Toiir KtpKvpalots rmy 
ttKoeri y€&y ov vapova&y (referring to the preceding words ol KtpKvpoAOi 
ttKOVi yavffly airrovs rpv^dfuyotf Th. 1, 49). 

(/3) But the article is placed according to } 245, 3 (b), wheu 
the numeral without any emphasis, is joined with the definite 
object, merely to define it more definitely, and when the nu- 
mcral had not been previously mentioned, e. g. 'E/taxetnura 
oi /tera IlcpifcXcov? ottXitcu x^Axot or \iXjoi ol fiera 11. OTrXirai, th$ 
hophtes vnUt Pericles, a Oumsand in number, foughL 

i 247.] ARTICLE AS A PRONOUN. 329 

Rem. 3. The article is freqaentlj omitted with sabstantives which have an 
ordinal number joinfd with them, as the ordinal in a measure supplies the place 
of the article. Tplroy tros r^ iroX//iw ^TfXevro (he died the third year)^ Th. 
2, 103. Comp. 3. 25, 88. 

k 247. The Article as a Demonstrative and Relative 


1. The ajtide hiiv6 had originally the sense both of a demonstrative and 
reUtire prononn. 

S. In the Homeric poems, the pronomi 6 ^ r^ has almost wholly the sense 
both of a substantive and adjective demonstrative pronoun, which refers to an 
object, and represents it as known or already spoken of, or brings it before the 
mind of the hearer, e. g. II. a, 12. 6 (he) y^ ^AJ^c doiis M yrias *Axai&p. 29. 
r i^r {her) S* #7^ ov Xvav. Od. k, 74. o& ydp ftai d4ius irrl KOfufffity oW hjtowiiir 
w§v iy9pa r6y {that man)^ Bt icc Stwurar ixix^rrTfu luuci^vcur. Hence, in 
Homer, the sabstantivo is found in very many passages without the article, 
where later writers, particularly the Attic, would use it. Comp. H. a, 12 seq. 
with PL Up. 393, e. Tet there are, in Homer, evident traces of an approxima- 
tion or agreement of this apparent article with the real article, Which was not 
fully developed before the time of the Attic writers. Thus in Homer, as in 
the Attic writers, it gives the force of substantives to adjectives and participles, 
e. g. 4 5purror, h vucfitras, 6 ytpaiSs \ so also, rh irptr, rb irp6<rdtp {priua) ; it is 
found in connection wit|^ a substantive and an attributive adjective or adverb, 
the attributive being placed between the article and substantive, e. g. TSy irpo- 
r4fMgy Mw, H. A, 691. Thy Sc^i^y tmrou ^, 336. OI $ytp&t btol |, 274. Th <rhy ydpas 
a, 185. Th <rhy fi4yos a, 207 ; so it is use{l in cose of apposition, e. g. Od. X, 298. 
icol A^^r tl9oy r^y Tuy9ap4ov wapdKoiriy, Od. |, 61. lUwrr€t ol yiot ; further, 
"Ayrvyts al frepl ^Itppoy, II. A, 535. *Aydp&y rS»y r6rt 1, 559. TU7i ol AoA/oco, Od. w, 
497 ; also with the demonstrative, al kOv^s atSc r, 372 ; it also takes the place 
of the possessive pronoun, e. g. H. A, 142. vvy fiky Z^ rov rarphs ixucia rhtrt 
kA fitly {of your fuxher)^ and denotes what belongs to an object, e. g. Od. 0, 218. 
iyKfHr/u7r€ rh rfCxt** ireupot, y^t luKaXv^ (the rci^x*^ belonging to the ship). 

3. The use of the article as a demonstrative adjective^ is not unfrequent in all 
the post-Homeric writers {\ 244, 6) ; but as a demonstrative su&s&zn^tve pronoun, 
ft was retained^ in certain cases, through every period of the language ; thus : — 

(a) Tb 8 c (id autcm, or on the contrary)^ very frequently at the beginning of a 
sentence; 6 f».4y (is quidem)^ 6 Z4 (is aitfem), ol 94 (tt cndem) very fre- 
quently at the beginning of a sentence; vph rov (w p or ov), formerly ; 
often ical rSy, r4iy,€t eum^ et earn, at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. 
X.4 Cy. 1. 3, 9. Ka\ rhy Kt\§v<rai 9ovyai. In connection with Koi, the 
Greek says in the Nbm. : jval 8f, koI 1i, Kai dt {^ 334), but in the Ace. koI 
rhy, Kol r^y ; seldom r6 yt^id quidem, r^^ ideo, and the like. 

(b) In such phrases as, rbv KaX r6y, rh xal r6, this man and that man^ Oiis 
diir^ and that thing ; r ^ Kal ri, varia^ bona et mala, 

(c) It is used immediately before a sentence introduced by 8$, Jcros or oTos, 
which sentence expresses pc^riphrasttcaUy the force of an adjective, 01 

330 ««YNTAX. [♦ 24S 

especially, an abstract idea. This usage is confined mostly to Plaio 
PL Phocdon. 75, b. ip4yer<u rov B imtv taoy (=» rod urou 5rros), he reaehe$ 
after thai which is equal, Prot. 320, d. iK yrjs ical mphs fii^arrts leai rmp 
taa "Kvpl Kid yp xtpdyyvrtu. Soph. 241, c. cfr€ lu^ijArtov^ cfrc ptarracfidr 
rwf abrStv % iral irep2 r^x^^^ v»p, teat vcp) raSrd €Un, 
(d) In such phrases as, 6 fi4y — d 94, of fi4r — ol 5/, the one — the ciher 
«Nn£, the others, Isocr. Pancg. 41. cts fijkw nohs 6fipl(oyT€Sf rots d^ SovXcuor* 
res, treating some with contempt^ and being daves to otltert. Very frequently 
rh fi4y — rl 94, ri fi4p — rik 94, partly — partly^ tJ fi4p — t^ 94, 
on one side — on the other side, 
4. In the Homeric language, the demonstrative d ii ro, is frequently used in 
place of the relative. II. a, 125. &XA& rh. fih iroxW i^trpd&ofuy, rii diBarrmi 
{quae ex urbibus praedati snmus, ea sunt distributa). The relatiTe use was 
transferred from Homer to the Ionic and Doric writers also ; so the Tragedians 
take this liberty, though very rarely. Her. 3, 81. r& fi^y ^Ordyjis uvt, X€\4x^ 
itifJuA ravra • rh V 4s rh irX^dor &yuyt (p4p€ty rh Kpdros, yyi&fnft r^s iipUr^s 
iii^Epnj/rc. Comp. Laiger Grammar, Part II. $ 482. 

{248. Classes of Ybsbb. 

In relation to the subject, the predicate can be expressed 
in different ways. Hence arise different classes of verbs, 
which are indicated by different forms : — 

(1) The subject appears as active^ e. g. *0 ttoT? ypd^ei, 
TO 01/^09 ^aXXc*. — But the active form has a two-fold 
signification : — 

(a) Transitive, when the object to which the action is 
directed, is in the Ace, and therefore appears as pas- 
sive or as receiving the action, e. g. Tvirrto rov ircuBth 
ypdJKH) rijv hrurroKriv, — Transitive verb. 

(/8) Intransitive, when the action is either confined to the 
subject, as To av^o<; ^dTCKei, or when the verb has an 
object in the Gen. or Dat., or is constructed with a 
preposition, e. g. ^EirL^fiM lij^ aperij^, xcdpto t§ cro<f>ia» 
fidBi^o) ek Tfjv iroKtv, — Intransitive verb. 

(2) Or the subject performs an action which is confined 
to, or is reflected upon itself, e. g. Tvnrofjuuj I strike my- 
self; fiov7i£vofuu, I advise myself, or I deliberate ; rvTrro- 
fuu rriv K&f>a\qv, I strike my own head; /caTaxrrpi<f>ofJuu rifr 
y^p, I svbjugate the land for myself ; dfiwopuu tov9 ttoXc^' 


€W9, 1 keep off the enemy from myself, — Middle or Reflex- 
ive verb. 

Hemakx: 1. When the reflexive action is perfonned by two or more subjects 
on each other, as T^^oktoi, they strike each ciher; SiaxcXei^rrax, theu exhort each 
ctker^ it is called a reciprocal action, and the rerb, — Reciprocal verb. 

(3) Or the subject appears as receiving" the action, L e. 
the action is performed upon the subject, e. g. 01 cTpanSnoA 
xnro r&v 'jroXefilcov iBiol>)^a'avy were pursued^ — Passive verb. 

Sem. 2. The Act. and Mid. have complete forms. For the Pass., the 
Greek has only two tenses : the Fut. and Aor. All the other passive forms 
are indicated by the Mid., since the passive action was considered as a reflexive 


$ 249. A. Active Form, 

1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion, 
besides a transitive signification, have an intransitive or reflex- 
ive sense. (So in English, as he leads, tlie birds move, the car- 
riage breaks, the snow melts, which have also a transitive sense ; 
so the Lat. vertere, mutare, decUnare, etc.) 

*Ax4wy iroTo^s isfidWei is tV X//an}r, Th. 1, 46. 'H B^XiSii Xf/iyq i^lii- 
aip is bdXmrffeuf, 4, 103. *E772rs ^701^ ol *£XXi}yct (comp. to draw near), X. 
An. 4. 2, 15. So also iydyety, to go back, to withdraw; 9tdy9tp, perstarej to 
continue, tLTQ found in prose. — *E\aiytip or ikaiptiv linr^ (X An. 1. S, 1), 
to ride; wpostXainftw, adequiiare, to ride up to. — Many compounds of fidwtip, 
%.g,ifi$(L\\€tPtaid €ls fid\\€ IV, tofall into, to empty {of A TiYer); imfidK" 
\tip,to tpringforthy to put forth (of plants, etc.) ; /Acraj3iXA.€(r (like mutare), 
SiafidK\ttp,to crossover; vposfidWtiy run, to make an attack upon ; ^vfi* 
fidw^ip Turt, fflonus conserere, to engage in combat with; ixifidWtiy, to JaU 
upon; ^TtpfidWtty, to exceed, to be prominent -^Kkly€iy and its com- 
ponnds, e. g. iwuc\iytiy,toindine to something; kwoKXlytuf, decUnare,'^Tp4xeiy, 
like vertere; iverpivuv, se permittere, to &itru8t one^s self to. — "Xrpi^^iy (like 
mutare) and its compounds. — Uraiav, to strike against^ to stumble; irposirral€t», 
as fuydkus irposdvraio'ciy, they suffered a total shipwreck (Her. 6, 95). 'AraA- 
Xdr V ^ ip, to get off, escape, — Compounds of 8 1 8 ^ v a 1, as ivlil6vui, to discharge 
itsdf (of a stream) ; ^iriStS^Mu, prqficere, to increase, advance, — Compounds of 
liwai, e. g. hfUvtu, to relax, he remiss; i^Uptu (sc. kannhv) loX"PV 7^Aa»ri {indul 
gore), PL Bp. 388, e. Compounds of filirytiy, iiiyyivai, as wmtiffytuf, 
oommisoeri ; vposfuyp6pat, to fight toith, also appropinquare, e. g. frpos4fu^«p r^ 
r€lxfi$ Th. 3, 22. Alp€ip,to get under wuy, set out (of ships, to weigh anchor), 
also compounds, e. g. ol fidpfiapoi ianipea^ ix t^s A^Xov (to set sail), Her. 6, 99 { 
ipraipttp (sc. x^H*^) '''^^^t ^ ^9^^ <^'^> ^^ withstand. — 2i yiTTciv, manus con- 

332 SYNTAX. [♦ 24ft 

$erere, — '%xc<*'> ^ hind; Kx^iy rtySs {desUiere), Th. 1, 112; (x^tv with adverbs, 
as c?, KoXAs, KOKws, Ilko bene, male habere) Hx^ty &fi.^l ri, in aUqua re oeaqxiium 
ease ; frpos4xfiy (sc. yovy), attendere, to give one^s attention to, or appellare, to land; 
wpodx^iyf praestare ; Mx^tyj se sustii^e, or expectare, in mente Itabere, c. g. ^rt «•> 
Xoy arpart^ta^ai ; Karcxci^f ^ reCinere, also to land; iropfX«y» ^ & ">? fiau^'ucfp 
musioae se dare ; iarix^^t ^ ^ distant from ; iucrtx^ty, resistere. — npdtrrcir with 
adverbs, e. g. e2, Kcuc&Sy or with the Ace. of adjectives, e. g. xaXd, Keued^ to Jane 
weUor ill. — Aiarptfi^ty {eonsumere), vertari, to employ one^s sdf, — Componnda 
of 1^4 p*ty, as ZuupiptOf^ to he different^ differre; trtp^ptttf (eminere) v^o^rq*.— - 
'AyaKafifidytty, rejid, recreari. — O i k c 7 1', administrari, e. g. ir6\ts oart 7 {the 
state is mcmaged), Vint. — TcA.€vraF, toend^todie, — Karop^ovy, to succeed.-^ 
Si Kay, to prevail, e. g. iytxa ^ X^^P^^ ^^'^ yywfidwy (like vincit sentenlia). Her. 
6, 109. 'EWtlwtiy, officio sua deesse ; &iroAcIirciy, to remain behind, etc 

2. Several active verbs with a transitive signification, which 
form both Aorists, have in the first Aor. a transitive, bnt in the 
second Aor. an intransitive sense : '• — 

adm, to wrap vp, first Aor. ttiwrt^ I wrapped up, second Aor. &vy, I'4,xnt in, 
Urrifu, to place, " (^tmia'a, I placed, "^ tarriy, I stood^ 

^{nty to produce, ^ HtpOara, I produced, *' (^vy, I was produced^ 

o'/r/Wctf, to make dry, " ( tffmiKa, poet. / make dry), " tffkK'ny, I withered. 

So several active verbs with a transitive signification, which 
form both Perfects, have in the first Perf a transitive, but in the 
second an intransitive sense : — 

iy^ip^i to wake, first Pf. iy^yepKOf J have auxtkened, secM Pf. iyp^yt^fOj lam awake, 
6\Xiiiu, perdo, ^' &\(&\tKa, perdidi, " tKotKa^perii, 

xti^f to persuade, '^ %4iretKa, I have persuaded, " iriiroi^f T trust, 
ikyolywf to opm, " iviipx^'^i ^ ^^ opened, " hy4^pya, I stand opem 

{\ 187, 6), 
Kpdrra, to do, " %4Tpax<h J ^ve done, " ir4vparya (sc. cJ), / 

Jure u/td. 

Moreover some second Perfects of transitive verbs, wliich do 
not form a first Perf, have an intransitive sense : — 

iyyvfu, to break, second Pf. Kdya, lam broken, 

^iiyyvM-h '^ ^^^1 " ^P^«7*» ^°^^ '^'^ 

rfiKtc, to smek (iron), " TfnjKa, lam smelted, 

w-ftyyvfu, to fasten, " v^mr/a, I am fastened^ 

eijpKv, to make rotten, " (r4<nrwa, lam rotten, 

^ya, to show, " v4^yay I appear, 

RsKARK 1. The Pass. aklcKOfiaijtobe taken, has an active form in th« 
Perf. and Aor, viz., idKwKa, I have been taken, idkvy, I was taken (§ 161, 1). 

3. Intransitive active verbs are sometimes used in the p'ace 
of the passive. 

f 2«50.J CLASSES OP VERBS. — W *iDLE FORM. 333 

This is particalarly the case with irio-xcc* irtvr^iy, ^tiytiy, tZ, na- 
Kots &Kov9iyj bvfiaK^iv^ more seldom rtXivrav, These active verbs 
with irir^ and the Gen. are very commonly used instead of the passive of such 
Terbs as &5uccty, pUmiv or fiiXKtiv^ ZuiK€iv^ Krtivuv \ dviiffKuy in certain forms 
is always so used {\ 161, 13). ULeydXa rttrdyra {etxrsa, were destroyed &y) 
wpr^fiara ^wh fi<re6ywyj Her. 7, 18. Afty6rfpoy MyuCoy tlyai kok&s ^h rS»y 
woXifuy & le ^ c ( r {audire, they thought it worse to he evU spoken of by the citizens) j 
^ KoXUs Mp T^s v6Ktas krodvfiffK€iyt Isocr. Paneg. 56, 77. So ^ k r f ir r c i r d r J 
Ttyos, expeili ab aliqno ] very often ^c^cir vir6 rtyos,fvgari ab aliquo, to be put 
tojlight by some one, or in a judicial sense, accusatum esse ab aliquo, e.g. iurefitlas 
^€6y€iy &ir6 Tiyos, to be accused by some one of impiety. Ed, kok&s trdirx^ 
iw6 irovf I am beneJUed, injured by you, ^'ETtXt^TTjffay v* *A^riyalwy 
tinterfecti sunt), Her. 6, 92. 

Bek. S. It will be seen (4 279, Kern. 5) that intransitive ftcave /erbs are 
f^qnently used in poetry in a transitive sense, e. g. iarpdirrdy ri^MS^ fialy^iM 

Rem. 3. The transitive active is not unfrequently used, when the subject 
does not itself perform an actidn, but causes it to be performed by another; 
yet this nsage is 'admissible, only when it is evident from the context or from 
the nature of the case, that the subject does not itself perform the action. X. 
An. 1. 4, 10. Kvpos rbv vapdSturoy i^tKO^t Kotrk 0airtKfui KCLriKavcty^ caused 
to be cut down. So frequently iaroicrtiyuy, ^dwrtiy, oiKo9ofiny and similar exam- 
pies ; often also HMrKtty, voiSc^ciy (comp. PI. Prot.d20, a. 324, d. Menon. 94, b). 

§250. B. Middle Form, 

1. The Mid. denotes an action, which is performed by the 
subject, and is again reflected upon it or is confined to it Two 
cases are here to be distin^ished : — 

(a) The Mid. denotes, first and most frequently, an action 
which the subject performs upon an object within its own 
sphere, i- e, upon an object belonging to tlie subject, connected 
with it, or standing in any near relation to iL In English, this 
relation of the Middle voice is expressed by a possessive pro- 
noun, or by the preposition to or /or with a personal pronoun. 

T&rrofjuu, iTv^ifa\y tV K^faXriy, I strike, I struck my own head (T^Jwrciv «., to 
Strike the head of another) ; Koicouar^ai rohs »<J5as, to wash one's own feet (Xo^ctr t. 
»., to wash the feet of another) ; kvoKpif^axr^vu ri laxnov, to conceal one^s own 
affairs ; wtpi^^^acrbou x'^'^^^^t suam vestem, to rend one's own garment (repx^/^^^oi, 
alius, that of another) ; rapaurx^cbat ri, to give something from one's own means^ to 
furnish of ont^s self as yavt, hence also to show, e. g. tdyotay vapix^ahai (on the 
contrary xapix^iy nvX Trpdynara, ^6^ov, etc., to cause trouble, fear, etc., to some 
one) J — &ro8ei|(ur;^ar ri, e. g. (pyov, yvt&fxijy, ^vyofiiy, to show one^s own work, etc. ; 
hreeYytlAMrbai ti, to promise ; in a reciprocal relation : yf(fiacrbai ti, aliquid inter 
tepartiri, to divide something unth tach other, so fitpiffcurbou ; — voi-fioaffbai ti, to do 

334 SYNTAX. [\ 250. 

or make something /m" one^s sdf^ e. g tXfifyrnv^ ^^oMs jfirMcIy, to do or fforowtpfidk), 
voffiaatr^at ir^Xc/xoy, to carry on toar ; lriii4\tuiy, to use care ; iyto^at yvtmucOf <• 
take a wife for one^e tdf to marry ; iKdtrbai ri, sibi aumere^ hence to chooee^prrfer; 
}kpaffbal Ti^ to take up for one^s sdf to lay on one*8 8elf{cdp€iy Tf, to take up wometkimg 
in order to lay it upon another) ; dMiaaxrbtd ri, to oak for on^s adf{adrtaf, to atk) ; 
vpd^curbcu xp^/Aori rtyOf sibi ab aliquo pecufuam exigere ; fiur3«(Krcur3ai, oondvcere, 1m 
lure for one^s self (bat fuo^Mrai^ locare, to let out) ; fieTtardft^tur^cUf to auue to come 
to one's self to send for ; Kcercurrpir^^ai, KaToiovK^ao'^ai T^y, sibi subjioere fer* 
ram ; kimfniiaaffboi riyo, sihi devincire^ to make dependent on one's sdfi AxoX^otf^dol 
riMiy to free for on^ssdf to ransom; ^cploaurbai rt, sibi aUquid comparare (iropf^cor 
rl TUfif aUi aliqmd comparare)^ KOfdoeur^eUf 6 g. IIAaraxets waSZas icaX yvruLms 
iKKtK0f»io/i4¥0i ^arajf is r^ 'Ai^yos, Th. 2, 78) rr^oo'dai, Topeuncwd/ratr' 
W ri, s&i comparare ; bfo^ai and ypdi^dcu k^/xovs are used of one who makes 
laws for himself, or of a law-giver, who is himself, also, subject to the laws 
which he has made for others ; on the contrary, ;^c<mu and Tp^Cfw 96/»mf aie ased 
of one who is not subject to the law which he has made, or generallj of one 
who gives laws to others, without expressing any further relation, e. g. "IExm* 
tur ciirclv, in oi ^M^p^ntoi rovs i,y(>i(povs v^fiovs ll^9Pro\ *£y^ ftiv J^co^ oi/MU 
rohs if6fA0vs toAtovs rots hfbp^tfrots ^wat, X. C. 4. 4, 19 ; — ~ itfiwairbtu rabt voAc- 
idovSf proptdsare a se hostes^ hence to defend one^s sdf against any one ( V^ir* 
properly to ward off^ then to help) \ rifMffiioeur^ n, to revenge one's self on 
one^ to punish him (rifimpny rofi, to help one) ; rp^^vurdoi, to put to flight; 
dm Koxd, a se proptdsare mala ; iarow4fv^^ riyo, a se dimittere ; ieroatUraa^ 
rif a se depeUere; wapairfioeurdaif depreoari; itadiO'dat, &waS6vduij to seU; hf 
rp^^raa-^ai, heofiaXiodtUt kroKpo6oeurdm. Several Deponent Middle verbs alao 
belong hero (4 102, 3). 

(b) The Middle denotes, second, but much more seldom, an 
action which the subject performs iitimediately on itself, so that 
the subject is at the same time, also, the object of the action 
The English here uses the active verb with the Ace. of tht. 
reflexive pronoun, e. g. rvirropm^ I strike myself; hwl^rgv, I 
struck myself. Here belong particularly the following verbs:— - 

'A-wdy^ai rivd^ to strangle some one; hirdylaodaiy to strangle on/is sdf, 
r6^affdat, K6^aa'dati to strike one^s self; K^t^ao'datt to bend ont^s sdf 
down; olKioaodat, migrare; iTifia\4irdai,.to apply or devote one*s self is 
something; vapaffK^vdtratrbai^se parare; rd^aodai, to place on^s sdf in 
order of battle^ e. g. oiktt fi\v KtpKvpaioi ird^arro, Th. 1} 48 ; [but also to fie or 
establish for one's self according to No. (a), e. g. rd^eurdm ^poy, to agree to pay 
tribute;] irposdiffdai, se adjungere, to agree with; laraodai (or^vai, ivrdifai) 
and its compounds, to place one^s self [but also according to No. (a), sibiponercj 
to place for one's self e. g. rpSiccuoy] \ Spfiliraa-daiy Kadopftlaaadai^ to lana 
(comp. Th. 4, 15); KUKXiioaa-dai, to encircle (comp. Th. 5, 72), but KwcXm^ 
wot, to form a circle or place one's sdf in a circle; rpa-wio^ai [not rpi^affbrn, 
see No. (a)J 'o turn one's self [Th. 5. 29, 73) ; iyyv^caffdai, to pledge one's sdfi 


wmivmw^at^ to cease (fitHn frauw, toeauee ta oflOM); Sf((a«-;^«i, iothew one^p 
mlf; paittcvlarly Terbs wbkh expiCM an action performed hj the sabject upon 
hLf own body, e. g. Xolvavbaty yl^^av^ai, &A.c^^ao'd^ai, xp^^a^<^«<t 
(i6^a^d«i, yvfipdaatr^aif Ka\6^aadait Ko<rii4i<raff^aij kii^iiffav' 
l^as, ivH^avbtLii ini^iraffbaiy xcfpao'i^ai, Aro/A^p(ao'J^ai, se obster 
fflne; iv«|i^{a(r3at, M emungere; kxoi^^^aff^ai, u abeUrgere; trrc^c* 
ri(r«rftat; 9r«^A«vi^ai» <o gd ready^ to Jit fmiredf wt; also soma few 
▼erba which In the Mid. express tntemo^ fneiital aetion, e. g. ^i/A.d({a^d^ai, <o 
fe OR one's guardy to be cottftous (but ^vX^rrciy timC, to gwrd eome one) \ r^if^t- 
mmwS^^i^todOermine or decree bgvote (bat ^^tCciy, Ip ;n(I(^ iiote) ; fievke^* 
wmmhmiy to deliberate^ to adtnee cn^e sel^ (bat /SovXc^ir riyf, to adviee some one) ; 
ywivavl^at, to taste (yc^cu', to eauee to taste, to give a taste of ) ; rtfiotpiio'ar- 
^aiyloaooi^; the reciprocals ZiaKaraK^vao^ai irp6s rumt to be reoonaled 
^mqfosuss 0vrl^49^atf to bind omi^s self, to agree with any one; o'lrt (rari^ai, 
to Mdbs « treahf., peace wiA; Aito^x^^^^a^ ''^ restrain on^s sdfy to eAstain 
from; seTenl componnds of Tij/ii, e. g. i^t^ffbai^ to strive; b^(§o^at, to 
fiddj beremiss; lASt^iea^aif to negleet, be remiss; ivnwoiiiaav&ai Tuvr, to 
strim fir someMsg; iipriXafi4e^ai rv6sy to lay hold of mmething. Here 
belong, also, most Deponent ^ddle rerbs ($ 197, Rem. 2). 

RufAnic 1. This immediate reflexive relation is expressed also : {h) by middle 
▼erbs with a Pass. Aor., e. g. lidK^iv, to separate^ 8iaA.vdi)MH» Sio^^ccdac* to 
separate onis sdf discedere (see \ 197, Bem. 3); (b) by ike active form, e. g. 
fivra^dLxXetr, to change one^s self {see ^ 249, 1) ; (c) by the active form with tlie 
Ace of the reflexive pronoun, e. g. iireureir iauriy, ipoprw imrrivy to attach om^s 
self toy to make on£s sdf depend on any one ; iwoicp^nr€a^ kaiur6vy ^ICtty kvarrSv^ 
wipixuF lavr^, AvoX^cir iavr6r, to fret on^s sdf, kToo^rr^ty imniv, hicoitr^i- 
9f<r kartin^^ the Mid. then has ihe signification of the rass.^ thus, hrmrttffbat, 
kwoirretpHfdaif kwo^^drr€oS^f laudariy interfidy jngulari ab a/to, and has for its 
Aor. and Fat. a Pass. form. Sometimes the active form with the reflexive 
prononn is used, even when the verb has a middle form. This mode of expres- 
sion is very natural in antithesis or contrast, e. g. *K^pww iarh Tmrwu, Mrt 
yvf/kfde'ai iavrSy re itai rohs Tvirovf, X. An. 1. 3, 7. 

Rem. S. The Mid. in the same manner as the Act. (f 249, Rem. 8), can be 
nsed, when the subject does not itself perform an action, but canses it to be 
done by another. There is this difference, however, in the two cases, that in 
the Mid. the action always refers, in some way, to the sabject *0 iror^o robs 
vomSos iiiid^o (^oidc^roro), which signifies either, thejtuher educated the dtil- 
drenfbr himselfy or, if it is clear from the context, fte caused thetn to be educated 
(as A. C. 1. 6,'2 ; on the contrary, SiS^irciy, ir«u8c<;ciy are used without referring 
back to the snlject, ^ 249, licm. 3) ; Mipwrkait to shave onis self, or to get shaved. 
'ApyttM eff4mp ebc6ras wotricdfiftfoi (having caused to be made) iuf^^tcay i$ 
A9Xi^6sy Her. 1, 31. Ilawroyias '^pddrc^ay ncpo-uc^y waprri^rro {caused to be set 
be/ore him), Th. 1, 130. O/ Atuc^atfidytoi lelipwca x4fi\^ayr9S robs veKpelbs BitKo- 
filoayr o {caused to be removed), 4, 38. 

Rex. 3. The reflexive relation of the middle to the subject, is often so 
slight, that in oar mode of considering it, it almost disappears, and sometimes 
consists only in a very gentle intimation, that the action will be completed to 
the advantage or disatwantage of the subject, e. g. II. o, 409. oCrt iror^ Tfwts 
A nmmy HweuTo ^dXmyyas ^t^fi^croi (tn suum commodum) nKtoipot fjuyfifitvm. 
Hence the reflexive pronoun is not seldom used with the middle, particnlariv 
»n antitheses, in oraer to bring out emphatically the reflexive sense whico 
exists in the middle only in a general and indefi7>ite manner, e. g. H tr sf6» 


336 SYNTAX. [f 261. 

fiovX^ierw lavr^ 6yofia ical HCyofuv v^ptwoi^aatr^ai {to gain a name and 
pmver Jor himself) X. An. 5. 6, 17. *EvcSci(arro r^ avr&v ipcrdb, Isonr. 
I*aneg. 58, 85. *V4^ftov avrois Kar^erriiffayTO rhr /3tor, 63, 108. Ti^ 
ifiaor^v yyJffiriv dro^^aiy^/Aevos, Id. Permiit.309, 22. 

Rem. 4. In many yerbs, the active and Mid. appear to have a nmilar si^* 
nification; but on a closer investigation, the difference in the meaning is 
obvious; the active expresses the action absolutely, or objectively, without anj 
accessary idea; the middle, on the other hand, expresses the same action in 
relation to the subject, or subjectivelv. Hence, the middle is employed when 
the literal meaning is changed into the figurative, e. g. 9ioiK€iy of an outward 
arrangement, ^louceTtr^eu of mental; SplCcty literally, bpi(f<r^ai figuratively; 
trra^fiay only in a literal sense, to measwre, but trra^iJMcr^ai also in a figurative 
signification, to weigh or meaaure in one*s mind^ aliquid secum perpendere ; <ricovcir, 
to look at aomethinfff trKoweiff^at^ to look mentally^ to consider; so in derivadre 
verbs in -c^ and -tCofuu, the active form is used absolutely, to be in a certain 
state ; the middle, on the other hand, signifies, to act the part of that which is 
indicated by the root, to show oneU self as suchj to have the tendency or habit, to act 
as suchy e. g. iroKqpc^», to he bad, wornp^f^M^ to demean one^s idf badly ; ««Aj- 
Tw6tJt to be a citizen, •Ko\iT€vofuUf to hve and act as a citizen ; to^civcw, to be a 
manager, rofutvofuuf to conduct business, to arrange, especially in a metaphorical 
sense, e. g. robs r6fuws ; arpeer^^, to undertake an expedition, used of a general or 
a state, orparci^ftai, to engage in an expedition, used of the soldiers. Derivatives 
in 'i(oftat correspond in sense to those in •^{npuu, e. g. 6ar€tCofuuy to demean my- 
sd/ as a citizen ; x'V^^'^^Cof^^^y ^^ ^^ *'' ^'^ <wreeaUe manner. Still, derivatives 
in 'i{w, from names of nations, reject the middle, c. g. ^plCw, to demean myself or 
to speak like a Dorian, 

Rem. 5. Several verbs which in the active have a causative sense, in the 
middle have a simple intransitive sense, though some of them are constructed 
with an Ace, e. g. ^ofi^irai, to cause to fear, ^jS^o-curd^cu, to fear ; akirx^yai^ to 
make ashamed, cutrxvytia^eUf to be ashatned, to fed shame ; voptikrai, to cause to 
go, to convey, iropwturbat, to go; wtptuwrcu, to cause to pass over, r^paxuir^vbai^ 
to pass over; KOi/iija'eu, to cause to deep, luU to sleep, Kotti'(<rcur^atf to sleep; wavatu^ 
to cause to cease, vaicaff^cUf to cease; irxiy|eu, to cause to wander, «A^|cffda<, 
to wander, etc. 

Rem. 6. The middle form, as already stated (^ 248, Rem. 1 ), is often used 
to express reciprocal actions. This is particularly the case with verbs signify- 
ing to contend, vie with, converse with, embrace, salute, to make an agreement or com- 
pact, e. g. fjudx^ff^ai, to fight with ; ofJuKKao^ai, to contend with ; hr^viCitrhui, to 
strive ; 9iak4yt<r^at, to converse with ; iunrdCfff^cu^ to salute ; ravra ewri^a^ai^ 
mutually to agree on these points ; airoylihs tnriyJittr^at or roicicrdcu, to make a treaty 
{ffiroyZds 'woiuy signifying to make a libation). So also, where the action is not 
strictly reciprocal, but where the idea expressed by the verb necessarily sup- 
poses two persons or two parties, as in questions and answers, e. g. 'rvy^dtfwbtu 
and fyftr^eu, to innuire ; iiroKplytabai and ixtxfidfiferbai, to answer ; cufifioukt^ 
tff^ai, to consult with one, ask his advice, and hfcucotyovadeu, to consult one {iioKOtyow 
being especially used of consulting oracles). 

^ 251. C. The Passive. 

1. From the reflexive signification of the Middle, the Passive 
is derived. Here the subject receives tlie action from another 
upon itself, — permits the action to be performed upon itsel£ 
Hence the subject always appears as a passive or suffering 


Mo^rryovfuu, {tifuov/uu {M tikos), I receive bioiaSf punishmetU^ I let mjftdf U 
Uruck, punished ^=^ I am struck, punished (by some one) ; fi\dwTOficUf iiSutovfiaif 
I suffer injury, injustice; ZSda-KOfjLoif I let myself be instructed, I receive instruction, 
I learn, hence Mrtyostfrom some one = doceor ab aliquo; rtt^oiuu., I persuade 
wtjfsdf, or / permit myself to be persuaded, ifw6 rtyos, by some one ^ I am per 

2. Yet, there are but two tenses, the Fut. and the Aor., which 
have special forms to express the passive sense of an action ; 
the remaining tenses are expressed by the Mid. 

3. Hence the following rule : The Fut and Aor. Mid. have 
a reflexive (or intransitive) sense only ; but all the other tenses 
of the Mid. serve at the same time for the Passive also. 

Rexabk 1 . Still, the Fat. Mid. has sometimes a Pass, sense also. The reason 
of this may be fonnd in a great measure in the shorter form of this Fat. compared 
with that of the Fnt. Pass. This passive use of the Fat. Mid. is foand most 
fineqaently with Pare verbs; mach more seldom with Mate verbs, and very 8el-> 
dom with Liquid verbs (probably not at all in Attic prose). VLaerny^c^rai, 
rrpc/3\i&<rcrai, Sfd^crai, iKKwb^erai rixp^akfi^, rcAcvrdr irdirra jrcuri 
tcMt AnuractySvAcud^cToi, PI. Rp. 361, e. Tp r&y xpVt^'ff' tnrdi^i |c«»^^•> 
o'tfrrai, Th. 1, 142. "Hy tu fiovKridp kcuAs ytvia^m, KoXoff^^rrui ry wpewo^a^f 
(n/d^' ol B^ i.ya^ol ri/i^iroyrat rois wpos^KOvaty 6^Xjois rris hptriis {but the 
bme shall be honored with the befitting reuxxrds of valor), 2, 87. Utpl r&v o'^rr^ 
fmy ^pavpUiv^ iis iirifiov\€v<rofAtywv, woWdxis frpdyfieern cTxoi^, X. C. 6, 1, 
10. ^tp^Sfikt^a (includemur), X. An. 6. 6, 16. 'H yri c? tpvKd^tTai inrh rwr 
^povpowTtty. OvK iryyoovyrfs, Sri iytBpe^ooiyro Inrh ruy iroXc/J«y, H. 7. 2, 
18. Very commonly &S<k^ cro/i at, ip^ofiai (from &pxv, impero), fi\d\l^O' 
|lat, ^oii^ofiat. So always a\6oofiat. Some verbs have both forms 
of the mtare, as, e. g. w^cAea^, fyfuovy, or^puy, ^fitiy, Aytiy ; then the Mid. 
form seems to denote a condition, the Pass, an action received. But in very 
many instances, the Pass, sense is only apparent, e. g. 'H v6\ts Ppax^a riodtiaa 
imyika, (lift .^artrat, shaU suffer great wss therefor, in contrast with $pax^a 
V^*» Th. 3 40. Jtov (Arros, fidKrioy ^pi^oyrai koSl TcaiZtlcoyrai {they 
shall grow up better and educate themselves), PL Crito. 54, a. 

Heil 2. The use of the Mid. Aor. instead of the Pass, is, in all instances, 
only apparent; so Od. d, 35. Ko^pot 8i ilm iroi xtyrfiKoyra Kptyda^up irarA 
9nfioy, means, let them select for themselves (on the contrary, 48. Koipw 8i xpiy- 
^4yre 9iw k. vcrr., the selected). Hes. Sc. 173. ndirpoi Zouii iixovpdfttyoi ^ 
xds, they had deprived each other ofUfe, PL Phaedr. 244, e. r^ op^&s fiay^vri iral 
Karatrxoftdy^, ^^ in fine frenzy^ and in ecstasy. 

Hem. 3. It has been shown, \ 197, and Rem. 3 (comp. S 250, Rem. 1), that 
the Aor. Pass, of very many verbs is employed by the Greeks to denote a 
reflexive and intransitive action, e. g. $oC\ofteu, I unU, iliov\4i^riy, I willed; 
t^^paipm, I gladden, cheer, twpptdyofuu, I am glad, th^pdybmy, I was glad. In 
a few verbs, the Pass. Fut. is used in the same way, e. g. ffio/uu, 2 rejoice, 
^^y, I rejoiced, r,a^<rofuu, I shall rejoice. See S 197, Rem. 1. 

RsM. 4. The author or cause of the passive condition or state is generally 
expressed by the Prep. uif6 with the Gen., e. ^. Ol orpari&rai lurh t«v»o\« 
sfiitty iZuix^o^f^' Instead of vir6, Tp6s with the Gen. is used, when at the 
same time a strong :md direct influence of a pei-son, or of a thing viewed ns a 
person, is to bo expressed, c. g. *AT(|i^^ccrda<, h^iKuo^cu irp6s rtyos. Bayaw- 

338 SYNTAX. [i25L 

&tKat rixt^M €tKSrms dlHo^ovpTtu vpht r&v ir6\^Ptp, X. O. 4, %' also «a^^i 
with the Gen. is uaed, when the author is at the same time to he wpresented as 
the person from near whom, or from whose vicinity, or throogh whose meant 
internal or outward, the action has proceeded ; hence used specially with w4fir 

lirifc(iciwadai (demofufran), e. g. *0 iyytXAf ivdpL^^ii vapk. ftao^iK^ms (tat 
both by and irom near the king). 'H fity(<mi tinvx^ rovr^ r^ &y9pl ira^^ 
&c6r 949oTai, IIoXAA xp^/Aora Kvp^ irap& rwy ^IXwr crvrciXcy/i/ra 
l|9. Tki&pa ir4iJt7r9rai wapk rov fia<ri\t6oyroSt licr.7yl06. Tkxttpk 
rS»9 ^€wy ff7ifiaiy6/i€ya^X.Cy.l.6,2. Ttapk vdyruy dfiokoyttrai, 
An. 1. 9, 1. OlfAca ydp fit wapk trov ero^ias ir\fipmb^<r€frdat^ PL Symp 
175, e. 'Ek is still stronger than ir«pi,ased especially with verbs of giving; yet 
it is seldom used by the Attic writers, e. g. *E4ce(vy a&ni ^ x^P* ^'^ fiaai\4ms 
i96bri, X. H. 9. 1, 6; in Her., however, 4ic is Teiy often used instead of ^4 
simply. The use o( iv6 with the Dat is almost wholly poetic, e. g. 8«^^mu 
Cwi T i y I ; in Attic prose only in certain connections, e. s. v&s twh r^varp) 
Tf^pafi4i4voSf Pi. Bp. 558, d. Tvyx^t 6v^ wat^orptfi^ kya^f vcaaiScv 
li4ro9, Lach. 184, e. When the passive condition is not caused by persons, hot 
by thingSi the Dat is commonly used (» Lat. Ablative), e.g, 'H vdAis w^Xkuts 
irvu^opa7s 4trU(€T0y the city was diatr eased by great nusfintunea, — The above 
usage corresponds with that of the Latin, the voluntary agent with a passive 
verb beinff put in the Abl. with the preposition a or a6, the involontaty agent 
in the AbX without a preposition. 

Rbm. 5. The Dat. of persons, however, is vcrjr often used, particttlarly with 
the Perf. tense, and regularly with verbal adjectives. The FnsB. has in such 
instances an intransitive or reflexive sense, and the Dat. indicates the peraon by 
wifiom the action was performed, or for whom it was performed. While ^w4 
with the Qen. denotes merely the author of the passive action, the Dat, at the 
same time, denotes that this action stands in relation to the author, e. g.^At 
pi 1 vp&npov ScS^Xtfrof , i. e. as <Ae thing has beeu before pointed osf ty me, <mdJor 
aw now ttand$ a$ pointed out^ Her. 6, 183. 

4. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that the Act, not merely 
of transitive verbs with the Ace, may be changed into the per- 
sonal Pass., hke the Latin, but also the Act of intransitive 
verbs with the Gen. ajid Dat 

^^ovovfiat ^6 Tivov (from ^ovu» run, invidere o/ticui), i. e. / experience 
envy fiom some one^ am envied (in Latin, on the contrary, invidetvr mihi ab 
aliquo). X. Conv. 4, 29. Kptirriy 4<rTi wurrfdetr^ai ivh rqs wverptBos fioXkor, | 
&iria're<(r3ai (from more^etp and iLvurrtTy rcri), / am trusted, lam distrusted, 
Th. 1, 82. ^fcffiff fir* ^A^nyaiwy 4xi$ovk€v6titl^a {iwtpovke^Uf riW). B. Bp. 
8. 41 7, b. ical ivifioukf^oyrtSf ical iirt$ovk€v6fi9yoi Htd^own vdtxra r^ 0lsy» 
8. 551, a. &(nrcrrax V^ rb Ad rifiAfuyoy, AficXctrai t^rh ikn/u^iufvoy, X S. 
4,31.0^^1 &irci\ov/i«i, &XX' ffSii kweiXm SkkMS. So iipx^^^^^t Kparii' 
^^Pittf iytfioyeif^^yah Kmra^tpoyii^riyai 6w6 rtyos (from Cpx<<''* V* 
reiy, irt^iMyt^eufy Koiroippoyuv Ttvot), ^irixcipif;^ifrai (from /irix««p«tir rm). 
On KSwTOfjuu r^v Kt^Kxk^y, 4Tirp4xofica r^y ^vkucfiy, see \ 281, 3. 

Hem. 6. The Greek mnv form a Pass, from other intransitives also, yet, for 
the most part, only when the subject is a thing, particularly a Neut, pronoun, 
or a Part, used as a Ncut. substantive, o. g. KaH fwcph apiaorri^4yra {vdparva 
peccata), X. An. T). 8, 20. *ATvxv^4yruy (rerum infmciter gestamm), Dem. 
Cor. 298. 212. "Ewl rovrms iyut akubtvotiivoki 9lButd <roi rhy iftvi' M^ 

H 262, 253,] TENSES and modes. 339 

(ea eonditioMy ut haee vere dioaniur), X. Cy. 4. 6, 10. ISv iy\ Mpl iroAAwr if>e- 
r^M Kip9v¥€i(V^ai {in periculum vooan), Th. 2,35. Off f^iov t& xnrh 1ro^Xfi# 
Kivlifv^vbivrak ^* {j^^iyl^wu, Ljs. 5, 112. 

\ 262, Remarks on the Deponents. 

It has been seen sboTe (^ 102, 3) that Deponents are simply rertw which 
occur either in the Mid. only, or in the Mid. with a Pass. Aor., and hare a 
reflexive or SntnasitiTe signification ; and, also, that they are divided into Mid. 
or Pass. Deponents, acconling as their Aor. has a Mid. or Pass. form. The 
reflexive sense of many Deponents is so slight, that they seem to be, in our 
mode of regarding them, merely transitive verbs, e. g. 94xofud ri, I take (namely, 
to myidf] womeUdng^ ipydCofud ri, fitdCofud nya, etc. Snch Deponents are often 
used in a Pass, sense, particularly in the Perf. and in tlie Pass. Aor Examples 
of the Pres., Impf , and Fnt in a Pass. Miue are very rare, and are found only 
in such Deponents as have in single examples an active form, e. g. /iii^f^doi, 

H4rra iiVftpyairrai r^ i^t^, PI. L. 710, d. Mt/iifAfffi4vos {ad imUatio' 
nemexpretsttSjmadelike)j'Rer.2j7B. ES trrtl^vfArifi^pop {weil'Oon8idered)y'PL 
Crat. 404, a. N^ct obx ixp^^t^^^^tp {adhHritae sun/). Her. 7, 1 44. 

Reicaxk. Several Deponents have both a Mid. and Pass. Aor. ; the Pass, 
form has then a Pass, sense, e. g. iB^^d/iiiPt exeepi, iB4x^vy$ exeephu mtm ; 
4$taird/iiiy, coegi, i^ida^riyy coactui sum; iKTuitrdftrirf mihi comparavi, 
iKT^I^ilPfeompamtut nan {I wot gained) \ 6\0^6pa&i^at^ to lament^ £ao- 
fyp^iipah to ^ lamented; iiit4vair^mh to heal^ incev^^raty to be heaied; 
kweKpiwaa^aif to repl^, ikfOKpi^rivai, to be tejaaraied. In a few verbs only 
arc both Aorists used without distinction of meaning (§ 197, llem. 1). 

♦ 253. Tenses and Modes of the Verb, 

(a) Tenses denote the relation of time expressed by the 
predicate, this being designated either as Present, Future, or 
Past, c. g. the rose blooms, vnU bloom, bloomed; 

(b) Modes denote the relation of what is affirmed in the predi- 
cate to the subject; tliis relation being denoted either as an 
actual fact, as a conception or representation, or as a direct 
expression of the will. The mode which expresses a fact, as 
the rose blooms, is called the Indicative; that which denotes a 
conception, as the rose may bloom, the Subjunctive ; that which 
denotes the direct expression of the will, the Imperative, as 

310 SYNTAX. [if 254, 255 

* 254. A. More Particular View of the Tenses. 

1. The tenses are divided, according to their form and mean^ 
ing, into two classes : (a) into Principal tenses, "which, both in 
the Ind. and Subj., always denote something present or future; 
(b) into Historical tenses, which in Ihe Ind. always denote 
something past, in the Optative, sometliing present or future. 

2. The Principal tenses are : — 

(a) The Present: (a) Indicative, e. g. ypi^ii^Wy scribimus; (fi) SubJQnctiTO, 
e. g. ypd^fitp, Boibcmut ; 

(b) Tlic Perfect : (a) Indicative, e. g. yeypd^ofup, tcrijisimus ; (3) Subjanc- 
tive, e. g. ytypd^ftty, scripserimus; 

{e\ The Pntare Indicative, e. g. ypd^ofuv, tcribemusj ive shall unite; Subjnnc' 

tivo wanting ; 
(d) The Fatare Perfect Indicative, e. g. $tfiov\€6irofuu, I shcM, have advited 

myself, or I shall have been advised; Snbjnnctive wanting. 
The Sabj. Aor. also belongs here, e. g. ypdfffw, scripsenm or scriUxm, See 
♦ 257, 1 (a). 

3. The Historical tenses are : — 

(a) The Aorist: (a) Indicative, e.g. fypw^ I wrote; (0) Optative, eg. 
ypd^nufu, I might write, or / miglit have written ; 

(b) The Imperfect : (a) Indicative, c. g. iypa/poy^ scribcbam ; (i3) Optative, 
0. g. ypd^fu, scriberem ; 

(c) The Pluperfect : (a) Indicative, c. g. iyeypdp€tp, scripseram ; {$) Optative, 
0. g. yrypd^ifUf scripsissem ; 

(d) The Optative of the simple Future, e. g. ypJb^oiiu^ I would writer and of 
the Fut. Perf., e. g. fitfiovXtvaolfiriy, I would have deUberaied^ or IwouUhms 
been advised, when in narration (and consequently in reference to the 
past), the representation of a future action, or of one to bo completed at 
a future time, is to be expressed, c. g. 6 &yy€\os IXctcv, Sri o/ voKtfUM 
¥iK^9oitr, the messenger said, that the enetny would conquer ; IXryti'i ^< 
wdirra ^h rod trrparrryov cS fiffiou\e^ffoiTo, he said that everything 
WOULD be well planned by the general. 

1255. (a) Principal Tenses: Present, Perfect, Future, 

1. The Present Indicative represents the action as taking 
place in time present to the speaker. The Present i.. often 
jsed, in the narration of past events, for the purpose of a more 
vivid and graphic representation ; past time is then viewed as 
present. This is called the Historical Present 


*Ta^nf y T V rd^pow fiairtkths /i4yas toki iunl ip6fiaros9 iirtiBii iruyddrtTa. 
KSpor T/MfcAo^yoKra, X. An. 1. 7, 16. ^Hif ris npiafuSwy yti^rceros no\69wpos, 
'Etcd^Tis waus, t>y 4k Tpotas 4fio\ ircrr^p HBatri Tlpla^s iv 96fiois rp4<pviy, Ear. 
Hec. 1116. The Hist Pres. is sometimes used even in passages which in them- 
fclres, aside from adverbs like iror/, rdxai (poet, wdpos)^ are considered as 
inTolving past time, e. g. Zwyr* clsouco^ai iroISa, hv iKffd»(ti tot 4^ Eur. EL 

HsifAHK 1. An action is often viewed by the language as present, which 
belongs, indeed, to the past, but at the same time extends to the present, or in 
its results reaches to the present In this manner, the following verbs particu* 
larlyare used: (a) verbs of perceiving, e. g. &ko!$w, tevvbdvoiiatt al<rbi.» 
90 Ik a I, yiyyi&<rKu, fiar^ay» (like Lat aM(//o, inWeo, etc., and Eng. to hear, 
to see, to perceive, to observe), when tlie object of these verbs is to be represented 
as still continuing in the present; (b) ^tlfyu), I have (jiven myself to flight, and 
I am now a fvgitive, hence to live in exile; yiK& and Kparw {I am a victor, 
hence have conquered), riTr&fiat {lam vanquished, have been vanquished), &8<ic» 
{lam in iJie wrong, have done wrong), ylyyo/iai (/ am descended), etc.; (c) in 
poetry: ^oytiw ^I am a murderer, have murdered, e. g. S. Ant. 1174), ^yfiaKt* 
\lam dead, have died, S. El. 113), r (ktm, ytyyu {lam a father or mother, Eur. 
Ion. 356. Her. 209), etc. This usage extends to all the Modes and Participials 
of the Pres. as well as to the Impf. ec/uurro/rXca ovk aKo^tis &ySpa ivya^hif 
yeyoydra', PI. Gorg. 503, c. IIciKra xvy^ay6fi€yos 6 Kpouros Ihctfixe is ^irdp- 
nfy liryy4XouSf Her. 1, 69. T£ Se ; eh ixtiyo Aw^iroaf, 5ti Mvaol koI niaiHtu iy if 
fiairt\4eos X^Ff Kartxoi'^fS ipvfufii rdyv x^P^a Svvarreu C^y iKt^tpoij — Kal rovr6 
y, 1^, &irov», hast thou aeardf iiKo^u, yes, I have known of it, X. C.3. 5, 26. 
AmrfydKerf ^Aptal^, %rt iifuts yt ytK&fi^y fiaa'ik4a, Kotf its 6pSr*y obBtls tifMf 
fri /laxcTw, An. 2. 1, 4. TStv viKdtvrtoy 4ar\ kuDl rk iearr&y v^Cuy koa nk t&y 
4fTrt9fi4y»y \sL/ifidvHy, 3. 2, 39. Aapiov nai Hapwrdri^s wd^ts ylyvovrai 
%io, 1. 1, 1. 

Rem. 2. Ofx<'M«( <^°d ^if^^^ '^^ith Pros, forms, arc often translated in Kng. 
by Perfects, namely, oXx^i*-o.i, I have departed, and fiKo», J have come;' yd 
o?x*MO'> properly means, / atn gone, and ^kco, T am here {ad^im), c. g. M^ 
Xirrov, 5ti *Apdffiras olx*''''^^ *** ''*'^* iroXe/itfovs, 'that Araspas is gone, has 
departed (= trans/ugii) to the memy, X. Cy. 6. 1, 45. "Hkoi vtKpwy Kfv^fi&ya 
xol tTKSrov ir^Aof Xiwt&y, Eur. Hec. 1. 'Tfictr fi6\ts &^(Kver(r^c, Sirot ^fic7$ ird\tu 
Uxofi^y, X. Cy. 1. 3,4. 

Rev. S. But the language often considers an action as present, which is not 
yet accomplished, but is either actually begun, or is begun in our mind, or pur* 
'pete; such an action is virtually future, though consideirod as present Com- 
pare the English : I go to-morrow, i. e. / shall go, I intend to go, and the like. This 
usage also belongs to all the Modes and Participials of the Pres. and the Impf. 
It specially holds of the Pres. of c f/* «, which, in the Ind. has regularly the mean- 
ing of the Put, / shall go; the Subj. includes a Put. meaning in itself {S 257, 
Ron. 4) ; but the Inf. and Part, have both a Pres. and Fut. meaning. "E ir c i r a 
rd re yvy tyra iy r^ voj>oZtia*p drjpla 9 19 u fit troi, koI &AXa xayrobiarh. avk- 
\4^v,X. Cy. 1. 3, 14 (B 19 w fit, I offer). •'Eico<rT<Jj rts Kvtt^ty Ecvo^wrra 
diroirr^yai riiy kpxh^ (persuadere stuMat), X. An. 6. 1, 19. MtTvAt^vcuoi ixX 
M^l^fiyay &s Tpo9i9ofi4yriy iarrpdrtva'ay (putantes parari ibi proditioncm ), 
Th. 3, 18. In like manner often the Pres. Part, after verbs of motion, e. g. 'H 
srdpaXos is rks *A^yas ftrAfvcrcy, itwayyixkovcra rh, ytyovSra {for the purpose 
of announcing), X. H. 2. 1, 29. Kol r$ piyti kicwKXliitba, icol x<«'"' *"^«'<"1 
%p {we expected to perish), An. 5.8, 2. — Obx eb^hs k^-fiffw abrhy,ov9^ kvtifit, 
oaA* ipieonat abrhy koI ^{crcirw, PI. Apol. 29, e. *E»fl ^ MayHdt^ wapar- 
K€vd(€To &s ixtovira irdXty trpbs rhy &y9p<L, i9uTo abrris h 'Aorvd^yiff KoroAtircZr 
rky Kvpoy^ X. Cy. 1. 3, 13. 

342 STNTAX. [i 255 

Rbk. 4. Bat also actions or eTents wfaallr fatnrs are sometiiiies ladicatod 
88 present, by the nse d the Fres. tense, when in the view oi tlie speaker 
the action or event jet fatnre is vividly apprehended, or when he is so firmij 
convinced of its occurrence, that it appears already present, e. g. *Zif fttq, fiijcf 

will gain, and free), Tfa. 4, 95. ^Hi^ »uyps H, weuf W ^ar^c^yci fa^po^* dwl* 
ov dcXo^rqi Kori^oycty, r6vB€ icrciw, Kor. Andr. 381. 

2. The Perfect (Indicative) represents a past action in time 
present to the speaker ; the action appears as already accom- 
plished at the present time. Hence the Perf. represents not 
only n.past action, but iia present effects or results. 

Tiypatpa r^p iirurroX'liVy I HAVE WBITTEH the later, the letter IS KOW WWT- 
TEir, whether written now, or some time ago ; the writing is the past act, the 
letter is the result still present 'H w^Kts Unrierrat^the city was bttii.t (ia past 
time), is now built, and there it now stands bttilt. ^Arnvdyns rdr ir M-ffiots Wptm 
Scmr^TT^ imnhp wtiroliiKtv, X Cy. 1. 3, IS. OMif iari tctf^aXedrrtpm tm 
vucay 6 ykp Kpar&y Sifui irdfra trvp^piraKtf kbH rohs Mpas, mai rits 'yimums, 
4. 2, 26. 

Rem. 5. Since tiie Ferf. brings past time into close connectimi with the 
present, the Greeks in many Penects contemplated less the pecaltar act of 
completion, than its resuk as exhibited at the present moment; and henee they 
used the Perf., in order to indicate « present condition or siofe that was oeoa- 
sioned by the completion of the action. As snch a nse of the Perfect does not 
iKilong to the En^irik, we translate many Greek Perfects by onr PresiAt, where 
the present condition is more prominent than the past act ; the Plnp£ of snefa 
verbs is then translated by our Impf., e. g. r4^y7iica (I have died), lam dead 
(Eur. Ale. 557. r^^vaffiv oi J^oy^rrcf, tAose who died, are dead) ; niicnifuu (I 
have acquired), I possess; r^^adfAwca (I have been wondering), Icon astonished; 
Btfioix^vfuu (I have taken counsel with mvself ), / am determined; ir^ra (I 
iiavo shown myself), I appear; oTSo, novi (I have seen), I know ; r^Xa (I hsve 
blossomed),/ bloom; irnrot^ (I have convinced myself), I trust; fiifirpai (I 
have taken steps), 7 am going; fi4ftyrifiai, memini (I have called to mind), / am 
mindful, or remember; KhXrifieu (I have been named), 7 am oaBed, etc. thn 
Prcs. and Impf. of many verbs, especially such as express the idea of to sssmd, 
to call, are not used at aU, or but very seldom, so that the Perf. and Flap, seen 
to take entirely the place of the Pres. and Impf., e. g. Kdxpayu, I cry, properly, 
I am a crier ; /Ufwita^ I roar. 

Rem. 6. The transition from the completed action to the condition or state 
produced by it, is more obvious in the Passw than in the active. Q>mp. ^ 3^ 
K4K\eta'rai^ihe door has been shut, and it is now bhut. So partictuaily ^e 
third Pers. Sing. Perf. Imp. Pass, is ofkien used, when one wonld command with 
emphasis, that the thing spoken of should remain fixed and permanent in its 
condition, i. e. not only that the action should be performed, but partiadar^ 
that the result shoula continue^ e. g. t^ iyKvpioy itM€<nrdir^, let the anchor b^ 
itrawn no and remain so; KtKtl^m, rdiquum esto, let it remain permanerJlp; vcvci* 
pAff^t^ let it be tried; yvy 8^ rovro rrroXfi'^bw uirt7v. So the Inf. in the Ontio 
obliqna, X. H. 5. 4, 7. i^$6irr€s il cTiroi', rijy bitpay KwX^urbm, thai it be shU, and 
remain shut. 

Rem. 7. The Perf. is used with ^Msciai emphasis, oven of fotare actioas, the 
occurrence of these being affirmed with the same definitencss And confidenoe, 
M if they had already taken place. IL o, 128. 9t44>^opasJ you arelsst,wiHk 

f 266.] PftlNCIPAX. TCNSCS. 843 

h&t, 80 SKwXot like MTU, inierii, aetian est de me^k^icdl over wkli nt«, will 64 
etc. PL Phaed. 80, d. 17 ^{n/xh ^oAAftrro^/n} rov o-f&fueros, th^hs 8tairc^ii<rif 
r«i ffo^ &irtfA«A.fy* 

3. The Future (Indicative) denotes an action as future in re. 
lation to the present time of the speaker. The Greeks very 
oA^en use the Fut. Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an 
Hist tenee, to express that which shall, shotcld, must, or can be, 
where the Latin employs the Subj. ; the other forms of the 
Fat, partietilarly the Psurt., are also so used. 

9apaffK€vaO'd4iO'9rai {should be oUainedl, rots S^ KOKois Tetirtuf6s re «ca2 kK* 
ywAt jccd ifiiuros 6 Mf iiravaKflatTai {should be imposed upon them)^ X. Cy, 
9. 3, 52. 0/ elf r^ fi«urt\uc^p f^X^^ wai9€v6fiaim rl BuKp4potHri r&v ^| ^Mtyiciff 
Ktuccfn^oHtfTw, cf y€ irciy^trovcri koI iit^^vowi KtA piyAtrovvi ksSL ky* 
pvww^aovtri {if they must hunger, etc.), C. 2. 1, 17. "tio^e r^ i^ifju^ rpidKoyra 
hf^pas ix4ffdai, oirovs xttrplous »6fious ^yyy^fdj^ovffi, «ral^* 065 iroAircvcroviri 
{who should draw up laws, according to icAicA tft^ shoidd Uve), H. 8. 2, 8. 

4. The second person of the Fut Ind. is often used to express 
commands, exhortaticHifl, admonitioiis, entreaties, and, in con* 
nection with the negative oi), prohibitions ; here the accomplish- 
ment of what is^ affirmed is not demanded^ as is the case in the 
Imp., but is left 16 the choice of the person addressed, and is 
only expected. This dijQTers chiefly from the Imp. only in being 
a milder form of ezxxrossion. On the contrary, the Fut. is used 
with the negative ov, interrogatively, when, in a strong and 
indignant tone, the accompUshment of the action is expected 

"op a oZu ical ir,ooi^v/tot; KwnZtuf, idy xtas trpArtpos ^fioS fBpS) koI fMft ^pA* 
ffcis {you will communioaie it to me as communiccUe), PI. Hp. 432, c. ^Cis o5fr 
•Koi^itr^TM kqX irti^ar^i txoi {gou wiU do thus, etc. » do thus), Prot. 338, a. 
O V Zpdtr^is Totro, thou unH not do this, as Ihope «= do it not; bat ob Bpdo'tii 
rovTo; wUt thou not do ihisf >b do it, Ob wub^trp X4ytiy; non desines dioeref 
instead of desine dicere» PI. Symp. in. ob vtpifiwtTsj wilt thou not wait 9 Bern. 
Phil. 2, 72. ob ^v\d^€ffdr% t^v, Sir«s pAi Itcir&ntv tt^pTrrs/ Bat when in thia 
manner, a negative command is to be exprowed^ the negative /aIi ia to he nsed 
with ob ] and when two sentences of this kind, one with an affirmative meaning 
and the other with a negative, follow each other, ob stands in the first sentence, 
11^ in the last. Ob ft^ ^Kvaplivtts] Ob fi^ AaX^o-cci, &A\* AicoXov^^^o'cii 
4iia(, At, Kab. 505 (instead of fi^ ipKvdpet, /n^ AiXci, &XA' imoXo^nt]. PL Symp. 
175, a. o&K oby Ka\t7$ abr^v koL fi^ A^^ircif. 

344 SYNtAX. [1 2ot 

5. The Future Perfect (Indicative) represents ^future action 
as past (completed) in relation to another future action ; hence 
a future prior to another future. Such an action is future with 
reference to the present, past with reference to another future. 

Kol rotffi /i€fii^tTat itr^Xh KOKoiirw [the good shaU have been wdxed wiik enZ), 
lies. Op. 177. 'H iroXtrcfa rrJ^ws KtKoa/i^atrai, Ihf b TOiovros aJMiP iwiff* 
korj ^i\a^ 6 to^twp iwurHiiMv, PL Rp. 506, a. Ad the Greek Perf. freqaently 
denotes the present condition or result of a completed action, so the Fat. Perf. 
frequently denotes the ftUure condition or result of a completed action. Hence 
the Fat Perf. of those verbs whose perfects are translated by the present tense 
of other verbs (see Rem. 5), must be translated by the simple Fat., e. g. /ufo^ 
&ofiat, meminero {I thaU have reminded myself), I shall he mindfid, shall rematber 
(but furiiffofieu, I shall remind myself) ; xficrfiaoftm {I shall have acquired), I skaB 
possess (but itrficrofuu, I shall acquire), etc. 

Bkm. 8. The Fat Perf., like the Perf. (Hem. 7), is used instead of the sim- 
ple Fut, to express a thing emphatically. Here as in the Perf. used for tho 
Fat, the speaker looks upon the action as already accomplished ; hence the 
Fut. Perf. often denotes the rapidity and certainty of the action, the proccM 
or progress being left whoUy out of view, e. g. ^p^(c, ical irfw/>c((crai [and it 
shall £ [cEBTJLiNLY, imhbdiatblt] dofie), Ar. Pint 1127; ^l\os nfdf ov8«b 
Xc^cfifrcrai [no friend will [certainly] be left us), X. An. 2. 4, 5. So also in 
the Inf. Avoiy 4 rpiAy iifuf>&v raSra irtirpd^tv^at^ Dem. 19, 74. In the Act 
the periphrasis fitfiov\tvKits teofuu is found. 

Rbh. 9. The Fut Perf is used in Greek only in principal clauses, and in 
subordinate clauses introduced by 5ti and &s (that), by c I used instead of 2rrt, 
and by 65 re (so that), all with the Ind. In aU other subordinate clauses, the 
Aor. Subj. (more seldom the Perf ^ is used instead of it, in connection with a 
conjunction compounded of &y, as idy, iirdy, iirtiidy, Sroi^, TpHy &y, frr* ir, U 
Kr, etc., c. g> '£^ Todro A /(p i (si hoc dixeris), AfutpT^opi 

i256.(h) Historical Tenses: Aorist, Imperfect, and 


1. The Aorist (Ind.) e?: presses past time, in a wholly indefi- 
nite manner, with no other relation, e. g. e/pa^a, I wrote, KCjpo? 
ttoXKa €Svq €vucqa-€y. It thus Stands in contrast with the other 
tenses which express past time ; still, so far as it indicates past 
time indefinitely, it may be used instead of either of these 

2. Both the Impf. and Plup. (Ind.) represent an action as 
past, but always as having relation to another past action. But 
the Impf. expresses the action as contemporary with this other 
past action; the Plup. expresses the action as already past 
before this other past action. 


^tffffb ^ ir« i f € 5, 4y^ ty^ a^or^ while geu were playing^ I was voritin^, *Ore 
iyy^ ^tr^y olfidp^t^t, of'EhXiivts ifidxovro. "Ort ol fidpfiapoi iir^KriKi- 
j^ctf'ay, o/*EAAi7»'M ifjkdxopro, TSrt (or^if rairri tJ f^^XV) ol'EWriPts 
^^gifpaX^ara ifidxoyro. "EvciS^ oI''E\Ktiv€5 4irt\7iKvdt(ray, ol iro\4fuoi 
Arc«-c^c^7e<rav. "Or* ol o^fifioxoi ^ » X ij <r f o f o v, oZ ^Adriycuoi robs ll4pff» 
ivMPiKiiK^trav, *T,ytypd^€iy t^v Ar«rroA^y, I had loritteathe letter {before 
the Jriend came). 

Rbicask 1. It is to be noted that the Greeks freely use the Aor. instead of 
the Plnp., when the relation of the past time to another past time can be easily 
inferred from the context, and no special emphasis lies in this relation, e. g. 
*Zw9tiii ol "ZkXrivfs iiCTJK^oy (qnnm Graeci venissent)^ ol iro\4fuoi Aireirf^c^c- 
roK. The Aor. is often employed even instead of the Perf., when the relation 
of the post time to the present need not be expressed emphatically. 

3. Hence the Aorist (Ind.) is used in historical narrations, in 
order to indicate the principal events, while the Impf. (Ind.) is 
used to denote the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. 
narrates, the Impf. describes. Hence in the narration of past 
events, the Aor., which introduces the principal facts, is very 
often interchanged with the Impf, which describes and paints ; 
often, also, with the Hist Pres., which, like the Aor., relates the 
principal events, and places them vividly in the present; not 
seldom, also, with the Plup., sometimes with the Perf By this 
interchange of the tenses, the narration has the greatest hveli- 
ness of representation, and the finest shades of expression. 

*KfWf 8* *Ems^6pot cTiri ^t6»s 4ft4my M ytuoM, r^fios wvpKoi^ ijiapaivtro, 
valvar 9 M ^X^{ {the Jbrt ujxm the Jimeral pile began to abate^ and the Jlame 
€seased), H. ffr, 228. To^r vtXraffrits iBd^arro ol fidpfiapot xol ifidxoyro' 
4irfl 8* iy^s ^&ar oi ^XTrw, 4rpdToyro* ical ol irc^rooTol €vdhs cTtofto 
{the bariKaiam withstood the peltagts and continued to fight with them ; huJt when tlte 
hoplitee drew near, theyfled^ and immediately the peUasts set out in pumut)^ X. An. 
S. 4, 24. Uvv4firi T^ iSotc^frtp irol ^|air(n|f A/u^or^pwI^cy robs 'Adipmiovs ^opvfitj' 
^vcu* irol rb pJky tb^^fwtf Wpctf cAr&y, &ir€p 9-)i lud irpoK^X'^P'flKttf tb^s 
im^ayh^ l^vyc • mil 6 BpaffOkiSy bwox»powros ffSij ovroD, ^irttrapiiay rtp Z^^ltp, 
'rirpA^TK^rai* koIl '^<r6vra aibrhv ol ftly *AShfvcuoi obx altr^dvofTai, ol 8i 
irAiyWoK ipamrtf itviivtyKaP* kqA ^ fiky KA^k, &s rb irp&Toy ob Sicyoctro 
p4ytty, tbdbs ^^yotyt «cal KceraXti^p^h bwb WvpKiplou wtKraarov, hvo^yijCKti' ol 
Bh a^ov ^wrrpatp4yr9S ivTarcu ^fi^yovro k, r. X., Th. 5, 10. *0 /ihf WXe/Koi 
kirdyrmy ^>|MS r«y upi\ii4yimy &irc0'repiyicf • «cal ydp roi vtytoripovt TrtfroiifKCy 
Koi voXXs^r icirS^povf irofi4y€iy ^lydyxav*, icai irfAt robs "EAXfiyof 9iafi40\7i' 
K9 Kci vdpra rpdnroy r^raXatirApviKty TifMs, Isocr. Fac. 163, a. (The 
Perfects denote the rasult, the Aorist the event.) 

Rem. 2. Inasmuch us the Aor. Ind. represents a past action independentlt 
nnd absolutely, nncon iccted with any other past time, while the impf. Ind. 
represents a past action as always connected with anpther past action, beinijp. 

346 SYNTAX. [4 256. 

conseqaently, employed in exhibiting an action in its duratum and progrea^ ani] 
hence used in deacriplioR ; accordingly the Aor. expresses a ntoment xrrpotni 9f 
time, while the Impr., denotes duration or continuance. The Aor. tuerefore 
describes a momenUay action or a singU action ; the action^ however, described 
by the Aor. may be a continued or protracted one, but the writer inaising tfaoe 
Aor. presents no such view of it, communicatuig merely the fact of lAie oocor* 
rcnce. The Impf., on the other hand, describes an action in its continnanoe 
and progress, — not merely a single act, but a series of acts. It often depends on 
the choice of the writer whether the Impf. or Aor. is used. An action graphi- 
cally presented in its duration and progress by the Impf., can be stated histor- 
ically as a more past act, by the Aor. And so, many actions stated in the Aor. 
might be more vividly described by the Impf., if the writer wished it 

4. On the use of the Impf. and Aor. Ind., the following things 
are to be noted : — 

(a) The Impf. appears sometimes to stand instead of the Pres., sfaice an 
action which continues into the present time, is Tefeired to a past time in wiudt 
it occurred, or was known to the speaker. K»pof ^cXo^mi — M rhr XdUsr 
woTOftAyt 6rra rh «Zpof ie\4&pov, irkfifni 8* Ix^^y fuydx»r icai fcpa i m ^ ^ tAs 61 3^pM 
^tohs ipofiiCoy moI &8iitcii' ovk cfvy {which the ^frians cOKSii>£]i as gods^ 
namely, as I then saw), X. An. 1. 4, 9. ^A^Korro irphs rh MiiBUa KaXaApuam^ 
rcixos • •»- &ir Cixc S^ 6a/3v\£vo5 oh froKl, 2. 4, 12. T^ 9^ *p^^ 4m^P? &^ficorr» 
hr\ rhp mrrofiSw, $s &pi(€ T^y re rwy Wcuept&iwy [xi^/wv] KtH rV f^ Xnvdnwry 
4. 8, 1. *Ariip, 2 Ircu/K, V oif r^ ^w rh 94p9po¥^ ip* tmp ^yn ii/jAs,- PL Fhaedr. 
230, a. Ohn Ikfi kyv&hs rh voKnuA lUpucK^s ^p iK roArou rov kAyov (namely, 
when he so appeared to us, consequently » o&k Ap* ieya^ iirrip, &s i^mtp^ro^ 
he is not therefore distinguished, as he then seemed to &e), Goig. 516, d. — From the 
idea of duration or continuance contained in the Impf. several other relations ori^ 
inate : (a) The beginning of an action, e. g. ^vcl iyyhs fjr^rwTo, i^parbnis d fiJkp 
aitrSp 4r6^€voy, some of them began to shoot their arrows ; ^^ (fi) Aa&it or ciaCsm, 
e. g. ainhp ohrtp wp6s!^p irpostK^povp^ koI r^f wposatdptfinp, those who wen 
be/ore aecuMomed to do obeisance to him, did it then aUo; — (y) tptfft, endomor or 
attempt, e. g. irpSros Kh^apx^^ "^^ abrov orpa/n/in-as ifiid-C^ro i^ftUj CSearokus 
endeavored to compel his soldiers to advance. 

(b) The Aor. is often used in general propositions which express ti fact bor- 
rowed from experience, and hence what is customary ; here a single fact itdiich 
has been observed to be tme in many instances, but not established as universal, 
is stated to be generallg tme, — the truth frequently observed in regard to a 
single event, is considered as holding in the case of other similar events. In 
such cases the Aor. is usually translated into English by the present, or by the 
veib is wont, is accustomed, with the Inf. II. p, 177. akl re aA§ np^avrnp p6os 
aiyt/ixoto, $sr€ jm2 iAitifAOP SufBpa ^a/Sct^ mil &^ciAcvo wiiofp iP^filSims (wAo 
ingpires the hrane man with fear, and bears off the vieiorg), X. Qy. 1. S, d. al ph^ 
yitp irXcidrroi ir^Xcif irposrdifrromn rois iroAlrotf p^ leX^irrctr, pii 4^mtfi(«<f», icol rlXXm 
ri TomGra &sa^ws' f^y 94 ris ro(rrw t< wapafitdpp, fypias ttbrots 4w4^€caw 
{toere accustomed to impose a penalty upon them), Dem. 01. 1(2). 20, 9. Zrea^ im 
»k€oy€^tas irol ironipfav ris, Aswfp oZros (^iXnnros), ttrx^^, ^ *p^^ vp^^ura 
uik pucphv wrmirpM inrapra Arfxa^Tio-c koI 9t4\va'sp, 


Ssif. 3. When the idea of bsing wont to do^ us found in the Aor., is to be 
made prominent, or when a native kabU is to be expressed, the Greek nses the 
rerbs ^t\fty and ^/Xciy. Her. 7. 10, 5. ^ i ^ e c t yhp 6 3cbs rh hrtpixovra vdyra 
voAtf^ir. 157. T<p f9 fiov\€v^4yTi vfrfiyfueri rt\tvT^ &s rh itrUrav j^trrii i^4\€ 

\c) Hence in poetrjr, the^Aor. is often used in comparisons, instead of the 
"Brea^ since comparisons contain fiicts that are known and founded on often 
repeated experience. IL y^ 33 — 36. &s 8* Srf rls re ipdKorru tSiti^ va^dtropaoi 
kv4aTii oCptot ir fi^c^Sf {nr6 rf Tp6fu>s tWafiM tvm, &ifr t^ &ycx(6pi}<r€y» 
ijCP^f W fJUM cfXc irnpcMCf • &s airts Kodr* B/uKor Giv Tp^y iiy9pAx»v (sc. IX^pu )• 
IL V, 482. fff>flre 8*, in tT% ru 9pus iiptvmr, 

(d) The Tragedians often use the Aor. in dialogue as an impassioned or 
emphadc expression of a decision or determination, which has respect, indeed, 
to the present time, but which the speaker wishes to represent as hating been 
prerioasly establiahed and settled in his own mind. The English often trans- 
lates such Aozists, in a rery imperfect manner, by the Prcs. Here belong 
espedallj rerbs expressing strong feeling or passion, e.g. i.ir4vrv<ra {I do 
aihor), 4y4\affa{I cannot hdp laughing), itr-jv^ffotj ffioa^a, i^aifiatra, 
&ri(/iocra, ^cr«^7}r. 8. PhiL 1434. & B* &v Kdfifis crh trKvXa rov9c rod crpcerov^ 
r4fytv 4/mf /umifUMj vp6s wvpiuf i/tiiv nSfuCt • «ral iroi ravr*, *Ax(AA^f r^anvj ira- 
pijpM^t^ikialoowwd thee, this 2 have counatHkd thee. Eur. Hed. 2S3. xph ^ 
{^MT /»hf ndfTA nrposx^p^ {^ aocommodare) v6\u o&8* iorhy frto'^ Bsru 
muddhjs ytyifS wuepibs iroX/rcui icrly ii/ia^ ta s thro {neclaudo, necunquam laudavi). 
Hec. 1276. Polym. : ical o^y y^iufdymi ircuSa Kaody^pay ^aycTv. Hecuba : itv4v' 
roo'o, this thought I do abhor » a thought which I have abhorred. 

(e) With like effect the Aor. is often used by Attic writers, apparently instead 
of the Pres. in urgent appeals or commands, expressed in the fonn of a question 
introduced hj rl odr oi or rl oi. The speaker wishes, as it were, to see the 
desired action already accomplished. X. Cy. 2. 1,4. rl o^k, H^ 6 Kvpor, oh irol 
tV 94vafuy ItXt^ds fioi (quin igitur mihi recenses f why hast thou not get told me of 
Asfiraesf ind^aad of tell me forthwith !) 6. 4, 87. rt oZw^ C^, i TeJi^a, 
obxl rii fi^y rttxt ^^^atcg ix^ iirotiifvas {wkg therefore have goa not made 
tfte walla strong bg a guard f » ai onoe make Man, etc.) ; PI. Phaedon. 86, d. ct ody 
Tts ip&y ebmpdtepos i/aov, rl obn hweKptwaro; [is quam edernme respondeat, 
ht Ann answer at onee). The Pi«8. is also so used ; yet the expression is then 
fiur weaker, e. g. Ti o3v, ^ 8* U, oiK ipmr^t; (stronger than ip^Oj but 
weaker thau Ti oSr sAk ^pAr^ioas or ^pov\) PI. Lysid. 211, d. Ti oZy oh 
r«oirov/ft«y, X. C. 3. i, 10. 

(f ) The Aor^ like the Perf. (^ 255, Rem. 7) is used, when the speaker confi- 
dently coDoders a future erent as already taken place. II. 9, 16(^— *162. cXirfp 
*fi^ Tc md ^irriit 'OA^ycvMr o^ Mko^trey, Ik re md if^k rtA«, a^ ve /ityd^^ 
kwiri^uy ffby ^pg^ut «rc^«^^t yuyeu^ re koI rm4€99w {then have thegpaid a 
Wosy penalty, then shaU theg pag^. Eur. Med. 78. i.'rw\6fieo'ir* 6p\ «i KutAy 
9potot0»fiMy ydoy woKeui^ {then we shaU perish, if etc). 

(g) The Aorist is reiy often used in all its forms to denote the coming into a 
condition -, this the Ind. aiwtys represents naturally in the post Bo^iAc^, / 

048 SYNTAX. [\ 257 

Mm a king^ i fiu^iKt V9a (not / vxu a long, bat) / came to be a king, tcxu made e 
li'n//, /SttifiX extras, having been made Idng, rex Jactus. BovAcucv, lamaBenOtv 
(X. C. ]. 2, 35), fiovKtiffaSf having been made a senator^ eenatar foetus (ib. 1. 1, 
18). 2o9 irrparriyiia'avros, te duce facto (ib. 3. 5, 1). *lax^t Iom. stnuy, 
lax^^^'t having become or been made strong, potent foetus (Th. 1, 3). Avyii- 
^ € i s, potentiam nactus, 'Acr^fF^crai, to have become side, in morbum indditae. 
Kvpos ^lydtr^ii avrSy {K\4apxov)i X. An. 1. 1, 9. Cgrus came to admire him, ejn 
admirathne captus est. 

} 257. Suhordin^ate Modes. 


1. As the Aorist Indicative expresses a past action as inde- 
pendent and completed, having no relation to another past ac- 
tion ; while the Imperfect, always representing a past action in 
relation to another past, and being used in describing and paint- 
ing, presents the action in its duration and jyrogrcss, so the 
same distinction holds in regard to the subordinate modes of 
the Aorist and Present : ^ The subordinate modes of the Aor. 
{ Subj. Opt. and Impr.) together with the Infinitive and Partici- 
ple, are used, when the speaker wishes to represent the action 
by itself, as completed; the subordinate modes of the Present 
together with the Infinitive and Participle, and also the Imper- 
fect Opt. are used, when the speaker, considering the perform^ 
once of the action, wishes to represent ii descriptively in its dura- 
tion and progress. In this way the following modes stand in 
contrast with each other : 

(a) The Sabjnnctiye and Optative Aorist with the Sttbjunctire Present and the 
Optative Imperfect, e. g. ^iymfuv and ^iyufup, let vs flet. With 
^^ycofitr, the idea of fleeing itself is urged and is bad in mindj with 
^tvyufitw,! rather have reference to the performance and progress of 
the action ; the Aor. expresses the action wiUi more energy, as it denotes 
an instantaneous, momentary act. The same distinction exists in all 
the following examples. Tl voi'^u/uv and wompu^i what shaU we dol 
A^Titf, Tra iJid^jfS and &a fiay^dyps, ut disodts; IXryor, &a ikif^*^^ 
and Tra iiav^dvois,vt disceres. The Greek Subj. always refers to the 
fixture, and hence is never used^ as in Latin, of the present and past, e. g. 
Laudat pnemm, quod diligens ait or fuerit, because he is or has been. In 
subordinate clauses with hs Hr, lev, iray, etc. [4 260. (a)], the Subj. Aor. 
corresponds with Latin Fut Perf. (4 255, Bern. 9). 'Ecbr rovro A.4yyt$ 
ikfiOfrrfioif {si lac dices or quodeBcunque hoc dids, errdbis), *E^ rovr* 

' The subordinate modes of the Imperf. are supplied b? those of the Fw 

1257.] SUBORDINATE MODfiS. 349 

kilns, oftttpr^i&n {si hoc dixeris^ if you shall have said). Comp. the exam- 
ples under §$ 333, 3. 337, 6. 339, 2, IL (b). The Impf. and Aor. Opt. has 
the sense of the present or fature m clauses which express a supposi- 
tion, conjecture, or undetermined possibility, in prose commonly with iy^ 
in hypothetical clauses with ct ; the Opt in this sense is found in elausea 
denoting a wish, in final clauses, and in direct interrogative clauses, 
particularly in deliberative questions. Todro ^itof tuf ylytfotto or 
y4yo IT Of this might easily he done. See SS ^^^t ^ ^^^ 6* <^d 260> ^- ^ 
rovro \iyois or X^^cicif, apt.iipr4.vo is or iifidprois &y, if you 
thouldsay this^yon would err. See § 339, II, (n). El^c rovro ylyvoiro 
or yivoiroy that tliis might he! See ^ 259, 8. (b). ''RKtyov, Xya 
ftapddpois or fid^oiSf ut disceres, Sce§ 330,2. Tls rotavra ^voKafi- 
Pdroi or 6iroXc(/3o<; who would suppose such things f See 4 259^3, (e). 
OvK ttxov, Bvot rptvoifii\v or rpaitotfirip, I knew n<^ what I should 
do. See \ 259, S. The following case also belongs here : When the 
subordinate clauses in §§ 333, 3. 337, 6. and 339, II, (b), arc made to 
depend on an historical tense, and the Opt. without &r takes the place of 
the Subj. with hs Ay^ Sraf, iirtildyf tap, etc., the Opt. has a future sense. 
Ohs tof f8b?T& KoXii iirirriMopraSf ri/i^cu (quos videro). ''E^njp ots 
XZoifii rii KoXk ivirn9t6ovras^ rtfA'fio'ttv (quos tn'sunis essem). *E*€iddiP 
vh 0o6\ii 9taX4y€a^at, vol imKi^ofuu (si or quoticscunque vts). *E^i}k, 
4 T filial arh fioiXoio ^taXiyto'^m, (rol dia\4l€<rdm {si or quotiescunquo 
teSes, of the futuie). In other kinds of clauses, the Opt. of the Impf and 
Aor. has a jxzsf sense, so that it corresponds with the Ind. of each of these 
tenses. Tunta^4ppris lit4$aX§ rhpKvpop, &s iittfiovKw^oi adr^ {that he 
was jiloUing against him), '^Af^cu', 8ri Kvpos kvo^dpot {that C. toas 
xiead), 'OWtc oi *EAAij»'f s ro7s TroXtfjdois iirtoi^p or iir4\^oitPf Air^- 
ptvyop, quotiescunquo impetum faciebant). 'Ayafiiobs tlKeytp, E ixtt 
Yd Of {tcJiat he had there seen, a dependent question). Comp. No. 2, (b). 

tb) The Imperative Aoristwith the Imperative Present, e. g. ^^yc and 
^tv')9j flee, a4s and 9iZov /uoi rh fiifiKtoVf give, M^ 3opv/9c<rc>2 ApBp€S 
'AShiPeuoi, dAX* 4fijitipar4 noi, off i9efidiip hfuop, fi^ ^pufiup 4^ dts tof 
\4y» (the principal fact is here ififitiparf, the more definite explanation 
bopv0ur§) Fl. Apol. 30, c. "EircfS&p &irapra ixoivirrt, Kpipart, fi^ np6- 
rtoov itpoKafifidptrt, Dcm. Ph. 1. 44, 14. *AAX*, 2 StSicparcr^ l[ri ko) 
pvp 4fMi itfl^ov lad ff^^rirt PI. CMto 44, b (» 4fKA irti^S/itPos a^idrfn, 
i. e. by a process of persuasion, save yourself). In precepts respecting 
the rules of Ufe, etc. the Pres. is the natural and usual tense. Toht p^p 
^cobs ^ofiodf robs 84 yoptis rtpa, robs 84 ^t?iovs ai0'x^>^ov, ro«f 
81 pipois Ttt^ov, Isocr. Demon. 16. Comp. § 259, 4. 

(c) The Infinitive Aorist with the Infinitive Present, e. g. 'e;^A.« ^W7f7i» 
and p^iytipf I wish to flee, 'IkomSs tlpi iroiijaai and -roitip ru 
(*H yttfpyta) pa^tTp tc ^arri 4^6x91 cTwu jcol tiita-Tri ipydC^ff^at^X^ 
Oee. 6, 9. Atptrt&TtpSp 4ffri xaXas iiro^aptTp, f^ Cv" alaxP^Sj Isocr. 
Pan. 95. Oh rh p^ \a$€2v rk hya^k ovrw yt x<«^€w^i', Hsx^p rh \afi6prm 

350 SYNTAX. [f 257. 

#rcpi|di}Fa< Xvin7fN{i', X. Cy.7.5, 82. KtKi6m fft tovyai and tiZivta 
fUH rh fit0ki»v» KaA^<raf 6 Kvpos 'Apdemiw M^Soi^y rovrer ^^cwc 8 1«^ v • 
kil^ai 9ifT^ T^r re Tvymka jcol rj^y o'lnfa^r, X Cy. 5. 1, 2, with wludi 
oompara in 3. following: rabnuv oSr Mheww & KCpor 8ia^»Ai(rTeir 
T&y 'ApAamitf, l»f &r a^r^r A^i9|; (to omft'ntM to guards the sobordiiuto 
clause necessarily implying doration in 9tmpvkdTr€Uf). In the ontfto o6fiig«a 
after verbs of saying and thinking, the Inf. Aor. and Pres. ie frequently 
nsed to denote what is pcut ; then the Inf. Aor., like the lad. Aor., is nsed to 
denote the principal events, the Inf. Pres., like the Ind. Impf., to denote the 
accompanying subordinate circumstances, e. g. 'AShtvtSoi A^yovn, Ztxdmt 
^|cX^<rai (ro^f TltXtufyoihsy mrouei^vovf yitp rols H^Xaayobs Hh rf 
Tfoiirff^ ip^vTtP ipfie»fi4vifvs, itSix^cii' rt(8«* ^o it ay yi^ altl ria 
c^terdpas ^vyaripat re icol roh$ iraZSdf ^ ff8«p * oh 7^ cZircu rovmr r^ 
XP^^ 0'^0'i jci* oiWros * Sicwf 8^ ll\^i§¥ oSrcu, roirf IlcXairyobi Ar^ tfiput 
fiiSff^ o'^at ff. r. A.. (Ora/ib recta: i^rtXdaapiMy* ol yiip tltkaoytH 
^hiteovy rc(8c* i^oirctp, etc.) Her. 6, 137. 'Hie Inf. Aor. has a 
poit relation only after verbs of sajfing or thinking, and in the construction 
of the Ace with the Infinitive with the article. *Ein-at)d« Kiytrai 
*Aw6hXmr |jc8c7pai MapaioM Kai rb 8^/ui Kp€fidfftki h^ r^ irrpf,X. 
An. 1. 2, 8 {cuiem ddraxism — mupendine, to have Jlt^fed, and hmg up). 
(}omp. No. 2, (c). OavfUMTr^ ^alytrtd ftoi rh Teiad^val rirms, &i 
XmKpdnis robs vims dii^^tpWf X. C. 1. 2, 1 {penwmai etoe quiintdam, 
that eertain indimduais had been pamiaded). Tb fititfila-y rm w6\tmp 
ik\&vmt iroXiopKif, fi4yior6v ioTi orifiuoy rov dA roirovs woiffd^PTai 
robs ^»K4a5 ravra ir a3<iy, Dem. 19,61. (But when by the Ace. 
with the Inf. with the article, a purpoee is expressed, the Inf. Aor. has 
naturally something of a future relation, e. g. *&i^fifA4diry rov 9i9io' 
Ktk\6y ftoiriya ynyio^aiy I took care that I night have aome one at a 
teacher, X. C. 4. 2, 4.) In all other cases the Inf. Aor. has the relation of 
preeent time. 

*d) The Participle of the Aorist with the Partidple of the Present ; comp. 
Xi3f ^oy^ with ^i^oi^c ptiywy. Tlspi4wK»oy So^iof, fiou\4/uyoi, ^dip^ 
Airc«e^/i«yoi ^1 rb &erv {wishing to come into the dtg sooner) Her. 6, 115. 
Tobsiuf^ptiirovsk^ofiey iSiriireo'^yrcf (ti}iZ/McnB(/^attadk),XAn.7.3,43. 
In all such examples the Aor. does not express the relation of past time, 
but merely the action of the verb taken by itself; the time is denoted bj 
the finite verb with which the Part, is connected ; the Aor. Part., there- 
fore, denotes only that the subordinate action (expressed by the Part.) is 
contemporaneous with the principal action (expressed by the verb). Yet 
it is to be observed, that the Aor. Part is commonly nsed to designate 
past time, e. g. Tavr* ciV^r i.v4fiti =3 roSr' cTirc icol &W/9i|. — It may be 
added here as a general principle, that while the Aor. Part generally 
denotes past ttme, the subordinate modes of the Aor. and Present, oi 
themselves denote no relation of time, the Aor., however, designating i 
momentargj the Pres. a continued action. 

f 257.] 8UB0KDINATE MODES. 351 

2. The subordinate modes and participials of the Aonst, fonn 
a contrast also with the subordinate modes and participials of 
the Perfect and Pluperfect ; the former denote an action absth 
bUefy^ as past or completed; the latter, on the contrary, in rela^ 
lion to the subject of the finite verb ; by this relation the sub- 
ordinate idea of the durcOion of the result of what is denoted by 
the verb, is naturally derived. In tliis way the following forms 
stand in contrast with each other : 

(ft) The SabjanctiTo Aorist with the Subjunctire Perfect, e. g. *E^ 9iro>8a2 
yiwwrratf S^Qvcuf (IxciO-c), Iv^cy c^oiwi r^ Vrxr^cia {if a treaty shall 
kave been mode), X A. S.S, 6. *Or &r yp^ptfur (icimf rSjy), iunrdCmUf lAp 
fofi^ v«(«0rc ^ crfrrov inyaiShy ir9w6p^p [t^omBoever he reoognvKS^ h» 
greetif even if he ahaU have received no favor from him), Fl. Up. 376, a. 
*AM4x*ff^ rinf ii^Xorpimy, 2j^ ha^o\iirr^pov ro^f dUtvs rohs bfuripovs wrmf 
ic«jcT^0'^«, Xboc Nic 49. (Comp.^ 255, Bern. Ik} It has already been 
stated No. 1. (a) that the Greek Sabj. always refers to the fatare. 

(h) The Optatire Aoiut with the OptatiTe Pluperfect, e. g, o; *hM l\c|ay, 
$rt w4ftif9t€ ai^p6 'IvMr fimei\€^s (hadeent), X. Cy, 2. 4, 6. '^Scmtat, 
M^ X&TTa ris Asirtp levcly ^fuiv i/iweirr^icoi {that acme madness had 
faUen upon i», the effects still continuing), X An. 5. 7, 26. ^Ayiiffl\aos 
A«4dn 'nis niXitms A^mnu murhm rain%% tj^ ir i pmi t > <tty, TJymif^ 8ri ry iror^ 
sArw 'nXXh ^iri^pfr^jcoi ^ rSnf Marrtp^w^ wSxis 49 rots wp^ Merri^rifv 
iroX^^is, H. 5. 2, 3. In what instances the Opt. Aor. is nsod of the 
present or future, and in what of the past, has been stated in No. 1, (a). 

(c) The Infinitire Aorist with the Infinitive Perfect ; comp. Avodayfly with 
Tc3in|jc/rai. TUxTphs Kvpos \4yrrai ytyio'^ai Kofi/i^cw, Tttpc&y fiafff 
k4m X, Cy. 1. 2, 1. A^y«rcu 6tf9pa ni^ T«y M^Smt 4Kir9w\iix^ai 
vokjbif H Tira xf^^ ^''^ ^^ icdXXtL rou Kiipev (stood or contimied amazed), 
ib. 1. 4, 27. Comp. \ 255, Rem. 6. 

(d) The Aorist Participle with the Perfect Participle *, comp. Avodcu^y with 
7^97ikAs, Pint Aem. Pant & 36. extr. Htptrwhs fth^ lx<( icei P9viKri* 
fiiyos {even though vanquished^ in the <30ndition €f one vanquished) robs 
waHas, Alfd/itos ik rotts ahrov (sc. ircuSar) pticfitras iar4fia\w » v€pliairtu 
pjr — lx<* ^* — • ^"^Kti^* M^ — ksifis^s 94, Perseus even though conquered 
still has his children ; Aemilius in his otherwise successful war, lost his. 

Rbmabk I. From the above explanation, it is evident why the Aor., though 
an Historicid tense, has besides an Opt. a Snbj. also ; the Aor. Sabj. stands m 
contrast, on the one hand, with the Sabj. Pres. ; on the other, with the Sub}. 
Peil The Greek Put. has bo Snbj. as in Latin (e. g. Gandet, quod pater ven- 
fwvf sit), because the Greek Subj. of itself denotes future time. But the Aor. 
has an Opt., which stands in dependent sentences after an historical tense, and 
eonaequenUy, in direct discourse, takes the place of the Ind. Future, e. g. 
^TTciXnr, frt vok4fjuot piniiaoity {that the enemy would csmquer). X. An. 7. 
1, SS. I\c7cy, Zrt iraifjuu On Iry^ur^ai sB^ots els rh AdXra mW/icyor, Hvda «»AAA 

352 SYNTAX. [4 2QS. 

ml tyoAik K^ii^otyro {where they wonu> receive), X. Cy. 8. i, 43. ^njucXcrra 
Svivs fi-fyrt turiToi, fi-ffrt ivorol irort fffoiyro, (But ^n/ic^circu, Bwtts .... I^or- 
Tot). X. An.4. 1, 25. 1^ cTkcu (Ufx>y, & c< fi'^ res irpoiraraA.^if'OCTO, &9^worar 
l^ffirdcu vapcAJ^ff7y. ( OraUo recta : tl vpoKoraKfy^rratf iZii^AToy ttrrai iropcAJ^Ctf^.J 

Bbm. 2. Verbs of willing, refusing, delaying, entreating, ]>crsuadin<;, com- 
manding, forbidding, hindering, of &ing able, and unable, expecting {wpos' 
ZoKUi hri^o^6s cl/ti, ciWs itrriv^ U is likely^ to be expected), when they relate to a 
future object, are sometimes connected with the Fut. Inf., sometimes with tiie 
Pres., sometimes with the Aor. The Fut. Inf. is used, when the idea of futurity is 
to be made specially prominent, c. g. a condition continuing in the futarc ; the 
Inf. Pres., to denote a continuing or permanent condition, toe id^ of futitritj, 
evident of itself, being left out of sight ; this Inf. is also used to denote the 
immediate occurrence of the action ; the Inf. Aor., when the idea of the octuM 
itself is made prominent. In English all three forms of the Inf., when the subject 
of the Inf. is the same as that of the governing verb, arc translated h^ the Vns. 
Inf.: M^AAw yod^^ttw^ypd^fiy, ypdjfai {I am nou? about to wntej inienditttf 
to write), 'ASvyarol ^Itrtif hrifitKus iato^ai {unable to become and continue 
careful), X. Oec. 12, 12. *Ai6yarol tlaiy tls irifUktuaf r&y kox* kypbr ffymw 
iraidc^co^^ai, ib. 12, 15. ^Khiyaroi iifuy 4<royrai tavnfp r^y irtftdKttay 
Zi^ax^V^^h ib* 12) 13> *Aya$dWsrai voyiiatiy T^Zioyra^ Dem.31, 9. 
'Kdiqyaun kytfidWoyro rb vuy fti|xa»'4o'«o'^a<, Her. 6, 58. 'EXw/^cc 
Pfiivs vuias ^(airar^irciy, Dem. 860,54 {he hopes to deceive you). *E\wliat 
vapix^fo-i TifMS fv^fioyas iroi^<rai, Fl. Symp. 193, d. {he gives hope that he 
will make us happy). With verbs of willing or being able, the Fut. Inf. is moro 
seldom than the Aor. or Pres. After verbs of sayiog, promising, swearing, 
thinking, the above threefold construction (Inf. Fut, Pres., Aor.) is used, bat 1& 
Inf. Aor. regularly expresses something peuf (see No. 1), seldom what is fatnre, 
e. g. 0( nxaratris 4y6fxiffay iwA^fiwoi pqBtus Kparricrai, Th. 2, 3, (se vietarm 
fore). *Air^icptrai, i( *Ay6p€er€* obyi^ oJ/ial irel^apvoy y§y4(r^atj hipwn-Uy 
Kdiqyolmy avdyroty iirolria'aSf Lys. Agor. \ 32 {credo te neqaturum). After verba 
of saying, thinking, hoping, the Inf. Aor. and Pres. with iy, is often used in 
nearly the same sense as the Inf. Fut. without &y. Sec 4 260, (5), (a). 

f 258. B. A more particular View of the Modes, 

The Indicative, the Subjunctive (Optative) and the Im- 
perative Modes [k 253, (b)], are distinguished as follows: 

(a) The Indicative expresses a direct assertion, an actual fact 

Th ^oy bdWti, *0 vfpr^p y4ypap€ r^y hrurroK'^y. Ol iroKifUM 
airi^vyoy, Ol iroA7rai robs vo\efjdovs yiK^ioovaty. 

(b) The Subjunctive denotes a supposition, conception, or 
representation. The Subj. of the Hist, tenses is called the 

"Imfi^yl eamusl — Tl rrotwfi^y; quid fadamusf what shall we dof Ovk %x^* 
ivoi rpdirmfidi, nescio, quo me vertam. Obx etx^% ^oi rpavolfii^ytnescie' 
tam, quo me vertcrem. Atywj T/ c i 8p i, d/oo, ut scias, in order that you may know 
it. "EAc^a, 7y c 2 8 e ( >? j, cf/x/, ut scires^ in order that you might know it, 

(c) The Imperative denotes the immediate expression of the 
will, being used in commands, entreaties, etc. 


r/M^Hor and ypd^, write, Bpet^ws pAv ^ikot ylynv, ytwifityos 8i irci^ 8m^^ 
rcir, Is. Dero. 7. Tpaf^rtt and ypo^^-w, let him vorite (^ 257, 1. b). The com.' 
mand expressed by the Imp. is not always to be understood as a strong com- 
mand, entreaties, exhortations, and counsels, being also expressed by the Imp. 

Remabk. The Modes exhibit the relation of an expressed thought to 
the mind of the speaker. Hence they denote nothing objective, i. o. they never 
show the actual condition of an action ; the Ind., m itself, does not denote 
something actual ; nor the Subj., in itself, something possible ; nor the Imp., 
something necessary ; the language represents these ideas by special expres* 
sions, e. g. AAi^wf, i{nnurbwj 8c<, xp^i^ etc The modes express subjective rela- 
tions solely, i. e. the relations to the mind of the speaker, showing how he 
ronceires of an action. A mental operation is either an act of perception, an 
act of supposition or conception, or an act of desire. The Ind. expresses 
an actual perception ; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents 
as a rea/iVy, whether an actual, objective fact, or a conception ; even the future, 
which, in itself is something merely imagined, can be conceived by the speaker 
as a reality, and hence is expressed by the Fut Ind. The Subj. expresses 
a conception; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents as a 
concepiion^ whether it has an actual objective existence, or is a mere mental 
conception. The Imp. expresses desire ; it denotes what the speaker conceives 
and represents as something desired, whether it be an actual objective necessity 
or not. , 

♦ 259. Use of the SubjunctivCt Optative and Im^ 


1. The Subj. of the Principal tenses, the Pres. and Perf., as 
well as the Sub. Aor., alway relates to future time [♦ 257, 1, (a)], 
and is used in Principal clauses : 

(a) In th^ first Pers. Sing, and PI. in exhortations i and warn- 
ings, where the Eng. uses let, let us, with the infinitive ; the 
negative is here fn^. 

(b) In the first Pers. Sing, and PL in deliberative ^ questions, 
when the speaker deUberates with himself what he is to do, 
what it is best to do ; here also the negative is fiy. 

"Iw/uif, eamus ! Itlusgo, suppose we go! Mj^ f « ft ci^. ''A7C (^^pc, la) f « ^ c y. 
^ipt X^m (come now, let me see), Her. 7, 103. Wpc H, ^ V 8s, trttpa^A vp^i 
IfULS krokoyiia'affdai, PI. Fhaedon. 63, b. Such an exhortation is reiy often ex- 
pressed in the form of a question preceded by fia6\u; yet in this case, the 
subjunctive is a subordinate clause dependent on /3o^x«i, e. g. Bo^Aci o^y, 8^ 
c28q ^&/i9y tci^ovi : [do you then wish that we propose two kinds of persuasions » 
let us propose), PL Gorg. 454, e. Tl voi&fi^y; quid faciamusf what shall ws 
iof Zivmfitp, ^ ffiy&iktvi Eur. Ion. 771. In Ttot ris ^povrilqs tx^jfs 8. 
■ ■■-■■ ' •*— — 

' This ttse of the Subj. is called Conjunctivm adhortatiuuM. 
' Conjunctivus deliberutivus. 

354 SYNTAX. [k 259. 

0. C. 170, rh is used instead of the first Fen^ vkere skaU one go f {^b -m^i fjs^ 
or fx^fity, like woT^y&r i}Ami 310). Uii tpvfiot; thail 1 not atkf X.(Xl, 
2, 36. *0<ra ol iKiyoi robs vvAXo^s ^ wttaarrtSf iXXk Kparwrrts ypApovnt «^- 
c^i' /9^ ^&fi€w, ^ /ij^ ^»fit¥ tJyai; 45. So also in indirect discooxMi 
and In all persons. Oi/x l^wt i^oi rpdvmfi^w (/ ibioto not, whither I tihaU tem 
Ttysdf, what lahaU do), O^it c^mm-it ^ciyoi, Iitm ^ ^ywo*!, X. An. 2. 4, 2a Ova 
o?8* cl 3 w (rb finrfl«^), I do not know whaher lihaU give the atp, Of. ^ 8. 4, li. 

Rbxark 1. In the second and third Pers. the exhortation takes the form 
of a command or wisfai and henoe is expressed by the Imp. or Opt. Od. x» 77* 
HK^ffitw 8' hifh, iarvy /So^ 8* Atuara yivoiro. Yet there are also passage! 
in which the second Pers. Snbj. stands in connection with &>« and ^pc instoui 
of the Imp., & g. ^4p\ i r4i»09y v^9 tca^ rhr^s w4ivo¥ tiddps,S. Ph. 300. 

Rbx. 2. On the nse of the second Pers. Subj. with fi^ to express a prohibi* 
tion, e. g. /lii ypdi^s, ne ocripoeris, do notjumte, see No. 5. 

Bxx. 3. A wish is very seldom expressed hy cl^c with the Subj. instead of 
the Opt. Efd*! oi^ipos ay« rromdlHef o^vrSyov iik trvtifioTos iKvel ft {on 
avet me turwm in adherem per awras strtdaUee oapiant)^ S. Phr. 1094 (without raria* 
tion). Comp. Efd-c riyh wyat iucalmy ifuvalwp 4y "Apy^i ^ay&tri r^xyowv 
Ear. Suppl. 1028. Ety — aXtrxioy c78os i^yrl rov taiKov xdfit* (in some MSS. 
Xa/3c4y), Uel. 262. 

Rbh. 4. In the third place, the Subjunctive is somewhat freqnentlj used in 
principal clauses, in the Bpic language, instead of the Put. Ihd., though with a 
slight difference of meaning. Both express a present conception of a fatare 
action ; but the Put. Ind. represents what is stiU in the future as Icnoum and 
certain in the yiew of the speaker, while the Subj. represents what is ihture as 
merely a concession or admission of something expected. B. C 459. ini 
wr4 Tcs tXit^ffiy (and one mat say, it may he expected or conceded that one vii 
say). II. II, 197. oir ydp rls fit fily "vc inity iuiKoyra 8 (if ra< {one vM not farce me 
away s= / will not admit that one willj etc.). a, 262. ob ydp irw rotous IBoy ijf4pes^ 
oM^ XZmiiai (nd do I expect that I ahall tee such men, nor am I to tea; •M 
6^ofuu, would mean, / certainly shall not see). Od. (, 201. oltK ItrV olros M» 
ti€phs fiporSsi obUt y4yriTai. ir^ 437. oIk ttr^' olros htrfip^ ohif tvvrrax oM 
y4yrirai {nor is it to be expected that he mil be). The frequent nse of the Sul>^ 
with ov8^ /A 4 in the Attic writers, is wholly analogous to the principle just 
stated. See under ^ 318, 6. 

2. The Opt. Irapf. and Aor. is also used in principal sen- 
tences, to denote deliberative questions (L e. such as express 
doubt and propriety), but differs from the Subj. in such ques- 
tions in referring to past time. 

Theocr. 27, 24. iroKXot /i* 4fiy^oyTOf y6oy T 4fihy otfris Iici8c* — nal rl, ^m> 
^4^aifjn; ydfMi irkfi^voiy hyias, i. e. quid Vacsbsm t sc turn, quum vodA mtp 
tias meas ambiebant, sed eorum ntdlus mihi placebatf what could I then dof The 
delibcratire Opt is rery frequently used in indirect questions, in relation to en 
historical tense in the principal clause. *Ev>4pcro 6 Sc^i^s rhy weuSa, cl waitrnff 
rnvrSyj X. An. 7. 4, 10 {whdher he should put him to death). Oi ^wtBdfunoi v4^ 
tifuyrts 4s AtK^pobs rhy ^•by 4vfipoyTo, c2 frapa8otey KoptPdlou r^rSKtr,'^^ 
1, 23 (whether they should surrender the city). 


Rev. 5. In the principte f^ren in Ko. 2, the act of supposition or conception 
belongs to the past, and this is the common use of the Opt (the Subj. of the 
historical tenses), in subordinate clauses. But the Opt. is also nsed, where the 
act of supposition or conception is a present one. When a present conception is 
expressed by the suMunctire, e. ^. UtfuVf eomus, rl drm/uyg qmd dicamusf 
then the realization of the conception maj be assumed or expected from the 
present point of time. But when a present conception is expressed by Uie 
OpL (Snbj. of the historical tenses), the speaker places himself back, as it 
were, out of the present and the vivid connection, which exists between the 
present and the actual accomplishment, and represents the conception as one 
aepazmte from his present point of time. Hence a present conception expressed 
in this way, very naturally suggests the subordinate idea of uncertainty. Thence 
arises the following use : 

3. The Opt Aor. and Impf. (Subj. of the historical tenses), 
is used, in principal clauses, of present or future time in the 
following cases : 

(a) To express, in a general manner, a supposition, a present 
or future uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, presumption 
or admission. The prose-writers here commonly use the modal 
adverb ay with the Opt, * 260, 2, (4), (a), but the poets very 
frequently use the Opt without ay. A negation is here ex- 
pressed by ov {ovk). 

ydroiro (that would scarcely he like or friendly to another^ as one would readily 
admit), PI. Lysid. 214, d. 'AwoXofiiyris 8i Trjs ^vx^s t6t ff8i| t^v ^6<rty riis 
i^^vftas ivt9€iKv6ot rh ff&fui «ral rax^ crairlif itoixoiro {animo exstindo 
turn vtro corpus imbecilUtatem suam ostendat et intercidat, it is natural to suppose or 
assume^ that the body would give signs of weahness)^ Phaed. 87, e. 

(b) To express a wish. A negation is here expressed by ftiy. 

IL Xt «^^* MT} f"^ 3unrovM y€ iral okXmiws itxoXoifiiiVj may 1 not perish! S. 
Ai. 550. & vtu, y4voio varpiis ^hrvx^trr^pos, rk S* &\X* HfiotosI icol y/vot* Stv od 
jKOtf^s, may you be more fortunate than your father^ hui in other things like him ! tJten 
you would not be wicked. X. Cy. 6. 3, 11. 'AAX^, (5 Zcv fi^urrc, Kafitw fiot 
yiwQiTO wriv^ &s 4yia fioiXofuu, may I be able to take him. The wish is com- 
monly introduced by cl^c, cl ydp (in the poets also by ft alone). Od. 7, 205. 
cl yitp ifuii roa'(Hiyi€ i^col Hifafuy wapa^tttyl X. Cy. 6. 1,38. cl yitp 
ytvoiro! (In poetry &s is used like Lat. utinam. Eur. Hipp. 407. &s 
iir6\oiTo irayKaK&sl) 

Rev. 6. When a wish is expressed, which the speaker knows cannot be 
realised, tlie Ind. of the historical tenses is used, e. ^. EZ^c twto iyiyyrrc ! 
c&€ rovTO iy4p*ro I utinam hoc factum esset I that this were done^ or had been 
done! So &^€Kts ypS^l O that you had written ! (but I know that you have 
not). X. An. 2. 1,4. AAA* &^«\9 fi\y Kvpos Cn" I Othat Cyrus were still aUve I 
(but I know that he is not). Also tt^t, *l ydp, itsA^tKoy^ <f, ff(r) with 

366 8YMTAX. [f 259 

ihe Inf., particularly in poetry. On the wish expressed by v&s t» with the Opt, 
see S 260, 2, (4), (d). On the infrequent use of the Subj. to denote a wish, ae« 
Hem. 3. 

(c) A command is also expressed in a milder \vay, in the 
form of a wish. 

Od. \y 408. rdxurrd fuu Mop irtupoi c7cy, 2ef my companions come unthin. IL 
fc4pu( rU ol firoiro ytptdrspoSf let tome herald Jbllow. Arist. Vesp. 1431. 
^p 8 1 ris fiy eKcurrot f I8c/i| r^xyiiy* X. An. 3. 2, 37. tl ftiw ahf &AAof rtv 
fi4\rtoy ip^f &Wws ix^'''"' ^' '^ M^« Xttpiiro^s yukv ^ 7 o 7r o. 

(d) The Optative is used to express a desire, wish, and 
inclination, in a general manner, without expecting the realiza- 
tion. A negation is here expressed by ftij. 

Thcocr. 8, 20. ra^oy (rV trtpiyya) Kar^tlmv (1 would be mlUtu/ or desire 
to phce)' rh 5i r» irarphs ob Kcera^ffu, Her. 7, 11. fi)i yap tt-qy 4k AapUm 
yeyoif^Sf fi^ rifiuptia-dfityos ^A^tmiovs, I should not be destxnded from Darius^, 
uiUesSj etc. 

(e) In direct questions the Opt. is used, when a mere admis- 
sion or supposition is expressed. 

(a) In Homer the interrogative clause then forms, in a measure, the protasis 
to the conditioned clause, i. e. to the clause depending on the condition ex- 
pressed by the question. II. 8, 93, seq. ^ pd vd fAol ri vt^oto, AvKdoros vii 
Htd^povs TXaitis Ktv Mtyekdip hriirpoffity raxby Uy^ iraari 8c km Tp^€<r<n x4p^ 
Ko) fcv8os iSipoio, will you now listen to me, i. e. i/you will^ you wotdd dartj etc. (the 
same as ^ rl fioi vl^oio, rXatris KtVy etc.). Here vt^oio, etc. is the in- 
tenogatiye clause containing the condition, and rkalriSf etc. the conditioned 
clause depending on the preceding. When the question has two members, th« 
first, expressed by the Opt. without &y, contains the condition, the last, ex- 
pressed by the Opt. with Hy, contains the conditioned clause. IL {, 191. ^ pi 
yC fUH T wi^oio, <l>(\oy rixoSt trri Kty cfrw, ii4 kw itpy^traio KaTt<rffafi4yii r^yc 
^/iy ; mil you be persuaded by me, — or will you refuse t {$) In the Attic writers;, 
the Opt is also used in a question without reference to a conditioned clanse. 
These questions, however, always imply a negative. Aesch. Choeph. iJjC 
&v4pTo\fjLoy iof^piis ^p6yiifiBi rls xiyoi; who could describe? — no one, i. e, tcho 
can you suppose could describe f S. Ant 604. rctCir, ZcS, Uycurty rls Mp&y ihr«o- 
0eur(^ Kardtrxoi; who could restrain? i.e. who can be supposed to restrain? 
Arist Pint 438. &i/o| "AiroWoy Kcit 3eo/, iror Tit ^iyoi, where could one fly? 
Dem. Phorm. 921, 1. koL Ztra fiXy eTirc iierk t^j kKn^tias^ p)i xf>9<r^c rfKfiiipl^' & 
S* AffC^oTo T^ ttrrtpoy^ iruTTdrfpa ravQr* ^iro\d$oir§ tJyeu; haec vos veriora 
exisHmaturos quis putet ! PI. Rp. 437, b. 2f> o^—vdyra to roiovra r&y iyarrimy 
kJ^iXou ^(ins; can you consider all such things to be opposite to eacJi other? I o, 
mn I assume that you^ etc. 


RsM. 7. The deliberative Opt (Na 2) diffen from this. 

Rem. 8. All tho cases mentioned under (a) (b) (c) (d) (e), are to bo rcga/ded 
as elliptical sentences, which have originated from a conditional sentence like 
cf rt f xois, Zolfis iy [^ 339, II, (a)], if you had^ymL would pirn. 

(4) The following points in addition are to be observed 
respecting the Imp., [♦ 258, 1, (c)] : Though the Imp. always 
refers to time j/reserU to the speaker, yet the Greek has several 
Imp. forms, viz., a Pres., Perf., and Aor. These forms, how- 
ever, do not express a dilierent relation of time, but only the 
difierent condition or circumstances of the predicate. The dif- 
ference between the Imp. Aor. ypa^ov and the Pres. ypa^> has 
been explained, k 257, 1) (b). The Imp. Perf. has always the 
sense of the Pres., with the accompanying idea of the perma* 
nence or continuance of the result, e. g. fiifivrja-o, memento^ be 
jmndfulf remember; 17 3vpa KCKXcio-^d), let t/ie door be s/ait 
(and remain shut). See i 255, Kem. 5. 

5. In negative or prohibitive expressions with fii^ (ne), the 
Greek conmionly uses only the Pres. Imp., not the Aor. Imp. ; 
but instead of the Aor. Imp., the Aor. Subjunctive is used. 

Mb ypd^t or fih yp^^V* (^°^ neither /xii ypdfpjfSt hot ^ij ypdi^y). M^ 
ypa^dru or fiii ypdi^iij ne scribito (bnt neither /a^ yp^^* nor fi^ ypa^drto). 
M^ fioi kvrikty* or /t^ /xot itvriXi^'ps, do not speak againgl me (bnt 
neitlier ix)i AmX/ypt nor ft^ hmtKt^ov), Isoc. Dem. 24. VLyiZiwa ^IXov r 1 o v 
^piv &y ^|€T(l<rpf, tAs Kijcpnrtu to7s wpSrtpw ^ikots. 36, 29. /ti|8cy2 trvfi^opks 
ivtiiiffjis' Kou^ii yiip ^ f^X"! "^c*- ''^ fi4Wov k&poxow, Th. 3, 39. KoKoarb4fm<rat» 
Z\ iral vvv a{(«r r^s tSiudas, koX fiii roTs fikp ikiyois ri cdria wposrt&f, rhy 8i 

Rem. 9. Te: sometimes in the Kpic poets, though very seldom in othe/ 
poets, fi'^ is found with the second rers. of the Aor. Imp., e. g. II. 8, 410: r^ 
pAi fu>i TToripas irob* d/aotii fwbto ^fi^. The third Fers. is frequently found 
even in the Attic prose writers. X. Cy. 8 7, 26. fiiiMs li4Tu. 

6. The third Pcrs. Imp. is very often used (the second more 
seldom), to denote that the speaker admits or grants something, 
the coirectness or incorrectness of which depends upon himself. 
This is called the concessive Imp. 

OUtus ix^fof^ is <rJr X^tis {admit that it is as you say)^ P. Symp. 20!, c. 
*Eoiic^Td# H (^ V'^X^) |vfi^^4» Zvyd/xti (nrofitripov (t^ovs tc fro) tiviSxov {grmi 
thai the soul is /iXr, etc.), Phoedr. 246, a. Ac7/Td# wtpi oufrov, &s txaffrm 
yrytfAvKu {admit that each oup speaks of tV ), Th. 2, 48. 

356 SYNTAX. [i 260 

Rem. 10. In the interroeatiTe fbrmnla of the Attic poets: dab' h Mpmg^a^, 
o^olffj^* &s Tolriffoy; (c2o youJaiow what you ttre lodof)y the Imperative is to be 
explained as a transition, easy to the Greeks, from the indirect to the direct 
form of speech. It is also explained hy considering it the same as ipSamm^ 
oledt* 5 ; <n>, — db you know what f The formula is a softer mode of expression 
than the Imp. Zpaaow or irofi^oy. The nse of the third Pers. Imp., not onlj 
in dependent questions, but ajso in other subordinate sentences, is aoeordinr to 
the same analogy. Her. 1, 89. m i» fohiaw wtt, cf tm dtp4^iHk, rk iyk kj^m* 
Kdri(Tw rStv Zopv^poi¥ M irdffjfet rfviwiXptri ^vkiKovs ot Xcy^yrwy— , Ss 
ordka (sc xp^f""^^) ii»Wjttcalms |y€« Stirarcii^MU r^ Aif (ol xiy^ m t r ^^ ttmX 
oiroi X*'^ivrm¥, who thould m^y or and Id than $ay). Th.4, 92. 9fi|B« 
in — icariffb»<ra¥, they might (main! 

Kem. 11. On the transition of the third Pers. Imp. to the second, see 4 341, 
Rem. 13, (c) ; on the use of the Fut instead of the Imp., see f SSU(, 4, aiid <» 
the Opt with &r in the sense of the Imp., § 260, 2, (4) (b). 

t 260. The Modes in connection with the Modal 

Adverb or {td, Kh/), 

1. The Modal adverb Sv (Epic Ki{v)y Doric ko, kov), denotes the 
relation of a conditioning expression or sentence to a condi- 
tioned one ; indicating that the predicate of the sentence to 
which it belongs, is conditioned by another thought either ex- 
pressed or to be supplied. By the particle cZs^, the realizatia& 
of the predicate is made to depend upon the realization of 
another predicate. Therefore, where a predicate is accom- 
panied by OF, the predicate is represented as conditioned by 
another thonght ; av always refers to a condition. 

2. A complete view of the use of 5y cannot be presented 
except in connection with conditional sentences. Yet, as it 
is used in all kinds of sentences, it is necessary to explain 
its construction here. It is connected: 

(1) With the Fut. Ind. The predicate expressed by the 
Fut Ind., seems to the speaker, at the time then present, 
always to depend on conditions and circumstances. Whenever 
this idea of dependence is to be made specially prominent, S» 
(Epic Kc) can be joined with the Fut ; yet this construction is 
rare in the Attic dialect 

Od. p, 540. ci V *08iMr<^s th^oi — , td^ kc ahv f roxSi /3W kiroritrtrat 
kpip&y, he would punish. II. (, 267. itW* C^*, ^7^ Z4 k4 toi Xaplrmv idaof 
lw\OT€pdtey 8c&<rw h/wvtiijiwaiydabo^sdl.sitibilubuerit. X. Cy.6. 1,45. ^fipurriiroiy 
¥Ofd(iu¥ aln6vj fS o23* Srt Aafityos &y rrphs iyZpa^ otos erh tl, iiiraWay^v^rai 
(so the MSS.). 7. 5, 21. Ztqm 8i iccJ ol<rdwKrai ^fxas Mov tvrasy irokh hptri iiiXXop^ 
\ yvy, kxp^ioi taovrai lirh rov imrrrKrixbou {&y is wanting in only two MSS.). 

4 260.] MODAL ADVERB OU'. 359 

li»MA»» 1. With the Pres. and Feif. Ind., &y is not used. For that which 
Che speaker expresses as a present object, cannot at the same time be expressed 
ma Bomethingf the realization of which is dependent on another thought la 
those passages where &r is found with the Pres. or Perf. Ind., either the reading 
is qneskioauible, or Sp must be referred to another verb of the sentence, e. g. Oiuc 
ptf &r «2 w^atfu (instead of «1 wwinufu &y), Eur. Med. 937 ; so often »o/ju(9 6m, 
wlfuu lU and the like followed by an Laf., where &y belongs to the Inf. ; or it is 
to be considered as an elliptical mode of expression, as in X S. 4, 37. iyit M 
^Srm v«AA^ lx«f iff /»6\u tMi mat Mt Ik y tUrrhs c^to'icw, / htufe to manf ddnag 
ikai I vM difficulty find 1hem,i^^ geek Jbr them mmelf, I should ru4 

jmd <ftai. ^or is fty used with the Imp. For what the speaker expresses as 
his immediate will, cannot be considered as dependent on a condition. The 
few passages referred to in proof of the use of t» with the Imp., are aU, criti- 
cally considered,, questionable and prove nothing. 

(2) "kv is used with the Ind. of the historical tenses : the 
Aor.| Impf. and Plup. : 

(a) To denote that something nught take place under a cer« 
tain condition, but did not take place, because the condi- 
tion was not fulfilled. The condition is then expressed 
by d with the Ind. of the historical tenses. 

Ecrovro IXctct (l\c(as), ^/t^prarf r (liftApv-ct) &y, i. e. (^yra taid this, 
fou ifwre vmmgt or if ycu had said ^us, ycm vooM have keen wrongy but now I know 
that yon did not say it, consequently yon are not wrong; Lat n hoc dixisaes, 
amuses (at non dixisti; eigo non errasti). Ef rt ^Xx^fitp, i9ldofiep 
(iiofAty) &y, if we had anifthingy we would give it to you, or if we had had ang' 
tUng, we would hctve given it to you; si quid hcdndssemusy dedissemus. Also with* 
out an antecedent clause, e. g. ix^^ ^> Uietaiusjuisaes (sciL si hoc yidisses). 

Rek. 2. Here belong aUo the expressions, i^Sittiv &r, tyvm ris ttWf 
feber6 ns 6vt ^c^^ f^f ^v, and the like, as in Latin, putares, crederesydicereg, 
cerneret, videres, you {one) would thinks or you {one} would have thoughts Here ft 
m^r» id IXrytv, tl «78cy, c« iBitwro, and the like, as conditioning antecedent 
clauses, are to be supplied, "^y&a W) Hyvci ra hv rohs dfwrifunfs ircvotScv/u^ 
mwSf &s 8c< (turn Ter4 videres, then one might see, were he present), X. Cy. 3. 3, 
70. "^vba 8^ iyvtt rts hf, toov Hiov cfti th ^tXeiffbta &pxoiTa hrh r&y apx"*/^' 
•wy, 7. 1, 38. EiCi^vs chy robots tiswjiSiierearrts ^Isrhr niXhy durrov, fj &s rit &r 
4^fOy fitrt^fMvs i^tK6fiurQy riis ofJifyu (celerins, quam quis erederet), An. 1. 5, 8. 
*Eirtd^6<rdri 5' Hv rts Kkxuya iWy {one might be encouraged if he saw those 
things), Ag. 1, 27 

Rex. 3. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, &if is often omitted. Thcr. 
the speaker has no reference, in his representation, to the condition contained 
in the protasis or antecedent, on account of which the action expressed in the 
apodofiis or conclusion could not bo completed, but he emphatically represents 
the predicate as an actual fact. X An. 7. 6, 21. Efiroi 9-^tis 6m' Oihcovy aiax^yp 
e^m ftwp&s i^oarar^fififos ; No) f/i2i Aia ^(rxvy6firiP fi^vroi^ d Mi woXtfdovy^ trrot 
i^lttwarii^p * ^iK^ 8* im i^ttntrw aXtrxi^y tun ionti «Imu, 4^ i^sereerair^au Lycure. 
lieocr. p. 154, 23. «i ^^y oiy (&y Myxayw 6 'Afi^os, 4Ktiyov eArhr waptixo- 
fiifr' vvv Z% 6fiiif Ka\& rovs ffwti^Sras, The ellipsis of 6y is most frequent in 
expressions which denote the idea of necessity, duty, reasonableness, possihili> 
ty, liberty, and inclination, e. g. xpfi^>^Sc<i Aft\oy] with Tcrbal adjectiyes 
is r4os; with rpos^«re, naiphs ^y, etxhs ^r, nakhy ^r, altrxp^y i|y« 


360 SYNTAX. [^ 260. 

12df 3. Xf^^ '^ ^*» cfircp ^0i3^ x^c^<^'» *'<'^^ ^ioAAok fiifmiiy ytp4<r^m * 9vr'94 
ffov T^ fpya fai^tfA yeydtntreu ic. r. X., you otif^At or you oti^A/ to have been 
{oportebcU}. X. C. 2. 7, 10. c2 /Uy roiyw alrxp6¥ rt f/AcXXor ipydiraerdui, d«b«- 
Toy irr* ai/rov irpoaiptr^oy Ijp* vv¥ V &ft& 8o«re< ir<iXXf<rra irai «]9e««»8««rr^« 
yvi^ou^lv cTwM Mffrayreu, &s loiirc ic. r. X., mora praeferenda eraL do also with 
the Inf. X. C. 1. 3, 3. oirrc yiip &€<Hi 1^ icaXcuf dx^itf, ci rcuf ^ry«(Xai» 
^<rlais fioXAoy ^ roif trfwcpeus fx^'^^^i fi*" ^ *^^ ^ vowd not be proper jbr tkm 
pods, i7i etc. Yerj often without an antecedent Bentence, e. g. alcxp^f^ 4^ 
raura irotco', turpe erai, it would be &ue, woudd hewe been ; i^^u raSra woum 
UcebcUj it would be lawful ; KaK&s cTx*- Comp. with the above the use of the 
Ind. in Latin, where the Subj. mieht have been expected, in snch expressions as 
aequum, juatum, rectttm est, it womd be proper y iongum est, it wotdd be tedious, and 
the participle in dot in the conclusion of a conditional clause, as Si Romam 
Cn. Pompeius privatus essbt, tamen is ebat delioendus. 

Kbx. 4. In all the above expressions, however, Am can be used ; so also in 
I«atin, the Subj. is sometimes found instead of the Ind. Dem. PhiL 1. 40, 1. 
ci yi^> iK rov irpo§\ri\v^6ros j^^ov rii Scorra otroi <rvK«/3oi&Xcviray» obikw &r 
bfjMS ¥vy Hit I /SouXc^co-i^ai. So also in Lat the Subj. is used instead o^ the 

Rsx. 5. The Fres. tense of xp^^ ^*h ^posiiKti, jcoXwt ^x^'t ®^ >s used of 
things which can yet take place. Comp. possum commemorare, which implies 
that I still can do the act, and poteram commemorare, which implies that I 
cannot do it 

Bex. 6. "Ay is very naturally omitted, if in the apodosis there is an Ind. 
of an historical tense of the verb icirSvy^ciy, to Imin danger, to seem, since 
the verb bv itself implies that the action expressed by the Inf connected with it, 
did not taike place ; for what is only in danger of occurring, actually does not 
occur. Th. 3, 74. ^ ir6\if iKipi^ptva-* rratra Sia^t^op^yat, ci tuftjun hrtyiwrro 

fiiKoov, rdxa, nearly, almost, are joined with the Ind. of a historical tense 
in the concluding clause; for what only neariif takes place, actually does 
not take place, hence the Ind. without &y is appropriate in both these cases. 
Plat. Symp. p. 198, C. fyttyt ivdvfio6fi§vot, Zri aurhs o^x ^^^' 'f' ^troyuau. ov8' iy^ 
To^up oifOkp KoXhp ctircty, inr* alax^y^s 6\iyov &iro5f}&f tpx^t^'Vi^ ^V clx^» 
/ had almost fled far shame, if. Without a protasis, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 8. teat vms 
StamjSt^v avT^ 6 Iwiros vlirr€i us yoPorcL, kcD fUKpov Kixurop j^crpax^^'* 
re V. Comp. the Lat prope (paene) cecidi, I came near falling. 

(fi) To denote that an action takes place (is repeated), in 
certain cases, and under certain circumstances. The his- 
torical tense in the principal clause is then commonly the 
Impf. The condition under which the action is repeated, 
is expressed by a subordinate clause with ci, ore, etc. and 
the Opt. ; the condition, however, is often omitted. 

ETrcy &», he was accustomed to sag, he uvuld sag as often as this or that happened, 
as often as it was necessary, and the like. X. C. 4. 6, 13. e2 Z4 ris avr^ irtpl rm 
kpTi\4yoi, M rijy iir6^€<np iwap^ytv &yir({yra rhp Kiyov, as often at 
one contradicted him^ he would (he was accustomed to) carry back the whole argumesi 
$othe original proposition. 1.3, 4. ci 8^ri 8<{|€i<y uirr^ {Imkp^ltu) (nyiaiytflr* 

♦ 260.] MODAL ADVERB aV. 361 

mi^hp Kwti^ir ^ov Kafituf iiyv^i^ rv^Khy—iunrl ^Khromos, An. 2. 3, 11. ef t«j 
Qi^^ loKoiTi Twy iTfAs TovTo TCToy^iwy 0?Mu6fty, iiraifp Aw, he would beat 
Urn. 1. 6, 2. ol fUy Syoi, iwti ru Si^/roc, irpo^pofidjn'ws hy tcravay^as often <u 
any one pursued them, they would stop (the Plup. having the sense of the Impf. 
4 255, Bern. 3). 3. 4, 22^ &w6t€ Si itdaxo^^'^ oi rXcuyial roO wKaurloVf rh lU^oy 
hp 4^€irtfiir\acay, 

3. With the Subjunctive, to represent the future conception, 
which the Greek expresses by the Sub. [i 257, 1, (a)], as con- 
ditumal, and depending an circumstances. The following caseB 
are to be distinguished : 

(a) The deVhercUive Subj. [} 159, 1, (b)], takes Sy, though but 
seldom in direct, more frequently in indirect questions, when 
a condition is to be referred to. 

TfroT* tty oZy xiywii^vs (iffAof sAoA toe lAere/&rs«iy, if the thing ifl 80?) 
etc. PL L. 655, c. fy^ ykp tovto^ & TlpoTaiy6paj obK ^fi"*!^ BtioKrhy cTiw, o'ol 8i 
XiywTt olfK IxM thr»s ftr inrgtrrA (i. e. tl trh \4y€u), I know not how I could 
diMieve it, if you say so, Frot. 319, b. *^Ay V aS ^/tcis yuc&fuy, \€\u/i4yiis r^s 
y^^fyas obx Houffiy 4K€'ani, twov hy ^iywtriyfX. An. 2. 4, 20. Ei 94 troi ftii 
Smcci, OK^ijnUf 4hy (i. e. cl fti^) r4Se trot iMKKoy ikp4ffKp, C. 4. 4, 12. 

(b) The Subj., which is often nsed in the Homeric langnage instead of the 
Fat. Ind. (| 259, Bern. 4), is frequently foand with &y, which is to be explained 
in the same manner as with the Fut. Ind. [No. 2, (1 )]. Ei 94 Kt /a^ iw^aty, 4y49 
94 Kty axnht cX«fiai II. a, 137, then I myself will {without douU) take it, less 
direct than the Fat. Ohx iy rot xpa/o-fi]; tci^apiSy II. y, 54. 

(c) In subordinate clauses. In this case, ay usually stands 
with the conjunction of the subordinate clause, or combines 
with the conjunction and forms one word. 

In this way originate 4dy (from tl Ay)^ 4irdy (from 4we\ &f), Uray (from 8rc &r), 
lir6Tay (from ^4t« &y), irply iv, Ifi^* &y, Z&i &y, oZ &y, throu &y, of &y, throi &y, f 
iy, ini Ay, S^ty &r, M^ty tL', etc., ts Ay {quicunque or si qms),otos &y, &ro7os Ay, 
Zcos Ay, 6ir4<ros Ay, etc. In all these expressions, a possible assumption is de- 
noted ; it is assumed that something is possible in the fatnre ; the fatore occar- 
fence of it depends upon the assumption of the speaker, i. e. the speaker 
assumes and expects that it will be, e. g. j^ rovro \4ypf, if you say^ shall say 
tlus (viz. according to my assumption, or as I expect you will), ofiaprfia-p, you 
wiR be wrong. 

(4) With the Opt., but not with the Opt. Fut. 

(a) The Opt. with Ay must always be considered as the principal clause of a 
coDflitional sentence, even if the condition is omitted, e. g. tX ri ^x<>*^> ^^"^^ ^9 

362 SYNTAX, [♦ 260 

if you had anytidngy you would give U (yoa may perhaps hare something, and 
that you may give it to me). The Attic writers in particular, nse this mode 
of expression, to denote firmly established and definite opinions and Tiews of 
anything, and even to denote actual fiEicts with a degree of reserve, moderation 
and modesty. A negation is here expressed by cA(k), Her. 3, 82. iiy^fAs ip^ 
rmi iipisrov (L e. ti ipuffros cA^) Mhf l^iMr tky ^awtitit nothing would seem 
better than. 7, 184. Mptt hy tJtv iw tdnoltn rivvtpes /tv/M^f kbUl c&o^i, Aem 
may have been two hundred and Jorty thousand men. 5, 9. yivoiro 8* &y iroir iv 
rf fuucp^ XP^^i o^ inighi happen. X. Cy. 1, 2, 11. drip&yrts obx hr dipiar^ 
9ai€¥y while hunting they wodd not breakfast = they do not hreakfuL 13 
#vci8^ T^i Wrrc Kol (Xico<rtr ln| ZwrtKitrvKTiv^ tXrioay fi^y &y oSrot irAiS^ t 
y^yoy&rts ^ 'Kwvr^iKovra Uni iarh ^crcar. PL Goig. 502, d. Aiuaryopla ipm Ws 
ioriy ^ roiiiriic^. Call, ^edyrrtu. Socr. Obxovy if fryropu^ 8i]|ciryop(a &i> cff. 
By the Opt. with hy, Homer [| 339, 3, (a) (/3)] and Herodotus often denote a 
supposition respecting something that is past Her. 9, 71. ravra /i}y ircd ^^y^ 
hy tXwoity, they might havp said these things from envy. I, 2. cfi^o'air V ft» 
oSroc Kf>^», Ihese might have been Cretans. 

Bex. 7. If the Opt. is used without &', as § 259, 3, (a), the action is ex* 
pressed with greater emphasis and definiteness, since the speaker has no refer* 
ence to the conditioning circumstances, which might prevent the realization of 
the thing conceived. Comp. ^c7a Ms V i^?^y koL Tii\i^ty iy^pa xraAcai^ 
die propitious deity, I think, can save, Od. y^ 231, and oa^oai iv, codxd, 
MIGHT save, if he wished. Hence the omission of Ay in the freer language of 
poetry, is far more frequent than in prose, which has more regard to Uie actual 
relation of the things descnbcd. 

(b) So also the Opt. is used with ob^ as a more modest and 
mild expression of a command or request, since the thing de- 
sired is represented as dependent on the will of tlie person 
addressed and is thereby made conditional. Here also a nega- 
tion is expressed by ou(*c). 

PI. Phaedr. 227, c. \4yots iy instead of X/yc (properly, you may speak, if yon 
choose). Tim. 19, o. kieoioii' ky ^817 rh fiirh raShm ircpl r^s voAircikr, yon 
might hear then, instead of hear then. S. £1. 1491. x^pots iKy, you might go. XL 
/3, 250. with a degree of irony, ec^<T* — Xox^^ — ' oh 7^ ^^ ^^ fnt^ X^P^*^ 
T%poy fiporhy iWoy ffi4uyai — * r^ ovk hy fiafftX^as &y& (rr J/ii* fx^'^ & 7 op c v - 
ois, Koi v^ ^yti^Jk re irpo^4poiSf ySerroy re ^vxdoiroisl instead of ^^ 
&7^pctf€, etc., you should not harangue, nor be heaping vq> reproaches, etc In the form 
of a question, X Hier. 1, 1. V ^ /mm ibeXlioais^ & 'Upmy, ^inrrhoaa&m, i 
euchs ttSipoi <ri fidknoy iftelo ; would you be inclined, Ta.,if I should ask you. With 
od in the form of a question, U. «, 456. obx hy 8^ rJy8* Ay^pa fidx^s ipoomte 
fifTfX^^y i might you not, could you not restrain the man, instead of, restrain him. 
In a sharper and more urgent tone as an exclamation, II. «, 263. oix^tcyMi 
fioi K/ta|ay ^^oirXfo'O'airf rdxurra, ravrd rt irdyr ^rtj^cire, 7m wpiiff^m- 
itey i9(Ho 1 would you not get ready the chariot, if I commanded it ? 

i 260.] MODAL ADVERB QV, 36A 

(c) The Optative with ay has the same force in interrogative 
as in other sentences, and may commonly be translated by the 
auxiliaries can, could, would, 

n. «9 367. (f ris <rc ISoiro . . , r(x fti^ 8^ to* v^t ttm how wotdd you then fed f 
I1.T, 90. i^Xikrixw fd^ai/tis tduxt could I do f S. Ph. 1393. rl Srrr* hy iffUis 
9p&/ity] Dem. PhiL 1, p. 43, 10. Xiyrral ri Kau4»\ yivoiro ykp &y rt Kturd- 
TfpoWf 1i MoKtiity iuf^p *Adrived<ws KoreewoKtfi&v ; can there be any stranger new§ 

Rem. 8. Comp. roi rts ^t^u j whither doet one fiee t Arist. Pint 438. iroi 
Tts f6yoi i tphUher may^ one JUe f (more definite than with ir). £nr. Or. 598. 
iroi rts iy f^yoi ; whither wovld one fM f whither could one flee f where tn the 
world could he flee f 8. Aj. 403. iroi rif ody ^^yp ; whither shaii one flee oris one 
io fleet 

(d) The Dramatists, particularly, often express a wish, in the 
form of a question, by irws and the Optative with av, it being 
asked how something might, could, ivould take place under a 
given condition. 

Soph. Aj. 338. £ ZcD, — ir&s hf rhy clintKAroxov . . o\4off<u t4Kos ftiCyoiM* 
tcmSbriss hovb might, could, would I diet instead of, that I might die! £nr. Ale. 
867. irms fty hXoiyiriy', PI. Enthyd. 275, c. v«5 h,y KoX&t o-oi Ziriyiieai- 
fkriyj howcan lappropriatdy describe to you f that I could! 

Rem. 9. Bnt the Opt. in itself, as the expression of a wish, does not take 
the conditioning adverb iy [\ 259,3, (b)]. II. (t ^^- ^' k^ ol a&« yma x^^^i 
ia not properly expressed as a wish, but as a doubtful condition, thus {S^s » 
ovrms) the earth should then open flxr him. 

(5) The Inf and Part, take ay (kc), when the finite verb, which 
stands instead of the Inf and Part., would take it : 


(a) The Inf. with iy after verba sentiendi and de(^unndi, consequently the Inf 
Pres. and Aor. with iy, instead of the Ind. Prcs. and Aor. with Sy, or instead of 
the Opt. Impf. and Aor. with iy in direct discourse ; the same principle holds 
when the Inf. is used as a substantive. The Inf. Perf with iy instead of the 
Ind. and Opt. Plup. with iy, is more seldom. The Inf. Fut. with iy is rare in 
Attic ; instead of it the Inf. Aor. or even the Prcs. with iy is commonly used. 

ET re cTxcr, 1^, iovyat iy ( Oratio recta : <f rt clxoy, drnxa iy), he said that 
tfhe had anything, he would have given it, dixit, se, si quid habuisset, daturumfuisse. 
£f ri ^xf^tj 1^, ^owcu iy ( Or. recta : cf ri Ix^i^u, Sodjy iy), dixit, se, si quid haberet, 
daturum, esse. *Zyit doicw 8<ir(£icif hy Kurh ttjs y^s Karahuyai ^ioy, ^ i^d^* 
yai efkw rawtty6sf X. Cy. 5. 5, 9 {Or. recta: ScmU» hy iro^dyoifii ^iu>y, Ij 
l^^iriy), methinks I would rather sink ten times beneath the earth, than to be seen in 
this humble condition. 'Hyoufuu . , obx tty iucphovs abrohs iiTetKoKdvat, iiWh 
T^i^^T^Kowray Zlicriy ScSwjc^Kai, Lys. 27, 8 ( Or. recto : ovk hy itwoXi&Xt' 
vay — iZ^ZAxtvay iv). Olfuu yiip ovk hy i^x^^*^^* t"^*^ ^^9iy, lihinkyou 
would not be unthankful to me, if I entreated the king, etc., ( Or. recta : ovk hy axa* 

364 SYNTAX. [f 261 

piffTtts fAOi ^x^*^* ^^ o'xoirir^, bat not c^oirt, see No. 4). ^0<t^ yitf §idCm 

iro\(ras, It. L. 8, 3. USis Ixcts irpbs rh id4\€ky &y itt^ai tucKtrros M dcMvor; 
(the same as vifs (x<(s irp^f roOro 5t( i&4Kois hv Uyau AkKtitos M Sc^rror;) 
PI. Symp. 174, b. Ei olu K4yoifUj td o78*, Sn 9fifAiiyopfTr Up ftc ^aS^s^ PI 
R. 350, c 

Kem. 10. In Latin the conditioned Inf. is expressed as follows : 

ypdi^eip &v = scripturum esse^ yeypa/^iwu $v = scriptttrum ftussCy 
ypd^tu ay = (a) scriptttrum fuisse^ or (b) as Prcs., scripturum esse, 
ypi^tut iof = scripturum fore, 

(b) The Participle with hf after v&ha sentiendi, or when the Participle takes 
the place of an adverbial subordinate clause. The same principles hold here 
as with the Inf. The Fut. Part, with Ay is rare in Attic Greek (the reading is 
commonly doubtful when it occurs) ; instead of the Put Part., the Aor. or 
even the Prcs. with itf, is generally used. 

Her. 7, 15. tiplcKV Hh dSc &y yiySfitva roDro, tl \dfiou r^y ipdiy CK^vifff 
(reperiOf sic haec futura essb, si sumcu vestes meas). X. C. 2. 2, 3. ai xoXcis 
M rois fityliTTOis iJiiicfifuuri (rifday ^dyarov imrot^itao'ir, &s obx tw fitl(oyos iceueam 
^6fi^ T^if iBiKiay Ta^covrts {existimantes se non graoioris mali metu injwrhm 
COERCITUROS FORE, thinking that they could deter frtmi crime by the fear of no 
greater evil). Th. 6,38. oUrt Byra, oCrt tiy y€y6titya AoyoroiOMra -.i. e. A 
•(^e iffriy, oth* tiy y4yoiro, they fabricate what neither is tior will be), laocr. 
Phil. 133. Ed Iff^i fiifilhy Ay fu roiruy i'^ix^^p^^f^vrd art ireiStfty^ ct ivywur- 
relay fi6yoy Kot vKodroy itHpwy i^ airrQy yfyriir6fuyoy (=8ri iT€x*^p'n^^ '^*')* 
PI. Phil. 52, c. huuc€Kpifi€&a x^^ '''^^ ^* ico^op^f ^oyiis koI rhs <rx^^^ ^ad<4p- 
Tovs 6p^&s hy Xtx^*^^^' {'^ '^'^ ^ trxfd^y hcdAaproi op^&s &y Xcx<^ctc)> 
8o, also, with the case absolute : X An. 5. 2, 8. itrKoriho, ir6rtpoy cfiy irp€<rT«r 
kirdyitiy kcX roi/s ZuLfi€0riK6Tas, ^ tcai robs d^rXiras 9tafitfid{tiy, &s iL\6yT0S Ikr 
ToD xA'P^v ^ = yofjd(uy, Zri rh x^^p^oy aXolri &y)» 

i 261. Position and Repetition of av. "Av without a 


1. With the combination mentioned in 260, (3), c, as hs &y, trpHy iy, small 
particles like Z4, ri^ iiiy^ ydp, sometimes come between, e. g. hs 8* 6y, 

2. As Ay represents the predicate as conditional^ it ought properly to be joinod 
with the predicate, e. g. Xiyoqu &y, fktyoy &y ; yet it commonly follows that 
member of a sentence which is to bo made emphatic, e. g. PI. Crito. 53, c. 
icol ovic oUi io'xVh*''^ ^^ ^Ktytivbtu rh rod JtMxpdrovs irfwyfuu Hence it is 
regularly joined to such words also as change the idea of the sentence, riz., to 
negative adverbs and interrogativcs, e. g. ovk &y, ov8* &f, olhror* Ay, ovi4rm^ Ay, 
etc. — rls Ay, ri Ay, ri IT Ay, ri 8^ Ay, irwj Ay, »«$ 7^ Ay, 2p* Ay, ctc;-^also 
to adverbs of place, time, manner, and other adverbs, which, in various ways 
modify the expression contained in the predicate and define it more exactly, 


tfr, cxo^ i^> p^iws tty, p^ffr" t»t rdx*^ ii', <r4>^5p' &r, ^Scais fii', k&¥ (iiistcad 
of irai &y, etiam^ vel), etc 

Behabk 1. In certain constmctions, the &y belonging to the Opt. is re- 

I. 2. In certain parenthetic sentences, the Jb^ belonging to the Opt is 

placed first; thus particularly, &m ris &roi, ^i}. PL Phaed. 87, a. W o9v (,) &r 
4ka/i| & \/&yos (,) Iri inrurrtis \ 

3. "Ap is very often repeated in the same sentence {k4 very seldom). The 
reason of this is two-fold : 

(a) It is nsed once at the beginning of the sentence, in order to show, in 
the outset, that the predicate is conditional. This is particularly the case, 
when the principal sentence is divided by intervening subordinate clauses, or 
when several words precede the conditioned verb to which &y belongs. &n^ 
Cir, CI ff^iifos Kifiotfu 9rik^iraifi* tu^ oV €wrois ippotw, S. £1. 333. 

(b) The second reason is a rhetorical one. "Ay is joined with the word 
which requires to be made emphatic. If the rhetorical emphasis belongs to 
several words in one sentence, iy can be repeated with each. But besides this, 
Kf can be again placed after the conditioned verb to which it properly belongs. 
PI. Apol. 35, d. ca^Ss ykp iy, tl irttdotfu ifms, ^9ohs fty ttidrKo^u fiii 
^yturdiu i/Ms tlym. Eur. Troad. 1244. &^ayc«r hriyrtsobK tky ^fiyri^tifitp 
tky Modems, 

Rem. 3. Homer sometimes joins the weaker k4 with iy, in order to make 
the conditionality or contingency still more prominent. II. y, 127, so. itrrayro 
^dXayyts . . , &f oth* iy Ktv "Apris 6y6ffuro fitrtk^iiy, otrrc k 'Adriycui^, 

4. *Ay is very frequently found with a conjunction or a relative without a 
Terb, when the verb can be easily supplied from the context ; thus especially 
4n &y, &STtp dy ci, v&s yhp &y, irwf 8* oine &y, 5sircp &y and the 
like. ^fio6fi€yos, Asirtp Uy ci trvus (i. e. Asircp hf ^fimro, ct iroTf cfi}), PL 
Goig. 479, a. 


§262. The Attributive Construction. 

Attributives serve to explain more definitely the idea 
contained in the substantive to which they belong, e. g. 
TO Ka\6v poSov, 6 fieya<: 'jrcuk. The attributive may be* 

a. An adjective or participle, e. g. to KaXov poBov, ri 
^dWov 02/^09; 

366 SYNTAX. [{ 263 

b. A substantive in the genitive, e. g. 3» tov SivSpon 

c. A substantive with a preposition, e. g. ^ irpo^ r^9 
rroXiv oBo^'j 

d. An adverb, e. g. ot vvv aj/^ponroi ; 

e. A substantive in apposition, e. g. Bkpoiao^, 6 fiaaiXei^ 


i 263. Ellipsis of the Substantive to which the 

Attributive belongs. 

When the sabstantive which is to be mora fully explained by the attribative» 
contains a general idea, or one which can be easily supplied from the context, 
or is indicated by some word of the sentence, or, by frequent usage in a particn> 
lor connection, may be supposed to be known, then the substantire, as tb« 
less important member in the attributiTO relation, is often omitted, and the 
adjective or participle becomes a substantiye. Substantives which are oftea 
omitted with attributive adjectives, are : iy^ptnns, it^pmroi^ Mip, iMpct, yvrk, 
7VMMircY,xy^«M» xM/MH'cb »P«yA««t »fH4y/uwo, iuUpa, ri, x^po, notpa^ Ms^ x«?H 
yy^fl, ^rq^Yf ^^X*^! v^cfiox, etc. ; those omitted with the attributive genitive are : 
wrfipf /lirrvpt vUs, roSs, dvydnipt oScX^tfs, ityfip {hutband), yw^ (^fi)^ ehda, 
olKoSf x^P^ Vi (iofid). The substantive is omitted with the following daasei 
of words ; 

a. The attributive adjective, adjective pronoun, and participle. 

(a) Such as denote persons : ol drnroltmortalea; ol C9^<A, el ytipdfjuam (instoad 
of yovus) \ ol txo»^*Sf the rich ; ol ^vXArroyrfs (^^Xaiccf ) ; oi iucdCorreSf judgee ; 
Oi x4yoirrtSf orators^ etc 

(fi) Such as denote names of things . (a) appellatives : rh ^fUrepa lxpil*«f^)» '^ 
nostrae ; rk 4 fid, res meoA, everything which rdates tome; rk iea\d, respukkrae; rk 
Koxdj nuda (^ 243, 4), ii trrtpaia, 4 i^towra, 4 vpc^, ^tvrdpa, etc (iffidpa) ; ^ 
iroXcfifa {x^pa)t the enemies country; ^ ^iX/a, a friendly country; ^ oUovfUrti (tv), 
Ute inhabited earth ; ^ ttruSpof (y9)> ^ desert ; ^ c^cm (Ms) ; tV 'ntxiff^ifPf qitam 
relerrime; ri^y ttnitf {fuSpw) &ro8i8^rai ; ^ irnrpaffjJpii (^ijpa) ; i^ 9e^id, ii kptar^fd 
ix*^p) i 4 tfuc&tra (yy^fifi) ; riiw iparrtw {^ij^oy) rl^^^m] ^ ^opucii (Wx*^)- 

(b) Abstracts : rh icaX^jr, rh kyt^u, or rkytA6y, the beautifrdj the good; rk 
tvTvxlsf good fortune; rh kifolvdrrrow^ vxmt of foeling; rh Koty6pf the commtm 
vcealih (c g. r&w la^dmv) ; rk ^apvow, cot^fidence, 

(c) Collective nouns denoting persons: rh ipcantovy the enemy ; rh Mikoop, 
(he subjects. Adjectives in -inSy especially belong here, e. g. rh rnktruc^, the 
citizens; rh S>it\iruc6y, the heavy armed; rh tiKmnip^ the servants; rh *EAXi|mic^, 
rh fiapfiapucSvf rh hnrue6p, etc. The plural of adjectives of this ending is often 
used to denote a number, collection, or series of single events, c. g. rk Tpmaci^ 
dtfi. Trojan war; rk 'EAAi^vik^, the Gredan history; rk vaurucdf naval war. but also 
naval affairs. 


b. The attribntive genitive also is used without the goTcming substantire, 
e. g. *A\4^caf9posj 6 ^iXhnrw (vlSt), Mmd ^ "ArXcarros {IbvyJenip) j then with th« 
preposition^^jf, tts and ix with the Cren. of a person to denote his abode, e. g« 
iy fiw (olk^) cXnu; cis fSav (oTicor) ifAtu^i cis 8ida0^iciU«r ^iray, to go to the 
teacher's; cis tt\dr»yos ^onfuff irifkituvi to go at tend to Plato^s ; 4k SiScuric^Mfr 
ianiMJrrtvdm, Fl. Protag. 326, c. to kate school; tls tV K^pov (yrj') i^^*'^\ 
rk TTJs r^xnh '*« events of fortune ; ri t^i r^Acwf , the affairs of state ; rk roB 
wo\4ftmfi the whole extent of the vxtr ; rk *A^valuif ^poptiy, ab Atheniensium par- 
films stare; rk r^s opyiiSf rk r^s ifonifiaSt rh r&v iwidvfu&y {that which pertains 
to anger, the nature or essence t^f anger, etc.) ; rh rmv miB^ay, the custom of boys; 
rk rfir h?a4st9» 

c. The attributive adverb is used without a substantive, o. g. el vZv, ol rdrt, ol 
mCXw, ol ipdiit (fty^pwiroi), rk cfUoi {irpdyftara), res domesdcae, ^ ^I9'> {w^^)t 
Ae JbBomng dag, etc 

d. Tho attribntiTe substantive or substantive pronoun with the preposition 
jj which It is governed, e. g. ol md^ ^>iaf, ol l^'^^y, our contemporaries ; — oi 
It^ or wfpi rwof e. g. nxir«i«, signifies (a) a person with his companions, 
followers, or scholars ; ol kiu^X UtterUrrparovt Pisistratus and his troops ; ol kfi^l 
BdKijyt Thaiee and other philosophers of his school; ''Apa \iyttt r^r r&v ^t&p 
Kpiffuff %p el 9Sp\ K4icpo9u 9i* kperipf tttphwf, iMh Ceerops and his tribunal 
on account of their exeeUeneSf decided, X. C. 3. 5, 10. — (b) more seldom the com« 
panions, followers, or scholazs alone, without the person named.— I\urther, ol 
9^9 riri, ol /urd r»oSt ^ followers, etc. of any one ; ol M rir(» the subjects of 
any one ; ol hr6 rt9os, assedae, or deseendants of one ; ol Iv &<rrc< ; ol vspi ^iXooo" 
^(ar; ol fnpi r^y d^pay ; ol k/»i^ rhy ir6\€fioy^ etc. ; -— r3i mapd runs, inteBigenee 
respecting any one, or commands of any one; '^—rh «ar* ifii^ rh hf ip4, as far as in 
my power, as far as in me lies* 

♦ 264. a. Attributive Adjective, 

1. The attributive adjective (participle, adjective pronoun 
and numeral), expresses a quality which belongs to an object, 
as the heaMtiful and hhomng rose. On the agreement of the 
adjective with the word which it defines, see ♦ 240. 

REKAfiK 1. The participles KeySfupos and KoKovfuyos are used, where the 
Latin has md didtur, vocatur, quem dicunt, tfoca^t, etc., and the English the 
phrase so-ooaied, as it is eaUed, are called, etc., e. g.Aaic€SaifUnot rky Itpky k«A.o^- 
pLtyoy w6\sfAoy iinpdrrevowy {the Sacred tear, as it is ooMed, or the so<iaUed Sacred 
war), Th. 1, 112. 2ir«VMir» tmtts 6 naXo^fAsyos tmk tmt ^vfcrrdir ic6afMS 1^ 
{the k6o/ios as it is called by the sojJusts), X C 1. 1, 11. 

Resi. 2. It has already been stated (§ 245, Bern. 5), that the adi'ectivcs 
ixoos, fUffos, lirxorof, must in certain cases be translated into English by 

Hem. 3. Many personal nouns which denote an employment, station or 
age, are ttisated as ai^ectives, and the word kyfio is joined with them, if the 
man is to be considered in relation to his employment, station or age ; but 

368 SYNTAX. H 264. 

the word Mp is omitted, if the man is considered as merely performing 
the duties of a particular office or employment. Thus ia^ ijJanit signifies a 
man who is by profession a prophet, and yJanis without Mip^ a man who, foe 
the time being, acts as a prophet ; thus &y)}p /ScurtXcvs, iif^p ripamfbt, &j^/» wof 
tt^v, iu^p Mt»p, iufhp ^pttrfi^iit, iu^p veoWoj, ypms ywiij etc.; also in tb6 
respectfm rorm of address amonz the Attic orators and historians, e. g. 6p6p€t 
iiKwrrai, tuf^pts arpvnwrui. So likewise with national names, e. g. &r^ *AJ^ 
ycuoj, ^Kfi^pirns, This usage is still more extensive in poetry. See Laxiger 
Grammar, Fart II. \ 477. 

2. When two or more attributive adjectives belong to a sub- 
stantive, the relation is two-fold. The relation is : (a) coordinate, 
when each adjective is equally a more full explanation of the 
substantive ; then the ac^jectives are conmionly connected by 
,ia^ ri-^fcat; where there are several adjectives, the con- 
nective is used only before the last ; (b) subordinate, when a 
substantive with one of the adjectives forms, as it were, a 
single idea, and is more definitely defined by another adjective. 
In this case there is no connective between the two adjec- 
tives. The subordinate relation occurs particularly when pro- 
nouns, numerals, adjectives of time, place, and material are 
joined with other adjectives. 

2«0<cMTi}f kyti&ih$ Kol trti^s h^p ^v» TloKKol hyoAol tu^Bpts or iroXXol 
i,y9^\ icol <ro^l AvSpcs. IIoXX^ KaXh %pya,^'0 i/ihs Irtupos ao^s. 
OZrtij 6 iofiip hyeA^s, Tpf <s oytAoi tuf^pts. T^ irpStrov ko^^p vpSyfuu 
Od. », 322, sq. iarhs tnihs itucoaSpow fAtXaiyris* 

Rbx. 4. The numeral iroXXo/ is used in Greek, like mulii in Latin, 
generally in the coordinate relation, and in this way the idea of plurality is 
made emphatic, while the English commonly uses the subordinate, e. g. iroAXA 
icol Ko^Ji^ *py^ nut&a et praeckura fadnora. The Greek and Latin is many and 
fMe deedSf the English commonly many noble deeds. 

Rex. 5. In the Greek, the attributive adjective very frequently takes the 
force of a substantive, and the substantive to which the adjective properly 
belongs, is put in the attributive genitive. Here the following cases are to 
be distinguished : 

a. The substantive stands with the plural adjective which takes the eendet 
of the substantive, e. g. ol jqnjirr<A rS»v a^^p^irwp ; rik mrovieud r&v irpcefi»irmp, 

b. The adjective which becomes a substantive is sometimes in the Ncut. 
Sing., sometimes also in the Neut PI. Th. 1. 118, ol *AdTjptudi M fi4ya 
ix^ofticw 8vy^/icc0Y(Ba Iwi fi9yd\rip Z^pofup), had attained a high degrm of 
power. Thus many phrases with irop, e. g. tZf Tap jcaicov (in omnn genus 
axl a mita ti s) h^ucpfur^m; ip toptI kokov ttpoi] elf wap TpotX'fiXu^ /Kox<^iyp^af. 
Moreover, the Neut. pronoun is very frequently joined with the genitive, espe- 
cially in prose. Th. 1,49. ^vphrnrop is rovro dipdyxiis, to this degree of 
necessity. X. An. 1.7, 5. 4p roioirtp rod kipHpov* Dem. Ph. 1,51. cii 
rovdt* 0/3oe«f i\ii\v^tp. 

c. The substantive is made to depend upon the adjective in the Sing, which 
takes the gender of the substantive which it governs, instead of being in the 


I^cat^ e. g. ^ iroAA'}) r^ IleAovoyH^ov instead of rh iroXo rris n. The word 
lifiiffvs is most fireqaently used in this manner, often also iro A^ s, irXc^My, 

X«Jpar, rkr rAfla'TOv row xp^^^v. Th. 1, 2. t^s yrjs ^ iiplffrri itel rits /icra- 

3. The Greek, like the Latin, frequently uses the attributive 
adjective to define the subject or object, not by itself, but only 
in reference to the predicate. In this way the designations 
of place, time, number, also a reason, condition, and manner 
can be expressed by adjectives, which agree with a substan- 
tive in gender, number, and case. 

a. Adjectives of place and order. Od. ^, 146. t^v fivxoiraros M in- 
stead of ip fivxoirdT^» Also, irp&Tos, vpSrepos (of two), Hararos, twrtpos (of 
two), lUcoSy TcAcvTfluos, rxiyiof, fi€T4t0pos, &cpos, ^paiosj ^aXdfreios, etc. S 
Ant 785. ^iTus ^irtpirSvTios instead of inckp rhv it6yrov, Th. 1, 134. T»^ 
fi^ {rrni^piot raXaivotpolii, tJuU he might not suffer in the open cur. Here belong 
also iraSf fxaaroSf ixdrtpoSf tifupw, ^fi^6rtpQS, etc. ^ 246, 5, 6 and 7. 

b. Adjectives of time, e. g. $^iosy tp^pios, ieo^ty6f, itnripiosy v^tost luirov^Krioit 
&tpw6sf x^iffs, iapw6sy x*^f**P^^'f ^^^i especially those in - alo « , e. g. Scvtc/kuo^ , 
rpcrtuos, etc., xp^ytos (after a long time), etc II. a, 497. iitpiii B* &y€firi fitytw 
ovpaySu instead of ^i, she went early, X. An. 4. 1, 5. ffKoriaiovs 9ttX^u¥ 
rh TcS/oy, to pass through the plain in the dark. T c r ap r a? os , ir c/a rr a ( o s &^(- 
ircTo, he came on the fourth, Jifth day; xp^ vio f ilAJ^ci', ctfter a long time. 

c Adjectives of manner and other relations, e. g. i^6s, rax^f> ai^tBios, 
fipaSisy ^fr6^wop9ost iLnroySor, tpKios\ kK^v, i^t?io6atos, Akw, (ioKvos, 4^€\otn-fis 
1{«vx0ff; ^vxv6tf voA^f, iJ^pSos, irvtcpiSf erdtftof, fiivos, e. g. bviffwovBoi ianft- 
999 => int6 0*ror8a4T, iheg wend away under a truce. Th. 1, 63. rchs ytKpobs 
ivotrvSyhovs iar&offoaf roTs Hortiatdrais, th^ gave up the dead under the truce. 

Rev. 6. Bnt when the qnalif^ng words cannot at the same time express 
a qnality of the subject or object, bnt belong solely to the predicate, the 
adverb most be nsed, e. g. KaXSs ditit, you sing beautifitUy (not Ko^hs ^5(», 
for the person who sings beantifolly, is not necessarily beaatifnl). When the 
Greeks expressed snch designations of place and tin^e, as properly belong to the 
predicate, by adjectives, it is to be explained as resulting from their vivid mode 
of conception. For example, kinripios ^X^, vespertinus venit, he came (as it 
were) enveloped by the evemng. 

Kbm. 7. The distinction between vp&ros (icpSrtpoSft^rtposj ivra' 
Toj), irp^rriy {vpor4pay, i^r^pay, &ardrriy)y a^ad ir ywroy (irprfrc- 
poy, S^repoy, ttrraroy or 0irT«ra), iiiyos, fiSyiiy and fi6yoy r^y 
iwurroXiiy iypts^i appears when the sentence is analyzed; wp&rot, fi6vos 
mean, / am the firsts the last, the only one of all who hns written this letter, like 
nUKUS scrijpn* ; vpAr^y, Ivrdriiy^ fiiyriy rify hrurro\iiy Kypw^a, this letter 
was the Jirsij the kutytheonUf one I have written; the adverbs xp&rov, irojrtpoy, 
etc, on the contrary, are used in stating several actions of the same suojcct, in 
flio order in which they occurred, e. g. 'O vcus irpwroy fihy tV McrroAi^f 

570 SYNTAX. [H 266, 26€ 

(not sent it). 

i 265. Attributive Genitive. 

The attributive genitive will be considered in treating the 
genitive, J 275, Rem. 5. 

i 266. c. Apposition. 

1. A substantive is said to be in apposition, when it is put 
in the same Case with another substantive or with a substan- 
tive personal pronoun, and even with a personal pronoun implied 
in a verb, for the sake of defining these words more fully ; if 
the appositive denotes a person, it is also put in the same gen- 
der and number, as the word which it defines, comp. { 240, 1. 
An appositive referring to two (xc more substantives is put in 
the plural, when it is a common noun. 

Kvpos, 6 fiaffiXfis. TS^ivptSf ^ jBao'fXcia. 'Exclyos, 6 /SairtAci/s. X-Cy 
5. 2, 7 . riip dvyaripa, htivSv ri KdWos koI /i^7c^0 5, ^{iCywr »8c «Arcr. Hi. 
1, 137. StfiioTOKkTis IJKtt irapkffi^I^ ThemisUxUs^ have come. Lac D.I>. 
24,2. 6 9i VLalas rris ^ArKatyras 9iaKoyovfiai ednois (instead of fy«^ 4 
Malas 8C. viSs). 

2. When a substantive is in apposition with a possessive 
pronoun, it is pu* in the Gen., since the possessive pronouns 
take the place of the Gen. of the personal pronouns. 

*Efiht (= iiA9v) rod i^xiov 0los, the life of mey wretchdd^ hS^}dw being here in 
opposition with 4it6s. T^ ( = rk i/^) rov Svot^mn; iroir^, the eotZt ofme^un" 
httppjf one I ^ii r^t rnXXiorris e^ftop^ia, thy graeefiihese^ O vumi hmuHfii onel 
In English, as the examples show, such a Clen. with the possessiYO may be 
often expressed by an exclamation, e. g. *£\caifw rhy ^hy rov i^xlov fiiw, 1 
pity thy Ufe^ wretched one I or hj an accessary clause, e. g. I pity thy life, thoa who 
art 80 miaerable. So too the Geo. is put in apposition with adjectives which stand 
in the place of the attributive Gren. PI. Ap. 29, d. *A;^i|ra7os ^y wik^mg 
rfjs fieyicTfis (instead of *Adi|ydy, wSxtms), x^Kems being h«re in i^poti- 
tion with 'A^riwcuos which is equivalent to 'Al^&v. On the expressions 1 
i)fi4r§pos^ ifAh'tpoSi inf>4rtpos air Aw xter^p, see the remariu on tbeproniMak 

Remark 1. On the ellipsis of the words Ms, tcus, ^vyarnp, yvp^, etc. in 
apposition, see f 263 ; on the use of the article in apposition, see f 244, Ron. 6. 
In the phrases 6youd iart uoi, Syofia ri^/d {ri^fuii) rm and the like, the name 

4 2G6.] APPOSITION. 371 

itself, us an mppositive, is pat in the same Case, e. g. "Oyo^iC 4arl i»oi 'AyddrntK^ 
my name is Agathon, 'O vaZr IXryti^ 6jro/ia f2y«i Ubut^ 'Aydt^vo. 'ILvrcaii^ ^9 
trhus fAtydXif, 6tfOfia V ain^ Kopvamlf X. An. 1. 5,4. ib. 2. 4, 13 and 25. Tavrp 
T» IvMMjctf ^ifjM^a v6\iy BrofiOf Fl. Bp. 369, c. (to tkis eommuniUf we gave 
(^ name ofy, called il a dty). *Aj^ Wyiir lait hifUTuA$ 4terh9cn-o t^v IkuriKuewrd- 
'>i|r Mol dfioriniir xposnyoplayf rhy Alicatoy, Flat. Ar. 2, (received the 
tunuuMtthe Jua). (The Qen.also is ased in the samephrase : ^ttxlwy iicrfiaar^ 
tV fo^ Xpiitrrov irpo$inrop(ay, Flat. Fh. 10. The Nom. ^so occurs: 
*Ar^ yey^uwos ypotfUi}^ t^i' riiy wnnipGw Kotyify Ivwrv^W 0'VKO^<£vTi|Sa 
AMch. f. L ^ 27.) See 269, Bern. 3. 

Bxir. 2. A sahstantive in the Nom. or Ace. sometimes stands in apposition 
with the whole sentence ; in the Nom., when the appositive expresses a jadg^ 
raent on the whole sentence ; in the Ace., when the appositiye denotes a thing 
accomplished, a resnlt, a purpose, or object, e. g. Eur. Or. 496. iirtl yitp i^hrytv 

— al^X^^^^" fpyoyl U. «, 735. ^ ris 'Axcu&y {abriy) ^li^t x«P^' ^^^ 
krh 'mipyooy Xvyphy ^K^^poy, Ear. Or. 1105. 'EX^Mjy lerdlwtity, McWXcy 
A^vifjr 9 IK pdy (i. e.Asrc thui K^wipr ''ucpdy), Aesch. Ag. 225. fr\ri dvriip 
'ytyiahm bvyaerpSs, mXifiwy iipctydy (Hrrt tlytu iipoaydy). In like manner, a 
Pturt. or adjective is sometimes added as a clanse in apposition to a whole sen- 
tence, e. g. IIcCS^i (*A«^XA«y) *Op49Tny aiWp'» fl f^* iy^lyoro, «rcinu, wpis 
eitX ixayrat cVvXciay ^4poy {a deed that brings nofame)^ Eur. Or. 30 
Kol 9ii Topurcu {solutum est) ff&fiOf a-ol iiky ov ^Ixoy Suppl. 1070. 

RsM. 3. The In£ also is sometimes used as a clanse in apposition with a 
word, especially with demonstratiye and relatiye pronouns, so as to define 
more exactly an idea before expressed in a general manner. O^ ykp M 
ro6r^ K^dirrru 6 KutturHiSf iw\ r^ KaraxttpT^to'^at r^ 56vaia Fl. Apol. 
35, c, the judge does not sit for ihis^ riz^for the purpose 0/ compromising justice for 
Jiwor, *A 9i wporr4T9KT€U rp ftcarruc§t iitiffKOTtTy rods 'Xp^tras acal l^r' 
p t ^ c I y, Symp. 188, c 

3. With a substantive, expressing the idea o£ plurality^ one 
substantive or even several substances denoting the parts of 
that plurality or whole, are often' put in apposition, instead of 
being in the Gen. according to the natural construction. This 
may be called distributive or partitive apposition. Here belong 
especially the words ckooto?, iKorepo^, iras (every one), ot fiiy — 
01 Bl, oAAos aXXov (alius aHunit one this, another that, one anotJier^ 
or mutually), o[XAo$ aXKoBev (alius aliundej one from, one place, 
another from another, or one on one side, anotlicr on another). The 
subject, which denotes the plurality or whole, may bo implied in 
the verb. This kind of apposition is used when the wliole is to 
be expressed with the greater emphasis, wliile with the Gen 
ihe parts are to be made more prominent 

Od. a, 424. 9ii rire Ksuunioyrts ifiay oUM^ 9Ka<rros {in suam qutaque 
domum sese contukrunt, they went each one to his own house), Iler. 3, 158. ifi^yoy 
iy rp ittfjrov rd^i ixaeros {in suo qmsque ordine manserunt), Th. 1, 89. olxlai 
al /i^y v^eXXal (» r»y ohctmy iroXAol) licfirrAicto'ay, i\(yat 9^ vfpnjv^y, X. 
B^Ii.6, 1. iy rtu$ fkXKs*s ni^tci rmy imnov tiea^res iral vmlZtty m«1 oUer&y «■> 

372 SYNTAX. [i 267. 

"XfiUpuirw ipxoverty {suis quisque liberis tifi/Mrant). Cy.3.1,3. 8icS£8paa'ic«# 
ijBri tKatrros cV2 r& lovroO, fiov\6ii€yoi r& I^Kra ^JdroSclnr Toifur^cu. C 2. 7, 1. 
r^f &rop(ar yt r&v ^iKa»v rks /i^¥ St* &yvomy Iwfiparo {^ttKpdTtis) yp^ig^ 
^curdcu, rks 9h 9i* Mttay ZMffKW Kwrk 9iyufU¥ AXX^Aoif ^rc^Mccir. PL 
Charm. 153, 6. iced fit &s cISov tlstSma i^ &irpof8oic^ov, tidbs vSp^m^w ^ w^ - 
(oyro AWos iWo^Mif {iheif todcomed me one from one places cmoiher from 
another). Still, in this cue the verb sometimes agrees, not with the appropri- 
ate subject, bat with the words tKmrros, vSs. X. An. 1. 8, 9. vtCrrcs olroi card 
^vri h ir}iM/fl^ irXlipu hfbpdfwmy ZKo,<Frov tbvos ^vopc^cro. The parti* 
tive appositive is often accompanied by a participle. X. Cy.3. 1,25. fri«i 
ipofioliJutvoit /lii \ri<p^4yr€S ixo^itwoiy, M> rod ^fiov wpoawodr^KotMriy^ oi fi^p 
^nrrovyrts lovro^s, o^ 8^ ikwayx^f^*yot^ ol 8^ &iro4r^arr<(^croi. 
Her. 3, 82. abrhs tKaoros pou\6fi€yos Kopwpaios c7reu yywf»:poi t9 rutny, 
4s fx'^'A fitydXa iXX^Kotoi awtKy4oy'rai, Here belong those passages, in 
which, after the principal subject, .there is another subject in the Nom. with a 
Part connected with it ; the latter subject, however, making a part of the piin* 
cipal subject. Th. 4, 73. {ol *A^fiyaioi) rio^a(oy, Koyi(6fi9yoi tcai oi