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M. J. de GOEJE, 




DATE... /V f?K£. 6 





Cambrfofit : 



rflHE Second Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic 
-*- language had been out of print long before the death of its 
author, but he was never able to find the leisure necessary for 
preparing a New Edition. The demand for it having become 
more and more pressing, Prof. W. Robertson Smith, who well 
deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair, resolved to 
undertake this task. He began it with his usual ardour, but the 
illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the 
work. At his death 56 pages had been printed, whilst the 
revision had extended over 30 pages more. Robertson Smith had 
made use of some notes of mine, which he had marked with 
my initials, and it was for this reason among others that the 
Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me, through 
Prof. Bevan, to continue the revision. After earnest deliberation 
I consented, influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent 
work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete 
that which another dear friend had begun. Moreover Prof. Bevan 
promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in 
seeing the book through the press. 

I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson 
Smith in that part of the Grammar which he revised. Trifling 
corrections and additions and such suggestions as had already 
been made by A. Miiller, Fleischer and other scholars, are given 
in square brackets. Only in those cases where it seemed necessary 
to take all the responsibility upon myself, have I added my 
initials. Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at 
the end of the Second Volume, Wright had noted here and there 


on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from 
the Nakaid) which have been inserted, unless they seemed quite 
superfluous, without any distinctive sign. I have found but very 
few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not 
definitely revised ; almost all of these have been marked with his 
initials. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively 
small number of passages (for instance § 252, § 353), where I felt 
sure that he would have done it himself. Once or twice Wright 
has noted on the margin " wants revision." 

The notes bearing upon the Comparative Grammar of the 
Semitic languages have for the most part been replaced by 
references to Wright's Comparative Grammar, published after his 
death by Robertson Smith (1890). 

I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton, 
who drew my attention to several omissions. But my warmest 
thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. Bevan, ( 
who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this 
revised edition through the press, but by many judicious remarks 
has contributed much to the improving of it. 

The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands. 

M. J. de GOEJE. 


February, 1896. 




A SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of 
-*--*- Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for, I have 
thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book, but to subject 
it again to a thorough revision. In fact, the present is almost a 
new work ; for there is hardly a section which has not undergone 
alteration, and much additional matter has been given, as the very 
size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. 

In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of 
Arab Grammarians, both ancient and modern. Of the former I 

may mention in particular the 'Alflya (^LaJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik, with 
the Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. Dieterici, 1851, and the Beirut 
edition of 1872); the Mufassal (jJa4.»)t) of 'el-Zamahsari (ed. 
Broch, 1859) ; and the Lamlyatu 'l-Afal ( JliT^f **W) of 'Ibn 
Malik, with the Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. Volck, 
1866). Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu 

'l-Talib f% Bahti 'l-MatMlib (wJlkjT stJj ^J wJlLf ,1CL), 
that is, the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat, with 
the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut, 1854); 'el-Bistani's smaller 
Grammar, founded upon the above, entitled Miftahu 'l-Misbah 

(9-U0-0J! f^^*, second edition, Beirut, 1867); and Nasif 'el- 
Yazigi's Faslu 'l-Hitab (w>LLaJt J-oi, second edition, Beirut, 

Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of 
the works of S. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe, 2de eU, 1831), Ewald 
(Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse, 1831-33), and Lumsden 
(A Grammar of the Arabic Language, vol. i., 1813); which last, 


however, is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians, and 
therefore but ill-adapted, apart from its bulk and rarity, for the 
use of beginners. I have also consulted with advantage the 
grammar of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska 
Spraket, 1869). But I am indebted above all to the labours of 
Professor Fleischer of Leipzig, whose notes on the first volume of 
De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. 359) have appeared from time 
to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften (1863-64-66-70), in which periodical the student 
will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten 
der Nominalapposition im Arabischen (1862) and Ueber das 
Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack- und Stoffworter im 
Arabischen (1856). 

In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of 
the Semitic languages, I have not found much to alter, except in 
matters of detail. I have read, I believe, nearly everything that 
has been published of late years upon this subject — the fanciful 
lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe, as well as the learned 
and scholarly treatises of Noldeke, Philippi, and Tegn£r. My 
standpoint remains, however, nearly the same as it formerly was. 
The ancient Semitic languages — Arabic and iEthiopic, Assyrian, 
Canaanitic (Phoenician and Hebrew), and Aramaic (so-called 
Chaldee and Syriac) — are as closely connected with each other 
as the Romance languages — Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Pro- 
vencal, and French : they are all daughters of a deceased mother, 
standing to them in the relation of Latin to the other European 
languages just specified. In some points the north Semitic 
tongues, particularly the Hebrew, may bear the greatest re- 
semblance to this parent speech ; but, on the whole, the south 
Semitic dialects, Arabic and ^Ethiopic, — but especially the former, 
— have, I still think, preserved a higher degree of likeness to the 
original Semitic language. The Hebrew of the Pentateuch, and 
the Assyrian*, as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions, seem 

* As regards Assyrian, I rely chiefly upon the well-known works 
of Oppert, Sayce, and Schrader. 


to me to have already attained nearly the same stage of gram- 
matical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic, the 
spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. 

I have to thank the Home Government of India for con- 
tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses 
of printing this work; and some of the local Governments for 
subscribing for a certain number of copies ; namely, the Govern- 
ment of Bengal, twenty, and the Home Department (Fort William), 
twenty-five ; the Government of Bombay, ten ; of Madras, ten ; 
and of the Punjab, sixty copies. My friend and former school- 
fellow, Mr D. Murray (of Adelaide, S. Australia), has also given 
pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office, and thereby 
laid me, and I hope I may say other Orientalists, under a fresh 

Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will, I trust, look upon the 
dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of 
Germany, whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives ; and 
as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help, extending 
over a period of more than twenty years, from the publication of 
my first work in 1852 down to the present year, in which, amid 
the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends, he has cele- 
brated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. 



1st July, 1874. 


The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of 
Mr F. Du Pre" Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar, which 
he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them 
with a view to the publication of a New Edition. 

They desire to take this opportunity of expressing their 
gratitude to Prof, de Goeje for the courtesy with which he 
acceded to their request that he would complete the revision 
and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task 
in the midst of many important literary engagements. 





I. The Letters as Consonants 1 

II. The Vowels and Diphthongs 7 

III. Other Orthographic Signs 13 

A. Gezma or Sukun 13 

B. Tesdid or Sedda 13 

C. Hemza or Nebra 16 

\ D. Wasla 19 

E. Medda or Matta ........ 24 

IV. The Syllable 26 

V. The Accent 27 

VI. The Numbers 28 





1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb 29 

^ The First Form 30 

The Second Form 31 

The Third Form 32 

The Fourth Form 34 



The Fifth Form 

The Sixth Form 

The Seventh Form 

The Eighth Form 

The Ninth and Eleventh Forms 

The Tenth Form 

The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Forms 

The Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms 

The Voices 

The States (Tenses) of the Verb 

The Moods 

The Numbers, Persons, and Genders 






The Active Voice of the First Form .... 

a. The Inflexion by Persons 

1. Separate Pronouns 

2. Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative 

3. Prefixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative 

b. Forms of the Tenses and Moods 

The Imperfect Indicative 

The Subjunctive and Jussive ....*. 

The Energetic 

The Imperative 

The Passive Voice of the First Form .... 
The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb 

The Quadriliteral Verb 

Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical 




1. Verba Homzata 

2. Verbs which are more especially called Weak Verbs. 

A. Verba Prim® Radicalis ^ et ^£ 

B. Verba Medisa Radicalis ^ et ^ 

C. Verba TertiaB Radicalis ^ et ^ 

3. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. 

Doubly Weak Verbs 

Trebly Weak Verbs 






Appendix A. 

I. The Verb J~J 96 

II. The Verbs of Praise and Blame 97 

III. The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder .... 98 
Appendix B. 

The Verbal Suffixes, which express the Accusative . . .100 


1. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective, and their 

different Forms 106 

a. The Deverbal Nouns. 

(a) The Nomina Verbi 110 

(0) The Nomina Vicis 122 

(y) The Nomina Speciei 123 

(5) The Nomina Loci et Temporis 124 

(e) The Nomina Instrumenti 130 

(£) The Nomina Agentis et Patientis and other Verbal 

Adjectives 131 

b. The Denominative Nouns. 

(a) The Nomina Unitatis 147 

(/3) The Nomina Abundantiae vel Multitudinis . . .148 

(y) The Nomina Vasis 149 

(8) The Nomina Eelativa or Relative Adjectives . . 149 

I. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants . . 151 

II. Changes of the Final Radicals j and ^J . . 156 

III. .Changes in the Vocalisation . . . .159 

(e) The Abstract Nouns of Quality 165 

(C) The Diminutive 166 

(rj) Some other Nominal Forms 175 

2. The Gender of Nouns 177 

Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives 183 

Forms which are of both Genders 185 

3. The Numbers of Nouns 187 

The Dual 187 

The Pluralis Sanus 192 

The Pluralis Fractus 199 



4. The Declension of Nouns . 234 

I. The Declension of Undefined Nouns 234 

Diptotes 239 

II. The Declension of Defined Nouns 247 


The Pronominal Suffixes, which denote the Genitive . . 252 


1. The Cardinal Numbers 253 

2. The Ordinal Numbers 260 

3. The remaining Classes of Numerals 262 


1. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the Article 

2. The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns 

(a) The Conjunctive Pronouns ... 

(6) The Interrogative Pronouns .... 

3. The Indefinite Pronouns 





The Inseparable Prepositions 279 

The Separable Prepositions 280 


The Inseparable Adverbial Particles 282 

The Separable Adverbial Particles 283 

Adverbial Accusatives 288 


The Inseparable Conjunctions 290 

The Separable Conjunctions .291 



Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. 







With a pre- 

With a fol- 

With both. 


l\j Ra. 



. . . 

. . . 




> •* 

. . . 

. . . 


^>-j*«> Sin. 











*U> Sad. 







>U> Dad. 






nLfe Ta. 






*C& Za. 







O** 'Ain. 







v>*£ Gain. 






fii Fa. 







Jtf Kaf. 






Jl£ Kaf. 



* i 




j**) Lam. 






j**jt> Mim. 




■o- 4 


9 J 

tj>* Nun. 





&* Ha. 




y 1 



_jtj Waw. 



• • 


. . . 


&J Ya. 









1. Arabic, like Hebrew and Syriac, is written and read from A 
right to left. The letters of the alphabet (tW*H ^3s*~> ^3J** 
L fL^\, aJl^J! o^aJt, or^a^l *-*3j~) are twenty-eight m 
number, and are all consonants, though three of them are also used 
as vowels (see § 3). They vary in form, according as they are con- 
nected with a preceding or following letter, and, for the most part, 
terminate in a bold stroke, when they stand alone or at the end of 
a word. The following Table gives the letters in their usual order, 

along with their names and numerical values. 







With a pre- 

With a fol- 

With both. 

J«jf Elif. 



. . . 

. . . 


fU Ba. 






& Ta. 






<U Ta. 






Jn+ 6im. 






£. Ha. 






& Ha. 






Jb Dal. 



. . . 

. . . 


Jli Dal. 



. . . 

. . . 



§ 1] I. The Letters as Consonants. 3 

Rem. a. I in connection with a preceding J forms the figures A 
V, *>), %. This combination is called lam-elif, and is generally 
reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet, and inserted before 
^. The object of it is merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel 
a, § 3, from elif as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza, I, § 15). 

Rem. b. The order of the letters a and j is sometimes inverted. 
The Arabs of Northern Africa arrange the letters in a different 
sequence ; viz. 

They distinguish ^ from JJ by giving the former a single point 
below, and the latter one above, thus : s a f t but 9 k k*. At the 
end of a word these points are usually omitted, ut, <^. 

Rem. c. In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of 
the letters are interwoven with one another, and form ligatures, of 
which the following are examples. 

£ hh. &* sh. J, fy. 

£ * *!* #• ir l $' C 

^. gh. j&'% s*& Imh. 

[These ligatures, in which one letter stands above another, are 
very inconvenient to printers, especially when, as in this book, 
English and Arabic are intermingled; and most founts have some 

device to bring the letters into line. Thus JF appears as ^£\&- % 

or, in the fount used for this grammar, as -* A . r+ -. The latter 

method is a recent innovation, first introduced by Lane in his D 
Arabic Lexicon, and its extreme simplicity and convenience have 
caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts, not only in 
Europe but in the East. But in writing Arabic the student ought 
to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. or in the more 
elegant Eastern founts.] 

* This is not confined, in the earliest times, to African Mss. In 
some old Mss., on the other hand, k has the point below, 3, a, or even 
3, i. 

4 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 1 

a Rem. dL Those letters which are identical in form, and distin- 

guished from one another in writing only by the aid of the small 
dots usually called diacritical points (*}*&} , plur. JeJu), are divided 
by the grammarians into &Lo^-©Jt tJ^j*Jt, the loose or free, i.e. 

3**0 JO/O 3 3 3 0* m 

unpointed, letters, and J Lqj ^jQ I OjjoJI, the bolted or fastened, i.e. 
pointed, letters. To the former class belong »., j, j, ^ j^, h 

and c j to the latter £-, 5, J, u*> u^> ^ and £• The letters w>, 
O, w> and ^ are generally distinguished as follows : 

x> w* is called Sj^^Jt lUI, tfAe J tcwft one point (j) j 

O „ l^iji O-* SU^Jt iUt, ^e j w^A fa#o points above (3) ; 

^ „ lyla^J ij*c SUt^Jt iUtj the j w^/t two points below (.>)*; 

j* A* J 6to *> St* 

£> „ iUU^Jt iUM, ^e J with three points (3). 

The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished 
from the pointed by various contrivances, such as writing the letter 
in a smaller size below the line, placing a point below, or an angular 
mark above, and the like; so that we find in carefully written 
c manuscripts ^ ^ «£; >*>* j^ utfcr'c^J 3 ; c^U!»ug; k %; 
cit; etc. Also a or o by way of distinction from 5. In some 

old Mss. ^ has only one point above, and then ^ takes a point 

Rem. e. The letters are also divided into the following classes, 
which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs 
that is chiefly instrumental in producing their sounds. 

J&'SitOJJjO* 3 St <» & ■■+ * ' 

2o^LL}\ (J^joJI or Saji&l), the labials (£i£ a lip), w> Ov* j- 

3d *ui tO 3 3 3 0* 

Sj^JtAJI Ojj^Jt, the gingivals, ^ i h, in uttering which the 

3 sua ^ 

-pw tongue is pressed against the gum (itJUt). 

3 Si * ZO* M 3 J 0* 

4*L^I iJijj^Jt, the sibilants, j ^ ^o, which are pronounced 

3 * *t0* 

with the tip of the tongue (&L>^t). 

* [With final ^ the use of the two points below is optional. 
Some modern prints, especially those issued at Bairut, always insert 
them except when the ^ represents elif maksura (§ 7, rem. b) : thus 

^>, ^, but J^j.] 

§ 2] I. The Letters as Consonants. 

J ul ui & J 13 0, 

A$£JJJt tJiji^aJt or 4-jaJjJJI, the liquids ^ J ^, 'which are pro- A 

nounced with the extremity of the tongue ( JmJJI or J^jJ^t). 
j a o a >o 3 j j o* 
4jja», <f ..)t »J>jj3»Jt, the letters *r J* u° > which are uttered 

j o a x 
through the open orifice of the lips (js*m,)\). 

J Si utto j j j o s J Si s \»i * 

^LxJaJt ^jj^Jt or AjjdauUI, the letters O > b, which are uttered 
by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of 
the palate (£^t or £i*^l). 

xfi x5 <« s * Os 

jjUjj^JJI ^J^^ a ^^ the letters J an d *^> * n uttering which the B 
uvula (SlyAJt) is brought into play. 

y 0* » 3 J jSi s 0* J J J Os f. 

JiXaJI ^Jjjj* or aJLlaJI ojjoJt, the gutturals, I > ^ c c *. 
The letters t j ^ are called O-JJt O^j-a- or d-iJJt »J^aJI, the 

Jl* 0*3 J^ J J 

soft letters, and aJLsUt s»ijj^., ^e weak letters. 

2. The correct pronunciation of some of these letters, for ex- 
ample 9- and c, it is scarcely possible for a European to acquire, 
except by long intercourse with natives. The following hints will, C 
however, enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. 

I with hemza (t, t, see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks, 
the K of the Hebrews (as in *)£&* ^}X? tpKH). It may be com- 

pared with the h in the French word homme or English hour. 

w> is our b. 

O is the Italian dental, softer than our t. 

£> is pronounced like the Greek 0, or th in thing. The Turks 
and Persians usually convert it into the surd s, as in sing. [In Egypt 
it is commonly confounded with O, less often with ^*.] j) 

«f corresponds to our g in gem. In Egypt and some parts of 
Arabia, however, it has the sound of the Heb. U, or our g in get. 

9-, the Heb. PI, is a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate, 
stronger than d, but not rough like »-. Europeans, as well as Turks 
and Persians, rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. 

»- has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch, or the German Roche. 

> is the Italian dental, softer than our d. 

5 bears the same relation to > that <1> does to O. It is sounded 

6 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 2 

like the 8 of the modern Greeks, or th in that, with. The Turks and 
Persians usually convert it into z. [In Egypt it is sometimes z but 
often er d.] 

j is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r, as in run. 

j is the English z. 

is* is the surd s in sit, mist; J^, shin shut. 

v°, the Heb. V, is a strongly articulated s, somewhat like ss in 

» c^ is an aspirated 6#, strongly articulated between the front part 
of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in 
this). The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z. [In Egypt 
it is an emphatic d, without aspiration, more difficult to an English 
tongue than the true Bedouin u&.] 

y, the Heb. ft, is a strongly articulated palatal t. 
)o bears, strictly speaking, the same relation to b that *£> and i 
do to O and a. It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated 
palatal z, though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ua 

C [with which it is often confounded in Mss.]. The Turks and Persians 
change it into a common z. To distinguish it from ^, J» is some- 

times spoken of as aJUmoJI AJaJI. 

©, the Heb. JJ, is a strong (but to [most] Europeans, as well as 
Turks and Persians, unpronounceable) guttural, related in its nature 
to 9- , with which it is sometimes confounded. It is described as 

produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe 
and forcible emission of the breath. It is wrong to treat it, in any 
of the Semitic languages, as a mere vowel-letter, or (worse still) as 
D a nasal n or ng. 

b is a guttural g, accompanied by a grating or rattling sound, as 
in gargling, of which we have no example in English. The y of the 
modern Greeks, the Northumbrian r, and the French r grasseye, are 
approximations to it*. 

wJ is our/. 

J, the Heb. p, is a strongly articulated guttural k; but in parts 
of Arabia, and throughout Northern Africa, it is pronounced as a 

s J 
* [Hence L is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLauc 

for bX^xA, Hamdanled. Mliller 193, 17 etc., and often in Mss. — De G.] 

§§ 3, 4] II. The Vowels and Diphthongs. 7 

hard g ; whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly con- A 
founded with elif hemzatum, as 'ultu, ya'ulu, for kultu, yakulu. 

& j J,>», and tj, are exactly our k, I, m, n. When immediately 
followed by the letter w>, without any vowel coming between them, 

tj takes the sound of m : as w^»- gemb, j~& 'ambar, iUw sembd'u, 
not g&nb, 'anbar, shibau. 

* is our h. It is distinctly aspirated at the end, as well as at 

O J ***** 

the beginning, of a syllable ; e. g. ^r* hum, <£Ua) 'ahlaka. In the 
grammatical termination o 1, the dotted 3 [called w*Jl3t lU] is pro- 
nounced like O, t)*. B 

3 and ^J are precisely our w and #. The Turks and Persians 
usually give j the sound of v. > 


3. The Arabs had originally no signs for the short vowels. To 
indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made use of the three 
consonants that come nearest to them in sound : viz. t (without hdmza, 
see § 1, rem. a, and § 15) for a, ^ for t and ai, 3 for u and au. E.g., C 
•>) la, ^ fi y ^s kai, £ du, ji lau. 

4. At a later period the following signs were invented to express 
the short vowels. 

(a) L feth (~$) or fetha (lm*&), a, e (as in pet), e (nearly the 
French e muet); e.g. (JX&. halaka, ^-^ shmsun, j9tj=& kerlmun. 

(b) - Bsr (j~£>) or kesra i}j~&) t i (as in pin), i (a dull, obscure /, 
resembling the Welsh y, or the i in bird) ; e.g. <v fo*Ai, 1x5 1 ^Bftw. D 

(c) L damm (j^i) or damma («**), w (as in Zw/Q, 0, o (nearly as 

the German o in Mortel, or the French #w in JUMM) ; e.g. <d Ww, 

O » J 

ww, *+* 'bmrun. 

* In point of fact, this figure 5 is merely a compromise between 
the ancient 1 (Heb. H -> H 7), the old pausal - (ah), and the 
modern .1 (Heb. jf — ), in which last the d is silent. 

8 Part First.— Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 5 

A Rem. a. The distinction between the names feth, kesr, damm, 

and fetha, kesr a, damma, is that the former denote the sounds a, i, u, 
the latter the marks L, — , 1. Compare the Hebrew MH^, *\1& 

Ox Ox 

and V!)3p The terms ^^u and *3j, commonly used of the case- 
endings a, u, are sometimes applied to L, Lin other positions; e.g. 

xOj0Oxj2JxO*> S x 

£ laJI ywft U ajj^jaJI. [Another name for damm is kabw, ^3. — 
De G.]' 

5 x x x x x x 

Rem. 6. A vowel is called dib^a., a motion, plur. Ol&»j»» ; its 

t 5 Ox xO p J J 

B mark is termed jJXw, form or figure, plur. JULwt or J|y£w. 

Rem. c. In the oldest Mss. of the Kor'an, the vowels are 
expressed by dots (usually red), one above for fetha, one below for 
kesra, and one in the middle, or on the line, for damma. As re- 
gards the signs L, _, L the third is a small j and the other two 


are probably derived from t and ^£ or a. respectively. 

5. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their 
original sounds, a, i, u, and for those in which they are modified, 
through the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants, into e, e, 
C 1, o, or 0, can scarcely be laid down with certainty ; for the various 
dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points ; 
and besides, owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are 
uttered, the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. 
The following rules may, however, be given for the guidance of the 

(a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals 9- 4- c © , 
or the emphatic consonants u° u° ^ & 3> fetha is pronounced as a, 
though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure, 

O O x 9 x 

D approaching to that of the Swedish &; e.g. j*±. ktmrun, w**J la'bun, 

xx x 

^sb bakiya, jj*o sadrun. Under the same circumstances kesra is 

* [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good, and who have 
an opportunity of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of 
the consonants, will find that the proper shades of sound in the three 
vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly 
and naturally. The approximate rules for pronunciation here given 
are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the 
mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels.] 

§ 6] II. The Vowels and Diphthongs. 9 

_ x • # 

pronounced as «, e.g. ^Ac 'ilmun, ^a- sUrtm, ^-£3 Bsrun; whilst A 
damma assumes the sound of an obscure o, inclining with the gutturals 
(especially ^ and e) to o; e.g. JikJ to/a, JL&J lot fun, £1L hosnun / *? 

9 6 j J 

or hosnun, w*fc> ro ( bun,j**fi> 'o'mrun. 

(b) In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor 
emphatic consonants, — and in open syllables which neither commence 
with, nor immediately precede, one of those letters, — fetha either has 
a weaker, less clear sound, approaching to that of a in the English 

, , s J , Z 

words hat, cap, e.g. C~l£> katabta, j+&\ 'akbaru ; or it becomes a B 
simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed 

by a long one), e.g. Jj bdl, ^=>j*« m^rkebun, «£l«~> sbnibkun, O**-' 
seniinun, a-Ljj^ medHn&tim. It retains, however, its pure sound of a 
before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics), 
when that letter is doubled or follows a long a or u, e. g. $j*». garratun, 
Zjj* marratun, SjU garatun, 3»o suratun ; and also in general at the 
end of a word. 

6. The long vowels a, i, u, are indicated by placing the marks C 
of the short vowels before the letters I, ^j, and ^, respectively, e.g. 
J 15 kola, *aj bVa, $$** sukun; in which case these letters are called 

jLoJt sJ^ja., literae productionis, "letters of prolongation." The com- 
binations ^j — and j L must always be pronounced 1 and u, not e and o\ 
though after the emphatic consonants $ L inclines to the sound of o, 
and % to that of the French u or German u, e.g. jy», 0^**> nearly 
torun, tunun. 

Rem. a. a was at first more rarely marked than the other j. 
long vowels, and hence it happens that, at a later period, after the 
invention of the vowel-points, it was indicated in some very common 

J 5 y J * Si ' J "0 i, f *. J * ' 

words merely by a fetha; e.g. <JUI, ^>j*jJI, ^^1, *>»—''» 03J*> 

a&M, C>£^l)t, K+£\, oSS or £*$, iUi, IJJb, U^A, 1J&. More 
exactly, however, the fetha should be written perpendicularly in 
this case, so as to resemble a small elif ; e.g. olUI, c>**^> axJ^JI, 
Ot^-JI, <C,JUt (^e resurrection, to be carefully distinguished from 
w. 2 

10 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 7 

• **\ 

A £©**JI el-Tdmetu, price, value), U^A, JUy The words ^*}U, 2u*$3, 

/ J / / "  m 5 1/ 0/1/ 

and ^jj^U, are also frequently written defectively wJi, aIU, 
jj^iu; and occasionally some other vocables, such as 2ux^j and 

/ J I / / / I / / I / j U/ J J t // 

0>**3; J^J and ^^Uj ; O-**^ 0-«-«)> an( ^ other proper names 

j J \ Si / J / I J I • I J t 0/ .» 1 0/ 

ending in <jt^ ; v >k*wuJ! j djyc* ; jX*., *y-U, w^aJt, ^^^aJI, and 

/ J /»/ 8 1 

other proper names of the forms J^li and J^UJt ; jJJ} ; etc. This 
• / / / 

is more common in Magribl Mss. than in others. — The long vowel 
I is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word, 

/ 0/ /0/ //0/<» J ->/0 * J 

B e.g. ^l^Jt, el-Haft, j>?UM. el-'Asi, ,jW O^ *^***-> Hodeifetu 7 bnu 

H-Yemani, for ^yUjt, ^j-^tijt, ^Citf ; J^i-ojf for ^jJ^JI*. # 

Rem. 6. The letter o, preceded by damma, is used by the Arabs 
of North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words ; e.g. 

JO / j .» j^. / 

dJ>l5, Carlo; ojJsu ^j>, Ztow Pedro; »j\ i^tj, ^ Wver Guadiaro. 
/ / 

Rem. c. The sound of L. inclines, in later times and in certain 

localities, from a to e, just as that of fetha does from a to e (see 

j/ / «/ 
C § 4, a, and § 5, 6). This change is called aJU*jM, tl-imdla, the 

" deflection " of the sound of a and a towards that of % and i. The 
Magribl Arabs actually pronounce a in many cases as i. Hence 

0/ 10/ 0/ 

w>l£>j WMJ, jj£l Zo&tn, w>b 6a6, ^LJ lisan, are sounded ri&#, 
/ / / 

£e£m, &i&, lisin ; and, conversely, the Spanish names Z?e/a, Jaen, 
Caniles, Lebrilla, are written a».b, oW*-j c£J^*j **!/**• 

7. I corresponds to fetha, ^ to kesra, and j to damma ; whence 

/ O/O/0 j e I /O/O/0jo| 

D ! is called a«*ja)t c*£»t, ^ sister of fetha, ^, S^JOI C^»-t, £/^ sister of 
a a & j £ 

khsra, and 3, a^oJI c*».t, ^ stor o/* damma. Fetha before ^ and 
3 forms the diphthongs ai and au, which retain their original clear 

• 4t 9 0/ 

sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics, e.g. o^o saifun, 

* [The omission of final ^ in these cases is hardly a mere ortho- 
graphical irregularity, but expresses a variant pronunciation in which 
the final I was shortened or dropped. See Noldeke, Gesch. d. Qordn's, 
p. 251.] 

§ 7] II. The Vowels and Diphthongs. 11 


«Jyk haufun; but after the other letters become nearly 9 (Heb. *-) A 

x « x 

and o (Heb. ^-)> e.g. w*** sefun, Oj* m a otun (almost sfTftft, motun). 
Rem. a. After ^ at the end of a word, both when preceded by 
damma and by fetha, I is often written, particularly in the plural of 

J x x © xx 3 0* 

verbs; e.g. tjj-aJ, \^cj, tj>>*J- This I, in itself quite superfluous 
(£lif otiosum), is intended to guard against the possibility of the 
preceding j being separated from the body of the word to which it 
belongs, and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and. It is 

^ x x o& j £ (  jj> *0to j io* 

called 3u\9^\ oUI, the guarding elif or <LLoUM sJU*iM, the separating 

Rem. b. ^£ at the end of a word after a fetha is pronounced B 
< * * * * 

like I, e.g. .J3 fata, .-oj rama, .Jl Hid*, and is called, like t itself 

//»/ " x x J * J *0>O .» £ Ox 

in the same position (e.g. L*^j Behnesa, \j£ yaza), lj y* k+)\ \J&*$\, 
the elif that can be abbreviated, in contradistinction to the lengtliened 

Jx J s 0*» J fO/ 

e&/*, S^jjlo-oJI v^^t (see § 22 and § 23, rem. a), which is protected by 

hemza. It receives this name because, when it comes in contact 
with a Iiemza conjunctionis (see § 19, rem. f), it is shortened in 
pronunciation before the following consonant, as are the j and ^£ in 

jjt and j-jf before jj/J\ (see § 20, 6)f. 

*^ x x 

Rem. g. If a pronominal suffix be added to a word ending q 

in .^.1 , the ^ is sometimes retained according to old custom, as in 
j ** j i * # j xx 

<Lm6j or a**), but it is commonly changed into I, as dUj. 


* [But ^-, with the mark gezma (see § 10), as in ,*^, ^J4! is 
the diphthong ai.~\ The diphthong ai, when final, is often marked in 

»XX Ml J ^J_ XX « XX 

old Mss. by the letters A. suprascript; e.g. £tL*o J^ U?*^> i.e. ^J*-» 
yedai, not 2/ec&&. 

f [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical 
usage made a distinction of sound between ^1. and 1.1, pronouncing y. 
the former nearly as e ; cf. rem. d. On the other hand many Mss., 
even very ancient ones, write \L where the received rules require y£L . 
According to the grammarians elif maksura is always written ^L in 
words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya 

x x xOj 

(as Li^-j he will live, l<Jj world). In words of three letters, the 
origin of the final a must be considered; a "converted Yd" gives ^— , 
a "converted Wdw" gives U.. See the details below §§ 167, 169, 213 

12 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 8 

A Rem. d. In some words ending in i\L we often find Z^L instead 

of 31.1 , as S^a- or S^a-, djXo or S^Lo, Sj£»j or 3>%j, 2>^a»J, Sjjwt, 
SyCiLo, SyU, and so also \y>j, t>^Jt for b>, bpt ; further 2oL for 

Sti in the loan-word ajj^J or £j»3 J according to which older mode 
of writing we ought to pronounce the \L nearly as a or e re- 

8. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced 

with the addition of the sound n, L an, _ in, 1 or iL un. This is called 

CH^y the tenwln or "nunation" (from the name of the letter <j nun), 

■p. and takes place only at the end of a word ; e. g. 2jj j*c medlnetan, 

C^JJ bintin, JU malun. See § 308. 

Rem. a. L takes an t after all the consonants except 3 ; as bb, 
l^jj, but 4aJ^». However, when it precedes a ^, no I is written, 

as in j^jdb; nor, according to the older orthography, when it ac- 

, to , 

companies a hemza, as in 1-w, for which we more usually find U*w. 
This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel, which is always 
short : bdbdn, rihdn. 

Rem. b. To one word j is added, without in any way affecting 
the sound of the ten win, viz. to the proper name jj*©^ l Amr (not 

* , 4 , JS x 

l Amru), genit. jj-o*, accus. \j+&, rarely \jj-+&, [or, when the 

tenwln falls away (§ 315, a, rem. b) j>©.£ in all three cases], so 

written to distinguish it from another proper name that has the 

J y J ' ' J 

same radical letters, viz. j+c 'Omar, genit. and accus. j+£. The 

O , X 

j of $;+£• and JJ-+& is, however, often neglected in old manuscripts. 

[Cf. the use of ) to represent tenwln in proper names in the 
Nabataean inscriptions.] 

Rem. c. In old Mss. of the Kor'an, the tenwln is expressed 
by doubling the dots which represent the vowels; z = — , _ =_, 

* [The prophet said y&\ for ^yts\, j ju*. for l\ J^.. Zamahsari, ^a^ 
i. 114.— DeG.] 

§11] III. Other Orthographic Signs. A. Gezma or Sukun. 13 


A. Gezma or Sukun. 

x- 59/ 5 x x § \ 

9. Gezma, j*±e*. or a*j^. (amputation), -, is written over the final 
consonant of all shut syllables, and serves, when another syllable 

- J «JOx x 

follows, to separate the two; e.g. Jj bel, j** hum, ^ & i ~ £ = * katabtum, 

x x O x OfOJ 

±J~Ji~t sefsefa, <j!/* kor-anun (not ko-rdnun). It corresponds there- 
fore to the Sheva quiescens of the Hebrew, with which its other name 

\j£~i, rest, coincides. 


Rem. a. A letter which has no following vowel is called \J>j*. B 

Ox m vi ' * J s 

^£»L>, a quiescent letter, as opposed to j)j^Z$ ^j^-, <*> movent letter. 

See § 4, rem. b. 

Rem. b. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter, which 
receives in consequence the tesdld or mark of doubling (see § 11 
and § 14), are retained in writing, but not marked with a gezma; 

J I d 5 x wi B /I J \ 6 W0x WW S Os£ '. 

e.g. O-* ^' *0 *><>' «2i^j not cX*- ^ 1 * <H> 0-°> ^J 1 - 

xx x xx x 

Rem. c. The same distinction exists between the words gezm 
and gezma, as between feth &&& fetlia, etc. (see § 4, rem. a). 

Rem. d. Older forms of the gezma are JL and 2. , whence the C 
later 2 , instead of the common ±: or 1 . In some old Mss. of the 
Kor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is used, z. . 

10. ^j and 3, when they form a diphthong with fetha, are marked 

with a gezma, as JJ, J**i, ^J=>, ^J^t ', but when they stand for elif 
productionis they do not take this sign (see § 7, rem. b, c, d). 

Rem. In many manuscripts a gezma is placed even over the 


letters of prolongation, e.g. JL3, j>*o, ^ -*~' \ an( ^ over * ne ^lif 

© x x O^J xx 2 .» 

maksura, e.g. ^jXt, ^jJb for ^s>, \^$*>A- 

B. Tesdid or Sedda. D 

11. A consonant that is to be doubled, or, as the Arabs say, 

fl x J 

strengthened (3juL&), without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. a), 
is written only once, but marked with the sign -, which is called 

14 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§11 

A JujJLSf, the tesdid {strengthening)*; e.g. J&\ M-kulla, *$d> kullan, 

m8 * «/ it to, Si j 

^-Jl fa-semmi, jv» semmin, j-oJI et-murru, y* murrun. It corresponds 
therefore to the Daghesh forte of the Hebrew. 

Rem. a. The solitary exception to this rule, in the verbal forms 
j^yi kiltvila and Jj>a3 tukitwila, instead of Jj3 and J>*3, admits 

of an easy explanation (see § 159). — When a consonant is repeated 
in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and 
second occurrence, no doubling, properly so called, takes place, and 

B consequently the tesdid is not required ; e.g. Ojji, 2d pers. sing. 

masc. Perf. of ji ; C <*£&>, 3d pers. sing. fern. Perf. of the fifth form 

Of CU5. 

Rem. b. A consonant can be doubled, and receive tesdid, only 
when a vowel precedes and follows it. The cases treated of in § 14 
form no exception to this rule. 

Rem. c. All consonants whatsoever, not even elif hemzatum 
excepted, admit of being doubled and take tesdid. Hence we speak 

and write ^ttj ra"asun, ^Jtt-w sa"dlun, cj-tU na"agun. 
Q Rem. d. - is an abbreviated ^i, the first radical of the name 

o o * o S *■ 

jljj^J, or the first letter of the name ojut>, which the African Arabs 

s 5 r J 
use instead of the other. Or it may stand for jw (from ,>jut>.»), since 

in the oldest and most carefully written manuscripts its form is «* . 

9 a " * ~ 

Its opposite is M» , i.e. sJia* (from UubL^ lightened, single); e.g. 

a-J*^^ tj-w secretly and openly. 

Rem. e. Tesdid, in combination with -, -, -, -, is placed be- 
tween the consonants and these vowel-marks, as may be seen from 
D the above examples. In combination with - the Egyptians write 
£ instead of £ ; but elsewhere, at least in old manuscripts, £ may 
stand for * as well as £. The African Arabs constantly write 
£,«,*, for -,£, -. In the oldest Mss. of the Kor'an, tesdid is 
expressed by « or ^, which, when accompanied by kesra, is some- 
times written, as in African Mss., below the line. In African 
Mss. the vowel is not always written with the sedda ; ± alone may 
be = t , <fec. 

* [The nomen unitatis is 3jujl&>. — De G.] 

§ 14] III. Other Orthographic Signs. B. Tesdid or Sedda. 15 

12. TeSdid is either necessary or euphonic. A 

13. The necessary iesdFid, which always follows a vowel, whether 
short (as in JJle ) or long (as in >U), indicates a doubling upon which 
the signification of the word depends. Thus j*\ (amara) means he 
commanded, but ja\ (ammara), he, appointed some one commander ; 

y> (murrun) is bitter, but a word j-o (murun) does not exist in the 


Rem. The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a 
long vowel and terminating in a consonant. Consequently tesdid B 
necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels j and ^, as in 

wJ^M >>«3] though it is sometimes found after 1, as in jto, 3,>L©, 
jjUliu (see § 25). Nor does it occur after the diphthongs $1. and 

^L , save in rare instances, like ilcu^a. and &*£$.> [see § 277]. 

14. The euphonic tesdid always follows a vowelless consonant, 
which, though expressed in writing, is, to avoid harshness of sound, 
passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant. 
It is used : — 

(a) With the letters O, *£>, >, 5, j, j, ^, ui, <>?, yi, J», &, c 
J, 0> (dentals, sibilants, and liquids,) after the article Jl ; e.g. j^UI 
k-timru; 0+j**j)\ 'ar-rahmanu ; ^-^Jt Ss-semsu; ^qJiaJt *az-zolmu; 
J-JJt el-leilu, or, in African and Spanish manuscripts, JJI. 

Rem. a. These letters are called A*~*ȣJt ojj^JI, the solar 

letters, because the word u~+J*, sun, happens to begin with one of 

them; and the other letters of the alphabet &>j*©JUI UkjodH, the 

lunar letters, because the word j^3, moon, commences with one of D 

Rem. b. This assimilation is extended by some to the J of JJb 

and Jj, especially before j, as C^»tj Ja. 

(b) With the letters j, J, j>, j, ^, after n with £ezm, e.g. 
ajj O-o wzfr rabbihi, JJ ^>o, JIaj <jt ; and after the nunation, e.g. 

O*** wjU£» kitdbum mubinun, for kiidbun mublnun. The w of the 

16 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§15 

A words v>«, £>*> 0*> i s °^ QYl not written when they are combined with 

I*, D-*> ^ ; e -g- O-*- f° r O**** or v>» ,>«, W* for U £>*> ^ for ^ O*- 

Rem. a. If to the above letters we add ^ itself, as w*X& ,jl, 

the mnemonic word is 0>^^!  

Rem. 6. *J O' ^ s e q ua % common with ^1, but O-**' O-o-^j U-«» 
8* «» 

I©*, are hardly ever written separately; ^ v >«, on the contrary, 

always. Similarly we find *$\ for *N),jt {if not), Ut for U,jl (i/*, with 

£ £ £ £ 

B redundant U) and occasionally Ut for U^t (tf/iatf, with redundant U). 

(c) With the letter O after *£>, j, i, v° , b, )» (dentals), in 

it , j s a si 

certain parts of the verb ; e. g. C*£J lebittu for Cu£J lebittu ; £>}j\ 

'aratta for O^l 'aradta; ^jj^i^l attaktttum for^jj^Jt attahadtum, ; 

j^\ ..» basattum for^Zfcu^ basattum. Many grammarians, however, 

reject this kind of assimilation altogether, and rightly, because the 
absorption of a strong radical consonant, such as >, u° or h, by a 
C weaker servile letter, like O, is an unnatural mutilation of an essential 
part of the word. 

Rem. a. Still more to be condemned are such assimilations 

as js> for Ojcc, k*±. for C-slsua.. 

Rem. b. If the verb ends in O, it naturally unites with the 
second O in the above cases, so that only one O is written, but the 

union of the two is indicated by the tesdid ; as C~J for cJL5. 

C. He^mza or Nebra. 
D 15. Elif, when it is not a mere letter of prolongation, but a con- 
sonant, pronounced like the spiritus lenis, is distinguished by the 

mark - Mmza (j+A or S^A, compression, viz. of the upper part of the 
windpipe, see § 4, rem. a), which is also sometimes called nebra (S^J, 
elevation)', e.g. jwl, JL,, \j3, ^Sj, \j}\ t juXSI, Ua*.,^t, ILd.. 

Rem. a. In cases where an elif conjunctions (see § 1 9, a, b, c, 
and rem. d, e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel, 
the grammarians omit the hemza and write merely the vowel ; e.g. 

4-U J^4*Jt praise belongs to God, lj.31, ^Jj\, jilf. 

§ 17] III. Other Orthographic Signs. C. Hemza or Nebra. 17 

Rem. b. 1 is probably a small c , and indicates that the elif is to A 
be pronounced almost as l ain. In African (and certain other) Mss. 

o j j o £ 

it is sometimes actually written &; e.g. jt, c£X±.l. In the oldest 

Mss. of the Kor'an, hemza is indicated by doubling the vowel-points ; 

e.g., \J'\yA\ = O^J 1 *^' Oy**-y^ = Oy-*W- ** ^ s a ^ so mar ked in 
such Mss. by a large yellow or green dot, varying in position accord- 
ing to the accompanying vowel (see above, § 4, rem. c). 

Rem. c. Hemza is written between the t and the vowel that 
accompanies it, or the gezma (see the examples given above) ; but B 

we often find ^jJl*\L. for ^j^-wl^., j5~t for j-w (see § 16), and occa- 

ft • ^ f ' ' * s w ft wS w ^ J 'J 

sionally Usui, or ltu»» for U*i», ^j\ or <jt for ^>t, Ji* for JJL> or 

Ju*>, and the like. 

Rem. d. The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European 
ear at the commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word, 

preceded by a shut syllable; e.g. 4JL%*©, mas-alatun (not 7na-salatun) 

j iota, 

(jlt^iJI, el-kor-dnu (not el-ko-rdnu). 

16. ^ and j take hemza, when they stand in place of an eli/G 
Jwmzatum* (in which case the two points of the letter ^ are com- 

monly omitted); e.g. C*£». for Ol»., ,j>Jwl£. for ^>>L;Ufc., ^^j for 

e-j e-J it 

chW, w*33j f° r upli- 
ft ft * 

17. Hemza alone (*) is written instead of t, I, ^,3, in the fol- 
lowing cases. 

(a) Always at the end of a word, after a letter of prolongation 

or a consonant with gezma, e.g. *U*., gaa, tbj, tS>j\ *L5^"> ffi a > D 

* J 6 s s 4 

><£*J> *3~*> s uun\ i^o, £^3, l^, or more commonly £oi» (see § 8, 
rem. a)', and in the middle of a word, after an elif productio?iis, pro- 
vided the hemza has the vowel fetha, as ^j^t\^J, J0 ^i\js>\ (but for 

J .- ,. o£ J «* „ Ol ( J » ^ Oft J t~- - »t 

^o^sljtf-t and^»ftljcfrt the Arabs usually write^Cj^' and^&jljLftl). 
Rem. Accusatives like l^ and l^J? are often written, though 

* [See below, §§ 131 seq.] 
w. 3 

18 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 17 

O/ i 

A contrary to rule, Lw, l*J* ; and in old Mss. we find such instances 
as \\>j for Z\}j. 

(b) Frequently in the middle of words, after the letters of pro- 
longation 3 and ^, or after a consonant with gezma, e.g. StjjJLo 

oi to, * * j 9 - j o, 9io, iiQs *Zo* 

for SjjjjU, 0^34 for oL5^, jit£ for ^otjj, J-~j for JL*j ; and also 

after kesra and damma before the ^ and j of prolongation, e.g. 

B On^^ for <jJJ»l&., ^j^ for ^Hjjj. Hemza between w&, ua, at, u, 

au, and uu, is, however, more frequently, though improperly, placed 

Of J»/ 6 3 s Of 

over the letter of prolongation itself; e.g. S$j-£* for SjjjXo, PuUr* . for 

«_ 0^ ^ £ j j c-> 

3 c ;kri . or &Lla»., ^^jj for ^Hji; or ^hj^j , which words must always be 

pronounced makrit'atun, hati'atun, rn'usun. . 

Rem. a. After a consonant with gezma, which is connected with 
a following letter, hemza and its vowel may be placed above the 

J/Of 3 c oi 

C connecting line; as J£*t, for JU»t. 

Rem. 6. A hemza preceded by u or i, and followed by a or a, 

s j £ j ^ j 

may be changed into pure j or ^; as 0>^ f° r O^^v Jtj-"' for 

o£jOx 0^ o„ 0^ 

Jtj~>; <w for A^o, ^eU for ^oU). — If preceded by u or 1, or the 
diphthong ai, the hemza may likewise be changed into 3 or ^, 

1 j 1 1 1» Ow->0*- 0^ J0x 5 -> « *• 

whatever be the following vowel; as djjJLo for SjjjjU, from S^a-o; 

ltv 5 for l^' from \^ ; hh for **o*> from *^; ^y for ^15*1 

5^ *0s 

D W* f° r t~A — If the hemza has gezma, it may [lose its consonantal 
power and] be changed into the letter of prolongation that is homo- 
geneous with the preceding vowel, as JLtj for JLjj, J3J for J>^J, 


j-o for^; necessarily so, if the preceding consonant be an £lif with 
hemza, as ^>ott or ^\, J^/f, £,1^, for ,>*1t, ^t, oUJ]. [This 
is called Sj-©^' u^^ft^-7] 

Rem. c. The name j^tj or ^i\y David, is often written ^\y 
but must always be pronounced Da'udu. 

§ 19] III. Other Orthographic Signs. D. Wasla. 19 

D. Wasla. 

18. When the vowels with hemza (t I I), at the commencement of A 
a word, are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word, the 
elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign - , written over the 

O x ^ x 5x 

Slif, and called J*&3, or &L03, or 2X& (see § 4, rem. a), i.e. union; 

x 0*» J'O x x bi 3 x x x 6*> j ois 

e.g. s2)X(J\ juc l abdu 'l-meliki for *iU«Jt juc c abdu M-mUiM; dU^l c-ol; 

x x o j oe-s 

raeitu 'bnaka for &o\ C*jt* raeitu 'ibnaka. 

© x Ox 

Rem. a. f seems to be an abbreviation of yo in J*.o$ or 4JL0 ; 
or rather, it is the word &Ho itself. In the oldest Mss. of the B 
Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red), which some- 
times varies in position, according to the preceding vowel. In 
ancient MagribI Mss. the stroke is used, with a point to indicate the 

original vowel of the elided £lif; e.g., <tf)L J~~> , «i, i.e. a&I; j£j& 

|x X . t X Ox 

Sj-o*Jt~, i. e. S^-j&JI. Hence even in modern African Mss. we find 
I r r J- L instead of the usual I. 


Rem. b. Though we have written in the above examples ^JUL^I 

"« "* "" 

and ^wt, yet the student must not forget that the more correct C 

x «x _ x 

orthography is *£U*Jt and *2Jlut. See § 15, rem. a, and § 19, rem. d. 

I- • x x x 

19. This elision takes place in the following cases. 

£ s 'OiO )i x Ox jt 

(a) With the t of the article J I ; as xj^' ^ fr> r Jij$ yA, the 
father of the we~zir. 

(b) With the J and t of the Imperatives of the first form of the 

x b>o > x < . + * 6 J 0«7 x x 

regular verb; as *-n~>\ J 13 for %+~>\ J 13, he said, listen; JJJ3I J 13 for D 

OiOj x x 

J^3t J 13, he said, kill. 

(c) With the J of the Perfect Active, Imperative, and Nomen 
actionis of the seventh and all the following forms of the verb (see 

£ x x x 0>O x J 

§ 35), and the I of the Perfect Passive in the same forms ; e.g. j*jir>\ >* 

xxxOxJ f x OJOAJx x OJOJx 

for jbj^j] ^.a, he was put to flight ; j L » *C«* fj for J U*S* 'J» «w^ ^ 
was appointed governor ; j\ ju5^t ^ /Ww^f a£>& (to do something) ; 

X *>*> X 

^t^ii'Njt , J I £/# ;& downfall or extinction. 

20 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§19 

A (d) With the t of the following eight nouns : 

930 9*0 9'* 

,>M, and ^J\ or ^j\, a son. <vj\, a daughter. 

* * * * 

xO xxO 

O^'l, two (masc). O^'* two (fern.). 

9 J © 9*0 9i* 

§j*\, orjj-ot, a man. s !^*l, a woman. 

9 J 

Cwl, the anus. j^\ (rarely^wt), a name. 

9 30 9t-*0 

Rem. a. With the article Jj-ol and l\^t>\ take, in classical 

a x&x 3i 0*0* 

B Arabic, the form lj^i\ and S\j+)\. 

J Oi 

Rem. b. The hemza of j>^-»l, oatfAs, is also elided after the 
asseverative particle J, and occasionally after the prepositions *.© 

m Jj AS J J OA>x 

and ^>-« (which then takes fetha instead of gezma); as aJUl ^>oJ*^ 
% GW (lit. by the oaths of God), for which we may also write 

Hi A? J J Ox 

aJUI ^,>*-J, omitting the t altogether, or, in a contracted form, 

Hi AS JO* 

C Rem. c. In the above words and forms, the vowel with hemza 

is in part original, but has been weakened through constant use (as 

9 3 oi * 

in the article, and in ^>*-jl after J); in part merely prosthetic, that 
is to say, prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with 
a vowelless consonant, and consequently it vanishes as soon as a 
vowel precedes it, because it is then no longer necessary. 

Rem. d. It is naturally an absurd error to write t at the begin- 

I j o * Ota 

ning of a sentence instead of elif with hemza, as aSS jl©aJI instead 

I 3 * Ot ' ' 

of aSi »x»aJI. The Arabs themselves never do so, but, to indicate 
J) that the 81if is an elif conjunctionis (see rem. /), they omit the hemza 

and express only its accompanying vowel, as <ft jL^jf. See § 15, 
rem. a, and § 18, rem. b. 

Rem. e. In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con- 
junctionis (see rem. /) is neglected, especially after the article, as 

jl^l5N)l, ^t^iiNjI ^,^0-MvNjt J^,^r^\^AJ\ JA>.\ but the gramma- 

* 9 ' * S fe £ x x x x £ 

nans brand this as Ji*.\* v >aJ 5 w^*Jt jt>*b£> yjs. s-Jj^-- 

20] III. Other Orthographic Signs. D. Wasla. 21 

Rem. f The elif which takes wasla is called J*a^t »JUI or Sj^Jb A 
Jmo^JI, iK/" or hemza conjunctionis, the connective elif ; the opposite 
being sJgJUl oUI, elif sejunctionis or separationis, the disjunctive elif. 

20. The elif conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short 
vowel, a long vowel, a diphthong, or a consonant with gezma. To 
these different cases the following rules apply. 

(a) A short vowel simply absorbs the elif conjunctionis with its 
vowel ; see § 19, b and c. B 

(b) A long vowel is shortened in pronunciation, according to 
the rule laid down in §25; e.g. ^UJI ^3 ft 'n-nasi, among men; 
jj>j^\ #\ 'abib 'l-wiziri, the father of the wezir, for ft and 'abu. 

This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when 
the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that 
vowel, but begins the next syllable, in consequence of the elision 
of a following elif (either according to § 19 or by poetic license). 
Hence gtj£^t ^3, in the beginning, is pronounced as if written Q 

e tjuJi; u*f$l • «? (f° r l^)9)i wpow £fo w^, as u«jJi ; J^*^M 3$ 
(for J^U^t), subject to change (a weak letter), as J*Wi. In the first 

of these examples the I is an elif conjunctionis; in the other two 
it is an elif separationis, but has been changed for the sake of the 
metre into an elif conjunctionis. The suffixes of the 1st pers. sing., 

^_ and ^, may assume before the article the older forms ^_ and 
^ ; e.g. ^^t )^o*J my grace which, J^t^cJt ^jUbt guide me on the J) 

way, instead of .JJt <«Z©ju and l»UoJI .yju&t, which latter forms are 
equally admissible. 

(c) A diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels, accord- 
ing to the law stated in § 25, viz. at into ai, and au into cm ; as 

II .^s-s l^-3 /« Wwcw 'l-meliki, in the eyes of the king, for 

/Oil O^Ox s O 'QlO s O w 

»iU*JI 4^5^ L5~* ' -*>*^ L5"***"* s^scw 'l-kauma, fear the people; 
AJJt j)BJn.rfi,« mustafdu 'lldhi, the elect of God, for <UJt ^aJsucuo. The 
silent elif (§ 7, rem. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph- 

22 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 20 

xx x 0*> J xx w 

A thong, as SjUw-aJI \y*j ramdu 'l-hi§drata, they threw the stones ; 

x0£<0.»£xfixx v 

J9 a ! ~A\ Ijlj l*X*fa-lammd radii 'n-ntyma, and after they saw the star. 

Oi Ox JjOms £ s,6,0*> x 

But jt and £ take kesra, as a^wt jt or his name ; J*iXwt £ if he went 
to meet. 

(d) A consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel, if 
it had one ; or assumes that which belongs to the elif conjunctionis ; 
or adopts the lightest of the three vowels, which in its nature ap- 
proaches nearest to the gezma, viz. kesra. Hence the pronouns of the 

jo£ j 

B 2d and 3d pers. plur. masc.,^0^ you, and^A they, the pronominal 

j e j 

suffixes of the same pronouns, j£* your, you (accus.), and ^A their, 
them, and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. plur. masc. Perf. ^j , 

x J x <5 J jOt 

take damma (in which they originally ended) ; as \jy*>\&\ ^£>\ ye are 

jA-« jjxxx x J u> «* J J bis 

the liars; aJJt ^©v*** ma V @°d curse them ! iJ**jM jA\j V e ^ ave SP£n th# 

man. The same is the case with Jco, since, from, which time forth, 

j j 

because it is contracted for Ju*. The preposition ,>*, from, takes 

C fetha before the article, but in other cases kfera ; as J^JjT ^>-o, yj*t> 

x XXX 

djj\. All other words ending in a consonant with §ezma take ke'sra ; 

 m & a >o o a <■ > 

viz. nouns having the ten win, as ^J^\ j^^o MohammMuni 'n-nWiyu; 

the pronoun yj*, as w>tJoJt ^o mani l-kadddbu; verbal forms like 

x xx J x ji" xxx 

cJlS, ^Sj, v~k*.\, as^ejjJt cJJCs katalati 'r-Rumu; and particles, 

x " Ox Ox Ox I 

such as sjs., ^j\, Jj, jS, J*, ,>£), etc. 
D Rem. a. In certain cases where ^ becomes ^tb (see § 1 85, 

rem. b) the wasl may be made either with damma or kesra, ^A 

Rem. b. If the vowel of a prosthetic elif be damma, the wasl is 
sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowel- 
less consonant or tenwm j as tjjiaST jj, for IjjjkTt Ji, instead of 

i » b-o 3 OJO^Jxxx J J 0«» x x 

^3J&>\ J^ J /T^* CJUj ; t^J^.>t ^o^L* seldmunu } dhulu. 

Rem. c. The final £ of the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97) 
is rejected, so that the wasl is effected by the preceding fetha ; as 

§21] III. Other Orthographic Signs. D. Wasla. 23 

- sO*° s 

&Jj\ w^-*aj *$ la tadriba 'bnaka, and not siitot ^jjjJsJ *$ la tadribani A 


21. t is altogether omitted in the following cases. 

(a) In the solemn introductory formula <UJI^~j, for aJUI^wb, 

m ^ ?^m<? <?/ 6JW, DVHXPt DEO- As a compensation for the 
omission of the t, the copyists of Mss. are accustomed to prolong 
the upward stroke of the letter w>, thus: j^. 

{b) In the word ^t, son, in a genealogical series, that is to say, B 
when the name of the son precedes, and that of his father follows in 
the genitive ; provided always that the said series, as a whole, forms 
part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. For example, 

lira , s * * * | j J Os s < s 

aUI j^s- ijj sjj£. ^ ja* jl±. ^jj juj w^-o Zeid, the son of Halid, 

struck Sa'd, the son of 'Auf the son of 'Abdu 'lldh. [Cf. § 315, rem. b.] 
But if the second noun be not in apposition to the first, but form 
part of the predicate, so that the two together make a complete sen- 

*> t § s J 0*> s 

tence, then the 1 is retained; as jj>«*£ t>^ *H) Zeid («*) the son ofC 

W -» OMS J OiO J s 3 * 

'Amr; oUaaJI ^t j+s. 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattab. 


Rem. a. Even in the first case the I of ^t is retained, if that 
word happens to stand at the beginning of a line. 


Rem. b. If the name following ^t be that of the mother or 

-< ^ Os J O/O 

grandfather, the I is retained; as^j^* <j->t ^^s>, Jesus the son of 

J s 1 0>o i Z , 

Mary ; jy&J*o ^jj\ jU.c, 'Ammar the (yrand)son of Mansur. Like- 
wise, if the following name be not the real name of the father, but a J) 

s o£o>o j o*> j * o 

surname or nickname; as jj—^l <jjt >!**£«, Mikdad the son of 
U-Aswad (the real name of el-Aswad, "the black," being Amr, 


3j*o*)- Or if the series be interrupted iu any way, as by the 

J s J OtO j ,0* , ' 

interposition of an adjective; e.g. O^**-* £H^ j*&j&\ 1^5**^ Yahyd 

- J J 0x> s O - ^0 

the noble, the son of Meirnun ; ^yiy* £&\ ^JCJ^ ls**J> Ridha, 
(pronounced like the word zirba) the son of Musa. 
(c) In the article Jl, when it is preceded : 

(a) by the preposition J to, as J^pJ to the man, for J*^). 

24 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 22 

A If the first letter of the noun be J, then the J of the article is also 
omitted, as aJUJ to the night, for 2JJJJ, and that for alJJN). 

(£) by the affirmative particle J truly, verily, as S&JJ, for 

(d) In nouns, verbs, and the article Jt, when preceded by the 

interrogative particle I ; as &*>\, for ^UjM, is thy son—1 O^Xit, for 

Oj-Jull, is it (fem.) brokenl ^Jjd^5t, for^5Jo»Jtt, ^aw? ^ received! 

B *0', for iOn, is f& OTfer — ? The elif of the article may however be 

retained, so that 'X^S with the interrogative I is often written ll©Jk 

Rem. a. In this last case, according to some, when the second 
elif has fetha, the two elifs may blend into one with medda (see 

xxOjx^o^ # t j s s o,Z 

below) ; as ,*)juft ^.>..,a»Jt, is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^).. » a>,)tt ; 
^iui2S\js\ ^j^}\, he ofKorei's or he of Takif? dlLo^ M ,>^> is 
thy oath l by God'? (see § 19, rem. b) for dXM y>^tf. 

Q Rem. b. The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of J l*>, to ask, is 

frequently omitted, in Mss. of the Kor'an, after the conjunction 

sj; as Jlli, for JUS. [Cf. § 140, rem. a.] 

E. Medda or Matta. 

22. When elif with hemza and a simple vowel or tenwin (t, I, etc.) 
is preceded by an Slif of prolongation (ti.), then a mere hemza is written 
instead of the former, and the sign of prolongation, 1 medda or matta 

3/ 5/ o £ * 

j) (jto, 5jL« or aJsh, i. e. lengthening, extension), is placed over the latter ; 


e.g. *X*~> semdun, *U- gaa, ^j^i^^J yaiasaaluna, for llo-*, ^*>, 

Rem. a. As mentioned above (§ 17, a, rem.), we find in old 
Mss. such forms as 1U*., tbj, for *l»., Ih.. 

Rem. 6. In the oldest and best Mss., the form of the medda is 

» x 

(i.e. ji*). Its opposite is j*oA (i.e. j-o3, shortening)^ though 

* [Note also the cases, in poetry, cited in § 358, rem. c ; further the 
contracted tribal names j++*X>, Oj»JU for j~i*)l j-ij, wj^aJI yJ — De G.] 

§ 23] III. Other Orthographic Signs. E. Medda or Matta. 25 

this is but rarely written. In some old Mss. of the Kor'an medda A 
is expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^Z • 

23. When, at the beginning of a syllable, an Slif with hemza 

and fetha (t) is followed by an elif of prolongation or an elif with 

hemza and gezma (I), then the two are commonly represented in writing 

by a single elif with medda; e.g. alwt for }tL*l, 0>^' f° r Ol^H> 

S'f St ' e-i- 

tul for U*M (see § 17, rem. h). In this case it is not usual to write 
either the hemza, or the vowel, along with the medda. [But we some- B 
times find U, see § 174.] 

Rem. a. 1 is called Sjjjlo^I oU*^t, the lengthened or long elif, 

in opposition to ljy*JLJ\ sJU^t, the elif that can be abbreviated or 
shortened (§ 7, rem. b). 

Rem. b. Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is 
written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha, instead of with 

St*\ Si'* 5- £ 

medda (see § 6, rem. a) ; e.g. tut instead of L*t or tutt. 

Rem. c. Medda is sometimes placed over the other letters of C 
prolongation, $ and ^, when followed by an elif hemzatum, only 

the hemza being written (§ 17, a) ; as ly~J , l^a***. Also over the 

j jo£ j j j j j j 

final vowels of the pronominal forms j£j\,j£*, o or t,^**,^* or ^**, 
and the verbal termination j£, when they are used as long in 

poetry; e.g. ^2J\ , j&. 

Rem. d. The mark -, often written over abbreviations of words, 
has nothing in common with medda but the form. So Jtj for 
jJUj, He (God) is exalted above all; j^> for^JLJI <*JLc, 'peace be D 
upon him ! j&\*o for^JUj aJU aJUI ^JLo, GW Jfess him and grant 
him peace ! du&j for ajx. aJUt ^y^j, may God be well pleased with, or 
gracious to, him/ mj or a»-j for <*JUI a^a-j, may GW Aave mercy 
upon him/ «>JI for 6j±.\ .jt or U^-l .J I, to the end of it, i.e. etc.; 

W for LS jo*-, Ae narrated to us ; Ut or U for Uh*»»l, /*e informed us; 

Cfor J^a-. tfAew. — The letters j* j» are written over words or 
verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript, for 
w. 4 

26 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 24 

A j**>o, to be placed last, and jajJLc, to be placed first. — On the margin 
of Mss. we often find words with the letters *f~, ^, and ~~*a over 

^ W O * J 

them. The first of these indicates a variant, and stands for < U ~*J , 
a copy, another manuscript ; the second means that a word has been 
indistinctly written in the text, and is repeated more clearly on the 

margin, ^)L^, explanation; the third implies that the marginal 
reading, and not that of the text, is, in the writer's opinion, the 

fix o < 

correct one 5*-o, it is correct, or ^!wa1, correction, emendation. 
B Written over a word in the text, -*~o stands for ^o, and denotes 
that the word is correct, though there may be something peculiar in 
its form or vocalization. — Again Iao (i.e. la*, together) is written 
over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels 
are correct. dJbd over a word on the margin implies a conjectural 

emendation <x\x), perhaps it is. 


C 24. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a vowel, which 
we call an open or simple syllable, may be either long or short; as 
J13 ka-la. 

25. The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant, 
which we call a shut or compound syllable, is almost always short ; 
as JU kul, not Jy> (Heb. Vlp)- Generally speaking, it is only in 
pause, where the final short vowels are suppressed, that the ancient 
Arabic admits of such syllables as in, tin, an, etc. 

D Rem. Before a double consonant a is however not infrequent 

(see § 13, rem.). [Such a long a preceding a consonant with gezma 

sometimes receives a medda, as O^^-] 

26. A syllable cannot begin with two consonants, the first of 
which is destitute of a vowel, as sf or fir. Foreign words, which com- 
mence with a syllable of this sort, on passing into the Arabic language, 
take an additional vowel, usually before the first consonant ; as y^M, 

, J J *0t f J 0*0 0* « ' 

anroyyos ; ^^b >l|, IIXaTwv ; *-Jj*y\, the Franks (Europeans) ; j*~£>] , 
an elixir, to fypov (medicamentum siccum). 

27. A syllable cannot end in two consonants, which are not 
either separated or followed by a vowel (except in pause). 

§ 31] V. The Accent 27 


28. The last syllable of a word consisting of two or more syllables 
does not take the accent. Exceptions are : 

(a) The pausal forms of § 29 and § 30, in which the accent 
remains unaltered ; as ya-kul, kd-nun, mu-mi-nfn, kd-ti-bdt, Jl-rfnd, 
'a-kdl, ma-fdr, ku-beil, bil-ldur, bu-nei. 

9 5 

uf ul-J *■' *" *■* x* J 

Rem. But words ending in ^- , j_, *!_ or 2t_, *j_, and %^- , 
throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms; 

j^jwji Ko-ra-'s%-yun becomes Ko-ra-sl, ^.J ne-bi-yun, ne-bi ; j js- l a-du- 

wun, ( d-du; %\j£s\ 'ik-ti-na-un, 'ik-ti-nd ; ilj-o^. ham-rd-'u, hdm-ra;B 

'I' * ' ' ' 

*3j** mak-ru-un, mdk-ru ; g^lsu ba-ti-un, bd-ti. 

(b) Monosyllables in combination with I, w>, i), J, j, and vJ, 
which retain their original accent ; as *^l 'a-ld, *fe\ 'a-fa-ld, l^ bi-md, 
y bi-hi, \S£> ka-dd, ,>*) li-mdn, U la-nd, Vj wa-ldm, £15 fa-kdt, 

J.33 wa-kul. 

Rem. The only exception to this rule in old Arabic is the 
interrogative enclitic j> ; as ^J bi-ma, ^i li-ma, in contrast with C 

X _ X 

Uj bi-ma, UJ ^-rad See § 351, rem. 

29. The penult takes the accent when it is long by nature, i.e. is 
an open syllable containing a long vowel ; as J15 kd-la, Jyu ya-ku-lu, 

5 J ~ s * % i L 9 x x '• 

Oy\$ kd-nu-nun, ,j-*Uj^ mu-mi-m-na, oU3l^ kd-ti-ba-tun. 


30. The penult has likewise the accent when it is a shut syllable 

Ox 9 6 

and consequently long by position; as ^S3 kdl-bun, ^3 df-bun, 

j 6 9 5x£ 5x x 

lj-4 biir-un, c*~k»-l 'ig-lis, J*>j* fi-rm-dun, J3I 'a-kdl-lu, ji-o ma-fdr- D 

X * X XX 

Wx Jx xOxJ S0j3 i Wxx 

m», i>*>^ ya-kH-ldn-na, J*J ku-bei-la, j>V, bil-ldu-run, ^^ bu-nei- 

31. When the penult is short, the accent falls upon the ante- 
penult, provided that the word has not more than three syllables, 
or, if it has four or more syllables, that the antepenult is long by 

xxx Oxxx Jx x ^ 

nature or position ; as ^. ^r* kd-ta-ba, C<%». ^ kd-ta-bat, l ^y S fr ka-ta- 

« x Oxx xx Of Jxxx 

£w, ^Jl^ kd-ti-bun, ^JU» td-la-bun, U-^t 'ei-na-md; ly-»|p fa-?-a- 

28 Part First. — Orthography and Orthoepy. [§32 

A sa-li^j^yti ka-nu-nu-hum, U l ytfn ka-tdb-tu-md. In other cases the 
accent is thrown as far back as possible ; as U^f> kd-ta-ba-td, &v.»>.« 
mds-a-la-tun, l?X~* mds-a-la-tu-hd, \^i^a3 kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md. 

Rem. On deviations from these principles of accentuation, in 
Egypt and among the Bedawin, see Lane in the Journal of the 
German Oriental Society, vol. iv., pp. 183-6, and Wallin in the 
same journal, vol. xii., pp. 670-3, [also Spitta, Grain, des arab. Vul- 
gdrdialectes von Aegypten (1880), p. 59 sqq.] 


32. To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the letters of 
the alphabet, at other times peculiar signs. In the former case, the 
numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order 
of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1). They are written 
from right to left, and usually distinguished from the surrounding 
words by a stroke placed over them, as jut*a£, 1874. This arrange- 
ment of the alphabet is called the 'Abuged or 'Abged, and is con- 

tained in the barbarous words : 

iko SaJ ww>3 ^ouw £Hr& ^J**- jj* J^' 

(otherwise pronounced: 

-- ^ s * s y x y s s s s vl J Si * y Oi- 

*J»-i Jck^ Cvij.5 t/UUUi £h*X£=> ^Jao- JjA J**j\) 

or, as usual in North Africa : 

J^kk j*±J Cw^3 ^oaac &+X2* ^-^°- j> A J"*^ 
The special numerical figures, ten in number, have been adopted 

D by the Arabs from the Indians, and are therefore called i^J^t^pt, 
the Indian notation. They are the same that we Europeans make use 
of, calling them Arabian, because we took them from the Arabs. 
Their form, however, differs considerably from that which our ciphers 
have gradually assumed, as the following table shows. 

Indian: ^ ^ ^ 8 ^^^x^^o 

Arabic :\ r r (ffct °9$-i y a a  
Europ.: 123 4 5 67890 

They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals ; 
e.g. tAvt, 1874. 




A. General View. 
1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb. 

33. The great majority of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (jyfitj), 
that is to say, contain three radical letters, though quadriliteral 
(^Wj) verbs are by no means rare. 

34. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadri- B 
literal verbs are derived in different ways several other forms, which 
express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the first. 

35. The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned 
fifteen in number, but the learner may pass over the last four, because 
(with the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence. 

juSt XL >& VI. JiS I. 

JiliA XII. JiL ? l VII. j£ II. 

JjiSl XIII. Ji^t VIII. Ju& III. C 

JJuilt XIV. Jm IX. Jili IV. 

JU**t XV. J*£*t X. J*tf V. 

Rem. a. The 3d pers. sing. masc. Perf., being the simplest form 
of the verb, is commonly used as paradigm, but for shortness' sake 

we always render it into English by the infinitive; Jl3 to kiU, 
instead of he has killed. 

Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 36 

Rem. b. The Arab grammarians use the verb Jis (7#fi\ as 

paradigm, whence the first radical of the triliteral verb is called 

by them l\i)\ the fa, the second O* 3 ^' ^ e ' a ^ n t anc * tne third ^o^UI 
tJie lam. 

Rem. c. As the above order and numbering of the conjugations 
are those adopted in all the European Lexicons, the learner should 
note them carefully. 

36. The first or ground-form is generally transitive (juC U ) or 

J//J JO . 

intransitive (j*Zo j*M oyj»j*$) in signification, according to the vowel 
which accompanies its second radical. 
B 37. The vowel of the second radical is a in most of the transitive, 
and not a few of the intransitive verbs ; e.g. w>o to beat, w-l£» to 
write, JuS to hill, v** J t° 9^ ve > y^3 to go away, jJ*j to go tJie right 
way, t^~U. to sit. 

38. The vowel i in the same position has generally an intransitive 
signification, u invariably so. The distinction between them is, that i 
indicates a temporary state or condition, or a merely accidental quality 
in persons or things ; whilst u indicates a permanent state, or a 

C naturally inherent quality. E.g. *-ji or JJ^ to fe glad, 0>*- to 0* 
sorry, *£t or Jau £o fo proud and insolent, j*y\ to become whitish, s^^ 
to become gray, j^~* to be safe and sound, u*j^ to be sick, j*£* to 
become old, ^j+e to be blind; but yj****- to be beautiful, »~J> to be 

* J* si* ' 1 ' 

ugly, JJu to be heavy, sJj& to be high or noble*, Ja* to be low or 

.» j * * j * 

mean,j+& to be large, j**o to be small. 

D Rem. a. Many verbs of the form J*9 are transitive according 

to our way of thinking, and therefore govern the accusative, 
e.g. jj&> to know (scire), ^v^a. to think, ^o^g to pity or have mercy 
upon, *^w to hear. 

* [Or, to become noble, for the form with u of the second radical 
often means to become what one was not before, Kamil, p. 415. — De G.] 

§ 41] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 31 

Rem. b. The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic, A 
though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly 
marked. [See Comp. Gr. p. 165 $eq.~\ 

/S/ X X x 

39. The second form (J*$) is formed from the first (J*3) by 
doubling the second radical. 

40. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being 
intensive (asJLoJJ) or extensive (»»tCJJ). Originally it implies that 


an act is done with t/mrf violence (intensive), or during a long time 
(temporally extensive), or to or by a number of individuals (numerically 

extensive), or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative). E.g. w>o to B 

x*5x xxx x 5 x 

fo«£, w>j~o to #£#£ violently ; j~£> to break, j*& to break in pieces; 
ala.5 to cw£, *IaJ to cut in pieces ; Jjy to separate, Jjji to disperse ; 
JS3 to Mil, Js3 to massacre ; JU. or <J\h to go round, J>»- or «J>j4? 

xx Sx J x OxJ X fl X 

to #o round much or often; ^J to weep, ^^ to w&?jt? much; JU*M O^-o 
ftta m££/c e^0^ o^* rapidly or ^w <7r0a£ numbers (OU to ^) ; i)^ 

j x x 0<» j/5" x5x 

J^aJt £A< camel kneeled down, ^A\ ^)jJ the (whole drove of) camels 
kneeled doum. 

41. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C 
causative or factitive signification. Verbs that are intransitive in the 

first form become transitive in the second ; as 9-ji to be glad, 9-j* 

X J X X St X 

to gladden; U btA to fo wca&, Ub t ^ to weaken. Those that are 
transitive in the first become doubly transitive or causative in the 

second ; as^Xft to know,^jiz to teach; w-A to wWto, w i^ to toacA to 

# xxx x 5 x -• 

wnto / J-»»» to carry, Jt*»- to ?raa#0 carry. 

Rem. a. The causative or factitive signification is common to J) 
the second and fourth forms, the apparent difference being that it is 
original in the latter, but derived in the former. 

Rem. b. The second form is often rather declarative or estimative 

than factitive in the strict sense of the term; as w>Jt£> to lie, w>J«i=» 

to think or call one a liar ; Jf juo to tell the truth, JJjlo to think that 
one tells the truth, to believe him. 

32 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 42 

A Rem. c. The second form is frequently denominative, and ex- 

presses with various modifications the making or doing of, or being 
occupied with, the thing expressed by the noun from which it is 

,i, x x 'fl * 

derived; e.g. j&j*- to pitch a tent (£**£»), to dwell in a place, J***- 
to coZ/ec2 an army (c£*»«)> sr**j to P ave ***& marble (_>»U.j), ^^3 

G x x 5 x . x x 5 x 

to become bent like a bov) (^^5), ±jbj* to nurse the sick (^jouja), jl*. 
to skin an animal, to bind a book (j>Xa* the skin, compare our " to 

stone fruit" and "to stone a person"), *j3 to clean an animal of 
ticks (>tji), ^J3 to take a mote (^j£) out of the eye. Compare in 

\ I j x 2 x 

B Hebrew }fc^, ^UT, T^ /|3B etc - Similarly, agju*. he said to 

him *iU Uju*. (??i«2/ thy nose, or the like, be cut off), oL»> Ae said to 
him aDI ^)U». (may GW prolong thy life), dukz^X** he said to him 

/»/ x «x x x5 x 

s£JLJL£^»^Hw (peace be upon thee), j*£> he shouted the Moslem war-cry, 

3 s i j I x 'x 5 x xx xxx Ox 

(^^J&t <*£M), j-o»> jUl> J^O O -0 ^ e w; ^° en ters (the city of) Zafar, 


m^s£ sjpea& Himyaritic (the language of Himyar, jQ+m.). Sometimes, 
like the fourth form, it expresses movement towards a place ; as 

/fix ^ 6 x x fi x J fi x 

Aa*3 to se£ ow2 til «w-y direction (a»-^), JJjJ* to #o to 2Ae eas£ (Jij^Jt), 

x fi x i J/0/ 

oji to go to the west (w^iil). 
C Rem. d. JUi corresponds in form, as well as in signification, to 

the Heb. ^fap and Aram, hfap, ^&0— [See Comp. Gr. p. 198 sea.] 

42. The third form (J*U) is formed from the first (J**) by 
lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical, as is indicated 
by the elif productionis. 

43. It modifies the signification of the ground-form in the follow- 
ing ways. 

D (a) When Jjti denotes an act that immediately affects an object 

(direct object or accusative), J^li expresses the effort or attempt to 
perform that act upon the object, in which case the idea of reciprocity 

J X X X J Cx 

(i&jll^JI) is added when the effort is necessarily or accidentally a 
mutual one. E. g. a&3 he killed him, iisiS he (tried to kill him or) 
fought with him ; ojlL he beat him, o jJU* he fought with him ; isj-o 

§ 43] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 33 

he threw him down, ac,Io he wrestled with him ; alii he overcame him, A 
aJU he tried to overcome him ; <uuw he outran him, dJuL* he ran a race 
with him; 4*jJ* he surpassed him in rank, aijli he strove to do so; 
t>j±£ he surpassed him in glory, o^Sh he strove to do so, he vied with 
him in rank and glory ; d^xw he excelled him in composing poetry, 

->X X X J , , , 

ojsMt he competed with him in doing so; rt oa. he got the better of 
him in a lawsuit, A^ol*. he went to law with him. 

(b) When the first or fourth form denotes an act, the relation B 
of which to an object is expressed by means of a preposition (indirect 
object), the third form converts that indirect object into the immediate 
or direct object of the act (accusative). The idea of reciprocity is here, 

as in the former case, more or less distinctly implied. E. g. ^t »^jafe 

x A «» s X */» X X X 

*iU*J) he wrote (a letter) to the king, ^U-Jt ^Jl^ he wrote to the king, 
corresponded with him; <*J J 15 he said to him (something), aljlS he 
conversed with him ; ^UxLJt ^t J^jl he sent (a message) to the sultan, ^ 

jjUsuLJI J^wtj do.; v >*io^ Jt j+a\ juc crJ^- he sat beside the Corn- 
's t»*Z . t ' „ , 

mander of the Faithful, ,^-0*3^1 j~t>\ ^U. do. ; «o *i« he fell upon 

him, attacked him, axStj do. ; aAs. jlS>t he advised him, d^jti> he con- 
sulted with him. 

(c) When Jjii denotes a quality or state, Js>& indicates that 
one person makes use of that quality towards another and affects him 

, or brings him into that state. E. g. sj**±. to be rough or U 

J X X X Si* J X X X 

d-wla. he, treated him harshly ; £>*~j*- to be good or kind, Aiwl». 

he treated him kindly ; £f$ to be soft or gentle, AiS*) he treated him 

gently ; tli to be hard, oLAS he hardened himself against him or it ; 

**j or^xJ to lead a comfortable life, a^pU he procured him the means 

of doing so. 

Rem. a. The third form is sometimes denominative, but the 
ideas of effort and reciprocity are always more or less clearly 

x x x 06 ++ t 

implied. E.g. \J&\+b to double, from Julc the like or equal ; Ji;U» 
w. 5 

34 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 44 

A to double, fold ( Jj£) on fold ; i&t JtiU may God keep thee safe 
and well, from *LdU robust health ; jiL» to go on a journey (jsu>). 

Rem. b. J^li corresponds in form and signification to the Heb. 
StOip (Arab, a = Heb. 6) ; see Corap. 6V. p. 202 seq. 

[Rem. c. In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of 
the fourth. Thus J*.lj, Jailw (Gl. Geog.s.v. J±}). Zamahsari, Faih, 

i. 197 cites ojicb, dUU., d^U for ojuul e£c. Also *Jb=aXjt, 
B Aghdni xiii. 52. — De G.] 

44. The fourth form ( ji$t) is formed by prefixing to the root 
the syllable I, in consequence of which the first radical loses its vowel. 

45. Its signification is factitive or causative (ajjjCXS). If the 

verb is intransitive in the first form, it becomes transitive in the 
fourth ; if transitive in the first, it becomes doubly transitive in the 

fourth. E.g. \Jj** to run, tj>».t to make run; v~y** to sit down, 

C c/~^t to bid one sit down; >*swJt J*^t he ate bread, j*s*J\ aX£s\ he gave 

him bread to eat; z^y^l ^j he saw the thing, t^&S *tjt he shewed him 
the thing. 

Rem. a. When both the second and fourth forms of a verb 
are causative (§ 41, rem. a), they have in some cases different 

significations, in others the same. E.g.^JU to know, ^s- to teach, 

^oAfct to inform one of a thing ; UJ to escape, ^.aJ and <<&>*>! to set 
at liberty, to let go. 

D Rem. b. The fourth form is sometimes declarative or estimative, 

J' s Of. 

like the second ; as alsLjt he thought him, or found him to be, 
niggardly ; a , ;..,<»■ t he thought him, or found him to be, cowardly ; 

J ,* ot 

oj*+*»\ he found him, or it, to be praiseworthy or commendable; 
sjof^\ \S^ he found the district abounding in fresh herbage. 

Rem. c. The fourth form comprises a great number of denomi- 
natives, many of which are apparently intransitive, because the 
Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state. Such verbs 
combine with the idea of the noun, from which they are derived, 

that of a transitive verb, of which it is the direct object. E.g. Jjbl 

§45] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 35 

to produce herbage (J»iu), JJjj' ^° P ui oui l eaves (t3j^)> j-o^t fo 0ea?" A 
fruit (j^j), jJsuot to give or yiefr? ram (jJa-o) ; w-^/'t to 6e<?e£ a noble 

O , , ol , ,* ,it>i 

son, 0>£»>t, wwt, sAe 6ore a male or a female child, C-^Ui sAe 

6ore ««)Mts (compare "to flower," "to seed," " to calve," "to lamb"); 
x * ot * * ot 

iX>\ to speak eloquently, -»~oit to speak with purity and correctness, 

*0i * " , , < , s i ~ ,1 

jJUl to give a proof (°*ib) of his prowess in battle ; v >~».l, *L>I, 
to act well or ill, *^J,it to commit a sin, Usui. I to commit a blunder, 

x ,i t* at 

fault or error, w>Lot to cto or say what is right; Usui to 6e sto or B 

tardy; pj~i\ to make haste; JUfct to run with outstretched neck; 
a * i & *• * £ 

i^~t\ to become fullgrown (from ±>*i a tooth) ; j*\$\ to dwell or remain 

in a place. — Another class of these denominatives indicates move- 
ment towards a place (compare "to make for a place"), the entering 
upon a period of time (being, doing, or suffering something therein), 
getting into a state or condition, acquiring a quality, obtaining or 
having something, or becoming something, of a certain kind*. 

* soi ssoi , ,oi 

E.g. ^3t to advance, jj>\ to retire ("reculer"), j*j&\ to go on boldly C 
(compare, in Hebrew, J^D^H, to go to the right, and 7*X£KTl, to 

A o i # 3% 5 x x x oi 

go to the left) ; j*{2t\ to go to Syria (j*l£J\), i>*->t to go to el-Yemen 

J X X 

(0-**^)> **^t io 9° t° el-JVegd (jLa.,^,11). ^^il to go to Tihama (*uly3), 

Jijfrt to go to eb- i Irak (Jjtj*M), j>j**\ to enter the haram or sacred 

x x 

oi , , o t * ot- 

ter ritory ; 9-~o\, j^\, ^f»~dy to enter upon tJie time of morning 

I 4(S o JO i * a »*x xOx x x£ x 0£ 

(•-U-aJt), mid-day (j^JaJt), or evening (lL»+S\) ; uiLoi, ^£wl, to enter 

^ JO 3 x »*x wl * x x £ 

upon the summer ( U kyjJt) or winter (iU£Jt) ; J^^t to Iiave many D 

xx of 

camels, ***»>t to abound in beasts of prey or to Aave one's flocks 

*"' 5x£ , 3 X 

devoured by them, * r *ot to abound in lizards (v~*) or ^° oe f°99y 

xx xxf£ x x Of 

(oLc) ; jJl$\ to become desert, w>J^t to suffer from drought (of 

' xxd£ 

people) or to oe aVy (of a season), j^JLil to become penniless (to be 

* [Hence in a few cases IV. serves (instead of VII. or VIII.) 

X J J 5 x Wxf 

as the pjt»U* of I. Thus ^ Ae ^Arew Amu orc his face, ^J»l lie fell on 
his face, ^»» Ae AetoJ /wm ^ctcA;, ^ ^. ^ ? Ae c/re^ 6ac&, Ae re^'reo?.] 

36 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 46 

o ex 

A reduced to the last farthing, u JS),jij^\, j^\, to be reduced to utter 
want; jm£\ to become cloudy ', JJJL».t to become worn out (of a 

xx e£ , - x£ 

garment) ; K j££t\ to become dubious or confused; ^\A to become plain 

x x o£ 

or clear; ^>Cot to become possible. — Another shade of meaning 
(iJ-.Of, deprivation) may be exemplified by such words as jAoJ, 

x St 

to break one's compact with a person; ^j£Z>\ to remove one's cause 

„ .. tiO x x Oi 

of complaint; w>U£M j*+&\ he pointed (the text of) the book, literally, 

x J . 

B took away its 4*a*£, obscurity or toani of clearness. 

"°Z . ... 

Rem. d. ^JasI corresponds in form and signification to the Heb. 

h*ppn, Phcen. ^g» (*&*J), Aram. SftpK, ^4^1. See Comjt?. 

GV. p. 204 seo/. The Hebrew, it will be observed, has J"J as the 
prefix, instead of the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X- Some traces 

XXX x x£ 

of the h are still discoverable in Arabic; as p-IjA for *-t^l to give 

x xx x xP , x xx^ x x£ ^ 

rest to , to let rest; }\jA for }\j\ to wish; JJtjJh for JJt^t to pour out 

X XX X x£ X P> xP 

C (P 1 *^) ; J^ ^ or J^ ^° mar& a cloth ; OU owe, for Ot (rad. .Jl, 


nnNj &> come) ; O-o-Jb = P0XTI ^° believe. Forms like £\j& are 
treated in Arabic as quadriiiterals (see §§ 67, 69, and 118), e.g. 

>JxJ J OJ J O'J QxxJ <3 x -> 

imperf. JJjj^-j or Jk>^> 0-**vii nom. patient. JJIjv* or «3!/v°> 

5 xDxJ 

46. The ,/?/fcA f° rm (J**3) * s formed from the second (J**) by 
prefixing the syllable O. 
D 47. This form annexes to the significations of the second the 

x x J 

reflexive force of the syllable O ; it is the pjUa-o of the second form, 
that is to say, it expresses the state into which the object of the 
action denoted by the second form is brought by that action, as its 
effect or result. In English it must often be rendered by the passive. 

E. g. j~£3 to be broken in pieces, £jJu to be dispersed, %JoJu to be cut 

'*'.', xWxx x £ x 

in pieces, *->j*o3 to be moved or agitated; \Jy£*3 to be afraid (sJj±. to 

, JxGxx5xx £ C x .» x ~ x 

terrify), ai-w jJJv he girt on his sword (Ulw djXi lie girt a sword upon 
him— another person) ; ^S3, 'jJojS, to be proud; J~l&, '£&, to side 

§47] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 37 

with Kais or Nizar, £jj3, £ ~£J, to aefop£ £A<? tora<?£s of the 'Azarika A 
(*3j\j*$\) or o/* £fo Si' a (&**&)!), w>jjo to ca// oneself an Arab, 
jj^j* fo become a Jew (^O^), cr» %^ 3 to become a fire-worshipper 
(j^w^a^o), j^tfUj to become a Christian (^jtj-cu), L^j to grww oneself out 

* * Sti* z * i 

as a prophet (J^*J), *xwU to become as bold or ^ra? as a foora (ju»t), 
^^o-tf to become as savage as a leopard (j+1) ; ^0-^-3 #0 fry to acquire, 
or to affect, clemency, £***£, \f^, to affect courage or manliness, jj 

^--oj to constrain oneself to endure with patience; j**\3, 2*j-**3, w 
^a> J , to abstain from, or atvta* sm or crime, j^j^ to amid blame. 

Rem. a. Th« idea of intensiveness may be traced even in cases 
where it seems, at first sight, to have wholly disappeared, leaving 
the fifth form apparently identical in meaning with the eighth. 

Thus ^UJt JJ^aj and ^Ut Jjj^*t are both translated 2/te people 

dispersed, but Jj>/3t expresses the mere separation, Jij*3 the separa- 
tion into a great many groups or in various directions. Q 

Rem. b. The idea of reflexiveness is often not very prominent, 
especially in such verbs as govern an accusative; e.g. »J to 
pursue step by step (literally, to make oneself or turn oneself into, a 
pursuer of something), ^X^j to seek earnestly, sJ»jjo to try to 
understand, &~3 to examine or study a thing carefully, so that it 
may be quite clear, ^>a*j, Jiia^J, to ascertain a thing ybr certain, 
tJ*M3 to investigate ihorougldy, J9 +ji& to smell leisurely and carefully, 
j^suJ to look at long or repeatedly, to examine or study, **-~J to liear D 
or listen to, j$S3 to speak, jJ>> to have cliarge of, to discJiarge the 

* 8 * * & + * 

duties of fj>s*3 to swallow by mouthfids, ■ywfcj to sip or sup, 
<3>aj to milk or sz*c& a£ intervals, JJjJO to gnaw, la->L> to /m£ or 

to&e under one's arm, jew jj to pwtf under ones head as a pillow, 
jjjj to take as an abode, i<*jJ to adopt as a son*. 

* [In some cases the difference between II. and V. entirely disappears. 

Thus for ^^3, a».j (§41, rem. c) we may substitute ±r»yu, *»•>> 
without change of sense.] 

38 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 48 

A Rem. c. The above examples show that the subject of the fifth 

form is sometimes the direct object of the act (accusative), sometimes 
the indirect object (dative). 

48. Out of the original reflexive signification arises a second, 
which is even more common, namely the effective. It differs from 
the passive in this — that the passive indicates that a person is the 
object of, or experiences the effect of, the action of another ; whereas 
the effective implies that an act is done to a person, or a state pro- 
duced in him, whether it be caused by another or by himself. E. g. 

ILo-*^ to know, j^s. to teach, j^jo to become learned, to learn, quite 

different from ^o-Ls (passive of ^i^) to be taught. We can say 

^ a ^ij^3j^ £, - ) he was taught (received instruction), but did not learn 

(become learned)*. Again, ^G to be separate, distinct, clear, o-o to 

make clear, explain, 0-++> to appear clear or certain ; JJU»J to become, 
or prove to be, the reality or fact. 

Rem. a. Such of these verbs as govern an accusative admit not 
Q only of an impersonal, but also of a personal passive; e.g. JJJo 
^laJI he learned the art of medicine, ^Ljt J^XsO the art of medicine 
was learned. 

Rem. b. Jjj&J sometimes assumes the form JjJo\ (§ 111), 
whence we see its identity with the Heb. 7&pTYl or yt^DDil 
and the Aram. 7fc3pntf ^JoZ] ( se © § 41, rem. d). 

D 49. The sixth form (J*U5) is formed from the third (Jil3), 
likewise by prefixing the syllable O. 

50. It is the pjlk* (see § 47) of the third form, as J^l3 d3 j&b, 
I kept him abof and he kept (or staid) aloof— The idea of effort and 
attempt, which is transitive in the third form, becomes reflexive in the 
sixth ; e.g. ^>*\j3 to throw oneself down at full length, Jili5 to be off 
ones guard, to neglect a thing, g^ibb I)Jt5 to draw a good omen from 

1 Using a Scoticism, we might say, he was learned (= taught), but 
did not learn. 

§50] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of 'Trilateral Verb. 39 

the thing, OjUj to pretend to be dead, j^Uj to pretend to be blind, A 
jjULj to pretend to squint, ^j^W* to pretend to cry, ^jloJ to feign 
sickness, JaUJ to feign ignorance, oU»J to pretend to be deceived. 

Further, the possible reciprocity (a^ULoJI) of the third form becomes 
a necessary reciprocity, inasmuch as the sixth form includes the 
object of the third among the subjects that exercise an influence 

upon one another ; e.g. aJjti he fought with him, *$3\J3 the two fought 
with one another ; *UJl£» the two spoke to him, t^oJlio they (the three) B 
conversed together; w>>3t <vM»» he tried to pull away the garment 
from him, *->$% I W^^-3 the two pulled the garment to and fro between 
them; w-jji&Jl^o^tjU he conversed or argued with them, si^jj^JI l^£jU3 

they conversed together or argued with one another ; gUaiJI oL>U he 
tried to make him forget the hatred between them, gl o g- J I UwU3 the two 
frrgot their mutual hatred; whence in the passive, w>>^' VJ3* \ 
Cmi J mJS fj*£, and lUaaJt C~~*y3. ^ 

Rem. a. When used in speaking of God, the assertory (not 

optative) perfects £)j(+3 and .JU3 are examples of the reflexive 

signification of this form : <rtM 2)j^3 God lias made Himself (is 
become of and through Himself) blessed, or perfect, above all; 

aS)\ \Jb£ God has made Himself uplifted, or exalted, above all ; 

^Ujj <i)jU3 <&t J Id God (blessed and exalted is He above all) 

has said [cf. vol. ii. § 1 f . rem.]. Somewhat similarly, j-o^t a^]o\jo D 
the thing made itself (became or was) too great, or difficult, for him ; 

Z^pti &^o\j£J ^ j*\ yk it is a matter than which nothing makes 
itself greater (or more important), with which nothing can vie in 

Rem. b. As the reciprocal signification requires at least two 
subjects, the singular of the sixth form is in this case always 

j duo , , * * 

collective; e.g. ^UJt <u a-oLo the people heard of it from one 
another, jUxo^l C«ajU3 the rains followed one anotlier closely, 
jLa»*N)t C* A jtjL3 the tidings followed one another rapidly, aJI C~«U3 

40 Pakt Second. — Etymology or the Paris of Speech. [§51 

A t^kP (^ tr ^ oe °f) % or e™ came t0 '** m > a ^ °f ^ iem ^ following one 

Rem. c. The idea of reciprocity may be confined to the parts 
of one and the same thing; e.g. J£*\+j "partes habuit inter se 
colnerentes," to be of compact and firm build; Slj^t C^J^Uj m« 
woman became middle-aged and corpulent (each part of her body, 
as it were, supporting, and so strengthening, the others) ; ^\*>3 
iUJt the building cracked and threatened to fall (as if its parts 

B called on one another to do so; compare ^jjd\ <suU ^etjJ the 

enemy advanced against him from every side, JljJW 3jla»-> J l <£+£>\j3 

jtf-jjt^ the cloud lightened and thundered from every quarter). 
[Hence this form is appropriate to actions that take place bit by 
bit, or by successive (and painful) efforts, as JaJM**J to fall piece by 
piece, J*ola»J to carry oneself with difficulty (^*LoJI ^i, in walking*).] 

C Rem. d. J^Uj sometimes assumes the form Js-\Ju\ (§ 111), and 

is consequently identical with the Heb. /tOipriPl ( see § ^3, rem - °)- 
51. The seventh form (jiiul) is formed from the first (J**) by 
prefixing a jj, before which is added a prosthetic I to facilitate the 
pronunciation (see § 26). 

Rem. For the cases in which this I becomes I, and why, see 
§§18 and 19, c, with rem. c; and as to the orthography ! instead of 
J, § 19, rem. d. 

D 52. The seventh form has also originally, as pjUx* of the first, 
a middle or reflexive signification. It must be remarked, however, 
(a) that the reflexive pronoun contained in it is never the indirect 
object (dative), to which may be added another direct object (accu- 
sative), but always the direct object itself; and (b) that it never 
assumes the reciprocal signification. By these two points the seventh 
form is distinguished from the eighth, and approaches more nearly 

* [See Gl. Geog. s.v. Ji*»>, Hamasa p. 20 first vs. and comm. — 
De G.] 

§54] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 41 
to a passive. At the same time, the effective signification is often A 

5 x 

developed in it out of the reflexive. E. g. JUJt to open (of a flower), 
lit. to split itself; j~£j\ to break (intrans.), to be broken; jJbJLit to be 
cut off, to be ended, to end; UUJQI to be uncovered, to be made manifest, 

x x x O x x 

to appear ; ^mm*J \ to become broken, to break into pieces ; JUul to be 
uttered or spoken. 

53. Sometimes the seventh form implies that a person allows B 
an act to be done in reference to him, or an effect to be produced 

upon him ; e.g. J>}^>\ to let oneself be put to flight, to flee; jUJt to let 

- x - 

oneself be led, to be docile or submissive; pJ^Jt to let oneself be 

Si x b 

deceived; jaJ\ to let oneself be drawn or dragged. 

x x x 

Rem. a. Hence it is clear that such words as J^.s* ,'»t, from 

x J x x x /S 

., to 6e stupid or foolish ; jtjM to be non-existent or missing, 
not to be found, from^jcft wo£ to Aave; ^£>fjt, from ^3-fc to sink C 

x /» xx x x 6 

down, to fall; jUjI to 6e repeated, from >U to return; JjLaJl to 

X x 

fee m straits or distress, from JjUj to 6e narrow; are incorrectly 
formed, though in actual use, especially in more recent times. 

Rem. 6. Sometimes, particularly in modern Arabic, the seventh 

O x J xx x 

form serves as the cjUsco of the fourth; e.g. JUdtil to 6e bolted, 

x^xog £xxo # < £x«£ 

from JiA£t to 60^; UJsul to fo extinguished, from ULl to extinguish; 

xxxO x x o£ 

^Ltful to fo |?w« to rights, from *JLot to j»w£ to rights. [Similarly j) 

9»ftJJt, JUJxil, *a..«sul, the last in a tradition, and so ancient, ^\Ji7b 

i. 63.— De G.] 

Rem. c. jilit corresponds to the Heb. 7fcDp3> see Comp. Gr. 
p. 215 seg. 


54. The eighth form (Jj£*t) is formed from the first (J**) by 

inserting the syllable O between the first and second radicals. The 
first radical in consequence loses its vowel, and it becomes necessary 
to prefix the prosthetic I (§ 51, rem.). 

w. 6 

42 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech [§ 55 

A Rem. One would expect O to be placed before the first radical, 

as in the fifth and sixth forms, and in the Aramaic reflexive ^uoZ]. 

[For a possible explanation of the actual form see Comp. Gr. p. 208.] 

55. The eighth form is properly the reflexive or middle mice 

(ftjUft*) of the first. The reflex object is either (a) the direct object 

^" ' * ** ' ' ' * * * * 

or accusative, as Jjji to divide, J^t to go asunder, to part ; u°j* to 
place (something) before one, u6jZ*\ to put oneself in the way, to oppose; 
B J»ji to beat, L>jL*o\ to move oneself to and fro, to be agitated (com- 
pare the French battre and se debattre); or (b) the indirect object or 
dative, implying for oneself, for one's own advantage, as ^ji to tear' 
a prey in pieces, w»j&\ do. ; J~+l to touch, u ~+2\ to feel about for a 
thing, to seek for it ; v ......f> and ^.»Jg»t to earn one s living ; yJa* 

* * * * * ' ' * 

and w*kl».l to collect firewood; Jt£» and JU£»t to measure corn; 

* -' 

^>w and ^>Zwl to n>as£ meat. 

C 56. Out of the reflexive arises the reciprocal signification, which 

j si* ***^ 
is common to this form with the sixth ; as ^UJI tJ^St the people 

J UttO *, ** * ** , 

fought with one another, =^»\^\ J3\Ju ; Lp-au^l the two disputed with 

******* b 
one another, = lo*a\ai*j ; U*I*I the two tried to outrun one another, 

** * * j **o t j* * * * Cf» 

= UuLJ ; tjj^jfc.1 they were neighbours, = \jj ju*«3 ; \yu)\ they met one 

* * * 

another, = l^i^J. 

D 57. Occasionally the original reflexive meaning passes into the 
passive, especially in verbs which have not got the seventh form (see 

§ 113) ; as *sU^»l to be overturned (from ibt), sJ^jt to be turned back, 

* * *t l** 

u3t to be helped (by God), to be victorious ; ^U*t to be full. 

Rem. In not a few verbs the first and eighth forms agree, 
like the Greek active and middle voices, so closely in their signifi- 
cation, that they may be translated by the same word; e.g. ^oS 

and tjtfudt, to follow one's track, to relate ; US and •*&£), to follow ; 

* *^ * 

* * * * * 

and uU»I * » t, to snatch away, to carry off by force. 

§59] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 43 

58. The ninth form (jiit) is formed from the first (J*3) by A 

doubling the third radical ; the eleventh ( JUit) from the ninth by- 
lengthening the fetha of the second syllable. 

Rem. As the third radical, when doubled, draws the accent 
upon the penult, the first radical, being more rapidly pronounced, 
loses its vowel, and therefore requires the prosthetic t (see § 51, 


59. Neither of these forms is very common, and the eleventh 
is the rarer of the two. They serve chiefly to express colours and B 
defects, these being qualities that cling very firmly to persons and 
things ; and hence the doubling of the third radical, to show that 

the proper signification of both is intensiveness (aaJLoJI). E.g. yuo\ 

a *> o £*o a * o St /{ £ /o 

and jUot to be yellow ; }y**\ and $\y~t\ to be black ; u^tf^ an d u^W 

to be white; vJLh' (from Jijj) to become purple (of a grape); j»->£t 

a * o a * o £ * o 

and «ft>fct to be crooked ; j *+*&\ and>»U»*ot to be wrymouthed or wry- 

£ * o £ x o £ ' o £ * o 

necked; Jj^-t to squint, Jt^^t to become verdant; jjj\ and jljjl to 
turn away or retire from; jo>t to be ash-coloured, to be stern or gloomy; Q 

£ *o £ * d t £ * o 

wOjt or w>b)' to be scattered or disordered; jl£;t to become commingled, 

£ * o 

confused, or languid ; u^j^ to be dispersed, to drop or flow (of tears), 

£* o £ * o 

jJ>jl to run quickly, to hasten; <jU£t to be dishevelled (of hair); 

j o £ >o £ , o 

J*Ut j\^j\, the night reached its middle point. 

Rem. a. If the third radical of the root is ^ or ^, the ninth 

* * x a ** /( ' ' ° 

and eleventh forms take the shape yJJUit and ^JJUit ; as ^jju^t 
(for ^£5*Xa-t, see § 167, 2, a) to stand or rest on the tips of the toes, D 
^j^».l and i^jt^^t to be blackish brown or blackish green, ^Jj*j\ 
to refrain or abstain. 

Rem. b. According to some grammarians, the distinction between 
the ninth and eleventh forms is, that the ninth indicates permanent 
colours or qualities, the eleventh those that are transitory or 

mutable ; as {J^±-\ j&Hj °j^ jU^i J**v ft began to become red 
at one time and yellow at another. [Others hold that XI. indicates a 

44 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 60 

A higher degree of the quality than IX. : so most European gram- 
marians, and the former editions of this work ; but this view was 
ultimately abandoned by the author. The better view seems to be 
that the two forms are indistinguishable in sense : see Hafagl's 
comm. on the Durrat al-gawwas (Const. A. H. 1299) p. 50 seq.] 

" °' ° 

60. The tenth form (Jjtl ^ t) is formed by prefixing the letters 

C*w to the first (J**). The prosthetic t is necessary, according to 
§ 26 (compare § 51, rem.), and the fetha of the first radical is thrown 
B back upon the O of Cwl. 

61. The tenth form converts the factitive signification of the 
fourth into the reflexive or middle. E. g. ^©J~»t to give up, deliver over, 
^~»Z~t\ to give oneself up; cA».jt to grieve or distress, ^*^^t\ to 

be grieved or sorry ; js.\ to make ready, prepare, equip, juCwl to get 

oneself ready, to be ready ; ^aJ^.\ to yield up {something) wholly, 

' * , 

±jaX MmZ~t \ to claim (something) for oneself, to take entire possession 

" * ^ . . * ° " ° 

(of it); U»-t to bring to life, to preserve alive, Lo^Zwt to preserve alive 

C for one's own advantage ; osUj w>UJL>t He (God) answered, or 

)' * s * * 

accepted, his prayer, a) w>laJU>l he complied with his desire, or obeyed 
him, in doing something. 

62. The tenth form often indicates that a person thinks that 
a certain thing possesses, in reference to himself or for his benefit, 

the quality expressed by the first form. E.g. JU- to be lawful, 

*> * * * , , , 

J^~>l he thought that it was lawful (for himself to do) ; w*».j 

to be necessary, ^^ ^ nt he thought it was necessary (for him) ; 

D &mm*Z* \ to think him, or it, good or beautiful; jU»jL>l to think 

a * * o 
it good or excellent; *Jl*JL*\ to think it light, to think lightly of 

or despise, one; J*£lwl to find it heavy, oppressive or troublesome, 

to think one a bore. 

Rem. In this case the factitive is combined with the middle 
sense; for as the fourth form (like the second) is frequently not 

§65] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 45 
strictly factitive, but estimative or declarative (§ 45, rem. 6), so A 

s ' 0* 

also the tenth. Hence ^.y^x^JiwI literally means to make something 

necessary for oneself to think it so or say it is so ; but w**-^t to make 
it necessary for others, to think or say that it is so. 

63. The tenth form likewise often expresses the taking, seeking, 
asking for, or demanding, what is meant by the first. E. g. jk£> to 
pardon, jsJCU>\ to ask pardon; ^jiw to give one to drink, .JL«I*1 
to ask for something to drink, to pray for rain; \J}>\ to permit, 
iJ*\Z*j\ to ask permission; w>U to help, ^»l*2wt to call for help ; & 

s * * * * * 

j-oA- to be present, j <\r* Z . A to require one's presence, to desire that 
he should be fetched. 

Rem. This signification is also a combination of the factitive 
and middle : to procure a drink, permission, &c.,for oneself 

64. In many verbs the tenth form has apparently a neuter 
sense, but in such cases a more minute examination shows that 

it was, at least originally, reflexive. E.g. ^oUiwt to stand upright, 

, s , 

lit. to hold oneself upright ; ^Ui*t to be humble, lit. to make oneself G 

a * * o 
humble, to conduct oneself humbly ; JU*£wt to be worthy of, to deserve, 

lit. to cause something to be due to oneself as a right or desert ( J^) ; 

x x * * 

Zwt to be ashamed, lit. to make oneself ashamed (^j**- to be 

65. The tenth form is frequently denominative, in which case 


it unites the factitive and reflexive or middle senses. E.g. \Jy~i\ 
to make oneself master (^ j) of a thing, to take possession of it ; D 
**^U^Iwt to appoint one as deputy, successor, or caliph (Zsul*.) ; j)y~t\ 

* s O * O * 0* 5 x Ox 

J«oju~>I, L 5 .«g t A l»> l, to appoint one as wdzir (j-*j^), governor (J*»^), 

x x x * o t 

or judge (u°ty- — Further, j +**Z* \ to become like (lit. to make itself 
like) stone (j****) ; jJ*)\ C%y» 5 U #1 the she-goat became like a he-goat 

GO* J ' * * * 0* 9 x x 

(u** 3 ) 5 J-o-^t Jy^wt ^<? he-camel became like a she-camel (3iU) ; 

46 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 66 

j os *x x ei x * *6* 2 

AjmJZmj U*©jb %£>l*JI jjl the kite in our country becomes a vulture 


(j~J, our geese are all stvans). 

xx x 

Rem. The tenth form is probably the reflexive of a form ^)*k~t, 
which is not in use, corresponding to the Aram. 7fcpflfc^ } "&<"> » ? 
and its passive /tOpDt^K v>5dAj| which stand in exactly the 
same relation to one another as the Arabic first and eighth. 

xO x x x x 

Perhaps «*aJL> to throw down flat on the back, wJJu> to dash to the 

x x x 

ground, and JUL to swallow, with one or two more, may be 
jj regarded as traces of the form JjuL*, since they are nearly identical 

x0£ x x 6i x ,oZ x x xxx 

in meaning with •JUt, vJUH> and tJbJt (IV. of ,JU, s^JIS, and obd). 

xxx xO x 

If so, JU~>, which has the same signification as ^iXw, must be a 
later triliteral formation. 

66. Of the remaining forms of the triliteral verb it may be 
sufficient to give a few examples, so as to exhibit their mode of 

. x x xx xxOxO 

formation. — XII. iCijJ^.1 to bear oneself erect (tju*. do.) ; * r >>*j>»-\ 

X X 

XX xx dx 

#o 60 arched, curved, or humpbacked (*->***- do.) ; ^iAJ^JU-t to 60 ji^ 

xxx x Ox xJx xxdxO 

C 6/ac& (^U»- <fo.) ; ^)^l».t to be sweet (>^»- efo.) ; ^j&^&oS to become 

xJx x x x 

vm/ row#A (o^*- fe be rough) ; j*£j-a»J to become blackish brown 

2x0 XX 

or blackish green (=j«a±.\), to become soft or tender (j-a». <#o.) ; 

x x x ( 5x0 x x 

J^ ^o ^t to become moist (= J«a».t) ; ^jjj^t to ride on a horse 

, xx x x x 

without a saddle (^Jj* to be naked); ^^wj-u^l to be covered with 

J x x x 6 xxx 

luxuriant herbage (^*ts) ; ^^03-aftt #0 60 gathered together (v**^ 

x x * x 

D to foW) ; &}jj£\ to be green and rank (of a plant), to be long and 


thick (of the hair). — XIII. b^jj*.) to be long or last long, to go quickly 

/l»\ X ^t* xrtx* XX 

(rad. »/*») ; iy^-l to last long (rad. *U»») ; j>Ut to be heavy (jJU. 

x a x 
to fo &&rc?) ; J^j^UI to c^gngr or adhere to firmly, to mount a camel 

(rad. IxXft).— XIV. J&L^A to be big (rad. JU**.) ; Ac^lJt to fe 

cfor£, to fo obscure (rad. *iU*w) ; iJlCJU.) to fo? j** black (JSL do.) ; 

§ 67] I. The Verb. A. General View. 2. The Quadriliteral Verb. 47 

x x Ox x x Ox A 

*iUliUt #o 00 /o/z^r awe? thick (of the hair, rad. JLU) ; ^.a^icl to ^ro A 

x x x O 

quickly (rad. jj-as) ; u .»»> » *x3t to Aa^ a hump in front (the reverse of 

x x o x o x x xOx o xx 

trJ&jj^t, v~x£ do.). — XV. ^juXftt to be stout and strong (jJlfc to be 

x Ox 

^arc?) ; ^Jsu^.1 to be swollen or inflated, to be filled with rage 

(LfL do.). 

Rem. All these forms are habitually intransitive, but there are 

xxxO/0 x xO 

a few exceptions, as XII. u *jA3\ \£)}j*\ he mounted the horse ;B 


•^JL*.1 7<,e found it sweet (but also ,J«Jl».t, it was sweet). — XV. 

X ^^ X 

j jo v:o x o j j o x x 

aZjju^t = AJt^JU Ibn Doraid, JT& al-Istikak, p. 227. 
2. 7%<? Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms. 


W x J 

Quadriliteral (^Wj) verbs are formed in the following ways. 

(a) A biliteral root, expressing a sound or movement, is repeated, 
to indicate the repetition of that sound or movement. E.g. bb to G 
say baba (papa), ji-ji- to gargle, ^^3 to whisper, Jjjij to shake, 

xxOx xxOx xxOx 

^o^-oxfc. to rwi^A, ^»x-»£ to bellow, to shout, ^ jU fc A * to Mttfo rws£& 
or rattle. 

(b) A fourth letter, generally a liquid or sibilant, is prefixed 
or affixed to, or inserted in the middle of, a triliteral verbal form. 

xxOx xxx xxOx 

E.g. jd m *& to be proud (f~o£ to be high) ; J*o£ #0 00 scattered = 

XXX x'x Ox ^ X xxx xx Ox 

£*^» ; jvo^ to «*#** (compare ^»- and *"©■»-) > «-*^»y to *»S afow<7 D 

xxx XXX 

(w-i»y to advance slowly), to drive back ( J^»y £0 withdraw, to retire) ; 

xxOx xxxxxOx 

cr**^ £0 hasten (perhaps connected with c^) 5 c»"<'* to deceive 
with soft words a ^J^. j Jx»A». to s&w^ the head  <kX*. ; J^*^ to 


md^ rmv (c^*y ^ retire). 

(c) They are denominatives from nouns of more than three 

X X X 

letters, some of them foreign words. E.g. oj^. to put stockings 

9 x» x x *■» x xO x 

(w>j^»., Pers. w»j>^) ow 0? ^ > S^rW 1 to put on one the garment called 

0x0 xOx xxOx « x J *,''£ 

a wjIJ^ ; j^j**-^ and ^^XS to put on one the cap called a l ymiJj ; 

48 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 68 
A oj** to Pitch, from cfj£ pitch ; &X>3 to put on a girdle ( * ik ;») ; 

xx xx -» <• *■ x x xx x x 

JjU~J fo jpw£ <m trousers or drawers (sjt^j**, Pers. jt^Xw) ; pjJmoJ 
to wear a Sij J** or tunic ; J jJ>+j to wipe ones fingers with a napkin 
( J*»jui mantile) ; ^j£l«3 to a^c£ lowliness or humility, to abase 

x x xx x x 

oneself ( t >X>».o fow&/, humble, poor) ; w*a*W to /<?//ow a &?c£ ( ^ ^ m ) ; 
>Jut43 to assimilate oneself (in dress, etc.) to ^ £nfo 0/ Ma 1 add 
B (***•«) ; J^JJ £0 become a pupil or disciple (J-j^U, Heb. Tlb/J?) 5 
ULJU3 to philosophize (from ^Jy~XJ, </>iA.oo-o<£os) ; jisuo to practise 
the veterinary art or farriery (jU*?o a farrier, «nriaT/>os). 

(d) They are combinations of the most prominent syllables or 

x x x t/<» 

letters in certain very common formulas. E.g. J^-**J to say aDI ^©-^ 


x x x I J x Ox 

(t» ij§0 wa?rc<2 0/ 6«W) ; Jj^»» to say <w jl*»JI (praise belongs to 

xx Ox xxOx I <* 5 x ui J x x xOxx 

Gtod) ; JP^»- and J3>»- #0 sa# a&W ^t 5^3 ^3 Jj^. *s) (there is no 

" xx Ox 

C power and no strength save in God) ; ^U J^i to cast up an account, 
saying t*x£bj tj^fb *£JJJ^ this then is so and so much. 

68. The derived forms of the quadriliteral verb are three in 

Jiii I. 

Ju/tIV. JJtUlt III. JJUtf II. 

69. The first form of the quadriliterals corresponds in formation 
and conjugation to the second form of the triliterals, and is both 


D transitive and intransitive in signification. E.g. JX+& to gather 

X X X 

ripe dates, also to be active or nimble ; f-j~*£> to pluck unripe dates ; 

xxOx xx Ox xxOx 

7rj^> to roll; JjjJbj to laugh much; Jjj>yk to run quickly. 

70. The second form agrees in formation and signification with 

x xO x x 

the fifth of the triliteral verb. E.g. ^4*%3 to jt?w£ <m or wear a 

0x0 xxOxx xx O'x x O x J 

vW^ ') & J **J3 to roll along ; ^ jJbJLj £0 ma^ oneself sultan (^)UslL»), 
to ac£ as e/ owe were sultan, to lord it over another ; Q^eA* to act 
like a devil (J&A, pfe>). 

§ 73] I. The Verb. A. General View. 2. The Quadriliteral Verb. 49 

71. The third form of the quadriliteral verb corresponds to A 
the seventh of the triliteral, with this difference, that the characteristic 
ij is not prefixed, but inserted between the second and third radicals. 

E.g. JJ-uJ^I to open (of a flower), to bloom or flourish ; ^afJjM*\ to be 

< ' O " 

gathered together in a mass or crowd ; J*cu^».l to puff out its crop 

0/ / » / % «- * » * 

(ilo^fc., of a bird); ^JfcJ J U l to to <w <Ws /ac#, stretched on the 
ground; , pULwl to lie on ones back ; j*++*.A to flow. 

72. The fourth form of the quadriliterals, which answers to B 
the ninth of the triliterals, is intransitive, and expresses an extensively 
or intensively high degree of an intransitive act, state, or quality. 

E.g. j9-^>\ to be very dark; j£~t£*\ to be very high or proud ; Ja».» o i 
to vanish away ; jk.»>t to to stretched out on one's side; Jjc*£t to 
wa#0 Aaste, to 60 scattered or dispersed ; j**M to fo scattered or 
dispersed; jjUJ\ and jU^t to shudder with horror; \j\+^^ 1° oe a ^ C 

* i o , Si., o § Si* o 

rest (from o^ 9 *? ^ aw back); Jt>»-I to Wse ^A; w^t^t to rata* 
tffo A0<m? awe? stretch out the neck; JU-^t to be very hard. 

3. 7%£ Voices. 

73. All the verbal forms, both primitive and derivative, have 
two voices, the active and the passive ; with the exception of intran- 
sitive verbs of the form Jii (§ 38) and of the 9th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 
14th, and 15th forms (cf. § 66, rem.) as well as of those verbs of the D 
forms J*3 and J*3, which designate not an act (transitive or intran- 
sitive) but a state or condition (being or becoming), as j*s&. to 
become green, nearly =j-c^.t or j*oya*J\ ; *J~o to be good, right, in 
order, = fJ*& ; JuJ to be bad, wrong, in disorder, = Ju-3. The subject 
of the active voice is always an agent (person or thing), whose act 
may affect an object, or not ; the subject of the passive voice is either 
the object of the former (personal passive), or the abstract idea of the 
act (impersonal passive). 

w. 7 

50 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§74 

A 74. The passive is especially used in four cases ; namely (a) when 
God, or some higher being, is indicated as the author of the act ; 

(b) when the author is unknown, or at least not known for certain ; 

(c) when the speaker or writer does not wish to name him ; (d) when 
the attention of the hearer or reader is directed more to the person 
affected by the act (patiens, the patient), than to the doer of it (agens, 
the agent). 

Rem. The active voice is called by the Arab grammarians 
B J^UJI A*frO the mould or form of the agent, jUUJt iUj the build of 

X x ** X XXX 

'G0O J x x0./O J 

the agent, J*fcUJt w>b the category of the agent, J^UJI J*i the 

x J J xO/O & x biO J Ox xx 

action of the agent, and ^UJJ ( cj.oqM) j^i^JI Jj^AJt, or ^s- 
J^cUJt, the action (or verb) put into that form of which the agent 

X X 

J X 

is the subject. The passive voice is in like manner called rtjLwo 

J ft x 0-a S x J Ox x JO 

J|yuLoJt 2Ae mould or form of the patient, etc.; also^-^^J U c Jj»i 

J J X 

C 4-Uli the doing, or &em# done, of that, whereof the agent has not 

j j x a x j «xx 
feeerc named, or, more shortly, 4Afcl3^~*>^) U, though this latter 

J J X H x J Ox 5.*> J J x Ox 

is, strictly speaking, equivalent to aJlfcls ^o~»j ^«J i^JJl JjyoLpJt, 
^e patient whereof the agent has not been named, i.e. the passive 

# # < J J x Ox J J x Ox 

subject. The active voice is also shortly called ^jjjt^Jt or^e^JLx^Jt, 

m J J 'x JO Ox 

and the passive J^^^JI, elliptical forms of expression for J*i)t 

J J * ,» J x 0<« J J /W 

d-U-li (^ft^XatoJI) OjjAoJt, ^e action of which the agent is known, 

J J x J J 10 x O<0 J Ox 

D and dxUti J^a. ,)| JjuUI, 2Ae action of which the agent is unknown. 

J J x Ox J J x Ox J J x Ox 

These terms, U^jjOt or ^^JjloJI and Jj 1r a*-oJ!, are also used to 
designate the subjects of the active and passive voices. 

75. Verbs that express a state or condition, or signify an act 
which is, by its very nature, confined to the person of the subject, and 

cannot pass to another individual as its object (as Jo^a to be sick, 

j& to sleep), are aptly called neuter verbs, since they are neither really 
active nor really passive, but something between the two. The Arab 
grammarians cannot class them otherwise than among the active verbs, 

§ 78] I. The Verb. A. General View. 3. The Voices, <Scc. 51 

J ' vi" JO* J /»(«/ 

and they therefore distinguish ajjuC^JI JU^jt, transitive verbs, from A 

ajjuiIoJI j*£. JwNjI, intransitive verbs, or A^Ut JUi^l, wrfo £to 

are confined to the subject. 

76. The idea of the passive voice must not be thought to be 
absolutely identical with that of the fifth, seventh, and eighth forms. 
These are, strictly speaking, effective (see § 48), whilst the other is 

4. The States (Tenses) of the Verb. 

77. The temporal forms of the Arabic verb are but two in B 
number, the one expressing a finished act, one that is done and 
completed in relation to other acts (the Perfect) ; the other an 
unfinished act, one that is just commencing or in progress (the 

Rem. a. The names Preterite and Future, by which these 
forms were often designated in older grammars do not accurately 
correspond to the ideas inherent in them. A Semitic Perfect or 
Imperfect has, in and of itself, no reference to the temporal C 
relations of the speaker (thinker or writer) and of other actions 
which are brought into juxtaposition with it. It is precisely these 
relations which determine in what sphere of time (past, present, or 
future) a Semitic Perfect or Imperfect lies, and by which of our 
tenses it is to be expressed — whether by our Past, Perfect, Plu- 
perfect, or Future-perfect; by our Present, Imperfect, or Future. 
The Arabian Grammarians themselves have not, however, succeeded 
in keeping this important point distinctly in view, but have given 
an undue importance to the idea of time, in connection with the 

verbal forms, by their division of it into the past (^aLoi\), the 
present (JlaJt or j-oUJt), and the future (J^fc^Jt), the first of D 

which they assign to the Perfect and the other two to the Im- 

Rem. b. On the forms of these tenses see § 91 etc. The 
Syntax will give more precise information as to their meaning 
and use. 

5. The Moods. 

78. The Arabic verb has five moods ; namely, the Indicative, 
Subjunctive, Jussive or Conditional, Imperative, and Energetic. 

52 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§79 

A 79. Of these moods the first is common to the perfect and 
imperfect states ; the second and third are restricted to the imperfect ; 
the fourth, or imperative, is expressed by a special form; and the 
fifth can be derived not only from the imperfect, but also from the 

Rem. On the forms of the moods see § 91 etc. The Syntax 
treats of their significations and use. 

80. Instead of the Infinitive, the Arabs use nouns expressing the 
-d action or quality (nomina actionis or verbi). In place of participles, 

they have two verbal adjectives, the one denoting the agent (nomen 
agentis, active participle), and the other the patient (nomen patientis, 
passive participle). [Cf. § 192.] 

6. The Numbers, Persons, and Genders. 

1 b sD, J s » 0* 

81. There are three numbers, the Singular (>j&\, *j*+3\, or 
j^tyi), the Dual (3ui^S\ or ^^IloJI), and the Plural (£*aJt, *W»J1, 
s-joaJl, c j ), ,a>.. H, or jJ&«JI) ; and likewise three persons, the speaker 
(first person), ^oJiXoJt, the individual spoken to (second person), 
^JsU*-*)!, and the individual spoken of (third person), wsSliJt (the 
absent). The genders are two, namely the masculine (j^jLoJt) and 

j Z£ jo* 

the feminine (wJ^-oJt) ; but they are not distinguished from one 
another in some of the persons (1st pers. sing., 2d pers. dual, and 
1st pers. plur.). 

~ B. The Strong Verb (Verbum Firmum). 

82. Verbs are divided into strong (verba firma) and weak (verba 
infirma). We include the verba mediae radicalis geminatae (y"J?) in 

the former class ; the verbs which have I for one of their radicals, in 
the second (see § 128). 

83. Strong verbs are those of which all the radical letters are 
strong, and consequently neither undergo any change, nor are rejected 
in any of the inflexions, but are retained throughout. 

§ 89] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 53 

Rem. A verb which contains one of the two letters ^ or r< is A 
called ,JJ^t« Jji5, a weak verb, as opposed to ^JL» Jj«i, a ver6 $Aa£ 

is free from defect, a sound verb. A verb which has I for one of 
its radicals, or which belongs to the class med. rad. gemin. (V"y), is 

- 9 

designated by the special term «»*a».o J*s ; but some grammarians 

9 * ' 

treat ^a».o and^oJL* as synonyms. 

1. The Active Voice of the First Form in the Strong 

Verb.— Table I* B 


84. The numbers, persons, and genders of the verb are expressed 
by means of personal pronouns, annexed to the various moods and 

9 s 9 * J 

85. The personal pronoun \jt+£, j+** : see § 190,/] is either 

x*J t 9 Sj 

separate [J^aii*], standing by itself, or connected [J-cu*], that is C 

prefixed or suffixed. The separate pronouns have longer, the con- 
nected shorter forms. 

86. The suffixed pronouns are partly verbal, partly nominal 

87. The verbal suffixes express partly the nominative, partly the 
accusative. The former are much more closely united with the verb 
than the latter. 

88. The connected pronouns which express the nominative to D 
the verb are also in part prefixes. 

Rem. On the verbal suffixes which express the accusative see 
§ 185 ; and on the nominal suffixes, § 317. 

89. The following tables give a general view of the separate 
personal pronouns, and of those pronominal prefixes and suffixes 
which express the nominative to the verb. 

* The nomina verbi, agentis, and patientis, are given along with 
the strictly verbal forms in all the Tables. 

54 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 89 



Separate Pronouns. 




3 p. ^a he. 

. . . 

JjA she. 

, ot 
2 p. OJt thou. 

. . . 


Cot tho\ 

i p 



3 p. ... 
2 p. ... 

Ua they two. 
1*2 1 ye two. 

Ip. ... 


• . . 


3 p. jtr^ they. 

a j tit 

2 p. j£>\ ye. 

a j 
O-A th 

a jot 

C 1 p. . . . 

Rem. a. When yb and ^A are preceded by the conjunctions 

j and ui, and, the affirmative J, certainly, surely, or the interro- 
gative \, the vowel of the o may either be dropped or retained; as 
**3 or >*> ^ or ^, <rf or ^, , >t or ^\. 


Rem. b. The second syllable of Ul is regarded as short by the 

j) old poets (v/v-»), except in pause, where we find both Ut (^-) and 

4Jt*. Compare the ^35thiopic and, which, in combination with the 

enclitic particle sd, becomes ansa, bl is, therefore, an example of 


scriptio plena, to distinguish the pronoun from the particles ^t, 
at o a 

lA lA O'- ^ ne 8cr iptio defectiva is found, for example, in the 
s s ,,t\ ,,*, , ,t , 

interjectional IJJlA or IJJ*Ia here I am ( 03PI eccome), for lj Ut Ia. 

o £ 

The form jjt is said also to occur. 

* But Ut, out of pause, is occasionally scanned as an iambus even in 
old poetry. See Noldeke in ZDMG. xxxviii. 418, note 3. 

§ 89] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 55 

Rem. c. Older forms of JjA and^Ut are^A and^t, used in A 
poetry, and also in the wasl (§ 20, d, and § 23, rem. c). [Though 
written defectively this terminal u is commonly scanned as a long 

Rem. d. For a comparison of the pronominal forms of the 
Arabic with those of the other Semitic languages see Comp. Gr. 
p. 95 seq. 

2. Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative. jj 

Masc. Common Fern. 

3 p. . . . ... ol she. 

2 p. O thou. ... O (<**k c£-) t ^ ou - 

1 p. . . . O Z 


3 p. t- (of-> 1-) tf# ftflfc ••• ^- (o'-> '-) ^y *wo. 

2 p. . . . L»5 (o'-> '-) y* ♦** • • • C 

lp. ... 


3 p. I> (o>, !>) *%• ... O tlwy. 

2p-^ d (o>> *>) m • • • c4 (6) s» 

1 p. . . . U w& 

Rem. a. The forms within brackets are those of the Imperfect 
and Imperative ; the others those of the Perfect. 

Rem. b. The suffix of the 1st pers. plur. is sometimes shortened j) 

in poetry (no) and written defectively, <j. 

3. Prefixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative. 


Masc. Common. Fern. 

3 p. {J he. ... O she. 

2 p. . . . O thou. 
lp. ... !/. 

56 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 90 




3 p. ^£ they 


. . . 


they two. 

2 p. 

O ye two. 

. . . 

Ip. ... 


. . . 

3 p. ... 

^£ they. 

. . . 

2 p. ... 

O ye. 

Ip. ... 

O we. 

. . . 

B Rem. a. These forms are restricted to the Imperfect. They 


are called by the grammarians 4£jLo«Jt »-^5>» , j an ^ are comprised 

in the mnemonic word CJI or 1*30. 

Rem. b. The prefix of the third person plural of the Imperfect 
is ^ for both genders. But the grammarians cite some rare cases 
where, in the fern., ^£ is replaced by O, so that the distinction 
between 3 pi. fern, and 2 pi. fem. is lost. Thus in the Kor'an, Sura 

xlii. 3, a reading ^jjSaJCS for ^jJaJCJ is recorded. This must be 
q explained as due to false analogy from the sing. In the Heb. 
Hi /tDpTn the false form has become the rule. 

t : I; • 

90. Of the two fethas with which the first and third radicals 

of a verb are always pronounced (J^3, £■/*, 0~** m )> the former is 

rejected after prefixed pronouns, as J»2u, J*&>; the latter before 

suffixed pronouns beginning with a consonant, as C~L3, Ujtf. When 
the suffix begins with a vowel, that vowel takes the place of the fetha, 

j) as wJj:5, tyj;5. 

Rem. a. When the third radical is O, it unites in pronuncia- 
tion with the O in some of the suffixes. In such cases only one O 
is written, and the union of the two is denoted by the tesdid. 

Thus from C**3, to stone? ,/im, we get cJ, C**J, ^«I*^, for C*£h, 

C*I**, ^^SUl See § 14, c, rem. 6. 

Rem. 6. When the third radical is one of the letters w», j, 3, 
^£, 1?, i£, it may unite in pronunciation with the O of the suffixes, 
so as to form a double O, but it is nevertheless retained in writing. 

§ 91] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 57 

To indicate the assimilation, the O takes tesdid, and the geznia, A 
with which the third radical ought properly to be marked, is omitted. 

Thus, Ojufc for Ojuc, / have served; C-Jaj) for C^, thou hast 

i * t J d x £ 

bound ; ^jjui.1 for^J^t, ye have taken. On this assimilation see 

§ 14, c. 

Rem. c. When the third radical is ^j, it unites with the ^ of 

s ** 
the suffixes into a single ^ with te&did; as yj**\ they (women) 

a ** * o ** * o ** 

believed, tut we believed, for ±y*\ and Uut. 

Rem. d. For a view of the Inflexion of the Perfect and 
Imperfect Indicative in Hebrew and Aramaic as compared with 
Arabic see Comp. Gr. p. 165 seq. 


91. When the second radical of the Perfect has fetha, it may 
take either damma or Jcesra in the Imperfect ; as J^5 to kill, Jux» ; 

x ^ • J J * , , * ^ J * * * s 

^.• Zfr* to write, w-^^-j ; w*>-£ to strike, *j>j-**i ; v~ke* to sit down, 
c^Aa*^. Many verbs admit of both forms ; as ^Jes. to sneeze, 

J 0* * s s t < J J x 

and \j* M* j ; •J**-* to remove the hair by scalding, m+~i or 

j£*j to stick upright into the ground, j&j-i- C 

Rem. a. Verbs, of which the second or third radical is a 
guttural letter, are an exception to the rule, for they commonly 

retain in the Imperfect the fetha of the Perfect ; as Jj«i to do, 

J x Ox x x x J x Ox x x x # * '0'  $ ** I'O* 

iJmu ; *Ja3 to cut, %bJu ; jU* to hinder, *-^ ; tjj to create, \j+j ; 

,1 , jI o , , ,, j , o, * * <> 

JL» to ask, JL^j ; ^Jfcj to go away, ^JbJu ; JiaJ to look at, 

ka.JL> ; --J£ to throw, p-jb. Not a few, however, conform to 

the rule, particularly when the second radical is *. or t ; as j*J* 

jjo, ,,, jj«* x " T 

to perceive, know, jaLj j jmS to sit, jjlsu ; O** to transpierce, j) 

J J x x xx JJ-x x xx J{» ' ' \ ' 1 J 

O*^ 1 * > J**J t0 sa V> J&J* 5 £^* t0 ascend, £*J*i 5 *■*<• *° »e sound, 

J J * x x x i J t°" ' " , 7 

right, good, ^JLcu ; *Jl> to attain to, reach, %X+t ; *-iJ to blow, 
^.JUj ; J^aLi to ,/fow, y**J^ J teg to return, %+jj ; cp to aVaw 

J 0* * * * J * 

or 2?mW away, cJJJ ; j**£ to bray, j*****. Some verbs have two 
w. 8 

58 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§92 

A forms ; as Jpo to croak, JpU> ; *-U to give as a present, ^i«-> j 


* * x j «» Ox * s * J ' »*• ' t ' n ■> ' ° ' 

~£j to marry, 9J&0 ; *Jx> to 6m#, 9-Ja-L; ; -^.Iw to ./toy, £**~*i \ 

V x x .» X d x x x x J x X ' 'C j 7 . 

ijj to tan, %j j^> ; *.»-o to dye, i^u ; cji to be at leisure, to 

J x Ox x x ' 

Jiave done with, i.jsu ; and even three, as C o >J to cut or hew, 

, io, x x ' ^ J '*' ' " 

C^mmij ; ?-**) to incline (of a scale of a balance), £~e*jj ; %+$ to 


J x*x 

gush out, *~^>. 

x x x x x * 

B Rem. 6. Verbs of the form Jx$ denoting superiority, Jjii 

SJLiJI j-U JljJ! (see § 43, a), always have damma (the grammarian 

jx x x 
el-Kisa'I alone admitting fetha with a guttural), as ojj& he excelled 


him in composing poetry, ^jaLj ; oja+i he surpassed him in glory, 

J J J Ox 

oj.a>A.j ; unless they be primse rad. j, med. rad. ^j, or tert. rad. ^$, 
when they take kesra, as ojlcj he outbid him in promising, ojjlj ; 

** " .. J .» x J x x 

d«l»> 7ie excelled him in goodness, oj*a*J> ', *\+j Ae surpassed him in 

shooting with arrows, a~ojji. 

* * * 
q Rem. c. Excessively rare are cases like O^) ^° incline to, lean 

J x Ox 

upon, v>*=tH> which is probably a combination of the two forms 

O-^j, v>%iS> and O^j O^Ji- See § 175 > rem - °- 

92. When the second radical of the Perf. has kesra, the Imperf. 

x x J x x x x ^ J x x x x 

takes /^^» ; as j^s- to know, ^^i ', *->* *° drink, *-Jj**i ; Oj-^ fo 

J x x x x .» x x x x J x x 

be sorrowful, £)}*~i ; u°j-* to be sick, u^j-^i ',^~* to be safe,^~*i- 
Rem. a. A few verbs may retain in the Imperf. the kesra of 

x x t J x J x x x x 

the Perf., as w^*>^. £o tf/iiwA; or suppose, w ■> .j or w..».,a> -j ; ^jij 

x * x 

j) £o 6e green and flourishing, ^stJo ; ^^j to be in distress or poverty, 

J 0* J to, 

^^Jm-j or ^Lj. See also §§ 142 and 146. 

Rem. b. Very rare are cases like jJx*. to be present, j*mm j j 

. , , , , J o. . '. 

,j^j <o incline to, lean upon, O^Ji '> \J*<** to be in excess, abound, 

j ■* 

J-cub ; j^u to be affluent, comfortable, j^j ', ^£jj to be clear, quit, 

§ 94] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 59 

l J Ox I, x 

or innocent of, jj+j or t^. The most common example of this kind A 
is a verb med. j, viz. OU, to die (for Oji, 1st p. sing. Perf. cL«), 
O^j.— Similar cases in Syriac and Hebrew, Comp. Gr. p. 180*. 
93. When the second radical of the Perf. has damma, that 

vowel is retained in the Imperf. ; as o*LL to be beautiful, p'-m; ; 

v^P to be high, noble, o^J ; jJ<j to be dull or stupid, jJL>. 

Rem. With the above forms compare the Heb. 3h)3* nS&^ B 
*l%y. In Heb., however, verbs in o usually take a in the Imperf., 

I • J ©Jx 

as 73B*, ft?p*, whereas in Arabic instances like C^J / became 

J J 

wise, C-***> / became ugly, <Z>jj£t I became bad, Jjl, j**\, j£\, are 

it 'it itii 2ttl 

very rare. Some authorities admit the forms ^Jl, ^ot, j-*t. 

94. The difference between the Perf. and Imperf. in regard to 
their inflexion is, that the marks of the numbers, genders, and persons, 
are only suffixed to the Perf.; whereas they are both suffixed and 
prefixed to the Imperf., more generally the latter. C 

Rem. a. In the Perf. the act is placed conspicuously in the 
foreground, because completed; in the Imperf. the agent, because 
still occupied in the act (see § 77, rem. a). If we look upon the 
root ^3 as primarily conveying the abstract idea of " killing," we 

may regard cJU5 as meaning " killing-of-me " (i.e. done by me), 

"my killing," = " I have killed;" and J*3I as meaning "I-killing," 

= "I am killing." 

Rem. b. In the Imperf. the pronominal prefixes mark the state j) 
or tense, and to some extent the gender; whilst the suffixes serve 

J J Ox 

solely to indicate the gender. Thus, the 2d pers. sing. masc. ^JO 

is sufficiently distinguished from the 3d pers. sing. masc. \^Sj by 
the form of the temporal prefix ; but to distinguish the 2d pers. 
sing. masc. from its fern, a suffix is necessary, and accordingly we 

get masc. w*2o, fem. p^lC 

* [Anbarl, Nozhat el-alibba p. 459 states from personal observation 
in Yemen and Higaz that in some dialects every verb J*5 makes 

* a x j j Ox 

Jmu and Jaaj. — De G.J 

60 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 95 

A Rem. c. In the active voice of the first form, the prefixes of 

the Imperfect are pronounced with feth. But a pronunciation with 
kesr instead oifeth is regarded as admissible and was used by some 
of the old Arabs with any of the preformatives except ^, save in 
the case where the next consonant has damma (verbs med. j). 

That is, one must not say ^ojit, jsyu, ^\ for j»^S\ etc. nor ^Xju 

is 0* J J ft 

for j^ju ; but on the other hand the pronunciation ju*3 and 

*''*•*. . •*• . . . 

^fflZmj in Sura i. 4, and j^\ in Sura xxxvi. 60 are recognized as 

B legitimate dialectic variations of the usual juai etc. In one case, 

Jl^-t for Jl^.1, / suppose, the pronunciation with kesr is generally 
preferred. The tribe of Kelb used kesr even with the prefix ^ 

(^Xju). Dialectically, too, the vowel of the prefix might be 

J J ft J J J Ox 

assimilated to a following damm, as in juxi for juau. 

95. The Indicative of the Imperf. is distinguished by the third 
radical having damma, the Subjunctive by its having fetha ; as Indie. 

J J ft x m x J ft X 

Cy^, Subj. w-I&. The Jussive is denoted by the absence of any 

ft J Ox 

vowel with the third radical, as wi& ; whence it is sometimes called 
the apocopated Imperfect. 

Rem. a. The damma and fetha of the Indicat. and Subjunct. 
Imperf. in the verb, correspond to the damma and fetha of the 
Nom. and Accus. in the noun (see § 308) j for the Imperf. is closely 
akin to the noun, and its government in the Subjunct. falls under 
the same category with the government of the noun in the Accus. 

J x .» *x 

Hence the technical name of the Imperf., cjLa*H, because it 

j j * - « - 
D resembles the noun. [The Indicative is called cji^Jt, the Subjunc- 
j j © xftx j ) © .- © <. w 

tive w>^.o.;. 0l H, and the Jussive >j>%^H.] 

Rem. b. The peculiar meaning of the Jussive has brought 
along with it the rejection of the final vowel, which seems originally 

to have been i. At least the poets make use of the form ^J^sb in 
rhyme. [Cf. vol. ii. § 247.] 

96. The forms of the Indicat. which end in ^ and <j reject these 

syllables in the Subjunct. and Jussive, because the genders, numbers, 
and persons are distinctly indicated even after their omission. The 

§ 98] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 61 

2d and 3d pers. plur. fern, are exceptions, for in them o is retained, A 
because it is absolutely necessary in order to mark the gender. Com- 

pare 0>A » ^y^k , with \y££=> ; oW^J , ^2u> with Ll^ ; and Q*tS&, 
\j~S3, with C m^> . 

Hi X 

97. The Energetic is formed by adding the termination ,j_ or 
(J- (called by the grammarians Sj^^t <jy^> or ^ corroborative n) 

to the Jussive. If the Jussive ends in I or u, the fetha of <j- or ,j- 
is elided, and the long vowel of the verbal form shortened, because it 

vt i b , a j * * j 6* a j j * ^ * j jo , 

is in a shut syllable: 0~$3, 0*+&> fr° m i^-*^; t>*^!> 0*&i> from 

I^jXj ; etc. In the dual, the first fetha of ^_ is absorbed by the 1- B 
of the termination, and the second weakened into a kesra through the 

influence of the same long vowel : oW^&> oW^> from Ll£>, U£3. In 

the 2d and 3d pers. plur. fem. the fetha of the verb unites with the 

initial fetha of <j— into a long a, and in consequence the second fetha 

of ,j- becomes kesra : O^*^ (?) fr° m O-A CO- 

Rem. a. The syllable ^_ of the second Energetic is appended 
only to those persons which have, in the first Energetic, a short 

vowel before & ; and not to the dual, because its forms would then C 
coincide with those of the singular, nor to the fem. plur., apparently 

because the sound of the syllable ,jJ (^jJ^ZSu) was disagreeable to 
the ear. 

Rem. b. Before an Uifu 'l-wasl (§ 19) the n of the termination 

O s x xDA> x J * f 

^_ is rejected (§ 20, rem. c), as j-Ju)l t>*H *^, despise not the poor, 
for t>W>> from <jUl, IV. of ^U. 

Rem. c. The syllable ^— is often written !_, and pronounced D 
in pause I—. Compare the Hebrew Energetic or Cohortative in H— , 
Gomp. Gr. p. 194. 

j o ib* 

98. The Imperative (j-*^t the order or command) may be described 
as formed from the Jussive by rejecting the prefix of the 2d pers. sing. 
Hence it has always the same characteristic vowel as the Jussive ; but, 
since it begins with two consonants, it takes, according to § 26, a short 

62 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§99 

A prosthetic vowel. When the second radical is pronounced with fhtha 
or kesra, this vowel is kesra ; when with damma, it is damma. E. g. 

0^0 « J J 

Jjtil, *&&, w- ^ t. 

Rem. a. Regarding the elision of the prosthetic vowel (I), see 
^ 19, 6 ; and on the orthography I and 1, in cases where that elision 
does not take place, § 19, rem. d. 

Rem. b. Fetha is never employed as a prosthetic vowel. 
B Rem. c. As an Imperative the Arabs also use the indeclinable 

form JUS; as j\Jx*. be present ! j\j&. beware/ JtjJ alight/ cU~> 

listen ! £)\y let alone ! w>b.j creep along / Asu announce the death 

of — / from <<«J. This corresponds to the Hebrew 

absolute ;>top (o for a, and the final short vowel dropped), which 

is also used in the same way; as <m ])^ remember I* In quadri- 


literals this form is very rare, the only examples mentioned being 

C j\3jS = *MgJW jSj*} let thy thunder crash, and j^Z/Z, come and play 

the game called l ar l ara. Occasionally it seems to take its meaning 

from one of the derived conjugations, as ?*»t > ^»- bring out! j)\j$ 

overtake != S}*.j±.\, t^&ipt, Imper. IV. 

99. The same remarks apply to the energetic forms of the Im- 
perative as to those of the Imperf. (§97). 

D [Rem. The common phrase asuc Wj-^j strike off his head, is 

sometimes pointed without ten win (bj-ol) an d is then explained by 

the grammarians as a dual used in an intensive sense (^J^ *+£* 

ju£>yJt, cf. vol. ii. § 35, a, rem. b) in addressing a single person. 

<- bi o - at 

Similarly Kor'an 1. 23, Lilt with a various reading ,>*A)t. — De G.] 

* [And again the phrase JjUc C*aa£ Tab. i. 1842, 1. 15 is 

parallel to the Hebrew use of the Inf. Abs. with the finite verb. — 

§ 106] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 63 

2. TJw Passive Voice of the First Farm in the Strong a 

Verb.— Table II. 

100. The Perf. and Imperf. Passive are distinguished from the 
corresponding tenses of the Active by a change of vowels. In the 
Perf. Pass, the first radical has damma, and the second radical kesra. 
In the Imperf. Pass, the prefixes take damma, and the second radical 

Rem. The vocalisation of the Passive remains always the 
same, whatever be the vowel of the second radical in the Perf. 
and Imperf. Active. 

101. There is no special form to express the Imperative Passive, B 
the Jussive being used instead. 

3. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb.— Table III. 

102. The second radical of the Perf. Act. is pronounced with 
fetha in all the derived forms. 

103. The second radical of the Imperf. Act. is pronounced with 
fetha in the fifth and sixth forms, with kesra in the rest. q 

Rem. The Imperfects of the ninth and eleventh forms, J^Jb 

and Ju£>, are contractions for JXz&j and JJUaj. This may be 

seen from the Jussives JJdsu and JJU&j, and the Imperatives 

jjUSI and jjull. See §§ 106 and 120. 

104. In the second, third, and fourth forms, the prefixes of the 
Imperf. Act. are pronounced with damma, in the rest with fetha. 

105. The characteristic elif of the fourth form disappears when D 
another letter is prefixed ; as J^aj, not J^SIj, from JJ3I. 

[Rem. But we find S\Juyc jjJ, a pot set on tlie fire, and also 
^Ju^j, Sibaweih, i. 9, 1. 21, where the I is treated like the o of 
Sij^i, § 118, rem. b.— De G.] 

106. The ninth and eleventh forms were originally JJjisI and 
JJUil. But, by a rule of the language (see § 120), if the last radical 

64 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 107 
A in such words has a vowel, the preceding radical loses its vowel, and 

fix // * 

the two are combined into one letter with tesdld ; e.g. j**a\ for jj**e\, 

vi s s J * * 

jJuau for jjslaj. If the last radical has no vowel, the word remains 
uncontracted ; as £>jj**o\, jj^aj, jj**o\ (see § 120). 

107. The formation of the Perf. and Imperf. Passive in the 
derived forms is exactly analogous to that in the ground-form. 

Rem. a. The Imperfects Pass, of the first and fourth forms are 

B Rem. b. The Imperfects Pass, of the fifth and sixth forms are 

distinguished from their Imperfects Act. only by the vowel of the 
prefixes, which is damma instead of. fetha. 

108. Since the idea of the Perf. Pass, is expressed by pronouncing 

the first radical with damma, and the idea of the third form by 

lengthening the vowel of the first radical, there results in the Passive 

* j 
of the third form (in which both ideas are united) the form JJy ; and 

* j j 
hence in the Pass, of the sixth, J3>£>. 

C 109. In the Perf. Pass, of the fifth and sixth forms, not only is 
the fetha of the first radical changed into damma, but also the fetha 
of the characteristic O (which expresses the reflexive idea of these 

*VtJJ * JJ 

forms) ; e.g. J3&, J^j£>. In like manner, in the Perf. Pass, of the 

seventh, eighth, and tenth forms, not only is the first radical, or the 
characteristic O, pronounced with damma, but also the prosthetic Slif ; 

* JOJ - J J * Oj J 

e.g. J3ut, J^St, J^&wl. Compare § 98 and rem. a. 

D 110. The ninth and eleventh [to fifteenth] forms, being neutral 
in their signification, have of course no passive (see § 73). 

111. When the verbal root begins with O, *Z», »., >, 3,j, ^ u*, 

u°> sjo, b, or )», the characteristic O of the fifth and sixth forms 

occasionally (in the Koran frequently) loses its vowel, and unites with 

the first radical to form a double letter. The forms thus originated 

take a prosthetic Slif, when they happen to commence with two 

«- * fi "£ *ip Z'»> * fifi 
consonants (compare § 54). E.g. jjW, Jibl, jJ>t, \j\>\, Oij^ 

§ 114] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 65 

UC\, j^i, ^L\ ; j£\, for £i3 ; JjvS, j.5jj, ijijj, J^p, iJu5, A 

f^, ^UJ, j^x3 ; j£>£i, Jf*H> jl^i, .*&>, for J j±> j£, ^ji, 

Jj^aJ, rJ*k The language in its later stages admits this in all 
verbs of the fifth and sixth forms, merely rejecting the vowel of the 

preformative O ; as u ~*£\ for ^r**^ , to take breath. 

Rem. See § 48, rem. b, and compare such Hebrew forms as 

wn, n^n, *v\ton; Com P . Gr. P . iio«y. 

112. The O of the fifth and sixth forms is sometimes omitted B 

in those persons of the Imperf. Act. to which O is prefixed (2d pers. 
sing. du. and plur. masc. and fern., 3d pers. sing, and du. fern.) ; e.g. 

t Ci * + Ji // i s s s * i £ * s » Z s * * » Z s * s is*** + ) Zl " ' 

j~£j, Jn»^. ! >, j^lo, ijycjJJ, for j~»&3, Jb+a Jg j J»*W^>, &ytjj& 

[and necessarily *jU3 for &&3 (Faik i. 130)— De G.]. These 
shortened forms are sufficiently distinguished by the fethas of the 
prefixed O and of the second radical from the same persons in the 

active voice of the second and third forms (j~&, J^tJ) ; and by 

the fetha of the prefixed O from the same persons in the passive of C 

the second and third forms (/■••*>, J^W3). 

113. Verbs of which the first radical is t, j, ^, j, J, or o> nave 
no seventh form in classical Arabic, but use the fifth or eighth, or the 
passive of the first, instead. In the (so far as we know) solitary 
example of the seventh form from a verb beginning with ^, — namely 

v~<oJ\, to lie concealed, — the characteristic ^ is united by teSdid to 
the first radical. 

Rem. a. Some grammarians regard u ~+i\ as being of the eighth D 
form, by assimilation for ^**£j\. 

Rem. b. In modern Arabic such forms as J^.Ut, jio\j\ (Kamil, 
p. 569, note i.), u±jj\. j-cut, J**yl jJjJt, are of common occurrence. 

114. If the first radical is^», the characteristic ,j of the seventh 
form often unites with it into j> \ as J^-o-Jl or JU^ol from 

w. 9 

66 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 115 

y sO 

A j-a^^JI or 150*^1 from U~«, l»*©it or Jaa-ei from Jsuco, ^-U-it or 
t^JUt from c*JU ? ^^JLoJt or ^^tLol from l >xL©. 

Rem. These forms are sometimes assigned to the eighth form ; 
A for JJa^J^I. ,«a*-©t for .-a^ct, bj*\ for bjZ*\, etc. 

115. If the first radical be O or *t>, the characteristic O of the 
eighth form unites with the initial O into w», with the initial w> into 
O or >Z>. E.g. *.Jt, for **£M, from %+j ; jUt or jUt, for jUJI, from 
j\j ; j^jt or :>pt from j>p ; ji?t orjJul from jju. 

B Rem. The same assimilation is sometimes extended to the 

* * St * * * s s 

letter ^, as *»*~>t, for *-»2wt, from «.^w. 

116. If the first radical be y j, or j, the characteristic O of the 
eighth form is changed into >, which unites with an initial > into 3, 
and with an initial 3 into > or 3. E.g. >»Ojt, for j^Jjl, from j^j ; 
jbjl, for £3j\ ; from jtj ; Jpt, for *S)j3>\, from Jp ; <jjjt, for tj>^l, 

C from ijj* ; ^jt, for ^>\, from U> ; JXjt or j^>l, for j^iit, from 
ji.S ; ji>3j or ybjt, for j£&, from Ji>} ; c£\ or cjjl, for ipjl, 
from cji. 

Rem. a. Whether the form with > or 3 is to be preferred, 

depends upon usage j for instance, J^ot and J^jjl are preferable to and j^jt, but Lane gives in his Lexicon only *.^it, Jjjit, aud 

^jit. The unassimilated jib*}! is also said to occur, as well as 

D tfcSt 

Rem. b. Some grammarians extend this assimilation to the 

' Si , *0 , , 

letter j, as q\j\, for ^Ijkjl, from ^j\j. 

Rem. c. The letter O is sometimes changed into > after an 
initial ^ ; e.g. j *»*J, jJ^I, £*Jl»J, instead of the usual jl».l, 
J**.!, £***>j, from j*., j+, £+„*.. 

§118] I. The Verb. B. The Strong Verb. 67 

117. If the first radical be ^a, ^6, b, or &, the characteristic A 

is changed into h, which unites with initial b into j», with initial 
1» into h or £, and occasionally with initial ui into ^6. E.g. ^Jbuot, 

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x- ,,I 

^aUo l, ^Uxot, ^ ■A k . o t, from %+.*o. U^>. ^L^, -*.Lo ; ±*Jo\. 3p»t, 
,Si£t, ^i£t, from lJ*, i>, v>ii, ^JLL ; JJ&\, JJJLl, or JJSJiS, 

xxx *$& ,i , o xSx * *& //£ xx5 " '' 

from^olb ; Jte\, or jUxbt, from jUo ; |>«Jtt, jifat, j^J»t, from 0*k> 
^aI?, j^-U ; w>jJxot, or v>^^ fr° m *r>j*° 5 ft* *>^i or g/»'^i from 

xxx 5^0 x x x i / xxx 

?ta-o ; jJxot, *XJxot, from j-o, *.lo. 

Rem. a. The letter ^ sometimes assimilates the following i? ; B 

// IS x i xui X X 5 XI? XX X 

as j^ot, ^jA-ol, ^y-ol, 2~^t, J^t, for j*Jxot, etc. 

xxx y^ XXX j 

Rem. 6. From £a-o the form *a»Xt also occurs. 

[117*. If the second radical be O the characteristic O of the 
eighth form may lose its vowel and unite with it. The first radical 
then necessarily assumes a vowel, either a or i, and the helping vowel 

x xx ft x3x 

1 is unnecessary and disappears. Thus for jJ£~>t we may have jZ* 

xii JWxx Jul X JW Jul J/ 

or jJ^»; Imperf. j£~j, j^j Of j*~4 or even j^> (with a furtive kesra 
to the first radical) ; Part. act. jZ~»* (jZ~**) ; Inf. ^Uw (see § 202, C 

rem. a). Similar forms from verbs whose second radical is z, h, u° or 
J» occur (or are recorded as variants) in the Koran (Sur. x. 36, ix. 91, 
ii. 19, xxxvi. 49).] 

4. The Qiiadriliteral Verb.— Table IV. 

118. The four forms of the qiiadriliteral verb follow throughout D 
their inflexion the second, fifth, seventh and ninth forms of the 
trilateral (see §§ 69—72). 

Rem. a. The O, which is prefixed to certain persons in the 
Imperf. Act., is omitted in the second form of the quadriliteral 
verb, just as in the fifth form of the triliteral (see § 112). 

Rem. b. As mentioned in § 45, rem. d, words like Jl^b (for 
Jfljt), to pour out, and ^>o-Jb, to believe, are treated as quadnhterals: 

68 Part Second. — Etymology or the Paints of Speech. [§119 

A The latter is inflected exactly likejixoi, but the former is irregular: 
Imperf. Jgj^, Imperat. JjA, Norn. act. aSI^A, Perf. Pass. J^A. 
The form JfJJbt, Imperf. J^->, is also used. — The tenth form of 

elt, viz. clLLrft, to obey, is sometimes shortened into alkwt or 
cliLt, Imperf. **1a~j or **1~>, and then converted into c Ik*!, 
Imperf. *Jx~j. [Also, in verse, we find j\1a~*c for jU*a-~©.J 

B 5. F^rfo q/* which the Second and Third Radicals are 

Identical. — Table V. 

119. These verbs are usually called verba mediw or secundce 
radicalis geminatw (]}"]}). The Arab grammarians name them J*ti\ 

jro*)\, the solid verb, or t^lo^t J**Jt, £fo doubled verb. 

120. They differ from other strong verbs in two points. 

(a) When both the first and third radicals have vowels, the 
C second radical rejects its vowel, and unites with the third, so as to 

form a double letter, which is marked with tesdid. E.g. j* to flee, 
for jj9 ; JU> to split or cleave, for Jii£ ; v** to touch, for yj~~~t> ; j^ 
to smell, for j*+Zt ; ^^ to become dear (to one), for v***- 5 v^ ^ 
become wise or intelligent, for w«J. 

(6) If the third radical has a vowel, but the first is without one, 
the second radical throws back its vowel upon the first, and then 

j) combines with the third, so as to form a double letter. E.g. J^ 
for J-U^j, j^ for >j^i, J-ft-j for JX+j. But if the third radical has 
no vowel, the second retains its vowel, and no contraction takes place ; 
as Ojji, oJA.», w^J,jjiL», >jk+j. 

Rem. a. Transitive verbs of this class, of the form JjtJ, have 
damma in the Imperfect, with the exception of six, which also 

admit kesra ; viz. C*j to sever or separate entirely , make decisive or 

absolute, jtj to repair, jJ* to make hard or firm, tie firmly, J*c to 

§ 120] I. The Verb. B. 5. The Geminate Verb. 69 

water (camels) a second time, j^> to spread abroad or divulge secretly, A 

0* it is it S 

jjb to abhor, detest, Imperf. Cw or Cw, etc. One verb has only 
kesra, viz. w*». to fove (instead of the common IV. ^-^.1), Imperf. 

Rem. b. Uncontracted verbs of the forms Jjis and Jii some- 
times occur ; as ^XSLo to be knock-kneed or weak in the hocks, 

to Imve a swelling [splint] on the pastern (of a horse), JJ1 to smell badly, 
y«Md to abound in lizards (»^-*o), m aJ fo 6e sore (of the eye), B 
la Us to 6e mrfo/, <£&». to have its hoof worn at the edges (of a horse, 
etc.); w*J to be vrise or intelligent,^*} to be uyly, jj£» to be bad, 

S J * sj s 

*iU3 to be silly, in one's dotage, jjs- to have narrow orifices of tlie 
teats (of a she-camel, ewe, etc.). 

«. »// , o , , * o , 

Rem. c. Forms like Ojji, Co***, C~Ui*, are, however, some- 
times contracted in different ways. — 1. The second radical is 
dropped, along with its vowel, or else its vowel is transferred to Q 

s Os s Os * 6s, , iss * si s s I 

the first radical ; as, O^j, £)}j, for O^j, £)ttj, d« M*M for C% *A, 

s Os s s s s s s 

cJLb or cJLb for cJULk, CU-~* for C^ (compare the Aramaic 

^ S s Os s i S Oj 

form flf]3 for ftTT3) [also OlA ^ or OjJ"*^> O-ih! f° r O^thJ efc.*J. 

2. The third radical is united with the second, and a vowel-sound 
inserted before the pronominal suffix. This may be either (a) the 

s s Ct s S S S / «i //» S t>S S 

diphthong ^— , as C«gdJ for C-wcua5, woj-~wl for Oj^-^wl, a 

s 02 ss 

form which is not uncommon in the fifth conjugation, as 

s Outs s s 5 s s s i '■■ s s s 0£ ss s 05 <" * ' ° * " 

C*yJt3, C-.~oiJ, CXolU, for *Z>jj«JS, wvUlsu, 

(compare in the Hebrew Imperf. ftTSDM for PODSDfl); or (b) 

t v \ : t : ; • 

s sSts s s s 

the long vowel !_, as Otjc« for Cojuo (compare in Hebrew 
rt^lD where 5 = a). The form described under 2 a is the usual one 

in modern Arabic, but in N. Africa ai becomes i, as redctit for 

J OS* s s Ol , , ol 

Co3). Such forms as C« g >.>fc»t for C * «w »l also occur. — C/ow/?. Crr. 
p. 227 se?. 

[See De Goeje, £foss. to Ibn al-Fakih s.v. oj.] 


70 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§121 

A 121. In the Jussive, however, the second radical not unfrequently 
throws back its vowel upon the first, and combines with the third, in 
which case the doubled letter necessarily takes a supplemental vowel 
(§ 27). In verbs that have a or i in the Imperf., this vowel may be 
either fetha or kesra ; in those that have u, it may be any one of the 

three vowels. E.g. ±£x£ or u*xkj, J^ or J*©-», for ^aJsju, JA*j ; 

vi i ' >IJ/ ul J s ulJ ' v)i* 

j&i or^Aj, ^-^-j or s^-j, for jj*j>, w ^ . j ; j^j, j^j, or j^^t, >ji, ij-i, 
or *ji, for ^o-o-i, »j->*. 

B 122. Those persons of the Imperative in which the third radical 
has a vowel (sing, fern., dual, and plur. masc), sometimes do not follow 
the rule given in § 120, b, but keep the second radical apart from the 

» ^ 6 J 6 

third; as ^£jj*\, tjj-*t, hjj*^ When the usual contraction takes 
place, the prosthetic elif is obviously no longer necessary, and therefore 
the Arabs say ^Jj*, Iji, tjji — not ij!j*\, l/*t, tjjil, — instead of ^jjit, 
etc. The masc. sing, undergoes exactly the same contraction as the 
Jussive (§ 121), rejecting at the same time the prosthetic I ; e.g. sj°* 

a , d 6 6 d ■» 6 J 6j 

for ^a-ofcl, j3 for jjtt, j*c for jjl*I. 

C Rem. If the verb has a suffix, the choice of the supplemental 

vowel depends to some extent upon that of the suffix ; say oj (*>j)y 

4Jos> (a*oc), but U^j, ly-oft, not U^j, ly-ac In the wasl (§ 20) say 

* 6 *6iO uij y 6 s0>O Sj 

j6^\ S| or^e^l >j. 

123. The same rules that apply to the Active of the first form, 

apply also to its Passive, and to the third, fourth, sixth, seventh, 

D eighth, and tenth forms. But in the second, fifth, ninth, and eleventh, 

the second or third radical cannot be united with the other, because it 

is already doubled. Consequently jj±,jj*>, jj*\, and jtjit, undergo no 

contraction. [But cf. § 120, rem. c, for Conj. V.] 

* [The uncontracted forms are said to belong to the dialect of 
Higaz, the contracted to that of TamTm, Faik ii. 566. — De G. Cf. 
Slbaweih ii. 443.] 

§128] I. The Verb. C. The Weak Verb. 71 

Rem. In the Passive some of the Arabs substituted kesra for A 
tlamraa, as J^. for J*, (contracted from J«l»-), whilst others gave 
the vowel of the first radical a sound between those of kesra and 
damma (technically called j*\*&£)*$\, giving the one vowel a scent or 

01 j 

flavour of the other), as jj, jew, rildda, sudda (with the German ii or 
French u), instead of rudda, Sudda. 

124. In the third, sixth, and eleventh forms, a long vowel, 
namely a, precedes the double consonant, which is allowed in the 
case oi fWia alone (§ 25, rem.). However, the uncontracted forms, B 

such as jj{~*, uoclJ, -»^fc.U., J>SU>, 5>-»-^, s-*jI~j>, »W> **i !»«**, 

9 * s * J * J * JJ * 

Aa*A.U*»o, not unfrequently occur. Forms like x>jj, jj>*3> and £j<ij*\ , 
are not contracted. 

125. The Jussive of the derived forms may undergo exactly the 
same contraction as the Jussive of the ground-form, by throwing back 
the vowel of the second radical upon the first, combining the second 
radical with the third, and giving the double letter an auxiliary vowel. 

j-p jo ol j Z l j o ol 

E.g. <djl for aJUjt, aJLSI for aJULSI, the 1st pers. sing. Juss. of the fourth C 

* * * * 

form of Ji and J.3 . 

C. The Weak Verb. 

126. Weak Verbs (verba infirma) are those in which one of the 
radicals is subject, on account of its weakness, to transformation or 
rejection ; and which consequently differ more or less, in some parts 
of their inflexion, from strong verbs (see §§82 and 83). D 

127. The weak letters are I, ^, and ^. 

128. There are two sorts of weak verbs. 

(a) Those that have among their radicals a moveable Slif or hemza, 
the weakest of the gutturals. These are called verba Jidmzata. 

(b) Those that have among their radicals one of the weak con- 
sonants ^ and {£, which approach very nearly in their nature to the 
vowel-sounds u and i. These are more particularly called weak verbs. 

72 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech, [§ 129 

A Rem. The Arab grammarians do not reckon the verba hemzata 

among the weak verbs, restricting this appellation to those that 
contain a $ or ^ (§83, rem.). 

129. In a root there may be two, or even three weak letters ; 

as ^j\j, ^Sj, e£$t. Verbs that have two weak radicals are said 
to be doubly weak; those that have three, to be trebly weak. These 
may be reckoned as forming a third class of weak verbs. 

1. Verbs that have a Hemza among their Radicals (Verba 
mmzata).— Tables VI., VII., VIII. 

B 130. These are divided into three classes, according as the hemza 
is the first, second, or third radical (verba primse, mediae, ultimae radi- 
calis hemzatse). The following sections point out wherein they differ 
from the strong verbs. 

131. If the elif with hemza and gezma, at the end of a syllable 
(I), be preceded by one of the heterogeneous vowels damma and kesra, 
it is converted, after the damma, into ^ with hemza (J) ; after the kesra, 
into ^ with hemza (^). Hence C*5jj for Ol^», 1st pers. sing. Perf. 

- 6 * 

C Pass, of Ijj ; jj±> for jjL , 3d pers. sing. masc. Imperf. Pass. I. or IV. 
of jj\, Oyj and Cs^» for Olo and oUi, 2d pers. sing. masc. Perf. 
Act. of y> and ^y*, for to and Ui (see § 133). 

132. The ^ and ^ represent in these cases the sound to which 
the hemza inclines through the influence of the preceding vowel*. 

* [This is a convenient formula, and cannot well be improved upon 
without reference to the history of the Arabic language and writing, a 
D consideration that lay quite beyond the scope of the native systematic 
grammarians, to whose method of exposition this work, for good 
practical reasons, is closely conformed. But from an historical point 
of view, when we consider the cases when Jiemza is expressed by J, ^ or 
by » alone without a kursl, or supporting letter, we must distinguish 
between two pronunciations — that indicated by the consonants alone, 
which in the oldest times were written without any supplementary 
signs, and that indicated by the later points, such as *. It is known 

§ 132] I. The Verb. Verba Hemzata. 73 

The hemza is retained, not only to show their origin from I, but also to A 
remind us that the syllables >1 and {j- are not to be confounded in 
pronunciation with j_, u, and ^_, 1. The damma and kesra remain 
short, whilst J and ^ are pronounced like t itself; that is to say, at 
the commencement of a syllable, with the spiritus lenis between the 
preceding syllable and the vowel that accompanies the hemza (as yi, 
danu-a, not danu-wa) ; at the end of a syllable, with a slight emphasis 
and resting of the voice upon the soft breathing (as cJLi, sani'-ta, 
not kani-ta). 

Rem. a. In modern Arabic, h&mza in the middle and at the B 
end of words has so completely disappeared, that J and fc, when 
preceded and followed by vowels, become j and ^ ; except when 
the former has damma (j) and the latter kesra (^), as explained in 

§§ 133-4. The modern Arab also pronounces jl and ^_ like the 
long vowels j_ u and ^j- i. Even in the ancient language, 
especially among the poets, we find traces of a softer pronunciation, 

^ O s i ^ 

or total rejection, of the hemza [Sj^JI s_My? § 17, 6, rem. b]; 
and hence the custom, at the present day, of resolving the verba C 
tert. rad. hemzatse into verba tertice yd, as ^Ji for [Ji, to read, 
C*Jji for Ol^3, ^JjJu for \jju. This change has already begun in 
Hebrew, and is almost universal in Aramaic. 

that the people of the Higaz in the time of Mohammed gave up the 
original guttural sound of Jiemza in very many cases where the other 
Arabs still preserved it. Now the rules of Arabic orthography were 
mainly fixed by the Kor'an, which was originally written down in the n 
Higaz in accordance with the local pronunciation. This pronunciation 
did not ultimately prevail over the Arabic area, but the old ortho- 
graphy could not lightly be tampered with, having the character of a 
sacred tradition. The first scribes wrote ^^J, *£■%<*»», ^Uk. because 
they said bawusa, ylta, {jaka (or nearly so). The pronunciation that 
prevailed, however, was bdusa, gi'ta, §d y aka and this was expressed, 

without touching the old consonants, by writing ^yf, w^»., j)t[+. 
Rules for writing hemza as J, £$ or » are therefore really rules for 
preserving the old guttural ', in cases where it was already lost or 
transformed by the first scribes of the Kor'an.] 

w. 10 

74 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 132 

A Rem. b. The hemza gezmatum over ^ and ^ falls away after 

an elif hemzatum, because of the impossibility of pronouncing it 

o o o , ,£ o * 

(§ 17, 6, rem. b). Hence j~j\, not j-Jt, Imperat. of j~>\ ; ,J*M' 
not £,jJt, Imperat. of q$\ ; Jijt, not JLijt, Imperat. of Jit ; 

- , * *,0 ' '1 ' J I 

^t, not jH»^t, 3d pers. sing. Perf. Act. VIII. of j+\ ; 0+*3*> not 

$1 X s 

v>*$jl, 3d pers. sing. Perf. Pass. VIII. of ^1, all with elif 
B conjunctionis ( Jue»pf 3j*i) J &*$% not 0-*3^ 3d pers. sing. Perf. 

, t Q , '0 ' * •» i 

Pass. IV. of 0+\ ; oU^J, not O^l Innn - IV - of O-? 1 > y& not 
jjj\, 1st pers. sing. Imperf. Act. IV. of jj\ t all with elif separationis 
(*iaJUI tt*fc)« — When a word of this sort, beginning with the elif 

conjunctionis, comes into the wasl, the eiif conjunctionis falls away 
in pronunciation, though it may be retained in writing. In Im- 
peratives, when preceded by ^ or sJ, and, it is usually rejected ; as 
G j-^t^, ,jili, ^l-oli, Oti (from C^jt, Imper. of ^1 to come), \&£\y 

• A* 

^>*jli. In other cases it is retained, and the radical hemza is left 

O , ,,0*3* , 0* , 0* 

in its altered form (£§, J); as OjjpU fa'tazarat, kJ*j&\ 

, 0X3 /it/ » /W J </ _ S/ 

ba'da'tilqfin, U5I ^J^t UhuddHina, ,jjut J^aj yakulu'dan, ^JJI 
i>«jj$T (also written ^>*l5t ^JJt) Uladfitumina. In later times the 

pronunciation was softened in some of these cases by rejecting the 
hemza and lengthening the preceding vowel ; e. g. elhudatina, 

, ,J0, Os 1 >, , J w> 

yakulildan, elladztumina (as if written LSIj^t, O^V^J' cX^N^)* 

D Rem. c. I is always retained after fetha in the ancient lan- 


guage, as j-wb ; but in modern Arabic it passes into the elif of 

J , J , it-, J C/ 

prolongation, as ^*b, J^»b, for j*\j, J^U [And so even of old 
in Mecca, Noldeke Gesch. d. Qordns, p. 250, 257, whence with 

10 , JO %, 

8criptio defectiva (§ 6, rem. a) such variations as^£iL> for^oXJLj 
Sura xlix. 14.] Those who used the form ^JU3 (see § 94, rem. c) also 

» , JsO , t 

said^LJ for ># J£>, from ^j I. 

§ 135] I. The Verb. Verba Hhmzata. 75 

133. In the same way, 1 passes into 3 or ^, when it is pronounced A 
with damma or kesra and preceded by fetha, or with fetha and pre- 
ceded by damma or kesra; and into ^, when it is pronounced with 
kesra and preceded by damma (see § 17, b). Eg. J^ t for J*>b, to be 
brave ; ^J^t , for j»^*i or j»\%i , it agrees with, Imperf. III. of j>*$ ; 

j££\, for^UI, agree with, be reconciled to, Imperat. VIII. ofj»*$; y>, 
for to, to be mean, worthless; yyi, for jjb, an impression is made, 
Imperf. Pass. II. of j3l ; J&Jl, for >lUl, Infin. VIII. of J)\ J^ hsB 
was asked, for JU, Perf. Pass, of JL» ; j££ peace is made (between 
them), for^tjJ, Perf. Pass. III. of J$. 

Rem. At the end of a word, I, pronounced with damma and 

I, , I,, 1,0 , 

preceded by fetha, is usually left unchanged ; as \jJu from \j3, U^j 

£ , %Z*i i , l,o, l,o, l~,> 

from ^Jb, \j+j Imperf. Pass. II. of ^j, instead of jj*i, y^i, $y*t- 
But the latter form is commonly used before the accusative suffixes, 
as *j)/aj- 

134. Finally, I pronounced with damma or kesra (t or I), be- C 
comes J or ^ at the beginning of a syllable which is preceded by 

J I o* j h, 

a syllable ending in a consonant. E.g. u*»>«-», for ^Uj, Imperf. of 

/^ O i * I , % sir JO* J •«« 

\j*yi> J35~~*> f° r Jj^*» Pass. Particip. of JL* ; j^t, for ^U>, 

't* J Oj j oj 

Imperf. of^oU, to groan, to twang; jj&i, for^Lj, he acts stingily 

*> Is 0,0 

and meanly, Imperf. IV. of j>^ ; ^o-LUwt, put on armour, Imperat. 
X.of j& 

Rem. I at the beginning of a word remains unchanged, except 
in the cases stated in § 135. E.g. jj\, j\j\. J) 

135. At the beginning of a word, if an Slif productionis follows 

the radical I, the two Slifs are combined into one, which is written 
either with medda alone, or with medda accompanied by a hemza 
to the right of the Slif, or sometimes with hemza and a perpendicular 

fetha (see § 6, rem. a); as j*l, y>\>, or j*\, for ^11, to consult, III. of 

76 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 136 

" g • . % 

A j*\ to order. The same thing takes place when a radical I with ^ezma (I) 

is preceded by an elif hemzatum with fetha (compare § 132, rem. b) ; 
as Jjf, J3u, or J3f, for Jiff, to prefer, IV. of jj\. In old Mss. we often 
find J-itl, jjll 

136. In a more modern stage of the language, elif hemzatum 
with fetha passes into $, when preceded by fetha and followed by an 

B elif of prolongation (compare § 17, b, rem. b) ; as Ij^tjJ, for tjj^U3 

or tjj-«U, they deliberated together, 3d pers. plur. Perf. Act. VI. of 

j-«t;, for L».tU or L»A3, tfc £wo became intimate friends, from 

U.t (for ^il). 

Rem. The same change sometimes takes place even with the 

initial &lif of the third form; as ^^-tj to be intimate with, ^£jtj 

to be opposite or 'parallel to, i**»»tj to console, J^tj to eat along with, 

q for L^tt, etc. It commenced, of course, in the Imperf. and the 
Nomina agentis and actionis, where, according to § 17, b, rem. b, 

xJ x J x x J 

$ took the place of J ; as .-wt^j, u*\yo, and SUly*. 

, ,t xx£ , , £ 

137. The verbs J^l to take, y>\ to order, and J^l to eat, reject 

J J J 

the first radical in the Imperat., making J**., j*o, and J^. 

X X X 

138. When preceded by ^ or ^, 6W&<#, the Imperative j-» gene- 

(JC/ J x « J J 

rally recovers its radical elif, j-otj or j««j ; but not so •*£» and J^ , 

d J X J X 

j) which make only J^j, JXs. For the rule as regards other verba 

prim. rad. hemz., see § 132, rem. b ; and on the Imperative of ^yl, to 
come, see also § 175, rem. a. 

139. The first radical of J^t is assimilated in the eighth form 

to the characteristic O of that form ; Jk±3\, for J ^ J O t (§ 132, rem. b), 
to take for oneself. 

" % 

Rem. a. The same assimilation sometimes takes place in jj\, 

Ox x x 2 

to put on one the article of dress called j\j\, and j^,\, to give wages, 
which makes jJZj\ or jjJt, to put on an Hzar, and j^Sj\ or jj*JI to 

§ 141] I. The Verb. Verba Hemzata. 77 

give alms, to receive wages ; still more rarely in J^l, to be safe, A 

v>*3t, for O-oJut, to JrwsJ or confide in, and Jjbl, to marry, ^j\, for 

J^jt, o?o. — The tenth form of J^.t may also lose its e"lif and be 

written Jd^wt. 

Rem. 6. From the above assimilated forms are derived the 
secondary radicals JdL3, to take, and j**j, to trade (see § 148, 

rem. b). Compare in Syriac l *Jl\ t i-it^M> iKl!^; an ^ with B 
Jtffc ^ i, ;-kjA_»|, if from the rad. j_kj|. 

140. Verba med. hemzatse are occasionally inflected like verba med. 
rad. 3 et ^ (§ 149, etc.), and take an elif of prolongation instead of the 
radical hemza with fetha. This is particularly the case with the verb 

JL» to ask, which has Jlw for JL>, 2d pers. sing. m. cJ~» [not cut*], 
Jl~i for JI~j, J-~> for JI~j, J~> for JL»J (Imperat.), Perf. Pass. 
J~*. — Sometimes the elif hemzatum is elided, its vowel being trans- 
ferred to the preceding (previously vowelless) consonant. Kg. J-~> C 
for jtl>, from JC ; ^jJ for \j\ji, from {j\j to see; iUt to send, for 
^t, whence ^-U, for J^U, an angel p]X a?)- 

Rem. a. The Imperative Juj makes in the fern. ^^Xw, du ^U», 

plur. t^JL>, not ^C, etc. When preceded by ^ and ^, we may 

say JuTj or J-^, I^LTi, IjjLi (§ 21, d, rem. 6), or I^LLs. 

Rem. 6. The elision of the elif occasionally happens in Hebrew, 
and in Syriac it is the rule ; see Comp. Gr. p. 46, p. 282. D 

2. Verbs which are more especially called Weak Verbs 
(§ 128, b). 

141. These likewise fall into three classes, according as the 
letter ^ or ^ is the first, second, or third radical (verba prim®, 
secunda), tertise rad. ^ et \jj). 

78 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 142 

A A. Verbs of which the First Radical is 3 or ^ (verba prima? 
rad. $ et (£).— Table IX. 

142. Those verbs primae rad. j, which have kesra as the characte- 
ristic vowel of the Imperf. and Imperat., reject the 3 in these forms. E.g. 

xx x J x J Ox OOO 

jJ$ to bear children, Imperf. j»-b for jJ^», Imper. jJ for jJo\ (jM)> 

x x x J x J Ox 

j&3 to promise, Imperf. juu for j^-^i, Imper. js- for jaA (jue^l). 

Rem. a. Eight verbs primae rad. y of the form Ja3, have in 

J Ox JxOx I'll 

g the Imperf. Jmu instead of Jmu (contrary to the rule laid down 
in § 92), and hence elide their first radical ; Jmj to trust or confide 
i n > J£} ) ^>J3 to inherit, £>jj ; cjj to abstain from (what is un- 
lawful), cjj ; j»)$ to swell, jbjj ; ^jj to be firm and hard (of fat), 

x xx t J X X X 

L&H J c£*3 *° ^ e i n 9°°d condition and handsome, ,JJu ; ^3 to be 
near, to be in charge of, ^.C j JUj £0 fove, Ji*J. Of these cjj has 

J X X 

also dialectically the form pj^ and a few more admit both forms ; 

xx ^» xxJxOxxx 

q e.g. ja.^ 2o 6e angry with, full of hatred of, j**~j, J^yi 5 J^ ^° ^ e 

JxJxOxxx Jx 

ro^/i and broken (of ground), jju, jX^j j j^-j to 6e to, angry, jJv, 

JxOxxx g § JxJxOx 

jtyi ', <dj £0 6e stupefied with grief, to be melancholy, aJLj, diyj ; 

XX J X J x Ox 

Jjbj fo 6e cowardly, to forget, J^->, J-fcjj. 

Rem. 6. The Imperat. j^ in the phrases l».Uo ^ ^ooc? 

^ x x # x x x ' 

morning ! %\~~* j^ good evening I seems to come from j^-y but is 

xxx J Ox 

in reality from ^su, Imperf. ^o**i> t° oe happy, comfortable. This is 
j) the solitary instance in Arabic of the loss of the initial n in the 
Imperat. of verbs |"£, which is so common in Heb. and Aram. 

143. But those verbs primse rad. ^, which have fetha or damma 
as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. and Imperat., retain the j 

xx xx JxOx JxOxOx 

in these forms. E.g. j^.^ or J^ to be afraid, j**$i or J*->>, j^l 

Ox 0x0 0x0 xx JxOxxx 

or J*hI (for j**}\ or J^t); £^3 to be in pain, £*->;; J^ to stick 

§ 144] I. The Verb. Verba pr. rad. j et {J. 79 

J X x * m x t $**+%»* 

in the mud, J*-^j ; S>3 t° perish, (jJ.yi ; $>$ to be visited by the mur- A 

l J0_ y J s Jibuti, 

rain, y>±i ; Jjj to be unwholesome or insalubrious, Jjy> ; >oj to be 

I J Ox 

clean and fair, yoy*. The same is the case with those verbs which 
are at once primse rad. j and medise rad. geminatse ; as 3j (for jjj) to 

is x Jx Ox x OxO 

lorn, *yt for toy* , jjul for 335I • 

Rem. In verbs primae rad. ^, of which the second and third 
radicals are strong, and in which the Imperf. has fetha, some Arabic 

J x x J x Ox J x Ox 

dialects change the ^ into t or ^. E.g. J**.lj and J*»*u, for Jj^j, B 

x x t J x x J x Ox J Ox J x "x 

from <Jj*.j, £0 £>e afraid ; %o»\i and ».ai, t ,j or r% jj. for %a*yi, from 

x x J x x JxOx J x Ox x x 

%».j, to 6e tfi j)« ; ^»Ab and ^»v->j, for ^*A>j, from j*b}, to moke 
a mistake. Others even use the forms Jjwj, Xs* **, and - „ ov -jj. 

144. In a few verbs, of which the eight following are those that 

most commonly occur, the initial ^ is dropped in the Imperf. and 

Imperat., notwithstanding that the characteristic vowel of these forms C 

is fetha. 

x x x » , * , 

s>j to let alone, ©ju, c>. 

x xx J x x Ox 

£3 to let alone, jSj, ji. 

x xx .» xx Ox 

gjl to restrain, ©jJ, #J. 

x x # j ^ • x 

*~>3 to be wide or spacious, £~«i, £-»• 

x x x J x x x 

jt-oj #0 ^?w£ «?ww or jt?/ac^, £-«y, £-«• U 

2 x x £ x 

^^5 £0 trample upon, Usy, U». 

x xx ■» -" « ^ 

£3^ fe) /Off, Ji}, £*• 

• xx J xx Ox 

^Jbj to give, y^i, s-**. 

Rem. a. The reason why the j is elided in these verbs probably 
is, that the fetha of the Imperf. and Imperat. owes its existence 
only to the fact of the second or third radical being in each case a 
guttural or semiguttural (j). 

Rem. b. cjj and j±j are not used in the Perf. 

80 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 145 

A 145. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a 
vowelless j, the j is changed into ^ or j productions, according to 

b * s b , OsO 

the preceding vowel. Hence Jo^-jl, *J^], for J***], JJjt, Imperat. I. ; 

Jl^jl for jjtjjt, Perf. XL; ctjut, ctjuzll, for £t>Jl, ^tSjlll, Infin. 

IV. and X. ; s^^-yi for w^>j, Imperf. Act. IV. ; w^jt, * J^**', for 

ws^jt, c>^iwl, Perf. Pass. IV. and X. 

Rem. In the Passive of verbs primse rad. ^, the ^ is sometimes 
changed into I, on account of a certain repugnance of the Arabs to 

J * uJC f lit J 

g the sound of the syllable ^ ; e.g. C*5t, for <£*3j, ft is j^ajec? or 
determined (of time); ^^-l, for ^*-j, ^ is revealed. 

146. Verbs primse rad. ^ are inflected in almost all their forms 
like the strong verbs ; e. g. j~»> to play at hazard, or to be gentle, easy, 

JO*'" J s ' ' '.* 

j^d ; *Ju to ascend (a hill), to be grown up, *£*> ; JaJb to be awake, 

J sb< * J y J J 6 s * ** t J ' 0' JO* 

Jiio ; JiAj do. , J*a*j j *^ to become ripe, %yi or %yi . 

, , J *0* J 0* * * 

p Rem. v~*ii i0 oe dry, has ^^^ or y^^-o, and ^J, to despair, 

j£b* JO, .... J ' ' 

^Uo or u-^-rf. See § 92, rem. a. Dialectic varieties are u*^l>> for 

* *0s jt J ' jibs 

gg, and ^U* or ^sb, for ^Uj. See § 143, rem. 

147. In those forms in which a kesra or damma precedes a 
vowelless ^£, the ^ is changed into ^ or j productionis, according to 

the preceding vowel. Hence j~*>\ for j~~»t, Imperat. I.; jl~>t and 

<i , t, ,0 < J J J J J OJ 

jLmjUA, for jL~>| and j L»+ Z~>\, Infin. IV. and X. ; j-~>$i, &*>>, for j~~*i, 
D teJuj , Imperf. Act. IV. of j~»j and &Ju . 

148. In the eighth form, ^ and ^ are assimilated to the charac- 

»j * * £ * * * * , , 

teristic O, producing O for Oj and Co ; as judt, for ju*Z>I, (juujl), 
#0 receive a promise ; j~3\, forj-wt (^jl»I), to play at hazard. 

Rem. a. Sometimes, however, although many grammarians dis- 
approve of it, ^ and ^ are not assimilated to the O, but pass after 
fetha, damma, and kesra, into the homogeneous letters of prolonga- 

§ 150] I. The Verb. Verba pr. rad. j et ^j. 81 

tion, I, j, ^. E.g. J^Ll for J«15jt, JJjLl for JJ^y (§ 145), A 

j^J\^ for j~i^, j^jl for Jajfcl (§ 147), in the Perf. ; J~a3b for 

J-^*J> *w^ f° r ^*^j j-^ for j-^ri, in the Imperf. Compare 
§ 139, and rem. a. 

Rem. b. From these assimilated forms are derived secondary 

radicals ; such as Aa^j to ^rw oneself towards, to face ; ^L~ to suffer 

from indigestion ; *~3 to be wide or spacious ; ^"t to fear (God) ; 

>>S3 to be born in one's house (of a slave), to be hereditary, inherited, B 

or long possessed ; ^JSj to rely upon; djj to be stupefied by grief , to 

be melancholy ; *$3, or ^Jj, to follow ; and in the fourth form, Uul 

to make one lean, to prop him up ; ^Jo\ to insert ; j^\ to suspect a 
person. Compare § 139, rem. b. 

Rem. c. For the inflection of verbs of this class in the cognate 
languages, see Comp. Gr. p. 234 seq. 

B. Verbs of which the Second Radical is 3 or ^j (verba C 

media? radicalis 5 et yj). — Tables X. — XIII. 

149. Verba mediae rad. ^ et ^ (called by the Arab grammarians 

sJye^\ JaaJI, the hollow verb) differ from strong verbs only in the 

first, fourth, seventh, eighth, and tenth forms. The following sections 
indicate the principal points of difference. 

150. If the first radical is without a vowel, and the third has one, 
the vowel of the second radical is thrown back upon the first, and the 
^ or ^ is changed into that letter of prolongation which is homogeneous 

to the vowel that the first radical has now assumed. E.g. D 

-» J 6' its 

Jyb, he says, becomes Jy^t, Imperf. Act. I. 

*l, he goes, „ j~~i, do. 

^J^arJi, he is afraid, „ ^^i, do. 

w^v-;, he is afraid, „ *r>^> do. 

j * j j , j 

Jyu, it is said, „ J^>> Imperf. Pass. I. 

J*£j, pardon is granted, „ JUj, Imperf. Pass. IV. 

w. 11 

82 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 151 

A J»$*-i, he remains, becomes 

3 03 

0*k, he softens, „ 

j oj 

\yyi\, remain, „ 

3 oi 

1^-iJI, soften, „ 

j»£\, he remained, „ 

x xOg 

v>Jt, he softened, „ 

3 0,$, 

d ji } £ ;„ ,. > | fo stands upright, „ 

, 03 3 

ij*A*~i\, he was thought gentle, „ 


J*£l~j, pardon is asked, „ 

Imperf. Act. IV. 

0*k, do. 

t^-j3t, Imperat. Plur. IV. 

t^lJI, do. 

^\i\, Perf. Act. IV. 
O^jl, do. 

3 X ©X 

^s&Im.j, Imperf. Act. X. 
OJ&X, Perf. Pass. X. 

3 , x 3 

JU^j, Imperf. Pass. X. 

151. But if the third radical loses its vowel, the long vowels 
I-, ^J— , $—, are changed into the corresponding short ones, because 
a shut syllable does not admit of a long vowel (§ 25). E.g. 

03, e> 3, 03 o, 

Jju, for Jyu (J>*j), Jussive Act. I. 

, x x 

^^%-j (j-j**,;), do. 

O x x x x 

yJU*-> (o^-»), do. 

(J3.AJ), Jussive Pass. I. 
(j*yy), Jussive Act. IV. 

O Oi 

(J**t), Imperat. IV. 


(>>*!), do. 




x » 2 


x J OJ 

x Oxg 
x i 






x J J 

131 (C^ll), 2d p. sing. m. Perf. Act. IV. 

x *| 


C^UXtaWl '' S^-s^,*x.a»*) I ). 


Pass. IV. 
Pass. X. 

O^Ut (o-o^St), 3d p. plur. f. Perf. Act. IV. 

x o t. x a£ 

l>o*3I (CM^)j 2d p. plur. f. Imperat. IV. 

Jx 3 , xx 

Rem. t>NT f° r Oy^J» Jussive of <jl^, to be, is sometimes still 
farther abbreviated, especially by the poets, into *sL. 


I. The Verb. Verba med. rad. $ et ^£. 


152. In consequence of the changes produced by the operation A 
of the two preceding rules, the Imperative of the first form loses its 
prosthetic t (see §§ 98 and 122). E.g. 

3 03 33 * jj a j 

JJ>3t becomes successively J^l, 

3 o 


153. If three open syllables follow one another in immediate 
succession, the first of which has fetha and the last any vowel, then 
the j or ^j of the middle syllable is changed into Slif productionis, 
without any regard to the nature of the vowel that accompanies it. Q 














3 33 

3 3 









J t 












* * , * 



Perf. Act. VII. 


Imperf. do. 




Perf. Act. VIII. 

** *0 





3 *0* 

Imperf. do. 

Rem. The forms J^j anc 

1 ^ 

are mentioned as being dia- 

lectically used instead of JJj (f 

or Juj), to cease, and >l£» (for 33^), 

to oe near or oh tf/te 

^ointf o/*. 


84 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 154 

A 154. But if the vowel of the first syllable be damma, and the 
3 or ^£ is accompanied by kesra, the damma is elided and the kesra 
substituted in its place, in consequence of which the ^ or ^ becomes 
(J productions. E.g. 

s i so s 

J>3 becomes (J>*) J**> Perf. Pass. I. 

s i ' O s 

j^t „ (&£*) c*~A Perf. Pass. VIII. 

s i i s i s i 

B j-~±-\ » (j**^) jifi^t do. 

Rem. a. Instead of J*3 (J>3), J**. (Jj^)j cJ*-» (JiyOj c^»^ 
(^tfui), and the like, some Readers of the Kor'an give the vowel I 
an^o-aMvoU^t, a scent or flavour of the u-sound (j&ob\ ^j*j a&ja. 
^JOIj), that is to say, they pronounce it with the sound of the 

German il in kitten or the French u in tune (compare § 123, rem.), 
hula, hula, suka, giida. 

Q Rem. b. Some of the Arabs take another method of forming 

the Passive, namely by rejecting the vowel of the j or ^, and 

changing those letters into j productionis ; as J^S (for Jji, J>$), 

si si * 6 i si sisOisiOi s i i sOi i 

J^*. (for £)y*», Jjo»), £# (for £*j, 2*J), j^6.\ (for j#*.\, j-^l). 

s s sis 

The verb JL>, for JL» (see § 140), is said to admit of the forms 

-is _ si 

cJ"£**'> sj^^i siila, and ^J[$**>. 

" O i s i 

Rem. c. In forms like Ji^Xwt, j-m^.1, some assimilate the vowel 

s s 

s s 

D of the prosthetic elif to the following i, J^~>t, j*X».l, pronouncing 
i or &. 

155. If the first radical has fetha and the third is without a 
vowel, three cases arise. 

(a) The second radical is ^ or ^ with fetha. In this case the 
second radical is elided along with its vowel, but its influence is strong 
enough to change the fetha of the first radical into damma, if it was 3, 
and into kesra, if it was ^. E.g. 

s i s ss 

C-s^5 for o~«ji, 2d pers. sing. m. Perf. Act. I. 

s s Os s 

dj~» ,, Oj-j~>, do. 

§157] I. The Verb. Verba med. rad. ^ et ^J. 85 

(b) The second radical is ^ with damma or ^ with kesra. In this A 
case the second radical is elided along with its vowel, as in a, but its 
influence is sufficient to change the fetha of the first radical into the 
homogeneous vowel. E.g. 

cJJ» for cJ^b, 2d pers. sing. m. Perf. Act. I. 

" ° 3JLik d 

(c) The second radical is j with kesra. In this case the same 
elision takes place, but the influence of the characteristic vowel i 
suffices to change the fetha of the first radical into kesra. Kg. B 

x O x x 

c*a£> for C^»*, 2d pers. sing. m. Perf. Act. I. 

a c> x x ■■» x 

*£*■; *, ^>* (^y*), do. 

156. In the Perfect Passive of the first, seventh, and eighth 
forms, if the third radical loses its vowel, the ^ productionis (§ 154) 
is shortened into kesra, according to § 25. E.g. 

x o x o x a •» 

for C*s-u (c-ouj), 2d pers. sing. m. Perf. Pass. I. 


(c^J), do. C 

x o J OJ 

C J tt*1 „ Ci^l (sZ*$yl*>\), do. VIII. 

Rem. a. In verbs mediae rad. ^£, and in those mediae rad. ^ of 
the form J*5, the 1st and 2d pers. m. and fern. sing, dual and plural 

JO J Oxx 

Perf. Act. and Pass, are identical in form ; e.g. C-o*-> for Cou,* 

J O J x xdx 

(§ 155, a) and C* * *.* ; Ci4 for C-s^*. (§ 155, c). 

Rem. 6. Those who pronounce in the 3d pers. kuta, bU'a, etc., D 
say in the 1st and 2d persons kiiltu, bii'tu, etc.; whilst those who 

xJxJ i J J J 

prefer Jy>, pyj, say CuXS, Osju. [The prophet himself in the 

J 0JX 

liadith al-wahy says wd^i. — De G.] 

157. Most verba mediae rad. j take damma, and most verba 
mediae rad. ^j kesra, as the characteristic vowel of the Imperf. ; e.g. 

xxx xxx JJxJJOx xx xxx 

from Jtj (Jjj), to move away, comes JjJj ( J^J-i) ; from JU (Jy>), to 

J J X J J}/ XX x'J X J J X 

grew m a present, JyJ (Jy»i) ; from JU» ( JjJ»), to fo fo/i#, J>ix> 
(J>£J, § 93) ; from o!i (0*j)> ^ adorn, £njl (O^k) ; fr° m jh (s*~*)> 

86 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 158 

3 x 3 x i ' ' 

A to go, j~~j ijv~i). But in some, which are of the form J*», the 

X X X X J X X 

Imperf. takes fetha (§ 92) ; e.g. from J\j (J^tj), to cease, comes Jtj*> 

j/«/ x x x x j xx Jx«x * x £ x 

( J-»j-») ; from JU ( J*J), to get, obtain, JU; (J~o) ; from *U> (^-w), 

»*x x £x G x XX, xx Jxx JxOx 

to tc?M&, lUu (U£j) ; from ^JU» (tj^*.), to ./ktr, ^JU^; ((J^d^j) ; from 

jb\J {j*y), to sleep, jsUj {j*&^)- ^^, to die, has usually the form C 

£xx6x A • 3 3* 

(for Cy, co^ Heb. Jlft, Syr. A_»_Lo) in the Perfect, and O3-0I 

XX •• I 

(Heb. TVlD*, Syr. ZoLqj) in the Imperfect, though w~o, oU->, and 


B also C~*->, are mentioned by the lexicographers. 

158. In verba mediae rad. 3 et ^j, of which the third radical is 
O or Q, these letters combine with an initial O or ^ in the pro- 

ul mJ it 3 Out 3 3 3 

nominal suffixes so as to form O and <j. E.g. C-*o, j***, for C^Zc, 

O 30 3 xx S ' xx 

^£*, from OU (O3-0) to <$**; C*o, for CJj, from Ob (C-*u) to pass 

d J xOJ WJx x ->x xx 

ifa night ; j>o, for t>*0, an d O^* f° r O-^j fr° m 0^° (0>°) to 

W xO 5 x xdx xx 

C guard ; U>, for Uu, and ^>?j, for o**^ fr° m OW (l>^) to fo separate. 
See § 90, rem. a, b, c. 

159. In the Passive of the third and sixth forms of verba med. 
rad. j, the 3 productions (§ 108) does not coalesce with the second 

radical into 3, for, if it did, the peculiar feature of these forms would 
be effaced, and they would become identical in appearance with the 

^ it) 3 x vt 33 * J - x 3 3 

second and fifth ( J>3 and J>&>). Hence we write J33.S, Jjl** 5 , not 

D J>*> J>*3- For the same reason, no coalition takes place in the same 

forms of verba mediae rad. ^, which are always written, for example, 


£j>j and £»>*3. See § 11, rem. a. 

160. Some verba mediae rad. 3, and a few mediae rad. ^, of 
the form s }»3, are inflected throughout like strong verbs ; as jjt to fo 

JxCx xx JxCx xx «g 

curved or forctf, Imperf. >jV( ; •>>* to 60 6M;, Imperf. j^^ , IV. *y~>\ ; 

x Of 

jj* to be one-eyed, Imperf. jj*>i, IV. j^\ ; ^J^o to fo woolly, Imperf. 

§ 163] I. The Verb. Verba med. rad. ^ et ^. 87 

Jx Ox x x -»x x xx Ofc x x 

<Jyau ; J^a. to squint, Imperf. J^a*->, IV. J>»-t ; j^z to be wanting, A 

Jx Ox x x Oi x x t *' ' 

Imperf. J>*j, IV. J>fct ; ju.o to have a particular disease (ju-«, the 

Jx X x x 

glanders), said of a camel, Imperf. j u .« a . j ; ju*. to have a long, slender 

Jx x x x JxOx x x 

W0c£, Imperf. j^h ; *>*£• 1° be tender and flexible, Imperf. juou ; JL* 
to have a slender waist, Imperf. *-***->. 

161. Some verba mediae rad. j et ^ follow in the fourth form 

X x£ X X "i 

either the strong or the weak inflection. E.g. w»Ut or <^^j\, to reward, 

xx x x£ X X02 

from w>U fo return ; *-\j\ or p-jjl, to perceive the smell or otfow of a B 

xx x x£ xxO? XX X X £ 

thing, from m\j do.;jfe>\ or^^l, to be cloudy, from^U do.; JU-I or 

xx Ot ^ 

J-j£j, to watch a rain-cloud, from Jl».. 

162. A few verba mediae rad. ^ have only the strong inflection in 


the eighth form, used to denote reciprocity ; as jy**\ to be neighbours, 


from the rad. jlr*. ; *~3>)\ to pair, to marry or intermarry, from the 

xxxxxO *" " x x x xx 

rad. 9-lj ; j>^t to borrow, from the rad. jU ; o>^ to Mjo one another, C 
from the rad. O^- 

163. Many verba mediae rad. 3 admit in the tenth form of either 
inflection, but they generally prefer the weak, with the exception of a 
few, [chiefly denominatives], which almost always adopt the strong. 

E.g. w> U » * ..>t or w> j a», M .>t, to give an answer, grant a prayer, from the 
rad. w>Uh" ; uj^uwl or w> Ua ^..»t, to consider right, from the rad. w>L« ; 

x x x f 9 x xx OxO 

^»}su~t\ to be bent with age, from ^*^S a bow ; Jf^wt to become like a D 

9 x x xxOx 

she-camel (*$U). Similarly, from verba med. rad. ^, u . M . U» >t £0 become 

Ox xxOx t 9 

#£0 a he-goat (v~*>) ; J**^! £0 become like an elephant (J**). 

xxO xxO xxxO 

Rem. a. On elixwt or cUwt, shortened from cl :^l, to oftey, to 

x x 0* 

6e a&Je to do, X. of sU», and on the secondary cllxwl, see § 118, 
rem. b. 

Rem. b. On the formation of the nomina agentis et patientis of 
the first form from verba med. rad. j et ^, see §§ 240-1. 

Rem. c. For the inflection of verbs )"y and *"y in Hebrew and 
Aramaic see Comp. Gr. p. 242 seq. 

88 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 164 

A C. Verbs of which the Third Radical is 3 or ^ (verba tertiw radicalis 
jet fj; ^SUT J*A)i the defective verb).— Tables XIV.— XVIII. 

164. These verbs are of five kinds ; namely : — 

(a) Verba tertise rad. j of the form Jjtf ; as \j£> to make a foray 
or raid, for^j£ (§ 167, a, /?, a). 

(b) Verba tertise rad. ^ of the form Jii ; as ^oj to throw, for 
^j (§ 167, a, ft a). 

B (c) Verba tertise rad. 3 of the form Ja$ ; as ^oj to be pleased 

with, for^oj (§ 166, a). 

(d) Verba tertise rad. ^ of the form Jj*i ; as iJD±- to be ashamed. 

sis sis 

(e) Verba tertise rad. j of the form J*J ; as jj~> to be noble. 

165. There are three things to be noticed regarding the third 
radical of these verbs; namely, that it retains its power as a consonant, 

or it resolves itself into a vowel, or it is elided. 

166. At the commencement of a syllable, one of two things takes 
place. Namely : — 

(a) The third radical maintains its power as a consonant between 

s s s s s J * J s s 

the vowels a — a (tj_, b— ), u—a ($— ), u — a (S3-), 1 — a ((^— ), % — a (U-) ; 
as also when the preceding syllable ends with a consonant. E.g. 

s s s s s s f s J s sis s i * s s i Os s s s s s Os s s d s 

IJJS*, ***J ; &3J"> bj~>> 3J*i> CfllJ** 5 LTf> **f> W? 3 ' OW* ? J>>*> 

s s s 

D is*J* O^y^j- The letter j between the vowels 1 — a (yJ) and 1 — a 
(I5— ) always passes into ^ ; as ^^>j, l£J^> for ^o>, jjx. The letter 
^ is never found between the vowels u — a, u — a. 

Rem. In the first and second classes, the 3d pers. fern. sing, and 

O s s s s s s ' s s s 

dual of the Perf. Act. I. and II. might have been O^j^, UjJ^, w-»j^j, 

sss* s s s s s is 

I!**), etc., after the analogy of C*»^j, C-oj^., and Ojj-w; but the 

s s s s 

Arabs followed in the sing, the masc. forms tj£, ^cj (§ 167, a, /?, a), 

O s s s s \s 

and, not being able to say C>!j£ and OU> or £*++} (§ 25), they sub- 

ss * ss 

stituted 0>£ and C-«j. In the dual, on the other hand, where they 

§ 167] I. The Verb. Verba tert. rad, 3 et ^. 89 

might have said b\j£ and UU,, they followed the received fern. sing. A 

in adopting \jj£ and £o>. The form UUj is said to occur dialecti- 
cally, but is condemned by the grammarians. 

(b) The third radical is elided between a short vowel and the long 
vowels i and u, and the two vowels are contracted in one of two ways. 

a. Into a long vowel ; namely j^_ into ^-, as \^jl* for t^JjJ,, 

03J*£ ano - L?>*^ i° r <J3 3J*i an0 - b^>*^ > 3d— m *o ^-, as t>oj for 

WfJ' 0**Jl and l>«H for OlX'^H and \yt*H ', C£3- m *° l£-> as B 

,X>*j and ^^^xj for 0-i3J*3 and iS3j*3, lS/* 1 f° r L£i>*' 5 L5-~ mto 

{£—, as 0**P and j^5^p f°r 0***P and j^^^P, ^-©jl for , ***j\. 

Rem. The 2d pers. sing. fern. Imperat. ^J^t may be pronounced 

either *ugz\ with the pure sound of the u (as in the masc. 'ugzu), or 

'*#«*, with the ^U^t (see §§ 123, rem., and 154, rem. a), owing to 
the influence of the I in the second syllable. 

/?. Into a diphthong ; namely jj— into 3—, as Ijj^fc for tj.*j£ ; ^ 
yi— into j_, as ly«j for !>*«;, 0>-^! and (^^H f° r U>*-^H and 
t^-oj-j, 0^>*i and IjJaj for 0>i>*i and \&j*-i \ L5^"" in *° ^~' M 
0**^p and ^-^p f° r O^e-^P and \jt*°y*, CK/*** an( ^ L£P^ f° r 
Cxs£>*3 and ugi*3, lT^J for L5~^ j ; 

167. At the end of a syllable, the third radical is either vocalised 
or elided. It may stand at the end of a syllable either naturally, as 
in Ojjx. = cJjii, or after dropping a short vowel, as in ^^-j for D 

J s J s 

^j*jji = Jjtij. Hence arise the following cases. 

(a) a. When standing naturally at the end of a syllable, the 
third radical is vocalised in two ways. 

(a) If the preceding vowel be homogeneous (— or -), ^ and ^ 
become letters of prolongation, that is to say, j- uw and ^- ty 
pass into ^— u and ^— 7. E.g. O^j-j for Ojj-», ^*j>»» for C*j>»., 
c^j for C^ t -d; (from ^^>j for^-oj, according to §§ 166, a, and 168). 
w. 12 . 

90 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 168 
A (b) If the preceding vowel be heterogeneous (— ), it forms with 

Ox Ox x Ox^ 

j and ^ the diphthongs 3— and (J— . E.g. Oj^fc, gazauta, for 

x O xx 

gazawta ; <u#cj, ramaita, for ramayta. 
(3. When the third radical stands at the end of a syllable, not 
naturally, but in consequence of a short vowel having been dropped 

Ox x x x x x J x J lib 3 ## 

(j— for j_ ; ^_ for ^J— and ^_, j_ for j— , ^_ for ^-), it is 
vocalised in three different ways. 

X X 

(a) j— aw and ^— tf# become a, but for the sake of distinction 
B we write t_ for aw, and ^— (§ 7, rem. 5) for ay. E.g. t>£ for jj£, 

SS X XX X * J X X«^J i X * J /»J X /«J J X?J 

^ for ^aj, ^JJJu for ^Jaj and ^JJaj, ^^m for ^^j and ^ajj. 

J J J">X J X Jx^xJjOx 

(b) 3— ww becomes j— « ; as .$>*»», j>j-~>, for j>*j, 3j~~>- 

O fi x J Ox 

(c) ^— «# becomes ^- I ; as ^^H f° r ^p. 

(b) The third radical is elided : — 

a. "When standing naturally at the end of a syllable. This 
C happens in the Jussive and Imperative, in which the signification of 

J Ox J J J Ox J Ox 

the form produces the abbreviation. E.g. Jju, j£\, for jJaj (jj-xt), 

jjj J Oj Ox fx Ox 00 xOx xO 

3& (j**0 ; -f>H> -**}» for L5^ (L5f^)' L5?x>j (ujlp ; ^^ V%& 

xOx OxOx x 0x0 

for u±jj (^Ji), ^jt (Jf*|0* 

/?. When it does not naturally stand at the end of a syllable. 

Ox « w x J «0-> 

This happens in the nomina agentis, J^U (§ 80), J***, J**-», etc. 
(see § 236), before the tenwln of damma and kesra. These vowels are 
elided at the same time, but the tenwln is thrown back upon the kesra 

x x x x > x 

D of the second radical. E.g. jt>\j for ^j*\j and ^\j ; jU for (j?jU. and 
^jU ( jjU, 3jU, § 166, a) ; jo f, for ^tj and ^lj (^o!;, ^-Stj) ; 

WxJ 5wxJ *x J OJ J J 

t>** for ^5-^*^ and ^5^*-* ; t>**° f° r 1^5**-* an0 - 1^5*** 5 e ^ c - 

168. It has been already mentioned (§ 166, a) that when the 
third radical is j, it passes between the vowels 1 — a (j_) and 1 — a 

* [At the end of a sentence the final vowel of the Imperative is 


often protected by a 0, as oJaaS go on, 4J}\ approach. The Jussive is 
sometimes treated in the same manner (comp. Vol. ii. § 230). D. G.] 

§171] I. The Verb. Verba tert. rad. j et ±J. 91 

(tj— ) into i^. After ^j has been introduced in this manner into the A 
3d pers. sing. masc. Perf., it maintains itself throughout the whole 
inflection, as far as the above rules permit. Consequently, we get 

from ^j*oj (for y£j) the forms C-*-©;, ^j-i, ^>j^, C>*"^P 5 fr° m 

169. Final ^ is changed into ^ in all the derived forms of the 
verb ; as jfc, ^o\j, ( J}^\, JLLj, ^ijp, ^J^l \JJ&[, ^jZ-,1 B 

Rem. The ninth and eleventh forms conform to this rule, in- 
stead of contracting the two waws into j. The Arabs say ^JjZjl to 
abstain or refrain, for l££jtj and not ^.tjt (Ji*J1, see § 59, rem. a). 

170. In the nomina patientis, Jyta* (§ 80), of verba tertiae 
rad. 3, the 3 of the long vowel j— 5 coalesces with the radical 3 

into j ; as $jsu> for jji>«-«. In verba tertise rad. ^, the influence of 
the third radical converts this secondary j into ^, the two coalesce 
into (j?, and, in consequence, the preceding damma becomes kesra ; Q 

as ^*j* for ^j«j*c, \Jy*j+. Such verbs as ^*oj, in which the final ^ 

3 «^ 
stands for 3 (§ 166, a), admit of either form, though ^oj^> is far more 

g it/ 

common than $^y>. 

Rem. a. The form ^>*-o is occasionally found in verba tert. 

rad. 3, instead of ^jk*; e.g. i^i-*»^ c^t or 5yL*»«© u^j^ irrigated 
land, from lw to irrigate, Imperf. ^L^j ; Lj^lc^ <uXt Lj*x**o w*JJt Ut, 
/ am (&&e) the lion, whether attacked or attacking, from ^Xc I j^c to D 
mra a£, to attack, Imperf. ^jnu (IjjU in rhyme for u^U). 

Rem. b. For verbs final 3 and ^ as compared with the corre- 
sponding forms in the other Semitic dialects see Comp. Gr. p. 255 seq. 

3. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak (§ 129). 

171. Doubly weak verbs are divisible into two classes, each of 
which comprises several varieties. The first class consists of those 
wliich have both an e'lif hemzatum and a^or^ among their radicals ; 
the second of those in which the letter j or ^ occurs twice. 

92 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 172 

A Rem. There is no triliteral verb that has more than one radical 

172. Of the first class there are three sorts : — 

(a) Verba hemzata and primae rad. 3 or ^j ; 

(b) Verba hemzata and secundae rad. 3 or ^ ; 

(c) Verba hemzata and tertiae rad. 3 or ^. 

Each of these admits of two varieties, according to the position of 

the &if hemzatum. 

B 173. The first sort consists of (a) verba secundae rad. hemzatae, as 

jt$ to frighten; and (/?) verba tertiae rad. hemzatae, as bj to smooth, 

J^3 to tread upon. Such words follow in their inflection both the 

classes to which they belong ; e.g. Imperf. j&, tju, Ua-j (§§ 132 — 3, and 
142, 144). 

x x 3 i 6 x 

Rem. The Imperf. of u~-*-^> to despair, is ^l-a-j, more rarely 

J D x J$ J x J x x ^ OS. 

l^JL-j or (j-rfU-!, [also ^sb and u~jb] ; its Imperat. ^bt, rarely 
L^JJt. See § 146, rem. 
C 174. The second sort is divided into (a) verba primze rad. hemzatae, 

X f X t* XX? X»X X«< XX £ 

as w>t or w>' g (f° r VjO ^ return, Jl or Jig (for Jjt) to return; and 


(/?) verba tertiae rad. hemzatae, as slw (for *>*) to illtreat, t^a*. (for U*.) 
to come, t\L (for s^^) to wish. Each variety unites the peculiarities of 
the two classes to which it belongs. 



Perf. 3d p. s. 





2d p. s. 

x d 

x 1, 



♦. PA 


J ix 

- * * 





6 * 



Perf. pass. 





175. The third sort is divided into (a) verba primae rad. hemzatae, 

xg XP X £ 

as ^1 £0 cow^, ^1 #0 refuse, ^^\ to grieve or mourn; and (/i?) verba 

£x C x 

secundae rad. hemzatae, as (^b £0 be far off, ^La to utter a cry. They 
are treated in their inflection like the two classes of verbs to which 
they belong. 

§ 176] I. The Verb. Doubly Weak Verbs. 93 

of. A 

a. J>\, 

o A 

x fx£ 

o*ji ; 

C~>t (§ 132, rem. b) 



^ 0x£ 

O*ot ; 

w*i; y* 

A iji, 


x Ogx 



01 ; §U. 


Rem. a. The Imperat. of the verb .Jit is not unfrequently 

shortened into O (compare § 137, and the Syriac form ]L), which, 

at the end of a sentence, is written aj. The same thing holds good 

in pause of all imperatives that consist of only one letter ; as 6j for B 

, t, t>^ 

j, from ^£\j to see (§ 176) ; <*i for ^J, from ^j to keep faith (§ 177). 

,t A* 

Rem. b. The verb ^jI, imperf. ^U, is an example of the rare 

forms mentioned in § 91, rem. c. Lexicographers mention the forms 

t xO 

^jIj, ^~>>, and ^£> [§ 94, rem. c], as being occasionally used. 

176. The elif hemzatum of the verb ^tj is almost always elided 
in the Imperf. and Imperat. 

Imperf. Indicative. C 

3. m. 

3. f. 

2. m. 

2. f. 

1. c. 


x x 




lii 1 







x xx 



X * XX 


x Oxx 



* * * 



x Oxx 




x ©xx 



*x »x xx Oxx»x= 

S. m. j or a, (§ 175, rem. a), f. ^ ; D. c. fcj ; P. m. fcj, f. CH> 

Rem. a. The Perf. Act. of ^tj almost always retains the hemza, 
which may however be transposed, i\j ; [for w^jIj some say OjjJ. 
The Imperf. ^\/i and the Imperat. fj\ are used dialectically. 

94 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§177 


* J S3 

Rem. b. The Perf. Pass, is ^j (like ^^j) or, by transposition, 
z^Jj*. In the Imperf. Pass, the hemza is elided, just as in the Active 

,3 ,3 it>3 03 

voice; e.g. ^jjj, jj, for ^tjj, tjj. 

Rem. c. In the fourth form, when it signifies to show, the hemza 

si ,1 < st 3 3 i 

is always elided : ^jj\, 0>l. C-^jl ; ^jj ; jj ; jl Otherwise it is 


177. Of the second class, in which j or ^ occurs twice, there 

are two sorts : (a) those in which 3 or ^j is the first and third 
radical, as ^Sj to guard, ^3 to be near, ^j^-3 to be sorefooted (of 
a horse) ; and (/?) those in which 3 or ^ is the second and third 
radical, as ^$£ to roast, ^3.3 to be strong, ^^ (for >**») to live, 

^*ft to have an impediment in one's speech. 

178. The first sort follows in its inflection the verbs of the two 
C classes primae and tertiae rad. 3 or ^. E.g. 

^h> ^h> *£***J ; L5^ ' J or A * (§ 175, rem. a). 

ij?> <^3> ^3 5 ^ ; J or a). 

^ 3 , C ^ j , 0^3 ; ^3-; ; -^ (for gjl). 

179. In the second sort, the second radical undergoes no change 
whatever. E.g. 


~4 A 


* s 

,. - 

" - 

• • 



^ a 


Rem. a. We write UaL>, Lay, not j**a^», ^5**^, to prevent the 

union of two ^£, and also, in the former case, to distinguish the 

^ ^ ^ , 

Imperf. of ^jt^ from the proper name ^tP^i Yahyd (John). 

Rem. b. , «*». admits (1) of the contraction of the two ^, (a) in 
those persons of the Perf. I. in which the second ^ has a vowel, as 

* [A more recent form is ^3^ ; see the Gloss, to Tabarl. D. G.] 

§ 181] I. The Verb. Doubly Weak Verbs. 95 

^fc. for j^**.; (b) in the Imperf. I., as j^^j, ^a+j, £>t**!; (c) in the A 
nomen actionis IT. (§§ 80 and 20'2, rem.), * t a*3 for 4****J; (2) of the 
elision of the second ^ in the Perf. and Imperf. X., when it sig- 
nines to feel shame, as ,.a*J.wt, >.**£**>, for La»l»>t. -i-. 2 * — ^c. 

also admits of being contracted into .-£, and l.ou into ^au. — The 
forms ..». and ,-ft are said to occur (compare § 123, rem., and § 153, 

180. Trebly weak verbs are divisible into two classes ; namely B 
(a) those in which one radical is hemza and the other two ^ or ^£ ; 
and (b) those in which all the three radicals are ^ or ±$. 

Rem. We pass over the second class, as it seems to consist of 

only one verb, which is hardly ever used j viz. LL> to ivrite the 
letter ^. 

181. Verbs of the first class are of two sorts, namely (a) those in 

which the hemza is the first radical, as ^jt to betake oneself to, to 
repair to ; and (/?) those in which the hemza is the second radical, C 

as (^lj to promise. The former are inflected like j-^t and ^j^> (§ 179), 

e -g- <J3^ °jt> ^j'> l£jW, *A ; the latter like Jtw and ^5$ (§ 178), 



3. m. 

3. f. 

2. m. 

2. f. 

1. c. 






-J I, 





i it. 






" 6 




03 Vj 


4 s 

Paet Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 182 


3. m. 

3. f. 2. m. 

2. f. 

1. ( 



13 U 

6 6 




bd bt5 


B S. m. I or >\ (§ 175, rem. a), f. ^t ; D. c. bt ; P. m. fjl, f. o->J. 

* I. The Verb J~J. 

182. The negative substantive verb ^ J, he is not, has no Imperf. 
or Imperat., and is inflected like verba mediae rad. j et ^. 

3. m. 3, f. 2. m. 2. f. 1. c. 

^ . C/*"Jr W******' ^^~J W**»» w-**.' 

D. l~J U~J U^-J 

J 0^ * 6 s J 6 * C J * * * 

r. \a**+} ^>«**»' ^jji!*».; ^*«*J U~J 

• ^ - • c£ 

Rem. a. ^* J is con pounded of *s). wotf, and the unused i^l* =? 
Heb. jjf*, Ae is, Aramaic s fi?, JYtf, t^} ; originally a substantive, 

,6,6 ,6t j6,, 

signifying being, existence, as in the phrase ^ J ^*o ^-jI wJ>*j ^, 
Ae does net know what is from what is not. [Therefore the suffix of 

/J/ * t>, , £ , 6, 

the 1st person sing, added to ^* J is not only ,<*.-> J (and ^bl u^*^? 

but also ^~J (§ 185, rem. a, Vol. ii. § 186, e) ] The Assyrian 
D seems also to have the word isu, with its negative la isu, in the 
double sense of ' to be ' and ' to have '. 

< , 
Rem. b. Instead of ^-J we find occasionally [as in the 

Kor'anic phrase ^U* &**• C^J the indeclinable w>^, which 

corresponds to the Aramaic Zu.2^ , fir}, JY7, compounded of K7 

andJVK, A^|. 

* [Or rather ^j according to Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 293, note 5.] 

§183] I. The Verb. Appendix A. Verbs of Praise & Blame. 97 

II. The Verbs of Praise and Blame. A 

wi uj X5 x* Ox 0^ J * £■ 

183. The «wfc of praise and blame (^JJI^ *-J^t J 1 **') are 

X © X 

j**j, to be good, and ^-£4, to fo 6ad. They are used as exclamations, 
and are generally indeclinable, though the fern. c-o*> and si*~Jj 
(and, it is said, the dual U*J, U«ju, and the plur. S>**J, O-** 5 ) occur. 
[The following noun must be denned by the article or a dependent 
genitive, as: juj ^^a-LsJI j^. Zeid is an excellent companion, lit. B 
excellent is the companion ZUd, or else the indefinite accusative must 

C»/ x x x 

be used juj L^-lo^s^ excellent as a companion is Zeid.] 

Rem. a. Instead oij^su we may say ^3,^^*3, and^^so, which 

. x 

last is obviously the original form. In like manner ^Jj admits of 
the forms ^JJ, ^U, and ^^j. If followed by l«, we may write 
U ^^Jj or U-Jb, and U ^oju or, by contraction, I^ju. 

Rem. b. These forms are to be explained as follows. (1) Every C 

x x xj x x Ox 

Arabic verb of the form Jas or ,J*$ may also be pronounced Jjti ; 

/ 4/ x x x Ox x x x © x x x x A x x x x x 

as *-Ju for »-Ju, jjj for jjj, jj*-o for jjw-o ^oXc for^U, ^i>j for 

x x x x x • x J x x x x J x x © x x i x x x 

^-i>j, jt^ for jl^w and JLy£, ^>~»- for ^>~»»«, w>>* ^ or Vj^' >°^ 

x J x x © x x .» x 

forj^aS, v»^» for^cjib, — a contraction which is sometimes extended 

x J x © .» * J XX XX 

to the passive Ja9, as L5 Jxo for ^isuo (from U»*). Hence ^ai and 

x x xOx" xSx 

^-^ become j^d and ^1^. (2) If the second radical be guttural, 
its vowel, instead of being elided, may be transferred to the first J) 

x x x x © xx x xx x 

radical; as j^ for j^, ^^Jbi for ^Jb$. Hence ^ju for^^, ^^ 

xx " X ft ' 

for ^^JU (3) The form Jj*i, which has been thus attained, may 
take an additional kesra to lighten the pronunciation (Jjii); as 
j^JSj, s^&y Hence ^*j, J*2J [or rather, according to Comp. Gr. 

p. 166, juJj becomes Ju£ by assimilation of the vowels, and the 



latter may then be shortened to j^i } as the former may be shortened 
w. 13 

98 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 184 

A to j^i]. — These observations cast light on the peculiar form of 
intransitive verbs in .ZEthiopic; as gabra ("to do") for gabira (com- 
pare J*i), and, when the second radical is guttural, mehra ("to 
have pity upon,"^*^) for mahira, sehna ("to be hot," O****) ^ or 
sahina or sahuna, see Comp. Gr. I.e. 

Rem. c. Other verbs of this class are ^^^ or w"*"> t0 oe Phasing 

" J * * i * 

or clmrming (contracted from w~»-)*; ,>~»., usually contracted into 

, J f ' J ' 

B »>****■' io oe g°od or excellent ; eU», to be bad or evil ; jju, commonly 

contracted into jju, to be far off; and cj~> or cj~t, to be quick 

(contracted from cj~>). The first of these is frequently combined 

with the demonstrative !i (§ 340), and forms the indeclinable !Ju»., 
lovely, charming, or excellent, is . 

III. The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder. 
184. The Arabic language possesses two forms of expression, 
C called by the native grammarians w*,&.. tI) 1 J Us I or verbs of surprise 

or wonder. The one is the 3d pers. sing. masc. Perf. Act. IV., 

* j a ut *■ Ci o * 
preceded by U ( d » ..^. ^ . 7) 1 U the ma expressive of surprise), and 

followed by the accusative of the object that causes surprise ; as 

2 , * , Ot ' 

Ijuj J-iit U, what an excellent man Zeid is! The other is the 
2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. IV., followed by the preposition <^> with 

0* o oi ^ 

the genitive ; as ju>j J-oit, with the same signification as before. 

Rem. a. The first formula literally means : what has made Zeid 

excellent ? can anything make him more excellent than he is ? The 

D second : make Z. excellent (if you can, — you cannot make him more 

excellent than he is); or, more literally: try {your ability at) making 

excellent upon (w>) Zeid. They are, of course, indeclinable. [For 

o * o o t 0,0* 

JJU-4 j^^t a poet says jlt.»>.» jj\£o, Hamasa p. 670; comp. § 43, rem. 
c. D. G.] 

Rem. b. Verbs of surprise are, generally speaking, formed only 
from triliteral verbs in the active voice, which are capable of being 
fully inflected, and express an act or state in which one person may 

<• 0* 9 * St «» /t/ , Z. ., 

* [You say UJI juj w*». and, more commonly, UJ1 jjjj *r*»*> 
how beloved Zeid is to us ! D. G.l 

§ 184] I. The Verb. Appendix A. Verbs of Surprise. 99 

vie with or surpass another. They cannot be formed from the A 
passive voice; nor from quadriliterals ; nor from verbs that are 
defective in inflection, like^jcJ and Km ^, or in meaning, like the 
substantive verb ^j\£=> to be (from O^l juj ,j\£=>, Zeid was standing 
up, we cannot say CjU ljuj {j^>\ U or \^j(J j5j*> O>^0; n <>r 
from verbs like Olo to die and ^i3 to perish, expressing an act or 
state in which one agent cannot excel another ; nor from negatived 
verbs (as gtjjJb *-U U, he did not heed the medicine); nor from 
verbs signifying colours and defects, whence are derived adjectives B 

j -» at * * j * o p ^ , • j + o £ 

of the form Jjjit (as jj-^ to be black, *y*\ ; J>». to squint, J>»-t). 
The grammarians add that verbs of surprise cannot be formed from 
the derived forms of the triliteral verb ; but neither this limitation, 
nor that with respect to the passive voice, is strictly observed (com- 

pare § 235). We find, for example, from the Passive aJliLwl U, Iww 
much he is busied ! from JjLw to be busy ; dlAjl U, how proud or 

7 ' ' 7 7 • • •" ' 0i ' 

vain he is ! from ^bj to be proud or vain ; ^j jut 42m U, how 
hateful he is to me ! from 0-.iLo to be hated ; and from derived forms, Q 
especially the fourth, dUatl U, how liberal he is I from k fct to 
give, IV. of Ike to take in the hand; ojjJt^JJ d^jl to, how liberal 

he is in bestowing gratuities ! from ^j I to bestow, IV. of .Jj to be 
near ; a$y**\ I*, or <suL».t U, /tow ttftfy Ae is / from JU»-t £o practise 

an artifice or toi£e, VIII. of Jl*. £o oe shifted or changed ; 6j*a±.\ U, 

' J • J 
Aow s/ior^, or shortened, it is ! from j-cu£.l 2o be shortened or abridged, D 

passive of VIII. from the rad.^oiiw. The rule with regard to verbs 

expressing colours or defects is violated, for example, by AJL+^1 U, 

how stupid he is ! from Ji*^. to be stupid, J^o^-t , v>^' '*** cAs^ ^°> 

how white this piece of cloth is ! from ^ouj\ to be white, ^oj^l. 

Rem. c. When formed from verbs med. rad. gemin. or tert. rad. 

^ et ^, the verbs of surprise follow the inflection of these classes ; 

j *t a *i * toot j * o t * 

as dbt jtwl U or 4-ob jjiwl, how strong his father is I **%+.\ U, Iww 

sweet it is ! oLfct U, how rich he is ! But if formed from verba med. 

100 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 185 
A rad. ^ et ^£, they follow the inflection of the strong verb; as 

j^/op , o ai J** oi * o oi 

dJ^St U or <u Jy>l, how well he speaks ! O^.! U or aj j^a.1, how 
excellent or generous he is I 

Rem. d. When a verb of surprise cannot be formed directly 
from a root, recourse must be had to a circumlocution (compare 

§ 235) ; as AJJ-Q&- jlwI U, how red it is ! 4-oto iJo\ t«, how pure 

white it is I ajj+mJ i^^t, what a pretty brown it is ! <Cl5ll j&\ U, 

Jsssssbi* , * i 

how often he takes a siesta ! <sutj**. >y+\ U or <otj^j >£&.!, how good 

. i<* oi * J ,*oi , o oi JssOi * j// oi * 

B his reply is! and not oj^a^S U, acujI U, <u j**»t, aJLsl U, <u$e-t *• 


Rem. e. To form the past tense of such verbs, (jl^ is prefixed 

*0 * * * Oi s , , 

to the Perfect form ; as t juj J*ist ,jl£> U, kw excellent Zeid was ! 

00 ^ * s s s y Oi < 

But we may also say juj <jl^ U J-oit U (literally, what has made 
excellent that which Zeid was ? What has produced the past excel- 
lence of Zeid ?). 

Jx x i * j * * oi , 

Rem. /. dJ~~&*.\ U, how good, or goodly, he is I AaJUt U, how 

Z s 

handsome he is ! and less frequently o*}H».t U, how sweet it is ! 

is y I ^ J • 6^2 * 

admit of the diminutive forms (see § 269) <U. »..,&■ I U, AaJL^t U, and 

0%o*l U. 


The Verbal Suffixes, which express the Accusative. 

D 185. The following are the verbal suffixes, which express the 
accusative : 

• Singular. 

Masc. Common. Fern. 

3. p. © him. ... U her. 

2. p. J thee. ... J 

1. p. ^y me. 

§ 185] I. The Verb. Appendix B. Accusative Suffixes. 101 





3. p. ... 

s J 

l©Jb them both. 

2. p. ... 

U©^ you both. 

1. p. ... 



3. p. j^ them. 

2. P->^> you. 

1. p. ... 

U us. 

ul J 

t>^ you. B 

Rem. a. The same forms serve, when appended to the noun, 
to express the genitive; excepting that my is ^_ instead of ^ 

(see § 317). The ,j of the suffix ^y is called by the grammarians 
ajIS^JI ^3->, the guarding ox preventive n, because it prevents the 
final vowels of the verb from being absorbed by the long vowel ^_ , 
as happens with the noun (see § 316, b); and also jC*M Oj^j *** C 
supporting n, because it serves as a sort of prop or support to the 
t^—, which is regarded as the essential portion of the suffix. 

Rem. b. The damma of o, l^A, J»A, and J>A, is changed after 

' • f' • J* 

_, ^_, and ^_, into kesra; as A-obj^^-JLj, Ae mill come to him, 

to them ; l©^ul, Ov^'j come to them (dual m. and f.), to them (plur. 
fern.) ; a-j-^p^oJ ^ ow (fern.) fois£ not been pleased with him. 

Rem. c. The ^ of the suffix 1st pers. sing, is sometimes dropped; 

JS 3d 

as ^j^AJt for ^j£>l, /ear me; [comp. § 6, rem. a]. D 

Rem. d. Old and poetic forms are : ^_ and .->, ^A (^^A or^**), 

j^. See § 89, 1, rem. c, and § 20, b and <£ [The pausal forms 

Ajj_ and «su5, see Vol. ii. § 228, rem. b. Instead of j) some dialects 

have J* ; see Lane and the Mohlt. D. G.] 

Rem. e. The Hebrew and Aramaic suffixes, in general, closely 
resemble those of the modern Arabic ; see Comp. Gr. p. 153 seq. 

102 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 186 

A 186. Some forms of the verb are slightly altered by the addition 
of the accusative suffixes. 

(a) Those persons which end in the elif otiosum (see § 7, rem. a), 
reject it before the suffix, as being no longer necessary (since it was 

added only to prevent the possibility of the termination j- being in 

some cases mistaken for the conjunction 3, and) ; as t^j-oj they 

helped, ^3j«aJ they helped me. 

B (b) The final consonant of the 2d pers. masc. plur. Perf. retains 
before the suffixes, to avoid cacophony, the long damma which it had 

in an older stage of the language ; as^jt; ye have seen, ^><w(j ye 

have seen me. The same thing takes place with the accusative suffix 

of the 2d pers. masc. plur. j^=>, when it is followed by another suffix 

(see § 187) ; as^A^o^jj-i he shews them to you. 

(c) The 2d and 3d pers. masc. plur. Imperf. occasionally reject 
C the termination £ before the suffixes ^y and U ; as ^yjj-*^ for 

i^j^-otf, ye order me*, UjAaj for U^Xaj, ye hate us, ^y^J^^t for 
^yjjj^, they will find me. The same thing happens to the 2d pers. 
sing. fern. ; as ^^S^uJ, thou makest me long, for ^^-uJj-SJ. 

(d) The vowel - in the termination of the 2d pers. fern. sing. 

Perf. is sometimes lengthened before the suffixes ; as <Vj-^£> for 

* * 
<uj~£*, thou hast broken it. 

D (e) The ^ of the 3d pers. masc. sing. Perf. in verba tertise rad. ^, 
may be retained before the suffixes, or (which is far more usual) be 

changed into t ; as a^j (§ 7, rem. c) or dlij, he threw, or shot, at him. 

[* In Sura xxxix. 64 a third reading is recorded, viz. .y^ctf, and 
there are similar variations in other passages. So also with verbs 
third ^ we occasionally find such contractions as jJ&i for ,<-Xo 
(Sur. xviii. 94), tuU for UuU (Sur. xii. 11).] 

§ 188] I. The Verb. Appendix B. Accusative Suffixes. 103 

[Rem. In case of the suffixes ,*), j^s etc. being affixed to the A 
Jussive of a verb tertise £), the two ,*) are assimilated ; the latter 

loses its gezma, the „*) of the suffix takes tesdid, as^S^jju.] 

187. A verbal form may take two suffixes, provided they do not 
indicate one and the same person. These two may both be appended 
to the verb, the suffix of the 1st pers. naturally preceding that of the 

, Of. 

2d or 3d, and the suffix of the 2d pers. that of the 3d. E.g. ^JLJlkct, 

4-JUa.ct, he gave thee, it, to me; a£lJ*gI, I gave it to thee ; ^SLjSji , 

he will suffice thee against them (will be sufficient to protect thee B 

against them) ; UytXtpJt, shall we compel you (to receive) it? 

[Rem. Combinations like dlfcUacI, he gave him to her, (Aytlk&t, 
he gave her to him, are legitimate but rare. (Note the orthography 

in the latter case.) But AAUact is not used ; see § 189, rem. «.] 

188. Sometimes, however, we find the pronominal object ex- 
pressed, not by the accusative suffixes attached to the verb, but by 

the genitive suffixes appended to the word b! 'lya (which never occurs 
alone). The following are the compound pronouns thus formed : 







3. pers. obt 

2. pers. ^bt 

1. pers. . . . 



3. pers. . . . 


2. pers. . . . 



1. pers. . . . 


o j A 

3. pers. ^bt 

. . . 

2. pers. ^»£»bt 

1. pers. . . . 



a j si 

104 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 189 

A Rem. a. The suffix of the 1st p. sing, is in this case ^, instead 

of i^_, because all nouns ending in t— take that form. See § 317, 

rem. a. 

Rem. b. For the linguistic affinities of bl (dialectically La) 

in the other Semitic languages, see Oomp. Gr. p. 1 1 2 seq. 

189. These suffixes compounded with bt are used in two cases. 

(a) Very frequently, but not always (see § 187), when two suffixes 
B would otherwise have to be appended to the same verb; as abl ^ylkc-t, 

instead of 4-JUast, he gave it to me. 

(b) When the pronoun is, for the sake of emphasis, placed before 

3 * o * f s * j j o * * a 

the verb ; as jj-^C-J ^1j ****-> ^W}> Thee (none but Thee) we 
worship, and to Thee we cry for help. Compare in Heb. VOX?! 

*HWr*&, Jerem. v. 22. 

Q Rem. a. The suffix attached to bt is always that which would 

occupy the second place, if appended to the verb. In certain cases 

this form alone is used, either for the sake of precision or of 

* a j * oi 
euphony. Thus, lie gave me to him must be worded ^bt oLLct, 

to distinguish it from d-JlLct he gave him to me ; but it is euphony 

which requires obt dlLct, he gave it to him, instead of AAlkct. 

Rem. b. A very strong emphasis is expressed by prefixing the 
D pronoun with bt, and at the same time appending the pronominal 
suffix to the verb; as ^j^£>li ^bt^, Me therefore, fear Me. 


190. The Noun, ^-»^l, nomen, is of six kinds. 

(a) The nomen substantivum, or Substantive, more especially 

J«/»/ J J sO* 1 J s 0* 

designated vo-^t, and also vJ ^o^ Jt, or Ojx-^Jt, qualificabile, that is, 

a word which admits of being united with a descriptive epithet 

§ 190] II. The Noun, 105 

J * »J * JO .-0.- 

(6) The nomas adjectivum, or Adjective, aa-oJI, \Juo^\, or cJtdf, A 
quality, descriptive epithet. 

(c) The nomen numerate, or Numeral Adjective, 3 Jit ^^1, the 

* * 

noun of number. 


(d) The nomen demonstrativum, or Demonstrative Pronoun, j^S 
* * o* 

SjU^t, the noun of indication, that is, by which some object is pointed 


3 30* bio jj^/ 

(e) The nomen conjunctivum, or Relative Pronoun, J>o>«JI ^o-w^M B 

(2 >o & 3 ) 3 *0* 

or ^o^^t vJ>«e>*M, £/*0 noun that is united {with a relative clause), 

3 * tt * 

as opposed to &La)l, the relative clause itself 

J * JO* 

(f) The pronomen, or Personal Pronoun, jt ^bi\ or j + mxJ\, 

word by which something is concealed or kept in, and so conceived of by, 

j a * j * o jo* 

the mind, as opposed to jJkUaJI or j^Ji^JI, that which is apparent or 

manifested, the substantive to which the pronoun refers. It is also C 
is * 'At* » 

called 3u\jm\, avTaiVVfiia. 

Rem. a. Of the pronouns we have already treated in part in 
§§ 84 — 89 and 185 — 189, and some further remarks regarding them 
will be given in § 317. The numeral adjectives and the demonstra- 
tive and relative pronouns will be handled separately, after the 
nouns substantive and adjective (see §§ 318 — 353). The nouns 
substantive and adjective we shall treat of together, because, in 
regard to form, they are identical in almost every respect. 

3 ui * 3*03* 

Rem. b. The names of the pronoun, jn +* b *\ and j+*a+)\, are D 

3 vi * 3*0 30* 

elliptical expressions, for aj j-vo-^Jt and <u j. ..gv .,)l. as the above 
translation shows. 

w. 14 

106 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 191 

A A. The Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 

1. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective, 
and their different Forms. 

191. Nouns are divisible, in respect of their origin, into two 
classes, primitive and derivative. The primitive nouns are all sub- 

stantives ; as J*y man, ^j* horse, »>-$-£ eye, |Lo water. The 
derivative nouns may be substantives or adjectives, and are either 

T> . 9 0* s , s 

» deverbal, that is, derived from verbs, as ^ ..,,£ 3 division (from ^~*9 

9 '0 , ,, 9 ^ * * 

to divide), *.\Zjlo a key (from *J3 to open), u^ij^ sick (from v°j* 

to fo m'c£) ; or denominative, that is, derived from nouns, as SjwU 
a place which abounds in lions (from ju»t a lion), ^l^JI human (from 

,jUJI « human being), y^lig a /^/^ efo<7 (from w-A£» « <#0#). At a 
later period, nouns were formed, in the language (or rather jargon) of 
the philosophical schools, from pronouns and particles (we might call 

them departiculative), as £*>Ut egotism (from Ul 7), ,^5*^ qualitative, 
and &* &+£ => quality (from ^ . ^-> how ?). 

Rem. a. In such Arabic Lexicons as are arranged according to 
the etymological principle, a verb is frequently given as the etymon 
of what are really primitive nouns, and a comparison of the 
meaning of the two shows that the former is in fact the derivative 

word. Thus «U, water, is not derived from oU, to be full of water, 

D which is given in the Dictionaries as its root, but, conversely, «U 

is a denominative verb, formed from *U ; nor is ^ji, to be skilled 


in horsemanship, the root of ^ji, a horse, but a denominative 
from it. 

Rem. b. By the native grammarians nouns are classified as 

(1) jL«lcfc.^wt, a noun that is stationary or incapable of growth, 

one that is not itself a nomen actionis or infinitive, nor derived from 
a nom. act., and which does not give birth to a nom. act. or verb, 

§ 191] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 107 

5 J x 02 / d x J 

as ^gfj a many 2axi a duck ; opposed to JU»t%o j^\, a noun that is A 
derived from a nom. act. or verbal root, as ^Jl£» a writer, ^J&S 

55 x J S -- x w fO , o£ x 3 

(2) &*%«• v*^'' i- e - Wlpl O* Ai^* * rt woww 2^a£ is 6cire of any 

X XX X ' * 

accessory or increment, which comprises merely the letters of the 

O 9 x Ox x 

root and no more, as^oJLft knowledge, ^J^jJui a quince; opposed to 


4*3 J^Jj-o^o-^t, a roottra that is augmented by additional letters, as 

6/2/ 0x00 

io^kfr a very learned man, j\ai^>ja*\ the being gathered together in B 
a mass. 

Ox x 5 x x x 

(3) ^o^vo-A or v»^ ft vo-'' ° proper name, the distinctive mark 

* J ° 
of an individual ; opposed to u"**»» ^o~'' j tt generic or common noun, 

designating a whole kind or genus (ycVos, |flO 1  «) 

0-» JO Ox J 

(4) The j^OaJt ^wt may be either (a) ^j^c j^S, a noun 

J x ©xx • J 

denoting a concrete object, as ^J***; « man, ^ji a horse ; or (6)^*1 

20 x ( 50 50 x 

^y*o, a noun denoting aw abstract idea, as ^^ft knowledge, J^**- C 
ignorance. The same terms may be applied to adjectives j ^>£>tj, 

OxjO OJOx xO x J 

riding, is an ^>*£^o~>t, but^aj^JLo, understood, an ^Ji^^wl. 

x x 0«» J 3 x x 

(5) The^JlxJI^wt may be either (a) ^.^a.^U, a proper name 

J X X | 

applicable to every individual of a whole kind, as i«L»l tfAe £ion, 
jU». the female hyama (like "Puss" for the cat, "Renard" for the 

3 X ©xx 

fox) ; or (b) ^.o-L tt j^£>, a proper name applicable to only one D 

5 x VxOxOx J Jx 

individual of a kind, as ^-»».l^ and ^t^JJt, names of horses, w>jj/5, 

©Ox ©Ox JxxOx JxOxl 

the name of a camel, juw, sJ^*, 2lJju, names of men, 4«~ot, 

^ x x Ox 

ILm^JI, names of women. 

x x 0*> J 

(6) The ^oJUJI yr~i\ may also be either (a) an ^*1, or rawie, in 

50x 0x0 x JxOxJ xO J 

its strictest sense, as jj-o*, ,/***■> **A > or (*) a * « ^ i * ,e - a name 
compounded with ^jI, father of, as ^LxJt ^jt, or^at, mother of, as 

JO i ill J x 5 x J JxO jo 

v&^Jl^^ot, or ,jjl, smi o/, as ^L»- ^t, or 4-Jt or CU*J, daughter of, 

108 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§191 

Ad 3 xx 

as JUA CvU ; or (c) a ^Jtt, a surname, which may be either a 

Oxx j 5 - x &*> 30Z 

nickname (j-J), as 2J*j Duck or Bottle, aSLM tJLit CameVs-nose, 
2l+j Bebba (imitation of a sound), or an honourable epithet, as 

x *0*> J Ox • J x 

^>jjuU)I t^Hjy ^e pride or glory of those that worship {God), ^-^ 

x x OtO c, x J 

^JU*Jt, the sun of virtues. The «e«s> is also employed in reference 
to animals, as w>^»t ^jt, Job's father, the "patient" camel; ^jt 

x i 0*3 x il 

It, «Ae father of the little fort, the fox j ^U ^&t, £&e female 


hycena; ^ijs- ^t, tfAe weasel; J>*b ws-U, ^e tortoise. 

(7) An ^oJLe ^o^l may likewise be either (a) }jJu>, simple, 

Oi 3s xO x d x 3 

consisting of a single word, as ^3 1, ZjZ£- ; or (b) %^^»^o, amir 

pounded. The w^>j»o may be either (a) ^£>Uwl, predicative, when 

x j 
the words that compose it constitute a £A«a. or proposition, as 

33 x xxx ui x x Cit X 

OjAfJ Jjjj (his throat shone), \jJ* JajU (he carried mischief under his 

/ /«/ x x 
arm), \a\Jj3 w>l£ (Aer fooo locks became gray) ; or (/?) a mixed 

2i x vt x 3 x 3 3d x 

compound, ^b*.}* \^*>j+) which is not a proposition (4-Loo. j**), as 

5 xxOx J x x Oxx 

C iUju, BaJal-bek, ^jtjSJj^c, Ma'di-karib, aj^^, Siba-weih ; or 

Ox x J x « x J 

(y) aJI JIcmj wilcu*, a substantive governing another in the 

" 3 0s O/O/O *3* Of 3 it J.O J il 

genitive, as t^itu jus, ^--jiM _$j-«t, w*jj$ &\, jb^SXZs j»\. 

xx J <i x x4 J 

(8) Finally, &n^ o y&^ ~t\ may be either (a) J.a*J^o, improvised, 

3 x 

extemporised, impromptu, existing only as a proper name, as o!/**' 

x ^x J xO x ->0 x 

^•jMi, Z$*j*-\ or (6) Jj^&U, transferred from some other use, 2ro- 

-p. ft x 0*» x 30 x 

U joica/. The latter class is of six kinds, viz. (a) ^J^t j^S ^>fr J^a^o. 

9*x © x£ ^t/ 0"» x xOx 9 x 

as j^> (a bull), jwt (a &ow) ; (/?) ^^w ^^t ^>ft Jja-^, as J*oi 

Ox x x <> JO x Ox 

(excellence), ^*bt (giving, gift)', (y) Aic ^>fr J>5-^ 5 as ^«jI»> 

J x ex x J * x 3 i3 x J j x 

(judging), &15U (bestowing); (8) J*d ^>c J>*^, as j^w, jX^j, 

xDx JOxJ * OxOx OJdx j3x 

,^0*-;, wA*5, C^o-ot ; (e) O^o ^>ft Jy^c, as io (see above, 6, c) ; 

^^ X X £ X. 

fixJ Ox JOx 

and (J) v^>* O^ J>*^ ( see abo ve J 7, 6). 

§ 194] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Substantive and Adjective. 109 

192. Deverbal nouns are divisible into two principal classes ; A 
namely : — 

o o-» ~ * o £ 

(a) Nomina verbi or nomina actionis, J*aJt l^^wt (infinitives). 

(b) Nomina agentis, J^UJt ll+*\, and nomina patientis, llo-wt 

J O , bo 

JjjtfcoJt, (participles). 

The nomina verbi are by their nature substantives, but have 
come to be used also as adjectives ; the nomina agentis et patientis 
are by their nature adjectives, but have come to be used also as B 

193. Connected with the nomina verbi are the four following 
classes of deverbal nouns. 

S* *«• «" •{ 

(a) Nomina vicis, S^JI *U^t, nouns that express the doing of an 
action once. 

(b) Nomina speciei, pyi\ ilo-^t, nouns of kind or manner. 

om3 * s a 

(c) Nomina loci et temporis } ^Uplj o^-^' *W*l, also called 
nomina vasis, \Jj&.\\ ll^wt, nouns of. place and time. C 

(d) Nomina instrument i, £3^1 £l©-/t, nouns denoting the in- 

194. Denominative nouns are divisible into six classes ; namely : — 

(a) Nomen unitatis vel individualitatis, Sj^.^1 ^^1, the noun 
that denotes the individual. 

(b) Nomen abundantiw vel multitudinis, c>J&\ ^wt, the noun D 
that denotes the place where anything is found in abundance. 

(c) Nomen vasts, *Uyt ^S, the noun that expresses the vessel 
which contains anything. 

(d) Nomen relativum, w ^ , » >;.»Jt ^~**)\ or ^u—Jt (lit. the referred 

noun, the reference or relation), a particular class of derivative ad- 

110 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 195 

/0«» J 

A (e) Nomen abstract um qualitatis, Z.Ju.Q\ ^~/\, the abstract noun 
of quality (see § 191). 

(/) Nomen deminutivum, jjua*S\ ^*~t*$\ oyj«**a$\ (lit. the lessened 
noun, the lessening), the diminutive. 

a. The Deverbal Nouns. 
(a) The Nomina Verbi. 

o e>M3 „ , o c 

195. The nomina verbi, JaaJI *U^I, are abstract substantives, 

B which express the action, passion, or state indicated by the cor- 
responding verbs, without any reference to object, subject, or time. 

J / /O/ 

Rem. The nomen verbi is also called jjco^l) (lit. the place 
whence anything goes forth, where it originates), because most Arab 
grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the 
simple idea of this substantive. We may compare with it the 
Greek Infinitive used with the article -as a substantive. 

196. The nomina verbi, which may be derived from the ground- 
C form of the ordinary triliteral verb, are very numerous. The following 

is a nearly complete list of them, the rarest forms being included 
within brackets. 

CO/ 9 0/ 5/ 9 0/ 90/ f / 90/ 0* 0* 

1. J*», as w>jm£, >j, >a-c, ^i, J>5, j-w, 3 j£., ^j.*.. 

9// 9/' 9// 9// 9«« / 9// 9// 9// 9// 

2. Ja3, as w~U», wJjA V~**?-> J"k>> voj-^, J-o-C-, JaaLw, *yj, 

<". / 9/ « / 9 / 9 / 9/ 

3. J**, as w>*^> ^a^, -*j^, v5j^> wJJU*. 

90 40 90 90 90 

D 4. Jaj, as i*A»., ^U, j^>3, JUi. 

9/ 9/ 9/ 9/ 9/. 9/ ? 

5. J*3, as»£>, ^J*p, j*o, J£>, O***, ^j*ej- 

9 J 9 J J 5»J 9 J j • J £j 

6. J*», as 0*4*> Jaw, ,mj, j£w, w^, i M*-* , j> 

9/ J ? J 2 J 

7. J*», as ^**A, t^j~». 

9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ 9/0/ • / / 

8. aX*s, as <U*^s *j^> fat, %**•> 

9/// 4/x/ 9/// 9/// 5 , i ' 

9. 4Jl*S, as *Jl£, ibuo, ^o-lafr, SlXw. 

§196] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.<& Adj. — Nomina Verbi. Ill 
10. ILJ, as Ujl*. 

11. £Ui. as < V »a-, io-«ac. SjuLi. 

12. iUi. as iol, o^o^. 

[13. aX*5, as £J£ (also written <uU).J 
[13*. £jl*i, as iW-] 

14. L5 £**, as ^>^, lS** 3 - 

[15. ^i**, as ^J-o*-, ^»>i.] 

16. ^**, as eg^y B 

17. ^-U*, as ^jA», ^5**^- 
[18. ^^Ui, as ^lU (or J&).] 
[19. Sul, as TClj, iCLj.] 
[19* rial, as *£*>] 

[20. o^, as oy, cA&, oUrj] 

9 ' ' ' G s s s 9 * * * 9 * * ' 9 x • ^ 9 * * * 9 " ' 

21. o^**> as CA**»*> 0^>^> O^J^ 5 O^Jb, O'jlP* O^- 

O • © ^ © ^ .> 0^0 9 s 

22. 0*^> as 0^^»■> oW~J. OlH>> C 

« ' »J Q s j 9 *■ j 9 ' j 9 * 6 i 

23. O^***, as cA*«»g, 0!/ c ^> Ol^> Ol^- 
[24. O^iii, as Oj^^xj., O^*^, *£>>**;.] 
[24* ^3>iif, as ^J^., ^^Uj, ,^f&] 

25. JUi, as ^-^o, illi, *1^> *^> 3&, fb> 

26. JU», as i*Aafc», 4>^-»-, ^^*i ->»C 5 , w> jI, iip, JU3, J[Jl. j) 

«''■» 9 * i 9 £ J 9^1 9 ' J *> , J 0^i © • J 9*1 

27. JU*, as ^IK Jl>w, JU-, ^l^j, SUU,jtjl, JUi, v l*3. 

28. i3Ui, as Ait^i, 53UaJ, iitjjL, 4^.Lai, liUL^, Sjlij. 

29. 5JU3, as *jU£», 3)U~>, SjLs, 4JL0. 

[30. aJUs, as ajUj, SjUi..] 

31. ilJUi, as ilAt^>, al^Ui, Kr&z, %>^=>y 

112 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 197 

* \ ' ' Gi*Gl*G3* J * 

A 32. J>*i, as Jj**, gjlj, 3>5j, J>*> 

• ** Ojj I 14 I iJ 3 J J j J Ojj j J 


[33*. Syii, as i^jJI.J 

O^JJ 0/ JJ 5 / J J G * Jj 

34. <*Jj*i, as *)yr*t, d->j*o, ajjJ^ 

5 i2 J s Gvi J * d J * 

[35. £J>*i, as Ag^ci*., a-wo^-cJ.] 

v^ m * » ' G * G t- 9 * O * 

37. J**s, as J-jv-«, J**j, v**i»i<jtj Je*3, J*^-> 

B 38. aJLai, as *J££, £T 

/ d ,. / • • d «. .» / i^x 

39. J*£*, as J^-Jl*, u ,> t a> - e, J-oa-c, j*a. 

GO* GO* 00s 0,0* S s G * G * G 

40. J***** asj*£«, ?-s*-j«c, tS$y°, ***>•> ■><«"■•» j-** ^ *, cAs 

[41. J»***, as ^SU^.] 

5//»/ O / «• ^ vt* * GSl* * G * * 

42. 4A«£*o, as 3 ji»a*..o , £^~«, Sy^, Slo^o. 

O^Ox Ox * O * C * 0*0* G * * r * * O * % * 

43. ZXxAA, as oj^a^o, A*a»^e, 3ijAo, Sj^j^o, ?>**»»•«, a^-*, 

' IV - 

<5 x J * x 4 x J * 0* tO* 

C [44. diksuLc, as ib^e, SjJtLc.] 

[Rem. For the forms with prefix ma-, 39 — 44, the so-called 
3 x x 

j^-w* jjufluo, see further §§ 208, 221, rem. c, and the remarks to 

§§ 222—225.] 

197. All these nouns cannot, however, be formed from every 
triliteral verb. The majority of verbs admit of but one form, very 
few of more than two or three. What these are, must be learned 

D from the Lexicon. 

198. The five forms, which are most frequently used, are : 
1. Jli, 2. Ji*, 28. ibUi, 33. jyd, 34. Ij^ii. 

9 0* 

(a) J** is the abstract noun from transitive verbs of the forms 

* * * * * * * * 8 0/ 

,Jjfc3 and Jji* ; as JJ£ to kill, ^3 killing or being killed (§ 201) ; 

* * «»/ ... ',' 9 0* 

jtf to under stand, jrf understanding, insight; s JmA * to snatch, Urn** . 

§198] IT. The Noun. A. Nouns Subslti Adj.— Nomina Verbi. 113 

9 J J 

(b) J>*i is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form A 

xxx x ^x xxx 9 1* 9 J 1 xxx 

Jjt5 ; as juiS and ^J^. to sit, y^x3 and ^yU- sitting ; *-jjL. to go out. 

9 J J ^ 

7»5j±> going out. 

(c) J*$ is the abstract noun from intransitive verbs of the form 

J*3 (§§ 38 and 92) ; as »-^i fo fa glad, *-ji joy ; u°j*° to be sick, 

9 " ' 
u°j* sickness. 

6x xx 6/ j) 

(d) 3JUi and aJjaj are the abstract nouns from verbs of the 
x jx /j • 

form J*i ; as J>». to ft* ^'c£ and large, to be of sound judgment, 

9 x x x t x j x Sx x x 

AJtjjh. firmness or soundness of judgment ; jj-w to be generous, Sjl^ B 

" | * 2 X ^ ■* ^ jx 

generosity; { j*L±. to be rough, BjyL±. roughness; J^-* to fo smooth, 

aJ^^w smoothness. 

Rem. The abstract nouns of verbs which express flight, or 

9 x Si* * xx xxx 

refusal, usually take the form 26. JU* ; as ji, jJu, }j£,, to flee, 


j\j3, jtiu, }\jJli ; r> pcfc to become refractory, to run away with his 

9 * * * . 9 * 

rider (of a horse), *-U-»- ; j\i to flee from, shun with horror, j\y* ; 
^->\ to refuse, *bt. Those that express sickness or ailment of any C 

9 x J x x x 9 ' 1 xxx 9 x J 

kind have 27. J Us, as ^Jslc to sneeze, ^Ua^ ; s Jjuj to cough, Jlxw 

9 * * * x x 9 x xx 

VIOLENT Or CONTINUOUS MOTION, 21. ^J^Jt9, as j\h to fly, ^)Sj^ 

x x 9 xx x x x x » // / 

^ja*. to run, ,jb^.; ^Ja*. to lash the tail, to brandish, £)\jlx±. 

x xx 9 x xx xxx 9 x x x x x x 

Jyj to gleam, ^A*^ > U^ f j to fl as K 0^**3 I JU*. to palpitate, 

9 x x x 9 x xxx 9 ' Ci s 

jjliUi. ; change of place, 37. J**3, as J*~j to travel, J+**j ; wO 

9 x x x x 9 * * * * 

to creep, w~oj ; ^o-O ^° gallop (of a camel), ^©-w) ; J*«3 £0 £ro£ (of a 

9 ' " " ' • • • " TV 

camel), J>~o ; *-*»■£ to be agitated, palpitate, run quickly, vJu»>j > D 

xxx 9 x x xx 9 x 9 xJ 

Jj^j £0 gleam, i^ij-i ', u^3 i0 flash, sj&#*3 ; sound, 27. ^JUi and 

9 x x xx 9 xJ 5 x xxx 

37. J***, as wju to croa&, wjbu and ^~x.> ; JJ^ to sob, to bray, 

9 x - xx X # * X XXX 9 XJ 9 X XXX 

J^w ; J^-o to neigh, J^-tf j J>yj to bray, Jjlyj and J^yj ; C*yj 

9xJ Oxxx 9xjxxx 

Jo roar, Olyi and O-^J ; «-Lo ^o cry ow£, p-U«o ; f-j<0 to cry out 

9xx xxx 9xJ xx ^xj xx 

for help, f-\r>e ; «J to bark, *-L3 ; ^Xj to weep, l\SJ ; ^ys> to 
w. 15 

114 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 199 
A howl, %\^\ U3 to bleat, *liu ; U> to grumble (of a camel), gUj ; 

Ox x xxx x x 

office, trade or handicraft, 29. *UUs, as t^il*. to succeed, Ai^Li. 
tfAe o^ce o/* successor (<tiul&.) or caliph, the caliphate ; jjtS to be chief 
or tmir, SjUt 2&e oj^ce of emir ; .Jj to be in charge or command of, 

Ox x s , o , „ 

4j*^5, governorship; w>U to take one's place, act as deputy, <bto 

xxx Ox- xx 

deputy ship ; ^ZS** to write, £jU£» the office of secretary ; i»ti- to 

Ox x xxx Ox X 

sew, <LbU»> 2Ae £me?e of tailor ; j.s*J to trade, 3jU*j 2mofe, traffic. 

B 199. If the middle radical of a verb can be pronounced with two 
or three vowels, and its signification varies accordingly, that verb may- 
have several abstract nouns, one for each form and meaning of the 

xx x r. x xx 

Perfect. Thus, J^i, to part, divide, has ^, but Jji, to be afraid, 
Jjji ; j-v*-, to fo plain, open or public, has j^j*. or jl-^, but j^»», 


to fo unable to see in the sunlight, jt4»> an( ^ JV?-> to ^ loud, 3)lyj>- ; 

xxx ' 0& x x x 

<*J>2», to surpass or <?#&?£ tn raw& or nobility, has vi>w, but »*i^w, to fa 

t Ox X X J X 

C ^^ or prominent, U>j£>, and wi^w to be exalted, noble or eminent, 

«X X X X X 

u^P or Aitjw. 

200. If a verb has only one form, but several different significa- 
tions, it often has different abstract nouns, one of which is peculiar to, 

or more generally used in, each of its meanings. E.g. j£j*-, to judge, 

9 6 J ... fl x 5 x 

has j£*-> but when it signifies to curb {a horse), j£&- ; j** t to fall 

5 x 3 J 

prostrate, has jj*. or jjj^-, but when it means to sound like rushing 

O x x Jx Ox* 

D water, j-ij** ; £*j, to be exalted or noble, has £*Jj, but in the sense of 

Ox xx xxx Ox© 

to have a hud voice, Afclij ; ju*.j, to find, usually has O'^J* Du * when 

O x 

it means to fo wealthy, Sj^., and to 60 moved by love, grief or anger, 

9 X 

201. The nomina verbi are used both in an active and a passive 
sense ; as aX3> his killing (another) or his being killed himself; 

x x xOx OC0-5 J J X 

ly».^Lot juo ui^l ^ Ij j u JU y w#r£ wo m7 upon the earth after 

§202] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.d Adj— Nomina Verbi 115 

o x x o *o*o j ji , i*> , , a g x 5 *» I 

its having been well ordered ; t>Xa»o J>*M 0>*^ jv^l *i»JI »J^ iJ A 

x x x x x ^^x 

jjl^iJI ew £Ais pr el-Ma mUn publicly adopted the doctrine of the 

Koran's having been created. 

Rem. There are also nomina verbi that have always a passive 

9 J J Sj 9 j j 

signification; as jjjj-w Joy, gladness, from j~» £o 6e glad; $50^5 
existence, from j^j to be found, to exist (see §200)*. 

202. The nouns formed from the derived forms of the strong 
triliteral verb are as follows. 

II. 1. J**&. B 

9 x x 9x Ox 5/ »/ 9 x 0/ J/ »/ 9 x x 9 x Ox 

2. aXxaj, as S^JJ, a^Xj. JUjJU, il^io. £3ja3, S^-cuS, 

65 x 95 x Ox Ox 6/ x 9/ Ox 9/ 0^ 

S>~J, SwiJ, a^v>, 25}s!*3, a^J^, *$%P- 


9 x J x 9 x-> x 95 J x 95 J x 

[3. ibuu, as ££1^3, S^J, 5^a5.] 

9 xOx 6 x Ox 9 x Ox 9 xOx 9 x Ox 9 xO x 9 xOx 

4. JUA5, as Jl^cu, JUv, O^V> JftJ^ >^P> Jj&, 

9x0x Sx Ox 9 x x 9xOx 

u^Uy, J'^a^>, «^'>^>, jW~3- 

9 xO 5 x> x^O »x x 9x0 x/0 9x0 

[5. JUA3, as oWj, 2^, ?^h^, v!/A fl£J, JU^j, C 

9 x 

JtaXJ. Of these examples some allow only the two 

9 xOx 

first, pointing the others as examples of JUA5.] 
[6. JuU, as 1>\S£>, V&£>, JStc, »LJ, J£«*, Jt ji, 2liU, 

X x xxxxxx 

oi 9 5 

jUfe, JU] 

XWJ x BJ Txuil X W fivl 

L5**7?' L5%?' ^**H' L5 2 **?' **2*J ^ 

[8. iSCJ^, as lUu-I*k, iGX>.] 

9 -> Oj 9 J OJ 

To these may be added Jyw, as ^>^. Here the vowel of the 

* [>£4£*5 is also employed in the active signification ; see the Gloss, 
to Bibl. Geogr. viii. and Lane. D. G.] 

116 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 202 
A first syllable seems to have been assimilated to that of the second ; 

«JOj JO* 

Jyt*j for JywX 

in. i. autli. 2. JU*. 

[3. Jt***, as v£*-*> cfe;]. [4. J&, as JUS, •£«.] 

IV. JUil. 
V. 1. Jaw. [2. JUtf , as JU-*->, >*£, j3U?, >«£.] 

B VI. 1. Jilil [2. JcUf, as OjUl] 

[3. J^U5, as OjUj.] 

VII. JUA3I. VIII. 1. JUllt. [2. J&, as j&, jSL.] 

5-0 0-00 

IX. J!jU5t. X. JUiXwt. 

XL J%*lt. XII. JbLait. 

XIII. Jtjait. XIV. ii&fo 

c xv. ?5uJt ; 

Rem. a. In II. the form JJUi is the original infinitive, but 

Jajuu is by far the most common; alxsu is chiefly used in verba 

tert. rad. hemz. and tert. rad. 3 et ^ (in which latter the form 

J*sa3 is excessively rare, as jjy-3 from tp) ; . JLxi and i^JLoid are 

usually ascribed to I., but as their use is diJL^Jt JcoiJ, to excess 
energy or intensity, [or frequency,] they seem as deserving of a 
D place here as JUaj [which in like manner differ from the infin. 
of I., only by expressing greater energy or frequent repetition]. 
These forms with te^did are akin to the Heb. infin. absol. 7fc$p 
( /L3p /LDp) to Heb. substantives like Dm?^ an d to the Eastern 

I 6 '0* 0" JOJ 0-J0- 

Aramaic infin. *7ifc3p; whereas JUaj. J**a3, J>**5 an d dXziu 

are, strictly speaking, the infinitives, not of J*5, but of an obsolete 
yjjuu, akin to /SJ&fi, /^P), 7$}£&?, and are represented in the 

§203] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.— Nomina Verbi. 117 
cognate dialects by such substantives as *!P'"Oft, /^JUH, Hv^in, A 

Wan, WShft, ]Llb& lAllcnZ, UjLoJL etc.*— In III. 


Jbt^i is the original infinitive, which the great majority of the 

9 s 

Arabs shortened into Jlx*, whilst some compensated the loss of the 
long vowel by doubling the following consonant, JU$. The most 
common form of all is aJUULo ([in form identical with the] pass, 
particip. fern.). — In V. the original form is JUaj. which has 

however been almost entirely supplanted by jjtju. — In VIII. those B 
Arabs alone use JUJ, who shorten the Perf. and Imperf. into 

Jji5, JjtAj, or Jjti, <Jmu, etc. in the cases mentioned in § 117*. — 
The form JUaj is sometimes ascribed to III., as gUp, JLiutf ; and 

L5 Lii to VI., as ^Jj^j^ (ljj*.UJ), {Jj*** 0i>*V)> ^ ( ! >*Ih)- 

i 9 *■ s 

[Rem. 6. For the ^^o-wo jJ*aa of the derived conjugations see 
§ 227, rem.] 

203. The nouns formed from the quadriliteral verbs are : — C 

I. 1. iLUi. as <U.^), &AAj~i, Zlsy>., Oj^e*., 3p*s^, 3liL», 

0x0 x « 0x0 x ^xO 0x0 0x0 

2. J'iUJ, as *-tj«o, JUj-, JUu^, fUU, JljJj, JUX3. 

x x 9 xOx 9 x x 

[3. J^Jj*, as Jig, JUJU.] 
II. J-***?, as p.j*.j3. 

___ /J » x 00 

III. J^JLxit, as>l*j£».t. D 

IV. J&Jl, as jli*^> oUloit. [The irregular form iujUi 

is rather to be considered as a substantive, jj*a* ^o-A] 

Rem. In I. XUal is the common form, whilst the employment 
• < • < 

of J^lati depends upon the wms loquendi (like that of JUi in III. 

* [Barth, Nominalbildung, § 180 disapproves of this theory. D. G.] 

118 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 204 
A of the triliteral verb). The form J*^bts seems to be restricted to 


reduplicated verbs, like JjJj. — A variation of the fourth form is 
presented to us in the word jjUxk, mutual thrusting and stabbing 

.» x x i/»' 5 x x 

with lances = j^UsJ, which comes from ^yMo = ^yijih\. 

204. The abstract nouns of the verba mediae rad. geminatse are 

mj * 0* iv/ 

formed according to the rules given in § 120. Hence %x« for jjco, >j* 

Oxdx fix 0& x Ox *x fix 

for Mj* (from }j) t SjJu for Sjjju (from the second form of ji). 
B Rem. a. Those nouns, of which the first and second radicals 

x x 5 x x 

are pronounced with fetha, undergo no contraction ; as jju>, yJAfr, 

x x x x 

Rem. b. The nouns of the third and sixth forms may either 

SxxxJ 5 x J J x x Sxx 

be contracted or not; as 3»lo»« or olo-«, ^*jUJ or w>L*J. See 

205. The formation of nouns from the verba hemzata takes place 
C according to the rules laid down in§§ 131 — 136. 

206. Those verba primse rad. j, that reject the ^ in the Imperf. 
and Imperat. (§§ 142 and 144), drop it also in the verbal noun. E.g. 

x xxx j , o 

Sjcfr from js-2, Imperfect julj, Imperat. js> 

Ox xxx J" 

S xx 









J x 
















The termination S— , with which these nouns are furnished, is a 
compensation for the lost radical. 

Rem. a. Not a few verba primae rad. 3, however, have nouns 
of the form Jlai, though they drop the first radical in the Imperf. ; 

xxx J xOOx xxx J x x 

e.g. j^*j, j^>, j^5 J v>"^3» 0^*^5 v>^> Others have both forms ; 

§ 209] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Nomina Verbi. 11.9 

x x x J xx d x *.' ' ' ' ' J ' 9 0s <»x x xx J x . 

e -g- £**> J-«y» £°3 anc * *■** J OJ> OJ*> OJ^ and *jj > *Mt5» ***J, A 

fl x x 

j£.j and Sj^. 

Rem. b. Initial ^, if pronounced with damma or kesra, may be 

P ^ J £ - 9 J J S x » 

changed into I (see § 145, rem.), as .ijjfc.1, ,jl*x&.l, for ^»»j 0'**^> 

Rem. c. In nouns from verba primse rad. j, this radical is 
changed into ^, if it be without a vowel, and kesra precede ; as 

9 5x0 x x x .xx d 

w^Ufc-jl for w>Ufc.^f, from the fourth form of w*»-3 ; tUyU+l for 

^x* « xx ^ 

*liywt, from the tenth of .Jj. See § 145. -B 

x .» 

Rem. rf. Compare in Hebrew, prh (&)i HEh (&), fO# 

X V V x V V ' 

njn, ^om nb\ eh\ nsr, bt* my ( r ^), ma (&*), 

- -> _ T > .. T ' - T ' -T' T« * * T •• - ' 

« x 

rOfc? (*^), fr° m *l$ s , YW, \&*' Corresponding forms in Syriac 
are Ua (rad. ^o), )L±* (rad. -Jfc*). 

207. Nouns derived from verba mediae rad. ^ et ^j are subject to C 
the same irregularities as those verbs (§ 150, etc.). 

208. If the noun from a verb mediae rad. 3 or ^j be of the form 

5 Ox 90 x 9C x 9 J J 

Jjti, the ^ or ^ remains unchanged ; as Jy>, j-w. In the form Jyi* 

9 I J r, l j 

from verba med. 3, the ^ may be changed into 3, as w>j>>, Jj>»», 

0lj9lj9l'J9lj 9 3i, 

J33>> *r>33y J33*> J33~*> * or *r>3>*> etc - verba med. ^ of the form 

xxx J &x , . , & 9 ' 6 ' 

Jji3, Imperf. Jjuu (see § 157), frequently take kesra in the ^^j* jJ*»-*, 

« x 9 0' * ' ~ ' / \ ••!• 3 x 5 x 

^« (for C~~©), *«*, l\j*~* (or by assimilation ^M), J^j**, 

, and the like. [See § 223, rem.] D 

209. If the letter j, pronounced with fetha, be preceded by kesra, 

9 x 5 x x x 9x x 9x x 

it is converted into ^; as^oLS for^ftly>, from ^©13; 5JLo for aJl^o, 
from olo ; >Uut and >Ll3l for ^V^JUI and >U3M, from the seventh and 

**X X "x X XX XX 

eighth forms of *ti. Except in the third form, where it remains 

120 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§210 

A unchanged ; as j\±> from jjti, j|>»- from ^U-, jtj— from jjL*, Oli^ 
from OJ^>^°!> 5 from^jll, jMj) fromjy'J), 1I3J from I5U. 

210. Peculiar to verba media3 rad. ^ et ^ is the nominal form 

~' J ° i 

5J^Ui, in which ^ always takes the place of the second radical ; as 

«x JO* x x Ox JO* x x «x JO x x x 

a*>o-»J from>b (->>>), hj*J from *13 (^1), &>*£» from o^=» (0>^)> 

«x ->ax , x ox ja«- x x $ s j o * x x 

3jjju~> from jL> (jj~>), *> > *ej from <jb (l>^)> ^j^-»*> from »-U» 

B, Ox *,*• > xx Ox jdx xx Ox J&x ^" 

(«£), S^jj-wo from jU> (j-*-©), *j>j-j£ from w>U (w~£), aJ>LJ from 

JlS ( J-i). 

Ox J J 

Rem. Some grammarians regard aJ^JUi as the original form. 

Ox j6j"5^ j a j 

The impossible A±y* ,.*>, Sjjj-^o, were, they say, first changed into 

x J Ox J 

rtffcj)^ m*, tjjjyfa+i and then altered, on account of the discord 

Ox J x fix J © x 

between 2; and u in successive syllables, into <la.^w, 2)jj--«. 

OxJftx Ox J x&x 

Others look upon aJ^JLx,^ as a contraction for Aj^Jbui, so that 

Ox J*x Ox JxOx ^ Ox j5'x 

iLcj+j} was originally 4*0^0^,5, by assimilation Slc^^j^, and then 

OxJOx x O m» x 

shortened a*^jj (like C*** for C *f ) ; but there is no verbal form 
JL**s, with which such a nomen verbi could be connected. The 

S x J OxfcJ xx 

rare substantive forms ny~t (or My**) from jL>, £0 6e chief or ruler, 
and JaJs^c from h\z to desire the male (of a she-camel) ; the cognate 

x *x x Jdx *» x J 3 x x J x x -» * J" •* « J "»x 

forms ^yo^ t ^-i^y and ^lo^c^i, ^-^j-j*, ^ ^iui and iUp^-tfuJ, 

x 0x ^ x Ox 

, 0&&aff and llcu.^u.4, mixture, confusion; and the analogy of the 

D Aramaic verbal form 77^3 (as 55^2), ^i2jJ2)) and the Heb. 77^*3 

(as pi3, pb, DDte, Dtfll) ,— all combine to prove that U^Ui 

X x»x 

comes directly from a quadriliteral J-Ui. 

211. In nouns of the fourth and tenth form of verba media? 
rad. ^ et ^5, the second radical is elided, after throwing back its 

vowel upon the vowelless first radical ; and the termination 5— is 
appended to the noun by way of compensation (compare § 206). E.g. 
luiSt and liliUwt for >Ud! and- Jtlilwt ; SjUl and oSUlwl for ilj\ 

and >U*^t. 

§215] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Substdk Adj. — Nomina Verbi. 121 

Rem. Nouns of the fourth form without the 5 very rarely A 

o * o^ootoo^e 

occur; e.g.^eUM in the Kor'an, Sur. xxi. 73 (for^»U5t, j>\\.i\ or j*\i\) ; 

g 6 5 6 

%\j\ (for *t£)t) from ^t to make or Ze£ see, to show (§ 176, rem. c). 

212. In nouns formed from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^, the third 
radical is retained, when the second immediately precedes it and is 

0* 0* 0* GO* 0*0 0*0 

vowelless ; as jjs-, ^cj, yfcj, (j£>i, 0^y°j> uW*^- If the second 
radical be ^ and the third ^, an assimilation takes place in the form 

0* S * 2> * 5 * 5 * 00* 00* 00* 00* 

J**, as L5 a*, tjj t L5 J*, J, for ^^a., ^jj, ^^J*, ^y. 

5 " •• 

213. In nouns from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^ of the forms J*s, B 

9 * <■• * J 

J*5, and Jj«i, the third radical (which in this case always [if the 

root be of the latter, often if it be of the former class,] assumes the 
form of ^j) rejects its damma, throws back the ten win upon the fetha 

of the second radical, and becomes quiescent. Eg. *}£a. for L *Aa» 
(*V), sj^ for U*>, L5^ t or U -f] for L5-^ (>*-*)' L&-* for L&A 

2 .» * * 

^jjb for ^jJb (compare § 167, a, ft and 6, £). 

214. In nouns from verba tertise rad. $ of the form al*5, the j C 
is changed, after the elision of its fetha, into Slif productionis ; as 

O * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * O * * * * * 

V%o for S>L«, 5 La. for S^a., 3l£>j for S^»j, SlXw for 3j£i. 

Rem. a. We often find, however, the (etymologically more 

\ * • I * « I x 

correct) orthography S3JL0, S^a., Sj£>j (§ 7, rem. e?). 

* * 9** * 0*0* 

Rem. 6. In the same way as SLa. for S^a., we find Slo^* for 

0**0* 0**0* * £° ' Z.'£* ' 

Ajm^ (o^o^o), 3bj*o for 2-o^o, etc. 

215. If the noun from a verb tertiae rad. ^ be of the form D 

J^xi or £)>*$, the j productionis of the second syllable combines 

,., . •* Jjj Jjj jj j j 

with the radical j into j ; as 3J3, y^, for j>\>, j>»^. But, if 

these forms come from verba tertiae rad. ^, the j productionis is 

changed, through the influence of the third radical, into ^, and 

combines with it into J$, whilst, at the same time, the damma of the 

second radical becomes a kesra; as ^1, ^5,, ^c^ y for (J^jt, c5> 5 > 

w. 16 

122 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 216 

A l$5<aa (compare § 170). A further assimilation of the vowel of the 

S 3 13 ll 

first syllable sometimes takes place, as ^1 for ^y\, ^jt for ^jt, 

s s j  is, 

^Zz for i^ ; just as in the plural of substantives we find ^3, ^o. e, 

J£, for ^5, L5 -ot, ^ from ^>3, Uxp, y> 

216. If the noun from a verb tertise rad. (^ be of the form 
J***, the \£ productionis of the second syllable combines with the 

Ml 3 x Ox xx 

B radical ^ into ^ ; as ^>A for ^jA, from ^yb. In the same form 
from verba tertise rad. 3, the third radical is converted into ^, and 
combines in the same manner with the ^j productionis into J?. 

xx Ox x J 

217. In the nomina verbi of the forms JUs, JU3, and JUi, 
the third radical of verba tertise rad. ^ et ^ is changed into hemza ; 
as £U±., fe, ££j. The same thing takes place in the verbal nouns 

^x o «•> x a »» x o 

of the fourth, seventh, and following forms, as gUact, g^a»Jt, gU^t, 

t x X XX 

f\^*j\, ;Uju~>t, {\yt^>\ ; and in that of the third, when it has the 

x ^ x xx 

form Jt*3, as glju from ^jU This change is caused by the preceding 
long fetha. 

218. The nomina verbi of the second form of verba tert. rad. j 

« . J/ «xGx«xOx 

et ^ always take the form ZXxJu (§ 202, rem.), as 2J<~3, ajJaI In 

those of the fifth and sixth forms, the influence of the third radical 
D (always ^$, § 169) converts the damma of the penult syllable into 

kesra, and the syllables ^— are contracted into - (according to 
§ 167, b, P). Hence J^J for {JLJ ( JL*?), J# for jfi (J&). 

(ft) The Nomina Vicis or Nouns that express the Doing 
of an Action once. 

219. That an act has taken place once i}j+), the Arabs indicate 
by adding the feminine termination 3— to the verbal noun. For this 

§220] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.<& Adj. — Nomina Vicis. 123 
purpose the form Jx* is always selected in the first form of the A 

0* * 

triliteral verb, J**aj in the second, and J^a* in the first form of 

0* * 0*0* «/» <> r.*0* 0*0* oZ* O* 0* 

the quadriliterals. E.g. ^-oJ, 3ja3, *b>o, aj>w, a»^, *j*, ***JL£>> 

5 V «< 0**0 0**0 *&** * J * * 0**0 9**0 0**0 

dL^^j^jj, dJ1j.oJ. du>\j£=>\. SlSaj, 3J3\Ju, 4iUX>t, Zj[s£)\, 33\£j*Z*\ i 

* £ £ * * * * * * 

0**0 0*10** 0* * 

A^tj^o, <Lc*.ja.j3, tj\jj&i\ ) the act of helping, sitting down, striking, 

drinking, rejoicing, fleeing, turning over, giving rest, vexing, honouring, 
rolling over, neglecting, being uncovered, turning round, inhaling or B 
snuffing, rolling, being rolled, shuddering, once. These nouns are 

a **>o ,* * o t 

called S^oJI iU-wt, nomina vicis, or nouns that express the doing of an 
action once. 

Rem. a. Nouns of this sort, derived from weak verbs, do not 

_ 0/0/- 0/0/ 0/0/ 

differ in form from those of the strong verbs ; as Sj^cj, 4*y>, 5$ j&, 

o*o£ 0*0 * 0*0* * * * * * * * *$. * * * * 

V*i **«;> ***> f r o m J*J»>1*, \j*, ^\, ^j, ^. 

Rem. b. If the verbal noun happens to end in IL , the feminine 
termination IL cannot, of course, be appended to it, and the single- 
ness of the action can only be expressed by adding the adjective 

* * I t * *l*0*i** 

3 jc».lj one, as I j^-l^ 1++-J a-o-o-j , he had pity or compassion upon 

0*0* r. * * 0***3 * * 0**0 0**0* 

him once; and so with *+*£>, \ X> J ; 2d3\JLo, iolSt, 4jUlwl, a^ao. 

* 6 * * 

Rem. c. From these nouns a dual and a plural may be formed 

* * * 

to express the doing of the act twice or oftener; as du. £)\3j*a£, 
o * * * 

pi. Otj-o-». 

Rem. o?. Other verbal nouns are but rarely used in this way ; D 

o S o* e- j o i** o**o 

as rti*,e^, 3u^j, feUU, AJLJt, £/ie ac£ of going on a pilgrimage, seeing, 
meeting, coming, once. 

(y) The Nomina Speciei or Nouns of Kind. 

OvtiOiO 0*9 

220. The g>«Jt^»wt or noun of kind, has always the form aX*j, 
and indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb ; 

- 0*0 - 0*0 0*0 * * 

as A--U-, ij^,, S*a*S, a**1*, A-U-5, 3 j;.g-», a^-jJ, manner, mode, or 

124 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 220 
A way of sitting, riding, sitting, eating, killing, dying, sleeping. E.g. 

*0 c»o 

4*23 1 £****' $*> he is good as to his manner of writing, he writes a 

good hand, %$~t 2dZ» JZ$ he was killed in a miserable way, a^j. 

't is a wretched death ! 

Rem. a. The nom. speciei may, like the nom. verbi and nom. 

vicis, be used in a passive sense, as 4£j«a, way of being thrown (from 

/« «i i« J 5 * * iO * J 

horseback), e.g. ac^cJI &~»». ^j*o j*e* j} U*+Z* *)\ £j~», to sit fast 

B badly is better than to be thrown easily. Sometimes too it takes the 

<-> * 
meaning of one of the derived forms of the verb ; as Zj jk£ manner of 

* ** 5*0 

excusing oneself, from ^ Jus I to excuse oneself; S^<*&» mode of veiling 

* *  5 * o 5 

oneself from C^*X£»t she put on the jl*£. or yashmak ; Z+s. way of 

putting on a turban, from^^ad or^ct to put on a turban {jLA+z). 

Rem. b. If the nom. verbi has the form dJUi, we must have 

C recourse to a circumlocution to express the idea of the nom. speciei ; 

*S*> ** J J - * 

as ±jcl>j+1\ \»»»» * *** * ' I made him observe a regimen like a sick 

Coo * * li t // 

man, ^JUlt ZjJU ajjULj I searched for it as for something precious ; 

to* j jo* * * o* >o * 10* a 

or else ^L^aJt &* U3J a^»., SjuLUt ^0 Ujj ajjJlj. So too with 

a * * * o j j o* t 
the derived forms of the verb, J^juaJI j*\j£*\ aZoj£*\ I honoured 

* 0>e * 10* i 30* £ 

him as a friend is honoured, or j*\j£>*$\ ^* \s>^> aZcj£a\. 

D (S) The Nomina Loci et Temporis or Nouns of Place and Time. 

oSt to r» * it <- * oi 

221. The nouns called opaJt 2l©~>! (nomina vasis), or iU^I 
jjUplj £l£«Jt (nomina loci et temporis), are formed after the analogy 

of the Imperfect Active of the first form of the verb, by substituting 

the syllable j* for the prefixes, and giving the second radical fetha, 

if the Imperfect has fetha or glamma, but kesra, if the Imperfect has 

kesra. E.g. w^-u*o a place for drinking, a reservoir or water-trough, 

* , 1*0* 5*0 * 

from v>^ t° drink, imperf. ^j^i ; J-^ the time or place far watering 

§221] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj. — Nomina Loci. 125 

J , 0, 0,6 

(camels), from Jyj to drink, imperf. J^J ; £j-*a* the time when, or A 

place where, one is thrown down or slain, from cj-o to throw down, 
imperf. £j><ai ; w**£* a place where writing is taught, a school, from 
k ^ Sb to write, imperf. ^~C> ; 9*jj*~6 and J^ j co, a ^?/ac£ o/ #/rm and 
ingress, from j»-j^ to #0 out, imperf. f*j±-i, and J^.> to go in, imperf. 

J 1 0, 9 0, 

J^.o-» ; u-^Xa*,* £fa place where, or ftflM w^w, several persons sit, room, 
assembly, party, from v~^ to sit, imperf. v~^*~i 5 J **&* the place 

' ' , JO, 

aimed at or made for, from juaS to aim at, make for, imperf. J~a3u. B 

Rem. a. These nouns are called OjJsJt il+~*\, because 2irae and 

p^cice are, as it were, the vessels in which the act or state is con- 

Rem. b. Twelve of these nouns, though derived from verbs in 
which the characteristic vowel of the Imperfect is damma, take, not- 
withstanding, kesra; viz. 


9 0, 

4. fcu t m .- o 

9 , 

5. £) S L mA 






9 , 


£Ae place where animals are slaughtered, slaughterhouse or Q 

whereon one rests, the elbow. 

of prostration in prayer, a mosque. 

where anything falls. 

where one dwells, habitation. 

where the sun rises, the east. p 

of ascent or rising. 

where the sun sets, the west. 

of division, in particular, where tlie hair divides 
in different directions, the crown of the head. 

where a plant grows. 

126 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 222 


A 11. ji* i«*.o the place wJiere the breath passes through the nose, the 


12. ^L»;.o .... where a sacrifice is offered during a religious 

Of these, nos. 5, 7, 9, 11, and 12, may be pronounced with 
fetha, and the same license is extended by some grammarians to all 

0* J J 0303 

the rest. Instead of j£*J*a some say jtL ».o, jri> U, and even jj)-* »o. 
The verb * «.&», to collect, which has /Ma in the imperf., also makes 
B « a> o or .•g.. .a>.<», a pfoce o/* collecting, meeting or assembling. The 
vowel of the first syllable is variable in cjd».«, also cjd..o and 
cjoL.o, ct jt?2oce o/* hiding or concealment, a small room or closet. 


See § 228, rem. a j and compare the variations in ju»%^> a garment 

worn (by a woman) next the skin; \J^*a* a book, a copy of the 

O'O * 

Kor'an; and vj^kuo a ro&e MntfA ornamental borders. 

Q Rem. c. The kesra of the second syllable distinguishes in many 

cases the nomina temp, et loci from the ,«*->«o jjtcu*, which, as a 

-• < 

general rule, takes fetha in the second syllable. Thus ^Ja^, 

%* * 0' * 0*0* it'* 

J^sw-c, ^^mje.o, wJj-^U; jjLo, are nomina verbi or infinitives ; whilst 


^Jla^o, J.0^^0, ( ^>N ? a>.», w>^>-«, J-**, are nomina temporis or loci. 

Rem. o?. This class of nouns exists in the other Semitic 

languages. In Hebrew, the vowel of the first syllable has fre- 

D quently been weakened into - and _; as m&fc, 2J3fib (3X3DV 

DipD (dij?b), M'na (4^>)> "»T& (1*^0), rata (U^>> 

222. Nouns of time and place, formed from verba primse rad. 
^ et {J, retain the first radical, even though it be rejected in the 
Imperfect of the verb (§§ 142, 144), and have invariably kesra in the 
second syllable. E.g. ij^o watering-place, from >)$ to go down (to 
draw water), imperf. >ji ; S*^ the time or place of a promise or 
appointment, fixed time or place, from ***j to promise, imperf. 

§224] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj. — Nomina Loci. 127 

f-03-0 the place where anything is put, a place, from %^^ to put down, -A- 
to place, imperf. %*eu ; J^.3-0 a place that is dreaded, from J^j to be 
afraid, imperf. J^>j ; J>»-$-« a slough or quagmire, from J^-j £0 

J x -x x x x x 

sta'c& mi- ^ mwrf, imperf. J»»>> ; j-~~« a game at hazard, from j-~> 

J Ox 

#0 jpfay a£ hazard, imperf. j-~u . 

3 x * 

Rem. Here the ,**** jjueu* should, strictly speaking, have the 

same form as the nomina loci et temp., but the grammarians give B 

some examples with fetha in the second syllable, as *«^>o, J-»->*- 

223. Those formed from verba mediae rad. ^ et ^ undergo 
changes analogous to those suffered by the Imperfect of the verb 
(§ 150) ; that is to say, after the second radical has taken fetha or 
kesra, according to § 221, this vowel is thrown back upon the vowelless 
first radical, and the ^ or ^ is changed into the homogeneous letter 

x x Gx a x 

of prolongation (t or ^). E.g. j>lL* (»£•) place of standing, place, 

, s t J Jx OJ d x 6 x x x x >< 

from jAS to stand, imperf. >j*4 (j*3*i) \ u°\*** (t^>>**) diving-place, C 

x x # J J x J J 2 x r. , , a , s 

from ^oU to dive, imperf. u°^H (u^y^-i) 5 ^l*«*-© (vJ^a*-©) and 

9 x x x x xx 

wily-© (w-w^-o), a jofec^ £to is dreaded, from ^JU. £0 fear, imperf. 

.» X X .» X X XX t JXXJXOX f ^ / ' 7 ' ' " 

<*JU^> (»J^fcj), and w>U to fear, imperf. wjI^j (w**yj) ; J-X© (J***) 
place of resting at mid-day, from Jld #0 s/&?p at mid-day, imperf. J-Jb 

J <»x 



S C x x 

Rem. The <**** jJ*** has in this case regularly the form with 
a in the second syllable, as w>U, JU, jU*o, return (from w>t for D 

xxP Oxx ^xxxx 

w^t, etc.), cll« 6ein# divulged or published (from el* for **£) ; 
but many verba med. ^ take in preference the form with S, as 

Ox 9 x x 9 ^ 9 x x x 9 x • « x "("'' 

Cx-j^o or 0L-0 ;*--wo or cL*, ^^uak^o or ^^law.^, ^j-— x© or ^JL~«, 

<ix 9' x x « x «xx«x <* x x <I x r, , , 

\ J^ U or ^iUto. J-Xo or JtC*, J-JU or JliU, J***o or Jl©*o. 
See § 208. 

224. Those formed from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^ violate the rule 
laid down in § 221, for they always take fttha in the second syllable, 

128 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech, [§ 225 

A whatever be the vowel of the Imperfect. In regard to their contraction, 


x x 

they follow the analogy of the verbal nouns Jjt* from the same verbs 

xOxSxOxOxOx ' ' 

(§ 213). E.g. L5 »~U (^aw-u, jai^) place of refuge, from UJ to 

J Ox £Ox 9 xO x xx 

escape, imperf. >a^» ; ^j** (l/>j+) pasture-ground, from ^j, to 

x Ox *t> * xO x 

pasture or graze, imperf. ^j-> ; \^y^ (l£3~ c ) the place where one 
stops, from ^^j to stop, imperf. ^>t» ; i^j^ (^3^*) do., from ^£^\ 

t, * O x , . 

to #o or wsort to a place, imperf. ^jW ; ^$3^ (^jJx*) a fold, from 

x x « x «: Ox 5 x x xx 

B l£^* to fold, imperf. ^>tu ; j^yJU (^U) a bend, from ^j #0 bend, 


imperf. ^^4*. 

W <5 x x jSOx 

Rem. The ,*«** J+*** ^ as tne same form, as ^j**~* from 

xx x ? x xx Ox 

tj^^., imperf. iJJ/a*-! ; i£j~~ « from tj^"*, imperf. tJ^'—J. 

225. Nouns of time and place not unfrequently take the feminine 

x «xx x * x x x 

C form 5— ; as alxJLc time or jp/ac^ o/* occupation, business ; 4£j-£*o the 

C. x Ox 

jpfoctf w^r# cattle, etc., are watered ; ZujJx* the part of a sword with 

Sx x 

wfo'cA tifo blow is struck, the edge; aJj-U a halting-place, a station; 

SxxxOxxOx 5x0x«xx0x 

SjUU (Sj^U) a cave ; SU^o (***>») pasture-ground. If derived from 

a strong verb, the second rad. frequently has in this case damma 

j j 

SxxOx fix x x 

instead of fMa ; as S/*&© cemetery, SbjJi* place for drinking, ban- 
queting-room, tejjL* watering-place. Some nouns have even three 

£ «xx ? x 

D forms ; as 23j£*6 a place where one suns oneself or sits in the sunshine, 


fixxOx • •£*»* 

££1^ a jo/ac^ w^r^ people perish, a desert. Peculiar is Z « Jx o M0 


jofoctf w&?r# a ^ w supposed to be, from ,jJ» to think, suppose, 
imperf. O^i- 

2 9 x x 

Rem. The j^*** jjux* is liable to the same variations, though 

9 xx x SxxOx SxxOx 

ilxi^o is the normal form, as i^ k *** hunger. For example : 

§227] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <So Adj. — Nomina Loci. 129 

$2// 0- x 5 5 x OxxOxjSxxOx^OxxOxSx^Ox. 

i«Jt«, in preference to Sju»a»-o, &c*Lo ; A^JJa^, £~Xo, S^Aa^o, **->« A 

O /t/ OssO s 8/ Ox «x J x «//f £x xOx 

or SU^o (AjjJj*) J *» •* » ■* J Sjjut* ; AjjU, Sjjio. 

226. Some nouns of time and place, derived from verba primae 

0x0 Ox 

rad. 3 et ^, take the form Jbu-« (see § 228). E.g. y^»~o *t#w of 

xx x x 

foWA, from jJj to foar; ibu* appointed time [or jt?Zace] for the 

x xx x 

fulfilment of a promise, from jccj to 'promise; Oliu« appointed time 
[or jt?foc0 for the performance of some action], from C-sS^ to fix a time. B 

o x o 

Rem. From the strong verb this form is very rare, as Ji^A* or 

ii// x 

JujJL* - a5wu*« j but in iEthiopic it is the usual form from all verbs, 

X X 

O x x £ x 

as mesrdk = £j***, me'rdb = w^Jt*, mer'ay = i^j<*> 

227. The nouns of time and place from the derived forms of 
the triliteral verb, or from the quadriliteral, are identical in form 

with the nomina patientis or passive participles. E.g. ^^ a place C 

3 x QxOJ 2 J 

of prayer (^j^a to pray) ; ^4 , ^j— **, rttf tiflw 0/* entering upon 

x x Og x Op 

^ morning or evening (»<«), ^ 5 — ©t, to tfwter «^?tm fjfo fteu of morning 
or evening) ; J^»jco, ft-j*~* the place through which, or fjfo fa'wztf w^w, 

x x 0* x x g 

Ox x Oj xxxO ^~ OxxOj 

#0 ewtf) ; \J>j«aU place or tfww o/" returning (^j^-cut to return) ; g ^ a . ^ 

x x x t" ° J 

a place where things are collected (**!». t ft? 60 collected) ; ^j&^a jt?/ac£ D 

xxO 5xx J 

or ^'?W0 o/* meeting (^^SJJI £0 flMtff) ; J^*»-« f& ,/?rs£ 0^ 0/ Ata month 

J x 0/0 3 J J x x J 

( J*W Jv**' ^ ?^# W00W appeared) ; -f.jA.juo a ^?&zc0 w^r# 0w# 

xxOx OxOxOJ 

ro//s anything (j»j^> to roll) ; ^s*J^a*-o a place where (camels) are 

*•* x x Ox 

crowded together (^s*Jja.\ to be gathered together in a crowd). 

3 X X 

Rem. The same form is also used as a ,«**»© jJ^cuo from 
the derived forms of the triliteral verb and from the quadriliteral ; 

5 x J # > 6 Ox Ox Ox SxJ 

e.g. w^a^o ^e 6ein^ 2riec? or tested = <^jjj^j or aj^J : ^juU £Ae 
w. 17 

130 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 228 
A letting (camels) graze in the interval of their being watered - aj juj ', 

05 x J # Ox 5x J 

Jjj*-e the rending in pieces = JtJj-oJ > ^J*y* ^ guarding carefully = 

x x Ox x J Ox 6*s*»<i*J 

4-J3J j J3U* fighting — JUS or aDIa* ; jU* £/ie making a raid or 
foray — SjUt ; w^lcc* affliction — ajIoJ ; wJJUU, wdJU* turning or 

£ x x x fl'x x x J 

tossing to and fro = wJLaJ, w/}UJt ; Jb»U»JU tfAe pressing heavily on, 


mronging — Jw«U*J ; J.oJL.a.0 to make a clashing or ringing sound = 

iz x© x .»£xJ0x»x xxOjo,» xO i *» x 

aJLcJLo ; J>*-*Mj jJCl^oJI lyi* aOI .Jt, to God is (our) complaint of 
this event (ajuSj) and (on Him) is (our) reliance. 

B ( € ) The Nomina Instrumenti or Nouns that indicate the 


228. The nouns which denote the instrument that one uses 
in performing the act expressed by a verb, are called in Arabic 

s*1*> ,- y i !i/> xO 

2iy\ *lo~>t, nomina instrumenti. They have the forms Jaa*, JUa*, 

Ox x 

and aJUa*, and are distinguished from the nouns of place and time 
C by the kesra with which the prefixed j> is pronounced. When derived 

6 + 

from verba med. rad. j et ^, they remain uncontracted. E.g. 3^0, 

xx x 6x0 xxx e . ' * 

a ^0, from >jj, to file ; *-«■*■*, a lancet, from j-oj, #0 cut ; hj*** and 

6x0 OxO t t xO 5x6 

y\j£~4, a lancet; u°\r**, a Ptw of scissors ; 9^slc or *-ua*, a key; 

0,0 « x x x x . • * * J, 

»-/*» -« and <Uy»«, a comb; a******, a cupping-glass; A a». » > C o and 

3xx6 3 x Oxft <5'Jx 

SL>jX», a broom; ,>uu (for ,>mJU), a jwwr 0/ scissors; aL**«, a 



D packing-needle ; 3>2U, aw ^row instrument for marking a camel's foot 

x x 2 5 xx xx x Ox 

(from jjI) ; S^JL*, a pad placed under a horse's saddle (from jj>j) j^o-****, 


a branding-iron (from ^^3) ; o!>**> a balance or jpcmV o/" sca&s (from 

xxx 0x0 x x 0x0 > 0x0 

0)3) \ flJ* an( i **AHi & fan; jyU, a 6We?/0 or halter; >3j*, a small 

O x Ox 

2?rofo for applying kohl to the eyes ; kch^, a needle ; J ^aa and 

OxxO 0x0 r. , ,0 0x0 

3ju-flu«, a w^tf or snare; Sl5^» (for £*$>*), a staircase or ladder ; 



a strainer ; St^x*, a branding-iron or cautery. 

§230] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst & Adj.— Verbal Adj. 131 

4/0J 9J J 9 J J . 

Rem. a. A very few have the form Jju^ or Jju^ ; as Jji~U, A 

9 i J 9<0 J 9 <!> # 5 J J 9,0 

a sieve ; Jmo^o, a sword; JijJ^c = J>**j « spindle; mm*** = hA ^ .o, 
an instrument for introducing medicine into tlie nose ; Jj juo = J> jco, 

a jMrtfe or raato ; >  %* =j..Q.a».», a censer. The form JjJU is 
also used. 

Rem. 6. The corresponding Hebrew nouns have — and — , as 

well as _, in the first syllable; e.g. Wl», D np k &, ^Tfc, iTTftb, B 


(£) 7%^ Nomina Agentis et Patientis. 

*o*> * , oi 

229. The nouns which the Arab Grammarians call J^UJI i^\, 

J X ?<4 ~ s £ 

nomina agentis, and J^ai^JI l\+~*\, nomina patientis, are verbal C 

adjectives, i.e. adjectives derived from verbs, and nearly correspond in 
nature and signification to what we call participles. 

Rem. These verbal adjectives often become in Arabic, as in 
other languages, substantives. 

230. The verbal adjectives, derived from the first form of the 
triliteral verb, have two principal forms, namely, the nomen agentis, 

9 s 9 J s 9 ' 

J*l3, and the nomen patientis, Jyduo. E.g. ^Jl^ writing, a scribe 
or secretary, from ^J gr > to write, *->y&* written, a letter, from w*l£> ; D 

9 * ' ' ' 9 J * 

j**{±> serving, a servant, from^oj^ to serve, jbjj^e served, a master, 
from^oj^. \ j^\+. judging, a judge, from^x»- to judge ; ^>5l^ being, 

s s 9 J * + J 

from O^ t° be ; >5+y* found, existing, from *x».j, to be found, to 

9 J • " 5 J 

exist ; ^jj^~c mad, a madman, from &*., to be possessed, to be mad. 

< * * * * 

Rem. a. When formed from ^Jjji and the transitive ,J*s (as 

w-Jfcj to fear, yj>j to Wo?e on, ^Aft to know, {J ^c to touch), these 
nomina agentis are not only real participles, indicating a temporary, 

132 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 230 

A transitory or accidental action or state of being, but also serve as 
adjectives or substantives, expressing a continuous action, a ha- 

x Ox 

bitual state of being, or a permanent quality ; e.g. ^j\£z, j^>^, 

x Ox Ox 

j£s\». (see above), j£\s- a scholar, %^-JbU an ascetic. But if from 

X X X 

XX X J X .... 

the intransitive ^Jx£ and from ^Jjii, they have only the participial 
sense, the adjectival being expressed by one or other of the nominal 

5 x x 

forms enumerated in § 231. Thus »-jli or J^W being glad, 

x ^ x > < 5 #x x 

B rejoicing, ^Jjla. 6e£?i<7 cowardly, jul&» 6em<7 liberal, Jplo being 
narrow or confined, are participles ; the adjectives which indicate 


the corresponding permanent qualities or characteristics are w-j^ 

Ox J x ft x Oxx Oxx 

and JJa- or ^^)J^>., gladsome, cheery, ^jU*. cowardly, >tj^. 

5 Ml X 

bountiful, generous, and J>*o narrow. [Comp. however § 232, rem. 6.] 

O x 

Rem. 5. The nomen agentis J^U is said to be used occasionally 


2 ,xx JJ 

in place of the nomen verbi or actionis, as in the phrase W>15^$, 

x x ft 3 

C for ULS j£ ; but this is more frequently the case with the nomen 

.> ft x J ft x Oft x 

patientis (compare § 227, rem.) Jjju^. E.g. ij-v-a*-* = jl^*., labour, 

J ft x Oj ^ J ft x 3x 

effort, one's utmost ; o^Jo^-o = J UU^ swearing, an oath ; ^>j»o = 3j, 

O J ft x 00 x 

giving or sending back, rejection ; Jjyi** = JJU understanding, 

9 J * GO J a x x 

intelligence ; j^xm =j*£>, knowledge, perception ; b^Zyc = J£-$, pro- 

J 1 x J J ft x ft J 

mising, a promise ; j y** =j*-i affluence, opposed to j y» j u * =j-*»£, 

| Jt/ f l< ^ J ft x 

penury, distress ; p^j* = *ij, fo £ro2 quickly (of a camel) ; c^-o^c = 

ft x T' OJftxSftx ^ 

j) *.oj to 2ro£ easity (do.); ^^Ad**© = ^aAa., fo #o gently (do.); 

O J ft x SJJ # g < «jOx 

Jj-n^ # = ^Jj) orw, o<n?2# ^?^ existence, being got or acquired ; >y>s»~c> e* 

Sx x x Ox .» ft x 

0*i)^, Imrdiness, sturdiness, endurance. The fern. 4)^xio is like- 

5/ J ft x Ox J J / Ox J ft x Ox J ft x 

wise occasionally so used, as te^Xa—*, Sj y tJ ;* *, Z^yo ; a3j jucu* = 

00 Ox J ft x ft 

J jco, tfAe telling of the truth, opposed to *Oj JX© = w> J£>, &/in<? ; 

^X J ft X ^X J ft X <*X J ft X 

and also a cognate form I^jjm^, as ili^la^o, l\jyt£*. 

Rem. c. Conversely, the nomen actionis is sometimes used 
instead of the nomen agentis and patientis, or as an adjective. 

x ft x ->Jftx£ , . < xx'xxxJJJftiS'' 

E.g. La^j a^>', / came to /wm riding hard, = Lct-btj; 4^iU^ aIo-^, 

§ 232] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Verbal Adj. 133 

/ spoke to him face to face (lit. lip to lip), = ly$liLo ; UUt aLa), A 

I met him face to face (lit. eye to eye), = UjU^; \j~o aZX3, I slew 
him in cold blood (lit. bound, confined or held, so that he could not 
resist or escape), = \jj~aa ; Jj^ J*».j, Jj*. Sl^t, J jcc JU.j, 

a jwstf maw, a just woman, just men, = J^U, 4J3U, Jjjtft ; jj£ £U, 

water winch sinks into the ground, =jj\e. ; j~o*$\ w^o ^oAo, a 

dirham struck by the emir, =j~o*j\ ^t^jJslo ; 4&t J^i. ^Jb, they are B 

i>0 j j b * 
the creatures (lit. the creation) of God, = <i&l Ji^JLaLo. 

Rem. a 7 . Jcli is the Aram. 7ftp ^-&A and Heb. 7fth (with 
o for a). The form Jj*a* does not occur in either of these 
languages, the Heb. using instead of it 7J|tDp = Jj**> an d the 
Aram. 7^p = J*^ (see § 232, rem. c). 

231. Besides these, there are other verbal adjectives derived 
from the first form of the verb, and called J^UJt e U—W *y*£* Olio C 

j *0*o* 

J^xa^JIj, adjectives which are made like, or assimilated to, the par- 
ticiples, viz. in respect of their inflection. Of these the following 
are the principal. 

1. J** 9. JU5 

2. Jfe 10. JU3 

3. J*i 11. J**i 

4. J*5 12. J^ D 

p j ^ © x 

5. J*s 13. ^L*3 

6. Jj* 14. J^** 

* ■» ■» y J 

7. Ja* 15. o^** 

8. J*3 16. Jjl5t 

232. Most of these adjectives come from neuter verbs, and 
express, partly, a quality inherent and permanent in a person or 

134 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 232 

A thing, — which is their most usual signification (see § 38), — and, partly, 
a certain degree of intensity. Examples : 1 . yA« difficult, from 

xjx x x J x 6' ' -> * 00' 

; vJ^-j easy, from J^-w ; w>*xc sweet, from o J^ ; ^»a*-o Zar^, 

from^o^-^ ; vJ^* tender, from JJu* ;^ov* strong, hardy, acute, clever, 

xj x 0*x x x S x xjx 

from ^ ; jl£ rough, rugged, from j£w ; jJJ unclean, from j*xS. 

5 x x x.» x 5 x x x J x 5 xx 

2. JJsu brave, from ^JJsu ; ^>%%»ft- handsome, from t>~». ; j*U from 

x jx o * o * xxxx©£ox 

jj£. 3 and 4. 9-ji, JJ^-, #M, from »-ji, JJ*a- ; >wt, j-«4>, proud, 

B self-conceited and insolent, from j-wt and jJau ; *.»-3 m pain, from 

*».j ; Jxjo. having a swollen stomach, from Jx*a- ; ^j cfoW#, from 

t^Jj; |a., ^ (for ^>o-, L5^) ^ # n '^> from U&>*-> 15*"* » ?>) 

5 x x X x 

(for ^.J;) perishing, from (^:>j ; oi». having his foot or ^oo/ chafed, 

x x x x x x J x 

from ^Aa- ; 9-3 do., from ^^a-j ; 0-k*> L>k*> clever, intelligent, from 

x x x J x « x <i Jx t * { ** G ' 5 -» x 

0^3, 0^3 ; Jiij, laA£, awake, from J*aj, iaij ; OJ"**> 0>^> sorry, 


x x x J x # x ^ x OxOJx 

C from Cl^ j J***-* J****, timid, cautious, wary, from ^^x*. ; ^h^v, i^h^, 

x x «5 x J x § xx 

intelligent, from ^ju; Jo*g, J^c, g^'c£, m* teto, from J^& ; 
jJJ, jJJ> from jjc5 ; ^>*^ rough, harsh, from <>£*• ; j^J* c/Ieaw, jtwr^, 

xjx 0© 50 ' J f 

fromj^. 5. Jj^. liberal; JAJ», ma//, young, from J^b to 60 tender; 

5 5x3 5x 

Ja. fargg, c^rse, /<#, from J**. ; J* ,/w^, ^m, from JJj. 6 and 7. 

« ft J x J x S J x J x 5 J # 5 x 

^Jmo ^arc?, from yXc ; jA*. sw<?0£, from ^A.*. ; y> bitter, from j*o ; 

J J J x J x J J 

j-**, j-**> inexperienced, untaught, from j-o£ ; w^«*. polluted, from 

x J x 5x J # xx x xJ 

Dy^>. 8. ^Ja»- breaking, crushing, bruising, from ^o-***-; J*** /^*- 

xxx OxJ 

fidious, treacherous, from j**£ to forsake, abandon, betray; oJ 


remaining in one place, abundant, from **J, *xJ ; O-^J knowing, from 

xx Oxx xJxOxx x^x 

O^J- 9 - OW cowardly, from o^e- 5 £*•** ^ f8W » "* om J^ ' 

g^x xx Oxx »xjx5xx 

>!>». liberal, from 3U. ; O^** «^^, fr° m > ^*» 5 ^»V^» ^>/ww/, 

xx xjx 5xJ xJx * J 

from ^ov^, v»v^. 10. P^-^ Jmw, from J*»^ ; ^»U«o /ar^, from 

232] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Verbal Adj. 135 

J x x J 

o j ^ot^£» ^06/0, from j>j£a ; ,jl~». handsome, from <>~». ; Olji A 
sweet (of water), from C^i ; <J!>»- s&/£ (of water), from Jfj»- to burn; 

O x J x x x J x x x Ox 

Jty» /^r, ^//, from Jib ; [jtj^5 « «»*, fifomjjJ to erf]. 11. J«o*j 

,. x J x O x xJ x 

stingy, niggardly, from Ja«j ; ^j*^ ?m^A, maft^, numerous, from jJS^ ; 

px xJxOx x-> x Ox 

*^aj^ W06/0, from u5^w ; ^j^ w-o&fe, from ^£» ; Us> fe* weak, from 

xJxOx x J x »■ x x J x r, ., 

a ^ ; J*aj tev#, from JiJ ; isuXi M/c#, coarse, from JaJU ; Jj>b 

xxQx XX0X 

fow^, to//, from JU» ; ^^^ compassionate, merciful, from ^o*^ ; ^iw B 

/•/> 'l^ * ' "* m' . XXXX O X ^ 

sa/0, from ^oXw ; ^^uj*, ^->i-», s/c&, from ca*»j-«> j**** \ t Jhf * 1 light, 
ogriT?, from « h -i». ; J-J^. <7ras£, glorious, from J^. ; J^Sj ma//, slender, 

*>' t * I x x £ J x 

paltry, from Jo. 12. J^»t gluttonous, from J^t ; w>jJ^» addicted 

j . p ' " Z OJx ^ xxx Ojx olx 

to /ymgr, from «jJ6 ; Jjjlo veracious, from Jju© ; Jj>3 or Jj>3, 
talkative [or razefo/ to speak], from J 13 ; [Jja* r^ad^ to t/o, from 
J*^] 5 ?5** pushing, thrusting or kicking violently, from «i,> ; »«J^kc 

^» XXXOJX ^ x x x 

mov^c? % affection or j»%, from UUc ; j$~*a*. daring, from j-~». ; C 

JJ / t x x 5 .» x 

3^*. ignorant, foolish, from Jv^ 5 jj-**- continent, impotent, from 

XX J ''&'' X X .» X tf X XX 

j-a»-. 13. o!/^ drunk, from j£w ; <jW-«£ angry, from V moc ; 

xxOxJ^-POx xx £ x JxOx Jx9x 

^jUJac, O^-*^, thirsty, from JUa*, j^^oJi ; 0^>**> 0^^> hungry, 
from cU., «£^£ ; <jUlw satisfied with food, from *.w ; ^>bj satisfied 

•77. n xxJxOx xx OxO„ 

W2£A dnwA;, from (j^ ; oW>»» ashamed, from jj;>».. 14. 0^*^ 
repentant, from ^**S. 15. oWj* waW, from ^ji. 16. LsS\ having D 
a clear space between the eyebrows, bright, open, cheerful in countenance, 

X X I X J # 5 x JxOfi 

from *Jj ; ^^1 having a high, straight nose, from ^w ; «*^Jbl having 
a slender waist, from uU ; ^iil having a long chin djii) ; w>»*»*' 
humpbacked, from w>ju»- ; j^ct one-eyed, from ^3* ; J|>».t squinting, 
from J^»- ; ^ot ^«/, from ^o-o ; J**.t foolish, stupid, from J«*., 

xjx J/}{ ^ xxxJxJx»f 

Jn>*- ; Jj*-' unskilful, clumsy, stupid, from Jja., Jj^.; *iwt unseemly, 
ugly, foul, from £i£ ; jl^-t ?W, i^il 6/ac&, ^A^l white, ^\ yellow. 

136 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 232 


A Rem. a. As is shown by the above examples, the forms ^Jjji 

9 ". . . . x J x x 6J/ 

and Ji-otJ are principally derived from ^Jjji ; JUi and ^J** come 
respectively from Jjid intrans. and Jjti, though the distinction is 

J X ft X XX 

not always observed ; ^^lai is principally formed from yjx* intrans. j 

Sxx x J x .» x J x f £ xx 

JUi and J Us mainly from J*5 j J*3t chiefly from J*s intrans., 

x Jx 

sometimes from Jjii. 
B Rem. 5. J^li is rarely used as a verbal adjective from J*s 

x jx o ~ o i 

intrans. or Jjti (see § 230, rem. a) ; e.g. ^>ct *a/e, secure, = ^j^\ 

£ x £ x Ox x x x 

or ^>*l, from ^^1 ;^L», «o/e, sound, —^L^t, trpmjJLa ; j.SU barren, 

from O^ifr ; ^tfuola. sowr, acid, from ^apr* or 

X X 


Rem. c. J**$, when derived from transitive verbs, has usually 

Ox OJ&xOx J ft x 

a passive sense j as J^3 afoin = J>&* ; f-lj**' wounded - »-jja»a ; 

Ox J s 6 x .» ft x 

C f*+£> slaughtered, a victim, = «-^j Jc* ; ^.., j *\ck dyed = u^tdL^ ; 

Ox > I J »„ £ Ojlx 

J4^ r> rubbed with kohl— Jjj^fc ^o J >**»>t bound, a prisoner, =^U. 
The same is sometimes the case with Jy*i, as w>>&) ridden upon, 

O J x 

w>^l». milked*. 

Ox J x 

Rem. o?. Adjectives of the forms J*x» and Jjas, but more 

especially the latter, often indicate, as shown by some of the above 
examples, either a very high degree of the quality which their 
subject possesses, or an act which is done with frequency or violence 

-pv 1 1 • 1_« xxxJft.*>Jxft£ 

v V by their subject; and hence they are called ixJL^Jt <LJJ\, intensive 


forms. The form J-jai is dialectically pronounced s }m, especially 


if the second radical be a guttural, as j^j, jit**-), jux»>, j*j£=>, 


J-jA»., j*ij^ ', and so also in substantives, as j-aw, tJt*&j, j->«->, 

J ftx 

J x 

* [0y*J does not belong to this class ; according to the native 

scholars, it is originally a nomen actionis like jfjls, meaning message. 
Hence, as in the case of Latin nuntius, it got the signification of 
bearer of a message. ~D. G.] 

§233] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Verbal Adj. 137 

Hem. e. Many of these forms exist in Hebrew and Aramaic. A 

0xx . O x x x 

For example, in the former, Jj*i, as £H)"| = w> j^. ; J*s, as |£7Tj = 
Jr>>; J*i, as ^^=^3, J*.j ; JU3, as ^H?| (6 for a); JjiS, as 

TBDK, WJW; J***, as TDK, T9*. 

T • T 7 * • T ' • T 

r, x 

233. From verbal adjectives of the form J^ti, as well as from 


some others, is derived an adjective Jl*s, which approaches very 
nearly in meaning to Jj** and J***, since it adds to the signification B 
of its primitive the idea of intensiveness or of habit. Hence it is 

xx x Ji/O jo t Of o a e- 

called ixJUoJt ^o-^l, the noun of intensiveness. E.g. J£*\ eating, Jl^t 

J P 5 x J x 

a glutton, = J>^t ; wot^ lying, w>t J^ a (habitual) liar, = w>jJ^ ; 

• « * . . # Wx < # J x 

*ib pushing, thrusting, repelling, cli^ pushing, etc., violently, = ejij ; 

• _•**• 0*<i2x 6 ft x Ox 

J5L> asking, JU~» importunate, a beggar, = Jj3~» ; w^^* drinking, 

O i/ ^ J x x 

w*tj^> drinking much, addicted to wine, - wJjj-w ; ^^ knowing, learned, C 

5 x x k5/ #* x 

v&^U. wry learned; ,i)b weeping, l\& weeping much; ^-jU fearing, 


Rem. a. The nouns which indicate professions and trades have 

Sflx fix w x 

usually this form j as jllxt & druggist, «t.U» « coo&, jU»- & baker, 

ut x i 5 5 x »x3 x 5 x 

Ix-Lsi. a tailor, jla»J a carpenter, gULw a water-carrier, y^Ua*. a 

o#x x ; s 2 x 

gardener, ^y*Mj a seller of sheeps' heads, ot^o a money-changer or 

xi5/ o 2 x 

banker, |Uj a builder or architect, JU^. a porter. Compare in 
Hebrew and Aram. KOfi. 191 113*3, f1^6, S3D, etc. D 


Rem. 6. Other intensive adjectives, less common than JUi, are 

• fi J H ijx j J B0J 9 J x 

1. JUs, 2. J^as, 3. Jj*i or J^si, 4. Jjii, and 5. J>*b; as 

0C3j^>wix i3 J 0t3j 

1. ^L%»a-, |loj, wry handsome, j»\j£z very noble, j^=> very forye, 

cSj ij 

l\j$ one who devotes himself to reading {the sacred writings), cli,> 
a strong propeller or repeller, a great rush (of water or of people) ; 

0UI0U^0UJ * wl 

2. jflt^j j*£~», s^+jjJZt, addicted to wine, drunken, J^JLo gwrcy astray, 
w. 18 

138 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 233 

6 uj o ui o ui 

A wandering ; u^tj^ fond of opposition, j*a*i boastful, J^jco esc- 

S ill g wl 

ceedingly veracious, Jxj-b* very liberal, *»>j-o one who throws down 
often or violently, a wrestler ; 2\J}j> glistening intensely (also t{J}j>, 

6 Ml J 5 ul J 6 iSx 

the only instance of the form ^J-ofci, except J>jj-©) ; 3. Jijji timid, 

6 i3x • i2/ 5 BJ A* 5 (i j 

^o^aS everlasting, J^iw or J>^£* 6ad (of money), *->*-* or 9-$+»> all- 
jtmre, all-glorious, ^jjJi or tj*>jjJ» raos* 7w%; 4. Jj*., w^$, 

T> . . . ° 'i J . ° ~ S 1 

-D shifting, turning, knowing, cunning, yia. deceitful; 5. Jjjjti 

6 J x OxO 6x0 

timid, ,j*»j~>lft. a spy. — On the other hand, Jjii^, JUi-o, and 

A^jUl*, are, strictly speaking, substantives (nomina instrumenti, 

§ 228), but used metaphorically as adjectives to mean "doing 
something like a machine, mechanically, and therefore invariably 

0x0 _ t 6x0 

(habitually)." E.g. %sj*c thrusting or pushing much iJ9 +*JA pushing 

6x0 6x0 6x0 

or pressing much, j*J*a* a brave warrior, w^a^o, w>La*-o, do., 

X X * X 

6x0 6x0 # t 6x06x0 

^.t.Ro, ^jl*la^, thrusting with the spear, jJ^o, jtJk-*> talking 

XX X ' X 

6x0 6x0 

nonsense, ^aJxo, ^l*^, eating much or giving much to eat, hos- 

6x06x0 0x0 6x0 

pitable, JJ>**, Jt^iL©, talkative, eloquent, p-\j*A cheerful, ^jUJc* 

6x0 # 6x0 

docile, tractable, Jjtjj*-* ver?/ ^7>era£,,>&ljJU advancing boldly, daring, 

X X 

6x0 5x0 > > 6x0 

•JLXo slothful, %\£sj** bearing male children, ^UJU bearing female 


*»x0 6x060 6x0 

children, flkn* very liberal, jUCo, >#&*, very talkative, Ak.v.c, 

X x **x X ' X 

6 "» 

D ji.k'go, imn</ perfumes, ^SL^ mean, poor (JSD&, ^ » ^ffiV>\*. — 

6x0x 6x0 6xx0 

Similar, too, is the use of such forms as JUa5 or JUaj, &UA3, and 

6 «3 

Jbuu, which are abstract substantives (nomina actionis, § 202) 

6x0x5x0 d 

used concretely; e.g. w>UAj, w^UJLj, w>UJ3, given to play or sport; 

x uJ 6x0 

jtuU?, ^oUJJ, swallowing big morsels, greedy; ^\jJs3 covered by the 

XXX X __ 

6 5 6 i«( 

stallion (of a she-camel), pUJJ talking much and foolishly, w>tj£3 

ft fi 6xx0 6x0 

mendacious, J^UJj fickle, SJ^Ju loquacious, B^Xsu very learned. 

9 Oj 9 J 3 J 

[To this class belongs also t>£«U, ,^1-U, ,>LU stinking. D. G.] 

§233] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj.— Verbal Adj. 139 

Rem. c. Nearly all these adjectives and quasi-adjectives admit A 
of being strengthened in their meaning by the addition of the 

termination £_, which is here used, as the grammarians say, 

// /il xx /JW 2x 

AiJL^JJ, to signify intensiveness, or AiJL^JI ju^UJ, to strengthen the 
idea of intensiveness. For example, from J^li comes aJlfrli, as 
jlj one who hands down poems or historical facts by oral tradition, 
^i3^j) d b crafty, <UAb j cb calling or summoning, an emissary or 
missionary, <Ltb ; Aaib clever, crafty; <L5lrk treacherous, faithless ; B 
Sj.3G & o?eep investigator (compare in Heb. H /Hp from Sip) j 
from v Jj«i, <Ujti, as iL+ia». breaking in pieces, crushing to bits, 

O x S3 $' ' > 

axXjo always on the watch, <u^o throwing down or prostrating often, 

2'* J . 2z> " * *' '* 

Ziy* asking often, begging, £xa».o prone to laughter, dJyi loquacious, 

t*" J . 2" J . Z' ' * . f "C 

<U>y3 given to sleep, 4L05J abusive, <L*£ finding fault ; from ^j-jai, 

5"f t" Jt Si m " « j x sx j x 

iLai, as <l$jj^, iLJLt, no&£e, excellent; from J>«i, aJj**, as 
4J3-U taunting (one) with favours (conferred on him), SjjJl£» lying, 

1/ J/ ( Sx j x Ox jx o 5x 

iUjXo ^reo 7 0/*, disgusted with, dj^A, *3j>*> timid; from JUi, C 
p S/ * & * g* 9 * <»x a x 

4JU5, as io*^ very learned, <ul~J a great genealogist, dJU»j a 

o x £ x x 5 x 

<?rea£ traveller, ^ul^i very # ?,mcA; 0/* comprehension, AtlSj ill-natured, 

5/ 5x > Ox fl x x 5 x 

slanderous, dJt^i i7ery talkative, a^Ua. a </rea£ collector, Aft.Lo aw 
excellent player on the cymbals or Aarp (^J^a) ; from J 1x3, dJUi, as 

o x w j 0"3j 

Afrt^-o prostrating or throwing down very often, <Lc\j^ very generous 

x Sj a 9 ul 

or noble, AtlJU talking much and rashly or foolishly ; from ij-oii, 

~x x 

|f * o x «i o u/ 0/ i/ o x «2 x 

<tLx$, as 44-Ja. very contrarious ; from Jj**, &>**, as dijji very 
timid; from Jj^li, ^U^li, as 5^3 1*, very wary or cautious, dijjls D 

0x0 Ox x Ox x & x x 

very timid ; from JbuLo, dJbuU, as 5,>laJU very unjust, 2lc\jJLc very 

9 " "° . . f *•«• 

bold in attacking, SjtJ^ talking much and sillily; from JUaj, 

X X 

9 x x & x x x x § 9 x x x x © 

aJUaj, as 4jUAj addicted to play or spor^, 4JUiJ loquacious, <Lo*ksu 

5/ x « x /{ 

very learned, 2l>\^jO causing great wonder or marvel, ioliU szva^- 
lowing big morsels, greedy (the cognate form <ULooL*» also occurs, as 

140 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 234 

A dUfjtXJ much addicted to play or sport) ; from JUaj, aJUaj, as <uUA5 

mwA addicted to play or sportf, a*UAj swallowing huge morsels, very 

greedy, *UUJl3 talking much and foolishly. 

Rem. d Besides the forms incidentally noticed above, others of 
these intensive adjectives occur in Hebrew and Aramaic; for 
example, Jytf, as pHTl, WlTl, and J**5, but with the purer vowel 

a in the first syllable (jjd), as f*W , iTTO, T*?K» J>CL*iLL 5 

B *Q-»A.». Other forms are without exact equivalents in Arabic, 

as *fjaa = jui., *])$$ =j-t&~>, WO (coming nearest to J*jj3), ITs^ 

= Aram. joXl ( Jjii) J and especially the form 7t3p> as |?3 

(=L^»), tw (=jj^)i Bhn (=u^t)> which ma y be viewed as 

an intensive of Jsi (^ftp for StSp, 7t3p = J**)- 

234. From verbal adjectives with three radicals*, or with three 
radicals and a letter of prolongation, are derived adjectives of the 
form Jjtft, which have the signification of our comparative and super- 
lative, and are therefore called J~ * asu)\ ^ ~*\, the noun of preeminence, 
or J»&*31 J>»st, the form afalu denoting preeminence, Kg. ^js-, 

00 J J ' ftC f ft * • #• «> •/*7 J '°» 

3JU-, sw<?0£, w>*^> v^*"^' sweeier > sweetest; <>***• oeauti/ul, ,>~ft-i 

ox j xft£ t t - 

more or mos£ beautiful; *•**$ ^#fy> *»**l uglier, ugliest ; J-j^a- great, 
glorious, S J^.\ more or mos£ glorious. 
J) Rem. &. In the superlative sense, these adjectives must always 

x ft J ft/" J s sOs 

have the article, or else be in the construct state, as ,-oiajJt Bjjj^}\ 

J JO/O X ft J 

the greatest city, jJJloJ) \J!j-^ the largest of the cities. 

* [A rare exception to this rule is J>Xfcl bitterer, as derived from 

j^sXs- anything bitter, spec, the colocynth, according to 'Ibn Dureid, 
Kitab U-istikak, 53, 1. 6, 98, 1. 16 seq. In the Lisan, however (xii. 142), 
it is differently explained. R. S.] 

§ 235] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst <Sc Adj.— Verbal Adj. 141 

Rem. b. Of this form there remain only a very few traces in A 
Hebrew, none in Aramaic. Such are : ^T^X lying, false (of a 

stream that dries up in summer), from ^ J^J = w>3l^ J ")OK ,/zerce, 
cro*e£, perhaps connected withj-wl£» breaking in pieces; JJVX (for 
JJ^X) lasting, perennial, = t>^'j J an( ^ even these have lost their 
original signification, and are used as simple adjectives. 

Ovi lO i 

235. No Ju«gu£Ji^pwt can, according to strict rule, be formed B 

from the verbal adjectives of the passive voice and the derived forms 
of the verb, nor from verbal adjectives that denote colours or deformi- 

ties, because they are themselves of the form Jj&\ (compare § 184, 

rem. b). If we wish to say that one person surpasses another in the 

qualities expressed by such adjectives, we ought to prefix to the corre- 

& ,i 
sponding abstract or verbal nouns the comparatives juwi stronger, 

* * oi j/ tc j *oi ^ go * 

tj~»».t more beautiful, >£*>\ more excellent, «*~JM uglier, j*£. better, 

it ' t £ <» J ul si 

j£> worse, and the like. E.g. ij++» J^wl (stronger as to redness) redder; C 
Uj^Uj 1©-Axj ,>**».) (more excellent as to teaching and training) 

t - s *o j s o i 

a better teacher and trainer; Wj^» *■** 3>»-t (more excellent than 
he as to answering) more ready than he in answering, or giving a 

better answer than he ; \.$yJaJ\ 9-j~>\ (more quick as to departing) 

zs* i s os- 
d&parting more quickly; \j^c 9-*it more deformed by blindness of one 

eye. This form of expression is sometimes employed where a simple 
comparative might have been used ; as *yJi j*u ^y> ^&y3 sZ~~S ^j 

i^s ^ i si Oi s s 0* * s s 

Zy~»s j>Z>\ jl Sjta^aJl^ ^£ } then, after that, your hearts became hard, J) 

<■ s o s J si- 
like stones, or even harder (lit. stronger as to hardness), where S^»5 jlw! 

= ^j^SI (el-Kor'an ii. 69). — As a matter of fact, however, the strict 
rules laid down by the grammarians are constantly violated by usage. 

3 soi 

(a) Examples of J*Jt formed from the derived forms of the verb, 

J s i i- o s j s i 

especially from IV. : j^o\ more cleansing or purifying (\j^e3 jJ&\), 

* Sf s j s * oi 

from j^y to cleanse or purify, II. of j^o to be clean or pure ; J { ^**o\ 

142 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 235 
A making clearer or purer, from ^^o to clarify or clear, II. of U*s to be 

j * o£ x fi x x x 

clear; J^O preserving better, from^-Lw, II. of j*^-** to be safe; 

3 sOZ , x£ , , 

j j*}5\ confirming or establishing better, from^UH, IV. of ^©13 to stand 

j *ot t „ x*£ , xx 

upright ; J c~jI making more firm or sure, from C-*Sl, IV. of C*o to 

x x j x a p , 5 , 

be firm; ^s- ^*$±.\ causing me greater alarm about, from wi^. or 

-; ' Z ' ' xx j x bZ 

<*JUJ, II. or IV. of JU. to fear ; ^^U \J^\ giving more help towards, 

x x£ x x j * oZ 

from ^Ut to help, IV. of <jU ; J wJbM making depart more quickly, 
B from wJb^t, IV. of wJbi to go away ; J U-aU-jI that of the two which 

' bZ x J x x x 

relaxes, or loosens, more, from ^*-j\, IV. of $±.j or ^ to be flaccid 

'bZ x x x bZ 

or flabby ; J ^yo\ causing to last longer, ^s> ^Jb\ more merciful to, 

n C 6i ttt /.*"„' . -> x ftp 

from ^o\, IV. of ^aj to remain, last ; J w*aI inspiring more fear or 

x x p x x * j x as 

respect, from w>Ut, IV. of wAa to fear ; jj-o ^i-cut more just than, 

, ,bz xxx 

from i^a-cul to be just, IV. of u uu to to£0 ^ Aa//; r^acA the middle; 

j , b Z # x x £ 

J Jjist causing to last longer, from JU*t, IV. of Jib to fo fow^; 

x © P m , x ftp xx 

C J L5"**"' preserving alive better, from , «-*»-), IV. of t*-**- to live ; 

s j^6 JJit giving more shade than, from Ji»t to grtiw s^acfe, IV. of JJ» ; 

Jx 6 P x x p x x 

J >>».t causing to be better, from £l»»t, IV. of >l». to 60 good, excellent ; 

* bZ x bZ ' x xOg 

J ^*^t giving more freely, from ^^t to ^^, IV. of Uaft ; J ^Jjl 

xftg XX J X £ 

bestowing more liberally, from ^J^l to bestow, IV. of ^j ; J ^oj^l 

D showing greater honour to, from ^©j^l, IV. of ^j^ to fo noble; 

O *'%*■ **tt xxx J x0£ 

£yt> jAdl more efer£ Maw, from ja$\ to be desert, IV. of jaI ; ^a ^^Jit 

X ' 

x /»( xxx J x Z 

poorer than, from ^^Jit to fo jwor, IV. of ^J* ; ^>© J>»-t /wore crafty 

* x xx«->xg£ 

Maw, from JU»-I, to 60 crafty, VIII. of Jl»- ; t>* j$it wzorg 0#s27y /^e?, 

X X ft XX 

or more docile, than, from .>U3t, VII. of >13 to &a<#. (/?) Examples of 

jsbZ , , * * t J* 9 1 J *0t 

Jj*it formed from the passive voice : ^5-^-t, ^>»»', s-*«At, more feared 

§236] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.^ Adj.— Verbal Adj. 143 

or formidable ; j*+o-\ more praiseworthy or commendable ; \*$j£>\ better A 

j ,ot J l,i 

known ; j>^\ more deserving of blame ; j-wt more glad of or pleased by; 

j /»? j * oi # j * oi 

jj&\ more to be excused; J^jl more readily found ; JjL£>I more occu- 

*oi , j j , oi 

pied ; ^^jl prouder (^^j to be proud) ; CJ U 1 wor^ &ztee? or hateful ; 

'Oi * 3 s , o i , o i 

*?> ^^t waor^ occupied with (^^ or VIII. . *£*t) ; j»<a*U shorter (from 
^t, pass, of VIII.). (y) Examples of J*sl from words denoting 

O J * Of- J s O S- 

colours or defects : |>* cA^' whiter than ; ^>o %y*\ blacker than ; 

o j s o i 

O* d*»-t 'more stupid than. B 

236. The verbal adjectives formed from the active and passive 
voices of the derived forms of the triliteral verb, and from the quadri- 
literal verb, are the following. 










O ^»J 



' s J 



-»^6 J 




8 - 6 J 



*it*+ J 



«5 C- » J 

9 ^ 0^ J 

O ^ J 

VI. J^U^c J^Uic XL JbuU 

Quadriliteral Verb. D 

I. juL* jx*L> in. jju^u JSJmJu 

II. JUi^ JJUfcU IV. JX*slo JJbuU 

Rem. a. The characteristic vowel of the second and third 
radicals is the same in all these verbal adjectives as in the corre- 
sponding Imperfects, excepting the active participles of the fifth 
and sixth forms of the triliteral verb and the second form of the 

144 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 237 

A quadriliteral, in which the second and third radicals have — instead 
of L. 

Rem. b. The preformative /> takes in Arabic the vowel L, in 
Heb. and Aram. _ (e.g. ^0, ' S**rt = S^pHD, fjfcgOTD* 
"nnfi)* Du * ^he .^Ethiopic seems to have retained the original 
vowel in its prefix OD; ma, as iTOQiju^ : (ma'ammez) oppressor 
B (DftH, ftih)l OOY>-J1: (makwanngn)>^ e (}^» J OTfQ/l*"- 

(manafek) sceptic, heretic (J3U»o) ; CTO C0,P"- (mar'ed) causing to 
tremble, dreadful (JsjJ, TjTttD)j ° 11 Q.CJ^ : ( mafrI ) fruitful 
(JTnS^)^ OD fl't'9 t, rhC " ( mas tamher) imploring mercy (^a^JUwo) ; 
OD"|-(*"|ttyii : (matargwem) ^m interpreter (__ 

0^ -> 

237. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba mediae 
C rad. geminatse, the rules laid down in § 120 are to be observed. Hence 

j * be- a 's. o o j 

>^U becomes >U (see § 13, rem.) ; jj^wt, j&\ ; JJ-cn, J«>a* ; etc. 

238. In the formation of verbal adjectives from the verba hem- 
zata, the rules laid down regarding those verbs (§§ 131-6) are to be 

observed. Hence we write jjf for jjtt (§ 135), JjC for JtU (§ 133), 

G p • G ^ 2' G • I # » <J 5.£j G 2 J 

OJ3J or Ojij for wijt;,^) for^;^, >>t>o for j.jtU (§ 133), j3yc for 
jfc (§ 131). 

G G 

p s- s e- * 

D Rem. a. I preceded by kesra becomes £$ > as ^l* f° r ^l*- 

Rem. b. Final hemza, preceded by 1 and w, admits of assimila- 
tion; as *C$>J or iS>Ji h£)> or <£)>; *3J** or Xl-**- See § 17 > & > 
rem. 6. 

239. In the formation of verbal adjectives from verba primse 

G J 

rad. t^, the rule laid down in § 147 must be observed ; as j~>y* for 

§241] II The Noun. k. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Verbal Adj. 145 

240. In the nomina agentis of the first form of verba mediae A 
rad. j et ^, the place of the middle radical is occupied by a ^ 

with hemza (arising, according to § 133, out of I); as JbLS (for JH-3), 

»- x 5 x x 

jjL* (for jtL>), instead of JjlS, j->l~». 

Rem. a. This rule does not apply to the verbs mentioned in 

% + % * 
% 160, which retain their middle radical unchanged; as^jU, JuU?. 

Rem. 5. The form ^13 admits in certain words of being con- 

x x ^ x 

tracted into^elS (compare the Heb. Qp for D1p)> as «^^ for JLSlw, B 

It "|t x 

* <tl rO J * * x wl <0 J x 

in the phrase «-*}LJI JL5U> or «-*}LJJ ^)U>, bristling with weapons ; 

Ox »»x i £ j0*» ■»- ^ x Jj»«> J / 

olo for <suU, in the phrase }\y*)\ *5lo or jt^Ut dU, water-hearted, 
cowardly, stupid ; j\& feeble, forjjlfc; c 1 ^ clA fa'raid or greedy, for 

»"x <}"'<>' t ^ x x 

*.j*s) a51a ; oU> s/mrp (q/* sight), for *5lw ; ^Li corroded or decayed 

Or-'' 9 * 5 #*x £ 

(of a tooth), for ^L ; clb obedient, for *5lb ; viU» ^oin^ afo^, 

9 »xx Ox m 

for oiMJs ; ijib clayey, for ^51U*. Sometimes the second radical C 

X wi /» X £ ->0X» X X X X X 

is transposed ; as ».^LJI (^5^^, >t^t ^^j jl*> P^j JW-> ^-*> 
ot£, &j. 

J X 

Rem. c. In the form Jyt* the medial ^ is usually changed into 

«|x «»lx «lx OJx J x Jx 

J ; a s cby, Jj>*>>v©j>>, for J^y, Js^o^y. 

241. In the nomina patientis of the first form of verba media) 
rad. j, the middle radical is elided, after throwing back its damma D 

J x J X 

upon the preceding vowelless letter ; as ^J^i^c, for <J>j^a»-o, from 

J • X 

»J>3^&**. The same thing takes place in verba mediae rad. ^, with 
this difference, that (to indicate the elision of the radical ^) the 
damma is changed into kesra, and, in consequence, the j productions 

x > Oxx J« x 

into a t^ ; as £~-«. instead of e>~», from 9>x+a. 

xJx xj»»x XX 

* [A poet even allows himself to say UjU for UpL; (from j£*); 
see Abu Zeid, Naw&dir, 26 infra. D. G.] 

w. 19 

146 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 242 

O J / JO 

A Rem. The forms cij^J^o, 035^*1 an( ^ AJ>**°> are sa id to be 

used dialectically. From verba med. \jj the uncontracted forms are 

6 JO/ r, JO* 6 J * 6 JO / 

more common, but still rare; as ££**•«, b^+a***, £)£iJ*c, O^jJ-o, 

6 J / 6 J / 6/6 / ** 

vo^s-o, JI^^Co, for *•**«, Ixo^o, etc. 

6 / 

242. Verbal adjectives of the form J**v derived from verba 
media? rad. ^ et ^£, become by transposition Jju*, and then pass into 

O wl y «(/ 6 »l / 

J*3, which is in its turn frequently shortened into J*s. E.g. C~>* 

6 0/ 50/ 5 / // OnJ/ 

B or C^*, 6&ae?, for O^**, ^*J j-« (*^ W ; [ J^ dependent for sustenance, 

60/ 6 Ml/ 60/ 01 0/ / / / 6 * / 

for Ji** (Jl*)j; O^ o r 0**> 50 A easy, for oW, OW (O^)j O** or 

60/ # 6/ 6ul/ 60/ ^ 6/6ul/ 

0**> easy, contemptible (^jj^b); ULJ or *-»<o, exceeding (±*jy); j+j, 

5/ »•/ / Ok*/ 6/60/ 

fotgrA* (jiy) ; ^i***, wicked (l\£y>)\ Oti, clear (Cytti)» Jt**> good 
/ " 

6 / / / 5 / 

(j-wj£.). The verb^elS has^>$£ in the sense of straight, right, tall, 
/ / 

6 uJ / 

C and ^^3 in that of having charge of, managing. 

243. Verbal adjectives from the derived forms of verba media? 
rad. 3 et ^ follow the same rules as their Imperfects. 

Rem. The learner should observe that the participles of III. 
and VI. of verba med. ^ are written and pronounced with ^j, and 

6 / J 6 // J J *J J / /// 

on no account with hemza; e.g. ^->U«, <>jV~-«) like i>jU>> ChW^J? 

* «» / 

6 «-/ J 6 »"" J 

and not t>5U«, ^LZo. 

D 244. The nomina agentis et patientis of the first form of verba 
ultima? rad. 3 et ^ have already been mentioned (§ 167, b, p, and 

9 Jy 6 / 

§ 170). Verbal adjectives of the forms Jj** and J**J are treated 

S j/ 
according to the same rules as the nomina patientis (§ 1 70) ; e. g. j jjz 

Si / 5 / 2" 2/ 

hostile, an enemy, ^jk* a harlot, ^£j~t generous, noble, ^^o a boy, ^w 

6 J <• 6 J/ 6/6/ 5/ 

captive, for 33^, l£>*^> 3ij^y 3#r°> ^j**"- 

245. In all adjectives derived from verba tertise rad. 3 et ^, 

§246] II. The Noun. A. Noam Sabst. & Adj.— Norn. Unit. 147 

if the second radical be pronounced with fetha, the ^ and ^ (which A 
is converted into ^) reject their vowel or tenwin, and assume the 
nature of the elif maksura (§ 7, rem. b). If the form be one that 
admits of complete declension, the tenwin is transferred to the second 
radical. According to this rule are formed : (a) the nomina patientis 

of the derived forms, as ^y* for ^y*, ^^jlc for ^kig,* (jkwt); 

(b) adjectives of the form J*»t, as ^cj\ for ^jt, ^j&t for j^&t, 

/Of J ,0i J /Of - e J s Oi J , oi 

^pcjl for j^jt (>o;t), j^jXa-t for ^X*.! (jJUU), Compare § 167, a, 
(3, a, and b, /?. 

b. The Denominative Nouns. B 

(a) The Nomina Unitatis or Nouns that denote the Individual. 

246. The Sj^^Jt iU~>t, or nouns of individuality, designate one 

individual out of a genus, or one part of a whole that consists of 
several similar parts. They are formed, like the analogous nomina 
vicis (§ 219), by adding the termination IL to the nouns that express 

the genus or whole. E. g. 4ul*». a pigeon {male or female), from 

v»W»- pigeons, with the article, v&U&J t, the genus pigeon or the w/iole C 

number of pigeons spoken of; ifcu a duck or drake, from Jiu the duck ; 

O < * <■ Sxx G * * { 

S>aj owe head of cattle {bull or cow), from jJb cattle; Sj+j a fruit, from 
j-«j /rm£ ; S^oJ a date, from j^j efotes ; SlLolj an onion, from J-oj #fo 

0/ /*• # Ox/* <5/-& 

onion; 2ub$ a bit of gold, a nugget, from ^Jki <7<?&// *L*3 a straw, 

from ^>*j straw*. 

Rem. a. The use of the nom. unit, is almost entirely restricted, 
as the above examples show, to created things or natural objects. D 

,0*> J 

* [A peculiar application of the oj^.^i\ ^wt is its use for a dish or 

oZ I # t Oss* 

portion of any food, as ojj\ a dish of rice, !£+* a dish of fish (el- 

Mubarrad 173, 1. 4), A +j L ) a portion of meat, fc+ji a portion of cheese, 
etc. Comp. Gloss. Fragm. Add. 129. This 5 is called U fv «yfc rlt *U)t 
(Zamahsari, /'a^, i. 331, 417, ii. 323. D. G.] 

148 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 247 
A Examples of artificial or manufactured objects are very rare; e.g. 

5/ / 0x0 ^ Ox # Ox x 

&U) or dUJ a brick, from ^J or ^J bricks ; 2uJut a ship or boat, 


from ^iw shipping, boats. 


Rem. 6. Similar forms in Heb. are: V} ]"]¥> *©b PD^- 
(/?) 7%# Nomina Abundantly vel Multitudinis. 

/t x OiO * , i 

B 247. The SjJLxJt iU-^t, or nouns of abundance, designate the 
place where the object signified by the noun from which they are 
formed, is found in large numbers or quantities. They have the form 

Oxx « x I 

SlxLo, and are, consequently, a mere variety of the nouns of place 

x x 2 x Ox x x x x x £ 

(§ 221). E.g. SjurU, *JtJ*c, ax*.»».o a place abounding in lions (ju»t), 

Oft J x Oxftx OxOxOxOx 

(v"£)> foosfe of prey (***); SLa^o or 3t^&**, SUA*, a jt?to? 

05x jJOfc - x xOx 0?/4/ 

*» snakes (£*»■), W|w» (^^1); 4a*Jsu*, 5U£*, a fat! o/* 

O »l r» H Ox xO 

melons (4-Jxj), cucumbers (ILLS); 4-U^-«, a place where pomegranates 
C (o^j) 0WW0 abundantly. 

Rem. a. From quadriliterals this formation is rare; as JJuu^ 

«" . , x Ox > . x x 

>, a place abounding in foxes (^Xxj, 7^^), scorpions (w^ift). 

Oxx x 

Rem. 6. Sometimes the fern, participle of the fourth form is 

., °*£ 05 J Ox J 

used in this sense, with or without ^joj\ ; as <LJx*, aJbuwo, (a pfoce) 

3 x x J Ox J 

abounding in lizards (y^), black beetles (Jju*.), SffiU (a spot) 

Ox Ox J Ox x J 

D producing cucumbers. Similarly from quadriliterals, 3JU1», Ajjijto, 

Ox x J Ox OP J 

^jowo, iJj3^ (a place) abounding in foxes, scorpions, chamaileons 

. "' ° x x J 

(^bj^), /iares. Also from XII. rfJgJUl* (a spot) producing many 

Oxx x 

Rem. c. The use of nouns of the form dXzLt to indicate the 
cause of a certain state or feeling, is only a tropical application of 

Ox x Ox Oxx Ox JxxOx 

their ordinary meaning ; as dX^^c <U .a...o jjyt children are a cause 

§ 249] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Sabst.& Adj. — Rel. Adjectives. 149 

of cowardice and niggardliness (in their parents) ; £;,>,.a».«, rt.J,k.», A 
&La».,6, & came q/* ^ooc? health, joy or happiness, evil or ill-feeling ; 
>©U~JJ ^J-a*.* a cawse o/* bringing on or producing disease; 

•itto * <; , , $ , j , « jdx 

^3^1 jJJ 3.>ji*o aaUCaJI joking leads to annoyance ; and the like. 

(y) 7%0 Nomina Vasts or Nouns denoting the Vessel which 
contains anything. 

248. The nomina vasis, »U>)I il^t, have the same form as the 

0^0 Oxft 

nomina instrument (§ 228); e.g. j*£o a needle-case, from Sjj! a needle; B 

3 « ft t " ^ *■ 0*0 

wJ>a>.-o a milk-pail, from w-A». or w~jX»- mtfl ; O**-* ct milk-pail, from 
t>J m*7&, or a brick-mould, from d-U a brick; a)>*-o a urinal, from 

9 ft ,• 0^0 SxJ 

J^j wtfM ; aSj^o a spittoon, from JjlJJ saliva. 

O J J 0* J J 

Rem. A very few take the form Jjja-o or &aa*o (see § 228, 

J J 0* J J G J 9 ,*. ft J 

rem.); as jjJkjuo or du » ju an oil-jar, from ^Aj otf; &,*?ja*«o = 

• *>. ft # S » J 

3U^a»»4 a vessel for keeping ^j6j^-, i.e. the plants from which alkali 

6/ J ft J 

or potash is obtained j aJUhXt a pAto£ /or keeping kohl or eye-salve C 

5 ft J O • ft S 

(Jjfc.iT>), to be carefully distinguished from Jo*£o, the mil ( J*o) or 
instrument with which it is applied to the eye. 

(8) The Nomina Belativa or Relative Adjectives. 

249. The relative adjectives, a ^»J w»J t 2l©~>^t, or simply oL~JI 

(relationes), are formed by adding the termination ^7 to the words D 
from which they are derived, and denote that a person or thing 
belongs to or is connected therewith (in respect of origin, family, 

2 ft£ QftS 

birth, sect, trade, etc.). E.g. ^-ojt earthly, from ^ajS the earth; 

it ' <i 6 s & vi ' dl f 

rj - +* solar, from ^-^w t/ie sun; v5^» aerial, from j**. #/^ a/r, the 

S» * * » + + *>%,* 

s fy; \ < j^^- descended from el- Hasan \& mm J\) ; j^^o-^ belonging to 

£/*# <r*W q/" Temlm (^9t+3) ; i<a*%o oorw or l/tungr c«£ Damascus (JU*o); 

150 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 249 
A (J>-tf^ Egyptian, from j«aa Egypt ; ^JJju* a freedman ofSa'd (j^tw); 

& a $0 ( in) 

ie*Xz scientific, from^Xfr knowledge, science; ,«**»• relating to sense 

(i^e*-), perceptible by one of the senses ; ^*£> intellectual, from Ji* 

the intellect ; ^j£j£i legal, legitimate, from cj£ the law ; ^j* according 

to common use and wont (kJjfi); ^^ according to analogy (^y); 

^5^* > a»< - » belonging to, or ora^ o/*, £/*0 Magus or fire-worshippers 
* * ,b* & , t « <- 

B (cr* j) ^ " o ^ ) J L5^^° belonging to, or 0^<? o/", tfa sgc£ o/" Malik (*yJU) ; 

3 " f '4* 3ft/ 90/ Sw «S 

j^jAj^I* from J*}>k fc»# ; ij>*»* from j*±. gwc? ; ^1 from <j\ truly, 


Rem. a. The nomina relativa are chiefly formed from substan- 
tives and adjectives, but in more modern Arabic, and especially in 
the language of the schools, also from the other kinds of nouns, 
and even from particles (see § 191). 

Rem. b. The nomina relativa derived from adjectives properly 
express " belonging to the class designated by such and such an 


q adjective." [However, in such words as jj^"*».t, ^c*.j\±., ^jwt, 

^ *' . . 2 

C£)!i* ^ ne termination ^ has, according to some, a corroborative or 

intensifying force (djJL^JU). D. G.] 

Rem. c. This termination is common in Heb. (m. \_ f. H*— 

L •' *■ 

and JV— ), as ^7X1^ Israelite, 1*]^$ Hebrew, % ^3 strange. In 

iEthiopic, I is generally used to form certain adjectives which are 

derived from other adjectives, as ch<5.|"l.: (harrasl) a ploughman, 

J) OUrfr|£ : (mahharl) compassionate, from the obsolete rh£-ft : 

5 / . 

(= £>\j-*., £HPl) and **Urh£:; whilst awl and ay are the 
usual relative terminations, as 9° PvJ.*!^- (medrawl) terrestrial, 
YlC,tl r t^yi' f ^ : (krSstlyanawi) Christian, ft^^: ('aiyawi) or 
ft^P^: ('aiyay) like (from ft^: 'ay, of what kind? which?). The 

Aram, has the last of these forms, viz. *_, i  , in general use ; as 


*T>ffi Egyptian, wjuj^JjId eastern. 

§252] It The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj.— Rel. Adjectives. 151 

250. In forming the nomina relativa, the primitive nouns undergo A 
various changes in regard to the auxiliary consonants, to the final radi- 
cals ^ and ^, and to the vocalisation. 

I. Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants. 

251. The feminine terminations 3_ ; 3u— , and 3u—, are rejected ; 
as ZSU Mekka, L5 *U; Sj-oJI el- Basra, <J>oj ; aiyjt el-Kufa, ^^>', 

J s s * & * * J sul ulul J s £ Jj £ 

a,JxL« Malatya, ^j^Xc ; aJJLo Sicily, ^Jao j ^UAjjil Africa, ^yuj*\ c ; B 
4-i-JI ^ coipus of traditions relating to the ways and habits ofMuham- 

Js Os 

mad, ^5-w; [fa J LM the party of All, j^ycw*;] &L£Jt tfa kibla or 
direction ofMekka, to which the Muslim turns in praying, j^jXJ* ; 3>£» 

a window, ^^ ; ^-^^- refined, ^gste vulgar, from ioUJI distin- 

j a * an- 
guished persons, the higher classes, and 2UUJI £/^ common people, the 

vulgar ; tjs- a promise, ^J&; &j weight, measure, ^). Q 

Rem. In the case of nouns which, like ojs-, have lost their first 
radical, if the third radical be a weak letter, the first ought to be 
restored and the second to take fetha j as £*£ (from ,*£j), [^y«3 

S S 

£5 * * St o * 

or] ^>wj (on the second j see §§ 258 and foil.). The forms j-^wj 
[or ,-wj] are mentioned by the grammarians, and also the very 

Jj ' Ox ulx 9/ 

irregular ^JJ^ from Sjifr, [and j^^-w from 4-w (Hammad in 
'Anbarl's Nozhat Walibba 52. D. G.]. j) 

252. 1, (a) The feminine termination ^- is rejected in nouns 

that have four or more letters, besides the ^ ; as ^£)W»- « bustard, 
S"jxxjx_ S^-* 

L^jW»- J L£*^" Gumadd, the name of two months, ^U»». (&) But 

if the nouns ending in ^— fern, have only three letters besides the 

* [Lane has ^*w ; of this form, however, only a single instance 
has been mentioned in the T. A. D. G.] 

152 Pakt Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 253 

A ^, two cases are to be distinguished, (a) If the second letter has a 
vowel, the ^ is rejected ; as ^j»*»- a swift ass, ij>>©j*-; \£>j4 Bar add, 
the name of a river, \^>j*>. (/3) If the second letter is without a 
vowel, the ^ may either be rejected (which is preferable), or changed 

<** So J S /»J *0J . 

into 3 ; as , *L». pregnant, ^L^ or ^j-U*. j \j-lj* relationship, 

5 o j 3 /sj /•oi ^ 3 »j 3 --oj 

^-jj.3 or ^5>J>5 ; 1-JjJI £/*<? (present) world, ^j-*j> or t^^x — 

2, (a) The letter ^ is likewise rejected in nouns that contain four 
or more letters besides the ^, if it belongs neither to the root nor 
to the feminine termination, but is what the Arab grammarians call 

* o o*> j i 

JUJ'nJI ^t or the appended elif (i. e. which serves to give to the word 
to which it is appended the form of a quadriliteral or quinqueliteral 

4 "0 m>* J ... 

word, e.g. ^ji> to give it the form of^*Ap, £by> to assimilate it to 

O / »J J «// 3 Os* 2*0** 

^lbj.5) ; as ^j£sj+&. a bug or tick, ^sj+*. ; ^j£u5 a big, stout camel, 

l£>a*3 ; j^^b or ^Sb, the bean, ^Sb or ^y.Sb. (b) But if such 

^ nouns have only three letters besides the ^£, it may either be changed 

into ^ (which is preferable), or rejected altogether ; as ^j*^ a sort of 

3 ^ o *■ 3 o - ftf ut * oi 

heath, ^>iU or ^iU ; ^i^t & s#r£ of shrub or 5^a// £r*?0, (^>»j'. 

Rem. In 1, b, /3, and 2 6, a third form is admissible, viz. 
3 - 3 x * j 2 *oi 3 -oj 5 /»/ 3 < o£ 3 j;**.* 

^L, as ^4%*-, L&V/ 3 ' C^W 1^3^' L^S^' J but L5? - * 

with hemza, is a vulgarism. 

3 9 2 

D 253. The terminations ^£— and *L-. of relative adjectives fall 
away when new relative adjectives are to be formed from them ; as 

3 •»* " ii J ' ui vi * it J 

\J$U, ^5***. belonging to MekM, Gufi (^J&c, ^5***-, names of men) ; 

3 * a & a * 3 * 

j^xilir a Sdfi'ite, one of the sect of Ss-Sdji'i (^aiUJI); ^j* belonging 

to Almeria (2ljj**)\) in Spain ; ^j$jjJjL~>\ a native of Alexandria 

J H " ,- 0* t J) J 

(Jb)ju£**>)1). Similarly, from substantives like ^y*j& a chair, a seat, 

3 0/ 3 j 3 0* 

and ^j* a bullrush, the relative adjectives are ^j£* and ^£>j->. 

254. The plural terminations ^— and O!— , and the dual termi- 

§254] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj. — Rel. Adjectives. 153 
nation ,jl_, are rejected ; as O^ iwo > ^s^^ relating to two, dwdistic; A 

' ' * <v 

,jU^aJt £/& £w0 harams (or sacred territories of Mekka and el-Medina), 

3 ' ' ' o^ # 3 o ^ ^ j o jo' 

^5-oj*- ; jL*3 to> ?w^w named Kais, ^-^3 ; ( j j ) l . .l..>. J I the Muslims, 

3 » ■» <- JO' 5 0' « '0 

L5^"*** 5 O^J^J *&*» of the name of Zeid, t^J^J ; OljUA women of the 

3 o o -" 5 ^ ' 

waw*? of Hind, ^j^a; Oli^ 'Arafat, the name of a place, ^V^. 

Rem. a. It need hardly be remarked that this rule does not 

J ' J J J ' 

apply to proper names ending in ^t_ and (j^— , as ^jlj-^ft l Imrcln, 

irf ' J s y 3 ' ' J JO' § 3 JO' 

L^Lf*^ ' O*^^** Haitian, ^J^UX**. ; C)3*H) Zeidun, l^jJ^Jj. B 

Rem. 6. It is only in later times that such forms are possible 

3o '->? . 3 o 3 

as { JJjJUc, from QjJ-^ twenty, instead of ^jJ^ ; iy*£«, from 

f A *' 3 ' 3 0'* 

^jjX*, plur. of aJU a hundred, for {£y** ; i**+£l dualistie, from 

'/ 3 '< 3 » 

jjUjI fwo, instead of \^£y3 or .Jtf!. 

Rem. c. Foreign names of towns, ending in ^-j— , sometimes 

' j 
change this termination in Arabic into OJ— > at °ther times retain q 

it. In the former case the termination is rejected, in the latter it 

'jOui 3 £>^ j >. 5^ £ i_ 

is preserved ; as ,jjj^~;3 Kinnesrin, ^j-^3, but ^j~U3, ^^j-^ ; 

'j' # 3' j '3 / / j«/ 

(J|3^a-aj Nisibis, i-xpcti, °ut eX**"^' i5* fr ? » , fl , * > j OJJ*^ Fcftriin, 

3o' j0'3 0' 

L&*!> but cH/^> L5^^' 

Rem. 0?. Some proper names, chiefly foreign, are very irregular 

O'O'O' 3 '0' u'' 3 '' J' 0' 

in their formations ; e.g. ,j^a*-JI, ^y\j^j ; bjb, ^'jb , 2/sa^t, D 
3 ' jjO' 3 '' -5' 3 ' j < S'0'0 
^jLx^; j^xj, l£>*->; lSP 1 ' L^J j Ji >-^ ■***><, lS^-^J i 

' J# J ' 3'0' J"0'0' 3" J'O m 

J'O^J 3wj J'O" 3'' Ji'' # , 9 »*"£ J'O'O'P 

^UwjJ, ^jJ ; O^J-**>> L& 1 ** i *0->* Tiberias, ^j/*** ; O^-sO*', 

3 '£ 3 '0£ 3 3 ' 3 r' 

^£j$t or ^jit. We may, however, use ^j^j^, ^^^Jaudl, (^jj-», 

3"0'3'0 j5' 1 • * 1 " *• > 

^t^j-jJ, ^L: <fc.»>. — Ol>*- makes either ^j-*- or ^Uj*. ; 

w. 20 

154 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech, [§ 255 

AJ O + + * i b ' " 3 x x x 

}je*j\j\} or }ja~>\j} has \^£>j^jy as well as the regular formation ; 

3 xx 5 xx s x 

rjt« Manes makes «*Jtu, ^>i*« and ,*3t©. D. G.] 

Rem. e. Quite peculiar are:^&L3 (with the art. L .^( 1 ^i\), fern. 
A^lyj, from ^ul^J, Tiliama ; j\tt (with the art. ..*luJt), fern. A**U>, 

from^otuJI Syria; and O^J (with the art. ,-jl^Jt), fern. <LjI*j, 

j „o, 2 , S j/ 5 xx 

from ^>o-Jt el-Yemen; instead of ^^lyJ, ^<^U», and ^-^, which 

5 5 5 

-.. ul XX ul <* X ul XX 

-t> are also used. The forms ^^V>, ^5*^, and ^U*! likewise occur. 


Comp. the words jJUj, cb> and ~-L£ (=^^.1^). 

" x « X&X J 

255. The letter ^ in words of the forms £L*$ and &L**, when 
not derived from verba mediae rad. geminatse or infirmse (3 or ^), is 

Sx X 

rejected, the kesra of 1X && being at the same time changed into fetha* ; 

5xx SxxOxx § J x x <*x 

C as A-iuji a statute, ^*ej*; *j4j*f an island, or Sj-j^JI Mesopotamia, 

Sxx Jx ' P ' A Sxx Ox x # S^' i' 0xJ i'*' J 

^SjJ^" i A*JJ^t el-Medina, ^yj** ; *Uj J u » a s^/p, lip 5- i *~' ; ***y»*, * *fr»"g > 

3 x j 3 x j 
(tribes), ^^^-v*-, ^5*^. But, if they come from verba mediae rad. gemi- 

X X 

natae or mediae 3 vel ^£, they remain unchanged; as <ULa*. reality, 

3 x x x < 5 xOxdxJ 

^a*a». ; Sju jc»- a piece of iron, an iron tool, ^ju **»» ; ^L^S « m«// 

3 Ox J Sx 0x-> 

J*Vi L5^** — ^ n ^ ne f° rms J*** an( i J***> the ^ is rejected only when 

S x 5 - 

D the third consonant of the radical is 3 or ^ ; as ^J^, ^yt (tribes), 

SxxSxxSxSxJ SxxSxJ 

i^jj^fc, ^3-^; ^y^, ^5-^5 (men), ^£y&\ ^>-<»$. Otherwise it remains 

Ox # SxOx 5 <" ■> x 

unchanged, as ^o->^> (a tribe), j^^-o-^ ; J**£ (a man), ^^a* ; jujJ 

5 x OOxJ OOxJ 3 »xJ 3 » ' ■» 

(a town), t^JWj ; J**£, j->«-> (tribes), l5 ^>a c , t£jf*- 

* [According to Zamahsarl, Faik i. 160 the same thing happens to 
the 3 of the form AJ$*i, as in ^tw \^+Zt) from S^ii», ^ yo t from 
£*>ii&. Comp. also Mufassal 90, 1. 7 and Slbaweih ii. 66, § 319. D. G.] 

§257] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Svbsb.& Adj. — Rel. Adjectives. 155 

Rem. a. There are, however, exceptions to these rules. E.g. A 
< Ufr» l » nature, .-auJa ; <&JJ*6 a city, { JJj<* (to distinguish it from 
j«3jc« belonging to el-Medina), ^jjj**. belonging to Algeziras in 
Spain (to distinguish it from ^jj**- Mesopotamian) ; ,-o-Jlw, ^j-j^ft, 
from i*J~>, <>*«*£ (tribes) ; ^j+ij±- from ijjj^. (a place) ; Ji*>jS, 

9 * J OJ/J O • J 2 #» £ J •J 3 '■> 2 * J 9 ' <5 - 

Jj M, jtnX^, ^Ju (tribes), ^j3 f ^JUk, ^^o-U, ^^is ; ^Llc, Uu*3 

(tribes), ^j&fc, 1^5**^ J *-H>*» autumn, ^A**> — ^t^^j a prophet, g 

g ~ " .' *,' , 

makes ^£yo, from the assimilated form ,~J. 

wlx 9 s 

Rem. 6. Words of the form J*j (for J**s, § 242) from radicals 
mediae j et ^, reject the second ^ along with its vowel kesra, or in 
other words follow the shorter form V J-J ; as ju~> a lord or master, 

^ju~» ; ^4* ^ooc?, .**J». But ^j^^Js (a tribe) has ^yUs. — The 
same remark applies to every penultimate double ^ with kesra 
(\S) > as •A***'* dimin. of j^wt, W«s&, (J?*****! > j^o-*-, dimin. of jl*»-, C 

5 »x J Jot <i S «'2 _ 

an ass, jJ^a^a.. [But ju~>l as a tribal name has t^Ju-A] 

256. The ^ productionis of the nomen patientis in verba tertiae 
^ may be rejected, and the radical ^ changed into y whilst the kesra 

of the second radical becomes fetha ; as i^j-* thrown, uSyej*. But 

many grammarians prefer to reject both the ^ productionis and the 
radical ^, so that the relative adjective coincides in form with the 

nomen patientis, ^j*j-*. I) 

257. Lastly, the 3 productionis in the form £)>»», derived from 
verba tertiae ^ (§ 244), is rejected, and the second radical takes fetha 

9 5 J + vt ' ' 

instead of damma ; as $$**£, a female enemy, ^3*^. Many, however, 
form ^jJ^ from both j**c and *$js-. 

156 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 258 

II. Changes of the Final Radicals $ and ^£. 

258. The Uif maksura (t or ^, § 7, rem. b), as the third radical 
of a triliteral noun, is changed into j before adding the termination 


^- ; as ^j£ a youth, ij?>^i ; ^j^-j a mill, \J$$*-j ; to* a staff, ^^-oc ; 

^J^3 « mo^, ^3J^5. But if the noun has four letters, the final ^£ 

(I does not occur in such words in good Arabic) may either be changed 

B into ^, which is the better form, or be rejected ; as ^*&\ purblind, 

3 x Oi 20x 10 5 xdx 3 ' 

^3-u*t ; j«yJ-« play, or ir^o a musical instrument, ^y^o or LS ^c ; 

X ^^ ^^ y. XX ^^X X 

?Ox # SxOx 3<>x 

^^ia-o meaning, ^^ju or ^y**. If the noun contains five or more 

1,0} S " ^ -» 

letters, the (^ is always rejected; as ^aJa^o chosen, ^^AJxcuo. — The 

same rules apply to the final ^ of radicals tertise 3 et ^, which falls 

away in some nouns after kesra (see § 167, b, /?); but it must be borne 

in mind that the missing ^ is to be counted as one of the letters 

C of the word, and also, if it be changed into 3, that the kesra always 

x «x S^x x Ox 

becomes fetha. E.g. ^ (for ^o^) blind, e£>**; *-* (f° r L5^) 
sorrowful, \jys*£i; ^15 (for ^5-^^) a judge, ^^-olS (which is the pre- 

3 xx x J OxOj xOJ OxO J 6x0j 

ferable form) or ^Jya 15 ; jufct (for t^ju**), jJu^o (for ^jZLc), Jju,» » o 

*x « J 3 xOJ 3 ' ? J 5 *' * -» 

(for ^k &* ~c), ^£Jux*, ^j.X£»o, ,-lx£«*^. 

Rem. a. The addition of the feminine termination IL does not 
P affect the rule of formation; as 5tj.> <m inkhorn or writing-case, 

3xx , Jxx Sxx 

^3 j > owe wAo carries an inkhorn; Slo^. Hama (H^Pl), {Jy* - J 

Jx5x 3 x x xO SxOOxx 

Sl^uJt, a district in Palestine, ^jj-^ J Sld^e a ladder, ^J^j-c ; SUl». 

ox x . 3 x x '3 - 

or d-J l». a wine-shop, ^^Jl^. or i*^^ « vintner. 

X x ^^x 

5 «" «* ml xx 3 x x w x x 

Rem. 6. Such forms as ^Ijj for ^33,3, ^jUx*© for t^^y**, 

2 x X J S X J 

and ^ako,^ for ^tu^uo, are modern and corrupt. 

§260] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Rel. Adjectives. 157 

259. The hemza of the termination ll— (the elif memduda, § 23, A 
rem. a), is always changed into j; as l\jjs> a virgin, ^S^jJ^-', *t-«*^' 

3 so* k//«j 3 x^oj ~8 + * 

(a town in Persia), ^jUu ; i' » .i;^ £fa 6/a^ beetle, ^j UUi ; £bj£>j 

3 ■- ,.* " ** 

Zachariah, i^jbj^j. But in the termination 1 1— , whether the hemza 

be sprung from an original radical 3 or ^, or be not a radical but 

merely the so-called JJlaJ^t Zj^A (see § 252, 2, a), it may either be re- 

taiDed unaltered (which is better) or be changed into 3 ; as |U the letter B 
£d, fb; a garment, <l~£» a robe, ti*~> the heaven, J^Stf, ^b;, ^yb^, 
^jl^w, or i^jtf , (^jb;, ^ji-A, jjgjW* ; *WXfc a far^w ttfMW in the 

~'0 * + 3 ^^* 3 "'* 3 _r * 

mot, 2b/». a ma& chameleon, ?^3b £& focm, ^y^U, ^yb/*-, ^^b, 

or j^jUU, ^jbj^-, i^y^Sb. On the contrary, if the hemza be an 

* . "-•» •*•« 3 - r -» 

original I, it always remains unaltered ; as l\jS (rad. IjJ), ^tp. 

Rem. The termination 2t_ is very rarely dropped in proper C 
~* * , ~, j , 5-*' 3j^ 

names; as tyy**., *tjjj*- (places), ^3-U., \£jjj^> — In a few 

cases too the letter ^j is substituted for the hemza ; as l\^jj (a 

3 *■ • <* »" > ^ 3 »• » ^ »»«»•* 

place), ^^jj ; *byJ ( a tribe), ^\j^ ', iU^o (a city in el-Yemen), 

3 'O - J J 

^bu^ ; with which compare the Hebrew forms *J? % £ *3 7^ 

from nW riW. 

260. Primitive defective substantives, i.e. those which have lost D 

their third weak radical, — as w>t, »-t,^»., axJ, £3, etc., — necessarily 

recover it only in cases where it reappears in the dual and plural; 
but if this reappearance be not necessary, the third radical may be 
omitted in the relative adjective. In all cases where the third radical 
is restored, it appears as ^, whether it was originally ^ or not. 

E.g. w>' (for y>\, dual Ol*>') a father, ^jy\ ; £.1 (for ^i.1, du. Ol*^') 

2 /^ 6 / 9/^ 3^" 

a brother, ^>»*t \j**> (for >©*•) a husband \s father or brother, ±$y++> ; 

158 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 261 
A a*j (rad. >i)) a dialect, ^$*) ; £3 (rad. ^J Me ^m, ^^3 ; #* (rad. 

J 2 x O x* § A «, , 

t^U) a hundred, ^y** ; £*t (rad. ^ot) a female slaw, ^Jyc\ ; iw (rad. 

2 xx 5 « * , , ,* go 3 xx 

>w) a year, ^>w ; ,jj| (for ^J, du. oW) a «w, ^yj\ or ^3^ ; 

00 v) 3 x J OJ 00 

^~>t (rad. >*~>) a name, ^^o-^l or ^3-0-* (from j^J) ; C-wt (rad. <0) 

3 * 3 * »< **'* 3 x 0* ox 5 ox 

podex, L5 ^» or ,^5^ (from alw) or ^^ (from <su»); ju» (for \£Jo, 

3 ^ 3 ^ ^ 3 ^ 3 xx 

du. O'*^) a M U> *^ or L^^ ' ->•■* M^> ^> or l£3"*-> 5 ^ io ~ 
5 x 3 ^ 

B morrow, ^j£ or ^3^. 

o o £ 00 Sol 

Rem. ct. Cukl, a sister, and C-Uj, a daughter, make ^^a-l and 

So 3 -£ 3 xx oxx 

^j^U, as well as ^3*.! and ^£y^.. — 4&2>, a lip, has the three forms 

3 'z 3 *■* 3-o ' ,S 3- 

^3a£, ^^iw, or ^yL* ; j^., vw(w, makes ^£^- or ^ay*. (from 

00 5 ^ ~x 3 x 3 x 3 

« v ».).— SU (gU,) has t^jU, ^U and ^U». 



Rem. 6. Where the original form was Jjti, some retain the 

3 •' 3 ox 3 ox 3 • j 3 

C gezm; as ^jjo, ^£>0, ^3^, L$>«-?> LST^' 

j j 

x r. , x 

261. The third radical 3 or ^J of the forms J** and 4JU* is 

OOx 3 * x Ox 

retained unchanged ; as 3**J grammar, ^$y^> a grammarian ; ^Ao 

3 Ox 9x0 x 5 Ox 8,4 SO r-xOJ 

a gazelle, L5 ~»» ; «j>* a foray, {$5)* ; *3~>; a bribe, ^£^j ; 3^ 

3oj 5 ' °£ . SoxOxOJ Soj 

a handle, ^3^ ; 4j>* a village, ^j-* ; £<wo an image, j^^o. But 



D if the final ^ of £U$ be changed into 3, the second radical takes 

3 xx 3 '-> Sx^ Ox Ox «x OJ °' 6 „ 

fetha, as 1^3/*, ^3-0, i^^**, from ajji, 4-*©.>, and 2u£ a possession; 
a rule which is extended by some to words in which the third radical 

SxxSx 5x-> Ox Ox 

was originally 3, as {£$j£, {£*2>j, l£5^' fr° m 5 J>J^> e ^ c - — If the 

second radical in such nouns be a 3 or ^£, combining with tho third 

radical into ^, this ^ is resolved into its original consonants, the 
second radical takes fetha, and final ^ is converted into 3 ; as 

{J* (for l$£>) a fold, y£}£ ; J^ (for J^l) living, J?^-! ; lj a 

§262] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Adj. — Rel. Adjectives. 159 

- . s x x « s , i , , 

twist or turn, \^^ ; **»■ # snake, ^J^**-. — In words of the form A 

<UUi, final ^ is retained, as S^ULw misery, ^jlii ; but final ^ is 

«x x , , 5 <■" «' ^ ■* 

changed into hemza, as <uU~> « drinking-vessel, ^SULw, ajUxc ^ sor£ 

2 "' x 5 *•» Ox x 

0/ lizard, ^Uic. — "Words of the form *ut a sign, ajU a jt?fec<? wfore 

. *x x 5 ^ 5 - 5 ^ 

cattle, etc., rest at night, *j\j a banner, make ^jI, ^51, or j^jt, etc. 

oo* m 3 x x 

Rem. a. ^ju, a desert, makes irregularly j^ju (instead of B 
l^jju) aw inhabitant of the desert, a Bedawi. 

t/j «/«/j 

Rem. 6. Nouns of the forms J-ati, aJL^Jti, J^ai, aJlaii, etc. from 

verba tertise rad. ^ et ^£, reject the ^ productionis and change a 

. 5 x 5 x x ji x 5 x x 5 ^ j 

radical ^ into 3 ; as ^is., {£3+* \ <H>^ ( a town), i^j-o » l^ 5 ' 

^3-ciS ; a**t (a man's name), ^3^! (rarely i***!, and, though very 

3 x* 

incorrectly, (JV>I). See §§ 255-6. C 

III. Changes in the Vocalisation. 

Ox x x 

262. In the forms Jjii and &Us, the kesra of the middle radical 

Ox 3 x x x 5 x x 

is changed into fetha ; as *ilU a king, ^^U ; jufb ftfo /twr, ^jlA ; 

j a x j a x 3**x3xxjxx 2> -  

o^-ait, j-o-JI (tribes), ^ j~o, ^£j+j ; S>£w (a tribe), {Jj3&. So also in 

j j & *■ t 3 £-» 

J*j, as J5oJt (a tribe), ^jx But in Jjti, the kesra may be retained, 

as J-»l camels, ^jj\ or ^^J. D 

Rem. In nouns that consist of more than three consonants, the 
vowel of the penultimate letter is not altered. From W A*3 (a 

tribe) and w^JL; (the ancient name of Si-Medina) the forms JiSiS 

3 '%' . 5 ox 5 *x 

and ^jj£j are admissible, though ^JJu and ,*Jj£> are preferred ; 

x Og 5 xOg J Ox 5 x xOx 5 x x0£ 

OUji! makes ^^31 ; x-f*, ^^^ a nd ^yU^JI, as well as 

160 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech, [§263 

A 263. Kesra or damma of the penultimate consonant is changed 
into fetha in all forms in which a ^ or ^j has been rejected, or in 

which a final ^ has been changed into j ; as zjj>j^j\, ^>ol ; •**£; 

3 ,, 
^>i£ (see the preceding §§). 

Rem. Of rare and arbitrary changes, such as ^Jj*aj from 

dj-aJI, ^j^a- from^opJt the sacred territory of Mekka, \^£j^> from 

««' . 3 • • t>t 

B J*± time, j^-^^l from ^^ol yesterday, a grammar can take no 


264. If a relative adjective is to be formed from a proper name 
which is compounded of two words, the following points must be attended 

to. — A. If the two words form a proposition (ir*{L>\ 4-^J-* or 

x £ 

2 x o 9 o y Si * x ££.* 

lOUwt w.^p), as US» JajU (he carried mischief under his arm, the 

X 5 * x 

nickname of a celebrated poet and warrior), o^J Jj-> (At* ££roa£ 

3 o x • A ' j 

q shone)* — or are contracted into one compound word (^j^-j-© wi=>©, 

J x X <2xxO X XX X 

mixed compound) as w^£jjuio, a man's name, ^M*^. VJyiS, the towns 

of Ba'albek and KdUJcald, — then the second word is omitted, and the 

3 ' 3 ct, 5 ~ 3 «- 3 o. 

termination ^— appended to the first ; as ^*-j&, \^b*?> <£****> ^j^> 

3 - 

^ylS. — B. If the first word is in the status constructus, governing the 

second in the genitive, two cases arise. (1) If the governing word be 

9 I 9 2c « 

j) one of the nouns ^father, ^\ son,jt\ mother, or CUj daughter, it is 

3 ox jg 3 ox 

rejected, and ^— appended to the governed word ; as jSL> y>\, ^JjSJ ; 

xx x .»£ 3 "» <* x x x j£ 3 *••»» x £ 0«> J 3 '•£ f/i/" JO 

3 ** 

kSjHJ- ( 2 ) K * ne fi rs ^ wor( l °e an y other than these four, two 
secondary cases arise, (a) If the idea of definiteness through the 
status constructus still exists in the consciousness of the speaker, — as 

* Compare the nickname of one of the Earls of Douglas, Archibald 

§264] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.— Rel. Adjectives. 161 

6 x J J * J 

in O^****" v°*^> tlie slave of Hosein, — the first word is rejected, and A 

'I 3 o , j 

the second takes ^— ; as ^^^. (b) But if the idea of definiteness 

is no longer present to the mind of the speaker, then : (a) in cases 

where no uncertainty can arise as to the person intended, ^— is 

attached to the first word, and the second is omitted ; as 0-iJ>M 

vt O X Ml xr W X  X X O J Off* J x £ s \ *> } ~s J wl V J 

\JIS±J ; CH**M ^jK, ij5& ; jUoJt ^oUau, ^tki ; aXlt j^c, iJJ*** ; 
iSUt *^£jt (CameVs-nose, nickname of a man), ^jiil ; O^UI^o-o, ^^^ ; B 

x # x0/« J x 3 0" O/'-J p J» 5 ' « 3 « x * '*** ■»• *" 3 • « 

6j^Lsd\ jutw, ^$j*~> ; ^-^iJt »*t, ^yj-^t or i^y-o ; l>~*aM J^, ^J^ ; 

/J0*» x 3 «• 

[(j>£Jt ^tj, \£tS}[ ', hut (/8) if uncertainty might arise by so doing, 
the first is omitted, and the termination added to the second ; as 

' j^ i«/ 3 '-» " oi o-» r x 3 «* * £ x x j o x 3 "" * 

x x o*« 3" x J x jo£ 

Sjla^a^JI, Guadalajara in Spain, ^U*^.. S^w j>jl (a tribe) makes 

5 1 - 

J x x it x x # /ulj / 

t^Uw or ^3*w (from the assimilated form 3^w). 

Oi x x S x J 

Rem. a. In the case of the *+€*}* OLb^o, some allow a Q 

J J J x x 

double formation, from both parts of the word ; e.g. from J-*/v-*b' 
3 j« j 3 - 
L&Hj J8 LS**l>' ^ n ^ ater tmies ** became very common to form the 

5 j oj - , 2> * " 0' 
nisba from the whole compound word, as ^JJ^j-^^j, <JCJju ; and 

this license was extended to innumerable names which fall under 

x x J »/ 3 xxx Ox 

the class B. For example : from \y* C-wO, .-Jl^C^o, with the 

s .^tf; from ^^j v >*c, ^jO** J from oJa&t jb, L5 ^*5 ; b J 

J xO-ajOx 3 -» xxOx x JOx 3 xOx i * J x 

from JyUJI jJ3, u ^IU|tf>; from ^j-jJ^yJ, Uj>*j^j from ^1 j^o, 

3 ixOx x.x x , ' 3 ^ x 

<£*3j3J*> fr° m u*' l£*'> Guadix in Spain, .<£>t^.>tj; from 

x 0<» JOx 3 ''■'Ox j0/<» J x 3 OJ x x 

JULoJt jufr, j^^Ujuc ; from JULoJI ^UJ, ^^j^U^U. To this stage of 
the language, too, belong such words as ,«J>o from 0>^' ji ( a 
w. 21 

162 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 265 

A family in Spain) j <^£)U^j from ^UU ±>S ; [ajjjJ«L a woman of 

' ' 3 * j 
the Benu 'Adi (§21, c, footn.)] ; ^j^^^j an ignoramus (Fr. 

abecedaire), from Ju»yl 'abuged, the first four letters of the alphabet 
(§ 32). 

Rem. 5. In many cases falling under B, 2, 6, a and /?, strange 
forms arise by the rejection of some consonants, or the combination 
into one word of a few letters (generally four) selected from the 

5 ' o , > b ,, 6 * 3 << o ' 

two nouns. E.g. ...ojcirw from O^o^-a*. Hadramaut ; ^£jj^ 

Z jo JJ/ 3 '0' 6*0-0 jo * 

B from jtjJt juc (a family in Mekka) ; ^-*X^ from ^^AJt Ju^ (a 
tribe) ; ^ ^V from ^^^w jk*c (a tribe) ; ^-ia-^ from ^j^s. ^*\j 

3 XJOJJ s s 3 3 s O 3 

Ras- l ain ; ^J^LjJj-w from 4J$-Lj ^$j-+-2> (a village in Egypt) ; 

i - Os Ci - 3 , o ' ' 

tjy^jJaJt, the name of a poet, whose mother was from ^Z^jJa, 

3 b ' s 3 

and his father from^&jjt^i.. 

265. A relative adjective is never formed, in classical Arabic, 
from the plural, even where the sense might seem to demand it, but 

C always from the singular; e.g. ^j,-°j* acquainted with the divine 
institutions, from d-iuji, plur. o^!/* 5 l^* ° i IW a se ^ er of mats, from 
jt^^i plur. j*a»- ; ^jia^-o owe w/*o makes mistakes in reading manu- 
script, also a learner or student, from d U*a».o a written sheet, a letter, 

« 3 3 3 ~ ' s 

a book, plur. U i* **o or ^U-o. Such plurals, however, as are either 
really proper names, or approximate to them in sense, are excepted ; 

s o£ * t 3 *bi - 

D e.g. jU»Jt (plur. of j^> a leopard) the tribe of 'Anmdr, (J^U->t ; *->*$•& 

CO* ( 3 ' 3 s s 

(plur. of wi^ « efo^), the tribe of Kilab, ^%^> ; Ojlfr* (a tribe), 
LS'iil**' J'***' ( a tribe), iJ?jiU*; ^jt^l (the name of a city, Ctesiphon, 

Si " - - 3 , bib, 

properly the plur. of i-ijjuo), ^^JIjl^ ; jLcu^l fib Helpers (of 
Muhammad, epithet of the tribes of el-Aus, ^hj^I, and U-Hazrag, 

3 - o - bs 3 - °S j / ot»/ 

ij.jj-a^Jt, at el-Medina), (j^UaJt ; v!/*^ the Arabs of the desert, 

§ 266] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj. — Rel. Adjectives. 163 

| * Oi j* o io, # 5 x £ 

^l/^l; [o^a.'^t the confederate tribes, ^%e*\, as 'Omar is called in a A 

# *■* aid* S 'St. 

tradition ; iUj'nJI the Persian colonists in el- Yemen, ^jUjt. D. G.] 

Rem. In more modern Arabic, on the contrary, a host of 
relative adjectives are formed from the plurals of nouns that 
indicate the object with which a person usually occupies himself 

«■• * oi. o x x 3 " f£ 

in his trade, studies, etc. E.g. J^UJl (plur. of JxoJ) rugs, /Jsl©Jt 

S JJ Ox 3 -> -> 

a maker or se^er q/* rw<?s; w*^* (plur. of ^U£>) °0°^> 15^* a 

9 J J 5 X VI i J 

bookseller ; j*om* (plur. of j**au*.) mats, ^j.^t*. a maker or seller of 

J xx 9' J x 3 x x 

mats; j->jty> (plur. of Zj^Jd) glass bottles, (J^Jjt^S a dealer in B 

x x x 9 x J 3 x x 

bottles; J^-Lu (plur. of Jji»*U) sieves, ,J^.Uo a maker or se^er o/* 

X ^^ X X 

x x Ox x I x x 

sieves; OUL (plur. of acL>) watches, ^JUL a watchmaker; 

3 x x O'x^xJ^xx Oxx 

^.UULo a bearer of the cresset called 2JjU~c; JsuI^a. (plur. of ikuj^.) 

3 ~ x ' X ~X X 

pouclves or 6aa/s, ,-butj^. orae w/io makes or seZfo them ; ^-5t/»» (pi. of 
ia*-»j^fc.) wounds, j-ateJtjrffc. & surgeon; Olio (pi. of &Lo) qualities, 
attributes, ^J»lio one w/to recognises in God attributes distinct from C 

3 "XX 3 XX 3 -» -» 3 XX 

i/w essential nature ; ^=&\j* - i^f0j* > ^a^-o = ^to, ^ . — Similar 
forms in Syriac, of early date, are |»  I belonging to women, from 

I • V plur. of |2.Aj|, a woman, and j-»-»5Q-0 from j_»jia^, plur. of 

9 x 

266. Biliteral particles may double their second consonant or D 

x 5 W X 

not, at pleasure, if it be a strong letter; as^o^ how much? ^^o^ or 

3x *x 3«" 3x 

^^ ; j^ not, ^_ 5 -oJ or ^^oJ. But if the second consonant be weak, the 

opinions of grammarians differ. In the case of $, the simple doubling 

o< I 3 Ot- 
is permitted, as ^ if ^5} ; or else a fetha is inserted between the two 

3 XX 

waws, as ^jV- In the case of ^£, this latter form is alone admissible, 

x 3 x X 

the second ^ being changed into j ; as ^^* that, {£&£* ; ^ in, 

164 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 267 

A ^3-^. If the second letter be a quiescent Slif, there is inserted 

between it and the termination ^£— a hemza, which may be changed 

* t ->* S * x 2 - ' 

into a 3 ; as *j not, ^^ or ^^. The pronoun U what ? forms ^yU 

and JjAU. 

267. We have seen above (§§ 231, 232) that the termination 

^L. or ,jt— in adjectives is one of those which imply a certain degree 
E of intensity ; and a few examples of rarer forms may here be given, 

• x *x t o 'vi o £ o is * 

as jlyJ daring, reckless; ,jUao or ^j\2suo, strong, robust; oW^»» 

G ' J-l G s J ol O x i J 

clamorous, vociferous ; <jla^aJI corpulent; < j'^a*-wt or ^j^U*— « tall or 

x x • x x J .» J x x x 

straight-haired; q[*SXo vile, sordid; <jL>JujJu^ and ^CjX* or' 

Ox x x x 

2-jLjj£a, mendacious. Hence we may form from many nouns a 
relative adjective ending in ^1-, as the grammarians say, ju£»U) 
Z*~»d\, to strengthen the relation; e.g. from jisu*, aspect, appearance, 

. . 2 t O x 2 xx Ox x O s'tO J x x 

C the ordinary nisba is ^Jj^c, but .Jl^ki* is = JaA«J1 ,>****• $w<#- 

x ^^x x 

2^* x o o x 2 x o 

looking. So : i«3t)Aw having much or /owgr &*tr (j*w), ,y LoJ having 

* ^^x x 

o x o i 5 j o 5 .» 2 x " 

a /ow^r beard {l^J), ^U*- having a large head of hair (**»■), i^W^i 

ox xx 2 *• « j oo 2 ^ -» ■•£ 

bull-necked (&£j the neck), ^U^*. large in the body (J*-*.), ^yU^AJt 

I e • 2xj«j 

corpulent, ^^Uwt taw or long-bearded, ^ >a»-*~4 £a# or straight- 

2 x x x Oxxdx J ,(, 

haired, ^i^koj.*. having a large crop or craw (aJIoja.), [.JLJu 
D smiting with the evil eye (from ^-aj in the sense of e^), ^y^ju*© or 

3 x xO x 2xxOx 

^ua-j-o a drugseller (from original ^y^ju-^ s^r #/* sandalwood, 

Fleischer, JK. #cAr. i. 245, n. 1). D. G.] In later times this ter- 
mination was more extensively employed, both in common speech 

and in scientific writings (in the latter, perhaps, under the influence 

5 * . 2 x x 

of the Aramaic) ; e.g. ^yly^li a fruiterer, ^^SU 0^0 wAo s^/s foarcs, 

2^0 , %'&«'%•"' 

jJLo— ^w 07^ w&? sells sesame, instead of ,-y^U, /USU, j^S^SU or 

§268] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Abstr. Nouns. 165 

3 - - 5©5fi- , . I s+ 

^j^JLSU, and ^«. ...»..» ; ^'^ wr, interior, private, \jSji outward, A 

external, public; ^LSy upper, ^JU-a^J lower ; ^JU-jj spiritual 

(til nO?), ^iL^AJ relating to the soul, (. i 1  a 1 ), ^jlju-*. corporeal, 

^j^jy relating to light, ^yWj learned and devout (flSH). 

Rem. A form expressing intensiveness, and applicable ex- 

S xj So. 

clusively to the members of the body, is ^JUi ; as ^.wljj having a B 

3 ^2 5 *J 8 - j 

large head ; i**'oi, i^te', ^>'-^j having a large or font? nose, ears, 

arms; ,-fcUw, i^jlA Another rare form is exemplified by^ijiw 

9*0* jxo£ j/»« 

and^^yZw^ ^JjlwI and 4l~>t. 

£ a^-J *> * ot 

(c) 7%£ Abstract Nouns of Quality, 3uslSH\ il+~>\. 

268. The feminine of the relative adjective serves in Arabic C 

as a noun to denote the abstract idea of the thing, as distinguished 

from the concrete thing itself; and also to represent the thing or 

things signified by the primitive noun as a whole or totality. It 

corresponds therefore to German substantives in heit, keit, schaft, 

* a i o * 
thum, and to English ones in head, dom, ty, etc. E.g. A*vJ*9l [and 

J v> sol 0* j\ * 9**0 

2l*J>1^*$\ D. G.] the divine nature, Godhead (<fd*^t God) ; i-*jLj| 

9*0 ( J o Jit * t i 5 * 

humanity (&\>~J\ a human being) ; <Lu^Jt Lordship, Godhead (v>^0 > 

9 5 J i 9 2 » * OS J J ( OH 2 * 

4J3*.j manhood; [^uoj-oi. or Z~&yA±. particularity] ; 4-*o~»t, aJLoj, D 

9 0* 

substantivity, adjectivity, from j*-~»\, a substantive, and oL^j, aw 

9 vt * Oi JxO^Sirfxxj 

adjective ; 2^iSU\ the belonging to the fully -inflected class (v>£*' 0&+Z*) 

*i£> * * 9 £> r* * * * 

of nouns ; A-JbU substance, quiddity (U wlwt ?) ; *L5U wateriness (|U 
water) ; ^HW^ totality ; 2uj^H* what constitutes the being a poet, the 
poetic mind or temperament; S«w©j^JU ftb capability of being understood, 
intelligibility ; A a Ao>JI wto constitutes being a Ifanefite, the school of 

166 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 269 

A the Hanefites; 4-Jl^-cuJt Christendom, the Christian religion; du^y^S 

9 J 

Rem. In a few cases the termination Oj_ borrowed from the 
Aramaic Jl^l-j is similarly employed ; as Oj.a*n) divinity, (|Z.001_£\), 
<Z>y*l> humanity (\l.Q-mS\), oyiCo kingdom (H^D^D )^^), 
a. pride, haughtiness, omnipotence, etc. [These nouns are, in 

Arabic, of the masculine gender.] 

B (£) 2%0 Diminutive. 

269. The diminutive, jJLcloJI ^w^I or j-JLtfuM, and j ^-^l 

j o 5 x ii/jv j jo/ j o •' x 

or j-jiafcJJt, when formed from a triliteral noun (j*JC*Jt^ ^'sM or j-m£JI), 

xj c . * ' ' x 1 9 x S Ox J 

takes the form J**$ ; as J*?.j a man, J*o*j ; w-A£» a <fo<7, w~Jl^ ; 

J/ 50 x J ' x ,. gt/ j 

j^o-c- 'J.»w (a man's name), j^o-c ; J***. « &'#, J****.. When the 

<■■ ^ J 9 x x 

noun is quadriliteral, it takes the form Jju** ; as w>*fc a scorpion, 

5 x .> xO t 5 »/J 5 x 5 x J t Oi 

q w^it ; ^oAp a, dirham, j&d)* ; ^a»...>.» a mosque, jia» ■*,.>* ; . J©,! a 

0x2 5 fx2 

kind of tree, Jxjjl (for j^ujt). When the noun is quinqueliteral, but 

. . . 9 »/J 5 J J 

the fourth letter wa^ the diminutive is J***** ; as^^i-ac a sparrow, 

* x J 5x0 5 x J 

j*Ju*aC ; *-Ui-c ^ hey, 9- .wi.o. 

Rem. a. The diminutive is used, not merely in its literal sense, 

, 5 -2 8. * J 5 *j 

but also to express endearment (as ^»\, ^^t, ,-ij) or contempt (as 

S x J S 9 x Cx J 

D i^J^), an< ^ even enhancement (^JsuCUJ, as Ju^ji a grea^ misfortune, 

03x J OOx J 9* x J 

^Lmw a terrible year of drought or dearth, j***. the very best, JJj jlo 


a special friend), [2lo-JkjJI a very 6£ac& calamity, a severe trial]. 

Rem. 6. In forming a diminutive, it is not usual to fall back 
upon the root-consonants. On the contrary, the servile letters are 
generally taken into account, as long as the word does not exceed 

5 Ox J JxO£ J 0x2 Ox 9 Ox J 

the form ^Jjua* ; as Jjjjl blue, Jijijl \ U Uf H ** a mantle, Jk, : xo, 
See however § 283. 

§ 270] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Diminutives. 167 

Rem. c. The first syllable of the form ,J-ai5 is occasionally A 
pronounced with kdsra instead of damma, when the second radical 

of the primitive is ^ ; as C**«j, ?^*£. > ^w, w--wJ, for c^u, 

xj OOxJ (i (/J Ox Ox i^x Ox xx 

fj^w, «£~wJt», w** 5 ' ^ rom ***•!» *L5^' JH£i an( * w»^ (^ or V^)' 

Rem. d. Traces of this diminutive form in Aramaic are 

P t O-x x o > x « 7 x 

SD^'iy |V) i N.1, a 2/o^A C*J^, from^U), and (L»1Q-L a fawn 

9»*x J ' x x 

( JjJ^, from Jt>£). In Hebrew we may perhaps consider as such, 

Yjfl /i«fe, a little (j*juo), Plt0v3 « 6and of fugitives, nffSff the 
... ^ T .. . . : 

cerastes, a sort of snake («Ju*>), and m*d$ (from J^pX, a con " B 

J x 1 Ox 

temptuous diminutive, like J/'**. 1 ^. If so, the vowel *_ must be 
regarded as a weakening of \_ (orig. *_), like ]Y?il f° r JV /H 

: - T T T " T 

(IT/JO* This view derives some confirmation from the modern 

t : - t 

pronunciation of North Africa, where, for example, <Uua5, the 

4 if' J 

diminutive of <U5, a basket, is sounded A^/|/e or gfife, — in post- 
biblical Hebrew Hfi&p an d HS^D. 

Rem. e. Diminutives may be formed not only from nouns Q 
(substantive or adjective), but also (1) from the demonstrative 

pronoun 1$ and its derivatives, as well as the relative pronoun 


jj£jJl ; (2) from certain prepositions, which are, however, obviously 

x Ox J x Ox J 

substantives in the accusative, as J*a5 a little before, juju a little 

after, J>j>J a little above, siH3> a little below, a little nearer than, 
etc.; and (3) from a few of the verbs of surprise or wonder (§ 184, 
rem. f). On the other hand, they cannot be formed from nouns J) 

9 " x J 

which have already the measure of a diminutive, as ^J-j-o^, a kind 

O x J 

of small bird, ^Z^^> a bay horse. 

270. When the noun contains Jive letters, of which the fourth 

is strong, or more than five, the diminutive Jjua tf is commonly formed 

% ft* * 

from the first four, and the rest are rejected ; as Jj*^*-* a quince, 

168 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§270 

0, 3 3 , , 0,3 

a nightingale, Jju^ft ; O^Xifc a spider, wXwic. 
But if there be among the consonants several servile letters, these are 
rejected, or some of them ; as Jjj-^t thick gold-brocade, Jjj-ol ; 

, , 3 

£.j^.j£a rolling oneself, *-j**-> ; Jb» & .».« trying to render perfect, 

,3 0,03 Out , 3 00,3 , 3 6,63 

J^X* ; jUaL-« chosen, j~**~o (for j^U), and not j Z**~ » ; ymJjtfU 
having a hump in front, ^ ^xJU . 
B Rem. a. The rule as to quinqueliterals like J^.jJut is not 

, , 

always strictly observed. Thus ^^ a fat, lazy, old woman, 

,0 , , r, 6 , J 

3>JJ* a ourn t cake, and ^J-o^JJ* a big camel or a little, ugly woman, 

t tr r J 0,3 o o , 3 9 0,3 0, J 

are said to make either j^o n *., >j->j*, ^3ujS, or jZj^a***, Jfej*, 



Rem. b. If there be more servile consonants than must neces- 
sarily be cut off, their relative importance for the signification of 
the word is taken into account in choosing which is to be retained. 

Q In A+KLm+t for example, j* is preserved in preference to ^ or O, 

because it indicates the participial form. But if all the consonants 
are of equal value, we may select which we please, and therefore 

4 0,, 0,3 0,3 

the diminutive of ^julc, a sort of thorn, is either juJLc or juX& 

0,3 0,36,^ 0^, 6,3^ 0, 6,3 2 6,, 

(for ^juXfr) ; of ty ill, a sort of cap, <L*J*1$ or dL^JlS ; of h : ;r-, 

6, 3 6, 3 6, 3 

short and big-bellied, m * &* or ^*HW" (f° r ijK*^). 

Rem. c. The termination ^1— , when appended to nouns of four 
J) or more letters, is not rejected, but remains attached to the diminu- 

9 , , 6 , 

tive, which is formed out of the preceding consonants; as \j\jtei 

0,0,3 <\ , 3 6e. , 0,1 

saffron, £)\j**&} 5 Ob**' a ma, l e snake, ^Lauil. 

Rem. d. Nouns containing five or more consonants do not 

9 0,3 O'„,0,, «, 0,3 

exceed the form >> Jju* 5 , as aS%£.j* a tick, 2*x>j£ ; and therefore a 

word which consists of four radical and one or more servile con- 
sonants, rejects the latter at once (except in the cases specified in 
rem. b, and in § 269). In place of the rejected consonants, however, 

§ 271] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj. — Diminutives. 169 


^ may be inserted immediately before the last letter ; as ^jj^suj, A 
i, J^o-X«, and the like. 

t/ j 9 (/J 

271. The feminine terminations 3— , ^£— , and pL- ; the relative 
termination ^_ ; the ending ^1— in adjectives of which the feminine 
is ^i**, and in proper names ; the dual and plural terminations <j'— , 

0.3-, and Ol_ ; and the second syllable of the plural form JUil ; 
are all disregarded. The diminutives must be formed out of the B 
preceding consonants, and these terminations added to them. E.g. 

« /«/ ",0,3 3 , " , 3 , , 3 3 , , , 

ZxXS a castle, 4*A.$ ; S^Xb (a man's name), iU^ Xm ; a+X~~c (a man's 

3 , , 3 ,0 3 , V 3 , , 

name), <U* » »-« ; \^+*- pregnant, ^A***- ; ^+X~j (a woman's naine), 

/»/j ~, , *,0 , 3 2, ,Os 3,0, 

i^+L* ; i|>o^» ra#, *l/«^»- ; ^J>*-^ (from a place called j&+z, supposed 

S 0^ 3 

to be inhabited by the ginn) demoniacal, mighty, perfect, ^jJL**; 
{Jj*aj belonging to el- Basra, {Jj-+*aj ; jj!/^ (fern. ^$j£~>) drunken, C 

J^O^J J^d^ 3,0,3 ,03 

>j\j+.S~*4 ; ^jloX* (a man's name), jlo-L ; ^jU-L^o two Muslims, 

,0,3 , 3 3 < , 3 , 3 5 , J 

,jUA-$~»* ; jj^L-* Muslims, ) j ^ »L ) .,,»..o ; oWA-~o Muslim women, 

, , 3 , i , OS- 5 /0* • ©£ 

o L »L.-.».« ; JU-^t camels, w>la*~ot companions, -kUJt words, oLj^t 

r, , , c , , e- , 0,t- 5 W^£ 

verses, JU^I, w>la*->.ol, <bUJI, Olgt. 

Rem. a. The fern. ^_ is rejected, when the noun consists of 
five letters, the third of which is strong, or of more than five ; as D 

, , , »/J /}'j 0,3 

(Jk"5/5 the back, jJUj.5 ; jj£j->*J a riddle, JjJusi. But if, in the quin- 
queliteral noun, the third letter be a weak servile, either it, or the 

, , 3 , i, 3 Oot, 3 

^, may be omitted; as ^W»- a bustard, ^Jj-***- or j**». (for 

0* 3 


o ,ot 
Rem. £>. Other plurals, besides JUil, of the class called 
a o*> j j j 
aJlSJt Pj*+ (see § 307) form their diminutives regularly; viz. 

r. , O ,0 , 0,3 0,0 9,0,3 3 Oi 

oJlai, as SjJj children, SjuJj ; 4*A£ boys, slaves, 4**A£ ; J**'' as 
w. 22 

170 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 272 

3 f> t x I 3 t>£ x c Ox Ot r, , a £ 

A wJ^»t dogs, wJL^t ; %LJ>\ ribs, *»L-£l J and 3JUJI, as <Ltjx*.\ bags, 

« x x I x Of- r - ' xl «/ »( <i x 6 , I O x S 

Aj««j».t ; SjL^ftt pillars, $j>++£\ ; S^tel Joys, slaves, 4*JL£l ; r u^gt 

x ** * x x ~ ^ x** ~x 

« x x I x x 0«> j .» .» 

children, <w~gl- In regard to the 5^)1 sj-g^. (see § 307), two 
courses may be adopted. We may fall back on the singular, adding 
to its diminutive the appropriate plural termination ; e.g. l\jj& 

x J x J G ' G s 3 G 3 xO x J 

poets, ^jsuyZt, from j^lw, j*-i$2> (see § 277) ; jjj houses, Otj-jjj, 

Ox 5/VJ 

B from yj, 3j-jj^ (see § 274). Or we may have recourse to the 

5 o-» j o x o^a x (3xj ?x 3 "■» 

iUJI i^., if such exist; e.g. jjW** youths, 0>***> from ^ZJ, ^,^3, 

03/J x «xuj £ x Jui^J 

or <L-2*, from the plural <LJ$ j r^t &#se fellows, ^^JLJ3, from 

J*te, JJ3 (see § 278), or ilJL^t (for lib*?), from the plural lij? 
x x «* -» 

(for 10|1). 

272. The termination ,jt— in triliteral nouns, of which the femi- 

x Ox 

C nine is not ^^**, and which are not proper names, is regarded as 

Ox 3 

radical, and consequently the diminutive takes the form J*a**s ; as 

x 3 J/J G * x J x x 

jjUauL> power, a sultan, ^ a K *l»> ; ,jlo^ a wo//", ^-o^jj-^ ; jjUa-w 

O t/j x x g Ox J 

a e?m7, jj-Ja-j-w ; O^^tj sweet basil, ,^-0*^3^. 

273. Proper names, consisting of two words (see § 264), form 
their diminutives from the first word, the second remaining unchanged ; 

ll O 3 x ix> JS/J ( J x Ox J x x J 

D as aJUl juc 'Abdu 'llah, <UJI ju*£ 'Obeidu llah ; ^j&jac, w>jijjux*; 

ilssSsJ 3 Oxx Ox J OxxO x J 

274. If a diminutive be formed from a triliteral feminine noun, 

which has not however a feminine termination, S_ is added to the 
diminutive, provided that the primitive has no nomen unitatis (§ 246). 

GO J x Ox-> O x ^xOxJOx 

E. g. JJJ* (a woman's name), 5 ju^a ; ^^^w £ii sim, ft—fr + A ; jh a house, 

9*0*3 St <" x x J « OxO xp Oxx 

?K5> j O^ fl fo0#» dUww ; J^t camels, £Lol ; ^^ a ,/foc& 0/ sheep or 

OxOxJ OOx '■xOxJ <•/»/ 

groate, i**^ ; C*^ an e V e or fountain, <U>*£ or fc #t * (see § 269, rem. o). 

§ 276] II. Tfie Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <Sc Adj.— Diminutives. 171 
But if the primitive has a nomen unitatis, 5— is not appended to the A 

... t ^ O * * C * 3 

diminutive, in order to avoid ambiguity. E.g. j**J* trees, j*a>.$>, but 

• *" " " 9*0* 3 f=xx OO/J 9*** «5^9^J 

*^w a tree, S^a^w ; jX» cattle, j*aj, but S^aj cm o«r or cow, e>j*su. 

Rem. «. The diminutives of the fem. cardinal numbers, from 

* 5 • * 

3 to 10 inclusive, do not take 3_ for the same reason; e.g. u - fl ^ 

yive (fem.), j^,**^*., but Su*^ five (masc), **+&.. But see § 319, 

rem. a. 

Rem. b. If the noun contains more than three consonants, S_ B 
is not added to the diminutive. 

Rem. c. There are a few exceptions to the rules of this § and 

9 0* 9 0* 3 9 

rem. b. For example, *->j&-, war, makes s^j^- ; pj> a coat of 

90*3 90* 88/J 9** 9 0*3 

ma*h frij* J A^3, a herd of she-camels, Juj3 ; w*/^ Arabs, w-^ ; 

0* O * j 00* r. * 3 9 3* 1* * J 

^ftyi, a bow, u-jy> ; Jjo a s/*oe, J-oti ; [yj*3j£- a bride, w*>j£- ; 

9 J* 9 *t* 3 9 Si 3 

u°y* 9 a young she-camel, ^/tfuXS, D. G.] ; whilst j*\j3, the front, and 

f" 7 7 9*0*3 9 *»>* 3 9*0*3 90* 

l\j2, the rear or back, have 2i^jjj>j,3, and ^Jj^ (for ^Uj^).— ^e»y> 

M/J f/t/J 

ones people or 2W6e, which is masc. and fem., has^jji or 2»©-}y> ; 

<i 0* 9 * * 

but JaAj and j*j, though also of both genders, seem to make only 

9 0*3 9i* 3 90 3 

isuAj and j*Ju. sj^, a wedding feast, is usually masculine, and 

90*390* 9*0 * i 

therefore has ^s-ijG. j**J a sea, which is masc, makes Zj*t 

275. The double consonants in nouns formed from verba mediae 

. &* 0*3 3 f 

rad. geminatae are resolved; as J3 a kill, J-^>; u~^ a cup (Fr. tasse), 

9 0*3 9 5 3 ( 9*0*3 

U m..,»»1> ; 2j*o time, Sju jc«. 

276. If the second radical be a weak letter, and have been j) 
changed by the influence of the vowels into another, the original 

letter is restored in forming the diminutive. E.g. w>G (v>^ a door, 

90*3 0*9** , 9 0*39 90 

*-*iy. ; w>^ (^r^) aw eye-tooth or canine tooth, w~«j ; s»-J; (?-3j) tw«J, 

£ x d *• J 9/ ^ 5 /(^ t «* * 3 9 3 9 3 # 9 0*3 

A^ijj 5 *■*** (*-*>*) i?Wc#, value, i-o-i>5 ; j~~jj~c (j~~#o) rich, j>~*~r* ; 

9 * 5^0 9*3 

Oik* (O^J3*) a pair of scales, O^ij-iy^- 

172 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 277 
Rem. i^>, a thing, commonly makes ^3^ (for ?^>fc), and 

o 5 x j 6 s j e s o x 

vulgarly 2u^t, instead of f^w. From C-*u a fcm*e, -i^w an old 


man, £>*£> an eye or fountain, a-suj an egg, and <5ju.c> « farm, may 

x .> x J '"x-xJ^xOxJ « x x J 

be formed C-sJ^J, £~i$Z>, &i}£, ***i&, an ^ **^>-£, but the regular 
forms are preferable. Conversely, juc, a festival, though derived 
from the radical ^^, makes Ju*fc, following the plural ^Lt'. 

277. If the second letter be either a servile elif, or an elif, the 

Ox « " - • 

B origin of which is unknown, it is changed into 3 ; as js.\jj a poet, 

9' ' t £ x x 3 Ox x J ' x 

i^*b a calamity, ^«H3> 5 cHj^ a horseman, \j*jij£ ,^^-a signet- 

O x J 5 x * x J x x J Ox x J x x 

^jja.; 4jb aw animal, Z+jj* (for &«*»5>); ?r^ w»ry, fri^; ajU? a 
certain bitter tree, £*>>o. 

Rem. a. Words of the form J^li, in which the initial letter is 

• x &xl 

3, change it into t in forming the diminutive; e.g. JLolj, ^J^cu^!, 

not vJ-^uj^. In other cases this change is optional, as in fjj «l for 
C l*U5> fomied according to § 283 from Ji;jt. 

SAO x J x 

Rem. 6. Words of the form of <Luj) sometimes substitute t_ for 

Ox 5 x J OixJ 

^_, to lighten the pronunciation, as 2u\^ and 3lj\^j, the latter for 

o iSo x j 5 x 

<Lj^w, from <blw a young woman. [Oomp. § 13, rem.] 

278. If the third letter be weak, it coalesces with the preceding 
(^ of the diphthong ^j- into <j ; as jf$£ a youth, a slave, ^lu ; 

x x OwxJ J C « ul x p « x OWxJ 

^UJ» ybtfd, ^od» ; J>£>t a glutton, J*£>t ; ^r*^ a male ostrich, ^S^> ; 

Ox x OwfxJ JxOc JwJxp xx SxJ xx 

D Jb***' a ^^, J^^»-; A>*1 &/ac£, Ju~>t; j^ a youth, ^; <^ a 

O 5 x J £ x _ O 5 x i Ox J O 5 x J 

sfa^ 4*-aft; ^5^-j a ?m7/, £$»-); djj^ a handle, *£j£-. 

9 s J J xp 

Rem. a. The forms J^jj^. and >y*~i\ are also used. 

Rem. b. In words of which the second and third radicals are 


contracted into ^, these letters must be separated, and treated 

5 x r a 9 

according to this rule and § 276 ; e.g. /"Lb a fold (i£j£), (J?>k ; 

O i x x x JS x J 

a snake, (***».), 

§ 281] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj. — Diminutives. 173 

279. A quadriliteral or quinqueliteral, of which the last two A 

'■•* - * ' » 

letters are weak, rejects one of them ; as ^jo^-j Yakya {John), ^^ 

J vl * J x P & x I J wl x i 3 x 3 ' J 

(for L5 tp*-») ; 1^3^-t black, ^^.1 (for u*»»t) 5 1^5**^ « ^#> ^5*° (f° r 
^5***) I j*^ a» enemy, ^js. (for ^JJ^) ; £U*c a ^/£, pa#, ^jac 

wl x J ^ x x 0i f x J x x 

(for ^^j-Jacc) ; *U~> tfc 5% or heaven, a*«o~> ; Sjljl a sma// water-skin, 
2u}\ (for Ajo^t) J 4^^** (a man s name), <**a* (for *«x #). 

3x1 0^1 x x I 

Rem. Instead of ^^t, some say ^^.\ (accus. ^^pA, like B 

j x I at x i £ * I x ui x I 

>^wl, § 278, rem. a), others ^j**\ (accus. ^j*-\, for ,-*»-t, like 

j* x£ 5x1 Jx x J 

ju~>l, § 278), and others still, but irregularly, i**-!. — From 4jjU*o 

J xO x .> J xirfx J 

the forms Sj-oto and 4-wOt« are also said to be in use. 

280. The infinitives of verba primse j, which reject the first 
radical and take the fern, termination 3— in exchange (§ 206), resume ^ 

« x x x J x 

the j in their diminutives ; as 3 j^c & promise, Sj^j ; 3ji». affluence, 

9 x x J x 05 x J 

Sjufih.^ ; 4-Jt> fomgr spotted, spots, Awj. 

Rem. They are distinguished by the 3 from the diminutives of 

60/ 9»/J 9 x 

the form jjjji in the same verbs ; such as Jucj from j^j, etc. 

281. Nouns which have lost their third radical, — whether they 

have the fern, termination 3_ or not, — recover it in the diminutive, j) 


L5 r 

E.g. w>' a father {y>\), ^\ ; £-t a brother (>±.l), ^£.1 ; j>* blood, 

& s J 5/ «S/J x J »x x O^xJ 3 x J 

^3*0 ; ju a hand, ajju ; j^. iwte, v-tj^. ; *U water, duyo and jjy» ; 

9 x 5/D/J «* * # r, x x J «^ 

3U> a 5^j9 or <7<?a£, iy-j^w ; £*w & »p, 5^-jAw ; £*! a 

Ow si xJ ( Six J Ox x Ox Ox J Si/J *xx 

A^al ; 4jU a dialect, 4-0U ; 3-w a JWW, Ay-*w and a~w ; *Ua a 

' x x J OxOxJ Wx J 

9 J Oxx 

Ay-UA, itj^A, and A5JA. 


Rem. a. ^i, mouth, of which the radical is dji or d$i, forms its 
diminutive accordingly, <su^i. 

Rem. 6. A lost first or second radical is not restored, if the 

174 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 282 
A word consists of three letters, exclusive of the feminine 3 j as 

• * 9 /f 9 > i •• X 0^-^ 

^hU (for ^-Ul) people, ^-jy ; jIa (for jjIa, § 240, rem. b) feeble, 
j-}>* ; ^)U» (for *£X5U>) bristling {with vjeapons), >£oyj ; C^« (for 
C^wo, § 242) dead, C-w*j* ; j-*£. (for j->».) good, j*^ Otherwise the 
diminutives would have been J^\, j^t^A, &-i^, ^**r*> and j-Ja*. 
[Words of the form J»frU retain in the diminutive the termination 
— , as u^i$* from ^13 a judge, %i$) from ctj a pastor. D. G.] 

B 282. Those nouns which, after having lost their third radical, 
take a prosthetic elif, reject the elif, and recover their original letter. 

E.g.^*-^ « name, ^f ; O^t a son, ^j^> ; Cwl M# anus, 

Rem. The diminutives of Cs».l sister, C-O daughter, and C^A 

J 0^ ^ 

a thing, are formed like those of ^.t, ^t, and ^La, and distinguished 

in the first two by the fern, termination; <u£.t, <u^», <uiA (see 
C § 281). 

283. Another way of forming diminutives is to fall back upon 
the root. If this consists of three consonants, the diminutive is 

r 0*J 9 0*J 9' 9** J 

J*j& ; if of four, Jam (see § 269, rem. b). E.g. Uu t d u, U^W ; 

9 , C* i 9 < 90 y i , % ' 3 3 * Ot- r. s J 9 8 " 9 * J 

«« C-0.-J $+ tt 9 0s J 9- 'I 9 J J C * J 0^0 9 0,i 

9 0* J 9 o * J 3 " " 3 * " ■» 

j) ^ . M^ i U , u~**5 ; [i^***-«, j^J^a-o]. This sort of diminutive is called 

Od x» J s 

^a^XJI j^JuaJ, the softened or curtailed diminutive. 

284. With regard to this kind of diminutive the following rules 
are to be observed, (a) If a masc. noun ends in S_, this termination 
falls away ; e.g. djj-** (a name), w-->j^-. (b) Fern, nouns in ^— and 

* , , ,0 J ' s  * i ,**0 ' 

It— reject these terminations and take S_ ; as ^-^j^, *"***»- ; *!/■©■»•, 

§ 286] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Diminutives. 175 

J x O Ox J . 

Rem. Very irregular diminutives are : J^.j a man, J**->3j ; A 

OxJ <i d^j x * i" * A J A ' ~ 5 *" 

tjl^O smoke, iJjL-jj} ; «j/w sunset, (Juj-ji* ; ^^^ or <i - a ->»>. c 

x x J 

nightfall, SlLJl*., 3u<LJlz, ,jUic, tj ltLJL g, and j L.*.^t , g ; ,jUJI 
a human being, ^jL-^Jl ; dJU a night, aJ-wJ (compare the plur. 
JU for ^3U) ; tj^Z sons (plur. of <>>1), O^t^ '> 0*&°* (derived 

£ OxOxl'xOxt 5 x t 

from the plur. of J-wol ^e evening), O^***^ J>e*«»i an ^ JW**»« 
Further, jUjj n dinar, j~*>*, and tjt^Jj a register, an account-book, B 
a collection of poems, a public office or bureau, O-i^ij}, as if from 

5 •'u " 0s J 

jU> and ^jtj* (see § 305, II., rem. b) ; p-L*-** brocade, * -**& or 
->. .M.M.Q, as if from ej-by 

(17) Some other Nominal Fwms. 

285. (a) The form &Ui frequently means a small piece of C 

t+» *+* # 5x0 0x0 

anything; as SJJi, iakS, a piece, l^Js a fragment, SjJl». a firebrand, 

0x0 OxO 8 vi 

a live coal, *$>£. a rag, *$j* a sect, a-a»- a portion, ika. a piece of 

X J 

land, an allotment. — (b) The form iU3 is often used to signify a small 
quantity, such as can be contained in a place at once ; as 3-cu5 a 

**» 1 3-*l* * * • * "xOjsxOj 

handful; iL^I, a*a), a« . cl «, a morsel, a mouthful; acj**-, 2*b, a gulp, 

0x0 J 

a sup or sip ; aj^> a draught (of water). It also denotes colour ; as 

«"xOj Ox J Ox Oj Ox J 

S/o* redness, Zjsuo yellowness, 23j) a light blue, 2l&* a blackish D 

5 X 

286. (a) The form JU3 indicates vessels and implements; as 

»»x ^ x Ox Ox r. x 

|Ut, 1^3, a vessel, *->!/»• a &a#, w**^»- a milk-pail, J*ili» a wooden pin, 

fix V x X 

»-x x Ox 

*U~» a water-skin, &SjJ* the thong or s£ra/? #/*a sandal, ^Ua garment, 

x »xx Ox 

jljt, ilfcj, certain garments, ciUJ a coverlet, a pelisse. — (6) The form 

OxJ OxJ OxJ OxJ 

JUi denotes diseases; as^»l*». a fever, j»\£*j a cold, JU-/ a 

176 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§287 

A elj^o a headache, JU*-b, *W^> disease of the spleen (JU*J»), of the 
/^r (juib)* 

287. (a) The form aJUs indicates a post or o$?ce?; as ajU^ the 
post of secretary ( v »7l£>) ; £31^, aj^Jj, the post of governor (J*oU, Jtj); 
SjUl ^ o^c^ q/* l»wr (>**t); as^£. ^ caliphate; ajLJ deputyship 

B (w*5U) ; S^US £/&? postf of general (jull) ; iiljx. ^ post of inspector, 

<i s 0/ /J 

centurion, etc. (^k^). — (b) The form aJUs denotes swc*// portions which 
are broken off or thrown away ; as S,>tjj, 4-otj.S, filings ; ajIjj c^jps, 
shavings; *U^U>, 4.0L0.5, parings; d~»L£», i».U^, 4*1*3, sweepings ; 
ILaLaj brayed or pounded fragments; d>L*£» broken pieces; AtUai 
cuttings ; 4JU»x a fttffe /bod #ctf raz% tn Aaste; SjUc « sw?«// quantity 
C of broth (left in a borrowed pot, when it is returned). Some of these 
words admit of a masculine collective form JUi, indicating a larger 
quantity, as *I^j,^'*5, ^loj, jL*£»,^©l!a»., Jlij, oUs. 

288. The form ailii (the feminine of JUi, § 233) is frequently 
employed to designate («) an instrument or machine, as doing some- 
thing, or by means of which something is done, regularly and constantly ; 
or (b) the place where something is constantly obtained or prepared. 

D E.g. 6*\jJ a vessel or stand for cooling water ; 4.31^. a fire-ship, a 

galley; h^j, Wj*, *->^*, engines of war; aa.\j^ a mattrass or cushion, 

« fishing-net ; aSt^j a s^or£ javelin ; Wjb a spear, a bolt ; 2l£\j&~ a 

* [According to D. H. Muller (Asma'I's Kitab al-Fark, p. 26 se^g.) 
the forms JUi, aJUi and J-j*3 are often used to denote excretions, as 

'J ^J * J r, , , j S xJ 5 x J t *>J <---J 

spittle or phlegm JJLoj, w^> ff^~*> ^W* * J!3> -*l*j (^»^;), ^»U3 ; 
swea^ ^U^ ^wj-o-^v ?*■■$•*> 7-^3*° > bl°od issuing from the nose JUj ; 
excrements 9~%~> ; sperma *}*}*»> ; drippings SjUai. D. G.] 

§290] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Gender. 177 


place where potash is made (by burning the plants called u°j*-) ', A 
ioUa». a ^?/«6^ w^T0 gypsum or plaster \\jtin) is made; *J^£s a 

9 x 5 x > 00 

chalk-pit or quarry (^—o) ; 4^Lo a salt-pan or salt-mine (*-)**) ; 

S;L3 a w^// 0/ bitumen (jlS) ; A~>Lrfc. a jp/ac^ w/^r£ gypsum is found 

or prepared; &-\jj a land tJmt is sown. Hence the tropical application 
of this form to persons, as an intensive (§ 233, rem. c). 

Rem. As <Ulx$ has been transferred from things to persons, as 

- x r x x 

an intensive adjective, so also aJlcli (§ 233, rem. c) ; for ^LdU is B 
a camel that draws water, an irrigating machine, a water-wheel; 
4*Jlw, a water-wheel and the camel that works it ; djjji, a water-skin, 

a camel that carries or draws water; 2uz\}, a call or invitation; 

4j>U, a hindrance, an injury; etc. 

2. The Gender of Nouns. 
289. In respect of gender, Arabic nouns are divisible into three q 

• j x J 

classes ; (a) those which are only masculine {j£sj*c) ; (b) those which 

o 52 j 

are or\\y feminine (%£*»>•) ; (0) those which are both masc. and fern., 
or, as it is usually phrased, of the common gender. 

Rem. a. None of the Semitic languages have what we call the 
neuter gender. 

5 ' at j 
Rem. b. Feminines may be either real or natural (.JLJt». WJ34), 

Ofx ' x x JO x 

as Sl^ot a woman, £30 a she-camel; or unreal, unnatural (j+c- 


^a*a»-), or tropical (^JJjla***), as y»»»£JI ^e smw, Jjlj a shoe or D 

sandal, i^JJi darkness, ^j*** good news. 

290. That a noun is of the fern, gender may be ascertained 
either (a) from its signification, or (b) from its form. 

& * * ->o j He- j 0* 

a. Feminine by signification (^y*<J\ W-J3-0JI) are : — 

(a) All common nouns and proper names which denote females, 

2i l J x # J x Ox 

as j>\ a mother, ^^j* a bride, j^*** an old woman, [>ol*» a female 
w. 23 

178 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 290 

J s * ( J * J J ** 

A servant] ; ^*ij*o Mary, jua Hind, jbtw Su'dd, <^») Zeirieb[\ or that 

are represented as females, as w>ja£ Death, ll£»i ^ $m»], 

(/?) Proper names of countries and towns, because the common 

r-bi ****** * r.**, 0,0, 

nouns u&j\, ***^> i'*£J**, SjJj, and 2->j.S, are feminine*; as 


Egypt, U>L« Mocha. Those names, however, which belong to the 

J * z ' J " *c 

triptote declension, are originally masculine, as j\£A\ Syria, J>!/«Jt 

el- x Irdk, ^y**, Jau^t^, <£>b, *Ji, jaJ* ; but they may also be inflected 

x j " 
B as diptotes, and are then feminine, as ^U, Jkwlj, etc. 

Rem. The names of the quarters or directions, as jsLc\, ^ot jkS, 
tfAe front, \JJdd-, lljj, ^e rear, may also be treated as feminine, 

O s 

following the gender of Ay**.. 

(y) The names of the winds and the different kinds of fire, 

* * 

because the common nouns *-ij, wind, and j6, fire, are feminine ; as 

« -»£ J * - s J • 

J>*3 M6 #as£ wmt?, J3J3 the west wind, JU-* £fo north wind, w>>^*>. 
£^0 som^ wind ; j+a~i,jnp***, blazing fire, [^y».J j£*>, ^iaJ, hell-fire. 

Except j Loft I a dust-storm with whirlwinds, which is masc. 

(8) The names of many parts of the body, especially those that 

0* 0' Of. 

are double ; as ju a hand, J**j a leg or foot, ^s- an eye, ^j$\ an ear, 

&~> a tooth, w fc fe a shoulder, <JL» a shank, ^e^j the womb, Ciwl 
the anus. 

ois 00* oos- 0^ 

D Rem. ^\j the head, 4^5 the face, out the nose, ^i the mouth, 

0' 00' Si - 

jJlo the breast, j^o the bach, [jk». the cheek,] and the names of the 
blood, muscles, sinews, and bones, are masc; as also, in most 

y t ( * + 

instances, ^^j, when it means relationship. \j*jk* is sometimes 
masc. and so Je.] 

* [Some admit also the use of the masculine gender, because the word 


is masc, jJj masc. or fem. See MukaddasI, p. 7, 1. 16 seq. D. G.] 

§ 291] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst <Ss Adj.— Gender. 179 

* 6>0 3 

(c) Collective nouns (f-o-^t xw, resembling the plural), which A 
denote living objects that are destitute of reason, and do not form a 
nomen unitatis ; as J^t camels, *y* a herd of she-camels, J&& sheep 
or goats. 

. . & 0'' *> j Cie- J0s 

b. Feminine by form (^^yaiJJI siJ^oJI) are : — 

(a) Nouns ending in S_; as <Ua» a garden, 2^+XSo darkness, *'«»•, 


or *>*»•, /(#, 

(/?) Nouns ending in ^~ or l_ (elif maksura, § 7, rem. b), when B 

<» * 

that termination does not belong to the root : as {£$£> a claim, a 

, , ,0, ,,l , 

demand, t^j*^ a secret, ^^^ blame, ^j\ misfortune, jj£^»i memory, 

* , x 

^*> the oleander, {£/*> the prominent bone behind the ear, ijy*« goats, 

'0 J so & * * e-s *> o j 

^2+ir* barley-grass, LJjJt the world, b^j a vision or dream, (j£j-*W good 
news, ic**- a fever. 

> v > a z> o 5 o J 

Rem. But those who say ^jM*, \Jj£), ^JD**, and ^o^, regard C 

them as masculine, the ^ being considered as an JjlaJt oUt 

(y) Nouns ending in l\—, when that termination does not belong 
to the root ; as 1\ja~o, 1\j~j, a plain or desert, iS^a harm, mischief, 

- ' Os ~* ** 

ZIasu hatred, ^btolS a jerboa's hole, Aij*£* glory (of God), pride (of 

man) ; £%±- vainglory, arrogance, i\j*~i a sort of striped cloth. 

Rem. A few nouns ending in 5_1 , and those verbal adjectives D 
to which 3.1 is added to intensify their signification (§ 233, rem. c), 

are masc, because they apply to males ; e.g. 4aJI». a successor, 

' ■"•> * 

deputy, or caliph (compare in Italian il podesta), 2u%e- very learned, 
4jjtj a traditionary. 

291. The following is a list of nouns which are feminine, not by 
form or signification, but merely by usage. 

180 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 292 



t^xpjl the earth, the ground, 
the floor. 


jXj a well. 

pp a coat of mail. 


y> a bucket. 


j\* a house. 
^j*-j a mill. 


£-j>j wind. 

J S x 

u-^uJt the sun. 

J x 

%~& a hyarna. 

J x 

[0^£U» idol.] 

J x 

u^3j^ metre. 
La* a staff. 

O x J 

w>Us an eaqle. 

w>ac a scorpion. 
j*s> a caravan, 

\j*\* an axe. 

3 0x0 0* 

u *3*jjd\ Paradise. 

i ot 

j^jait a viper. 

i , 

\j*3*& an adze.] 


^»\£s a cup. 


[v*j^ or u*j^* the maw.] 

a water-wheel, 
a catapult. 

^w^o a razor. 
jO fire. 

<-. Ox 

Jju a shoe or sandal. 


u~aj the soul. 

^y a traveller s destina- 

Rem. Of these 

£l* jb, ^3, £~>j, £~*, 

Ox ^ 

and ^U, are occasionally used as masculine ; whilst ep a 

0, 00, S 

shift, u**^ « collar or pendant, and ^HjJ^i & garden or ^ar&, are 

woman s 

masculine. Those who say .^^-o instead of ^.«/^o, regard the 
word of course as masculine. 

292. Masculine or feminine are :— 

o «*x o£ 

(a) Collective nouns (^^aJI iLo-^1), chiefly denoting animals and 

x x *»x 

plants, which form a nomen unitatis ; e.g. v»U-»- pigeons, |U> s^p or 

xx Oxx OOx Oxx 

gwate, >aj eaft&, >t^». grassJwppers, locusts, Ja*J £>^s; j.a»w £r06#, 

OOx OOx Ox Oxx 

J**J palm-trees, j+3 dates ; [j**-* barley (gen. masc.)] ; w>U»~» clouds, 

Ox Oxx 

O-jJ or C*J bricks, w*Aj gw/e?. These are masc. by form, fern, by 

J x x x Ox 

signification (a^U&JI totality). 

§ 292] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <fc Adj.— Gender. 181 

o x o«> *si£ » /»-« j /»f 

[(b) Collective nouns (f-*»J' iU-*t or J*-*-" d W*t)> denoting A 

<5 J/ 

rational beings and not forming a nomen unitatis ; e.g. >©$£ ora^'* 
people or info?, lubj cfo., jiJ a «»««// number of men (3 — 7), ^0 ra^w 

x 5 » * 

(gen. masc), jo^> a company of merchants, >~&j a company of way- 
farers, etc. But JJbl and Jt one's family, are masc. D. G.] 

(c) The names of the letters of the alphabet, which are more 
usually feminine ; as tJUNjt djjb, or ^*^)t IjJb, £/«s ^/. 

x JO x x x OP 

[(<#) The nomina verbi (masdar). One may say ^Xj^o ^n^ .j t g 

xJO x ox x o£ 

and Mj*a ^Zxe». $ \ your striking caused me pain*. D. G.] 

(e) Words regarded merely as such. These may be masculine, 

Ox 5 x x 

following the gender of lii), or feminine, following that of ioJib or 

«/i m 5 

££J. A noun may also be masculine, taking the gender of ^^\ ; a verb, 


5 *. . . 00 x 

taking that of Jj«i ; and a particle, taking that of o^-. But a 

s x£ 

particle is more usually feminine, following the gender of Sbl. The C 

X X 

verb 0^> *° oe > seems by common consent to be taken as feminine 

) i irf / x J x 5 "^ x x 

(d»oU)l (J^> 4„oiUt O^)- Such mere words are treated like proper 
names, and therefore do not take the article, as IjJb EU or ajjb *U, 
this word *U (water). 

(/) A considerable number of nouns, of which the following are 
those that most frequently occur. 

[Ssl>\ the. armpit (gen. masc.).] 


j\j\ an article of dress. 
Jt the mirage. 

Ox x 

jJ^j a human being, human 

ijJbj the belly (gen. masc). D 

5 x 

[j-ju camtf/ (gen. masc.).] 


jt^l the thumb or ^raȣ toe 
(gen. fern.). 


l^jo a breast (mamma). 

* [This seems to be the explanation of O^ being used as a fern. 

J Si * \ 

noun, Hamdsa 78, vs. 1, O^-oJt djjb this cry my, Comp. Lane. D. G.] 

182 Part Second.— Etymology 
£.L». « wmgr (gen. masc). 


JU- state, condition (gen. fern.). 
OjJla. a booth, a shop. 

< - 

[JUa. a phantom. \ 

o <oi 

v^;l a Aar# (gen. fern.). 

' J 

O^.* « shop. 
B [ftlji cwfoY (gen. fern.).] 
V>^ a large bucket. 


£-3j spirit, soul [when signi- 
fying a celestial being always 

[{3^j <*> street or lane.] 

00 * 

jJj the upper of the two pieces 
C of wood, used in producing 

fire (gen. masc). 

o - 

\Jix~> a path, a road. 

* J 
<Sj~> journeying by night. 

0-a^> a knife (gen. masc). 


p-*^~> a weapon, weapons. 

< 6 J 

I) ,jUaiw [prop, authority, hence] 
power, a sovereign. 
j**~t peace. 

90 j 

^o^w a ladder. 

IU-w the sky or heaven, the 
clouds, rain. 


Ij3~> a wall (gen. masc).] 
t3>w « market. 

or the Parts of Speech. [§ 292 


£*°\ • //?^r (gen. fern.). 

<» tj»o a way, a road (via strata). 


?-*-o peace. 


p\*o a measure for corn, etc. 
ij*^ the forenoon. 


[cr*i^ a tooth.] 

5 V * 

cL.b nature, natural disposi- 
tion [gen. fern.]. 
0>jJ» a road. 

J s 

j^fr the hinder part, the rump 
[gen. fern.]. 

^hj^ a wedding, a marriage. 

- - 

J~~£ /toney. 

[j^c- ambergris.] 


00 J 

JUs the neck. 
■> y Sis> a spider (gen. fern.), 
i^ji a horse [gen. fern.]. 


[ j^s a $frw0 ybr bruising per- 

o o m 

jjS a pot, a kettle (gen. fern.). 
US the nape of the neck. 
w**l3 a well. 


^h^S a bow (gen. fern.). 


juf» the liver. 


9 0^ 

clj^ M0 fo'to or shin-bone. 
LJ ftfo tongue. 

9 0' 

JJ M# fitgrAt (gen. masc). 
ffl^l; (gen. masc). 

§ 294] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Fern, of Adj. 183 

^j3la an intestine (gen. masc). A 


*~l* sa^ (gen. fern.). 

[*zXLc dominion.] 
[j^jdfc the right direction.] 

Rem. a. Jjj the bone (either radius or ulna) of the fore-arm, 
%\+~t a roof or ceiling, and usually ^*jS> a wedding -feast, are mas- 
culine. B 

Rem. b. The above list, and that contained in § 291, cannot lay 
claim either to absolute completeness or to perfect accuracy, since 
the usage of the language has varied considerably at different periods. 

« y 9 " ' 

For example, in later times ^i, the mouth, and s-^ja, a boat or 

9 J ' s 

ship, are used as feminine ; whilst juac, the upper arm., \ j £&>, the 

9 ' CO 

shoulder, [^j£s, the maw,] and jJj , a well, become masculine. The 
masculine gender too preponderates in later times over the feminine 

9 * 9 ' 

in words which were anciently of both genders, as jU fire, jui» the 
liver. C 

293. From most adjectives and some substantives of the mascu- 
line gender, feminines are formed by adding the terminations 3_, ^— , 
or CC (§ 290, b). 

9 x 

Rem. Only 3_ is appended to the masculine without farther 

affecting the form of the word ; ^— and jti have forms distinct 
from the masculine, which must be learned by practice. 

294. The most usual termination, by the mere addition of which 

to the masculine feminines are formed, is 3_; u^m great, *+Jk* ; j) 

9 ^ 9 x • 9^0^ 9^x0^ 9 .- #> 9 • x 

«*-ji glad, 2^i ; <jl©ju repentant, *»'*jJ ; w>ilo striking, i-jjLo ; 

9 J - 9^J0^3" mi x 

w>jj~cu© struck, aj^jJxa ; j^. ^ grandfather, 3 j^ a grandmother ; 
^Xs (for ^^3) a young man, SUd (for a^3) a yotmg woman. 

[Rem. a. The hemza of the termination »t of nouns derived 
from verbs tertise $ or ^ may be replaced, before 3, by the radical 

letter, as S^l^w from ^l-o-w, ajUL» from *Uuw, a water-carrier, but the 

184 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 295 

* * ' * *>» 

A forms with hemza, as SAJLj, te\j£, are preferable ; comp. Kamil, 
p. 87, 1. 10—15, and below § 299, rem. c, § 301, rem. e.] 

Rem. b. o_ is a compromise in orthography between the original 

* " * 

O— , at, the old pausal form d_ , ah, and the modern d_, a, in which 
last the o is silent (see the footnote to p. 7 supra). This view is 
confirmed by the comparison of the other Semitic languages; see 
Comp. Gr. 133—137. 

B 295. Feminines in (^— are formed : — 

3 > * 

(a) From adjectives of the form 0^**> the feminine of which 

* * 3*0* * * 3*0* * * 3*0* 

is ^jk** ; as oW"*^ angry, ^j~a£ ; o!/*-* drunk, {£j£~> ; O***** sated, 

*0* 3 *0 * *0 * 3*0*3*0* *0 * (-0* 

^j*** ; o^ hungry, ^Jiji- ; ^UUa*, £)^+^> thirsty, ^^as-, i^WJ* ; 

3 i*0 * iO * 3 * * * * 

&*%ofidl, ^J*%c; O^A±- timid, fearing, I gCA . 

3 *0i 

(b) From adjectives of the form J^t, when they have the 
superlative signification, and are defined by the article or by a fol- 

n . . . . . . " ° J 3* o io* 

yj lowing genitive, in which case the feminine is ^** ; as y£s!^\ the 

"0 30* 3* oio* * it * 3 * Oi 0* 

largest, \^£j^\ ; jsuc^S the smallest, ^£jJuaA\ ; jjtety\ the greatest, 

* O 30* 3 30* * 3 

^ yoJAaU i ; ^j^oJt i£}*sb the largest of the cities. 

0*0* 0*03 

Rem. a. Adjectives of the forms jj*^** an( ^ O*^** form their 

* 0*0* 0**0*0*03 

feminine by adding S_ ; as O^**' ta ^ an d slender, &UL*w ; O^j* 

5/ *0 3 

naked, do\jj£. 

3W(-0* 3 Of-Q* 3*S-f-0* 

D Rem. b. The feminine of Jj^l (for J2j^)t or Jjt^t) the first, 

* io* 3 * " 3 * if- * i 

is iJy^S ; that of j±.\ (forjjktl) other, another, ijj/^t. The latter 
word can be used indefinitely, because it is superlative only in 

o * £ * o 

form, not in signification. The numeral jt»»t, one, has ^j^t. 


Rem. c. There are some feminine adjectives of the form ^Xa5, 


not superlatives, without any corresponding masculines; as .-Jt 

*0 3 Zt 3 

female, feminine, i*JL»- pregnant, .-jj which has recently yeaned (of 
a ewe or she-goat). 

§297] II The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Fern, of Adj. 185 

296. Feminines in £t— are formed from adjectives of the form A 
JajI, which have not the comparative and superlative signification ; 

J x £ *sb x J x £ r<0 s J x £ 

as yua\ yellow, tSyuo ; j^j*-1 °f Posing aspect, i\j*<*»- ; * r >J^\ hump- 
bached, ibj^.. Many of these adjectives are not in actual use in the 

* x O x */» / 

masculine ; as p"}UaA heavy and continuous (rain), i\^~*** beautiful, 

i\£s^t> rough to the feel (a new dress), *bjjdt w^aH the Arabs of pure 
race. i 

Rem. The form 2*}JL»i sometimes serves as feminine to &%**, " 

i x x *»x x J /0 x x0 x 

e -&- O^**^ 3°yf u ^ »*W*h 5 O!/**" perplexed, amazed, ^£j-t^ an d 

297. All adjectives have not a separate form for the feminine. 
The following forms are of both genders. 

° -» " . . • " 

(a) Jj**, when it has the meaning of J^li (transitive or intran- 
sitive), and is attached to a substantive in the singular, or serves 
as predicate to a substantive or a pronoun in the singular; as C 

OJxxOJxOjx J x x J x OCx 

j^£wj j5~e J**.j a patient and grateful man, jy&j jj*o Z\j*c\ a 

J x O J x | J x OCx 

patient and grateful woman; w>J*^ Jj*.^ a lying man, *->_$*& Sl^et 

£ J x » x x 2 J x xJOCx 

a JyiVfcj woman ; \jy~e wJl£» s^0 was patient ; \jy**e ^rt)j I saw that 

J x Ox x x 

s^0 was, or / thought her, patient ; [w>>^ ojsj a full grown antelope]. 

J x 

But if no substantive or pronoun be expressed, Jj>*3 makes a feminine 

Ox Jx ... .. . Ojdx :Tx J x .» Ogx 

aJj*5, and also if it has the meaning of Jjaa* ; as S»*«o w^tj /saw 

Ox J x xx Ox J x xx Ox XX Jx x 

a patient (woman) ; 2j>U. ^ aJ>o^- ^3 *W^^; ** ^ he has not a D 
she-camel to ride, nor one to carry loads, nor one for milking, where 

Ox J x 'x J x Ox J x Ox J x t Ox J x Ox x 

db^£>j and 5->>^»- ^4j^»j-« and aj^Jo*^, whilst &>*»- = JjLLet*. . 

2 j x 
Rem. a. Exceptions are rare ; as }j& hostile, an enemy, fern. 

■8 J x < OxO*> x J x x 

Sjjifc ; [and again, C-wjJt .-3 w>j-^- ^ ^Aere is no milch-ewe in the 

X ^^ X 

xx Ox x 

ten*, as we read in the tradition of Umm Ma 'bad, >t»^a aSU or 

O Jx Oxx OJxOx 

yt>2*~b a3U and J^>«fc. Stw a sAorw sAeep. D. G.] 
w. 24 

186 Pakt Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 297 

A [Rem. b. Hence the fern, nouns >yt.o an acclivity, $$^=> a 

mountain-road difficult of ascent, j^J^o- and l^-Jfe a declivity. D. G.J 

« x p O JJ/ 

(b) J**s, when it has the meaning of Jy***, and under the 

->x G ' * 

same conditions as J>ai ; e.g. J*o*^» ,j-*£ a» ^ adorned with kohl, 

x Oex x xx 

9->j>e*. d\j*t>\ a wounded woman, J-^5 oUi a murdered woman; but 

W J X 0/« XX X J t^/ 

ajjjj^JI iLjs C-otj / saw (the woman) whom the HarRris had 

j x j x i i 

murdered; **~> ^-j^' d *x* $w zs (a sheep) which has been (partly) 

x x 

B eaten by a beast of prey. If J~*s has the meaning of ^U (transitive 
or intransitive), it forms a feminine in 3— ; as ^^-oJ « helper, Zj~a-> ; 

Ox x x <"• • * + + % * 

2-J& an intercessor, Zj uslZ ; oLag temperate, chaste, aa^ac ; t/ojj* 


Rem. Exceptions in either case are rare. For example : dJLai 

x x i OxjOxOxxOxOx 

3 ju^». a praiseworthy way of acting, = 5^^=>. .o ; d-*~o aJjo^. a 

~ # x J x x Ox x 

blameworthy habit, = iLo^Jco ; and, on the other hand, jlj <aa. <Ua>JU 

x J 0«» x 5 x t .<« x x x W 

a new wrapper, C >x r u>a»- J1 ,j^ w^j-5 aDI 4^»-j ^>J ver% GW's 
mercy is nigh unto them who do well. 

0x6 0x0 « 

(c) J*a*, J U JLd, and J**a*, which were originally nomina 
instrumenti (§ 228), but afterwards became intensive adjectives 

Jx Ox 

(§ 233, rem. 6), under the same conditions as J>** and J~*i ; e.g. 

._ 0x0 '£x 6 ( x «; x 

II ^ . tt JLo St^cl aw obstinate, self-willed woman; <jUju» isU a docile 

0x0 Ox x 'xx 

she-camel; jlkfc* ajjU*., or j-Ja.** *oW>> <* young woman who uses 

2x x J OCx 

?rawcA perfume; but SjUajt* c^jlj / saw (a woman) who uses much 


Rem. Exceptions are rare ; as ^yJL^c poor, 0^**° speaking 

Ox Ox x 0£x 

£/te 2ri^A, fern. fa^C. », 4jli*^ [; but (t ^, <1 .C>».< Sl^ot is allowed. D. G.] 

§299] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj.— The Numbers. 187 
[(d) Those adjectives that are properly infinitives (§ 230, rem. c A 

.. 9 3 9 0* O J J 9s, 00^*' 96* 

and Vol. n. § 136, a) e.g. jy>, *->*>*>-, v~*>-> u~o, J**** ^, *r^> 

M / 60/ s * ' J 

yj am *,j&3 and some others as jU., JLac etc. D. G.] 

Rem. Adjectives which are, by their signification, applicable 
to females only, do not form a feminine in 5_1 , when they designate 
an action or state as natural and permanent, or, at any rate, as 

lasting for a certain period of time (<&j\j Zlslg) ; as ^J-ol*. pregnant, 

O ^ - 0*0' # 9 m* s 9 ' 

♦iU, barren, w-.tlib, jJbl), having swelling breasts, ^aui*., w^olk, B 

O x J «- 

^U, j-ojto, [^^Lw« 'Ibn Hisam 15, last 1. R. S.] menstruating, 

' r, , 9 s 

JkJlk divorced, JJ»U without ornaments, j-wl»- witfA £/&e ^eao? awe? 

OOJ^ Obi J 

bust naked, p-*&j*o giving suck, ^Zo bearing twins, Jako having a 
c/uW or a young one with her, ^jjuL© having a fawn with her, js*-c 
having a whelp with her, [^jLa». chaste, Olu *ta*^i u~^ unmarried 

and of middle age] and likewise jj-^t^o JJpa^, ^J-a**. But if they 
designate the said action or state as beginning, actually in progress, C 
or about to begin (£ol». dsuo), they form a feminine in 3_; as 
^oaJI i-tful». ^A she is menstruating to-day ; I ji£ iiUUs .-A sAe will 
6e divorced to-morrow ;jX^i £Lcl». JXJ every woman who is pregnant 

* *0i d s * J & J i , 0s , ,0 ** s * 

lias her time or term; CUa-ojl U.c AJtoj-o J^ JaJJ VjfcP^^I °^ 
£/&e day when ye shall see it, every woman who is suckling (in the act 
of giving suck) shall become heedless of that which she has been 
suckling. J) 

3. The Numbers of Nouns. 

298. Nouns have, like verbs, three numbers, the singular, dual, 
and plural (see § 81). 

299. The dual is formed by adding <jl— to the singular (omitting, 
of course, the ten win) ; as w>L^ a book, oW^* 5 ^>j a fawn, O^j or 

188 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 299 

A Rem. a. If the singular ends in SI , 3 is changed into O (see 

§ 294, rem.) ; as <Lc\ a nation, ^j\Zc). But <Ut a buttock, and rt^ ^ rn i. 

sbl ' , J 

a testicle, usually make ^>vJt and ^UciA*. 

Rem. b. If the singular ends in a quiescent ^ {\J>— or l£—)' 
which was originally ^ mobile (compare § 167, a, fi, a), it becomes 

so again in the dual ; as ^J3 a youth, for ,-XS, oW^ 5 15*:; a m Hl-> 
OW*-j l L5**" interdicted ground, ^L^». ; >**>ja a butt for shooting, 

B OW > l£>** CT legal opinion, O^J^ J l^*" P re 9 nan t, OW*^ 1 

jj^l^- a bustard, oWjW»- From j***- the form ^jl^*. is said to 

occur. If the singular ends in a quiescent I (\1 or t_l), which was 
originally $ mobile (compare § 167, a, ft, a), the j is restored ill the 

dual ; as Lac a staff, for $*a£, jjt^-ot ; US the nape of the neck, 

\j\5sid. — If the singular of a quadriliteral noun ends in a quiescent 

^£, which was originally a 3, the j is not restored in the dual, but 

Q becomes ^ mobile, as j*v^* a musical instrument (from l^J for >yJ), 

xx a x o£ x x x x s s v£ 3 x -» 

OW^* ; ^^ct purblind (from j^^c for 3^), <jW* c ' 5 ^•©~~« 

00 J x 3 x J 16 3 

named (from^wt for^^w), < jl. >0 .,»>.« ; ^^ rendered contented (from 

xxxxxxOJ x x 

^,-3j for 3-oj), oW"^*- A solitary exception seems to be ^Ij^Jl* 
$7*e upper parts of the two buttocks, the singular of which, if used, 
would be \j}j Jco . 

Rem. c. The hemza of the termination 2 1_ , denoting the femi- 

«x x © x 

J) nine (§ 296), becomes 3 ; as £la*Jaj a wiefe water-course or bottom, 

X X x r*' x x x x w*s b x x x X r*' X 

tjljU*Jsu> ; i\j^~a a desert, jjljt^^o ; i\j^»- red, jjtjl/*^- ; t\j&«o 

x x x *" x <*x x x x x 

yellow, \j\}\jjua. Forms like ^jtzl/*.*., ^j\i\j*~a, and even ^jbl^a^o, 
x x x x 

are, however, said by some to be admissible. — In the termination 

*T_, when sprung from a radical $ or ^, the hemza may either be 
retained or changed into 3, though the former is preferable; as 

«L»£> a dress (for jdJb), ^j\A~£s or ^tjl*^£» ; %\^ a mantle (for 
k£\>j)- £}W*J or Oh^J Some, however, admit the forms oWUl 

§ 299] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— The Dual. 189 

and jjbL*£3 (comp. § 294, rem. a). In the case of a JjlaJ^t Sj^jb A 
(see § 259), the better course is to change it into $ ; as ^ULfc, 

x xO ^, *'0 x x* *s0 

tjljLU or ^teLU. ; ?yj*>, £)h^J^ or O^Wj^-- If the hemza of 

f x ^5j £x x 

£l_ be radical, it cannot be changed into j ; as *\j3 (from j^.5), 

~-*3 ^ 5j £ j x c2i 

jjUt^5 ; ?loj (fromj-oj), (jteloj. — In words of five or more letters, 

~ ' xx x 

the rejection of the terminations ^ and * admissible; as .Jj>». 

,,o x to, 

a sluggish mode of walking, Cj*$j5&- ; {Jj*Jj having a hairy face, 

x Ox t x xx t x sO xx *»x x 

jjljjuj ; {JjZ*-+$ a big, stout camel, ^\jZsu$ ; ^U-elS a jerboa's hole, B 

t " ' " ' " ° J x x J _ xxx x 

^btoll ; fliJUii a black beetle, jjLJUi. ; instead of oMj>»»> 

xxOx xxxOxx x x x x x ^0 3 

jjbjjoj, C^jZsuS, jjt^btolS, and ^jljjL^A^,. 

Rem. d. If a ^ has been elided in the singular after a kesra 
and before a damma with ten win (see § 167, b, /?), it is restored in 

* x x x x x x x 

the dual; as^otj, for ^*\j, oW*L> 5 u«fl>> f° r ^^j OW-^b J ««A 

x x x ' * 

for ^a^w, ,jLa*,w (compare § 166, a). — In like manner, an elided j C 
is restored in the dual of some words ; as w>l, »£.!, ^». (for y>\, *».t, 
>^)> Ol>A Ol**-* (rarely 0^)> O ! >o*-. C*' and^t (for .Ui 

X X X X X ^^ 

«»J x» x 5^0 /A //» 

and ^o-») have ^wl, tjl*~>l ; ^-w or **f1 makes <J^ or O^'- 

x x x x x x x x x x * x 

Ox «x Ox xx xx xx xxx xxx 

^,v©.>, and^i, have ,j1jlj, 0^>> an ^ 0^» rarely cAn^> 0^*0> 

xxx xxx x x x x x 

Ol**-*, still more rarely <Jls^ an d OW- j-»- makes o!>*- ; O-** 

XX xxx 

,jUa or O'y^- 

X X 

Rem. e. If the third radical has been elided before 3 in the D 
singular, it is not restored ; as 2u\, for ly*\, <jliit ; a£), for i^k), 

//J 0x 0x0 xx x x x x xxx Oxx x 6 x 

^jl^*3 ; a3, for 4*3, <jL3 ; aaw, for i^Aw, ,jUaw ; Aiw, for 4^w, 

xxx ^O^x Oxxx xxx 

^juLj ; ^Ua, for o^A, ^jUua. 

Rem. /. The dual is commonly employed in Arabic to signify 
two individuals of a class, as O^^J t,wo nwn, or a pair of anything, 


as (JjUfrXa-, or ^Lai*, a pair of scissors. When two objects are 

190 Part Second. — Etymology or tlie Parts of Speech. [§ 299 

A constantly associated, in virtue either of natural connection or 
opposition, a dual may be formed from one of them, which shall 
designate both, and the preference given to the one over the other 


is termed w^JLxj, the making it prevail over the other. For example : 

- *i <h i * - i 

\j\}A father and mother, from w>! father ; ^jI^a-I brother and sister, 

Of s - ^ *x 3 s sbs 

from »-t brother; ^jI^oaJI £Ae sww erne? moon, from j-oJUl £/<€ moon; 

* sb' J 0*6* £ * bs 

yj[9jJi^i\ the east and west, from Jjj*L©JI the east; [jjU>l^*J! Basra 
B and Kufa ; ^)U5^Jt Rakka and Rafika ; ^\3\jsA\ the Euphrates and 

s s * 0* 3 * * bs 

Tigris* ;] ^U.»>a^Jl el-Hasan and el-Hosein, from ^...^ ,M tl-Hasan 

(the elder son of 'All); (Jlh**^ ''Omar 'ibn el-Hattab and 'Abu 

3 " J 
Bekr, fromj-^c 'Omar. Compare in Sanskrit pitarau, "father and 

mother," bhratarau, "brother and sister," rodasi, "heaven and 

earth," ahanl, " day and night," usasau, " morning and evening," 

Mitra, " Mitra and Varuna," etc. 

[Rem. g. The Arabs like to designate two different objects by 
the dual of an adjective used as a substantive and denoting a 


quality that the two have in common, as \jlis^i*j\ the two coolest 
(of things) for morning and evening ; jUs^l the two best ones for 

* * b ibs 

eating and coitus ; ^\j*^ty\ the two red ones for meat and wine; 

* * bib* * *bib* , , b, 

£)\>y>*$\ dates and water ; ^La-u^l milk and water ; ^tjujiaJl or 

Ci ' i by s * b i b* 

^tjw*.*^)l the two new ones for the night and the day ; ^j\jJua^)\ the 

' ' -U ' <' • * ' 

heart and the tongue; ^U^jjiJl the two eyes ; ^U*£.*^l urine and 

D dung or sleeplessness and disquietude of mind ; &\jJ\j)\ the Tigris 

and Euphrates. D. G.] 

Rem. h. The dual is sometimes formed from broken plurals 

(§ 300, b), or from £^ajf ill\ (§ 290, a, e), to designate two 

bodies or troops (O^U-»- or O^h*) °^ ^ ne objects in question. 

«» * * + 

E.g. &*%>\ two herds of camels (^)*>\), <jl»o*i£ two flocks of sheep or 

* [The dual of place-names in poetry sometimes means only the 
two sides of the town; see Schol. on 'Ibn Hisam, p. 121, 1. 16. R. S.] 

§ 300] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst & Adj.— The Plural 191 

9// x x Ox 

goats (^t>), O^^o-**- tw0 herds of he-camels (from JUj*., pi- of A 

x x x x Ox x 

J*©**.), \jl».UJ two herds of milch-camels (from 9-UJ, pi. of 4&*JtJ) ; 


JJLjJj JJUU ^Uj ^>^j between the (collected) spears of (the tribes 

Ox O Oj x ->2<«x 

of) Malik and Nahsal (from p-U;, pi. of <^) ; t ^>o^t we 
fundamental principles of theology (^yjjJ\ J>-ot) <md o/* ?w 

x» j j | OJC £ . 

(aaaJI J>-^l), from J>ot, pi. of J-©l a rootf; [comp. in Hebrew 

D^nbh]. b 

3 O x O 5 x J 

Rem. i. Proper names of the class ^^j-* w*^=>« (§ 264) vary 

in their mode of forming the dual. If the first part of the com- 
pound be indeclinable and the second declinable, the latter takes 

x J x Ox xx Ox 

the termination ^jt_; as w^£»^£jjto, ^jbj^^j***. But if both 


parts be indeclinable, as in du^****, — or, when taken together, form 

5 x x 5px 

a proposition, as in \j£ JsuU, — recourse must be had to a periphrasis 

J Oxx x x 5 x x ££x XX 

with j3 possessor of; as <ju^**~> l^i, \j£> hu\j tji, too men called C 
Sibaweih or Ta'abbata §arran. If the first part be in the status 

xx xO X 

constructus, it is simply put in the dual, as i^iU* Ijl*c two men 

x x J x Ox xx £ ' Ox jg 

called i^J U* jue '.4fo2 Menaf juj \^\ two men called joj ^j\ 'Abu 

Ox il *5 x Oy3l-OjO 

Zeid, j-ojJI U^l (too men called j-jJjJt ^JjI 'Tom* 'z-Zubeir. But in 

o £ oo 

the case of compounds with w>t, 0-}\> etc., it is allowable to put the 

x Ox xx£ 

second part in the dual likewise, as ^juj U^L 

300. There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic. D 

» J x Ox 

(a) The one, which has only a single form, is called ^^j»JI 

J 5^» J £ xJ0*> J x x 

^,.o>. ^J t, or 9-*~ A+n a^j»JI, £fo sow?w? or perfect plural (pluralis 

J £ >o J x Ox x x £ *> jOx 

sanus), and ^JLJI f -o^J', or <u^LJ! * *a., ftfa complete or entire 

plural, because all the vowels and consonants of the singular are 
retained in it. 

J 5 x J>/» J x Ox 

(6) The other, which has various forms, is called j~X«Jt * «^ ft, 

192 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 301 

o a & j o *■ 
A orj-j-JiJI *-©*., the broken plural (pluralis fractus), because it is more 

or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of con- 
sonants, or the change of vowels. 

301. The pluralis sanus of masculine nouns is formed by adding 
the termination \J3— to the singular ; as Jj;L> a thief, £jijW The 


pluralis sanus of feminine nouns, which end in S_, is formed by 

Ox Ox 9/ / 9 / / 

changing S_ into Ot_, as a5)L>, oISjLj ; of those which do not 

Ox f x M J xO x 5 //» / 

B' end in S_, by adding Ol_ to the sing., as^j-* Mary, oU-jj-o. 

Rem. a. If the singular ends in elif maksura, with or without 
ten win (^£— or i<— ), — or in kesra with ten win (_), arising out of 
^_ (§ 167, b, /?), — or in a quiescent ^ preceded by kesra (^— ), 
arising out of ^— , — then the rules laid down in § 166, b, a and /3, 

t x J xx J 

and § 167, a, /?, c, are to be observed. E.g. .JLkucu*, for .Jua^u 

x x x J x J x x J 

(§ 245), chosen, ^J^^^aue, for ^^fe&Jbwdu*, and in the oblique cases 

x xx .» x x x J X J X X J X J X J x 

C ^^jiJautfuo, for ^^ JL k u tfU ; ^*»>^o Moses, Oy^y* ^ or 03t^3-° 5 U*^S 

Ox x J x x J x 

for ^.olS, « judge, £)yc\S, for <J|$*olS, and in the oblique cases 

XX X X X0X Jx0X X J X 0X 

v ^ol3, for jJ-ja-oIS; ^UJt, for ^£la*JI, ^e barefooted, ^j^iU^Jt, 

Xj XX X0J 'i x x > J x i2 x 

for ^^-jJU^Jt ; ^-l.> cw pregnant, oULj>.; ^a.^JI £Ae smallest, 

J x x £ x xxJ # xx x J 

OL>^.«.cJt ; ^U~> a quail, OtJt^w. 

Rem. J. The gezma of the middle radical in feminine substan- 

0x x0x x0 J X0J 

tives of the forms ^J*9 and dJlai, ^Jas and dJlsi, Jji? and £JU$, 

I) derived from roots which are not mediae radicalis geminatae or 
mediae $ vel ^, passes in forming the plural into a vowel, which 
may either be the same as that of the first syllable, or in all cases 

x QxxxS0P x x£ 

fetha. Kg. J&-* Da'd, Ot*xc,> ; s^jS the earth, the ground, Olojt 

J x ^ x Oxxx x x 0x0 x OxxxSxxx 

(nlV)X) ; a^ '-4Mb, O^JLt ; aauai, A.i»., a e&sA, ObuaS, OUa**. ; 

Ox0x g xxx Ox x Oxxx 

4jj3 a village, Ob^i ; 03 j£ a coming in the morning, Otjj^ ; 

00 ^ Oxx 0-* 0x0 Oxx Ox 

jUA Hind, Ol jUA or OtjUA ; ly—A a fragment, £Aj*& or Ot 

0x0 Oxx Ox J J / OxJJ 

Sjjurf ZAe lotus-tree, Oljju* or Oljju* ; J****. ™, O^Loa. 


§301] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <& Adj. — Pluralis Sanus. 193 

9 j£ + » t + fi 5 /JJ x x J x* .» 

sl*y*&o*. ; <LqX& darkness, *Z>[+JJo or Ol*JU* ; 43j&> an upper chamber, A 

si J xx J J x * J 

Oli^ft or Oli>£. In the forms J*d and aAas, the gezma may also 

Ox* x * J <5 x * J - x t/ 

be retained, as Otj~£», OUJlb, [Oli^] ; but in dJUi this can 

x - x x <*x 

be done only by poetic license, as OLo$j from JLcJj looseness or 

x Sx x "x 

slackness (of the joints), Ot^Jj from Zj3j a sigh. Names of men of 

J/»/ Oxxx J x *x Oxxx 

the form ilai have likewise C/}L*£, as 4aJlb Talha, OUJLb ; 

J/» / Oxxx 0* J Ojj 

5j^»- Hamza, Olj-^».. The word ^^ft or ^^fc, a wedding or 

x-> J x 

marriage, has OLj^. — In SAai, if the third radical be ^, the form B 

x ## Ox* 0x# x ^ 

0*}l»i is not admissible, as Sjj$ a summit, Ot^ji or Otjji (but not 

Ox Ox Ox* 

Otjji). A rare exception is Otjj^». from Sjj**. a whelp. [If the 



third radical be ^, the form 0*}Hxs is likewise disapproved. One 

Ox* Ox* Ox 

may say OUa*J, as Oj^«**», but not oUaJ, instead of which one 

x X * J 

uses j^jatoJ. R. S.] — In iUi, if the third radical be ^, the form 


xJJ ^ Ox* J 0x*J xxj 

0>*i is inadmissible, as 2u3j a charm, £Jl£» a kidney, OU5j, C 

xx J x _>J x .» J 

OUl£» (but not OUSj, OlJl£»). — If the middle radical be 3 or ^, 

f ## 0x*x 0x*x 

the gezma of these three forms is retained ; as tjy*. a nut, Otj^*. ; 

x * x QsOsGsa* 0x*x9x*x 

<Lojj a garden, Otojj ; a-cuj aw ea^, a helmet, Olcuo; A**ft a fault, 

Q *0 * G s 0x0 § Ox Ox Ox* 

OLc ; *+-i> (for *-o-!i) a lasting, still rain, OloJ) ; £s-o (for 4jco) 

Ox 9x J Ox* J 

a church, OlxJ ; dUj> (for 5Jj>) a turn of fortune, a vicissitude, 
0*9^. The vowel fetha is, however, admitted dialectically *, 

x*x Oxxx xxx xx Oxx 

especially in the form aX*5, as Otj^., OUj, Ol^>>, ObuJ, D 


OxxJ < x * x ^ r 

O^y — Substantives of the forms ilsi, derived from verbs med. 

OSx fix 9 5 x 

rad. gemin. always retain the gezma; as Sji a mote, Olj3 ; Sjlw 

8 x d £ 

a charge or attack, Ot Jw ; oj^c a certain number, a few, <Z>\j&; 

X X 

M j • fl j 

5^> a navel, Ot^-w. The same is the case with all adjectives, as 

Oxdx g x * x Oxxx S'*** » x * x « x * 

<L »sL-o />?'//, Ol.Q.t* .o (not Ol^aL .0) ; dAy~> easy, O^IL^ ; rta> Ac /a2 

* [Yiz. in the dialect of Hudeil, according to Zamahsari, Faik, 
i. 43. D. G.] 

w. 25 

194 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 302 

. 9 * 6 9 * 6 3 9 - e> 3 r, , a, 

A and strong, Ola.Jlc- ; S^JL»- sweet, Ot^^*.. Exceptions are, <bu^ of 

* * * * 0'* o * o * 

middle stature, CAsuj or Obuj, and 4*aJ having little milk (of 

9 * ** 

a sheep or goat), OUaJ. 

Rem. c. If 3 and ^, as third radicals, reject their fetha in the 
fem. singular, and become quiescent before 3, passing into t (§ 214, 
and § 7, rem. c and d), they are restored in the plural along with 

9 \ * 9 * * 9** * % * *■ * ° t'~ 

the vowel. E.g. S^Xo or 3*>Lo, prayer (for S^Lo), Oty«o ; 3U5, 
B or, cane, spear, tube (for 3^;$), Otj^S ; 3Ui, a young woman (for 

«xxx «»** • *6 J 9* ,$ j o * *6 3 

A*Ii), OLX9 ; olcj«c, thrown (for ^u^o), OU^« (compare § 167, a, 
(3, a, with § 166, a). 

Rem. c?. If the third radical has been elided in the sing, before 
3_I , it may be restored in the plural or not, according to usage. 

9 * 0x0 5/ i 9 * * 9 * * 

E.g. 2Js£> (for 5j*o£ or Sl^az) a thorny tree, Ot^-Afr and Oly-Afc ; 

9** Oxfix 9*6* 9 - x x 9 xxx 2^" 5" ° " 

2u~j (for Syw or A^w) a ?/ear, Ot^-w and Olyiw ; £a^> (for d^Aw 

~ 9*6* 9 * * * 9 * * * 9 *i 9 * *£ 

u or SjAw) a lip, OlyAw or Ot$Aw ; A*l (for Sj^t) a female slave, 

9 * *£ Ox? ** ' 9*** t 9 xxx 9 * * 9* J 

Ol^-ot or OUI ; Sua (for 3^;*), a thing, Ot^-iA or OUa ; ^UB 

8/tj x J 9*3 9*6* 

(for S^J») £Ae point of a weapon, OLb ; SjJ (for 3«^j) «w armlet, 

9 * 3 * 3 9* J 9 * 3 * * 9*0 

a ring, Ot^j ; 2uj (for 3^*j) a troop or 6awc?, OUj ; 3& (for 4*3) 

O x 9* 9*6 9 * 9* 9*0 

the gum, OU) ; &5j (for <L5j) a lung, Ol5« ; ZLo (for 4~U) a hundred, 
* * * * * x 

9 * 6 9*6 9*** 9 ** 9 6% 

OU*. — C-*o or <3UjI (for 4^), a daughter, makes C>Uj ; and C*£.t 

9 * *£ t 9 * *£ 

(for S^&J), a sister, OtjA»t. 

*< x »» x 

D Rem. e. The hemza in the terminations 2t_ and gl_ is subject 

to the same rules in the plural as in the dual (§ 299, rem. c). 

i** 6 * r* H * f**6 * r* * * 9**6* 9 * Si * 

Hence from l\jA~a, l\£s*, AijJ. t\~*~>, are formed Otjl^a^o, Otjt^j, 

9 * *6 * 9 * I * 9 * * * 

Ot^Ld^j, Ol^^o-* or OtjU-rf. — Words of five or more letters 
sometimes reject the terminations ^ and *l— (see § 299, rem. c) ; 

* * J 9 ** * J 9 * ' 3 *> ' * 9 * * 

as ^U»., Ob^La- or OtjU^ J ^l*ol5 a jerboa's hole, Obuols. 

302. The pluralis sanus masc. is formed from : — 

(a) Proper names of men (excepting those which end in S_, as 

§302] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Substti Adj.— Plur. San. Masc. 195 
AaJ-b), their diminutives, and the diminutives of common nouns A 

J I J * J sO J 90s J 

which denote rational beings; as t>«oJk 'Othman, O^U^s ; Ju*fc 

90s * jOs J 9 * J m J * 

'Obeid (dimin. of jus ( Abd), 03>*#i* I J***J (dimin. of J**g a man), 

'JOsjOOsJ 9 * * J , j 

^j^Lfe^j ; jJv^Z (dimin. of j^ti) an inferior poet, OJJ^&y*' 

9 * 

(b) Verbal adjectives which form their fern, by adding 5— . 

(c) Adjectives of the form J»»it, which have the comparative and 

3 j t j * i j ^ i 

superlative signification. [The corroboratives of J^» viz. £-*»»t, £^t> 
etc. have also the plur. san. masc, though by their fern. sing. A***., B 

f ' s 

lLauL£», etc. they might seem to belong rather to the class of 

adjectives exemplified by j**o\, etc. § 296. For the plur. fern, see 
§ 304, II. 2, rem. D. G.] 


(d) The relative adjectives in ^ — 

O 9 *■ o 9* ' 

(e) The words &\ (for ^o) a son,^\& one of the four classes 

9 6* • Ot 3 ' 

of created beings, ±jbj\ the earth, Jjbt ones family, jjt the goose, 

jj the possessor (of a thing) ; which make 0>^> 0>>oJ^, Oy°j\ C 

(rarely O>*^;0> 0>^> 03j3\ and OJJ* (used only in the construct 

state jjj, see § 340, rem. c)*. 

Rem. a. Adjectives, however, have the plur. sanus masc. only 
when joined to substantives denoting rational beings. 

Rem. b. Plurales fracti are also formed from substantives and 
adjectives that have the plur. sanus masc, but more especially from 
adjectives when used substantively. J) 

Rem. c. To the words enumerated under (e) may be added 
\JyJ&, the highest heavens, and ^)jl or j)\ (construct form of 

* In a poem of en-Nabiga (Ahlw. App. 13, vs. 5) we find o>*^ 

o Zj 

from «.*?, and in the commentary on the Diw. of Hudeil, p. 120, 

* * J 9 » 

last 1. £)yJb^ from o^j. We ought to mention also the expressions 

< s lOiO ib J + *iO>o d , Or* * wi OtO , < 

196 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 302 

- J l 
A 0>b'> w ^h the first syllable short, see § 340, rem. c), possessors, 

which have no singular; as also the numerals denoting the tens, 
from 20 up to 90 (§ 323). Further, JL». a privy, <J}L*. ; ^JA 

x J x O x J x JP 

a thing, \Jy^ ', j^ vulva, OlJ^ > an( ^ the rarer forms \Jy>\, 

, it o i s i 

Oj^> from w>l and «U. 

Rem. d. Some fern, nouns in S_l , especially those of which the 
third radical (j, ^, d) has been elided, have a plur. sanus masc, 

x Od x 

the termination o_ disappearing entirely ; as Zj&. a stony, volcanic 

x 4 x x i x£ x 

B district, si)3J^ ( an d, very irregularly, OjJ^) 5 ***^ a thorny tree, 
£)yc& \ *jj a lung, £)£j J 3j£» a ball, a sphere, 03J^ > *^* a stick 

used by children at play, ^j^k* [cas. obliq. J>^5] ; 41w a ?/ear, 
^ j j x 

Oj-^- From the oblique case of this last word, viz. j>~L*>, arises a 

secondary formation ^>*iw, [like &+Lc § 325, rem. a. Comp. also 
ii. § 108]. 

Rem. e. In proper names of the class 1*0-)** w«ss>j»o (§ 264), 

C the formation of the plural is analogous to that of the dual (§ 299, 

rem. h). Thus w>j£jjui«©, in which the second member only is 

x 3 x x x x 9 x ' &' 

declinable, makes £)$tj£-i ****© ; but <su^*w and \jjj isuD, which are 

« x x ** a x x ££x jx 

wholly indeclinable, form <u^^w jj3 and \jjj hu\j $£, men called 

j 0. 

Sibaweih and Tdabbata sarran. Construct compounds, like 

x x x it 0s& 10 j x x J x Ox fsr* 

otu, juj $>\, and j*4j)\ O^t, form ol.U ^J^, J^J »W^> an d 
j-ojJt H-^t, men called l Abd Menaf 'Abie Zeid, and 'Ibnu 'z-Zubeir ; 


D but in the case of compounds with w>t, ^t, etc., it is also allowable 


to say ,j-|juj £bt and the like. — It may be added that compounds 

with ^\, when they are the names, not of persons, but of animals 

5 XX 

or other objects (see § 191, rem. b, 6), take the feminine plural C>Uj 

5/0 J »»x J 6 

(from OUj or &ut) ; e.g. ^*j^ ^1 « weasel, %\* ^jj\ a water-fowl, 
jjlau ^t any one of the stars in the tail of the Great Bear, 


^ytj£- OUj, etc. 

§303] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <& Adj.— Plur. San. Fern. 197 

[Rem. f. If a word in the status constructus is put in the plural, A 
the following genitive of possession may be put also in the plural, 

o * bio j o 33 0>a j * o£ o * o*a 3 * o£ o , o*> j $ 

as *<*aJI duJj pi. P>*aJI dlwt or % .*sjjl oL£t ; wJUJI Jas, 

3 3b'0 J *0i 'O-O J *0£ x 3s, 33 3 , o£ 

wJ^UJt JUit or w*UJt JU*t ; jujJt w**.Lp, j>jJt w)U^ol or 

*0*O J x i x 3 t>*o 3 x Ox , 3 b/O xx ,0*3 3 , 

j^jjJ\ w>U-ot; a-juo^t 4AJ has j^Jt ^JU ; JUM c-^j, 

x o £ O/o 3 33 

Jl^Jt C^o j etc. D. G.] 

303. The pluralis sanus fern, is formed from : — B 

(a) Proper names of women, and such names of men as end in 

^x 3 xOx t 9 xxtfx 00 ( xx 3* * 9 Wx 

5..; as w*^j Zeiridb, OL-UJ ; juA Hind, OljUA ; Sj^ 'J.z2a, Otj* ; 

J x 0" 9 x xx 

iaJJa Talka (a man's name), OUJLli (§ 301, rem. b). 

Rem. According to some grammarians the plur. sanus fern. 

x 6^/ 

may be formed from any word ending in 3_; as +&» a gazelle, 

xxx ©x x ^ 9 ' ' ' 9 ' vi * x i x 

OLJa ; duj.9 a village, Obji ; <Lc^Xe- a very learned man, oL©*}Lfc. 

(b) Feminine adjectives, the masculine gender of which has the C 
pluralis sanus. 

(c) Feminine nouns in ^~ and l\— ; as ^+»- pregnant, 

s 9 xx r*St x 9 x Z x 

^£^3 memory, Obj£^ ; l\j«a distress, Oljlj-o (§ 301, rem. e) ; 

x x J xx x J 

^Ufc. a bustard, ObjL*.. 

(<#) The names of the letters, which are usually feminine (§ 292, b) ; 

9 £ # # 5 x £ « x 

as oUt «?& |^/J oUJt ; ^o-j^ #w m, » 

(e) The names of the months ; as j*j •* » » M fife Moharram, j) 

9 x»3 * 3 3 * <' x x xx 5 5 x / 9 x w x 

OUp^c ; O^*-*) Ramadan, OUUa^o, ; Jt^w Sauwal, O^t^w. 

(/) The feminine nomina verbi (§ 196), and all nomina verbi of 

9 tf x 9x0x5x0 

the derived forms (§ 202) ; as *Jj>j*3 a definition, oUjjju ; pUail 

5 x x 5 x _ 5 x x 

a feof, ; »-*}Uxot a technical term, oW^LLot. 

S ^ x x xx 

Rem. The nomina verbi of the second and fourth forms, when 

r ' * " 
used in a concrete sense, admit also of a pluralis fractus; as uL^-cu, 

198 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 303 

9 c-s J ' ' i - ' 

A o^b, a literary composition, a book, uLoLeJ, c-aJI^j (compare 

9 %<• J ' x J - - 

§ 136) j f~ijti a date, an era, a chronicle, -m^l^j ; p-^jW* distresses, 
difficulties; j*wlo annunciations, prognostics; w-j^Uj wonders, 
marvels; oU-jt a /afoe rumour, ou».tjl ; jlwt a ckm or series 
q/* authorities, jtJlwt. 

B (#) Substantives of foreign origin, even when they denote persons ; 
as Jbtj-* ff» awning, a tent, OtS^l^-w ; i jLL~ijl+. ir j a 

OUU^U^o ; (jlj^U* a jet deau, a fountain, OUtj^U> ; Ul aw ^4##, 

o * *£: s * 9 s * s * oi 9 s ol o ' * al 

Otj£l ; U>b a Pasha, Otj^b ; IXwt (for jU*»>l) a teacher, Ot^Iwt. 

(A) Many masc. substantives, which have no plur. fractus ; and 

O * 

some fern, nouns, which have not a fern, termination ; as J * *** ** a 

9*0' 9 d *■ 9 * d * 9 s * 

stout camel, C/^ t» .. .■> ; ji U^ a warm bath, oU L ^a. ; ^l q» an 

'. . 9 ' ' s 9 S , * 

C inanimate or inorganic thing, ObU^. j ol***- « living thing, an 
animal, oUtj*». ; jUc landed property, Oljlit ; (j^^U aw #y0w£ 
or occurrence (lit. ^j^- U w^a£ happened or occurred), Ob^.U ; 

OOP § *• Op 9 * si 

Jjbl ones family or relations, O^Jbt or C^aI, which some, however, 

Ox Op 

derive (according to § 301, rem. 6) from iUt ; j*£ a caravan of loaded 

9 ' 9 < ' f" * 9 s < * 

camels, Ol^ or Otj^c ; ^U~/ £^e s% or heavens, Otjl©~> (though this 

oi 9 ,,t 

word is also masc.) ; ^aj\ the earth or ground, Olojt (see § 301, 

9 J ' * 9 * J * * 90 J 9 J J 

D rem. b) ; j y ^U a waterwheel, Ob^a*^o ; ^j^ or ^jt a wedding 

9 , J J * ,6t 

or marriage, Olw^. From 0+*->)\ a collection of forty traditions is 

9 < "Oi 

formed oUjujt. 

(i) Verbal adjectives, which are used in the plural as substantives; 
asOU>l^ entities (from ^>>v£b being) ; Obj.^.^ beings (from >>**->« 

OxJOx J 6 x 9 *Zi s i 

found, existing) ; OlS^AsL-a creatures (from J^U^ created) ; £>WJ*aa 

9 a , j 
literary compositions, works (from ui * ,«gv ,c arranged, classified) ; 

§304] II. The Noun. k. Nouns Subst. and Adj.— Plur. Fr actus. 199 

* u> s J uJ ^ J 

bound books, volumes (from jJLn>-4 covered with skin, A 

(i) All diminutives, except those specified in § 302, a ; as J-*»- 
a hillock, 0*}L**r*. ; w**^* « &'£#& fotf£, OLJS. 

304. The more common forms of the plur. fractus of substantives 
and adjectives, which are derived from triliteral roots, and in none of 

J ' a T> 

which (excepting J**t) does any letter precede the first radical, are B 
twenty-nine in number. The following is a list of these forms, with 
the principal corresponding singulars, and examples. 

Plur. Fract. 


L J*5. 

5/JJ 9 * J 9 * J 0' J 9 ' J Hj 

1. ilas ; as <Haj a present, UU » J ; i^j a knee, w-£>j ; <>£ 
^ white spot, or &&&&? (Germ. Bldsse), on a horse's forehead, 

j,^ ; 4*1 a nation, ^a\ ; i*3 [a leather tent,] a dome, w*J> ; 

5x J 6 ' J 9' J s J 6 ' J 

h$*° a form, jya ; *jj& a district (Gr. x^P a )> J3^ 5 ^JJ^ « V 
fire-brand, i^j** (for ^J^- or >**., § 213) ; all£> « kidney, 

t J 9 ' J 9 * OJ 9 *J 

^Aib (for ^5^) ; [**-v^ courageous, j^\. 

2. j^^U*, fern, of J*$l as a superlative (§ 234 and § 295, b) ; as 
{Jj+>J\ tlw largest, j*£)\ ; <j>**aJt fyfe smallest, jJuaJt ; L5 . Ja»..)t 

jx j«x x lo* jS£o* j/(«/ 

»te greatest, ^^IsuUt ; ^j^t ^0 y^stf (fern, of Jy^t), Jy^t ; 
LUJt M<? highest, ^jlx)\. 

Rem. Similarly (J^t o^er, another (fern, of j^t, see D 
§ 295, rem. b), j±\, without tenwin. 

3. SlLxJ (especially from verba mediae rad. j), 4Jl*5, rare ; as 

5/»/ 9,3 9,6, 9 x J 

a)j> a tan& o/ fortune, a dynasty, Jj* ; Su^j a turn, w>jJ ; 
Zjj3 a village, <j?Ji (for ^j.3, § 213) ; <L*J a foard, ^ali 

9,39,0 JSJ 9,3 

(for j^aJ) ; AjjX». a trinket, ^^. (for ,^»-). 

200 Part Second— -Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

9 3 

II. J***. Sing. 


1. J-*it, not comparative and superlative (§§ 232 and 235) ; 

j * bi o o j j * o£ o o j & <£ 

as j**»-\ red, j**. ; w>**-*-' humpbacked, w>jla. ; ^©-ot <&«/, 
^o ; cAsrft tfliwfe, c*a-o (for u^f) ', 3>-»l 6/ac&, ,>j~> (for >^-») ; 

^ *£ o o j 

^■O^l WSfWJ, ^-O^. 

*" s 3 s tit 

2. l%x*, fern, of J*it, not comparative and superlative (§ 296) ; 

Bt*s *- 3 * s * 9 6 3 

as £jjio yellow, jJua ; lU^ fawe, «*-j^ ; etc. [Accordingly 

ptjuj a efawrt has J^.l 

Rem. i\x+*., i\*Z£>, iU-oJ, and i[x2j (fem. of *«*».l, etc., 

& 3 3 s 3 3 s 3 J x 3 J /J 

corroboratives of J£» a#), make *»*<»», A*-^^ ^-^J, *£*, 

without tenwin [§ 309, a, 8], all together. [Comp. § 302, c, 
and vol. ii. § 137 and rem. c] 

9s* 9* 9*3 9 * s 

3. JUi, JUi, JUi, derived from verba med. rad. j ; as Ol$* 

SJ 6ftJ 9s* 

C a middle-aged married woman, &$£■ (for Oj^) J jl$-> ft»fd| 

,, 9 3 9* 9 3 

retiring (of a woman), J3J ; ,jt^j M0 joo/e #/ a tent, ^j^j ; 

9 * 9 3 9 * 3 9 3 9 *£ 

sj\^ a table, a plate, O^ I jty* a bracelet, jy*> ; jljl heat, 

9 I 9 J J 

j$\. [They may be contractions from original J*i, as e.g. 

9 * i t 9 3 9 3 3 

j)\f~t a tooth-stick, has certainly both £$~t and £yi. R S.] 

4. J^fcli, derived from verba med. rad. j ; as JuU having newly 

9 3 90 3 \ " ' r 5 ' 

had young, b^e (for ij*) ; 1*5 U [and JjU. farrow,] not bearing 

939 93 
j) young for some years, J*j* [or Isufc, J>»-]. [Also in some other 

90 3 9 * 90 3 9 * 

cases, as 0j3 from oj[* and Jj^ from Jju. They may, however, 
be contractions from ej* and jjJ (comp. III. 5, rem.). D. G.] 
[Rem. 4dU a she-camel has Jjy.J 

in. Jtf. 

9** r *9*3 

1. JUi, JUi, JUi, not derived either from verba mediae rad. 

§ 304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 201 
Plur. Fract, A 

T 9J * 

III. JjtS continued. Sing. 

9 " 

geminatse or verba tertiae rad. j et ^j ; as *-b> a large bowl or 

9 3 3 9 ' 

f>J 5 J I**-* «M fMcifc, J*** ; JL~» a mimosa tree, J**~> ; 

9 ' 9 3 3 9 ' 91 » 9 * 

,jUa». a stallion, \j*o»- ; &\$-~i a tooth-stick, ^)y»> ; jt*_£ 

91 3 9 ' 3 % t f i i | /J 

Saturday, j-*w ; p|^» *& shinbone of an animal, tj£* ; jtji 
a tick, }j.$. -t) 

Rem. Exceptions are -*.La*»&. 2Ae 6on<? over tfAe eye, 

9 j j 9 <- 9 j j 9 jI 'Oi 

; jjUft a rein, £y&. [A rare case is s^ot from ,JL>! 

female, as though it were formed from ^>Ut.] 

9 '9s '91' 

2. J***, &**£, J>*s, not derived from verba tertiae rad. 3 et ^ ; 

9 ' 9 3 3 9s 9339' 

as w*-^ 5 a #W# or ra/, w~o£ ; w~J£» a sandhill, w^j ; ^^ 

93 3 9'' t 9 3 3 9 ' ' 

a seat, throne, bier, jj~* ; £ ; Ju > a s^jo, ^>i^ ; a-ijjt* « c^fy, C 

9 3 3 9' ' 93393' 933 

fjj^c ; SJua^o a leaf or page, J U ^ i ; j^s a pillar, ju*c ; 

j ^ j j 

J>w; a message, a messenger, J*w>. 

9 ' 9 3 ' 

3. J**i, J>**, verbal adjectives not having a passive signification, 

and not derived from verba tertiae rad. j et ^ ; as jj Ju one 

9 3 3 9 3' 933 93' 

who warns, jjJ ; j±~e patient, j^o ; J^i ^0^/0, [ a dromedary,'] 

933 9 3' 93 3 9 3s 9 JJ 

JJ5 ; j yet. jealous, j+e> ; u&f+J laying many eggs, u°*>- 

9b ^ 9 ' ' 9' ' ' 9 ' 9 3' 9b' 933 90' 

4. J*$, J*3, iUi, J*3, Jas, rare ; as w, 4 a. » > a 7-00/*, uU L* ; Ja^w D 

9 3 3 9 'Z 9 J I 

a thin, white piece of cloth, J*+~> ; juJ a lion, juJ ; ^Ui a 

93 3 9 f ' 9 3 3 9 ' ' ' 

sphere, the heavens, ^Xi ; v>jj an idol, ,jjj ; ajj*> a victim 

9 3 3 9''' 933 9 ' ' i 

for sacrifice, qj*> ; *f& ± a piece of wood, w ■*■>*»» • a*a.I a brake 

J 2 *• Ojj 9 ' 9 J J 

or thicket, ^^»-t ; j-o^ a leopard, j^J ; ,>£». rough, O^^ \ 

9 3' 933 

%++b a hywna, %~o. 
w. 26 

202 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

J J 

III. J** continued. Sing. 

X X % J » f 

5. Jifcti, rare ; as j**& a merchant, jaJ ; JjU a full-grown 


camel, JjJ. 

O O J 

Rem. The form v Jj*i is admissible in all these cases*, 
unless the word comes from a radical mediae geminatae; e.g. 


* y >2 r» , w^a5, J—j, jwt, [j-4^, jUfe,] j*£ (for j+%), ^^auJ (for 

O 0J-,  J 6 

B cAs^, instead of which u°y! i s sometimes used), ^^j full- 

O OJ x xx 

grown she-camels (for w~J), from w>U (for w~o). Forms like 

% 5-> x J Si J 

JuJJ pleasant, JJ, w>b3 ^e common fly, wo, are rare. Some- 
times the darama of words med. rad. gemin. is changed into 

x Ox J x J J x J 

fetha, as j-ij~>, jj~* ', ju **». »tew, ^*xa. or :>j^- 

IV. Jul. 

C 1. il*9; as A*Ja.5 a £M0tf, * JaS ; dL»£ft. a maxim, j&*-', £«J 

« foc£ o/* tar, ^o^J ; *^^ f»#w 2f walking, manner of living, 

Ox Ox 2 ^ 

character, j+~» ; S^J aw example or pattern, ^^\ (for t^t) ; 
a^l> a building, j*^ ; [»>&j a &r$0, l£) or i«&}]. 

Gs * Gs s* OxOx Ox OxOx Ox 

2. &U$, aX*5, rare ; as <Ug*> a to£, ^o-j»- ; fo *^ « farm, %~6 ; 

Ox dx g ^ Q , Gs * r, , 

Sjj*> a skin for milk, jj*> ; i*-oA a shower of rain, ^~*Jk ; 

Ox x # OxOxx Ox 05x Ox 

j) 3,13 a time,j*3 ; 4*15 a fathom, ^o*3 ; [&tf a flock of sheep, JAj]. 

V. JUi. 

oox < oooej o«x 

1. Ja9 (not primse or secundae rad. \£), Jjtf, Jjii ; asj^*-> a sea, 

* J J 
* [Again, ojlw Persian curved bows (TabarT, i. 957, 1. 1) is said to 

»»x 6 x J 

be the plural of ilijw. R. S. It may be a poetical license for Jju. 

J J J 

For, as a rule, just as the form J^jus may be changed into J^-«-3 

6* /" x 6 x x x 9»J OJJ 

( u eu^Ci\ wJbjc* ^Xfr), so Jjti may be replaced by yj**.] 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 203 

Plur. Fract. A 

V. J Us continued. Sing. 

9 * «x 9 * 0* 

jla^j ; wJtjj a piece of cloth, a dress, oLj ; ^J» a gazelle, 

f, • • 9*90 9*9 

lM» ; £-j£ an arrow, *-t*x3 ; ^y a wolf, w*tfi ; ~-jj a wind, 
9-\jj ; JJ* # s^aefe, a shadow, J^U» ; ^o, <z sp^arr, ^Uj ; 

<5x Ox <5x a 9* i 0x0 

2. <LUi, £U£ (rare), aX*s ; as 4*-aS # dish, pt«i ; <>* cm occasion, B 

Ox 9 x Ox Ox 9*0 * Ox 

a foW, jtj-» ; iojj ^ garden, u^^ij \ * * # & a farm, p{~6 ; 

0x0 O - 9 /JJ 

4^ jU a milch-camel, *-UJ ; 5*5; a scrap of cloth or paper, 

9 * 9 * J 9 * 9* J 

a note, f\$j ; a*aj a low-lying, level district, cUj ; &J a 

o£^o t -* 

Rem. Stj-«t, a woman, has a plural of this form, j?L»J. 


3. J**, iUi, not derived from verba medise rad. geminatse or @ 

9 * * 9 * 9 * * 

tertise rad. 3 et ^ ; as ^J*** a hill, JL». ; J^»- a he-camel, 

9 * *'£' ° £ 9*** t 9 * A 9 * * 

JIoa. ; duij the neck, w>^) 5 b^ a f ru it> jU-» ; O-*^ fern. 
9 * * * 9 * 

iw>., handsome, o^~*-- 

J x 9 J x • <• J x § * OJx 

4. J*3 ; as J«*) a man, JU-j ; **~> a beast of prey, cU ; *.*-£ 

9 " 
a hywna, *W-£. 

90/ Ox Ox . # 9 x # Ox 

5. J*i, fern. iUi, verbal adjectives ; as v*o difficult, w>U*© ; D 

0»x Ox 9 J Ox 

w>Jls «m^, w>IJ^ ; s^J^o hard, w»^ c> - 

oxj ° { j ° r 5 ' J 

6. ; as v*~> A* 8 * r VP e dates, v^rj 5 £0 an early born 

x x J Ox 

camel's colt, cbj ; «.aA a late born camel's colt, cLa. 

xOJ *0l 9 * 

7. L5 J*J, not fern, superlatives ; as ^^1 female, ^Ut ; 


a hermaphrodite, *1>L».. 

204 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 

A Plur. Fract. 

V. JUs continued. Sing. 

9 s s $/ / »/ ># 9 s b s 

8. 0*^**> f em - &*$***, verbal adjectives ; as C)lcjJ repentant, 

9 s 9 s J .- 9 s 

9. O 1 ^*^^ ^ eni - i^^-*-** verbal adjectives ; as ^LuJauc thirsty, 

9 s J s s 9 s J Si s 2/ t 

^nlkft ; ^jUo£ angry, w>La£ ; oW> £ H> satisfied with 
10. J- * -«- * , fern. iLai, verbal adjectives, not having a passive 

9 s 9 s 9 s 9 s 

signification ; as j+*£* large, old, jU£» ; ^*£j£*, ^*ij£>> noble, 

9 s 9 s 9 , %, 9 s 9 s 

j*\>£*, ^J\j-Zt ; sjAij-A sick, u«!/*o ; [w i ^g. o feeble, ^Jbto] ; 

9 s 9 s 9 s 9 s 9 s 9 ut s 

Jj^b long, Jl^b (rarely jy») ; j*~$ base, js\% ; ju»- (for 

9 s 9 s 90s 9 vt s 9 s 9 s 

ju^».) good, ^W»- 5 j**> (for j«£>, j-h^) #00<^, jL^. 

C Rem. From words tertise rad. j et ^ this form is rarely 

used ; as ^su pure, % Ia3. An example of the passive signi- 

9 x O s 

fication is ^J-Moi a weanling, JUai. 

9 s t 9 s 9 s 

11. J«^Lj, verbal adjectives; as ^^-^ a companion, w>U^o ; 

9s 9 s 9 s 9 s 9 ~s 

yaJo a merchant, j^J ; JjbU drinking, thirsty, Jlyj ; ^15 
standing, j^Ls ; ^jU sleeping, j*Lj ; c\j (for ^tj) a shepherd, 

9 s 9 s s 

[Rem. a. Rare cases are >l « n» from }\y-e*. a courser ; 

9 s r* s s 9 s 

£-Usuj from i\ -*■ k ; tfAe channel of a torrent ; oLa^fr from 

■»*'**. " s s 9 s 9 s rs s J 

UU^fr l fern. IV aa> ,c £eaw; jU»s and ^Ui from l\j~Ljb and 

[Rem. 6. The plural JUi is said to occur in a few words 
(see Hariri, Dorrat, ed. Thorb. 97 seq. and Hafagi's comm. 

§ 304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 205 

Plur. Fract. A 

V. JU* continued. Sing. 

9 - 3 5 3 

141 seq.) as b\~~j from Jx~»j a she-camel with her own calf, 

 #~J 3 - , 5 - J 

gUj from ^*Lj a sAeep or <?oa£ in the second year, Jfa*j from 

5 9 ' 9 'J 90' ~ - 3 

Jui.j or Jl*-; a ewe lamb, Jl^j from Jjj mean, fLcj from 

- *»- J 9 * 

c,\j a shepherd, gUo from j^-jLo a Sabian (see the Gloss, to 
Tabari). Some say that it is another form for J bid, others g 

- JO 

that it is really a collective (a^.^*!). D. G.] 

vi. JA 

90^ 50 90J 9 0^ 9 J J 90' 9 JJ 

1. Jjji, J*5, Jas ; as j^*j a sea, jys^j ; u-^i i/fo soul, ^yu ; 

50 - # 9 J J 90 

J^ a middle-aged man, Jy^ ; cHj-* # molar tooth or 

5 J J SO ( 5 J J 90 3 

grinder, ^»^j^ ; J^. a Mtn, j>U. ; ju*. # military force, q 

9 3 3 903 9 33 90' 9 3 3 9 

*3-^ ; >jj a robe, jjjj ; c£*»- an army, u*>*»- ; *>*»• the neck, 

9 3 3 9 0' Si J 933 90' 3 J 

>3-j»- ; ^+& a gazelle, ^£ (for j^x-k) ; 3J3 a bucket, J^j (for 

5 jj ... 3 3 

l£^>) j an ^> Dv assimilation of the vowels, ^M, ^J> (comp. 

§ 215). 

5 0- 

Rem. a. From words med. rad. 3 of the forms Jj*i and 

50 m 9 0' 9 3 3 90' 

{ Ja9 this plural is rare ; e. g. «j.ji a troop, r^^yi ; Jy^ a year, 
933 9 i 3 50- 5 j 3 

Jj>*" ( or Jj>^)- cH>3 a ^ ow; > usually makes ^~.3 or ^^3, J) 

5 0- 

as if from y~$. 

Rem. b. In words med. rad. ^£ the vowel of the first 
syllable is sometimes assimilated to the second radical, as 

0- 5JJ 5J 5 0- 

C-wO a house, O^j or O5-0 ; ^*w an old man, a chief, a doc- 

9 3 3 9 3 50- 5JJ 0J 

tor, f»5+wi or f-y**; 0*£ tt71 e 2/ e > 0>^ or 0>*^ (comp. § 269, 
rem. c). 

9-- 9 - 5 -£ # 5 Jfr 5 -- 5 JJ 5 - 

2. Ja3, J*9 ; as *xwt a lion, *y~>\ ; w>ju a scar, w>J*^ ; ju& 

206 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

VI. J3** continued. Sing. 

£fc fcwr, .>>*=> ; J^j a mountain-goat, J>c$ ; ^JUU a #m<7, 

9 J J 6 s xx o J J * x 

J^X* ; w>U (for w~o) « canine tooth, w>*H 5 ^^ a «&*#, 

I * • > j 2 ox 

^^-At (for ^3-ac), or by assimilation ^^-oc ; j>* blood (for 

#^ oxx 3 -» 2 

^.0, 3-0), ^.o or ^j. 

9 * * 
B Rem. From words med. rad. 3 of the form J-a-i this 

9 x 9 x x .* J 

plural is rare; as JJU (for Jiyw) a stem or trunk, J>3j~> (or 



Ox Ox J' '? Ox Ox 

3. £UJ, iUi, rare ; as SjJlj a sto /or ?m7&, a j9wrs# of money, 

9 J J OxO OJx 0x0 J 3 J 

j^jo ; <ua». a period of time, *->>**■ ; *4j±. a M#, V3xH** i 

Owij OJJOxxx J J xx 

aa». a casket, Jj>*». ; J Ubtft a %? or summit, wiytw ; 5t^> 
Q aw inkhorn, ^53 or ^j3. 


•4. J^U, verbal adjectives, not mediae rad. gemin. or med. rad. 3 

O^x OJJCxOx ojj 

vel ^ ; as ^5)3 standing, O3S3 ; t^JU., jcclS, sitting, u**>U-> 

OJJOx # J J x 5 -» 

33*3 ; jjblw a witness, ^y^» ; OU proud, wicked, ^* (for 

jx s . S j 5 

{£$&) or ^^ ; «i)b weeping, ^yL> or ^iu. 

OJJ 0x00 

[Rem. Rare cases are £3X0 from «.JU> («JLo) a W6; 

-»i Ox £ 9 J J Ox 

D -^JJ* * rom J*£ \J*J) a stone set U P i ^3J^ ^ rom **-*<P» elegant.] 

— X X 

vii. J3. 


1. ^b, verbal adjectives, not derived from verba tertise rad. 3 et 
^ (with rare exceptions) ; as j^-L» prostrating oneself, 

Ox t t 9 d J 9 <xx 5 J 

j-«u» conversing at night, j-©~> ; j*>v sleeping, j*y and 
jtg^o fasting, j>yo and j^e ; JjU> pregnant, J^Z and J*£ 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.— Plur.Fractus. 207 
Plur. Fract. A 

9 Si J 

VII. Jj«i continued. Sing. 

Ox i 9 3 J 9 ■* 65 J 5^^ 

[^tfula. menstruating, u^u*- ; JiJLb repudiated, JUJ»] ; w*- Six 

9 5 j -» 5i 9 fi J Swj 

absent, **+*£■ ; jU a soldier, (jy£ (for ^jx or jj£, § 213). 

2. iUU, fern, of the preceding ; as AaJU mourning, 9-y>. 

Rem. a. The substitution of &m* for damm is allowable 
9 a j 
in the first syllable of { Ja9 from verba med. ^ et ^. in which B 

case the j must be changed into ^ ; as Ujk for U^*, 0>£., 
from oi5U» fearing ; ^^a, from^lo fasting ; etc. 

[Rem. b. Anomalous is Jjx from K Jj£>\ having no weapon.] 


9 x 

Jxli, verbal adjectives, not derived from verba tertise rad. j et ^ 

9 *• 9 fl J 

[or med. gem.] (with rare exceptions) ; as^»^»- ajudge,js[£*~ ; 

9>» 9 fi# 9 * 9 «l J- - 9  x 

*ju a follower, cLi ; «Jlo aw artisan, cUo ; j-*L^ aw C 

d J 9 x 9 5 J 9 #».» 

unbeliever, ^U^ ; JaU. ignorant, J *-*-»- ; ^U a deputy, 
v'>> > -i"3 sleeping, js\y ; jU a soldier, %\}b- ; <jU. aw offender, 

fd j St x o 5 j 

fU». ; [jlo avoiding, .>lju©]*. 

IX. aiiJ. 

9 x 

1. J.xLj, verbal adjectives, denoting rational beings, and not 

9 x 

derived from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^ ; as J^U a workman, D 
*£** ; j^^ «^ unbeliever, SjiJa ; JUli» perfect, 3 i ^ ; 
^u» a conjuror, 5p*w ; ^ b jwows, dutiful, SjjJ ; *5lb obedient, 
djztie (for **>&) ; j5U s^'wa, icb (for &**). 

* [ J^ defeated, fugitives, properly pi. of Jli, is by usage pi. of 
ji. R.S.] 

208 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

9 x xx 

IX. iUi continued. Sing. 

9 x 

Rem. J^U from verba med. j sometimes remains uncon- 

• *» * Ox x x Oxx 

tracted in the plural; as jjU*. acting wrongly, Sj^** or Sjl*.; 

\j*" x x x 9 x x °t"" f "" ' 

*ibl». a weaver, <k£s^ or 3s»l»- ; 0->l»- treacherous, du^*- or 

Ox x 
-p » < Ox Oxx x Ox x X x 3 « 

±> [2. J~*$ rare, as £* » $*» &oo*, ££*». ; i-4*«.o feeble, ZJuca ; ^.w 

Oxx 0»)x Ox x 

generous, l\j~* ; jlw a dttig^ S.>L».] 


O x 

J^ti, verbal adjectives, denoting rational beings, and derived 
from verba tertiae rad. ^ et ^ ; as jU « soldier, $]}£• (for 

Ox x J ^ 9 x J Ox x J x 

SjJ^) ; yo 13 ^ judge, SLaS (for a~a$) ; jl^ a reciter, rehearser, 

CO x J x x .» x x J 

or traditionary, Stjj (for ajj^) ; oW* a sinner, 3U». (for 

6 xx J x x J 

«*«*.) ; cLj a manager, olxw. [And so in the dialect of Hijaz 

Jxix i xxfix 

SL<cJ| (Sabians) for jj^Jlcdt, a nickname given to the first 
Muslims. R S.] 

xj x 

[Rem. An exception is StjJ from jO a ybZcon.] 

D XL £&. 

1. J*9, not derived from verba tertiae rad. 3 et ^j ; as i^S 

Gxx J Oxx OOJ 

aw earring, £k>ji ; *»jj a £«S0 or casket, As*j> ; Q *r> s a 

Oxx Sx Oxx 9 J Oxx SOJ 

branch, fU c v fc ; wO a foar, i^^ ; j>^ a /figf, Sj^^ ; yX« 

Oxx 0«J # Oxx 

a rugged place, &J«o ; ^^j a shield, <L*jJ. 

9 0' 9 ^ * x 

2. Ja3, JaJ, with the same restriction, rare ; as j^j an ox, 

Oxx 9* *■ 9 6 * Oxx x 

tjy> or Sjaj ; .* jj a husband or ^2/0, 4*»^j ; -**w aw o/d 

§ 304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 209 
Plur. Fract. A 

XL iUi continued. Sing. 

9 x x 90 x 9x x 5 x g „ ,. 

waw, ia^w ; >j^ a £n#e, hj£ ; JJ>j ag#, /a#, flaccid, aJUsj • 

90 9xx 1 ' - S 9, , Cj,, o 

j>>3 aw ape, Oji ; Jai, jA a tom-cat, &kk3, Sjjjb ; ^L> a cocjfc, 
**^ p cM ow& elephant, &L». 


XII. aJU*. B 

9 Ox °*i 6 " 9 x «? x 

1. J*i ; as jjj a bull, S^J j «^w aw old man, £s>> .»■£>. 


2. J*i ; as jJj a cMc?, SjJj ; ^U. (for j>«») a neighbour, 5^». ; 
cl3 few J ground, ajuS ; It (for 'yLX) a brother, 3^*. J ; ^ 

9 xx 9x0 

(for j^) a #e>w£A, AjjXi. # 

9xx 9xJ «xx 9x0 9 x J 

3. JU*, JU$ ; as Ji^ a gazelle, dijt ; ^6*^U a youth, a 

9x0 5xJ 2 X * 

a^U ; claw brave, <UaJa. C 

4. J*** ; as j^A-d (for *>*-©) a boy, a**o ; J-J** ^'c&, coarse, 

x *"x X X X 

5 3 , OxO 

fo'a, <7rea£, iUfc. ; .^aa* a gelding, a eunuch, rt..ork. 

Rem. Slj««t a woman, has a plural of this form, S^-J. 

X X 

9x0 S x 

[The plural aXxs varies in almost all cases with jj'^IUi. R. S.] 
XIII. Jiil. D 

9 Ox § t 9 x 

1. J*i, not derived from verba mediae rad. j et ^; as jaw 

9J0£ 90x OJOf «»/ J Oi 

a sea, jawt ; u~*J W* sow/, u ~su\ ; ^-Ji a copper coin, ^^Jil 

90 x f t «J 0£ 5 x # 5 j£ 9 J Of 

[j.Ja~» a /me of writing, jJa~>\]; *^~b a lizard, s^~o\ (for v****0 

9 x J Of 90x Ot JOC 9 J Op 

Aa*3 ^e /ace, Ao^jt ; ^Jj a bucket, Jjl (for ^bl or y.>t) 

9 Ox £ 9 JO t 9x 9 x 

^Jo an antelope, s^Jo\ (for L5 J | »') I «*! (for v^i) *** hand 

OS 9 J i 

jut (for ^jul). 
w. 27 

210 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

J oi 

XIII. Jj«it continued. Sing. 


Rem. Exceptions are, for example, w>jj a piece of cloth, 

ibi lit 60 C ° J i^ °^J?^ •• ' 

a garment, w>$jI or w^t ; ^^ a bow, ^*y*\ or ^ySS ', o*-^ 

J i - # «J»f 

a sword, a^l j ^^c an eye, a fountain, ^>*fcl. 

2. Feminine quadriliterals, not ending in *—, which have a 
quiescent letter (long vowel) between the second and third 

Ox 9i^ S // a -><5f 

radicals ; as p\j$ the arm, cji! ; JjUc « female kid, JUfct ; 

s x ojd2s^ 

B O**^ *** ngrAtf ^m^, aw oath, t>*^ ; JU^ ^ left hand, 

G J o£ * • Jff • xj J o£ 

J^t ; ,jLJ the tongue*, &«J\ ; wA** an eagle, ^s-S. 

5// • * 84J 

3. J**, Ja3, Ja3, not derived from verba mediae rad. ^ et ^, 

x x § J di xx JOi £ x x x 

rare ; as J+*. a hill, J*».t ; &*) time, ^>o;t ; La* (for yos>) 

at o j oi o » oi go o j oi 

a staff, u az\ (for i^a&S or ya&\) ; J^j a % or foot, J*w;t J 

oo o j o £ o o o I o £ o o -> o joi 

5* «i t£ J~ 

C Rem. j-*j, a well, has j>jI and, by transposition, j->\. 


From radicals mediae $ et ^ occur, for example, ^b a house, 

gjoZ oloi oi~ o o gjoI 

jj}\, jj}\, and, by transposition, j^l ; JJL» the shank, <3>*t, 

o i o£ o x o J oi o * o x x o joi 

$y*l '} £> f re ) j^ > V^ (f° r v*-*) a wriine tooth, %^~Jt. 

x x x x x £ J •* xxx JOi 

4. iUs, rare ; as 2l&\ a hillock, j^\ ; 3u»j the neck, ^3j\ ; 

o x£ o x *i - ' m nJ x x 

a*! a maidservant, (for 3^*t),^l (for ^tt) ; i5U a she-camel, 

Gtot oibi GJOi , . « jrf 

Jijjt, JfjJl, and JJjJt, whence, by transposition, JU^t and, 

TV • • OJOii 

D dialectically, JpjI. 

Rem. ^JjcjI occurs now and then in a few other forms ; as 

Ox Jd£ J x J C <} x 

j«o^ a leopard, j+>\\ %~*i a beast of prey, %+~>\ ; *JL© a rib, 

J t>£ O xx 5J»f S-'J ojo£ 

aj«©| ; jly3 c^ay, j^Jt ; w*^ a raven, w^t ; etc. 

Ox 0? 

[If fern. ; for if masc. it has <U»»JI (XV. 1), according to "El- 


Mubarrad 50, 1. 5 seq. D. G.] 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Plur. Fr 'actus. 211 
Plur. Fract. A 

XIV. Jliil Sing. 

9 xx <!»/ 

1. Triliterals of all forms, especially J*», rarely J*» (see no. 2) 

S/j 9 x x 9x0? S// 

and J*5 ; as ^jJ> a footstep, j*\j$\ ; JJi» a vestige or £rac#, 

9x0? °f ' • 9x0? S x 9 xx 9 xO? 9 x 

J^Lbt ; jixo ra/w, jUxot ; w>b (for *->#) a door, *->\yi\ ; w>^ 

9 xx xO? o o 

(for w~J) a canine tooth, an old she-camel, w>lJt ; t>Jt (for 

9 xx .xxO? 9 £ f,f m>,* 0~Ci 

^>) a son, |U^t ; v' (f° r 3^0 a father, %l>\ ; jZ> a well, jbt 
or, by transposition, jbt ; ^lj tdftv, fo^y, opinion, %\j\ or f V>t ; B 

90 9 x o ? 9 t 9 xo£ 9 « 

Jlo*> a foad, JU^t ; Ju^ « festival, >Uct ; Jx>J ^ armpit, 

9 '-» 9»J 9 x 0? 9 .» # 9x0? 5 0?" 9 j| 

J»bl ; Ji.3 a foc&, JU5I ;^£»- a judgment, js\x*.\ ; ,j>t or tjjl 

9 x>« 3 J 9x0? 90 90x x/tp 

aw ^ar, <jt$t ; j^ free, yj+*\ J .^l (for >o~>) a warn^, lU-'t ; 

 J x 9x0? 9 x 9x0? 5 

aft fjto arm, jbafrt ; v*^fc grapes, w>Ll&I ; J_>l a ^rc? 

9 x~> 9 x 9x0? 9 x 9x0? 

0/ camels, Jbt ; j^> a leopard, jl*JI ; J«*i a Mz'aA, $U*st ; 

9 x 9 xO? 9«? 9 xp» 

«^3 ftfc young of a bird, $>-t/il ; o*-JI a thousand, o^l ; 

3 x # 9 xO? £ x 9x0? 9xj 

j-j jmVws, dutiful, j\jj\ ; ^>-J a branch, jjUil ; ^ /r#sA C 


Wpg dates, w^J*- 

9 Ox 

2. J*», from verba mediae rad. 3 et ^, and primse rad. ^ ; as 

x x 0? 90x 9x0? OOx 9 w? 

^yjy a ^S5, w>lP' ; U* t * a sword, JLwl ; j*y> a day, j*\j\ 

9x0? 90x 0x0? 90x 

(for jsS^t I) ; wU3^ time, 0U3I ;^©A3 a fancy, a notion, a mistake, 


Ox ^x 0? 

Rem. *,«£, a thing, makes *Lwl, and not (as one would D 


naturally expect) ?Lwl. 

9x Ox 9x0? 9 x 9x0? 

3. J^ti, rare ; as j-ob a helper, jlcul ; jJblw a witness, jly^l ; 

9 x 9x0? 9 * t 9x0? 

jJblb j3wr<?, jl^l ; ^^L© a companion, a friend, w;U~ol ; 

9 x 9 xO? 

jj\* tepid, jUsl. 


4. J***, verbal adjectives, not buying a passive signification, 

212 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

9 xO£ 

XIV. JU*t continued. 

5 /»f »t 

rare ; as UvjJS* noble, sJ)j£\ ; C*~o or wwo (for Cu^, § 242), 

' o£ 

Rem. JUit occurs now and then in a few other forms ; 

3 ■» x — x oi S-» ** ""*? 

as jjLft cm enemy, %\j&\ \ ^X3 a weaned foal, a colt, f}Hil ; 

«x # o xo£ x x 9 s £ 

yp> a right hand, an oath, ^Uvjt ', O^**!* ^ ie heart, ^jLaJ. 

B xv. &Jf. 

1. Quadriliterals, of which the penult letter is quiescent (a long 

9 xx 9 x 9 'J 

vowel), especially nouns of the forms JUi, J Us, and JUi ; 

9 x x t x G £ 9 x x O x * £ xx 

as £-k»» a wing, 4s*u*fc.t ; ^obtb ./bo^, <L^jU»I ; o^-*i <*wi| 

Ox $£ *y, 9* OS- r* * 9 ' b£ 9 * 

4-Ujt ; ftjj physic, Aj^it ; |tji£ /ooo?, &>J^I ; O^ &* tongue*, 

x Op" x 9* bi 9\ 9* * 9* %Z 9 * 

5-LJt ; jU»- can ass, 5^».) ; <0I a god, aJI (for a-Jtt) ; j>\*\ 

*  * ' g ' ** 6 

• 2 p owe 9 * %£ ** 

C a/i 'imam or priest, A*-»t or 4*3 1 (for io-otl) ; 1^* a cowr 

x x x x 

9, Oi 9 £) 9 x 0g x .» Ox *£ x J 

Ox d£ O xj 05 £ O J x Ox OS 

4«A£I ; JlSj a fowie, a strait, d.s>j\ ; *•** a pillar, Sju*fcl ; 


Ox Ox Og 6 x Ox o£ 

»--£*£; a 6*a^ 0/ bread, Aiijt ; v*** 1 * a branch, a rod, 4~aSI ; 


Ox Ox P x Ox o£ 

»—**££> a sand-hill, <L 2 £r> \ ; U*3 a certain measure, Ha3\. 


O x 

2. J-h*-*> verbal adjectives, derived from verba mediae rad. 


D geminatae or ultimse rad. 3 et ^ ; as Jjj& mighty, glorious, 

93 t Ox Of. Ox S t J 

Sj-fct (for ?j>^t) ; uL ^ JLfr temperate, chaste, 3JLfr t ; ^- : ,a>. ^ 

2 o x 05 £ 

niggardly, stingy, *a*-wt ; y ^^- c^ar, *L».t ; ,^-j-^ a fo# 

X * X X ^^ X 

OxOxO£"3x x 0? 3 x 

(for j c»*), A«-ot ; ^^^J a confidant, 2Ls*J\ ; ^^ stammering, 

stuttering, 3u i ^\. 

[If masc. ; see the footnote to XIII. 2.] 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Plur. Fractus. 213 

Plur. Fract. 

XV. iJbet continued. Sing. 

9 0* 9 Oj 

9 0* 9 ' *i 

3. Jii, J**, J**, rare ; as £-ji nW #<?ww# o/ a bird, *dyi\ ; 
Jju a s^, AJLaut ; jca»J a Ai#A /owd, Sj^l ; jj a button, 

65 i 9, Oi 9 3 9 , Oi 9 J 

Sjj\ (for Sjjjjl) ; »-j-j « tower, a»^J ; >»-»• WW note oj a 

9* Oi 

reptile, l^^s^S. B 

S «* I >i 9 * 

4. J*3, Ja», rare ; as <>J» a cover or &d, 4**J»t ; jtj (for jj>j) 

9 * Oi 9 * <5 * s 

provisions, hjj\ ; JU. (for J$»-) «w wrcc/<? (% WW mothers 

9* i * s 9 * * 9 " 9 ' t>i 

side), di^\ ; US (for ^3 or ja$) ^ back of the neck, Z+teS ; 

£ ,, $/ »£ stx 9' oi 9' » 

[L»- vm/wz, 4**»»t] ; ^ju moisture, dew, *iJo\ ; jj^i. a £wc£- 

«5 £ «x oi 

hare, 3>£»t (for Sjj^t). 

9* oi 6 r " 

Rem. 5JL*5t is rarely used in some other forms ; as &la»~> Q 

or ajU*-w a sealed strip of paper (with which a letter is bound), 

>! ; ,>t^ a watercourse, Ajjjj ; >u an assembly, djj^j\. 

xvi. j*ty*. 

1. J^U ; as ^5U» a signet-ring, ^>\y*- ; £JU» a s^/, £ Jl>» ; 
J^U» a jt?o£, a crucible, J^1>» ; ^JIS a mould, v^J-*- 

2. J^, substantives ; Ci^b a motive or cawsg, vi^l^ ; jiU- j) 

J * * 9 ' is* 9 * 

a hoof (of a horse or ass), ji|>»» ; v^W- « «&* v^!>*** 5 J^*^ 

J * * 9 * 

JaIj^ ; vj^ wli fop of a 

* [By the influence of ^ the preceding Fetha often, in vulgar pro- 
nunciation, passes into damma, as JJjt^J* Touareg, j\js*. female slaves. 
In the old language there are some instances of it in proper names, 
e.g. cP^-i, u*j\£,J>j\j*> ^=>\£>- D.G.] 

214 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

XVI. J*l>* continued. Sing. 

J x x 9 x 

earners hump, of a wave, etc., w>j^ 5 J^-U» tifo seashore, 

J s * s J x x 

Ja-Ij^i ; jjblw aw example, jJbtjw. 

3. J^ti, verbal adjectives, applicable to men, rare; as tr*j^ 

J xx 5 x J xx S x 

a horseman, ^Hjly ; £ jtf a follower, *f\y> ; tr^^ hanging 

J x x x i Jxx Ox 

B *to A«*a*, j^^t^j ; *iuU perishing, <£l)tyb ; ^U. remaining 

J X X 

behind, ^Ijxi.. 



4. J^U, verbal adjectives, applicable by their signification only 

Ox J x •» 

to females (§ 297, a 7 , rem.) ; as J-«L». pregnant, Juotj^. ; 

5»xx J i* * s Ox J ^ x x 

^oSl*. menstruating, ^oSU*. ; Jtflb divorced, *J)I J» ; jJblj 

X XX x •* ^ 


having swelling breasts, jJbljJ. 

Ox x Ox x 

C 5. aJLcU, substantives and fern, verbal adjectives ; as 4y£bU yfowtf, 

JxxOxx J x x Ox X 

4-&l^i ; 3-S-slo a thunderbolt, &>\yo ; 5j.sU a rarity, a 

J X X O X ^ J X? Ox X 

witticism, a joke, j*\y ; <x~J\ cheerful, sociable, ^-Jljt ; 4*».U? 

a female companion, >^^\^o ; i^li. 

«( X X J XX 5 x 

wp^r classes, u^j^ (for ^a-otj*.) ; 4*U common 

vulgar, j&$* (for ^o-*!^) J 5 **^ gram, profit, juty ; ajjU. 

x x J x x Ox x 

j) a girl,^^. (for ij^tj*., see no. XXIII. , rem.) ; **»-U a quarter 


o/*^ 5%, a region, a district, *-\y (for ^^y). 

P Ox x 

Rem. Initial j is changed into I ; as ilotj joining or 

J /? ^ xx Ox^ x 

adding, a proximate cause, St )^o\^\ (for tJ-otj^); A-JM3 custody, 

x£ XX J XX 

a guard, JJtjl (for JJI.53, ^!iL3)» which is also the plural of 

«x x 05^ 2 

<L5I^ = A*5jt an ounce. 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <So Adj.— Plur. Ft actus. 215 

Plur. Fract. A 

XVI. J*fcty continued. Sing. 

6. H*£ ; as iDu., lU\y l&uotf, *UsU, &?&s 0/ 4b >r6oa, ^ti^. 

X X X X J! 

x x x £ x x J x x J xx J x x »»x x 

(for ^Jt^*-), >»t^3 (for ^o-^j^X f^W d^>> ; *U^L> a caw/, 
y£- (for igt>^). 


Fern, quadriliterals, of which the third letter is servile or quiescent B 
(a long vowel), whether they have the fern, termination 5- , or 

$/ X X J »» XX «X X 

not; as 4uU*w a c/owa*, w*xU~~> ; ajL^ aw embassy, a letter, 

x >"' *' i* * *."" «" x x «Jx X 

a treatise, J*>\~>j ; £>^3 a &c& 0/ te>, v^b* 5 *)!**■ or <ULx^. 

J x x 5x x # J t*" " 5 " ' 

wages, J^l*». ; SfjJ**. aw island, j->!>»- ; £a*»~o a written 

J »X X X 9 X X 

&a/, a &£ter, a 600/;, «^U— a ; a^ i n g a foard or plank, a 

J *»x x Sxx J *»x x ^9 x x 

s/a£>, *~5ULo ; io-»j^» W0W0, ^o->|/-& ; £ a»-o3 slaughtered, a 

x »xxx Sx J x t J »XX X « X X 

victim, f-5bi ; *4>^ a milch-camel, ^J^^ ; JU-w f£* w<?r£w C 

x^xx «Jx X ««X X X X 

ttrcwa*, JjU-* ; JU-£» ^ ^/^ Aawa\ J^U-* ; jj>>»» a she-camel 

J #»x x 8 J x x »» xx Jx 

for slaughter*, £))*?. ; J>^ aw o/a 7 woman, JjU^ ; w>>^ 

J ^xx 

a /ar#0 bucket, ^^Oi. 

x ^xx * f 

Rem. Jb5U3 occurs rarely in a few other cases ; as Juil 

J >xx£ 9 X J ^X X  X 

a young camel, J^Lit ; j-j^o a pronoun, *5l©-o; [J*J,> a joroo/*, 

x ** X X X 

x»xxx9x J ^ x x 9 x x 

J^j ; jumcj a cowrtf, juLej] ; 4«.l». a wawtf or weed, a thing, D 

x «x x x 8 5 x _ x ^x x i J 

affair or business, <JI^». ; 3j-£ a second wife, j->\j*o ; 3/-^. 

x «x x x 9 5 x < XXX 

a /ree woman, j$\j-*~ ; [«-SA a daughter in law, &->\ I c ~»\ 

x fl <» x x x 05 x 00/ 

>%JjJl j->t^o fo'^er Attract q/* tfrees, from 5^«] ; jJJ the night, 
[Also applied to the male, but nevertheless fern. gen. D. G.] 

216 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

XVIII. o****- Sing. 

9 Oj M t J J Ox 

1. J*», from radicals mediae 3 ; as Oj*-, ^j^j, a fish, 0^*"> 

x J 9 * 9 > % 

,jUJ ; j3~> a waW, OW* J >}* a P iece °f wood, a branch, 

Ox 9 J Ox 

,jtju* ; j>j> a worm, 0^>- 

O - x x x 9 '0 % * * 

B 2. Ja9 ; as w>^ a male bustard, ok^*- 5 f-^J a ^ nQl> °f small 

9 x {// xd x S xx 

bird, 0^°3 \ \)j3 a lizard, 0*$j3 I ?r ^ (f° r ar^) a crown, 

9 * 9 * 9*9* Ox Ox 

^)U*-J ; w>b a door, oW«^ ; jW- <^ neighbour, <j!w* j J*-* 

Ox *, xx 9 /» oS x £ 

,/Sre, oW J L5^ (*" or L5**) a yorf, uW^ 5 £-1 (for ^0 i 
brother, Ol***i- 

xJ Ox .» t t OxO 5/J 

3. Ja3 ; as >^-o a kind of bird, sj\*yo ; yu a nightingale, 

x x J 9 x* Ox J 9 Si 

C Ol^ 5 %*■*■ a field-rat, O^j*!- > jj*- a buck-hare, o!>** 5 

O x J 9 x 6 

J«*». a black beetle, o*^**^- 

9 /j xx Ox O x .» 

4. JU$, and more rarely JUi and JU* ; as _>o^ a 603/, a 

x » oxj x$ 6 » ' ■* 6 ."2 

s/aw0, O^*^ J v!** a raven, O^/* > w>^ a ^ tfagrfe, OW*^ I 

xj O fl x x x G 9 s 

vWi « ^%, oW3 ; J!>* # gazelle, 0*$}* 5 V V* a firebrand, 

5 *• d S x x 

a meteor, oW* 5 jl*-° a ^ her ° lj °f w ^ Guttle, 0\fv°- 

9*6 90* 

D 5. J*i and J*5, rare ; as juft a s/aw, 0'***^ 5 *>*3 a 

9 xd OOx 9 ' A °* " * .' WJ 

O'**^ 5 J>* a ^*% OlhH 5 ^-**-^ a guest, O^h^ 5 jl* <* mouse, 

9 *0 Ocx 5 x£ 0* 

Olr* 5 Jb a y° un 9 ostrich, O >0 5 >*** one °f iw0 or more 

9 x 0*^ 

#re^s growing from a single root, \j\y*o ; j+& a bunch of 

9 /« 9 9 x 

dates, Ol*^ 5 jtH a yoke, OW« 

«x Sx Sx»^*x 

6. J-^, rare ; as v**M « branch, oW - ^ ; v«*^ « ^^^ 

§ 304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 217 
Plur. Fract. A 


XVIII. o^** continued. Sing. 

9x0 3 ' 9 x ' 9x0 5 x 

gelding, a eunuch, ^L-a*.. 

9 ->x 5 J x 9x0 

[7. J>»J, rare ; as »J>jj^. a /<wra&, Ot^**-] 

9 xJ J/J/J g § 5«x J Ox J 

8. J-*-**, **g**, not diminutives, rare ; as J-j-©^, d ^afe, a 

9x0 5x0 9x0 x J 9^0 

nightingale, { j% < ^., <jU*£» ; ZX+^j a sor# o/" tpftj cat, &%+•*■ B 

9x0 6 xx x 

9. 0>**> rar e ; as o'**** a ma ^ e chamceleon, ^SaZ* ; Ohj^ 9 

5x0 9xxx # 9x0 

a bustard, Obj^ 5 O^;^ a wood-pigeon, C^ J j3- 

9x 9 *» x Ox 3 x 

10. J^li, rare ; as Ja5l»- a mW, O^***- ; «jV a spiritual being 


ii Ox 9 £ 

of the class called o**$\, O^f- 

Sx£ 5x x£ 

Rem. <Lc\ (for 3>-©l), a maidservant, has ^lj-«t ; and C 

5 Cx 5x0 

Sl^-ot, a woman, an irregular plural ^jtj**J. 

xix. o^. 

50x 90 50x 9x0x9 Ox 

1. Jjt*, more rarely J** ; as UUL< a roof, ,jU£* ; jtfrj a slave, 

9 x J 90x OxOJ 90x 

^jt jii^ ; juft a sfew, O^ J^ 5 jir^ the back, the short side of a 

9*0* 9 

wing-feather, oW* '•> O^i the belly, the long side of a wing- 

9 , J 5x t 9 H J 9 9 *%» 

feather, d^oj. ; [v*** grain, oW»- ;] *!•*■>$ a wolf, <jW^3 ; D 

9 X0J 2 • fij 

3-i5 a bunch of dates, ol*** J Jj a **•* A r water, etc., O^j- 

9xx 9xx 9 x J 5x x x x 9x0j 

2. Ja3 ; as jX> a town, O^^f I JiH> J**-, a to»i6, 0^> 

9 x J 9xx x J 

9 xJ 9 x-> 9 £j 9 x x 

3. JUi, rare ; as Jl5j a lane, a strait, &\3j ; pW^ 6raw, 

5 x J 9 x 9 xO J 9 x J 

j U ai .* >i ; wjl^w a firebrand, a meteor, oW* ; jl*** aw un ~ 

weaned foal of a camel, \J\j5*- • 
w. 28 

218 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 
A Plur. Fract. 

XIX. o^** continued. Sing. 

9 < 9 '6 3 * 

4. J-oii ; as sJu^j a cake of bread, cM^j \ v**** a tw W or 
rod, ijUc 1 * j ^^^9 a sand-hill, oW*^ ; sr#J° a male ostrich, 

9 s b J 9 * I 8 / J n 

jjloXb ; J-J*. a friend, O^*- 5 L&** a channel for irrigation, 
^)L»j.3 ; ^*o a fo# or child, jLc. 

B 5. J^ti, verbal adjectives, used as substantives and not derived 
from verba mediae rad. 3 et ^ ; as w^b a n<for, oW^j 5 
w-s»-lo a companion, ^jIa^o ; ^HjLi a horseman, ^L*>J; 
w^Jbtj a Christian ascetic or recluse, oW*> ; V^ a youth, 
,jLs> ; ctj « shepherd, oW^j- 

JxdS 1* s s J * £ 9 ' J J * oi 9 ' J 

6. J**t, fern. ^'^Ui ; as j^»-t ml, o!/-**- 5 £***1 £^> O^*^ i 
C jtgtoS deaf, oU-^ ; j$*\ blind of one eye, Ol)^ \ c***^ white, 

9 ' 9 <■ j , Oi 9 * J 

O^ (for 0***tt) 5 lt*-^ blind, oW«*. 

Rem. The forms £)*$*** and ^tiUi are, as some of the 

above examples show, used conjointly or interchangeable, 
even in cases where we should hardly expect it. For example, 

Oxj # j * oi 9 - j 

instead of Ob^' blind of one eye, from j^\, and ^j\jy»*, 

9 * j 9 * 

unweaned foals of camels, from jt^-». 3 we find ^)tj— <-£- and 

9 - UJ" ulJ 9 Cii 9 S 

D O !/**■• [cA** or cA»» a garden has jjl£^ and ^l^..] 

XX. tffcui. 

9 •» 

1. J-j«i, verbal adjectives, applicable to rational beings, which 

have not the passive signification, and are not derived from 

9 * 
verba mediae rad. geminate or tertise rad. 3 et ^; as j-j*3 

r" «» J 9 i f /* 9 ' f 

poor, l\js* ; j~*\ a commander or chief, 1\ja\ ; v~&j a chief 
ilwjj ; J-oLj stingy, l%sL^ ; ob^J* Utt'tfy, iUp* ; j&Si** wise, 

§304] II The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.d Adj.— Plur. Fr actus. 219 
Plur. Fract. A 

XX. i*k*j continued. Sing. 

f. x x J 9 x *s * j 

a philosopher or sage, a physician, iUX»- ; w««*».> noble, lLa».> ; 
sj+i clear, plain, eloquent, l\~J. 

2. J^U, some masc. adjectives, with the same restrictions as 

9 ' r* x x J 9 X *»xx J S * 

above ; as ^U learned, il©Ac ; JJbU. ignorant, i%^ ; j^li 
a jtKxtf, It^xw ; JSU «*&, r£iU ; Jjli good, right, i\^SJ>. B 

x ,x x x .» 

Rem. Examples of rarer cases are : m~> liberal, ila^^w ; 

5 x x ^ r*" i 9 x x «xxxx 9 x 

iS'^f. liberal, l\*y*.; oW-*^ cowardly, *U*a. (from ^^); 

x//J 9 £ 

cU*Jrf 6rave, i U .a... ^ (from a *a»w) ; J*~$ s£am, i^JU5 j j^wt a 

c//l 9 x " ^ x x J 9 x x 

prisoner, l\^\\ [j>$>j loving, l\}>j]. — JUg> o», a successor, 
a deputy, a caliph, usually makes \J&%±. in the former senses, 
and I^aX*. in the last. C 


J-oi5, masc. adjectives of the same kind as XX. 1, but mostly- 
derived from verba mediae rad. geminatae or mediae or tertiae 
rad. j et ^J ; as J^J^d a friend, llSjusl ; v*^* a relative, 
iZj>\ ; 4-*^-, J*^, « /r^wc?, iL».l, i^Lu (for iUall, iSCu.1) ; 
ws^J* a physician, *L»I ; jujlw strong, *IjlwI ; ,j-Jb (for Ol**) D 

#xx Oi 9 <*■>■ 9 * r" Oi Wx 

light, easy, lUybt ; ,j-J (for 0#J) smooth, easy, *UJI ; ,j^o 

-» ot 5 * ~' ot 3 x 

cfear, ^?/<xm, eloquent, lUol ; .-i£ ncA, A~i£l ; i<^ stuttering, 

X ^^X X ^^x 

.xx o£ 3 x ^x 0£ 

stammering, i^t^\ ; ^j a friend, a wUi or sam£, *Ujl ; 

3x <~x 0£ 3 x *»x «£ 3 " 

j^^iw wretched, lu&wl ; ^y*-* liberal, iLa^wl ; j^jJL? jmows, 

~ * , 5 x ^ x 

i\Jo\ ; and similarly, (j^ for 2\^j*>, quit of, exempt from, 

~, Oi 3 x - x »/ «f 

*Lj^t ; j-J, for £\ejj, « prophet, *W- 

X ^^ X ^^ X X 

220 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 

A Plur. Fracf. 

XXII. J& Sing. 


1- J***> J**> J^> J**^ verbal adjectives, denoting injuries, 

9 * + + 9 y 

defects, etc., of body or mind ; as J^3 slain, ^^3 ; *~>ja. 

' s 9 ' 

wounded, \j*-j**- ; £4 *d bitten by a snake, stung by a scorpion, 

, b s 9 £ ' Ot 9 y * s 9 vt * 

^jj ; j*~>\ a prisoner, {£j~>\ ; j *~£* broken, ^£j*~£a ; C-^o 

O * '0 *■ 9 " ' , 9 ' 

B (for c*£y*) dead, ^>y* ; u&ij** sick, ^y0j*° ; Sij-* drowned, 

^5j£ ; &\& perishing, ^Ia; J5{e> poor, ^l+z; &*j paralytic, 
^<Uj ; j*jA decrepit through age, ^jA ; %c*.j in pain, ^y*t*3 ; 

9 s J / »f * * 9 * J * 6 £ 

JU*-, or J^»-t, silly, ^iL»*-* ; w^w, or *->j**\, mangy, scabby, 
u4j*f ; *f« a fool, \J=>y>. 

2. 0^***> verbal adjectives ; as ^J%~£a lazy, ^~& ; oW*** 
Q angry, ^j**^ ; 0^^ hungry, ^j^ ', Ob*** drunken, {J!j£~*. 

Rem. The plural ^JUJ is said to occur in only two words; 

9 * * ' 9 * * < 

viz., J*»»^ a partridge, ^a>,rw, and jjWj-k a polecat, ^jl*. 

xxiii. juS. 

1. £*}Ia9 ; as lljJ^ a virgin, )\j&- ; itja*-o a jt?/am or desert, jis^a ; 
l\su9 a desert, oL3. 

D 2. i^**, ^5^*5 ; as i£>£ a judicial opinion, ^Us ; l£>^ a ctok, 
j^j ; (J>*3 WW prominent bone behind the ear, jUy 

3. S'^Ui, AjjAas, SjJjis ; as 3*}U~/ a female gul (J^z) or goblin, 
an old hag, Jbu* ; *ijj>*> rough ground, j\j^ ; 4£j*£ the 

* [ u-^jj^ clever has ^. » > A in order that it may resemble (jj-^^j'^) 
its contrary .JLo^.J 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subslti Adj.— Plur. Fr actus. 221 

Plur. Fract. A 

XXIII. JU* continued. Sing. 

xx 0/J(/ f* 9' it * 

hackles of a cock, jUfc ; 2y>p the collar-bone, JJtp ; *£jG- 
the cross-handle of a bucket, JJt/s. 

Rem. JUi stands in the nom. and genit. for iJlxs and 

' ." x x Ox 

^JUj (both with the art. ^UiJI). The accus., however, is 

x x x x x xOx 9 0s 

always ^«i, with the art. .JUAJI. — In the same way JyJ, B 

xx x xx r, i 

night, makes JU (ace. ^JtJ) ; Jjfct one's people or family, 
JUt (ace. ^Ut) ; and u6j\, the earth, u±\j\ (ace. ^»o\j\). 

XXIV. J&. 

K/ 4/ *»x x xxx »xx x 

1. l^Ui ; as i\jjs> a virgin, ^tJ^ ; l\j**~o a plain or desert, 
jj^ULo ; 'A*** a desert, ^W*. 

xOx x x&x xxx xO x 

2. ^**, ^** ; as ^>3 a judicial opinion, ^^-» ; tj>*»- 

xxx x x XXX /I 

sweetmeat, ^}%*- ; j^>ft> a dfa»V», ^^3 ; ij>*3 ^ prominent Q 

XXX "it"' . XXX 

6<m0 behind the ear, ^Jj^h ; l£>^ a complaint, ^jU&. 

x»J , t # xOl 

3. ^^.Ud, feminine adjectives, not superlatives ; as ^Jul female, 

xxP xdj XXX xOJ 

feminine, ^yUl ; ^jX**- pregnant, ^W*- ; ^5^*- a hermaphro- 
dite, ^U^. 

9x0 9x0 x x x 0x ft 

4. a*U3 ; as ajjJ**- row^A ground, ^jj\ J^ ; *ij*£ ftfo hackles of a 

X X *. X XX 

cock, ^Ufr. 


Rem. In nos. 1, 2, and 4, the forms JUi and .JUi are D 

JxOx x Ox 9 x J x x 

5. 0^**> f em - v^**j and J**», verbal adjectives ; as o!/*-* 

xxx J x x xxx J xO x XXX 

drunken, i£jl£* ; <jL-o£ angry, j^l^ ; 0^^* hungry, ^[f* ; 

JxOx xxx J x x xxx J x x 

^^L»^ tey, ^Jl ... fc ; ,jl^-fc. perplexed, v^)W*» J Olh*-* 

x xx 9 £ t X xf $ * xxx 

jealous, (J^W* ; >*-»t a prisoner, ±£jL*\ ; j a * 11 ^ broken, jj^L^b ; 

222 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. "[§ 304 

A Plwr. Fract. 

XXIV. j^Us continued. Sing. 

9 9 - t 9v)t 

jtx+l an orphan, ^AZ-t ; j*t^> a boon-companion, ^j*\^> ; j*iS 

9 I 0% 3 b a 

(for^o-ol) unmarried, ^bl ; [^b>*. covered with shame, btj^.]. 

9 / 5J/ . 9 

6. Ja3, Ja*, verbal adjectives ; as ix*»- having a swollen belly, 

9 9 J 000 

j^Lfc. ; *».^ en j)«m, ^W-j ; jJ^- cautious^ wary, (JJ;tJ^ ; 

B o>»- sad, \J>S}+: 

000 * 

Rem. Instead of ^Ui we find, in nos. 5 and 6, jJU3 

and even ^U*; as {Jj^L,, iJjC*-, ^JW*, L£^> lS^ 1 ' 

j J 00 90 /j 9 

L5*U*-> ^{~£* or ^L*^ ; ^>j has only ^\>j and JJt>U 
only ^Uis. 

7. iL*s, fern, substantives from verba tertiae rad. ^ et ^ ; as 

5 t*i x x ^ ^ *5 t*J ^ x x x (Jul / x x x 

C *j!**a # present, bt jJk ; a-mU ,/afe, btu ; 4*fc) subjects, bUj ; 

aJj # ^m/ or calamity, b^b ; aJsuo aw animal for riding, 

x x x <$ W x ** x ** m* x x x 

blfcuo ; io^ nature, disposition, bU»w ; *Ja». (for 4~Ja£.) 

a sm, bliftA. ; [Luc evening, bl£c *]. 

*■ 000 

Rem. We write bljJb instead of .-jtjJb, etc., to prevent 

the repetition of the letter ^ (see § 179, rem. a). — Many 
D grammarians regard these words as being of the form ,J5Us 

(see XVII.), for {J\ juk (§Ui), etc. 

9' 9 * 

8. a)Ui, from verba tertise rad. ^ et ^£ ; as ^btj^- a yowT^ gazelle, 

90 * 0t 9 % 00% 

bt jca. ; SjUl a ta#, i^jtft ; S^bt a small water-skin, ^gjbt ; 

«/ x ^ * 9 

SJ$*z the upper part, something over and above, ^J^z ; Sjt/A 

* [In conjunction with LjULfc, for the sake of conformity 
(£ r j$5jJ) *>** haS tf 1 ^] 

§304]- II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.ti Adj.— Plur. Fractus. 223 
Plur. Fract. A 

XXIV. ^U* continued. Sing. 

* , * 9 * * 3 t 9 0* 

a stout stick, {£}\j* ; ^\Ju plants of the kind called cA*^, 

x ** Ox *J 

used for washing clothes, ^UL5 ; ZAsu the pick and choice of 
anything, CtSJ. 

Rem. Here too .JUs is thought to stand for JjUs ; as 
\S\jJf. for ^U.1 (&**.), etc. B 

9. &UU, from verba mediae rad. ^ and tertise rad. ^ et ^ ; as 
ijjlj « caw2^/ wstfd in drawing water, a large water-skin, tjljj ; 

Ox X p X - 0> Ox 4> * * * 

aj^I*. an intestine, bi>»- ; 3u^\j a corner, bt^j. 

Rem. a. Here .JUi is thought to stand for ^J^l^i; as 

bljj for ^l^j (|Tjj), etc. 

. ' " I * * * 

[Rem. b. Anomalous is ^jLaJ from .^tj-tfu a Christian.] C 

XXV. JLoJ(rare). 

1. J»*J, Jjti ; as juft a s/a«0, ju*fc ; yi£» a (fogr, w~J^» ; j£j 

. * „- ^" .„ 2 - 

cattle, j-jif ; 1^*5 a mill, ^•y. 

Ox Ox Ox 

2. JU3 ; as iU»- «w ass, ***».. 

9 x 3 x > # 9 x x 9 x 

3. JtftU ; as 9.L a pilgrim, *r£ a ** m 5 j^ (f° r J»J^) a soldier, 

3 x 9 * 9 * 9 * 9 * * 9 * 

XXVI. aiyU(rare). 

Jjtf, Jjis ; as Jjo a husband, Ziyi* ;^c> an uncle (by the father s 

9 x J J 9 0* 9x J .» 9 x 

fttfo), &«>»& ; y*£- a wild ass, %&* ; J\*- an uncle (by the 

9x I J 9 x 

mothers side), 2J^*» (comp. § 240, rem. c) ; J**3 a stallion, 

9' J J 9 * 9' J J 9 x 9' J J 90 * 

3J^a*J ; [h^. a thread, AJ0y>±> ; j*J a panther, Zj^+J ; jio 

9x J J 9 x x 9 x J J 

a Aaw£, S,yLo ; otU fodder, ii>U]. 

224 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 304 

A Plur. Fract. 

XXVII. && (rare). Sing. 

Sftx «xx Oftx °" t" * <i b ' «x x 5 x x 

1. Jjii, J*5 ; as ^^j a bull, SjLj ; [Ja*j a stallion, a)U*i ; J^c*. 

fix x Ox x .» S x x Ox x x x 

a caw^Z, aJUa. (also 5JU^-)] ; j^»3 wafc, 3;l£»$ ; j^-»- # sfowe, 

2. J^li ; as w*».lo # companion, ajULo (also [the more common] 
B JbULi). 

XXVIII. Jii(rare). 


OxOx *.' ". m'° ' %' " G' ' ' 6xx 

1. aXxi, aAai ; as a£X». a n'w^, a circle, JiX». ; 3j& a pulley, j&. 

* x x # Oxx 

2. J^ti, as JJbU drinking for the first time (of camels), J^J ; 
^Jlb seeking, wJJa ; ^^U. a servant, j*j>a. ; «^U a follower, 

xx - # *i * * Q * 

an attendant, %p ; jcotj /3^'wgr ^w mM£, watching, j*oj ; ^ri^ 

0/ - x > # Oxx 

a guardian, a keeper, u»j*- ; v^W- « driver, an importer, wnU.. 

6 ft x 5 x 

XXIX. J*3 (rare). 

Ox Ox ## SftxSx 

J^li ; as w*)^ drinking, w>£> ; j-oU a helper, j*aJ ; j.».U 

SftxSx . SftxSx 

a merchant, j.a+3 ; w^-L^ a companion, w*»*-o ; w^tj a 

5 ft x 6 x Sftx 6 / t t Oftx 

n<&r, v^J 5 J*\~* a traveller, j&~* ; [jj\j a visitor, jjj]. 

Rem. a. The above rules regarding the correspondence of 

certain forms of the pluralis fractus and of the singular, are subject 

D to many exceptions* The dictionaries also give various forms 

* [Many scholars do not admit the forms XXV., XXVIII. and 

ft x J xft£ 

XXIX. as plur. fracta, but call them quasi-plurals (**jjJ1 alwl), 

,xx Oi 

making a distinction between them and the real collectives (il©~>t 

ftx Sftx ft ^ x ft 2 

jt^aJt), as j*}* etc., and the generic collectives ( u ..«aJI *lo-*t), which 

r- ft x x S x x Sftx 

form a nomen unitatis, as ^U*J. The forms J-j*i, ^Juii and Jjii are 

§304] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. <& Adj.— Plur. Fractus. 225 
which we have not thought it necessary to notice ; for instance, A 

Oxxdx Ox Ox OxJOx .» x »// « x OOx 

d-buL© ; rarely <UbuLo and aXxslc (as Jt^-o a hycena, <Uy q * ; ju£ a 

o x x» x o x t 2f * " »»- 

sfow, SjuA* ; J^j a mountain-goat, <U£^o ; ->~Jj <•* oW man, a 

* x x « x Ox x x J x OOx O x - x 

chief, a doctor, <U> ^>>>-o, ^^ o and S Ufc »& >.« ; ufcy* a sword, HA*, « 

Ox x i^x J x 

and £&»■»>.«), and I^^juLo, of which the principal examples in use 

O x£ ^« x Jfcx OOx ^x J x OOx 

are : ^>Ut a she-ass, lU$3l* ; JJu a wim^, l^i** ; ^--J a he-goat, 

^xJdxOx ,xx J x OOx •> T" * t ' °° " 

2L/3-JU; jl^». a he-ass, il^^sw.o ; -i«w an ofoZ man, l te»3yfiU ; jufc B 

»»x J x 0« 

a s&we, ilj^at*; %— ^- & a Christian (or o£/i<sr no^ Muhammadan) 

V x x x Odx t ,xx j» x x 

captive or sfowe, llo^-bt*; j^fc a wt£o? ass, £tjj-oc*; /»jP ^ar^e, s^ow^, 

"•' J»x 

Rem. 6. Many forms of the pluralis fractus seem to be derived, 
not from the singular forms in actual use, but from others, which 

9 X 0* x J Ox 

are obsolete or of rare occurrence. E. g. j^U, pi. OlUi, (as j^l* 

^xxJ 9^9' Ox x x _, 

a poet, lUxw,) from an obsolete J*** 0**w); and J^U, pi. ,Jl*i, ^ 

XX X ^^ 

(as JJUU perishing, ^J&*,) also from an obsolete J-o*i (^iXJUb). 

Rem. c. From the preceding table it is obvious that one sing. 

O x 

may have several forms of the pluralis fractus ; e. g. j*~> a sea, 

Ox J i J Oc 9 0' 9 xOP 

j^* A*^* J^' \ jy a bull, )\£\, S^j, 0^ or S ;> j, oW' JhA 

Cxx. OOx J J Ox 9 ii x 0£ <} x tc x OJ«f x J 

SjUj; jue a s/awe, jus,. jLc, jj*£, jLct, Sjufel, ju*£, juftl, ,JL ^ 

J x ul 

(besides jut, O'***^ *!****> i^***^ *jl*£, Sjujco, ib^oto, see rem. a); 

x x x OxOfOxxxOxOJ 

w^-lo a companion, v a>^3, w>la» -o, w>U>. o l, A->U». o , ^jLa^o D 
(besides a.o».o, see rem. a). Or one sing, may have several plurales 
fracti and a pluralis sanus besides ; e.g. jdblw one to/to is present, 

masculine by form, feminine by signification. The forms XXVI. 5J$*$ 

Ox x 9 JJ 

and XXVII. dJUi seem to be derived respectively from Jjyt* and 
JUJ with the termination 5 to reinforce the collective meaning 

* x 0*> x x 2x »»x 

w. 29 

226 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 305 

? y J t + «0 x %m j « J -9 9 * Oi % * 

A an eye-witness, a witness, jj^jJfcl*, jl^, j^, >y^>, 3^*1 ; J^^ 

x ' .-. s + • 3* 4 ** + 

serving, worshipping, ^J^J^, >U^, 3ju£. In such cases, if the 

sing, has several meanings, it often happens that each of them has 
one or more forms of the pluralis fractus which are peculiar to it, 

9 x 

or used in preference to the rest. For example, jdbl£, in the sense 

j , x '90* 

of an evidential example, has jdbtyw. The word £**j means : 

(I) a tent or house, (2) a verse of poetry ; in the former sense the 

9 j j 9 *oi \ 9 sit 

B plur. fract. is O^o or OLot, in the latter almost always Owl. 

Again, £#£> signifies : (1) an eye, (2) a fountain, (3) peculiar nature 
or essence, (4) a distinguished man; its plur. fract. in the first 

9 13 9 3 Oi 9 "Oi 9 JJ 9 ISC- 

sense is &$*£'■, v>-^t, or ^Lftl ; in the second, £)&£• or &t&\ ; in 

9 /»f 9b* 

the third and fourth, (jL^l. Or, to take another instance, ^jJaj 
means: (1) the belly, (2) a valley, (3) a tribe, (4) the interior, (5) tJte 
inner or wider side of a wing -feather ; its plur. fract. in the first 

9 J J 9 J Oi 9*0 3 9 J J 9 * Oi 

sense is 0>^> 0-k^> or O^j ; in the second, 0>tu, iifcut, or 

« xO J ^ # 9JJ 9 J Ot 9 *0 J 

Q ^ULj; in the third, 0>^ or O-^'j * n the fourth and fifth, O^W- 

305. The forms of the plur. fract. of substantives and adjectives, 
which consist of four or more consonants, are exhibited, along with the 
corresponding singulars, in the following table. 
Plur. Fract. 
I. JJUi (J*lil, j*U3, J*UU). Sing. 

X X X X 

1. Quadriliteral substantives and adjectives (3 not being counted 

9 '*' 
as a letter), the consonants of which are all radical ; as wJju 

j *' 9 j * * 9*0 j ** 

a fox, ^Jbu ; c jJua a frog, c^U-o ; ^*Aj> a dirham, ^Alp ; 

9 JO J • J xx S xOx .» x x »xx Ox 

J) t>?^ o c ^w of a lion, CHJ/J ; w*J^ a &>cms£, v>^ 5 *j^* a 

j * * 9 * j * * 9 * * j * * 

bridge, jJ»L5 ; dju&j a Jin of a fish, obUj ; jJt^*- gems, jJA^ap ; 

X X X X X 

S x x J xx 6/0/ 

*^*&y» a star, ^sS^s ; J^J^fc. a streamlet, a column or 
ta&& (in a book), J^tjc».. 

2. Quadriliterals (5 not included), formed from triliteral roots by 

* 0x0 J x f 6 x * if 

prefixing !, O, or ^0 ; as f-t-o}, a finger, *Aot ; [4X0JI Mg #wg? 

§305] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.— Plur. Fractus. 227 

Plur. Fract, 

I. Jjlii (Jwrf, J*U5, Jclli) cont. £m<7. 

0/ a finger, J^OI] ; ^jt Adam, >jtjt ; ^jXJI a viper, clil (for 

J x* r, x x 

^lit, compare § 304, no. XXIIL, rem.) ; 2uj**3 trial, ex- 
perience, w^U^ ; ^.X^.o a claw or talon, *^JlaL* ; £Jj-U a 

J x x 9 ul x 

halting -place, a station, jjU-« ; < Ua».o a jp/ac# wAer^ owe stops 


& x x 9 x x 

or dwells, a quarter of a town, Ji t* « ; *A g »i means of 

i, iJ^Aa* ; i<i«^ meaning, O^*-* (f° r iV***) J *&-• B 

X ^^ *^X X 

xx J x x J Jxx 

em e%#, ȣ>!>* (for ^yt^ft) ; [f^j-o suckling, *~b\j*c]. 


Rem. a. In the plur. fract. of the form J^U^ from 


verba mediae rad. ^, the ^ is not converted after the elif 
productionis into hemza (5), — as happens, for instance, in 

J »»xx 

form XVII. of the triliterals (^JjIxj), or in the nomen agentis 

9 x 9 x x 9 x x x 

(J^li, § 240), — but it remains unchanged; e.g. »-U-o, AcwL.c, 


aw open space /or walking (from «-Lw for ~~>), ?»-;L^«; C 

J i* x x 9 x x xxx 

whereas -iJL** is the plural of £ a» ...■> » .« a cwr/ (from «, .»>.»). 
In the same form from verba mediae rad. ^, the ^ is usually 

9 x ft J x x 9x x x xx 

retained, as ^nyU a bowcase, ^jULo ; cj\Jlc (from jli for 

XXX J X X 9 X x x Jxx »xx 

J^i) a desert, J jU*o ; <sLo*}Lo a reproof, j»yk* ; ^olio (from 

xx xxx Jxx 

i^U for u°^) a place for diving, ^ojik* ; but in one or 

9x J xx 

two instances into hemza (.>), e.g. ^.ao (from w>lo for 

xxx Jxx J ^ xx 9x X X 

w>3-d) a misfortune, w^lcc*, and usually ^^Ltfuo; SjUo a D 

J XX J ^X X 

candlestick, a lighthouse, a minaret, ^tu, and usually j^U*. 


The changing of the^ into ^ is vulgar, as^jtu, j-»Uu«. 

Rem. 6. Adjectives of the form Jjt^t, especially with 
the superlative meaning, make, when used as substantives 

9 x Of 9 x I 

[and, in that case, often taking the form JjtJI, as Jj^.1 ; 

J xf Jxft* 

see § 309, b, y], a plur. J^lit ; e.g. ^^Ajt a shackle or fetter, 

228 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 305 

A Plur. Fract. 

I. JJlii (J*tft, JU65, JWu)4oat Sing. 

j x£ J xO £ j x £ j x £ Ox j / »»/ 

vo^bt ;^o$j\ a mottled snake, ^3\j\ ; j+£s*$\ the greatest, jjI£»*n)I, 
grandees, nobles. 

II. Jjtil (J-^Ut, j**u5, J*ftlii, J**uJ, Je^tji). 

Quinqueliteral substantives and adjectives (5 not included), of 
B which the penultimate letter is a litera productions (I, j, ^) ; 

o x * x § j s * o x o j x x o x oj 

as O^*** a devil, ,j-Jslw ; ^>U»w a wolf, £>*a*\j~t ; jjUalw 

X X X 

a sultan, sj*j0%~i ; (jU3 s&?r£ drawers, O*^lo ; ^t>> wA?'te 

J xx Sx 5j J xx * J xx 

flowers, >i$\+> ; a^U* & bubble, **3Ui ; ,>*£-> a fe/tf, i^fbtfL* ; 

X W X X X X 

00 x xx JP J J #»x 

J^juS a /amp, Jj.jU3 ; w^>S» a ^tf## shower of rain, w*^ 5 


3 J # ti x x J x x six 

j^wj^a a cMr, i^L)^ (for ^^t^*) ; [»£)j£o a measure, 
C **L£»l£* and ^^UU] ; *Ujj a desert, ^jltf (for ^jt/j) ; 

0x0 J . xx x J x x C x 

JU«j # statue, J-oU-3 ; j-i^oj a picture, jjj\*a3 ; *»Jjl3 « 

XX ^ „ 

J xx 0x6 

chronicle, f~lj\y* (compare § 303, /, rem.) ; ». l l.*.« a #03/, 

J xx 6 J x x £ x 

9Mjli« ; 1 > & x>».o jooor, ij^jfbU** ; jtjyfu* unlucky, inauspicious, 

J o" x x S J x t J xx J x 

^o-JU** ; ^3-0-^ lucky, auspicious, ,j-**Uo ; jJjaLo accursed, 

x x x x > #> J x£ O 

i^-jft^L* ; jLafct a dust-storm with whirlwinds, j-j-oUl ; v^W^J 

'J x f Ox x Op 

a garland or crown, J*)l^t ; 3j>»gt a joom zw M# m^r^ 

j - £ 2 o c o j o£ Z o 

D ra<7^, J*»»!;t ; ^*>\ (for i^>»oO or ^5»o{, an ostrich's nest, 

& ,t o3 »J ox j op J xg |S ^ 

^».bt ; 4~Ut (for &>>Ut) ^ w/sA, ^Ut ; [4*».t a tent-rope, 

* [This may be lightened also to v*\j£*, as ^w! a human being, 

it A- xc 3 -> ii x x x x £ x 

has l<-»U! and ^01, ^Ia>..> a Bactrian camel, .JUi-j and Ols*j, ^£m«* 
a camel from Mahrah, ^£jly* an< ^ jV 0, ^ ne ^ w0 latter words have 


also the irregular plurals ^ULj and ^ly*.] 

§305] II. The Noun. k. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Plur. Fr actus. 229 
Plur. Fract. Sing. A 

II. JJU3 ( j-^lit, j**U3, J^lii, J**£?, J^V') cont. 

J x£ o£ - i x£ o jo, 

a sacred claim, ^»-tjl ; 2uj\ a stall, t^tjl] ; p>^ a spring, 

J xx J Ox J "■«* « J x 

«.ajU> ; w>j~ju £fo queen-bee (rex apum), ^^Uj ; ^^oU. a 

J x x 9 3 x * «" 

buffalo, u-^wol^ ; jy^^J hemorrhoids, j*~*\y}. 

j x x 
Rem. a. The plur. JJUs is sometimes found in cases 

where a quinqueliteral sing, form is either rare or does not B 

exist ; as^^Jt^a. signet-rings, from^oUl*. =^i[±. (pi. ^I^ai.) ; 

J xx OxO 9'0 J " J '£ J '£ 

^Jfctp dirhams, from ja\*jy =^**j> (ph vo^lp) » J***** =j-»U5 

Ox x Ox J § ' • i** 

bridges, from SjJsui ; jitJu one who breaks his fast, jJbU^ j 

O x § J x x J x x J 

^jjJL« having a fawn with her, ^jULo and ^>j>UL« ; JjUxo 

.» x x f »t * 9 ' j 

having a young one with her, ^Jilia.,0 and ^JyJUx* ; j£w« 
clever, cunning, j+^l^c. Conversely, JJU* is used, chiefly 

J xx JxxJ XX 

by poetical license, instead of J*JUs ; as j-olio =j^clio, C 

Ox J x 

plur. of Sjy&JLo a space partitioned or railed off, a closet; 

J xg J x£ OxO 

>oUt =j-Mtf?Ut, plur. of jtaftt a dust-storm. 

x V g 

Ox « x Ox 

Rem. 6. jtL>3 « dinar, b\j«3 a carat, ^j\yi> a register, an 
account-book, a collection of poems, a public office or bureau, 


and i^)\yi\ an arched or vaulted portico, vestibule or apartment, 

J xx J xxj xx x x£ 

make j-Jlo, hojSj.l, i>£$t>>, and O^b' ( as ^ from singular 

f fi r. g g a 05 Ox J xx 

forms jlo, J^tji, ot^ anc ^ Obi'* 7?"W>' brocade, has ?»-^W.> D 

J xx Ox Ox Ox 

and !j~obj 5 u*»U^> or ^nU-ji (%ao<tiov), a dungeon, a bath, 

J xx J xxOxO Ox J ->x J x x 

^^^Uj and ^^waLo ; jt/££ or jl/*w, curds, J^jlw, J-J;l>w and 

jijlr* ; Oy'» a furnace, t><JOI and perhaps also jJ-JUt (as 

JO? OxJ  fl J Jxx 

if from a form \Jy£\) j JjLai. (v?^*) quinsy, has J^Jl^aW 
and, in modern Arabic, J^JUaW. Compare § 284, rem. 

230 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 305 
A Plw. Fract. 

III. liHis. Sing. 

1. Occasionally substantives and adjectives of five or more letters 
(principally foreign words), of which the penultimate letter is a 

5 x«| *0J 

litera productionis ; as iUwt (Pers. iUwl) a master, a teaclwr, 
jLjU and IjjCf; StJj (Heb. T&Sfi, Syr. I^ali!) a 

T» J xx SxxxSJ^Gx- / 

B disciple, a pupil, Ju**iU and SJl-oj ; ±Jy~X+9 (<£iAoo-o<£os) 

5^ x x 

a philosopher, 4i-**iU ; J^jJsu a Grecian general (patricius, 

J xx Sxxx S x « x 

TraTpiKio?), JJj^Usu and SijUaj ; jjlpauo « metropolitan bishop 

X X «» 

J xx Sxxx SxJftx 

(ixryrpoTroXiTrjs), i>j;Uxo and 4jjUa-o ; ^U^-p <m interpreter, 

J XX « X XX 

2. Substantives and adjectives of four or more letters, which have 
not a litera productionis before the last radical, — especially 

C when they are words of foreign origin, — and a great many 

relative adjectives, consisting of more than four letters. E.g. 

S £* x 8 «"»x x x S x x t J^xx 

J)*$~c an angel, a£5*}L* ; J&<*e a polisher of swords, tJiU-s and 

Sxxx Zj ( Sxxx S 5 J 

aJLS'^-o ; ft^J a king of el- Yemen, aajLj ; ^^S a nobleman 

Sx xx S x x 

(comes, Ko/xrjs), <L«~« UJi ; «£)j-bu a patriarch or archbishop 

J xx Sxxx x & x 

(irar ptdpx'rj's), ^AjjUsu and 4J=>jUsu ; w^>»- « stocking or &?£& 

6 x J 

.A Jxx Sxxx S »J < Sxxx 

(Pers. w^Sa), w^l**?* anc * *Ol**" 5 •*■*•** « heretic, Sj^%c ; 

%J0i 4 J^ xP Sx_ x£ J x »x 

D Umu#1 (c7rio-K07ro9) a bishop, oUK**t and 4*5L>t ; ^^-euS (Cossar, 

Sx xx J x 

Kato-ap) £fo Byzantine emperor, S^-oL*J ; 03-*^-* (WIS) 

Sx XX S^X* X iJ X X J^x 

Pharaoh, Aiftly ; w^-«o and ^V**«, « money-changer, OjUo 

Sxxx S ' Sxxx £x0x 

and AijUo ; ^jJ^ « Moor, ajjUu* ; ^tj^ a native of 


Bagdad f S^Ulj ; ^*y+*AA a man of the Berber tribe of 


Masmuda, lju»l .« a . ■« ; .—J^ a descendant of el-Muhalleb, 

X ^^ X 

Sxxx xO Ox * J 

a-jJLy-*. — From \£j~£s (Pers. jj— »•», Chosroes) the king of 

§ 305] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Plur. Fractus. 231 
Plur. Fract. A 

9/ x x 

III. ajJUi continued. Sing. 

* * £ r* * t 5^ x x 

Persia, are formed irregularly j««»Ubt, 3i»wl£»l, and 5j*>L*£» ; 
and gt^-rf or j^, a like, an equal, has, besides Jlj-^l, the 

# OxxxOxxx xx .» x x 

irregular ij^t^«#, 4*-*!^/, and ^l^-* (for ^^l^w). 

Rem. a. This form is also found, though rarely, in quadri- 
literals which have a litera productionis before the last radical ; B 

5 «S x i Ox xx «S x » P p 7 

as jU»- « tyrant^ a giant, ljA*a*. ; ^U-i a deacon (Syr. J_«-l£L»), 

* X XX 

Rem. 6. In forming the plur. fract. of nouns which contain 
five or more letters (exclusive of 5 and the letters of prolongation), 


one of the radicals is rejected, generally the last. E.g. £>yfii* a 

J xx 9 x Ox J xx x x 

spider, yi»U^ ; w*J jUft a nightingale, ^bL* ; ^nj-^a^a. a jfatf, Zazy 

J xx x x x J XX 0X X X 

oZc? woman, j»ola»^ ; J^JU< a quince, r~^*-~* ; but &jj* a burnt 

«x J Ox. 

ca&e, Jjjtji ; 3^~JJ13 a sor£ 0/ ca^o, j^-J^JLS, ^^ (for .-w^llS), or C 

i xx x x J 6 c # J x 2 J J x x 2 ' » " 

i**^* ; iiU^urft a pillar, v> ^*l>U>t ; Lr >ft.^ AiaJ Ptolemy, <LJlku ; 

*^ X XXX 

JU>»i^ a Byzantine governor (domesticus, oo/acotikos), JU>Uo. Here 

0X X X I *5 J ^ „ 

may also be mentioned such plurals as 4j.>Lc from dXll ju& 'Abdu 

'llah (compare § 264, rem. b). 

Rem. c. The forms of the plur. fract. of quadriliterals and 
quinqueliterals are also used in forming plurals from other plurals 

x 0*3 J x 

(«^aJt ^HfrCb. 2/ie plur. of the plur., or secondary plural). In 
particular, forms XIII. jilt and XV. iJUif make Jclil, and XIV. D 

JliS, J*frUt ; more rarely V. Jlii, J5U3, and XVIII. and XIX. 

^jlii, O-Jlii. Kg. XIII. 4J& « <%, 4-^>l ^&\ ; 2j6 a she- 


0JO* J x£ 5 Ox « JO* J x£ 0x 

camel, J>-Jt, Jpbl ; JaJbj ones people or 2ri6e, JaJbjt, JaAljt ; *JLo 

5J0fJxtOx Of JO* x£ 

« W6, *J«ot, c™ ' *^ a fowwf, a benefit, jut (for t^ju.1), 3UI (for 

J x£ § x J OxOpjxfsxx 6x0$ 

t^jbl) ; XV. jl^-rf a bracelet, Sjyi\, j£~*\ ', £)&* a pfoce, £Xol, 

232 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 305 

j Am* *> * *> x£ » +% 9 + 9 x oc 

A ,>^Ut; *UI a vessel, *LJt, ^Ut (for .ytjt) ; XIV. ^su camels, j»\xj\, 

j *Z <i x /«« J x£ oox 

^o-jfcUt ; jJbj a (yellow) flower, jUjt, j**\)\ ', J|y> « saying, a speech, 

O x 6 £ J x? 6 J x £ J x £ Oxx t 

Jl^il, J^lSt ; jJite a nail, ^UiM, j**U*t j jJa. she-camels having 

x £ J x £ Oxx 

neither young ones nor milk, £$*a*.\, JuJU*-t ; V. J^a. a he-camel, 

Ox J »»x x Ox §+0JJ+ + 

JUjfc., J3l*». ; XVIII. XIX. j-j-<a* an intestine, Olf" 6 ^ 0<;'- ,tfu * J 

a * owjjxxoxj 

jjl»- « garden (of palm trees), ^jlL»., ^Ua. • w>Ufc an ea#-£e, 

o x » j j x x ox o g t ° •: ? £ 

B OW*^j O*^^- Again, XV. aXait forms a pluralis sanus 0*>ait j 

Oxx x £ x £ Oxx x d £ x S 

as w*!/-*' a drink, <L>j£\, Ob^wl ; O^** smoke, &£>>),- Ou».>l j 

,»x q , oZ o * oZ ~s s a «x !*£ o x ftj 

*Uj a building, dUUt, OUot ; ^Uafc a ai/fc, joay, 4-Jatt, OLUpI. A 


Ox Ox x J 

pluralis sanus in Ol— may also be derived from V. JUi, VI. J>ai, 

9 J J j^xx Oxx 

III. Jjiij-XVII. JjUj, and a few other forms; as ^k**. a he-camel, 

Ox Oxx OJx Ox Oxx * x Ox 

JU*., O^U*. j J^j a man. JU-;, O'NjUfc.j ; w*J^ rt ^°#> V^**' 

XX * s x 

Oxx Ox OJJOxJx E| 

Ob^ j CwJ « house, O3-0, OU^J, houses, families ; £ijje 


- a roaeZ, J>jJ», Ol5p* ; j^J-** a she-camel for slaughter, jj-c*., OtjJ^k. ; 

Ox OxJOxJJOx x < J .xxx Ox ,xxx 

jUa- rt he-ass, j-o^., Cxt^^»»; 3jujc»- an iron foe>£, jutj^, Otjulj^.; 

' "1 ' £ x x t # J^xxOx^xxOx 

4.a» .*..».> anything woven or plaited, -y»jL»J, OIa»jL»J ; jb « house, 

OJOxJOx x # J xxOxxx Oxx 

jj>, Ot^ji j [^u».lo a female companion, w*».t^o, OU.1^0] ; diU 

fix Oxx °» J ^ • x JO? 

a she-camel, pi. JjtJ, OlSLJ, and JUjI, OUUjI (with the dimin. 

. "x 

Ox Cxfc 

OUiot) ; etc. Sometimes there is even a treble formation j as 

5/J < Ox x OC J x£ 

a5^3 a o«n<i, a party or sec£, j^i, ^tjit, J^Jj^t. Such secondary 

D plurals can be properly used only when the objects denoted are at 
least nine in number, or when their number is indefinite. 

Rem. d. Plurals [or rather collectives] are formed from a 
great many relative adjectives, — especially those that indicate the 
relations of sect, family, or clientship, — by adding the termination 

dL j as J^tJli a follower of es-§afi% (J^x5l£)f), il*i\Jj\ the sect of 

g W -> Jii li x J«Sx0 xOx 

^e Sqfi'ites ; \^yo a Sufi, ^Li^aJI ^e s^c^ 0/ the $ufls; AjJtjjj^l, 

306] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.— Plur. Fr actus. 233 

j a oxi x 

4jj-ojJt, the partisans of Marwan, of Ibnu 'z-Zubeir. See § 268. A 

Sometimes 5.1 is added with the same effect to other adjectives, 

S x « i5 x 1 x x 

especially of the forms J^li and JUi \ as 5jjU» those who live on 

*x x % * jj * 

the bank and drink the water of (a certain stream) ; Ojt^ [and otjj] 
(men) drawing water or (cattle) drinking; aJULw travellers; £)Ioa», 

5/ 5 / 1/ S<i Ox £ x 

S)l©^», 4JL»., aJlxJ, persons who own or &eep camels, asses, horses, 
mules ; S)U~» a company of persons journeying together, a caravan 

(Syr. IZ.jjl.*); dJU*) pedestrians; SjUsu spectators; [ajI^ j^w- 
cferers]. B 

Rem. e. The plural of some nouns is anomalous, or derived 

from other forms or roots than the sing, in use; as^ot a motJier, 

• ( < fil « P - «P« o ... o 0i x s t>£ 

Oly-ot (Syr. (k)|, |Z.Olk)|), rarely OUtj^s a mouth, atyl (from a 

J x x »»x x <5 x £ Ox 

sing, dji or oji) ; *U water, a spring, dU«, dl^ot (from a sing. «U) ; 

x x ^ O x x 6£ <• x *«x x 

aa^ <x %>, oUw ; Cwl tfAe anus, dUwt ; 5U» a s/iee/? or goat, *U>, dUw, 

2 ' «£/» ,-xOxOOx* * 

i£>w ; l\y>\ a woman, ^UJ, Sa*»J, ,jl^~J (from the rad. ^^Jt, whence 


Heb. #*« fWX, for #}« n^X); jii. a mole, X*.Ui (from C 

5 x ' . . 

the rad. J^J). O^J» a human being (Heb. h£^K for J^K 
P^U^)> has usually ^0 [especially with the article ^UJI], instead 
of the older and poetic JLut (Heb. $)}$ Aram. XgOtf l#-*)). 

306. As regards their meaning, the plurales fracti differ entirely 
from the sound plurals ; for the latter denote several distinct indi- 
viduals of a genus, the former a number of individuals viewed 
collectively, the idea of individuality being wholly suppressed. For D 

X J0 X 

example, 03**** are sto^s (servi), i.e. several individuals who are 

Ox 6 S J 

slaves, ju*c slaves collectively (servitium or servitus) ; oW^ 3f0*»0 

xx OxxOx 

w^w, yottfA (juvenilis), = w>W-^ ; fr***** oW mm in general. The 
plurales fracti are consequently, strictly speaking, singulars with a 
collective signification, and often approach in their nature to abstract 
nouns. Hence, too, they are all of the feminine gender, and can be 
used as masc. only by a constructio ad sensum. 

w. 30 

234 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 307 

A Rem. We must distinguish from the plurales fracti those nouns 

which are called u ..*aJl l\+~i\ (generic nouns), as Jo*J bees, on 

which see § 246 and § 292, a. The former may be styled abstract, 
the latter concrete collectives. A third class of collectives is formed 
by those nouns, to the meaning of which the idea of collectiveness 

attaches; as^o^i, Ixfcj, people or tribe, jSL*s> an army ; [yjjl camels, 
JS& sheep]. These are called *.*&Jt il^wt or *^aJI olwt (^&e 2/ie 

plural), and differ from the j^aJI l[+~»\ in not admitting of the 
B formation of nomina unitatis (§ 246). 

307. The pluralis sanus and the plurales fracti of the forms 

XII. Ij&, XIII. Jill, XIV. Juil, and XV. 2jJ\, are used only of 

persons and things which do not exceed ten in number (3 to 10), and 

are therefore called aX$ fy***, plurals of paucity, whilst the rest are 

named lj5£* £>*»», plurals of abundance. This observation applies, 

C of course, only to such nouns as have also other plurals, for if one of 
the forms alone be used, it is necessarily employed without any 
limitation as to number. 

4. The Declension of Nouns. 
I. The Declension of Undefined Nouns. 

308. (1) Undefined substantives and adjectives are, in the 
singular number, either triptotes or diptotes. Triptotes are those 
which have three terminations to indicate the different cases ; viz. 1 

D (Norn.), _ (Gen.), and \1 or 1 (Ace, see § 8, rem. a). Diptotes are 
those which have only two terminations ; viz. 1 (Nom.) and 1 (Gen., 
Ace.)*. — (2) The dual number has only two case-endings, which are 

* J 2 " 

* A noun may be w^**, declinable, or ^y**c, indeclinable. A 
declinable noun may be J^, declined with tenwln, or o^uU j*s., 
declined without tenwln. The term ^u^-j^t ..£ C^o^c, established in, 

Hi • • J 

or possessed of, the nominal character or nature, or simply ^jSioZc, 

o »» o j w < « 3 j o x > a o *■ 

is synonymous with i^^ju, and jj-X-oJL© j-*-£ with ...-L^-* ; whilst 

§308] II. The Noun, A. Nouns 8ubst.<& Adj.— Beclen. of Nouns. 235 

* * 

common to both genders; viz. jjt— (Nom.) and <>j_ (Gen., Ace.)*. — A 
(3) The pluralis sanus has likewise only two case-endings for each 

* *& 5 ** * 3 

£yLc\ &£+£*, possessed of (the nominal character) to the fullest extent, 

0*03 / /»? J»/ I al//j , J j 3 - 

is equivalent to J ^ U, and jjXol j*s. ^jSi^Zc to t^-o-U ^s.. — 


The vowel w of the nominative is called *ipt, £/*e raising (of the voice), 

H *OiO 3 * * J * 6* 

and is ^ul^U3t ^JLc, the sign of agency ; the vowel i is termed ^^iaJI 
£Ae depression (of the voice), or j^Jt, £/ks being drawn along or attracted B 

5 x ^ i * * 0*3 3 * * 

(by a governing word, jlaJI), and is Ail^^t^-U, the sign of annexation ; 

3 o a * 
the vowel a is designated w*cudl, tfAe uplifting or elevation (of tJie 

a j o /-o^ j x ^ 
voice), and is oJjaa^JI^U, ^e si</w of objectivity. — The tenwin may be 

(a) <Ul£«Jt ^Ac JtjJt 0^3^') ^ i6 nunation which shows that a noun is 

S/4 j *<• 

fully declinable, also called ,j-£«Jt O^y^i an d found in the singular 

* * ^ 

and the pluralis fractus, as J^-j, Jl»g ; (6) £bliL©JI v>jj-3, ^e 

x J 

nunation of correspondence, found in the plural feminine, as CA+JL**, 

* 3 Ow *3 j 0* 

because it corresponds to the ±j of ^^X^c; (c) j*££)\ CH>^> iae C 
nunation which distinguishes, in the case of an indeclinable noun, 

3*0*0* t . t 3* 5 * * * 3 0** 

between the definite, 4ifA«JI, and the indefinite, cjSLti\, as ajj***^ ^JJ** 

* * ~ s * * 

jj*.\ duy^j, I passed by Sibaweih and another {inan called) Sibaweih; 

s 0*3 } 0* 

and (d) u ayd\ ^jj^XJ, the nunation of compensation. This last may 
be of three kinds : (a) of compensation for the omission of an entire 

"330* * 03 Oi* 

proposition, as in jj^Ja-J £ + # * ^r-^3 an d ye are then looking on, 

30 3 0*3 3 ii *3 

where J&*». stands for^oyUaJt p-jjJt C-Jtb 31 ^>*»-, at the time when 
the spirit lias reached the throat; (/?) of compensation for a governed D 

ii 3 3 0* S • 0- • * 2 J 

word, as when the genitive is omitted after ^J£s or ^axj, as ^o->13 ^J£s 

9 *>* *0 it 3 « «»/ 03 & 3 

for^jlS jjUJt J^ or^lS^^A^ ; (y) of compensation for a letter, as 
in jlj*., plural of 4Jjl»>, for ^£j\^. in the nominative or \£j\ft* in the 

* o * t # I * * 

* The form v>j— is used dialectically, as in the hemistich ^jkc 


I { j^j^^.\, at eve it (a bird) rose on two nimble (wings). 

236 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 308 

A gender; viz. for the masculine, Oi— (Nom.) and ,j->_ (Gen., Ace.)*; 

for the feminine, Ol— (Nom.) and Ot- (Gen., Ace.). — (4) Theplurales 

fracti are either diptotes or triptotes, exactly like the singular (see 
§ 309, a). — The following is the paradigm of the declension of undefined 
substantives and adjectives. 

Triptote or First Declension. 




Proper. Common. 






G6s i ' 

juj Zeid. J**.j a man. 

Oft a 9*5 ^ 

joa Hind. Aio*. a garden. 




St * 




■f St * 




,0, , J , 



ft * 0* 0*3* 

ft ,0 

ft «« St * 

* < J OS- 

The existence of the form <jt_ is doubtful, despite the verse \Jj£-\ 

*■ *"> * * * ftp o * ft < * * ,0*6** s ao * o 

ULJi l^wt ^>jj-fci «.oj UUUsJtj juaJI l^, / &wow of her the neck, and 

the two eyes, and two nostrils which resemble two gazelles, in which 

D vJ^**^ an d OW* (written in rhyme U) are used instead of \j++*s&\ 
and ^a*J». 

* The form ^>-|— is said by some to be dialectical, whilst others 
consider it due only to poetic license (jjcuJI Sjjj-o) ; e.g. U^&lj 

^j^.1 ouUj, emc? we ignore the riffraff of other {tribes) ; ^xLJ 13 Uj 

^ooj^t J.&. Ojjl*>. jJ>j ^<«U It^JtuJI, ano? w/ta£ is it pray that the poets 
want of me, since I have already passed the limit of forty (years) % 

* * ,61 ft.' , , „ , ,0i ft ' 

where yJij±-\ and £)**Jf$\ are used instead of £Hj±>\ and O^H)^'- 

§308] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst.& Adj.— Declen. of Nouns. 237 

Triptote or First Declension. A 






Proper. Common. 



Plur. sanus. 


s JO/ 

. . . 

G. Ac. 


. . . 


Plur. fract. 

jP/wr. fract. 


J J 


« JJ 5 " 


J J 



J J X 



J JJ 2 - 






t^JUfc. sitting. 

4a^50 mourning. 












Plur. sanus. 


* J < 



Plur. fract. 



1 9 j 

A J 

9 Aj 




3 j 


238 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 308 


Diptote or Second Declension. 





j /(j 

j ,a * 


tjU-^ 'Otkmdn. 

y^j Z'^'i 


/ / J 


/ / -> 






0/ /JJ 

Plur. sanus. 

/ J *0 J 





/ ^ » j 





(of vfrAp « dirham) (of ajjU* « #0«m# woman) 

N. J*£ N. G. j£1* 

G. Ac. ^Alji A. ufcly*- 

Masc. Fern. 


J / 2 J / oi *, 6 , 

N. ^3-wl black. J-ctfl more excellent. l\*y~> black. 

//o? / / o£ ,//0 / 

G. Ac. J^wt J*A5t gt^^w 

//Of / / £ / / / 

0// 0£ 0/ / Og / / / 

D G. Ac. CH.****'* ^ > <jLfl i l Chj'a^ 

P^wr. sanus. 

/ J /OP 

N. ... o^-^ 


G. Ac. ... O*-^' 

// # j// //•* 

* j1^<*. stands in the Nom. for ^1^^, in the Gen. for \^j)je* 

(identical in form with the Ace). See p. 235, at the end of the note. 

§ 309] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Declen. of Nouns. 239 

Diptote or Second Declension. A 


Masc. Fern. 

Plur. fract. 

(of jJte poor) (of AaJU mourning) 

N. iSjii ... . ^jy> 

G. Ac. Aja* ... r-^y 

Rem. a. There are two words in Arabic, in which the final B 
flexional vowel of the singular affects the last vowel of the radical 

o « 

P J « JO P^ 

part of the substantive ; viz. jj-«t, a man, and ^o*Ut, « son, for t^«ot 
and^ul, which are also used (see § 19, d). 

C J J J 

Sing. Nom. jj*«t or fj+\ t ^Jj\ 

* O 

Gen. {£j**\ or 5j"*ti ^o-^^ 

Ace. I|j-«l or £p*t, Loijt 

[According to Sn-Nadr ibn Someil, as quoted by Zamahsari, Faik C 
i. 524, ^i ^Ae mouth is also doubly declined, ^i, ^oi, L*-5, as 

J ' ' J Op, 

A*i C^tj, <t*i j^-o <suLJ f?j±-\ and 4«i IJdb. Comp. Lane and 
Fleischer, Kl. Schr. I. 180. D. G.] 

Rem. b. For the comparison of the Arabic Declension with 
that of the other Semitic Languages see Comp. Gr. p. 139 seqq. 

309. The following nouns are diptote. j) 

a. Several forms of the pluralis fractus ; viz. 

(a) Quadrisyllabic plurales fracti, the first and second syllables 
of which have fetha and the third kesra, that is to say, the forms 

Jstji (XVI.), J3U* (XVII.), JJU* etc., and JJU* etc. (I. and II. 
of nouns which have more than three radical letters) ; as £*&\y. 
causes, w*5U^ wonders, j-bU5 bridges, ^jJa*^^ sultans. 

(/?) Plurales fracti which end in hemza preceded by elif memduda 

240 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 309 

A (.11), viz. Hii (XX.) and &*i\ (XXL) ; as &&L wise men, &p\ 
friends (compare b, a and c, /?). 

(y) Plurales fracti which end in — and ^_, viz. JU3 (XXIII. ), 

^Xati (XXII.), and ^Us (XXIV.) ; as j\js- virgins, ^^-j*?- wounded 

men, ^Ct prisoners, btjUfc presents (compare b, (3 and c, /?). 

j si . j w£ , 'I J ' i 

W Ji'j pl ur - fract. of Jjt, and of its fern. ^^S,' first ; j^.1, 
plnr. fract. of j^.1, and of its fern. ij>*>', other, another ; £*a», 
B £^, £-aj, £^>, plur. fract. of *U***., l\sC£=>, iU-cu, iUZj, fern, of 
*-©**- 1, etc., «// together. 

[(e) iUwt, the irregular plural of r i^> (comp. XIV. 2, rem.).] 

b. Various common nouns and adjectives ; viz. 

(a) Common nouns and adjectives which end in hemza preceded 

by elif memduda (*1— ) ; as l\jjs> a virgin, ii > a t . .> white (§ 296). 
C Compare a, /? and c, /?. 

Rem. This rule does not apply to cases in which the hemza 

is radical, as %\js from \j3 (compare § 299, rem. c, and § 301, 
rem. e). 

(/?) Common nouns and adjectives ending in elif maksura ({£-) ; 

as \£^> memory, \SjZ~* drunken (§ 295, a). Compare a, y and c, /?. 

Rem. Excepting those in which the elif maksura is radical ; as 

D ^£JU* guidance (for ^jJb, § 213). 

(y) Adjectives of the form jilt (§§ 232, 16, and 234—5), of 

x J r*s - J x Op 

which the fern, is ^«i and p'iUi (§§ 295, b, and 296) ; as v**i^ more 

wonderful ; j*>*-\ red. — But adjectives of the form J*it, f. iUil, are 

triptote ; as J*ojt poor, needy, without a wife, f. dX*j\ poor, needy, 
without a husband, a widow. — Substantives of this form are usually 

O x i s t 

regarded as triptote, e.g. Jj^t a hawk, J*».t a green woodpecker, 
w-Jjt (l ^ar<?, J*ojl « humming ; but the diptote form is admissible 

••11 T« J , {. J s bi 

in such as were originally adjectives, e.g. Jj^-t, Ju«U. 

§300] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. & Adj.—Diptotes. 241 

J -it 

Rem. a. Some good authorities give J^jl as the masculine of A 
iLojl, which would be very irregular. 

Rem. b. Adjectives of the form J*£l, when used as sub- 
stantives, retain the diptote inflection ; e.g. ^oA>t a fitter (properly 
blackish, dun), >j-*/l a serpent (prop, black), JjjS stony land (prop. 

j * oS j * o p 

mottled), ^Jflui a wide, gravelly water-course, 9>j+\ a tract of land 
without herbage. 

(&) Adjectives of the form 0*^**> °f which the fern, is ^-1*3 B 

J x x x x 

(§ 295, a) ; as 0\j£~>> f- l£^ m '' drunken. — But those of which the 
fern, is &%x3 (§ 295, rem. a) are triptote ; as o^*^> t *->L<>J^ # to 

• o j 

companion. — Adjectives of the form Q%*i are all triptote, their fern, 
being formed by adding 3_ (§ 295, rem. a) ; as okr*> £ *j\jj* } naked. 


Rem. a. Adjectives of the form ^*}l*3, f. 3u*$j&, are rare. The 
principal examples in the language are: ^jUt having a large fat tail 

9 xO x x x < # 5 x x 

(of a sheep) ; O*^**- angry I O^*"^ stiflingly hot ; fljUdL* Ao£ ; Q 

5 xO x x x 

jU*w tofi (mo? slender ; ^jLa*-o exposed to the sun, eating in the 

* 2 x o x o x 5 x o x ( 3 5 x 

forenoon (,-a»-cJI) ; ^la^o and <jl».^o dry, withered; ^^£ 

o x o x o a * 

stupid, ignorant; ^jS^La thin, slender; ^J^auo sucking (sheep or 

O x x ' # S x x 

cows) out of greed, mean, vile; ^U^-o stupid, stolid; ^jtoju a boon 

9 x x 

companion; jjt^cu Christian. Some of these, however, have also 

« x x x S x J J x x 9 xx£ J xOS % * f + 

the form ^^*s, 0^**> or O^** > as uW an( * CW J O ^ - " '? 

x J J x x x J S x J 5 x x 

jjUaw-w, or jjUa^w ; ,jl».^o ; ^Ij^S. The word ^l».^o may 

5 x x Ox J 

perhaps be merely a mistake for ^l^^o or ,jl».^o. 

Rem. 6. ^*^i so and so, such and such a one, makes irregularly j) 

Jx x J 

in the feminine &*}Hi, [because it takes the place of a proper name 
(c) The masculine numerals as mere abstract numbers ; e.g. 

x x /)£ JO j x x x t x x x x ** • £ jd 

4jujI Jbio iUl^j 8 W £/^ double of 4 ; J^-t^J 3L»^ yj** j**^' ***"' 
6 ^s more than 5 % o/^. 

x J x o x 

(£) Distributive numerals of the forms JUi and Jml* (§ 333) ; 
as iUj and ^^o, ^0 6y New, ȣOU and wJJlo, Mtm % three. 
w. 31 

242 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 309 

A (rj) The grammatical paradigms formed from the root J*s, when 
used without the article as a sort of definite proper names. For 

example : o>-cuj *j asuo JaII (the form) af'al, (used) as an adjective, 
is declined without tenwm (e.g. j-**-\ red) ; 3/& l^wl o^ W J**' 
<Jj~gJJ 4Jli (the form) af'al, when it is an indefinite noun, is declined 

with tenwm (e.g. J&\ tremor, Jj^-t a hawk) ; *Xx* *~e\p 4a*JJ» ^jjj 

j * t> * 
Jj«itj the measure of Talha and 'isba' is fa 1 la and 'if'al. But if we 

B say ^Jj«aJJ *n) dsuo o£i J**' J^*> every (word of the form) af'al, 

which is an adjective, is declined without tenwm, we must employ the 

nunation, because J^», in the sense of each, every, requires an indefinite 
word after it in the genitive ; and so in other cases. 

[(0) The diminutives of all diptote nouns, as ju^t, with the 
exception of the softened diminutives (§ 283) and of those that are 
derived from the distributive numerals of the form JUi (§ 333), as 

I, A#] 

c. Many proper names ; viz. 

(a) Foreign names of men, as ^*At/jt Abraham, Jka*~>t Isaac, 

Joseph, jjib David; excepting such as consist of three 
letters, the second of which has gezma or is a litera productionis, as 

5 J O J 

*.£> Noah, <bjJ Lot. 

(/?) Proper names which end in e'lif maksura (compare a, y and 
b, /?) and elif memduda (compare a, p and b, a), whether Arabic or 

D foreign ; as ^^^ John, CjU or 2b.>U ( Adiyd, l^ij^j Zachariah, 
l5 Jjl> Ya'ld, j^yJ LUla, ^^ Sulma. 

(y) Proper names in jjt_, whether Arabic or foreign ; as ,jUl*£ 
Gatafan (a tribe), o-o-^ 'Othman, ^U*** Hittan, oW*-* Sufydn, 
^>©->Xw Solomon, o!/** l Imran ('Amram), [with the exception of 
those that were originally common nouns of the forms JUi and 
ijlyj*, as (ju* and O^^hl- 

§ 309] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst. cfc Adj.—Diptotes. 243 
(8) Proper names which resemble in form the verbal forms J** A 

* 3 3 d * f 

and J*$, or any of the persons of the Imperfect ; as j^> Sammar, 

3d* 3 3 J/ if 3 * 3 3 0* 

^Lw Jerusalem, w>o Dor ib, jLo*-t AhmM, juJj Yizid, j£Z*£ Yeskur, 

3 3 * 3 * /OJ 3 * i 

j*c^3 Tadmur (Palmyra), w-A*j Taglib, ^y~j Yubnd, >oUj Tumddir, 
J*°\rt Yurdmil. 

'(c) Common nouns of the feminine gender, consisting of more 
than three letters, when used as proper names ; e.g. w^JU a scorpion, B 

J x * 

0|ic 'Akrab (a man's name). 

(£) Proper names which end in 5— , whether masculine or femi- 
nine ; as ££c M"ekka, A+b\* Fdtima (a woman), icj Ztogw (a woman), 

J x x J x x * 

£a*-U» Talha, S^U5 Katdda (men). [Fem. proper names in Ot keep 

O x £ * Oe- c, ,, , ** * 

their tenwln, as Ol^pt gen. ace. oUpl ; Oli^c gen. ace. Ols^c. 
Dialectic forms are Oli^c gen. ace. Oli^c and even Oli^.] 

(77) Fem. proper names, which do not end in 3_, but are either of C 
foreign origin, or consist of more than three letters, or, though 
consisting of only three letters, are trisyllabic, owing to their middle 

3 3 3/33 3 *0* 

radical having a vowel ; e.g. j-a* Egypt, j$*. Gur, jyo Tyre, w*«^J 

3 * 3 _ 3 * * / 3 * * 

Zehieb, jUw Su'ad, jZZ> Satar, j*~> Hell/Ire (as the name of a par- 
ticular part of hell). — But fem. proper names which consist of only 
three letters, the second of which has gezma, may be either diptote 

3d 90 

or triptote (though the former is preferred) ; as joa or jUA Hind, 

3 0* 9 0* 

js-z or js-} Da'd. D 

(6) Proper names, which are actually or seemingly derived from 
common substantives or adjectives ; especially masculine names of the 

* 3 9 * 3*3 3*3 3 * 3 / 3*3 

form Ja$ (from J&ty, as > ^ 'Omar,j*j Zufar,^£**. Gu&m, J^j the 


planet Saturn, ^3 the male hyarna ; and feminine names of the form 

* * 9 * * 3 * * 3 ** 3 * * 3 * * 

JUi (from &Ulf), as^oUai Katdm, J*U>j Bakas", j»\j^ Haddm, *-.\jj 
the sun, *{%o Saldh (a name of Mekka). These latter, however, have 

244 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 309 

A more usually and correctly the form J Us, and are wholly indeclinable ; 
as^&lii, u^l5j,^IJ^., *jjj, ^%o^^Se> Zafdr (a city),^Us the female 

' , x2 

hyama, J^»- death, j*\j«o war, jb\j\ a year of famine. 

Rem. a. Words of the form JUS, of which the last letter is r, 
as jUa- the female hycena, jLo*. Hadar (a star in the Centaur), are 

almost invariably indeclinable, even in the dialect of those Arabs 

» xx 
B who in other cases use the form JUi. 

Rem. b. Besides being used as proper names, the forms J*S 
and JUi are often employed as vocatives, in terms of abuse; e.g. 

*£*!*» k improbe ! f. w>U»- C ; J~J b sceleste ! f. J Li b ; 
^aCOvilis! f. ftffl*. 

o 5 x j 

Rem. c. In compound proper names of the class called s^Ss^ 
l**-J*o (§ 264), the first word is usually not declined at all, and the 

J xx x j//i/ 

second follows the diptote declension; nom. O^-oj-o*., <^XJju, 

J JO J/ x x xx x i//J/ / JOJ/ x 

J^^-olj, gen. and ace. Oj^o»., viXJju, J-^-ctj*. Each word may, 
however, be declined separately, the second being in the genitive, 
and the first losing the tenwln because it is defined by the second 

xj x w x J - x .» * J J x Ox Ox 

(see § 313, foil.); nom. O^-o*-, *£Ubo, J»^-*t;, gen. O^-a*., 

xx x " x Ox 

acc. Ofrxo^rw, etc. The proper name w^> \^J*** admits of three 

x x _ OxjOx J x Ox 

forms, for we may say w^^ i^ ***-« (like O^e^o*.) ; or w^» ^ juu, 

xx Ox < JOxxOx xOxxOx Ox 

D gen. and acc. w^£» ^ J^w (like Oj^o*., O^o^*a».) ; or ^jju 

xx xJOJJx- 

w»^£» in all three cases (like j^j^j)- —Proper names of men ending 

Ox Oxx OxxO OxxOxOxJ 

in ajj are wholly indeclinable; as ou^^w, ou^Lii, aj^j-©*, *iyl- 
* [The kunya is sometimes considered as a single compound noun. 

xwxc j£ xJ0«3 x CjxJO 

A letter of the Prophet begins a^o! ^j\ ^jj j^l^^Jt ,Jt jl»s».« £y* 

(Fdik i. 5), some Kor'an readers read in Sur. cxi., w^ $j\ tju 

x jt J O Jj x xxo/ jgjOJxxJ 

and well known are wJU» >*l ^ ^j^ft and O^*** J^ C& *s»jU*. 
Compare Beladorl 60, last 1. and Baidawi ii. 421, 1. 10. D. G.] 

§ 309] II. The Noun. A. Nouns Subst & Adj.—Diptotes. 245 

Rem. d. Proper names, when used indefinitely [as is always A 
the case when they are employed in the dual or plural], are 

j J x 10 5 j 

naturally declined with tenwln ; as <CUaJ ^n^j-*^ *-*J ™> an y a n> 

f* x x s~ J / Ox Z J s 

Abraham have I met; [|l^»-j >oW u^S'^-i. o j$} J£* and each 

* o i , x o a j 
period has its pecidiar Adam and Eve] ; and so jlo^.1^ o!/*^ Vj 

aj^a^wj vetkSj j-<rC-3 jU-jj a^klij. There is, however, a doubt as 
* ' _* * * * ' . ''i* 

to the admissibility of the sarf in the form Jjiil. 

i <o x , 6* *> J x S 

Rem. e. The <J>j-aJI O-* P^**9' w>t-A or reasons why a noun B 
is debarred from taking the tenwln, are usually reckoned by the 
grammarians to be nine in number ; viz. d^Jbdl its being a proper 

J Si *6s > Jx JOx 

name; ^Lio^l its being an adjective; rt >*M its being a foreign 

W /»«» J ul ^ J 0- 

word ; w^^JJI to feeing a compound of the class ^»-^i w*£bj^Jt ; 

to s o£ 2 o* j a to j *i3 x 

j-Jt* jt UsuJ>»j'}Ut i^wJUJI to &mw? necessarily feminine by form 

c5 *> x £ xx x j 0x> j (2 x»x j J*^ 

or meaning ; w*«Jl3t l _ 5 aJ'^) ^jUsjLa^Jt O^b *-^H **• ending in 
* / ^^ x x x x ^ 

£/te termination £)\—, which resembles the feminine termination it_ ; C 

^ ^ / x /OxJOxjjOx^ 

j^U dJ3\ j-U C/ ->J U*a» dJ^ its being a plural of a form which 

j " " 

does not occur in the language as a singular (e.g. jt».L~o mosques, 

-*4jLa4 lamps, for there is no singular noun of the form ^}s-\slc or 

x x x I x x x J xOx 

J^cU-ft) ; j^>^t ^t £ **.o ^js- JjuOt ite 6ein^ turned from one form 

x X x #  J# x Ox 

iwfo another (as ^c, which is Jjjuco, or transformed, from j-olc, 

xx Ox J x Jxx 0/« J x 

or^&Uai, which is Ajjjut* from A^blS); and J*i)l ^>Jj ite resembling 

in form a part of the verb. Any two or more of these causes in D 
combination prevent a noun from being declined with tenwln ; . e.g. 

JWxxflx x J x J J 5 x 

(1) a^oJjJI + the termination ,jt_, as ^jUJk. Hence we say <jU»». 
Hassan, if we derive this name from the radical u**. ; but if we 
derive it from £y~»*, it is triptote, ,jll».. (2) ^L^JbUi + w-^JBI, 

J xx Ox J 5 x xOx J M/ JO// * »/ 

as siUbu. (3) a*^JjOI + wsajUJI, viz. (a) .yixoj UaAJ inform and 

Jx x £f£xx £ x 

meaning, as £©i»li; (/?) UaAJ *s) ^•i«^ tfi meaning but not in form, 

246 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§310 

as wUjjj ; (y) i**^-* *$ Ua*J in form but not in meaning, as 2a 
(which, though feminine in form, yet is the name of a man). 

ivl * '0* 

Except feminine proper names of the form Ax*, in c, -q. (4) <u*Jjdt 
+ J*a)\ OJ> as *MJ^ ( 5 ) ^oJjdl + JjjJI, asjH^. (6) A t * t Xx)\ 

J - J«/ 

>jJI, as u*j^} Petrus. Except the case of »-$3 and similar 
names in c, a. (7) <Ljl»oj)\ + Jjudl, as j^.1, which is Jjjut* from 

&U*"'j or r*t . which i s Jj**** from Oljlfcp ^ . (8) Z+iuo^S + 

^ ; /«/ , o* 

B the termination jjt_, in adjectives of the form &%s&, fern. j«Xai. 
(9) ILsuo^S + JaaJI Oj j, in adjectives of the form Jjtst. 

2 2 ^ « ^ 

310. Nouns ending in ^— or t— , for ^— or j- (§§ 213 and 

245), which follow the first declension, and those in ^— and t— , for 

J ' 
l^— , which follow the second (§ 309, a, y ; b, f$ ; c, /?), retain in the 

oblique cases the termination of the nominative, so that their declen- 
sion is only virtual (^JjtJ&i), not expressed (^JaaJ) or external (jJbUo). 

C E.g. toft for 3-ac, >*o£, and l^-os ; ^^ for ^5^, ^5*-j> and L»-j ; 
^j-uj for j^j^o and t^j-^J. 

311. Nouns ending in — , for ^- or j_ (§ 167, 6, ft and the 

Paradigms of the Verb, Tab. XVIII.) and ^- or ^— (see the same 
Tab. and § 218), have the same termination in the nom. and gen., but 
in the ace. 0— (according to § 166, a). E.g. jl£ for jjl£, ace. Cjte ; 

D >»!; for ^y*t;, ace. L^tj ; Jjuo for ^>*^, ace. L>JJt* ; ^-« for ^^^o, 

acc. U^«o ; j*3 for ^>*3 {\£j&\ ace. 1jJa> ; ^J for ^^J (^^3), 

ace. 1*^*3 ; »~w (verbal adj.) for ^a-w, acc. Ww ; ^ (verbal adj.) 

for ^5^^, acc. L**. 

312. All plurals of the second declension, which ought regularly 
to end in ^j— , for ^— , follow in the nom. the first declension instead 

§ 314] II. The Noun. A. Subst. & Adj.—Decl. of Def. Nouns. 247 

of the second, and substitute - (for ^-). They moreover retain, A 

according to § 311, the same termination in the genii, and con- 
sequently follow the first declension in that case too ; but in the ace. 

they remain true to the second declension, and have ^-. E.g. a^U., 


plur. nom. and gen. jt^»., for \S^y^ (instead of \£$sb*)> ace. i&l^ 4 *" ; 

^y**o, plur. nom. and gen. o^**> f° r L5 5 (instead of ^U*), ace. 

^U* ; l\j^~o, plur. nom. and gen. j\*>~a, for ^ULo (instead of B 

^U^o), acc. ^jU^o. 

II. The Declension of Defined Nouns. 
313. Undefined nouns become defined : 1. by prefixing the 


article J I ; 2. (a) by adding a noun in the genitive, or (b) by adding 
a pronominal suffix. 

[Rem. Only proper names and words used as proper names are C 
in themselves definite (§ 309, b, v, vol. ii. § 78) ; if, therefore, they 

3 x x 0+ 

are not originally appellatives (as ^..o J I properly the beautiful) 
they never have the article, unless they be used as generic nouns 

(as in^jJbjjt w>j, § 309, c, rem. d), Jy^t jujJt the first Zeid. — A 

defined noun is called ii^-o or \J>ja* (vJLjjju means defining), an 

O w/ J 

undefined noun Spo or j&* (j*£^ means leaving undefined).] 

314. If an undefined noun be defined by the article, the following D 
cases arise. 

(a) If it belongs to the first declension, it loses the tenwin. 

3 J i s 3**0* J x /»/ 3**030' 3 * oi *■ 

Nom. J^jJt o-^M i^j^l rt ;. n^ . . ) t JU-pt 

the man. El-Hasan, the city, the chaste {woman), the men. 
Gen. j4-j# o-^-N al»J^i tiLaJLj\ JWif 

X *• ' * * * 

* 3 & * * * * 0* ** '0' ** ' 36* *• * yt * 

ACC. J»-jJI O-^ AijJ^t iUxa^jJt JW-jJ' 

Rem. The final t of the acc. disappears along with the tenwin. 

248 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§315 

A (b) If it belongs to the second declension, it assumes the ter- 
minations of the first, and jbecomes triptote. 

Norn. ±y4*$\ i\>yJ\ j^^^t 

the black (m.). the black (£). the nobles. 

Gen. *y«<)\ gb^-Jt jJ^>^t 

Acc. >y~>*$\ eb^-Jt jJ^^)t 

(c) If it be a plur. sanus fern., it loses the tenwin. 


B Norn. oUJiyjt c%JLLoJt oU^JI 

the darknesses. the creatures. the believing (women). 

Gen. Acc. oCubl ol^JUUJf oUo^jf 

Rem. a. The plur. sanus masc. and the dual undergo no change 
when the article is prefixed; as \J^,f^\ ^ l0se w ^° ^ eat "> 0^4J^' 
the two men, gen. acc. ^j+jjJsAS, O^r^-^- 

Rem. b. Nouns ending in _ drop the tenwin and resume theirl 
C original ^; as ^yt from ^& I;, ^yU^Jt from ,jU*o, l5 -h>^I from 
0^5, i£)&J? from ^L (see §§ 311, 312). 

315. If a noun in the genitive is appended to an undefined noun, 
the following changes are produced. 

(a) The singulars and broken plurals of both declensions are 
declined in the same way as if they were defined by the article 
(§ 314). 

Norn. M w>U£> vej^ J-i-'t 3ujj^\ JUg 

D the book of God. the lowest part of the earth, the men of the city. 

Gen. <ti)\ w>U£> u*>j^ JA-I &jj«J\ JU.j 

Acc. <8i\ w>U£b U^J^ cM-^t A-UjUoJt JU.j 

x J 6 --»<<» J .* x x x i .> 

Norn. OlS^Xa^oJ! v*^^ ->*.*! J^> 

the wonders of creation. everyday. 

x J G x 0>o * x x x m< .» 

Gen. Oll^U^Jt w*5U~c- »^j J£> 

Acc. Obyo^oJI ^U^ >©3J J£> 

* * X 

§315] II. The Noun. k. Subst. & Adj.— Decl. of Def. Nouns. 249 

5 P i o x . 

Rem. a. The words w>t a father, ~-t a brother, J9 ^. a father- A 

5 x ^» 

in-law, and less frequently ,ja a thing, after rejecting the tenwin, 
lengthen the preceding vowel. 

it- it j x s * at 

Norn. ±j\, f*.\, ^a~. yiA; for w>t, etc. 
Gen. ^1, ^t, ^^o*-, ^yf, for yl, etc. 

Ace. bt, U.I, Ci., La; for S\, etc.* 

The word £, the owner or possessor of a thing, which is always 
connected with a following substantive in the genitive, has in the B 

- «x 

gen. ^5, in the ace. 15 ; whilst ^, £fa mouth (Aram. ft!)3), which is 

6 J Oxx 

used instead of oy or o^i, makes either : 


Nom. ^3, Gen. ^oi, Ace. j^\ 
or: J, J>, lit. 

Rem. b. Proper names of the first declension lose their tenwin, 

* z - * 

when followed by the word ^t in a genealogical series ; as 

* The same is the case in the other Semitic languages ; see Comp. C 
Gr. p. 142 seq. — In Arabic the short vowels are used dialectically, as 

«// xx Jx£ x J x x x xOA> S " x x OiO f. \ 

in the verse j^o Loi <ut ajUo O-^^J^' iV l£^ l<J^SI <ub '^dl 

X ^^X X XXX 

Aas imitated his father in generosity, and whoever tries to resemble his 
father, does not do wrong ; where we find <aub and aj\ for a*jb and 

J xg ' xf 

obt. Some of the Arabs employ the forms bt, etc., in all the three 
cases [bl being, according to some lexicographers a dial. var. of w>t. 

xxx Ox xx£ x£x x x£ w 

Comp. vol. ii. § 39, a, rem. a], as in the verse UJb jJ> Ubl btj Ubl jjl 

X XX x xOaO 

UUjU j>,a>, )l .-i, veWfo/ ^eir (the family's) father and their father's D 

X * *^x 

father have reached in glory their utmost limit; where the first Ubl 

a x x£ x 5 

is the accus. after £>!, and the second Ubl the genit., instead of ly«ot, 

xxxx m t ^ J x Ox xxxx 

whilst UlZjU stands by poetic license (in this case cL£*^l) for lyX>l£. 

[The genuineness of this verse is not free from suspicion. Comp. 
Noldeke in Zeitsehr. D. M. G. xlix. 321.] 

t With these latter forms [which are employed only in connexion 
with a following pronoun or noun in the genitive] compare in Heb. 

HE) constr. *£), with suffix ^Jpfi. 

250 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 315 

A j^m ^ jJU. ^ jAJto- ijj, Muhammad, the son of Gafar, the 
son of Halid, the son of Muhammad. On the elision of the t in 
O^t, see § 21, b. 

Rem. c. Instead of OU^, a daughter, we may use, when a 

genitive follows, the form djj\. [The latter was formerly preferred, 

except at the beginning of a sentence. The form C-.-J1 occurs in 
the Kor'an (Sur. lxvi. 12) and often in old Mss.] 

(b) The dual loses the termination O- 

B Norn. ( j\kX~J\ ljuft ?U. tffo to? slaves of the sultan came; \j * t ~m* U 

jjUt^aJt aDI to ms belong the two holy temples of God. 

Gen. ^>~$ ,jj1j AaJJa ^t jij ^3^1 ,>£ ^jj /^ learned 

transmitted {traditions, poems, etc.) from the two 'Abu Bekrs, 
(viz. 'Abu Bekr) 'ibn Talha and ('Abu Bekr) 'ibn Kassum 
(see § 299, rem. h). 

Ace. ^>\ ^^jU. C-utj I saw the two female slaves of my father. 

C Rem. If an §lif conjunctionis follows the oblique cases of the 

dual, the final ^ takes a kesra instead of a gezma; as Ojj* 
dUL^Jt jJujl^J / passed by the two female slaves of the king (see 

§§19 and 20, c) ; j-o*Jt i**^* |/*^ q1.q.< ■>««.)! 2A0 two mansims are the 
extremities (nails) of tlie cameVs hoofs. 

(c) The pluralis sanus loses the termination O- 
D Nom. *£U*Jt yij eU. the sons of the king came ; ^o^iL^I j:>>a»-« drawing 
their swords. 

Gen. wjU^t \^3*$ h** an example, or warning, for those who are 
possessed of intelligence (see § 302, rem. c). 

*O>0 * J tit* St to j Co J 

Acc. ^iJULoJI ^j C^»t; I saw the king's sons; jttfl ^j£$a U£> we were 
kindling the fire. 

§316] II. The Noun. A. Subst. & Adj.—Decl. of Def Nouns. 251 

<• * <• <«ft x j * * * 

Rem. If the plur. ends in ^15— > acc - £H— (^ or 0>J— j O-srf— )> A 

ft * * «* 
these terminations become, before a following gen., j_, ^— ; and if 

the genit. begins with an elif conjunct., the final j takes damma, 
and the final ^£ kesra, instead of the gezma ; as aOt j i V n §» 
<aM ^akAo (§ 20, c). — Regarding the I otiosum which is often, 

though incorrectly, added to the nominal term. j_ and jl, see § 7, 
rem. a. 

316. If a pronominal suffix is added to an undefined noun, the B 
following changes take place. 

(a) Triptotes and the plur. sanus fern, lose the tenwln, the dual 

' 9 * 

and plur. sanus masc. the terminations O and sj ; as w>L& a book, 
Ajusa Ais book; OUAI? darkness, ly3UJJ» its darkness; oW^» tow 
tofo, i)UL£> thy two books; &yJ sons, i)yJ thy sons; ajuU to its 

(b) Before the pronominal suffix of the 1st p. sing. ^_ (see Q 

§ 185, rem. a, and § 317), the final vowels of the sing., plur. fractus, 

* # ^ 

and plur. sanus fern, are elided ; as icjU£» my book, from w>U^ ; 

^*$& m# <%s, from *->*$&, plur. fract. of ^J^ J L5*^>* w # 

followers, from £Jty, plur. fract. of *jtf ; ^U^. my gardens, from 

OU, plur. sanus of 4-i».. 

(c) If the noun ends in 3, this letter is changed into (or rather, 

*- ft • • 

resumes its original form of) O ; as ioju a favour or benefit, ^JH+su. D 

(<tf) If the noun ends in elif mobile or hemza, this letter passes 
before the suffixes into J, when it has damma (Nom.), and into £$, 

when it has kesra (Gen.) ; as |L»J women, nom. with suffix o^LJ, his 
women, gen. ajLj. But when it has fetha (Acc), it remains unchanged, 

3 <■» 

as acc. d*L»J. 

9 t 9 t 

Rem. Of the words mentioned in § 315, rem. a, wjt, »-! and 

252 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 31.7 

o , * js- j si x i i 

A ^., take the suffixes thus : nom. £)y>\, «$jt ; gen. &»J\, A-ot ; ace. 

" " £ J " g i * ' ii i i • " i 

Jbt, dbt ; but ,-jt, l*±>\, ic^*-, in all the three cases. — ^JA makes 

,-iA j i)^Ii or >^JUa; ^-OA or ,£Ua J i)LA or ^iLA.-^i has regularly 

X X XX ->xx X X J J J X 

. -oi; ^Ui; a«i, 4«i; but more usually, nom. Jy, oy ; gen. *£U$, 

•^ X X X X x 

X X J X t3 

<jui j ace. ,*)li, oli ; and .-JL my mouth, in all the three cases. — 

|x**x I ^x 

j _: o I 

j3 is not used with suffixes. — On some dialectical varieties of w>l 
B see § 315, rem. a, note *. 


The Pronominal Suffixes, which denote the Genitive. 

317. The pronominal suffixes attached to nouns to denote the 
genitive, are exactly the same as those attached to verbs to denote 
the accusative .(§ 185), with the single exception of the suffix of the 
C 1st p. sing., which is ^-, and not ,«>. 

Rem. a. The suffix of the 1st p. sing. _, when ^£ attached to a 

X X J 

Word ending in elif maksura (^— ), in the long vowels t_, ^_, j_, 

O x Ox x 

or in the diphthongs ^j— and 3—, becomes ^, the kesra of the 
original form ^_ (see § 185, rem. d) being simply elided. Further, 


when the word ends in ^_ or ^_, the final ^ unites with the ^£ 

vi J x 

of the suffix into ^; and when it ends in j_ or j_, the 3 is changed 


into ^£, and likewise forms ^. E.g. j^t^A my Zove, for ^gt^A, 
D from ^>A; ^UUafc- ray sins, for ^bUw*,, from IjUa£., plur. 

GZ xxxxj xxxj xxj 

fract. of aJaa. j ^U^ ray ^0 slaves, for ^ £ U^, from <jU^, 
nom. dual of jf$& ; ^^^ my judge, for L5 *«olS (.^Uoli), from 
4j^l5 j ■y .l>» . o ray Muslims, for ^^JLyO (^^q.L».c) or ,-£^L~o 

x J xJOjxOJ J 5 x x J 

(t A J L* ^ from «*t * «JL »« , i'i ^ JUwo, plur. sanus of^L**; L-S-*^ 

*^ XXX X XX X "■* 

xOxxJ xOxxJ OxxJ 

ray taw slaves, for ^^c^ (^^w©^), from &***$£, genit. dual of 

6xJ £ x x J x x x J xOxxOJ xOxxOJ 

,>o*}L£ ; ^jAisucuo ray eto, for ^^aJxclo (^y^ak.^uo) or ^jAJsua* 

§ 318] II. The Noun. B. The Numerals.— Cardinal. 253 

( L y a ftJft.>A«), from QjkitfOt*, yj^A^auc, plur. sanus of j^aJxcl*. — 
From words like ^>A, US, the form ^>A, ^5, is used dialectically 
instead of ^I^A, i^Ui. — On w>l, f-\, j**-, t>*> J<P> an ^ >*> see 
§ 316, rem. — [^> a little son has both ^Xj and l><5 ^.] 

Rem. b. Just as the verbal suffix .J is sometimes shortened 
into ^j (§ 185, rem. c), so the nominal suffix ^£_ occasionally 
becomes _, particularly when the noun to which it is attached is in 

the vocative ; as w>j my Lord ! jb^3 b my peojrte ! [Com p. 
vol. ii. § 38, rem. b.] 

Rem. c. What has been said in § 185, rem. b, of the change of 
the damma in o, l^A, ^Jb, ii ^Jb, into kesra after — , ^£_, or ^_, 
applies to the nominal as well as the verbal suffixes. E.g. <u\S£s 
of his book, <t*Z>jl». his two female slaves, du)o\.9 his murderers, 
U^jU^, ^o^jU^ ([before wasl and] in verse ^j\&, [which is the 
older form] or^^U^), etc. 

' S * ' 

[Rem. d. If no ambiguity of meaning can arise, the dual before 
a suffix in the dual is not unfrequently replaced by the singular or 
the plural, as U-v*^ and'l^ylS the heart of them both.] 

B. The Numerals. 
1. The Cardinal Numbers. 
318. The cardinal numbers from one to ten are : — 







( * *\ 


o ^ 

1 * * * 

I J^t 




x^ <f ^ 


• > 

2 " " 


g a 

1 *rt 





/ "? 





1 "° 



Gs *£ 

I ^^ 





r f 








- 4JL»J 



g a , 

«^ ^ * 


C^ 1 






254 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 319 

A Rem. a. For >L?$3, aj*}U, we may also write £*Xj, 2£Xj, and 

o* ft %f i < a 

for dJloJ, S-mLoj (§ 6, rem. a). — C*w stands, according to the Arab 

lexicographers, for Oju> (compare § 14, c), and that for ^juj. 
The correctness of this view is proved [as they say] by the diminu- 

« * J m 9 J J Q * 

tive &■>»,» jw, the fraction ^ju, a sixth, and the ordinal adj. ^jl*, 

Rem. b. If we compare the above numerals with those of the 

cognate languages, it is easy to perceive their perfect identity; and, 

B therefore, only one or two forms deserve notice here. — The Assyrian 

for one in the sing. masc. is istin Qft^W, apparently identical with 

the Heb. >fijjpi in -|fety Wy ; but the fern, is ihit (HPIK) = ITIIK 

(for rnnN)- — The Aram. }Hfi, £ tWl^l  is a contraction for 

Tift? which may be either the equivalent of the Heb. &}$ (H 

becoming gjf, as in tfiPft, snow, = J?£^, and J exchanging with ^, 
t ; - v v I 

as in n^l) ^ rwe, =pnt)j or > as others think, derived from the 
_ . - T 

, as it were the dual of jjj single, sole. The daghesh in the 

Heb. fern. D^Hfe^ ( a l so pronounced CH^K) indicates the loss of the 
. _ . . - . . t 

n in o^-— The Heb. ##, HB^. stand for BHBf, plBHB> (see 

' ' T • V T • • 

rem. a, and compare the ^th. sedestu and sessw, for sedsu). The 
Jewish Aram, form ft$ (D^)j Uttfe?) is identical with the Arabic; 

whilst in the Syriac ]A-» or "|A^1 the original doubling has left its 
trace in the hard sound of the t (compare D*fi$). 

D 319. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 take the fern, form, 
when the objects numbered are of the masc. gender ; and conversely, 

the masc. form, when the objects numbered are fern. E.g. c>j£* JU->, 
or JU-j Zj***, ten men (lit., men, a decade, and a decade of men) ; 
J^p gUJ, or sUJ j-&s, ten women. 

Rem. a. The cause of this phenomenon, which also occurs in 
the other Semitic languages, seems to lie in the effort to give 
prominence to the independent substantive nature (§ 321) of the 

§ 321] II. The Noun. B. The Numerals.— Cardinal. 255 

cardinal numbers, in virtue of which they differ from the dependent A 
adjectives, which follow the gender of their substantives. — That 

O t t 5 xftc 5/1^ 9++t& 

wJLj, *.jj\, etc., are really masc, — and consequently a£Xj, aajjI, 

etc., fern., — is evident from the construction of j£s-, in the sense of 
ten days, either as a singular masc. or as a broken plur. (viz. the 

5 Hi • ft j * oioto j o *t>* 

implied j>\A). We may say, for example, either ^o h^t^\ JLs&\ 
^jLaaj the middle ten days of Ramadan, ^Laucj £y* j-+±-*$\ j£x)\ 

the last ten days of R., or Jx^lj^t j^jOI, j^-t^J j»^*M, etc. See 
also § 322, rem. o. jj 

Rem. 6. An undefined number from 3 to 10 is expressed by 
5U£u ([or juoj], literally, a part or portion)', as JUfcg Jt*aJ some 

^ J ft <- ft 

men, S^J **su some women, yj*+~i %*cJ ,-i in a few years. The 

'o.'ft J 0» J s 

use of JJLAj belongs to post-classical times ; as j^wl <buu some 
months. [Comp. vol. ii. § 99, rem.] 

320. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 are triptote, with the 

,0 s*0 ,0 '' 

exception of the duals 0^t> and O^*^ or 0^*3 - — O^ stands for n 
^jUj, and has in the genit. oU^> ace. LjUj (according to § 311). 

321. The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are always substantives. 
They either follow the objects numbered, and are put in apposition 

with them, as d.5*$3 JU^, of three men (lit., of men, a triad) ; or they 

precede them, in which case the numeral governs the other substantive 

in the genitive of the plural, as JU-j aj^U, three men (lit., a triad of j) 

men), except in the single instance of 4jU a hundred (see § 325). 

Rem. a. ,jl*j has, in the construct state, nom. and gen. .yOj 
ace. ^UJ (see § 320). 

Rem. b. If the numerals from 3 to 10 take the article, they of 
course lose the tenwin (§ 314, a). 

Rem. c. ^U>t and ^UiS! are very rarely construed with the 

256 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 322 

genit. sing, of the objects numbered, and then of course drop their 
final j^j (§ 315, b) ; as JJa-ia. LUj two colocynths, instead of <jU^jt 
^JJa-o^JI ^^-o, or simply ^jUUsO^.. 


Rem. d. %*x> and fouaj always precede the objects numbered, 
which are in the genitive of the plur. fractus (see § 319, rem. b). 



.» y ' 

, ,t 

•- y 





f ', s 










1 M • 

1 OjJLS. 





ss ft * 


* * * 

- ,*6i 

" ° " 

- <6i 







322. The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are : — 


' ', ' ' ' - 

15. J^*£> < Lm+ J* 

* ' 4> X U> 

16. **m£ 4l«f 

, , , , , o * 

17. jJ**£> 4JUw 6jJLS> JL*~t 

18. jii iuui sJJU ^yui 

19. j-Z+z 2 * ~J ZjJ^c *.~3 

Q Rem. a. Instead of SjjLs- some of the Arabs pronounce tjJLq % 

and the form ZjJLs. is said to occur. — For ZjJLs. ^jUj we also find 

ZjLs. ^Uj, [and incorrectly] ZjJ^s. jjl*S, and ZjjLs. jjl©j. [In 
manuscripts we often find ZjJis. jjU^, which may be either of the 

two preceding forms, or the vulgar Zj£s. ^jUj.] 

Rem. b. The cardinal numbers which indicate the units in 
these compounds, from 3 to 9, vary in gender according to the rule 
laid down in § 3 1 9 ; but the ten does not follow that rule, for it has 

D here the form jLs. with masculine nouns, and Zj&z with feminine. 
The same holds with regard to the undefined number, which is in 

this case masc. jJis. asuaj, fern. SjJl£> %*cu, some, a few (from 11 to 

19). The objects numbered are placed after them in the ace. sing. 

Rem. c. These numerals are usually indeclinable, even when 
they take the article, with the exception of jJLg Ujt and (Uij) Uljt 

SjJLft, which have in the oblique cases jJis- ^j+j\ and (tJO£) i***>\ 


" J ? 


/> J s 







324] II. The Noun. B. 2%e Numerals.— Cardinal. 257 

Rem. e?. The contraction of these compound numerals into one A 
word began at a very early period, as may be seen from the 
Aramaic dialects, and the Arab grammarians mention such forms 

y s * si 

as jA*jn*.\. In modern times they are greatly corrupted, being 

o s o * e> o Z ^ 

pronounced, for example, in Algiers, ^hIjl^.1, ^LljI, uiD^IU, 

,0,oi O * ' d » //«/ f> sO - 0**0 

^./SUXJjl, ^U ^a., u«>U*«;, ^)UU«i, ^|M)Wul^J, u»>UJU«J. 

The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are :— B 

: V* 

Rem. a. £)y?$3 and ^ji^iloJ may also be written 0>*^> Oy^- 
Rem. b. The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are both masc. 
and fem., and have, like the ordinary plur. sanus masc, OJ— ln *^ e 
nom., and Otl— in * ne oblique cases. They are substantives, and 

take the objects numbered after them in the ace. sing., so that they 
do not lose the final jj. Sometimes, however, they are construed 
with the genit. of the possessor, when, of course, the & disappears, 

leaving in the nom. j_, in the genit. and ace. ^ 

Rem. c. The Hebrew and Aramaic dialects agree with the 

Arabic as to the form of the tens; D^l^tf* *r ffr> \ e ^c. But the 

• : v ^ i 

Assyrian and ^Ethiopic curiously coincide in employing a form in D 
& (for an) ; Assyr. isret, silasa, irba, hansa ; iEth. 'esrei, salasa, 
'arbe'a, hamsa, etc. 

324. The numerals which indicate numbers compounded of the 
units and the tens, are formed by prefixing the unit to the ten, and 

uniting them by the conjunction j, and; as OjLr^i J^l one and 

< ,t 

twenty, twenty-one. Both are declined; as gen. CHj J ^3 ***■!> acc « 

O * 4 ,t 

w. 33 

258 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 325 
Rem. The undefined unit is in this case uuj (lit., excess, 

surplus), as £)3J-*»*3 **-*jH twenty and odd ; but juaj and 
also used. 

325. The numerals from 100 to 900 are :— 
100. &U 
200. oU5U 
B 300. #U 1HS 

J ,0't. 

400. #U ajjt 

500. asu ,1U. 



600. a5U 

700. a5U ill> 

800. J* ' ' _ 

a5U ^O 

900. a5U 

« ..." 
C x 

Rem. a. For i5U (^Bth. 9«>* ,? t": me'e*, Heb. ntf£> Aram. 

" T " 

«* P 6/ OP 

PlX/!!D> IhA Assyr. mS) we also find dJU [and sometimes 5U. For 

t : " " 

Ox Ox O 5 xx 

aLc we find often a**, and more recently 2u*. The dual <jU5U is 


q written occasionally ^)IjU, and hence in poetry ^)UU. D. G.] 

xJOx i x | J O 

The plur. is O^** 6 * Olio, or ^U; the forms ^Jjyc, O**** (like 

O O x x x Ox 

^>~w from iUw a year), and ,«© (with the article, .JU-M) ar e rare. 


The strange spelling of a5U seems to be due merely to a piece of 

bungling on the part of the oldest writers of the Kor'an. The I was 
probably meant to indicate the vowel of the second syllable, but 
was inadvertently placed before, instead of after, the j (5). 


J) Rem. b. The numerals from 3 to 9 are often united with a5U 

into one word, as £5loiij. [In this case we find often in manu- 
scripts 4jIoJUj i.e. a5Lo.3UJ, though the correct form is a5U ^U-3.] 

X X I x 

The regular construction ^>~U w*Xj, etc. (see § 321), is very rarely 
employed [in poetry]. 


Rem. c. a5U usually takes the objects numbered after it in the 

*++ *\ * ' " XX x Jtx, 

genit. sing.; as 4w £jU, &w U5U, i^w ijl^JLj. 

§ 327] II. The Noun. B. The Numerals.— Cardinal. 
326. The numerals from 1000 upwards are : — 




o£ Jx 

2 X 





^aJI U5U 


sj<)\ £K5 


^3t asuitf 


O^l dL3Uj\ 





S=«P x x x x x I 


o£ jo£ 


tot x x x xo 


o£ xot 


ujI jii iLHs 


^t oSm ii^ 




Rem. The plur. of JBt (Heb. &Stf, Aram. XsStt, UlI^, C 

5 it. x»» 9J" 

I but ^Eth. 'ej/; 10,000) is J^JI, sj*$\, and «^t. It takes the objects 

x J0C xO xȣ 

numbered after it in the genit. sing., as ^»Ap O^t, vfrA;^ Ull, 

x0 x-« ->x»x «5J,x 

„*Ap J^JI a^Xj. [The plural uUt is only used in the combination 

Jf Jx XX 9 x»* 

vJUl aj^U, but o^t with all numerals from 3 to 10. In manu- 

scripts it is often written defectively uUt (vJUt). The plurals 

O jl x J 

sJ^Jt and <ji>**> are only employed of indefinite numbers, thousands, 
hundreds. D. G.] 

327. The numerals which indicate numbers made up of thousands, D 
hundreds, tens, and units, may be compounded in two ways. Either 
(a) the thousands are put first, and followed successively by the 

x J ft x O x £x x J0xx xjxjxxx 

hundreds, units, and tens, as \J3J** £, 3 ***^3 *^ f**^ ^^ aj^j, 
3721 ; or (b) the order is reversed, and becomes units, tens, hundreds, 

x^Jxtxx x JOxx x JOx O x £ 

thousands, as u£*^t itUj 30 l ^ a ^#j OJJ-^J ***•'• 

260 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 328 

2. The Ordinal Numbers. 

328. The ordinal adjectives from first to tenth are :- 







^J*ft\ the first. 


Ox x 

<i/ x 

2-Jtf second. 


axjL> seventh 


£bo ^w. 

4-utf eighth. 


Ox x 

Aautj fourth. 


2" " 


dU»»U» fifth. 


Ox x 


JP I Ox 

x 2, 


Rem. «. Jy^l stands for JjfsJI or Jlj^t, ^j^t for ^J^t or 
jJj^Jt, according to the superlative form ^JaJI, f. j^^**, from the 

p P x jSpOx J *<x£Ox xPOx 

rad. Jjt or Jlj. Its plurals are: oVj^^ J^ly^'j i^b^ an( * 

JxpOx Jx^Ox J 5p Ox 

Jj^l for the masc; Jy^t (rarely Jy^t) for the fern* 

* [If Jj! is used as a noun, it takes the tenwin, as in the verse of 

j 6" *>»>£ ojx 

the Nakaid (f. 182 6) quoted by Wright on the margin, ^hu Jjt j^ 

Sit * J XX 

J3I Jj& ,-lft tfAey have a past (or cm ancestor) surpassing the past 
(or ancestor) of everybody else, and another apud Wright, Opusc. 106, 

xx #5p JX XXX X 

1. 7 (where it means ancestor), as also in the phrase ^3 ^t 4J ,*)jJ U 
]) l^*.t Ae fe/£ him neither past (\*+jj3) wor present (&j^). The fern. 

if J i J x «*G/«x 2 jj J x5£o*»3J 

plur. occurs in the phrase W^ja. Otji.'^lj ^560 *^)y^ e>* ^ ie 2/ are 

5x5c Ox i» 

^e ,/trstf £0 ewter, £Ae £as£ to Jeave, as plurals of <Ujt and cj±.\. In later 


times the fern. iJjl is very common also as an adjective (comp. 

Fleischer, i£7. £c/ir. i. 336 seq.) ; likewise the adverb ^jt (as in 

«»x #fil xi£ 

t/^tj ^Ijt) for the correct Jjt formerly. So it is interpreted in the 

phrase ty\ UU <CJU / met him in a year before, as some say instead of 

X ££ t X 

J^l UU £as£ year (comp. Lane s. v. je\&). D. G.] 

330] II. The Noun. B. The Numerals.— Ordinal. 261 

Rem. b. <jtf makes, of course, in the construct state and with A 
the art. jJIj, ,yU)t ; in the ace. iJlj, construct state and with the 
art. /jl5, iJ&\. And so with the rest j ijl5, ijlif, etc. 

^^ X ^^X X X 

Rem. c. Instead of ^^oLf the forms $L> (ace. loU>) and OL 

' - ' 

2 Qui x 

(formed directly from C-w, *U~/) are occasionally used. — Jtf, ace. 

2 x Ox x x 

L3U, also occurs for *£Jtf [and^eli. for ^^l*.]. 

329. The ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth are : — B 

Masc. Fern. 

j-u»ft ^£2\*' ZjJLs. aj^I»- eleventh. 

j-&t ajlj S^ft axjIj fourteenth. 

etc. etc. 

Rem. These numerals are not declined, when they are un- C 
defined ; and even if defined by the article, they remain unchanged, 

asJJLft *£JUM, S^c- 33UM. For j^ft ^U*ji andj-£c ^yuH we may 

x x x x Ox x x x B x 

say j-£& ^>la*Jt and jJLs ^$t- Some, however, admit the 
inflection of the unit, when defined, as %Ls- wJUM, S*£c ii)U)l j in 


which case jJLc (^JutJt) ^>La*JI is the nom. and genit., 
]£* (fjJlBl) ^>i»J1 the accus. 

330. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth are identical in D 

x J x J Ox 

form with the cardinals ; as Ojj*^ twentieth, ^jJju\ the twentieth. 
If joined to the ordinals of the units, these latter precede, and the two 

x x J x x 

are united by j ; as 03J**3 >^ one anc ^ twentieth, twenty-first 

xOx x x x £ x xJOx 9x x 

(gen. £rtj***3 >{*», ace. O^J-^J ^3^*), fern. 03j** c, 3 *^**- If a 
compound of this sort be defined, both its parts take the article ; as 

262 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 331 

^ JO b>o. 

A ijjj-l*)lj ^jUJt (ace. CrtJ****h ijptiiJf) the twenty-first, f-JJpt 
jj^j-tAJtj ££a twenty-fourth. 

[Rem. Later writers use instead of these forms yjij^G ^3^, 

\Jj,jJS*& %Aj and with the article, \J^jJ^ ^jU»Jl, O-O"^ £#!pt» ^ 

2/*e ,/£rs£ o/* £/ie twenties, the fourth of the twenties. Com p. vol. ii. 
§ 108. D. G.] 

B 3. The remaining Glasses of Numerals. 

331. The numeral adverbs, once, twice, thrice, etc., are capable of 
being expressed in two ways, (a) By the accusative of the nomen 
vicis (§ 219), or, if this should be wanting, of the nomen verbi ; as 

sj^Uy9 jt &«ji je\S, he rose up once or twice; O-JUS ^t I j^l^ ^U5 JJlS, 

he fought once or twice. It is also permitted to use the simple 

cardinal numbers, the nomen verbi being understood ; as 0++&\ twot 

C O***^ U^^Ij, thou hast given us death twice, and thou hast given us 

life twice, i.e. O-s^^ an( i O-a-^W*-'- (&) By the noun S^», and similar 

words, in the accus. ; as 5^o once, 0*h* twice, Ot^o wJJ, or j\j*o stJJ, 

or OU3.S wJJ, thrice; S^£d CHj*** twenty times; \^j^3 *jU oweg 
<m<# again ; etc. 

332. The numeral adverbs a j^stf, second, third time, etc., are 
D expressed either by adding the accus. of the ordinal adjective to a 

finite form of a verb (in which case the corresponding nomen verbi is 

OS * s J/ 

understood) ; or by means of one of the words S^, isij, etc., in the 
accus., accompanied by an ordinal adjective agreeing with it. E.g. 

U)U eU. (i.e. liltf IW* *W»), or ibtf 3j-o *U., ^ came a third time; 

i*0 *U. (i.e. i*0 jj-^iJf *U.), or aio sJ^T *W, A* came tfe 
third time. 

333. The distributive adjectives are expressed by repeating the 

J ' J J S X 

cardinal numbers once ; or by words of the forms JUJ and Jma, 

§ 336] II. The Noun. B. The Numerals.— Distributive, etc. 263 

either singly or repeated. E.g. \J~£\ 0**^ >»>^' *W», or j»^Ai\ sU. A 
the 'people came two by two ; ^/}U £>*& lj*U., or wJJl* tjlU. 

, , 6 , x x Jx /«/ »/ J«// 

wJjlo, fji^y c&wtf ^r^ 6?/ three ; £>%5j ^y+* J>$*4 ^jj* I passed by a 

x Jx x x x J 6#s 

party of men, {walking) by twos and threes ; £y> j£$ w>lb U S^SjM 

x xJ x x 'i' /»/ »»/iii/0 

cbjj ^'iUj ^j£* |V-UM £^ra marry what pleaseth you of women, two 
and three and four at a time. The most common words of the forms 

3 x J J x © x J x £ J x J J x x 0-*J xO x J x x J x J 

J l*j and Jmuo are >UJ, *U-j, j^yo ; 2Uj, ^Lo (for u***) ; *t>^, B 

J ^0 x J x J J x x 

AJU U ; and cbj, >uj-«; but the formation is admitted [by some] up 
to 10 [; the best authorities mentioning only jlic]. 

334. The multiplicative adjectives are expressed by nomina 
patientis of the second form, derived from the cardinal numbers ; e.g. 

uix J fix J 

^j£* twofold, double, dualized; £**++ threefold, triple, triangular; 
A^ >* fourfold, square; ^^a^ fivefold, pentagonal ; etc. Single or 
simple is jji* (nom. patient. IV.). 

335. Numeral adjectives, expressing the number of parts of 
which a whole is made up, take the form ^1*$ ; as ^Uj biliteral ; 

5 * r i . . • ^ 

^^Vj triliteral, three cubits in length or height ; ^-^ij quadriliteral, 

$ ' > 
four spans or cubits in height, a tetrastich; ^wUfc quinqueliteral, 

five spans in lieight ; etc. 

336. The fractions, from a tfttrtti up to a fof»tf, are expressed by d 

J 9 3 J Ox i /t( OJ O JJ 

words of the forms Jj*3, J*s, and J**$, pi. J Us I ; as w-Jj, *£Jb, 


°|A • 0, Ia £ 7 • 7 • • J J J X X 0* 

or w^Jj, pi. C/^Lm, a third; ^ju», ^ju*, or er*>ju», pi. ^tjwl, 

0.} .» jf Ox x «£ Ox* 

a mom; 0+3> t>^» or O*-*^ pi- O^j', #w eighth. — [The form JUiU 

0x6 Ox0 

is exclusively employed for a fourth pW>* and a tenth. jILjlc, together 

J <5 }J J .» J x 

with £Jj, jj; and ^, j£s. or j~*x. According to Zamahsari, Faik 


ii. 659 the form %^j never occurs in this signification, nor, according 

264 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 337 

_ - x 

A to Abu Zeid (Nawadir 193) *£~tf and u~**»- D. G.] ^4 &*(/* is 

00 x J «i .» f ' 1 f i " ** 

uLaJ, less frequently ouaj, u Lo j (vulg. uou), or ^ < ° - S pi- ^itoil. — 
The fractions above a tenth are expressed by a circumlocution ; e.g. 

OjxOOi-xOfjxIx J 

' li^» CHJ** 6, v>* Slta^ **^> Mr^ porfc ow£ o/* twenty, ■£$ ; [ o La J 

J OJjOj 9IJ/ 00 J J J 00 

J J J OOJ 00 

jf* Tstj** «-*- fl ^ ^-^J **•* IS; etc.*] 

00 J 

B Rem. The form Ja9 occurs in the same sense in Assyrian, 

Heb. and Aram.; e.g. ]A^oZ a third, "rubu," Mh> a fourth, 

titih <* fifth. 


337. The period, at the end of which an event usually recurs, is 
expressed by a noun of the form J*$, in the accus., either with or 

<■ x Oirf x 

without the article ; as UU, or w*U)t, every third (day, month, year, 

£0x0* x S 

etc.) ; Ujj, or £JjJt> every fourth; etc. Synonymous with w-%tf is w*£, 

but & wk J wi o*o 8 j 

C as w%X3t j*^*., or w**JI L5 fr*, ^ fortw 

C. The Nomina Demonstrativa and Conjunctiva. 

338. We treat of the nomina demonstrativa (including the 
article), and the nomina conjunctiva (including the nomina inter- 
rogativa), in one chapter, because they are both, according to our 
terminology, pronouns, the former being the demonstrative pronouns, 

D the latter the relative. 

1. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the Article. 

, x x 0<<» »- x £ 

339. The demonstrative pronouns, 3jlw*^t l\+~*\, are either simple 
or compound. 

* [On a similar expression of whole numbers by circumlocution see 
Goldziher in Zeitschr. D. M. G. xlix. 210 seqqJ] 

§ 340] II. The Noun. C. 1. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 265 

340. The simple demonstrative pronoun is \l, this, that. A 

Masc. Fern. 

Sing, li ^(k'**'L5^); 

Dual. Norn. ^ (oti) O^ (£0). 

Gen. Ace. o-*S (v>£) o*3 (o*3). 

.1 ^ x l ~A ~, I 

Plur. comm. gen. ^t, ^t, or ^J$\ ; 6 *^l or 6 ^t. B 

This simple form of the demonstrative pronoun is used to indicate 
a person or thing which is near to the speaker. 

Rem. a. The w in ^Jjt and s ^l is always short, 3 being merely 
scriptio plena. In this way ^J$\ can be distinguished in verse from 
jjjt, the fern, of Jj$1, first, in which the w is long. The 3 may 
have been inserted in order the more easily to distinguish .Jt and 
g ^t from ^Jl and ffl q 

Rem. b. The diminutive of 1$ is L>3, f. tJ ; du. ^Ij3, f. ^U3 ; 

P i. u 3 t, ,yy. 

Rem. c. Closely connected in its origin with 1^ is another 
monosyllable, viz. ^$ (= Heb. fXtt Phoen. J and JX> this) which is 
commonly used in the sense of possessor, owner. It is thus declined. 



Sing. Nom. 

si (np 

M (nxi). 







Du. Nom. 


Utii (Ut3). 

Gen. Ace. 
Plur. Nom. 
Gen. Ace. 


j, A 

33 y yi oi 

j ,* j A j . I 

^3>, &y\ or O^jl. 

A . 1 

Ot^3, O^t or O^jl. 

w. 34 

266 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 341 

A The u in jJ$t and O^Jjl is always sAortf, as in ^jt and 6 *^l. — 

The form *lj$t is used as a plural of j3, when this word forms part 
of the names or surnames of the kings or princes of el-Yemen, as 

OM 3>> \j*W 3*> O^J 3$) &*$&! >£> etc - These are called l\£\ 

2 2 \mr _, 

t>*«Jt, formed as if from a singular \^^>. 

[Rem. d. \j£* (sometimes written ^j£s) thus, so and so, so 
and so much or many, is compounded of i) as, like and the 
B demonstrative pronoun tj. Comp. Vol. ii. § 44, e, rem. d.] 

341. From the simple demonstrative pronoun are formed com- 
pounds : 

(a) By adding the pronominal suffix of the second person (i), *i) ; 

y J J S J 

U^ ; j^s, ^>^), either (a) alone, or (/?) with the interposition of the 
demonstrative syllable J. 

(b) By prefixing the particle U. 

C 342. The gender and number of the pronominal suffix, appended 
to the simple demonstrative pronoun, depend upon the sex and number 

of the persons addressed. In speaking to a single man, i))S is used ; 

to a single woman, ni)\h; to two persons, l©i»t$ ; to several mm,j&\$ ; 

to several women, ^>£»ly But the form ^)\$ may also be — and in fact 
usually is — employed, whatever be the sex and number of the persons 
spoken to ; and so with the rest. In regard to their signification, 
these compound forms differ from the simple pronoun in indicating a 
distant object. 
D Masc. Fern. 

Sing. I)t3 (MS*) that. i)tf, iJLJ (vulg. k&). 

Du. Norn. iUli iJUU. 

Gen. Ace. *£U>5 »£UJ. 

Plur. comra. gen. I)^t or i)^, itf^f or iXS^I. 

* [Some say that »iX5t$ is a mispronunciation for *£)Uy] 

§ 343] II. The Noun, C. 1. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 267 

-. - I 

Rem. a. The u is sAor^ in jfyy and il5*^t, just as in .Jjt, A 

~ J j l 

rtjl, and ^jt (§ 340, rem. a, c). 

Rem. b. The diminutive of Jt* is JCy f. i)C5, etc. 

343. By inserting the demonstrative syllable J before the pro- 

nominal suffix, we get a longer form ^iUtj or <£*J3 (often written »iJU$, 

§ 6, rem. a). B 

Masc. Fern. 

Sing. M that iLU (iUU). 

Du. Norn. ItflS itfll 

Gen. Ace. *iU»3 ^Uo. 

Plur. comm. gen. i*JN)t or iU^jt. 

Rem. a. »iUj is a contraction for ^XL3. In the dual, *iUt3, C 
Ju\3, stand for *ilL>ly JUUD; and dUji, ^LwJ, for ^JULoi, *£UiJ. 
The plur. is rare, ir^jl or lAS^l (§ 342) being generally used in- 
stead. Some authorities regard *iUti, <iJJU, as the dual of ,*)ti, the 
second n being in their opinion merely corroborative. 

Rem. b. Some grammarians assert that there is a slight differ- 
x x x i 

ence of meaning between ,*)!$ and >iX)$, the former referring in 

their opinion to the nearer of two distant objects, the latter to the 
more remote. D 

Rem. c. The syllable J must not be mistaken for the prepo- 


sition yj (which, when united with the pronominal suffixes of the 
second and third persons, becomes J), but is to be viewed as a 
demonstrative syllable, which occurs also in the article and in the 
relative pronoun. See §§ 345 and 347. 

Rem. d. The diminutive of ^ is iUUS, f. iUlJj. [A com- 

268 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 344 

A pound of j) and *iUi (comp. § 340, rem. d) is ^J)jl4> so, in like 

344. The particle U (which has the same demonstrative force as 

od *y jo x 

the Latin ce in A^ce) is called by the Arabs *•«-£) t wj^»., the particle 
that excites attention. It is prefixed both to the simple demonstrative 
13, and to the compound Jti (but not to *iU>). Before t£ it is usually 
written defectively, tjJb or IjJb ; before Jli in full, i)!3li. 




IJjb ;£&. 

10 1 t 

djdk (djjb), t^JJb 
(<uU, jJU, UIa, Ot jjb). 

XX *^ X X 

i. Nom. 


." x x 1 

tjUU or jjllA. 

Gen. Ace. 

O x 1 

Ox x Ox | 

tj-JU or 0-£fc. 


x l • * x2 x ^x| , 

Plur. comm. gen. *^U or ^jA, ojU or 5 ^)yb. 

In like manner, i)I^U or iMjJk, fem. i)UU, itJU, etc. 

X ^ P 

Rem. a. U is identical with the Aram, tfn |cn, £/m', as an 

T * 

interjection, lo ! Heb. fc<n. 

Id X I 

Rem. b. In the dual some say tjtjuk, with double n. — The 
diminutive of Ijjb is bjdb, f. LJU, pi. 6 LJ^i ; of ^)ljJb, ,*jCjJb, pi. 

"J -J* 2/«l XX X X I 

D *i*jLJyb. [By prefixing U to tjk£» is formed tJJUb tfAws.] 

x Oxx x Ox 

[Rem. c. To these demonstratives belong also C*->3>j v£-j£ and 

x x x x x 

C»Aj C «■■»£>, £/ms anc? tfAtts, so and so, such and such things, for 

Oxx Ox x Ox J Oxx J Ox 

which we also find C*^ ^}J> *Z * tr * l C^ (rarely wo3$ w^>i> 

J X X J x x fix x x Wx Kli// «xfix 

C-Aj C»A) and for the former aj>j 4-»i, 2WA3 *^j3, for the latter 

al^j **£»• According to some scholars there is originally a slight 
difference between these expressions, the former relating to what 

* [A singular contraction (or modification) of ^JUJ^> is „*)l£» used 
by the poet £s-Sanfara, as quoted in the Hamdsa, p. 244, 1. 21.] 

§ 345] II. The Noun. C. 1. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 269 

has been said, the latter to what has been done, as IjJd refers to A 
quantity (comp. Hariri, Durrat, ed. Thorb. p. 99). D. G.] 

ox o a i& j 'i 

345. The article Jl —called by the Arabs oLj^jCM i\*\ the 
instrument of definition, j^\^ t*JJ^)t the elif and lam, j**$ [or \Jj+*\ 
objjuJI the lam of definition, or simply vo^Ut the lam, — is composed of 
the demonstrative letter J (see § 343, rem. c, and § 347) and the 
prosthetic I, which is prefixed only to lighten the pronunciation B 

x0/» jx x 

(J^yt 3>*A, § 19 a, and rem./). [It is always written in conjunction 
with the following word.] Though it has become determinative, it 
was originally demonstrative, as still appears in such words as^e^JI 

x ,xOx 

to-day, o^t now, etc. 

[Kem. a. The article, if employed to indicate the genus, i.e. 
any individual (animate or inanimate) bearing the name, is called 

O/tf 0, J d x 0/» J x / i <« //OP 

U m« Tii H objjCJ ^OUt, or simply u ,.j;aJt j»*$, as ^LJt »iUAl 

J * <M X>/ J * *t rO J J & 

^oAjjJtj ^UjjJl dinar and dirhem bring men to perdition, Ja-jJI (j 

iO xO/O x x 

Slj^t ^o j x a. man m better than woman ; if indicating a particu- 

0/ Ox J fi / t Ox J / 

lar individual it is called j^sOl UujjO >o^Ut, or simply jl^jJI vo*j).J 
Rem. 6. Some grammarians regard the elif as an integral part 

oZ o x e»o j I 

of the article, and say that it was originally Jt (with *Jx&Jt oUI, of 

Ox Ox Ox 

the same form as Ja, J^), gradually weakened to Jl. But some- 

x x x J x f Ox 

times the Arabs suppress the I, saying for instance j-qj*. ) for j+***)\ 
(comp. Vol. ii. § 242, footnote). D 

Rem. c. It is sometimes, though very rarely, used as a relative 

fix x x O/O xx ^ x Jxx xOx 

pronoun (= ^JJI, § 347) ; as Aa^Jt j^U t^»U» Jljj *n) ^>« /te ?/>Ao 
c?oes ?io£ cease to be grateful for what is with him (or for what he 

OxxOx J x x fix 6J0 \ tO J J H /O x0/» x 

has), where 4**JI = <uu ^JJt ; ^or^ *&1 J>^ >»>*)' t>* <>/* ^ 

X xx x x 

i /» j j fi x x fix 

people of whom is the Apostle of God, where a£M J^jJt = O-i^' 

X X 

1 a? j J / xjxjj / i xj xx 0/0 x o£ x 

401 J^-»^ ; <U< 3 ^. (^5-^/21 ^o^afcJb wJl U tfAow art not the judge 

270 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 346 

whose sentence is approved, where L5 -«>Bl = ^>y ^JJI. Compare, 

for example, in German, der = welcher, and our that for who and 

Rem. d. Jt is [in all probability (see Comp. Gr. p. 114)] identical 
with the Hebrew art. .J-|, for 7H- In South Arabia Jf was (and even 

ex> wi a* , 

still is) used for Jt, but without assimilation ; as j\~aa\ j^c\ ^y* ^^J 
jr*~~*\ f^J fasting in journeying is not (an act) of piety ; t^j-i 
<* ». lm .«tj ^^^wcb ^tjj ^6 casts (standing) behind me with arrow 
B and stone ; for Jjt, ^oU-oJI, ^iLJI, ^^-JU and OtJtj. 

2. 77><? Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns. 
(a) The Conjunctive Pronouns. 

346. The conjunctive pronouns are : — 

(1) t^J^t wAo, which, that; fern. .-31. 

(2) O-* ^ wfo, she who, whoever ; 
C U that which, whatever. 

(3) ^t ^0 w&>, whoever ; fern. ^bt sfo w&>, whoever. 

o tit 

(4) tj-^M £^r# <w w&>, whosoever ; 


U^t everything which, whatsoever. 

o * * Si Oii t o ,2ti *&£ 

Rem. ^a, Lo, ^j}\, <ul, and their compounds, £m\, l©-{t, are 
also interrogatives, which indeed is their original signification (see 
D § 351 and foil.). They ought therefore to be treated of first as 
interrogatives and then as conjunctives ; but it is convenient to 
reverse this order, so as to connect the relatives with the demon- 

347. The conjunctive ^Si\ is compounded of the article Jl, the 
demonstrative letter J (see §§ 343 and 345), and the demonstrative 
pronoun 15, or ^3 (§ 340, rem. c). When used substantively, it has 

§ 347] II. The Noun. C. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 271 

the same meaning as v>«, U, viz. he who, that which, whoever, A 
whatever; when used adjectively, it signifies who, which, that, and 
refers necessarily to a definite substantive, with which it agrees in 
gender, number, and case. It is declined as follows : — 

Masc. Fern. 

wlx ut* 

Sing. j^JJt (J}\ ; JJI ; ^JJt, J*\ (cJI ; cJt ; 

Du. Norn. ^tifif (gfjAf; U&1). ^£&S (O^ 1 "; ^)- B 

Gen. Ace. o-}JJUl (ChjJJJt). o*UUt (o*£0l). 

Plur. chJJI (^Jjf ; [«^M] ; JF& ; «£)! (otflfol) ; 

$* ; [Cu$$f Nom., ^tj&f ; crfjfii 0j&) ; 

CHsfi&f Gen. Ace.]) ; ^^Jl ; f$S\ ; 

,<fW or Jjj0l+. ^t or J^^l. C 

Rem. «. ^JJt, j^t, and sJJtJM, are written defectively, because 

of their frequent occurrence, instead of ^JJJt, ^-^JUt, and ^jjjli\. 

The other forms, which are not in such constant use, generally 
retain the double J of the article and the demonstrative. — The 
modern, vulgar form, for all numbers and genders, is ,JI or jJUt. 

* J 

Rem. 6. The tribe of Hudeil (J^Jus), according to the Arab 
grammarians, used \jjj>)\ in the nom. plur. masc, ^J>i\ in the gen. D 

and ace. This £)3^ must, of course, at one time have been uni- 

« a* 
versally employed as the nom., ^->JJt being the form which belongs 

to the oblique cases ; but gradually the latter supplanted the 

* [According to as-Sabban, as quoted by Landberg (Nylander's 

Specimenschrift, p. 30) the relative pronoun is only ^J^l, the article 

sufficing to distinguish it from the prepos. j«JI. Comp. § 340, rem. a. 

272 Part Second.— -Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 347 

A former, just as in modern Arabic the oblique form of the plur. 

sanus, sjj—, has everywhere usurped the place of the direct form 

j fix 

^j« Even the sing. ^JJI is an oblique form, the nom. of which 

Jul-' x i.i*a * 

ought properly to be 3JJI. — The forms ^j^^Ut, gen. and ace. 

x —Si x ic2 f 

^^^Jt, and j^^Ut are also said to occur. 


Rem. c. ^JJt was originally, as its derivation shows, a demon- 
strative pron., and has its precise Hebrew equivalent in n?7Pl> 

B fern. !)J*?>n, coram. f^H (= J3t). See Gomp. Gr. p. 117. 
.. _ T _ 

ds fi x fi *■ St "St * 

Rem. d. From ^JJt are formed the diminutives bJJJt, UlWt ', 

Si x St * SisSt x ^ w/2 / j i/i / 5 /u/ fixuj * 

du. <j\iMS, J^&\ J pi. Oj*W OUJUt. The forms bJJUt, UJJt, 
are vulgar and incorrect. 


Rem. e. Instead of ^JJI, some of the Arabs, especially the tribe 

of Tayyi' (?J£), employ £ (Heb. JR, Aram. H, ^, -ffith. H= za). 

Q It is then either wholly indeclinable, which is more usual ; as 

LjU^ U ^oAjuc 3$ O-* ^5» w * a *^ ^ w enough for me of that which 

jSi-o x 

is with them (of their property) is what suffices me, for ^JJt ^c 

x x x x x OJ x x£ J 6x0 OxxOCx 

(LiU^ in rhyme for ^-3U&); di;U Ut 33 ^=u«JJ ^a*.*. '^ / wi££ 
se£ £0 wor& tf» earnest on the bone which I am gnawing (on the satire 

fix ej x JJ ' 

which I am meditating), for ^£jJt (a5jU in rhyme for a5jU) ; 

J Oxx J x J Ox x J x 

C-j^l? j$j C^a». y$ l£j+43 an d m V we H 'which I dug and which 

I) / lined (or cased), for ^£Jt and ^i^ J [sU~»M ^ <*~^ ^>3 ^ wo/ by 
Him whose residence is in lieaven, 'Aganl xi. 25, 1. 18. D. G.] or 
else declined as follows : — 



Sing. Nom. 


J X 



otS (oii) 



OI3 (oti) 

§ 349] II. The Noun. C. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 273 



Du. Nom. 


Gen. Ace. 



Plur. Nom. 



Gen. Ace. 


Olji (OtjS) 


An example of this use is 2u\jSj\j <u aJUt ^JuLgui ^3 JlcuJU 
lyj <UJt ^^X^^t Ot> 5y </te excellence wJierewith God hath made B 
you excel, and the honour wherewith God hath honoured you, for 

Si* v>* 

^JJt and ^}\ j [a woman in Yemen said ('Omara, ed. Kay, p. 147, 

L 9, 1 l)jt^\ j£*. & O* +t 3> for Jt+yJZ* \J$ O* *i *§ 

you cannot but obey the decision of the Prince. D. G.] 

348. The conjunctive pronouns v>o and U are indeclinable, and 
differ from ^JJl in never being used adjectively, but always sub- 
stantively, so that they correspond to the Latin m qui, ea quce, id quod, C 
Gr. Sorts, 17ns, o,Tt. The former (o*) is used of beings endowed with 
reason, the latter (U) of all other objects. [They are either definite 
(J>°>*) as {£JM> or indefinite (\Jy+y), ^j* signifying in the latter 
case one who, U something that, and may also have a collective meaning 
persons who, things that, being nevertheless construed as singulars.] 

Rem. For the corresponding forms in the other Semitic lan- 
guages see Comp. Gr. pp. 123 — 127. 

it OS& 

349. The conjunctive pronoun ^t, fern, ijt, he who, she who, D 
whoever, is regularly declined in the sing, according to the triptote 
declension, but has commonly neither dual nor plural. 

Rem. The ^Eth. has the same word, iftJE : ( ,<x 2/) who? of wliat 
sort? The corresponding Heb. vocable is *tf, used as an adverb, 
where ? in interrogative phrases *{$ , which appears in j^Eth. in 

7 7 

?v£l:: ('ayte) where? "Xfil: ('efo) how? Syr. |il_>1 v)here? \lJ\ 
who ? «-iASd"| Jiow long ? etc. 



274 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 350 

3 c « x x x JSp 

A 350. Of ^1 and &*, U, are compounded O-*!' ^ wfo, s^ who, 
whosoever, U->t £to which, whatsoever. Only the first part of the 
compound admits of being declined ; gen. 0-*i'> \+jS ; ace. 0^> U^'. 

(b) The Interrogative Pronouns. 

351. It has been already stated (§ 346, rem.) that the conjunctive 
pronouns, with the exception of ^JJt, are also interrogative, which is 

a indeed their original signification. To them may be added jJSs [and 

vi £ x vii x 

\^\£s or C>A£>], how much [or many\ which are (a) interrogative, 
(b) according to our ideas, exclamatory, according to the Arab gram- 
marians, enuntiative (jC±.*$J) ; but never conjunctive. 

Rem. The interrogative U may be* shortened after preposi- 
tions into j*, and is then united in writing both with those 
prepositions with which such a union is usual, and with those with 
C which it is not, (though, in the latter case, it is better to keep them 

apart) ; e.g. ^, Jj, ^5, JJ*, J^ (for J ^, Ji ^), Ji^t, ^U, 

* 48 <* x x ^ x x x 8 x 

>ftU». (better ^o ^)l, ^o j-U, ^» ^*»-)- In such cases, the accent is 

transferred from^e to the preceding syllable (as bima, Hid ma, etc.); 
whence it happens that j^ and j£ are sometimes shortened in 

x x x 

poetry into^j and^J. This is also the origin of^^a, for^o^ or 
lo^ (lit., tJie like of what ? the worth of what ?), Heb. HJIS^ HIED 
D Aram. ^D3 ££2 [see Comp. Gr. p. 125]. — In pause these words 

(/ ( fi/ / £ / x x *-x 

are written a*j, a^c, <l«U»., etc. Similarly we find a*i for l*i 

x x 

wAai 2Am ? and <t» a if> £Aa2 what ? for what purpose ? as when one 

* [Rather, "is usually shortened." Zamahsari, Faik, ii. 159 calls it 

J x 6 t *x 

"the commoner" form (»*w^l). The grammarians of the school of 
Basra say that it must always be shortened in prose; in poetry the 
elif may be retained. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 364. D. G.] 

§ 353] II. The Noun. C. 2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 275 

fi x J JO 

says U*^i Ojboi I went to (the house of) so and so, to which you A 

x x Ox x 2 x 

rejoin A + gfe , and the answer is *Jt v >-»»».l ,«£» tfAatf 7 mig^tf do Aim 

x~ g x w> 

a kindness. [The shortening of to takes place also in such sen- 

x x »x x 

tences as oJi*. v* 2l<»*-« *» wAatf manner did you arrive ? and 
wJI v* J^ what are you like ?] 


352. The interrogative pronoun v>o, who? has the distinctions 
of gender, number, and case, only when it stands alone ; as if one 
should say Some one is come, or 7" have seen some one, and another B 
should ask Who 1 Whom 1 In this case its declension is as follows : — 
Masc. Fern. 

Sing. Nom. 



Ox x 

h <UxO 




Du. Nom. 

x x 



Gen. Ace. 

Ox x 

0x0 x 

Oxx x 


Plur. Nom. 
Gen. Ace. 

J x ' 


> OUo. 


Rem. a. Only a poet could venture to say cJUi L&^ IP' 

JOi x J x 

^o-ijl 0>^° ™*y came 2o my j£r<?, and I said, Who are ye ? 

Rem. b. The interrogative pronoun U« to&oJ ? is never declined 
under any circumstances. D 

Ox. ... 3 x 

[Rem. c. From ^* is formed the relative adjective .*-U, with 

I X ^ 

the article ^y*Jt (comp. Vol. ii. § 170, rem. o). The dual is 

fl x Ox- w /0/ 

,jLioJI, the plural ££*&«))•] 

it 9 at 

353. The interrogative pronoun jjpt, fem. &»t, «?&>/ is either 

construed with a following noun in the genitive, or with a suffix, or 

stands alone. In the first two cases, it loses the tenwin (§§ 315, a, 

316, a, c), and, if followed by a noun, is generally masc. sing.; as 

276 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 353 

^ it £ % « £ fi £ 

A w>li^ j^t tpjfc&A foo# (lit. gmV? ft&rt) ? gen. w>U^ ^cf, ace. w>U^ ^t 5 

^ it £ _ o^£o /D<3 i J 

^t to&tcA #« or fountain ? O^b-o-N l£' which of the two women ? 

Hi lO Ml 

^j\ which of the women 1 ? [The feminine form is of rare 

, a I »U 

occurrence, as aJibt &A whatever morsel (el-Mubarrad 86, 1. 17) and 

j^Sl ZA which female? (Dlw. Hudeil, n. 201, vs. 2). D. G.] In the 
second case, when prefixed to a fern, pronoun, it may be masc. or fern. 

w ivii- d j j££ 

Oiri^ or Ov^' which of them ? meaning women, the latter being the 
B more common. When standing alone, or used like v >o in § 352, it 
has all the numbers and cases, the pausal forms being : — 

Ji i m£ vt £ wi» it OiJc 

Sing, masc, nom. ^$\ or ^t, gen. ^t or ^j\, ace. L»1 ; fern. xjt. 

St Oi£ o s&e. 

Dual masc, nom. oW> g en - acc - 0*iS \ fern., nom. 0^'> S en - acc * 

it£ wf if 

Plur. masc, nom. 0^> g en - acc - v>rf' J f em - £>V« 
C In ^t and \j\ the final vowel is said to be obscurely sounded or 

slurred (v&jjJt). 

8 g . . • £ 

Rem. a. With the suffixes ^1 is sometimes shortened into ^t, 

/j«f ' J Se- 

ll* Lo^-jt, for U^->l, which of the two ? and so in [the interrogative 

*o£ & £ j ) - - ot 

j^A what ? for U ^t, as J^u ^t wAa£ efostf 2Aow say ? and] the 

vulgar interrogative ^LjI wA«2 ? for £.*£ ^1. 

5 * 

Rem. b. Instead of ^1 with [a following noun in the genitive 

or] a suffix, the more general and indefinite i+j\ is sometimes used ; 

,£ o£ ,* ,6, it ,£ ,ii£ 

D as \j\ js\ yb *iLJt ^^t Lo-*1, which is dearer to you, he or I? in 

,it£ M 

which example Lo-jt stands for tut, which of us? 

2 £ I yt£ 

Rem. c. From ^t are formed the relative adjective ,->t from 

" Ml £ , 

what 'place? (see Lane, art. ^1, p. 134c), and the compound ^l^ 

or O-i^ ( also wr> itten %\!L or ^\^>, t^j2>, {j*£> or £&£>, \J\£> 
and \£=> (§ 351 and Vol. ii. § 34, e, rem. d). 

Rem. d. See CWijo. £r. pp. 120—122. 

§ 353*] II. The Noun. C. 3. The Indefinite Pronouns. 277 

[3. The Indefinite Pronouns. A 

Ox x 

353*. 1. The interrogative pronouns <>* and U have passed 
into indefinites (Comp. Gr. p. 125)*, with the sense of somebody, 
something, but are never thus employed unless with a qualificative 

9x - J s 

complement (aa-o), and are therefore called Bj^y* (§ 348). This 
complement is very rarely an adjective or participle, but usually a 
preposition with following genitive, as ^ U something which I have, B 

or an adverb as ^)Ua yj* somebody here, or a qualificative clause, as 

x x x 

J 13 ^y» one who says. Comp. Vol. ii. § 172, rem. a. 

2. The indefinite pronoun U is used to introduce a clause 
equivalent to the masdar or infinitive, and is in that case called 

4jjJua^JI U (Vol. ii. § 88, § 114, § 127, rem. e); hence its use in 
conditional clauses as aJ»^JI U (Vol. ii. § 6), or in reference to time 

x jo 5 >o , »Ct x.2 >o "... . . r\ 

as &*£*-> jJt U or ^LJUpt U (Vol. ii. § 7) ; if added to certain adverbial 

nouns, it gives them a conditional and general signification, as the 

Latin termination cunque, e.g. l©*^! wherever, UJ L ^ wherever, when- 

, o * ( 5 tt a t x s a • 

ever, Uy* whatever ; if appended to ^>l, ^t, ^l£» and ,>£) it hinders 

their regimen and is therefore called SilXJI U (Vol. ii. § 36, rem. d) ; 
with the same effect it is added to C*J; J* and JjU (ibid, rem./) and 
to ^>j (Vol. ii. § 84, rem. a and b) ; in apposition to an indefinite 
noun, it has a vague intensifying force and is called <L*ly^t U D 
(Vol. ii. § 136 a, rem. e) ; added to the affirmative J it serves to 

ti 8 x xx 

strengthen the affirmation ju&uAJ 3ju>& U (see an example § 361 near 
the end, and Vol. ii. § 36, rem. e) ; it is often inserted after the 

* [Prym, Diss, de enuntiationibus relativis Semiticis, p. 100 and 
Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 360 seq., 706 seq. reject this theory, considering 

Ox x t 

the indefinite meaning of £yo and U as the original, whence the 
interrogative has been derived.] 

278 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 354 
A prepositions ,>*, £>s> and w> without affecting their regimen, and is 

j x x»<« x } , d *> , 

then called 5jl»>oJI U or Sj^lpt U (Vol. ii. § 70, rem. /). In like 

manner it is also put after w>j (Vol. ii. § 84, rem. a) and in other cases 
(Vol. ii. § 90, rem.).] 

3. c/M fern. a5^i (§ 309, b, 8, rem. b), as LS ^C] ^ oUU£> 

^^ x x 

* xPO *> 

j-^U^I, stand for names of persons, like o, rj Sctta, so and so, M. or N.; 

^^ x 

xJ J 0*> J 'J JxxJdJxOxxx x JJ«» JI/0 xx ^ xC 

B as O*^ L>^ CJ$** ° Setva tov Setvos, &^U ^{ji} 3l*yi aOI J315 *n)I 
iJ^Jd iU. C*a»«£l, may 6»W ct*rw a// talebearers and their saying 
" fib awe? so A#s become a sweetheart of so and so." Syr. ^^, fem. 

. • * ./ t J x JOx J/ /J»/ 

A-i_L\3, Heb. 0/3. In speaking of animals, vl/WI and SJ'^UJI are 
i • j 

XX J»«» .» tf X « X 

employed, as ^/^ii\ C sA ; / rod!? ow swcA awe? swe^ a one. — qa a 

thing, and its fem. 3ujb, are similarly used for substantives of the class 

©*» »*x Oi 

n jj-iaJI lU^t (§ 191, rem. b, 3, 4). — On the use of these words in the 


vocative, see the Syntax. 


«0x ff J '» # xg 

354. There are ./©Mr sorts of particles (^»», pi. tJjLH*, [or Sl^t, 


pi.]) ; viz., Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Inter- 
D jections. 

W X O«0 J J J 

A. The Prepositions. 
355. The prepositions are called by the Arabs j*»Jt «J»jJ^-, 

, , rtxxOx 5x«x jfi x Ox 

M0 particles of attraction, or jt^aJt (from the sing. jUJt or SjUJI), 
the attr actives, i.e. the particles which govern the genitive. They 

are also named t /iK H ^Jt/*-, tf* particles of depression, and 

X X «<• J J J 

SiLi^l «*ijj»», ^ particles of annexation or connection, because the 

§ 356] III. The Particles. A. The Prepositions. 279 

distinctive vowel of the genitive (i), and consequently the genitive A 

itself, is called ^^AaUt (see § 308, footnote), and because this case has 
its peculiar place in that connection which many prepositions with 
their genitives really represent (see § 358). They are divided into 
separable prepositions, i.e. those which are written as separate words, 
and inseparable, i.e. those which are always united in writing with the 
following noun. 

356. The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant with B 
its vowel. They are : — 

(a) ^* in, at, near, by, with, through (Heb. Aram. 3, JEth. ft: 
ba). [^b, without, is a compound of w> with the negative ^). Comp. 
Vol. ii. § 56, rem. c.] 

(b) O by, in swearing, as <uitf by God !* 

(c) J to (sign of the Dative), for, on account of (Heb. Aram. 7, 
-33th. A: Ice). 

* . i **" 

(d) ^ by, in swearing, as aDI^ by God ! Q 

Rem. a. The damma of the suffixed pronouns of the 3d pers. 
d, loJb, ^b, tjJb, is changed after ^ into kesra; as du,^yj. See 
§ 185, rem. b, and § 317, rem. c. The ancient and poetic form 
^oJb changes either both vowels, or the first onlyj^yj or^. 

Rem. b. The kesra of the prep. J passes before the pronominal 

suffixes into fetha; as <J to him,^S3 to you, U to us. Except the 
suffix of the 1st pers. sing., which absorbs the vowel of the prepo- D 
sition ; ^) to me. 

* [O was especially in use at Mekka. It seems to be the remnant 
of some word, as it is (probably of another) in ^j+a*3 (= ^j*** 0^5 ?) and 

O*^ (= OW- Comp. the abbreviation of aDI ^>©-jt, Vol. ii. § 62, 
rem. b. I take the 3 in <t0tj and the m^j j\j (Vol. ii. § 235) to be also 
remnants of words. D. G.] 

280 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 357 

" Rem. c. i), as, like (Heb. Aram. 3), which js commonly 

reckoned a preposition, is really not so. It is a formally unde- 
veloped noun, which occurs only as the governing word in the 
genitive connection, but runs in this position through all the 
relations of case (similitudo, instar). 

357. The separable prepositions are of two sorts. Those of the 
first class, which are all biliteral or triliteral, have different termina- 
tions ; those of the second class are simply nouns of different forms 

B in the accus. sing., determined by the following genitive, and they 

consequently end in fetha without tenwin (— ). 

358. The separable prepositions of the first class are : — 

(a) JUo (Heb. *>«, -*?«). 

(b) ^^al till, up to, as far as (Heb. Itf, iEth. "KflYl:). A 
dialectic variety is ^^. 

(c) ^* over, above, upon, against, to, on account of, notwith- 
standing (Heb. *7B, "79, Aram. ^JJ, ^1). 

(d) sjefrom, away from, after, for, 

(e) ij? in, into, among, about. 

(/) 0^> or lS^ (W), with (penes, apud). Karer forms are : 
0*> (W, CM-*. O^X 0*> (lM*)> O** (&*), *>> ^, *>, <*>■ 
D (9) £-* w 'ith (Heb. D#, Syr. ^Ol) ; dialectically *-«, which 
becomes in the wasl **. 

(ft v>* Q/» ^W> °^ account of (Heb. Aram. Jp, ^-So, iEth. 
*X9m = '(9?»M, or "K9° : #»)? See § 20, d. 

j j > 

(i) Ju*, or Jco, /row a certain time, since (compounded of i>* 
and ji, as g^o; see § 347, rem. e and comp. •T'jD, Ezra v. 12). Karer 

§ 359] III. The Particles. A. The Prepositions. 281 

^ J J J J OJ 

forms are : J-U, *Lu, JU, and *x*. In the wasl S* usually becomes A 
J* (§ 20, d), rarely J^ or a^. 

Rem. a. ^Jt, ^jic, and ^jJ, preserve before the suffixes their 
original pronunciation ^1, ^s., and ^ jj (compare ^tf and ^) j 

as aJJ, <uXft, ^y J, tj-j jJ. The damma of the suffixes of the 3d pers. 
passes after the diphthong into kesra, according to § 185, rem. b, 
and § 317, rem. c. The suffix of the 1st pers. sing., ^_ (orig. ^— ), 

combines with ^t, ^JS, and ^jJ into J^JJ, ^Js., ^jjj ; with ^5 B 
into ^y. See § 317, rem. a. 

Rem. o. The ^) of ^fc, ^c, and ^jjJ, is doubled in connection 
with the suffixes of the 1st pers.; ^^, .<U, i* 5 ^, [li, etc.]. If 

^ft and ^^o are prefixed to s j^c and L©, the ^j is assimilated to the 
j* in pronunciation, and the two are usually written as one word j 
0+*> U*» v>**, U-«, for ,>o^ or ^ ^, etc. (see § 14, b). 

Rem. c. When followed by the article, the prepositions ^a and C 
^JU are occasionally abbreviated in poetry, Jt ,j*o being contracted 

b 6>o , , * *b * b sbiO /» 

into J^*, and Jl ^s. into Jft ; as JUX*, or JU J-«, for JUJt ±y> ; 
c\+Xz for £ UJt L5 ^. [Comp. p. 24, note.] 

359. Examples of prepositions of the second class are : ^»UI 

- b* ,o, 

before (of place) ; ,j-o between, among (J*3) ; jju q/fcr (*7SJ2l), dimin. 

Caj under, beneath (fiTTl 5 !), dimin. C ^ > J ; *UJ> or dU»J, D 

*UJJ, *!**»., orw against, opposite to; J>»- round, about; 

behind, after ; ^> below, under, beneath, on this side of dimin. O-ij* ; 
jUc (also jUft, which is the modern and vulgar form, rarely jus) with, 

in possession of (apud, penes, Fr. chez ; [*]*?)£$?) 5 [«J** ^]> u*^ 

* T • ' •* 

instead of, for ; JJy afow?, dimin. JJj^3 ; J~3 63/07*0 (of time, 7M), 


w. 36 

282 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 360 

A dimin. jl*£ ;>»tjJ> before (of place, D*7p) ; dj3 behind, after, beyond; 
ix^j in the middle, among. These are all, as before said, the construct 

0* 06 * 

accusatives of nouns ; such as ,j-o interval, J>»- circumference, etc. 

B. The Adverbs. 

360. There are three sorts of adverbs. The first class consists of 
B particles of various origin, partly inseparable, partly separable ; the 

second class of indeclinable nouns ending in u ; the third class of nouns 
in the accusative. 

361. The inseparable adverbial particles are : — 

£ s 6tO >o JO - 

(a) t, interrogative, ^lyAlw^t ^J/*-, the particle of questioning 

(num? utrum? an? Heb. |"l) ; [comp. § 21, d]. The form d occurs 

C dialectically, for example in U* nonne 1 for Ul (see § 362, h), ^JJI IJJb, 

for ^JJt tjt, is this he who — ? [In alternative questions it is followed 

byj*\ or^t.] 

[Rem. When t is followed by another elif with hemza, an t is 

inserted between the two hemzas, as C-Jttt, also written C-Jtt, but 
some do not do this. If the following £lif is pronounced with kesra, 

it is converted into ^£ with hemza, as tj^t, *£ii5t.] 
D (&) cr»> prefixed to the Imperfect of the verb to express real 

J\*e jj/ Oxx 

futurity, as aDt ^JUlSL*, God will suffice t/iee against them. It is 
an abbreviation of sJ$*», in the end (Heb. Aram. &*|D, \2*Q£&, end), 

Out >o JO * t 

[and is called i > ~ACJl sJ>^». the particle of amplification]. 

(c) J, affirmative, certainly, surely. This may be (a) w>t^^O) 

^-JUt, #0 la that corresponds to, or is the complement of, an oath, as 

v >U*'n) A&tj 6y GW, / wi7£ certainly do (it) ; ».j£. jJU aOt^ by God, 

§ 362] III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 283 

J xW x J I 

he has certainly gone out ; (/3)^~£JJ a^Uj^JI jt>*^)\ the la that smooths A 

the way for the oath, as the first la in >iXLoj^^) l j£c^\ Jj3 aOU 

• ^^x x x 

by God, if indeed you show me honour, I will certainly show you 

'«/' »/ X X J X 

honour ; (y) ^JjJj <£ vl*^ ■**$ the la that corresponds to, or 2*s the 
complement of lau (if) and lau-la ^/ not), as ^y^ <#' J^ ty 

x x p tO jjO/.'vO/ ij/ *xx 

ijlla^-tJI ^Is^J'n) «C^»-;j e/ ^ ^ac? not been for the goodness of God 
towards you and His mercy, verily ye would have followed Satan; 

(8) [(ju£>Qf) J~±>j2\ J*) the affirmative la, or] Jju$f J<) the B 

X x x X XX 

inchoative or inceptive la, prefixed to a noun or a verb in the imperfect, 
as <uM 0-^^*;j^-^ ^ ***j jwl ^J*$ verily ye are more feared in 
their breasts than God; < U»ft ll v»>J ^*v^ j^**^ ^j 0\ verily thy 
Lord will judge between them on the day of the resurrection ; (c) js?§A\ 

Jx xD«9 jx xO-o j 5 x 

aSjUJI [or aXoUM ^o*>Ut] £& distinguishing la, which is prefixed to the 

© i3 x 5 «» x jxAx jo^tf 

predicate of ^1, standing for ^jl (aLa3I ,j-° AiAa^Jt ,jt), [in order to 

. ,  # ~ . 9 xxOxx xx x £ J 

distinguish it from the negative &\], as iail». lyJx. 1©J ^^Aj J^ ^j\ C 


verily over every soul there is a guardian; ij-JiliJ^o^Zwtp ^^c U^ <jlj 
but verily we were careless of their studies. [Comp. Vol. ii. § 36.] 

362. The most common separable adverbial particles are the 

o x i. 
(a) J-^-t yes, certainly; confirming a previous statement, as 

Ot/ x xp ©x x£ 90x xx x 

jjj JDt jc5 2/^'<i has come to thee, J^i yes, (he has) ; Joj jA3 U D 

ft X £ J X » X X ft X 

Zeid did not stand up, J^.1 yes, (he did not) ; w-Jbju <*i>w £Ao?4 wi'ft go 

o x £ . , ... 

away, J**.t ^s, (/ will). But in reply to an interrogation, it is better 

ft xx 

to use 

(b) jl and lit in the sense of lo ! see ! behold ! 3J is used after Uu 

x x ft x OOxxOx 

and W~j , while, and is followed by a verb stating a fact, as juj U,o 

£ ft x Cx ft 9 x/ 

1h* L$Lj M J® while Zeid was standing, behold, he saw 'Amr; 

284 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 362 

J J t»e //J// 

A ^iU Ojb 3 I j~~*Jt U-W yor while {there has been) adversity, lo, 

x i x x jo* x 

prosperity has come round, t3t, called by the grammarians 3l».U*Jt 13 1, 

j2 ^ / ja>o , 

or 4*5U*a)I 13], that is to say 'ida indicating something unexpected, 
is followed only by a nominal proposition, and refers to the same time 

x»*J «3©x x x J x x 

as the preceding statement ; as oUb juj W ^^^» I went out, and 

lo, Zeid was at the door ; U*U *.lb j>i juj t3j \j& cA*^ O-*^ Wrf 
B wM# w<? w^r^ en smcA awe? swcA a place, lo, Zeid came upon us. 
[(c) JI3 It or i)t3] tfcft.] 

(<#) oM> or W> wg ^ then, in that case, if it be so. See § 367, b. 
A rare dialectic form is &$. 

x£ £ 

(e) *^l nonne? Compounded of t (§ 361, a) and *9 w<?£ (Heb. 
N/H)- [It is very often followed by oi or ojj : (ol$) Oi V wow 

C [(/) S)f ao»fM ? syn. of &.] 


(#/) j*\, interrogative, an? j>\ .... I (Heb. Dtf .... H), 
utrum .... an? 

(h) Ul ^o^w^ ? Compounded of t and U not. Dialectic varieties 

x£ XX XX XX XX XX XX 5 x£ 

are^et, U*,^a, U^,^, and l^»- or ^**~. [oi ^ &*«%, wow surely.] 

[(i) ^Ut or ^tftt in that case, then at least.] 

[(k) oi n °t> svn - °f ^i frequent in the Koran and in old poems. 

D In later times it is only used in combination with the negative U as a 

corroborative, oi ^ noi indeed (comp. Vol. ii. § 158 and Fleischer, 
Kl. Schr. i. 448)/] 

o x 3t» * j x 5 x jo*> 

[(f) Oi writy, called #& lightened 'in (£L£3l o-* <U A« L « J 1 o£> 
§ 361, c, «), usually without government.] 

(w) oj certainly, surely, truly; literally /o/ *«e/ #w, 0<#0 (Heb. 
JH Hiin Syr. _.-»]). It is joined to the accus. of a following noun or 

§ 362] III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 285 

pronominal suffix, but in the 1st pers. sing. ^>\ is used as well as ^j\ A 
(Heb. 0311), [and in the 1st pers. pi. Ul as well as U>l]. The suffix a 
in this case often represents and anticipates a whole subsequent clause 
(,jUJI **©-£ [or a-oaJI j-x-o] flfo pronoun of the fact). — ,jl introduces 

the subject, and is frequently followed by J with the predicate; as 
j~£i dttl ^jt, verily God is great. This the grammarians regard as an 
inceptive or inchoative la (§ 36#, c, 8), the example given standing for 
j«m£» a&I £f} } whence it is sometimes called aaJ^^JI >>)! the la that B 

18 pushed away (from its proper place). — The form J>A is said to occur 
in the compound <j>yJ for <J^- 

(n) U3], restrictive, only (dumtaxat), [verily]. Compounded of 

\j\ and U. 

(o) ^y\ whence ? [where ?] how ? [when ? With the signification of 

whencesoever, wherever, however, whenever it is a conjunction.] C 


(p) i^t, explicative, that is, frequently used by commentators. 

(q) ^t yes, yea; always followed by an oath, as aOIj ^t yes, by 

God ! This formula is sometimes shortened into aOt ^1, <£M ^1, and 

aDI I. The dialectic variety ^yb is said to occur. — From <OtM^ ^1 

comes the vulgar o^j! [ojjJ, I^jI]. 

[(r) O^' when? Dialectically also ^bl. It is a conjunction D 
when it signifies whenever.] 

(s) Ch' where? ^\ o-* whence? o-»l ^31 whither? 1*jj\ wherever 
(Heb. |$t in {$&, JX, it**). 

if) J^> ^<^y> way rather, not so, on the contrary, but (Heb. 
72, 7ltf Phcen. 73). [When it is followed by a single word it is a 


(u) j^jXj yes, used in giving an affirmative answer to a negative 

286 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 362 

A. . , . # J ' O J** J x£ 

question, or in affirming a negative proposition; as \^i\3 j£j.j4 w%-JI 

^k am I not your Lord? They said, Yes, {Thou art) ; Joj ^sb^i 
Zeid did not stand up, ^Aj yes, (he did). 

(v) Ljo [and U~^] while, whilst (connected with the prep, o** 
between, among). 

(w) JJi [or a^f], in pause «♦$, there (Heb. D£> TfGX? s Syr. J&L). 

T ' T T ' ^ 

B (x) j-j*., sometimes j-j»., y^s. 

(y) Jaii 0#/y, solely, merely (lit. awe? enough). 

(z) jS, with the Perfect, now, already, really (jam). It expresses 
that something uncertain has really taken place, that something 
expected has been realised, that something has happened in agreement 
with, or in opposition to, certain symptoms or circumstances ; as 

da. jJ& «! t% «* 5**^ c*u£», / was hoping that he would come, and he is 
C really come; OU jJte ta.,^.^=> 1©JL, o^> he was hale and well, and 

now lie is dead. It also serves to mark the position of a past act or 
event as prior to the present time or to another past act or event, 
and consequently expresses merely our Perf or Pluperf With the 

j j o , o * - j *a* Z 

Imperfect it means sometimes, perhaps, as Jjusu j>i ^>^M\ <j! the 
(habitual) liar sometimes speaks the truth, in which case it is said to be 

used J-jiSXU to express rarity or paucity; [but also frequency, thus 
according with l+jj in its two acceptations*]. 
D (aa) £J ever ; always with the Perfect or Jussive and a negative, 

& * j jot* * & , jsi c 

as iai <xZAj U, or iai djt j^, I have never seen him ; [or in an interroga- 
te * j ,oi, o x 

tive sentence iai <&\j Ja did you ever see him?]f. Rarer forms are 
iai, iai, iai, iai, iai and in pause iai. 

* [In poetry jj^l jj> may be used for jj^l c<u£» ji videbam; see 
Noldeke, Delectus, 32, 1. 2 ; 98, 1. 4. R. S.l 

t [On the use of iai in affirmative sentences, and its vulgar use 
with the Future, see Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 434 seq.] 

§ 362] III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 287 

[(bb) \S£> thus (§ 340, rem. d) and iuj^> likewise (§ 343, rem. d).] A 

OlJ *> JO 

(cc) *$& not at all, by no means, pjpt *Jj*~ the particle of 
repelling or averting ; as *£^ t^^' ^ij m V Lord hath humbled or 
despised me ; by no means. 

(dd) *$, used (a) as negative of the future and indefinite present, 

and as representative of the other negatives after j (and), not ; (/?) as 
a prohibitive particle (ne), joined to the Jussive. It thus combines 

(like the Aram. X7 ]]) the significations of the Heb. X7 and ^X. B 

T ' ~ 

(if) oA OA °ft en with 3 prefixed, to, yet. o^ is placed only 
before nouns and pronominal suffixes in the accusative, but in the 

■f I jS 1 io 1 <^uf t I 

1st pers. ^yA U# are used as well as ^^^i, U^J. [When ,>£) is 
followed by a single word, it is a conjunction.] 

{ff) j^ pn poetry also UJ], negative of the Perfect, but always 
joined to the Jussive in the sense of the perfect, not. 

(gg) O not yet, joined to the Jussive. C 

J>J, a contraction for <jt *^ (i.e. o' 0& ^ it w ^ mi be 
that — ), not, joined to the Subjunctive. 

[(H) *$ and u£) why not t syn. of % and & (Vol. ii. § 169).] 

(kk) U, negative of the definite or absolute present and of the 
perfect, not. 

(II) ^JU when? Heb. VlD. [It is also used as a conjunction, 
§ 367, q.] D 

(mm) j^o yes (abbreviated for^ju, it is agreeable), affirming any 

preceding statement or question ; as joj jb\»\ has Zeid stood up? ^xj 

OJ/ J/ i - ' 

yes, (he has) ; ^> ^ he has not stood up, j^u yes, (he has not). Other 
forms are^xi, and more rarely ^*3, j>\*±, and 

[(nn) I j^A thus (§ 344, rem. b).] 

288 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 363 

A (00) Ja, interrogative, ww-m ? utrum ? The form Jt also occurs. 

(pp) *$a (*n)I) wow^ ? Compounded of Ja and ^. 

(57?) La, demonstrative, for^; whence are derived LaIa or LyA, 
I)La, and iUlIi (see §§ 342—344). 

(rr) La (also La and La), demonstrative, there (compare Heb. 
Jliin) ; whence are derived L^a, UaIa or LyA, J La, and ^)UyA. 

T " 

B 363. The same substantives of which the accusatives serve as 
prepositions (§ 359), can in general be used as adverbs, in which case 

J °" 
they take the termination u, and are indeclinable. E.g. j*j [yet, 

mostly in negative phrases; ju^], jju ,j*&, afterwards; c-sa*J, 
Csa» J ,>*, beneath; Js> ,>* above*; J>i, Jy 0-*> above; J-i, 
cM v>*> before; %£**»• where, w^o. y>« whence, m ^ ^i whither, 

; u0j£ (also c^^ and u^j^) ^ joined to the 
Imperf Indie, but always preceded by a negative, as u*^ Jtfjtfl *>), 
/ f0t# w^«^r kw 3/0M ; j->£, in j*£ ^ or j**- ^^J, nothing else, only this ; 

j o * j a ' * 

[w~ »•> enough, only ; also v **»>a»-*]. 

364. The accusative is the adverbial case Kar itoxyv in Arabic. 
A few of the most common examples of it are the following : Ij^l, 
referring to future time, ever, with a negative, never ; [Uut ^W^ wow, a 

little while ago ; ilJt decidedly, usually with a negative &Jt <*Jj*il ^) 
/ wz7/ ratf do it, decidedly] ; t jta. ^ri/, ^r^ wwcA, extremely, placed 
D after an adjective ; \*-f**r- together, of two or more ; W-jU- outside, 
without; *il±.b inside, within; \}j^j gently]) ^)Lo^ to ^ ^A L*^> 
to £/fo right; \jt^ much, ^-jX3 ?&£&; *^J £^ night, \j1^j by day; 

* [On the various forms of this phrase see en-Nahhas on 'Imrulkais 
Mo'all p. 41. R. S.] 

§ 364] III. The Particles. B. The Adverbs. 289 

U^j one day, once; ^*j)t wow, at present ; j>yA\ today (JEth. p-<7°: A 

yom), \js> tomorrow; UU^o o/rata's (Aram. JUft) ; «* together; etc. 
To the same class belong the following adverbs : 


[(a) juj except, but.] 

(b) O**- w^ft (lit., a£ the time of—). 

x5 J 

(c) lo-ij [often, but more usually] sometimes ; perhaps; lit., the 

5 j 
quantity of that which— (w>j = Heb. y\) ; [comp. Vol. ii. § 84, rem. c]. B 

x x x x ©x 

(d) woj, U^»j, whilst, during. 

xO X 

(e) »J>w, prefixed to the Imperf to indicate real futurity (see 

§ 361, b) ; lit., m f& end. 

x a * * £ 

(/) U-J-* 'n), and, with the omission of the negative, U-j~>, above 

all, especially, particularly ; lit., there is not the equal or like of — . 

XX X X Ut X X 

Rarer forms are U*~> ^) and U-w ^). 

(g) sSJs> howl* C 

[(A) 5JlaL« ^ mos£ certainly ; lit., ^r^ s* wo avoiding of it, and 
therefore also construed with ,j-« like its synonym ju *j).]t 

x x 

(i) **»-j, used only in connection with pronominal suffixes, as 

JxOx J x 6 x 

o J^j A^ afott*?, ^a jufc.^ ;&ry a/o^. It is etymologically = *7H* ( but in 
sense = 1$ in HT? , DID? . 

[Here too may be mentioned the adverbial expressions 

x Ox xOx X x J 

lit., tent to tent or house to house in Cw c~o (J^U. yb fo u my next- D 

xxxxx xxxxxx 

oJoor neighbour ; *L~« ^Lc ^^ri/ morning and evening ; OUw oU£ m 

* [On the derivation of uu£» see a conjecture of Fleischer's, 
Kl. Schr. i. 381, footnote.] 

t {j*j*?. ^ (also jbjx». 13 *^ and j**. 13 ^), verily, truly, seems to be 

compounded of *$ nay and the verb jbj**. it is decided (comp. Fleischer, 
Kl. Schr. i. 449 seq.) D. G.] 

w. ' 37 

290 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 365 

A sundry parties. The rale is that when two nouns are made one, they 

" " * " 
lose their tenwin and become indeclinable, ending in fetha, as &» ...»t k 

x x x ^ x x x x 

j£&: In like manner are to be explained &+j &*> between good and 

x Ox x © x 

bad, vcuj t^u». straitness. D. G.] 

Rem. a. In u ~*\, yesterday, Heb. fc^ftX, the kesra is not the 

X ... V 

mark of the genitive, but merely a light vowel, added to render the 

oi **> x o£ Ox 

pronunciation more easy. "We may also say ^-^e^b and j^^^t. 

x ot o j at o j 

B Some of the Arabs used ^^moI j~o instead of ^-^t J^, since yesterday. 

x Ox Ci x £j xx 

Rem. b. C*J, utinam, would that — / and ^J* or J^x), perhaps, 
seem to be, not nouns in the accusative, but verbs. They are 
construed with the accusative, and take pronominal suffixes; as 

X Ox 0-- x x Ox Ml x x 

j^£J would that I — / (rarely ^^IJ), ^J, etc. ; { ^»i perhaps I — 

3 XX X 3 XX 3 XX 

(rarely .yJUJ), ^JUU), etc. — Dialectically, however, JjO governs the 

' .3x3x3^3 xx 

genitive. The word has several rarer forms, viz. ^fc, ^&, ^j\, ^jjt) 
C O^ 0^» OV> J*> and O-*;- 

C. The Conjunctions. 

365. The conjunctions (which the Arab grammarians call, ac- 

6 sbiO J J J J x xOx 

cording to their different significations, Quoad t Ojja- [or oLblydl] 
connective particles, or J^-uJt Q»ju^ conditional particles, etc.) are, 
D like the prepositions and adverbs, either separable or inseparable. 

366. The inseparable conjunctions are : — 

x x JO x 

(a) ^ (uUa* *-*/*-), which connects words and clauses as a simple 
co-ordinative, and (iEth. fl): w, Heb. Aram. ), !)). 

x 6 x JO x x JO x 

(6) Q> (oiLc Q>»., or more exactly v~?p ^b^, particle of 
classification or gradation), which sometimes unites single words, 
indicating that the objects enumerated immediately succeed or are 

§ 367] III. The Particles. C. The Conjunctions. 291 

closely behind one another; but more usually connects two clauses, A 
showing either that the latter is immediately subsequent to the former 
in time, or that it is connected with it by some internal link, such as 
that of cause and effect. It may be rendered and so, and thereupon, 

and consequently, for, although in this last sense (jU is more usually 

employed. In conditional sentences, *J is used to separate the apodosis 
from the protasis, like the German so; and it also invariably introduces 

the apodosis after the disjunctive particle Ul *. 

[Rem. The conjunctions 3 and »^5 may be preceded by the B 
interrogative particle I ; thus ^jl means nonne ? *$J\ nonne igitur ?] 

6$. 0>o j * 

(c) J. This may be (a) j-o^Jt j>*$ the li of command, which is 
usually prefixed to the 3d pers. sing, of the Jussive, to give it an 
imperative sense, as ^LS3 ^-Ja-J let thy heart be at ease. When 
preceded by ^ or o, the kesr is usually dropped, as ^J l^^aJ^Ji 

3 %36s 

^j \y^c^^, therefore let them hearken unto me, and believe in me. 

3 * u> 10 j a * 
Or it may be (/?) ^LoUt ^JJI the li which governs the verb in the C 

Subjunctive of the Imperfect, signifying that, so that, in order that, as 

dDt ^U j*kJ ^ repent, that God may forgive thee. This latter J is 

identical with the preposition J (§ 356, c), used J^f^ to indicate the 
purpose for which, or the reason why, a thing is done ; and hence the 
Arab grammarians take it to stand in all cases for the fuller &*) 


367. The most common separable conjunctions are : — 

(a) }] when, since, of past time, and prefixed either to a nominal 
or a verbal proposition. [Compound U $t whenever.] 

* [Sometimes in old poetry, e.g. Hamdsa 74, 1. 9, Tabarl i. 852, 
1. 10, and very often in later prose, the apodosis is also introduced by 

wi after O when. D. G.] 

292 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 367 

A (b) \>[ when, usually denoting future time and implying a con- 
dition, in which case it is always prefixed to a verbal proposition. 

Both of these conjunctions, as well as lit (§ 362, d), are connected with 

the obsolete noun $t, time, the genitive of which occurs, for example, 

» - s 

in J u l**, at that time, j£*& on that day. Compare Heb. Ttf and *TX , 
Bibl. Aram. JHK, -33th. £>* H,: now, oq^H,.. when? [Compound 

Utjt whenever.] 

B [(c) j*\ or, as syn. of jt in alternative questions.] 

(df) Ul, followed by o, as for, as regards ; e.g. CU5U3 l^LJ t Ul 

j^Jt ^ 0>^*^ ^^j^U^ as for the ship, it belonged to poor men who 

worked on the sea. The form lo-;t also occurs. Used twice or oftener, 
it corresponds to the Greek — 8c. 

(e) o' that, so that, in order that (ut), that (quod). A dialectic 

C variety is <>s. Compounds : O^ as & were, as if; £>*$ that, in 

order that, because; see g. Further: *$\ that not (ut non, ne, quod 

O i * a* 

non), comp. of ,jt and *$ (see § 14, b) ; 'iU) in order that not (ideo 


ne). — Like ">2 in Heb. and on in Gr., ,jt also serves to introduce 

3*ui*30/O f. j JO OS 3 3* 

direct quotations {f y kjh &\ the explicative 'an), as^»C^ O' h&3 

and it shall be proclaimed to them, That is Paradise ; even an 
o 3 o£ a* o * * z 
D Imperative, as UJ^i. <jt ^t 0>U>t she made a sign to me meaning 

Take her. 

(f) q\ [and Ut, conditional particle] (hj£> o>».) if, dialectically 

£ £ f 

* t , , tO* * ,..., 

O^j 0^3 although (etsi), sometimes written jjtj or ^jtj, to distinguish 

• £ to 

* 3 i 6 *0>O i * 

it from oi3 an ^ if> an( i hence called duLoj)\ ,jt ; compounded with J 
(§ 361, c), o% verily if, if indeed; Aram. jtf 9 .1 ; JEth. >*o*J : 'ema; 

a o < 

Heb. DN-— ^', compounded of ol an d *$> ( a ) if not, in which case it 

stands for a whole clause ; (fi) £U£*t u^». (exceptive particle), unless, 

§ 367] III. The Particles. C. The Conjunctions. 293 

saving, except, but*, with a preceding negative, only. Heb. K?~DK, A 
Aram. tfW, $1 ; ^th. ?\A= (alia) but.—&\, rarely Ujt [or M], 

compounded of ^jt and U ; .... Utj .... Ut, or .... y ... . Ut , 

^'£^r or . 

(9) O' ^^ (quod). It is followed by a noun or pronominal suffix 

«t a at 

in the accus., but in the 1st pers. ^t, Ut are used as well as ^j^\, 
U3t. The suffix 6 in this case often represents and anticipates a whole 

8 0/0 J * e. Si j« j * 

subsequent clause (< Lcu ti\ j*+*a, or ^UJt j-tr^, the pronoun of the story B 

s>t , t it 

or fact). See § 362, m. — Compounds : O^* as ** were, as if; o^ 

because. See e. 

*t .{ 

(A) j\ or (vel, sive). Heb. IX, Syr. o|. 

(i) ^j, c*«j (C««J, j<£, c-s^i), £^m, thereupon, next ; a t^?^. 
v^jj (§ 366, 6), connecting words and clauses, but implying succession 

at an interval. [In genealogical statements ^ is often used (like the 
German und zwar) to indicate a transition from the general to the C 

& * *0*> SJ 3l *0 2t/0 i*0* J 

more special, e.g. (J^lj^t^J ^yW^ 1 **i****> Hudeifa of the tribe of 
Dubyan and of the subdivision Fazara.] Connected with it is the 
adverb J^j (§362, w). 

(k) ^5^ till, until, until that, so that; identical with the pre- 
position, § 358, b. [On its sense of even, see Vol. ii. § 52, rem. c] 

* * o I# ' 

[(/) UjUfc when (syn. of UJ).] 

* 0* j * 

(m) ^* (0*^ ^j/*'} a particle assigning the motive or reason) j) 

in order that, with the Subjunctive. — Compounds : ^j£) in order that, 

* * 
%+£* in order that not. 

• w t ,0, 

* [o' j] an( * O' J** are ver y often used in the sense of but = 
0*S. D. ».] 

294 Part Second.— Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 368 

9* i S>* 

A (n) 1©J (also w t UJ) after, wlien (postquam), [as, since (quoniam),] 

with the Perfect. [UJ is also syn. with y\ unless, especially after the 
verbs that signify to beseech. D. G.] 

(o) ji, hypothetical particle, if (Heb. !p). — Compounds: ^£,jj£> 

< * 0' * 

\*3*> if not, [3J3 even though]. 

(p) U (ic^jjJt U, ma denoting duration), as long as, with the 

B [(q) ^y* and U j^^i* (§ 362, //) w^ew, wAewever.] 

D. The Interjections. 

368. The interjections are called by the Arabs Ot^ot, sounds or 
tones. Some of those most commonly in use are : f or t ( 6 I juJl vJUl), 

ft i ,1 ,* * 

^j\, bl (La), / I0 / b ! before nouns in the nomin. or accus. 

C without the article; 1^1, or lyjt b, 01 before nouns in the nomin. 

with the article ; U lol seel there I (see § 344) ; al, at, at, or at, o\, &\, 

fi» oi <o£ Ow£ o iv> *Z j&£ a Zil * it ' ZZ o *&,* hip * — 

Ut ; > 3 \ (*jt), ajl (tjl, ojt, .j|), 0I3I (otjl), .Ujt (•Ujl) ; jl, jt, jl ; 

dli (dU); tj, UtJ, OA/ oA/ oias/ (°£3 woe/ (Aram. «J «-iO, 

iEth. (D.P ! wp) ; <oj, l^j, cowe om / ^1, *}U, ! up ! come ! [Heb. 

HX/H, Aram. rr?n]; u* como/ followed by jic, as OkoJt ,~U ,-*. 
t;it' t- w w ww 

D oofrae to prayer I in composition, Jv*»» or Jv*»», !i^*** or *^***- 
C^Ly**. or TiarX ^Uy^ . , with ^1 or ^^U, and also with w> (in the 

-» ■» 

oi 0*0 J OJ + *+ ' 

sense of pj-*\ make haste, or j>jH\ keep to, or c^t call) ; w*db (c^Jb) 
come Aere / ^^U oome Aere, 6nw# Aere / (Heb. D/H) as UJt ^Xa 

come Aere to us, jJL&j*^ JJAa orzw^ here your witnesses ; [olylfc far 
from it!]; ^, Ua, and U* W* make haste; o\j, Ut^, Utj, 0/ 

§ 368] III. The Particles. D. The Interjections. 295 

excellent! bravo! *->, f-J, *->, *-j, *~} 4-J, etc., well done! bravo! A 
" * f 

* £ mi ol il uil ml uti dl 3* *fij 

capital! f-\, f-\ ; ot, wit, wit, wit, wit, wit, 131, Sit, ugh! faugh! fie! 

! silence ! \^>\be silent ! give up! a*, <*-©, stop ! give up ! 
let alone ! aj t , aj! , go on ! proceed ! say on ! — Here too may be 
mentioned : (a) calls to domestic animals ; e.g. in driving horses, 

*^U ; mules, ^js- ; camels, juA or juA, v>*-> s\*> ', in making camels B 

- " . ' ° " 

kneel, ?u>t or «»~Jb, ^»J ; in calling camels to water, O^*. ; in driving 

sheep or goats, ^-a ; in calling a dog, ^Us ; in driving a dog away, 
-*jb, ^a, l->jk ; (/?) words imitative of cries and sounds ; e.g. g U (the 

bleat of an antelope), JjU (the croak of a raven), w~Ji» (the sound 
made by the lips of a camel in drinking), ±Jo ^Jo (laughter), cl ct C 

or *a *A (vomiting), Jjlb (a blow), s^ (the stroke of a sword), JU» 
(the sound of a falling stone), JU» (the splash of a frog), etc. 

Rem. a. b is often written defectively ; as 401 J>*/4 Apostle 

i\ Wl X x GA>x 

o/* GW/ ^»»b my brother! ^^s> ^>jb son o/ ?ny uncle! — 

sin * iZi 

lyjt has a feminine lyL>t, but the masc. form is often used even with 

feminine nouns. 

Rem. b. The noun that follows 1j [and b oh /] not unfrequently J) 
takes, instead of the usual terminations, the ending 1_, in pause dt_ 
[called 4jjuJI w^Jt] ; as tjuj 1^, or otjuj tj, 0A Zeidf j^S tj 

dUxJ-o^t afos for the Commander of tlie Believers I If the noun 
ends in elif maksura (^.1), the ^ is changed into 1, and a simple o 

«xJx xxJx ' ' J * 

added, as dU^o t^, 0A Moses! though Uwj-o t^ or dU*j*o tj may 
also be used. Instead of 1— we sometimes find ^_, as ^u»1 1^, or 
^j** t> 0A my grief! 

296 Part Second. — Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 368] 

A Rem. g. From ^j (to which suffixes may be appended, as ^Ljj 

woe to thee !) are formed the interjectional nouns *rj j and Jj^, 

whence we can say, for example, jujJ 9-Z3, JujJ Is*j> Juj ?»■-!> 

<• *> 6 s 

»iU*-}> Aa^jj, aJ J*)j, a) ^j, aJ Jj^JI, ^jkj, >&&£3, etc. The 
expression a**}) ^j or a**}) Jjj is contracted into a^JLj^, usually 
written thus in one word. — Rarer interjectional nouns are 

5»/ s 

uO> and £jj. 


B Rem. d. [Many interjections have, by origin or use, a certain 

verbal force and are called therefore JUi^t ^l^wt, that is, they are 

either originally Imperatives, as OU give here (§ 45, rem. d), or 

equivalent to Imperatives (comp. Vol. ii. § 35, b, 8, rem. b), and, in 
some cases, admitting its construction and inflection. Accordingly] 

some of the Arabs decline JJXfc like an Imperative; e.g. sing. fern. 

ni J *■ a J * it J ' * J * 

j-JUb, dual UJUb, plur. masc. t^JLA, fern. ^>o^U (compare the 

Gothic hiri, du. hirjats, pi. hirjith). — ^yb takes the suffix of the 

x _ 

C 2nd pers., dUk, or JLa, and is said to form a dual and plur., Gb, 

l^jjfc. — U may be joined with the pronominal suffixes of the second 

: ' i 
person, in which case it is equivalent to the Imperative of Jt£»t ; as 

l^U take her 1 Or a hemza may be substituted for the ^), and 

* * <-« x 'l~ * 

the word declined as follows : sing. m. *U, f. $U ; dual U5U, 

pi. m. ^U, f. £)$\*', as <uU& tjl^St ^©jU, take, read my book. 

2 x x x * x 

Other varieties are : U (like *-**)> ^ L^^i e * c - J *** ( u ke ^»tj), 
f. L^^' etc -^ an( * w*i £ ^W*i etc - 







Sing. 3. m. JlS 

B f. cJ& 

2. m. cJjtf 

f. ci3 

1. c. CJJ> 
Dual. 3. m. $3 

f. &3 

C 2. c. C&3 

Plur. 3. m. IjJUS 

f. c4^ 

2. m. ^JU3 

S JO// 

f. o^ 5 

i. c. ul3 

Sing. m. J31S 
f. IJblS 



J J 0/ 

J JO* 


/ JO/ 






/ JO/ 


/ j»/ 

/ JO* 



/ J JO / 

J JO* 

/ 30, 

/ J / 

/ J jO/ 


/ SJJ/ 

/ OjO/ 


Jussive. Energ. i. Energ. ii. 

O JO * W / JO/ / JO/ 

o j 0/ 5 / j 0/ o / j * / 

OJO/ a /JO/ O/JO/ 

JO/ A JO/ JO/ 

j-X^I ,>Ui3 O-*^* 3 

^"/ / / 

ojo£ 5 / j og 0/jo£ 

Jj;3t oJUSI oJUSI 

/JO/ mi /JO/ 

^^ O^^J • • • 

/JO/ Hi /JO/ 

iV. Pa-ftt. 



* J V ^ Ml .* .7 V • 

J J 

/ J 0/ 

J J 0/ Sjjo. 

I^Jj&S |>U5j O^**^ 

/ OJO/ »l /OjO/ 


Simple. En. i. ifo. n. 

Ojdj A / JOj 

Sing. 2. m. JlSt o-^ 5J 

jOj 2 j oj 

f. ^1 olX\ 

Dual. 2. c. ^Jt o^ll 



Plur. 2. m. t^JUSI J^JUSt 

/ OjOJ hi /OJOj 






x j 
Smg. 3. m. JlS 

o x .> 
f. wJUS 

' ? i 
2. m. cJj;* 

9 ■» 

f. v^X:5 

1. c. 


Dual. 3. m. 'fcs 
f. UJU5 


x JO J 

2. c. UUUS 



x x 8J 

x xOJ 
x xOJ 

X t/»j 


s , a ) 




XX o| 

x xftx 






Jussive. Energ. I. 

x J i x x J 

Ox© j a x xo j 

0x0 J 5 x xO J 

OxOp uJ x x 0£ 

xxOj Ml xxOj 

xxOJ wl xxOJ 

x x 0J Ml xx J 

JxOJ 5 J x J 

x Ox Ox Hi xOxOj 

. II. 


xx Oxl 

0^» B 

x J 

^ *■ v * w y ^ vy 

Plur. 3. m. t^JUS 

x J 

f. o±? 

OJ J x JxOj 

2. m. ^c^US jj^JjS? 
f. 0&3 

xO J 

1. c. UUI Jj&> J^iu J^£3 ^>Uii 

« x x Ox J x 

Norn. Pat. Sing. m. J>&* f. ^J^-S-o 
Other Forms of the Perf., Impf., and Imper. Act., and the N. Verbi. D 

x OxOx 

x OxOJ x OxOx ul xOxOx 

Sing. 3. m. u~^- 

^ (2. m. C^^i) 

x J x x J x 

6w (2. m. CUfe^ ) 


Imper at. 




JxO x 


J J x 

J J 



«x J J 








Active Perf. Jl3 




Imperf. JsJb 

J J 



Imperat. JJ:5 



o 5x x 


B^p N. Ag. J& 

5 x .» 


« J 


5 xx J 

. N. Verbi. J^5 





5J xx 



9xx x J 

Passive Perf. JZ3 


x a 


x J J 

Imperf. J3u 



-»5x xJ 

Jx xxj 

CPP Nom.Pat. JlL*' 

«/ X J 


Ox J 

5xx J 



Perf. jixo.3 


D Imperf. j k . .A j 


Imperat. j-k-«i 

Ox J 

N. Ag. jixoio 

N. Verbi. ?Jix<i 


X ©X X 

- It . a*I 

J xx 
.. t* - at 


X X X* 

J x Ox 

j  v "% 

9 . x J 


ui X X 


* xOx 


* x 


x p 










J xOx 

J xOx 



xO J 

9 xO J 





x x OJ 

x J Ox 

J//0 J 

JxxO J 

<5xx J 

«i xx J 






Jx '» 

N. Pat. 

. U» . a » 

J "V"   





2x0 j 





fl xO 


3 Ox x 

>2 xOx 



9 Ox J 

§ xO J 


9 x 


x J J 


JxOx J 

9x0x0 J 


II. III. IV. J) 

xOjJ xOjOJ fijOj 

j.k«£> jJsU<>il >koit 

J x x x J xxOxOJ £ x x J 


Sing. 3. m. *M 

ft S x 

f. Ojk 

*■ s s 

B 2. m. Co*** 

• * * 

f. Cojuo 

J x - 

1. C. COJc« 

Dual. 3. m. \j** 

f. Uju> 

2. c. Wo*** 

C Plur. 3. m. Ijjlo 

, * * 

f. o>**-° 

2. m.^o*x* 

1. c. lb*** 



X Ml J ' 

& if 

x J Os 

, i j, 

x J ft- 


Jussive. Energ. I. Energ. n. 

Hi J/ 

s> j* 

i j, 

, S 1 s 


o j o * s> s> j* 

ft j ft x Si Si j * 

o j o* s> a J* 

w jx S w j/ 

2 J <» Ml A J/ 

'**«*! O^^o^ 

a j * mi s i/ 

2 J * Ml 5 JX 

x ft .» ftx mi xft J Ox 

x J ftx mi xft J ftx 

© 5 j x 

St 3 x 

Si J- 

Ml-> x 

o S> ■>£ 

ft J ftx Si Si j s 

ft Ml ->X 

ft Ml J X 

ft 9 .»x 

D iV. ^. 

1 x 

Sing. m. jU 

0*3 x 

f. fcU 

iV. F<?r^. 


Simple. En. I. En. n. 

J OJ d x J ftJ ft x J ftj 

Sing. 2. m. iJL*t ^j^t O****' 

J»J w j OJ ft j * j 

Dual. 2. c. [tjj^t] o^^' 

j j a j 3 j j ft j o j j oj 

Plur. 2. m. [Ijjj^t] o^J^' 0>***' 

x ft J ftj W - ft J J 

i. O****' O^^* • • • 






Sing. 3. m. 

o 2 j 
f. OjCO 

x o J 

2. m. O^juo 

f. Ojju> 

1. C. O>juo 

Dual. 3. m. Ijl* 
f. tfju> 

2. c. l*OJ^ 

i ^ 
Plur. 3. m. \jj*o 

f. o>^ 


2. m.^jjuo 

* t* * 

f. CP^^» 

•'• J 

1. c. Iojl* 


Subj. Jussive. 

* J 
x J 

' Hi /J 

2 / J 
2 ^ j 

- i,J 
„ 4. J 

x x »J 

l^*^ c£^ 


a - j 


x x OJ 

5 /J 

2. J 

tjJ^> b^NftJ 

.Efo. I. 

Hi S X J 
Hi S/J 

Hi S/J 

Hi /» ^ 0J 

x x OJ 

/ OJ hi /0 x OJ 

V J » X 

Sing. m. >>Xo-«, f. 

x OJ 
4" J x 

2 xj 

#n. II. 

2 x j 

• Hi * J 

o »xl 

o 2 xj 

o 2 xj 

Hi X J 


Other forms of the Perf., Imperf., Jussive, and Imperat. Act. 



2. ((2.m. 


a x 



a j i j 

;>£>, >i, or >i j jj3», Jj, or > 

(/ tc S// <i // •/ J 2 -» >i / 

cM^j, J^», or J*** JA*!, Juo, or J* 







i x o a x 

Active Perf. »U ju>t »U3 JJu\ ju*1 

or >U or iWj 


£ x x o 

j . *»j a j jx 


Imperf. ^Ui J^J 3iU^! J*-*} 

or *1©j or jLoIj 

Ox 0? 

£x Ox 

- 0^0 0x0 

Imperat. 3jU jjuat 3jW> JJ&I 3Ju*t 3J^-t 

2 ^ 
or jc*l 

viz t 
or ju*1 or 

j a x j 

N. Ag. >>W* J^C >^U JJU* JU^O JU»I~« 

5 t 

or ^U^o or iU^* 

6 x 

Ox 0x0 5J // 0x0 0x0 

N. Verbi. ,»)«** >lj^l ^l^ J^UJI jlju*l jIjlo^w! 

S *^ X X X 

OxxxJ 02xJ 

C OjU^ or S^l^o 

or >U3 

5 2 

jOj fi J J 

Passive Perf. »>« J^f »$-c* J-^' J£*t jc»I»»t 

Jx xx # x J Jx xxJ j/tj iixOJ cixxOJ 

Imperf. »Uj „x«j »U~> JM! ^^ J^— j 

• xx a xx. 

or >U-» or >UX> 

Ox xj 2 x J Ox xxx SxOJ 2i-0 1 SxxOJ 

N. Pat. >.>l©-© •*** 3>U^» Ji^» Ju^o Ji»I » »» 

3 xx 3 x.x 

or >U-« or )W^ 

D The remaining forms present no irregularity ; e.g. 


II. Act. jjuo 

x at J 

Pass. >•** 
V. Act. ij£ 



iV. ^4^. 0* P^. 

iV. F^rfo*. 

j m x j 

«l X 


irf x J 



J 2 x J 


A x x 

» 5 X XX 

A x x 

wl xx x 


X B XXx 

W xx J 





"£ £ 


ute- s 


Active Perf. j~>\ y\ j3\ jj\ jj\ jj\j jj\3 or jj\£ 

6 *• - * 

•>. »* •>.*■> 

Imperf. j-^W j^^i j^3-i j^l# j^^i j^+i j^^-i °r £\}*t 
Imperat. j~ot y^t jJI j^l j.51 ^0 jJU or jjt^J B 

A At A Al .. *| *. At .. 


5 .- 

N. Verbi. 


Passive Perf. 


N. Pat. 

8 J% s 

t 4 

OuJv^ <i}~' 

j*M P[ fy\ j2V j$U or j3\y 

'if -* 4 -a f ***J ^a *i '* *i n 

j3\ M y 5 \ yy> ^yj or jj 3 yj C 

iCiil j* $ J j-cj *Sf^J 

j*~sj J/ /^ 

A At A A| N A(«. At M 

J"^ > J '>J J*^ J-'W J" , W or J^'3^ 
jJye £\y* J**y* j^U* jjU* or j->t^o 

P#r/ Imperf. Imperat. N. Ag. et Pat. N. 

VIII. Act. >^l 

x j j 
Pass. j£>jl 

X. Act. jJUwt 

Pass. jJ^wl 



%s J 

•rfr* J 

j^j« D 

The seventh form is wanting in verbs of this class, according to 





Active Perf. 





o £ o 

N. Ag. 

N. Verbi. Jtj- 

Passive Perf. J£w 


N. Pat. 

it 6 J 

o £ o x 




J? x 


10 g J 

1 w 

J5L, ^U ^b 




X UlJ 

J*x J 

x .- x x£ ©C 

c o x j c o s Jul* j J «>/J j a j 

^ <^>*! ><Aj >^^ >A{ 

^x a o£ 

S x «»x J 9f» 

, j , ol 

x x 

» f j j£oj 

9 r>* J Of- J 

i»px j •» »-x j oeo J 

J>%* J**)"* J*%* 

V. VI. 


xtxx * >* * * 

Active Perf. jf$3 j^i^J 

W/// J *" xx 

Imperf. j*%Zj J*?&+i 

D Imperat. jH$ j>H$ 

S«l// J »» x x J 

N. Ag. j&U spte* 

li «i 

N. Verbi. J^tt J$5 

Passive Perf. J2L5 J&5 


Imperf. J^-i J>?&k 

N. Pat. . JtiiJ* j&& 




x £ x o x£ xO x £ x 

6 x 

j £ - o j 
o £ x o j 




'A* 0J 

j£ox o j 



Active Perf. 3 

. s. m. 

Ijj La 




Px X 


* X X 

J Jx 

o £ix 

Px x 

2. s. m 

x x 

x 2xx 




I. 0. 1 x 


cJ Ox 


2 xj 


2xo 2 o 

2x o 

2 JO J 

1 -X 

^W B 



p X p X 




* ulx J 


P X J 

N. Verbi. 

0. © . 


9 ^xx 
9 JJ 


5p- ȣ 

9 x X J 

Passive Perf. 

<4* L5^ 


p j 


2x J 



2x X, 

bWd c 

N. Pat. 

JO X J* X 

J x 



P«lx J 


Px X .» 







Active Perf. 



Px XX i 






2 OJ 


Ix xxx 1 xOx 

2 Ox x 


2 oi 


2x XX 2 X 

2 x0 

2 0x0 



£ J 

9 9 9 

P m xx J £ X X J £ X J 

c£f^* l£)^° ^y»i»»* 


£ xO J 


* Ox J 

{£j ■»■»»»■» 

N. Verbi. 



i^ 5 


fJ XX 1 





X X 

Passive Perf. 

£wijj £ j J £ j o j 

iJs*> kSj**> ltH 1 

i J J 

£ ojox 


£«3xx J 

ix XXX 



2x0 x J 

N. Pat. 



Ptfxx J 

9 9 

Px X X J Px X J 


PxxO J 


Px x J 



Active Perf. js- 3 

Imperf. jay 

Imperat. js> 

B N. Verbi. JUj 

O j3 




£*3 j*?3 A3 

J * * J * 6 * & < * 

5 « x f " * 3-> 5 « x 

« ^ 


Passive Per/, j^j 
Imperf. js>^j 



•^jy. {fa 

9 J x JO 

N. Pat. >}*y* ^3jy* ?*°5* 

J X J 

O JG x J x 

>3>3* jy**** 




Active Perf. 

x , oi xx o* 

J J J J J vis 

Imperf. ^-r^yi J-*^ **+i 

o j o ■» o a j • w j 

N. Ag. v**^>* j-^>* J^« 

t jM»Jt ^t^«/l 


j o x o x j t/t 

Imperat. w*».jt j~»j\ Jowt ^~Jt js>^ 

6 0^0 d © x 

I > ^wt 

Gx J 0' J 

» .»»< Mii> w ^ 

D N. Verbi. wA^ iWl J 1 * 31 j^t 

Passive Perf. *-**..$ t j~i$\ jupt j~J\ 

Imperf. w^->J J-*^ ****^ >~^ 

J 6 x J 1/0 4 S / fij 

N. Pat. w^>« j~>5* jju.0 

x J J x J J 

J x 6x J >• x Ox J 

S x x J x Ox J 


Active Voice of the First Form. 


Sing. 3. m. 



x x 

2. m. 

X ft J 



1. c. 

J J 

Dual. 3. m 




2. c. 


Plur. 3. m. 



x »J 

2. m. 

o j o j 



(3 j oj 

1. c. 



Sing. m. J5L5 

x ** 

as u 





En. i. 

jEk. ii. 


J * 

5 x j x 

x Jx 





x J/ 


ft Jx 

5x jx 

oj>A5 b 





ft Jx 

j it 


5, jf 

o x j£ 


x j • 



. . . 


x j x 


. . . 




X J J X 


a j j x 

J " r* 

* » i , 



5 j jx 

J Jx 


x 0->x 

x Jx 

j .»x 

x i/ 

W x Jx 

Ox J x 

\T. Verbi. 





3. En. i. 

^. ii. 



Sing. 2. 


m. Ji 


x J 

f- ^ 

W J 


Dual. 2. 

c. «^5 

. . . 

Plur. 2. 

J J 

m. tyj.5 

Si J J 

• J J 

f. O^ 

Hi -0 J 

. . . 



Active Voice of the First Form. 


Sing. 3. m. jL» 

x ft 


B 2. m 

1. c. 
Dual. 3. m. tjL> 


2. c. U3j~> 
C Plur. 3. m. IjjC 






5 J 











Ox «xx 




J X 


x ft x 

x ..» x 




.Ek I. 

jEVi. 11. 


» x 

fix X 

ft X X 

Jtii XXX m 





ft X 

a x x 

ft X X 





X X 

ft X 

fix X 

Ox x 


-rr 3 





fi x 

ft X 



Oj**? 3 

x £ 


fix « 

ft X £ 








. . . 




. . . 



Ml X X 

. . . 

J X 

J X 

fi J X 

ft J X»»J 




x ft x 

X ft X 

Ml Xft X 

. . . 

J X 

J X 

fi J x 

*- J £ 

U/e^ 3 


Oj^t 5 


X ft X 

Ml X ft X 

. . . 

x „ 

ft X 

fix X 

ft X X 







s. En. 1. 

En. 11. 

fi * 

ft X 

Sing. 2. m. 





Dual. 2. c. 


W X 

. . . 

Plur. 2. m. 


fi J 

X ft 

« xft 




. . . 


Passive Voice of the Fiest Form. 


Sing. 3. m. J-J 

f. cJL3 

2. m. szS* 

f. cis 

1. C. CJLd 

Dual. 3. m. %3 
f. UL3 

2. c. U& 
Plur. 3.m. I^Ls 


f. c^ 5 


2. m. ^3 
f. &6 

1. c. U3 


Indie. Subj. Jussive. Energ. i. Energ. n. 

JUj JUj Jlaj v >JISj o-^ 

J /J * xj tfxJ £x xj Ox /J 

JU5 JUD Ji3 J>JUu oJ^ B 

0/j 2/ ^j © x x j 

Ji5 ^>J15J v>JU3 


J Jx J X X J 

JU3 JUu 

a x j » ./j 

o*iUu ^Uu jud ^la om 



» J X *x J 

iVom. Pat. Sing. m. j>&«, f. SJyU 

9 x 9 x x 


Ml J, /J J X J 

^)Uu t>JUu ^Uj O-^ CP^ 

/ »/J x * x J x x J vt xO /J 

L>^*i O^J Ch*^J 0^**i • • • 

X J /j J - J J x j Z J s J © J xj 

0>JU5 I^Uj t^JU3 o-JUu ^JUu 

x © x x x © x .» x ©xj wl x©xx 

,>U3 ^>U5 ^>Uj o^^ • • • 

X x J © x xx 

JUL* JUL JiJ ^Ui O-^ 


The Derived Forms. 

IV. VII. VIII. x. 

Active Perf. 3. s. m. JUfl JUJt JUSt ^Uwt 

2. s. m. cJLSt cJUtJI cJUSt c^Al^t 

B Imperf. J^Lj J^J J^J ^o«*^l 

Imperat. Jil J-uJI Jjtft jt&~»\ 

N. Kg. JJU JU-u J12U 

S x J 


N. Verbi. SSlij JLiJt Just a* 

* I s 61 < 63 * J J 

Passive Perf. J-JM J-j*^>t J*^l ^o**^' 

C Imperf. JUL* J^» J^J ->* 

N. Pat. JUU JU-u J12U 

j //«j 

II. III. v. VI. 

Active Perf. J^S j~j JjU jjL J^so j+~3 JjU3 j^tli 
Imperf. \}$H j**~£ Jb^J j^^i J>*^ j*~*k Jj^&j j^^^J 

Ox 6 Os Oxx *J 0" * J Old// 9d// OJ * * OJ / , 

D N. Verbi. J^j*3 xo * *^ &$U* SjjL** J|>£> j-*~3 Jb^ j^S^ 

yt J * J -- J svtJJ * vl J J s J J 

Passive Perf./ J>3 j-w Jj>$ jj^w J^£> j-j~j Jj>£J ^Hj-** 5 

'IX. Perf. %yJS Imperf. >jm^ N. Verbi. jb>wt 

XI. 3V3— »l jf>~i jtj>.J>£~>l 


Active Voice of the First Form. 







j&t. i. 

En. ii. 

Sing. 3. 

X X 

m. tju 



x JOx 

J Ox 

5 x JOx 

x J Ox 






x JOx 

JO x 


5 x J x 

x J x 

2. m. 

x xx 



x JOx 

JO x 

S x JO x 

x J x 

O^J-L3 B 


X X 


X Ox 



2 Ox 

OJ- 5 - 3 


OJ- 1 - 3 

1. c. 

J xx 



j Jul 

x ;0f 



5 x joc 


o x jo£ 


Dual. 3. 

m. IjjJ 

x JOx 


x J Ox 


x JOx 

W x JOx 


. . . 



x J x 

X J X 


x J x 


W x JO x 


. . . 

2. c. 

x JO X X 


X Ji X 


x JO x 


x J x 


tf x JO x 

• • • C 

Plur. 3. 


m. IjjJ 

J Ox 

J Ox 


S JOx 

J Ox 


x x x 

x J Ox 

x JOx 

x JOx 

* x JOx 

. . . 

2. m. 

JO xx 

x J Ox 

JO x 




w j o ^ 

OJ- 1 - 3 

J x 

OJ-^ 3 


2 J * x X 




m x j ox 

. . . 

1. c. 


J «x 

X J0x 




fl x JOx 

x JOx 





^i. i. 


En. II. 

Sing. m. 



9 Ox 

Sing. 2. m. 



5x j oj 

x J OJ 


«X X 

Dual. 2. c. 


x JO J 

a oj 
m x joj 




Plur. 2. m. 



A J oj 





x JOJ 


•xx J OJ 


. . . 






Active Voice of the First Form. 






En. i. 

Sing. 3. m. ^ysj 


x 0^ 


fi x Ox 

x x 
f. C*N^) 



x Ox 


fi X Ox 

X *** 

B 2. m. www*; 


x Ox 


fi x Ox 


x Ox 



2 Ox 

J Oxx 

1. C. C-wwOj 

L^ 1 

x »l 



fi x o£ 

Dual. 3. m. tw«) 

O 1 ^ 

x Ox 

x Ox 


Ml X Ox 

x r 

f. &J 

x Ox 


x Ox 


«l x Ox 


2. C. U^o; 

x Ox 


x Ox 


W x Ox 
X * 

C Plur. 3. m. tj^J 

x jOx 

J Ox 

J Ox 

fi J Ox 


x Ox 

x Ox 

x Ox 

«i x Ox 


X X 


2. m. vff^wwoj 

x J Ox 

x Ox 


£ J Ox 

x Ox 

x Ox 

x Ox 

Ml X Ox 



1. C. UwO, 


x Ox 


£ x Ox 

D Sing. m. 


Ox x 


iV. F<?rfo'. 


JSto. ii. 

x Ox 
x Ox 
Ox Ox 

o x o£ 

J Ox 

J Ox 




. En. i. 

x5Vi. ii 

Sing. 2. m. 









Dual. 2. c. 


ul x 

. . . 

Plur. 2. m. 


fi J 



x e 

Hi X 





Active Voice of the First Form. 

Indie. Sub}. Jussive. En. I. En. n. 

Sing. 3. m. ^y6j 


2. m. 

1. C. Cww tfj 

Dual. 3. m. U»j 
f. k~±j 

2. c. U~o> 

j x 
Plur. 3. m. \$*oj 

f. 0#?J 

»j x 

2. m. j*~?bj 

a j x 
f. O^s-f; 

1. c. U*-£) 

Sing. m. u^tj 


/(/ x x 

L5^ L5-*x* 

xo x xo x 

- o x x ox 

x xOx xOx 

O-a^J 3 

xOx S//»/ t> - x Ox 

xox a x xox o * /«/ 

x o x a <f < o " s / /0/ 

xOx 5 xOx x -■ 

^^ojj ^ojj o-t^y o-*°y 

x xOx 
x xOx 
x x Ox 

LT^ 1 

/jf 3 x xo£ o x xOp 

x • x Ox 

x /«/ 

X xOx 

x xOx 

W*^ O^-^J • • • 

x x x ui x x x 

x x Ox w x xOx 

L*£p oW^H • • • 

xOx 3 J xOx J xOx 

x x Ox hi x xOx 

Chj-^xH c>*^hJ O 1 * - ^} O^^H • • • 

x - x x Ox xOx 5 J x x J x Ox 

x x x x x x x xO" vi xO x Ox 

O"* - ^'"' t>*^P Chj^P ^) U <wop . . . 

x Ox xOx xOx 2 x xOx x xOx 

L5*^ LT^H *-^H v>«-^P O**^ 
iV. F«r6*. 


Imperative. D 

Simple. En. 1. jfth 11. 

Sing. 2. m. 

x £ x x x xO 

c*x)' O* - ^)' Ch^j^ 


0x0 5x0 0x0 

1^5-^ Ov*j\ 0*°j\ 

Dual. 2. c. 

X X Hi x xO 

w**|{ OW-^;] • • • 

Plur. 2. m. 

0x0 9 J xO J xO 


xOxO HlxOxO 

tj**?j' oMji • • • 


Passive Voice of the First Form. 







ifri. I. 

En. ii. 

Sing. 3. 

m. ^£jj 


xA J 

x AJ 

a * * o i 

A x xAJ 

B f. 

A x J 


'6 J 


Si x x 6 J 

A x x Ax 

2. m. 



x A J 

x a.» 

a x *oj 

A x x A i 




x <• 

x A xAJ 

A /JJ 


A x J 


1. c. 





x x S>i 

C Dual. 3. 

x j 
m. bju 

x x AJ 


vt .X X A J 

. . . 


x /«i 


w x ,ai 


X J J 

2. c. U^Ju 

Plur. 3. m. IjjJ 

X J 

T\ * J J 

D 2. m. ^o^JJu 

f. CW*^ 


1. c. Ujju 

X X Ax Ml X /O J 

^bjOJ t»ju5 Uju5 O^J*^ 

O x J 6 x AJ 

x A x AJ x A x OJ x A x J mI x A x AJ 

Ch!*^ CH*^ v>J*^ 0^i***& 

6 ' 6 J u) J x J 

x A x AJ - x J x A xAJ wl xA x A J 

O^J^ 5 CH**^ O^*^ 0^*3 

t> j a x x» j 

i^jjJ ^jJJ JJJ CfcJ**^ 

3 -» * x SkSjOx 

iVbw. Pa£. Sing. m. jju* f. SjjU* 

5 ' A * 5 w A x 

x xAj 

A J xAJ 


A x x A J 


The Derived Forms. 

Active Perf. 
N. Ag. m. 
N. Verbi. 

Passive Perf. 
N. Pat. m. 


*t x 3 

«x Ox 





IV. V. VI. 

x o£ 5xx xxx 

^31 ^^xaj ^Uj 

Oj a XXX x XXX 

L5^ L5^*^ lT* 1 *^ 

1 Si x x xxx 

^51 ^oaj ^Uj B 

J ulxxj xxj 

^AA4 ^^Ua4 ijoIaLo 

9 x .» SxulxxJ 0/ xxj 

^L»3t ^oaj 


LTf** 5 


L5^5 LT* 1 *^ L^ 1 *^ G 

SLailxd SwAfcU SloU&e 

VII. Act. 


VIII. Act. 


X. Act. 








X X 


X X 0.» 





X X 

x JOJ 


x Ox 


J J 

x Ox J 


-dj*Vfl_'l* lV i , ' 


U Cl A>.C 

£ xOj 

x J 

^_V <C * 1 * ^ 

K Verbl 



£ Ox J 

Camforfoge : 



Gaspari, Carl Paul 


A gramma* of the Arabic 


language. 3d ed. 


v. 1 







NOV 2 6 1987