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3Lonfcon: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 



(BInaaoto: 263, ARGYLE STREET. 



Bombaji: E. SEYMOUR HALE. 















M. J. de GOEJE, 





[All Rights reserved.] 

Cambrfoge : 



J - J fl - »«» J 


VOL. I. 


6 c after ilLi^JI lUsJl add : The ^ is then called a^b^l jUJt. 
11, 1. 1, read: haufun. 
14 D read : In combination with _. 

15b add: J^jJl* from Jjjk-o, i»J>£. 

19, last line, read .Jl. 

20, Rem. c, read : as [perhaps] in the article ; comp. § 345. See 

my reply to Dr Howell, in the Asiat. Qtiart. Rev. 1897, Vol. iii. 
n. 5, p. 126 seq. 

21, 1. 3 from below, read ih&Ti. 

30 c add : Hence the use of y*j, excellent is he in his shooting, 

'fin " * ' ' J " 

yai excellent, or how excellent is he in his judging, *}£, %*Jo, 
it* *- 

yA. Comp. § 183, rem. c. 

32 b add : w^j-ej ^£Al>H ^9 jju o he tvent up unci clown the valley. 

33 after (c) add : The third form construed with the preposition 

y^+j has not unfrequently the signification of a causative of 

the sixth form, as i j*i ^^.\ he united by brotherhood, ^^o w>j^ 
he made to be near together, etc. (Nbldeke, Zur Grammatik, 
p. 26). 

34, Rem. a. Comp. j+±, and j-^t. 
Rem. b. Comp. ojJJJI. 


36 A. .j£w1 is properly to listen, to give attention to a complaint, 

as ^ict, ^ii>t, etc. (Nbldeke, Z. Gr. p. 28). 
W. II. b 



37 c add : jJJu. 

41c after narrow; add : J^Jtil. 

47 D add : AqIUt {jJ**)- 

48, § 70, add : Oj**5 (sZ*jj*c). 

59, Rem. a. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 368 considers the root as a con- 
crete noun. 

67, § 117*. Vollers, Zeitschr. f. Assyriologie, xii. 134 footnote quotes 

Kor'an ch. xiii. 12 OLA** for oL&«* (Beid. i. 477, 1. 17) as 

a proof that this form is not restricted to those verbs that 
have a dental as second radical. 

, , , 

87, Rem. a, read : cIJaIwI. 

91a add : The tribe of Taiyi' said Uu for .Jb , Loj for ■*-ej , OUj for 

- J 

C-w-O, so Hamdsa yy and comp. De Saey, Chrest. ii. 445. 
96, Rem. a. Gahiz, Bayan i. i», 6 and 3 from below has <L r ~j*$\ opp. 

- }r ' ) * * 1 

98, Rem. c. On such forms as £*j, jjz, ya$, see above, note to 
p. 30. 

98, Rem. a, delete the remark in square brackets. 
108 A read: jlis CvJ (Seybold). 

110, § 195. They are called also »i>jka*JI 2l©-J opp. to j>**M iU-J 
(Hamdsa \-). 

181 A add : j&' 3 (Tabarl i. 3158, 1. 5). 

182 read: £j\<Ly 

O ' s 

183 add : ^^£=>j-« a ship (Seybold). 

195 ((/). The ending Oyi~ * s often shortened to 0>- > as usually 
• j • o 
in ^j^*w' 

, J , - 0, 

in ^jj/Jtw^l for *£*$) Other instances are ^j-^JI, 



« > tc 

210, footnote. The plur. pauc. of fem. words is ordinarily J*il, of 

«' at 

masc. words SJbtil. 
230 c read : ko/mt^ (Seybold). 
233 c: HBW belongs to *iot, comp. Aram. tffiflX (Seybold). 

t * t : - 

252, Rem. a, read : The suffix of the 1st p. sing. ^ -, when attached 


253, Rem. b, read : [Comp. Vol. ii. § 38, a, rem. b.] 

o *Z* 3 *.~ , 

271, Rem. a. Likewise ,>j JJ1 instead of ,>jJJUI Kor'an xli. v. 29. 

 .- - .-..--.-.. i 

296, Rem. c. A poet allows himself to say Jjj c^j'i" J>*$ (Ilamasa 



19, Rem. b. Hence it may be followed by a jussive in the apodosis, 
for instance Gahiz, Ifahdsin, p. 18, 1. 14 .Jt i*5j t^-o (J~©>J 

bring thou a letter from me to the Prince of Believers, written 
by thyself, so I tcill be thy debtor for two benefits. 

21, § 9. An example of the use of the simple imperfect instead of 
J^s with imperf. is Tabari i. 2225, 1. U jJL) #\ ^>-*il> ^ 

j3j+i ^tf.^^)\ iJlc *9j SijJI ,** 'Abu Bakr did not employ 

an apostate either in the tear against the apostates, or in that 
against the barbarians. 

3 * * }* J 3 1 , 

30 d. The jussive in the verse (Sibaweih i. 402, 1. 8) *->yo <*J w-Ui 
jy^j SllaiJI \Jj±-\ O-* ^-^ ^-H-**"- 5 *$3 * s explained by the 

2 * * 3 - '2' 3 1 3 13, 

elision of *n), for ^>JU>J ^j — dU-Jju *^j, as in Lk^juoJ *$ 


3 ' , 

38, second footnote. Another example is Tabari i. 1713, 1. 6 ^>«i 

*} 3* - ' ') 1 




44 D. The imperative is also often used by poets in the apodosis of 
a conditional clause, as jjiCs ^£yvJtj >yJJI O* SUje. CXi fe lil 

Ijl«JL^ jamcJI t^-jb ^>-« j/&~»» ?y </iOM ar£ indifferent to play 
and love, then thou art a hard stone of the dry cliff, and Tab. 
ii. 1574, last 1. ^cjl*. ^j\ L>LiJL& \y^s^ ye shall be like 
whores if ye suffer yourselves to be beguiled. 
121 A. We sometimes find a nominative where we should expect an 

5 - ' ' J - - - " 

accusative, as Tab. i. 2009, 1. 15 J^&zj J***^ * u J U iy-^3 an d 
he forgot to put down his own name being hurried and heed- 
less, where we must supply ^Aj. 

219, 1. 7, for ^&\ read : Jd>\. 

237, § 99. Also the ordinal numbers, e.g. *^».j j**£- ^ila«J 15JI / am 
the eleventh man (Tab. i. 3307, 1. 1). 

272 c read : ^Jby 

298c add: j^*c *s)| C.JL& L^i they were only passing clouds (Tab. 
ii. 1197,1.3). 

350 seq. footnote. Prof. Hartmann has just published " Das Arabische 
Strophengedicht, 1. Das Muwassah." 







1. The States or Tenses 

The Perfect .... 
„ as an Optative 

„ preceded by jj> . 

„ as the Pluperf. Indie 

„ as the Pluperf. Subjunct., in two correlative 

hypothetical clauses, after ^i, etc 

,, after lil 

„ after ^jt 

„ in two correlative conditional clauses, after 

^t, etc. . 

„ after io^jjjl U 

The Imperfect Indicative 

j * a , * «■ 

The Latin and Greek Imperfect, J*aj ^^=> 
The Future-Perfect, Jjii (jj) O^i- 









The Imperfect Subjunctive 

Ox J/ 

The Jussive, after jjt and L>) 

,, in two correlative conditional clauses, after 

,jt, etc. .... 

The Energetic ...... 

2. The Moods 

The Subjunctive ...... 

i- 3 p it Ox 

The Subjunctive after &), N) jjl or *n)I, and ,^J 

O x 

„ after J, ^^s, etc. 


after o 
after j . 
after ^ 


after jt 

after lit or (j}1 . 

The Jussive 

„ after J 

,, after ^ ...... 

„ in two correlative conditional clauses, after 

jjl, etc. ...... 

Ox fix 

„ after ^i and l*J . 

The Energetic of the Imperfect . 

,, after ^j . 

„ in prohibitions (with *$), wishes, and 

questions ..... 
,, in the apodosis of two correlative con 

ditional clauses .... 

,, in the protasis of a sentence, after Let 


after LJL*. etc. .... 

,, as a negative imperative, with *$ . 

The Energetic of the Imperative . 



3. The Government of the Verb . . 

(a) The Accusative ....... 

(a) The Objective Complement in the Accusative 
Two Objective Complements in the Accusative . 

s -• e ^ 

The Accusative of the jJlcuo, etc., as the absolute 

object, JiXJa-oJI Jyta^Jt .... 

Construction of the Objective Complement and of 
the Subject with the Nomen Actionis 

Use of J with the Genitive to express the Objec 

tive Complement of the Nomen Actionis 
Government of the Nomina Agentis or Participles 
Use of jj with the Genitive to express the Objec 

tive Complement of the Participles 
Construction of Verbal Adjectives 
Construction of Comparatives and Superlatives of 

the form ^*i\ ..... 
The Accusative after a Verb which is understood 

l\jS^\} ^jjo^t 

' - - 

The Accusative after ,jt, ,jt, ^>£), ,jl£>, O"^ 

„ after C*J, Jx, JjO . 

„ after j (ilx^t jt_j) 

The Vocative ...... 

i - 

,, after I, b, etc., expressed by the 

Nominative .... 

„ after 1, L», etc., expressed by the 

Accusative .... 

,, after lyjl or lyjt b . 

,, after 1j . 

The Accusative after ^), used ^~*a».) I JlJ 






(/3) The Adverbial Complement ... 


The Predicate of J&> 


* * j * * i 

„ of the (J^ 9 Ol_$£»l 


The Predicate of I* and 

*9, when =y-J 


3 * Si io 


„ . of A*iU)l 

^jt and of O^) 


The Construction of the 

<4jU^I JUi» 


The Adverbial Accusative of Time 


>> u 

of Place 


11 ii 

of State or Condition 

J ' 0' 

JUJt . 


ii ii 

of Cause or Reason 


ii ii 

of Limitation or De 




Construction of ^o^ 

t^lis, and ijkib 


)> j> 

of Comparison . 


(b) The Prepositions 


The Simple Prepositions 



* - 

^jZc = yj*6 . 


^o after Comparative Adjectives 


6 - 






J . . . 


} * * * - 

Ajlil^l . 


L5* • • ' 










, a * 

- i J 

^» ^ 

The Compound Preposit 

4 - 
tXrf C>"*> etC - 

O* v>*> e *°- 
Prepositions in connection with a following Clause 

* 9, 

to redundant after (j-o, ^fc, and w> 
Omission of the Preposition before ^1 and ,jt 





1. The Nomina Verbi or Actionis, Agentis, and Patientis 

2. The Government of the Noun. 

The Status Constructus and the Genitive 
-to, etc. 

3'y V 

r, il , 




9 0s 0-0 

jjj, j\jJLc 

* ' J 

Si 1 


' Si j i - -j - 

3 (Vj 3^) > °> O* 

j -oi 

{ Jj&\ Superlative . 

3 £ oSA 

oi- - 

A Clause, introduced by ^j\ or Lo, as a Gen it i 
The Genitive of Restriction or Limitation, after 

ticiples and Adjectives 
Interposition of a Word between the Status Constr 

and the Genitive 





A Genitive in Apposition to a Relative Adjective 


in [J- 

Definite and Indefinite Annexation 

Construction of Jjiil as a Superlative 

The Genitive of the Material 

Apposition of the Material. 

The Genitive Construction in place of Apposition 


The Numerals. 

The Cardinal Numbers from 3 to 10 

* « - i 

jj*\$ and j^.\ 

„ ,, „ from 11 to 99 

a5U (100) and oUI (1000) . 

Compound Numbers 

Agreement of the Cardinal Numbers in Gender with the 

Nouns denoting the objects numbered 
When the Cardinal Numbers are determined or definite 
Construction of the Ordinal Numbers with the Genitive 
Dates ......... 

The Days of the Month ..... 












The Parts of a Sentence 250 

The Subject and Predicate 250 

The Jajlj or Connecting Pronominal Suttix . . 256 

The ^J-aAJI j--o-o or Pronoun of Separation . . 259 

When the Inchoative or Subject of a Nominal Sen- 
tence may be an Indefinite Noun .... 260 



The »**&U)t j o +to or Emphatic Pronoun 

Use of 0^*> O^Aj> i n a Nominal Sentence 
The Subject not specified 
Personal form . 
Impersonal form 
The Complements of the Subject and Predicate 
Reflexive pronominal Suffixes 

u"»*jj 0^> e ^ c -» as reflexive objects 
Appositives, %j\£>\ 

The Adjective .... 
Substantives .... 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

iJ O 

i * O i *■, a , 
J'ȣ j ^ oe j^Oe 

SO' O - 


ju£»UM, the Corroboration 

w**JI or AA-flJI, the Qualificative or Adjective 
^JjuJI, the Permutative .... 
OW tJUkc, the Explicative Apposition 
Apposition of Verbs .... 

2. Concord in Gender and Number between the Parts of a 
In Verbal Sentences 
In Nominal Sentences 




Negative and Prohibitive Sentences 

e - 

o>  • 

Or fix 

- e^ 

•Jj after U, ^j, £3, J>J, or ^ 

•^ with the Perfect, as a Future 

„ „ as an Optative 

*9 redundant after verbs meaning to forbid, fear, etc. 

followed by £l with the Subjunctive (•$ <j\, *§\) 

Omission of *$ in Denial by oath, and its Insertion in 

the Jussive and Energetic 

*$ in Prohibitions, with 
2. Interrogative Sentences 

of ot 

a - 
J*. . . 

Nl, U1 . 

SA Z * * a, * o* 

N», **, ^V, Uy 

Or , 

Relative Sentences 
Definite and Indefinite 
The Connecting Pronoun, juUJJ or %oS^\ 











j j *\* * 

4. Copulative Sentences 

i ^ 

N)j after a preceding negative 

The Conflict in Government, ^^aJI ^J cjLUt 

^JlaJI jlj, the Waw of the State or Circumstance 

5. Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences . 

» i a i 



G. Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences 

O introducing the Apodosis of a Conditional Sentence 

^J introducing the Apodosis of a Hypothetical Sentence 








The Rhyme 
The Metres 




Wafir . 




Mudari' . 






Medid . 

Haflf . 

Mugtett . 



Affections of the letter I . . . . . 

Irregularities in the use of the Tesdid .... 

Uncontracted Forms for Contracted ones 

Suppression of final ^j in some Nominal and Verbal forms 

Other Letters, and even Syllables, dropped 

Lengthening of a Short Vowel in the middle of a word 

Shortening of a Long Vowel ...... 




RHYME 368 





Suppression of a Short Vowel ...... 384 

Addition of a Final Short Vowel to some Verbal Forms and 

Particles .......... 385 

Irregular Use of the Tenwln and other Case-endings . . 387 

Suppression of the Tenwln ....... 388 

,jj_ for (J->— in the Genitive Plural of Nouns . . . 388 

Irregularities in Verbs and Nouns derived from Radicals 

tertise j vel ^£ ........ 389 

Pausal Forms out of Pause . . . . . . .390 





1. The States or Tenses. 

1. The Perfect, ^-iO'l (Vol i., §§ 77, 79), indicates :— A 

(a) An act completed at some past time (the historic tense, the 
Greek aorist, German imperfect, and English past) ; as juj sU. ^j 
then came Zeid ; w>W ^^ '3— ^ they s <*t down at the door. 

(b) An act which, at the moment of speaking, has been already- 
completed and remains in a state of completion (the Greek, German 

and English perfect); as^ȣ*Xc c-**JI ^t ^i^aJ 'i/^o' be mindful 

of my favour, ichich I have bestowed upon you. 

(c) A past act, of which it can be said that it often took place B 
or still takes place — a use of the perfect which is common in proverbial 

expressions, and which the Greek aorist also has ; as Slj^l Ojj 

relaters say (hare handed it down by oral tradition from one to 

, J J s iO-o , ,Zi 7/7 J J 

another); ^^...AqJI Jii3l commentators are agreed (have agreed ana 
still agree). 

(d) An act which is just completed at the moment, and by the 
very act, of speaking; as aJJt ^Jj«iJt / conjure thee by God ; 

tjuk / sell thee this. 

w. 11. 1 

2 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 1 

A (e) An act, the occurrence of which is so certain, that it may- 
be described as having already taken place. This use prevails in 

promises, treaties, bargains, &c, and after the particle *$ not, especially 

in oaths or asseverations ; as cJ«i ^X3l Ul o-*^*- ^^ O^*^' Ulatli 

<^'w m-s, therefore, an assurance of safety on one of two conditions, 

either that thou wilt accept (lit. hast accepted) what we propose to thee 

(lit. that wherewith we are come to thee), or that thou wilt keep (it) 

B secret and refrain (lit. hast kept it secret and refrained) from doing us 

any harm, till we get out of thy country ; *£*J C**.St *$ aJJIj by God, 
I shall certainly not remain in Mekka ; U j^-aJl ,j^»©Ui. *}) C~Jt 

J » x ^ 

^ < .. . a.- ; 4ip 5-»-3 > ) CwLU / swear (that) wine shall not make me 
intoxicated, as long as my soul remains in my body. 

Rem. a. When a clause commencing with *9 is connected with 

a previous clause beginning with U followed by the perfect, or^J 

followed by the jussive, in that case *9 does not give to the fol- 
lowing verb in the perfect the sense of the future, because it merely 

supplies the place of these particles ; as *$j l^yw .iJLjl C-JL:5 U .jAJl 

Ijhs-c- ,Ju-J <x!«Ia C-A».q», ^3 tjc^c / Aat>e wo< killed thy son either 
inadvertently or designedly, nor have I made his skull a sheath for 

my svjord ; OLS^IP ' d l3j *^3 OjjlP' °ji ^ ^ wola^aJI ^J-* OjJb 
/ /*aw experienced such wonderful things as neither seers have seen, 
D nor narrators have narrated. 

[Rem. b. Instances of the perfect retaining its original meaning 
after a single *n) are extremely rare. In later prose, however, we 
often find ^Jlj *$ he did not cease, he continued (to do) employed 
just as Jlj U or ^)}j ^ (Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 446 seq.)] 

(f) Something which we hope may be done or may happen. 
Hence the perfect is constantly used in wishes, prayers, and curses ; 

as ^Uj aJJI a*».j may God (who is exalted above all) have mercy on 

§ 2] The Verb.—\. The States or Tenses. 3 

jJOJ / / * * J Q J 

him ! a£JU v»b may his reign be long ! ^)\jj cJU»> may I be made A 

^y ransom ! ^ydi\ C~o1 mayest thou avoid execration (a formula used 

in addressing the ancient Arab kings) • aXJI *£lixJ GW cwrsg thee ! 
The proper signification of the perfect in this case is, "if it be as I 
wish, God has already had mercy on him ; " &c. The perfect has this 

sense also after ^ ; as tj-o ^**j U ^I*aJ *) may you never meet with 

harm, as long as you live ! 3)$9 ^a9 *$ may thy teeth (lit. mouth) not 

be broken !■ [neg. of the phrase «i)li 4JJI ^afi]. — When a conditional 

clause precedes the optative, the particle vJ must be prefixed to the B 
latter, in order that the influence of the conditional particle in the 

former may not extend to it; as^stj^b c ^a . A jA+M ^jj\ c~i^ <j1 

if thou art 'Ibn Hammdm (lit. the son of Hammam), mayest thou be 
saluted with honour ! 

Rem. After the name of God, such perfects as ,JUj, ^JjUj 

.JIjuj J^-j j&, *^3 J***) aQ d the like, are n °t optative but 

declarative or assertory ; as ■J'Ju^ «^jW-* <*•£" »J^* God (who is C 

blessed and exalted above all) hath said . [Comp. Vol. i. § 50, 

rem. a.] 

2. The perfect is often preceded by the particle jJ> (Vol. i., 
§ 362, z). When this is the case, if the perfect has either of the meanings 
mentioned in § 1, b and d, it now implies that the act is really finished 
and completed just at the moment of speaking. Its completeness may 
consist either (a) in the removal of all doubt regarding it, in its perfect 
certainty as opposed to uncertainty ; or (6) in its having taken place D 
in agreement or disagreement with what preceded it, in accordance 
or non-accordance with what was, or might be, expected, or just a 

little before the time of speaking. For example jt^j^. Sjtjj U^j j3 

^>*5UI Sjljj LaIa j^JJj j yol +)\ ^aljl ^i *&-*j-> C>i «^^ we have 

already spoken of the vizirate of their grandfather Halid 'ibn Barm^k 
in the reign of M-Mansihr, and we will /iere speak of the vizirates of 
the rest (in this example the just completed act is contrasted with the 

4 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 3 

A future one) ; Sy-aJI C-^15 jcs ^<? (time of) prayer is come; &*>\ oi 
sioU **3 thy daughter is, as was expected, dead, or thy daughter is 
just dead ; j*a* &jj\ c*Jj j*a3 aj^^I Ut as regards the post of 
governor, I appoint thy son governor of Egypt (§ 1, d) ; Oj^j <*J J15 

>3*>oJI o**s$ J^5 JUi IJjb he said to him, Thou didst promise this, and 

he replied, I now really fulfil what I promised. 

Rem. a. jJ immediately precedes the verb, as in the above 

B examples, and can be separated from it only by an oath or assever- 

ation ; as C*U».a»l aAJIj jJ> by God, thou hast done well; ^£j^xi jJi 

* * & 

\j.&\~> Co by my life, I have passed the whole night awake. 

Rem. b. j3 is called by the grammarians %S*^i\ \J>j&. the 
particle of expectation, and is said to be used JjJiafcJLU to indicate 
perfect certainty, or .JtaJI £y* ,<.oUJt %^j jJu} to approximate the 
past to the present. 

C 3. The Pluperfect is expressed : — 

(a) By the simple perfect, in relative and conjunctive clauses*, 
that depend upon clauses in which the verbs are in the perfect ; as 

i jyol*}\ aj j*o\ U^ov-Xfc u&j* he laid before them what el-Ma mun had 

ordered; 6$j\ u-^- £***■ Kj~^*r he sat where his father had sat; 
U)U ^Jjb £-«>oJl ^1 jjZM J-03 U-^ and after the bull had come to 

0, j Oi , j &* - "0 

the place, he turned his back in flight ; a~o JaI J^S UJ J*}-^ he fled 

D after his kinsmen had been killed. 

[Rem. Whether the perfect in these clauses has the meaning of 
the pluperfect, must in every single case be decided by the context, 
or by the nature of things. It may indicate a time identical with, 
and even posterior to, that indicated by the perfect in the clause 

* By a relative or conjunctive clause we mean a clause that is 
joined to a preceding one by means of a relative pronoun or a con- 
nective particle. 

§ 3] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 5 

,..».. o * * a a * j * * 2s 

upon which it depends. E.g. J^jI^wI ^y-J j*ol* ^c tf>y« j\~> UJ A 

<ul)t .-5 ax* dJL«*.j uu^ ^L*3 4*31 jJI when Moses went forth 
from Egypt with the Benu 'Isrd'U to the desert, he disinterred Joseph 
and carried his remains with him through the desert ; ^a^>\ l^J 

? a j* -- ' z ' a e- j j£ + j * * a*o )$'*' i s - - * 

L~*5j ^yJ Jjia^j o' *V— » Sli^Jt dJy^ifv. dUa-etj m;A«/i Ae became 
unbound, i.e. was dying, they asked him to give them a chief] 

(b) By the perfect with the particle jJ>, preceded by ^ or without 
it, provided the preceding clause is one which has its verb in the B 

«• at J »*+ J * + t 

perfect ; as ir»* J^j *«>/•»» 1 /^ &d him out blinded (lit. aW he had 

fo^n blinded) ; juwjJt jlj ^1 jXj jJ> tJUk.^3 J-aiJI ^Jl jij /fo iwn$ 

ear/y m ^ morning to el-Fadl, and found that he had gone still 
earlier to the palace of 'ar-Rasid (lit. and found him, he had already 

gone early). The clauses with j3 and j*ij are clauses expressing a 

state or condition (Jl»-). 

(c) By the verb O^ t° oe > prefixed to the perfect ; as OU C 

w-JJt ^ *5tj Ajjle'-J ^jCtji. ^1 ,-j-i. 0^3 wH>^ ju-_wjjt 

'ar-Rasld died at Tits, after he had set out (lit. and he had set out) 
for Horasan to combat Raft 'ibn el-Leit. These clauses also express 

the state (Jujf). 

(d) By O^ 9 an( i the perfect, with the particle jJ> interposed ; 

a 'O'O * , jt * ai £ j *j OS *■* *+ - i il- a - j a j> 

as J-aiJI ^1 lyijjbl^j lyl^Uj *4jW- ^rfj J^ 5 CUb / &w? brought 
up and educated a female slave; I then presented her to el-Fadl- D 

a * 

Sometimes the particle jJ is placed before both verbs, instead of 
between them; as jJ>j Ly».j i£5l*) J 15 ^xLo aJUI Jyj o' L&LH 

w - id * , a s a*  ? ; i % ; * - , a,* 

■jJI J-Xo-jt jJj ^j-o U^5 Jiiu ^1 OjJu Oolb ^re is a tradition 

that the Apostle of God {God bless him and grant him peace !) said to 
'A'isa {God have mercy on her I), after she had vowed (lit. and she 
already had vowed) to set free some persons of the children of Ishmael, 

6 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 4 

A Rem. a. "When one of two or more pluperfects is anterior to 

the rest in point of time, it is indicated by means of the particle 

jj>, the others having merely ^J£a ; as O^J \j*3^i Ju^yJI OU 

- - * s s \ ' * * * id to 9 ' ■■' ' J ' ' ' J ' ' ' - 

jj.ij^^i ^JLc wJLiJj AtlkJt *J^»j 'ar-Rasid died at Tits, after he 
had set out for Horasan to combat Raff 'ibn el-Leit, who had rebelled 
(lit. and this Raff had already rebelled), and cast off his allegiance, 
and taken forcible possession of Samarkand. 

B [Rem. b. Between (jl^ and the perfect a conjunctive clause 

may be interposed, as ;*-«•»» j»X*JI j+±- CM^ 9~*$~o T^i UJ O^ 

t\jA^\ when the information about tlie enemy had reached Salah 
ed-dln, he had assembled the emlrs.~\ 

4. (a) If two correlative clauses follow the hypothetical particles 

V if, Cft V if that, <)%, [Up] and ^3 «/ not (Vol. i., § 367, o)*, the 
verbs in both clauses have usually the signification of our pluperfect 
subjunctive or potential, though occasionally too of our imperfect 

C subjunctive or potential. For instance : aJJI *$\ a^\ \-o-\-** O^ £ 

DjuJU ^y £/^r# Aae? fo^rc in them (heaven and earth) gods besides God, 
tliey would surely have gone to ruin ; 3»x».bj i«t ^Wt J*»J <^->j *U> ^ 
if thy Lord had chosen, He would surely have made (all) mankind one 
people ; ^ovs^ b>*^ lil*-«=> ajp ^ov**^ l>* Is^iP V O-i^ u- t s^Jj 
and let those fear (God), who, if they should leave (or were to leave) 
behind them weak offspring, would have fears for them (or would be 

D afraid on their account) ; j^As. Ua^iaJ b>*jlj Sy*o\ i^>*JI J^t ,jt 3J3 

u^j'i'b £ 1<-JI ^>« Ol£^j a/ic? «/ the people of those towns had 
believed and feared (Us), We would have surely bestowed upon them 
blessings from heaven and earth; [^j^\ p-f*--" vo^ OJ^* **** *~~^ 3} 

* The protasis of a sentence, when introduced by "^J, although 
it may not have a verb actually expressed, yet includes a verbal idea, 

viz. that of the verb (jli». 

§ 4] The Verb.—l. The States or Tenses. 7 

if I had been one of {the tribe of) Mazin, they (the enemies) would not A 
have carried off my camels ; ^y>' U Sy> ^ ,jt £ aXJIj Ul jaw JISj 

fj+Zo j+e. UjU^o^-3 C»*fe>aytj ^iUiaJ^ tjl <*JJIj Ul «;?</ Sa'd said: 

verily, by God, if I had some strength left that I were able to rise, thou 
wouldst hear from me a roaring in its (* El- Medina 's) quarters and 
streets, that would drive thee and thy comrades into your holes, and by 
God, I would remove thee to a tribe where thou wouldst be a follower, 

,* ** * a,a-o j Bit* a j a* J -• J a* *a* 

not followed ; js-\^i ^£. c**JI c ^ jsSj j>y£. ^Sjj**. ^Uji ^ B 

^*i*>\j->.\ had not thy people ceased recently to be in a state of infidelity, 

6 i * a, * 

I would surely raise the house on the foundations of 'Ibrahim ; ^j\ ^Jj 

5 A 

2JsS ^« and were it not that all mankind would have become a single 
people (of unbelievers), We would certainly have given to those who 

ii •» jo* *a , 

believe not in the Merciful roofs of silver to their houses;] <UJI J-oi ^)^i 
"^.JLS *^t ,jUa*iJI ^juj^) < C L»g*- j j j£-t^ &«^ *£ wo£ fo^w for the goodness C 

o/" God towards you and His mercy, ye would surely have followed 

j - j - - ,* 5 ' - a^ 
Satan, (all) save a few ; j^s- .iUyJ ^s- ^ had it not been for 'All, 

* % j 5 j* a } ai * a , 

'Omar would surely have perished ; (j-^-o^-o UiJ ^15 1 '^J ^W i*£ ;w£ 

» , * , »^ , 1 „ , 0^ 
6ee» ,/ar ?/om, w?# would surely have been believers ; ^ j»\jti\ IjJk ^)"^J 

1 AC 

^ow? ?Y 7w^ been for thee, I would not have gone on pilgrimage 

this year (*-*►*.! in rhyme for -*-a^>.l). [With j3 inserted in both 

* «• 1 )&** a " * c ja'O j t 

clauses 0*^i C^*jU jlaJ jJ-mU^JI j~o\ OU j3 ^i if the Prince of the J) 
faithful were dead, I would swear allegiance to So-and-so; or only 

f j'«<-jj^^^j»^ j* * ate* 1 j s * a s £ j , ~, a * a *■ 

in the protasis »j^j t>^=>j3^ <uc l^-cu'i) ^3-6 ^« O-* J^ i"j »x5 ^ 
zy a^ ^«^ are with Munis had seen thee, they would surely turn away 
from him and leave him alone.] — (b) Occasionally >j\£s is placed 


between •} and the perfect in the protasis of the sentence, and 

8 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 4 

A sometimes O^ * s repeated before the perfect in the apodosis. If 
this be the case, the signification of the verbs in both clauses is always 

- >Ss < < * I JO <• J J 6 - 

and necessarily that of the pluperfect ; as &JjJs& &'* C-^U c-^S> £ 
if I had known this, I would have beaten thee ; UJ U^i^c \y[& ^ 

6 -"0-a S * ) ' * J «• 

»xa..oJI w>j I3-X0 lyl^ {/" £&??/ ^ a ^ known it, they would not have 

crucified the Lord of glory. — (c) If the verb of the protasis be an 
imperfect, and that of the apodosis a perfect, both must be translated 

B by the imperfect subjunctive or potential ; as ^jyj*> ^L^ol l\£j y 

if we pleased, we could smite them for their sins ; ^»W-' oUk*». l\£j ^ 
if we pleased, we could make it salt water. [If the verb of the protasis 

be an imperfect preceded by o^* an( ^ tnat 0I " the apodosis a perfect, 
both may be rendered by the pluperfect subjunctive or by the 

imperfect subjunctive, as U aJI Jj- 5 ' ^°3 i^^S ^^ 03**5i S^>\Ss •} 

gUjI ^AjJia^JI if they had believed in God and His prophet and in 

what has been revealed to him, they would not have taken them for 

C friends; jJ^»JI A>U?t l^o Jl^J jj*- ^>jJI ,>« ^^ 0^=* > 

?/ caution could save from death, surely the caution (of thy friends) 

j * ' 
would have saved thee from what has befallen thee (j»x»- in rhyme 

- - 

for jJ^-).] 

Rem. a. The apodosis of y (^ w>'^»- </*e answer, complement, 
or correlative of lau) is frequently omitted, when the context 

readily suggests it; as aj C- tt Jn i jl JW 4 **-" *^ •-in**' ^IjJ tjl ^)j 

,o,o«» ^* j o£ jafo<» # , 

-ja^Jt aj ^oJ^» _jt c^j^' aw * V ^ e mountains could be made to 
D move by a Kor'dn, or the earth be cleft in pieces by it, or the dead be 
addressed by it, ... . (scil. it would be by this Kor'dn) ; ,jl ^ 
juji> ,ji=>j .J I ^jT j I 3^3 J^L ^ if I were a match for you in 
strength, or could have recourse to a powerful clan or party, or to a 
mighty chieftain, .... (scil. / would resist you) ; ^^ w*S$3 U^l 
'<Ju> Lukl^J U& ^ ^j~*>3 Wj*- _;'«**-« ^£jJ / have delayed only 
until thou couldst see the extent of our forces and of our endtirance ; 

§ 5] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 9 

and if we had been with him with our hearts (heart and soul), .... A 

* ** 6 j * c s : s * 

(scil. we should have defeated you long ago) ; ^yo lyJ ^Xj ^i 3J5 

j :- «j i *>0x» * i , * _ je<e o^ - j;*a * Z 10 1 * 2 * Z * 

f*~>\j* .-$ ?—■'!/* ttft^JI ^*iJ3t ««<£ i/" i^ (Seville) possessed no other 

glory but the place, called Axarafe, opposite to and overhanging it, 
famous for its numerous olive-trees, (and) stretching leagues by 

leagues, .... (scil. this would be enough for it, iJ&J or libliiJ). 

[Rem. b. The verb expressed or understood in a clause pre- 
ceded by ^Jj even if, though, has the same signification as that of B 

the clause to which it is annexed, as ^tj» ^jkc sU»- ^j ^pLJI IjJact 
give to the beggar, though he should come on horseback ; ^jA /**•.;' "^ 

-J C-* * * * * «* 

j-olj»i i«-»1j jU» ^Jj t<«Ui / «?i/£ no£ retract my promise of pro- 
tection, even if my head should fly before me; jJuJ kj 3J3 l^ijuaJ 

* 3 j : * s 5 <■ 

\j>ja**» give alms, though it be only a burnt hoof ; 3J5 ajIju ,*<£jt 
tjl«». bring me a beast to ride upon, even if (it should be) an ass 

* * a 6* * Oil ei * * j* *iio * * »' 1*01 

(§ 41, rem. b) ; djJj ,>« ^j ^ UUgi (^^Ua^JI j^^- aJt *ip 

* * * * , * 9 % m 

the complaints of the wronged were brought before him, and he 

t ** * * :*- 

obtained justice for them, even from his own son; Ul^«»> w»oJt ^jl 

« it* * ot* *t sti »** 

(j^jtLe wJli^H 1*0 1 _jJj if thou causest an animal pain, however 
little, thou art cursed.~\ 

5. After lit when, as often as (Vol. i., § 367, b), the perfect is 
usually said to take the meaning of the imperfect, the future act 

; - a «? , * i i 

being represented as having already taken place ; as j-*»-l lit ^a^l D 

1 a io-o 1 * o 

j— J I I will come to thee when the unripe dates become red; \ y+* * Z« i\ 

»1 1 * 6 1*** li * it 

^SLfAji UJ j^s\s.y til Jy-yJJj *lU respond to God and to the Apostle, 
when he calls you to that which can give you life. — Consequently, if 

the particle til or U lit be followed by two correlative clauses, the first 

of which extends its conversive influence to the verb of the second, 

the verbs have in both clauses either a present or a future significa- 

w. 11. 2 

10 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 5 

A tion. For example: liL*J jj*> t&*. 5>»."^t jctj sU. ti^ aw«/ wforc 
the •promised term of the future life comes (or is come, or shall have 
cowe), w?0 will bring you all together (to judgment) ; £$3 U 131 ^o-m 
aj ^o^uf w&m it (the punishment) /a//s (*«po» you), will ye believe it 
then 7 : aj\jus cJi j*o*$\ ^j**^ u^i) 'i} when Yahyd takes the matter 

in hand, its difficulties are easily overcome. In such cases the Latin 
requires the future-perfect in the first clause, and the future in the 
second. The imperfect is sometimes used instead of the perfect in the 

j • • j *** d 6- 

B protasis or apodosis ; as Li©~> j£ tyis U3U ^t-wU ^JJ3 titj and 
when our verses are read to them, they say, We have heard ; lit ^Ul 

i a * i i > 

9j j9^=> L5^»-j ^oir^l) ^V' ^ 5 i J!P ^5^**"* ^ e/ * whom, when the 
shout of ' Alight for the fray' is raised, you see on foot (looking as 

1 * 0* Ol*Oi* * * 

tall) as if (they were) riding (v^ j in rhyme for w*£>j) ; jtr^}^ 'i' J 

oii*ot*ioi , 

^^L-ft.1 «JL..a..nJ awe/ w;^w £&«< seestf ^w, £#^r bodies make thee 
marvel. Occasionally too the imperfect occurs in both clauses ; as 

**0l0>a 1*' * **> 11 1 0* *** t'*f * *f "t 6J »'»' 

(J jJCioJI tjj*£> O^-^ *>^J L5 9 »-^*J ^^ wul ^ov*^ i^-*- 3 'ijj 
and when our verses are read to them as clear proofs, thou discernest 

* 1 l* 1 J * * * 

displeasure in the faces of those wlw disbelieve ; ^>c JjjJ JjlP '^ 

* oio*> * * n * * *oi*t**i t 

0\t*y v^* *J>^ L5*** 8 *"'' ■* * ■»*»■£ * awrf www it (ill fortune) departs, 
it departs from a proud hero, whose sudden fits of passion are dreaded 

1 * * * * iM* 1 * * * * Ovi* * * * JOW &* 

by his rivals ; £i£3 J-iS ^)t ip tilj [V~*) W ***!; l^~*^'j ^<? sow/ /s 

desiring much, if you give her what she wishes,] and when she is reduced, 

j\ or restricted, to a little, she is content. — If a clause dependent on 15 1 is 

introduced by such a perfect as <jUb or j\*o, the verb governed in the 

, _ < *0i *Z * * * * * 

perfect by tit is likewise a historical perfect; e.g. £bl^£> lit ,jlib 

* J * it OtO Oi. 16***,, 

when he spoke, he spoke eloquently; [<Jyj O'^*" c^*' u&*4 j-^ij 

• 5 *» f * + * * j * a *o + * * + * * & *> 

a£« wjI*w jJI 9. j±. 5*iLsJI Oj-a». til ^l£» <UJt some learned men say 

that the Apostle of God, when the time of prayer had come, went to the 
mountain-roads of Mikka. Here also the imperfect is sometimes 

§ 5] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 11 

used in the protasis or apodosis, as J-eu *$ <suU C*»L< tit c~i£j A 
o^i*. ,JI jj-lj a«c? wA#w / saluted him, my head did not reach to his 
waist ; U^tj jU.1 >~£> lit (J^J aw< ^ w^^w fo bestowed raiment, he 

Z * c. * *t * * j ut *Q*o 

did it in a liberal and generous manner ; \jj*-\ j+b- lit £-*}LoJt C^3 

yij o-* b'>~' ^jf^ J^y **•****■ ^' w^W- o-° A *-*<* - ' ^ aw « ^ 

skipper, when he had conveyed a person in his vessel from the one to the 
other side, got for pay a bracelet of gold.] If the clause introduced by 

tit stands in the middle of a narrative of past events, the perfect has B 

also the sense of the historical perfect, [as, ^J-^JI w-^-lo J*»»i 

• - -a jjg j j 1 s 

jgi^fES jjhjm+m. lili 4jUm0| 9-Ujj l^cji\ yr^o jc» * ^». . ' and the captain 

of the cavalry began to drive together parties of them by the spears of 
his men; and when they had collected them, they killed them; 0^3 
J*j Uj Ji5 o^ yj^si y >*~*f »ij **» JpU-^M v^ ^ . ^ ,0, 1 1 *El- 
Mu'tasim was good-tempered, but when he was angry, he cared not 
whom he killed, nor ichat he did ; J-JJI fU. tit O-tjj* ^ J^Jj J^^ ^ 

ufj*$l **-3 ^5^ &J2 *h 4;>> \S W ***>}** C5* W ^° £?*?!" ^t^" 

LJSi / remember whilst we were in Kazwln, when night came, we 

brought all our things in the cellars of our houses and did not leave 

anything on the floor.'] 

Rem. a. The use of lit as a conjunction arises in reality out of 
its original meaning as a temporal demonstrative (see Vol. i., 

§ 367, b). Lake ,>*»., wJ>j, j*y> , etc. (see § 78), lit is an accusative D 

in the construct state, and governs a following verbal clause vir- 
tually in the genitive*. Under these circumstances, the actions 

both of the defining clause, introduced by tit, and of the clause 
defined by it, are such as would be appropriately expressed by the 
imperfect indicative. These two clauses being in correlation, and 
that which is logically primary (the defined clause) becoming 
syntactically secondary (the apodosis), either action may — without 

* [Comp. however Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 113, note 1.] 

12 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 5 

A reference to their temporal relation to one another or to other 
actions — be regarded either (a) as beginning or in progress, or 
(/3) as completed and done. In the one case the imperfect will be  
used, in the other the perfect. As a rule, however, the language 
has preferred either to represent the action of the defining clause 
(or protasis) alone by the perfect ; or else, which is more common, 
the actions of both the correlative clauses by the perfect, that of 
the apodosis being, as it were, conditioned and postulated by that 
of the protasis. But to what period of time these correlated actions 
belong, — whether the perfects are to be translated by our past, 

B present or future, — depends entirely upon the considerations stated 
in Vol. i., § 77, rem. a. 

Rem. b. The temporal clause introduced by til is often almost 

identical in meaning with a conditional clause introduced by ^j\ 
(see § 6)*; but it is very rare [in prose] to find lit construed with 
the jussive like ,jt (§§13 and 17, c), as J^a^Ii ioLai. oJL-oj I3I3 
and when poverty befalls thee, bear it patiently ( { J^L^3 in rhyme for 
<J«!*~) ', [and [-UjJwi \^}j3 tit when you visit me, you will honour 
C me]. 

Rem. c. It has been said that when lit or to til is immediately 

preceded by («£»■ until, and followed by two correlative clauses, 
the verbs of which are in the perfect, these perfects take the sense 
of historical past tenses, expressing a state which closes the action 
of a previous perfect. This exception to the so-called conversive 

influence of til or to til does not, however, hold good. 15^ is 
construed with the perfect to indicate a simple temporal limit, or 
the effect or result of an act or series of acts ; with the imperfect 
indicative, when this effect or result is regarded not as something 
D actually past, but as yet in progress, as a historical present (see 
§ 15> c > /?)• This view it is which the Arabic language has chosen 
to adopt in the case of two correlative clauses, introduced by lit, 

* [The difference is that q\ denotes what is possible, tit what is 
ascertained, so that one says juj «U. ^l if Zeid come, but J!»tJ eU. lit 
jy*A\ when the beginning of the month shall come.] 

§ 5] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 13 

,i*>, **>*> 3 } ~ - 3 

after ^Z*- For example: ^i^ ja^J\^ jJ\ ^i ^^b^*^ ^JJI yb A 

- i ^ j / / j - I i .< ~Z m* * ' ' * 3 o 3 a st*> 1 1 — * * s - 

dJJI \^i j^fi )a*a.\ jr^. 'yis_5 O'"*-* J^ O-* a-.***' ^»**W»J wi-o'^- 

^j^l a) ^^oJLa^-o //e i< is wAo letteth you travel by land and by 

sea, until, when ye are on board of ships, and they sail away with 
them (abrupt change of person, instead of vnth you) with a fair 
wind, and they rejoice in it, there overtakes them (the ships) a 
tempestuous gale, and the waves come on them from every side, and 
they think that they are encompassed, (and) call upOn God, professing 

3 - !- <• ' OiO' - »jO * 33 3 3 - - - - J * 3 * 

sincere religion ; j^ j-J*JIj u^^3 O- 4 **"" O"* ^A^* 1 ** qU-j^ J jL^.$ 

' 2 * s * S iO , , s $ *. i s £ * , 3*3 

aA*J cJl5 ^^-o-JI ^J*\j i*J^ t^JI li] ) fc 5*»* O^J^i an d unto Solomon 
were gathered his hosts, of jinn and of men and of birds, and they 
were marched on in order, until, when they arrive at the Valley of 
Ants, an ant says — . In this second example the meaning would 
be substantially the same, if we rendered it by until, when they 
arrived at the Valley of Ants, an ant said, but the translation would 
be less close*. In the next two examples, on the contrary, the 

* [Trumpp, Der Bedingungssaz im Arabischen, Sitz. Ber. d. phil. 
hist. CI. der K. B. Akad. d. "Wissensch. zu Miinchen, 1881, p. 432 seqq., 
rejects the theory expounded in rem. c, which is also that of Fleischer 

(Kl. Schr. i. 116 seqq.). ^j^-, being properly a preposition, has no 
influence on the signification of the perfect in the following clause. 
This depends on that of the clause to which it is subordinated. The 
same remark applies to the perfects of two correlative clauses intro- 

duced by Ijt ^^- For example : w**ylit Ijl ^». jj>».l / run until j) 

- a*»io , , , o * 3 * o$o*o , 2 + o * 3 t * * * , 

I attain the end ; C~JI J^.j jJ> jj-^t til .J^. %^J O^xi Ui 
but before I was aware of anything, *El-Aswad had entered the room ; 

i - «• 3* 3 «J/ y *~ 3 «•'.» O S i 0* Si m J 3 3 0' ,0s, 

LT*- O^jy-i J*c* ^VW *->J**L 0-9-^ ^y **» J** O^ J^*^> J**i3 

*— 030 2 * £ * * * * * 

l^WW^o-^**^' J15 !i»W» '3' and on that day when we bring together 
out of every nation a company of those who have gainsaid our revela- 
tions, kept marching in ranks, until, when they have arrived (before 
God), He will say : Did ye treat my revelations as impostures ? A 
comparison of this verse from Kor'an xxvii. with that cited above 

14 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 6 

A repetition of the act justifies us in the use of the past. UL^I Loj 
lit ^ ... . ^jJUl Jdbt O-f WJ ^-^ ^W-J ^1 ^> i>» 

*i a * 6 3 — * j ■> o -• o j2p 3- .. j jui x> A-6* Sio 

\3j*aJ ^oAgl*. tjJJ^ jJJ^Jl bj-Jaj ^J-^JI ^LlHwl awe? JFe Aai?e not 

sent before thee (any) but men, to whom a revelation was made, of 
the people of the cities, .... until, when the apostles were despairing, 
and were thinking that they were deluded, Our aid came unto them ; 

j - * w - e - * j .• «• oc o o- - - d -- j * j - j * a* • ' 

Sy*~j* lit I***" *L5^» J^ 9 vl^'^W^ lo» ^ AJ hj^> ^* !>**^ ^* 
^ j tj tj * * t * a * o j *■ a s t j I * 

^jj-JL^^oA lili SIxj^aUJ^I I3J9I LoJ am/ when they had forgotten 

B ^Aeir warnings, We set open to them the gates of all things, until, 
when they were rejoicing over what they had got, We laid hold on 
them suddenly, and lo, they were in despair. 

6. (a) After the conditional particle (jl if (Vol. i., § 367,/), and 

after many words which imply the conditional meaning of Oi ((^5**^ 

J»j*uJI or ijl ^m*), the perfect is also said to take a future sense, 

the condition being represented as already fulfilled. In English it 
may usually be rendered by the present. Such words, for instance, 

C are : ^1 and ^>o who, whoever, O-o-jl whosoever, U what, UjI what- 

- - s a * em t JO- 

soever, 0"°ir* whoever, 1*^-* whatever, \*X£s as often as, %£**»• where, 
Ui*». wlierever, ^U when, UU« whenever, ^1 where, U-^l wherever, 

* * s s s at * ii£ 

oL^ /ww, U-a*^ however, ^yl m whatever way, however, {jb\ and 

U O^j'j wAe??, whenever, Uil whenever. Examples : ^)t k_jl».l ^1 

^o-Jac^^j w>tjcc ^j c*~qg I fear, if I rebel (lit. &u'# rebelled) against 

m# Zorc?, the punishment of a great (i.e. terrible) day ; <£***. ^tb^X+sS} 
D ^a^-o^aaj «wc? $/«?/ ^m wherever you find them (lit. Aar^ found them) ; 

o 30 j - - »i a 3 * - -j- 

^^i^a Lo^jl ^Jt« ykj awe? he is with you wherever you are. The same 
remark applies to the perfects before and after jl or, in such phrases 

oJI ^jl^JLJ j-£».^ shows clearly the influence of the preceding verb 

on the signification of those in the subordinate clauses. For in the 
latter we ought to render until, when they arrived at the Valley of 
Ants, an ant said. D. G.] 

§ 6] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 15 

as ^j-hr- jl \yt\k %\}~t it is all the same whether they are absent or A 
present; Ojoii j\ c-^i ^J**- %\y* it is all one to me whether thou 
standest or sittest; Jj*i» 3J O^* V*** ou-cJt ^9^»l honour a guest, 

whether he be rich or poor. — (b) If the words jjt, <^l, ,j-o, &c, be 
followed by two clauses, the first of which expresses the condition 

[J»j-i)t], and the second the result depending upon it [J»j-£Jt w>l>^ or 

hjh\ i\jef.\ then the verb in both clauses is put in the perfect*, both B 
the condition and the result being represented as having already taken 
place. For example : C-XJUb dUi cJUi ,jl if you do this, you wiU 
perish, lit. if you shall hate done this, you hate perished or will perish 
(§ 1, e) ; o|>>« fJW <> j-'vo^ 9 O-* ^ M7^o ( = v ow ^) keeps (has kept) #?s 
owra secret, attains his object ; UJ^.1 Ujl».j U*ol ^>«>«Jl i)L© i^XaJI 

wisdom is the strayed camel of the believer ; wherever he finds it (= if he 
shall have found it anywhere), he lays hold of it (will lay hold of it). — C 

(c) If the perfect after ^>t, ^£\, ^j*t>, &c, is to retain its original 

meanmg, then 0^*> or one of the O^* Ot^i.1 the sisters of the verb 

kana (such as jUe to become, J& to be by day, Ob to be by night, 

g». ; .<ot to be in the morning, \j~*\ to be in the evening), must be in- 
serted between those words and the perfect in the protasis, and the 

apodosis must be indicated by the particle o. For example : O^ 9 Oi 

* z * 3 j* eJ> JJi v ^« jj <u o*« i if his shirt is (has been) torn in front, she D 

5 * SO 

* [The verb in the protasis may never be a ju>U*. jJas an aplastic 

* 0* - * 
verb, such as have but one tense and no infinitive, as ,^-J, 15— *• 

Comp. § 187, b. In negative clauses the jussive with^J is employed 

(§ 12) with very rare exceptions as Kor'an ii. 140 ^>jJJI w*Jt (j^Jj 

<£llL5 IjaJ l< 5-jt ^J^j wjU^JI l^5jt erew though thou shouldest bring 
every kind of sign to those who have been given the Scriptures, yet thy 
kebla tliey will not follow, for 1^-wj _^J.] 

16 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 6 

has spoken the truth; \^sy <*~Ui aJJu j^J^>\ ^£& «Ji i/" # e have 

believed in God, place your trust in Him; ,jl «~«LJ jl jJuJl Jh-o-* 

C^Mftt ^t Cv«ja.I c«^> accept my excuse readily or (at least) be 
indulgent, if I have committed a crime or a fault. — (d) But if the 
perfect after these words is to have the historical sense (English past 

tense, § 1, a), the verb £?£*, or one of its "sisters," must be prefixed 

to the correlative clauses ; e.g. \y&i J>*)W Oi [$■*» if they exerted 

a themselves to attain an object, they attained it \l^> »l3t U«^» 0^3 

<tw^st °>yt} lA^-jJ' O-* an d whenever one of the wild animals came 

to visit him, he made it his prey ; <UjJI <^»o <ud±. atjt ^1* O^J 

and as often as he would throw off his allegiance, he entered the desert] ; 
though it is also sufficient that the correlative clauses should be 

dependent upon others that are historical ; as .^JUH c*&>j>t U-Jl 

*M ju»a.Jl sisXI CUo^i {+X& jL»a>JL> / attained knowledge only by 

C praising (God), for, whenever I understood (anything), I said, Praise 

belongs to God. [(e) If, however, the verb 0^*> or one °f its sisters, 
after these words, is followed by an imperfect or a participle, we must 

J S/Or - it A5 „ Jj J tJt J 

render it by the present (§ 131), as k> _ 5 JytJli aJJI ,j^*a*J ^u£» ,jt 
if ye love God, then follow me; aJJI JU». U (>*£& ^1 ^J Ja*-> ^ 

Jj io St ii St i a St * Of 

<UJb 0-*>J O^ 9 Oi Ov*l*y' ^5* wor ^ ^ lawful for them to conceal 


w&z£ 6»W Aa£A created in their wombs if they believe in God; o^ 
j) .,.;la»*a.* »x*J L>iU£» c«& ^)]^ (> yJLL3 jti) U>jL* c^» //* £&w speakest 
the truth, thou hast killed me; if thou liest, thou hast disgraced me.] 

Rem. a. What has-been said of the temporal Ii) in § 5, rem. a, 

» o e 

is also applicable to the conditional jjt, for q\ is also originally a 
demonstrative (compare |FI, ^-»!)- I* 1 * ms case > however, the 

language always employs the perfect, never the imperfect in- 
dicative, after the conditional word ; that is to say, the condition 
is invariably represented, in reference to the conditioned, as a 

§ 7] The Verb.— I. The States or Tenses. 17 

completed action, and not as one in progress. On the alternative A 
use of the Jussive, see §§13 and 17, c. 

J * * » - 

Rem. b. The apodosis of ^1 (,jl w>l^».), like that of £ (§ 4, 
rem.), is frequently omitted, when the context readily suggests it; 

honest men oft/ie Muslims bear witness in thy favour, {good and well); 
6w£ if not, demand of him the oath; *}Mj jAJ^i ^j* s.%«ftjj »^-*»J oi 

» s Aa. I ...... ju-jOI w^»ol i/" ZAow repeniest and recantest wliat tltou hast B 

said, (good and well, or / will forgive thee) ; but if not, I tcill order 
tlie slaves to fay thee alive. [Comp. § 186, rem. c, footnote. By 

this omission ^j\j tlwugh (§ 17, c, rem. a) acquires the meaning of 

o - - a - e 

nevertlieless, as in the saying of the Prophet ^j\ ^ \-^j^ ride her 

(the camel) nevertheless (though she be destined for sacrifice), Lisdn 
xvi. 179.] 

Rem. c. Where ^g\, ,^0 and I* are inter rogatives or simple 
relatives, ^ic, ^y\, { Jj>\, ^jbl and *Ju£=> interrogatives, and sL~a. C 
a simple relative adverb, without any admixture of the conditional 

signification of ,jl, perfects dependent upon them retain their 
original sense. 

7. After the particle U, as long as, whilst, as often as (Vol. i., 
§ 367, p), the perfect takes the meaning of the imperfect (present or 

2 j o > - - e t * * 

future) ; as \j*o ^~J b U ^-i) *$ may you never meet with harm 

(§ lj /)> as long as you live ! O^^- *i*zJ^ *&r-^\ ^ l^-ob U ^UJt D 
men are careless, as long as they lice in this world (lit. remain in the 
life of this world) ; Jjjli f* U JL-JI *) I will not forget thee, as long 

as a sun rises ; w>U**' <su$.c.> U ^yJI care answers, as often as (or 
whenever) you call it. If this imperfect is to be liistorical, the rule 
laid down in § 6, d, must be observed. The negative as long as not 

is always expressed by ^ U with the jussive (see § 12). 

- *•*.* *■ «fi ■» • » 
Rem. The Arab grammarians regard this l<o as Suijh Sujj^olc 

w. ii. 3 

18 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 8 

A or i*3L}j, i.e., as equivalent to a verbal noun or infinitive in the 

accusative of time. They say that Lo- C~o Co, as long as thou 
remainest alive, is equivalent to L*. JiLelji or Co. ^LeUi 3jt*o. 
This cannot, however, be the case, for whence then would come the 
conversive force of this L>? It is in fact only a variety, in its 
application to time, of the dlJa^uJI Lo or conditional ma (§ 6, a). 

J& * ©A3 J 

B 8. The Imperfect Indicative (e$_9j~oJ1 cj L i u oJt) does not in 

itself express any idea of time; it merely indicates a begun, incomplete, 
enduring existence, either in present, past, or future time. Hence it 
signifies : — 

(a) An act which does not take place at any one particular time, 
to the exclusion of any other time, but which takes place at all times, 
or rather, in speaking of which no notice is taken of time, but only of 

duration (the indefinite present} ; as jj^su <*JJIj jj^j (jl-J^t man 

Q forms plans and God directs tJiem {man proposes, God disposes) ; 

jaJ\ j*xZ~ j j-Jb the free man is enslaved by benefits {conferred 

upon him). 

(b) An act which, though commenced at the time of speaking, 
is not yet completed, — which continues during the present time (the 

* ) * a * - j * o - jii - 

definite present) ; as ^^A^ju \^> ^bu aJJI God knows what ye are 

doing. Hence its use as a historical present in lively descriptions of 

J) past events ; e.g. ^a*-j Jw*.bj ^j> ^^J\s ^js-\ r~j£-^ ia*JJs J 15 

\S)***° L5* ^h* 7~J^°^3 sai d T a K ia > S° ou t I run, and put on my 
coat of mail, and seize my sword, and cast my shield on my breast. 

(c) An act which is to take place hereafter (the simple future) ; 
as ^*w v~*-> O*- u~*J l£J , ^- j ^ **yi I>aj'j and fear a day (in 
which) a soul shall not make satisfaction for a soul at all, or 

j y o * 3 lt*> * 

shall not give anything as a satisfaction for a soul ; ^^i *^b 
a^^iJI je,yi jtr^i but God will judge between them on the day of the 
resurrection. — To render the futurity of the act still more distinct, 

§ 8] The Verb.—l. The States or Tenses. 19 

the adverb o^-; (Vol. i. § 364, e), or its abbreviated form ^ (Vol. i. A 

i * t * I o - o * o - - 

§ 381, b), in the end, is prefixed to the verb ; as lJlj»xc <iX)j J**i 0-°J 

1 - 3 sir* i } * 

tjU «u La. > u^mJ UAJ»j «/w? whoever does this maliciously and wrong- 
/m%, w^ w/// &wr» fo'm w/£A hell-fire; aa-j^ .J a^ w «*# w//Z 

explain it in its (proper) place; ju£» J^ Jjj^ ,>* ^*£*-' ^o« 

s&z/£ be protected (through God's grace) from every machination of thine 

Rem. «. o>$-» may have the asseverative j prefixed to it, as B 

"A-^ .-3.. x «J + t*s* 

if&jZfi <&>j jJ-»la*j i^5^~Jj a?w7 verily thy Lord will give thee 

(abundance) and thou wilt be content ; and it may be separated from 
its verb by a verb which is void of government, as in the verse 

•* * OP } ~ <J Z s'i Oi 3 ' ' * * Oi ' ' 

not know, but I sludl (I think) know, whetlier the family of Hisn are 

0*0' - 

a band of men or women. — Rare forms are oL/, $~>, and ,-w. 

[Rem. b. The simple future has sometimes the sense of a polite 

//»/ «• * * * - j * o* j * o* j j* , * , 

order or request ; as lu*j \^ \^$jj^ ^^Sj^oJ-j (jUJ^ oj JUi tlien C 
Suleiman said: Depart now, and we will consider between our- 

C J J .- . 

(Tabari ii. 544, 1. 7); j-^)l aJUt -JU1 Ji-ju »-Lj^ J15j 
cme? A« said to Itah: Have the kindness to enter, God bless the Emir ; 

- * - 

j't*c-' • t j OfO , s. * j j cj o ' j* * ' * 

<sU*li ^j-U^oJ I j-^ol L xi^yj jJW. dJ JUi rt?^/ Hal id said to him : 

Grant him indemnity, Prince of the faithfd, and he did so 
(!Ag. xvii. 164, 1. 14). D. G.] 

(d) An act which was future in relation to the past time of which 
we speak. When this is the case, the imperfect is simply appended to D 
the preceding perfect without the intervention of any particle, and forms, 
with its complement*, a secondary, subordinate clause, expressing the 

state (JUJt) in which the subject of the previous perfect found 

himself, when he completed the act expressed by that perfect [ Jl»« 

* That is to say, auy word or words governed by, or otherwise 
connected with, it. 

20 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 8 

-«■ j*»i^J ; as «i>*J aJt sla. //« c«?we fa him to visit him ; j>*c ,JI i*- 5 ' 

w^-2o ?U /^ c«w20 fa a spring of water to drink; ^jjJI ^jAc ^^LJ^j 

j-«^l jjju then He seated Himself on the throne to administer the ride 

(of the Universe) ; »iUjo a^Xsu J-jjI />g sew* fa inform him of this; 

[i^yJU^-oJ £■■<>■»■ 1 he determined to circumvent the Jews, 'Ag. xix. 96, 
1. 6. R. S.]. 

(e) An act which continues during the past time. In this case 

B too the imperfect is appended to the perfect without the interposition 

of any connective particle, and forms, with its complement, a second- 

ary, subordinate clause, expressing the state (Jla*JI) in which the 
subject of the previous perfect found himself, when he did what that 

perfect expresses [jj^LS-o JL».] ; as <^*~^u juj eU. Z¥id came 
laughing ; «lj**o »*■»»»-..' U&l he returned, congratulating himself cm 
(lit. praising) Ms morning-walk; aZcjI) wJUI >Uaj (j*I» he set out, 
leading (as it were) my heart by its bridle ; aLc^l <LU>t a*3j <usjj ULJi 
awe? we remained watching for him as one watches for the new-moons of 
the festivals; %\*ja» Z« iS ^s- ^£*o3 UaIj^I <sJAs>^9 and one of tJiem 

came to him, walking bashfully ; 0>**rf *'*"* -**W' b'Wj aw ^ ^^ 
6Y<w<? fa tf/^'r father in the evening, weeping. As the above examples 
show, the imperfect is in this case generally rendered in English by 
the participle. 

D Rem. a. After the negative particle *j), the imperfect retains its 

general idea of incompleteness and duration; as ^A £yA ^Jbtj *) K-f*- 
he went out, not knowing, or without knowing, where he was ; 
^J-jiwJI .-aV^ J I jbj$i> *$ the liberal (mart) does not respect the stingy. 
— After the negative particle L> it takes the meaning of the present; 
as Aio jjjkl Sily-^J O^***^ ' i_s%j^ ^* a wia/i is no£ declared right- 
eous by the evidence of his own household ; ^o 'j/*^ C>i-*" iyi t* 

§ 9] The Verb— I. The States or Tenses. 21 

unbelievers among those who possess a (revealed) book, and among A 
the polytheists, do not wish that any good should be sent down unto 

- 0*0 * j ~ ** - * oi - - j j * * £no £ 

you from your Lord; w>U£)t ^>* <JJI JjjJl to ^j^-oJXj CH**^' 0\ 

io-JU t >bjj <*JJ 1 ^y+XSL) they who hide the book which God hath sent 

down, and buy with it something of small price, these swallow doivn 
into their bellies nothing but fire, and God will not speak to them on 
the day of judgment. 

Rem. b. According to the Arab grammarians, the imperfect B 

- J - b*o j ^ £ , 

indicative is used JlaJU, to indicate present time (j-ala*JI ^>L«pl), 

- a » to j - : , 3 j 3- 

and ^JLLZ./jU, to indicate future time (J*,JlL..^J\, less correctly 

9. To express the imperfect of the Greek and Latin languages, 
O^* is frequently prefixed to the imperfect ; as j*£JI w«a»-j ,jl£> 
AjxJLiS} he was fond of poetry and poets ; 5j^c j»y> J^s ^y w«£>jj O^ 
j\ja he used to ride out every day several times ; julS lyj ^j^SJ 0^*i C 
J*-j »JU1 ^i awe? ?for£ z^o* to be (stationed) in it (the city) 
a general with a thousand men; ^i^JI *~t> <j^jj£» \y>\^ JV-j 
jw#w who used to live with the princes. If this signification is to 

be attached to several imperfects, it is sufficient to prefix (J^* 
to the first alone. — If one or more perfects precede the imperfect, 
or if the context clearly shows that the verb in the imperfect 

has the sense of the Latin imperfect, O^ 3 need not be prefixed to it ; D 

as jjl»o-J-» ^U-« ^kc (j-J»L<£Jt ^JJ3 U I^ujI^ and they followed what 

the evil spirits read (or recited, or followed) in the reign of Solomon ; 

J»J> yj^ ddl\ gUJt sj^kju ^X* Ji Say, Why then did ye kill the 

3 0- / JJt/ 40/ > / / 

prophets of God before ? Here ^Sj and Oj^**^ stand for ^Jj oJl£> 

-330-0303 - 

and ^ y jJu ^o^^ 3 - [So in poetry after j3 ; see Vol. i. § 362, r, 
footnote. R. S.] 

22 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 10 

" * J Is 

A 10. To express the future-perfect, the imperfect of O^ 3 \OSri) 
is frequently prefixed to the perfect, the particle *»5 being sometimes 
interposed. For example, O^h t^J-** L5^i A *5 ^ » a ^ « > l*!>*i j^wwj 

O^'j aUjj AXaiJ .jJjXi JJuL> f^A ^tjj ^AJ ^,jX> 'N)j >0 A / ».I Ut 

awd / sAa// /«Ve so?«0 people to carry it to my house, and I shall be the 
last of them {to depart), and there shall not have been left (shall not 
B be left) behind me anything to occupy my mind with the doing or 
removing of it, and by the trifling pay I give them, I shall have 
provided help for myself (so as) to spare my own body all the labour. 

o £ 

[Rem. In dependent clauses introduced by £)\ the future-perfect 

* * s * j o £ j f 

becomes the perfect of the subjunctive, e. g. «^Jk} C)3^i O' *t-^J 

* j »* * ' i bio * s * 6 

it cannot be but that he has gone (abierit); ^i ^j^XS^L^\ «J&a.I 

..©I (aJJ I ,j jJLj jjl =) <*JU I (J3^ the theologians disagree abont 
C God's having ordered (jusserit).] 

11. The Subjunctive of the imperfect (* r > ye u* t i\ cjUa^l) has 
always a future sense after the adverb ,jJ not (Vol. i. § 362, hh), and 

£ fit fie * - o ' 

the conjunctions o' that, ^ o' or *^ that not, ^» and ^^J that, 

s s ' ' 3' ^ J 0^ ^ 

*jL£> and *}L£J that not, ^jZ*. till, until, and J £/««£; as J*>»>-> O* 

^<jLaJ j I bj> O^ 3 O-* *^i *->»•"" none shall enter Paradise except 
D those who are Jews or Christians; ii&JI \jL*.*>3 ^\ ^,Z~~». j>\ do ye 
think that ye shall enter Paradise ? See § 15. 

12. The Jussive of the imperfect (^ojj^^oJI cjLa^JI), when 

dependent upon the adverbs _^i not, and UJ w#£ •?/<?£ (Vol. i. § 362, 
jjy, ##), has invariably the meaning of the perfect. For example : 

u^j*^3 Ol^o-JI dl* aJ aXJI ,jl J^XjO Jjl hast t/iou not learned (or 

dost thou not hu>w) that God's is the sovereignty over the heavens and 

o , , , fi/o j * * e j £- u^-^ ^ fi - fie i)6- £ ijg , t£ 

the earth 1 t^JU- CH j j| J^° ^^ UJj *^-JI i>^-^ *j' ^ " ^ >' 

§ 13] The Verb.— 1. The States or Tenses. 23 

^iXi ^>© efo ye £^//*£ that ye shall enter Paradise, be/ore there shall A 
Aafltf come (lit. an<2 ^r# &is not yet come) upon you the like of what 

a- a 0' £ -' ^ l S 

c«w^ m/w/i those who passed away before you ? ,>*-JJ ^a+j UJ} I^a' 
j^yjj <*JLc 0^« l>l wiJ3 iclw m f^/s (^e mse), before our parting is 
an hour old (lit. and an hour has not yet gone by since parting) ? How 
then, when months shall hate passed over it ? UjI^j yj\ j~e- ^-^ oj' 
Ul*^j Jjj L»J om/* departure is close at hand, save that our camels B 
have not yet moved off with our saddles (i.e. we have all but started) ; 
oJCJU »UJi Jjtij ^J ^>l if you do not do this, you will perish (§ 6, b) ; 

w*+ 3 ja* *»***& JO J* !•* 

iSjxJJSj jjtiJI w*a>-j y^j^i he was not fond of poetry and poets (§ 9). 

Rem. The grammarians put the distinction between ^J and 

2+ o^e- t, * * * a * a ■> 2, 

LoJ in this way, that Jjiaj ^J is the negation of J**, but ^)juu UJ 

.. - , e ^ 

the negation of ,Jj»i jJ, [meaning /*e /«as not yet done it, but he will 
certainly do it aftenvards ; see Beid. on Kor'an iii. 136. R. S.] C 


13. After &\ and the various words that have the sense of 
,jt the jussive has the same meaning as the perfect (§ 6) ; as 

.• J. -- i : - : - i j : • : i a 3 jj * j a > a 

<»JJI A^Jjtj djjLJ jl ^Ssj^j^o ^i U \yui^i ,jl whether ye hide what 

a * a i - a «• - 

is in your breasts, or disclose it, God knoweth it ; j~±. ,j-« IjJjuu U 

.'-:-- U/)/ y - a a , a - a 

aJJI <sl«Jju whatever good ye do, God knoweth it; >iLo%. A ^ji J-o-*J O] 
4-^c w~^-5 UteJ'-d *jL»c (/j now that thou hast become a Muslim, thou 

* "O * *3 a j a 

doest a good work, thou wilt be rewarded for it; J I L» \jyuauJ ,jt D 

a j a, a - a - * * a * 

^LJt •-jjZsu vj'jJ-* If V e do us justice, family of Merwdn, we will 

j a r so jZ a j lis * * ai 

draw near to you ; O^-JI ^X^jju tyyu Lo^j! wherever ye are, death 

* , a>o 

will overtake you; ^jyyu *UUji3I a-il ^Z* when I lay aside the 

- a * * - a * * a * a , , * * a * a * a * * 

turban, ye recognize me; ^) k >-e.j bjJLc jju quj^j *9 4>a>^->.» O-o^ 
v»5^ ^^?* Ow UaJLcu //t? k?Ao seeks our protection has nothing to fear 
after our covenant ; but he who does not come to terms with us will pass 

24 Part Third. — Syntax. [§14 

A his nights without sleep. See § 17, c. — When the first of two corre- 
lative clauses contains a verb in the imperative, and the second in 
the jussive, then the jussive has the same meaning as if the first 

clause had contained a verb in the jussive preceded by ^j\* '> e -§- 

isOs s s s oi -s i j j is . 

tjj^j ^jtaj jl by>> ^3^ IV« they said, Become Jews or Chns- 
tians, {and) ye will be guided aright. Here '>>>£> is equivalent to 
t^jyu jjf, If ye become Jews or Christians, ye will be guided aright. 
See§ 17, c. 

B [Rem. a. ±Ju£* and, according to the school of Basra, also 

s s s 

\~oJu£=> form an exception to the rule that the jussive may be 
employed in the two correlative clauses. Many grammarians allow 
no other correlative clauses after these particles, but those that con- 

J/{( J s s s s 

tain the imperfect indicative of the same verb, as %X>a\ %~a3 ^- i * ^"* 
as thou doest, so will I do. See, however, an example of the jussive 
in both clauses, § 17, c] 

[Rem. b. After *j)l both the jussive and the indicative may 

» j is OOs si 

C be used in the two correlative clauses, as ^MbU Jj"*-* *^' an( ^ 

t } i s J s si s * s I is si 

A£>\j J>i3 *i)t wilt thou not alight and eat? ^Xjj^».I ^^Ij *i)t 
wilt thou not come to me, (then) I will tell thee ?] 

14. The Energetic forms of the imperfect have always a future 
sense; as ,jjj£>UJI ^>o yjj^i oJ& o-f l £a » -> 1 O^ if thou de- 
Uverest us from this (danger), verily we will be of (tlie number of) the 
grateful; Jliic 0->j-&$ *-^h h God! I will cut thy head of (lit. 

D strike thy neck). See § 19. 

2. The Moods. 

15. The Subjunctive mood occurs only in subordinate clauses. 
It indicates an act which is dependent upon that mentioned in the 
previous clause, and future to it in point of time (see § 11); and 

* [Trumpp, Der Bedingungssaz, p. 369 seq., rejects this view of 
the matter, making a distinction between the jussive in the apodosis 
of an imperative and that of a conditional protasis.] 

§ 15] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 25 

hence it mostly corresponds to the Latin subjunctive after ut. It A 
is governed by the following particles. 

e i 

(a) a. By O' that, after verbs which express inclination or dis- 
inclination, order or prohibition, duty, effect, effort, fear, necessity, 

permission, etc.; ^ O' or ^' that not; and ,jJ (for yj\ *), i.e. 

O' 0& *$ it will not be or happen that) certainly not, not at all. 

For example : ^*3I J^j-k j*J O^ 1 O' C*»e**b Oijl i" wished and 

Be- « * , c * 

desired to make plain to them the path of learning ; ,j\ ^Jl£> w>W ^ B 

, j „ * B* Be 'B* 

w."iX-> &?; no ong wfo can tw/te, re/itse fo wr/fe ; ^>ij u' l^** 5 * 
aJUI Lij^JbOl wJJsu ^l***" '£ behoves the learner to strive by his 
seeking after knowledge to please God ; w~cuM (J^i O' j^t^i it may 
be the accusative ; i^J j^- ^ O' ^ O& *•* V*- 8 -k^^i J^ 5 #<? 
(God) said, Get thee down then from it (Paradise), for it is not for 
thee to behave with pride in it ; [\J& Jjwj ^jb £3^6 I commanded 

thee to do such a thing;] ^j^>j^i ^' ^JU.1 ^1 I am afraid he will 
not leave me, or, in accordance with a particular idiom of the language 
[§ 162], I am afraid he will leave me; j^ ... 1 •}). «£bu« U what hath 

2 *■ j * & Si£ £ j .' ~? * £ * * 6 * 

hindered thee from worshipping (him)? ojjot* Ubt y\ jUJI U ...^ - ' > O* 
the fire (of hell) shall certainly not touch us save for (shall certainly 

touch us only for) a certain number of days ; *}M iiaJ I J^-^xj \J$ 


j^jLcu j I byb O^ O-* none shall enter Paradise save those who 

i - ^J- Z * - 3ii*o + *Be 3 * * 

are Jews or Christians; ^1 ^ O^ C5**" u*jN' P"J^*' Cj*^ -^ "^ 
therefore not quit the land (of Egypt) M/?fr7 my father gives me leave. D 
[Rem. If we wish to indicate that the thing ordered or resolved 
upon has actually been done, the verb may be followed by ^>l with 
the perfect, as Ljtf I^IjsLj o' j** 5 *^>' l*L»-, ,jl jj3 Q ^bJ Ail 
ot/"fer God had decreed to call them to life for the first time (as He 
did), He decreed to call them to life a second time (see Fleischer, 

Kl. Schr. i. 525 seq., ii. 356). — In later times ,jl with the indicative 
of the imperfect is often employed as the equivalent of ,jl with the 
w. ii. 1 

26 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 11 

j o j - * s #e »■ .- w 't. o i j o j 

A subjunctive, as in the verse C~ojj ^.slx^J lj*£. >ejw5l ,jl w*oj UJM» 

w^l <<Jl as o/i!ew as / intend to send onward some good deed for my 
future life and to repent toward God (see Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 526 

(/?) But if the verb to which (j' is subordinate, does not indicate 
any wish, effect, expectation, or the like, — and the verb which is 


governed by &\ has the meaning of the perfect or present, — the 

indicative of the perfect or imperfect is used after &\ I as O' i5**^ " ^ 

B v2^o.3 it pleased me that thou stoodest up ; JU> ,jl ^s-\ I know that he 

j ss a t j* &£ St i t 

said; j>\^i O'^o^' ^ Awow £Aa£ Ag es asleep. As ,jl awoo 7 , on, with a 
pronoun (<ul, etc.), is more usual m such clauses, the native gram- 
marians designate tjt, when it has the same meaning as o' ano - 
governs the indicative, by the name of £L*3I sj* AAAs^oJt ^j\ the 
'an that is lightened from the heavy form, or, more shortly, < UUui^»)l o' 
the lightened 'an ; but when it is equivalent to the Latin ut, they call 
C it *uoU3l jjl £/jg '«» that governs the subjunctive (^» y cJ>^\ cjUa^JI). 
After verbs of thinking, supposing, and doubting, when they refer to 

the future, ^>l may govern the indicative of the imperfect, as JUAa^t, 

or the subjunctive, as i*oLM ; e.g. j»yu o' *2*iJ9 / think he will 

get up. 

Rem. a. ^1 is in these cases 4jjjuo*o, that is to say, ^jl with 

the following verb is equivalent in meaning to the masdar or 

D infinitive of that verb; e.g. ^i j+±, \^^c3 ^lj and that ye fast 

is better for you (\yoy*a3 ^jl ==^X«Lm©) ; >l)j3j\ ^jl Ji-»jl / wish to 

visit thee (i|j>jt O' = ^jki) > *£-»* O' 1^5^**^' = ****V ^ ; -:*- g l- 

Rem. J. The omission of ,j! before the subjunctive is very 
rare; as Lfc y ia ^ 0j-« or<i(sr /m?i ^o iwy i<; d)Jk»»U ^3 j,>aJUt JA 

«ue the thief before he can seize thee ; and in the verses li [yj\ *$\ 

§ 15] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 27 

^jJliJ v£jl J* OljJjT j^wl \^tj ^^1 j-a».l iJ>^lpl thou A 

</ia< hinderest me from being present in battle, and from taking part 
in amusements, canst thou make me live for ever?* — The grain- 


marians tell us that some of the Arabs construed jjt always with 

J ic * g J ' 
the imperfect indicative, as jb^Ju ^j\ J»Jj' / wish tliee to stand 

up ; and, according to the reading of Ibn Muheisin, Kor'an ii. 233 

it La J I ^Jj ^jl _>ljl ^j^i for him who desires to complete the time of 

suckling; whilst others let it govern the jussive, as in the half- B 

verse y>h> '■ ju-oJI UjLj ^j\ .Jl I^JUJ come, until the game comes 

(or is brought) to us, let us gather firewood. 

» £ 
[Rem. c. Sometimes ^jt seems to have the meaning of lest, for fear 

that, as in the verse j>j\j u°5^* O^* * * « > **• *"-*>?** O!>o* C& J-** 

tj*ct ^1 / have given i Amr ibn 'Imran a hundred camels for a young 
beast unable to rise, for fear lest I should be blamed (Hamasa, p. 256, 

L 3) ; A*i^li j jm V5*!-i O' r-*^— ^' Co»*fcl -f ^"^ prepared arms for Q 
year that an enemy should come, in which case I may repel him ; 

LoJblj^l j£sj£» U-fcljL»-< J-iJ O' / or / ear ^ f ^ e one °f them 
shoidd make a mistake, hi which case the other may remind her 
(Kor'an ii. 282). In these and similar phrases (Kor. iv. 175, 

vi 157, xlix. 2, Lane p. 106, b) the interpreters supply iiiU*-* or 

2jb\j&. In others it may be explained by the preceding words 
implying a prohibition, as Kor. xxxv. 39, Tab. i. 657, 1. 8, 3026, 

1. 2. In the verse (Hariri, Dorrat, 88) L>j\3^\ lij^L] vjl iL-ojt D 

w-jl^. >*j ^>*C..^JI s.a.^j^. — JJL-ojl may have the meaning of 

r J) x ' 2 

^ljjk».l / MYirH. <Aee fes£ thy near r 
poor return disappointed. D. G.] 

^ j ■* * & 
2)jjka>.\ I warn thee lest thy near relations shoidd praise t/iee, but ilie 

* [Beidawl on Kor'an ii. 77 reads j<\n»\, adding that, if ^j\ is 
omitted, the verb is put in the indicative. R. S. — Comp. Hamasa, 
p. 438, 1. 6 seq. and see also Lane p. 104 c, on Kor'an xxxix. 64 

j Jit - Jjt/ L *? ' s * -i 

28 Part Third.— Syntax. [§15 

A (b) By J that, in order that ([called ^^ v»*i)] originally a 

. . t> * a * i 

preposition, Vol. i. § 366, c) ; Si ^=>, L5 #, and <j^, that, in order that ; 

s s st> s is 

*$•*£*, %*&, and *}UJ, that not, in order that not; particles which 
indicate the intention of the agent and the object of the act. For 

j it >o s s , as a j 

example : <tUl >zX) jS>aJ yj repent, that God may forgive thee ; 

s s s^tO s J s J s s s sbfO ,* s vi s9 J J 0>O SS y £ sOs 

b*}LJI ^js- ou$*aJ 2us\jti\ %j aAJI ^-^1 iJL~ j ^j\ ^J^i it behoves 

the Muslim to ask God (who is exalted above all) for health, that 

-B He may preserve him from misfortunes ; ^£» aaXas Lw c-Jxto. lit 

%Z*> s s 6 s s 3 s 

jloUJI ,-U aJ! ijju when you learn anything, write it down, so that 

j J i I sis 

you may constantly refer to it ; j^Js-S U -^ => that I may prepare 

J * s j - jCi s s sjiiijuls 

them ; I^oJjCJ ^i lj-o-k«J learn that ye may teach ; O^ 3 ' £)*$ "*->*l3 

s jd"? sCii- 

\j^tX ^ \ Jjt and I am ordered (this) in order that I may be the 
first of the Muslims (of those who surrender themselves to Him) ; 

# .. - sa s s o , 

Uilo ^^oXxJ U-j£) that thou mayest know me to be speaking the 

* .- - s s s s J 

C truth ; IjJI»-j ^jj^^aj t-o-»£» CH^J-* ^w desirest to take me as thy 

J s 0*» sis s 6 s s I A » + » s ts 

fowr together with Halid ; w>U£JI J>J*u *i^j£» »^i J^^i ,J*i*Lj ^ 
w Aaw wo£ occupied ourselves with giving an account of this, in order 

*>s tit>ss s as ts i s is s a s 

that the book might not become too long ; sX+^y (J-o aJji C>3^i ^e^ 9 


j£±a that it (the spoil) may not be a thing taken by turns among the 

Is s s s s sis s s 

rich of you ; j&JKs U ^ke- \$~j\3 %Si that ye may not grieve over what 

Oss ut s s 1 uJs s 1 s s svi 

D escapes you ;^JjJb o bi»jL»»> *^U3 ^Xi'^ J 13 l*Jl he said this only in order 
that learning might not be disparaged. 


Rem. a. After ^J the grammarians assume the ellipse of jjl, 
which always appears before the negative, *}ID. The insertion of 

is 0e f 

^j\ is allowable, as 1^5*^ <£Jj£»., or I^St ^^, / a??i come to thee to 

s }0-o sit s J t t J Is 

read (whence some translate ^^Ju«^JI Jjl 0>^' O*^ *->*l3 ty 
anc/ / am ordered to be the first of the Muslims) ; except when it is 

§ 15] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 29 


the )±a*^hJ\ j»*$ or lam of denial, i.e. when it is the predicate of A 

^j\£> U or ^Xj ^J, as j^ OJlj ^yjjJtJ <*JJl 0^» ^ #<*? ««» 

it< 3 J - 3, 

not one to chastise them whilst thou wast among them ; joj ^jiLj ^J 
, -^ H t_^v J Zeid teas not a man to drink nine. 

J Z - 3 ,3*> - 

Rem. b. The addition of Sljj jk*a+}\ I* appears sometimes to 

S , 3 ' 3 ' 3 - ' 3t , 

interrupt the government of ^i), as in the verse sjUj^J wJI lit 
«JUj * j Aj LiKj^"* i<i«JI L3^H U->^ j-a* */*Ae?i f^oii cans* no£ benefit, 
then harm; for nothing is expected of a man but that he should harm B 

a i 

or benefit. Sometimes ^1 is added to strengthen the regimen ; as 
Igjkaajfj ^*j ^jl U-^ <A«< fAou may est deceive and beguile ; U-j& 

* 3 s <■ * 3 i 

^.Zjjii j-^so ^j\ that thou may est fly to my village. 

(c) a. By ^»~ (also originally a preposition, Vol. i. § 366, k), 
until, until that, that, in order that, when it expresses the intention 
of the agent and the object of the act, or the result of the act, as 
taking place not without the will of the agent or, at least, according to 

his expectation. For example : £^j i^j^ l>**^^ *s*^ ?~J** <•>* ^ 

L*~>fe UJI ice icill not cease to stand by it (worshipping it), till Moses 

return to us; bt^o 0&. ^^-v *^' cM J-«^' u-° <*4 *$ ire must 
meditate before ire speak, in order that our words may be appropriate ; 
^UxM ^c a KiUj i<^- u-^J' Uvl-cl- i M ^jl ^»r^ he must not weaken 
the spirit so that he is hindered from acting ; u ..\s*A,i sli ,jt <U ty^i 

* 3 J 3% J * I £ ' J ' * 3 J3 * 

^yjjju b jt <*-»*5l ^5*»- d «*i jiht.lj te// yfo'w, //' ^ eho<j$es, to sit down D 

«/*</ ^H-^ w^ Ais ^«w^, that I may force him to rise or he force me to sit 

down. — /?. But if ^^^ expresses only a simple temporal limit, or the 
mere effect or result of an act, without any implied design or ex- 
pectation on the part of the agent, it is followed by the perfect or the 

indicative of the imperfect. For example : ^ ..^. tJ I c~«Jlb ^f»- hj^* 

*■ * 3i i/ )))^ 

they journeyed till the sun rose; juul ^»- *->^ and so he fled till he 

}, 13, , z , , , 

got a great way off; 4jj*^j ^) i*i»- v°j* he is so ill that they have no 

30 Part Third.— Syntax. [§15 

A . 110,1, ,0,1 ,,, 5J/ 5 a> js- 

Aojoe o/ A*s living ; ju*> aJ io-ui ^i ii*w ^ Jjwj ^J-dl j->i. 

Oj-oJt a^jU j^j^- <*AJI #A# &es£ o/" wz^w is a roa?i ore a hill-top, amid a 

small flock of his own, who serves God until death comes to him. 

Rem. a. After ^I»- the grammarians assume the ellipse of 

o £ o i , a , 

^j\, and say that it is equivalent in meaning to ^jl .J I or ^Ja, 

^ J^ i^ Sjio _ i , ' 

as w>3^j i«*»- c* 3 *"^' »— >^l ^ e< ^ ^ ie f/tie/" until (^j\ .Jl) Ae repents 

, , 

B or that (\ Sm y^ or ,j£)) Ae may repent. 

Rem. 6. In some cases the regimen may be doubtful; as 

aJJI j-oj ^yL* djto Ij-Ut i^JJIj Jj-. >ji\ jjJu iya- \^Pj_$ and they 

J ■" 
were agitated until the apostle said (J^ib), or so that the apostle 

, j , 
said (,J^su), and those who believed ivith him, When (will) the help 

of God (come) /—In fact, after ^J*. four constructions are possible, 

,, i o£ Zi , , j»o .. jo 

which may be exemplified thus : lyUiol i*^- iijiJl .Jl 0^-< / 
journeyed to el-Kufa that I might enter it (= [»£») ; O^w 

^ j j o£ Ct , 

(] ^_5*»- I journeyed to it till I entered it (hist, imperfect, 

, , , .>• -* ^ j j o£ 5 ^ jo 

<L*sUi ^JLsfc. <ul£».) ; lyA^,sl (*I»> Oj-j / have journeyed to it till 

, i*bto , j j o£ ,t 5 ^ w^jo 

/ a/re (now) entering it (= ^^)l bl i<*^) ; and i<X». O^w 
lyjjl^i I journeyed till I (actually) entered it. 

(d) By v-i, when this particle introduces a clause that expresses 
the result or effect of a preceding clause (w~~JI &, A. W .. J I 2'i, or 

, , 0* i* , 

w><3 a>. M iLi). The preceding clause must contain an imperative 

(affirmative or negative), or words equivalent in meaning to an im- 
perative ; or else it must express a wish or hope, or ask a question ; 

or, finally, be a negative clause*. The signification of ^» in all these 

* [In some cases the indicative is employed where at first sight 
we should expect the subjunctive, as in Kor'an lxxvii. 36 ^J jji>i ^ 


^•jjux** it shall not be permitted to them to allege excuses (they 

- vol,, 0,,%l , , 

cannot excuse themselves) ; Hamasa p. 407, CUi.1 *$$ a *x»Xj j»\ *%» 


6jjuJl£ no mother will weep over him, no sister will miss him. D. G.] 

§ 15] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 31 

cases is equivalent to that of ^i»-. For example : w>j b ^ ^*tt A 
«UaJI J^oli pardon me, my Lord, so that I may enter Paradise ; 
JJk».l ^ ^->«flJl w»j ?ray Zorc?, fo(p tw^, so *^«£ / be not forsaken ; 

aJt^&jJu order him to sew it; ^)l U» *....* lii* viLf**"' <3^ ^ 
,jU»J»«» camel, go at a far-stretching gallop to Suleiman, 

that ice may find rest (U*--«i and U^j^L-J in rhyme for la> t • > and 

f-tjZ-J) ; «iU*l$ (^jjjk*.!^) *j) do not punish me, so that (or lest) I B 

perish ; £--f^ ujSl ^i S)j j^-*^ ^-^ ^1 Lbo <j J^Jbl 6W, 
Aand ms wo* over to ourselves, lest ice be too feeble {for the charge), nor 
to (other) men, lest we perish; ^^^Ae.^SLis. J*~J a*3 lytfcu *n)j and 
do not exceed therein, lest my wrath alight upon you (or become due to 
you) ; 4i* Jjjuojli *i)U ^j) C~J ?«w/d ^otf I had money, that I might 
give part oj it away in alms! Wj,k& Ij^i jyii^^ys-o c*i£» ^ b 
would I had been with them, that I might have won gnat gain; C 

^- j£^ * j £ *t" 

&j3y& ?-»■' ^j***) perhaps I may go on pilgrimage so as to visit thee ; 

a*M ^f&-*\* jl»>J' ^ <*ij J-* is Zeid at home, that I can go to him 
(= tell me whether Z. is at home, so that ete.) ? \jxsJ~3 sl*i£ ^* U) J^j 

UJ Aare we then any intercessors to intercede for us? *$\ j»\j&\ ^j\ U 
«£>>>•*»• •** U j*A~Zi yj3 son of the noble, wilt thou not draw near, 
that thou mayest see what they have told thee I iaia.J5 ^^ *%* why 
dost thou not study, that thou mayest learn by heart ! i*3j&~\ *^J w>j D 
Jj»*-«ti <~*4j* J"*-' ^] wy Zorrf, why hast Thou not granted me a 
respite for a bnej term, that I might give alms? t^j^-i ^JU ^-aij *) 

sentence is not passed upon them, that they die; tojo*^ UJU Lo 
*Aom /i^r^r comest to us to tell us something. 

. S ' 

Rem. The imperative must be pure or real (^^xa^o), not an 
interjection like do. nor a verbal noun in the accusative. You 

say >y-JI y^y~^.\i 4*0 fold your peace and I will treat you kindly ; 

32 Part Third. — Syntax. [§15 

1 WX> 1 

A ^UJI >oU*3 U>j£w AwsA, areo? the people will go to sleep. The negative 
clause must also be pure, not restricted by ^1, nor followed by 
another implied negative; e.g. Lo,>o^9 UoUJ *^l C-Jl I* ^Aom efos£ 

nothing but come to us and tell us something ; \£jjm*2& U*3D Jlp Uo 
^Aom. never ceasest coming to us and (never ceasest) telling us some- 


thing. Consequently we may say LojuwJ^ t-^ti to, if we understand 

the words to mean thou dost not come to us and (dost not) tell us 

B something (= LSjia*.!* l*»). [The poets allow themselves to use 

.. O * 1 i at r 

O with the subjunctive after a single future, e.g. .Jj--* j)j->\~t 

* * bis .* 0*0 j * at * * + 

U*-jjJi»ilJ jla»^JL» ^aJt^ ^o-j^J i«^J I will leave my abode to the 
BeniL Teniim, and betake myself to the Higaz, that I may have rest. 
(Comp. Jahn, Erklarungen zu Sibaweih, p. 53.) D. G.] 

(e) By j, under the same circumstances as \-fi, when the governed 
verb expresses an act subordinate to, but simultaneous with, the act 

C expressed by the previous clause; as UJj «U»JI IjAa.jJ (j'^**?*** *■>*' 

• £ O ^ - s s J > 1 x s * Z*0 jit *0 * b * 

ijjjjLsJI ^ J.*jj^ .£u 1jjj»l». ,j>jjJt xUI ^oA*j efo ye think that ye shall 
enter Paradise without God's knowing those of you who have fought (for 

1* a , %*, ji $ , ,b, , 

Him), and knowing the patient ? ^Xtc ^jUj JU^. O* a-o ^) cfo not 
restrain (others) from any habit, whilst you yourself practise one like it ; 

-■ - - si » £ o * , ai Zi , i si, »«j i a i 

OW^'i i^-*^ O' ^->^>i j^jut ^jl >citj ^^^1 C~Ui awe? / sairf (to 

her), Call, and I will call (at the same time), for it makes the sound go 

D farther, if two persons call out together ; ^^j 03^3 **=*£■*■ «^'^' 

m> * b*0 * j£ s s0*O J J/0/ 

^U^bj <o^©JI ^XUjj was I not your neighbour, there being (all along) 

, , i *> 11%, , 

between me and you love and brotherly affection 1 <^Lo_^Jt J^U Jjk 
^JJI w^-uJj do you eat fish and drink milk at the same time? v~**3 
oyuiJI yj~. J ^>« ^t ^.y-fc-l ^.Ut ^aj^ SsLfr and the wearing of a 

coarse cloak, whilst my eye is cool (not heated with tears), is more 
pleasant to me than the wearing of fine garments. The Arab gram- 

§ 15] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 33 

o * **» j 

marians call ^, thus used, <u*«JI jtj, or * »a J l ^, or ^..^.L a ^Jl jl^, A 
£ta w«m> o/" simultaneousness, and explain it by o' £•* 

[Rem. The school of Kufa allow the use of the subjunctive 

Sj * * a - m *  ' J ^ 

also after ^ in the manner of o and ^, e.g. j»^s ,-Xt I j ^j u ^ 
lyj tJL+JU ^oJ *^Lo*1 do not upbraid people for actions, whilst you 
practise them yourselves (Tab. ii. 887, 1. 1 seq.). D. G.] 

si at 2 

(f) By y, when it is equivalent either to o' *^i unless that, or to 
O' L5*! or ( fc 5 1 *' Mw ^ that; as^JL-j _jl jitfJl ,>L3^ / ivill certainly B 
AiY/ ^ unbeliever, unless he becomes a Muslim; SU5 O^i lit C~^j 

**a* at,, >)}***»* 

L»gfcLJ j) lyj^*£D 0^~^>ft^3 «??</ ?r^» / squeezed the spear of a tribe, 

I broke its knots, unless it stood straight ; ^j*^- ^ 'J ft*"? ^ «ili«jJ'^ / 
wi/Z s£w& fo 3/o?^ £?7/ ##m gr?w me my due; J)j)\ jl wJusJI (j^Xj—I-^ 
Vfc5 u- Jt / mu7/ deem everything difficult easy, until I attain my Irishes; 

/ /t j/ .- i * at i a i t ** *i * ta * a* * i* i a i , 

Ijjuus O^oJ ^1 UCJU JjU*J l©Jl JJU-^ siJLJ ^ <d cJLii and I said to 

him, Let not thy eye weep, toe seek nothing short of a kingdom, unless C 

we die and so are excused (for not attaining it) ; ijjUJI «->J>J 3^ >i ^' *^ 

/ will not go to thee till the gatherer of acacia berries (or leaves) 
returns (i.e. / will never go to thee). In the former case, the preceding 
act is to be conceived as taking place but once and as momentary ; in 
the latter, as repeated and continued. 

(9) By (jil or lit in that case, well then, when this particle 
commences a clause expressing the result or effect of a previous 
statement, provided that the verb in tln3_sjibj3rdinate clause refers 
tf> a really future time, and that it is in immediate juxtaposition to j) 

iji\, or, at least, separated from it only by the negative *$, or by an 
oath, or, according to some, by a vocative. For example, one may 

say \j£ .iLJI Ul I ivill come to thee tomorrow ; and the reply may be 

* *■ a c- a * s s t * a s 

<&*j^\ jjil well then, I ivill treat thee with respect, or «lU*Al ^ ,j3l 

* * a i ~ *e, a s 

well then, I will not insult thee, or *zLoj£=>\ aJJIj jj}l well then, by God, 
w. 11. 5 

34 Part Third.— Syntax. [§16 

A I will etc., or «2l^£»l <UJI juc b ,jil (though many prefer in this case 

* J t> l s s 

.iLaj^l). If the particle _j or J be prefixed to ^il, the verb may 

be put in the indicative as well as the subjunctive, e.g. *^ lilj 
f - a  - * * j s» , * 3s' * 

%JJ> *9I ^UJa. (var. t^JLL j ) (j^LL; and in that case they would not 

have remained after thee but a little while ; but if any of the other 
conditions specified above be violated, the indicative alone can be 

, 3 I f - s j - <• &j f e + 

used : e.g. ■iL^.l / am fond of thee, ISjiLo (or *£X)l».l) ^LU3t jjit, well, 
B / think thou speakest the truth (where the verb refers to present, and 

its J ji # * J 0) 06s - 

not to future time) ; Ijuj jjjl I vnll visit ZUd, <&-*)£> j^j (jil w#// 
then, Zeid will treat thee with respect (where juj separates (jit from 

- J li J s ss il s3s « - 

the verb); «i)jjjt I will visit thee,j>jJ3 aJJtj ^31 tffow, &# God, thou 

' » - ' j » l 

sAa/£ assuredly repent it (where J is interposed), or (j>t ^Lo^st I will 

s j a l 6 s si 

treat thee with respect in that case, or *iL^£st ^il Ul / in that case 

m m 1 s »£ s e s '■' >os 

will treat thee with respect ; JajI ^ jjl aJJtj 63/ GW, ^«, I will not 

s «. s is a 

do it ; ^3\ {Ji\ ^^b Oi ? / thou contest to me, in that case I will come 

6 s 

to thee (in which four examples (jit does not commence the clause, or 
is dependent upon a preceding condition). 

Rem. Owing to the Hebrew having lost the final vowels of the 
imperfect, the form which it employs after such particles as *5 

"lE^tf \Vu? *l£J^ \W |3 etc., can no longer be distinguished 

from that which expresses the indicative. The same remark applies 
D to the Syriac ; but the j92thiopic has introduced another distinction, 
using, for example, the form gY^C, : yendger (root Y\d, : nagdra, 
' to speak ') for the indicative, and ^""J ! C. : yenger for the sub- 

16. Since, in Arabic, the subjunctive is governed only by the 

conjunction &S, that, and other conjunctions that have the meaning 

* * 

of 0'> ^ ie indicative must be used in all other subordinate clauses, 

whether they be dependent upon a conjunctive or relative word, or 

§ 17] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 35 

simply annexed to an undefined substantive ; as J«^' U ^Uafcl fo A 
grave wra w^atf / teas to m£; w-*«xj O-i' l5j j ^ "^ ^ ^^ n °t ^ now 

* * j j o * * ' o j j o j * 

where he is to go; 1^*3 yjjjla * . * oU». v « v J*.juw he will bring them 

into gardens, to dwell in them for ever. In such sentences the Arabic 
language does not distinguish the intention from the effect. Hence 
the first example may also be translated he gave me what I ate (at 
that time), or what I am (noic) eating, or what I shall (hereafter) eat ; 
the second, where he is going or will go; the third, in which they shrill 
dwell for ever. B 

17. The Jussive, — connected with the imperative both in form 
and signification, — implies an order. It is used : — 

(a) With the particle J ( j**$\ j**$ the lam of command) prefixed, 
instead of the imperative ; as <C*~> jj-« Sxw ^j iS*~l let the owner of 

abundance spend of his abundance ; &ij UJLt cA*^ let thy Lord make 
an end of us. If the particle j or *J be prefixed to J, as is often the C 

case, then J usually loses its vowel ; as <j^«j*JI J^yiJi aJJI ^jJLcj 
*» GW, £fon, fe£ ^ believers trust ; ^ ...i.:)j *~lli »i\>l». ,-j *1>j^». ^jl 
tjib J-j*-- ^ifc (/" anything happens to me, let it be sold and (the 
proceeds) divided in such and such a way ; IjJb L*At ^Ju ^jl jljl ,j-o 

«9 J JJr). 

icLJI d&jlAs itL» whoever wishes to give up (the study of) this 
science of ours for a time, let him do so now. It is the third person of 
the jussive that is chiefly used in this way, while the second is very D 

rare ; examples of the first person are j& J-o*$i '>*y> rise and let 

i j - - e o 'S* 

me pray for you ; ^^bbUa*. J^a>.;Jj and let us bear your sins; [of the 

second aj>»&) make it (the tray of palmleaves) large, said to a woman, 
Ag. xvii. 90, last line. D. G.]. 

Rem. a. The particle ^J is rarely omitted in classical Arabic, 

* } t *■ *i * A^c^ ...» » 6 ,* i - J J 

except in poetry; e.g. U^». i«J^ O^ *■*)'■> *i^ v'^ cJJ 

36 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 17 

A lftjUk.3 / said to a porter in whose charge was her house, Admit (me), 
for I am her father-in-law and her neighbour (an instance of the 

2nd pers.); ^-Jii ,J& >£k«Ju jJu jc»a>.^ Muhammad, let every soul 

be a ransom for thine ; w »«a. ' &~t> j^.U £y& t>&3 but let there be 

.- > s jst »/«/ 
(granted to me) from Thee a share in good (deeds) ; SuiXi ^Jjkl ^Xsu 
„, i -» , ''_ 

tUstoJI jj-iijl^ let the feeble people of the fortress of Maridin know — . 

Some passages of the Kor'an, however, admit of being viewed in this 
way; as^jfeLSjj Iq~o IjJiioj S^XcJt \ y o^J j \yU\ ^>jJJI ^.>LjO ^Ji 

B say to my servants who have believed, let them observe prayer and 
spend (in alms) of that which we have bestowed upon them ; but the 
jussive may here be explained in accordance with what follows 
under c, (3. 

Rem. b. The vowel of J is also sometimes dropped after ^j ; 

as ^ov**-* I j ^gJLJ j£ then let them do away with their dirtiness, or 

(b) After the particle *>) not (^^^ *$ tlie la of prohibition), in 

C connection with which it expresses a prohibition or a wish that 

something may not be done ; as Uato aJJI ,jt Cli*^ *$ be not grieved, 

for God is with us ; U *~ J ^J\ UJui.1^3 *n) Ljj our Lord, punish us 

not if we forget; fUjt O-i/*^' Oj-*-*.*-^' **»»*j *$ let not believers take 

J s * * * * * b * s * * 

unbelievers as friends; juu *$j JmLo &* ^*»^»- ^ '3' w^ew we <7y 

forth from Damascus, let us not return. 

D (c) a. In the protasis and apodosis of correlative conditional 

clauses, which depend upon ^1 or any particle having the sense of 

O' (§§ 6, b, and 13). It stands in the protasis, when the verb is 

neither a perfect, nor an imperfect preceded by 0^> Du ^ a simple 
imperfect ; and in the apodosis, when the verb is likewise a simple 

imperfect, and not separated from the protasis by the conjunction \J 

(for if this latter be the case, the indicative must be used). For 

s , 0,0, » 
example j»j^j J**. * . ! * &\ if Mwu art hasty, thou wilt repent it; 

§ 17] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 37 

aj j^i \%y~> J-»*» £>* he who doth evil, shall be recompensed for it ; A 

j3yo j^. Ubjuc jU j^»» jia»J ojU _w ^J] ^'ju dJ'J ^-s wAin Mom 
comest to him, making for the light of his fire, thou findest the best of 

m jit * ,* 0**3 * ' /J»/ 

fires, beside which is the best of kindlers ; <*JJI -iU jjuu ^,JLL.. J U-Ld. 
O^j^ yi^ ^ l».U»J wherever (or whenever) thou shalt pursue a 


right course, God will decree thee success in the time to come; to-ijt 

- > * - - . ,' J _ a * * * 

yj^j lyJ-^oJ »-jjJI whithersoever the wind bends it, it bends; t»**^ » 
Ij-oi. ^jlcJ t t t ^ lj however thou settest out, thou wilt meet with B 

J * ) * * J o J - '0 «• it * is ' * t-s w* * * * 

good fortune; Jjla*-» *^ UC.^; U ^-i U.1 LJU ^LJU .^31 ,JUU. 
m^ two friends, however ye come to me, ye come to a brother who will 

* * - ,0 , ,c+ / « I> * Si 

wwr oo anything but what pleases you; 1}!^ Ij/*£ ^>«Ij ^U«y ,jbl 

« <» .•-.-, 2 * oi o-o o 3 o* 

\jS^- JjJ j^ U* jj-o^t J) ju j^ when we grant thee security, thou art 
secure from (all) others but us; and when thou dost not obtain security 
from us, thou ceasest not to be afraid; Jj^i p-ij)\ aj Jjuu U ,jW^ 
and whenever the wind turns it asida, it descends; but ju^j O^ O-* 

<yj»- ^ aJ ,jp S^.'Njt *t^». whosoever chooses the tillage of the life to 

• * <■ • a •• • 
co?ra, fo n«7w %>«'' we grj're an ample increase in his tillage; j£* Jjj— .j ^1 

.f ».. * 3 * %i ** * 

s ^3 ^yt> a) -.1 ^w (/" fo steals, (why,) a brother of his has stolen before; 

2** ** * * 3 * * ** *t* fr 3 *•• 

Uaj ^j l«^j olai-j *ib 4j^» ^><^j 4,>»i ana 7 whosoever believes in his 

Lord, shall not fear a diminution (of his reward) nor wrong. — /?. The 
jussive also stands in the apodosis, when the protasis contains a verb 
in the imperative [or one of the expressions that have the meaning of J) 

an imperative (Vol. i. § 368, rem. d)] ; as l£U ,>& t*^ c£* live 
contented (and) thou wilt be a king ; ^=>j^su v»ijl ^j^ju I^JjIj be 
faithful to (your) covenant with me, (and) I will be faithful to (my) 
covenant with you. [J^>^> ^>3jj* therefore let her eat; Ji3t ^j^f* 
t^yo let me kill Miisa; <uiaj j»-*^' l^*** ^ me s ^ his belly; 

38 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 17 

A ^a*jjI«J jl ^juoJfc-3 ^UU ^^aJ OU«. WA^ i^^^j «??e? mi/ saying 

to my soul, as often as it was stirred, Keep thy place {and) thou wilt be 
praised or find rest.] In this way may be explained the passage from 

the Kor'an quoted under a, rem. a, viz. by supplying after l^ul the 

words \5Aiu\3 SjJ-cJ! I^**5I, and regarding \^SJJJ^ S^loJI \^Ju as 

the apodosis to Ji". — y. The jussive is used in a protasis that is 

dependent upon \j\, e tc., because, when anything is supposed or 
assumed, an order is, as it were, made that it be given or take place. 
B That this is the correct account of the matter, is evident from the fact 
of the jussive being employed in the apodosis as well of an imperative 
as of a conditional protasis. The use of the jussive in the apodosis, 
again, has for its reason, that, when a thing takes place or is assumed, 
whatever depends upon it takes place or is assumed at the same time ; 
and, consequently, when the one thing is ordered, the other too seems 
to be ordered at the same time. 

Rem. a. It appears, then, that in two correlative conditional 
clauses several modes of expression are possible ; viz. (a) perfect x 

Q perfect, as C— ©.3 C**i ^j\ if thou standest, I stand ; (/?) jussive x 

jussive, as j a» ■!» ^S^i ^jt if thou art slothful, thou wilt suffer loss\ ; 

* [It is sometimes difficult to say whether the second clause 
contains an apodosis, or a qualificative sentence (<Lk*o), or a circum- 
stantial definition (Jl^). In the last two cases, of course, the indicative 

J * vJ * / 4j/ toss 

must be used. E.g. in the words ^^» LJ3 «ibjJ ,j-« ^ w*y9 (Kor'an 

D xix. 5) <jive me, then, a successor of Thine own choice, who shall be my 

heir, i*3j-> is a asuo, but some readers pronounce ^<^j-j as an apodosis; 

in the passage *1©JI IJuk vj-^J J-kJ' IJ^>> ^j u~**j ^ iJttle Ut> 
O^oJI U-Jb if*** JjW leave us (may God grant thee health!) abiding 
under this shade and drinking this cool water, until death comes to us, 
JL;j6 and op are a JU.]. 

t [Very rarely poets have the imperfect indicative; see Slbaweih 
i. 388, Kamil p. 78. D. G.] 

§ 17] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 39 

o * oo. 

(y) jussive x perfect, as C^iii j~a3 ^j\ if thou art patient, thou wilt A 


prevail ; (8) perfect x jussive, as jjJaJ Oj--e ^jl, in which case the 
imperfect indicative is also admissible, with or without o, as 

3 * '* * 9 " * - 3 3* ** , ,0, 9 * 3 *i 3 * 

friend comes to him on a day {when h# has need) of asking, he says 

J i ' 3' 

(jjjyu instead of ,JJL>), My camels are neither absent (or my property 

5**3***3** 3* 

is neither hidden) nor withheld (from thee): iXSUh. w>jaM C-Jl^ ^jli 

j)j~£ J^a-"* *}) ^Jj-»t ,<* aj^Jsucu* a?i^ t/"<A« Arabs go about in agitation -t> 

on thy track, they will not find any other but thee. The third form 
of expression is rarer than the others. [The following remarks 
may here be added : (1) If an oath precedes, the verb in the 
protasis is invariably a perfect, whilst as a rule the indicative or 

3 * it *>** 

the energetic (§ 19, e) is used in the apodosis, e.g. ^JL' <*JJI^i 

' 0*- 3 * • * * 3 + + 

lyJt %af-y *$ l»»i« Csft^tt. for, by God ! if thou go forth from the 

3:3*03***3 i Ml* 

town, thou wilt never return to it ; O-o-iU J*ij J&* O' *^'3 by God ! 

m m 3£'0c* 90* ***o *i *c* 

%f Zeid rises, I rise also ; &*~cj£s*$ j^j eL*. ,jt aJUIj by God ! if C 
Zeid come, I will honour him. There are, however, exceptions not 

* * * 3 3 3 * 3 * J|<0 3 Oi * 

only in poetry, but also in prose, as ,<oUi ^^ O^ *^' ^3 

3 M *0 ** s 3 3* * it tO 3* 3 it *0 

aJJI glw ^1 S^ly^JI j«^aj *^ j-odl by the oaths of God! if I meet 

them and victory escapes me, martyrdom will not escape me, so God 
will (Tab. ii. 644, 1. 15). (2) The jussive in the protasis is 

necessary if the verb be preceded by the negative *^, thus after 

d * : 9*0*** Oi 0*0 0*3 33*3 3*3* '- 

*$\ (= ^) oi) if not ' as j^^ jl—ij u^j^ L<* *-->• 0& o j -UaJ ^1 
unless ye do the same, there tvill be discord in the land and great J) 

3 * tO 3* * * 0**3 3 30* H 

corruption; aJJI oj*cu jSi oj^-cUj *^)1 if ye tvill not aid him, certainly 
God did aid him. (3) The imperfect indicative is used in the 
apodosis, if the verb is meant to express expectation or order, e.g. 

* Oi 0*0 3 * 3 * * 3 Oi * 3 3%*** 333* 030* 3 * Oi 3 

(Jt^W^I ^S dJj«X»J U^LjJuL ,JjJk».U5 ^J^Cf.yim3 J^S- O-rfh^l £)\ 

* Oi * * ~ 3 

^Li^tj O^H o-o if I let you go, ye must go and take what of 

implements and timber you find in the bazaars (comp. § 8, c, rem. b). 
(4) If the protasis be a nominal sentence, only the perfect may be 

40 Part Third.— Syntax. [§17 

A used, as 6ya»M> .iJjlaJiwt yj^sjJi^i] ,j*o j*a~\ ^j\j if any one of the 
polytheists ask protection of thee, grant it him. (5) After ^j\$ 

o- a - 9 o * 

though only the perfect, or the jussive with ^J, is used, as (jt j j>jj 
,J~OteO aJU j2& Zeid, though he be rich, is stingy; 2>jii\ w~J&M ^j\^ 

v ^*a>J <ul^ O'i lV' L5 , * a *^' ^-^W- O-" a?w ^ verily a solitary hill 
from the side of tl-Hima is dear to me, though I have not been to it. 
(6) In nominal sentences the conditional phrase is often placed 

B between the subject and the predicate, as (J^j^-oJ <*JJI slw <jl Ut 
truly, if God please, we shall be guided rightly ; comp. the quotations 
under (5).] 

Rem. b. On the cases in which the apodosis of a clause con- 


taming ^jt, or any of its "sisters," must be introduced by o, see 
§ 187. 

Rem. c. (1) "When we have in an apodosis a verb in the jussive, 
and there follows another verb in the imperfect, connected with the 

former by a conjunction, then (a) if the conjunction be ^ or j, the 
C second verb may be put in the jussive or in the indicative, more 

j j o j oi e j jii - jtj a <• 

rarely in the subjunctive, as o^sl^J jl ^SL Ju \ ^3 U IjjlJ ^lj 

llLj y^o w>Juuj 2lw ,j^i jAkJ <»JJI aj^Xj-jU*-; and if ye disclose 

what is in your soids or conceal it, God will reckon with you for it, 
and will forgive whom He pleases, and punish whom He pleases ; 

or jijuj and w> Jjuj, and He will forgive and will punish (^j^ 
\j\£ZJ*§\ as beginning a new proposition) ; or finally jJuui and 

* -/ - j - «! 

J) ^Jjtjj, governed by ^1 understood ; but (/3) if the conjunction be 

J^5, the subjunctive is not allowed [comp. § 15, e, rem.]. (2) When 
we have in a protasis a verb in the jussive, and there follows 
another verb in the imperfect, connected with the former by 

»»i or «, the second verb should be put in the jussive, although the 

subjunctive is allowable ; as *~au *) 4-Ul jjli j-~ajj Jilj ^-o <su| 

',■•■ f o 11 j4*S verily whosoever feareth God and hath patience, God 

W ^ s Q s s 

indeed will not let the reward of the righteous perish ; U-o w>/i»J 0-*5 

§ 19] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 41 

 j , . : * , 

«3^3 XmosLj^ and whosoever approaches v<s and humbles himself, toe A 
grant him protection. 

Rem. d. The Hebrew cannot, owing to the loss of the final 
vowels, distinguish in every case the jussive from the indicative and 
subjunctive ; but the shortened form of the imperfect, wherever it 
exists, is the proper one to be used in most of the above cases. It 

has, however, no particle corresponding to jj, and uses 7J$ in 

certain cases instead of X 7 (*9)- The .^Ethiopic employs the shorter 
form of the imperfect, f^VlC^ : y$ n g& r i *° express the jussive as B 
well as the subjunctive (see § 15, rem.), and often prefixes to it the 
particle A : Id — ^J, of which ,J is a dialectic form. 

18. The jussive is also used after the particles ^i not, and \+i not 

O* * j» £ -o * * * to* *i 0** 

yet (compounded of ^i and the a*^,»jJI U, § 7) ; e.g. O^* ^yi j' ^* 

i * * * t> i 

W^b y£s\ but I hate not seen a day in which there were more 
weepers; w>!J^ 'V-3-^ ^ they have not yet tasted my punishment C 
(for ^IJlc). See § 12. The verb after ^ and i+i has, however, only 

the form, not the signification, of the jussive, and their effect upon 
the following imperfect seems to be similar to that which the Hebrew 
wdw conseciitivum (•)) exercises upon the imperfect annexed to it. 

Rem. If the particle^ be followed by two or more imperfects, 
of which the second depends upon the first, the third upon the 
second, and so on, then, of course, the first alone is put in the 

J y - 10' J ' Oy 

jussive ; e.g. ^--—j wi/au ^jSJ ^i he did not knmv (how) to swim. D 
See § 12, and § 8, d, e. 

19. The Energetic of the imperfect (see § 14) is used : — 

(a) With the particle J truly, verily, surely, prefixed to it, both 
in simple asseverations and in those that are strengthened by an oath ; 

as UL-w ^yijjkyj UJ l« jJkU*. v>J*^b an ^ those who have striven in 

* * Ota 2 j y 

our (holy) cause, we will surely guide in our paths ; ^-a*^*Jt ^}jZi 
w. 11. 6 

42 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 19 

A ye shall surely see hell-fire; O^ ^^ p- 8 *-*^ cM>* U* verily within a 
short time they will repent it; w^l la* ^^ ^-^Jj^) <*JJ'j % GW/ 
I will teach you manners different from these; ^o^o^-i^) jXjjjus 
^j-gptfc 1 £/^w, by Thy glory, I will surely lead them all astray. 

(b) In commands or prohibitions, wishes, and questions ; as 
(j 3 ^ L» ..o ^o^'j *9t CP^-o- 5 ^ 50 ^° n °t die unless ye have become (or 

B without having become) Muslims ; ^jjl».j3 »UlJ would that thou wouldst 

s * o* at c - i i * -• - 

CMW0 &«C# / v>|j-^ ^' w % <fo^ ^ w wo ^ C07W0 &WH ? [jjA«h.jJ Jjkj 

C-wJ a*-aaJ! O^i &m£ caw "would that" bring bach the thing that has 
passed awayV\j>\+a*$ \s ^z « ^k.^\ j*$j jXs^jb^S ^M »x».t o-*%H ^ 
fe£ wo o??e incline to hang back on the day of battle, fearing death ; 
5jU». £j£. *}15U ^ji*cja*,j *}U do not then refuse me a gift, after I have 

come from such a distance; [La I a &*>j\ *$ let me not see you here; 
C ^XxJu L>) ^LX& C-^-JM / beseech you to do it]. 

[Rem. The rare construction of L>Jj with the energetic, as in 

i^oyu LoJj perhaps you will rise, is explained by native grammarians 
as due to its meaning perhaps or sometimes which approximates to 

a prohibition. In contrast to it, they say also .^JUi O^"*-* '•* J*^> 

you say that often. D. G.] 

(c) In the apodosis of correlative conditional clauses, in which 
case J is prefixed to the protasis as well as to the apodosis ; as 

*) AAJt ^jJ^JLJ j^*)\j t _^»^uJl ^ gi ii.ij t/*)*^'j Ol ^ ^.«»Jl iP>a» ^j-o^^e^JJL/ \^yi^ 

and if thou ashest them, Who created the heavens and the earth, and 
obliged sun and moon to serve Iliml verily they will say, God; 

iwoUb UA.... J <&*i^o) »>y verily, if he does not desist, we shall seize 

and drag (him) by the forelock. 

[Rem. If jj does not immediately precede the verb of the 

ii m> _ , bj» j ai oZj a ,, 

apodosis, the indicative is used, as aJUl ^i*) ^XnS jl ^Lc jj^j 

§ 20] The Verb.— 2. The Moods. 43 

- * * » 

(Jj^it.a»J and certainly, if ye die or are slain, to God shall ye be A 

(e?) In the protasis of a sentence after Ul (= U yj\ if)*; as 
>zkj*o\ t juj o-ir^ *-*! (/" ^ 0M beatest Zeid, I will beat thee ; t^k-Jbl 

^ ; - - * a * *+ » * i * * i - - # j - z i z.- is i - # - - .- 

^y-Xc J^i. *}U ^IjkA £*3 O-"^ L^*** L5? 9 -o^"** 5 ^ ^ >*■-»*■ V^ 

^ ye down from it (Paradise), all together; and if there shall 

(hereafter) come unto you guidance from me, then whosoever shall 

a }*' - s- a * 
follow my guidance, on them no fear shall come; ^i ^yijJuj Uli B 

o j - i - a ' a o - -■ ' s ' a<o 

^ov"^*- O-* J*fl >j*-* Ti^**-" an d l f thou capture them in battle, then 
put to flight, by {making an example of) them, those who are behind 

la* t a 2 j - * - j * f ri * sa>o * 5 *» * S> 

them; Lo^-o ^j^a-jXi -OjJJ ^1 ^J^** t«*»-l j-*~JI O-* CHj-' ^*^ 

and if thou shouldst see any one of mankind, say, Verily I have vowed 

a fast unto the God of mercy ; ^j y ^iu. ^ sty** ^ ^ O-?*^ ^-*^ an d 

if we take thee away (by death), we will surely avenge ourselves 
on them. G 

- 1 a * 

[(e) The energetic may be used (a) after UA>*- and similar 
compounds, as »5XjI 0->j£> U~j»- wherever you may be, I will come to 

you; (/?) after i^l^f U (Vol. i. § 353*) as oiili £ -4*^ with 

&?m« painstaking you will certainly accomplish it; &*>j\ U D-*** 1 
*tvYA sowtf e^ / ivill assuredly see thee.] 

2o. article can be placed before the imperative. D 

Consequently, Awieu a prohibition is uttered, the jussive must be 

Ct i-a>o * s a & to a * a * * , a* a * a i as 

used ; as 4*5^1 ^1 ^k^^l ^ J^»»5 *$3 CHjiA ^' remain two 
months, and be not in a haste to run from one 'imam to another ; 

* [This Uo is called hjJJ\ ,<*« ju £ >U Lc to strengthen the 
conditional meaning, Beidawi on Koran vii. 33. R. S. Sometimes 

S * a a £ e-s 2 

Lol is followed by a jussive, as ^JLe^dt .j^jIj Ut if thou come to me, I 
u?'dl treat tliee with honour. See an example § 152, d, rem.] 

44 Part Third.— Syntax. [§21 

A >6*« l>*^3 (^5^ ^J**-* *^ <&> w<# ^A^w place me on a level with 
{compare me with) one who is inexperienced. — The energetic forms of 
the imperative serve to increase its force ; as O-i^' ^W strike, by 
God I wjo«j c£**JI J>b O' 0-o^*5 learn that length of life is a 
punishment or torment (^^Juu in rhyme for w*jJuu) ; iijj) 2bj*£M 

Ji3l^ ly^aJ^ A~oyAa*~o <xi asuo glory belongs to God (alone), as an 

attribute peculiar to Him; therefore keep thyself afar from it, and 
B fear (Him). 

[Rem. a. In verbs that signify to go, to move (,-ct*, »_^Aj, 

si s s - s s s s 

,J»t, %ef.y 9-\j, jb\.i, etc.) the dual and the plural of the first person 
of our imperative are often replaced in Arabic by an imperative 

s Z Cl ■& ~ s s » 

with ajjuCJI ll) (§ 56, rem. d), as Uj u au«\ to a man, Uj ,<-fit«l to a 

s s o * 3 a , , t> 

woman, Uj U-iuol to two persons, Lo \^m\ or Uj ^j^a A to more, let 

us go. A modern manner of expressing the same thing is to employ 

the imperative of a verb signifying to let, as p-jjj (UjJli.) UJL». or 

3 s s 3 s s s s s 

•.jjj (Uj*,>, U*£.>) Ufr.> (comp. Fleischer, if7. aS'cAt*. ii. 636 se^.). 

Rem. 6. The imperative of the verb ^j\^s with the name of a 
person in the accusative is used to express one's guessing that the 
person whom one sees coming, or whom one meets with, is that 

individual, as ji bt |J>£» / presume that the person approaching is 

Abu Darr; j^jj L»l ^>^ / guess that you are Abu Zeid. (See the 
D Gloss, on Tabarl.) D. G.] 

3. The Government of the Verb. 

21. The verb may govern either (a) the accusative of a noun, or 
(b) a preposition with the genitive of a noun, which takes the place of 
the accusative and gives greater precision and accuracy to the ex- 
pression. — This government is not restricted to the finite tenses of 
the verb, but extends to the nomen verbi or actionis, the nomina 
agentis and patientis, and other verbal substantives and adjectives, 

§ 23] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a,) The Accus. 45 

whenever and in so far as these different kinds of nouns contain A 
somewhat of the conception or nature of the verb. — The verb, too, 
need not necessarily be expressed ; it may be understood, or it may 
lie concealed, as it were, in a particle that has a verbal force. 

(a) The Accusative. 

22. The verb governs the accusative of the noun — which we may 
call the determinative case of the verb or the adverbial case (see Vol. i. 

§ 364)— either B 

(a) as an objective complement (determinans), i.e. as that which, 
by assigning its object, limits and restricts the act ; or 

(b) as an adverbial complement in a stricter sense, indicating 
various limitations of the verb, which are expressed in non-Semitic 
languages by adverbs, prepositions with their respective cases, con- 
junctive clauses, or (as in the Slavonic languages) by the instrumental 

23. Most transitive verbs take the objective complement in the C 
accusative, though a considerable number of them are connected with 
the object by means of a preposition. Not a few are construed in 
both ways with a variety of significations, and different prepositions 
may sometimes be joined to the same verb with a difference of 

meaning; e.g. *\*) he called him, \jSL> <xi Uj he prayed that he might 
receive something as a blessing, <suXc b,> he cursed him*; [^ w*tj 
S< _<£JI he coveted the thing, &+£■ w*cj he shunned it]. In other cases a 

transitive verb may be construed indifferently with the accusative or D 
with a preposition and the genitive, the former being the older and 
more vigorous, the latter the younger and feebler construction ; e.g. 

j>JLc to adhere to, to attach oneself to, and <>aJ to adhere to, to overtake, 

are construed indifferently with the accusative of the person or with 

* [In d) lc,> he blessed him and aJLs lt,> he cursed him, the object 

aJUI has been omitted. The proper signification is he prayed to God 
Jar him and against him. D. G.] 

46 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 23 

A ^ and the genitive. More rarely the converse is the ease, the 

accusative being the later and less correct construction ; e.g. ij* to 

have finished, to hive done with, is construed with ^c, and *-U»-t to 

ham need of, to be in want of, with ^1, whereas in modern Arabic 
both take the accusative. 

Rem. a. Transitive verbs are called by the Arab grammarians 

J f »J f f i'iiO J f OeOf 

ZjjjCL< i )\ vJUi^l, and they designate by this name not only those 

B verbs which govern their object in the accusative, but also those 
which connect themselves with it by means of a preposition. The 

- Hi if *i"J0'O i sCsi'. 

former are distinguished as ly~JuL> tbj m ZpJI jJUi*})l the verbs that 
pass on (to an object) through themselves (and not by help of a 

* Of if vissJOs i fOiOf 

preposition) and the latter as lA/**J ajjuu^M JUi^l the verbs that 
pass on {to an object) through something else than themselves (viz. 

vi f f ## ** f ^ 

j^. y_«jt. * through a preposition). For example, %Xj to reach, to 

Of *ffi 9 

arrive (of a message, etc.), is a a ,...a^, > juu* (J*9, because we say 

iff OtO f f f f f f 

C >»a»J! L-S**^ ^ m news reached me ; but j jj> to have power, to be able, 

OfvlffiQO ' f 

is a dj-j*J j^jCLo ^si, because it is construed with ,«Ap, and we say 

'is** L5^ J"** ^ e was a ^ e io ^° sonie thing. 

Rem. b. Only careful study and the use of the dictionary can 
teach the learner whether a verb is construed with the accusative, 
or with a preposition, or with both ; and, if more than one con- 
struction be admissible, what are the different meanings that the 
verb assumes. Here we merely remark that verbs signifying to 
D come, which are construed in Latin and English with prepositions, 

Off f f 

admit in Arabic also the accusative ; as j^[c UsW. 'Amir came to 

Ot 0f3 f Oi f itf rfffiOfOffOtf fffiOiO W 

us; u^j^l jUail ^ ^yjy>k s!/^ 1 >^bl* zWj-* 11 u' strangers and 
tJie sons of t/ie great come to me from (all) quarters of the earth 
(compare in Hebrew X3 with the accusative, e.g. Ps. c. 4, Prov. 


ii. 19, Lament, i. 10). Hence these verbs have in Arabic a personal 

f f I 

passive, so that we may say %^J^i ,«Jt he was come to with a thing, 

§ 24] The Verb.—S. Government of the Verb.— (a) Tlie Accus. 47 

i e. it was brought to him, the active construction being t^yLt otfl A 
he came to him icith a thing, i.e. he brought it to him. 

[Rem. c. The place of the objective complement may lie 

« y <t/ it j a * 

supplied by an entire sentence, as w-jl»- 'j»Jj O' ^-o-^ J know 
that Zeid is going forth. Comp. §g 35, b, /3, 78, 88, 114. It may 
not be superfluous to note here that the verb Jli to say, or a 
derivative thereof, is followed by ,jl if the saying to which that 
verb relates is repeated (£>b£».), as «.*—^JI UXl5 Ut^oyJ^Sj and their d 

saying, Verily we have slain the Messiah ; ^Xi L*JJ? Ul^lXS ,jjli 

^ a ^ ^ a j ^ 

U^JJs ^^Xi a?w/ {/" ye say £/*«£ ice did wrong, (pur anstcer is) ice did 
no tvrong (ffa?nasa 55) ; ^513 t juj ^t oJJ / sata 7 , Verily Zeid is 
standing. But when • the following words explain what is said, 

5 £ j( $/ / $ / « // J tj t/ 

^1 must be used, as in the saying ^jt U..,a. U'^s -iJU wJIS jJ 

»_ ^ - 5£^ s .. ^ ^£ 

jjj'c ^JUlj ubp ,*)bl / Aare saw? to £/ie<? a cooc? saying : that thy 

j • 3 £ *c j Ji. * j*£ 

father is noble and that thou art intelligent ; j^a-\ .J I J^St t-« ^jj' ^ 

^i o - £ 

aJJI the first word I speak is that I praise God. The conjunction ^j\ 
is used also when J15 has the meaning of ^jj» to think (§ 24, rem. e) 
as JULla^o <*JI jJ^aj iji* ?M«» t/ostf thou think that he is going] 
whereas wJkli <ikt ^J>*J i***° would mean when dost thou say that 
tliou art going ?] 

24. Many verbs take two objective complements in the accusative, 
either both of the person, or both of the thing, or the one of the D 
person and the other of the thing. — These verbs form tiro classes, 
according to the relation of their objects to one another; the first 
class consisting of those whose objects are different from, and in no 
way connected with, one another, the second of those whose objects 
stand to one another in the relation of subject and predicate. — («) To 
the first class belong all causatives of the second and fourth verbal 
forms (Vol. i. §§ 41 and 45), whose ground-form is transitive and 
governs au accusative ; as also verbs that signify to fill or satisfy, give, 
deprive, forbid, ask, entreat, and the like, the most of which have 

48 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 24 

A likewise a causative meaning. For example : *£jyM ^c a^Ac he taught 

him the science of astronomy; ^^.1 3jj\ tjuj C-^jj I gave Zeid my 

brother's daughter in marriage; j-«^)t ^io^cl he informed me of 

the thing (lit., he made me know it) ; |U ^jJt *jJ-« he filled the bucket 
muYA water ; lj-*»» <uuwl Ae &tf /aim #«£ as much bread as he could 
(!>*». *w he ate as much bread as he could) ; »JL-JI a+ m J»\ he let him 

£ * ) b s 4 $ * 2 0* • * 

B taste the sword (ran him through with it) ; 2uy*m* !/*». Ijuj \yut 
they gave Zeid poisoned wine to drink; w>U£)l aUacl he gave him the 

book ; j**l\ aAJI asjj God gave him his life; sJ^i\ »Uj he gave him 

ft * * de tit *> * * * s 

milk in abundance; lj*w ^juLil he recited a poem to me; <UJI U^xcj 
ajju*n)I 3^*a*JI 6W «as promised us everlasting life; a=>^j aJJI <l^». 
^JL*)l God has deprived him of the blessing of learning ; jUJt w>t*xc 1^5 
C preserve us from the punishment of Mil-fire (J> imperative of ^5j, 
Vol. i. § 178) ; yUJl <*JUt J—»l asjfc pardon of God ; [LJi aJJI j»*2~>\ 
-yn~, » C~J / beg forgiveness of God for sins that I am not able to 

count (comp. § 70, rem. e) ; <su O>»ol U J*ili j*»»" >iXj^l / have 

enjoined thee {to do) the best ; do what thou hast been ordered to do]. — 
(b) To the second class belong (a) verbs which mean to make, appoint, 
call, name, and the like ; and (/3) those verbs which are called by the 

D Arab grammarians w^-UJI JUit verbs oftJis heart, i.e. which signify an 

act that takes place in the mind, or ,jU~».jJI 3 1 »iUJtj ,>*iJI JU3I 
verbs of certainty and doubt or preponderance (of probability), such as 
^(j to see, think, know, [ Jjjt (pass. IV. of \j\j) to think, believe], J^s. 
to know, j^.j to find, perceive, ^jj* to know ; JU. to think, imagine, 
^fio to think, believe, s^-.*- to think, reckon, suppose, ^c-j to think, 

deem, S* to count, reckon, IjL»- to think, opine, J*». to believe, think, 
^*yi to imagine, fancy, J13 in the sense of to think, and the im- 

§ 24] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 49 

o Z, , o , 

peratives ^oJ*j learn, know, and w*a suppose, think. For example : A 

* • • tit tot* J J* * * * &* 

(a) Lwlji uaj^\ j£$ J*»- l^jJ' who hath made the earth a bed for you ; 
Uuj^l O-jlaJt O^c I have made the clay (into) a jug ; ^t^j-i\ «*JJt jai»Jlj 
"iLJU. «W 6W took Abraham (for) a friend ; £)\jJ <*IJI ^^-a? w«?/ 
God make me a ransom for thee ! Liuj jj-JI yjAj^xZ )ji and it (Fate 


or Fortune) turned their black hair white; \j>+a*~e <su>£a / called him 

vi * Si to , - , *t , , 10* , , J JO 2 * * 

Muhammad ; ^jC^S ^ijio ^Xa^oJI^Jjo a^j*-^ and I named it (my B 

book) ' The Instruction of the Learner in the Pa& of Learning'; 

2 * j s o * s o Jvt a * - - t>fO Zt * £ j y. * 

(/?) Ijljij Ajjjl j*c>\ they indeed think it far off; Jt»- JiaJI JJ».t Ootj 

*t, 10*> 

^»JjtoJI / f/»w£ ^e e?«ty we owe fo a teacher the greatest of duties ; 

**+ , 1 , _ j ^/t ( /Ji <i i oi, 

aJjUwo %^> J^ >*^»' <*JJ1 wolj / /how £^a£ God is the greatest of all 

t- , # , 1 , oi 

in power of will ; [LJW. J^w jjjp ^>j| where thinkest thou that Bisr is 
sitting ?] ; »J>j^x«Jt JiM ^iZ+Xe- I know that thou art liberd in the 

, , , o i, , a i , o , , o , 

exercise of bounty ; ,^>JL>liJ ^j^s\ Uju».j ^\j and verily we C 

f , 4 0, l 1 , , 

found most of them evil-doers; l+J^. b».w ajj^j / found him 

- ' £ tO, 1 ' 

a mild, or gentle, old man; i)l».l ljuj J^-l / tf#m£ i^'d is thy 
brother; 3-^15 <Ut«JI ^^fcl Uj #?*<£ / do //o^ think the hour {of 

judgment) is at hand; W-bj 2)l«wJ /**• 5>»J'j j,^**^ o^...*. / deemed 
piety and generosity the best merchandise in respect of profit ; ^j 
Ul^-al aJJI J-j*-> ^i I^Xii i>i*^' Q- : -' » a>.' > and do not deem those dead D 
who have been slain on God's path (i.e. fighting for their religion) ; 


0*> * , , ,0,0* jOs ,, 

jiiJI ^3 ^y^jjii ^J>«JI iJ«5 *jU do not then reckon the mauld (or 

J L 10 1 

client) a sharer with thee in (his time of) affluence ; $^r*.\ w~£» j3 

_, , i o , ,1 i , , , 

iij U.I jj-6* bt I supposed 'Abu f Amr to be a trusty friend ; l>bt».j 

I w •« 1 , 

UU! s j*a-j}\ ^Lc j^o ^>->JJI a£U-oJI ««c? #^ believe the angels, who 

no,,, to, iio,, 

are the servants of the Merciful, (to be) females ; aZ+ZJJt )j^c <uXaa» 

AV. II. 

50 Part TumD.Syntacc. [§ 24 

, mtj'JJsflijt 

A I thought he was a slave, and so I abused him ; ^$^i ^^> J>^ ^V^' 

* * j be- s c j o . 

UJ-fclswX* j»\ <£iol j^sti by thy father 's life, dost thou think the sons 
of Lu' ay are ignorant, or {only) pretending to be so? (in rhyme for 
£jAit\aJZ*t>) ; \ajj& j^.5 u ~&ii\ i\*Jj ^ju know that the healing of the 

0* , Z * - *i i ) a i * 

soul is the conquering of its enemy; ^~-v* *$\s «iUU Ul ^jj-*-' oJ-ii 

l£)U \*j*\ and I said, Protect me, 'Abu Malik, and if not, deem me 

a lost man (in rhyme for IflU) ; \su jlo ^tXi ^.Ufc suppose me a friend 
B of thine. 

Rem. a. Of the two objective complements, that which is the 
subject is called Jj*^)l J^Jti^JI the first object, and the other, or 

vi to j JO *9* 

predicate, (<JU)t JjjuLpJt the second object. 

% , s , s my OiO j , ti 

Rem. b. When verbs like ^j\j and jl».j are mere j^-a^Jt JUil 

or ver&s of sense, — i.e. express nothing but acts of the external 
organs of sense, — they may still be connected with two accusatives, 

but the second accusative is no longer a ^U J^*a* or second object, 


Q but a jjl*. or circumstantial accusative, i.e. an accusative expressing 
a state or condition of the object in actual connection with those 

acts; e.g. L©jU ^^j'j I saw thee sleeping, Uojj-* huj^j I found him 

sick (in a state of sleep, of sickness*). In these and similar phrases 

i* * * * 

^\j and jkA-j may often be translated by the very same words, 

o *o«* j s si vi * b/o j , di 

whether they are w~U)l JU3I or ^^aJt JUil ; but, in the latter 

case, the object is merely the individual, apart from any predicate, 
whereas, in the former, it is the logical proposition you were asleep, 
X) he was sick, that is to say, the individual as the possessor of this 

Rem. c. The above construction of ^JIS is usually restricted to 
the 2nd pers. sing, imperf. indie, in an interrogation, provided that 

* [Instead of the predicative accusative the imperfect indicative 

may be used, as ^Jmu *Zj\j I saw him do. Comp. § 8, e, § 74, and also 

the perfect, as IJt£» C~lx? jXjj**.j / found that you had done such 
and such a thing.] 

§ 24] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 51 

the interrogative particle is not separated from the verb by anything A 
but a preposition with its complement or an object of the verb, as 

i i - * etc- 

in the example cited. We must not say UXku-o tj-^c J>*^ wJIt, but 
JU-L-U j^c in the nominative. [Comp. § 23, rem. c] 

b *i*a j * Qt 

Rem. d. The fourth form of the wJUUI Jl**t governs three 

t - - o }* , o£ o j j 

accusatives; e.g. 3.t>.A >9 £i[+e.\ jJLjjj he will make you think your 

*«* j £ 03 ** o£* f - * ii -;---■- ^- «•£ 

actions bad ; Uujlo oh[ ^y^JLctj \jjLo »->*!' tr»W *^' 4«ij' ^°^ ^ 
made men think Job patient and know him to be most veracious. B 
similarly Oj^., ^-^ or ^kl, and Lj or Ljl, to tell or inform. 

o *o*o j , it 

Rem. e. The ^JUUI ^jbiit may also be construed so as to 

exercise no grammatical influence upon the clause which is im- 
mediately dependent upon them. This happens (1) when the verb 
is inserted parenthetically, in which case, however, the accusative 

t * j a* - *e- * * 3 0** «»- 

is preferable, as *}ljbU. O-Ub ljuj, or JJbU- v2~ub juj. Zeid is, 

I think, a fool ; (2) when it is put at the end of the sentence, in 

which case the nominative is preferable, as Q~ul? Jf.>l-« juj. or C 

C^^Jg \3}La I juj, ^ei</ is truth/id, I think ; (3) when it is placed at 

the beginning of the sentence, but the dependent clause is either 
negative, or interrogative, or else an affirmative clause introduced 

by the particle ^j truly, as JoLo juj U C~Ub / think Zeid is not 

90' ot - '0 S»^e 36^ - 

truthful, $}+£■ j»\ .JjUfc juj I w-»Xc L* I do not know whether Zeid 

3t O MC 

is in thy house or l Amr, ^)yt\ ^y->l C— oXz I knoiv ichich of them is 

9 -" 9 0" 10" 

thy father, ^\s jujJ OvUjg / £At7&& -Zeio? is standing up. In the D 

9 •" 9 0" 05«tf , * 

last example ^515 jujJ is virtually [jjjJuJI ,«Xc, comp. Vol. i. 
§ 310] in the accusative, for if another object be added, without the 
particle J being prefixed to it, it is put in the accusative, a- 

*-0J f * s 9 ~* 90 *, J0*s 

UJ.Jfl,:<> l^tj^jli jujJ w»-UJg / think Zeid is standing up and ( Amr 

\ * I - 

going away. — In the first two cases the infinitive ^o may be used 

in the accusative instead of the finite verb, as wJhli <iUi? juj Zeid 

52 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 25 

is, as thou ihiukest, going away, ^^JLo i*^ J^jj, ^ ,£)$*. I juj. — 
In modern Arabic the particle ^jl is interposed between the 
w-AiJI ^Jjti and a dependent interrogative clause ; as ^>l C-^Jlt to 


i£ wm#£ be first explained what the noun is. 

25. If the verbs of the two classes mentioned in § 24 are put 
B in the passive voice, one of the two accusatives becomes the nomina- 
tive. — In the case of the first class, it is the accusative of the person ; 

e.g. aL^S j^st j^st he was taught the science of astronomy ; o^-J I^^jum 
he was made to taste the sword (was stabbed with it) ; j-»J$M ^*~ t 

t J s ~ «• 

U fr »~..o fr U ^Ae vmr was given poisoned water to drink, or poisoned 
water was given to the vizir to drink; j-o.*M Jjj life was granted him ; 

o* f » j o t el 

dj^Jti Ijjti OjJLM a poem by another (autlwr) was recited to me; 

a a*s * * * , - i 

C ^AjtJI ^£sjj j>j&. he was deprived of the blessing of learning. Should 
it happen that both accusatives are accusatives of the person, that 
which is next to the verb becomes the nominative ; as <Uj1 j*-»j p-jj 


i**-' Zeid was given my brothers daughter in marriage or my brother s 

daughter was given in marriage to Zeid. If both are accusatives of 
the thing, that one becomes the nominative which designates the 
thing that is affected by, or receives or passes into the other, or the 

D reverse; as ;U ^jJI cJU»« the bucket was filled with water. — In the 
case of the second class, that accusative which is the subject of the 
other becomes the nominative ; e.g. Iwjji u°j^ j*& Cu Xk ^i the earth 
has been made a bed for you ; Uj^I O-s^' j~o the clay has been made 
into a jug ; Uls^w ^ ^ . Ja .* juj Zeid is thought brave; \3\yo\ l^w. ». 
they are deemed dead ; jj& b J^' ^j£\ *Z~ij* thou art known as tlie 
faithful keeper of thy promise, 'Orwa (for l$j£- b). 

§ 26] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 53 

Rem. a. As the verb ,-3t, to come, is construed with the A 

accusative of the person (§ 23, rem. b), its fourth form (i«3i) 
becomes doubly transitive, and takes an accusative both of the 

person and of the thing ; e.g. w>Ufll J-Jl^wl { JJ ^^yo ,^31 Moses 

brought the (Itoly) book to the children of Israel (lit. made it come to 
them). Now, as this accusative of the thing is the nearer object of 

.yjt, we should expect it to become the nominative when the verb 
passes into the passive (.-Jjl) ; but the reverse is the case, because 
the person is of greater importance than the thing. "We say B 
therefore w>U£JI J>*>\j~>1 y^> ^Jf^ the (holy) book icas brought to 
the children of Israel, and not s JJ>\j~>\ .-o w>UXM ..jjI. 

Rem. b. If the verb should happen to govern three accusatives 
in the active voice (§ 24, rem. d), that which is next to the verb 

becomes the nominative to the passive; e.g. LolS jj-o-c J-ij ^«-^' 

Zeid teas informed that l Amr was approaching; ljuj ^j' C-J^j 

t»Xw ^J-jS l<. ^> and I used to think Zeid, as was (commonly) said, 

a lord; icu^o Jj'jJdb ^jJ-J C-J L J / t/;os foW (</««<) ZeiYtf tsas sic£ C 

in el- 1 Irak ; Uo ^yjj+±.\ ljt when thou art told (that) I am sick. 

26. All verbs, whether transitive or intransitive, active or passive, 
may take their own abstract nouns (nomina verbi or infinitives, Vol. i. 
§ 195), as also the deverbal nouns of the classes nomina viv. >nd 
nomina speciei (Vol. i. §§ 219, 220), as objective complements in . 
accusative. This may be the case either when they have no other 
objective complement or complements, or when they have one or 
more ; and the verbal noun may either stand alone, or it may be D 
connected with, an adjective or demonstrative pronoun, a noun or 
pronoun in the genitive, or a descriptive or relative clause. For 

example : bj-o «->-* lit- he struck a striking, Ujj j>\j he slept a sleep, 

\j~-i jL» he journeyed a journey ; bj-e >->j~e lit. he was struck (with) 

a striking; Ob^i jl ^j^Jj-a ^j^j-^3 *4j~e <>^>j*o I struck him one 

stroke, and he struck me two or more strokes; bj^o <slwIj !juj w>j-^ 

54 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 26 

A lit. lie struck Zeid (as to) his Jiead {with) a striking ; ljujcw b^-j> <&>j«a 
or, omitting the nomen verbi, ljujtw aL>j~o I gave him a violent 
beating*; WJac Uyi 9-ji he rejoiced (with) a great joy ; ^t i****-« 
\jjij£ U-<» Uj^xo she clasped me tightly to lier breast; ^u~.e». <Lwe i**** 
he walked (with) a graceful gait ; vj-^' '•*■* \^^J-^ ne b eai n™ in this 
manner, lit. (^£A) £A«s beating; lo u u J l IJub ^©Ajl^wl <j^l»Aa*-; ^y 

B fe;p £/^«V secrets (with) this keeping (i.e. so carefully) ; w*^ <«J>o 

5 rf w £* J D*tf * O s 

^JllaJI /&? &ea£ Am» as a c/w/ oppressor does, or wOj*JI w>o <w a 
teacher does; ^jLaJI ^$±. JU. lie j eared as a coward fears; Opsu 
w»^-a*JI Spsu aJI / looked at him {with) the look of an angry {man) ; 
VlPj u^j^ *^pj '^i when the earth shall quake (with) her quaking; 
j^x^jl U^o !^}j~s lie beat me so as to hurt me much, lit. he beat me 
(with) a beating which pained me ; *&<Xz ^Aij *j) t^JJI Vj-^' l^J-"* 
C ^ <jraw m# a gwc? beating, as you know well, lit. A« 6ea£ me (with) the 
beating which is not concealed from you. — This objective complement, 

which is called by the Arab grammarians jyJx©JI J.j*a*JI, the absolute 

U o bject t, orj ju^veJI (see Vol. i. § 195, rem.), is used in the two following 
" ways. 


(a) When it stands alone and undefined Coy**), it is employed 
jw^UXJ /or strengthening, or ^-JialX) ybr magnifying, i.e. to add 

I) greater force to the verb ; e.g. I»xe >»*•*£ ^ /w*£/* numbered them 
(ivith) a numbering (i.e. wi£/* a» &rac£ numbering) ; t^j^' ^-»»-j 'i| 

* The undetermined object in such phrases as ljujui a^j^o may, 
however, where the sense allows or requires it, assume a more definite 
meaning, and be viewed as an accusative of time; e.g. *%i^e bjjL» 
may be translated they travelled a long lime, scil. *^*i^o Litoj. 

t Because it does not, like the object in a narrower sense, depend 
only upon a verb that governs one, two, or three accusatives in the 
active voice, or one or two accusatives in the passive. 

§ 26] The Yerb.—Z. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 55 

CLj JLaJt C— jj (L.j ichen the earth shall be shaken (with) a shaking A 
(i.e. shaken violently), and the mountains be crumbled (with) a crumbling 

* - 2 2 -5 J * t r a*' m t 

(i.e. crumbled to dust) ; ljL£wl l^^iiwlj a??<7 ffoy disdain (irith) a 
disdaining (i.e. are haughtily disdainful) ; '-©j a^U*p ^j he crushed 

his bones (with) a crushing (i.e. crushed them to pieces). This sig- 
nification lies in the indefiniteness of the verbal noun, which leaves 
the verbal idea quite unlimited in its force and effect. 

Rem. a. For still greater emphasis the masdar may be repeated, B 

J / Zt + J £ 0>& yd J * 

as l£»,> l£»j u°j*$\ w-£»a lit W«?n iAe earth shall be crushed (with) 
crushing, crushing. 

[Rem. b. For the same purpose sometimes the masdar accom- 
panied by a suffix referring to the logical subject is put in the 

ji a - 
nominative, as oj**. «x». he exerted himself strenuously (properly 

jj / / a - 
his energy exerted itself, became real exertion) ; 4J*}Lo ^a he was 

j j a j * j , 

profoundly in error (prop, his error became error indeed) ; »jj«j jju q 

y j j j a J 

A<? m*i.s iwy far off ; L^i^*. ^j^**. sAe became thoroughly mad ; 

ut ^ / / 

d^^ft. clifc, /<« AaJ a vehement hunger. We have a similar figure of 
speech in the phrases w»jLw w~w intense whiteness of the hair ; 
j£-\£i jjti excellent poetry; Jj^ J*J a very cfarA* night ; C—»U Oj-o 

* .■ SB ^ 

a violent death ; ^Jj\j J*»^ a great woe. D. G.] 

Rem. c. A masdar of this kind cannot, of course, form a dual 
or plural, for the mere fact of its doing so brings it at once under a 

different head. { j^>j^o iy^>j-o can only mean he beat me on two J) 
different occasiotis ; and in general the dual or plural is only 

e a 

admissible in the case of a masdar used gy^i (see the end of the 

a * e * a * i a 

section), when there is a difference of kinds, as joj \ kt £j-t-' <0^w 

* *a*o* * * * a*o 

«-*JUIj |^>...a»Ji / went the two paces (or courses) of Zeid, the good 

and the bad; lislJJ Jjkl JU^ CL'^ jbyi »!**■ O-i-t*- ^t^ I love 
Thee (with) two kinds of love, (with) the love of affection, and (with) 
another love, because Thou art entitled thereto (or worthy thereof). 

56 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 26 

A (b) When it is connected with an adjective or demonstrative 
pronoun, a genitive, or a descriptive or relative clause (see the 
examples given above), it defines and limits the verbal idea by an 
addition which is commonly expressed in our family of languages by 
means of an adverb or a relative clause. 

> , t> ja*> y j a sBs - a* 

If the jyJa«>JI JyiA«Jt be a nomen vicis, it is used jIjjuJJ 
for enumeration ; and if it be a nomen speciei, or have an adjective, 

a £ 

etc., connected with it, it is used fy& to indicate the kind, for 
B specification, or ^**lJJ or j-wj^iw for distinction. 

Rem. a. Instead of the nomen verbi of a particular finite verb, 
that of another form of the same verb, or of another verb of the 
same meaning, or else a concrete substantive, is sometimes em- 

ployed ; as LojJLo ^yojJu *nJ ye do not advance boldly (IV. and II.); 

Ijujui *})U3 I^JlIXlt (] icy fought with one another (VIII.) a hard fight 

i Os e^ ail*** 

(III.), *}Ll«J <*JI J^-Jj and devote thyself (V.) to Him (with) an 

z a * s * * a j/ c u// «jj * * * 

Q (exclusive) devotion (II.), *%~£ A^-^\, H^3 Usjj ; bj*3 v-h*., 
.1; Ijujlw bljcc^o-^jj^l / will chastise them (with) a sore 

chastisement, Aau^w Z+jJ* \ycj^j\ they fed a shameful flight, %of.j 

- *» *a* a 2 s * £ I 

^j-iySJI he retired backivardn, ^>-*». «iL^.I (see above, a, rem. c), 

tail*- * * * , j a * a « at j j * 

LoJu *£w ; J.J3 3Lp «hwU.* ^>« *J**v> ls**"^' ^"* ^ ow ' ias< 

recourse to Nahsal for protection Jrom Mogdsi 1 as a weak man ; 

dJL*JLiaJ A * \* " Ae was cm intruder at the feast, uninvited. — 

j «• * * 
D Sometimes a specificative term may be interposed, as !^JL*J %i 

a * a*o & i 

y \s-*l\ A ^ do not incline wholly away (from one of them), 
iij-*-«JI ua*. * AJLij-z I kneio it in part, OljtW. «£/^5 4JjJL». 

j j a-» - - ai j a * * 

I gave him three whippings, ^^J* a.. )l ^ — <^ m-\ C» ... A. »» / s«£ 
raosJ comfortably ; or the masdar may be omitted, and its place 
supplied by another word, as lib <xj jdc*. (for C>ljJl». wJj), a!jj-» 
LL^-j / Je«£ /am (tvith) a whip (for J»^w w»/-o). 

§ 27] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accvs. 57 

Rem. b. The accusative of the nomen verbi remains, as we A 
have seen, unchanged, when the active voice, on which it depends, 
passes into the passive. It may, however, be changed into the nomi- 
native, when there is no other subject, provided that it is qualified 
or specialised by some other word (an adjective or a substantive in 

the genitive), as jujlw w^-£ «->^ J^>^ J*** Jtr 1 - •*0*^ J**** J*** 

» ' - J 59 * * 

and not merely ^c *->•«• j-e~> ftr 1 - 

27. It has been mentioned above (§21), that the nomina verbi B 
derived from verbs which govern an objective complement in the 
accusative, may be construed in the same way as the finite verbs 
themselves. We shall here enter into some further details on this 

(a) If only the objective complement of the act (and not likewise 
its subject) be expressed, it is put after the nomen actionis in the 
genitive*; unless it be separated from the nomen actionis by one or 
more words, in which case it is put in the accusative, beer use the 
genitive can never be divided from the word that governs it. For C 

example : JUJI Jy> k >« ^ov*^° he hindered them from saying what 

dfS J£ 

was right ; j-»Jl Mi v>* O^— '^' -> 6 ^— i *$ a human being is never 
weary of praying for weal; U-JL> 2uiu.~c \& J*yt i«» -*!«»' j' or to 

feed in a day of famine an orphan; j»^ u*3b «^s-^W *->^ °V 
cutting off with swords the heads of some people. In like manner, the i 
object is put in the accusative, when the nomen actionis is defined by f 
the article, because a noun, when so defined, cannot take a genitive X) 

after it; as *i\js-\ ajXJI Uux~ s feeble in harming his enemies; 

z*o o i --? * o jot o * -* 

l x o - >"< *r>^' O* J*- 51 jj* and I did not desist from striking 

Rem. If there be two or more objective complements, they are 
usually all put in the genitive ; but sometimes only the first is put 

* This is called the objective genitive, to distinguish it from the 
subjective genitive or that which designates the subject of the act. 
w. ii. 8 

58 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 27 

£ J 

A in the genitive and the others in the accusative, as J^l C*Aji» 

jj-*. Ulj J-*^JI / a»i stc& o/ eating bread and meat, for ^^a^JJtj ; 

ULJJIj ^'ili^H SilaJ^o UL»». lyj C~ob CvA jk3 / Aae? ta&ew /*er m 
Kew o/" my o?e&£ /rom Hassan, for fear of (his) becoming poor and 
delaying payment, where IJLXJtj is in rhyme for ^LJU^j, instead of 

(b) If both the subject and the objective complement of the act 

be expressed, three constructions are permitted, (a) The subj ect may 

B be put in the genitive, and the objective complement in the accusative; 

as i^JI ajdfc ,i j/Ate. iAJoJt JlS <jl^ in this year the chalif put 

Ga'far to death (lit. the chalif 's killing G. was in this year) ; S^j£s'^i 

jff^sA^S j^j£*j£r> <UJI then remember God as ye remember your 

fathers ; dUI w>,s$«oJI w»/-cJ W^W crying because of the tutors having 

^ ^ a // lino / o j a , , * * 

beaten him ; ^JjUc S-oJiJI £ji£=> ,j-« ^^b U what is apparent of thy 

C ingratitude for favours bestowed upon thee ; J ~eJuj£sjo J^jjaJI JIa* 

«bl Jia».*i)l el-Farazdak said, mentioning how el-Ahtal preferred him ; 

^^-^ ft v ,oj ^o-y-jJL^s <»_5!^_».|^ because of Koteiba 'ibn Muslim el- 

Bdhilis killing their writers, and massacring their priests, and 
burning their books and writings, (/?) The objective complement 
may be put in the genitive and the subject in the nominative ; 

D as j^-jjJI jl_» JLo^JI ^j-i— ' X-LiJI ~~jj ^-y-JLa-w the wind 

of annihilation swept them away, as tlie hand of the west wind 

sweeps away the sands; ^ju S^Ia s )& ^i ^o^J I Ulju ^jkXi 

t^jjU-fiJI >U^J ^^AljjJI her fore-feet scatter the gravel every midday, as 

' J- 

the money-cliangers scatter the dirhams whilst selecting them; U>©j}jJ 
>wf 5pi w>ta*-ol Ul^X}\ jsjji ^Jj\y w^'-j c-oJ* fixed at the dooi' of my 
house, as long as I know, as the Companions of ar-Ratiim (the Seven 

§27] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 59 

Sleepers) kept to the cave ; Uju— j j*-\ AlJpla*-* ^>« 5il£» ^LJI %x* A 

he gave orders to the entire people against any ones addressing him by 
the title of " our Lord." (y) The subject may be put in the nominative 

and the objective complement in the accusative ; as *->j*o ^>« c~j».& 
Sj+s- joj, or juj lj-»c *->^ 0-«> I wonder at Zeid's beating l Amr; 
«l».l jf y p a^ o <jj£)l <<i*Aj / have heard that Mahmud has murdered 
his brother ; Ijua juj >o^JI Ji*AJaj (^5**^ ^ ^*^ foard that Zeid has 

today divorced Hind ; Sj+z j^a^ £**»JI ^^j jUawl ^.^.cl I am B 

surprised at Muhammad" s expecting 'Amr on Friday. The first of 
these three constructions is the most usual. The second is not 
uncommon, especially when the objective complement is a pronoun. 
The third, in which the nomen actionis may be accompanied by the 
article, or by a specification of the time or place of the act in the 
genitive, is of comparatively rare occurrence. 

Rem. a. If an adjective be annexed to the subject in the C 
genitive, it is also usually put in the genitive, but the nominative 

is admissible ; as objJsJI juj >oL5 ^* C* ? a».s, or objJsJI ; lyj^lkj 

vo^JLta^JI aa». y^JutaJI w~U» and pressed her, as the seeker after his 

due, who is defrauded, presses (his debtor), instead of ^Jbt-eJl wJU» 

Rem. 6. If both the subject and the objective complement 
be pronouns, they may both be suffixed to the nomen actionis ; e.g. D 

Jl ( _A« 9 Jlc <u> my love of him lias taught me to be religious. 

Here the suffix of the first person is the subject, and that of the 
third person the accusative*. 

1 1 - e * J O 9 e » * 

* w*». is, strictly speaking, an j^^a^^l, and not an actual jjueuo 
(see § 26) ; but it is used, instead of w>L».1, as the masdar of ^*».t 

(IV. of >^*r*-) to lorn, [as j«v f° r \jo x ju\^ masdar of t/ai^t to A#te]. 
See rem. c. 

(30 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 27 

A Rem. c. Not only the nomina actionis, but also those nouns 

which are of similar force and signification, and which consequently 
can supply the place of the former, may be construed with the 
genitive of the subject and the accusative of the object. For 

j» J #5 .. , , Ci *> * a £ f i * 6 ) , * j S J6 * j i 

example :^o-U» <La to J^o*jLJI ^jdfcl ^JU-j^oJoLx* ,j! ^^JLwt SuUim, 
verily your afflicting a man, who has given the salam as a salutation, 

o ^ j <i, , a j a & , j * ' J"° '. * • 

%s (an act of) tyranny (w>La-o = ajLoI) ; j&f*t> juu j»\Jj\ ^Ju^ju 

£ <• * , * *■ 

through thy associating with the noble, thou wilt be reckoned one of 
B them (SfLc. — ojJ^\su>) ; Ij-ejJI Ai».jj (J.ft-jJ' 4-M ,^o ablution is 
{rendered necessary) by a man's kissing his wife (aJL5 = J-^Ju) ; 
,-wjiUt ^jj^xJI A^JaJ Ijj^aJ^a and remember how the Bekrite slapped 
the Koreishite (a*.U the nomen vicis) ; [Lj l«J *liw l^c^Js <j\J> 
for to speak with her is a remedy for my suffering] ; ^XjUac juuj 
\.e.\jji\ ajL^JI and after thy giving the hundred grazing (camels) 
(|lkfc = flkft|; IftUpt in rhyme for clSJjt) ; ijJb 4*0* ^JJ JiaJf 
C aJJI ^1 jJjJt observe this child's obedience to the command of God 

(it Us - AfiLbt) ; ^ J uaJl ^jLa^JI Juftj ^/te bustard's threatening the 
falcon (*x*£3 - i^|) j lyiwt ^-^' w-j.>l».t itfAa£ the hywna tells to 

j - i- <i * a * - - - ai //w * , jj« // 

its (w*j.>1».I = oUj>»Xa*.3) ; Ia^JjI jjui\ t^-a-^Lo-i <&£sj3 I have 

left him (or it) where the wild cattle lick their young (i.e. in some 
lonely or desert spot, l know not where), =jJL)l ^.o>JLi dwa»J 

, , ,ai 

D Rem. r/. What has been said of the nomina actionis of singly 

transitive verbs, applies equally to those of doubly transitive verbs. 
The only difference is, that the latter take an accusative after the 
objective genitive, or even add a second accusative to the first. 

For example : ^Xjui\ J^s^ ^Xjl^JI ^Aju the instruction of the 

. .- o-' j ,* ,. a s a a* j ' ai * 

learner in the path of learning ; (3!^*JI «t;l *~Jy> O"* A ^' »1ju*1 L« 
</*« favour which he conferred upon him by his appointing him 

_ to j z a * S * j * + • j - * Zi * Z 

governor of el-'Irdk ; \j+±. \j^t j*+»~* >oUl?j 'y^ 3 ^H^l O' 

§29] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— <a) The Accus. 61 

£ J ^ 

Uja-r- 1? the people condemned Muhamma/fs giving l Amr poisoned A 
bread to eat. 

Rem. e. The complement in the genitive may also be expressed, 
when it represents the subject of the act, by ^a : when it repre- 
sents the object, by J (see § 29) ; and when it indicates time or 

place, by .ji ; e.g. <u*».. in rem. b, by <*J ,-U (,J^U*JI) wj»JI 

3 St *0 3 ' '— iO * a * 

the love (which accrues) from me to him ; jyi^ J*£ ^JLo^JI L 5*~'. 
in §27,6, (3, by JlojXi j^> jJI ju ^>« i^*— 5 ' ; and A » ^a.JI ^ojj jUa&t, 
ibid., y, by ix^aJI >o^j ^ jUsl^^I. 13 

28. In the case of verbs which govern their objective complement 
by means of a preposition, the nomen actionis retains that preposition : 

r I r *■ ** 3 ' # - , 3 S - - 

e.g. «iX)3 ^.ft SjjcS ^ U I have no power to do this, from aAc 0>jJ ; 
A^ij «ui ^ L» / ^«iv no wish for it, from <su* C~*> ; aJI «£Jj».l». U 

a * - a - a 

what need hast thou of it I from aJt w ** -: a.l. — The same thing holds 

good in the case of mixed government, the nearer object or accusative 
being converted into the genitive, and the more remote retaining its C 

preposition ; e.g. icUxU (jUJ^t JUiy> man's ta/wjr helped (by God) 

to obey (Him). Occasionally, however, the closer connection by means 
of the genitive is substituted for the looser construction with a 

preposition ; e.g. vOL^i J»~« inclination (of the mind) towards U- 

' Islam, ioxjfi-f ^J\ JI^JI. 

29. The nomen actionis ofteu takes its objective complement not D 
in the accusative but in the genitive with J, in which case this 

preposition is used as an outward exponent of the relation that subsists 
between the nomen verbi and its object. Hence the Arab grammarians 

,a-o , a * j £ * 

rightly call it J^UJt ijyuJ ji*$J\ the lam that strengthens the regent 

(the nomen actionis or the verbal power which it possesses) ; for, since 
the verbal force which dwells in the nomen actionis is less than that 
in the finite verb, the language helps the former to exercise its 

02 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 29 

A influence upon its object by annexing to it a preposition expressing 
the direction of the action towards the object. This construction 
with J is used in the following cases. 

(a) When the nomen actionis immediately precedes the object 
and is undefined (see § 27, a) ; as ajI^oj <t$ Uaj>J J-oU j*£ k j* 
without considering what was false and what true in it, instead of 
&j\yo$ deUai.. This is especially the case when the nomen actionis 

* a l t a , i  i it 

B is in the adverbial accusative (see § 44); as ^il^^ U-J**3 <d^3t 
I stand up in his presence to shew respect to my teacher ; iX)i J13 UJI 

a) Ul^b] /«# said this only to do him honour ; IjUilil j^s- «iL«ol 

* * * t> 

( j->j^a.L 1r . JJ Ag refrained from {attacking) them, awaiting the 

Muhdgirun ; aX) La. juil l^-ol i>;>JJtj &m£ £/wse wAo believe are 
stronger in love of God. 

(b) When the nomen actionis immediately precedes the object, 
and is defined by the article (see § 27, a) ; as ^hUU aJUxJI j)j3 

giving up pursuing the people; aajUxoJI ^a (JIa 1 *^ C^fcola.1 L>) 
Aa^jX'jJ after (t/ie tribe of) Gatafdn had agreed to take the part of 

(c) When the genitive of the subject is interposed between the 
nomen actionis and the object (see § 27, b) ; as ,j->si— ~j ,j1 ^M 
Sjli^l J-«-j (-Xc yb L>3I u ij*il) ^^Jl /£ results, therefore, that the 

D sun warms the earth in no other way than by his light (lit. that the 
suns warming the earth is only by the way of his light), for v°j*$l ', 
J lyljkd AjUa«J because of my enemies persecuting me, for ^ul ; 

aX) djjjj Aw .*W/i# GW; <i)L* ^1 *iX) ^i-XJ wy enabling you to 
attain your wishes; l^&lbl^ A.o->a.yi aLjAAJI SjJiyt ojjk ^1 jJaJ\ 
aXJI j***) observe this mother, affectionate and loving, and her obedience 
to the command of God. 

§ 30] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a.) The Acciis. 63 
It may also be extended to other verbal nouns of similar force and A 

„ a , - , ai * * - ~^ 

signification (see § 27, b, rem. c) ; as J^*-«3 ajU— «' Pj^-* ^5 J i ^ 
•' t>^ O'**-** cM' he went down to the places where his comrades 

had fallen, and to the spot where the people of Hamadan had killed his 

* + * * Q * * *">*0 * * JC-*b*0 * J J * £ ** 

sisters son; [j»g3 ^>©J c-Jl£> ^i-L»JI ***£j 03*WM ^>^ u' ^i 

CyXU ^1 frw£ £fo victories of Sl-Ma'mun and 'Abd el-Malik were 

gained over those who aimed at their sovereignty]. 

In such clauses the choice between the older and closer construction B 
with the accusative, and the later and looser with the preposition, is 
left in most cases to the taste and judgment of the writer. 

Rem. a. In more modern Arabic .Jl is often used ^J-oUJI ajjJu) 

instead of J ; as aJt ^f^^\ my bearing him in mind; ^Jl ^ij 

, , a* 

w>l^aJI viy returning an answer. 

Rem. b. This use of ^J to designate the objective complement 

of the verb is common in Aramaic, rare in Hebrew and ^Ethiopic 
(see Dillmann's Gr., § 179). See § 31, rem. 

30. The nomina agentis or participles, which hold a middle 
position between the verb and the noun, and partake of the force of 
both, may, like the nomina verbi, follow the government either of the 
verb or the noun, or of both. The following rules are to be observed 
regarding them. 

(a) If the nomen agentis has but one objective complement, this 

may be put either in the accusative or in the genitive ; as ^t l^cjL» j) 

ixdUt (j-^^bbOlj ^JlL^ Cjjs-\ dU*. vie with one another in hastening 

to a garden {Paradise), which is prepared for the God-fearing and 

those who restrain their wrath ; S^ibpl 0>*>»"j an< ^ t ^ l0se w ^° P a lf 

, ao » j a * 5 - z *£ -i & * a * - a^a-o j * ss* 

the poor-rate; i^-**-" Jjj O- **■* ^b' j*i^ j** *^^' oUbUUt 

* a* m - - a* 

the slate-coloured pigeons (^j^aJI by poetic license for>»WaJI) which 
inhabit the sacred House (i.e. the Ka'ba), never quitting it (and) 

64 Part Third.— Syntax-. [§ 30 

A domiciled in Mekka (UJI^I for t^aJljt) ; <u*£)t iJU Ljdk aw offering 

*> * *> ^.s 

coming, or (actually) brought, to the Ka'ba ; ^Xxl\ ^)%io seekers after 
knowledge; O^JI ££513 ^aj J,£> gwr^/ soul is a taster of death (tastes 
or shall taste death) ; ^LJt **U- <£lJI CGj aw Lord ! Thou wilt be an 

assembler of (wilt assemble) mankind; ^r^j >**^-«^v^' 0>*^! CH»>M 

w&? £^m# £/*«£ £/^?/ s/?a// 60 meeters of (shall meet) their Lord; 

j<£LS%<> dJls <suu C>3J** {£j^\ ^>oJ' Oi 'Writy the death from which ye 

B ,/fetf, mtc7/ surely be your meeter (will surely meet you). — The nomina 
agentis of directly transitive verbs admit of being construed, in so far 
as they have verbal power, either with the accusative or with the 

genitive, provided they have the meaning of the imperfect (e)l<£*JI, 

historical imperfect, present, future). As the genitive connection is in 

this case <ua*£s*JI j*&, improper or representative (see § 75, rem.), 

the governing word may be defined by the article : ^tdl JjIS, or 

^ li <& ' & *0 J *t+ ' ul JO J sty 

q ^LM ^plS, one who kills people ; ^UJI ^pUJI, or ^LJt JJUJI, he who 

kills people = s J^aj ^JJl ; as, according to another reading, ^i-aj Jib 

O^oJI asu\$ (see above) ; oW-v" *$UJI w*At>M 0/ him who gives a 

hundred fine white (camels) ; S^J-oJI ^^-ji^JI^ «wg? ^ose w^o perform 

the (prescribed) prayers; O^J-*-* jW L5*^' ^' ^' ^ ^hou that 

desirest single combat, draw nigh. When, on the contrary, the nomina 

D agentis of directly transitive verbs have the meaning of the perfect 

(perfect, pluperfect, aorist, and future-perfect), they approach more 

nearly to the nature of the noun that springs from them (as wol^, 
writing, a writer), and hence are construed, like this latter, with the 
genitive only. Further, since this genitive connection is *t**i* , 
proper or real (see § 75, rem.), the governing word cannot be defined 
by the article : ^Ut JjU> (and not ^Ul JJtiJI or ^LJI JjUJI) one 
who killed, has killed, had killed, or shall have killed people, = 

§30] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 65 

j& i^JJI, or J^5 ,jl£> ^j31, or Jis ^yL> ^JJI ; as Ol^IJI Jj»ti A 

^J^'j *^ Creator of (or He who has created) the heavens and the earth. 
The same remarks naturally apply, when the genitive is a pronominal 
suffix instead of a separate substantive : L5 -*5'i) = ^-«^i «*»■' one who 

reproaches me, and ^jW = ^j^^i i^JJ' he who reproaches me, as 

j^JLi* w^o^JJ ^^oJLuJI lyjt thou who revilest me, in order that thou 

mayest be thought my equal ; but he icho reproached or has reproached 

me, ^y*y c5-£m> is ^y^*^, not L5 *5'}Ut. — If the nomen agentis be B 

undefined, it governs the accusative only in the following cases. 
(a) When it is the attribute or the predicate of a (usually preceding) 
subject, or stands in the accusative to express a state or condition of 

*o- « - sa ^ t a * s - * a ^ 5 

that subject (see §44); e.g. \j+* «->j^ •*<;> or !/■»* Vj^ '•*£> Ol 
^/c? /s beating (or w/// foa£) 'Amr; ^ l».t «>jI w*;*-^ «*ij ZeicTs 
father (lit. i^'rf, A/s father) is beating (or iot7/ beat) a brother of 


mine ; *ujt jU wJlb t^-»jl*J *^j^ I passed by a horseman (who was) C 

a, i , e , a , 

seeking revenge for (the murder of) his father ; ^j-c *~~P ^^ ^o^> 

«- a - 

oj+t ^J* how many a one fills (or sates) his eyes with what belongs 
to others, = ^U ,>t>. ■* ^»fe ; ty-Aj-J U^j 3ja*-o *,J»U^ //£# a fo«$ 
w;focA was awe day butting a rock to break it,- *-l»U J^^» ; ^ >i ^f 

bit UU» j^»c '^4w?- c«w« to we seeking instruction. ((3) After an 
interrogative or negative particle, when it is the attribute of a pre- D 
ceding or (less usually) following subject ; e.g. tjuj OJI j*j£* J-a 

J 6 * 20* jJOi 5 0J> 

w«7£ £&>?* £/*£«£ Zeid with respect ? <*j cJuj tj^-j^^' j^.*..ol will ye 

fulfil a promise on which I relied ? ^^5 fir>^> w- 5 ' U ^>« dost not 

follow (or adopt) their kibla ; ajL*.! ^jlc jl».I j**-* U «/? o»g grcWs 

protection to the enemy of his friends, (y) After an interjection 

(see § 38), as the predicate of a suppressed subject ; e.g. *iC^. UJU» Ij 

w. ii. 9 

66 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 30 

A (thou who art) climbing a hill ! = U)U» ^»-j b ; Sj^JI ^.^ U>jt.o b 

(thou who art) turning away from me (thy) love! 

Rem. a. The nomen agentis in the singular number, when 
followed by a substantive in the genitive, can take the article only 
when that substantive is itself defined by the article or governs 

o sO*o j 5 * 

another substantive that is so defined ; e.g. j^«*J I w>jl«a)l he who 

o ,o*> t, j i , 

beats the slave ; jlojJI ^\j w>jLaJI he who beats the slave on the head 

a * j Z * 

B (lit., beats the head of the slave) ; but we cannot say j>+£ w>jLiJI 

nor joj wJjLaJI, nor even juj jl»c w>jLoM or ajut w^LoJI. The 
reason of this seems to be that a certain equipoise may be preserved 

J - 3 * 

between the governing word, oLa^JI, and the governed word, 

aJI y»iLiuoJI. On the other hand, the article may be prefixed to 

the dual or the pluralis sanus masc, even when the following geni- 
tive is not defined in either of the above ways ; because, after the 

„ J^ , JO, 

C rejection of the terminations ^j and ^j (Vol. i. § 315, b, c), oLa«JI 

0* J * J c* 

and aJI ^i\*A+}\ become more closely connected, and grow, as it 

were, into one word, like the nomen agentis when defined by the 
article and followed by a pronominal suffix. Hence we may say 

o * * Zi * o *• o *• Ct *• o * o * j Zi s o * St * 

juc bjLsJI, juj ^jjLaJI, jkJj juc ^JjLoJI, djL^c ,-jjt-a)l, as well 

to * ^ i^ t * y Ct ' s ' * ' J Ct * J sO * * & ' 

as \j~s- ^jbjLoJI, ljuj ^t-jjLaJI, juj j^s- £)jfj\*ai\, dju* Osij^^^'y 

' ' * ' t s * * 

* + *> b s o j 0*0 * vt* //O/ 

^»xc \ihyUm^i\ L-ic Luib ^1 if the two who reside at 'Aden can 

, J of. C, , - 5 - 

D dispense with me (or do without me); b^y^wl ^qJj i* - *!/* ii<""H 
the two who revile my character, without my having reviled them; 

J * - - - i - J 0* 

I^Jkj bj Jt*^ j}Xj&*»+i\ those who deem small the great (sums) they 
have given away. There is even a third form of expression admis- 

t o * <• S * 

sible, arising out of a combination of these two, viz. Iju£ bjl,*x)t, 

to * - it »• . , * J St » J * , 8 « 

ljuj LjjjLaJI, juj ju* _jjjbixM, ojuc ^-jjLoJI, in which the rejec- 
tion of the terminations ^j and jj serves only to indicate the close 

* 6 * j j * * t - '0*0 j toio ■** 

logical connection, as in the phrase tjipiw.* a\y*.\ *}UUUI j+a*$\ Am. 
the 'amir came, whose two brothers killed Muhammad, in which 

§ 30] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 67 

j * s £ 

another substantive (o\^.\) is actually inserted, as the subject, A 

between the nomen agentis in the dual (^JLSJt) and its object 

* i * j 
(tjL»a».«). — When a pronoun is annexed as object to the dual or 

pluralis sanus masc. of a nomen agentis which is defined by the 

article, three forms of expression are likewise admissible; viz. (1) 

j^S'JjS* s A * 8 * i* *£,)*,} St* 

flLjLoM, ojjjLaJI ; (2) oLjt ^UjLaJI or di jjbjLaJI, obi ^jjjLaJI 

1* * 3 ai 4> si* 1*1 is 

or a) ^j^jjLsJt ; and (3) AJbjLoJI, AJjjjLaJt. In the last case, the 

pronoun, though apparently a nominal suffix in the genitive, is in 
reality a verbal suffix in the accusative ; and even in the first case, B 
the Arabs regard the pronominal object as an accusative, and not 
as a genitive, using .-J instead of ^£~ for the 1st pers. sing. ; 

e.g. L5L*. jJjA ^-i-il^^JI (_>«-») he who comes to me to obtain a gift 

a i * a** 

is not disappointed ; ^ywJt» ,i u~-^3 an d ^ ^ n °t too heavy a burden 

i* i ,z-?s *a * »jo ,. i mOie ii 

for me ; ajjJLcUJIj ^*s»Jt OiL/'O" ^** ** ** ^V w ^° orc ^ r what is 
right, and who do it themselves*. 

Rem. b. When the nomen agentis is followed by two or more 


objects connected by $ or jl, it not rarely happens that the first C 
alone is put in the genitive, and the others in the accusative, the 
nominal force of the nomen agentis passing, because of the distance 

of the complements, into the verbal; as ^ -^ aJ Ij Liw jJ-JJt (J^^ 

LiL...a- j+i)\} He wlio appoints the night for rest, ami the sun and 

moon for the reckoning (of time); Iajl^cj ^jla^yJI SjLjJI w*aI^JI of 

him who gives a hundred fine white (camels) and their attendant 

* ,* , * , a * * *, *a*ai**' - i * * ai a * 

(either Ujucj or Uju^J; w>j j~z jt UZ^laJ jloi c.t'j OJ1 J-fc 
wilt thou send Dinar for our need (to our help) or l Abd-Eabb? D 

(b) If the nomen agentis be derived from a verb which governs 
two or three objective complements (§§ 24, 25), it takes the first 
either in the accusative (which is by far the more usual) or in the 

genitive, and the others in the accusative ; as \j±M b^j ljuj ^>\£* lit 

* [El-Mubarrad, Kamil, 205, 1. 16—206, 1. 9 speaks of this verse 
as spurious, and says that such an annexion is not allowed even by 
poetical license. R. S.] 

68 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 31 

A I will dress Zeid in a splendid robe; Uaj.> juj (J**« Ul, or tJ*x* 

'^j ^**>j>, I will give Zeid a dirham ; ^SU t^c ^jU? c-*Jt Ja, or 

>*U j^-o-c (jlb, rfo^ £/#>>£ £/«'#& ' J.?rer intelligent ? \j*+e. joj ^ku> IjJb 

UAJai* tf^is (m«») informs Zeid that 'Amr is going away. 

Rem. a. If the objective complements of the nomen agentis of 
a doubly transitive verb be pronouns, both may be appended to it 

as suffixes ; e.g. aSLLx* he who gives it to you ; \ vt *< r v±x.<> he who 

B gives me it to eat. [Comp. Vol. i. § 187.] 

Rem. b. The second of the two complements of a nomen agentis, 
or that which is in the accusative, is very rarely inserted between 
the nomen agentis and the first complement, or that in the genitive ; 

e.g. -j-Ua-oJI aSJai *JU ^)I^wj whilst others than thou withhold 
their benefits from the needy ; aIwj d j^cj sJJvL* <UJ I £ypmmm3 *$J 

think not then that God will fail to keep His promise to His apostles. 
In the former of these examples, which is a half-verse of poetry, 
this construction has been followed in order to bring the word 

C »-La^l into the rhyme; in the latter, which is taken from the 

1 -■ J J 4^ - « J 

Kor'an, xiv. 48, the preferable reading is aJLwj oj^tj <J»X±,^. 

31. What has been said in § 29 regarding the use of the pre- 
position J after nomina verbi is equally applicable to nomina agentis. 

(a) J is used when the nomen agentis immediately precedes the object 

and is undefined ; as ^J v^^ju making time wonder ; a) £JW~« ^a^ 

D whilst site was avoiding him (in which example the undefined nomen 

agentis is the predicate of a aJI». aX*». or circumstantial clause 

[§ 183] ; JaJU UU* *N) UUju* ^o-cuiJI J^s 13] N)l jya^ *n) aJLoJIj 

and artifice is not allowable (in argument), except when the opponent is 
a disputatious sophist, and not a seeker after the truth. This is 
especially the case when the nomen agentis is in the adverbial 

accusative [§ 44, c] ; as^ju* UJ ISj^cuo cJjJI Uj '>^bj «»c? believe 
in what I have sent down, confirming that which is with you (the 

§32] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 69 

Scriptures which ye have already received) ; 1>-©U*-« 3-ojuoJI ^c Jp A 
V he halted before the city to besiege it ; UcIjj ^h^*M »>.b L5 *£»j 

J-SlxJU the sweetness of knowledge is a sufficient inducement and 
incentive to the intelligent, (b) J is also used when the nornen agentis 
immediately precedes the object, aud is defined by the article ; as 
dJJt ijjcaJ (j^JaiUJI those who keep the ordinances of God ; cl3j— ***" 
oLj^I djiyj ^ expounders of these verses ; «Ul»JI w*L-»*j)l ^_£$il B 
^Jajuii} S^JLaJI <Ul5t Jfj^J to perform one's devotions with reverence 
is the surest means of procuring one's daily bread ; »iJJ3 ^i j £ *^ j 15*^ 

ju^JU (.J^-fl-oJI s^-iJI «/k£ fo continued meditating about that thing 
which governs the body, (c) Finally, J is used whea a genitive is 

interposed between the nomen agentis and the object ; as ^J y»*lx« 
^ who gave it to me to eat. Q 

Rem. J must be used instead of the accusative, when the object 
of the nomen agentis is rhetorically transposed and placed before it ; 
as ^>Jjulft UJ \y\£s^ and t/iey ivorshipped us ; ^^Jail*. w~*JU U^ U 

we did not know what was hidden (in the future); ^jJaila*J aJ Lit 

verily we will take care of him ; j»j£* -iU tjjj j^ U lj^i\ a man, 
as long as thou dost not unjustly disparage him, treats thee with 

.. 1 1 a , r% i a ja j a 

respect. — So also with the finite verb, ^j*ju L»jjJU^U£» ,jt if ye J) 
can explain a dream. If the transposed object be a pronominal suffix, 
LI (Vol. i. §§ 188, 189) may be employed instead of J ; as juxj i)b! 

i * a* * Z * 

^> eJriLwJ ^JLjIj thee we worship and to thee we cry for help ; 

i a - j 5 a j , 

Ij^ou obi ^eylla. lie thinks tliey mean him (in rhyme for ^jyiaj). 
Compare £ 29, rem. b, and Vol. i. § 189, b. 

32. If the verb, from which a nomen patientis is derived, governs 
two or three accusatives in the active voice, its nomen patientis retains 
one or two of them, the other having passed into the nominative ; as 

70 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 33 

A U>>> <>J*£ (^jJa** Ojj, Zeid's servant (lit. i^/rf, fos servant [§ 120]) 

# ^, J JS J 8 

is ^/w» a dirham; Uj15 o^tl (j^ili-o j^j Zeid's father is thought to be 

standing up; UllsuU t^e d^>l ^.ju> juj Zeid's father is informed 
that 'Amr is going away. See §§ 24, 25. 

33. Verbal adjectives of those forms which differ in meaning 
from the nomina agentis only in being intensive, may govern, like the 
nomina agentis, either the accusative or the preposition J. Since, 

B however, their verbal force is very slight, the latter construction is by 
far the more usual, the former being chiefly poetic. This rule applies 

principally to the forms JUi and Jj*» (Vol. i. § 232, and rem. d, 

§ 233) ; more rarely to other forms, such as J*** (§ 232), J*s (id.), 

« - » , i 

and JUa* (§ 233, rem. b). Examples with the accusative : U.I 
lyj'iltt. lyJI L»U w>>*J' inured to (lit. « brother of) warfare, constantly 
wearing the garments suited for it ; LjUxJI aJI Lol^i. O^oJt .Jl IcjJLe 

C rushing upon death, wading in search of it through the ranks (L5U3JI 
in rhyme for w*)Ux)l) ; £l>o «->"* *$3 ^ot^ O-* C>^ ^ tJj-k 5 *^»~« 
l»*p < u i £ .> adorned with a ring, which is not an amulet, nor manu- 
factured by a moulder of a dirham with his hands; J-o^j Vi/^ 
JU^JI oUIa ou-Jt smiting with the edge of the sword the heads of 
men; «->«»* s!>*Jl 0'>**i Ji>£J' j^^ Mi verily she stirs up the patient 

D (or continent) to desire {excites desire in tliem, ?»->** in rhyme for 
fry**) ; ^^9 >** j<tv*>'* j*& ready to forgive their sin, not boastful 
(yi** in rhyme for }»*>*) ; *$"$**> ^w^i U-v*** Ul <jUUi tfwo maidens, 
{one) of them resembling a new moon (in beauty) ; «U.> **<-* dJJI ^>l 
ettj <j>* ^°^ «^* r5 ««* prayer of him who calls upon Him ; \jy*\ jj>»- 
a) S) on his guard against things that cannot injure {him) ; («J^I 

§ 34] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 71 

Lf&jz Os*j* j*y>\ & has come to me (to my hearing) that they are A 
defaming (lit. tearing in pieces) my character ; \^£>\y>. j^»~^ <*Jt he 
is a slaughterer of the fat ones among them (the she-camels) ; j^ 
jjjafJS O lj ^' O-i^v* haughty, looking with disdain on the limbs of the 
slaughtered camel. Examples with J : C-a*— JJ ,jyUbl u^i) 05*\-*~* 
hearers of falsehood, eaters of what is unlawful; pL* j^Js. j\k£s J£> 

every hardened infidel, a hinderer oj good ; w-l£U *^U*» a great B 

collector of books; J^xi j>\jSj\ J15 U»J JjyS ready to say what the 

noble say, and to do (it) ; etc. 

34. Verbal adjectives of the form J*»l, corresponding to our 
comparative and superlative (Vol. i. § 234), when derived from tran- 
sitive verbs, take their object in the genitive with J, very rarely in the 

accusative ; sls ^Sj^c ^Xjdi w~U?l >* he seeks after knowledge more than 

you do; a-Ju ,j-« aJU w-».I ,>«>*Jt the believer loves God more than C 

himself; gj*-^ vov**^'j ^*^ >**'»**l3 tH^I J^»-' ^ ?»o^ ignorant 
of men, and the most opposed of them to learning, and the most inimical 
of them to the lav: ; wJil j**^ > f**J V^*v* ^*y »»««£ be more apt to 
change it (viz. the letter j, into ^) without an intervening (letter) ; 
L»jl^iJI o^*-Jb U« w^-ol^ rt«c? ?«w<? ready than we to smite with 

swords the tops of helmets (l«JlyU1 in rhyme for Lr J\^ii\, accus.) ; 
Ul^j*. *-ut^ and a better protector of neighbours. J) 

Rem. a. Verbal adjectives of the form k J*il, derived from verbs 
signifying love or hatred, take the object with ^j when they are used 
in an active sense, as in the second and third of the above examples; 
but when they have a passive sense*, they take the subject with 

* As there is only one form for the comparative and superlative, 
it may be derived from verbal adjectives of either active or passive 

signification ; e.g. w-^-t from w^»«o loving, or from w-jw^. beloved, 
dear. [Comp. Vol. i. § 235.] 

72 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 35 

£ J t J Os 

A ^M, as d^*i ^yc aXS\ .Jl w*».l ^*j4JI the believer is more loved of 

God than any one else ; \^t> .J I ^ojl»\ 3 a he is more hateful to me 
than she. 

. . -"** 

Rem. b. Verbal adjectives of the form Jjiil, derived from in- 
transitive verbs [i.e. verbs which govern their object by means of 
a preposition, § 23, rem. a], require the same preposition after them 

as those verbs ; as ^Jlft 0>*' '**-* ^ 8 * s lighter, or easier, for me ; 

' ' J * Z ' d *> s J s i> £ s 0*0/0 * J * £ * *0 vi tO J * Ot * J 

•D j> (l > ) I he abstains more from worldly pleasures, and is quicker to do 

good, and keeps farther from (clearer of) crime, and is more eager 
after the praise (of God). They often, however, take their signifi- 
cation from one of the derived forms of the verb (generally the 

second or fourth) ; as S^lyiJU j>^\ jt^ls this confirms the evidence 

* *£ * * «i 6*O>0 J J J \* 

still more (from js\s\, IV. of j»\l to stand); (>JjJJ t ^i\ J>»»- £>&3 

3 * o£ 

^y~>\ but the obscurity of a man preserves his religion better (from 

* & * * ^ at * * s a a w *t „ j a^a j o* 

_ /0 JL» or ^oJUl, II. or IV. of ^*JL» to be safe); >*}L/}U j^l jMSiS JZ5 

^»*»'jj O-*^ v**'j ^ e slaying of unbelievers increases the power of 
Pd- Islam and strikes greater terror into those who are behind them ; 

* J * £* * a * j * £ * \ 

ly^AjJ ijA-ebj LjJLo^J }$*-\ «2JUi this improves its crop and makes 

J * * j * i w *> *o jO * 

its oil clearer ; ^XJLc ^-is^.1 ^JUfc.jJI j^e. another besides the anti- 
Christ fills one (accus.) with greater fear on your account (than he 

0* w it * J - a i s J 

does); aJI ,-i* ,J! 5»j*-t >* he has more need of me than I have 

* * * * * 

of him (from .J I -».U;&.I, VIII. of 9»l»>, to have need of). See Vol. 

D i- § 235. 

35. The accusative not unfrequently depends upon a verb which 
is understood. This happens : — 

(a) In phrases expressive of command (positive or negative), 
wish, reproach (worded interrogatively), praise, salutation, and the 
like, in which we must supply the verb from which the noun in the 

accusative is derived, and to which it serves as J>J«L*JI JyuLoJI (§ 26). 

For example : ^h y p2im^M lit ^Z*. w>l3>JI w>oi hj Jc ^ > CH-^' ^r*** M* 

§ 35] The Verb.—S. Govejmment of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 73 

e ->■* A j . 

%.\jS Ul^ U« Uli J^yi 'jjuij and when ye meet (in battle) those who A 

believe not, smite their necks (i.e. cut off their heads), till (at last), 
when ye have made much slaughter among them, bind fast the fetters ; 
and {thereafter) either show kindness (by letting them go free) or take 

ransom {for them), where w>^' Vj" - ^ - ^ij^ *r , ^P' '»-^' ^* = 

O * + *Qo j s - j 

U« \Jy*2, and i\ji = \\ji OJ-^*-' : *r~"*3' J«^ JUJI JhJjj *^J^ 
carry o/f camels, Zuraik, as foxes carry off (their prey), where 
JUJI ^ju = *$jo JUJ1 Jjul : Uj*. ^ lj--o ^ patient and do not give B 

i - * a - a - * * i a - e e i a - 

way to immoderate grief i.e. U^*. £>»~> ^ Im-«^-«' I *^v-° 9 en ^V- 
softly! i.e. *iH v -« Jv*' : ^ W*-» °w»y ^'^ fl^w ^^ ra*w / i.e. i)li-/ 
Uu aJUI ; ^U Lc, wrt?/ GW £wp M^/ i.e. Lc, aXM JU, ; ,*JJ L-*5 

z a - * a * * * - a *a& *•' - a - t » i t 

mayest thou stumble ! i.e. I— *5 c*... t > ; ^^ O^Jt j>j jju l^ifbl shall 

t a J } i o ii 

I be ungrateful after thou hast averted death from vie] i.e. \ja£s j*£s\\ • 

j ,a& *■ , * a ** ? //c 

>_.^ t ^Jl d)^IU jc5j Wv' dost thou delay (or loiter), seeing that grey C 

* * * -I 

hairs have already come upon thee? i.e. l-Jl>» ^I^UI : <*JJt ,jl 
£&? absolute glory of God ! or 4Jl» fcr -» £T/s absolute glory ! scil. 9~->t 
/ praise (which is an jW*-] or statement of fact), or s"~-», ^^ ■*.<>, 
etc., praise thou, etc. (which is an |UJ!, a command or wish) [often 
used as a phrase expressing wonder] ; 4JUI 3U-9 God forbid ! i.e. 

oJJI jlx* j^cl / se»jfc ffo refuge of God ; w>j W <i*-oU». &/re jw#rcy oh D 

z * * & + * & z* * * a £j - *-* ^ . - - 

7w^, my Lord! i.e. UU»- ^jJLc (^a^J or) O* - '-^*^' * £ ^' I ll ' axt 

intent upon Thy service, God! i.e. U iU JjUuLM il) J^l ; 

2 * + + -z s * z d * j * d Z 

icU»j l*^w hearing and obeying, or to foar ?5 ^0 obey, i.e. t**~» ^o-*t 
icl» ^^^ ; >6ji« ^-^ welcome ! i.e. >ejJL« j-^ c— oj>3 £&?m «;f 
arrived the best of arrivals ; [<U!j^»j L»». ?r/^ for^ and honour (will I 

*^» * > a I, Z. i , * l 

do what thou recpiirest) i.e. '-e'j^l JLe^slj L». .iL^.11. 

w. ii. 10 

74 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 35 

A Rem. a. In the cases of command, wish, and reproach, the Arab 

grammarians regard the verbal noun, not as a j^>J»© jju^uo (§ 26), 
but merely as JjuJI ^o Jju a substitute for the verb, or w*5L3 
jjjti) I w>Lu supplying the place of the verb ; so that, according to 

^ *S>& $ b * s * 0M9 JOJ * * Z b * 3 It ^ * * * 

them, Jl^JI *^ju is simply = JUJ t Jjul, ^JU Liw = 4JJI' «*)ULj, and 

Rem. 6. In such cases as «^JlJL». and ^JLJ the dual is regarded 
B as being used, not 4-u£JJ to express two occasions, but j-J&Jtj jjjXiXJ 
to indicate repetition and frequency. [Similar expressions are 
Jbjutw, -iXJUo. JUjla^o-. ^JU^tJub and ^Ua.l^Jb.] 

(&) In various other cases, in which the verb to be supplied is not 
that whence the noun in the accusative is derived, but may be easily 
guessed from the manner in which the noun is uttered and the circum- 
stances of the speaker. Such are :■ — 

(a) Phrases expressive of wish, salutation, and the like ; as 

C iW Uj«*. may thy nose be cut off! iXJ Cj perdition to thee! i.e. 

cjkaJI aJJI JUfJ! or ws^JI ; '^v-'J *^*b W»y«> scil. C-.JI or C-siiLo, 

thou art come to, or hast found, a roomy {convenient) place, and 

- * " * * 
friendly people, and a smooth (comfortable) place; <iAj L»y-©, i.e. 

^b w«*.j-> UUC* o~JI, £^om ar£ co?w<? to a place where there is plenty 
of room for thee (to a comfortable place) ; phrases equivalent to 
welcome! ^y—^j aJUl ^JU L»^ may God give thee plenty of room 
D and ease!* 

(ft) Phrases in which an individual is called upon to guard 
himself, or a part of his person, against some one or some tiling 

(jjJka*Jj|) ; or in which one or more individuals are urged to do 
something or attack some object (*h^1). In the former case, the 

* [On the phrase Kltj* L^-i* comp. § 44, c, rem. h, footnote.] 

§35] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 75 

speaker may mention (1) either the person who is to be on his guard, A 
or (2) the person or thing he is to guard against, repeating the word 
or not, at pleasure ; or lastly, (3) both together, connecting them by 

the conjunction 3. In the latter case, he mentions only the object to 
be attacked, repeating the word or not, as he pleases. Examples : 

«i)bt, or Jbt ^)UI, take care! i.e. jJ^».l jJM thee I warn; *iU».j thy 
foot! scil. ,3 take care of; ȣLjIj thy head! scil. *-J, fowo 7 aside; 

+ * i 0* * *i 000 * * i-Q* . 0*0 

jui^t, or jurf^l ju/^t, £^# /«/>» / M^ lion ! scil. jj^*.1 beware of, guard B 

against ; jij^JI jtjiaJ! ^ wall! the wall! ^y~d\ ic^' ^ child! 

the child! Jij/JaJl J>JpaJt ^ road! the road! scil. J**, clear; 

ju»^tj Jbl /wwaT ^ fowl / scil. ju^l jJ^-tj jJ^-l JL>1 ; SI^U^JIj i)L»t 

^guard thyself against enmity; oUj^.»Jlj ^)0l foep cfew 0/' innova- 

* • * * * Z * + £ 

tions or neiv-fangled ideas; tj^» ,J*aj <Jlj «^Wi> or, less correctly, 
IJ*^» J.«»j ,jl i)b1, beware of doing so and so (where 0'> followed by C 
the imperfect subjunctive, is put instead of the accusative cf a noun 

_ „ Co , 1 ,. ^0^ o£^ '2 

[§ 23, rem. c]) ; Jj«»J' IJv J*~--> Ob ^W] ^^ care /w£ to meddle 
with this sort of contention; -buUJIj ^LjIj thy head and the wall! 
scil. JsuUJt jJ^-'j jX-»Ij ^J ; \Ju~J\j JL»lj jU Mazin, thy head 

' O Z & ' »B* + * i.* is, i J ^0*» i J +0* 

and the sword! scil. ou-JI j«x»-1j »iLJj ,3 OJ^ W> JJ^' j»**J' 
the foe! the foe! scil. IjJui. sm^, attack; ,£)Ui.t ,iM».t, or ,i)b*.t 

O' - ' 0*s, _ 0*0 

<*JI jjL-A-^lj, fo always kind to your brother, scil. j>j&, cleave to; D 
<ilJl£« A^p #owr j!>fo<;e / scil. >»pl ; <^-Lb iljl£ rfo a*' ?/om ftfo «0&^ 

0-0 * J - - .. * * Or Z 1 

your camels, scil. Jj»*1, #o; j*. io-Ii *^ g^^i Jib everything but 

* j * * * ->' s* 0^ Z J 

reviling a freeborn man ! scil. j*- io-JLw s-Siy *^j s,^ »J^ Cot ; 

, , *i , *•* , 03 01 *' ' 

^«lc\ before thee! Je'j^ behind thee! scil. ^psul look; ^)jiJ& thy 

excuse! scil. j^*>, or va^l, produce; &Jj**- thy story! scil. OlA 
grj'w here, tell. 

76 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 35 

A Rem. a. If a noun in the accusative be uttered only once, the verb 

may be added ; but if the accusative be repeated, or if there be two 

accusatives connected by j, the verb is never expressed. — Vulgarly, 
jw*i)l ^)UI is used instead of jui^l^ «^L;I, and the like. 

Rem. b. It is only the second personal pronoun which is com- 
monly thus used. Examples of the first and third persons are rare ; 

e.g. j-uJIj ^Gl keep me from evil! scil. j»uJt *Jj jJJ\ ^js- ^-^a^J 

_-. vt * * sb £ Ota J j J * £ * * £ • • £ 

■d lk^') w-Jj^t ^=>J>-*-\ Jj^aj jjbj ^Q' preserve me from seeing any 
of you throw at (or shoot at) a hare ! scil. oJ>*. SjjfeUL© \j& ty**- j 

wM^Jjl bl^ «bU w^ew a man reaches sixty, let him avoid the young 
women (where observe the irregular use of Gl with a substantive). 

(y) Various phrases, of which the following may serve as examples. 
,*t* , , , * b* 
\j We may say to a hunter, jJLi\ ^Xt *S$£}\-the dogs at the antelopes! 

o o£ # # ^ * 6* 

scil. J— 'j' fe£ /oo«? ; or of a person who is aiming at a target, ^Us^l 
aJJIj £A<? target, by God ! scil. v-^^- - ^ w*7/ /«'£/ or if we hear people 
shouting at the first appearance of the new moon, <*-Ulj J*%^\ the new 
moon, by God! scil. tjj-«3->1 #A^y Aaw seg»; or to one who tells us a 

dream, j~> Uj tj*»- wAa£ & (700c? and cheering, scil. wolj ^o« hast 
seen or dreamed; or to a man who has done something mean, 

D *iL^j IjJb J.^1 «// #A& om£ 0/* stinginess 1 scil* C-Jjii Aas£ £&>« c?o«e ? 
[>»&•• •**-' ^5**^ <& <3*^*" V^-°'> scil. S}* preserve your mother from 
being divorced, for if any of you sings a song (it will assuredly happen). 
'Ag. ii. 52, 1. 8. D. G.] 

(8) Phrases in which a pronoun — generally of the first, rarely of 
the second person — is followed by the noun, to which it refers, in the 
accusative, without any verb intervening. The object of this construc- 

tion — named by the Arab grammarians ^Lol*.*})! the specification or 

particularisation (of the pronoun) — is to show that this accusative is 

§35] TlieVerb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Acctis. 77 

the noun which the pronoun represents and to which the statement A 
made refers. It is to be explained by an ellipsis of ^ys-\ I mean, or 

uo±.\ I specify. Examples : JJu v ^« ^a*— »' »->**' O-*^ we Arabs — 
lit. we, (I mean) the Arabs, — are the most liberal among the generous ; 

S«3j«*M ^s. Uj Z5[k n) »UJbusJt ^a^J we, the miserably poor, have not 
the ability to be generous as becomes men ; £->jy> *$ sWi" j-£l*« \y»^j 
we, the band of prophets, have no heirs {among men) ; ot. tX> L^j^j Uj B 

j - - -a e e * , » , 2 

w>L-aJI by us, Temlm, the mist is swept away ; jȣ jju-o ^j lit 

w *» j^i we, the Benu Minkar, are a people of high worth ; jj ^i\ 

j~x*o yA U« Sj\jj j»j\* ^i*> Ut seest thou not that Zurdra, the father of 

- > - * » - 

Ma'bed, is one of us, the Benu Ddrim? (ju** in rhyme for ju*«) ; 

* ' * - - .- t j 0>a j j Of 

^j^* *$ O*-- 8 ^' ^ff* 5 ' y e > (I mean) the believers, grieve not ye; 

* *0*O 3 2 , * *i -9 /^ ^ / / / j 

J-fioUl >»yj aJJI «ib in Thee — God — we hope for bounty ; <xXi\ dJ[s*.~~> C 

* . *to*° • o £ w J * * 

^*Ji»Jt (I assert) Thy absolute glory — the great God; [JaI CU (jloJLw 
~JI Salman is one of us, the kinsfolk of the Prophet].. 

Rem. a. This kind of ^Lal^.1 is only a species of the w«-ai 
j*+* j*3\ } ^oZZMj voJJI^ ^-J^3I L5^ or accusa tive of praise, blame, 

* ' 0*0 it J d ^ e-* 

reproach, and pity ; e.g. jl*^»JI aJU Jl^aJI praise belongs to God, 

J.V ^ 3C J. J & J*> 

f/t« praiseworthy; >lil^i\ Jjkl <*JU ^UL»JI kingdom belongs to God, J) 

\ t m ' * 0*0 *" d * j it* Q*&* 

{the Being) entitled to kingdom ; w-k&Jt iJU^. aJt^otj and his tcife, 

* * 0*0 * *0fO 50* si 

the (miserable) carrier of firewood ; w-...a»JI JU-U3I juj 1*^^' Zeid 

. ** r'sdrt * d die ids* 

came to me, the base ivicked toretch; u ~j[J\ ^.JC^Jt <u Oj»-e 
/ passed by him, the poor wretch; in aU of which examples the 
word j^-ict, / mean, may be supplied. 

-■ ' *' , , , 

Rem. 6. In such phrases as L£JI there it is for you ! iCju ^JLfc 

there's my hand for you ! LoJau i)Li A<?re ^Ae?i ts a poem for you ! 

78 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 36 

M ^JUk take the sword ! [to a woman] the accusative is used, 

* 0* * * 

because .iLJI and JiJlA (Vol. i. § 368, rem. d) are in point of sense 

o j * o 3 * o* * o 3 o j 

equivalent to Jui. take (Ia»x». or »iJLJI UJci., ^_£ju ,>»»). Similarly, 

£ 0^ * * * * * * * * * * ^ 3 3**3 

in the phrases ljuj '•^M^i '«KJ ^J^c, t juj «iijj^, wise iTeitZ / a&ji, 

3 3 3*3 f -• J c - t 

dj^&jj, toA;e Aim/ the accusative does not depend upon Jui.0 ^1 
(£/t«£ £/tow shouldst seize), to be supplied after the preposition, but 

a j o ^o 

upon an imperative, such as Jta» or j»ji\, implied in the preposition 
B itself. The literal meaning is : seize Zeid, who is in front of, beside 

* die * * Zi * 

or close by you. So also in the phrases Ju^SJI ^J^-h** come quickly 
to the terld (a sort of hash or stew), where the interjection is 

f 3 ^J/ /O/ 

equivalent to Uy— » « O-jl ; \joj jlo gently with Zeid! treat Zeid 

3 oi t * * * 6**0* 

gently ! = aX^c\ \ I juj <aXj, or, with the genitive, juj aXj let alone 

3 3 03 3 0* * * * * 3 

Zeid, say nothing of Zeid=<&j3\ or ac> ; and Ijuj J^Jjj or 

0- ^0^.» JO OP JO Of ^ .> 

juj J*-jjj ; ^ - ea£ Zeid gently / = 0}jj\ or dJL^t. In the case of aXj 

* * 3 ** 

and jujj with the accusative, the fetha is a *Uj or indeclinable 

* Of 

C ending (as in ^jj\ where?); whereas with the genitive, it is the 

0* o * 

termination of the construct accusative of aX> - ^)jj leaving, letting 

0*3 03 

alone, and J*£3j, the diminutive of ^jj, slow and gentle motion, 

* * 0* * * * 3 * * * 

gentleness. We may also say .*) j^J, jjju^j, softly ! gently ! i)j*-o 

Z Q * tOsssOsJ t * * s ) * J ^ * J 

Ijuj, ljuj ^J>i3j, gently with Zeid! ^j£>j^jj, ^yl&^jj, 

3 3*0*3 * 

i^y+&J>i3ji etc., gently with me ! the agent (jJ, etc.) being in the 

* * * * * - * 3 

genitive; [^ojljjdb \.9y* ^J^ijj drive thou the old camels gently, 
D Faikxi. 139]. 

a # a s 

36. The adverb oi £>*#%» certainly, and the conjunction o' 

Ma£, as likewise the particles compounded with these two words, 
such as v >£), or 0&3> but, yet, o^ «$ (/> «s though, and O^ because 
(see Vol. i. § 362, m, 00, and § 367, g), take a following substantive or 
pronoun (which, according to our idiom, ought to be in the nominative, 
as the subject of a nominal or verbal proposition) in the accusative, 

§ 36] The Verb.—S. Government of the Verb.— (a.) The Accus. 79 

because the force of the verb to see (\£\j) is embodied in these A 
particles*. This takes place both when the subject immediately 

follows j^jl, etc., and when it is separated from them by a portion of 

the predicate of jjt, etc., consisting of an adverb of time or place, or a 
preposition with its complement. In the former case the affirmative 

particle J may be prefixed to the predicate of Q\ ; in the latter, to its 
subject. If, however, the predicate be negative, or consist of a verb in 

the perfect, not preceded by j3, the particle J ought not to be B 
prefixed to it. Examples : jjj3 %^> J^» ^jJU aJUl <jt God is mighty 
over all (lit. see God, He is mighty over all) ; jb^jJ ^ 5jtjia*J1 ,jl 
youth does not last; ^*t*-j jj**3 <*JJ' Oi G°d is forgiving, merciful; 


^ykjlx) ^j+±A^\ y^yc Uu^i jj^j a«// a part of the believers were averse; 
Oyr**i j^?j^ \jP ^ov*i «^-»*) % thy life, they were bewildered in 
their intoxication ; {Jj^\ VI **JJI ** ,j' O^H*^^-^ do ^ feg£(/^ C 
^a£ ^;-e «/v? other gods with the (true) God? Jj^a ^JJI w^JJb ,jt 
^*5 a .£*""' *" ^ r «^'«« *&»* *» ft^fote ££/«' (£&?r<? /«Vs) « murdered 
w«»/ jLajN)! ^j^ S^jJ ^Jj ^y ,j| j n this there is an example (or 
learning) to those possessed of insight; U.*5)LaJ «i~-£Jt lyjt .iUJS ^j ^t 
tj. ^L .^U in putting thee to death, old man, there is a benefit to the 
Muslims; [w-^yk it ^Jks. j*\ ^ ^LHj jUi^l ^>* ;*3 *J ^yli D 
*+iy? / was w*YA «ww^ w^» o/" £fo !4w.s«r, M?Ai&£ ^ people were in 
great distress, when lo I had a light slumber] ; J^JU ^ UCU £>l ^^. 
**Ai ^ U^» ^-y ^ is narrated that one of the kings of India had 
a wife; SsUJ sz3h>\ ^1 ^J A^r J^J^ J15 ^j £,1 ^jl^jT ^yj 
and in the hadlt — or collection of traditions— (ice read) that a man 

* Compare en and ecce in Latin, as en eum, ecce eum or eccum. 

80 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 36 

A said, apostle of God ! my mother has died suddenly ; a*Jjt ^ O^ 9 

t* m ' 2 * j •> - o ' *&& * 

'j-Sj as i/" in his ears (were) hardness of hearing ; ^ji ^£=>$£=> \^j\£s 

as if it were a glittering star ; jy i^a^i\^ jy ^JjjJI ,j^) IJJbj a??e? 

(A# did) this because knowledge is a light and the ablution {before 

•prayer) is a light ; ^yyAiu *n) ^>*iiU«JI (J>^3 ^ ^ ie hypocrites do not 


Rem. a. These particles, along with those mentioned in rem.y^ 

n . ' ' ' ' * ' fi . • 

d are named by the grammarians IjJI^».Uj ^1 'inna and its sisters, 
or jJjiaJU Ay-^oJI ojj^fcJI the particles which resemble the verb in 

„ a a** * o * j j 

having a certain verbal meaning and force, 1^*5 JjwJI  <** ^5*V 
C^j^oJj wUb)Ju~>bj C*y~*j Oj^l ,J^ ^JjiaJI ^^ W>1*"« O*^ 
C-N^a-jJj. The word governed by them is called their J9 ~»\ or noun, 

<i ' * 

and the predicate is called their j+±. or predicate. 

a m 

C Rem. b. If the predicate is placed between jjl or ^jl and its 

noun, the logical accent lies upon the noun ; whereas, if the 

predicate stands after the noun, it receives the logical accent 

itself. For example, -iJL».lo £aa ,j1 means your friend is ivith 
you ; but Jlx-o »£JL».lo ^t your friend is with you. 

Rem. c. A second subject after q\, <jt, and i j£i, may be put 
in the nominative, if the common predicate has been already 
expressed; as \j£jj u-^W- '**ij 0'» or J**i3> verily Zeid is sitting, 

D «^ -#*&• (i-e. c^W- J-^J or ^J^> j*^3) > l^J W- ' J^j O' *£*•*» 
t^ujj, or j£*>3, I know that Zeid is sitting, and Bisr ; \j+£ ^>*J 
ijjti.* JiJlLu-6, or Jjli._j, but 'Amr is going away, and Halid; 

* [In the phrase juj i-J ^oA^**. jt j>^\ ^-». O-* Oi one of the best 
intentioned of the people, or the very best of them, is Zeid, we must not 
write 1 juj because (jl is to be supplied after ^1, 'Ayanl. xviii. 77. D. G.J 

§ 36] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 81 

jlyisl S^Ljj oUpCoJ!^ ^o^ 5 >^'j As'^JLsfcJI ,jt verily tlie cahfate A 
aw</ the office of prophet are in them (in their tribe), and noble deeds 
and chiefs of spotless character. 

* 3 Si £ S £ -» 5 i # 

Rem. d. "When U is appended to ,jl, ^jt, tj^> anc ^ C>^> xt 
hinders their regimen, or, to speak more correctly, their governing 
power does not extend beyond itself (5il£)l I© the hindering ma), 
and hence their noun is put in the nominative ; as ^i bjJI L>)t 

A< t ...,:Jl verily usury is in the delay (of payment) ; cA5jua)1 LjJt " 
sj/jUJU <A« obligatory alms are only for the poor (LoJt is usually 
restrictive, see § 185, and Vol. i. § 362, n) ; L^JI .Jl i**-yi U-"| 
jk^tj dJI^XyJI if w on?y revealed to me that your God is one God ; 

iUJ^oJ&i^l^^iCJt^ol l^JI I^Jlclj «?icf Amojo <A«< your wealth and 
your children are a temptation ; l*^isu«o Ooj*£)l Ja^ UoJl^ %s if 

flames of sulphur were its face ; l\^i ^JWvP' 0*4 «*^*U^ UJl& as if C 
his turban were a standard among men. The same influence is 
exercised by the jjUJI ^^o-o or 3.«aiJl j-^-o (Vol. i. § 367, </) ; 

as 4Jbt3 aJJI i«t «ut verily the handmaiden of God is departing; 

<ub" UjL> ^o 4Jt verily, lolwever comes to us, tee ivill go to him; 

aJUI Ul dJI verily I am God. 

Rem. <?. If the lightened (oUa*.*) forms ,jl, ,jt, ,J^, and 
^jXJ, be used, their government is likewise hindered, and their D 
noun is put in the nominative. — £j\ is in this case always followed 
by ^J [\ r ol. i. § 361, c, c], as JiXkA^J juj ^j\ verily Zeid is going 
away ; ,jt^.LJ ^jljuk ,jt verily these two are sorcerers ; ^J^ (jl^ 
Qjj ^"* « ^JjJ .*. e ^ UeJ rt?if/ verily all, gathered together (SjuJ-e L* 

** i 

ju^UJJ), sliall be brought before Us. — As. to ^t, the grammarians 
assume an ellipse of the ^jtiJI ^*-e-o, as J>^K : -g juj ^jl C— o-^t 
I know that Zeid is going away, i.e. a3I or <ul : ^JULfc ^jl \y^Xe. j3 
w. II. 11 

82 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 36 

y ui J 

A ^JjCUjj L<AaH l>* J^ they k now that every one who is barefooted 

it b * * 

and shod, will die (alike). We find .also such examples as JJJI ^Ji 
jJ3\ji ,,«£)L> g U.jJI ^e^j ,,3 if thou hadst asked me to part from 

thee in the day of affluence, for ^Xj\ ; £-iy> ^-~*$ T"**-) ^W (they 
know) that thou art autumnal showers and a plenteous rain, for 
JUU; and even^JUct ^L>j ^o^^i^J UJ y£> oi_S aw « verify *«?/ 
Lord will repay every one (according to) their works (oj^jja La 

o * a £j j vt •> o i- * o t ' 

B J-JxiJJ), where others read *$£=> (jlj. — Examples of ^J£s : C^^=> 

2 j j * - i ' 

^jlia. oLjju as if its breasts were two round ivory caskets; O^ 

^oJLJI Jijlj ,J| ^.laaj *--is ^e a gazelle which stretches (her head) to 

the leafy selem-lree ; where others read a*j ju <J^, and i*J3 (J», 

o £ *b s o £ * 

or (regarding ,jt as redundant) A**ii O^ ^ n the genitive. — 

1 J * ' ' *0*9 * J Z> *o I 

Examples of s j£i : ,j»~« J*iLo ^5 jt>^J\ ^»JUsJI ,j£J but the 
nrrong -doers are this day in manifest error ; j^j&S >£ O ^ 7 * " '1P^ O^ 

d J d 

C vov*** ^ </iose o/* them viho are firmly rooted in knowledge. 

Rem. /. The words C~J, utinam, would that — / and ^s. or 
JjJ, perhaps, are construed in the same way as jjl, etc.; as 
O- i.Vi *.g .M *x*-> lV^J ^^* ^^ ^ that there were behveen thee ana 
me the distance of east from west ! ^jjhyUt a1Sj£- l~-J C*J *$\ would 
<Aa< <//e midwives had drowned Kais ! w~>ji isLJI ^)jJ ^j>j Uj 
and what lets thee know (whether) perchance the hour (of the resur- 
D rection) is near ? If U be added (see rem. d), the government of 
J»c or JjO is hindered, as ^Jl». OJI l<A«3 perchance thou unit 
behave with calmness (or moderation) ; but the noun of l^lJ may be 

x ,0, ,t ' ' m 

put either in the nominative or in the accusative, as LoJiJ ^)l CJ15 
U vbCsLjI IJJb s/te s«iJ, would that these doves were ours ! 

CzAslj JLjli Hoi U C-sJ Ij would thai our mother took her 
departure/ — These words seom, as has been already remarked in 

§ 37] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— {a) The Accus. 83 

Vol. i. § 364, rem. b, to be verbs ; and if so, they govern the A 
accusative by their own force and not by that of an omitted or 

implied verb*. JjJ, however, sometimes [especially in the dialect 

of 'Okeil] takes a genitive ; as w«J/S «£U*e jl^JLoJI ^*>\ J*) perhaps 

o * *■ o * * o j f a * *t & & *s 
'Abu 'l-Jligwar may be near thee ; %i^-i UJLc ^XLai aJUI Jlx) 

perhaps God may liave given you some superiority over us. 

£ 'v* 
Rem. g. With the suffixes of the 1st person we say ■<-»], Uil, 

w* £ ££££■* £ \ *§ ** 

or i-Jt, Ul, and so with ^1, ^jl£» and £yQ ; but |i«) is more 

usual than i<-Jji), whilst conversely .jiJ is very rare. The corre- B 

sponding Hebrew particle to ^j\, viz. niJH) also governs the 

accusative, as appears from the forms *J3H an d *J3i"l> e cce rue. 
Rem. A. Some of the Arabs put the predicate of these words, 

* £ * * * : - : i. £ £ * 

as well as their noun, in the accusative ; e.g. \iyZJ I3t <uol i^^ 
ti^a>^ LoJL5 ^1 iolS /its ears, when he looks out eagerly, are like a 
quill or a pointed reed-pen; IjlwI CwIja. ^j\ verily our guards are 
lions; \xm.\jj ,**^dl j»\j\ C~J Lj would that the days of youth C 

£ *s* * 

could return ! jJbl i***^ W would that I were tliou ! 

37. If the conjunction j connects two nouns in such a way that 
the second is subordinate to, and not coordinate with, the first, it 

governs the second in the accusative ; as J^lsJbj juj ,*£■* Zeid 
went ahng the road; J-jJIj ^--jI cJj Lo I did not cease going along 
the Nile ; jr=>£\£sjZ>$ jr=>y>\ \ $ a-*c* \ s decide then upon your affair with D 
your companions; [i»£»Jtj 2UJI ^jyi->\ water and wood are equal]; 
^Jblj CoUc U what hast thou done, together with thy father! 

* [wsJ seems to be changed from woj = o»jIj Hence it can be 
construed with two objective complements in the accusative (like the 

JJW 1 «• tit S r itr , if 

wj^XiJI JUst) e.g. l*5U> ljuj C~J might Zeid rise! prop, utinam 
videas Zeidum surgentem.] 

84 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 37 

A aU^ O^w I went together with him*; 'j^jj ^Jtw U, or tjuj.5 <£JJ U, 
what hast thou to do with Zeidl *x»»J J^»- ^jJjJIj *£U U w/*a£ /*«s£ 
£Aow to do with loitering about Negdl (»iUa3 or <±LJl£>) «iL-~»- 

Q - £ - - - J © - , 

^o^j^ '**<jj <* dirham is enough for thee together with Zeid; <iU-~».j 
^x^-o v-iw 2)U»-tfJtj a sword of good steel is enough for thee with 

- » 

(when thou meetest) ad-Dahhdk ; ;»-a»Jlj <^Xj^ do as thou pleasest 
(§ 35, b, /?) about the pilgrimage (=^o*J! *^ dJJli <iUAc) ; <su«ajj \%j*>\ 

0---J0- ^ _ 

B let a man alone (= <x«Ju a.* *£,>). This j is called by the grammarians, 

- m Ci - 0x> J - 

like the j that governs the subjunctive (§ 15, e), S***JI jlj oi 
ji^aJI jlj ^e tow of simultaneousness, and *u».La*JI jlj the ivaw 
of association or concomitance t. 

[Rem. a. The ^ is called jajjltt jlj iAe w«w o/ adherence, if the 

J----- 0- li J 

two nouns belong necessarily together, as <sUoJ$ ?,w ,J^ eac/i 

J Z s * - w J 

C ^/mty has its i>rice ; a*A>j ^L-Jl jj^s every man has his own care.] 

J - - J J -0- 

Rem. b. This accusative is termed a**© J[$juLoJI or £/ie object in 
connection with which something is done. It occurs, though but 
rarely, in Hebrew, as Esther, ch. iv. 16, p &!)XN TTlW) ^X"D3 
/ too, with my maidens, will fast so. 

* [From this o\j\^ the modern preposition b^ or L>^ toi^/i has been 

formed (comp. Lane, p. 135 c). Spitta, Grammatik, § 83, p. 166, 
D adduces this as an evident proof against Sprenger, who considered the 

whole theory of the aIa^JI jtj as false (Alte Geogr. p. 280). D. G.] 

f Quite correctly too, for the subjunctive of the verb corresponds 
both in signification and in form to the accusative of the noun. The 
one shows that a person or thing depends upon an act, the other that 
one act depends upon, or is affected or governed by, another act. [It 

is perhaps superfluous to remark that the use of j with the accusative 

is not limited by the conditions given for the use of j with the 

§ 38] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 85 

38. The person or thing called, ^UoJt, is generally preceded by A 
one or other of the 5 tjuJI oj^»., or SljUcJI ^J^j*., interjections. The 

principal of these are: 1,  *, b, U1, La, ^$1, \^\ ; LjI (fern. V*jI), 

to which b may also be prefixed ; and 1j. 

(«) Of the first seven of these particles the most common are 

t, b, and bt. They require after them a noun not defined by the 
article, which is put sometimes in the nominative, sometimes in the 

(a) The nominative — in the singular always without the tenwiu — B 
is used when the particular person or thing called is directly addressed 
by the speaker, and no explanatory term of any description is appended 

to it ; as j^s»^c b Muhammad (nom. jcoA~e) ; jb^ct 'Am mar 
(nom. jU>c) ; jj+c b 'Amr (nom. jj+e-, Vol. i. § 8, rem. b); i^JSo b 
Talha; aj>~- b Sibaweih ; ip iub b Taabbata Sarran ; 
i^Lli b Fatima; >L*Zj b Zeineb ; ,^£13, b Rates; ^JJo b 
w«/i o/ ^ fr-^e o/ Dabba (£»-©) ; J»».j b ffo« tw«« ; jlw b 

sir; &+£■ b eye; ^U-»t U *bjU- b what is thy name, girl? C 
O^t-j W &> #»« *wo men; Jb*g b /fo #om men; Ox** b. ^ prophets; 

1 Jub b , o JUb b , s *N)yb b , 3/0M tffortf / 

(/3) The accusative is used : (1) when the person or thing called 
is indefinite! and not directly addressed by the speaker; as when a 

blind man says {JJ^i «>»■ SLL> ^ some man, take my hand, or 
iS^i {£***■ *oW- b #>/ra<? woman, take my hand; or a preacher, D 

J J JO + J +0*0* 5 + * 

aJJ*j 0>*Jlj "5bU b £/fo« */W «>•£ heedless, whilst Death is seeking 
thee; or a poet, d-J* Sjbj ^^ -^U-lj U traveller that wishest to 

* [I is used in calling one who is near, T in calling to one who is 

t [Noldeke writes in a note on Delectus, p. 67, 1. 15: "Ego quidem 
in talibus nomen indefinitum esse nego."] 

86 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 38 

A visit Taiha (el-Medina) ; oV^ O- i^Utju bU*s £*«oj* b»l L£>tj bt 
L3*}U ^) jjt rw&r, {/* £Aow fallest in with (tliem), tell my comrades of 

Negrdn that there is no meeting (for us). (2) When it is directly 
addressed by the speaker, but has an explanatory term appended to it, 
namely, either a genitive, or an objective complement, or a preposition 

with its complement, or a determinative or limiting term ; as *x*c b 

<i-Ul 'Abdu-'llah; ^A^.^1 j>-*w b lord of t/ie wild beasts; 

Jt> ^..^rwH bl b father of the little fortress (an epithet of the fox); 
^+a*\*e b ye two companions of mine; i^£)b ^jjJiyo ^> ye two 
kindlers of my fire; J*5l/~'t ^> b children of Israel; LjI^».II 
brethren of ours ; %<&• bJll> b thou that art ascending a hill; 
j*». y}J=s ^laa^ b thou that art gtjted with every good thing; 
iLxlb \sLsj b thou that art kind towards men; j>£j »>* Ij**. b 

C thou that art better than Zeid; *v»-j b~. ». b tftou that art 

33*3 130'' 

Iiandsome in face; a^^e. b^j-su> b thou whose slave has been 

The simple %\j>j, when the accusative is used, is merely an 

exclamation, addressed to no one in particular ; but when the noini- 

native is used, it is a real address, wAJ***. to a definite individual. 

In the compound jjlju no such distinction is made, and even in a real 

address the accusative is used, as being the case that depends on a 
D verb, and to which, therefore, other nominal and verbal dependencies 
can be more readily attached ; in contradistinction to the nominative, 
which is independent and closes the construction. The reason of the 
omission of the tenwin in the nominative singular seems to lie in the 
energy with which the word is uttered, whereby its termination is 
shortened, as in the imperative and jussive of the verb (see also 
rem. b). 

Hem. a. When no interjection is expressed, the same rules 
apply as above; e.g. oW^ ° 'J (ban; J«j*)\ I* U Lord of the 

§ 38] The Verb.— 2. Government of the Verb.— (a.) The Accits. 87 

Throne; JLJL>. »iy <?oo friends: U-JLil w>L».l beloved of our A 

souls! LwA.t friends of ours I tjjk ^>c c^j^' "—*-'>? Joseph, turn 
away from this {leave it alone, take no further notice of it) ; 
JwJ r**~e\ become morning, night ; ^y^j.,0 j^i\ ransom thyself, 

throttled one ; w~~». ^£5* J*y* i^j^^ b^Icju*. may your noses be 
cut off, ye tivo poets who belang to an honourable people ! With 
pronouns this omission is very rare ; as * l^fijl S> tliou there, refrain 

- ^ 3 ' ' ' * ' »' - 1 y !> 

(from folly), for 13 b; ja\j&$ ic^J IJ>> ^XXl^i through the like of B 
£A«e, thon (man) there, (comes) heartache and torment (or ruin) ; 

. • 1 - 1 ai * 1 j a * ~s I \ a joi S J 

Ju\ jJ^JJju t^)«J8^ol^j thereafter ye, ye men there, tvere slaying 

3 j * ay a * a* 3 3 . 

your own selves; w^j O-* ^»*v' ^y+i *$ O-* ® Thou that diest 
not, have mercy upon him who is dying. 

Rem. b. The suffix of the first person singular, ^_, is generally 
shortened in the vocative into kesra, _ (see above, at the end of 
the section); as w>j b my lord; ,-jjt w>j my Lord, show me; Q 
ij— «-» b my soxd ; ^.jLfi b, or ,>Lc b, ?»?/ servants; s *5JLfc.l //*y 
friends ! .-Uj b my efear son. This remark does not, of course, 
apply to words ending in ^_ or _, from radicals tert. _j et i< ; as 
^LJ b, from ^13 « youth, ,*-il3 b, from ^15 a judge. Other 
forms are admissible, besides ^_ and _; as, from j^c a slave, 

' •' ' -a* * ,a* , ,o- , a, a, , 

^J*£ b, Ijl»c b or (^juc b, juc b. an d in pause <ojuc b, D 

a *'a, * ii , o 

oljufi b (compare no. c, rem. d). E.g. ja\ ^1 so?i of my mother, 
Kor'an vii. 149, ^& ^b son of my uncle, ^j U my dear son, 

for ^^1, ^c, ^;j ; ^c Jj^^ Wj W my ZotyZ, forgive me ; wUj U 

<" . --* -- j * * z* * 

L5*^*'-5 ^5"*^ ^ ^ ^ daughter of my uncle, do not scold, but go 

& * *+ at * a 3 » * a i - - 

<o s/ee/?/ Jai j^cl w-»^> Ja objjs b my uncle, wast thou ever blind 
0/ one eye ? The words w>l father and ^ol mother admit of the 

-£ ^ ' Si . 

peculiar forms c-j! b and c— el b (also pronounced with fetha. 

88 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 38 

A wot, 0**t), which become in pause <ul b and a*ol b. We likewise 
meet with «UjI b and »L*I b. 

Rem. c. On the principle alluded to at the end of the section, 
as well as in rem. b, several classes of substantives admit of being 
shortened in the vocative by the rejection of one or more of their 
final letters. This abbreviation is called by the grammarians 

i IS/ 

js*±-j3\ the softening of the voice (compare Vol. i. § 283). Namely : 

(1) All substantives, whether proper or common, masculine or 

• + b * * j * $ s * * +i J * * i 

B feminine, that end in <L_; as w>jj b for Aj^i b, ^jU*.l for AjjUa.1, 

/ IJ / t * \ 1 * * sli ) s fii S O 1 ( 

i^5*-e b for aj^slc b (names of men);^^^©!! for i^-woll, i**--! for 

ib-o-J, .-o b for «u* b (names of women) ; JiUI, for SJjUt, thou 

(woman) that reproachest (me); Jfb ^J> f° r **^ M.> ^ she-camel; 
 s^ol Iw b (or i****)\) keep to the house, sheep! for Slw b. 

(2) Simple proper names, not ending in £_, that contain at least 

• j ' * *i j *i *i J si 

C four letters; as jba for ^U b, jc\c-\ for j-oUl, JUI for «iUUl, 

bw b for >bw b (name of a woman). If the word consists of more 
than four letters, and the penult is servile and quiescent, it 

/(J - ^ ^ - J » .- * 

disappears along with the last letter, as^Ic b, jy-o b, ,jaU b, 

o , ,s* * },oi i , o .- j > » , j a j^o^ 

*£JL~« b, Qtf*» b, for ^>b>ic, OlSLJ"*' J j -* 3 ^ 6 ; L>£^"*****> >**^ 5 but 
in other cases it must be retained, as U a..« b, ,,=»►-<> b, ^5 b, 
^Cji b, ^Jj^ b, for jUsto-*, jk*a^o, j>^5, Oo^) an d c£*>*> though 
D some admit the forms pjS b and ,jjX b. Words not ending in *L_ 
may also be inflected without regard to the portion di'opped ; as 
jb*. b, uuut. b, ^<J b, instead of jb*., Oi*»., and ^j (for «£>jb>., 

Jui»., and ij-oj) ; and the same thing is admissible when the 

termination 5_ is not of the fern, gender, as^JL-^o b, instead of 

^JL^*, for «L»JL^o (a man's name). Proper names compounded with 

a genitive (as u »^it Jut), or forming a complete proposition (as 

J J * ss * vJ * + Sit* 

a .^, ** JLj, tji iuU) do not admit of any abbreviation, though we 
occasionally find such examples as JsuU b, dropping \jl»\ but if 

§ 38] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 89 

> - « 5 x i 

they belong to the class called ,«*fc>-» w-%^« (Vol. i. § 264), they are A 

a x x x 

shortened by the rejection of the second word, as ^juuo b, w-*~> b, 

x x ax a, x 

for o^3 i^jjl*, duyxr*. (3) To these may be added some rarer 
cases, as »-L© b companion, for w*^b©, as ^Jp ^ ^£ *,lo 

Oj^JI j^»'i friend, gird tip thy dress, and cease not to be mindful 

x x j xx x x x a a e 

of death ; and lj^, for jjtj^£», in the proverb jy» Jlj-k' crouch 

down quietly, bustard (or partridge) ; as well as the words 

JJ b (for o^i) and J^jb b = J*L ; b. [Comp. Vol. i. § 353* 2.] B 
These last are inflected as follows : — 




' J J * 

O^i ^ 

J* k 


O^i b 

O^ii b 

(Ji, 5Vi) iii b 


Or* W 

U^* W 

J X X 


x Jx x 

obyjk b) 

a x x ^ 

(4*jL* b) 

Sxx X 0XX X 

(»L* b, A-& b) 

Obb b 

^Ui* b 

JOx X Jxx X 

CUA b, 4^A b 


a j ^ x x 

(»yU b) 

xxx x 

^-- i b) 

(a£* b) 

Rem. d. "We have said above that the noun which immediately 
follows these interjections does not admit the article. One excep- 

jA x xix, X 

tion is the name of God, dJUI. from which we may say aJUt b or, 

j m £ x 

irregularly retaining the heraza, <*JUt b*. Another is produced by 

x I 

the insertion of the pronoun 13 or tjjb between the interjection and 
the vocative; as J*yJI l-Wk b, JU»pl ^yb b, instead of J**.j b, J) 

* The more usual form, however, is ^yJUl, without any interjection 

i J A xJ x 

prefixed, though we find occasionally in verse ^o^JJt b. The origin of 
the termination v0 _ is uncertain. [This^o^JUl is used as a corroborative 
interjection in the expressions *^l ^ti\ unless indeed or unless possibly 

a x x Sjm* 

(§ 186, a, rem. d), and ^ai ^yJ^' y^ 5 indeed or yea verily (Lane, 
p. 83, c).] 

w. ii. 12 

90 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 38 

/J * / >!>*> 

A JW-j V. , Aa^-jw yJ^U-.> Ua^^oM \$ \j thou there, who terrifiest us 

# it J / ft O/O ,"'_..- 

wiiA iAe murder of thy chief. But cases like Sjui ju^l b (mow 
who art like) the lion in strength; .yAS ^■©•P ^^1 b. «iXX».l ^>-o 


because of thee (for «£U».t &-«), thou who hast enslaved my heart ; 

and Iji jjlJJUl jjU*}l*)t U3 and ye two slaves, who have fled ; 
are very rare. 

Rem. e. If a vocative, expressed by the nominative, be simply 

j / /O/ 

repeated, or another word be substituted for it (JjkJI, see § 139, 
B rem. b, 2), or it be connected with another vocative by a conjunction 

/S/o j o / 

(JUuM oUa.&, see § 139, rem. b, 3), the ordinary rules are followed; 

JO/ Jt/ / _ m J x J J / / 

as juj juj b (9 ^ei'oJ, Zeid; juj »J*».; b tfAow maw tfAere — Zeid ; 

JO// JO// JO// JJ// 

jy-o*j juj b Zeid and l Amr ; J^jj 0*rj b thou man and 

Jt/ OP )»/ / il /O /0/ JO- / 

Zeid; jj-o^ jt juj b Zeid or 'Amr; but <*JUI juc juj b ^eic? — 

■IO /!// Jt/ / 

(/ mean) l Abdu 'lldh; <JJI jujjj juj b Zeia 7 and l Abdu 'lldh. 

j j o /•«/ 
If, however, the connected word ((3j.»>*.»H) has the article, both the 

i / 0/0/ j o / / 

Q nominative and accusative are admissible; as »i>jUJtj ^j-o-t b, or 

/ / 0/0/ J / J 0/0/ J 0/ / / / JO/O/ 

^jjlaJlj, '.4mr awe? U-Hdrit ; j»*^Jti\^ juj b, or>^*Mj> Zeid 

J Ob5 /O/ J// m|£ J / / / OS /O/ 

awcZ the slave ; j+Sa)\$ ajcc .«jjI tjb». b, or ^kJlj, mountains, 

repeat ye (the praises of God) with him, and ye birds. — Should a 
vocative be repeated in such a way that the repetition is necessarily 
put in the accusative by a following genitive, then the accusative 
may be used in the first instance as well as the nominative. For 

o£ 0*o /t/ Jt / / / / / 

example, ^j^t jutw jul-» b, or jjut b, Sa'd, Sa'd of (the tribe 

HI//0/JO// / 0/ / 

D of) el-Aus ; ^J^vP^^ffP ^i, or jhz* ^i, Teim, Teim of (the tribe 

JW /> / / O/O/O / / J / / 

of) f Adi; JjJJt w/iboJuJI juj ju>j b Zeid, Zeid of the high-bred 

camels of slender make. The grammarians explain the accusative 

by saying either that the second accusative is ^^.^ arbitrarily 
inserted, or that the genitive has been dropped in the first instance. 

o £ O/o / o / / 

In the one case the original construction is ys»j*$\ J*** b; in the 

o i o/o / o / o £ O/o / o / / 

other, ^y^l J*-* cr»jj^' J^**" W- 

§38] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 91 

Rem. f. If a vocative, expressed by the nominative, be con- A 
nected with another substantive by a j ^r* yi\ oUa£ (see § 139, 

,,S-o 3 , 

rem. a) or a ,jLJt uike (see § 139, rem. b, 3), the appositive may 

j , , 
be put either in the nominative or the accusative ; as ^**J b 

,1,6% , * e £ # x & 2* * 3 * * * 

j^jj'or ', or ^« it- ', (£W6e o/") Temim, all of you ; j^«-J' .>{■>. o b, 
or j«*J1, Muhammad the propliet ; juj (J"»-j b, or '»*ij» ^^* 

54^ *■ I x S#- *» 3,3, * • 

wan 2/tere, ^id; juj IjJk b, or tjuj, id.; jJL> jo*$£ b, or tj-£o, 

f , f » , , £ i , Oi , 

slave, Bisr ; [LsU*. UJl*. Ji^^.1 i*i\j£-\ b tliou foolish, churlish, B 
rough boor, Tab. ii. 1312, 1. 2 s#?.]; un le ss it has a genitive after it, 

3 £ 3 3 , , 

when it must be in the accusative; as ^q£)L£p ^p^eJ b (^riie q/") 
T'ez/M/zi, o/£ of you ; aJJI ^J^ ^-Jby-il b Abraham, tlie friend of 

, --«* * ^«/ - ~*S, ,i 3 0, t 

God; ^L^aJt Ii juj b ^eic?, skilled in wiles ; t^j^ b*1 ju>jl 

£ , 0>a 3 0, , 

Zeid, brother of Warka ; i*£»t ^i\ juj b Zeid, my brotrter's 

, *1, , ,0^ 3 , 

son; L+£ 2jj\ jUA b Hind, our uncle's daughter. — If the word 


£y>\ stands between the names of son and father, it loses its C 

prosthetic t (Vol. i. § 21, b), and the name of the person addressed 
may be put either in the nominative or the accusative [though the 

, , 3 , , , 0, , 

latter is generally preferred]; as _<»>»fr ,J-» Juj b, or juj b, Zeid, 

, , ,Zt 3 * 3 , * 3 

son of ( Amr ; juAJ ^j 5^6 j^ bj^ Murra, Hurra, Murra son of 

, 0, , 3*3 , , ,0-e 0, , 

Tetid ; ^^LJ ^jj j^s- b j^.^ M jc^-jj and tlwu buUdest up glory, 

, , , 0, it to 3 , , , 0* , 

'Omar son of Leila ; [^o^e\s- ^jj ^^3 aJUI jo%* ^LJLc God's peace 

— . 3 0, 

upon thee, Kais ibn l Asim, Hamdsa 367 with the var. j^"***]* D 

6 ,0 , , ,'- t o 3 , 

The same construction holds with ajj\ ; as ^o^U; <LjI juA b, or 

, , # _ 

jUA b, Hind, daughter of'Asim. 

Rem. g. An adjective in connection with a vocative, expressed 
by the nominative, may likewise be put either in the nominative 

3 ,0*> 3 0*, , ,0-0 

or the accusative ; as JilxJI juj b, or JibJI, Zeid the intelligent ; 

JiUJ) IJjk b, or JiUOl, thou there, the intelligent : ^jj£)\ jjij b 

iOM3 , ,0* _ ,,,3030,,, 

*r**9'> ox j9tj&\. Zeid, wliose father is noble; i*bo ^jj n*^ 1*9 

92 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 38 

J J M/ 

A Ijl^aJt j^c b y*ku ,s>a.b ^jocw ^yi\^ not Ka'b 'ibn Mama nor 
'Ibn Su'dd was more bountiful than thou, 'Omar the bountiful ; 
\\$$^\ JU»l9 b thou unrighteous man, the apostate, *E1-Mubarrad, 
p. 573, 1. 1]. 

Rem. h. The interjection b is sometimes prefixed to an impera- 
tive, as tjjia.,..»l b *$\ 0, prostrate yourselves ; jb b iy«J-»l b ^1 
j^bJI ^jke ,-« be thou safe, Jiouse of Maiya, despite (all) wear 

, B , , ,* , / / t</ /! 

B and tear, or during wear and tear ; J la. .;,..» Sjlc ^3 ,Jla»*«ob *})l 

bring me a morning-draught before the attack on Siugdl ; jJla. bt 

^AJb come forth to war, Abu Halid ; to the optative C~J (see § 36, 

rem. f), as jjj>*w C*J b would that I knew; C «* & lc***J b 

^^jv© would that I had been ivith them; and to a nominal or 

' OfJ / ill < J/J/ . 

verbal proposition, as jujj ^^J b 0, vwe to Zeid ; aJIM iu*J b 

j la. ^o ^) I**-* ,-Ae y^ote.JLaJI^ ^0-j.X^ ^oI^S'nJIj 0, i/ie curse of God 
C awe? of all the peoples and of the just be upon Sim'dn as a neighbour ; 

^jUjaJI j-ja- ,J.$ b 0, little is the good of the women. In these cases 
some grammarians assume an ellipse of the jC>U« or person called, 
as jujJ ^^J j>$* b , whilst others regard b merely as a <w-0' u»^a» 
or particle used to excite attention*. 

(6) lyj' an d l-rd' b (or Ljjb) require after them a noun, singular, 
dual or plural, defined by the article, and in the nominative case ; as 

} H m> ,2ii 1 sbio ,2ii - jte,0*> ,&& lib, a* ,i!ti 

D ^Ul lyj! people; £X*)\ l^jl b king; S\j^i\ L^orSf^Jt l^jt, 
woman; ^^a-UI lyi;! b soul ; j*Jt)\ lyijt caravan ; v>i^' ^) ^ 

* [The ellipse of the ^jU* is evident in such phrases as .«jb b 
ij^l^ £//,om, whom I would ransom with my father and my mother ; 

0, - , , , , , , J , , JO** J il - 

^r^Ju >ik~)jj b ibAc ^j\jCU>.»M <*JJI / pray God to help me against thee, 

thou whom I tvould ransom with my life, 'Agdui xviii. 185, lines 22, 
23. D. G.] 

§38] The Verb.— -3. Government of the Verb.— {&) The Accus. 93 

!yUT #<? artfo believe; ^j^yS\ '*£ [for I^jI] believers. The demon- A 
strati ve 1i is also admissible; as J-3» lj £l C thou there, come forward! 
dJjS j^yt *».Ul IJljjI *$\ O thou there, whose soul passion (or grief) 

is killing; jl^jT ^IjCLiT t* L^t ^1 £&>« ftere, >/'fo Darkest at 

(revilest) the Benu 's-Sid. 

Rem. Ljt is occasionally used u ^Lflu».'}U, /or specification (see 
§ 35, 6, 8), by a speaker to call attention to himself or himself and B 
his companions ; as J*-jJI ^->' IJ^> J**^ ^' Ut rt-s/o/- ?»€ / will do 
so and so, man (meaning himself): AjLoxJI \^J\ U jkt\ ^\)\ 
God, forgive us, band (me and my companions) ; IjJJl Uila^ > 
a5^L3I and so we remained behind, three (we three). In this case 

.it . . 

lyjl must be preceded by a clause containing the pronoun to whfon 
it refers, and b is never prefixed to it. 

(c) t^, which is used to express sorrow or pain, and is hence C 
called SjjuJI o>»., ^ particle of lamentation, follows the same rules 
as L| ; e.g. >x»a~» lj a&ts Muhammad I <*JJ! jl*£ lj «/</x 'Abdu- llah ! 
Generally, however, the termination \L , in pause «t.l , is added, which 
usually effaces the final vowels ; as tjuj t^. or *tjuj l_j. (das Z^id! 
b^£» ^J>*« '> dUUkfrJt jut tj. If a genitive follows, this termina- 
tion is annexed to it, and not to the governing word ; as j~»t \$ 

» s i J t* % ... . . . * * 

«Uu*j*JI alas for the commander of the faithful ! Similarly with (j->l D 

son, *|/*JjJ' \J-> ij***- ^ alas for 'Amr the son ofez-Zubeir! But as 

to an adjective, there is a doubt, some admitting oU^XJt juj tj alas 
for the noble Zeid, and others not. 

Rem. a. \j can be prefixed only to a proper name or a definite 
word*; we cannot say »^)^-j tj or aljuk lj. Xor can it precede 

* [That is, not having a vague signification, for tjub is definite in 
the grammatical sense. The rule refers, of course, only to the cases 

94 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 39 

. Zi* * 0**0**6 **'<>''* 

A ^JJI ; though it may be prefixed to ^c } as oUf*ej jZj ji*. ^>* bj 
alas for him who dug the well of Zemzem ! 

Rem. 6. b may also be used ajjuU, as «lj-o* jy-o* b *>)l '.4wm*, 
'.4 mr! 

Rem. c. Words ending in the elif maksura (^1) usually reject 

that termination before adding al_, as dbvj*o bj, from ( <-'3-« Moses, 

6 ' ' ' ' 
though oLwj-» bj is admissible. See Vol. i. § 368, rem. 6. 

Rem. d. The suffix pronoun of the 1st pers. sing, may either 
B be retained or rejected ; as bjue bj, or Ijlȣ bj, my servant ! 

\t\ly*.\ b brethren /] «\j^ bj my back ! U-»l bj, Uud b or 

* *{. * * * * * s* b * * * * b * * ** * * * 6* * **!>** 

• Ju>l b, bf»> Ij, Uf»»»> bj, Uj-«». b or jJ5j-«fc b, ijAy^ W> Lf^£3 t> 
my grief! — The suffixes of the 2nd pers. sing. fern, and the 3rd 
pers. sing. masc. retain their vowels in a lengthened form, to 

prevent confusion : obCe^bi bj, alas for thy slave, is masc, the fern, 
being &£**%£ bj ; whereas t\*?$Jz bj is fern., the masc. being 

6 3,*}' 3 ' ' 

dy^^i- bj Compare certain forms of ^jA b under a, rem. c, 3. 

3 ' 

C Rem. e. In verse the form «!_ is occasionally used, even out of 

3 " ' •■ a ' * 3 * s b * * 

pause; as oLa b thou there; \jJlc- jb^a^J aL»y-o b welcome is 
the ass of 'Afrd. 

39. (a) When the negative *9 is immediately followed by an in- 
definite object, of which it absolutely denies the existence, it governs 
that object in the accusative ; and as the whole weight of the sentence 
falls upon the negative particle, the substantive is abbreviated, when 
possible, by the omission of the tenwin. If there be a predicate ex- 
D pressed, it must be likewise indefinite, but in the nominative case. 

For example: jljtJI ^y* J-^-j ^ there is no man in the house; 

where bj and b are used to wail for the loss of a person, not to the 

,* , , , , ,t , ,t, , , , , 

exclamations bj*. bj oh my spoliation ! (U~d b) U~>bj or Ic-J^tj oh my 

grief! Wa- fc i>* <md alas my wonder (Lane sub ,<^). Oomp. however 
rem. d. D. G.] 

§39] The Verb.— %. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Acciis. 95 

j . «- * , i 

aJUI ^1 <JI "9 Afore *> no god but God; <ui w-o ^ w>U-£Jt dUj *£& A 
6oo^, there is no doubt regarding it; ^>\3 s J**j *$ there is no man 
standing ; «iLu j+m. «*».! ^ fM*e is wo owe better than thou ; Oty^l *$ 
there are not two Gods ; La JU-j *9 ^>'£ we wo men here : V ^ J— . « ^ 

* * tie , , , , * 

S-ijJc»JI ^5 f^ere are wo Muslims in the city ; «iU ^j-oli ^ there are 

wo helpers for thee ; Ujuc o'^JL— o ^) there are no Muslim women in 

our possession ; w~*JJ olJJ ^J fAere are no pleasures for grey hairs; 

ly) Ol5j *j) ^^1 6 LoJI w^lj> ffo aquatic animals ichich have no lungs ; B 

[iuj i j*o ju ^ or <UU*^ *9 ^'e/v is wo avoiding it (Vol. i. § 364, /*); 

»•»% J*^ ^5*-*J' .J-***^ O' iLf* *^3 ^w is wo wondering that the 
young man should follow the example of his father]. But if the nega- 
tive be separated from its object, it is put in the nominative ; as 

,Jo-j jljJt ^ ^ there is no man in the house ; J^* ly*i *$ in it (viz. 
the wine of Paradise) there is no injurious force. 

Rem. a. The rule regarding the retention of the terminations C 
^j and ij in the dual and plural may seem to be contradicted by 

such examples as^^JUaJb »iJU ^ju "^ Moit ca/w< rto no wrong (lit. 
Mow Aas< wo< two hands for wrong) ; LJ .yOt ^ */*« /<«s no ears ; 
*3 ^j+^ *$ v*f & a shirt without sleeves ; jXi jJ>-©0 ^ thou hast no 
helpers; but in these cases the grammarians say that the preposition 
J is AiLo*$J Ijl^&jJ i^aJU, arbitrarily inserted to strengthen the 
annexation, and that the preceding noun is really in the construct D 
state. In the same way too they explain the phrases iU bl *^, 
tlum hast no father, and <J U.1 *), he has no brother, which are 
generally used instead of i)L»t *9 and till *). [But compare 
Vol. i. § 315, footnote.] The form w>l is, however, also used before 
J, as ol^-r ^ v l «n) ^OLv-n)! ^1 el-' Islam is my father, I have no 
father but it; and if any transposition takes place, the ^ of the 

96 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 39 

 <■ s I 

A dual and plural must of course be restored, as jjlju IjJb ..i ill *}) 
i/iow hast nothing to do with this matter. 

Rem. b. The plur. fem. in Ol_ may, it is said, take feth 
instead of kesr, as lijuc Ol^JL.^ *$. 

Rem. c. The interrogative I may be prefixed to *^, either to 
ask a simple question or to convey a reproach, more rarely to 

* b * * * o** *£ 

express a wish ; as ^.^JLJ jlJkol *$\ has Selmct no patience ? 

jjs • o 2* o s #*• 6*a •£ 

B <****+£> <Z-$3 Ch*i £ l3*j' *^' ^ as one no self-restraint, whose youth is 

13 1 J ' ' J Z' ' » J 'i 

on the wane ? a£-^o~j cUaZ~~« ,Jj j-o-t ^)l is there no life, the return 

of which is possible, after it has passed away ? (would that a life, 
which has once passed away, could possibly return !) 

(b) If a genitive be attached to the substantive after *), the 

j f * - j - 
accusative must of course be used in its construct form, as J*j»> j»*$£ *$ 

j-el». there is no slave of any man present ; s^e*-}* <$^*° v***^ - * *^ 

C no true friend can be found. But if the substantive be followed by 

an explanatory term of the nature of an objective complement, a 

preposition with its complement, or a determinative or limiting term, 

- t ' ' * .' * 

the tenwin is retained (compare § 38, a, /?, 2) ; as jJtMo *}L». U)li> *n) 

,- * 

a *> i * - i - - 

there is no one ascending a hill visible ; cH>JsJ' ^» ^^* M 3 !; *$ there 

is no one riding a horse on the road; Ujuc juj ^* |^*». *$ there is 

no better (man) than Zeid in our opinion; Ujuc j+a-i libO *$ there 

D is no one who speaks good with us ; j»$aJ*c aA»s U«~». *$ no one whose 

) , S ■* i l # r * 

deeds are good is blame-worthy ; ^£»jUe Olf*-^ Ua$l». M there is no 

one among you who knows the Kor'an by heart. 

Rem. Nomina agentis, however, when they take their objective 
complement by means of the preposition J (§ 31), constantly reject 

the tenwin; as ^)i,jj ,jl^ yb ^)l a) wi£l£» *5&i>-aJ aUI ^ ■*■> O' 


*) >U *&* J****! if (*°d touch thee with trouble, there is none to 

§ 39] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 97 

remove it but He, and if He seek thee icith good, t/tere is none to keep A 
back His bounty ; aJUl Ol*Jb3 ^Jju** *$ ncae can change the words 
of God. 

(c) If an adjective be immediately annexed to an accusative after 

*9, it may either take the same form without the tenwin, or it may 
retain the tenwin, or, lastly, it may be put in the nominative with the 

tenwin ; as ly-a \Jujio J*.j *$. or Uu^J3 J«».j *j), or \Jujie> J**.j •$, 

there is no witty man in it (the house). But if the adjective be B 

separated in any way from the substantive, the first of these three 

*'' ' ■> ' * 

constructions is no longer admissible ; as uL>ji> ly-i J^.j ^, or UjjJ», 

there is no witty man in it, but not sJujii. 

(d) If another substantive be connected with the accusative by 

the conjunction y the particle *9 may be repeated or not. (a) If *$ be 
repeated, the first substantive may be put in the accusative without 
the tenwin, and the second either in the accusative, with or without 

the tenwin, or in the nominative ; as aJJb *$\ (3y>, 3^3) Sy *^j J^». *$ Q 

there is no power and no strength save in God : or the first substantive 
may be put in the nominative, and the second either in the accusative 

without the tenwin or in the nominative ; as *j)l (3_$3) Sy> ^ J^». *n) 

aJUb. (/?) If ^ be not repeated, the first substantive is put in the 

accusative without the tenwin, and the second either in the nomi- 

native or in the accusative with the tenwin; as (»l^«lj) St^olj J^j NJ 

jtjJI ^ tffore is neither man nor woman in the house. Examples: D 

*^ *$3 J*&fi w*— J ^ M*r» ?s no kinship today and no friendship ; 
i( // / > ^ > i si * 

w>1 ^ ,*Mi O^ 9 Oi ^ >*' *^ Wft y ^ ^ rtlv ;w mother, if this be so, 

and no father ; djj\^ o'l/** \J~* ^b v' ^ £for« £s no father and 

no son like Marwdn and his son ; *^j O-s*" *$3 ^-!^* ^n^^ *$3 3*^ *$3 
j j - 
y0 *U ly-i «h<2 ffore is no idle talk in it (in Paradise), and no accusing 

(one another) of sin, and no dmth, and in it there is none to reproach ; 
w. ii. 13 

98 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 40 

A icliw *s)j iX». *s)j <sui «.*j *n) >o^j a day in which there slmll be no 
bartering, nor friendship, nor intercession ; [^tb *i)j jov^*- *-*}*• s* 
tj^jja*-! on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be grieved 
(Kor'an ii. 36, where a var. reading is *J>».). K S.] 

Rem. a. The particle ^), when used as above, is called by the 

grammarians u ..;aJI A*ilJ *}), or u ..;a.JI ,JUJ *$, the la that denies 

-d £Ae whole genus, [and djj*J3l ^ gAe la that denies absolutely]. The 

substantive in the accusative is called *$ ^o-J, £Ae noun of la, 

and the predicate *n) **»■, ^Ae predicate of la. The predicate may 
be omitted, when it has already been sufficiently indicated ; as 

when one asks i k }**j jijjs. ^Jjb is there a man in thy house ? and 

- J ' - J * * 

you reply ,J^-j *}) tfAere is no one (scil. j^jUc) ; or jj^j jj>^ j^A 
^U> is there any one standing up ? and you say ^J^-j *^j wo one (scil. 


C vff^*)- The omission of the noun, on the contrary, is very rare; as 

»ss *i. 

JLXt *$, for «iJLlc ^b *^, iAere is no fear for thee or no harm will 
befall thee. 

Rem. b. The noun of *9 should, according to the grammarians, 
be always indefinite (3j£j). Apparent examples to the contrary, as 
lyj jj>*-». bl *^5 a*-***; » disputed case, and no 'Abu Hasan for it (to 
decide it), are explained to mean £ymm- iri^i i*-o~- " ° *})> a nd no one 
D named 'Abu Hasan, or ^— m. ..J I J£o *^j, and no one like 'Abu 
Hasan ; ^jJa^JJ aJLJUt ^oJLa *^ ^Aere is no Haitam tonight for the 

beasts that carry us ; y}LJL> <i~o\ *^ there is no 'Umeiya in the land. 
An adjective added to any of these names would be indefinite, as 
LJ UU^ ^j—**- W' *^J ari ^ w0 compassionate 'Abu Hasan to decide it. 

40. Having thus treated of the accusative as the objective 
complement, we now proceed to speak of it as the adverbial com- 
plement in a stricter sense (see § 22, b). This depends — 

§41] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 99 

A. On the idea of being or existence, when expressed (a) by the A 
substantive verb 0^> or (/*) Dv other verbs, the signification of which 
includes that of O^ 9 - The general idea of existence is in this case 
limited and determined by the accusative. 

41. The verb 0^=*> t° oe > io exist, when it supplies the place of 
the logical copula, requires the predicate, to which the being or 
existence of the subject refers, to be put in the accusative; as 

*JU»o *n) <u--eu \jjJLo OHJl O^ 0\ l f tte calamity is decreed (or B 

- 2 tO Q * ml * J J J £ ^ * J * * 

fated), it will befall him without doubt; *Ji5UaJU ^>->*Jjt$ *^-'j >* O^ 
he and his brother were teachers in et-Taif; ^UM ^e. %\j^> t>>>£3 
Iju^ j£*te- JyjN 0&3 that V e ma y ue witnesses against mankind, 

i ^ a * * 

and (that) the Apostle may be a ivitness in regard to you ; ^>& 0**3 
Loji gLJ Ujji <*J ^IJatMtJl awd whoever hath Satan as his companion, 
a 6a<# companion is he ! j^ \j*±- &i \ytyj O^ an d >f they r epent, q 

y * jij/ * o + a** «• a s* o *' jtj/ a 

it will be well for them ; *jli <u£> *$ ^\^ xAc iaX» J &Xi <ju£> ,jt 
aJUS ,_i .iAJ ^*^, (/* /£ 6e he, thou wilt not be able to overcome him ; and 
if it be not he, there is no good to thee in killing him ; SjU*.^. \y>$& 

t * ai * j a *■ *• * *a»e a* * * a * a* 

t jujk». jl be ye stones or iron ; &>^$ 1^5**^ <t«y> ^ ^L» ^0^3 J «M 
S~—i »ii-JLt obi by liberality and mildness a man becomes a chief among 

a 1 a - i j * - 

his people, and thy becoming so is easy for thee ; ^juj ^t> J^ U5 
,*)l*.t U5l^ iiliJI and not every one who shows a cheerful face is thy J) 

brother. But if O^ 9 nas on ^Y a subject connected with it, to which 
the idea of existence inherent in the verb is attributed, that subject is 

put, like every other, in the nominative ; as 03~4 ** 0^3 J^-^* O^ 9 

ilu there was (or lived) a merchant, and he had (lit. there were to him) 

three sons (t/^13 O^ would mean he was a merchant) ; <*J O^ O-** 

j-JSfb JU but he who has (lit. to whom there is) much property; 

100 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 41 

A (>j^ ji*^JI wAoh} «s fated will come to pass. In the former case, 

the substantive verb is called by the grammarians 2-a3UI «J^*> the 

incomplete or defective, relative kana, because it requires an attribute 

to complete the sense ; in the latter, i^UJI o^> the complete, absolute 
kana, because it contains the attribute in itself and does not require 
any other. 

Rem. a. The subject is called O^ ^o— ''> ^ te noun of kana, 

B and the predicate O^ 3 >*** ^ ie predicate of kana. The natural 

* t"i • • ' ' ' 

sequence of the three is verb, subject, predicate, as \+j\.i jjij O^ 3 > 

but we may also say juj lojl* (J^», as j+aj l**^ ^*»- O'^J 
^j-U^^oJt cm<i i£ zvas Our duty (it behoved Us) to succour the 
believers ; jkA.1 <*J IJa£» *iJLj ^^ and there is none equal unto Him ; 

OB * , * t r* 

and even juj O^ U^U>, especially in interrogative and alternative 

sentences, as !j-J»i jl O^ W»* *— a*-a)i >»/^t honour a guest, whether 

he be rich or poor [^ 6, a]. This inversion is, however, in some 

C cases impossible ; for example, my brother was my companion must 

be expressed by ,*£**) i<»-' O^ 3 ) because ,<»»l 15***) O^ would 
naturally mean my companion was my brother. [If subject and 
predicate are both definite, it is allowed, in case of inversion, to 
put the latter in the nominative, the former in the accusative, 
converting thereby the logical subject into the gi'arumatical pre- 
dicate, the logical predicate into the grammatical subject, as 

tjuj j)^.\ \j\& for juj ^JUi.1 vJ^s. Poets allow themselves to 
D do the same in other cases, as >iJL» -^ .Uaj — ij*iLUt ^ Uj for 
«iL^U -aH&r JA> Uj (Tab. i. 755, 1. 2). D. G.] 

Rem. 6. O^ lua y sometimes be omitted, especially in alter- 

St * *» £ b *■ * * J -- i3 s 

native conditional clauses; as \jJZ* ^\ $ t^*. ^\ ^gjl^J o>j~> £/i<m 
wilt be recompensed either with good or with evil (i.e. \j^» Q\ 

what is spoken is spoken, be it t?'ue or false ; e ^_^Jt ,«i iiJl^oJI aLjuo 

§42] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— <a) The Accus. 101 

\jj£, ^\* \j~±. ^1 jj^ ^° ^^ *'* meaning is l to do one s utmost A 

in a thing,' be it w/uU it may, whetlier . good or bad ; *$$£> jJ ^>«o 

* *'• - ' 
ly5"5Ut jJli yVaz/i <Ae time they were pregnant, till their young were 

following them (i.e. *^yi JjU-JI OJl^ ^<jJ l >*) ; ^ aj'ju 1*5"**^' 
IjUa. 6rt/^ me a beast {to ride), even if it be an ass [§ 4, rem. 6]. 

^ ^ o * Z , > , * 

Rem. c. O^ * 3 rare ly merely redundant ; as ^Jo ^»\ ..-o 5!^-/ 
w»^*JI rt.<^...»M O^ L5^ L5'*' - **^ ^ heroes of the Benii AM Bekr B 
ride upon branded Arab steeds ; ^jSj***.} J* 2* j'**^ *-*JJ* '^' u»«Q 
j*\j£s \y>\£s U) and Juno when thou passest by the dwelling of a 
tribe and of noble neighbours of ours ? j&^Ia O^ ^*^yi ^3 atu ^ 
their like was not found*. 

Rem. d. The verb \j\^, iEthiop. ji^. kona, does not occur in 
Hebrew in the sense of to be, exist, happen, though it is so used in 
Syriac (rare) and Phoenician. The construction of the iEthiopic C 
verb is the same as that of the Arabic ; in the other Semitic 
languages, which have lost the final flexional vowels, the case of 
the predicate cannot be observed, but doubtless it was the accu- 
sative. — In Hebrew the radical V\2 retains its original signification 
of to stand (compare Fr. etre, older form estre, and Span, estar, from 
Lat. stare), and the place of \j'£s is supplied by PVH or rflH 

T T T T ' 

Aram. fcO!l } I * 71 * to fall ({£}*), happen, be (compare *5j, to fall, 

happen, Lat. accidit, Eng. it fell out), of which the predicate must D 
also be looked upon as in the accusative. 

42. The same construction appertains to certain verbs, called by 
* * * * * t 
the grammarians o^ 9 ^l***', the sisters of kdna, which add some 

circumstantial or modifying idea to the simple one of existence. This 
may be : (a) the idea of duration or continuity, as in^j»b to continue, 

* [Different from this is the use of ^L£» after participles, infinitives 
and other nomina verbalia, in the sense of he (it) was or was formerly. 
See many examples in the Gloss. Geogr. and the Gloss, to Tabarl. D. G.] 

102 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 42 

A to last, construed in the perfect with the «u^jjJI U (see § 7, and 

Vol. i. § 367, p), ^u to remain, to last ; Jlj, fjl, ^i, JXiil, to cease, 

construed, in the perfect or imperfect, with a negative particle ; (b) the 

idea of change or conversion, as in £*o, iU, £t*j, and ^jo\, to turn out, 

to become; (c) the idea of time, as in JJ» to be or do during the whole 

day, 0*j during the whole night, ji~»\ at daybreak, \ji- or f+ * e\ in the 

morning, ..^.ol in the forenoon, p-\j or { *~~o\ in the evening, all of 

B which verbs are often used as simple synonyms of 0^> without any 
regard to the secondary idea of time ; or, (d) the idea of negation, by 

which that of existence itself is absolutely denied, as in ^^J not to be. 
Examples : j>^3 *^><>JI j^=>>^i *3IJJ a*asUc C-«b U J^tXi *-**)* *3 
there is no pleasure in life, as long as its joys are troubled by tlie 
recollection of death and old age ; j>\* U ^UJl ^yt> ^L«aj juu *jj 
JULt UU w*-iJUI do not count thyself among men, as long as anger 

C has the mastery over t/iee ; <i*-JI U~ a» ^ ddi\ Jlj-j *$ may God never 
cease being beneficent to you ; O^oJI j£>\} JP *j) never cease bearing 
death in mind ; ,j+i£=>\£- «uXc »-j-J ^ t^JlS they said, we will not 
cease standing by it (worshipping it) ; \»j±- O-*^' j'-« the clay became 
pottery ; *U j~aj j^-^Ij lj l *»^» j~o± eUJ' jJ>j O^J «^ he thought 
that the water became vapour, and tlie vapour became water; iXjli 

j) aSLifi ljuft CfjJti 0%jjw j£ and thou hast been sold, and hast become a 
slave in Mekka ; bUj »*j li3~°3 ^t^-Jl& ^1 ly^!>\ Uj tw«« w Ms 

nought but the lamp and its light, which becomes ashes ; cj*2/ >l^~> ^a\ 
U>l«o the blackness of his hair became whiteness; Uj«>-o £»-j-> U j^K*Jt 
an enemy never becomes a friend ; \*y~* ^^-3 <J^ n ' s f ace became 
black; UL5j \j**~> ^j) 0>^ O-^'j an ^ those who pass tlie night 
prostrating themselves unto their Lord and standing up (in prayer) ; 


§42] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 103 
i^ij^s zj*. ^jJU Ijj^ and they icent out in the morning with settled A 

» J x c 

purpose; bhj».l *JJ' ^-o*^ ^a-*-«' through the grace of God ye are 
become brethren ; l^l»U-o ly-ii ^5—0^ O 1 ^^^e^ ^<> M wishest to become 
a laicyer skilled in disputation ; 0%-J ^o^-Jt ^Jl ^5**' O-*^ Is!**-* ^ 
U<^« ■•*«?/ ??#£ #0 #w« refo graws yew ^« salutation, Thou art not a 
believer ; Jy^-3^^ $y \^-t^ one icho knows and one who doe* not 
A*«o?r ar« wo^ o« an equality ; ^X*».t *il5tj c*-J yjl iU-»l U aJJI ^^-aS i> 
6W hath decreed, O'Asmd, that I should not cease to love thee. 

Rem. a. To the above verbs may be added .J5I, t\a*, and jjt5*: 
as l^wo-.i Ob ,-jt A«>.j .Jlc oyUli and throw it on my father's face, 
(and) he shall become seeing (recover his sight, explained by %».jj 
l^s-cu) ; UXfc ■» *UJt (or i*2l) fUfc. <Ae building became strong ovjirm; 

<i * » - -H - a " " i "* ' 3 " * ' ' ' si- j 

Ajj*- lyjl^ OjotS i<^ AJ^ii c_iAjl 7i« sharpened his knife till it 
became like a javelin (i.e. 4jj^ J-^*)- — Of these verbs three, viz. C 

, s* , * - ' *'_** 

y-J, /-^ and jjlj, are always <LoiU ; the others may be either 
«Lo5U or <L«D (see § 41, at the end). 

Rem. b. The verbs Jlj, p-^jJ. ,V^, and ^iJu\, must always be 
accompanied by a negative, expressed (as in the above examples 

W XJ ' 

with «-^j and Jlj) or implied, as aJUI j**a*-> ^Ay* aJJIvoI^I U 9-jjbj 

1jl.a.« UUaCX* a?i«? / s^a^ not cease, as long as God preserves my 
tribe, through God's grace to wear a girdle and ride a noble steed D 
(pjjl for ~.jj\ *), and lju.a>^ in rhyme for ljua««) ; aJJIj ly) C-JLii 

\js-\.i ?-j*\ and I said to her, By God, I will not cease sitting still. 
[Comp. § 162, rem.] 

Rem. c. The verb *X».j, to be found, be extant, exist, is often 

* - J s * i 

reckoned one of the ,J^ »^ '.$»•'> Dut erroneously ; for it is either = 

* [jjv»- may be added to these verbs ; see the Gloss, to Tbn 
'al-Faqlh. D. G.] 

104 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 42 

1 ul uJ -C 

A i«lJI ^lib, and has no predicate, or it is the passive of J*?.^. which 
governs two accusatives, and therefore naturally retains the second 

w "* 1 1 '0^ £0 ^ ^ 1*1* 

object (,yUM jJ^jiA^JI) ; as \bj*o *._w lyi« J^-yi *$ not one of them 

*9 r, * 

is found pure (in a pure state), where \£j+o is a ^Jl^ or circum- 
stantial accusative, or we (Fr. on, Germ, man) do not find one of 
them pure, where Is^-o is the second object [§ 25]. 

- - a * **ti * i 

Rem. d. The negative particles I© and *^, when j^~Jb ^Ly-JLo 
assimilated to leisa, or used ^^-J ^Jt^j in the signification of leisa, 

B are also construed with the accusative of the predicate, provided 
(1) that the predicate is placed after the subject, (2) that the 

exceptive particle ^1 is not interposed between them, (3) that the 

e * 

corroborative particle ^j\ is not added to U, and (4) that the 
subject and predicate of ^ are both undefined ; e.g. Ij-ij IJJb U 

* * * oi 1 1 * * 

this is not a human being ; Uo*})jt ^> U>« and they are not its 

o * z& a i * &***£** 

children ; ^^L-al ^jA I© they are not their mothers ; *.-i *$J jju 

* *» J w *o * * w $ * * * * Z * Q £■ QtO * * 

U5bj aJUI i<-a3 L>* jj3 *$j W*W u°j*$l i<^ take comfort, for there 
Q is nothing on earth enduring, and no fortress can protect (one) from 

* * 6 * 5 -• * * 1 » * * 

what God hath decreed; Jil». j~£ w^La *$ il <2)3j*cu I aided thee 
when thou hadst no companion who was not faithless ; but on the 

1 *& * > .£'?.■*' 

contrary, ^>»». UJa ^j\ U our habit is not cowardice ; 3u\J±. ^j 
* s  ^^* 

j/ ^ :>>o j j o£ a i *. « ^ * * o * * i io£ o * • 

wJ»f^J1 ^o-^' e>*^5 <-*ij-° *^J <^**i >o-^' C>i ^ 2/ e Z?en« Gudana, 
ye are neither gold nor pure silver, but ye are pottery. The fourth 

*£ * ^0*tf * * * 6 2/ / 

restriction is violated in such verses as : lit ^) %r *X£)\ *\y* C~l»j 

D l^l^o ly*». ^>c *^j l*t^-» Lib and she dwelt in my heart's core, 

I desired no other than her and relaxed not my love of her (Gt being 

* * 1 *o*» ** z lb* id* 0*o ** 

definite); U5U JU>JI *)j l>}~Jlo j^o^JI *$>* then neither is praise 

won nor does the money remain. — If I* has a second predicate, 
connected with the first by an adversative particle, such as J^ or 
^j£), then the second must be put in the nominative, as ju>j U 
j^ftlS J^ L>515 ZetV? is not standing but sitting, i.e. JlcIS yk J^ ; but 

§ 42] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) TJie Accus. 105 

in any other case, the accusative is preferable to the nominative, as A 
Ijccli ^3 Lojii juj U or *xcU> *^j. — This government of U and *) 
is peculiar to the dialect of el-Higaz, and hence they are called 
^bjU^aJI U and <bj U^aJt *$. 

Rem. e. The above construction of l« and *nJ is also extended to 
O*^) (Vol. i. § 182, rem. b), and to iuildt ,j| or the negative 'in 

*i * , ta,ais>a 

(see [Vol. i. § 362, k and] § 158); as j&.\ ^Xc U^X— « yk ,jl ta 
rules over nobody ; ,*JjLs> *^j JUJU <iAJ3 ,jt £/tis cannot profit thee B 

wor km ^ee; «*JLc t^a-rf O^ O-^J <uW*- sL>«*JLt U~o I^JI jjl 

' ' * ''. 
"^Jkai^i a man is not (to be counted) dead ivhen his life comes to an 

end, but when he is wronged, and forsaken (by his friends) ; 
^U«o ^>*». O^j but it tvas no time of escape; j»jJ*o icL/ O^) 

it icas not an hour for repentance. The government of 0*j) seems 
to be restricted to nouns denoting time, and either its subject or 

predicate is omitted, usually the former (^Ll-o 0-t-*" ^^ = ^ 

^ • ^ j a*o * a* 

J ^ - s 

Rem. y! Instead of the accusative, the O^* Ol^-t may take 
after them a verb in the imperfect, following the construction of 

i a i j , a . 

0^>, § 9, or § 8, e; e.g. ^Jti J^u jtj^JI j>\> U U5U Jt>j *s) l£» 
Ae Msec? net'CT' to cease sleeping as long as the blacksmith continued 

*a* j j a * * ^ 

working at any xcork ; lyJI j-k-o i**** awl he continued looking at 

j - * * * a,o j t^ j * a j j at j a * 

them; xslo vi-jjk*Jl jj-^lj djUc jcsil Oj-oj ana 7 / sa£ aW'n 6y D 

him and conversed with him at great length ; ^*Jbw *^ jLo /<e became 
speechless; 1J^ ^J jXaJ jLo he began to reflect upon such and such a 

- a 

subject; ^j^&u ^JlUai and ye icould be marvelling ; o\^o O^- ^ ^W* 

a * 

j ju and they were all night hoping for (or longing for) the waters of 

^ a% * j .. „ j * .. a if i*a* 2i<°s 

Bedr: <sui£3 wJJu ^.. : . o l9 and he began wringing his hands ; yJu dJJU 

- j j j j *^ 
»^a~<^j j^^ by God, thou wilt not cease thinking (or speaking) of 

a * ) * is * * **)*a-2i*a* 

Joseph (rem. b) ; aJjjCj j.1*. <£$\i C>*a Lo %+~3 ^UX5 ^<w ?ot7< 
w. ii. U 

106 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 42 

A never cease, as long as thou lives t, to hear of some one being dead, 
until thou art he (until thy own turn comes). [The predicate of 

,jl^ and its sisters may also be replaced by a preposition and 
the word it governs, or by a circumstantial clause, generally with 

_j, as w*5jJb i^Ail U03 c^ jJU in former times I was not to be 

frightened by a wolf; <L*£)t jUc <<J-aJ Uj L£s J^J we dared not 

to pray near the Ka l ba ; «sJUi ^>c w*»^J *j) C*3l£> il as Mey were 

not prevented from it; l*^c  *$ Ijti UI3I JJJsLJ juj^a^JI Uj^ju ^I_j 

B vff^' 5*i verily in our hands the steel is eloquent, whilst in other 
hands it is dumb.~\ 

Rem. g. With the construction of the O^ ^ '>»•'> mentioned 
in rem. e, we may connect that of the ajjU^JI JUil or wer&s 0/ 
appropinquation. These are principally of two kinds : such as 
indicate the simple proximity of the predicate, and such as imply 

a hope of its occurrence. — (1) To the first class belong ^1£», «£iwjt, 

and w^- ( a ) ^^ ( lst P- sin §- P erf - ^«^> rarely Oj6), imperf. 

C i^J, particip. jul^, was originally construed with the accusative 

of the predicate, as LSI 0*x£> Uj ^v* ^ Ooli and so I returned 

to (the tribe of) Fahm, but I was very near not returning ; but it 
commonly takes the predicate in the imperfect indicative, as 

Ul^J! ,^c ULaJ $\£s ,jt verily he was nigh leading us astray from 

ojo + a t» ******* t 

our gods ; ^y^e tjjj* *r>5^* ?-i£ >^* ** «**^ O-* r */ l!er ^ hearts oj a 
part of them had well nigh swerved ; Qjil^j *$ \*t>}3 U-HJ-* O-* "^J 
D ^5 (J^^aaj Ae found before them (the two barriers or hills) a 
people who could scarcely understand speech; Iji^ L03 \A t) tt*.>S* 
^j^juu then they sacrificed her (the cow), but they were nearly not 
doing it; Lfclj-; j£j ^i oju prj*-' \>\ when he stretches out his 
hand, he can hardly see it; rarely the subjunctive with £t, as 

nearly not praying the t asr (or afternoon prayer) till (lie sun was 
nearly setting ; d^Xc- u<*~*i jjl ^^-aJI 0^l£> m?/ soul was nearly 

42] The Verb.— '3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 107 
expiring over him (for grief). (/3) ^JLwjl, little used in the perfect, A 

a £ 

generally takes ,jt with the subjunctive, more rarely the imperf. 
indie; as Ija^o-jj I^JUj ^j\ by lib J*5 lit lytij*^ w>jj£)l ^Ul J£-< 3J3 
cwwZ if men were asked for the {very) diist, wlien it was said ' Give 

* j at 9' j * 

A<??'e,' £&?# would well nigh be disgiusted and refuse; Uojt i^Lwj-oi 

ljl*j U»3*.j i_r--J^)t o^**. )$3U ,jt and our lend is nearly becoming, 
after our friend's departure, a desolate wilderness ; ^j-o ji ^y> ^li »j 

lyiil^j ajIj* ^oxj j«i dJ^i* ta zp/jo ./Zees yVowi his fate, is likely to B 
meet it on some occasion ichen he is off his guard. This verb is 
either personal or impersonal, for we may say *,**-> juj ^^yi 

at 53 s 1 . j 

(as in the third of the above examples), or *,«**-> O' **4j '**~ J 5i 

5 a* - a t j j 

(as in the first), or juj «i<»~» O' ^^^A^i (where the real subject of 

*« •* . ■*. ' J 

^JLw^j is the following clause). The form *2X2jjj is a vulgarism. 

(y) «—>/£» (rarely w>J^) * s or ^J use d in the perfect, and is construed 

a t 

with the imperf. indie, rarely with ^jt and the subjunctive ; as 

j j * j + + a j a *5io * * * 

w>jju t>\^- \^a wJLiJI -~>j^ vny heart teas nearly melting away C 

"5^^ at r 1 * at a*s* a * * 

from grief ; UiaJu ,jt lyiUcI wOj£» jJ>j when their throats (lit. 
necks) were nigh being cut to pieces {with drought or thirst). To 

j j a j * .. a .» 

these may be added such verbs as dibjju tJ^JUb he teas near 

* * } * a* 2't 

overtaking him; lj^ (J**J ^' A« ioas near doing so and so; 

* *t £ * a * a t j j z * • ^ ^ • 

iljl, e.g. ^^xiUj ^1 ju^j Ijlj^ 'jw*-^ and they f mind a wall which 

.- j* a t j sa*> * *i 

was about to fall ; Oj-»j ^jl u auj~ i\ >lj1 tlie sick man is about to 

£ y * 1 3 , at J * *l tO Cl , 

die ; ^A, e.g. j>q-w.j ^jl »Jj-JI ^A the lamp was on the point of J) 
going out; and the like. — (2) To the second class belong ,«-~£, 

* * -si - 1 * * 1 a , * j , 

^jjj*., and jyjJl».t. (a) ^_j-~c (1st p. sing. c«« ...,g, rarely C^..x), 

used, we may say, only in the perfect, [and having always the 
meaning of the imperfect, mostly in the sense of the indefinite or 

definite present (§ 8, a, b)\ was originally construed, like jl^, with 

* ** , j a * • ~ a * a j *• 

the accusative, as in the half verse 1*51*0 \1— ,- c .-5 1 ijfj^Su ^ 

108 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 42 

A do not {abuse me) so much, for I may become a faster, and in the 

t e- at j » ^ jo«» * <■ 

proverb Iw^jI j->3*M ,«— c perhaps the little cave may become {may 
bring) misfortunes, or perhaps U-Goweir (the name of a well) may 
become {may bring) misfortunes ; but generally it is construed with 

<Jl and the subjunctive, as ^Lo^-jj ,jl ^&j ,««~£ perhaps your 

* , o , o £ ,. ., „ 

Lord may have mercy on you ; [?U«a3 (jl ,j«~c Le w;Aa£ may she 
perhaps do ?] ; I^JUJ *$\ JUaJI ^lilc. J...;4> ,jl ^.^.c. Ja may 
& ?io< 6e, ■$/" if were ordained you to fight, that ye would not fight ? 


B rarely with the imperf. indie, as aJJI <u ^Jb »-ji .-^c perhaps 

God may bring some joy ; ot\jj (J>^ *** Os*~*l ^JJI w>J^' L5**** 
»--*J/3 Trj-* perhaps some joy may be close behind the sorrow in which 

- ' £ St/ // 

Mow wow arf. This verb, like ^.wjt, is either personal, juj ^,-x 
->°>*rf 0'> as m the above examples, or impersonal, juj >ojaj ,jt ^--x, 

o j^ 50' /J/ ;o-- j - o , o J .. , 

as ^XJ j-j». jjAj ILw tj,A^^3 ,jl ^^—c perhaps ye may be averse to a 
thing, though it be good for you. Still another construction is 

C possible, viz. with a pronominal suffix in the accusative, ^13 «*JL»c 

*»*bt*** 5..., g„^ 

or^o^ij ^t «*JL.c, like Jji) (§ 36, rem. /), just as conversely Jjd 
may be followed by the imperf. indie, or the subjunctive with 

o£ 4 *^t>£^* &*&,*, »j -, 

O'j as '■rtj'* Oj^-* itbJI JjJ ^JjJkj Loj a?«/ ?t>Aa£ lets thee knoiv 

7 »/ti * * * i * it* * l *&** 

{tvhether) perchance the hour is near? s^Jb ^JU^^j-^uj ,jt aXxi 
ioJJjJI perhaps He may aid you against these evil-doers. (/?) l</»-, 

rare, with jjl and the subjunctive; as >oyu ,jl juj ^JJ^>- or 

'i'j'»f '- '„' a '* . oJ 

D ^Ji 03^! O' L5>*"- (y) t^J-^*^ rare, with ^>l and the subjunctive, 

*jb*ot ***£>& ^ o^ o ^ c^ o v ^ o * z 

asjJk«J ^jl 2l.©-Jt oJUjAri.1 £/ie sky is likely to rain; .jjQ ^' J^V^-I 
if is likely he may come. — (3) With these two classes of verbs the 
grammarians connect a third, which they call pjj-£JI Jl*»l, or 

i* *& ttO 1 ' ft **t ****** 

ttw^l ^JUil, the verbs of beginning. Such are : Ju^t, ij- 9 ir-, fj£, 

* * ' " - - , , **tt * * £ *e& «s - 

JJUa (rarely JUJ» and J*J»), J>JU, ^51, j>\i, UJI, and ^Jb, fo 

begin, used, we may say, only in the perfect, and followed by the 

imperf. indie; as <*-*^j jJji^ he began to reproach him; UuUb} 

§ 44] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 109 

iiaJI (3j5 O-* Wys^ ^l^vj «?^ <Aey began to sew togetfier of A 
the leaves of Paradise (to cover their nakedness) ; jju ^-s**- JU* 

i)/ i,a* J Osy - i J 

yju iUc cJUc Ijl yX< ?6"/*«?i / was off my guard for a moment, 
the nightingales, dipping in tJieir heads, began to drink of my 
cistern; ebu-o Jjk! ^^jo ^aJUl ^—51 OviUj ami I began to divide 

, , j J * j * * * 3<o - * at 

the meat among the people of San'a ; wJJ» ^ J>$*~Z <LoL»a»Jl O-Lil 

* sb.O Ji0 sbiO , * 

6 UJt the pigeon began to fly about in search of icater ; SI^JI C~eli 
■?-y3 the woman began to wail aloud ; ^J^c^Xj C~> she began to J3 
reproach me. 

43. The adverbial accusative depends — 

B. On any verbal idea which determines or limits in any way 
the subject, verb, or predicate of a sentence, or the whole sentence. 
In this case it supplies the place of a preposition with the genitive, 
or of a conjunctive clause, and amply makes up for the want of adverbs 
in Arabic. 

44. By the adverbial accusative is designated : — C 
a. The time in or during which an act takes place ; as o\ji 

a*X».j Us^Ij U^j iiJoJI the caliph saw him one day washing his feet ; 

«^*}V -*&■ *-*>•£ *- *  :  £> {£j<>j *i) he knows not how he shall die on his 

a*a-o £j j ;, „ 3 ,30 sis 

dying day ; j»$A\ J^ C~-Lo. or>o^JI ^olju, I walked the whole day, 

s a ^j«> £ , j i «. * * , at ai ai o- 

or part of the day ; jb^J\ j>\ Uy* ^Jt eU. i^-^l ^\ ^ I did not know 
whether he came here yesterday or today ; \*\A ^£^i)t ^joju ^J ^SL* D 
he stopped (a few) days in a village ; tj^Jj >M <,u -* ^^ Juu. ^ 1 implore 

f * , * a*> , a 3 * 

God night and day to protect you from it; ljk£ w>U£)l «iUk*--j he 

~ * a } A ~ * , 

will give you the bo<jk tomorrow ; i^s. ^Abt Ijlla-j and they came 

/:« a** * a & a * a * a Sfi* 

to their father in the evening ; 3Uw^)l jLl»-l ^J CHj^ s}^ reflect 
two months upon the choice of a teacher; 0->*->j\ J^\jiA\ 1 J* "^ij^ 
iiw he did not pass the night on a bed for forty years ; J*^ ^ji^oli 

110 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 44 

3 , 

A LiL»-l u**j-^' he stood up at times whilst lecturing ; ^>-o aa>jJ cu£»j 
j.£JLj\ ^jUjJI and I continued reflecting for a considerable time; 

s , ,S>*3 _ * C *> J JO s ' ' * - ' 3 3 

«L-3UJI «u*JI aJj;3 / killed him last year; C^-oj Os^-o I fasted 
during Bamaddn; g liuJI jj-aj c*£». I came in the winter-time; JU» 
<juSJ (J>*». he said at the time of his meeting him (or when he met htm) ; 

O ' ' ' - S ' 'is 3»i ' 

y^ ij^*" j-ac at the time when old age is drawing near ; j»$i j*^^ 

B UUwi jt S u J us. n)I I^JLb ^J lyjjj-j (/£ s/i«// seem) as if they, on t/ie 

day they shall see it, hud not tarried (in tlieir graves) save an evening 

or its morning; jJkjJt ^>-o ^3-^ «juc £ *** Xa*. I sat with him 

2 * z " ' ' ^ ' ' ' it j 

for a long time, i.e. *%i^ tuj ; ^i^ jtfi- wsCo^j then he tarried not 

' , a * t * , 

long, i.e. Jj>k j-*£ U«j. [To the same class belong the adverbial 

d + * * a * s * s bs * * 

expressions S^ Olj once, j>$t Oti one day, iLJ Olj one night, and 
ijjju (or Otj) ^i Jjl A2ji! / m<?£ him first of all.] 
C Rem. a. A masdar is often put in the accusative of time by an 

s Os < 3 3 *■ , 

ellipse of some such word as 0-.S5 at the time of; e.g. e^Us sU*. 

a Ct 10 a Zt >o j 3 ' a ' * 3 3 3 0' * 

^^o.uJI he came at sunrise, i.e. U m <r J^\ t^J-b oJ>j ; Jf^*^ '*- > >j3 

^^ --it / arrived at the setting of the Star (the Pleiades) ; »yJi O^ 3 

^.laJI >ojJL* £/m happened at the time of the arrival of the caravan 

0/ pilgrims, or j-oaOl S^JLo ai £Ae £ime 0/ afternoon prayer, 

3C. '"SiO ' ' ' t . * '} ' 

or O**0' tfLi^Li. during the caliphate of el-Ma'miin ; jU^tj 

j & *, < 0^J<-^«^ ' 3*3 

J) /i^ -" anc/ ai ^Ae setting of the stars; Ortj3J^- J*"^ "^ jJsuJl 
i/iey waited for him for the space of time in which one might 
slaughter two camels. Examples of more violent elisions are: 

 •wJgjUUl 4-oJlibt ^) / toiW no£ s/>eaA; <o Ai»i as «m<7 as iAe iwo 

gatherers of acacia berries (or leaves) are away (i.e. / wi^ wever 

speak to him), for ^>Js.jUJI ^u-t Sju> ; ^^.SjiJI a*jI ^ I tvill not 

go to him as long as the two Pointers (the two stars which point to 

*' * * s *> 
the Polestar) endure (i.e. / will never go to him), for £ l£j oj*« 

, '» 'OiO 

§ 44] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a.) The Accus. Ill 

3 J 

Rem. b. Peculiar is the use of ijSJ. ja*~>, S^a*— >. 5 j)r» <> . Sj.*A A 
and ii-i, as a sort of definite proper names, when they refer to the 
morning of a particular day or to a certain fixed time ; e.g. aIJU 

s , , * ' ' ' 3 J 3>o - 3 ' ** ' 

jrt, -■ / met him this morning ; ^~> S a t+a J I j»^i fl*. he came on 
Friday in the morning; 5j£j ^^.^qa-JI j»$-> s^»- / canvi on 

s*3* *3* * * 3* JJ s r3 s-3** '3' 'sO'd' 

Thursday in the morning; ii*i jju ii-i aLJU = iiJJI j*j <UJU1 

I met him time after time ; [Jja*— ' 4~Ii would mean I met him on a 
certain morning]. 

b. The local extension of an act, and, if general and indefinite, B 
the plate in which it is performed ; as JW*t ajuj' IjjL» they travelled 

3**3*13*' *'i > " ' ' 

four miles; ^>-a— »ji c~ £ * I walked two parasangs; 5yx {Jj*r 
he ran a bowshot ; (^Cwj) 'j*— i$ ^~«*i j^> he looked right and left ; 
\ja*jj Sjj j jot)! jJU j-rf^jl &? conquered the enemy by land and sea ; 

, ,[ , o , 3 * ~* * * 3 * < ^»^ 

>oUl, ^oljJ, before; ^*X±.. z\jj, behind; Ixwj m the middle; J^»- 

.» 0- * 3 * * 3 

around; J>^3 afore; O o»J under; jut beside, by; etc. [Here we 

may add the adverbial expressions O-s-**" <^>'i and JU-iJI Ol3 in the C 
direction of the right hand and o/*^ /£#.] 

Rem. a. When the place of the act is definitely specified, the 
preposition ,-J must be used ; as jl jJI ^-i C*...Jlq., 7 sa£ down in the 

*t £ *9 3 * J 3d * 

house; ,*--dl Jta. ...,■« ,«i 0~JLo 7 prayed in the mosque of the 

3 * ) 3-o * 3 * J ,s 

prophet; ^...j>-.)l ^JJjLo ,«i O-oil 7 stopped at the place where tl- 

* £ *o J 3 * * * 3 * 1 3i * * * 3 * J 3 *>£ 

Hosein teas killed; not jljJt w -..Aa». » v > * C^JLo, and ^JJJLe C— oil*. 

Excepted is the case when a vague noun of place, such as ^jl£e J) 
or^olio, is construed with a verb conveying the idea of stopping 

0* ******* 

or remaining, as juj ^jUCa C*~JLo» 7 sa£ efown i« ZeicVs place; 
* [Sometimes, however, the definite noun of place is put in the 

*£ Z *0 J 3 * * 3 * s 3 s * ' 

accusative against the rule, as in ^aliJI C~J*6 I went to Syria, ,JL^*±. ^)15 
Jujl« >ot ?/<■? ??/-o stayed during midday in the tents of Umm Ma'bad (see 
the Gloss, to TabarT in v. w**J and comp. § 70, rem. p). D. G.] 

112 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 44 

A and also the case when a noun of place is construed with the verb 
from which it is derived, as juj jjuLo Ojots, or juj ^^JLa^o O— JU., 

. . ****** 

/ s«£ (Zowre m Zeid's seat ; dLc\JLc ja\s he stood up in his place, or 

* ** 0** ^ • 

supplied his place. — The nouns s^Jl»., *»._$, ^v»-, **».U, s*^e, 

G * G * G * J b 

quarter, jj-jla. outside, J^-b, Oj^., inside, require ^J, as ..i w-oJ 
jtjJI ^-jUi. / sfe/>£ outside the house; but in later Arabic we often 

find the accusatives wJU., «-j^»> and J^b, as also w^3 wear, 

B for ,»jj.3 ^ji, ^JijJj on the east, >*ij£- on the west, for ^JijJj \J, 

i^P>j£ |V, and the like. — Observe also such phrases as : ...U 3A 

bjjyi J»U-s 7ie is as far from me as (the place where) the Pleiades 
(hang in the sky) ; ^*JSi\ j^-yo ^«U 3-fc he is as far from me as the 
farthest place where one can chide (or cry out to) the dog ; ^Ji* ^& 
jlj^H jJls*o he is as close to me as the place where my waist- wrapper 
is fastened. 

Rem. b. The accusative of time and place is called by the 
C grammarians OfJsJI the vessel (see Vol. i. § 221, rem. a), or 

1 j * e* 

<ui c h^ttjL .M that in which the act is done. 

j * a* 
c. The state or condition, JU*JI, of the subject or object of an 

act, or of both, whilst the act is taking place ; as t^'j juj ?U. 

Zeid came riding ; <d *$5\s d^Xe. loA~~« SjU^JI ^b ,-U \Jls^ he stood 

at the entrance of the cave, saluting him (and) saying to him; 

f Ci j * *t»o i ) a*>* , j^, 

i»xa»...> w»Ut t^Lholj and enter the gate, prostrating yourselves; ^J>i\ 

ill, i* ,l)rt, j ) a * 

D b^*Sj UL5 <UJI ^j^sjo who bear God in mind, standing up and 

sitting down; UjJ >^*3t oU^b^ojij apiece of wood can be straightened 

with the tikaf (a kind of tool), while it is soft ; U*}Jl£ «u olio ^^JU. 

a habit with which I grew up as a young man ; Ubj j-JDl w>^Ai <J^* 

^JUI ^slLsJHj wjUxJI Ia^>j ^jJ Lwbj (/V /.s') as // the hearts of 
birds, fresh and dry, beside her nest, were the red fruit of the jujube or 

§ 44] The Verb— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 113 

.»*» j a 

decaying dates; l*^—-* u*^' C** £> j / mfe ^ forsg saddled ; OwJJ A 
L-^L> djL-Lc ^jUxi—JI / 7«^ ^« sultan in his house, weeping; 
ly-i IjJU*. IjU cd».ju oj.**- jutL*j dJ^-jjj aJUI (^ajtj ^>«j «W whoso 

shall rebel against God and his Apostle, and shall transgress his 
ordinances, He shall make him enter into fire, to abide in it for ever ; 

LJU. juJj Oj^-e / passed by Zeid, (as he was) sitting doicn ; 
ji\iajti\ ia*«» du OeUfc-j and she brought him forth long-limbed ; Cs A 
|/Atj ,jUL-Jt ^ I teas in the garden, tchilst it was in bloom ; B 

3, , 3 - ~, 9 3 3, ' «_ i , ~ , , J»-o - - , , 3 i , 

JL~j j&.\j j y ,....« 0^*4j* LJl*. tl. A i.o A JU ^n p~?*o\j and there were 
next morning two parties, (one) ashed and another asking about me, 

z, Z , 3 , , ,d& , 3 3 j , 3 , £ * 

(whilst I was) sitting at el-Gomeisd ; [SjjJLo bU^JI U£»jjJ o^-j Utj 
^j*m-«j W the Fates will overtake us, they being destined for us, as 
we are destined for them] ; ^j~J=>\j aIJU J met him, (irhilst we were) 

o,» , ,3, , , , 

both riding ; £>i>}* ^x*^ ^ i_5~° whenever thou meetest me, both (of C 

* ^ (J i 3 3 3 , 

us being) alone ; j;jia».;.« tjuua* aJLiJ I met him, (whilst the one of us 
teas) going up (and the other) coming down. 

Rem. a. The JU>. is, in relation to the grammatical structure 
of the phrase to which it belongs, a iLai or redundancy, for 

90, - , 

joj t\^., Zeid came, is a complete, intelligible, sentence, without 
the addition of L^lj riding. It answers the question <JL^ Atra; .? 
in regard to the state or condition of the subject or object of the J) 

6 5 ^ J _ _ 9,3 

act, [and may be jjJLo indicating a future state, or iJjj\jLo indicating 
a simultaneous state (§74), like the Imperf. (§ 8, d and e)]. 

9 ' , 3^ j 

Rem. b. The JU*. depends upon a regent (Jla»JI ^J^l*), which 
may be either a verb, as L£alj juj sU*. ; or a verbal adjective 
(Vol. i. {§ 230, 231), as OS £^ «1>^ +>j ^W is ftmftn^ 'Jrar 

1 ~*^ 9 3 3 * 9 3 ' 1~, c, ,,9 3' 

standing, Ljjl.3 ^jjj-ct* juj Z^;'^ ts beaten standing, Ljjli ,j— a. juj 
w. II. 15 

114 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 44 

3 / S« t *' 00. 

A -£eit£ /oo&s handsome standing, I jccla <U*o jj>~.».i \^>\.i Juj Zeid looks 
more handsome standing than he does sitting ; or an expression that 
has a verbal force (^Jjts .-i**), as a preposition with its com- 
plement, a demonstrative pronoun, an interrogative, or a word 
like OsJ, (JjJ and O^ 3 ) as U^* jtjjl ,-i juj ^eie? is in the house 
standing (where jtjJI ,«i is equivalent to jt jJI ..ijiil-wo), juj 1^*3 

* c"£ ... . . « / sj/ / /« 

1*j15 m i£ is ^eie? standing, LJl». 3^^©* iJj^c beside thee (or in £/w/ 

« - a j go* , i 

house) is l Amr sitting, UJLkuU 3j-*c IJJk ^Ais is '.4mr (in 2/ie ac£ o/") 
B going away (equivalent in sense to UJUa-^o aJI jJsu! £oo& a£ 7iira 

« ^ j 0^ j I 

going aivay, or liAla^o aJ! vwl / point to him going away), 

.0 ' '" 6 « 

UjIS -ilJlw U w/ia< is £/«/ o&;'ec£ (ire) standing ? (where ^Uli U = 
^Jjiaj Uo w/tatf ar£ ^/iore doing ?) \ks\j ^JU U» what art thou about, 

lbs 6 .■ , \ , 

standing {there) 1 la>~w i<J«*j IJ^Aj and ^/iis is my husband, an old 

2 *> '0 3* ' ^ 

man {—and this, my husband, is an old man) ; 5^J»JI ^ys- j^ Loi 
^j^ajsue what then ails them that they turn aside from the warning ? 

o r o o ^ o- 

C Rem. c. The <J{&- is usually (1) an adjective (uuij or iio) 

0- ,6 3 <i s 

expressing a transitory state (aJUtli* jjl^) ; though it may also be 

* sO 3 3 * £ ^ s vi *o 3 » ' 

permanent (ZJJu ^ c j+z), as la--o-w aJJI Oj^i / called upon God as a 

(constant) hearer (of prayer). — It may likewise be (2) a masdar, 
substantially equivalent in meaning to a participial adjective 

i a , 3 t o, - 

[comp. Vol. i. § 230, rem. c*], as t^o dJJUS / killed him bound 

f 3 - i - 3 30s£ 

(in cold blood), i.e. Ij^cue ; \*c&j <***3' / came to him riding hard, 


J) i.e. La£=>Ij ; l*^w <u^> «^J3 Oj^l / received that from him by hearing 
(I learned it from him by hearing him say it), i.e. buoL> ; A2Ju %Xh 

i - 1 * , 3 3 3 - 

he came into view suddenly, i.e. UcU ; 3gla»j AlJL) / met him 

i s 3 i - 3 3 , 

suddenly or unawares, i.e. l£».l«*o ; OLc <^-.i3 I met him face to face, 

t'3*''f3 33 6S>* 1 ' 3 

i.e. UjI*« ; i^iULo rtJLpA^a / spofe <o him face to face, i.e. lyiltLo ; 
<ik£-> a»£s <CLJ»i I met him face to face (each of us hindering the 

[ Rather, according to Noldeke, to a gerundium. 

§ 44] The Verb. — 3. Goveniment of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 115 

other, for 4i£l ii&). — It may also be (3) a concrete substantive, A 
as tjju j^JUl JfcXJs tlie moon rose full ; I jlwI juj j£s Zeid charged 
(Zi&e) a lion ; ^**jJO t.*-© <uu sell it (at the rate of) a mudd for a 

b* - Ajb*o ~, _ 

dirham ; ^jjyJii j*JI sb»- £A« wheat is come, (at the rate of) two 
/bq/w (for a dirham) ; U>Apj Sli sliJI Cou / Aaue sold the sheep 
a£ a dirham apiece; juJ lju «&ub / dealt, or traded, with htm, 

■t * t * i * * I* J b£* 

hand in hand (i.e. for ready money); bb bb ajL-*. aJ w^-o 

* by * bs - - J 

I explained his account to him item by item; C**J C~o i^j^- >* B 

by / ?«/ 

Ae is my nextdoor neighbour (lit. house to house, for C*J ^jJt U-j 
or C~J ll*j) ; j^s ,Jt ob* tvLoJL£> / spoke to him face to face (lit. his 

4 * j b j *b i. z* * I 

mouth to my mouth); L*jj <suU w~J»l Lit IJdk this (fruit) is better as 

** * bi- j o ^b*o **** ** * 'Z- 

a grape titan as a raisin; L-j t^Jkjl j>$&\ \$j*3, or Lw i^i^j' the 
people dispersed (like) the bands of Saba (for Lw). — Lastly, the jJU*. 

«^ b J 

may be (4) a proposition, «U a (see § 183). — There may be more Q 

* ' 
than one tjb>. referring to the subject or object of an act, or to 

both ; e.g. UC^lo b&tj joj sb*. Zeid came riding (along) laughing ; 

S * x * j f * 9 9* - t b-a y , 

UjOfcJL* Uit^ juj tjub Mis is Zeid standing talking ; i<-j' lj*) 

* - b ^ i * i, o ' b 1 4 ~ * b * * i 

Lj-oLo I_5_iLp's <ujai;< U5b*. ajj^I my son, in cdarm, met his two 

S J i b J « 

brothers, coming to help him, and they won spoil ; tjuua*o tjUA C.***J 
Sjjia».;.o /, (ichilst) going up, met Hind (a woman) coming down. 
The only case in which a difficulty can arise is when both the hals D 
are of the same gender and number, as tjjo».«,< tjjt«a*o ljuj C~JL) 

* - * ^ ?»^ j b£* 

or L£»!j LwU ljuj C-jtj. Some of the grammarians say that, in 

s - 

this case, the first Jb*. refers to the subject and the second to the 
object, /, (as I was) going up, met Zeid coming down; but others 

maintain that the first jjb^ refers to the object and the second to 
the subject, /, (as I was) riding, met Zeid walking. 

«- « <• W i J * * i i ibr 

Rem. </. The Jb*. may be 5jl£»^o, strengthening, or 5j^»^ j-ji. 

116 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 44 

9 x w i J 

A As SjJhye it may refer either to the verbal regent or to a 

preceding proposition as a whole. If it refers to the verbal regent, 
it may be derived from the verb itself, though this is a com- 

paratively rare case ; as *$3~>j ^UJJ ^JULwjIj and we have sent 

' & lO* * 'W *"' * but iO 3 3* * d * * 

thee to mankind as an Apostle; ^^^ujbj jV*J'.3 J^' J& J 8 * 1 13 

dj-ob Olja. ...,o ^e^a^Jlj j»«iJlj and He hath subjected to you the 

night and the day, and the sun and the moon and the stars, subjected 

by His command. If it refers to a preceding proposition, this must 

B be a nominal proposition, consisting of two definite concrete nouns 

as subject and predicate; as lijJac ^3-*! j*-»j Zeid is thy father, as 

being affectionate ; lijjjt* „fcjj ^A he is Zeid, as well known ; 

UA»»Jii ^UftJ O*^ ^' I am so an d so j valiant (and) brave; 3A 

L«u J£»Jt it is the truth, as manifest ; yj^aut, l^J Isjlcl* Jia*J! 3A9 

awe? i£ «s the truth, as confirmatory of what is with them (of the 

Scriptures which they have already received) ; *}H^t <UJt Jl»c Ut 

Ju * a01 jj^sb l^^ / a»j <Ae servant of God, eating as the servants 

(j (0/ 6W) ea£; ,<*-~J ^ IsjjJt* Sjlj ,^_>t Ul / a??i the son of Dara, 

my lineage being tvell known through her. The ^)\a- is explained 

in these cases by an ellipsis of ASj^\, AA»-t, <U*jI, / know him (or 

it), know it to be true, know him (or it) for certain, and the like; e.g. 

z j s j i j t - )i <i a* # .-j $ , , 2i * h - J -i 

\b^xc &&o-\ *)$i\ joj, Ula^w ^Lfcu Jk».t jj'iUs Lit, etc. 

Rem. e. The JL». is ordinarily Sj£j or indefinite; but it is 
allowable to define it by the article in cases where it may be 
D explained as involving a condition (hjJJ\ ^y*-*), as * r *£»h / JI juj 
j-iLoJt <U« ^>~.».t ^eto?, when he is riding (w-^j til), £ooA;s ?«ore 
handsome than he does when walking (\*£~o tet), instead of the more 
usual LwU <U« ^>-^».t L&tj juj. Further, it may be defined by a 
pronominal sulfix, or otherwise, in various cases, in which it can 

be explained by, or is equivalent to, an indefinite Jl*. ; e.g. 

» * * j * * _ _ « /(> / «/, 

ojwo-^ <ju Ojj~« /passed by him by himself ov alone ( - tj^ii«o), cJLai 

§44] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accns. 117 

t , 1 

^ij^ye*. iJUj thou hast done this to the best of thy ability (= t jLyla^e) ; A 
LS* L5*i ^ <v^a^=> / */w&e &> /*»» ./ace *o face (= S^i^L*) : ^j*M J)>*3 
L-j ^jul (= (j-jijLjX-e. see rem. c, 3) ; Ij-cu-a5j ty-oi ^o-^ L5""*""*' 
(<A« <W6e o/) Suleim came to me, its gravel with its pebbles (i.e. small 
cmtf' areai, one a?^ aff, = Uj. ^) ; iMjjdl lyJLyti a?w^ so lie let them 
(the camels) (70 in a 6o^y, or a croicd, to water (= A^^Jjto) ; 
^jiiJI elpa.)! IjtW. <A«y ca/ue o/£ together (lit. in a grrerti mass, 
covering tlte ground, = \*>** ) . 

Rem. f. The subject or object of the action to which the Jb*. B 
refers, JlaJt w-^-lo or ^JUJ! ji, is usually definite, Sij**. The 
principal cases in which it is indefinite, Spli, are the following. 
(1) When the Jl». precedes it, as J^-j W51S ly*s i?t it (the house) 
is a maw standing ; ^jS JJ-» Lt ^. ^ .« SjjJ '^Issa's is a?i ancient 

r?tm, fe/i! desolate; w>^w a^^Ac y Uo L? ^o^..,a..lbj a«o? in my 
body there is, manifestly, if thou didst (but) know it, a sad change ; 
|L1» RX Kl ....o Ua3I_3 i<J'j*J' WNfltoJj «/«/ tinder the sjiearlieads and C 
sliafts, seeking shelter, are gazelles (women). (2) When the w-^ '-o 
JlaJI is followed by an adjective or a complement in the genitive, 
as \jj^c ^o 1^*1 ^S*- jx>\ J£> Jfjsu \^J in it (that night) is 
settled each wise thing, as a thing proceeding from us ; w>. Lj vT-,;?* *■ 
U j)-^  " ■■« > »Jt ^ j±\a >iXXs ^i <J Os*aJL-»tj Uk.^3 </tow rfiV^ deliver 
Noah, my Lord, and didst answer his prayer, in a ship cleaving 
the sea heavily laden; L»515 J^j jS%& ^J^c in my house is a D 

+ ^ wt ** + its- * * o£ 

?na?is slave standing; ^>JL5l-JJ *lj«, ^ebl iajjt ^.i in four days 
complete — (this) for inquirers. (3) After a negative or an inter- 
rogation, as L5lj ^5-0^- O^o ^>« ^^. U there is no interdicted spot 
appointed to preserve (one) from death ; j*\at^?$\ ,Jt jca-t ^j^»»j ^ 
v*Wa*~J ii j-w . Zo ^*y v»>» ^ no one incline to hang back on the day 

118 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 44 


50/ ul J 

of battle, fearing death; Lib jL+t ^a. Jjk »-U i friend, is a 
life decreed as lasting ? — Slbaweih, however, admitted the correct- 

f *" O J / / 

ness of such a phrase as L>5li> ^J&-j lv*9, and in a tradition we find 

# /_ o / .»»»// a , * i * * ii io j j , z , 

UU5 Jla-j dsljj L5^-«j tj^cli^ato aJUI Jj~>j l5^° ^ Apostle oj 

God prayed sitting, and there prayed behind him [some) men standing. 

Rem. g. As to the position of the Jl»- in a sentence, the fol- 
lowing remarks must suffice, in connection with what will be said 


B elsewhere. — (1) As a rule, the Jl*. is placed after the regent. It 

ul r / J 

may, however, precede it, if the regent be a fully inflected (^fij*aZc) 
verb or verbal adjective, as juj Aa?. L*£»tj riding came Zeid; 

O / / * J 

jJaJj li Uy»~w« iw /tasie is £/m (man) departing ; but we cannot say 

#0///0£/« / 0/0 J / P £ / 91/ 

ljuj ^*ma.I to Ua.Lo and j^t ±J*o ^j^a.\ l£»-Li JuJ, instead 

f /SO/ //Of/ £ / 0/0 J / £ 00 / 

of l£».Li jtjj ^>*~».l to and l£».Li> Jj^* c O-* O"**^ »*£;> because 

//o£ a / £ -> j o j/o£ o2/oj/o£ 

neither ^**».t as w»a,. a CJI (J^si, nor ^^.^.l as s J*~aJLZl\ ,Jjiil, is 

uJ / / J 

C Oj-*aLo. An exception to the latter case is when an object in a 

certain state is compared with itself, or with another object, in a 

5 / J /0£ 

different state, in which case the one ^Jt*. must precede ^Jjiil, and 

# / jo j/o£ #.»/ 00/ 

the other follow it, as Ij^cls <sU* ^^^.l tojls juj Zeid standing 

o j/Oc ; / o j 0/ 

foo&s more handsome than he does sitting, or ^o Jiiil Ijj^Lo juj 

* / 3 / 

fist* jj-o* ^ei(Z a/cme is ?wo? - e iiseful than l Amr assisted (by others). 

3/0/0/ 0/ 

If the regent be a ^yju> jJ-oU (see rem. b), the Jb*. must follow 
it, with rare exceptions in the case of a preposition and its 

/0 ?/3 -J s si /I S J / 

D complement. We cannot use jua >iUJ Sj^a^o, ^^j! IJub td^Ja^c, 

/ j £ #0/ /0/# £ o /£ #0/ 5 £ / * / #/ 3 / j oo /O 

jj^».l ljuj C-sJ l/^ol, Jurfl ljuj (J^ 3 W^*'j> ^ or °A/*!*"* •*** «iU3, 

s j / / j £ /i / /£ £ £ £0/ /0/ o / £ £ / £0/ w £ / 

li^Lc J^jI IjJk, Jjji.1 l^^wol ljuj C-sJ, juj! t£»lj ljuj O l -^» > 

//0 * <»/ 0/ wo * <■•/ 0/ 

nor is it usual to say Jjac 1*513 juj or jljJI ^ U515 J^»j for 

So/ //0 00/ *o/ w«> 00/ 

LjjlS d)juc juj or Uj15 jljJI ^ji Juj, though some read in the 
Kor'an tfLU^u Ob^la-o Ol^^*Jlj and the heavens, folded together, 

§44] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a.) The Accus. 119 

O i 3 * . 

(shall be) in his right hand, instead of Ob^Jsuo, and the heavens A 
(shall be) folded together in his right hand. — (2) The JU. may pre- 
cede the JlaJI wft.Lc, when the latter is the subject (nomin.) or 

3* i * * ibi******* 

direct object (accus.), as juj l£*.L© sU*., IjuA t^j**** vj-"* » unless 

5 „ S * 1*3 Cl * *3lB*> J 3} ** 

the Jl». be restricted by *n)I, as ,jjj*L^ *^t ,j-J-j^oJI ,J->jJ Uj 

, J * 

^jjljj^-c^ and we do not send the Apostles but as announcers and 

* B*> J * 

warners. If the JlaJI w-»-Lo be governed by a preposition, the 

O * * * * 3 } 3 * * Bt**13** 

Jl». must follow it, as i-JU. jUyj Ojj-o, not jUyj «LJU*. C>j^. 1> 

J », , , B * 

Only a poet could venture on an emergency to say )jj O^ 9 O^ 
w r. : ^ ) Lit l*»t»- i«Jt Wi'-* O^*** s'-*" if ever the coolness of 

* £ *" '* ^^ £ , 

water vxis dear to me when parched and thirsty, verily she is dear (to 

i * * *B * S* * - B * * * B * * 3 | « * Bi J * B * 

me), for b^La ^U** ^Jl L-*»». ; or ^jXs o^**J^ O-f - *' ^3^ ^ O^ 

JL». JiSj Uyi I^JbJJ «nc? though (your) herds of camels and 
(your) rvomen be seized, yet ye must not let the murder of Ilibdl pass 

i B * * B * 5 * 

unavenged, for U^i JL»- J^*J - The JU*. may be dependent upon C 

3*0*1 9 * 3 

a preceding <su)l oLcl* (see § 75), when the i^uiuo, or governing 
word, is naturally capable of being its regent (masclar, nomen 

i*i * i B J * * I J * * * Bi 

agentis, etc., see rem. 6), as Z$js*~*> juA w>jus I jdt> ; >&L3 { .i..s ! ..e.\ 
Uj— *o juj ; Ujotfc ^Xa^.j-6 aJJ I .Jt to GW sAa?Z fo your return 

*» ' * v* *o * Z * *•***• QtO 1 *-5-a j j ** 

altogether ; ^*j£ ba>i f JlP' ^' tj^lj «il5^Uxil ,jt j^^I-ol J>*J 

* *f * 

U bi *j) my daughter says, Verily thy departing alone to tear will 

5 * 1 

one day leave me without a father ; or when the oLiue is a part, J) 

B* 9 * J B 3 IS * *B*** 

really or tropically, of the aJI oLcl«, as £ye> ^t%j} jus ^J U UcjJj 

* £ * * * ^*** 

t * B M 

Ul^i.1 Ji an(^ We toill remove what is in their breasts of rancour 

4*3 B } 1 

as brethren (lil^».t dependent on the suffixed pronoun in^^Jkjjjwo); 

4 * * * 3 * Z & £ *y £ *B* * 3 * Bi- Si J 

Uu-i*. >0 -Jbljj| iL« ?»-v' o' , ^^' U ; ^.^l ^j then We revealed unto 
thee, Folloiv the law of Abraham as a hanlf i.e. inclining to the 
rt</ft< stoto or senmd in faith (U«^»> dependent on ^J8lj->l, dJLe being 

120 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 44 

A virtually a part of ^Jkl^jt, and the phrase quite clear and correct 

* - - *a 2 

without it, U^ia. ^Jktjjl f-31). 

Rem. h. The Jla*JI W J««U may be suppressed, either necessarily 
or optionally. It is omitted necessarily, for example, in the case of 
a AX^s>. jj^o-^toJ Sj^aj^ Jl». (see rem. d), as li^lac j)y>\ juj ; in 
forms of salutation or congratulation, as, to one departing, tjuJ>U 
Ljj^-o taking the right way and directed by God, scil. i^Jb^t #0; to 

B one returning from the pilgrimage, ljju~o lj^ rewarded and 

accepted, scil. 0~*jJ> thou art arrived, or thou art returned ; 
to one eating, Ujj~« U*^a easy o/ digestion and wholesome, scil. aJL£», 
4,.J^>, 6$y£s, etc., ea£ i£, = may it agree with thee or you* ; and in 
such phrases as (t„xcUas) Ijulji ^>;ju <CJjlwt / bought it for a 
dirham and upwards, scil. Ijutj l J>©^)t w>J>i, or SjsA*o, and the 

C price went on increasing or went higher ; *^sL*J jUjju O3juo5 

I gave in alms a dinar and less, scil. *ikilw <au Jjjucu.oJt wAJJ wc? 
<Ae amount of what was given in alms went lower. But the omission 
is optional in such phrases as L^lj riding, in answer to C^a. v-^* 2 -* 

/ttwo c^o^ £Aow come? for L^lj C-JU*. ; (j,">»-l W-~s*5 *j-« Wo^o^l 

« Temimite at one time, and a Kaisite at another ? scil. ^J^-wl or 
jJa^jI, dost thou change, or iwrw, thyself into — ? or JU^Jol dost 

J s , - - t> - - i 3 - »«» J D *i 

D thou affect the nature of — ? A^lJat ^■o-s^J ^ jjl (^L-j^l w*~»=w.j! 

<*j^ l^3~~> O' 15^ 0<P^ r5^ ( l° es 1n an think that We shall not 

* j s * 
re-unite his bones ? Yea, (we will re-unite them, l v »,.»a».i) being able 

to put together evenly the bones of his fingers. — It may even happen 

* .. 1 - * « 1 

* [Tf ^->.y> £«-* be considered as epithets of the masdar *$£=>\ 

understood, this phrase belongs to the class mentioned § 35, h, a. 
Comp. Lane sub Jj-*-] 

§44] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 121 

that the actual Jl». itself is suppressed, and only a word or phrase, A 
which is dependent upon it, expressed; as^^y-J^ ^j^J^-ju i£5*}LoJlj 
jj^Xz j^%~> w>L» yj£z &* and the angels shall go in unto them 
through every gate y {saying, ,>*i5U») Peace be upon you. 

d. The motive and object of the agent in doing the act, the 
cause or reason of his doing it ; as \ij±. Co^k / fled for fear ; 

w>j*JI yjs- OjjiS thou didst refrain from going forth to war 
out of cowardice; *i \~-t& L5 ^' <^->j*° I beat my son for the sake B 
of correcting him; ^iUw*^ l^. jkir . 7 <xi j»$i\ <Qlj 13! when I see him, 

3 S S i 10 s * 

I stand up before him to show respect to my teacher ; «u Ij^iwt l« S . » 

have sold their souls, that they shoidd not believe in what God has 

» i ' i i * o* - i*> oi a 9 * Ci * 

sent down (revealed), out of envy; ^J&j-t ^ w>U£JI Jjbl ^>« jt^> *5 

& j si. & o ^// #fii 'J,' 1 o*-o 

^y~Ju\ juc k j-« IjU^ ^iulojl juu ^>« many of those who have C 
Scriptures would like if they could make you unbelievers again, after 
ye have believed, out of selfish envy: j-uJI aiU~o \j& wJjis / did so 

and so for fear of harm, or ^i^ ^ JJ jjl <LiU»»« for fear that thou 

shouldst reproach me; aJJI oLi^* sUIjI a— iJ v^J - ^ t>* w^^l 0-*J 
awe? #/" w« there are who sell themselves (give up their lives) to win 

* a * a * j a&* i* * ■**> - t -.- - -a - -> 

the favour of God> (for SLi^); ^ u^j^h d jt»ol ^rij^^ ^jj* j-^h 
Uj£> ^ff-^JJt j£Jj I forgive the harsh language of the noble, that I may D 
treasure him up (as a friend in time of need), and I disregard the 
abuse of the vile out of generosity ; ,j-e ^yJlit ^ ^y*j\*a\ ^j ^ Xxa.i 

O^-frJI jJ^»- Jicl^-cJI they put their fingers in their ears on account 

of the claps of thunder, through fear of death. Such an accusative 
is usually either indefinite or else in the construct state ; definition 

by the article is not common, as i \sh^ sy i\ ^s- o-^-" * wt *' *$ I refrain 
not from battle out of cowardice. 

w. ii. 16 

122 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 44 

2 0. < 9 / - 

A Rem. This accusative, which must always be a i,*X3 jj~ & *, 

a mental or intellectual nomen verbi, is called by the grammarians 

j/ j j o -o^ o ? o of jjo /o/ 

aJ J^huLq.)!, or («*A».I ,,>*) aJI».'^) JjJM-oJt, £Aa£ o?i account of which 


something is done. It is the answer to the question <l«J why ? 

e. Various other determinations and limitations of the predicate ; 

#0/ 00/ / ^ ZO, J0/0.O / / 

as L«ii juj w>U» Zeid is cheerful in spirit; b^J ij^JI w>li» the rose 

* / / 69/ / £ / / 

is charming in colour ; \3j* juj w**-oj .Z^'c? streamed with perspi- 

tf d ** J tw ^ • y -- D *»• 

B ration ; L*-*-w ^t^JI JaIwIj aw<# wy Amrf glistens with hoariness; 
iitjj Jb&JI O.P tu*}b>.t our grave minds surpass the mountains in 

Z / / / o / o£ 

weight (ox firmness); \*>j£=> o*»yjl thou art a marvel of generosity ; 

* / /O5<«J0// * / / / iO*> J / / 

\j j3 p«wuJ I Oo»ij / raised the chief in dignity ; j/a~w ±joJ^ ' Owjii 

? J J /0 CO'' / w / / 

I planted the land with trees; b^*c c^j*i" M>^3 aw ^ w ^ ?warfe £/*£ 

#/ .> / lit / 

earth break forth with springs ; 3j„*5 j *t&* aiM Croo? ?s great in might; 

2)0''* j/ « J/ ( (/ / o £ / o£ 

b^»> >»jU*. jA fo is a Hdtim in generosity ; j%=>\$ *$j^* 1^5^ *£**' 

C n)U if/wM «r£ higher in station and richer in wealth; Sj la». swJ l£> ^^ 

«/i/ 2/! «E 

S^.3 jtwl jl «??<£ £/^?/ (your hearts) were /«fe stones, or even harder (lit. 

:"£ 0/ /t // c / ;p 0/ £ o I 

stronger as to hardness); bl jiu bl ^ej^l U, or bl jSL> ^j\j j>j£=>\, 

0/ $ / / 

Aow wo/We *s ilfol 2?£#r as a father ! **jj L»-L© ^su excellent is Zeid 

# / J / 

«s a companion ! j-^-> b>e*ibi i^~- £-^ very bad is Bisr as a slave ! 

/ / / £ j / j w >*» / o / 

blj dLol jlj jljJI ^jUj aw«? excellent is the provision, thy father's 

* ' JO < m <# 

provision, as a provision! l^-ob aj **L.~.e»- £/«/ sufficiency is in Him 

D (//« suffices thee) as a helper; L»jb' «p aJJ ?/7^a^ a man he is as a 
horseman! (lit. to God belongs his outflow or emanation, from none 

* J / J * 0/ § zO/ 

other could he emanate) ; 'iLfc.j ^j w//«^ rt »?«?? /^ is ! {p*i} being 
here a w«a»«3 »-?>*. ox particle of surprise)', [L»jli 4«u ^>lj ^-»- yk 
///? w 6^^e? - rt.? a pedestrian than as a horseman, § 48, e, rem. «]. 

j 05/ j w / j »/ 

Rem. a. Tliis accusative is called j^w^JI or j^-oJt, M^ specified- 

§44] The Verb.— 3. Government of the Verb.— (a) The Accus. 123 

j - - j .-- 

<ion, and also^*— JuJI or^,..J^Jt, and ^.^Dl or ^**^JI, ffo explanation. A 

It is an indefinite substantive, Sj&^o-J, placed immediately after 
the proposition of which it limits or defines the predicate. In the 

grammatical structure of the sentence it is a aJLos, like the Jl^. 

(see c, rem. a). The grammarians regard it as governed by the 

. , 9-930- 

verb in the preceding clause, of which it was the J.eli or JjjuLo, 

1_ 9 0- 9 - 

before its transference to the place of j~^J to the actual J^li or 
J^jjuLo ; or, if the preceding clause be nominal, as having been g 

transferred from the place of the lj£~e. Thus LJu joj w>U» is 

- 3 0- - - 20- - d fO 3> o -- 

equivalent, they say, to juj Lr Ju Oulk ; Ijjji i--^JI C~xJj to 

'll* ' *' 3 0-- i- 3 9 • 3 it - r * - - it 10 3- 3 

->.~~}\ jjJ wojij ; 5j jj ^..bc <*JUI to A+glag oJJ' 5 j •** ; and 
•JU ills ji4l j£j to iUU ^ J j£s\ jJj JU The J-^5 may be 

• 30-** - n jo, 

explained by ^« with the genitive when it is JytA^JI ^6 J^-iU^, 
as^a^w ^>-« c^j'i" % ^*~'j£; instead of |^*~w ; but not when it is q 

-0*3 - t 3 - 0-0 9 - - - 

jJ^UJI ^a Jj^jLu, for ^-jj ^»o juj wjlb is nonsense. [Instead of 
Ljj\s and >»;; in the phrases quoted Iwjli op dJU and *^».j *a»^3 

- 3-0 90- 

we may use ^jli ,j-o and J*-, ,j*. See § 18, 6.] — The j-~«J may 
occasionally be placed, by poetic license, before the predicate which 

J - - 0*& Z - - - - - - - - - OS - d - 3 3 -t 

it limits, as w« jfex i i J'jAJb l — «J O^ '*°i W**- <3!/**W jrti-1 j^*-h' 
taiW Selmd sever herself' from her lover by going away {from him), 
though she ts not cheered in spirit by going aivay ? U-wj wo^tjt l*j ta 

- - - 0*a - e- 

^■^ l j^^'j a?i< ^ I did not refrain, tfiongh my head glistened with 

. 90- i - -0 90 < -3 -0 

hoanness. Such phrases as juj L».Us j^xj and j^u U*}JU ^«X» 
are no exceptions to the ordinary rule, as they stand for yk^jjj 

50^ £ *• 40 4*3 3 3 Z. jO -a 

juj L».lo or jJL> U*}lc 0**jM u-~W- The transposition of the 
- - - 

j-~-dJ can take place only when the previous clause contains a verb 
which is v»?^-cu-9 (see e, rem. g), as ^...Iaj and Jjtwl in the 

124 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 44 

9*i , , 1 9 

above examples*. Should it even happen that the v-jj-al* Jjii 
bears the meaning of a i^g^oJU j^c ^ats, no transposition can take 

»/ , , t , ^ t , b, , , 

place ; we cannot say JuJj 15*^ UJLi, instead of LoJU »*-»j^ 15*^*) 
there is a sufficiency in Zeid (Zeid suffices) as a scholar, because 

? , , , z , j , B £ , hi , , ■**. 

l^JU <u  _**-» is here equivalent to l«JU «Ui=! U, and a > ^ > %J t3 ^J-O 

Ml ^ • J J B , 

is LijM£UOjy»C. 

B Rem. 0. The accusative after the cardinal numbers from 11 to 

19 and from 20 to 99 (see Vol. i. §§ 322, 323), is also of this class, 

, ,B*> ) B , tj, ,,, ,,£ 

being a ijeaJt J-»*o-> or specification of number ; as *^.tw) j-Z-£ J^t 

Z , , ,, B , , B 2,,jB,9,£ 

eleven men, <Ui ojjLg jc~J nineteen years, LeU O^J-^J **^' owe 

and twenty years, 3-w ^-Jl^j jjjt eighty years old (lit. a sort of 
eighty years). 

Rem. c. To this class also belongs the specification of weight 

j 0,0, j a ,0, j , , », j ,0 B, OB, 

C (Oj^) an d measure (^Si\, i^L-oJt, ^LiLoJI), in which the j g +3 

follows a single indefinite noun, and specifies the article of which 
that noun expresses the quantity ; as \Xjj ^)^j a pint of olive-oil, 

Z B , , , , 

L*m> o'^*** 6 t wo nianas (four pou7ids) of clarified butter (ghee), 
l^-j J-jA-5 a kaflz of wheat, Li. ^e>f O^lp two cuo ^ s °f cloth, 

4 B , B, ,JB,,B 1 B , 9 , 

Ij-oJ ^^-jftLs C-»jjJLwl / bought two sots of dates, %a*J *-*ij^ tJ 

~ , 9 }, i B , 9 B 

I own a gerlb of date-trees ; £U w>>^ a bucket of water, U^w .«»»-} 

D a s&m of ghee, *&>±. }$s \j a jar of vinegar, ^L~c w*»- « j^o< 0/ honey ; 

ljuj*»». ^Ui. a ri?i^f 0/ iro?t, L».L> w»b a door of teak-wood, 

i , , ,,B , J , B , B, 

a coat of silk ; L*5 5J^». ^)*J ^ JUp ^^-wJ / Jutve not got 

, 4*1 j 

(«/ , , ,&£ i B , Bt B , , 

* [The transposition of bto in the words jjU=» LjI U*o j}\ ^Xi 

A and I did not know, which of us two slied the most tears (Dozy, 
Supplem. i. 654, a, 1. 6) is allowed because V a> is the comparative of 

9 , i B , J , 9 1 B , 

^rc*\~. 1 pouring forth. But perhaps bvo is here ai ^hyuLo for tears 
(Fleischer, A7. Schr. ii. 556). D. G.] 

§ 44] The Verb. — 3. Government of the Verb. — (a) The Accus. 125 

j a - » - 

the weight of a grain of mustard-seed in gold, i^.\j jjj £ 1<-JI ^ U A 
bla»~/ (or bUb~r \J^r> *~oy*) there is not in the sky a cloud the size 

i,* aia-a a *i **at a '* 

of a hand; L*i u^j^ **J*° »**■' O-* J^*i O^ there shall not be re- 
ceived from any one (of them) the full of the earth in gold ; S^JI ^Xt 
I juj lyJLLo on each date its like in fresh butter (a piece of fresh butter 

o ' : *?* *a*o j a * 

of the same size). — This J~£JI_j OJ>" j*z+* i s equivalent to the 

5ilol (§ 75) or to the preposition ^j^ with the genitive ; e.g. B 

\jj ySi =jj jJ3 or jj ,j-e J-»aS. In some cases, however, there may 

be a difference ; e.g. £L* ^y> means a bucket (full) of water, a 

f ^ i * * 
bucketfd of ivater, whereas §Lo »->jJ5 may mean not only a bucket 

of icater, but also a bucket for water, a water-bucket. 

Rem. d. Finally, to this class belongs the accusative after the 

a - * i * 

interrogative nouns of number j^ and ^\£s, how much ? how 
many ? and the indefinite \j£s, so and so much or many [included C 

1 - - a, ' * * 

under the name ObUfll]. — (1) ^^ (contracted for Uib the like 
of what, = U Jl« or U jj3, see Vol. i. § 351, rem.) is either 
& i *\ y su-i\ interrogative, = i jut ^1 what number? or 2uj~±. assertory 
or predicative (or exclamatory), = j, . * g-> much, many. (a) As 


interrogative, j^s is followed by an indefinite substantive in the 

* * a it* a * 

accus. sing., as Jju£ *^.j j^s how many men are there in thy 

« - , * i - j a, 

house ? w-a!3 yiiJ Lo*iUi ^^ hoio many slaves of thine are going 

- o - * t a * a, 

away? ajj . ; i JL* Ijufc ^^ how many slaves unit thou buy? J) 

* * j * e a , , , j, t „ a , 

»iX3 oXLc^^ hoio many like it hast thou? iX) ej^M J^s how many 
besides it hast thou ? *iXi xU l^-a. j^ how many better than it hast 
thou? A phrase like UU^c *& j*=> how many slaves hast thou? is 
no exception to the rule, because the^I^ of jj=> has been omitted, 
viz. La5, and Ul^U is in the accus. as a Jl». (see c, rem. b and 
rem. c, 3). If governed in the genitive by a preceding substantive 
or a preposition, the j^^c may be put in the genit, as well as the 

126 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 44 

A accus. ; e.g. cJLlbl (J»».j) *^»-j ^o^ Jjjj ^ pension of how many 
men liast thou granted? IJl* OsJjJLwl (loJkp) _^*»ji^-i f or h° w many 

* * a* * o * * o t a o * * * 

dirhams didst thou buy this ? *£aJLjJ C J u u * ( p Ju*.) U- J*.o- ^£» .Jit ow 

/m>m> many beams hast thou placed the roof of thy house ? (/?) As 

assertory or predicative (or exclamatory), j^s is followed by a 
substantive in the genitive of the singular or of the broken plural, 

and requires a verb in the perfect ; as CJCJU oU^ jtr^ many a 

B slave have I owned, or how many a slave have I owned ! = ^0 !/*££» 

i j\ u0 Xki\; Osii.) I ^pAp j^ many a dirham have I spent, or Iww many 

a dirham have I spent ! This genitive is explained by an ellipsis of 

^0, which is often expressed; as ,<i*3 •>) Ot^o-JI ^J .iJUU 0-°^o^9 

ILw^J^ULw and there is many an angel (or how many an angel is 
there) in heaven, whose intercession shall be of no avail ; ^a ^o^j 
Ia'-XIaI «UjJ and many a town have We destroyed, or how many a 
C town have We destroyed ! If, however, j^s be separated from the 

j~+*o, the latter should be put in the accusative, not in the genitive, 
as^ojcc jJlc "i^ai^oy^o .-JU^o^s many a bounty luive I received from 

t - j »n«> - 3, 1 * , t * at* 

tliem when (I was) in want; Ij^j^swo uaj*$\ ^yc ajj}^£sj iJLiyty 

lijli she (the camel) makes for Sinan, but on this side of him there 
is many a tract of land, the valley of which is deeply hollowed; though 

the genitive is also admissible in poetry, as Jlyj SU^-o i^e jjji j^ 

lyj there is on this side of Maiya many a frightful desert • ^Ji j^s 

D clij jw£»-U dAwjJl^pirw.o j^-» j$L) ^j.i jutw i-o ^Aere is among the 

Benu Sa'd 'ibn Bekr many a chief large in gifts, glorious and useful 
(to his tribe). — Unless it be governed by a preceding substantive or 

a preposition, j^s always stands at the beginning of the clause. 

If a singular J**** be followed by a pronoun referring to it, that 

j j ot* j * a < 

pronoun may be either singular or plural, as aZjIj J*»j j*=* or 

o j jo£s *j * £' a*o * St ) * * ~ * - a * * 9ii/ j 

j^Ay lyiJU Z\j*\ j^a or O-v-***' f^ ^^ i>° ^=*3- — T,le jo** 

- ^ J * < 

may, of course, be often omitted after j^, as dAJLo^o^ hotv much 

§44] The Verb.— 3. Government of 'the Verb.— (a.) The A ecus. 127 

t * - j - o - 

is thy property? scil. IjUjj ; ^JUl<JLc ^__> Aoio many slaves hast A 

« 0- - - 

thou? scil. L-jLj ; 0>~» ^o^s Aow; ^/ar hast thou travelled? scil. 
U»— >j$ or *}L-o ; w*^U dJUl jl*c ^£9 Aow long will 'Abdu 'Hah 
efe/ay ? scil. icU or U^j ; juj ,*Jsl». ^£b Aow? often lias Zeid come 
to thee? scil. oj* ; [^xLe 4JUI Jy-»j >*•*£«« ^l— ^ O^ 9 ^*^ Ch' 
ioj*-oJt Aow many years old was Hassan, when the Apostle of God 
arrived at *El-Afedlna?~\. — (2) ^l--* or ,^jl_b, compounded of 3) B 
and the genitive of ^1 10J10? which? [Vol. i. §§ 351, 353, rem. c] 
is scarcely ever employed interrogatively, as w%»fr> O^ l5^' cJ^ 

y^ju~ij \j*£j JUi w>IJa.^I Sj^-» \jJJ v>i'^ >5* ■■■< 0-»^) '£'»ei 'i6w 

^a'6 «u'e? /o 'Ibn Mas l ud, As how many (verses) dost thou read the 
Chapter of the Confederates (Kor. xxxiii.) ? And he said, Seventy- 
three. Its ordinary use is assertory or predicative (or exclamatory), 

followed by the accus. singular, as w~»lj *^f~j CH^ many a man 

(or how many a man) have I seen ; but more usually by ^c with C 

the genitive, as j~£r> £)$?>j **-« J«3tS ^*j ^« ^libj and how 

many a prophet (is there), with whom many myriads have fought ! 
- 1 u *$* a > * - o .. - - i j * ;„--.-- /i ji« — •» .<£ - - 

U^J** ^V** ^»*5 W^ 0_3>*! C^J^'j Ol^-Jt ^ 4jI ^>a CH^5 

and /tow many a sign is there in heaven and earth, by which they 

pass, turning away from it! L5 -»'^t 1$^' 15-"'' l>« k£^3 many a 
grief is too great to be consoled by any examples (of resignation). 
It is disputed whether it can be preceded by a preposition, as in D 

' OS* - 1 J - we- 

the phrase w>^3l tjkA s.**j ^liu for how much wilt thou sell this 
piece of cloth ? (another example of the interrogative use). — (3) \j£=t 
(sometimes written ^J^d), so and so much or many [Vol. i. § 340, 
rem. d], requires after it an indefinite accus. in the singular, as 

IjLkC l»x--> cXU I possess so and so many slaves ; Lo-*>i tjkib ^ju£ 
/ A«w so anfZ so many dirhams by me. It is more usually doubled, 
tjkfbj ljk_b, as l^o IJiibj tjk£b jjuUI jj-o JIS Af mW« (lit. sazW) so 

128 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 45 

and so many verses of poetry ; ajjU. IJ^j \j£=> j-^^)t <J>Iwl the 
amir bought so and so many slave-girls; ^)lw^j juu L**j ^yJUil j^ 
wX-.aJ! i<~»J <u UiaJ IJl£»j tjc£» Ij^ti promise thy soul ease after 

thy affliction, calling to mind such and such favours, through which 
trouble is forgotten. The conjunction is sometimes omitted, and 

some say that there is a distinction between \j£r>$ \j£=> and 

\j£s \j£s ; e.g. U-Ap IJ^» 'J^ ^Ac oj means, according to them, 

B / owe him so and so many dirhams, from 11 to 19, whereas 

LoJkji IJAj IJc£» means at least 21 dirhams. 

f. An act expressed by a nomen verbi, with which another act, 
expressed by a finite tense, is compared ; as I^c^aI*.! oSj\ JlS o^XzH 
they killed him in the same way as his son killed their brother 'Anir ; 
juj yi\ J»jto~d <uj«x*j ljuj w>Jcc he tortured Zeid just as 'Isma'U, 
ZeicPs father ', //«rf twtured Mm \; ^^yJUwJtwt jJDt ^UU aJJI Jo^ju 3J5 

C vfrv^' vfft^* 1^5"^ jr^W and if God should hasten evil upon men, 
as they would fain hasten good, verily their end {death) would be 
decreed. For this accusative may be substituted 3 with the genitive 
of the nomen verbi, or U^ with a finite tense of the verb ; e.g. in the 
first example, <«-jI JJ & ^ or <cj1 Jj:S l^ [comp. § 27, £>]. 

45. If an entire clause, consisting of a subject and a predicate, 

be annexed to another clause, to define or limit either the subject 

or object of the latter, then the predicate of the former is placed 

D before its subject and put in the accusative, the subject being left 

in the nominative (see § 73). For example : lj3~X» -iUJj^J j^Jj 
»j6J\^\ Ij^tJ^ <UJtj1 Timnr-lhik (Tamerlane) turned his back, aftei- 

his van had been broken and his rear struck with panic ; 1^31 ^JJI >* 

w/w produceth gardens with trellises for vines and without them, 
and the palmtrees and, the grain, with their various edible fruits 

§48] The Verb.— S. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : o^. 129 

j j j l t - o j t «• e j i j j i if* a Z & , * a* ** j «c/ 

UU. ij\£s U all I 2lij t,^-* QW- ^ w^ ^'^ a?r«# my disgrace 
with the sword, let God's decree bring upon me what it may (^^ WJU*. 
= j^jic w«i». Oij> Q^f- in. rhyme for Ul»). 

(b) T 7 ^ Prepositions. 

46. The prepositions all originally designate relations of place 
(local relations), but are transferred, first, to relations of time (tern- B 
poral relations), and next, to various sorts of ideal relations, conceived 
under the figure of the local relations to which they correspond. — 
They are divided into simple and compound. — The simple prepositions 
are again divisible into three classes, indicating respectively motion 
proceeding from or away from a place, motion to or towards it, and 
rest in it. 

47. The prepositions which indicate motion proceeding from or 
away from a place, are ,>* (ex) out of, from, and ^s- (ab) away 
from. q 

Rem. In Hebrew and Aramaic fft supplies the place both of 

,j-e and ^c. 

48. ^y> (with pronominal suffixes ^j-^-o, U«, -ilu, a^c) desig- 
nates : — 

(a) The local point of departure, departure from a place ; as 

5-x-o (j-e £•■**" ^ e wen t forth from Mekha ; U ju ^c Jaiw it fell 

from her hand I; j»\jaJ\ ,xa..... < JI i y* "^J ajuau j^^I ^JJl (jla».*..> tj 

(I declare) the glory of Him who transported His servant by night 
from the sacred Temple (at Mkkka). Hence it is connected with 
verbs which convey the idea of separation, departure, holding oneself 
or another aloof from any person or thing, liberating, preserving, 

fleeing, frightening away, forbidding, and the like ; as ^.. arw .) I jA 

«»»>l»v£JI ft . o^ o-° ^a i i* this is the fortress which preserves (us) from 

w. ii. 17 

130 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 48 

A 77 7 •• " f "° ' it lO > it 

A all calamities ; *o-bJI o-* ^W 3>cl I take refuge with God (pray 
God to preserve me) from covetousness ; ^^aJI O-* £**3 LJ*^' ^ wor/o* 
holds (us) back from good ; Sj^lj ^-ij s j^ ) ^ZZX*. ^JJI who hath 
created you (brought you into existence) from one soul. Hence too 
its use to signify, on the one hand, by or through, as w)UI jj»o c^*0 

he came in by, or through, the door ; l^U 2UJI ^$jZj ,JJI \ 1f e ! .\jj\ ^s 
B towers through which the water ascends; j-o^lj t^* * » * ^i tJI jJ*J tit 

* Ct & 6 * 

w)U,... J I JiXs ^-© w^w we foo/fc at the sun and moon through an open- 
ing in the clouds; and, on the other hand, in place of, instead of 
(= Jj^), as S^.*N)t ,jx> tJjJt S^-a^JU ^JLwojt are #e contented with 

the life of this world instead of the next ? SSLj*^ j&>*> LX*»J lUJ ^j 

^j^iXa^ u°j$ ' ^ aw^ v we pleased, we could place (or create) in 

j ia>e * a j* o **■ 

your stead angels to succeed (you) on the earth ; J^aJ t ^y> J> JJ ^)j 

** a j««> 

UU mJ U t and she had not tasted the pistachio-nut instead of (common) 

■f * s s * b s ^vi d * *■ * s * 

vegetables; \&4j£> j>j-oj gU ^>o UJ wsJi oh would that we had a 
draught instead of the water of Z^mzem /]*. 

(b) The temporal point of departure, the point at which an act 
Or state has commenced ; as ajUw ^yo <UJ t juc he served God from 

O Z *o * o * Cue * w - w »-'• J - 

Ats 2/ow^/i ; j o».U t ^t jtj-oJ ' O- ^oJ**^ I C-5 ^ £/^ time of learning 

extends from the cradle to the grave ; ^•ot^- J>y> O^j^ O-* Oj***-^ 
D £^ey have been chosen from the times of the battle (lit. day) of Halima. 

Vi * Ox? s vt *■ * 3 .  ■- * *» 

* [In the words «xaJI <&-<> »xaJI 13 **xj *j)j Zamahs'arl, Fdik, 

i. 159, explains ^a by Jju i.e. iXj^Lcj ^Utlis Jju, riches will not 

profit the possessor thereof instead of Thee, i.e. £Ae obedience and 
submissiveness to Thee. Commonly it is said to have here the signi- 

fication of jUft with Thee (comp. Lane in v. juh.). D. G.J 

§ 48] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : o»* 131 

Rem. a. The Arab grammarians say that ^ya, when used in the A 
above significations, is employed ^LojJIj \JS-^\ ,-$ «uUtM 6 1juj*}) to 
denote the commencement of the limit in place and time, or simply 
6 tjuJ^U to denote the commencement. 

Rem. b. The tribe of Hudail used .JLo in these senses as well 
as £y*; e.g. *-<,.$-> ,-L© lya.j^.1 he brought it out of (^yt) his sleeve; 

-*. , yJ ^yi fix*. ->.aJ ^Lt> C+j &j i j£ >»--JI sUj CH*--' ^^2/ (*be 

clouds) drank of the sea-water, t/ien they rose from (^yo) the dark- -t» 
green flood with the sound of the storm. 

o j a j 

[Rem. c. On ^yo in the signification of Ju*o see § 61, rem. d.~\ 

(c) The causal point of departure, the origin and source of a 
thing ; as ^JeU*. Lj ,j-« ^L)3 ^is is in consequence of information 

that reached me; l^Lo w,*^. * * j ^iy aw«7 jfe ^txxf admiring it (or 
icondering at it, his wonder proceeding from, or being caused by, it) ; C 

j a l • <• .- 5 

Iji^cl ^yjUJai. U-o f^y ?twe drowned because of their sins (the par- 
tide l« is merely expletive and does not interfere with the govern- 

o * , , a * a 3 * ~ * * at 

ment of \^yt>) '•> <*-^J^-« O-* ^-«*-ij eW»» ^^5-**^ he is silent out of 
modesty, and others are silent through fear of him. Hence its use after 
verbs meaning to sell and to give in marriage, as cb, w-Aj, *-jj ; 
e.g. Lyi <sU*» zl> he sold to him a horse ; j^*o <*JJI Jj-y O-* ^- % *! 1 
JjjIj-j J^.j / «>/«? to the Apostle of God a pair of trousers ; *-jJ D 

* \ a a a*o £ a to j*sa*9 j t - 

Jta—J ^>j ^^xjuJI A-*.l ^jj! jj-6 <CUjI jJ-oi^-jI Ishmael gave his 
daughter in marriage to his nephew, Esau the son of Isaac. 


Rem. a. The grammarians say that ^yc is used in this case 


^yJjuXi to assign the reason. 

a i a 

Rem. b. In speaking of persons J**.' 0-*> a ' 4 account of, is 
always used instead of ^yo, and often too in other cases ; as 

132 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 48 

A t^JL^k. t ^c 15&J i<*JI she on whose account, or for whose sake, thou 

weepest; ^oUJaJI J^.1 £>*> (j^i\ *U£ jU ^ jlc ^.5 jUs it is a 

threefold disgrace for a man to be in misery on account of {for want 

s s £ 

of) food; a*%!=s J**.t vi>* because of what he said. 

(d) The distance from a place, person, or thing, particularly after 
words which signify proximity, such as w>ji or U,> to be near, v^J-* 
near, etc. (compare Lat. prope ab eo, Fr. pres de lui, rapproche' de lui) ; 

B e. g. vov*^ lA^ ' V> 9 ^ arm?/ was near them ; ^.U Uj he was not 
far from me (^1 Oj would mean lie came up close to me); wJUa) ^*~iJ 

iUw^l ^ Ljj.5 L^-^n! ^ O' -<A*J' it behoves the student not to sit 
near, or close to, the teacher. [Hence its figurative use in the phrases 
quoted § 44, b, rem. a near the end : Ij^-H J^U* ^e yk etc., and in 
the following examples : »iU* vO^*M IJufc U wAa£ relation is this lad 
C to you? <*-u C-sJlj *£U* ys /*e is cfose to you and you are close to him 
(in birth and rank); ^>c w-Jj »£U* C~J ^jjli /am wo£ iw union 

with you nor you with me; ^y** jjJI *i)j ij O-* IjJ I* i" ^«w wo 

concern with diversion, nor has diversion any concern with me. In the 

o , ... • 

last two phrases %^> ^ may be supplied, in which case tj*o has the 

partitive meaning, as in %^> ^j j^ I o-° u^ he is in no part of 
D science, i.e. ^ has nothing to do with science.] 

(e) The difference between two persons or things which are con- 
trasted or compared with one another ; as ^jhJ I o-* *>*^ ' o>*> Ja 

» j«4 / / Ojoa> )-$- Jut *>* 

dost thou know the good from the bad? ^ .La^l ,>* j^L^\ ^Xxj «UJtj 
but God knows him that dealeth foully from him that dealeth fairly ; 
tj^s, J^Jbj 9-y o-* ^-^ Ch' what a difference there is between thee 
and Noah in length of life ! lit. where art thou from Noah and his 
length of life 1 Hence the use of ,>« after comparative adjectives ; as 

§ 48] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : ch>- 133 

J ' -- - - - JO 

j^j-u J-ail yb fo is ware excellent than I ; <u« <^-UJb Jt»-I O-**^ 

we are fwore deserving of (or Aat'e. a better right to) the kingdom 
than he. 

Rem. a. If an. object be compared with itself in a different 
respect, the appropriate pronominal suffix must be attached to the 

O *"** 3 O ** J s i J St s 

preposition £y«; as^yjbU^oyio^o^Jlojj <ju£I ^UJI people are more 
like the time in which they are born than they are like their fathers ; 

- o a jo j/9c sis ; ji jj 

OU-j'iU^ov*^ V>*' «J^3i j*£M ^9* they were nearer unbelief on that 

_ i * ei * s so - ^ ii *3, si si * s s s 

day than belief; ^^c Jj^wl .... ojJ\j S jdJb ^1 aJUIj lit 2u\ b Jlii B 
ig*>\ iJI 6w< Ae said: my father ! I have more longing for a 

s sBsS s s J » si 

piercing thrust than I have to see my son; w>/*JI ^.Jlc j/0 £o bl 

i J is s s- s i S3 s * is t 

j&yz «—>>*Jl O-* L5** *■£$*»' -^ Aawe wore /ears o/" injury to the 
Arabs by you than I have of injury to you by the Arabs ; ^ib\ b^j 
j-ft-LawJ Lj^-e aJUI Jj~»j ?-l/a^ and verily I was more concerned 

w , ; s *^s , s s Vi ' ' 

about the wounds of the Apostle of God than I was about my own C 

sis s * ii si s \ o sis s j s ii si 

wounds; y^y> ly-*^ 9 \^\ L5~° J - *^' '•** (J-* \^3^ i^[ J*- 6 ' ^' 

it so s s 

t^yJ I Olji / am more inclined to its being (derived) from this root 
than I am to its being (derived) from (one of) tlwse which contain 

s bs3 si Si s s i 6 i-? } sj •? J S S S S S 

the letter n ; w^»Jb yk b#* j*±\ _^-b*)b oUUl d^o*, u^J ^ ie pos- 
sessed, may God have mercy on him ! more knowledge of science tluxn 
of war (with U explet.). — Sometimes, in a less careful style of 

speaking or writing, the preposition ^^ is annexed to the latter 

of the two objects, instead of to the person or thing which is D 
compared with him or itself in respect of these two objects; as 

s .. «-- s s ii s s isS J J S J s s 

»^k-JI ^y. i£y>l La*Jb ^flyAJUu jLo he began to fight them with the 
stick more sturdily than with the weapons (for »-^LJb <su*o i<*il); 

i ■! s J sBi i J i s e & r* Sti s s 

j^sy*& ^a -*^il ^q^o ^JJjJI ^j\ ( ^Xc because wrong proceeding 

9 J 9 ^ 9 JO J s £ i 

from you is worse than from others (for ^sy^e. ^c <U« ?»«il). 

• i • i . . .-, i s o i tit , 

^8 with its complement is sometimes omitted; e.g. j~£=>\ <*JUt God 

134 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 48 

A* ' a 
is most great, lit. God is greater Oj^i. ^yc than any other being; 

i+ of ji 4> a ' o 

^Xcl aJJI God knows best, lit. God knows better dj^e. ^yo ilian any 

j * i s Z si j J rss s ZOs ss s s •* s it to s s s Sua St 

other being ; ^^Jstj }£■ I <*-oJ^> ^J U) ^-^J Ao-J\ <iX*~» j^JJI Oi 
verily He, who reared the Heavens, hath built for us a house, the 

s is 

props (or pillars) of which are more glorious and taller, scil. <iA~o ^yc 

s ~ j a 

£/ta?i {those of) thy house, or C-w^ jj^ £ye than (those of) every 
(other) house*. 

j soi SO 

B Rem. b. When thus used ^Jjts\ is invariable in form ; as jUfe 

w«oj ^o ^J»oil Hind (a woman) is better than Zeineb ; ^j\2jmJ\ 
O"**-**})' O-* jj*"^' ^ ie two freeborn women are belter than the two 

~ss j ax? ^ j s oZ ^-</jo^ 

female slaves ; g'ilyaJI ,j-o jj-oit 2l©JUJI £/te learned are better than 

s sbto s js6Zj*c.j0s 

the ignorant; Ol^ibCM £ye> J-ait oUo^Jt £/*e (female) believers 
are better than the unbelievers. 

Rem. c. ^yc with its complement is occasionally placed in 

J s i J sSl s s 0* 

poetry before the comparative adjective; as w»*l»l <U*o wO$j ^ ^ 
way, what she gave (us) as provision was (even) sweeter than it 

j s o Z Si j o o , s _ _ i j> ' ois 

(honey); ^)~~.£?\ Ov*- 6 ? i<~' ^ nothing is lazier than they; £l©~»b 


-JLol dLUauaJl ^JUU ^>-o fAew '^s/ud is more beautiful than that 

woman. In prose this inversion takes place only with an inter- 
rogative pronoun or a word in the construct state before an inter- 

oo - / « a £ 

rogative pronoun; as j-j*. C*Jt ^>o-« than whom art thou better? 

j s oi s oZ o JZ to • i • i /• » 

I> i)-ai' OJl ^ov^' iW' O-* ^ aM the father oj winch of them art thou 
better ? 

Rem. d". In the other Semitic languages, which do not possess 
a peculiar comparative form of the adjective, the comparison is like- 
wise expressed by means of the same preposition ; Heb. Yft, Aram, 

^o, Mth. "^9°: or "K*F*\:- 

J s i Jul s 

* [Fleischer denies that phrases like j-£>l <*JJt are elliptical, taking 
j'.£-* \ as an absolute superlative; Kl. Schr. i. 684, 789, ii. 721.] 

§48] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : o-«- 135 

(/) The relation which subsists between the part and the whole, A 
the species and the genus ; as w>L~>*i) I (j-° w«-~» w>i»J I ^o-^ ^ science 

* 0*9 j o * o Q*o o • o ^ 

o/" medicine is one of the professions ; w>Ul£) I ^J»*j ^o^ ' ^«^*^ 0-*5 
and respect for the book is a part of the respect due to science; 

* * * O - i - 1 J * 0* 

ju-».j ^-ij ,j»* s-,-^-0 (jl-J^t man is compounded of soul and body ; 

he saw that the natures of animals and plants are compounded of 
numerous elements; (j+S.) j* O-* j-iS a kafiz of wheat; y^yt. <su<U B 

, O-o 

^j>aJI his garment is of silk. 

Rem. a. "When ^>* precedes a definite noun, especially in the 
plural, it often indicates an indefinite quantity or number, = £._£, 

S 0* ~*0>o - J - , , , £ 

or j^Aau ; as 6 L©JI ^>-o CsJ^ / drank some of the water ; ^yt> J*. I 
^-JUjJt he took some of the dinars; «ubl ^t> ^s\A jjj /<« has 
already slwwn you some of his signs ; [^£^5 O-* **nr^ lV' ^° ^ am ^ 
about to pay the homage of my praise ; O^e*' ' O-* 'v*^ ' ^ ^ «n^ 

J - J 3 

tiLAc ^^ucJj ^J ^o ^ov^J ^M* °f some We have told thee, and of 

others We have told thee nothing. Accordingly ^j^c with an indefi- 

• . " o * 

nite genitive may be the subject of a sentence, e.g. J*j13 ^j-oi 

, £omo 6 C ° ' * " 8<a ' a Z * 2 -a 

>^b J->U> 0-*5 J^W-v-'W J^* (j^ej oLJU-j^JU i!/^re are 
sot/kj ivho believe in the spiritual beings as gods, others in the celestial J) 
bodies, others again in the idols]. Compare in French de with the 
article, as du lait, " some milk." We here see the nominal origin 

of s j^c, which is clearly a substantive, meaning a part or portion. 

Rem. b. After negative particles, and after interrogatives put 
in a negative sense, ^y. prefixed to an indefinite noun means none 
at all, not one ; as \)**.j tj-o ^sl*. U, or j^.\ ^o, no one came 
to me ; jjjj *^j _/*£-> ,j-« Ujl». U <A«re A«^7i co?«e to zis no bearer 

we cause a number of springs to gush forth in it ; 1 : -^ -r 5 

oj0^ o>. o^ o ja 

136 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 48 

of good news and no warner ; j*c*.\ ^c i*-*^ *^ ^ no one come to 

3)3, \3 3), , 3 6 3** 

me ; tj+c. ai\ ^c ^£i Uo ye have no god but Him ; ^a j^ La 

* ^ 3J' * ' * J • Ci to ' 

v>>j-eU they have no helpers (=^J CHj*o\J *$) ', J*»-j O-* j'*^' \^ *$ 
iAere ts wo maw iw £Ae Aonse (=^ljJI ,-i *J"^"J *^) > ^J -0 O-* cJ"* * s 
£/tere any addition or increase? aJJI j-*£ JUUi. (J>« ,Ja is tfAere any 
creator but God? *x».! ^^-o ^v-*"* u** 8 "^ (J 1 * ^ os ^ ^ i0M perceive any 

3 * 3 3i 30 s s, 3 * 

B one of them ? ?.£ ^e j-o*j)l jj-c U) Jjb /tave w;e any portion of 

* £ 3 

that thing ? With ju*.l ^>-« compare the Hebrew 1P|fc$Jb> Levit. iv. 

* ' TV " 

2, Deuter. xv. 7. 

[Rem. c. Very often ,^o preceded by an indefinite noun, is 
followed by the definite plural of the same noun, in order to signify 
that a person or thing is wholly undefined, as i)^X$JI jj-o >^U* a 

J j3fO s 3' 

certain king; fl^^jJt ^>*e a^j « certain manner. But when an 


C indefinite noun denoting a state or condition is followed by yj*a 
with the same noun defined in the singular, it signifies a high 
degree of that state or condition, as w-a..^ I s^yo wa .s a wonder 

3 , ,3 

o/" wonders ; £ l jJ I i>* 2b a ^ er 2/ S^a£ disease ; ,jLuJ I ,^o (jlw a 
wry important affair ; ^>j jJ t jj-c ,^-jj a areai ornament. D. Gr.] 

[Rem. a*. The adverbial expressions (jJti I ^>«) j^i ,j-« to-morrow, 

T) »J^' t>* a ^ nto7i£ correspond to the Latin de mane (demain), de 

node, and signify properly in a part of the following day, in a part 

of the night. Other examples are a^j ^yo frs** ^ e weni oui on 

6* to * * * 

the same day ; oj^9 ^yo *.a*j he returned immediately (comp. Lane 

3 '30 3 

s. v. and Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. p. 457 seq.) ; j^ ....<,)! £y* 

' ' * * ' 

* 3 ' 

inside the mosque. This is called ^ (> y*o^ v>° m ^ n w ^ 1 ^ ie 
signification of ft, though there is a slight difference between the 
use of the two prepositions, as has been pointed out by Fleischer, i. 
p. 414. D.G.] 

§ 48] The Ve?-b.— 3. Gov't of Verb.—(h) Prepositions : o^. 137 

Rem. e. When ^c indicates a part of a whole, it is said to A 


be used ^cux+ZXi to indicate division into parts ; when it indicates 

the parts of which a whole is composed, w~£>JU to indicate com- 

(g) The definition or explanation of a general or universal by a 
special or particular term, the latter being one of several objects that 

go to make up the former; as £yc ^JJUI Jj^l ^U c^Iaj ^JUJ^j 

£**L&Jlj ijU^lj K )£sy2\ and in the same way we are enjoined to take 
cognizance of the different states of the heart, such as trust (in God), B 
and repentance, and fear (of Him); ^ .Jjl > eL«a.'N)l **»». ^Jbaui 

jjilfcoJIj oLJI^ oUI^-ohJI ^-6 jL-aJIj jjyCJI ^JU «?2c? ^ examined 
all the bodies which there are in this world of existence and decay, both 

animals, plants, and minerals ; J-j15j J-uU ^j*o J^ fotfA (of them), 

* mo* , p>^2«" 'j ' * 
j46^^ as M'^/Z «s Ca?w ; jLoJ'n) ! ,^* e^'jl* UjI^,! ^s# brethren of ours, 

the Ansar (or Helpers of the Prophet) ; ^*i\ o-* jv*** ** J-^^-j ^ C 

their object, namely learning, is not attained; ^>o L r**.ji\ \^imXi 

OHS*^ t therefore avoid the abomination of idols ; IJuk o J^a*«3 *-ir*) ' J 

.» J- ^ ^^ ^ 0*» 

J.**0 J^ 5 O-* J***' «««? the Arabs omit this verb kola yakulu. 
Hence it serves to indicate the relation between the material and the 
article made of it, as (wAj t>*) w*a JJ I &*o ^*e a statue of gold; 

\j4j*" O- 8 ) j4j*^\ O-* <t>^ a garment of silk ; j»jjA aJU w-a-qj D 
VMfli) I j SjU^aJI o-o n)I ^>CJ ^ lyj-Njj o*ihjt a«d «V UY<5 difficult 
for him, because of the want of instruments, and because those (which 
he had) were made only of stones and reeds. In this way ,>« is con- 
stantly used after the indefinite pronoun U [and C,-*], what, whatever, 
which cannot be construed with a genitive ; as jC" 0-« w-Ai U the 

7-777 * i.*' ?' J * ' ° •» J 

wow^y srfocA has been spent ; ^>>^[ o^» j~&. ^>o l^ii^i U whatever 

ye lay out in charity, shall be amply made up to you ; <UJ I t-ZJu lJ 

w. ii. 'l8 

138 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 48 

A LJ JL..Q.0 Sjii *4*.j ,*>* ^UU ^e mercy which God sendeth forth for 

* $ * * * 


man, none can keep bach [In some cases this ,>? ^er U may be 

• * 
considered as the partitive £>-*.] 

Rem. In the language of the grammarians, £y* is here used 

^jLJJ, or ^-j**ilJ, to make clear or explain, or ^ia J l OW to 
explain the genus. 

j Z, , *  &' i> 

B [(h) The specifying (j-j*^DI) of the general term, as ,>? .yp aAJ 
^Hjli wAa£ a man thou art as a horseman ! (where ^j^ O-* is the 
equivalent of L»jli § 44, e) ; J**j t>« &+*& what a wonderful man 
he is! !/***■ f-l O- **" «^!>^ wa 2/ *2°^ repay thee good, excellent 

vt J /JO / 

brother as thou art ; >^»- »J-* **&* <•** might I only be rid of thee, love 
(that makest me miserable) ! oj£j\ ^»**« ^^ 'j-*-* 'M ^3*i L5**" 
C Ijuij J^3 j\k ^>6 <uM #Aa£ £&??/ may say when passing by my tomb, 
God directed him aright, warrior as he was, and verily he followed the 
right course; j„^i j£%& ^>« U** A-i/I— « jAj \J*>j* ***~» j>j' '*** 
ul aJ J-J ^'s is the son of the lord of KurUs: he is nursed among 
us, orphan as he is, having no father ; ly^ai "iUsli l£wU *^efj 0^*3 

4jUt Jy^j £~-t JaI «LaL« ^Jt J-j^j (jl£» Ja-j <>» A<? was a pious, 

D distinguished, and learned man, namely a man inclined to the love of 

the family of the Apostle of God. A special branch of this is the use 

of ,>*> which is called ju^aJ^J, to designate the person or thing, in 
which a certain quality is prominent, as ju^t d-u w**5^J I encountered 

9-9 o y > 

m Ai?» a /%>»/ ^^-^o^- cfcJJ^-e O^* u>-* ls* -^ ^ aw iW So-and-So an 
affectionate friend; tj**J a^* »^-«*^ I found him to be a man of ex- 
ceeding generosity. In such phrases v>* has the same meaning as 
w> and u&. 

§ 49] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions: o*. 139 

Rem. a. Observe the elliptical phrases Oj-i^l ^! ^o ,J ^^ A 

who will deliver me from Ibn el-Asraf? ȣlJlj <iXi* Ul / am of thee 
and related to thee, I belong to your family. On the meaning of 
^LJ\j &*c ^*»JJ'> see Goldziher in Zeitschr. D. J/. G. xlviii. p. 95 
seq. (comp. p. 425 seq.) D. G.] 

Rem. b. ^* is used in vulgar Arabic, like ^~> in Syriac and 
y\^°\: in .^Ethiopic, to indicate the agent in connection with the 
passive voice of a verb ; as 9-jhj &*) ^)l %\jZJ juu - I nj *$ B 

^UJ I ^c ^1 juj U*.jli. it is good for nothing at all but to be 
thrown out and trodden under foot by men, instead of ^LJl awjjuj. 

49. yj* (with pronominal suffixes ^&, Le, JLc, «up) designates 
distance from, motion away from, departure from a place or from 
beside a person ; as <*-u*j o* w^"f he sat at (a certain distance from) 
his right hand [comp. however, this §, /. rem. c] ; ^j£- ^nr-1 ' \j*j C 
^-jiJt he shot the arrow from the bow; jJUl ,j-* jiL> take thy 

departure J rom the town; <ut w^l/^'j &£s>f> ^J rj-Ua^J *5) ^X*. 

£Aa£ £&>« mayest not be compelled to leave him and turn away from him. 
Hence it is used : — 

(a) After verbs denoting flight, avoidance, caution, abstinence, 
self-defence, guarding and setting free, forbidding and hindering, and, 
in general, to express the doing of something (e.g. fighting or paying) 

for or in behalf of another [comp. § 69, g\ For example: O* t>j$ D 

C>*-9-« j*z £J <*-Ul 6 La5 it is impossible to fee from the decree of God 

. <■**>*$,, at ,b. 

Almighty; »■ a ..iJ I ^>c -»~l3 aiy>k£ w$a£ is disgraceful; <jl ^5*5-0 

j2 j/ s* « , .- , 

»j-iu Lo* w..*^. j & is necessary that he should avoid what injures him; 

) 3 , 1 3 1 3 „ „ s • J , j , 

d—flj «^JjJ Lfrt ^*-cu ,jl ^^i^o it is necessary that he should patiently 
abstain from what his soul desires (his jxissions desire) ; ^>^ O^ &]*** 
I declare myself free from all connection with them (as client) ; U A X t>.Z t 

140 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 49 

A 5^.^)1 w>l«xfi ^>c ^ is saved from punishment in the next world ; <x^sh\ 

J OlO s _ _ »J»/9 ' J / / 

c^aJI ^^c he fed him {to save him) from hunger ; ^£j*)\ O* «l~«^ he 

s io>e * j (S/ 

clothed him (to save him) from nakedness ; j£i*JI O* j^-JI ^0 prohibi- 

«/ j i/ j»»-j^j 

taW o/ M?Aa£ «s wicked ; ^js- *r>3+i he acts as my deputy ; «uc JjUj Ae 

oj / j«S ^ j * o s s S/o * o sis 

fights for, or to protect, him; ^^^Ju) ^^3U&*j j>jJJI ,>c JiU»J ^ 
<&? wotf contend, or plead, for those who act wrongly to themselves; 

iOsOsOsOOs * * 

B U*£ jj-aj ^^Aj \J>j^* *$ (one) soul shall not make satisfaction for 

t sO s s s * * JO* s s s 

(another) soul at all; l»Ap tj^j \j£s <uc c^**" ^ paid so and so 
many dirhams in his stead, lit. he bore, or took upon himself, for him. 

(b) After verbs denoting uncovering, laying bare, opening, reveal- 
ing, informing, asking and answering ; for in these verbs there lies 
the idea of the removal of a covering, real or figurative. For example : 

/t i <o J J J m - s J 0* 

LJjJI j^j ^jis. *J*. ££ > £ if the veils of this world were removed from 

j j o* o a* o>o s*» j , «j * 
C me (from before my eyes) ; Cj^*j v>c c-iuJI ,^1 J*iLJt the mounds 

f s 0* * J 

which were laid open so as to disclose chambers ; \ jdkli ^j*** c-^s ^1 

~* s 1 J 

w*5U i j*j+a*.t if thou wantest a witness who can inform thee regarding 

* j o s o s s j ocs 

what is hidden; lyCj^a.-* ^>c «iUJL» / ivill tell thee about all of 

J * * sis rs vt*OJJsj0s s J £ J s \ 

them ; <us wjI^Is^oaLo aJJI J>wj <uc ^)Z~> Jl$- W '»** this is a question 
about which the Apostle of God was questioned, and he gave an answer 

j li j sOiOio s 1 s s £ s r» • 7 /• 

to it; 6±>\ t^Jju^Jt ^1 <uc a».j his father sent to Spam to look for 

JO s J ul s  s s s IX s 1st s s 

D him; ajs. I^v».j JU>j (ta5 «^ j*}\*~* and lie asked them about me and 

s oiOtO s J ~s s OtO s Is 

said, Send to look for him; Aa^L^^)\ ^j* ^jj\jaJ\ O^x-oii and they 

Ml ' J P J £ J *■ J 0' * yi£ * 

made for the arsenals to look for arms; j~g**c ^i^i ^>c ^— *j UjI^s 

ss oi 

ijj j I sfo smiles so as to display (teeth like) strung pearls or hailstones 
(in whiteness). 

(c) After verbs denoting abandonment or neglect, and the ability 
to dispense with (o*) onc thing because of the possession of another 

§ 49] The Verb— 3. Govt of Verb.—(b) Prepositions: <j*. 141 

(w» [§ 56, c]) ; because in them is implied the notion of turning away A 
(t^cl). For example : [s^Jt O^ v^j he ^ ;w ^ ?r ^ /^ r the thing, 
he avoided it; a*o O^ w-^juj or Ojac I forgave him his sin; 

<ue j^j-oj &? ?cas satisfied with him (and had nothing more to ask from 

him) as in the words of the Kor'an <ii£ '^-ojj^r** ^' L5^J ^°^ '' 5 
we// pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him. D. G.] ; 

ByByyjByii y B » .. f* 

a-jj ,j* Jjuu *^ O' 0^*~ '*^ ^5*^ a WWin m«^ not be neglectful of 

sBs i s y-By m * » By* ' _ 

himself; lyic ^yi ykj he does not require it; ^yi^Jjdl wj*jlb ^ ^ B 

.. ^e<» ~y a y 

OLiliM g Lc ,j* /7?«(/ in study such contentment that lean dispense with 

* a y a *, - '<- a * y y y at 

the singing of women ; » Sl LAA j L5 ;*£ n lj ,&L«t^ ^c *£U"}la*-» (^y-iil 
£\y* £)* satisfy me with what Thou allowest, so that I may be able to 

dispense with ichat Thou forbiddest, and suffice me with Thy goodness, 
so that I may not have occasion for any other but Thee. Similarly : 

«u» *^i 'l^ sJ^ 9 l5* s >^' O* ^^ aJULw this circumstance occupied 

B B y « - s 

him so that he could not think of anything but it ; j£s> ^>c ^-o*. ^> C 
wJUoJI J£» / «;« unable to mention all the virtues ; w-^. Cwa -I ^Jl 

ri/ By B y .- -- 

^j j^»i O^ ./**»»■" -^ &*££ loved the good (of this world) so as to neglect 

B^ By i y By 

all thought of my Lord; &~Ju ^ J**--» he is so stingy as to deny 
himself everything. 

(d) After verbs signifying to leave one behind or to surpass one ; 
as lk y^ wJ-oil *$ thou dost not surpass me in anything. Hence the 

By S B y 

expression ^>c ^Lai not to mention, much more or much less (according D 

yyBiByZByyjB yBy» ryBiBiO * yi. ) y y Zs'y 

to the context) ; as U^»t ^>c ^Loi S^c^oM s Li*}M Jil ^y a) ^^-li 
w*ah-*JI ^^ <u*» (^5-^ ^* i«XaJI jUl ,j»« ««</ ^€re became manifest 

to him in the smallest of existing things, not to mention (and much 
more in) the largest of them, such traces of wisdom as set him in the 

yyyByiByyBi (d <n J y J y 

greatest astonishment ; ja« ^>c "^.oi Ift^wlj >bUJI ,J> J-^-y. ^ it is not 

142 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 49 

A found in the wJwle of Syria, not to mention (much less in) Safed. 

TT 1 * ' * 

Hence too the use of ^>c in comparisons (like &*, § 48, e) ; as 
j£3\ Oly^oJ s.^la»JI jjuJI Os-Jt ^yz C-Jl ^>jt where art thou (where 
are thy verses) in comparison with this rare verse, which contains all 
the things wherewith the mouth can be compared? ^^SsjJij U* ^1*5 
He is exalted above ivhatever (gods) they join (with Him). 

a * o * 

[Rem. If £y£. *jL«ai is followed by a clause with ^jl, ^>c is very 
B often omitted, as is frequently the case with prepositions in general, 

o £ Sit 

before ^1 and ,jl. D. G-.l 

(e) ^jf- also indicates the source from which something proceeds ; 
as [v»Jp O - ^ £«J' U-i] selling or buying is only (resultant) from 

, j i* a * , * , 

mutual agreement; &*$** ^j\j ^ jjuo lie acted after the counsel of 

such a one] ; ^3.5 ,j^ IJuk Jjwj *}) 200 wjY/ wo£ efo this at your word 
(as it were, setting out from your word, moved by your authority) ; 

c?tt?e^ t» ^ city of Marrekus (Morocco) by the order of its governor. 
Hence it shows (a) the authority for any statement, tradition, or the 

like ; as [<Uc ^JjJI OJ^.1 / acquired knowledge from him ; yjs- \^£$j 
O*^ he related (a tradition) from such a one] ; .ytsUiJI ^ i*^ 
i£ is related on the authority of es-Sdfl ; t>c ^£**~i OiU~»t O^J 
P-jU^oJt ^>* -*-w cmc? o^r teacher used to narrate on the authority 

J) of a certain sheikh; <UJI J$~*j O* 7 - tP** ^J^ «>* authentic 
tradition of the Apostle of God; Jli <ul (h5 ~iM ^j awe? it is told of 
the prop/iet that he said ; and (/?) the cause from which an effect 
proceeds as its source ; as out ^ej'ljUl ^a£ w/mc/j necessarily follows 

/row «Y ; Sj^aL© ^^ j^-«l *iU* U wo o»# ever perished through asking 
advice (of others). 

§ 49] The Verb.— 2. Govt of Verb.—(h) Prepositions : c^- 143 

s * b * . 

(/) Lastly, v>c is used of time as equivalent to jju after; as A 
Jllb ^ UJ> ^Jjs>j2 ye shall encounter (or experience) state after 
state; ojjji ^sllaJI ljuo ^>p ^j j-3 i*Js as the temper of a (good) 
sward betrays itself (even) after it has become rusty ; O5& w-j>5 ,j^ 

+ ****** 

\j*%=> in a short time it will be much; J-Ji l^c after a little while 
(where U is redundant, as in an example in § 48, c). 

Rem. a. Observe the phrases : <u~« ^JLoJ ^jS- OU he died -t> 
.. ,, , , , 
aged eighty ; j-ji-e jJj ^^ w>U fte died leaving a young child; 

6 i- , j j 

^Aj±.\ ^jf- IjJU5 tfAey were slain to the last man. [In expressions 
like SjjJ> ^c U& Ae forgave, though he had the power to punish, ^j£. 
can be replaced by jJ^, J^ or «-«. — For marking the distance, 

,,36 4,6,, 6,0, 

as £)\+£ ^^o lai^-^i (J>« ...^jfc. ^>c a£ a distance of fifty parasangs 
from 'Oman, it is synonymous with ^-JLt (comp. the Gloss. 

.» » ^ J ,6,6,0 

Geogr.). — On the elliptical phrases *ii-^ J^, <iUc. w-Ail, etc. see 
the Gloss, to Tabari. D. G.] 


Rem. b. Because of their being related in meaning, ^j*e and 

6 , ' _ , , , 

£>£■ are sometimes used indifferently ; for example, after s-u 

, ,, 6 _ , 

to hinder, w .Ua.1 to avoid, f^gjJ free from, clear of, and the like. 
Compare § 48, e, with § 49, e£. [After the verbs to take, to borrow, 

3 6 

etc. jj^ is used of transportable objects, as ^oAljjJI <U*e w-J^l 
• , , 

I got from him the dirhems ; but we ought to say^JbUI <Uc OjkA.t JJ 
7 acquired knowledge from him. Others say that ^0 is used for 

, , 6*> 36 } 6 , 

what is near, as wo jk^JI <U-o C»x»..» / heard from him the narrative, 

6 , , 6,,'6**0 3,6, Z.*o , 3 , 

yjfi for what is remote, as «.>Lc ,3* *J>3I J-ij ^JJI ybj Z/e t£ is 
wlio accepts repentance from His servants (Kor'an xlii. 24).] 

e , 

Rem. c. £>£■ is sometimes used as an indeclinable noun, 


signifying side, which is its original meaning; e.g. gU^o-j ^jS- O-* 

144 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 50 

A dJl^wj [or ,j^ 1^5-k] ow ^*« ri^/ii anc? his left; UL..JI C-AfjL U lit 
LJLo^> jj^ ^^o w/tew / jofoce f/ie sword on my left side (QU-w in 
rhyme for JUA ^Ci). Compare *]¥ , "7% f*\ • 

Rem. g?. According to the grammarians, ^jfi. is used jutJU 
5jjta.^Jlj fo express distance from anything arae? passing away 
from it. 

B 50. The prepositions which indicate motion to or towards a 
place, are ^Jl to, ^^a. up to, and J £o. 

51. ^1 (with pronominal suffixes ^J[, «iXJI, aJI) is opposed 
(io,lfc«) to o-* and j>c ; as **a*JJI ^1 j^oJI v >« /row ^ cradle to 

/ / 0/ ^- ** *0*o * JO 

the grave; *\jJu ^1 Sj-oJI ,j-« Oj-w / went from el-Basra to 
Bagdad; <sUc *Jaiul /^ severed himself from him, abandoned his cause, 
but aJI aJaiJl he was devoted to his cause; j-ic <£JlJI standoff"! (see 
C the end of the section). It signifies : — 

(a) Motion [or direction] to or towards a place ; as ^t eU. 

/ ^5x> *0*o *> 4 0* * s £ Zito * • A J 

iujuoJI A« came to £/^ city; jia. ....»)! £>* *^-J «ju*j ij^-"' c5*^ Q^.>*» 

* ot 0*a *0*o x + + 0*a 

1b5 -a5*n)I jkai....^Jt ^1 >oljj»Ji (see § 49, a) to ^ Temple which is 

*0*O * * * J \ vt *> 

most remote (at Jerusalem) ; [^ mr »jJL i\ c«o ^1 JJU^j S^lcJI at that 

time they used to pray turning towards Jerusalem ; ^Jl jJaJ he looked 

°' ' ' 
towards me, he regarded me; aJI J\* lie or i£ inclined towards him 

or aV. Hence, because the notion of being inclined is implied in it, 

D JU*-JI iJI Slj^JI ^ ^Ae Aear^ o/ woman is inclined to foolishness ; 

pv* L5^>° Jb J^ mc ^ sorrow leads to joy ; il^-JI ^1 aj^J its colour 

* j • & *o ** + J % *0 vt *a £ 

verges on black; $*> U J>kJt ^1 >* it is somewhat long; LjjJI ^1 
L5* ^° JliJ" L5^' see > the world is somewhat on its decline*. D. G.] 

* [For the explanation of this (^) $*> U see Fleischer, Kl. Schr. 
i. 477 seq., Dozy, Supplem. sub U and infra § 136, a, rem. e.] 

§51] The Verb.— 3. Gov t of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : ,J\. 145 

(b) Transferred to time, the point up to which something lasts A 
or continues ; as w^LoJI ^Jt Cs«4 / fasted till sunset ; ^ya Of***-* 

to the present day (and) have been tested with every sort of test ; 

*U*5JI >»*> ^H JiaJ' ^jAc ^jjfclb ^^1 ,J-« dJu\b J!p ^ a par/ 

of my people shall not cease to hold fast the truth till the day of the 
resurrection. It occurs in a somewhat different sense in the phrases 

, i a* »- - a )Z* - a " 

a-o-JUI jiyi ,Jt ^f ;»_»a. .) He will certainly assemble you to the day of B 
the resurrection (for it) ; [«U-> ^)l jyib c-JI £&>« «r< divorced till 
this day year]. 

Rem. In these two cases ,JI is used jlyi'jU to designate the 
limit of the act. [See § 52, rem. b.] 

' . . ' ' ' j * 

(c) ^Jl also shows that one thing is added to another («L»-LcuoJJ 

or ijtoJU), and hence we find it construed with jjj to increase, 
augment; as IJuk ^1 \J* ^*b add this to that ; j^\yo\ I^J^U ^ C 
j^\yt>\ ^1 do not devour their substance in addition to your own ; 

» * a * z * t i * 

jf^ O mm ^M i ^C a* lj>tj they have added knowledge to the knowledge 
they (already) possessed. [Hence also it signifies reaching up to 
(- ^i J^i ^l w'^-^-o). belonging to (= ^M ja y **isu*), entrusted to 
(-^1 J^a^o) etc., as «U«1 ^j ^Jt ykj and he belonged to the 

a > <■ a " i * - - i a* 

Ben Ft Umeiya ; j^jxii Ll-o «->■£ ,J[ '>— *J they belong to none D 

„ - a* - i 3 - - - 

of our Arab tribes, that we should know them ; SjjjaJI ,jt \jj£s'}j 
tj^j_~J ^31 c-Jl^ and they said that *El-Jazira belonged formerly 

, ,,ao ) , a * a* * * 

to Kinnasrm : iCol^JI (jU-/jL»*j aJJ (J^ the hospital of the Barma- 

kides was entrusted to him.] — It is also construed with adjectives 

of the form J*3t and others, derived from verbs signifying love or 
hatred and used in a passive sense, to indicate the subject of the 

feeling (see § 34, rem. a) ; as w--»-, w>^o»-.o, dear ; ^^».l dearer : 

* j , at 6 

sjaJu hated, hateful: ^^oijl more hateful. — It is used too with 
w. ii. 19 

146 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 52 

A near, and similar words, in so far as they convey the idea of approach 
or approximation, opposed to jj* jk«A> /ar /row, e.g. ^M w>*' ^^ 
^o-JsmJI /or #Hs cowe^ nearer to reverence ; whereas in so far as they 
convey the idea of the measurement of the distance of one place from 

another, they are construed with ^>« (§ 48, d). [The same idea of 

approach is indicated by .Jl in the expressions aJI»» .Jt on his side ; 

*!»*£. ^M <CLo*»» Ms tent (stood) beside the tent of the other.] — Finally, 

notice the phrases : «yJi j~i- ^J1, lit. on to other than this, and oj»-\ ^Jl 

B (contracted ?>-JI), to the end of it, i.e. et cwtera ; «&1*H, lit. to thyself! 

and ^jis. siXJI, lit. to thyself from me! =9*3 stand off'! aJI IJuk, scil. 

j^~~* or i^a^sLc, this is committed or entrusted to him. 

[Rem. On the phrase ly£JI there it is for you! see § 35, b, 8, 
rem. &.] 

52. j> differs from .J! in indicating motion towards and at 
the same time arrival at an object, whether this object be actually 

C touched and included or not ; whereas ^t merely implies the motion 

towards an object, whether this be arrived at or not ; as ^a j**^ 

^aJUl bJUslo .*£»• it is peace till the break of day ; ty^- i^UI Cv 

- 2 «J c- 2 - - - - 2 >e l a _ c 

p-UcJt I slept last night till it was morning ; l^lj ^^»- <* £■»...} I cJ^sl 

/ ato ^e /sA to zVs {eery) head ; ^>*»- ^*»- < ^ ;a.....J £^?/ would 
imprison him for a (certain) time. However, when jj-o and ^Jl are 
D used in opposition to one another to designate the terminus a quo and 
terminus ad quem, ^Jt necessarily includes the idea of reaching the 
object (§ 51, a, b). Further, when the reaching of the object is 
distinctly expressed by the governing verb or verbal noun itself, the 

meaning of ,^1 is naturally modified thereby ; as aJI C^^UI / came 

up to him ; aJI ilyli^JI the attaining to it. That ^£»» does not 

necessarily include the object reached or attained is evident from 
its being occasionally used to indicate exceptions, like the German 
bis auf. 

§ 53] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : J^. 147 

Rem. a. i**»- is scarcely ever [i.e. only by poetic license] used A 
with pronominal suffixes; as ^b ,iJU». ,_£j ^bl ^Jdj *) aJUIj %9 

* i 

>0j ,-jt ho, 6y GW, men will never find a man (coming) up to thee, 

'Ibn llbi Ziyad : ^i J^ j ^ ai. i «*)U». Ool she has come to thee, 

making for every mountain-pass. 

Rem. b. The grammarians, when they wish to make a distinc- 
tion, say that .Jt is used tl^^U, to designate the limit (of the B 

act), whilst  «*»» is employed iulxXJ or <ul*JI tlyJUi^), to designate the 
attainment of the extremity or utmost limit. 

a < j) - 

Rem. o. When ,«£»■ is a simple copulative particle (Oj»- 

Oikc, or 5itU, or oUk*JJ), in the sense of even, it exercises, like 

the other copulatives (such as j, o. and ^j), no independent 
influence upon the following noun, which remains under the same 

government as the preceding one ; e.g. Sli^JI !**»• ?»-la^aJ1 j>j£ C 

the pilgrims Iiave arrived, even those travelling on foot ; ^UJI oU 

iUJ^/t tyj^ men have died, even the prophets; ty*.\ L ^»- d ^j^J 

and they left him, even his brother; lytj.x*. ^J* 4jjU*Jt L -^.I>a..c.1 

the girl pleased me, even her conversation ; ly-»lj l***- a£o— M wJLr a l 

,. li-0 33,3'3-'- 

1 have eaten the fish, even the head of it : <UJt J^j—m jjUw O^j 

CwJI ^51^*. ^^ j>*"i)l ><«e^ ,«* <ula>.^l «-e ^s^o and the 

Apostle of God used to consult his companions on all matters, even J) 
household affairs. 

■s * * * 

Rem. d. A dialectic variety of ^^- is ^ through which it 

may perhaps be etymologically connected with the corresponding 

Hebrew word "jy. 

53. J (with pronominal suffixes ^J. iU, a)) is etymologically 

connected with ^1, and differs from it only in this, that ^J\ mostly 
expresses concrete relations, local or temporal, whilst J generally 

148 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 53 

A indicates abstract or ideal relations. Hence J is rarely employed 

sVp*^ (see § 51, b, rem.) ; as ikS «^c J***) jj>*~» J£> each (of them) 

travels to an appointed goal*. Its principal use is to show the passing 
on of the action to a more distant object, and hence it corresponds to 
the Latin or German dative; but it may also express the relation of 
the action to a nearer object, and so stand in place of the accusative 
(compare §§ 29, 31, 33, 34). Hence J indicates : — 

(a) The simple relation of an act to the more distant object ; as 
B <*J AJkj he gave it to him; lyJ JUS he said to her; <iUjJ jj-« .J ^Jk 

i«Jb Ajji give me from Thyself good descendants; Cy* j& J*»- a-U'^ 

# * i oi JSP 

W»jjjt^» £ ' " * J t ««c? &W /*«£/* made for you wives of yourselves (of your 
own race). 

Rem. «. After the middle forms of the verb, J often expresses 
the yielding oneself up to the action of another or to the effect of a 
thing; as^£) j^~i\ Lo j-Jaa».)l <d tjj^., pull his (the camel's) leading- 

C rein as long as it can be pulled by you ; ai LcjoLJt aJJU Uc»xo- ^y* 

if any one deceives us with God (i.e. with a pretence of devoutness), 
we let ourselves be deceived by him. 

Rem. b. Some grammarians say that the jj»JI vo^), or preposi- 
tion J, is used in this case SujaCXi, to express the j)assing on of the, 
action ; but others consider that it is here employed ^JLJLoJJU and 

i >e o 

»iLwLo^l <*-<£J, to signify the giving 2>ossession (of something) or the 
D like, and restrict the term ajjulJU to the cases laid down in §§ 29, 
31, 33, and 34. 

* [After verbs that signify to fall (as j±., JaJLw, *5j) J has the 
meaning of on (=i*^), as ^j-sJJJ jj>. he fell down prostrate with his 
chin on the ground. Hence the expression ^o^AJj ^j juJU, on which see 
the Gloss, to Tabari sub^. 1). G.] 

§ 53] The Verb.— 2. Govt of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : J. 149 

« » x 6 *x Jx ft x J } Z * 

(b) The dative (a) of possession ; as ^SLe ^\j *J o-* J^' A 

w j » x »x 

^ ;««« & Ae mjAo has a right opinion or a correct judgment ; aJJ »>-fraJI 

i 2 ftx j x»x 

praise belongs to God ; <JJ Lil we are God's; jujJ JUJl ?Ao property 
is Zeid's ; yj*j*^ w-j-J' ^0 s«<M<? belongs to the horse ; [Uu^-» <*J w*»'j 
/ saw ftkrf ft &w? « glistening] ; whence it is used to indicate the 

x x a«> o Z*> x x x 

author of a proverb, poem, etc.; as jj— aJI ^jj j***.-*i J->5 U^ 

a Ox x x os 

as has been said by Muhammad 'ibn el-Hasan : ^n J jlwI A« recited B 

_ * •>"« x x .» _ fte 

(« poem) by one of them (the poets) ; ^A*) <*Jl J-jfj OjuiJl a /##;« 
was recited to me-, and I was told it was by 'All ; (/?) of permission 

' ' 3 " .. . l- • • ft £ jx 

[or right] ; as «iX)3 <*Ji then this is allowed him (lit. is to him) ; [^jl *J 
\j& J*aj he has a right to do such a thing] ; (y) of advantage, as 
opposed to i^*, which indicates injury : as lyJ U j.^JLdl a.ijju> aaa.m 
lyJLt Uj learning is the soul's cognizance of what is for its good and C 
for its hurt ; [*) lft> /^ blessed him, § 23]. 

Rem. a. The grammarians say that ,J, when it indicates 
possession, is used JJUL^JU to indicate the right of property, or 

x ft xJ 

L >?l«a.Z^. > jJ to shoiv that something is ascribed to one as his own, or 
JjUa^w^U to s/«o«y </*a£ Ae has a right to it. Compare the Hebrew 

usage, Tph "lOTD a psalm composed by David ; etc. 
. T . . . 

Rem. b. As the Arabs have no verb corresponding to our have, D 
they are obliged to express it by the preposition J with the 

ft x ,^ ft x .» x ft x x 

genitive of the possessor; as ju£ U5U ^-Jbj JUL»JU O^ ^'-'^ Zuhair 

had two hundred slaves; j+±. w*».l.o ojL^L-j ^IjJLj <sJ Ae A«o" in 

* XX xxx "x 

• 7_. . * «X» xx « £ x 

Bagdad six hundred secret police; ^jj\ *^j w>t ,J Lo / Aaiv neither 
f oilier nor son. 

Rem. e. J is often used, instead of a simple pronominal suffix, 

6 £ xx 

in order to avoid rendering a noun definite; e.g. «.t ,J C»U a 

150 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 53 

A brother of mine is dead ; whereas i**^' OU would mean my (it may 
be, only) brother is dead [§ 92]. 

Rem. d. In pecuniary transactions ^) is used to indicate the 
creditor, whilst ^JLc expresses the debtor [§ 59, c] ; as ^JLJLc ,J 
^o-fcp oiM /Ziom. owest me (lit. £^ere are to me upon thee) a thousand 

Rem. e. Observe the expressions of admiration : dp aJJ w;Aa£ a 
-D maw ^e is / jj***-; O"* ^J-* ^ wAdrf a mewi thou art ! £$i\ <*JU what a 

man thy father vms ! C-Jl aJJ what a man thou art I ^pUUI <*JJ Aow 

beautiful is {the saying of) the poet ! (lit. to God belongs his outflow 
or emanation, from none other could he emanate ; compare Jonah 

iii. 3, DTl'/X/ ri/ilil Ty nn^H DI.DM) and Nineveh was a very 
.. T . . T ., T ... ,.. 

large city). Remark also such phrases as : w>tjJjl ,-i -iJJ v Ja 
wouldst thou like some wine? tjjb \^Xmu ^\ ,ji^£) jjj» A«ye ye a 
tois/i to eto £/m ? ^^sJaii ^j\ dU ^^yS c/os< £Ao<* wish then to give 

me some food? where we must supply the substantive «Lcj desire, 
wish ; [^)l U l«o what object or reason have we that ? aJj ,J Lo 
i«/ia£ Aave / to do with him ? \j& ^J-awJ >Jljt J to w/m£ has 


happened to me that I (i.e. why do I) see thee doing thus? .J ^c 
who loill be for me as helper ? lyJ Li I / am the man for it]. 

D (c) The purpose for which, and the reason why, any thing is 

done (relation of the action to its purpose and cause) ; as a^jbtoJ v»l5 

he arose to help him; w-j^UJJ <H)jJs I beat Mm to correct him;j^*i\ U 

J»o.«ij *$\ science (or theory) is only for the purpose of being applied in 

practice; o^^^oJWj-**^ o\^J\ ^JJb he sought the dignity (or office) for 

the purpose of ordering good ; J~5 IJ^yJ} and for this reason it is said ; 

i t < Jit • - * • * 

j*oj «u*n) because it does harm ; <»JyU C«,;»»,c /" wondered at (because of) 

§53] The Verb— 3. Gov 't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : J. 151 

«r^ctf fo said?; Sjjb ^Jt^JJ ^J}>*3 LT 5 !^ aw< * wn ^' tt Jeehng of joy A 
cow^s ore/ - ;«? a£ remembering thee. 

Rem. In this case J is said to be used JJLxJJ, or aJUJU, to 
indicate the cause. [Comp. § 44, d, § 48, c] 

(c?) After the verb J15, it often indicates the object in reference 

5 ^ at J< <o .. 3**3 a ^ j j^ ^^ 

to which something is said ; as Ol^-at aJJI J^w ^ JJ£j k j- J iy>£j "^ 
say not in regard to thaw who are slain on God's path, They are dead B 
(do not call those who are killed fighting for God's cause, dead) ; 

* \ 5 £ 9 J f * Z* - - * 3 J *S 

IJkA^a*— A ^,£s>At*. UJ JwJU (jy^SJI do ye say of the truth, after it has 

JilC * * - 3 31*o - ' »- * - it 3 * 

come to you, Is this magic? [ajI ^Xc ^j^L-^JI %^a^3 ^ Zj~£* J^.3 

(J'iUa^M ^Xc JLvli a) JULj ^j JU-i ly-*-LoJ JUu j*£» «wrf « man 

who has committed a great sin, but such as the Muslims do not agree in 
calling infidelity, is said to have acted wickedly, but is not termed a 

wicked man without restriction. Hence the very common aJ JUL C 

5 Z ' 3 5 W - 3 J* 3 3* 

j^»a>.« he is ccdled Muhammed, from the active ji»a».o aJ J>aj he says 
of him Muhammed, i.e. he calls him M.] Similarly : £y> doJL-«o JU> 

3 0** o * * * oi 3 * Z * 3 * * * Ot 0*3 to* *o>o a * 

CJjtf j3 J13 dJjkl ^« J^jJ U^Jli C.rwj£«l w.^-tfi;) U^j ^ULoJI ju£ 

Meslema, the son of 'Abdul-melik, said one day to Nosaib, Didst thou 
compose a poem in praise of so and so ? meaning a man of his family ; 
he said, I did. [And so frequently after a demonstrative pronoun, as 

Jli ^JJJ IJ^>j \j£j JJJt ^^~>j\ a-Ic yj\ see, 'Otba has sent me to 

you with such and such a message, according to what he had said ; D 

aJx. yb ^JJt jlaJJ wi5^JI IJjb J\3 Aijsu Jiij ^o. Jjf JjLj ij\ 

that the Apostle of God, when he stood on 'Arafa, had said : this is the 
station, meaning the mountain on which he found himself D. G.] 

[(e) Finally, J is used to mark the time from which, or at which, 

any thing took place -^jjUJJ, as -*iX) U»*s> we fasted from the time 

a * * * . ».»•»---- 

oj the mist ; a^J oU he died on that same day ; aCJU ^j** 

152 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 53 

A when one year of his reign had elapsed ; j-^\ O-* *Z~&* *^J wfo» 
one night of the month had passed, i.e. the first ; <L-J to the completion 
of a year. See § 111, and an example § 70, rem. b. D. G.] 

Rem. After the interjection b, the preposition ^J is frequently 

prefixed to the name of a person called to aid, as well as to the 
name of him against whom help is implored, in which case it 

B is said to be used 4jli£w'})U to ask help. If there be only one 

or <su QlaI>...o, i.e. person called to aid, the preposition 
takes the vowel fetha (just as with the pronominal suffixes, Vol. i. 
§ 356, rem. b) ; as jujJ b for Zeid! i.e. help, Zeid ! Jb **})3bj 
wJbu alas for the humiliation ! help, tribe of Taglib ! But if there 
be several, ^J is used with the first alone, and ^J with the rest, 
unless the interjection be repeated before each name, when jj is 
C retained throughout ; as _jj-«aJj J^jJ b , or 3j^*J bj jujJ b, /te£p, 

£ it - 3 JO- '* • 

^icZ «««? '-<4mr / (JjUuJUj J^yCU b /ie^jp, oW awe? young ! i*-*}*) b 

,<o>5 jj^** 6 '^ ^-3 Ad^p, my family and ye who are like my 
family ! If the name of the person against whom aid is required, 
<sJ *t>Ul..»»M or <xXe*.\ jj^s ^UImmoJI, be expressed, it takes J (with 

kesra) before it, as _£/<**) J^jJ b AeJp, Zeid, against l Amr ! ^UU b 
woUCJU A«(p, people, against this liar I If an adjective be annexed 
D to the aj OIaI.~o, it may be put either in the genitive or in the 
accusative; as ^rij&\ JujJ b or ^jj£i\. In the case of the 
aj -^.Aiilm*, the vocative termination 1_ (see § 38, c) is sometimes 
used instead of J with the genitive ; as jj-oJtJ I juj b Atf//», Zeid, 
against l Amr ! — These expressions are also employed [(1) to call or 
invite, as 6 t<JU Jla-jJJ \j ye men, come to the water! ^J^XJJ b 
_ .ai »,H ^jL^JiJJj come Aere, young and old, to wonder ; hence 

& , 5 jo '. i -/ j 

(2)] wiL.*."H, <o express surprise, in which case the <LU w*a» . » ."."■<. 

§55] The Verb. — 3. Gov't of Verb. — (b) Prepositions: ^i. 153 

or object that causes surprise, is treated in the same way as the A 
aj ^'Iflinuii ; e.g. ,__ -flt.'H b the wonder ! d-J*>l jJU b the 

misfortune ! jL«JI ^>« J - ** J*** a-JU» |jtj...o>J Ls fo<2 the 
disgrace of those who seek it (learning) in order to obtain benefits 
from, men. — Similar forms of expression are <sJ b, ^JL) b, etc., 


followed by the accus. or, more usually, by the preposition yj*o 
with the genit. (see § 44, e, rem. a) ; as *j^.j *i b^ Jj»»j i^- 5 *^ 
or jj*wj ^>* aJ b^j, there came to me a man, and what a man he teas .' B 

*»* O y * i ***** s 

iLJ ^c \i b ivhat a happy night ! (J-j-jI «Aa. ^><o <il) U what 
a soft cheek ! J>J yj-a «iJU Li and wA«£ a splendid night ! JJU b 
j-tr*-t,- } 5j+5 ij*6 happy lark in a meadoio .' — In all these cases ^J 

seems to point out the person or thing, in reference to which 
the exclamation is uttered, as being the origin and cause of it. 
[There can be no reasonable doubt that, as the grammarians of 

tl-Kufa teach, this ^Jb with following genitive was originally J|l b 
followed by the name of the kinsmen of the man who called for C 

aid. See Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 393 seq., Lane sub Jt. R. S. 

This war-cry of the Time of Ignorance (iJjklaJI ^J^i) was 

lis , , i jt/ / 
forbidden by the Prophet, who substituted aJU b and ^^X -»»J b.] 

54. The prepositions which indicate rest in a place, are ^ in, 
into, y at, in, by, with, ** with, along with, ,jjJ, or ^jJ, at, tcith, 

in the possession of, and ^JU over, above, upon. J) 

55. The preposition ^j (with pronominal suffixes ^i, <ibi, <*-i), 
on the difference between which and w> see § 56, indicates : — 

(a) Rest in a place or during a time and motion into a place, in 
which latter case it corresponds to the Greek eis or the Latin in with 

the accusative ; as C*-JI ^y in the house ; &Ljt Jih ^ in this year ; 

' ■» » ' «£ j»<o **o* 

[C>li3«x«-» v»bl ^i during a certain number of days] ; j^\ ^J» ibjJI 
w. ii. 20 

154 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 55 

A the water is in the jug ; ,jlju*J! ^ ^^£^1 ^<? racing is in the 
meiddn ; jZJ\ ^ *5j he fell into the well; w>U£JI j^b ^J %i$ 
he wrote on the back of the letter ; J^L/jJI ^J aJJI a*3$j God will 
cast him into (make him dwell in) the villages ; ^-^^ ^ «£)ju J»»o' 

• * s * Ota JO • Oi- 

put thy hand into thy bosom; [^j*~°\ ^vc^la-M CJLA.^1 by inversion 
for^oJUJI ^ ^**-e] I inserted my finger into the signet-ring]. This 

B signification is then transferred to the relation subsisting between any 
two things, the one of which is regarded as the place in which the 

other is, or happens, or into which it goes or is put ; as^JjuJI Jl». ^i 

in the state of pupilage ; j~*-)\ O-* *** ^* whatever good there is in it ; 

JfjuaJI ^-i Sta^l safety lies in speaking the truth; alcUo ^i j~e-> 

skilful in his trade; w>U£)t ^ jiiu /^ looked into, or ra*</ t», ^ 

foo#; <Cj».l». ^i ^j*** ^ exerted himself about his business; ^i J^-3 

C ^Xju)\ he commenced studying; rf7p»g ^i aJJI ^^Ai-ju 6W «ra# /#£ 

them enter into His mercy ; [<^2> ^* ^tA*M O-* oW he ^s nothing to 
do with science]. 

(ft) j-i is sometimes equivalent in meaning to %* with, or ^i 

among; as^o^-M O-* ^^ J^^o- 6 ' ^ t>^»ot enter with generations 

which passed away before you ; ^»JI O-* *$***' ^ w*L3l she came 

j) forward with (some) women of the tribe ; UJI ) j- ? ...>^a. ^j a».^j' /^ se£ 

ow£ wi£/< 50,000 m«/. [The proper meaning of ^ being in the midst 

of the following noun ought to be a plural or a collective ; but the 
signification of with became so prevalent, that we find actually 

J^'^vO^ ^ ^M K-j^^i *$ O^^ an d he did not go out with more 

titan one servant. In a somewhat different sense ^» is used in the 

* * * »t * » * 
phrase Jl»-j **Ji' iV O - *-* we were four of us men. — The signification 

§55] The Verb. — 3. Gov t of Verb. — (b) Prepositions : ^5*. 155 

of with comes to denote a combination of two qualities, as ^ i\y* A 
»/♦»■ blackness blending with redness. D. G.] 

(c) It indicates the subject of thought or conversation, that in 
which these move ; as iliw^l jU^.t ^ O-ijr^ J**^ re/fee* faro 
months upon the choice of a teacher ; *iU3 ^ J&& o' ^5*^ ^ OTtts ^ 
meditate upon this; «£U3 ^y ^^» &? <*/*>£« afowtf f£is (whereas 
<£AJjj ^^AC would mean /<f £/w£0 tfAis #«£, ^ (/are utterance to this B 

. . r "i* " „ & , jZ 

opinion); [aU\ ^ Lj#^.la*JI cfo ^ argue icith us concerning God] 

{Jf*+£ **s*^ L5**" L5* ^ ^"** whoever may doubt my lore for Buteina]. 
Hence it is used in stating the subject of a book or chapter ; a^ 

+ * l»f 4 , ,i, 9 3, 

JjV^^t ^ L»U£» oUc he compiled a book on morals; ^ J-ai 
^*" a*aU a chapter treating of the nature of science ; j>^^\ w>U£» 
SjAUUI^ ^^c* jy-6 ^i SjJbl^JI M<? fo>o£ 0/ ^ shining stars, treating 
of the kings of Misr and el-Kahira. Similarly : <sui c^V he got up C 
(to #0 ««d &*>£) /o/- him ; U^-i ^^a.^ £foy sent me to Wjk for them, 
or to fetch them; 4JJI jup ^t ^jlkLJI ^y *i*jtJ and he sent for the 
Sultan 'Abil 'Abdi Hah. [It also denotes the assigning of a cause, as 
j**»J\ <->*•' i^j* »***•" <Vj-» he fogged him with the prescribed number 
of stripes for drinking wine; iUj ^s <su>^ /«? blamed him because of it; 

, 9 , * , St , £ iO , , , ti, 3*0 £ 

V*— ?*• *>* ^f j^' w^»J s !/*l Oi w^*% a woman entered Hell D 
because of a cat which she confined without food.} 

(d) ^ji is used after verbs signifying desire, like w-^j and *4-k, 
in connection with the object desired ; as J-o*"j vo^' 5 -JJ «*»-3 O-* 
^Ul jut U-i w*^> ^Ji <su M?Ay should he, who has experienced the 
sweetness of knowledge and of the application of it in practice, desire 

£ <o , 3 i ,,3,2 I ,3, 

anything that men possess? ^Ul J\yc\ ^ ^.»kj *$ ,jl ^i-r^j he must 
not covet people's property. Compare § 53, b, rem. e. 

156 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 56 

A (&) It is employed in the comparison of two objects, governing 
the thing with which the other is compared ; as ^ W**M s >**^' I* 
c\Zc *^l Sja.'n)! this life is merely a temporary usufruct, compared with 

the life to come; [JU**^ i>* O" " 8 ^ ^* <lU ^ 3 ls* J**^ '^•[f^ ^* 
£/«/ ta.r is 7w£ Ai^A, *» proportion to tlie number of handicrafts of 
which thou art master] ; 3^L5 •>)! d^a»-j ^ <£J-oAfi U £% knowledge is 

B cm/?/ a rfrop compared with his ocean; lit. w^w j^£ into it, the 
smaller object being, as it were, placed within the larger one for the 
purpose of comparing the two. 

(/) Lastly, ^ is used to express proportion (e.g. length and 

e , * * * a st** t - y j a - jj j 

breadth) and multiplication; as Ulji jJuz ^jij\ ^j» Ulp yj y~ +±. <jJji» 

* • * 
\*cj£ its length is fifty cubits, by twelve cubits in breadth (Germ, bei or 

auf Fr. sur) ; lyXJU ^J /»-~'!>* *j-** ft IajIjia* its size is ten parasangs 

" ° * . • - • - 
Q by the same; < L~+&. ^ itU three into five or three times five, according 

to the phrase >**£ ^ \*j>£ *->«« he multiplied one number by another 
(lit. struck the one into the other). 

fi ••5 

Rem. .*$ is said by the grammarians to be used iLijJa-U, to 
indicate time and place. 

56. w> (with pronominal suffixes ^>, ib, aj) differs from ^j? 

in this, that ^, like the Latin and German in, shows that one thing 

D is actually in the midst of another, surrounded by it on all sides ; 
whereas w> merely indicates that the one is close by the other or in 

contact with it, and corresponds therefore to the Latin prepositions 
prope, juxta, apud, ad, and the German an or bei. For example : 

SybUJI w>Lj ajj.3 « village at (close to or /<«/^ by) the gate oj 
U-Kdhira ; J>*-jJ ^jj-° I passed by a man; **> w ^*- he sat beside 
(or by) him; jjuj <UJt^=>j-<x» GW helped you at Be~dr; ioj*»oJb o^ 
^Xi there was at (or m, Germ, cm, Fr. r)) U-Medina a merchant; 

§56] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : w>- 157 

j«A+j 2uj3 a town in Egypt ; ou-» «jujj ipim a sword in his nana; A 
lb aj ftfera *V ?'« fo'w « disease; jV^ M;b v***^' awtd ow fowse &y 
<% (= \jQ) ; jj&i |>.a>. i . ^ .» ^ffvtic OaJ-^ 3 J^i^ «»<* *»*% # e 

pass by them in the morning and at night (=*}LJ). — Hence it is 
construed with verbs signifying to attach, connect, or adhere to 

(e.g. Jif, J*sJ, S*j, JU), [go round, surround (e.g. ;b, J»U.t, oU»)], 
seize, take, or begin (e.g. •*£•', 'Ju) ; ask about, know, or be acquainted B 
with (e.g. JL»,^oJLc, j-oj), flee for refuge to, believe in, and swear by 

(e.g. JU, ,>*!, ^-J\). For example : ^ ^oyiU^U 4JLo~$ ^ov-'Ji) 
j^ JjLct their heads adhere to their shoulders (and) they have no necks ; 

XI* |J<A> « Alt St «■ " «" 

jb>3b jy**j ijjJI O*^ because the worms stick to the fruit ; (J-©} 

Sl5 ^JL» s^^JI /*<? joined the one thing to the other ; [glj^b ^>3 an d I 

hovered round enemies; UJ»c fc«^Jb J»b>.t he comprehended it, knew C 

*Y thoroughly] ; JE--Jb lju ^e te^aw fo study the lesson ; j»\J*£J\j J^. 

take hold of the nose-rein ; g L«JI £ tj.>b j--oj ,<ob s l~JO ,-j^L-J ^b" 

«««? //" #? o&fc »*« afowrf women, truly I am skilful in the diseases of 

women ; <*Jaa»...> ^y> aXJLi j^*j we take refuge with God from His 
- - * <• ' 

wrath; «*».tyi aJJb Cv U l I believe in the one God; (c-JU»») w-o—5) 
aJJb I swear by God; iU*j OjJj^ ^ % Thyself (I swear), I will 
puft 7% Aouse; ^Cl U «ib. SU /io 3 ^ thyself I care not; JL*\jj D 
6y £% taurf / — Hence, too, it is used after 13] lo ! see f introducing a 
person or thing that comes suddenly into view (3U*.U«JI til or 
^>W-*JI 'ip ; as £»>V^ 'ij >*— J >* 1-^ whilst he was going along, he 
suddenly perceived a cloud of dust ; £>yAJ 01 13] w>jj^' cJa-jy UJi 
^o j^fe rt«o? «/?<?/• I had got to the middle of the lane, I all at once heard 
a great noise; w>M \j^ **-»-^* ft Aa.,A) 1}!^ si*jjkaJI ^i j*Jj 

158 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 56 

A and whilst we were talking, a great clamour suddenly arose at the 
door ; J-.SI jJ 2l£sjj ju-JI aJ JUj Ja»/j t$l behold, a man called the 
sdiyid Beraka came forward. Here we must supply the participle of 
the verb u-^.1 to perceive [or j*aj to see], which is construed with w», 
as, for instance, in the second of the above examples, \j~a»^> Ut lit 
^*Jit CsyAi. The same remark applies to O^* m sucn phrases as 
,-^.sUteJ >ib ^^ ^ seems to me that thou art trying to deceive me ; 

B jofcJUt V JI kttwtf *£b jV^ J£ is as if 1 saw thee being let down into 
the grave ; [c~-a3 f*if> U <•** ^ji >zkj\£s it is, Darih, as if thou 

t * s *t£ * 

sawest me already dead] ; *}bj;5 ^Xj ^y^ methinks I see thee slain; 

i.e. sib ^a^-o («J^, or <ib j-oj! ^iU».— From the idea of contact 
there arises, in the case of a superior and inferior or primary and 
secondary object, that of companionship and connection ; as «UaIj jU 

(j he set out with his household ; jJuJ\ w>W^ ^e^ J-»-> he came into his 

presence in his travelling dress; ti*c\af\) jU^Jt ^JjZZI he bought the 

ass together with its bridle; [j**-i well, properly with well-being in 

at- - a s 

answer to the question £ * j* ~ ~e>\ >J^£ » how do you do this morning ?] 
Under this idea are figuratively represented the following relations : 

(a) The relation between subject and predicate, especially in 
negative propositions ; as «ju* ^J\SL> <UJt ^•Jl is not God sufficient 

J s S & £t ' ' v*0 

1) for His servant? jj\xj C~J / do not knoic ; -»**«JJ -^^ ^J ^* 
thy Lord will not deal wrongly with His servants; ^j+^y+j j** U 

e s a » 

they are not believers ; ^o^U^cb ,>£»! ^ jtjJI ^1 \^J^\ 0^-« ,jt^ 
and if hands are stretched out to food, I am not the quickest of them 

*■ O 0060^0 & J * s * J 4 J0 

(to do it) ; v/ 5 C* dy O* *$•#* O**? t*^ & ^ -*** ^**^ L5^ O** 
and be an intercessor for me on the day when no (other) intercessor can 
avail Sdwdd 'ibn Karib in the least. An example of the rare use of 

§ 56] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.—(b) Prepositions: ^>. 159 

w* in affirmative propositions is {kJ t*-i O' ^^ J^^ ^ O' ^3li -*^' 

^^♦J I efo ^<9j/ not see that God has power to Wing the dead to life ] 
[Comp. in Hebrew T&l X^Pl Job xxiii. 13. D. G.] 

(6) The relation between the act and its object, (a) This is 

always the case after intransitive verbs, as %^j~-> J*»»J he ivas stingy 

of something, opposed to aj -^w he ivas liberal of it; [ojJI^ ^j he 

, * - » i o - * oi o - 

treated his father with filial piety; &* ^ i m .j± \ }t ^ jj— ».l j3 B 
,jjL..JI jfe f/eted ttW/ towards me, when he brought me forth from the 
prison; Jii* aj j*\ he gave an order respecting him, and accordingly 
he was slain ; OL^JLJU ^i Lcj he pixiyed (God) to grant me 
stedfastness] ; especially such as indicate motion, e.g. st*., ^Jl 
to come, w-*i to go away, »-1j, jL» to depart, set out, jAS, sja^j to get 
up, rise, lo->» to be high, etc. These verbs are construed with w> and 

the genitive of the thing, accompanied by, or in connection with, C 
which one performs the act they denote ; and they must be translated 

into English by transitive verbs. For example : aJLI* Sjy-j Sy\s 
then bring (lit. come with) a sunt (chapter) like it ; ^Aj^o aJJI w>i 
God took away (lit. went away with) their light ; JiaJU >ol5 he upheld 
the truth; a £X^»J1 g Lcb tB ^ v -' ^ e t°°k upon him the burden of the 
government ; &j l^w he lifted it up on high ; [aj ^jit bring thou him, 

§ 59, rem. a], (/?) The same construction is also employed with D 
transitive verbs, not only when they signify motion but in other cases 

too, and the verbs must then be used absolutely*; as^o^j ^J! wou 

he sent them to me (lit. he performed the act of sending to me in 
connection with, or by means of, them, using them as the objects 

* [In many cases this construction is the consequence of the 
omission of the proper object, e.g. with verbs signifying " to send " 
without mention of the bearer of the message, etc., with those that 
signify "to throw" without mention of the thing aimed at, etc. D. G.J 

160 Part Third.— Syntax. [§56 

A through which he realized that act ; jw~&> C5"*J he s ^ *he arrow 
{from the bow) ; aJt oj~j ^aJI he gave himself up, or surrendered 

himself, to him ; j>-Jb o!/*i *$ j^*~*N *y* dark-eyed {women), who 
do not read the suras (the Kor'an). This happens particularly when 
the transitive verb is used in a figurative sense, and the preposition 

is then called jU»^JI lb the figurative o ; as Ua*JI j— £d ^« 6ro#0 ^ 

stick, but ^fUj ^-~£b fo Aas broken my heart [along with ^*U> j—*^ 9 ] > 

& ^*i*«JI j-^. /-£ set the bone, but L5 -A*J >-»• /><? ^«s comforted my heart 

[along with ^^5 j*».. Likewise, ?UJI >lwl /w raised the building, 

but oj£sjo jtet he raised his fame as well as «^3 ilwt ; J~»JI w>«*»- 

//g rfmtf or pulled the cord, but aju-aj «jJ^ /^ rendered his name 

famous more generally used than <uu* a w>Ju*..] The relation of the 

acts of breaking and setting to their objects, in a tropical or spiritual 

sense, may be expressed by a prepositional exponent, as being a less 

C immediate relation than when they are used in their ordinary material 


(c) The relation between the act and the instrument with which, 

the means by which, or the reason why, it is performed ; as c~l £> 

s so** a to j * * * 

>0 AA)b / wrote with the reed-pen ; ou~Jb &\li he slew him with tlie 

sword; a5U> &j~> j-**aJI <*«U1 **JLH G°d will grant him patience 

j * * i --■ 2 - 
through the salutary power of prayer to Him ; C<.q»^. tw aJJI J > a^ *- .' 

D by God's help I have performed the pilgrimage (to Mekka) ; ^Usui 

J*** O-^ ^o^^^J ^ov' ^*J^' *^W*k ^ovt^ l**^ tj>^ ^H^xJt ^>* 

5jJ£» aJUI and because of wrong done by those who were Jews, we have 

forbidden them good things, which were allowed them {before), and 
because of their turning away many {men) from the path of God ; 

^bU«J ^^SUj-o ^^y-aij U-i wherefore, because of their breaking their 
covenant, we have cursed them (U redundant, see § 49, /). — Connected 

§56] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : w>- ^ l 

herewith is the use of w> with surnames, etc., after <J>j* to be known ; A 
as also after ^^ to be enough, to suffice, with the person or tiling 
that suffices or is enough for one ; e.g. \J$jx^\ ^c ^ ,>-*■ 
^tui^oJb Hasan 'ibn 'All, known by the name of el-Ma rglndnl ; 
^yLj i»j^ju i>^i a village known by the name of Bakwa ; aJUb ,3*^3 
ljuyi God sufficeth as a witness* ; JiUJJ Utbj Lcb^JUJI 5JJU ^a^ 

^ pleasure of knowledge is a sufficient motive and incentive to a B 
sensible man. [Comp. § 49, c] — The price of any article is also 
expressed by the preposition o after verbs signifying to buy, pay, etc., 

as being the instrumental means with which the act is performed : e.g. 
^Jbjju \+\5 jj^Iit he bought a reed-pen for a dirham ; <x^c *->y2\ ^^"-f 
jUjju I sold the piece of cloth (or the garment) to him (see § 48, c) for a 
dinar ; u-^ 0++1 *3j~*3 an d they sold him for an insufficient (or 
trifling) price ; jJ'J^W <UV-*»J' tj^Iwt ^^ have purchased error at 

- J -t *J J ^ - « S 6 * - b )s 

the price of truth; q^jJSj \y>\£> U->^Jt wjIJ^^J theirs is a painful C 
punishment, for having deemed (the prophet) a liar (t^Jl£» Uj =_ >0V Jyu) ; 

M«# / had, instead of them, a tribe who, when they ride (forth), pour 
down (on their enemies) from every side, mounted on horses and camels 

e m S3,,, 

(jvy! at the price of them, in exchange for them, =j^jS). — [Hence its 
use after verbs signifying to kill, slay, etc. in the sense of in retaliation 

* [In this and the following example the preposition w> is said to J) 
be redundant after i**^ in order to emphasize the relation between 

subject and predicate, aJJI being the agent (comp. Beidawi i. 211, 
1. 21 seq., ii. 226, 1. 2 seq., Abu Zeid, Xaicadir, 204, 1. 3 seq.). In like 

6 a - - * - 

manner it is said to be redundant before the predicate in juj ^L— a*-» 
Zeid is a person sufficing thee. It is better, however, to take ^.A^ 
as containing its subject in itself, viz. <uU^. and thus being used 
impersonally (comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 199, Anni. 2. 374). P. G.] 
w. 11. 21 

162 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 56 

A for, as an equivalent for, as J^£* j<£+* <*-> O^**^ certainly, a chief of 
your tribe will be killed in retaliation for him ; w~^ ^bu *«^j ^j 
be thou slain as an equivalent for the thong of Koleib's sandal.] 

Rem. a. In such phrases as ,«^bj C«Jl t«^b thou art as dear 

to me as my father and mother, a3)}$ ^>*o ,»j b dear to me as my 

father is one whom I love, the preposition depends upon the word 

^£jju> ransomed, or ^jS may he be ransomed, which is understood, 

B and the literal meaning is : thou art to be, or shalt be, ransomed with 
my failier and mother, may one whom I love be ransomed with my 

* but fO *** 

father. This is called by the grammarians 2jjk&j| i\> the w> which 
expresses ransom; but it is in reality the &+2)\ *b or w> of price, 
as used after <£jJLwl. eb, etc. (see above, no. c, at the end). In 
the same way are used  5 -.JUj and ^»-jjJ- — Observe also the 

e * o * * * ' * ' o - i " 

phrase C^X'j ly*i [or simply Ij-J] grooc? rmtZ t#e^, as C-.*o-l jjt 

Q ws^jijj ty*i C-odglj i/" ^A«m consentest and obey est, good and well ; 

^^'j ly*i 4Jt^aJU 1-oj.j ^h» t/ one performs the wudu for the 

Friday, good and well. This is explained, by an ellipse, as equi- 

valent to ^1 3JLxiJ| C~o*ij J-oiJI JL_j iLaaJI 3I abtiJI djL^i 

A dJLacwJI 6y M'-i 8 ac t or P ra ctice is excellence attained, and good 

is the act or practice. Others regard ly*i as equivalent to lyj <lLXni, 

\yi AJbtf, etc., keep thou to it, let him keep to it, etc. (see § 59, 

D rem. a) ; and other words, such as 2j>Z}\ the practice of the Prophet, 

or 4«tfk»Jj| the ordinance of indulgence, may be supplied according 
to circumstances. 

Rem. b. In phrases like (j*~«*>) J»*bu ^5*^' cM ^b> he died a 

little before the Prophet, j>\j\$ CHjiAl ^> J^^ " e arrived two 
months and some days after this, w» is the w> of measure, and quite 
different in meaning from the accusative of time how long : jiL> 
^j^cyt .jJbi means he travelled for two days before me, profectus est 

56] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions: ^>. 163 

biduum ante me, Germ, er reiste zwei Tage lang vor mir, but A 
yj-yoyj.} i*M ./*'-'> he started two days before me, profectus est 
biduo ante me, Germ, er reiste ztvei Tage vor mir ab. Observe 
that w» with its genitive must in this ease always be placed after 

'».* - o * 

JkJ, jju, etc. 

Rem. c. The preposition without is expressed in Arabic by 

.. o - o, a j 

^L and j-o«->, more rarely by j+& ^>-« and vj_3»^> as we ^ as ^he 
simple ^ji (§ 69, f). *^j can be used only with an indefinite 
substantive, j*Ju [and j+e. £ye, as also ^jj and OL5*Vj w ith one B 
which is either definite or indefinite ; as j^==> Jj>* %4 QtJaJL.* 

~ s s .. 

§L» *i)b a rwfer without justice is like a ro'rer without water ; Cwk. 
jlj ^U £Aow a?*< co7?ie without (bringing any) provisioyis ; Zjjj~q j*Ju 
without necessity ; JaJI j+xj unjustly ; o^^ j-j* ^>-o ivithout 
controversy ; \j\jy* J»>5 *—**-'>** O-* without sword and bloodshed. — 
Compare in Hebrew K73, t^3, *^33 C 

[Rem. d. Observe the phrases IJJy ^) ,^»o ?cfo i/n/£ 6e re- 
sponsible to me for such a thing ? (where we must supply ^J*o\*o) ; 

, si to it >a i * 

\yi \j\ I have done it (where C-tq. may be supplied); aJJb t>a*J 
^b^ we put our trust in God, then in thee (suppl. iytj or Ji*J); 
\JjSs ^jl^ ljt -ib ou£> /<o«y icilt thou be, when such a thing is the 
case ? The w> in aJUt ^-~j denotes according to some the aid or 

i ,oi 

instrument; others say that we ought to supply ^£J-Zj\ I begin J) 

s siO* Or 3 * 

xoith tlie name of God. In the expressions ju»^)t jujj o*JU / met 
in Zeid the lion, etc. w> is the equivalent of ^c, see § 48, h. On 

* - } , 

the expressions <U-*j yfc or a...a«..> see § 139. On the use of w> in 

- o oi 

the formula jujj ^-oit see Vol. i § 184 and rem. a.] 

Rem. e. The grammarians denote the various uses of w> by 
saying that it is used JjLoJ'ilU to express adhesion ; i-i^JsJJ /*>/*<? 

164 Part Third.— Syntax'. [§ 57 

A and place ; ^~JLU swearing ; < L ». Ua«JJ, or aIJ^LoJU, companionship 

' Z oi 

and connection; ujj^lU, or JXUJ, to render an {intransitive) verb 

transitive; AjUlw^U to indicate the instrument of whose aid we 

avai7 ourselves ; A.W-JJ, or J-JjCJJ, to express the reason or cause; 

and k</ ajjALU, ibli^JJ, or ,J>*.£U, to stoto £Ae recompense, equivalent, 
or jorice given for anything. 

s ' * 

B 57. £* (rarely £*) mYA, a&m*? w&A, indicates association and 
connection in time or place (<c;$j 3I w>ULko^)l ^IC«) ; as jjto jC 
/&? travelled with me; <uu> JS*. he sat with him; p^So i* ili£». 

u-^uJI I came to tJiee with the rising oftlie sun; [^Q^M *»« continually 
(prop. a&>»<7 w^A ^0 o?a?/s)] ; Jv*- 5 ' £* JJ ^ JI r**"^ ^ devotion cannot 
be real along with (is incompatible with) ignorance ; jajJti U jtpo *.« 


C <u* wiVA #Ae repetition of that portion of it which went before (repeating 

at the same time what had been done before) ; \S\^ J&* ^J-ij* 

^£** and my substance is from you and my love is ivith you. Hence 
it is used to show that a person possesses something or has got it with 

him ; as «j+a>~* <£**< Jjk hast thou got an inkbottle with thee / ^5** U 

J**i* *$3 J^*i> I have neither dinar nor dirham (neither gold nor silver) 

by me. [Hence li-*-« according to our opinion, like lijc-Lt].— 

D Sometimes it signifies in addition to, besides; as Cjjs. <uji» ** in 

addition to his being (besides his being) a stranger. — More frequently 

it means notwithstanding, despite, although ; as Altla^w %* J^5 despite 

, . , 7 * \ * r* <5o / , *0i<i,t0J*0' 

his bravery he was fouled; «£U3 %^ J$~tj}\ o-* »>***' Jk **' O^i^J 
Sj^U^JU j*e\ no one was more clear-sighted than the Apostle (Muham- 
mad), and notwithstanding this, he was ordered to consult (others) ; 

f 0*3 s 3 , Z , d^OfO £ t * + * oto<o * • * * * 

t UJI ,j*o (JttwI j>j^\ ,jl *.* ^oLa^I jajj*> ^>t ia^t he was unable to 

destroy the pyramids, although it is easier to destroy than to build 
(compare in English withal: in Hcb., Dy, e.g. Nehem. v. 18, nT"Dyi 

§58] The Verb. — 3. Gov t of Verb. — (b) Prepositions : £+. 165 

and 5 e.g. Job i. 22, n^rS^, Deut. i. 32, nttl *QTOl, Num. A 
xiv. 11, mntfn 7J2; and in Pers., b and i>^ L»). — Lastly, %* 

is used in comparisons, and must then be translated into English by 

s- i , * ) , ay- 
compared to, in comparison with ; as jjj a**o j*a*J\ compared with 

him M-Hadir, or el-H}dr (Elias, the wandering Jew of the Mu- 
hammadans), is a tent-peg, i.e. fixed and motionless, an expression 
used of one who leads an unsettled vagabond life. 

Rem. ** is, as the Arab grammarians remark, properly the 
accusative of a noun, signifying association, connexion; see Vol. i. B 
% 359. The expression out* ^j*a w**Aj, / ivent away from beside 
him, is recorded by Slbaweih. — To it corresponds in Hebrew Qj^ 
in Syriac 1*11. 

58. ,jjJ (with suffixes ^JjJ, bjJ, ^jJ) or ^JjJ, also written 
IjJ (with suffixes i^jJ, ^jJ, ajJ*), is a comparatively rare word, 
signifying beside, near, at or by, in the possession of (Lat. apud, 
Fr. c^&z) ; as w>M 'jJ Iajlw LaMj ««rf they found her lord at the b 
door ; ^U-w )1 ^jjJ ^^Xii\ 31 when (their) hearts shall be in (their) 
throats; <ujJ .JJt jUi^l J-oil jUJt ,jl jJltl ^ believed that fire 

was the most excellent of the things which were in his possession. 

* ■»' . ... * _ 

Rem. a. ^jjj chiefly occurs in composition with ^j*c (see § 70), 

- ,» o£ ^^ .. - ».« ^^ »<» 

and, like that preposition, is used ^j\SLo ^1 ^toj ,»* ijliJI 6 ljJL>^) 

to denote the commencement of the limit in place or time. It may be 

connected with a proposition, as «ib OJl ,jjJ »Uaj j^JJj and J) 

thou art mindful of His benefits since thou art grown up; [!3Ui 

b'ULi ^jl (jjj i j£ j *Zi ^jt («Jj-o 13JI/J ffl»f^ ioAa£, thinkest thou, did 

it harm me that thou hatedst me since we greiv up ?] — When con- 

nected with the word Sjjlc morning, it usually takes it in the 

accus., as w^jjdt) 0*0 l***" Sjjic ^j^ from morning till it (the sun) 
^ e j 

was near setting, though Sjjwi is admissible. The former construe- 

1(5(5 Part Third. — Syntax. [§ 59 

Z * J J * Zt *o * * 3* 

A tion is explained by an ellipse, viz. Sjjic AfrLJI C*Jl^ ^jJ siwce 
the hour, or ^?>ie, was morning. If another word be connected 
with Sjjic, it may be put either in the accus. or the genit., as 

4vl * * 1 * 3 3 * m 

iLJUtj o^js- vJjJ from morning and evening. Some grammarians 

5 < o 3 o j * m * * 

admit the nominative likewise, l^js- (JjJ, by an ellipse of \j\^, 

o - o j o * * 03* 
viz. Sjjct C-Jl£> £)J>). 

Rem. b. ^jJ differs from jUc (§ 66) in being restricted to 
B material objects which are actually with, or on the person of, the 

.. .. 3 *0iO * I 

speaker [or the person spoken of]. You say w>b>o ^Ju* J^ill IJJk 

3 • J ^0 

tf/m assertion is right in my opinion ; aj j^s- ^J^s jJS- So-and-so 

z * * * 3 * * 

knows about it; not ^jJ and jj^.3 i^jJ. And again you say 


JU j^jUt, / have money, whether it be about your person or not, 

9 * S> * * 

whereas JU ^jJ means that you actually have it about you. 

to J * 

[O^ can never form the predicate of a nominal sentence. One 

00**6** ^ 9 * £ 3* 

C may say juj to jJ Zeid is with us, but not juj UjJ.] 

59. ^Ic (with pronominal suffixes ^^, ^M^, **^) ww, afow, 
2</w», is used : — 

*• , 0*> 

(a) In its original local sense (^XjCLj*^J, to denote higher elevation) ; 
as gJauJI (fc5 Xc juj ^ic? is on the roof; hu\». ^kc jsy*3 <^X+i\* 

D and it (the pigeon) began to hover over a wall ; jjujiaJt i^j^ ^>^\ >***3 
lie found a person upon the road ; J^-j Sjyo l*5la*JI ^e- jJaJ he saw 

3 3 3 <r i * * 

on the wall the figure of a man ; t>k5 w>W^ i^* I hud on cotton 
cbt/ies ; «iUi)l ^e- .iU-o ^>«j Oul Cjy-I Ijli and when thou, and 
they who are with thee, are safe on board the ship. The same sense is 
further exemplified in : SjuUJI ^-^ J~**f ^ sat at tlie table (because 
a person sitting at table rises above the level of it) ; j^i\ ^jXe *»a5j 

§ 59] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (h) Prepositions: ^j*. 167 

he stood by the river ; *jb w*W ^t- jut5 he sat at the door of his A 


house; ^J^i ^»\j ^Xc *^aSj ta sfcxx? by the head of So-and-so; 

when he was very eager to investigate the peculiarities of the limbs of 
animals; [LlkuJUt v >« *%* yLs. ^j$\ ^s- Aj^-iJt the village is 

a , , £ * a , , * * 

situated at a distance of 12 miles from el-Fostat\; &Ae- y>, or aAs. jl*., 
fo passed by him; J*!/**' ^5^ !/*■«' ??"^- a '~' , O^ 9 ^-Haggag was B 
&ww* (or governor) of el-' Irak ; % < ^> ^.U «Jlb &> contemplated or 
examined something ; j^-w ^jXc juLbl fo became acquainted with, or 
acquired a knowledge of something ; <sulc 1^3, either fo (the pupil) 
raw? (a &*>£) fte/iwe A/m (the teacher), studied under him, or he (the 
teacher) read (a book) to him (the pupil) ; ^yJ& aJL/^JI *$3 he read the 
letter to them ; jL»a».» ^^ SjA-eJt w>U&j I ju he began the book of C 
(canonical) prayer before Muhammad, began to read it under him as 
his instructor. Similarly in the phrases : (ly-Ac) <*~^ ^Le. he (she) 
fainted (lit. #A«re ims a covering of darkness over him or ^r) ; ^5-0*' 

» J» ^ ^ s 

<uic <fo.; (lyJLft) aJIc ^5^*-* in a faint ; j<$~^ j^)<-> peace be upon 
you ! <uic aJJI i«*.j God's mercy be upon him (may God hare mercy 
on him). 

(b) In a hostile sense, in which case it can generally be rendered by D 
against or upon; as «uXc frx^" he went out against him (with an army), 
he rebelled against him ; [«ulc Icj he cursed him, § 23 ; a-Ic (.^-^ ^ 
pronounced a (legal or other) decision against him, as opposed to ai ^^]; 

a * * * , * a s * a i* 

<suXfr^»a»Jb he rushed upon him: *J»c ,j*li therefore give aid against 
him; ^>aw-^l ^e- j~aj ,jl ^jk^j he must bear his troubles patiently 
(lit. otj/^ exercise patience against them); a^Icj <«J*££ 0>^ >*= 
aJ* ia»^- f/^^ Aw intelligence and his knowledge may not become an 

168 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 59 

, b ********* Oi rf J/ i/ JD lV 

A argument against him; ^-^ Uj lyJ U ^^aJI asjjlc aaA)\ learning 
is the soul's cognizance of what is for its good and for its hurt (see 

i * * 5 - 0* 

§ 53, &, y). Similarly in the phrases : ,J& (>*•>*•*) *-**»« difficult 

S * * * 50/ 3 * * 9 * ^ 

/or me, opposed to j^jXc (j~~.i) J^w easy for me; ^^ J-ij^ difficult 

i * * «J/ 

./br w^, but also dlear to w^, opposed in both senses to ^.U ^>*a ; 

z * * ° * ' * , * ^ 

(^jXc (^a». hidden from me, obscure to me, opposed to [ Js- ^A». c/#w 

B to me. It is therefore construed with verbs signifying to 6e angry 

with and to incite or instigate ; as a*Xc »»^c /*.# was angry with him ; 

b s * £ * * jOw'j D^ 

<suit LL a..-> <t-oX& ^ he did not speak to him out of anger with him 

»* * * * > a * * * * 

[and <xAc ,*-£> he was content with him, as opposed to *Js- k si».»>] ; 
xAe. ± r J£i\ {£j£\ he urged on the dog against him, set the dog at or 
upon him (<u would mean lie made the dog attach itself to him). 

Frequently, however, when construed with these latter verbs, it does 
C not imply a hostile movement against an object, but merely motion 

towards it to get possession of it or do it*; e.g. J**l\ ^s- wsaJt 

- o * * * j a * ui * j j }' * 

urging or inciting to action ; w>U£» oL -^^aJ ^Xc dbl ^^.^j**** o^Jo[^, 

they talked to him, urging him to compose a booh; J^»^» S^».'^I j/0 a 

* &*> * * * * O-o 

j-j»JI .Jlc (jUJ'NM concern for the life to come induces man to do well 

* *0*> * » i *3 I * * * * * * * 

(lit. carries him towards good); aA-UUI ^^cjJ) ejus* ^s. ^iXox*. U 
D what induced you to set up this empty claim? Hence too *>*>*•> 


to be greedy or covetous, and its derivatives u"j*", greed, and ^ajj*., 
greedy, are construed with ^j^-*- and the genitive of the thing 
coveted. — The phrase O*^ ^5^ J^->> to go in to one, is used when 

a, , j * * o 

* [Hence we can decide only by the context whether <x*Xc- lyi^oJ 
and similar expressions are to be translated by they collected themselves 

«5«o * * i ^ * t 

against him or to him. Similarly £ ,y£Jl i^"* < *-'^' ma y signify '*" 
helped him to avert the thing or to accomplish //.] 

§59] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (h) Prepositions . ^. 169 

the person sought is in his house or room, so that we actually find A 
him ; &*& ,JI J*-i merely means to go into one's house or room. 

(c) Of a debt which one owes, and a duty which is incumbent 
upon one ; as ,>j> aJLc he owes a debt, opposed to ^jJi ai a debt is 
due to him ; o'j^-* ,i M* \^ thou oicest me two dinars (see § 53, b, 
rem. d) \ j^~~ » J^» L5 ^ a-*l>j^voJ*" w-JJ» ffo search after knowledge 
is an ordinance for every Muslim (every Muslim is bound by divine 

* i * * » * a i - 9* - 

command to seek after knowledge) ; tjjk Jjiaj ^j\ dLic it is incumbent B 

upon thee to do this, thou must do this; 4--iJ. s j^ jj*»Z 3 jjl ^Lle 

thou must refrain from slander or backbiting. [Hence it is employed 
with verbs signifying to decree, to make incumbent or unavoidable, as 

^i>3,J^i, J^jl, wi^>, etc.] 

(d) Of the advantage, superiority, or distinction, which one 

- * * ,9* - - * s~ J 9 s 

person or thing enjoys over another ; as i£5*}*.*Jt ^Xc j»$\ J-ai 
Adam's superiority over the angels; UijJI S^*aJI (j^s^JL-j ^>jJJI 
Sja.'Vi ^JLc who love the present life more than the lije to come; C 
oj+s. ^JU (»jU».l) «pi he preferred it to the rest, selected it in preference 
to the others. 

(e) Of the condition in which any one is in respect to religion, 
trade or profession, health, fortune, mental or bodily gifts, etc. 
(properly, the ground or basis on which he stands in these respects). 

For example : ^y£»jjLo >jj* ^Jte ^tJ! people follow, or conform to, 

the religion of their kings; %^i ^s- ^jLaJI C— ~J >y^\ CJ13 D 

the Jews say, The Christians are not (grounded) upon anything, have 

nothing to stand upon ; »~>— *J. o^> ^5^ O^ 9 ^ followed the religion 

J J - 9 - ^ - - - *,**&■» , 9 ' 

of the Messiah ; ojjuju >j\£=> U o*iU- ^ic \y>\ jl*~> ^>J fo /»«»» 
nothing contrary to what he believed ; ^L~JI 5jy>o ^^ w-J« ^y* 

3 J* »* oi 

\J& j^ J>\ no matter whether they be endowed with human form or not; 

3 i &, *, 0* * 9 * 3*, , , 3>» * 3 if * ' 3i j «> 1,3* -■' 

«- TT 90 

170 Part Thtrd.— Syntax. [§ 59 

A he loved a slave-girl, endowed with the highest degree both of beauty 

OtO i 

and of knowledge of singing and instrumental music; [ u ..«a J I ^^\ 

2 0, 10 *c, , 1 *0 0*0* , , 

\*i**> ^f^>h O-t^ ytx^^ 0-iJy° yjr* the common noun is divisible into 
two classes; (it is) a noun denoting a concrete object, or a noun 

* , ,i , 

denoting an abstract idea] ; aJx. \j\ U the state or condition in which 
I am ; jt*^ ls*^ v***-' O* {j^ <£~^ ■* w<*>8 going to comply with 
(the orders of) the emirs messenger; SJJ ^Xc si-^-w w'^i many 
B « cwp have I quaffed with delight; aXa£ j>*». ^A* <».u»>»oJI J^oj 
tyJUkl (^ «ne? ^e entered the city at a time when its inhabitants were 
off their guard ; jJkjJI Jj^ ^.U, or O^UJI ^^Xc, amw? ^ changes, 


or vicissitudes, of time ox fortune; j^jUJI ^Xc always, continuously, 
(f) Of the ground on which, the cause or reason why, one does 

11O, ,,,0,, i,,i > § < 

a thing ; as *&**i ^ U l^U «Jk*.t /*# was seized with a passion for 
her which he could not restrain (lit. there seized him on her account 

, , , , , , it 10,0* 

C something which he could not master) ; *^o U ^e- aJJ *x+aJ I praise 

, , 1 O-o , , , 11 , 1 

belongs to God for what He has done; 31^1^ I j)jj ^s- <wUj» he 

reproached him for having neglected to send him a present in return ; 

JqSJjJo U j^JLp aJUI Ijj^XJj and that ye glorify God for having guided 


you; ,JU <£JLJafct %^ ^j\ ^& why am I to give you my money? 

, , o i, , ,ci , i i , , , - ' 0,0,1* o*>, £" . ' if i * I- 

a $/aw, whether female or male, fetches, without taking account of any 
J) accomplishments they may possess, only for their faces, a thousand 
dinars and more] ; AU aj! ^Xs. sU. he came, on the ground of his 
being a king; A^».t a31 ^Xe ^iXX^JI vW ^31 he came to the king's gate, 
pretending to be his sister ; ^U a-Xc ^Iwl ^ I do not ask you for 

0, , ~, . 0,, f ,01 

money on that account (scil. a*Xc ^Uj building upon it, or aJ^ t*>^I** 

t ,, ~, 

relying on it) ; particularly in the common phrase o' kJ^ *^4 
building upon, reckoning or relying upon, such and such a thing. 

§59] The Verb.— 3. Gov t of Verb.— (h) Prepositions : ^. 171 

(g) Of the terms or conditions, as the ground or basis, on which A 
anything is done; as J»j-i3l tjuk ^^ on this condition; ^I^jI*.! 

^x^jijiC 1 ' 'l ' 7 7 J- 7 • 7 • 

C^LJb «jjuo-{ jjt ■*** <*U3 ^ consented to this proposal oj theirs, 

o« condition that they should aid him {by providing him) with weapons; 
^oJkp oUI jJLt <l»JLs &? made peace with him on (the condition that he 
should pay him) a thousand dirhams. 

(h) In saying that one thing happens in spite of or uotwith- B 
standing another thing, which might have prevented it ; as «£bjkcl 

«iXL> f^ jjlc / will punish thee, notwithstanding thy great age 

(lit. mi thy state of great age, see J) ; <tw ./*-* i> _ 5 Xc ' «*-<! ,Jji3 />e x/t- /<• 

a //#«, notwithstanding his extreme youth ; lyjjl— « ^^Xt ^Sj^ J*^' 

horses run, notwithstanding their vices, or diseases; ^JJ ibj ,jt 
^oy^JLb (JLc ^UU 5^ii^6 tvW/y thy Lord is merciful unto men, despite 

their throng-doing (compare ?$?, Job x. 7, xvi. 17); [CH^I ^^ l y*s C 

* '• 

Jlijt .^« can gallop in spite of her fatigue. It. S.] 

(/) Of the rule or standard according to which something is 
done ; as SJbjJaJI ajub ^& a/ter i^/s manner ; ii»j*a*-e i. — i Jit 

according to a duly observed proportion; wJ fl l ^ C-^tj U .-U 

according to what I have seen (stated) in books; ol£». U ^z 
according to what he related. [Hence its construction with the verbs D 

that signify to fashion, to mould (Jt**., P^ 9 , j^- <— >"*> a " ^-^q- 
lyJt elwl ^.© jiijj ^-«J' ^>—^1 ^yo w**- ^5^ c V.*^' hearts are 
created with a tendency to love him who does good to them and to hate 

* * * J O* o J * J 

him who does evil to them ; <i« a : L> ^c iiaJJI J*»»~» </ word is made to 
accord inform with its contrary in meaning. D. G.] 

(j) Of the thing of which we speak, which forms, as it were, the 
basis of our conversation (compare super, Germ, fiber) : as .JL* Jli 

172 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 59 

s \ * it *o * * < j j * oi 

A «^Ji he said concerning this, on this matter ; U aJJI ^e- (j^Jyu j>\ 

* ) * 6 , s 

(j^«Jl*j *$ or do ye say concerning (or of) God what ye know not ? 

[{k) Of a person who is excluded or thrust back (comp. ^33, 
§ 69, f), as j**$\ l«x* ^ov*^ 'Vv ma ^ e yourselves masters of this 
business over their heads, excluding them (Tab. i. 1841, 1. 13, 1842, 
1. 10, 13) ; a-JUj ^yj ^^U ^Ut SJujJI j^Ij ^jL; ^PjI he made the 
whole land of er-Rabada public pasture ground, without taking notice 
B of the claims of the Benu Ta'laba (Tab. i. 1879, 1. 6) ; bjj^ U-icj^JI 
dost thou grant protection to our enemy in spite {defiance) of us? D. G.] 

St * * 

Rem. a. Observe the following phrases : <u ^jX* fetch him to 

J J 6 J u d 10 ' r 

me, scil. I^JL^jl or some similar word (see b, at the end) ; iHJ/JI ^jr^ 
t^j-jJIj {it is) upon the head and eye, i.e. it shall be done most 
willingly and promptly ; JkJpl <Jlft on an empty stomach, fasting 
(lit. on the saliva) ; &*$** (»iU»«, J^*) O**" lj^* ^ n ^ ie ^ me t or 
C reign, of So-and-so ; (d jj) &j ju ,<k;, or simply a*Xc, by his means, 

* J J * * * • * * * " ** 

through him, as ^JLLjj .Jit Uj jcCj La UjIj a?i(i ^ive ws what Thou 
hast promised us by Thy apostles, aSy*j v^LJ ,-Xe. <*J15 He said it 
by the mouth (lit. tongue) of His apostle* ; [<2X*Xfc *$ for ^XJs. ^b N) 

'si* £ sis, * 

there is no fear for thee (§ 39, d, rem. a), ,Jjuu ^j\ <iLAft ^ o?o ^<;/t«£ 

</iOM likest]; and the adjurations <£JUU> aAJU, <£l*U ^La*j, / implore 

thee by God, by my life (to do so and so), which are usually followed 

D by the particle ^1 [or loJ]> lit., this oath with all its consequences 

be upon you, if you do not do so and so. — The phrase ljuj ^L-U 
seize Zeid, has already been mentioned in § 35, b, 0, rem. b. In this 

sense .iXJlt is also construed with the preposition u [§56, b] ; as 
Jl».jJU jf*-(^£- attack those men, i^l^-Jb ^JCJLfi invade el-Yemama ; 

* [O*^* O^ LC^ often signifies tinder somebody s name, i. e. falsely 
ascribed to him. D. G.] 

§ 61] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : Ju*. 173 

Rem. b. As being originally a substantive, iJLfc niay take the A 

a " o 

preposition ^o before it, ^JLc ^j-e from off (lit. from upon, Heb. 

,* , * a * * , 

/$&) '} 3lS *~>j* L5^"^ 0~* dP h e dismounted from his horse ; 

a * ^ , e , -- - s * a* «• o a * * 

*H-k i«JLe i^y* jii he sprang from off its bock ; jju <slJ^ ^a Ojcc 


Ift^oi? ^oJ l« sAe (the bird called kata) Ze/7! i'2 (Aer young or Aer «es£) 
in £Ae morning, after her time of abstinence from tcater was at an 

* * a - si 

end {when she could no longer abstain from drinking) ; ^Ae- ^yc C-Jt 

* *i io * * a *t * *-a*» 

jJto^uJI ( JLc ^yc \j\j v>*«-JI thou on the right hand and I on the B 

j a j 

60. To these three classes of prepositions may be added Ju-o 

a * - , , 

or Ju» since, $ and C» by (in swearing), and ,£) like, as. 

61. Ju« is derived, by assimilation of the first vowel, from 
0-» and jj (see Vol. i. § 340, with rem. c, and § 347, with the rem. b C 

and e, and compare the phrase J-3 ^j ^ i>*s* '^ ht may return 

. . . . * j 

to Aw Jormer condition). It is contracted into Xc, which usually 

becomes in the wasl Jw© (see Vol. i. § 20, d and § 358, i). These 
words signify from which time, and may be construed with the 
nominative as well as the genitive, the latter being more particularly 
used when a yet unexpired period of time is spoken of*. For 

* [Theoretically jJ~o or jwe is construed with a definite noun of D 

time in the nominative to designate the terminus a quo, as >ojj Jus 

' * J 

** orti II *"ince i£ teas Friday, i.e. since /a.<?£ Friday ; with an undefined 

noun of time in the nominative, when the expired period is spoken of, 
as iw Jl« e< w a year since ; with a defined noun of time in the geni- 

a -a«j i a ) 

tive to mark a yet unexpired period, as j»^J I JwU since the beginning 

of this day, i.e. to-day. But in course of time the construction with 
the genitive prevailed in all cases. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. 
i. 408—411, ii. 100 seq.] 

174 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 61 

- a j a«» ja-> ju jjtf/ 

A example: As^aJI jb^j Jo* aZjIj U / Aaw not seen him since last 
Friday (lit. ^ terminus a quo is Friday), or oWi «■**• ^ r ^ ^*^ 

1 SA 9 f J at a - 5£ a J ii » J 

two days, or Jjl jt>\s- Ju> xince last year, or u ~«\ ^>« Jjt ,j«« J^l Juo 
smctf ^ e?a?/ before the day before yesterday; ^)-JJI oLsuJt J.* 
jjljjjl 0*5^ jJI yl'ora midnight till the time when the sun has passed 
the meridian; < u ba J u* o ,JI j^uJI Jjl j^ from the first of the month 

Q*b a j >■ o * s * a i ssOJs'Q't 

B to the middle of it ; O^oJJ ^j ?-~£u Oj-ac J*}L«I ^jUlft J^ jj j^ \ 
»Jl.o JJ&Jlj Aas£ thou not seen, for the last two years, the kings of 

9 m * Jvii J ' a t *•£ 

cwr £ime summoned by fate to death and slaughter l *5l». <ul ^*' ^' 

it * o • j & j 
ja\j\ i^^a. Ju* I know that he has been starving for the last five days ; 

IJjb Uj^i J*« A l »JL £ 9 U / have not spoken to him since (the beginning 

of) this month, or U*^j Jl«, or^oj-JI Ju«©, since this morning, to-day. 

C Rem. a. The lexicographers give the rare forms Ju* and J*. 

— Jco may be pronounced in the wasl as J~e, and the forms 
jbyA t and >&jJ t J-o are also mentioned. 

j a } 

Rem. 6. Ju* and Jus are used 0*-*P' l** *d^*" &'»**^ to denote 
tlie commencement of the limit in time, or, as it may be otherwise 
expressed, to denote jl-o^I £/ie starting-point, or Sjl^JI JjI £/*,e com- 
D mencement of the period, and Sj^oJI *■*<**. '/<<e wAo^e of the period. 

> a > a J 

Rem. c. JlJ-« and Jw« never take a pronominal suffix, and 
cannot be joined with any substantives but those which denote 
time. They may, however, be directly connected with propositions ; 

as Jjla- Ju»o <0 t« I* / Aave ?to< seew /n»i since he was born, or 

^a^J I j)*-j Ju-o si/ice iAe ^ri6e departed ; Ju* 0* >: ,a * - "^ ^ W**» » ft »x5 

ijj j-Juc l^_T :g ^ ye <?yo Aave ^ye(/ as companions since ye were little ; 

u * : ^ ^o^S^I ^ «J^* vff^j^i i5*~*^! >»* rt0 ^v e (however comfortable) 

§62] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : ' 3 , o. 175 
has made me forget you, since the time that I have not met you (since A 

* s i s s 1 s s o - - s a i s s - 

I no longer meet you); l^«.3 djljt olju OjJU Joe ^Jlj U he has not 
ceased to be handsome from the day his hands fastened his robe ; 

i s si t i s , a*3 ai i 3 - 

*iU Ul j* JUJI i«*j' ^-Jj \-* I have not ceased, to seek after 
wealth from the time I grew up. 

o it i _s s o i a i 

Rem. d. The Bedawln use ^« instead of Ju*, as «Uw yj** = j^o 

<Uw. Compare the Kor'an, ix. 109, j»^> J^l ^^ ^-yLJI .JU Lr ~*\ 
which teas founded upon the fear of God from the first day. B 

62. The particle $, which is frequently used in swearing, is 

ii *Os 

construed with the genitive of the object sworn by ; as aJJt^ by God ! 

, > si* * s s 

* **£}\ w»j^ by the Lord of the Ka'ba (the mosque of Mekka) ! This 

j is employed, however, only when a substantive follows, and the 
verb of swearing is omitted ; before a pronominal suffix, as well as 
when the verb is expressed, the preposition w> must be used (see § 56). C 

Sometimes the particle o is prefixed to ^, as aJdl^i by God then ! — 

The particle O (the origin of which is very obscure [comp. Vol. i. 
§ 356, b, footnote]) is construed like j, but is seldom used except in 

il >Os 

the oath aJJU by God! Other examples mentioned by the gram- 

s o siio m ** ** * 

marians are : <ux£H ^p by the Lord of the Ka'ba, i*ij3 % m il Lord, 

I i f»S S s s s 

*-ji\3 by the Compassionate, and «£ULa*J by thy life. 

Rem. a. The oath (^JUt), whether expressed by w>, j, or O, j) 

- sB** J s s 

requires a complement (^-JUI wjl^*.), of which the following are 
the principal conditions. If the complement be an affirmative 
nominal proposition (A.ZJic <u ^wl aJLoj*.), it is introduced by J, as 

ills 5 i s 1 s il s9s 

diy*>j j>qt» p) aJJIj by God, verily Muhammad is His apostle; or 

5 lllsZZsli it S3 s s 

by >J\, as aiyaj Ijipffc o ^j\ aJUIj, in which case J may be prefixed 
to the predicate, as aiy^ji \j**m** ,j! <sdUI^. If the complement 

176 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 63 

o - *oj 9 Z a o - o j 

A be an affirmative verbal proposition (a*,*** aJIss aA**.), with the 

verb in the perfect, it requires jJU, as ^y*. ^t >5Ua jJU aJJIj &y 
GW, !46?7 Ct«M is dead indeed ; but if the verb be in the imperfect, 
it takes the energetic form, with ^J prefixed, as ^JUi 1 }) aJUI^ by 
God, I will do it ! [see § 19, a]. If the complement be negative, no 
particle is prefixed to the ordinary negatives U and *^ ; as Uo aJU 1^ 

B w>3^» jL«a^ % ^°^j Muhammad is not a liar ; w>J^> U aAJI^ 

ju»a».o by God, Muhammad has not lied ; ^c^\ ^<yi *j) aJUIj by 

God, the believer shall not perish ! [On the oath preceding con- 
ditional sentences, see § 17, c, rem. a, (1).] 

Si * * Ot ' W v5 fO J J 

Rem. b. In such phrases as ^JLai*}) w^JI jj*o 6y i/*e Lord, I 

will do it ! i~tj £)**, or ..jj ^po, &?/ my Lord ! aJJI ^>*, aJJl j^-e, 

 i ■» 

aJUI ^>-«, and aJU!^, 6y GW/ the words ^« and>* are abbreviations 

5 J Oc 

Q of ^>©->l oaths (see Vol. i. § 19, rem. b), which is contracted in 

various other ways. Some grammarians, however, regard ^J*6 and 
jj*o in .jjj ^^-e as being really the preposition s j^ (§ 48). 

63. Among the prepositions is usually reckoned 3) as, like. 
This is, however, not a preposition, but a substantive, synonymous 

with JjLo likeness. It is formally undeveloped (like ji), but may 
stand in any case as oLa*, or governing word, to a following noun 
D in the genitive (see § 73) ; as Sj—JiJl^ 4u*1j ^£-} and on the top 
of it (the pillar) is (something) like a pointed cap, = 5 ^ ....*XaJ 1 Jl« ; 
^jtlsJl^> Jatkw ^ji .yv-o J)J nothing hinders oppressors (or wrongers) 
like a lance-thrust ; Uu*~o ^».U£» ^UU ^•►aj ^ 2lil wo owe crows 
owr thee like a feeble boaster (one who has little reason to boast) ; 
JplSj-JUo with {a horse) like a falcon (in speed) = Jpliy-JI J~+t ; 
J^oJI jjjl^ ^>t ^>JCaLcu f//«/ /a;^ so as to show (teeth) like 

§63] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : i>. 177 
melting hailstones (as white as hailstones); <u,>U)1 Zj»..D\ ^y j±ZJ A 

•x e.. z,a*> * 

*J1 (^U OwjJI£» it makes in (at the foot of) an aged tree (something) 

o *a*a ' o 3* a * ojo * j 6 j 

like a cell, to which it resorts, = C~JI J£« ; j^-^JUl^ j^J ft p«te 

forth (something) like two horns. The name of preposition can be 
applied to it, at the most, only when it virtually stands in the 

accusative, as a ii-e, adjective or relative adjectival clause, to an 


infinitive which is understood ; as Ju>£» C*£». thou earnest like Zeid, 

i.e. jl»j ( 6( ^a^-« J-**) 5(^5^-*^ £ »a».« c-i*. f^<w earnest a coming 13 

///•« £&? coming of Zeid. Or we might regard it as being a Jl»-. 
or conditional expression, dependent upon the pronominal suffix of 

the second pers. sing. masc. in C*£a. as J^li or agent; i.e. c«a 
(juj JJU) juj^ U5l£» ^/>« earnest being like ZZid. 

Rem. a. i) is [frequently joined to the personal pronouns of 
the 3d person, as yj=>. LS^ 9 ' W^' etC- ' somet iines ft l so to those of C 
the 2d and 1st person, as wJl£», Ul^. but] very rarely to a 
pronominal suffix, as ^M ,>y^ *^j a£s *^j*^». *^j ^IL*j ^^J *$j 
*}Lbl». araf <Aow rfos£ «orf see a husband or wives like him and like 
them, save one who is jealons : and equally rare is the use of the 
redundant U after it, as^»jl*.j aJx^oj^a^* ^UJI l»3 aj!^JL*jj 
a/w£ ?ce Atiom? <A«< fe w, ^'A - e (other) men, sinned against and sinning 

J 9 * 

(vejUfc. in rhyme for j»j\t*.). In Hebrew £^3 and CH3 or DH3 D 
are used ; but with the other pronominal suffixes )f22 = U^ is 
always employed, as also occasionally before substantives. 

Rem. b. ,*) is sometimes used redundantly along with the 

* » a + a + * a* 

synonymous JJU; as i,.2/ a.^^.^ ^^J there is nought like Him. — 

a - a -i- ' 

[On the compounds j^s and ^>i^ see Vol. i. §§ 351, rem., 353, 

.. a i , , 

rem. e. On the elliptical phrase C-Jl U^ keep where thou art, sec 
w. ii. 23 

178 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 64 

A the Gloss, to Tabarl. Sometimes Loj£» means as soon as, e.g. 

J } * * * *> * 

iJa.jJ l«£» j^t salute as soo?i as thou enterest. D. G.] 

Rem. c. i) is said by the grammarians to be used <uJbJU to 
compare (one object with another). 

[Rem. d. \+£s may be prefixed adverbially to a verbal clause, 
like l^jj (§ 84, rem. b) and with just the same meaning, as 

r J * »£ * * ij»*3* * 10 + * 0*0 

jXftaJt \+£s ig^j^3 *&**! U^» lVj^**^' wait for me, perhaps I 
B may come to thee, and look out for me, perhaps I may overtake thee ; 

>***i *o* *>*)** *> **i j e*> * *o * * gj 

<x5l^i» ^y« j*$sA\ ^$J^u l©^ a5UJ ^>-o &}\ jjL-s-iJ oJLS / said 

to Seiban, try to draw near to him (the ostrich), perhaps thou 
mayest procure a morning meal/or the men with his roasted flesh.~\ 

64. Many words, which are obviously substantives in the accu- 
sative of place (see § 44, b), may be conveniently regarded in a certain 

* * *0 ** * 0* * * *0* * J 

sense as prepositions ; e.g. >**->, J^, J~3, ^j*j, c-o*j, <jf>i, and ^y 

* * . 0* * * 

C 65. $*J (the accusative of j»»-J, the nomen verbi of U»J to go 

* o * * j * a j 
towards ; comp. § 82, g) means (a) towards a place, as^a»J 03j*~>i j** 

d * j o-o * _ *£**»**** 

^juLpJI Cw then they will journey towards Jerusalem ; 2£© ^s*J p-j*- 
he set out towards, or in the direction of, Mekka; and (b) according 

* * * 

to, as dAy* ^a*J according to his saying, as he says (compare the use of 
J in § 53, d). 

* 50 

D 66. juc (the accusative of juc a side or quarter) signifies beside, 

* 0** * ***i*0 ****** 

near, by; as [JaSUJI jjs. at, near the wall] ; jjlij «jus **cu 0^*5 
* * * * * \* 

* * *0& i - 0* St i *0** 

and he, used to lay notebooks beside him ; j»*}£)\ ^j£»j *$ \j\ \^*^i3 

w j * 

4 ->3]r' *9] »jue «w^ ^e m?«tf ?w£ commence to speak before him unless with 

his permission. Used of time, it shows that something is closely 
connected with what took place at a particular time, by happening 

. , . . ***** * 

either simultaneously or immediately after ; as ajy* juc Jui and he 

§66] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : jj*. 179 

said as he was dying; u ~+ & )\ p>^» J^ ^X^a- / c«/we to thee at A 
sunrise; »£u3 jut m?^&£ £ws took place or immediately after this took 
j0&w#, hereupon; L* julc whilst, during, or immediately after. — 
Further, jUt, like *-» (§57), implies [a] possession and [6] comparison; 
as (a) ji».bj jUji "Njl ^jjJ^e. rj\£s U / Aac? aw/y a so/</fe a7»«y % w ; 
^UM juc U «:Aa£ ^ people have or possess; ^juc ^oXJ JyH ^ 
aXJI o^Lf*' ^^o ?w ^ say ^ you, With me (known to me) are the hidden B 
Mjh#s 0/ GW; [a*.^ O^ **** 1^ -^ want a ^"wgr 0/ s?<cA a one; 

9 0s' SO * 3,6 

J-aij j-». «juc A<? possesses goodness and excellence. Hence you say 

** * a a «■ - 

of a woman (j'ib juc c-Jl£» sA^ ^#as married to such a one, in which 

* a * * * a * , , , 

signification it is a synonym of CoJ (§ 68) ; (b) ^j~t jus <su«» ^i-* jJLc 

- j 
jlx* notwithstanding his youth as compared with the age of Mo'dd] ; 

«->lH <slUI juc u«j*i" ^JjA* ^ Hngrs 0/ ^ 6?a; - ^ art? dust compared C 
with (lit. a* ^ siae of) God. — Lastly juc (like the Latin apud, 
Fr. chez, and Persian <^jj>P) implies z«i o/w's mzVio', in his opinion; 
as L»»-»l£* aXxi U ^juc w>t^oJt the right thing in my opinion is 

j ; - - -: 1 a*> a i j * a - <■ 

what our sheikhs have done ; Ji^Xi^ o!/**' O' d J^* O^ 3 ^ ls opinion 

3 * * a * at j * a * a j * a 

was that the Koran was created ; aJjwj ^1 J*a*Z~.> ^£=>jj^ according 
to you it is impossible that He should do it. 

Rem. a. [,*)jUft means keep where thou art, take care, and also D 

to , * * a # a * a j 

advance.} — On the phrase I juj i) jUp = ljuj j±., see § 35, b, 8, 

* a a 1 , *s 

rem. b. — On the difference between juc and ^jjJ or ^jJ, see § 58, 
rem. b. 

* a 

Rem. b. juc is sometimes (in modern Arabic generally) pro- 

r a * * a 1 

nounced jUc, rarely juc. It corresponds in form to the Heb. 
LjlHy, but in signification also to Di?. 

180 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 67 

A Rem. c. Nearly synonymous with jjs., in its local sense, is ^5 

(the accusative of ^5 front), Lat. coram, apud, penes; as <tX*3 j^l^ 
present be/ore him ; Ji». ^^Hi ^5 J / Aaw a claim upon So-and- 
so; ^-Jiky^ «£JUL3 tjj"*^ CH*^' JU* awrf to/ta£ (Acts come) £o (for 
^jj JJJ Loi) <Ae unbelievers that they run hastily around thee ? It 
also signifies towards, as Jij-£«*JI ^J** ^ .£aj.&.j '^V O' >*^' CJ**' 
w^a^J Ij joiefo/ o?oes not consist in your turning your faces towards 

B the east and the west. 

67. (j-jJ, between, among, is the accusative of the substantive 
ij-u, signifying intervening space, which may be regarded either as 
uniting or as separating two or more objects, whence sj*J may be 
construed with verbs of either meaning ; as L~o £*»» he united us, 

i*j Jjji ne parted us, lit. he united our separation and parted our 
C connection ; j£i y& jj-jJ aJJI oUI God has united your hearts. — If two 

genitives follow 0^> an ^ either or each of them is a pronominal 
suffix, the preposition must be repeated before the second, and the 

conjunction j inserted; as <=u*jj ^*j between me and him; j^ti 

-*£**•' 0-&3 between you and your brother. But if both are sub- 

stantives, this is not usually done ; as u^j^'j &U—JI O*^ between 

heaven and earth; Ia^Ij o!/** t>srf between Harrdn and 'ar-Buhd 

* Ota * s * *> vt *a / 6/ 

D {Edessa) ; 3/»^JI o*^ jjli^JsJI ,j«u between the Flood and the 
Higra. — Instead of the simple o+l, we often meet with { j^j U 
what is between, and k >*J U*i m w/w«£ &s between; as ^>*j U v~^'.3 
ajjjLi and t/te kernel between its two shells ; j^ti U-«* I^UlSI t/iey 
fought with each other ; [>eL»^l jj-u or>eb*5)l ,j-jj U-J iw or during the 

space of several days]. Both ^>*^ and j^-j U are often used in the 
sense of both— and, and of partly— partly (tarn— quam, partim — 

§ 67] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : Chrf 181 

partim) ; as J^y**^ ^3j-** O-s-^ to partly known and partly A 
unknown ; \j&3 >*** Ot> to ^eU*. ^<?re cawe to w« both rich and 

l*' * * a* J a * a* 

poor; j+~>\j J*^3 (j^o j»y»)\ the tribe was partly slain, and partly 

, a i , a 1 * a * 

taken prisoners; [jl-^oj ijj ^>*j sometimes in a bord (a garment 
made of a certain kind of cloth) and sometimes dressed in a saffron 

* a * * a* , 

robe. R. S.]. In such cases ,j»o or v >-j U holds the place of a 
substantive expressing that which unites both objects as parts of 
one whole. — If we wish to indicate the entire interval between two B 

places or points of time, ^31 is used before the second substantive ; 

as i£o ^t Sj-oJt ,j-o between el-Basra and Mekka ; j»y^\ jj-o Lo-J 

j'i' O- 0-*ti3l >j«Jt ^1 i»Ui v >o ^jJUJI between the second day of 

f > # a j a i * a* 

Subdt and the eighth day of 'Addr. — Observe the phrases [^Jk^bt ^>*j 

>2s>, *3' its, :*,;, 9 , , , a - 

or j*fij<^o \J~> and^ovs^'jv^ Cysi Ul the midst of them]; ^ju ,j»o 
O*^* before any one, in his presence, lit. between his hands; as 
4*al*» J i j^ju ^>*j t^j^l J-i fo Hsserf the ground before the caliph; C 
^JJ^ O** Oua».t / A«i"e sinned before thee; ajju jj-j ^JJJI ^ol^jt 
the feeing of the wolf before him (the dog) ; of time, j>*j UJ USjuclo 
dujji confirming what was before it (or preceded it) ; jjju ^1 y» ,jl 
jujJi w>l*x* (^ju t>^ -^ he is nought but a warner to you before 

, a* * j * , , , ,**>)*,} * , , , 

a severe punishment ; in the plural, ^j^j ^*-cuj •-Uh.jJI j— SJ J*».j 

at ** 

to Jul a»d /fe fogra;* to 6m«£ «p the fowls and to set them before us. D 

Rem. From ^*j are formed the conjunctive adverbs of time 

-a* *,a* 

U*j and l»~J whilst, which naturally exercise no influence upon the 

- '£ jjja, 1 a * ,a* 

following clause ; as UUI <u5p O**^ k*j, ta&tfcl toe zoere watching 
for him, he came to us; ^Ul ^^-J U*j whilst ice govern the 

* a* * a * , , a* , , «, 

people ; wojoJt ^i i>*^ W*«J whilst we were conversing ; U-U.> 

^ ^ • { * Ji<a 

^oySl^wl ^ ^UJI whilst the people are in their markets. [Comp. 
Vol. i. § 362, b.] 

182 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 68 

A 68. CoJ (the accusative of Co*J the lower or under part) 
signifies below, beneath, under, as tJJ/31 Csxj U wAa£ & beneath the 
soil ; U-yJ y^ AXa^-j O^J aw ^ w?wfer /£ (the wall) was a treasure 
of theirs; metaphorically, J-JJt C*a»J jL» Ae travelled under {the 

s s b * I s C -- 

sAacfe o/) night: oju c*o» 3 , or «j-ot CtaJ, zmefor Ms power or authority. 

It is said of a married woman, (j*^ s^aJ c«Jl^ slie was under {the 

authority of) So-and-so, as ,j-ja»Jt.o IbLc ,j^ O-i^t^ ^-^»^ UjI^ 
B £/j#?/ were under two righteous servants of ours (viz. Noah and Lot). 

Rem. a. C*a»J has a diminutive Cwa J « little below or under. 

Rem. 6. Opposed to c-o*J' is Jjji (the accusative of Jjji ^ ie 

^ 4 ^ J 

upper part), with its diminutive JS^^i, signifying above, over, upon, 
as jyj^o jj-o Jf^i upon a well-beaten road ; ^afj~c ^qA}\ o\j~i JJ^i 

upon the back of a bridled black (horse) ; [^l/JI £5* *ULoJ»JI the 

- * - J sSiO * J ' 

turban is upon the head]; metaphorically, oLc Jf^i jJklSJI ybj 
C and He is the All-powerful over His servants ; ^)^J\ ^j-jjJI jJ^Ua-j 

\^jsc=> ^jj JJ I Jj^i awoJ (/) will place those who have followed thee 
above those who have not believed; \+j w»tjjJI ^^ji IjIJ** ^o^^>j 
^•juJb l^jl£» we wiZ£ arfcZ £0 them a punishment in addition to the 
punishment for tlieir corrupt doings; &££\ Jiji |l~J v>^ Oi* 
and if they be females more than two; »^Jo*j ^Jas to J>ji lyj ,Jjkj 

D he treated it worse than Ice had treated Aleppo ; [ly*>* Uj <Loj*j 
a o?w*£ awcZ wAai exceeds it {in smallness or iw largeness); aj\± 3A5 
, aL'JI JJj^* and it is an animal a little above the size of a cat]. 

69. &}* (the accusative of ^jj wluit is beneath, under, less, 


or inferior, related to lo to come near, and y>* to be low or vile), with 

its diminutive \J-i^>, and OL5> O- . ^ n which combination ^>-» has a 
partitive force, signify under, below, beneath. They indicate : — 

§69] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : >J3>- 183 

(a) That a person or thing dwells or is situated, or that an action A 
takes place, below some place, or near it ; as i)j js- ju*. <£i«jJ> jj^j 

w«y £fo c^#>£ 0/ £% enemy be under thy foot ; ,J3> l£^ ' woiSJU jjl 
*}LliU *lw iw f^£ ravine that is below Sela' (there lies) a murdered 

man ; eUio ^j I^LJI ^3/ met near San'a : >*^Jt O-* V 5 ^ W* j-a-» 
Egypt and the adjacent countries. 

(b) That one person or thing conies near or approximates to B 
another, especially a higher one (properly, stands under it, does not 

reach it) ; as U^*.!^*. ajjij ObjlyJ U Ui*J li and he (the horse) 

Twowfe us overtake the foremost (of the herd), whilst near him were 

#^0.^ of them that lagged behind; ,£)!$ ^i IJob £&!s fe nearer than 

* , J J Oj 

that ; ^liji Co' c<w ^ nearer (to me) ! lit. approach not far from 
yourself (towards me) ; ljuj dlJ^ setze -Ze/tf (wAo stands not far from 
you, see § 35, b, 0, rem. b) ; > o A j»*J' «^ji fofo ^^ dirham ; dy^j^ C 

£«£# 3/0 Aim. 

- - j » j^ j 

Rem. ^Uj3 and ^uji, as interjections, are equivalent to 

»LL«UI,^UUt (see § 35, 6, /?) [and ,i)jUc, § 66, rem. a], look out! 

- ■» ' ■» 
fo&e care/ [sometimes advance /] as ic^'j-e «^JU^> beware of wrestling 

?tra^ me; ^JhjJLJu ^) ^»Cji ^^ care [or advance'] (and) give them 
no quarter; [._j (^ri^*' -^jji fo^e care (or advance) and keep to me]. 

(c) That one space, distance, or number, does not equal or D 

' , , 0, , 3,3,9,, 

complete another ; as : j^»- £~oj Oj* ^r^3 anQl between them 
there was less than a stones throw; iSjuo JJtjl u****. 03> Ws* u**^ 
tffore is no poor-rate (to be exacted) on what is under (or less than) 
five ounces ; Ob^ jAe. ^3> *> »  »■ ■» ) J-*-» O* we l '^ not accept for 
Mas'iid less than ten fines for homicide. 

(d) That one thing is smaller or worse than another ; as ^la^-dl 
yjAa^ii\ 03> jujkaJI^ i-aiJI ,jj^ copper is of less value than silver, 

184 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 69 

A and iron of less value than copper ; iUjj J)jju jo^JL ^JJI he who shall 

arise (as king) after thee, will be inferior to thee ; ^JU) I j* ajjj ,^05 

v-^lW ^5* an( l magnificent splendour in the retinue of princes is less 
(glorious) than it (learning). 

(e) That a quality which belongs to one person or thing is not 
possessed by another, and that the latter is therefore in this respect 

B opposed to the other : as »£U3 ^>j> jvr*>3 jj^aJLaJI ^oi^« some of 

them are good, and some of them not so (lit. and some of them remain 

under that, do not attain to that quality) ; £)j£>j (jt jJJu *$ aJUI ,jl 

» - j 

l\*-4 O-^ ^> 03* I* j**-i3 *4 verily God will not fm*give the joining 
of otlier gods with Himself, but He will forgive what is other than that 
to whom He pleaseth* ; %*^ 03^+*13 ** 0>-***i O-* L>s^t-*uJI i>*J 
>2Wi OJ^ an d of the evil spirits some who should dive for him (into the 
C- sea) and do work other than that. In this sense ,j!3* is equivalent to 

j-j* (see § 82, d). [Hence it can also signify beyond, of higher quality, 
as in the last quoted sentence, where it may be rendered by and still 

greater works. Likewise when a man has said UujJJ Ijuj ,j\ verily, 

Zeid is a noble man, another replies «£Uj 03*3 an ^ above that; 

{ Ac do {Jjaj U 03*^ <£3*> th° u ar t more powerful than 'All. D. G.] 

(/) That a person or thing is excluded or excepted, neglected or 
D postponed (properly that the action affects him or it to a less degree 

than it does another) ; as a*a^> ^ Uj «j-oj *jJ U aJJI ^^ { j^ ^J^i 

he invokes, to the exclusion or neglect of God, ivliat can neither injure 
him nor benefit him, he invokes what can neither etc., but not God ; 

it io jo - - aiaio , j) a* s '-*> i j at 

AJul &j> ^>Uc^l 03***** a^jJ^J' <>■** J**' the people of this city 

* [Many interpreters render the words ,*AJ3 ^^ srv~*3 °y an ^ 
otlters (tliat are) below them, and .iUi Qjj U by and what is less tlian 
that. Compare Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 417.] 

§ G9] The Verb.— 3. Gov't of Verb.—(b) Prepositions: & 3 y 185 

warship idols and not God ; j~o*> ^j ^5 v>* aJJI ^jj^ <j-* ^XJ U A 
ye have no patron and no helper except God ; j±-*j\ &$* \^>j^Ji> ^X^s- 
ye act according to one of these two (rules), but not the other ; ^ IjJk 
»iJLi«i O-* this belongs to me exclusively of thee, thou hast no part or 

« ' a *a*a - j - 't*> - * a * ai '0* 

share in it ; oUju^^JI ^j^ J^H^' j^-^i O' ^^i he ought to choose 

fi J A a*o * j a j Zi* 

the old in preference to the new; \jie j»\j*$\ 03*^*^3 a nd he sought 
you out in preference to all other men. — Here must also be mentioned B 
\jj*, and the rarer 03>W i in the sense of without ; as ^>« >v»J I Oj* 
J|yUl without speaking loudly ; ZLL« ,jj.> JUJ' w>L-I^t ^^-J wealth 

a,^' j St** - - * a a*> - 

cannot be acquired without trouble; yj-^jio (j^ju ^Ji^-i *$ ilw^l <jt 

e- * a i , - a j 

aJI ju-~«5 jU-~« ^0 'isndd, or relation of attribution, cannot be 
ejected without two extremes, an attribute, or predicate, and a subject ; 

' ' J ' & ' ?fO , J yd J + J J C* 

t>* J 03<*t j***^ ^l jW~* !"*«*»• ^ the merchants of the country C 

, a , * , 

of Malabar take them without (paying any) price (for them) ; jia~e *jJ 
j^HS C)3>>*> ^*i J*v*t* *$3 >W^JI \J3^i i^*"*? for no glory is built up 
without a hard struggle, and no effort is of avail without the decree 
(of fate in thy favour, jjJUt in rhyme for jjJUl). 

(g) That one object is placed before another, either (a) as a 
hindrance or obstacle to prevent a person from getting at it, or (/?) as 

a protection to defeDd it from some one ; e.g. LaiJ I >»*. *&)'} 03* D 

- si -3 lis, 

jLiJI yj±-2 before this there are the coals of the gadd and the stripping 

of the hitcid, that is to say, before you can obtain this, you have many 
serious obstacles to surmount (the wood of the gada being noted for 
its long retention of fire, and the katad for the number and size of its 

thorns) : Jt>*t »iW} &3> 0^3 v*</ s '*>!>•« Oi the time or place for 

visiting her is near, but there are many terrors in the way ; j*?3> w^ 

«' . "*,,,, 

V^**"** there is no curtain or barrier in front of them ; l*^** 0^3 

w. ii. 24 

186 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 69 

A u°3"^ *' ^^ ^*3' C-i£» ^>« (j^3 my shield (or protection) against 

£ * * * * b sb/O * bfO w 

those whom I feared ivas three persons ; \^£J*o ^M ^J>»- t^****^ *h»' Oi 

I^J^oJ' Oi^ **U*» aSUcI^ 'Imruu 'l-Kais ran for a goal, but death 

intercepted him before he reached that goal; *^U*> >v^' 03* before 
(thou reachest) the river, there is a number of men (to be encountered), = 
j^i\ l_)1 J-tfJ ,jt J*i. Hence verbs signifying to shut a door against 

B one, to fight for one, and the like, are construed with (j^a (compare 
§ 49, a) ; e.g. lyiji^o^ ly^us V~»- ^' *t>j*° j£ then he struck her 
(the camel) on the side, and made her get up, and stood in front of her 

is* bJ' J ' ' i. 

(to prevent any one from touching her) ; apL> jtrt>$> ^plS he fought 
for, or in defence of, them for some time; JJto Jjil-<aJ' w - a>-oJl O' 

J b ' s J J - b • 

Aj ^ +a*** jj^i a~Ju a true friend gives up his life for his friend ; 

j lb** *}*}'* j b-a } , * - b i i w j ill - 

c^a^JI (J3> J^^J A****" j^ «■*-*■> O' ^i^ov^' unless indeed the fire 

C q/" hunger burn and stand in the way of sleep. In this case ^ji is 

synonymous with >eUI m /n>w£ o/, before. — -Hence too it often denotes 

, ib* rt * j * 
on this side of (cis, extra) ; as Qj-* jg- OL5-* ^° £*+** a ^ the region 

on this side of the Oxus ; in which case it is opposed to stjj behind, 

bit * •" * * 

beyond, as^^-01 jtjj U Transoxania (lit. what is beyond the river Oxus). 

Rem. Other important words belonging to this class of pre- 
positions are : — 

,i* * b *i > b * ,* * 

j) (a) ^5, with its diminutive J-j*5, before, of time ; as dJy« ^3 

before his death ; IjJk ^J-i w*« ,<-wJ t-» would that I had died 
before this! aJLi i^-o^lj >e^Jt .-3 U j^£\} and I know what 

vt • S fO * b * 

happened to-day and yesterday before it; ^jtyJJI ,J>*3 before threatening 

„ , b-o * b * * Z* * f 

(without waiting to threaten); [2jjj^i\ ^5 i\Le ^oj^i he came to 

* b, 

Mekka before (his coming to) * El-Medlna\— Opposed to it is jut^, 

• o s- j w£ ^ i ^ -- - + * 

diminutive j^-aj after ; as ^bl iiAj jjt^ ot/i!er <Aree days; jut/ 

§69] The Verb.— 3. Gov t of Verb.— (b) Prepositions : oj> 187 

after thy arrival ; ejju after him, i.e. after his departure, A 
or after his death ; ^juu C^-ou jJ> thou hast become changed after j 

a * * a - 

me, i.e. after I parted from thee, since I last saw thee, = t^J^ juu 

» i * Z. »-- - * * a*o , a * * " # 

«i)b ; jJ^LoJI *i)l JaJ) jou li 1*9 ana wAai ts there after the truth 
(when the truth is gone), but error? [Tropically j*->j-£* ^J%* 

w-j^I tjub juw. -■ >-*} So-and-so is generous and moreover well 

' "' . * 
educated. A synonym of juu is ^^^-J 

, ,i * ms 1**1* a, is jt» 

(6) _>»U| and^etjJ, before, of place; as <L«Ut ^-^ri *i) O' -" a ^ " e -" 
should not walk before him; ^UI^oljJ «^*S Ais ^rope is before the 

grate; ^-^^)l vetjJ> j>jL» 4jiJL5 jLa». ^i JJ3 Ae was A-i/tea' a£ the 
siege of the castle of Sdbur before the emir (in his presence, = 

a ** * a* * + *£}**' 

«u ju ^>*j) ; tropically, ^UUI S^LaJt the (time of) prayer is before 

j,,i,)s, issz-oiis- 
thee ; '♦-ftM jr* '*■} ^l-J^I ju^j iJj nay, but man wishes to go on 

in his wickedness (in the time that is) before him. [On the use of 

-iLoLot as an interjection see § 35, b, /?.] C 

(c) i\jj behind ; as tfcgtjj jZl£- J^o 'Antar came in behind her 
(her back being turned to him) ; ^Aj^L t\j^ d*j*J*s they cost it 
behind their bocks ; -iidjj U ivJiat is behind thee ? i.e. what news 
dost thou bring ? hence beyond (Lat. trans, ultra), opposed to ^j^ 

' ) J 3 ' ' 

(see § 69, g, at the end) ; and relating to time, after, as \J3J^i3 
ot\j^ Uj but they disbelieve in what (hath been sent down or revealed) 
after it (the Pentateuch) ; tropically, beyond, besides, more than, 

asi*ai'\~s, * * 

^.■^■■o 4jLU «£AJ3 «tjj toj but anything beyond this (merely) serves D 

a j , ai j * a* at a i i ~* * - a is Z - i - 

to (make a sltow in) society ; ^i\yc\j t^ju*3 ^j\ ^i* t\j$ to^£) ^^'j 
and He hath permitted you, besides this, to seek out (wives) by means 
of your wealth; jjj^^*"^** »iU)jli jJUi stjj ^-al-M tj-oi 6m2 they who 
desire more tlian this, are transgressors. [On the use of <i)t\j3 as 
an interjection, see § 35, b, /?.] — Synonymous with sljj is UlXa. 

< a * - a * j * a j j a Si -o, 

behind, after: as Ub^J^ Ot^ s_^afc....._> jJtfaJI^ flinr^ h^r hair hung 

188 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 70 

> , o ' , J i j j , 

A down to the ground behind her back ; x&X±. jj&*$ £*+&& and I got 

vt Ci *o s , • , * Q s * * * 

up to run after him ; JaJjl ,JI l^ftAi. C^o.*? sJ^» how thou 

, , a * * , ,4,^,0^ * z * * *a , , , 

wentest after her to the bank ; V^bX*. L*j ^-iJ^i ^>*j UJ *j)l& UbUXn%3 
and ive made them a warning to their contemporaries and to those 

f 3^,0, /•.»,«, ,«^ 

after them; ^l*X3 *n)I ^XaAi. ^j^LXj *$ I3t^ anc? iw. £Aa£ case they 
would not have tarried after thee but a little. 

B (d) c!$*" around; as aJ^a. U Oslol LoAi and a/ter it (the fire) 

3 J <£' *■ ^» , oj5' o j, i j 

has lighted up the space around him ; U£». ^»»yft» Jjj»" j< eyJj..»fla>i«^ ^»J 

<Aew we wn/£ se£ iAem around Hell on their knees ; a)y*. i^lb 
Ae tt>ew£ round it (the temple); ^jIjaJI ^o acIo*. dJj*. around 

/tim were a number of women. — Jxwj mi £Ae midst of, in, among ; 

, , , , * 'Ota * Or 

as 2l*ojj ixwj in £&e midst of a garden; p|/^t ixwj among the 
C reeds ; jbjJI Ja~rj among tlie houses. 

70. Compound prepositions, though by no means rare in ancient 
Arabic, are more common in the later stages of the language. The 

first part of the compound is generally &*, and the second part 

another so-called preposition, now however no longer in the accusative, 
but in the genitive. Such are : — 

0,0 iZ , o , o j j o --o^ ft gi / j 

(a) rj*J ^j-c (lleb. P3D) ; as £*lib ,j-w> ,j»« ^j-as^Jt jA ^^a-^ 

D JU^b J-^iJU JAaJI Muhammad is t/ie one preeminently distin- 
guished among all mankind for excellence and perfection (lit. from 

o , , o^ o 

among all mankind) ; <uju ,j-o £y*from his presence (lit. from between 

oo,o,o o£ o,o 

his hands) ; ^ykX*. O-^^o-v^' O** l>* from before tliem and behind 

o , , o,, ,o, o ,oo, ,,„ 

£Am ; w>l*-»- <^trf3 tu,o ^-©j jij Lj1>I ,-3 /». oMr ears is hardness 
of /tearing, and between us and thee there is a partition-wall. In this 

last example j>« is partitive, the literal meaning being : and in a 
part of the space between us and thee, etc. 

§ 70] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.—(b) Prepositions. 189 

(b) j£i o-« and woJ ,>? ; as l^iy Of ^'^j C*f J*»- ^ ^ 

s , a ^ ^ 

placed immovable (mountains) upon it (the earth) ; J^i o** M* 

» ^ a ,, , , , , a* 

aaJU. o-* JpJ J*»-" ^« ascended the hill and descended by the 

j 'ii»-e - a - a a * - - 

other side (lit. behind it); jVi" ^y* 8 *- 5 v>° l£/^- j ^'-^ gardens 


under (the trees of) which streams flow. In these examples o- 9 

is partitive ; the mountains form a part of what is raised above 
the earth ; the man ascends a part of the hill-side, and descends 
by a part of the other side ; the streams occupy a part of the space B 
under the trees. 

a * a a - a a i a , a < is 

(c) JJ> (j-° au d ***-> O* : a - vff^M O-* 0^-^' those who were 

a *a-o \ , a , a gj 

before you; ja*±$\ 3^L« ^)~5 o-* before the morning prayer.: ^j 

: i z - a * a a i * a s * 

jt&y* j>%j o^ ^sUixj then we brought you again to life after 

sj ' a a , a * * * , 

your death ; »JU». ^jju o-« w i U- S and there has come after them 


an evil generation. Here again o-* ls partitive, in a portion of the C 
space of time before or after. 

(d) j~e o-» (Heb. Dyft) and ^jSl o-« ( bu t not ^JJ &*) ; a.s 

it * a a , i 

aJJt j^c o- 9 '•** this is from (lit. from the side of, from beside) God ; 
o^i£. o- 9 «£*«*. ^« c«/«^ from him ; 1j*xp ^JJ o-* w-^*L» jJ 
now hast thou obtained from me an excuse (for leaving me) ; U wJk 

i^, a , , a j* a 

io*»; ilj»>j o-» <?"* ws /72^;-cy /row (lit, from beside) Thee. 

(?) yM O-* • as <jW^ *»M v>«>oliJb tj-w«l o^ 9 he was governor D 
o/ Syria for 'Otmdn (lit. /row beside l Otmdn, with whom lay the 
option of sending him as such) ; J*5 o-« <uU£> vl**- ^^ >»-»^ 
jfc ^>\ there came to him an answer to his letter from (Fr. de la part 

de) Abu Bekr ; \ij&-> ^ W* O- 9 < j^ i^-M O- 9 ^*^ />«*€« be from 

me (Fr. <&> «w ;ww£) k/kwj her who has enslaved me by her pleasing 

190 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 70 

A (/) s'jj O-* an d **aI». ^« ; as jj^f. z\j3 &* /row behind 
walls; *->j*»i SjU-JI ^tj^ ^o u-^W *$\ he is sitting behind the 
curtain drinking (^-« partitive) ; ^ov*^** 0-*3 ynd^ £>*i O-* from 

o r a rrr , 

before them and behind them (see a) ; <*iA». jj>* cJPj awc ^ ^ descended 
by the other side of it (the hill, see b). 

r r r w rO&r rO*> r r Zt r * J * * 

B «we? {/* £fow Aae?s£ ieew /jarsA «wc? hard-hearted, they would have 

OrO-o r r *t r r r \ /to rrr 

dispersed from around thee; J*jJt)\ J>»- O-* t>s*^*" *£**»*" UtP.3 
awrf £&?# sAa/£ see #Ag angels surrounding the Throne (^>« partitive). 

Rem. a. We have already spoken of £>£■ ^e, § 49, rem. c ; 

* - r } J 

g» o-*; § 57 > rem - : c5** o-?> § 59 » rem - & ; oj^ o-;> § 69 ; 0>**> 

§ 56, rem. c, and § 69,/; j*£ £y6,j+iu, and %j, § 56, rem. c. 
C Rem. b. Other prepositions are occasionally found in com- 

> .1 «o _ 1 , i r Si <& ir j 

position, as ^-^Jl J[$J.3 ^1 ,Jt ?»~*-eJI ^jJ J^e /rom </ie morning 

O'Oio r\ oi jo j rr r 

until the sun declines; [j»yj\ Ijjb ^-^ol Ju^J ^-lljlj he left me 

r j * * 

since yesterday] ; especially ,J| in the compounds ,jj.s ^)\ , jUc ,JI 

Or r * * ^r r r 

(and jUxl), JJ35 ^M, y*~i ^1, and e ljj ^Jl, which are, however, 
condemned by the grammarians. 

D Rem. c. The preposition is very rarely omitted, especially by a 

t r i r r 

poet, and the genitive notwithstanding retained ; as C-sa»-»* g l oL £> 

Or Or*' Or 

how art thou this morning ? j*j*. quite well, for j+±. ^^ [ or J&*~i] \ 

J r iOlO a! i £ O0» s 1 , s f t r ^S' 5»5u£ r , 

•jto^l o»^»'n)L> w*J^» Ojlil aJLaS j>i ^Ul ^1 J«j3 lit W<e/i </*e 
question is asked, Who of mankind are worst as a tribe f the fingers 

Or J r r ri r ir r Z r 

point with the hands to Kuleib (for w.-*^> .Jl OjUd) ; f-J*-^ i**** 

r otOjO r rO>0 r 

^'ilLc'^l ^_i3jLi until lie became haughty, and ascended the heights (of 

r 0i0-e r r rO lO r 

pride), for j»*^e.^ I ^Jl ^jSUj li. 

§70] The Verb.— 3. Govt of Verb.— (b) Prepositions. 191 

Rem. d. The preposition is likewise very rarely separated by A 

* a , * 

another word from the substantive which it governs ; as l^c ^j\ 
2j+£- j>y£\ •** j**- *9 (is for 'Amr, there is no good in l Amr to-day, 

instead of $j+£- ^J j>^\ j*±. *$ ; ,J--~» cljj^' ^y*-* ±*}[ u~i?3 an( ^ 
there is no ivay (or means) to get down from it, for L^i*o <Jjj-J' iJI : 
^o^p aJJI^j aJJjJLil / bought it, by God, for a dirham, instead of 

Rem. e. Sometimes, by a more concise and Ixjlder construction B 

[cLJJI or %~iyi\, the accusative is used instead of a preposition 

with the genitive (especially J) ; as C~J I cJl»o / entered the 

house, for C~J1 ^ or C~J1 ^Jt : jljJt C~iC / inhabited, or 

dwelt in, the house, for jljjt ^.i ; Ij-sl^j l^JL^ dUj^ ^$i^ «»^ 

- j , 

many a day toe met face to face Saleim and 'Amir, for <ui Ujiy^ : 

[A^-o-ii >t-^-" ^o^*-» J^ l>** therefore whosoever of you shall be Q 
present xn the month, he shall fast therein, for <t*i j/0 -aJLi : aJJjjk 
JkJjJaJI / showed him the way for J^jJaJU or JpjJkll ,Jtj : JUiJ I >©'». 
Ae AeW 6ac& in 6a«fe {through cowardice), for jJLil I .-J : \'-*- Lp^ 
^JxiJI JkJjiaJI fl« *A« /ox frote along the path, for JJjjlJt ^J (see 
§ 44, 6, rem. a) ; ^oUJI ^j he went to Syria, for j»\JJ\ ^1 ; 
^UxiJ -^t *N)y ^JJI ^jAft-l^ a /id / hide (within me) that ichich, 
were it not for patience, would be the death of me, for ,-ic - ^S ' ; J) 
^S\-jfi L5t^ l- ° L5* my friends and relatives tvere far from me, 
or kept aloof from me, for ^^c ^ij ; <u o^ot U JjJ7 jJ!sjT iljj^ 

/ bade thee do good, do therefore as thou wast bidden, for j.J*^ 
^3 aJJI jiiiwt / (wA; pardon of God for my sin, for ^S CH> ; 
>*-J C xV" ' A«>5 ^~>yo J*-^'^ a/ ^ Moses chose from his people 
seventy men, for a*£ ^o ; A*^C^ JWsP? J.'ir'^ ^JjT U« o/ ms 

1^2 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 70 

A was he who was chosen from among men for (his) generosity, for 
JUfcjJI ^y* ; g^^JI a\Ju he sought the thing for him, for ai ^.ju ; 

2 • V J * * J J J * * ' 

tju-d «iUjLo / caught game for thee, for JJU Oju© ; ^A^Jl^s litj 

^ J J J J . 

OjL/ " >8 ^- J ^o^J-'Jj j' anc ^ wAew ^Aey measure unto them or weigh 

7 7 • 7 7 • ° J ' J ' ' * S * J ' J ' 

rtnfo Mem, Mey oiw less (than is due), for^^l Ijjjj jl ^o^J UJl^ ; 
^SL^cj t j o. ^ t «iAJLU». jlSJj «toc/J / Aave gathered for thee mushrooms 
oj different kinds, for «iU c^a. (^SL^c in rhyme for JiL^c) ; 
<i+jj^ U^iJ l*Ul»-j O^J ^ w ^ we made ready noble spirits to 
encounter these (calamities), for l^J I JU»j ; lyiL*tfu> Ae (rlAe wiW 
he-ass) passed the summer with them (the she-asses), for I^jL© 

W^^ J V J tf .J 

Rem. /. As we have seen above, ^jj and j>X* or Ju« may be 
directly connected with a following proposition (§§ 58 and 61). 

i S i - 

The other prepositions require the interposition of ^j\, £)\, or U ; 
as Oj-^ ,jl ^31 wram / greiv up ; ^-*-»- i^U-J i5->»-^ O' m^ 

C on condition that thou wilt be my hired servant for eight years; 

j^jCM ^.i^^c ^j\ jic notwithstanding that old age hath come upon me; 

* 1 * * ) - i s , s * 

j+lsu ai £)$£-i O' C>* *$&3 awc ^ ^ e * s exalted above having any equal; 

j j a -o - */ j(/ ?<■ ^£ o £ o 1/ t (/ it/ 

tented poverty is) better and more honourable for me than to see gifts of 
<Ae 6ase Aww^ round my neck; S UJI ^>-6 J^-wlvOj^t jjl s.^ though it 

is easier to destroy than to build; aJJI ObU ^jjjjrfj l^jl^^^yjb ^JU> 
J) ^Aa?; was because they used to disbelieve in the signs of God; 

jO*j x £ *o * * L* j ^o£ ^ •o^ 

^^JoL-oJ I jb\i&\£=> di-wlj ^Uil U jju a/i!er </<e waving locks of thy 
head have become like the gray tagoZm (a plant) ; l^o vlh^' W**i «^ 
jb^l ojjb ^.Xc w>|/^l ?-i^\ L5*-***'' ^ e ^ MS ^ ^ as stopped up these 
wells since the wind has swept the dust over t/iem ; ij««ftS l* jJtf 

j * e> * Si io , , a j j >• o ^ 

jjy>> ^hWI .JLiLo ^-i .-u a.. ! o/(!er ('Ibn) Haubar perished on the. 

* * + «• I • x 

battle-field; \y&£- \^j >iJUi <Aa< ?^«s because they disobeyed: \+£o 

§ 71] The Novn.—The Nomina Verbi. 103 

*)y*/j O^J* l_s^ I— i—JL— y! as ice sent an apostle to Pharaoh. — A 

a a * 

U is often inserted after ,j^, ^>c. and w>, without affecting their 
regimen [and is therefore called Sjul^JI U] : as \^J>j^\ ^)\IJa±. \+a 
they were drowned because of their sins ; jj-wo>U ^a»»«aJ J-X5 \^s- 

It ** , ^ ' ' ' ^ 

after a little (while) they will become repentant; aJJI ^>-e 3 -o^ -j '<-i 
j^ CmJ 6y ^ mercy of God thon hast b^n gentle unto them. After 
j) this use of U is very rare (see § 63, rem. a). Compare )fo 
(i.e. nib) in Hebrew ; as J^tTta (Job ix. 30, Ken), Sski&3 B 
(Ps. xi. 2), T\rnU? (Job xxvii. 14), J3XiD3 (Exod. xv. 5). 

» t m 

[Rem. g. Before ^1 and ^1 the prepositions are often omitted, 

.- j s3 * //Aj of * a £ j3 ^ ^*^ " * j * a * 

as l«&£>> _A>>> O' l£/^' ^^ 'W OjJsu V ^Aow mightest have a look 
at her (before marrying her), for this affords a better chance of a 

a i - Ji j - > i '- 

good understanding between thee and her (for ^{j ^£j*»\) '• yJijI 
lijjjt* ^-jUI w^.Lcu ^jl ^ ff f j >jk».t «6- any one of you unable to \j 


associate with men kindly 1 (for ^jl ^ic. lit. is he overpowered so as 

* * - *ai a i )B i 2 " 

to be unable?); tjk£» jJjtJt ^jl Opt jJU I have assuredly purposed to 

at '* -  - * * at jaii* - *" 

do such a thing (for ,jt .Jlfi) ; £a».jjiaw.) jLo ,j1 ja*)\ aj i^lr* 
and his affair led eventually to his becoming the property of HadUja 

a i - ** * + a , a i a * a * + *lt m £ 

(for ^1 jJt) ; *^U w>j-"^i O' LS 8 ** •'"'"•- ^ *->i * e<? '' ^°^ 2S w0 * 

ashamed to use a parable (for ^j\ £yc). See also § 49, d, rem. and 
§ 167, rem. b. 

On the omission of the preposition along with the suffix in D 
relative sentences, see § 175, c. D. G.] 

1. The Nomina Verbi, Agent is and Patient is. 
71. As we have already spoken of the idea of the nomen verbi or 

abstract verbal noun (Vol. i. § 195), of its use as jyJxsJt JyuLpJI or 

objective complement of the verb (§ 26), and of its rection, in so far 

\v. ii. 25 

104 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 72 

A as it possesses verbal power (§§ 27 — 29), we have now only to remark 
that it is not (as might at first sight appear) rendered definite by the 
very nature of its idea, and, in consequence, able to dispense with 
the article in order to become definite ; but is, on the contrary, like 
other nouns, indefinite, when it stands without the article. E.g. 

J * & * + 6*0 y biO* 6 6 J * Jj A» - i ' y * G * 

f»Jjui.lj jb\jJ>J\ Jk£±+ * *+} t J 4J j*£=> c dJJI J-~w ^>fr JUC^ >**^ A*5 Jtl3 

W *<> ' 6 J/d £ JO OP 

4JJI jut j-^t ai* aXa! to y%r/^ v>? it (one of the sacred months) is 

(a) great (sin), but to turn (others) away from tlie path of God, and 

B not to believe in Him and (to prevent access to) the sacred mosque, 

and to turn His people out of it, is (a) greater (sin) in the sight of 

a , _ 3 - S j 

God (JUS a fighting, not the fighting, and so with jue and j*&) ; 

^U»».Ij ?-ij~-3 ^' *-^5j*«J *i)L««b 0^>* JTSUaM ^ divorce may 

take place twice (and the woman be taken back after each time), 
£w£ a/iter £Aa£ ?/<? m?«s£ either retain (your wives) with kindness or 

dismiss (them) with benefits (JJ'iUsJI tlie divorce, j)[~~c\ a retaining, 

9-i.j~~3 a dismissing) ; tj-cu j^ ( j^»..Ja.T...j *j) £/^t/ are not able to 

t , Sao, , a * » S * 

give them (any) help (tj-oj = U Jj-aj or j-cu ^>«, whereas j-aJI would 

mean, they are not able to give them the help necessary in the 
particular case). 

72. Of the rection of the nomina agentis and patientis or concrete 
verbal nouns, in so far as they possess verbal power, we have already 
treated in §§ 30 — 32. They designate the person or thing, to which 

D the verbal idea attaches itself as descriptive of it ; e.g. w^UI the 

exciting cause, the motive; *JUJ' the hindering object, the hindrance. 

Now, as' both the person or thing and the verbal idea are something 
firm and abiding, it follows that the concrete verbal noun indicates a 
lasting and continuous action on the part of an agent or passion on 
that of a patient. This idea it possesses in common with the Im- 
perfect (see § 8), to which it is often related in outward form (see 
Vol. i. § 236, with rem. a). The difference between them is, that 

* Viz. ^-^.I^ JL^ls' or JU*I (yk) ^fciyii. 

§ 73] The Noun. — Tlie Nomina Agentis et Patientis. 195 

the concrete verbal noun designates a person or thing, to which the A 
verbal idea closely attaches itself and consequently remains im- 
movable ; whilst the Imperfect, as a verbum finitum, expresses the 
verbal idea as movable and indeed in constant motion*. The employ- 
ment of the concrete verbal noun as a perfect results from its use as a 
fixed immovable substantive. 

73. To what point of time this lasting and continuous state of 
the agent or patient, as designated by the nomen verbale concretum, 
is to be referred, can be deduced only from some other word in the B 
sentence, which points to a specific time, from the nature of the 
thing or the character of the thought, or from the connection of the 
context. The nomen agentis or patientis itself does not include the 
idea of any fixed time. [Comp. § 30, a.] 

(a) In a clause that is not circumstantial [comp. § 183], whether 
it be absolute or dependent upon another clause, the concrete verbal 
noun shows that the verbal idea contained in it refers either to the 

present, the proximate future, or the future in general. E.g. juj 

Sjujj I js- aAj! -^»Ij Zeid's son is to be married to-morrow to Zubeida C 

(the reference of f£*^ to the proximate future is shown by \j£) ; 
<UJ15 lit / am going to kill him ; -iUSlS Ul / will kill you (ego te 

interficiam) ; Jy&« IJ^* this man must be killed ; \}}y+a* * ^Jb 
she is praiseworthy ;] (in these four examples the context fixes the 
meauing) ; v>jjj^i LiL^**-* *^' Ols *^' ^,a.,».» j^t ^qXj! I^^JLcl^ 
and know that ye shall not escape God, and that God will put the 
unbelievers to shame ; ^yij $**%* ^v-"' Oy^i CH-^' irno think that D 

- j - a j / jj t/ * + » £ i - 

they shall meet their Lord ; jJ^xjL© ^ U ^Ja-o Jj^\ *x5 he kept 

* The Arab grammarians ascribe to the finite verb, in general, the 
idea of Ojjo»JI the becoming new, the coming into existence of the act ; 

1 . -. . . J £ * S * 

to the lmpertect, in particular, that of j_Mfcn" constant renewal or 

vrpetriioii (see § 8) ; to the verbal noun, that of C»^-3l, or OLiM. 
fixedness, immobility. 

196 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 74 

' j ' 
A silence in order to see what they would do (the reference of ^ytilo 

1 J B , 

to the future results from j&iS)- 

Rem. a. When the perfect <J^* is prefixed to a concrete 
verbal noun which refers to the future, the idea of futurity is 

i i a , , - oai . 

transferred to a past time ; as *$jxL* O^ 9 J"*' a thing which 

* , e j 6 $ e , * - see 

should have been done (equivalent to s )mj ^j\ Uu* *> O^ 9 J"*') > 
•iJt jj U5l£» O^ ^** <?wit# futurum esset si etc. Compare the 
B composition of the imperfect with ^)Us», § 9. 

[Rem. b. Verbal adjectives of the form yj^ni with a passive 
sense may refer also to the future, as ,J«wjUI O^-i ^ 9-*$*~*t by 
one or another weapon will certainly be killed whosoever is destined 
to be killed; ^>*a» r oJJI ^1 lit / am the son of the two intended 

(b) But if the concrete verbal noun stands in a circumstantial 
C clause (Jl^), the state which it describes belongs to the same period 

..a- o j a , , j * , , ai 

of time as the verb in the leading clause. E.g. *£-+j ^^a*-* jAj j^J I 
he recited, whilst he was in prison at Mekka, {the following verses) ; 

a * * « d// j J. *> j - - * o s »«» * j j * *■ * * * ssaie & a *a-o i * 

el-Mahdl fled with all speed and reached Tarabulus (Tripolis) in 
North Africa, whilst Ziyddetulldh was constantly on the look-out for 

* a j a*a , a j a** / / t/(/o - - o o .» ^ j ^ ii*» - j^e^ a e j a - «■ 

him; ^5*^' Sjjjdb «iL^»wl jJte yj ^ a^c jAj aJJI ^1 a^^j^L^j ^«j 

awe? w/wso tfwrHS himself wholly towards God, whilst he does good, has 
D laid hold on the surest handle. In such subordinate clauses the 
imperfect is used in almost the same way as the concrete verbal 
noun (§ 8, e). 

74. In like manner, the concrete verbal noun refers to the same 
period of time as the verb with which it is connected, when it is 
annexed to the verb as an adverbial accusative. This may happen 

f , 1 a 2 * i,, 

even when the subjects are different (§ 44, c). E.g. L»jU j^l ^Jy 

§ 74] The Noun. — The Nomina Agentis et Patientis. 197 

the ox turned ki$ back fleeing ; ^r*^' «>»•' WjW j^^ he set off whilst A 
his brother was shaping the bow ; ty>\ \js-\S ~-j». he went out whilst 

------ j 

his father' was seated ; L^W *J^ ^)UaJ-Jt c~JU / met the sultan in 
his house weeping ; |/*lj jjU— J I ^i c» 6 / m;«s in the garden tohilst 
it was in bloom ; tjU <*A».ju ojJ^ •wQj '^^-'j^ 4 *^' i>* 0>*3 
ly*» tjJUt. «W w^oso ^a// rffo/ against God and His Apostle, and 
shall transgress His ordinances, He shall make him enter into fire, to 
abide in it for ever (here the Jl»- or circumstantial term, ly*i tjJl*.. B 

is not a ^>jli« J^, or /*«/ which indicates a state present at a 

past time, but a jjJLo JW., or hdl which indicates a future state 
[comp. § 44, c, rem. a]). The same is the case after ^yu to remain, 

vob £o /as£, continue, Jlj-» ^ ^ ?W/Z n<?£ «?«&?, and the like (see § 42, a) ; 
as tjccl5 Jj->^J he did not cease sitting; yjjjJbUi L JL*\ ,j»« «U3U» Jlp ^ 

>**" ->•>* L5^1 d»*-" ^5^ « />«r£ 0/' ;wy people shall not cease to 
hold fast the truth till the day of the resurrection ; *»-jtjJI _>ol> U C 
ju~*JI ^ U^Lr a.* &w</ as M« spirit continues to dwell in the 

body; \j**-Za (^j*** A« remained in amazement ; ^JLj ^oJbdl ^3 

UftLaL* <>jc f//<> reputation of the learned shall continue multiplied 

(after his death). The Imperfect is also used after these verbs in many 
cases [§ 42, rem. /], with this difference, that the Imperfect designates 
the constantly repeated action, the concrete verbal noun the lasting 

condition of the agent ; as <su>Uu> j*3 ^i oV^' ^J*- j «"^»J J'j l* D 
/w rfw? not cease to restrict himself to sitting quietly at the bottom of his 
crti-*; ly-i jJa-JI ^^fco Jjj^Jj a»d ^ rfid mo£ desist from investigating 
it carefully {j^i - O**-;). Compare § 8, e. 

Rem. The concrete verbal noun is sometimes annexed, like the 
imperfect (§ 9), to the verb ,J^*> tu express the prtesens prseteriti 

198 Part Third.— Syntax. [§75 

A or Greek and Latin imperfect ; as ^jU &\& he was dwelling ; 
Ij^s^a C-Jlib they (the spears) were sticking in the ground (OJl^ 
j£*yi would mean <Aey were stuck into the ground). 

2. The Government of the Noun. 
The Status Constructus and the Genitive. 
75. The idea of one noun is very often more closely determined 

lis** )Zi, * * 

B ( u , arfia ». :j ) or defined (^jjuj) by that of another*. When this is the 
case, the noun so defined is shortened in its pronunciation by the 
omission of the tenwin, or of the terminations jj and ^ (Vol. i. 

§ 315), on account of the speaker's passing on rapidly to the 
determining word, which is put in the genitive. The determined 

noun is called by the Arab grammarians «^L£loJI the annexed; the 

determining noun, aJt olcuoJI that to which annexation is made or 

to ivhich another tvord is annexed ; and the relation subsisting between 

If si' 

C them is known as aiLe^t the annexation. European grammarians 

are accustomed to say that the determined or governing word is in 
the status constructus. 

Rem. The Arab grammarians speak of two kinds of annexation. 

The one is called 2usu&a*l I 5iLo*^l the proper or real annexation, 

I 2JLo*^\ the pure annexation, or cUj^ji^JI SiLi'sM the logical 

0<J 1 i - J . 

annexation ; the other, rt.ft.arwJI j*s. AiLi^l the improper annexa- 

tion, a«aa» c )l j*c. diLo*^t the impure annexation, or a-JaaJU! diLi^l 

J) <Ae (nierely) verbal or grammatical annexation. The latter consists 
in this, that an adjective, a participle active intransitive, or a 
participle passive, takes a definite noun in the genitive instead of 

* [The U A i .,*iti*.~> consists in qualifying an indefinite noun by an 
adjective, or an expression equivalent to an adjective, as a preposition 
with a genitive, or the genitive of an undefined noun, \~ijjJU is the 
defining of the noun by the genitive of a defined noun.] 

^ 77] The Noun.— Gov't of Noun.— Stat. Construct. I- Genit. 100 

an indefinite £emy?.s-accusative (see § 44, <?) ; or that the participle A 
active of a directly transitive verb, being used with the meaning of 

cjLkoJI or the Imperfect (see § 30, a), takes the object in the 

genitive instead of the accusative. In both cases the genitive is 
only a looser, representative construction, instead of the stricter 
accusative, and consequently exercises no defining or limiting 

power (ob/ju or U A i ,^>s^j) upon the preceding governing word 

(see § 89). We have here to deal almost exclusively with the 
real annexation. 

76. By the genitive is indicated : (a) the person to whom [or the B 
thing to which] the quality designated by the governing word belongs, 

as aJUI £*£•. the wisdom of God; [ £ UqJ t l\iuo the Umpidness of the 
wetter ;] (b) the material of the form and the form of the material, as 
&Jai a-o-j an egg of silver, ^JkljjJI i-oi the siher oj the dirhams (in 
the former case the annexation is explicative, **JW 4il«£t, the original 
expression being <Uii «Lgu,i, i.e. *-oi y * A tfu j , see § 94); (c) the 
cause of the effect and the effect of the cause, as sjof)\ Jk3U. the t- 
creator of the earth, U ~+Jd\ j*. the heat of the sun ; (d) the part of 
the whole (partitive annexation, a,..^.,.,w.J iiL^I) and the whole as 

, » a*o it* 

embracing the parts (explicative annexation), as <v »x*JI ^Jj the 
beginning of wisdom, Ol3 ^ .U.-»JI J^ the totality of created things; 
(e) the thing possessed by a possessor and the possessor of a thing 
possessed, as jjUaJ-JI io>». ^ treasury of the sultan, jJ\ ,jUkX-; I) 

^jfc-Jlj M<? /ore? o/* the land and sea ; and (/) the object of the action 

and of the agent, as S U»-JI <^*> ^ creation of heaven, <UL^JI wJl& 
ffo icriter of the letter. 

77. The Arab grammarians say that in the real annexation is 
implied the force of a preposition, which is either J (which also 

represents the accusative, §§ 29 — 34), ,j-o, or ^. For example : 

200 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 78 

A ^»j ve>i Zeid's slave, J^jJ ^^' ->Ok*)t ^ sfow w/w (belongs) to 

#£/<# ; i-ai ^lib « s*7wr c«/>, - «Lai ,j-« ^l^ « cm/> (made) of silver 

(see § 48, /) ; >6^JI ^o^ to-days fast, =>»>Jt ^ ^>JaJf tf^ fast (held) 
on to-day (see § 55 a). 

Rem. The annexation is resolved by ^o, when the aJt ^_iLa*e 

is the genus or material of the oLcl«, as J*. -r'V a s ^ dress 

B [comp. § 48, g] ; by ..i, when the aJ! olcu* is the yJjJi (see Vol. i. 

§ 221, rem. «) of the oLa*, as jla^aJI w»j* <Ae Arabs of el-Hijdz, 

* W *B *■ Ci *o J ' 

jlyJI^ ^j-JJI jX* plotting by night and day. 

78. The determining noun is, in the real annexation, always 
either a substantive or a word regarded as such, a pronoun, or an 

. A fO 1 3 - Sis' 

entire clause. For example : aJJI Jyj the Apostle of God ; jj' *-o-^ 

, s * s ' - » J »^ 

C the word 'in ; J>l3 ^** the meaning of (the verb) katahi ; ^L-Jl j-XO 

the indefiniteness of (the substantive) 'insan (not ,J^\ i©J^», etc., 

because words, regarded as substantives, are by their very nature 
definite, just like proper names, and therefore do not require the 

article) ; «Lx* its meaning .-^jus ^>*5il^JI jti^j^o^j tjjb ^/.? w ^ 

da?/ (when) their truthfulness shall benefit the truthful; ^yju± j>yi ^1 

^7/ ^ day (when) they (the dead) sAa// fo raised ; \j\*lb*$\ cJ^^o^ 

D Ue the day (that) the women (setting out on their journey) turned away 
t t j s * ««» <• ■» * 
from us ; j~«\ *• U*.aJ I jj-oj «£ the time (when) el-Haggag was emir ; 

JZZ~»\ jjl wij «£ ^e time (when) he hid himself, - «jU-wl "^*^ a£ £fo 

time of his hiding himself ; w>IJuOI OJLH O**" when they shall see the 

Gs J J , 

punishment ; [a^*j o-* TrJ**^ Oh*- O-* from the moment he goes out 
from his house] ; >^~jZ~c ,jl». j-ot at the time (ivhen) old age is coming 
on ; \J£=> J**j O' (&\*~*) <>-*>*• fw f ear °f his doing so-and-so ; 

§ 79] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat Construct. & Genit. 201 

Uq->^». *U t^iwj ^h^ a-^oJI ***->' L5** 1 ^ efe«^ made him drink the A 
cup of "and they were given boiling water to drink" (el-Kor'an, 

xlvii. 17). — The determined noun, on the contrary, can be only a 

' j - * ' 
substantive ; for the numerals and prepositions (JW-j <*—> +*• five men, 

«Lw juu a/lter ^£ /«/*?£ of a year) are in reality substantives, and 
adjectives, standing in the position of defined nouns, have the force 
of substantives, as ij^J I j***- the best of (God's) creatures (see § 86), 
[A*>yt 0-~»- ^ handsome face, % 89, rem.], iiai* J*-^ a hurried B 

. «/tf S^/J 

thrust, j**. iJI ^jt ws».LaJI ^o-jI ^Iaj 0*i" o^i-oj and honoured now 

by the exalted name of the Sahib 'Abu l-Kdsim. [Comp. § 86, rem. b, 
§ 93 at the end, and § 95, e.] 


Rem. a. In the pure annexation, the article ,J\ can never be 
prefixed to the oti* ; in the impure, it may (see §$ 30, a, and 89). 

Rem. b. Occasionally in ancient poetry, and frequently in later 
prose writers, we find such phrases as juj ?>-<)j oL~; Zeid's sword 
and spear, for which the correct expression would be juj ot*~> v^ 

3 J » J ^ 

*J3 ; e.g. LyJIS ,^© ij^;_5 *>-! *JUI sJai way GW cw£ off the hand 

, it-o , a , , a * * - a - 

and foot of him who said it; Juj^M ^y*»-j i< c 'j3 Ot^ between the 
two paws and the forehead of the Lion (the constellation Leo) ; 
~~A~i ifclju jl SJ^Jlc *$\ save the after-running or the first running 

** * * * * 9 t *a*o * + p a*o * , 

of a courser; lyjj^-j ^J^-> w~j*M O^^J*^ ' ^ may the rain water 
the lands, both rugged and level, for lyjj».j ^y->- D 

79. Not only common nouns, but also proper names, may be 
determined by a genitive; as ^^AJI ***0 RabVa of the horse; 

^jLoi aJu\j Pn-Ndbiga of (the tribe of) Dubyan,= ,JLj»j)1 ii_>L01 : 

~, > a * ~'iajas*-}' 

^plj wJL*5 Taglib, (son) of Wail, for Jjtj ^ wJLij ; s^^L ^jI». 

Hdtimof (the tribe of) Taiyi ; wJ£)t ^-0* '^lw;- o/Mt? ^ (because 

w. 11. 26 

202 Part Third.— Syntax. [§80 

A he was always accompanied by one) ; 0-o**M 3j*»- U-Hira, (the 

Cri <« J J J 

capital of the kingdom) of hi- No' man ; j>\*J\ ^JbtjJa Tripolis in 
Syria; w>>*M ^^JjIjJ? Tripoli in North Africa; Jij/*JI ,>!****> >el3l 

t ids 3 •> s % Z , Si J J a ' * 

*-j~i* J>w j»\JJ\ JU»o J-fc^) aS^wj ^ <^e/£ in Bagdad of (in) 
Sl-'Irak, but his yearning for the people of Damascus of (in) Syria 

, * at a i a * -I- , Z *> , a * * i * * * * 

was a painful yearning ; cAs^W ^r^^ij ^j UW J^yi ^>*H) ^ 

^jj^-o-i t>*">*-^' ^5-^^*° our Zeid, on the day (at the battle) of en-Nakd 

B (or the sand hill), smote the head of your Zeid with a bright (sword) 

t * - - j a j * j a * j * s ^ 

of el- Yemen, the edges of which bit deep; *$j*aJi** ^A}^x* ~ * '^ji 1 ** 
and they left their Mas'iid thrown down upon the ground. 

80. It often happens, too, that a noun is qualified by the genitive 
of another noun, when in other languages an adjective would be 

a *■ j i * a * y , j a * 

employed; as %$*> J^ a bad man; ,jl».j jU>»- a wild ass; oy 

a s i«'/ J 

JJjlo a piece of cloth of good quality, Jj ju» t^^-o a good place of abode, 

a j * * Z *> j * a 

C Jj^o w*»-lo a good comrade ; 'A-aJI Ol***! the pure or sincere brethren 
(or brotherhood). This is particularly the case in specifying the 

S j , a* 

material of which a thing is made ; as 2-ai ^-a*J ovum argenteum, 

a silver egg ; j-jj^- *->y vest is serica, a silk dress (see §§ 76, 77). In 
the same way a genitive is attached to the name of a person, to 
express something peculiar to and descriptive of him ; as J*jLij| juj 

* £> & j <ja * a * a*o j a * 

the erring (apostate) Zeid, = J^LcJI j3 ju j ; j-oUl jutw the good 

a - a*> j r a * a 2 *> j a * 

D Sa'd,^j^s>J\ £ jotw, to which would be opposed S ^JI jjtw, or 
jJii\ jjtw, the wicked Sa'd, = j^-JI ^ jju* or j-£Jt ji. 

a -e*> j .. 

[Rem. This sort of annexation is called ^jifcjl .Jl ,J-j*JI siLo\ 
i.e. the annexation of the concrete to the abstract noun.] 

81. The Arabs also use several nouns, which convey, at least 
secondarily, the ideas of possession, companionship, origination, etc., 

§ 81] The Noun. — Govt of Noun. — Stat. Construct. & Genit. 203 

in combination with a following substantive (usually expressing a A 
quality) in the genitive, as a substitute for adjectives. These quasi- 
adjectives, when actually in apposition to a substantive, are placed 
after it, like real adjectives. They are principally the following : 

ji the (man) of such and such a thing, its owner or possessor (Vol. i. 

s * see 

§ 340, rem. c) ; w-*.lc companion, possessor; JJbl family, people; 

« £ 31 ... . . . . 

w>! father, and j>\ mother, i.e. originator, cause, origin, or principle 

93 °' 3 s * • ...» f, 

of a thing ; ,jjt son, and 3jj\ or >Z~JJ daughter, i.e. originating from, B 

<i £ 

caused by, dependent upon or related to something ; *-\ brother, i.e. 

J 5 

connected with or related to something. The nouns ji, w*»-L«, and 

* * £ 

Jjkt, are constantly used in this way in ordinary prose ; the others, 

being metaphorical, belong almost exclusively to poetry and poetical 

a - a*> j a a* j 

diction. For example : > ^t*•J 1 ^i the good, ^UJ I ji the learned, 

y)~A9 ji gracious, JU ji wealthy, ^^j £ a relation, «i)^w Oli ^aj\ 
a piece of land cotered with thorns, w»U*i)l >3jt intelligent persons, L> 
^*l«*.j^)l jji, or ^oU-j^l y^t, relations ; ^J LL*^ I *-iaJI w-a-Ua o«« 
irtfA gw^ natural parts, <uL*JI w«*.Lo ^<? person ivho has committed 
a fault, j**. w*»-L© a scout, spy, or mouchard, j^s. wsew'-e a man 
of learning, y-J'j i<»JI w>U»o1 ^ inmates of Paradise and Hell ; 
<U-Jt Jjbl ^o.5e it'^o conform to the practices [and sayings] of Muham- 
twW, glyb^M v^Jkt persons of erroneous opinions, heretics, ^*Jt J-*' D 
£Ae learned, iiJJI Jjkl lexicographers ; JLi^JI ^jI a hospitable man, 

.. .. e*> it a - i a* j£ 

SLaJI ^i\ the father (supporter) of life, i.e. the rain, (jjo-wM ^jl 

the father (constructor) of the little fortress, i.e. the fox ; *£»s5Lsij I v°' 

s -» 31 ' 
£fo mother (cause) of disgraceful acts, i.e. wine, Jij^iaJl >»' ^ main 

road; [JkJ^JsJI C>Uj ^ branches of the road ;] ^^---Jl ^1 ^ so« o/" 
£fo «my, i.e. ^ traveller, *->/*• O^' a warrior, ^jl ^>jI ^ sow 0/ 

204 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 82 

A howling, i.e. the jackal; J*aJI c-*u £Ae daughter of the mountain, 
i.e. £Ae echo ; j~±J\ ^»-t, j^^Jt >**■', ^**J' >»-l,^ J ^l 3»*l, the good. 

- j £ 

£^e laborious, the wealthy, the learned, j**** ^»-l a brother of Temim, 
o?20 q/* £/^e £ri£>e of Temim; [j^.&Jt ^£.1 ^ brother of wine, i.e. « man 

6 0-6 

drunk with wine. Connected herewith is the use of o-jI, 2cj\ (<£•*->) 

to indicate the age of a person, as <Uw j^-Jlo-5 (JjI $&> he is eighty 

B years old (lit. he is the son of eighty years). A poet (Hamasa, p. 6) 

9 £ . - 6 - j £ 

employs *-l in the same manner : !,>*.....»£. ^±.1 ^ty years o£a]. 

82. Further, some secondary ideas, such as those of the whole, 
the part, the like, and the different, which we usually designate by 
adjectives, prepositions, or compound words, are expressed in Arabic 
by substantives, taking the primary substantives, to which they are 
attached, in the genitive. Such are : — 

C (a) Jds (Heb. 73, Syr. ^oi>, ^o, JEth. Yy.<ft kwell) the 
totality, the whole (lit. what is rolled and gathered together ; compare 

77.3 to roll, \\ i \*"), J-Jibl, a crown, 77^ to make complete or perfect, 

7v3 perfect, the whole). If the leading substantive is definite, and 

3 j 
signifies something single and indivisible, J^» means whole, as 

6^6>o ill 6 ,6>a ill .« ... - . 

C~J I J^3 the whole house, j»^i I J.£> the whole day ; if it is definite, 

but a plural or a collective, J£» means all, as Ol3l^*a»JI J^ all the 

&* & j . I* 

D animals, ^UJI J^> «W mankind ; if it is indefinite, Jib means each, 

every, as d-o^-i s^*Jj ^-©j £b^~» J^» U >w£ everything which is black 

c*> a 1 £ 
& a date, and (not everything which is) white a bit of fat ; %t*\ J^' 

IjU JJUb j*.5y jljj \lj*\ ^>^.~.a>J g?os£ </w« consider every man a 
{true) man, and (every) fire that blazes at night a (true) fire (really 

6 - I 1 6- ij 

deserving of the name) ? J*£» J£> ew?-y stratagem, j»^i J£> every 
day, (»*».1) J^-l^ J^ eac/j s/w^e owe, ,>« J^ every one who (in 

§ 82] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat, Construct. & Genit. 205 

which case the annexation is explicative, ^Ulj^ — iui\ *iiUi>!, each, A 
viz. stratagem, etc.)*. — Frequently, however, the definite primary 

it J 

substantive is put first, and J^ is placed after it, in annexation to 
a pronominal suffix agreeing with the primary substantive, which is, 

ji J 3 3 ,S, 

as it were, repeated in the suffix ; as aJ^ c-s^J I the whole house, 

* - 3 3 3i3* }ji j J Si ' 

W-^ 3 u^j^l the whole earth, j*^^ tr»W all mankind. Instead of 

this construction, we sometimes find J^JI, to vdv, and even St )£=>. 
which is definite, notwithstanding the tenwin, and stands, according B 

*il 3 t ji J 3 ^i«5 , £ , x i x ^ 

to circumstances, for U^. v0 iCJL^, etc.; as ^LJU^aJI c»»-»a^'> jJj 

it jOja j , , , , sis** 6 }* * 3 3 - o*£ o * it 33^* j ,o;sv, i , J a**,. 

l«L3 s'^JI juc «;^ the poor and widows and orphans had assembled, 
and had all corns to water their camels and flocks, and they all 

i 3 3* tj ij ] 3 ' 3 ' <j ' * 

remained standing near the water (,J£J\=^J&) ; ^j^cj^s^ ^Icj 

/ JJ •» / i ^ ut 3 Z J J 3 * * *3i 3*o 3 - 3i* 3 3*3* 

a«<# Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot, and the inhabitants of the 
grove, and the people of Tubba', all accused the apostles of imposture 

t J 3 lit } 3 3 3 - it 3 Zt 3 ' - 3 3*' - \ 3 3 - - f * 

{^y^-jtr^=> or j^y^ *x»-lj J^j : *^^j wJ^asjj J^*--] ^ ^-*j 
W 5 Ubto. «•<? gave him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob, and each of them 
we made a prophet (*}l£> = U^-U «x»-lj J£> or ^rr*) : 0^> J^> 
a// 7Wf/s£ <//<?, i.e. ^Ul ^>« j^*.l J£> ; *jI>j w>U.I J-*-* «»^ ^<?y <M 

* [In poetry J^, followed by an indefinite noun in the genitive D 
singular, is often used, like the German word tauter, to denote a 
number of objects all of which possess this or that quality, e.g. 

3 ~*3* fi 3 5 - 3 it *, ** 

>ojJ»o t\}j*?. (J-^» *^l j±-JJ\ *^_3 and (he cared for) no treasure save 

only mares, all of them short-haired and hard-hoofed ; ^li-ai JL£> ^ju 

^^a-^iM with me tvere comrades, each of them cloxl i)i a loose-fitting 

tunic, in German, es begleiteten mich tauter Freunde mit iceiten Kleid- 

206 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 82 

A assented and sivore allegiance ; [J-yJt w>J^> ^M J^> o\ there was 
not any one but accused the apostles of lying]. 

6r»*> J « 

Rem. This last remark applies also to j^c to-morrow, = >o^J I j^i 
and^o^JI *iUi j^c, and to ,J->U> next year, =^1*31 tjjk ,JjIS and 
>oLaJt «iU3 tJ-A3 ; as Ijcc L*»e <tlwjl sent? Awn. wi£/i ^<s to-morrow; 

' s ' 0* J * * • • *■ * * ' ' ' ' 

^)j15 j_Jt [yXjjJu *$3 2lL»^J t^- ^iy*" [* 'i' lohen thou gettest 
B the plucking of a palm-tree, do not put it off till next year. 

(b) With the use of J^ coincides in most points that of £- 
the totality, the whole (lit. what is collected, from **»-, connected with 

■3 ^ Z *> ) * oil* J 2 - 

^»-»-) ; as ^UJI f-d-o-c*-, or ^yx^a. ,_r>U)t, all mankind (but also 

Ut^a. u-'W, whereas !}li=> ^UJt is inadmissible) ; ly****- *^»J^oJ' 

£^e wAo/e c%; ^.A^^Jt JlS ^U^l ^3 l^Ji ««c? a/fer Atf obtained 

C ^ sovereignty, he put them all to death (****JI, to oAov, equivalent 

in this case to _^*^©.a.) ; Qgj ^x-w « U> jJ ^-^»- ^> teli cme? fo, £&?y 
sA«// be assembled before us all together. 

Rem. Similar is the use of <ulc the great mass or bulk, the 
greatest part, [the whole] (properly the fern, participle of ^o-c to 

J Z * , 6 * * 

comprise or comprehend) ; as ^Jkjj) d-^oLcj ^ZSLs ^9 ^>a-J 

^^jUsto-a.^ t£ (the water) rw?is tw £/teir streets and the greatest part 

D o/" ^AeiV houses and baths ; Sjla*^. lylUjt <L©Uj awe? <Ae greatest part 

of its buildings are (of) stone ; ALcKe- u .t»>a.J I the great bulk of the 

army, [the whole army] ; U-vs* J>v^-<^ ' J-**J I ^j^ <uW t lj.3 //ws£ 
(readers of the Korean) read according to the passive voice in both 
(words); <UU >o^iJI j'». ^e people came in a body. — The word 
JjU» the rest, tlie remainder (properly the participle of jZ~> to be over, 
to be left, Heb. ")$&), is incorrectly used by later [even elegant] 
writers in the sense of all; as »-l»JI jjL» >jJ> all the pilgrims 

§ 82] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat. Construct, <£ Genit. 207 

have arrived; »-|/^JI J>& ^s^"' the whole of the property-tax A 
has been collected*. 

(c) uov a part, a portion, is used with the genitive of a plural 
or a collective to signify some one or more, a certain one, some one, 

,,a*>,a,5,* ,: * i a <■ * + * , 

one; as o— *-" CH J~o*»-* J***W »^a*J w-»t»» #«£ of his pupils 

, , »*o a , 

addressed Muhammad the son of el-Hasan : ^li^Jl u^-i ^ in a 

certain cave ; >ob^)l ^a«j ^» owe cfay; ^ov**-^ J*^Jl «£ recited (the 
following verses) composed by one of them (one of the poets, by a certain B 

, a, .» i ■» , ,ai , a , a , , j a , a i Sj)/ J- - ' 

poet); ^LJI aJUI Jpt U ^^suu ^>c ^>^» o' ^r^j^^3 an d beware 

of them, test they lead thee astray from part of what (from any of the 

5 * ' 
precepts which) God has sent down (revealed) unto thee.—U uaxj 

be repeated as a correlative, no pronominal suffix is added to it in the 
second place ; as u&*-> O-* 0>*' J-~" cA*j %wm evils are easier to 

* , t/ a } J a , r , i// 

be borne than others ; |>*yJ» cA*-J v^v^ C^ ^i ^ v » though the 

i i a , a j j a , , i ? *> j , a 

one of them should aid the other ; *$\ Laxj ^y-aaj ^j-oJUaJI j^xj ,jl q 
l)ij^ ^ wicked make to one another only vain (or deceitful) promises ; 

a * ,a , , j a , s /jj 

^xj Jj^i V"*V ^U-U» darknesses one upon another (darkness upon 

s a, 

darkness). In modern Arabic the second t^a*J is often omitted.— 

j i- ,a, e a, % 

Lastly, tA»-J' [and even ,>uu without the article] is sometimes 

j a , j a ,a-o , , , 

used instead of ^^4 with the genitive; as ^i cA*^' <*-» j»'i 131 

, ,a*o , , , , , a , 

^SUI ^js- Jaiw SjX> when some (people) in a town observe it, it is 

j a ,a>e j } *, , a , , 

not required of (lit. it falls off from) the rest ; cA*^' ^v**'*' **fj D 

* [To the same class belong also »xo» and Ji»- in expressions like 

, & is' , & ,£ , 

j&ZA jl». very mean = I j^a. ^^ : ^Jlc jia. Ul U / aw rco< very learned 

= Ijm*. ^U : O*- 6 ' *>*• Wi0 ^ trustful = U». ^--ot ; wJli Jift.^o^j o« 

s ^ » ^ 
intensely hot day = 'ia. ^Jl3. Comp. § 137, rem. 6 and the Gloss, to 

Tabari s. v. J».. D. G.] 

208 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 82 

2 0* i b s ** Z Q * JO 

*yJi ^* ,w»?<? opposed them in this matter ; [Ca*j c*ibpj Loaj 
/ foo£ « jt?ar£ (0/ i£) and left a part]. 


(d) j*s- alteration, difference, as a concrete, something different, 
is used with a following genitive to designate one or more objects 
other than, differing from, or the opposite of, the object or objects 
expressed by the genitive. In the last case it corresponds to our 
negative prefix un or in ; in the others it may be rendered by another, 

_. . OjjO**jj JO* 

-B other, et cwtera, and the like. For example : ^a^j ^i^-oi\ kings 

* J * * J * * uj »0* J Zi J5iO* J * * Zi * 

and others ; \k>j*&$ aaa u JIj S^jUIj icla^iJI bravery, strength, clemency, 

))))/^ J * JOiO* *** jOiO *■ * 

and other qualities ; ^bj+s-j SLiaiJtj ^jj^l ?^- there came the vizirs, 

* I J}** * JO* irf * * *£ 

judges, etc.; [»sX)i j-j^j ££ cetera/] O*^ *^' O-^ jt>**' do you then 

J C* vt fO J * 1 * 

seek another religion than that of God I aj^CJU aJJI j*s. a) I ^yo what 

JO * j«/ 

god is there but God, ivho would bring it (back) to you ? Jj^Jo*-* jt£ 

J *0>e JO* J JO * JO* 

uncreated; Jj>Li~oJI j^e- tlie uncreated; (>£«-* j-^e. impossible; j*& 

C *->jjd\ not Arabs ; j-m j^e. ^J\ Ay^-j his face was not turned towards 

Egypt ; %\*> j*£- ^Xe- JjjJS and he halted away from water, or without 

J *0* ^ J * 

access to water.— j*Jd\ is very rarely used instead of j+z with the 

*0*3 it 1 i * J * J 

genitive; as j+*l\ t*_i£bl lya^iL&j the hands of others clasp them 
(-^Aj^e.). — When in the accusative, j-+£, which always remains a 
substantive, often requires to be translated by a preposition or con- 

O * P * * J 5 * 0*5 * * 

junction, such as except, but; e.g. jSL> ^jI j*a j>$&\ j>\» the people 

D stood tip, except 'Abii Bekr ; JJ*>U- j^e. ^y *$ tlwu wilt never seem 

* 0^0 

(or be thought) but a fool*. — On j-Ju and j*£ o-*> without, see § 56, 

J » • ^ J»/ *0* % 

rem. c. The expressions j-j* *$ and j*£ c^ are used in the sense 

JO* * to * J * 0* JO* 

of not otherwise, nothing more [Vol. i. § 363] ; as j*£ *$ lip* l J* ) XL~»+)\ 
that which is used as an accusative of time, not otherwise ; j^e- *$ M^W 

£ *0 * £ Z n -\ 

* [On jjl j*s- i^j\ *i)1 comp. the footnote to Vol. i. § 367.] 

§ 82] The Noun.— Gov't o/Xoun.—Stat Construct & Genit. 209 

j»^ , a, **a a 

in the nominative, not otherwise; j~z u-t? >o*j> {£<±^ I have a A 

,i j)/ - * \ j a* - a- 

dirhani about me, nothing more; i.e. <iUj j*£ *9, «£U3 j*£ u-*^- 

Rem. a. When the sense demands a repetition of j-»-e, the 
particle *9 i s use d instead, likewise followed by the genitive; as 
->•' *^3 T>' ^s* O-* without father and mother ; ^jJk ^)_j ^oJx J^4 
^-^-e w>U£» *9j tcithout either knowledge or guidance or a book to 

i * , * j , * a * j j a £ 

give them light ; j»^b ^)_j >^«> ^^ ai^l 7 &nm<? 7m?i to 6e neither B 
envious nor tyrannical ; w^-o-t-q.! I j-j£ ^^-Jx C-s^x. "' ! ^>-;JJI k\j*o 

'•*£*&*' a a* * _ 

(J^JLaJt *^)j ^ovc^* ^ jt)a^A q/" i/tose to whom Thou art gracious, 

with whom Thou art not angry, and who go not astray. 


, a * 

Rem. 6. Instead of ^^*c in the nom., genit. or accus., followed 
by the genit. of an adjective, we sometimes find *^ with the corre- 
sponding case of the adjective ; as jj^i *j) S^Ju a/i unbroken heifer, 

= jj* *± c 

(^) l5>-' (rarely ^>-» and £t^-»), another (besides So-and-so), 

* a ta*> j * a - j - -^ - 

likewise runs through all the cases; as a-Ua».»JI aJLai %JU ^I^-jj 

whilst others than thou icithhold their benefits from the needy (see 
§ 30, b, rem. />) ; ^yJ^\ wolj ly«5b JL)l^~i then another than thou 

* + a * * a * a to, 

is the seller and thou art the buyer; £)\y* ^js- jULAi.t ^k£s\^ 
and suffice me with Thy bounty, so that I may have no need of any D 
other but Thee; l r .>«.»l ^Jy~> O-* b«** L5** 9 ' L5^ ^"-J ^ u' l«^j "^j^i 
/ &uv prayed to my Lord that He icould let no enemy conquer my 

j a * ' - 

people, that belonged to another race than themselves: JU»-Q *^j 
u>1^-» jj»« *^j L* l ^ ...,l«h. Ijl ^o^-U o^ O-* f^^>*^' and no one of 
them speaks a foul word, either when they sit with us or with others 
than us; ^^i-Lj AX*y> s j^c ^)\y* ,jlj and he who places hope in 
any other than thee is wretched. — When in the accusative, it must 
w. ii. 27 

210 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 82 

, o . a a«» - 

A often be translated by besides (compare j-»c in d) ; as .^AxJt ^£y 

a ^a«» .--a.- a- - # > » • i ? • 

besides science; u la.„ ,)l Jp^i <su«£» l£> w besides its [or fos] omia 

«?? ornament in society. 

90 o - at . 

(/) J***) P mr - J^-°'> likeness, as an adjective, Mtf, also runs 

mo ja j a^ to ^5 j ^ uSc ^ t 

through all the cases; as l^jJI J£« £~JI L©-»t I^HS ^^yjb *i*J3 

j» j » o ^ -• £ a jac a 

tfAis because they say, Selling is merely like usury; UXl* jJLi *^\^J\ \j\ 

Zt i a>o j a 9 , a i ,, 

B ye are nothing but men like us; ^UsiJI J£« Aa^».l l^J they have 

wings like (those of) bats; ljuj l^JJU Sj^JI ^^ on each date the 
like of it in butter (a piece of butter of the same size) ; t^^ <*A£»£» w~J 

at - .- w a<«- j a a «> .. ^ ^ a x> - 

£^•0 is nothing like unto Him ; o' ^5"^ O" 4 *-* 'j c*-^ ' OjtoJ^t ^>J 

a a 

a .> jc^ .- *aibio - i a jt/ 

* L ^t l Oj- 5 ^ ^ O!/*^' '*** J^o^ 'y>b if mankind and the (jinn united 
to produce the like of this Koran, they could not produce tlie like of it ; 

a a^ ^a .. i*o* .- - 3.o - - * \ * 

jr^s* J** O^o^i *$ CH-^' J*-' *SJU J >^ similarly, those who have no 
C knowledge say the like of their saying (of what they say) ; J!a3I y 

■t * * t I. * a t^Zioiisi-^ 

La3 jl».I JjL* vo^j ^)^3 ^£>»x».t if one of you spent every day the like of 
(the hill of) 'Ohod in gold (a quantity of gold as large as the hill of 
'Ohod) ; jt»\ im^> y)£-6 ,j>jj3-rSLo cU«JI o^ V if ths w Md beast* 

a ^>*« ^ a £ * 

wer^ painters like men ; [JI/-J ' tJ~* J-* ^ passed like the lightning] ; 
«iJL3 U *}JJLo ^J 7 /*aw twice as much as thou ; ^,-JjU ^r^3j-i they 

* »i * 9 9 11 ' ' 

thought them twice as many as themselves; JlLol^ \j^ti ijjS ^3 

.. a«» <• o*> 

D jlSi) J*l£i\ and in it are white apes, like (as big as) large rams; 
JL» U Jllol ojJue. («Waj ,jl y>\ he ordered that he should be given 
fe?i ^'w^s as much as he asked ; [J^oJ' is used instead of JJU with the 

a e«» j * * 

genitive in expressions like J^©JI »>*j the price paid for a similar 

a a a«> j»/ 

thing (= <*J^), J«^oJ I j-v-« ^ dowry given to a lady of her rank 

§ 82] The Noun. — Govt of Noun. — Stat. Construct, & Genit. 211 

** 'a 

Rem. a. Exactly like JJU, but formally undeveloped, is j) the A 

like of. See § 63. 

Rem. b. Similar is the use of <ui. [or <***£,] likeness, the like, 
jj£, or jljJuo, measure, size, quantity, worth, and |Ukj computation 
(by conjecture), which last may usually be translated by about ; as 
*JLft juueu -teji <Lw J«*aJI j«9 Oyj*^' C*a*Jj rtW the ancients 
Imve cut out in the mountain (something) like steps (or a stair), by 

- a-o - * 

which one can ascend ; [SjjjaJI <Uy ^J ,-A i< (£/*« town) lies in a B 

- J - i ^ - ^ ^ J ■• ^J 

sor£ of peninsula : f*f**$ I j»- ■* «*»w ^A i£ (<Aw ?ree) Aas £fo 

j a si*, 

likeness of a lemon-tree; also construed with w> as <CU «.^aJ 

*, * * a * * el - ****>*, _ 

a«j^ 4jL« u"Q*^J o»JL> iiuw ^.i SjlyJaJt w>U^ c(/«'i /<- edited from 
this work the Book of Purification in (a volume) of about 1500 

*a a*o *aja>o j Z. -? j »^ 5^ *• 

/eares] ; dJLL&JI jj jJjt^J t ,J>»-jN jJ^^o-*^ a statue the size q/ (as tall 
as) a well-proportioned man; j\*£i\ j»\xii\ jjj j-aa.j Jaij ^^jjl^Ja 

^ j a - a j 

peacocks, speckled and green, as big as large ostriches ; [i5Lo jjJ^Jb C 

- *i £ j^i <i a i * &3> * * + 

they are as many as a hundred] ; JuLsl ilw jljJLo JUt «uL©pl C-o».!i 

-■ ^ ^ .» 

under the knob is a neck (or shaft) measuring six fingers ; flo ^A 

f * i j - j a* s - 

,«»-j ^Ju ^o jJ^ j-y^> it is a large body of water, as much as 

-a - **+**3+t 6-A-j a S/» at 

would turn a mill ; l^JLLo ,-i «— . »ljj SjJLt jljJLo 5^>a»~) juyJ! ^o^-> 
in the country of India is a lake, measuring ten parasanys (in 

* a .. , ~* i * a * 

length) by the same (in breadth) ; j\ jJuo jj j^c. ,,3 IfciU x»Za»,< 

a «- - a * a * * a - 

j&f~t S^JLc ^i ^ov-* *j^* *& u^ater collects in a pond, measuring a D 

«- * * a t * *■ * ~ *aia i* 

bowshot by a boivshot : clj3 j'j»i« i£o—> s LoJI ,«i ^lj /e? *«?^" i/i 

it j^ ^ ^ , a 

</t« water a fish, measuring a cubit (in length) ;j»\j\ ,<i <*J x^J^I 

^J »■«• ^1^ ^^J »j» jc^O-*' 

>e'^ft 1^5^)1 itU ilkj ^oy** O^ -0 ^' ^//«re were collected of them by 
him, in the days of el-Ma'miln, about 3000 slaves ; Q^SJ aJLxJ 

^ ii ■" j *a m^a*) +* 

p\f} oUI elfcj lyi-o ws*<JI jit perhaps there may be on each corpse 
about 1000 ells of it: l^i-L jUJ ^Jt to about the half of it: 

212 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 83 

(^ *' J ' vt *> JJ J J. 

A Iclp O-**^-' ^j ^r- ^ l U>^ 0>A! ^' ie length (height) q/" <Ae image 
is about thirty cubits. This last word is sometimes construed with 
£f*6, as yj^-j *5l* u****" O-* 'l*j c> a * , ~' we were about 500 men. 
zn number. 

• ' 
(gr) ^a*J properly signifies direction, quarter, and is used in the 

• • * . 

accusative as a preposition (see § 65). But more usually ^s»J is 

employed, in all its cases, as a substantive or adjective, to signify 
such as, like; as juj ^a»J ^»-j a man like Zeid; £\~> ^ >sUjk£>j 

B JcwJIj j^aJt y*-J Jj^i.^1 and similarly in regard to the other 

moral qualities, such as liberality and niggardliness ; jbyai\^ S^JLoll^ 

UJb^abJj as prayer, fasting, and the like; j*-*j ^^> ^«-J^-5 (i.e. 

juj ^oiO 3^*0 Ul£3 ^ol^*) /«# spoke like Zeid. As a substantive it also 

r" 1 

means about, in which case it may be followed (like gUj in/, rem. b) 

* * * * * J * w ^*- 

by v>* ; as a«^w a5U ,j-« ^a»J x-»,> t Jlj «/w# the wax-candles were 

C afeow^ a hundred; %e*j O**^ ^a^j *$\ l^Jjbl ^j*c oJaj ^ there 

escaped of its inhabitants only about thirty men ; a*-»j! ^a^J ^ O^ 9 

o*^l ^ was at the head of about 4000 ; J>»-J/«« w*~» >**«J ,-Xc a£ (a 

fl w *5 j a ^ 9 * 9 2 * ■» 

distance of) about six marches; j~&\ >»>-> jU-c C*U»> I^j in it 
are small snakes, about a span {long) ; j*£Jt >»•-> i£o~> ilo A<? 
caught a fish about a span (long) ; jui ,j>« ^**J j-£) t ^i ^^ it 

j * - s»i » o o , a j - 

D is about the size of Feid ; J^.j i5U %jj\ ^>« ^a*J ^oAj a;?c? ^^ 
were about 400 men (in number) ; U/^3 U-« '_*«*-» l^jj /«? handed 

It & it* i * at 

down nearly the same (story) as we haoe mentioned; <*JJI ju-c (h ^ x£ ' 
^Aji tJUl ^>*-~oxfc. ^>« l^ 8 ^ ^a*JI 'Obeidullah gave el-Harit about 
50,000 dirhams. 

83. Cy^^y f em ' O*- 1 -^' ^°^» a i^* 7 * (compare Heb. D*K/3 
^W(? things of different kinds, Mt\\. fclAA,: fern. ^lA?*.'^: ^o), 

§ 83] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat Construct. & Genit. 213 

is always construed with the genitive dual of a definite noun or A 
pronoun, or, it may be, with the gen. sing, or plur. of a pronoun, 

ts 1 2 iO , 

when it is to be taken in the sense of the dual ; as (j-Jj^l *^^ both 
the men; ,^JUaJI UJL£» both the gardens; U^*}^ ^1 Lo>jk».t one of 

s s 1 S b s S i 1 S S S 

the two or both of them ; U*jlL£» oUJL-/ O'^*^^ an d He knows that 
both of us will meet Him (at the judgment) ; ^$j»« j*JJj j^M ,jl 

» sss 5 a + + i * „ 

cMj ^^3 "^i *$^*3 both 9°°d ano ^ ev ^ have their limit, and both 

* " •■»•» 

are plain and clear (J*5 in rhyme for J*5). Tins word is not B 

inflected except when it is connected with a pronominal suffix ; as 

s- » <■ sis i sis e s s» j o s * 

«£b^a.l *}£s C^jIj I have seen thy two brothers (not ^£») ; UX& ^j^ 
.iA-ii.1 / passed by thy two sisters (not ^jAZt) ; but ^©Jjt^J ' Oi 

- is s i ,3s J 3s s 

UyJ^ w^j-JaJ!^ the teacher and the physician, both of them ; w»jj-« 

s sO s s s s s si s 

U^ilib ioislij <^sJJJj I passed by Zeineb and Fatima, both of 
them. Although dual in form, it takes the predicate in the singular ; 

s 2 -> sis 

as [a*»-LsJ w sa> - » L A'iL£» each of them loves his friend, i.e. they C 
foiv? owe another] ; aj^**. **».t v >c ^ic li*}^ e<wA o/* ms c«« dispense 

J S si 29 S S s- S S S S 

with his brother, all his life long ; <sulit U-w JU U lit [j*j<£> when 


either of us obtains anything, he lets it slip; «UU.> Uji £)\£s ^-iy*-\ %^ 
each of our two brothers was an eminent man, a support of his people; 

» 1 » s S 1 S s» 

[wMg u ^oJ U^'i^ neither of you has hit the right thing] ; UX^ 
lyj^sl OJI ^>-i^Jt each of the gardens produced its fruit ; Uy> D 

5 S S OS S}S SlS 

\je**f. &4\ \+*?)£=> Cf^-i here are two men, both of whom are 
hateful to you. — In poetry it is sometimes joined to two singular 
genitives, as oUSUI ^ \*>~e* tj^-'j ^^'3 ^l *^=> my brother 
and my friend both find me a help in misfortunes; but in prose we 
cannot say 3j+*3 J*ij %£* both Zeid and 'Amr, instead of j^-o^J »HJ 
Ca^£> or 5 j**} <±ij O-* CW^». 

214 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 84 

A Rem. a. When ^'^s necessarily denotes both together, not 

each of the two separately, it naturally takes the predicate in 
the dual, as ailij jlo ^£s ^j\+*u Ua^&j and these two together 

comprise everything hurtful and useful; j-»-JI j^. ^>*»- loA^^s 

s * o£ * * 3 s» s 

1*13! jjj U^-wU both of them, when setting out became earnest between 
them (when they had to set out), started ; or even in the plural, as 

yiXi'i UXai U*}J»£» we £too have done this together. 

n Rem. b. *$Js and Ul£» are sometimes written <J^ and ,JjL&, 

and in poetry the shorter form cJLfr* very rarely occurs. 

-j ■> 

84. w>j »w»2/ a .... , Germ, manch, Fr. maint, is construed 
with an indefinite substantive in the genitive, followed by an indefinite 
adjective in the same case, or by a nominal or verbal clause (with the 
verb in the perfect) standing in place of such an adjective ; as 

3 ' ? * < J * Z 3 j s Z, j 

C^JU jk5 jtrij^ J^j Vj "many a noble man have I met ; sJ^-j *->j 

e * j 3 si* > .. i j )0j- s o 5 .t 

*}IaI». duJ\j many a man have I thought foolish ; «iUi aZUj* jJ>j w>j 

, » ,0*3 3 , «... , i 3 

jsyj I many a drinking-cup did I empty on that day ; o^iA elSjj w>j 

l >«is ^ C*»-jue ^ a», w O'i ^t> «h)U ma#^ a cooing dove, sorrow- 
stricken, cries in tlie morning on a branch. — Sometimes the pronominal 

3 S J 

suffix ** is appended to w>j, and the indefinite substantive put in 

oo, oi 

the accusative, as a >***j (§ 44, 0), or by the verb v> y*', / mean, 

* * *■ * bt t * 3 Z> 3 * 

D understood ; as <sukc &*c OjJul Lkc dL !j3 an d many a perishing 
{man) hast thou saved from destruction (<*,;Ja& in rhyme for <uiac). 
When the substantive is feminine, or in the dual or plural, some 

ft* 00 j£ j 

grammarians allow the use of the corresponding pronouns ; as Sl^t <uj, 

J J ,0<O J 

* [Called in this case c |^ v a., )l j-j^-oM, because the noun to which 

it relates has not previously been mentioned. Comp. Fleischer, 
Kl Schr. i. 419.] 

§ 84] The Noun— Gov't of Noun— Stat. Construct, d- Genii 215 

or o\j*\ lyjj, many a icoman; ^L».j j*r>.) many men; i\~J O-rij A 

many women. 

j . • -■» 

Rem. o. Other forms of this word are : w>j, w»j. w>j. w»j. C~>j, 

* „ * ^ j ^ Sj a, ,a *li 

Coj. of which the most common are w»j and w*Jj ; as ^^Jb ^o^-«' * 
OU3U9 j~e. ^iU*. >^j wJjIi w-»-Lo w>j jjl CHj -^ ' ^nieima, dost 
thou knotv that I parted on the day (i.e. at the battle) of Horn* 
from many a sturdy friend (ouauo in rhyme for »JLx«o) ; 4. ; h a» w>j c 

;, * - s j - a - a j 

ojhitm o many a long oration (in rhyme for 5y* U a» ....< '. — The 

addition of iilXJt U (see § 36, rem. d) usually hinders the regimen 

ij a iZiia* j * a* ,ii 

of w»j, as ^ove* w^>*" (J**^*"" ^*0 man y a large and thriving 
herd of camels is (to be found) among them ; but it is sometimes 
added without producing any effect ([SjuljJI La]; see § 70, rem./), 

as ^yJua OUm>j ajj-o L>Jj many a stroke with a polished sicord ; C 

3jli L>L»j many a raid (see rem. c). 

Rem. 6. From wjj and Lo is formed the adverb L>Jj many a 
<iw«, sometimes, perhaps, which may be prefixed to either a nominal 

[in which case Lo is iiUL! I Lb] or a verbal clause [in which case Lo is 

ajj Jl o ^. ) I La] ; as jtjJI ,-i juj LjJj perhaps Zeid is in the house ; 

10/ ^/ a!j * £*0 A.* * ^w j 

juj ^JfL*. L>jj many a time has Zeid come to me ; ^^JJI z^j LjJj 
^ > «ol o IjJl^s ^J tjjJ^ often will those tvho have not believed, J) 

> J J S«5 )J,J/ - ^ } 1 ' * * > 

wish that they had been Muslims ; J|^i*3 1 aJLju ^ Lo jJjaj LjJj 
perhaps he may say something which our undertakings cannot receive 
(which we cannot admit)*. 

► [In the verse JLuJI J«-& £».ji *J j.^1 ^ ^^UJI o^CJ Uj, 
/or many a thing tliat the souls dislike there is a removal (as easy) as 

* s - j a * * 

the loosing of a camel's rope, Ls is a 26y&yo Lo (Vol. i. § 348), with 

eee«» ' o ^ * - a j j* *, 

j*y\ ^j+c as jjLJi and *J1 i».ji a) as ii^. See Fleischer, A7. Schr. 
i. 420.] 

216 Part Third.— Syntax. [§85 

A Rem. c. w>j is the accusative of a substantive w>j, Heb. ^*), 

multitude, quantity, dependent upon the interjection b (§ 38, a, (3), 
which is generally understood, though sometimes expressed ; as 

io-JJI^^j ijjlc LjjJI ^i iwl^ w»j many a {woman who is) 
clothed in this world, (will be) naked on the day of the resurrection ; 

10 J •» .. £> 3 

A-oj-fiu ^>J a^jLs w>j b many a one who is keeping its fast (now) 
shall not keep its fast (again), meaning the fast of Ramadan ; 
Uj»JjI jil jJ ^jbi. w>j b many a maternal uncle have I, noble and 

006% bi o 2 j 

bright of countenance (laJbl in rhyme for !»Jbl) ; ,*9 ^XXLc w»j b 

^ ^ f0 *i 10 

ijjji- £ L*Jt many a one like thee among women, inexperienced in 

biO b St MS *00 0&J Si 

love affairs ; ^^ *^Jb asJJJl^ glytw 5jU 1©£jj b ^jbj Mawiya, 

many a far extending raid is like a burn with the branding iron. 
Together with its genitive it has the value of a whole clause, to 

the indefinite noun in which there is added a 2Jl&, that is to say, 
C an adjective or a clause taking the place of an adjective. This 

r, Si j j 

the grammarians call w>j w>l^»., the answer or complement of 

wjj. — It is curious to note that w»j has passed, like the German 
manch, Fr. maint, and Eng. many a .... , from its original signi- 
fication of multitude, into one which is almost the opposite, viz. not 


a great many. The same remark applies to bjjj and the Germ. 
vielleicht, perhaps. Hence some of the Arab grammarians say that 

w>. is used ^j-JUuAJ to denote a small number ; others, j*£&JJ to 

D denote a large number. 

85. In consequence of the elision of w>j, we frequently find the 

Si j j 

indefinite genitive alone after the conjunction j (w>j ^ the maw 

j a i 

of rubba, equivalent in meaning to rubba) ; as C-^w u*^*} many 
a cup have I quaffed ; LS^i llo~> ^^>j-o *^'j'j many an ardka-tree 
formed a roof over us ; ^Aut aJjju- e^j' >•»■*" F**^* ^* many a 
night, like (dark as) the waves of the sea, has let down its curtain 

§ 85] The Noun.— Gov't of 'Noun.— Stat Construct & Genit 217 

upon me; JpULij lyiuaj jUX». yj-*j lyi-aj i^c ^j—^w (> j»« a».Ujj A 

^/•^ ts many an apple, the one half of which is fashioned of a lily, 
and the other half of a pomegranate blossom and an anemone. — The 

same is the case, though rarely, after k_i, and still more rarely after 

a - ; -  ^ j ; - - is * a j o * 

Jj ; as *~6y>$ c«i^b jS L5^** *^~+* many a one like thee hare I 

a j * * , a* l-o ~ , * a * 

visited by night, pregnant and nursing a child; <t^x5 •>. Uj^aJ I ^JLe jJu Jj 

e j - - 

nay, many a town, the dust of which fills the wide roads (a*I5 in rhyme 
for A+Z3) : A**r<> jaj C«auoJ a*y* Jj ««#, ma«j a desert after desert ■*> 

» ^ > .. »*> a * * ~* a* a * a * 

have I traversed ; £* kts*mJ\ jy^» sly-j j^». Jj /?<?#, man^ a middle 

a * • ^ $*» + * * a»o 

of a desert, like the back of a shield (c J u^ah J I in rhyme for dAa»»j»J1). 
Occasionally even these particles are omitted, and the genitive alone 

a , * j a , , , a * 

appears; as aJJlb ^* C~*3j jb^o-»j /»er«y a deserted abode, amid the 

o ^ , " j a s * a * 

ruins of which I have stood (aJLU» in rhyme for aXU») ; O^L> ^j-e^jj 

a j * * * a Ci *o j a * Z* -z * a * j a 

w-'J^c* ly-jj ykjJI *k5 JJ iojj d-U »?««?/ a garden of lilies have I C 
visited early in the morning, in which it was sweet and pleasant to 

a i , * _ , j , , 

pass the time (w»J^cj in rhyme for w>Jicj). 

[Rem. The theory about this $ with a following genitive is 
that of most native and European scholars. Nevertheless, I think 
it ought to be rejected. There are a great many cases where it 
is impossible to render it by many a, as it appears from the 
context that a single person, a single object, or a single fact is 
recorded, so that we must translate it by / remember, I think of J) 

1 I a-a ~ , * , , 

that! etc., as aj aJNJI sl». j**.\± j-**^ Oh that unbelieving wine- 

- a - * 

merchant, a real godsend ! >> horn the poet robbed ; «*-*}L-» O^-J 

■* ' * c 
w*Jjj jJ I think about that scabbard of mine that I have been 

j * , . a j -• 

deprived of; J^-y^ J~>^3 Oh sender and sent one ! (on that 
splendid evening) , ^z\y>5 I think of those tender ladies, who spoke 
on the day of my departure; Jl~t ^^JLbtj Oh that dust-coloured 
■wolf! says £1-Farazdak, telling of his meeting with a wolf. I take 
w. ii. 28 

218 Pakt Third.— Syntax. [§ 86 

A this j to be the remnant of a word, like the j in aAJIj (comp. Vol. i. 
§ 356, footnote). In fact, though the elision of w>j after a copu- 
lative 3 is not impossible, as is sometimes the case after o and jJj, 
I do not remember ever to have seen w>j^ at the beginning of a 

' sentence, nor do we ever find w>j employed where only a single 
person, object or fact is mentioned. D. G.] 

86. With the genitive are also construed verbal adjectives 
B expressing the superlative, whether of the common form J*$l (Vol. i. 

<s o ^ OS' 5' i - »i 

§ 234), or of any other form, such as Jj*i (e.g. j+±-, j^>) ; as ^o^' 

Aiw^UJt £Ae most learned of the philosophers, 5-}>JI j*±. the best of 

created things (see § 93). Here the genitive designates the whole, 
out of which some one or something is brought conspicuously forward 

as its most remarkable part. As J^sit and J*i are in this construction 
definite substantives, and not adjectives, they do not conform in 
gender and number to the object or objects referred to ; so that 

£ 'JO J » - 0^8/0 J - oi 

q ijjJI j-j*. or j>5&\ J-aJI may be said of a single man or woman, or 

of two or more persons of either sex [comp. § 93, rem. a], — To indicate 
that an object is the greatest or most distinguished of its kind, the 
substantive is often repeated in the form of the definite genitive 

plural; as gfj-«*sH j*-<>\ the emir of the emirs, i.e. the chief timir ; 

* jo*a * # # ''tS^J'©-' 

SLoiJt ^_f*>{* the chief judge ; Ola. API ia*JJ» the Talha of the Talhas, 

i.e. the noblest of those who bear the name of Talha. — To show that 
certain objects possess the highest degree of a quality, the adjective 
t\ which designates that quality is construed with the genitive plural 
of the substantive, and becoming then virtually a substantive need 
not vary with the gender and number of the objects spoken of; as 

^Jkl^aJI u****^ the most precious gems (lit. the precious of gems); 

^aJI *jL», or^aJI 2->\y~>, the most ample favours ; [cfl}*'^ *JL« 

the truest friends; J^ji* s l~J 9-JLe the best women of Kureis; 

{ y$±.*$\ -»JU> the best manners. — Another manner of expressing the 

§ 80] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat. Construct. & Genii 219 

same is the use of the superlative followed by (5j;jus*J') ^ with the A 
correspondiug person of O^ or another verb, or with the cor- 

, * j * »( *\ * J * 3 * 3 i ,1 

responding personal pronoun, as O^ *-* w-^t 1.x* or^U wm »I I^a 

, e-e * 3 3 * * *t * i * 3 3 - - * 

he is the craftiest man that lives; JUaJI O-* C>3^i *** -^^ «$JJUi 

3 * 3 i , *B*>, 

they fought against him as fierce a fight as is possible ; »*>»■' O^ '.3 
ilj .Jt U^ U an<2 a2 present ice have the greatest want oj 

****** at* _ < *i * * * 3i 

provisions; C-Jl^ U >i^t ^ -o^*- .' /#>' ^ highest price; Ul U ^»jl 

* * * o * 3 _ 

3iX»w ,j-« / dislike nothing more than {the name of) Samlaka; B 

jji»-w U i^».l aJJIj yfc £Ats (horse) is indeed most excellently trained. 

Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 475 seq., 685 £<?<?. iii. 16 and my note 
Journ. Asiat. 1883, i. 541, 542. D. G.] 

j a 
Rem. a. The numeral adjective ^jjl first, being strictly a super- 

lative, is also construed with the genitive, as^^J^I the first of them, 

3* tit 3 H tie 3 3*1* 

jijj Jjl the first day = Jj^J' J>$^\ ', but this construction is not 

extended in classical Arabic to the other ordinal numbers (Vol. i. ^ 
§ 328), which are nomina agentis from transitive verbs (see § 109), 
though later writers not unfrequently use them in this way, as 

Zj* («Jlj for the second time = iJli)l 5^JI. Modern and vulgar are 

3 * i * ' * 3 ' * 

such constructions as j»$j .cJUJI tlie second day, oj^c wJUJI the 
third time. [Comp. § 108.] 

* 3 - 3 * 

Rem. b. In such phrases as ^ /0 SL>\Z£s j-ij^ y° ur honoured letter, 
the genitive does not designate the whole, of which the wiLi-e is a 

- 3iii^ 33* m . . TV 

part, but it is (as in &}f$ I j-^> the river Jordan) merely explicative -D 

3* 3 * 33 * * 3 *i>0 3 '0* 

(see § 95); so that ^ )0 SLt\Z£> jjjs. = v0 £>L£> yk ^JJI J-jjjJl = 

3 *3iO 3 3 3* * 3 3 3 3**3*9*0'33 * 3* 

jjjjtM ^5sL>L£». [Similarly JjUwj j~£s <xi ^^-J - j-*»£» 3^-^J ^ tr-jJ 
it has no great territory*.^ 

* [On the use of j*+£z> and j..-f.£-> with a following genitive in 
negative sentences, see the Gloss, to Tabarl s. v. «**.!. D. G.] 

220 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 87 

Si £ o it 

A 87. The interrogative pronoun ^1, fem. &j\ (Vol. i. §§ 349, 353), 
is construed with the genitive, indefinite or definite ; as Ja.j ^1 

s 3 S vt £ b S J W *0 IM £ 

which man ? O^e^j ^' which two men ? <^A*.ji\ ^t which of the 

two men 7 ; J^-j i^l which men ? J^-jJ' ^ ivhich of the men? 

j s Be- - c£s a s i £ 

jj-<ail Oolj ^yi> ^1 which of those whom thou hast seen is the better, 

3 s £ - .- - Zi-e it £ 

or the best? j>j£=>\ o~£J 0-t&\ l£' ivhich of those whom thou hast met 

B is the noblest? U-v-»' which of the two? j^S ivhich of them? In the 

former case the annexation is explicative, in the latter partitive. — 

S £ 
With a definite singular ^i can be construed only when the annexa- 

3 s o £ 3 2 «a a £ 3 s o £ o s ii £ 

tion is strictly partitive, as ,j-^».l J^pl ^J, or ^>~».l juj ^1, 
what (part or feature) of the man, or of Zeid, is the most handsome ? 

S £ _ 3lto3sO£sZisss s ii£ s j£ 

or else when ^1 itself is repeated, as aJJI «1>».ls \jJj O^ 3 ^ih ^i' 
whichever of us (two) be the bad one, may God bring him to shame ; 

£^om no£ ask the people, which of us, on the morning we met, was the 

* \ri$* *J~ Juii ' vit suit 

best and the most noble? (^Ij ^1 and^o£»lj ^jI = U>l). 

88. The genitive of a verbal noun is not unfrecpiently resolved 

o £ s 

into a clause consisting of ,jt or U and a finite form of the verb ; as 

s03 0£0 30s t s s 

O»o.3 O' O- y ^ s t«^' c I wonder at thy standing up, = *^-«US ^^ ; 
jj^wt ,jl C*3j a£ #Ag ^'we /^ hid himself \- ojUlwl C-.S3 ; ,«*-* UJI3 

3 3s s vt£0*O sZt s3 ^3 3s s sOs 3 3s s OlO 3 s 

aJLLm^oJI djjk ^/<g student of science was named Ma-takulu (what dost 

thou say?) for no other reason than that, in the olden time, they 
used constantly to say, What dost tlwu say (ma takiilu) about this 

6 0s s t> s i Os s » s s w 30 s 

question ? =^^ ZjJSl ; I juj w-jj-i l<-« C-.*aw.& / wonder at thy 
beating Zeid, = <&>j**> v>« ; w A" >a> J ' j>$i I3—J U-J because they have 

O s 3 s 3 £ 0«J 3 30 s r s s s 

forgotten the day of reckoning, ^^^yJL— ij ; Uj c^j*^' ^tM- CUsl^jj 

§ 89] The Nairn.— Govt of Noun.— Stab. Construct. & Genit. 221 

>LS>Lj and the earth became (too) narrow for you, notwithstanding its A 
breadth. In the same way, a verbal or nominal clause is often found 
as the aJI *JliJ or genitive after substantives, especially those 
denoting time or portions of time. Compare §§ [23, rem. c], 70, 
rem. f and 78. 

Rem. In this case the &\ or U is ijjjusu,, because the clause 
which it introduces is equivalent to the mosdar or infinitive of the 
verb, [Vol i. § 195, rem.]. 

89. Adjectives and participles may take after them a restrictive B 
or limitative genitive ; as A».y \ o— *- handsome oj Jace ; v^-AaJ i jAU» 
pure of heart ; i/jLl* Juji, very warm; ^b^JI £tj**> smitten down 
by the wine-cup, intoxicated (compare j" ^/H, Isaiah xxviii. 1); 
fJ>\^\ T-Lj** smitten by {enamoured of) the fair sex; J-s^J' J*^ 5 
having few wiles or sA(/fe; J-**^^*^ fomw^ <7rai* %*•<; v-±> J£=> 
O^ojT iiSTS ern^ soul shall taste dmth ; olx&l £Jb J^ja a ractifli 
wAtdS arrives at the Ka'ba (*Jb is construed with the accusative of C 

.. 3jO J * w * '77 

the object reached); ^t,^\ aJLSU. (a woman) whose waist-band, or 
girdle, fits loosely; oj* r J\ ^-o^»~o on« wAose conduct is praised or 
praiseworthy ; wJUJt cj^ sagacious of mind; 6 UjJI w»U^— o o/ie 
?r/W0 prayers are answered ; [j^-jy^Jt U— ». 0*^-> O^-*" JW-J 
d^».yi two or more men with handsome faces]. Compare in Latin 

aeger animi, integer vitae scelerisque purus, etc. This annexation is D 
an improper one (.§ 75, rem.), standing in place either of a ternylz- 
accusative (§ 14, e) or an accusative of the object*. Hence the 
genitive, though always defined by the article, exercises no defining 

* [The two constructions may even occur in the same sentence, as 
l^oJk JlijJI jUai.*i)t jU-aJ! »iU)jl l^JI r"Aose (?c/fo do sack things) are 
only tlie men of little dignity and of mean aspirations. D. G.] 

222 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 90 

A influence upon the governing word, any more than the accusative 
which it represents ; and consequently, if we wish to define the 

governing word, we must prefix to it the article; as v >laJI jL^aL* 

A^-^Jt Muhammad, the handsome of face, or jJtuJI jJtaJI with the 

curly hair; ^laJt ^\j w>;Ux)t juj Zeid, who smites the head of 

the offender; ^-1-wjJI 5I5laJI jua Hind, whose girdle fits loosely ; 

Jj^jJI wJjtfiJI he who strikes the man, J^pl w>lj-iJI those who strike 

3 i a 3 , .j - 3 , St , 

xJ £/&? man, J^pl w»jl>oJt ^os<? (women) who strike the man, oGjlcJI 

3 S lO , 3 t 5 v J 30, 

J^.jJI > o*}U £/ws£ (women) ?^o strike the man's slave; S^JUaJI $*n*+l\ 


those who perform {the rites of) prayer; ^j^l He who created 
thee; ^j^§Ji\ he who rebukes me (compare ^n^DH Isaiah ix. 12); 

30, - , o 30-0 * f «i , 

j^jcc^JI he wJio threatens me; [^jU-oj-oJI sL~JI the women tlmt 

,3 6 3 0, 

have suckled thee; lyXw^JI he who has let her go out]. 

Q Rem. Observe, however, that the annexation may in some of 

these cases be a proper one, either of a partitive or an explicative 

, 0& 3 ' , 

character. For example, A^yt t^y~&- may possibly mean the 

3 ,,03 

Jmndsome {part) of the face, or even the handsome face ; w>U^.Z...-o 

£ IpjJI that part of the prayer which has been answered; 3jljj*Jt jujlw 

the most intense portion of the heat (compare § 86, with rem. b, and 
§ 95). In this case the article can, of course, never be prefixed to 

-p. 0,3 

u the otiuo. 

90. No word can be interposed between the noun in the status 
constructus and the genitive, and consequently an adjective which 

qualifies the former must be placed after the latter ; as aJJI w>L£> 

J , a *> ,030033, 

JjJjJI the glorious book of God; ^-W d **i his right hind. Exceptions 

to this rule are very rare, and found almost exclusively in the poets, 
who sometimes take the liberty of interposing an oath or some other 

word. For example, in prose : aXwj o*xcj \J&±~t> aAJI ^ — a*J *^i 

§ 90] The Noun.— Gov't of Noun.— Stat. Construct. & Genit. 223 

think not then that God will fail to keep His promise to His apostles A 
(Sl-Kor an, xiv. 48, according to one reading) ; j~~Q O-i) ^J^>3 
^ft£ayL JJb>^\ Jj;3 ^y^>jL^\ ,>* und '» ^' e manner the killing 
of their children by their companions was made to seem good to many 
of the pohjtheists (Si-Koran, vi. 138, according to one reading) ; 

^_j».L^ ^J ^s^i j^\ Jjk do you not leave me my companion ? (words 
of the Prophet, reported by 'Abu 'd-Darda) ; UI^Aj siL-ii U^j Jp 
Ubj jJ lyJ ^jt-* to let your soul alone one day with its lust is an B 
effort towards its destruction ; ajj aJJI^ Oj-o *.*--j SLiJI q\ the sheep 

e j i - 

hears the voice, by God, of its master. Again, in poetry : [*iU* 4JJ3 
w.ijdg uHj^ wJL»o jJ> how many kingdoms (to God the glory !) did 
I not ente?; and how many horsemen did I not pierce ! Tab. i. 1964, 
1. 16 with aJU (§ 53, b, rem. e) put between the w>j jtj and the 
genitive. D. G. ;] ly**}) O-* -^y^ ' j-> *^ we ^ done he who has to-day ^ 

rebuked her I JjJj _j1 w>j^i l£-*>v^ ^>! «-*^ w>^' ^* **^ rt -* a 
book, or fetter, at-os written one day by the hand of a Jew, writing 
(the lines) nearer or farther (from one another) ; »-j *s?-}+j lyi^twji 
djlj-a .-jI j^^^XiJt and I stabbed her with a short lance, as lAbii 
Mezada stabs a young camel (o|j-« in rhyme for S.jtj-9) ; Jj^w >> UL . . , i 
J^U*.*})! *i>lxJI awrf we jwj£ Mm to flight as falcons put to flight 

kites; Ty-} 1 ^ 1 O-^ 1 «*!>* ^W H 1 ^' J*^ 1 *r-»- 4H4 they D 

(the locusts) r«6 down the grains of the full ears in the fields, as the 
mihlag (an iron instrument) rubs down the cotton, (clearing it of its 

seeds); »-La*-«JI <slLoj *jU ,JIj-/j whilst others than thou withhold 
^;r benefits from the needy; ^ . ^. ju ^>-6 ^U JlLu j**?-! *-**£> J^j 
j-i- ^y j-UJIj 5-C^.o agreement with Bugeir saves thee, Ka'b, from 
speedy destruction and from remaining for ever in hell (for Jli^ 

224 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 90 

A w-*£» C j-h^-») ; ^>}i~U^ jb jW«- Juj ^oLic bl ^Sj^ jjl£> Abu 
'Isdm, it is as if Zeid's hack were an ass made thin by the bridle 
(by constant riding); ^1 ,jj| ^ <dy JptJ^JI Jj jij ^>>»*i 
'-f i ^ s> £-fW^' ^^ / escaped, but the Maradl ('Abdu 'r-Rahman 

'ibn Mulgam) wetted his sword with the blood of ('All), the son of 
'Abu Talib, the chief of the valleys (of Mekka) ; ^Xc oJUU. ,j3j 

B ^»— &* ^t-o-i O-* (3**-*' O*-*^ &*)>*.*) "^5**i a "<^ verily, if I swear 

before thee, I swear with the oath of a swearer which is more truthful 

them thy oath (for ^Xi**J ^yo 3^°^ ^r*~*~° O*-*^) '■> u*»*J t> c L^i^P ^J 

j>}sd\ Ujlybl &w£ o?<r desires do not refrain from breaking our 

3' s £ ' Q ' * 0*0 * * £ *3 

resolutions; a3 U.1 *\) ^ wjpJI ^ \^.\ LoA ^3/ are the brothers 

in war of him who has no brother. From these examples it appears 
that the word interposed is usually either an oath, an objective 

C complement of the wil***, an adverbial accusative of time, or a 

Rem. Of the insertion of SjutjJI U, or the redundant ma, after 

certain of the prepositions and w>j we have already given some 
examples, §§ 70, rem. f 84, rem. a. It sometimes occurs in other 

cases, as : juj ^•■»= > »~ . l 3 woe to Zeid ! joye*. U j*z ^>-o C**^g thou 
art angry without any offence; Os**a5 ^JL».*^I \+j\ whichever of 

D the two terms I fulfil ; ai oJl*. ^J-*) ^Ai.9 U Slw b antelope of 
chase for him (to be chased and caught by him) for whom it is 
lawful 1 jJ3 _/\s- U ^J^ ^,5 who brings forth (for jJj) every year. 
[The insertion of N) is explained by its forming one word with the 
following genitive, as ?,<£ *}) (,>-» w«ac Afi was angry for nothing ; 

, , ~ , 3 i <■ ' * ' C 

}\j *%> -Aa. he came without food; <o ^A^cl JUo *$ »>**• t fc 5**^H 
^Aow Aa*< abandoned me at a time when there was nothing that I 
could live by. D. G.] 

§ 92] The Noun.— Gov't of Noun.— Stat. Construct & Omit. 225 

2 ' 

91. The relative adjectives ending in ^j- (Vol. i. $ 249\ l>ecause A 

standing to some extent in the place of a genitive, admit of a genitive 

_ « 3* 3 32 «» J tit 

in apposition to them ; as ^£J^ ^ ^5**^' "^'j I saw the Teimi. 

3 - 3 s } St -o 1 3i, 

(namely) of {the tribe of) Teim ('ibri) 'Adl, =^*J O- J-*^' *^»'; 

m - 3 - »' ' i ' 3*> - - 3 - 3 3 1*3 1 ,*»,'* f " ' 

i^JJ* jvij : u-c 5 Oj*- 6 ^yj^*** ullr* CH ^f* 6, S^aJI iu».t Otba 
ibn Gazwan U-Mazim, (namely) of (the tribe of) Mazin of Kais, 
founded H-Basra; io-»>*- -*-»' i^-W^t j«*jp1 O^ *^' «*** J^ 
says '^itaa 7/a^ '/6n ez-Zeblr el-Ased7, of (the tribe of) Ased (ibn) B 
Huzeima ; jij-oj ^•^-j- J O^ <*^f ^iUulju^JI ,j-»l *^jUI bl ^^JUj 
om<2 fo w<^ J165 'l-Feth 'ibn 'ar-Rindanakanl, (from Rindanakdn), 
a town lyetween Serahs and Meru: . „> -» o ajj-^UI >»L;*^I CJl£a UgJ 

^^^U ,jj of/iter M^/v came the J>dsirean days. (I mean the days ot 
el-Melik m-Nasir) Muhammad 'ibn Kala'un ; and even with the 

~, 3*> Z 3 2* 2*13-0 1 3 1*3 r - *3*1 j£ 

interposition of a word. s^)>IW ^.5*4^' ^■•-■oJ' O^ j<** 5 »*~* >>' 
ij-lf* j^ 'Abu 'ObZida Ma' mar ibn el-Mutanna, by client ship of C 
the tribe of Teim, (namely) T>im of Koreis. 

92. In the proper annexation, if the second noun be indefinite, 

the first is so too ; but if the second be definite, so is the first 

1 3 
likewise. For example. »iXJLo 0-0 is a daughter of a king, a king's 

daughter, a princess, Fr. une file de roi, Germ, eine Konigstochter : 

,3* 1 3 

but <iAJl»JI wUj is the daughter of the king, the king's daughter, 

Fr. la file du roi, Germ, die Tochter des Kbnigs (either his only D 
daughter or that daughter of his who has been already spoken of). — 
If we wish the first noun to remain indefinite, whilst the second is 
definite, we must substitute for the annexation the construction with 

the preposition J (§ 53, b, rem. c) : e.g »iU*JJ c~o a daughter of the 
king; »-l ^J OU a brother of mine is dead (whereas ,«*.t oU 

would mean my brother is dead, that is to say. either my only 

brother or that one of my brothers of wham we hace been speaking). 

w. 11. 29 

226 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 93 

A —There are some nouns, however, of a wide and general signification, 
which may remain indefinite even when followed by a definite geni- 

tive ; for instance, alio, «>a*J, */JaJ, [«S**£], something like him or 

■^^jo^ j o^ * * *io j t * 

it ; i \jlii\ ^jasj some pom- people; j->U^JI ^aju a cave ; (see § 82, c, 

j j s £ j o j 

/ [and rem. 6], #) ; [^Aj^t some one of them; oi>&. a />ar£ 0/ iY; 
a£U a i^/re? o/ & Likewise we find ^Idl J^l and 4*^5 J-iil used 
B in an indefinite sense*]. 

/»J» - «» J o£ 

Rem. In such phrases as Loj 3^£.t j-ol, a matter of this life 

and the life to come, the indefinite aJI ±J\Jx4 shows that the 

JUu is to be regarded as a single part, some one matter, etc. In 
such cases the genitive may even be virtually definite, but never- 
theless it does not take the article, in order to preserve the govern- 

- »» J Oi 

ing word from becoming definite ; Loj Zj£.\ j*\ is in fact equivalent 

in meaning to LjjJIj 5^.*^ I j^«\ ^e j^l. The same remark 
applies to those indefinite annexations which supply the place of 
compound nouns or adjectives ; e.g. «iJUU j-a.5, a royal castle, nearly 

^5^> J J SO' Zl , }', 

the same as *iU*oJI j3-°-* O-* J-^ > [^W"*** *'j-*' may be a barber's 
wife and £/ie wi/e o/* a [certain) barber, though in the latter case it 

• 2 • 0^0 ^ £ *> jc^ o 

would be better to write )> ^-woU>..a»Jl l j-o^&U»^. Sl^ol. D. G.] 

•Of 0^ 

93. Nouns of the forms J*«il, JU*, etc., used as superlatives 

(see § 86), are construed as substantives in the singular masculine 

D with the genitive of the word denoting the objects among which the 

one spoken of is preeminent. The genitive is at times indefinite and 

explicative, at times definite and partitive!. Examples of the indefinite 

* [I owe this observation to Prof. Noldeke. D. G.J 

t [Such expressions as <\j\^\ jj-^3l ^Jk he is the most excellent of 

his brethren, or <ola>^ g l j*±. jA he is the best of his companions, are not 

, j „ ^-' „ 0/0 J * ot *J 

exceptions to the rule, for they mean yk (l >jjjt O'^***^' ,j-ajl >* 

1 J * t 

^oAj^t. Though Hariri, Durrat, 9 condemns them strongly, they are 
not rare. D. G.] 

§ 93] The Noun.— Gov't of Noun.— Stat. Construct. & Genit. 227 
genitive : J*.j JJsJi\ y* he is a [or the] most excellent man ; ^a A 

is »*> * , ti » ' i ' i - > £ ' ■» 

St^ol J-ost &fe is a [or the] most excellent woman; Cxr^-J J-**' W* 
they are two [or £ta tfiro] thos^ excellent men ; %\~J J-ail ,>* ^# 
artf »ww£ [or the most] excellent women ; Jail*. j*±. dJJI GW is the 

2 Ostiils-is-oisi .. 

best preserver ; ^UU c-^.j^.1 5^1 j**. j^£* ye are the best nation 
Ma£ Aas 6^n created for mankind; Jj&\j j*)\ ^Jl jJ>13 J-a3l aiAJI 
juol5 learning is the best guide to piety, and walks in the straightest B 

S ss $ s it s- sis , *■ &***• 1>* - 1 s»* * s- ' 

of paths ; ^.ilUfc ^i Uaj ju»aJ I j J^i~J W J^-J I oLej he described 
the Jews as being avaricious and envious, and these two are the worst 

- - - -? 1 s >i s 

of qualities. Examples of the definite genitive : 6 l— Jl J-ail ^ 

2 Ox^'jo i s oi i 5 s- s 

she is the best of the women ; '»»*»• ,>-Jju)I J-oil i**j and Maiya is 
the fairest as to neck of all beings (^J*)3&\ means mankind and the 

e •.*,» i * ei si 

ginn) ; >»yUt J-ail 1*a ^jjg £ico are the two best of the tribe; C 

* «? J , C 

^-JjLcJI JjjloI '-0-^1 j/0 £# r are the most truthful of the truthful; 

.- o , _• , s- s *■ * .5 J - .- J, 2' (Jd/( 1 1 I si 

2l+~a)\ jiyj ^Uk* ^.U ^L>j5\j ^1 ^-^.b ^^bj-i.1 "nJI / will tell 
you who are the dearest of you to me, and who of you shall have the 

, s ! i His- ss s 

nearest seats to me on the day of the resurrection ; u^j^^ ^nr > ^ s f ^ 3 

\ s s s ~ * 

S^-*- ^s- ^Ul and verily thou wilt find them the greediest of men 

si s ai ils*> 11 * 

after life ; lyJ^L^t j>«^M ^-*» the best of things are the mediums (or 

s 1 s i s 9 s 2 sO W s 

means between two extremes) ; d^e. ^>jjJ ««-oju wsAju o-« ^Ul j^> D 
the worst of men is he who changes his religion for that of others; 
j a» ... M wJjj w>LiJI 9-j^i Ol3j*i)t J-^Jl the best of times are early 
youth and early morning. Compare in general § 86. Here must also 

tit 9 — 

be mentioned the indefinite genitive after J^l, first, and j±.\, last, 
these words being (as already remarked in reference to the former, 
§ 86, rem. a) really superlatives ; e.g. ^JJJ ^UU x^j c~o J^l ,jl 
ZSLj the first house (tempk) which was founded for mankind, was that 

228 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 93 

A m Bekka (Mekka) ; j>$i Jjl <>* t^>*3' ^5^ c/~* *' J^»-~~« « mosque 
which, was founded upon the fear of God from the first day {of its 
existence) ; J^m-»- ^ Jj-> *4' >»•' V chW^ Cw' 0*> (^ * s stated) 
on the authority of 'Ibn 'Abbas that this is the last verse (of the 
Kor'dn) which was revealed by Gabriel (lit. with which Gabriel came 

down). Instead of j>yi Jjt it is, however, very usual to say j*y£\ 

J_5^)l. — On the construction of a positive adjective, used substantively, 

with a definite or indefinite genitive, see § 78 (at the end [J*-^ 

B &&»]) and § 86, rem. b [J&1& j-»ji]. 

Rem. a. If the genitive be definite, the governing adjective 
may also agree in gender and number with the object or objects 

spoken of; as g L«JI jJLoi ,Jk she is the best of the women; 

, »aj , ,  ei s j % m i ' if * J 

j*}*) I ^Lail 1©A £Aese too are the two best of the tribe ; ^Losl ^oJk 

>ejiJI, or^o^i)! J-i'il^o-*) ^ e # are ^ ie ^ e ^ of the tribe; OuLaJ ,JA 

f L~UI, or 6 L~dl jj-ai ,J>A tfAey are iAe 6e,s< o/" ^Ae women ; *yj**»j 

C ly-i l_$j£«J ly^a*-* jJ^»' AJj-5 J^» ^5* UU». and similarly 

We have placed in every town its greatest sinners to plot in it ; 

lS^Hi.1 ^eXwl^-t rfAe best of you in moral character ; •j^w'^l^ i ^a*UJl 

Ohj-* L5*^ SJ**- C ' the Lessener (Yezld 'ibn fel-Welld, so called 
because he lessened the pay of the troops) and the Scarred (le 
Balafre, 'Omar 'ibn 'Abdu l-'Aziz) were the two most just of the 

, , o at j ^ (5 £ - at 

7?<?m7 Mar wan ; ^JU jJl*. Jjkt jjtit C-Jl <Aow ar£ //te greatest poet 

of the people of thy colour (words addressed to the negro poet 
1) Nosaib). In these last two examples, however, many grammarians 

say that SJj^tl and j*wl are not superlatives, but stand for *^lft 
and j^lw. 

Rem. 6. In such constructions as s J^-j J-^!, >»>} Jj'> *■«' JtH^t 
^IfLli. ji, iuL J^.U ; ^*-Ujf^ir ^U, and J&&=> jijz, 
the genitive is explicative (as in jl^xij <Ujj*-*, {5 95), and not, as 

§ 94] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat. Construct. <& Oenit. 229 

might at tirst sight appear, a substitute for a temylz-aceusative A 
(g 4J. ? e y J«a.j J-^it is not = >».j J->a9l most excellent as a man 

, , 3 Z '3 

(tres distingue en tant qu'homme) ; for we cannot say ^*ail U-* 

(Jjfcjjl, as we say ioLUt %i^o l^A ^<?y are both long of beard, 

t , 3 , * 'j 

instead of «LaJ ^j*}U^l? l©Jk, but, on the contrary, we must say 


94. The substantive that denotes the material of which anything 
is made, is put in the genitive, definite or indefinite, after the B 

, 3 3 , 3 , , 

substantive designating the thing ; as jij&- *->y « silk dress, _^o 

wsAjJt the golden image (see ^ 76, 77, 80, and 92). Frequently, how- 
ever, — and this is the older construction, — the substantive denoting 
the material is put in apposition to the object as a determinative of 

kind (^Lj), both being either definite or indefinite. For example : 
wJbJJI ^~a)\ the golden image (not wJbJJI ^~att) ; « u* *Jl ^^t 
^ s(7(^' cap; ,y--aJt <L-JUaJ-JI M<? porcelain (or china) dish; Q 

3 , , 3*3 J X i i - , , , f 3 

wJLaJt ^jULflJI rfo wooden crosses; tju~*. *$*^£. a calf of red gold; 

l*.Lji b^j JtfwJI fo made a dress of brocade; Lij*. <slLwj ,»i <*°f33 

, , 3 3 i , 3 

ILUx-e UUi.j a»«? ^g found in the centre of it a sarcophagus of marble, 
with a cover; [ajl>j*o] «>»Lj ^j%j-« ly-J^.5 and beside it art two [square] 

, ,3*3 3 Is 3 3 

posts of teak- wood [§ 136, a, rem. e] ; jujks*Jt ^ji <*-Jt J-*»-' carry 

* ^ _ J J ,3i, , , 3«* 3 s s % 3 3, 3',, 

to him my iron coat of mail : L»Uj «j— Jl^ >jj»»JI ajWj *-* 1$*^** ^ 
^*£JI ^>-« a«o? they stripped off from him his silken garments, and 

& ,3 33*3 ~, 3, 

clothed him in garments of hair ; j^lt^Jt l\jJd\ mantles of Burtdst 

i _ -- 3 - , ,3, 
(i.e. of fur from the country of the Burtas) ; ^j^-cJI ^LaAJI porcelain 

(or china) bowls or plates; ^jU*JI w>W*M robes of (the stuff called) 

3d ~ ,3, 

el-'Attdb'i (manufactured in «LolI*M. one of the quarters of Bagdad) ; 

230 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 94 

A ^^^^-j.01 ^— XJI cloaks of (the stuff called) ed-Darglnl (manufactured 
in Dargin in North Africa) *. 

Rem. a. In this case the construction rises from the particular 

to the general, from the individual or special to the generic ; but 

o s * o * * 
the reverse may hold good. For example, instead of JJa*-w ^ul^c 

- * 00 J * 

an old worn-out turban, JUa. }jj an old tattered garment, wjLj 

* t 59 , 0*0 J 

Jfi^t, old tattered clothes, }jc*. S>jj a thread-bare old garment, 

o t oo- 

B iJ-o~j <*£«Ja.3 or jjt^wl *->$$ an old worn-out garment, we may say 

„ '. ** -J. • ' . oyi**j*oi 

i-ol^c J>a ». „ » a worn-out old (thing) of a turban, j>jj JJ^»-, Ji*}^' 

0^ * J O r* * J * 9 J3*» ^ d • ^ ^ £• 

vjorn-out robes (<uLo dirain. of Sp - ^^) ; jj^^L-^J I JU ,J-« U jOc ^^J 

_- *0*> I J» ^ 2 

< U .J a&) I ojj* ij^. *$\ £/*ere is nothing in our possession of the 
property of the Muslims but this thread-bare old garment. 

Rem. b. Different from the above are such constructions as 

0*00* _ _ 1 * * 0«» } 0*0* 

C *~*4j *J*K) a P'i n t °f olive oil, ^ol^s*.)! C**JI the sacred house (temple), 

j * * 0«J i *o *o* J j j 0>o J j o i o* 

jiSjA^S «Lx£}| the holy Ka'ba, jojaJ\ j-^*^\ the sacred months, 

'' ' ' 2." "  o Z >° J J 2 * 

w>!^». *Loj*-« a ruined or deserted city, l$~-)\ jj^pl the bad man. 

* ** O * * 

In the first of these, Ooj is not a ijto, but a Jjij or permutative, 
instead of which we may employ a temylz-accusative (Ujj ^J-kj) 

»^ J» ,. * * 9 1 i * * 

or a genitive (C~>j J-»;) ; in the others, j»\j*-, plur. jaj^., «—>!/**> 

and gyw, are adjectives of both genders (originally infinitives), [see 
§ 136, a]. 

D Rem. c. Similarly, in Hebrew and Syriac, Dunlin *\T$3T\ the 

brazen oxen (2 Kings, xvi. 17), (^201 J |;~L-i) a golden dinar. 

iO * 4*0* 

* [It is not improbable that in the words of the Kor'an U~o SjJL^, 


is to be considered as a substantive meaning a land that lias not 

0* 9* * 9 * * 

yet been brought into a state of cultivation (for C~j* jJL», as >Z*\yo 

* * Ot 0*0* 

is used for Ol^-o ±joj\), and put in apposition to SjJIj as the material 
of which the tract of land consists (comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 672).] 

§ 95] The Noun.— Govt of Noun.— Stat. Construct. <t Genit. 231 

95. The genitive construction is also often extended in Arabic A 
to things that are identical, the second of which ought strictly to be 
in apposition to the first*. This remark applies :— 

(a) To nicknames in connection with the names of persons ; as 

jjis jk*xw Sa'ld (nicknamed) Kurz, i.e. wallet, =jjh> ^ <jSi\ j-*-> 

5jJ Jls Kais (nicknamed) Kuffa, i.e. dried gourd : 3Jaj j-jj Zeid 

(nicknamed) Batta, i.e. bottle. 

» i » - 
Rem. In such cases as jj^ jlju the use of the apposition is B 

equally correct, nom. jj£s J^*-». gen. jjss j^jl * . ace. \jj^ \j~x~>. 
If the name is defined by the article, the apposition alone is 
allowable; as jj^s £>j—i\. The same thing holds good, it either 
word is a compound (e.g. aJUl ju* 'Abdu Uah. or SiUI ^iil cameVs 

j * j ; - it 

nose); as jjSs aJJI jl>c. SiUI oul «x-*-». itu aJUI jut ii5 juj ^jt. 

Some, however, allow the nickname to be put in the accusative, 
when the name is in the nominative ; in the nominative, when the ^ 
name is in the accusative ; and in either case, when the name is in 

the genitive; as iSLJt sju\ Jujci IjJk (scil. ,5-^' / mean): C-j1j 
iSUJI oul ljuxw (scil. yk ^JJh: iSUt oLil jl,j« — > ^.j- 8 

(6) [To specific nouns, when preceded by a noun designating the 
genus, as 0>*iP' j**" f he olive-tree (= OV^iP' j » - ** ^) ; j*- 1 — " w-ia. 
teak-wood ; { j\$*a)\ S,U^». fint-stones.] J) 

* [Excepted are the definitions of measure, number, weight and 
colour, as also those of the genus by its species, of the whole by its 

parts. It is not allowed to say f~>\j* a *» *±- Sjjj-e*. 

U-j. ^1^1 (J-0* which ought to be -i-~ Aji 4». c» Zj-ij-*' 

ia* j > , 9 .. , 

/ire parasangs in extent, U-j ^j^... a. Sju-a5 a ^)0<?m q/" ,/?/ty verses, 

9 , »C « . S - ' 

O'V c£o feathers of divers colours, as a jJjiJ or permutative : comp. 
Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 552, ii. 33 seq.] 

* + » 

an island 

232 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 95 

A (c) To the names of towns, rivers, mountains, etc., when pre- 
ceded by the words for town, river, etc. ; as at jJu <Ujj^ the city 

of Bagdad (^*\jJu ^a ^jJt S-OjLoJt) ; oIjaM j^J M<? mw Euphrates; 

J-j-JI j^fcj //^ river Nile; &+~ -« > j>b mount Sinai: tjLfiu*) ^v* 
#/>? month of Ramadan. 

(d) To words, regarded merely as such, and governed by a word 
B signifying wd, such as a^J^s or liA) ; e.g. O^ *■+& the word 

kana (see § 78). 

(e) To nouns governed by other nouns, when the governing word 
signifies something to which the object designated by the governed 

word is similar ; as gU-" 0***J the silvery water (lit. the silver of the 

water), = l\+i\ $*> j^JJI O*^ 1 - i p - D**-^ 1 J^ 6 >* iS^ *UJ'. 

Here the aJI ^.cu* is the primum comparationis, and the wiLct* 

q the secundum comparationis. 

(/) To adjectives defined by the article in connection with 
substantives not so defined; as u ^jJL < ^\ c~o the Holy Temple (i.e. 

Jerusalem), = u *jJL a l\ ^> ^JJI *^~-JI, or, shortly, ^.xLoJI C~>JI ; 

j-ji-oJI w>b ^ foYtf/e gwte (as a name), =j-i-oJI «->UI ; Jj^l £*Jj 

£Ae ,/??•.«?£ RabY, and >a^l ^j ^ last (second) RabV (names of 

D months): J^' >olc /as# ye«r; ^J/**' w-^ 1 *- ^ western swe,= 

 e^ill wJUJI ; s-«taJI j^....« //^ congregational mosque, = jia»,~.» M 

9.As*J\ ; £ U<^JI aJLaj the foolish herb, purslane, iiL^»J\ iUJt ; 

Sja.^1 jb ^ o^r world, the world to come, = S^-^l jtjJt. In these 

and similar annexations some grammarians see an Jj-e>oJI iilol 

aJLcJI ,Jt, or annexation of the thing described to the descriptive 

epithet, i.e. of the substantive to the adjective ; but as such an 
annexation is impossible (see § 78), those grammarians are correct 

§ 95] The Noun.— Gov't of Noun.— Stat Construct. & Genit. 233 
who regard the adjective as having been raised to the level of a A 

Z. - ISO J e- 

substantive. Strictly speaking, ^ jJLoi I c~o means the house of the 

f j / j a a ' 5 ' 

&>/y ^/ace (taking ^jkio, if we like, as rumen loci from ^jJ to 
sanctify, Vol. i. § 227) ; Jj*i)t £*0> ^ ifafo' 0/ ^ first place, first 
i» order ; etc. On the other hand, in ^j^M 5^L» the annexation 
is an ordinary, proper one (aJLJL*. iiLil*, the word acL», hour, being 

understood; ^J^ 5^1o=^)j*^l <LcLJI 3>Lo, i.e. icLJI ^y SyLsJt 
^3^)1 (see § 77). Similarly, some grammarians consider ^Vj^' v^W- B 

= L p>j-kJ\ (j'oC^JI wJU., *-©UJ' J>a. o = g-«U>Jl ^j'oC^JI j^a. .<, 

or **laJI wJt^ll j^.^o. cU^aJI dJJb = £ U«*»J I 2*oJ I SJUu , and 
S^fc.^1 jl^^5^fc.^l 31-aJI jb*. Here too the constructions JJai\ 

* [Accordingly too «jLJI ^j is explained by Zamahsari (Fdik i. 
163) as ajLJI ^j-JJl j*y* o?i tfAe cfa?/ o/" the seventh night. The real 

explanation, however, seems to be that we have in ^jJLoJI w-o. C 

j.+k*si}\ w>b, etc. the first instances of the omission of the article before 

the qualified substantive, which is prevalent in modern Arabic. The 
end-vowels of the word were generally not pronounced in common 
speech, if no misunderstanding could arise, according to the rule 

a j *j j j* j a j // ut' - - e j ^ ^ ^ - e oo j i * i * - 

jj^£* dju \ 3 X^J y 3 ^^IfeU. til jji**^£s ^j v'j^' ty <*.;■■■•» ^ 

^p^oISs lil ofo ?io< ?««&£ use of case-endings in your speech, when you 
address people, but employ them in full in your letters, tchen you 

correspond. This was called rt-.jLJL.JI and deemed elegant (Fdik ii. 94). D 

Hence this omission of the article caused no difficulty whatever, till 
the grammarians attempted to find a place for these abbreviated 

expressions in their syntactical system, comparing the Kor'anic ^>j,> 
i^*iJI for A^jiJI iUJI ^>Ji and Sj^.'s)! jtj for 5^.^)1 SLaJI jt^. 

The grammarian el-Leit ibn Nasr disapproved of the use of ji^ t- d 
>u«lajJ1, etc. which he called a mistake. D. G.] 

w. ii. 30 

234 Part Third.— Syntax. [§96 

A J*fc.j, djjth J^.U, ^£A£=> Jj>c, etc., find a place (see § 78, at the end, 
§ 86, rem. b, and § 93). 

Rem. a. This sort of annexation is called by the grammarians 

(So J/ / Jw bCt-e 3s s bs 

j +~J £}\ Ailol, or jxjj**Ju)\ 5iLe*j)l, the interpretative annexation, as 

- - £ s" s g 

ssbfO 3 s s 3d ssb** 3 s s bs 

also ("iLJI SiLil, or <LJLJI diLi's)!, <Ae explicative annexation. 
The special sort mentioned under e is named A^ JJt dilol £/te 
comparative annexation. 

B [Rem. 6. It may not be superfluous to mention here the 

s b*9 vi s s s s 3 btO mi s 

genitive by attraction, called jt^^Jt j**. or Sjjl&^Jt j&. (genitive 

s *l s 3 b 3 s 3 

of proximity. Comp. Hamasa, 38, 1. 16), as in o^a. w~o j***** >* 
this is a deserted hole of a dabb (a large kind of lizard), instead of 

<S s sb3b*3 3sbsb*o sbs vi P s 

; ^J^j-fti t O^^CaJ I ^Jjx ijlib (i£ is) as {/" the woven web of the 

spider, instead of ^J-^-oJI, though Oj*£ic is of the fern, gender. 
Other examples from poetry have been given by Jahn in his notes 
C to Slbaweih i. 185. D. G.] 

3. The Numerals. 

96. We have already mentioned, in Vol. i. §§ 319—321, that 
the cardinal numbers from 3 to 10, when placed in apposition to 
the tilings numbered, agree with them in case ; but when placed in 

s j5 

annexation before them, govern the genitive plural, as JU^-j <£•» six 

s s 3 I s ' V < b 3 3 s s bi 

J) men, jl>»- w*U three girls, U1U we three (women), _^ju;I the four of 

them (men). The genitive must, in every possible case, be that of the 
broken plural (Vol. i. § 300, b, and §§ 304, 305) ; and if the substantive 

has a aXaJI *«>a. as well as a 5j£tt\ %+**. (Vol. i. § 307), the former 

s bi 3 s b s * bZ 3 s s s 

ought to be used ; e.g. *->\y\ <L~» +j». five pieces of cloth, £j>».t ^U^ 

^ " b 3 s s s 3 bi 3 s\s 

eight sacks, A^Xt ZjJLs. ten slaves, t^Ji t aIU three fels (a copper coin), 

' 3 s b s 3 3 3 s s s s b 3 s s s 3 3 3 s\' 

not w>tJ «L~fr»., w>^ **J^, O^*^ *>**>*> cr»>^ *£U. — They are 

§ 96] The Noun.— The Numerals. 235 

o : 9*3* 

very rarely construed with the accusative }~*r^ (§ 44, e) ; as ^..-»a> A 

? • op ^ o £ j • o ^ 

bl^jl, instead of w>'^j! i-^/*.*. 

Rem. a. The word ajL© forms an important exception to the 
above rule, being always placed after the governing unit in the 

- Jl -• 

genitive singular, as SuL^Xj three hundred. Only a poet can 

.. j I ^ oop 

venture to say ^jJLc *£JJ. [On the use of the plural forms of ^Ji\ 
see Vol. i. § 326, rem.] 

2 o«* JO' 

Rem. b. Should a dJUU t « r- be little or not at all in use, the g 

^0 ^«o J ^ J J J'1 ' 

3jJ&) I n a. must of course be employed ; as pj—w itU f A ree shoe- 

; / »c 5 j o p 

strings, because cl— il and *-~wt are rare or doubtful. Even in the 

3 3 ' '• ' 
Kor'an, however, we find e^S iiLj ^ree menstruations, instead of 

jl^3t or jjil. 

[Rem. c. It is perhaps superfluous to remark that the pluralis 

'- JO, ,J-. 

sanus is used in cases where no broken plural exists, asOU J*-— » lyjt 
2/te verses of this sura are seven in number (pi. of <ul : ^t is a C 

',^J0, «", .. JOy 

quasi-plural); OljJu *.w seven cows (pL of Sjib) ; (.j^—i ^^-^ 
fen. years; Oto C—> sia; daughters; ^>i>ljt». i£U ?/*ree smiths. 
If, however, the word is properly an adjective or participle (<Uu©), 

we ought to employ the preposition ^yo, or to put the noun in 
apposition to the numeral, or rice versd, as ^-y^o ^ oJl ^^-e iUAj 

, J OJ S'l* 5,l< - J OJ - aj J-;l< - 50^ 

or ^j ^ «.< ^ .c tfUJJ itl3 ^j^.oj.o), not ^j^o^e <UJU : ola».& a^w 

■» J ^ 

seven, lean (cows) not o^*-t ^i—'-j D 

* [In Arabic, as in some other languages, a cardinal number may be 

^ 3 *} 

followed immediately by the next one, in order to rectify it (^)\jjk^*jJ ; 
comp. § 184, 6, rem.), as jjLwjJUl ^>*o a*%w iiw six seven (i.e. six, or 

20' ' 0' ' ^ OP J ' 

it may be seven) horsemen; L*jj ^j,....^^. ^oujl jljJLo a sa<m o/ forty 
fifty (i.e. from forty to fifty) c/a^s. D. G.] 

236 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 97 

° ' ° ' £ 

A 97. Of the two words *x»-lj and jl»-I the former is more com- 
monly used as an adjective, the latter as a substantive ; e. g. 
a*- 1 j Jj»-j a «'^/« man, one man, j^t^JI dJJ to the one God; 
^Ul jk».l one of the people, *£JJL)I ^J^-t one (fern.) of the three, 

b j j - i s *■ £ 

^aj^I owe o/ tfAem. j^t is used absolutely in negative and inter- 
rogative phrases in the sense of any one ; as jljJI ^ j>»-\ *$ there is 

no one in the house; j^-\ ^el». U no one came to me; \^£\j j^-\ J-* 
B I a* J£« Aas aw?/ owe seew the like of this? As applied to God, the two 
words are interchangeable, j**.IjJ I yb or j^ 1 ^ t 3A ; and also in the 
compound numbers 21, 31, etc., 03J~ £, 3 **•"' or OiJ-^J ju^-lj, etc. — 
,jUjt, fern. (jU^jt or O^-^ is n °t unfrequently placed, as an adjective, 
after a noun in the dual, to express the idea of duality more strongly ; 
as O**^' L>s^i 'jJ^^-5 *}) efo not take unto yourselves two gods; 

O-uSt O^fSJ J^ O-* W** *£XXwli on'??<7 z'rafo iV (the ark) of every 
C {species of animals) a pair (lit. £«;o individuals, male and female) ; 

* b fO * 'bi vi s btO b ' b Z ' * w fO J s *■ Js ' * * £jfO* 

%'&ȣ Saldho'd-dln (Saladin) has assigned him in lieu of the tax levied 

b - b/o b - b * j b J - - 

on the pilgrims is 2000 dinars; O*-^' O-ij-^ ^-° 0*-?J^ dwelling 

- b by b-o b^ s -■ 

{in it) for the last two months ; ly-U ^>~j I O^^o ^Xc at a distance 

lbs ' J ' bZ* O * b * ' S'brO ' * ' 

of two miles from it; [U^j Oj*Ols *~»-»*-j o'^'' J*5t t-*-^ two 
hundred five and forty days]. It is very rarely prefixed to the things 
D numbered, and then requires the genitive singular; as fjSaJ^. Uij two 
colocynth gourds, = JJau*. U*». (&*». grain, berry, being used, like the 
Persian ajIj>, ddna, in counting fruit). See Vol. i. § 321, rem. c. 

98. When the numeral is followed, not by the noun expressing 
the things numbered, but by a collective designating the whole species 
or genus, the relation between it and the collective is indicated, not by 

§ 99] The Noun,— The Numerals. 237 

the simple genitive, but by the preposition ,>« : as o- 6 **o' •**-* A 
^-Ut fafo ^« /o«r birds, = j*±M O-* J^ 9 **0' : <f-V t>? A ****^ 
wiwe of the people, = lajsyi ^>o jni SI aa-J. Sometimes, however, 
the collective itself is put in the simple indefinite genitive ; as 
hdkj 4*-J ijjuoJI ^ O'-^J ^ re ^^ tn *" € c '^ nine persons ; 
jiu ajuj\ js*} and they were four in number*. 


[Rem. The construction with ^c is also employed when the 

noun expressing the things numbered is properly an adjective or B 
participle ; see § 96, rem. c] 

99. The cardinal numbers from 11 to 99 take, as already men- 
tioned (§ 44, e, rem. b, and Vol. i. § 323, rem. b), the objects numbered 

in the accusative singular ; as ^^-j j*-* *j*$>j thirteen men ; £— j 
l\^\ ZjJLs. nineteen icomen ; *$-»■) 03 Jt ^-'3 **-^ seventy-three men ; 
Aa..?J (j^jt-Jj *-J ninety- nine sheep. They are very rarely followed 

by the accusative plural; as W*t U»L-jI S^i* ^^jI ^^UxLij and C 
we divided them into twelve tribes {or) nations. — As to gender, the tens 

(03j*~ £, > etc.) are both masculine and feminine, but the units conform 
to the gender of the noun denoting the things numbered ; as j£s- j^-\ 
L^^£s eleven stars ; iSU 03*-i^3 i ^- o^- forty-five she-camels. 

5 a s a - 

Rem. %~zu (also >*~fiu) is construed Uke the numerals which it 

represents (Vol. i. § 319, rem. b, etc.), but does not vary in gender, 
according to the best authorities, when unaccompanied by another D 

number and signifying from 3 to 10; as JU-; jugu, Sa~J *~cu. 

" jo zjs**ys*a 'is a >o +* a * * a * j\ * * e * ? 

v >~^~' f-<su. but "^fc-j j-i^ ia-iu. i\j*\ ZjLs. *-«a->. 0>**^i is-s_> 
^>-^L— oJI ,^)»© some thirty, or thirty and odd, of the Muslims, 

z * * * }, at* e » 

ii~» Oy^jh £"£■? some forty years or forty and odd years. 

o - - *a * 

* [This is not allowed with jJ^j and ^eji, according to Fdik ii. 
384. D. G.] 

238 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 100 

A 100. If an adjective be appended to the noun denoting the 
things numbered, after any numeral between 11 and 99, the adjective 
may agree either grammatically with the noun, or logically with the 

cardinal number ; as bj-eU tjUji OJL>^ twenty dinars of M-MMik 
en-Ndsir (where bj-oU agrees grammatically with iJUjj, accus. sing, 
masc), or ajj-oU JjUji Oj>^ c (where *bj-ob agrees logically with 
O^j^-i as representing the broken plural j-olo, which requires an 
B adjective in the sing. fern.). 

101. When the object numbered has been already spoken of, 

the cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 (the tens) may be construed, like 

• • • °" J ° 

substantives, with the genitive ; as juj _2>t»c ZUd's twenty (camels) ; 

' j " ' 
^ijSyj your thirty (servants). Compare § 108. 

102. The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 may also be construed 
in the same way with the genitive of the possessor (except jJis. \Xj\ and 

Q its fern.). In this case they remain, according to most grammarians, 

indeclinable, as *t)j£s- £ .....»£., fern. -iU^c L>l . < », thy fifteen (nom., 

5 J ' 
gen., ace). According to others, the js*s> or latter part of the com- 

pound is declined ; as ^ijJ^e. o^^., gen. $j.J*& a~»<,±., ace. 
^)jJuc ; [or both parts are declined ; as -iJ^c <L~©a., gen. $j£jz 
acc. ^)jJi& £«««».]. Others still admit the declinability of the jj~e 

) s 

or former part of the compound, and put the J**-* or latter part in 
D the genitive ; as ^)j*»£- £.. * »£., gen. ^)yi£- £ ,..>. » £., acc. ^)jJi& a,...^^.. 

103. The cardinal numbers a5U a hundred, and s—sJt a thousand, 
and their compounds, are construed with the genitive singular of the 
noun denoting the objects numbered; as J^j <i5U 100 men; U5U 

jC»» 200 asses; *^=> *5U^5 300 dogs; *Ujju> UA\ 1000 cities; 

w>U£> UJt 2000 books; jLj o*# iitSjf 4000 men; jLjj oUI jii J^-l 

11,000 dinars; J»-J ^aJI iSUoiii 300,000 men. 

§ 105] The Noun.— The Numerals. 239 


Rem. The accus. sing, or genit. plur. after i5Lo [and oUI] is A 

i * a** s,:*? * * * 

very rare; as L»U ,^JjLo ««IaJI ^U Ijt u-hen a man has lived 

- - - i .» a » - .> ^ 

£u?o hundred years ; ^>~w ajLo wJLj ^yiy^ ,-9 l>*^5 anc ^ ^ i6 y 
tarried in their cave three hundred years (where others read 4jL©. 
and regard j«Li as a J|ju or permutative apposition to ajLo w*L»). 

104. If a sum be composed of several numerals of different 
kinds, the noun denoting the things numbered falls under the go vera - 

//tj s* * s— ' a* s - a ao * »' 

ment of the last numeral ; as ,-cuio ^s. j>$\ ^>*jj S^a»^J I ,j-o B 

£'•• « 3 + tit* * a * * it+* s~ j - - :'~ So* a>e , sZ. *o 

iw Oj*0'.3 ci'* x *'i-5 *^ ^-'J «*^' **o' 5*jlj-aJt Slj^Jt beticeen 
the Higra and Adam, according to the Hebrew Pentateuch, there are 
4741 years; l >-*.j^ Jt jLl£.l ^JLt S^a^JI O^J O— *^' J^M C>*^ 

O**"*' ^o'j ajUoJUjj «^j*i)t aj^U beticeen the confusion of tongues and 
the Nigra, there are, according to the assumption of the chronologists, 
3304 years. The substantive may, however, be repeated after each 

numeral; as a*jj1j jLoi ^_aJI a5Uj jUjj \Jd\ Ult lyj^ ^./"J' C 
A . j . it ...^. IjUji Oy^3 j^-* ^' Oy-^jh fne revenue of (the province of) 

el-Garblya (in Lower Egypt) is 2,144,080 military dinars. In large 
amounts, consisting of millions, hundreds of thousands and thousands, 

the word \Jti\ must be repeated after each numeral ; as <^Ji iL»». 

S^^oe- o# , tai _ ) * * * 4 * * it* Bi * it,' ai *— j' a 

ixjjlj ^jU5Loj UJI ^jjJtoJj *»Jjlj oUt a5Lo— &»»3 o»JI *-i^M Sjt-J 
IjWi O^^i ^ e total of this amounts to 9,584,264 dinars. 

105. The higher cardinal numbers, as well as those from 3 to D 
10 (Vol. i. § 321), may be placed in apposition to the substantive 

denoting the objects numbered; as i£JU*-o ^j^M ,JI ZSLJJ\ ^St*. 
*" -**' 3 a^»j 5jU 5/-*^ ^o~» ^ (7?^?^ r^<? net to land, full of large 

* a ,\z& j * a£ j jj a * * 

fishes, a hundred and fifty-three ; juc i£U)l -*~y> ^^\ w^^aw C-Jl^> 
^ L>e ff i ^' J 3 O^*-*' O**-^' J'-t'M ^ nations sprung from the three 

240 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 106 

A sons of Noah were, at the time of the confusion of tongues, seventy-two 

° * 
in number (the substantive denoting the things numbered, w-*w, is 

repeated here, because the last numeral requires it in a form different 
in number and case from w»^fci). 

106. As regards the agreement in gender between the cardinal 
numbers and the nouns denoting the objects numbered (see Vol. i. 
§ 319), the following rules hold. 

(a) If the plural of the substantive denoting the things num- 
B bered differs in gender from the singular, the numeral agrees with 

the singular ; as i j_*-^— » *-»-w seven years (sing. <Li, fern.), but 
j>\$£-\ *-*-+-*» id. (sing. >oU, masc.) ; OLcL^et. 2J?%3 three baths 

9 S * - w - ■> ■> Z t & ' J 

(sing. y&Lp-tt., masc.) ; OtjcX a^o ^ six volumes (smg. >^>, 
masc). This rule holds even when the substantive itself is sup- 

t * o s j to j m £it * * o * 

pressed; as £~*©a. c**-o I fasted five days (i.e. j*\j\ £ ....■»£-, from 

glz # - J # „ *s * 6 * 

jbji, masc, a day) ; U^». O^w / travelled five nights (i.e. JUJ u—o*-* 
Q from 5JU, fern., a night); %jj\ ^^e- ^j^i O** ^n** among them are 

creatures which walk on four feet (i.e. J.»-j' £Jjl ^■^, from JU-j, 
fem., a foot) ; ?-'j-«>J' ^-^ **jjW Li'' 5 ^^ £-W-«s> J^> J^ ^Jy> O-tP k 
eye of mine, weep every morning (*- l fO in rhyme for ?-W-») 5 shed 

copious tears over el-Garrah (lit. weep with the four channels for 
tears, Qj^uJI a*jjW, from the sing. o^> masc, or with the four 

D corners of the eyes, 0**J' wJ'j-** **o^, from the sing. wJU., masc, 
a side). 

Rem. This rule is often disregarded by modern incorrect 
writers and copyists. 

(b) The numeral follows the grammatical gender of the sub- 
stantive, when the objects numbered are designated merely by a 

J Of J - I • 

noun of a vague, general signification ; e.g. ^ >vw . * 1 o£U three persons, 

§ 106] The Noun.— The Numerals. 241 

from ^^uiJrf, masc. : O**' wJj *£ree human beings, from 0**> fern. A 

But if another noun be annexed to this, which determines the real 

gender of the objects more precisely, the numeral agrees with the 

ij * \ * a ioi t - * i * * * , , 

second noun ; as ^^-j-.* wJj ^j&\ C>S ^>* ,jj,> ^ «a.*o ^jb3 

>* a ***5 OW*^ 9 <*w^ so w_j/ shield against those whom I feared tens 

9 * * a i 

three persons, tiro girls and a young woman (>^*£\£a and ^oiu are 

i i 
used only of women, Vol. i. § 297, c, rem. b ; u }"* *' is here 

employed by the poet, through the exigency of the metre, instead of B 

lit 1 a 1 _ ._ « a -> t , w - 

^^uJ^il, § 96 : j*cjla stands in rhyme for j-ax*). Again : b^lL^ ,jli 

a ^»<o ,» J"' • "' r it* 1 at 1 a - I 

j-£a)I lyJ^Li ,j»« ijjj^j c-JI^ o-^' J-*** *•** ^** (frife f>/) iT*7«6 
//as fe» branches, but thou hast nought to do with its ten branches 
(vJJaul is a plural of ,>lsu, Vol. i. § 304, rem. c, which is masc, but 

the numeral takes the gender of the feminine substantive 

i -** 
which immediately follows in its plural form Jjti) ; and in the 

s^c * - a * ** a * a * , s*e ii rtm+* 

Kor'an, ch. vii. 16<>, \+*\ U»U— .1 IjJu. ^Z£\ ^Lxlaij and we divided C 

* ' at * a 

them into twelve tribes (or) nations (J»U~#1 is the plural of iu-*, masc, 

Heb. tonfc?, but the numeral agrees with &ot, which follows in the 

v " « A 

plural form^o^l). Sometimes, however, the numeral agrees with the 

real gender of the objects numbered, even when the grammatical 
gender of the noun used is different ; as ^r-AJl SJJJ three persons (of 
the male sex), where *£U is masc, although j^Ju is fern., because u-AJ 
is here equivalent to jjl«J1 or J**j. D 

(c) If the substantive be suppressed, and its place be taken by 
an adjective or other word expressive of its quality, the numeral 

agrees in gender with the understood substantive ; e.g. sU. o-» 

.. .. » i 1 S , Is, r , * 0/0 

lyJliol jLs. aXi rt ; „ ,a J b ta «rfo </<#>$ a good thing, shall receive a 
tenfold recompense for it, lit. shall receive ten (good things) like it 

i a - m *a $ , ȣ 

(^£p is fern., because JJU, plur. JUUt, though masc, is here only an 
epithet of oU-* understood, the plur. of 4^,..^., which is fern.), 
w. ii. 31 

242 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 106 

A (d) When the numeral is connected with the substantive by the 
preposition ,j-o (§ 98), it agrees in gender with the substantive ; as 
^o»i*Jt ,j«o %jj\ four sheep (j^ being fern., Vol. i. § 290, a, e) ; 

JxJI ^c iiXj three ducks (Iso being masc. [by form], Vol. i. § 292, a)*. 
This is the case even when an epithet follows which fixes the real 
gender of the objects numbered; as j$£>$ ^xiS ^c jujI four sheep, 
males; «i>UI JaJI ^yo iitf ^r«e ducks, females. If, however, the 
B epithet be placed between the numeral and the substantive, the 
numeral must agree in gender with the epithet ; as ,j-o jj£»i **o' 
^*)t, JaJt ^c *t>Ul *i-sX5 [comp. § 96, rem. c]. 

(e) The numerals as abstract numbers (Vol. i. § 309, &, c) are of 
the masculine gender ; as iiw w«^ij *&U, or aZ-JI >JLoJ itUl, #/w^ 
?'s the half of six. 

(f) In the enumeration of several groups of objects of different 
genders, the following rules hold. — (a) The numerals from 3 to 5, 

C inclusive, must be repeated before each substantive, and vary in 

gender accordingly ; as (j*\) ^Ul t^~**.j jutl <L» +i. .J / have Jive 

male and Jive female slaves, (/?) From 6 to 10, inclusive, they are 
not repeated, and conform in gender to the nearest substantive ; as 

(jt\) %\-*\$ «x*£t «KJl*j ^ I have eight male and (eight) female slaves, 

or, transposing the words, ju-^l^ (v»l) '*<-*[ ^yU^ ^j}. (y) The 

compound numerals, from 11 upwards, are not repeated, and take the 
masculine form, when the following substantives designate rational 

D beings ; as i»jl».j I jl*c jJLz a...^^ ^j^ / have fifteen male and 
(Jifteen) female slaves, or, transposing the words, jJ^c- * «.>■»*. t^juc 
ljucj ^ij^f. But when the substantives designate irrational objects, 

,, j , el 

* [We may of course say also^o^iJI k j-o (or dUi) w>U»ju %Jj\ and 

§ 107] The Noun.— The Numerals. 243 

the numerals take the gender of the nearest substantive ; as j^jut A 
iSUj *$**»• y^£- rt,,„»^ / have fifteen male and (fifteen) female camels, 

t , , * i , , * , a , , a - a 

or, transposing the words, '^••j i$L) "i^Ls. ^^o*. ^juc. If, however, 
in the case of irrational objects, a vague, general expression, such as 
j>*j U (g 67), be interposed between the numeral and the things 


numbered, the numeral is always of the feminine gender ; as ^jut 

* * , * , * a* y ,, a , * a * 

ASljj J-»*» 0-& ^* Zj^c- t^*». / possess fifteen camels, male and 

- , * a* , ** a * * a , a 

female, or, transposing the words, aSO ^><o U ijJLs. ^ m+a. ^juc B 

107. The cardinal numbers become determined or definite in the 
same cases as substantives ; viz. 

(a) When the numeral is used to express an abstract number, 
and hence contains the idea of genus ; e.g. ii-Jt lA-aJ itUJt three 
(ever}- three) is the half of sir (every six). The article is here C 

employed U » ^ , U . to indicate the genus [Vol. i. § 345, rem. a]. It is 

3 » * ' » 
not, however, essential, for, regarding the numeral as a ^">*e* ^JLc 

(Vol. i. £ 191, rem. b, 5 a), we may say with equal correctness 

J J ^ I ^ 

(b) When the objects numbered have already been mentioned, 
or are supposed to be well known ; as *-jjo ^yt-— Jt £^">* an ^ the 
seventy (disciples) returned with joy ; ^^-ouj*^) I jk*. Oj^l*. jJ^ since D 

i * * - at i* 

I am already past forty, scil. iw years (observe ^>**0'^' DV poetic 

* - aia- a - > 

license for o* 3 Kj'^')- The article is here used j^jcU, to indicate 
previous knowledge. 

(c) When the numeral is in apposition, as an adjective, to a 

j ^ a * a^ j * * * 

definite noun; as 3— **JI Jl».jJl the five men (ol avSpes ol ttcvt*, 
see Vol. i. §-321). 

244 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 107 

A (d) When the numerals, from 3 to 10, precede a definite noun 
in the construct state (see § 92) ; as JU-jJI iitf the three men 
(lit. ^ ?n«rf of the men); «L*X*JI S^c £/^ ten slaves; i^j'^jaJI j-*^ 

l-ttoio j * ti ' ai e*> i * a * 

the ten female slaves; j^-S^J *->ji £/^ four houses; jW-**5" a»»»^ 
the five spans ; ^15^)1 w*U M# tf/wee stones (on which the cooking -pot 
rests). Sometimes, however, the numeral too has the article ; as 

, a I :& i , a - a- * * a j a*> * a £ a** } * e Z * 

^>\yi*^\ < L~+ a*J\ the five dresses; SjU^-oJI Ol^-a^l aj^UJI the three 

B selected airs or tunes; ^jcoJI Cs-JI ojjb ^ese m? cities*. — According 

to the later and now (but without case-endings) usual construction, 
the article is dropped before the substantive and appears only prefixed 

'QC-J^'Qi-O*' ?J JO'S* 

to the numeral; as ^U*.! **Jj"}H the four-fifths : ij>5 ^^^aJl the 

, ) ,\Z * a , a, -5 , 

five villages; JU.j «UO the three men (vulg. JU-j 5j^UJI)t. — The 
same remarks apply to *5U and oUI, with their derivatives and 
C compounds; e.g. jUjjJI i5lo^U ^ 300 dinars, .^jjJI »-**}) I a^j 
tfo 3000 dirhams; but also jUjjjf aSUiiJbt, ^AjjJI iJ^I &12m, 
and in more modern Arabic jLjj aSUj^UM, ^Aj,* o^)l a£U)I (vulg. 

o .- ay a *S>* a ,a a ** a s * Z> * 

jto> A5l j'}UJt, ^.Ap vJ^I Aj'iUJI). — Those numerals which take the 
objects numbered in the accusative singular, must have the article 

* [The grammarians of the school of Basra disapprove of this 
construction. Nevertheless Zamahsari gives, in his Fdik, three in- 

.. .; -.-> , - a** * a * * * a* 

J) stances from the Traditions, as i. 61 seq. *U5LcJI aSLoJIj SjJLJI AjloJt 
the hundred cows and the hundred sheep; i. 313 j«JUjJI a x*.. J I the 

seven dinars (with a var. a**»J! ^-Jb jJlj ; ii. 381 ^jUJI a5*jU)I <Ae <A?*ee 

persons. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. ii. 52 seq. D. G.] 

t [Relatively old instances of this construction are Ibn Hisam 331, 

, , , , a* , i rr 

1. 14 aSU aSUJI J^li <A«< / way <7e< the hundred camels ; Aydnl xv. 

e* - a * * - * i 

147, 1. paenult. C**J UuaJI jl».l Ae completed the halfverse. Comp. 
Fleischer, 1. c. 49. D. G.] 

§ 108] The Noun— The Numerals. 245 

prefixed to them to render them definite, as ^»-j ,j ^ x...>H ^/^ 90 »#tfw .- A 

and in the case of a compound of tens and units, the article must be 

prefixed to both, as "ilU*. ^jyu-Jt^ iau-JI the 77 camels. The 
compound numbers from 11 to 19, however, according to the best 
grammarians, prefix the article to the unit alone, without making 

any change in the termination, except in the case of 12 ; as i^sUM 

SUfc j£a the thirteen camel*. But others allow the repetition of the 

article, as i^. jiiJT iiUM ; JijJf ^J>j\ j*»\ ^l^ajf JJb J~S 

the grave of James the apostle, one of the twelve. B 

Rem. The peculiar construction of the numerals in modern 
Arabic, is analogous to that employed by the same dialect in such 

nominal compounds a^ jj^WJI (vulg. ij^UJI) rose-tvater, for the 
classical jj_$JI *Lo : ^)ULaaJI frankincense in grains, for La*. 
^jlJUt : JU-iP' ^ 4<s capital or principal (in speaking of money), 
for ^JUqJI ^^Ij : ^juA^Jt $/*« tamarind (lit. fA« Indian date), for 

108. The ordinal numbers are often construed with the genitive, 
especially of the month (on the omission of the word for day, compare 

§ 101 and § 106, a) ; as ^Xjis. J~*\L the fifteenth of them ; jC J^j 

ia^aJJ next the sultan proceeded to 'Azaz, and laid siege to it on the 

third of Dul-Ka l d<i, and took possession of it by capitulation on the D 

i, » , * , , , 

eleventh of Dul-Higga ; jy+j (J^-^* O-*^ sJ^i ,ln d > f "' (ts th? 

twenty-eighth of Temuz (in this example ^>*tf is in the construct 

state before \£y*-*, lit. the eighth of the twenties*, and so also in 

* [This construction has supplanted the coordinating of the units 
with the ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth bv means of «, according 

246 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 109 

A the following ones, in which, however, the modern form £nj£*, 
gen. (j^ic, ace, ^jjjJLs., is used instead of the classical }j&*, gen. 
and ace. <J>£ft ; just as in the noun we find On*** instead of y~» 
and ^y>, from 0>^, plur. of ill, a y«ar, Vol. i. § 302, rem. d) ; 
<£r^ O-ij*-* l£-^** >* it is the twenty-first of Tisri; wJlS .J 

, ,00 , j o 

SjaUJI^ \^>y <^ij^ on the twenty-third of this (month) there was 
B a proclamation made in el-Kdhira. 

109. An ordinal number is not unfrequently connected with 
the genitive either (a) of its own cardinal, or (b) of the cardinal 
which is one less than its own. 

(a) In the former case, the ordinal expresses indefinitely one 
of the individuals designated by the cardinal ; as O-iS) S ji& jJU 
*2\j wJU aJJt (jl tyiS eerily they are unbelievers who say, God is 
a third of three (is one of three) ; t>**^' ^>\5 hj*^ CH*^' ^^j- 4 **' i' 
C when those, who were unbelievers, drove him forth a second of two 
(one of two, with a single companion) ; 2ju~> *jL» juj p-j±> Zeid 

went out a seventh of seven {with six companions). With the numerals 
from 11 to 19, we may either use the whole ordinal number, or (which 
is better) suppress the second part of it, in which case the first part 

, - - ,0-o , , , , , , , , ,0iO , 

becomes declinable ; as j-Lc ^j£\ jJue. ^15, or jjLc ^ji3\ ^\j, a 

, ,OiO ,, , , , , ,, , ,, OiO J  

twelfth of twelve, fern. ojJuc ,JU5l BjJut i-itf or SjJJi i*^' a*j^j; 
D jJ~z iib yLs. iJU, or iiU »iJtf, a thirteenth of thirteen, fern. 
SjJLt *L>*$J jjLt 3J3\j or 5j-o.c £>*^j a^Hj ; etc. 

to which jj-oU in J^o-J ^/*^3 0-*^> 0^3 would be in the status 
constructas before jy*J, as in the cases mentioned $ 78, rem. b. 
Comp. Fleischer, A7. Schr. i. 697. Hence also the use of ^yUJM 

CrtS**, Crtj*-*- « l -Jt for Ojj^h iV^J'. Olf^**^ **U\ (Vol. i. 
§ 330, rem.) D. G.] 

§ 109] The Noun.— The Numerals. 247 

Rem. Compare in Old German selbe vierde, i.e. mit drei andern: A 
zuo riten sdhen einen ritter selben dritten, i.e. mit zwei andern ; der 
grdve selbe zwelfte in eine barken spranc, i.e. mit elf andern. 

(b) In the latter case, the ordinals from third to ninth are in 
reality nomina agentis (compare § 86, rem. a) from the verbs w-X5 
to make (two) into three, %^j to make (three) into four, etc. : as 
,^>~ol <£JL> 3* he makes a third, lit. he makes three of two. Hence 
they may also be construed with the accusative; as aj^j xj\j ^a B 
he makes a fourth, fern. U*}b ajuIj ^a. — With the numerals from 11 
to 19, we may in like manner sayj-ic ^.ol^ic wJU yb fo makes 
a thirteenth ; S^it 0*}U SjJLc a*j!j ^ -*^ makes a fourteenth (where 
the cardinal number is in the accusative) ; though many grammarians 
wholly disapprove of this construction [allowing only j^- ^jI wJU yb 
and 3^<ie O^ aajIj ^a, with suppression of the ten]. — With the C 
numerals compounded of units and tens, only the unit is put in the 
construct state, and the ten is suppressed ; as ^jjjJlc^ £LU «-> Ij yk 

he makes a twenty-fourth ; or, with the accusative, Ij*}U **j'j (*a 
^jjjLs.} she makes a twenty-fourth. 

Rem. a. Examples of the ordinals used as nomina agentis, with 

»jj - /j - *\ - - o , a j j , , 

pronominal suffixes, are : ^y*jlj ^A ^)1 ilU L^^- 3 O-* U_>^ *«* 
£Aere w «o private converse of three, but He makes the fourth ; D 

i a , a i ia * a j j - * - a - - i j , , a 3 ja , »jj - « - 1 .; .. j j ^ ^ 

U*»y ^ffy^ 1 ^ ^Y-ol-' i-~o^. oV>*i^ ^v-f^ 3 ^v*^!j *~^ OV.***-' 

a j ja * a j j ++ % * a * * 33** a * a*o 

^f. t< X=s ^yJ**\jj <uuri ^^Jyu^ „_^iJL> M^y jvi// sa^/, ' Three, their 

dog making the fourth'; and they will say, ' Five, their dog making 
the sixth,' guessing at the secret : and they will say, ' Seven, and 
their dog making the eighth.' 

* 3 a 

Rem. b. From £)}jj*£. twenty is formed a [post-classical] quad- 
riliteral verb, the nomen agentis of which may be used in the same 

* * ' « - a s a , j , 3 

way as the ordinal number ; e.g. jJLs. ax..J ^jjJLaut yk he makes a 

248 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 110 

A twentieth (lit., if we may be allowed to coin a word, he twenties 

* ' * " 
nineteen), from ^jj-^£- to make {nineteen) into twenty. [Similarly 

i > a -^ w t° make into seventy is formed from p****** seventy.] 

110. In stating dates, particularly when reckoning according to 
the Muhammadan era, the cardinal numbers are employed instead of 
the ordinal. They are put in the genitive after the word denoting 

year, but agree with it in gender ; as ^J^A+jj O^ **** C5* 
jj^SLi*^ i5U ^yU^j in the year 888 of the Alexandrine era; 
B ajUjUJj ^jl J j^ *Z*~' &*~> cd^o^j then commenced the year 396 (of 
the ffigra) ; 0*A». aXJ SjJis. i*Z& O^*^' J*yi U»<*> ^o**-e i<*V 
S^a^JI ^o S^4c ^jk».t iJ Jj^l /*-*J> jv^ O-* ^ (t ,ne Prophet) 

cfoW ear/?/ iw £^e forenoon, on Monday the twelfth (lit. twelve nights 
being passed) of the month of the first RabV, in the eleventh year of 
the Higra. But if the years of a life or a reign are meant, the 

ordinal must be employed; as jjL*£ v-5^w^)l >z)Xc ,j»o 3-oLJI <u-JI ,-j 
C ?'» £/^ £2*atfA year of the reign of el-lisraf Sa'ban; &JUJI iU-JI ^ 
*&>• O-* Os^j^'j * w ^ forty-second year of his reign. 

111. The Arabs have two ways of stating the day of the month. 
They count either from the first day to the last, as we do, e.g. 

^jLatw ,j-« ^ojj Jjl the first of Sa'ban ; w**>-j >*-* O -8 >^* /y!P' -*W 

Me fourteenth day of the month of Regeb ; ^UM ^e^a-Jl j»^i 

I) yo^-oJ ^j*jOIj (9w Thursday the twenty-second of Muharram ; or 

they reckon by the nights of the month, the civil day being held by 
them, as well as by the Jews, to commence at sunset. To illustrate 
this, let us take the month of Begeb, which has thirty days. 

1st of Regeb, s^Lj *>* *XJ Jy), or y^j o* %li*. a$J, 
one night of Regeb being past*. 

* We may also say w-a-j S^i) or w-».j o^i. (from 3j£ fA« 6/aze, 

§ 111] The Noun.— The Numerals. 249 

2nd, v^>j O-* '*•**• O^-MJ ■"■ 

3d, w^.j ^ o^- ( jQ »£-&) £>*& ; and so on up to the 

, * a , a , * a * 

* * a a********** * a 

11th, w**>j O- wJ^ (*M) •j-i* (^J****^ ; and so on up to the 

'*• : ;*,',$, * *a£ 

14th, w*.j jj-o CJU. Sj£fc *-»j*^. 

* * a a _ ..- ,» * <■ _-.-- - /jj 

15th, w*»>j ^>« ouaJt i<9, oj w*a> v < >-JLa^J I ( <i. or oL tfu «,< ^? 
w-»-> *« ^ middle of Regeb. 

* * a a * * i * a* " a + + *■ ai 

16th, w*j j^* c^Jj (iL3) IjLs. *~>f$ fourteen nights remaining 
of Reg^b ; and so on up to the 

* * a * * a * * ,* a , a , 

20th, w-»-j v>« (o**^) ^^*-.' (JW j-^*J) j~** ; and so on up 
to the 

27th, w4-j 0-« tS**^ «£»$b. 

28th, w^j ,>» UJb O^MJ- C 

29th, w^.j ,>» C~*J *JUU. 

* * a *a* ~ 

30th, w-».j ^>« 5JLJ ^*.*^ on the last night of Regeb*. 
Germ. Blasse, on a horse's forehead, the nevj moon). The word s j^j m .^ 

9 - 

(from J^Ha (he new moon) is likewise frequently used to denote the 

first of the month, and more rarely J*iLyiwl, J*}H*1, Jv*> ^*' an( ^ 

Ja; e.g. ^jj<£* {J% jJ^T £^j Jyil^ ^ ^.yTiljujT o^» D 

4X« jLs. l*jUJI 2/*e disease began on the first of the first Rabl\ and he 
(the Prophet) died on the twelfth of that rhonth. 

* * a * , * , a* * , , , o j 

* Or »^«».j ^J-J, or w»y •-'^-JN), or w*»y -iJL— ^J. The words 

j1j»«» and jj-rf, more rarely jl^-; and jj~t, are also employed to denote 
the last day of the month. 

w. ii. 32 



1. The Parts of the Sentence: the Subject, the Predicate, 
and their Complements. 

-d 112. Every proposition or sentence (*!*»., plur. J-o*-, « sum 

or total of words) necessarily consists of two parts, a subject and a 

J ' * ■**' 

predicate. The latter is called by the native grammarians ju~ <JI 

£Aa£ w^/c/j leans upon or ?s supported by (the subject), the attribute; 

0, 1,0 10, 

the former, aJI ju.>^J1 that upon which (the attribute) leans, or by 
which it is supported, that to tvhich something is attributed. The 

1 , 9 0, 

relation between them is termed >Uw^l, properly the act of leaning 
(one thing against another), then, as a concrete, the relation of 
C attribution. 

Rem. a. Some grammarians [e.g. Slbaweih], however, call the 
subject J U ... J 1 or jU^^Jt, and the predicate aJt ju— .©Jt. 

[Rem. 6. An indispensable member of a proposition is called 

Sji^c (lit. a support), whereas a dispensable member, as, for instance, 
the objective complement of a verb, when the suppression thereof 


is not detrimental to the meaning, is called dJLoi (lit. a redundancy). 
D Comp. § 44, c, rem. a.] 

113. The subject is either a noun (substantive or expressed 
pronoun*), or a pronoun implied in the verb ; the predicate is a noun 
(substantive or adjective), a verb [or a preposition with its genitive = 

0*40, <i s - Oi 

an adverb] ; e.g. j^s- jl»j Zh'd is learned ; *Jb^» wJI thou art noble ; 

ii , e«j film, t 9t , , , , , 

JiaJI yb aJJI God is the truth; juj OU Zdid is dead; OU he is 

[See, however, § 48, f, rem. a.] 

§ 113] The Sentence and its Parts.— The Subject & Predicate. 251 

dead (in which last example the pronoun yb is implied in the verb) ; A 

[Jjhy UaU here is a man]. — Every sentence which begins with the 
subject (substantive or pronoun) is called by the Arab grammarians 

iUo-rft aJU*. a nominal sentence. Whether the following predicate 

be a noun, or a preposition and the word it governs (jj>»~«j jW- 
attracting and attracted, § 115, and Vol. i. § 355), or a verb, is a 

matter of indifference ; OU juj Zeid is dead, is m their eyes a 

9 - 9 »' m 9 »' 

nominal sentence just as much as^Jl* juj Zeid is learned, or ^ ju»j B 
>». » ■«. M 2T&V/ es mi the mosque. What characterises a nominal 

sentence, according to them, is the absence of a logical copula 
expressed by or contained in a finite verb. On the contrary, a 
sentence of which the predicate is a verb preceding the subject 

(as juj OU Zeid is dead), or a sentence consisting of a verb which 

includes both subject and predicate (as OU he is dead), is called by 

them «uUi iX^». a verbal sentence. The subject of a nominal sentence 

is called tju**JI that with which a beginning is made, the inchoative, C 
and its predicate j-jfcJt the enunciative or announcement. The subject 
of a verbal sentence is called J*UUI ^? «#£/?#, and its predicate J**JI 
^ action or wr£>. 

Rem. a. lju**JI is, according to the above translation, an 
elliptical form of expression, for <u Iju^Jl. Compare Vol. i. § 190, 
rem. b ; [where a similar elliptical expression occurs, viz. j^ t .-g}\ 
and ^^cu»Jt for <xj j-j^-aJI and aj ^^.o-qJI. Likewise Jf^L^oJI to J) 
pyyrov is used for «u J^JaU^J!, jl^jvq J I for aJLc ji^jtoJI </«e relied 
upon, JjJL. t .o for a^i jJjJ^L* shared in, and (in later times) i**Vt 
for aJ^ J^iJI (§ 133)]. 

[Rem. b. The difference between verbal and nominal sentences, 
to which the native grammarians attach no small importance, is 
properly this, that the former relates an act or event, the latter 

252 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 114 

A gives a description of a person or thing, either absolutely, or in the 
form of a clause descriptive of state (§ 183, a). This is the constant 
rule in good old Arabic, unless the desire to emphasize a part of 
the sentence be the cause of a change in its position.] 

114. The place of the subject both of a nominal and of a verbal 
sentence may sometimes be supplied by an entire sentence compounded 

of a verb and one of the particles ,j\ or U (called ajjjuo^JI Uu^aJI 
B the particles which supply the place of the masdar or nomen verbi, 
§ 88) ; as j^ j*±- l^-e^-eu ,jt It is good for you that ye should fast 
or to fast (l^o^oJ ,jt -j^^yo) ; <d*f .j ±. (jl ^ « * a.. c t it pleased me 
that thou wentest out, or thy going out pleased me (o^.a. O'- 
«sV^5jrfk) ; jf%~>^\ CUjjU U JU» thou hast long been hostile to 
el- Islam (C*j*U U = ^tjl**). 

[Rem. Instead of a sentence compounded with ^t, sometimes 

i * * 6 i a go * .a j - joo s , t , 

Q an oratio directa is used, as dtp ^jt ^»« j-^ ^ji-ji^Jb ^J 

thy hearing of the little Ma'addi is better than thy seeing him; 

Z' i ^J tJt .»« J 1^ 

feeder <kn my being emir ; ^t, ^)t ws».l ^ov** 6 UUufiJI ^JLi 
LJL5 ^j»« ^Jb ^t and that the breach of faith proceeds from them 
pleases me better than that it should proceed from us ; aJI %+~i\ ^JUi 
.J! j-~~> ^)l ^>* iJ] «^*«^t anc?, saio? he, rather will I march 
towards him than that he should march towards me; and in the 

I) predicate Ua..»< l*«^» L5*^ -*' J^' -** 4 "* A >^' >»>^' j^j* J^* 

sleeping hardly at all, his principal object being to obtain his blood- 
revenge, or to meet an ironclad warrior (ffamdsa, p. 245). D. G.] 

115. The predicate may be, as mentioned in § 113, a preposition 
with its genitive; as »xa. ....«,>> ^* juj ^»/c? /,s iw ^ mosque; i)j~s- j^jj 
Ze~id is with thee or m #% house; aJJ ,j**j w^ «re God's; s j^ Ul 
^-JiUfiJt / rtwi one of those who speak the truth ; CHU ^y* / owe 

§ 116] The Sentence and its Parts. — Tlie Subject & Predicate. 253 

same money (lit. upon me there is a debt, see § 59, c) ; aXjuu ,jl «iU A 
thou mayest do it (lit. it is to thee that thou do it). When the subject 
is placed first, these are nominal sentences (§ 113); but when the 
predicate precedes it, their nature is doubtful, most grammarians 
holding them to be transposed nominal sentences (in which case 

\^ s ' m Oi> (^5^ w a j»<*±* j~± or predicate placed in front, and 

5 i i- i e- * * 6 j 

Oi> a >*->• I ju*-« or subject placed behind), whilst others regard them 
as being in reality verbal sentences, with the verb suppressed (so that 

^jAfi is equivalent to ^jX* j*^--i there rests upon me, and ±>jz is the B 

* ' 

J*li or subject of this suppressed verb). A sentence, of which the 

predicate is a preposition with a genitive indicating a place, is called 
by the Arabs 2uij£> i****. « &*•«/ sentence (see Vol. i. § 221, rem. a) ; 
and if the genitive indicates any other relation but that of place, it is 
said to be A-ipaJI ij>»~« *i£*p &-*+ « sentence which runs the course, 
or follows the analogy, of a local sentence. As, however, the expression 
^jJ» is often used in the general sense of m*~*$ jU. (§ 113), any C 
sentence commencing with a preposition and its genitive as the 
predicate may be called <CM> iC». (see § 127, a). 

[Rem. The difference in signification between those sentences 
in which the predicate and those in which the subject precedes lies 
in the fact, that the logical emphasis always falls on that part of 
the sentence that is put in the second place (comp. § 36, rem. b) ; 

«>^ ""frN ^ *>-ij Zeid is in t/ie mosque (not elseichere), but ..i 
j*>j >>j». " ■«■ ) ! in tlie mosque is Zeid (not any one else).] D 

116. When the predicate is a preposition with its genitive [or an 
adverb], and the subject is an indefinite substantive, or a sentence 


compounded of q\ and a finite verb (§ 114), the predicate must 
necessarily be put first ; as Jlj i) juc a man is with thee or in thy 
house ; l\j*\ j\ji\ ^ a woman is in the house; 4JL*i3 ,jt JJ thou 
mayest da it; and not Jju* JLj, j\jS\ ^, ilj iUl5 £,1. 
Unless the indefinite substantive be accompanied by an adjective, 

254 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 117 

A expressed or implied, when either order is admissible ; as Ja*.j ^jjjs. 
j&ij^i or \^£j^s- jtrij^ J^j> a noble man is ivith me or in my house ; 

o o - j * * a , , b oo * j 

sj^c^j U>a^, or Ijjuc J-ja-j, there is a little man, or a mean-looking 
fellow dj^j =^*fco J^j or j*£». jJj^j) twVA ?^ or at our house — [or 
unless the sentence expresses a wish, when the indefinite subject comes 

* o* * o - * e- oa * 

first; as >&As- j?%*, jup Jjj (§ 127, e). In case of inversion, the 
subject must be defined by the article, as >OLJI yiLXe-, J-»y **iP]- 

B 117. This inversion of subject and predicate also necessarily 

 O J 

takes place in a nominal sentence : (a) when the tju** comprises a 
pronoun which refers to a word in the j-**-, as ly***^- (J** >*** what 

an eye loves fills (or satisfies) it, ly*»-L» jljJI ^j? its master (or owner) 

is in the house, not £>*£■ ^Lo ly****-, jtjJI ^J ly-^.Lo ; (/?) when the 

r ' ' » 

Iju-^ is restricted by Uil or *$\, as juj jljJI ^ l«j| o»/# Zeid is in 

the house, joj ^)l jljJt ^ U #/^re /.? ;w owg but Zeid in the house, 
C I****.! cUjI *^l W U we have nothing (to do) but to follow 'Ahmed 

& »o go* * j3 

(Muhammad), not jljJI ^ juj l*Jt, which would mean ^?'c? ?s 
only in the house [comp. §§ 115, rem., 185]; (y) when the j-^. is an 

s i s , \ , OB" - Oi 

interrogative, as C-Jt ^yc who art thou! tJJk U what is this! j>jj (j-d 

B - *0s 

where is ZVid! jj-o-e- <-M» how is 'Amr ! 

Rem. a. With the particle *j)l under /? we find occasional 

«• .» ^ Si B * * B B , , syBilBiiO' it * <* ' "^ 

exceptions ; as viA^lc *$ \ ^Jjbj ^y-^ l5^-Lh J**** ' ^ ^i iJ"* Vj ^ 

T) lJ>*-o^ I wiy Lord, can victory over them be hoped for save through 
Thee ? and (on whom) can one rely save on Thee ? 

Rem. b. The inversion likewise takes place when a nominal 
proposition is preceded by an interrogative or negative particle, the 
transposed predicate agreeing with the subject in number*; as 

J r Bi >Z ,1 , Bit J i 'I 

* [In the words j>U j>\ a**l JiUull (Tab. ii. 1973, 1. 7) 2u+\ has 
the sense of a collective : are the house of Omeiya rvaking or sleeping ? 
D. G.] 

§ 1 19] The Sentence and its Parts.— The Subject & Predicate. 255 
^^L»yJI ,jUjU> U the two men are not standing: Jl»»jJ' 0>»^ w^' " 

j * * * 5 ^ £ 

or ^J'jfcyJI >»W*'j rtre ^ w ^ ra standing ? See § 121. 

118. In verbal sentences the subject or agent must always follow 

j , j - , } ii * * j * i 

the predicate or verb; as j+e- OU 'Omar is dead ; oy>\ OU j+s- 
'Omars father (lit. 'Omar, his father) is dead (see § 120). 

119. When the noun (substantive or pronoun) stands first, 
and the verb second, the former is not a J*l* or agent, but a B 

or inchoative, of which the latter is the j~±. or enuntiative, 
the whole being not a verbal but a nominal sentence (see § 113). 
A sentence of this kind, consisting of an inchoative and a complete 
verbal sentence, the agent of which is contained in the verb itself 

(§ 113), may be called compound; e.g. OU juj Zeid is dead,= 

yh oU juj ; wJi Ut / have said, where the agent is C> in C-Ji. 
In such sentences, the pronoun which is contained in the verb takes 
the place of, and falls back upon, the noun which stands before the 
compound verbal sentence and constitutes its inchoative. — The dif- C 

ference between a compound nominal sentence, such as <oU juj, 

and a verbal one, such as juj OU, is this. In the former, the 
inchoative is always (tacitly or expressly) contrasted with another 
inchoative, having not the same predicate but a different or even 

i , j , J , , , s»^ 

an opposite one ; e.g. ^j*. /♦&} oU juj Z^id is dead and 'Omar 

is alive, = ^j*** j-o* Ul^ C>Ui juj Ut ; whereas in the latter, in 
which the logical emphasis rests almost solely npon the verb, such a D 
contrast of two inchoatives is not admissible. Even when the verb is 
put into the background by the emphasis falling with specialising or 
contrasting force upon some one of its complements, the very fact of 
the emphasis so falling at once sets aside all question of a contrast 

of the inchoatives; for example: ,j»j»i-J ^^i]j •*■**■> «^W thee ice 

9 » * 


worship and to thee we cry for help ; w>-®3 ' J^*'j '^•j ^ij 
Ot-^>^ O-a^j J+* Zeid struck one man, and 'Omar struck two men. 

256 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 120 

A 120. Those sentences are also compound, which are composed 
of a noun and a nominal sentence or a verbal sentence, consisting 

„ , - - J 10-e 0- 

oi a verb and a following noun. For example : (j-~». &ij\ J*ij 
Zeids son (lit. Zeid, his son) is handsome; oy>\ OU juj ZMtfs 
father is dead; o^».t JI5 juj Zeid's brother has been killed; 
w>U^j aJI i^af. juj a letter has been brought to Zeid (lit. Zeid, 

there has been a coming to him ivith a letter). In compound sentences 
of this sort, there is appended to the subject of the nominal or verbal 

B sentence, which occupies the place of the j**., a pronominal suffix, 

called Jajl/Jt, the binder or connecter, which represents, and falls back 

upon, the noun forming the lju~«. Such a sentence is said by the 

o , i , j - o - a j 

grammarians to be jj-jy».j Oli ^X^^., a sentence with tivo faces or 

aspects, because, as a whole, it partakes both of the nominal and the 
verbal nature. 

Rem. a. The pronominal suffix is sometimes omitted in cases in 
C which the sense is perfectly clear without it; as^Ajju Ol***- O-****" 

the ghee is (at the rate of) two mands for a dirham ; ^j^i—J j&\ j+i\ 

* '• . . " ' 

l^Jbp the wheat is (at the rate of) sixty dirhams per kurr ; i.e. ijty*o 

J J Z JOs 

4JU two mands of it, x^c jj3l the kurr of it. 

L' . °' ' 

p \j is not required when the j-i. is 

* " a > 

J) wider or more general in its signification than the \ ju~o ; as 

is*.-*, a <j a, 

jJ^fcjJI jqiu j*ij Wliat an excellent man Zeid is ! Nor when the 
I ju** and j-*»» are perfectly identical in meaning ; as aaM iJ^oJ 

r.n^r- wiy utterance (is), God is my sufficiency ; aJJI *j)1 aM *n) ^^ 
w/ta£ / say (is), There is no god but God. 

121. (a) If a sentence consists of a verbal adjective occupying 
the first place, and a noun occupying the second, it may be regarded 
as a verbal sentence, the verbal adjective being looked upon as a verb 

§ 121] The Sentence and its Parts. — The Subject & Predicate. 257 

)' s 

and the noun as its agent. E.g. w»y) ?+> > ^*-*» the Banii Lihb are A 

skilled (in augury) : yfi^t ^LM juc j*J ^^-a-9 ««</ £0 ?re ar* footer 
Mrt« i/ow in the opinion of men (where, according to the analysis of 


the grammarians, j««*> and j+*. are the tj£~«, and yJ and (J-**- 5 are 

each a ^^aiJI ju^ >L» ,J^l9 or agent supplying the place of the habar) ; 

^«»c a**>U w>jLi> juj Zeidts slave is beating 'Omar (where j^e. is 

the J*l* of w>j^*) I *>«^* O— ^ ' J-ij ^^f- there came to me Zeid, B 
whose slave is handsome. — (b) The same is necessarily the case, when 
the verbal adjective is preceded by an interrogative or negative 
particle, and put in the singular, without regard to the number of 

the following noun. E.g. juj ^5151 A* Zeid standing? jua 3-Atj U 

Hindis not going away (where ^513 and 2-Jkl3 are the tju*«, and juj 

are each a >-aJ 1 ju~« jL» J^li) : J^P' ^5^1 ^/v ffo ##« q 


J - -c 5 „ - 

standing] \S^°f^ ^^ ^» ^ ^"*0 w ^" «>"£ >^ standing; ^^1 
J-»j «l>jt are Zeids parents standing? (where ^5li is a transposed 

j+±-, o\y>\ its J^l>, and juj a transposed tj£~< ; -iiy^i ,.^-i-o ,jjk 


«■>».» C//tJ .1 - J—/ 

are My sa/w beaten? (where wJJjj"** * s tne '•**j-°» anc ^ >»* a w^ 
j-jiJI ju~« jL> J^li or deputy-agent supplying the place of the j~±). 
Similarly : ^*^>\ W ^J^\ O* ^l *r-*'j' ari fnon 9 oxn 9 fo forsake ft 
my gods, Abraham ? \+Z>\ ^$J^*j ol^ U ^JLJ^. my tico friends, 
ye do not keep your compact icith me; aj c~£jj tj^^ ^L>l J a , ^ 1 
will ye fulfil a promise on which I relied? *-jb\* Jl«xc *M ^-* 

^yJJ) ^ enemies are not in play, so do thou leave off play (where 

»*iJ ^ = »^J U. i.e. ^)j-ol ^JjU U). But if the verbal adjective agrees 

. with the following noun in number, the sentence is regarded as 

nominal ; e.g. O^^" O^^ ^° ine tu '° men a™ not standing (where 

w. ii. 33 

258 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 122 

A O'-o-'^ is a jejJLo j+±. and 0*^P' a j*-y° '•****)• See § 117, 
rem. b. 

O y « i»*S 

Rem. In the case of a singular noun, as juj ^5l3t, a double 


O ^^ Z * s J 4 6* 

analysis is possible ; ^£\.i may be regarded as a lju~o, of which juj 
is the > ^*aiJ I ju-»« ^U» ^J^U, and this is the preferable view ; or 
^0^15 may be regarded as a transposed j+±-, of which juj is the 

B transposed I, 

122. The Arabic language, like the Hebrew and Syriac, has 
no abstract or substantive verb to unite the predicate with the subject 

of a nominal sentence, for O^ 9 * s n °t an abstract verb, but, like all 
other verbs, an attributive, ascribing to the subject the attribute of 
existence. Consequently its predicate is put, not in the nominative, 
but in the adverbial accusative (§ 41). The same remark naturally 

C applies to the J^=> Ol^i.1 (§ 42). 

123. If a definite noun (substantive or pronoun) and an indefinite 
adjective are placed in juxtaposition, the very fact of the former being 
defined (no matter in what way) and the latter undefined, shows that 
the latter is the predicate of the former, and that the two together 
form a complete nominal sentence ; for an adjective which is appended 
to a noun as a mere descriptive epithet, and forms along with it only 
one part (either subject or predicate) of a sentence, must be defined 

D according to the nature of the noun. E.g. u^ij-* *-*~>ji Joseph (is) 

O ' J ' » & - _ > - - J J it 

sick, u^-ij-* cA-k-*— ^ the sultan (is) sick, u^ij* >-*~>5i ^, Joseph's 

father (is) sick, u^s* i<^ my father (is) sick, u^-ij-* >* he (is) sick, 

ua>ja IJub this man (is) sick ; whereas ^Ajj-oJI IJufc would mean either 

this (is) the sick (man) or this sick (man), and ^jZuj^S ^jUxLJl the 
sick sultan. 

124. When both subject and predicate are defined, the pronoun 
of the third person is frequently inserted between them (see § 129), 

§ 125] The Sentence & its Parts.— Subj. & Pred. J-oiJl j-*-*. 259 

to prevent any possibility of the predicate being taken for a mere A 
apposition. This is done even when the subject is a pronoun of the 

first or second person. For example: j>y*&\ cr*-" .** *^' ^°^ u 
the living, the self -subsisting, JaJtj S^oJI ^a <UJt God is the life 
and the truth, 9>}&\ }*> ^ ta 5' ; * , ' tne (only true) wealth is contentment, 
j&T i^Sj ^k JX2 3 \ these are fuel for the fire, Ut I* JL^>\ iUj that 
man is I, i$l 1>j$ >* Ut / am the Lord thy God, Jij&\ ^a Ul B 

S^oIjTj JU«JIj / am the way and the truth and the life, 01 ^a ^>* 
who am I*? [The insertion of this pronoun takes place also fre- 
quently, when the predicate is a comparative, as £y* J-iit >* J*>j 
jj^ft Zeid is more excellent than l Amr.] This interposed pronoun, 
which is equally common in the other Semitic languages, is called by 
the grammarians J-aAJI j~o-a [or simply J~e*M] the pronoun of 

separation (between the tj£j-9 and the _/-*-), s\+*)\ j~t*>e [or simply C 
iC*JI] the pronoun which serves as a prop or support (to the sentence), 
or simply £*U jJt ^« _prop or support. 

125. In the case of a definite subject in the accusative after 

,j'> 0'> etc - (§ 36), the J-a*)l j-^o is not required, because the 

predicate is sufficiently marked as such by its remaining in the 

nominative, as iiU wJU aXJI ^j\ verily God is one of three ; whereas D 

a mere apposition would be in the same case as the subject, viz. the 
accusative. A pronoun may, however, be inserted, provided it be of 

the same person as the substantive or pronoun after jjt, etc. ; as 

jtjiM jb Lj* It^y ' Oi ver }sft *'- world to come is the everlasting 

* [This insertion of the pronoun of the 3d person after the 
pronouns of the 1st and 2d person, is post-classical ; comp. Fleischer, 
Kl. Schr. i. 588 seq.] 

260 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 126 

j ; '$*> s ii - 2 t s Its si ^t 

A abode, w>U>yi OJI <iXJl Tlwu art the bounteous giver, >Ajj Ul ^Jt I am 
thy Lord. Very often the predicate after (jl, etc., is introduced, 
for the sake of greater distinctness, by the particle J (§ 36), as 

2<C •^ bs 3s s vt *o £ 

^LJI l Ac ^J-oi ^JJ olUI ,jt wn7# 6»W is good towards men; and 

." s 3s sit iO Cl 

even here the pronoun may be introduced after J, as ^J <»JJl <jl 

J s 5*5 3 sbiO 3 s sOlO s3s s I ut 

jxfimJS J-ijJti\ verily God is the mighty, the wise ; \jo* c ji ) \ y^ IJjfc ,jl 

Z s a<o 

JiaJt verily this is the true narrative. 
B Rem. The noun governed by ^j\, etc., is not regarded by the 


S s sO 3 ul 3 a 

Arab grammarians as a Iju^-o, but as the ^jl^wl, the noun o/'inna, 
etc. See § 36, rem. a. 

126. When both the subject and the predicate of a nominal 
sentence are indefinite, but the former consists of several words, no 
doubt can arise as to whether they form a complete sentence or only a 
part of one, because the subject, being cut off by the words annexed 
q to it, cannot possibly form any one portion of the sentence (subject or 
predicate) in connexion with the noun which is separated from it by 

s 3 s Bs s s s » s Os s s 3 B s <i » s 

these words. For example : V*~»> aSjuo ,j~6 j~±. S^ifcoj v-ij^a-o Jy> 
iCil kind words and forgiveness are better than alms folloived by 

t 3 Bs s it Os s s B 3 0BsQst3 9slss 

injury ; ^£z+a>-£\ ^ 2&j<Lo ^c j-j*. &U^« i*^ and verily a female 

slave who believes is better than an idolatress, even when she (the latter) 
pleases you (more). 

j) 127. The inchoative or subject of a nominal sentence cannot, 
according to the Arab grammarians, consist of an indefinite noun*, 

* Indefinite (5j&) is here to be taken in the sense [not only of not 
being defined by the article or the genitive of a defined word, but 

wj 3 s s 

even] of not having a genitive after it, for such phrases as jj y)~ȣ 

3 s <SBs^ss3Bs 

O-ij-i a pi° us action or good work adorns (a man), j*m. icU ^Jjcc 
j^Jit otM oCe £yt an hour's justice is better than a thousand months' 

§ 127] The Sentence and its Parts. — The Subject & Predicate. 261 

or one which is not qualified by an adjective, or an expression equi- A 
valent to an adjective (as U jUp j»\j& I ^>e J**, there is a man of the 

9 ' 9 1 r . . n 

noble with us, =^,ij^ J*-j a noble man) ; except in certain cases, of 
which the following are the most important. 

(a) When the sentence is of the class called i-ijJsJI iC»oJt 
(taking this term in its widest sense, § 115 at the end), and (a) the 
predicate is placed first, as J**j jljJt ^y there is a man in the house, 

mfj^i t*-»lj CaJ under my head there is a saddle, S^J juj jjs- there B 
is a leopard in ZeifTs possession ; or (/3) the subject is preceded by an 

9i- O-e i i -a 9 j A- 

interrogative or negative particle, as Sj/-«l j>\ jtjJI ^ J**j^ w there 
a /?i«« Mi ^/fo Aoms?, or a woman \ j'jJI ^ O*-— '! J - * & ^'^ «»y 
person in the house 7 , ^ii ^i JJk >V there a young man among you? 
jljJI ,-i jl».I U r7#;-0 is wo o«« in the house, UJ J^i. U we have no 
friend, «iJU-o j-»». »*».l U ^/we is no one better than thou art. C 

(b) When the subject is preceded by the affirmative J ; as 
^513 J>c*-j) certainly there is a man standing. 

(c) When the subject is a diminutive, because the substantive 
then includes the idea of the adjective vJL c small, or ^-i»- ctw- 

worship, Jamj ^) .ilLto one like thee cannot be mean, are quite J) 

admissible, and yet the governing noun is indefinite, according to § 92. 
The inchoative may, however, be an indefinite verbal noun, provided 
that it retains the government of the verb from which it is derived ; 

e.g. j~±. jt^-i I ij> «My a desire to do good is good, ajjuo o^j^oj j*\ 

9 ' *■ * /9J * 9 » " 

iSjco j&*q ^j£- ^yjj to order what is right is an alms and to prohibit 
what is wrong is an alms. In both these cases, however, there is 
evidently a sort of partial determination [ L ^--n-^ " ; comp. § 75, 

262 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 127 

• - a 5a .. j 

A temptible ; as U^ic tjs^-j ^<?/'0 fcs a mannikin (or a Traeow fellow) at 
our house (see § 116). 

(d) When the subject is a noun of a general signification, such 
as J£» a/£; as <j^ J^> <^ joen^ ; O^j J^ «W dfe; because J^ 

Zi *> & ■> * £ £ j 

is here equivalent to ^Ul J^> «// mankind, or jk».l J^» ewfj/ <w, 
and is therefore virtually definite (see § 82, a). 

B {e) When the sentence expresses a wish or prayer ; as ^*Xt jt>*$~) 

O s 04/ 

peace be upon you ! jujJ jJ-jj woe to Zeid ! 

(f) When the subject is a word which contains the conditional 

meaning of the particle ij] (/"> such as O-* (§ 6) ; e.g. ax^> ^3) ^su ,j-o 
if any one gets up, I will get up with him. 

(g) When the subject is preceded by the JUJt jtj or waw 
which introduces a circumstantial clause (§ 183), or by the conjunction 

• a - ^- - a.a **■ a j • *-•£ a - o a • - • a - - 

C ^ (/* "°^> or by the s t>aJI eli [§ 187] ; as *x*i sLil jj^^jj Lj^ 
JJjlw (J^ *^o ^^Ai.! ^JLate.^ \j>> we travelled by night, after a star 
had already shone out, but from the moment thy face appeared, its 
light obscured every shining star (Jijli in rhyme for JijUO ; "^V 

, £ j * as- o * a *> 

dJLo ^£'i J& {3*3*$ jM**«' w^ & "^ /o** patience, every lover would 

die ; iaApl ^ ^*ai j~>c w**6 ,jl if a wild ass departs (i.e. if a chief- 
tain dies), there is a wild ass (another chieftain) in the tribe. 

jy (h) When the subject is the answer to a question, its predicate 

- , a o * 

being suppressed ; as when one asks .i) juc ^j^e who is in thy house ? 

o i , a 

and receives the reply, J^j a man, soil. ^J^. 

(i) When the subject is an adjective, agreeing with and taking 

- a 9 9* i J 

the place of a suppressed substantive ; as j*^ O-* jt^ 0-*>* a 

t J » « 

believer is better than an unbeliever, i.e. »>*>« J>»-j a believing man. 
(j) When the subject is connected with another subject, which is 

§ 127] The Sentence and its Parts.— The Subject & Predicate. 263 
definite or accompanied by an adjective ; as (jU^^ J^jj J^j Zeid A 

^ . s 

ff/M? a »ia» are standing; jtjJI ^y J^j.3 L5?*? 3 a Temimite and 
{another-) man are in the house, where L5 *->«J =jtn^ .*»■' (p- 260, note) 

5 ..«.», 2 10 9 * " 9is a*' 9 1* 

or l^o-^j J*.j (above, i) ; jtjJI ^y iL»>» Sl^-ot^ J*.j a man and a 
tall woman are in the house. 

[(k) When two or more indefinite subjects are put together anti- 
thetically or synthetically, as U*Xc ^>>j UJ ^j one day is for us, B 

x ^ « fl^- , * 9 a,* 

another against us; J15 vajij — J13 >sy>j ^»/^ say — offcrs say. 

d tip 

(/) "When the subject is in the accusative after ^!, o'» e * c - (§ 36), 
as w'JL'kjj w*>i A-ej^i O^ 9 '>^l Oi a l l0n had a irolj and a fox for 

In all these different sorts of sentences, there can be no doubt that 
the words form a complete sentence, and not merely a part of one. 

Rem. a. The subject may also be indefinite in some cases in Q 

which a strong emphasis rests upon it ; as dL» t\». «£ something 

has brought thee, meaning ^b cla. ^^.Kc ti*2> something great or 

a , 2 , ~ , , 

important, or equivalent to *_£ ^)l ^JU si*. Le nothing has brought 

a * 2 ,* 9* ** 

thee but a thing (of importance) ; O^Jbu S^Ju a» ox Acts spoken ! 
Rem. 6. European grammarians have often erred in their 

9 * 9 a * * a *2 * a* 

analysis of the phrase^ j--ai in the Kor'an, xii. IS, wJ^-» Jj j) 

s ^ 9 a - '* at a j j tai a >* 

J j lt » ^--ai l^o t ^ C j u I ^^J. This they have translated either /ta^, 

your minds have made a thing seem pleasant unto you (and ye have 
done it), but patience is becoming ; or mais la patience vaut mieux ; 
or ergo pati (patientem esse) pulchrum est; according to which 

**' c «■ * a i 9 , 9 „ _ 

translations^**© would be an indefinite tju«o and ^pr its »*»». 

Still worse is it to regard the words as an exhortation, therefore — 
becoming patience ! (also — geziemende Geduld .'), which would neces- 

* - ta * , 

sarily be *}L^». b/**ai (§ 35). The Arab commentators are right 

. s^' 9 a , at* 

in regarding the words either as a compound j*£», i.e. j+*o {Jj*\* 

264 Part Third— Syntax. [§ 128 

J«j*». cmc? therefore my business (or f?w££/) is {to show) becoming 


(//ij j ^ it. j * e C <5 .- 5 » ^ ^ 

patience, or as a compound lju~«, i.e. (J^l) v^«o^l vjjcq* X* ^ 

and therefore (to show) becoming patience is more seemly. The 
former of these two views seems to be the preferable one. [Comp. 
Slbaw. i. i«.] 

[Rem. c. In such sentences as Lo jtyA I ,j~5 ^o^aJ I ^ JJ Oi 

LoxJ I jp/AJ verily, before to-day the staff was struck for an intelligent 

B man (i.e. he, being heedless, has been called to attention) ; J^S 0-*3 

Otw^j ,»i j&^j* to an d before now ye have been remiss with regard 

to Joseph ; jcjQjJ to I j^j and to-morrow ye will see me, to is not 

pleonastic, as it has been called by some scholars, but forms with 
the following verbal clause the subject of a nominal sentence of the 
class mentioned under a. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 479, ii. 
390 seq., where many examples are given. D. G.] 

Q 128. When both subject and predicate are definite, but the 
former consists of several words, it is also clear, without the insertion 

of the J-aiJt jfo^>, that the words form a complete sentence; as 

J * 0*3 til /G s J yi * 

j&J*$\ aJUt j^c O-jjJI the {only true) religion in God's sight is 

el- Islam; C-IJ1 i»-w JJ^fe aU\ J-*- ^y^Jt^ol O***^! CH^ 1 J^ 9 

Jjllw «.*-» the likeness of those who expend their wealth in the path 

(or cause) of God, {is) the likeness of a grain of corn which produces 

D seven ears. 

129. The J-aiJt jiro^ is also not rarely omitted in sentences in 
which both subject and predicate are definite, but the former consists 
of only one word ; as aJJI Jyj j^oj>~o Muhammad is the apostle of 

God; aXjT Jp ^U 'All is the friend of God ; Jr*k*$ f Ji^T iui 

this is the great felicity (el-Kor'an, ch. ix. 90, but in verse 73 we read 

^JiaJI jyJI y* iUj). Here a doubt might at first arise, as to 

whether these words form a complete sentence, or merely the compound 

§ 130] The Sentence and its Parts.— The Subject & Predicate. 265 

subject of one ; in which case we must only examine whether the A 
words that follow can be taken as their predicate, without doing 
violence to sense and grammar, or not. 

130. From the ^J-aaJI j~-o*°, or pronoun of separation, must be 
carefully distinguished the pronoun which is appended to the subject 

a- __ 

to give it emphasis and contrast it with another subject (ju^UI j~<-i> 
ju£»$Jt y) ; as w~-JI yb tjub ,j\£s this was the reason ; ,j\£> Oi 
Jjuc ±yt> J^Jt yk \jjb (/"this be the truth from Thee; Of** — •J' U^» ^ 

«• e j a*> } i 

jUaJt ^oJb ?fo Muslims (and not slaves or mercenaries) formed the 

army ; (j-j^JUsJl ^ t^ilib »>~3 but they waer« ^ (ftttrs of wrong. — 

This pronoun is also frequently appended (as in the other Semitic 
languages) to a pronominal suffix in any case, to give it emphasis 

0* • ■» i *0 ' a£ * J 

[comp. § 139, rem. «] ; e.g. ^y^z w~5p' w^' C~^ thou art the 

#a^ 5 ^ t ** *** fie -* j j jt/ • ^ 

watcher over them ; U*£ j^».l JjUu ^)l yk <sulj O^ HIS opinion teas 
f^a# ??o oh« should take anything ; JiJI IjJb ^^ Ul ^ g cL i jjjli C 

lis,,}, 3-o * \ a - 

where then is my sAare of this booty? O" 3 *^ ^ «->^' '•*■* O-oJ «'&>se 

^ i a * jot - j - - - - 

is this book? Ours; ^X3i o-* ^*^' U£*«u U what prevented you two 

from doing that? IjJjj *^t« *2Al* J^' Ul Oj- 5 Oi if thou thinkest 
that I have less wealth and (fewer) children than thou : and more 
rarely to a noun in the accusative, as o**WJ' ^a <Qp ^X*^.^ and 

we made his offspring the survivors. The emphatic J is sometimes 
prefixed to it, as ^>oJLaJI ^>a*-J Lib jjt if we fo ^ righteous. D 

[Rem. In the preceding quotations from the Kor r an some read 

& * a<0 * j - j Ct to } i t , * * s ^ , a L ,l *i 

J^JI yib. (j^^JUsJI^A, IjJjj ^)t© «£J*U JJI li I, taking these words 
as nominal sentences, which form in the first and second case the 

' ** £• 

predicate of ^l£». in the third the second object of ^!j. just as in 

* a 6»/ ^j ;«/ iji 

^U-» ^-jfc, yk tjuj (J>A»I, / f/iinA; Zeic? ts better than thou art, the 

^asa^^j £- 

words JJU-e j-«te. yb are the second object of v >b.] 
w. ii. 34 

266 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 131 

A 131. If, however, in a nominal sentence, a more precise indication 

of time and mood be necessary, the Arabs use for this purpose O^* 

J J " • 

or one of its "sisters" (§§ 41, 42). The imperfect O& nas m tnis 

case the usual meanings of the imperfect (§ 8) : whilst the perfect O^ 
admits of four significations ; viz. (a) of the historical tense or Greek 
aorist (§ 1, a), in which case it has, according to the Arab gram- 
marians, the sense of ^U? to become ; (b) of the actual perfect (§ l,b); 

j } * «- - 
(c) of the actual imperfect, as it were a shortening of 03^i 0*^> 

B which also occasionally occurs (§ 9) ; and (d) sometimes, especially 
in the Kor'an, of the present, but only by giving a peculiar turn to 

its use as a perfect (has become by nature, -n-icfrvKa), as O^ *^' Oi 
UjSj^LJ* verily God is a watcher over you (Sura iv. 1). The perfect 

,jl£» expresses the present in particular after the negative particle U, 
and the interrogative particles, such as I ; e.g. ij>^> ^«*»- O^ ^* 
ouju ,j-o ^JJt (^Jjuaj 0^3 it (the Kor'an) £s ??o£ a story invented 
C (by Muhammad), but a confirmation of what (i.e. of the sacred writings 
which) preceded it; ,j^a51». *j)l Us$A».ju O'^o-ir^ O^ 3 ^** ^# cannot 
enter them (lit. ^ is not to them that they should enter them) but with 
fear ; aJJt (jib ^1 O-cy o' u~*^ O^ 3 ^ wo sou ^ can believe except 
6?/ £/*0 permission of God ; L5/-A-J >a O^ '■* ^ g * s n °t (^ ie man) to 

J ' * * J 3 li V -- • 

efo ms «»?/ harm; ^&LojI ^*-aJ aJJI j^ U GW ?'s incapable of 
letting — lit. z's not (the one) to let — your belief perish (i.e. go un- 
D rewarded) ; ^^v^o Jj*-j ^1 ^^»"3^ o' W* l^^ O^' ^ s & a 
wonder to men that We have made a revelation to one of them 1 

132. The subject of a sentence is frequently not specified, either 
because we do not know it, or do not choose to mention it. We have, 
however, the option of expressing ourselves either personally, by such 
forms as one says, they say, people say, Germ, man sagt, Fr. on dit ; or 
impersonally, either by means of the passive voice, as it is said, Germ. 
es wird gesagt, or of the active voice, as it rains, Germ, es regnet, Fr. 

§ 132] The Sentence and its Parts. — The Subject & Predicate. 267 

il pleut. The Arabs too express themselves in both ways (with the A 
restriction stated in § 133, rem. b). If they wish to use the personal 
form, they employ (a) the third person sing. masc. of the verb with 
its own nomen agentis, denned or undefined by the article ; as 

Jjl3 J13 one said, JjUJI J13 id. (lit, he who, or every one icho, was 

in a position to say, said); JjUJI Jyu one says, is wont to say 

(lit. every one who is in, or gets into, a position to say, says). The 
determination of the singular subject by the article expresses in such 
cases a distributive totality, (b) If the undefined subject is one of a 
number of persons who are known to us, the sufiix pronoun of the B 
third person plural is annexed to the nomen agentis to indicate these 

persons ; as ^yJ^ 5 J^ 5 om °f tnem sa ^- ( c ) ^ there be several 

indefinite subjects, the third pers. plur. masc. of the verb may be 

j - * * * . . . 

used, as tyi5 they say, 'j-o^j they think; but it is more usual to 

employ the verb in the singular and its nomen agentis, defined or 

undefined by the article, in the plural, as 0>^* J^ some said ; 

«£Ui jj-e <j— ».l £w Jai ,jyt«LJI %^w U no one has ever heard 

anything more beautiful than this (lit. those who can hear have never C 
heard etc.). 

Rem. a. Instead of the nomen agentis, defined or undefined, 
such words as >J**.j a man, Sjj^t a woman, and the like, are 
occasionally used, with or without the article (compare 1 Sam. 
ix. 9); as J4-J Jl5 = j5ll J15, J^jjf JJS = J5UJ7 JJu, etc. 

s fl - 

For the nomen agentis with the plural suffix, the word ^*; 

e j j a - * * sjj »/ * , 

a part, some one, is often employed, as ^^j J13 =^^13 ^{5. J) 

[Rem. b. A peculiar manner of expressing the general terms 
somebody, something, certain ones, etc. is to use the relative pronouns 

^yo and to with repetition of the verb, as JjJ ^j** IjJLa! ^j^ J&3 

there came down from its inhabitants who came down, i.e. some of 

them ; ^jLLcl L© ^JlLtl he gave me what he gave me, i.e. much, or 

little, or something between the two, according to circumstances. It 

268 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 133 

A is specially employed j^SjCJI^ ^J&jCM to magnify and multiply, 
if an impression of something important or mysterious is to be 
conveyed, e.g. Kor'an liii. 16 ,<£«-> L© SjjuJI •*£•*-> it when that 
covered the sidra-tree which covered it, i.e. hosts of adoring angels.] 

133. If the impersonal form of expression is to be employed, the 
Arabs use the third person sing. masc. of the passive voice, whether 
of a transitive or of an intransitive verb, [which, however, may never 

B be used absolutely like the Latin itur, Jletur] ; as ^*JW v**^ & 
has been written, it is written with the writing reed; JjtjJ^t i^\ jf 

- J 9 J 

there ivas a travelling, they travelled towards 'Irak; <*** o& £ .t it 
has been disputed, there has been a dispute about it ; ljujui |loJ» U-«J 
there is vehement thirst felt, t/iey thirst vehemently ; jujj j* there 

9 o* - ^ el 

was a passing by Zeid ; ^r^Xt Jjj\ a revelation was made to them; 

~ 9* s ' J 

\j aJs- ,**>£ he fainted (lit. there was a covering thrown over him, 

I 9 s - & ^ 9 ,9* 

comp. S ?ynrt), whence <uic ^t a ^JI the person in a faint, fern. 
ly^Xc ^ L k^\ (in later times incorrectly t^J^ i-^i^JI, and, without 

dl S *9s J^ S^V 

the preposition [§ 113, rem.], ^■u.i^Jt, fern. < u i >«-»3i). [Similarly 
«ju ^ iaXw Ae repented (lit. £for« was a falling upon his hand), and 
hence »ju ^ h^su^> *a Ag is repenting; ly^c ^v*^' S^w^Jt £/^ 

forbidden tree ; jv^t^- ^»*--oJ' ^ benefited ones ; \y^ Os~© s/<e was 

D fe/fc ow orphan, or a ividow.] Verbs thus used are always of the 
masculine gender, which the Arabs frequently employ where we should 
use the neuter. The neuter plural of adjectives and nomina agentis 
and patientis is, however, always expressed by the feminine plur. sail. 

or the plur. fract. ; as o U ~aJI beautiful things (not <jl~a*JI, which 
means handsome persons), Ot-JaJt good (things not jj^^-JaJt, which 

J .. } 9 *9, 

means good men), Ob^*.^*)! existing things, Ol*.iyi necessary things, 
C>U£o«frJI possible things, jut juDI afflictions, calamities, w^t^Jt exciting 

§ 133] The Sentence & its Parts.— Subj. eft Pred.; impers. passive. 269 

causes (from w*cb), «JI^JI hindrances (from £^-«). [The sing. fern. A 
must be used for the neuter of the numerals, as *t»*iL> three things 
or qualities, and may be used for that of the pronouns, as «.** these 

Rem. a. The passive of directly transitive verbs may be used 

either personally or impersonally ; as w-*^ it (a book or letter) teas 

urritten, and <A« act of urriting was performed. In the former case, B 
the direct object or accusative of the active voice [or the sentence 
that supplies its place, § 23, rem. c] becomes the subject of the 

passive (J^UJI ^olLo^Sli); in the latter, according to the Arab 

grammarians, the subject is the nomen actionis of the verb itself, 
which, however, can only be used if qualified, as will be seen 
hereafter ; so that, according to their view, the impersonal passive 
becomes really personal. If a passive, which is, according to our 
ideas, impersonal, governs an object by means of a preposition (as 

aJs. <<<ilc), this object becomes virtually the subject of the passive Q 

voice, just as it was virtually the object of the active, and con- 
sequently if the nomen actionis be expressed along with it, it must 

* e - e, , 5 »■>■ 

be put in the accusative ; as \j ir , <tJt ^-~> (not j-~»), from the active 

* o - a* * - 

\j+~i aJI jL» he journeyed to him (a journeying). In either case, — 

« £ - t ** * 

whether the passive be personal or impersonal, — it is ^-~j ^J lo 

a - 

dJLcli, an act of ichich the agent, i.e. the acting person, is not named 

(Yul. i. § 74, rem.), not even by means of a preposition, as with us 
(for the subject of the passive voice is, as we have said above, 

* J ' ' 
merely the du J^jjul* or object of the active voice*, converted into t_) 

the subject, and so J^UUI j>Mut> ^#515, or ^^c-UtJ t w>U« w*5li, w*5U 

jJ^UJI £>£, supplying the place of the agent). If the agent is to be 

5 3 » - % m 6 - 

* The «u fJfxSLc, or object, may be either ?->j*o pure, i.e. the 
accusative, or p-ij*o j*s- impure, i.e. a preposition with the genitive 

270 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 133 

A named, the active voice must be used*. — As stated in § 26, b, rem. b, 

the accusative of the nomen verbi (JULL-oJI i J^slL )\) can be changed 
into the subject of the passive voice only when it is qualified or 
specialised by an adjective or a substantive in the genitive. We 

cannot say w»j-o w>-£, j-*~> j-+~>, because such an undefined masdar 

adds nothing to the meaning of the verb (<ui Sjuli *$) ; but we 

.- ' - J .-0/O JO'- Q * 6 ' - J 

may say juJuj >->j-e ^j^j **s5>*" j-s~> j^r'i [and even 2uj*b *-jj-o- 
B In expressions such as Oj^. o*-»- »*$ and J^i >iU3 ,-i Jw>3 j^s 

the words o^a. and ^h^S are not to be considered as masdars, but 
as substantives, the meaning being something was feared and 

something was said about it]. The op» can be put in the nomina- 
tive also, but only when it is capable of inflection and adds 

- - * j 
something to the meaning of the verb. We cannot say ja ...» *-*£=>) 

from j~, ■■• w~==>j he rode early this morning, nor ^) j*i& ^j*. L». from 

3) jU£ l^*J* ^ e Sa ^ beside thee, nor C-s5j j-j~> ; but we may say 

C ^» -h,' I jt>yj j*~> Friday was travelled, ,jLa-oj yrt^ Ramadan was 

O 3 ' 

fasted. When a passive verb is connected with a aj J^juLo, and a 

JiXic* yJjSULo or jjusue, a Op?, or a j3j**~c3 jW-> the ^ U3*** 

alone can, as a general rule, become the J^UJI ^j* yjl) ; e.g. 

d»l> ^ j-***})l >©UI aa^aJI >ojj Ijwjw L>-i juj wJj-o.— Since 
the Arab uses many verbs as directly transitive, which in our 
idiom are only indirectly so [§ 23, rem. b], their passives may of 
course be employed in both of the above ways ; e.g. not only 

D aJI £,$»■ (impers.) means ventum est ad eum, but also simply *■<*. 
(pers.). In the former case, only the third person sing. masc. is 
used, tig^ *L5^" a ^ n 9 was brought, imperf. %^J^> 2l»-» ; in the 

* [In modern Arabic the agent may be named with the passive by 

means of the preposition ,j-o by : see § 48, /*, rem. b and comp. 

Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 91, 599, iii. 68, Spitta § 173, c, Noldeke, Zur 
Grammatik, p. 54.] 

§ 135] The Sentence & its Parts.— Subj. & Pred.; impers. passive. 271 
latter, all the numbers and persons are employed, sing. 3 p. m. A 

■• a, , a a - " 

i^Bf, i- OJL^., 2 p. m. cJU>., etc., as %^-i s kfc 5»- something was 
brought to him (act. £,«^ «el»» he brought him something). 

Rem. b. Our impersonal actives indicating natural phenomena, 
such as it snows, it rains, etc., are always expressed by the Arabs 

personally. They say either »~U)! ?»JLj the snoiv snows. jJa-»J I j.h* 

the rain rains, or iLo-JI C-,a.,U *Ae s&y snows, iLo—J' Opx* ^Ae sAy 

rains. In the latter of these two forms of expression the substantive B 

lUo-JI is sometimes suppressed, leaving only the verb in the 3d pers. 

sing, fern., CsaJJ, OjJa-e — [In like manner they say C-A... tf l 
7 was in the morning, where we should say it was in the morning ; 

ii * + t> i o ,»* a * 

,-—. 6 1 I am in the evening for it is evening ; Oto ^jt w*-J»j ^ A« 

tarried not long that he died for it was not long before he died, 
etc. D. G.] 

Rem. c. In the case of words like j>awj i£ is allowed, w*aw-> ^ 

' a ' . a * . 

?£ is necessary, (<*--o t£ behoves, etc., followed by ^jl with the 

subjunctive, the subject naturally is the following clause, and 
therefore the verb does not come under the head of impersonal*. 

134. The complements of the subject and predicate are annexed 
to them either by subordination (the accusative or a preposition with 
the genitive) or coordination (apposition). 

135. When the pronominal suffixes are attached to a substantive 

in the accusative, governed by a verb, or to one in the genitive, D 
governed by a preposition annexed to a verb, they may refer to the 
agent of the verb, and consequently have a reflexive meaning, for 

* [On the impersonal use of \J& see § 56, c, footnote. Comp. 

_ aia^ i, * , 

also Noldeke, Zur Grammatik, p. 76 seq. who adds j^*^\ .ji aJ Iju 

his opinion changed as to the matter, jJjUUI ^9 t,j^ l^ii ichen it teas 
next year, etc.] 

272 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 136 

A which the Arabic, like the other Semitic languages, has no distinct 

pronominal form; as aJU JUjI he has spent his (own) money; 1^15 

^ f1/ j\^.*^ they said to their (own) brothers. But a suffix attached to 
* * &' 

the verb itself cannot have a reflexive meaning : to give it this, the 
word v-su soul, ^j^s. eye, essence, [or a».j face,] (and in later Arabic 
f3j spirit, ^'i substance, essence, or Jl»- state) must be interposed ; 
as <*— aj Jj:5 Ae /h7fec? himself; &~Ju <su j^ console thyself therewith ; 

> 3 O - i ( ill s j o * o ( 

B (^5^-Jj ^*^*' / ^flW0 destroyed myself; [<UJ ^v».j C**X*t / resign 

myself to God ;] except in the case of the verba cordis (§ 24, b, /S), 

when the pronominal suffix is the first object and the second object 


is either a noun or a whole sentence ; as bLa* aJU. he imagined 

himself struck; lj-o^ j**ju «\j he saw himself (in a dream, it 

appeared to him as if he were) pressing out wine. [A suffix attached 
to a preposition annexed to the verb may have a reflexive meaning, 

as l/a*fe ^L* **■« jtj*-' ^ took a large amount of money with him ; 

, *, a - j ■> j - * * * * ' 5 - j a i j * a * £s * 

AJj\j~*\ j-U 6 i*f3-i **■* w**J J~A* C-*s»-V *W>*" U«^ «W<# tt^tfW 

Nebuchadnezzar had laid it (Jerusalem) waste he carried off with 

him the principal men of the Benu 'Israil ; ^1 ^j\ C-«-o«o I drew 

my son to myself. This however is allowed only where no doubt can 
arise as to the meaning of the suffix — which in this and the former 
case happens oftener with the suffixes of the 1st and 2d person, than 

with that of the 3d pers. — and even then the interposition of u*^. etc. 
D takes place frequently.] 

Rem. Compare the use, in Heb. and Aram., of &£} I • ^ ^ 
soul, D¥5? or ET)S, P^KV bone, anf * Wil. body; and in iEthiopic, 
of C^|*|: (re'es) head. 

136. The complements which are coordinated with, or placed in 
apposition to, the subject or predicate, are called by the Arab gram- 
marians ^^, sequentia, followers or appositives (sing. £>ty, and the 

J JO ^0- 

word to which they are placed in apposition is called c$*I©JI, that 

§ 136] The Sentence & its Parts. — Appositives; the Adjective. 273 

which is followed (by some word in apposition). They are generally A 
connected with a noun, more rarely with a verb. 

(a) With the noun is thus united the adjective, which, like all 
other words in apposition, follows the noun, and agrees with it in 
respect of determination or indetermination, as well as of gender*, 

number, and case; e.g. jtri^=* J*rj a noble man,^r>j&\ J*-jJt of the 
noble man,j 9 ij£\ tjuj the noble Zeid (ace), >£>*)! ajU£» His glorious 

9 *Z* J 9 * ' ' - ' ' 'i' 

book; **->y> Sj^lS a square pedestal ; jjUU-~». ,jL>tj»«l two handsome 

is , <■ i J 9, , o , 9 , , 

women; Z f J&> \jy& great treasures (ace); 4-«»tj JW»-, or oL-Jj, B 

,, 5 / 58/ •"* J 9 * 

or ^hI^j, firm mountains ; jtrtj£& j>$* \ or iU^^jS, a noble tribe or 
family, [qja~i\£ jo^S wicked people. As the preceding examples prove, 

the adjective following a collective noun denoting rational beings 
(Vol. i. § 292, b) may be put in the singular and agree with the 
grammatical gender of the collective, or in the plural sanus or fractus 
according to the natural gender of the persons indicated. The 
pluralia fracta, even when derived from a masc. sing, are construed 
with adjectives in the fern. sing, or plural (sanus or fractus). They C 
can have an adjective in the masc. plur. only by a constructio ad 

J » J 9 ' 

sensum, as has been remarked Vol. i. § 306, for instance ^y^oyc J^j 
believing men. This is also applicable to the names of Arab tribes, as 

- i - a i o*o o a - i 

^)yoj^^\ u~J> 5 the noble Koreis (comp. § 147). The collectives 
mentioned Vol. i. § 291, a, e may be joined to an adjective in the fern. 

9 ' ' 9* * 5 ^ ^ ^ ' 

sing, or in the plur. fern, (sanus or fractus) as a^z^^e or oL^tj^o-ic 
pasturing sheep or goats; those mentioned Vol. i. § 292, a] to an 

g e - j i - ia*> a * * a* 

adjective either in the sing. masc. (as £*«•), e.g. JJ^Ja^J! ^el^aJt 1) 
the ring-necked doves ; or in the sing. fern, (as icU».), e.g. J-**-* j^-^' 

<u^l^ trunks of palm-trees worm-eaten and empty ; or in the plur. 

*0& ~ * J 9 j , 

* [Exceptions are <<£il ft© feminine, i.e. soft water: iJ^»- J>*»j 
a hermaphrodite. For an exception to the agreement in number 
see § 100. D. G.] 

w. ii. 35 

274 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 136 

9 * * ^ 

A sanus fern., as Oliwb J«»-J wry ta// palm-trees ; or in the broken 
plural, as JU3I w>l»*~JI the heavy chads; (3jV ^W*J' the dusky 
white doves. A noun may have two or more adjectives connected 

J * i 0*1 J *l& >o J s '0* I >io ill «• 9 

with it ; as j^^^M ^^Jl wibyOl ^ bright red star ; yj^M.ji\ <*JJI ^»— j 
^^c^ayJI /» £/>g wame o/* (too 7 , the compassionate, the merciful. — Sometimes 

o o o * - 

a substantive is used adjectively ; as jSJ ijjl». a young woman (who 

B is) a virgin (TV?)r\^, TXlV^) 5 *•** ju>.L~« « number of mosques ; 
t : T-: r ' ' 

S*xc JW-rs ck>** i«** J-o^>3 gg contains a number of horses and men ; 

\$js- ^>~w a number of years ; 3,>lc JiX*. <u-o ^Jlij and this is a usual 

* * * * 
custom of his. This is especially the case with nomina verbi ([ii-aJt 

jJlclqJ U] ; see Vol. i. § 230, rem. c) ; as S^i JU*.j ^jk tffore aw 

plenty of men with me; U*. L». JUJI ,j^*»^jj and they love wealth 

C with a great love; a5U ^s. juj j^jl* ^o-^'j «w^ ye are a band of 

<i , J .. 9 » ^ Of ^ 

wore tfAaw a hundred; j>$*o J^.j a fasting man, Jjs- Slj-ot a ,/ws£ 

i O * <i a ''•>»' <i t> ' 

woman, ^-ej J*$* people with whom one is pleased, 0*^*3 J** tO~° 

j3u* ^-cjj jZJ a cleaving blow and a violent thrust and a burning 
shot*. Compare, in Hebrew, ^SDD Wfy Num. ix. 20, fcy& DTON 

T  . . T - ; • T -• 

Nehem. ii. 12; and in Syriac, (LiQXD p-t many gardens, f Y 1 o 
| LiQjCO |A±^o ?b«hi/ sons and daughters. 

X) * [It is sometimes a matter of taste or use, whether the qualifica- 

tion by a genitive (§ 80), or by apposition is to be employed ; for 

6 .. O J - r O * * 1 * »/ »( ' 

instance some tribes of Keis say %^> j^j, 0'*> w O^W-> l^y^ JW*> 

O * lis * ' ) s < 1 - 

instead of the usual %y»i J^.j, %y~> *%*-y %y JW-j) an d a tradition 
has ;*£)l JJU &5-J1 u .>»,Xa.,)i ^JjLo a bad companion is to be compared to 
a blacksmith's bellows (Zamahsarl, Fdik i. 372 seq. ; comp. the Gloss, to 
Ibn al-Fakih s. v. U-). D. G.] 

§136] The Sentence & its Parts. — Appositives; the Adjective. 275 

Rem. a. A noun in the dual or plural may, of course, be A 
followed by two or more adjectives in the singular, if a contrast 

o * Sm jo j ot* 

between the objects mentioned be intended ; as ^>j*KP' *-*i'j 

^ *0»9* * *OiO 

J>>^.J 1^ j*ij& ' / s«w *Ae 'm'O Zhids, Vie liberal and the stingy ; 

* 0* * * * * * J * * 

**->j2 j~a3j \M^° \J^*H "-^JJ-* * passed by {three) men, (one) 
tall, (one) short, and (one) of middle size. 

Rem. b. If an adjective in the dual be connected with two 
singular nouns, whose regents (J-«U) are identical in meaning and B 

****** S3- - * * 

government, it agrees with them in case ; as JiJJaJt j juj w-Jfci 

* * &*tf 40* o * ,.*-.- z * * * j o j * o * j o * * 

jjUjjJOI 3j»*c, or 0~*ij&\ jj-»* ^jXc 0>».j ^jJ^ Oy-o. But 
if the two regents be discordant in meaning or government, the 

adjective is put either in the accusative (supplying i*-^' / mean) 


6 - * (//)J * J 

or in the nominative (as the j~±. of a suppressed I j£«-o. viz. L©Jb) ; 

* *o-o h o * * * * * r,o * w* * * * a a jo*** o * jo** 

t* *0*o * * * *itO 

^*JUCJI \j+z or ^jLjUCM.-— If the two singular nouns be connected Q 
with only one regent, as subjects or objects, the same constructions 

*>" 9 0** 50* * * 

of the adjective are admissible ; e.g. ^/}IL5lxJ I jj-0^3 Juj j»\£ or 

: , .-..- o * *:•? i o * * ZO* J oi* * *0-a 

^JlSlxJI: 0**jj£JI ^J-**-} '*^J *— *}'j or U^»iP^'- -But ^ the one 
be the subject and the other the object, the construction varies 
according to the relation of the regent to each in respect of its 

*0-e so, 9 0* * * * 

meaning ; you say ^"i^l*J I t^-^c juj *->;*&• ^'here the relation is 

5 * 

different in respect of meaning (for Zeid alone is w>jLo, and 'Amr 

6 J * 0* '0* S - SO* * * * 

alone is wjjj-iu*), but V ^>JLSUJ I l^c juj ^-o!^.. where the relation D 

5 * j 
is the same (for both Zeid and 'Amr are at once ^^pU^-o and 

« * * j 

Rem. c. In later times a noun in the dual, whether masculine 

or feminine, is sometimes construed with an adjective in the 

. . *2 »*o * s 

singidar Jemmine ; as < U a..>jii ( j'i)U« two European miles (J~c 

* 0* i*_ * * J * J * * i* * * j 

raasc.) ; jjUauafcJI i-iLaio L^AtjIj iio^lLL* their two houses are 

276 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 136 

A contiguous, the walls touching each other (j\$ usually fern.). [For a 
third example see § 94.] This construction has become the rule in 
modern Arabic. 

Rem. d. It is always possible to break the natural connection 
between a substantive and its adjective (*JsJUI), when the latter is 

yt *& &' b £ >Os vt vt lOy b y b ** *0*o ' J b * * 

employed ^AyJI^ ^LuJI^ voJJ I j «- j^Xi ; as^^Ol jujj djj**, or 

j j 

, s tie , b bio , J 

ws**aiJI, or ^SL^i\, supplying, in the case of the nominative, yh, 
B and of the accusative, 15-cl (see § 35, b, 8, rem. a). 

Rem. e. The pronoun U is often used in apposition to an 

i £ *b bio , 

indefinite noun, with a vague intensifying force (<LwolyJ*j)l L») ; as 

L> jjwwls some {small) number or quantity ; U U»U— » Lkfil </iw us some 

a ot - 
book (or other) ; \*e> j*o*$ Ov«a. thou art come because of some matter 

* * t * j * Ct t * s * b * b £ b * b s >- ' vi & w 

(of importance); l^i A^a^su Lo *}LL© «jj^u ^1 i ^mmZmj *$ <UJI ^jl 

lyl^i verily God is not ashamed to invent (lit. strike, coin) some 
Q similitude (or other), a gnat and what is above it (in the scale of 

creation) ; L© ^mJ, nearly equivalent to ^ ^1, what a man ! 

b,i * J * w 9 j 

^jj.5 ,-U J-jlS Le jJ-mIS i«Aa£ a man to have been slain was he whom 

the Benu Koreim have slain! [Another mode of expressing the 

.- - j - - *j 
same idea is the use of (<<*) ^A U ((<*) >* after a verbal noun, 

' ' J " 
of (i*a) 3A l* after an adjective or an equivalent expression such 

Ct bto * Ct b*o * *j * 

as SAiUI ,JI = SAiUt ,J| J^L* (§ 51, a), in the sense that a person or 
a thing possesses a quality in a certain degree, either between the 

Si b*> j b - 

j) two extremes, /xerpiou n (iUU I ^L-liu), or in an indefinitely high 

- j ^ "b-0 * b d ie j * bt 

degree. Instances of the former are y& Lo ^LJI ,Jt |JLJ"^' J^J^ 

* J * Zi bio , 

bright of colour, verging on white ; y*> Lo aJIaJI ,J1 rather few than 

, l s > , b i * * , 9 * - 

many ; yh L« >y~t\ blackish, etc.; of the latter ^A Lo ._* 4^.1^. 
a very great need ; ^-fc L* A.t>^. <u». a very dangerous snake ; 


j-A Le Vj"*' cJU-^JI 15JI much more to the north. (This use of 

§ 136] The Sentence <£ its Parts. — Appositives; dem. pronouns. 277 

1* U is not to be confounded with its use in such phrases as A 
ylb Lo j»*$ he is in the way which oxight to be pursued, sc. vo^-ol* ; 

, > , , i , t<e it -.■!.> .> o ^ 77? 7 • i 

or yb U jL^aJI ^>l jk».lj J^ v-5^ju everybody knows what is the 
meaning of hamd "praise"). D. G.] 

(b) As regards the demonstrative pronouns, which are looked 
upon by the Arabs as substantives (Vol. i. §§ 190, d, and 338), either 
they may be placed in apposition to the substantive, or the substantive 

J *»# , \ , ' t 9 9 - 

to them ; as .iUloJ. IjJb this king, lit. this (person), the king; t«x* **Jj B 

Zeid, this (person), i.e. this Zeid or ZMd here. In both cases the 
apposition is a qualificative one, whence the first word in each is 

J JO *B* 

called by the Arabs «J>j-ej»oJl that which is described, and the second 

* * — ' 

AioJI the description or descriptive epithet. [The pluralia fracta are 

construed with a pronoun in the fern, sing., unless they designate 
rational beings, in which case the pronoun may be in the plural, as 

JU.jJI s ^)>a. This last is also applicable to the collectives, as C 

It'tiO v/JI »»'J t * - J 

jafi)\ s*$yib, and the names of Arab tribes, as 6 ^)Ja lAo-*-] As the 
demonstrative pronoun is by its nature definite, the noun in apposition 
to it must of course be definite likewise. If it be defined by the 

9 J >' 

article, the demonstrative usually precedes, as fy~^>. very rarely 

9 * Jji' /I * I J J w * 

follows, as *jU ; e.g. J^jJ' tJub ^/s »*««, seldom tjjk Ja.jJI. But if 

the substantive be definite by its own nature (as a proper name or 
a mere word, § 78, and Vol. i. § 292, c), or defined by having a genitive 

after it, the demonstrative always follows ; as tjub juj this Zeid (see D 

10' . t * £ S o 3 * j j o ^o^ 

above)*; ojub ,j3l ffos (word) idan : »Juk ^jJI ,jl ^*~JI j-i j^JLoJI 

%* l ^*-oJ it is well known in grammar that this 'ila has the meaning 
of ma 1 a; £ *i)yb ^jLc these my servants or these servants of mine; 

* If the proper name has the article, IJuk may possibly precede, 
because it is to a certain extent a common noun defined by the article 

J I 0<» , I .. I J 10' 

(see above) ; as £>j*J\ IJdk, or I Jut. -£^s»Jt, this el-Hdrit. 

278 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 137 

\j& Ul5j ^Jl ^o £/«$ time or a#g o/ otws; J-Jj»JI IJjb ajU& £A& 
famous book of his. On the other hand, in such a phrase as a$U ojjt, 
ijl^XJ aJJI the words aAJI a5U are the predicate (>*£•) of «JJk, and 
aj! ^£) is a circumstantial accusative, this is the she-camel of God, (as) 
a Sigrw w?ifo 2/o «. [Likewise, in the saying w>WW j»>^* J*ij '•** the 
words vWW ^r>{* **4) must be considered as the predicate of IjJb, 
seg this is (= S00 £/je;*0 is) Zeid standing at tlie door, in ^>j j-«* IjJk 
B ou-Jb labw^Lo w> U a,a»J t here is 'Omar the son of U-Hattab girded 
tt>&'£/* ^ sword, wjLkaiJI ,jj j^ft is the predicate, (J*Jb U»- ^ L» 
a circumstantial accusative. D. G.] 

137. J^», >*«»., and less frequently a*Ip, totality, are often 

placed after the definite noun which they might govern in the genitive 
(§ 82, a, b), in which case a pronominal suffix is appended to them, 

} Z ) I S + til - id* 

referring to that noun ; as >ov^* tr»^'» or ^xry^-o-q- i»h^', a ^ men 
C (also l***»- (^*»^l, § 82, b) ; V^* *****"» or V*^»**- *-W*^> ^ wAo/g 

ut J J *■ J ' ' 0' J J ul * JO / 0/ 

tribe ; i>y».£ o g> Olju^l a// ^ Hinds ; aI*U ^gaJl ^ wAo/^ army ; 

OjJi / jJ/3/ 

^o^iolt ^ejiJI £Ae wfo/le £;v'6e or family. If the noun be indefinite, this 
construction is inadmissible, for the pronominal suffix, being by nature 
definite, cannot refer to any other than a definite noun. There is, 
however, one exception, namely, when the indefinite noun indicates a 

J ii 1 * *d J «* * 

precise period of time ; e.g. *X£s j^> a whole month; ly^s 4-w a whole 

B year; w^j *^ J>*" SjtC yi -^ ^ ^ would that the number (of 

months) of a whole year were (all) Regeb ! Words of a vague signifi- 

9 0-9^9 92 J 

cation, such as c-ij, 0-*j> »>**•> *»*■•> fo'me, a space of time, etc., 

cannot be thus construed. — After J^» and its suffix we often find a 
second apposition, agreeing with the preceding substantive in gender, 

J , t ~ , , 

number and case, namely, the adjective ^♦»»', fern. *U*»., plur. masc. 

J , o t _ > s 1 r * t I 

,\, fern, (see Vol. i. § 309, a, 8) £*•• (the dual masc. ^U^^.t, 

§ 137] The Sentence & ite Parts— Appositives ; J£», £^. etc. 279 

* ' • ' . 

and fern. o'j^**»-> ar e not admitted by the great majority of gram- A 

marians) ; as ^j}X+*.\ ^X£s 2£ZX+)\ j^....i and the angels all (without 
exception) prostrated themselves. Sometimes this word is used without 
J^ ; as v ^**^*-l jvris&*$ verily I ivill lead them all astray ; 

.1 Jul jJkjJI cJULb o^i in th a t case I would pass all my time in 

>/ti * - o £ * * » t t a * i * a *t-o i + o * 

weeping Q«o» 1 in rhyme for *-*»-t) : l*-»»-' bj^> <>£JI Oj*» jJ ^ 
pulley creaked a whole day. 

Rem. a. Instead of using the pronominal suffix, the noun itself B 
is occasionally repeated after J^ ; as in the verse of Kuteiyir, 
^i) b ^LJI ^J^ ^UJI <su£l b ^A<>u most like of all men to the 

* 1 

moon (in beauty), instead of ^^Jl^s. 

Rem. 6. A peculiar use of ^£s as an appositive is exemplified 
by the phrases pl^-uJI J^s cla>..»)l ^Jk /*e is a £r«« hero, ^bJI ^Jk 

^bJI ^J^ Ae w « thorough scholar; tyiiS ^J^ i***" C*5l ^o?t 

ar£ a reaZ man. Similarly, according to §z-ZamahsarT, ^JbJI tjdk (J 

*•»<» i ^a*» a «■ 3 

^bJI .xa.. or^UJ! Ji»., ?Ais rs a thorough scholar (j**. toil, effort, 


pains ; Jio. truth, reality, fact). [Comp. § 82, b, rem. footnote.] 

j .. o £ 

Rem. c. To *»«a»1 are sometimes appended other synonymous 
words, which form their fern. sing, and masc. and fern. plur. in the 

J - a i j - :i j/tc 

same way; viz. *I&I, %*oj\, and *Q1. The usual sequence of 
these synonyms is exemplified in the phrase «■ ,it- * a\£=» u-*s*^ ' * V- 

j /t£ i - oi i , a J 

jCjI *»ojI «.I^1 <Ae entire army came ; but the order of the last D 

} * ii i ,a; 

two may be inverted, *-cul *Z>\. They are scarcely ever used 
singly and without J£s ; as ^ytZ£»l^ejiJI ^sb*. *A<? wAofe friie, 
or people, came to me; l\iiji\ L -;JL»a>J lx*j^ L-^o ■>l- l .^ ,^,) b 
\ %&> \ *^)^». would that I were a sucking child, whom ed-Delfd 
(or she with the slender nose) would carry for a whole year ; bj>Jji 

280 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 138 

 o j o * /tj * o ^5<«. 

A LUauisI A£jj ^jj ^>1«jUj U^AJtj^jljJJI ^/iey turned their backs upon 

us and protected themselves one and all by (seeking refuge from us 
behind) tn-No'mdn ibn Zur ( a. 

3 - ° £ 
[Rem. d. p-*^ is also often connected with the noun to which 

o - i ~ 

it refers by means of the preposition w>, as jXn ,g»c>.L> lj*U» ^Aey 

ca?«,e a^ o/" them, all together. Likewise ^>*c (§ 139) and the 
words j~i\ (properly a thong of untanned hide) and S*) (a worn-out 

i J J OOC-lOs** 

B rope), as dj-^U ojk*. take thou it all ; ^j-jb j>%&\ ?l». tf/ie people 

w J d -e o- ^ ^ ,. 

came altogether; aIajJ g^_ ^Jt aJI «i.» Ae </ave /tim <Ae ^m^ aZ- 

together ; aZajJ &l -^JU «^JU*3l / have brought thee the thing altogether. 

Similar corroboratives (§ 139, rem. a) are given by HamadanI in 
his Kitab M-*Elfaz, Beyrout ed. p. 214. D. G.] 

138. Like J^ and its synonyms are used O*^ 9 , f em - O^^* 

O , 

both (§ 83), [t^a*J a part] and ^JusJ a half. They follow the noun to 

C which they refer, and take the appropriate pronominal suffix ; as 

l-o^JL^ wwjJaJlj ^o^fcoJI ^ I the teacher and the physician, both of 

* 0*0 6ss ** *0*> ss - J *" 

them; l^-JJL£» <u2LJL«j -~.~~.<J\ ^Jisu+kj o-i-ot / believe in the two 

J *0»O ,* * 

natures of the Messiah and His two wills, both of them ; [j*y*l t ^^ 

o } j o ,. j j o 3 o * o* 

^o^-aaj a part of the people came to me] ; aa-aj jjl^aJI half the army. 

Rem. &*$& is very rarely used in apposition to a feminine 

.- ■- OssOZl'O 'Oi & J* 

D substantive, as l^^JL^ ^y^jjji] ^j>aj ^>-oJ thou favourest (me) 
with the proximity of the two Zeinebs, both of them. 

9t/ * . . . 

139. u m *" > , sou l> an( l 0^> e y e > essence (of a thing), are often 
employed in the sense of ipse, self (compare § 135). They are then 

not seldom prefixed to a noun, which they govern in the genitive ; as 

O'W' O*^ degradation itself, utter degradation; ^-jSs^iJI ,j>*£ ^ 

„ . o*> jo* ii *> S * <)* * *J 

star itself; Jj*i)' Ch* **? ^y^' U* SjW* 1 >* ^*s « aw expression 

9 a - 

§ 139] The Sentence and its Parts. — Appositives ; ,j*£, i^Ju. 281 

for that wherein the second (term) is identical with the first ; a-JLS C*jIj a 
I have seen himself; a~Ju ^>c Jv*?^' *^!ii ^ removing of ignorance 


//ww himself But more generally they are used, like J-&, as 
appositives to a definite noun, and are followed by the appropriate 

pronominal suffix ; as a— aj juj jU. ^«W himself came ; >-~^>) OsU*. 
Ij—aj ZeuM herself came; *~Ju Ij^c Col; / saw ilra/- himself 
If the noun be in the dual or plural, the plural forms u-Ju) and 
,jUcl should be employed, as U^—ajI (j^./*-*^' ^*i|; -^ saw the B 
two amirs themselves ; U^— ajI ^ju^JU Ojj* / passed by the two 
Hinds themselves ; j^ — hj\ l\jj^i\ aL3 the vizirs themselves killed him ; 
L' i W*'ji uW*' «■** £fos« are thy dirhems themselves]. Some authori- 
ties admit in this case the use of the singular or the dual, as 
U^ ■■>*■ '» 0'*HP' *W-, or UaLJu, the two ZVids themselves came; 

[comp. Vol. i. § 317, rem. d]. These words are also often connected 
with the nouns to which they refer by means of the preposition C 

«-> ; as (Uio j^^ eW. the 'amir came in person ; < u a j OIm-" 
degradation itself ; ^r-Jul) ,jjjlii»j o^'j rtW< ^ "^ they are choosing 
in person; yCcb ^-^1 ^'i*)l the 'aivafi (spear-shafts) are the 
spears themselves ; AjjjiJ jj^jLcb 5^— J I j'NlJjb ^ ^ yb ,j£) ^-Ju 
fo swears that unless he restores the women themselves, he icill assuredly 
attack him; [<u**j, etc. after an indefinite noun means a certain, as D 
j^o\yai\ ^j^— j oUj*j £-«>« v^-Jj i**.UI ^o-fLi j^o\^d\ Ulj *£7- 
Awdsim is the name of a district, there is no place of this name]. 

. 6 a * 

Occasionally, too, ,>*£ is appended in the form of an adverbial 
accusative, or by means of the preposition ^, but without any suffix ; 

as (O**?) *-*** }*> ••**, ^ W ^ t'^ry person (or thing). — ,.^-iJ and 

,>*c may be put in direct apposition to a pronominal suffix in the 

accusative or genitive ; as 2l..jL> »iJb Ojj-«. a— iJ aj o^, <^UjIj 

w. ii. 36 

282 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 139 

• J JO £- 

A jl~JJ. a-mAj aIjIj. But if the pronominal suffix represent the agent, 
as in the verb, the insertion of a separate pronoun is a matter of 

necessity ; as a~Ju jA wA$ he went away himself, ^a *3J* mm »*" 

^o^-~AJl ^Ae people were present themselves; *zL~Ju oJt %Z++.9 thou 

thyself stoodest up ; j<£~Ju\ j£>\ t>«>$ stand ye up yourselves (whereas 

we can say^»&£> '>•>* stand up all of you). 

Rem. a. The words J^, **«►»., icU, £»o*.1 etc., 0^=* and 

B ij\Zk£s, UueJ, ^-su, and ^>*c, form one division of that class of 

appositives, ajI^UI, which the grammarians name j^*£»UJI (or 

j e a ,• , _ j »i £ it, 

ju£a*Ht), <Ae strengthening or corroboration, and ji^^©JI £/te corro- 
borative, because they strengthen the idea of totality or of self, 
already contained in the py^-o, by the addition of their own. This 
class of appositives is designated by the special name of ju£»^Jt 

^3«i*<JI, £/*,e corroboration in meaning, to distinguish it from 

C .JajUJ! ju&^JJI, <Ae verbal corroboration, which consists in tne 

emphatic repetition (jjjSS)) or jljXJt) of the word itself ; as in the 

to *o * J a *o , ,?. * ,s. * * j * v> 10 * bi. s * oz^ 

verse ^^^.t ^^-^.l ^^i»-'^JI j)\j\ JUI ^iU-j 3U»*dt ^jj\ ^jJt ^u 

whither, whither can I escape with my mule ? The pursuers are 

come up to thee, come up to thee ; halt ! halt ! (^^-^.I in rhyme for 

^^m^.1). So also in answers, ^xi ^xj yes, yes ; *$ *$ no, no. If 

a word is governed by a preposition or other particle, both must 
, , i a* * a * 

D be repeated ; as ȣJb >iJL> O^-o / passed by thee, by thee ; j\ jJI ,-S 

»- a «» ««^a«o, a 

juj jl jJI i»5 .£e«/ is in £/i<e house, in the house ; I juj ^>l I juj ^jl 

^15 ^eic/, ^eicZ is standing up. A suffix pronoun may, however, 

be strengthened in this case, as well as in others, by the cor- 

, et « j » * * 
responding separate pronoun [§ 130] ; as wJt «iXj Oy-o / 2 )asse d by 

, j ,1 ,0, » 1 

thee, or ylb <xj by him ; lit f.iZcj^s) thou didst show kindness to me; 

J Uulj <Aow sawest us; C-JI O-^S thou stoodest up; [or by a 

§139] The Sentence & its Parts. — Appositives; the Adj. ii-oJt. 283 

construction with U, as jLj] &J\j I saw thee (Vol. i. § 189)]. A 
Only a poet could venture to say ^As*j ^>j£)' ol 0\ indeed, 
indeed the noble man is grave or sedate. 


Rem. b. Besides the ju£s^3, the Arab grammarians acknow- 
ledge three other classes of f->\yi; viz. wjeJt or < i a.oJl, 2Ae description 
or descriptive word, qualificative, adjective; ^JjuJt, <A« substitution 
or per mutative ; and ^jLJt oUa^, £/t« explanatory apposition. 

(1) The C*aj or <ul« may refer to the fy~-<> either directly ]} 

(in which case it is a simple adjective), as ^j*~ »• J^-j icJ«^« ^«re 
cawie £o ?>ie a handsome man ; or indirectly, in virtue of a following 
word which is connected with it, as a^.\ ^ tj^j ic^^- £/*ere 
cawe to me a man whose brother is handsome. In this latter case 

3 5 - J 

the adjective [called >_...; ....-qJI the connected] belongs, as a prefixed 

J - i 

predicate, to the following noun [called y ^>JI the connecting], 
which is its subject, and the two together form a 4JL0, or Q 
qualificative clause, of the preceding substantive, with which the 
adjective agrees in case only by attraction*; as U...». *ke*j C-olj 

3 3 i *J) * £ * * £$* &*o 3 OS-' 

09A.I / saw a man whose brother is handsome, lyyt».j U,,». Sl^-ot Oolj 

3 & 3 * , j - 3 * * * 

I saw a tooman whose face is handsome, dj j^c /«*£* w^J^ ^- J JJ^° 

t it + + * J * 3 S , *■ 

I passed by a man whose enemies are many, <su»1 ^ ^ .. o— ^J-a*j*> ^jj-* 

I passed by a man whose mother is handsome. If the following 
noun be in the dual or plural, the adjective is still left in the j) 

singular; as LoJkl^jl £y~^ ^^Jt^eLt Oj^-a I passed by two women 

a j j j j ^ * * i a * * 

whose parents are handsome ; ^yAj^wj rt ; ...a. ^J^j-j *-*JJ* I passed 
by some men whose faces are handsome, ^t%^\j\ \+jj& ^)l»»j "^'j 

* [Also when the preceding substantive is only understood, as 
lyjlbjl ^j^a>, ;J1 ^03 (sc. f JjLi}\) and from the tribes that are 
domiciled in Negd (HamdanT, p. 118, J. 11). D. G.] 

284 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 139 

A / saw some men whose fathers are noble ; though, if the noun be 

J OZ- 

plural, the broken plural of the adjective is admissible, as C*j|j 
djul \^jj£s *$>&-}, or djbl LoljJs, / saw a man whose forefathers are 
noble. If the preceding noun be defined in any way, the adjective 
takes the article; as Ay^J Q — a— J 1 ljuj <uAj / saw ^eia 7 , w&ose 
yace is handsome; oj^sj j»jJu+J\ ^^i^jti] ^y^i I ^jI ,«£»• ^^* 

'l-Futuh el-'Iyli, who has been mentioned before, narrates ; J»»»p' fU*. 
«ljjt (J-iUJI the man came, whose parents are excellent; ?$—£ A*- 

ou**J g <LLoUjI Jesus came, whose two natures are perfect, ^)^L^\ 

J J i vi * * 3 b*o 5J^, 

^oAj£»j J* J > * Z*1 1 £Ae kings who have been mentioned before ; jJjjS 

^o^j^Ai <Lw UUJ ?#oe to those zvhose hearts are hard ! The Arab 

grammarians assume that every adjective contains a pronominal 
agent within itself, when no other agent is expressed, and they 

therefore call the adjective J*A)I <Uw, that which is like the verb. 

- - J - * j - « SJ' « 3 - 

Consequently ^j~»*. J^,j is with them = yb S J~». J^-j = J^-j 

J J c 

(3A) ^—.».; but oj^t ^ . ...». ,J*»»j, where another agent is expressed, 
is-ojxi.1 ,J— j*. <J*!-j'> anc ^ s0 w ^h the rest: <u>t «U»u». ,J*^ 0)j»o-= 

jwc a ^ j ^ j ^ j a * * 6 j I.*,* t , 1 , j oi* i+ J »i' 

a*\ C **»»» i sj-cf'jl ^JJ*' vO^jW U^/^ *^^j ^» *ib = 1 ^W^ ^"^'j 

a •> ^•"" - J - JJ « / »• * * »x> ;»/ j e£, j j * * j * wxji f ^ j £?«• 

etc. In such cases the seemingly nominal sentence is in reality a 

verbal sentence, serving as asuo to the preceding substantive. On 

j) the other hand, if the substantive precedes the adjective, as in 

O-****" *yil \J*f-j ^^W") the second substantive and the adjective 
which follows it form together a really nominal sentence, of which 

1. ' - j 

the substantive is the \j<L~o and the adjective the j-». ; and 
consequently both must remain, under all circumstances, in the 
nominative, and the adjective must agree regularly with the 

substantive, as ^j— ». 03/i.l *jl».j Culj, iu«». 4*1 J*^ ^jj-*, etc. 

X JS/O j , , 

(2) The J ju, or permutative, is of four kinds, (a) JJCJ I J jy 

§139] Sentence & its Paris. — Ajypositives ; Permutative. JjuJ'. 285 

JJCJI ^^o 7A« substitution of the whole for the wlwle ; as j^c lV £ • -^ 

jj^t 'Omar, thy brother, came to me/^Jk^j^Ss a ^ j jlqJI js>y* lV c ^ 
» W«o x j ^ 
_^AjU*-£j i/i6 people of the city came to me, great and small; 

all I k\j*a jjfJiZmmA k\j*o ,JI to a straight path, the path of God ; 
4J&l£. <L»5l^ i*-«U iL-oUJU UJi...^ TPe in7£ seize and drag (him) 

j Z # s - j lis j a - - 

by the forelock, a lying, sinful forelock; obt ljuj wolj, Ou* 
do juJJ. A noun may be substituted for the suffix pronouns of 
the 3d pers., as tjuj <^'j, J^j *4 ^-"JJ*' IjJl*. ojj t^'sii Aim, Hdlid, B 

^Jla»^ lyJl^ Cy-° *^ ^^J*^' ^j' l*^ notwithstanding that th°,y — 
the times — are all become marvellous ; but not for the suffixes of 
the 1st and 2nd pers., unless a plurality of individuals is distinctly 

referred to, as tJ^bj Wj^ ' J^ ^ OL>^ (which) niay be a festival 
for ns, for the first of us and the last of us. We cannot say 
Ijuj >2XZj\j, juj *£b Ojj*; nor even ^Cn .^. M [UIJ ^ [Jj^I] 
woe to me, the poor ! J9 ij&\ ^JLJLc oh ?A«e, <A« noble*. In such cases (J 
as i)bl <ili>lj, those are right who regard ,i)b1 not as a Jju but 
as a J~r=>y> (see rem. a). [To this kind belong the permutatives 

that indicate the parts of the whole, the species of the genus, the 

definitions of measure, number, weight and colour (§ 95, f oot- 
id }»>e , a -0*> » * + 

note).] — (6) J£) I s^yt> ^oxA t J ju the substitution of the part for 

) , 3 > - fi«» j o - £ 

the whole ; as a£U ouipi C-J^l I ate the loaf the third part of it, 
ox I ate a third of the loaf; jlJI aJL5 £iss Aim, his hand; D 

i^j^fj >»*b*j)lj Q' * * W ^J^jl ^ threatened me, my foot, with 

the prison and fetters, (c) JLjJw^)l Jju <A€ comprehensive substi- 
tution, i.e. the permutative which indicates a quality or circumstance 

* [In the former case we ought either to write jj-Jw^JI as 

,t ' ' 

predicate of the emphatic Ul (§ 130), or to use the accusative of 

specification (§ 35, b, S), which must be used in the latter case.] 

286 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 139 

A possessed by or included in the preceding substantive ; as L5 ^a».fr< 

J jO 40 , , ) * , ,0 s oi 

•x^Xc jjtj Zeid's learning filled me with surprise ; ^JLe*^£» ,_J£*a»£l 

* * i o o * oi * 

thy speech filled me with surprise; ULa^ ,_oA». ,-UJLJjJ! Lo thou 

6 , * * , 

hast not found my understanding lost (or thrown away) ; O^i^ij 

s * * * o* * } t * 

lySl* ijj juaJ and she called to mind the coldness of the water of 

Taktud ; 4*3 JUS^ol^aJI jv**^' O-* &>^\~~ i they will question thee 

about fighting in the sacred month, lit. about the sacred month, 

B (about) fighting in it. (d) The fourth case is where the per- 

mutative (Jju^Jt) is wholly different from the *Uo J**** or word 
for which it is substituted (d-i* Jjcj^JU ^L^JI JjtJI). It is of 

, 0*0 J * * 

two sorts: (a) wjIj-£*n)I jJjiJ the permutative of retractation (from 

.. • a £ »» -• ^ao j -• ^ 

w)j-ol, to £wm aivay from), or 6 I juJ t ^Jju ^Ae substitution of a new 
opinion, something one ivould like to substitute for the original 

t J } * t 

statement ; as, for instance, when one says jj>*»» cJtfol / ate bread, 
but then, preferring to state that he had eaten meat, adds the 

i * to* to > } a * i 

Q word l t» I (l«*J \j~^ cJLS»l). Here, to use the words of the 

J vt tO J ' J ' ' 1 JO sbfO J * J 

grammarians, juUJI Jwc Ju l*^ c ^ l»)l Juoaj £/*e metbu' is designed 
as well as the tdbi 1 ; and this is what distinguishes it from (ft) ^jju 
^jL.>«.*3tj Ja-liJt the permutative of error and forgetfulness, in which 

o j o »■ 

the &>**•« is uttered merely by mistake, and the correct word 

C , , - J 0, - 

immediately substituted for it ; as when one says ^ji s r ^j £jjj-» 

* OiO J * * 

I passed by a dog, (I meant to say) a horse. The wjI^^JI jjju is 

D equivalent to the use of the particle ^ (U^J Jj ]}*»• C*A£»I). 

(3) The (jLJt Uuftfi or explicative apposition is the asyndetic 
connection of a substantive with a preceding substantive, which it 
more nearly defines ; as juj ^)j*.l i^JsU*. <% brother Zeid came to 

0*1 * it U * ' ' Ot si i 

me; j+s- ^aa*. yi\ aJUb ^o-J>l 'Abu Ilafs 'Omar swore by God 
(j-*£- in rhyme for^c); J»-jJto jU ^j*c i«**^ ^ te «^a^ 6e given to 

, * , > - - - J j J 

drink water, watery humour (or matter) ; a£s>jL*o oj^Jj ^-o ^>y. 

§ 140] The Sentence and its Parts. — Verbal Appositives. 287 

iijljj {which) is lighted with (the oil of) a blessed tree, an olive. A 

.• j * * * 
This apposition is equivalent to the use of ^Aj, l<*3> e ^ c - ( e -»- 

9 0**3* * it ~ * 

juj ybj £)j±.\ j-jglfc), and, being asyndetic, is opposed to the 
Jt— J I otbcc, or connection of sequence, which takes place by means 

, 2 J Z * oi oi 

of connective particles, such as j, ^J, ^j, ^j**., j»\, and ^1. [To 

this kind belong the appositives to a vocative (§ 38, rem. f), those 

that denote the material (§ 94), the nicknames (§ 95, a, rem.), etc.] 

j * * 
Rem. c. One verb may be substituted for another by the ^jju 

hi 30*9 * _ .• " -.- J * * 0*0 3* * * J t *t * * • I 6^0*. ^ 

JiCJI ^>* J&l, as w>IJut)l <d utcUu Utfl JJu JUj JjUj ^ B 
whosoever doeth this, shall find a recompense of sin — his chastisement 

t * { * * * * * 2 1 r l - * * 

shall he doubled; *$}*?. LJn,rw »va>j ^jW^ lj' W vo-*^ ^^ 15** 
when thou contest to us — visitest us in our country — thou shalt find 

* *9 *3 3 * * * 0' 0*3* 

firewood in abundance ; or by the Jl^Iw^M yjj*>, as UJI ^J-cu ^o 

0*3 * * * 

^jju Uj ^jjC-~j whoever comes to us (and) asks help of us, is helped. 

Rem. d. The word to which a jSsyo is annexed is called by the 

3 2 t 30* 

grammarians j*£bj^JI that which is strengthened or corroborated; C 

. *' 6 0* J J * 0* 130*0* 

that which is followed by a aJus or O^aJ, \ m fij*oy+i\, or OjjU^JI, #A«? 
qualified or described ; that which has a ^Jju after it, <uu JjJ^JI 
£/i«£ /or which something is substituted ; and that to which a 

**OiO 30 * 0** 3 3 0*0* 

,jLJI oikfi is appended, aJLc o^Jajt^JI Me wore? to which (an 
explanatory word) is attached (by means of a virtual conjunction). 


Rem. e. In phrases like ^^utJ^^-aju I^JUUJ, they fought xoith 


one another, the words ^axJ ^-cuu are a permutative of the agent D 

3 " j * * * 

jt*, contained in the verb \jX3\Ju, and serve to strengthen the idea 

of reciprocity belonging to that verbal form. The J^UjT *Jj& J>*$ 
o* ***-** 

in (»>a*-J, which supplies the place of the accusative, is dependent 

3 * *^ 3 * * * 

upon I^JJIS, they fought with, contained in b^JUUb. 

140. One finite verb may also be put in apposition to another. 
In this case either (a) the first is the preparative act, introductory 

288 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 141 

3 ' s s , , * 

A to the second, as a) >* %-> j>\l he arose (and) prostrated himself before 
^'w, dbt dUjo ^o-UI >J~ij\i then he sent (and) informed his father of 
this, 0%x5j ^a)I O^Uj and disturbances broke out again ; or (o) the 

s - i * * - 

second modifies the first, as JU&I jia....* /^ continued long prostrate, 

* s t l it' 

yj*~*J\ L5 ^£ he sang well. In both cases the older and more elegant 
form of expression is to insert the conjunction o : aJ j»f ~mi >oU>, 
Jl~i *\e- he asked again, JU»U j^-w. If the first of the two verbs 

B be a perfect, the second must be so likewise, for the imperfect would 
be a [Oj^*-* or ] j**** J^*- (see § 8, d, e), and, as such, would virtually 
stand in the accusative [comp. § 44, c, rem. a] ; as ^Aju J->jl w/^Y 
nuntiaturus, he sent to inform. If both verbs are in the imperfect, 
the second may either be an apposition [§ 139, rem. c] or a jjJLc Jl»»; 
as ^oJaj (J-* 1 .^ ^ s^wdis (a«(?) informs, or mitt it nuntiaturus, he sends 
to inform*. 

Q Rem. The later Arabic construction, without the conjunction, 

„ ' .7 7 

is very common in Syriac, e.g. 01,~kj| 5,_» Ae senf (awe?) seized him, 

7 7 

Q 1 Q rme^rr} they rebuilt ; and also occurs in Hebrew, e.g. fQISJ^ 
•?|3N3f nyiNt, Gen. xxx. 31. 

2. Concord in Gender and Number between the Parts 
of a Sentence. 

D 141. In verbal sentences, in which (according to § 118) the 
predicate (verb) must always precede the subject (agent), the following 
rules hold regarding their agreement in gender and number. 

142. (a) If the subject be a singular substantive, which is 
feminine by signification (Vol. i. § 290, a), two constructions are 
possible, (a) If it immediately follows the verb, the verb must be 

* [In this case also the conjunction ^j may be inserted, as 
djj^.13 ^«»*1 / will come to take it, Tab. i. 1526, 1. 13. D. G.] 

§ 1 42] Sentence and its Parts. — Concord of Predicate & Subject. 289 

put in the fern. sing. ; as jU* OsL*. ///«rf came, jij*i ' 5 t^l cJU> £Ae A 
w(/« o/" el-Aziz said. But (/?) if it be separated from the verb by one 
or more words, the verb may stand in the sing, masc, although the 

fem. is preferable; as i\j*\ ^-il*)! j-oa. a woman came before the 
judge; %y~> jA Vi ^k*».'^l jJj jSi a bad mother gave birth to that poor 

U-Ahtal; Sj^lj v >£u oji. \%j*\ \j\a man, ichom one of you (women) 

has deceived. [As to the collectives mentioned Vol. i. § 290, a, c, see 
§ 145.] 

Rem. a. The form of expression ii^li J 15, So-and-so said, is B 
mentioned by the grammarians only to be condemned. 

[Rem. b. The concord remains if, in negative or interrogative 
sentences, the subject be preceded by ^>-o, as l\j*\ yj^c Osl». Le 

.. 3* 3 ' * B * O * 

no woman came, iLJ ^e C-.,«a-o j3 ^£s how niixny nights have 
gone by ! T>. G.] 

(b) If the subject be a singular substantive, which is feminine 
merely by form or usage (Vol. i. §§ 290, b, 291), the preceding verb 
may be put either in the masculine or feminine, whether the subject C 
immediately follows it or not, though in the former ease the feminine 

is preferable, as u ~o->. t Jl c~«JU» the sun rose, iiJJI o^~^ the brick 

was broken, rather than ^-^1 *lb, iuUI j--&. In the following 

examples the verb is masculine : £>-t^ <u3l£ O^ o»-£» tjj- ^ ; g * 

^o^M O* aw ^ s^ tr^«^ was the end of those icho preceded them ; 

4a.A.^£JLg ^UU ^>£> ^ M«£ ^ people may not have any pretext 

against you; <uj £yo ikc^-a «jU»- <j-oi and whosoever receives an D 

admonition from his Lord : <us>La».^ v -> jjl£» ^3 even if there be in 
them poveHy or straitness. 

(c) If the feminine subject be separated from the verb by the 
particle *$\ , the verb is put' in the masculine ; as 3U5 *$\ \£sj U 

~*,3& 3>o 

s$»*)\ yjjS no one was innocent except the maidservant of'lbnu 'l-Ala 
w. 11. 37 

290 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 143 

A- 5 ' 6 ''"' 

A (i.e. j**\ \£=>j U). The feminine is, however, admissible, especially in 
poetry, as in the above example, ^Jl C*£»j U (i.e. SUs). 

(e?) The verbs ^qAj and ^-^ (Vol. i. § 183) take the masculine 
form in preference to the feminine, even when the subject is feminine 
by signification; as >-— iJj Slj-oJI ^sj Zeineb is an excellent woman! 

rather than 

B 143. If the subject be a plur. sanus masc, or a plur. fractus 
denoting persons of the male sex, the preceding verb is usually put in 
the sing, masc, particularly when one or more words are interposed 

between it and the subject; as 03^^^ J^ the believers said; 
a£© \^ya Jt^) j*$i Oli t\et. there came one day (some) men from 

> a < 

•** s VI •*> , ,r , s } f. )Z 

Me^kla; ilyA-JI ^>*l U£» o-*P' shall we believe as fools have believed? 
But Sbj^JI cJIS narrators say ; ^y~c l\j*JJ\ ^5*^* t i Uj and what is 
C it pray that the poets want of me ? *2U*i ,j»o J-jj >z+jj£s jJ6 apostles 
have been accused of falsehood before thee. 

Rem. a. A similar construction may be found even in Old 
German ; as do wart genuoger ougen von heizen trdhenen rdt ; uns 
hazzet liute imde lant. 

Rem. b. Oy^.i sons (P^- °^ C>^')> an d other similar words 
(Vol. i. § 302, e, and rem. d), are exceptions, being treated as 
plurales fracti (see § 144), and therefore admitting the verb in the 

I) fern. sing. This remark applies, however, to £)£*! only when it is 

*' • ' c 
used to denote a family or tribe (compare § 147); as yXj c-JIS 

' "" * 
jJ-Jtj-wt the Benu ' IsrcCll (Children of Israel) said. 

144. If the subject be a pluralis fractus, no matter whether 
derived from a masc. or a fem. sing., the preceding verb may be either 

masc. or fem.; as «iXJi jju \^y> j£>£* Cs~.»v then, after this, your ilii 
hearts became hard (from s^X3, masc.) ; 9-^0 ^Jo veLaJI O^ ^5** 
when the tents are (set up) at Du Toluh (from «*-«*•, fem.). See § 143. 

§ 146] Sentence and ite Pai-ts. — Concord of Predicate & Subject. 291 

Rem. The remark made in § 142, c, regarding the particle A 
*^t, applies here too. An example of the fern, is *$\ ws-aj Uj 

1 <■ * StO 1 J i jO 

^wl^aJt cjJLoJI and nothing remained but the loic rugged ridges 
of hills (from xJLs, fern.), where a prose writer would have said 

C5^ **> scil - l^r 1 - 

145. If the subject be a collective of the class mentioned in 

Vol. i. § 290, a, e, like^o"*^ sheep or goats, j~b birds, or one of the B 
collectives or other nouns mentioned in Vol. i. § 292, the preceding 
verb may be put either in the masculine or feminine, though the fern. 

is preferable, if the subject be feminine ; as j^jLaJI o J ~J j>yJt cJll 

\s* L5^ ^ ie ^ eirs &'#> The Christians stand upon nothing (have no 

* © „ 

foundation for their belief) ; J^13 tj-». ^-^j Jiji ^U*-' ^'j' lc 5 ! 
Ai« j-JaJI / saic myself (in a dream) carrying upon my head (some) 
bread, of which the birds were eating. C 

146. If the subject be a feminine noun in the plural number, 
whether plur. sanus or plur. fractus, the preceding verb may be put 
either in the masc. or fern. sing. ; unless the plur. sanus refers to 
persons of the female sex, in which case the fern, is decidedly to be 

J ***** J M ■>/ , 0*0 

preferred. Examples : oU-Jt ^£5jU. U «mu ^ after the convincing 

proofs hare reached you ; j^ytj^ C ~i £» '-o-« because of what their 
hands have written; t^-o^ U OlL*-> ^^Ujli the evil consequences of D 

S J <■ a * *+ ++, 

what they did, came upon them ; \j>J»<) a* £ if?** L5*"** an ^ m if 

- 3 - *i *, * a s lit 

daughters lamented their misery ; lyjIjUl j^o jJ *u^) because its signs 

have already appeared; ioj^t ^ 5^-J J 15 (some) women in the 

til*, , j , , i , » * 
city said ; ^AjUJ ^ — I ,jljdk y^i had it not been for these two, 

their women icould have been taken prisoners; but such instances as 


1 , C 33* 3 3 ~ , , 

oU* fr «J 1 ^s sU. 131 , when believing women come unto you, are com- 
paratively rare. 

292 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 147 

A 147. The names of the Arab tribes, which are mostly of the 
feminine gender, take a preceding verb in the fern. sing, (see § 143, 
rem. b) ; but a following verb may be put in the plur. masc, because 

such names have the sense of collectives ; e.g. j»*£sj J-*** C«*»%j 

aJjjJI \Ju~* ^ J »«^ 0V ia»J-» U t^jibluJj (the tribes of ') 'Okail and Koseir 

assembled and complained to one another of what was being done to 
them by Seifu 'd-daula. 

B 148. In general, when once the subject has been mentioned, any 
following verb must agree with it strictly in gender and number ; as 

J W Ml >" ' ' 

oj^>jju ^Xs yJ^~J\ ^ji ytt>^ Lois jtf^-A ^ej^JLs Oj^W* 3 ^' A t^ e - Trj^" 

the hunters came out (sing.) against him and he fled from them, and, 
whilst he continued on level ground, they did not overtake him (plur.) ; 

^olo^JI r-^ Ol^-^iri ^<& OVj^*-^' ** ff^id those parting are 

moved (sing.) by it as they are moved (plur.) by the mournful cooing of 

C doves; s'xr" ***~! ^j^ ***** *** O^ there was (masc.) upon it a 

cupola, known (fem.) by (the name of) t/ie cupola of the air ; Sjli^j^ 

jJ-oJt (^jXcl ^Jt \^y^+*-* 0^<^ 3t ^ A i3 -/o-^W-'' j'jjp' ^j+i j-a^J' and 
the pilgrims leave (sing.) their baggage at the cave of el-Hidr, and 
ascend (plur., jtjjJI being a plur. fract. denoting rational beings) 
two miles to tJie top of the mountain ; jt£-*? (J^sUuj S^j'^Lo aJJ GW 
has angels wlw watch over you in turn (plur., for the same reason as in 
D the last example); w^aj ^ajIjjI^-^JI JU»i awe? the herd wheeled 

(masc.) and guarded (tlieir rear) with an old buck (v>**jl fem., 
because, with the exception of the single buck, the rest of the herd 
were does) ; eLc'jt oV^ O^*^ 3 •>** \c-\3j a-u jjj\i and he took out 
of it scraps of paper written with (ink of) various colours (where 
C%*l£> might also be used). — If irrational or inanimate objects are 
spoken of (for example, in fables) as persons, the plur. fractus may 
be followed by the verb in the plur. masc; as l^j'-et Zy* w**}^ 

§ 149] Sentence and its Parts. — Concord of Predicate & Subject. 293 
%+~t jJL». once <?« a time (some) dogs found the skin of a beast of prey ; A 

i _ -- , s , oi i * * a* * a j a - «• o jj j * * 

dJUt Uibul I^JIS I.UL* ^5 j^ ^J ^oA^jJLaJ tyiSj tfW ^<?2/ £/*«// say to 

their skins (members), Why hare ye borne ivitness against us? They 
shall answer, God hath made us speak. 

[Rem. When the subject in the plural denotes irrational or 
inanimate objects, the plur. fern, of the verb is preferred in classic 
Arabic, if their number does not exceed ten, the sing, fern., if it be 

more, as tJ^A*- >t>*$J2 and cJL». SjJ^c ^j^^) (§ 111). The same 

rule applies to the pronouns that refer to them, which in the B 

former case are ^jJb. ^>A, in the latter ,-A and Ub (as a suffix). 

Comp. Fleischer, A7. Schr. i. 695.] 

149. If the subject be a substantive in the dual number, the 
preceding verb must be put in the singular, but must agree with the 

subject in gender. Examples : oW** Qa ....)! <**« *J^*3 an d two 

young men went into the prison along with him; 0*^*?y" {j^j^ ^ 

after the two men disputed with one another about me; ^J^=> U jju C 

^jt^a.'^t (Jjwj ^) U j-o*i)l ,j-« tuo a/fer something had taken place 

* a * a*> j - ?^ ^ - 

between us, which brother and sister do not do; ^j\j*a*}\ w*Ju ^ 

<£** - - a j at "' - s^o-^ se- 

U-»eJ U l^jju (j' 'f^ 9 '^i *^J -**! ^ ^00 fo"»M», day and night, 
when they seek (to effect anything), are never long in attaining what 
they aim at; o^^-j^ aljuitj «1ju O^o->j and his hands and arms 

j - - * a * j a , s * 

and feet were pierced with nails ; oUjJ wsxkJ ^j^j <suw like one 

5 - a - j * a ' * j a*, z „ s a , „ , g, 

whose feet are cut off'; ^)U£» <z- L s u U J-e^ *jj lj \j*o\»- jju ^^ V D 
/fad Bedr been present and 'Ibn Hamel, thy hands would not have 

a * * * * ~ sii*> j a } *a* a i** - 

been branded (J-»»» in rhynie for J-**-) ; s^-^l J>k O-* alus ol3> ^ 

w«?/ 7^5 e#&? ?*eiw cease from constant weeping ; i*^- «2JUjLw ^^* Jui. 

jJLic 3^*5 ^_5^»- «^J>J 0-*3 ^ 3^*3 cut your moustache till your 
lips can be seen, and your dress till your heels can be seen (compare, in 

294 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 150 

A Hebrew, Micali iv. 11, Sfltyg |VX3 Tlini) ; <J& c£>i^ iJUJiaj 
UojI Jl^JI ^i ,jUjLUI and thus these two words (viz. ta iy3 and D7J?) 

«re alike in their application to men also. — A following verb must, of 
course, agree strictly with the preceding subject in number as well as 

gender ; as %£Ju ,jl ^Cu ^jU&jUs o^a >1 when two troops among 

you were on the point (sing.) of behaving with cowardice (dual). But 
if it be a collective, designating rational beings, the masc. plur. is 

admissible; as U-v*^ l^a*»Leli I^JJLISI (j^^u^oJI ^o ^>U«jlb jjlj 

B and if two parties of believers fight with one another, make peace 
between them. 

Rem. Sometimes, however, a preceding verb is found in actual 
agreement with a following subject in the dual or plural, or even 

G ' J } //»t s * 

in virtual agreement with a singular collective; as jut~o di.©JL>l j3^ 
^^■o.a.j after both far and near (after every one) had abandoned him 
(>» » »*■ i n rhyme for j0if ^».) ; ol-Uc ^j-o^-' his eyes were red; 
Q olju \Zcj his hands threw or shot; .-ojUj »**$ »»^-^Jt .JtjiJt (J>jIj 

the women saw the white hairs which glittered in my whiskers; 
,-XaI jJ^swJI gtjjiwl ,-i j-o^ojJj wty family abuse me for the 
purchase of the palm-trees; ^Aj-o^j OjJJItli i**>$* £)jj*oj my 
people aided thee, and thou becamest powerful through their aid. 
The phrase *£**£t^JI ,-JjJl^l, the fleas devoured me, is generally 

cited by the native grammarians to exemplify this construction, 
D [which, they say, is peculiar to the dialect of the tribe of Teiyi']. 

150. If the preceding verb has several subjects, it may be put 
in the plural, as C-JI3 lit L£*. thou and I are come ; or it may agree 

) J* , J J \ J J s 

iii number and gender with the nearest subject, as «>^3 OiL/* **■» "-.! .3 
a~i\j ( JLc >n jjLjl and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon 

his head ; ^^y> ^ 03^3 ^rij-* >^©-*£> Miriam and Aaron spoke 
about Moses. — If the subjects precede, and are either three or more 

§ 151] Sentence and its Parts. — Concord of Predicate & Subject. 295 

singulars, or a singular and a dual, the verb is put in the plural ; if A 
they are merely two singulars, in the dual ; as 1^-slaJ O^^P'i O-^' 
the belly and the two feet disputed with one another ; j-**^ 'j >>-*-" 
U-sULj the cold and the heat disputed icith one another : j^*JJ\ 3 ^^-Jlj 
(jlj^...^; a«(/ £fo plants and trees icorship (not Oi ***?■ ... . » , because 

^»a*Jt and ^a..£)l are not individuals but species); c^j'^' cJ^»»-j 
Sj^U i£»i lx£»jk3 JLaJlj r<w<? {when) the earth and the mountains 

a 2 j 

shall be lifted up and dashed in pieces at one stroke (not C-^j or n 

* » J j - a* 

£>££>*. JLaJt being a plur. fract). If the subjects be of different 
genders, the verb is usually put in the masculine, as in the first of the 
above examples, or in j-£aJI C^j^ij *JJI O-* O'***^ J*yA\ s x^ => 3 J — ^' 
indolence and excess of sleep remove us far from God and make us 
heirs of (reduce us to) poverty. 

151. The verb frequently agrees in respect of gender, not with 
the grammatical subject, but with its complement (the genitive C 

*•» it 1 a i a ~ * a* , 

annexed to it), which is the logical subject; as «L»I J^^yJzU*. ^ 

j - - a , 

even though every sign should come (be shown) unto them ; J^»--> j*$-> 

f * a j a * a a * * .. a * w j 

\j jtr* . o j+±. y^* ci«c U t^-su J^» on the day (ichen) every soul shall 
find the good it has done present (along with itself before God) ; 

- - :i j - a * 0*0 j a< a * j 

^Loct > .p^ wsdyJLwl all my limbs were relaxed ; ^joju C-.T.k'S 

A3uLo\ some of his fingers were cut off; ,>uu 'y-aaj *^« ^jXJu 
some of them ransom themselves from him icith others (by giving up D 
others to him) ; Lliyc> ) j. - ., ; ... J I ^^uu 1^1 when some years shall have 

gnawed at us ; ^UU c«a^l iol j~±. ^ b ye are the best people 

that has been brought forth (created) for mankind ; Ojifcl l»ib 
j*~ i }^\ JT^y J -0 Vs^' c»yfc.. J ?>-^j ^^ walked as spears wave, the 

a ^»*» j* - 

fo/« 0/ ?r^<?rt are bent by the passing of gentle breezes: JJuUI SjUl 

296 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 152 

s ^ e - o i o , 

A ^5* ^3^°"i wi > »*» C « Me brightness of the intellect is obscured (or 

eclipsed) by obeying lust. As the above examples show, this agreement 
of the verb with the logical subject most frequently and naturally 
takes place when the grammatical subject expresses a subordinate 

5 J O - 9 0s 90s 

idea, like j£>, £*«►»-, u***-> andj-ji (see § 82). 

[Rem. The verb sometimes agrees with a subject that is to be 
supplied from the context, as <LJL£a, SJLaJ, etc. Examples : C-*JLi 

it *> ' 1 ' s s - - 

g 4JJI J^~»j */m (threatening) reached the Ajyostle of God ; ,-9 *->'>* 

• ^ * s vt *o * 

lyJaLA^-j juwjJt ^/-ii <Ais (saying) remained in tlie mind of er-Rasld 

and he kept it in memory. Comp. the phrase <iU lyLp^a. ,J O^ '*• 

he is not the man to forgive thee this (deed). D. G.] 

152. What has been said regarding the concord of gender and 
number in a verbal sentence, is nearly all applicable to a nominal 
C sentence. 

(a) When the predicate [being a verb, or an adjective] follows 
the subject, they must agree strictly in gender and number (see § 148); 
unless the subject be a plur. fractus, in which case the predicate may 

9s s J J )0iO* J 3 1 0& * * 

also be put in the fem. sing., as S^bU 0***^3 V.*^*" LS^ the 
hearts are blind, whilst the eyes are seeing. This latter remark applies 

s - * J s - 

also to the names of the Arab tribes (see § 147) ; as S^>$i u-*^ y~>3 

sssO'Os'9's , 

ajuxo jjj y\s- ^> ^i aJjLJ and the Benu 'Abs were at that time 
D dwelling among the Benu 'Amir 'ibn Sa'sa'a. 

(b) When the predicate precedes the subject, as happens in 
negative and interrogative sentences, then (a) if the sentence be 
nominal (see § 117), the predicate and subject must agree in number; 
but (/?) if the sentence be verbal (see § 121), the predicate is put in 
the singular. 

(c) If the subject be a collective, the predicate may be put in 
the plural ; as 0>*^ 5 ** J^ 9 "^ are obeying him. Similarly, when a 

§ 1 52] Sentence and its Parts. — Concord of Predicate & Subject. 297 

e- * I . 

verb is placed after a collective subject (see § 148) ; as j2&\ 0^3 A 
yjjjSLLj *$ j^UJI but the greatest part of mankind are thankless; 

/ ; ' / ; / j ^ .' j : 5 - i j e j 

^Ul ^)|aj>..i ^gy^ J^O-* «■ jww< o/" ^<??w «;v afraid of men : [l^i=>pl 
j^^s^j U ^JjJI &£ £fo Turks alone as long as they let you alone ; 

»** j , a , Si 

t^CLb duL^et. jj*^ because his army had perished]. 

(d) The predicate frequently agrees in gender, not with the 
grammatical subject, but with its complement, which is the logical B 

subject (see § 151) ; as O^-JI i£5l3 ^^Ju J£s every soul shall taste of 

death; as^jxa ^ajUp (JL**.!^*)! ^31 the committing of crimes is held 

•I i j 
laudable by them. [Less frequent are such expressions as (jil J»£-» 

jib\j { j^c yj^sj «-«L» every ear is hearing, and every eye seeing.] 

[Rem. In the words of the Prophet JUj j»* J»& <j| *$\ 

^Jbk ij^jJ Co>J .jyi aJLaI^JI ,-i wJl^ SpUj verily, whatever 

claims of blood, money or privilege there existed in the time of C 
Ignorance, are under these my feet, i.e. are abolished by me, the 

fern, form of OJli=-> and ,-yi (replaced in "Ibn Hisam 821, 1. 6 and 

^ - • mi J J J 

Tab. i. 1642, 1. 9 by y^i .jSju), is to be explained by V J^ having 
the sense of icLo_». totality, just as in the verse of Gamll SjLjJI ^jl 
_...»«o»JU verily the visiting is easy for the loving one, the 

predicate has been put in the masc. gender according to the sense 
(^jiiteJI ^^U), SjLjjJI being =jt>eJI, and in ^^J O* e^^— 5 O^ 
lyj t^>_5' -i>it^4»Jl ,jt3 anc? i/" fAow as& me about my locks, lot the D 
vicissitudes of time have taken them away, the verb agrees, not with 

i * * a, j ,,, , a, 

»£ol^-»JI, but with its equivalent ^jUj^swJI. In the words of the 
tradition (Zamahsarl, Fdik, ii. 490) JLo+^tf^ aJUl J-~~- ,ji jJJJUl 
efea^A <m the path of God is purifying {from the filth of sin), the 
predicate is according to some interpreters fern., because JJJUt has 

**_*■£*■ <i * a - 

the meaning of o}[y*D\ martyrdom. Others say that <Uoii» a 
practice is to be understood. Neither explication is necessary, 
w. ii. 33 

298 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 152 

A for the nomina actionis are of both genders (Vol. i. § 292, d). 

. OsDlsOZllOS *>* 

Other examples are Tab. i. 2185, 1. 9 seq. Sah-clo} Z.9j*o j>y*o)\j 

f s s 6 * * * 

and fasting makes iveak and feeble ; Lebld, Mu'all. 33 S^lc wol£»^ 
ly^ljkSI Ojkjf ^A lit iiU-o and it vms his wont, to let her precede, 
when she drew back, where also some interpreters say that the 
predicate agrees with a*ojjl$\ =js\j£*$S ; Faik i. 246 JLSt ,-fc UJI 
jb>tj <Ats is only an advancing and a retreating (comp. e). D. G.] 

B (e) If the subject of a nominal sentence be a personal or demon- 
strative pronoun, and the predicate a feminine substantive or a plur. 
fractus*, then the former is generally put in the fem. sing., even 
when the preceding substantive, to which it refers, is of the masc. 

gender ; as S^JJ o Jok ,jl this is an admonition (Germ, dies ist eine 

il x> 1 11 * 

Erinnerung, Fr. ceci est tin avertissement) ; aJJI ^j«x». dUJ such are 
God's ordinances (Germ, dies sind Gottes Regeln, Fr. ce sont-la les 
regies de Dieu) ; JIaJb ^^ 1*>Lj aAJI oLjl «iUj s?/c/e are GW's 

C signs, which we repeat to thee with truth. [In like manner, if O^ 
or one of its "sisters" be used (§ 131), this may agree in gender with 

the predicate, as ^j*.*i)l c-Jl^ ^tj a?ie? «/ ^ contrary should 

sirs til a * , ' s 

happen; *->>*" ^ **~* ^ Ojlo j^5j a»<# /£ has become a custom 

Qii 1 

of mine with the Arabs (*E1-Mubarrad, 279, 1. 4 with the variant <Uw); 
I^JIS ^1 *^l ^^yUJLi ^^£3 ^ j£ then sJiall no other e.rcuse be theirs 

but to say (Kor'an vi. 23 according to some readers) ; wJtfS ^a^*^^ 

* j * * * 
jy^Ltrij* and they bore down upon them and this was their defeat ; see 

D other examples in my note on *E1-Mubarrad ii. 1 08. This is also the case 

, , , il , , , 

after the interrogative pronouns o-o and U (§ 170), as «il*l oJl^ ^>o 

who was thy mother ? *it^.l». (OjLo =) Osl*. U what became (or was) 
thy want ? 

* [The word ojJb, in the expression ^Ap »JUI ojJk (am is a thousand 

i .. -• i 
dirhems, is explained by the grammarians as standing for^^AljjJI ajUk.] 

§ 154] Negative and Prohibitive Sentences. 299 

Rem. In order to express the neuter this, it, etc. both the **■ 
masc. and fern. sing, of the personal and demonstrative pronouns 

* 2Z - j " s - .- - '~ *i 

may be used. Examples of the latter: »iJbt ^>aJJt C~ot ^JOI 

j * ai* -a i- a i -•? , a , * a j 

v -t?t''j lyio^^ZAl ,-J! ,£UJj 15-^J ^ Aai?e heard, mayest thou avoid 
imprecation ! that thou hast blamed me, and because of this I am 

, 2 * a , , * 

anxious and distressed ; IaIjI OJl^j and so indeed did it happen 

* j j a'*, 

(Tab. i. 2951, 1. 1); U^JJlai ye have done it, it is your fault 

(Tab. i. 2755, 1. 12); H.i, cw lAjJl**. jJ they Jiave made it to be 

treachery, such as was committed against *El-Hosein. This is 

2 a*o "i. ' -c 3 * 

applicable also to the 4.«aiJt or ^LuJI j^-o.«s>, which is masc. or fern, 
according to the gender of the subject in the following sentence. 

j < a ia-o * a * * ,2 + 

An example of the fern, is Kor'an xxii. 45 jLaj*}M ,y«JU *$ Vyjli 
ybr i£ is not the eyes that become blind. D. G.] 


1. Xegative and Prohibitive Sentences. C 

153. The negative particles may, as in the Indo-European 
languages, deny any part of the sentence, — the predicate, the subject 

(e.g. ^,-^a J 1 iJL» *$, § 39), the object, the kcil or circumstantial 

expression, etc. 

154. The negative particle sometimes immediately precedes that 
part of the sentence which it denies, at other times is separated from 

it by some other part ; as J » a» J l ^ ^.. J l j>jSL* •$ the liberal man does D 

not respect the niggardly ; l^-tj IJub U this is not a human being (see 
% 42, rem. d) ; tjJb J15 U he has not said this. 

[Rem. If only a part of an affirmative sentence is to be 
strongly denied, the negative particle must precede that part 

£ * * * t * • 5 a ^ ** * 

immediately, as L^b *^ l£»-Ls> •$ juj sU. Zeid came neither 
laughing nor weeping. If to the affirmative part of a sentence, a 

300 Part Third.— Syntax. [§155 

A parallel negative is to be opposed, the latter must be preceded by 

i - * 1 t> ' J Sis 

the negative particle without a conjunction, as \j+£- *$ Ijuj wsjlj 
/ have seen Zeid, not 'Amr.] 

155. The predicate of a simple declarative verbal sentence, 
which is neither asseverative nor optative (§ 1, e and f), may, when 

denied by ^, be put either in the imperfect or the perfect, (a) When 
put in the imperfect, it may be rendered into English by the present, 
the future, or, when connected with preceding past tenses, by the 

B Latin imperfect (§§8, 9) ; as J*si~Jt ^aL-JI jsjSJ *$ the liberal man 
does not respect (or will not respect, or, under certain circumstances, 
did not respect, non honorabat) the niggardly, (b) The perfect can 

properly be used only (a) when *9 is repeated twice or oftener in 

clauses connected by j, in which case it may be translated by the 

perfect or the past (§ 1, a and b), as ^^ ^3 Ji**** ^ he has neither 
believed nor prayed, or he neither believed nor prayed; or (/3) when 

*$ is connected by 3 with a preceding negative, such as U, ^i, or UJ, 
C and merely carries on the negation of something past (see § 1, e, rem. a, 
and§ 160)*. 

156. The particle ^ (a contraction of <jl *$), which is construed 
with the subjunctive of the imperfect (§§11 and 15, a, a), is a very 

strong negation of the future, not at all, never ; as »>Jj \jXxsu j^ ^i 

jUJI \ysuiJ \^Xmu and if ye do not do it — and ye will never do it — 
then dread the fire (of hell). 

D Rem. On^ and UJ see §§12 and 18. 

157. The particle U, when joined to the perfect, denies the past; 
when joined to the imperfect, the present (see § 8, e, rem. a). 

158. The particle J>! [Vol. i. § 362, /] is often found with 
negative force, in verbal as well as in nominal sentences (see § 42, 
rem. e), and that before both the perfect and the indicative of the 

* [Comp. § 1, e, rem. b.] 

§ 158] Negative and Prohibitive Sentences. 301 

it i j o j a* ( 

imperfect. For example: aU *j)l^£»Jt &\ judgment belongs to God A 

«&>«£ (lit. is w<tf &rc0/?£ to GW) ; jjy^ ^J> *i)l C>»^' u] ^ ""- 
believers are in utter deception (lit. «re ?jo£ except in deception) ; 
^jjjJai j^JJt ^jlft *9l l£^*' Ol & w /^ r ^ i7W «^>"^ &> reward me, 
«#&? Aas created me ; lil—*.] *j)1 Ujjl ,jl aJJU jj^il^j ^j'U*- ^ 
^» they will corns unto thee, swearing by God {and saying), We 

a sit ^ j * * a£ a ***»* + 

intended nothing but doing good ; v>* j>*-\ ^>« l*^£— «1 <jt Ulj ^yi^ 

ojuu ««c? i/" £^# (heaven and earth) should quit their place, no one B 
could withhold them after Him (if He, i.e. God, should withdraw His 

- : j a* - s>si a 5 J -■ " - 

support); ( -«..»a>Jl *))l lojt ,jl ^>iAa.-Jj aiu? wri/y £&?y iritt swear, 

FFe meant only what is best ; ,jiaJ! *9| »J>*t*i Oi ^# merely follow 
their own fancy. In elevated prose style, as well as in poetry, the 
negative U is often prefixed to this ,jl ; e.g. |U* ly) > a i;.j ,jl Uj 
but her pains were (all) of no avail ; <cu yXu *^t c^j"^' t^~»i Oi ^* C 
only one shoulder of his touches the ground ; ^UJI ^i^yJ wolj jjl U 
*^UU1 £fow Aas£ /wwr s#?n (««#) //£« them among men (^U«1 in rhyme 
for *})UUI) ; aa^j c-Jt *t ta 5**^ w^l Oi ^ ^< 0M hmt never done a thing 
which thou didst not like. 

Rem. a. This ^j\ (called by the grammarians i*iUt ^\ the 

negative 'in) is not to be confounded with the conditional particle 

of the same sound (iJs^iJ! ^jt <A<e conditional 'in) : for («) it admits D 

of a nominal sentence after it ; (b) it does not govern the jussive ; 
(c) it lets the perfect retain its past signification ; (d) its predicate 

is sometimes put in the accusative, like that of t« (§42, rem. e) ; 

and (e) it is joined, as a corroborative, to U. It seems rather to be 
connected with the Hebrew negative V{< px and occurs itself in 
that language in the form Q}$. 

[Rem. b. 'Abu Zeid, Nawddir, 60 seq. gives au instance of *^ 

302 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 159 

A being prefixed to ^j\ instead of L», apparently because a relative U 
precedes. D. G.] 

' », 
159. The verb i^~J (Vol. i. § 182) is used (a) as the negative 

sometimes of <uuJt o^ (§ 41), e.g. jjct 0^^3 cJ 1 **^ ^t*^ u-rP 

>»***M «^>H ^ /°'* him who is healthy in mind and body, there is no 
excuse for neglecting the acquisition of knowledge ; at other times of 

J ' ^ Si *3 Z s ' 0' * ' 0' 

iciSUI (J^ (§ 41), e.g. UJlc k^-J, or ^i^o ^^J, he is not learned. 

B [It has always the meaning of the imperfect, mostly in its sense of 
the indefinite or definite present (§ 8, a, b).] But it is also employed 

(b) as an indeclinable negative particle, stronger than *$, to deny some 

part of the sentence to which it is prefixed ; e.g. ^5 c-sil». IJkyJ t^J 

w^-ftl IJkyj thou wast not created for this, nor bidden to do this; 

j * j ' ' - & j * 0' 

iljju Oli U JJs ,^-J nothing tliat has escaped us can be overtaken 

C (an opportunity once lost never recurs) ; J^»J I u~+) ^jZki I ijj>»»-j U-Jl 

it is only the man that makes a return, not the camel (J«fr»JI in rhyme 

J ' ' 0* / »J B i ' ' ' ' , O'i 

for ^J-^aJI) ; ^ yS uj o jjt C*j>> j>* \j~J\ hast thou not formed the 
intention of setting me free ? In connection with an imperfect, it 

.- y ««» J ot JO' 

expresses a strongly denied present or future ; as vj-*^ ' •*-<**' o*«J 

" 'DM ' i JO ' 

<Lx£J I j> jjk*9 Os^th. ^ I do not intend to make ivar (upon you), but 

'Si j i ' i a.' j " ' ' 

I am come to destroy the Ka'ba ; l^JJu ^ji*. j*S\ JUJ c~ J ?/o« ?#i7/ 

j ^ » j ' " t 
D »ew attain greatness till you humble it (your spirit) ; ^)±j3 c/~^ 

J i *> St ' OtO ' 0' 

jUM «UaJI jju /or the fire (of Ml) is never entered after (one has been 

' M' ^ e j ' 0' 

a dweller in) Paradise; ojwUJ {t ja f .jJ u-^ no good is hoped of thee 

' *" ' >" ' 

(«juIa) in rhyme for SjuUJ). It may even be governed by £){£>, 

ui Zi o * 

so as to express the negative imperfect of that verb ; as ^^^ O^ 9 

'0<o , ' .. .- ' 0' ~ 

^^--ft^W *$3 \My^^ v~tJ j9*l~° the Prophet was neither of high nor 
low stature. 

§ 160] Negative and Prohibitive Sentences. 303 

160. When to a clause containing one of the negative particles A 

U, j^, UJ, or ^ji, or the negative verb u-J, there is appended, by 

means of the conjunction ^, another dependent clause, then, in place 
of repeating the particular negative of the former clause, the general 

negative *$ is used, because the special kind of negation has already 
been sufficiently made known. For example : ^yJI^-ot ^y^ 1^5**^ O^ 
\LJii dJJI ^6 ^»*i^l ^ neither their goods nor their children shall 
a-ra*7 ffojw aught against God ; ULp <sd J^a w ^J ,j«*JI .iAJj jj' L^l) B 
^^bb^^) <u jjji ^ //*> 5«?t' £^a£ fAts body was not created for him in 
jest, nor connected with him for any vain purpose ; j££-o aJx JJ-j^i 

remained for him no difficulty in the (divine) laic which did not 
become clear, and nothing sealed up ichich was not opened, and nothing 

obscure which was not made plain ; ^...aJi wJL5 wJUUb ^cl c—J 

aaj^*»J ^ ^JJI p-^Lp' *^5 I understand by the (term) heart neither Q, 

the corporeal heart nor the spirit which dwells in its cavity. [Comp. 
§ 180.] If, however, the second clause be conceived as independent 
of the first, and the connection be merely an external one, the 

- tit, a*, t*$ai*j»* 

particular negative is repeated ; as Us» '■>$»•>« JtH ^ j^ }* J-* 

•>»»y O- a»»>^v»«w»J' «uu. . ^i j^$ oU-» is it a thing ichich has never 

ceased existing during the past, and which a period of non-existence 
has never in any way preceded? [But if the connected words have 
not the character of a dependent negative clause, but that of a simple 
continuation of the preceding part of the sentence, only the conjunc- D 

tion j is used, as ?%*A\ j^jJaJJ 3]^ iy_j it Ucj*. U we did not despair, 
when they fled and when the fire (of war) burned; \3jj jJti ,jL»J *9 

y a , , 

js. jjuj do not keep food for to-morrow and the day after to-morrow.] 

Rem. a. When ^*c, ^j, ^j^, etc. (see § 56, rem. c) require to 
be repeated, their place is supplied by *9, which is followed by the 

304 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 161 

A genitive governed by j*£, etc. ; as sSsk* ^ z',',.a,.4 j-ji lijalii cmd 
he slaughtered them without their being shut up or bound ; j+b yh 
v«g«*>- & "^J vi/* ^** ?,s neither strange nor wonderful (see § 82, d, 
rem. a) ; jL». *$j w— ^ *^L without honour or shame ; s j^e>. \J$} 
Jjji *^ without cowardice or fear. 

Rem. 6. ^j is sometimes repeated emphatically after a pre- 
B ceding negative, and requires to be rendered in English by even; 

as Jj>.\ ^j **§ ?io£ wen owe ; jk».l^ ^j ^ffv*^ &->*■ O' c£>' *^-3 ^ w * ^ 
cfo not see that there has come out even a single one of them. 

161. In oaths and asseverations *$ is followed by the perfect 
with the signification of our future (see § 1, e) ; as ^/j CUc-ac *j aJJIj 

by God, I will not disobey my Lord; w>LJ' Ijjb £**»& ^ aJJI^ 
by God, I will not open this door ; liyA ^^^a.jA. *>) Oo^ *X**J 
C by the life of Pharaoh, ye shall not quit this place ; <LJb <uXc c~Ie ^ 
tj^-frfc I will never reproach Mm {again) during the remainder of my 
life. In blessings and curses it is followed by the perfect as an optative 
(see § 1,/) ; as \j£ Oolj *^ may est thou never see (suffer) evil ! O^ 3 ^ 
,jl£wl *^ may he not be {may he perish), and never come to life!* 

162. When verbs signifying to forbid, fear, and the like, are 

i # * 

followed by ^1 with the subjunctive, the negative *$ is sometimes 

i H i H 

I) inserted after &\ (*>) ,j\ or ^)l) without affecting the meaning (see 

- j a , a * , * , , 

§ 15, a, a); as ji^ .....* > *n)1 -iXs^o U what prevented thee from worshipping 
(him) ? JL i^ ^ \$Lo ^rAj 3 J *&*+* U what hindered thee, when 

* [,jUwjt in this sense is of rare occurrence. The old expression 

was ^$£> *$j) O^ *$' ^ n ^ ne Chrestom. of Kosegarten, p. 16, 1. \2seq. 

we must read with Dozy wU&~/t *^j C^A *^ would that I had never 
come to life ! D. G.] 

§ 162] Negative and Prohibitive Sentences. 305 

thou saitest that they had gone astray, from following me? ^k*. ^j\^ A 

* * ,o,o i » , a ...... . 7 

j-«UJI ,-i »jU ..■■•; *s)| rtW( 7 j/^e «/•£ afraid of being unjust towards 

Me orphans (but if we read t^Ja-Ju, "^ is no longer redundant : if ye 

«r^ afraid of not being just, etc.) ; j^l aJjou ^)l .^Uj ^i jbj L5V J «>ij 

«wrf Ziyad forbade concerning this matter, that anybody should do it. 

Rem. In accordance with a curious idiom of the language, 
whereby an oath or execration seems to be regarded as a virtual 
negation, the negative particle may be omitted in denial by oath, B 
and, on the contrary, be inserted in affirmation. For example, in 

- si aiiio i o i ^„i , j 5 - rj'tt* * oi it *> i » ^ ai 

poetry: ^JLojl l/«j^' <->P Ji/iJ ^y^ V^'j tyJLd aXJb w*o~. 51 
by God I swear, I trill not give it (to others) to drink, nor drink it 
(myself), until the dust of the earth separates my joints ; ^«J C*JI3 
lyj U AaJD U^l? «iWbk l-JLc. and so I swear, I will never mourn 

it *> * - j a j , 

/br one dying, NOR osA: a mourner what ails her ; aJJI v >**j O- J x fl 
IjlcIS p-^1 flwwi / s«i<f, -6,</ GW / swear, I will not cease sitting 
(see § 42, rem. 6) ; and in the Kor'an, sJuj^j j,£>j3 ^Jju 4JUL3 by C 
6W, fAoM toilt never cease thinking of or speaking of, Joseph. 
Conversely, in the Kor'an : ^i ^-JU AJt^ _ A j^ :tt *il^-oJ ^—31 ^13 
^o-Jslc ^^-oJjij an/7 / swear 6?/ the places where the stars set, and 

* i «*» a - j ol 

verily that is a great oath, if ye (only) knetv (it) ; «L»*JUt >o$-o^~.3l ^ 

,,»«» ,| j ol , 

I swear by the day of the Resurrection ; jJUl |Jlj_» ^-Jt ^) / swear 

63/ £/m town. [As to the latter case, many interpreters say that N) 
is the denial of a preceding objection that is to be supplied, so that D 
we must translate : no ! (it is not as ye say), I swear, etc. In the 
former case the omission of the negative particle is allowed, because 
no misunderstanding can arise. For, when affirming, we ought to 

say L^jjl^j \^Lxl^j JS\^ (see §§14, 19). Therefore the negative 

particle may be omitted even wnere no oath is expressed, as in the 

old verse (Noldeke, Delectus, p. 65, 1. 14) }j+s- b C— «t ^ ,jji 

* * St 1 ȣ 

\jj[j Ji£sjj\ and if my life be spared, 'Amr ! I will not cease to 
w. 11. 39 

30G Part Third.— Syn tax. [§ 168 

A seek vengeance for thy blood, and in that of Abu Nowas (Tab. iii. 

705, 1.1) .JlJI jJLc Uo^laJl U j**-j J[p we shall never cease to be 

in good condition, as long as we keep the fear of God in our heart. 
See two other examples § 42, rem. b. D. G.] 

163. The prohibitive *$ governs either the jussive or the 
energetic. See §§17, b ; 19, b ; and 20. 

B 2. Interrogative Sentences. 

164. The Arabic language ignores the difference between a direct 
and an indirect question, in so far as regards the arrangement of 
words and the mood of the verb. Every interrogative clause, even 
when dependent upon a preceding one, takes the direct form. 

165. A question is sometimes indicated merely by the tone of 
the voice, both when it stands alone, and when it is connected with 

C another question by j*\ or jl ; as £w «£L~aj ^0 L~U ^Z-^-3 lyUi 

j e , 

*>L».lj^ol ^J-ixil \*£=>\j is it better to cast the stones (one of the ceremonies 

of the pilgrimage to Mekka) riding or on foot ? &\j ^£j*\ U dJj^jd 

^jl^Ju j>\ j-o-aJI O-**) f-r-l ^jb C vS by thy life, 1 know not, though 

I am knowing, {whether) they pelted the Gamardt (see the last example) 

with seven (pebbles) or with eight ; C*»-jt (j-e jl C-^-; ^j-o yk ^jjl *$ 

I do not know whether it comes from rohtu or from 'arahtu. In 
D general, however, a question is introduced by one or other of the 
interrogative particles mentioned in Vol. i. §§ 361, 3G2. 

166. The simplest interrogative particle is I, which may be 
prefixed to the word &\, and to the conjunctions y v-i, and^»5; as 

„ , S ^ , >o : t > t it 

s lo-J1 ^ O-* >»**^" are y e safe from Him who is in heaven? O-*^' 
ilyi-JI ^>«l l*^ shall we believe as fools have believed? U^j \XLc IJul 

^ 0*> J . 

and they said, Dost thou fear any evil to us from thyself? jU-^J I 

ec j * oc 

§ 166] Interrogative Sentences. 307 

yjy^j^i L5t UUxftj \j\jJ when ice are dmd, and become dust and A 
bones, shall we indeed be recompensed {for our deeds)  wJ*^ «iU5! 

3 3 3 ^ 1 - - 2 1 J// «J/ / J /J /S 

uu^j art thou really Joseph] ^J\*pA \££j U^5 ,jjJJUJ ^)l will ye 
not fight a people who have broken their oaths I <*JJt ^yc ^ a» . : ... " > Ul 
art thou not ashamed of thyself before God ] «utj ^£X^jl jSL> y>\ Jl£i 

^ I ^ ^ _ ^ , a * *i 

I Jjk jjk a/jd J16m i?#£r sgm'<2, J./-e? ye a// 0/ ^/s opinion ? ^ »l * ».. ^ t 

£• <• 2 3 ]i 

lj-j». "^t J^it Aas£ £&?m ^e« heard me saying aught but good] B 

- i J - 3sas'li-oZti - .> - » ^ //J 

Ojli-"^ U^oJju aJJI ,jl (J^oJju ^t efo ^ey «o£ £/20W that God knows 

*■ c«<« 'ssis it «• *' 3 - - 'i 

ivhat they keep secret ] (Jj^) I Lii-J^o *j)l (J-jIs^j O- 3 *-^ ^' rtrg w ' g ;M? ^ 

«• : - ~ a **i 

then liable to die save our first death (in this world) ? ^)l Ij^j ^Jj' 
£^£ ,j-« aJJI Jii»- U /iai'g ^ey /w£ looked at what God has created] 

du ^J**\ %3j U Ijl ^jt wAen /£ /a/fe («/x>?i you), will ye believe it then ] 

ai £ 

If another clause be connected by>ol with the one beginning with I 
(in this case called aj^—JI S^jk, ^ hemza of equalisation), there C 

si/ at , * a si/; 

arises a disjunctive or alternative question ; as ^y-^s- >»' ,£)jU£ jujl 

is 2T£m? in ^y Aouse, w 'Amr] JfjJI ^^°' <■£!— f> a^jUJ! ^1 ts ^y 

date-honey in the jar or in the skin ] \Jj~a j>\ \±*}sf.\ U~U i\y* it is 
all the same to us, whether we bear (our torments) impatiently or with 

a j a a 1 a * ai a i ,a , aii a a * * ~, * 

patience; ^AjJuj ^J j»\ ^yjjjull ^y-le t^y it is all one to them, 

a * j a j — * * a»o * , 

whether thou hist warned them or not; ,j-o w-^-fc w-jUjiJI 0-*3 

jjij j , 2 > * a * ai & Z s i 3 it *a * li 6 - * 3 

o>^c ^ola^ j \Jl^ ja\ ^lLH\ j»\ jcjuJI ybl JJkl*. yk one of the strange J) 
things is the self-conceit of him who does not know whether he will be 


saved or damned, or how his life will end. Instead of j>\ we may use 

ai 6 a, ai * *a *a*i a33 * a 

j\ ; as 3^-o.c j' ^)jup jujl is Zeid in thy house, or 'Amr] ^yS'iUi.t 

a * ai ,a ** & * a a * j£ w^ a*o * 

*j**£ j' tjJjJI ^9**-> u—^ O-* 5*' i^aJI ^o-s«J ^jj ^A«/r difference of 

opinion in regard to the delights of Paradise, whether they are of the 
same kind as the delights of this world, or of a different kind. 

308 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 167 

A Rem. a. The interrogative particle is frequently omitted at the 

beginning of an alternative question; as ^JLol jl ^*^> <^-W til 
I am king, whether ye like it or not (for^lwt t'j-"')- ^ both parts 
of the sentence be dependent upon the same verb, it is placed 
between them; as t^Jii jl O^* ^**^ whether he be rich or poor 
(for Lie!) ; i\~~<> _/>\ At*. lo-L«3 whether he comes in the morning or 
in the evening (for l»-U-©l). See § 6, a, and § 165. 

B Rem. b. It is said that there is a difference of meaning between 

os- ot o o * ot * * o 0O'£ 

jl and jt>\. The question 3j»*£ jt ^JjUft jujl implies ignorance as 

•i a , oi .. , o oo 'Z 

to whether either of them is there, or not ; but jj-*c >et ij j^s. jujt 

implies the knowledge that one of them is there, and asks which 
it is. 

oZ is , ) i 

[Rem. c. j»\ (ojdaJU^JI j>\ the unconnected 'am) signifies often 

or rather, nay but, serving like Jj (§ 184, c) to denote digression or 

*»«•«£ <> * s a 
C to rectify, as *lw j>\ (Jj*}) Ijil verily they (the animals seen moving 

'6 £ 

at a distance) are camels ; nay but are they not rather sheep ? This 
is also its meaning in alternative sentences after ^Jjb ; see § 167.] 

167. The interrogative particle Ja introduces questions of a 
more lively sort; as $y^\ w^-*»« «^l J-* hast ^ l0U heard tlis tale 

of the armies 1 ^\ ^\j>£ O-* ^W-^ s j^ i^* ^^ J-* shall I 
direct you to a merchandise, .which shall save you from sore torment ? 

, .. j oZ , 0,0* ,0,lZ ■> ' oiti », 

j) -Ut w^.U> vj O' O-ij^ 3 J* ^k^' I (§ 84, rem. a) ; ^>ju ^>\ Ja 
(^^•.Lo ^J (§ 90). It may be preceded by j, \J, and ^ ; as 
^~iy> w->J^»- «iJ^' JU3 awrf Aa^ £/w story of Moses reached thee? 
^3t« p-jlj OJI J^i £ l— <JI ^1 C-soil ^1 //' I stay till the evening, wilt 
thou go with me! — Ja cannot be prefixed to a negative clause (ex- 
cepting >*, § 169) ; nor to a conditional clause ; nor to <j]:> 3> *-*> an( l 
^j ; nor, in general, to a nominal clause of which the predicate is a 

§ 168] Interrogative Sentences. 309 

finite verb (§ 119); as oU juj J* [except in poetry].— It may be A 

at o£ . 

followed in an alternative clause by^el or j\, with the former of which 

particles JJk is [mostly] repeated ; as j>\ j>)jZa o-* Mj*^' ji^ J-* 

^oA>> jut» jl jJI OvSjX ^jjk ^«fe ^ /w<<tfs &/£ any place to be patched 

or pieced (any decaying ruin to be sung of). ? Nay but (I have 
something to say :) hast thou recognised the abode (of thy beloved) after 

* a * » * at j *e*>* - e £ o>» - a - a - 

doubting (regarding it)? [^3^-3 J-* >»l ^,.. a ., ) 1j ^^t^)t i^Jy^-i J-* 

J i *o* > - J L s m 

jyMj OlpJUnJI «/•# ^ 6/«na? ««rf £&? seeing equal? Or rather are B 
darkness and light equal?] CJLw Ja j>\ ^y-i &J& J^ ***-'' sj^-f 

* sis s $ ' *? 

lyJIJb ,j*o ^^jJI osl; ' Useiyid whether I have taken my blood-revenge 
on Wail, or {rather] whether I have cured my soul of its grief; 
*^a*j jt ws-» 3I ji»>t ,^^0 w-w JlA rf/rf //<? rm/g any one, or was he 
reviled, or was he avaricious? 

Rem. a. Some grammarians say that JJb is originally equi- C 
valent in meaning to j3, and that its iuterrogative force is really 


due to the particle 1 understood. The two are sometimes combined; 
as^£»^)t ^3 eUUt «> ft,.,. i Ujlj ,jjkl c/ic/ £/tey see us at the loioer end 

of the plain with the hillocks ? j\) w*Jf£ JJkl 4-JLJ UsU^o Jlii 
ly*j jJUo jju <±kJL.Lc and he says, addressing himself Hast thou 
recognised the abode of thy beloved, after thy doubting regarding it ? 

* * - * a - 

Rem. b. On the elliptical expression IJl& ,-i -iJU Jjk, see J) 

§ 53, b, rem. e. When followed by a clause commencing with 
tjl, the preposition .^i may be omitted [comp. § 70, rem. g], as 

j»\jj ^j\ «iU Jjb dost thou tvish to go to sleep ? — Similarly, .J I 2ii ^)Jb 

j-£»p ^jt wouldst thou become pure? scil. i«^p O' 15" c^**° *^ «J** 
Aos^ <Aou an inclination to becoming pure ? 

168. The compound negative particle ^)l, nonne, is often used 
to draw close attention to the certainty of the following assertion, and 

310 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 169 

A hence admits of being rendered into English by truly, verily, certainly 
(compare in Hebrew K7n = TX2T\), in which case it is frequently 

w , a tie } , , * si. 

followed, as a farther asseverative, by ,jl* ; e.g. ^*)l JW •>) *j)l 
<U— j *5l certainly thou wilt never attain learning save through six 
things (lit. is it not sol thou wilt not, etc.) ; jijjJ *j) Sjl^xaJt ^1 *^t 
iw% 2/o?^A ofo^ /2<?£ last for ever ; llyA-JI^A^o^Jl ^M verity ^se art; 

the fools ; V^ljj O- J"*****"—* '-H^ L5^ fr L5^i J **^' f-V^' 'i W *^' 

B £/wm £/*a£ barkest at (revilest) the Benu 's-Sid, verily I am ready to 

fight to the death in their defence, though they are far away. It is also 

used as a corroborative before the optative perfect (§ 1, /), the 

'*»'j2i-0'*s si- 

imperative, jussive, and energetic ; as <^v*?*J 4 -^' ?"** ^ ma 1l G°d 
disfigure thy face ! Here L> is often inserted; see § 38, a, rem. h. — 
The synonymous particle U! [also, before an oath, written j>\] is used 

/£ /JO// //Ow// 0/ wj *"/ /£ 

in the same way as ^)t ; e.g. &&& I^jju ^ aAJIj Ul verily, by 

God, hudst l/iou transgressed it, I would have put thee to death; 

C jWI oj^u j4*~j j-+±- ^ ajI Ul verily there is no good in prosperity 

which is followed by the fire (of hell) ; 0-°3 JLf* O'J^ OLasljJIj Ul 

i i a j j o s » Z 6 " si Oio * a * St *■ 

\£^& L5* *^*" ^j-o- 1 *' «**J «^'j*i" 0*-«**^ L5^° ^ ^ galloping 
camels at Ddt 'Irk, and by those who pray at Na'man abounding in 
'ardk-trees, (I swear that) I have treasured up love for thee in my 

169. ^1, %*>, ^)>J, and Uy (called by the grammarians Ojj^- 

J) u aj*l\j ^iu-aa^JI the particles of requiring with urgency, or with 

gentleness), are used before the imperfect to incite one to perform 

an act, and before the perfect to rebuke the neglect of it ; as s^i^sJ *$\ 

jjbpl ,-i UU& why dost thou not compose a book upon asceticism? 

equivalent to compose one, pray ; but jJfcjJI ^ L>L^ c^-i-e *i)l why 

* [And also by ,jl^ and by 3 ; see the Gloss, to Tabarl. D. G.] 

§ 170] Interrogative Sentences. 311 

• • »C - ' 

hast thou not composed a book upon asceticism? ^-.^Act *** »% A 

«•• • el •o^ • • • - 5-o j i' 

didst thou not inform me (of it)? a~U Jpt ^y bj*£> CH^ J^*t! 
*0 t>° *? those who do not believe, say, Why has no sign from his 
Lord been sent down to him ? £\ UJLi jl lti\ L^LC. ^y why does not 
GW spraA- to us or a sign come unto us ? cu b ,j! *£!+} W ^^ l ^ 
jj-^^LajT ^ why dost thou not bring the angels to us, if thou art (one) 
of those who speak the truth ? In later times the simple U is so used ; 
as^i5 U dost thou not stand up? or thou dost not stand up! equi- B 
valent to pray, stand up. 

Rem. a. *})1 is used in the same sense as *^1, but with less 
force ; as j*^**} \y£> Uy> ^j^JUUj ^1 why toiU ye not fight a 
people ivho have broken their oaths ? ^£J aJJ! j**j O' > ?' a *"' *^' 
10% do ye not like that God should forgive you ? 

Rem. b. Sometimes the verb is suppressed after these particles, 

• i e i a • £ • 

and a substantive follows in the nom. or accus. ; as ^Xi) ^c Ij-ji. *}Lfc 
why not better thaii this ? scil. Jjuu dost thou do, or j*±. ^L* C 

• I • • • J * J J J0&* J ~ • - "* Z. ' 

«£|J3 y^c, scil. «£U* (J^ was from thee; p-L—o w>^JliM^ >ojJi3l *}>Jk 

• • t^ 

?t'Ay t/irf* ye «o£ cfo so before, when our hearts were sound? scil. 

) it * Z -o , i S • #■ • gji -i • • 5 • - -<* - » • ' J J- 

• 3 • Jdx» A -- - -3 •Ox ••Ox • J Ox ••of 

UJLeJt ,«*£J1 'iiy ^jjis^o ^J*> ^jkM ,^-ail i/e reckon the 
slaughtering of she-camels your greatest glory; ye sons of a good- 

• w J • «5 • 

for-nothing, tohy not the helmed warrior? scil. ^jjuu, i.e. *}L* 

• £ • JO^ * • ©** •O^ • • SJ/ 

*iLoJI ,**£)l j-i»»H ^>* O^***^ u 'hy do ye not reckon the helmed D 
warrior something glorious ? 

170. The interrogative pronouns »>« who? and U what? may 
stand in any one of the three cases, nominative, genitive, or ac- 

• o£ o • oe o • j o 

cusative ; as wJI ^>-o who art thou ? cJt ,j>* C— U if^ose daughter 

0, • • 

art $om ? cJj:3 ,j-e ?r^o?» ^«*^ ^Aom slain ? ^lu^o iUJ U what is 

312 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 170 

) ) * * 6)6)* 

A that in thy right hand? J>£> U what sayest thou ? ^>&* ^nfi in what 
(state) were ye ? Even when they ought, strictly speaking, to follow 
another word in the genitive, they may be put first in the nominative 
absolute, and their proper place supplied by a pronoun which falls 

«.».- .- t>* *)))'* * » * 1 

back upon them (juU or £»-'j); as %^t> J£> 0$£U «juj ,>« J3 

e * * 

(instead of ^j~c juj) Say, In whose hand is the kingdom over every- 

- * 

thing ? But no such pronoun can be used, unless o-* an( l ^ precede 
in the nominative absolute. — To render the interrogation more lively, 

B the demonstrative pronoun t3 is appended (like the Heb. H?) to the 
interrogatives ,j~© and L«, even when the subject of the inter- 
rogative clause is introduced by the relative pronoun ^JJt ; as 

) )* * * ) ) * 5«5 - * 

J^aj 13 L«, or J>aj ^JJI 13 L-«, what is it (that) thou sayest*? 
j-«! j^JJI ^^j or j-ol ^JJI 13 ,j-o, M'Ao is i£ £/$«£ has given orders? 

^)\ * *******&&*'** 

U^A ^J| <& & *** j*ju 0*Jj 13 UJ (pron. &'ma da), why dost thou run 

aw)/ a/iter thy coming hither ? — The pronouns ^a and U are always 

C used substantively, but can neither govern a genitive nor be followed 

by another substantive in apposition to them in any case (nom., gen., 

*■* t * * o * 

or ace): ^-^3 o-*> u*j^* 0-°> do n °t mean rts dvyp; quisnam vir? 
quis eques (est ills quern vides) ? but quis (est) vir ? quis (est) eques ? 
<>-6 being the subject and the following word the predicate. For 

j ) Zti ) o t * b * ) * ) o * o*> * 

example: w-jic ^J\ C-^Xi. ^» &* I^HS jt>^ii\ I3t when the tribe 

2 e t »*> * * »* 

ask, Who is a man ? I think that I ammeant ; U« oU*;)! ^J> O^ V 

* ) O * ) d O )* * O * O ^ O * * * * 

D IjV*j o\A ^o^*" cHj^ O-* '>*»** J^tj if there were one of us among 
a thousand, and they cried out, Who is a horseman ? he would think 

<o ) S * 61 

(that) they meant him (Li>i«J in rhyme for ^yju); aXi\ j^t ail ^yo 
I L-aj ^^^JL;, lit. ?r/w (is) a (706?, beside the (true) God, (that) could give 

* [We find not unfrequently 13 L« Jl>*3. 13 t« oJjo what host thou 

* * w ) ) * 

done? 13 l«« (<--• J^}^** «wrf w/ta/ rfo yow wish from me? D. G.] 

§ 170] Interrogative Sentences. 313 

3/om /?^£ ? the words * l*-iu ^jJLj forming a relative clause in con- A 
nection with the indefinite substantive <*JI (see § 172). Even such a 

t a - a - a-e^ 

case as is represented by the words ljuj ^>*, jljj ^^«. in no way 

violates this rule. One person says tjuj wolj / have seen Zeid; 
another, repeating the exact words of the former speaker (ijl£&Jt), 

# * .. 

asks ljuj ^>« ?r&> is (the person meant, when you said " ra'eitu 

J ^ *• 

Zeidan," by the word) " Zeidan" ? Similarly, in the genitive, Ojj-o 
»*jJ-» I passed by ZZid, juj ,j>*. In general, however, the i»b£». B 
(imitation, citation or quoting of the exact words of a speaker) is 
neglected, and the questioner asks juj ^>« wAo is Zeid? in the nomi- 
native. The *ubC». is allowed only when the word quoted is a proper 

name, and ,j-o is not preceded by any connective particle, such as j. 

.^ 9 a * a * * m a , j , j a - 

We can only say juj ^^^ and icho is Zeid? ju_j j»%i- v >« who is 

the slave of Zeid ? The word ,j-o may be used by itself alone, in 
reference to an undefined substantive, with the inflections mentioned C 

in Vol. l. § 352 ; e.g. J^.j ^sl*. there came to me a man, ^U who? 
y^j ^-*j'j / saw a man, U« whom ? J^>J ^jj* I passed by a man, 
^^5^-9 ivhom ? — As interrogatives, j>* and U are construed with the 
masculine singular of a verb, but occasionally admit of the feminine, 

* - - a * * a * 

when the predicate is of the feminine gender ; as ^Ut <^j\£s &* who 
was thy mother? [see § 152, e\ — If inquiry be made regarding the 

nature, qualities, social position, etc., of a person, U is used, and not D 

a * * ai * * * * a * * 

jj-a ; e.g. C-JI Lo aJ UISj and we said to him, What art thou ? 
jj-s^JUJI w>j U what is the Lord of created things? «£Uy> ^j£- ^i^-i.1 

^ * * j * a * a * a & * £ * * a * * a £ .- a ^ £ .0 • a * at* Z* * *■ 

a io *■ _ a£e .. , 

* O' O"* ^J P oet ic license for ^jl ^o, and OIjJl*. in rhyme for 
w. ii. 40 

314 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 170 

A dSlc jjtil ^& ^ wa.Ic ^«-«J J^>* jU*« ^^ cub J13 ^»1^ 

fe// m# «&om£ £% verse: " ^4wrf a/lter s/^ descried the cavalcade of the 
Numeiri, she turned aside, and they were on their guard against 
meeting him " ; — what were ye 1 He said, I was upon a lean he-ass, 
and with me was a friend of mine upon a she-ass like it. 

Rem. a. The <LA£^ of a proper name is inadmissible, if the 
name be qualified in any way, except by ^jj\ in a genealogical 

b, , b ,b, s bi, , b , b, b , 

series. If one says 3j-»£ £y, Juj CUjIj, you may ask £yt juj ^j-c 

©^ , ,b>o ib, j bi, ib>o , bio tb, j bi, 

B 3j~* e - ', hut if one says ^J-SUJI Ijuj C-ulj or j~c*$\ ^Jj\ ljuj Csjtj, 

.- ^dA» £ a / b , ib>a , b*> 4b, b , 

you cannot ask ^JiUJI ljuj ^>o or j-+-c*$\ (J-»l ljuj ^^-o. In these 
cases the nominative only is allowed. 

» - S - 

Rem. b. From £>* is formed an adjective ...U [Vol. i. § 352, 

s ,b< 1 , 

rem. c], which is used in asking questions regarding ^o-lsJ I Olio 
or OL~~iJI (Vol. i. § 249). E.g. juj ^J^W- #&«? came to me; 
j-^oJI o/* which tribe ? to which the answer might be ,-£yJUI of 
C Koreis, as distinguished from ,*£a3I J>jj Zeid of the tribe of Taklf ; 

[jJb ,<wo, C-Jl j«-w6 of which tribe art thou, is he? instead of the 
usual jJ^yJI 0-«-*]- 

Rem. c. The interrogative U is very rarely used of persons ; as 

, i , J , , b. Jib,, , J , bi , J vi J , , , b iviii wl 1 , 

but I tvill point out to you a man amongst us, who is better able to 
carry out what ye have asked me to do ; and they said, Who is he ? 

D IJjb U CJlii Ojl-o-2* \J^-j 15M Opsu she saw a man pretending to 

". ° ' 

be dead, and said, Who is this ? The conjunctive (relative) ^0 and 

, b , b j b 

Uo (§ 172 and foil.) are more frequently interchanged; e.g. ^j-c ^^ 

, bi ,, b , 

<ftjjl i_jJ* ^.rlej among tlcem are creatures which walk on four 

j i j , b , b , , * ,, i , , , * j b , b , , ,b>o , b I 

(feet);jJo\ Ooyk j>$ ,>o ^3t ^jLd a».U».^3u ,>© Jjk UaiJI w»^wl 

covey of katas (a sort of bird) is there one (among yon) who will 
lend (me) his unngs ? Perchance I might fly to the one whom I love; 

§ 171] Interrogative Sentences. 315 

jL-JI jj»« ^aXJ w>U» Lo l^a>C)Li £^erc marry what women seem good A 

to you ; tjjJj Lo ^JJjUIj I^aJo to ^..Jl! ^Aose whom they married 
{their ivives) were {doomed) to captivity, and those whom they begat 

j a *Bio , ^ * a & * a * * * , 

(their children) to slaughter; J|yi3l ^jl^ d-o*}Hlfcl ,J UiXi L»i 
<£JUy> <ui a/tf/ (as to) those about wJwse virility we are in doubt, the 

- a - , * ' ' - £- s <• £ J 

decision shall be as you please ; dJjo-»» .* ^j^ to .tjoa l^c ^ja^J^oJ 
<Ae?i fo ordered all who tvere in his presence to retire and leave us ; 

*43>3 *0^' O-* *■} u A -* si *~l I* *J^3 an ^ a ^ w hom ne had about him B 
of his friends and relatives* . 

Rem. d. On the shortening of U into^o, see Vol. i. § 351, rem. 

2 £ 

171. Regarding the interrogative pronoun ^1, of which we 
have spoken before (§ 87), there are here two remarks to be made. 

(a) ^1 [when followed by a noun in the genitive] is used, not only 
instead of the fern, ijt, but also instead of the plur. ^y,\ ; as ^1 ^y> C 
OJ! iL«i «?/ ?rA«£ tfrifo or* #Aok? O^-oJ fu^j' l5^ u-*- 5 lS;*^ ^3 
and no soul knows in what kind it shall die ; OJI ^Ul ^1 ^yo of 
what people art thou I [when prefixed to a fern, pronoun, it may be 

2 J lit 

masc. or fern. ; though Ov*i' i s the more common ; see Vol. i. .§ 353]. 

(b) A nominal sentence with a nominal predicate, of which the subject 

I//9JI/ 3 c 

(lju*-oJt) is ^1 with a pronominal suffix, may, as a whole, without any 

* [In reality, the above examples form no exception to the rules. J) 
In the two first the question relates to the quality or position of the 

man, not to his name. In the others Co is used in a collective sense. 
But as in many cases the interrogative what is he ? and tuho is he ? 

* a * 

the relative what and whom are equally admissible, we find Co and jj-o 
sometimes interchanged by different authors and in different manu- 
scripts. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. iii. 14 seq. D. G.] 

t [The reading ^ijl 4-»b is compared by Sibaweih to an equally 
rare form, viz. ^j^X£s.] 

316 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 171 

A change of case, supply the place of an accusative to a verb or of a 
genitive after a preposition ; as jtjJI ^ ^jS O-i^c / know which of 

L^c ^^ wi7/ we £a#e /or£/i from every band those who have been 
stoutest in proud rebellion against the Merciful; ^->l j^J lyi-a* 
*^X*a\ he bit them with his teeth in order to see which of them was the 

J - 0t OJiit * s ul * ' - * * - r * 

hardest ; ,J-ail j^S ^s- ^X^J ^XJU ^j C-wJJ U Ijl when thou 
B meetest the Benu Malik, salute him who is most excellent amongst 

3 £ 

them. In such cases, however, ^l may be put alone, without any 
suffix, in the accusative or genitive, the vacant place of the subject 
in the nominal clause being supplied by the pronoun of the third 

H tO s 3 Zit J 0- - 3 i 

person; asjIjJI ^ $*» IjI oi^*. In the former case ^t is treated 
as an interrogative, in the latter as a relative pronoun. We may also 

Ct x? ,- j o t ^t j o* ^ £*» Sis- ) b s * 

sayjIjJI ^£ ytt y^/A c^.c, and evenjtjJt ^ \A <£*jj&. 

Q Rem. a. ^£\ likewise serves to express astonishment, in which 

case it may always be put in the masc. sing., and the noun which 
it governs in the genitive is undefined. If the preceding noun, to 

3 £ & p 

which ^1 refers, be indefinite, then ^1 agrees with it in case ; as 

j * w £ j .- -a 

\J**-j L^' *J*?"J~t L5****J* thou hast brought me a man, (and) ivhat a 

vi t w£ is b*0 } 0* * 

■man ! — what a man thou hast brought me I [(or ^S) 2u\ Sl^b ^jj-* 

Sl^-et I passed by a ivoman, (and) what a woman /] But if the 

* . . Sf 

preceding noun be definite, ^1 is always put in the circumstantial 

j ^ ;J £ o a • *■ , 

D accusative or hat; as yj^j ^\ juj ,-3sla. Zeid came to me, (and) 
what a man (he is) ! The reason of this is, that the interrogative 

and exclamatory ^1, being by its very nature indefinite, can never 

3 £ 
be in concord with a definite substantive. Instead of ^1 we also 

find UjI [LoJLj t] ; as J^.j l^jt Ja.jJ ^j^Z-*., J-e^j UjI J>ij ^J*W-, 

z, . s o*o s St£ 0'£* o«s j o • • ^ ^ ^ *Zii vi *o J 't I 

S ' ' 5 /' ^- > ^ȣ, 

handmaid of G'ud, (and) what a girl is she /] t ia. et©j| OLojli 

§ 172] Relative Sentences. 317 

:► ^» ^ ^e. 

j-XJ U^jI jZ+». U*c dJUi jJIaJ a«(/ / gave a slight wink to Habtar, A 

and how keen (see § 53, b, rem. e) were the eyes of Habtar, the noble 
youth ! — The substantive which constitutes the object of wonder 
may be understood, when it is virtually contained in the verb, and 

j^l must then be put in whatever case that substantive would have 

stood, had it been expressed; as ijliu ^t l^iwl how they have been 

* * st ^ < » ,,3 
tormented ! i.e. «ul& ^1 <ubu t^XiJl. 

£ - - 

[Rem. 6. From ^1 is formed the relative adjective ^.A ; see B 
Vol. i, § 353, rem. c] 

3. Relative Sentences. 

172. There are in Arabic, as well as in the other Semitic 
languages, two kinds of relative sentences ; namely (a) indefinite, 
i.e. such as are annexed to an immediately preceding indefinite 
substantive, without the aid of a conjunctive noun (Vol. i. § 316) ; 
and (b) definite, i.e. such as are introduced by a conjunctive noun, C 
whether substantive or adjective, which is definite by its very nature. 

9 - 

A sentence of the former kind is called ii-o, a descriptive or qualifi- 
cative sentence; of the latter kind, iL©, a conjunctive sentence; and 

the conjunctive noun itself is called J^oj^JI ^~»^l, or simply 

J^oj^JI. Examples of the first kind : j»\i-i J^j ^jj* I passed by 

a man, who was sleeping ; iSL> ^jjXi ^UU *^j c~*j JjI ^j\ the J) 
first temple, which was founded for mankind, was that at Bekka 

* a*> ill * } « , s 3 i 5 '-• 

(Mekka) ; w>U£M j*\ ^>a oI^m Obi firmly constructed (i.e. «m- 
ambiguous) verses, which form the basis (lit. are Mtf mother) of the 

<j , , , , , £S-> " . Si/ - 04/ 

Scriptures; apUw ^j iX». ^ <sui s»o *) j>$i a day in which there 
s&m fo «o bartering, nor friendship, nor intercession ; ^S3 ^i «L-o 
traces of an abode, which speak not {^Si in rhyme for ^J&j) ; 
ijV tU-J <J*j •** j±-\ u~^*-« ^i ^*j ^fi w»re removed to another 

318 Part Third.— Syntax. [§172 

A room, which had been sprinkled with rose-water. Examples of the 
second kind: Jjuu ^JJI ^U^jf the, king who is just; ^f (^^O 

^^ oJl£» my s/*op, w/mcA Aae? belonged to my father ; ^ JJl^ jl 

*ij* ^^ j* or (hast thou seen) tfie like of him who passed by a town 1 

SJ/ /Of - 1 CI «- 2* 

j^S^cS (J3***i CH**^' those ivho spend their wealth (in almsgiving) ; 

d-©~>l ly^i j^J*i o' O- *^' ju»»l-»wo *^-o ^>«-« ^ffJJ3l jS^j awe? wAo 
B #00$ a greater wrong than he who hinders the temples of God from 

O * i 1 - - 1 * - 

having His name mentioned in them? 2.J* ****' O-* ** l**^ O-** 
foj£ ^0 to whom anything is forgiven on his brother s part ; \ k ^j s ' 
<&jZj U £#***} he let me know all that he was leaving. — Sometimes, 

however, a noun defined by the article is followed by a qualificative 
sentence, when that noun indicates, not a particular individual 
(animate or inanimate), but any individual bearing the name*; as 

* i o i i a *a* * 

i&if+Lj ^J^-jJJ L5***i ^* ^hat which beseems the man who is like thee; 

vj ljU~>l ij+a^-i jl^aJt ^yLo^> like the ass which carries books ; j^aJl^ 

iUJJI .J ?-*o5i like the coal which is put among the aslies. In such 

phrases as C-wjlj ^l^'vo*- 5 , what an excellent counsel thou hast adopted! 

the substantive i^ipt is the first nominative after the verb of praise, 

and the clause wolj the second nominative, standing for C*jtj U; 

so that the expression is equivalent to <£btj ^1^ [comp. Vol. i. 

§ 183]. 

tv Rem. a. The Arabs, like the other Semites, have no relative 

pronoun which they can employ when the antecedent to the relative 

3 i 
clause is indefinite. Further, it should be observed that ^1 and 

jCjJ! are always definite, whether the latter be used substantively 

* [The article is then employed u ,..>aJI \Juy*2> to indicate the 
genus (Vol. i. § 345, rem. a).] 

§ 173] Relative Sentences. 319 

or adjectively ; whilst jj-o and Co, which can only be used subs tan- A 
tively, are either definite or indefinite, as eU» jj-« he who comes or 
one who comes, .J Co that which I have or something ivhich I have. 

When employed indefinitely, ^yt> and U are not regarded by the 
Arabs as conjunctive nouns, but as indeclinable substantives (equi- 

* • " * ' . • 

valent in meaning to ^^i-w .* , a person, and l^ti, a thing), to which 

the words that we regard as the complement of the relative 
pronoun, are annexed as a qualificative clause, virtually in the 
same case. We even find, though very rarely, a single adjective so B 

annexed to yj** or lo, and actually agreeing with them in case 
[e.g. £ymm*j» O-^i **->jJ* I jiassed by a generous person ; L>j *— 'jj- 

" a J 

«5JU y>^u / passed by something pleasing to you]. When thus 

used, ^o and U are said to be di^-cj^. [Comp. Vol. i. § 353, l.J 

Rem. b. The pronoun in the qualificative clause, which falls 

back upon the antecedent (jubJI or **.'jJt [§ 173]), ought, strictly 

speaking, to be of the third person, even when the subject of the C 
qualified substantive is a pronoun of the first or second person. In 
practice, however, the one is usually brought into agreement with 

the other; as ^j^Xyt^J j»^3 j£j\ verily ye are a people who are 
foolish; iw ^JJLSJt ^£jj Lo js^a) 01 verily ice are people who count 
it no disgrace to be slain; ^J>}\j£- JW-jJ' J^* J^l ,c>t verily I 

am a man whose hostility (brave) men find (to be terrible). Compare 
§ 175, rem. 

[Rem. c. Among qualificative sentences may be reckoned also D 
the qualificative clauses mentioned § 139, rem. b, (1).] 

173. The qualificative sentence necessarily contains a pronoun 

(juUJI or £e>.ljJI), referring to the qualified noun and connecting it 

with the qualificative sentence. This pronoun is either contained in 

the verb of the qualificative sentence, as its nominative, e.g. «l». jJo>g 
a man icho came; or, in case of its being a nominal sentence, is 

expressed by a separate pronoun, e.g. ^j^iJ^ 5* J*-j a man who is 

320 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 174 

A my friend; or, lastly, appears as a suffix in the genitive or accusative, 
e -S- j**v 6 &\ J"*^ <~>jj-* I passed by a man whose father was asleep ; 
n-^J .Sj-o* O^ SI^-oU ^SS C*».jj I married my son to a woman, 
wtfA wte f ^4?wr was iw /ow; [V^j-^ *-><«=> a striking wherewith he 

was struck]. The suffix is, however, not unfrequently suppressed, 
when the sense clearly indicates the connection between the qualified 

- . . OsO*> S3, ~s, tJ/i/C &i * s 

noun and the quahncative clause ; as j^t J>k$ %\Xi j^^aS ^p\ Uj 

•d IjjLoI JU>ol and I do not know whether distance and length of time 
have changed them, or wealth which they have won (for ajjlol) ; 
C*-^J \£s jj*. 4jj~e> aZ)j«£ I struck him a blow at which he fell like one 

dead (tor \i j*»); vLw ^^aj <j^ ^-aj l£h**-> *^ '-•^ l**-^ and fear a 
day, in which a soul shall not make satisfaction for (another) soul at all 
(for <ui ^j^J). 

C 174. The conjunctive noun ^JJI may be used either substan- 
tively or adjectively. In the former case, it includes the idea of a 
person or thing, that is to say, it is equivalent to the substantive 

,j«© and U, when they are definite (jtiyoy*), he w/io, that which. In 
the latter case, it agrees, like any other adjective, with its antecedent, 
which is always a definite substantive, in gender, number and case, 
and thus markedly differs from the relative pronouns of the Indo- 

german languages; as u-J^lj O^M ^c U*}Ls>1 &jji\ Mj' show us 
D (those two) of the ginn and of mankind, who led us astray, scil. 
Ij^-^l cH"^' ( j> i Jll a .* ^ JI Ujl show us the two devils who led us astray, 
viz. Iblis and Kabil or Cain ; <5**-~» U* CH-*^' L5**^ u~»-' l>* ^ 
t- a l utw .,* ve^ J I ^^Jai (^5^*3 ^ ^w w/w sawest my two little sons, 
who were my hearing and my sight, — my hearing has to-day been 
snatched away ; \yJ»$ Oi^ jLoj'n)! i j^ tyU ^SM\ v >*X».jJI ju*.l ,j\ 

> o j o s i 

ojLtLw yjj srii* AA*i-JI ^\ one of the two men of the 'Ansar (or 

§ 175] Relative Sentences. 321 

Helpers of the Prophet) ichom they met, when they went to the porch, A 
was 'Oweim 'ibn Sd'ida; ly-i J*-> 5%© J-^y ^j i*.^ w~-el j*> 

C^lic ^JLt ^>ljJI ^>Il*^>jJt *5l M<?/* Gerega was slain, without having 
prayed a (single) prayer in which he prostrated himself, save those two 
rWas by praying which he became a Muslim ; ^-jjj-aJI j^> JJ Uli 

AJnj>^. v >c UoJbUjjj ^>jJJJI ««c? we sfo/W (wow) </Mote tffo £?ro «>«^ 

(or airs), which we hate received from Gahza; s j*SX )\ ^ycj ^i 

* j i » - C * *■ a ' ~ * 

l«Ay£»i >ojcij ^>j-^' ?/2 ^ ^'»?e o/* £fo tfiro kings, ivho have been B 
already spoken of; ^\ L>* ciV* 5 ^5* °^** O^J^' ^J^s u' ^ 
J-e^-oJI JW»- rt«» ^'5 fatfo sons, who had murdered him in Nineveh, 
fled to the mountains of Mosul. 

Rem. Somewhat similar to this is the attraction or assimilation 
of the relative in Greek and in the older forms of German, as dusint 
punt des allir bestin goldis, des die wouwen tragen woldin. 

175. As the case in which the conjunctive nouns stand, is C 
iudependent of the conjunctive clause, they cannot express the 
syntactical relations of our relative pronouns. If they stand (as 

always happens with y>«, U, and ^1, and frequently with ^«xJI) 

as substantives at the beginning of an independent sentence, they 


form its subject or inchoative (lj£~o), and are consequently in the 

nominative ; and the same thing occurs with ^jl\, when it is annexed 

as an adjective to any such subject in the nominative. In every other 
instance, they stand, it is true, at the commencement of the con- D 
junctive sentence, but are in whatever case the preceding governing 
word requires, be it noun, verb, or particle ; that is to say, they are 
in that case which, according to our idiom, pertains to the demon- 
strative pronoun implied in them, or to the substantive antecedent to 
which they refer. The syntactical place of our relative pronoun is 
supplied by a pronoun in the conjunctive sentence, which falls back 
upon the conjunctive noun and agrees with it in gender and number, 
w. ii. 41 

322 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 175 

3 «> *0iO 3 

A This pronoun is called by the grammarians \J\ (*».tjJI) Jul*) I jt+> i M 

3 sOtO 

J^o^oJI, the pronoun which returns to, or falls back upon, the con- 
junctive noun, or simply juUM or *«*.tjJI. 

(a) If this pronoun stand, as the subject, in the nominative case, 
it is represented, in a verbal sentence, by the personal pronoun 

> O - S - it I t ,.. 

implied in the verb; e.g. Jj^u j>* ^*».l / love him who is just; 
-D ^LJ| ^j^x.^U..> { j^ jtrv*^ among them are some who hearken to thee; 

s s s J <■* * * * J * 

(jLa^Ja^aj wJi Lj ,j-« J^o ,j£i (if so,) we shall be like those, wolf 

, St lO 3 1 * StO -OXJ - 3 * i 

who are comrades; ^Ul ^J-lsu ^j)) «iU<JI ,>© JU.I / am afraid of 
the king who oppresses the people. But in a nominal sentence, it is 
expressed by a separate pronoun ; e.g. jj yfc ^a he who is pious ; 

<i * * * 3 St * * 3 SttO ' S Si A? 3 3 

J^Lc jA U-* of that which is error ; u^ij* >* l£^' j****^' 0**c 

/ have visited the old man who is sick. In nominal sentences of which 

C the predicate is an adverb, or a preposition with its genitive, depending 

upon the idea of being understood, the virtually existing subject of the 

substantive verb suffices to connect the clauses, without any separate 

pronoun being expressed; as^^j ^,>oJ "■-'jj"* I passed by him who is 

* j * * * si So, , l Ct & 0*3* 

there or those who are there; *j) ojut ,^-03 u^j^'j Ol^o-JI ^» ^yi> a) 

** 0**3 0*0* 

Aj^Lfi ^js. ^2y£l~j to Him belong those who are in heaven and upon 
earth, and they who dwell with Him are not too proud to serve Him ; 

s vis vis w s J Os sCtt- d • /% • 

D &£*_> ^JJJ ^LAJ jfc.03 c-s*j J3I jjl verily the first temple which was 

9 -* 
founded for mankind is that which is at Bekka (Mekka). The julc 

may also be omitted in a nominal sentence of more than the usual 

CI 0i0>o * 51 •»< St to St-o *3 

limited length, as <*JI uof$\ ^j *M s U~JI ^ t^JJ' yk He it is 

~* St>° *i * 

who is a God in heaven and a God upon earth, ^JMS t^JJb 01 U 
ILj siXi I am not he who says anything to thee; but this omission is 

o * * * 00** * O10 * 3 * 

rare in short nominal sentences, as <uu> U^ iS^i *$ jU*» J W £>*i C>-« 
he who cares for praise, does not speak what is foolish. 

§ 175] Relative Sentences. 323 

(b) If the juU be an objective complement in the accusative, A 

it is appended as a suffix to the verb ; e.g. <Q'j O-* he whom I have 
seen; ali^c ,j^ cJjX I know him wham thou hiowest ; ^JJl J>jl.JI 

0*« 3 *- * . 

^yj I aJUS ^ £^i<?/ w^om wy son killed. The suffix is, however, not 

j j } ai * a * * - j^- 

unfrequently omitted ; as ^C Jul ^^J U 'y^vo^j and yours (shall 

* O s 1 * a* 

be) in it (the future life) what your souls desire (for <Uyl£J) ; w>L£)t 
<cUt Jpl ^JJI ^ book which God has sent down or revealed (for B 
<Opl); [1>>^» ^JJl£» Uy> ^jx^jj ^j\ vetj^t ^--c tV way fo £Aa£ £mw« 

lis 0^ ^ J ^ 

wrc7/ restore some people to their former state (for oyl^ or <uXc l^jUb)]. 

(c) A pronominal suffix also supplies the place of our relative, 
when it stands in the genitive, dative, etc., or is governed by a 

preposition ; as t^ju* jjj\ ^JJt w«*JaJI the physician whose son is at 
my house; jJ^s JU a) yj* he who has great possessions ; ^a^cjJ U q 
aJI tffotf to which thou callest them. If the governing word be an 
active participle of the form J^li, referring to present or future time, 

- * ai * a*e, 

the genitive suffix may be omitted ; as ^15 oJl U u «a3Li doom then 
what doom thou wilt (for 4*^15). If the suffix be governed by the 
same preposition as the preceding conjunctive noun, the suffix and its 

^ ai - * *i 

preposition may be omitted ; as OJI ,j-« jjs. Ul / am at the house of 
the same person as thou (for ojjs. wJt) ; ( j>«^ w j-* t5«*^W ^jj-* D 
I passed by the same person as Suleiman did (for <u j*) ; {+* w>*~»3 

* J * a * j« / j/t/ - j - -■ 

tjyjj^j and he drinks of what ye drink (for aU Oyfj^*) ; c-*^ jJj 

*Jb OJI (^JJW ^* O*^ T—^ ***»■ el>o-» ws»- ^*a^» £&>« o7<fe£ 
conceal thy love of Semrci for a time, but now disclose what thou wilt of 
it (yj*$ by poetic license for £)*$!, W*-* Q/" ^" = Vt** i>* of love of her, 
and *-5b for aj ?-jW)- But this is not allowed when the preposition 

324 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 175 

A is used before the suffix in a different meaning from that which it has 
before the conjunctive noun, nor when the preceding verb is a different 

one ; as juj ^e. «*>> <Z>jj~c ^ JJ b Ojj-« / passed by him on whose 
account thou didst pass by Zeid (where w> in ^JJL> is ^LaTiU, whilst 
in <su it is Ajw-JJ, § 56, rem. d) ; *ui c~£) ^JJ I ^ OjJbj / Aaw 
had no longing after that ivhich tliou desiredst (not *Z-+£j ^JJI iJi). 

<3 „ , u, 

B Rem. a. The juU after ^JJI originally was, and, strictly speak- 

ing, ought to be, a pronoun of the third person, even when the 
preceding subject is a pronoun of the first or second person ; as 

■, , J , Ot , ytlO J O , 

l».Uol ijdfc :-ol O^**^' O*^ *' * s we w ^° arose early. More usually, 
however, the julc is brought into agreement with the word to 

which it refers (compare § 172, rem. b) ; as ^yt>\ ^jZ*~> ^JJt U1 

°" ' * ' 

Ojjk**. /am &e wlwm his (lit. my) mother named Haidara [Lion)*; 

j J j J , CJ*o ,£ 

C ^9*1)5^-*° Lj* ,<3jJ^-; ^JJI ti' /am Ae whom they find (a choking 

j , , j , , o ,i 

morsel) in their chests or throats (i*J$«X*>-j for ^*jjj^-j) ; C U«J 1 

, , o , , , j , o ) Cito // g« o*> , o --o*o 

tjkib jub$+j U-*tp C U Afe ^JJI i5~>^)l jL**Jt ar£ 2/iow wo£ iAe 
negro slave, who used to attend upon us in such and such a ^?ace ? 

, } , , 

[Rem. b. Ibn Malik alone permits the phrase £>*+* C~>j~o 

,0s ,0,0*10*' 

<Z+*£j for «ui C-s*cj (^j-* C^Jj-o T beat him whom thou desiredst 
(see Lane s. v. ..5), while some other authorities sanction the 

'J/ , , , 2 0, , 0,0 

J) following likewise jjiwj ^^ ( -lc U^j Jia».j ^i ^j\ if, some day, 

0, , J Si, , 

he fails to find one on whom he may rely, for <x*Xs, ,J£*; ^>»o (see 
Lane s. v. ,Jlc). D. G.] 

o, St, 

Rem. c. On the occasional use of ^1 in the sense of ^JJI see 
Vol. i. § 345, rem. b. 

* O^o-* by poetic license for ,-U^w, and Ojju». in rhyme for 
5jjuj».. Another reading is .-«t .-£*-«>. 

§ 177] Copulative Sentences. 325 

4. Copulative Sentences. A 

176. We have already spoken of the difference between the 

copulative particles j and <j in Vol. i. § 366, a, b. To what has 
been there said, the following remarks may be added. 

177. If to the subject implied in any form of the finite verb, 
another subject be appended, the former must be repeated in the 

jja^, ,Zi3,s 

shape of a separate personal pronoun ; a? w>^1*jj lil o^-o*. / and 
Ya'kub {Jacob) were present ; ajU^oIj ^a ^jI he and Ms companions B 
came; <&>j} wJI w**ili go therefore, thou and thy Lord ; C-JI ,j£-»l 

»*> - J 3 . 

I «iWjj^ do thou and thy wife dwell in the garden ; j^=> juU 

- - 3 J l-"*- - J it 

J*}Lo ^^g^jbtj^jl verify ye and your fathers have been in 

clear error. Exceptions are very rare ; as, in a verse, oJLSI jl 

<J^y* J^JS I said, when she and (other) fair (women) advanced with 

elegant gait (^1^3 for ^J}(y2) ; [*** Crt^h J& h* and those who 

were with him said (Tab. i. 2419, 1. 2)]. If, however, the verb has a C 
pronominal suffix in the accusative, the repetition of the implied 

subject in a separate form is unnecessary ; as j^Jj >Uj^£>t I and 

~ v ., - * * * O s, ,, 3 J i, 3, J it, 

Zeid have shown thee honour; ^JLs (j-oj lyJjJL».ju ^jjs. O'^. 

gardens of everlasting rest, into which they shall enter and those who 
are righteous. — This form of expression may be varied by repeating 

the verb after j, but even then the separate pronoun is still usually 

employed ; as «->>£*j j«nr».j Ul o^a*.*. t\ 

* [Sometimes there is hardly any difference between this construc- 
tion and that with ilx^Jt jlj (§ 37), e.g. 'Ibn Hisam, 318, 1. 11 

Ch**".**^ ••l£**v" 'Vj^ ^ bla^-olj U^j ice and some of our comrades 
who left the right path became like two parties, where Aali L£» 
UJ w>la*-otj would convey the same meaning. R. S. We may add 
here that it is usual to say ljujj C>-» rather than X>]y but 
2j+*3 J*ij j*-» rather than 1/**$.] 

326 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 178 

A 178. If a substantive be connected by j with the objective 
pronominal suffix of a verb, the suffix may be repeated in the form 

ot a separate pronoun, but not necessarily ; as ju*i ,jl ^o^ ^-u^-lj 

y • o £ 0^ 

>»Uc^ I and keep away from me and my sons our worshipping idols ; 

1 , t , s J s B t 

a-o>5j o^.ef\ he made him and his people emigrate. But if a pronoun 
is connected with a substantive or a pronominal suffix in the accu- 
sative, it must be suffixed either to the word Cl (Vol. i. § 188) or to 

the repeated verb ; as Ubl^ aXls, or V^Sj <xX3, he killed him and 
B her. If a substantive object is annexed to a pronominal object, the 

verb may be repeated or not ; as Ij^j3 <^»>Jj I saw thee and Zeid ; 

6i J y * s - * , J ' s - 

aXaI £y> <x3u> (J^ 0- c 3 *^* he hilled him and those of his family 

who were with him, or ^J! &-*3 3-fc <lL5, or ^Jl ,,>« J**^ <t ^**- 

179. If to a pronominal suffix in the genitive there be joined a 
substantive in the same case, the governing word is usually repeated ; 

C as ^fr£5W VjJ j£*.) y° ur an d your fathers' Lord. The form »ibU£» 

B y - s oi 

J*ij3 cJl, thy book and Zeid's, is of rarer occurrence, except with the 
suffixes of the third person, as A*»-tj y»> as\su\ his and his brothers 
agreement. If a substantive be connected by ^ with the pronominal 

i - 

suffix of a preposition, the preposition must be repeated; as <u». *j)j ^J 
to me and his brother. This rule is occasionally violated in poetry, 
D scarcely ever in prose ; as Ukj-ot-»j lyj ^^H O-** v'** »■*** an ^ balked 
is he who is scorched by it (war) and its flame ; j&i*$\ 5 <&> 1*3 w**iL3 
v ^,c jj^ 60 off then, for there is nothing strange in thee or the times. 

Rem. If a genitive belongs alike to two or more nouns, it is, 
in classical Arabic, attached to the first of them, and represented 

after the others by a pronominal suffix; as ouUjj -iU-o-JI y^ the 

king's sons and daughters. On an exception see § 78, rem. b ; it is 

common in later prose writers, as j>)\ jU^lj j^l j-£~>J*> j^>« 

§ 181] Copulative Sentences. 327 

Moses mentions (by name) the sons and grandsons of Adam, for A 
0}\Jl*.\j j**\ i^)jl ; <Uji jJL^Ij V J»I a most pleasant and sweet 
slumber, for Ifc'iJl^.lj i*jj «y * a**^ 

180. The negative particle ^, when it follows _j, connecting two 
nouns, supplies the place of a preceding negative sentence (see § 160) ; 

as ^o\ *^j ^1 Ji*j ^»J neither my father nor my mother remains alive, 

B J t~'~ 

where ^ is equivalent to J-j^Jj ;vo^»^W ^j^Jl '>oJ*>^oJ ye have 

not known, nor your fathers ; OjL>l *^ U£»^wl U aJJI jU» ^ if God B 
had pleased, ice tcould not have given Him companions, nor our fathers. 

If the two nouns be both separate words, ^ is sometimes prefixed to 
the first also, notwithstanding the negative which precedes the whole 

sentence ; as j»%£* ^3 JUS ^ Uu-j %s$ U there has been neither 

combat nor dispute between us. — Similarly, if two verbs are dependent 
upon another verb, which is preceded by a negative particle, the 

second of the dependent verbs usually takes the negative ^ with the 

t Bi , * Bi ** *B « * * at B i ' - Bi ,  t 

conjunction 3 ; as jj*l *iaSI ^3 Uw J^cl 0' yj~£*\ ^» it was Q 
impossible for me to do anything or to conclude anything, where ^j 
is equivalent to ^1 L 5~£«' Vs- 

181. When two verbs, connected by 3 and referring to the 
same subject, precede that subject, one of them (in general the 
second) agrees with it in gender and number, whilst the other is put 

, *'B*,*sB ie* , , * * B *o* * * * 

in the singular masculine; as «£Mju£ IjjucIj i<*J, or ^jutlj L*j 
.y'jufc, thy two servants acted insolently and with violence ; Q^a^-j D 
i)tol jjW— i}, or «i)W ^4^5— i3 ^j U , „ .^fc. » , thy two sons do good and 
evil. This involved form of expression occurs, however, but rarely in 
classical Arabic, in which we usually find Ljjutlj i)lju* ^jj. 

t— J - * * BiO J B J jj ,£/ 

tj'-s— j j ^)UjI ^...ah. j . It is called by the grammarians ^^-9 PjUJI 

J-o-*-", the conflict in regard to government. Some further illustra- 
tions of it are given in the remarks. 

328 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 181 

A Rem. a. Sometimes a noun belongs to two verbs as the subject 

of the one and the objective complement of the other. (1) When 
this is the case, if the verb to which it is the complement be placed 
first, the noun is expressed only as the subject of the second verb, 

3 0' ' 

and the first verb is left without any complement; as C-sJj-i 

00' ' ' ' ' 

J^tj ^■^j-'S'j I struck (Zeid) and Zeid struck me. Some Arab 
grammarians, however, allow the first verb a pronominal com- 

0' // /^ JJd/ / ' ' J * 3 ' 3 ' 

plement ; as juj (e-yj-^j &Zjj~o ; *_-*»-Lo s£JL*sjj j t-t^jJ C« * £> tit 
B when thou satisfiest a friend and he satisfies thee. (2) If the 
verb, of which the noun is the subject, be placed first, the second 
verb takes a pronominal complement, and the first verb agrees 
with the noun according to the rules laid down in § 141, etc.; 

00' 3 30 ''y ' ' ' ' 3 v> & 'i30''y ' ' ' 

as juj <CL>j~e>j ( -oj-o, \^J%ef^\ \^Lij^a^ l*,**!j~0 ^ ie two men struck 
me and I struck them. The omission of the pronominal complement 

0' 30''' " ' '3vi*O30''' " ' ' ' ' 

is rare; as juj c-sJj-oj ,_;j^o, 0^*hpt OOj-oj ,-Uj.o ; [.-Uwlj 

3 3 30X3 3 0'" _ 3 ' ' 3 

ijj-SJI C ^frwUg the apes were akin to me and I to them~\; \m***j \o\Sau 

CO 3 ' 3 3 " 3 3 ' ' 2 lO 

At Lai ^a^-oJ ^c* 'it ^>jjJ»U)I at i Okdz the sheen, or gleam, (of 

3 ' uj ' 

weapons, «-^LJt) dazzles the eyes of the beholders when they look at 

it. The noun may also be made the complement of the second 
verb, and the first verb, which has now no subject expressed, must 

f ' 3 0''' 'X ' 

agree with the noun in gender and number; as tjuj Ooj-ij ( -Uj-o 

0' 3 Zi *3 3 0''' " ' 

(Zeid) struck me and I struck Zeid, ^-J^pt C-o^.05 ,-jUj.o the 

3 0''' 3 ' ' 

two (men) struck me, and I struck the two men ; C-0^03 ^j^tj^b 

D yj-j^JUaJt they (the evildoers) struck me, and I struck the evildoers. 
All these involved forms of expression occur but seldom in classical 

* ' 3 0'' 

Arabic, the usual and regular constructions being tjuj C-Jj-o 

_ ' ' ' ' 3 30 ' ' ' ' 3 Z *> " ' 3 30''' ' 3 *1 lO ' ' ' 

^j*°3i W*?j-»s l/^-J^ l^^' "T&J^J (Jj-^^ 1 l^J""*' 

' ' ' ' ' 3 vt *> 3 0'' 3 ' ' ' ' vt to 3 a ' ' 

 jjljj-oj £xX*.j}\ C-sJj-i, {j->±>.j*03 yJ>*^JUaJt 

Rem. b. In the case of a verb which must be connected with 

both a subject and a predicate (such as <jk£» or j'-o), if the 
predicate be common to two propositions, it is expressed only once, 

§ 181] Copulative Sentences. 329 

being either entirely omitted the second time or having its place A 


supplied by b! and a pronominal suffix. For example, we may 

* - SO- - - - j a t 

translate I was sick and Zeid teas sick by Laj^-o juj O^J 

* -S0----JW JflJ S / $1/ / / / 

or Lcu>-« juj <jl£»3 «L»I C«S, or lastly Lcu^a juj »J^.3 

•L»l, the first of the three forms being preferable. These involved 
forms of expression likewise occur but rarely in classical Arabic, 

* - so- - - - * - j oj 

the ordinary construction being biuj-o juj 0^*J ^ij- C«^», or 

JwSO---, J J 0£ - - 

abl juj jjl^j. [An example from poetry is CU^> j*ob j-JL&j B 

* - - - JO 

Ujjj i^jJ'jj a^-9 /i« accused me of a thing of ivhich I and my father 
were innocent (Sawdhid el-Kassqf 31 1). D. G.] 

Rem. c. Almost the same thing takes place after the verbs 
jj-b to think, believe, w*"^ to think, reckon, suppose, etc., which 
take for their objective complement a clause consisting of a subject 

* - * - J 0- - 

and a predicate (§ 24), as LJU Ijuj OvuJ» / thought Zeid learned. 
The predicate of the clause, which serves as complement to the 

-0/0 J 

wJjUI ,Jjt9, may belong to two different propositions, and con- 
sequently refer to two different subjects ; whilst the noun, which 

-0/0 J 

is the subject of the wJUU t Jjti in the one proposition, may in the 
other be the subject of the clause which is dependent upon the 

-0/0 JO 

wJJUl J«*$. When this is the case, we may, in accordance with 
rem. b, translate such a phrase as Zeid thought me learned and I 

£ - 20-J0--- w - 3 Si 5- 

thought him learned by bjJlc Ijuj O-^-bo, lyUlp, or obt i**-^ 

CjU Ijuj >zJj&' 3 , or lastly abj Cjlc Ijjj ojubj ^ylk The D 

first of these modes of expression is the most common, but all three 

* - so- s- 
are rare, the natural and usual construction being LjJlc juj .j^il? 

J £ J J 0— - 

obi dJUJgj. If the subjects differ in gender or number, the pre- 

o- - £ * o - - #o- 2 £ 3 j - - it s i 

dicate must be repeated; as ^^£.1 tj-o^j tj^j l»-l .JLisuj ^jjit 

/ think Zeid and l Amr two brothers (of mine), and they think me a 
brother (of theirs). 

w. ii. 42 

330 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 182 

A 182. The Arabs, as well as the other Semites, often connect 
single verbs and entire sentences with one another merely by means 

of the particles j and o, where we should employ particles of a more 
definite meaning to indicate the precise relation between them. 

They use _$, for example, where we would prefer a disjunctive or 

adversative particle ; as ^j^Xju *) ^lilj ^^Axj aJJI God knows, but 

ye do not know. In such cases, however, j has in reality only a 
copulative force ; the adversative relation lies in the nature of the 

B two clauses themselves.— The Arabs also use 3 and o with a separate 
verb in some cases in which we avail ourselves of a subordinate 

modifying expression ; e.g. JU»ti j*.a«w he prostrated himself and 
made long (his prostration), equivalent to he prostrated himself for a 

long time, instead of i^rwJI JU»I, as we may also say (see § 140). 

183. The particle 3 in Arabic, like its equivalents in the 

other Semitic languages, often serves to connect two clauses, the 

C second of which describes the state or condition either of the subject 

or one of the complements of the first clause, or else of a new subject. 

This takes place in such a way that — 

(a) The clause descriptive of the state is nominal ; as juj >el3 
j)[j ybj Zeid rose up weeping ; p^suaut, 3-*$ ^)l ^U he returned to me 

beaten; a*^W vW*M i5^»« ^^ ajuc ^yo OsU. she came from his 
liouse with her clothes in tatters, crying ; £yo oQ/* **fs ^5* u°j*J\ 
^a f&j ^*tJI two generations of men passed away in his time, whilst 

D he still lived ; VAiL^ ^* ^i3^ \j*>3 ^j- 5 ^j^ J-* lS*^ 1 ^ ^ e ^ im 
who passed by a town, falling down upon its roofs (in ruins, its walls 

falling in upon its fallen roofs) ; ,j^©Jju ^i lj ^Itj^ ye lied, 
knowing (that ye did so), ye lied wittingly, in which example the 
nominal circumstantial clause has a finite verb for its predicate ; 

JJU jj-o*^3 <±ij w**3 Zeid went away, whilst 'Amr remained; 
lyjL^j ._* j-t^^s j„5J^I J>*3 and sometimes I go forth early, whilst 

§ 183] Copulative Sentences. 331 

the birds are (still) in their nests, where the circumstantial clause has A 
a distinct subject; JA^.. j 3j-o*3 »*ij *r**3 Zeid went away, whilst 

'Amr was busy, where the circumstantial clause has a distinct subject 

and a finite verb for its predicate. 

Rem. We sometimes find a nominal clause merely appended 
to the preceding proposition, without j, as j js- ^At..) ^ C ah i l^ixJbl 
get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other ; o ju juj zU*. 
Awlj iJlft Zeid came ivith his Iiand on his head; iwj *•«■»■ a A& a~&} B 

/ />te£ Aini wearing an embroidered coat ; [^^yJ «iJ»— oJI £~s. t^»-lj 
£&?^ returned, (wh ilst) the perfume of musk clung to them] ; and 
even without a pronoun, as ^Ajju j~&5 jJ b ^j/- 8 I passed by the 

tvheat, (whilst) a bushel (of it was selling) for a dirham (for 

J ° * ' 

<sU«^ji5 [§ 120, rem. a]). 

(6) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and affirmative, 
the verb being in the Imperfect Indicative, preceded by »»ij ; as C 

 - 6 

knowing (as ye do) that I am the apostle of God unto you ? If the 

particle jJ> be not employed, j must also be dropped, so that the 
circumstantial Imperfect is outwardly unconnected with the previous 

proposition; as <lX» ~J a a juj Aa*. Zeid came laughing ; j^t^S «U*. 

*4<M O^ w-jUaJI aUu the emir came with led horses preceding him 
(a very common construction, see § 8, e). D 

(c) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and negative, 

a ' - 
the verb being in the Imperfect Jussive, preceded by ^Jj, or the 

Imperfect Indicative, preceded by L03 ; as w-$j ^$ ^1 ^•^ JU> jt 
l^jii aJI or has said, 'Something has been revealed to me,' whilst 

: ; - : zi Z. r 3 * t * * * 

nothing has been revealed to him ; OiLJ**"^ ^J^v****-*' *$[ O^^^Z ^°3 
but they deceive only themselves, without knowing it. In this case j is 
often dropped; as ly-> ^n,-.- . *.* ^ J-^j *^\ O- 6 *-o*^ I>*UjL» 

332 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 183 

A and so they returned, (laden) with favours and benefits from God, 
without any harm having touclied them. Where the negation is 

* - * Bio z a * a £ a* 

expressed by *}), the particle 3 is rarely used ; as cUjj'n) U$3 ,jl ^ 

1 * l * * * a * * * , Zi *> ) , * * * 

w-a.,^-1 *$ lylX».> gLo-JI I^Aio dA**5 if any persons entered heaven 
because of distinction of tribe, I would enter it without being hindered. 

(d) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and affirmative, 
the verb being 111 the Perfect, preceded by jJ>j ; as j>i_9 Ia^Uc IJjb 

13 C-w^wl swcA ?&• /«e; # singing, now that she has grown old; ^pUu ^1 U U3 

LSUjIj UjLji ^jjh Ua-jji.1 jJj <*JJt J->*-j ^s «W «?/»/ should we not 
fight in the path of God, since we have been driven out of our dwellings 
and (parted from) our children 1 Sometimes j^Sj is omitted, and, 

<• * i a j 1 1 > a * s a j * * oi 

less rarely, either j or *x5 alone; as O' ^o-AjJ**- O/ *n*» j&j$*f 3' 

• ■»■»'•» 

^s^J\JL> or they come unto you, their hearts being reluctant to fight 

C against you; \£Z$ U U^tUal y IjjuiSj ^>\^.*^ I3JIS O-Z^ who, 

having remained (at home), said of their brethren (who went out to 
battle), 'If tliey had taken our advice, they would not have been 

killed' ; ja+j *$ V^-J C>3> C*Aj£j ^ov5l~J JiJLc 1*1**^ O^* ^ 
what can it boot me that their women say, ' do not perish ! ' when I 
have been slain fighting for their husbands? O^S »Hp j**- 5 *** *Wj 
ojj^cf. fJ*e- ice saw him enraged against Zeid, who was in command 
of his army. 

D (e) The clause descriptive of the state is verbal and negative, 
the verb being in the Perfect, preceded by Uj, or more rarely by U 
alone ; as v^j ^J **4j £ ^ ZMd came without having ridden ; 

ayA jXl Uj juj Aaf, or oyi\ jXi U, Zeid came without his father 
having stood up. 

Rem. The _j which introduces such a circumstantial clause, ia 
called by the Arab grammarians ^JlaJI jlj, the lodw of the state, 

§ 184] Copulative Sentences. 333 

condition or circumstance, and £ UL>^t ^3, the waw of commence- A 

« £ - - 3 J 

ment. The clause itself is called iJl». aA»o-»-- 

5. Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 
184. The principal adversative particles in Arabic are ^, Cr? 

Si * 

or »>£), and j^. 

(a) *$ is opposed to a preceding affirmative proposition or a 
command ; as JaU. *$ ^Ic juj Z^'d is learned, not ignorant ; B 

faAre Z01W, ?w£ ilwir. [In comparisons ^ has the meaning of but not, 

as *iX3U^» ^ l^9 a man but not the like of Malik (ibn Nuweira) ; 

- •* 
,jtjuuJl£9 *i)j l^j- kS^^^ *^3 *^* wv/fc/' — but not so good as that 
of the well of Sodda, pasture — but not like the sa'ddn. In later times 

*^3 was very often used in the sense of even more than, as *})j Ojj^t 

w>l^iJI gtjucl / rose ear/y, eren earlier than the crow does ; C— oi J^j ^ 

ju?£ O^ J/-* 6, ^J *^ a,l d veri ly t"°u luist dej ended the cause of God 
better than even 'Amr 'ibn 'Obeid; jjU*Jt ,jl£w ^j^. ^)j l^-^j 
they were silent, even more than the inhabitants of the sepulchres. 
In reality, neither *$ nor *^j have an adversative force ; the adver- 
sative relation lies in the nature of the two clauses themselves, as has 

been remarked in the case of j § 182. D. G.] D 

(b) sj£ or sjSH (also, especially in Magribl mss., 0^=>^, O^ 3 *^)- 
which is often preceded by 3, is more particularly opposed to a 
preceding negative proposition or a prohibition ; as yj& j^>j ^>^*f 
t**~i jt^ It** Zeid came to me, but Amr did not come ; *->**■• *$ 
'j-o* O® '-^j d° n °t beat Zeid, but Amr ; 1^Jl£> ^i^ U^Ai? Uj 

334 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 184 

, - J ^ j , } oi 

A 03-<>-^*i^*-~*- 5 ' ail( t they did not injure us, but they injured themselves; 
L5^5 V**^ 0&3 ^5*** *^J Ji»Xo *iU /or he neither believed nor 
prayed, but deemed {the truth) a lie and turned away ; ^J ^.J^o^L 

J " 'vi J 2 1/ s s s 0* w J 

*****) V*** O-* {f**®3 L5^'-** L5^ ^^*" w # reproachers blame me 
for loving Leila, but I am deeply smitten with love for her (%£++£■ 

9 - 1} •*,* I J) *s * J * rsO * - 6>o !> 

m rhyme for Ju^c) ; ^i <uulSj ^SJ oj>I^j ^-^-J "n) dsjj ^\ ,j\ 

o jJa^.j vj-*^ ' no errors of sudden passion are feared in 'lbn Zarka, 
but his onslaughts in battle are looked for (with dread). When 
introducing a nominal clause, »>& requires the subject to be put in 
the accusative (see § 36), whereas o-£ leaves it in the nominative ; as 
I_$ja£» Ch^W^' 0&3 O^-**^ j-*^ ^*3 an d Solomon ivas not un- 
believing, but the devils were unbelieving ; ^s ja^J\ ,j^JUaJI { j£i 

C C>«-* <J*$~*> but the evildoers are to-day in manifest error. 

Rem. ,^£J and ^jSi are said to be used ^Jljjklw'^JL) fo rectify or 

emend (the previous statement). 

e ' . 
(c) Jj is opposed either to a preceding affirmative or negative 

proposition, a command or a prohibition ; as jj-o-t ^ JkJj j>{* Zeid 

<i o * o * oo * , , , 

stood up — not so, it was 'Amr ; jj-o-t ^Jj juj ^eU U Zeid did not 

f o - o * so/ * o 

stand tip, but 'Amr (stood uj>) ; Sj^s. ^Jj ljuj vj-^' ^^ Z#/c? — no, 

10* 0' to* * - 

D Amr; tj-o* <Jj \j*ij *->j-*£ *$ do not beat Zeid, but (beat) Amr; 

, * lit! * * * s Os s 3* s s s 

,j_o3lfb j/<r £dsu Jj jj-oi £yt> \xAs- jjti ^jj U we do not see that ye 
are in any way superior to us — nay, we think you liars ; Uj>1>* 1^1* 

> jirf JJ/// ' J 

^bjiSLj <UJI ^rr&i jJj oUc they say, ' Our hearts are uncircmncised' — 

J * * } , l , * 

not so ! God hath cursed them for their unbelief; *ZxX±. out- l^xA*. 

I , 0*> 

S^aJI >~>y>5 J^ they stripped him of his dress, nay, also of the 

* * ' - '.£.» 1^1 - ' ** ftir 0*0 f- r t > - * Oli 

garment of life; ^£*^yo L> Sl^l J-» cJlii o\j*«\ j»\ A+*j C-Jlt art 

§ 186] Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 335 

thou a man or a icoman? And she said, A tcoman (lit., not a man, A 
but a tcoman) my master. Sometimes it is strengthened by the 

addition of *^ ; as «**jj >»-* ^**w ^i'j \Jj *$ ^Jj^Js Uj and I hare 

not abandoned thee; no, on the contrary, separation and distance have 

increased my love. [In the answer to a disjunctive question Jj *9 

and Jj deny one member (the first), as *$ Jli ojuu j»\ ^JUj ^1 

ojju Jj whether in my time or afterwards? He said: Nay, but 
afterwards ('Ibn Hisam 10, lines 5 and 3 from below, 11, 1. 1, Tab. i. 
912, 11. 3, 4, 9). R. S.] B 

Rem. After a negative proposition or a prohibition, Jj is said 
to be used ,*)ljjilw'}U (see above, b, rem.) ; after an affirmative 
proposition or a command, wjIj*£*^U to denote turning away, or 
digressing, from what preceded (jjj^t O 1 *)- 

185. The particle UjI is one of the most important in the 

language as a j~o». \Jj*-, particle of limitation or restriction. It 

stands at the beginning* of a proposition, and the word or portion of C 
the proposition which is affected by it, is always placed, for emphasis' 

sake, at the end (compare § 36, rem. b, d) ; as ^yj^Lm. © ^ LjJl 
we are on^y mocking (at the?}i) ; t \jJudi OlijuaJI lo->t ^« obligatory 
afow are only for the poor ; yj~5\ jl Ijl».Ij ^>^c J£> ^J ^jjJLJ l^jf 

^<w a/res£ fo'r^ in £% it-fo/e ///"e to o«/y one or two; J~l> l S £-±-\ C5t 
^iaJJ I fear the overflow only of my own streamlet; [^» by I L^Jt 
££-— dl verily, usury is in the delay of payment]. D 

186. (a) The most important of the exceptive particles is *J|, 
compounded of o], (/*, and •$, no* (see Vol. i. § 367, «). The exception 
(2U£*^I) is considered to be of three kinds: J-^yT * *"— $!, [ n 

* [But not always; comp. Fleischer, KI. Schr. i. 508.] 

330 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 186 

A which the thing excepted ( ^;i£ «^f) is joined to, or of the same kind 
as, the general term (oU« ^.^^Jl tf/fotf /row w/«cA ^<? exception is 
made); ^Lk^iS i\x l 2*>*$\, in which the exception is severed from, or 
wholly different in kind from, the general term ; and £>&»H l\£LS$\, 

or the exception made void (of government)*, in which the general 
term is not expressed. The rules for the construction of the exception 
are as follows. 

(a) When the thing excepted is placed after the general term, and 
B the proposition containing that term is affirmative, the exception is 

put in the accusative ; as I juj *n)I j>$s& I j>Kl the people stood up, except 

Zeid; I**jJ *9l j»^^> ^jj* I passed by the people, except Zeid ; 

jvir* >*** *^| «*- i -» IjJj-^ «wc? tfA^y drank o/* /£, sai 1 ^ a few of them. 

(/?) "When the thing excepted is placed after the general term, 
and the proposition containing that term is negative, or interrogative 

implying a negation (^^aJI ^5^**^ vol^ilwl or e&l&l velvet)!, the 
C exception may be put either in the accusative, or in the same case 
with the general term (as a Jj*j or per mutative, or more specifically 
as a <u* ^y^I-^oJI ,j-o ^ Jju, § 139, rem. b, 2, b), but the latter 
construction is preferred ; as juj *i)l *x»-l <*j?^ U (or ljuj *s)|), 

j-jj *n)I ^x©*^ Ojj^ U (or I JUJ *N)I), JUJ ^| JU».I ^^AJ *s) /^ W0 0rt0 sto«^ 

wp pw/ Z^'a 7 (or tjuj *n)I), juj *^)l **».U ^jj"< J-* ^«s£ £/>om passed by 

t a , £ «jo o - Z 3 > , , 

D any one but Zeid (or ljuj *$\) ? vOV ^o J~X3 ^)l ojAxi U they would not 

oo i£, saw a few of them ; <UJI *$\ w>^JjJI j**j ^j awa* who forgives 

s«'ws saw GW. ? [<»-Ul ^)l 4JI *9 tffore is wo cifeiYy o£/^r than God], 
Sometimes the place of <*x« ^XZ» ^ i\ is occupied by a preposition and 

* [Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. ii. 96.] 

t [Also in sentences like Uju~A3 aJUI *N)t i^JI U^o O^* V § 4, a, 
the proposition implying a negation. D. Cr.] 

§ 186] Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 337 

its complement (jsj- s ^- c 3 jW-) or tne like, wn i cn does not however A 
affect the construction of the exception ; as juj ^1 »x».l ^>« ^s^. U, 

*i e 5 si sa- 2 *i a j ai* , 'i a 

where j^-\ ,j-« = «*»-l ; Ijuj ^1 j^-l O-* »^b ^> where «*»-t 0-* = 

9 * i 2 to , i, a j * ta - £ a , s a - - a- » - 5 a - * 

4j L*j »nJ fj^ •v)!, Zeid is nothing but a thing of no account; 

jJss- ly) CwJ tju *nJ] jk*j^I-J ^j^J ^yjl ^ i?£;^ Lubeina, ye are B 

wo hand but a hand that lacks an arm. — On the contrary, if the thing 
excepted is wholly different in kind from the general term the 
preference is usually given to the accusative, in accordance with the 

dialect of Sl-Higaz ; as tjW»- *$\ J**-I j^W- U no one (i.e. no person) 
came to me, but an ass ; tjU*. ^M j>^\ >»U> U the people did not 
stand up, but an ass ; but the Temimites [and some others] adopt the 
permutation, as jU*. ^1 _>o^i)l voli U, jU-»- *$\ j>s&^. ^jj-* U.— 

If the general term is not expressed, the thing excepted is put in Q 
whatever case the general term would have been, had it been 

« a ^ 5 — ^ - i a * ay - j a * * * 

expressed; as jljj *$\ ^sU*. U (not Ij*-»j), jujJj *9I O;^* U, 

* o^ £ a a - a ^ 

' ju j *^M «->*^! ^oJ (for had the general term been expressed, we should 

s ^ £ »» ^ « , i i a , , * t , i a a - a - a , a ** 

have said jl».I sU*. U. j^-b Oj^-o U, and lj»*.l w^-su^J) ; jju ^oJi 

^^j j^!«>J' i^[ a^Ls. U c^^,« » U <UJI *^l and none but God knew 
what (feelings the thought of) her tattoo-marks excited in us on 
the evening when the abodes (of her people) were far away. J) 

(y) When the thing excepted is placed before the general term, 
it is invariably put in the accusative, if the proposition containing 

the general term is affirmative; asvojJUl ljuj •$! ^>\l. But if that 
proposition be negative, the nominative is also admissible, though the 
usual construction is the accusative ; as i**w Ju^».t jf *^l ' J l^i 

v * * -* ti*^' w >» ^ *i)t ^ U3 / Aow no helpers but the family of 

'Ahmad (Muhammad), and I have no way but the way of truth; 

w. 11. 43 

338 Part Third.— Syntax [§ 186 

A l lr c^s ^j U lino n)I ,>tj Ui £w£ conversing with her only doubled 
my pain (lit. wA«£ was m we) ; but ^ til ^liw <su* O^^hJ voir 5 "^ 

j**3i2ioSiOJ* < i\ • 

«.ilw (J>tM^I *)[ i>& an d they expect from him (Muhammad) inter- 
cession, wlien there is no intercessor save the prophets; *$\ ^*} U 

* * J i * ul 2 * 

j»oU ^3^.1 I have no helper but thy brother; instead of v >**~i)l and 


B Rem. a. If several exceptions are specified, the following rules 

are observed. (1) If the general term, from which the exception 
is made, is not expressed, the regent (verb) affects one, usually the 
first, of the exceptions, and the others are put in the accusative; as 

b-U % +>) 4\ JM U \£i •§» 1>-U *5t jtfr $\ ^JjjU U. (2) If 
the general term is expressed, and the exceptions precede it, they 
are all put in the accusative, whether the proposition containing 

2 0* .2 20 * d * * 

the general term be positive or negative; as \j^£- ^)t \j*ij *})I>15 

j>$&\; j»^i\ ()£> *5] tj-o* *5l tjuj S)l js{$ U. If the exceptions 

C follow the general term, and the proposition containing that term 

is affirmative, the exceptions are likewise all in the accusative, as 

2 0* w 20* 2 20* 2 J *0-a * * 

\jSJ *$\ l^o* ^1 ljuj ^1 j>$sd\ j>\.s; but if the proposition be 
negative, one of them (usually the first) is construed in the 

ordinary way as a permutative of <sU-o | c* * w»» ll, and the others 

^ & <■ a & t> * m so / cj o s & s ** *» 
are put in the accusative, as \jSL> *^t \j+£ *j)l juj *$S ji^l >oU> U 

2 0*2 " . 

(but ljuj *n)I in the accusative is rare). (3) If the exceptions be 
different in' kind from the general term, the ordinary rule is 

followed for all ; *%*L «s)t L,Ji •J I lJC»» *$\ X^\ j\s U in the 
D accusative is preferable to the permutative in the nominative. 

Rem. b. If the repetition of *§\ be merely emphatic (ju£»^JJ), 

it exercises no influence upon the word following it, which may be 

connected with the preceding exception, either as a permutative or 

* * t a o * w * t j o * * * 

by the conjunction $ ; e.g. ^JL^t *$\ ^>j *$\ j^»-b ^)j-« I* I passed 

by no one but Zeid — but thy brother, meaning but Zeid thy brother, 
£ o ->- a ■■'&*- i- o *- a j o . >>-•• 

.1 Juj *9t ; \j^£- *^l tjuj *n)I ^e^iJt >el5 the people stood up, 

§ 186] Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 339 

except Zeid and except 'Amr, only slightly more emphatic than A 
ij^ij tjuj *J| except Zeid and Amr; *3tj Uj^Jj iLJ ^M ^AjJI J* 

*? j j j 

UjLc^oJ ^ q- M PjJ-b is Time aught but night and its (following) 
day, and {aught but) the rising of the sun (and) then its setting ? 
where the second *^l is a jiU or superfluous word, which does not 

j j - £ j - - £ - o - o - - * 

count in the construction; a^*->j *$\ &L&& *^l ^ i, w ^j-e «£JJ Us 
dJU. ^|^ thou hast nothing from thy old camel but its toil, (nothing 

JJ/// 3 3 - 3 3 * * £ 

but) its jog and (nothing but) its trot, for d-Lejj *  »* ) * *«£ *$\ B 

~ a * - - - - o - 

by license for >iJLa. l w, but others read ^la»-w). 

Rem. e. The exception after *^l may also be expressed by a 

/ !</ I ( -O - Of - 

sentence, which may be introduced by j. jjj, ^jl, etc. ; as ULvjl U 

^5 w io* w - c-Orf --o£ - O * £ £ - - X *C _ 

6 l^-fiJlj £ L;yb lyJUkl UJl».I ^1 ^J t^yo 3ujS u* We have never 
sent a prophet to any city without our afflicting its people with 

-j-}- £ ^- - o j }a, - 

adversity and trouble; ly^Xa u *$\ Sijj ^yc h.i...J Lo no leaf falls 

j o so- so- £ s - e j o£- - 

fru< Z7e knows it; <U*o ^*^ Juj ^1 tj^.1 OsjI; to / Aaue seen no C 

x J 3 JOfc - £ £3 J - - - 

one than whom Zeid was not better ; ^j ^ . L .,.«^ q Ijlj *$\ v jJ^ J ^JLs 
do not die then unless ye be Muslims; ^-ij *$\ f,-i -iLJUS ,_$ Lo 

i : ) * a i o - 

d^«p=)l ir!^ tfAere is no emotion in thy heart but there is a stronger 

: - * .- '~ o - - - - £ : ' - J - - 

one in mine ; wJLil »*i i^jW-J *$l w»J' ^oJj «"<^ -^ ^^ not waited 

»»- 0-- m JJOs -- 

&m<7 fo«£ my grir? came ttpy «jUc ^j-o OsL*. jJj *^t jjtwl L>3 and 
before I teas aware (of it), she had come from his house ; lyJJLL>. l^i 

3 J S t9 + ** ^^ fi 

J>»^JI w-Ai «Oj ^)l «w<f before I had unloosed it (my foot), <A« »wm D 

, ,»& - -j tji> jj/ [/ oj ; / jj t< o- 

was gone; >oL>iJI ^>-» JJJi ^i aJJI ^^y-Jb (jt *j)l ^jJxo Jjb 
ca« <A«y expect but that God shoidd come to them overshadowed by 
clouds? The phrase cJUi NJI (<UJb) aJUI JUjuiJ / beseech thee 

* - £ -0 J 2 * s ' 

by God to do (it)*, is explained by JULni n)I »£JLu C*JLk> U / 6«^ 

- £ a* * £ *o * JO-- 

* [Properly / remind thee of God, therefore ^o*yJlj aJUI .jUjuLj 
/ remind thee of God and the ties of relationship is often = / beseech 

340 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 186 

 t> o ' J <■ »c 

A of thee nothing but thy doing (it), equivalent to *$| ^XlXc Co»»JH 
C*Xxi (compare § 59, rem. a). [In this sense *^l is often replaced 
by O ; see Yol. i. § 367, I] 

Rem. d. *^| is sometimes strengthened by prefixing to it^yJUl 

j t*> j ^ , * a £ 5 5 j i ^ 

Cod / as £$j»Jt jU jJl> (jjl *^l ^ryJJl unless indeed the fire of 
hunger be kindled. [Comp. the footnote to § 38, rem. a 7 .] 

Rem. e. *$\ is very rarely used in poetry with pronominal 
B suffixes ; as j-eli o^Jt u^^ 6, iJ U-* «wc? / have never any helper but 

Him ; j\*>* J)*$\ Ijjjla^j *$ ^j\ tJjla. C wfe U t^t UJLc U^ a»(i ii 

zs nothing to us, when thou art our neighbour, that no one is near to 
us but thee. 

Rem./! The exception is sometimes suppressed after *j)l, as in 
the phrase *n)I ^^^J (compare j.*& u *Ji and j+& *$, § 82, d) ; e.g. 
*n)| ^^J w-woZlAi *}\^. U^ tjkt lo Uls as regards ma 'ada am/ ma 

C hala, ^Aey are used with the accusative, not otherwise; j^»»t_3 jJ^UJt 

a ■'*•' 
*n)| ^^wJ ^e agent is one (in kind), no more. 

i d £ y !> - 

[Rem. g. ^j\ *^t and ^J\ j^e- are often used in the sense of but, 
even if the preceding proposition be affirmative. — On the phrase 

a £ Ct - j ^ 

^j\ *$\ 3-fc Uo to, see the Gloss, to TabarT.J 


(b) j*£ (see § 82, d) is often used in the sense of besides, except, 
but. It is construed with the genitive, and must itself be put in the 

D same case as would be the thing excepted after *$\ ; e.g. j»^*i\ volS 

• • ,. £0y £ 0/ JJ/ -- £ ^ • s 0* d 

juj j-ji (= ljuj n)|) ; juj j»ji jw».t >els U (=juj ^1), better than 

itAee 6y Corf £o think of the ties of relationship, as SjGjJtj ,£UjuLj 
/ beseech thee to give us the increase of pay (lAganl xiv. 120, 1. 16 quoted 
by R. S.). The words cJLai ^1 are properly an elliptical phrase (§ 6, 

^ e _ ^ o .* ^ 6 c »«>.• * Si >o f J 6 .» *■ 

rem. 6), as cJlsi ,jt ?io4 to do (*£), e.g. <jl >ot»-j*i)lj <*JJt .iUjuiJ 
L5 ^a»-cii 7 beseech thee by God and the ties of relationship not to 
disgrace me. D. G.] 

§ 186] Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 341 

^.j j-jt (= i juj «9p ; ^»j >** ^ i* (= «*u ^J) ; j 1 *^- ;■** •**■' >° b u A 

(= IjU*. "Sj), rather than jC»-^ (-jC*» 5j). 

Rem. a. *^)l is sometimes used as a *j!j, when we should rather 
have expected ^-ji, and is then followed by a substantive in the 

same case as that which precedes it; e.g. ^1 iyJI U^*i O^ 3 V 

..A- s ' ' ' 

Ujc.a.) aJUI (/" *Aere Aac? fteen ire lAem (heaven and earth) ^oc?s 

besides God, they would certainly have gone to ruin; oJUlj w ss^- o l B 

ly*lij *^l Ol^-c^l lyj (J-J^ SjJb JJ^i SjJL sAe tvas made lie down, 
and laid her breast upon a tract of ground in which there icere 

3 1 ' J £ li J ^ 

{heard) few sounds except her own murmured cry ; dijU-o <i-\ (J^j 

^\j3jJti\ *$\ <il*jl ^^o*' «3».1 and every brother is forsaken by 
his brother, by thy father's life, except the two (stars called the) 
Pointers. The noun which precedes ^1 is in this case usually an 


indefinite plural or its like (<iy*£), such as a substantive defined by C 

the article used ^^UaJU. 

Rem. b. The construction of ^y (see § 82, e) in the sense of 
besides, except, is similar to that of j^t ; as juj t^y-* ja^ii I jXi 

Os 'd' * JO/0 ' '0' &" 

(=juj^*c); jjljjcall ^j— » J!-J^oJj and there was nothing left but 
violence (= s j\^j>*i\ j^i). 

(c) The verbal clauses *}L». U, w?^a£ is free from, and lj^e U, 
ic^a£ gws beyond, are often used in the sense of except, but, and D 

govern the accusative; as l~>Lc *il*. U^Jk^jJli and they made them 

alight, except 'Abbas; JJ»b aJJt *$>*■ U t^w J£» ^t verily everything, 

* 1 * 3 

except God, is vanity (in rh)Tue for JJsb) ; j+±. ^ j^'i U g* *^ 

a// £^«£ /$«s fo^re said regarding the habar of the mubtada', as to its 
kinds and states and conditions, holds regarding it (the habar of 'inna), 

342 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 186 

• , , *, o , oxj * ' oi J £ J 

A except the allowability of placing it first ; \js- U £ I^UJI c.\$J\ c**j 

i^a ^ a.Jl / have tasted all kinds of sweetmeats, except the habis. — 

When U is dropped, as is frequently the case, %±. and \j& may be 
construed with the accusative or the genitive, though the latter is 

, , 1,0, ,Zi *£,**> , , , * # JOo -> " J ' * 

disputed in regard to I js. ; as J^.*3 IjJl t\jsA\ *jl»- O****^' *-*&<X«3 

* o, , , , . ... 

c>~J J-o-c and the opinion of the Kufis, except el-Farrd, is that it 

, o j o*> , ^ "* _ , o ' " * * . " 

governs in the same way as leisa ; ( j>^ X.^. Jt ^>« o^l £ ....»£■ J>»- ^°3 
B >SJj^"j eCl*JI '«** ^x^'j aJjWIj «»d «6om* 5000 Muslims and 
Metdwila and Jews, besides the women and children; *$ <UJt *>>>»• 
^\^> 3^.jl saving God, I have no hope but in thee; v~! W C*~*J 
jl^-Jt '^ S^UUI / Aave worn a^ sorfe o/ splendid garments, except 

black ; j~3L*ai\ JaJDIj 6 lk^iJt Ij^c l^wlj %Z$ ^rvs** l - a -^ w ^ 0°^ ^i 9 
£/Wr £n£>0 to slaughter and bondage, except the grey-haired woman and 
the little child. — These words may of course, like *j)t, j*£, and ^>-«, 

it £ 2 Z , , 

C be followed by a clause commencing with o' or O' 5 as Oi O' *^ 

i. , , , o , , o o *> ,00^1,0, > 

LoU ^lib (jt^ JLAiw 1 ^ JaaJI JjfcaJJ except that (the conditional) 

'in turns the verb into a future, though it be (in form) a past; 

# - io, a , o , t>& , , a -o i , 6 iia,,iC>i,, 

it is not elegant to make an indefinite substantive the permutative 
of a definite one, unless an adjective be annexed to it. This is 

, o , , e , 

also the ordinary construction of j^-> (rarely *»-*-•), used in an 
D /fcJaJU* ll£l~>\ ; as J^-j *Jl J*> JUJ' j~£=> *H) Zeid is wealthy, 

0,1 o vo£ ,o, Z ■*> ,, , o , i ,ot ,£ 

but he is stingy; J~-ij* v>* c5^ **^ >^W tP 3 - 5 O-* ?— *^' l J' 

, 00, -JOOjOa^ >€ 

Ju ^yj jia-j (««iJ t*5 Cou^lj 1 have the purest pronunciation oj 

the letter dad, but I am of Koreis, and I was put out to nurse among 
the Bhiil Sa'd 'ibn Bekr (words of the Prophet). 

(d) ^l*" (lit. he excepted*) or l£l»., rarely ^1*. and ^-^, is 
* [That i*wW- is originally a nomen verbale, and not a verb, as 

§ 186] Adversative, Restrictive, and Exceptive Sentences. 343 

j 3 - 3 i 

construed with the genitive [or with J] or the accusative ; as c-i—*-t A 
i£«£jT jJi-U. ji\^)V^ j>\£=>*V> ^l I have benefited the high and the 
low, except the family of Barmek ; O* ^-o y oi OkP L5v' ^^ 
JiLfij SUjUjT except Abu Taubdn, — verily he is sparing of abuse 
and foul words; j»%->^ *i*fi lJ* j*&* **" O^ ^ij 3 t^ 1 *" 
Oi^h except Koreis, for verily God hath given them the superiority 
over all creation through U- Islam and the (true) religion ; j*£\ ^v^' " 

ilo^jT CYj ^\LJf\ ^ji-U- £^—j 0-**3 J ^ **od, P ar d° n me an d 
those who hear, except Satan and Abu 'l-Asbag. It is rarely preceded 
by U; as i«i»li (or u-^-) ^^ ^° \>Jl wr»WI w^-l i«LJ Uscima 
is the dearest of mankind to me, except Fatima (words of the Prophet); 
*i)lai ^yJLoJI \Ja^> Ulj IA»>5 IwU. U ^LJI Uii «/?</ as regards 
mankind, except Koreis, ice are the noblest of them in deeds. 

[Rem. aJU ^^^ in Kor'an xii. 31 and 51 is an expression of C 

it * * - jj 
wonder at the power of God, like <*JUt ^jla» «...< ; used by later 

A- ' ' - - * 

writers in the sense of aJUI 3lx*o God forbid ! God keep us! jJlil*. 

or iJU ^Ui means saving you, you excepted.] 

(e) j^lJ and *j£± ^ are ^^ occasionally used; in these forms 
only, as equivalents of ^1, and are followed by the accusative ; 
as tjuj ^-J vft^Ut j»\3, or Ijuj 05^ *^- Here the grammarians 

3 1 1 3* 

suppose an ellipse of the subject, ^o^-oju. With pronominal suffixes D 
we may say ^ ■...■ J and ^5— *J (as well as ^£^i\ u-* 1 *- ^-e^» etc. 

[comp. Vol. i. § 182, rem. a] ; e.g. ^j—J ^o'j^3l j»$tt\ w>*i it si«c« 
the noble have departed, except me; ^£jj *) ;y£ J-JJI l«x* C-J 
L*5j («^a»J *i)j ^^[s L^^i *-^ W>* *e* would that this night 

the school of el-Kufa taught, has been proved by Fleischer, XL Schr. 
i. 405, 462 seq.] 

344 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 186 

A were a (whole) month, during which we might see no stranger, but only 
me and thee, and might fear no spy ; £.Jjkl»J I ^ j.*-\ ^) ou»j U 

*£X~J iicJI jjo aZjIj *n)I > ©'i)-w'N)l («5 AijUi no one was described to me 

iw ^e (ftTrae q/*) ignorance, whom I saw (afterwards) in (the time of) 
M- Islam, but I found him inferior to the description, save thee (words 
of the Prophet to Zeidu '1-Hail). 

(/) CI* *s) especially, above all (see Vol. i. § 364, e), may be 

° ' * " " 
B construed either with the nominative or the genitive ; as <**»*& j^Aj 

f*jj*i\ ^Jwo U-w ^3 ^ <<r Ja.*Jt «ulc ^jLaJI ly^iiju and it is a church 

which the Christians hold in very great reverence, but especially the 
kings of the Europeans; jJj^A*. SjIju ^j lo-w ^j 6w£ especially a 

day in the valley of Gulgul. The word ^y is the accusative of the 

noun j^w an equal (see § 39), and, if the construction with the 

C genitive be adopted, U is regarded as redundant (compare § 70, 
rem. /). Often a preposition with its complement, an adverbial 

accusative, or a circumstantial clause introduced by j or jJj (compare 

a, rem. c), [or a conditional (temporal) sentence introduced by oi or 

lit], follows U-l* *^ ; as ^Uj^n-w.) l.o*~> ^ especially in thy presence ; 

glyi-JI ,j^ l^Zw ^ ^)Ca»~^W As-^J ^ a ^ care to 6ear insults patiently, 

especially from fools ; a-jUj & * JUJ ) iCj ^ c*ilj U^-» *>) especially 

D s£wc0 £Aow ar£ «w £^0 gr«r& o/* £/^ caliph and his dress ; j^j l»^ ^ 

v»*l)LlaJI ^^ v»ij^l especially as the shadow of darkness has fallen ; 

[ULa<© aLJI (or l>!) ,jl U-j~> ^j ^>& I AJj 0\ verily ZVid is generous, 
especially if thou come to him whilst he is engaged in prayers]. Later 
writers incorrectly use W w , without ^ ; as ajL-».I .>*>>* *.« I*xa 
6 *5JLi3l ^>*j ,-» U^w aJI ^/i/s, notwithstanding his excessive kindness to 
him, especially in time of dearth. 

§ 187] Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences. 345 

6. Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences. A 

187. To what we have said above (§§ 4—6, § 13, and § 17), 
regarding the use of certain moods and tenses in the protasis and 
apodosis of conditional and hypothetical clauses, we must here add a 

few words on the use of the particle o at the commencement of a 
conditional apodosis.— This particle is used to separate the protasis 
and apodosis of a conditional sentence, [or of a clause introduced by 

lit], when the conditional particle of the protasis either cannot B 
exercise any influence upon the apodosis, or is not required to do so*. 
This is the case — 

(a) When the apodosis is a nominal sentence ; as IJuk <^X5 ,jl 

.. -»<« ^ .. at* 

^jjjiUOl yj*o c-Jli if thou sayest this, thou art one of the unbelievers ; 

i* o o - - - * a m # jSx j , o * a 

a) Jj>J \S aA 0\ l f he be disobedient, woe to him ! ajU t^l*£J ,jl 
^£j J>>~i if ye do, it will be a crime in you (lit. attaching to you) ; 

o j ^ a- - £ + a *»io - a* ui j o 

^o^>UiJL». Uli wsaJ I ^y> w-jj ^b j^ j £ = > ,jt if ye are in doubt about C 
the resurrection, verily we have created you ; ll+~/*$\ aXs I^cjJ U bt 
 g^M.^ll by whichsoever (name) ye call (upon Him), His are the best 
names. [J*-***- <*JJ^j gl^j J£i a^ojs- j»^Xi\ s j^<> ^J-i ^ ^oJI li] 
when a man's honour is not sullied by meanness, every coat he wears is 

becoming to him.] In this case, after a conditional oj or '*!> we mav 
substitute for o the so-called «LjU**JI lit (see Vol. i. § 368, rem. e), 

* i ,a* >j / t ai o - £ ^ - f/ii/ cjo j a - 

as (J^K^j^qA lit ^^j jut C*ojJ> I^j aS-^^^^clJ ,jtj «wrf if evil befcd J) 

them for what their hands have previously wrought, lo they despair ; 
provided always that the nominal sentence does not partake of the 

nature of an imperative (as in the ?bove a) J-!V), and is not intro- 

duced by a negative or ^1. 

* [When the protasis is deprived of its conversive influence on the 

verb of the apodosis this is called £li)t. Comp. Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 

w. ii. 44 

346 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 187 

A [Rem. The o is sometimes omitted in poetry, rarely in prose, 

*b*o .:. *bto jo* j j * b s * j ~Z d i * o so** j * a* o * * 

whoever did not die to-day, the snare of death will certainly lay 

, j o s a j j - * s * 

hold of him to-morrovs ; ^jj-ksu ^fA Uyoc \* l>l^ and when they 

*i , a i ^ ^ -• a ^ t * , i o * s * •• 

are angered, they forgive : ,,31 ^.».l *n)j jjj *n) l5U£» 0^*»J jjlj 

j^g-.J anc/ i/ / escape on equal terms, neither condemned nor 
rewarded, lo, I shall be fortunate.] 

B (b) When the apodosis is a verbal sentence, but the verb is a 
*>-*W- u°{* or defective perfect (without imperfect or masdar), such 
as t^-J he is not, ^-^ perhaps he is,^su how good is, and the like ; 
e.g. u~tM ^J"° cJj' L5^ rt "° j k *.* 6» 5^« oUI jju a^ Jbuu ,^>£j ^J ^>-e 
^JjJt J«*U /?0 wfose reverence {for his teacher) is not the same after 
(seeing him) a thousand times as after (seeing him) for the first time, 

* Ci - , , Ci o j a i a 

is not worthy of science ; jjA '.©A^i OlSj^JI tjjoi (j! if ye give alms 
C openly, it is well. 

(c) When the apodosis is a verbal sentence, expressing a desire, 
wish, command, or prohibition ; as ^JjaJLs aJJI 05***^ j*~^* 0[ 
if ye love God, follow me; J^swJj %^a. <*JUI ^^a*-; ,jl jU» ^a 
■^a. S ^r s )i i^ aJ^J whoever wishes to attain his desires as a whole, 
let him make use of his night, as of a camel, to overtake them. 
[Comp. § 1, /, at the end.] 

D (d) When the apodosis is a verbal sentence, preceded by one of 
the affirmative particles ^, ^Jy, and j>.*, or one of the negative 

^ s /0/ 3 s J/ Of //^ 0**00*0 

particles U, ^jJ, and u~J ; as J-i ,j^> a) »-l Jj-w jJH Jj— j o! 
if he steals, a brother of his has stolen befoi'e (him) ; ^ ja*Z~J ^1 
^ aJUI jsJu ^Xi if th<m askest forgiveness fo?- them, God will not 
forgive tliem. 

§ 188] Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences. 347 

Rem. a. If the perfect in the apodosis conveys a promise or A 

threat (§ 1, e), the use of k^fi is optional, as the verb really refers to 
future time. 

Rem. b. With the negatives^ and *9, the use of ^fi is optional. 
If o be inserted, ^ requires the imperfect indicative after it 

(§ 17, C, a). 

(0) When the perfect tense in the apodosis is intended to retain 

a a j a - j j ' * * s 

the signification of the perfect (see § 6, c) ; as ^>« jJ> jJ* < ^ a^ .i O^ 3 Oi 

CJEjuai J.^5 (/* fo's shirt is (has been) torn in front, she has spoken the B 


[Rem. The apodosis of the temporal clause introduced by LoJ, 
is, sometimes in old poetry, frequently in later prose, preceded by 
^9 (Vol. i. § 366, b, footnote ; an example, Vol. ii. § 3, a), especially 
if the protasis consists of many words, or is separated from the 
apodosis by a circumstantial clause (comp. the Gloss, to Tabarl).] 

188. The particle ^ (Heb. y?), which forms hypothetical clauses, 
and the particle oi (Heb. DX), differ from one another in this, that C 
the latter simply indicates a condition, whilst the former implies that 
what is supposed either does not take place or is not likely to do so ; 

as j£$ 1^-ila.^wl U |yfc»w >3j jj£si\£.} Ijj^o— j *$ ^a^cjJ ,jl if ye 

call t/iem, they will not hear your call ; and even if they heard (it), 
they would not answer you. 

Rem. a. ^J is sometimes used optatively (compare !p O si, 

vi s s * J J ^ ' * ' 

titi7iam), as ^ovO ls^* 'j**3 ^ LSP 3^3 an ^ tf thou couldst see 
(=coiddst thou but see) wlien they are set before their Lord! D 
[^oy^ b/**-** 5^3 UJ ^j\ $) had we but a return (to life), then 

i * , , Zfo i , $ , a, , 

xvould we keep ourselves clear fro-n them /] \^ji£s ^jj JJI ^oJLxj ^Jj 
jLJI ^ 4V A>^a.j ^c ^j^sSLj *^ ^>*»» and if those wlio disbelieve knew 

(=did those who disbelieve but know) the time when they shall not 
(be able to) keep off the fire (of hell) from tlieir faces /* Especially 

* [According to el-Beidawi, as Trumpp p. 351 observes, ^J has 

348 Part Third.— Syntax. [§ 189 

,-»e jS/J a, a > i s s. 

A after jj to toue, wish, like ; as 2-Uw oUI j-^ju 3J ^Aj^l i^j one 

*s •" a * 
of them would fain be kept alive a thousand years ; ajuMa C09 

^J^Laj ^ w>L£)t Jjbl ^yb a party among the people of the Book 
would fain lead you astray. 

St t 0' 

Rem. b. Before nominal clauses ,jl jJ is [generally] used 

instead of ^ ; as lyto-j ^Uil <jl £ if the people had heard; 

* \ , * , , zz t> * 

^* Jt£ L5^ L5*^> C ' 5 ^' ^ tf ^oii hadst asked me to do something 

B else than this ; t jcou I ju>\ <Uuj ly.Uj ,jl £ >£ it (the soul) would 

be glad if there were between itself and it (the evil it has done) 

a i j ' d " 

a wide space. [Examples of the omission of ^j\ are Olj ^j 

o , , , , 

ic^loikJ j\$~t and if a bracelet-wearing (lady) had struck me ; 

l->j i*».j CPL^*' Oj^-^^o-*^ 3J {/" 2/ 0M possessed the treasures of 
my Lord's mercy, .] 

C 189. Sometimes the two particles o! an d >J are combined 
(compare the Aram. )?tf a_£\) ; as j-w«l Jjl»- V Oi LiJi-**^-3 
»£jJlil£o jj-U^^oJt «»<i &y my £//e, (/* the Commander of the Believers 
sought to recompense thee; 3J <jt >&jij U-Jjj «^Ji J>5$ jt^^> *) 
\jJs O^ we do not concede the necessity of this, for it is necessary 

, m - , , a, 1 *a>e i* its* 

only if it be thus {and thus) ; ajU^ ^Jb ^ O^ 3 £ C)\ w-^' ^ >^i 

because of which (longing) the writer would fain be in the inside of his 
D own letter. 

190. The particle J is prefixed to the apodosis of hypothetical 
sentences (see Vol. i. § 361, c, y) like o to that of conditional seu- 
tences ; as^ov***^ t^-^w^^v-^ t^«»WI O^ 5^ //'«// mankind were 

here its hypothetical meaning, the apodosis t^Jlsw,*X.wt L*) (oerily 
they would not ask for speed) being omitted (ij 4, rem. a).] 

§ 190] Conditional and Hypothetical Sentences. 349 

my slaves, I would set them free*. The employment of this particle A 

is, however, unlike that of <*£, quite arbitrary ; and it is only in the 
case of a long protasis that it is never omitted, in order thereby to 
mark the apodosis more distinctly (compare the German so). The 

same remark applies to J before a negative apodosis of this sort 

introduced by U, as *$££ lyJ Oj^.j LoJ^JlS^M *«*». ^JLc w~£Ji ^Xs 

and if thou didst search all climes, thou icouldst never find any one 

like her; but it is never prefixed to ^J, in order to avoid the B 
cacophony produced by the repetition of the letter /. 

* [Sometimes J is preceded by 131 then, in that case, e.g. Koran 
xvii. 102.] 



A 191. Poetry (jjiuJI) always takes, during the classical period, — 

that is to say, from the earliest times down to the fall of the 'Umawi 
dynasty (a.h. 132, a.d. 749 — 750), — the form of short poems, rarely 

* On this subject, more especially as regards the oriental doctrine 
of the metres, the student is advised to consult the following works : 

Samuelis Clerici 1*^5*^3 u^j^aJI j^a scientia metrica et rhythmica, 

seu tractatus de prosodia Arabica ex auctoribus probatissimis eruta 
B (Oxonii, 1661); Freytag, Darstellung der Arabischen Verskunst 
(Bonn, 1830); De Sacy, Grammaire Arabe, t. ii. pp. 615 — 661; 
and the more recent grammars, e.g., Lagus, Larokurs i Arabiska 
Spraket (Helsingfors, 1869), pp. 354—376; Palmer, A Grammar 
of the Arabic Language (London, 1874), pp. 291 — 376. Also: 

C. V. A. Van Dyck, 5-iUJIj u a^ J .x^\ ,^+Xe- ^y SpljJI ia.-o*-o w>L£> 

(Beirut, 1857) ; SpljJI aJsJLS, printed as an appendix to the »-L-o-o 

C „_JlLjl of Butrus Til-Bistanl (Beirut, 1854), and to the p^+a*** w>L£s 

^JjjjT (j>^ (V wO^M <>f Naslf eLYazigi (2nd edit., Beirut, 1869); 

* ,0iO * } * 

and Ibn Keisan's .JI^aJI s^JJJ w>U£», in my Opuscida Arabica 

(Leyden, 1859). [A very able treatise on Arabic prosody was 
published in the Journal Asiatique for 1877 by M. Stanislas Guyard, 

§ 193] The Rhyme. 351 

exceeding the length of a hundred and twenty verses. Such poems A 
are called kasidas, Sju^lS, collect, jl.^5, plur. juLaS ; whereas a 
mere fragment, consisting of only a few verses, is termed a*Ja3, 
plur. %L3, also Obtkio. A poem, the special object of which is the 

9 - 3 - - ' 

eulogy of an individual or a tribe, is named *-****, plur. £~>J*** ; 

* * 9 2 ol & 'Z «"5 S'a* ' 

a satire, fl»Jk or **»-*t, plur. ^jft-vfcl ; an elegy, fb|, or t^j*, 
plur. <LAy> ; and a poem in the metre ragez (see § 201), 5 J^»-j', B 

j ,i 9JZ el it ^i 

plur. >-»-'j'. Verses set to music are termed 4~£1, plur. ^tel. 

Rem. Rhyme without metre or measure (ijjj) does not con- 

• • ^ 
stitute poetry, but merely rhymed prose, Jta^. 

192. Each verse, wn-j (lit. feȣ, house), plur. C>Lj1, consists of 

9*0 9 * a 

two hemistichs, termed p|/-a-» or cr*a«o (owe wa//* of a folding-door), 

> , , 3 * ■> 90 * 9 3 1 93 ei 

plur. *jjLa-o and p^-a-*, or^Jxi (a half), pi. j>l*-w and jJxwt. The C 

3 o a - 
first of these hemistichs is called jjucJI (the breast), and the second 

3 3 ,0, 

j^»M (Me rump). 

193. The rhyme, 5-iUUI, plur. ^»'_yU', labours under peculiar 

restrictions, for, according to ancient rule, the two hemistichs of the 
first verse of a kasida must rhyme with one another, and the same 
rhyme must be repeated at the end of every verse throughout the 

Theorie nouvelle de la metrique Arabe. Compare, however, Prof. D 
M. Hartmann's Essay, Metrum und Rhythmus (Giessen, 1896). In 
1879 Dr A. Gies (Leipzig) published a dissertation on modern metres : 
ax**JI ll jyiii\. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss sieben neuerer arabischer 
Versarten ; Prof. Hartmann, in the Actes du dixieme Congres inter- 
national des Orientalistes, session de Geneve, 1891, Hi. pp. 15 — 67 
(" Ueber die Muwassah genannte Art der Strophengedichte bei den 
Arabern"), made some excellent remarks about Arabic metres, and 
announced his intention of soon publishing an exhaustive treatise on 
the subject.] 

352 Part Fourth. — Prosody. [§ 194 

A whole poem. The rhyme may be of two sorts, Sjui* and 

It is called oj^JLc or fettered, when the verse ends with a consonant, 

5 .- - J 

and diLL* or foos^, when it ends with a vowel. 

194. The essential part of the rhyme is the letter called i^jjJI, 
which remains the same throughout the entire poem, and, as it were, 
binds the verses together, so as to form one whole (^Jjj to bind fast). 
Hence a kasida, of which the rmvJ is the letter / is called oj^as 

B 2u**$ ; r, <u5lj ; t, a*5U ; and so on. 

Rem. The letters I, j and ^ cannot be employed as rawl, when 

they are (a) long vowels, e.g. Ij£, ..jU^ ; (b) inflexions of the 

feminine singular, the dual, and the plural of verbs, e.g. .-Xziu, 

*}L;iu, t^JLS, t^JUSt (unless they form a diphthong with a preceding 

fetha, e.g. \$*j, ^-cj') ; (c) inflexions of the dual and plural of 

nouns ; and (d) the final letters of the pronouns ^A, .^A, and tA. 

The same remark applies to the tenwin, and to the letter ^ of the 
C second energetic form of verbs ; as also to the letter o, when it is 

not radical, as in d^a.j for Ao^-j, <suU£s for ajU^, a*jU^ (pausal 

form for ^jI^s or .-A*^). The s of the pronouns a and I A 

may, however, be used as rawl, if preceded by a long vowel ; e.g. 

195. The loose kafiya (see § 193) terminates in what is called 
aJLoJI, the annex or appendix to the rawl, which may be either a 

D long vowel (i.e. I—, ^J—, or j_), or the letter «, preceded by one of 

, 1 

the short vowels (a—, a_, a_). 

Rem. a. We say "a long vowel," because the final vowel of a 
verse is regarded as being followed by the homogeneous letter of 
prolongation, whether this latter be written or not. The vowel- 
letter I is invariably expressed, but ^ and ^ are frequently omitted, 

even where they are always written in prose ; e.g. juj, for {JJo^, 
and my hand ; ^*o, for y C~e> or \j*J~o, they made. 

§ 196] The Rhyme. 353 

Rem. b. If the letter » has a long vowel after it, as in the A 

suffix pronouns U, « (= ^jh), » (=>*), the letter of prolongation, 

3 J j *' 
!, ^ or i£, is called ».j^aJt, ?Aa£ which goes beyond {the silo) ; as in 

JJf/J JJd/J 0^ 0^ "J - 

aJUju (= A^JLXaj), 4-oju (= <«,-«3AJ . U-rsj-e. 

Rem. c. Both «7a and horug must accompany the rai#7, without 
the slightest change, throughout the whole poem. 

196. The raid may also be preceded by one or two letters, 
which form, to a greater or less extent, a necessary portion of the B 

kafiya (whether loose or fettered). These are named ,^-2-jU!, J-«wjJI, 

and o:>pl. 

' -» to* 

(a) j^-^UJI, or ^ foundation, is the name given to an ! of 

prolongation, preceding the rawl, and separated from it by a consonant, 

which is called the J*»o, stranger or grates*. The former is invariable, 

the latter variable ; but the vowel which separates the daJul from the 
rawl ought, strictly speaking, to remain unchanged. For example, C 


in a verse ending with the word j*Xi, the j is the raid, the long 

vowel t the ta'sls, and the jt the daJfil, whilst the vowel which 
separates this last from the rawl is i ; but the next verse may 

terminate with the word jjI^jJI, where the dahll is ^, though the 

other parts of the kafiya remain unchanged. The same rule holds 

when the kafiya is loose, instead of fettered, as in j*\* and j^V' 

(where the duh'd is in the one case^», and in the other O), or albb D 

> * , 

and aXoJS^j. 


(b) The Oij, or w^atf rides behind, is the technical name given to 
one of the letters of prolongation 1, ^ or ^, when it immediately 

precedes the rawl; as in the words <jl**.L**., aJlyj, V^jLJI, V*U.j, 

* * * *t 

£-jy>, w)^. The long vowel a remains invariable, but the poet may 

use I and u indifferently ; »j^5 is regarded as rhyming with ?->»»■, 
»y « . «« .« with w>^jJ», a5^j with **ijJ. 

w. ii. 45 

354 Part Fourth. — Prosody. [§ 197 

A Rem. a. Strictly speaking, the rawi and the ta'sls should form 

parts of the same word, but exceptions are allowed in the cases of 

the separate pronoun l*A, and of a pronominal suffix preceded by a 

preposition, as U), UJ (for .J or ^J). 

Rem. b. When the kafiya is unaccompanied by either a tasis or 
a rid/, it is said to be Sj^.a*^e, naked or bare ; otherwise, it is either 
2Lm~*yA or ii.jj-0. 

B 197. The vowels which accompany the kafiya are also designated 
by peculiar names. 

(a) The mtgra, jjjjsl-oJI, is the vowel which follows the rawi 
in the loose kafiya ; e.g. a in ljL> (for jLw), i in u* 3 **, w in !>£*-«' or 
w~UJI. It is, strictly speaking, invariable. 

(b) The ne/dd, jliUM, is the vowel between the letter o, as ^7a, 
and the horug (see § 195, rem. b) ; e.g. fetha in K^^syo, kesra in 

C A-aju (= Ljy-oju), and damma in aXIju (^^JJju). It is, of course, 

(c) The taugih, a**.^!, is the vowel which immediately precedes 
the rawi in a t^ya*** **^ 5 , e.g. fetha m j~«wi (for ^-aJ), and kesra in 
jil (for jil) ; or separates it from the tt/ in a i—w^* &J13 (see 

§ 196, rem. 6), e.g. kesra in j-«U (for j^>tf) or ^l^lj. The latter is, 

however, more frequently distinguished by the special name of cLw^M. 

D The 'tebd' ought, strictly speaking, to be invariable ; whereas, in the 

taugih, the vowels damma and kesra may be interchanged, as in jil, 


for ji\, and j+*o, for j~o (compare the case of ^ and ^ as rid/, 
§ 196, b). 

Rem. The taugih is absolutely necessary in a fettered kafiya, 
unless it be Ziyj.* (as cUm, ?»~!>$, J*JUl) 5 out it is not necessary in 

- JO JO^ 

a loose kafiya, as jjJ>, j-«Jt)l. 

§ 198] The Rhyme. 355 

(d) The rass, u<iP'> lii the vowel which accompanies the letter A 
preceding the tasis (see § 196, a). It can, of course, be none but 

J - B* 

(e) The hadw, jJia*JI, is the vowel which accompanies the letter 
preceding the rid/ (see § 196, b). It is either fetha, kesra or danima, 
according as the rid/ is I, ^ or j ; but the vowel fetha before j or ^ 

.- - 

( j— , {£— ) is also included under this name. 

9 ' 

198. The last two quiescent (^>£»l->) letters of a verse form, B 

according to the preceding sections, the limits between which is 
comprised the rhyme. Hence the Arab grammarians divide vhe 

rhyme into five kinds, according to the number of moving (j)ja*Z.*) 
letters which come between these two*; viz. ^i}\fZc, jj\yLc, ^Jjlju-o, 

S ^-J 9 " 1 

yA lj^, and ^jUj^j . 

(a) The o.>tji« is where there is no moving letter between the 
two quiescents, — in other words, a fettered kafiya, in which the raid G 

^ ^ - j - -• 05 ^ 00^0^ 

is preceded by a rid/; as (jl^-L^., J>»-j , f-ij*, \J*m, C^V- I* is 
of comparatively rare occurrence. 

(b) The ^lyu is where one moving letter intervenes between 
the quiescents; as ^AJ» (=^^^0^), ^^ (=jj^-»), ULw, J»**». 

(= > W»»)> l^^- 

* " •» . 

(c) The ^)jlju^ is where there are two moving letters between J) 

* The reader should bear in mind that the grammarians designate 
the vowels by the term Ol^.^, motions (sing. Sib^*.) ; whence a 
consonant, which is followed by a vowel, is said to be jU^ "^ r in 

motion, and one that has no following vowel, to be ^^L>, at rest, 

9 J J 

inert or quiescent. Hence too the gezm is often called i^j*S>~i. See 
Vol. i. § -1, rem. b, and § 9, with rem. a. 

•356 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 199 

the two quiescents ; as J~» L«JI (^^JL/L^JI), Ia,^jj, J£*a (= L5 JbC ft A), 

(d) The w^l^ is where there are three moving letters between 
the quiescents ; as 15^3 ^3, ^-ij ^At (= ,«*-©$), j»x~». jJ>. 

O .. - J 

(e) The ^jICl* is where there are no less than four moving 
letters between the two quiescents, as in the half-verse OijJ\ j**- j>» 

a * y -■ J - Oa> 

B j~*J> d^)*i)t God has healed the (true) religion, and it 1ms become ivhole. 
This sort of rhyme is of rare occurrence. 

199. A violation of any of the rules laid down in §§ 194 — 197 is 
regarded as a fault (w***)- Of these faults the grammarians reckon 
five, viz. *\11S\, l\^3*$\, iUfe^l, llLj'ji, and &**Jd\ or ^»JJ3\. 

q (a) The sindd, jL-JI, consists in a certain change of the vowels 

j & * j * a o* 1 a - a* 

called «u».yJI, cl*i^l, and ^JoJI. (a) In the taug'th, kesra and 

damma may freely interchange, but the use of fetha to rhyme with 
either is a sinad (see § 197, c). 'Imru'u l'Kais, for example, commits 

this fault in rhyming ji (for ji) with-it and j~e. (/3) In the 'isbd', the 
same fault is exemplified by rhyming ^-Jl». with ^JUwJJ, or cjtyULi 

with wljuJI. (y) In the hadw, I may be interchanged with u (see 
D § 196, b), and ai with au (e.g. ^v may rhyme with s^-ij-i) ; but to 

'11 •> S ' s J 

rhyme U»^*». with l&*e or t^jj.5 is a sinad. In the case of the 
taug'th and 'isbd', this fault is but a trifling one, and not seldom 
committed even by the best poets. 

Rem. The name of 3U-JI is also applied to cases in whieh a 
word, having a rid/ or ta'sls before the rawl, is rhymed with one 

j a * a - a - - a - 

which has not ; e.g. A*oyi and «uaxj, ,, ,». and i*-^, i«vL«J 


§ 199] The Rhyme. 357 

—* a a- 

(b) The 'ikwil, *lyhM, is the name given to a change of the A 

* S , &* Z* 3 1 - • - ' ' 3 1- 

vowel called »J>»~oJI (see § 197, a) ; e.g. jj>« and j>^t, or j^-j 
and jjlP- Though this fault is considered a serious one, the older 

poets not unfrequently allow themselves the interchange of kesra and 
damma (compare § 196, b, and § 197, c)*. If, however, the ratal is 
followed by the letter o as sila (§ 195), any alteration of the megra 

* * t * t i } a 3 - a z - , I 

is exceedingly rare ; to rhyme lyjjj with \yjy&, or oloUUjI with a*L»1, 
is condemned by all the native critics. B 

~, a a, 

(c) The 'ikfcl, lU£»*j)l, is the substitution of some cognate letter 

a aS * t a a , ai a a - 

for the rawi ; as when one rhymes J-JJ1 with ^-JLit and O-*^, or 

»jj # a j j - - * - - j--' 

cjuo with **-©. or Uxwj with tjU«Jt. This is a very grave fault, and 
carefully avoided by all good poets t. 

—* a a* 

Rem. Many authorities call this change il^i^l, and apply the 
term lU£»*>)l to the alteration of the megra, (see b). 

(«?) The '7£«, iUau^l, is the repetition of the same word in rhyme C 
in the course of a kasida. However, not to impose too great a 
restriction on the poet, this repetition is held to be allowable, provided 
there be some slight shade of difference in meaning, even if it be only 
to the extent of the word having the article in the one place and not 
in the other. Many authorities, too, permit the repetition in the 
same sense, provided at least seven verses intervene. 

(e) Each verse of a poem ought to be independent in construction 

9- a j 

and sense {ij**). That two or more verses should be so connected D 

* [The reason is given in the 'Agdni ix. 164. The final vowel was 
indistinctly enunciated in simple recital, but prolonged in singing. 
When en-Nabiga came to Yatrib and heard his own verses sung, he 
perceived his fault at once and corrected it in many places. D. G.l 

t [The most common is the interchanging of mlm and nun, as 

i * , -333 , i „ » , 

ij-^o and^^j-oJUl (Fdik i. 89), lyij— ' an d V»JJu— j (Lisan i. 137 seq.). 
D. G.] 

358 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 200 

A with one another, is regarded as a fault, and technically named 

tadmin, ^>*^-oJI, or tetrnim, ^o-s^JJt. It is not, however, a serious 

defect, unless the one verse be wholly destitute of meaning, if 
separated from the other ; as when Sn-Nabiga says 

They water their herds at the wells in spite of Terriim, and they are 
the victors on tlie day of 'Okdz; verily I — which is unintelligible, 

B because the habar of (jl is unknown, till we hear or read the 
next verse : 

/*atv3 sgg;i £^w .$7^ »w*"j/ # gwe? fight, (for which) I reward them 
with my heart's whole love. 


C 200. Every verse in Arabic poetry consists of a certain number 
of feet, called individually J**a5, plur. J-xUj, but as constituent 
parts of a verse, ij*. (a part), plur. 2}>»»1. A certain collocation of 

5 o - s j at 

feet constitutes a metre, j**.* (a sea), plur. j^»->l. To sc«m a verse is 
expressed by the word »ix3 (to cut into pieces), infin. xJaaj. [The 
last foot of the first hemistich is called u^3j^, that of the second 

O * 

D [Rem. The constituent parts of a foot are called w*-— > (cord) 

' ' ' 

consisting of two letters, either v^i.ft^. ww a movent letter followed 
by a quiescent letter, or ^J-Ju w*j."» £«>o movent letters, and juj (/>e</) 

J « ^ ^ 

consisting of three letters, either Oij-*-* -KS <M, ° movent letters 

J » ' * 

followed by a quiescent letter, or ^jj*-* jJj o/ie movent, then one 
quiescent, then one movent letter. Three successive short vowels 
followed by a quiescent letter, are called ^jUjjJL* <jU~»» e.g. U&» 

§ 201] The Metres. 359 

# J s * 3 

in ^JUUio, two parts each consisting of a movent letter and a 

* ) a * ** * a - a j a 3 a - a j 

quiescent letter ^jlSjji.0 jLw e.g. oil...,* in ^JlaiJLwo. The 
common name for w~-w and juj is xJaJLo (Gr. xo'/x/xa).] 

201. The metres are ordinarily reckoned to be sixteen in number, 
and are exemplified in the following composition, made up partly of 
verses, either taken from the poets or written for the occasion, and 
partly of sentences from the Koran. 

* >o 3 j oi 

••• 'j^«^ j*-£ *z~> i«*3 j*£J' j**^ B 

i - ai 3**2 *>* i. 3 , ,Z 3 .. ai 3 i 3 a * * a a*e > .. 3 * 

oU_9t j ; <\ , 7 M 3 ^>1>i *->'*' d, >* 1 ^-^ O-* uIh^' ij'-^ J^ 

3 ^8<a j ; -- j ; , j. 

ijj 'C at 2, a , a*> - * : : , 

* 3 a ,a. 

o* a 3 * a , 

•.• Uo-wl—. I^L-j d-jAc I^Lo o^- 1 *^ o-Ic-Ul* o-^^ 

j - e*» j _ jj 3 a ,a* 

360 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 201 

J s sOtO J £ >o j xOx 
oios3 s >Ct/0 x tJ/H si * tjl x 

o i 6*3 ^ «^ (2 c / oj , - o j x x 

s s x x 

J x i -o J i ^ J J X»x 

.V »»pl JuLJI JA~JI 
j x o i * x x»x» * o s j ~s o i 5 x .< » .» j » x »*> j x St s 

j e «» .» x«» - £-' ^is ^ a j 6s o j o j z - o i 6 i 6 s 6 i 

■:■ \^j^o\ \y^c\ ^jjjJ\ lyjt L> ^jXjU£~*o £)XmjlL*a £)XxJlL**a 

*3 j x»x 

f J b*o* fOjOytOyif *■ w (V 6 £ 6 ,-> y 

j & *& j a & j o *■&' 

* s 0" Of f f vi f Of 0*0 J f f Of f J * 

X XX ^^ X ^^ X X ^"" X 

a ^ 0*3 *o*» j o * - \ e j s e j 6s6joj6s6j 

J s6J6fO J /W J /6/ 

J XX s 10-O - a J xx 9 S JXC0X9 J x x .1 - «3 J xSJ 

Jx x Jx«Jx OJx xx J - C j Is i S J 

0*3 J xOx 

xxxxx xOx S x xx »/» J»£ J»xS 5x Sx 

x xxx xa£«Ox0x W 0Jxx«>0x6J0Jxx 

J x J6«0 xxx X w v» J xOx 

0<o i j si J j - o > - ' 


§ 203] The Metres. 361 

j ^ x j:^ * * * ^ * ; *? j ^ ; 
* * t .. s , , ~ , aj'Oi'Bj'Oi* 

■:■ UgJlf UJU ^eU UsU. ^>U'J ^-Itli ^Jlcls v >Ub 

J *^ J 0*0 * + * * - *? J - ^0^ 

o^l^aJt l^jl w ~— - >-.— . ' L*J oLaxJI ^»- J^>-» Vj^ 

•:• 6j£sji\ iy>lj o^X^aJI 1^*jJI Jjxs c^y* O**** C^^** 

202. Instead, however, of following the system and arrangement C 
here laid down*, we prefer to adopt that of Ewaldt, and to treat of 

the metres in the following order : 1. j».ji\, 2. *jj-JI, 3. J^tflt, 
4. ^iiyi, 5. L$\, 6. 1>j&£\, 7. JiJoS\, 8. cjliOX 9. tyS^Si 
10. i»- — Jt, 11. £-j-i«JI, 12., ,7 i M, 13. J-ojJI, 14. Juj^l, 

J ^ 0^ i / t J)/ 

15. ouiaiJI, and 16. ws^-»JI. Among these, if we leave the ragez 

out of account, the favourites with the old poets are the taicll, kamil, 
xcafir, beslt, mutMdrib, and sarV. D 

203. The iambic metres are four in number, namely, the ragez, 
sarV, kamil, and wafir. 

* See the note on p. 350. 

t See his work entitled De Metris Carminum Arabicorum Libri 
Duo (Braunschweig, 1825), and the second volume of his Grammatica 
Critica Lingute Arabicce, pp. 323 — 343. 

w. II. 46 

362 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 204 

A 204. The most common varieties of the ragez (j*-pt the trem- 

bling) are the dimeter and the trimeter, both of which may be 
catalectic. The trimeter is the more usual. The basis is w — w — 
(diiamb), which may be varied in one or two places by the substitution 
of — w - or -ww-, and more rarely www-. The older poets 

' °. ' 
almost always use this metre as jyloJi*, that is to say, each hemistich 

(jJa-w) forms, as it were, an independent verse and rhymes with the 
preceding one. The more modern, on the contrary, not unfrequently 
B follow the rule of the other metres in rhyming only the second 
hemistich of each verse. 

Trimeter acatalectic o - w  

— w w — 

„ catalectic 
Dimeter acatalectic 
,, catalectic 

205. The sa/rV (*jj~JI tlie swift) admits in its first and second 
feet the same variations as the ragez. Its normal form is 

w - *•>- I w~ ^ ~ | — w— jj — w - | c; — w— I — w — 

— ww — — w >— i — I — w w — — w w — 

but — is frequently substituted for - w — at the end of the second 
hemistich. The use of final w w — in either hemistich, but more 
especially in the second, is very rare. A few later poets have taken 
D the liberty of adding a syllable to the second hemistich, so that the 
last foot of the verse becomes - w — . 

206. The kamil (J-otflM the perfect) is either dimeter or trimeter. 
The normal form of the trimeter is 


\j v^> v., — || W — W — W — 

but we frequently find it catalectic 

W-w- |**-w- | w- || w- | w- |S=£*-- 

The omission of another syllable, so as to convert the last foot of the 

§ 210] The Metres. 363 

verse into — , is more rare, though sometimes even both hemistichs A 
are shortened in this way. 

The normal form of the dimeter is 

^-^- | ^-v,- |[ ^_^_ | ^_^_ 

It is sometimes used as catalectic (— — for — - ^ - in the last foot 
of the second hemistich), but far more usually the verse is lengthened 
by the addition of a syllable B 

in which case it is said to be J>*^« having a train. 

207. The basis of the wajir (jj'yi the exuberant) is the same as 

that of the kamil, but with the order of the component parts reversed, 
^ — — — . It is either trimeter or dimeter, but the latter is com- 
paratively rare. The trimeter is always shortened by one syllable in 
each hemistich, so as to become C 

The dimeter has the form 

v-/ — \s ^ 

for the last foot of which there may be substituted ^ ; but these 

two forms are not used indiscriminately in the same poem. 

208. Of antispastic metres there is only one, namely the hazeg 
(frJtH the trilling), which consists in a single repetition of ^ — ^ 
(antispast), varied by u . It may be either catalectic or acata- d 


Acatalectic ^ — ^ \ ^ — ^ || ^ —  



v _ / — . 

209. The amphibrachic metres are three in number, mutekarib, 
taivll, and muddri'. 

210. The basis of the mutekarib (wJjUiaJt the tripping, lit. 
taking short steps) is ^-^ (amphibrachys), for which may be substi- 


Part Fourth. — Prosody. 


A tuted ^ — . The latter is indeed almost invariably employed as 
the penultimate foot of the hemistich. One great peculiarity of 
this metre is, that the first hemistich may be either acatalectic or 
catalectic, independently of the second. If, however, the first be 
acatalectic and the second catalectic, then the last syllable of the 
first half-verse must be short, and must coincide with the end of a 
word. Of this metre no form but the tetrameter is in common use. 



v II v 


A rarer form reduces the last foot of the second hemistich to a single 
long syllable, in which case the preceding foot must be ^ — . 

C 211. The taw'd (Jj^JLM the long) is one of the finest, as well as 

the most common, of the Arabic metres. It is formed by the single 
repetition of ^ - ^ and ^ - ^ - , for the first of which may be substi- 
tuted ^ — , and for the second ^ . The latter is restricted to 

the first place in each half-verse, where it is, however, far more usual 
than vy-w-. The verse may be either acatalectic or catalectic. If 
the latter, then the last syllable of the penultimate foot should be 
short, w-w. 




^ — w | vy — — — I v^ — ^ I ^ — vy — || \j — I \j —- 

In the acatalectic verse, the last foot is also changed into ^ 

\-> — \J vy 

^ — C/ ^ ^ — O ^ — w — \j — c 

<-/ — C2 W — 

J ' JO' 

212. The muddri' (ojLa^JI the similar*) is one of the rarest 

* Namely, to the mugteU (§ 222), as may be seen by adopting 
another mode of scansion, ^> ~ - | — v^ j ^ — ^^ | — ^ . 

§ 215] 

The Metres. 


metres, and not employed by any early poet. Each half-verse consists A 
of w-v and «-» — %y— , with a single syllable appended, and the two 
generally rhyme with each other, as in the ragez. For ^ - ^ may be 
substituted ^ — , and for v^-^-, — ^-; but both changes must 
not take place together. Consequently the entire verse is 

213. The anapcestic metres are likewise four in number, namely, 
the muteddrik, bes'it, munsarih, and muktadab. 

■»"■»«' • 

214. The mutMdrik (Jjtju^JI the continuous) is one of the rarer B 

and later metres*. The basis is ^ v-> - (anapaest), which is convertible 
into - ^ - or — . It is generally either trimeter or tetrameter, the 
former having occasionally an extra syllable in the second hemistich, 

so as to make it ^j* (see § 206). 

Trimeter bk::.|&*=|s*zu&<=|s*=|e* = 
Tetrameter ^=|^-|^=|^=||^=|^-|^-|s~- 

215. The besit (Ja*-*JI the outspread) is a favourite metre with C 

the older poets. Its base consists of w-v-andw, which may 
be repeated so as to yield either a trimeter or a tetrameter verse. 
In either case, ^-<~>- may be converted into — v^-, and occasionally 
into -wv-, or even v^wv^-, though these changes are very rare 
indeed in the second place, v w - may be changed in the first place 
into —*---, but either remains unaltered in the second, or becomes 
— . Hence arise the following forms of the tetrameter. 

& — \j 

— v^ >■» 

The trimeter may be either acatalectic or catalectic, more usually the D 
latter. If the loss of a syllable be extended, as is commonly the case, 
to both hemistichs, the last foot in each is ^ — . 


o "■ vy ~ 

* [In the Muhlt the name of this metre is pronounced mutedarak 
i.e. the supplied, so called because it was ignored by el-Halil and 
afterwards supplied by el-Ahfas.] 


Part Fourth. — Prosody. 


A Catalectic 


J «■ O J9-- 

216. The munsarih (v-j^J^S the flowing) has the same base as 
the besit, but the first ^ ^ - is reduced to a single long syllable. It 
scarcely occurs in any form but the tetrameter. 


— v-> \j — 

Rem. This verse may also be scanned as follows. 

j - • a i o- 

217. The muktadab i >r Jsl'k^>\ the lopped or curtailed) is an 
exceedingly rare metre, the normal form of which appears to be 

^ i i ii ^ i i 

— \j — | <~> — | uu — || — ^/ — I u — <w» >-» — 

C It is said that ^ - may be transferred to the first place, thus giving 
the form 

\j — ^ \^ 

Rem. This verse may also be scanned as follows. 

— n — y~> — \s kj  

218. The ionic metres are also four in number, namely, the 
ramel, medld, hafif, and mugtett. 

I) 219. The rarml (J**P' the running) has for its base ^^ 

(ionicus a ininore). It may be either dimeter or trimeter. The 

trimeter is almost invariably catalectic in the first hemistich, and 

generally so in the second ; the dimeter very commonly in the second. 

For w^ — may be substituted -^ — , and, though very rarely, 

- w - v^, or vy^-v^, in which case the next foot must begin with a 

long syllable. 



The Metres. 
Trimeter acatalectic 


w ! C7^ \j ^ — 

Trimeter catalectic 

Rem. a. The tetrameter catalectic is a late innovation, in 
which — ^ has entirely usurped the place of w ^ — . 

Rem. b. In this metre the later poets occasionally rhyme the 
single hemistichs, as in the ragez. B 

220. The medld (juj^oJl the extended) has for its base two 
w^ — , separated by ^^-. Either ^^ — , but more especially 
the second, may be converted into — \j — ; the ^ ^ — into — <-— . 

The second hemistich is sometimes catalectic, whilst the first remains 
complete ; but usually both are catalectic, in which case the last foot 
is almost invariably ^ ^ -, passing at the end of the verse into — . 

Rem. a. A very rare variety shortens the first hemistich and 
leaves the second complete. 

Rem. b. A still rarer species consists in a repetition of the 
entire base, each hemistich rhyming, as in the ragez. The last 
foot is usually ^ ^ — . 

-- II 


221. The hafif (oLAaJI the light or nimble) is one of the more 
usual metres. Its base is ^ ^ — and ^ — ^ -. The former may be 
varied by — w — , and more rarely by — ^ - ^ or ^ ^ - ^ ; the latter 
by — \f— , and occasionally by — ^^ or ^ — w— . The second 
hemistich is sometimes catalectic, in which case the last foot is by 
preference ^ — . 

368 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 222 

A A far more usual form, however, is the trimeter, which is generally 
acatalectic, though we now and then find it defective in both hemi- 

stichs, or in the second only. In the acatalectic verse, may be 

substituted for the last ^ w — , and in the catalectic — for ^ ^ -. 

Acatalectic w^ — | ^> — ^— | ^^ — || ^*-> — | ^ — w — | ^ — 

Catalectic ^ ^ - - 

O J.V 

222. The mugtett (wla. ,.<,)! the docked or amputated) has the 

B same base as the hafif, but with the order of the component parts 

reversed, namely ^ - ^ - | ^ ^ — . The changes which the feet may 

respectively undergo, are also the same as in the hafif. It is used 

only as dimeter acatalectic. 

[Rem. The three metres mudari 1 (§ 212), muktadab (§ 217) and 
mugtett (§ 222) are not employed by the ancient poets. It is not 
improbable that they were invented by el-Halll (Guyard, pp. 168, 
C 272 seq.] 


223. We must next treat of the forms which the final syllables 
of words assume at the end of a verse ; and as these are often identical 
with those which they take at the end of a sentence in ordinary prose, 

tj or of a clause in rhymed prose ( *<*....)! or *,.j»....3t), we shall handle 

the whole subject briefly in the following sections. 

224. As a general rule, all final short vowels, both of the noun 
and verb, are dropped in prose ; e.g. *>) A+, instead of jj) ; £>jj*» 
j^jj, instead of jujj ; J^pt OsJj-6, for J*-jJI ; *%•> for Aijlj ; 

<iu C»^-«, for 4j. But in poetry it constantly happens that the vowel 
is retained as long, the tenwln of the noun disappearing at the same 
time; e.g. jCdl o~£ J»v**3 whilst fire is kindled among them; ^ 

§ 226] The Forms of Words in Pause and in Rhyme. 369 

Jo*-« 0-*J m a tinie of sterility, for Jj»~«. In this case, the final A 
vowel fetha is invariably accompanied by an elif; e.g. j>£ clp 

^» 2 «» ^ j o j * a 2 * 

%jj*a)\ (j ^ ;...a>. j as a people strike, who can strike well, for *->«ft)l ; 
\jyju obi him they mean, for Oy*J. 

Rem. It is even allowable to double the final consonant after 

a j a 

*» s * a* a * * a* * * * ** _ - .* - 

the elision of the vowel, as J>»aJl, for Jno^JI (J^aJt). ^»».1, for 

a * at , , a I 

j+»-\ (j+a*S) ; provided always that the penult letter has a vowel, B 

I. . a* 
and that the final letter is neither elif with hemza (as LL&JI) nor 

.. *a* ,,a* 

elif maksura (Lo*JI, .«i*)l). 

225. The accusative termination t_ generally becomes l_, both 
in prose and poetry, though it occasionally disappears, like the short 

—, as w~£ £> f*~o\ he was deeply grieved, for UJUb (i.e. LJ£»). The 

termination ,j_ or l_ in the Energetic of verbs, and in the particle 
yji[ or 131, is also changed into a; but ^j— in the plural of the C 

a j 

Energetic becomes 03-- 

• " * " * 

Rem. The Benu Temim [and Kais] use s j— for t_, as ..Ail 

a - - a** - * - a i m , , 

^>jUjO!j Ji'ft >»jAJI sparse reproach and blame, faidt-fnder (jJiLc 

j * * * a * * a*o* * * a*o* 

for ij^lc L», and ^LxJI^ for bU*JI^). 

5 ^ ^ * - a ^ 

226. The feminine terminations S—, S_, and 5— , become «-, 
more rarely O — The same remark naturally applies to 5_ and 5_, D 

a- a - *s a ' 

whether masculine or feminine ; e.g. «>»»., for 5^». (name ef a man). 
In rhyme, the 5 may also be changed into O, and the final vowel 

retained as long; e.g. C.,Xa» )Li <J>UU »*JLUlj rcAiTs* thy family are at 
el-Liwa and el- H ilia, for iLaJLi; oUaJI JUiij oim? a liberator of 

* ja* 

prisoners, for 5U*J1. 

s - 
Rem. «. In this pausal o_ the * is sounded, ah, wherein it 

w. ii. 47 

370 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 227 

differs from the vulgar ending o_, a, and the Hebrew |"|— « ( see 


Vol. i. p. 7, note, and § 294, rem. b). This is proved by the fact of 
its rhyming with a radical «, and with the pronominal forms 

aj_ (for ^_, j^_) and *_ (for •_) ; as a) jjjJI (ajjudl), <sUbt (aJbt), 

and a)jj (^JjX Divran of el-Mutenebbi', p. nr; 4*Ut (a-oUl), 
A-o*iLJI (A-o'iLJt), and <uU,) (<ulc>), Sl-Hamasa, p. t»v; aJb>SI 

(Jli^i l^'^)' *** 1 * (*****)» and isM (*»M)> ibid p. viY. 

B Rem. 6. The plural terminations C>t_ usually become in pause 


Ol_, but sometimes (particularly, it is said, in the dialect of Taiyi') 

*l_ ; as oUJt, «l^ft»^)l, for OUJI, Olj^*})l. Similarly, OL*A 

(OLjI), far, far avmy, remote is—, becomes in pause OL^Jk (OLjI) 

or «L«Jk («lyj|) ; and O^jtf, a 6oas, a coffin, -O3JU or ojjD. 

C 227. Nouns ending in ^$— or I— simply drop the tenwin ; e.g. 

\J& becomes ^i or & ; Lac, Lac. Those ending in — drop the 

tenwin, and either resume the third radical or not, at pleasure ; 

t>i>l5, for example, may become either u°^* or 1^5*^*, u«^ either 

yilii, or i^aKZj , j\^nf. (plur. of «4>jl»- « #«W) either jt>». or ^Sj^yef., 

tjl** (plur. of ^** meaning) either ,jlafc« or ^>\*a. The accusative 

singular merely loses the tenwin, e.g. W-«15 (and not ^^13) for L-oU> ; 

D the accusative of the broken plural commonly drops only the final 

vowel in prose, but may retain it as long in poetry, e.g. ^I^* for 

.Jl^« (accus. of ^y* a client), in rhyme also lJb>«. 

Rem. a. If a word ending in _ has lost another radical besides 

the final y or ^£, the only pausal form admissible in the nominative 

and genitive is that which ends in the long vowel ; e.g. j*o, 

J- lot 

participle active IV. of \^£\j, to see, can become only jj^-*, never j*. 

§ 228] The Forms of Words in Pause and in Rhyme. 371 

Rem. b. Words of the form ^bia, in which the third radical is A 
I, as *jSi\ /odder, forage, usually let the I become quiescent in all 
three cases, ^lUCM ; but sometimes the final vowel acts upon the I 
so as to change it in the nominative into j, ^JUul, and in the 
genitive into ^£, iJ^JI. 

228. The long vowels l_, ^— , ^—, and >_, usually remain 

unchanged; as *iU5, Sjs., { ^*^-, ^f*ji, *j*i- In nouns derived from t> 
radicals third ^ or \j;, the omission of final ^£— is allowable in the 

nominative and genitive, as 1^0 UUt, >L3I, JUl^Jt, for ^j-eUUt, ^jLJI 

^JUioJI ; the accusative, however, admits only the form ^-©UUl, etc., 

and the vocative is ^j-o 15 b . 

Rem. a. The interrogative pronoun bj, when governed in the 
genitive by another word, is frequently shortened into j» (see Vol. i. 
§ 351, rem.). In pause, if governed by a noun, it takes the l\* C 
oLijJ 1 (see § 230), as «u ebiuSl, a* JJU ; but if governed by a pre- 
position, it may also drop its final vowel, as <i«£, a^j or ^ , a<J or 
j£, A-e U^ or^oUa.. 

Rem. 6. The genitive and accusative suffixes of the first 
personal pronoun, ^_ and ^3, have several pausal forms, namely, 

in prose ^_ or <su_, ^ or <U (see § 230), and in poetry also b_, 
Li ; besides which, the long vowel may be altogether omitted, as J) 

OyuLi, 0-*^>'> CP U '> Oj^'. JW, for ^jy£L», ^jM C5? Ut > 

u^tft, ^b. 

Rem. c. In rhyme the long vowels ^_ and j_ are often 
expressed merely by kesra and damma, as ju for ^ju, aLo for 
3*io or l^xi.©. This is done for the purpose of preserving the 
umformity of the «LJjU>. or fringe (i.e. the succession of rhyming 
syllables) throughout a poem. 

372 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 229 

A 229. When the penult letter of a word has no vowel, the vowel 

B 3 * B 3 i - 

of the final letter may be transferred to it in pause; as j£>, >*^1, 

J £ * & * B * ' B 3 i B 3 ' ' ' B 3 w <• M/ 90/ Si * 3 B St *• 

^JjJI, ^j-iaJI, j«£*J, <*Jj*a\, Alij*e , <U.»-j, for jSL> (j&), j-*-^ (j**H)> 

BB St * 3 St ' B St * 3 B ~* * B B * B * 3 B B £ 3 B " * 3 B *t *■ 

3 jjjt (yjjt), j^liajt (^^yjt),^ (jil.), Aj^ot, a^-o, aU.j. With 

regard to the vowel fetha, however, the grammarians are not agreed, 

B "B^ B B 'B* * -'B* 

some allowing the transference in all cases, e.g. j£J\ for j£JI (j£JI) ; 
others limiting it to the case in which the final consonant is elif with 

B hemza, as LaUl for LaUl or g^^aiJI. This transference is technically 

3 3 St - 

called Ji-01. 

Rem. a. The ^JJLi is forbidden when it would give rise to a 
form which has no example in the language. For instance, there is 

O 3 

no substantive of the form ^Jjii, and therefore we should not say in 

B 3 B' 3 B e- 

pause ^XxJI (^oAsJI). Some grammarians, nevertheless, allow tins 

3*1 - B*t , 

form when the third radical is elif with hemza, as HjiS (^ipl), whilst 
C others recommend the change of the dam ma into kesra, pronouncing 

*1 < C *l y 3*1 ' £ 3*1 s 

gijJI or ^>pl instead of gj^Jt or ^.ipl, or substitute j or ^ for the 

3*1 - *t - 

hemza and say 3>pl or i^£L\^\- 

3 B BC- B 3 C- 

[Rem. b. According to the analogy of ouj-ol fur duj+o\, <su»jl 

3 B (■ B * s B * Bs r B *•» ' B* B , s i 

for A-ojl, we find also A^JLU ^J for ly^JLD ^J and even diUi.1 for 

' 3 - Z B * , 

tyiU.1 and <u for lyj (Noldeke, -Zwr Grammatik, p. 14).] 
D 230. Indeclinable words, ending in a vowel, take in their pausal 

/3«5 * * B St tO ~ - 

form a final *, technically called the \J£^\ il*, or C-X-Jl *U, the ha 

^ s vi * f ** Si* 

of pause or of silence; e.g. ***£», a*.?, for v-**£», ^. The same 
letter is added to verbal forms in which both the first and third 

radicals have disappeared; as <*i for Jj (iinperat. of ^3), aaj^oJ for 

^0'. . .» .- «/ - B , * Bs - ' B- 

»-*i jh^ (jussive of ^5*5); also oj for j, and ojj ^J for jj^J, iinperat. 

and jussive of ^lj [comp. Vol. i. § 175, rem. a]. It may also be 
appended to those in which only the third radical is dropped ; as 

§ 232] The Forms of Words in Pause and in Rhyme. 373 

a*,! for j»j\ (iinperat. of ^Jcj), t>jiu JJ for jkj J,) (jussive of j>*), A 

»ju5l for jJil (imperat. VIII. of \j3) [comp. Vol. i. § 167, b, a, 
footnote]. "We likewise find it added to j>, the shorter form of the 
interrogative pronoun U (see § 228, rem. a) ; and to ^- and ^j, the 
older forms of the genitive and accusative suffixes ^— and ^y (see 

§ 228, rem. b) ; more rarely to J), as <*£i©^1 for &Uj£s\. 

Rem. a. The yJLSyi lU is never added either to nouns*, or to B 
the perfect of verbs, or to adverbs ending in u (see Vol. i. § 363), 
with the single exception, it is said, of dXc ^yc for ^Js. ^yo. The 

o "^ » > j * * o - y - * o j e - o - ** i i * - 

Arabs do not say aJU5, <tls*.j b, *JL».j ^, ajuu ^-«. for ^3, ^J^-j W> 

Rem. b. The ordinary pausal forms of Ut and yb .are Ul and yk, 
but we also find <sul (see Vol. i. § 89, 1, rem. b) and oyk. — «^)>fc and 
dUyA are likewise used instead of the common ^)yb and L^A. 

231. Double consonants, as a rule, are not souuded as such 
in pause ; jil, ^5, and j*.t (for jil, ^3, and ^»»'), rhyme with j»ojIj 

and j--o (forj-oJL» and >«o). See, however, §224, rem. 


232. The Arab poets allow themselves a certain latitude, both as 
to the forms of words and the construction of sentences. We shall D 
here confine ourselves to the illustration of some of the principal 
licenses which fall under the former of these two heads. — The poet 

* [An exception is given in the Lisdn xx. 379, 1. 4 from below. 
If somebody says ^....a»., ) I ^sl*. el-Hasan came to me, another, as- 

tonished to hear it, will exclaim ^...^Jl really note, el- Hasan ? or if 
j^-o-c i^5~ 5£ ^ lAmr came to me, oj^—o-fc' really note, 'Amr? with 
prolongation of the final vowel and with the pausal a. D. G.] 

874 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 233 

A may find himself obliged, by the exigencies of metre or rhyme 
(j*£JI 6jjj~a poetical necessity), to make some slight change either in 
the consonants of a word, or in its vowels. 

233. Under the former of these divisions we include : (a) the 
various affections of the letter I ; (b) irregularities in the use of the 
tes'did ; (c) the employment of ancient uncontracted forms instead of 
the more modern contracted ones ; and (d) the suppression of the 
letter jj in certain nominal and verbal forms. 

B (a) Affections of tJie letter *Elif. 

234. *Elif with hemza (t) may be affected in several different 

(a) It may be totally absorbed by a preceding vowel, like the 

a .0-5 J i 6<0 *i e£ -i 

J-<?$JI U>}\ (Vol. i. § 19) ; e.g. *-bl *$\ convey the news, for *Jjt *)\, 
imperat. IV. of *~b ; jA*'j and rejoice, for jZjIj, imperat. IV. of j£*> ; 
y>\c jb\ j->a~© he wlm gave shelter to '[/mm 'Amir (a name for the 
C hyama), for j>\ j*?*** ; C*j; Ja hast thou seen ? for OsjIj ; <jUuJ1 ji 
one wJw hates, for jjUwJI (^ILiJI) ; ^WJ to my end or fate, for 
^jO (j^'W) ; *i^j' V j»-U^*)t C^J ^>« *.«~Jj awe? tffow hearest 
beneath tlie dust a sound produced by them, for *}L«jl ; U^a-sUj ^jl 

wjjZiJ Obj"° J^ %/" # 6 do us justice, family of Marwdn, we will 
rfraw wear (to you), for Jt Ij ( Jll) ; ly-^j ^ on tffow' heads, for V W J^J J 
D ,_jl«~© wy Aw£, for ^jjfl^-*, from si*. 

Rem. By a double license, the verb ^lj becomes first Ij and 
then elj, pass, j^j [Vol. i. § 176, rem. b] ; as ,jj ,jljut* JjL* Ij ^j*t> 

s - 1 s Ot * ' 

.-*a»-> who has seen the like of Ma'ddn 'ibn Yahya ? -»~+~'\ J^** "^ 
ly5U yiM Jib jv> « lLJ U *1j «ilj Ojlt *s)l *±Lu no human beiny is 

' * * w * 

more generous than thou art, save one (who), knowing thee (well), has 

» * , 

seen thy soul (and) has not said (to thee), Give it here ; ^yo i^£j J**} 

§ 234] Poetic Licenses. 375 

2"*tjU Sij^ i$M> a/ "^ wajJ there (ever) seen before me one drowned A 
in tears ? 

(b) When preceded by a vowelless consonant, the vowel of the 
I may be transferred to that consonant, as in the case of ,j-o, when 

followed by the article (Vol. i. § 20, d), fjji for ij\y_ (Vol. i. § 176), 
and the like. Examples : ,jl ^ if that, for ,jl ^ ; JUl».l [ j^ > on thy 

account, for «£U».t ^^-s ; lyJ-».t ^>c /row for AtTfc, for VW»-' O* 5 

j^i^a-j^, a £ a ; « / j j »< 

i**^» O' O-* /row meeting him, for o' ,>« ; tjk*Jj >cl ^1 if I make B 
a raid m;#)» Zubeid ; jljuJI yjl jtp ffo upright Xizdr (pron. 

ilsiO't' * a«» « ^ .. 

Nizdru-nu-lus), for yy : 't-o-'j '-'jb ^ — al Ijto W fo«$tf, wAose stte 
has become desolate ! (pron. dd-rd-nam), for ^— «1 ; .$-'>* 15J' J' O-* 

" o i s to* z a j, 

of the family of 'Abu Musd, for Jl ,>* (Jtt) ; ^UJU lit J^i 
V^i^' O*^' t£J^ ^ ^ w to Me enemy who note aims at doing 
mischief (pron. naura Idna, see Vol. i. § 20, b), for o*^' (O'^') ', G 

a ^ £ a** )**ii*,io** „ *&*>* a 2 «* ^ a ^ 

J-a'N)! SL»- i^*» ^j^l note r^« /?/^ of hope revives ; O^lj ->.jjjJt ^j 

s a - a^ 

between husband and wife, for SI^JI. 


Rem. In this case, the I is sometimes assimilated to a preceding 

5^ «. .->^^ »/»)«> tj a^^ 

^ or ^ ; e.g. Lw iL~U ll£J I ^jJu ^Xi but to weep over thee was of 


no avail, for Lw. 


(c) I, preceded by a vowel, may also be converted into the letter 
of prolongation which is homogeneous with that vowel ; e.g. «xa»-> ^Ai D 
^L» ^JJI j-cuJI djuc om£ fo did not find with him the help ichich he 
demanded, for JL» ; ZJLt*te aJJI J^w, JjJJk cJL» (*&? tfr/fo of) 
Hudail asked the Prophet of God (to do) something base, for cJL» ; 

j- ^ ^ ^ * a j j a^ I ,j, 

4^-5 L5^ ^'-5 ^t^*^' -^ obeyed them, though I was in haste, for U!j. 
This is most frequent when I is the third radical of a word, in which 

376 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 235 

A case the word virtually becomes third j or ^ (compare Vol. i. § 132, 
rem. a). For example, in verbs, i)U* *$ may it do thee no good ! for 

.yuA ; iJLjl i^o* who told thee? for JLjI ; Uaulj and it delayed, for 
*M ; L&bt, for jj'jbl, III. of Ij3 ; <u»;p, for &*.j3, IV. of U-j ; and 

m nouns, U-k thirst, \£/j « fawn, l»-t £/^ «am« o/ a mountain, for 

OOO.. O 

s// t// s/c / e. , t* * , 

L©J», Li,, la- 1 ; jl3 a reader, for ^jl5, participle of 1j5 ; (^.tj one who 

* s. s £ * * a s * * 0' 

g strikes, in rhyme for ?»-'j, i.e. («»-'j, participle of U».j ; [^^'j^'-' V 
Os5yi fri j*> U 'v*^*^ *ij^-* «A~»^)I ew« //" the rapacious lions sprang 

upon me, I would master them if my time had not yet come, for ^»»-!]. 

(d) *Elif with hemza and gezm (t) is constantly changed by the 

poets into the letter which is homogeneous with the preceding vowel : 
e.g. JUJI the omen (for JU3I), rhyming with JU3I (plur. of ,Ja3) ; 
^JjJI o/" £//g ^?ad (for ^jM), rhyming with ^Ul ; ^ji\ of the tender 

C (for 5«>jJI)> rhyming with >>~JI (plur. of iy^\) ; w~>i a wolf (for wJi), 
rhyming with w~Jj. See Vol. i. § 17, £>, rem. &. 

235. *Elif memduda (see Vol. i. § 23, rem. a) is not unfrequently 
changed into elif maksura; e.g. U-JI, for *U-JI, £Ae s%; I^j, for 

r,, > «• » ' 'is ~s ' 

1%j, a misfortune; \jks, or ^Jj**, desert, desolate, for it^i5, fern, of 
ja5I ; y-2> ju a palsied hand, for 2*i)Ji, fem. of J^l ; U-l, for *l£l, I wish, 
I) 1st pers. sing. Imperf. Indie, of eli. 

Rem. a. On the contrary, elif maksura is rarely changed into 
<Mif memduda; as f 'yJJIj ^Jam-^JI ^ w*£ - o {which) sticks in the 

mouth and throat, for lyXJI^, plur. of SlyJJI </(,e uvula. 

Rem. 6. The short interrogative I is sometimes lengthened into 

I, when the next word begins with 1 ; as^Jlw >l jb\ wJll is it thou 

JO* J w «• 

or 'Umm Sdlim? \}j.5 j>\ \Jy*i °W" >^ Ae thinks whetlier it is he 
they mean or an aj)c. 

§ 238] Poetic Licenses. 377 

236. The Slifu '1-wasl is often retained in poetry, where it would A 


naturally be elided in prose (see Vol. i. § 19, rem. e) ; e.g. jj>*-«jj 

o >e, , * o o , - 

and be patient, for jj>*-*'^ ; 3Vz3t £h& like one v:ho leads, for 
iU5l (j-9^ ; clws^l^ JJuJt ^ in bestowing and withholding, for 

^LL«*}Mj; w-*j» ^t LJL2J oJlj «wd £/Wm was£ a fosterchild of our 
sheep, for ^>jt U3UJ ; j~» O-**^' JjW* '^i wA^w « secret goes beyond 

O'O* - -jj 

two, for O**^'- d 

[Rem. The vowel a before a double consonant (Vol. i. § 25, 
rem.) is sometimes resolved into two a's by inserting a hemza, as 

* si & * * *t 2 * 2t * o 2*0 

(Jl^La)! for (j^JLoJI, jl^».l for jU^I. Noldeke, Zur Grammatik, 

Sit * - Z * 

p. 8, thinks that this is the origin of many ^JUil forms, as jU-*'> 

2 J - o 2 t * o 2 , , o 

J!>^'> oUJ»', and, with substitution of c for f , j^Jul.] 

(b) Irregularities in the use of the TMdJd. C 

237. The necessary tes'did is occasionally dropped ; e.g. U-h', 

s } 2Z oi i , , 2£ J ~2 *» -2£ 

for U^jI, which of them ; ȣXjl ^A3 if that thou, for ǣAJl ; JjLJI Lyjl 
^icj ^ov^ ^om that askest after them and after me ! for ^j^j. 

** J *' 2* i 2, 

Similarly in the rare verbal forms ^*~>, £— Z>, for {k ^*^i, £~-Z>, as 

at *, * 2 j t * - } * oi * 

jj\j ■<**» V^* l*l*»» Uj-aJl».li and they cleaned them (and made them, 
the swords) light, all of them guarding themselves (against the evil eye) 
by (their) lustre, where others, however, read ^i^>. ^ 

238. Sometimes too the tesdid is introduced where it would be 
inadmissible in prose*, through a false application of the pausal form 

- - 1 - OjO * ,1,3, 

mentioned in § 224, rem.; e.g. JJCJUJl ^c, for JXJbJJl, the breast; 

* [Excepting the saj 1 , for we find (Zamahsari, Faik i. 145 seq.) 

I J it rlJ/ Kj 

for «iL^-»fc, in order to rhyme with a*jj a+j. T>. G.] 
w. ii. 48 

378 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 239 

Z s o Zbs ^ / / etj/ i s a i- s vis 

A l^ai*-o , ^l, for l»sw. o ^)l, ace. sing, of jf±,*o\, large, stout ; tfcjij/-* ^ 
ow /#?;• bodkin (for applying /y?^/ to tlic eyes), for Ifcjj^ ; J^-W ^5* 

s »t s* s s s Zt ' si a £ i s b ss 

in the tether, for JaJaJI j,5 ; tj U«U ^s W«*»- l5j' O' ^■ ^ ■*- «*^ 
U-aaJI Jiilj J^&JI J£« lyoa.1 ^1 juu verily I ivas afraid of seeing 
drought (spreading) in this our year, after it had been fertile in 
herbage, as a fire (spreads) which encounters (a bed of) reeds (b,**. = 

s a s vt ' o £ Z s sOs s s a i s s s Os 

B bjw*. ; Ltfufc.1 and LocuUl for Ucui.1 and L*ajUI). 

(c) Uncontracted Forms for contracted ones. 

239. These are most common in the case of radicals in which 
the second and third letters are identical (Vol. i. § 119), and occur in 

1 <■ s 

both the verb and the noun ; e.g. ly^? oi^ though they be stingy, 

2 s tits j>/ oS ^ 

for tj-i-e ; j-^oJls a*X£j ^ ,jtj and if thou dost not (actually) kill 

* is , o j s 

C him, yet come near it, for ^*JlJ ; ^*»J^j and he is blamed, poetic 

0/ 0J/ w #» J s viiO J bi- tsl J/»J • S 

form in rhyme for ^Sif, and that for jtSij ; t^JJl j-*^) ' J*j~i *$_$ 

i ai si 2x> i oios* i, a j s* o s si 

j>j~t> ^a j^JJt f*^\ tJ^H *$3 JJb*. y* ?<>/#*£ /^ loosens cannot be bound 

Is is i 

fast, and what he binds fast cannot be loosened, for Jl»- and J*»-! ; 

, i?*> M sOsi Jo J i> - 0^ 

AJL^.'s)! jJbOl d-U ju»a J I praise belongs to God, the exalted, the 

s * ^^ S ^ ^ 

m s its 

glorious, for J>-»-*}H. Compare, in Hebrew, !)3£K, O^DSD and 
D similar forms*. 

240. The poets also use the uncontracted forms of nouns derived 
from radicals third j and ^, instead of the contracted (see Vol. i. 

% 167, b, /?) ; e.g. ^^U j-ji not past, for ^U ; ^l/J ^J>»- a~>\jj 

silts' s *l 1 s .... »• 

* [J'jjJtJ W for .Jjju in a tradition (Faik ii. 130, Lisdn vi. 232) 
is said to be unique in prose. Abu 'Obeida suspects that it is a clerical 

s s £ Its s 1 s 

error (iJLiJI obj*»J) for iJjjju. D. G.] 

§ 241] Poetic Licenses. 379 

* • - " - 

jbj ^>j ^UJI and fo'.s head we cut off (in retaliation) for the head of A 

St * j £ j it* * - 5 ' ■» 

en-Nabi 'ibn Ziyad, for ^^jLJt ; 9.^ wr»>*J' ^LX^ ^y* 
freedmen as (fat as) rams of the breed called 'us, for J'>* ; ^jU *$ 

* *a* j It * * *•«• 

^jl^iit ^ *JJl may God not bless the icemen! for ^y\jk)\ ^i ; 

6 jja*-tfJI ^ i>**k L&ls 1 * 1 ^* ^" e fl 7 ' r ^ s sporting in the mead. 

Rem. It sometimes happens that the usual accusative form 
jJlxi is incorrectly transferred to the genitive ; e.g. juc (jl^ ^Jj B 

Ul^-e .J>« oJJI »X*£ 0&3 «au^ai > L5^>* a ^' - t,e '' e 'Abdu'lldJi a 
freedman, I would lampoon him, but 'Abdu'Udh is merely a freed- 

* * * a * 

man's freedman, for ^)\y* l^J-*- 

(d) Suppression of the letter & in certain Nominal and 
Verbal Forms. 

241. This is a license of which the poets rarely avail themselves, 
but it occasionally occurs in the dual and plural of nouns, and in the C 

jussive and energetic of verbs ; e.g. j»> Ul^ iUj jL»l Ul UJa*. 1*a 
these are alternatives, either captivity and quarter, or bloodshed, for 
pl:U; ^^U^l UXjj J_>JL»JI ^U5 1JJU1 ^ oi w^=» uj* 1 
_y« 2&Mit Kuleib, 't was my two uncles who slew kings and burst 
asunder the yokes (of captives), for yjtJtUl : ^J IJJJI ^j^)' \a& U-fc 
UjejJ ftase are the two pillars of the earth, which, if they were shaken, 
for ^IJJJI ; ^A^lo ??~^*J wJl»- (^JJ! oi ^'^ whose blood was D 
s^o? unavenged at Felg, for ^ JJI ; 0»5^k ,jl ^^yJ 1 -ike «->>-« I 
arm? auwj/ *w? thoughts from thee, if they come by night, for CHj-*' 
(compare Vol. i. § 20, rem. c) ; and more frequently .ib , >iXJ , ^Xj , 
for 0&i, 0&-J, \j£~J, jussive of O^ 9 - 

Hem. a. The same elision of yj occurs in the particle yj^J" 6?^ ; 
as i5^i—»l ^*i)* ^«<^ give me to drink. 

580 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 242 

Rem. b. On the contrary, some poets have even dared to add 
the energetic ^j to the perfect and participle of the verb; as 

U-w« C-^»-j ^jl jJ^xa-j O-*'^ may £/«/ ^ootZ fortune last, if thou 
A«s£ compassion upon one enslaved (by love), for >ob ; j-n— - * jjJblSt 
b^y^JI wi/Z /te s«*/, Bring in the witnesses ? for ^JjISI. 

242. Other letters, and even whole syllables, are sometimes 
dropped under the pressure of metrical necessity*. For example, 

B (a) at the beginning of a word : jj*j) for ,j*})l (compare § 234, b), as in 

the half- verse »JU C-Jl ^*x)b l^-U <J*$ -»Ji &w£ »ow disclose what 

£&?«* mayest disclose of it ; e*$ for aAJ, as ^J C-JLait *n) *£JU* ^>jI ^ 
j^^jit w*~». wAat a man thy cousin is ! thou dost not surpass me in 
noble qualities (compare § 53, b, rein, e) ; JJtS for Jo-^-Ut, as <j[ Jo^^ 
>*»■»■ wA*S o^i= 6»W / «/* Thou hast accepted my pilgrimage 

(-m Z s**- rare pausal form for ^a.-*.) ; J>J, Ui-j for JUI, l^iJI 

*-' , ' '',.'' 

C imperat. VIII. of ^3j, as UJ <dJI JJJ /««>• 6rW m ww cas£, tyjl «>a-j 

jjLaJI fear Him, young men I (b) In the middle of a word: 

cUx-»t (X. of £>k), imperf. , < g- Ja.,.... j , for cUa-Xwl, a.-jJal....; ; as 

JO/ J s ss *" s i s J o £ Cits- 0* ' 

<U£ c*A3UJ A^l^a. ^^j *Jkwl ,-Ot Jj a/io? had I been able, on the 
efa# <>/* AiV cfe«^, / would have fought in his defence [cf. Vol. i. § 118, 
rem. b\ (c) At the end of a word : j^c for Sj^, in the half- verse 

. j ^ ^ 5*» o £o>o ^ • j/ 0^/ 

Ijj^cj ^*xJ' j-**jM <^ c ^3aX».Ij a»c# £/^?/ have failed to perform for 

D thee the thing which they promised ; JU£o (also written JU JL«) 
for JUJI ^>» (see Vol. i. § 358, rem. c), as JU-U ^t^t c-aj! Ui 

* [We find in a tradition (Faik ii. 229) Olb^JUJ ^>c ^jyj for 

■? ■> ole* i - » - j * a it* 

OU©^At*})l, as j-o*J is said for j***-*$\ (comp. A r ol. i. § 345, rem. a). 
D. G.] 

§ 242] Poetic Licenses. 381 

Ojuft ifyfc £os &>/£ (lit. the days hate left) no wealth in our possession ; A 
6 ijU (or 6 U J*), for gUlf ^U : ^T ^Jl^, 'an-nebi, for J^df ^ : 
Jjjjr ,>«, mir-rizki, for Jjjjl S-? : J 3 O* for O*^ O^ (owing to 
the vocative form Ji 'b, § 38, a, rem. c, 3). Similarly, >~i*k, 
yj*y\^.*\.t, O^aJb, for j~JJt)\ yo, l J*y\s t *a}\ y*> , OjaJI ^o , etc.* 

Likewise, in (piadriliteral and quinqueliteral plurales fracti (Vol. i. 
§ 305), as jbLi, &\j\, Jbu, j»yj; for ciU-i, v^b'i wJ^*l J^o^J ; B 
e.g. JmUj <w»- ^aULiJj awe/ M<? frogs in its pond are (always) 
croaking: jf$*SJS *-u« LjX-w j/*»' «** the seams of which skilful 

* * o io - - * - a £ o - 

apprentices have joined firmly together (jj*-l j£ for }j*»\ **3. § 234, b). 
Further, JU. jLv, for £<Ju, ^iLv ; as t^iL» ^>j'j ^r-oU. dl^ji 

^<?« /% husband is fifth and thy father sixth ; tjukj jUy; j-« jJ 

^jJUJI £«w days are already passed and this is the third. Proper Q 
names are also liable to be abbreviated, especially in the vocative 
(see § 38, a, rem. c), but also in other cases, as ^31 ^-i*3 ^2i}\ ^xii 

a s * a&* i a& s,2, } i i , , a * 

j. a-± .\\$ c>aJI ibJ Jl* ^ *-*ij^ d j^ s>^ excellent is the man, the 
light of whose fire thou makest for {from a distance) on a night of 
hunger and cold, (namely) Tarif 'ibn Malik (JU, or JU, for ^UU)f. 

Rem. The following are specimens of even still more violent 
abbreviations : U^Jt for JjUoJI, as in the half-verse of Lebid. ^o J) 
yjbb /«Jl-io-> ^-oJl the dwellings are desolate at Mutctfi' and 'Abo.n, 

x * ja*o j e ,s 

* [In later times we find even jaJa+Xj for^k»)l (_jjl; Ul (Ibn abl 
'Oseibi'a, ii. 108). D. G.] 

f [Very rare is an abbreviation like that in ,«*>£> */ Cjli Jit b "^1 
for itjli^l L; (Abu Zeid, Nawddir, 30, 58). D. G.] 

382 Part Fourth.— Prosodtj. [§ 243 

A and also for LU^JI (plur. of aIO'), as in jlr^\ ^hjjJj U^jl £oJi 

ivill let thee see death at the points of the spears ; CZS\ for y! 
(plur. of 2~++~>), used by 'Alkama in the half-verse CLj jsjJuo 

J j > - Si *0s 

v6>tLo ^jL&l having its mouth covered and enwrajjped with strips of 
linen; L»aJI for ws».L*aJI, as in the words of 'Ibn Dureid, 
LaJI jU lyj {£)$\ he strikes out of them small sparks of fire ; 
^^aJt, used by Sl-'Aggag for^ol^aJt in the half-verse aSU Ubl^i 
i i o. a > J I Jfj j (J>« //te slate-coloured doves which inhabit Mekka ; 

' *' ■» ■» *' «■ ««» j ^ 9 c > o .- ii * St * 

Lx)\ for ,JU*JI, in the words LxJt OsiUs»l C~*fil 131 ^ «iW, 

when I teas exhausted, I let go the reins ; la»-^ for »-l»^»., in the 
words j~fr-& *-*»»l»- l***-*- ij on the bone of a slender eyebrow ; and 

even *\j for^».j the womb (see el-Makkari, torn. i. p. ire, 1. 11, and 

s> * i , o , 

torn. ii. p. v- •, 1. 8), and j-o for L».j-«, according to one rendering 

* • z a * ^ z o £ j , j o j o i- * o Si j * * 

of the line ^j '% r ~>j *^.Al aJ 0*13 ,jt jljj^j *n)I ^aj ^Ji fot^ /<e 

slopped only for the space of time that I coidd say to him, Welcome 

(others think that j»*$ is here nothing more than the usual pausal 

form of jj*$ and passed on). Such abbreviations are not, however, 
more violent than the Homeric yeAw, I8pu>, tyw, 8w, for yekwra, I8p(2ra, 
l^wpa, Soifxa, and the like. 

243. Under the second of the two heads mentioned in § 232, 
namely, poetic licenses in regard to the vowels of a word, we include 
(a) the lengthening of a short vowel in the middle of a word ; (b) the 

D shortening of a long vowel ; (<•) the suppression of a short vowel ; 
(d) the addition of a final vowel to certain verbal and pronominal 
forms, and to some particles ; and (e) the irregular use of the tenwin 
and other case-endings in the noun. 

(a) The lengthening of a short vowel in tlie middle of a word. 

244. This is technically called cLi^l, filling full or saturation, 
and is not uncommon with the vowels a and i, rarer in regard to u. 

§ 245] Poetic Licenses. 383 

Examples: cL^», for %~->, in the half- verse of 'Antara. o-* fW-2 A 

5^-*. w>3^£ iSf*$ flows from behind the ears of a fierce, bulky 

she-camel: JUCJUOl, for JXJUCJt, in the words ^Xc C^ jJj C-A3 
JUJbCJI / saiei, after she had fallen upon her breast ; »-ljJUo, for 

9-jZ**, in the hemistich <*-\jl^i JU-jJl >o ,j-ej «??cZ («>•? thou) far 
removed (i.e. <7«*te y*r«>) from the blame of men ? >>«^, for i^o*. in 
the half-verse j^-oU Jj^^\ w*a.>JI o-* *** ?; ? ^ ^m= *V « pillar of B 
purest gold ; w»jjL-fiJt and^o-JbljjJI, for ^L-aJt and^AljjJt, in the 
hemistich oLjL-aJI >li3^Jk1jjJI ^^AJ as ^ money-changers scatter 
^ dirhams, whilst selecting (those that are of full ireight) : j^kjl, 
for jJsul, in the words j^ixili ^ot iyCX«» U~»- O-* -^ draw near to 
whatever place they go and look (at them). 

(b) The shortening of a long rowel. 
245. This may take place either in the middle or at the end of a C 
word, (a) Examples in the middle of a word : ^3, for ^U3, as in the 
words 4*i$ ^* iw tfs r/«.^ or ife darkness; j^^, plur. of jt^c « wiofe 
in the eye, j-eUL«, plnr. of Sj^oio r? c*// or chamber, for ^j^l^x, 
^j-oli*, and the like; IJuk (^-), instead of tjob ( — ), as in the 
half- verse iU J£> ^j (JLh*-^ 1 ^ JJ=> ^J\ how long shall this 
estrangement last every night? aJJI (-^^), for aJJI ( — v^), as in the D 
hemistich J-y~» ^ aJJI J,U n) •nJI »j«y GW «o£ />&>.« Suheil ! and, 

with double license, 0-^> for O 1 -^- in the words ^-oj^j^JI ^-u 
v >^Jl partly silk and partly linen, (b) Examples at the end of 
a word : £-|y)l, for (^I^Jjl, as in the hemistich Ji-tj 9-'_>^> 

^•U — like the tips of the feathers of a dove of Negd ; ju^I, 

384 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 246 

A for ^Ju*})!, as in the words J^l l ^-«^i with their fore-feet bleeding ; 
^Ul, for ^-rflJI, as in the words \i\£\$ bjjj' ^UJI ^j£- from one 

" — 'a 

who forgets robes and garments. [Examples in prose are Jb *9 for 

^Jb *j) «o£ falling slwrt and j^l *j) for jjjpt *j) / £«ow wo£. Comp. 

Vol. i. § 6, footnote. D. G.] The 1st pers. plur. of the Perfect, 

Uj:3 (^ — ), is also sometimes shortened into jj-US (w - w), but the 
elif may be retained in writing, in order to distinguish it from the 

j a , , a Z' o - a j, 

B 3d pers. plur. fem. ; e.g. out £y~su ^L~ Zm. «j and many a one on the 

point of surrender have we relieved ; <*j l*»»J ^J~aZ) «u£»pl jij and 
if we had overtaken him, we would surely have slaughtered him. 

(c) The suppression of a short vowel. 

246. (a) In the middle of a word this license is of most frequent 
C occurrence in the case of the very few nouns of the form J-*i 

(becoming J*$), and of verbs of the forms Jj«i and Ja3 (becoming 

, a , '■» .'*■* ' ' 

J*i, see Vol. i. § 183, rem. b), and J*s (becoming J**); as U£» 

*$*>*$ \ lylJo J-ji. C»M<aiyU>l as horses scatter camels by their charge 

s 0* J s - ' & s & s to* * G * s s ' * >•-.'' > - - 

(for ^^1) ; «U«»JU3 OjJJ Jj^ll ^ Jjb _/»—£ U^» >*>•«**■ ,' <U*Jkl (j'^ 

aJlAlibj awe? «/ / lampoon him, he cries out, like a nine-year-old camel 

j) whose sides and, withers are galled (for j**-**, J^^, and 0>j,>) ; 

*3^>3 03** ^SJ*" ^* c^*** j' or as Aaron and David were recompensed 

(for \£j**-) ; Jl**»- «^j>J »>*■ (^5^-* '^i when it is drawn, it twangs 
with the curved bow (makes the curved bow twang). Rarer instances 
are exemplified by J*»j, for J>»-j, as in the half-verse O^ 9 ^^ 
*j)l»-» >0 ju£^j *^»«j ./'<»' /'" was a man, and ye are men ; j-£)l, for 

jJS\ (plur. of iJ>*£M), in the words ^J$\ j*£i\ v~su*$\ ^a these are 

§ 247] Poetic Licenses. 385 

the great souls which — ; Ot^ij, for Ol/ij (plur. of Sjij, Vol. i. § 301, A 
rem. 6), as lyj'jij O-* u~*^' ?*& **» * * and the soul finds rest from its 
sighs. — This license has resulted in the production of such forms as 

» ' B B y B .. * s , By s B * tt/ / 

j^jt for jwwj (jtffc^j, jussive of J^j), and jJLj or jJb for jJj (j>Xj, 
jussive of jJj) ; as I ju j^SL^ >j* j^.\ ^i ^^j but I have not been 

able to avoid cursing you; ^ jJj j^ij [w>t aJ j^-Jj ^y° Vj ^'] 

tJ'>?' ojoj [vm/?/, there is scarcely (w>j used JujiiiU) one generated 

without having a father,] and scarcely one who has offspring is there B 
whom two parents have not begotten (except Adam). 

Rem. The poets also take the contrary liberty of adding a 

supplementary vowel in the nominal form Jjti, using, for example, 

9 9 B g $ a 

JJ»! for JJ»I, flank, and jJa., for jJL»>, skin. 

(b) The same license at the end of a word is exemplified by 

Bis *' . jBsslitoZisBisBf* 

such a form as JjL», for JUj, in the half- verse **** aJJI ,jli JUj v j-6^ 
and ivhoso fears (God), verily God is with him*. [The pronouns C 
yk and ^a are often shortened into yk and ^j*.] Compare also 
the suppression of the final vowel in the pronominal suffixes of the 

Bsl By 

1st pers. sing. ^j— and ^y, § 228, rem. b, [and the use of Jul ^ for 
JU ^»1 7 efoV/ wo£ care.] 

(d) 7%# addition of a final short vowel to certain verbal 

forms and to some particles. D 

247. The vowel kesr is frequently added in rhyme to the 3d 
pers. sing. fern, of the Perfect, the 2d pers. sing. masc. of the 

* [This happens especially if the last consonant of the word and 
the first of the following are identical, as Jpj^aJ I w». jSJuj Tabarl i. 
853, 1. ult. iov'J&y, o~J o^j' *. 1119, 1. 1 for O^j'; Vj-*' 
Jjf olLJ ib. 1427, 1. 1 (iii. 2414, 1. 14) for L>j£\. D. G.] 

w. ii. 49 

386 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 248 

A Imperative, and those persons of the Jussive which end in a con- 
sonant; as C-J^j C~L«I j£ bUa»oJI t^».UI they made the camels lie 

o Ii * tit 6*** it* 

down, which were tired and weary (for C*A£») ; ^.wt -iUyU ^ oVj*i 
jclaJfj #Aiy say, Zto ??o£ dfo q/* </H^/, but bear it like a man (for 
j*A»J) ; «Xy»-t jcy&Jlj iljo^l »iXjL> (jl^ «??(# if the foe come upon 

o , » £ 

thee with all their might, I will do my very best (for J^v*-')- 

B Rem. The vowel preceding the final consonant may have been 

originally long, and only shortened because of its being in a shut 
syllable, but it is, nevertheless, not restored after the addition of 

this kesra. For example : Oj.£ (for Ojj*, 3d pers. sing. fern. Perf. 
of \j£, Vol. i. § 166, a, rem.) becomes Oj£, not Oljx ; jJo (for j*jo, 
2d pers. sing. masc. Imperat. of jU», Vol. i. § 152) becomes ^J», 
not jj>*^ ;^fj\ (for^oUl, 1st pers. sing. Jussive of j»\j, Vol. i. § 151) 
becomes ^1, notv&Ut. 

248. The same license is allowable in the case of particles 
which end in a consonant, particularly such as are monosyllabic ; e.g. 

j>5 (J^J UH»yj Jjj l*J they (the camels) have not yet moved off tvith 

O * * * 6 £ , , 

our saddles, but it is as good as done (namely, cJlj j>$ O^J but it is 
as if they had already moved off) ; y£>$ {£^ '3 j£* l**«Ai1 w<W»J 
beloved of our souls, how long will this absence continue? how long! 

Rem. The reader may here be reminded that, instead of the 
D ordinary pronominal forms ^^231, ^Jb, and >0 ^, and the verbal form 

»)»-/ j jtl j * j j 

^Xsti, the poets constantly make use of the archaic ^Zj I, j^b, ^£s, 
and j^y*£. The final vowel is in these cases more usually long 
than short*. When ^ is changed into^Jb, either ^A or^A may 
be used. 

* The quantity of the singular suffix o also varies. 

§ 249] Poetic Licenses. 387 

(e) The irregular use of the ten win and other case-endings A 

in the noun. 

249. The poets constantly use the triptote inflection of a noun, 
when the diptote inflection alone is admissible in prose. Tins remark 
applies equally to the singular and the broken plural. Examples of 

the singular : Sy— J ^ v-^j *4 C« *t »« ^1 ,jLojL> ^>tu IL« Pj-aJ 
Oj^kft the vale of Na'md-n is scented with musk, if Zeineb walks in it 
amid (her) perfumed attendants (for v**ij) ; ^jlPj •**»■' «^jj>? 'y^> 

J - a i j 9 - 

they sat/, Ahmed visits thee and thou visitest him (for j> fwl) ;^»y ■«..._» B 
j^».t S^ ^3 (/ smart black-eyed {page) hands them trine (for j^»»l) ; 
^-flL* U*i 5ju& ^ftli J13 j*i the poet of (the tribe of) Kinda has 

* *o * a Z * a , o - * ji/M , j t, 

said in olden time (for Sju^) ; j£^\ ^jj ls**""'* ^Ji/**" (J- 1 J>*^ 
thou sayest, Ask largesse of Yahya 'ibn *Ektem (for _»££»l) ; C-vHj 
«*j>tufc. %ijJ bb^JLc a/i^ / warned 'Othman to repel the dangers 
which threatened him (for ^U-JLc) : bol *-j-±-\ aJJt jj' s "^ : ' b C 
and thou forgettest that God turned Adam out of it (for j»*\) ; 
ULo*.1 ^)j-» jA^Jt t>cjy *ib neror ^e/j entrust thy secret to a fool 
(for JE*»-t)- Examples of the broken plural : ^ito ^ ?\£=>j-L ^*j *§\ 
but they are companions in (shedding) their blood (for 2l£>ji») ; dJLi 
>«-H>^ j-*frl— « ly*Xc (horses) with shaggy manes, on which ride 
warriors who stir up the fire of their battle (for^ftC-*) ; JjLo l>5l»-c 
!" ■■»* L5^^' °^ women, like vipers, five in number (for >5U-c) ; D 
OL*jj*j ^)jtu w>g£ s / visited dwellings at 'Oreitindt (for Jjtu). — 
Other instances of the irregular tenwln are : in the vocative, as 
ly-Ic jia* b *JJI ^^ ^<? peace of God, Matar, be upon her 

ic '\'\'\ r f * - i 8 'At' i'°- * -' ' • ' ' fl£ " *i- « 
(tor ^ix« b) ; [Ja^3 J^ftJIj L^^J ^ dM-sw i^>© Ob^j ^ O a..o» 

J 8 J 

Jj-** Muhammad, since thou art the offspring of a highborn 

388 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§250 

i St s it 

A lady in her tribe, and thy father was a noble (for ju.»o»..ol) ;] 
^5lj*j)l *£Ajl3j jJ»J Ujcc b 'Adl, every circumstance has com- 
bined to protect thee (where a writer in prose would have said 
ijjs. C) ; after *$, used ^JUJT ^ii (§ 39), as tjli. aLT UjL 4^j $ 

is there no man (may God reward him ivith good) — / (for sj*rj *}M) ; 
iu words of the form JUi (Vol. i. § 98, rein, c ; § 309, c, 6), as 

" J*jh u^ls^ O-* j'^** _;'«*»• beware, beware of the horsemen of Darim 

(for j\S»- j'J^) ; ?-'%« ^i^* j-J** W ^ Hfo* Matar, come hither 

to Salah (i.e. Mekka, for ^%o) ; and in proper names before ^>j 

sow 0/* (Vol. i. § 21, 0), as <juAaj ^jj\ ^-^3 ^>« ajjW- « young woman 
(of the tribe) of Kais 'ibn Ta'laba (pron. Kaisini 'bni, for ^>j us*)- 

250. On the contrary, the ten win is sometimes suppressed in 
C cases where it could not be dispensed with in prose ; as O^ ^** 

*-©a~« ^-i ^bj-* 0^>*^ c^»- *^J O-***" neither Hisn nor Habis 

Z s * & >0 s s * WtO J * 

surpassed Mirdas in any assembly (for L»lj>j-«) ; j*jj3\ ^,Lk ij;j}\ jj+t- 
ducfi) 'Amr, who broke up (bread to make) soup for his people (for 
^JJI jj-o*, but there is another reading, ^^Jk ^^Jj^I 3j~o-£ tlie noble 
14 mr &ro£e wp) ; "ibJ.5 "n)I aJJI j^lj ^j wJju.~* j-ji 4L>AJli a/w? / 
found him not seeking (the Lord's) favour, and seldom thinking upon 

S 5 b J s> bt 6*0 * J Ml -- V 

D 6W (for^^li) ; UjJ JUa->*>)l w>jla*_« ^5^-3 and the tribe of Mohdrib, 
heroes of old (for w^ 5 "*- ) 5 w-^' ^^ J>^ w»>U-o j^;,. »g^ Jifo a« 
overmatched cat, which springs at the dog (for ^ ;.... £> ) ; ^— ^. ^^^Xc 
l _^JUI ^^Jl ^>« ji-a^ ?(po» « yellow body, smoother than gold (for >»—»■, 
and t^JUl in rhyme for j^-J-«l, instead of y-Xol, § 249). 

251. The genitive plural in ,>j- is sometimes changed in rhyme 
into sLH- ( see Vol. i. p. 236, note); as 0*»O^I •*•" °J^^ ***J 

§ 252] Poetic Licenses. 389 

since 1 have already passed the limit of forty (for 0**0^') ; ^jW *>} A 

Ml ^ J kit *? 

U~~>3 %a> ^ <*JJI may God not bless sixty and odd years! (for 
^>*wj) ; O-J/ -' otilcj Li/^i'^ awe? ?/^ ignore the riffraff of other 
tribes (for ,>£/*■')• 

252. In verbs aud nouns derived from radicals of which the 
third consonant is $ or ^, the poets not unfrequently use the 
Indicative form of the Imperfect instead of the Subjunctive or Jussive, 
and the nominative case instead of the accusative. Examples of B 

c * * _ i j i i o i lit 00 ,i 

the verb: w>l ^j >b ^o--' u' *^' L5^' ^ r '^ nas mt Wt ^ e< ^ inat I 
should be of noble descent either on the mothers or the fathers side 

(for ^lf\) ; ^jte ^Ji. ^JlL o^ S>j &&> O-f V u$|l ^ ^^ 

* a < j 

\ j^sk^A ««o? / swear, I will not show her pity for weariness or foot- 

* * i , j a - * a z, 

soreness, until she encounters Muhammad (for ^^3) ; JLJLi ^Lli* 

* , ' j a i 

^j'^ ( ta r*^-~ J O' ^.V soul has made thee wish to vie with Darim (for 

* * j * a * at - ,a* at a i £ + - 

^A^J) ; la—iu 3I <sui ^^*J' ^5— ©-> O 1 j^ '>i wfow to spend an C 
evening or a forenoon in it, fills a man with vain delight (for ji. I3I 

c&Z ^ not bring thee word— for news travels fast — of what has 


befallen the milch-camel of the Benu Ziycid ? (for iJULn ; ,jbj O^Jk 

pj3 jt}$ >*-yJ ^«J O^J y^* ^j-9 lj«U*-6 o^tfc. ^ thou didst lampoon 
Zabbdn, and then thou earnest making excuses for having lampooned 
Zabbdn, — ($0 that) thou didst neither lampoon him nor let it alone D 

(for -y-jj) ; w>Lft tj>j1 . iV! . * a>. .» U-U i^sT** turn as ' la ^ to lls > (<-ind) 
'lbn 'Anndb will salute thee, i.e. receive thee with honour (for sl ^ •) ; 
i.1 dl-Jl *sj ^t U whatever I forget, I shall not forget him 

■» ' dc , si a , * 

to the end oj my life (for a~J1). Examples of the noun: jljl j^^j 
<e L>* - « a .-o ^ (.j-*^' <*»^ whoever seeks for consolation in his misfortune 
(for ^UJI) ; (^g^J "^-dl »iiJU-» Ojwh.j I found thy noble qualities 

300 Part Fourth.— Prosody. [§ 253 

A a subject for my poetry (for ^ibJlat*) ; ^>£JI yJJic Of^L* l>%H ^.'/ 
/iat'e &/£ their shepherd like an old (useless) ivaterskin (for O-vs^'j) > 
JjjiJI cUJI ^ O-vi*^' O^ ^ if their forefeet were on level ground 
(for jj^jul) ; U5U*. UoteJI i^jUa O^ Vj <m d if he had been hungry 
and famished (for ^yj»). 

253. The poets occasionally use pausal forms (see §§ 223 — 230) 

- * - Hz u 

B out of pause. For example : ^-^>j for ^^j, in the verse ^J^*-* j3j-~4 

* sOtOy Or' ' J J J £ 

j-cuJIj ^a^-jj ^ ^j-i; (j| d-oj^».l ifi#/i joy, my lord, will I wait 
upon him, if he be contented with me, and ivith my hearing and sight 

J * J C J 

(i.e. most willingly and cheerfully) ; ^jj for {Jjj= ijjj, in the words 

^0} ' ' J i ' o - Ct io o ' i 10 * 

C-s5j i l<i= a^JLjjj ^LJI ,-i jk».l i^$jj Oi ^* ^° one a?nong men, whom 
we know, was afflicted as thou art afflicted ; >fc for yb, in the half- 
C verse iwu ^-*-^« W-^' O- >* *^* ^^ so he does not lose his share 
of (the pleasures of) this world. 

[Rem. At the end of a word the tenwln is sometimes used 

* 0*> 10' 

instead of the letter of prolongation (J^Us^) I \J>j^), as some read 

- * 

in the Kor'an lxxxix. 3 j— j for \^£j~ ** (see Beidawi ii. 401, 1. 13). 

vis Zi *o 1 * 

This £) is called >0 jj£)\ \^>>y3 the trilling or quavering prolongation 

o a - 1!>£ - o-o** i 

and modulation of the voice (y_^jjJxJJ), as in I^ZjI ws^sJt C* JL .> 
D ^cCaji\ (see Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 323 seq. and cornp. supra § 225, 

* oil j0 it 

rem.). In like manner the ajjuJI <J&\ (Vol. i. § 368, rem. b) is 

sometimes lengthened to ^1, as in a tradition given by ZamaMarl 
(Faik ii. 95) Fatima is heard crying for her two sous b ^ U ....». b 

o - o  > 

,jtu-»».. The addition of the ^j to a fettered rhyme (§ 193), 

,0* J Oii , _ 

called .JUUI O-if^^ la condemned by many grammarians. D. G.J 



The Roman numerals indicate the volume, the Arabic numerals the 
page. The letters a b c d refer to divisions of the page. 


»- o j ^i. 

bjjLJI »|>t, i. 269 a. 

a * at * j£ 

»l, J*a».'l. i. 28 C. <S -' j»*> £ £ 

iJUjUl 3 \ 5U.U«JI 131, i. 284 a: 
j*L)S ja^\, ii. 359 b, 361 c. ii. 157 D , 345 c . 

; - * j j : I 

:: ■? : - ; . 

*- J ȣ 

4iJU»JI 4*^1, i. 136 d. 5 j>»-j', ii- 351 b. 

cCi^t, ii- 191b. r'-i^l, i- 220 d, 222 d. 

JeUM, 1. 40 c. o^-oJI o-« cL^-vJI V UI, i. 

J*i3t, i. 38 c. 245 b. 

jLi.N)l, i. 274 b; ii. 73 c. lL^-^1, ii. 335 d. 

4 » Alt C^.1, i. 10 d. J-f— o-JI 

jjUl >>^' ••■ » ii- 336 a. 

a *?*> 

j , a ja. 

IjlSiS £Jsi^t ... ... ,342d. 

^Uul^t, ii. 76 d, 77 c, 93 a. JljJ^l^', ii- 235 d, 334 c, 335 b. 

^1 Ol^i.1, ii. 80 b. Jl***-t. i. 116 b. 

, , - - a - a 

0^» ••• , ii- 15 c, 16 a, 101 d, JmU—I, i- 44a. 

103d, 258c. •*<•' -«- £ 2 -* *,» » 

* - - £ s ^ £ , *"^ - ' £ , , 

C*lpl, «bl, i. 278 c. ii. 336 a 



JUUw^l, ii. 21 b. 
J£fy, i. 104 a 
SjL^t J^l, i. 105 a, 264 d. 
aJ^T ... , i. 109c, 130b. 
J,t ... , ii. 80b, 260b. 

J*A*IM . , . , i. 140 c, 141b. 

- 4 

ju^La. ^-1, i. 106 D. 
^Ujf^t, i- 181 a, 224 d, 234 a. 

, i. 107 b, 180 d, 224 d, 

234 a. 
, Add. et Corrigenda 

(Vol. i. 110 a). 
, i. 109 b, 124 d. 

f Oo J 

Sj-oJ 1^1, i. 109 b, 123 b. 

O --0 

<sui juj-o^o-J, i. 107 a. 

Si - J 

j Si ' joa» j o *> 

* , 0«o 

^JjjT ... , i. 109 c, 125b. 

jJjjT ... , L105a. 

Jii JIl, or^U^ll, i. 107 b. 

O ^ JO 

^>_5_fi. ^1, i. 107 b. 
J^IAJI ... , i. 109 a, 131b. 

, i. 109a, 110a, 296b 

, ii. 100 a. 

, i. 109 d, 148 b. 

, i. 110 a, 165 b. 

, ii. 98 b. 

, i. 137 b. 




* * s JO* 


Odt ' J 5* 

1, i. 107 a. 

, JO/O J O <o * 

I, i. 117d ; ii. 59 d. 
> * .n ^w^t, i. 110 a, 166 b. 

S O ^ JO 

.--La* v0 - , 't i« 107 b. 

J -o«> 

Jy£»» ... , i. 109 a, 131c. 
O^j't •-. , i- 109 b, 124 d. 
' ,JI jrS$\ i. 166 b. 

j JO ^0«J 

jj—UJt ... , i. 109 d, 149 c. 
J^^Jt ... , i. 105b; ii. 317c. 
SJJCJ ^1, ii. 98 c, 123 a. 
c^jT^ll, i. 109 b, 123 d. 

Sj^.yf ... , i. 109 c, 147 bd. 
6 Uyf ... , i. 109 d, 149 a. 
ilL^I, ii. 250 b. 

ctli^l, i. 249 d; ii. 354 c, 382 d. 
J\+£^\, i. 71a, 84 b, 89 b. 
£»&%(, i- 294 b. 
IIUNt, ii. 125 b, 198 c. 

j w ^ -'O-*' J - 

ii. 199 b, 205 a, 234 a. 

Al^juibT &l*Nt, ii. 199 c. 

A...i.:)f JiUl, ii. 234 a. 

£^-^r^l j^-IllfiiUI, ii. 205 a, 
234 a. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 393 

aJlJUJ! Si&Nt, ii. 64 d, 198 c, i>ju«^Jt JUi^l, i. 51a; ii. 46 a. 
233 a. 

- lie- J * jd-e j -j;.v 

»,«->» j^ 

L5 ^t ^1 o-*Jt AiUI, i. 202d. 
<ULi^jf jli iiUs^l, ii. 64 b, 198 c. 

& +&*e j&* J 4 

4*\a».«JI j*i. diUi^l. ii. 198 c. 

alteiln i*u>*$i, h. i98c. 

J .. 0*0* 

3 <Mfc o 1 ) 

ji b 03 

du y Jt^i I 

0+0* > 9 »lO i - 

AA-aJI ^Jl 03^>^JI iit-£l, ii. 
232 d. 

l>\jj±*<j\, ii. 335 b. 

l\j**$\, ii. 74 d. 

jifil, ii. 351 b. 

J*l*t, plur. fr., i. 226 c, 227 d; 
secondary pi. fr., 231 d. 

j A. 

J^elil, plur. fr., i. 228 A ; second- 
ary pi. fr., 231 D. 

jli?l, plur. fr., i. 169 a, 211 a. 

00 a 600 j i 

6 LAJ^I JU*I, ii. 

108 d. 

wNi>i.»Hl ... , i. 

98 c. 

01 03 

,^-oJI ... , ii. 

50 b. 

©Jj-£JI ... , ii. 

108 d. 

J - 9 * : 

1 j*i. JUi^l, i. 51 a. 

..JUuT Jlill, ii. 48 d, 50 c, 51 a b, 
329 b. 

L*jjj\ Jui^l, i. 51 a. 

w. 11. 

II JlxJ^I, ii. 46 b. 


_ - «r, 0»03 1 , ;i 

j>JJ\j ^j^l JUil, i. 97 a. 
ijJuUjt' Jull, ii. 106 b. 

^la**Jjl ^1 >iXJJ\ 3 ^>JUI JUil ; 

ii. 48 d. 
jliil, i. 116 a. 
Jlill, i. 43 a. 
JJtill, i. 43 c, 63 d. 
JliJl, i. 116 b. 
Ji£*1, i. 41 d. 
Jill, i. 34 b. 

Jill, adj., 133 d, 136 a, 200 a; 
compar. and superl., i. 140c; 
derived from conjug. 11., iv., 
vii., and viit., i. 141 D, ii. 
72 b; from verbs signifying 
love or hatred, ii. 71 d, 145 d; 
formed from the passive voice, 
i. 142 d; from intransitive 
verbs, ii. 72 a; from words 
denoting colours or defects, 

i. 143a; compar. with ^c, 

ii. 133 A — 134 d; superl. with 
the genitive, ii. 218 b, 226 c; 
with the accus., ii. 71 b: with 

J, ii. 71 b; with ^Jl, ii. 72 a, 
145 b; substantive, i. 227 D ; 

394 Indexes. 

fem. ,Jlii, i. 184 b, 240 d; J%*it, i. 116 b. 

^ - • 

fem. l%*i, i. 185 a, 240 d. 

i to j - e£ 

iTll^J, ii. 357 a b. 

J^oAJI JasI, i. 140 c. 

JjJl, i. 227 d, 240 d. 
du JjJl, i. 98 c. 

2U£>*3'l, ii. 357 b. 

AjJ\ L5 3 3 JL£»1 > ii. 294c. 
fli^i, ii. 345 d. 

« 0-0 ) 

Jjtil, plur. fr., i. 169 d, 209 d, JUJ^I oUt, i. 152 b, 157 a, 179c. 
Add. et Corrigenda (Vol. i. 

210 d). 
JjJl, i. 43 a, 91 b. 

HjS\, plur. fr., i. 219 c, 240 a. 

C/ilail, secondary pi. fr., i. 232 b. 

J&Jt, i. 116 B 

J*£*il, i. 117 d. 

Halt, plur. fr., i. 170 a. 212 b, 
Add. et Corrigenda (Vol. i. 
210 d). 

JJbJl, i. 43 c, 63 d. 
JJbJt, i. 48 c. 
Sliail, i. 116 c. 
J$L£t,L 116 b, 117 d. 
JjU*il, i. 46 d, 48 c. 
^jjUiil, i. 47 a. 
JljaJI, i. 116 b. 

* * e - o - 

J^ytsl, i. 46 c. 
J^kil, i. 46 d. 
JbLxIl, i. 116 k. 

UoUJt tJU^I, i. 11 a. 
ftLiff obi, i. 21 a, 269 c. 

Sj^^aLoJl oU^M, i. 11 b, 25 b. 


s Udf Jbl, i. 294 b. 

aj jjjf JS\, i. 295 d ; ii. 390 d. 

J^yi ... ,i. 21 A. 

Aj\3^i\ ... , i. 11 A. 

Jf&fj Ji%, i. 269 a. 

,.^1^ >ouT j oU% il 243 c - 

j^«JU , ii. 243 d. 

fe.lyj ^Jl ii. 145 b, 147 b. 
J-oGJT ^^iJ ^Jt, ii. 63 b. 

iLjfc^JJ ^1 A^.La-oA) ^1, ii. 145 b. 

i*ifti^JI j»\, ii. 308 b. 

ij'U^I, i. 10 c. 

sJpaJ\ <j*o cUIc'nJI, i. 245 b. 

j**)\. i. 61 i>. 

4 - <> i 

j*\, ii. 31 d. 

- St ta * 3 * Z * jtto i 

(rtLitM ,>•) iAAai^JI o'j "• 26b > 


AjjjuxaJt ,jt, ii. 26 c, 221 A, 252 a 
t ^1, i. 292 c. 

i*oU)7 ^1, ii. 26 c. 

£ a - tc * ■: 

- - : " 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 395 

J~U2U *Uf, ii. 164 a. 

j^U^X^J ... , 

«uj*3t lU, ii. 162 b. 

C^T ,164a. 

al~Jl) 2LM, ii. 164 a, 324 a. 
^LJjJkJU ... , ii. 163 d. 

^ ^ 

^-JLU ... , ii. 164 a. 
jUjflCJ, ii- 160 a. 

il^U^Jb lUt, ii. 164 a. 

aJbuiij ... , ... 

'W) ..., ... 

.,i. 4a. 
JXJU ... , ii. 164 a. 

j^iLojT ^ j^ujT J,C, i. 50 b. 

14 b, 301 d. 

l - Z. - J »>e 

(aJUttl v >«) rtAfta. M o«, i. 283 b, 
284 d; ii. 81c. 

llsCdT rj\, ii. 105 a, 301 c. 

i^uJyf gi. i- 292 D. 

lyj^fclj ^1 , ii. 80 b. 

lUJ^I, ii. 73 c. 
Jliill, L 116 b. 
Jiiil, i. 40 c. 

it, i. 56 b. 


aUb\, ii. 351 A. 

i ,i li ^1, ii. 361 c. 

lUaj^t, ii. 357 c. 

uoia^jJ L^t, ii. 93 a. 


iiu£&) lUf, ii. 164 a. 
JjUJ^J ... , ii. 163d, 324 a. 
ajjucJU ... , ii. 44b, 164 a. 

^a*j, ii. 358 c. 

JJLjf, ii. 9.0 a, 230 c, 231 d, 2^3 a, 
284 d. 

JUiw^l Jju, ii. 285 d, 287 b. 
>->\r±'f ...,ii. 286 b. 

6 UJI 

j£Jt jj^ c>**^' Jj^> ii- 285 c. 

A~o ^-aaammoJI ^^ ^aw..)l iJju, ii. 
336 c. 

gCljT i <W& a f JJu, ii. 286 c. 

JJjT ,£h) jiJT ... , ii. 284 d, 




 ibta 3 * ,b* 

*^*> Jj^JJ ChW' J.A-JI, n. 

286 b. 

4 ^0«» J 

» 0/>5 - 

JaaM o-f jJ^o-M J-m, ii- 74 a. 

J ,0, 

Jau—JI, ii. 365 c. 
*U>, ii. 78 b. 

Jyta^Jl j JxUJI lUj, i. 50 b. 
jZ, ii. 229 b, 230 c. 
^, ii. 351 b. 

aaJU^J! j*£>U SUM, i. 139 a. 
\jdj ^ia. ■» Li ... , i. 147 d. 

lyl^i ^>« SU^J t . . . , i. 4 b. 
Ltf, ii. 272 d. 
^^m-wIj, ii. 353 b. 

a - 

j*£»>3l 3 t «i*&U)i, ii. 282 b. 
,.. , ii. 282 c. 
AiJUJI j^ti, i. 139 a. 
J^I*4j| ju£»Bf , ii. 282 b. 
tL~>Jl ju£»U, i. 164 b. 
Jj^Jm v£~jUJI, i. 245 b. 
0»J£)t, ii. 123 a. 
jj+JzS), ii. 358 a. 
' " £ji i. 52 b. 


ju&^lJI ^y^ i-^i i. 62 d. 

I, ii. 195 d. 

jjjaizi), ii. 74 D. 

aJULjf sJujaJi, ii. 378 d. 
°£j|, i. 166 b. 
XJt, ii. 4 b. 

^L-ollJI, ii. 198 d, 199 a, 261 d. 

Sj-o^t u^A^J, i. 18 d, 73 b. 
Jri^jZii, i- 174 d; ii. 88 a. 

w^Jjjt, i. 245 b. 

^jUwl w<s*£»p, i. 160 b. 

fu.s*.,~~Z M, ii. 368 d. 

j a S - 

j^JLcuJI, i. 110 a, 166 b. 

a 5 •«» j a ^ 

^aA.jJj) j->fccJ, i. 174 d. 

j a ; - 

jujuUJI, i. 14 A. 

j a £ - 

) jg»«auH, ii. 358 a. 
AjjuCJI, i. 34 b. 

JujIiJI, i. 247 c; ii. 198 d, 199 a. 
^Jsi5f, i. 166 d; ii. 54 c, 268 a. 
4~J&bi, i. 190 a. 
J^Uj, i. 38 d. 
J^U.3, i. 116 b. 

J^Ui, plur. fr., i. 226 c. 

•> > - * 
J^U3, i. 116 b. 

JwjtU3, plur. fr., i. 228 A. 

J.A....A3), ii. 123 a. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 397 

Jbuu, i. 115 b, 116 d, 117 b. 

... , intens. adj., i. 138 D. 
JUib, i. 115 c, 116 d, 117 b. 

... , intens. adj., i. 138 D. 
JU*3, i. 116 a, 117 a. 

... , intens. adj., i. 138 D. 
JjUiS, , i. 139d. 

UUaj, , i. HO a. 

JjUU, i. 116 D. 

JIi3, i. 36 c. 

Jjiaj. i. 116 a. 

** a , 

■Ju. L 115 b, 116 cd, 122 c. 
>, i. 115 b, 116 d. 
iJbuu, intens. adj., i. 138 d. 

, , a " 

JJjuu, i. 48 c. 
JlaUi, i. 117 c. 

- «• a j a - * a j a* 

(jjjuu, for y^ijuu , i. 56 b. 

s i a i 
J^«AJ, i. 115 D, 116 D. 

* e^ 

J-**Ju, i. 115b, 116 cd. 
... , pi. J-jftl*3, ii. 358 c. 
i. 123 a. 
J, intens. adj., i. 139 d. 

^j-jjuu, i. 246 b. 

* . •' .. 

«..JaJu, ii. 358 c. 

J~u3t, i. 286 c; ii. 216 c. 
5JUU! J*JUL>, ii- 276 d. 

^~£3t, i. 166 b. 

j-^Jt, i. 31a; ii. 74 b, 216 c, 268 a. 
! JjjXJt j! JijSi, ii. 74 b, 282 c. 

\ j as * 

Jts^\, ii. 122 d. 

^ ^ #-o 3a* 

>ju*Jf J**«J, ii. 124 b. 
jZ&S ... , ii. 124c, 125 a. 

.. * *a*> 
Ao-UoJ! ... 

*a a>c 

u-Li*!) ... 

» .- --- 
OiV ,125 a. 

j4*>) ^ ojU^jf, ii. 327 d. 
jjdSl, i. 247 c. 

CHyZtt, i. 12 a. 

J>j2\ o-»yi, ii. 390 c. 

w-jj-kuJJ ^j**)!, ii. 390 o. 

^ - *.* ^ - - 
,>*£*3I cny^i l - 235 B - 

as * j «^ 
j-X^'l CH>*^» *• 235 c. 

•o j as * 

235 b. 

' o-o i a* 

t^jxJt OO*-*? i- 235 c. 
^UUt ,>>>£"> ^ 390 d. 

** , i a-o j a* 

iblioJI CH>^) i- 235 b. 
*^l^£jj, ii. 272 d, 282 b, 283 a. 

ou».y3j, ii. 354 c. 


*.wj3l, ii. 191 b. 

•> as * j is - 

ju^pl. See jl.£>U)1. 



 c Ob* 

invisible ~* 

4^1 *tf)|, i. 4 b. 
O^BTjI 01*31, ii. 195 d. 
^<A i. 29 a. 

JUJj, i. 235 b. 

j^^i j jU., ii. 251 a, 253c, 269 d, 
337 a. 

j.aJ\, i. 235 B. 

^ ^ - .»»«» i * tore ui * 

Sjj Isfc^J I ^1 jl^aJt j^-, ii. 234 b. 
|J4, ii. 358 c. 
l?^iJI ilj^,, ii. 15 a. 

'0 s 0» * 

A.0J.0., j>js».. i. 13 a. 
c WJI, i. 52 b. 

a^Clji, i. 180 d. 

j o - *• 

*^afcJI, i. 52 b. 
j*~£JI *.*»>, i. 192 a. 
£^J| ... , i. 231c. 

^oJLJI £**Jt, i. 191 D. 

j ^ «0 J / 0/ 

-.,,=» qM *.©*Jt, i. 191 D. 

alijT i^i., i. 169 i>, 234 b; ii. 

234 D, 235 b. 

*x»-t« 4juj j-Xt ^-.J ?»•«.&., i. 245 c. 

j 3 - j e<o j e ^ o, 
•>r^^a»l t s.«aJI, i. 191 D. 

j Si * joio 

Ji\L, ii. 115 c, 250 b. 

Od x> - J 

4*4^1 «U«a., ii. 251 A. 
«U^^ ^-o-wl £A>oa», ii. 175 d. 

SpCM £«>»., i. 170 a, 234 b; ii. 

234 v, 235 b. | ^WJ), i. 51 d. 

<Li^I*)t ^>sk-« 4djl»> ^-W»>» ii- 
253 b. 

&JU. iCl, ii. 68 d, 333 a. 

a, a ^ j , o , a j 

O-sv*^ Oti aXo*., ii. 256 b. 

Ilijip IU4-, ii. 253 b, 261 a. 

4JU5 ... , ii. 251 b. 

<LUJt »>»».■ See aXaJI *..*».. 

SjiJCJI ... . SeeSji&l *♦».. 

£s«&J!, i. 52 c. 

tj! w;l^»., omitted, ii. 17 a. 

Z>j ... , ii. 216c. 

Jsj-uJI ... , ii. 15 a. 

^-~iJ J ... , ii. 1 75 d. 

^J . . . , omitted, ii. 8 c. 

j\iii), i- 278 d. 


1 , si* 

iLwUJI, ii. 371 d. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 399 

JUJI i. 51 d ; ii. 5 b c, 19 d, 20 b. j^t. >Jj-a*, ii. 46 b. 
21b, 38c, 50c, 104a, 112c— j * • * •- .. _„ 

120 a, 196 c. 

, + i j i a , « , 

o j£=>yo j*z Jl»», ii- 115 D. 

£/\ ... ,i. 287 a. 

llSSi* , ii. 114 c. 

- 6 9' 

jj^L; 0/»-, i- 13 b 

&&JJ JU-, ii. 115 d, 120 a. 

J»Ji, j£. ; i. 292 d. 

^jUU ... , ii. 20b, 113d, 197b, oUac ... , i. 290d; ii. 147 b. 
288 b. 

jji* ... , ii. 19d, 113d, 197b, 

288 b. 
«' /jj 

... , ii. 114c. 

jjpll* i^*-, i- 13 b; ii. 355 b. 
... . i. 14 c. 

0-0 : i j 

. - -- j - 

^k»JU jl iibUJI ^y*., ii 147 b. ijjJjl «J>/*>, ii. 93 c. 

,. ,i«S »<• »«3 0t 

j i i a, 

^•jjlsJI, ii. 195 d. 

j a + a* 

$j** It, ii. 355 a. 

., i. 278 c. 

*»o a io *c 




, i. 292 d. 

, i. 282 b. 

, ii. 390 c. 

, i. 290 d, 293 b. 

, ii. 122 d. 

, i. 269 a. 

, i. 293 d. 

, i. 268 a ; ii. 92 c. 

, i. 282 a 

, ii. 4 b. 

^,l£J^JUI O^J»Jl i- 5 b. 
*£sj»-, i. 8 a ; n. 3oo d. 
jlSi\^ JjJbJt ^>-j *£>/»», i- 84b. 
dJL^JI sJjjaJ\, i. 4d. 

- • 0*» j j j 

diti^t o^j^, i. 278 d. 

: - : - 

a Z >o j j j 

^jojjtJS^ ^giio-h 7 M ^fi^j^., ii. 
310 c. 

^*^Jt ^^ ; i. 1a. 
jj^jf ... , i. 278 d. 

c - a>o 

JJLaJ t ... , i. 5 b. 

3 Zt *■ 0*0 J J J &* 

.» Oxi J J J 

^fAAaJ] *J*/*-. i. 278 d. 
iJUjjJI $\ iJUJJt iJu^aJ), i 5 a. 

j 2 i Z. ^ J j j o* 



o a * j 

ipjJii] «*is>»», i- 290 c. 

Ji s 

J J J «' 

<*,.. > . > ^.u.M t^jjj^Jt, i. 15 c. 


... , i. 5 B. 

2uj~o£)\ ^»3j*J\, i. 15 c. 
i^JJI ... , i. 4 c. 
,>JJ| <J»j»j^., i- 5 b. 

iuJUl ^Jj^aJI, i. 5 B. 

juoJI «Jj/», i- 9 c. 

JaaJU a^-^u^J! ^Jj^aJI, li. 80 b. 

Ajjjua^Jl ^JjjaJI, ii. 252 a. 

,,,}»*> 111 

iftjlo-oJt ^Jjj-*", i. 56 b. 

4 ... , 1. lA. 

rt^ai,l>oM 05>aJ!, 1. 4 A. 

Jt<D J J J 

SbU«Jt »-*S/*"> ii- 85 a. 

J//UK ^ jit* _ 
aJl^^JI kJjj^JI, i. 4 a. 

6 1 juJI ^is/»-, ii- 85 a. 

a**LJI jt A**kuM o^>aJI, i. 5 a. 

tU^I J^»», i- 1 a. 

A-SU^Jt *Jjja*)\, 1. 1 A. 

£>l&Jt, ii. 313 ab, 314 a. 
4*pU JU. fy£ft., ii. 30 c. 


j^LSs, ii. 251 c, 255 b. 

jdjJlc jli., ii. 253 a, 257 c. 

jjl j-**., ii. 80 B. 

^l^ ... , ii. 100b. 
<) ... ,ii. 98b. 

ijJAif, ii- 353 a. 

^U*A-, ii. 86 c. 

,JJLj1, i. 235 a, 279 a. 

wi-AaJI. ii. 367 D. 

Je*. JJI, ii. 353 b. 
iiUjj'l, ii. 259 c. 

JUJT ji, ii. 117 b. 

iuip't, ii. 256 b. 

iojjjl, ii. 312 a, 319 bd, 322 a. 
^bj, i. 29 a, 47 b. 
f\3j, ii. 351 a. 
j^.jj|, ii. 362 a. 
J£j|, ii. 353 n. 

J£)l, ii. 355 a. 
iijjl, i. 8 a, 235 a. 
^ja^JI ^jJI, i. 28 d. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 401 

J^JI, ii. 366 d. 
J£j)1, i. 276 c. 
ijjji\, ii. 352 a. 


j-etajf O^i ii. 21 b. 

0^»C, i. 13 b; ii. 355 bd. 
J ^1)1, ii. 283 b. 

«m«, ii. 358 D. 
• < t 

J~Ju w%w, ii. 358 d. 

£-~JI, ii. 351b, 368 d. 
Ljlfi, ii. 362 c. 
Jjuu>, i. 46 a. 
^yC-Jt, i. 13 a; ii. 355 d. 
JjLJt, i. 36 a. 
&JULJI, ii. 233 d. 
iuljf, ii. 356 c. 
" \ ii. 250 c. 

o * 9<« j a 

£»»Jt <sui, i. 179 a, 181 a, 
224 d. 234 a. 

190 d, 

a o& j » 

JjuJI A-i, ii. 284 b. 
Sjlw, i. 14 c. 
hjLi\, ii. 15 a. 

jki, ii. 351 c. 
JjL£j^, ii. 350 a. 
J&, i. 8 b. 

JUjT^t^, ii. 117 b, 119 a. 

jjuJI, ii. 238 c, 351c. 

rtJbg, indef. relat. cl., ii. 38 c, 
216 b, 317 c. 

iLlii i. 105 a; ii. 114 c, 277 b, 
' 283 a b. 

iL>U aa«o. i. 187 a. 
liiU- ... ,i. 187c. 
jjLJfs '}J&M SJu^i\, ii. 276 a. 

^JJI _3 £j^ 

j.'-ro 11 .' 3a*cJI, ii. 274b. 

j J^'iJI 6 U—W Ay-^oJ' OUL^JI 

JjAaJT, i. 133 c. 

iSJjl, i. 19 a. 

... , def. relat. cl., i. 105b; ii. 
317 c. 

dJLflJt, in metre, ii. 352 c. 
Jyii«JI ^ J^UJI a*-mo, i. 50b. 

^rjl*;!) 1 ! ^UaJt, Add. et Corri- 
genda (Vol. i. 6 c). 

w*^JI, ii. 358 c. 

w. II. 




jiibt 6j3j~e, i. 236 d ; ii. 374 a. 

5i / 3 - 

*•"*»» j9*e, i- 7 D. 

j~ira}\, i. 53 b, 105 bd; ii. 251c. 
See JsuljJI, £«»tjjt, and JJUM. 


J.+-0-&, ii. 265 a. 

2 a - 

... , i. 285 a, 293 b; 

ii. 81 c d, 299 b. 

... , ii. 259c. 

e ^«/» 

II, i. 245 b. 
JjjOI, i. 245 c. 
\jo$j*}\ ii. 358 c 

jT JJae, ii. 91 a, 283 a, 


ii. 259 b, 264 cd. 

286 d. 
j^>°Ji\ ... , ii. 91a, 282 b. 
J LI » ... , ii. 90 b, 287 a. 
A_iLo^l ^JLe, i. 235 b. 
aJjlcUM ... , i. 235 a. 

i. 285 a, 293 b; j «j«|$«A*JI ...,i. 235b 
ii. 81 c, 299 b. 

i a *6>° j 

J^va^JI jfr^-oM, ii- 214 d. 

J<>iji, ii. 364 c. 

aJUmbJI t\Sii\, i. 6 c. 
^All?, i. 246 b. 
JAlLl, i. 105 B. 

Jj&l, ii. 112 c, 253 c, 270 b. 

jkuJl', ii. 312 a, 319 bd, 322 a. 

J*U, ii. 275 b. 

JUJI ,J-«U, ii. 113 d; suppressed, 
ii. 120 a. 

3 ' » - 4 ' 

^yiJLt J-«U, ii. 118 c. 
>h3|, ii. 238 c, 351c. 

( «-— •-»■ vffJ^, i- 107c; ii. 243c. 
^ ... , i. 107 d. 
iloJjJI, i. 245 b. 
s 5u£,$U L5 JLc, ii. 166 c. 
^jJbl ^Xc, ii. 51 d. 
J*3s ... , ii. 297c. 
iC*ft, ii. 259 c. 

^ » J 

S jl«*, ii. 250 c. 

SjjUmoJI j jaJJ v >c. ii. 144 a. 

dk^jJl, i. 290 c. 

J*aJI o-jc, i. 30 a. 

jAtoJI w>^*£, ii. 356 b. 

^JUJI, i. 52 c. 
dJL^J- jli, i. 108 b. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 403 

fts., i. 30 a. 

O**^ ... : i. 234 d. 

' • ' 

6 U>aJ7 lli, ii. 262 c. 


1 ..., ii. 30c. 

rt li ... i ...Jt jt w».»J 1 ili. ii. 




iU, i. 30 a. 


i. 32 c. 


participle, i. 131 





323 c; -Jii, 




verbal adj., i. 136 B; fern.. 
L 187 a. 

J*UJt, ii. 123 a, 251 c. 

j~**}\ Ju—o >L> J»tlJ, ii. 257 a. 

*' _ 

ilcli, intens. adj., i. 139 a, 177 b; 

collective, i. 233 a. 
J[j*li, intens. adj., i. 137 d. 

jj^fcli , i. 139 d. 

aa»., : , r 9x^9, i- 7 c. 

gilt, i. 52 b. 

JJjuf, ii. 259 b. 

iLii. ii. 113 c, 123 a, 250 c. 

JJL*J, plur. fr., i. 215 a, 222 d, 
223 a, 239 d; secondary plur. 
fr., i. 231 D. 

« .. •»,»* 
C»"ilL5Ui, secondary plur., i. 232 b. 

JUi, inf., i. 111c, 122 b; adj., 
i. 133 c, 136 a. 

Jlxj, intens. adj., i. 137 a; with 

the accus. or ,J, ii. 70 b. 

j - - 
JUi, proper names, i. 243 D. 

JUi, plur. fr., i. 220 c, 240 a. 

JLati, imper., i. 62 b; proper 
names, i. 244 a; as vocative, 
i. 244 b. 

Ju», inf. i.,i. 111d, 113 b, 122 b; 
inf. in., i. 116 a, 117 ad; 
subst., i. 175 d; plur. fr., i. 

202 d. 

« i 
JU». inf. ii., i. 115c; inf. ill., 

i. 116a; inf. vm., i. 116 b. 

JL*J, inf. i., i. Ill D, 113 CD, 
122 b; adj., i. 133c, 136 a; 
subst., I. 175 D, 176 cd; plur. 
fr., i. 204 D. 

JUs, intens. adj., i. 137 d; plur. 
fr., i. 207 B. 

Jl**, numerals, i. 241 d, 262 D. 

0*i)l*i, secondary plur., i. 232 B. 

iJUi, inf., i. 111d, 112 d, 113 a; 
subst., i. 159 a. 

iUlxi, intens. adj., i. 139 c; subst., 
i. 176c; collective, i. 233 a. 

iJlxi, inf., i. 111d, 114a; subst., 
i. 159 a, 176 a; plur. fr., i. 
224 a. 

<Ul*i, inf., i. Ill d; subst., i. 159 a, 
176 BD. 



<UUi, intens. adj., i. 139 c. 
JJUi, plur. fr., i. 226 c, 239 d. 

l£)Ui, plur. fr., i. 230 a. 
^J\jJ, plur. fr., i. 221 b, 240 a. 
^Jlxi, plur. fr., i. 222 b. 

^JUi, intens. adj., i. 165 b; nu- 
meral adj., i. 263 c. 
4JU3, inf., i. Ill d. 

JJlii, plur. fr., i. 228 a, 239 d. 

^Jl**, secondary plur. fr., i. 231 d. 

Jjii, i. 30 a, 49 d. 

sjjj]^ JlJjT Ji*, i. 43 d, 58 b. 

J*$, i. 31 a. 

Jli, for JjU, i. 97 c ; ii. 384 c. 


J*5, adj., i. 133 d, 136 a. 

Jjti, inf., i. 110; adj., i. 133 d; 
subst., i. 158 c ; numerals, i. 
264 b ; for J*9, ii. 384 c. 

J^UI, i. 29 a; ii. 251c. 

^5^*.^! J*aJ1, i. 81c. 

... , i. 68b. 

w-^.*:i J*i, ii. 124 a. 

J^oU. J*9, ii. 15 D. 

JjC ... , i. 53 a. 

o - 

■mg^ ... ... 

C" ' 

« * s J IBs 5 »_ 

^Jj^aLc j^e. Jj«, ii. 124 a. 

»l * * J 

kA-A-JwO , i. 30 A. 

JfcUlf J*», i. 50 b. 

*i 9 ' JJ*\tl*JV**J9 

J*j, inf., i. 110 c, 112 d; adj., dAcli^^^ U Jj*3, i. 50 b. 

i. 133c, 136a; subst., i. 158c, , 8 j ,,,„ t 3 ,,,„ ,, ^ 

192 c; plur. fr.,i. 224 c; used J^ £y*J\ J» ^j^JI J**!* 

instead of Jcl», i. 132 d; JftUUI ^ jl,i. 50b. 

superl. with genitive, ii. 218 b, 
226 c. 

JjJ, inf., i. 110 c, 112 d, 113 a, 
121 b; adj., i. 133 c; plur. 
fr., i. 224 b. 


Jji5, proper names, i. 243 A. 

* > * 
Jj&, i. 30 b, 49 c d. 

Jji», inf., i. 110c; adj., i. 133 c, 
136 a; subst., i. 159 c; with 
accus. or ^J, ii. 70 B. 

J B yBtO r * it- 

J^u^JI lkJ kc ji, i. 50 b. 

s«j - - t o e 

\J>j*aU J*j, ii. 124 a. 

U^Ux^Jt Jiiil, i. 68b. 

JZju> Jjti, i. 53 a. 

^5UT Ji*ff, i. 88 a. 

Ji», inf., i. 110 d, 121 b; plur. 
' fr., i. 202 B. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 405 

JjU, plur. fr., i. 207 B. 

« *• 

J*i, subst., i. 159 c; for J*i, 

"ii. 385 b. 
JJJ, for J«i, i. 97 c ; ii. 384 c. 

Jxi, inf., i. 1 10 D ; adj., i. 133 d j 
subst., i. 158 c ; plur. fr., i. 
200 a j numeral, i. 263 d. 

J*3, inf., i. 110 d, 121 b; adj., i. 

133d; plur. fr., i. 199 b. 

j ^ j 
J*i, proper names, i. 243 d ; as 

vocative, i. 244 b. 

i J 0, , i 

Jjtj, intens. adj., i. 137 d; plur. «U'^Ui, i. 123 a. 
fr., i. 206 d. 

9 J 

J*9, i. 159 c. 

Jjti, proper names, i. 243 a. 

iJUi, intens. adj., i. 139b; plur. 
fr., i. 208 B. 

aJU*, inf., i. 111a. 

2^jL«i, inf., i. 111b; fem. adj., i. 
185 a b, 240 n. 

*3&$, inf., i. 111b. 

*3Ui» plur. fr., i. 218 d, 225 b. 
240 a. 

0*}iL*i, for «£>•£*£, i. 192 c, sqq. 
J^i*i, i. 117 cd, 118 a. 

ij'iilai, inf., i. Ill b; adj., fem. 
I&ii, i. 133 d, 184 c, 241 b. 

J*», adj., i. 133 d; plur. fr., i. 
200 d ; numeral, i. 263 d. 

3JUi, inf., i. 110 d ; subst., i. 123 a, 
158 c. 

J .. A - 

dJl*j. names of men, i. 193 a. 

iLU, inf., i. 110 d, 121 c; plur. 
fr., i. 207 c. 

aLJ, inf., i. Ill a; subst., i. 159c. 

4JLsi, inf., ... ; subst., i. 123d, 
'l58c, 175 c, 192 c; plur. fr., 
i. 169d, 209 b. 

ilxi, plur. fr., i. 208 D. 
dSxs, inf., i. Ill a. 


iUi, inf., ... ; subst., i. 158 c, 
175 c, 192 c. 

(j'iUi, adj., fem. ^^a*, i- 133 D, 

136 a, 184 b, 241 b ; fem. £&, 
i. 185 b. 

* ' ' ' 

^jk*i, inf., i. 111b, 113 c; adj., 

i. 241 c. 
(j'iJL**, inf., i. 111c; plur. fr., i. 
216 a; proper names, i. 242 D. 

* ' • ' 

jj^Ui, inf., i. 111c; adj., tern. 

Jb'SU*, i- 133 d, 184 c, 241 b; 
plur. fr., i. 217 c. 

Jj&, i. 47 b, 48 c, 120 d. 
iUUi, i. 117 cd. 

Jjlii = UUi, ii. 384 a. 

* » - - 
OjJLxi, inf., i. 111c. 

J>3&9, inf., ... 



*U>i*9, i. 120 a. 

' * ' 
.J**, inf., i. 111a; fern, adj., i. 

184b, 241b; plur. fr., i. 220a, 

240 a. 

j^Jlij, inf., i. 111a. 

^JUi, inf., i. 111b; plur. fr., i. 

220 c. 

' • J 
^-Jijts, inf., i. 111b; fern, adj., i. 

184 CD, 240 d. 
^JUs, inf., i. 111b. 

l£*i, i. 154 b. 

Jyis, inf., i. 112 a; adj., i. 133 d, 
136 c, 146 d, 185 b; with 
accus. or ^J, ii. 70 b. 

ij$*i, intens. adj., i. 137 D. 

Jjjii, inf., i. 112 ad, 113 A, 121 d; 
plur. fr., i. 205 B. 


J^ai, intens. adj., i. 137 d. 

5 x J > 

0*^j»i, secondary pi., i. 232 B. 
ijyj, inf., i. 112 a; intens. adj., 

i. 139 b; fern, of J>*i, i- 
185 c ; subst., i. 155 d. 

«U^*5, intens. adj., i. 139 c. 

JUyU, inf., i. 112 ad, 113 a, 121 d; 
plur. fr., i. 223 D. 

iJjij, inf., i. 112 a. 

aJytf, inf., ... 

Ja^ii, i. 166 b, 167 d, 174 c. 

J**I»», i. 166 c, 170 c. 

J**i, inf., i. 112 a, 113 cd, 122a; 
adj., i. 133 c, 136 a-d, 146 ad, 
186a; with accus. or ^J, ii. 

70 b; with passive sense, ii. 
196 b; subst., i. 154 c, 159 b, 
176 d; plur. fr., i. 223 c; 
numeral, i. 263 D. 

J-j*j = J**i, i. 167 a. 

J*ai = J-oJ, i. 136 d. 

J*j«i, intens. adj., i. 137 D. 

jJd, , i. 138 a. 

JI**, i. 154c, 159b, 166 b, 174c. 

iJL*i, inf., i. 112b; intens. adj., 
' i. 139b; subst., i. 154b, 159b. 

<UL«i, intens. adj., i. 139 c. 

dJLxi, i. 154 b, 159 b. 

*%»», i. 115 d, 116 c. 

JJti/x. 115 c, 116 c, 117 b. 

J*by, plur. fr., i. 213 c, 239 d. 

J^iy, plur. fr., i. 228 a. 

alijJikXi l5 », ii. 156 c. 

JU*9, i. 116 a, 117 a. 

J£, Jli, adj. (for JL*i), i. 146 a, 
155 b. 

4-J15, ii. 351 c. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 407 

9 s Z i J is , 

3*315, ii. 354 a. 

, ii. 352 a. 

«? .. , , 6 - 

JpUUI >oUU^51S, ii. 269 b d. 

j 5 ^ ' e<» 

»5, i. 8 a. 

» i 

j3, ii. 4 b. 

ii. 4 B. 
JJU&J Jj, i. 286 c. 

^...£)t, ii. 175 d. 

^-a5, i. 24 D. 

s ' ... 
Sju^ai, ii. 351 a. 

%iaii\, ii. 276 a. 
A*Jft5. ii. 351 a. 

rt,..;.f£u ^JtfJi (J), ii. 178 a. 
J^tfj'l, ii. 362 d. 

illjjT oli>, ii. 100 a, 104 a, 302 a. 
IcJuT ,302 a. 

L^t^i.! j ... , ii. 15c, 16 a, 101 d, 
103 d, 258 c, 328 d. 

5j^~=5. j~*»£», i. 7 c. 

<U*I v *JL* , n) I ^£9, ii. 125 c. 

Sj^siJI^o^. ii. 125 c. 
ijUXJl, i. 105c; ii. 125 c. 
L1L, i. 107 d. 


o* s •» S * * at * »* * » * * 

ii. 104 a. 

a5^£jf^', ii. 98 b. 

<bila>^JI *$, ii. 105a. 

s »«» a . 

ii. 98 a. 
.- - -- - 
i_<y-J' *^> "• 36 B. 

JjS), i. 30 a. 

J>*$S\ (the article), i. 269 a. 
... (the J in jj&), i. 30 a. 
i&j&'lji'j (J), i. 283 b. 
y^l^ul^U J^Ut (J), ii. 149 c. 
JliLl^J ... (J), ... 

a3iklvj ... (J), ii. 152b. 

jp$\J><) (J), i. 291 b; ii. 35 b. 
( T^U^1 (J), ii. 148 a. 
£0&J ... (J), ii. 151 d. 

w-a.^iI) ... (J), ii. 152 d. 
ijjJLJLu ... (J), ii. 148c. 
Uujj&°\ j>*$ (the article), i. 269 a. 



,^aJ I <J.jjj£) ve^t (the article), 
'i. 269 b'; ii. 318 d. 

j^ai\ UujJCi J>*&)'\ (the article), 

i. 269 c.' 
J~jJLljU J>4S\ (J), i. 291 c; ii. 
'l51 A. 

j^ujT aj^lij J^l (J), ii. 61 d, 
287' d' 

^j£bu jA)'\ (J), ii. H8 c. 

' 283 b. 
^JjTJS) (J), ii. 29 a. 

J vt * 

... (J), ii. 148c. 
t^JLajf J^' (the article), i. 269 b. 
^JU\ y£». ^^ (J), i. 282 d. 
*$ J £ yl^-^ (J), i- 283 a. 
^UUjT 4^ >$M (J)< »• 148c - 
a«L >SUI (J), ii. 151 a. 
J^T j^ (the article), i. 269 c. 
aJLoUJt 3 \ a.5,UJt >^)1 (J), i. 

^LL-oJU >^Ut (J), ii. 149 c. 
£~*LuT ... (J), i. 291c. 
yj, ii. 339 a. 
^JsJu, i. 246 b. 

ZJl, i. 108 a. 
AAAa»^JI ,jjCJ, ii. 81 n. 

iloL^^f U, i. 277 d ; ii. 43 c, 
276 b. 

ii. 104 a. 
i^a*juJt Lo, i. 98 c. 

ji ^ ox? 

Ajjla^wJI ..., ii. 105 a. 

283 b. 

O«o J 

J*AJI j»*), i. 30a. 

^» (J), ii. 28 a. 
^Jii 2&i$'\J'§S\ (J), i. 283 a. 
iilljJT >&! (J), i. 285 b. 

3-JUpl jt a^^jjJI L«, i. 277 c, 
294 a; ii. 17 c, 41b, 102 a. 

5 jljjJT jf S juSlpr U, i. 278 A ; 
ii. 193 a, 215 b, 224 c. 

a^Jil U, i. 277 b; ii. 18 a. 

libClT U, ii. 81a, 215 bc. 

Js^iJt ^-x-4 **t==>\^ U, ii. 43 D. 

i a * , ' / ,' 
j^LJU Sjuj-« U, ii. 81 d. 

• y • * 

J-liJU , ii. 82a. 

iJ, Jua^jT U, i. 277 b ; ii. 29 a, 
215 c, 219 a, 221a, 252 a. 

«UJL)j ajjjl^ u o L), ii. 18 a. 

aiL^U, ii. 95 c. 


, ii. 17 d. 

I. Technical Tei-ms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 409 

ii^^JT U, i. 273 c, 277 a: iL ,i)jUU, ii. 355 bd. 

319 R J*jSZj\, ii 365 b. 

Vpi U, i. 273c; ii. 320c. j^ .. ^ 

iiiil U, i. 98 c. 4^>U^ 5 ^ 355 »» 356 A - 

iLb^jJ U, i. 50c; ii. 269c. j^ „ ng ^ 123d 

jcoU. o«U, ii. 346 b. * £-» . _ 

- • J% J-ai«, i. o3c. 

,«-e>C)t, i- 51 c; ii. 1 a. ,/ , a ,,.,,„ 

' <cu w*».»«»J|, it 152 d. 

j£»j*)t, iL 282 b. 

- "^ j*i*, L 30 a. 

j^^JI. ii. 287 c. j '-»>' 

,.*^ a VJ UUJI, ii. 363 d. 

iiji\i. 52c, 177c. ,' , .. 

a - , « ^ O-^- »• 3 ^ B - 3d6 a " 

. JuiaJl wjJl. i. 177c. ,„,,*, 

^v*T~ *~ ^XS^i\, i. 52c. 

^Jl ^ A^H, i. 177 c. ( ^ ^ ^ . 234 d 

^iit iJ^JI, i. 179 a. /£} £££ L 235 A 

^Ujf ... ,L177d. ^f^^£:,L235A. 

L^*-*^' jst^I*, iL 355 b c. 

£*jO, i- 31 ^ 43 b, 116 c, 139 a. tffi i. 52 a 

1 50 C. j;o , »; ;-j:- 

l ^1^^^UL74b. 

tju-*J1, ii. 123 b, 251 c, 25o b. ' £ § ^ 

^f,?,,,, i.. U j l, ii. 368 a. 
Iju^o, ii 253 a, 257 c, 258 a. 

J jliX ii. 286 b. 

j » j - : j !. 

4-u Jju^JI, ii. 286 b, 287 c. 

i^jjL-o) I, ii. 354 b. 

J>jj*—}\,i. 60 D. 


i «-— •» i- 234 D. i j » '»* . _ rt 

L5 ^ J^^LLSOc. 

*^» > 

i, iL 54 c. J t i ' J f: • -t 

U~Jt, i. o2 c. 

.>~..»M, iL 123a. ?fr J • lif „ •• fi ,„ 

*-r^ ' uu>a>^, i. 14 c; n. 81 c. 

t. ^ J| ii. 272 d i 5 ' s ' • o 4 

i«, ii. 355 b. *».jjL.«, ii. 351 a. 
w. ii. 52 

^J-a , 160 C, 

161 c, 191 b, 196 b, 244 b, 
245b; ii. 89 a. 

J^j], ii. 283 b. 

*t>* o j»/ 

l cXlZ~.+}\, ii. 336a. 

JO . S , J J 9/ 

a~«o .- J UZ w^ Jt, ii. 336 a. 

j - - o je^ 

II, ii. 152b. 

j * * o j a, 

do ^Ui-^Jt, ii. 152 b. 

i »C 3* 3 ''0 30* 

dd&J ^v^, _j! dJ CAil—oJI. ii. 152 c. 

3 , S .- 3 is 

I, i. 51 d; ii. 21 b. 

I, ii. 250 b. 

0* 3*0 30* 

aJI ja-~oJt, ii. 250 b. 

a£> j IL<j-\, i. 32 d, 39 a. 
ijui.-e, i. 13 d. 

3 * 

jjiouL*, ii. 362 a. 

3 * '0* 

jjk-£UoJt, i. 110b; ii. 54 c. 

It Oi t i 3*0 *0* 

54 c. 

410 Indexes. 

juj^JI, ii. 367 B. 
j.£b>JLoJ|, i. 52 c, 177 c. 
Sji i. 122 d. 
JiJj^, i. 108 c. 
d,Jj»«, ii. 351 a. 
Ji^, ii. 363 b, 365 b. 
cyj-oJI, i. 60 d. 
^Jbji i. 108 b. 

,jpUl] ^Jb^i L i° 8b > 160b - 

s 2<> J * *0* 

^JIAM jj^*JI, ii. 122 a. 

j * £ j o>o 

j»<=>y <t l\ ... , ii. 74 a. 

J^-JT ... , i. 119 c, 126 c, 

127 ac, 128 bd, 129 d. 
<■, * 0*0 
c.\j«aa, cj*a#. ii. 351 B. 

cjUL2l, i. 60 c; ii. 64 b, 199 a, 
364 d. 

3 3 *0>° 3 * 3 3* 

^jWI £,Ux«M, ii. 22 1>. 

3 30 * »«J 

cjij-oJI ... , ii. 18b. 


, ii. 22 c, 26 c. 

oLcloJI, i. 108 c; ii. 66 b, 119 c, 
198 b, 200 a, 201b. 

0* 3 * 3 0* 
aJI ol-a-oJI, i. 108 c, etc. (see 

j * 30* 

j-^^j't, i. 53b, 105 bd; ii. 251 D. 

cjUJ, i. 35 d, 36 d, 38 d, 40 d, 

41 c. 

93 * 

i]a.o, i. 24 C. 

j^iOX i- 105 b. 

* oi * o<o«» ^ - * * 

ii. 164 b. 
5 - 3 
wjjjuo, i- 234 d. 

^jjtoJt, i. 247 c. 

ii^jLji, i. 235 c, 247 c; ii. 117 b. 

3 3 0*0* 

^jjtoJI, i. 50 c. 
aIu J^ki^M, ii. 287 c. 
Jjiiift, i. 50 c. 

* a , 

^J ^*^o, H. 1 I b. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 411 

5 - - 

i»jZj\ ^jix*, ii. Ub, 116 d. AJbuU, i. 130b, 149 b. 

JjU ... , ii. Ill a. iladJo, i. 148 c. 

JcUi, plur. fr., i. 226 c, 227 b. hJ&, i. 149 b. 

iUU-e. i. 116 a, 117 a. ddXxJL*. i. 148 d. 

J-sUU, plur. fr., i. 228 a. J>**-«- particip., i. 131 c. 
ijljf, i. 52 b. ... , = Jii, etc., i. 132 c. 

]>U, i. 108 b; ii. 357 d. J**** 3 ' ( the ob J ect )> "• 123 A - 

II, ii. 123 a. Jy^' J*****', ^ 50 »■ 

j _ , j .- - 

JU_Lo, subst., i. 129 a, 130 b; ^ UJI ' 104a - 

numeral, i. 263 d; intens. <^i ••• , ii- 269 d. 

adi., i. 138 b; com. gen., i. ' a ,f \ j ?'m •• n co 

s ' p-i^-^' <4 J ^ JtA^Jl, ii. 2b9 d. 

186c; with ace. or A, ii. <-"' , 

70 b. ^j-* 11 j** ** J******', "• - 69 D - 

5JUi*, intens. adj., i. 139 D. j J ?"ft •• ,,> 

J ' «u3 JlyuUeJt, n. 112 c. 

* ^ « - ' ' 

JjuU, inf., i. 112b; subst., i. 124 d. , * i ° *\ , "1, \ J f'ff • 

*^ dJUj.1 ,>« ^1 *tU.*i) Jyui^JI. ii. 

J*L, i. 241 d, 262 d. ' ' 122 a' 

J*iU,inf., i. 112b; subst., i. 124d. Jj JyO^M, ii. 122 a. 

: - i J." «J J .•--.-, 

Jj»i«, i. 112 b. J-Ua-oJI J^**«Jt, ii. 54 c, 72 d, 

* ^ • 193 d, 270 a. 

JjLiL«, subst., i. 130 b, 149 b; 

intens. adj., i. 138b; com. 
gen., i. 186 c. 

* , 1 

iJjul«, i. 131 a. 

3 \ ju£»UJU JJLk^JI Jyw^J' 
vffi ,inT.;)t, ii. 54 c. 

J*i-» ... , 149 b. ii.'56B.' 

AXaJU, inf., i. 112b; subst., i. 128c, jljj&J Jik^jT J»»1»J1 ; ii. 56 A. 

118b; plur. fr., i. 225 a. »* } .» >»*> > >a,> 

5 , , fy^-* JWa-oJ' J y ta^JI, ii. 56 a. 

ajxJ-^. inf., i. 112b; subst., i. S 

* s - - 1 y » si* 

128 c; plur. fr., i. 225 a. <X3u> Jyii^JI. ii. 84 c. 

• * a a * 5 3' 

rt JL«JU, inf., i. 112 b; subst., i. l*$yuL*, - A*9, etc., i. 132 d: plur. 
128 c; plur. fr., i. 225 a. fr., i. 225 a. 



ZiytJLc, = Jj«i, etc., i. 132 d. 


yJ^JtLc, intens. adj., i. 138b; com. 
gen., i. 186 c. 

J - * J s* 

lyMOJA^Jt, ii. 366 b. 

o - a } 

^a*JLc, ii. 90 D. 

9 * a - 

%\xLc, ii. 359 A. 
OlxkJLo, ii. 351 A. 

ii - ja, 

jHoJI, i. 52 c. 
j^hjJI, ii. 122 d. 

i - J .a ' 0x> -• 

aj^g^oJ I ^>o, i. 273 c, 277 a; 
ii. 319 b. 

ijj-^JT o-«> i- 273 c; ii. 320c. 

* , a* a 

stjO^J ^>«> "• 131 A - 

^UJJT, ii. 131 a. 
<jLJL) j>«, ii. 138 a. 

u***^-" OW?^ O"*' ii' 138 a. 
ijiuxjllJ ^j*o, ii. 137 a. 

'9«a ~ , Ote J i 

ii. 174 c. 

'?« j » j 

»^U Ju*, ii. 174 c. 

10iO WC J i > 

5^1 ***aJ jl Sj>^JI Jj'n) jOrf, 

ii. 174 cd. 
~.j **J>+i 1, ii. 366 a. 

Jj ^wU +M, ii. 90 b. 

9 'Hi 

^j*eJ*t, i. 234 d. 

w^-CU^JI, i. 60 D. 

j j a * a* 

C>yU©JI, i. 104 d; ii. 287 c. 

o * a 3 

JucdU*, i. 53 c. 

J« - 

J^iU, i. 108c. 

J /Jrf £ 


. , ii. 138 a. 

6 2 

. , ii. 138 d. 

)_ ^ j" 

. , ii. 137 a. 

J~u£u .. 

. , ii. 131 D. 

a S 

. , ii. 138 b. 

^y ^y*^ (>•> ii- 136 d. 

.. .. ja^ 

^>UoJI, ii. 85 a, 92 c. 

ii. 123 bo.' 
j&U, i. 247 c. 

J>>iiiJt, i. 104 d; ii. 277 b, 287 c. 
Jj«0j*Jt, ii. 317 c. 
^5*-"?' J^o^oJt, i. 105 B. 

JcUUI £* ^U, ii. 269 d. 

j~»J\ ju~« ^L; ^li w*-5L), ii. 
257 c. 

J^UM „l>lu JliU, ii. 269 a 

a a>o * * * 9 *•> 

JjiaJI w>U« w*5k, ii. 74 a. 
j^jjlj, i. 56 B. 
oj*J, i. 16 u. 
j»J, i. 108 a. 

I. Technical Terms, Mnemonic Words, Paradigms, etc. 413 

lljuJI, ii. 86 c. 

1, i. 109 d, 149 c. 
J.~ftH i. 8 a, 235 b. 

^j-jT ^ ^£jf, ii. 77 c, 276 a. 
pJuH, i. 105a; ii. 283 a, 
3UJI, ii. 354 b. 
ikij. i. 4 a. 
Ji-JI, ii. 372 b. 

IjjCJ, i. 235 c, 247 c; ii. 116 c, 
117 b, 260 d. 

jC«jT oA «• 101 g 

J s *t i tiga } & * 
*j£>yo)\ ^\, i. 61 A. 

ijtS^Jl <jjJ, i. 101 b. 

iyl XI ~, 

*JlDI |l*, i. 7 a. 

..., ii. 372 d. 
oi5>31 ... , ii. 371c, 372 d. 
?Vjb, ii. 351 a. 
«*>J^JI, ii. 363 c. 
>»*, S>8Jk, i. 16 d. 

jLfcl^l, i. 52 b. 
'js\^\, ii. 363 b. 
sTjLl.'ffi jlj. ii. 333 a. 


w J 



ii. 33 A; with ace, 

ii. 84 b. 
ii. 262 b, 332 d. 

ii. 216 d. 
ii. 175 b. 

ii. 84 b. 

ii. 33 A; with ace, 

ii. 84 B. 
ii. 33 a; with ace, 

ii. 84 b, 325 d. 

ago )* » 

j3y ii. 358 D. 
Jjjj** jJj, ii. 358 d. 

9 Jt/ 


5 0/ 

yjjj, ii. 351 B. 

A «o J > - 

J**N Oj> i- 245 c. 
oi-«yt, i. 105 a. 
u.iupfrJI, i. 245 b. 

* 9 * */ * 

J-ej, SJLoj, i. 19 A. 

JLa-J^l S>-»-A, i. 152 b, 157 a, lyIa*J ,>« SU^JI lUt, i. 4b. 
189 a. 

ij^—Jt Sj-aJk. ii. 307 c. 

AJx&Jt Sj^Jb, i. 21 a, 74 b. 

ajjuJU U, ii. 94 a. 

O^-^H' i. 16 a. 
J-fiU'i, i. 228 a. 


* j » * j a . 

, 269 b. J**j, J**j, from JjtJ, i. 59 d. 




L for _ or ^— , in the vocative, 

ii. 87 c. 
1 for M , i. 9 d. 

I*, o\l, i. 295 d; ii. 93c. 

\— for \L , in pause, ii. 369 b, 370c. 

\1 for fjl , 

t_l for j^_, in the vocative, ii. 
87 c. ' 

\1 for ^jL , i. 61 D. 

* for I, I, y ^£, i. 17 c. 

I, elided, i. 19 c. 

I, omitted in writing, i. 23 A. 

I fori, i. 18 d. 

I for initial^, i. 214 d. 

1, interj., i. 294 b; ii. 85 a. 

I, interrog., i. 24 a, 282 b; ii. 96 a, 
306 d. 

J3— \ i. 284 c; ii. 307 b. 
t for initial j, i. 119 a. 
1 = ^1, interj., i. 285 c. 
I for initial y i. 80 a, 119 a, 172 b. 
1 = 1, interrog., ii. 376 d. 
C>!_ for Ol_, ii. 96 a. 
f, interj., i. 294 b; ii. 85 a. 
lC,l 157 a, 185 a, 240 b. 
Jtj\, Ji\, n. 53 a. 


j ji.T, i. 240 a. 
j*ll, ii. 227 a 

JsA, ii. 102 a. 

Jl, i. 181a. 

JijT, J'jT, i. 259 c. 

iC\, interj., ii. 85a 

1a, i. 249a, 251 d; ii 203a; ^J\ 

,i ii S i 

for bt, ii. 95 d; bt = w>t, i. 
249 c; (j^St i. 196a; C-jI, 
*J|, °«Lj'|, ii. 87 d, 88 a. 

i-Ljt, i. 240 b; ii. 279 c. 

ObjHl, i- 190 c. 

i«^Jt, i. 240 b ; ii. 279 c. 

Jjf for JbJ, ii- 385 c. 

J*t, i. 20 a, 23 b, 249 b; ii. 91 c, 
' 93 d, 203 b, 204 a, 314 a. 

2 'it 

jj^jUvl, i. 163 a. 

'£>\ , i. 20 a, 250 a; ii. 91 d, 203 b. 

J^S, i. 20 a, 239 b. 
^t, i. 93 b. 
ObiI$f, i. 190 c. 
' Jl, i. 76 d. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


« it 
^yl, i. 229 d. 

^1, i. 74 c, 93 a; ii. 46 D, 53 a. 
103 b. 

OL1j», OL^'. l 20a > 255 cd : 
ii. 236 b. 

.-.Uijl, i. 153 b. 
£tj^.*ft i. 190 c. 
Ji-1, i. 283 c. 

*44-' e , i- 195 a, 240 b; ii 278 d, 

282 a. 

<■ * • 
»-U».l. ii. 46 a. 

ji^mA, i. 35 d. 

j^».t. ii. 236 a. 
^jkfc.1, i. 184 d. 

^jaJ\, i. 196 B. 

J^U-t, i- 163 a. 

O'j-U-fft i. 190 c. 

1\, i. 249 a, 251 d; ii. 203 b, 

204 b; C)***y i- 19 6a. 
1\, li, i. 295 a. 

Ol£XyC i. 190 c. 

9 a I * * * ? 

w*».t, Ol^A.1, i. 194 c. 
JuU, i. 76 c— 77 a; ii. 108 d. 
ji.f, i. 199 d, 240 a. 

, I 

^JjA-\, i. 184 d, 199 d, 240 a. 
j£U.t, ii 107 d, 108 a 
it, adverb, i. 283 d. 

SI, conj., i 291 D. 

131. conj., i 292 a ; with the Perl, 
ii. 9c; with the Imperf., ii 
10 a; with the Jussive, ii. 

12 b; ISI or U ISI with two 
correlat. clauses, ii 9 D. 

IS], adverb, i 283 d; ii. 345 c. 

w> ISI, ii 157 D. 

U ISI, i 292 a; ii. 9 d. 

JIS|, JIS SJ, i 284 b. 

U SI, i 291 d; ii. 14 c. 

'SJ, OSI. i 284b, 292 a: with the 
Subjunct., ii. 33 c. 

&i* wJkSl, ii. 143 c. 
C^jf iT^Sl, i 266 a. 
•IJl for Sdjl, i 121 a. 
>ljl, ii. 107 c. 
^Iji i 221 b. 

sjy*>jl> i- 195 c. 
^£j\, ii 48 d. 

A, i 20 a. 
clwl, i. 68 a, 87 d. 

* * a£ 

«Uwl, i. 233 b. 
Jo»JLwl. i 77 b. 



O^w-t, ii. 304 d. 
jilt, ii. 280 a. 
^£jjj~i\, i. 47 b. 

cdll, elk^t, clkll i. 68 a, 87 d: 

ii. 380 c. 
jjlwl, ii. 102 A. 
J£\, i. 20 a. 

£t>^l% i. 190 c. 

jJwl, Add. et Corrigenda (Vol. i. 
36 a). 

Ill], i. 211 D, 240 b. 

11^1, ii. 15 c, 102 a. 

S - ' o 

^gjjjAJft-et, i. 153 d. 
0>i-o^i i- 190 c. 
yiylfa, i 191 a. 
^^.Lit, ii. 102 a. 
b>-©1, i. 62 d. 

j - j j # a 

jUj-nJI, i. 190 c. 

o I el 

cl cl, i. 295 c. 

j&\, i. 140d. 

sJ\, lit, etc., i. 295 a. 

^kit for ^t, i. 12 d. 

•<jil, i. 291 b. 

oiyi, i. 233 b. 

JU'SI for lolSI, i. 121a. 
s r 

Jjfl, ii. 108 d. 

w*£>1, i. 35 d. 

J g£>\, i. 195 a, 240 b; ii. 279 c. 


Jl, the article, i. 15 c, 19 c, 23 d, 
269 a. 

Jl = ^JJt, i. 269 d. 

Jl = Ji, i. 288 a. 

*§\, interj., i. 294 c. 

*$\, interrog., i. 284 b ; ii. 24 b, 
309 d, 311b. 

Jit •$, i. 284 b; ii. 310 a. 

C <)\, ii. 310 b. 

*§\ = 4*,i. 284c, 288a. 

*^t, interrog., ii. 310 c. 

•$ = N? J], i. 16 a, 292 c; with 
the Subjunct., ii. 22 c, 25 a, 
304 d. 

•Jl, i. 16 a, 292 d; ii. 32 a, 39 c, 
104 b, 172 d, 254 b, 289 d, 

291a, 335 d, 341a; *3| re- 
peated ju^liJ, ii. 338 d ; 

•J] aJjT JJjll, ii. 339 d; $\ 
with pronom. suffixes, ii. 340 a. 

0\$\ = od, i- 293 d; ii. 340 c. 

O^t, 0*5y, i. 265 d. 
^\, i. 271 a. 

jj\, i. 25 d; ii. 146 b. 

^Jjf, i. 270 d; ii. 318 d, 320 c. 

«.. at « j at 

ai-JI, o-^'. i- 210 bd. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


oUI, i. 259 a; ii. 238 d, 244 b. 

Lifi, i. 62 n. 

M. i. 77 c. 

aX)\ (v.) for aIm (-), ii. 383 d. 

.**JJI, ii. 89 D ; before ^1 and 
ii. 89 d, 340 a. 

^M, ii. 107 c. 

«* , i 
jJI,j)jt, i. 195 d, 265 d. 

o»y t. i. 259 c. 

^M or ^U ^Jjf. i. 271c. 

J\, i. 280b, 281 a; ii. 63 b, 144 b. 

»«*« = .**., ii- 78 A i =£~^-J, ii. 
146b; ^k ^JUI, ibid. 

^XJI = Ujui.. ii. 77 n. 
«>.T ^Jl, ii. 146 a. 

C«l J], i. 285 d. 
Osi tji- "• 190 c. 

£&.£* ^1, ii. 146 a. 

J>i j^JI, ii. 190 c. 

%* Jl 

Jl, ft{ i. 265 b. 

Jit, i. 284 c, 292 b ; ii. 306 c, 307 b, 
308 b, 309 a. 

Jl = jl, i. 270 a. 
w. ii. 

j>\, i. 284 c; ii. 310 b. 

j»\. ii. 203 a. 

Ul, i. 284 c: ii. 310 b. 

J[ Ut, i. 284 c: ii. 310 c. 

Ul. followed by ^ i. 292 b. 

UI = U ol i- 16 b. 

U,i. 292n:Jl— Ul.orUl I— Ul, 


L«l =- L« ^1, i. 16 a; ii. 43 a: 
followed by a Jussive, ii. 43 n. 

^'U or LJ iUl, i. 284 c. 

j»Ul, i. 281c: ii. 187 b. 

iUUt, ii. 75 d, 187 c. 

I, <ul. ol£il, ii. 87 d, 88 a. 

- - : *t- 9 

3^*1. 51^*1, i. 20 a. 

J .- 6 J O 

•j*l. ^*l, i. 239 b. 
^t, i. 290 a. 

' *|, ii. 15 c, 102 a. 

Oly-ot, i. 233 b. 
0*y*l i- 217 c. 
\\y»\, i. 233 b. 
,jt, for Ul, i. 54 d. 

o £ 

O'j i- 16 A, 292 b : with the 
Subjunct., ii. 22 c, 25 a; with 
the Perl, ii. 25 d : with the 
Perf. or Imperf., ii. 26 a, 
27 a : omitted before the 



Subjunct., ii. 26 D: with the 
Jussive, ii. 27 b; = lest, ii. 
27 b; after prepositions, etc., 
ii. 192 b, 220 c; prepositions 

omitted before ^>l, ii. 193 b. 
q\, for ^jl, ii. 81 c. 

Oj, i. 292 d; ii. 347 c; with the 
Perf., ii. 14 B; in two correlat. 

J&\, i. 233 c. 

.. -• it 

j-bUI, i. 65 d. 

- ai 

OJI, i. 54 a. 

j J si 

^£>\, i. 55 a. 
ISs, i. 201 b. 
f*£jj\, i. 41 d. 

A. I a 

clauses, ii. 15 a; with the \ ,-*UI, ^Ut, i*~~>\, i- 228 d. 
Jussive, ii. 23 c ; in two 

correlat. clauses, ii. 36 D. 

Jl, for £>!, i. 284 d; ii. 81c. 

,jl, negat., i. 284 c; ii. 104 b, 
105 a, 300 d. 

^tl for ll (aJjkJ? <J)I), ii. 390 d. 

^l_, for ^>j_, i. 236 c. 

^j\, i. 293a; with Imperf. Indie. = 

<jl with Subjunct., ii. 25 n ; 

after JU>, etc., ii. 47 b ; with 
the accus., ii. 78 D, 259 c, 
263 b ; after prepositions, ii. 
192 b; prepositions omitted 

before ,jl, ii. 193 b. 
1, = J*3, i- 290 b. 

lijt, ii. 108 d. 

,jt, i. 284 d; after J13, etc., ii. 

47 a; with the accus., ii. 78d, j J*' »• 309c - 
259 c, 263 b; in oaths, ii. '.JLil i. 195 c 
175 D. 

*.a...A>l, i. 41 D. 
, , - a 


Jj6\, ii. 102 a, 103 c. 

UJt, i- 285 b; ii. 254 b, 335 b. 

u~+J\, i. 65 d. 


<Ol, i. 54 d. 

Ji\, i. 285 b; ii. 14 c. 
,<j|— , rel. adj., i. 164 b. 
S, H, ol IaT, etc., i. 294 c. 

«l_, see 1_; el_, n. 94 c. 

«l_, in pause for Ol— , ii. 370 B. 

Jlit, i. 221 B. 

Jit, i. 181a; ii. 203 a. 

Ul, i. 25 d. 
Ul, i. 54 a cd. 

y, i. 22 a, 293 b; ii. 14d, 306 c, 
307 d, 309 a; with the 
Subjunct., ii. 33 a. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


ji, jf, etc., i. 294 c. 

iiijl, ii. 106 b, 107 a. 

jy, i. 240 a, 260 a; ii. 219 b, 
227 d. 

^jt»jt jy,i260cD. 

Jjl, i. 240 a. 
^jl, i. 291 B. 
y^l, i. 195 d, 265 d. 
jj\, ;<)J, i. 265 b. 

•$'» •'^' ! *ls'i etc -> *■ 294 c. 
d suprascript, i. lie. 
^1, interj., ii. 85 A. 

^£\, that is, i. 285 c. 

... , interj., i. 294 b ; ii. 85 a. 

* '<■ 
... , for ^1 with suffixes, i. 276 c. 

^1. i. 285 c. 

^1, interrog., i. 270 c, 275 d; ii. 

220 a, 315 b. 

^j\, relative, i. 270 c, 273 d ; n. 
14 c, 318 D. 

^£l, expressing surprise, n. 316 c. 

LI, i. 294 b; ii. 85 a. 

C\, i. 103 b; ii. 69 d, 326 a, 329 a; 
l>efore a subst., ii. 76 b. 

ilbl, ii. 75 a. 

ly£;t. i. 295 c; ii. 85 a, 92 c. 
-u>l, i. 295 b. 

- ii 

U mj\, i. 96 c. 
JlT|, i. 276 c. 

Cjl, i. 292 b, 293 a. 

C«, i- 293 a. 

U,»t, interrog., i. 270 c, 276 C 

..., relative, i. 270 c, 274 a; ii. 
14c; expressing surprise, ii. 
316 d. 


(j^jl, interrog., i. 270 c. 

^>^»1, relative, L 270 c, 274 A; ii. 
14 c. 

££?\, i. 20 b, 24 b, 279 d. 

J^l, i. 285 d; ii. 14 c. 


4->1, ajI, i. 295 a. 

t^t, i. 295 a. 

\A, i. 294 c; ii. 85 a, 92 c. 

\y_l I 229 c. 

, ii 6. » - ti 

\yj\, 0^j\, 6yi\, i 

J^t, i. 276 d; ii. 317 b. 

,ii » , » * ti 

\yj\, oy>\, t>}j\, i. 285 c. 

s - 

^jbl, U jjW', OW> i- 285 d; ii. 
6 14 c. 

l*Ij>t, expressing surprise, ii. 316d. 

i. 279 bc; ii. 156 c: redundant, 
ii. 161 d; in oaths, ii. 175 d; 
with ^miu and i^-c, ii. 281 c. 




*"**' i^W> ii- 162 a. 

u~5*>, i. 58 d. 

-o , ,t, 

u~Zj (u-^> u*»b, u-^)> i- 97 ab; 

ii. 290a. 

- o * - a 

U j^j, l».Jb , i. 97 b. 
C>b, ii. 15 c, 102a. 

- * * * * oi- 

j^b - juul, i. 34 a. 
£Jb = iJbt, i. 34 a. 
iULc aJJb, ii. 172 c. 
wo, i. 68 d. 
£J, i. 200 b, 240 b. 
•i-j, etc., i. 295 a. 

^yU^j, OU»j, ^biJ, ^5^, 

i. 228 d. 
jjjju, ii. 163 a, 185 b. 

jj'jju, i. 159 b. 

^jj, i. 58 D. 

Ijj, ii. 102 a, 103 c. 

S\jj, i. 208 c 

Jjj, i. 200 d. 

ajbl^o— j, i. 23 a; ii. 163 c. 

%JJ, i. 200 b, 240 b. 

0* 0-0 

x -a. j, %*aj , 4-ju-clj, i. 255 b, 

256 ad, 258 a; ii. 237 c. 
^iu, i. 22G h. 

* A J - J *- 

, i. 98 b. 

, i. 281 cd; ii. 186 d. 

jju, jju yj*e, i. 288 b. 

> - 10' 

», ii. 207 a, 267 c, 280 b, 
295 c. 

o o j o*o 

sjoju = ^bbt , ii. 59 d. 
ii. 163 a. 

Ub for ,Jb, Add. et Corrigenda 

(Vol. i. 91 a). 
^aj, ii. 102 a. 

ojSJ, ii. Ill a. 

Jj, i. 15d, 285d; ii. 308b, 334c; 
with the genit., ii. 217 a. 

, 0*3 } , OS ii 

J^ = Jt >o, ii. 381a; = J\ y>\, 
ii. 381 d. 

iu, i. 279 b; ii. 163 a, 303 d. 

i o* 
w^rAj, i. 24 d. 

jjb, i. 178 d. 

s - s 

j~»*Xj, i. 24 d. 
lb, ii. 78b. 
^Jb, i. 285 d. 
C*~ w» iJ - 160 d, 193 a. 
^JLt *Uj, ii. 170 d. 

ObJ, i. 194 c. 

^ for ^>j|, i. 23 b; ii. 91c. 
%,i. 250 a; ii. 203 b, 204 a. 

for c~~»j. Add. et Corri- 
genda (Vol. i. 91 a). 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


yj, ii. 290 c, 296 c. 
(jyi-i, i. 195 c. 

^, i. 253 a. 

• ' ' .. _ 

ou for [yj in pause, ii. 372 c. 

3 *»* 
U?W' i- 157 c. 

« j 

^^j , i. 202 b. 

0>*y> *■ 195 D. 
w, i. 226 a. 

iJj, i. 289 c. 

S J • «• 

(^jJLfrJt C~J, ii. 233 c. 
£i, i. 289 a; ii. 342 c. 
v >lJ, i. 281c; ii. 180 b. 
^i ^>J, i. 290 a. 
J\—0*, ii- 181 b. 

Uli, i. 286 a; ii. 181 1>. 

^$*J, i. 195 d. 
olaL*, i. 281 D. 

5, i. 7 a. ^ 

s - 

5_, i. 183 d, 184 a; as a plur. 

term., i. 232 d. 
O for 5, in rhyme, ii. 369 c d. 

O, i. 279 b; ii. 175 c. 
£>, i. 93 a. 

13, i. 265 a. 

J)\J, i. 266 d. 

ijjLJ, i. 39 c; iL 3 b. 

), 1. i I A. 

J-»ULj, i. 40 b. 

cJl-1 Osl^l i- 281 d; ii. 182 a b. 

i a y ) a - a 

Ua*J ^>«, i. 288 b. 
J, i. 279 d. 
,>, i. 77 a. 
Jail*J, i. 40 b. 
ju, i. 25 c. 
^JpUJ, i. 39 d. 
^'Ui, i. 39 c. 
... , and similar perfects after 
the name of God, ii. 3 b. 
JIi5, ii. 49 a. 

Jp = J2I, ii. 380 b. 
J&, i- 279 d. 
tliJb, i. 281 d. 
itib, i. 267 bc. 

*u, i. 93 a. 
^jyJ, A3, aj, i. 265 a. 
^»lyj. i. 154 a. 
<bjy, i. 1 2 a. 

^0^33, ii. 48 D. 
^tj i. 265 a. 

- a* 

jk*3, ii. 78 B. 
i. 266 n. 



Jtf for ^JU, i. 261 a. 
>, i. 264 a. 

^^j, i. 293 b; with Subjunct., ii. 
33 A ; with ^J and Jussive, 
ii. 36 B. 


, i. 293 b. 
&, i. 25 d. 
jU«b, i. 253 d, 254 c. 

*U, ii. 103 b. 
JU, i. 145 c. 

if f if o i 

Ul». = U».t, i. 34 a. 
oJmw Jl»>, ii. 55 b. 
JL, ii. 207 d, 279 c. 
ijljuj^Jl, i. 190 b. 
Olj^»., i. 193 b. 


jjj^, i. 185 d, 215 c. 
J^L, ii. 48 d, 108 d. 
SU^ JiL, ii. 3 b. 
i^L, i. 200b, 240 a; ii. 278 d. 
L^i., ii. 206b, 278b, 282a, 296a. 
U***., ii. 206 b. 
/)L,l 213 d. 
' '., i. 295 b. 
i. 286 b. 

»-, i. 25 d. 

S U., i. 295 b. 

^ijJus. ^pU., i. 262 a. 

J&L, \iiL, ^U., ii. 342 d. 
JU-, ii. 272 a. 

Z^., i. 69 a. 

i J if 

y*>, ytfc, i. 98A. 

w^-^l**.!, ii. 59 b. 

ii. 236 d. 

i if j - j if 
Uv^LaJI, ii. 382 a. 

IJu^., i. 98 b. 

^I*., prep., i. 280 b; ii. 146 b. 

f J» f 

... , as oilaP >-i/4>.. ii. 147 b. 

... , conj., i. 293c; with the 
Subjunct., ii. 22 c, 29 b; with 
Perf. or Imperf. Indie, ii. 
29 D. 

lit Ji£, ii. 12 c, 13 cd. 

U^., ii. 48 d. 

ii. 382 b. 

f Of f f 

«SL>jl%*>, ii. 74 B. 

f J 

^», i. 201 b. 

J f 

j 5»x«>- i. 186 a. 

tlj^, i. 281 u. 

» ^ ~ f 

_jjufc.. for ilj^*., i. 12d. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 423 

- i , , ' 
0)j*"i i- 196 b. *>*»■> i- 289 a. 

O.V--, i. 196 a. J£^, i. 292 a. 

JjL, ii. 107 d, 108 c. Ji^-. *&*-, etc., i. 294 d; J^. 

- sat 

w »., i. 58 c; ii. 48 d. with accus. = Uy— ^ w*jI> ii 

» j 

., i. 288 c. 

<■ j ^ 

^>~»., t>~fc, L 98 a b. 

O'l^-, i- 218d. 

, i. 58 d. 

78 b. 

« i - 

«*-»., 112 a, 121 c. 


*»., i. 94 d. 

0>^-, i- 196 a. C 

' '., ii. 342 d. 

(N, L 26 A. 

JU, ii. 48 d. 

j>\±. = ^~ eU. , i. 261 a. 

A' A J 

^j-o»., i. 162 a. 
s ' Jt^, i. 76 cd. 

J.!, ii. 207 d, 279 c. 
W--5-U- i. 185 d. 
J^., i. 249 a, 252 a. 
lU-, ^, i. 284 c. 
^<^S\=j»\^Lj\, ii. 382 a. 

^JLJU*. . ii. 74 a. 


*■ «■ 

w>>»v i- 295 b. 

J^., i. 281 d; ii. 188 b. 

^, i. 294 c. 

., ii. 143 c. 
^J*., ii. 103 d. 
^U., ii. 341c. 
^iS^fc., lUJU., i. 219 bc. 

"L, i. 281 d; ii. 187 d. 
., i. 264 a. 

J*-»i = J*ot, i. 34 a. 

» ^ o ^ - v»lj, ii- 101 D. 

,i .288 b. iib.fop^lii. 18 d. 

&.,ii.Uc. ^,ii.48D. 

x , t, A . Uj, ii. 45 c. 
the Energetic, 

"• 43 c. <£*♦*>, >»>t, i. 59 b. 

-»., i. 290 a. ^J'^3, ii. 74 b. 

^9^ ^ A 



OP, 0*i>> »• 28lD ;- il 182 d; A 1249 a, 252 a, 265c; ii. 203 a: 

^voUt, ii. 186 c; ^-J, ii. 

163 a, 185 b; =^, ii. 184c; 
meaning beyond, above, ibid. ; 

opposed to i\jj, ii. 186 c. 
&>$y Juk. or ^6jJI, ii. 78 a, 1 83 B. 
iUji, iUU, ii. 183 c. 
Ill,*, i. 229 d. 

J^iy chW>> i- 229 D - 
JLLj, i. 175 b, 229 c. 


|>, i. 265 a ; after Q, ii. 93 A ; 

after s j* and U, ii. 312 B; 

after C, ii. 89 c. 
J&h, i. 266 d. 
OlS, ii. 272 a. 

Ol*, i. 265 d; = JM, i. 272 d. 
^jju Ot3, ii. 110 b. 
^^T /l JU*L)T Oli, ii. Ill c. 
Sj* Olj, ii. 110 b. 


Jli, i. 266 c, 267 c. 
ibi, i. 267 ac. 
Oi, i. 284 b. 
^i, oi, oi, i. 265 a. 

= ^JJt, i. 272 b. 

^ju 3a, ii. 110 b. 

jji, i. 196 c. 
^3, i. 265 a. 

C-»»3j w*jj etc., i. 268 d. 


j, used instead of c, i. 6 d. 

\), for ^ ii. 374 d. 


»lj, foi '^».j, ii. 382b. 

^tj, i. 77 c, 93 b; ii. 48 d, 50 b. 

.- » j * 
^_Jzjb jijIj, i. 262 a. 

llj, ii. 102 a. 

vj?ib' L 153d - 
J\j3\jl\A. 190 d. 

^j, ii. 214 b. 

^j, i. 289 b; ii. 216 a. 

4>J, w»> Vj> *!-»> "' 215A - 
o ,i » J 

cJj, cJj, ii. 215 a. 

UJj, i. 289 a; ii. 215 bc, 216 c; 
with the Energetic, ii. 42 c. 

Zj, £>j, ii. 214 c, 215 a. 

1^,1^1,1.12 a. 

gjj, i. 263 d. 

i«J.J, i. 57 n; ii. 102 a. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


» - * J . 

J*?-j, for J^-j, ii. 384 d. 

^ij, i. 69 c d. 

•»» j * j ^ 

* i - 

1^5**^ J*?-j) "• 273 d. 

Sy^j, i. 12 a, 121c. 

*^ J4-j, ii. 274 d. 

»»jj, i. 69 d. 

a».j, *j, i. 25 d. 


«lij, ii. 211 a. 

,-ix«»j, i. 162b. 

Jij = Jlj, i- 83 d. 

Jy->j, i. 136 D. 


L£j, for i^-oj, Add. et Corrigenda 

^ i. 282 d; ii. 19 a, 346 d. 

(Yol. i. 91 a). 


gL, i. 98 b. 

<toj, i. 25 d. 

s ~ * 

A ** 

jjl*, ii. 206 d. 

J*j, i. 290 c. 

5 .. 

£ ^* 

C>L», i. 261 a. 

C^j - 

^ ^ * 


i y£* J , i. 58 c. 


^, i. 68 d. 

jL» =jjU, i. 145 d. 

<Lcj, ii. 280 A. 

5 - 

^Lj, i. 145 b. 

^•j, Add. et Corrigenda (Vol. i. 

UL< = -kiwi. i. 34 a. 

30 c). 

JL», JL», i. 24 c, 77 b, 84 c. 

Oj, for «, i. 93 b. 

, 5 „ j „,^ 5 „ 

Ij-JI, for wJU-JI, ii. 382 a. 

^jj, ii. 272 a. 

5 * 0' 

v >x--», ii. 248 a. 

^U-jj, i. 157 c. 

j£~», for j^wl, i. 67 b. 

^Jj, i. 94 d. 

^J.sw— >: i. 153 d. 

jujj, ii. 78 B. 

^Ll, ii. Ill A. 

£\Jj, for ^j, ii. 374 d. 

^ J 

Jj.a* in 1 

* *o * * a - 

Ut»j, *£*o, i- 289 b. 

^ o «. » * 

dLjjju^, ii 74 b. 



«JL;, ii. 19 b. 

„ „ 

S' 5^ i ^ 

Jlj, ii. 102 a, 103 c. 

5gU«», *uUL>, i. 183 d, 184 a. 

j^j, i. 57 d; ii. 48 d. 

s - 

Jlw, i. 77 b. 

W. II. 




SjU-*, i. 183 d. 

J J - - ^ C 

Ojj-w,j»it, i. 59 b. 

Q s s *> 

A$Lo~t, i. 147 d. 

- j j 

^jy^i, i. 196 B. 

cjjj, ii. 108 D. 
Jiji,, i. 30 c. 


J*£, i. 57 c. 

2~i, ii. 19 b. 

alii, i. 233 b. 

5/J J <i, j 

*>$-*, »*», i- 120 c. 


J^Ui, i. 154 d. 

S 3 S>, i. 282 d, 289 b; 
346 d. 

i^,, i 3 ^, i. 200 c. 

\Jy~», l^, "• 209 c ; 

ii. 19 a, 
ij*~;, ii- 

i3 "■ 

fj^i,, i>j£, i. 172 a 
oUi, i- 233 b. 
wwsi, i. 295 b. 

._~», ii. 19b. 

jlj~i, i. 229 d. 

3 3 - 

CL, i. 289 b ; ii. 344 a. 

!jui, («*-w, i. 151 B D 


3 - 
j^^*w, i. 151 c. 

Ji, for J, i. 101 D. 


»!£, i. 233 b. 

«-L>, ii. 89 a. 

j»li>, i. 145 c. 

J^li, ii. 203 a. 

JLi, JIA, i. 145 bc. 
>l&, i. 154 a. 
dl£, dli, i. 145 bc. 
jukli,, i. 225 d. 
jjjtt, i. 229 d. 

A*^i, 4*w, ii. 211 A. 

Olli OUA, i. 289 d. 
JLi, i. 68 d. 
Jii, i. 202 D. 

jLe, ii. 15 c, 102 a. 
illi, i. 205 a. 

sCJj't, i. 208 c. 

sLU ^-L^, i. 289 d. 

fm~0, i. 26 A. 

* ' 

}$**o, i. 186 a. 
ILo, i. 57 d. 
^oJtLc, i. 25 d. 
\^o, i. 12 a, 121 c. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


2 ,», 

^UUio, i. 157 c. 

*i i. 295 a. 


O^c, i. 181 D. 

uj x x a x A x x a x 

^y^ju-o, ^yiUju-o, i. 164 D. 
w>j*o, i. 185 d. 

x x x 

^0, ii. Ill A. 

I ju jlw aZ>j*6, ii. 54 A D. 

S J x 

«i»^i-o, i. 185 d. 

jj x x 3 * 

ai'%a J-«9, ii. 55 b. 


^l-b, i. 155 b. 
cU>, i. 145 b. 

JU», i. 295 c. 

« x 
(jU», i. 145 c. 

JJ», ii. 108 D. 

^jjtk, i. 57 d. 

J,U«i>, i. 118 a. 

J&, ii. 108 d. 

<j&, i. 295 c. 

ja, ... 

sJJ?, i. 57 d. 
<LuJLoJ9, i. 117 d. 
&£, i. 213 d. 

-i~Js> ?~J9, i- 295 c. 


JJ», ii. 15 c, 102 A. 

,j-t», ii. 48 D. 

1 ',  
jj-b, n. 51 d. 


jU, ii. 102 a. 

O^Jtei i- 195 c. 
J£=j£,L 34 a. 

IIU, ii. 206 c, 278 b, 282 a. 

«x x, 

«U>L^, i. 231 c. 

s e 

^jjuc, i. 162 a. 

2 x •>' 
^AhS, i. 162 b. 

S xix 

^Ic, i. 280 b. 
olaLft, i. 204 D. 

jlc, ii. 48 d. 

jtft, for ojs-, ii. 380 c. 

Ijlc, ii. 341 c. 

a x x 

^j^ft, i. 295 b. 


W x 

l^jjkC, i. 151 c. 

x a x 

jUj*, i. 62c. 
Oli^c, i. 243 b. 

9 H<X J 

\j-ij£ , i. 1 7 1 b. 

J>c, i. 207 b. 

^j— p, ii. 15 u, 107 d. 

428 Indexes. 

jl£e, i. 204 d. 

J * J 

jtlc, i. 263 b. 

<> a * 

jJiS; i. 255 a. 

" ' * ' 

^jj^s- , ii. 248 a. 

5 o 

^JjjtLc; i. 153 B. 

JjUt wsAAC, i. 62 D. 

t> = J 1 U5^' *" 281 ^ "" 381 A - 
J^, Jaj, i. 68 d. 

Je, i. 290 b; ii. 82 c. 

t^Xc, ii. 45 d, 108 d. 

J^, ii. 48 d. 

Cfc, ii. 82 d. 

j^, i. 280 c, 281 ac ; ii. 166 c. 

<u JjJLc, ii. 172 b. 

JLU = S±. or jeji\, ii. 78 a. 

w> AJs. = Sm., ii. 172 d. 

&*§£ ^jLJ (JLp, ii. 172 d. 

jjjJU, i. 195 d. 

Jk, i. 25 d. 
>, i. 78 c. 
^, C^,i. 284 c. 

6 =ii, ii. 143 a, 193 a. 
US »>^> i- 16 a, 281 b. 
j-U, i. 12 c. 


^, i. 16 a, 280 c, 281 b; ii. 

139b; in comparisons, ii. 

142 a; = jk it j, ii. 143 a; 

originally a substantive, ii. 

143 d. 

o * o £ 

^>c = ,j|, i. 292 c. 

O*, i. 290 b. 

Usj'l = £>lJ\, ii. 382 b. 

juc, i. 281 d; ii. 166 a, 178 d. 

Jjjs- = ii- or^ojjl, ii. 78 a, 179 d. 

UjOfr, i. 293 c. 


' ' 

ua^z, i. 288 B. 

UO^S; i. 281 D. 

kbji, i. 120 c. 

j**, i- 146 b. 

J^ft, i. 226 b; ii. 272 a, 280 a d, 
282 b. 

.-*£, i. 95a. 


c, replaced by j, i. 6 D. 
Jjli, i. 295 b. 

^, ii. 187 a. 

5 ' 
w*£, i- 264 b. 

jS, ii. 206 a. 
iji, ii. 102 a. 

* * 3 

Sjj^i, ii. Ill A. 

Sjj^i, pi. Ujci, i- 222 d; connected 


with ,jjJ, ii. 165 d. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


( «*<tf, i. 154 d. 

J>£, i. 290 b. 

y£., i. 288 c ; j-*JI. instead of j+£, 

ii. 208 c; Jli, ii 208 a, 296a; 

jLk, ii. 303 d, 340 c; 

ii. 208 c. 
ii ^It =oXJ, i. 293 d; ii. 340c. 



i»5, with ^Jk, ..A, i. 54c. 

i»J, as w~op *-*/»■> i- 290 D; ii. 
288 ad, 325a, 330a. 

si, after Ut, i. 291 A. 

• yj, after 0, i- 291 D. 


(.J, marking the apodosis of ^j\, 
ii. 3 B, 15 c, 40 B, 345 a sqq. ; 
omitted, ii. 346 a. 

O, with the Subjunctive, ii. 30 c, 
32 B. 

O, with the Genitive, ii. 217 a. 
J6, i. 291 a. 
ly-i, ii. 162 b. 

^£, ii. 102 a, 103 c. 

J ^ - 

^ *j, L 288 c. 

cj$, ii. 46 A. 
VfS, i. 200 d. 
J-o», i. 58 d. 
^>t !>Lii, ii- 141 d. 

Jaii, i. 286 b. 

,Ji, with the Jussive, i. 291b; 

ii. 35 c. 
Ji, iU, ii. 89 b, 381a. 
jU, i. 207 d. 
O^i, i. 278 a. 

is , J 

AJ^i, i. 241 d, 278 a. 

%, i. 239 c, 249 b, 252 a. 

ouoi = Ui, i- 274 d. 

^, C-oi, i. 293 b. 

4i, for sJ, i. 93 B. 

y, i. 249 b, 252 a. 

^y, ^j-^i, etc., i. 120 c. 

jy, Jjy, i. 281 d; ii. 182 b. 

Jt/ J - 

<3V' jy C^> »■ 288 B - 

^y, i. 280c, 281b; ii. 61a, 111c, 

, ^ ^ 0^ 

£• or ^>*j, 

153 d, 199 d; 
ii. 154 c. 

O*} We*, ii- 180 d. 
«U*s, ii. Ill A. 

Jf, i. 93 b, 94 c; ii. 48 c. 
J*ti, ii 206 a. 
Jli, ii. 47 a, 48 d, 50 d. 
j>\3, ii. 108 d. 
JJ, i. 295 c. 
jli, JIJ, i. 281 d; ii. 186 d. 



Jt/ JO. 


cM, J* 5 i>?> i- 288 B - 
Jls, i. 281 d; ii. 180 a. 

jj», with the Perf., i. 286 B; ii. 3 c, 
5 a, 79 b, 346 d; in correla- 
tive clauses, ii. 7 c; with the 
Imperf., i. 286 c; ii. 21 r>. 

, .. -• 

,jl£» j3, with the Perl, ii. 5 o. 
JtjU, i. 282 a; ii. 187 b. 
jjj, ii 211 a. 
J>S$, i- 178 D. 
j{$j-$, i. 62 c. 

j-m.5, i. 205 d. 

h3, Li, i. 286 d. 

Ski, i. 57 D; ii. 103 B. 

*, a 'fj c * 

^Ij.5, i. 171 b. 
^3.5, i. 295 b. 
Lt^5, i. 229 c. 

J, i. 280 a; ii. 176 c. 
<\£>, i. 276 d; ii. 127 b. 

jm ... 

>&, ii. 106 b. 

Jl£>, for JUJc&, i. 268 d. 

jj=,, ii. 99 a, 196 a, 197 d, 258 b, 
266 a. 

^l£», with the Imperf., ii. 8 B, 

16 c, 21b. 
... , with the Perf., ii. 5c, 15c, 

16 a; after 3J, ii. 6 c, 7 D. 
... , omitted, ii. 100 D. 
... , redundant, ii. 101 A. 
... , after verbal nouns = he (it) 

was, wan formerly, ii. 101 D. 
... , imperative of, with name of 

person in accus., ii. 44 c. 
- - 

l v 3l^.lj oL4, ii. 101 d, 266 a, 

298 c. 

£,(£, i. 292 c; ii. 81c, 82 b. 
qU>,L 293 b; ii. 78 d. 
w> ^->^=>, ii- 158 a. 
,j\d»,i. 276 d; ii. 127 b. 

b Hit + 


J JO- J - JO' _ „ , 

jfi\ t for jg}\, ii. 384 d. 

yj ?-* , with genitive in negative 
sentences, ii. 219 d. 

il£>, i. 200 b, 240 b. 

£j& = £lj&, ii. 383 d. 

J*£i», with genitive in negative 
sentences, ii. 219 d. 

\SL, ^JA, i. 266 a, 269 a, 287 a; 
ii. 127 d; \'j£> IJ^> or li4 
IJ^j,ii. 127 D, 128 a. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


A1J&, i. 268 a, 287 a. 
yj^>, i 228 d. 
^JJ=>, ii 106 b, 107 b. 
JzUJ$\, i 190 c. 
{Jjl^s. i. 230 d. 


J&, i 178 d. 

^j*£>, used impersonally, ii. 271 d. 

J4, i. 76 c. 

j£>, ii. 204 c, 262 a; 278 b, 282 a, 
297 c. 

"*£>, i. 287 a. 

*U*, UX£>, ii. 212 d, 280 b, 2S2 a. 

oi^>, ii. 214 b. 

Cl4, ii. 14 c. 

J&, Jjl£»,ii 214b. 

j&, i. 274 bc; ii. 125 b c. 
JJs, ior^L, i 22 b, 101 d. 

L»£» — as soon as, ii. 178 a. 

C^> = J, ii. 177 c, 193 a. 

wJI U&, ii. 177 d. 

Sj£&, i. 186 a. 

^>, i. 293 d ; ii. 22 c, 28 a. 

O - it, 6 0, 

"^jr 9 - L3*^' 0*r&> i- 276 d ; ii. 
127 b. 

j j 

C-l^>i <^J=>, i- 268 d. 

LJ=>' 3 'Ojs. i. 268 d. 
j~£=> = >l£>, i. 83 d. 

^■■Js*, i. 220 d. 
'L£>, i. 289 c; ii. 14 c, 24 b. 

lX^>, ii- He; 24 b. 
%£», i. 293 d ; ii 22 c, 28 a. 
C?<S ii. 29 a ; ,jl Cl4, ii. 29 b. 

d^j=> = Lo-^>. i. 274 d. 

J, for Jl, i. 23 d. 


U' ^ or tJ> i. 291 b ; ii. 35 c. 

J, i. 24 a, 282 d; ii. 19 b, 51c, 
79 ab, 81 d, 175 d, 260 a, 
261c, 265 c, 348 d; with the 
Energetic, ii. 41 d, 42 cd; 

with yk , j-A , i. 54 c. 
J, for J, prep., i. 279c; ii. 152b. 

J, prep., i. 23d, 279 bc; ii. 147 d, 
199 d; expressing the com- 
plement in the genitive, ii. 
61 A; after nomina actionis, 
ii 61 D; after nomina agentis, 
ii. 68 c, 96 d; instead of the 
accus., with the finite verb, 
ii. 69 c; after verbal ad- 
jectives, ii. 70a, 71abd; 
inserted to strengthen the 

annexation, ii. 95 c ; = .JU, 
ii. 148 d. 
tj, with the Subjunct., i 291 c; 
ii. 22 c, 28 a. 



^J, with the Jussive, i. 291 b; ii. 
35 b ; omitted, ii. 35 d. 

<), i. 287 a; ii. 300 a, 333 a, 347 a; 
with the Perf. retaining its 
original meaning, ii. 2 D . 
with the Perf., as optative, 
ii. 3 a, 304 c; in oaths, asse- 
verations, etc., ii. 2 a, 304 b ; 
with the Imperf., ii. 20 D ; 
with the Jussive, ii. 36 B, 
43 D ; with the Energetic, 
ii. 42 A, 44 a; prohibitive, 
ii. 306 a ; governing the 
accus., ii. 94 c ; inserted be- 
tween prep, and genitive, ii. 

224 D ; prefixed to ,j1 , ii. 
302 a. 
*^, after a previous negative, ii. 
2 b, 303 a, 327 b. 

N), after j*c, ii. 209 a; after j-ji, 
^j , and ,j^i, ii. 303 D. 

<), iorjlk, ii. 209 b. 

„ OP 

^, redundant with ,jl, after verbs 
of forbidding, fearing, etc., 
ii. 304 c. 

Jj *§, i. 289 c. 

JJ % ii. 335 a. 

J^i. <), i. 289 d. 

J^t- »i S>, j*- »i % i- 289 n - 
Jlj iii. 2d. 
l^L <J, W~- <), i. 289 b. 
iUU *j, ii. 98 c, 172 c. 

j-si n), ii. 208 d, 340 b. 

aJuL^ S), i. 289 c. 

£)y£j *$, as an exceptive, ii. 343 c. 

$), i. 292 c; ii. 28 a. 

^A i. 292 d. 

^•9, i. 292 c; ii. 28 a. 

£<) = $3, i- 290 c. 
£& i. 293 b; ii. 78 d. 
C>SJ, i. 96 d; ii. 105 a. 
c^, i. 145 c. 

£<), for V >£J, ii. 379 d. 
&£*y, 0**<), ii. 333 d. 
OS), for J$l, "• 323 d, 380 b. 
6 <), for Jj, ii. 380 B. 
Jik^, forJ$f, ii. 380 b. 
*JU1 O-rt^ i 20b - 
C~J, wJI, i. 59 b. 
JLJ, ii. 74 a. 
JaJ, ii. 45 d. 

j^J, for j-U-^f, ii. 380 d. 
OLaJ, l5 «1>, i. 193 b. 

Jj, jj, i. 280 c. 
ijj, i. 280c, 281 a; ii. 165 b. 
^jj, i. 280c, 281b; ii. 165b, 179d. 
^jj,i. 280c, 281a;u. 165b, 179 d. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


Ji), i. 290 b; ii. 108 c; with 
accus., ii. 82 c; with genitive, 
ii. 83 a. 

U&J, ii. 82 d. 
aJUJ, i. 26 b. 

JA i. 290 b. 

jlsi, ii 190 c. 

OJ6, i. 290 c. 

OU^JUJ, for C*&ji£*& ii. 380 d. 

jJU, ii. 176 a. 

£*t &, L 287 b; ii. 81 d, 82 b, I ^ L 290b ' ^ the accus " 

ii. 82 c, 83 d. 

two correlative clauses, ii. 6b; 
optative, ii 347 c. 

O' >J, ii- 6 b, 348 a. 

•^J, i. 287 c, 294 a ; ii. 6 b d, 
262 c; interrog., ii. 310 c. 

Jjp, i. 294 a; ii. 6 b. 

- o* 

Uy, i. 287 c, 294 a; interrog., 
ii. 310 a 

OP, i. 290 c. 

JU, i. 221 b. 

333 d; with accus., ii. 78 d. 
%£, J^, i. 293 d; ii. 22 c, 28 a. 

4-U. expressing admiration, ii. 
'150 a. 

*p *U, expressing admiration, ii. 

150 a. 

^oJ, i 287 b ; with the Jussive, 
ii. 15 d, 22 d, 41b, 347 a. 

UoJ, not yet, i. 287 b c; with the 
Jussive, ii. 22 d, 41 b. 

Q, after, with the Perf., i. 294 a; 
synonymous with ^t, i 294 a; 

ii. 340 A. 
ili, ii. 190 c. 

&, i. 287 c ; ii. 22 c, 25 a, 300 c, 
346 d. 

O-^j for ^^, i. 285 b. 

y, i. 22 a, 294 a; ii 347b; with 
w. II. 

U^J, ii. 82 d. 

^-J, verb, i. 96 b; ii. 15 d, 102 b, 
103 c, 302 a; negative par- 
ticle, ii. 302 b, 346 d; ex- 
ceptive, ii. 343 c ; with pro- 
nominal suffixes, ii. 343 d. 

Sfl J£, ii. 340 b. 

^li. j^J, ii. 208 d, 340 b. 

il * JO* 

oJUl j^, i. 20 b. 

It & j j a* 

aJUI ^^ ... 


j»j», i. 25 d. 

* * 
j> iorj», in pause, ii. 371 c. 

j» ov j» = U, i. 274 b c; ii. 371 c. 

A- i 
aJUI^o, ii. 176 b. 

U, interrog., i. 270 c, 275 c ; ii. 
298 d, 311 d. 




U, relative, i. 270 c, 273 b; ii. | J^U, JyfcU, i. 164 a 
267 d, 319 a; relative, with 
conditional sense, ii. 14 c, 
23 cd. 

U, indefinite, i. 277 a; ii. 137 d; 
with intensifying force, ii. 
276 b. 

U, negative, i. 287 c ; ii. 266 b, 
346 d ; with the Imperf., ii. j 
20 D, 300 d; with the Perf., 
ii. 300 d; with the accus., 
ii. 104 a; neg. interrog., ii. 
311 A. 

U, as long as, with the Perf., 
i. 294 a; ii. 17 c. 

U, inserted before a clause, after 
a preposition, etc., ii. 192 B, 
220 c. 

U, redundant, after w>j, ii. 215 b; 

6- - 

after ,>«, <>£, w>, ,*), ii. 193a; 

5 - -> 

between the sJLaa and the 
aJ\ JU«, ii. 224 c. 

£,1 U, i. 284 d; ii. 301b. 

^£j U, ii. 180 d, 243 a. 

l£l». to, etc., ii. 343 b. 

%±. U, ii. 341 c. 

% U, with the Jussive, as neg. of 

a^^-^jjji u, ii. 17 d. 

(^A) ^b U,ii. 144 d, 276 c. 
\ -sjlyb U, ii. 340 c. 

He, i5U, i. 258 abd; ii. 235a, 

238 d, 239 a, 244 b. 
Jj£*,L 153 b. 
6 U, i. 295 b. 
^f gU, ii. 273 d. 
OU, i. 86 a. 

JyU, i. 154 a. 
«U, «U, i. 145bc. 


a, i. 287 c ; ■<* 
294 b; ii. 14 c. 

>, LoULo, i. 

jJL, ii. 210 a. 

j>sL«> i- 125c - 
jLq,sw,», i. 126 b. 
OjjJl*, i. 146 a. 
^tjJjLo, i. 188 c. 
ij, i. 22 b, 280 d; ii. 173 c. 

oJj Xi 11 - 190c - 

ji = L^, ii. 382 b. 
jj, i. 76 c. 

1^1,51^1,1. 20 b. 

Ji^o, i. 125 c. 

jka....^», i. 125 c. 

jUa.-©, for jUa£~«, L 68 A. 

II. Arabic Words, 
JbuuLo, i. 125 c. 

^X 6 

* ,, J 

£)jZL«, ii. 251 d. 
JlJJL, i. 129 b. 

9 0, 

<$j£~*, i. 125 d. 

« I 

Sj&Lo, i. 12 a. 
j-cl«, i. 178 d. 

S 3 - 

j_js«a^. i. 146 a. 
jLiuo, for cLiuo. i. 6 d. 
^«^a-o-)l. ii. 251 D. 
xXLo, i. 125 d. 
SjJiS, I 128 d. 

Terminations, etc. 


**, **, i. 280 d; ii. 164b; pro- 
perly the accus. of a noun, 
ii. 165 A. 

\ac, i. 26 b. 
j^x«Jt, ii. 251 D. 

, + * * o 

Ljco = UjUc, ii. 164 c. 
w>>**°> L 125 D. 
JpJ>, i. 131 a. 
^tJUfi, ii 251 d, 268 c. 

9 x 

<ji/i*. i. 125 d. 

jljJLa, ii. 211 a. 

« j » - 

ij^io, i. 146 a. 

J-o = JT o-«, i. 281 c; ii. 380 d. 

U-9, 0-8-*' *« 16 a, 281 b. 

C» = O*, ii 131 c, 133 c, 193 a. 

ij-o, interrog., i. 270 c, 275 A; ii. 
298 d, 311 d. 

..., relative, i. 270c, 273b; ii 
267 D, 319 a; implying a con- 
dition, with the Perf., ii. 14 c, 
and with the Jussive, ii. 
23 cd, 262 b. 

... , indefinite, i. 277 a. 

, s , 

IJJo ^Ji ^>«, ii. 163 c. 

U*& O-f (^ v>»> ^ 139a - 

jj-*, i. 15 d, 16 a, 22 b, 280 d, 

281 bc; ii. 61 a, 123 b c, 
125 b, 126 b, 129 bc, 199 d, 
237 a, 242 a; after compara- 
tive adjj., ii. 132 d, 133; 
after a negat. or interrog., 
ii. 1 35 d, 289 b ; preceded by 
an indefinite noun, ii. 136b; 
expressing the agent of the 
Passive, ii. 139 a, 270 d; used 


J-^oJjJ, ii. 138 b; originally a 

j j 
subst., ii. 135 d; = Jj*e, ii. 

175 A; = Jju or jui-e, ii. 

130 B D ; with an indefinite 
genitive, forming the subject 

of a sentence, ii. 135c; dU-o 

iUU, ii. 139 A. 


J>-c*.\ >^c, ii. 131 d. 
ju»»t ... , ii. 136 A B. 



O-i' O-* 

, i. 285 d. 

l^M = JjUJI and LjUbJI, ii. 38' 


, ii. 189 b. 

382 a. 

, ii. 188 c. 

i»-C, i. 233 c. 


a * 
CoJ ... 

, ii. 189 a. 

• jJliU, i. 154 a. 


, ii. 190 a. 


wwU, i. 125 i). 

OtAa. ... 

Oji ... 

, ii. 182 d. 

OvU, i. 275 b. 

J0 J 

i jZ*o, i. 138 d. 

J ' 

J* ... 

, i. 288 b. 

j a - o 3 a > 

j±..'-.o, j^< ic, i. 126 a. 

Ji ... 

, ii. 173 a. 

Xu, i. 280 d; ii. 173 b. 


, ii. 143 d. 

&»J~o, i. 126 a. 


, ii. 189 c. 

j j a *e* 

Jj^JeU^JI, ii. 251 d. 


, ii. 136 c. 

0, , 

4-u, i. 275 b. 


, ii. 163 a. 



«,y ... 

Jj 3 i ... 

, ii. 136 d. 

, ii. 189 a. 

\JjU, i. 154 a. 

i ,<>+ 2 , 

L5 ^ tt JI, jJU, i. 275 d; ii. 314 b. 

J*3 ... 

, ii. 189 b. 

a - «. 

a*, for j>, in pause, ii. 371 c. 

s>* ... 

ii. 189 d. 

«u = U, i. 274 d. 


o^ ••• 
jjji ... , 

ii. 165 c, 189 c. 
ii. 136 d. 

ou, a-o. i. 295 a. 
C&Vijl^, J^V*, i. 228 d. 

t ■» •» 

_ „ -. > > 

ii. 1 65 B. 
ii. 190 a. 
ii. 136 d. 

ii. 176 b. 
^fj ,>*, ii. 176 b. 

U^i, ii. 14 c, 137 d. 

o * a * 

O-ovo* ii. 14 c. 

o * a, j 

d\JuyA, i. 63 d. 
dL^, i. 233 b. 

C^i "• 230 d. 
JJU, ii. 342 c. 

j * -a* 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


O, i- 26 a. 

^j, of the 2nd Energetic of verbs, 
rejected, i. 22 D. 

£, for ^yi, ii. 371 d. 

ij—, for t_, in rhyme, ii. 369 c. 

Q, for U, in 1st p. pi. Perf,, i. 55 d; 
ii. 384 a. 

£, for ^, i. 101 d. 
U, i. 25 d. 
JjJ, i. 233 c. 

JaU, i. 287 d. 

<■ t> , 
^a»J, ii. 178 c. 

Xj, i. 295 b. 

£ji, i. 57 d. 

fll), i. 203 b, 233 b. 

o£j, J£1j, i. 209 c, 217 c, 233 b. 

<)\ dJLM Jti jLij, ii. 339 d. 

^jUu, i. 223 c. 

JaS, i. 264 a. 

JUj, i 264 a; ii. 280 b, 282 b. 
i, i. 264 a. 

, i. 97 a — d; ii. 

5, i. 58 c D. 

, i. 283 d. 

> ^*->. >»l»i, i. 287 d. 
U*j, i. 97 b. 
JL\Ju, i. 204 d. 
JLi5, ii. 272 a, 280 d, 282 b. 
,-JUju, i. 164c. 

J3, i. 69 a. 
Jjjj, i. 200 d. 
j^y, for ^j, i. 21 c D, 101 d. 

Lo, for ..J, ._>, in rhyme, ii. 
371 cd. 
Lj, i. 258 a. 

J, for ^y, ^j, in rhyme, i. 101 d; 
ii. 371 c. 

*_, in the Imperative, i. 90 D, 
93 a. 


«_, in pause, ii. 369 c d. 


«_= final o, i. 10 b. 

o = I, i. 282 b; in the form Jjtil, 
i. 36 b. 

6, for «, i. 101 c, 253 b, 279 c, 

290 a. 
U Jju, i. 97 b. 

U = j±., i. 296 c. 

IJuU, i. 54 d. 

U, i. 268 a, 294 c. 



Ia = S*., i. 296 c. 

sIa, g U = S&., i. 296 c. 
JgTi = XL, i. 296 c. 
IJueU, i. 54 D. 
OU, i. 36 c, 296 b. 
i)UU iUU, i. 268 c. 
IllSlA, i. 268 c. 
jU, jIa, i. 145 bc. 
c'n) cU, i. 145 b. 
JU = XL, i. 296 c ; ii. 77 d. 
oU, i. 294 c. 
LaU, LaIa, i. 288 a. 
wjA, ii. 49 a. 
w*A, ii. 108 d. 
bjlk, i. 186 a. 
-La, IsLa, i. 295 b. 

iuLuJk, ii. 74 b. 

\jl, i. 268 b; ii. 89 d. 

t ii (^), for I Xk (-), ii. 383 c. 

t JJk = iSl i. 282 c. 

^JLjjilJjk, ii. 74 b. 

iJljJb, i. 268 c. 

a jjb, j^JJk, i. 268 b. 

jjb, i. 69 a. 
L\j*, i. 36 b. 

il^A, i. 36 b. 

J£a ... , 67 d. 

U ^A, i. 295 b. 

a j o j 

*A *a, i. 295 c. 

I X&, i. 268 d, 287 d. 

Ja = J1, i. 270 a. 

ijjb, interrog., i. 15 d, 288 a; ii. 

308 c; J\ Jl J. & Ja, 

ii. 309 d. 
%k, i. 294 c, 295 b. 

•&A, i. 288 a; ii. 310 c. 
JJ<a, i. 294 d, 296 b. 

J^jU, ii. 107 c. 
J^a, ii. 107 d. 
J,*, Ua, i. 282 c, 284 c. 
Ji*, for^A, i. 22 d, 101 c. 
Jr&, for^A, i. 22 d, 101 d, 279 c. 
J,A ... ,i. 22b, 55 a, 101 d. 

Ua, for Ua, i. 101 c, 279 c. 

J>A, for o\, i- 292 d. 

,ja, i. 249 a, 252 a; O.*^-*' *• 

196 a; fern. 2jX, i. 278 b; 

ijjb, fern. <UA, C~iA, in the 
vocative, ii. 89 b c. 

J>*, f° r 0'> *• 285 b. 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 
^>A, for IjJk, i. 279 c. 


La, La, i. 288 a. 
JLa, i. 36 c. 
JLa, i)LA, i. 288 a. 
iULA, i. 288 a. 
\Lj* Lua, ii. 74 d. 

LyA, L>a, i. 288 a. 
i)Lyk, L 288 a. 
^a, for Ja, ii. 385 c, 390 b. 
^A, i. 54 a; ii. 258Dseq. 

yb U jA, ii. 276 c. 

^ for ^t, i. 285 c. 

^A, for ^A, ii. 385 c. 
JjA, i. 54 a. 
La, i. 294 b; ii. 85 a. 
JjA, La, i. 294 d, 296 b. 
La, for U, i. 104 a. 


C~a, i. 294 d. 
£~A, i. 295 b. 

juA, juA, i. 295 b. 

O^lk, i. 36 c, 67 d. 

OL^Ia, i. 294 d. 

^*A, Add. et Corrigenda (Vol. i. 
30 c). 

— , for _, in vulgar pronunciation, 
i. 213 d. 

3— , for e|_ and ^_, i. 12 d. 
J, i. 17 c. 

j, for j medial, i. 119 c, 145 c, 

205 d, 206 b, 210 ac. 
j, for J, i. 18 c. 

j, i. 290 d; ii. 97 b, 325 a— 333 a; 
with yb, yA, i. 54 c. 

3, with the accus., ii. 83 c, 325 d. 
j, with the genit., ii. 216 D. 

^, with the genit., in swearing, i. 
279 c; ii. 175b. 

j, with the subjunct., ii. 32 b, 
84 BD. 

ij, i. 294 c, 295 d; ii. 85 a, 93 c. 

Ij_, for |_, i. 12 a. 

i».tj, ii 236 a. 

Ojj, i- 292 d; ii. 40 a; = never- 
theless, ii. 17 b. 

olj, Utj, >lj, i. 294 d. 

Oj— , i. 166 a. 

3j— , for S|_, i. 12 a. 

Jmj, i. 78 b. 

a».j, ii. 48 d, 50 b; j^j, ii. 104 a. 

s ^ 

Axfcj, ii. 272 a. 
>£*•> *• Hod. 



* Q s 

jc».j, i. 289 c. 

J>% JpCJj, i. 287 b; ii. 333 d. 

j^.j, i. 78 c. 

^j, ii. 331 D. 

£ij, i. 79 c. 

Ajj, i. 78 c. 

Jb •• 

2£, i. 294 a; ii. 9 b. 

sTJj, i. 282 a; ii. 187 c. 

^i i.78B. 

hj'3, i. 78 b. 

Uj, ii. 331 d, 332 d. 

©i ••• 

J^*j, i. 78 b. 


ijj— , instead of ^jyi— > Add. et 

l&j ••■ 

Corrigenda (Vol. i. 195 d). 

^jj, i. 79 c. 

J-Jbj, i. 79 d. 

klj, i. 282 a; ii. 188 b. 

JaJ, i. 78 c. 

s^wj, i. 79 c. 

fj' 3f i. 294 c, 296 a. 

S ^ 5 -' 
L£>^> [J*** etc -' L 151 c 

Ijj, Uj, ii. 84 c. 

S..03, i. 79 d. 

44i» i- 296a - 

^; ... 

£* - 

J^j, i. 78 c. 

t*» - 

>i ... 


^jj, i. 78 b. 

JO - 

jjj, with the Perf., ii. 5 a, 332 a ; 
with the Imperf., ii. 331 c. 

*3J, i. 79 D. 

J^, with the Jussive, i. 291 b; ii. 
35 c. 

*^j, after another negative, ii. 2 b, 

303 a, 327 b; emphatic, ii. 

304 a ; in comparisons, ii. 
333 b. 

aJLjj, i. 296 a. 

AJJ, lyJJ, i. 294 C 

«uj_, proper names, i. 244 D. 

_, for ^—, in the vocative, i. 

253 a; ii. 87 b. 
_, for ^£_, at the end of some 

II. Arabic Words, Terminations, etc. 


words, i. IOab; by poetic [ «^ jj 152 a 
license, ii. 383 c — 384 a. 

__, dropped in pause, ii. 370 c. 

#,i 17 c. 

( j, for g, i. 18 c. 

^ for fj T or j^-, i. 252 c. 

V_£— = l_ final, i. 11b, 295 d. 

t^_, for ^_, in pause, ii. 370 c. 

^_, pronounced nearly as e, i. 1 1 D. 

^_, fem. term., i. 184 b, 240 c; 
rejected, i. 151 d. 

^_ = ai, i. lie. 

^_, for _, in pause, ii. 370 c. 

^_, for ^£— , in pause, ii. 370 d. 
{£—, dropped in pause, ii. 371 bd. 

a) i, iU G, etc., with the accus. 
or ^-o, ii. 153 a. 

b, ii. 92 b. 
Jj£, i. 92 b. 
u~rt> *■ 80 c. 
<u_, for 31_, i. 12 a. 
Juj, for J£j, ii. 385 b. 
Jka>,j , for Jka»,j , ii. 385 A. 

JJt/ iJ/ 

jjju, for jju, ii. 378 d. 

J 0* Jit* * * 

^Jjub and ,Jjub, from Jj»J, i. 59 D. 

,iL, etc., for ^jSu, etc., i. 82 d; ii. 
379 d. 

[ J-, for ^_, pron. suffix, i. 21 c, O^i or •** 0>A>> witn the Perf -> 
' 101 d. ' 

y^—, for ^£— , in the vocative, ii. 

' 87 cd. ' 
^_, relat. adj., i. 149cseqq.; ii. 

225 a. 

b_, for {£—, in rhyme, ii. 370 D. 

b_, for ^_, ... , ii. 371 c. 

U, i. 294b, 295 cd; ii. 85 a, 94a; 
before a verb or a clause, ii. 
92 a, 310 b. 

2f\ C, 'Jl\ C, ii. 89c. 

£t C, i. 294 c; ii. 85 a, 92 c. 

vj U, ii. 216 a. 

w. II. 

ii 22 a. 

jJb , for jJL» , ii. 385 a. 

jjloj, i. 154 b. 

(jj-, for j>j_, i. 235 d. 

(J-»— , for ^>j— , in the genit. plural, 
i. 236 d; ii. 388 d. 

JJU^S, i. 292 a. 

*jLJI>o^j, ii. 233 b. 

*' ' .. _ 

aj_, for ^£_ and ^£—, ii. 371 c. 

* i si 

^j^i—, shortened to ^»j— , Add. et 
Corrigenda (Vol. i. 195 d). 




Abbreviation, mark of, i. 25 c. 
Abged, Abuged, i. 28 b. 
Accent, i. 27 a. 
Accusative, ii. 45 a ; single, after 

a transitive verb, ii. 45 c; 

double, after causatives, the 

wj^iijT jUlf, etc., ii. 47 c ; 

triple, ii. 51a, 53 b ; cognate, 
after transitive and intransitive 
verbs, ii. 53 c; depending on a 
verb understood, ii. 72 d; with 
the passive voice, ii. 52 b ; 
instead of a preposition and 
the genitive, ii. 191 b; as vo- 
cative, ii. 85 c ; adverbial, i. 
288 c, ii. 109 c; of comparison, 
ii. 128b; of limitation or de- 
termination, ii. 122a; of the 
motive, object, cause or reason, 
ii. 121 a; of place, ii. Ill b; of 
the state or condition (hal), 
ii. 112c; of time, ii. 109 c ; of 
wish, salutation, etc., ii. 74 B ; 

t* Sua 

after A*3UI jjl, ii. 105 a; after 

a a g a - if- fit 

ol ot> cA^> o^> and o*?> 

ii. 78 D ; after J* and J*J, 

ii. 82 c ; after ^\£=> and its 
"sisters," ii. 99 a — 109 a; after 

Jfe, /*!&, and lii>, ii. 125 B; 


1 ^Jcii % ii. 94 c ; 
°T *§ and 

5jjla^aJI U, ii. 104a; after 

<Z>*$, ii. 105a; after C~J, ii. 
82 c ; after numerals, ii. 237 b. 

Active voice, i. 49 c. 

Adjectives, i. 105 a; ii. 273 A, 
283 a; in connexion with a 
vocative, ii. 91 d; comparative 
and superlative, i. 140c — 143a; 
ii. 132 d, 218 a, 226 c; inten- 
sive, i. 133 d — 140 b; numeral, 
i. 105 a, 253 c, seqq. ; distribu- 
tive, i. 262 D ; multiplicative, 
i. 263 b ; partitive, i. 263 c ; 
relative, i. 109 d; verbal, i. 
131 b seqq. ; with the accusa- 
tive, or with ^J of the object, 

ii. 70 a — 71 d; of the form 

^Jjiil, with ^J| of the subject, 
ii. 71 d, 72 a; with the geni- 
tive, ii. 218 A, 221 b ; relative, 
with a genitive in apposition, 
ii. 225 A. 

Adverbs, i. 282 a; numeral, i. 
262 bcd; inseparable, i. 282 b; 
separable, i. 283 c. 

Adverbial accusative, i. 288 c ; ii. 
98 d— 128 c. 

III. English and Latin Technical Terms, etc. 443 

Adversative sentences, ii. 333 A. 

Agent, ii. 250 d. 

Alphabet, i. 1. 

Annexation, definite and inde- 
finite, ii. 225 c. 

Apodosis of conditional and hypo- 
thetical clauses, ii. 6 b — 17 c; 
ii. 23 c, 36 d, 345 a seqq. ; of 

,jt, omitted, ii. 17 A; of ^i, 
omitted, ii. 8 c. 

Apposition, ii. 271 c; instead of 
the construction with the geni- 
tive, ii. 229 b ; of verbs, ii. 
287 d. 

Appositives, ii. 272 D seqq. 

Article, i. 15 c, 19 c, 23 d, 269a. 

Assimilation of letters, i. 15 b; of 
final hemza to preceding $ and 
^, i. 18 c, 144 d; in the verb, 
i. 16 b, 64 d, 65 d — 67 c; in 


VIII. of verbs having I as 
first radical, i. 76 d; in VIII. 
of verbs having j and ^ as 
first radical, i. 80 d; of vowels, 
i. 60 b, 84 c, 136 d, 167 a, 
205 c d, 206 a c. 

Cardinal numbers, i. 253 c seqq. ; 
ii. 234 c seqq. 

Cases, i. 234 c. 

Circumstantial clause, ii. 196 b — 
198 a, 330 b. 

Clause, circumstantial, ii. 196 b — 
198 a, 330 b; conditional and 
hypothetical, ii. 6 b — 17 c, 23 c, 
36 D, 345 a seqq. ; descriptive 
or qualificative, ii. 283 a, 317c; 
relative, i. 105 b; ii. 317 B. 

Collectives, concord of, ii. 273 b, 

291 a, 296 d. 
Common gender, words of the, 

i. 180 d, 185 b. 
Comparative Adjectives, with ^>-«, 

ii. 132 d— 134 d. 
Compound sentences, ii. 255 a — 

256 d. 
Concord in gender and number, 

ii. 288 D seqq. 
Conditional and hypothetical sen- 
tences, ii. 6 b — 17 c, 23 c, 36 d, 

345 A seqq. 
Conjunctions, i. 290c; inseparable, 

i. 290 d; separable, i. 291 d. 
Conjunctive pronouns, i. 270 b. 
Consonants, final, how affected by 

the wad, i. 22 a. 
Construct state of a noun, i. 

248 c— 252 a; ii. 198 a. 
Co-ordination, ii. 271 C. 
Copulative sentences, ii. 325 A 

Correlative conditional clauses, ii. 

36 d, 38 b. 
Damm, clamma, i. 7 D. 
Dates, ii. 248 a. 
Day of the month, ii. 248 C. 
Declension of undefined nouns, i. 

234 c ; of defined nouns, i. 

247 b; diptote, i. 234 c, 238 a, 

239 d; triptote, i. 234 c, 

236 a. 
Defective verb, i. 88 A. 
Definite annexation, ii. 225 c. 
Degrees of comparison, i. 140 c — 

143 a. 



Demonstrative pronouns, i. 105 A, 

264Dseqq.; ii. 277 A. 
Descriptive clause, ii. 283 A, 317 c. 
Diacritical points, i. 4 A. 
Diminutive, i. 110 a, 166Bseqq.; 

ii. 261 c; formed from the 

pronouns and prepositions, i. 

167 c; from verbs of surprise, 

i. 100 c, 167c; from diptotes, i. 

242 b; from distributive nume- 

rals of the form JUi, i. 242 b. 
Diphthongs, i. 7 B ; pronunciation 

of them, i. 10 d; how affected 

by the v;a$l, i. 21 d. 
Diptote nouns, i. 234 c — 246 b. 
Doubling of a consonant, how 

marked, i. 13 d. 
Doubly weak verbs, i. 91 d. 
Dual, i. 52 b, 187 d; from oCi] 

».».a> J I and broken plurals, 

i. 190 d; dual of an adjective 
used as a substantive, i. 190 c; 
of place-names,, in poetry, i. 
190 D; with an adjective in 
the fern, sing., ii. 275 d; dual 
subject with a preceding sin- 
gular verb, ii. 293 b. 

*Elif omitted in writing, i. 20 b, 
23 a; elif conjunctionis, i. 16 D, 
20 D, 21 a; elif productionis 
omitted in writing, i. 10 A; 
elif separationis, i. 21 A; elif 
maksura and memduda, i. 11b, 
25b; elif otiosum, i. 11a; how 
affected in poetry, ii. 374 B. 

Elision of I, i. 19 c, 23 a ; by 
poetic license, ii. 374 b. 

Energetic, i. 61 a, 62 c; energetic 
imperfect, ii. 24 c, 41 d; after 

wol, ii. 43 a; after J, ii. 41 D, 

42 c ; after l©jj, ii. 42 c ; after 

'■** ' 

l^J L a. and similar compounds, 

ii. 43 c ; energetic imperative, 

ii. 44 A. 
Enunciative, ii. 251 c. 
Exceptive sentences, ii. 335 D seqq. 
Feminine nouns, by form, i. 179 a; 

by signification, i. 177 d; by 

usage merely, i. 179 D — 180 c; 

of adjectives and substantives, 

how formed, i. 183 c — 185 b. 
Feth, fetha, i. 7 c ; passes into 

damma, before _j, in vulgar 

pronunciation, i. 213 D. 
Figures, arithmetical, i. 28 b. 
Forms of the triliteral verb, i. 

29 b — 47 b; of the quadriliteral 

verb, i. 48 c — 49 c. 
Fourth form of the verb, used as 

the pjUxo of the first, i. 35 D. 

Fractions, i. 263 d. 

Future, in the sense of a polite 
order or request, ii. 19 B. 

Future-perfect, how expressed, ii. 
22 a. 

Gender, in the verb, i. 52 b; in 
the noun, i. 177 c; common, 
i. 180 d, 185b; feminine, i. 
177 D; formation of the femi- 
nine, i. 183 c — 185 B. 

Genitive, ii. 198 a — 202 b; supply- 
ing the place of an adjective, 
ii. 202 b, 229 a; of limitation, 

III. English and Latin Technical Terms, etc. 


with adjectives or participles, 
ii. 221b; in apposition to re- 
lative adjectives, ii 225 a ; 

after K )*9\, etc., ii. 226 c; after 

w»j, ii. 214 b; after s J^s, yjaxi, 

jl£, etc., ii. 204 c— 212 d; 

after **£», lH^, ii. 212 d; 

after j^, ii. 126 a; after j, 

^J, JJ, ii. 216 d— 218 a; after 

$ suppressed, ii. 217 b; geni- 
tive plural after numerals, ii. 
234 c; genitive singular after 

i5U and oUI, ii. 238 D. 
Gezm, gezma, i. 13 a. 
Henvz, hemza, i. 16d — 18d; hemza 

conjunctionis, i. 11 B, 21 A. 
Hollow verbs, i. 81 c. 
Hypothetical sentences, ii. 345 A 

'Imala, i. 10 C. 
Imperative, i. 61 D — 62 d; of 

verbs having I as first radical, 
i. 74 a, 76 cd; of doubly weak 
verbs, i. 93 a; in two cor- 
relative clauses, ii. 24 a, 37 c; 

negative, expressed by ^ with 
the jussive, ii. 43 d ; with 

<bjj£i\ ilj, ii. 44 b; imperative 

of ij\£* with name of a person 
in the accusative, ii. 44 c. 
Imperfect, i. 51 b; its charac- 
teristic vowels in the first 
form, i. 57 b — 59 B ; indicative, 
i. 60 b — 61a; subjunctive, i. 

60 b — 61 a; jussive, i. 60b — 
61a; energetic, i. 61a; passive, 
i. 63 a; subjunctive or poten- 
tial, how expressed, ii. 6 b ; 
imperfect indicative, significa- 
tions of, ii. 18 b; as a hal. may 
be translated by our infinitive 
or participle, ii. 19 D — 20 c; 

preceded by ^li» = Latin or 
Greek imperfect, ii. 21 b; pre- 

ceded by \JjSu or jj> \j£i - 

future-perfect, ii. 22 a. 
Impersonal active, ii. 271 a; pas- 
sive, ii. 268 a. 
Inchoative, ii. 251 c; when it may 

be indefinite, ii. 260 d. 
Indefinite annexation, ii. 225 c. 
Infinitive, i. 52 b, 109 a, 110 a 

seqq. ; as objective complement, 

ii. 53 c. 
Intensive adjectives, i. 136 c, 137 a. 
Interjections, i. 294 b; having a 

verbal force, i. 296 b. 
Interposition of a word between 

the status constructus and the 

genitive, ii. 222 d. 
Interrogative sentences, ii. 306 b 

Inversion of subject and predicate, 

ii. 253 d — 255 a. 
Jussive, i. 60 b — 61 a; in two cor- 

relative clauses, after ^jt, ,j*», 
etc., ii. 23 c, 36 d ; after J, 

ii. 35 b; after ^i, CjJ, etc., ii. 
22 d, 41 b; as negative im- 
perative, after *j, ii. 36 b, 43 d. 



Kesr, kesra, i. 7 c; for feth, in the 
preformatives of the imperfect, 
i. 60 a. 

Kunya, i. 244 d. 

Lam-elif, i. 3 a. 

Letters of the alphabet, i. 1a; 
their order in N. Africa, i. 3 a ; 
unpointed, how distinguished, 
i. 4 a ; classes of, i. 4 c; pro- 
nunciation of, i. 5 b; of pro- 
longation, i. 9 c ; solar and 
lunar, i. 15 c; numerical values 
of, i. 28 b; weak, i. 53 a, 71 d. 

Licenses, poetic, ii. 373 cseqq. 

Ligatures of letters, i. 3 b. 

Local sentences, ii. 252 D. 

Masculine or feminine nouns, list 
of, i. 181 D. 

Matta, i. 24 c. 

Medd, medda, i. 24 c. 

Metres, ii. 358 cseqq. 

Moods, i. 51 d, 52 a. 

Nebra, i. 16 d. 

Negative sentences, ii. 299 c seqq. 

Neuter of the personal and de- 
monstrative pronouns, how ex- 
pressed in Arabic, ii. 299 A. 

Neuter verb, i. 50 d. 

Nomen abundantiae, i. 109 D, 
148 b; nomen actionis, see 
nomen verbi ; nomen agentis, 
i. 109 a, 131 b— 133 b, 143 b— 
147 a; used for nomen actionis, 
i. 132b; construction of, ii. 
63 c — 69 D, 194 cseqq.; nomen 
deminutivum, i. 110 a (see Di- 
minutive); nomen instrumenti, 

i. 109 c, 130 b; nomen loci et 
temporis, i. 109 b, 124 d seqq.; 
formed from the derived con- 
jugations, i. 129 b; nomen pa- 
rentis, i. 109 A, 131 b; used as 
nomen actionis, i. 132c; con- 
strued with one or two accu- 
satives, ii. 69 d, 194 c seqq.; 
nomen qualitatis, i. 110a, 165b; 
nomen relativum, i. 109 D; 
nomen speciei, i. 109 b, 123d; 
as objective complement, ii. 
53 c; nomen unitatis, i. 109 c, 
147 b; nomen vasis (loci et 
temporis), i. 109 b, 1 24 d seqq. ; 
nomen vasis, i. 109 D, 149 a; 
nomen verbi or actionis, i. 
109 a, 110 a; list of nomina 
actionis, i. 110 c — 112 c; most 
usual forms, i. 1 1 2 d ; nomina 
actionis of forms II. — XV., i. 
115 b; of quadriliteral verbs, 
i. 117 c; of solid verbs, i. 118 a; 
of verba hemzata, i. 118 b; of 
weak verbs, i. 118 c — 122 d; 
nomen verbi, ii. 193d; as ob- 
jective complement, ii. 53 c; its 
construction with subject and 
object, ii. 57 b; construed with 
J, ii. 61 d; with a preposition, 
ii. 61 b; as hal, ii. 114 c; 
nomen vicis, i. 109 b, 122 d; 
as objective complement, ii. 
53 c. See Noun. 

Nominal sentence, ii. 250 D. 

Nominative as vocative, ii. 85 b. 

Noun, i. 104 D ; primitive and 

III. English and Latin Technical Terms, etc. 


derivative, i. 106 A; substan- 
tive and adjective, i. 106 A ; I 
how defined, i. 247 b; diptote, 
i. 239 d; triptote, i. 234 c; 
declinable and indeclinable, i. j 
234 D ; wholly indeclinable, i. | 
243 d — 244 d. See Nomen. 

Numbers, i. 28 b, 52 b, 187 d. 

Numerals, i. 105 A; cardinal num- 
bers, 1 — 10, i. 253 c seqq.; 
11—19, i. 256 a; 20— 90 (tens), 
i. 257 B; 21 — 99 (compounded), 
i. 257 d; 100—900, i. 258 a; j 
1000 and upwards, i. 259 a; 
compounded, i. 259 d; ordinals, 
i. 260 a — 262 A ; numeral ad- \ 
verbs, i. 262b — D; construction 
of the numerals, ii. 234 c seqq. ; 
arrangement in composition, ii. 
239 A i agreement of, i. 254 d; 
ii. 240 a; ordinals with the 
genitive, ii. 245 d — 247 d. 

Nunation, i. 12 a, 235 b. 

Object. See Accusative. 

Ordinal numbers with the genitive, 
ii. 245 d— 247 D. 

Participles, i. 52 b, 109 a, 131 b — 
133b; of the derived conjuga- 
tions, i. 143b; of solid verbs, 
i. 144b; of verba hemzata, 
i. 144 c; of weak verbs, i. 144d 
seqq. ; of quadriliteral verbs, 
i. 143 d; passive participle as 
nomen loci et temporis, and as 
masdar or infinitive, i. 129 B — 
130a; participles with the 
accusative or genitive, ii. 63 c; 

with two or more objective 
complements in the genitive 
and accusative, ii. 67 d; with 
the genitive, ii. 221 b. 

Particles, L 278 c; negative, ii 
299 c seqq. 

Passive voice, i. 49 c — 50 D, 51 a, 

63 a b, 64 A — c ; with an accu- 
sative, ii. 52 A ; with two 
accusatives, ii. 53 B. 

Past tense of verbs of surprise, 
i. 100 b. 

Pause, forms of words in, ii. 368 c 
seqq.; pausal forms out of 
pause, in verse, ii. 390 a. 

Perfect, i. 51 b; its characteristic 
vowels in the first form, L 
30 B — 31 a; passive, i. 63 a, 

64 a b ; contracted forms, i. 
97 c; ii. 384 c; its significations, 
ii. 1 a; as optative, ii. 2 d; with 

lit or U til, ii. 9 c; with £,?, 

ii. 25 d; with £)\, ii. 14 b; with 

jj>, ii. 3 c, 5 a; with ^J£s, ii. 

o - , , , , a , 

5c; with jj> jj^ 9 or O^ >**> 

ii 5 c; with ^, ,j\ ^, *9jJ, 

jj^i ii. 6 b; with <Lo^o>;jJI L», 

ii. 17 c; expressed by the jus- 

sive after ^J and l*J, ii 22 D. 
Periodical times, i. 264 b. 
Permutation of verbs, ii. 287 a. 
Permutative, ii. 283 a, 284 d. 
Personal pronouns, i. 105 b; the 

pronouns, i. 53 D seqq., 100 D, 

252 b. 



Persons, i. 52 b. 

Pluperfect Indicative, ii. 4c; sub- 
junctive or potential, ii. 6 b. 

Plural, i. 191 D; sound or entire, 
i. 191 d; masculine, i. 192 a, 
194 d; feminine, i. 192 A, 
197 b ; broken, i. 192 A ; forms 
of the broken plural, i. 199 A — 
233 c; secondary broken plurals, 
i. 231 c; anomalous broken 
plurals, i. 233 b ; plurals of 
abundance and paucity, i. 234 b. 

Points, diacritical, i. 4 A. 

Predicate, ii. 250 b seqq. ; of ^^3 
and its " sisters," in the accu- 
sative, ii. 99 a — 109 b. 

Prepositions, i. 278 D ; ii. 129 A; 
separable, i. 280 b — 282 A ; in- 
separable, i. 279b; simple, ii. 
129 b — 188c; compound, ii. 
129 b, 188c; with a propo- 
sition as a genitive, ii. 192b; 
separated from the genitive, ii. 
191a, 193a; ellipsis of, ii. 
190 d; ^J after a nomen ac- 

tionis and a nomen agentis, ii. 
61 d, 68 c. 

Pronominal suffixes in the accusa- 
tive, i. 100 d; double, i. 103 a; 
in the genitive, i. 101 b, 252b; 
attached to a noun, i. 251 b; 
to a verb, i. 102 a— 103 b. 

Pronouns, separate personal, i. 
54 a; suffixed, in the accusa- 
tive, i. 100 d; in the genitive, 
i. 101b, 252 b; demonstrative, 
i. 105 A, 264 D seqq. ; interro- 

gative, i. 274 A seqq. ; indefinite, 

i. 277 a; personal, i. 105 b; 

reflexive, ii. 271 D; relative, 

i. 105 b, 270 b. 
Proper names, i. 107 c; diptote, i. 

242 c. 
Proposition. See Clause and Sen- 
Prose, rhymed, ii. 351 b, 368 c. 
Prosthetic I, in the imperative, i. 

19 c, 61 d; omitted, i. 24 c ; in 

the derived conjugations of the 

verb, i. 19 d, 40 c, 41 d, 43 a, 

44 a, 46 b. 
Quadriliteral verb, i. 47 B — 49 c, 

67 d. 
Qualificative clause, ii. 283 A seqq., 

317 c. 
Quasi-plurals, i. 224 d. 
Reflexive pronouns, ii. 271 D. 
Relative adjectives, i. 109 d, 149 c 

seqq. ; ii. 225 a. 
Relative clauses, i. 105 b ; ii. 317 b 

Relative pronouns, i. 105 b, 270 b. 
Restrictive sentences, ii. 335 b. 
Rhyme, ii. 350 A seqq. ; forms of 

words in, ii. 368 c seqq. 
Roots, secondary, from verbs of 

which the first radical is weak, 

i. 77 a, 81 a. 
Scriptio defectiva of long a and I, 

i. 9d— 10 b. 
Secondary roots from verbs having 

I as first radical, i. 77 a; from 
verbs having j and ^ as first 
radical, i. 81 A. 

III. English and Latin Technical Terms, etc. 449 

Sedda, i. 13 d. 

Sentence, ii. 250 a; adversative, 
ii. 333 A ; compound, ii. 255 A — 
256 D ; conditional, ii. 345 A ; 
copulative, ii. 325 A seqq. ; ex- 
ceptive, ii. 335 D ; hypothetical, 
ii. 347 b seqq. ; interrogative, 
ii. 306 B seqq. ; local, ii. 252 D ; 
negative and prohibitive, ii. 
299 c seqq. ; nominal, ii. 251 a; 
relative, ii. 317 b seqq. ; restric- 
tive, ii. 335 B ; verbal, ii. 251 b. 
Sila, i. 19 a. 
Solid verb, L 68 b seqq. 
States (or Tenses) of the verb, i. 

Status constructus, L 248 c — 

252 A; ii. 198 A seqq. 
Strong verbs, i. 52 d seqq. 
Subject, ii. 250 b seqq. ; not speci- 
fied, ii. 266 d. 
Subjunctive, i. 60 B ; ii. 22 c, 24 d. 
Substantive, used adjectivally, ii. 
274 a; in apposition to a pro- 
nominal suffix, ii. 285 a ; as 
hal, ii. 115 A. 
Substantive verb, ii. 99 a, 258 b ; 

negative, i. 96 B ; ii. 302 a. 
Suffixes, pronominal, accusative, 
i. 100 d; double, i. 103 A; 
genitive, i. 101 b, 252 b ; at- 
tached to a noun, i. 251 b; to 
a verb, i. 102 a— 103 b. 
Sukun, i. 13 a; ii. 355 d. 
Superlative, with the genitive, ii. 

218 a, 226 c. 
Syllable, i. 26 c D. 
Tenwin, L 12 a, 235 b; irregular, 
w. II. 

in poetry, ii. 387 a ; suppressed 
in poetry, ii 388 B ; used at 
the end of a word instead of 
the letter of prolongation, ii. 
390 c. 
Tesdid, L 13 D; necessary, i. 
15 a; euphonic, i. 15 b; after 
long vowels and diphthongs, i. 
15 b; irregularly suppressed in 
poetry, ii. 377 c ; irregularly 
used in poetry, ii. 377 d. 
Third form of the verb, used in 
the sense of the fourth, i. 
34 a. 
Trebly weak verbs, i. 95 b. 
Tribes, names of the Arab, how 

construed, ii. 292a, 296 c. 
TriHteral verb, i. 29 A seqq. 
Trip tote noun, i. 234 c. 
Triptotes for diptotes in poetry, 

ii. 387 a. 
Verb, triliteral, i. 29 a; forms of, 
i. 29 B seqq. ; quadriliteral, i. 
29 a; formation of, i. 47 b; 
forms of, i. 48 c seqq. ; the 
strong verb, i. 52 D — 53 A ; the 
solid verb, i. 68 b; uncon- 
tracted, i. 69 a; ii. 378 b; the 
weak verb, i. 52 b, 71c — 72 A; 
verba hemzata, i. 72 B seqq. ; 
verbs having $ and ^ as first 
radical, i. 78 A seqq. ; verbs 
having ^ and ^ as middle 
radical, i. 81 c seqq. ; inflected 
as strong verbs, L 86 d — 87 d ; 
verbs having ^ and ^£ as third 
radical, i. 88 a ; their IX. and 
XI. forms, i. 43 c, 91 b ; doubly 



weak verbs, i. 91 d seqq. ; trebly 
weak, i. 95 A — 96 b ; with suf- 
fixes in the accusative, i. 
102 A — 1 03 B ; substantive verb, 
ii. 99 a, 258 b ; negative, i. 96 b; 
ii. 302 A ; aplastic verbs, ii. 
15 D ; verbs of the heart, ii. 
48 D ; verbs of praise and 
blame, i. 97 A; ii. 290 a; of 
surprise or wonder, i. 98 b ; 
impersonal form of expression, 
ii. 266 d— 271c. 
Verbal adjectives, i. 131 B seqq. ; 

with the accusative or J, ii. 

70 a. 

Verbal sentence, ii. 251 B. 

Vocative, ii. 85 a. 

Voices, i. 49 c — 51 a. 

Vowels, short, i. 7 c ; pronuncia- 
tion of, i. 8b; long, i. 7b; 
pronunciation of, i. 9 c ; written 
defectively, i. 9 d ; final, how 
affected by the wad, i. 21 A — d. 

Wasl, wasla, i. 19 A. 

"Weak verbs, i. 52 d, 71 c — 72 A. 




Caspari, Carl Paul 


A grammar of the 


language. 3d ed. 


▼. 2 






1 !