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Full text of "A grammar of botany, illustrative of artificial, as well as natural, classification with an explanation of Jussieu's system"

17 



A 

GRAMMAR OF BOTANY, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

ARTIFICIAL, AS WELL AS NATURAL, 

CLASSIFICATION, 

WITH AN EXPLANATION OF 

JUSSIEITS SYSTEM. 




BY 

SIR JAMES EDWARD SMITH, M.D. F.R.S. 

%c. fa. 

PRESIDENT OF THE LINNJEAX SOCIETY. 



Natural Orders instruct us in the nature of plants ; artificial ones teach us 
to know one plant from another. Linn. Gen. PL ad Ord. Nat. 



JLonHou : 



PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, OUME, AND BROW, 
PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



ag i - 




... 




Printed by Richard and Arthur 2'oy/or, Shoe Lime, London. 



TO 

MRS. CORRIE, 

OF WOODVILLE LODGE, NEAR BIRMINGHAM, 

THE AUTHOR DEDICATES THIS WORK ; 
AS A SINCERE TESTIMONY 
OF ESTEEM AND RESPECT, 

FOR THOSE EMINENT, THOUGH UNOBTRUSIVE, 
VIRTUES AND TALENTS, 

WITH WHICH, 

BUT FOR THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY, 

HE MIGHT NEVER HAVE HAD THE HAPPINESS 

OF BECOMING ACQUAINTED. 

Norwich, Sept. 27, 1820. 



PREFACE. 



THE intention of the present volume is not 
only to supply some deficiencies, in a work 
of the same author, entitled An Introduction 
to Physiological and Systematical Botany ; but 
also to follow up its design, by additional in- 
formation ; especially on the subject of the 
natural classification, or affinities, of plants. 
The reception of that elementary treatise has 
been such, as to make it incumbent on the 
author to neglect no opportunity of being 
further useful. Yet he has not thought pro- 
per to add any new matter to the successive 
editions of his book, which the possessors of 
the original might not obtain in a separate 
form. The fourth edition, which, besides an 
American one, is now before the publick, has 
therefore merely received such emendations 
and corrections as were necessary to prevent 
mistakes. 

The popularity and success of the former 
work have, as usual, called forth many la- 



VI PREFACE. 



bourers into the same field. Some of these, 
though borrowing from it with unsparing 
hands, have thought proper to vary the form 
of their instructions ; partly perhaps to con- 
ceal that want of originality, which generally 
enfeebles all compilations ; and partly to tempt 
weak or sickly appetites, which have no pre- 
vious taste for the invigorating food of real 
knowledge. It is a commendable intention to 
lure such triflers, by tales or dialogues, to more 
solid reading, and more efficient instruction. 
I mean not to discommend or undervalue any 
of these humble attempts ; but the subject 
must not be reduced to their level. The only 
radical fault in compilers, especially of ele- 
mentary scientific instruction, is their inabi- 
lity to appreciate what is most important to 
teach or to enforce. Hence they encumber 
themselves, and alarm beginners, with loads 
of unmeaning names, and of useless, or dis- 
carded, terms. Let such be found in their 
proper places, but not obtruded on the stu- 
dent where they can render him no service. 
The elements of every science are necessarily 
dry enough ; but when they are correct and 
clear, they charm by their precision ; a taste 



PREFACE. Vll 

for which quality is one of the great ad vantages 
to be derived by the youthful mind, from the 
study of nature. 

With these considerations in view, I have 
commenced the present volume with what 
may be termed a Botanical Grammar. In 
the first five chapters the parts of the vege- 
table body, and their uses, are defined in a 
concise and methodical manner, with none 
but important technical terms. Perhaps the 
contents of these chapters might, with advan- 
tage, be learned by heart ; the young scholar 
being directed to seek out examples, of each 
particular part, or character, as he proceeds, 
from the garden or fields. The more ample 
Introduction to Botany would furnish his tu- 
tor with references to every example in books, 
that could possibly be wanted ; and the pupil 
might gradually be led on to a wider circle of 
terminology, (especially with regard to leaves,) 
necessary to be known before the species of 
plants can be investigated in detail. If the 
contents of these five chapters be well stored 
up in the mind, and the meaning of all the 
terms, therein explained, clearly and distinctly 
impressed upon the memory, the student will 



Vlll PREFACE, 

be competent to read any book, or to 
mine any flower, with great advantage. He 
will find himself so well grounded, that every 
thing will subsequently be of very easy attain- 
ment, and he will soon be conscious of a great 
superiority over those who read, or observe, 
in a desultory way ; possibly over many who 
write, or attempt to teach, without such a 
foundation. Nor will it be difficult for any 
attentive scholar, even without a master, to 
acquire these necessary principles. The pa- 
ragraphs are numbered, and refer to each 
other where mutual illustration is requisite. 
The figures also are occasionally cited, and 
may be consulted throughout ; though prin- 
cipally intended to explain the systematic 
part of the work, hereafter mentioned. 

The theory of Systematic Arrangement, in 
the sixth chapter, should likewise be well 
fixed in the mind. This subject is here treated 
in the same compendious way as the former; 
with all that is essential, as a foundation for 
any degree of further inquiry. 

The student being thus furnished with a 
knowledge of the materials with which he has 
to work, and the relative importance of those 



PREFACE. IX 

materials for each particular purpose, will 
easily comprehend the principles of the Lin- 
naean Artificial System, which claims his at- 
tention in the seventh chapter. This, he will 
soon perceive, is to be understood merely as 
a dictionary, to enable him to make out any 
plant that may fall in his way. He will learn 
to reduce such plant to it's proper class and 
order, in some systematic work, where he will 
trace out in progression it's genus and species, 
with every thing that any author has record- 
ed of it's history or use. A complete set of 
original figures, explanatory of this artificial 
system, is here subjoined, the want of such, 
in the above-mentioned Introduction to Bo- 
tany, having been complained of. The chap- 
ter in question, after a few remarks on no- 
menclature and generic characters, closes 
with a detailed exposition of the principles 
and intention of the Linnaean definitions of 
species. Some of these rules have hitherto 
been applied to Latin composition only ; but 
it does not appear that they may not be kept 
in view, though less strictly, in any language ; 
and the laws of discrimination and definition 
are absolute in themselves. 



X PREFACE. 

Thus far only have the pupils of Linnaeus 
been accustomed to go. But it is the object 
of the present publication to enable them to 
proceed a little further. The English reader is 
here, for the first time, presented with a full ex- 
planation of the System of Jussieu. The sub- 
ject of the natural affinities of Plants, and the 
question of classing them according to cha- 
racters derived from thence, have, within a 
short time, excited the attention of British 
Botanists, after being still more canvassed 
and taught on the continent. This subject 
was originally called into notice by Linnaeus 
himself, he having first pointed out the dif- 
ference between a natural and an artificial ar- 
rangement. Natural affinities cannot now be 
overlooked, by those who contemplate the 
Vegetable Kingdom with any degree of phi- 
losophical attention. As Professor de Jussieu 
and his pupils take the lead in the department 
of natural classification ; the botanists of En- 
gland, who' have never been behind their 
neighbours, in real science, may well desire 
to know something of the principles or advan- 
tages of a system, which deservedly claims so 
much notice. J have the more readily un- 



PREFACE. XI 

dertaken this task of explanation, as I pro- 
pose to advert more fully, than has hitherto 
been attempted, to the subject of natural af- 
finities, in my intended Flora, which has so 
long been promised to the British reader, in 
his own language. A work of this kind, found- 
ed on actual observation, is indeed requisite, 
instead of the various compilations of com- 
pilations, with which those who cannot read 
Latin have hitherto been obliged to rest sa- 
tisfied. Some exposition of this kind must 
have accompanied that work, to render it in- 
telligible ; and it will be still more commo- 
dious for the student to become previously 
initiated, and to take a general view of the 
subject, before his attention can be directed 
to particulars. 

The eighth chapter begins with an index, 
or key, to Jussieu's Classes, and an enume- 
ration of his Orders. In the sequel each Or- 
der is given in it's place, with the full cha- 
racter, translated from the Genera Plantarum 
of Jussieu. His descriptions and observations 
are every where marked by inverted commas, 
occasional corrections or remarks, intermixed 
with his text, being inclosed between brack- 



Xll PREFACE. 

ets. The characters of some Orders in the 
1st Class, better understood, since he wrote, 
as the Alusci and Filices, are totally reformed. 
To his definitions of a few others, given in 
his own words, are subjoined more complete 
and correct accounts, founded on more recent 
inquiries, as is particularly the case with the 
20th, 21st, 26th, and 47th Orders. The esta- 
blishment of new Orders, either by himself 
or other botanists of eminence, since his book 
came out, is indicated under the original 
Order from which each new one has been se- 
parated. The aim of the present work how- 
ever is not, by any means, to give a full view 
of these. As nothing is more easy than sub- 
division in such studies, it is no wonder that 
the followers of Jussieu should often carry 
that principle too far; just as young botanists 
are prone to multiply genera. The talents 
for judicious combination are infinitely more 
rare. We must wait therefore till some of 
these innovations shall receive confirmation 
from superior authorities, as well as from 
long experience. My present design is rather 
to exemplify the original System of Jussieu: 

* * G7 _ > 

to point out it's merits and defects; to mark 



XI 11 



the genuine, as well as doubtful, Genera of 
most Orders, and to give examples of all, with 
such observations, sparingly introduced, as 
may serve to throw light upon the subject. 
Many of the Genera for which Jussieu could 
not find a place in his System, being now bet- 
ter known, are here referred to their proper 
Orders. After all, the reader must not con- 
sider this publication as any thing like a com- 
plete view of a Natural System, but rather, 
to use a French idea, as Memoirs towards a 
System. Much still remains to be done by 
future observers, and still more by future 
systematic writers. It is evident that no such 
mode of classification can, at present, serve the 
purposes of analytical investigation, to make 
out an unknown plant. That is the exclusive 
object of the Artificial System of Linnaeus, 
which, of all the schemes hitherto contrived, 
is alone, perhaps, universally applicable to 
the end in question. A tacit conviction of this 
truth seems to be the source of great enmity, 
in many of the disciples of Jussieu, towards 
that System, which aims no hostility or rival- 
ship against them. A dictionary quarrels not 
with a grammar, nor a history with a chrono- 



XIV PREFACE. 

logical table. It is pernicious, as well as fool- 
ish, to set them at variance. 

The plates, composed in the first instance 
to explain the Artificial System of Linnaeus, 
have been extended much further, in order to 
afford representations of one or more Genera 
in each of Jussieu's Orders, or subdivisions 
of Orders. The figures, numbered in regular 
succession throughout, are cited in the text, 
and a full explanation of the whole is sepa- 
rately given. The volume ends with a com- 
parison between the Linneean Natural Orders, 
and those of Jussieu, by which it will be seen 
how nearly the conceptions of these great men, 
though not derived from the same principles, 
agree together. A few speculative remarks 
close the whole. They may teach the reader 
to think on the subject, and to judge for him- 
self hereafter, how far the conjectures or con- 
clusions, interspersed through the preceding 
review of Jussieu's Orders, are well founded. 



GRAMMAR 

OF 

BOTANY. 



CHAPTER I. 

SUBJECT. 

1 . -tSoTANY teaches the knowledge of Plants, either, 

1, with respect to their characters and distinctions; 

2, their structure and the uses of their several parts ; 
or 3, their various qualities with regard to mankind, 
and the brute creation. 

2. The 1st is called Systematical, the 2d Physiolo- 
gical, and the 3d Economical Botany. 

3. Systematical Botany is founded on a knowledge of 
the external structure of plants, and the different 
forms under which their various parts and organs 
appear. By this we are enabled to distinguish one 
species of plant from another, as well as to assem- 
ble or arrange them in families, orders or classes. 

B 



2 SUBJECT. 

4. Physiological Botany, besides a knowledge of the 
external forms of the vegetable body, requires an 
acquaintance with its internal structure, and the dif- 
ferent substances therein produced and contained, 
termed Secretions, with the purposes which such se- 
cretions answer. 

5. Economical Botany is either empirical or philo- 
sophical. The former originates in the experience 
and practical observation of mankind, from one age 
to another : the latter is deduced from a consideration 
of certain characters in vegetables ; either indicating 
peculiar properties ; or pointing out affinities, more 
or less remote, by which certain known qualities in 
some plants, are presumed to exist in others. 

6. Before any knowledge of Systematical Botany (3), 
or the Classification of Plants, can be understood, it 
is necessary to be acquainted with the various parts 
of which the Vegetable body consists. These are 
the Root, Stem, Stalks, Buds, Leaves, Appendages, 
Flower and Fruit. 



CHAPTER II. 

DESCENDING PART OF A PLANT. ROOT. 

7. RADIX, the Root, serves to fix the plant, and to 
imbibe nourishment for its support. It usually 
consists of a Caudex, or Body, the top of which is 
called the Crown; and Radiculte, Fibres; the latter 
being always present, and constituting the real, or 
efficient, root. Radicula, the Radicle, or Primary 
Fibre, is the point of the Embryo (62 ; 1) first pro- 
truded in incipient germination. 

8. Roots are distinguished into 7 kinds. 

1. Radir fibrosa, a Fibrous Root, composed of 
fibres only, as in many annual plants, and most 
grasses. 

2. R. repens, a Creeping Root, as in Mint and 
Couch-grass. 

s. R.fusiformis, a Tap Root, like the Carrot and 

Radish. 
4. R. pr&morsa, an Abrupt Root, as Scabiosa suc- 

cisa. 
s. R. tuber osa, a Tuberous or Knobbed Root, as 

the Potatoc, Pasony, and Orchis, 
o. R. bulbosa, a Bulbous Root, either solid, like 

that of the Crocus ; lamellated, like Onions ; or 

scaly, like the White Lily. 
B 2 






4 DESCENDING PART OF A PLANT. ROOT. 

7. R, articulata or granulata, a Jointed or Gra- 
nulated Root, like Wood Sorrel, and White 
Saxifrage. 

Q. Roots differ in duration, being either annual, bien- 
nial, or perennial. Fibrous and Tap Roots are 
frequently annual ; some Tap Roots are biennial ; 
Creeping, Abrupt, Tuberous, Bulbous, and Jointed 
Roots are ahvays perennial, as are so.me Fibrous 
and a few Tap Roots. 

10. Annual Roots produce the herbage, flowers, and 
seeds within the compass of one season, after which 
they entirely die ; Biennial ones produce herbage 
only the first summer, flowers and seeds the next, 
after which they also die ; Perennial Roots bear 
herbage and flowers through several successive years, 
to an indeterminate extent, and moreover increase, 
or form offsets, either spontaneously, or with the 
assistance of art. 

1 1. The Root is the first part produced by the Seed, 
when beginning to vegetate in the earth. It is na- 
turally directed downwards, extending itself at the 
extremity, and forming fresh fibres every year, such 
(7) being an essential part of every kind of root, the 
vegetation of which, and of the plant it bears, going 
on only while the fibres continue to grow, and to 
imbibe nourishment, 



CHAPTER III. 

ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 

12. CAULIS, the Stem, properly so called, serves to 
elevate the leaves and flowers above the ground, as 
in trees, shrubs, and many herbaceous plants, but 
is not essential to all. 

13. The Stem is either annual, or perennial ; simple, 
or branched; leafy, scaly, or naked; solid, or hol- 
low ; upright, twining, climbing, procumbent, or 
creeping ; straight, spreading, or zigzag ; round, an- 
gular, winged, or compressed ; smooth, downy, hairy, 
bristly, or prickly; even, striated, furrowed, or 
warty. 

14. A branched Stem (13) is either irregularly sub- 
divided, or 

i. Caulis dichotomies, a Forked Stem, having a flower 
at each fork or subdivision. 

2. altern^ ramosus, alternately branched, the 

branches being solitary, and variously directed. 

3. opposite ramosus, oppositely branched, when 

two branches stand together, spreading in oppo 
site directions. 

4-. verticillatus,\vhor\ed, many branches spread- 
ing in every direction from one point. 

5. determinate ramosus, abruptly branched, 



6 ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 

when each branch, after terminating in flowers, 
sends out numerous shoots from near its extremity. 

e. Caulis articulatuSj jointed, as in Samphire, and 
Cactus. 

7. distichus, two-ranked, the branches spread- 
ing in two opposite directions. 

8. brachiatus, four-ranked, when they spread 

in four directions. 

9. volubilis, twining, turns spirally ; to the 

right in some plants, to the left in others, inva- 
riably. 

15. Plants without a stem are termed acaules, stem- 
less, and the leaves are then necessarily radical, 
springing directly from the root. 

16. Culmus, a Culm or Straw, the peculiar stem of 
Grasses, is leafy, cylindrical, well known, though 
not easily defined, nor is this term very necessary. 
See fig, 139, 141. 

i. Culmus enodis, simple, or without joints, as in 

Juncus effiisus, &c. 
2. articulatus, jointed, as in Oats, and 

most Grasses, 
s. geniculatusj bent, at one or more joints, 

like the knee or elbow. 

The surface is either smooth, rough, downy or hairy, 
never prickly ; often striated or furrowed. 

17. Scapus, a Stalk, springs from the root, and bears 
the flowers and fruit, but no leaves. 

18. The Scapus is either simple or branched ; single- 



ASCENDING PART, HERBAGE. f 

or many-flowered ; erect or procumbent ; straight, 
wavy, or spiral, as in Cyclamen and Valismria after 
flowering. 

19. Pedunculus, a Flower-stalk, springs from some 
part of the stern, and bears the flowers and fruit ; 
if radical, it is a Scapus. 

20. A Flower-stalk is either terminal or lateral : if 
lateral, it is either axillary, or opposltifolius (oppo- 
site to each solitary leaf), or interpetiolaris (between 
the bases of 2 foot-stalks, laterally), or internodis 
(from the part of a branch between 2 joints, or 
leaves). It is termed gemmaceus, when proceeding 
from the same bud with the leaves. It is simple or 
compound; solitary or aggregate; erect, spreading, 
drooping or pendulous. 

<2 1 . Flowers destitute of a stalk are termed sessilcs, 
sessile. 

22. Pedicellus, a partial Flower-stalk, is the ultimate 
division of a Pedunculus (19). It is also used for the 
Fruit-stalk, elevating the Germen and Fruit in 
Mosses, and some other plants. 

23. Petiolus, a Foot-stalk, is the stalk of a Leaf, very 
rarely connected with, or bearing, the flower-stalks. 
This part, usually channelled along the upper side, 
is either simple, as in all simple, and some com- 
pound leaves ; or compound, either once, twice, 
or more ; and sometimes, as in the Pea and Vetch 
tribe, ends in tendrils (47 : 5). 



8 ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 

24. Froiis, a Frond, is a stem and leaf in one, bearing 
the fructification, as in Ferns, where the flowers and 
seeds grow mostly on the back ; or the Lichen and 
Sea-weed tribes, where they are more or less im- 
bedded in the leafy or crusty substance of the plant. 
This term is only used in the class Cryptogam'ia, 
whose flowers are anomalous, or ill understood. In 
spiked Ferns the frond is partially transformed into 
fructification. 

25. Stipes, a Stipe, is the Stem of a Frond (24), as in 
Ferns, where it is commonly scaly ; or the stalk 
of a Fungus, (Mushroom) fig. 129. 

26*. Gemma, a Bud, contains the rudiments of a plant, 
or part of a plant, latent, and wrapt up in scales, 
till the season is fit for their expansion. Vernatlo 
is used by Linnaeus to express the disposition or 
folding of the scales. 

27. Buds chiefly belong to trees of cold or temperate 
climates, and powerfully resist cold till they begin 
to open. 

28. The Buds of herbaceous plants (10) are radical. 
Bulbs are the buds of a certain tribe of herbs (8), 
their scales being no other than subterraneous leaves, 
as is evident in Lilium. 

29- Some buds contain only leaves, others only flowers 

(20), others both. 
30. Folium, a Leaf, a very general, but not universal 

organ, is of an expanded form, usually green, 



ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 9 

senting its upper surface to the light, the under 
commonly differing in hue, and in kind or degree 
of roughness. The inside is pulpy and vascular. 

31. Leaves receive the sap from the wood by one set 
of vessels, and expose it to the action oi air, light 
and heat by their upper surface, while what is su- 
perfluous passes off by the under. The Sap thus 
changed assumes peculiar flavours, odours, and other 
qualities, and is sent by another set of vessels into 
the bark, to which it adds a new layer every year 
internally, and another layer to the external part of 
the wood. Hence the concentric circles in trees, 
the number of which shows their age, and the breadth 
of each circle, the abundance and vigour of the 
foliage which formed it. 

32. Leaves are wanting in some tribes of plants, wh 3se 
stems are usually very succulent ; such as Salicornia, 
Cuscuta, Stapdia. 

33. The situation of Leaves (30) is either at the root, 
or on the stem or branches ; alternate, scattered, 
opposite, crowded, whorled (3, 4, or more in a 
whorl), or tufted. 

34. Their position is either close-pressed to the stem, 
imbricated, erect, spreading, horizontal, reclinate, 
recurved, or inflexed ; oblique (or twisted) or re- 
versed (the upper surface turned downward) ; de- 
pressed, floating, or immersed; two-ranked (spread- 
ing two ways 14:7); decussated (crossing each 
other in pairs) ; or unilateral (leaning all to one side). 



10 ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 

35. Their insertion is either sessile or stalked; peltate, 
clasping, connate, perfoliate, sheathing, equitant, or 
decurrent. 

36. Their form is simple, or compound in various de- 
grees ; undivided, or lobed ; their outline very va- 
rious in different plants; sometimes different on the 
same individual. The lower leaves of water plants, 
the upper of mountain ones, have commonly the 
greatest tendency to be much divided. For their 
particular forms see Introduction to Botany. 

37. Foliola, Leaflets, are the partial leaves, which, con- 
nected by one common, simple or branched, foot- 
stalk (23), make a compound leaf. 

38. The margin of Leaves or Leaflets is either entire, 
wavy, serrated, jagged, toothed or notched, in a sim- 
ple or compound manner ; naked, fringed, spinous, 
cartilaginous, glandular ; flat, revolute (rolled back- 
ward), or involute (the reverse). 

39. Their surface is smooth, naked, glaucous, downy, 
hairy, woolly, warty, glandular, or prickly ; even, 
rugged, or blistery ; veiny, ribbed, or veinless ; co- 
loured, variegated, opaque, or polished. Their ribs 
and veins contain the principal sap-vessels. 

40. Some Leaves are fleshy, cylindrical, semicylin- 
drical, awlshaped, tumid, channelled, keeled, two- 
edged, hatchet-shaped, solid, or hollow. 

4 1 . Others are membranous, leathery, rigid, or almost 
woody. 

42. The termination of Leaves is either obtuse^ acute, 



ASCENDING FART. HERBAGE. 11 

pointed, obtuse with a point, spinous-pointcd, or 
cirrhose as in Gloriosa; abrupt, jagged-pointed, re- 
tuse, or emarginate. 

43. With respect to division (36), Simple Leaves are 
either cloven, lobed, sinuated, deeply divided, laci- 
niated, or cut ; palmate, pinnatifid, pectinate, un- 
equal (as in Begonia), lyrate, runcinate, fiddle- 
shaped, hastate, arrow-shaped. 

44. Compound Leaves are either jointed, fingered, 
binate, (or conjugate,) ternate, quinate, pinnate with 
or without an odd leaflet, whorled, or auricled ; 
they are simply, doubly, thrice, or more, compound ; 
pedate, twice paired, twice ternate, or doubly pin- 
nate, &c. 

45. In duration, Leaves are either deciduous or ever- 
green; the former lasting but one summer; the 
latter two or more, though a fresh crop is pro- 
duced every year, so that the tree or shrub is never 
stripped. 

46. Some Leaves or Leaflets are continuous, never se- 
parable from the stem or footstalk, as in Ruscus, 
the natural order of Musci (Mosses), and the genus 
Jungcrmannia. 

47. Fulcra, Appendages, belong to the herbage of a 
plant, and are of 7 kinds. 

i. Stipula, the Stipula, a leafy appendage to the 
proper Leaves (30), or their Footstalks (23) ; 
usually in pairs, at the base of the latter, either 
united thereto, or distinct; sometimes simple and 



2 ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 

intrafoliaceous (withinside of the leaf), as in 
Grasses, fig. 141, and Potygonum, as well as the 
tribe called Rubiacetf, fig. 198, 199- In some of 
the latter they are divided, or compound. Some 
Stipulas are soon deciduous, others permanent as 
long as the Leaves. This organ is by no means 
universal, even in the same genus, as Cistus; nor 
constant in the same species, as Salix. 
i. Bractea, the Floral Leaf, a leafy appendage to 
the Flower, or its Stalk (17, 19), is often co- 
loured ; either deciduous, or as permanent as 
the Flower-stalk, to which it is sometimes firmly 
attached. 

3. Spina, a Thorn, originates in the wood itself, 
and by culture in rich soil, disappears, becoming 
a branch. Footstalks (23) sometimes harden 
into spines ; as do Stipulas (47 : 1) in Xanthium ; 
and Flower-stalks (19) in Pisonia. 

4. Acukus, a Prickle, arises from the bark only, 
as in Roses, and does not disappear by culture. 

1 Cirrus, a Tendril, a true fulcrum or support, is 
either axillary, or terminates a Leaf (42) or a 
Footstalk (2 3) or even a Flower-stalk (19), serving 
to sustain weak stems upon others. Tendrils, at 
first straight, soon turn spirally, and in some in- 
stances turn again, in the contrary direction. They 
are simple or branched ; their extremities often 
dilated and adhesive. The fibrous supports of 
Ivy are peculiar Tendrils, not Roots. Foot- 



ASCENDING PART. HERBAGE. 13 

stalks (23) sometimes perform the office of Ten- 
drils, as in Clematis cirrosa. 

6. Glandula, a Gland, a small tumour, discharging 
a fluid, either resinous, oily, or saccharine. 

7. PHus, a Hair, including all the various hairy, 
woolly, bristly, or even tubercular, clothing (or 
pubescence) of plants. Such hairs are either sim- 
ple, hooked, forked, starry, or branched, gene- 
rally jointed and tubular ; either harmless, pun- 
gent, or stinging ; erect, close-pressed, or deflex- 
ed ; flexible, rigid, or brittle and deciduous. 
They protect plants against heat and cold, or the 
attacks of animals. They are very often excre- 
tory ducts, discharging more or less of an oily, 
glutinous, odoriferous, or colouring fluid. 



14 



CHAPTER TV, 



INFLORESCENCE. 

48. INFLORESCENTIA, the Inflorescence or Mode of 
Flowering, expresses the manner in which Flowers 
are situated upon a plant. It is essential, though of 
temporary duration, and comes under the following 
denominations. 

1. Verticillus, a Whorl, when the Flowers form a 
ring round the stem, though perhaps inserted on 
two of its opposite sides, or even on one only. 

2. Racemus, a Cluster, consists of scattered Flowers, 
each on its own proper stalk (22), connected by 
one common stalk (20), all nearly in perfection 
together. A Cluster is sometimes compound ; or 
aggregate like Act&a racemosa. 

3. Spica, a Spike, is composed of many Flowers, 
sessile, or nearly so (21), on one common stalk, 
sometimes branched, generally very erect ; the 
flowers opening in succession ; sometimes unila- 
teral (34). Spicula, a Spikelet, is the inflores- 
cence of such Grasses, as have many florets in one 
calyx. 

4. Corymbus, a Corymb, a kind of Cluster (48 :2), 
whose partial stalks are gradually longer down- 
wards, so that the flowers they bear are nearly 



INFLORESCENCE. 15 

on a level. After flowering this usually becomes 

-35 v 

a perfect Race?iius. 

s. Fasciculus, a Tuft, is composed of numerous 
level Flowers, on little stalks, variously connect- 
ed and subdivided. 

6. Capitulum, a Head, consists of sessile Flowers, 
crowded together into a globular figure, the cen- 
tral, or terminal ones generally opening first. 

7. Umbella, an Umbel, is formed of several Stalks, 
radiating from a centre, and nearly equal in 
length, so as to compose a level, or convex, 
rarely concave, surface of flowers. It is, in true 
Umbelliferous plants, rarely simple, generally 
compound, each Stalk, or Ray, bearing a Par- 
tial Umbel, Umbellula. The Umbel in such 
plants is termed flosculous, when the flowers are 
all nearly equal and uniform ; radiant, when the 
marginal ones are more or less irregular and un- 

o o 

equal. In other orders of plants the Umbel, if 
present, is generally simple, but less perfect as 
to the insertion of its stalks ; witness the orders 
of Apocinea and Asckpiade&. In Euphorbia, 
the General Umbel consists of stalks repeatedly 
forked, not umbellate. 

o. Cyma, a Cyme, consists of several Stalks, spring- 
ing from one common centre, like an Umbel, but 
subdivided in an irregular, somewhat alternate, 
mode, and forming a nearly level., or mostly 
convex, surface of flowers. 



INFLORESCENCE. 

9. Panicula, a Panicle, is a loose, irregularly sub- 
divided, Cluster (48:2) ; either diffusa, lax ; or 
coarctala., dense ; the Flowers are generally 
drooping ; sometimes unilateral. 

10. Thyrsus, a Bunch, is only a very dense or 
close Panicle, assuming an ovate form. Such is 
a Bunch of Grapes, 



17 



CHAPTER V. 

FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 

49. FLOS, the Flower, is a temporary part of a plant, 
destined to form, and to perfect, the Fruit and Seed, 
which it always precedes, and is therefore essential. 

50. Fructus, the Fruit, and especially Semen, the 
Seed, is the ultimate object of all the other parts of 
fructification, destined to reproduce and continue 
the species, terminating the old individual, and be- 
ginninr, the new. 

51. Annual or Biennial Plants (10) literally finish 
eir existence in producing one crop of Seeds. Per- 
ennial ones renew their life, as it were, every sea- 
son, either in the Root, or Root and Stem, ac- 
quiring a new layer of Wood and of Bark (31), as 
well as a new set of Leaves (45), and of Flowers 
(49)5 affording an annual supply of Fruit and Seed. 

52. The parts of Fructification are seven ; four of 
them, Calyx, Corolla, Stamina, and Pistilla, be- 
longing to the Flower ; two, Pericarpium and Se- 
men, to the Fruit ; and one, Receptaculum, is com- 
mon to both. 

53. Calyx, the Calyx, or outer integument of a Flower, 
not universal in all Flowers, resembles the Leaves 
in texture and colour (30), and perhaps performs 
their functions (31) as far as the Flower- or Fruit- 

c 



18 FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND 

stalk is concerned. It also frequently shelters and 
protects the more delicate internal parts ; is either 
general or partial ; permanent or deciduous ; sim- 
ple or double ; of one leaf or of several ; undivided, 
cloven, or manycleft. There are 7 kinds of Calyx, 
i. Ptrianthium, Perianth, or Calyx commonly so 
called, the most general, is that which is con- 
tiguous to, or actually makes a part of, the Flower, 
but is not always present. This is sometimes 
double. It differs in situation with regard to the 
Germen (59), being either superior or inferior to 
that organ ; sometimes intermediate, or surround- 
ing it about the middle. Its forms are extremely 
various, of one leaf or of several ; regular or ir- 
regular ; simple, or with an external, generally 
smaller, calyx, Calycnlus ; or other appendages, 
as in Pulten&a. It is either round, or angular; 
compressed, tumid, or inflated ; leafy, coriaceous, 
or membranous; someti rnes finally pulpy ; smooth, 
hairy, or prickly. In Compound Flowers gene- 
rally composed of imbricated scales, which close 
over the Seeds. 

y. Ini'olucrum, an Involucrum, is remote from the 
rest of the Flower, partaking of the nature of a 
Bractea (47 : 2), and chiefly noticed in the cha- 
racters of proper Umbelliferous Plants (48:7). 
This part is either general, or partial ; the latter 
being denominated Involucdlum. The Involu- 
cntm of Ferns is membranous, covering the 



FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 19 

masses of fructification, termed Sori, fig. 100, 
1 03, but not invariably present. 
s. Amentum, a Catkin, consists of a cylindrical 
common Receptacle (63), beset with numerous 
firmly inserted Scales, each scale accompanied 
by one or more Stamens (58) or Pistils (59) ; 
rarely both. The pistil-bearing Catkin only is 
permanent after flowering, as it becomes the 
Fruit. See fig. 85-91. 

4. Spatha, a Sheath, more or less remote from the 
Flower, bursts longitudinally, and finally becomes, 
for the most part, membranous. The elongated 
common Receptacle, in some instance? contained 
within the Spatha, is termed Spadiv, as in Arum 
and Calla. 

5. Gluma, a Husk, or Glume, the chaffy Calyx pe- 
culiar to Grasses. The Arista, or Awn, a spi- 
ral hygrometrical bristle, is its occasional ap- 
pendage, though more generally belonging to the 
chaffy Corolla (56) of the same plants. 

<j. Perich&tium, a Scaly Sheath, investing the fruit- 
bearing Flowers of some Mosses, fig. 106, 110; 
and remaining at the base of their Fruit-stalk 
(22). 

r. Volva, a Wrapper, the membranous covering 
of the tender fructification in some of the Fungus 
tribe, as the Gills of Mushrooms, which are 
finally exposed, by the Volva forming a ring 
round the Stalk (25). The same term is used, 
C 2 



20 FRUCTIFICATION, Oil FI.OWEU AND FRUIT. 

in the same tribe, for the fleshy external coat, or 
case, of several kinds of Puff-ball, and those 
Agarics, which constitute Persoon's genus of 
Amanita. See fig. 129, a- and b. 

54. Corolla, the Corolla, or inner integument of a 
Flower, generally more dilaled, delicate, and co- 
loured, than the Calyx, is not always present. This 
organ is supposed to perform some function with 
respect to air and light, analogous to that of the 
Leaves ; but limited to the use of the more essen- 
tial internal organs. It consists frequently of t\vo 
distinct parts, the Petal and the Nectary. 

55. Petalum, the Petal, is either one or more, regu- 
lar or irregular; equal or unequal ; transient and de- 
ciduous, or withering and permanent; variously co- 
loured; often fragrant ; frequently bearing honey, 
without any particular apparatus, or Nectary (57). 

56. A Corolla of one Petal, or piece, is called mo- 
nopetalous ; one of several, poly petal ous. The 
base of the former is named Tubus, the Tube; the 
spreading part, variously divided, the Limbits, or 
Limb. The base of each Petal, in a polypetalous 
Corolla, is the Uiiguis, Claw ; the expanded part 
the Lamina, Border. The more or less hollow, or 
dilated, part, within the mouth, (or eye as it is some- 
times called,) in both, is denominated Faux, the 
Throat, and is either open and pervious, or closed 
with hairs, scales, or valves. 

5". Nectar ium, the Nectary, secretes or contains ho- 



FRUCTIFICATION, OK FLOWER AND FRUIT. 21 

ney, a nearly universal fluid in Flowers, but not 
always lodged in any organ, distinct or separate from 
the Petals (55). When it is so, the Nectary is 
either an assemblage of Glands f47 : 6), or a tubular 
elongation of the Petal, or of the Calyx, or a sort 
of Crown, or variously-formed appendage, to the 
former. Honey brings insects about flowers, to as- 
sist in the dispersion of the Pollen (58). 

58. Stamina, the Stamens, internal with respect to 
the Corolla (54), are essential to every species of 
plant, in some form or other. Each Stamen con- 
sists of an Anthem, Anther, usually membranous, 
of two cells, bursting lengthwise, or sometimes open- 
ing by terminal pores, rarely by a lid or valve : and 
of a Filamcntum, Filament, various in length and 
proportion, supporting the Anther, but not invaii- 
ably present. The Pollen, or Dust, contained in 
the Anther, consists mostly of fine grains, bursting 
with moisture, and discharging an elastic vapour. 
In some of the Orchis tribe, the Asdepiadece (48 : 7), 
fig. 185, Mirabilis, 167, and a few others, the Pollen 
is glutinous, waxy, or elastic and very tenacious. 

59. Pistilla, the Pistils, central, essential, not always 
in the same Flow r er with the Stamens, but in another 
of the same species. Each consists of a Germcn * 

* Gaertner, who is followed by the French and some others, prefers 
the term Ovarium to Germen. But Ovarium is used by anatomists for 
a peculiar animal organ, unknown in vegetables, and can only lead to 
error if applied to them. This has been shown long ago. 



22 FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 

or Seed-bud, which is essential ; Stylus, the Style, 
one or more, not always present; and Stigma, the 
Stigma, which is essential. The Stigma is moist 
or glutinous, to retain the Pollen, which bursts 
there, and serves to perfect the Seed in the Ger- 
men. 

60. Aestivatio, which may be englished by Aestiva- 
tion, or by Flower-budding, expresses the mode in 
which the divisions of any Corolla (54-56) are dis- 
posed in the bud. It is either imbricata, folded, 
from left to right, as in Cistus, or from right to left, 
as in Hypericum : or valvata, valvular, the divisions 
meeting side by side, as in Protea, 

61. Pericarpium, the Seed-vessel, formed of the en- 
larged germen, is extremely various, but not inva- 
riably present. It serves to protect the Seeds till 
ripe, and then, by one means or other, to promote 
their dispersion. When dry, it often bursts elasti- 
cally ; when pulpy, it is usually the food of animals, 
who thus convey its contents to a distance. The 
principal forms of the Seed-vessel are the follow- 
ing. 

i. Capsula, a Capsule, finally dry, membranous or 
woody, rarely externally pulpy, opening by valves, 
or by pores, or by the swelling of the seed ; in- 
ternally of one cell or several, separated by dis- 
sepimenta, partitions, and bearing the Seeds either 
on the margins of its valves, or partitions, or on 
the Central Column, Columetla. The partitions 



FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 23 

originate either from the margins or centre of 
each valve, or from the central column, except 
when single or solitary. Utriculus is a thin blad- 
dery, dry, single-seeded Capsule without valves. 
Achenium of Richard is the same thing, whether 
membranous, or coriaceous, or even woody. 
Samara a compressed, dry Capsule, of 2 cells, 
without valves, often winged. Folliculus a leathery 
or woody Capsule, of one valve, bursting length- 
wise, with marginal Seeds. Coccum, one portion 
of an aggregate, dry, elastic, bivalve Capsule, as 
in Euphorbia y and the Ilutaceous order. An un- 
necessary term. 

2. Siliqua, a Pod, a long, dry, solitary Seed-vessel 
of two valves, with an intermediate parallel sin- 
gle partition, whose edges bear the numerous 
Seeds. Silicula, a Pouch, is only a shorter or 
rounder Siliqua, with fewer Seeds. 

3. Legumen, a Legume, a solitary Seed-vessel, of 
two valves, without any separate longitudinal 
partition, and bearing the Seeds along one of its 
margins only. 

4. Drupa, a Stone-fruit, is fleshy, sometimes dry, 
containing one hard or bony Nut, of one or more 
cells, and as many kernels. 

A Pomum, an Apple, is fleshy, containing a Cap- 
sule, with several Seeds. 

6. Bacca, a Berry, is fleshy, sometimes dry, con- 
taining one or more Seeds, enveloped with pulp. 



24 FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 

B. composita, a Compound Berry, is composed 
of several single-seeded grains. B. corticata, a 
Thick-skinned Berry, has a firm rind, like the 
Orange, the Gourd, c. B. spuria, a Spurious 
Berry, originates either in the Calyx becoming 
pulpy, like the Mulberry, and perhaps the Fig ; 
the Corolla, as in Commdina Zanonia ; the 
scales of a Catkin (53 : 3), as in Juniperus ; or 
the Receptacle (63), as in the Strawberry, and 
perhaps the Yew. 

7. Strobilus, a Cone, a Catkin (53 : 3) enlarged and 
hardened, lodging the Seeds ; either naked be- 
tween its scales ; or in a sort of Capsule, con- 
nected with the base of each, more rarely stalked 
and distinct, as in Willows. 

62. Semina, the Seeds, to the perfecting of which all 
the other organs are subservient. Each Seed con- 
sists of several parts. 

1. Embryo, the Embryo or Germ (called Ccrcu- 
lum by Linnaeus) is the most essential of all, no 
seed being capable of vegetating if this part be 
defective, as happens chiefly for want of the assist- 
ance of the Pollen (58), if the latter be spoiled by 
wet, or otherwise hindered ; though the Seed may 
outwardly appear sound. This part sends out 
the Root (7) downwards, and the Plumula, or 
bud of the Stem or Herbage (12), upwards. 

2. Cotyledones, Cotyledons or Seed-lobes, closely 
attached to the Embryo, commonly two, rarely 



FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 25 

more, in some tribes altogether wanting. They 
either ascend out of the ground, and perform for 
a while the office of Leaves (31), or remain bu- 
ried, till they gradually decay. 
3. Albumen, the White, a farinaceous, fleshy, horny, 
or almost stony, substance, destined to nourish 
the Embryo during the first stage of vegetation, 
till the Root can perform its office (7). The Al- 
bumen forms a separate body in Grasses, Palms, 
the Liliaceous. tribe, and other monocotyledonous 
Plants, properly so called, though this substance 
itself, which makes up the chief bulk of such 
Seeds, is commonly taken for their Cotyledon. 
Becoming fluid, it is soon totally absorbed by 
the sprouting Embryo of these plants. In many 
dicotyledonous Plants the Albumen is likewise 
distinct from the Cotyledons, as the Nutmeg, 
where it is large and curiously eroded or sinuated ; 
Mirab'dis, Polygonum, and Rum&v t where it is 
mealy and shapeless, inclosing the Embryo and 
Cotyledons ; and some few Leguminous Plants 
(6 1 : '3), though in most of this last tribe it does 
not constitute a separate part, any more than in 
the Gourd family, the Walnut, and many others. 
In such, the albuminous matter is lodged in the 
substance of their Cotyledons; for it must be pre- 
sent in some mode or other, to supply the first 
food of the germinating Embryo. Gtertner distin- 
guishes an organ by the name of / 7 //e//M<y,or Yolk, 



26 FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 

in Seeds, which appears to me always either -a pair 
of subterraneous Cotyledons, or a part of the Em- 
bryo ; see Trans, of Linn. Soc. v. ix. 204. 

4. Testa, the Skin, either simple, or lined with a 
finer film, Membrana, contains, and gives a shape 
to, the foregoing parts, and in vegetation bursts 
irregularly. A pulpy Seed, Semen baccatum, is 
furnished with pulp between the Membrana and 
the outer Skin, as in Jasminum*. 

5. Hilum, the Scar, or point of attachment, at the 
base of every Seed, where all the internal parts 
meet, and through which they are nourished 
while growing. 

Accessory, not essential, parts of a Seed are : 

e. Strophiolum, the Crest, an occasional appendage 
to the Scar, of a glandular appearance, as in 
Chelidonium, and some Leguminous genera, Ulex, 
Spartium, <*c. 

7. Pellicula, the Pellicle, a thin close membrane; 
a downy covering ; or a glutinous substance, not 
perceptible till the Seed is moistened, as in Sal- 
via verbenaca. 

* M. Richard, who unnecessarily, I think, invents the terra Epi- 
sperm for the Testa of Gaertner, asserts this covering to be always sim- 
ple, though he allows it to be formed of two membranes, with an in- 
termediate vascular parenchyma, or pulp. Any person who examines the 
kernel of an Apple will surely, in every stage of its growth, find a c'ou- 
ble Testa, the outermost firmly coriaceous, the innermost membranous ; 
nor are numerous instances,' of the same kind, wanting, where th 
external Testa can by no means be taken for any thing else. 



FRUCTIFICATION, OH FLOWER AND FRUIT. 27 

8. Arillus, the Tunic, a complete or partial co- 
vering, attached to the base only, more or less 
loose, or inflated, as in Urania, fig. 155, Euony- 
mus,and the Mace of the Nutmeg. In Oxalis this 

* o 

part is elastic ; yet perhaps a more genuine Aril- 
lus than in the true Rutacece, or the Euphorbia. 
See Jussieu's 81st and 96th orders. 

9. Pappus, the Seed-down, a feathery, hairy, bristly, 
or membranous tuft, or crown, at the summit 
of a Seed, rarely at its base, most important 
in the Compound Flowers. 

10. Cauda, a Tail, a terminal, often feathery or 
hairy, appendage, formed of the permanent Style 



11. Rostrum, a Beak, an elongation of a Seed- 
vessel, as in the Geranium tribe, or of a Seed, 
as in Scandii'j fig. 2 1 0. 

12. Ala, a Wing, a dilated membranous or coria- 
ceous expansion, terminating or surrounding a 
Seed, or Seed-vessel, fig. 221, c. 

63. Receptaculitm, the Receptacle, the common base, 
or point of connexion, where all the parts of a 
Flower meet : as also the place of insertion of the 
Seeds (62) more particularly. The Receptacle of 
a Flower is the disk, or space between the Sta- 
mens (58) and Pistil (59) ; especially if the Ger- 
men be inferior. In Compound Flowers (rT8) the 
Common Receptacle, being either naked, hairy, 
scaly, or cellular, affords generic distinctions. , 



28 FRUCTIFICATION 7 , OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 

64. Flos complctus, a Complete Flower, is furnished 
with both Calyx (53) and Corolla (54) ; without 
the former, it is nudus, naked; without the latter, 
apetalus, apetalous. 

. 65. With respect to the essential organs of fructifica- 
tion ; Flos perfectus, a Perfect, or United, Flower, 
bears Stamens (58) and Pistils (59) in the same 
individual. Flores separati. Separated Flowers, 
have Stamens in one, Pistils in another. This se- 
paration is absolute in Monoecious Flowers, where 
both kinds grow on the same plant, and in Dioeci- 
ous ones, where they grow on two distinct plants, 
of the same species ; but in Polygamous ones there 
are some Perfect Flowers, as well as Separated 
ones, on the same plant, or on different ones. 
Neuter or Abortive Flowers have both organs de- 
fective. 

66. Flos sterilis, a Barren Flower, has Stamens only 
(65),, and can consequently produce no Fruit or 
Seed. 

67. Flos fer tills, a Fertile Flower, has Pistils only 
(65), but produces no Seed without the assistance 
of the Barren one (66). 

68. Flos compositus, a Compound Flower, consists of 
numerous Flosculi, Florets, or partial flowers, in a 
Common Calyx, the Anthers (58) of each of such 
florets being united into a cylinder. The Corolla 
(54) of each floret is monopetalous (56), and either 
tubulosa, tubular, or ligttlala, strap-shaped, flat. 



FRUCTIFICATION, OR FLOWER AND FRUIT. 29 

69. Flos aggregatus, an Aggregate Flower, consists 
of several Flowers, or Florets (68),, with distinct 
Anthers, collected into one Common Calyx, as in 
Scabiosa, and all Amentaceous Flowers (53 : 3), as 
also most Grasses, and according to Linnaeus, um- 
bellate and even cymose flowers (48), which last 
we can scarcely admit, they being rather modes of 
Inflorescence. 

70. Compound Flowers (68), as well as Aggregate 
ones (69), are either flosculosi, flosculous, or radiati, 
radiant, as already explained under Umbella (48 : 7). 

71. Cryptogamic Plants, are those whose Flowers 
are either totally unknown, like Ferns (77) ; or not 
constructed according to the analogy of Plants in 
general, as above described, like Mosses (77) : so 
that they cannot be referred to Classes and Orders 
by their Stamens and Pistils, as hereafter to be ex- 
plained. Phaenogamic Plants, on the contrary, have 
evident Flowers, constructed according to the above- 
described principles. 



30 



CHAPTER VI. 

PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

72. tWER since Botany has assumed the form of a 
Science, Botanists have agreed that every principle 
of Classification must be deduced from the parts 
of fructification (52). 

73. All botanists are also agreed, in distinguishing the 
Vegetable Kingdom into Classes, Orders, Genera, 
and Species. 

74. Species are generally acknowledged to be per- 
manently distinct, though liable to Varieties, and 
occasionally to the production of intermediate Spe- 
cies, by the access of the Pollen (58) of one, to the 
Stigma (59) of another ; but such appear to have 
only a transient duration. 

75. Genera, as far as they are rightly determined, are 
considered by Linneeus, and his scholars, as no less 
natural than Species (73), but this opinion is re- 
jected by many botanists, especially of the French 
school, even while they contend for the existence of 
natural Orders. 

76. Classes and Orders, which are assemblages of 
Genera (75), are either natural or artificial. 

77. Natural Classes and Orders (76) are such as ap- 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 31 

pear indicated by Nature herself. Some are very 
evident, as Grasses, Umbelliferous Plants, Com- 
pound Flowers, the Orchis tribe, Palms, Ferns, 
and Mosses. Others are more obscure, and many 
plants cannot yet be referred to any such Orders or 
Classes. 

78. Artificial ones (76) are contrived for human con- 
venience, to assist the memory, and to promote the 
determination and discrimination of plants. Such 
constitute the Linntean system, founded on the 
Stamens and Pistils (58, 59); those of Tournefort 
and llivinus upon the Corolla (54) ; and those of 
Ray, and several other authors, upon the Fruit (6 1) 
and Seed (62). 

79. Linnaeus first pointed out the distinction betwixt 
a Natural and an Artificial System ; but Bernard 
de, Jussieu and his nephew Antoine Laurent de Jus- 
sieu, first formed and published a Natural System, 
reduced to a regular form upon scientific principles. 

80. Linnaeus contended that human science was not 
-; yet competent to give definitions, or technical cha- 
racters, of Natural Classifications. 

81. Adanson indeed undertook this, and A. L. de 
Jussieu has founded his System, published at Paris 
in 1789, upon such characters; which though in- 
complete, and liable to various exceptions, is of 
great use as a key to a Natural Arrangement (79). 
In proportion however as it serves this purpose, and 
is dependent on definitions, it becomes in many 



32 PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

instances artificial, breaking natural affinities, or 
producing unnatural ones ; defects inevitable in all 
such undertakings, from our imperfect acquaintance 
with the Vegetable productions of the whole globe. 

82. In the Systematic arrangement of Plants, whether 
artificial or natural, some botanists consider one 
part of the fructification (49), others another part, 
more important than the rest. 

83. As far as Artificial Classification (78) is concern- 
ed, this is little more than a matter of opinion ; but 
the Linnsean System, as being founded on the num- 
ber, situation, and proportion, of the Stamens and 
I istils (58, 59), organs which must exist in some 
shape or other, has been found the most commo- 
dious, and has put aside every other. 

84. Such a mode of arrangement answers the purpose 
of a dictionary, to find out plants by their charac- 
ters, as words by their orthography. 

85. There is scarcely a principle which can be assumed 
as universal, or without exception, in Natural 
Classification. Number, in the parts or divisions 
of each organ, proves often fallacious ; Insertion, 
or the mode of connexion of the several organs, 
and their comparative situation, with regard to each 
other, is found far less exceptionable ; Structure^ 
or the different forms of the same organ, in different 
instances, is of very great moment. 

S6\ Linnaeus and Jussieu concur in considering as of 
primary importance the Structure (85) of the Em- 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 33 

bryo (62 : 1), and the Cotyledons (62 : 2) ; and the 
former has declared that the number of the Coty- 
ledons appeared to him to afford a sure basis, or 
primary source of discrimination for a Natural Sy- 
stem. He soon found what he thought an excep- 
tion in Nymphcea, but was deceived in that instance. 
The above principle, doubtless, is good, but some 
correction of the commonly received ideas and terms 
is become necessary, since the structure and eco- 
nomy of Seeds have been more closely investigated. 

87. Gaertner and Jussieu have shown that the Albu- 
men (62 : 3) advantageously serves in the natural 
arrangement and discrimination of Plants. This 
however is liable to as many exceptions, in the de- 
tail, as almost any other source of characters. 

&8. Plants with a simple undivided Embryo (62 : 1) 
are termed Monocotykdones, ormonocotyledonous; 
the upper end of that organ being presumed to per- 
form the necessary functions of a Cotyledon, with 
respect to air, in the earliest stage of germination. 
Hence the term in question may properly be re- 
tained, though originally meant to apply to the se- 
parate, and usually copious, Albumen of such plants, 
visible in Corn, Palms, &c. 

89. Plants whose Embryo divides at the top into two 
parts or lobes, which are the Cotyledons (62 : 2), are 
named Dicotyledones, or dicotyledonous. In some 
few instances, as the Fir tribe, there are numerous 
Cotyledons ; but such plants differ in no particular 
D 



34 PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

of their economy from those which have only two, 
and are therefore comprehended under the same 
denomination. 

90. Some Plants, especially those with anomalous or 
obscure fructification, have been judged Acotyle- 
dones, or destitute of a Cotyledon. The idea and 
the term are partly founded in error. Of some 
which have been thus considered, nothing is cor- 
rectly known of the structure or germination of their 
Seeds, as Fungi, and Submersed Algce (Fuel, Con- 
ferva, &c.), nor has much been ascertained relative 
to the Hepaticce, or the Lichenes. We know that 
their Embryo is of the most simple kind, without 
appearance of Cotyledons or Albumen, so that they 
appear to differ from the Monocotyledones (88) 
chiefly in the want of a separate Albumen, that nu- 
tritious matter being probably lodged in the sub- 
stance of the Embryo, as it is in the Cotyledons of 
many of the Dicotyledones (62 : 3). But this is 
conjectural. Muscl, Mosses, (77) properly consi- 
dered, appear to agree with Hepatlca, to which 
they are otherwise very closely allied, in having a 
simple Embryo, without either separate Cotyledons 
or Albumen. But they subsequently produce a pe- 
culiar accessory organ, consisting of several branch- 
ed and jointed fibres, springing upwards or laterally, 
from the crown of the Root (7), and very distinct 
from its radicles. These fibres are taken by Hed- ' 
wig for Cotyledons, which from their late forma- 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 35 

tion they can scarcely be ; and we may rather con- 
sider their nature and use as undetermined. They 
perhaps differ little from the woolliness so common 
on the Stem of these plants in an advanced state. 
Filices, Ferns, (77) differ somewhat from Mosses 
in having a membranous and flat expansion of the 
Embryo, sometimes fixed by the centre. Still this 
part may be considered as simple, and what are 
subsequently produced, however shapeless, are doubt- 
less of the nature of Leaves, or Fronds (24), which 
in these plants are of a more Proteus-like, or mu- 
table, figure than in any others. Ferns want the 
above-mentioned jointed fibres of Mosses in germi- 
nation. 

9 1 . From what has been said (90) it appears that the 
old appellation of Acotyledones may commodiously 
remain with Cryptogamic vegetables in general (71), 
though the form of their Embryo, and mode of 
germination, are, in some of this tribe, only pre- 
sumed from analogy. Those with which we are 
acquainted are certainly destitute of any Cotyledon, 
and of any separate Albumen. 

92. Jussieu however ranks under this denomination 
an Order termed Naiades, consisting of aquatic 
plants, with perfect, not cryptogamic, fructifica- 
tion. Of many of these his knowledge, respecting 
the point in question, was incomplete, and he has 
candidly owned his difficulties. Most of the plants, 
on being better understood, prove either dicotyle- 



36 PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

donous, or monocotyledonous, and naturally range 
with their allies in other parts of the System. 

93. Mr. Robert Brown, who has greatly illustrated 
the System of Jussieu, and the Natural Orders of 
Plants, has shown that in the Monocotykdoms the 
number three, and its compounds, prevail in the 
several parts of fructification, insomuch that in 
Orders furnished with only one evident and perfect 
Stamen, there are rudiments of 2 others. So in 
the Orchis tribe, as I understand it at least, while 
there are 3 Calyx-leaves, the 2 Petals (55) and the 
solitary Nectary (57) make up the same number in 
the Corolla, fig. 70, 77. 

94. In Dicotyledones the number five no less remark- 
ably prevails, throughout the great bulk of the Ve- 
getable kingdom, as is evident on the slightest in- 
spection. 

95. Jussieu and his followers attribute a Calyx only, 
no Corolla, to Monocotyledonous plants, however 
conspicuous, coloured, elaborate, or compound the 
integuments of the Flower (53, 54) may be. This 
proves most flagrantly paradoxical in the natural 
order of ScitaminefE, fig. 1 ; and it is evidently ab- 
surd that we must wait to name the obvious parts 
of a flower, till we have investigated the structure 
or germination of its seed. We allow indeed that 
the difficulty is lessened, though not infallibly re- 
moved, by Mr. Brown's rule respecting numbers 
(93, 94). 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 37 

96. The insertion of the parts of a Flower, or in other 
words, the situation of the Germen (59), whether 
inferior or superior, with regard to the rest, next 
takes the lead in importance in Jussieu's system ; 
and in the Dicotyledones the absence or presence, 
the numher or divisions, of the Petals (55), afford 
even more leading, if not important, distinctions. 

97. The terms used by Jussieu to indicate the above 
different insertions apply to the Stamens (58). 
Thus, 

Stamina hypogyna are inferior, inserted beneath the 
Germen, fig. 14 and 16. 

Stamina epigyna are inserted above it, fig. 11. 

Stamina perigyna are inserted into the integuments 
of the Flower, which, if simple, is always de- 
nominated a Calyx (95) by this author, fig. 13 ; 
if otherwise, the Stamens are borne either by the 
Calyx, fig. 19, or the Corolla, fig. 8, 9. But 
such insertion never takes a lead in his system, 
unless it be into, what he at least considers as, 
a Calyx. The above terms apply likewise to the 
Corolla. 

98. Characters derived from proportion, do not en,ter 
at all into the principles of Jussieu's classification, 
nor scarcely those founded on number, except so 
far as whether that of the Stamens or Pistils be de- 
finite or indefinite. 

99. This System is confessedly incomplete, as there 
. are numerous, even well-known, Genera (73, 75) 



38 PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

which cannot well be referred to any of his natural 
orders. 

100. The same imperfection occurs in the Fragments 
of a Natural Method, left by Linnaeus, and it is 
remarkable that the comparative number of such 
doubtful Genera is very similar in both these ar- 
rangements. 

101. The foregoing observations concerning Classifi- 
cation, are also applicable to the Generic distinctions 
of plants; but in their latter application they are de- 
duced from all, or any, of the seven parts of Fructi- 
fication (52), according as each may afford the 
most clear and essential difference. 

102. Generic Characters are of two kinds, the natural 
and the essential. 

103. Natural Generic Characters are a concise, tech- 
nical, but full description of the seven parts of Fruc- 
tification of each Genus, in their natural order, as 
in sect. 52, so as to apply, as nearly as possible, to 
every known Species. Such are contained in the 
Genera Plantarum of Linnasus. 

104. Essential Generic Characters consist of the strik- 
ing and essential differences, between one Genus 
and another, in any one or more of those seven 
parts, with respect to insertion, structure, division, 
or any other permanent mark ; such parts being 
disposed in each, according to their relative im- 
portance, for such discrimination, in the Natural 
Order to which the Genus in question belongs. 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 59 

Characters of this kind are given in the Systema 
Natur^ and Systema Vegetabilium of Linnaeus, as 
well as in our Flora Britannica, and the Genera 
Plantarum of Jussieu. In the latter are subjoined, 
in a different type, various accessory or explanatory 
characters, of great value, respecting the herbage, 
or general habit, of every Genus. 

105. These principles of Generic discrimination are 
equally stable and important, whether Genera be 
considered, with Linnaeus, as natural assemblages; 
or with some other botanists, as commodious arti- 
ficial contrivances. 

106. It seems to me that the soundest most irrefra- 
gable Genera, have been established by those bo- 
tanists who believed them to be founded in nature ; 
those who think otherwise, being prone to recur to 
minute distinctions, of whose relative importance 
they have no principle by which they can judge. 

1 07. While Rosa, Rttbus, Quercus, SalLv, Ficus, Cy- 
pripedium, Epimedium, and Begonia exist, it will 
be vain to deny that Generic distinctions are found- 
ed in nature, though botanists may, as yet, be very 
far indeed from having discovered them all cor- 
rectly. 



40 



CHAPTER VII. 



EXPOSITION OF THE LINNJEAN ARTIFICIAL SY- 
STEM, SOMEWHAT REFORMED. 

XHE Classes are 24, distinguished by the number, 
situation, proportion, or connexion of the Stamens (5 8). 

The Orders, sub-divisions of the Classes (76), are 
founded on the number of the Pistils (59), or rather of 
the Styles, or Sessile Stigmas; or on the Fruit (61); or 
on the nature of the different Florets (68) ; or on some 
character of the preceding Classes ; or lastly, in the 
24th Class, on Natural Families. 

The first eleven Classes are known solely by the 
number of Stamens, in each Perfect Flower (65). 

1. MONANDRIA. Stamen 1. fig. 1. Globba 

marantina. 

2. DlANDRlA. 

spicata. 

3. TRIANDRIA. 

ftu.it ans. 

4. TETRANDRIA. 

biosa arvensis. 

5. PENTANDRIA. 

cris obtusifolia. 

6. HEXANDRIA. 

lanthus nvoalis. 



Stamens 2. 2. Veronica 



3, 4. Poa 



4. 



6. 



5, 6, 7. Sca- 

8, 9. Epa- 

10, 11. Ga- 



EXPOSITION OF THE LINN^EAN" SYSTEM, &C. 41 

7. HEPTANDRIA. Stamens 7. fig. 12. Aescu- 

lus Hippocastanum. 

8. OCTANDRIA. 8. 13. Daph- 

ne col Una. 

9. ENXEANDRIA. 9. 14. Buto- 

mus umbellatus. 

10. DECANDRIA. 10. 15, 16. Di- 

anthus CfEsius. 

11. DODECANDRIA. Stamens 12 to 15 or 19. 

fig. 1 7. Reseda lutea. 

The two next depend on the situation, or insertion, 
of the Stamens. 

12. ICOSANDRIA. Stamens 20 or more, inserted 
into the Calyx (53), fig. 18, 19. Mespilus gran- 
diflora. 

13. POLYANDRIA. Stamens numerous, inserted 
into the Receptacle (63), fig. 20. Cappans 
spinosa. 

The two following depend on the proportion of the 
Stamens. 

14. DJDYNAMIA. Stamens 4, 2 uppermost long- 
est, fig. 21, 22. Lamium album. 

15. TETRADYNAMIA. Stamens 6, 2 opposite 
ones shortest, fig. 23, 24. Thlaspi Bursa-pasto- 
ris, 25-27- Teesdalia nudicaulis, 28-31. Car- 
damine amara. 

The five following are distinguished by some union 
of the Stamens to each other, or to the Pistil. 



42 EXPOSITION Or THE LINNJEAN 

16. MONADELPHIA. Stamens combined by their 
Filaments (58) into one tube, or common base, 
fig. 31-35. Geranium sylvaticum, 36, 37. Al- 
th&a officinalis. 

17. DIADELPHIA. Stamens combined by their 
Filaments into two parcels or sets, mostly in un- 
equal numbers ; those parcels sometimes com- 
bined at their base. fig. 38, 39- Fumaria solida. 
40. Spartium scoparium. 41. Ulex europ&us. 
42-47. Pisum maritimum. 

18. POLYADELPHIA. Stamens united into more 
than two parcels, by their Filaments, fig. 48-50. 
Hypericum elodes. 51, 52. Stuart ia pentagyna. 
53-56. Melakuca thymifolia. 223. Xanthochy- 
THUS pictorius. 

19> SYNGENESIA. Stamens united by their An- 
thers into a tube. The Flowers moreover are 
compound (68). fig. 57-60. Picris echioides. 
61-63. Car duns nutans. 64, 65. Centaurea 
Cyanus. 66-69. Inula dy sent erica* 
20. GYNANDRIA. Stamens inserted into the Ger- 
men or Style (59). fig. 70-72. Ophrys apifera. 
73-76. Stylidium graminifoliwn. 77-79. Den- 
drobium Unguiforme. 

The three next are known by a disunion of the Sta- 
mens and Pistils, the former bein<* in one Flower, the 
latter in another, of the same species, such being de- 
nominated Separated Flowers (65). 



ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM, SOMEWHAT REFORMED. 43 

21. MONOECIA. Stamens and Pistils in differen 
Flowers, on the same individual plant, fig. 80-84. 
Qjuercus Robur. 

22. DIOECIA. Stamens and Pistils in different 
Flowers, on two separate plants, fig. 85-87. Sa- 
liv herbacea. 88-91. Populus alba. 

23. POLYGAMIA. Stamens and Pistils separate in 
some Flowers, united in others, either on the 
same plant, or on two or three different ones ; 
such different Flowers being, moreover, dissi- 
milar in their structure in some other respect, 
fig. 92-95. Ficus Carica. 

24. CRYPTOGAMIA. Stamens and Pistils either 
imperfectly, or not at all, known, or not capa- 
ble of being numbered with any precision. See 
tab. 7-9. 

The Palmce originally constituted an appendix to 
this system, because their Flowers were too little 
known to admit of arrangement by the Stamens and 
Pistils. But that difficulty is now almost entirely re- 
moved, and the Genera of this tribe are mostly found 
reducible to the 6th, 21st, or 22d Classes. 

The Orders of the first 13 Classes, Monandria to 
Polyandria inclusive, are characterized solely by the 
number of the Styles, or sessile Stigmas, in each Per- 
fect Flower (65). These Orders are more or less nu- 
merous in the several Classes, and are distinguished 
as follows : 



44 EXPOSITION OF THE LINNJEAM 

MONOGYNTA. Style, or Sessile Stigma, 1. tig. 1, 

2, 13, 20. 

DIGYNIA. Styles, or Sessile Stigmas, 2. fig. \6. 

TRIGYNIA. 3. % 19, 

48. 

TETHAGYNIA. -4. fig. 135. 
PENTAGYNIA. 5. fig. 34, 

51. 

HEXAGYNIA. 6. fig. 14. 

HEPTAGYNIA. 7. Septas 

capensis. Andr. Repos. t. 90. 

OCTAGYNIA. 8. 1 scarcely 

ENNEAGYNIA. 9- J occur. 

DECAGYNIA. 10. Neu- 

rada and Phytolacca. 

DODECAGYXIA. about 12. fig. 242. 

POLYGYNIA. numerous. 

fig. 229. 

These parts are seldom so numerous in any Flower 
as the Stamens, very rarely more so. There is usually 
an analogy between their respective numbers in the 
same flower. 

The two Orders of the 14th Class are distinguished 
by the nature of the Fruit. 

1. GYMNOSPERMIA. Seeds naked, usually 4, never 
more. fig. 22. 

2. ANGIOSPERMIA. Seeds in a Pericarp (61), 
mostly very numerous, fig. 175. 



ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM, SOMEWHAT REFORMED. 45 

The two Orders of the 15th Class are distinguished 
by the shape of their Pericarp. 

1. SlLlCULOSA. Fruit a S'dicula, or Pouch (61:2). 
fig. .24. 

2. SiiJQUOSA. Fruit a S'diqua, or elongated Pod 
(61:2). fig. 30. 

The various Orders of the 1 6th, 1 7th, and 1 8th 
Classes are characterized by the number of the Sta- 
mens, the Classes themselves being marked by their 
various modes of union. These Orders therefore bear 
the same appellations as the first 13 Classes. 

The Orders of the 19th, or Compound-flowered, 
Class are marked by the Perfect, Separated, Barren, 
Fertile, or Abortive nature (65) of the Florets (68). 

1. POLYGAMIA-JEQUALIS. Florets all perfect, each 
having efficient Stamens and Pistil, and producing 
one Seed. fig. 57-63. 

2. POLYGAMIA-SUPERFLUA. Florets of the disk 
perfect ; those of the circumference, or radius, 
having a Pistil only : but both kinds forming 
perfect Seed. fig. 66-69. 

3. POLYGAMIA-FRUSTRANEA. Fl ore ts of the disk 
perfect ; those of the circumference with an 
abortive Pistil, or none at all. fig. 64, 65. 

4. POLYGAMIA-NECESSARIA. Florets of the disk 
with Stamens only ; those of the circumference 
with each a Pistil only. 

5. POLYGAMIA-SEGREGATA. Several Flowers, 
either simple or compound, but with united An- 



46 EXPOSITION or THE 

thcrs, and a Proper Calyx, all included in one 
Common Calyx. 

The 6th Lmnasan Order, Monogamia, consisting of 
Simple Flowers, with united Anthers, is abolished, as 
being unnatural, and extremely uncertain, fig. 195 b. 

The Orders of the 20th Class are distinguished by 
the number of their Stamens. Gynandria Monandria> 
fig. 70-72. Tetrandria, 73-76. 

Those of the 21st and 22d by the same circum- 
stance, or by any other character of the preceding 
Classes founded on the union of the Filaments. 

The Orders of the 23d are, 

1 . MONOECIA. The two or three different descrip- 
tions of Flowers all on the same plant. 

2. DIOECIA. The different descriptions of Flowers 
on two separate plants. 

3. TRIOECIA. The same on three separate plants. 
The Orders of the 24th Class are natural orders or 

families. 

1. FILICES. Ferns, fig. 96-98. Equisetum sylva- 

ticum. 99-101. Aspidium FULv-mas. 102-104. 

Scolopendrium vulgare. 
- 2. Musci. Mosses, fig. 105-108. Dicranum pur- 

pureum. 109-113. Hooker ia lucens. 

3. HEPATIC^. Liverworts, fig. 114, 115. Jun- 
germannia multifida. 

4. LICHENES. Lichens, fig. 116, 117. Opegrapha 
scrlpta. 118-120. Lecanora murorwn. 121, 
122. Peltidea canina. 



ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM, SOMEWHAT REFORMED. 47 

5. ALG.E. Flags, fig. 123-126. Fucus natans. 

6. FUNGI. Mushrooms. % 129-133. 

The 3d and 4th of these Orders are added since 
the time of Linnaeus. The whole will be explained 
hereafter. 

The difficulties, or exceptions, to which the above 
System is liable, are the following : 

Number in the parts of Fructification proves not 
always uniform in one Genus or Species, nor even 
in the same individual plant. In the latter case Lin- 
nceus teaches that the central, or terminal, Flower 
must be our guide, as in Euonymus, Monotropa, Ckry- 
sosplenium, and Adoxa. When a species is vari- 
able in the number of Stamens or Pistils, or if one 
or more species of any genus differ from the rest in 
those respects, such irregular species are to. be named 
in a synoptical or analytical table at the head of 
the particular Class or Order to which they techni- 
cally belong ; though placed in due course, likewise, 
in the proper Class and Order of the Genus of which, 
independent of such artificial characters, they natu- 
rally form a part. The same plan is, of course, to 
be pursued with regard to any species, anomalous in 
other respects, as the dioecious ones of Valeriana, 
Lychnis, &c. 

That this System sometimes puts widely asunder 
some genera naturally allied to each other (as a few 
with Ringent Flowers, that by their natural affinity 
belong to the 14th Class, placed in the 2d because 



48 EXPOSITION OF THE LINNJEAX 

they have only two Stamens), is no objection to it on 
the score of facility or convenience. It does not pro- 
fess to be a natural arrangement ; and if in many 
parts it proves so, more is performed than had been 
promised, or than could reasonably be expected. The 
15th and 19th Classes are perfectly natural (except 
CleomCy badly placed in the former) ; as are, more or 
less, several Orders, or Sections of Orders, in other 
Classes. 

Greater technical inaccurracy occurs relative to 
some characters, founded on connexion of parts. The 
Stamens, or Filaments, of several Papilionaceous ge- 
nera, referred with their strictly natural allies, to 
Diadelphia Decandria, are perfectly monadelphous. 
fig. 40. We do not mean merely that their two sets 
of Stamens are united into one at the base ; but there 
is really no distinction of two sets, in any part of their 
structure. Indeed if the ten Filaments are any way 
combined, in a Papilionaceous Flower, such is re- 
ferred by Linnaeus to the Class and Order just men- 
tioned. If they are altogether distinct, in which case 
their whole configuration is totally dissimilar from 
the flat and membranous Filaments of the true Dia- 
ddphia, they belong, though Papilionaceous, to the 
10th Class. 

Culture, and other accidents, produce changes 
against which no principles of arrangement can pro- 
vide. Such causes peculiarly affect number in the 
parts of a Flower, the Stamens, and Pistils, as well 



ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM. 49 

as the divisions of the Calyx and Corolla, being fre- 
quently multiplied by luxuriance of soil, to the great 
delight of florists, but much to the inconvenience of 
botanists. So also the Stamens and Pistils are often 
transformed to Petals, which constitutes a double 
Flower. 

In the Classes with separated Flowers, accidents 
occur with regard to the situation of the Stamens or 
Pistils. If the structure of the other parts of the 
Flower be alike, in every individual, both these or- 
gans are liable to meet in the same Flower; just as, on 
the other hand, they occasionally are met with sepa- 
rate, in Classes, or in some Species of Genera, to which 
united Flowers naturally belong (65). Hence so great 
a proportion of trees in hot climates, as well as of 
grasses in all climates, are polygamous ; having the 
characters of the 23d Class, as defined by its author 
Linna3us. But if respect be always had to the acces- 
sory parts of a Flower (53, 54), as well as the essen- 
tial ones (58, 59), and those are found different in 
structure, number, or otherwise, such Flowers must 
remain permanently distinct. Such only would I ad- 
mit into the Class Potygamia, by which measure bo- 
tanists in tropical countries are relieved from one of 
the greatest of inconveniences. 

I have even ventured to suggest, Introd. to Botany, 

ed. 3. 368, that the 21st, 22d, and 23d Classes of the 

* Linneean system might possibly be well reduced to 

one, under the name of Did'mia (already used by 

E 



50 EXPOSITION OF THE LINKEAN 

Jussieu and some other writers), which might contain 
all genera with separated Flowers, whose accessory 
organs differ in any respect. This alteration has been 
adopted by an able practical botanist, whose experience 
had taught him to approve it, Mr. Frederick Pursh, 
in his Flora America Septentrionalis, published in 
1814. He has divided the Class Diclmia into the 
three following Orders. 

J. SEGREGATE. Flowers not Amentaceous (53:3). 

2. AMENTACE.H. Barren Flowers, at least, in Cat- 
kins (55 : 3); the Fertile ones not always so. Fruit 
distinct from the Calyx, fig. 274, 275. 

3. CONIFERJE. Barren and Fertile Flowers in Cat- 
kins. Fruit a Strobilus or Cone, (61:7) fig. 276. 

Under each Order of the Linnrean System, are dis- 
posed the Genera which belong to it, in a regular se- 
ries, as nearly as possible according to their natural 
affinity to each other, with the Essential Character 
(104) of each. The Species are, in like manner, ranged, 
according to their affinities, under each Genus, with 
their Specific Characters. Synonyms are subjoined, 
with mention of the native country of each Species ; 
after which follow occasionally compendious descrip- 
tions, with any useful remarks. Some large Genera 
are commodiously divided into Natural Sections, by 
leading characteristics of certain Species taken col- 
lectively. 

-At the head of every Class, all its Orders are enu- 
merated ; and under each Order its appropriate Ge- 



ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM. 31 

nera are arranged, in a Synoptical or Analytical man- 
ner, according to their shortest, most technical, cha- 
racters. In these, whatever part of the Fructification 
affords the most decisive or striking characters in 
each artificial Order or subdivision, takes the lead, the 
others following according to their importance. But 
in the" above-mentioned Essential Characters (104)> 
at the head of each Genus, the parts of Fructification, 
whence those characters are derived, should be dis- 
posed, as has already been observed, according to 
their relative importance in the particular Natural 
Order, or Series, to which such Genera belong. 

These are the principles of arrangement which Lin- 
naeus appears to have laid down for himself, and 
upon which he gradually improved. But in the detail 
of his System he has not always kept them strictly in 
view ; nor have his pupils, followers, or editors, paid 
the requisite attention to them, especially with regard 
to those intricate or recondite natural relationships^ 
which few of these writers perhaps were competent to 
observe, and to which, it must be confessed, botanists 
of the old Linnaean school have generally paid too 
little attention. 

Respecting Nomenclature, it is only necessary to 
remark, that every Genus should be distinguished by 
a name, either of Greek or Latin derivation, or formed 
out of the proper name of some botanist, worthy of" 
such commemoration. Names of barbarous origin 
have, however, crept in, by the means of Linnaeus 

2 



52 NOMENCLATURE. 

himself, contrary to his own wise laws. Genera have 
also been dedicated" to abundance of persons, who 
have no claim to this honour. Corrupt names, com- 
posed of other generic appellations, already establish- 
ed, though strictly and judiciously prohibited by all 
classical botanists, have here and there been intro- 
duced. Of these the worst of all are made up of 
two such established names as Calamagrostis. Future 
general writers on Botany, of competent authority, 
must reform these abuses. No authority can sanction 
their continuance. If any indulgence be admitted, it 
may perhaps be in favour of a few well-sounding ge- 
neric names of barbarous origin ; for there can be no 
question that Pliny, and even purer Latin writers, 
would have adopted such names, properly modified, 
had they treated of the new plants of foreign coun- 
tries. 

The generic name being fixed, each Species must 
also be designated by an appropriate concise appel- 
lation, of a single word if possible. This should be 
either a characteristic adjective, expressive of the cha- 
racter, aspect, colour, quality, or use of the Species ; 
or of some substantive, not necessarily agreeing in gen- 
der with the generic name, and therefore always be- 
ginning with a capital letter, by which some circum- 
stance in the history of the plant, or some synonym, 
may be recorded. 

Important or permanent Varieties f74) may, with 
propriety, be noticed. These are conveniently marked 



SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. 53 

with the Greek letters, numbers being reserved for Ge- 
nera and Species. 

It would be weil for every person who undertakes 
to write a systematic work on Botany to consider these 
leading principles of Linnaeus, and to study with care 
those more particular ones, laid down in his Funda- 
menta Botanica, as well as his Philosophia and C?i- 
tica. If his rules be faulty or unnecessary, they should 
be expunged ; but no good writer will transgress them 
through ignorance or neglect 

His principles for the distinction of Species should 
be studied and contemplated over and over again, by 
every person ambitious of permanent botanical fame, 
beyond the reach of the fashions of System. This de- 
partment of Botany Linnaeus justly terms art is robur, 
the strength, or sinews of the science. Species are 
perhaps the only distinctions which are indubitably 
natural ; and to stamp them clearly, as well as con- 
cisely, is the most important, perhaps the most dif- 
ficult, office of the philosophical botanist. No one yet 
has equalled Linnaeus; nor has any one swerved from 
his rules, in theory or in practice, but for the worse. 
No intended improvement in this department has 
come under my inspection, that does not appear to 
me worse than indifferent. I speak with the greatest 
respect and deference for the authors of such projects, 
which it would be invidious to particularize, and which 
have, doubtless, been well intended. The more com- 
mon faults in these compositions arise from negligence 



54 IMPORTANCE OF 

or inability, from a want of deep study of the subject, 
a con.fusipn or inaccuracy of ideas, a feebleness of style 
or expression, or a want of command of language. 

I have chosen to conclude this chapter with the 
subject of specific characters, because it is of the most 
fundamental importance, and the most difficult in 
practice. It is the only sure ground of what Linnaeus 
justly declares as the test of a good botanist, the know- 
ledge of the greatest number of Species. (Phil. Bot. 
sect. 256.) Now this knowledge, if merely empirical, 
can be but of little value or certainty. Its dignity and 
solidity must consist in an intimate acquaintance with 
the comparative or respective importance of different 
characters, in different orders, tribes, or genera of 
plants. Several general rules indeed may be given, 
but scarcely one of those is without exception ; and 
particular rules apply to almost every natural assem- 
blage throughout the vegetable kingdom. The latter 
are only to be attained by acute observation and great 
experience. 

The 8th chapter of the Philosophia Botanica of 
Linnaeus, entitled Differentia, contains a full display 
of the ideas of that great writer, the first who ever 
undertook to consider this matter in a philosophical 
light, or to lay down any rules for the guidance of 
others. We shall give an epitome of his principles, 
recommending his reasons and illustrations, in the 
chapter just cited, to the attentive consideration of 
{he student, who, before he attempts to apply them to 



SPECIFIC CHARACTERS, 55 

practice, should give his days and nights to the sub- 
ject. 

A Differentia Specified, Specific Character, or as 
Linnaeus usually called it Nomen Specificum, should 
comprehend such characters only as are requisite, or 
sufficient, to distinguish a plant from every other spe- 
cies of the same Genus. Such therefore is not a de- 
scription, but a difference, and where only one Spe- 
cies exists, a Differentia Specifica is an absurdity. If 
it attempts to contrast the plant with the Species of 
any other Genus, it is fallacious and erroneous. 

A Specific Character therefore is the essential pe- 
culiarity of the full description, or complete idea, of 
every plant, whether drawn out in detail, or existing 
in the mind of the author. 

All accidental circumstances are necessarily to be 
excluded, such as Country, Situation, Duration, Eco- 
nomical Uses, the Name of the Discoverer, &c. 

All marks universally variable are also to be omitted, 
among which are Colour, Smell, Taste, Size, Hairi- 
nessin general, Curling of Leaves, Doubling of Flowers, 
or any kind of Monstrosity. 

The direction of the hairs of Plants, as on the Ca- 
lyx and Flowerstalk in Mentha and Myosotis, the 
Stern of Papaver, and some other instances, not no- 
ticed by Linnaeus, forms one exception to the above 
rule ; and perhaps the presence cr absence of a glau- 
cous hue in the herbage is another. 

Characters which presuppose any knowledge of 



56 RULES POR 

other plants, even of the same Genus, in the reader, 
as well as any allusions to the rarity or frequency of 
a plant, are manifestly faulty. 

The Root (7) often affords solid specific distinctions, 
but is not infallible ; nor can it always, in cultivated 
plants, or in dried specimens, be examined, or pre- 
served. 

Stems (12) frequently afford clear and certain di- 
stinctions, in their forms, postures, angles, wings, or 
other particulars. 

Leaves (30) abound in the most elegant and un- 
exceptionable characters for specific discrimination, in 
their situation, form, division, surface, margin, veins, 
and even pubescence. But scarcely any one mark 
concerning them is absolute, throughout all plants 
whatever, and experience only can teach, in every case, 
what is most to be relied on. 

Appendages (47) are usually very serviceable in 
specific characters, especially the Stipulas, as to their 
presence or absence, situation, form, or even duration. 

Inflorescence (48) is declared by Linnseus to yield 
the best of all specific differences. Phil. Bot. sect. 279. 
The importance of the distinctions to be derived from 
hence is so great, that some botanists, especially of 
the French school, do not scruple to found some of 
their Generic Characters upon it. Even Linnaeus is 
justly charged with having had recourse to the Inflo- 
rescence, in arranging the Genera of the Umbelliferous 
tribe (48 : 7), though the principle is disguised under 



SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. 57 

the idea of an Aggregate Flower (69). Our great 
leader is the more censurable, as the Flowers and 
Seeds of those Plants, properly studied, afford all-suf- 
ficient Generic Characters. 

The parts of Fructification themselves, so far as 
their differences do not enter into the Generic Cha- 
racters, often display most excellent Specific marks. 
Such now and then serve to divide a genus into Sec- 
tions; as the Petals in Iris, and the Styles in Hype- 
ricum. 

The more concise a Specific Character, the better 
it is. As in philosophy, it is not allowed to recur to 
two causes for the explanation of any phenomenon, 
when one is sufficient, so if one idea will serve to di- 
stinguish a Species, no more should be admitted. If 
more be necessary, as is generally the case in large 
Genera, they should be so disposed and contrasted, in 
the several Specific definitions, as to strike the mind 
at once forcibly and distinctly. This cannot be done 
if characters be much extended. Linnaeus has there- 
fore limited each definition to twelve words. There is 
no magic in this number, but I believe it is seldom 
icxceeded with any good effect. Much will depend, 
after all, on the wording and construction of the sen- 
tence. A weak character of half a dozen words may 
be puzzling and insufficient ; while a much longer may 
be clear, and readily conceived as well as compared, 
at one view. 

All the terms and definitions should be precise, lite- 



58 PUNCTUATION OF 

ral, and unambiguous. They are not allowed to be 
expressed in the comparative degree, though some- 
times admitted, of late, in the superlative. They must 
be positive, not negative ; devoid of obscure compa- 
risons ; contain no adjective but what follows its sub- 
stantive; no article, connecting particle, or parenthesis. 
Linnasus has adopted an arbitrary mode of punctu- 
ation in Specific Characters, in which the usual power 
of the different signs is reversed. He uses a Comma 
( , ) to separate the different parts of the plant which 
come into the Specific Character. This is most fre- 
quently wanted, as between the Stem and Leaves and 
Inflorescence, if they all happen to occur. A Semi- 
colon ( ; ) separates two descriptions of the same or- 
gan, as Radical Leaves from the rest. A Colon ( : ) 
is introduced between the several parts or divisions of 
any one organ, as the segments, margin, or veins of a 
Leaf. A Period ( . ) of course., as usual, closes the 
sentence. The intention of this method seems to be, 
to lead the mind to a longer pause, in proportion as 
the parts under consideration are most nearly related. 
To practise it quite correctly requires more attention 
than is usually bestowed ; and even Linnaeus, or his 
printer, makes frequent, though not very serious mis- 
takes. The following examples are correct : 

Biscutella silicidisglabr is, foliis lanceolatis serratis. 

Dentaria foliis inferioribus pbmatis ; summis sim-. 
plidbus. 

Gardamine foliis p'mnalis : foliolis quinis incisis. 



SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. 59 

Melochia floribus umbdlatls axillaribus, capsulis 
pyramldatis pentagonis : angnlis mucronatis, fo- 
lds tomentosis. 

Those who describe new plants would do well, in 
general, to keep in view the laws of Specific distinction 
in their names likewise, though with less strictness ; 
avoiding always what is trifling, incorrect, or erroneous; 
and selecting what may best impress the imagination, 
or assist the memory. No name whatever should be 
considered as of any authority, unless printed by some 
author who gives at the same time a specific charac- 
ter ; though a judicious writer will always adopt what 
has, by any means, been received by the public k, if 
it be not materially objectionable. 



60 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EXPOSITION OF THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF JUSSIEU. 

JL HE Classes are 15, not distinguished by any par- 
ticular appellations. One of them is Acotyledonous 
(90, 91) ; three are Monocotyledonous (88) ; the re- 
maining eleven Dicotyledonous (89). 

The Orders are 100, distributed in natural series 
under every Class, and each defined by rather full 
definitions, taken, in the first place, from the parts of 
Fructification (52), and illustrated by secondary cha- 
racters, founded on any other circumstance, 

The Genera stand, in one or more sections, accord- 
ing to their respective affinities, and with their Essen- 
tial Characters (104) under each Order, at the end 
of which are usually many valuable critical remarks. 

There is at the end a very large assemblage of 
Plant a. inccrtce sedis; Genera not reducible to any 
of these Orders. These are, for convenience, artifi- 
cially arranged, by the Corolla (whether monopetalous, 
polypetalous, or wanting), the situation of the Ger- 
men, and the number of Styles and Stamens. Many 
of the Genera have subsequently been reduced to their 
proper Orders. 



61 
INDEX TO JUSSIEU'S CLASSES. 

COTYLEDONES (90) ClaSS 1 . 

. C Stamens hypogynous (97) . 2. 

ONOCOTYLEDONES I a 3 

' (^ epigynous ... 4. 

{Stamens epigynous ... 5. 
perigynous ... 6. 
hypogynous. . . 7. 

r Corolla hypogynous (97) . 8. 
perigynous ... 9. 

,,-v f c~ anthers 

monopetalous (o6)<J I combined ](X 

eDi2vnous< 

I antners 

V, distinct 1 1 . 






{ 



Stamens epigynous . . .12. 
polypetalous (56) ^ hypogynous . . .13. 

perigynous . . .14. 



Ldiclines (see p. 49) irregular 15. 



SERIES OF THE ORDERS. 

CLASS 1. CLASS 2. 12. Asparagi. 

1. Fungi. 7. Aroidea. 13. Junci. 

2. Algx. 8. Typha. 14. Lilia. 

3. Hepatica. 9 Cyperoidea. 15. Brometia. 

M. -'I , 

4. Musci. 10. Gramima. 16. Asphodeli. 

5. Filices. CLASS 3. 17. Narcissi. 

6. Naiades. 11. Palmes. 18. Irides. 



62 



SERIES OF THE ORDERS. 



19- 
20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 

24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29- 

30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 

34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 

39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 



CLASS 4. 46. 
M'usa. 47- 

Canna. 48. 

Orchideec. 
Hydrocharides. 49- 



CLASS 5. 
Aristolochia. 

CLASS 6. 
Elaagni. 



Protea. 
Lauri. 
Polygonea. 
Atriplices. 

CLASS 7. 
Amaranlhi. 
Platitagines. 
Nyctagiiies. 
Phtmbagmes. 

CLASS 8. 
Lystmachia. 
Pediculares. 
Acanthi. 
Jasmines. 
/ itices. 
Labiate. 



50. 
51. 

52. 

53. 
54. 
55. 

56. 
57. 

58. 

59. 
60. 

61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 



Scrophularia. 67. 

Solanea. 68. 

Boraginea. 69. 

Convotwuit 70. 

Polemonia. 71. 

Bignonia. 72. 



GentiaiKC. 
Apocinea. 
Sapota. 
CLASS 9. 
Gnaiacana. 
Rhododendra. 
Erica. 

Campanulacea, 
CLASS 10. 
Cichoraceat. 
Cinarocephala. 
Corymbifera. 
CLASS 11. 
Dipsacea. 
Rubiacete. 
Caprifolia. 
CLASS 12. 
Jlralia. 
Umbellifera;. 
CLASS 13. 
Ranunculacea. 
Papaveracea. 
Crucifera. 
Capparides. 
Sapindi. 
Acer a. 
Malpighia. 
Hyperica. 
Guttifera. 
Aurantia. 
Meliec. 
Vites. 



73. G crania. 

74. Mahdcea. 

75. Magnolia. 

76. Anona. 

77. Menitperma. 

78. Berber ides. 

79. Tiliacetz. 

80. Cisti. 

81. Rutacea. 

82. Caryophyllece. 
CLASS 14. 

83. SempercitxK. 

84. Saxifrage. 

85. Cacti. 

86. Portulacetf. 

87. Ficoidete. 

88. Oti agree. 

89. -%rfz'. 

90. Melastoma, 

91. SalicaricE. 

92. Rosacecz. 

93. Leguminosa. 

94. Terebintacex. 

95. Rhamni. 
CLASS 15. 

96. Euphorbia. 

97. Cucurbit aeete. 

98. l/rfrcdv 
99- Amentacetc. 

100. Conifers. 



Cl. 1 .] FUNGI, ALG^E. 63 

CLASS 1. ACOTYLEDONES. 

Embryo destitute of Cotyledons, as well as of a 
separate Albumen. . 

Orel 1. FUNGI. Tab. 9. fig. 129-133. "Either 
parasitical, or springing from the ground naked, or 
inclosed in a splitting Volvo, (53 :7). Substance in 
some corky, or totighly coated ; in others softer, 
fleshy, or mucilaginous. Some are simple, others 
branched ; some spherical ; several have a Head, Pi- 
leus, either stalked or sessile, sometimes orbicular and 
peltate; sometimes semi-orbicular, and laterally at- 
tached. Leaves and Flowers are wanting; but there 
is in the place of Anthers (58) a scattered, external 
or internal, powder. The place of Pistils (59) is sup- 
plied by organs variously constructed, resembling thin 
plates, wrinkles, furrows, pores, tubes, scales, fibres, 
&e. ; in which, in some manner or other, are lodged 
bodies, that germinate in the earth like Seeds (6'i\ or 
take root like creeping shoots, and reproduce the 
plant. The corky Fungi are perennial, and often pa- 
rasitical; the rest either parasitical or terrestrial, short- 
lived, prone to putrefaction." 

Such is the substance of Jussieu's character of this 
Order. We have no doubt that Fungi are propa- 
gated by real Seeds, though increased also, like other 
plants, by their fibrous Radicles (7). 

Ord. 2. ALG.E. Tab. 8, 9- fig. 116-128. "Various 
in habit, texture, substance, and organs of propagation. 



64 HEP'ATICJE, MUSCI. [Cl. 1. 

Some are filamentous, some gelatinous like Fungi ; 
some coriaceous or crustaceous; some herbaceous, in 
a manner leafy, and more akin to other plants. Or- 
gans analogous to Stamens and Pistils are in some 
altogether unknown, in some more conspicuous, and 
in others well known, differing greatly among them- 
selves as to structure and situation." 

This Order consists chiefly of Submersed Algce, 
%. 123-128, and Lichenes (90), fig. 116-122, with 
which a few Fungi are confounded. The " well-known" 
fructification is attributed to the Lichenes, in which 
however scarcely more than the Seeds have been as- 
certained. These generally are 8 together, in sepa- 
rate tubular parallel vertical cells, sunk in a horizontal 
or convex disk, exactly as in some Fungi, particularly 
the genus Peziza; a coincidence too little noticed. 

Ord. 3. HEPATICJE. fig. 114, 115. Herbaceous, 
creeping, many-rooted plants inhabiting damp places, 
whose Fructification is monoecious or dioecious, ap- 
parently of a various and complex nature, but not per- 
fectly understood. The Seeds are often attached to 
elastic fibres, and send out Radicles from underneath. 

Jungermannia, Marchantia^ &c. are examples. 

Ord. 4. MUSCI. fig. 108-113. True Mosses (90), 
whose Fructification, as now well understood from 
the investigations of Hedwig, is generally monoecious. 
The Barren Flowers (66) consist of an indefinite num- 
ber of jointed tubular bodies, discharging a volatile 
Pollen (58) ; the Fertile ones (67) are generally se- 



Cl. 1.] FILICES. 65 

veral together, though scarcely more than one pro- 
duces Fruit. Their Germen (59), at first sessile, is 
covered with a membranous Calyptra, or Veil, in the 
place of a Corolla, whose summit admits the Pollen. 
The ripening Pericarp (6*1) is generally elevated on 
a PediCelbiS (22), and carries up the Veil, torn from 
the base, along with it. The Fruit is a Capsule (6 1: 1), 
opening by a Lid ; its margin either naked, or vari- 
ously f rinsed with a determinate number of hygro- 

/ o / o 

metrical teeth, in a single or double row, affording 
good Generic distinctions (L01). The Seeds are 
minute and innumerable, but have been proved such 
by germination. Musci are herbaceous, leafy, mostly 
branched ; their Leaves continuous (46), pellucid and 
often reticulated. Roots abundantly fibrous ; annual 
or perennial. Few plants are more tenacious of life, 
or revive more readily after drying. 

Examples of genera without a Fringe (Peristomium) 
are Sphagnum and Gynmostomum ; with a single 
Fringe, Grimmla and Dicranum, fig. 108 ; with a 
double one, fig. 1 1 2, Bryum, Hypnum, &c. 

Ord.5. FILICES. Ferns (90) fig. 96- 104. Nothing 
is known of their Fructification but the Capsules, 
fig. 101, 104; situated either on the back of the 
Frond (24) and composing Sori, fig. 100, 102, 103, 
(53 : 2), with, or rarely without, a membranous In- 
volucrum, fig. 100, 103 ; or in Spikes, fig. 96', (48:3) 
which seem transformations of the Frond or its seg- 
ments (90). The most usual form of their Pericarp 

F 



66 NAIADES. [Cl. 1. 

(61) is a stalked globular Capsule, fig. 101, 104, of two 
valves, either naked, or bound by a trans verse elastic ring. 
Seeds very minute, readily germinating, and so abun- 
dant, that many a species, if its possible increase were 
uninterrupted for 20 years, might cover the wholeearth. 
The forms and situations of the Sori. and the direction 
in which the Involucrum separates, afford generic cha- 
racters, unknown when Jussieu published. 

Polypodium has no Involucrum ; Aspldium a round- 
ed one ; Pterls a continuous one, separating inward ; 
Lindscea the reverse. 

Ord.6. NAIADES. " Calyx either entire or divided, 
superior or inferior, rarely wanting. Stamens definite, 
perhaps perigynous (97). Germen superior or infe- 
rior, solitary or four-fold. Style 1, rarely 2, to each 
Germen, or wanting. Stigma one or several. Seeds 
solitary, or several, either naked and superior, or in- 
closed in a Pericarp which is either superior or infe- 
rior. Leaves mostly opposite or whorled. Flowers 
in some perfect (65), in others monoecious or dioe- 
cious. Plants all herbaceous, and, except Saururus, 
aquatic." The uncertainty of this Order has been 
already noticed, (92), and the characters, above given, 
have so many ambiguities as to amount scarcely to 
any thing. The Genera are, Hippuris, fig. 252, Chara, 
Ceratophyllum, Myriophyllum, fig. 251, Naias, Saw- 
rurus, Aponogeton, fig. 134, Potamogeton, fig. 135, 
Ruppia, Zannichdlia, Callltriche and Lemna, fig. 1 36. 
Naias, Lemna, and Chara, are judged by Mr. Brown 



Cl. 2.] AROIDE/E, TYPILV,. 67 

to he akin to his Hydrocharidea, Prodr. N. Holl. 
v. 1. 345. See some of the rest in Ord. 88. 

CLASS 2. MOXOCOTYLEDONES, WITH INFERIOR 

STAMKNS (97). 

" Calyx necessarily inferior, (f present. Corolla none. 
Stamens often definite, rardy indefinite. Ger men sim- 
ple. Style 1 , or many, or wanting. Stigma simple or di- 
vided. Seed 1 , naked or covered, or Fruit of one cell, 
with 1 or many Seeds. Leaves mostly alternate and 
sheathing. Flowers occasionally becoming separated 
(65), by the imperfection of one or other organ." 

Ord. 7. AROIDE^E. " Spadix simple, many-flow- 
ered, either encompassed with a Spat ha (53 : 4), or 
naked. Proper Calyx none, or simple. Stamens and 
Germens inserted, either separately or intermixed, into 
the Spadix. Style 1 to each germen, or wanting. Stig- 
mas simple. Fruit of 1 cell, with 1 or many Seeds. Em- 
bryo in the centre of a fleshy Albumen. Leaves sheath- 
ing, alternate, generally all radical. Plants rarely 
caulescent ; some of them very irregular in the arrange- 
ment of their Stamens and Pistils. Their germination 
is not well known." The Genera are Zosteta, Arum, 
Calla, Pothos, Acorus, fig. 137, and others. 

Ord. 8. TYPHJE. " Flowers monoecious ; barren 
ones aggregate, triandrous, with a 3-leaved Calyx ; 
fertile ones also aggregate, with a 3-leaved Calyx, a 
superior Germen, simple Style, and 1 Seed. Leaves 
all alternate, sheathing. Aquatic herbs." 

FS 



68 CIPEROIDE.E, GRAMIXE/T,. [Cl. 2. 

Ti/pha, fig. 138, and Sparganinm. Mr. Brown unites 
this Order and the Aroideee. 

Ord. 9. CYPEROIDEJB, " Fl. united, or monoe- 
cious; each with a Scale in the place of a Calyx, nor 
is there generally any other. Stamens 3. Germen 1. 
Style 1. Stigmas 3, rarely but V. Seed 1, either 
naked, or tunicated (62 : 8) ; sometimes surrounded 
at the base with bristles, or soft hairs. Embryo and 
germination as in the next Order. The single-floored 
Scales are crowded into Spikes, or Tufts (48 : .5), va- 
riously disposed, some of them empty, the flowers 
being abortive. Steins or Culms (16) round or tri- 
angular, seldom jointed. Floral Leaves sessile ; the 
rest sheathing, with an entire Sheath." 

Carex, fig. 139, 79, Eriophorum, Scirpus, fig. 140, 
Cyperus, &c. a tribe much increased by Mr. Brown 
in Prodr. Nov. Holl v. 1. 212. 

Ord. 10. GRAMitfE^E. Grasses, fig. S, 4, 141. 
"Glume (53 :5)(Calyx of Linna3us)of 2 valves, rarely 
of 1, or of many, or wanting, either single-fiovyered, 
or containing 2, or more, Flowers, or Florets, in a two- 
ranked Spikelet (48 : 3). Each Flower has a Calyx 
(Corolla of Linnaeus) resembling the Glume, mostly 
of 2 valves, rarely of 1, or wanting, the outermost 
either awned or not (53 : 5). Stamens generally 3, 
rarely 2, 6, or 1, in Pariana of Aublet 40. Anthers 
oblong, cloven at each end. Germen 1, with 2 little 
scales at the base, not always obvious. Styles mostly 
2, each with, a feathery Stigma ; in some the Style is 



Cl. 12.] GRA:MINE;E. 69 

solitary, with a simple or divided Stigma. Seed in 
both instances solitary, either naked, or frequently 
covered with the permanent hardened inner valve of 
the Calyx (Corolla of Linnaeus). Embryo small, at- 
tached laterally to the base of a much larger farina- 
ceous Albumen. The lobe of the Embryo, in germi- 
nation, remains with the annexed Albumen, sessile, 
connected at one side with the primary sheath which 
surrounds the Plumula (62 : 1). Roots fibrous, ca- 
pillary. Culms cylindrical, either hollow or pithy, 
knotty or jointed; generally herbaceous, and unbranch- 
ed. Leaves alternate, simple and undivided, spring- 
ing solitary from each knot, sheathing ; the Sheath 
split down to the knot. Flowers either tufted, or 
spiked along a linear Receptacle or Rachis, or pani- 
cled ; concealed while young in the sheath of the up- 
permost Leaf. Some species become, by abortion, 
monoecious." 

A great and well-known family, distributed into 
13 sections, by the number of the Styles, Stamens, and 
Florets. Examples are, Anthoxantlmm; Alopecurus, 
Panicum, Agrostis ; Holcus ; Cenchrus, Rottbollia ; 
Aira, Mdica ; Dactylis; -Ses/eria, Elymus, Triticum ; 
Br omits y Poa, fig. 3,4, Briza, A r undo; Oryza, FJir- 
harta; Nardus, Apluda, Zta; Phanis, Cornucopia, 
Coix, fig. 141; Nastus ; Pariana. "The habit, 
chaffy Mower, single seed, mealy albumen, situation of 
the embryo, and mode of germination, render this 
Order peculiarly distinct." Jussieit. 



70 PALM.E. ' [CJ. 3. 

CLASS 3. MONOCOTYLEDONES, \\ ITH PERIGY- 
NOUS STAMENS (97). 

" Calyx of 1 leaf, tubular, or deeply divided, superior 
or inferior, sometimes naked, but mostly subtended 
by a single- or many-flowered Spatha (53 : 4), rarely 
with an Involucrum resembling an outer Calyx. 
Corolla none, (what Tournefort, Linnasus, and others 
call so, being Jussieu's Calyx). Stamens mostly 
definite, inserted into the base or the top of the Ca- 
lyx (Corolla), opposite to its segments ; their Fila- 
ments distinct, rarely combined ; Anthers distinct, 
of 9, cells. In a few the Germens are several, su- 
perior, with as many Styles or Stigmas. Capsules 
as many, either of 1 cell, with 1 Seed, or inter- 
nally of 2 valves, with numerous Seeds inserted into 
their margins. Most have a single, superior or infe- 
rior, Germen; with I, rarely 3, Styles or sometimes 
none; and a simple or divided Stigma. Fruit pulpy, or 
capsular,f)J 3 cells, with 3 or many Seeds; sometimes 
only 1 cell) or 1 Seed, coming to perfection. In the 
Berried fruits (61:6) the Seeds are inserted into the 
inner angle of each cell ; in the Capsules, usually of 
3 valves, they stand on the edge of an elevated Re- 
ceptacle (63), Constituting the partition, from the. 
middle of each valve, and separating therewith. Em- 
bryo small, in a rather large horny Albumen" 

Ord. 11. PALM.E. The Palm tribe, 62. 142. " Ca- 



Cl. 3.] ASPAKAGI. 71 

lyx (Corolla Linn.) in 6 deep segments, often per- 
manent; 3 outermost often smallest. Stamens 6, 
rarely more or fewer, inserted into the base of its seg- 
ments, or rather perhaps into a glandular body under 
the Germen," (this last opinion is confirmed by Rox- 
burgh and Salisbury,) " their Filaments often united 
at the base. Germen superior, mostly simple. Style 
1 or 3. Stigma simple or 3-cleft. Fruit a Berry, or 
fibrous Drupa, of 1 or 3 cells, and 1 or 3 bony 
Seeds. Embryo very small, in a dorsal or lateral 
cavity, rarely in the base, of a large Albumen, which 
is at first tender and eatable, finally horny. Stem 
simple, usually lofty, round, formed without con- 
centric circles (31), and scaly or fibrous from the 
remains of Footstalks (23). Leaves in a terminal 
tuft, alternate, sheathing, folded when young ; (their 
Bud (26) perennial, but never renewable). Flower- 
stalks generally much branched, invested with one 
large common Sheath, and many partial ones, or 
Bracteas, in pairs. Flowers mostly Hexandrous, some- 
times Monoecious, Dioecious, but more frequently 
Polygamous (65)." Palms are very long-lived, gene- 
rally tropical, some of them affording valuable food for 
man in a state of nature. 

The Leaves are pinnate in Phcenij.', Arcca, Cocos, 
Caryota, &c. ; palmate in Corypha, Borassus, Cha- 
mar ops, c. 

Qrd. 12. ASFAKAGI. " Calyx (Corolla Linn.) re- 
gular, in 6 segments, mostly inferior. Stamens 6 



72 .HJXCI. [Cl. 3. 

inserted therein. Germen simple; Styles J or 3 ; 
Stigma simple or three-cleft. Fruit pulpy, rarely cap- 
sular, of 3 cells. Seeds few, or solitary. Embryo at 
the scar of a horny Albumen. Stem often herbaceous. 
Leaves alternate, (simple, undivided) ; seldom op- 
posite or whorled. Flowers each with a scaly Brae- 
tea, occasionally dioecious, sometimes deprived of a 
third, or gaining a fourth, in the number of their 
parts." 

Sect. 1. Fl. united. Germen superior. Drac&na, 
Asparagus, Medeofa, Paris, fig. 143, Conrallaria, 
fig. 144, &c. 

Sect. 2. Fl. dioecious. Germ. sup. Ruscus, Smila.r, 
Dioscorea. 

Sect. 3. Fl. dioecious. Germ, inferior. Tamus, 
Rajania. 

Mr. Brown removes Asparagus and Drac&na, with 
some of their allies, to Asphodek<e or Asphodeli, 
Ord. 16. 

Ord. 13. JUNCI. "Calyx inferior, in 6 deep seg- 
ments, the 3 inner ones sometimes larger and petal- 
like, sometimes all 6 are glumaceous (53 : 5). Stamens 
usually 6. Germen in some simple, with one Style, 
and a Capsule of 3 valves with central partitions, 
bearing the Seeds : or several, 3 or 6, rarely many, 
each with 1 Style and Stigma ; becoming so many 
Capsules, with 1 or many Seeds. Embryo, in some 
at least, at the scar of a horny Albumen, liejbs, 
with (simple.) alternate; sheathing Leaves ; the upper 



Cl. 3.] LIL1A, BKOA1ELLE. 73 

and floral ones sessile. Flowers with sheath-like 
Bracteas." 

Eriocau/on, Restio, Xyris, Aphyllanthes, Juncus, 
fig. 145, Commelina, and Tradescantia exemplify tlie 
Genera with a simple germen ; Butonius, fig. 14, 
A Us ma ) Sagtttaria, Scheuch^eria^ Triglochin, Nar- 
thedum, Veratrutn and Colchicitw those with a com- 
pound one. This is a paradoxical Order to a beginner, 
and has been much altered by Mr. Broun, who has 
separated from hence his Restiacea*, Commelhiccc, and 
Mdanthacece, certainly with great advantage. 

Aiisma and Triglochm, with Potamogeton, see 
Ord. 6. enter his Allsmacecc, Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 



Ord. 14. LILIA. "Calyx (Corolla, Linn.) inferior, 
coloured, in 6 deep divisions, mostly equal and re- 
gular, bearing the Stamens from their lower part. 
Germen simple. Style 1. Stigma 3-cleft. Capsule 
of 3 cells and 3 valves, containing numerous, gene- 
rally flat, Seeds, in 2 rows in each cell. Stern herba- 
ceous, rarely shrubby. Leaves (simple and undivided), 
sheathing or sessile, alternate, or incorrectly whorled. 
Flowers often drooping, the Style longer than the 
Stamens (Linn.), either naked, or subtended by a Leaf 
or Sheath ; generally splendid in aspect and colour/' 

Tulipa, fig. 146', Erythronium, Gloriosa (Metho- 
nica. Juss.) Uvularia, Fntilltiria, Lilium, and Yucca. 

Ord. \5. BitOMELL'E. " Calyx in six divisions, 
3 alternate segment* often largest, superior ur info- 



74 ASPIIODELl. [Cl. 3. 

rior. Stamens 6, inserted into its middle, or base, or 
into glands proceeding therefrom and lying on the Ger- 
rnen, which is simple, with 1 Style, and a three-cleft 
Stigma. Fruit of 3 cells, either pulpy and not burst- 
ing, or capsular, of 3 valves, with 1 or several Seeds 
in each cell. Leaves sheathing, usually all radical. 
Flowers spiked, panicled, or corymbose, each accom- 
panied by a Sheath or Bractea." 

Sect. 1. Germen superior. Burmannia and Til- 
landsia, (the former thought more allied to Junci by 
Mr. Brown), also Pui/a of Molina. 

Sect. 2. Germen inferior. Xcrophyta, Bromelict, 
and Agave, fig. 147. Jussieu himself seems dissatis- 
fied with this Order, whose germination is not tho- 
roughly known. 

Ord. 16. ASPHODELI. " Calyx (Corolla Linn.) 
inferior, coloured, most frequently in 6 deep equal 
divisions ; sometimes tubular and undivided below. 
Stamens 6, inserted into its middle or base. Germen 
simple. Style 1. Stigma simple or 3-cleft. Capsule 
of 3 cells and 3 valves, with many Seeds. Root in 

> 

most instances bulbous, bearing a Scaptis (17); if 
fibrous, it often produces an herbaceous Stem. Leaves 
sheathing, alternate, often all radical. Spike, or 
Cluster, simple or branched, with a Sheath, or mem- 
branous Bractea, under each branch and flower. 
Flowers terminal, rarely axillary ; in Alllum umbel- 
late," as well as in the new genus Swot? baa, fig. 149, 
Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 4. 218. 



Cl. 3.] NARCISSI. 75 

Alelris, Aloe; Antkericiun, Asphodelus, Eucomis, 
Hyacinthus, Lachenalia, Massonia ; Albuca, Scilta, 
Ornithogalum ; Allium and Sozverbtea, fig. 149, ex- 
emplify this Order, which is much enlarged by the 
discoveries of Mr. Brown and others in New Holland ; 
especially as the learned botanist last named refers 
hither some of the Asparagi, Ord. 12; even Aspa- 
ragus itself, with Dianella of Lamarck, &c. 

Ord. 17. NARCISSI. " Calyx (Corolla Linn.} su- 
perior, in some inferior, coloured ; tubular at the 
base ; limb in 6 deep, mostly equal, segments. Sta- 
mens inserted into the tube, their filaments rarely 
combined at the bottom. Gerrnen simple. Style 1. 
Stigma 3-lobed or simple. Capsule of 3 cells, and 
3 valves, with many Seeds; Htemanthus only having 
a Berry, with but 3 Seeds. Root in general bulbous. 
Leaves radical, sheathing. Flowers terminating a 
Scapus (17), solitary or umbellate, with a common 
membranous Sheath, Spatha (53 : 4), either simple or 
divided." 

Sect. 1 . Germen superior. Gcthyttis. Bulbocod'mm, 
Hemerocallis, Agapanthus, Crinum, and Tulbaghia. 
These, except the first, constitute the HemcrocaUide& 
of Brown, along with BlandJ'ordia, fig. 148, Sm. Exot. 
Bot. 5. t. 4, and some of Jussieu's Asphoddi with a 
tubular flower ; but Mr. Brown himself is disposed to 
consider this new assemblage rather as a section of the 
Lilia, Ord. 14. 

Sect. C. (jerruen inferior. HtfniantJiitt, Amaryllis, 



76 utiDiiS. [Cl. 3. 

Pancratium, Narcissus, fig. 150, Lcu-coium and Ga- 
iantluts, fig. 10, 11. These are Mr. Brown's Ama- 
ryllidetf, Prodr. Nov. Roll. v. 1. 2P6. 

Sect. 3. The following are mentioned by Jnssieu, 
as not perfectly answering to either section. Hypo.iis, 
Pontedtriiij Pol'ianiites, Alstroemeria, Tacca. . The 
last, a singular tropical East Indian genus, is consi- 
dered by Mr. Drown as intermediate between the 
Arzidea:, Ord. 7, and Aristdoclute, Orel. <23. 

Ord. 18. IRIDES. " Calyx (Corolla Linn.) supe- 
rior, coloured, tubular at the base, the limb in 6, more 
or less deep, equal or unequal, regular or irregular, 
segments. Stamens inserted into the tube, opposite 
to 3 alternate segments of the limb, their filaments 
rarely united into a cylinder round the Style, which is 
alwavs solitary, with a three-fold, often subdivided, 
Stigma. Capsule of 3 cells and 3 valves, with many, 
generally roundish, Seeds. Root fibrous, or tube- 
rous, or a solid bulb. Stem herbaceous, leafy, rarely 
almost wanting. Leaves alternate, sheathing, gene 
rally sword -shaped, cnsiformia. Flowers attended by 
membranous Sheaths, often of C 2 valves, 1 or more 
Flowers in each Sheath." 

Sect. 1. Stamens monadelphous. Gala.ria, *S7.vy- 
riHehitim, fig. 1.51, Tigridia, and Fcrraria. 

Sect. 1 2. Stamens distinct. 7m, fig. 1.52, Moreea, 
J.i'ift, Wiftsoiua, Gladiolus, Aniholyza, Witstnia, 
Crocuy. 

Sect. 3. The following, " akin to the Iride.s,'' A';- 



Cl. 4.] 

phidium, irachendorfia, Dibit rix, fig. l5S' t 'tfh& Jtrgo- 
biria, (Schreber's Lanaria, Gen. PI. 799,) most of 
them enter Mr. Brown's well-founded Order, entitled 
fltemodoraccie, Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 29.9. The true 
//vVA'.v (E/isata- of Linn.), a most natural Order, are 
very ably illustrated, and their genera better distin- 
guished than before by Air. Ker Bellenden, in Sims 
and Kon. Ann. of Bot. v. 1. 219, whose ideas are 
adopted by Mr. Dryander, in Ait. Hort. Kevv. 
ed. 2. v. 1 . 



CLASS 4. MONOCOTYLEDONES, WITH 
STAMENS (97). 

" Calif x of one leaf, superior, tubular, or deeply di- 
vided. Corolla none, as in Cl. '3;" (unless, like 
Linnaeus, and all but Jussieuan botanists, we con- 
sider as such those internal coloured dilated inte- 
guments, manifestly analogous to the Petals of all 
otiier plants.) " Stamens definite. Style either so- 
litary, or wanting, rarely (if ever) multiplied. Stig- 
ma simple or divided. Fruit of 1 or several cells, 
pulpy or capm/ar." 

Ord. 19. MUS.E. " Calyx (Corolla Linn.) supe- 
rior, in 2 deep, simple, or lobed, segments. Stamens 
6, upon the Germen ; some of them occasionally im- 
perfect. Style simple. Stigma sometimes divided. 
Fruit of 3 cells, with one or many Seeds in each. 
Embryo in the hollow of a farinaceous Albumen. 
Stern herbaceous, though in size often arborescent, 



78 CANXJE. [Cl. 4. 

mostly clothed with the sheathing Footstalks. Leaves 
alternate, sheathing, convolute wheu young ; their 
simple mid-rib sending off at each side innumerable, 
transverse, or obliquely parallel, ribs. Flowers on a 
common stalk, from the central leaves, in alternate 
Clusters, each Flower and Cluster attended by a 
Sheath." 

Musa, Heliconia, and Ravenala, iig. 155, (Searc- 
her's Urania, Gen. PI. 212.) compose this Order, to 
which belongs Strelitzia, fig. 154, Ait. Hort. Kew. 
v. 2. 54. 

Ord. 20. CANNJ%. " Calyx superior, coloured, 
divided into many, generally 6, petal-like segments, 
mostly unequal and irregular, the 3 outermost some- 
times smallest, resembling an outer Calyx. Stamen 1, 
its filament inserted at the base of the Style, often 
flat and petal-like, with a linear adhering Anther, 
simple, or rarely double. Germen with a simple, 
often thread-shaped Style, and a simple or divided 
Stigma. Capsule of 3 cells, mostly with 3 valves, 
and many Seeds. Root often tuberous and creeping 
(perennial). Stem herbaceous, clothed with sheath- 
ing Footstalks. Leaves alternate, sheathing, convo- 
lute when young ; either many-ribbed ; or with a single 
mid-rib, sending off parallel ribs at each side. Flow- 
ers accompanied by Sheaths, generally disposed on a 
terminal or radical Spadiv" (rather a Common Flower- 
stalk). 

Jussieu's Genera are his own Catimblum, (which 



Cl. 4.] CAXXE3J, SCTTAMINFJR. 79 

is Rencalmia of Linn. Suppl. 7, but really belongs to 
Alpinia,} Canna, Globba, fig. 1 , Myro&ma, Ainomum, 
Cost us, Alpin'w, Maranta, Thalia, Curcuma, Kit-mp- 
feria, and Hedi/chium, append. 448. 

Mr. Roscoe, TV. of Linn. Soc. v. 8. 350, has first 
correctly defined the genera of this Order, by the 
shape of the Stamen, or Filament, which affords ex- 
cellent essential characters, concurring with other 
differences in habit and inflorescence, and all together 
establishing the most natural genera possible. 

The Order is well divided by him and Mr. Broun, 
Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 307, into real CANNED, com- 
prising Canna, Maranta*', Thalia, Phrynliim, with 
(certainly) Myrosma; and SCIT AMINES, as Linnaeus 
terms the whole, embracing all the rest. The Cannes. 
have a simple Anther, and are scarcely fragrant in 
any part ; their Style is petal-like, or tumid, with a 
nearly simple, naked Stigma. The Scitamhicce, fig. 1 ., 
have an Anther of two distant lobes, meeting around 
their thread-shaped Style, whose Stigma is dilated, 
cup-shaped, and fringed. The plants are in some 
part or other, it not all over, powerfully aromatic or 
pungent. The character of this last Order may, ac- 
cording to our judgment, be thus more correctly 
given. 

Calyx, fig. 1, a, superior, tubular, undivided, or 
unequally 3-lobed. Corolla, b, riiore or less tubular 

* Dr. Meyer, Fl. Essequeb. 6, has separated M. Casupo, Jacq. Fragrn. 
51. t. 63. f. 4, as a genus, by the name of Calathea. 



80 SOHAMIXF..T,. [Cl. 4. 

at the base: Limb double; outer, c, c, c, in 3 deep 
segments, sometimes ringent; inner of two equal seg- 
ments, (1, d, occasionally abortive, as in Amomum and 
sJlphria, and a third larger, different in shape and 
colour, constituting an ornamental Lip, e, often lobed. 
Stamen 1, inserted into the tube of the Corolla op- 
posite to the lip, its Filament, f, more or less dilated 
and petal-like, often lobed and elongated beyond the 
Anther, g, which consists of i2 lateral, parallel, di- 
stant, oblong lobes, clasping the Style, h. Mr. Brown 
has found 2 glandular bodies, rarely deficient, at the 
base of the Style, which he considers as rudiments of 
Stamens, making up, \\ith the perfect one, the num- 
ber 3, and confirming his theory (93). Germen, i, of 
3, more or less complete, ceils; Style, h, thread- 
shaped ; Stigma, k, dilated, hollow, fringed. Cap- 
sule of 3 cells arid 3 valves, in some instances pulpy, 
with many roundish, sometimes tunicated, Seeds. Al- 
bumen farinaceous. Embryo in the centre of the Al- 
bumen, somewhat turbinate, sheathing the simple 
Plumula (62 : 1) which arises from its base. 

Gsertner and Brown consider the tubular part of 
the Embryo, in these plants, as a peculiar organ, 
termed Vitdlus (G2 : 3), whose office is conceived bv 

the former to be the nourishment of the Embrvo. 

j 

though the Albumen is acknowledged to serve no other 
purpose. The part in question seems to me nearly 
analogous in form to the undisputed peltate Embryo 
of J ///..?#, GtPrtn. t. n, in whose centre the point of 



Cl. 4.] ORCIIIDK.R. 81 

the Plumula, in like manner, appears, nor is that of 
some of the Palm? very different from the last. 

The known genera of these true 8dtamine& are 
Hedychium, Jllphtia, Plcllenia of WilUlenow and 
Brown, Zingiber, Corfu*, Kcempferia, Roscoea Sm. 
Exot. Bot. t. 108, Amomnm, Curcuma, Globba, fig. 1. 
and Elettaria Ma ton TV. of Linn. Soc. v. 10. 254. 
These are hardly found without the tropics. 

The puzzling genus Philydrum, Curt. Mag. t. 783, 
once referred to the Scitamiriea', is better placed by 
Mr. Broun in the Junn, with Burmannia. 

Ord. 21. ORCHIDE.E, fig. 70-72. " Calyx superior, 
often coloured, in 6 deep segments, 5 of which are 
superior, the 6'th inferior, Nectary of Linnanis, most- 
ly larger and dissimilar. Style 1, ascending, often 
connected with the upper lip at its base, sometimes 
very short, or scarcely any. Stigma dilated, not en- 
tirely terminal, but clapped as it were to the front of 
the Style. Anther 1, proceeding from the top of the 
Style under the Stigma, of two separate cells, often 
remote from each other ; sometimes sessile and close- 
ly adhering to the two sides of the Style, sometimes 
supported by their own short filaments ; each of 2 
valves, and containing a glutinous mass of Pollen. 
Capsule of one cell, with 3 keeled angles, and 3 valves, 
bursting between the usually permanent keels. Seeds 
numerous, in general chaffy, inserted into receptacles 
attached to the middle of each valve. Root fibrous, 
usually with 2 knobs, each of which is either undi- 

G 



82 OliClUDE.E. [Cl. 4. 

vided or lobed. Stem frequently liltlc more than a 
Scapus, rarely climbing. Leaves alternate, entire ; 
the radical ones sheathing and ribbed ; those of the 
Stem sessile, and scale-like. Flowers with sheath-like 
Bracteas, terminal, mostly spiked, rarely solitary." 

Jussieu's genera, chiefly Linmuan, are Orchis, Sa- 
lyr'mm, Ophn/s, fig. 70, Scrt^i&s^ Limodorum, T/ie- 
lymitra Forst., Disa, Cypripedium, Biplnnula Com- 
inerson, Arethusa, Pogonia Juss., Epidcndrum, and 
I'amlla. 

Dr. Swartz and Mr. Brown have greatly improved 
the history of this Order, and augmented its genera, 
of which New Holland affords many new ones. From 
the remarks of these writers I would reform Jussieu's de- 
scription, but without adopting their ideas of the integu- 
ments of the Flower, which I understand as follows. 

Calyx superior, of 3 leaves, fig. 70, a, a, a, either 
spreading or converging ; the solitary upper one often 
vaulted, rarely spurred at the base ; the 2 lateral ones 
equal, sometimes combined at the bottom. Petals 
2, b, b, ascending between the lateral and the upper- 
most calyx-leaves, and less than either, sometimes 
converging. Nectary, c, a lip, undivided or lobed, 
projecting, or dependent, between the 2 lateral calyx- 
leaves in front, often with one concave spur, rarely 2, 
from its base behind, in which, or occasionally in a 
chink on the, sometimes crested, disk of the lip, the 
honey is lodged ; " the lip now and then bears a 
stalked appendage, whose stalk is occasionally irrita- 



Cl. 4.] ORCHIDE.E. 83 

ble at it's joint." Brown. The Stamens, according 
to this able observer, consist of 3 Filaments, com- 
bined together, as well as more or less united to the 
Style, within the tipper Calyx-leaf, opposite to the 
Lip ; the 2 lateral ones almost always abortive, and 
generally short, or obsolete, the intermediate one only 
bearing an Anther. In Cypripcdium alone, as far as 
hitherto observed, the latter only is abortive, both the 
side ones being antherifcrous. Anther of 2 cells, 
which are either separate, and fixed to the sides of 
the Column (or Style), often extending beyond them ; 
or brought together into a simple Anther, either 
parallel to the Stigma, immoveable and permanent, 
fkr. 71, e, or terminating the Column in the form of a, 
generally mdveable, deciduous lid, fig. 77 and 78, a ; 
each cell being divided internally by one, seldom three, 
longitudinal partitions. The Pollen consists either of 
simple grains, or frequently of fourfold globules, col- 
lected into masses fitting the cells ; these in the fixed 
divided Anther fig. 71, e, rarely in the terminal move- 
able one, fig. 77, 78, a, consist of many angular por- 
tions, cohering by elastic gluten ; in the parallel An- 
ther, rarely in the terminal one, the masses are rather 
powdery, in plates, of easily separable granulations ; 
in the terminal lid fig. 78, a, they are usually waxy, 
homogeneous and smooth : after the cells open, the 
masses of Pollen, fig. 71, d and fig. 72, stick by a ta- 
per base, or elastic thread, to the Stigma, or any thing 
else. Germen, fig. 78, d, roundish, obovate, or ob- 

G 2 



t 



84 OECHIDEJJ, HYDROCIIARIDES. [Cl. 4, 

Mong, with 3 principal ribs, or angles, each opposite 
to a Calyx-leaf; Style, fig. 78, b, united, more or 
less, with the Stamen, sometimes very short ; Stigma 
fig. 78, c, c, oblique, facing the Lip, concave, moist, 
accompanied at the summit or sides with one or two 
glands, fig. 72, g, either naked, or in a membranous 
pouch or pouches, serving to attach the discharged Pol- 
len. Capsule shaped like the Gennen, of three valves, 
splitting for the most part at their sides only, between 
the ribs. Seeds very numerous and minute, mostly 
tunicated with a loose membrane; which is wanting 
in Vanilla, where they are imbedded in pulp. "Al- 
bumen the shape of the Seed." Gartn. Embryo mi- 
nute, simple, central, near the Scar. " The Flowers 
of the Qwkidea have their lower part, or Lip, natu- 
rally placed inwards, but by a twist in their Stalk, or 
base of the Gennen, they are mostly turned halt" 
round." Brown. 

They all, as far as hitherto known, belong properly 
to Gynandria Monandria of Linrueus, Cypripedium 
only being referable to' Gynandria Diandria. They 
are well distributed into sections, by the three different 
forms of the Anther, as above described ; the texture 
of the Pollen being used by Mr. Brown for further 
distinctions. The Genera are distinguished accord- 

O 

ing to these improved principles, in Sm. Compend. FL 
Brit. ed. 2 and 3, and by Brown in Ait. Hort. Kew. 
ed. 2, where they are greatly increased in number. 
Ord. 22. HYDROCHARIDES. " Calyx of l leaf. 



Cl. .>.] ARISTOLOCHUE. 85 

superior, either entire or divided, the segments in a 
simple or double row, the inner ones (Corolla Linn.) 
petal-like. Stamens definite or indefinite, inserted 
upon the Pistil," (that is above the germen). " Ger- 
men simple. Style either simple, or definitely multi- 
plied, or wanting. Stigma simple or divided, Fruit 
of one or many cells. Plants herbaceous and aquatic." 
Jussieu's genera are Valisneria, Stratioies, Hydro- 
eharis, fig. 156, Nymph&a, Nelumbinm, Trapa, Pro- 
serpinaca and Platia. The author confesses his dis- 
satisfaction respecting the last five genera, and not 
without reason. Mr. Salisbury, in Sims and Konig's 
Annals of Bot. v. 2. 69, first I believe showed Nym- 
phcea and it's allies, amongst which are my Nuphar 
and Cyamus, (the latter Jussieu's Nelumbinm,} to be 
dicotyledonous, and therefore they can have no place 
here; see Ord. 62. Trapa is well explained by 
Gasrtner, as having two, though very unequal, Co- 
tyledons. Prose rpinaca has two very distinct equal 
ones. 

CLASS 5. DICOTYLEDONES, WITHOUT PETALS, 
AND WITH EP1GYNOUS STAMENS (97). 

" Calyx superior, oj one leaf. Corolla none. Stamens 
definite. Styles either wanting, or single, or defi- 
nitely numerous." 

Ord. 23. ARISTOLOCIIIJE. The only Order. 
" Stigma divided. Fruit of many cells, with numerous 

Seeds." 



86 EL.EAGNl. [Cl. 6, 

Aristoloi'hia, Asarum, fig. 157, and Cytinus. 
Mr. Brown considers this Order as monocotyle- 
donous, and akin to Tacca ; see Qrd. \ 7- 

CLASS 6. DICOTYLEDONES, WITHOUT PETALS. 
STAMENS PERIGYNOUS (97). 

" Calyx of 1 leaf, superior or inferior, entire or divi- 
ded. Corolla npnc, except occasional scales, resem- 
bling petals, inserted into the upper part of the Ca- 
lyx. Stamens inserted into the Calyx, definite or 
indefinite. Filaments as well as Anthers distinct. 
Germen, Style, and titigma single, rarely definitely 
multiplied. Seed either naked and superior ; or Pe- 
ricarp superior or inferior, mostly with one Seed, 
rarely many. Situation of the Embryo various 
Flowers in some instances separated?" 

ORD. 24. EL&AGNI. " Calyx tubular, superior. 
Stamens definite, inserted into the top of the tube. 
Style 1 . Stigma generally simple. Fruit mostly pul- 
py, with 1 Seed, destitute of Albumen. Stem shrub- 
by or arboreous. Leaves mostly alternate. Flowers 
sometimes separated." 

Sect. 1. Thesium, fig. 158, Hippophae, midElteag- 
nus, are examples with 5 Stamens or fewer. 

Sect. 2. Bucida and Terminalia have usually 10. 
These last belong to Mr. Brown's Combretacece, see 
Ord. 88. 

This is one of Jussieu's least solid Orders, and has 
been divided subsequently by himself. Out of it, 



Cl. 6\] THYMEUE/E. 87 

with some of the Onagr<e, Ord. 88, Mr. Brown has 
formed his Snntalace<e, Prodr. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 350, 
to the Seed of which he attributes a fleshy Albumen. 
Their Calyx is superior, partly coloured, it's Aestiva- 
tion valvular (60) ; Stamens opposite to it's seg- 
ments. Germen of 1 cell, with 2 to 4 rudiments of 
Seed?, pendulous from the upper part of a central Re- 
ceptacle, 1 of them only coming to perfection. To 
this belong Theshnn, Santahun, and some new ge- 
nera, as also perhaps Osyris and Ola.r. JEl&agmts 
has really, according to Air. Brown, an inferior Calyx, 
the lower part of the tube being unconnected with the 
Germen, though enfolding it so closely as to have de- 
ceived most botanists. Ga?rtner found the same in 
Hippoph'de, and these 2 genera make a small family 
by themselves. 

Ord. 25. THYME r.r.T.. " Calyx inferior," (coloured 
t least internally). " Corolla none, but in some 
there are 4, 8 or 10 fleshy scales, in the throat of the 
Calyx. Stamens definite, inserted into the tube, and 
generally twice as many as the segments of the limb, 
in 2 series. Germen, Style, and generally Stigma, 
simple. Seed 1, naked, or pulpy, or invested with 
the Calyx. Albumen none. Radicle superior. Stem 
shrubby. Leaves mostly alternate." 

A most natural Order, consisting of Daphne, fig. 1 :3, 
Passcrhia, Strut hiola, Dais, Gnidia, &c., to which 
is added the extensive New Holland diandrou* genus 
Pimel&a, remarkable for its long Stamens. 



88 I'ROTK*, [Cl. 6. 

Mr. Brown remarks, that the Aestivation (60) is 
imbricated, and that there is sometimes a thin fleshy 
Albumen. This is therefore one of the instances in 
which the absence or presence of that substance af- 
fords no absolute distinction, scarcely any Order be- 
ing more natural than the present. The splendid 
silky tenacious fibres, of the bark when broken, mark 
the Tkymd&&. A burning acrimony pervades the 
whole of the plants. The Flowers are generally fra- 
grant. Leaves simple, undivided, and entire. 

Ord. 26. PKOTE/E. " Calyx in 4 or 5 very deep 
segments, or tubular, with more shallow ones, it's base 
occasionally subtended by minute hairs or scales; 
segments each bearing 1 Stafnen about the middle. 
Germen 1, superior. Style simple, as is usually the 
Stigma. Seed 1, either naked, or in a Pericarp, or 
the latter is a Capsule with several Seeds. Albumen 
none. Radicle inferior. Stem shrubby. Leaves al- 
ternate, or crowded into imperfect whorls. Flowers 
either distinct, or variously aggregate in an imbricated 
pom moil Calyx, with a common Receptacle. Sta- 
mens and Pistil sometimes separated." 

Protect, fig. 1.59, Banksia, Roupala, of Aublet, 
Braheium, and Embothrium, fig. 160, are all the 
Jussieuan genera. But this Order, of which Lin- 
naeus had conceived no idea, has risen to great impor- 
tance in the hands of Mr. Brown, Tr. of Lino. Soc. 
v. 10. and Prodr. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 363, under the 
name of Proteacea. Several of it's new genera in- 



d. ).]. PROTEJE, OR PKOTEACEjfc. - 89 

deed were first defined by the writer of this, in Tr. of 
Linn. Soc. v. 4 ; but New Holland afforded so many 
new ones, and those of southern Africa were so ill 
understood, that the subject required entire revision. 
The Aestivation of the Flower in this Order is valvu- 
lar. What Jussieu and Brown term Calyx, I rather, 
with Dryander in Ait. Hort. Kew. and Linnaeus, take 
for a Corolla. The Stigma is different in different 
genera, as well as the Pericarp, and the composition 
of the Flower, which calls up the puzzling question 
respecting Inflorescence (48) and Aggregate Flowers 
(69). The presence of a Common scaly or cellular 
Receptacle (63) in some Proteacea, I think, proves 
the latter ; while in others the Flowers are certainly 
distinct, usually racemose. This difference is not at 
all incompatible with the integrity of the Natural 
Order, nor is the same terminology necessarily to be 
applied to both. The genera, 38 in Mr. Brown's 
essay above cited, I presume to think rather too much 
multiplied. They are principally arranged by the 
Fruit, which in some is closed (not bursting), the An- 
thers being either distinct or connected ; in others 
bursting, bivalve, of 1 or 2 cells, whose partition is 
moveable. 

There is not the most remote affinity between this 
Order and the preceding. The ProteacecE have scarce- 
ly any flavour or scent in any part. Their fibres are 
coarse and rigid. Leaves various, entire or toothed, 
simple or repeatedly subdivided. 



90 LAURI, POLYGONE^E. [Cl. 6. 

Ord. 27. LAURI. " Calyx in 6 divisions, perma- 
nent, bearing 6 Stamens from the base of it's segments, 
in some instances accompanied by an inner row of 
the same number. Anthers adhering to each filament, 
and bursting from the base upwards. Germen su- 
perior. Style 1. Drupa or Berry of 1 cell, with 1 
seed. Albumen none. Stem arboreous or shrubby. 
Leaves generally alternate." 

Laurus, fig. 16 1, is the type of this Order, to which 
Mr. Brown adds Tetranthera of Jacquin, and Cassy- 
tha Linn., with some new genera. Myristlca and 
Hernandia are considered as bordering upon it. 

There is always something peculiar in the structure 
of the Stamens in Lauri; they are remarkably corn- 
pound, as it were, or aggregate, in a manner scarcely 
observable elsewhere. 

On/. 28. POLYGONE.E. " Calyx of 1 leaf, divided, 
(coloured,) bearing the Stamensfrotn it's base. Germen 
simple, superior. Stigmas several, often sessile. Seed 
1, naked, or enveloped in the permanent Calyx. Em- 
bryo immersed in a farinaceous Albumen. Leaves 
alternate, each inserted into an annular, or sheathing, 
intrafoliaceous Stipula, or sheathing Footstalk; young 
ones revolute. Stem generally herbaceous.'' 

Polygonum, fig. 1 62, Rumex, Rheum, are the chief 
genera. 

In the first the Stamens can hardly be called, with 
Jussieu, definite. They are 5, 6, 8, or 9, bearing no 
analogy to the Calyx, which is 5-cleft. Styles or 



Cl. 6.] ATUIPLICES. 91 

Stigmas 2 or 3, sometimes separated from the Sta- 
mens. Mr. Brown observes the farinaceous Albumen 
to be sometimes deficient, that substance being fleshy 
and in very small quantity, in Eriogonum of Michaux ; 
Pijrsh N. Amer. Q77 ; a genus which cannot be re- 
moved from this very natural Order, 

Ord. C9. ATIUPLICES. " Calyx of 1 leaf, deeply 
divided, bearing the definite Stamens from it's base, 
tiermen 1, superior. Style 1, or wanting, or many, 
-ach with 1, rarely 2, Stigmas. Seed 1, many in P/ij/- 
tnlacca, 2 in Galema, either naked, or enveloped in 
the Calyx, or inclosed in a palpy or capsular Peri- 
carp. Embryo curved round the farinaceous Albu- 
men. Stem herbaceous, in some shrubby. Flowers 
sometimes separated. Leaves mostly alternate, un- 
divided, entire, more or less fleshy, without Stipulas." 

A very natural and numerous Order, especially 
\\here the Seed is invested with the Calyx, as in />#- 
sella, Salsola, Spinacliia, Chcnopod'uim, Atripl&r 4 
1)15. 163, Blitum, Salicornia. In the two latter the 
Stamens, being occasionally 1, C, or 3, and beann-., 
no fixed analogy to the Calyx, are scarcely to be call- 
ed definite. Mr. Brown denominates this Order 
Ckenopodetf, with DeCandolle, and remarks that it 
has no character to distinguish it from the Amaranth^ 
Ord. 30, though there is a difference in habit. J$ 

' C 1 

iact, the insertion of the Stamens is not, in either 
tribe, so fixed, as to be depended on, though the di- 



92 AMARANTHI. [Cl. 7. 

stinction between Jussieifs 6th and 7th Classes de- 
pends hereon. 

CLASS 7. DICOTYLEDONES, WITHOUT PETALS *. 
STAMENS HYPOGYNOUS (97). 

"Calyx inferior, of ] or many leaves. Corolla scarcely 
any, though some have petal-like scales, or bristles, 
bearing the Stamens, or alternate with them, and 
others even a tube, either bearing the Stamens or 
not. Stamens definite, usually distinct, and, pro- 
perly, inserted beneath the simple Germen, 'without 
any attachment to the Calyx, but this is no* con- 
stant. Style 1, or many, or wanting. Stigma 1, 
or several. Seed 1, or Capsule of 1 or 2 cells, with 
1 or many Seeds" 

Ord. 30. AMARANTHI. " Calyx deeply 5-cleft, 
often surrounded by scales. Stamens sometimes com- 
bined, occasionally having intermediate scales, or a 
common tubular base. Styles or Stigmas 1, 2, or 3. 
Capsule of 1 cell, with an unconnected Receptacle, 
and either bursting at the top, or all round. Seed I 
or many. Embryo rolled about a farinaceous Albu- 
men. Flowers capitate, or spiked ; sometimes sepa- 
rated. Leaves usually undivided and pointed ; some- 
times with Stipulas. Stem in the greater part herba- 
ceous." 

Amaranthits, Celosia, Achyranthes, fig, 1 64, Gem* 

Except Ord. 31, 32, and 33. 



Cl. 7.] PLANTAGIXES, NYCTAGTNES. 93 

phretia, are genuine examples, and Mr. Brown has 
several new ones. He separates those with Stipulas 
into an Order termed Illecebrece, of which Parony+ 
chia of Tournefort, and Herniaria, are specimens. 

Ord. 31. PLANTAGIXES. " Calyx generally deeply 
four-cleft, with a thin narrow-mouthed tube, like a 
Corolla, but fading, not deciduous, often splitting. 
Stamens 4, long, prominent, connected with the bot- 
tom of the tube. German, Style, and Stigma simple. 
Capsule bursting circularly, of 1 or 2 cells, with 1 or 
more Seeds in each, destitute of Albumen. Herbs, 
with sometimes separated Flowers." 

Psy Ilium of Tournefort, with Plantago, fig. 166, 
anil Littorella, are all the genera. The two former are 
united by Linnreus, DeCandolle and Brown; the last 
is monoecious. Much doubt attends this singular and 
unconnected Order. Mr. Brown, like Linnaeus, gives 
the evident Corolla its proper appellation, there being 
a distinct Perianth, in 4 deep segments, besides. 

Ord. 32. NYCTAGINES. " Calyx tubular, like a 
Corolla, either naked, or surrounded by an outer 
Calyx. Germen, Style and Stigma simple. Stamens 
definite, inserted into a glandular ring, proceeding 
from the Receptacle, round the base of the Germen. 
Seed 1 , covered by the ring, as w ell as by the base of 
the tube, both permanent. Embryo surrounding a fari- 
naceous Albumen. Stem shrubby or herbaceous. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, simple and undivided. 
Flowers axillarv and terminal." 



94 PLUMBAGINES. [Cl. 7 

I 

Mvfctbilis, fig. 167, (Nyctago Juss.) Soerhaai'iff. 
and Pisonia, with Abronia of Jussieu (Tricrati: 
L'Herit.) and Bugamillaa of Commerson, compose 
this Order, to which O.vybaphus of L'Heritier, Curt. 
Mag. t. 454, must be added. 

The Calyx of Jussieu is the evident Corolla of other 
botanists, nor do we perceive what is gained by hi:? 
paradoxical appellation. Still less does the apetalous 
character of his 7th Class suit the following Order. 

Ci 

Ord. 33. PLUMBAGINES. " Calyx tubular. Co- 
rolla of 1 or many Petals, beneath the Germen. Sta- 
mens definite, inserted either beneath the Germen, 
or into the Corolla. Germen solitary, superior. 
Style 1 OF many. Stigmas many. Capsule sepa- 
rating into several valves at the base only. Seed so- 
litary, pendulous from a thread-shaped stalk, on-;'- 
nating from the Receptacle of the Germen. Embrvo 
oblong, flat, surrounded by a farinaceous Albumen, 
Stem herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby. Leaves a!- 

* 

lernate," (undivided). 

Plumbago and Statice, fig. 168, (the latter subdi- 
vided by Brown) are the only genera. 

This Order and the 3 1st are arranged by Mr. Brown 
amongst his Monopetalce. 

We cannot but remark a great inaccuracy in this 
part of the Jussieuan System, as to technical cha- 
racters respecting Calyx and Corolla; but without 
any reflection upon it's illustrious author. Such are 
incidental to every attempt of the kind, nor can art 



Cl. 8.] LYSIMACHIJE. 95 

keep pace with nature. It seems proper nevertheless 
that these three last Orders should he removed to some 
of the following Classes. 

CLASS 8. DICOTYLEDONES. COROLLA MONOPE- 
TALOUS, HYPOGYNOUS. 

" Calyx of one leaf. Corolla regular or irregular, 
bearing the Stamens, which are definite, and gene- 
rally alternate with its segments when of equal 
number. Germen superior, in general simple, with 
one Style ; but in some Apocinei, Ord. 47, the 
Germen is double, without any Style. Stigma sim- 
ple or divided. Seeds either naked, or more fre- 
quently in a Pericarp, either pulpy or capsular, of 
\ or many cells." 

A great and important Class ; whose 15 Orders 
follow one another in a tolerably natural series. Some 
are generally furnished with Albumen, others not ; 
but this difference bears no analogy to the other cha- 
racters of affinity, or of distinction, between the Or- 
ders. 

Ord. 34. LYSIMACHI^E. " Calyx divided. Corolla 
mostly regular, five-cleft, bearing as many Stamens 
opposite to the lobes. Style 1. Stigma rarely cloven. 
Fruit of 1 cell, with many Seeds, often capsular, with 
a central unconnected Receptacle. Stem herbaceous. 
Leaves opposite, or alternate." 

Some have a Stem, as Anagallis, fig. 169, Lyxi- 
machia, Hottonia, Limosclla, &c. ; others radical 



9fi PEDICULARES, ACANTHI. [Cl. 8, 

Flower-stalks, mostly umbellate, as Androsace, Pri- 
mula, Dodecatheon, Cyclamen ; and there is an ap- 
pendix of nearly allied genera, comprising the very 
doubtful Globularia, with Conobea of Aublet, Tozzia, 
Samolus, Utricularia, fig. 170, Pingiticula and Me- 
nyanthes, fig. 184. 

Mr. Brown, following Ventenat, calls this Order 
PrimulacecE) and has separated from it some of the 
appendix, by the name of Lcntibnlari<c, given by 
Richard. Their Corolla is irregular, with a spur. 
Stamens 2. Albumen none. Embryo sometimes un- 
divided that is, to speak plainly, monocotyledonous \ 

Ord. 35. PEDICULARES. " Calyx divided, per- 
manent, often tubular. Corolla usually irregular. 
Stamens definite. Style 1. Stigma rarely cloven. 
Capsule of 2 cells and 2 valves, each having a central 
partition, bearing the numerous Seeds. Stem gene- 
rally herbaceous. Leaves, as well as Flowers, oppo- 
site or alternate, with 1 Bractea to each Flower." 

Erinus, Castilleia, Euphrasia, Bartsia, fig. 171, 
Pedicularis, Rhinanthm, Melampyrwm, are genuine 
examples of this Order, all turning more or less black 
in drying, and well distinguished by their Anthers and 
Seeds. Their Stamens are 4, 2 longer than the rest. 
Hyobanche, Orobancke, Lathr&a, &c., are less strict- 
ly akin to these ; and Polygnla, with Veronica, fig. 2, 
and Sibthorpia, fig. 176, are but slightly related to 
them or to each other. 

Ord. 36. ACANTHI. " Calyx divided, permanent, 



Cl 8.] JASMINES. 97 

often bracteated. Corolla generally irregular. Sta- 
mens 2; or 4, 2 of which are longer. Style 1. Stig- 
ma 2-lobed, rarely simple. Capsule of 2 strong 
elastic valves, with central partitions, bearing the few 
and large Seeds. Stem herbaceous or shrubby. Leaves, 
as well as Flowers, mostly opposite." 

Acanthus, Barleria, Ruellia, Justicia, fig. 172, 
with some others, constitute this very natural Order, 
which Mr. Brown has deeply studied, and happily il- 
lustrated, Prodr. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 472. He notices 
the various, equal or unequal, simple or double, forms 
of the Anthers, and the awlshaped support of each 
Seed, which is very peculiar, though not invariably 
present. The Seeds have no Albumen. There is 
often a rudiment of a fifth Stamen. 

Orel 37. JASMINES. " Calyx tubular. Corolla 
regular, tubular, rarely deeply four-cleft, occasionally 
wanting. Stamens 2. Style 1. Stigma 2-lobed. 
Fruit either capsular, somewhat like the Acanthi; or 
pulpy, with 1 or 2 cells. Seeds few. Embryo straight 
and flat, mostly surrounded by a fleshy Albumen. 
Stem shrubby, or arborescent, with opposite branches 
and Leaves. Flowers oppositely panicled, or corym- 
bose." 

Syringa (Lilac Juss.) and Fravinus, with Chio- 
nanthus, Oka, fig. 173, Jasminum and Ligiistruni 
<are examples of this Order, which abounds with 
elegant Shrubs, whose fragrant Flowers are highly 
valued. Its relationship to the last is extrenrely 

H 



93 TITICES. [Cl. 8. 

slight, and scarcely discernible in any one point, except 
the valves and fixed partitions of the Capsule in Sy- 
ringa, obscurely resembling Justicia &c., but not, like 
them, elastic, nor is there any resemblance in the 
number, form or disposition, of the Seeds or their 
supports. 

Mr. Brown separates the true Jasmine a, whose 
Seeds are erect, with hardly any Albumen, and their 
Corolla salver-shaped, in from 5 to 8 segments, with" 
an imbricated twisted Aestivation; from the OleifH&Qf 
Hoffmansegg and Link, whose Seeds are pendulous, 
with a copious, dense, fleshy Albumen, and a deeply 
four-cleft Corolla, sometimes wanting. 

Ord. 38. VlTiCES. " Calyx tubular, often per- 
manent. Corolla tubular, for the most part irregular 
in the limb. Stamens generally 4, didynamous, rare- 
ly 3, or 6. Style I. Stigma variously shaped. Seeds 
definite, either naked, or more frequently in a pulpy, 
sometimes capsular, pericarp. Stem shrubby (or ar- 
boreous), in a few herbaceous. Leaves opposite for 
the most part ; as are the Flowers when corymbose ; 
but when spiked they are alternate." These different 
forms of inflorescence mark the 2 Sections. 

In the 1st, are Clerodendrum, Vitex, Callicarpa, 
Cornutia, Tectona (Theha Juss.) c. ; in the 2d, Pe- 
traa, Citharexylum, Duranta, Verbena, fig. 1 74, and 
others. Eranthemum, Selago, and Hebenstretia stand 
as " akin to ViticesT 

Jussieu has changed the name of this Order to- 



Cl. S.j LABIAT.fc. 99 

Ferbenace<e,'\i\ Anna), du Mus. v. 7. Br. Prodr. v 1. 
510. 

Ord.39. LABIATE. "Calyx tubular, either 2- 
lipped-, or rather unequally 5-cleft. Corolla tubular, 
irregular, mostly 2-lipped. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
inserted under the upper lip; 2 of them sometimes 
imperfect, or wanting. Germen 4-lobed. Style ], 
central, from the base of the lobes. Stigma cloven. 
Seeds 4, naked, erect, inserted by their base into a 
Receptacle at the bottom of the permanent Calyx. 
Albumen none. Stem quadrangular, oppositely 
branched, mostly herbaceous. Leaves opposite, scarce- 
ly ever compound. Flowers opposite, with leafy oV 
bristly Bracteas ; solitary, or whorled ; corymbose, or" 
spiked ; terminal, or axillary/' 

A most natural Order, the Ferlicillata of Ray and 
Linnaeus. Herbage usually aromatic, often bitter, al- 
ways harmless. 

Jussieu makes 4 Sections. 

Sect. 1. Two Stamens only perfect. Lycopus, 
Monarda, Rosmarinus, Salvia, &c. 

Sect. 2. Four perfect Stamens. Upper lip scarce- 
, ly any. Ajuga (Bugula Juss.) and Teucrium. 

Sect. 3. Stam. 4. Cor. 2-lipped. Calyx 5-cleft. 
\Satiweia, Nepeta, Lavandula, Menlka, Lamium, 

f. Si, 22, Stackys, Marrubium, Phlomis, 8tc. 

Sect. 4. Stam. 4. Cor. 2-lipped. Calyx 2-lipped. 
\Origanuni, Thymus^ Dracocephalum, Melittis y Pru- 

lla, ScuteUaria, &c. 

H 2 



100 SCItOPHULARI^E. [Cl. 8. 

Westringia Sm., which turns out to be a conside- 
rable New Holland genus, belongs to Sect. 3d. 

Ord. 40. SCROPHULARI^E. " Calyx divided, often 
permanent. Corolla often irregular, with a divided 
limb. Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely but 2. Style 1. 
Stigma simple or cloven. Fruit capsular, of 2 cells, 
and 2, more or less deeply separated, valves, (which 
are now and then cloven,) naked and concave within; 
the Receptacle central, bordered, bearing Seeds, ge- 
nerally numerous and minute, on both sides, and 
serving as a partition, meeting the indexed edges of 
the valves. Stem herbaceous, rarely shrubby. Leaves 
opposite or alternate, seldom compound. Flowers 
bracteated." 

Buddleia, Scoparia, Scrophularia, Gerardia, An- 
tirrhinum, fig. 175, Hcmimeris, Digitalis, and some 
others, give the true idea of this Order. Calceolaria, 
J'Vulfenia, and Commerson's Btea, are the diandrous 
genera. 

There are 2 Sections of numerous genera, one with 
opposite, the other alternate, Leaves, marked as "akin 
to ScrophularifcT Among the first are Columnea, 
Besleria, Gratiola, Lindernia, Mimulus ; those with 
alternate Leaves being Schwalbea, Schwenkia, and 
BrowaUia. 

Mr. Brown brings hither some of the 35th Order, 
as Veronica, fig. 2, (certainly with great propriety,) 
including Jussieu's Hebe. He reckons Gratiola one 
of the true Scrophulari*?, as well as Euphrasia, part 



Cl. 8.] SOLANE7E. 101 

of Buchnera, with Mimulus, and Litnosella, to which 
New Holland has furnished several new additions. 
Respecting Limosella, as being much better placed 
here than in the 34th Order, there can surely be no 
doubt. Sibthorpia and Disandra belong, without 
question, to the Scrophularice, not to the Pedicu- 
lares. 

Except in the Stamens, and perhaps Corolla, there 
is little affinity between this Order and the Labiate. 
Their qualities are almost totally different; nor is there 
any analogy between the Fruit of each. The bulk of 
the 39th makes the 1st Order in Linnaeus's Didyna- 
mia, that of the 40th the 2d Order of that Class. 

Ord. 41. SOLANEJE. " Calyx more or less deeply 
5-cleft, often permanent. Corolla 5-cleft, and most 
generally regular, bearing the 5 Stamens from its 
base. Style simple, as is generally the Stigma. Fruit 
of 2 cells, with many Seeds ; either capsular, and 
agreeing with the Scrophulariee ; or more frequently 
pulpy, with central Receptacles, from the middle of 
the partition, subdividing the cells, and covered with 
the Seeds. Embryo surrounding a farinaceous Albu- 
men. (See below.) Stern herbaceous or shrubby. 
Leaves alternate ; sometimes 2, accompanying the 
inflorescence, from the same point. Flowers variously 
disposed, often extra-axillary, from the sides of the 
branch, next to the Leaves." 

The Fruit is capsular in Sect. 1 . Celsia, Verbascum, 
Hyoscyamus, Nicotiana } &nd. Datura; pulpy in Sect. 2. 



102 BOKAGINJwl',. [Cl. 8. 

Atropa, PJii/salis, Solatium, fig. 177, Withtringia, 
Capsicum, Lycium, Cestrum, &c. 

The Flowers are rarely 4-cleft; often irregular, as 
occasionally in Solarium, which genus cannot safely be 
divided on that account. The Albumen is more cor- 
rectly described, by Grertnerand Brown, as fleshy, in- 
closing the curved Embryo. This curvature, and the 
plaited Aestivation of the Corolla, which is not ringent, 
or2-lipped, Mr. Brown reckons the most essential dif- 
ferences between this Order and the ScrophularicE. 
Bontia, Brwifdsia, and Crescentla are subjoined as 
akin to Solanece. The genuine plants of this Order are 
narcotic, foetid, often very dangerous, termed by Lin- 
na3us Lurid&i or Gloomy. Verlmscum however, 
abounding with mucilage, is only mildly sedative, and 
perfectly safe for internal use, though intoxicating to 
fish. 

Ord. 42. BORAGTNETE. " Calyx 5-cleft, perma- 
nent. Corolla almost universally regular, and Sta- 
mens 5, Germen either simple or 4-lobed. Style 1. 
Stigma divided, or furrowed, or simple. Seeds mostly 
4 ; sometimes in a capsular or pulpy pericarp ; some- 
times naked, attached obliquely to the base of the 
Style, and encompassed with the (often greatly en- 
larged) Calyx. Albumen none. Stem in most cases 
herbaceous; rarely shrubby or arboreous. Leaves 
alternate, often harsh." (Stipulas wanting.) 

These, the Asper'ifoU<e of Ray and Linnaeus, com- 
pose on the whole a very natural assemblage ; of 



; C1; 8.J COXVOLVULI. 103 

which Hetiofropium, Echium, Lithospermum, fig. 178, 
Pulmonaria, Onosma, and perhaps Coldenia, all which 
have a naked-mouthed, or pervious, Corolla ; with 
Symphytiim, Lycopsis, Myosotis* Anchusa^ Borago, 
Asperugo, Cynoglossum, and Trichodesma of Browu, 
whose tube is closed with valves, constitute indubitable 
examples. Tourmfortia, Ehretia, and Cordia, (the 
latter comprehending Varronla^) are also retained 
here ; but Mr. Brown proposes to separate Hydro- 
phyllum, Ellisia, and Jussieu's Phacdia, as having a 
copious cartilaginous Albumen, compound, or at least 
deeply lobed, Leaves, and a capsular Fruit. 

The true Boragwetf are allied by their Seeds to 
Labiatce, Ord. 39 ; but differ in their pungent or 
warty, not hairy, pubescence ; mucilaginous, not aro- 
matic, qualities; alternate, not opposite, Leaves; and 
blue, rather than crimson or purple, Flowers, ex- 
cept in the bud. Messerschmidia and Cerinthe differ 
from the rest in having a kind of two-celled twin Cap- 
sule, or Nut; and Cerinthe has a glaucous, smoother, 
though warty, habit, with reddish or yellow Flowers. 
Onosma too is always yellow-flowered. The change 
in the Corolla of the Boraginecc in general, from 
jbright red, to a vivid blue, as the Flower expands, 
apparently caused by the sudden loss of some acid 
principle, is a very curious phenomenon. 

Ord. 43. CONVOLVULI. "Calyx deeply 5-cleft, 
often permanent. Corolla regular, with a generally 
5-lobed limb. Stamens as many as the segments, aU 



104 POLEMONIA. [Cl. 8. 

tcrnate with them, inserted into the lower part of the 
tube. StyleJ, or definitely divided into several. In 
the latter case the Stigmas are simple; in the former 
the solitary Stigma is sometimes divided. Capsule 
of 3, rarely 2 or 4, cells, with 1 or many Seeds, which 
are rather bony, marked with a Scar, Hilum, in the 
lower part, and attached to the base of the central 
partition, whose angles meet, but are not connected 
with, the margins of the valves. Embryo curved, 
the radicle inferior. Plants shrubby, or often herba- 
ceous, twining in several instances, sometimes milky. 
Leaves alternate, very seldom imperfectly opposite." 
Mr. Brown notes the want of Stipulas, and the pre- 
sence of a small mucilaginous Albumen, as well as the 
corrugated Cotyledons (always attendant on Seeds 
whose number is definite). He differs from Jussieu. 
with regard to some genera, but the following are in- 

O C 1 O 

dubitable specimens of the Order. 

Sect. 1. With 1 Style. Convolvulus, fig. 179, and 
Ipomaa. 

Sect. 2. with several Styles. Evolvulus and Cressa, 
as \vell as Breweri'a, Polymeria, and probably Wd- 
sowa, of Brown. Dichondra enters a Section with 
from 2 to 4 single-seeded Germens ; and Cuscuta 
forms another, destitute of Cotyledons ! 

Ord, 44. POLEMONIA. " Calyx divided. Corolla 
regular, 5-lobed, with 5 Stamens inserted into the 
middle of its tube. Style 1, with 3 Stigmas. Cap- 
sule surrounded by the permanent Calyx, of 3 cells 



Cl. 8.] BIGNONHE. 105 

and 3 valves, with many Seeds, each valve bearing a 
central partition, meeting an angle of the triangular 
central column, or Receptacle of the Seeds/ Stem 
herbaceous or shrubby. Leaves alternate or opposite. 
Flowers terminal or axillary." 

PhtojrwtxA Polcmomum, with Jussieu's Cantuaand 
Hoitzia, make up this Order. The first is somewhat 
allied to the Caryophylk'tf, Ord. 82, but, being mono- 
petalous, cannot be referred thither. Indeed their af- 
finity is but slight. Jussieu confounds with his Can- 
tua, the very distinct Ipomopsis of Michaux, fig. 180 ; 
see Exot. Hot. t. 13, 14. 

Ord. 45. BIGNOXHE. " Calyx divided. Corolla 
mostly irregular, with 4 or 5 lobes. Stamens gene- 
rally 5, one of them imperfect. Style 1. Stigma 
simple,' or 2-lobed. Fruit of 2 cells; in some cap- 
sular, of 2 distinct valves, tht partition, bearing the 
numerous Seeds, either opposite or parallel to the 
valves, and separable therefrom ; in others coriaceous 
or woody, bursting at the top only, with few seeds, 
on a partition inseparable from the valves, which is 
often extended at each side into a ridge, or wing, par- 
tially subdividing the cells. Albumen none, Stem 
herbaceous, shrubby, or arboreous. Leaves mostly 
opposite." 

Sect. 1. Capsule of 2 valves. Stem herbaceous. 
Chelone, Sesamum, and Jussieu's Incarvillea, Lamarck 
Illustr. t. 527. The latter is named after Father d'ln- 
carville, to whom Jussieu attributes the importation 



106 GENTIAN*. [Cl. 8. 

of the Aster chinensls in 1743. But Sherard culti- 
vated that plant before 1732. 

Sect. Q. Capsule of 2 valves. Stem arboreous or 
shrubby. Millingtonia, Jacaranda Juss., Catalpa, 
Tecoma Juss. and Bignonia, fig. 181, with Spathodea 
of Palisot and Brown, and Cobaa of Cavanilles, Curt. 
Mag. t. 851, whose capsule has from 3 to 5 valves 
and cells, make up this Section, to which Mr. Brown 
confines his idea of Bignoniace<v, Prodr. Nov. Holl. 
v. 1. 470 ; perhaps admitting also the above-men- 
tioned Incarcillea. 

Sect. 3. Fruit between coriaceous and woody, 
bursting at the top. Stem herbaceous. Tourretia 
(Dombeya L'Herit.), Martynia, Craniolaria, and Pe- 
dallum. We know not whether Mr. Brown admits 
all these, as well as Ventenat's Josephinia, Jard. de 
la Malmais. t. 67, into his Pedal'mae, Prodr. N. Holl. 
v. 1. 519. 

Ord. 46. GENTIANS. " Calyx of 1 leaf, divided, 
permanent. Corolla regular, often withering, it's limb 
in as many equal, sometimes oblique, lobes, as there 
are segments in the Calyx, usually 5. Stamens as 
many, inserted into the middle or top of the tube. 
Anthers incumbent (sometimes cpmbin.ed). Style 1, 
rarely splitting into 2. Stigma simple or lobed. Cap : 
sule simple or twin, many-seeded, of 2 valves, and 
1 or 2 cells, the edges of the valves inflexcd, forming 
the partition when there are 2 cells, rolled inward when 
there is only 1. Seeds minute, their Receptacle mar- 



Uii'S!] GKNTIAN&. 107 

-ginal. Stem herbaceous, rarely somewhat shrubby. 
Leaves opposite, mostly undivided and sessile ; floral 
ones occasionally diminished into a pair of Bracteas." 

A very natural Order, distinguished by it's general, 
often very intense, bitterness. Mr. Brown observes, 
that the segments of the Corolla are imbricated be- 
fore expansion, and vary from 4 to 8 ; we may say to 
1 C 2 or 13. The Fruit is sometimes pulpy. The Em- 
bryo is straight, in the axis of a soft fleshy Albumen; 
the Radicle pointing towards the Scar. Plants mostly 
smooth. Leaves undivided and entire, without Sti- 
pulas. 

Sect. ]. Capsule of 1 cell. Gentiana, fig. 182, 
whose Corolla is very differently shaped in the dif- 
ferent species, Lita Schreb. Gen. 79*5. (Voliiria Aubl.), 
Picrlum Schreb. 79 1. (Coutoubca Aubl.), Szvertia 
and Chlora ; to which may be added Sabbatia qf 
Adanson and Salisbury, Pursh N. Amer. 1 37, Ortho- 
&iemon Br. and Erythraa of Renealm and Brown, 
Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 451, composed of several Chi- 
Tonicc of other authors. 

Sect. 2. Caps, simple, of 2 cells. E.racum, fig. I S3, 

Lisianthus, Myrmccia Schreb. Gen. 74 (Tachia of 

Aubl.), Chironia and Nigrina; as well as Sebcea of 

.Solander and Brown, with Mitrasacme Labill. a large 

New Holland genus. 

Sect. 3. Caps, of 2 separable cells. Spigelia and 
Ophiorrhiza, excluding O. Mungos which is a distinct 
genus of the Rubiacece, Ord. 57. Here also is to be 



108 APOCINE/E. [Cl. 8. 

introduced Mr. Brown's Logania (Euosma Andr. Re- 
pos. t. 520), curious as a connecting link between this 
Order and the next. 

Sect. 4. contains only Nicandra Schreb. Gen. 283, 
(Potalia Aubl.) as being akin to Gentians. So also 
Mr. Brown subjoins Villarsia, fig. 184, Ventenat 
Choix, t. 9, (extracted from the Linnrean Menyanthes,} 
and Anopteru-s of Labill. Nov. Moll. t. 112; plants 
differing from true Gent tan ce in having mostly alter- 
nate, partly toothed, Leaves, and on the whole very 
ambiguous. 

Ord. 47. APOCINE^E, " Calyx 5 cleft. Corolla 
regular, with 5, often oblique, lobes, sometimes naked, 
sometimes accompanied by 5 internal, variously shaped, 
appendages. Stamens ,5, inserted into the lower part 
of the Corolla, alternate with it's lobes ; the filaments 
often short, either distinct, or more rarely united 
into a tube closely embracing the Germen. Anthers 
of 2 cells, the summit extended into a membrane, or 
thread. Germen single, or double, standing on a fre- 
quently glandular Receptacle. Styles 1 or 2, some- 
times extremely short, attached, as it were by a joint, 
to the single or double Germen. Stigma one, capi- 
tate, obsolete. Fruit, in those with a single Germen, 
pulpy, or rarely a solitary Capsule, usually of 2 cells, 
with many Seeds ; in those with 2 Germens, 2 com- 
bined, oblong, coriaceous Follicles (61 : 1), rarely 
shortened and slightly pulpy, bursting lengthwise at 
the inner edge, each of 1 cell. Seeds numerous, 



Cl. 8.] APOCINE.&. 109 

either naked or feathery, imbricated, in many rows, 
over one side of a lateral, unconnected, flat Recepta- 
cle, lying along the inside of the Follicle, near it's su- 
ture. Embryo flat, in a thin fleshy Albumen. Plants 
herbaceous, shrubby, or arboreous, generally milky. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, with fringed axillary 
glands, not always evident."' 

Sect. 1. Germens 2. Follicles 2. Seeds not fea- 
thery. Vmca, fig. 186, Matelea Aubl., Ochrosia 
Juss., Tabern&montana, Cameraria and Plumieria. 

Sect. 2. Germ, and Follic. 2. Seeds feathery. Ne- 
rium, Echites, Ceropegia, Pergularia, fig. 185, Sta- 
pelia, Periploca, Apocynum, Cynanchum and Ascle- 
pias. 

Sect. 3. Germen simple. Fruit pulpy, rarely cap- 
sular. Witttighbeja Schreb. Gen. 162, (comprising 
Ambclania and Pacouria of Aubl.) Alamanda, M- 
lodlnm, Gynopogon, Rauwolfia, Ophiorylon, Cerbera 
and Carissa. 

Sect. 4. Genera akin to ApDcinea, not milky. 
Strychnos, including Ignatia of Linn., Theophrastci> 
Anassa Juss., Fagrtea Thunb. and Gelsemium Juss. 

This Order, very natural, except the last' Section, 
is what Linnceus termed Contort ce, from the frequent 
obliquity, or flexure, of the Corolla. Mr. Brown has 
most happily divided it, see TV. of the Wern. Soc. 
v. 1.12, and Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1 . 465, separating from 
the rest such as have the Pollen of each Anther co- 
alescing into two distinct, stalked masses, like the 



110 SAPOT.-fi, [Cl. S. 

Orchidece, Ord. 2 1, and deposited by the Anther upon' 
5 appropriate prominences of the pentagonal StigVna, 
which is common to the 2 Styles. These plants con- 
stitute a new Order, named Asckjnadete, of which 
Ceropegia, Stapdia, Perguiaria, Asdepias, Cynun- 
ckum and Periploca are examples. Mr. Brown has 
38 genera in all, the original Stapdia being greatly, 
perhaps too much, subdivided. Of the remaining 
Apocinece, whose Pollen is granular and conveyed in 
the usual way to the Stigma, Mr. Brown has 15 ge^ 
nera with feathery Seeds, among which are Echites, 
Apocynum and Nerlum. Of those whose Seeds, 
though sometimes winged with a membrane, are not 
feathery, such as Flnca, Plumieria and Cameraria, 
he has not yet published any particular illustration. 

The leaves in both Orders are simple and entire. 
Inflorescence of Asclepiadece aggregate, lateral, be- 
tween the Footstalks. 

Ord. 48. SAPOTVC. " Calyx divided, permanent. 
Corolla regular, it's segments either equal in number 
to those of the Calyx, with alternate interior appen- 
dages ; or twice as many, without such appendages. 
Stamens opposite to the segn^ents of the Corolla, and 
agreeing with them in number; or else twice as many, 
the appendages bearing Anthers. Germen, Style, 
and generally Stigma, simple. Fruit a berry, or dru- 
pa, of one or many single-seeded cells. Seeds bony, 
polished, with a lateral scar. Embryo fiat, encom- 
passed with a fleshy Albumen. Stem woody. Leaves 



Cl. 9-] DICOT. C'OR. MOXOP. PEUJG. 1 1 I 

alternate, mostly undivided and entire. Flowers ax- 
illary, many together on single-flowered stalks. Plants 
milky." 

Jacquinia, Sideroxylum, Bassia, fig. 187, Mimusops 
(including Imbricaria of Jussieu, which is perhaps 
M. Kauki Linn.), Chrysophyllum and Achras, with 
one or two others, less certain, make up this Order. 
Myrsine, fig. 1 88, (to which I have long ago referred 
Jussieu's MangUlla, Bumelia Manglilla Willd. Sp. 
PI. v. 1. 1087.) enters a new Order, Myrsimce of 
Brown, Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 532, with Aegiceras 
of Grertner, and of Konig, Ann. of Bot. v. 1. 129. t. 5, 
and I presume Inocarpus Forst. Olax is judged by 
Mr. Brown as rather akin to his Santalacece, see 
Ord. 24; and Leea, the same genus with Aquilicia, is 
undoubtedly one of the Mditf, Ord. 71. 



CLASS 9. DICOTYLEDOXES, COROLLA MONOPETA- 
LOUS, PERIGYNOUS. 

" Calyx of one leaf, sometimes deeply divided j bearing 
the Corolla, which is monopetalous, though occa- 
sionally so deeply divided as to become polypetalous *; 
regular, rarely irregular. Stamens inserted either 
into the Corolla or Calyx, definite, seldom indefinite. 
Germen simple, superior or inferior. Style gene- 
rally single. Stigma rarely divided. Fruit pulpy 
or capsular, of one or many cells." 

* Even in one and the same species, as Andromeda calyculata. 



112 GUAIACAM. [Cl."9. 

The insertion of the Corolla, characteristic of this 
Class, is not very apparent, and I observe that Mr. 
Brown does not allude to such insertion, but, even in 
the character of the Ebenacea, contradicts it. In fact, 
nature and art accord very ill in this part of the Sy- 
stem. The first Order might, in the main, be re- 
moved to the foregoing Class, with whose character it 
agrees : while the fourth goes most readily and natu- 
rally to the eleventh Class, having some relationship to 
the tenth. But the great difficulty consists in the se- 
cond and third Orders of this ninth Class, in which 
there is really no such insertion of the Corolla as above 
mentioned * ; and the inferior Germen of Vacdn'nnn 
is an insurmountable stumbling-block. Nothing could 
justify, in a professedly natural system, the removing 
this last genus from the neighbouihood of Erica and 
Azalea ; and it were better to have met the difficulty 
by an open avowal, with some contrivance of an ar- 
tificial nature, making Vacclnium an exception. The 
true Rhododendm and Encce would go very well into 
the eighth. Class. It must be observed that their Sta- 
mens are often hypogynous, really inserted into the 
Receptacle under the Germen. 

Orel. 49. GUAIACAN^E. " Calyx of one leaf, di- 
vided in the upper part. Corolla lobed, or deeply di- 
vided. Stamens inserted therein; sometimes definite, 
as many, or twice as many, as its segments ; some- 

* Mr. Salisbury has long ago anticipated this remark. Tr, of Linn 
Soc. v. 8. 12. 



Cl. .9.] GUAIACAN3L. J15 

times indefinite, monadelphous or polyadelphous at 
the base. Germen mostly superior, in a few inferior, 
or half-inferior. Style 1. Stigma simple or divided. 
Fruit capsular, or more frequently pulpy, of many 
single-seeded cells. Embryo flat, in a fleshy Albumen. 
Stem shrubby or arboreous. Leaves alternate. Flow- 
ers axillary." 

Sect. 1. Stamens definite. Diospyros, fig. 189, 
Royena, Labatia, Schreb. Gen. 790 (Pouter ia Aubl.), 
Sty rax and Ha lent a. 

This Section constitutes an Order subsequently 
established by Jussieu, under the name of EBENACEJE, 
and adopted by Mr. Brown, Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 524. 
The latter considers Diospyros, Royena, Embryo- 
pteris Ga?rtn., Paralea Aubl., Maba Forst. (Fer- 
reola Koen. and Roxb.), and his owa Cargilla, 
Prodr. 526, as perhaps the only certain genera, of this 
new Order; whose Corolla is really hypogyiaous, 
leathery, generally downy on the outside. Flowers 
more or less separated. Anthers lanceolate, attached 
by the base, bursting lengthwise. Berry with fevr 
perfect Seeds. 

Sect. 2. Stam. indefinite. Alstonia, Symplocos, 
Cipomma Aubl., Paralea Aubl., and Plopea Linn., all 
now considered as one genus under the oldest name 
Symplocos. Styrax and Halesia certainly answer 
best, even to the technical character of this Section, 
and perhaps ought to be placed here ; unless more 

I 



114 11HODODENDRA. [Cl. 9- 

akin, as Jussieu hints of the former, to his Mdice, 
Ord. 71. 

Ord. 50. RHODODENDRA. " Calyx divided, per- 
manent. Corolla attached to it's base" (scarcely so), 
" either monopetalous and lobed, or so deeply divided 
as to become almost polypetalous. Stamens definite, 
distinct, inserted into the Corolla if monopetalous' 
(very slightly, if at all) ; " if it be polypetalous, into 
the bottom of the calyx " (rather into the receptacle), 
Germen superior. Style 1. Stigma single, often ca- 
pitate. Capsule superior, with many cells and many 
valves, whose inflexed edges constitute ihe partitions, 
uniting with the central column. Seeds numerous, 
minute. Stem shrubby. Leaves alternate, rarely op- 
posite, mostly revolute when young. 

Sect. 1 . Corolla monopetalous. Kalmia, Rhododen- 
drum, fig. 190, Azalea; to which is to be added Men- 
zicsia, Sm. PI. Ic. t. 56". Comp. Fl. Brit. ed. 3. 61. 

Sect. 2. Cor. nearly polypetalous. Rhodora, Ledum, 
Bcjaria (erroneously printed by Linnaeus Befaria), 
and Itea. 

It is singular that the able author should have re- 
marked in Rhodora only, what is the striking mark of 
his true Rhododendra, the bursting of the Anthers by 
2 oval pores near the top, without any crest or ap- 
pendage. Itea wants this character. 

This Order appears to have scarcely any affinity, 
except perhaps in hardness of wood, to the preceding. 



Cl. 9-] ERICJ2. 115 

Mr. Salisbury has remarked a coloured glandular tip 
to the Leaves, as characteristic of the Rhododendra. 

Ord.5l. ERIC.^E. " Calyx of 1 leaf, permanent, 
sometimes superior, more frequently inferior, deeply 
divided. Corolla monopetalous, in some instances 
deeply divided, inserted into the bottom of the Calyx, 
or glands belonging to it," (Jussieu says also into the 
top,) "often withering and permanent. Stamens de- 
finite, distinct, inserted similarly, or rarely proceeding 
from the base of the Corolla. Anthers often with 
Q horns at the base" (always I believe opening by 
Q pores). "Germen superior, or rarely inferior. Style 1. 
Stigma generally single. Fruit of many cells, pulpy, 
or more frequently capsular, with many valves, the 
partitions " (not constantly) "from the middle of each, 
joining the central column. Seeds numerous, and ge- 
nerally minute. Stem mostly shrubby. Leaves alter- 
nate, opposite, or whorled." 

Sect. 1. Germen superior. Cyrilla Linn, (not 
distinct in genus from Itea, see last Order), Bl&ria, 
Erica, fig. 191, Andromeda, Arbutus, Cldhra, Py- 
rola, Epig&a, Epacris, tig. , 9, Gaultheria, and 
Sfosstea. 

Sect. 2. Germen inferior, or half-inferior. Argo- 
phyllum Forst., Masa Forsk., and Vacc'mium, fig. 192. 
Empetrum and Hudsonia are subjoined as allied to 
Ericce. 

Mr. Brown has happily separated from hence Epa- 
cris, fig. 8, 9, and it's very numerous allies, which 



116 ERIC7E. [Cl. 9. 

compose a beautiful and distinct Order, termed EFA- 
CRlDEvE, Prodr. N. Hull. \. 1. 535. They occu- 
py the same place at New Holland, that the vast 
genus Erica does at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
are distinguished by the simple structure of their An- 
thers, first noticed by Mr. Brown. Each Anther bursts 
longitudinally in front, opposite to it's dorsal point of 
insertion, and then becomes a single flat valve, the 
rather large Pollen being borne by a narrow receptacle, 
or partition, which originally divided the Anther into 
2 cells. The Germen has usually 5 scales, sometimes 
a notched ring, at the base. Stigma capitate, some- 
times notched or toothed. Fruit either a Drupa, 
Berry, or Capsule, rarely of only 1 cell. Stem shrubby, 
with rigid, alternate, mostly entire, Leaves, and ele- 
gant white or crimson, rarely blue, Flowers, variously 
disposed, often drooping. 

Ifea, including Cyrilla, has Anthers of 2 cells, 
bursting from top to bottom, at 2 opposite sides, so 
that, to say nothing of the great difference of habit, 
it cannot be brought hither. 

The partitions of the Capsule are in some of the ge- 
nus Erica formed from the inflexed edges of the valves, 
as in the Rhododendra, Orel. 50; in others proceeding 
from the centre of each valve. This difference exists 
in species otherwise so nearly akin, that no person has 
ventured to divide the genus by it, any more than by 
various appendages to the Anthers, which, however re- 
markable, afford no sound generic distinctions. 



Cl. 9.] CAMPANULACEJE. 1 17 

Ord.5Q. CAMPANULACEJE. " Calyx superior, it's 
limb deeply divided ; rarely half-inferior. Corolla 
(inserted into the top of the Calyx Juss.) mostly re- 
gular, with a divided limb, generally withering. Sta- 
mens inserted into the same part under the Corolla, 
alternate with it's segments, and equal to them in 
number, generally 5, with distinct, occasionally com- 
bined, Anthers. Gennen glandular at the top. Style 1 . 
Stigma single or divided. Capsule usually of 3 cells, 
sometimes of 2, 5, 6, or 8, bursting laterally. Seeds 
numerous, attached to the inner angle of each cell. 
Herbs with a milky juice, rarely shrubby. Leaves 
mostly alternate. Flowers distinct, or (in Jasione) 
aggregate." 

It is not easy to divine what is meant by Jussieu's 
expression of the Corolla being " summo calyci in- 
scrta" Both those parts and the Stamens are really 
epigynous. We cannot trace the slightest relationship 
between this Order and the Ericcc or Rhododcndm. 
But their milky, often bitter, quality, and in some 
New Holland species a very strong resemblance of 
habit, approaches them to the great natural class of 
Compound Syngenesious Flowers, from which their 
generally 3-celled, many-seeded, Capsule forms as 
wide an aberration, as the same sort of fruit in Bego- 
nia does from the natural Order of Polygonece^ n.28, 
to which that singular genus is otherwise so much akin. 
Phylolacca exhibits a somewhat similar anomaly in 
the Atriplices, n. '29- 



118 CAMPANULACEJE. [Cl. 9. 

Jussieu's Sections of Campanulaccce are, 

1. Anthers distinct. Ceratostema Juss. a Peruvian 
plant little known, Forgesia Commerson, Mlndium 
Juss. (Michauxia L'Herit. Schreb. Gen. 840), Cana~ 
rlna, Campanula, fig. 193, Trachelium, Roetla, Gesne- 
ria, Cyphia Berg., Sctfvola, fig. 194, and Phyteuma. 

2, Anthers combined. Lobelia, fig. 195, and Jasione, 
.New Holland has greatly enriched this Order, and, 

under Mr. Brown's auspices, thrown much light upon 
it. He separates from hence, by the name of Goode- 
iwvice, Prodr. N. Holl. v. 1. 573, Sc&vola, fig. 194, 
along with the new genera of Goodema, Sm. Tr. of 
Linn. Soc. v. 2. 346, Felicia, Sm. ib v. 4. 217, and 
several more, first discovered by himself; amongst 
which not the least interesting is Brunonia, Sm. Tr. 
of Linn. Soc. v. 10. 365, whose affinity is among the 
most puzzling, approaching both the 55th and 56th 
of Jussieu's Orders. The Goodenovite are not milky. 
Their Pericarp is of 2, rarely 4, cells, with 1 or more 
Seeds in each cell. Their essential character is a cup- 
like membranous integument, entire or divided, em- 
bracing the thick abrupt Stigma. 

Between them and the real Campanulacece, Mr. 
Brown interposes another new Order, Stylidete, fig. 73- 
76, whose 2 Stamens are Gynandrous, like the Or- 
chidete, with twin Anthers ; their Style, or Column, 
generally bent, and highly irritable. Capsule of 2 cells 
and 2 valves, with many Seeds. 

If the 9th Class of the Jussieuan System, to which 



Cl. 10.] DICOT. COR. HON. EPIG. ANTII. COMB. 119 

so many objections have just been started, were re- 
moved, it would unquestionably leave a great and ab- 
solute separation between the 8th and the 10th, as to 
natural affinity ; while much is gained in that respect 
by its preservation, however faulty the characters. 

CLASS 10. DICOTYLEDONES. COROLLA MONOPE- 
TALOUS, EPTGYNOUS. ANTHERS COMBINED. 

" Flowers tubular, aggregate in a Common Calyx, 
'whence they are termed compound (68), upon a 
Common Receptacle (63), which is either naked, 
scaly, or hairy. Proper Calyx none, except the cu- 
ticle of the Seed, and the Seed down which is^ften 
a continuation thereof. Corolla of 1 tubular Petal, 
standing on the Pistil (Germeti); in some instances 
Jlosculous, having a regular limb, almost invariably 
5-cleft ; in others ligulate, the limb being extended 
into a lateral flat expansion, entire or toothed at 
it's extremity. Stamens definite, almost always 5, 
with distinct Filaments, inserted into the Corolla. 
Anthers united into a tube, very rarely approximated 
only. Germen inferior (with respect to the Corolla 
and Proper Calyx) simple, standing on the Common 
Receptacle. Style 1 , passing through the tube formed 
by the Anthers. Stigma generally deeply ^divided, 
rarely single. Seed I, either naked, or crowned 
with a border, wing or down. Albumen none. Ra- 
dicle inferior. Flowers sometimes all Jlosculous, 
or all ligulate, in the -same Calyx ; or those of 



120 CICHOIIACE/E. [Cl. 10. 

the centre areflosculous, those of the margin ligu- 
late." 

Exceptions to the above characters, of this most 
natural and very extensive Class, occur in the two last 
sections of the 55th Order, hereafter to be explained ; 
as also in Tussilago, several of whose species are in- 
completely dioecious, and have disunited Anthers ; 
in Edipta, the Flowers, or Florets, of whose disk 
ace 4-cleft and tetrandrous ; in Siegesbeckiajfioscu/osa, 
where they are 3-cleft and triandrous ; and in Seri- 
phium, as also in StceheUna uniflosculosa, Prodr. Fl. 
Grasc. v. 2. 162, which have only 1 Floret in each 
Calyip The occasionally undivided or club-shaped 
Stigma is always. I believe, inefficient. 

Ord. 53. CICHORACE.E, fig. 57-60. " Florets all 
ligulate and perfect, fig. 59- Common Calyx various. 
Each Floret, entire or toothed at the apex, has a twin 
Stigma. Seed either naked, or feathery, fig. 60. Recep- 
tacle either naked, fi. 58, or covered with hairs or 

' O ' 

scales. Plants milky, herbaceous, often caulescent. 
Leaves alternate. Flowers usuallyyellow." Schkuhrhas 
remarked that their Pollen is angular ; in the tubular 
Florets it is spherical or oval. <Rr. Tr. of Linn. Soc. 
v. 12. 88. 

This Order is equivalent to the first Section of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia-teqnalis of Linnasus, of which 
Sonchus, Hierecium, Pier is, fig. 57-60, Leontodon, 
Tragopogon, and Cichorium arc examples, nor can any 
thing be more natural. 



Cl. 10.] CINAROCEPMAUE, CORYMBIl-EIwE. 121 

Ord. 54. CINAROCEPH ALA;, fig. 61-65. "Florets 

' O 

all flosculous, sometimes all perfect; sometimes partly 
neuter, fig. 64, or partly fertile, mixed with the perfect 
ones. Common Calyx of many rows of imbricated 
scales, either spinous or unarmed. Common Recep- 
tacle hairy, fig. 62, or more usually scaly. Neuter Flo- 
rets, fig. 64, often irregular ; the rest, fig. 65, regular, 
5-cleft and pentandrous, with a simple or divided 
Stigma, often continuous, not jointed, with the Style. 
Seed with a hairy, fig. 62, or feathery Down. Stem 
herbaceous, rarely shrubby. Leaves alternate, often 
spinous. Flowers various in colour, terminal, rarely 
axillary." 

These make the 2d, or capitate, Section of the same 
Class and Order of Linnseus, of which Carlina, Cni- 
cus, Cardans, fig. 61, 62, and Serratula are examples: 
part of his 3d Order, Polygavnia-frustranea, is like- 
wise included, and part of his 5th. Polygamia-segre- 
gata, certainly with very great advantage. 

Ord. 55. CORYMBIFER^E, fig. 66-69. " Flowers 
either altogether flosculous, or radiated, fig. 66; the 
Florets of the Disk, in the latter case, being flosculous, 
fig. 68, those of the Margin ligulate, fig. 67. The floscu- 
lous ones are either all perfect, or the marginal ones are 
fertile or neuter; more rarely the central ones have Sta- 
mens only, the marginal ones only Pistils. The radiant 
Flowers never consist entirely of united Florets, but 
for the most part those of the disk arc such, the rays 
being either furnished with perfect or imperfect Pistils, 



122 CORYMBIFERJE. [Cl. 10. 

or sometimes without rudiments of any. Common 
Calyx of 1 leaf, or of many ; either simple, or sur- 
rounded by a smaller exterior Calyx, or imbricated 
throughout : containing in general numerous Florets, 
sometimes but a few, or only one ; the Common Re- 
ceptacle being either naked, or clothed with hairs or 
scales, fig. 69, separating the Florets. The Florets are 
almost universally 5-cleft, rarely 3- or 4-cleft; the 
number of Stamens corresponding therewith : ligulate 
ones either entire or toothed at the end. Anthers very 
rarely unconnected. Stigmas a continuation of the 
Style; 2 in the perfect and fertile Florets; single, or 
wanting, in the barren and neuter ones. Seed either 
naked, or crowned with scales or down. Plants herba- 
ceous, sometimes shrubby. Leaves more frequently al- 
ternate than opposite. Disk of the Flowers mostly 
yellow ; rays often of the same, not unfrequently of a 
different, colour." 

The 2d, 3d, and 4th Orders of Linnoeus's Synge- 
nesia (Polygamia-superflua, P. frustranea and P. ne- 
ccssaria?) compose this Order ; as well as what Jus- 
sieu terms Corymbifertf anomalte, having perfectly 
separated Florets, either in the same Common Calyx, 
or in 2 different ones, on different plants, their An- 
thers being convergent, but not united. These last, 
wanting the Syngenesious character, Linnaeus has 
placed, with much violence to nature, in his Monoecia, 
Class 21. Iva, Clibadium, Parthenium, Ambrosia, 
Xanthium, and Nephdium are the genera. They make 



Cl. 10.] CORYMBIFER7E. 123 

the 8th and 9th Sections of Jussieu's Corymlnfer&, the 
other seven being marked by a naked or scaly Recep- 
tacle, winged or naked Seeds, and tiosculous or radiated 
Flowers. The last character is not always well de- 
fined, nor free from variation. The change of flos- 
culous, or regular, Florets, into ligulate, or radiant, 
or tubular and neuter, ones, is, in this tribe, analogous 
to the change of Stamens or Pistils into Petals, in the 
generality of double Flowers. Examples of these 
seven Sections are 

Sect. 1. Receptacle naked. Seed with down, or 
crown. Flowers flosculous, Kuhnia, referred by Lin- 
naeus to his Pentandria Monogynia, because of the 
separate Anthers ; Cacalia, Eupatorium, Xeranthe- 
mum, Gnaphalium, Fttego, and several others. Mn- 
tisia and Barnadesia, being evidently radiant, seem 
misplaced here. In Gnaphalium indeed the marginal 
Florets are more or less ligulate, though too minute 
to form a visible Radius. Seriphiwn, whose Calyx is 
single-flowered, is well brought hither from the now 
abolished Linnaean Order, Syngenesia Monogamia, 
and Stoebe from Syng. Polyg.-segregata. 

Sect. 2. Recept. and seed as above. Flowers ra- 
diant. Erigeron, Aster, Imda, fig. 66-69, Tussilago, 
(whose Radius is very minute,) Senecio, Tagetes, Do- 
romcum, &c. 

Sect. 3. Recept. and Seed naked. Fl. radiant. Ca- 
lendula, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Be/ Us, c. 

Sect, 4. Recept. and Seed naked. Fl. flosculous. 



124 COUYMB1FEKJE. [Cl. 10. 

Cotula, Ethulia, Hippia, Tanacetum, Artemisia, &c. 
some of which have minute ligulate Florets in the 
Radius, and others approach towards the nature of 
double Flowers, by acquiring evident Rays. 

Sect. 5. Recept. chaffy. Seed naked. Fl. usually 
radiant. Tar chonant hits, Micropus, Anthemis, Achil- 
lea, Euphthalmum, Siegesbeckia, &c. 

Sect. 6. Recept. chaffy. Seed toothed or scaly at 
the crown. Fl. generally radiant. Spilanthus without, 
and Verbesina with rays, scarcely differ otherwise; 
Bidens and Coreopsis are in the same predicament, 
and often vary into each other ; Silphium, Hdianthus, 
Rudbeckia, &c. 

Sect. 7. Recept. chaffy. Seed with a feathery, hairy, 
or bristly crown. Fl. mostly radiant. Arctotis, Tri- 
dax, Amellus, c. 

Sect. 8 and 9 have already been explained. The 
former is said to be monoecious, the latter dioecious, 
which is not uniformly correct. In fact this circum- 
stance varies. 

Mr. Brown, in a learned paper on this natural family 
of Composite, Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 12. 76, lays much 
stress on the situation of the nerves, or principal ves- 
sels, of the Corolla of the tabular Florets, which is 
always alternate with their segments, not, as in all other 
plants, central, or running along the middle of each 
segment, though such do also, less universally, occur. 
The same writer notices that the Aestivation of the 
Florets is valvular, which is not indeed peculiar to 



Cl. .!!.] DIPSACE2F 125 

them. This paper abounds with copious and most 
valuable critical remarks on the differences or affinities 
of particular genera. 

CLASS 11. DICOTYLEDONS. COROLLA MONOPE- 
TALOUS, EPIGYNOUS. ANTHERS DISTINCT. 

"Proper Calyx" (Perianth, 53: 1) " of 1 leaf, su+ 
perior. Corolla of 1 petal, rarely of several united 
by their broad bases, superior, often regular. Sta- 
mens definite, inserted into the Corolla, with distinct" 
(distant or divaricated) " anthers. Germen simple. 
Style usually one, sometimes several, or wanting. 
Stigma simple or divided. Seed, or generally Pe- 
ricarp, either capsular or pulpy, inferior, of 1 or 
many cells, with 1 or many Seeds." 

Jussieu makes the separate Anthers the difference 
between this Class and the last, speaking of the pre- 
sent (so far, we must presume, as it consists of aggre- 
gate Flowers,) as rather superfluous. But the disposi- 
tion of the vessels of the Corolla, noticed by Mr. Brown 
in the former Class, affords a decisive distinction. 

Ord. 56. DIPSACE;E. " Calyx single or double. 
Corolla tubular, with a divided limb. Stamens defi- 
nite. Style and Stigma simple. Capsule generally 
single-seeded, not bursting, but resembling a naked 
Seed ; very rarely composed of 2 or 3 single-seeded 
cells. Albumen none. Radicle superior. Stem usually 
herbaceous. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled. Flow- 
ers in a few instances distinct, in most aggregate, on 



126 ItUBIACEJE. [Cl. 11. 

a chaffy Common Receptacle, surrounded by a Com- 
mon Calyx of many leaves." 

Morina, Dipsacus, Scabiosa, fig. 5-7, Knautia, Al- 
lionia, and Vakriana are the genera, all except the 
last having aggregate Flowers. 

Ord. 57. RUBIACETE. " Calyx simple, it's limb 
almost always divided. Corolla regular, mostly tu- 
bular, with a divided limb. Stamens definite, 4 or 
5, seldom more, inserted into the tube of the Corolla, 
alternate with it's segments, and agreeing with them 
in number. Germen inferior. Style 1, very rarely l l. 
Stigmas generally 2. Fruit either of 2 single-seeded 
lobes or grains, not bursting, and resembling naked 
seeds ; or a capsular or pulpy Pericarp, often of 2 cells, 
with 1 or many Seeds in each ; sometimes of only 
1 cell, or of many : it is either crowned with the per- 
manent Calyx, or naked " (having a scar where the 
Calyx has been). " Embryo oblong, slender, in a large, 
horny, lateral Albumen. Stem herbaceous, shrubby 
or arboreous. Leaves (simple) in a few instances 
whorled, in most opposite, their Footstalks combined 
at the base either by a simple sheathing intrafoliaceons 
Stipula, or a fringed membranous lax one." 

A vast and important Order, which Jussieu has all 
the merit of having brought into due notice. The pecu- 
liar stipulation is, in the shrubby genera, a ready mark 
of distinction. There are eleven Sections, of which the 
first two might well constitute an Order by themselves; 
the rest are mostly tropical, with woody Stems. Mr. 



Cl. 11.] RUBTACE^. 127 

Brown observes, Bot. of Terra Australia, 3 1 , that it 
is scarcely possible to distinguish the Rubiacete, as 
now constituted, from the Apodnece, Ord. 47, by cha- 
racters taken from the fructification alone. This is 
but one confirmation amongst many, which the nu- 
merous exceptions throughout the Jussieuan classifi- 
cation afford, of the opinion of Linnaeus, that natural 
orders are, as yet, not possibly to be defined by tech- 
nical marks. Nevertheless, every attempt of the 
kind is useful, as tending to dissipate some obscurity, 
or to point out some truth ; nor does the fact just 
mentioned at all invalidate the propriety, or necessity, 
of recurring to the fructification, for every principle of 
classical arrangement, as well as of generic distinction, 
though our incomplete knowledge of plants renders 
exceptions, to all our rules, inevitable. 

Sect. 1 . Fruit of 2 single-seeded grains. Stamens 
mostly four. Leaves mostly whorled, and Stem her- 
baceous. Sherardia, fig. 196, Aspcrula, Galium, Gru- 
cianella, Valantia, Rubia, and Anthospermum, the 
last not well characterized by Linnasus. 

Sect. 2. Fruit the same. Stamens 4, rarely 5 or 
6. Leaves generally opposite, connected by a fringed 
sheath. Stem usually herbaceous. Houstonia, Knoxia, 
Sperwacoce, Diodia, Galopina Thunb. Rickardia, and 
Phyllis. 

Sect. 3. Pericarp simple, of 2 cells, with many 
Seeds. Stamens 4. Leaves opposite. Stem herba- 
ceous or shrubby. Hedyotis and Olcknlandia, two 



128 RUBIACFJE. [1.11. 

genera which, as usually understood, are not distinct. 
But O. pentandra, digyna, and depressa of authors 
constitute a good genus, now bearing that name, Sm. 
in Rees's Cycl. v.25, and belonging to Jussieu's Saxi- 
frage, Ord. 84. Carphalea Juss., Lamarck Illustr. 
t. 59, with Gomozia, Petesia, and Catesbeea of Lin- 
naeus, and a few Aubletian genera, compose the rest 
of this Section. 

Sect. 4. Fruit the same. Stamens 5. Leaves op- 
posite, as in all the following. Stem often shrubby. 
Bellonia, very little known, with Virecta, the beau- 
tiful Mussgnda, the valuable Cinchona, fig. 1.97, the 
fragrant Gardenia, and magnificent Portlandia, are 
here the principal genera. Genipa and Randla are 
Gardenia. 

Sect. 5. Fruit the same. Stain. 6 or more. Stem 
in some arboreous. Coutarea Aubl. t. 122, which 
is Portlandia htxandm Linn., Hillia, and Duroia, 
are all the genera mentioned. 

Sect. 6. Fruit the same, with 2 Seeds. Stamens 4. 
Stem for the most part shrubby. Chomelia Jacq., 
Pavetta, Lvora, &c. 

Sect. 7. Pericarp and Seeds the same. Stamens 5. 
Stem shrubby or arboreous. Ckiococca, Psychotria, 
and Cojfea, fig. 198, are the chief examples. 

Sect. 8. Pericarp simple, of many single-seeded cells. 
Stam. 4, 5, or more. Stem often shrubby. Erithalis, 
Laugeria, Guettarda, &c., with a few of Commerson's, 
not very certain,, genera. Matthiola of Pluinier and 



Cl. 11.] CAPRIFOLIA. 129 

Linn, is a Guettarda. The former, as the oldest 
name, should have been retained. 

Sect. 9- Peric. the same, with several Seeds in each 
cell. Stam. 5 or more. Stem shrubby or herbaceous. 
Hamdia, fig. 1 99, with Patima and Sabicea of Au- 
blet. 

Sect. 10. Flowers aggregate on a Common Recep- 
tacle, or rarely confluent. Stem woody, rarely herba- 
ceous. Mltchella, the curious Canephora of Juss. 
Lamarck Illustr. t. 151, Callicocca, Morindd, Nau- 
clea, Cephalanthus. 

Sect. 11. Genera akin to Rubiacece, whose Fruit 
was not well known to Jussieu. Scrissa, now found 
to belong to Sect. 7 ; Pagamea, and Faramea of Au- 
blet, perhaps near Callicocca; and fifyd?*opkylajr t wbich 
should go to the 6th Section. 

Ord. 58. CAPRIFOLIA. "Calyx superior, often 
with 2 Bracteas, or an outward Calyx, at its base" 
(or rather at the base of the Germen). " Corolla 
usually monopetalous, either regular, or irregular ; in 
a few polypetalous, the Petals combined by their 
broad bases. Stamens definite, mostly 5; inserted 
into the tube of the monopetalous genera, alternate 
with the segments ; in the others either standing on 
the Germen, alternate with the Petals, or attached 
to the middle of each Petal. Style 1, or wanting. 
Stigma 1, rarely 3. Fruit inferior, pulpy, or some- 
times capsular, of 1 or many cells, with 1 or many 
Seeds in each. Embryo in a cavity in the upper part 

K 



130 CAPR1FOLIA. [CL 11. 

of the large solid Albumen. Stem woody, rarely 
herbaceous. Leaves generally opposite, seldom al- 
ternate ; without any intermediate Stipulas." 

There is a fallacy in the character of this Order, 
as stated by Jussieu, and the acknowledged diversity 
of insertion of the Stamens indicates, what it really 
is, a very heterogeneous Order. The outer Calyx, 
or rather pair of Bracteas, is not at the base of the 
proper Perianth, which is superior, but at the base of 
the Germen, which is inferior. 

The 1st Section exemplifies the true Caprifolia, 
having a Style, and a monopetalous Corolla. These 
are Linncea, fig. 200, Triosteum, and Lonicera, di- 
vided by Jussieu into Symphoricarpos, Diervilla, Xy- 
taewjw, and Caprifolium. Lonicera corymbosa, gather- 
ed by Mr. Menzies in Chili, proves not an Ixora, 
but a Loranthus. Ovieda is properly removed to the 
Vitlces. 

Loranthus, Viscum *, and Rhizophora, which con- 
stitute the 2d Section, have surely but little relation- 
ship to the foregoing, or perhaps to each other. 
Mr. Brown makes an Order of Rhizophorea, Bot. of 
Terra Austr. 17, akin to his Cunoniacete, see Ord. 84; 
and considers Loranthus as much allied to Proteacea;. 

The 3d Section consists of Viburnum^ fig. 201, and 

* Seeds of Viscum are now germinating under my observation, some 
of which send out two radicles, as Duhamel remarks, Arb. v. 2. 355, 
though Gaertner never saw more than one. Such Seeds have in the 
centre a double Plumula, like an egg with two yolks. 



Cl. IS.] DICOT. COR. POLYP. ST. E>IG. 131 

Sambucus; for Jussieu's Hortensia is, according to 
all appearance, a Hydrangea, and, however near to 
these two genera in habit, very different in structure. 
This Section is characterized by 3 sessile Stigmas, 
though the Seed is solitary in Viburnum. 

The 4th Section is formed of Cornus and Hedera, 
which have a polypetalous Corolla, and no external 
Calyx, except what is common to numerous Flowers. 
They are slightly akin. Hedera naturally belongs to 
the Aralice, Ord. 59. Jussieu himself candidly ex- 
presses his dissatisfaction with the Order in question. 

CLASS 12. DICOTYLEDONES. COROLLA POLYPE- 
TALOUS. STAMENS EPIGYNOUS. 

" Calyx of one leaf, superior. Petals of a definite num- 
ber, standing on the Pistil, that is, on the margin 
of a gland crowning the Germen. Stamens definite, 
distinct, inserted into the same part, as many as 
the Petals, and alternate with them. Germen 
single" (scarcely so in the 60th Order). " Styles se- 
veral, definite. Stigmas as many. Seeds as many, 
naked, or rarely in a Pericarp, the number of whose 
cells answers to the Styles. Embryo minute, oblong, 
in the upper part of a hard Albumen. Flowers um- 
bellate (48 : 7), with or without a general or partial 
Inwlucrum, or both." 

The Germen is considered single, because the Sta* 
mens are epigynous ; and in fact the Receptacle of 

E 2 



132 ARALL&, UMBELLIFERJE. [Cl. 12. 

the Flower is simple, though the Seeds are often di- 
stinctly separated in many of the Umbellifera. 

Ord. 59- ARALlvE. "Calyx entire or toothed. 
Styles several. Fruit pulpy, or more rarely capsular, 
of many single-seeded cells. Stem woody cr herba- 
ceous. Leaves alternate, often compound ; their Foot- 
stalk sheathing at the lower part. Umbel generally 
accompanied by an Involucrum." 

Gastonia of Commerson, and Polyscias of Forster, 
with Aralia, Cussoma and Pana.v, compose this Or- 
der. Sciodaphyllum of Browne's Jamaica, like Aralla 
capitata of Jacquin, seems to me a species of Hedera. 
See the end of Ord. 58. 

Ord. 60. UMBELLIFER^:. " Calyx entire, or 5- 
toothed. Petals 5. Stamens 5. Styles and Stigmas 2. 
Fruit separable perpendicularly into 2 Seeds, variously 
shaped, pendulous from the top of a central, thread- 
shaped, often cloven, Receptacle. Flowers disposed 
in Umbels, and those generally divided into partial 
Umbels, Umbdlulce, each either with an Involucrum, 
or without, and in most instances regular, though in 
some anomalous. Stem herbaceous, rarely shrubby. 
Leaves alternate, for the most part repeatedly com- 
pound, rarely simple. Footstalks sheathing. Flowers 
white, or purplish, sometimes yellow." 

One of the most natural of all Orders. " Lagoecia 
only has a solitary Style and Seed." They are distri- 
buted by Jussieu, as well as by Linnaeus, according to 



Cl. 12.] UMBELLIFEIUE. 133 

the presence or absence of their general or partial In- 
volucrum. Artedi, the early friend of Linnaeus, who 
devoted himself to the study of the Umbellifertf, sug- 
gested, or adopted, this plan. But those parts are often 
variable in the same species. The regularity or irre- 
gularity of the Petals also, and the perfection or par- 
tial imperfection of the Stamens or Pistils, have been 
resorted to, and do perhaps often afford good marks. 
The simple or divided form of the Petals is very ma- 
terial. But the figure, margin, ribs, angles, and sur- 
face of the Seeds yield excellent characters, allsuffi- 
cient for the establishment of good genera, though not 
yet perfectly well applied to use. The earlier syste- 
matic botanists, and more recently Crantz and Cus- 
son, have had this object in view. Hoffmann and 
Sprengel are now intent upon it. The Prodromus of 
the latter, published at Halle in 1813, does honour to 
it's author, though his Species UmbeUiferarum minus 
cognita, published five years later, may serve to show 
that his ideas of genera are not yet settled. It would 
be superfluous to give the detail of Jussieu's 4 Sections. 
Sprengel's' are as follows : 

1. Fruit compressed, flat. Hasselquistia, Tordyllum, 
Heracleum, Peucedanum, fig. 203, Ferula and Pasti- 
naca are good examples. Hydrocotyle appears mis- 
placed here. 

2. Fr. solid, winged at the margin. Drusa, De 
Cand, Ann. du Mtis. v. 10, Mulinum Persoon, Se- 



134 UMBELLIFERJE. [Cl. 1, 

linum, Angelica, Imperatoria, Thapsia, Laserpitium, 
and Artedia, fig. 204. 

3. Fr. with a bladdery skin. Hernias, Cicuta, Phy- 
sospermum Cusson (Ligusticum cornubiense Linn.), 
and Astrantia, fig. 206. 

4. Fr. with a thick coat. Cachrys, Coriandrum, 
Dondia Spreng. (Astrantia Epipactis Linn.), Smyr- 
nium, fig. 207, Aethusa, and Agasyttis Spr. (Bubon 
Galbanum and Sison salsum Linn., &c.). 

5. Fr. armed. Daucus, Caucalis, fig. 208, Torilis 
Ad an son, Sanicula, Bowlesia Ruiz, and Pa von, Cu- 
mmum, Oliveria Ventenat, Athamanta, Bubon, Tra- 
gium Spr., Eriocalia, fig. 205 and 209, Anthriscus 
Pers., Fischera Spr. (Azorella Cavan. and Labilh), 
and Bunium. 

6. Fr. solid, naked ; either linear-lanceolate, as 
Myrrhis Morison, Scandix, fig. 210, Charophyllum, 
Schulzia Spr., Slum, Carum, Tenor ia Spr. chiefly ex- 
tracted from Bupleurum, and Meum Tourn. or ob- 
long-ovate, as Echinophora, Exoacantha Labill. O don- 
tit es Spr. Bolax Cornmerson, Spananthe Jacq., Apium, 
Pimpinella, Sison, fig. 211, Seseli, Oenanthe, Conium, 
Bupleurum, Cmdium Cusson, Ligusticum, Ammi, 
and Siler Gaertn. (Laserpitium aquilegifolium Jacq.). 

The following Linnaean genera are excluded from 
this system. Crithmum, which is referred to Cachrys; 
Acgopodium to Sison ; Anethum to Meum; and Phel- 
landrium to Oenanthe. 



CI. IS.] DICOT. COR. POLYP. ST. HYPOG. 135 

Eryngium, fig. 212, is either excluded or over- 
looked, by Prof. Sprengel, though unquestionably of 
this natural order. It's simple Umbel is merely 
condensed into a Capitulum (48 : 6), resembling the 
Dipsacete, Ord. 56, and Cinarocephalte, Ord. 54, to 
which last the rigid spinous habit of the herbage ap- 
proaches. 

CLASS 13. DICOTYLEDONES. COROLLA POLYPE- 
TALOUS. STAMENS HYPOGYNOUS. 

" Calyx of one or many leaves ; very rarely wanting. 
Petals hypogynous, that is, inserted under the Pi- 
stil, definite ; very rarely indefinite ; mostly distinct, 
sometimes united at the base into a kind of mono- 
pet alous Corolla; rarely entirely wanting. Sta- 
mens hypogynous, definite or indefinite, their Fila- 
ments usually distinct, but sometimes united into a 
tube, or more rarely collected into several bundles. 
Anthers distinct, except in " (some species of) " Viola 
and Bakamina (Impatiens Linn.). Germen supe- 
rior, in numerous instances single, in some multi- 
plied. Style one, or several, or wanting. Stigma 1 , 
or several. Fruit superior, either single, with 1 or 
many cells, or more rarely multiplied, each separate 
Pericarp being of 1 cell." 

No trace of connexion or affinity is discernible be- 
tween this Class and the preceding, either in characters, 
habit, or qualities. The present is a great polypetalous 
hypogynous assemblage, of various discordant tribes 



136 RANUNCULACILE. [Cl. 13. 

and genera, as the 8th Class is a monopetalous one. 
The series of Orders is made as natural as circum- 
stances will allow, in this, as in the former, case. 

Ord. 61. RANUXCULACFJE. " Calyx of many 
leaves, sometimes wanting. Petals usually 5. Sta- 
mens indefinite, except in Jlfyosurus" (where how- 
ever they are variable). " Anthers continuous with 
the Filaments. Germens several, indefinite or defi- 
nite, rarely but one. Style one to each, rarely want- 
ing, with a solitary Stigma. Capsules, rarely Berries, 
as many ; in some instances single-seeded, and not 
bursting; in others many-seeded, splitting at the 
inner edge, halfway down, into 2 valves, whose edges 
bear the Seeds. Embryo minute, in a cavity at the 
upper part of a large horny Albumen. Stem mostly 
herbaceous. Leaves alternate, or rarely, in Clematis 
and Atragene, opposite ; some half sheathing ; others 
compound, either pinnate or digitate; others again 
simple, and in that case either palmate, or otherwise 
lobed, their sinuses frequently pale." 

Sect. 1. Capsules single-seeded, not bursting. (These 
are reckoned naked Seeds by Linnaeus.) In Hydrdstis 
they are Berries. Clematis, fig. 213, Atragene, Tha- 
lictrum, Hydrastis, Anemone, Hamadryas Commers. 
Adonis, Ranunculus, fig. 2 1 4, Ficaria and Myosurus. 
Sect. 2. Caps, many-seeded, bursting internally. 
Petals irregular. (What Jussieu here terms Petals, 
are Nectaries according to Linnaeus, the coloured 
Calyx of the former being Linnteus's Petals.) Trol- 



Cl. 13.] PAPAVERACE^E. 137 

llusj Hclleborus, fig. 215, Isopyrum, Nigella, Gari- 
della, Aquilegia, Delphinium and Aconitum. 

Sect. 3. Caps, the same. Petals regular. Caltha, 
fig. 216, Pceonia, Xanthorrhiza and Cimicifuga. 

Sect. 4. Germen single. Berry of 1 cell, with 
many Seeds, on a single lateral Receptacle. Actaa, 
fig. 217, and Podophyllum. Perhaps these, especially 
the last, might be removed to the next Order. 

The Ranunculacetz have lately been admirably 
illustrated by Prof. DeCandolle, in his Regni Vegc- 
tabilis Systema Naturale, v. 1. 127, both with respect 
to genera, species and synonyms. This learned writer 
observes, that the genuine plants of the Order in ques- 
tion have external or dorsal Anthers ; the spurious 
ones, Actcea (which includes Cimicifuga), Xanthor- 
rhiza and Paonia, have interior Anthers, that is, 
turned towards the Pistils. He reduces Atragene to 
Clematis ; except A. zeylanica, which constitutes a 
genus, called by him Naravelia, a name of barbarous 
origin, and it seems better that Atragene should re- 
main to designate this genus. 

Orel 62. PAPAVERACE.E. " Calyx mostly of 2 
deciduous leaves. Petals generally 4. Stamens de- 
finite or indefinite. Germen 1. Style seldom present. 
Stigma divided. Fruit either a capsule or pod, mostly 
of 1 cell, with numerous Seeds, attached to lateral 
Receptacles. Stern herbaceous, very rarely shrubby. 
Leaves alternate. Juice in some species coloured." 

Sect. 1. Stamens indefinite. Sanguinaria, Arge- 



138 CRUCIFER&. [Cl. 13. 

mone, Papaver, fig. 2 1 8, Glaucium, Chdidonium and 
Bocconia. 

Sect. 2. Stam. definite. Uypecoum and Fumaria, 
fig. 38, 39 ,* the latter an anomalous genus, much sub- 
divided by some authors, on account of it's diversity 
of Pericarps. 

The Order of Nymph(e<e, established by Mr. Sa- 
lisbury, see Ord. 22, should be here introduced. An 
example of it is Nuphar, fig. 219. 

Ord. 63. CRUCIFER&, fig. 23-30. " Calyx of 4 
leaves, generally deciduous. Petals 4, disposed like 
a cross, whence the name of the Order, alternate with 
the Calyx-leaves, often furnished with Claws, and 
inserted into a disk, or glandular Receptacle, under 
the Germen. Stamens 6, likewise there inserted, te- 
tradynamous, that is, 4 of them larger, in pairs, and 
2 smaller solitary and opposite to each other, each in- 
dividual, or each pair, opposite to a Calyx-leaf. Ger- 
men simple, standing on the above-mentioned disk, 
which sometimes swells into glands withinside of the 
Stamens. Style simple, or wanting. Stigma gene- 
rally simple. Fruit a long Pod (61:2), or short 
Pouch (6 1 : 2), mostly of 2 cells, and 2 distinct valves, 
separating lengthwise, parallel to a membranous, thick- 
edged partition, which sometimes extends like a beak 
beyond the valves, and bears on both it's edges seve- 
ral, rarely solitary, Seeds. Albumen none. Plants 
herbaceous, seldom shrubby. Leaves alternate, in 
Lunaria partly opposite. Flowers seldom axillary, 



Cl. 13.] CRUCIFERJE. 139 

mostly terminal, racemose, or corymbose, sometimes 
panicled." 

This Order, constituting Linnaeus's 15th Class, is 
so natural in itself, that we can scarcely say whether 
any real affinity exists between it and any other. Hy- 
pecottm, in the last, betrays a slight resemblance, rather 
than a relationship, to this ; as Cleome does in the 
following ; but this last genus is incorrectly referred 
by Linnaeus to his Tetradynamia, according to any 
rule that I can discover. 

The genera of Cruciferte, in which Jussieu follows 
Linnaeus, are among the least satisfactory in either 
of their systems. Mr. Brown, in Ait. Hort. Kew., 
ed. 2. v. 4. has greatly improved them, taking into 
account the position and direction of their Cotyledons, 
whether spiral, doubled, or flat; incumbent, folded 
together upon the Embryo, or accumbent, folded con- 
trarywise, their edges meeting the Embryo. The num- 
ber of Seeds also lends occasional assistance, in the 
Siliculosa at least. 

In some few instances, 2, or even 4, of the Stamens 
are wanting. 

Crambe, Coronopus, Peltaria, whose Pouch does 
not burst, Isatis, Vdla y Teesdalia Br., fig. 25-27, 
Iberis, Thlaspi, fig. 23, 24, Lepidium, Farsetia, and 
Lunaria, are among the best genera in Tetradynamia 
Siliculosa ; as are 

Arabis, Brassica, Sinapis and Raphanus in T. Si- 
liquosa. Mr. Brown's Malcomia appears more satis- 



140 CAPPARIDES, SAPINDI. [Cl. 13. 

factory than his Matthiola, as separated from Clmr- 
anthus. 

Ord. 64. CAPPARIDES. " Calyx either of many 
leaves, or of one leaf in many segments. Petals 4 or 6, 
mostly alternate therewith. Stamens definite, or more 
frequently indefinite. Germen simple, often stalked, 
the stalk sometimes bearing the Stamens, it's base oc- 
casionally glandular at one side. Style 1, or more 
frequently wanting. Stigma solitary. Fruit many- 
seeded, either a Pod or Berry, of 1 cell, scarcely more. 
Seeds kidney-shaped, attached to parietal Receptacles. 
Albumen none. Embryo incurved, the Radicle lying 
above the Cotyledons. Stem herbaceous, shrubby, or 
arboreous. Leaves alternate, simple, rarely ternate, 
or digitate, sometimes furnished at the base with a pair 
of Stipulas, Prickles, or Glands." 

Cleome, Cadaba Forsk., Capparis, fig. 20, Sodada 
Forsk., Crattipca, Morisonia and Durio are Jussieu's 
genera, to which Boscia, Lamarck Illustr. t. 395, is 
to be added. 

The following very miscellaneous assemblage is sub- 
joined, as akin to the true Capparldes ; Marcgravia, 
Nor ant ea Aubl. (Ascium Schreb. Gen. 358), Reseda, 
fig. 17, Drosera and Parnassia. 

Ord. 65. SAPINDI. " Calyx of many leaves, or of 
1 leaf, mostly divided. Petals 4 or 5, inserted into 
a disk under the Germen; either simple and naked, 
or bearing hairs or glands, sometimes an inner petal, 
on their disk at the inside. Stamens generally 8, with 



Cl. 13.] ACERA. 141 

distinct Filaments, inserted into the same disk. Ger- 
men simple. Styles 1 or 3. Stigmas 1, 2, or 3. Fruit 
fleshy, or capsular, of 1 , 2, or 3, cells, or as many 
prominent lobes, each cell or lobe containing one Seed, 
attached to it's inner angle. Albumen none. Radicle 
incurved, upon the, often incurved, Cotyledons. Stem 
arboreous, or shrubby, rarely herbaceous. Leaves 
alternate." 

Sect. 1. Petals double. Cardiospermum, Paull'mia, 
Sapindus, Talisia Aubl. and dporetica Forst. 

Sect. 2. Petals simple. Sckmidelia and Ornitrophe 
Commers. both perhaps one genus with Aporetica; 
Euphoria (Dimocarpus Willden. Sp. PI. v. 2. 346), 
Melicocca, Toulicia Aubl. (Poruea Schreb. Gen. 266), 
Trigojiis Jacq. with Molintzaand Cossignia Commers. 
compose this section. Many of them require exami- 
nation, and some are perhaps not distinct from Cu- 
panictj which not being hitherto well understood, is 
placed, with Matayba, Enourea and Pekea of Aublet, 
very different from it and from each other, in a doubt- 
ful Section at the end. 

Ord. 66. ACERA. " Calyx of 1 leaf. Petals de- 
finite, rarely wanting, inserted around a hypogynous 
disk. Stamens inserted into the middle of the same 
disk, definite, but often not agreeing with the Petals 
in number. Germen simple, standing on the disk. 
Style and Stigma single, rarely 2. Pericarp of 2 or 3 
cells or capsules. Seeds either solitary, or at most 
S, in each, attached to the inner angle, some of them 



142 MALPIGHLE. [Cl. 13. 

often abortive. Albumen none. Radicle lying on 
the Cotyledons. Stem arboreous or shrubby. Leaves 
opposite, without Stipulas. Flowers racemose or co- 
rymbose, their Stamens or Pistils often partially im- 
perfect." 

Aesculus, fig. 12, and Acer, fig. 221, are the only 
genera ; with Hippocratea, and the obscure Thryallis 
of Linnaeus, judged intermediate between this Order 
and the next. t Aesculus is, as Jussieu indeed hints, 
full as much intermediate between the present and 
the last. 

Ord. 67. MALPIGHIJE. " Calyx in 5 deep seg- 
ments, permanent. Petals 5, alternate with the Calyx, 
inserted into a hypogynous disk, by their claws. Sta- 
mens 10, inserted into the same part, 5 of them op- 
posite to the Petals, 5 intermediate ones to the Calyx, 
their Filaments sometimes connected at the base. 
Anthers roundish. Germen either simple, or 3-lobed. 
Styles 3. Stigmas 3 or 6. Fruit either of 3 Capsules, 
or simple with 3 cells. Seeds solitary in each Cap- 
sule or cell. Albumen none. Embryo with a straight 
radicle, the Cotyledons reflexed at their base. Stem 
shrubby. Leaves opposite, simple, with some traces 
of Stipulas. Flowerstalks terminal, or more generally 
axillary, either aggregate and single-flowered, or soli- 
tary and many-flowered, either umbellate, spiked, or 
panicled, each Stalk usually with a joint and 2 small 
scales about the middle." 

Bannisteria and Trioptcris have a tricapsular winged 



Cl. 13.] HYPERICA. 143 

Fruit; Malpighia, fig. 222, a simple Berry, or Drupa, 
with 3 bony Nuts. Trigonia Aubl. and Erythroxy- 
lum are considered doubtful, as having each a simple 
Style, and the former a long Capsule of 3 valves, with 
numerous woolly Seeds ; the latter alternate Leaves, 
double Petals like the Sap'mdi, and a Drupa with 1 
See(i, whose Cotyledons are not folded or reflexed at 
the base. 

These ambiguous genera however form no link with 
the following Order, nor do we perceive a real approach 
towards that Order, in any characters of the Malpig- 
hice, though the learned author is commendably soli- 
citous to indicate such, in the opposite Leaves, 3 Styles, 
and 3-celled Fruit. 

Ord. 68. HYPERICA. " Calyx in 4 or 5 deep seg- 
ments. Petals as many. Stamens numerous, united 
at the base into several sets. Anthers roundish. Ger- 
men simple. Styles several, with as many Stigmas. 
Fruit generally capsular, the number of it's cells and 
valves corresponding with the Styles, the partitions 
formed of the inflexed edges of the valves. Seeds very 
minute, attached to a Receptacle in the centre of the 
Fruit, either simple, or split into as many parts as 
there are valves. Embryo straight. Albumen none ? 
Stem herbaceous, or more or less woody. Leaves op- 
posite. Flowers oppositely corymbose, often ter- 
minal." 

Ascyrum, Brathys and Hypericum, fig. 48-50, are 



144 GUTTIFEILS:. [Cl. 13. 

all the genera. The latter has often been attempted 
to be divided, but hitherto not successfully. Brathys 
is reduced to Hypericum in Sm. Plant. Ic. t. 41. It 
is scarcely polyadelphous. 

Ord.69. GUTTIFER.E. "Calyx either of a definite 
number of leaves or of segments, very rarely wanting. 
Petals definite, frequently 4. Stamens mostly inde- 
finite, their Filaments rarely monadelphous, or poly- 
adelphous. Anthers continuous with the Filaments. 
Germen simple. Style 1, or none. Stigma simple, 
or divided. Fruit generally of 1 cell, pulpy or cap- 
sular, in some closed, in others opening by valves, 
and containing 1 or many Seeds, inserted either into 
the central Receptacle, or into the sides of the Peri- 
carp. Albumen none. Embryo straight, with spongy 
or callous Cotyledons. Trees or Shrubs, mostly turgid 
with a resinous juice. Leaves generally opposite, co- 
riaceous, smooth, undivided and entire, with 1 central 
rib, and many transverse veins. Flowers axillary or 
terminal, with one or other organ of impregnation 
sometimes imperfect, so as to become Monoecious or 
Dioecious." 

Sect. 1 . Style none. Gambogia, Clusia, Garcinia, 
Tovomita Aubl., Xanthe Schreb. Gen. 710 (Qita- 
poi/a Aubl.), and Grias. To which is to be added 
XanthochymuS) fig. 223, Roxb. Coromand. t. }96. 

Sect. 2. Style one. Symphonia Schreb. Gen. 452 
(Moronobea Aubl.), Macoubea Aubl., Mammea, Ma- 



Cl. 13.] AURANTIA. 145 

canea Juss. Aubl. t. 371, Sterbeckia Schreb. Gen. 
360 (Singana Aubl.), Mesua, Rheedia and Calo- 
phyllum. 

Sect. 3. Genera with alternate Leaves, allied on 
one hand to this Order, on the other to the following. 
Vateria, Vatlca, Elteocarpus, and Allophyllus. 

A noble and very natural Order, not detected by 
Linnaeus, connecting the Hyperica with the Aurantia. 

Ord. 70. AURANTIA. "Calyx of 1 leaf, often 
deeply divided. Petals definite, broad at the base, 
inserted around a hypogynous disk. Stamens inserted 
into the same disk, mostly definite, either distinct, mo- 
nadelphous, or polyadelphous. Germen and Style 
simple. Stigma rarely divided. Fruit mostly pulpy, 
in some instances capsular, of 1 or many cells, with 
1 or 2 Seeds in each. Albumen none. Embryo 
straight, upright. Stem arboreous or shrubby. Leaves 
alternate, simple, or rarely compound." 

Sect. 1. Fruit single-seeded. Leaves without pel- 
lucid dots. These are spurious Aurantia. Ximenia, 
Heisteria, and Fissllia Commerson. The last is well 
referred to Olax by Vahl, Enum. v. 2. 33. 

Sect. 2. Fruit many-seeded, pulpy. Leaves full of 
resinous pellucid dots. True Aurantia. Berge?*a, 
Murrcea (which is also Chalcas), Cookia Sonnerat., 
Citrus, fig. 224, and Limonia; a most natural tribe. 

Sect. 3. Fr. many-seeded,, capsular. Leaves not 
dotted. Genera akin to Aurantia, and to the follow- 
ing Order (in our opinion rather nearer to the latter). 

L 



146 MELLE. [Cl. 13. 

Ternstromia (Touabea Juss. being the same genus), 
Tkea and Camellia. These serve to connect the Au- 
rantia and Melice, without much real affinity perhaps 
to either. They have some points of relationship to 
the Malvacete, Orel. 74 ; at least to Gordonia and 
Stuartia. 

Orel 71. MELIJE. " Calyx of 1 leaf, more or less 
deeply divided. Petals 4 or 5, with broad claws, 
generally connected at the base. Stamens definite, 
as many, or more frequently twice as many ; their 
Filaments united into a tube, or cup, toothed at the 
summit, each tooth either bearing, or overshadowing, 
a close-pressed internal Anther. Germen and Style 
single. Stigma rarely divided. Fruit pulpy, or more 
frequently capsular, of many cells, with 1 or 2 Seeds 
in each, the valves as many as the cells, each with 
a central partition. Stem shrubby or arboreous, with 
alternate branches. Leaves simple or compound, alter- 
nate, without Stipulas." 

Sect. 1. Leaves simple. Candla(JVinterania3uss.]. 
Symphonia, Tunis, excluding the " Peruvian shrub/' 
xvhich is Sjtrigilia of Cavanilles, Monad, t. 201., Ge- 
mma Forsk., Altonia, Quiyisia Commers. Larn. II- 
lustr. t. 302, and TurrtEa, fig. 225, see Sm. Plant. 
Ic. t. 10-12. 

Sect. 2. Leaves compound. Ozophyllum Schreb. 
(Ticorea Aubl.), Sandoricum Rumph., Portesia Juss. 
Lam. Iliustr. t. 302, Trichilia, Elcaja Forsk., Guarea, 
Ekebergia, Melia and dquilicia (which is Leca). 



1.13.] VITES, GEEAXIA. 147 

*' Sect. 3. Allied to Me lite. Swieteniq and Cedrcld* 
Leea makes a connecting liu'c with the following 
Order. 

Orel 72.' VITES; " Calyx of ]' leaf, short, nearly 
entire. Petals definite,- 4, 5, or 6\ broad at the bass. 
Stamens as many, opposite to the Petals, with sepa- 
rate Filaments, inserted into a hypo'gynous disk. Ger- 
merr, Style if present, and Stigma, single.- Berry of 
one or many eel-Is, with one,- or a definite number of 
bony Seeds, whose surface is unequal, and which are 
attached to the bottom of the fruit. Albumen none. 
Embryo descending, with straight Cotyledons. Stem 
shrubby, trailing or climbing, knotty. Leaves alter- 
nate, with Stipulas. Tendrils or Flower-stalks- orypo- 
site to the Leaves," 

Cissits and Vilif, fig* 226, are the' only genera. 
Jussieu ingeniously points out an affinity to these ift 
some of the shrubby Gerauia, Ord. 7-'*, confirmed by 
the acidity of the Leaves in some instances. This ai* 
ftnity serves well to introduce the following. 

Ord. 73. GEUANFA. " Calyx simple, of 5 leaves, 
or in 5 deep segments, permanent. Petals 5" (re- 
gular or irregular). *' Stamens definite, their fila- 
ments connected at the base; some of the Anthers 
often wanting. Germen single. Style 1. Stigmas 5 y 
oblong. Fruit of 5 cells, or 5 Capsules, each con- 
taining 1 or 2 Seeds. Albumen none. Stem slightly 
shrubby, or herbaceous. Leaves opposite or alternate,. 



148 MALVACEAE. [Cl. 13. 

with Stipulas. Flowers opposite to the alternate 
Leaves, axillary at the opposite ones.'' 

Geranium, fig. 31-35, from which are now so satis- 
factorily separated Erodium and Pelargonium, fig. 227, 
composes, with Monsvnia, the whole of this Order. 
Trop&olum, fig. 228, Impatiens (Balsamina Juss.) and 
Oxalls are subjoined as related to those genera. In 
the first I confess myself unable to discern any affinity 
whatever with them, or to form any idea to what 
tribe it belongs. Impatiens is surely, as Jussieu hints, 
p. 237, more akin to his Papaverace<e, Ord. 62. 
Oxalis I have long ago, Engl. Bot. t. 762, proposed 
removing to the Rutacete, see Ord. 81. 

Ord. 74. MALVACEAE. " Calyx in 5 segments, 
more or less deep, either simple, or accompanied by 
an external Calyx, of 1 or many leaves. Petals 5, 
equal, either distinct and hypogynous, or connected at 
the base, and united to the lower part of the tube of 
the Stamens, which are hypogynous, and either de- 
finite or indefinite. Their Filaments are either united, 
almost all the way up, into a tube, closely embracing 
the Style, and nearly as long, which bears the Petals 
at it's base, and is laden, at or about the top, with 
Anthers, each supported by it's own Filament, rarely 
sessile : or the Filaments are merely combined into 
a sort of cup, whose segments either all bear one or 
more Anthers, or some of them are without any. Ger- 
men one, in some instances stalked. Style mostly 



Cl. 13.] MALVACEAE. 149 

solitary, rarely several. Stigmas usually numerous, 
very rarely indeed solitary. Fruit either of many 
cells, and many valves, with partitions from the centre 
of each, or of many Capsules, generally bursting, 
rarely closed, crowded into an aggregate Fruit, either 
whorled round the base of the Style, or more rarely 
forming a head above the Receptacle. Seeds either 1 
or more in each cell or Capsule, either inserted into 
the inner angle, or into the central columnar Recep- 
tacle, which connects all the cells or Capsules toge- 
gether. Albumen none. Cotyledons folded, bent 
over the Radicle. Stem arboreous, or shrubby, or 
herbaceous." (Bark with tough fibres.) " Leaves with 
Stipulas, alternate, mostly simple, occasionally digi- 
tate. Flowers axillary or terminal, very rarely with 
imperfectly separated organs." 

Sect. 1. Stamens united into a tube bearing the 
Corolla, indefinite. Fruit of many capitate Capsules. 
Palava Cavan. and Malope. 

Sect. 2. Stam. and Cor. as above. Capsules whorl- 
ed, or crowded into one orbicular figure. Malva, Ai- 
th&a, fig. 36, 37, Lavatera, Malachra, Pavonia Cav., 
Urena, Napcea and Sida. 

Sect. 3. Stam. and Cor. the same. Fruit simple, 
of many cells. Anoda Cav., Lagun&a Schreb. Gen. 
463, which comprehends Laguna and Solandra of 
Juss., Hibiscus, Achania Schreb. Gen. 469 (Malva- 
viscus Juss.), and Gossypiwn. 

All these Sections compose a very natural assem- 



150 MALVACEA. [Ci. J3. 

tmiMe of true Malracete, or Linnaean Columnifet 
res. The following are more miscellaneous, or uncciv 
tain. 

Sect. 4. Stam. united into a tube bearing the Co* 
rolla, definite Fruit of many cclis. Scant Car., 
Fugosa Juss. (Cienfuegoshi Cav.), genuine iMalraccte, 
as likewise appears to be -Plagimithus Forst. t. 43. 
Mijrodia Schr. Gen. 472 (Quararibea Aubl.) is sus-? 
peered to be raiiier akin to the Mdite, especially to 
Turrtfa. It has the smell of Melilot when dry. 

Sect. 5. Siam. all fertile, definite or indefinite, 
united at the base into a small sessile cup. Mdoclmt y 
Rmzia Cav., tituartia, fig. 51, 5'2 (inciQcling Mala-, 
chockndniiri, as well as Stuartia, Juss. 1 29\ Gor- 
dofua. Hagou'ia, Bombax 1 , and Adansoma. To these 
the 3d Section of the slurairfia, Orel. 70, might per-! 
haps be transferred. 

Sect. 6. Siam. united as in the last, partly imper- 
fect ; definite, rarely indefinite. P&itapetes, Plci:o- 
spermum Schr. Gen. 46!., Theobrorua, Abroma, Bu- 
broma Schreb. (Guazuma Juss.), Jttdhcmia Forsk., 
Assorim Schreb. 4GO. (including T)ombcya Cav.) and 
Biittneria. 

Sect. 7. Siam. united into a cup, closely surround- 
ing the Gennen, and elevated with it on a stalk ; ge-t 
neral! v deiinite, and all fertile. Ai/enla, KlrirJiO'da, 
Helicteres and Sterculia. 

Sect, 8. Akin to Mahacecc. Carollnea (PachirQ 
Aubl.). 



Cl. 13.] x MAGNOLIA. 151 

There is not the slightest relationship between this 
74th Order and the four following. 

Orel 75. MAGNOLIJE. " Calyx of a definite num- 
ber of leaves, sometimes with external scales. Petals 
mostly definite, truly hypogynous/' (inserted into the 
Receptacle of the Flower, which supports the Ger- 
rnens). " Stamens numerous, distinct, inserted into 
the same part. Anthers continuous with the Fila- 
ments. Germens several, definite or indefinite, on a 
Common Receptacle. Styles as many, or wanting. 
Stigmas as many. Capsules or Berries as many, each 
of 1 cell, with 1 or many Seeds ; sometimes coalescing 
into one fruit. Albumen none." (DeCamlolle rightly 
says fleshy.) * Embryo straight. Stem shrubby or 
arboreous. Leaves alternate, mostly undivided and 
entire; each embraced while young by a Stipula 
sheathing the branch, and rolled up, as in Ficits, 
into a sort of horn, making a terminal bujJ. Each 
such Stipula soon falls oil", leaving an annular scar. 
Flowers terminal or axillary." (The Stipulas of Lirio- 
dcndrumzYe in pnrs, and rather more durable.) 

True Magnolia are, Wlntera Schreb.Gen. 368 (D ri- 
my s Forst.), Ili'icium, Michdia, Magnolia, fig. 9, 
Talauma Juss. (Plumier's original Mag<nolia\ Liri- 
odendrum, and Mayna Aubl., to which Prof. De- 
Candolle, who has illustrated this Order, in his 
Syst. v. 1. 459, adds Tasmannia, a New Holland 
genus of Mr. Brown. 

DeCandolle, in the same work, 395, establishes 



152 ANON.E. [Cl. 13. 

a new Order, by the name of Dilleniacete, composed 
of Dillenia, fig. 230, 231, and Curatella, put, with 
Ochna and Quassia, at the end of the Magnolia by 
Jussieu. This new Order, more approaching the 
RanunculacefE in character, though very wide of them 
in habit, is thus defined. 

" Calyx of 5 permanent leaves. Petals 5, deci- 
duous. Stamens indefinite. Anthers continuous, in- 
ternal or lateral. Germens indefinite, sometimes by 
abortion or coalition solitary, each with 1 Style or 
Stigma. Albumen fleshy. Shrubs or trees, with sim- 
ple, usually alternate, leaves." Hither are referred, 
besides the two genera above named, Tetracera (in- 
cluding Forster's Euryandra, Tigarea of Aubl. and 
Wahlbomia of Thunb.), Delima, Candollea Labill., 
Pleurandra Labill., Hibbertia, Wormia, and several 
others, whose limits may by some botanists be dis- 
puted. 

Ord. 76. ANON^C. " Calyx short, 3-lobed, per- 
manent. Petals 6; the 3 outermost resembling an 
inner Calyx. Stamens numerous, consisting of nearly 
sessile Anthers, covering a hemispherical Receptacle, 
each of them nearly quadrangular, broadest at the top. 
Germens numerous, occupying the centre of the Re- 
ceptacle, much crowded, hardly to be distinguished 
from the Anthers, and in a manner covered by them. 
Styles as many, short, or wanting. Stigmas 1 to each. 
Berries or Capsules as many, with 1 or more Seeds, 
and either distinct, with or without a partial stalk to 



Cl. 13.] MENISPERMA. 153 

each from the Common Receptacle, or confluent into 
a single pulpy Fruit, under whose bark are numerous 
cells, one for each Seed. Outer Skin of the Seed 
(62 : 4) coriaceous ; inner membranous, with many 
inward folds, introduced between the transverse lobes 
of the large solid Albumen, in which, at the Scar, is 
lodged the minute Embryo. Stem arboreous or 
shrubby, alternately branched ; the Bark mostly reti- 
culated. Leaves alternate, simple, undivided and 
entire, without Stipulas. Flowers axillary." 

Anona, Unona, Uvaria, Cananga Aubl., and Xy- 
lopia, are Jussieu's genera. DeCandolle has added 
several new genera, as well as a multitude of species, 
with many illustrations. He invents the term Car- 
pella, . Partial Fruits, for the aggregate Pericarps of 
thib tribe 

Orel 77. MENISPERMA. " Calyx of a definite 
number of leaves. Petals definite, opposite thereto, 
sometimes with each a, likewise opposite, internal 
scale. Stamens definite, as many as the Petals, and 
opposite to them. Germens several, definite, with 
each a Style and Stigma. Fruits as many, pulpy or 
capsular, kidney-shaped, each with 1 Seed of the same 
shape, several of them, sometimes all but one, abor- 
tive. Embryo flat, small, with thin Cotyledons, in 
.the top of a large incurved Albumen. (See below.) 
Stem shrubby, usually trailing. Leaves alternate," 
(generally) " simple, without Stipulas. Flowers axil- 
lary or terminal, often in spiked or racemose tufts, with 



154 BERBEllIDES. [Cl. 13. 

a Bractea to each tuft. Stamens and Pistils generally 
separated, more or less completely." 

Cissampdos, Menispermum, Leccba Forsk., Epiba- 
tcrimn Forst., and Abut a Aubl. 

Prof. DeCandolle has treated of this Order, by the 
name of Menispermea, Svst. v. 1. 509, with the fol- 

/ x */ 

lowing principal characters. " Flowers separated. 
Calyx-leaves and Petals definite, deciduous. Barren 
Fl. with usually monadelphous Stamens, opposite to 
the Petals, and agreeing with them in number, or else 
numerous, in several rows, Fertile Fl. with a few 
distinct, rarely combined, Germens. Seeds compressed, 
generally crescent-shaped. Cotyledons remarkable, 
in some instances, for being distant, and lodged in 
2 different cells of the Seed. Albumen none, or very 
small." (This agrees with Gaertner's figures and de- 
scriptions, better than Jussieu's account, yet they are 
not irreconcilable.) " Leaves in some genera, once, 
twice or thrice tcrnate." 

Sect. 1. Leaves compound. Lardhabala Fl. Pe- 
ru v., Staioitonia DeCand. and Bursaia Petit-Thuars. 

Sect. 2. Leaves simple. Spirofyermum Petit-Th., 
Cocculus DeCand. a genus of 46 species, Pseliurn 
Lour., Cissampefat, Afeiiispcrmum, A but a, and A 
dc8tis of Moc and Sessc Fl. Mex. Schizandra of Mi- 
chaux stands alone, as of spurious affinity, because of 
a disagreement in number between the Anthers and 
integuments of the Flower. 

Orel. 78. BERBKRIDES. " Calyx of a definite nurn- 



Cl. 13.] TILTACE.'R. J.55 

her of leaves or segments. Petals definite, as many 
as the Calyx-leaves, and often opposite to then), some- 
times simple, sometimes furnished with an internal 
Petal at the base. Stamens definite, as nn.u:v us the 
Petals, and opposite thereto. Anthers united with 
the Filaments, bursting from the bottom upwards, by 
a valve at each side. Gennen simple. Style 1 or 
none. Stigma often single. Berry or Capsule of 1 
ceil, frequently with several Seeds, inserted into the 
bottom of the cell. Embryo descending, fiat, sur- 
rounded by a fleshy Albumen. Stem shrubby or her- 
baceous. Leaves simple or compound, mostly alter- 
nate, with, or more often without, Stipules." 

Berber is, Leoutice, Epimcdiitm, tig. 234, Riiwrca- 
Aubf. and Conorla of the same author, compose this 
singular Order. Riana Aub!., Corytioearpu* Forst., 
'Barreria Schreb. 59(PoraqiieJ'>a Anbl.), Hatnauuli*, 
Other a Thunb., and Rapffnea Aubi. are subjoined, a. 
more or less allied, though in some instances slight;-., 
to the ab'jve. 

Ord. 79. TILIACEJE. " Calyx of several leaves or 
segments. Petals definite, distinct, in Sloanca want- 
ing, alternate with the divisions of the Calyx, and 
generally as many. Stamens mostly indefinite, and 
distinct. Germen simple. Style 1, rarely many, or 
none at all. Stigma simple or divided. Fruit pulpy 
or capsular, generally of many cells, and as many 
valves with central partitions. Seeds 1 or more in 
ach cell, Embryo tUt, in a fleshy Albumen. Stem 



156 CISTI. [Cl. 13. 

arboreous or shrubby, seldom herbaceous. Leaves al- 
ternate, simple, with Stipulas." 

Sect. 1. Stamens definite, more or less monadel- 
phous. Doubtful Tiliacea. JVahheria, Hermannia, 
and Mahernia. These would surely be better placed 
with the Malvacece. The Cotyledons of the two lat- 
ter agree full as well with them as with Tilia. 

Sect. 2. Stam. distinct, mostly indefinite. Fruit of 
several cells. True Tiliacene. Antichorus, Corchorus, 
Heliocarpus, Triumfetta, Sparmannia, Sloanea, Au- 
Iktia Schreb. 353 (Apeiba Aubl.), Muntingia, Fla- 
courtia Commers., Oncoba Forsk. Lam. Ill us tr, t.471., 
Grewia and Tilia, fig. 235. Stuartia is to be excluded; 
see Ord. 74. 

Sect. 3. Akin to Tiliacete. Fruit of 1 cell. Bixa, 
Laetia and Aublet's and Schreber's Banara. The 
first seems a genuine Tiliacea. 

Ord. 80. CISTI. " Calyx in 5 deep segments. Pe- 
tals 5. Stamens numerous. Germen simple. Style 1. 
Stigma 1. Capsule either of 1 cell, with 3 valves, or 
of many cells with many valves, the numerous small 
Seeds attached to the centre of each, which either 
projects so as to form a partition, or is merely a lon- 
gitudinal line. Embryo inclosed in a thin Albumen, 
it's Radicle incurved upon the Cotyledons. Stem 
woody or herbaceous. Leaves mostly opposite, with 
or without Stipulas. Flowers either spiked, or soli- 
tary, or corymbose, somewhat umbellate." 

Cistus and Helianthemum, fig. 236, constitute the 



Cl. 13.] RUTACE^E. 157 

genuine plants of this Order, the latter being sepa- 
rated as a genus from Cistus, by Jusbieu and others, 
because the Capsule is supposed to have only 3 valves, 
and 1 cell, instead of 5 or 10 ceils and valves. But 
H. thymlfollum has really 3 cells, and the habit of 
the plants scarcely warrants such a separation. Heli- 
anthemum is inadmissible as a name, being the same 
in meaning as Hdianthus. 

The following genera are supposed related to the 
Cisti, as having a Capsule of 3 valves, into which the 
Seeds are inserted ; but the number of their Stamens 
is definite. Viola, whose affinity is one of the most 
puzzling; Piriqueta Aubl., now referred by Schreber, 
Gen. 827, to Turnera ; Piparea Aubl., of which too 
little is known to afford matter for much conjecture; 
and Tachibota of the same author (Salmasia Schreb. 
201.) scarcely less obscure. Viola is perhaps, like 
Turnera, more akin to Jussieu's Ficoidca:, Ord. 87, 
than to the Cisti. 

Ord. 8 1 . RUTACEJE. " Calyx of 1 leaf, often in 
5 deep segments. Petals mostly 5, alternate therewith. 
Stamens definite, distinct, mostly ten, alternately op- 
posite to the Petals and Calyx. Germen simple. 
Style 1. Stigma single, rarely divided. Fruit of many 
cells, or many Capsules, usually 5, with one or more 
Seeds attached to the inner angle. Embryo flat, hi 
a fleshy Albumen. Stem herbaceous, or shrubby, 
rarely arboreous. Leaves in some alternate, naked ; 



158 IlUTACE^. [Cl. 12.J 

iii others mostly opposite, with Stipulas, Flowers 
axillary or terminal/' 

Sect. 1. Leaves with Stipulas, generally opposite. 
Trihidt's, Fugo/iid, Zi/^ophi/llum, and Gitaiacum. 

Sect. 2. Leaves alternate, without Stipulas. Ruta t 
Pcganum and jyictamnus. 

Sect. 3. Genera akin to Rutaceai, Mdla'sitlnis^ 
Diosma, Empltnnuh, and Arulni Aubl. 

Such is Jussieu's view of this Order, which requires! 
great emendation, and respecting which Mr. Brown 
has made very important remarks in his Bot. of Terra 
Australis, 13. Five New Holland genera had indeed 
previously been added to it, Koroma, iig. 237, 238, 
Corraa, Eriosttuioii, Crowca and Zicrta, by the writer 
of this, who first also referred Melicope of Forster to 
this family, see Ree's Cyclop, v. 23. Phcbaiium of 
Ventenat also belongs to it. To these Mr. Brown 
adds Fagara', X<nifho.rylo?i, lamhol'ijera, Caloric?}- 
drum, Euodia, Piiocarpits, Empleurum, Dictammt 
Caspar ia Ilnmb. and Bonpl., Ticorca and Giili.iica of 
Aublet, and perhaps the little-known Momtkyia, 
well as Diosma, from which last he would name th>: 
Order in question Dhsmete ; Rut a and Pcgatu(m t 
though admissible into it, not being calculated to give 
a clear idea of this very natural assemblage. The 
same learned writer speaks of two other New Holland 
genera, as belonging to his Diosmece, though para- 
dx>xical in character. One of them,, not yet named, 



Cl. 13.] CARYOPHYLLE&. 159 

lias a Calyx in 10 divisions, 10 Petals, and an in- 
definite number of penszynous Stamens ! Another, Di- 
ploltena, found originally by Dampier. and figured in 
his Voyage, v. 3. 110. t. 3. f. 3, bears a double Iri- 
volucrum, containing many decandrous flowers, with 
Stamens and Pistils proper to the Order, but only a 
few irregularly-placed scales in the place of Perianth 
and Petals ! 

Jussieu's first Section undoubtedly constitutes a di- 
stinct Order, which Mr. Brown names Zygophylka. 
Melianthus, to whatever it may belong, (surely not, 
as Jussieu hints, to Trop&olum?) has little affinity to 
Diosmete, or Zyg.ophylle&. 

Whether Oxalis may be admitted into the former, 
as being, in the occasionally lobed Filaments, elastic 
Arillus, acid flavour, and number of parts, allied to 
Boronia and Eriostemou, I merely beg leave to sug- 
gest, till it can be more decisively placed elsewhere. 
What has commonly been taken for an clastic Aril- 
lus in the D'wsmcfe or true Rutaccee may, as in Eu- 
phorbice, be only the inner coat of the Capsule, ac- 
cording to the opinion of Jussieu and Richard, 

Orel 82. CARYOPHYLLE^E. " Calyx of 1 leaf, 
mostly permanent, either tubular, or deeply divided. 
Petals definite, seldom wanting, alternate with the 
segments of the Calyx, and equal to them in number, 
generally with Claws. Stamens definite, sometimes 
fewer than the Petals, but more frequently the same 
in number, and alternate therewith, or twice as many, 



160 CAR1TOPHYLLE2E. [Cl. 13. 

and alternately inserted upon them or under the Ger- 
men, which is always simple. Styles several, rarely 
solitary, with the same number of Stigmas. Fruit 
capsular, of 1 or several cells, with numerous Seeds, 
on a central Receptacle. Embryo incurved, surround- 
ing a farinaceous Albumen. Stem mostly herbaceous. 
Leaves opposite, combined at the base, or rarely 
whorled ; in a few instances accompanied by Stipulas. 
but more usually without. Flowers either axillary, or 
more commonly terminal." 

A large and very natural Order, much more akin, 
except in having Petals, to some of Jussieu's earlier 
Orders, as the Amaranthi, both in habit, nature of 
the Albumen, and even insertion of Stamens, rightly 
considered. But the laws of system, with regard to 
the Corolla, have almost obliged this learned author 
to place these two families widely apart, which neces- 
sity is rendered somewhat less unfortunate, by an agree- 
ment, as to the Albumen, with the 1st Order of the 
next Class. The Caryopliyllece are chiefly of Euro- 
pean growth, and their genera have scarcely undergone 
any controversy, or received any addition or altera- 
tion, except Cucubalus, since their establishment by 
Linnaeus, who first reduced them to any thing like 
scientific order. Jussieu's Sections are the following. 
Number, it must be observed, is often variable in 
these plants. 

Sect. 1. Calyx deeply divided. Stamens 3. Style ], 
or more frequently 3. Orfegia, Loeflingia, Holo- 



Cl. 14.] DICOT. COR. POLYP. ST. PERIG. 161 

steum, fig. 239, Polycarpon, Donatia Forst., Mollugo, 
Minuartia and Queria. 

Sect. 2. Cal. the same. Stam. 4. Styles 2 or 4. 
Biiffbnia and Sagina. 

Sect. 3. Cal. the same. Stam. 5 to 8. Styles 2, 
3, or 4. Alsine (A. media is a Stellaria. Fl. Brit. 473), 
Pharnaceum, Moekringia and Elatine. 

Sect. 4. Cal. the same. Stam. 10. Styles 3 or 5. 
Eergia, Spergula, Cerastium, Cherleria, Armaria 
and Stellaria, fig. 240. (Arenaria, Alsine and jHb- 
losteum vary into each other, except the last may be 
determined, as I believe, by it's jagged Petals.) 

Sect. 5. Cal. tubular. Stam. 10, 5 alternate ones 
generally attached to the Petals. Styles 2, 3, or 5. 
Gypsophila, Saponaria, Dianthus, fig. 15, 16, Silene, 
Cucubalus, Lychnis and Agrostemma. 

Sect. 6. Cal. the same. Slam, fewer than 10. Styles 
2 or 3. Velezia, Drypis, and Sarothra. 

Sect. 7. Genera akin to Caryophyllea. Rotala, 
Frankenia, fig. 241, Linum and Lechea. The latter 
may be referred to Sect. 1 . Rotala belongs, as Jus- 
sieu suspected, to his Salicari^ Ord. 91. Linum is 
very ambiguous, and it's affinity has not been satisfac- 
torily determined by any botanist. Frankenia bears 
some relationship to the Ficoidete, Ord. 87. 

CLASS 14. DICOTYLEDONES. COROLLA POLYPE- 
TALOUS. STAMENS PERIGYNOUS. 

" Calyx of one leaf, superior or inferior, more or less 

M 



SEMPER VlVtf 1 .. [Cl. 14. 

deeply divided. Corolla perigynous, that is, inserted 
into some part of the Calyx, of several Petals, 
sometimes wanting, more rarely monopetalous,from 
an union of the Petals into one. Stamens inserted 
into the Calyx or Corolla, definite or indefinite, for 
the most part distinct, though sometimes with com- 
bined Filaments. Gennen superior, single or mul- 
tiplied, or rarely inferior and simple. Each Gcr- 
men has one or more Styles, or none at all. Stigma 
undivided or divided. Fruit sometimes single, whe- 
ther superior or inferior, of one or many cells ; more 
rarely aggregate, superior, each Pericarp of one 
cell. Flowers sometimes, by imperfection of organs, 
separated" 

Ord. 83. SEMPERVIVTE. " Calyx inferior, in a de- 
finite number of deep segments. Petals definite, as 
many as the segments of the Calyx, and inserted into 
it's base alternately with them ; or. more rarely the 
Corolla is monopetalous, either tubular, or deeply 
divided. Stamens either as many as the Petals, and 
alternate with them, or twice as many, inserted alter- 
nately into their claws, and into the base of the Calyx. 
Anthers roundish. Germens several, equal to the Pe- 
tals in number, united at their base or the inner side, 
glandular at the outer, the glands sometimes assuming 
the form of scales. Styles and Stigmas 1 to each Ger- 
men. Capsules as many, each of 1 cell, dividing at 
the inner edge into 2 valves, whose margins bear the 
numerous Seeds. Embryo incurved, surrounding a 



Ci. 14.J SAXIFRAGE. 

farinaceous Albumen. Stem herbaceous, or some- 
what shrubby. Leaves opposite or alternate, succu- 
lent." 

Tilfaa, Crassula, Cotyledon, Rhodiola, Seclum, Sem- 
pervivum, fig. 242, and the variable genus Septas, per- 
haps not distinct from C?^assula, are all Jussieu's cer- 
tain genera ; Petit horum being placed at the end, as 
their ally. This last however is as genuine a specimen 
of the Order as any of them, the Capsules being only 
more united into one, opening at the inner margin of 
each cell, as in the rest, and by no means circumscisstf, 
or bursting all round, as the author, by some accident, 
has been led to suppose. The Petals are often partly 
or entirely wanting, in which case the segments of the 
Calyx become multiplied. 

Ord. 84. SAXIFIIAGJE. " Calyx either superior, or 
more frequently inferior, in 4 or 5 segments. Petals 4 
or 5, rarely wanting, inserted into thq upper part of 
the Calyx, alternate with it's segments. Stamens as 
many, or rather twice as many, inserted into the same 
part. Germen simple. Styles and Stigmas 2. Fruit 
often capsular, many-seeded, of 1 or 2 cells, opening 
at the top with 2 valves, whose inflexion forms the par- 
titions. Embryo incurved, surrounding a farinaceous, 
or somewhat solid, Albumen. Stem usually herba- 
ceous. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, occasionally 
rather succulent." 

Sect. 1. Fruit superior, capsular, with 2 beaks at the 
top. Heuchera, Sa.rifraga, fig. 243, Tlardla and 

M 2 



164 CACTI, PORT-ULACE^. [Cl. 14. 

Mitclla. The late Mr. Dryander removed Galax 
hither, from Jussieu's undetermined genera, 420. 

Sect. 2. Fruit inferior, capsular or pulpy. CJiry- 
sosplenium and Adoxa. 

Sect. 3. Genera allied to Saxlfragce. Wdnmannia^ 
Cunonia, and Hydrangea. 

Mr. Brown proposes a new Order, Bot. of Terra 
Austr. 16, by the name of Cunoniacetf) to receive 
IVemmannia, Cunonia, Ceratopetalum, fig. 244, Ca- 
lycomis, and Codia, to which Bauera Sm. (Curt. Mag. 
t. 715) may be referred, but in a separate section. 

Ord. 85. CACTI. " Calyx superior, divided at the 
summit. Petals either definite or indefinite, inserted 
into the upper part of the Calyx. Stamens definite 
or indefinite, inserted into the same part. Germen 
inferior, simple. Style one. Stigma divided. Berry 
of I cell, with many Seeds inserted into it's sides. 
Stem shrubby or arborescent. Leaves alternate, often 
wanting." 

Sect. 1. Petals and Stamens definite. Ribes. 

Sect. 2. Pet. and Stam. indefinite. Cactus. 

This Order serves as a connecting link between 
Saxifrages and Portulacete, but the affinity between 
it's two Sections we must acknowledge to be rather 
slight. 

Ord. 86. PoitTULACEa;. " Calyx inferior, divided 
at the summit. Corolla of a definite number of Petals, 
rarely monopetalous or wanting, inserted into the 
base or middle of the Calyx, mostly alternate with. 



Cl. 14.] PICOIDE7E. 165 

it's segments, when the number of it's divisions agrees 

C3 * O 

therewith. Stamens definite, or rarely indefinite, in- 
serted into the same part. Germen simple. Styles 1, 
2, or 3, rarely wanting. Stigmas often numerous. Cap- 
sule of 1 or many cells, each containing 1 or many 
Seeds. Embryo incurved, surrounding a farinaceous, 
or somewhat fleshy, Albumen. Herbs or Shrubs of a 
succulent habit, rarely arboreous. Leaves opposite 
or alternate, often juicy." 

Sect. 1. Fruit of 1 cell. Portulaca, Talinum, Tur~ 
nera, BacopaAubl., Montia, fig. 247, Rokejeka Forsk., 
Tamarix, Telephium, Corrigiola, Scleranthus, and 
Gymnocarpus Forsk,, which last is certainly a Trian* 
thema. 

Sect. 2. Fruit of many cells. Trianthema, Limeum^ 
Claytonia, and Gisekia. 

This Order, in having petals, differs from the Po- 
lygonete, 28, much as the Caryophyll&S, 82, do from 
the Amaranthi, 30. 

Ord. 87. FICOIDE^E. " Calyx inferior or superior, 
of 1 leaf, in a definite number of segments. Petals 
mostly indefinite, inserted into the upper part of the 
Calyx, sometimes wanting, in which case the inside 
of the latter is coloured. Stamens more than 12, often 
very numerous, inserted into the same part. Anthers 
oblong, incumbent. Germen simple. Styles several. 
Stigmas as many. Capsule or Berry superior or in- 
ferior, of as many cells as there are Styles, with nu- 
merous Seeds in each, attached to the inner angle of 



16'6 ON AGILE. [Cl. 14. 

the cell. Embryo incurved, suiYounding a farinaceous 
Albumen. Stem herbaceous, or slightly shrubby. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, mostly succulent, very 
various in shape." 

Sect. 1. Germen superior. Reaumuria, Nitraria, 
Semvium, Aizoon, Glinus, and Orygia Forsk. 

Sect. 2. Germen inferior. Mesembryanthcmum y 
fig. 1248, and Tetragonia. 

Orel. 88. ONAGRJE. " Calyx superior, of 1 leaf, 
tubular; it's limb divided, either permanent or deci- 
duous. Petals definite, inserted into the upper part 
of the Calyx, alternate with it's segments. Stamens 
definite, inserted into the same part, either as many, 
or twice as many, as the Petals, rarely still more nu- 
merous. Germen simple. Style mostly solitary. 
Stigma either deeply divided, or undivided. Fruit cap- 
sular or pulpy, inferior, or rarely half-inferior, usually 
of many cells, with many Seeds in each, rarely of only 
1 cell ; sometimes crowned with the limb of the Ca- 
lyx, sometimes naked at the top. Embryo destitute 
of Albumen. Stem herbaceous or shrubby. Leaves 
alternate or opposite." 

Sect. 1 . Styles several. Intermediate genera, be- 
tween the Ficoidece and Onagra. Mocanera Juss. 
weflLinn. Suppl.), Vdfilia, and Haloragis Schreb. 
(Cercodea Soland. and Juss.). 

Sect. 2. Style 1. Fruit capsular. Stamens as many 
as the Petals. Montinia, Scrpicula, Circtea and Litd- 
ivigia. 



Cl. 14.] ONAGRI. 167 

Sect. 3. Style and Fr. the same. Stamens twice as 
many as the Petals. Jussitfa, Oenothera, Epilobium, 
fig. 249, Gaura, Cacoucia Aubl., Combretum, and 
Guiera Juss. Lam. Illustr. t. 360. 

Sect. 4. Style 1. Fr. pulpy. Akin to Myrti, but 
differing in their definite Stamens. Fuchsia, fig. 2.50, 
Petaloma Schreb. 802 (Mouriria Aubl.), Ophira, 
Bteckea, Memecylon, Jarnbolifera, Escallonia, Sirium 
and Santalum. 

Sect. 5. Polyandrous genera, akin to the Onagr&. 
Mentzdia and Loasa. 

Mr. Brown has established an Order, entitled Ha- 
lurage<e, Bot. of Terra Austr. 17, out of Haloragis, 
Meionectes, a New Holl. genus, Proserpinaca, My 
riophyllum, fig. 25 1 , Serpicula, Gonocarpus, Hippu- 
ris, fig. 252, and Callitriche. See Ord. 6, to which 
several of these, as being supposed monocotyledonousj 
because they are aquatics, were referred. Petaloma, 
Bceckea, Memecylon and Jambolif'era are indubitably 
Myrti. 

Combretacece, Brown Terra Austr. 16, another 
new Order, contains Nyssa, Combretum, Bucida, 
Termi?ialia,CacouciaAub\., Quisqualis, Getonla Roxb., 
Conocarpus, and a new decandrous genus with a winged 
fruit, found by the last-named botanist in the East 
Indies. These are, in many instances, furnished with 
Petals, and therefore must, in Jussieu's system, stand 
near the Onagrce, though allied to his E/aagni, and 
to the Santalacece of Brown. See Ord. 24. The Ger- 



168 MYRTI. [Cl. 14. 

men of the Combretaccte is of one cell, containing 
from 1 to 4 rudiments of Seeds, pendulous from the 
top of the cell, only one of which is perfected. Albu- 
men none. Cotyledons leafy, generally involute. Ra- 
dicle superior. Plumula inconspicuous. Stamens twice 
as many as the segments of the Calyx, or, if only the 
same number, alternate therewith. 

Ord. 89. MYRTI. "Calyx of 1 leaf, pitcher-shaped, 
or tubular, superior, or rarely only half-superior, either 
naked or with 2 scales at the base. Petals definite, 
inserted into the upper part of the Calyx, alternate 
with it's segments, and equal to them in number. Sta- 
mens indefinite" (in some definite), " inserted into the 
same part under the Petals. Anthers small, roundish, 
curved, bordering the dilated summit of each Filament. 
Germen simple, inferior, or occasionally half-inferior. 
Style 1. Stigma single, rarely divided. Fruit a Berry, 
Dm pa, or sometimes .a Capsule, of 1 or many cells, 
with 1 or many Seeds. Embryo straight or incurved, 
destitute of Albumen. Stem arboreous or shrubby, 
with usually opposite branches. Leaves mostly op- 
posite and simple, rarely alternate, very often marked 
with pellucid dots." 

Sect. 1 . Flowers axillary, either solitary, or on op- 
posite many-flowered stalks. Leaves generally oppo- 
site, and dotted. Alangium Lamarck, Dockcas, Me- 
laleuca, fig. 53-56, Leptospermum, Guapurium Juss., 
Psidiuniy Myrtus, Eugenia, Caryophyllus (which is 
an Eugenia), Decumaria, Pitnica, Philadelphia, Son- 



Cl. 14.] MELASTOM7E. 1 69 

neratia, Ftttidia Commers. Lamarck Illustr. t. 419, 
Cating-aAubl.nnd Eucalyptus, fig. 253, L'Herit. To 
these are to be added Calyptranthes Swartz Ind. Occ. 
917, B&ckea, to which Mr. Brown refers Jungia of 
Gaertn. t. 35 (Lnbricaria Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 3. 
257), Fabricia Gaertn., Mcmecylon and Jambolifera, 
as well as Mr. Brown's new genera from Australasia, 
Triotaniffj Calothamnus, BeaufortiaA.it. H. Kew.v. 4. 
4 1 8, Callistemon, Eudesmia Bot. Terr. Austr. t. 3. 

Sect. 2. Flowers clustered, alternate. Leaves ge- 
nerally alternate, and not dotted. Barringtonia (Bu- 
tonica Juss.), Stravadmm Juss., Gustavia, Couroupita 
Aubl., and Lccythis. 

The first Section constitutes, for the most part, 
a very natural family of aromatic and elegant trees or 
shrubs, in which New Holland is remarkably rich, 
Mr. Brown having found there considerably above 20d 
species, nearly 100 of which compose the genus Eu- 
calyptus. Alangium belongs rather to the 2d Section, 
and Dodecas, as Jussieu suspected, to the Salicarice, 
Ord.91. 

Ord. 90. MELASTOM.E. " Calyx of 1 leaf, tubular, 
superior or inferior, sometimes surrounded by scales 
at the base. Petals definite, inserted into the top of 
the Calyx, alternate with it's segments, and equal to 
them in number. Stamens inserted into the same 
part, definite, twice as many as the Petals ; the apex 
of each Filament, under the Anther, generally fur- 
nished with a pair of bristles, or auricles. Anthers 



170 SALIC ARI2E. [Cl. 14'. 

long, beaked at the point, attached by the base to the 
very top of each Filament, and in an early stage 
drooping, from the incurvation of the Filament, but 
afterwards erect" (large and conspicuous). " Germen 
either superior, closely covered by the Calyx, or in- 
ferior. Style 1 . Stigma single. Fruit pulpy, or cap- 
sular ; if superior, concealed by the narrow-mouthed 
Calyx ; if inferior, becoming confluent with the en- 
larged or pulpy Calyx ; of many cells, with many 
Seeds in each. Albumen wanting? Stem somewhat 
arboreous or shrubby, more rarely herbaceous. Leaves 
opposite, simple, with 3 or more longitudinal ribs. 
Flowers opposite, axillary or terminal, one or many 
on a. Stalk." 

Sect. 1. Germen inferior. Blakca, fig. 254, Mda- 
stoma, and Tristemma Juss. 

Sect. 2. Germen superior. Topobea, Tibouchina, 
Mai/eta, and Tococa, all genera of Aublet's, with 
Osbechla and Rhe.ria. 

A very handsome Order, mostly remarkable for 
the size and beauty of the Anthers. Osbeckia has 
been much increased by the discoveries of Dr. A. Af- 
zelius at Sierra Leone ; see Sm. in Rees's Cyclop. 
v. 25. The 4 or 5 deciduous teeth of the Calyx, ac- 
companied by intermediate scales, best distinguish 
this genus from Rhexia, whose teeth are permanent 
and simple. 

Ord. 91. SALICAHUE. " Calyx tubular, or pitcher- 
shaped. Petals definite, inserted into the top of the 



Cl. 14.] ROSACE JK. 171 

Calyx, alternate with it's segments, sometimes want- 
ing. Stamens definite, except in Lagerstromla and 
Munchausia, as many, or twice as many, as the Petals, 
inserted into the middle part of the Calyx. Anthers 
small. Germen simple, superior. Style 1. Stigma often 
capitate. Capsule surrounded by the Calyx, of 1 or 
many cells, with many Seeds, inserted into a central 
Receptacle. Albumen none. Stem shrubby or herba- 
ceous. Leaves opposite or alternate. Flowers axillary 
or terminal." 

Sect. 1. Flowers with several Petals. Lagtrsfromia, 
Munchausia, Pemphis, Ginoria, Grisltea, Lawsonia, 
Crenea Aubl. and Ly thrum, fig. 255, with Adsan- 
tkera, Parsonsia and Cuphea of Browne's Jamaica. 

Sect. 2. Flowers often without Petals. Isnardia, 
Ammannia, Glait.r t and Peplis, to which Rotala is to 
be added. 

Orel. 92. ROSACEJE. " Calyx either superior and 
tubular, or inferior, pitcher-shaped, or wheel-shaped, 
usually permanent ; it's limb generally divided. Pe- 
tals definite, mostly 5, inserted into the top of the 
Calyx, alternate with it's segments, sometimes wanting. 
Stamens indefinite, rarely definite, inserted into the 
same part under the Petals. Anthers often roundish. 
Germen either simple and inferior, with, for the most 
part, numerous Styles and Stigmas; or superior, either 
simple, with 1 Style, or several with as many Styles ; 
the Styles always originating from the side of each 
Germen. Structure of the Fruit various : in some 



172 ROSACES. [Cl. 14. 

an Apple, Pomum (61 : 5), inferior, and of many cells; 
or the urn-shaped inferior body of the Calyx is con- 
tracted at it's mouth over the numerous Seeds ; in 
some the Seeds, or Pericarps of one cell generally 
single-seeded, whether indefinite or definite, are su- 

C5 ' 

perior, being placed on a Common Receptacle ; in 
others the Capsule is solitary, superior, of 1 cell, or 
the Nut, likewise superior, contains 1 or 2 Seeds, and 
is either naked, or clothed with a " (more or less) 
" fleshy coat. Scar of the Seed beneath the summit 
at one side, connected with a cord arising from the 
base of the Pericarp. Embryo straight, without any 
Albumen. Stem herbaceous, shrubby, or arboreous. 
Leaves alternate, simple, or compound, with Sti^ 
pulas." 

Sect. 1. Pomaces. Germen single, inferior. Styles 
several. Apple of several cells, umbilicated with the 
border of the Calyx. Trees or Shrubs. Malus, Pyrus, 
and Cydonia of Tournefort and Jussieu, all included 
most naturally under Pyrus by Linnzeus ; Mespilus t 
fig. 18, 19, Crattfgus, and Sorbus. 

Sect. 2. RosfE. Germens indefinite, in the pitcher- 
shaped body of the Calyx, each with 1 Style. Seeds 
as many. Shrubs. Rosa, fig. 256, 257. 

Sect. 3. Sanguisorba. Germens definite, rarely sin- 
gle, in the pitcher-shaped body of the Calyx, each 
with 1 Style. Seeds as many. Stem herbaceous in 
general ; some without Petals, some with definite Sta- 
mens, some with separated Flowers. Poterium, San- 



Cl. 14.] fcOSACEJE. 173 

guisorba, Ancistrum Forst., which is the same genus 
with Accena, Agrimoma, Neurada, probably more 
akin, as Jussieu thinks, to the Ficoidece, Ord. 87, Clif- 
fortia, Aphanes, Alchemilla and Sibbaldia, fig. 258. . 

Sect. 4. P&tentillce. Germens indefinite, truly su- 
perior, on a Common Receptacle, each with 1 Style. 
Seeds as many, naked, or rarely pulpy. Herbs, rarely 
shrubby. Torment ilia, Potentilla, Fragaria, fig. 259, 
Corn-arum, Geum, Dryas and Rubus. 

Sect. 5. Spires. Germens several, definite, supe- 
rior, each with 1 Style. Capsules as many, with 1 or 
more Seeds. Shrubs, rarely Herbs. Spircza, fig. 260, 
Suriana and Tetracera (see next Section). 

Sect. 6. Prockite. Gennen 1, superior, with 1 Style. 
Fruit of 1 cell, with 1 or many Seeds. Trees or Shrubs, 
sometimes wanting Petals. Tigarea Aubl., and De- 
llma (these with Tetracera, of which Tigarea is a spe- 
cies, belong to DeCandolte's Dillemacea, see Ord. 75) 
Prockia and Hirtella. 

Sect. 7. Amygdalae. Germen 1, superior, with 1 
Style. Nut with 1 or 2 Seeds, naked, or more fre- 
quently drupaceous. Trees and Shrubs. Hedycrea 
Schreb. 160 (Licania Aubl.), Grangcria Commers. 
Lamarck Illustr. t. 427, Chrysobalanus, Primus, 
fig. 261 (from which Jussieu, like Tournefort, divides 
Cerasus SindArmetiiaca), Amygdalus, Moquika Aubl., 
Couepia Aubl., Ada Schreb. 458 (Acioa Aubl.), and 
Petrocarya Schreb. 245 (Par'marium Aubl.). 

Sect. 8. Genera allied to Rosaccfe. Plinia, Ca- 



174 LEGUMINOS&. [Cl. 14. 

lijcanthus, Ludia, Commers. Lamarck Illustr. t. 466 T 
Blackwellia Commers. Lam. t. 412, Homaliitm, and 
Napimoga Aubl. (The three last are probably one ge- 
nus, to which the name of Homalium must belong.) 

To the 5th Section of Rosace<e are to be added 
Prof. DeCandolle's Kerria and Pitrshia, Tr. of Linn. 
Soc. v. 12. 1.52. The former is that elegant Japanese 
shrub, commonly called Corchorus japonicus ; which 
is also Rubus japonicus of Linnaeus. The latter is 
Tigarea tridentata, Pursh N. Amer. 333. t. 1.5, very 
distinct from the real Tigarea, which is, as above said, 
a Tetracera. 

A new Section must, it seems, be made to admit 
the Cephalotm of Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. v. 2. 7. 
t. 145, so admirably illustrated by Mr. Brown and 
Mr. Bauer, Bot. of Terra Austr. 68. t. 4. This has a 
coloured Calyx, in 6 segments, whose aestivation is 
valvular; no Petals. Twelve Stamens, inserted into 
the Calyx. Anthers glandular at the back. Six di- 
stinct Gennens, with terminal Styles, and solitary 
erect Seeds. The great peculiarity of the herb consists 
in it's large radical water-pitchers, interspersed among 
the Leaves, each closed by a lid, as in Nepenthes. 

Ord. 93. LEGUMINOS&, fig. 40-47, and 262, 266. 
" Calyx of 1 leaf, fig. 43, variously divided. Corolla 
polypetalous, very rarely monopetalous, or wanting, 
inserted into the upper part of the Calyx, below it's 
segments. Petals 5, sometimes fewer, either regular 
and nearly equal ; or more commonly 4, irregular 



Cl. 14.]. LEGUMIXOSJE. 175 

butterfly-shaped, whence the flower in question is 
termed papilionaceous ; the uppermost and exterior 
Petal being termed the Standard (VeJeithttn^ fig. 44), 
which half embraces the rest, and is in general the 
largest of all ; the 2 lateral ones are called wings 
(Ala, fig. 45) ; the lowermost the Keel (Carina, fig. 46), 
which is sometimes divided, or composed of 2 equal Pe- 
tals. Stamens 10, fig. 40-42, rarely fewer or more, in- 
serted into the Calyx beneath the Petals, their Fila- 
ments either quite distinct, fig. 262, or combined slightly 
at the very base only, or more frequently diadelphous, 
fig. 263, 9 of them being united into a tube, cloven 
lengthwise under the Standard, to whose fissure the 
tenth is closely applied ; or sometimes the 10 are all 
united into 1 undivided tube, so as to be really mona- 
delphous, fig. 41. Anthers distinct, generally roundish 
and small ; sometimes oblong and incumbent. Gor- 
men, fig. 47, simple, superior "(often stalked). "Style 
1 . Stigma 1 . Fruit in a few instances capsular, of 
1 cell, and generally 1 Seed, either of 2 valves, or 
none at all; in the greater number leguminous, whence 
the name of the Order, elongated, of 2 valves, of 3 in 
Moringa, and of 4 in a few of the Mimosa tribe " 
(Schrankia, Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. 1041); "some- 
times of 1 cell, with 1 or more Seeds ; sometimes of 
many cells, divided by transverse partitions, the single- 
seeded cells being occasionally pulpy. The Seeds are 
inserted into one of the lateral sutures. In those with 
polypetalous irregular Flowers, the Radicle is bent 



176 LEGUMINOS^. [Cl. 14. 

over the Cotyledons, without any separate Albumen; 
in -those with regular ones, the Embryo is enfolded in 
a thickish membranous Albumen, and the Radicle is 
straight. The Cotyledons usually rise in the form of 
seminal leaves, like the generality of dicotyledonous 
plants ; sometimes they remain below, distinct from 
the first Leaves. Stem herbaceous, shrubby, or ar- 
boreous, for the most part alternately branched. Leaves 
with Stipulas, alternate, in a very few imperfectly op- 
posite, sor.jetimes simple, more generally ternate, or 
digitate, or once or repeatedly pinnate. Inflorescence 
various." 

Such are the marks of this great natural Order, 
which has no relationship at all to the last, in cha- 
racters or properties, as far as I can perceive, though 
Jussieu hints at an affinity between those with regular 
Flowers, and some of the monogynous Rosacets. The 
difficulties attending the papilionaceous tribe, with 
respect to their being referred to the Linnaean class 
Diaddphia, have already been explained, p. 48. Jus- 
sieu's Sections labour under the very same exceptions. 

Sect. 1. Corolla regular. Legume generally bivalve, 
of many single- seeded cells, with transverse partitions. 
Stamens distinct. Trees or Shrubs, with abruptly- 
pinnate Leaves. Mimosa (now subdivided by Willde- 
now), Gleditsia, Gymnocladus Lamarck, Schreb. 696, 
Macrolobhim Schreb. 30 (Outea Aubl.), Ceratonia y 
Tamar Indus, Parkimonia, SchotiaJa.cc[., and Cassia. 

Sect. <2. Cor. regular. Legume of 1 cell and 2 



Cl. 14.] LEGUMINOS^. 177 

valves. Stam. 10, distinct. Trees or Shrubs, with 
abruptly pinnate Leaves, except the first genus. Mo- 
ringa Schreb. 741, Prosopis, Htematoxylum, Di- 
morpha Schreb. 493 (Eperua Aubl.), Cubaa Schreb. 
278 (Tachigalia Aubl.), Adenanthera, Poinciana, 
CcEsalpinia and Guilandina. 

Sect. 3. Cor. slightly irregular. Stamens distinct, 
or only connected at the bottom. Legume of 1 cell 
and 2 valves. Trees or Shrubs, with abruptly-pinnate 
Leaves, sometimes only either conjugate, or simple. 
JDipieryx Schreb. 485 (Taralea Aubl.), Dimorpha 
Schreb. 493 (Parivoa Aubl.), Vouapa Aubl. (united 
with Outea by Schreber, under his Macrolobium, see 
Sect. 1.), Cynomefra, Hymencsa, Bauhinia, and Gi- 
nannia Schreb. 271 (Palovea Aubl.). 

Sect. 4. Cor. irregular, papilionaceous (sometimes 

R incomplete). Stam. distinct, or rarely combined at the 
base. Legume of 1 cell and 2 valves. Trees or Shrubs. 
Leaves simple, or ternate, or pinnate with an odd 
leaflet. Cercis, Rittera Schreb. 364 (Possira Aubl.), 
dnagyris, Sophora, Midler a, and Coublandia Aubl. 
This Section has received a great addition of new 
genera, not only by the unavoidable subdivision of 
Sophora, from which Edwardsift, Ormosia, Thennopsis 
Br., Virgilia Lamarck, Cydopia and Baptisia Ven- 
tenat, and Podalyria Lamarck, have been taken ; 
but still more by the discovery of many, previously 
entirely undescribed, in New Holland. Of these Pul- 
ten&a, Aotus, Gompholobium, Chorizema Labill., Da- 

N 



178 LEGUMINOS^. [Cl. 14. 

viesia, Viminaria, fig. 262, Sph&rolobium, Dillwynia, 
and Mlrbelia (the last having a Legume divided length- 
wise, by the inflexion of it's valves), were first defined 
in Sims and Kon. Ann. of Bot. v. 1. Mr. Brown has 
added the following, in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. 
Podolobium, Ovylobium, Brachysema, Burtonia, Jack- 
sonia, Eutaxia, SckrothamnuSj Gastrolobium, and 
Euchilus. 

Sect. 5. Cor. papilionaceous. Stam. 10, diadelphous 
(more or less correctly, as already mentioned). Le- 
gume of 1 cell and 2 valves. Shrubs or Herbs. With 
simple or ternate, rarely digitate, sometimes pinnate, 
Leaves. Stipulas more or less evident, united or not 
to each Footstalk. Ulex^ fig. 41, Aspalathus, Bor- 
bonia, Liparia, Genista (including Spartium, fig. 40), 
Cytisus, Crotalaria, Lupinus, Ononis, Arachis, An- 
thyllis, Dalea, Psoralea, Trifolium, Melilotus Tourn., 
Medicago, Trigonella, Lotus, Dolichos, Phaseolus, 
Erythrina, Clitorla, and Glycine. This Section has 
also received additions from New Holland, Platylo- 
bium, Bossiaa, Hovea Br., Callistachya Venten., Scot- 
tia Br., Templetonia Br., Kennedia Venten., Goodia 
Salisb. ; and Loddigesia Sims ; as well as from the 
Cape of Good Hope, Lebeckia, Wiborgia, Oedman- 
nia, Rafnia, Hypocalyptus, Sarcophyllus, and Hallia 
Thunb. ; also from the East Indies Butea and Fie- 
mingia of Roxburgh. 

Sect. 6. Cor. Stain, and Legume as the last. Herbs, 
Shrubs, or Trees. Leaves pinnate with an odd one. 



CL 14.] LBGUMrXOSJC. 179 

{Astragalus and Biserrula have a Legume of 2 cells.) 
Abrus, Amorpha, Piscidia, Robinia, Caragana Van 
Royen, Astragalus, fig. 263, Biserrula, Phaca, Co- 
lutea, Glycyrrhiza, Galega,and Indigo/era. To these 
Swainsonia Salisb., Sutherlandia Br., and Lessertia 
DeCand. may be added. 

Sect. 7. Cor. Stam. and Legume as the last. Herbs. 
Leaves pinnate, or conjugate, rarely obliterated ; their 
common Footstalk ending in a Tendril or Bristle. 
Stipulas distinct from that Stalk. Lathyrus, Pisum, 
fig. 42-47, Orobus, Vicia, Faba Tourn., Ervum and 
Cicer. 

Sect. 8. Cor. and Stam. the same. Legume of 
single-seeded joints. Herbs or Shrubs, rarely Trees. 
Leaves simple or ternate, or more frequently pinnate 
with an odd one. Stipulas distinct from the Foot- 
stalk. Scorpiurus, Ornithopus, Hippocrepis, Coronilla, 
Hedysarum, Aeschynomene, with Diphysa Jacq., to 
which may be added Smlthia, Dryand. in Ait. Hort. 
Kew. 

Sect. 9- Cor. the same. Stam. mostly 10, diadel- 
phous. Legume capsular, often not bursting, of 1 
cell, and usually 1 Seed. Trees or Shrubs. Leaves 
generally pinnate with an odd leaflet. Stipulas di- 
stinct from the Footstalk, soon deciduous. Dalbergia, 
Amerimnon Browne, Galedupa Lamarck (Pu?iga?nia 
Lam. lllustr. t. 603), Andira Lam., Geoffroea, De- 
guelia Aubl., -Nissolia, Dipteryv Schreb. 485 (Cou- 
marouna Aubl.), Acouroa Aubl., and Pterocarpus. 

1ST 2 



180 TEREBINTACE&. [01. 14. 

Sect. 10. Cor. irregular, sometimes wan ting. Stam. 
10, distinct. Legume capsular, generally not burst- 
ing, of 1 cell, and mostly 1 Seed. Trees or Shrubs. 
Leaves either pinnate with an odd one, or simple. 
Stipulas like the last. Crudia Schreb. 282 (Apalatoa 
Aubl.), Detarium Juss., Copaifera and Myroxylum 
(Myrospermum Jacq.). 

Sect. 1 1 . Four Genera akin to Legumlnoscs. Securi- 
dvca, which might be removed to the 9th, and Brow- 
nea to the 2nd Section. Zygia Browne, an obscure 
plant of the Mimosa family, and Aruna Schreb. 26 
(Arouna Aubl.). 

Mr. Brown has well divided the Leguminosce into 
3 Orders, Mimosece, Lomentacea, and Papilionacete. 
Bot. of Terra Austr. 19. 

Orel 94. TEREBINTACE^E. " Calyx of 1 leaf, in- 
ferior, in a definite number of segments. Petals defi- 
nite, rarely wanting, inserted into the bottom of the 
Calyx, as many as it's segments, and alternate there- 
with, Stamens as many, alternate with the Petals, 
or twice as many, inserted into the same spot. Ger- 
mens either single, or of a determinate number: 
in the former case there is either 1 Style, rarely want- 
ing, with a simple or divided Stigma ; or many Styles 
with as many Stigmas ; and a capsular, sometimes 
pulpy, or drupaceous, Fruit, of one or many single- 
seeded cells : in those with several Germens, there are 
as many single Styles and Stigmas ; with the same 
number of distinct single-seeded Capsules. Seeds 



Cl. 14.] TEREBINTACE^. 181 

generally lodged in a bony Nut. Albumen none. 
Radicle lateral, reflexed upon the Cotyledons. Stem 
arboreous or shrubby. Leaves alternate, without 
Stipulas, either simple, or ternate, or pinnate with an 
odd leaflet." 

Sect. 1. Germen 1. Fruit of 1 cell, with 1 Seed. 
Anacardium (Gasswoiwn Humph, and Juss.), Semecar- 
pus, fig. 264 (Anacardium Juss.), Mangifcra, Conna- 
rus, Rhus,'dnd Robergia Schreb. 309 (Rourea Aubl.). 

Sect. 2. Germen 1. Fruit of many cells, some of 
which are sometimes abortive. Cneorum, Rumphia, 
Comocladia, Canarium, Idea Aubl., Amy r is, Scopolia 
Sm., ScJunus, Spathelia, Pistacia (TirebinthusTourn. 
and Juss.), Bur sera, Toluifera, Jonquetia Schreb. 
(Tapiria Aubl.), Poupartia Commers. (Mangifera 
pinnata Linn. Suppl. 156.), and Spondias. 

Sect. 3. Germens several. Fruit of several sin- 
gle-seeded Capsules. Zwingera Schreb. 802 (Sima- 
ba Aubl.), Aylanthus Desfont., and Brucea. 

Sect. 4. Genera akin to Terebintacea, differing in 
having a fleshy Albumen, which approaches them to 
the Rhamni. Cnestis Juss. Lam. Illustr. t. 387. ; 
Fagara and Xanthoxylum (genuine Rutacece, see 
Ord. 81.); and Pteka. 

Sect. 5. Genera akin to Terebintacece, destitute of 
a fleshy Albumen. Dodon&a, A-cerrhoa, Juglans (all 
surely very remotely allied to this order, or to each 
other !). 



182 ItHAMXI. [Cl. 14. 

Ord. 95. RIIAMXT. " Calyx inferior, of one leaf, 
definitely divided at the border. Petals <5, rarely 4 
or 6, very rarely wanting, inserted either into the up- 
per part of the Calyx, or into it's disk, alternate with 
the segments and equal to them in number, some- 
times resembling scales, and furnished with claws, 
sometimes dilated and joined at the base. Stamens 
as many, inserted into the same part, either alternate 
with, or opposite to, the Petals. Germen superior, 
encompassed with the glandular disk of the Calyx. 
Style ] , or several. Stigma 1 or more. Fruit either 
pulpy, of many cells, or with many Nuts, each cell or 
Nut containing 1 Seed ; or capsular, of many cells 
and many valves, with central partitions, each cell 
having 1 or 2 Seeds. Embryo flat and straight, lodg- 
ed in a fleshy Albumen. Stem arboreous or shrubby. 
Leaves alternate or opposite, with, often very minute, 
Stipulas." 

Sect. 1. Stamens alternate with the Petals. Fruit 
capsular. Staphylea, Euonymus, fig. 265, Polycardia 
Juss. Lam. Illustr. t. 132, and Celastrus. 

Sect. 2. Stam. as above. Fruit pulpy. Myginda, 
Glossopetalum Schr. 205 (Goupia Aubl.), Rubentia 
Commers., Cassfne, Ilex and Prinos. (Sclirehera of 
Linnasus, placed here, is an error, the plant described 
being a Cuscuta on a Myrica !) 

The greater part of these 2 Sections composes Mr. 
Brown's new Order of Celaslrince, Hot. of Terra 



Cl. 14.] RHAMNI. 183 

Austr. 22. The Aestivation of their Calyx is imbri- 
cated. Seeds tunicated. 

Sect. 3. Stam. opposite to the Petals. Fruit dru- 
paceous. Mayepea Aubl., Samara, Rhamnus, fig. 266, 
Ziziphus, and Paliurus. 

Sect. 4. Stam. the same. Fruit 3-lobed. Colletia 
Commers. Lam. Illustr. t. 129, Ccanothus, Hovenia 
Thunb., and Phylica. 

These 2 last Sections chiefly contain Mr. Brown's 
true RhammtE, the Aestivation of whose Calyx is val- 
vular, and it's tube coheres more or less with the Ger- 
inen. He admits here Rhamnus, Ziziphus, Paliurus, 
Ceanothus, (from which last, as he justly says, Poma- 
derris is hardly distinct,) Colletia, Crypt andra Sm., 
Phylica, Gouania, Vcntilago Gsertn., and probably 
Hovenia. 

Another Order of Mr. Brown's, named Buttne- 
riacecE;, Bot. of Terra Austr. 8, is allied on one hand 
to Rhamnete, on the other to MalcacecB. To this be- 
long Abroma, Commersonia, Lasiopctalum, fig. 267, 
and several unpublished genera. 

Sect. 5. Akin to Rhamni, generally with a superior 
Germen. Brunia, and Thunberg's Bumalda. 

Sect. 6. Akin to Rhamni, but differing in their in- 
ferior Germen. Gouania, see Sect. 4, Plectronia, 
Carpodetus Forst., Aucuba Thunb., Glossoma Schrcb. 
792 (Votomita Aubl.). 



184 EUPHORBIA. [Cl. 15. 

CLASS 15. DlCOTYLKDONES, WITHOUT PETALS. 

STAMENS SEPARATED; that is, in a different 
Flower from the Pistils. 

" Flowers either monoecious (65) or dioecious, or very 
rarely united. Calyx in each of one leaf, or a scale 
in it's stead. Corolla none, but sometimes there 
are scales, or inner segments of the Calyx, assuming 
the appearance of Petals. The Barren Flowers 
have Stamens inserted into some part of the Calyx, 
or of the Scale supplying it's place, definite, or more 
rarely indefinite, their Filaments either distinct, or 
sometimes united into a stalk proceeding from the 
centre of the Calyx. Germen of the Fertile ones 
simple, or sometimes several, superior, or rarely in- 
ferior. Style 1 , or more, or occasionally wanting. 
Stigma simple or divided. Fruit various in struc- 
ture, as well as in the number of it's cells" 

Ord. 96. EUPHORBIA. "Flowers monoecious or 
dioecious, rarely united. Calyx of each tubular, or 
deeply divided, single or double, the inner segments 
sometimes assuming the aspect of Petals, nor are there 
any other. Barren Flowers with Stamens definite or 
indefinite, their Filaments inserted into the centre of 
the Calyx, separate or combined, sometimes branch- 
ed, sometimes jointed. In some instances there are 
chaffy scales interspersed between the Stamens. Fer- 
tile Flowers with 1 Germen, which is superior, cither 



Cl. 15.] EUPHORBL7E. 1 &5 

sessile or stalked. Some have several Styles, often 3, 
and a Capsule with as many cells, with 1 or 2 Seeds 
in each : others have only 1 Style, with 3 or more 
Stigmas, and a Fruit of a corresponding number of 
cells, each containing 1 or 2 Seeds. The cells are 
each lined with 2 elastic valves ; the Seeds half-tuni- 
cated, attached to the upper part of a permanent cen- 
tral column. Embryo flat, inclosed in a fleshy Al- 
bumen. Plants herbaceous, shrubby, or arboreous; 
some milky. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely 
wanting, either with or without Stipulas." 

Sect. 1. Styles several, definite, usually 3. Mcrcu- 
rialisj Euphorbia, fig. 268, Argythamnia Browne, 
Cicca, Phyllantlius, Xylophylla, Kirgandia Juss., 
Kiggelaria, Cluytia, Andrachne, Agyneia, Bu.rus, 
fig. 269, Securinega Commers., Adelia, Mabea Aubl., 
RicimiSy Jatropha, Siphonia Schreb. 656 (Hevea 
Aubi.,, Akurltes (including Dryandra of Thunberg), 
Croton, A^nlijpha, Caturus, and Excoecaria. 

Sect. 2. Style solitary. Tragia, Stillingia, Saplum 
Browne, Hippomane, Aegopricon (Maprounea Aubl.), 
Sechium Browne, Hura, Omphalea, Plukenetia (which 
has certainly Stipulas), and Dakchampia. 

Jussieu has hinted an ingenious idea respecting the 
genus Euphorbia, which Mr. Brown, Bot. of Terra 
Austr. 24, has fully developed, that the Flowers, even 
in this instance, are monoecious. The Calyx and 
petals of Linna3us are considered by these writers as 
an Jnvolucrum, containing several Barren Flowers, 



186 CUCURBITACE2H. [Cl.15. 

around a solitary fertile one. But Mr. Brown alone 
has asserted each of the former to consist of a mere 
Stamen, articulated with the partial Stalk of this sim- 
plest of all Flowers, there being no Corolla nor Pe- 
rianth, the Scales at the base being rather of the na- 
ture of Bracteas. The Fertile Flower in the centre is, 
in like manner, a naked Pistil, whose Germen is sessile 
on a similar Stalk. If conviction were wanting, this 
opinion is proved by an unpublished genus, whose se- 
veral Flowers have each a lobed Perianth at the arti- 
culation above mentioned. 

Ord.97. CUCURBITACE^E. "Flowers monoecious, 
rarely dioecious, or still more rarely, in Gronovia and 
Melotkria, united. Calyx (Corolla Tourn. and Linn?) 
superior, contracted just above the Germen, then di- 
lated, five-cleft, often coloured, withering, slow in 
falling, furnished externally at the base with 5 green 
appendages (Calyx Tourn. and Linn.} resembling 
outer segments of the Calyx, and falling with it. Co- 
rolla" (according to Jussieu) " none. Barren Flow- 
ers with usually five, sometimes distinct, and some- 
times variously combined, Filaments and Anthers ; 
the former inserted into the contracted |wt of the 
Calyx ; the latter of 1 cell, oblong, attached to the 
tops of the Filaments, and often forming a doubly 
curved line, 4 of them being combined in pairs, the 
fifth solitary. There is an imperfect or abortive Ger- 
men. Fertile Flowers with imperfect Stamens, or 
none at all. Germen inferior. Style 1, rarely more. 



Cl. 15.] CUCURBITACEJE. 187 

Stigmas generally several. Fruit a Berry, with usually 
a solid coat, of 1 cell, with 1 or numerous Seeds, or 
of several many-seeded cells. Seeds cartilaginous or 
crustaceous, inserted into lateral, or cortical, Recep- 
tacles. Embryo flat, without Albumen. Root mostly 
tuberous. Stem herbaceous, trailing, or climbing. 
Leaves alternate, simple, heartshaped or palmate, 
rarely digitate'' (or very deeply lobed), "often harsh 
with callous points. Tendrils axillary. Flowerstalks 
axillary, simple or many-flowered." 

Sect. 1. Style 1. Fruit of 1 cell, single-seeded. Gro- 
novia and Sicyos. 

Sect. 2. Style 1. Fr. of 1 cell, with many Seeds. 
Bryonia, fig. 270, and Elaterium. 

Sect. 3. Style 1. Fr. of many cells, with many 
Seeds. Melothria, Anguria, Momordica^ Cucumis, 
Cucurbita, Trichosanthes, and Ceratosanthes Burm. 

Sect. 4. Styles several. Doubtful Cucurbitacece. 
Feuillea and Zanonia. 

Sect. 5. Genera akin to Cucurbitacece, but espe- 
cially different in having a superior Germen. Passi- 
flora, fig. 271, from which Jussieu separates, surely 
without sufficient grounds, Murucuia and Tacsonia, 
(the latter distinguished by it's tubular Calyx, which 
serves at least to show that this Order has a real Ca- 
lyx and Corolla,) and Carica (Papaya Juss.). 

The Modecca (a barbarous name) of Rheede Hort. 
Malab, v. 8. t. 20-23, mentioned by Jussieu under 



188 URTICJE. [Cl. 15. 

Passiflora, is doubtless a very distinct genus, with a 
coloured, bell-shaped Calyx, and fringed, deeply 
5-cleft, Corolla. I would call it Blepharanthes, to pre- 
serve an analogy with Trichosanthes. A species of 
this genus, brought by Dr. Afzelius from Sierra Leone, 
flowered, many years since, in Sir Abraham Hume's 
stove, and I believe is still growing there. Zucca of 
Commerson likewise appears to be a distinct genus, 
which cannot be settled for want of the Fruit. 

Ord. 98. URTICJE. " Flowers monoecious or dioe- 
cious, rarely united. Calyx, in every instance, of 
1 leaf, divided. Corolla none. Barren Flowers with 
definite Stamens, inserted into the lower part of the 
Calyx, opposite to it's segments. Fertile Flowers 
with a single superior Germen. Style either wanting, 
or 1 or 2, often lateral. Stigmas often 2. Seed 1, 
inclosed either in a brittle crust, or a tunic, either 
naked, or covered with the sometimes pulpy Calyx. 
Embryo straight or incurved, destitute of Albumen. 
Trees, Shrubs, or Herbs, sometimes milky. Leaves 
alternate or opposite, generally with Stipulas. Flow- 
ers either solitary, racemose, or assembled many to- 
gether on a catkin-like Receptacle, or concealed more 
or less in a single-leaved common Involucrum. Fruit 
sometimes many-seeded, from the assemblage of nu- 
merous Seeds in one aggregate, or confluent, Involu- 
crum or Receptacle." 

Sect. 1. Flowers concealed in a Common Involu- 



Cl. 15.] AMENTACE.E. 189 

crum, of 1 leaf. Ficus, fig. 92-95, Mithridatea Schreb. 
783 (Ambora Juss.), Dorstenia, fig. 272, Hcdycaria 
Forst. and Perebea Aubl. 

Sect. 2. Flowers either on a many-flowered com- 
mon Receptacle, or capitate and accompanied by in- 
volucral scales, or distinct and scattered. Cecropia, 
Artocarpus, Morus, Elatostema Forst.. Boehmeria 
Jacq. (Caturus Linn.), Procris Commers. Lam. II- 
lustr. t. 763, Urtica, fig. 273, Forskalea, Parietaria, 
Pteranthus T?orsk.(Louichea Schreb. 840.), Humulus, 
fig. 274, Cannabis, and Thelygonum. To these are 
to be added Brosimum, Swartz Ind. Occ. 15. t. 1, An- 
tiaris, Br. Bot. of Terra Austr. 70. t. 5, and Olme- 
dia,\. Peruv. 118. 

Sect. 3. Genera allied to Urtica. Gunner a, Mi- 
sandra Commers. perhaps the same genus, Piper, 
Ghetum (including Thoa, see Sm. in Rees's Cycl. 
v. 16), Bagassa Aubl., Coussapoa Aubl., and Pourou- 
ma Aubl., the 3 last very imperfectly known. 

Ord. 99- AMENTACE^. " Flowers monoecious or 
dioecious, rarely united, all destitute of Petals. Bar- 
ren ones disposed in a Catkin, furnished with scales, 
which, if there be no other Calyx, bear the Stamens ; 
or, otherwise, are each accompanied by a single-leaved 
Calyx, fig. 89, into which the Stamens are inserted. 
Stamens definite or indefinite, with distinct Filaments. 
Fertile Flowers either in Catkins, or fasciculated, or 
solitary, each furnished either with a single-leaved 
Calyx, fig. 82-84, or only with a scale. Gerinen su- 



190 CONIFERS* [Cl. 15. 

perior, fig. 83, 84, 91, either single, or more rarely 
several, in a definite number. Style 1, fig. 83, or 
more. Stigmas often several, fig. 91. Seeds either 
naked, or inclosed in as many Capsules as there are 
Germens, each mostly of 1 cell, sometimes coriaceous, 
sometimes bony. Embryo without Albumen; the 
Radicle straight. Stem arboreous, or shrubby, seldom 
of humble stature, fig. 84-87. Leaves, fig. 80, 85, 87, 
alternate, with Stipulas, mostly simple." 

Sect. 1. Flowers (imperfectly) united. Fothergilla, 
UlmuSy and Celtis. 

Sect. 2. Fl. dioecious. Saliv, fig. 85-87, Populus, 
fig. 88-91, and Myrica. 

Sect. 3. Fl. monoecious. Betula, Alnus, Comp. 
Fl. Brit. 133, Carpinus, Fagus, Quercus, fig. 80-84, 
Corylus, Liquidambar, Comptonia Schreb. 811, and 
Platanus. 

Between this Order and the following may be in- 
troduced the Casuarinea, founded by Mirbel, and 
adopted by Mr. Brown, Bot. of Terra Austr. 39, 
solely for the New Holland genus Casuarina. 

Ord. 100. CONIFERS. " Flowers monoecious or 
dioecious. Barren ones mostly amentaceous, or col- 
lected into a Catkin, each furnished with a Scale, 
and sometimes also a Calyx, either the Calyx or the 
Scale bearing the Stamens, which are either definite 
or indefinite; their Filaments either distinct, or united 
into a simple or branched stalk. Fertile Flowers either 
solitary, or capitate, or disposed in a Cone, Strobilus 



Cl. 15.] CON1FER/F.. 191 

(61 :7), formed of densely imbricated scales separating 
the Flowers, and each performing the office of a Ca- 
lyx. Germen superior, conical, sometimes 2 or more, 
with as many Styles and Stigmas. Seeds, or single- 
seeded Capsules, as many as the Germens. Embryo 
cylindrical, in the centre of a fleshy Albumen, the 
2 Cotyledons either undivided, or sometimes cloven, 
as if palmate, into numerous segments, appearing, in 
Pinus, as if there were many distinct Cotyledons (89). 
Stem arboreous or shrubby." 

Sect. 1. Calyx bearing the Stamens. Ephedra, 
Casuarina (see above), and Taxus, fig. 275. 

Sect. 2. Calyx wanting. Scales bearing the Stamens. 
True Conifers. Jimipcrus, Cttpressus, Thuya, Dom- 
beya Schreb. 704 (Araucaria Juss.), Pinus, fig. 276, 
and Abies (the last including Abies and Lariv of 
Tournefort). 

To these are to be added Agathis, Salisb. Tr. of 
Linn. Soc. v. 8. 311, Podocarpus L'Herit., Dacry- 
dium Soland. fig. 277, and Callitris Venten. Dec. 
Gen. Nov. 10. 

The structure of the Pistil of Coniferce, long mis- 
understood, has been explained by Mirbel, Schou- 
bert, and Brown. These writers describe a covering, 
termed by them Cupula, but which Linnaeus would 
probably have called Nectarium, closely investing 
the Germen, and, in most cases, the Stigma also. 
This becoming pulpy, forms the red half-drupa of 
Taxus ; and is double in Podocarpus and Dttcrydittm, 



192 CONIFERS. [Cl. 15. 

according to Mr. Brown, as well as remarkably in- 
verted, having the aperture near the base. The outer- 
most of these coverings is probably a real Calyx, 
as appears by the figure of Dacrydium in Lambert's 
Pinus, t. 41. 



The above general view of this celebrated System 
will be sufficient for any attentive student to enable 
him to apply it to practice, and even to correct it, or 
to make additions, by means of new discoveries. The 
Plant a incerta sedis, or Genera which the author 
could not, at the time he published his work, reduce 
to any of his Orders, are artificially classed, at the 
end, by their Petals, situation of the Gennen, and 
number of the Styles and Stamens. These genera 
amount to 137; but many of them have since been 
better understood by the author himself, or have been 
elucidated by others ; and several will be found, in 
the foregoing exposition, either referred to other ge- 
nera, previously known, or classed with some of their 
allies. The observations of the distinguished Gart- 
ner, on Fruits and Seeds, in his well-known work on 
that subject, have conduced greatly to the improve- 
ment of Jussieu's system, both in principle and de- 
tail ; and it's illustrious author has profited by those 
observations, in several treatises upon different Orders 
or families, in the Annales du Museum d'Hist. Nat., 
some of which have been translated by Mr. Konig, in 



EMENDATIONS OF JUSSIEU. 193 

the Annals of Botany. To have undertaken to digest 
all these improvements, and to have attempted to 
elucidate them by all that has been done by others, as 
Ventenat, Salisbury, Link, and especially by Mr. 
Brown and Prof. DeCandolle, would have been quite 
beyond the scope of the present publication. Such a 
task indeed could be undertaken by Jussieu himself 
alone, who has now for 30 years bent all his attention 
to the subject, with a view to a new edition of his 
immortal work, but has not been able to complete his 
scheme. 

Meanwhile DeCandolle, in his Theorie Elemen- 
taire cle la Botanique, published in 1813, p. 21 3, has 
proposed a sketch of Jussieu's System, with many of 
the above additions, insomuch that the original 100 
Orders are here augmented to 145. The series in 
which they are disposed by their Cotyledons is given, 
as avowedly artificial. The terminations of the names 
of the Orders, which are French, are according to 
the more recent plan of Jussieu and his followers. 
For instance, Convolvulace'es, Convolvulacece, and 
Cislinees, Cistinete, instead of Convolvuli and Cisti. 
But as this scheme of nomenclature is scarcely yet 
settled, and may again be altered, I have rather chosen 
to retain the original terminations, till Jussieu, by a 
new edition, has established one or the other, accord- 
ing to an uniform plan. 

The question of the natural or artificial character 
of Jussieu's System has been ably discussed by the 

o 



194 EMENDATIONS 

celebrated Mr. Roscoe, in Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 1 1. 
65, who, in showing that this method involves se- 
veral as unnatural assemblages as the professedly ar- 
tificial system of Linnaeus, contends, that little is to 
be gained by it's adoption, with respect to a confor- 
mity to nature. Every one must also perceive, that 
no use can be made of any such system, in the prac- 
tical or analytical examination of plants. Natural 
Orders indeed must, in future, be studied by all who 
deeply contemplate the Vegetable Kingdom, and some 
links of connexion, or points of discrimination, can- 
not but be kept in view between them. We require 
a cabinet, as it were, with cells or drawers, where we 
may find each Order as we want it; and Jussieu's 
classification, with all it's unavoidable imperfections, 
goes much beyond any system previously invented, in 
the natural assemblages which it produces. Never- 
theless, Linnaeus has truly observed that Natural Or- 
ders are related to each other by so many points, that 
they rather resemble a geographical map, than a con- 
tinued series ; which he has attempted to illustrate by 
example, in his Pr&lectiones published by Giseke. 
There remains therefore, in the study of natural clas- 
sification, only a choice of difficulties ; and while we 
labour to bring plants together, as naturally as pos- 
sible, in groups or families, for their mutual illustra- 
tion, we must perpetually relax or vary those general 
ties, of which we can, as yet, obtain but very con- 
fined and imperfect views. Hence therefore 1 am 



OF JUSSJEU. 195 

almost inclined to revert to the idea of Linnaeus, that 
we are not competent to define technically any na- 
tural orders, without so many, and such paradoxical, 
exceptions, as to destroy all consistency. The labours 
of his successors too often illustrate and confirm this 
opinion, hy their failure in the details of the subject. 
The learned and candid DeCandolle, (who first has 
claimed, from the botanists of his own school, the 
honours due to Linnaeus, relative to the principles of 
natural arrangement, Theorie Eltm. p. 60 &c.,) though 
he has successfully defined several Orders, is obliged 
'to have recourse to an artificial distribution of them, 
which I have mentioned above, and to which the fol- 
[lowing is the key. 

[Class 1 . Dicotyledonous. Corolla polypetalous, hypogynous. 

o. perigynous. 

3. Corolla monopetalous, perigynoua. 

4. hypogynous. 

5. Flowers apetalous, or with one in- 
tegument only. 

6. Mondcotyledonous. Flowers phcenogamous. 

7. cryptogamous. 

8. Acotyledonous. Leafy, and with Organs of impreg- 
nation. 

g t Without leaves, or any known Or- 
gans of impregnation. 

The able author proposes this method, as less at 
iriance, than any other, with natural affinities, but 
[till as serving merely for convenience, nor does he 

Uach to it any further importance. 

o 2 



VENTENAT. 

The Genera Plant arum of Jussieu, with all his 
characters and remarks, have been translated into 
French by Ventenat, who has interspersed several 
additional observations. His work makes four octavo 
volumes, the first containing a dictionary of Botany. 
The last, besides a general analytical table, is enriched 
with plates of the fructification of every one of Jus- 
sieu's Orders, drawn by the masterly hand of Re- 
doute\ For such a purpose, however, the very best 
figures are hardly sufficient. Nothing is so instructive 
as Nature herself; and the student who has made 
sufficient progress in Botany to understand the fore- 
going explanations of Jussieu's System, will be at no 
loss to procure examples, of the greater part of his 
Orders at least, by the dissection and comparison of 
whose structure he will gradually become familiarized 
with the subject, though it's details are inexhaustible. 




197 



CHAPTER IX. 

COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL ORDERS OF LIN- 
NAEUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEU. 

JL HE present publication would be incomplete with- 
out some account of the Fragments of a Natural Me- 
thod, as Linnaeus terms his performance, subjoined 
by this great botanist to the 6th edition of his Genera 
Plantarum, an ample commentary upon which, col- 
lected partly from his lectures on this particular sub- 
ject, was published at Hamburgh in 1792, by Prof. 
Giseke, under the title of Pralectioncs in Ordines 
Naturales Plantarum. 

An exposition of these Linnasan Orders, which 
amount to 58, is before the publick in the Sd volume 
of the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
published at Edinburgh ,^^wiiujh I have extracted 
what appeared to me rn^st vljuafefe ifKthe above PrtB- 

,-:" .' f 

lecliones, interspersing; some very curious particulars, 
from unpublished notes of Linmeus, in my possession, 

with a few original reti^^::}m^4]io taken a brief 

. ' ' ' 

comparative view of Jussieu's system at the end. 

'Tr.-.. , -J 

Having in the present volume more fuliy explained 
the latter, I shall here reverse the mode of comparison, 
and place some of the remarks and illustrations in a 
different light, with a few additional matters. 

The name of each Linnaean Order is, in the fol- 



J98 COMPARISON Of THE NATURAL ORDERS OF 

lowing table, placed first, and where no particular ex- 
planation is necessary, or there is no very material 
disagreement, the generally corresponding one of Jus- 
sieu is merely named ; with it's appropriate number, 
to enable the reader to turn to each Order in it's pro- 
per place. 

1. PALJVL& Palmce Juss. Ord. 11. 

Linnaeus proposed latterly to remove from hence 
Cycas and Zamia, which he, like Jussieu, considered 
as Filices, but which Persoon, and Brown, Prodr. 
N. Holl. v. 1. 346, have more properly disposed in 
a new Order, called Cycadete. Linnaeus also meant 
to take away the section (2, in which the Fruit is in- 
ferior and many-seeded, and which consists of Stra- 
tiotes, Hydrocharis and Vallisneria. See Jussieu's 
Hydrocharides, Ord. 22. 

2. PiPERim Aroidetf 7. 

Piper only is referred by Jussieu to his Urticce 98 ; 
and Smtrurus to Naiades 6. 

3. CALAMAKIJE Cyperoidece 9- 
Sparganium and Typha, subsequently removed 

from hence to his Piperita by Linnaeus, as akin to 
Zostera, make by themselves Jussieu's Typha 8. 

4. GRAMINA Graminea 10. 

About the plants of this Order, the true Grasses, 
only one opinion can exist. 

5. TRIPETALOIDE*: Junci 13. 

Calamus is properly considered by Jussieu as one 
cf the Palmcc, Ord. 1. 



LIXN7KUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEP. 199 

6. EN r SA'M-, Irides 1 8, with some of the Junci 1 3, 
and their allies. 

I. OUCH IDEA Orchidea Q\. 

Linnaeus's manuscript indicates Kcempferia as be- 
traying an affinity to this Order in the next, but it is 
chiefly in general aspect. 

8. SCITAMINEJE Cannes 20. 

.9. SPATHACE#I Narcissi 17, except Allium, re- 
ferred bv Jussieu to his 16th Order, and Colchicum. 

V 

to his 13th. 

10. CORONARLE Asphodell 16, some Lilia 14, 
Bromdia 15, with some of the Narcissi 17, and of 
the Junci 13. 

II. SARMENTACETE A few of the Lilia 14, be- 
gin this Order, but it chiefly consists of the Aspa- 
ragi 12, with the Menisperma 77, and Aristolochia 23. 
Centella is to be erased, as not distinct from ffi/dro- 
coti/le. 

Linnseus, in his manuscript notes, justly observes, 
that part of this Order is monocotyledonous, part di- 
cotyledonous. He adverts also to Nymph&a, as hav- 
ing, in like manner, even some species with one, others 
with two, Cotyledons. This is a mistake into which 
Gaertner and Jussieu have likewise fallen. See the 
foregoing exposition of Jussieu's system, Ord. 22 and 
62. It appears from Giseke's publication, pref. 20, 
that Linnaeus kept from his pupils his ideas respecting 
Nyinphaa, not having, perhaps, satisfied his own mind. 
He seems to have thought the existence of such a differ- 



200 COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL ORDERS 

ence in the Cotyledons of one genus, might well justify 
him in not dividing an Order on that account, and 
possibly cherished this idea, as an irrefragable proof 
of his position, that no character whatever was free 
from exception in natural orders. Neither the de- 
duction, nor the fact as to Nymphtea, is now -ad- 
mitted, and yet the Lentibularia of Brown, see (Ord. 
34) p. 96, and Cuscuta, see Convolvuli, are strong ex- 
ceptions. 

12. HOLERACEJE- A large Order, of which the 
1st section is composed of many of Jussieu's Atri- 
plices 29 ; the 2d of more of the same, with Calligo- 
num, one of his Polygonece 28 ; the 3d of Axyris 
only, one of his Atriplices ; the 4th of some Ama- 
ranthi 30, and some Atriplices ; the 5th of Poly- 
goneie 28, with Begonia their ally in habit, see a re- 
mark on Jussieu's 52d Order; the 6th ofNyssa, Mi- 
musops, Rhizophora and Bucida ; the 7th of Anacar- 
clium (removed by a manuscript note from the 6th 
section), Laurus, Tinus, Wintcrania and Heist eria. 
There is no analogy between these two latter sections 
and any of Jussieu's Orders. His Lauri 27, a good 
Order, was not perceived by LinnaBus. 

13. SUCCULENTS Cactus., one of Jussieu's 85th 
Order, with some of his Portulac&E 86, and Ficoi- 
dea 87, make the 1st section; Sempewvc* 83 are 
the 2d ; some more Portulace<z chiefly compose the 
3d ; and S&pifragee 84 are the 4th section of this 
Order, iu which Linuaeus was guided by habit, and 



OF LINN/EUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEU. 201 

Jussieu, tracing nearly the same affinities, was much 
embarrassed for technical characters. 

14. GRUINALES Gerania 73, and some of the 
first section of Rutacece 81, with O.ralis, Linum,and 
a few ambiguous genera, as Aldrovanda, T)rosera, 
and Averrhoa, make up this Order. Linnasus has 
added several, more or less happily, in manuscript. 

15. INUNDATE are analogous to Naiades 6, 
and require as much correction. 

16. CALYCIFLOHVE part of Elceagni 24. 

17. CALYCANTHEM.E contain many Onagra 88, 
with the Melastomce 90, and Salicarue 9 1 . 

18. BICORNES Rhododendra 50, and Erica 61. 

19. HESFERIDE^ Myrti 89. 

20. ROTACE^ Lysimachice, 34, chiefly sect. 1, and 
Gentiance 46. 

A separate section comprises Hyperica 68, and 
Cisti 80 ; at least the genuine Cisti, sect. 1 . 

2 1 . PRECISE Lysimachice 34, chiefly sect. 2, and 
part of 3. 

22. CARYOPHYLLE^ CaryophyllefB 82. 

23. TRIHILATJE Mr&c71,makethe 1st section; 
Sapindi 65, Acer a 66, and Malpighice 67, chiefly 
compose the 2d and 3d sections. Tropceohtm is cer- 
tainly better placed here by Linnseus than in Jussieu's 
Gerania 73. 

24. COR YD ALES These have no analogy to any 
particular Order of Jussieu. The Linnaean genera 



202 COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL ORDERS 

are Melianthus and Momrieria, for both which see 
remarks on Jussieu's Rutacea 81 ; Epimedium, see 
Berberides 78; Hypccoum, and Fumaria, see Papa- 
veracece 62 ; Leontice, see Berber tdes 78 ; Impatiens, 
see Gerania 73 ; Utricularia and Pinguicula. see 
the end of Lysimachiee 34. Jussieu's Order of Ue/- 
beridcs 78 entirely escaped Linnaeus. 

25. PUTAMIXEA: Capparides 64, except Cm- 
centia. Linnaeus has noted that this Order and the 
24th should stand next to the 27th Rhocadcee. 

26. MULTISILIQTJ/E Raniuiculacete 61. 
Seeds inserted into 1 suture only. Linn. MS. 

27. RIIOEADETE Papaveracece 62. 

Linnaeus has brought hither Nyrnphaa ; see obs. 
on Jussieu's Ord. 62. 

28. LURTD;E chiefly Solanete 41. 

Aestvoatio plicata, (Corolla plaited in the bud.) 
Linn. MS. 

29. CAMPAXACE^E Campanulace& 52 ; as also 
Coiwolvuli 43, and Polcmonla 44, both well sepa^ 
rated from the first by Jussieu. Linnaeus has referred 
Viola to this Order, and has mentioned in manuscript 
Parnassia, with an exception on account of it's not 
being milky. 

30. CONTORTS Apocinea 47. 

Acstivatio contort a. (Corolla twisted, or it's seg- 
ments oblique.) Linn. MS. This author, as well as 
Jussieu, has committed some errors with regard to 



OF LINNAEUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEU. 205 

particular genera. Genipa and Gardenia, both one 
genus, and Macrocncmum, belong to Jussieu's Ru- 
biacece 57. 

31. VEPRECUL^ Thymelcece 25. 

Thesium and Santalum, the latter added in manu- 
script, do not belong to it, but to Mr. Brown's Santa- 
lacece mentioned under Jussieu's El&agni 24. Sckran- 
thus, also added in manuscript, is referred by Jussieu 
to his Portulacece 86', not without a suspicion of it's re- 
lationship to his ThymdcEcR 25, or to Thesium. 

32. PAPILIONACE^E, such of the Leguminosa 93, 
as have a papilionaceous corolla. 

33. LOMENTACE^E the restof the Legum'mosce93. 

34. CUCURBITACEJE Cucurbitaccce 97. 

35. SENTICO.SJE consist of the 2d, 3d and 4th 
sections of Jussieu's Rosacece .92 ; Poterium and San- 
guisorba being properly brought hither from Ord. 54. 

36. POMACES Sect. 1, with part of the 3d and 
7th sections of Rosacece $2. Ribes is introduced here; 
see Jussieu's Cacti 85. Punica, one of the Linnaean 
Pomacece, is referred to Myrti 89, by Jussieu, per- 
haps less correctly. 

37. CoLUMNiFEit^E Malvaceae! *t. Camellia and 
Thea are included. See Aurantla 70, sect. 3. 

38. TRICOCC.E Euphorbia 96. 

39. SILIQUOS/E Cruciferee 63. 

40. PERSOXATTI-, Pediculares 35, Acanthi 36, 
Vitices 38, Scrophularite 40, and a few of the Sola- 
mee 4t\, These very distinct Jussieuan Orders were 



204 COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL ORDERS 

probably not discriminated by Linnicus,in consequence 
of the habit he had acquired of considering his Didy- 
namia Angiospermia as completely a natural assem- 
blage. 

41. ASPERIFOLUF, Borraginea 42. 

42. VERTICILLATJE Labiatce 39- 

43. DUMOSJE Rhamni 95 constitute the bulk of 
this Order; with one or two Rutacea \, more of 
which latter are added in manuscript. Viburnum, Sam- 
bucus and Rhus are also placed here, with some 
marks of doubt, and Linnaeus ingenuously confesses 
that he was dissatisfied with the whole. 

44. SEPIARIJE lasminea 37. 

45. UMBELLATJE Umbdlifera 60. 

46. HEDERACE^E Araliee 59, at least so far as 
concerns the first two genera, Panax and Aralia. Xan- 
thoxylon is one of the Rutacece 81. The remainder, 
Hcdera, Vitls, and Cissus, are proposed in the ma- 
nuscript of Linnaeus to be transferred to his 34th Or- 
der, Cucurbit ace <e, but he remarks that their fruit is 
not tricapsular, or trilocular. The tendrils and fo- 
liage may possibly have led to this idea of their affi- 
nity, which is certainly not tenable on other grounds. 

47. STELLATE Rubiacea 57, sect. 1 and 2, the 
remaining sections of Jussieu being faintly indicated 
by Linnaeus in his sect. /3 and y. The latter had not 
detected those characters, even of habit, which unite 
the shrubby Rubiace<e into a very distinct and natural 
assemblage. 



OF LINNAEUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEU. 205 

48. AGGREGATE The two systems do not here ac- 
cord, and it is necessary to explain some manuscript 
alterations of Linnaeus. This Order is divided, in the 
Gen. PI., into four sections. consists of Statice only : 
/3 of Hartogidj Brunia, Protea, Globularia, Leuca- 
dendron, Hebenstretia, Selago, Cephalantluis, Dipsa- 
cus, Scabiosa, Knautia and Allionia : y of Valtnana y 
Morina, Boerhaavia and Circ&a, to which Mirabilis is 
added in manuscript : and % of Lonicera, Chiococca y 
Triosteum, Mitchella. Lisianthus in manuscript, Ltn- 
n<ea,Morinda,Conocarpus, Hillia in manuscript, Loran- 
thus and Viscum. The letter /3 is removed in the manu- 
script to Cephalanthus ; so that the 1st section extends 
from Statice to Selago, inclusive; and is marked "alter- 
nifoli( infers" leaves alternate, flowers inferior(or ger- 
men superior). The other three sections, from Cepha- 
lanthus to Viscum, are marked il oppo&itifol'uz super <*" 
leaves opposite, flowers superior. The first section 
thus extended abounds with errors. Statice and Bru- 
nia indeed, thought near akin by Linnaeus, are puz- 
zling genera, about which various opinions may be 
formed. Jussieu refers the former to his Plumbaginet 
33, the latter to his doubtful Rhamni 95. Hartogia 
is the same genus as Diosnia, a true Rutacea 8 1 , 
which Linnaeus subsequently discovered. Protea and 
Leucadendron form the basis of Jussieu's and Brown's 
great Order of Proteacea 26, not detected by Lin- 
naeus, to which Jussieu was inclined to refer Globu- 
laria ; but he left the latter at the end of his Lyiima- 



06' COMPARISON OF TfiE XATUftAL ORDERS 

chi<e, where surely it is much misplaced. Hebemfretia 
and Selago are related to Verbena, see Vitices 38. 

c> 

With respect to the opposite-leaved sections, /3, y 
and ; Cephalanthits, Chiococca, Mitchella, Morinda 
and Hillia are well 'considered by Jussieu as Rubia- 
cete 57. From Dipsacus to Morina, inclusive, are 
his Dipsacece 56. Boerhaavia and Mirabilis are Afyc- 



tagines 32. Clrceea is one of the Onagrce 88. Z0- 
nicera, Triosteum, Limitfa, Lor ant hits and Viscum 
are Capr'ijolia 58. Lisianthus belongs undoubtedly 
to the Gentians 46. 

From the above detail it appears, that there can 
hardly be a. greater discordance of opinion than exists 
between Linnaeus and Jussieu, concerning the plants 
of this Order ; nor can the latter be denied the honour 
of having best, if not perfectly, understood their affi- 
nities. 

49. COMPOSITE, Sect, a Cinarocephal& 54. 
-- - sect. j2 CichoracefE 53. 

- sect. <y, Corymbiferae 55. 

50. AMENTACEJE AmtntactcE 99, ^'ith an excep- 
tion or two, such as Sloanea, marked with a doubt by 
Linnaeus, and referred by Jussieu to his Tiliacece 79 ; 
and Pistacia, one of the Terebintac&s 94. Cynomo- 
r'mm is placed by Jussieu, with Balanophora of For- 
ster, t. 50, among the plants incertce sedis. 

5 1 . Coim : ERJ Co??ijerce 100, except Equisctum, 
one of the Filices 5. 

52. COADUNAT.E Anoms 76, and Magnolia- 75. 



OF LfNN.EL'S WITH THOSE OF J USSIEIT. 207 

53. SCABRID/E Urtic<e 98. 

Linnaeus includes Trophis, which Jussieu did not 
determine; as also Ulinus with Celtic, both referred 
by the latter, less correctly perhaps, to his Amentacae 
50. Bo.sea and Acnlda are, with more justice, placed 
among his Atriplices 29- 

54. MISCELLANE/E An Order composed of 8, 
truly miscellaneous, sections, most of them abrogated 
by the pen of Linnaeus himself. 

Sect, a, consisting of Reseda and Datisca, has not 
undergone any correction. Reseda is referred by Jus- 
sieu, somewhat paradoxically, to his Cappari'des 64; 
and Datisca, though allowed by him to be, in some 
points, akin to the former, stands among the unclassed 
genera. 

(2 Poterium and Sanguisorba, are removed to the 
35th Order, before Agrimonia, as they stand in Jus- 
sieu's Ro&acece 92, sect. 3. 

y Pistla and Lenma are referred to the 15th Inun- 
datce. Jussieu has the former among his Plydrocha- 
ridcs 22, with a hint of it's probable affinity to Arol- 
dete 7, or Anstolochlce 23 ; and Lemna, one of his 
Naiades 6, is, according to Mr. Brown, one of the Hy- 
drocharides. 

Coriaria, and Empetrum with a mark of doubt. 
The first is not thought referable to any Order by 
Jussieu ; the latter is supposed akin to Ericts 51. 

s Achy r ant hes, Celosia, Amaranthus, Iresine, Gom- 
phrma and Phytolacca are all removed to the 5th 



208 COMPARISON OF THE NATURAL ORDERS 

section of the 12th Order, Holeracetz. Jussieu has 
them all amongst his Amaranthi 30, except Phyto- 
lacca, which is one of the Atriplices 29. 

Nymph&a and Sarracenia, are both transferred 
to the 27th Order, with a query whether the latter 
especially may not be akin to Asarurn, and therefore 
to the Sarmentacea, Ord. 1 1 . We find that Linnaeus 
once placed both these genera, as well as Aruiolochia, 
and it's allies Asarum and Cytinus, in his 1 1 th Order. 
He had a fanciful idea of an affinity between Nym- 
phcea and Sarracenia, founded on the singular eco- 
nomy of the leaves in the latter. These he supposed 
to be contrived for the purpose of affording the plant 
a continual supply of water, which, like it's aquatic 
relation, it might require. Jussieu but faintly hints 
at the affinity in question, placing Sarracenia among 
the plants incertce sedis. 

'/I Cedrela and Swietenia are both removed to the 
23d Order, along with Turrcea Linn. Mant. 150. 
They all undoubtedly belong to the 1st section of that 
Order, being among the Meli<, 71, of Juss. 

3 Telephium, Eimeiim and Corrigiola are trans- 
ferred to the 5th section of the Holerace<e, Ord. 12. 
Jussieu has them all in his Portulacete 86, on account 
of their being furnished with petals ; which circum- 
stance here, as in the instance of his 82d Order com- 
pared with the 30th, breaks the natural chain of his 
system. 

55. FILICES Filices 5. Linnaeus seems to have 



OF LINKEUS WITH THOSE OF JUSSIEU. 209 

had an idea of bringing hither Lemna and Pistia, 
for which it is difficult to suggest a motive, except he 
had any reason to doubt the accuracy of those who 
had described Lemna, and whom he had previously 
followed. 

56. Musci Musci^. 

57. ALG^E Alga 2, and Hepaticce 3. Chara is 
removed from hence, in the manuscript; to the 15th 
Order, Inundatce. 

58. FUNGI Fungi 1. 

A catalogue of 1 16 Genera, which Linnaeus could 
not reduce to any of the foregoing Orders, is sub- 
joined. Concerning 20 of these he afterwards satis- 
fied himself; and at least half the rest are now suffi- 
ciently well understood to be referred to their proper 
places. 

The following manuscript sketch, of an arrange- 
ment of the Dicotyledoms, left by this great author at 
the end of his Genera Plantarum, may be thought 
worthy of preservation. It has undergone many 
changes and corrections, as might be expected. The me- 
ditations of such a mind cannot but furnish some ideas 
to others, however incomplete in themselves. 

OPPOSITIFOLIJE. ALTERNIFOLI;E. 

A line is drawn through this Cucurbitacea 34 

word, as if the author was clis- Ilederacea 46 

satisfied with it. Umbellate 45 

Calyciftora 16 Composite 49 

Calycanthemte 17 Amentacea. 50 
P 



210 



MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS 



Conifer a. 5 1 
Coadunata 52 

Papilionaceac, 32 
Lomentacea 33 
Cory dales 24 
MultisiligiuE 26 
Rhoeadete 27 
PutamineoK 25 
Siliquosa 39 

Asperifolia 41 
V erticillata 42 

Campanacea 29 
Luridte 28 
Personate 40 

Senticosfi 35 
Pomacea 36 

Columniferee 37 

TricocctE 38 
Trihilata 23 

Bicornes 18 



The first idea of Linnaeus, in the above scheme, 
appears to have been to throw the dicotyledonous 
Orders into two great Sections, characterized, in a ge- 
neral way, by their opposite or alternate leaves, with 



Caryophyllece 22 

Aggregate 48 
Stellatte 47 
SepiaritR 44 
Dumos<z 43 

Succulents 13 
Gruinales 14 

ContorttE 30 
Rotacca 20 

Hespcridea 19 

Inundate 15 
Iloleracecc 12 
ScabridtR 53 
Feprecula 31 



21 



ON NATURAL ORDERS. 21 1 

subdivisions indicating the Orders most allied to each 
other. But in the execution of this plan, difficulties 
immediately arose, especially respecting the Verti- 
ciliated 42, whose leaves are invariably opposite, and 
the Asperifoli(K 41, as regularly furnished with al- 
ternate leaves. Yet these two Orders could not, in any 
natural arrangement, be placed asunder. So the Per- 
sonata 40, chiefly opposite-leaved, were necessarily 
to be classed near the Luridce 28, and others, with 
alternate leaves. It is needless to point out exceptions 
amongst other Orders, or tribes of Genera. 

No discriminating character of his Orders, or 
" Fragments," was ever formed by Linna3us. On the 
contrary, he adverts under almost every one of them, 
in the Pr&lectiones published by Giseke, to the ano- 
malies or exceptions which militate against such an 
attempt. His judgment, as I have already hinted, is 
confirmed by the result of the labours of those who 
have undertaken this arduous task ; though the world 
is extremely indebted to them for having, in the face 
of such obstacles, entered upon it. The difficulties, ap- 
parent contradictions, and various exceptions, which 
embarrass them in the detail of their performance, 
are inherent in the organization of the vegetable body, 
in which there is throughout no positive or mathema- 
tical certainty. A few practical observations, illus- 
trative of this truth, may, not altogether unprofitably, 
here close the subject. 

Philosophers have attributed to Nature a plastic 



212 VARIABLENESS 

power, by which form and organization are given to 
substances apparently homogeneous, and destitute of 
any particular configuration. Thus the fluid of the 
egg changes to an organized animal body ; and thus 
the blood and lymph, in the stump of an amputated 
limb, become occupied with muscles, blood-vessels 
and nerves, like the corresponding parts of the ani- 
mal frame. Analogous facts, though less evidently 
perceptible, are to be traced, without any uncertainty, 
in the vegetable body. In the latter we may per- 
haps, even more positively than in animals, satisfy 
ourselves of the influence of particular circumstances, 
in causing a different organization. Many a plant 
may be extensively increased by cuttings or by roots, 
for a succession of years, without producing any seeds, 
or even the least rudiments of flowers. But if*one or 
more of these cuttings or roots should be treated dif- 
ferently from the rest, with respect to their allotted 
portion of water, heat, or nourishment, such may very 
probably bear flowers and seeds, as happened by 
chance to the Solandra at Kew ; see Introd. to Botany, 
chap. 14. In other words, the same organic matter 
which, under the influence of certain causes, assumes 
the form of branches and leaves, in different cir- 
cumstances becomes flowers and seeds. If we trace 
this indefinite power of organization a step further, 
we perceive that the materials of a perfect flower, de- 
stined to form seed, are sometimes transformed into 
a mutilated or. an over-luxuriant one, consisting of 



OF ORGANISATION. 213 

multiplied petals only, in the place of the organs es- 
sential to the propagation of the species; and in certain 
circumstances, the whole flower itself is replaced by a 
gemma or bud (26), when the plant which bears it is 
termed viviparous. 

So with respect to the appropriate organization of 
particular plants. Each species is naturally furnished 
with flowers, of a determinate structure, having a cer- 
tain number of stamens and pistils, as well as of divi- 
sions or parts in their integuments, all which are con- 
nected together, in an appropriate mode, in every 
flower. But circumstances sometimes cause an alter- 
ation, frequently in the comparative number of such 
parts or divisions, though very rarely in their mode of 
connexion. 

Such are accidental variations, which a competent 
degree of attention and caution in the observer will 
enable him to guard against. Their study, cautiously 
pursued, may often throw light on those more perma- 
nent diversities of structure, which occupy the studies 
of the profound botanist, and of which I would now 
attempt somewhat of a comparative view. 

In general, the aberrations of Nature in plants bear 
a considerable analogy to her accidental variations, 
but are, of course, much more diversified and exten- 
sive. Thus, in tribes very nearly akin, a correspond- 
ing number in the parts of fructification is found liable 
to many more exceptions than a similarity of connexion 
or insertion. In the Caryophyllece, Juss. 82. Linn. 22, 



SI 4 VARIABLENESS 

some have 10, others 5, stamens; some have 5, 
others 3 or 2, styles; in the Ricornes of Linn. 18 
(the Rhododendra 50, and Erica 5 !, of Jussieu) the 
differences between 4 and 5, 8 and 10, or 5 and 10, 
are so frequent, as to cause great trouble in classing 
these plants, after the Linnsean artificial system. But 
the instance of an inferior germen in Vaccintitm, is a 
wide and remarkable difference, of extremely rare 
occurrence, between that genus and it's near relations 
Menziesia, Erica, Arbutus, &c. I 

In general, variations or diversities of structure have 
been thought to take place most in the parts of the flow- 
er, and especially in those accessory, rather than essen- 
tial, organs, the calyx and corolla. The production of 
the fruit and seed, especially of the latter, being the 
main object of all the rest, many botanists have, rea- 
sonably enough, concluded, that the peculiar organiza- 
tion, and even the number of parts, in the seed-vessel, 
and, above all, the form and number of the seeds, were 
likely to furnish indications of the most important and 

invariable principles of affinity or distinction. Even 
the diversities in the internal parts, or materials, of 

a seed, have of late been laid under contribution, for 
the purposes of methodical arrangement ; as appears 
from the foregoing explanations of different botanical 
systems. 

As far as regards the comparative number of seeds, 
the slightest observation will teach any person, that 
Nature has not always made this circumstance of 



OF ORGANIZATION. 2.15 

importance, in the indication of natural affinities. 
The thing itself is often indeterminate, several ru- 
diments of seeds being frequently provided, though 
only one regularly conies to perfection. More fre- 
quently are observable plants with numerous seeds in 
a cell, or capsule, which are nearly, or very closely, 
allied to others with only 1 or 2. See the Onagrcs 88, 
of Jussieu, the Cruciferee 63, the genus Juncus, and 
many besides. The provision of seed to each vege- 
table is indeed of the last importance ; but the quan- 
tity is, comparatively, immaterial, variable, or pre- 
carious. It seems therefore that number, as a prin- 
ciple of arrangement, may well be expected to prove 
more treacherous here than in other cases. 

The nourishment of a seed, in the first stages of 
germination, depending generally on the albumen, in 
whatever form or state that substance may exist, is 
variously conducted, according to circumstances, in 
plants otherwise nearly allied ; witness the papiliona- 
ceous family, where the albuminous matter is lodged 
in cotyledons, that in some species rise into seminal 
leaves, in others decay speedily under ground. In 
some plants, as we have seen, the albumen is evident 
in a distinct and separate form ; while in others, 
nearly akin, no such substance exists, except, as must 
be presumed, in the body of each cotyledon. Here 
again therefore, however essential the part in question, 
the mode of it's existence appears to be of very sub- 
ordinate consideration, and should not be allowed, in 




216 AFFINITY OF BEGONIA. 

the details of systematic arrangement, to overrule 
characters which are judged, by experience or analogy, 
to be more important. The able writers whose la- 
bours we have been contemplating, the chief syste- 
matic botanists who have adverted at all to the albu- 
men, have been well aware of this. 

What has just been remarked, of the inconstancy 
of number in the seeds of particular plants, and of 
it's great diversity in species or genera nearly akin, 
may possibly diminish the apparent absurdity of con- 
sidering the great differences between the fruit of Be- 
gonia and Polygonum or Rumex, and between that of 
some Campanulacece and the Composite, as a matter 
of but secondary importance, and may reconcile us to 
the opinion that such differences should give way, in 
both cases, to strong points of agreement. Even the 
eat distinction between the inferior germen of Be- 
nia, and the superior one of the Order of Polygo- 
, Juss. 28, is invalidated by the above instance of 
'actinium; and the coincidence of habit is so remark- 
able, that I cannot but confess myself very anxious to 
ascertain a decisive affinity, or analogy, in the fructi- 
fication, lest the great fundamental principle of all 
sound botanical classification should, in any degree, 
be undermined. 



INDEX. 



191 

Abortive flowers, 28 
Abroma, 150, 183 
Abronia, 94 
Abrus, 179 
Abuta, 154 
Ac&na, 1 73 
Acalypha, 1 85 
Acanthi, 96, 203 
Acanthus, 97 
Acaules, 6 
Accumbent cotyledons, 139 

142 

, 141, 201 
Achania, 149 
Achenium, 23 

Achillea, 124 

Achras, 111 

Achyranthes, 92, 207 

y4r Ja, 1 73 

yfcioa, 173 

Acisanthera, 171 

Acnida, 207 

Aconitum, 137 

Acorus, 67 

Acotyledones, 34,35,61,63 

Acouroa, 179 

Actcea, 137 

Aculeus, 12 

Adanson, 31 

Adansonia, 150 

^cfefta, 185 

Adenanthera, 1 77 

Adonis, 136 

Adoxa, 1 64 

'Aegiceras, 111 

Aegopricon, 185 

Aegopodium, 134 



Aeschynomcne, 1 79 
Aesculus, 41, 142 
Aestivatio, 22 
Aethusa, 134 
Agapanthus, 75 
Agasyllis, 134 
Agathis, 191 
Agave, 74 
Agdestis, 1 54 
Aggregate, 205 
Aggregate flowers, 29 
Agrimonia, 173, 207 
Agrostemma, 161 
Agrostis, 69 
Agyneia, 185 

^4ira, 69 

Aitonia, 146 

Aizoon, 1 66 

4/M^a, 99 

^a, 27 

^te, 1 75 

Alamanda, 109 

Alangium, 168, 169 

Albuca, 75 

Albumen, 25, 33 

Alchemilla, 173 

Aldrovanda, 201 

Aletris, 75 

Aleurites, 1 85 

;%#, 34, 47, 63, 209 

Alisma, 73 

AlismacecE, 73 

Allionia, 126, 205 

Allium, 74, 75, 199 

Allophyllus, 1 45 

J/niw, 190 

-4 toe, 75 

Alopc.mrus, 69 



218 



INDEX. 



Alpinia, 79, 81 

Alsine, 161 

Alstonia, 113 

Alstroemeria, 76 

Alternifolia, 209 

Althaea, 42, 149 [200, 208 

Amaranthi, 91, 92, 160, 165, 

Amaranthus, 92, 207 

Amaryllidece, 76 

Amaryllis, 75 

Ambelanla, 1 09 

Ambora, 189 

Ambrosia, 122 

Amellus, 124 

Amentacece, 50, 189, 206, 207 

Amentaceous flowers, 19, 29 

Amentum, 19 

Amerimnon, 1 79 

Ammania, 171 

Ammi, 1 34 

Amomum, 79, 81 

Amorpha, 1 79 

Amygdal&E, 1 73 

Amygdalus, 1 73 

Amyris, 181 

Anacardium, 181, 200 

Anagallit, 95 

Anagyris, 177 

Anassa, 109 

Anchusa, 103 

Ancistrum, 173 

Andira, 179 

Andrachne, 185 

Andromeda, 115 

Androsace, 96 

Anemone, 136 

Anethum, 1 34 

Angelica, 134 

Angiospermia, 44, 204 

Anguria, 187 

Annual roots, 4, 17 

Anoda, 149 

Anona, 153 

^?mrf>, 152, 206 

Anopterus, 108 

Anthemis, 124 



Anthera, 21 

Anthericum, 75 

Antholyza, 76 

^n thospermum, 127 

Anthoxanthum, 69 

Anthriscus, 134 

Anthyllis, 1 78 

Antiaris, 189 

Antichorus, 156 

Antirrhinum, 100 

Aotus, 177 

Apalatoa, 180 

Apeiba, 156 

Apetalous flower, 28, 61 

Aphanes, 1 73 

Aphyllanthes, 73 

Apium, 134 

Apluda, 69 [202 

ApocinecE, 15, 108, 110, 126, 

Apocynum, 109, 110 

Aponogeton, 66 

Aporetica, 141 

Appendages, 11, 12, 56 

Apple, 23, 172 

Aquilegia, 137 

Aquilicia, 111, 146 

Arabis, 139 

Arachis, 178 

a, 132, 204 

itf, 131,132,204 

Araucaria, 191 

Arbutus, 115,211 

Arctotis, 124 

Areca, 71 

Arenaria, 161 

Arethusa, 82 

Argemcne, 137 

Argolasia, 77 

Argophyllum, 115 

Argythamnia, 185 

Arillus, 27 

Arista, 1 9 

AristolocUa, 86, 208 

Aristolochue, 76, 85, 1 99, 207 

Armeniaca, 1 73 

Aroideee, 67, 68, 76, 1 98, 207 



INDEX. 



Arouna, 180 

Artedia, 134 

Artemisia, 1 24 

Artificial classes, 31 

Artocarpus, 189 

Aruba, 158 

Arum, 67 

Aruna, 180 

Arundo, 69 

Asarum, 86, 208 

Ascium, 140 

Asclepiadece, 15, 21, 110 

Asdepias, 109, 110 

Ascyrum, 143 

Aspalathus, 1 78 

Asparagi, 71,75, 199 

Asparagus, 72, 75 

Asperifolia, 1 02, 204, 2 1 1 

Asperugo, 1 03 

Asperula, 127 

Asphodelece, 72 

Asphodeli, 72,74,75,199 

Asphodelus, 75 

Aspidium, 46, 66 

Assonia, 150 

^^er, 106, 123 

Astragalus, 179 

Astrantia, 134 

Athamanta, 134 

Atragene, 136 

Atriplex, 91 [208 

Atriplices, 9 1 , 1 1 7, 200, 207, 

Atropa, 102 

Aubletia, 156 

Aucuba, 183 

Aurantia, 145, 150, 203 

Averrhoa, 181, 201 

Awn, 19 

^xz/rw, 200 

Ayenia, 150 

Atjlanthus, 181 

Azalea, 112, 114 

Azorella, 134 



100 

Baeckea, 167, 169 
Bagassa, 189 
Balanophora, 206 
Balsamina, 135, 148 
Banara, 156 
Banksia, 88 
Bannisteria, 142 
Baptisia, 177 
Barleria, 97 
Barnadesia, 1 23 
Barren flower, 28 
Barreria, 155 
Barringtonia, 169 
Bartsia, 96 
Basella, 91 
Bassia, 111 
Bauera, 1 64 
Bauhinia, 177 
Beak, 27 
Beaufortia, 169 
Begonia, 117,200,216 
Bejaria, 114 
e/Zis, 123 
Bellonia, 128 
Berberides, 154, 202 
Berberis, 155 
Bergera, 145 
Bergia, 161 
Berry, 23, 24 
Besleria, 1 00 
5e<ttZa, 190 
Bicornes, 201,211 
zrfen*, 124 
Biennial roots, 4, 1 7 
Bignonia, 106 
Bignoniacece, 106 
Bignoniae, 105 
Bipinnula, 82 
Biserrula, 179 
.Bmz, 156 
Blackwellia, 1 74 
Blceria, 115 
Blakea, 170 
Blandfordia, 75 
Blepharanthes, 183 



2520 



Blilum, 91 
Bocconia, 138 
Boehmeria, 1 89 
Boerhaavia, 94, 205, 206 
Bolax, 134 
Bombax, 150 
Bontia, 102 
Boraginecc, 102, 204 
Borago, 103 
Borassus, 71 
Borbonia, 178 
Border, 20 
Boronia, 158, 159 
140 
207 
Boss'uza, 1 78 
Botany, economical, 2 

physiological, 2 

systematical, 1 

Bowlesia, 134 
Brabeium, 88 
Brachysema, 1 78 
Bractea, 12, 18 
Brassica, 139 
Brathijs, 143, 144 
Breweria, 1 04 
Briza, 69 
Bromelia, 74 
Bromelice, 73, 199 
Bromus, 69 
Brosimum, 189 
Brosstea, 115 
Browallia, 100 
Browned, 180 
Brunfelsia, 102 
Birtmta, 183, 205 
Brunonia, 1 1 8 
Bryonia, 187 
Bryum, 65 
J?wion, 134 
Bubroma, 150 
Buchnera, 101 
Uwrirfff, 86,167,200 
Buddleia, 100 
Buds, 8 
Buffonia, 161 



Buganvillcea, 94 
Bugula, 99 
Bulbocodium, 75 
Bumakla, 183 
Bumelia, 111 
Bunch, 1 6 
Bunium, 134 
Buphthalmum, 1 24 
Bupleurum, 1 34 
Burmannia, 74,81 
Bursaia, 154 
Bur sera, 181 
Burtonia, 1 78 
Butea, 178 
Butomus, 41, 73 
Butonica, 169 
Battneria, 150 
Biittneriacece., 183 
Buxus, 1 85 

Cacalia, 123 
Cachrys, 134 
Cacoucia, 167 
Cac^i, 164, 203 
Cactas, 164,200 
Carf6a, 140 
Ccesalpinia, 177 
Calamar'uE, 1 98 
Calamus, 1 98 
Calathea, 79 
Calceolaria, 1 00 
Calchas, 145 
Calendula, 123 
Caa, 67 
Callicarpa, 98 
Callicocca, 1 29 
Calligonum, 200 
Callistachya, 1 78 
Callistemon, 1 69 
Callitriche, 66, 167 
Callitris, 191 
Calodendrum, 158 
Calophyllum, 1 45 
Calothamnus, 169 
Caft&a, 137 
Calycanthenue, 201 



INDEX. 



221 



Calycanthus, 173 

Calycijtorte, 201 

Calycomis, 1 64 

Calyculus, 18 

Calyptra, 65 

Calyptranthes, 1 69 

Calyx, 1719 

Camellia, 146, 203 

Cameraria, 109, 110 

CampanacetE, 202 

Campanula, 118 

Campanulacea, 117, 202, 2 1 6 

Cananga, 153 

Canarina, 218 

Canarium, 181 

Candollea, 152 

Canella, 146 

Canephora, 129 

Canna, 79 

Cannabis, 189 

CawH, 78, 199 

Canneae, 79 

Cantua, 105 , 

Capitulum, 15, 135 

Capparides, 140, 202, 207 

Capparis, 41, 140 

Caprifolia, 129, 206 

Caprifolium, 130 

Capsicum, 122 

Capsula, 22 

Caragana, 179 

Cardamine, 4 1 

Cardiosperm urn, 141 

Carduus, 42, 121 

Carex, 68 

Cargilla, 113 

Carica, 43, 187 

Carina, 1 75 

Carissa, 109 

Car/mo, 121 

Carolinea, 150 

Carpella, 153 

Carphalea, 128 

Carpinus, 1 90 

Carpodetus, 1 83 

Carum, 134 



Caryophyllex, 105, 159, 165, 

201,213 

Caryophyllus, 1 68 
Caryota, 7 1 
Cassia, 176 
Cassine, 182 
Cassuvium, 181 
Cassytha, 90 
Castilleia, 96 
Casuarina, 190, 191 
Casuarinea, 190 
Catalpa, 106 
Catesbcea, 128 
Catlmbium, 78 
Catinga, 1 69 
Catkin, 19, 24 
Caturus, 185, 189 
Caucalis, 134 
Cawofa, 27 
Caudex, 3 
Caulis, 5 
Ceanothus, 183 
Cecropia, 189 
Cedreta, 147, 208 
Celastrince, 182 
Celastrus, 182 
Ce/osia, 92, 207 

101 

w, 190, 207 
Cenchrus, 69 
Centaurea, 42 
Centella, 199 
Central column, 22 
Cephalanthus, 1 29, 205j 206 
Cephalotus, 1 74 
Cerastiiim, 161 
Cerasus, 1 73 
Ceratonia, 176 
Ceratopetalum, 1 64 
Ceratophyllum, 66 
Ceratosanthes, 187 
Ceratostema, 118 
Cerbera, 109 
Cercw, 177 
Cercodea, 166 
Cennthe, 103 



222 



INDEX. 



Ceropegia, 109, 110 
Cestrum, 102- 
ChtErophyllum, 134 
Cham&rops, 71 
Ckara, 66, 209 
Cheiranthus, 140 
Chelidonium, 138 
Chelone, 105 
Chenopodeas, 9 1 
Chedopodium, 91 
Cherleria, 161 
Chiococca, 128, 205, 206 
Chionanthus, 97 
Chironia, 107 
CMora, 107 
Chomelia, 128 
Chorizema, 1 77 
Chrysanthemum, 1 23 
C.hrysobalanus, 1 73 
Chrysophyllum, 111 
Chrysosplenium, 164 
Cicca, 185 
Cicer, 179 
CichoracecE, 120, 206 
Cichorium, 120 
CicMto, 134 
Cienfuegosia, 150 
Cimicifuga, 137 
Cinarocephake, 121, 135, 206 
Cinchona, 128 
Ciponima, 1 13 
Ciraea, 1 66, 205, 206 
Cirrus, 12 
Cissampelos, 154 
Cmws, 147, 204 
Cwfi, 156,193,201 
Cistinece, 193 
Cwiws, 156 
Citharexylum, 98 
Citrus, 145 
Classes, 30, 40, 61 
Classification, 2, 30 
Claw, 20 
Claytonii, 165 
Clematis, 136 
Cteome, 139, 140 



Clerodendrum, 98 

Clethra, 115 

Clibadium, 122 

Clifortia, 173 

Clitoria, 1 78 

Clusia, 144 

Cluster, 14 

Cluytia, 185 

Cneorum, 181 

Cnestis, 181 

Cnicus, 121 

Cnidium, 134 

Coadunate, 206 

Cofcm, 106 

Cocculus, 154 

Coccum, 23 

Cocos, 71 

Corfw, 164 

Co/e<z, 128 

Coir, 69 

Colchicum, 73, 199 

Coldenia, 103 

Colletia, 1 83 

Columella, 22 

Columnea, 100 

Columnifera, 150, 203 

Colutea, 179 

Comarum, 1 73 

Comlretacece, 86, 167 

Combretum, 167 

Commelina, 73 

Commelinece, 73 

Comrnersonia, 183 

Comoaadia, 181 

Complete flower, 28 

Composites, 124, 206, 216 

Compositusjlos, 28 [29 

Compound flowers, 18, 27 

Comptonia, 190 

Cone, 24 

Coni/me, 50,190,206 

Comum, 134 

Connarus, 181 

Conobea, 96 

Conocarpus, 167,205 

Conoria, 155 



INDEX. 



223 



Contort*, 109, 202 

Convallaria, 72 

Convolvuli, 103, 1 93, 200, 202 

Convolvulus, 104 

Cookia, 145 

Copaifera, 180 

Cor chorus, 156, 174 

Corculum, 24 

Cordia, 103 

Coreopsis, 124 

Coriandrum, 134 

Coriaria, 207 

Cornucopia, 69 

Cornus, 131 

Cornutia, 98 

Corolla, 20 

Coronariae, 199 

Coronilla, 179 

Coronopus, 139 

Cornea, 158 

Corrigiola, 165, 208 

Cory dales, 201 

Corylus, 1 90 

Corymb, 14 

Corymbiferae, 121, 206 

Corymbus, 1 4 

Corynocarpus, 155 

Corypha, 7 1 

Cossignia, 141 

Costo, 79, 81 

Cofz/Ja, 124 

Cotyledon, 163 

Cotyledones, 24, 139 

Coublandia, 177 

Couepia, 173 

Coumarouna, 179 

Couroupita, 169 

Coussapoa, 189 

Coutarea, 128 

Coutoubea, 107 

Crambe, 139 

Craniolaria, 106 

Crassula, 1 63 

CrateeguS) 1 72 

Crat&va, 1 40 

Crenea, 171 



Crescentia, 102, 202 

Cressa, 104 

Crest, 26 

Crinum, 75 

Crithmum, 134 

Crocus, 76 

Crotalaria, 178 

Crotow, 185 

Crowea, 158 

Crown of the root, 3 

Crucianella, 127 

Crucifera:, 138,203,215 

Crwdia, 180 

Cnjptandra, 183 

Cryptogamia, 8, 29, 43 

Cwfaea, 177 

Ciicubalus, 160, 161 

Cucumis, 187 

Cucurbita, 187 

Cucurbitaceee, 186, 203> 204 

Culmus, 6 

Cuminum, 134 

Cunonia, 1 64 

Cunoniaceee, 130, 1W 

Cupania, 141 

Cuphea, 171 

Cupressu$, 191 

Cupula, 191 

Curatella, 152 

Curcuma, 79, 81 

CMscwto, 104, 182, 200 

Cusparia, 158 

Cussonia, 132 

Cyamus, 85 

Cyanus, 42 

Cycadea, 198 



Cyclamen, 96 
Cyclopia, 177 
Cydonia, 172 
Cvma, 15 
Cyme, 15 

Cynanchum, 109, 110 
Cynoglossum, 1 03 
Cynometra, 177 
Cijnomorium, 206 



INDEX. 



Cypero'uieez, 68, 198 
Cyperus, 68 
Cyphia, 118 
Cypripedtum, 82 84 
Cyrilla, 115,116 
Cytinus, 86, 208 
Cytisus, 1/8 

Dacrydhim, 191,192 

Dactylis, 69 

Dais, 87 

Duller gia, 179 

Dalea, 178 

Dalechampia, 1 S5 

Daphne, 41,87 

Datisca, 207 

Datura, 101 

Daucus, 134 

Daviesia, 1 77 

Decagynia, 44 

DeCandolle's method, 195 

Decandria, 4 1 

Decumaria, 168 

Deguelia, 179 

Delima, 152, 173 

Delphinium, 137 

Dendrobium, 42 

Detarium, 180 

Diadelplda, 42,48,176 

Diandria, 40 

Dianella, 75 

Dianthus, 41, 161 

Dichondra, 104 

Diclines, G 1 

Didinia, 49 [1 92 

Dicotyledones, 33, 36, 61, 85 

Dicranum, 46, 65 

Dictamnus, 158 

Didynamia, 41,101,204 

Diervilla, 130 

Differentiae, 54, 55 

Digitalis, 100 

Digynia, 44 

Dilatris, 77 

Dillenia, 152 

DiUeniacece, 152, 173 



Dillwynia, 178 
Dimocarpus, 141 
Dimorpha, 177 
jDiodia, 127 
Dioecia, 43, 46 
Dioecious flowers, 28 
Dioscorea, 72 
Diosma, 158, 205 
Diosmece, 158, 159 
Diospyros, 113 
Diphysa, 179 
Diplolcena, 159 
Dipsacece, 125,135,206 
Dipsacvs, 126,205,206 
Dipteryx, 177, 179 
Dwa, 82 
Disandra, 101 
Dissepimenta, 22 
Dodecagynia, 44 
Dodecandria, 41 
Dodecas, 168, 169 
Dodecatheon, 96 
Dodoncea, 181 
Dolichos, 178 
Dombeya, 106, 191 
Donatia, 161 
Dondia, 134 
Doronicum, 123 
Dorstenia, 189 
Dracaena, 72 
Dracocephalum, 99 
Drosera, 140,201 
Drw/>a, 23 
Drwsa, 133 
Dryandra, 185 
Dry as, 173 
Drypis, 161 
Dumosce, 204 
Duranta, 98 
Dwrio, 140 
Duroia, 128 
Dust, 21 

Ebenacece, 112,113 
Echinophora, 134 
ito, 109,110 






IXDEX. 



225 



Efhiutn, 103 
Eclipta, 120 
Edwardaia, 177 
Eliretia, 103 
Ehrharta, 69 
Eketwrgia, 1-46 
Eleeagni, 86,167,201 
Elteagnus, 86, 87 
EleeocarpUs, 145 
Elaterium, 187 
Elatlne, 161 
Elatoatema, 189 
Elcaja, 146 
Elettaria, 81 
E//WMT, 103 
Elymus, 69 
Embothrium, 88 
Embryo, 24, 33 
Embryopteris, 113 
Empetrum, 115,207 
Empleurum, 15.s 
Enneagynia, 44 
Enneandria, 4 1 
Enourea, 141 
Ensatai, 97, 199 
Epacridea?, 116 
Epacris, 40, 1 1'5 
Eperna, 1 77 
Ephedra, 191 
Epibateriuni, 154 
Epidendrum, 82 
Epigcca, 115 

Bpigynous insertion, 37, 61 
EpUobhun, 167 
Epimeditim, 155, 202 
Episperm, 26 
Equisetuin, 46, 206 
Kranthemum, 98 
Erica, 112, 115, 116, 211 
Erica?, 115,117,201,207,211 
Erigeron, 123 
Erinits, 96 
Eriocalia, 13'4 
\Eriocaulon, 73 
, 91 
, 68 



Eriostennm, 158, 159 

Erithalis, 128 

Erodium, 1 48 

Ervum, 179 

Eryngiiinij 135 

Ery throw, 107 

Erythrina, 1/8 

Erythronium, 73 

Eri/throxylum, 143 

Escallonia, 1 67 [5 1 

Essential characters, 38, 50, 

Etiiulia, 124 

Eucalyptus, 169 

Euchilus, 198 

Euconiis, 75 

Eude$midj 169 

Eugertia, 1 68 

Euodia, 158 

Eucfnymus, 182 

Euosma, 1 08 

Eupatorium, 123" 

Euphorbia, 185 

Euphorbia', 159,184,203 

Euphoria, 141 

Euphrasia, 96, 100 

Euryandra, 1 52 

Eutaxia, 178 

Evohulus, 104 

Exacum, 107 

Excoecaria, 185 

Exoacaritha, 134 



, 179 
Fab r Ida, 169 
F<ij?ra, 158, 181 
Fagonia, 158 
Fagraa, 109 
Fa#Ms, 19D 
Faramea, ] 29 
Farsetia, 135 
Fasciculus, 15 
Fawz, 20 
Ferns, 18,35 
Ferraria, 76 
Ferreola, 113 
Fertile flower, 2& 



INDEX. 



Fertilises, 28 

Ferula, 133 

Feuillea, 187 

Fibres, 3 

Ficaria, 136 [173,200 

Ficoidece, 157,161,165,166, 

Ficus, 43 

Filago, 123 

Filamentum, 21 [208 

Filices, 18, 35, 46, 198, 206, 

Fisckera, 134 

Fissilia, 145 

Flacourtia, 156 

Flemingia, 178 

Floral leaf, 12 

Florets, 28 

J7<w, 17 

Flosculi, 28 

Flosculosi,Jlores, 15, 29 

Flower, 17 

Flower-budding, 22 

Flower-stalks, 7 

Foetidia, 1 69 

Foliola, 10 

Folium, 8 

Folliculus, 23 

Footstalks, 7 

Forgesia, 118 

Forskalea, 189 

Fothergilla, 190 

Fragaria, 173 

Frankenia, 161 

Fraxinus, 97 

Fringe of Mosses, 65 

Fritillaria, 73 

Frond, 8 

Jrons, 7 

Fructification, 17, 57 

Fructus, 1 7 

.Frw, 17 

Fuchsia, 167 

Fucus, 47 

Fugosia, 150 

Fulcra, 1 1 

Fumaria, 42, 138, 202 

Fungi, 8,34,47,63,209 



Galanthus, 40, 70 
Galax, 1 64 
Galaxia, 76 
Galedupa, 179 
Gafega, 179 
Galenia, 9 1 
Galipea, 158 
Galium, 127 
Galopina, 1 27 
Gambogia, 144 
Garcinia, 1 44 
Gardenia, 128, 203 
Garidella, 137 
Gastonia, 132 
Gastrolobium, 1 78 
Gaultheria, 115 
Gawrcr, 1 67 
Gelsemium, 109 
Gemma, 8 
Genera, 30, 5 1 
Generic characters, 38 
Genipa, 128, 203 
Genista, 1 78 
Gentiana, 107 
Gentiance, 106,201,206 
Geoffrcea, 1 79 
Gerania, 147,201,202 
Geranium, 42, 148 
Gerardia, 100 
Germ, 24 
Germen, 21 
Geruma, 146 
Gesneria, 118 
Gethyllis, 75 
Getonia, 167 
Gewm, 173 
Gills, 19 
Ginannia, 177 
Ginoria, 171 
Gisekia, 165 
Gladiolus, 76 
Glands, 13, 21 
Glandula, 13 
Glaucium, 138 
GZfm*, 171 
Gleditsia, 176 



INDEX. 



227 



Glinus, 166 
Globba, 40, 79, 81 
Globularia, 96, 205 
Gloriosa, 73 
Glossoma, 183 
Glostopetalum, 182 
Gluma, 1 9 
Glycine, 1 78 
Glycyrrhiza, 1 79 
Gnaphalium, 1 23 
Gnetum, 189 
Gwidia, 87 
Gomozia, 128 
Gompholobium, 1 77 
Gomphrena, 92, 207 
Gonocarpus, 167 

Goodenia, 118 

Goodenovite, 118 

Goodia, 178 

Gordonia, 146, 150 

Gossyp'mm, 1 49 

Gouania, 183 

Goupia, 182 

Gramina, 198 

Graminece, 68 

Grangeria, 1 73 

Grasses, 6, 68 

Gratiola, 100 

Grewia, 156 

Grias, 144 

Grimmia, 65 

Gristed, 171 

Gronovia, 186, 187 

Gruinales, 201 

Guaiacaruz, 112 

Guaiacum, 158 

Guapurium, 1 68 

Guarea, 146 

Guazuma, 150 

Guettarda, 128 

Guiera, 167 

Guilandina, 1 77 

Gunnera, 1 89 

Gustavia, 169 

Guttifer<z, 144 

Gymnocarpus, 1 65 



Gymnocladus, 176 
Gymnospermia, 44 
Gymnostomum, 65 
Gynandria, 42, 84 
Gynopogon, 1 09 
Gypsophila, 161 

Hamanthus, 75 

H&matoxylum, 1 77 

Hcemodoracete, 77 

Hair, 13 

Halesia, 113 

Ha^ia, 178 

Haloragece, 167 

Kaloragis, 166, 1 6 7 

Hamadryas, 136 

Hamamelis, 155 

Hamelia, 1 29 

Hartogia, 205 

Hasselquistia, 133 

Head, 15 

Hete, 100 

Hebenstretia, 98, 205, 206 

Hedera, 131, 132, 204 

Hederacea, 204 

Hedycaria, 1 89 

Hedychium, 79, 81 
Hedycrea, 1 73 
Hedyotis, 127 
Hedysarum, 1 79 
Heisteria, 145, 200 
Helianthemum, 156 
Helianthus, 124, 157 
Heliconia, 78 
Helicteres, 150 
Heliocarpus, 1S6 
Heliotr opium, 103 
Helleborus, 137 
Hellenia, 81 
Hemerocallidea, 75 
Hemerocallis, 75 
Hemimeris, 100 
Hepatic*, 34, 46, 64, 209 
Heptagynia, 44 
Heptandria, 4 1 
Heracleum, 133 



228 



INDEX. 



Hermannia, 156 

Hennas, 134 

Hernandia, 90 

Herniaria, 93, 242 

Hesperidea, 201 

Heuchera, 1 63 

Hevea, \ 85 

Hexagynia, 44 

Hex.ndria t 40 

Hibbertia, 152 

Hibiscus, 149 

Hieracium, 1 20 

/Mia, 128,205,206 

Hilum, 26 

Hippia, 124 

Hippocratea, 142 

Hippocrepis, 1 79 

Hippomane, 1 85 

Hippophde, 86, 87 

Hippuris, 66, 167 

Hirtella, 173 

Hoitzia, 105 

Holcus, 69 

Holtracea:, 200, 208 

Holosteum, 1 60 

Homalium, 1 74 

Honey, 21 

Hookeria, 46 

Hopea, 113 

Hortensia, 1 3 1 

Hottonia, 95 

Houstonia, 127 

JFfot-ea, 178 

Hovenia, 1 83 

Hudsonia, 115 

Hugonia, 150 

Humulus, 189 

f/ura, 185 

Husk, 19 

Hyacinthus, 75 

Hydrangea, 131, 164 

Hydrastis, 136 

HydrocharidecE, 67 

Hydrocharides, 84, 198, 207 

Hydrocharis, 85 

Hydrocotylt, 133, 199 



Hydrophylax, 129 
Hydrophy Hum , 1 03 
Hymeneza, 177 
Hyobanche, 96 
Hyoscyamus, 101 
Hypecoum, 138, 139, 202 
Hyperica, 143, 145, 201 
Hypericum, 42, 143, 144 
Hypnum, 65 
Hypocalyptus, 1 78 
Hypogynous insertion, 37 65 
Hypoxis, 76 

Ifeeris, 139 
Jcica, 181 
Icosandria, 4 1 
Ignatia, 109 
Jter, 182 
Illecebrea, 93 
Illicium, 151 
Imbricaria, 111, 169 
Impatiens, 135, 148,202 
Imperatoria, 134 
Incarmllea, 105, 106 
Incertce sedis plantce, 192 
Incumbent cotyledons, 139- 
bidigofera, .179 
I n florescence, 1 4 16,56 
Inflorescentia, 1 4 1 6 
Inocarpus, 11 1 
Insertion, 32, 41 
Inundatce, 201, 207, 209 
JnwZa, 42, 123 
Involucellum, 1 8 
Involucrum, 18 
Ipomcea, 104 
Ipomopsis, 105 
Iresine, 207 
Jride*, 76, 77, 199 
/ra, 76 
Jsa^i?, 139 
Imardia, 171 
Isopyrum, 137 
Jfea, 114116 
2m, 122 
Iria, 76 



INDEX. 



229 



Ixora, 128, 130 

Jacaranda, 106 
Jacksonia, 1 78 
Jacquinia, 111 
Jambolifera, 158 
Jasione, 118 
Jasmines, 97, 204 
Jasminum, 97 
Jatropha, 1 85 
Jonquetia, 181 
Joscphinia, 106 
Juglans, 181 
JM, 72, 74, 198, 199 
Juncus, 73, 215 
Jungermannia, 46, 64 
Jungia, 169 
Junlperus, 191 
Jussiaa, 167 
Jussieu, 31, 37, 60 
Justida, 97 

K<empferia, 79, 31, 199 
Kalmia, 114 
Keel, 1/5 
Kenncdia, 1 78 
Jfrrria, 174 V- 

Kiggelaria, 1 85 
Kirganelia, 1 85 
Klrinhovia, 150 
Knniitia, 126,205 
Knoxia, 127 
w, 123 



Labatia, 1 1 3 
Labiate, 99, 101, 204 
Lachffxtlia, 75 
Lactic, 156 
Lagerstromia, 171 
Lagoeda, 132 
Laguna, 149 
Lagun(Ea, 1 49 
Lamina, 20 
.L inium, 41, 99 
Lanaria, 77 
Lardizabala, 154 



Larix, 191 
Laserpilium, 134 
Lasiopetalum, 183 
Lathraa, 96 
Lathyrus, 1 79 
Laugeria, 1 28 
Lawn', 90, 200 
Laurus, 90, 200 
Lavandula, 99 
Lavatera, 1 49 
Lawsonia, 171 
Leaflets, 10 
Leaves, 811,56 
Lebeckia, 1 78 
Lecanora, 46 
Lechea, 161 
Lecythis, 1 69 
Ledum, 114 
Leea, 111,146,147 
Legume, 23 
Legumen, 23 
Leguminous, 174, 203 
I,e;a, 66, 207, 208 
Lentibiilar'uc, 96, 200 
Leontice, 155, 202 
Lcontodon, 1 20 
Lepidium, 139 
Leptospermu in, 168 
Lesser tia, 179 
Leucadendron, 205 
Leucoium, 76 
Licania, 1 73 
Lichencs, 34, 46, 64 
Ligulatc florets, 28 
Ligusticum, 134 
Ligiistruin, 97 
Lilac, 97 
Lilia, 73, 199 
Lilium, 73 
Limbus, 20 
Limeum, 165, 208 
Limodorum, 82 
Limonia, 145 
Limosella, 95, 101 
Lindernia, 100 
Lindsaa, 66 



230 



INDEX. 



Linn&a, 130,206 

Linnsean System, 40 51 

Linum, 161, 201 

Liquidambar, 1 90 

Liriodendrum, 151 

Lisianthus, 107,205,206 

Lita, 107 

Lithospermum, 1 03 

Littorella, 93 

Liverworts, 47 

Loasa, 1 67 

Lobelia, 118 

Loddigesia, 1 78 

Loeftingia, 1 60 

Logania, 108 

Lomentacece, 180, 203 

Lonicera, 130, 205, 206 

Loranthus, 130, 205, 206 

Lotus, 1 78 

Louichea, 189 

Ludia, 174 

Luduilgia, 166 

Lunaria, 139 

Lupinus, 178 

J-wriAe, 102,202,211 

Lychnis, 161 

Lycium, 102 

Lycopsis, 1 03 

Lycopus, 99 

Lysimachia, 95 

Lysimachia, 95, 201, 202, 205 

Ly thrum, 171 

Afafor, 113 
Mabea, 1 85 
Macanea, 144 
Macrocnemum, 203 
Macrolobium, 176, 177 
Mawa, 115 
Magnolia, 151 
Magnolias, 151,206 
Mahernia, 156 
Malackodendrum, 150 
Malachra, 149 
Malcomia, 139 
Malope, 149 



Malpighia, 143 

Malpighia, 142, 201 

Ma/us, 172 

149 [203 

, 146, 148, 156, 183, 

Malvaviscus, 149 

Mammea, 144 

Mangifera, 181 

Manglilla, 11 1 

Maprounea, 185 

Maranta, 79 

Marchantia, 64 

Marcgravia, 1 40 

Marrubium, 9.9 

Martynia, 106 

Massonfa, 75 

Matayba, 141 

Matelea, 109 

Matthiola, 128, 140 

Matricaria, 1 23 

Mayepea, 1 83 

May eta, 170 

Mayna, 151 

Medeola, 72 

Medicago, 1 78 

Meionectes, 167 

Melaleuca, 42, 168 

Melampyrum, 96 

Melanthacets, 73 

Melastoma, 1 70 

Melastoma, 169,201 

Melhania, 150 

Me/ia, 146 [201, 208 

Me/iff, 111,114,146,150, 

Melianthus, 158,159,202 

Melica, 69 

Melicocca, 141 

Melicope, 158 

Melilotus, 178 

Melittis, 99 

Melochia, 150 

Melodinus, 1 09 

Melothria, 186, 187 

Membrana, 26 

Memecylon, } 67, 1 69 

Menisperma, 153, 199 



INDEX. 



Menispermea, 154 
Menispernmm, 154 
Mentha, 99 
Mentzelia, 167 
Menyanthes, 96, 108 
Menziesia, 114,211 
Mercurialis, 1 85 
Mesembryanthemum, 166 
Mespilus, 41, 172 
Messerschmidia, 1 03 
Mesua, 1 45 
Methonica, 73 
Metroslderos, 168,242 
Meum, 134 
Michauxia, 118 
Michelia, 151 
Micropus, 1 24 
Millingtonia, 106 
Mimosa, 175, 176, 180 
Mimosea, 180 
Mimulus, 100, 101 
Mimusops, 111,200 
Mindium, 118 
Minuartia, 161 
Mirabilis, 94, 205, 206 
Mirbelia, 1 78 
Misandra, 1 89 
Miscellanea, 207 
Mitchella, 129, 205, 206 
Mite/fa, 164 
Mithridatea, 189 
Mitrasacme, 1 07 
Mocanera, 166 
Modecca, 187 
Moehringia, 1 6 1 
Molineea, 141 
Mollugo, 161 
Momordica, 187 
Monadelphia, 42 
Monandna, 40 
Monarda, 99 
Monnieria, 158, 202 
Monocotyledones, 33,36,61-85 
Monoecia, 43, 46, 122 
Monoecious flowers, 28 
Monogamia, 4fc> 123 



Monogynia, 44 

Monopetalous flowers, 20, 61 

Monsonia, 1 48 

Montia, 1 65 

Montinia, 1 66 

Moquilea, 173 

Morcea, 76 

Morina, 126,205,206 

Morinda, 129, 205, 206 

Moringa, 175, 177 

Morisonia, 140 

Moronobea, 144 

JMbrtw, 189 

Mosses, 46, 64 

Mouriria, 167 

Mulinum, 133 

Mullera, 177 

Multisiliquce, 202 

Muncfutusia, 171 

Mangos, 107 

Muntingia, 156 

Murreca, 145 

Murucuia, 187 

MMS, 78, 80 

MMS, 77 

Mwsci, 34, 46, 64, 209 

Mushrooms, 47 

Musscenda, 128 

Mutisia, 123 

Myginda, 182 

Myosotis, 1 03 

Myosurus, 136 

JIfyrica, 182, 190 

Myriophyilum, 66, 167 

Myristica, 90 

Myrmeda, 107 

Myrodia, 150 

Myrospermum, 180 

Myroxylum, 180 

Mijrrkis, 134 

Myrsine, 111 

Myrsinece, 111 

Myrti, 167,168,201,203 

Myrtus, 1 68 

Naiades, 35,66,1^8,201,207 



INDEX. 



Na'eas, 66 
Naked flower, 28 
Napaea, 1 49 
Napimoga, 1 74 
Naravelia, 137 
Narcissi, 75, 199 
Narcissus, 76 
Nardns, 69 
NartJiedum, 73 
Nastus, 69 
Natural characters, 38 
Natural classes, 30 
tfauclea, 129 
Nectarium, 20 
Nectary, 20 
Nelumbium, 85 
NepentJies, 1 74 
Nepeta, 99 
Nephelium, 122 
Nerium, 109, 110 
Neurada, 44, 1/3 
Neuter flowers, 28 
Nicandra, 1 08 
Nicotiana, 101 
JVigcZ/n, 137 
Nigrina, 107 
Nitraria, 1 06 
Nomen speclficum, 55 
Nomenclature, 51,52,59 
Norantea, 1 40 
Number, 32, 40, 47, 214 
Nuphar, 85, 138 
Nut, 23 

Nyctagines, 93, 206 
Nyctago, 94 [202, 208 

Nympheea, 33, 85, 199, 200, 
NymphoHF, 138 
, 1 67, 200 



Oc/tno, 152 
Ochrosia, 109 
Qctagimia, 44 
Octandria, 41 
Qdontites, 134 
Oedmannia, 178 
Oeiuintht:, 134 



Oenothera, 167 

0/rt.r, 87, 111, 145 

Oldenlandia, 127 

O^eo, 97 

Oleintr, 98 

Oliveria, 134 

Olmrdia, 189 

Omphalea, 1S5 [215 

0flgr, 87, 166, 201, 206, 

Oncoba, 156 

Ononis, 1 78 

Onosma, 103 

Opegrapha, 46 

Ophiorrhiza, 107 

Ophioxylon, 109 

Ophira, 167 

O/)/<r?/s, 42, 82 

Opposiiifol'uE, 209 

Orchidea, 81, 111), 118, IptJ 

Orc/iw, 21,36,82 

Orders, 30,40,43,61 

Origanum, 99 

Ormosia, 177 

Ornithogahtm , 75 

Ornithopus, 179 

Ornitroplie, 141 

Orobanihe, 96 

Orobus, 1 79 

Ortegia, 160 

Orthostemon, 10? 

Orygia, 166 

Qryza, 69 

Osbeckia, 170 

Osyris, 87 

Other a, 155 

OMfea, 176, 177 

Ouariwn, 2 1 

Ot-j<?da, 130 

OaraZw, 148, 159, 201 

Oxybaphus, 94 

Oxylobium, 1 78 

Ozophylhtm, 146 

Pachira, 150 
Pacouria, 109 
Pteonia, 137 



INDEX. 



Pagamca, 129 

Palara, 149 

Paliurus, 183 

PulmtB, 43, 70, 198 

Palmea, \ 77 

PHrt.r, 132, 204 

Pancratium, 76 

Panicle, 16 

Panicula, 1 6. 

Panicum, 69 

Papaver, 138 

Papaveraceai, 137,148,202 

Papaya, 187 
Papitionaccee, 180,203 
Papilionaceous flowers, 48 
Pappus, 27 
Par aim, 1 13 
Pariana, 68, 69 
Parietaria, 189 
Parinarium, 173 
Parivoa, 177 
Parkinsonia, 176 
Parnassia, 140, 202 
Paronychia, 93 
Parsonsia, 1/1 
Parthenium, 122 
Partitions, 22 
Passer ina, 87 
Passifiora, 187, 18.8 
Pastinaca, 133 
Pa ti in a, 129 
Paullinia, 141 
Pavetta, 128 
Pavonia, 1 49 
PedalincE, 106 
Pedalium, 106 
Pedicellits, 7 
Pedicular cs, 96, 101, 203 
Pedicular is, 96 
Pedunculus, 7 
Pcganiim, 158 
PeArew, 141 
Pelargonium, 148 
Pdliada, 26 
Pdtaria, 139 
utcii, 4G 



Pcmphis, 17! 
Pentagynia, 44 

Pentandria, 40 
Pentapetes, 150 
Penthorum, 163 
Peplis, 171 
Perebea, 189 
Perennial roots, 4,17 
Perfect flower, 28 
Pergularia, 109, 110 
Perianthium, 18 
Pcricarpium, 22 
Perichcetium, 1 9 
Perigynous insertion, 37, 61 
Periploca, 109, 110 
Peristomium, 65 
Personate?, 203,211 
Petaloma, \QT 
Petals, 20 
Petalum, 20 
Petesia, 128 
Petiolus, 7 
Petraa, 98 
Petrocarya, 1 73 
Peucedaniim, 133 
P/taca, 179 
Phacdia, 103 
Pharnaceum, 161 
Pharus, 69 
Phaseolus, 1 78 
Phebalium, 158 
Pliellandriuni, 134 
Philadelphus, 168 
Philydrum, 8 i 
Phlomis, 99 
P/itor/ 105 

Phrynium, 79 
PAy/ica, 183 
Phyllanthus, 185 
P/iyi, 127 
Phy salts, 102 
! Physospermum, 134 
Phyteuma, 1 18 [208 

Phytolacca, 44, 9 1 , 117, 207, 
Picra, 42, 120 



234 



INDEX. 



Picrium, 1 07 
Pilocarpits, 158 
Pilus, 13 
Pimehea, 87 
Pitnpinella, 134 
Pingukula, 96, 202 
Pinws, 191 
Piparea, 157 
Piper, 189, 198 
Piperitce, 198 
Piriqueta, 157 
Piscidia, -179 
Pisonia, 94 
Pistacia, 181, 206 
PM, 85, 207, 209 
Pistilla, 21 
Pistils, 21 
PISHTO, 42, 179 
Plagianthus, 150 
Plantagines, 93 
Plantago, 93 
Platanus, 190 
Platylobium, 178 
Plectronia, 183 
Pleurandra, 152 
P/mJa, 173 
Plukenetia, 185 
Plumbagines, 94, 205 
Plumbago, 94 
Plumeria, 109, 110 
Plumula, 24, 69, 80 
Poa, 40, 69 
Pod, 23 
Podalyria, 177 
Podocarpus, 191 
Podolobium, 1 78 
Podophyllum, 137 
Pogonia, 82 
Poinciana, 1 77 
Polemonia, 104, 202 
Polemonium, 105 
Polianthes, 76 
PoMew, 21 
Pollichia, 242 
Polyadelphia, 42 
Polyandria, 41 



Polycardia, 182 
Polycarpon, 161 
Poly gala, 96 

iUj 43, 49 
<Equalis,45, 120, 121 
frustranea, 45, 121, 
122 



123 



necessaria, 45, 122 
segregata, 45, 121, 

super flua, 45, 122 
Polygamous flowers, 28 [216 
Polygonece, 90, 117, 165, 200 
Polygonum, 90, 216 
Polygynia, 44 
Polymeria, 1 04 
Polypetalous flowers, 20, 6 1 
Polypodium, 66 
Polyscias, 132 
Pomacea, 172, 203 
Pomaderris, 183 
Pomum, 23, 172 
Poruea, 141 
Pontederia, 76 
Populus, 43, 190 
Poraqueiba, 155 
Portesia, 146 
Portlandia, 128 
Portulaca, 1 65 
Portulacea:, 164, 200, 208 
Possira, 177 
Potalia, 108 
Potamogeton, 66, 73 
Potentilla, 173 
PotentillcE, 173 
Poterium, 172,203,207 
Pothos, 67 
Pouch, 23 
Poupartia, 181 
Pourouma, 189 
Pouter ia, 113 
Prc?te, 201 
Prickle, 12 
Primula, 96 
Primulacetf, 96 
wos, 182 



INDEX. 



235 



Prockia, 1 73 
Prockice, 173 
Procris, 189 
Proportion, 4 1 
Proserpinaca, 85, 167 
Prosopis, 177 
Protea, 88, 205 
Proteacea, 88, 89, 130, 205 
Protect, 88 
Prunella, 99 
Prunus, 173 
Pselium, 154 
Psidium, 168 
Psoralea, 1 78 
Psychotria, 128 
Psyllium, 93 
Ptetea, 181 
Pteranthus, 189 
Pteris, 66 
Pterocarpus, 1 79 
Pterospermum, 150 
Pubescence, 13, 55 
Pulmonaria, 1 03 
Pulteruea, 177 
Punctuation, 58 
Pungamia, 1/9 
Punica, 168, 203 
Purshia, 174 
Putaminece, 202 
Pwy, 74 
Pyrola, 115 
Pyrws, 172 

Quapoya, 144 
Quararibea, 150 
Quassia, 152 
Quercus, 43, 190 
Queria, 161 
Quisqualis, 167 
146 



Racemus, 14 
Rachis, 69 
Radiant umbel, 15 
Radiati,jlore$, 29 
-Radicle, 3 



Radicula, 3 

fladir, 3, 4 

^a/wia, 178 

Rajania, 72 

Randia, 128 

Ranunculacete, 136, 152, 202 

Ranunculus > 136 

Rapanea, 15iT~" 

Raphanus, 139 

Rauwolfia, 109 

Ravenala, 78 

Reaumuria, 166 

Receptacle, 27 

Receptaculum, 27 

Renealmia, 79 

Reseda, 41, 140, 207 

RestiacecB, 73 

jResiio, 73 

Rhamneae, 1 83 

Rhamni, 181, 182, 204, 205 

Rhamnus, 1 83 

Rheedia, 1 45 

Rheum, 90 

Rhexia, 1 70 

Rhinanthus, 96 

Rhizophora, 130, 200 

Rhizophorece, 130 

Rhodiola, 163 [117,201,211 

Rhododendra, 112, 114, 116, 

Rhododendrum, 114 

Rhodora, 114 

RhoeadecB, 202 

MMS, 181, 204 

Riana, 155 

Jitter, 164, 203 

Richardia, 127 

Ricinus, 185 

Ringent flowers, 48 

Rinorea, 155 

Rittera, 177 

Robergia, 181 

Robinia, 179 

.RoeZte, 118 

Rokejeka, 165 

Root, 3, 4, 56 

flosa, 172 



236 



INDEX. 



Rosacets, 1 7 1 , 1 76, 203, 207 

Rosae, 172 

Roscoea, 8 1 

Rosmarinus, 99 

Rostrum, 27 

Rotacea, 201 

tfotaZa, 161, 171 

Rottbollia, 69 

Roupala, 88 

Rourea, 181 

Royena, 113 

Rubentia, 182 

.RMfoa, 127 [206 

Rubiac&e, 1 07, 1 26, 203, 204, 

Rudbeckia, 124 

Rudlia, 97 

Ruizla, lf>0 

Rumex, 96, 216 

Rumphia, 181 

Ruppia, 66 

Ruscus, 72 

tfwto, 158 [202,204,205 

Rutacea, 148,157,181,201, 

Sabbatia, 107 

Sabicea, 129 

Sagina, 161 

S(ii.ttarid, 73 

Sattcarue, 1 6 1 , 1 69, 1 70, 20 1 

Salicornia, 91 

5o/u7, 43, 190 

SalmcttM, 157 

Salsola, 91 

Salvia, 99 

Samara, 23, 183 

Sambucus, 131, 204 

Samolus, 96 

Sandoricum, 146 

Sanguinaria, 137 

Sanguisorba, 1 72, 203, 207 

Sanguisorbce , 1/2 

Sanicula, 134 

Santalaree, 87, 111, 167 

Santalum, 87, 167 

Sapindi, 140, 143, 201 

Sapindus, 141 



Sapium, 185 

Sapnnaria, 161 

Sapotcg, 110 

Sarcophyllus, \ 78 

Sarmentacea, 199, 208 

Sarothra, 161 

Sarracenia, 208 

Satureia, 99 

Satyrium, 82 

Saurnnts, 66, 198 

Saxifraga, 1 63 

Saxifrages, 1 28, 1 63, 1 65, 200 

Scabiosa, 40, 126, 205 

Scabridaf, 207 

Sccevola, 118 

Scandix, 134 

Scapus, 6 

Scar, 26 

Scheuchzeritt, 73 

Schinus, 181 

Schizandra, 154 

Schmidelia, 141 

Scholia, 1 76 

Schrankia, 1 75 

Schrebera, 182 

Schulzia, 134 

Schwalbea, 1 00 

Schwenkia, 100 

Sdlla, 75 

Sciodaphyttum, 132 

Scirpus, 68 

Scitaminece, 36, 79, 199 

Scleranthus, 165 

Sclerothamnus, 1 78 

Scolopcndrium , 46 

Scoparia, 100 

Scopolia, 181 

Scorpinrus, 179 

Scottia, 1 78 

Scrophularia, 100 

Scrophu.la.ruB, 100102, 203 

Scutellaria, 99 

Scft, 107 

Sechium, 185 

Securidaca, 1 80 

Securinega, 185 






INDEX. 



237 



Sedum, 163 
Seed-bud, 22 

down, 27 

lobes, 24 

vessels, 22 

Seeds, 24 

Segregates, 50 

Selago, 98, 205, 206 

Selinum, 133 

Semecarpus, 181 

Semina, 24 

Sempervivee, 162,200 

Semper civum, 163 

Senecio, 123 

Senra, 150 

Senticosce, 203 

Separated flowers, 28, 42, 49 

Sepiaria*, 204 

Septa*, 44, 163 

Serapias, 82 

Seriphium, 123 

Serissa, 129 

Serpicula, 166, 167 

Serratula, 121 

Sesamum, 105 

SeeK, 134 

Sesleria, 69 

Sessiles,Jlores, 8$c. 7 

Sesuvium, 166 

Sheath, 19 

Sherardia, 1 27 

Sibbaldia, 173 

Sibthorpia, 96, 101 

Sic&M, 242 

Stcyos, 187 

-Swto, 149 

Sideroxylum, 1 1 1 

Siegesbeckia, 120, 124 

Sifewe, 161 

-SiJer, 134 

Silicula, 23 

Siliculosa, 45, 139 

Siliqua, 22 

Siliquosa, 45, 139 

Siliquosce, 203 

Silphium, 1 24 



181 

Sinapis, 139 
Singana, 1 45 
Siphonia, 185 
Siriuniy 167 
-Swon, 134 
Sisyrinchium, 76 
Shim, 134 
Sloanea, 156, 206 
Smilar, 72 
Smithia, 179 
Smyrnium, 134 
Sodada, 140 
Solandra, 149,212 
Solaneee, 101,202,203 
Solatium, 102 
Sonchus, 120 
Sonneratia, 168 
Sophora, 177 
Sorbus, 1 72 
Sort, 19, 65 
Sowerbcsa, 74, 75 
Spananthe, 134 
Sparganium, 68, 198 
Sparmannia, 156 
Spartium, 42, 178 
Spatha, 19 
Spathacece, 199 
Spathelia, 181 
Spathodea, 106 
Species, 30, 52 
Specific characters, 53 59 
Spergula, 161 
Spermacocc, 127 
Sphcerolobium, 178 
Sphagnum, 65 
Spica, 1 4 
Spicula, 14 
Spigelia, 1 07 
Spike, 14 
Spikelet, 14 
Spilanthus, 124 
S/>m, 12 
Spinachia, 91 
.Spir^a, 173 
Spircece, . 173 



238 



INDEX. 



Spirospermum, 154 

Spondias, 181 

Stachys, 99 

Steehelina, 120 

Stalks, 6, 7 

Stamens, 2 1 

Stamina, 2 1 

Standard, 175 

Stapelia, 109, 110 

Staphylea, 182 

Statice, 94, 205 

Stauntonia, 154 

Stellaria, 161 

Stellatce, 204 

Stems, 5, 6, 56 

Sterbeckia, 145 

Sterculia, 150 

Sterilis,Jlos, 28 

Stigma, 22 

Stillingia, 185 

Stipes, 8 

Stipula, 1 1 

Sfoefo, 123 

Stone fruit, 23 

Stratiotes, 85, 198 

Stravadium, 1 69 

Straw, 6 

Strelitxia, 78 

Strigilia, 146 

Strobilus, 24, 190 

Strophiolurn, 26 

Structure, 32 

Struthiola, 87 

Strychnos, 1 09 

Stuartia, 42, 146, 150, 156 

Stylidece, 118 

Stylidium, 42 

5fy/ws, 22 

-Styrax, 1 13 

Succulentce, 200 

Suriana, 173 

Sutherlandia, 179 

Swainsonia, 179 

Swertia, 107 

Swietenia, 147, 208 

Symphonic, 144, 146 



Sympti&ricarpos, 130 
Symphytum, 103 
Symplocos, 113 
Syngenesia, 42, 120 124 
Syringa, 97 

Taberncemontana, 109 
, 76, 86 
ia, 107 
Tachibota, 157 
Tachigalia, 177 
Tacsonia, 187 
Tagetes, 123 
Tail, 27 
Talattma, 151 
Talinum, 1 65 
ra/wia, 141 
Tamarindus, 1 76 
Tamarix, 1 65 
Tamws, 72 
Tanacetum, 1 24 
Tapiria, 181 
Taralea, 177 
Tarchonanthus, 1 24 
Tasmannia, 151 
TOJTMS, 191 
Tecoma, 1 06 
Tectona, 98 
Teesdalia, 41, 139 
Telephium, 165, 208 
Templetonia, 1 78 
Tendril, 12 
Tenoria, 134 
Terebintacece, 180, 206 
Terebinthus, 181 
Terminalia, 86, 167 
Ternstromia, 146 
T^to, 26 

Tetracera, 152, 173, 174 
Tetradynamia, 41, 139 
Tetragonia, 166 
Tetragynia, 44 
Tetrandria, 40 
Tetranthera, 90 
Teucrium, 99 
Thalia, /9 






INDEX. 



239 



Thalictrum, 136 
Thapsia, 134 
Then, 146, 203 
Theka, 98 
Thelygonum, 1 89 
Thelymitra, 82 
Theobroma, 150 
Theophrasta, 109 
Thermopsis, 177 
Thesium, 86, 87 
7%upi, 41, 139 
TVioa, 189 
Thorn, 12 

Throat of a flower, 20 
Thryallis, 142 
TTiwz/a, 191 
Thymelcece, 87, 203 
Thymus, 99 
Thyrsus, 1 6 
TiarelUt, 163 
Tibouchina, 170 
Ticorea, 146, 158 
Tigarea, 152, 173, 174 
Tigridia, 76 
TiJia, 156 
TiliacecK, 155, 206 
T^kea, 163 
Tillandsia, 74 
Tmws, 146, 200 
Tococa, 170 
Toluifera, 181 
Tonabea, 1 46 
Topobea, 1 70 
Tordylium, 133 
Torito, 134 
Tormentilla, 1 73 
Toulicia, 141 
Tournefortia, 103 
Tourretia, 106 
Tovomita, 144 
Tbzxia, 96 
Trachelium, 118 
Tradescantia, 73 
Irag-ja, 185 
Tragium, 134 
Tragopogon, 120 



TYapa 85 
Triandria, 40 
Trianthema, 1 65 
Tribulus, 158 
Trichilia, 146 
Trichodesma, \ 03 
Trichosanthes, 187, 188 
TricocaE, 203 
Tricratus, 94 
Tridax, 124 
Trifolium, 178 
Triglochin, 73 
Trigonella, 178 
Trigonia, 143 
Trigonis, 141 
Trigynia, 44 
Trihilate, 201 
Trioecia, 46 
Triopteris, 142 
Triosteum, 130, 205, 20G 
Tripetaloidea, 198 
Tristania, 169 
Tristemma, 170 
Triticum, 69 
Triumfetta, 156 
Trollius, 136 
Tropceolum, 148, 159, 201 
Trophis, 207 
Tubular florets, 28 
Tttfow, 20 
Tuft, 15 
Tulbaghia, 75 
Tulipa, 73 
Tunic, 27 
Turner a, 157, 165 
Turraa, 146, 150, 208 
Tussilago, 120, 123 
z, 68, 198 
, 67 



, 42, 178 
C/Zmws, 190, 207 
Umbel, 15, 132 
Umbella, 15 

Umbellatce, 204 [204 

Umbell'i/era, 15, 18, 56, 132, 



240 



INDEX. 



Umbellula, 15, 132 
Unguis, 20 
United flower, 28 
Unona, 153 
Urania, 78 
Urendj 149 
Urtica, 189 
Urticce, 188,198,207 
Utricularia, 96, 202 
UtTiculus, 23 
Uvaria, 153 
Uvularia, 73" 

Vaccinwm, 112,115,211,216 

VahUa, 166 

Valantia, 127 

Valeriana, 126, 205 

Valisneria, 85, 198 

Fani/to, 82, 8-1 

Varieties, 30, 52 

Varronia, 1 03 

Valeria, 145 

Vatica, 145 

Vegetation, 4, 24 

Veil, 65 

Feteeia, 161 

FeMa, 139 

FeH, 118 

J'entitago, 183 

Feprecitlte, 203 

Veratrum, 73 

rerbaacum, 101, 102 

Verbena, 98, 20j&- " 

Verbenacete, 

Verbesina, 

Vcron\ca, 40, !)(i, 100. 

, 204, 211 
Verticlllus, 14 
Vexilluw, l?5'7^r 
Vilurmtm, 130", 131, 204 
Fici, 179 ^-t^M^ 
Fillars'ui, 108 
Vimlnaria, 178 
Finca, 109,110 
Fro/a, 135, 157, 202 
Verer.ta, 128 




J'irgiJift, 177 

Fi*cM/n, 130, 205, 200 

Fisnea, 166 

Vitellus, 25, 80 

Ft to, 147 

Fifez^ 98 

Fift'cw, 98, 130, 203, 200 

Fi/i*, 147, 204 

Vohiria, 107 

Foteo, 19, 63 

Votvtnita, 1 83 1 

Vouapa, 177 

Wachcndorfia , 77 
Wahlbomia, 152 
Waltheria, 156 
Watsonia, 76 
We'mmannia, 1 64 
Westringia, 1 00 
White of a seed, 2> 
Whorl, 14 
Wiborgia, 178 
Willughbcja, 109 
Wilsonia, 104 
M'ing, 27 
Wing*, 1 75 
Win t era, 151 
Winterania, 146 
Witheringia, 102 
fntsenia, 76 
Wormia, 152 
AVrappef , 1 9 
Wulfen'ut, 100 



144 

\Xanthium, 122 
iXanthorrhiza, 137 

Xanthoxylon, 158, 181, 204 

Xerunthemiiin , 123 

Xerophyta, 74 

Ximenia, 145 

Xiphidiiun, 76 

Xylopia, 153 

Xyloplnjlla, 185 

Xylosieum, 130- 

Xyria, 73' 



INDEX. 



Zingiber, 81 
Ziziphus, 183V 
Zostera, 67, 198 
Zucca, 188 
Zwingera, 181 
Ze/^ia, 180 
Zygophyllete, 159 
Zygophyllum, 158 



241 




ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 24, after line 10th, add, A pulpy fruit, still further from the nature ol 
a real pericarp, is formed of a branched common-riowerstalk in Htvenia dul- 
cis, Thunb.Jap. 101, Sicku. of Kaempfrr's /tmcemtatti Exntica? 808. /. 809 J 
and of the same part perhaps, rather than the scales of a receptacle, in Potli- 
chia campestris, Ail. Hart. Kew. v. 1. 12. Smith Spirit. 1. t. 1, The latter is 
a very curious genus, of the Monandria Munugyma, belonging to Mr. Brown's 
lllecelirttt, see p. 93, where it should stand next to Herniaria. 

Page 76, 1. 6, read Polianthes. 
109, 1. 2'2, read dbaster. 

168, 1. 3 from the bottom, before Leptvspcrmum insert Metroiideros, Sm, 
Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 3. 266. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



IAB. 1. fig. 1. Globba racemosa. a. Calyx, b. Tube of the Corolla. 
c, c, c. Outer limb, d, d. Two segments of the inner limb. e. Third seg- 
ment of the same, or lip. f. Filament, g. Anther, h. Style, t. Germea. 
k. Stigma. 2. Veronica spicata. 8. Poajluitans, magnified. 4. A floret 
more magnified. 5, 6, T.Scabiosa arvensis. 8, 9. Epncris oltuslfolia. 
10, 11. Galanthus nivalis. a. Spatha. 12. Aesculus Hippocastanum. 
13. Daphne collina. 14. Butomusumbellatus. 15,l6.Dianthusc<esivs. 
17. Reseda lutea. a. Two upper petals, magnified, b, b. Two middle ones, 
c. Two lowermost. rf.Nectary, 13, 19. Mespilusgrandiflora t Ej:ot.Bot. 
*. 18. 

TAB. 2. fig. 20. Capparis spinosa. a. Germen, on a long stalk. 21. Co- 
rolla, stamens and style of Lamium album. 22. Calyx and seeds of the 
same. 23. Stamens, pistil,and 1 petal, of Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris- 24. Ca- 
lyx-leaf and pouch. 25. Teesdulia nvdicuulis, Compend. Fl. Br. 98. 
26. Stamens and pistil magnified. 27. A stamen, with it's scale. 28. Ca- 
lyx and 1 petal of Cardamine amara. 29. Stamens and pistil. 30. Ripe 
pod and seeds. 31. Stamens of Geranium sylvaticum. 32. Calyx. 
33. A Petal. 34. Pistil. 35. Capsule and it's beak. 36. Calyx of Al- 
thesa officinalis. 37. Petals, stamens, &c. a. Pistil. 38. Fumarla so- 
lida. 39. Stamens, in two sets, with the pistil. 40. Spartium scoparium 
stripped of it's petals. 

TAB. 3. fig. 41. Stamens and pistil of Ulex europaus. 42. Stamens 
and style of Pimm maritimum. 43. Calyx of the same. 44. Standard. 
45. A Wing. 46. One petal of the keel. 47. Pistil. 48. Stamens and 
pistil of Hypericwn elades. 49. Calyx magnified. 50. Back of the whole 
flower. 51. Stuurtia penlagyna. 52. A petal separate, with part of 
the stamens, a. Pistils. 53. Jdelaleuca thymifulia. 54. Bundles of sta- 
mens. 55. Calyx and pistil. 56. Separate petal. 

TAB. 4. Jig. 57. Picris echioides. 58. Calyx and receptacle of the 
same. 59. Floret. 60. Seed and it's down. 61. Carduus nutam. 
62. Section of the receptacle, with the young seeds, down, &c. 63. Flo- 
ret. 64. Floret of the radius of Centaurea Cyanus. 65. Floret of the 
disk of the same. 66. Inula dysenlerica. 67. One of it's radiant florets. 

68. One of those of the disk, with (a) the anthers and stigma separate. 

69. Receptacle, a. A portion magnified. 70. Ophrys apifera. a, a, a. Ca- 
lyx-leaves, b, b. Petals, c. Lip of the nectary, d. A stalked mass of pol- 
len, projecting from one of the cells of the anther, e.f. Base of the co- 



xvi EXPLANATION or THE PLATES. 

lumn, in front of which is the stigma. 72. Mass of pollen separate. 
g. Its glandular, or viscid, base. 73. Stylidium gruminifolium, Br. 
Prndr. 568. 74. Geniien, calyx, and column, magnified. 75, 76. An- 
thers, with the stigma between them. 77. Dendrvbium linguiformc. 
a. Lid of the Anther. 78. The same stripped of it's calyx and petals. 
a. Lid. b. Column, c, c. Stigma, d. Germen. e- Anther stripped of it's 
lid. 

TAB. 5. jig. 79. Barren and fertile flowers of Carer pulicaris. a. Ger- 
meo and style separate, b. Ripe fruit. 80. Quercus Robur. 81. Bar- 
ren flowers magnified, a. Stamen and it's corresponding scale. 82. Fer- 
tile flowers magnified. 83. One of them after impregnation. 84. Acorn 
and it's cup. 85. Sails herbucea, barren plant. 86. One of it's flowers 
magnified. 87. Fertile plant of the same. a. A flower magnified, b. Nec- 
tary. 

TAB. 6. fig. 88. Populus alba, catkin of barren flowers. 89. A flower, 
with it's scale, magnified. 90. Fertile flowers. 91. One of them mag- 
nified. 92. Ficus Carica. 93. Section of the same, showing the flowers. 
94. Perfect flower. 95. Fertile one. 

TAB. 7. fig. 96. Equisetum sylvaticum. 97. One of it's peltate scales. 
98. Germen, and four supposed stamens. 99. Aspidiurh Filix mas. 100. A 
lobe magnified. 101. Capsule burst. 102. Scolopendrium vulgare. 
103. A portion magnified. 104. Capsules. 105. Dicranum purpureum. 
106. It's scaly sheath. 107. Ripe capsule and lid. 108. The same de- 
prived of it's lid, showing the fringe. 109. Hookeria lucens. 110. Scaly 
sheaths. 111. Capsule entire. 112. Portions of the outer and inner 
fringe, greatly magnified. 113. Veil. 114. Jungermannia multifida. 
115. Capsule in various states. 

TAB. 8. Jig. 116. Opegrapha scripta. 117. Fructification enlarged. 
118, 119. Parmelia murorurn, Ac ... Syn. 181. 120. A fragment magni- 
fied. 121. Peltideu canina, Ach. Syn. 239. 122. A powdery-edged 
portion. 123. Ft cut natam. 124. Fructification, and swimming blad- 
der, magnifLr'. 125. Section of a seed-ves:el, more enlar^ec'. a. Seed 
with it's mucus. 126. Cavity in the frond, bearing tufts of fibres, a. 

TAB. 9. Jig. 127. Conferva corultina. 128. Magnified portions of the 
same. 129. Agaricus muscarius diminished. . Volvo, b. Fleshy Volvo. 
130. Peziza coccinea. 131. Peziza stercoraria. 132. Sheaths or cells 
greatly magnified, lodging the seeds. 133. Aecidium fuscum. a, a. The 
same greatly magnified. 134. Aponogeton monostachyon. a. Flower mag- 
nified, b. One of the germens more enlarged. 

TAB. 10. Jig. 135. Potamogetoncrispum. a. Flower magnified, b. One 
of the pistils. 136. Lemnu trisulca. a. Flower. 137. Acorus gramineus. 
a. Flower. 138. Typhalatifolia. a. Stamens, b. Styles. 139. Carex de~ 



EXPLANATION' OF THE PLATtS. xvii 

pnupcruta. a. Barren flower, b. Fruit, c. Scale, d. Seed. 140. Scirpus 
Jluitans. %. Scale, b. Stamens and pistil. 141. Coix Lacltryma. a. Bar- 
ren flowers, b. Fertile ones. 

TAB. 11. Jig. 142. Phoenix fariniferu,~Roxb. Corom. v. 1. t. 74. a. Bar- 
ren flower, b, b. Fertile ones. 143. Paris quudri folia a. Calyx, b. Pe- 
tal. 144. Convalfaria majali's. a. Corolla expanded, to show the stamens. 
b. Pistil, c. Half-ripe berry. 145. Juncus Furateri, Fl. Brit. a. Flower 
magnified, b. Ripe capsule bursting, c. Seed. 146. Tulipa sylvestris. 
a. Pistil. 147. Agave iuridu. a. Germcn, sty'e, and stigma. 

TAB. It.fig. 148. Blundfurdin nobilis, Sm. Kxu*. Bat. 5. .4. a. Flower 
spilt open. b. Capsule also laid open. c. Seed 149. Sowerbaa junceu. 
a. Stamens and pistil, b. Pistil alone c. Capsule cut across, d. Seed. 
150. Narcissus biflorus. a. Pistil, b. Spatha, or Sheath. 151. Sisyrin- 
chium striatum. a. Stamens and Pistil. \b2.Irisfixtidissinta. a. Stamens 
and Stigmas. 153. Dilutris corymbosa, 

TAB. 13. Jig. 154. Strelitzia regina. a. Spatha. b. Petals, c, c. Nec- 
tary cut open to show the stamens and style.- 155. Seed of Urania, 
Scfircb. Gen. with it's blue tunic. 156. Hydrucftaris Morsus-rantE. a. Sta- 
mens, b. Calyx. 157, Asarurn europium, a. Section of the flower. b. a 
stamen, c. Stigma. (2. Seed 158. The&ium imophyllum. a. Flower some- 
what magnified, b. Fruit. 159. Protea rosacea. 160. Embothrium buxi- 
Julium. a, a. Stigma, b. Anthers. 161. Laurus nol/ilis. a. Drupa. 
162. Polygonuut Bistorta. a. Back of the flower, b. Pistil. 163. Atri- 
plex port ulacoides. a. Barren flower, b. Perfect flower, c. Its pistil. 

164. Acliyrunthes argentea. a. Fringed segments of the Nectary. 

165. Amaranthus Blilum, a. Barren flower, b. Fertile one. 166. Plan- 
tago lanceotata. a. Pistil. 

TAB. 14. Jig. 167. Mirubilis longijlura. a. Perianth, b. Longitudinal 
section of the seed. 168. Statice reticulata. a. Petal and stamen en- 
larged, b. Pistil, c. Calyx of the fruit. 169. Anagallis tcnella. a. Ripe 
capsule bursting, with the seeds. 170. Utriculuria vulgaris. a. Calyx 
and pistil, b. Corolla separate, the letter marking it's base, or point of 
attachment, c. Stamens. 171. Bur hia vise osa. a. Calyx and style, b. Co- 
rolla and stamens. 172. Justicia coccinea. a. Pistil. 173. Olea euro- 
p&a. a. Calyx and pistil enlarged, b. Drupa. 174. Vt^bena officinulis. 
a. Corolla. ^.Stamens. 175. Antirrhinum Cymbalaria. c. Corolla forced 
open to show the stamens, b. Piblil. c. Ripe capsule burst, d. Seed. 
176. Silthorpia europtea, magnified. . Calyx and pistil. 177. Sulaiium 
stelligerum. a. Lids of the anther, b. Berry, and permanent calyx 
178. Litlwspermwn purpuro-caruleum. a. Corolla split open, bearing 
the stamens. 179. Convolvulus arvensis. a. Cqlyx and pistil. 180, Ipo- 
\mopsis elcguns. a. Calyx and pistil. 

b 



XV'iii EXPLANAT/OX OP THE PLATES. 

TAB. 15. fig. 181. Bignoniaunduluta, E.cot.Bot. t.19, showing it's 
fifth filament, which has no anther. 182. Gentianaverna. a. Pistil. 

183. Efacumjilifonue. a. Corolla laid open, with the stamens, b. Pistil. 

184. Mc.ni/anthes nymphtzoides ; Vilt'trsia of Ventenat. a. Calyx and 
pistil. -185. Pergvlaria odoratissima. a. Calyx, b. Corolla laid open. 

c. One of the five leaves of the crown, with it's internal appendage. 

d, d. A stamen seen externally, and internally, with the anther, and 
double masses of pollen, e. Pistil, with the masses of pollen deposited 
upon it. f. Double germen, surrounded by nectariferous "lands of the 
receptacle. 186'. Vinca major, a. Tube of the corolla, bearing the sta- 
mens, b. A stamen magnified, c. Pi^cii, of the natural size. d. Follicle 
and seeds. 

TAB. 16 fig. 187. Bassia latifolia, Roxb. Corom. v. 1. t. 19. a. Co- 
rolla laid open, bearing the stamens, b. Pistil, c. Germen swelling, and 
calyx, d. Fruit. 188. Myrsine return, a. Flower magnified, b. Pistil. 
189. Diotpyrot tnelanoxylon, Roxb. Corom. t. 49. . Stamens and pistil. 
b. Fruit. 190. Rliododendruinarbore>n>i,Stn. Exot. Bat. t. 6. a. Stamen. 

b. Pistil. 191. Erica Tetralix. a. Stamens and pistil, b. Stamen en- 
larged, c. Pistil 192. Vaccinium Oxycoccus. a. Stamen enlarged, b. Ger- 
men half ripe, with the style, c. Transverse section of the same. 
193. Campanula Trachelium. 194. Saevola hispidei, Brown Piodr, 586. 
a, Stamen, b. Anther magnified, c. Style and stigma. 195. Lobelia 
Dorlmanna. a. Corolla, b. Stamens, with combined anthers, c. Calyx 
and pistil. 196. Sherardia urvensis, thrice the natural size. 197. Cin- 
chona officinalis. a. Corolla laid open, showing the stamens, b. Pistil. 
198. Coffea arabica. a. Perianth crowning the germen. b. Berry unripe. 

c. Section of the same, showing the tunic of the seed. d. Embryo sepa- 
rate. 199. Hamellia patens, a. Stipulas. b. Corolla laid open, showing 
the stamens, c. Calyx and pistil. 200. Linnga borealis. a. Corolla laid 
open, bearing the stamens, b. Double calyx, and pistil. 201. Vibur- 
num Opulus. a. Corolla and stamens, b. Calyx and pistil, magnified. 
c. Berry. 202. Panax quinquefolium. a. Germen, calyx and styles. 

TAB. 17. Jig. 203. Peucedanum officinule. a. Seeds, each supported by 
it'b proper capillary stalk 204. Artedia squamata. a. Flower of the 
circumference, b. Seed. 205. Eriocalia minor, Exot. Bot. t. 79; see 
J'.209. 206. Astrantia minor, magnified, a. Barren Flower, with a leaf 
of the involucrum. b. Perfect flower, c. Fruit. 207. Smyrnium 0/wsfl- 
trwn. a. Pistil, b. Germen cut across, c. Fruir. 208. Cancalis latifolia. 
a. Flower of the circumference, b. Pistil and calyx. 209. Eriocalia mi- 
nor, magnified, Exot. Bot. t. 79. a. Germen much enlarged, cut across. 
CIO. Srandir Peclen-Veneris. a. Seeds nearly ripe. 211. SisonAmomum 
a. Half-ripe fruit. 212. Erynginm campcstre. a. Petal, b. Styles.* 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. XIX 

213. Clematis Vitalba. a. Stamen, b, b. Pistils, c. Ripe seed, with its 
feathery tail. 214. Ranunculus parv'tflorus. a. Seed. 215. lidlebons 
viridis. a. Capsules half ripe. '216. Caltha radicans. a. Petal, b. Sta- 
men. 217. Actaaspicata. a. Calyx-leaf, b. Petal, c. Stamen, d. Pistil. 
218. Ptipnrer Argeinonc. a. Petal, b. Stamen, c. Pistil. 219. Nitptuir 
minima. . Petal, b. Stigma. 220. Sapindus rubigimmi, Roxb. Corom. 
v. 1. t. 62. a. Pistil, b. Fruit cut across. 

TAB. 18._/?. 221. Acercampestre. u. Perfect flower, b. Fertile flower. 
r. Fruit. 222. Mulpighia glanduloaa. a. Flower, b. Fruit. 223. Xantho- 
chi/mus piclori'ts, Rorb., showing the five sets of stamens, with five inter- 
nediate nectaries 224. Citrus Aurantium. tt. Young berry. 225. Tnr<- 
r<eavircns. u. Pistil, ft. Capsule, c. Seed 22<i. I'itis vini/'era. a. Com- 
ed petals, elevated by the stamens. 227. Pelargonium crithmijolitnn. 
a. Pistil. 228. Tropaolumperegrinum.a.Stevaen.b. Pistil. 229. Mag- 
lolia fusrata. 230. Dilleniu anrett, E.vat. Pot. (. 92, the pistil and sta- 
nens. 231. Portion of the ripe fruit of the same, being an assemblage 
of succulent-coated capsules. 232. Uvaria suberosa, Roxb. Carom, v. 1. 
t. 34. a. Calyx and petals, b. Receptacle, c. Germen cut across. 
233. Menigperinwircordifblium, Willd. a. Barren flower in front, ft. Back 
of the same. c. Ripe drupa. d. Section of the same. 234. Epimedium 
afpinum. a. Stamen, b. The same, wit!) the anther burst, c. Pistil. 
d. Calyx, e. Nectary. 

TAB. 19. Jig. 235. Tilia europ&a. a. Capsule 236. Cistus Helian- 
themum. a. Calyx, ft. Stamen, c. Pistil. 237. Boroniaserrulata. 238. Dis- 
section of the same Boronia. a. Flower stripped of it's petals, ft, ft. Pistil, 
c. Stamen, showing the crested appendage of the anther, d. Ripe cap- 
sule, after the seeds are gone. e. Elastic tunic, f. Seed. 239. Holosteum 
umbellatum. a. Calyx and ripe capsule, ft. Receptacle of the seeds. 
240. Stellaria holostea. 241. Frankenia leevis. a. Stamens and pistil, 
ft. Pistil magnified. 242. Sempertnviim tectorum. 243. Saxif'raga gra- 
nulutu. 244. Cerulopetalum gumnnferum. a. Petal and stamen, ft. Sta- 
men magnified, c. Capsule and seed. 245. Ribes nigrum. a. Calyx laid 
open, bearing the petals and stamens, ft. Pistil, c. Ripe berry. 2J6. Cc- 
tus Tuna, showing the germen, and under side of the flower. 247. Man- 
tiafontuna. a. Pistil, ft. Capsule, c. Seed. 248. Mesembryanthaitum 
tenuifolium. a. Calyx and pistil, ft. Petals in three rows, with some of 
the stamens. 249. Epilobium tetragomtm. a. Calyx, with stamens, style, 
and stigma, all magnified, ft. Capsule and seeds. 250. Fuchsia coccinea. 
a. Berry. 251. Myriophyllum spicutum. a. Barren flower, with its brae- 
tea, ft. Calyx and stamens of the same. c. Fertile flower and its bractea. 
252. Hippuris vulgaris. a. Flower in an early state, magnified, ft. The 



XX EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

same after the pollen is discharged . 253. Eucalyptus robusla. a. Calyx 
and pistil, b. A stamen enlarged, c. Lid lifted off. 

TAB. 20. Jig. 254. Blakea trinervis. a. Stamens, b, b. Some of the 
same separate, c. Outer and inner calyx, with the pistil. 255. Lythrum 
Sulicaria. a. Calyx and style, b. Petals and stamens, showing their 
insertion into tlie calyx, c. Pistil separate. 256. Rosa spinosissima. 
257. Fruit of the same. a. Seed. 258. Sibbaldiu procumbens. a. Back 
of the calyx, b. Petal, c. Stamen, d. One of the Pistils. 259. Fragaria 
vesca. a. Ripe fruit. 260. Spiraa Fi/ipendula. a. Petal, b. Stamen. 
c. One of the pistils. 261. Prunus Cerusus. a. Drupa. 262. Viminaria 
denudutu. a. Stamens, all distinct, b. Pistil, c. Legume, and permanent 
calyx. 263. Astragalus f/t/poglottis. a. Stamens and pistil, b. Legume. 
c. Seed. 264. Semecarpus Anacardium. a. Barren flower, b. Perfect 
one. 

TAL. 21. fig. 265. Euonymus curopaeus. a. Ripe capsule, b. Tunic cut 
across to show the seed. c. Seed naked. 266. Rhamnus cat hart tens. 

a. Segment of the limb of the calyx, b. Petal and abortive stamen. 

c. Pistil of a fertile flower, d. Rudiment of pistil in a barren one. 
e. Berry. 267. Lusiopctalumferrugineum. a. Pistil enlarged, with the 
petals, b. Stamen. 268. Euphorbia hiberna, magnified, showing thejoints 
of the stamens, where, according to Mr. Brown, those parts unite with 
their partial stalks. 269. Pistil of Bums sempervirens. a. Transverse 
section of the germen. 270. Bryonia dioica. a. Barren flower, b. Berry. 
271. Fassiflora suberosa. a. Ripe berry, with the permanent calyx and 
styles, b. Seed. 272. Dorstenia cordifolia. a. Part of the receptacle 
magnified, with barren and fertile flowers. 273. Urtica urens. a. Bar- 
ren flower, with it's central nectary, b. Calyx in fruit. c.Seed. 274. Hu- 
mulits Lupulus. a. Barren flower, b. Stamen magnified, c. Fertile flower. 

d. Pistil with the tunic, magnified. 275. Taxm baccuta. a. Barren flower. 

b. Fertile flower, c. Ripe fruit. 276. Pinus sytvestris. a. Anther mag- 
nified, b. Scale of an unripe cone, the natural size. c. Ripe seed. 
277. DacryeKum cuprcssinum, from Lambert's Finns, tab. 41. a. Tip of 
a branch, with the solitary fertile flower, b. Scale of a barren flower, 
with the double anther, magnified. 




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