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/>. Appleton & CoSs Educational Publications. 

Dr. Arnold's Classical Series. 



FIRST LATIN BOOK: re-modelled, re-written, and adapted, to the 
Ollendorff Method of Instruction. By ALBERT II ARKNESS. One vol. Ifimo. 75 cts. 
Several improvements have been introduced by Mr. II., and an effort made to sim- 
and render more clear the elementary portions of the work of Dr. Arnold. It is a 
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MAR. Revised and carefully corrected, by J. A. SPENCER, A. M. One vol. 12mo. 
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A most admirable volume, based on the true principles of learning a language, viz^ 
those of imitation and repetition. The pupil is put to work at once at Exercises iu 
Latin, involving the elementary principles of the language; words are supplied; the 
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time adding to his stock of words and ideas, the docile boy has the Latin elements in- 
delibly impressed upon his memory, and rooted in his understanding. 


LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION: a Practical Introduction to Latin 
Prose Composition. Revised and corrected by J. A. SPENCER, A. M. 12mo. $1. 
Very exact, copious, and scientific; Latin synonymes are carefully illustrated, differ- 
encos of idiom noted, cautions as to niceties pointed out, and every help afforded to- 
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CORNELIUS NEPOS; with Practical Questions and Answers, and an 
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language in general A good vocabulary is attached. 


FIRST GREEK BOOK, on the Plan of the First Latin Book. Revised 
and corrected by J. A. SPENCER, A. M. 12mo. 75 cts. 

A new and very admirable volume prepared by Prof. Spencer from the work of Dr, 
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ples *to their legitimate results. 


GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION: a Practical Introduction to Greek 
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GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION. Part II. A Practical Introduction 
to Greek Prose Composition Part II. (The Particles.) 

In tins volume the Particle* are treated in full, and the student carried as far for- 
ward as is possible in tho art of composition in Greek. 


GREEK READING BOOK, for the Use of Schools; containing the sub- 
stance of the Practical Introduction to Greek Construing, and a Treatise on the 
Greek Particles; and also a Copious Selection from Greek Authors, with English 
Notes, Critical and Explanatory, and a Lexicon, by J. A. SPENCER, A. M. 12mo. 

A capital volume, having admirable Introductory Exercises on the Forms and 
Idioms of the Language ; a choice collection of passages (of length) from standard au- 
thors ; notes, clear, and precise ; and a copious lexicon at the end. It is fully equal to 
ny one of the series. 

D. Appleton & Cols Educational Publications. 

Greek Ollendorff; 

Being a Progressive Exhibition of the Principles of the Greek Grammar. 
Designed for beginners in Greek, and as a Book of Exercises for Acad- 
emies and Colleges. 12mo. $1. 

"Among the many elementary books published for the use of schools, we have not 
met with one that has pleased us as much as Professor Kendrick's Greek Ollendorff. 
It seems exactly fitted for the purpose intended, viz., by instilling into the minds of the 
young the more simple elementary principles of the language, thus to prepare them for 
a more extensive and familiar acquaintance with the ancient Greek classics. Its sim- 
plicity is perfectly delightful. The unfamiliar character of the letters, and the long 
y even a very imperfect knowledge of the Gram- 
from prosecuting the study of Greek, who, with 

course of study required to give a boy even a very imperfect knowledge of the Gram- 
mar, have deterred many a beginner from prosecuting the study of Greek, who, with 
the attractive volume before us, would have taken hold of it at once, and mastered all 

its difficulties. This is not only the best possible book to be put into the hands of boys, 
but it seems to us, that any person more advanced in years, and wishing to acquire 
eome knowledge of Greek, even without a teacher, may, by the aid of this volume, ac- 
complish his object 

"The sounds of the letters and diphthongs, and the use of the breathings and accents, 
are so briefly, yet so familiarly explained, that, although the author recommends that this 
portion of the work should be deferred by the younger pupils to a second, or a third pe- 
rusal, yet such a recommendation seems to us to be hardly necessary. 

"A knowledge of the Greek Grammar has generally been considered as an indispen- 
eable qualification of the pupil before he begins to read Greek. The doing away with 
the necessity of this at the beginning, is very encouraging to the learner, while at the 
same time it gives the author an opportunity to introduce gradually, and almost imper- 
ceptibly, sufficient grammar to illustrate the examples as they occur; and then, by re- 
peating these examples with variations almost innumerable, the principle is indelibly 
impressed upon the mind. 

In the older Greek books intended for schools, the examples given have been faulty, 
from their involving too many principles at the beginning. The mind of the pupil can- 
not comprehend so many things at once ; he gets confused, and becomes, after a while, 
discouraged. Whereas, in the Greek Ollendorff of Professor Kendrick, every principle 
of the Grammar is introduced by degrees, and only when it is wanted for application. 
It teaches rules by examples, rather than examples by rules. 

" Another advantage of this volume over the older school books of the kind, is the 
examples of double translation, introduced at the very beginning, and made a part cf 
the regular daily exercise. 

" The book is well printed in good type, and on go kl paper, for which the Appletoa* 
deserve due credit 

" We conclude by recommending this work to the favorable attention of teachers* 
N. T. Recorder. 


Exercises m Greek Prose Composition. 

Adapted to the First Book of Xenophon's Anabasis. One volume 
12mo. Price 75 cents. 

*** For the convenience of the learner, an English-Greek Vocabulary, a Catalogue 
of the Irregular Verbs, and an Index to the principal Grammatical Notes, have been 

"A school-book of the highest order, containing a carefully arranged series of exer- 
cises derived from the first book of Xenophon's Anabasis (which is appended entire), 
an English and Greek Vocabulary, and a list of the principal modifications of irregular 
verbs. We regard it as one peculiar excellence of this book, that it presupposes 
both the diligent scholar and the painstaking teacher; in other hands it would be 
not only useless, but unusable. We like it also, because, instead of aiming to give the 
pupil practice in a variety of styles, it places before him but a single model of Greek 
composition, and that the very author who combines in the greatest degree purity of lan- 
guage and idiom, with a simplicity that both invites and rewards imitation.''---^ riiWcMt 
















Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 
for the Southern District of New York. 





RAPHAEL KUHNER, the author of the following Grammar, 
was born at Gotha, in 1802. From 1812 to 1821, he 
studied at the celebrated gymnasium in his native city. 
Among his classical teachers were Doring, Host and Wiiste- 
mann. From 1821 to 1824, he enjoyed, at the University 
of Gottingen, the instructions of Mitscherlich, Dissen and 
Ottfried Miiller. While there, he prepared an essay on 
the philosophical writings of Cicero, which received a 
prize. Since 1824, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum 
at Hanover. The principal works from the pen of Dr. 
Kiihner are the following : 

1. Versuch einer neuen Anordnung der griechischen Syntax, 

mit Beispielen begleitet. 1829. " Attempt towards a 
new Arrangement of the Greek Syntax," etc. 

2. M. Tull. Ciceronis Tusculan. Disputationum libri. 1829 ; 

ed. altera 1835 ; ed. tertia 1846. 

3. Sammtliche Anomalien des griechischen Verbs in Attisch. 

Dialecte, 1831. " Anomalies of the Greek Verb, etc. 

4. Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, in 2 

Theilen, 1834, 1835. " Copious Grammar of the Greek 
Language, in two Parts." The second Part of this 
grammar, containing the Syntax, translated by W. E. 
Jelf, of the University of Oxford, was published in 
1842; the first Part in 1845. A second edition of 
Jelf s translation of this work was published in 1851. 
This work is, however, only in part a translation, Mr. 


Jelf being the author of the remarks on the Cases, the 
particle av, the compound verbs, etc. 

5. Schulgrammatik der griechischen Sprache, 1836 ; zweite 

durchaus verbesserte u. vermehrte Auflage, 1843; 
dritte verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage 1851. 
" School Grammar of the Greek Language, third 
edition, improved and enlarged." The present vol- 
ume is a translation of this Grammar, from the 
sheets, furnished for this purpose by the author. 

6. Elementargrammatik der griechischen Sprache, neunte 

Auflage 1850. " Elementary Grammar of the Greek 
Language, containing a series of Greek and Eng- 
lish exercises for translation with the requisite vocab- 
ularies." This Grammar, translated by Mr. S. H. 
Taylor, one of the translators of the present volume, 
has passed through eleven editions in this country. 

7. Xenophontis de Socrate Commentarii, 1841. 

8. Elementargrammatik der lateinischen Sprache, siebent 

Auflage, 1850. " Elementary Grammar of the Latin 
Language with Exercises." This Grammar, trans- 
lated by Prof. Champlin, of Waterville College, has 
passed through several editions in this country. 

9. Lateinische Vorschule nebst eingereihten lateinischen 

und deutschen Ubersetzungsaufgaben, vierte Auflage, 

10. Schulgrammatik der lateinischen Sprache, dritte sehr 

verbesserte Auflage, 1850. " School Grammar of 

the Latin Language, third edition, greatly improved." 
Dr. Kiihner has also published in the Bibliotheca Graeca 
the first part of his edition of Xenophon's Anabasis. 

From the above statements, it will be seen that Dr. 
Kiihner has enjoyed the most favorable opportunities for 
preparing the work, a translation of which is now pre- 
sented to the public. The names of his early instructors 
are among the most honored in classical philology. For 


nearly thirty years, he has been a teacher in one of the 
principal German gymnasia, and has thus had ample facili- 
ties for testing in practice the principles which he has 
adopted in his Grammars. At the same time, he has pur- 
sued the study of the classical authors with the greatest 
diligence, in connection with the productions which his 
learned countrymen are constantly publishing on the differ- 
ent parts of Latin and Greek grammar. Of course, his 
wofks might be expected to combine the advantages of 
sound, scientific principles with a skilful adaptation to prac- 
tical use. The " School Grammar of the Greek Lan- 
guage," being his latest publication, contains the results of 
his most mature studies. Its chief excellences, it may be 
well, perhaps, briefly to indicate. 

First, The grammar is based on a profound and accurate 
knowledge of the genius and principles of the Greek lan- 
guage. The author adopts substantially the views which 
are maintained by Becker, Grimm, Hupfeld and others, and 
which are fully unfolded in the German grammars of 
Becker. According to these views, the forms and changes 
of language are the result of established laws, and not of 
accident or arbitrary arrangement. Consequently, language 
may be subjected to scientific analysis and classification. 
The multitude of details may be embraced under a few 
comprehensive principles, and the whole may have some- 
what of the completeness and spirit of a living, organic 
system. Dr. Kiihner's grammar is not a collection of de- 
tached observations, or of rules which have no connection, 
except a numerical one. It is a natural classification of 
the essential elements of the language, an orderly exhibi- 
tion of its real phenomena. It is, at the same time, a truly 
practical grammar, fitted for its object, not by a theorist in 
his closet, but by an experienced instructor in his school. 

Second, The author has adopted a clear and satisfactory 
arrangement of his materials. This can be seen by an 


examination of the table of contents. To those, indeed, 
who are familiar only with the common distribution of 
subjects in our Greek grammars, the arrangement of Dr. 
Kiihner may appear somewhat obscure and complicated. 
A slight acquaintance, however, with the plan on which 
the Syntax, for example, is constructed, will show that he 
has followed the true and logical method. Abundant 
proofs of the justness of this remark may be seen in the 
exhibition of compound sentences. The particles *are 
treated, not as isolated, independent words, but as a com- 
ponent and indissoluble part of discourse. 

Third, Fulness and pertinence of illustration. The cor- 
rectness of every principle advanced, especially in the Syn- 
tax, is vouched for by copious citations from the classics. 
If, in any case, a principle is stated in an abstract form, or 
if a degree of obscurity rests upon the enunciation of it, 
its meaning may be readily discovered by reference to the 
illustration. The paradigms contain much more complete 
exemplifications of conjugation and declension than are to 
be found in the grammars in common use in this coun- 
try. In this connection, it may be stated, that Dr. Kiihner 
has chosen a pure verb as the model of regular inflection. 
He can thus exhibit the stem unchanged, throughout the 
entire conjugation. 

Fourth, The perfect analysis to which the forms of the 
language, especially of the verb, is subjected, may be men- 
tioned as another excellence of the grammar. In learning 
a paradigm, in the manner which the author points out, the 
pupil first resolves the verb into its -elements, and then 
rearranges these elementary parts into a complete form. 
In this method, and in no other, can he attain a mastery 
of this most difficult portion of the subject. 

Fifth, Every part of the grammar is equally elaborated. 
The closing pages exhibit the same fulness and conscien- 
tious accuracy, which characterize the forms, or the first 


portions of the Syntax. No part can be justly charged 
with deficiency or with superfluous statement. The view 
of the Third Declension, the scientific list of Irregular 
Verbs, the Dialectic peculiarities, the observations on the 
Use and Position of the Article, on the Middle and Passive 
Verbs, on the delicate shades of thought indicated by the 
Modes and Tenses, and on the difference between the use 
of the Participle and Infinitive, may be referred to as spe- 
cimens of careful observation and nice analysis. 

The Appendix on Versification has been supplied by the 
translators, the grammar of Kiihner containing nothing on 
that subject. The materials were drawn from a variety of 
sources. A more full view is less necessary, as the excel- 
lent work of Munk on Greek and Roman Metres, trans- 
lated by Profs. Bepk and Felton, is now accessible. 

Much pains have- been taken in verifying the almost in- 
numerable references to classical authors. The very few 
exceptions are those cases where the author made use of 
an edition of a classic not accessible to the translators. In 
this verification, the following editions of prose authors 
were used : Kiihner's edition of the Memorabilia ; Weiske's 
and Tauchnitz's editions of the other works of Xenophon ; 
Schafer's and Tauchnitz's editions of Herodotus ; Becker's 
and Tauchnitz's editions of Thucydides ; Dobson's edition 
of the Oratores Attici ; and Stallbaum's Plato. There are 
slight variations in numbering the lines of poetry in differ- 
ent editions, particularly in the tragedians. 

The present edition has been prepared from the third 
German edition, in which the author had made many im- 
portant improvements, particularly in the Syntax, having 
availed himself of the corrections or remarks of his learned 
friends and his reviewers. This the translators have en- 
deavored to put into such a form as would best meet the 
wants of American scholars. They have not aimed merely 


at a translation ; it has been their object to state in as clear 
and concise a manner as possible the principles contained 
in the original, without reference to the particular form in 
which the statements were there made. The translators 
have also added principles and illustrations of their own, 
where it seemed desirable. 

The numbering of the paragraphs has not been changed 
in the present edition, and most of the subdivisions and 
Remarks are the same as in the former edition. The 
changes in this respect have been so few, that it has not 
been thought necessary to indicate them. 

The labor of preparing the first edition of this work was 
shared equally by the translators ; so, also, in the second 
edition as far as the 210th page. At this point in the 
progress of the work, the state of Professor Edwards's 
health made it necessary for him to relinquish his labors in 
connection with it, for the purpose of seeking a milder 
climate. After a few months' residence in one of the South- 
ern States, he was called away from his labors on earth, 
deeply lamented by his associate, and the large circle of 
friends to whom his character presented so many attractive 
qualities. His loss will be extensively felt also in the cause 
of Biblical and Classical literature, for which none cher- 
ished a deeper interest, and for the promotion of which he 
contributed with great zeal and success the rich stores of 
his elegant and varied learning. 

The proofs of the Grammar have been read by Mr. P. 
S. Byers, an associate Instructor in Phillips Academy, to 
whom special acknowledgments are due for these services, 
as well as for many valuable suggestions. 

ANDOVER, JULY 15, 1852. 





Sounds of the Letters 2 

History of the Alphabet 2b 

Organs of Speech 3 

Vowels 4 

Consonants 5 

Breathings 6 

Changes of Letters 7 

Changes of the Vowels 8 16 

Hiatus 8 

Contraction of Vowels 9 

Crasis 10,11 

Synizesis 12 

Elision.. 13, 14 

N Paragogic (^<f>f\KvtrTiK6f) ; 

OIJTU(S) ; ^| and e'/c ; ou and OVK 15 
Strengthening and Weakening 

of Vowels 16 

Prolongation, Shortening. In- 
terchange and Variation, ... 16 
Influence of a Vowel or Con- 
sonant on another vowel. ... 16 
Syncope, Omission of a Vowel 16 

Euphonic Prothesis 16 

Changes of the Consonants. . . 17 25 

Mutes 17 

Liquids 18 

Mutes and Liquids, Liquids and 

Mutes 19 

Sibilant <r with Mut. and Liq... 20 

Change of separated Consonants 21 

Metathesis of Liquids 22 

Doubling of Consonants 23 

Strengthening and Addition of 

Consonants 24 

Expulsion and Omission of 

Consonants . . 25 


Nature and Division of Syllables 26 

Quantity of Syllables 27 

Quantity of the Penult 28 

Accents 29 

Change and Removal of the 
Accent by Inflection, Compo- 
sition and Contraction 30 

Change and Removal of the Ac- 
cent in connected Discourse 31 35 

I. Grave instead of the acute 31 

II. Crasis 31 

IU. Elision 31 

IV. Anastrophe 31 

V. Atonies or Proclitics. . . 32 

VI. Enclitics 3335 

Division of Syllables 36 

Punctuation Marks Diastole. 37 


Division of the Parts of Speech. Inflection 


Different kinds of Substantives. . . 39 

Gender of Substantives 40 

Number, Case and Declension ... 41 

First Declension 

I. Feminines. 

II. Masculines 




Quantity and Accentuation . 45 

Second Declension 46 

Contraction of the second Dec. 47 
Attic second Declension. ... 48 

Accentuation 49 

Remarks on Gender 50 

Third Declension 51 

Remarks on the Case-endings 52, 53 

Paradigms 54 63 

Quantity 64 

Accentuation . . 65 

Gender 66 

Anomalous Nouns 67, 68 

-Defective Nouns 69 

Interchange of Forms in the 

Declensions 70 72 

I. Redundant Nouns 70 

II. Heteroclites 71 

III. Metaplasts 72 

Indeclinable and Defective 

Nouns 73 


Nature, Gender and Declension 74 

Accentuation 75 

Summaiy of the Adjective and 

Part. Endings 76 80 

I. Adjectives and Partici- 
ples of three Endings. . 76, 77 
II. Adjectives of two Endings 78, 79 
III. Adjectives of one Ending 80 

Comparison of Adjectives 81 

A. -rcpos, -Tfpa, -repay; -raros, 

-TOT?;, -TO.TOV 82 

B. -UOJ/, -10V, -(Of, -OV\ -KTTOS, -77, 

-ov 83 

Anomalous forms of Comparison. 84 

Comparison of Adverbs 85 


Nature and Division of Pronouns 86 

I. Personal Pronouns 87-90 

II. Demonstrative Pronouns 91 
III. Relative Pronouns . . 92 

IV. Indefinite and Interrogative 

Pronouns 93 

Correlative Pronouns 94 

Lengthening of the Pronoun 95 


Nature and Division of Numerals 96 
Numeral Signs 97 

Principal classes of Numerals. ... 98 
Remarks on the Numerals . . , .99 

Nature and Division of Adverbs 100 | Formation of Adverbs 101 


Nature and Division of the Verb 102 

Classes 102 

Tenses 103 

Modes 104 

Infinitive and Participle 105 

Persons and Numbers 106 

Conjugation of Verbs in -CD 107 

Stem, Augment, Reduplication 

and Characteristic 108 

Inflection-endings 109 

a. Tense-characteristic and 

Tense-endings 110 

b. Personal-endings and Mode- 

vowels 111114 

Full Paradigm of a Regular Verb 115 
Remarks on the Inflection-endings 116 
Remarks on the Formation of the 
Attic Future 117 

Accentuation of the Verb ....'.. 118 
Further view of Aug. and Redup. 119 

(a) Syllabic Augment 120 

(bj Temporal Augment. . 121, 122 

Reduplication 123 

Attic Reduplication 124 

Aug. and Redup. in Compounds 125-6 
Formation of the Tenses of Verbs 

in-w 127167 

Division of Verbs in -w according 

to the Characteristic 127 

Derivation of Tenses 128 

I. Formation of the Tenses of 

Pure Verbs 129 

a. With a short Characteristic- 

vowel 130 

b. With a in Aor. Pass, and Peif . 

Mid. or Pass 131 



Paradigms of Pure Verbs 132137 

A. Uncontracted Pure Verbs.. 132 

(a) Without ff in the Mid. or 

Pass 132 

(b) With ff in the Mid. and 

Pass 133 

B. Contract Pure Verbs... 134136 
Remarks on contract verbs... 137 

II. Formation of the Tenses of 

Impure Verbs 138 

Strengthening of the Stem 139 

Variation of the Stem- vowel 140 

Remarks on the Secondary Tenses 141 

A. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs 142144 

Remarks on the Characteristic 143 
Paradigms of Mute Verbs 145 148 

B. Formation of the Tenses of 

Liquid Verbs 149 

Paradigms 150153 

Peculiarities in the Formation of 

Single Verbs 154 

Syncope 155 

Metathesis 156 

Verbs in -o> with Stem of the Pres. 

strengthened 157 

I. Verbs with v inserted 158 

II. Verbs with the syllable ve 159 

III. Verbs with o.v or aiv 160 

IV. Verbs in -ovccw, -i<r/cw 161 

V. Verbs in -Sxa 162 

VI. Verbs with Reduplication. 163 
VII. Verbs whose Pure Stem- 
vowel a is strengthened by i 164 

VIII. Verbs which assume e 165 

Verbs which assume an e in form- 
ing the Tenses 166 

Verbs whose Tenses are formed 

from different Roots 167 

Conjugation of Verbs in -/nt .... 168 
Division of Verbs in -/ 169 

Characteristic-vowel and Strength- 
ening of the Stem of the Pres. 170 

Mode-vowels 171 

Personal-endings 172 

Formation of the Tenses. . . 173, 174 

Paradigms 175 

Remarks on the Paradigms ... . 176 
Summary of Verbs in -/**. . 172 190 

I. Verbs in -pi which annex the 

Personal-endings immediate- 
ly to the Stem-vowel 177 

(a) Verbs in -a 177 

*T?/U 178 

Deponents 179 

(b) Verbs in -e 180 

(c) Verbs in -t : E?/u. Ej>f . . . 181 

II. Verbs in -pi which annex vvu 

or vv to the Stem- vowel . . 182 

Formation of the Tenses 182 

Summary of this class of Verbs 183 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel 183186 

(n)in-o 183 

(b) in -e 184 

(c)in-t 185 

(d) in-o 186 

B. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Consonant 187,188 

(a) in a Mute 187 

(b) in a Liquid 188 

Inflection of Kc?/ and rjiuu 189, 190 

Verbs in -<a analogous in Forma- 
tion to those in -/*t . . 191 196 
I. Second Aor. Act. and Mid- 
dle 191, 192 

II. Perf. and Plup. Act.. . 193, 194 

Ol5a and COJKO 195 

III. Present and Imperfect 196 

Summary of Deponent Passives. 197 
Summary of Active Verbs with a 
Mid. Fut 198 



Digamma or Labial Breathing F. 200 

Interchange of the Vowels 201 

Interchange of the Consonants 202-204 

Change of the Vowels 205-207 

Contraction, Diaeresis 205 

Crasis, Synizesis, Elision, N Par- 

agogic, Hiatus 206 

Lengthening and Shortening of 
the Vowels. Syncope. Apo- 
cope 207 


Prothesis and Insertion of Vowels 207 

Changes of Consonants 208 

Quantity 209 


Declensions 210 214 

Homeric Suffix <f>i or $iv 210 

First Declension 211 

Second Declension 212 

Third Declension 213 

Anomalous and Defective 
Words. Metaplasts 214 



The Adjective 215 

Comparison 216 

Pronouns 217 

Numerals 218 

The Verb 219-230 

Augment and Reduplication . . 219 
Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels 220 

Epic and Ionic Iterative Form 221 
Contraction and Resolution in 
Verbs . , . 222 

Formation of the Tenses ... 223 

Conjugation in -/j.t 224 

Ei>i and E?/xt 225, 226 

Verbs in -o with a Sec. Aor. an- 
alogous to Verbs in -/it .... 227 

Verbs in -ta with a Perf. and 
Plup. Act. like Verbs in -pi 228 

Verbs in -w with a Pres. and 
Impf. Act. like Verbs in -fu 229 

List of Dialectic Verbs . . 230 


Radical Words, Stems,Derivatives 231 

A. Derivation 232-235 

I. Verbs 232 

II. Substantives . . 233 

III. Adjectives 234 

IV. Adverbs 235 

B. Compounds 236 

Formation of Compounds 237 



Nature of a Sentence. Subject 
and Predicate 238 

Comparison. Attribute and Ob- 
ject 239 

Agreement 240 

Exceptions to the general rules of 
Agreement 241 

Agreement when there are several 
Subjects 242 

Remarks on Peculiarities in use of 
Number . 243 

The Article 244 

Position of the Article 245 

Use of the Article with Pronouns 

and Numerals 246 

The Article as a Demon, and 
Rel. Pronoun 247 

! Classes of Verbs 248 

A. Active form 249 

B. Middle 250 

C. Passive 251 

Remarks on Deponents 252 

Tenses and Modes 253 

A. Particular View of the Tenses 254 

(a) Principal tenses: Pres., 
Perf., Fut 255 

(b) Hist. Tenses : Aor., Impf., 

Plup 256 

Tenses of the Subord. Modes 257 

B. Particular View of the Modes 258 
Use of the Subj.,0pt.and Imp. 259 
The Modes with &v ...... 260 

Position and Repetition of &v 251 


Ellipsis of the Substantive . 
(a) Attributive Adjective . 


b) Attributive Genitive 

c) Apposition 



I. The Cases 268 

Nominative and Vocative . . . 269 
(1) Genitive 270 

A. Local Relation 271 

B. Causal Relation 272 

(a) Active Genitive 273 

(b) Causal Genitive 274 

(c) Gen. denoting mutual re- 
lations 275 

(2) Accusative 276 

A. Local Relation 277 

B. Causal Relation 278 

(a) Ace. denoting effect . . . 278 

(b) Acc.of the Object on which 

the action is performed . 279 



Two Accusatives 280 

Remarks on the Ace. with the 

l';i>-sive 281 

(3) Dative 282 

A. Local Dative 283 

B. Dative as a personal Object 284 

C. Dative of the thing 285 

. Construction of Prepositions . 286 

(1) Prepositions with the Gen. 

only 287, 288 

(2) With the Dative only .... 289 

(3) With the Accusative only . 290 

(4) With the Gen. and Ace. 291-294 

(5) With the Gen., Dat. and 

Ace 295-299 

Remarks on peculiarities of the 

Prepositions 300 



I. Personal Pronouns 302 I Prospective and Retrospective 

II. Remaining Pronouns 303 | Use of the Pronoun 304 


A. The Infinitive 305 

(I) Inf. as an Object without 

the Article 306 

Nom., Gen., Dat. and Ace. 
with the Inf. 307 

(II) Inf. with the Article .... 308 

B. The Participle 309 

(I) The Part, as the Comple- 
ment of the Verb . .310 

Remarks on the Inter- 
change of the Part, and 

the Inf. 311 

(II) Part, used to express Ad- 
verbial Subordinate Re- 
lations 312 

Special Peculiarities in the 
Participial Construction 313 


A. A^, Sfjra, tiHjj', STj&ei', S-fiTrov&ev, 

Sat 315 

B. Confirmative Adverbs 316 

C. Emphatic Suffixes, y, irep, roi 317 

D. Negative Particles 318 


Different Forms of Coordinate 

Sentences 320 

I. Copulative Coordinate Sen- 
tences 321 

II. Adversative Coordinate Sen- 
tences . . . 322 

HI. Disjunctive Coordinate Sen- 
tences 323 

IV. Causal Coordinate Sen- 
tences 324 

Remarks on Asyndeton 325 


Principal and Subordinate Sen- 
tences 326 

Sequence of Subjunctive Tenses 

in Subordinate Sentences 327 

Use of Modes in Subordinate 

Clauses 327b 

I. Substantive Clauses 328 

A. Introduced by Sri or o>y, that 329 

B. Introduced by 5W, so that, etc. 330 

II. Adjective Clauses 331 

Agreement of the Rel. Pron. . . 332 
Modes in Adjective Clauses . . 333 
Connection of several Adjective 

Clauses 334 

Interchange of the Subordinate 

Clause with the Adj. Clause 334 
III. Adverbial Clauses 335 

A. Adverbial Clauses of Place 336 

B. Adverbial Clauses of Time 337 

C. Causal Adv. Clauses . 338-340 



I. Denoting Ground or 

Cause 338 

II. Denoting Condition 339, 340 
III. Denoting Consequence 

or Effect 341 

D. Adverbial Clauses denoting 

Manner and Quantity 342, 343 
I. Comparative Adv.Clauses 

denoting Manner 342 

II. Comparative Adv.Clauses 
denoting Quantity 343 


I. Interrogatives 344 

II. Oblique Discourse 345 

. Special Peculiarities in the 
Construction of Words and Sen- 
tences 346, 347 

Ellipsis, Brachylogy, Zeugma, 

Contraction, Pleonasm 346 

Anacoluthon . . . 347 


Appendix A. Versification Page 574 
Appendix B. Abbreviations 
in writing 587 

Index of Subjects Page 589 

Greek Index 602 

Index for the Forms of Verbs 614 


Aesch. Aeschylus, Ag. Agamemnon, S. Septem adv. Th. Ar. Aristophanes. 
Dem. Demosthenes, Ol. Olynth., Ph. Philipp., Cor. Corona, Chers. Chersones., Aph. 
Aphobus. Eur. Euripides, M. Medea. C. Cyclops, H. Hecuba, O. Orestes. H. F. 
Hercules Furevs, Hipp. Hippolytus. Her. Herodotus. Isae. Isaeus. Lys. Ly- 
sias, pi. Plato. Cr. Crito, L. Leges, Th. Theages, Men. Meno, Soph. Sophista, 
Crat. Cratylus, Prot. Protagoras, Phil. Philebus, Rp. Respublica. Soph. Sopho- 
cles, O. C. Oedipus Coloneus, O. R. Oedipus Rex, Ant. Antigone, Ph. Philoctetes, 
Aj. Ajax, El. Electra. X. Xenopkon, C. Commentarii, An. Anabasis, H. Hellen- 
ica, S. Symposium, R. Ath. Respublica Atheniens ., R. L. Respubl. Lacedaem., O. 
Oeconomicus, Ag. Agesilaus, R. Equ. R. Equestris. 




1. THE Greek language was divided into many different 
dialects, the most highly cultivated of which were the 
^Eolic, Doric, Ionic, and Attic. The ^3Eolic prevailed in 
Boeotia, Thessaly, and in the ^Eolian colonies in Asia 
Minor; the Doric, throughout the Peloponnesus, and in the 
Dorian colonies in Asia Minor, Italy, and Sicily ; the 
Ionic, in the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor ; the Attic, in 

2. The ^Eolic and Doric dialects are characterized by 
harshness and roughness, being the opposite of the Ionic, 
which is distinguished for delicacy and softness. The 
Attic dialect holds a beautiful medium between the two 
former and the Ionic, as it skilfully combines the soft and 
pleasant forms of the Ionic with the strong and full-toned 
forms of the Doric. 

3. The Ionic dialect is divided into the Older and the 
Later Ionic. The older Ionic is the language of Homer 
and of his school, although these poets were not satisfied 
with their own dialect merely, but were able, in accordance 
with the true principles of art, to select, from all the 
dialects, those forms which corresponded to the nature of 
their poetry; and to employ since the regular laws of 
versification had much influence in forming the language 



a peculiar and definite poetic language, called the Epic, 
or Homeric. This had a great effect on the language of 
all the Greek poets even to the latest times. We find the 
later Ionic in the works of the historian Herodotus, born 
484 B. c., and of Hippocrates, b. 460 B. c. 

4. The Attic dialect is divided, in accordance with cer- 
tain peculiarities, into the Older, the Middle, and the Later 
Attic. The older is used by Thucydides, b. 472 B. c. ; the 
tragic poets ; JBschylus, who died 456 B. c. ; Sophocles, 
b. 497 B. c., d. 405 B. c. ; Euripides, b. 480 B. c. ; and the 
more ancient comic writers, e. g. Aristophanes, d. 390 B. c. ; 
by several orators, e. g. Antiphon, b. 479 B. c., and An- 
docides, b. 467 B. c. The middle Attic is used by Plato, 
b. 430 B. c. ; Xenophon, b. 447 B. c. ; and the orator Iso- 
crates, b. B. c. 436. The later Attic is employed by De- 
mosthenes, b. 385 B. c., and other orators, the later comic 
writers, and the prose authors in more recent times, who 
sought to preserve in their works the language of the earlier 

5. After the freedom of the Greeks had been destroyed 
by Philip, king of Macedon, tlie Attic dialect came to be 
the common written language. As it extended, not only 
over all Greece, but also over the Macedonian provinces of 
Syria and Egypt, it lost much of its peculiar stamp by the 
introduction of foreign forms and words, and it then 
received the name of the Common, or Hellenic language, 
rj /cowrj, or ' EX\.7jmK7) 8taXe/cro?. It was used, e. g. by Apol- 
lodorus, Diodorus, and Plutarch. 



Letters and Sounds of the Language. 

$ 1. Alphabet. 

The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four letters. 

























e short 


\v Epsllon 












^ 6 


































o short 

*O fjil/cpo 

v Omikron 









( Pa) 















; Upsllon 





















REMARK 1. Sigma at the end of a word takes the form s, e. g. treto-^s, in 
most editions of the classics. This small s is also used in the middle of com- 
pound words, if the first part of the compound ends with Sigma, though such 
a usage is contrary to the authority of the manuscripts, e. g. Trpos^epw or 
TTpcxrcpepw, 8vsyeirf)s or Sutryfisfis. 

REM. 2. When <r and T come together, both letters may be expressed by one 
character, r, Sti, or Stigma. 

REM. 3. Besides their use as alphabetic characters, e and v were originally 
used as mere marks of aspiration, the former for the spiritus asper ( 6], for which 
in the earliest times H was also employed, the latter for the Digamma ( 25) ; 
hence, as letters, they were called, in opposition to their use as aspirates, e tyi\6v 
and v ^i\6v, i. e. unaspirated. Omicron and Omega (small and large o) derive 
their name from their relative size. 

REM. 4. The principle on which most of the letters of the Greek alphabet 
are named, is entirely different from that adopted in this country and among 
the European nations, at the present day. We name each letter by the sound 
it represents, as a, b, c, adding a vowel to the consonants in order to vocalize 
them. But among the Orientals, from whom the Greek alphabet was derivedj 
the name was not determined by the sound of the letter. They gave their 
letters the name of some familiar object, the first sound or syllable of which 
was the alphabetic character to be represented. For example, the Phoenicians 
and Hebrews called the first letter of the alphabet Aleph (Greek Alpha), which 
means an ox : now the first sound or syllable of Aleph is the character or 
element to be represented. The second letter was Beth (Greek Beta), a house, 
the first sound of which is the character to be represented. The third is Gimel 
(Greek Gamma), a camel This modeW naming letters, undoubtedly originated 
from the custom of designating those letters by the picture of the object from 
which they derived the name, instead of by the characters now used. Thus 
Aleph was represented by the picture of an ox, Beth by that of a house, etc. 

$ 2a. Sounds of particular Letters. 

The sound of the letters is indicated by the Roman characters opposite to 
them. The following remarks on particular letters are all that is needed in 
addition : 

REMARK. The sounds given to the following letters are those more usually 
adopted in pronouncing the Greek in New England; but the usage is not 
entirely uniform. 

A has the sound of a in fan, when it is followed by a consonant in the same 
syllable, e. g. xaA-/c(fe; the sound of a in fate, when it stands before a single 
consonant which is followed by two vowels, the first of which is c or t, e. g. 
irao-rdo-fus, ffrpcn i<ari}s ; also, when it forms a syllable by itself, or ends a 
syllable not final, e. g. p.ey-d-\ij, (rrpa-r6s; it has the sound of a in father, when 
it is followed by a single p, in the same syllable, and also when it ends a word ; 
but a final in monosyllables has the sound of a in fate, e. g. Vdp-Va-pos, ydp t 
ayabd, -rd. 


7, before 7, K, x ftn( l ^ as ^ 1C sound of ny in cr;?#/<?, or nasal n in anc/e, e. g. 
Hfi-j:fos ; K\ayy^, clanr/or ; 'Ayxiffr]s, Anchises (Angchises) ; wy^m], 
; \dpvy, larynx, y before vowels always has the hard sound, like g in 
get ; also before consonants, except 7, K, x !> e - g- 7^7y- 

c has the sound of short e in met, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable, e. g. fj.fy-as, ^r-a. ; the sound of long e in me, when it ends a 
word or a syllable, or when it forms a syllable by itself, e. g. 76, &e-o>, jSatnA- 

t\ has the sound of e in me, e. g. ^01/77. 

& has the sound of th in thick, e. g. 

i has the sound of i in wane, when it ends a word or syllable, or forms a 
syllable by itself, e. g. l\irl-ffi, on, ireS-i-ov ; the sound of i in pin, when it is 
followed by a consonant in the same syllable, e. g. irpiv, Kiu-Swos. 

K always has the hard sound of k, and was expressed in Latin by c, e. g. 
KiAtKia, Ci I Ida ; Kticpoty, Cecrops ; KtKepcav, Cicero. 

|, at the beginning of a word or syllable, has the sound of z, e. g. feVos ; else- 
where, the sound of x, e. g. 8iavca, 7rp5|is, j/o|. 

o has the sound of short o in not, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable, e. g. \6y-os, nv-pos ; the sound of long o in go, when it ends a 
word or syllable, or forms a syllable by itself, e. g. r6, inr6, &o-6s, To|-o'-Trjy. 

ff has the sharp sound of s in son ; except it stands before p., in the middle 
of a word, or at the end of a word after 77 or a, where it has the sound of 2, 
e. g. <r/c7ji/77, vo/ii<r/ia, 7775, /caAcws ; before t it does not have the sound of sh, as in 
Latin, but retains its simple sound, e. g. 'A<r/o A-si-a, not A-shi-a. 

T followed by t has its simple sound, never the sound of sh, as in Latin, e. g. 
roAcm'a = Galati-a, not Galashi-a ; KpiTlas =Kriti-as, not Krishi-as ; AlyvirTioi. 

v has the sound of u in tulip, e. g. rvxn ; but before p the sound of u in pure, 
e. g. irfy, 7 e>wpa. 

X has the hard sound of ch in chasm, e. g. TO.XVS. 

w has the sound of long o in note, e. g. &yu. 

2b. Brief history of the Alphabet. 

1. The Greeks derived most of their alphabet from the Phoenicians. Ac- 
cording to the common tradition, letters were brought into Greece by Cadmus, 
a Phoenician. The Phoenician alphabet, being nearly the same as the Hebrew, 
consisted of 22 letters, the names of which are, Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, 
He, Vau, Zain, Heth, Teth, Jod, Kaph, Lamed, Mim, Nun, Samech, Oin, Pe, 
Tsade, Koph, Rcsch. Schin, Thau. Vau, the 6th letter of the Phoenician 
alphabet, was rejected by the Greeks as an alphabetic character, and used only 
as the numeral sijin for G. Koph (Greek Koppa), the 19th letter of the Phoe- 
nician alphabet, was also rejected, because its sound so nearly resembled that 
of Kaph (Greek Kappa), and was used as the numeral sign for 100. Zain 
and Tsade were modifications of the same sound ; Tsade, like the Greek Zeta, 


represents the sound of both, and takes the place of Zain, becoming the 6th 
letter of the Greek alphabet, while Zain (Greek San, Sampi), was rejected as an 
alphabetic character, and used as a numerical sign for 900. Thus 1 9 letters of 
the Phoenician alphabet were adopted by the Greeks, as alphabetic characters. 
These are the first 19 letters of the present alphabet. To these the Greeks 
themselves added the five last letters of the alphabet, viz., u, <f>, x> ^> This 
seems to he the most rational view of the formation of the Greek alphabet, 
though somewhat different from the common legendary account, which repre- 
sents Cadmus as bringing only 16 letters into Greece, viz., o, , 7, 5, e, t, K, A., 

fl, V, 0, 7T, p, ff, T, U. 

2. The alphabet was not brought at once into its present complete form. 
The old Attic alphabet contained but 21 letters. H was considered merely as 
a breathing, and the place of t\ and o> was supplied by e and o, and that of ^ 
and | by *5 and X2, e. g. AI0EP (aifrfip), EX0PON (ixfrp&v), *2YXAI (i^xd), 
X2TN (l^). The alphabet is said to have been completed in the time of the 
Persian war, by Simonides, who added E, , and n, and changed the breathing 
H, to the long vowel TJ. The lonians first adopted the present full alphabet 
of 24 letters, and by them it was communicated to the Athenians. This full 
alphabet was first used in Attic inscriptions in the archonship of Euclides, 
B.C. 403, before this period only the old Attic alphabet is found in Attic 

3. The early Greeks used the capital letters exclusively, and left no spaces 
between the words, e. g. METAAETOTTONEinEXEIPl2O*O2, i. e. ,ueTo Se rov- 
rov eiTre XfiptffoQos. The cursive, or small character, was not introduced till 
very late. A document has been found in Egypt written in the cursive char- 
acter, 104 B. c. But cursive writing was not in general use till long after that 
time. . It is first found in manuscripts in the eighth century. 

4. The early Greeks commonly wrote in the Oriental manner, i. e. from 
right to left, as may be seen in several inscriptions. Other inscriptions, how- 
ever, of equal antiquity, are written from left to right, proving that both modes 
were in use. A third method was from left to right and right to left alternate- 
ly. This was called ^owrpo^TjSJi/, because it resembled the turning about of 
oxen in ploughing. Solon's laws were written in this way. But in the time of 
Herodotus, the Greeks wrote only from left to right. 

$3. Organs of Sp eech. 

1. The organs of speech, used in forming or articulating 
words, are the palate, the throat, the tongue, and the lips. 

2. The sounds which are emitted almost without any action 
of the throat, tongue, and lips, and which proceed in the freest 
manner from the breast, are called Vowels ; the rest, Conso- 

$ 4.] VOWELS. 

$ 4. Vowels . 

1. The Greek has seven vowels, a, i, v, which may be 
long or short, e and o, which are always short, rj and o> 
which are always long. The character (") over one of the 
vowels a, i, v, shows that the vowel is short ; (") that it is 
long ; (~) that it may be either long or short, e. g. a, d, a. 

REMARK 1. a, i, and v arc called the principal vowels, because they denote 
the principal sounds ; the other vowels are called subordinate, because their 
sounds are the intermediates of the principal sounds. Thus, the sound of is 
intermediate between a and t, the sound of o is intermediate between a and v ; 
ij is produced by lengthening or o, <w by lengthening o. The relation of these 
vowels may be illustrated by the following diagram : 

2. When two vowels are so combined as to form but 
one sound, the sound so produced is called a diphthong. 
When both the vowels are sounded, the diphthong is called 
proper ; when only one, improper. 

3. The Greek diphthongs originate from the union of the 
vowels a, e, o, v , 17, &>, with the vowels i and v, thus : . 

o -f- t = aiy pronounced like at in aisle, e. g. ctf, 

a -f- v = av, " au in laud, " vavs, 

-j- t = t, " ei in sleight, " $u/6s, 

[ f " " eu in feudal, " TrA.ev(ra, 7jS{ov, 

n ~T~ v n v y j 

o -}- t = 01, " oi in oil, " Koiv6s, 
o -\- v = ov, " ou in sound, " ovpav6s, 
v -f- i = vi, " whi in whine, " vi6s, 
w-j-w = a>; > (only Ionic,) " " ou in sownrf, " uvr6s t - also the im- 
proper diphthongs, <y, p, w (i. e. a -j- i, 77 + i, w + t) ; " otVxp?, /cf>a, T^, ry. 

REM. 2. The pronunciation of the diphthongs (f, ??, is the same as that of 
the simple vowels o, 77, o>, though the ancient Greeks probably gave the i a 
slight sound after the other vowel. 

REM. 3. With capital letters, the Iota subscript of 9, p, o>, is placed in a 
line with the vowels, but is not pronounced, e. g. Tfil KAAni=T( KO\V, ry 
"AiSp, but ^5?;. 

20 VOWELS. [$ 4. 

EEM. 4. The Iota subscript, which in the most flourishing period of the 
Greek language was always pronounced, at length became a silent letter, and 
was either omitted in writing, or was written under the vowel to which it 
belonged. It was first written under the vowel in the thirteenth century. 

EEM. 5. The following examples w r ill show how the Romans sounded the 
diphthongs : at is expressed by the diphthong ae, ei by I and e, 01 by oe, ov by u ; 
v was generally expressed by y, e. g. 

s, Phaedrus ; Evpos, Eurus ; 0/jS/ces, Thraces ; 

s, Glaucus ; Boturia, Boeotia ; 0prj(r<ra, Thressa ; 

NetXos, Nilus ; Moutro, Musa ; rpa,ya>$6s, tragoedus ; 

AvKeuM/, Lyceum ; El\ei&vta, Ilithyia ; Kupos, Cyrus. 

In words adopted later, the Eomans expressed by o, as <j>84j, ode. 

EEM. 6. When two vowels, which would regularly form a diphthong, are to 
be pronounced separately, it is indicated by two points, called Diaeresis, placed 
over the second vowel (, v), e. g. ouSJi', for atSo?, ois, &VTTVOS. If the acute 
accent is on the i or v, it is placed between the points ; if the circumflex, over 
them, as aiSrjs, /cAefSt, irpavs. 

EEM. 7. The pronunciation given under 2a, as well as that given to the 
diphthongs above, is the one more generally adopted in New England. The 
original pronunciation of the Greek is lost. It is, therefore, the common cus- 
tom for scholars (in each country) to pronounce it according to the analogy of 
their own language. This is the method proposed by Erasmus in the sixteenth 
century, and is generally adopted in Europe at the present day. The pronun- 
ciation defended by Eeuchlin ! in the same century, corresponds nearly with 
the modern Greek. 

1 For the benefit of those who may wish to compare the two modes, the fol- 
lowing explanation of the Eeuchlinian is extracted from the Greek Grammar 
of Sophocles: " A is pronounced like a in father, far. , 7, 5, like b, g hard, 
d; in later times, like Eomaic #, 7, 8. Before AC, 7, x> l 7 had the sound of 
ng in hang. , like Eomaic e, or Italian e. like z, but stronger. 77, like French 
e, as in ftte. &, like ih in thin, ether, saith. t, like i in machine. K, like k. 
A, /i, like I, m, respectively, v, like n. At the end of a word it was often pro- 
nounced and written as if it were a part of the next word. {, in the Attic 
dialect, like s ; in the other dialects, like KS. In later times, the sound KS pre- 
vailed, o, like Eomaic o, or Italian o. ir, like p. p, like r. At the begin- 
ning of a word it was rolled; when it was doubled, only the second one was 
rolled. It was rolled, also, after &, <, % ff -> ^ e s i n so fti P ast - Before ju, it 
was, in later times, sounded like and even changed into C i n writing ; as 
Z/iupra, for, in an inscription. T, like t in tell, strong, u, like French u. 
$, like/} but stronger. %, like Eomaic x> German ch, or Spanish^' (x). fy, in 
the Attic dialect, like <s ; in the other dialects, like ITS. In later times, the 
sound ITS prevailed, to, like o in note, nearly. "When a consonant was doubled 
in writing, it was doubled also in pronunciation. During the most flourishing 
period of the language, both the vowels of a diphthong were distinctly heard. 


$ 5. Consonants. 

1. The consonants are divided, first, according to the dif- 
ferent organs of speech, by which they are formed, into 

Palatals, 7 K % 
Linguals, 8 r ^ v \ p <r, 
Labials, ft TT </> /JL. 

REMARK 1. The consonants, which are produced by the same organ of 
speech, are called cognate consonants ; thus 7, /e, x are cognate consonants. 

2. Consonants are divided again, according to the greater 
or the less influence of the organs of speech in their forma- 
tion, into breathings, liquids, and mutes. 

(a) The Breathings form a kind of transition from the 
vowels to the consonants. There are three breath- 
ings : the lingual a ; the Spiritus Asper ('), correspond- 
ing to our h ( 6) ; and the labial F (Digamma) ; on 
the last, see the remarks upon the Dialects. 

(b) The Liquids, \ /JL v p, are so called, because they easily 
coalesce with the other consonants. 

EEM. 2. The Breathings and Liquids are also included under the common 
name of semivowels, forming a kind of transition to the full vowels. 

During the brazen age, and probably during the latter part of the silver age, 
the diphthongs at, et, ov, had each the power of a single vowel, at, like ai in 
aisle ; in later times, like 77, or French ; during the latter part of the brazen 
age, like e. ou, like ou in our, house ; in later times, like ay, of. et, like a in 
freight, nearly ; in later times, like i. During the silver and brazen ages, e was 
often prefixed to t long, merely to mark its quantity ; as Kpeivw, rcto-at, retfj-TJcrai . 
And when quantity began to be disregarded, even short t was represented by 
; as EiVi5o>pos, EtVo/cpdVTjs, yv/j.vaa-ftapx-fi<ras. cv, like eh-oo rapidly pro- 
nounced ; in later times, like ev, ef. ot, like oi in o?7, nearly, ov, like oh-oo 
rapidly pronounced ; in later times, like oo in wzoow, or like French ou, Italian u. 
When the Boeotians used ou for u, they pronounced it long or short, according 
as the original u was long or short ; thus, in otfSwp, vovv, it was short, like oo in 
book ; in ot/Arj, acroi/xfa, long, like oo in moon, i/i, like wi in twist ; vi, like whi in 
whip; in later times, like v. As to the diphthongs <p, p, <j>, ov, T?W, tav, they 
differed from at, et, 01, au, *u, ou only in the prolongation of the first vowel. 
In later times, 9, p, were pronounced like d, 77, , respectively." TR. 



(c) The Mutes are formed by the strongest exertion of the 
organs of speech ; they are, fiyS^/cTrr^x. 

3. The Mutes are divided, 

(a) According to the organ of speech used in pronouncing 
them, into three Palatals, three Linguals, and three 
Labials ; 

(b) According to their names, into three Kappa, three 
Tau, and three Pi-mutes ; 

(c) According to the force of articulation, into three smooth, 
three medial, and three rough Mutes. 

HEM. 3. Hence each of the nine mutes may be considered in a threefold 
point of view, e. g. y may be called a palatal, a kappa-mute, or a medial, ac- 
cording as we wish to bring into view the organ by which it is pronounced, its 
name, or the force of articulation, a medial mute requiring less force to articu- 
late it than a rough mute. 












Tau -mutes 




* . 


KEM. 4. The consonants, which are produced by the same effort of the 
organs, are called coordinate, e. g. the smooth mutes, K, ?r, r, are coordinate. 

4. From the coalescence of the Mutes with the Breath- 
ing a, three double consonants originate, 

i|/ from 7T<r P<r <t><r, as rtyu (ircr), x*^ (0")' Krij\4 (<|><r), 

| from Kff y<r %a, as K 6pa (/c<r), Xe|o> (70-), oj/v| (x<r)> 

is not, like \|/ and , to be regarded as a sound compounded of two con- 
sonants, but as a soft hissing sound, to be pronounced like a soft z. 
Only in the adverbs in ?, is C to be considered as composed of <rS, e. g. 
'A&VctCe instead of 'A^ji/asSe ; also, frvfav (close], for &v<rr)v (from uj/e'a>, 
to stop, Perf. Pe&vffucu). It may be regarded, perhaps, as a transposition 
of sounds, as when the JEolic and Doric dialects use, in the middle of 
a word, <rS instead of , e. g. jueXurSeroi 

6. Breathings. 

1. Every word beginning with a vowel has a smooth or 
a rough Breathing; the former (Spiritus Lenis) is indi- 

M 7, 8.] HIATUS. 23 

eatrd by the mark ( ' ) ; the latter (Spiritus Asper) by the 
mark ( f ). The rough breathing answers to the English 
and Latin A, e. g. icrropia, historia^ history. The smooth 
breathing is connected with every vowel which has not the 
rough ; but the smooth has no influence on the pronuncia- 
tion, e. g. '^TroXXow, Apollo. 

KKMARK 1. With diphthongs, the breathing is placed over the second vowel, 
e. g. ofos, eu^us, ourt/co. But when the improper diphthongs, 9, p, , are capital 
letters, the breathing is placed over the first vowel, as these three diphthongs 
are regarded, to a certain extent, as simple vowels, e. g. "AiSys (&5rjs) ; ^lli^fit 

(p, *) 

II KM. 2. Originally, the Greeks had no mark for the smooth breathing. The 
rough breathing was at first denoted by E or H. But when H came to be used 
as a vowel, Aristophanes of Byzantium, about 200 years B. c., divided it into 
two characters F and i, the former as the sign of the rough breathing, the 
latter of the smooth. Later, these became ( r ) and ( J ), and at last ( ' ) and ( ' ). 

KEM. 3. The liquid p at the beginning of words has the rough breathing, 
e. g. pd&Sos. When two p's come together, the first has the smooth breathing, 
the last the rough, e. g. Tlvfipos, Pyrrhus ; but some editors omit both breath- 
ings, e. g. Hvppos. 

REM. 4. At the beginning of a word, v always has the rough breathing, 
except in the ^Eolic dialect. 


$ 7. General Remark. 

Both the vowels and consonants are subject to a variety of 
changes. These changes result from the tendency of the 
language to euphony, from their grammatical significance, and 
from the difference of dialects. The last will be considered 
in treating of the Dialects. 


8. Hiatus. 

concurrence of two vowels in two successive sylla- 
bles or words, occasions a harshness in the pronunciation, 


called Hiatus. This is avoided by Contraction, Crasis, 
Synizesis, and Elision. 

REMARK 1. The poets, particularly the Attic, were decidedly averse to the 
Hiatus of two vowels in two successive words;* among the prose-writers, the 
orators sought most carefully to avoid it. 

HEM. 2. In the lamhuses of the tragic poets, the Hiatus is allowed in the 
interrogative n ; what? e.g. n olv ; rl fines ,- among the comic poets, its use is 
mostly confined to ri, on, ire pi, 5, e.g. on es, on oi>x'> iff pi vpuv, also in ou5e 
(yUTj&e) els (/), ne unus quidem, to distinguish it from ovSeis, nullus. In addition 
to its use in the Iambic measure, the Hiatus is found frequently, even in the 
Tragedians, who endeavored to avoid it when possible ; still, it is mostly limited 
to special cases ; for example, it occurs with interjections and imperatives, e. g. 
D, vat, &va (up!), ?&i, as i, J&t poi iraidv, Soph. Ph. 832; etAA^ &va, e| i8pd- 
vw, Aj. 194. On the Hiatus in the Epic dialect, see 200. 

$ 9. A. Contraction of Voivels. 

Contraction is the union of two successive vowels in the 
same word into one long syllable. These contractions arise 
either from the natural coalescence of two successive vowels, 
in accordance with the laws of euphony, or from grammatical 
principles. The first kind of contractions is called euphonic, 
the latter, grammatical. In the Common language, the follow- 
ing contractions occur : 

I. Euphonic Contractions. 

(a) a -f- a = a as- <re\aa = (Te\a 

f -f- e = ei " <pi\ = <pi\ei (Comp. No. II.) 

t -f- i = i " ir6pni = Tropri 

o -f- o = ow " v6os == vovs 

(b) a -{- f 1 

? = a a i 

a -f- TJ > Tt/iarjre 

a -}- t = qt " yfipa'i = yfjpa 

o _|_ 1 ' n/j.dofj.ev = rifj.uiiJ.ev 

a -\- <a y " Tifj.dwfj.ev = n/j,S>fj,ev 

a -f- ") " rifj.deis = 

a + ?? > 

a -\- 01 = to " nfj.doifj.1 = nfj.v/j.1 

a -}- ou = a> " rifj-dov = Tifj.a> 

( c ) 6 -f a =7? " ret'xea = reixn (Comp. No. II.) 

-f- <* == 

e 4- I = et 

-f- o = ou " <pi\eo(j,ev = <pi\ovfj.ev 

c -f- a> (y) == a> (y) 

C = " T^TTTeot = TU7TT77 


4- = a 

4- V = P 

e -|- 01 = ot " <pt\(ois = <j>i\o?s 

f -f- Ol/ = OU " <pl\fOV = <f)L\OV 

(d) 7j -j- e =1 " v\T]f<rcra = v\r)ffffa 

i} -f- * = p " p7)!<r<ra = prj<r<ra 

t) 4" =1? " rifM-fjfis = Tiyufls 

(c) t + o " iroprias = ir6prls 

t -\- Cj " Trtpries = irdprts 

(f ) o -f- a = a> tc cw'So'a = ew'Stt (Comp. No. II.) 

0+77 = <a 

o -\- i = ot 

o + a> (<p) = co (&>) 

o +- at = at " om\6ai = aTrAcu 

o -\- ti " fjuff&oei fj.Hr&o'i (Comp. Rem. 2.) 

o -f- rj = ot 

O ~\- Ol " /jUO~&6oij.U 

o -f- ou = ou " [jiio~&6ovffi = /j.i(T&ov(ri 

(g) v + o " Ix&vas = tx^vs 

v + 6 = u " ix^ues = i'x&us 

u + 77 " Setff^uTjTai = SeiKvvTcu (rarely) 

(h) w + a = w " 7^pa>a = rip< (only in Ace. of some Sub. of 

a> -f- i = (f ' A.coi'o'Tos = A.<erros. [3d Dec. 

REMARK 1. The above contractions take place in accordance with the fol- 
lowing principles: (1) Both vowels are retained and form a diphthong, e. g. 
Tflxfi = Tet'xj alS6'i alSo?. (2) Both vowels coalesce into a cognate long 
vowel or diphthong, e. g. rifidofiev = njttw/zei', cu'So'a = cu'Sw. (3) A short vowel 
is absorbed by a diphthong or long vowel preceding or following it ; e. g. 
</>i\e'w = </>iA<, 4>i\e'ou ^iAoD, v\-f)f<T(ra = vX^ffffa.. (4) The short vowels, o, i, 
v, absorb the following vowel and become lopg ; e. g. rtuoe = rtyuo, ix&vas = 
tX&vs. (5) A short vowel coalesces with the first vowel of a diphthong, ac- 
cording to the preceding principles ; whe the second vowel is *, it is subscribed 
with a, TJ, a>, but if it is any other vowel it is dropped ; e. g. Tifj.drjs = Ti^ay, 

TtlJ.doifJ.1 = Tl/J-ffJll = TlftdoV = Tljlia), TUTTTeat = Tl/TTTTJ. 

n. Gr*mniatical Contractions. 
(a) 6 + e = T;, particularly in the third Dec., e. g. rpt-fipee = rpirjprj, 

(b) 6 -}- a = o in the second Dec., e. g. oo*Tta = oo-ra, xp ffea ~ XP V<T " 
(PI.), and elsewhere, if a vowel precedes, e. g. ITepi/cAe-ea = 
Tlept/cA-ed, K\4-ea = KAed, iryi-ta. == vyia ; in the Ace. PL 
Fern, of Adjectives in -cos, -eo, -eov, e. g. xpvo*-os = xpiiffus j 
finally, in the Fern, of Adjectives in -eos, -e'a, -eov, when 
these endings are preceded by a vowel or p, e. g. fyc'-eoy, 
e-ca, e-ov = fpfovs, ^pea, ^peouv, apyvpeos, ta, fov = OU5, 
a, ovv. 


26 CRASIS. [$ 10. 

-f- a i) in the Fein. Sing, of adjectives in -eos, not preceded by a 
yowel or p ; e. g. xP vff * a XP vff: n> xp v<r * as XP v<r ^ s - 

e -}- a = ei in Accusatives PL in eas of third Dec., e. g. ffcupe-as = ffa- 

<J>e?s 5 so ir6\eis, irf)X ls > c> 7X e/Aets > from irJAeos, etc. 
(c) o + a = d in Adjectives in 6os, o'rj, 6ov, e. g. air\6-a = air\a. 

o -f- "n = "n i n Adjectives in 6os, OTJ, 6ov, e. g.\6-i] = airXrj. 

o + a = ov in Accusative PL of fiovs ; so also /tebas = peifavs, and 
the like. 

KEM. 2. The contraction of oei into ou is found only in the Inf. Act. of 
verhs in 6<a, and is accounted for from the fact that the Inf. originally ended in 
ev, not in e/ (consequently, not ii.i<r&6ziv = [ucr&ovv, but /jMr&deis = /iicr&oDj/), 
and in adjectives in (Jets, e. g. '(Wets = 'On-oDs, in which the root ends in oevr, 
and consequently the t does not belong to the root. On the accentuation of 
contract forms, see 30. 

HEM. 3. The Tragic poets sometimes neglect the contractions on account 
of the measure, yet only in the lyric and anapestic passages, not written in the 
pure Attic dialect, e. g. KoAew, Aesch. Ag. 147 ; rpofiton?, Prom. 542 ; j/etaeos, 
Sept. 936; eVto, Soph. OC. 182; eupei', Trach. 114. 

HEM. 4. Sometimes the grammatical importance of the ending, or the form 
of the nominative, prevents the usual contraction, especially if the ending 
would thereby become doubtful. 

$ 10. *B. Crasis. 

1. Crasis (/cpacris) is the coalescence of the final and 
initial vowels of two successive words into one long sylla- 
ble, 6. g. TO OVOfJLaTOVVOfjia, TO e7T05=TOL'7r09. 

REMARK 1. The mark of Crasis is the same as that of the Spiritus 
Lenis ( ' ), and is named Coronig. It is placed over the vowel or diphthong 
formed by Crasis, but is omitted when the- word begins with a vowel or diph- 
thong so formed, because it would then coincide with the Spiritus Lenis, e. g. 
T& aya&d. = raydfrd ; & &v = av ; 5 &v&po)Tre *= #j/3/>coire. On the accentuation, 
see 31, II ; on the change of the smooth Mute into the rough before the 
Spiritus Asper, as rb t/5wp = 3-oi/Swp, see 4 below, and 17, Hem. 3. 

2. Crasis is found only with closely connected words, the first 
of which is unimportant; hence it most frequently occurs, (a) 
with the article, e. g. 6 avrjp = avrj t o, TOV dvSpos = rdvSpos ; (b) 
frequently with Kai and the interjection o>, e. g. /cat dper^ = KapcT^, 
w av^/30)7rc = oh^/Doorre, w aya$e = wya$e, o> ara = a)ra ; (c) some- 
what often in cyw with oTSa and oT/Aai, e. g. eywSa, eyaymt; 
(d) less often with the neuter relative o and a, as o eyw, a eyw = 

dyoS; with rot, pevroi, OVTOI, particularly in connection 


with dV, apa, c. g. rav (seldom ill prose), ftordV; rapa and ovr&pa 
(|MH-tir) ; but seldom with TT/SO, e. g. irpovpyov for rrpo Ipyov; fre- 
quently in composition with the augment e, as Trpov&o/ca. 

3. As the second word is the most important, it has properly 
a greater influence on the form of the Crasis, than the first ; on 
this principle it is to be explained, that the Iota subscript is 
used only when the i belongs to the last of the two vowels, 

6. g. Kal etra = Kara, eyu) oI8a = ey<35a ; on the contrary, /cat err- 
ra = KaTTCira ; at dya$at = ayaSai, TW o^Xa) = rw^Xa). 

4. When Crasis occurs with the article, and an a follows, the 
vowels of the article even ov and w are combined with the 
following a into a long a, and, if the article is aspirated, the 
aspirate is transferred to the long a, e. g. 6 avrjp = Q-vyp, ol 

TO dA.77$s = TaA/7$s, ra aAAa = TaAAa, TOV dv8po? 
rdvSpt ; also, TOV aurov = Tavrov, T<3 avr<3 = TavT(p. 

EEM. 2. Also the forms of the article ending in o, o, ov, o>, <p, ot, at, among 
the Attic poets, combine with the first vowel of erepos (Doric arepos), and 
form long a ; when the second word has the aspirate, as here, the preceding 
smooth mute must be changed into the cognate rough; see also 17, Rem. 3. 
e. g.: 

ret erepa = &&rcpa 6 erepos = arepos TOV erepou = fraTtpov 

T(p erepca = &&Tfpct) ol erepoi = arepot at erepoi = arepat 

5. In Crasis, at of the particle /cat coalesces with the follow- 
ing vowel, the a being sometimes retained and sometimes 
absorbed, e. g. /cat e/ceu/os = /cd/cetvos, /cat dV = /cdV, /cat ev = Kav, /cat 
eyai ^= Kayw [/cat t = KCI, /cat cts = /cets, poetic], /cat ^A.$ov = K^A^ov 
[/cat ov = KOV, /cat evSai/xcoi/ = /ceuSat/uov, poetic]. 

^ 11. Summary of the most common instances of 

(a) The following cases conform to the rules of contraction 
given in $ 9 : 

a-j-o = j a-j- ; a -f- o = w ; + = ou ; 

o -- e = ov 

(b) Tlie following instances belong to Crasis only: 

o + v = ov as: rb v$wp = ^oi/8wp (17, Rem. 3.) 
o -(- av = av :c ri avr6 = ravro 
o -j- ou = a % ainov = T^TIOV 

SYNIZESIS. - ELISION. [$$ 12, 13. 

o -f- ot = y as : 6 oivos = ^i/os 

( 17, Rem. 3.) 

&> -- 6 = CO 

w -f- o = o> " 

ot -f- a = a u 

01 -f- e = ou " <ro eoT-iy = O-OUO-TJJ/, /u e'SoW = /j.ovS6Kei (both poetic.) 

ou -f- = ou u TTOU fffriv = TTouVTii/ 

ou -J- o = ou " TOV 6y6fj.aros = TOvv6fjLaros 

ov -f- u = ou " TOU uSoroj = &ot<SoTos (17, Eem. 3.) 

"n -\~ "n = "n " T P 7 V e/ P? == ^ 7 V^9 ( 17, Rem. 3.) 

a> -(- ot = cp " ^7^ ^ tt == tyySa 

ov + TJ = 77 " TOU r]/j.Tepov = ^^lerepou, poetic. ( 17, Rem. 3.) 

ou -}- ou = ou " TOU oupavou = rovpavov f 

ot -f- t = a " /col ?TO = K^ra 

(c) Here belong the examples given under 10, 4 and 5. 

12. C. Synizesis. 

1. Synizesis is the contraction in pronunciation of two 
vowels into one syllable, e. g. when ^ ov is pronounced as 
a monosyllable. It can occur only among the poets, but 
may have been used in the common colloquial language. 

REMARK. The difference between Contraction and Synizesis is, that in the 
ordinary Contraction and also in Crasis, the contraction is made in writing, 
e. g. <f>i\S> from <jn\4<a, rovpavov from TOU ovpavov ; but in Synizesis, it is made 
only in the pronunciation, both vowels or diphthongs being written out in full. 

2. In the Attic poets, Synizesis occurs almost exclusively 
between two words, viz., with iiru, rj, ^, /xij, followed by et, ov, a, 
ot, e. g. cTret ov, 17 ovSeis (dissyllable), /^ ov (monosyllable), //->) 
oXXot, cyo> ov (dissyllable), and eyw ei/u S. Ph. 577; also, in a 
few single words and forms, e. g. ^cot (=Soi, monosyllable), 
ccopaKo, (=wpaKa, trissyllable), dvewy/Aevos (= dvwy/xei/os, four sylla- 
bles), particularly in the Ionic- Attic Genitive -eoos, as ^o-eW 
(dissyllable). On Synizesis in Homer, see 206. 

$ 13. D. Elision. 

1. Elision is the omission of a short final vowel before 
the initial vowel of the following word. It occurs also in 
compounds, but the apostrophe is then omitted. 


KIM M ;K 1. Tin- murk of Klision is the same as that of the Spirilus Lenis, 
ami i* railed apostrophe, as TOUT' (ffnv, ytvoir" &v. * 

KI:M. 2. Elision differs from Crasis in that the former elides the vowel, 
while the latter lengthens it, e. g. ctAA' &ye (Elision), TC\ &\\a = ToAAa (Crasis). 
This distinction, however, does not hold, when the second word begins with a 
long vowel or diphthong, e. g. rb avr6 = ravr6. 

2. In the prose writers, Elision is confined mainly to the 
following cases, where it often occurs : 

(a) In prepositions which end in a vowel, except vepl and Trpo ; also /ue'xpi 
and &xpi> used as prepositions, but rarely in eWa, e. g. 82 O!KOV, &r' olnov, but 
irtpl oT/coj/, ?rpo otitov. Elision is regular in composition, except with trepl, irp6, 
and sometimes ap^l, e. g. avf\&eiv, but irepiopcft/ ; 

(b) In conjunctions and adverbs, oAAa, &pa, 5pa, a/xo, circs, fireira, ^a\a, 
nd\i<rra, rdxa, and in many other adverbs ending in a before &v ; also in the 
following adverbs and conjunctions, JVcc, ye, re, 8e, oi5e, yiojSe, Sore, &Ve (not 
3Tj), irore (with the compounds, as oi/iroTc), TdVe, eTt, ou/ceVt, yurj/ccTt; e. g. oAA' 

(c) In forms of pronouns in a, o, e, as TOUTO, TotoOra, aAAa, rlva] Tr6repa 
more rare ; ToGro, ain6, ^/ie, <re, <ra (never in r6, rd) ; also in nouns and adjectives 
of the second and third declensions, ending in o, as a/tapr^uaTa, etc. ; &pi<rra, 
etc. ; fpya, C. g. TCIVT' aura, Train-' d-ya&o, xp r lt j - ar ' 6i ' s $p 5 

(d) In <^TjjU^, oI5a, o!<r&a, and generally in verbal forms in /, crt, *,'a, t, o, e. g. 
<p^/i' cyci-, oIS' S^Spo, e \eyer 1 &v, frinrrovT' &v, y4vorf &v ; of the forms which 
admit the v Paragogic ( 15), in prose, only effri often suffers elision ; 

(e) In certain familiar phrases, as ify Af 6^77. 

REJI. 3. The above elisions are most frequent in the orators, particularly 
Isocrates, much more seldom in the historians. 

KEM. 4. A smooth mute before an aspirate is changed into the correspond- 
ing rough, as TraVfr' oo-o. 

1 J i ; M. 5. A vowel, followed by a punctuation-mark, cannot be elided. Hence, 
in words closely connected, as v^ Af !</>77, the comma is omitted, for in such cases, 
without doubt, the ancients pronounced the words in quick succession. On 
accent in Elision, see 31, III. 

$ 14. Use of Elision in the Poets. 

1. The use of Elision in poetry is very frequent, and much more extended 
than in prose 5 yet the following points are to be noted : A word ending in u is 
never elided ; nor a, , o in a monosyllable ; hence the article r6, and the pro- 
nouns r\ and T/, are not elided ; and vcpl in no case, at least among the Attic 
poets, nor Sri, jue'xpi, &xp l > nor substantive adverbs of place ending in Si 
(S&i excepted), and very rarely the Optative ending in e. 

2. The Elision of the i in the Dat. of the third Dec., particularly in the 
Sing., is very rare in the Attic poets, and is even doubted by many. 

3. The verbal endings, /xat, rcu, <rbat, which are short in respect to the 

30 N PAIIAGOGIC. [$ 15. 

accent, are rarely elided in the Attic poets ; the Datives p.oi and croi are never 

4. In the verbal forms which may take the v Paragogic (e'4>e\Ku<rTi/c(fr'), the 
poets use Elision or the v, according to the necessities of the verse. 

5. Sometimes in Attic poetry, a weak and grammatically unimportant sylla- 
ble is excluded by a preceding long vowel ; this is specially the case with the 
augment e, e. g. Ta%eT ' 7nfy>eu<rai/, Soph. OC. 1602, eVei 'Sditpvffa, Phil. 360. This 
omission of the- vowel is called aphaeresis (aQaipeffis). It can also occur after 
a punctuation-mark, e. g. Qpdffw ' VeiS^j r}| Vi rovrois. 

15. N Paragogic (e^eX/cva-Ti/cov). OVTW(S). 'E and 

1. Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels 
in two successive words is by appending a v, (v e^cAxvcmKoi/, or 
Paragogic,) to certain final syllables, viz. : 

(a) to the Dat. PL in o-t, to the adverbs trepva-L, iravrdirafri, and 
all adverbs of place in o-t, as Trao-tv eA.ea; 

(/?) to the third Pers. Sing, and PL in o-t, as TVTTTOVO-IV e>e, 

Tifh](rw ev TV} TpaTTtfy) ; so also with ecrrt ; 
(y) to the third Pers. Sing, in e, e. g. eruTrrev e/xe ; 
(8) to the numeral eucoo-c, though even before vowels the v 

is often omitted, e. g. et/coo-tv avSpe? and a/coo-t avSpes ; 
(c) to the Demonstrative i ( 95, e) but rarely, and then 

always after or, e. g. ovroo-tv, eKetvocrtv, TOVTOVO-LV, ovraxrw ; 
(^) to the Epic particles, vv and /ce, and to the Epic suffix <i; 

hence also to voa-<f>i. 

REMARK. The poets place the v Paragogic before a consonant, so as to make 
a short syllable long by position. In Attic prose, it stands regularly at the end 
of a book or section ; it is, also, sometimes found, before the longer punctuation- 
marks, and sometimes elsewhere for the sake of a more emphatic pronun- 

2. The adverb ovrcos always retains its full form before a 
vowel, but drops the final s before a consonant, e. g. ovrws lirolt)- 
o-cv, but OVTW TTOIW ; still, o^Tws may stand even before consonants, 
when it is to be made emphatic, e. g. OVTWS ye, Xen. C. 3. 6, 9. 

3. So the Prep. e retains its full form before vowels and at 
the end of a sentence, but before consonants becomes IK, e. g. 
<! ei/oijny?, but CK rr}s CI/OTJV^S ; so also in composition, e. g. eeAai;- 


viv, but cWeAetV. It also has its full form when it stands after 
tlu- word it governs, and is then accented, ci/a^s e. 

4. So OVK has its full form before a vowel, e. g. OUK awr^o? ; 
be lore a vowel with the rough breathing it becomes ofy, e. g. 
oi>x T/&VS ; but before a consonant, ov, e. g. ov KOAOS ; so also /X^KC'TC 
(instead of py In) after the analogy of ov/ceVi. 

KEM. 2. When ou stands at the end of a discourse, or of a sentence, and is 
to be pronounced with emphasis, the form otf with the acute accent is used 
even before a vowel ; in this case there must be an actual break in the discourse, 
as when of; stands at the end of an answer expressed interrogatively, without 
connection with what follows, as IIus ykp oft; T Ap' ovv KT\. Xen. C. 4. 2, 37 ; 
or when it is found in the answer only, and corresponds to our No; it is found 
(.-specially in antithetical sentences, e. g. Tci/yadd', TO. Se KOKO. ot: 'Ecu/ Se' /crA. 
Xen. C. 1. 2, 42 ; A&ous eis rov irora/AOv ttyitnovv, eiKVovvro 5e oi/, of re e0\cnr- 
TOV ouSeVa. An. 4. 8, 3. If, on the contrary, the following sentence is closely 
connected with the preceding, then it is written OVK, e. g. ou/c, &AAo KT\. Xen. 
C. 2. 6, 11. and 13 ; 4. 6, 2 ; ou/c, el or jv KT\. Hell. 1. 7, 19. 

$ 16. Strengthening, Weakening, Prolongation, SJiortening, Inter - 
cliange, and Variation of Vowels. Influence of a Vowel or 
a Consonant on another Vowel. Syncope. Omission of a 
Vowel. Euplwnic Prothesis. 

The changes, which further take place in vowels, are : 

1. Strengthening of vowels ; this consists in changing a weaker vowel into a 
stronger (see 4, Rem. 1). There are different degrees of strength- in the 
vowels ; the weakest is . The strengthening takes place, e. g. in words of the 
third Dec. in os, Gen. -eos ; the pure stem of these words ends in es : in the 
Nom., however, which prefers fuller forms, the weaker e is changed into the 
stronger o (in Latin into w), e. g. 761/05, genits, Gen. ytveos (instead of 7eVco--os), 
gentr-is. In yow and So'pu (Gen. yovar-os, 56pa,T-os), o, the final vowel of the 
stem, is changed into the stronger u. 

2. The weakening or attenuation of vowels ; this is the opposite of the 
change just described ; it occurs, e. g. in substantives of the third Dec. in -ts, -i, 
-Or, -0 ; in these, the stronger stem- vowels i and u are changed into the weaker e, 
C. g. ic 6\ts, ir6\f<as ; TT)X U S> ir-f)X ftas 5 o-f JWTI, ffivdircos ; &ffrv, SCTTCOS. So with 
adjectives in -vs, -i5, e. g. y\vKvs, y\vicv, Gen. -eos. 

3. Prolongation of vowels ; this changes a short vowel into a long vowel or 
diphthong, viz. a into 77 or at ; t into t or et ; u into v or u ; e into TJ or ; o into a> 
or ou. This prolongation takes place either for the sake of euphony, or from 
grammatical reasons, or from both together ; in the poets often on account of the 
metre. The prolongation of vowels is very prevalent in the Greek language. 
One instance only is here mentioned, namely, the strengthening of the Present 
tense in Mute and Liquid verbs, e. g. /cpfrew, TI-XUVW, A.^co, Qalvu, Aeiirw, 


instead of Kptvu, irXvvo}, Ac&w, (pave*, \tirca, tyvyw. The reason of the prolon- 
gation is very often found in the omission of a v with a Tau-mutc, more rarely 
of a mere >/, or in the omission of a a after a Liquid, or of a final Sigma, e. g. 
odovs instead of oSoVrs, SiSous instead of SiSoVrs, /SovAeiW instead of jSouAeu- 
ovrs ; fj.f\as instead of yue'Aews ; eo-^Aa instead of eor^oAo-a, fiyyeiXa instead of 
iyye\<ra., eQ&cipa instead of %<p&cp<ra ; p-f)T(ap instead of p-f)Tops, iroi^v instead 
of Troifj.fl/s, Salfj.<av instead of 5atfj,ovs, ai8<as instead of cu'Soers, a\r)frf)s instead of 

4. Shortening of vowels. See the remarks on the Dialects, 207. 

5. Interchange of vowels ; this consists in softening a long vowel into a 
short one, and as a compensation, in lengthening the short vowel immediately 
following. Thus, in the Ionic and Attic dialects, eo> instead of do, e. g. 

-uiv, instead of ?Ados, -ov, Aec6s instead of Ados, ved>s instead of vdos, 
instead of Me^eAdos ; further, in the Attic dialect, cnAea>s, ao-iAed instead of 
the Ionic /JcwnATjos, -7)0; so also, Tro'Aecos, Tr^X 5 ) Attic, instead of ir6\ios, 
irffx vos 5 * s weaker than i and u, see No. 2. 

6. Variation, i. e. the change of the radical vowel e into o and a, for the 
formation of the tenses ( 140) and derivatives ( 231, 6); when t in the 
Present is lengthened from the radical t, it becomes ot in the second Perf, but 
when from the radical e, it becomes o ; e. g. rpecfxa, rerpoQa, 

(root Ar), AeAotTro; Qbflpu (root <&ep), e^opa, ^apfjv; ^Aeyw, 

rpoxos ; Tpe'^ew, rpotyr}, rpoQevs, rpcupepSs. Comp. Germ, stehle, gestohlen, stahl, 

English, ring, rang, rung. The i\ is changed into w, e. g. ap-fiyca, a 

KEMARK 1. Whether the a is to be regarded as a variation, or rather as a 
euphonic change of e, introduced by a preceding or following Liquid, partic- 
ularly p and A, sometimes even /j. and v, may be doubted. Comp. tTpairov, 

ira.jj.ov, ZK.TO.VOV with 

7. Change of a vowel by the influence of another vowel or of a consonant. 
Here belong two special cases : 

(a) The Attic writers change the Ionic 77 into a after the vowels e and t and 
the diphthongs ending with i, sometimes even after other vowels, and 
after the Liquid p, e. g. tSe'a (Ion. t'S&j), ffotyla, xP 6l/a > 

(b) The union-vowel e in verbs in a>, is changed into o before the terminations 
beginning with )t* and v, e. g. jSovAeuojuez', fiovXevovrai, ffiovtevo/j.ej', ejSow 

8. Syncope (a-vyKoir-fi), i. e. the omission of e in the middle of a word between 
a Mute and a Liquid, or between two Liquids, or between TTT ; the same, also, 
occurs in the declension of certain substantives of the third Dec., e. g. Trarp6s 
instead of wen-epos ; in the forming of the Present tense of certain verbs, e. g. 
yiyvopat instead of yiyevofiai, TTITTTO) instead of iwreTca, fj.lfj.vo> instead of fj.ifj.evco ; 
and in the formation of the tenses of some verbs, e. g. riyp6^f]v from lyeipw ; 
Syncope rarely occurs after <r, e. g. %<rxpv, CO-TT^X, eo-rot, instead of ea-xv> 
tffTr6fj.r)v, eo-erot. A striking example of Syncope is found in $\&ov instead 
of fJAv&ov, from 'EAET0H. Comp. 155 




9. Apocope. Sec on the Dialects, 207. 

10. One of the vowels a, e, o is prefixed to several words, for the sake of 
euphony. This is called euphonic prothesis, e. g. affrepoir-fi and arepwrf), iurrcupis 
and crawls, tx&* 5 an ^ X^ 6/s ^KIVOS and /ce?j/os, &e'A.o> and &e\(a, wpvotis and 
Kpvos, oSvpofj.a.1 and 5vpo/ t o/ceAAo* and /cAAw, etc. 

KI:M. 2. From these euphonic letters care must be taken to distinguish 
( 1 ) o when it stands for &ir<{, e. g. a-^vvfiv, to avert, or when used instead of 
avdt, e. g. apva-ffciv, to tear up, or instead of the a or a copulative with the 
meaning of a^o, from which also a intensive has been formed; (2) e, when it 
i< ii-i-d instead of ^ or lv, e. g. fyclpciv, to wake up, tpfvyw, eructare, 
irritare ; (3) o with the meaning of j/tov, c. g. 

$ 17. a. Mutes. 

1. The changes of the consonants arise, in a great degree, 
from the tendency of language to assimilate different sounds. 
This assimilation is either a mere resemblance in sounds, as 
when XeXey-raris changed into A / A.KTCU, the smooth r chang- 
ing the medial y into the smooth K ; or it is a complete identity 
in sounds, as when, aw-phm* is changed into o-vpptTTTw. 
Sometimes, however, the language shuns a sameness in sound, 
and seeks to remove it by changing similar sounds into dissim- 
ilar, e. g. TT-<f>iX.r)Ka for <f>-<f>iX.r)Ka, 2;a7na> for Sa</xw. 

2. A Pi-mute (TT /?</>) or a Kappa-mute (K y x) before a Tau- 
mute (r 8 $) must be coordinate with the Tau-mute, i. e. only 
a smooth Mute (TT K) can stand before the smooth T ; only a 
medial ((3 y) before the medial S; only an aspirate (<f> x) before 
the aspirate 3; consequently, TTT and KT; /3S and 78; </># and 

^ e - - 

/3 before T into IT as 

(from rpi/3(0) 
( " ypdQw) 



= yfypcnrrcu 
= AeAe/crot 



34 MUTES. [H7 

BEMAHE 1. The preposition & remains unchanged, probably by virtue of an 
original movable <r, thus e'/cs, e. g. e/cSoDrat, tKbewcu, etc., not 4y8ovi/cu, 

3. The smooth. Mutes (TT K T) before a rough breathing, are 
changed into the cognate aspirates (<f> xty> n t on ty i* 1 inflec- 
tion and derivation, but also in two separate words, the rough 
breathing being transferred from the vowel to the smooth Mute ; 
but the medials (/3 y 8) are thus changed only in the inflection 
of the verb ; elsewhere there is no change, hence : 

air' ov = a<p' ov, ^Trfj/iepos (from eirl, r^uepa) = 

(from &rt, vfyaivo)} = <pv<f>, rervTr-a = rerv(pa 

(from 5e/ca, ^ 

= e>freA/c<w = from fori, eA/ca>), but ovSeis (not ov&els, from ouS' and els) 
but A^' frepav (not Ae'x' erepov) 

' ovrcas (not rp?(^' OUTWS). 
REM. 2. The negative OVK (ov) thus becomes ou%, e. g. ovx ^Sus; yet this 
change does not occur before the aspirate p, e. g. ou pirrro). In some com- 
pounds, the smooth Mute is retained even in the Attic dialect, according to 
Ionic usage, e. g. cbnjAte&TTjs (east wind, from oiro and ?}Ato$), \evKanros (one wlio 
rides a white horse, from \fvx6s and 'liriros), Kparnriros, etc. 

EEM. 3. This change of the smooth Mute before the rough breathing takes 
place also in Crasis ( 10 and 11), e. g. rh eVepa = fr&Tepa, rb IH&TLOV = &ol/j.d- 
TIOV, Kai eVepos = x&repos, Kal oo~a offns, OTTWS = %(Ta, x&ffTis, x&inos. Yet 
this Crasis is only poetic. When the smooth Mutes irr or KT precede the rough 
breathing, both must be changed into Aspirates (No. 2), e. g. e^)3^/iepos instead 
of eTTT^fcepos (from irrd, V e/ P a )> v v X& 'd^W instead of VVKT' oAyv. Attic prose 
uses also the full forms, e. g. VVKTO. oXy?. 

REM. 4. In some compounds, the aspirated liquid p changes the preceding 
smooth Mute into the Aspirate, e. g. <ppoifjuov, formed by Crasis from Trpoolp.iov 
(from irp6 and oljuos) ; r&pnnrov (from rdrpa and '/TTTTOS), &pdffff(o from rapdffffa ; 
so (ppovSos from irp6 and 6d6s. 

4. On the contrary, a rough Mute cannot stand before the 
same rough Mute, but is changed into the corresponding smooth, 
e. g. 5o,7r<w, BaK^os, TLT&T], 'Ar^ts J not ^a$<w, Ba^os, riSS-ir}, 
'A^is: on the same principle, when p is doubled, the first 
Aspirate disappears, e. g. livppos, not TLvppos. 

5. A Tau-mute (r 8 $) before another Tau-mute is changed 
into o- (comp. claustram from claudo) ; but it disappears before 
K (in Perf. and Plup. Act.), e. g. 

(from ire^w) becomes firfiff^jv 
" Tre&co " irfiffreos 

" fyetffSniV 
" ireVct/co. 

$ 18.] LIQUIDS. 35 

6. The T, which in the Attic dialect very often becomes <r, is 
frequently changed into or by the influence of a fojlowing t, e. g. 
irAovo-tos (instead of TrAovrios, from TrAovros), 'A/xo^ov<rtos (instend 
of *A/>ta^ovn--tos), MtA^crios (from MtAr^ros), 'A^epoucnos (inslcad 
of 'AxepoVr-ios), ovaia (instead of 6Vr-i'a), yepovtrc'a (instead of 
yepovT-ia), o/iavcrio? (from cvtavros). The t sometimes changes 
by assimilation the other Tau-mutes, and the Palatals, into cr ; 
thus in the forms of the Comparative in -crerwv and -<i>v, where 
there is a double change, first of the Tau-mute or Palatal to <r 
by means of the c, and then the assimilation of the i to a-, e. g. 
fipaSvs (jSpaSuov, /?pcunW), /?/>ao-cro>v, poet., Tra^us (ira^tW, 
(b>v), 7ra<rcro)v, poet., /xeyas, /xet^cov (instead of /xeytW), 
(instead of ra^-tW). 

$ 18. b. Liquids. 

JU The Liquid v is sometimes changed into a. This takes 
place, e. g. in the Ace. Sing, third Dec. of substantives, whose 
stem ends with a consonant, e. g. Kopag, KopaK-a (not KopaK-tv), 
Aa/x7ras, A.a/*7raS-a. The same change, also, sometimes takes 
place in the third Pers. PI. Perf. and Plup. Mid. and Pass, of 
mute and liquid verbs, which properly should end in -VTCU and 
-VTO (as in pure verbs, e. g. ySe/SovAeu-vrat, iptfov\cv-vro), e. g. 
rcrptt^arat, crerpt^aro, TreTrAe^arat, Tera^arat, co-KeuaSarcu, Ke^tupiSarat, 
e^^expaTat (instead of Ttrpt^vrat, cTerpi^Kro, etc., from rpt)8-a), 
7rAK-w, racrcr-u), O-KCVCX^-W, ^(Dpt^-co, <^>^tp-w). See 116, 15. 

2. N before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid, e. g. 

<ruj/-\o7^a> becomes crv\\oyifa a-vy-/j.frpia becomes " l/j./'co ffvv-piirrca " 

REMARK. Comp. iZ/ino, iwmineo, instead of in/ino, i?zmineo. Assimilation 
takes place in tf A.\u/*t, instead of o\wfu. 'Ev before p is not assimilated, e.g. 
ivplTTTQ) ; vet fp'pvb/j.os is more frequent than evpufyios ; on the contrary, 
KVW stands instead of i\\aKKei>(a. 

3. M initial before a Liquid is changed into (3, e. g 

fjL\irreiv (from /te'At) becomes /3\iTTi/ 

Hpor6s ( " ^pos, mors) " fyorts. 


$ 19. c. Mntes and Liquids. Liquids and Mutes. 

1. A Pi-mute (IT fi <) before /x, is changed into /*,, 
a Kappa-mute (K y x) " /x, '* " y, 

a Tau-mute (T 8 $) " /u, " " cr, e. g. 

Pi-mute : rerpift-fj-ai (from T/jf/3o>) becomes 

( " ypd(pw) " 

(ft) Kappa-mute: ireVAc/c-jwcu ( " irAe'/cw) 

( " Aeyw) remains 

( " pe'xw) beeomes 

(7) Tau-mute: tfvvT-fjuu ( " ovurw) 

( " ^perSco) 

KeKOfj.iti-fJ,ai ( " Kofi^o)) 

REMARK 1. In some words, the Kappa and Tau-mutes are not changed 
before /u, e. g. a/f/u^, TT^T/XOS, \axf*-6s, KV^/J.C>V, etc. In some words, even % 
stands before /i, instead of the original K or 7, e. g. icaxpds from WKW, 7rAo%/t<fo 
from irAeKw. The preposition &c, in composition, is not changed, e. g. 

2. The medial fi before v is changed into /x, e. g. 

<refi-v6s (from < becomes tre/Ws 

3. N before a Pi-mute (TT ft < ^) is changed into //,, 
N before a Kappa-mute (K y x is changed into y, 
N before a Tau-mute (T 8 #) is not changed, e. g. 

<la becomes ffnreipia ffvv-KoXfta becomes ffvyKaXeu 

ffvyxp vos 
but owreii/w, <rui'Sea>, <rw&eca. Comp. i??i6uo, i??iprimo. 

EEM. 2. The enclitics are not changed, e. g. tiinrep, r6vye, not tfyrrep, etc. 

EEM. 3. Also at the end of a word, v before a Pi-mute, as well as before /*, 
was, without doubt, p'ronounccd like p., and before a Kappa-mute, like y ; and 
so it is found in ancient inscriptions, e. g. TOMIIATEPAKAITHMMHTEPA, 
TOrXPHMATISMON (i. Q.rbu irare'pa Kal T^V ^Tjrepa, riv x/ J W aTto 'M o ' jy )- So also 
A and a- are used instead of v before A and cr, e g. 'EAAHMNOI, 'E22AMOI 
(i. e. 4v ATJ/UVW, 


4 20. d. Use of the Sibilant <r, with Mutes and 

1. A Pi-mute (TT /? <) with a- is changed into \f/, 
a Kappa-mute (K y x) with <r is changed into , 
a Tau-mute (T 8 ) disappears before o-, e. g. 
(a) Pi-mute : Aeforo-w (from \eivu) becomes 

Tptfiffti) ( " Tpl&0>>) " 

ypdtyffw ( " ypd<pca) " 

(ft) Kappa-mute: TAeWw ( " H-XC'KU) " irAe|<w 

(7) Tau-mute: avvrffta ( " OVUTW) 
( " 
( " 

REMABK 1. Comp. diuri, reari, coa:i ; from duco, re^ro, co^uo. The Prep. ^*c 
before or is an exception, e. g. tK<r<ofa, not eu><r(a. In Trows, Gen. iro8-6s, and 
in the Perf. active Part, in -c$s, Gen. -Jr-os, after the Tau-mute disappears, the 
preceding vowel is lengthened. 

2. N disappears before o-; but when v is joined with a Tau- 
mute, both disappear before o-, but the short vowel before o-, is 
lengthened : e into , o into ov, a, T, v into a, I, v, Comp. Hem. 3, 

Tvfy&4vT-ffi becomes Tv<f>&ciffi \fovr-ffi becomes Aeou<n 

(nrtvS-cru " fftrtiaw f\fjLiv^-<ri " eA/uitri 

Tinf/cun-ffi " Tur|/d<rt SfiKvuvT-fft " Set/cwtrt 

HEM. 2. Exceptions : 'Ey, e. g. lv<nrelpoo ; Troy- before <r with another conso- 
nant, e. g. TreWKOTTos, in some words is assimilated ; e. g. irdtrffotyos is used as 
well as Trdv<ro<f>os, etc. (in iroAti' the usage varies) ; also in some inflective and 
derivative forms in -crai and -<m from verbs in -cdvw, e. g. W^cwo-cu (from 
), TTfirca/ffis (from ireirafj/w), and in the substantives, TJ e\fj.ivs, earth-worm, fi 
, wagon-basket, TJ fipvvs, v is retained before <r. In composition, the v in 
ffvv is changed into <r before <r followed by a vowel, e. g. ffvvffdfa (from avv and 
(rti^w) ; but before <r followed by a consonant, or before , it disappears, e. g. <rvv~ 
(TTTj/ua becomes <rt5(TTTj/ia, aw-^iry^o becomes <rvvyla. In %apfe(rt, vr is dropped ; 
on the contrary, in rd\ds, jneAcis (Gen. -dvos), /cre(s, efs (Gen. -ev6s), ets, and in 
the third Pers. PL of the principal tenses (see 103), e. g. &ov\evov<ri (instead 
of /BouAfiWcn), the omission of the simple v is compensated by lengthening 
the vowel. 

3. On the contrary, in the Aorist of Liquid verbs, <r is omitted 


after the Liquid, but the omission is compensated, by lengthen- 
ing. the stem-vowel, e. g. 

becomes tfyyei\a eveft-ffa becomes 

REM. 3. Sigma is likewise omitted before in the future of Liquid verbs, e 
being inserted before <r for the sake of an easier pronunciation, and eo> being con- 
tracted into , e. g. ayyeA-e-crco, a^eAw. So too in the Nora, of the third Dec. 
the final Sigma is omitted, when v or p precedes, and the short vowel is 
lengthened, e. g. ei/ccov instead of ciic6v-s, iroipftv instead of Troi/teV-s, p-f^rup 
instead of p-f^rop-s, al&yp instead of aibfp-s. T and a are omitted in the Nom. 
of substantives and participles in -o>j/, Gen. -ovr-os ; but, as a compensation, o is 
lengthened into o>, e. g. \eovr-s becomes AeW, frov\evovr-s becomes fiovXsvuv. 

REM. 4. In eWu/u (instead of fcr-vvfu, ves-tio) the a- is assimilated to the 
following v, and in elp.1 (instead of ear-pi) <r is omitted, but e is lengthened 
into ei. . 

$21. e. Change of separated Consonants. 

1. Sometimes a consonant affects another consonant, though 
they do not immediately follow one another, but are separated 
by a vowel or even by two syllables. Thus, one X changes 
another X into p, e. g. Ke<f>aXapyia (instead of Ke</>aAoXyia from 
aAyetv), yA.(Do-<rapyia (instead of yXcoo-o-aXyta), dpyaXeos (instead of 
dXyaXeos from dXyeu/) ; the suffix toXiy becomes wpTJ, when a X pre- 
cedes, e. g. SaX.7T(Dpr). 

2. In the reduplication of verbs whose stem begins witlj a 
rough mute, instead of repeating this mute, which would be 
the regular formation, the first rough mute is changed into the 
corresponding smooth, thus : 

(from <pi\<a) is changed i 

(stem E) " " 

Likewise in the verbs, d-uetv, to sacrifice, and Ttd-eWi (stem 0E), to place, 3- of 
the root is changed into T, in the passive forms which begin with & : 

frv-frrjv, Tv-frf)<ro/, eTe-frrjv, T-frf}<ro/MU, instead of efru-^v, ed-e'-di?*'. 

So also, for the sake of euphony, the p is not reduplicated, and instead of it 
/3j5 is used, e. g. C^UTJKO. 

3. In words whose stem begins wrfeh T and ends with an 
Aspirate mute, the aspiration is transferred to the preceding 


smooth r. wlu'ii the Aspirate before the formative syllable be- 
ginninu; with cr, T, and /x, must, according to the laws of euphony 
(M 17, 2; 19, 1; 20, 1), be changed into a smooth consonant; 
by this transposition, r is changed into the Aspirate #. Such a 
change is called the Mctatfiesis of the aspiration. 

Thus, rpf(p-co (rfrpotpa Perf.) is changed into (&peir-<ra) 

uprj, TA*-w, TaQrjvai (second Aor. Pass.), into &ctya>, bdir-ru, (but third Pers. PI. rerd^arai, e. g. Her. 6, 103, with one 
of the better MSS. is to be read instead of 

W into (frpcK-ffofjiai) &peo/j.a,i ] rpix~6s into &p 

, in the comparative, becomes ^dfftrwv. For the same reason, the 
future c|co, from cx, to have, is the proper form, the aspiration of 
the % being transferred to the smooth breathing and making it 

KEMARK 1. TU<W from TC^XCO, and rpv^w from rp^x* remain unchanged. 

REM. 2. Where the passive endings of the above verbs, rpf<po), TA*fl 
(bdTTTca), TPT*n (^PUTTTCW), begin with &, the aspiration of the two final conso- 
nants <&, changes T, the initial consonant of the stem, into &, e. g. 

, baQ&eis, 
EEM. 3. In the imperative ending of the first Aor. Pass., where both sylla- 

bles should begin with &, namely, ftryfri, not the first, but the last aspirate mute 
is changed into the corresponding smooth ; thus &7jTt, e. g. 

22. Metathesis of the Liquids. 

The Liquids, and also the Lingual r when TT precedes, often 
change place with a preceding vowel, for the sake of euphony. 
The vowel then usually becomes long. This lengthening of 
the vowel distinguishes Metathesis from Syncope (the latter 
being the mere omission of e), e. g. /xt'/Avrjo-Kw (from the root /ua>, 
COmp. mens), ^VTJCTKW (from Sav-tiv), rer/i^ica (from re/A-eiy), 
(from /?aA.-eu/), TTTTJo-o/xat (from irc'rofuu). 

$ 23. Doubling of Consonants. 

1. Consonants are doubled, in the first place, for the sake of 
euphony, e. g. /3o^vppoos from f$av and pew ; Ippcov instead of 
in the second place, in consequence of the concurrence 


of like or similar sounds, in the inflection and derivation, e. g. 
ei/-vo//<o5 (from tv and VO/AOS), eX-Xei7ro> (instead of evX.), cru/x,-/>ia^os 
(instead of o-vv/x.), XeXci/>t-/>iat (instead of XeXewryu,.), X^u,-//,a (in- 
stead of XfJTTfJia), K0/>i-//,a (instead of KOTr/xa), rcur-o-w or Tar-raj 
(instead of ray-crco), ^oxrooi/ or r/rrcov (instead of rfK-uav), yu-aXXov 
(instead of /mX-iov), oXXos (instead of 0X105, alius). 

2. In the Common language, only the Liquids, X, /*, v, p, the 
Sibilant a-, and the Mute T, can be doubled ; yet TT and K are 
also doubled in single words; e. g. JWo?, a horse ; KOKKOS, a berry. 
The Medial y is often doubled, but this letter thus doubled is 
softened in the pronunciation ($ 2). Two Aspirates are not 
doubled ( 17, 4). 

3. p is doubled when the augment is prefixed, e. g. eppeov, 
and in composition, when it is preceded by a short vowel, e. g. 

, j3a&vppoos', but eu-pu>o-ros (from cv and poWiyu). 

REMARK. In imitation of Homer, the Tragic writers also double the er, yet 
much less frequently than Homer, e. g. r^arcrov, Soph. Aj. 185; oTuWas, 390; 
fff<rvfrri, 294; /ueVa-rj, Ant. 1223 ; etnreTai, JEsch. Pers. 122 ; so also in the Dat. 
PL of the third Dec. ecr<n. 

24. Strengthening and Addition of Consonants. 

1. Consonants are frequently strengthened, in the inflection, by the addition 
of a corresponding consonant, namely : 

(a) The Labials (3 TT $) by T, e. g. j8Ao7r-T-o> (instead of j8Acj8-co), T^TT-T-W 
(instead of TJ^TT-W), plir-r-w (instead of fiiQ-u) ; sometimes also by <r, which 
assimilates the preceding Labial (thus <nr, Attic TT), e. g. TreVerw (root 
TTCTT), Att. ireTTO), Put. 7re\|/w, the poetic offffop-ai, Put. ; in 5ety 
(instead of Se'(/)w), </> and <r are changed into ^ ; 

(b) The Palatals (7 K %) are strengthened by <r, which assimilates the pre- 
ceding Palatal (thus <r<r, Att. TT), or, though more seldom, "the Palatal 
unites with the <r and is changed into e. g. Tc<r-o--, Att. TKT-T-W 
(instead of rdy-co). Qpiff-ff-a), Att. ^pir-r-ca (instead of (ppiK-ca), fifa-a-a, 
Att. p-fiT-T-w (instead of ^x- w ) 5 ^C W (instead of Kp6.yo)),rpifa (instead 
of rpiya)) ; a Kappa-mute with <r is seldom changed into , e.-g. of/|o> 
(aug-eo), a\e|ft>, o5ci|a> and oSafc ; the strengthening T is found only in 
Tre/cTco and T/CT. 

(c) The Linguals (S T ft) are strengthened by <r, which with the preceding 
Lingual is changed into , e. g. Qpdfy (instead of </>pa5o>), or, though 
more seldom, G assimilates the preceding Tau-mute, e. g. TuVo-ojuat and 
\iTOfjiai, fpeffffw, cperrca (instead of epeVou), Kopvffffu (instead of /copudw). 

2. The unpleasant concurrence of fj.p and vp in the middle of some words, 
occasioned by the omission of a vowel, is softened by inserting /3 between w 


and 5 between vp, thus, in {j.f<ri)fj.-l3-pla (formed from /xeo-Tj/iepfa, ^co-Tfluofa), 70/1- 
ft-pts (from yafj.-c-p6s, ya/j.p6s), &v-5-p6s (from avepos, avpds). 

3. N also is used to strengthen the Labials, especially in poetry, so as to make 
a >\ liable long by position, e. g. Tvp.iraa'ov (from TUTT-T-CU), <rrp6^os (from <rrp{- 
<pu); frdfj-fSos (rd<pos) ; KoptJyujSTj (/copucpT?) ; &p6/j.0os (rp4<peiv}\ op.<pT] (ctVeij/); 
vvfxpr) (nubere) ; o^pi^os and ufj.ppifj.os, vtavvfj.os and ixaw^vos. In the present 
tciiM- of many verbs, this strengthening v is found, e. g. irvvfrdvo/juu, biyydi'u, 
\a/j.fidv<i> instead of irv&oiuu, biyw, \dfto). On the change of V, see 19, 3. On 
the v Paragogic, see 15, 1. 

4. 2 also is prefixed to some words, but mostly to such as begin with /*, e. g. 
/ta>5i and o>iw8i, p.utp6s and <r(juKp6s ; a strengthening a is also inserted before fj. 
and T in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and befqre 3- in the first Aor. Pass., e. g. TcreAe- 
a~fjLcu, TeTe'Ae-(r-Tai, eTeA-(r- l ^7j' ( 131) ; also in the derivation and composition 
of words, tr is frequently inserted for the sake of euphony, e. g. <rei-<r-/u<k, trav- 
<r-dvfj.os, fj.oyo-ff-r6Kos, etc. ; instead of <r, (& also is inserted before /x, e. g. 

s, <rKap-&-(j.6s from ffKaipca, irop-fr-fji.6s from 

25. Expulsion and Omission of Consonants. 

1. In inflection, <r is very often omitted between two vowels, e. g. 
ITVTTTOV, T <5 ir TO 10 instead of Tuirre-cr-at or TU7rT77-<rat, eTV7rre-(r-o, TU7TTOt-(T-o ; 
yfve-os, y c ^ e-a> v instead of yeve-ff-os, yeve-y-wf (comp. gene-r-is, gene-r-um). 
At the end of a word, and after Pi and Kappa-mutes, it is retained, e. g. yevos, 
Tinl/ta (=TUTT(ra>), irAe'lcw (= irAe/c-trw), but after the Liquids, in inflection, as 
well as commonly at the end of a word, it is omitted, e. g. tfyyfi\a (instead 
of ^77eA-(T-a), 01776 Aw (instead of ayye\--cr-(i>, ayye\-e-(a), p-fjrwp (instead 
of pT)Top-s). Comp. 20, Hem. 3. 

2. The Digamma softened into the vowel u ( 200) is omitted: (a) in the 
middle of the word between two vowels, e.g. o>6v (vFdv), ovum, fas (&Fis), ovis, 
oudjv (cdFwi/), aevum, vfos (veFos), novus, ffKcuds ((TKaiF6s), scaevus, &o6s ((3oF6s), 
bovis ; &ew, TrAe'w, irv4<a, c\d<a instead of ^e-Fw, etc. ; (b) at the beginning of 
the word before vowels and p, e. g. dlvos (Foivos), vinum, cap (Feap), ver, Is 
(Fis) vis, olos (FoT/cos), vicus, lit tip (Fi8w), videre, cVdrfc (Fevfrfis), vestis, 
p-hyvvfju (Frfyw/jii), frango. On the contrary, the Digamma (this softened v) 
is retained in connection with a preceding o, , o, with which it then coalesces 
and forms a diphthong : (o) at the end of a word, e. g. )8oO (instead of /So'/ 7 ), 
a<nAev, etc.; ()8) before a consonant, e. g. flovs (&6Fs, bovs, bos), vows 
navis. ftovv, f3ov<rt, /ScwtAeus, )8o(rtAeuo't, &ev(ro[, irAeuo'ojuoj, Trveuo'o/uat, 

But when an t or u precedes it, then it disappears before a consonant, but 
lengthens the t or u, e. g. K?S (instead of iciFs), <rvs (instead of <rvFs) ix&i>s 
(instead of lx&vFs), Ace. KII>, ffvv, t'x 1 ^"; t ut ^ disappears also, in this case, 
in the middle of a word between vowels, e. g. Al-6s, Ki-6s, <rv-6s, Ix&v-os (instead 
of &iF-6s, KiF-6s, o-vF-6s, I 


3. Since the Greek language admits an accumulation of three consonants, 
only in composition, not in simple words, unless the first or the last is a 
Liquid, then, if in the inflection of the verb, a termination beginning with crd- 
is appended to the consonant of the root, the <r is dropped : 

(from Ae/ir-a?) becomes AeAefy&wj' ( 17, 2.) 
( " Aey-a>) " AeAe'x&ai (17,2.) 

e<rraA-<rat ( " orcAA-w) " 

REMARK. On the omission of a Tau-mute, and a v and vr before <r, and a <r 
after a Liquid, see 20. On TreVe^ai, eff^iy/iai, etc. instead of 
ea-Qiyy/jLai, see 144, K. 2. In composition, v is often omitted, e g. 
vos, 'ATro\\6-8(i}pos, instead of nudoy/cr., 'A7roAA&/5. 

4. Some words may drop their final consonant, either to avoid an accumula- 
tion of consonants, or, in verse, to prevent a syllable becoming long by position. 
In addition to the words mentioned under 15, namely, OVK (ou), e| (e/c), ovrus 
(oro>), which usually retain their final consonant before a vowel to prevent 
Hiatus, but drop it before consonants, here belong, 

(a) adverbs of place in &/, e. g. Trp6o-&ev, oiriffSev, vwep&ev, etc., which never 
drop the v before a consonant, in prose, but very often in Epic poetry, 
more seldom in the Attic poets ; 

(b) fj.cxp is an< i #XP ts > which, however, in the best classical writers, drop 
their <r, not only before consonants, but commonly even before vowels, 
e. g. jue'x/n 'Avaay6pov, PL Hipp. Maj. 281, c; ftfxpi ejroCd-a, Id. Symp.' 
210, e ; fj.fxP l & ' TOI; > x - C. 4. 7, 2 ; ,uexpi epvfrpas fraA^TTTjs, Id. Cy. 8. 

(c) the adverbs a.Tpe[, e/juras, p.ffft]yi)S, avriKpvs, ^j/ecos, &$vcas, which in 
poetry may drop their s, but never in prose ; in the Ionic dialect, numeral 
adverbs in -diets also frequently drop the a before consonants, e. g. 
TroAAcfoi. Her. 2, 2. 

5. A genuine Greek word can end only in one of the three Liquids, v, a- (^, 
, i. e. ir<r, Kff) and p. The two words % OVK, not, and e/c, out of, form, only an 
apparent exception, since, as Proclitics ( 32), they incline to the following 
word, and, as it were, become a part of it. This law of euphony occasions 
either the omission of all other consonants, or it changes them into 'one of the 
three Liquids just named; hence, o-w^a (Gen. o-cc/iar-os), instead of (raJ/wr, 
yd^a (Gen. yd\a.KT-os), instead of yd\a.KT, \4<av (Gen. AeWr-os), instead of 
AeVr, efiov\vov instead of e/JouAeuoi/r ; re pas (Gen. re'/jor-os), instead of 
repar, KG pas (Gen. Kepar-os), instead of Kepar, /j.e\i (Gen. /te'Acr-os), instead 
of fj.f\ir. 



? 26. Nature and Division of Syllables. 

1. Every vowel, pronounced by itself, or in connection with 
one or more consonants, is called a syllable. 

2. A word consists of one or more syllables. When a word 
consists of several syllables, a distinction is made between the 
stem-syllables and the syllables of inflection or derivation. 
The stem-syllables express the essential idea of the word, the 
syllables of inflection or derivation, the relations of the idea. 
Thus, e. g. in ye'-ypcu^-a, the middle syllable is the stem-syllable ; 
the two others, syllables of inflection : in 7rpay-/xa, the first is 
the stem-syllable ; the last, the syllable of derivation. 

$27. Quantity of Syllables. 

1. A syllable is short or long, by nature, according as its 
vowel is short or long. 

2. Every syllable is long which contains a diphthong, or a 
simple long vowel, or two 'vowels contracted into one, e. g. 
ySovXevw ; i/pcos; "d/cwv (from deKcov), fiorpvs (from /3orpuas). 

3. A syllable with a short vowel becomes long by position, 
when two or three consonants, or a double consonant ( ij/), 
follow the short vowel, e. g. o-reAAco, Tvi/'anres, *opd (/cdpcucos) 


REMARK 1. The pronunciation 1 of a syllable long by nature, and of one 
long by position, differs in this, that the former is pronounced long, but the 
latter not. When a syllable long by nature is also long by position, its pronun- 
ciation must be protracted. Hence a distinction is made in pronouncing such 

words as TrpdrTO), 7rpa|is, irpciyfj.a (d), and T<TTO>, T<|JS, ray/io (a). 

REM. 2. But when a short vowel stands before a Mute and a Liquid (Positio 
debihs), it commonly remains short in the Attic dialect, because the sound of 
the Liquids, being less distinct than the Mutes, they are pronounced with more 

1 The method of pronunciation stated in this remark is adopted in many of 
the German gymnasia^ and in some of the schools in England and Scotland, 
but not to any extent in this country. TE. 



ease, e. g. &TCKVOS, &irfir\os, 'cwc/*^, fiorpvs, SiSpaxv-os, yet in two cases the posi- 
tion of the Mute and Liquid lengthens the short vowel : 

a) in compounds, e. g. 'e/cj/eyuw ; 

b) when one of the Medials (0 y 5) stands before one of the three Liquids 
(A. p. v), e. g. ftip\os, evoSfAos, TTfir\ ; in tragic trimeter, &A. also lengthen 
the preceding short vowel. 

It is obvious that a vowel long by nature cannot be shortened by a Mute and 
Liquid, e. g. pfovrpov. 

4. A syllable, which contains one of the three doubtful 
vowels (a, i, v), cannot, in the same word, be pronounced long 
and short, but must be either long or short. 

$ 28. Quantity of the Penult. 

In order to a correct pronunciation, the quantity of the three 
doubtful vowels, a, t, and v, in the penult of words of three or 
more syllables, must be determined. The following are the 
principal instances in which the penult is long. The quantity 
of the syllables of inflection is treated in connection with the 
Forms : 

The penult is long, 

1. In substantives in -auv (Gen. -aovos or -acnvos), in substantives of two or 
more syllables in -itav (Gen. -iovos; but -teav, Gen. -tcovos), and in forms of the 
comparative in -IODV, -lov (Gen. -twos), e. g. oirdcav, -ovos, 6, ^, companion, Tloaei- 
Sdcav, -cavos ; K/COJ/, -ovos, y, pillar, jSpax/cov, -ovos, 6, arm, 'AfjiQTwt/, -ovos ; but 
Aeu/aA.fcoj/, -<avos ; KaAAW, /ccUAIov, more beautiful. 

Exceptions. The two Oxytones, y yi&v (I), shore, and generally rj xi&v, snow. 
In Homer, the comparatives in -iw, iov, are always short, where the versifica- 
tion admits. 

2. In oxytoned proper names in -av6s, and in the compounds in -dy6s (from 
&yca, to lead, and &yvv/j.i, to break), -avcap and -Kpavos, e. g. 'Ac-two's, Aox7<fe| 
captain ; vavay6s, naufragus ; Eiavtap, Slupdvos, having two horns. 

3. In adjectives in -cnjs (Fern, -cits) derived from verbs- in -dea, in proper 
names in -dr^s, in substantives in -hys (Eem. -ms), and in those in -VTTJS of the 
first Dec. (Fern. -Srts), and in proper names in -try, e. g. axpafo, untouched; 
EiK^arrjs, Mify>t5dT7js, TroAfr^s, -ou, citizen (Fern. -woA-ms) : irpeff0vn)s, -ov, old 
itian ; ' 

Exceptions: (a) to the proper names in -CCTTJS : ToAd-r^s, AoA^drrjs, 
all in -Parns and -Q&TTIS, and compounds formed from verbal roots, e. g. 
rr)S 5 (b) K p IT^S, judge, from the short root /c/ri, KTtr^s, builder, 
one who sacrifices. 

4.. In Proparoxytones in -tAos, -l\ov, -Ivos, -Ivov, in words in -Ivy, -Iva, 
, -vya, in those in -vvos, when o- does not precede the ending; in Pro- 


Proparoxytoncs in -up a, and in adjectives in -vpos with a preceding long 
syllable, e. g. 

'O Ofj.i\os, multitude; Savrft/rj, gift; 6 KivSwos, danger; 

ire'SfA.oj', shoe; AfyiVa, ye<f>vpa, bridge; 

T) Kd/j.Ivos, oven ; alffx^^i shame : Ivxypos, strong ; 

y parsley; fyiwa, defence; (but oxfyds and ^xtyxfc), firm. 

KI:MARK 1. The following may be added to the Proparoxytones in -Ivos 
and -0/jo, namely, & x^vds, rein; & tyii/ds, wild jig-tree ; and TJ Ko\\vpa, coarse 

Ei\airtvrj, feast, and compounds in -yvvos (from y\>vi], woman), 
(.'. g. avSpdyvv os, and Kopvvrj, club. 

5. In substantives in -VTOS, whose antepenult is long, and in compound 
adjectives in -Scucptiros and -rpvros (from Scutpvco, rpucw), and also in sub- 
stantives in -i>[j.a, -vyi n and -vy<av, and in adverbs in -vSdv, e. g. 

6 KUKvrds, wailing ; arpinos, indestructible ; o\o\vy4l> ululatus ; 

dSa/cpuTos, without tears; 'fi>pv/j.a, -dros, seat; b\o\vy(av, ululatus, 

&oTpv5dv, in clusters. 
Exception. Map/j.apvy^t splendor. 

6. In dissyllabic Oxytones in -l\ds, -I fids, -Ivds, -ids, -v\ds, -v/j.ds, 

, and in Paroxytones in -6/477, -vv-n, e. g. 

, bare ; y fads, skin ; 6 pvjj.6s, pale ; vvds, common ; 

6 Xt\ds, fodder; o 'toy, dart; 6 &v/j.ds, mind; \6/j.rj, injury; 

o \I/jLos, hunger; 6 x^ds, juice; so, &&V/J.QS, etc.; fJ-vjnr], excuse. 
Exceptions. Bids (6), bow ; ir\vvds (6), washing-trough. 

7. In dissyllables in -dos, -dvds (oxytoned), and in dissyllables in -to, which 
begin with two consonants, e. g. 

6 vdds, temple ; <f>dvds, brilliant ; crrfa, pebble ; $\ld, door-post. 

REM. 2. The following maybe added to dissyllables in -to: Ka\ld, shed; 
avta, trouble ; Kovta, dust ; and to those in -dos, the variable 7\ooy, and the proper 
names in -d o s, e. g. 'A/juftidpdos ; Olvd/jidos is an exception. 

Exceptions. Tads or rods (6), peacock; ffKid ((), shadow. 

8. The following single words should also be noted : 

I. d. 

"AKpdros, unmixed; veavis, young girl ; riapa, turban ; 

avidpds, troublesome ; oirdo'ds, attendant ; <j>d\dpos, clear; 

au&d5r?s, self-sufficient ; vlvdiri, mustard; 6 (j>\vdpos, tattle. 

Also the proper names, "A/jucris, "Avdiros, "Apdros, Aij^dparos, Qfdvd, 
Upldiros, 2opdirty (Serapis), Sru/i^dAos, QapadXos. 

II. r. 

f, exact ; ^ tvtirfi, rebuke ; Trapbevoirbr-ris, gallant. 

r, strong; fytbos, day-laborer; 

T^ rdplxos, pickled fish ; 6 rj x^^v, swallow; 


46 ACCENTS. [ 29. 

Also the proper names, 'Ayxto"ns, TpdviKos, Evpiiros, Ki'ixos (tf./Odpis, Eov<ripis. 
The following dissyllables should be noted for the sake of the compounds : 
rl/ji.'f), honor ; i/rtoj, victory ; QvA-fj, tribe; "OAr?, forest; \Ir6s, tittle; p.lKp6s, small; 
e. g. &Tip.os. 

III. v. 

blameless ; e/j#Ko>, to hold back; \d<pvpov, booty; 

/, asylum ; 6 I\v6s, den ; j) Trdirvpos, papyrus ; 

avr-f) (0), war-cry ; iyvvi}, the ham; irlrvpov, bran. 

Also the proper names, "AjSOSos, 'Apxvras, Bt&wds, Ai6wo-os, Ka/j-pvcrys, Kep- 
Kvpa, KcaKvr6s. And the dissyllables, ^vx^i, soul; 6 rvpos, cheese; 6 irvp6s, wheat; 
6 xpvcrts, gold; \virr), grief; $i>xp6s, cold. 

$ 29. Accents. 

1. The written accent designates the tone -syllable, according 
to the original Greek pronunciation. The accented syllable 
was pronounced with a particular stress as well as elevation of 
voice. The same is true of the modern Greek. In English, 
too, while the stress of the accented syllable is more particu- 
larly prominent, there is often also an accompanying elevation 
of the voice, but not so much as in the modern Greek. 

2. In the pronunciation of Greek prose, the accent and quan- 
tity were both regarded ; thus, in av^pcoTros, while the accentual 
stress was laid on the a, the proper quantity of the penult w was 
preserved. Compare analogous English words, as sunrtsing, 
outpouring, in which both the accent on the antepenult and the 
length of the penult are observed. 

3. How the Greeks observed both the accent and quantity in 
poetry, cannot now be determined. But as it was generally 
sung or recited in the style of chanting, the accent was probably 
disregarded, as is constantly done in singing at present. 

4. The Greek has the followin marks for the tone or accent 

(a) The acute (-' ) to denote the sharp or clear tone, e. g. 

(b) The circumflex (-) to denote the protracted' or winding 
tone, e. g. <rio/xa. This accent consists in uniting the rising 
and falling tone in pronouncing a long syllable, since, e. g. 
the word o-cu/m was probably pronounced as eroo/xa ; 

(c) The grave (-) to denote the falling or heavy tone. 


OP- 4" 

* 29.] ACCEN 

LBX 1. The mark of the falling 

rJ>s, Acfybj, but Hv&panros, \6yos. The murk of the^gn^^^rasused only to 
distinguish certain words, e. g. rls, some one, and rts, who? and, as will be seen 
in 31, I, instead of the acute on the final syllable of words in connected 

KIM. 2. The accent stands upon the second vowel of diphthongs; at the 
beginning of words commencing with a vowel, the acute and grave stand 
after the breathing, but the circumflex over it, e. g. O7ro, otfAeios, &z/ e^s, 
ftpos, offia. But in capital letters, in connection with the diphthongs o, 77, &>, 
tin- accent and the breathing stand upon the first vowel, c. g/'AiSr/s. On the 
diaeresis, see 4, Rem. 6. 

KKM. 3. The grave accent differed from the acute as the weaker from the 
stronger accent in detrimental, or in the Latin feneratdrum, the penultimate accent 
in both words being much stronger than the preceding one. The circumflex 
accent denoted a tone like the circumflex inflection in English. 

REM. 4. In the United States and Great Britain, Greek is not generally 
pronounced by the accents, no regard being had to these so far as the pronun- 
ciation is concerned. In a few institutions, however, the pronunciation is 
regulated by the accent ; but where this is the case, the grave and circumflex 
accents are pronounced in the same manner as the acute. No difference is 
therefore made in the pronunciation of rt/x-^ and n/j.^, nor between yj/ca/ and 
yvw/j-ats. In these and all similar cases, the Greeks must have made distinc- 

5. The accent can stand only on one of the last three sylla- 
bles of a word ; it was not any natural difficulty but merely 
Greek usage which prevented the accent from being placed 
further back than the antepenult. 

6. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
tliis is long or short, e. g. /caAos, avSpwrov, TroAc/xos ; but upon the 
antepenult, only when the last syllable is short, and is also not 
long by position, e. g. avSpomos, but avSpuTrov. 

7. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two sylla- 
bles, and the syllable on which it stands must always be long 
by nature, e. g. TOV, o-co/xa ; but it stands upon the penult only 
when the ultimate is short, or long only by position, e. g. 

, Gen. -UKOS, KaXavpoif/, 

REM. 5. Also in substantives in -r and -c{ (Gen. -r/cos, -VKOS), i and v long 
by nature, are considered as short in respect to accentuation, e. g. <f>o/r, Gen. 
-f/cos, /C7)p0|, Gen. -VKOS. 

8. If, therefore, the antepenult is accented, it can have only 
the acute ; but if the penult is accented, and is long by nature, 

48 ACCENTS. [$ 29, 

it must have the circumflex, when the ultimate is short, e. g. 
paTTc, but the acute, when the ultimate ] is long, e. g. 
, 7rpaTTOi ; if the penult is short it has only the acute, e. g. 
rarrco, rarrc. On the ultimate, either the acute or the circumflex 
stands, e. g. irarrip, Trarpwv; nominatives accented on the ulti- 
mate usually have the acute, e. g. iTnrevs 7rora//,ot, Srjp. 

EEM. 6. In the inflection-endings, -at and -o*, and in the adverbs, 
and e/c7raAcu, the diphthongs, in respect to the accent, are considered short, e. g. 
Tpdirefaiy rvTTTfrai, yXufftfcu, fofrpwiroi, x&jpot. The optative endings, -o t and 
-ai, e. g. rt/i^crat, e/cAeiTrot, AetVot, and the adverb ofycot, domi, at home, are long; 
on the contrary, ol/cot, houses, from olnos. 

EEM. 7. In the old Ionic and Attic declension, CD is considered as short 
in respect to accent, having only half its usual length, as it takes the place of o, 
e.g. MeveAews, avdtyetav ] ir&'A.ecos, Tr6\f(av ; '/Aews, &yr)p(as, Gen. tXeco, ayripoo] 
but if adjectives like 'l\ecas are declined according to the third Dec., they are 
accented regularly, e. g. QiXoy&ws, <f>i\oy\<oros ; so also in the Dat. Sing, and 
PL, as well as in the. Gen. and Dat. Dual, where the penult is long, e. g. &yr)pus, 

EEM. 8. In the words, ef&e, that, valxi, certainly, the penult has the acute, 
apparently contrary to the rule ; but these must be treated as separate words. 
The accentuation of the words efre, ot/re, wsTrep, %TIS, rousSe, etc., is to be 
explained on the ground, that they are compounded with Enclitics ( 33). 

EEM. 9. According to the condition of the last syllable with respect to 
accent, words have the following names : 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute, e. g. rervQAs, /ca/c(k, fr-fip] 

(b) Paroxytones, when the penult has the acute, e. g. TJ^TTCO ; 

(c) Proparoxytones, when the antepenult has the acute, e. g. &v&pu>iroS) TVR- 

(d) Perispomena, when the ultimate has the circumflex, e. g. KO.KUS ; 

(e) Properispome'na, when the penult has the circumflex, e. g. Trpay^a, <f>i- 
Xovffa ] 

(f ) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented, e. g. Trpdy^ara, trpuyna. 

1 Hence the accent often enables us to determine the quantity of syllables, 
e. g. from the acute on the antepenult of irpdjrpia, ^o^rpta, we infer that the 
ultimate is short, otherwise the accent could not stand further back than the 
penult, No. 6, above ; from the circumflex on OTTOS and 7rp5|ts, that those 
syllables are long by nature, 7; from the circumflex on /xo?pa and <rre?pa, 
that the ultimate is short, 7 ; from the acute on x^P a > #/"* an ^ " H P a > tnat 
the ultimate is long, otherwise the penult of these words must be circumflexed, 
8; from the acute on <$>i\os and iroi/aAos, that the penult of these words is 
short, otherwise they must have been circumflexed, 8. TK. 


$ 30. Change and Removal of the Accent by Inflec- 
tion, Composition, and Contraction. 

1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in the quan- 
tity of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, there 
is generally a change or removal of the accent. 

(a) By lengthening the final syllable, 

(a) a Proparoxytone becomes a Paroxytone, e. g. Tro 

(/?) a Properispomenon, a Paroxytone, e.g. 

(y) an Oxytone, a Perispomenon, e. g. $eos, $eoi). Yet this 

change is limited to particular cases. See $ 45, 7, a. 
(b) By shortening the final syllable, 

(a) a dissyllabic Paroxytone with a penult long by nature 

becomes a Properispomenon, e. g. </>evyw, <cvye, Trparre 

(but rarre) ; 
(/?) a polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult is long 

or short, becomes a Proparoxytone, e. g. /3ovAevo>, fiov- 

(c) By prefixing a syllable or. syllables to a word, the accent 
is commonly removed towards the beginning of the word, e. g. 
</>evyw, e^evyov; so also in compounds, always in verbs, com- 
monly in substantives and adjectives, e. g. 68os crwoSos, $cos 
<tA.d$eos, TLJJL-IJ art/Acs, <evye a7ro<cuye. But when syllables 
are appended to a word, the accent is removed towards the 
end of the word, e. g. TVTTTW, rvmro/xc^a, 

REMARK 1. The particular cases of the change of accent by inflection, and 
the exceptions to the general rules here stated, will be seen below, under the 
accentuation of the several parts of speech. 

2. The following principles apply in contraction : 
(1) When neither of the two syllables to be contracted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is unaccented ; and the 
syllable which had the accent previous to contraction, still 
retains it, e. g. </>i\ee = <t'A.ei (but <tAe'ei = <tAet), yeVet' = yeVei (but 
yeveoov = yci/on/). 



(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is 
accented, the contracted syllable also is accented, 

(a) when the contracted syllable is or penult, 
it takes the accent which the general rules require, e. g. 

a.ycnrdo/ = <j>iXf6/ji.evos = <t>i\ov/j.fvos 

fffTa6rvs = fffTwros 6p&6ovffi = op&ovvi 

(b) when the contracted syllable is the ultimate, it takes the 
acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted had 
the acute ; the circumflex, when the first of the syllables 
was accented, e. g. co-Taw? = CO-TWS, ^x l == ^X ^ 

EEM. 2. The exceptions to the principles stated, will be seen below, under 
the contract Declensions and Conjugations. 


$31. I. Grave instead of the Acute. II. Crasis. 
III. Elision. IV. Anastrophe. 

I. In connected discourse, the Oxytones receive the mark of 
the grave, i. e. by the close connection of the words with each 
other the sharp tone is weakened or depressed, e. g. Et ^ 
nyrpvivj TrepiKaXXrjs 'Hepi/3oia fy. But the acute must stand before 
every punctuation-mark by which an actual division is made 
in the thought, as well as at the end of the verse, e. g. 'O //,> 
Kvpos tTrepao-e rov Trora/AoV, ot Be iroXc/xtot a-jrifyvyov. 

Exceptions. The interrogatives rts, T, quis ? who ? quid 1 what ? always 
remain oxytoned. 

REMARK 1. When an Oxytone is not closely connected with the other 
words, i. e. when it is treated grammatically, the acute remains, e. g. et rb ^ 

II Words united by Crasis ($ 10), have only the accent of 
the second word,' that being the more important, e. g. rdya^oV 
from TO aya6v. When the second word is a dissyllabic Paroxy- 
tone with a short final syllable, the accent, according to 30, 2, 
(2) (a),, is changed into the circumflex, e. g. TO ITTOS = TO^TTOS, 
TO, oAAa = TaXXa, TO epyov = rovpyov ; ra orrXa = $S)7rXa, eyw ot/tat = 


III. When an unaccented vowel is elided ($ 13), the accent 
of the word is not changed, e. g. TOUT' l<mv. But if the elided 
vowel is accented, its accent is thrown back upon the preceding 
syllable, as an acute ; yet, when the elided word is a preposi- 
tion or one of the particles, d\Xa, ovSc, /a^Se (and the poetic 
$>, iSe), the accent wholly disappears, and also when the 
accented vowel of monosyllabic words is elided, e. g. 

iro\\a tirc&ov = ir^AA' fira&ov irapa 2/j.ov = trap' fuou 

Setfct IpuTas = Stir' epwras aTrb tavrov = a<j>' tavrov 

aAAa tyu = oAA' tyu 
ot8e yw = ouS 1 4yct> 
= eirr' 3\aav $ 5e 6's = i) 5' 8s. 

IV. Anastrophe. When a preposition follows the word which 
it should precede, the tone of the preposition naturally inclines 
back to its word, and hence the accent is removed from the 
ultimate to the penult ; this drawing back of the accent is 
called Anastrophe (avaoTpofftrj), e. g. 

fjuix 7 ) 5 ^ iri btU itr\ /J.dx'ns v*u>v &TTO but curb vtuv 

'Ido/o/j' KOTO " /cara 'I^a/CTjj/ /caAcDj/ irepi " irepl Ka\<av. 

EEM. 2. The prepositions, apQi, avri, aud, Sto, and the poetic rnrai, inreip, 
Sicu, irapai, do not admit Anastrophe. If the preposition stands between an 
adjective and a substantive, according to Aristarchus the Anastrophe is found 
only when the substantive stands first, e. g. "Eavdna fri Siv^evri (but Si^cvrf cirl 
Eavo>). Other Grammarians reject the Anastrophe in both cases. In poetry, 
irepi is subject to Anastrophe only when it governs the Gen., but then very 
often, and even when the Gen. and irepi are separated by other words. See 
300, (c.) 

HEM. 3. Prepositions, moreover, admit Anastrophe, when they are used 
instead of abridged forms of the verb, e. g. &va instead of avdo-frriTt ; JUC'TO, irdpa, 
tin, Sire, Trept, vi, instead of the indicative present of flvat, compounded with 
these prepositions, e. g. <?7& irdpa instead of irdpfifjn, iff pi instead of irfpico-Ti ; 
also, when the preposition is separated from the verb and placed after it, which 
is often the case in the Epic dialect, e. g. 6\effas &iro irdmas Iralpovs. But the 
accent of air6 is drawn back without any reason, in such phrases as airi> ba\d(r- 
<njs oiKfw, airb VKOTTOV, air' ^AiriSoy, and the like ; in such cases it is properly on 
the ultimate. 

$ 32. V. Atonies or Proclitics. 

Atonies or Proclitics, are certain monosyllables which, in 
connected discourse, are so closely united to the following 

52 ENCLITICS. [$ 33. 

word, that they coalesce with it, and lose their accent. They 

(a) the forms of the article, 6, YJ, ol, al ; 

(b) the prepositions, lv, eis (es), e/c (e), w?, ad; but if e is 
after the word which it governs, and at the end of a verse, 
or before a punctuation-mark, it retains the accent, e. g. 
KaKwv e, H. , 472 ; in prose, e does not stand after its 

(c) the conjunctions, cos (as), ; but if o>s follows the word 
which it should precede, it has the accent ; this position, 
however, is found only among the poets, e. g. /ca/cot <Ss, 
for ws KaKot ; 

(d) ov (OVK, oi>x), not; but at the end of a sentence and with 
the meaning No, it has the accent, ov (OVK). Comp. 
15, Hem. 2. 

33. 'VI Enclitics. 

Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, which, in 
connected discourse, are so closely joined, in particular cases, 
to the preceding word, that they either lose their tone or throw 
it back upon the preceding word, e. g. </Aos TCS, TroAc/Aos TI<S. 
They are : 

(a) the verbs tlpi, to be, and <t>i)f*i, to say, in the Pres. Indie., except the second 
Pers. Sing., el, thou art, and Qps, ihou sayest ; 

(b) the following forms of the three personal pronouns in the Attic dia- 
lect : 

I. P. S. fj.ov 

H. P. S. a-ov 

III. P. S. o5 Dual, o-tpwtit PL ffQio-i (/) 


e, vlv ; 

(c) the indefinite pronouns, rls, ri, through all the cases and numbers, 
together with the abridged forms TOV and ry, and the indefinite adverbs ir&s, 
ird>, irtj, irou, TTO&I, iro&fv, Trot, 7TOT6 ; but the corresponding interrogative pro- 
nouns are always accented, e. g. T/S, rl, TTWS, etc. ; 

(d) the following particles in the Attic dialect, re, rot, ye, vtv, irep (and in 
the Epic, we, eV, j/u, fid), and the inseparable particle Se, 34, Hem. 3. 

REMARK. Several small words are combined with these enclitics, forming 
with them one word, with a meaning of its own, e. g. efre, otfre, ^ T f> #sre, 
&sirep, ttsns, etc. 


9 34. Inclination of the Accent. 

1. An Oxytone so unites with the following enclitic, that the 
accent, which is commonly grave in the middle of a sentence 
($ 31, I), again becomes acute, e. g. 

frrjp rts for &ip rls KO\OS effriv for xaXbs lariv 

Kai rives " Atoi rives vora/j.6s ye " irora/ *ye 

K0\6s Tf " K0\bs T6 ITOTO^of TlVfS " 1T07 UfAol riVfS. 

2. A Perispomenon unites with the following enclitic without 
further change of the accent, e. g. 

<j>u>s ri for </>ws rl <f>tAe? rts for <f>i\t rls 

KO\OV nvos 

REMARK 1. A Perispomenon followed by a dissyllabic enclitic, is regarded 
as an Oxytone. For as <j>>s teriv, for example, are considered as one word in 
respect to accent, and as the circumflex cannot go further back than the penult 
( 29, 7), the Perispomenon must be regarded as an Oxytone. Long syllables 
in enclitics are treated as short in respect to the accent ; hence olvrwotv, ZVTI- 
vtDv, are viewed as separate words, e. g. KO\U>V -rw<av. 

3. A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabic 
enclitic without further change of the accent ; but there is no 
inclination when the enclitic is a dissyllable, e. g. 

<(>i\os p.ov for <f>l\os fiov but <j)(\os ecrriv, <f>i\oi fyaffiv 
&\\os irtas " &\\os irtas >c &\Xos irore, 

REM. 2. It is evident that if there was an inclination of the accent when a 
Paroxytone was followed by a dissyllabic enclitic, the accent would stand on 
the fourth syllable, e. g. $l\oi-<pa<nv, which is contrary to the usage of the 

4. A Proparoxytone and a Properispomenon unite with the 
following enclitic, and take an acute accent on the last sylla- 
ble ; this syllable forms the tone- syllable for the following 
enclitic, as av^pw-Tro's ns, e. g. 

s ris for Hvbpiairos rls ffta/j.d rt for ffu/jux, rl 

6.vd>p(oTroi rives " &v&pa)iroi rives ffta/j-d effriv " ffS>/j.a effrlv. 

Exception. A Properispomenon, ending in | or \|/, does not admit the incli- 
nation of a dissyllabic enclitic, e. g. aS\o| riv6s, au\a| e<rrtv, <pobi e<rrlv y K-fjpv^ 
\oIX|/ tffrtv. 



REM. 3. The lo< al suffix 8e (e), which expresses the relation to a place, 
whither, coalesces with substantives according to the rules of inclination, e. g. 

2<T]TT6V8e oupai/oVSe Ilu&wSe (from Uv^da) 
'E\evff?vdSe Me'-yapoSe SJ/xovSe. 

So 'Ad^a^e (i- e. 'ASrfjj/asSe), riAaTatae (FIAaTatat), X a A"*C (x a M^ s Ace.) Tho 
suffix 8e when appended to the Demon, pronoun draws the accent of this pro- 
noun to the syllable before Se. In the oblique cases, these strengthened 
pronouns are accented according to the rules for Oxytones, 45, 7 (a), e. g. 

TdVos Too-o'sSe, roffovSe, To<r<jS5e, rofffytie, roo-w/Se, 
roios TotosSe, TTjAtaos TrjAt/co'sSe, roiffi TotaiSe, 

eV&a eVd"Se. 

5. When several enclitics occur together, each throws back 
its accent on the preceding, e. g. et Trip TIS o-c pot (f>rj<ri TTOTC. 

$35. Enclitics accented. 

Some enclitics, whose signification allows them to be in a measure indepen- 
dent, are accented in the following cases: 

1. 'Ea-rl (j/) is accented on the penult, when it stands in connection with an 
Inf. for |eo-Tt (>), and after the particles aAA', el, OVK, pA], us, /cat, ytteV, '6ri, irov, 
and the pronoun TOUT", and also at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. i'Se?v cmv 
(licet videre), el fffTiv, OVK e<rnv, TOUT' eo-Ttv, eo-Ti &eo's, etc.; the other forms of 
flfj.1 which are capable of inclination, retain the usual accent on the ultimate, 
when they stand at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. erl &eoi. 

2. The forms of Qri/jii which are capable of inclination, retain the accent, 
when they stand at the beginning of a sentence, and also when they are sep- 
arated from the preceding word by a punctuation-mark, e. g. <^^1 eyw. "BOTH/ 
aifijp ayc&Ss, (f>r]fj.t, 

3. The enclitic Pers. pronouns, o-oD, <rol, <re, of, ff<f>i<ri (v), retain their accent: 
(a) when an accented Prep, precedes, e. g. Trapa trov, fj-era ere, irpbs ffoi. But 

the enclitic forms of the first Pers. pronoun are not used with accented 
prepositions, but, instead of them, the longer and regularly accented 
forms, e. g. 

Trap' ip.ov not Trapd p.ov Trpbs efj-ot not TTp6s p.oi 

KO.T efj.f " Kard /ie wept epov " irepi /JLOV. 

KEMARK 1. There are, however, a few instances of enclitics of the fii-st Pers. 
pronoun standing with accented prepositions, e. g. irp6s /*e. PL Symp. 218, c. 

REM. 2. When the emphasis is on the preposition, there is an inclination 
of the accent, e. g. etri ere fj <rvv ffoi, X. An. 7. 7, 32 (against you, rather than with 
you). The enclitic forms are used with the unaccented prepositions, e. g. !K 
(MOV, iv fj-oi, es (re, es fie, e/c o-ou, ej/ <roi. But when the emphasis is on the pro- 
noun, there is no inclination, and instead of ^ioG, p.ol, p.e, e'juou, e'/*of, e'/xe', are 
used, e. g. eV e^ot, aAA.' OVK eV <rot. 


(b) The enclitic pronouns generally retain their accent when they are em- 
phatic, as in antitheses, e. g. ^u Kal <r4 ; ^ue 1) ff; hence the forms o5, of, 
I, are accented only when they are used as reflexive pronouns. 

4. The pronoun rls is accented when it stands at the beginning of a sentence, 
e. g. rives \cyovffiv. 

5. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the enclitic 
rests disappears by Elision, e. g. KO\OS 8* forty, but KO\OS 5e lanv iro\\ol o* 

$36. Division of Syllables. 

PRELIMINARY REMARKS. The division of syllables, according to our mode 
of pronouncing Greek, depends in part upon the place of the accent. The 
term accent and accented, throughout these rules, is used with reference to our 
pronunciation of the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek words. 

The accent (stress) is on the penult in dissyllables, and on the antepenult in 
polysyllabic?, when the penult is short. The accent on the penult or antepenult 
is called the primary accent. If two syllables precede the primary accent, there 
is a secondary accent on the first syllable of the word. 

The following rules exhibit the more general method of dividing syllables, 
except where the pronunciation is regulated by the Greek accent : 

1 . A single consonant between the vowels of the penult and ultimate is 
joined to the latter, e. g. &-ya, ira-pd, /j.d-\a, 'i-va, l-r6s, t-x^P) T^Ae-ywos, (rrpdrev~ 
, \ox&-yds, 

Exception. In dissyllables, a single consonant following e or o is joined to 
the first syllable, e. g. \6y-os, rcA-os, irep-i, or-i, iro\-v, ex-o>, (rr6\-os. 

2. The double consonants and t|/ are joined to the vowel preceding them ; 
e. g. rd^-d), Sty-os, Trpa-ts, &vrira-d/j.fvos. But is joined to the vowel following 
it, except when it stands after 6 or o, or after an accented vowel in the ante- 
penult, in which case it is joined with these vowels ; e. g. i/opi-fa, vo^i-fa, 
apird-^Q) ; but rpdfTf -0, v-os, yo^i^-Oyuej/, apTrd^-o/j.ev. 

3. A single consonant (except in the penult) before or after the vowels a and 
i having the accent, and also a single consonant before or after e and o having 
the accent, is joined to these vowels ; e. g. ay-a&os, Tror-a/uos, /Jo-atA-ec, v-iro\- 
acoj', 6-Tr6r-fpo5, r/d-o^ej/, a-irop-ia, ev-SiK-ia, ITU-T ip-ia ; for a single consonant 
after a long vowel, etc., see 4. 

Exception. A single consonant preceded by o, and followed by two vowels, 
the first of which is e or t, is joined to the vowel after it ; e. g. (rrpa-rtd, avaffrd- 
(Tews, (Trpa-TiwTijs (not ffr par-id, etc.). 

4. A single consonant after a long vowel, a diphthong or v, is joined to the 
vowel following ; e. g. cbnmj-Xd'di, ^Tj-^uepos, q>i\<a-repos, a.KO\ov-&ia, 

Exception. A single consonant following long a or t in the antepenult, and 
having the accent, is joined with the vowel preceding ; e. g., tffip 


5. Two single consonants coming together in the middle of a worcl, are 
separated ; e. g. 7roA.-Aa, !<r-rdv<u, 

Exception. A mute and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowel ; 
e. g. tri-TpcaffKov. 

6. When three consonants come together in the middle of a word, the last 
two, if a mute and liquid, are joined to the following vowel ; if not, the last 
only ; e. g. &i/~&ponros, av-dpta, but trepQ-Sftiv. 

7. Compounds are divided into their constituent parts, when the first part 
ends with a consonant ; hut if the first part ends with a vowel followed by a 
short syllable, the compound is divided, like a simple word ; e. g. $K-fia.iva> y 
ffvvfK-Qc&vrjffis, irp6&-ea-is, d;/aj8-a<rt*, but vTro-^-fjrrjs, not VJTO^TTJS ; SO irapa- 


$37. Punctuation-marks Diastole. 

1. The colon and semicolon are indicated by the same mark, a point above 
the line, e. g. E5 e\eas irdvres y&p wp.o\6'Ynffa.v. The interrogation-mark is 
our semicolon, e. g. Tis TOUT a fn-o/Tjo'ej' ; who did this ? The period, comma, and 
mark of exclamation have the same characters as in English ; the mark of 
exclamation is rarely used. 

2. The Diastole (or Hypodiastole), which has the same character as the 
comma, is used to distinguish certain compound words from others of like 
sound, but of dissimilar meaning, e. g. 8, TI, whatever, and grt, that, since ; '6, re, 
whatever, and ore, when. More recently, such words are generally separated in 
writing merely, e. g. 8 ri t o re. 



38. Division of the Parts of Speech. Inflection. 

1. Etymology relates to the form and meaning of the Parts 
of Speech. 

2. The Parts of Speech are: 

( 1 ) Substantives, which denote anything which exists, any 
object (person or thing) ; as man, rose, house, virtue; 

(2) Adjectives, which denote a property or qtiality; as great, 
small, red, beautiful, hateful;. 


(3) Pronouns, which denote the relation of the object spoken 
of to the speaker ($ 86) ; as /, thou, he, this, that, mine, thine , 

(4) Numerals, which denote the number or quantity of an 
object; as one, two, three, many, few; 

(5) Verbs, which denote an action or state; as to bloom, to 
inikc, to sleep, to love, to censure; 

(6) Adverbs, which denote the way and manner in which an 
action takes place, or the relations of place, time, manner, qual- 
ity, and number; as here, yesterday, beautifully (=in a beautiful 
manner), perJiaps, often, rarely ; 

(7) Prepositions, which denote the relation of space, time, 
dr. of an object to an action or thing; as (to stand) before the 
house, after sunset, before sleep ; 

(8) Conjunctions, which connect words and sentences, or 
determine the relation between sentences ; as and, but, because. 

3. Words are either essential words, i. e. such as express a 
notion, or idea, viz. the substantive, adjective, verb, and the 
adverbs derived from them; or formal words, i. e. such as 
express merely the relations of the idea to the speaker or some 
one else, viz. the pronoun, numeral, preposition, conjunction, the 
adverbs derived from, them, and the verb elvcu, to be, when it is 
used as a copula, with an adjective or substantive for its predi- 
cate ; as 6 av$pa>7Tos fhrjros icrnv. 

REMARK. Besides the parts of speech above mentioned, there are certain 
organic sounds, called interjections ; as alas ! oh ! ah ! They express neither 
an idea nor the relation of an idea, and hence are not to be considered as proper 
words. Prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs not derived from adjectives 
and substantives, are included under the common name of Particles. 

4. Inflection is the variation or modification of a word in 
order to indicate its different relations. The inflection of the 
substantive, adjective, pronoun, and numeral, is termed Declen- 
sion ; the inflection of the verb, Conjugation. The other parts 
of speech do not admit inflection. 



The Substantive. 
$39. Different kinds of Substantives. 

1. When a substantive ($ 38) indicates an object, which has 
an actual, independent existence, it is termed a Concrete substan- 
tive, e. g. man, woman, lion, earth, flower, host; but when the 
substantive indicates an action or quality, winch is only conceived 
of as being something actual or independent, it is called an 
Abstract substantive, e. g. virtue, wisdom. 

2. The Concretes are, 

(a) Proper nouns, when they denote only single persons or 
things, and not a class ; as Cyrus, Plato, Hellas, Athens ; 

(b) Appellatives, \vhen they denote an entire class or an 
individual of a class ; as mortal, tree, man, woman, flower. 

REMARK. Appellatives are called material nouns, when they indicate the 
simple material, e. g. milk, dust, water, gold, coin, grain ; collective nouns, when 
they designate many single persons or things as one whole, e. g. mankind, 
cavalry, fleet ; nouns of quantity, when they denote measure or weight, e. g. a 
bushel, a pound. 

$40. Gender of Substantives. 

Substantives have three genders, as in Latin ; the gender is 
determined partly by the meaning of the substantives, and 
partly by their endings. The last mode will be more fully 
treated under the several declensions. The following general 
rales determine the gender of substantives by their mean- 

1. The names of males, of nations, winds, months, and most 
rivers, are masculine, e. g. 6 /JcunAevs, the king; ol "EAA^i/es, 6 
TafjLf]\Lwv (January, nearly) ; 6 'AA<eios, the Alpheus ; 6 cvpos, the 
southeast wind. 

REMARK 1. Exceptions: Diminutives in -OP, which are not proper names 
f these are conceived of ^s things, and are neuter) ; e. g. rb /tei/xfotoj/, the lad 
(but proper names of females -in -OP are feminine, e. g. ^ Ae6vriov) ; also rb 
it-vSpdiroSov, a slave, mancipium ; TO. Traifiutd, a favorite ; and some rivers, e. g. 
17 2ru|, and also some according to the ending, e. g. y 

2. The names of females are feminine, e. g. 17 ^^p, mother. 


3. The names of the letters, infinitives, all indeclinable 
words, and every word used as a mere symbol, are neuter, e. g. 
TO Aa/A/?8a, TO TVTrrtiv, the striking ; TO prrnip, the word mother. 

I-.M. 2. The gender of the names of mountains is (loicr::iiued by their 
endings; hence (a) masculine, 'E\"iK(i>y, -i/os, etc. ; those, in -os, Gen. -ou, e.g. 
Flapi'cwro's ; in -cos, -w, c. g. "AJb<as (o^Ept/f, derived f x>m the name of a person, 
is particularly to be observed) ; (b) feminine, -liooo in -77 (a), Gen. -rjs, e. g. 
Afrj/77, "1877, Ofrrj ; those in -is and -us, e. g. "AAirts, Gen. -ews, "AATrets, -ew^, 
Kc(pa/ij8is, -8os, "O&pvs, -uos (masculine in Lat.), ndprrjs, --TI&OS ; (c) neuter, those 
in -ov, e. g. AVKCUOJ/, n^Aiop. 

REM. 3. The gender of the names of places also is determined almost entirely 
by the endings ; only a few of these are feminine, properly agreeing with the fem- 
inine appellatives 777, x ( * > P a ^ v^ * (i- e - vtovaa xo>pa), TTOA.JS to bo supplied with 
them ; (a) names of cities and islands in -os, -ov, e. g. 77 Kopiv&os [v6\is], 77 'Po"5os 
\vTJffos], 77 ATJ\OS [j/rjo-osj (except 6 'O'/XTJO'TO'S, 'flp&nro's, & Alyta\6s, 6 Kavuiros ', 
usually 6 y OpxofjLfv6s y 6 'AAiopros; but generally 77 FIuAos and 77 ^EiriSavpos) ; and 
the following names of countries : 77 AFyuTrros, 77 Xfpp6vr)(ros, 77 y H7reipos, 77 TleAo- 
; (b) names of cities in -wj/, e. g. 77 BajSvA^f, -w^os, 77 Aa/ceSat/xcwv, -o/os, 
civ, -Jj/os, 77 XaA^Swj/, -J^oj, 7*7 Kapx^wz/, -ovos (except 5 Qlved>i> and 6 
i/, -wvos, usuully 6 Mapabdv, -uvos; but commonly ^ St/cucii/, -wi/os) ; (c) 
The gender of the others is determined by the endings. 

(a) All names of countries in -os, Gen. -ov (except those named above), are 
masculine, e. g. & BLOTTO/JOS, 'Io'3/io's, FIoWos, 'EAAT^STTOVTOS, Alyia\6s ; all plural 
names of cities in -01, Gen. -o>i/, c. g. $l\nnroi ; names of cities in -oi/s, Gen. 
-OUKTOS, e. g. 6 'Tfyot/s (some of these are used both as masculine and feminine, 
e. g. $(AoCs ; 'A/no&oOs, KeocwroOs, 'Pa/xi/ous, 2t5oGs, and ToaTre^biis, are feminine 
only) ; those in -as, Gen. -euros, e. g. 6 Topas; those in -cus, Gen. -&>s, e. g. 
6 QavoTfvs 5 finally. 6 Mao-7js, Gen. -77705 ; 

(b) All names of countries of the first Dec. and those of the third, which 
have feminine endings, are feminine (see 66, II), e. g. 77 'EAeuo-fs, -tvos, TJ 
~2.aXa.ius. 'it/as, etc. ; 

(c) All ill -oi', Gen. -ou; plurals in -a, Gen. -ay, and those in -os, Gen. -ow, 
are neuter, e. g. TO "lAzov, TO AeG:Tpo, rb "Apyos, Gen. -ous. 

4. The names of persons which have only one form for the 
Masc. and Fem. are of common gender, e. g. 6 r) $eo's, god and 
goddess ; 6 17 Trats, boy and girl. 

REM. 4. Movable substantives are such as change their ending so as to 
indicate the natural gender, e. g. 6 cwnAeus, king ; rj &a<rt\ia, queen. See For- 
mation of Words. 

REM. 5. Substantives (mostly names of animals) which have but one gram- 
matical gender, either Masc. or Fern., to denote both genders, are called 
Epicenes (MKowa), e. g. 77 oAefonj!, the fox, whether the male or female fox: 77 
s, the bear ; TJ jcajuTjAos, the camel ; 6 fj.vs, the mouse ; 77 x e ^ I 8c6', the swallow ; 

7'; ols, the sheep ; 77 jSovs (collectively), of j8o*es, cattle; 6 I'ITTTOS, horse (indefinitely), 
but in PI., al "inrot ; but when the natural gender is to be distinguished, Hpfau, 
male, or d-^Aus, female, is added, e. g. Acry&s & &7}Aus, the female hare ; a\d>irr) 77 
tippyy, the male fox ; or the gender may be indicated by prefixing the article, or 
by another adjective, e. g. 6 &PKTOS, the male bear. Some masculine names of 
animals have also the corresponding feminine forms, e.g. 6 AeW, a lion: ij 
AeWa, a lioness. See Rem. 4. Here belong, in the second place, the Masc. 
names of persons in the PL, which include the Fem., e. g. of yovtis, the parent* 
ol woTSfs, liberi, the children (sons and daughters). 



$41. Number, Case, and Declension. 

1. The Greek has three Numbers ; the Singular, denoting one 
person or thing ; the Plural more than one ; and the Dual, two. 

REMARK 1. The dual is not often used; it is found most frequently in the 
Attic dialect ; it does not occur in the JEolic, nor in the Hellenistic Greek. 

2. The Greek has five Cases, 1 Nominative, Genitive, Dative, 
Accusative, and Vocative. 

J^EM. 2. * The Nom. and Voc., as they represent an object as independent of 
any other, are called independent cases (casus recti) ; the others, as they rep- 
resent an object as dependent on or related to some other, are called dependent 
cases (casus obliqui). 

REM. 3. Neuter substantives and adjectives have the same form in the Nom., 
Ace., and Voc. of all numbers. The dual has only two case-endings ; one for 
the Nona., Ace., and Voc., the other for the Gen. and Dat. 

3. There are in the Greek three different ways of inflecting 
substantives; distinguished as the First, Second, and Third 

REM. 4. The three declensions may be reduced to two principal declensions, 
yiz. the strong and the weak. The case-endings of the strong are prominent and 
clearly distinguishable, while those of the weak are less distinctly marked. 
Words of the third Dec. belong to the strong, those of the first and second to 
the weak. In the third Dec. the case-endings uniformly appear pure ; in the 
first and second this is less so, because in these declensions the steins end in a 
vowel, and hence combine with the case-endings which begin with a vowel. 
The inflexion of both the principal declensions, in the Masc. and Fern., is as 
follows : 












I II s 



















v and o 




42. First Declension. 

The first declension has four endings, a and rj feminine ; H 
and 775 masculine. 

1 See a fuller statement under the Cases in the Syntax, 268, seq* 









a d or TJ 

as or TJS 




TJS as rjs 





V * V 

* ?> 




av ov t\v 

(Xl/ 7JI/ 




ad 77. 

a 77, a. 



REMARK 1. It will be seen from the above terminations, that the plural as 
well as the dual endings are the same, whatever may be the form of the singu- 

REM. 2. The original ending of the Dat. PI. was aitri(v), as in the second 
Dec. oiffi(v), e.g. Sixa-uri, rolcn, Kafwrcucn, S-eoTtn, fffj-utpoiffi, aya&oifft. This 
form is also found in the Attic poets, and is not foreign even to prose, at least 
to that of Plato, especially in the second Dec. Even the Ionic form -p<n (v) 
is sometimes used by the Attic poets. 

$43. Nouns of the Feminine Gender. 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in a or a, which remains in all the 
Cases, if it is preceded by />, e, or t (a pure), e. g. x^P a land', 
iSta,form; <ro<ia, ivisdom ; xpeiia, utility ; cvvoia, benevolence ; here 
also belong the contracts in a (see No. 2), e. g. /xi/a; some sub- 
stantives in d, e. g. dXoAo, ivar-cry, and some proper names, e. g. 
cSd, A^Sd, FeAd, $t\o//,^Ad, Gen. -as, Dat. -a, Ace. -av. 

REMARK. 1 . The following words whose stem ends in />, take the ending 77 
instead of o: /cJpTj, maiden; K^TJ, cheek; Stprj, neck; abdpri, water-gruel; and 
some proper names introduced from the Ionic dialect, e. g. 'E^vprj ; the i\ then 
remains through all the cases of the Sing. If any other vowel than e or i, 
precedes, the Nom. and all the cases of the Sing, have 77, e. g. &/COTJ, <f>irf), ovcet^?, 
<irfl ; except TT^O, grass; x/>^ a color; trr6a, porch; yva, field; <riKva, gourd; 
Kapva, walnut-tree ; &.da, olive-tree ; a\o)d, threshing-Jloor ; Nav<riitaa, all Gen. -as. 

(b) Tlie Nom. ends in a, which remains only in the Ace. and 
Voc. ; but in the Gen. and Dat., it is changed into rj, if the a is 
preceded by A, XA, o-, o-o- (TT), , i^. 

REM. 2. The ending is commonly in o when v precedes, e. g. i-^va. (so es- 
pecially in words in -aiva] ; but 77 is often found, as is always the case in the 
suffix ffvtrri, e. g. (v<(>po<rvvT), also frohrj, irpvuwi and Trpu/tva, -K^(VT\ and tciiva. 
Aiaira is the only word ending in a preceded by a single T. 

(c) In other cases, the Nom. ends in 77, which remains 
throughout the singular. 



2. If a is preceded by e or a, -ea is contracted in most words 
into r), and -da into a in all the Cases (comp. /3op/>us, $ 44, 3). 
The final syllable remains circumflexed in all the Cases. 

HEM. 3. The first Dec. is called the a declension, as its uninflectecl forms 
end in o, e. g. yvtap.-r] from the uninflected yj/cfytea (comp. <ruKca), veavias from 
the uninflected veavia, iroxirijs from TroAfreo; the second, the o declension, as 
its uninflected forms end in o, e. g. x6yos, uninflected form Xoyo ; the third, the 
consonant declension, as its uninflected forms end in a consonant, and the vowels 
i and u, which originated from consonants. 


S. N. 

P. N. 

a) -f] through all the cases. 
Opinion. Fig-tree. 

TJS yvci>fj.r]s 

>7 yv(ap.ri <rvK-fj 

^v yv(a/j.Tf]v avK-ri 

al yvS> ffVK-cu 
TOJV yvc>)fj.(av ffvK-iav 
rats yva>/jLais arvK-ais 
rcks yv(f> ffvK-as 

b) d through all the cases. 
Shadow. Land. 




c) a, Gen. T?S. 
Hammer. Lioness. 









TOD yvcapd 

crept/paw Xza.iva.iv. 

KEMARK 1. On the form of the article rct> instead of rd, see 241, Rem. 10. 
On the declension of the article ^, see 91. The 2> standing before the singu- 
lar and plural Voc. is a mere exclamation. 

HEM. 2. On the contraction of -ea into -rj, see 9, II. (a) ; in the plural and 
dual of the first and second declensions, however, -ea is contracted into a. 
Comp. 9, II. (b). Nouns in -oa are contracted as follows: N. pi/da, 
(mina), G. /j.vdas, p.vas, D. juraa, jtwo!, A. fj.vdav, p.vav : PL N. {JLVOI, etc. 

44. II. Nouns of the Masculine Gender. 

1. The Gen. of masculine nouns ends in -ou; nouns in -as 
retain the a in the Dat, Ace., and Voc., and those in -77? retain 
the r) in the Ace. and Dat. Sing. 

2. The Voc. of substantives in -779 ends in a : 

(1) All in -rrjs, e. g. TO^OTT;?, Voc. ro^ora, 7rpo<f>rfnr)s, Voc. Trpoffi- 
ra ; (2) all in -^s composed of a substantive and a verb, e. g. 
Voc. yeo^erpa, fJivpOTri'tXijs, d SCllve-selleT, Voc. fJivpo- 




u; (:>) national names in -17?, e. g. ITcpo^s, a Persian, Voc. 
rd. All other nouns in -r/s have the Voc. in 77, e. g. IIcpoT/?, 

s (the name of a man), Voc. Iltpo-^. 

3. The remarks on contract feminine nouns ($ 43, 2), ap- 
ply to Masc. nouns contracted from -e'as, e. g. 'Ep/x^s, /Joppas. 
In /3op eas, the ea is contracted into a, and not into 77, since p 
}>n vcdes, $ 43, 1 (a). The doubling of the p in ySoppas is merely 

REMARK 1. Contrary to 43, I, compounds of /terpe'w (to measure), as 
yftaptrpris, end in -TJS instead of -as ; on the contrary, several proper names, etc., 
as ncAoirtSas and ywv&8as, a noble, end in -as instead of -175. 

REM. 2. Several masculine nouns in -as have the Doric Gen. in d, namely, 
irarpoAoias, fj.ijrpa\olas, patricide, matricide; opv&ofrfipas, fowler; also several 
proper names, particularly those which are Doric or foreign, e. g. "T\os, Gen. 
'T\d, SKO'TTOS, -d, 'Ai/j/03as, -a, 2uAAas, -a ; (the pure Greek, and also several 
of the celebrated Doric names, e. g. 'Apxvras, AewWSas, Tlavo-avias (also the 
Boeotian 'Eira/jieivuvlias), commonly have ou;) finally, contracts in ay, e. g. 
Boppas, Gen. |8o/Jp"a. 


Sing. N. 




ea) T)S 










Plur. N. 











REM. 3. The Ionic Genitive-ending -ecu of Masc. nouns in -TJS ( 211), is 
retained even in the Attic dialect in some proper names, e. g. 0a,\eo> from 
Qa\ns, T-npeca from TTJ/JTJS. The contract fioppas is also found in the Attic 
writers in the uncontracted form ; thus, fiopeas, X. An. 5. 7, 7. PI. Phaedr. 229, 
b. flopcou, Th. 3, 23. jSopfao, 3, 4. 

REM. 4. The ending 175 occurs, also, in the third Dec. To the first Dec. 
lirlong: (a) proper names in -/Srjs and -dSrjs, e.g. QovKiSiSys, 'ArpetSTjs (from 
'Arpe and {STJS), Mi\Ttd8i)s, as well as gontile nouns, e. g. 27rapTtaT?7s ; (b) nouns 
in -TTJS derived from verbs, e. g. irot^TTjs from irotfu; (c) compounds consisting 
of a substantive and verb, or of a substantive compounded with another of the 
first Dec.. P. g. TraiSorpi/Jij?, &i&\ioird!>\-r)$, 


$45. Quantity and Accentuation of the First 

a. Quantity. 

1. The Nom. ending a is short in all words, which have the Gen. in -77$ [ 43, 
1 (b)] ; but long in those which have the Gen, in -as, e. g. TrreAed, <TKia, <ro<j)ia, 
TrajSe/d, xp et 'a> XP'> 7r ^ a > W* 6 '/**' A7 ?^d, aAa\d, etc. 5 the same is true of the Fern. 
ending of adjectives in os, e. g. &.eud-e/>d, Stitatd. 

The following classes of words have a short in the Nom. : 

(a) Dissyllables, and some Polysyllabic names of places in -<ud, e.g. 'Itr-ricua, 

(b) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -eid, e. g. aATjd-e/a, MV}5em, j8atr/Aeto, 
queen, yXu/celo, except abstracts from verbs in -euw, e. g. a(nA.eid, fe'n^- 
dom ; SovAeia, servitude (from /SacnAeua), SouAe&w) ; 

(c) the names and designation of females, etc. in -T/JIO, e. g. tyd\rpia, a female 
musician, words in -u Td, e. g. fivia, Teru^uTo, the numeral /d, and, finally, 
some poetic words ; 

(d) Trisyllables and Polysyllables in -oia, e. g. etfvoia, oVom; 

(e) words in -pa whose penult is long by a diphthong (except ou), by, u, or 
by /Jji, e. g. TreTjpo, (J-dxaipa 5 yeQvpa, ff<pvpa ; Tlvppa.. 'Eralpd, ira\a.l(TTpa. > 
At&pa, QaiSpa, Ko\\vpa, are exceptions. 

2. The Voc. ending a is always short in nouns in -TJS ; but always long in 
nouns in -as, e. g. TroAtra from Tro\lrris, veavia from veavias. The quantity of 
Fern, nouns in -a and -d, is the same in the Voc. as in the Nom. 

3. The Dual ending a is always long, e. g. Movo-d from Moutra. 

4. The Ace. ending av is like the Nom., e. g. MoDcrdv, x^P aj/ from MoDcrd, 

5. The ending as is always long, e. g. TOS rpairefas from rpdirefy, 6 veavlds, 
fovs veov/ds, TTJS otKids, ras oiKids. 

b. Accentuation. 

6. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom., as long as the laws 
of accentuation permit ( 30^. 


(a) The Voc. SeVTrora from SeoTr^TTjs, lord ; 

(b) The Gen. PI. of the first Dec. always has the final syllable uv circum- 
flexed, which is caused by the contraction of the old ending duv, e. g. 
Xeaiv&v from \4aiva, vea.viS>v from vcavias. But the substantives, xph ff * 
TTJS, creditor ; a<pvr), anchovy ; frijffiai, monsoons ; and x\oi5i^js, unld-boar, 
are exceptions ; in the Gen. PL they remain Paroxytones, thus xpV*', 

(but a^uwi/, xw a " r w from a^u^s, unapt; xP^" r ^ s i useful). 



REMARK. On the accentuation of Adjectives, see $ 75. 

7 The accent of the Nom. is changed, according to the quantity of the final 
llalilc, thus: 

(a) Oxytones become Perispomena in the Gen. and Dat. of the three num- 
bers, e. g. (Nom. rtfji-fi) n/uf/s, -77, ->v, -cuv, -ais; this holds, also, in the 
second Dec. ; c. g. fr*6s, -oC, -<j? -i/, -oiv ; 

(b) Paroxytones with a short penult remain so through all the Cases, except 
the Gen. PL, which is always circumflexed on the last syllable; but 
Paroxytones with a long penult become Properispomena, if the last syl- 
lable is short, as in the Nom. PI., and in the Voc. Sing, in o of Masc. 
nouns in -TJS ( 44), e. g. 71/^77, yvw/jcu, but yvwpuv, TroArtTJS, iroArrd, 
jroA?Teu, but Tro\nS>v ; on the contrary, SfkTj, Sfkcu, but SIK&V ; 

(c) Properispomena become Paroxytones, if the last syllable is long, e. g. 
MoCtrd, MOWTTJS ; 

(d) Proparoxy tones become Paroxytones, if the last syllable is long, e. g. 

$46. Second Declension. 

The Second Declension has two endings, os and ov ; nouns 
in -os are mostly masculine, but often feminine ($ 50) ; those 
in -ov are neuter ; except Fem. diminutive proper names in -ov> 
e. g. ^ rXvKe/otoi/ ($ 40). 







ot a 












ovs a 



os and ov. 

ot a. 


REMARK 1 . The Gen. and Dat. endings of the different genders are the 
same in all numbers; neuters have the Nom., Ace., and Voc. alike in a!2 
numbers, and in the plural they end in a. 

REM. 2. On the form of the Dat. PI. ori (v), see 42, Rem. 2. 





S. N. 


6 x6y-os 
TOV X6y-ov 
TW x6y-ct> 
T&J/ Xoy-ov 




vr\ffov TOV 


6 &yye\os 


T& 0~VKOV 


T(f (TVKtf 


& ffVKOV 

ol \6y-oi al vijffoi ol &eot 

TOIV Xoy-cav TO>V 

TO"IS X6y-ois TCUS 

TovsX6y-ovs TOS vhcrovs TOVS freovs 

& \6y-oi & vriffoi & &eol 





T^I (rC/co 

& ffVKO, 


T(i) X6y-U TO VT](T(t) 

Tolv X6y-oiv TCUV vf)o~oti 

TCt> ffVKCO 

REM. 3. The yoc. of words in -os commonly ends in e, though often in -os, 
e. g. & <f)l\c, and 3 <f>i\os ; always &eo's in classic Greek. 

$47. Contraction of the Second Declension. 

1. A small number of substantives, with o or e before the 
case-ending, are contracted in the Attic dialect ($ 9). 





S. N. 

6 ir\6os 


6 irepiir\oos 
































P. N. 
















































Only the following nouns besides the above are contracted in this manner : o 
v6os, vovSy the in hid ; 6 p6os, povs, a stream ; o frpovs, noise ; 6 xvovs, down ; 6 aSeA- 
^tSovs, a nephew; 6 frvyaTpiSovs, grandson; 6 ave^/tdSovs, son of a sister's child. 

REMARK. Uncontracted forms sometimes occur even in the Attic dialect 
though seldom in substantives, c. g. row, Plato, Prot. 344. a; much oftener in 
adjectives, particularly r.?uteix in -oa, as TO a'oa, (Tfp6irXoa. On the contrac- 
tion of ea a 1 tlu- I'l. spe 9. II. (!>) 

I, 49.] 



$ 48. The Attic Second Declension. 

Several substantives and adjectives have the cmlinirs o>s- 
(Muse, and Fern.) and an/ (Neut), instead of 05 and oi/; they 
retain the w through all the Cases instead of the common 
Bowels :uid diphthongs of the second Dec. and subscribe t 
under <o where the regular form has a> or oi; thus, ov and a 
become w ; os, ov, and ovs become ws, cov, and us ; oi, ots, and ow 
become w, a>9, and wv; w, w, and a>v remain unchanged. The 
Voc. is the same as the Nom 


Sing. N. 

rinr. N. 

D. N. A. V. 
G. and D. 

6 Ac-ws 

77 KaA-cos 
















KEMAKK 1. Some words of the Masc. and Fern, gender often reject the v 
in the Ace. Sing., namely, & \aycas, the hare ; (Ace. T&J/ \ayuv and \ay<i>), and 
commonly rj ews, the dawn ; T] aAcor, a threshing-floor ; fj Ke'cos, }] Kws, 6 "ASus, fj 
Tews, and the adjectives &yyp(as, not old ; tiriir\f cos, full; virepxpeias, guilty. 

]\KM. 2. This Declension is termed Attic, because, if a word of this class 
has another form, e. g. Aews and \a6s, vews and va6s, Meve'Aecos and Mej/eAdos, 
the Attic writers are accustomed to select the form in -ews; though, in the 
best Attic writers, the non-Attic forms also may be found. On the interchange 
of the long vowel in this Declension, see 16, 5. 

49. Accentuation of Second Declension. 

1. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the quan- 
tity of the final syllable permits ; the Voc. SSeA^e from a5f\<j>6s, brother, is 
an exception. 

2. The change of accent is the same as in the first Dec. ( 45, 7); in the 
Gen. PL, however, only oxytones, e.g. &e<fe, are perispomena ; the rest are pro 
paroxytones. See the Paradigms. 


3. The following exceptions to the rules given for the accentuation of con 
tracts in 30, 2, should be observed : (a) the Dual in of words in -ooy, -eos, 
-eov, has the acute instead of the circumflex, e. g. ir\6(o TrAw, otrreco = oo-rct>, 
instead of TTAW, O<TTO> ; (b) compounds and polysyllabic proper names, which 
retain the accent even on the penult, when it would regularly stand as a cir- 
cumflex on the contracted syllable, e. g. TrepiTrAo'-ou = ire plir A ov (instead of 
TreptTrAoD), from TrepiVAoos = Trepiir\ovs ; Ueip&A-ov = Ueipi&ov (instead of 

C), from Tleipfooos Ufipi&ovs ; also adjectives, e. g. evv6-ov = ftfvov (not 
v), from e#z/oos = etfj/ovs ; yet the accent is never removed to the antepenult ; 
thus, TrepforAoi, not WpnrAoi ; KcucoVoi, not /cctaoi/oi; (c) T& icdveov, basket, takes 
the circumflex on the ultimate, in the contract forms ; hence KO.VCOV = KO.VOVV 
(instead of KO.VOVV) ; (d) words in -Serfs = Sows denoting kindred, have the cir- 
cumflex instead of the acute on the ultimate, e. g. aSeA^Seo's = oScA^iSoCs, 
nephew (instead of a8e\<pi8ovs). It may be stated as the rule, that all simple 
substantives and adjectives in -eos and -oos take the circumflex on the contracted 
syllable, hence KO.VOVV, ctSeA^tSoCs, xp v(ro ^ s (from xpuo-e-os). 

4. In the Attic Dec., Proparoxytones retain the acute accent on the antepe- 
nult through all the cases and numbers. See 29, Rem. 7. Oxytones in -c6s 
retain the acute accent in the Gen. Sing., contrary to 45, 7 (a), e. g. Ae<6. il 
here absorbs o, the inflection-vowel of the Gen. (e. g. \6yo-o = \6yov), which 
accounts for this unusual accentuation, thus Aec6 instead of Aeci-o. 

$ 50. Remarks on the Gender of the Ending os. 

Substantives in -os are regularly Masc. ; yet many are Fern. In addition to 
the names of countries, cities, and islands, mentioned under the general rule 
in 40, the following exceptions occur, which may be divided into general 
classes : 

(a) Substantives which denote certain products of trees and plants, e. g. 
j) &KV\OS, acorn ; y jSciAdj/os, acorn ; rj fivffffos, fine linen ; j) So/crfs, a beam ; jj 
fidpSos, a staff; y pifi\os, bark of the papyrus ; y tyia&os, rush mat; 

(b) Such as denote stones and earths, e. g. 6 y A&os, a stone; y A&os, partic- 
ularly a precious stone ; -rj \J/f)<|>os, a small stone ; ri ^dfi/j-os, sand ; rj enroSos, ashes ; 
v) jutAros, red earth; TJ KpvffraXXos, crystal (6 /cpiWaAAos, ice) ; 97 f3d(ravos, a touch- 
stone; }) tf\KTpos, electmm; TJ (r/j.dpay$os, a smaragdus ; TJ /SwAos, a clod; fiyinf/os, 
gypsum; j) vaXos, glass; -f] riravos, chalk; j) &pyi\os, clay ; TJ TTA^OS, brick; rj 
&<T&G\OS, soot ; Tj KdVpos, ordure ; TJ &(T(pa\Tos, bitumen ; 

(c) Such as denote a hollow or cavity, e. g. ^ Kc^pSoiros, kneading-trough ; j\ -Kiftw 
r6s and y xn*- s -> a b x > ^ trope's, a coffin; y Xi)i/6s, a wine-press; TJ \fiKvfros, an 
oil-flask ; ^ Kaftlvos, an oven ; f) (jxapta^s, a chest ; y irueAos, tub ; 

(d) Such as express the idea of a way, e. g. ^ 6$6s, a road; y a./j.a^tr6s (sc. 
6Srfs), a carriage-road ; TJ -rplpos and rj &Tpa.iros, afoot-path; y rd(ppos, a ditch; 

(e) Many of the above substantives were originally adjectives, and hence 
appear as feminine-nouns, because the substantives with which they properly 
agree are feminine. There are also many others, e. g. TJ aij\eios (sc. 



Ktntse-door ; 77 jireipos (sc. 77)), the mainland] f) HvvSpos (sc. 77)), thirsty land, desert , 
f) vtos (sc. -x&pa),a fallow field; % KTJO-OS (from i/6?i/, sc. 77)), an island; 77 t>td\cic- 
ros (sc. (pwrfi), a dialect; 77 (rvyKATjros (sc. /3ouA7^), senate; j) pdp&iros (sc. Av/>a), 
>'; Sidjuerpos (sc. 7pa/i;uVj), diameter; 77 (more seldom d) &caro; (sc. vaCs), 
Uxrt; 77 &(fAos (sc. of/cfa), round building, etc.; 

(f ) Several feminine nouns which stand alone, and hence specially to be 
c. g. f) i/6ffos, sickness ; 77 yvfaos, jaw-bone ; 77 8p6<ros, dew ; 77 fi-fipiv&os, 

('^) Some words which have a different meaning in different genders, e. g. 
6 frnros, /torse ; 77 TTTTTOS, mare, also cavalry ; 6 Ae/ofto*, pea-soup ; 77 AC'KI&OS, the 
yolk of an egg. 

KKMARK. On the diminutives in -or, see 40, Rem. 1. 

51. Third Declension. 
The third Declension has the following Case-endings : 





s Neut. 

es ; Neut, d 




0> I/ 







v and o Neut. 

oy; d 



mostly as the Nom. ; Neut. 


*; a. 

^ ^^ . 



$ 52. A. Nominative. 

The Nom. of Masculine and Feminine nouns ends in s, 
f. b Kopa (instead of Kopa/c-g), 77 AatAai/f (instead of XatXaTr-?). 
Still, the laws of euphony do not always allow the s to be an- 
nexed to the stem ; it is either rejected entirely, or, as a com- 
pensation, the short vowel of the stem is lengthened ($ 16, 3). 
But when the stem allows s to be annexed, the usual euphonic 
($ 20) changes take place in the final consonant of the stem. 

2. In this way all Masc. and Fern, nouns may be divided into 
three classes: 

(a) The first class includes words, which in the Nom. assume 
the gender-sign s, e. g. 



06F ( 


& KOpaK-s i(6pal- ( 20, 1) 

77 \ \apirds ( 20, 1) 

6 yiyavT-s ylyds ( 20, 2) 

& $e\<ptv-s Se\<pis ( 20, 2) 

6 T] 06F-S (bdv-s) /3oCs, 605 ($ 25, 2) 
Afe ($ 25, 2) 



(b) The second class includes words, which in the Nom. 
reject the gender-sign 9, but, as a compensation, lengthen the 
short final vowel of the stem, e into 77, o into <o ($ 16, 3, and 
20, Rem. 3), e. g. 

6 iroi[j.T}V .. f Troi/xeV-os 

6 (Aewfr) Aewv pj I \fovr-os 

p7?TO>p $ I p-f)TOp-05 

^ (atSJtr-os) cu5o-os ; 

(c) The third class includes words, which in the Nom. have 
the stem pure, since the stem neither assumes the gender-sign 
s, nor lengthens its final vowel, e. g. 

(instead of frfip-s) .. f 

( " " ewwy-s) pj J atwv-os 

( " " ^paxr-s) ^ 1 (^pco(r-os) T^pw-os 
5a/iap ( " " Sa^uopr-s, Sa^iapr) ^ Sdfj.apr-os. 

3. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nom. ; still, euphony 
does not permit a word to end in T ($ 25, 5). Hence, in this 
case, the T is either wholly rejected (as in the Masc. XeW, Gen. 
Xeovros), or is changed into the corresponding o- ($ 25, 5), e. g. 

. . f ireirepi . . f rJ> TreVept > f ireirfpi-os or e-oy 

S J treAos g J ri) (Te\as c J (creAacr-os) treAa-os 

^ 1 (T<a/j.aT g 1 ri> (trocar) crcD/ua ^ ] ffdafj-ar-os 

^ rcpar "* [ rb (repar) repas [ repar-os. 

REMARK. The stem iri)/> is lengthened in the Nom., contrary to the rule : 
rb irup, Gen. irvp-Js. 

$ 53. B. The remaining Cases. 

1. The remaining Cases (with a few exceptions, which will 
be specially treated), are formed by appending the endings to 
the stem, e. g. 

Stem KopaK Nom. /c<$pa| Gen. /c^pa/c-os PI. Nom. KJpctK-es. 

2. In forming the Dat. PL by appending the syllable o-t to 
stems ending in a consonant, the same changes take place as 
have already been noticed in regard to the Nom. of similar 
words [$ 52, 2 (a)], e. g. 

<|>Ae)3-cri = (p\ffyi K6paK-fft = /cJpo|t \a/J.irdS-(ri = \afnrdffi 

yiyavr-ffi = yiydfft o86iT-(Ti = oSovffi f3dF-fft = fiovcrl. 

The following points also are to be noted : 

3. (a) The Ace. Sing, has the form in -v with masculines and 


fi'ininines in -is, -vs, -aus, and -ovs, whose stems end in -, -v, -at, 
ami -ov; e. g. 

Stem TTO\I Nom. 7rJx<s Ace. ir6\iv, Stem /3orpu Nom. Corpus Ace. ^6rpvv 

vaF vav va.Fs vavs vd.Fvva.vv, 0oF 0ov 06Fs fiovs &6Fv &ovv. 

But the Ace. has the form in -a, 1 when the stem ends in a con- 
sonant, e. g. <A.e/3, <j>Xc\l/, <Ae/?a KopaK, K0pa, KOpaK-a Xa/i7ra8, 
Xa/xTras, A.a/A7raS-a. 

(b) Yet barytoned substantives in -15 and -vs, of two or more 
syllables, whose stems end with a Tau-mute, in prose have only 
the form in v, e. g. 

Stem ipiS Nom. fyis Ace. fyiv (poet. cptS-a; in the dramatists l/jzy) 

bpv& 6pvi$ 6pvtv (poet. t>pv&-a) 

Kopvb ic6pvs n6pvv (poet. K6pvSt-a) 

Xaptr x&P 1 * X"P l v (poet. X dpir-a). 

In prose there are but few exceptions, e. g. rfpy&a, X. H. 3. 1, 15, and else- 
where (instead of Tcpyiv) from ?j Tcpyis, xapn-o (instead of x-P tv )^ *b. 3. 5, 16; 
in constant use rptiroSa, tripod. (X. An. 7. 3, 27, rair/5a is to be read instead 
of TcfTrjSo.) The goddess x*P 15 nas x*P tra * ne Ace.; still, in Luc. Deor. d. 
15, 1 and 2, 

REMARK 1. Oxy tones of one or more syllables have only the regular form 
in -a, e. g. (iroS) irovs, Ace. iro5-a; (e'toriS) f\irls, Ace. ^Airt8-a; (x^a(j.vS) x^ a ~ 
fivs, Ace. x^-o^^S-o. The monosyllable K\tis, Gen. K\iS-6s, contrary to the 
rule, usually has the Ace. /cAcH/, instead of /cAcXS-o. 

4. The Voc. is like the stem, e. g. Satfuav, Gen. &u//,oi/-o5, Voc. 

Balfiov. Still, euphony does not always allow the stem-form to 

appear. Hence the following points should be noted : 
(1) The Voc. is like the stem in the following cases : 
(a) When the final vowels of the stem, e and o, in the Nom. 

are lengthened into rj and w, the short stem-vowel reappears in 

the Voc., e. g. 

Gen. Salfiov-os Voc. Saifiov 

yepovr-os ytpov (instead of ytpovr) 

~2,wKpa.Tf-os (instead of <r-os) ~2,wK pares. 

1 It is probable that the Ace. Sing, in the third declension as well as in the 
st and second, originally ended in v ; but where the stem ended in a conse- 
nt, the v could not be appended without a union-vowel; a was used for this 
purpose ; hence, e. g. K6paxav ; the termination v was at length omitted. The 
Ace. ending o, may therefore strictly be regarded as a union-vowel. 


Exceptions: Oxytoned substantives (not adjectives) retain the lengthened 
vowel, e. g. 

TroifjL-f)v, Gen. Troi/ieV-os, Voc. Tro^dj;/ (not Trot^ueV), 

except the three oxytones : irarTjp, avTjp, and 5afy>, which, in the Voc., take 
again the short stem- vowel e, but with the accent drawn back, thus : TrdYep, 
&/ep, Saep. According to this analogy, even 'Hpa/cA( 617)77* (stem 'Hpa/cAees) is 
shortened in the Voc. by the later writers, into "H/ro^Aes. 

(b) Adjectives in -as, Gen. -aVos, and also adjectives (not 
participles, see Rem. 5), whose stems end in -vr y have in the 
Voc. a form like the neuter (or the stem) ; Tras and its com- 
pounds are exceptions, e. g. 

Gen. air-os Neut. and Voc. /ie'Aai/ 

fin-os x a p' iev (instead of xapievr, 52, 3). 

So substantives in -as, Gen. -avros, have the Voc. in -oV (instead 
of -air), 52, 3, e. g. 

ytyas Gen. avr-os Voc. yiyav (instead of ytyavr) 

KoAx" s avr-os Kd\x atf 

Aids avr-os Atav. 

REM. 2. Some substantives of this class, with the T reject also the v, but as 
a compensation lengthen the short a, e. g. "Ar Ads, Gen. -wr-os, Voc. "ArAet, 
rioAuSa/ids, Voc. IIoAuSci^d. 

(c) Substantives in -is, -vs, -avs, -evs, and -ovs, whose stems 
end in -t, -v, -av, -eu, and -ov, have the Voc. like the stem, the 
s of the Nom. being rejected, e. g. 

fj.dvris Voc. (j.dvTi ; irpeV^us Voc. Trpefffiv ; /uOs Voc. /iS ; (rus Voc. (ri5; A/y Voc. 
At; 7paOs Voc. ypav ; fiaffitevs Voc. /8a(7tAeG ; )3oOs Voc. )8oO. 

The word TraTs, Gen. TTO<S-OS, has rrai in the Voc., since, by rejecting the gender- 
sign s, the stem would end in S (iralS), a letter which cannot end a word, and 
must be dropped. 

REM. 3. Substantives in -is, -vs, -ovs, whose stems end in a consonant, have 
the Voc. like the Nona., e. g. 2> opvis, icopvs, irofc. Still, some substantives in 
-is, Gen. -tvos, have the Voc. like the stem, e. g. 3 SeA^/v (also SeA^fc), from 
8eA<J>t'a Gen. -Ivos. 

(d) The Voc. is like the stem in all words, which in the 
Nom have their stem pure, e. g. #r?p, atw, etc.; but 'A-TroXXwv 
(Gen. -a>vos), IlocmSon/ (-Svos) and o-w-nfc (-%>os) are exceptions, 
the Vocatives being w "ATroAAov, IloVetSoi/, O-WTC/O, with the accent 
drawn back. 


(.') The Voc. is not like the stem, but like the Nom., in most 
won Is \\ hose steins end in one of the consonants which cannot 
stand as the final letter ($ 25, 5), because after 
the stem-consonant, frequently it could not be de- 
trrmiiu'd from the Voc. what the true stem was; e. g. from 
eru'/j, Gen. o-apK-os, the Voc. would be o-ap (instead of trap*) ; from 
6 <u>9, Gen. <cor-os, Voc. <u> (instead of </KUT) ; from vfy, Gen. 
vi^-o's, Voc. vL (instead of vty) ; from oty, Gen. WTT-O'S, Voc. w 
(instead of WTT) ; from TTOVS, Gen. 7ro8-os, Voc. wo. 

KI:.M. 4. The Voc. of oVa, king, in the Common language, is like the Nom. 
& oVal, or by Crasis &va; but in the solemn language of prayer: & oVci (in 
lloiu. and the Attic poets, e. g. Soph. O. C. 1485 : ZeO oVo, vol ^xwcD), or &va 
(instead of &/CUCT, according to $ 25, 5). 

3. Substantives in -<o and -ws, whose stems end in -05, have 
the Voc. neither like the stem, nor the Nom., but, contrary to 
all analogy, in -ot, e. g. 

Stem TJXOS N. TJX<> G- fat-os (instead of r)x6<r-os) V. T)X' (instead of rjxoffi, r/x '-*) 
aiSos odS(t>s alS6-os ( " " alS6(T-os) alSot ( " 

HEM. 5. The Voc. of all participles is like the Nom., e. g. 2> rinrrcav, TCTU- 
^>ws, TUI//OS, ru^tyj', 5et/cyus. "Apx<av y Voc. &px v i when a substantive, is an 



54. I. The Nom. adds a- to the stem 

(a) The stem ends in X ; thus : 6 ^ 0X5, Gen, d\-o9, Dat PI. 
dX-o-i(v). See Rem. 1. 

(b) The stem ends in a Pi or Kappa-mute (3, TT, <; y, yy, 
K, pK (17 o-ap^, o-apK-os), and x> See ^ 52, 2 (a). 

(c) The stem ends in a Tau-mute S, T, KT, ^, v$. See 
4 52, 2 (a). On the Ace. see $ 53, 3 (b). 

The stems of the Neuter, belonging to this class, end in r and KT (70X0*7-), 
but, according to 25, 5, reject the T and KT; thus : ffSipa instead of <rayuiT, and 
70X0 instead of yd\cu<T ; or, according to 52, 3, they change the T into <r; on 
the omission of the T before <n in the Dat. PL see 20, 1. 

(d) The stem ends in v or vr. See $ 52, 2 (a). 




Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 

T% Storm. 7% Torch. 7% Helmet, rb, Body. 77, Nose. 6, Tooth. 




AoiAdir-a Aa,u7ra5-a Kopvv 

Aa?Ad// AajUTras K.6pvs 

ffu/aa pis oSouy 

ffu/ plv-6s oSovr-o: 

(T(afj.aT-i plv-i oSoVr-t 

(T&yta ^/i/ oSoyy 


Aa / Ad|'i(i') /v^.jv.-.v. . v , 
AotAaTT-ay Aa/i7ra5-as 



ff(6fj.a-ffi(j/) pl-ffi(i 
piv-*s o8o>/T-ey 


G. and D. 




So: & K(fy>a, -a/cos, raven; 6 \dpvy, -vyyos, throat; 6, rj opvls, -Ibos, bird; 6 
&va^ -OKTOS, king; y eA/itvy, -iv&os, tape-worm; 6 8e\^)ts, -/os, dolphin ; 6yiyas, 
-WTOS, giant, etc. 

REMARK 1. The stem of nouns in -^ and -| commonly ends in the smooth 
v and K ; the stem of those in -7! ends in -77, except 6, rj \vy, Gen. \vyn-6s, 
lynx (but?) Atry|, Gen. \vyy-6s, hiccough). Instead of fyapvyyos from -f) <pdpvy, 
throat, the poets, according to the necessities of the verse, use (pdpiryos also. On 
r > see 21, 3. 

HEM. 2. The word ^ aAs, Gen. aA-Js, signifying sea, and in the Fern, gender, 
is only poetic, and the Sing. 6 a\s, signifying salt, is only Ionic and poetic ; 
elsewhere, only ol aAes, salt, occurs (PI. Symp. 177, b. Lys. 209, e). 

HEM. 3. To class (c) belong also the contracts in -TJIS, Gen. -ri'tSos = -?fr, 
-ySos, e. g. 77 Trapys, cheek, iraprjSos. 

EEM. 4. The stem of rb oSy, ear, is O>T, thus : Gen. u-r6s, Dat. art, PL 5ra, 
^TOJJ/, axri(j'). The word rJ repay, according to the rule of the ancient gram- 
marians, usually admits contraction in the plural, among the Attic writers, 
after the T is dropped: repa, rcp&v (but X. C. 1. 4, 15. PL Phil. 14, e. Hipp. 
300, e. ; rb yepas, reward of honor ; T& yrjpccs, old age; rb /cpeas, flesh, 
and rit Kfpas, horn, reject T in all the Numbers, and then suffer contraction in the 
Gen. and Dat. Sing., and throughout the Dual and Plural (except the Dat. PL) ; 
yet Kfpas, besides these forms, has the regular form with T ; Thucyd. uses the 
contracted forms ; the uncontracted /ce'para occurs only in 5, 71. Kepcas is uni- 
formly employed in the phrase M Kepus, in column. When the a, contracted 
from aa, is used by the poets as short, it must be considered a case of elision, 
not of contraction ; the same is true also of Neuters in -ay, -aos, -oy, -eoy, e. g. 
(fr. ovceVay) instead of tr/ceVd, /cAe'-; (fr. /cAeoy) instead of /cAe'a. 




Sing. N. 

rb Tfpas, wonder. 

rb Kepas, horn. rb Kptas, flesh. 
Kt paT-os and Ktpws (Kpta-os) Kpeus 
Ktpar-i and Kfpq. (/cp'o-i') /cpwi 

Plur. N. 

Tfpar-a and rtpa 
Tfpdr-uv and T*p>v 

Ktpar-a. and itepa. (npea-a) Kpta 

KCpdr-UV and KfpUV (Kp(d-Ul') KpfUV 

Kfpa-fft(v) Kpfa-ffi(v) 



Kfpar-c and Kfpa (/cpeo-c) itpcd 
Kfpdr-otv and Ktpyv (Kped-OLv) Kpewv. 

HEM. 5. To class (d) belong also the contracts in -6fts, Gen. -Aevros = ovs, 
OVITOS, e. g. & irXcucous, cake, Gen. irXaxovmos ; also in -Vjejs, Gen. -iifvros = -ps t 
-^vros, e. g. ri^py, honorable, TI^VTOS. 

REM. 6. For the irregular lengthening of the vowel in Krek, efy, ^eAdy, and 
rd\&s, see 20, Rem. 2. 

55. II. The Nom. rejects 9, 5/i lengthens the short 
final vowel of the stem e or o into t] or <o ($ 16, 3). 

1. The stem ends in -v, -vr, and -/>. For the omission of v, 
and vr, before <ri, see $ 20, 2, and for the omission of T, in the 
Nom. of stems ending in vr, e. g. XW, see 25, 5. 

2. The following substantives in -rjp: 6 TraTrjp, father ; f) p.rj- 
rr)p, mother; f) Svydrrjp, daughter; rj -yaa^p, belli/; y Ary/A^nyp, 
Demcter (Ceres), and 6 airfp, man, differ from those in the above 
paradigms only in rejecting e in the Gen. and Dat. Sing, and 
Dat. PL ($ 16, 8), and in inserting an a in the Dat. PL before 
the ending crt, to soften the pronunciation. 

The word arf)p (stem &Wp), rejects e in all Cases and Numbers, except the 
Voc. Sing., but inserts a 5 ($ 24, 2), thus: Gen. avSp6s y Dat. avSpi, Ace. 
Voc. &vep, PI. Si/Spes, aj/SpaH', av5p&ffi(t>), fi*/5pas, etc. 

Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 


6, Shepherd. 6, Lion. 

TTOlfJi-flV \WV 

iroi/ s 


iroi/jLfv-a Aeoir-o 

i, Orator. 






a, Father. 





, Daughter. 

TroijueVes \4ovr-es 

(v) Ae'ouff i(v) 
iroi/j.fv-as \eovr-as 
irot/ieV-es Aeovr-es 











jrartp-f frvyartpe 

jrarfp-oiv Srvyarfpoiv. 




REMARK 1. The substantive 77 % *P> hand, belongs to nouns of class No. 2, 
and differs from them only in not lengthening the 6 of the stem (x*p) into 77, 
but into et, e. g. x fi P instead of x*P s 5 it; is irregular in retaining the ei in 
inflection, thus : %>, X 6t P<k> etc -> except in the Dat. PL and the Gen. and Dat. 
Dual x f P ff ' l ( v }-> X e P^- ^ et m P oetrv tne short as well as the long form is used 
in all the Cases, as the necessities of the verse require, e. g. x ei P^ s an( * X e P^ s > 

KEM. 2. The following nouns in -wv, Gen. -ovoy, reject the v in particular 
Cases, and suffer contraction : r) et/ccfo', image, et/coVos, etKoVt, etKoVa, et/coVas, etc., 
together with the Ionic and poetic forms : Gen. et/fovs, Ace. et/c^, Ace. PL et/couy 
(the irregular accent is to be noted in ewci and tlitovs) ; r) ctojWi', nightingale, 
Gen. dTjStWs and O7j5o0y, Dat. 07780*; T\ xcXiScS?, swallow. Gen. x*'5(Ws, Dat. 

EEM. 3. To class No. 2, belongs the obsolete Nom. 6, rj 'APH'N, lamb; the 
Nom. of this is supplied by 6 fj apvAs, Gen. apv6s, Dat. dpj'/, Ace. &pva, PI. 
Nom. itpi/es, Gen. tyv&v, Dat. d/>/a(rt(i'), Ace. &pvas ; farther, the word 6 do-r^p, 
-epoy, stor, though not syncopated like ira-Hjp, etc. belongs to this class on account 
of the assumed a in the Dat. PL affrpa<ri(v). In substantives belonging to 
class No. 2, the accent of the Gen. and Dat. Sing, (and in the word avfjp, also 
that of the Gen. PL and Gen. and Dat. Dual) is removed by syncope to the last 
syllable, and that of the Dat. PL to the penult, e. g. varp&s, irarpi, 
iraTpaffi(v). The word ATJ^TTJ/) has a varying accent, viz. A^/urjrpos, 
rpt, Voc. A^j/iTjrep (but Ace. AT/jur/repo). So also frvyarfp Voc. of 
On the Voc. of irar-ftp and airfp, see 53, 4 (1 ) (a). In poetry, according to the 
necessities of the verse, are found frtyarpes, SrvyarpSiv, A^Tjrpo, and also, on 
the contrary, irarepoy, frvyarepos, 

56. III. The Stem of the Nom. is pure. 
The s is omitted without changing the final vowel of the 
stem. The stem ends in v, IT, p, and (only in Sdpap, wife) in 
/or. The Case-endings are appended to the Nom. without 
change. On the omission of r in stems ending in vr and pr, see 
$ 25, 5 ; and on the omission of v, vr, before o-t, see 20, 2. 

Sing. N. 

Plur. N. 


6, Paean. 6, Age. 







6, Xenophon. 6, Wild beast, -rb, Nectar. 

&TJP VfKTap 

drjp-oi veKTap-os 

&T]p-l VfKTO.p-1, 

&r)p-a veKrap 

(&TJ/) VfKTap 







al(a-ffi(v} Kfvo(pu-(Ti(v) 
ai&v-as * "S,Vofy5ivT-a.s 











REMARK 1. The three words in -uv, Gen. -wi/os: 'AWAAcwj/, 
AO>J>, threshing-floor, drop v in the Ace. Sing., and suffer contraction; thus, 
('AWAAwva, 'ATrjAAwa) 'ATrjAAw, FIoo-eiScD, oAo> (on aAw, comp. 48, Rem. 1, on 
Ku/ced>, 213, 11). Also the Ace. 7Afo> from 77 7A^x" or &XT)X>V, penny- 
royal, Gen. -wj/os, is found in Aristophanes. 

REM. 2. All the Neuters belonging to this class end in -p (op, op, cop, vp), 
e. g. TO vfKTapj i)rop, ireAwp, rrvp (Gen. irvpts). The word TO cap, spring, may 
also be contracted, e. g. ^p, Gen. ^poy. 

57. I. W^ords in -cv9, -avs, -ovs. 

1. Tlie stem of substantives in -ev's, -aus, -01)9, ends in v (from 
the Digamma F) ; s is the gender- sign. On the omission of v 
between vowels, see $ 25, 2. 

2. Substantives in -ev9 have -cd in the Ace. Sing., and -019 in 
the Ace. PL, from fFa, Fa<s ; the omission of the F lengthens 
the a and <*9. These nouns have the Attic form in the Gen. 
Sing., viz. -ew9 instead of -09, and in the Dat. Sing, and Nona. 
PI. admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace. PL When 
a vowel precedes the ending -ev9, as, e. g. xk> Ev/?oev9, the end- 
ings -co>9, -ewv, -e'd, -ed9 are also contracted into -9, -oiv, -a, -9. 
Nouns in -av9 and -ov<s are contracted only in the Ace. PL, which 
is then like the Nom. PL, as in all contracts of Dec. III. 

Sing. N. 

6, King. 


5, A measure. 6, r;, Ox. ^, Old woman 

POVS, bos for bovs ypavs 
0o-6s, bov-is ypa.-6s 

/3o-t, bov-i ypd-t 


Tlur. N. 

, bo-Qm 

F-ds (and c?s) 









REMARK 1. Among the Attic poets, the Gen. Sing, of nouns in -eus some- 
times ends in -cos instead of -ews ; thus 0rjo-os, opio-reos, and the Ace. Sing., 
not only in the Attic, but in all the poets, sometimes ends in -rj, instead of -ed, 
e. g. feprj, ^vyypa^rj. The Nom. and Voc. PL in the older Attic writers, 

1 Commonly written x^os, contract x ^ 

78 THIRD DECLENSION. [$ 58, 59. 

especially in Thucydides, end also in -r)s (formed from the Ionic -7?es), e. g. 
PcuriXTJs, ITTTTTJS, n\oTat7js instead of nAarcueTs. The uncontracted Nom. Octrees 
occurs in PI. Theaet. 169, 6. The Ace. ending -els instead of -e'ds is very 
common in Xen., e. g. TOUS lirire'is, C. 3. 5, 19. rovs yoveis^ 2. 2, 14. ypatyeis, 
ffKvreis, xa*- KC <*> 3. 7, 6. rovs Paaite'is, 3. 9, 10. and elsewhere, but more seldom 
among the other Attic prose writers. The Ace. vieis is regular in all the Attic 

REM. 2. The following are declined like x fvs ' n/>ojei5s, Gen. Tleipcucos, 
Ace. Heipaia, 6 ayvievs, altar before the door, Gen. ayvias, Ace. ayvta, Ace. PI. 
ayvias, and several proper names, e. g. 'Eperpius, Sreiptws, MrjAm, EvjSowy, 
Eu;8oa, Eu/Joas, n\arcuas, Aupias ; yet the uncontracted forms are often found 
in proper names, e. g. eoTi-teW, cameos, Sretpteo, nA.arouea>p, 'Eperpifwv, 
Aa?pteW, Tleipcuewv (in Thu., X., PI., Dem.). The uncontracted forms are 
regular in a\ievs, fisherman, oAte'ws, oAtea, oAteoy, 

HEM. 3. The Nom. PL of POVS and ypavs are always uncontracted in good 
Attic writers : Bdes, ypaes ; on the contrary, in the Ace. only the contract forms 
ypavs and vavs occur ; the Ace. PI. ftovs is the common form ; &6as occurs only 
very seldom. 

REM. 4. Only 6 xous, a measure, a mound, and ^ f>ovs, vinegar-tree, are de- 
clined like POVS ; but in the PL both without contraction ; only ^ vavs (v&Fs, 
navis), is declined like ypavs ; still, this noun is quite irregular; see 68. 

$58. II Words in -775, -cs (Gen. -cos); -ws (Gen. 
-wos), -ws and -o> (Gen. -oos^; -as (Gen. -aos), -os 
(Gen. -cos). 

The stem of words of this class ends in s. On the omission 
of a; see $ 25, 1. In the Dat.PL, a o- is omitted. 

$ 59. (1) TFbre?s in -rjs and -es. 

1. The endings -rjs and -cs belong only to adjectives (the 
ending -T/S is Masc. and Fern., the ending -es neuter), and to 
proper names, terminating like adjectives, in -^av^s, 
-yeVtys, -Kpa-njs, -ft^Srjs, -TTCI^S, -o-^ev^s, -reA^s, -KT/^S, -dv$r)<s, 
-j3dpir]<s, -dpr)<; (-^pr/s), -ap/oys, -VCIK^S, -Xa/XTnys, -cra/ojs, -TV^?S, and 
(KXfys) K\^S. The neuter exhibits the pure stem ($ 52, 3) ; but 
in the Masc. and Fern., e, the short final vowel of the stem, is 
lengthened into r; [$ 52, 2 (b)]. 

2. The words of this class, after dropping o-, suffer contraction 
in all the Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. Sing, and Dat. PL ; 
and nouns in -/cXe'r/s, which are already contracted in the Nom. 
Sing, (into K\fj<i), suffer a double contraction in the Dat. Sing. 




. Singular. 
, dear. ^ crone's 
(<ra(pe-os) l ffcupovs 
(ffa<p(-'i) ercKpe? 
(<rcupt-a) <ra<pT) trace's 
(robe's ffacpfs 

Dual N. A. V. I <ra(p-e 
G. and D. 

77 TpiT)pT]s, trireme. 
(rpn'ipe-os) rpifyovs 



(<ra(j>f-s) (ravels (<ra<pc-a) <ratpi) 

((ra<pe-a) aaj$T\ 
(aa<p6-a) <ra(pr) 


rpnjpf-oiv rpi-fjpoiy 

(aa<pf-as) <ra<pf'is 
(<ra<pe-es) <ro^>eTs 


(rptripe-wj/) rpi-fjpuv 

(rpi-fipe-as) rpi-fjptis 
(rptTjpe-es) rpiripeis 





cd (Poet, also 

REMARK 1. On the contraction in the Dual of ce into 77 (not into et), and in 
the Ace. PI. of -fas into -eis, see 9, II. When a vowel precedes the endings 
-TJS, -cs, then -ea in proper names in -K\f)s is always contracted into -d, and 
commonly also in adjectives ( 9, II.), e.g. riept/cAe'e-a = rie/ji/<Ae'd; awAc^jy, 
without fame, o.K\fea = d/cAea, 671775, healthy', vyi4a = vyia, cVSe^s, poo?-, eVStco = 
eVSea, inrffxpvfis, supernatural, virep<pvfa = inreptyva (Ace. Sing. Masc.. and Nom., 
Acc., and Voc. PI. neuter) ; but sometimes the contraction into -T) occurs, e. g. 
vyir), SJ^VTJ, 00UT?, awTo^urj, X. R. Equ. 7, 11 (in all the MSS.). The Acc. PL 
Masc. and Fern, has -e?s, e. g. vyicTs, a.vrofpvf'is. 

REM. 2. Proper names in -Kparrjs, -(r&eVTjs, -yfinjs, -<pdtnjs, etc., also "ApTjs 
(Voc. "Apes), form the Acc. Sing, both according to the first and third Dec., 
and are hence called Heteroclites (i. e. of different declensions), e. g. ^wKpar-rj 
and Sw/cparTji/, according to Dec. I., 'AA/ca^ez/Tj and -p.4vt]v, 'Amiff&frrj and 
-a&evT]v, *Api) and -TJJ/, etc. : Plato commonly uses the form in -77, Xenophon that 
in -771', other writers both, without distinction 5 in words in -yrjs, the form in -J/TJV 
is preferred to that in -107. (The Gen. of "Apjy in good prose is "Apews [often in 
Plato], yet in the poets "Apeoj is also used according to the necessities of the 
verse.) But in words in -/cATjs, the Acc. in -K\riv is first used in later writers. 
The PL is declined according to Dec. I., e. g. ' ' Apunotydvai, rots AfuKparais, rovs 
'AptffTo<pdvas, rovs Aij/jLOff^fvas ; still, 'HpawrAees occurs in PL Theaet. 169, 6. 

KI:M. 3. The Gen. PL of rpi-fjprjs occurs, also, in the uncontracted form, viz. 
rptTjpeW ; but in all the other Cases it is uniformly contracted ; the Dual 
also in words of this class occurs in an uncontracted form in Attic writers, 
e. g. luyycVce, and the Tragedians use the uncontracted forms of proper names 

1 <ra<pe-os from o-o^tV-os, the a of the stem being dropped ; and so in tho 
other Cases, except the Nom. and Voc. 

80 THIRD DECLENSION. [$$ 60, 61. 

in -K\4ijs = K\TJS, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. 'HpawAeV) Dat. 
-K Ae'et, Voc. -/c\s. The contract Ace. in -K\T) is rare. The Voc. & "HpawAes, 
as an exclamation, belongs to the later prose. 

KEM. 4. The irregular accent of the Gen. PL and Dual is to be noted, viz. 
rpi-f)p(ov (instead of TpiTjpwj/fromTptTjpeW), rpi-fipoiv (X. IL 1. 5, 19. 5. 4, 56). In 
addition to this word, adjectives in -TJ&TJS and the word aurapKTjs, have the like 
accent, e. g. trvvn^cav == <rvvi}&<ov t ourap/ceW = 

60. (2) Words in -cos, Gen. -coos, and in -cos and -co, 

Gen. -oos. 
(a) -s, Gen. -wos. 

Thus, e. g. 6 f} $co9, jackal, Gen. &oos, etc. Polysyllables have 
the Ace. Sing, and PL either contracted or uncontracted, e. g. 
6 rflocos, hero, rov r/pcoo, and ^pco, rows ^ptoas and 

(bj -cos and -w, Gen. -oos. 

Substantives of these endings are always feminine. The 
stem ends in -os. The short final vowel, according to $ 52, 2 
(b), is lengthened into co. The ending -co?, however, is retained 
in the Attic and Common language only in the substantive 
cuSco? (stem tuSos), and in poetry in ^cos, morning (in Eurip.) ; 
but in all other words, it has been changed into a smoother 
form, so that the Nom. ends in -co, e. g. TJX^ (stem ^x s )- Ori 
the Voc. in ot, see 53, 4 (3). The Dual and PI. are formed 
like the ending -os of Dec. II. ; thus, cuSot, ^ot, etc. 

Sing. N. 

}] alSu>s (stem atSos), shame. 

7i 7ix<*> (stem ^x os )> echo. 


(al86-os) atSous 

(r/^J-os) rixovs 


(ai'SJ-t) at'So? 

(f^YO'-i') 7?X^ 


(aiSo-a) aiSw 

(riY^-a) 7)X^ 


(ai'So-i) aiSo?. 

(W-0 to*. 

$ 61. (3) Words in -a?, Gen. -aos, and in -os, Gen. -cos. 

(a) -as, Gen. -aos. 

Only the Neuters TO o-c'Xa?, light, and TO SeVas, goblet, belong to 
this class : Gen. creAa-os, Dat. creA-a-t, and o-eA-a ; PI. creAa-a and 
creA-a., Gen. creAa-cov, Dat. o-Aa-crt(i/) ; Dual creAa-e, treAa-oo'. 

REMARK 1. On the poetic shortening of the contract a, see 54, Rem. 4. 
In the following four Neuters in -as, the a in the Gen., Dat., and in the PL, is 
changed, according to Ionic usage, into the weaker e, viz. 




Pptras (poet.), image, Gen. Pptrcos, PI. /Jpe'rea and 
KWO.S (poet.), place, PI. in Homer, *wea, KW<r(i'). 
oBSos (poet.), ground, Gen. otfSeos, Dat. ot5t and of/Set (Horn.) 
KvcQas (poet, and prose), darkness, Gen. tcvtyaos Epic, Kvttyovs Attic, 
Epic, KV>? Attic. 

(b) -os, Gen. -eos. 

All substantives of this class are also neuter. In the Nom., 
e, the stem-vowel of the last syllable, is changed into o (16, 1). 


rb ytvos (instead of Y^Ves), genus 
(yevf-os) yevovs 
(yece-*) y ft/ft 

rb K\fos ( instead of K\e5), glory. 
(K\-OS) K\*OVS 
(* K\eei 

Plur. N. 

yfvf-wv and 










REM. 2. On the contraction of into 77 (instead of et), and of eo into a 
(instead of r;), when a vowel precedes, see 9, II. On the poetic shortening 
of the contracted d in K\ea, see $ 54, Hem. 4. 

HEM. 3. The uncontracted form of the Gen. PI. is not unusual, e. g. opeW, 
)8eA.eW, /cepSeW, and almost without exception cu/deW; in PI. Polit. 260, a., the 
uncontracted Dual in 6 occurs : TOUTW TW yeVee. In the lyric portions of the 
Attic tragedians, irc&ea, ox^a, etc. occur. 

III. WORDS IN -is, ~vs, -t, -u. 
$ 62. (1) TFords iw -Is, -vs. 

Tlie substantives in -Is, -vs originally ended in -tJs, -vjFs. 
See $ 25, 2. 

Sing. N. 

6 K?S, corn-worm. 

rj ffvs, SOW. 

6 ix&fc, fish. 
















i x M 

Plur. N. 














(TV-CIS, Attic, ffvs 


Ix^v-as, Attic ixbvs 


KI-OIV ffv-oiv Ix&v-oiv. 

REMAKK. The contracted Nom. PL ai &PKVS occurs in X. Yen. 2, 9 ; 6, 2 ; 
10. 2, 19. 


$ 63. (2) Words in -is, -T, -s, -v. 

The stem of these substantives ends in t or v. The stem- 
vowels i and v remain only in the Ace. and Voc. Sing. ; in the 
other Cases they are changed into e ($16, 2). In the Gen. 
Sing, and PI., masculine and feminine substantives take the 
Attic form in -w? and -on>, in which the o> has no influence on 
the accent (comp. $ 29, Hem. 7). In the Dat. Sing, and in the 
Nom. and Ace. PI., contraction occurs. 


city. & irriX^t cubit, rb <riva.iri, mustard, rb &O-TV, city 
s m'/Ye-ws ffiirdire-os &<TTe-os 

ffivairfi Affrei 

aivwiti &ffrv 

fflvcuri &<rrv 

Plur. N. 

ir6\eis ir^x* 15 ffwdirij &<rTi) 


iro\e-oiv ir-nxt-otv <rivaire-oiv affre-ow. 

REMARK 1. Here belong all substantives in -|ts, -^/ts, most in -vis and many 
Others, e. g. ^ K&VIS, dust ; 6 ^ai/ris, prophet ; % &<j>is, serpent ; TJ Tri<rris, faith ; 97 
vfipis, abuse; 6 ire\Kvs, axe; 6 irpefffivs, old man; rb ircirepi, pepper ; ib riyyd- 
fiapt, cinnabar; r"b iruv (poet.), herd (without contraction). Adjectives in -us, 
-eTa, -v are declined in the Masc. and Neut. like TTTJ^WS and &O-TV, except that the 
Gen. Masc. takes the regular forms -e'os, -eW (not -e<os, -ew>'), e. g. ^5uy, ytieos. 

HEM. 2. In the Attic poets, though probably only in the lyric passages, the 
Gen. in -eos, from substantives in -<s, occurs, e. g. ir6\fos. 

KEM. 3. In X. An. 4. 7, 16, the contracted Gen. irrjxw is found. Instead 
of the Dual form in -ee, one in -t\ is also used; likewise a form in -et (instead 
of -ce), is quoted by the ancient grammarians from Aeschines. The Ace. PL 
of nouns in -us sometimes occurs uncontracted in the Attic poets, e. g. irfixeas. 

BEM. 4. Neuters in -t and -u have the Attic Gen. Sing, very seldom, e. g. 
&rres, Eur. Bacch. 838 (831). Or. 761 (751). 

BEM. 5. Adjectives in -ts, -T, e. g. Wpjs, ftp?, skilful, and some substantives 
in -?s, which are partly poetic, have the regular inflection : t-os, 1-1, t-es, etc., 
or both forms together, e. g. y firivis, anger (also pfaiHos, etc.), 6 fj oTs, sheep ; rb 
(Gen. -e'ptos and -cos), pepper; 6 7) irJpris, calf; 6 f) irJorts, spouse (Gen. 
s, but Dat. always irmrci) ; ^ rpoTrts, keel (also rpoirtSos, etc.) ; rj 
touxr (Gen. rup<nos,X. An. 7. 8, 12. ri'ipffiv, ib. 13, but Plural rvpffeis, 
etc.) ; f) fj.d'ydSis (Gen. -tos, Dat. paydSl, X. An. 7. 3, 32) ; some proper names, 
e. g. 2ueWe<ns, *lpis (Gen. -tos, etc.), X. An. 1. 2, 12 5 6. 2, 1 (5. 10, 1), finally 
one noun in -us, ^ eyxeXus, but only in the Sing. 

64, 65.] 


Sing. N. | o, 77 *6pris, calf. 
G. j ir6pTi-os 
D. irSpri-i and 

A. v6oTiv 


i, 77 o?r, sheep. 



Plur. N. 

iropri-fs and ir6prls 

iropTi-as and irdpn* 
and Tr6ris 

olas and ols 





HEM. 6. Xenophon uses the Ionic forms of ails : oiv, y*es, ofw*', oi'oy, and 3iy. 

64. Quantity of the Third Declension. 

1. The inflection-endings -a, -i, -u, and -as, are short. 

Exception : The a in the Ace. Sing, and PI. of substantives in -e6s is long, 
e. g. rbv fepe'd, rouy ieptas from 6 tepeus, priest. 

2. Words, whose Nom. ends in -o, -t, -wf, -o^, -ivj/, -u^, -ts, and -uy, have the 
penult of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according as the 
vowel of the above endings is long or short by nature ; o, i, v, are long in all 
Genitives in -aoy, -tvos, -uj/os, e. g. 6 &cfy>d|, breastplate, -OKOS ; 6 pfy, reed, ptircfs ; 
7? CLKrtsy ray, -Tvos, but r? ^i\a|, clod, -a/cos, 77 t\irts, hope, -fSos. See fuller 
explanations in Larger Grammar, Part I. 291. 

$65. Accentuation of the Third Declension. 

1. The accent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the laws 
of accentuation ( 30) permit, e. g. rb irpaypa, deed, vpdyimaros (but vpayndruv), 
rJ> ovopa., name, ovopuros (but ovo^a.r<av), 6 y x^'Swy, swallow, xeA.*8(h/os, Eevo- 
fy>v, -wrros, -wires, -uvruv. Particular exceptions have been noticed in the 

2. Monosyllables are accented in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers on the 
final syllable ; the long syllable tav and oiv having the circumflex ; the others, 
the acute, e. g. 6 \L-I\V, n-t\v6s, wvi, firjvoiv, fj.T}vS>v, fj.rj(ri(v). 


(a) The following ten substantives are Paroxytones in the Gen. PI. and Gen. 
and Dat. Dual : 7? Say, torch ; & Sfjuas, slave ; 6 y bcas, jackal ; rb KPA2, poet. 
(Gen. Kparts), head; rb ols (Gen. wr6s), ear; o 77 iraTs, child; 6 o-fis, moth; o 77 
Tpcis, Trojan, Trojan woman; 7? <f>cps (Gen. <f><a$6s), a burning; TO (f>>s (Gen. 
faros), light; e. g. Sa'Swi/, SaSow, &wa>j/, Kpdrtav, &TIDV, &TOIV, vaiSwi', iraiSoiv, 
(Tc'eov, Tpuuv, <^>wSw^, <puTa>v (on the contrary, TU>V SfjLcauu from al 8/nwa/, ruy 
Tpwuv from of Tpwaf, TU>V Qwruv from o <pws, man ; T&V bwiov from ij 


(b) The following contracts, according to the nature of the final syllable, are 
either Properispomena or Paroxytones, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, 
as in the other Cases, e. g. rb Zap (Epic i^p), spring; icrjp (Epic from /ceap), heart; 
6 Aas (from Aaas), stone; 6 Trpuv (from TrpTjav), hill, e. g. %pos (rarer eapos), ijpi 
(rarer eapi), /djpos, /djpi, Aaos, Anr, Aacoy, Trpuvos, irptavi. 

REMARK. The following contracts, on the other hand, follow the principal 
rule (No. 2) : (neap = trrfjp, tallow; (TTearos = <TT-r]r6s, (ppeap, well, tppearos and 
(ppTjrSs, PL fypriTuv, 0pa, pjylj pT]'iKos = &paK6s, and pjj/co's, oils, oios, oil, 
oluv, olffi(v). 

(c) Monosyllabic participles, as well as the pronoun ris , quis? retain the 
accent, through all the Cases, on the stem-syllable ; but the pronoun iras and 
6 Udv is an Oxytone in the Gen. and Dat. Sing. ; in the other Cases either a 
Paroxytone or a Properispomenon, according to the nature of the final syllable, 
e. g. <pvs, (pvvros, iaf, omos, ovri, SVTWV, ovffi(v), ovroiv, rls, rivos, ilvi, etc. ; iras, 
jravr6s, iravri, irdvTcw, irdvroii', ira.<ri(v}, 6 Tidy, Tla^os, rols IIa<n(j/). 

3. The following are accented, in the Gen. and Dat. of all Numbers, like 
monosyllabic substantives : 

(a) 77 yw-f), wtf e (yurat/cos, yvvawl, JVVO.IKOIV, yvvaiKiav, ywai^l(v) ; but ywaT- 
/co, yvvcuKfS, etc.) ; 6 r) Kvoav, dog (KVVOS, Kvvi, KVVOIV, KVV&V, Kvai(v) \ but 
Kvva, awes, etc.); 

(b) Syncopated substantives in -Tjp, on which see 55, 2 ; 

(c) Compounds of eTs, unus, in Gen. and Dat. Sing., e. g. ouSei's, ovSevos, 
ovtievt; but ouSeVwi', oiSeVi(i/), so /iTjSeis, jUTjSe^s, etc.; 

(d) The Attic poetic forms, 8op6s, Sopt, from S6pv. 

4. Eor the accentuation of substantives in -is, -us, Gen. -ecas, see 63 ; of 
those in -d> ( 60), the irregular accentuation of the Ace. Sing, of Tjx^ a = VX^ 
(instead of f/x^)? should be noted. 

5. (a) In the Voc. of syncopated substantives ( 55, 2) in -rjp, the accent, 
contrary to the principal rule, is drawn back as far as possible, e. g. 
^uyarep, A^/iTjrep, avep; so also (a) in the folloAving substantives; ' 
(coj/os), no<rei8wy (wi/os), acar^p (?)pos), 'Afjuplcav (iovos), Sat'jp (epos) ; thus, 3) 
"ATroAAoi/, n6ffei5ov, aS}Tcp,"A/j.(piov, Saep ; (b) in compound substantives in 
-wv, Gen. -oi/os, in adjectives in -o>j/, Gen. -ovos, whether simple or compound ; 
also in comparatives in -tcai/, -<av (in adjectives and comparatives, also, in the 
neuter gender), e. g. 'Ayo^e^j/oj/ from 'Ayape/JLVuv, ^Apiffr6yeirov from 'Apitrro- 
yetrwj' (but 'Icurov, Tla\a'i/.iov, ^iXrip.ov, etc. as simple) ; 5 and T& etfSai/jLov, S> and 

/, 5 and rb KaAAioj/ ; (the following are exceptions : 5 Aa/ceSa^o*/ from 
', compounds in -(ppwv, e. g. & AvKotppov from Avicdfppuv, Ev&6(ppoi' from 
, S> and rb Satypov from Sa't^pcov;) (c) in the compound Paroxytones in 
-rjs, mentioned in 59, e. g. Sco/cpares, Ayj/xoV&ei/es ; 3 and rb o^oSes from av&d- 
Srjs, <pi\d\-r)&fs from <pi\a\->i&T]s (but ctATj&e's from aATj^Tjs as a simple), atfrap/ces, 
ac^7}^s. (Adjectives and substantives in -WTJS, -o>S7js, -wA^s, -wp^s, -?prjs, are 
exceptions, e. g. evcadrjs, eud)5es, ajiKpwTjs a/j.(f)caS, Trav<!)\T]s TravwAes, yecopTjs yewpes, 
I^TjpTjs |t(^)77pes, ^ rpi-fiprjs rpnjpes, Ai^pyjs 5 Aioipes. 

(b) The Voc. of nouns in -aus, -eus, -ous, -w, and -ws is Perispomenon, e. g. 
ypou, /Soo^iAeD, )8oD, 


$ GG. Gender of the Third Declension. 

The natural gender the masculine and feminine is distinguished in the 
third Declension, not by a special form, but partly by the signification, partly 
by the forms, and in part by usage alone. The following rules will aid in 
determining the gender: 

I. Masculines: (A) all nouns whose Nom. and stem (which can be recognized 
by the Genitive) end in -av, Gen. -ov-os ; -tav, Gen. -ovr-os and -wrr-os ; -vv, 
Gen. -vv-os (only 6 ftoffa^v, tower) ; -iy, Gen. -cv-os (only & Krels, comb) ; -as, 
Gen. -oj/r-oy; -ouy, Gen. -oir-oy, -QUIT-OS, -oS-os (6 irovs) ; -up, Gen. -op-os] -eus, 
Gen. -eo>y ; -TJS, Gen. (--oy) -ovs ; -us, Gen. -ca-os ; 

(B) the following with exceptions : 

(a) in -qy, Gen. -qvos ; but 6 r) x*V> goose; in -rjv, Gen. -ej>-os ; but 6 rj 
gland, and 77 <ppJiv, diaphragm ; 

(b) in -&>!/, Gen. -w^-oy; but 77 oAwj/, threshing-Jloor ; 77 &\r)X MV or 
penny-royal ; 77 /teAeS^v (poet.), care; 77 ^KUV, poppy ; 77 TrAaTerytSi', rattfe 
(but i TT\. petal of the poppy) ; 77 rpfyuv, pigeon; 77 ouAti*' (poet., but prose 
6), ravine; 77 6 /cciSwj' 6e//; 

(c) in Tjp, Gen. -77/>-oy ; but 77 icfip t fate (on account of 77 icfip, goddess of fate) ; 
6 77 fratffT-fip, hammer; (those in -77? contracted from -cap, are neuter: T^ 
KTJP (poet.), Gen. Kijpos, heart; rb tap, Gen. 7^>oy, spring;) in ijp, Gen. 
-pos ; but 77 yaar-np, yaffrpds, belly ; in -rjp, Gen. -ep-oy ; but 6 ij a&fjp, 
ether; 6 i) ajp, air; 

(d) in -tip, Gen. -tip-os; but r} x e ^P Aanc? (regularly, 6 avrixeip, the thumb) ; 

(e) in -up, Gen. -wp-os ; but rb e'Awp (poet.), booty; rb irt\o>p (poet.), monster; 

(f ) in -oi/y, Gen. -o~os, see 57, Rem. 4; 

(g) in -us, Gen. -wr-os; but rb ^>wy, light; 
(h) in -//, Gen. -iroy, -;8oy. 

II. Feminines: (A) a// nouns in -as, Gen. -o5-os; -eiy, Gen. -etS-oy (only 7^ 
KAei's, Ar^) ; -auy, Gen. -o-os; -ti/y, Gen. -iy^-oy ; -vvs, Gen. -uv^-oy ; -77y, Gen. 
-77T-oy; -jy, Gen. -ir-oy (only 77 x^P 15 ) 5 " w > Gen. -uS-oy and -t/&-oy; -<a and -ccy, 
Gen. -6-os ; 

(B) the following nouns with exceptions: 

(a) in -is, Gen. -i-oy; but & x^ ts P ure wine; 6 <pd\Kis, a part of a ship; 6 
apris, carpenter's tool; 6 KIS, corn-worm; 6 y\dvis, a land offish; 6 A?y 
(Epic), lion, and 6 77 oils, sheep; in -is, Gen. -ecwy, but 6 Spxts, testicle (r) 
upxis, a kind of olive) ; 6 o<f>is, serpent; 6 (later also 77) fx ts > viper; 6 (later 
7^) K6pis, bug ; of and at xvpfieis, laic-tables; in -is, Gen. -5-os; but 6 <t&6is, 
-i5oy, a kind of cake; 77 6 rtypis, Gen. -toy and -t5oy, tiger; in -ty, Gen. 
-id-OS; but 6 77 vpi/is, bird; in -ts, Gen. -/-os; but & 8f\<pts, dolphin; 6 
Ifcris, weasel; & 77 bis, heap ; & rc\, marsh-mud; 

(b) in -vs, Gen. -v-oy; but 6 &6rpvs, cluster; 6 bprjvvs, footstool; 6 lx&vs,Jish; 
6 fj.vs, mouse ; 6 VCKVS, corpse ; & trrdxvs, ear of corn ; 6 o'/co'AAvs, mode of 
tonsure ; 6 rfyvs, the night-mare; 6 KavSvs, a Median garment; 6 rj vs or <rvs, 



swine; 6 fj.e\dvfipvs, tun-fish; 77 (later also 6) eyx*^ vs > ee ^/ ^ XP^ vs t a sea ~ 
fish ; in -us, Gen. -eo>$ 5 but 6 ireAefcus, axe ; 6 TTT/^VS, cubit ; 
(c) in -ay, Gen. -ov-os ; but 6 O'K/XOJJ', anvil; 6 irptiav, saw; 6 KO.V&V, rule; 6 
/, axle ; 6 fffiffuv. earthen-vessel ; 6 fTriffelwv, fiag ; 6 f) Kt<av, pillar ; 6 
and a/cpe'/tai', bough ; 6 \aryuv, gulf; & Tr\ayywt>, doll ; 6 ^uup/iTjSccj/, 
anfs nest ; 6 f) a\Krpvci>v, cock and hen. 

KEMARK 1. Nouns in - are partly masculine, partly feminine, except those 
in -o (Gen. -a/cos), which are masculine ; most of those in -| are feminine-, the 
larger part of those in -ty are masculine, but many are feminine, e. g. 77 
po\J/, -OTTOS, shepherd's crook; % \cu\afy, tempest; f] oty (vox), OTTO'S, voice; 77 (rai'ely 
6) dty, ayir6s,face; 77 $\fy, <p\efios, vein; y xe'pi/i^, holy-water; y KerrijAnJ/, ~i<pos, 
upper story, etc. 

III. Neuters : (A) all in -a, Gen. -OT-OS ; -77, Gen. -TJT-OS (only TO ndprj) ; -t, 
Gen. -IT-OS (only TO /teAt with its compounds) ; -up, Gen. -up-os (only TO iri/p, Gen. 
Trvp-6s,jire) ; -op, Gen. -OT-OS or-7jp, Gen. -TJT-OS; -op, Gen. -op-os; -os, Gen. -OT-OS 5 
-os, Gen. (-e-os) -ous; -t, Gen. -6os ; -u, Gen. -u-os, and -eos, and -OT-OS, 68, 1 ; 

(B) the following with exceptions: (a) -op, Gen. -op-os; but 6 ij/op, star- 
ling; (b) -05, Gen. -o-os; but 6 Xos, stone; (c) -wp, Gen. -OT-OS (except & OX^P, 

t^Wp, 0*TWp, 7)\KTUp, 68, 15). 

KEM. 2. The following single words may be noted in addition : y Sots, Gen. 
8aiT-6s, feast ; TO ffrats or o-Tofs, o-TotT^s, dough; TO oSs, Gen. <WT-O'S, ear. 

67. Anomalous Forms of the Third Declension. 

All substantives, whose inflection differs from the rules and 
analogies above given, are included under the irregular substan- 
tives of the third Dec. All the anomalous forms of the third 
Dec. may be divided into three classes : 

(a) The first class includes those substantives whose Nom. cannot be derived, 
according to general analogy, from the Genitive-stem, e. g. j) yvrf}, wife, Gen. 

(b) The second class includes those substantives, which, with one Nom. 
form, have in some or all of the Cases, two modes of formation ; both of these, 
however, may come, in accordance with the general rules, from one form of the 
Nom., e. g. 6 TJ opvts, Gen. -r&os, bird, PI. opv&es and o'pj'ejs, as if from opi/is, 
Gen. -ews. These substantives are called Heteroclites (i. e. of different declen- 
sions or irregularly declined). 

(c) The third class includes substantives, which, with one Nom. form, admit, 
in some or all of the Cases, two modes of formation, one of which may be 
derived from the Nom. form in use, but the other supposes a different Nom. 
form, e. g. Sepairvov, -OJ/TOS, servant, Ace. &epdVo*ra and poet. ^cpoTro, as if from 
&e'pai/>. This formation is called Metaplasm (transformation), and the substan- 
tives included under it, Metaplasts. The Nom. form, presupposed in this case, 
is called the Theme. 


$ 68. Anomalous Forms of the Third Dcclenion. 

1. Tow (TO, knee), and 86pv (TO, spear), see $ 54 (c). 

In the tragic poets, the Epic forms, and yovva, yowcuri, occur ; 
also in the Attic poets, the Gen. Sopo's, Dat. Sop/, and even S6pei, and 
PI. So pi) instead of Sopara, are formed from So'pi/; and in the phrase, Sopl 
4A6?i', to take a prisoner of war, this Dat. form is retained even by the Attic 
prose writers. 

2. PVVTJ (fj, woman), Gen. ywatK-os (as if from yvv<u), Dat. 
yuvauc-i, Acc. ywaiK-a, Voc. ywai; PI. ywatKcs, ywawcwv, yuvai^t (v), 
ywai/cas; on the accentuation, see $ 65, 3 (a). 

3. Aopv, see yon;, No. 1. 

4. Zev's, Gen. Aw's, Dat. Au, Acc. Alia (as if from Ac's), Voc. 

Poet, corresponding forms are Zijj/dV, Zrjvf, ZTJCO. 

5. epaTTtov (6, servant), -ovros. In Eurip. Acc. ^parro, PI. 
^^paTres, f 67 (c). 

6. Ka/oa (TO, head), an Epic and poetic word, Gen. KpaT-os, 
Dat. KpaTt and /capo, Acc. TO *capa, TO (TOV KpaTa, ^ 214) J 
Acc. PL TOVS /cpaTas, ^ 67 (c). 

7. KXets (17, A:ey), Gen. KX8-os, Dat KX8-t, Acc. KXctv (^ 53, 
Hem. 1), later /cAetSa; PL Nom. and Acc. /cA.ets, and KAetoc?, 
KXetSas, $ 67 (b). 

Old Attic, K\ys, K\ri$6s, wc\pS(, K\fj8a. 

8. Kvwv (6, fj, dog), Gen. KW-OS, Dat. /am, Acc. KWO, Voc. KVOV; 
PL KVVCS, Kwoiv, Kvo-t, Kvi/as. 

9. AcTra (TO, oil, fatness), in the Epic dialect always in the 
phrases, dXti//acr^at XLTT eXatw, Apteral and ^ptcrao-^at XtV eXatw, and 
, Q / also in the Attic prose, dXci^co-^at, ^pteo-^at AtVa ; XtVa is thus 
an abridged Dat. instead .of XtVat, AI'TTO, from TO XtVa, Gen. -aos, 
but eXacov must be considered as an adjective from eAaa, olive, 
so that XtVa ZXaiov means olive-oil. 

10. MapTvs (6, ivitness), Gen. /xaprvpo?, Dat. /xoprupi, Acc. 
/btopTvpo, and in Simonides /xaprw; Dat. PL /xapTvort (v). 

11. Navs(^, 5/}?), Gen. veto?, Dat. IT/I, Acc. vaw, Voc. want- 
ing ; Dual, Gen. and Dat. veolv ( Nom. and Acc. wanting) ; PL 

s, veoiv, vavai, (y), i/avs. Comp. ypau?, 57. 

In Attic poets and later prose also, vyos, n\(, rfa, etc. 


12. "Opvi<s (6, 17, bird), Gen. opvlS-o<s, etc. The PL has a col- 
lateral form declined like 7roAi9, except the Dat. : opvZ^es and 
cpveis, 6pvL$a)V and opvtaiv, opvlcn, 6pvi$a9, opvets, and opi/Is, $ 67 (b). 
So 'Ava^apo-19, 'Ava^aptrtSos, and ' 

In the Attic writers, the t is sometimes short, opvis, Zpviv, Aristoph. Av. 16. 
270, 335 (but opvls, opvlv, 70, 103, 73). 

13. Hvvg (f], place of meeting'), Gen. TOW-OS, Dat. TTVKVI, Ace. 


14. 3*75 (6, moth), Gen. <re-os; PI. o-ecs, Gen. o-W, etc.; in the 
later writers, Gen. 017x09. 

15. 2*wp (TO, e&Vz), Gen. o-Karos, etc., and vSwp (TO, water), 
Gen. v6Wo9, etc. To both of these belong : 

16. <pe'a/o (TO, a well), and o-re'ap (Yo, tallow), Gen. -e'aros and 
-77709 (a long in Attic, short in Epic). 

17. <$oi'9, ^019 (6, art of cooking), Gen. $$01-09 and (from 
<po) ^offi-os ; PI. <So'ei9 and 

18. Xov9 (6, a measure), 

like )8ov9 (^ 57) ; also Gen. x^?> A CC - p(oo, Ace. PI. x^, as if 
from xoofc. The latter forms are preferred by the Attic writers ; 
Xov9, with the meaning of mound, is inflected only like /3ov9. 
The form ^oev9 is Ionic, Dat. xo. 

19. Xpw9 (6, skin), ^pwr-09, x/wmj xP^ TCt< Collateral forms in 
the Ionic dialect and the Attic poets, are, Gen. xpo-6<s, xpot, xpo a * 
like ai8w9. The Dat. ^>w is found in certain phrases with ev, 
e. g. ev xp<? Ktpeo-$at, Xen. Hell. 1. 7, 8. upt tv ^(5, zY shaves close 
to the skin, it comes home, Soph. Aj. 786. 

$69. Defective Nouns of the Third Declension. 

Some nouns of the third Dec. are wanting in one or more of the Cases, and 
are, consequently, called Defectives. Existing forms, however, of such substan- 
tives, are found, for the most part, only in certain phrases, e. g. 

Xp4us (rb, debt), Ionic- Attic form for the Nom., Gen., and Ace.; also T& 
Xpeos, Gen. xp* ovs i PI- T xP e/a > ^ en - XP" 5 tne ^ at - an d D ua l are wanting ; 
ovap and virap (only as Nom. and Ace.), in dreaming and waking ; o<pe\os (only 
as Nom. and in the construction of the Ace. with the Inf.), advantage; fid\i) 
only in the phrase fab fj.d\f)s, under the arm. 


$70. I Redundant Nouns. 

Nouns are called Redundant, which have two modes of 
inflection in all or in most of the Cases : 

A. They belong to the same declension, 

(a) of the same gender, e. g. 

6 \f(as and Ado's, people; 6 vetas and va6s, temple; 6 \aytas and \ay6s, hare; 
6 jccUws, rope, PL also icd\oi ; 77 oAws, threshing-Jloor, PL also al a\oi ; 7) Topy<a 
and Topy<t>v. 

(b) of different genders (hence called heterogeneous), e. g. 

6 vSiros and TO vGrrov, back (the last form was regarded by the Atticists as the 
only proper form, still TOJ/ vurov Xen. R. Equ. 3, 3) ; & iry6s and rb vy6v, yoke. 
In the PI. the neuter form of these heterogeneous nouns is more frequently 
used, e. g. 6 <rn-os, rb <nra ; of Seo^io/, and more commonly TO, 8eo>u ; 6 trrofywfe, 
a station, balance, of <rra&poi and T&. <rrofyu{, stations, and TO (rrafyia, sometimes 
also balances; of vyot does not probably occur. 

B. To different declensions, and commonly of different gen- 
ders (heterogeneous), e. g. 

6 <j&6yyos and 77 ^07777, voice; 6 x&pos and T> x^P> space; r) 6x^n an d 
Xx&oSt rising ground ; TJ Stv^o and TO 8tyos, thirst; 77 J/OTTTJ (the older form) and TO 
J/OTTOS, iW/ey, etc. It should be observed further, that the word 6 irpfo-ftvs, elder, 
has only Ace. trptcrfivv, Voc. irpffffiv; these three forms are almost entirely 
poetic (irpefffivTfpos and irpffffivTaros formed from this, are in frequent use) ; 
in the Common Language, 6 trpf<rfivTTis, -ov, elder 5 in the meaning of messenger, 
envoy, the Common Language uses in the Sing. 6 irpf(rf$fvT-f)s, -ov ; but in the 
PL of and TOUS irpeVjSeis, TrpeVjSewj/, irpcVjSeo'i ; also, TO Sditpvov and TO 8</cpu, 
tear. The latter and older form is retained in the poetic dialect ; still, the Dat. 
PL SdKpvffi is found even in the Attic prose-writers (Thu. 7, 75; Dem. c. Onet. 
I. 32). 

$71. II. Heteroclites. 

Heteroclites [$ 67 (b)] have two modes of formation; they 
are either of the third Dec., which have been already presented 
together ($ 68), or of two different declensions. Those of dif- 
ferent declensions are, e. g. as follows : 

A. Of the First and Third Declension. 
Several substantives in -775 are inflected, either in whole or in 
part, according to the first and third declensions : 

(a) Some in -775, Gen. -ov and -77$, through all the Cases according to both 


declensions : 6 /^KTJS, mushroom. Gen. /J.VKOV and HVKT)TOS, and some proper 
names, e. g. Xdpys. The name oA^s, in the old Attic, has the Ionic Gen. 
form &d\f(a, Dat. &a\fj, Ace. a\riv ; in the later writers, oAou and d\r)Tos, 
&d\r)n and d\rjra. Observe that the accent is drawn back on 0a\eo>. 

(b) The proper names mentioned, 59, Rem. 2, have t\ as well as rjv in the 
Ace. Sing. only. 

B. Of the Second and Third Declensions. 

(a) Of the Common second and third declensions : several 
substantives in -os, as masculine, are inflected according to the 
second Dec., but as neuter, according to the third Dec., e. g. 6 
and TO o^os, chariot, TOV o^ov and o^ovs, rov o\ov and TO o^os ; 6 
and TO O-KOTOS, darkness. 

(b) Of the contract second and third declensions : 

itp6xs (^, watering-pot], Att. irp6xovs, Gen. irp6x<>v t etc., Dat. PL irp6xov<ri 
(like fiovs, fiovffiv). 
OtStTrovs, Gen. OlSiirodos and (poet.) OiSiirov, Dat. Ot5i7ro5t, Ace. OlSiiroSa and 


(c) Of the Attic second and third declensions : 

In the Ace. Sing., 6 7\&>s, laughter^ y4\oyros, yeAwTi, Ace. y\(ora and 
76\w>/, and the three following: Trdrpus, patruus, /j.-f)rp<as, avunculus, and 
Mlvwsy which, in the Gen. and Ace. Sing., are inflected according to the third 
Dec. and the Attic second Dec. ; in the other Cases, according to the third 

irdrpois, Gen. irdrpca and irdrpoaos, Dat. irdrpcai) Ace. irdrpwv and irdrpua] 
Mfj/ws, Gen. Mh/o> and Mfi/wos, Dat. Mfrot, Ace. M/J/W ( 48, Rem. 1), Mivwv 
and Mivua. 

$72. III. Metaplasts. 

Metaplasts [^ 67 (c)] like Heteroclites, have two modes of 
formation ; they are either of the third declension, which have 
been already presented together (68), or of two different declen- 
sions. Those of different declensions are, e. g. as follows : 

(a) Of the Common second and third declensions : 

AeVSpoj/ (rb, tree), Gen. SeVSpou, etc.; but in the Dat. PI. among the Attic 
writers, SeVSpeo-i (from the stem rb AENAPO2) and 8eVS/>ois; the first form is 
regarded by the Atticists as the better. To this stem belong, also, the forms 
T$ Se'pfyet and T& SeVS/j??, which occur in the Attic poets, and in later prose 

Ko t/a> v 6s (6, partaker), Gen. KOIVWVOV, etc.; Xenophon uses the forms 01 
Koivwvts and rovs Koivuvas (from KOINilN). 


Kplvov (rb, lily) Gen. Kpivov, etc., with the secondary form in the Dat. PI. 
Kplvto-i in Aristoph. from the PL Kplvea (in Herod.). Comp. StvSpov. 

A os (6, stone), Gen. Aooy and in Soph. O. C. 196. Aefoy. 

'O ovtipos [and poetic rb ovfipov], dream, Gen. bveipov and oveipwros. 

Uvp (rb,Jlre), vvpts. But PL, rk wpd, watch-fires, according to the second 

"fi6s (6, son), Gen. vlov, etc. Together with this formation, there is another 
according to the third Dec., much in use, particularly in the Attic writers, from 
the theme 'TIET2, Gen. vleos, Dat. vUT (Ace. vtia is rejected) ; PL t/ie?s, Gen. 
vicW, Dat. w'eVi, Ace. (vtc'ov), Attic vkTs ($ 57, Rem. 1); Dual, wee, Gen. 

(b) Of the Attic second and third declensions : 

The three substantives, ^ oAws, threshing-floor ; 6 rcu&s, peacock; and & rv<f>ws, 
whirlwind, have, together with the common inflection according to the Attic 
second declension, another according to the third declension, in -wvos, etc., e. g. 

REMARK. The words 77 &\<as and 6 TO. us are generally declined accord- 
ing to the Attic second Dec., Ace. Sing. fiAw^, ratav ; still, the v is commonly 
rejected from a\o>s in the Ace., 48, Rem. 1. But the forms a\wvos, tfAwi'w, 
&\u<ri(v), rcuavi, rawves, rawrtr, etc., are used on account of their greater 

73. Indeclinable and Defective Nouns. 

1. Substantives which do not vary the termination, but retain in all the Cases 
the form of the Nom., are called indeclinable. Except foreign proper names, as 
6 'Afipadfji, rov 'A^paa.^ and the indeclinable cardinal numbers, all indeclinable 
nouns are of the neuter gender. Here belong especially : 

(a) The names of the letters, e. g. T&, rov, rf, &\<pa 5 

(b) Most of the cardinal numbers, e. g. Se'/co avfyw ; 

(c) Tb, roO, T, XP C ^"> necessity, destiny, and be^is with forty and e?i/cu, and 
several foreign words, e. g. rb, rov, r$ 

(d) The substantive infinitives, e. g. rb, rov, ri 

2. Some substantives are used only in the Sing., or only in the PL Such 
words may be termed defective in number. The reason of it is found, either 
in the meaning of the word, or simply in usage, e. g. 6 alfrfip, ether ; ol trijo-tcu, 
the Etesian ivind ; ad 'A&TJI/CU, Athens ; ra 'O\u/tiro, the Olympic games. Comp. 
further, Syntax, 243. 

3. It has been already noted, $ 69, that some substantives are found only in 
single Cases (Defectiva casu). 


The Adjective and Participle. 

$ 74. Gender and Declension of the Adjective 
and Participle. 

1. The Adjective and the Participle, like the Substantive, 
have three genders, being varied by inflection to agree with 
the gender of then* substantive. But all adjectives have 
not separate forms for the three genders ; many have but 
two endings, one for the Masc. and Fern., the other for the 
Neuter, e. g. 6 o-axfrpwv avrjp, r} a a> </> p o> v <yvvr], TO awcfrpov 
re/cvov. Several, indeed, have but one ending, commonly 
used only for the Masc. and Fem. See 80, e. g. o <j> vy a 5 
avijp, rj (frvyas <yvvrj. 

2. In Adjectives and Participles of three endings, the 
Masc. and Neuter belong to the same declension (second or 
third), and the Neuter is like the Masc. in the Gen. and 
Dat. ; the Fem. is always of the first Dec. 

REMARK 1. Hence, in an Adjective in -os of three endings, the Masc. is 
declined like \6yos (46), the Fem. like Sf/cTj or ffKid ( 44), and the Neut. 
like ffvKOf (46). 

KEM. 2. The declension of Adjectives and Participles differs only in a few 
points from that of the Substantive ; these will be noted hereafter. But it may 
be remarked here, as an essential deviation, that Participles always have the 
Voc. of the third Dec. like the Norn., 53, Rem. 5. 

$75. Accentuation of Adjectives and Participles. 

The accentuation of Adjectives and Participles is like that 
of Substantives, with a few exceptions, which are now to be 
noted : 

1. The Fern, is accented on the same syllable as the Masc. through all tho 
Cases, where the nature of the final syllable permits, c. g. Ka\6s, KO\^, ita\6v ; 
Kovtyos, Kovtyi), Kovfyov, x a p' ifls y X a p' tf(ra ' a > K a p' lfv 'i /neAas, jUeAotva, /ieAow ; 
re'peti/a, repev ; jSapus, apeTa, fiapv ; /<ras, fiovXtixraffa, fiovXtvcrav ' 


KKMARK 1. In adjectives in -oy, -17, ~ov y or -oy, -d, -ov, the Fern., on account 
of tlu- length of the iiiial syllable (77, d), must be a Paroxytone, when fin- MUM-. 
is a Proparoxytone, or a Properispomenon, e. g. dy&pwini/oy, avfrpwirivT], a.v&p6- 
irivov ; t\(v&fpos, l\fv&epd, etev&fpov ; Koixpos, Kov<pr), Kovfyov ; O"7roy5cuoy, anrov- 
6aid, ffirovScuov ; but. when the final syllable in the declension is short, it again 
takes the accentuation of the Masc., i. e. it becomes again a Proparoxytone, or 
a Properispomenon, e. g. foStpwirivai, faffoepai, Kov<pcu, tnrovticuai, like ' avSpdnri- 
voi, lAcu&tpo<, Kovipoi, (nrovSatoi. Hence the difference between 'P <$ 8 1 a i, Au/ctai 
(yvvaiKfs), as adjectives, and 'Po5 (a i, Ai/fcfat, as substantives, according to 
$ 45, 6. 

2. Participles accent the same syllable in the Neuter Nom. as in the Masc., 
when the nature of the syllable permits, e. g. 

iraiftevov rifjL-f]<rwv t rifj-^ffov 


REM. 2. Yet Adjectives sometimes deviate from this rule, see 65, 5. 

3. Contracts in -oDy, -r), -ow/, from -eoy, -ed, -tov, Joy, -6-t\, or 6a, -6ov (except 
the Nom. and Ace. Dual Masc. and Neuter, which are Oxytones, 49, 3), are 
Perispomena through all the Cases and Numbers, though the uncontracted 
forms of those in -eoy are Proparoxytones, e. g. apyvpeos apyvpovs, apyvpcov 
= apyvpovv. On contracted compounds in -ooy, -oov, e. g. ctfj/ovy, eGvovv, see 
S 49, 3. 

4. Barytone feminines of adjectives and participles, whose Masc. is of the 
third declension, are Perispomena [ 45, 6 (b)] in the Gen. PL, but all the 
other Cases retain the accent of the Masc., e. g. 

/3opvy, -?a, -v Gen. PI. 0apeW, ftapfiuv 
Capias, tffftra, -Itv " x a P le/>/T&)J/ > X a P ttffffwjf 

/ieAay, /xe \atva, fj.4\aif " pcXdvuv, p. e \ a i v a> v 

iray, iroo'a, irav " IT&VTUV, IT a a a v 

-?0*O, -4lf TV^fVTUV, T V <f> & t 0" W V 

, Tu\|/do"a, rvfyav rvfydiruv, Tvi^affuv} but, 

y -tin), -LVOV " a vb p <a TT i v ID v, as Masc., F., and N. 

, -eod, -cpov " l\e v&fptar, as Masc., F., and N. 

s, -eVrj, -tvov " TVIFT o(j.evwv, as Masc., F., and N. 

REM. 3. On the accentuation of the monosyllable iray, and of monosyllabic 
participles in the Gen. and Dat., see 65, 2 (c). 

REM. 4. On the accentuation of the Nominative of compound adjectives, 
the following things are to be noted : 

(a) Those in -oy, when the last part is formed of a substantive or adjective, 
follow the general rule [ 30, 1, (c)], and are Proparoxytones, e. g. <j>i\6- 
TCKVOS (from renvov), irdyKeucos (from c/coy). But if the last part is 
formed of a verb, then adjectives with a long penult, are Oxytones, e. g. 
ifwXoirojiMro'y, (j.f\<nroi6s, Scii/onro'y, &5r]y6s ; but those with a short penult, 
are commonly Paroxytones, if they have an active sense, but if a passive, 
Proparoxytones, e. g. 

\i$o&6\os, one casting stones ; A.i&o*/3o\oy, cast down by stones ; 

/iTjrpo/cTdVoy, matricide ; fjnfrp6Kroi/os, slain by a mother ; 

&ilp<rrp6<t>os, nourishing wild beists ; fripoTpotyos, nourished by wild be ids. 

Words compounded with prepositions, a privative and intensive, eu and 


Svs, and det, ayav, apt, apri, epi, 77/ti, a, irav, and iroAv, are always Pro- 

paroxytones, and hence exceptions to the rule respecting words with a 

short penult, 
'(b) Verbal adjectives in -r6s remain Oxytones, even in compounds, if they 

have three endings, but are Proparoxytones, if they have but two. See 

78, I. (c). 
(c) All compounds in -TTA^|, -f>c(>|, -rpd>^, -o-^o|, are Oxytones. 


$76. I. Adjectives and Participles of three 

L -os, -T|, -ov: Nom. 070^05, 

Gen. aya&ov, aya&r)s, aya&ov 

Nom. ifySoos, 075^77, oySoov, eighth, 

Gen. PL 6yS6uv, 6y86wv t oyS6(ay ( 75, 4.) 

Gen. PL ypcupofjievwv, ypa<poiJ.*v<ov, ypcupofjifvwv 

OS, -d, -o v ' Nom. SIKCUUS, SiKaid, SlKaiov, just, 

Gen. SiKdiov, SiKaids, StKatov 

Gen. PL St/ca/wi/, Stuaicav, SiKaltav 

Nom. $x&P s y ^X&P&> ^X^P 01/ ) hostile, 

Gen. fx&P 9 **} 

Nom. c&poos, 

Gen. a&p6ov, 

Gen. PL a& P 6uv, 

Most of the adjectives belong to this class. The Fern, ends in o, when pre- 
ceded by i or p, 43, 1. Still, adjectives in -oos have -6a in the Fern., when p 
precedes o, otherwise, -^77, e. g. abp6a, yet 075^77. On the accentuation of 
adjectives in -os, -77 (d), -ov, see 75. 

Adjectives in -eos, -efl, -eoi/, which denote the material, e. g. xpvffeos, 
golden ; apyvpeos, silver ; Kfpa/j.eos, earthen ; and multiplicative adjectives in 
-6 o s, -6 77, -6 o v, e. g. air\6os, single ; $nr\6os, double, are contracted. On the 
accentuation of those in -eos, -eo, -eoj/, see 75, 3, and on the contraction of 
those in -* into -a, -077 into -77, and -6a into -a, see 9, II. 


tpe-eos, ^/je-ed, 

epe-ovs, 4pe-a, 

apyvp-eos, apyvp-ea, apyvp-eov 

apyvp-ovs, apyvp-a, apyvp-ovv 


REMARK 1. Contraction is seldom omitted in Attic classic prose, not unfre- 
quently in the Tragedians, e. g. xpvvea, Xen. Ag. 5, 5 ; yet a&p6os, -6d, -6ov, 
crowded, is rarely found contracted; S IK poos, -6 a, -6ov, two-pronged, is com- 
monly contracted in the Masc. and Neut., SiKpovs, StKpovv, but in the Fern, the 
uncontracted form is usual, 77 Smp6a ; 6 y S o o s is always uncontracted. 

II. -vs, -el a, -v: Nom. y\vKvs, yXviceta, y\vKv, sweet, 
Gen. y \vKfos, y\vKeias, y \vitfos 

Gen, PL ^Xu/ceW, y\vKsiuv, y\vKtav ( 75, 4.) 



The declension of the Mase. is like- irTixus. though with the common genitives 

in -'os, -W; the declension of the Neat, is like &TTIA yet always uiicuntrarti-d in 
the I'l. (-o). The only deviations from the regular accentuation are, /J/xuruy, 
Vfjilfffia* ^i/niffv. half; &7jAus, &^Aem, &r)\v, female ; irp(<rftvs, old (used only in the 
Masc.). and some poetic forms. vjAus is sometimes used as feminine in Homer 
and in the Tragedians. 

REM. 2. The adjective % fj. i <r v s, in the Attic writers, has both the contracted 
and nncontracted forms in the Ace. PL, rifdo-eis and j)fj.lffas : also the Neut. 
17/t/o-ea is found in several passages in Demosthenes in the contracted form 
TJjufo-T). Sometimes the Ionic Fern, form -ea occurs, e. g. irAareo, X. R. Equ. 1, 
14. (in all MSS.) Vfo-w> PI. Menon. 83, c. in the best MSS. 

III. -i)s, -Sera, -vv'. Nom. SeiKvvs, SfiKvvcra, SeiKvvv, showing, 

Gen. 8efKjWos, SfiKvvatis, SfiKvvvros 

Gen. PI. SfiKvvvrwv, $eiKvv<rS>v, SeiKi/vmotv ( 75,4.) 

Nom. </>us, ^>C(ra, $i>v y produced, 

Gen. ipvtnos, ^utrrjs, tpvmos [ 65, 2 (c).] 

Gen. PI. fyvvrwv, tyvviav, 

So the Pres. and second Aor. Act. participles of verbs in -/i*. For the de- 
clension of the Masc. and Neut., see 54 (d). 

IV. - i s, -e <r a a, - v : Nom. x a P^ ls i X a pl fffffa i X" /l/ > lovely, 
Gen. PL 

For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see 54 (d), the only difference 
being that the Dat. PL ends in -e<n, not -<n, e. g. xopto"'' The Masc. and 
Neut. is in the Nom. a Paroxytone, in the Fern, a Proparoxytone ; yet the 
ancient grammarians prescribe that the Neut. of x^^ 15 should be accented on 
the antepenult, hence x^P tfV - 

REM. 3. Some of the adjectives in -^ e i s y -^ <r <r a, -f) e v, and -6 e i s, -6 e <r- 
ffa,-6fv, admit contraction, e. g. 

Nom. rifjL-f)-ts, TJ/Z^-CCTO-O, Ti/t^-ev, honored, 
Tt/A7?r, Ti/UTjtrcra, TI^V 

Gen. TI(J.T)1TOS, T/tTJ(T<r7jy, TIH?)VTOS 

Nom. fjL6\ir6-fts, ^eXiTj-eo-tra, fjL\n6-fv t honeyed, 

Gen. ^icAiTovjros, jjLf\iTov<ro"r]S, fj.\irovvros. 

V. -efs, -i<ra, -ev: Nom. Act^c/s, AJ<^e?<ro, Aet^eV, relictus, 

Gen. Aei^cWoy, \i<(&fi(ri)$, Acj^eVros 

Gen. PL \fi<^4vruv^ Aei< 

Nom. Tt^e/s, T^T<ra, ri&eV, placing, 

Gen. Ti^eWos, Ti^et(TT;s, 

For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see $ 54 (d), and also in the Dat. 
PL, e. g. Tv<j&ei<Ti. So likewise the first and second Aor. Pass. Participle, and 
the Pres. and second Aor. Active Part, of rfctotfii and Sfrjjui, e. g. i'efs, tclo-o, ftV, 

VI. -d s, -a iv a, -a v : Nom. ^leAds, pf \atva, 

Gen. /jLtkavos, /i6Aat*T)S, /j.\ai/os 

Gen. PL /ueAai/wv, ueAcuyaJj/, /leAavaiv. 

In the same manner only raAfls, roAo/va, raAdj/, unhappy, the feminine Voc. 
of which has also ri&Acu'. For the declension of the Masc. and Neut., see 54 
(d), with Rem. 6. 


VII. -5 s, -a era, -av : Nom. iras, iracra, -rrav, all, every, 
Gen. iravros, TTO'O'TJS, TTUVTOS 

Gen. PL TravTwv, iracruv, iravruv. 

In the same manner only the compounds of vas, e. g. OTTOS (aVdo-a, a-jrav), 
(ru/u7rcis, Trpoirds, etc. ; these compounds have a short a in the Neut., in dac- 
tylic and anapestic verse. See 54 (d), for the declension of the Masc. and 
Neut., and 65, 2 (c), for the accentuation- of the simple adjective in the Gen. 
and Dat. PL and Dual. 

VIIL -as, -d<r a, -av: Nom. Aefyds, Aefydcra, AeT^cw, having left, 
Gen. XetyavTos, AenJ/a(T?js, \ftyavros 

Gen. PL Aenf/dVrwj/, Aen/>a<ra>j', Xenfyavrotv. 

So the first Aor. Act. Part., and also the Pres. and second Aor. Act. Part, of 
: terras, -acra, -dV ; ffrds, -a<ra, -oV. For the declension, see 54 (d). 

IX. -ijv, -eiva, -ev: Nom. Ttpyv, Tepeiva, repev (poetic), smooth, 
Gen. repevos, rfpflvrjs, repei/os 

Gen. PL repevaji/, repfivuv, repfi/wy. 

No other adjective is thus declined. For the declension, see 55, 1. 

X. -o t5 s, -o v ff a , - 6 v : Nom. StSous, SiSoDtra, SiSoi/, giving, 
Gen. 8i5<Wos, 5t8ownjs, StS^ros 
Gen. PL 5i8(Wa>i/, StSoua-wi', 

Thus only the Part. Pres. and the second Aor. Act. (Sots, Sovffa, Ufa, Gen. 
, Sovffrjs, Gen. PL Fern. Sov<ruv) of verbs in -OD/J.I, 

XI. -<6 v, -ovff a, -6 v : Nom. SK&V, e/coutro, IK 6v, willing, 
Gen. PL k 

Thus only the compound ae'/ca>j>, commonly ^KWI/, S/couo-o, S/cov. For the 
declension, see 54 (d). 

XII. -uv, -ov<ra,-ov: Nom. Xeiirav, AeiTrowa, \e7irov, leaving, 

Gen. AeiTTOPTOS, At7TO5(T7JS, 

Gen. PL \enr6i/Tuv, Xfnrovffiav, 

So also the Pres., Fut., and second Aor. Act. Part., the last, however, with a 
different accentuation : -6v, -ovva, -&v, e. g. \iir6v, -ov<ra, -6v. For the declen- 
sion, see 54 (d). In the same manner, the Present participles of contract 
verbs in -au>, -e, and -6<a, e. g. 

Nom. rifjiuv, -5>ffa, -uv Nom. <f>i\jv, -ovffa, -ovy 

Gen. TI/J.WVTOS, -CCOTJS, -r&VTOS Gen. PL ^)l\OVVTiaV, -OVff&V, -O&VTWV. 

Gen. PL n^vruv, -cacrciiv, -cavrwv. Nom. iu(T&S>Vy -ovffa, -ovv 

Gen. PL nicr&ovi/Tcav, -ovffcav, -OVVTWV. 

The Fut. Act. Part, of Liquid verbs is declined like tyiX&v, ^tAoucra, Qi\oVv, 
Gen. <t>i\ovvros, etc., e. g. ffirepwv, -ovaa, -ovv (formed from (nrepewv, etc.), from 
>, to sow. 

XIII. -6s -via -6s: Nora. reruns, Teru^uTa, TfTV<f>6s, having struck, 
Gen. reTv<p6ros, rerv(f)vias, TCTW^TOS 

Gen. PL TfTviporcw, Tervtyvtwv, rTv<f>OT<av. 

On the form eardts, -uxra, f<rT<i>s and -6s, etc., see below, 193, Rem. 2 and 3. 




XIV. The adjective-:, neyas, pe y cA.i?, pcya, t/rit. iro\Js, i 
iroXu, Hindi, are irregular in the. Num.. A<v., and Voc. of the Masc. and Nent. 
Sin.i;. : tlu- other parts are regular: bat even TTO\ A. ^v instead of iro\vv or iroXu, 
oi-rur> in tlie Attic poets; Ac>ch. S. 824, uses the Voc. /ueyaAe; irpaos, 
TrpoeTa, irpaoi', so/fc, is also irregular; it has, throughout the Fern., in the 
PI. and Dual Neut., as also in the Gen. PL Masc., and sometimes, also, in the 
other Cases of the Masc. PL, a form like irpavs, -e?a, -5 (comp. y\vicvs t -em, -u), 
which occurs in the Dialects. See the Paradigm. 

77. Paradigms. 




ayab-6v, good <f>l\i 









i-oi <pi\i-cu <pi\i-a 

i-caif (pi\i-(t)V <pi\i-cav 

i-OlS <pl\l-CUS <pl\i-OlS 

<pi\i-ovs <pi\i-as <pi\i-a 

<pi\i-oi <pi\i-at <pi\i-a 


aya^-olv ayc&-cuv ayc&-oiv. 


<pt\i-d <pi\l-ca 

S. N. y\vKvs 

( r. y\vKf-os 

D. y\VKfT 

A. yXvKvv 

V. y\vitv 


y\vKv, sweet irpaos 
y\vK-os irpdov 


irpaov Trpacav irpaov 

paos(e) Trpaela irpaov 

TrpaeTa irpaov, soft 
TrpaeicLS trpdov 

P. X. 





Trpaoi, vpaets irpaelot vpae 
Trpaftav TT pasicav TT paeuv 

irpdots, IT pae ff i irpasiaisirpafcr 
Trpdovs, irpaeTs irpaelds irpaea 
paoi, irpae'is TrpaeTai Trpaca 

Dual. y\vK(f y\vKfid y\vK(e 


IT pad d Trpdu 
TT paeiaiv irpdoiv. 




x a p' Lfaffal 

X a P /ifl/ra 

X a P' /J/Ta " / 

X a P' e<r '( J/ ) 

X a pt fVTa 

X a p' iet/ra 


x a p' lfvrf 





, golden 







airXovs aTrXvj 

airXoov aTrX6t]s 

airXov airXris 

airX6ca airXoy 

cnrXq) airXf) 


avXdov, single 













aTrAo? aTrXa'i 













airX6ois airX6ais 

oirAoTs . airXa'is 

airXoovs airX6as 

anXovs airXas 

atrXooi airX6ai 

airXoi airXai 









airXu airXa 

oTtx6oiv airXoaiv 
cmXolv airXatv 













apyvpeov, silver 



rerv(f>ws rervcpvia 
TeTV<p6ros rervipvias 


rerv(f)6s, having 
TfTO(p6ros [struck 


Tervcpoffi Terv<pviais 
TeTV<poras rervcpvias 

reTV(p6roiv Terv(pviaiv rerv(p6roiv 

IT oXvs 

TroXv, much 






/j-eya /J.eyaXri 

peya, great 


















p.t\av, Hack 




irav, all 




















<TTQ.V, standing 







\nr6v, leaving 

















ffrdiTe (rrdcra. 
ffrdvroiv ffrdcraiv 





(fxusovvr a 

Qavovv, about to 
QavovvTos [show 



, onng 



(pavov<ri (pavoixrais 
(pavovvras tyavovaa.? 


^svyvvffai ^fvyvvvra. 




REMARK. All participles in -eis are declined like Att^dek (see 76, V.) ; all 
participles in -i/s, like SetKvvs (see 76, III.) ; all participles in -as, like ffrds (see 
76, VIII.); the Pres. Fut. and second Aor. Part. Active, like \nr6v ( 76, 
XII.) ; the Fut. Act. Part, of Liquid verbs, like <nrtpS>v ( 76, XII.) 

$78. II. Adjectives of two Endings. 

Adjectives in -05 of two endings are declined like dyo.9o?, 
except that they have no separate form for the feminine, the 
same form being used for the masculine and feminine. 


I. -QSj -ov'-, 6 7) &\oyos, rb &Xoyov, irrational. 

To this class belong, 

(a) A few simple adjectives without particular derivative endings, e. g. 6 % 
fidpfiapos, not Greek ; Acj8pos, vehement ; tf/nepos, gentle ; \oiSopos, calumniating ; 
mild; x*P ffos i unfruitful; ^(rv^os, silent; Sa.ira.vos, extravagant; 

(b) Most simple adjectives with the derivative-endings -tos and -etos, and 
i/uos, e. g. 6 ?; <r(i)T-f]pios, saving ; 6 77 ficuri\fios, regal ; 6 77 yv&pifjLos, recognizable ; 

(c) All compounds, e. g. 6 77 &\oyos, rb &\oyov, irrational; 6 rj apy6s (instead 
,of depyta), inactive (but &py6s, -77, -6v, bright) ; 6 77 irdyKa\os, very fair (but Ka\6s, 
-4l, -ov) ; 6 f) Trd\\evKos, very white (but Aeu/cos, -^, -6v) ; &f6Trveu<rTos, -ov, divinely 
inspired (but irvev<rr6s, -77, -ov} ; adjectives compounded with adjectives in 
~KOS, which then become Proparoxytones, e. g. 6 77 tyevSarriKos, not pure Attic, 
but ('ATTIKOS, -1), -ov} 6 77 /juffoirepffiitos (but Tlepffucos, -$), -ov}, 

Exceptions are adjectives derived from compound verbs with the deriva- 
tive-endings -KOS, which remain Oxytones; those in -reos, which remain 
Paroxytones, e. g. tiriSentTiKds, --ft, -6v, from tiriSflicvvtu ; those in -r&s vary 
between two and three endings, e. g. ai/fKr6s, -/;, -6v (from di/exw). and CLVCKTOS, 
-6v, see Lobeck, ad S. Aj. 1296. Paralipp. p. 482, sq. Poppo ad Th. 2, 41, 4. 
But when compounds in -r6s, -TTJ, -r6v, are again compounded, they have but 
two endings, and are Proparoxytones, e. g. 6 j) aKasraffKevao-Tos. 

REMARK 1. Comparatives and Superlatives have three endings, even when 
the Positive has but two, though there are some rare exceptions, e. g. airopdare- 
pos 77 A.7>J/is, Thu. 5, 110. Svse/j.po\(!>TaTos T? Ao/cpis, Id. 3, 110. 

II. -ovs, -ovVj & TJ ffoovs, rb ftivovi/, benevolent. 

Adjectives with these endings are, 

(a) Those compounded with the contracted substantives vovs and ir\ovs, and 
hence in the Masc. and Fern, are declined like these, but in the Neuter like 
bffTovv ( 47), yet the Neuter PL in -oa does not admit contraction, consequently 
TO ftvoa. On the accentuation, see 49, 3. 

HEM. 2. -Attic writers sometimes omit the contraction in the PL, e. g. KUKO- 
. Cy. 8. 2, 1. K pv^iv6ovs X. Ag. 11, 5. Svsvooi X. H. 2. 1, 2. 

(b) Such as are compounded with the substantive irovs, e. g. 6 rj iroXvirovs, 
rb Tro\vTrovv, and are inflected like it, but in the Ace. Sing., even as OiSiirovs 
[ 71, B. (b)], are partly of the contract second Dec. and partly of the third, 
e. g. Gen. TroXinroSos and iro\virov ; Ace. TroAuTroSo and iroXvirouv, etc. 

HEM. 3. In several adjectives of this kind, e. g. &TTOVS, fipafivirovs, Sfaovs, 
avnrT6irovs, the inflection does not follow the second Dec. 

III. -w s, -(a v ; 6 TI tXcws, rb 'l\fuv, compassionate. 

Adjectives of these endings are like the Attic second Dec. ( 48). 

HEM. 4. The Ace. commonly ends in -oav, but in a number of compound 
words, it ends in -w ( 48, Rem. 1), e. g. a|t($xp>, avdir\ew, &yr]pca (in r&&pect to 
the accentuation, see 29, Rem. 7), 

REM. 5. There are three endings to the simple adjective: 

n\ews, irXea, Tr\fcai/,fuU : Gen. TrAew, TrXeas, TrAew, PL TrXew, TrAe'ai, ir\4a ; the 
compounds are either of two endings, e. g. 6 r; dmTrAews, rb avdirtew, PL ol of 
e/c7rAew (linreis eKTfXew X. Cy. 6. 2, 7. e/CTrAeo> rpdirefai X. Hier. 1, 18), TO KTT\<a 
X. Cy. 3, 1, 28. 1, 6, 7, and even the Nom. PL TrAe'u, of the simple adjective 
is not seldom used for the Masc. and Fern., or they have (yet more seldom) 


three endings, e. g. ai/aVAews, kvairXfa (PL Phaedon 83, d.), avdirKfuv. Ear. 
Alf. 730, has irAc'op, nfter the example of Homer, as Neuter Sing. So like- 
wise compounds, seldom in the Sing., e. g. TO f/iTrAeoy, Soph., oftener in the 
PL, e. g. fyirAeot PL Rp. 6. 505, c. and very frequently in the Neuter, e. g. 
&orAfa X. C'y. 6. 2, 7, and 8. irepiir\ca 6. 2, 33. Also from TAcws, Plato Phaedon 
95, a. has &MI as Neut. PI. 

KI:M. 6. 'O 77 <rs, TO fl-cDy, salvus, is formed from the old word 2AO2 by 
contraction. In addition to the Nom. <rws, <ru>v, this word forms only the Ace. 
Sing, ffuv, like the Attic second Dec. ; it has also the Ace. <ro>oi/. The form <ra 
(from ffda), occurs as Fern. Sing, in Eurip. Fr. 629. (Bind.) and as Neut. PL in 
Plat. Critias, 111, c. in the best MSS. The PL consists of forms from <rus of 
the second Dec. and of forms from the lengthened <ros, namely : 

PL N. ol at fftas (from o-wts), and of ffwoi, al <rS>cu, N. trwo, rarely <ra. 
A. rovs TOS ffias (from o"<as), and rovs o~(aovs, N. aua, rarely aa. 

The Singular forms of ffwos are very rare in the Attic writers, e. g. o-os, X. 
An. 3. 1, 32. 

REM. 7. The compounds of /ceo as and yeAws are partly like the Attic 
second Dec., partly like the third Dec., e. g. 6 77 xP v<r Ke P tas ^ ro xP vffOKf P (av i 
Gen. xp v<rofc P <a an< i xP vffOK *P <aros 5 V <t>i\6yf\cas t rb <f)i\6yt\(ai/, Gen. <f>i\6yf\(o 
and <f>i\oyf\(irros ; fiovicfpws, Gen. fiovKepu and fiovKfpwros, so fiiKfpws. The 
adjective Svsfptas follows the third Dec. only, e. g. tivstparros, etc. Forms like 
the Common second Dec. originate from forms of the Attic second Dec., e. g. 
, rfjKepoi, &Kfpa. On the accentuation, see 29, Rem. 7. 

IV. -o> v 5 -o v ; N. d 77 <r(a<ppav t TO ffSxppov, prudent, 

G. TOW TTJS TOU ff(a<ppovos (according to 55, 1). 

REM. 8. From 6 T\ iriwvifat, comes also the Fern, form irleipa, even in prose 
writers; so also irp6<ppa<r<ra from 6 y irpdQpw, occurs in the poets. 

REM. 9. Here belong, also, the Comparatives in -uv, ~ov, -twit, -lov] but in 
respect to the declension of these it is to be noted, that, after the rejection of 
v, they are contracted in the Ace. Sing., and in the Nom., Ace., and Voc. PL 
See the Paradigms, 79. In the Attic writers, the uncontracted forms in -ova, 
-ovfs, -of as, frequently occur, e. .g. /*6i'b/a, ^\drrova, KaAAiWa, ^AaTToves, 
KOKioves, /, /ScA/noves, irAe/oves, t^TTovas, /3c\T/oj/as, e\drrovas, X. Cy. 5. 2, 
36. 7. 5, 83. 2. 1, 23. 2. 1, 13. 5. 2, 36. Hell. 6. 5, 52. Cy. 7. 5, 70. On the accen- 
tuation, see 65, 5. 

V. -TJ s, -e s ; N. o rj aArj^s, rb aATjde's, trite, 

G. TOU TTJS TOV oATji^eos, aATji^ovs ( 59). 

On the contraction of -ea into -a (instead of -?}), where a vowel precedes, see 
{ 59, Rem. 1. 

REM. 10. Compounds in -erTys (from eroy, Gen. erous), are either of two 
endings, e. g. iropftav xiAjerf}, PL Rp. 10. 615, a. Trfpi6$a) TTJ x'A-'fTe?, Phaed. 249, 
a., or they take a particular Fern, form, namely, -erts, Gen. -e'rtSos, e. g. 
1TTT77S, F. eirTTts ; TpiaKoiTovKiSow (TirovSoav, Th. 1, 87. 

REM. 11. Simple adjectives in -ijy are Oxy tones, except irA^orjs, irXrjpfS, 
full. On the accentuation of the Voc. and of the Neuter, see 65, 5, and on 
the accentuation of the Gen. PL 59. Rem. 4. 

VI. -r)u t -fVj N. & T] bpfav, rb &p"pfv 

G. TOU TT^S TOV appfvos ( 55, 1). No other word like this. 

VII. -tap, -op ; N. 6 T] airdrop, rb aTrarop, fatherless, 

G. TOU Tils TOO aTraVopos '( 55, 1). In like manner only 





VIII. -is, -t; (a) N. 6 r) ftpis, rb ISpt, knowing, 

G. TOV Trjs TOV ISpios ( 63, Rem. 5). 

In like manner, only ]/rjo~Tis, temperate, and rp6<f>ts, nourished. In addition to 
the form in -LOS, these adjectives have another in -iSos, but more rare, and only- 
poetic, e. g. ffipiSa, 

(b) N. 6 fi fi>x a P ts > T0 

G. TOV rrjs TOV ev^dptros. 

Here belong the compounds of x^P 15 ) Tr&rpiSi eATrty, <pp6vTis, which are 
declined like the simples, e. g. etfeATrts, etfeA/Tri, Gen. eueAinSoy ; <pi\6ira,Tpts, Gen. 

; the Ace. ends according to 53, 3, in -iv, e. g. etfe\iru/, . 

but compounds of ir6\ts, when they refer to persons, are inflected in the Attic 
dialect in -tSos, e. g. Qi\6iro\is, Gen. -t5os, yet in the Ace., (pi\6iro\tv and -180 ; 
still, as epithets of cities, etc., they are inflected like ir6\is, e. g. 
, etc., Gen. /caAAtTr^Aecus, etc. 

IX. -vs, -v ; (a) N. & 3} &8a,Kpvs, rb &SaKpv, tearless. 

So compounds of Sdnpv ; yet these inflect only the Ace. Sing, like the third 
Dec., e. g. tiiSanpw, Neut. tiScucpv. The other Cases are supplied by 
-ov, Gen. -ou, according to the second Dec. 

(b) N. & T\ 


Here belong the compounds of irrixvs ; the declension is like y\vnvs, y\vKv 
( 76, II. and 77), except that the Neuter PL in -ea is contracted into -77, like 
&O-TTJ, e. g. 

X -ovs, -ov] N. o $ po^Sovs, ri ju<W8oi>, one-toothed, 

G. TOV T7JS TOV p,Ov68otTOS. 

So the remaining compounds of oSovs. For the Dec., see 54 (d). 

79. Paradigms. 

S. N. 


StVoSa and 
































fvciaiuoi'as evSaifJiova, 

like the Nominative. 

like the Nominative. 





e-as es aA7)^( e'-a)r} 

like the Nominative. 


like the Nominative. 




airdropa H-jrarop 






airdropas airdropa 

eardrop* s birdropa 



59. IvC'lll. 4. 


2 * 59, Rem. 1. 


$ 80. III. Adjectives of one Ending. 

Adjectives of one ending have no separate form for the Neu- 
ter, partly because their meaning is of such a nature that they 
generally occur in connection with persons, and partly because 
their formation admits of no separate neuter form. In poetry, 
however, these adjectives sometimes occur in those Cases in 
which the Neut form is like that of the Masc. and Fern., i. e 
in the Gen. and Dat, even in connection with neuter substan- 
tives, e. g. fjLavtaio-w Xvo-o-rjfJLarrw, Eur. Or. 264. eV Trev^rt crw/Aari, la 
El. 375. They very seldom take a separate form for the Neut, 
e. g. 71-17X7;?, cTT^A-uSa Zfhea, Her. 8, 73 ; a derivative adjective is 
commonly used, where the neuter is to be denoted. 


I. -as, Gen. -ov; & fuhfiea, Gen. parfov, single (Paroxytone). 
II. -os, Gen. -avros: 6 TJ aitdfias, Gen. -CWTOS, unwearied (Paroxytone). 
III. -as, Gen. -d5os: 6 ri tyvyds, Gen. fyvydfios, fugitive (Oxytone). 

IV. -ap, Gen. -apos : only ^ci/cap, though the Fern, form fj.dKaipa is sometimes 

V. -TJS, Gen. -ov: 6 e'&eAoz/TTjs, Gen. e'3-eAoj/ToO, voluntary. 

Some of these adjectives take, in connection with Fern, substantives, a sepa- 
rate Fern, form in -is (Gen. -i5os), e. g. evcairrjs, Fern, evwir is, fair-looking. They 
are Paroxytones, except e&eAo/T^s, CKOJ/TTJS, and 

VI. -77 s, Gen. -T/TOS: 6 77 apyfjs, Gen. ap-yfjTos, white. 

So all compounds in -dr^s, -5/x.^s, -P*Jis, -ir\-f)s, and -K^S, and some simple 
adjectives, e.g. yvfj.v-fis, naked; xepvfis* needy; TreVrjs, poor ; TrXdvrjs, wandering, 

VII. --fiy, Gen. -TJJ/OS : 6 y airr-fiy, Gen. CWTTTJI/OS, unfeathered. In like manner 
no other. 

VIII. -(&s, Gen. -WTOS: 6 rj ayvibs, Gen. ayvwros, unknown. 

So all compounds in -0pc6s, -yvds, and -xp^J* fxn( l a ls cwrAsifirm. 

IX. -ts, Gen. -tSos : 6 fj avdhitis, Gen. di/aA/ct^os, poiverless. 

These adjectives after the omission of a feminine substantive to which they 
belong, are, like those in -a?, -aSos, c. g. ^ 'EAAas (sc. 77}), used as substantives, 
C. g. 77 -jrarpis (sc. yrj), fatherland. 

X. -i/s, Gen. -i)5os : 6 q ven\vs, Gen. i/e^A.u5os, one lately come. 
In like manner only a few other compounds. 


XI. -{, Gen. -yos, -KOS, -x<>s: 6 ij fipiro|, Gen. -070*, rapacious. 
6 77 ^\i, " -IKOS, equal. 
6 r) /j.uvv, ' '^X ** one-hoofed. 

XII. -J>, Gen. -ir o s : i T) otyitafr, Gen. -nros, foV/A. 

XIII. Such as end in an unchanged substantive, e. g. &TTCUS, childless ; fMKpo- 
X'P> long-handed; aur<$xP done with one's own hand; /uwcpatac, long-lived; 
uaKpavxyv, long-necked ; \f6Kcunris, having a white shield. The declension of such 
adjectives is like that of the substantives, e. g. (Mutpavxevos. On the compounds 
of wovs, however, comp. 78, II. (b). 

81. Comparison of Adjectives. 

1. The quality expressed by an adjective may belong to 
an object in different degrees : 

(a) When the quality belongs to one object in a higher 
degree than to another, the form is called the Comparative, 
e. g. Plato was MORE LEARNED than Xenophon. 

(b) When the quality in the highest degree belongs to an 
object, the form is called the Superlative, e. g. Plato was 
the MOST LEARNED of the disciples of Socrates. 

(c) The form of the adjective which expresses its simple 
meaning without any comparison, is called the Positive, 
e. g. Plato was LEARNED. 

2. Only the adjective and adverb are susceptible of com- 
parison ; the participle does not admit it, except in a few 
rare cases, where the participle has the meaning of an 
adjective, e. g. eppcofjuevos, -ea-repos, -ecrraro?. 

3. The Greek has two classes of terminations for the 
Comparative and Superlative. The first, and much the 
most common, is -repo9, -re pa, -repov, for the Compara- 
tive, and -TO, TO 9, -Tar 77, -TCLTOV, for the Superlative; the 
second is -((,~)a)v, -(l)ov, or -wv, -oi>, for the Comparative, 
and - (i) 0-T09, - (I) o-rrj, - (t) CTTOV, for the Superlative. The 
i is the union-vowel. 

4. The first class of terminations is appended to the stem 
of the adjective by the connecting syllables o (&>), at,, 9, ^9; 
hence the general rule< In most adjectives, the usual end- 
ings are appended to the stem by means of the connecting 


REMARK. Instead of the single forms of the Comparative and Superlative, 
the Greek, like the Latin, can prefix /uaAAov (magis) and fj.d\iffra (maxime) to 
the Positive. This periphrasis is necessary in all adjectives, which, for the sake 
of euphony, have no Comparative form. 

$ 82. A. First Form of Comparison. 

Comparative, -repos, *Tp a, -repov; 
Superlative, -rare?, -Tar 77, -rarov. 

These endings are appended to the stem of the adjective ; 
the stem is found by rejecting os in the Nom. of the second 
Dec., and the same syllable in the Gen. of the third Dec. 

I. Adjectives in -os, -rj (-a), -ov. 

(a) Most adjectives of this class annex the above endings to 
the stem by means of the union -vowel o or o>; the union -vowel 
is o, when a syllable long by nature or by position ($ 27, 3), pre- 
cedes, but <o, when a short syllable precedes, <o being then 
used to prevent the concurrence of too many short syllables, 

Kov<p-os, light, Com. KOv<p-6-Tpos, Sup. /COU^-TOTOS, -77, -ov, 

lffxvp-6si strong, larxvp-6-rfpos, " i(rxOp-(f-TaTos, 

\firr-6s, thin, " \eirT-6-rcpos, " AeTiW-TaToy, 

<r<po$p-6s, vehement, " ff<pofip-6-Tpos, " a<po8p-6-TaToS) 

iriKp-6s, bitter, " TriKp-6-rfpos, " iriKp-6-raTos, 

ao(p-6s, wise, (ro<p-ca-Tepos, " trotp-da-raros, 

&i-os, worthy, " agi-ca-repos, " d|i-c6-Taros. 

REMARK 1. A mute and liquid here always make a syllable long by posi- 
tion, though the Attic poets, on account of the verse, sometimes consider such 
syllable as short, e. g. fVTfKvcararos from e^re/cpos, Eur. Hec. 579. 618. (Pors.), 
Svsirorfj.(f>Tpa, Id. Ph. 1367. 

(b) Contracts in -cos = -ovs and -005 = -ov? are contracted also 
it the forms of Comparison ; the first contract e and o> the union- 
vowel into to ; the last assume the union- syllable es and contract 
in with the preceding o, e. g. 

iropQvp-eos = tropfyvp-ovs a.Tr\-6os = air\-ovs 

vop(pvp-e<!)Tepos = irop<pvp-(i>-repo5\o-4ff-'repos = airX-ovs-repos 

iroptyvp-furaTos = iropcpvp-ta-raros aTrAo-eV-Toros = air\-ov<r-Ta.TOS. 

Here belong also contracts of two endings in -ovs and -our, e. g. etiv-oos = 
etfv-ous, Neut. t&v-oov = eijv-ovv, Com. evyo-cff-repos = fw-ovs-repos, Sup. euvo- 
fff-raros = 


KI:M. 2. Ailjectivi-s in -oos take ulso the uncontracted forms of the Compara- 
tive and Superlative in -owrepos, -ounaros, e. g. fvirvodrfpoi, X. R. Equ. 1, 10. 
s> X. 0. 10, 11. 

(c) The following adjectives in -atos: ycpatos, old; 
09, ancient; Trepatos, on the other side; o-xoAatos, at leisure, 
assume -rep 09 and -raros without a union-vowel, e. g. 

yepat-os, Com. 7epai-Tepoy, Sup. ycpal-Taros,, " va\ai-repos, ' iraAcu-Taroy. 

REM. 3. Ila\ai6s and o-xoXatoy have also the usual forms of Compari- 
son; ira\ai6'T(pos, ffxo\ai6Tcpos, so also yepaifafpos, Antiph. 4, p. 125, 6. 

(d) The following adjectives in -09: ev8io9, calm; -^ 
quiet; 18109, peculiar; 10-09, equal; /AC 0-09, middle; op$pco9, 
early ; o/ao9, foe; 7rapa7rX^o-to9, similar ; and 7rpuuo9, w& ^e 
morning, assume the union-syllable at, the Comparative and 
Superlative thus becoming like the preceding words in -0x109, 

peff-os, Com. pcff-ai-rfpos, Sup. 

Jf5i-oy, " 

REM. 4. Sometimes also the common form is found, e. g. 
Tiffvx&ra-Tos ; <j>i\a>Tfpos, <j>i\(t>Taros are the usual forms in the Attic writers. 
Here belong also the adverbial forms irpcaiairepov, irpcoiaiTcra, from irpdtos ; thus 
in Plato 5 likewise irputrfpov and irpiaiTara ; thus always, as it seems, in Thu. 
(Popp. ad 7, 19, 1), also in Xen. Anab. 3. 4, 1. vpatTepov according to the best 
MSS. (on the contrary irpwtaiTara, Cy. 8. 8, 9). The adjective <j>l\os has 
three forms: <t>i\tt>Tpos seldom (e. g. Xen. C. 3. 11, 18.), and <pi\tararosj 
seldom in prose (e. g. Xen. An. 1. 9, 29, though one good Ms. has 
), and (piXairaros seldom in prose (e.g. Xen. H. 7.3, 8.), <pi\rfpos 
poetic, and $ I \raros very frequent ; the Comparative is usually expressed by 
(jui\Xov <f>i\os. In addition to these three forms, also the Superlative <pi\i<rTos 
(as in Homer, the Comparative <f>i\iuv) is found in Attic poetry. 

REM. 5. The two adjectives, jusVoy, middle, and vtos, young, have a special 
Superlative form, /leVoroy, vearos] but this is in use only when a series 
of objects is to be made prominent, /teVoroy denoting the very middle of the 
series, and vearos the last or most remote, whereas /j.e<rcuraros expresses the 
idea of the middle in general, and vcuraros retains the primary signification 
of the adjective, young] new. In prose, v faros is used only in reference to the 
tones of music (vtaros Q&oyyos) ; and then the Feminine is contracted, J/^TTJ, 
the loioest line or string. 

(e) Two adjectives in -09: eppw/w,eVo9, strong, and 9, 
unmixed, append the union-syllable 9 to the stem, e. g. ppo>/xev- 


eV-repos, eppw/xev-ecr-TaTOS, d/cpar-ecr-repos, d/cpaT-eV-raros. So also 
cuSotos has ai8oi-e'o--TaTos in the superlative. 

HEM. 6. Further, the adjectives, &<p&oi>os, rich; <r7rou5cuos, zealous; and 
&<r/j.fvos, glad, sometimes take the above form, as d^idweVrepos, -fffraros, 
together with the common form, -carepos, -dnaros. From 'da is formed 
aer/iei'CtfTepos, and the adverbial neuter, aa^cej/afraTa and d0>iei/-e<r-TaTa. Several 
other adjectives also have this formation, yet for the most part only in poetry, 
e.g. etifapos, unmixed (of wine) ; TjSv/ios, sweet; e7r/7re5os, flat ( eTnTreSeVrepos, 
X. H. 7. 4, 13), and all contracts in -ovs ; comp. (b). The forms in -eVrepos, 
-fffTaros, belong properly to adjectives in -tjs and -<av. 

(f) The following adjectives in -os: AdAos, talkative; /u,ovo- 
<dyos, eating alone; oi^o^dyos, dainty; and TTTW^OS, ^oor, 
drop os, and append the syllable is, e. g. AdA-os, Com. AaA-icr- 
repos, Sup. XaX-tV-Taros ; TTTCO^OS has also Sup. Trrcu^oraros. 
EEM. 7. These endings properly belong to adjectives in -TJS, Gen. -ou. 

II. Adjectives in -775, Gen. -ov, and ^eu8?js, -es, Gen. -cos, drop 
-T/S, and append the syllable -is, e.g. KACTTT-^S (Gen. -ov), thievish, 
Com. KAe7rT-ib--Tepos, Sup. KXeTrr-iV-raros ; i^euS-iV-repos, ^eu8-io-- 

Exceptions. "ffipiffT-hs, -ov, insolent, has vfipurroTepos, X. An. 5. 8, 3, vf$pi(n6- 
raros, X. An. 5. 8, 22. C. 1. 2, 12. From a/cpa-Hjs (Gen. -e'os) is the Com. d/)o- 
rlffrepos, to distinguish it from aKpareffrwros, No. (e). 

III. Adjectives of the third . Declension. The Comparison- 
endings are appended to the stem of the adjectives, either 
directly or by inserting the syllable -es (also -is). 

(1) Those in -i;s, -eta, -v, ^s, -es (Gen. -eos=-ovs), -as, 

-av, and the word //.a/cap, happy, append the endings of Com- 
parison directly to the pure stem, which appears in the Neuter 
form, e. g. 

7\uKi5s, Neut. -5 yXvitv-repos 

a\T)frf}s, Neut. -es a\T)&4cr-Tepos 

jueA.cs, Neut. -a.v fj.fXa.v-r epos 

rdXas, Neut. -av raXav-repos raxdv-raros 

pdicap, fjiaicdp-Tepos p.axdp-raros. 

REM. 8. The adjectives ?jus, ra%us, and TTOXV s are compared in -iuv and 
uv. See 83, 1. 

(2) Adjectives in -wv, -ov (Gen. -oi/os), assume -es, e. g. 

fvdalfji.ow, Neut. ei/Sat/^oi/, happy. 

Com. fv^aifj.ov-far-repos, Sup. 


(3) Adjectives in - sometimes assume -es, sometimes -19, 

&J>f}Ai{, Gen. &(f>-f)\iK-os, growing old, fipiro|, Gen. fynrery-os, rapax, 
Com. &<f>rj\i/c-<r-Tepos, Com. apTray-lff-rtpos, 

Sup. <f>T7\j/c-V-TaToy, Sup. apTray-lff-raros. 

(4) Adjectives in -i?, -ev, whose stem ends in vr, append the 
Comparison-endings directly to the stem, the last T being 
changed into <r, and the preceding v being then dropped ($ 20, 2). 

Xaplfis, ~ltt>y Gen. x a P^ J ^"- y > pleasant. 

Com. xa/>ff<7-Tfpos Sup. xapUa-rceros. 

(5) The compounds of ^apts assume w, e. g. 

s, Gen. ^vixdpir-os, pleasant. 

Com. eirixapiT-u-Tfpos, Sup. lirixapiT W-TOTOS. 

in Homer, comes from axaplr-rtpos ; comp. No. (4). 

$ 83. B. Second Form of Comparison. 

Comparative. -iW, Neut. -Zov, or -<ov, Neut. -ov. 
Superlative, -to- TO 5, -l 

REMARK 1. On the quantity of t in -fi/, -wj/, see 28, 1 ; on the declension, 
78, Rem. 9; and on the accent, 65, 5 (a). 

This form of Comparison includes, 

I. Some adjectives in -v?, which drop -v? and append -twv, 
etc.; this usually applies only to ^Svs, sweet, and ra^vs, st0//fc 
(the other form of these adjectives in -vrepo?, -i/raros, is some- 
times used, but not by Attic writers). Ta^vs has in the 
Comparative ^do-crwv (Att. ^CLTTWV), Neut. 9ao-trov (^arrov). 
Comp. M 21, 3, and 17, 6. Ta^cov is found only among the 
later writers. Thus, 

7;8-vs, * Com. jit-tmr, Neut. ^J-to*', Sup. W-HTTOS, -j, -ov. 

j Att. bdrruvj Neut. dao-ow, Att. ^STTOV, Sup. r&x 

REM. 2. The other adjectives in -uy, as /Sa&us, tfeep; 0apvs, heavy ; 
5uy, S?GUJ; fipaxvs, short; y\vicvs, siceet ; Satrvs, thick; cvpvs, vride; o{uy, 
sharp; irptir&vs, old; WKUS, w(/?, have the form in -tJrepos, -uraros ( 82, 
III.) ; in Attic poetry, however, single examples of these adjectives are found 
with the other form, e. g. fipdxurros, irpfffpurros, &KUTTOS. 

II. The following adjectives hi -pos : aio-xpos, base; ex^po?, 
fiostile; /cvSpos, honorable; and oixxpo?, wretched (but always 


ot/cT/oorepos in the Comparative), the ending -po<s here also 
being dropped, e. g. awr^pos, Com. cucrx-iW, Neut. attr^-Zoj', Sup. 

BEM. 3. OftcTiO-Tos, Kvtitwv, KvSurros, are poetic. Besides this form, in -Iw, 
etc., which is preferred by the Attic writers, the above adjectives have also, 
though seldom, the other form in -(fa-epos, -Jraroy, e. g. exd-poVoTos ; but always, 
in prose, otVcTp^Taroy. 

$ 84. Anomalous Forms of Comparison. 


(0eAT?poy, Poet.) 
v> Att. 

(jSeATaroy, Poet.) 

(0epTpos, Poet.) 

, Att. 

, (pfpiffTOS, Poet.) 


(fiaxrcruv, Poet.) 


Positive. Comparative. 

1. oryadxfa, gwc?, a^fl^uv, Neut. 

2. Ko/e<k, 6od, 

3. Ko\6s, beautiful, 

4. oA/yeu/Jy, painful, 

5. paitp6s, long, 

6. (JUKp6s, small, 

7. o\lyos,few, 

8. /teyas, great, i^ifav 

9. iroAuy, much, irAcfwc, 

11. TreTTcwy, npe, 

12. iri<av,fat, 

KEMAKK 1 . The Superlative &PKTTOS (from "Apys, the god of war), and the 
Comp., have particularly the idea of bravery, boldness; fteXriwv, like the 
Latin melior, signifies 6e#er, in a moral sense, though by no means confined to 
that ; \(p(av is mostly used in such phrases as \tpov tari, it is better, and Azores 
mostly in the Voc. 5 A<S<rre. The poetic Superlative ^epttrroy is found in 
Plato, in the exclamation & (peptarre ! (9 most worthy ! The irregular forms of 
(j,ucp6s, viz. t\aff(r<av, eAax'^roy, express both the idea of smallness and fewness 
(o\lyos); but ;weW generally expresses the idea of fewness, seldom that of 
smallness; the regular forms of /j.iKp6s, viz. ^i/cpJrepoy, -OTOTOS, always retain 
their original idea of smallness, and also oAfyitrroy that of feivness, though 6) 
often signifies small. 



It I:M. 2. The use of the longer and shorter form of the Comparative 
irAcW, should be particularly noted. The neuter ir\4ov is more frequent than 
irAIoj>, especially when it is used adverbially ; irAcoi/os and ir\elovos, irAeovt 
and irAefov*, Ace. irA'o>, irAeova, and TrAeta, are used indiscriminately; PI. Nom. 
and Ace., usually TAefous, also ir\f loves and ir\ftovas (but not v\4ovs) ; ir\du 
is much more frequent than irAe'w ; trKfi6vwv and ir\eto<ri are more frequent than 
ir\t6vtoir and irAcWt. Finally, the shortened form of the Neut. Sing. TrAelx 
(formed from irXf'tov), but limited to such phrases as irAcTy ^ /wvpiot, should be 
mentioned as a special Atticism. 

Several adjectives, which express the idea of an order or 
series, have only the Comparative and Superlative forms, 
because, on account of their signification, they cannot be used 
absolutely, but only in comparison. An adverb of place is 
usually the root of these forms of Comparison, e. g. 

(from irpt), irp6rfpos (prior), irpwros ( primus }, first. 

( " tote], avarrepos (superior), O.VWTO.TOS (supremus). 

( " forcp), inreprfpos (superior), higher, inrfpraros, Poet. STTCCTOS (supremus). 

( ." forrf?), 8<rrepos (posterior), later, Harraros (postremus), last. 

( " ^{), tffxaros (extremus), outermost. 

( " irAija/oc, prope), (ir\T}ffios, Homeric), irArjo-toirepoy, or ir\rjaieffT(pos 

(proprior), nearer, irATjoWraTos, -ea-raros (proximus), nearest. 
( " Tfp6<Tw),far, TTpoffarrepos, farther, TrpovdirraTos, farthest. 

REM. 3. Other adjectives in the Comparative and Superlative, which are 
also derived from adverbs, have no Positive form of the adjective, e. g. ^pe/ia, 
quietly, ripe/j.fa'Tepos, ijpefjifffTaros ] irpotipyov, useful, irpovpyiairepos, more useful, 

KEM. 4. Comparatives and Superlatives are also formed from substantives. 
Here two cases are to be distinguished : (a) when the substantive, both in form 
and signification, is the Positive from which the Comparative and Superlative 
may be formed, i. e. when the substantive can be considered as an adjective, 
e. g. SoDAos, dave, 5ov\6repos, more slavish; (b) when the substantive, in 
respect to the signification, is not really the Positive, but only in respect to the 
form can be considered as the basis of the Comparative and Superlative, the 
proper Positive form having been lost, (comp. Kparia-ros from the Epic Kparvs, 
t\eyx ta " ros from the Epic faeyxhs. ) Numerous examples of the last kind may 
be found in poetry, particularly in Epic. See 216, Rem. 2. 

REM. 5. For the sake of greater emphasis, the Comparative and Superla- 
tive are sometimes compared, e. g. &rxTos (Superl.), ^<rxaTwrepos, Iff-xwrdrra- 
TOS ; so wpcoTio-Tos from Trpajros. This is frequent in the Comic writers, seldom 
in Homer and the Tragedians, still more seldom in prose. 


$ 85. Comparison of Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, when compared, have 
commonly no independent adverbial ending ; the Comparative 
is expressed by the Ace. Sing, neuter of the Comparative 
adjective, and the Superlative by the Ace. PI. neuter of the 
Superlative, e. g. 

(ro<pws (from crowds) Corn, <ro<p(&Tpov Sup. 

( " ffa(pr)s) croKpfffTepotf 

( " x a p' lls ) xapieffTfpov 

( ' evSaifuav) evSai/j.oveaTfpov 

^Sus) 77810*' 

KEMARK 1. The Singular of the Comparative is used, because only two 
objects are compared, and it is affirmed that one of these is better, etc. than 
the other ; but the Plural of the Superlative, because the object compared is 
the best, etc. of many others. 

REM. 2. But sometimes these adverbs also retain in the Comparative the 
adverbial ending of the Positive -us, e. g. x a ^*' jr{0r *P (a S) aA^&eCTTe'pwy, /j.ox&npo- 
Tfpusy Ka\\i6vcas, especially fj.citfvws, etc. The Neuter Singular is seldom used 
in the Superlative, and belongs mostly to poetry. 

2. All original adverbs in -w, e. g. avw, icaro), cw, ra>, etc., 
retain the ending -u> regularly in the Comparative, and almost 
uniformly in the Superlative, e. g. 

&VW, above, Com. avcarepw Sup. avwrdrta 

K<ir(a, below, Kar<aTep<a KaTcaTdra). 

In like manner, most other original adverbs have the ending 
-o) in the Comparative and Superlative, e. g. 

near, Com. d-yxorepw Sup. 

jrepd, ultra, Trepatrcpw Sup. wanting 

TTjAoD, far, ryXoTfpca 

eK<is,far t citcurTfpw 

near, tyyvrfpa tyyvrdrw and 

tyyvrepov tyyfaaTa 

Zyyiffra (rarely). 

86, 87.] THE PRONOUN*? ey</>, <rv, ov. 113 


The Pronoun. 

$ 86. Nature and Division of Pronouns. 

1. Pronouns do not, like substantives, express the idea 
of an object, but only the relation of an object to the 
speaker; i. e. they show whether the object is the speaker 
himself (the first person), or the person or thing addressed 
(the second person), or the person or thing spoken of (the 
third person), e. g. / (the teacher) give to thee (the scholar) 
it (the book). 

2. All pronouns are divided into five principal classes : 
(1) Personal, (2) Demonstrative, (3) Relative, (4) Interrog- 
ative, (5) Indefinite Pronouns. Pronouns are again di- 
vided, according to their signification and form, into (a) 
Substantive, (b) Adjective, and (c) Adverbial Pronouns, 
e. g. e*7 &> ravra liroLTjaa', (a) /, thou, he, she, it; (b) my^ thy, 
his ; (c) here, there, thus. 


A. Substantive Personal Pronouns. 

$ 87. The simple eyw, ego, o-v, tu, ov, sui. 



ty<a t I 

<rv, thou 



fj.ov (t*.ov), 3/j.ov, of me 
fioi (fwi), tpot, to me 

ffov (ffov), of thee 
ffol (ffoi), to thee 

ov (ov), of himself, etc. 
oT (of), to himself, etc. 


/ne (yue), ejue, me 

o-f (tre), thee 

e (e), himself, etc. 



vca, ive both, us 


ff(pw, you both 

o-0o>e, Acc. (Poet.), themboth 


vyv, of us both, to us 

fftyyv, of you both, 

a<f><aiv (fffyoXv}, of them l)oth, 


to you both 

to them both 



rjfj.f7s, we 

v/j.f7s, ye (v) 

ar<peTs, Neut. (npe'o (Poet.), (ffipea.) 


rjn&v, of us 

v^cav, of you (v) 

(rtyuv, of them [they 


THJLIV, to us 

vfuv, to you (v) 

<r<f>i<n(v) (<r$i<n\v\}, to them 

Ace. T^ias, us, you (v) 

<r<pas, Neut. (T^>ea (<r</>ea), them. 


114 THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS e/xavTov, oreavTov, eaurov. [$ 

REMARK 1. The forms susceptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, 
without any mark of accent. Comp. 33 (b), and 35, 3. On the accentuation 
and use of the third Pers. of the Pronoun, see 302, Rem. 3. The Vocative 
is here, as in the following pai'adigms, omitted, because, when it occurs, it is 
always like the Nominative. 

REM. 2. The Gen, Sing, of these three pronouns, in imitation of Homer, 
often has, among the Attic poets, also the forms ^e&ep, <re&ev, f&ev, these 
forms always retain their accent, except when ebev is not used as a reflexive 
(sui), but as a pronoun of the third person (ejus). Comp. 35, 3 (b). 

REM. 3. The Ace. Sing, and PL of ou has in Attic poetry also the form 
vlv (viv) signifying him, her, it, PI. them, e. g. Soph. OR. 868. 1331, instead of 
OVTOVS and avrds. See the Dialects, 217. 

REM. 4. The oblique Cases of ^ue?s and u/iels, when not emphatic, some- 
times undergo a certain inclination among the poets, being written in the fol- 
lowing manner : ^p.<av vfj.<av, fyfuv, or fifuv v/uuv ; still, this inclination 
cannot take place if a Paroxytone precedes. The shorter form of the pronoun 
of the third Pers. is used in the Dat. and Ace. PI. by the poets (also by the 
Attic writers), e. g. Dat. fftyl (or <rtylv) instead of ff<j>l<ri(v), to them, Ace. er^e 
instead of <r(f>as, them. Both forms, o-<j>i and crfyiv, though seldom, are used by 
the poets as the Dat. Sing. ; the form <r<j>e, on the contrary, is used much more 
frequently as the Ace. Sing, instead of avr6v, -f)v, -6, also as reflexive instead 
of eavr6v. 

(b) The Reflexive Pronouns, e/xavrov, a-eavrov, 
eauro v . 



f/mvrov, -TJS, of 

ffeavrov, -TJS, or 

eavrov, -TJS, or 


ffavrov, -r}s, of thyself 

avrov, -775, of himself, of herself 


fyavrcp, -fj, to 

fftavrip, fj, or 

eavrip, -fj, or [itself 


*/j.avr6v, -T]V, 

ffavrcf, 77, to thyself 
(reavr6v, --f]v, or 

avrif, -77, to himself, to herself, to 
eavrov, -fo, -6, or [itself 


ffavrov, -f)v, thyself 

avrov, -i\v, -6, himself, herself, 



fl/j.jv avrcav, of 

v/j.>v avruv, of your- 

eavrcav or avrcav, or 



ff$S>v avroav, of themselves 


J)/MV avrois, -ais, 

vfuv avrois, -cus, to 

eai/ToTs -ais, or avrois -cus, or 

to ourselves 


o-tylffiv avrois -ais, to themselves 


Tj/JLas avrovs, -ds, 

vp.a.s avrovs, -ds, 

eavrovs, -ds, -d, or avrovs, -ds, 



-d, or 

o~<(>as avrovs, -ds, o~<f)ea avrd, 



89. (c) Reciprocal Pronouns. 

To express reciprocal relation, the Greek has a special pro- 
nominal form, which is made by the coalescence of oAAoi aXXwv, 
aXAoi aAAoi?, aAAot aAAovs, into one word. From the nature of 
the relation, this word can have no Singular. * 

Plural Gen. 

a\\-fj\(i)v, of one another 
a\\"fi\ois t -dis, -ois 
aAATjAous, -as, -a 

Dual a\A^\o/, -atv, -oiv 
aAA^A.ou', -otj/, -oil/ 
lAA^Aw, -a, -a>. 

90. B. Adjective Personal Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns, having the form of adjectives, are called 
Possessive pronouns, since they express possession. They are 
formed from the Genitive of substantive personal pronouns : 

, -repet, -repov, noster, -tra, -trum, 

^uos, "fj, -6v, meus, -a, -wm, from /JLOV ; 

from TJ/J.WV ; 
ff6s, -$, -6v, tuus, -a, -urn, from <rov : u^ueVepoy, -repci, -repay, vester, -tra, -trum, 

from u/zwj' ; 
<T<perepos, -repa, -repov, suns, -a, -urn, from o-^wj/ (used in speaking of many ; 

when single persons or things are spoken of, Att. prose always uses the 

Gen. eouroD, -T}$). The Epic form, o's, ?}, &/, suus, -a, -urn, also occurs in 

the Tragedians, though seldom. 




hie haec hoc 

ipse ipsa ipsum 


6 $ r6 

ovros aiirr) rovro 

avr6s avr-fi avr6 



rovrov ravrtjs rovrov 

avrov avrys avrov 


Tip rp r$ 

rovrca ravrrj rovry 

avr<p avrfj avrif 


r6v rfy TO 

rovrov\v rovro 

avr6y avrfy avr6 



ol at rd 

ovroi avrcu ravra 

avrol avrai avrd 



rovrcw rovrtav rovrcov 

avriav avrwi/ avruv 



rovrois ravrais rovrois 

avroTs avrais auTOiS 


rovs TOLS rd 

rovrovs ravras ravra. 

avrovs auras avrd 



ru (rd) r<a 

rovra (ravra} rovrw 

avrda avrd avr<t> 

G. D. 

rolv raiv roiv 

rovroiv ravraiv rovroiv 

avrolv avratv avro'it/. 

1. The pronoun ouros is composed of the article 6, 77, r6, and the pronoun 
auro's; where the article has o, , or ot, they combine with the first syllable 
of avrds and make ov; all other vowels of the article are absorbed by the 




first syllable of euros. Hence the first syllable of euros ends in ov where the 
article has o, &>, or ot ; elsewhere in ov. The same rule holds when euros is 
compounded with an adjective pronoun, e. g. roerouros (from roffos and euro's). 
Examples : 6 euro's = ouros, T) avr-f) = eurrj, r"b euro* = rovro ; rou avrov = 
rourou, r?is avr"f]s = reurTjs, etc. ; so roffos euro's = roo"ouros, roff-rj avr-f) = roff- 
OUTTJ, roVoi/ euro" = roffovro, rdVou avrov = roffovrov, etc. 

2. Like 6, 7), r6 is declined, #8e, 7}5e, r^Se, rouSe, TTjsSe, PI. oVoV, <u'Se, reiSe ; 
Like ovros are declined, -nxrouTos, roffavri], ro<rovro(v), tantus, -a, -wm, TOIOU- 
TOS, TotavTTj, TotouTo(j/), ta^'s, -e, TTjAt/couTos, TrjAt/cauTrj, TTj\tKovro(j'), so great, 
so old; it is to be noted, that the neuter Sing., besides the form in o has 
also the common form in ov ; 

Like euro's is declined, titeivos, e/cefj/Tj, ^KelVo, he, she, it, &\\os, &\\rj, &AAO, 
alius, alia, aliud, the neuter Sing, here also ending in o. 

EEMARK 1. The neuter form in o seems to have rejected a 5, as may be 
inferred from the Latin, is, ea, id, ille, -a, -ud, alius, -a, -ud. On the Dual 
forms, TO*, TCUJ/, Toirrd, rafaaiv, see 241, Rem. 10 (b). Instead of fxeivos, the 
Ionic KeTvos is also used in Attic poetry ; this word occurs somewhat frequently 
in Attic prose, but always after a long vowel or diphthong ; hence Aphaeresis 
( 14, 5) must be assumed here, as 3) '/cei^ous, PI. Rp. 2. 370, a. 



































a roffavra roffovru 



roffovroiv roo~avraiv roffovroiv. 

REM. 2. The article usually coalesces by Crasis ( 10) with avr6s and forms 
one word, viz. euro's (instead of b euro's, idem), avr-fi, TOUTO*, usually reu- 
r6v (instead of rbavr6), reurou, but r^s eurrjs, ravrep, ravrrj (to distinguish 
it from ravry, this), but TOP avrAv, rfyv eur^j/, eurot, euref, ravrd (instead of 
re cure*, to distinguish it from reOre, haec), but ruv avruv, rots avro'is, etc. 






OS % 

o'/ at 'a 

& a & 


ov ~ns ov 

uv wv &v 

oiv dlv OLV 


V $ $ 

oTs als ols 

otv alv olv 


'ov $v o 

ovs as a 

& a &. 





The Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns are denoted 

by the same form, but are distinguished by the accent and 

ion, the Indefinite being enclitic ($ 33) and placed after 

koine word or words, the Interrogative being always accented 

and placed before. 

REMARK 1. When the interrogative pronouns stand in an indirect question, 
the relative o is placed before their stem, which, however (except in the case 
of flrris), is not inflected, e. g. 6-iroios, 6ir6<ros, 6ir6repos, etc. 

Sing. N. 

rls, some one N. rl, some thing 

ris; quis? ri ; quid? 


riv6s, or rov 

rivos, or TOV 


rivty or ry 

TtVi, or ry 


nvd N. T\ 

riva rl 

Plur. N. 

rives N. nvd and &rra 

rives riva, 








rtvds N. rtvd and arra 

rivas riva 

Dual N. A. 




and D. 




tfjTiy, whoever fyris # rt 

o'Lrives airivfs &TIVO., or arm 


ovrtvos, or orov ^srivos 

SiVTivaiv (rarely '6r<av} 


tjjnvt, or #TO> ynvi 
IrriMl fyvriva '6 rt 

oTsri<ri(v) (rarely OToi<ri[v] ) cfisrun(v} oTsriffi(v) 
ovsrivas asnvas ariva, or arra 

Dual N. A. &rive, arive, G. D. oTvrivoiv, cSvnvoiv. 

REM. 2. The form &rra not enclitic (Ion. &<r<ra) is often used instead of nvd 
in connection with adjectives, e. g. $ivk &TTCC, /j.iKpa &rra, or placed first, e. g. 
%v yap 8)7 arra rotoSe, PL Phaedon. 60, e. On the accent of wvrtvwv, olvrivoiv, 
alvrivoiv, see 34, Hem. 1. The shorter forms, orov, frnp, etc. are used by the 
dramatists almost always ; 8rou, 8ry are also used by the orators ; but OTOJI/, 
8ro<ri(v) are very rare in prose. The negative compounds of rls, viz. OTJS, 
olrr<, /x^rty, /H^TJ, no one, nothing, inflect the simple rls merely, e. g. otirivos, 
otirivfs, etc. These forms are poetic ; instead of them, prose writers use ouSei's, 
/iTjSe^'s ; only otfri and /Z^TI are used in prose with the adverbial meaning, in no 
respect, not at all, and in the phrase, otfrt ye 8^ (^n ye S-fj), let alone then, much 

Sing. N. 

& j) rb Sf'iva, some one, some thing 
rov rrjs rov Servos 

Plur. ol Selves 
rSiv $eiv<i)v 


rf rrj T< 8eTj/t 



rbv rrjv rb 5e?i/a 

TOUS Sctvas. 

REM. 3. Ae?vo is also used indeclinably, though seldom, e. g. TOV rf 




$ 94. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under Correlative Pronouns are included all those which 
express a mutual relation (correlation) to each other, so that if 
one implies a question, the other with a corresponding form 
contains the answer. 

1. This mutual relation is either a general or a definite one. The general 
correlation is expressed by rts; ri ; who? what? ris, rl, some one, some thing; 
S5e, ovros, he, this; fKslvos, that one; ovSeis, no one; 8s, who, which, etc. Here 
the forms of the correlatives do not correspond with each other, except in the 
case of ris. For example, if a question is asked by ris, the answer may be by 
vis, S5f, ovros, etc. 

2. The definite correlation has four different forms, viz. the Interrogative, 
Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Relative. This fourfold correlation belongs both 
to adjective and adverbial pronouns. All the four forms come from the same 
root, but they are distinguished, partly by a different accent, partly by a differ- ' 
ent initial : the Interrogative begin with ir, the Indefinite have the same form, ' 
though with a different accent, the Demonstrative begin <with r, and the 
Relative with the Spiritus Asper. The indirect interrogatives, as shown above, 
93, Rem. 1, place the relative 6 before the initial tr. 

3. Correlative adjective pronouns express relations of quantity and quality; 
correlative adverbial pronouns, the relations of place, time, and manner, or 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 




Relat. and De : 
pend. Interrog. 

irAffos, -77, -ov ; 
how great? how 
much ? quan- 

TTOff6s, -4], -6v, 

of a certain 
size, or number, 

roffos, -77, -ov, so great, so 
much, tantus 
TO(T<<r8e, TO(T7j5e, roff6vSe 

rOffOVTOS, -Ot$T77, -OVTo(v) 

oa~os, -77, -ov and 

O7TOCTOS, -7J, -OV, 

as great, as 
much, quantus 

Trotbs, -d. -ov ; 
of what land? 
qualis ? 

iroi6s, -d, -6v, of 
a certain kind 

raiios, -d, -ov, of such a 
kind, talis 
roidsSe, roidSe, rot6vSe 
rotovros, -avrrj, -ovro(v) 

oTos, -d, -ov and 

6TTO?OS. -d, -OV, 

of what kind, 
. qualis 

TTTjAfooy, -77, -OV ; 

how great? how 


TrjXiKos, -97, -ov, so great, so 
T-n\iK6sSe, ~jSe, -oVSe [old 


TJ\IKOS, -77, -ov and 
6irrj\iKos, -77, -oj/, 
as great, as old. 

REMARK 1. The simple forms r6<ros and TO?OS are seldom used in Attic 
prose ; T off as and roios are found in the phrase, rows % rotos, PL Phaedr. 271, 

d, and elsewhere ; rocros /cat rocros (PI. ib.) ; e/c r6<rov (so long time since), PI. 
Leg. 642, at end ; T&TQ* with a Comparative, corresponding to the relative &ra>, 

e. g. Th. 8, 24. X. Cy. 1. 6, 26. Vect. 4, 32. 



(1>) Adverbial Correlatives. 

1 Interrogative. 





liroD; where? 
\ ubi '. 
||y<&y; whence? 
un.le '. 
F[ *<>?, u-hither? 
I quo? 

TTOV, somewhere, 
iro&eV, from some 
place, alicunde 
irof, to some place, 

wanting (hie, 
wanting (hinc, 
wanting (eo) 

o5, where, 
o&fv, whence, 
of, whither, 

OTTOU, where. 



[1 in$T6 ; tchen 1 
quando ? 

1 inivlKa. ; quo 
temporis punc- 
to? quota ho- 
1 n't < 

iroT, some time, 


Tore, then, turn 

ryvi- ] hoc 
ic68e 1 ipso 
Tt\vi- \ tcm- 
Kavra J pore 

ore, when. 

TjviKa, when. 
quo ipso 



when, quo 
ipso tern- 

1 1 TttS ; AOU.' ? 

1 10} ; whither ? 
\ how? 

iT(t>s, some how 
irf), to some place, 
thither, in some way 

OUTO>($) O>5, SO 

TTjSe ( hither, 
Tavry \ or here 

us, how 
77, where, 

OTTOJS, how 
OTTTTJ. where, 

REM. 2. The forms to express the idea of here, there (hie, ibi), wanting in 
the Common language, are supplied by fvrav&a, &/&a5e, and the idea of hence, 
thence (hinc, inde), by ly&cVSc, trrevbev; fv&a and frbev in the old and poetic 
Ian linage have both a demonstrative and relative sense, but in prose only a 
relative sense, except in certain phrases, e. g. Zv&a /j.(v frSa 5e, hie, illic, 
y Kal fvbtv, hinc, illinc, and when the signification of place is changed to 
that of time, e. g. cv&o \eyfi, then he says, fr&ev, thereupon. The forms TCS, thus, 

;, hither, here, are poetic ; &s (instead of ovrcas), is also for the most part 
poetic ; in prose, it is confined almost wholly to certain phrases, e.g. /col &s, vel 
sic. ouy (/X7j5') 5$, ne sic quidem, and in comparisons, us &s, ut sic, PL Rp. 
7. 530, d. Prot. 326, d. ; also &s olv, so then, Th. 3, 37. 

$ 95. Lengthening of the Pronoun. 

Some small words are so appended to the pronouns, for the purpose of giving 
a particular turn to their signification, that they coalesce and form one word. 
They are the following : 

(a) The enclitic 7* is joined to the Personal pronouns of the first and second 
person, in order to make the person emphatic, by putting him in contrast with 
others, e. g. eyorye, I for my part. The pronoun e'-yw then draws back its accent 
in the Nom. and Dat. e.g. *yu 76, fytoirye, epoiyf, f/J.(yc, crirye. As ye can be 
joined with any other word, so also with any other pronoun, but it does not 
form one word with the pronoun, e. g. oln6s 76. 

(b) The particles 8Vj (most commonly S^TTOTC), and o3i>, are appended to 
relatives compounded of interrogative* "or indefinites, as well as to 8<ros, in 
onli-r to make the meaning general or indefinite, i. e. to extend it to everything 
embraced in the object denoted by the pronoun, e. g. 6sris5-f), dsristi-fiTroTf', 6sris- 
STITTOTOVV, 6srisovv, finsovv, fniovv, whoever it be, I know not wlio, nescio quis, qui- 
cunque (Gen. oinivosovv or &TOVOVV, TJSTWOSOVV, Dat. univiovv or brcaovv, etc.) ; 
iTrocrosS^, faoaosovv, t>iros$TiiroT(. quantuscunque ; 6in]\iKosovy, hoiccver great, 

v how old sofvcr : so also wsTrepouv [comp. (d)]. 


(c) The suffix 5e is joined with some demonstratives for the purpose of 
strengthening their demonstrative relation, e. g. oSe, ^8e, r6Se ; rot6sSe ; To<r6s- 
Se ; TTjA.i/co'sSe, from TOIOS, roffos, TTJ\{KOS, which change their accent after 5e is 
appended ( 34, Rem. 3). 

(d) The enclitic irep is appended to all relatives, in order to strengthen the 
reference to a demonstrative, and thus .to connect the relative more closely with 
its antecedent ; hence it denotes, even who, ivhich, the very man, who, etc. e. g. 
osTTep, 7}irep, oirep (Gen. ovTrep, etc.) ; oVosrrep, o16sirfp (Gen. oVouTrep, o'iovirep, etc.) ; 
odwep, o&tvirep. 

(e) The inseparable demonstrative t, is appended to demonstratives and some 
few adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative sense. It takes the 
acute accent (which yet, according to 31, I., is changed into the grave in con- 
nected discourse) and absorbs every short vowel immediately preceding it, and 
also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs : 

ovrofft, this here (hicce, celui-ci), avrrjt, TOUT/, 

Gen. rovrovi, TavTijfft, Dat. TovripT, ravrfji, PI. ovrotf, avraii, ravrt] 

68t, i)8i, ToSr from S8e ; wSf from oiSc ; obrwai from ovrus ; 

; vwi from vvv ; Sevpi from Sevpo. 

The Numerals. 

$ 96. Nature and Division of Numerals. 

1. Numerals express the relation of number and quantity. 
They are divided into the following classes, according to their 
signification : 

(a) Cardinals, which express a definite number absolutely, 
and answer the question, how many ? e. g. one, two, three. The 
first four Numerals and the round numbers from 200 (Sia/coVtot) 
to 10,000 (/xvpioi) and their compounds, are declined; but all the 
others are indeclinable. The thousands are expressed by 
adverbial Numerals, e. g. r/ws^tXiot, 3000. 

(b) Ordinals, which denote a series, and answer the question, 
which one in the series? All have the three endings of adjec- 
tives, -09, -17, -ov, except Scvrepos, which has -05, -a, -ov. All up 
to 19, except 2, 7, 8, end in -TO? and have the accent as near 
as possible to the beginning of the word. From 20 upwards 
they end in -O-TO?. 

REMARK 1. Adverbial Ordinals, which also denote a series, are expressed by 
the Neut. Sing, or PL, with or without the article, but sometimes also with the 
adverbial ending -ws, e. g. irp&rov, rb irptirov, irpura, TO. irpSyra, 


(c) Numeral adverbs, which express how often, or hoiv many 
times anything has happened, and which answer the question, 
how many times ? They are formed, except the first three, from 
the ordinals with the ending -axis, e. g. irevro.^, Jive times 
(* 98). 

(d) Multiples, which show the number of parts of which 
a whole is composed, and answer the question, how many fold ? 
All are compounded of TrAovs, and are adjectives of three end- 
ings, -os, -77, -ovv ($$ 76, I, and 77). 

aTTAovs, -f?, -ovv, single; Siir\ovs (2), rptirXovs (3), rcrpair\ovs (4), irevrairXovs 
(5), QairXovs (6), eTrraTrAoOs (7), o/cTcwrAous (8), ei/vairhovs (9), SewoTrAoDs (10), 
encnovTairXovs (100), xiXunrXoifc (1000), p.vpiair\ovs (10,000). 

REM. 2. The adverbial Multiples in answer to the question, how many 
fold ? or into how many parts ? are formed from the Cardinals with the ending 
-X or -^r) and -x^s> e - g irevraxo.) irei/ra^f), TrevTaxeDy. 

(e) Proportionals, wlu'ch denote & proportion, and answer the 
question, /tow many times more ? All are compounded with the 
endings -7rA#o-io9, -id, -iov (more seldom -7rAao-tW, -ov, e. g. CKCXTOV- 
Ta7rXao"t(ov, -ov) I 

StTrAcunos, twice as much (as another which is taken as an unit), rpnr\darios 
(3), TTpcnr\d<rios (4), jrei/TOTrAao'tos (5), c^aTrAcxertos (6), firTair\d(rios (7), o/cra- 
irAatrios (8), frvairXaffios (9), Se/cairAaa'tos' (10), Karoi/rair\dffios (100), ^i\io- 
K\dffios (1000), ftvpioirXda-ios (10,000). 

(f ) Substantive Numerals, which express the abstract idea 
of number. Except the first, all are formed from the Cardinals 
with the ending -as, Gen. -aSos : 

j) fj.ovds (from /j.6vos, only], more seldom 77 Ivay, unity ; 5vas, duality^ rpids (3). 
Tcrpds (4), irevrds or irefj-Trrds (5), eas (6), f&$0[j.ds (7), 0780(11 (8), ^j/ecfc (9). 
Sewos (10), finds (20), rptdnds (30), rerrapaKorrds (40), Trfim\Koma.s (50), eo- 
TOJ/TOS (100), xt*"k (1000), /iupi(s (10,000), Suo pvpidSes (20,000). 

REM. 3. In addition to the Numerals mentioned above, there is still another 
class, which does not, like those, express a definite number, but either an 
indefinite number or an indefinite quantity, e. g. ei/toi, some ; inures, all ; iroA- 
Ao, many ( 77); 6\iyoi, few; 6\iyov, oAfyo, a little; ovSeis, no one; ou5eV, 
nothing, etc. 

2. Numerals, like pronouns, are divided, according to theii 
signification and form, into Substantive, Adjective, and Adver- 
bial Numerals, e. g. r/oets ^A$ov ; 6 T/H'TO$ 




[$$ 97, 98. 

97. Numeral Signs. 

1. The Numeral Signs are the twenty-four letters of the Greek alphabet, to 
which three obsolete letters are added, viz. after 6, BoS, or the Digamma f\ or 
2r?, r ; the last character is taken from the figure r, which is a mutilated form 
of the Digamma, but which has only an accidental resemblance to the abbre- 
viation of ff ($) and T ( 1, Kem. 2) ; KoWa, 5, as the sign for 90 ; SOJUTT?, 
^ , as the sign for 900. 

2. The first eight letters, i. e. from o to & with the BoD or 2r?, denote the 
units ; the following eight, i. e. from i to * with the KoWo, the tens ; the last 
eight, i. e. from p to w with the So/wr?, the hundreds. 

3. Up to 999, the letters as numeral signs, are distinguished by a mark 
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral 
signs, only the last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but 
the letters are distinguished by a mark placed under them, thus, a' = 1, ,o = 
1000, t' = 10, / = 10,000, f^ntf = 5742, ,ao>/t/3' = 1842, p f = 100, ,p = 

98. Principal Classes of Numerals. 




efs, via, tv 

vpwros, -r}, -ov, primus, -a, -um 



Sfvrepos, -a, -ov 


rpflsy rpta 

rplros, -rj, -ov 


TfTTapes, -a, or Teovapes, -a 

rerapros, -17, -ov 



Tre^iTTToy, -j, -ov 



6/CTOS, -77, -OV 



e'jSSonos, -77, -ov 



oySoos, -rj, -ov 



VOTOS, -7, -OV 

10 i' 


Se/coros, -77, -ov 


; j/8eKa 

fj/SfKaros, -77, -ov 

12 iff 


SwSeKaTos, -77, -ov 

13 iy' 

rpe?s (rpfa) Kal Se/ca 1 

rpiros, -77, -ov /col Se/coros, -77- -ov 3 


T6Trapes(a) /cal Sc/ca* 

rfrapros, -77, -ov /cal Se/faros, -77, -ov 

15 ie' 


JTe/JLTTTOS, -77, -OV Kttt SfKaTOS, -1}, -OV 

16 is- 7 


CKTOS, -77, -ov /cal Se/caros, -77, -ov 

17 if 


&$OfJ.OS, -77, -OV Kai 86/fOTOS, -77, -0V 

18 IT?' 


#78005, -77, -ov Kal Se'/caros, -77, -ov 

19 i&' 


evaros, -77, -ov ical Se/caros, -77, -ov 

20 K' 


6t/COO-TOS, -7J, -Jv 

1 The rare Attic form rpisKaiSfita is indeclinable. 
* The non- Attic form reffffapaicalSfKa, is indeclinable. 
3 The forms given from the 13th to the 19th are preferable to 



21 Kaf 

30 A.' 

40 p! 

50 i/ 

60 ' 

70 o' 

80 V 

90 5' 

100 p' 

200 </ 

300 T' 

400 i/ 

500 <p' 

600 x' 

700 f 

800 ' 

900 ^' 

1000 a, 

2000 ,0 

3000 /y 

4000 ,8 

5000 , 

6000 ,s- 

7000 X C 

8000 ,77 

9000 fr 

10,000 ,t 

20,000 /c 

100.000 ,p 

1,000,000 4/ p 

2,000,000 KJ> 

1 fiiro|, once 

3 rpls 

4 rerpa/cty 




10 Sex a/cis 

ffKoo'iv els, /i^ 






-at, -a 
, -at, -a 
at, -at, -a 
-at, -a 
-at, -a 
eTrraKdatot, -at, -a 
o/frd/cdo-tot, -at, -a 

Sisxi\ioi, -at, -a 
Tpt$x*'A-'0' -at, -a 

TTpOKlSX^ iol i ~ CU > " a 

t, -at, -a 

-at, -a 
[, -at, -a 

i, -at, -a 
SfKOKiSfivptoi, -at, -a 
eKOTOj/TOKts/tuptot, -at, -a 
Sta/coo'iaKtSjU.upiOi, -at, -a 


TCTTOpCUCOO'Tjs, -7J, -< 
irfVTT)KOO'T6s, -4\) -6v 

e^a/coo'To's, -T^, -ov 

TptdffOO-tOO-T^S, -7^, -0V 

Terpa/coo-too-To's, -/;, -o*! 

f'vva.Koo'ioo'Tds, -Vj, 

, -^j, -o'v 
, -17, -0V 

, \ -6v 

SeKaJdSfj.vpioo'ToSj -4\, -ov 

r, -7^, -oV 

12 owoW/ct; 

Numeral Adverbs 

21 fiKOffaKis oiro| 

22 fiKoa-aKis Sis 


80 07807; Kovrei/cty 
90 ^vfVT]KOvra.Kts 

100 fKa.TOVTd.KlS 

200 SiaKOffiaKis 
300 Tpia.KOffia.Kis 

10,000 /iuptdVcts 


$ 99. Remarks. 

1. The rarer subordinate forms of 13, 14, etc., used by later writers, are 
SeKarpeis, Neut. SfKarpia, SeKar^rTopes, -a, Se/coWj/Te, etc. 

2. Mupwt, 10,000, when Paroxytone (pvpioi), signifies innumerable. 

3. In compound numerals, the smaller number either precedes the larger, 
and then always with ical, or it follows the larger, usually with KOI, sometimes 
without it. The first order corresponds with the usage in English, e. g. Jive 
and twenty ; the second only in part, e. g. twenty-five, e. g. 

25 : TTfvrf /col jf/co<ri(j/), or fficoffi Kal Trej'Te, 
345 : ireVre /cat rerrapaKOvra /coi rpiax6ffioi, or rpiaK. TCTT. /col TT. 

The same holds of the Ordinals, e. g. 

jr4 DITTOS /col et/co(7T<fo, or eiKOffrbs teat TTf/JLinos. 

4. The tens compounded with 8 or 9 are frequently expressed in the form of 
subtraction, by means of the participle of SelV, to want, which agrees with the 
larger number, e. g. 

49 : TrVTT}Kovra. vbs Secure errj 1 , undequinquaginta anni, 
48 : irevT-f)Kovra Svoiv Seoj/ro err?, duodeguinquayinta anni, 
39 : vTJfs fjiias Sfovtrcu rfrrapaKovra, undequadraginta naves. 

So with the Ordinals, e. g. 

49 : evbs Sewi/ ircvnrjKOffT'bs avrip, undequinquagesimus vir. 

5. Fractions are usually expressed by pepos or funpa. These words, as 
denominators of the fraction, are put in the Gen., depending on the numeral 
which denotes the numerator. If they are expressed as denominators, they are 
understood with the numeral denoting the numerator ; if they are expressed 
as numerators, they are understood with the numeral denoting the denominator, 
e. g. -f is TWV ireVre ^epcov TO Suo [pepi)], O r TO?V ireVre [juepwy] ri Suo ftepr], two 
parts of the Jive; f is riav OKT& fjiotpcov at Wre [/ioTjpot], or r>v oKTtb \jj.oipu>v\ at 
St5o fj.otpat. But one half is expressed by compounds with ^ut, e. g. 7]fj.iSapeiK6v, 
half a daric ; so in the PL rpia, TreVre tymSapet/co, a daric and a half, two darics 
and a half. Fractions are also expressed by an ordinal with fj.6piov or pepos, 
e. g. rpiTi)/j.6pioi/ or Tpirov (j.epos = J, TTf/jLirrov fifpos = % j a mixed number is 
also expressed by ripi preceded by a numeral, e. g. ireVrc ^iSapei/co = 2^ darics, 
also by &r prefixed to an ordinal, e. g. firlTpirov = 1 J, eTr'nrenirTov = !-. 

6. The Cardinal numbers compounded with ovv are equivalent to the Latin 
distributives, e. g. <rvv5vo (bini), two toe/ether, two at a time, each two, ffvvrptis 
(terni), o-u/iTrej/re (quini), etc. 

1 Fifty years, wanting one. 


7. Declension of the first four Numerals : 

Nom. (Ts 
Gen. kv6s 
Dat. M 
Ace. tva. 

p-'ia. (V 
fjiias tv6s 

/J.IO. fvl \v 

Svoiv (very seldom 8ue?j/) 
5yo?j/ (9m[r1 Ionic and Th. 8, 101.) 

Nom. Tpels 
Gen. rpiuv 
Dat. i-pio^y) 
Ace. rpfts 

Neut. rpia 
Neut. rpla 

Terrapes, or TfffaapfS Neut. Ttrrapa 
TfTTapas Neut. rerrapa 

REMARK. Like els are also declined ovSfis and /wjSefe, no one ; like tls too 
they have the irregular accent, e. g. ouScts, ouSe/tt'o, ouScV, Gen. ov$v6s, ovSf- 
fjufis, Dat. ouSei'f, ouSe^iot, etc. ; but in the PL ovtifves (yuTjScVes), -eVwv, -Vt(v^, 
-eVay. Comp. further, 65, 3 (c). The form 8v<a, instead of Suo, seems to be 
foreign to the Attic dialect. Auo is often used as indeclinable in all the Cases. 
, both, is declined like 8uo, Gen. and Dat. a^oiv, Ace. &fjupw. 

The Adverb 

100. Nature and division of the Adverb. 

Adverbs (38 and 314) are indeclinable words, denoting 
the relations of place, time, manner, modality, intensity, and 
repetition. They are formed either from essential words 
( 38, 3), viz. Substantives, Adjectives, Participles, or from 
formal words, viz. Pronouns and Numerals, or they are 
primitive words, e. g. ou, /JLTJ, /cat, ^v, fj, av, etc. 

(a) Adverbs of place, e. g. ovpav6&ev, coelitus, irarraxn, ubivis; 

(b) Adverbs of time, e. g. vvicrwp, noctu, vvv, nunc; 

(c) Adverbs of manner, e. g. /coAcDs, OVTU(S) ; 

(d) Adverbs of modality, which, e. g. val and OU(K). express an affirmation and 
negation, or e. g. fj.-f)v, rot, i?, ^ fj.-f)v, 5^, Iffcos, irov, &v, irdrrus, etc. which 
express certainty, definiteness, uncertainty, conditionally ; 

(e) Adverbs of intensity and frequency, e. g. p.d\a, iravv, iroAy, 8<rov, etc. rpls t 
three times ; ctudts, again ; TroAAci/cts, often. 



$ 101. Formation of Adverbs. 

1. Most Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the ending 
-CDS. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the adjective ; 
hence, as the stem of adjectives of the third Dec. appears in the 
Gen., and as adjectives in the Gen. PL are accented like 
adverbs, the following rule for the formation of adverbs from 
adjectives may be given : 

Change -<ov, the ending of the adjective in the Gen. PL, into -o>s, 

<t>l\-os, lovely, Gen. PI. <pl\-uv Adv. <pi\-us 

Ka\~6s,fair, " KO\-UV KO,\->S 

Kalpi-oSy timely, " Kaipl-wv Kcupi-us 

a.Tr\(6-os)ovs, simple, " air\(6-(av)S>v air\(6-a>s)us 

ftfv(o-os)ovs, benevolent, " (evvt-wv) etivwv (evv6-ws) eiWs 

iroy, all, ircunds, " iravr-wv TT&VT-WS 

ffcatppwv, prudent, u ffaxppov-tav ff<a$>p6v-us 

Xaplfts, pleasant, ^api4vr-oav xjapttin-ws 

T<*x<5s, swift, " raxf-uy raxe-us 

fJLeyas, great, fj.eyd\-uv fj.fyd\-(os 

&\i}Mls, true, o\rj^(e-6>v)wy a\-n&(f-ws)S>s 

<rvrf}&i]s, accustomed, " (ffvvy&e-wv) ffvvii^rwv (<rwr]&f-(os) crvrf)&as. 

REMARK 1. On the accent of compounds in -faus, and of the compound 
avrdpKws, see 59, Rem. 4, also on the accent of eft/eos, instead of evvtis, 49, 
3. On the comparison of Adverbs, see 85. 

2. In addition to the adverbs with the ending -o>s, there are 
many which have the endings of the Gen., Dat, or Ace. 

(a) The Gen. ending appears in many adverbs in -?)<; and -ov, 
e. g. ffjs, $e}s, in order; e&Trivrjs, suddenly; TTOV, alicubi; TTOV, 
ubi ? OTTOV, ov, ubi ; avrov, ibi ; ovSa/xoO, nowhere. 

(b) The Dat., or an obsolete Abl. or Locative 1 ending, occurs 
in the following adverbs, 

(a) In adverbs with the ending -T, e. g. %pi, in the morning, comp. %p, spring , 
awpf, unseasonably ; e'/cTjTi (Dor. eWrt), oe/cTyrt, kKovri, afKovrt; in adverbs 
of manner in -eland -f, from adjectives in -QS and -TJS, and almost exclu- 
sively in adverbs compounded of a privatrve and iras or avr6s, e. g. and travoppt. On the use of both forms, see Large Grammar, 
Part I, 363 (j8). 

1 The Locative Case, is one which denotes the place where. 

$ 102.] CLASSES OF THE VERB. 127 

(0) In local adverbs in -o?, commonly derived from substantives of the sec- 
ond Dec., e. g. 'Ic-fyiot from 'lo&jtufe, Uv^o'i from Tlv&d, Mtyapoi (rit 
Mcyapa), Tlftpaio?, KIKVVI/O'I from rj Kwi/a), of, 'owoi, quo, whither, ofaot, 
do mi. tVom olnos. 

REM. 2. Adverbs in -o? t derived from substantives, denote an indefinite 
where, but those derived from pronouns commonly denote the direction whither, 
yet sometimes the indefinite where. 

(7) In local adverbs in -at. This ending occurs only in a few forms, e. g. 
Xa/juil, humi, To this form corresponds the PL locative form 
-7J0-J (/), or where i precedes, -aaiv, derived from substantives of the first 
Dec. ; this ending originally belonged to plural substantives only, but 
was transferred later to substantives in the singular number, e. g, TjjSij- 
<TI(V) from QTjfiai, "" Kfri]vi}(n(v) from 'A&rjvat, nAarauurtfj/) from nAaraiai: 
Tlcpya<Tr)ai(v) from Tlepyaff-r], 'O\v/j.irid<ri(v) from 'Okv/jLirla. 

(8) In adverbs in -TJ and -d, e. g. &\\r], creprj, TTC^T}, on foot ; /c/>u<r}, \dbpd, 
irj, temere ; ouSajU-^, $rj/j.oa-ia, publice ; KOLVTI, in common ; I5ia, privatim ; 
Ko/j.i5rj, diligenter ; also TTT), OTTTJ, iravrij, f^, rr}, r^5e, ravrtj, etc. ; ?j and a com- 
monly have an Iota subscript. 

(c) The Acc. ending occurs in the following forms, 

(a) In the endings -77 v and -ax, e. g. irpur)!/, /tcucpaV, far ; tftpav and 

trans (but rtpa, ultra), etc.; so also of substantives, e. g. St/ojj/, instar; 

a.Kfj.'fjv (acme), scarcely ; 5oy>eetj/, gratis. 

()3) In the ending -ov, e. g. 8r)p6v, diu; <rr\p.epov, hodie ; atipiov, to-morrow. 
(y) In the endings -8oj/, -ST/J/, -8 a (adverbs of manner), e. g. aurocrxeS^, 

commits ; -)(a.v^6v, iTnroTpo-%ai]v, airoaTaSd. 
(8) In some substantive forms in the Acc. of the third Dec., e. g. x&P lv i for 

the sake, of; 7r/>o?/ca, gratuitously. 

The Verb. 

$ 102. Classes of the Verb. 

1. The Verb expresses an action or state, which is af- 
firmed of a subject, e. g. the father writes, the rose blooms, 
the boy sleeps, God is loved. 

2. Verbs are divided into the following classes : 

(1) Active verbs, which express an action, that the sub- 
ject itself performs or manifests, e. g. ypd(f>w, to write ; 
^d\\(o, to bloom (comp. 248) ; 

(2) Middle or Reflexive verbs, which express an action 
that the subject performs on itself, the subject being, 

128 VERBS. - TENSES. [$ 103. 

therefore, both agent and object, e. g. 
advise myself, I deliberate ; 

(3) Passive verbs, which express an action that the sub- 
ject receives from another object, e. g. Tinrro^ai, VTTO 
TWOS, I am smitten by some one. 

3. Verbs, which are used only in the middle form, are 
called Deponent. They have either a reflexive or intransi- 
tive meaning. They are divided into Middle Deponents, 
which have a middle form for their Aorist and Future, e. g. 
^api^ofiai, gratificor, Aor. e^apLcrd^v, Fut. ^apiov^ai, ; and 
into Passive Deponents, which have a Passive form for 
then* Aorist, but commonly a middle form for their Fut., 
e. g. ev&vjAeo^cu, mecum reputo, Aor. eVe^u/xTJ^v, mecum 
reputavi, Fut. eifevjjujaofjiat,, mecum reputabo. Comp. 197. 

$ 103. The Tenses. 

1. The Tenses denote the time of the action of the verb. 
The Greek has the following Tenses : 

I. (1) Present, /3ov\eva), I advise, 

(2) Perfect, fie/BovXev/ca, I have advised ; 
II. (3) Imperfect, e/3ov\evov, I was advising, 

(4) Pluperfect, e(Be[Bov\evKeiv, I had advised, 

(5) Aorist, e/3ov\evcra, I advised (indefinite) ; 
III. (6) Future, fiov\evcra), I shall or will advise, 

(7) Future Perfect (almost exclusively in the mid- 
dle form), fiefiovXeva-ofuu, I shall have advised my- 
self, or I shall have been advised. 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses : Present, Perfect, and Future ; 

b. Historical tenses : Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Aorist. 

REMARK. The Greek has two forms for the Perf. and Pluperf. Act., two for 
the simple Put. Pass., and two each for the Act., Pass., and Mid. Aorist ; these 
two forms may be distinguished as Primary and Secondary tenses ; i. e. the 
first Perfect is a primary tense, the second Perfect a secondary tense, etc. 
Still, only a very few verbs have both forms ; most verbs construct the above 
tenses with one or the other form, but not Avith both. No verb has all the 


tenses. Pure verbs ( 108, 5) form, with very few exceptions, only the primary 
tenses. Mute and liquid verbs ($ 108, 5) may form both the primary and 
secondary tenses, but no verb has all the forms in use. The Fut. Perf, which 
is found in but few verbs, is entirely wanting in liquid verbs. It is seldom 
found in verbs which have the temporal augment ( 121), e. g. a/pew, to take, 
i, PL Prot. 338, c., ctTj/tacw, to dishonor, ^Ti^trojitat, Dem. 19, 284. 

$ 104. The Modes. 

The Modes denote the manner in which the action of 
the verb is represented, whether as a direct affirmation, a 
condition, or a command, etc. (comp. 258, seq.) The 
Greek has the following Modes : 

I. The Indicative, which makes a direct affirmation, e. g. 
the rose blooms, bloomed, will bloom. 

II. The Subjunctive, which expresses what is merely 
conceived, or conditional. The Subjunctive of the his- 
torical tenses is called the Optative. Comp. ypd^oi/jLt with 

REMARK. See 257, 2 (a), (b), and Rem. 1, for the manner in which the 
Aorist may use both forms of the Subj., and how the Future may have an 

III. The Imperative, which expresses a command, e. g. 
fiov\eve, advise. 

105. Participials (Infinitive and Participle). 

Besides the modes, the verb has two forms, which, as 
they partake both of the nature of the verb and also of 
the nature of the substantive and adjective, are called 
Participials : 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive participial, 
e. g. e'^eXoj fiov\eveiv, I wish to advise, and TO fSov\eveiv, 
the advising. 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective participial, e. g. 
{3ov\vcov avrjp, a counsellor. 

REMARK. These two participials maybe called verbum infinitum; the re- 
maining forms of the verb, verbum Jinitum. 


$ 106. The Persons and Numbers. 

The personal forms of the verb show whether the sub- 
ject of the verb be the speaker himself (/, we, first person) ; 
or a person or thing addressed (thou, you, second person) ; or 
a person or thing spoken of (he, she, it, third person). They 
also show the relation of number: Singular, Dual, and 
Plural (comp. 41, 1), e. g. /3ouXeu&>, /, the speaker, advise; 
ySouXeut9, thou, the person addressed, advisest; J3ov\evei,, he, 
she, it, the person or thing spoken of, advises ; fiovXeverov, 
ye two, the persons addressed, advise ; fiovXevovcn, they, the 
persons spoken of, advise. 

REMARK 1. The student will at once observe that the ending, or personal 
forms of the Greek verb, determines the person and number without the subject 
being expressed. So in Latin. But in English, as the verb is not varied so 
as to indicate the person and number of itself, the subject must be expressed. 

HEM. 2. There is no separate form for the first Pers. Dual throughout the 
Act., and none for the Pass. Aorists ; in these instances it is expressed by the 
form of the first Pers. PL 

$ 107. Conjugation. 

Conjugation is the inflection of the verb in its Persons, 
Numbers, Modes, Tenses, and Voices. The Greek has 
two forms of conjugation, that in -G>, which includes much 
the larger number of verbs, e. g. ySovXeu-eo, and the older, 
original conjugation in -ju, e. g. laTrj-jjut,, to station. 


$ 108. Stem, Augment, and Reduplication. Char- 

1. Every verb is divided into the stem, which contains the 
ground-form of the verb, and into the syllables of formation, by 
which the relations of person, number, tense, etc. are denoted. 
The stem is found in most verbs in -<o by cutting off the ending 
of the first Pers. Ind. Pres., e. g. /JouAev-w, Aey-w, rpt/3-o). 


2. The syllables of formation are either annexed as endings 
to the stem, and are then called inflection-endings, e. g. /3ovAcv-a>, 
fiovXev-o-o), /JovXcu'-cro/iat, or are prefixed to the stem, and are 
then called Augment and Reduplication, e. g. e-ftovXevov, I was 
advising ; fa-ftovXevKa, I have advised. For a change in the stem 
of many verbs, e. g. T/oeV-w, T-Ty>o</>-a, 1-Tpa.Tr-rjv, see $ 140. 

3. The Augment is e prefixed to the stem of verbs which 
begin with a consonant, e. g. -/3ovAv<ra, I advised; but in 
verbs which begin with a vowel, it consists in lengthening the 
first stem-vowel, a and c into rj (and in some cases into a), t and 
v into I and v, and o into co. The Augment implies past time, 
and hence belongs to all tha historical tenses (Imperfect, 
Aorist, and Pluperfect) ; but it is confined to the Indicative. 

4. Reduplication consists in repeating the first stem-conso- 
nant with e, when the stem begins with a consonant ; but when 
the stem begins with a vowel, the Reduplication is the same as 
the augment, e. g. /?-/3ovAeu/ca, I have advised; "ZKerevKa, / have 
supplicated, from "IKCTCV-W. The Reduplication denotes the com- 
pletion of the action, and hence belongs to the Perfect, Pluper- 
fect, and Future Perfect. For a fuller view of the Augment 
and Reduplication, see 119, sq. 

5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending -o> is cut off, 
is called the verb-characteristic, or merely the characteristic, 
because, according to this, verbs in -o> are divided into different 
classes ; according as the characteristic is a vowel, a mute, or 
a liquid, verbs are divided into pure, mute, and liquid verbs, e. g. 
/3ovA.ev'-a), rt/xa-w (pure verbs), Tptfi-<i> (mute), <aiV-to (liquid). 

$ 109. Inflection- endings. 

In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation 
of tense, mode, and person, there are three different elements : 
the tense-characteristic, the mode-vowel, and the personal- 
ending, e. g. J3ov\ev-cr-o-ij,cu. 

110. (a) Tense-characteristic and Tense-endings. 

1. The tense -characteristic is that consonant which stands 
next after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark 


of the tense. In pure verbs, K is the tense -characteristic of the 
Perf. and Plup. Ind. Act., e. g. 

the characteristic of the Fut. and first Aor. Act. and Mid., and 
the Fut. Perf. is cr, e. g. 

the characteristic of the first Aor. Pass, is #; the first Fut. 
Pass, has, besides the tense-characteristic o-, the ending of the 
first Aor. Pass. -.% thus, 

The primary tenses only ($ 103, Hem.) have a tense-charac- 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending follow- 
ing, is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form fiov- 
Aevo-w, o- is the tense-characteristic of the Fut., and the syllable 
<ro> is the tense-ending of the Fut. The stem of the verb, 
together with the tense-characteristic and the augment or 
reduplication, is called the tense-stem. Thus, e. g. in cfiov- 
Aeuo--a, ej3ov\ev<r is the tense-stem of the first Aor. Act. 

111. (b) Personal-endings and Mode-vowels. 

The personal-ending denotes the person of the verb, and 
takes a different form according to the different persons and 
numbers; the mode-vowel connects the tense-stem and the 
personal-ending, and takes a different form according to the 
different modes, e. g. 

1 Pers. Sing. Ind. Pres. M. /3ou\eu-o-^at Subj. ovAei$--/*ai 

3 " " " Fut. " ov\ei5-<r-e-Tai Opt. f}ov\ev-<r-oi-ro 

1 " PL " Pres. " Pov\ev-6-[j.e&a Subj. jSouXcu-ci-^a 

2 " " " Pov\e6-f-<rfo " 0ov\et-r)-<rbe 

1 " Sing. " A. I. " t&ov\fv-o--<i-/j.rii> " Pov\ev-<r-<a-/ 

3 " " " " " tfiov\v-(r-a-TO Opt. &ov\ev-<r-at-TO. 

KEMAKK. In the above forms, jSouAeu is the verb-stem, and /JouA 
and tfSovXevff are the tense-stems, namely, of the Pres., Fut., and first Aor. 
Mid. 5 the endings -/icu, -rat, etc., are the personal-endings, and the vowels o, 
o>, e, ot, rj o, at, are the mode-vowels. The mode-vowels e and o of the Indie. 
are lengthened into T? and <a in the Subj. 


$112. Summary of the Mode-vowels. 









Prvs. and Fut. 


linpf., A. II. A. and 
M. and Prs.and F.M. 

Act. Mid. 

S. 1. 






et, e 




















































A. I. M. 

A. I. A. and 
Pf. A. 

A. i. A. 
and M. 

A. I. A. and M. 

A. I. A. and M. 

S. 1. 












o a 




















A. I. A. and M. 







and P A. 

P. 1. 


















113. Personal- endings of Verbs in -w. 

I. Active Form. 

II. Middle Form. 

A. Ind. and Subj. 
the Princ. tenses. 

B. Ind. and Opt. 
the Hist, tenses. 

A. Ind. and Subj. 
the Princ. tenses. 

B. Ind. and Opt. 
the Hist, tenses. 

Sing. 1. 
Dual 1. 
Tlur. 1. 





(vri) ffi(y) 

V, Opt. fj.i 

T1] V 

V, o~av 

VTO.I (oTOt) 





VT o (aro) 

C. Imperative. 

C. Imperative. 

Sing. 2. 
Dual 2. 
Plur. 2. 

3. T(i> 
Tf 3. TWffCUf 

Sing. 2. (cro) o 3. <rbo> 
Dual 2. o-bov 3. (rbwv 
Plur. 2. (T&e 3. ffbwffai', (T&tav 

D. Infinitive. 

1). Infinitive. 

v Pres., Fut., and Aor. II. 
VOLI Pcrf. Act. and Aor. I. and II. Pass, 
t Aor. I. 


E. Participle. 

E. Participle. 

Stem vr t with exception of the Perf., 
whose stem ends in -or., Herri* fJ-evov ; 
/j.fvos, fj.*w), LLZVOV, Perf. 




[$ 114. 

REMARK. The Personal-endings follow so directly the mode-vowel, and are 
so closely joined to it, that often the two do not appear separately, but are 
united together, e. g. Povtevcr-ys, instead of j8ouAewr-7}-is, Povtev-rj, instead of 
/8ouAeu-e-ai (a and e coalescing and t being subscribed). 

$ 114. Difference between the Personal-endings in 
the Principal and the Historical Tenses. 

1. The difference between the Principal and Historical tenses is important. 
The Principal tenses (Pres., Perf., and Put.) form the second and third Pers. 
Dual with the same ending -ov, e. g. ftov\ev-c-rov ouAei5-e-To> ; povAfv-e-ff&ov 
Pov\fv-c-<r&ov ; the Historical tenses also form the second Pers. Dual in -o v, 
but the third in -TJ v, e. g. 

lfiov\cv-(-T o v ej8ouAeu-e-T TJ v, ^/JovAeiJ-e-or&oj' tfiov\(v-4~(r&rii/. 

2. The Principal tenses form the third Pers. PL Act. in -a- i(v), from -vn, 
-vet, and the Mid. in -vrai ; the Historical tenses in the Active, in -v, and Mid., 
in -VTO, e. g. 

(Sov\(v-o-v ff t = f$ov\ft>-ov<ri(v) 

REMARK. In j8ovAeiW<n the v is dropped, and as a compensation the o pre- 
ceding it is lengthened ; so also in the Fut. Act. Comp. 116, 5. 

3. The Principal tenses in the Sing. Mid. end in -/tot, -trai, -rot ; the Histori- 

cal in 

-aro, -TO, e. g. 

/3ov\eu--T a i 

6/3ou\u-e-T o. 

4. The Personal-endings of the Subj. in the Principal tenses are like those 
of the Ind. in the same tenses ; the Opt. are like those of the Ind. of the His- 
torical tenses ; 

2 and 3 Du. Ind. Pr. fiovteve-rov 

Pov\eve-ff & o v 
3 PI. " " Pov\evov-ffi(v) 

Subj. frovXt\n\-Tov 

1 Sing. " " &ov\ 

2 '' " " &ov\ev-ri 

3 " " " jSovAcye-Tot 

flov\v<a-v T a t 

&ov\evT)-T a t 

2 and 3 Du. " Impf.^ouAeue-T o j/, -4-ri}v Opt. (3ov\evoi-Tov t -o[-rt\v 
3 PI. 

" ejSouAeuo-v 
ejSouAeuo-j' T o 

1 Sing." " e&ov\fv6-p.tiv 

2 " " " (e/SouAeue-o-o) 

3 " " " e/JouAeve-TO 

pov\fvoi-e v 



^8oi/Ael5ot-T o. 


$ 115. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -w. 

1. Since pure verbs do not form the secondary tenses ( 103, Rem.) these 
tenses are supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs and one liquid 
verb (Tpf0-, Afir-, stem AIFI, <j>aii>-u, *AN), so as to exhibit a full Conju- 

2. In learning the table, we are to note, 

(1) That the Greek forms may always be resolved into, (a) Personal-ending, 
(b) Mode-vowel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d) Tense-stem, (e) Verb-stem, (f ) 
Augment, or Reduplication. 

(2) The spaced forms, e. g. ftov\fv-frov, QovXt-v-riTov, third Pers. Du. Ind. 
and Subj. Pres., may direct attention to the difference between the Historical 
tenses in the Ind. and Opt., and the Principal tenses. 

(3) Similar forms, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are 
distinguished by a star (*). The learner should compare these together, e. g. 
Pov\(v<rw, 1. Sing. Ind. Fut. Act. or 1. Sing. Subj. I. Aor. Act.; j8ov\u(rat, 
2. Sing. Imp. I. Aor. Mid., /3ou\eu<roi, 3. Sing. Opt. I. Aor. Act., Povtevvcu, 
Inf. I. Aor. Act. 

(4) The accentuation ($ 118) should be learned with the form. The follow- 
ing general rule will suffice for beginners : The accent of the verb is as far from 
the end as the final syllable will permit. Those forms, whose accentuation 
deviates from this rule, are indicated by a dagger (t). 

(5) When the Paradigm is thus thoroughly learned, the pupil may first 
resolve the forms either of /JovAeyw, or any pure verb, into their elements, i. e. 
Personal-ending, Mode-vowel, etc. ; observing this order, viz. &ov\fvaw is, (1) 
first Pers., (2) Sing., (3) Ind., (4) Fut., (5) Act., (6) from pov\evw, to advise; 
then he may arrange the elementary parts of the form, and in the following 
order: (1) Verb-stem, (2) Augment, or Reduplication, (3) Tense-characteristic, 
(4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel, (7) Per 
sonal ending, (8) Tense-stem with Mode- vowel and Personal-ending. E. g. 
What would be the form in Greek of the phrase, he advised himself using the 
Aor. of the Pres., )8ouA.u-, to advise ? Answer : The Verb-stem is /SouAcu-, 
Augment, ^, thus ^/SouAeu ; the Tense-characteristic of the first Aor. Mid. is ff, 
thus Tense-stem is t-fiov\fv-<r ; the Mode-vowel of the first Aor. Ind. Mid. is a ; 
thus, t-pov\ev-<r-a ; the Personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing, of an Historical 
tense of the Mid. is TO ; thus, 4-&ov\fv-<r-a-ro. 

REMARK. By making himself familiar with the above elements, the pupil 
can construct from the root any form of the verb he may wish. 







of the Principal tenses. 



S. 1. 

jSouAeu-cu,^ / advise, 
j8ovAeu-eis, /Aou advisest, 
j8ouAei$-et, Ae, sAe, { advises, 
/SouAeu-eroi', ye ?o advise, 
ouAeu-6 T o v, /ey f MX> advise, 
/^v, we advise, 
/8oi/,* you advise, 
ffov\ev-ovffi(v), they advise, 

j8ovAeu-,* I mat/ advise, 
BouAey-Tjrov * 




P. 1, 

^-jSouA.ev-oi',* / was advising, 
'-/3ouAeu-es, f/jow twisf qdvising, 
4-ftov\ev-e(v), he, she, it was adv. 
f-fiov\fv-Tov, ye two were adv. 
-/3ov\cv-e Tt]f, they two were adv. 
e-)8ou\6u-o / uej', we were advising, 
6-/8ou\eu-6Te, you were advising, 
e-^SouAeu-oj/,^ they were advising, 


stem : 

S. 1. 



/3e-$ouAu-K-a, / have advised, 
/8e-|8ouAeu-/c-as, thou hast adv'd, 
^e-)3ouAeu-/c-oTov, ye two have a. 
Pe-&ov\ev-n-a TOV, they two have 
/3e-j8ouAeu-/c-ajiiej', we have adv'd, 
fi-fiov\i>-K-aTc, you have adv'd, 
fie-fiov\fv-K-a.(ri(v), they have a. 


ftf-l3oV\V-K-T) TOV 

fie-povtev-K-fafft (v) 

fect /., 





t-f}f-pov\fv-K-fii/, I had advised, 
e-)3e-)3ouAeu-K-eis, thou hadst adv. 
e'-j8e-ouAi;-/c-ei, he, she, it had ad. 
e'--/3ovAeu-/f-etTo', ye two Jtad 
f-&-ftov\ev-K-f lrt} v,they two had 
e-ftt-fiovXev-K-finev, we had adv. 
e-fie-pov\fv-K-eiT, you had adv. 
e'-/3e-/3ouAev K-effav, they had a. 

Per/: //. 

p/,i/: //. 

7T6-<77j/-a, l I appear, 
e-Tre-^i'-eip , 2 / appeared, 

ire-tjrfiv-w, I may appear, 

Aorist I., 

stem : 

S. 1. 

e-j8ouAeu-<r-a, I advised (indef.), 
^-)8ouA6i/-(r-as, thou advisedst, 
e-)8ovAeu-<r-e(j'), he, she, it adv'd, 
e'-;8ouAeu-<r-aToj/, ye two advised, 
e'-ouAeu-<r-a T 77 v, they two adv'd, 
e-/3ouAeu-<r-a/Aej', we advised, 
<?-0oi;Aeiy-(r-aT6, you advised, 
e-&ov\ev-ff-av, they advised, 

/SouAeu-tr-co,* / may advise, 
jSouAeu-tr-T? * 
SouAeu-or-Tj T o j' 
/3ouAeiJ-(r- w<rt ( i/ ) 

^onsf //., 


S. 1. 

-Anr-oz/, Heft, 
e-AtTr-es, etc. declined like Impf. 

A(TT-W, etc., like the Subj. 


S. 1. 

j8ovA6u-<r-,* / shall advise, 
like the Indie. Pres. 

The inflection of the 2d Perf. in all the Modes and Participles, is like that of the 1st Perf. 






i. e. Subj. of Historical tenses. 




0ouAeu-, advise, 
Qov\fv-cTd>, let him ad. 
jSouAeu-eroj/, ye two ad. 
0ov\fv-eruv, let them 
both advise, 
/3ouAey-6T6,* do ye ad. 
SouAeu-eVaxrai', usually 



Pov\v-6rrwt',* let them a. 

f}ov\fv-ot/j.i, I might advise, 

\ &OV\V-O I f V 

[/3e-|8ouAv-K-,*] etc., 
like the Imp. Pres. 
yet only a few Per- 
fects, and such as 
have the meaning 
of the Pres., form 
an Imperative. 

to have 

G. -K-6ros, -K- 
vlas, having 

0-flov\fv-K-oi/j.i, I mig. have a 


e-/3ouAet/-/c-o / T rj v 


fie-IBov\fv-K-o i e v 

Tre-c^Tjy-oj/ij, / migfa appear, 

ire-<^/-, appear, 




0ov\i>-<r-cufj.i, I might advise, 
)3ouA6u-<r-cy, or -cios 
&ov\tv-o--ai,* or -eje(j/) 


)8ouAu-(r-o i v, or -e t av 

/3ov\fv-ff-ov, advise, 


jSouAcu-o'-aTaxT'ai', usua 




Genitive : 


having advised, 

11 y -aavTuv* 

AiV-otjui, etc., like the Opt. 

AiV-e, etc., like the 
Imp. Pres. 

tiv, t 



At7r-wi/,oD<ra, 6v. 

G. 6lTOS y OVffTJS, 

&ov\(v-cr-oiij.iy I would advise, 
like the Opt. Impf. 

etc. like Pr. Pt. 

2 The inflection of the 2d Pluperf. is like that of the 1st Pluperf., both in the Ind. and Opt. 








of the Principal tenses. 





S. 1. 







jSouAeu-o/iai, I deliberate, or am 
&ov\ev-r) * 
$ou\ev-e r a i 

povXev-o) /nai, I may de- 
fiov\fv-T) * [liberate, 

j8oiAeu-7j T o t 

/Bov\ev-e a & o v 

fiov\ev yaSov 





S. 1. 







t-&ov\ev-6(ji.T)v ) I was deliber- 
t-fiov\fv-o v [ating, 


stem : 

S. 1. 







&-pov\fv-pat, I have deliberated, 

)3e-|8ot;Aey-//eVos, 5, 1 may 

&-l3ov\Gv-(jifvos ys [have 

fie-fiov\v-/j.fvos T) [delib- 


/Se-^ouAeu-tr S- o v 

fif-&ov\fv-v r a i 


stem : 








^-)8e-j8oi;At5-/i TJ v, 7 Aad deliber- 
o [ated, 

Aorist L, 

stem : 

S. 1. 




P. 1. 



i-l3ov\fv-ff-<i pi) v, I deliberated, 
t-ftov\ev-<r-o>> [(indefinite) 

ftov\ev-ff-ca fiai, I may de- 
ftov\ev-ff-p * [liberate, 
Pov\ev-ff-r) r a i 

&ov\fv-(T-r) a (& o v 

J3ov\fv-<r-u vrai 

Aorist II. 


t-\iir-6fjuiv, I remained, like Ind. 

\iir-<i)/ t I may re?nain t 
like Pres. Subj. 



Pov\(v-<, I shall deliberate, 
like Pres. Indie. 

/3-j8ouAeu-(T-ojLiat, I shall have de- 
liberated, like Pres. Indie. 





!. e. Subj. of Hist, tenses. 




u-ou, deliberate, 

to deliber- 


&ov\fv-oliAi]v, I might 
jSouAcu-o t o [deliberate, 

0ov\v-f<r&a>ffav, usually 

/SouAf u-o (ff&t}v 

)8e-j8ouA6u-(ro, deliberate^ 

<r^at,t to 

have delib- 


j/oi/jt having 


crjj \de- 

fiov\fv-ff-ai/j.rii>, I might 
&ov\fv-ff-a i o [deliberate, 


to deliber- 


having deliber- 

&ov\fv-<r-a i v T o 


\nr-oi/jL^v,Imif//t/ remain, 
like Opt. Impf. 

&ov\ev-<T-oifjLriv,I in. have 

Anroi),t -eVi^w, like Pres. 

, Ish'd 
[deliberate, like Opt. Imp. 



vos, -TJ, -ov 


/j.evos, -17, -ov. 



Numbers 1 

Persons. 1 



of the Principal tenses. 

Aorist /., 

stem : 

S. 1. 

e-/3ov\ey-id-7jv , / was advised. 
t ? -j8otAeu-&-77 
e-fiovAfv-fr-T] ffav 

/3ov\fv-&-a>, I might have 
j3ouAei-&-77s [been advised. 

&OV\fV-&-TJ TQV 

j8oiAeu-&-77Te * 

$OlA6t/-i&- ff I ( v} 

Future I. 


fiov\ev-SrT)-<r-oiJLai, I shall be adv. 
0ov\fv-frf)-(r-r), etc., like the 
Ind. Pres. Mid. 

Aorist II. 

S. 1. 

-Tp//3-7}/, I was rubbed, 
e'-T/jfp-Tjs, etc., like the first 
Aor. Ind. Pass. 

rpifi-w, Imay have been ruUd, 
rpifi-rjs, etc., like the first 
Aor. Subj. Pass. 

Put. 11. 

S. 1. 

Tpifi--f)-<, I shall be rubbed, 
Tpi&--f)-<r-ri, etc., like the first 
Fut. Ind. Pass. 

Verbal Adjectives : ftov\ev-r6s, -^j, -6v, advised, 

$ 116. Remarks on the Inflection-endings. 

1. The personal-endings of verbs in - are apocopated forms, as may be 
X shown from the older conjugation in -/it, and in part from the dialects ( 220, 

1); thus. -p.i in the first Pers. Sing. Ind. and Subj. Act. and -ri in the third 
Pers. have disappeared, e. g. j8ouAeu- instead of /8ovAei5-o-/u or ^SouAev-w^t, 
j8ouAev-et instead of jSouAeiJ-e-Ti (by the dropping of -/xt in Pov\ev-o-fu, the o is 
lengthened into , and by the dropping of -TI in /3ouAeu-e-Tj, is lengthened 
into ci) ; in the first Pers. Sing, first Aor. Ind. Act., v has disappeared, e. g. 
^j8ouAeu(ro instead of e'/SouAeuow ; in the second Pers. Sing. Imp. Act., except 
the first Aor., -&t has disappeared, e. g. j8ouAeu-e instead of fiovXst-f-$ti ; but the 
first Aor. Imp. Act. has a different ending -ov, e. g. ouAeu-<r-oj/. 

2. The second Pers. Sing. Act. has the ending -trfra in the Common lan- 
guage in the following forms only : 

olff&a, nosti, from the Perf. olSa; ^Seiar^a and rjS-nff&a, Plpf. of o?5o; 
$ 7j(rd-a, Impf. from (p-ripi, to say; ^ad-a, Impf. from et/*t, to be ; rjetcr&a, 
Impf. from eT/ut, to go. 

3. There is no special form for the first Pers. Dual Act., or for the first 
and second Aor. Pass. ; the first Pers. PI. is used for this purpose. Comp. 
106, Rem. 2. 

4. The original form of the first Pers. PI. Act. is -jites (not -pfv). Comp. 
the Dialects, 220, 6, and the Latin ending -mits, c. g. ypdcp-o-fjies, scrib-i-mws. 

5. The original form of the third Pers. PL Act. of the Principal tenses was 





i. e. Subj. of the Hist, tenses. 


Infin. Participle. 

&ov\fv-&-eir)i', I might be 
ftov\v-d-fir)s [advised, 

&OV\V-&-VITI, be thou ad- 
Pov\ev-&--f)Tu [vised, 

&OV\fV-&- IT}T1\V 

f}ov\cv-&-(t-r)(jLV and 

and -elrc 


b-rji/ai, \ 
to be ad- 

', / should 
be advised, etc., like the 
Impf. Opt. Mid. 

Genitive : 

being advised, 

/j.evos, -if], -ov 

/, / might be rubbed, 
y, etc., like the first T 
Aor. Opt. Pass. 

etc., like 
the first Aor. Imp. Pass. 


like first Aor. 
Part. Pass. 

rpifi-'r)-<r-oi[jLi)v, I should be 
rubbed, etc., like the first 

Fut. Opt. Pass. 


-rj, -ov 

jSouAeu-reos, -rea, -reov, to be advised. 

] when r was changed into <r, v was dropped ( 20, 2), e. g. f}ov\cvoi>ri = 
/SouAevovo-i. On the irregular lengthening of the vowel pre- 
ceding the y, see 20, Rem. 2. 

6. In the first Pers. Sing. Plup. Act., Attic writers use, together with the 
form in -ew, a form in -rj, which arises from the Ionic ending of the Plup. -eo, 
e. g. ^8e0ouA6u/c-7j instead of -K-CIV. The mode- vowel ft in the third Pers. PI. 
is commonly shortened into e, e. g. e'jSe/SouAeu-K-e-o-cu' instead of tftefiovXev-K- 

7. The first Pers. Sing. Opt. Act. has the ending -^ut in verbs in -o>, e. g. 
7rat8u-ot-/it, ira^fvff-ai-fjLi ; but the ending -t]v in the first and second Aor. Pass., 
according to the analogy of verbs in -pi. This t\ remains through all the per- 
sons and numbers, though it is often dropped in the Dual and PL, especially 
in the third Pers. PI. and then, firj^v = el/iey, efrjre = eTre, drivca/ = cler, e. g. 
7rai5ev&ei / 7?/i' and 7rcueu&i)tij/, /ij/rj(T&t7?Te and -d-fTre, <pavetr)(rav X. H. 6. 5, 
25., irpoKp&firjaco' Ibid. 34., TTn<f>beir]ffav Th. 1, 38, and (more frequently) 

8. The Attic Optative endings -rjr, -17?, -77, etc., and the third Pers. PL -*v 
(rarer -tja-av) which appropriately belong to verbs in -pi, are used with verbs in 
-co, in the following cases : 

(a) Most commonly in the Imperf. Opt. of contract verbs, e. g. rt/jupyv, 

(b) In all Futures in -cD, e. g. $a.vo(i]v Soph. Aj. 313., epolrj Xen. Cy. 3. 1, 
14, from the Fut. <J>aj/w, c'peD ; 

(c) Somewhat often in the second Plup., e. g. ^KWf<pevyoir]i/ S. O. E. 840., 

X. Cy. 2. 4, 17., ireiro&oi-n Ar. Acharn. 940; 


(d) In the second Aor. ffxoi-nv uniformly (evxov from ex) ; still, not gen- 
erally in compounds, e. g. -jrapdcrxoini. 

9. The forms of the first Aor. Opt. Act. in -etas, -ete(i'), -eiav, instead of 
-ous, -at, -at*', have passed from the JEolic Opt. in -eta, -etas, etc., into com- 
mon use in all the dialects, and are employed by the Attic writers more fre- 
quently than the regular forms, e. g. 0ov\fv<r-e i a s, -ei (>), -eiav. 

REMARK. The second Pers. Dual Act. of the Historical tenses often ends, 
among the Attic writers, in -yv instead of -ov, e. g. etVeVrji' PL Symp. 189, c., 
eVe5i7^7}<raT7.- Euthyd. 273, e., #mjj/ 294, e., e'AeyeVrji' L. 705, d., eKoivafrjffd- 
TTJV Ib. 753, a. On the Dialects, see $ 220, 9. 

10. The Middle endings -ffai and -<ro, when immediately preceded by a 
mode-vowel, drop <r ( 25, 1), and then coalesce, except in the Opt., with the 
mode-vowel, e. g. 

/3ouAei5-e-<rat /SovAew-e-at = 

&ov\fv-oi-(ro &ov\ev-oi-o 

= e/3ot/Aei5-OU 

11. In the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and Put. Mid. and Pass., the Attic writers 
use a subordinate ending in -ft, together with the ending -77, e. g. ^ovAeu-p and 
-6i, Pov\fv<r-ri and -et, &ffiov\ev(r-ri and -ei, )8oi/\u3^o--p and -et, rpifir)ffp, and -ct, 
xotp and -e?, oAp and -?. This form in -ei passed from the Attic conversational 
language, into the written language ; hence it is the regular form in the Come- 
dies of Aristophanes, but is avoided by the tragedians. Also Thucydides 
and Xenophon use it ; other writers, as Plato and the orators, employ both 
forms ; yet three verbs always take the form -et, namely, 

POV\O/J.CU /BouAet (but Subj. fiovXrj) 

ofafjicu ofo (but Subj. otp) 

fyoij.a.1 Put. ttyet. 

12. Together with the endings of the third Pers. PL Imperative Act. and 
Pass. -fTaxrav, -druffav, -(T&(i><rav t the abbreviated forms -6i/T<av, -dvTtov, 
-ff&wv, are used; and since they are employed very frequently by Attic 
writers, they are called Attic forms. These abbreviated Imperatives of the 
Active Voice are like the Gen. PL of the Participle of each tense respectively, 
except the Perfect ; and the Middle form -trbuv is like the third Pers. Dual, 

Pres. Act. jSouAeveVwcraj' and ftov\fv6vruv 

Perf. " TTCTro&eTuffav " Treiro&6'sr<0v (Gen. 

Aor. I. " fSovXfvffdTtaffca' " Pov\fv<rdvT(oi' 

Pres. Mid. 

Aor. " 

The Aor. Pass, ending -tviuv or -^TWJ/, abridged from -^TOXTOJ/, is found in 
PL Legg. 856, d. we/i^eWwv, and Ib. 737, e. Stave^^jTwy (according to several 

$ 117.] VERBS. - ATTIC FUTURE. 143 

13. Besides the simple form of the Subj. Perf. and the Opt. Plup. Act., a 
periphrasis, formed by the Perf. Part, and the Subj. or Opt. of elvai (to be), 2>, 
rir/y, is very frequent, e. g. ireiraiSevKus &, educaverim ; irrrraiSevicws efrjv, educa- 
vissem. Yet this form seems to denote a circumstance or condition, more than a 
simple completed action ; comp. PI. Hipp. M. 302, a. et KfK/j.rjK(as rt, ^ rerpw- 
fjLfvos, 1) ireir\ijy/ji(vos, % &\\' OTIOVV ireirov&tas fKarepos r}fj.wv ely, ou KO! a/j.(f>6- 
Ttpoi a5 TOVTO ireTr6v&oi/j.ev] examples of the simple forms are, cbrciArj^)??, PI. 
Rp. 614, a., fl\-fj(pufftv Polit. 269, c., tpireirTfaKOi X. An. 5. 7, 26., Kara\e\oiiroiei/ 
X. H. 3. 2, 8., airoKfXvrfKoi ib. 5, 23., wr-nper^Kot ib. 5. 2, 3., ireirorf)Kot Th. 8, 
108., tspep\-f)Kotev ib. 2, 48. The Imp. Perf. does not often occur in the Act., 
e. g. yeywve, Eur. Or. 1220. 

14. The Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, append the personal-endings to the 
tense-stem without a mode-vowel, and hence they cannot form the Subj. and 
Opt. (with few exceptions, which will be further treated below, 154, 9), 
but must also be expressed periphrastically by means of the Participle and 
flyeu, e. g. ircira.i8evfj.fvos 3>, efyv, educatus sim, essem. 

15. The third Pers. Ind. Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, of pure verbs ends in 
-VTO.I, -VTO, e.g. ftffiovtevvTcu, ^3ej8ouAet/ro ; but in mute and liquid verbs, this 
formation is not possible. Hence the Attic writers usually express this person 
periphrastically, by means of the Perf. Part, and elo~i(v), sunt, i)<rai>, erant ; the 
older and middle Attic writers, however, sometimes use the Ionic forms -orat, (instead of -mat, -VTO) ; the a of these endings is aspirated after the 
Kappa and Pi-mutes, and hence changes the preceding smooth Kappa or Pi- 
mute into the corresponding rough (comp. 144) ; but this a is not aspirated 
after the Tau-mutes ; thus, 

rpifi-(0, to rub, Perf. r-rptfj.-/ 3 P. TCTpiQarai (for Tfrpifivrai) Pip. frcTpi(paTo 
TAe/c-w, to twine, ir-ir\ry-[ " jreTrAe'^aTai ( " irir\Kvrai) 
T<TT-O>, to arrange, re-ray-nai " Tfraxdrot ( " rerayvrai) 
-(i), to separate, /ce-;CcSpia'-/iai " KfX<ap($a.Ta,i ( " K^tipiSvTa) 
, to destroy, e-^op-/iot " t^dparai ( " f<j&apmcu) 

16. The two Aorists Pass, follow the analogy of verbs in -^t, and hence are 
not treated here. 

$ 117. Remarks on the Formation of the Attic 

1. When one of the short vowels a, , t, in the Fut. Act. and Mid. of verbs 
in -<rw, -(ro/iat, from stems of two or more syllables, precedes <r, certain verbs, 
after dropping <r, take the circumflexed ending -, -OV/JLCU ; because it was fre- 
quently used by the Attic writers instead of the regular form, this is called 
the Attic Future, e. g. f\du> (usually e'AaiW), to drive, t\d-a-u, Fut. Att. ^A<, -as, 
-$, -aTov, -u/jifv, -are, -Sxn(v) ; reAe'w, to finish, T\e-(T-w, Fut. Att.TeAw, -els, -?, 
-OU/A6I', -?T, -ov<ri(v} ; T\f-<r-ofjiai (reAeo/iat), re\, -et, -eircu, etc.; 
fa, to carry, Fut. K0fj.t-<r-w, Fut. Att. KO/XIOJ, -ie?s, -te?, -6?rov, -iovp.fv, -i?T, 


Lov(ri(v) ;, -jeT, -ieTrai, -lovp&ov, etc. This Fut. is inflected like the 
forms of contract verbs. 

2. This form of the Put. is found only in the Ind., Inf., and Part. ; never in 
the Opt., thus, TeAw, TeAeli/, reAwv ; but TeAe'eroiyut. The verbs which have this 
form are the following: (a) e'Aaw (e'AaiW), to drive; re A ecu, to finish; /caAeco, 
to call; and, though seldom, ex A ecu, to grind ; (b) all verbs in -iw (character. 
^) I ( c ) a f ew verbs in -ctw, very generally fiifidfa ; (d) of verbs in -pi, all 
in-dvvvm and also afj.Qitvvv/j.1, to clothe (a/j.(piw, -ie?s, etc.). A few exceptions 
to this Fut. are found even in the Attic dialect, e. g. eAciVw X. Cy. 1. 4, 20., e'A<- 
ffovras X. An. 7. 7, 55., re\4<rov<nv Cy. 8. 6, 3., KoAeVeis 2. 3, 22., voptffovfft 3. 
1, 27. (according to the best MSS.) ^(pla-fff&e, Isae. de Cleonym. hered. 51. 

118. Accentuation of the Verb. 

1. PRIMARY LAW. The accent is drawn back from the end of the word 
towards the beginning, as far as the nature of the final syllable permits, e. g. 
)3ouAeue, fiov\, jSouAevow, iravffov, Tvtyov, but /3ovAeuets, jSouAeueip. On 
the ending -at, see 29, R. 6. 

2. This law holds good in compounds, e. g. <ptpe irposfape, (pevye e/c^eu-ye, 

; also in words in the Subj., when they are not contracted, e. g. 
wraffx^^v, eTriffTrw, firl<nrps (but ovajSo), airoffrta, StaSw, 
', etc., on account of the contraction, cu/a)3ow, ava&dufj.ej', etc.). 
Still, this rule has the following exceptions: (a) the accent cannot go back 
beyond the syllable of the preceding word, which before the composition, had 
the accent, e. g. air68os (air6 the preceding word being accented on the ultimate), 
o-vntrptts, eV/o-xes, eirtSfs (not &iroSos, ffv/j-irpofs, eTnax", e7nS=y) ; (b) the accent 
cannot go back of the first two words of the compound, as in the examples 
just quoted, and also o-vvtitSos, irapej/Ses (not <rw/e/c5os, but like e/cSos ; not 
irdpej'&es, but like ej/&es) ; (c) the accent cannot go back of an existing augment 
(this holds of the Impf, Aor., and Plup. as well as of the Perf), e. g. 
like eTxoy, irapeffxov like co^of, 6^70^ like ^oj/, Qrjv like ^v (not 
irdpfffxov, efryov, f^rjv) ; so also irposrinov like ^/coy, aireipyov like elpyov, but 

Imp. &TTlpyf, alsO CU^T/CTCH, acp^KTO, like f/CTttt, f/CTO. 

Exceptions to the Primary Law. 

3. The accent is on the ultimate in the following forms : 

(a) In the Inf. second Aor. Act. as circumflex, and in the Masc. and Neut. 
Sing. Part, of the same tense as acute, e. g. AtTre?*' (from AiireW), Xnr&v, -bv; 
and in the second Pers. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Act. of the five verbs, ei'W, 

, Aa/3e, and i5e (but in composition, &Trenre, avroAajSe, ciTreA&e, efsiSe). 

(b) Also in the Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex, e. g. Act/3oi, frov (from 

REMARK 1. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participials) of the second Aor. 
Act. draws back the accent in all verbs according to the primary law, e. g. 
/coAe, e|eA&e, etcSos, e/cSore, air68os, airdSore, fj.era.5os, fj.erdSoTf (yet 



r, see No. 2), but rc/JaA.', e^oAcoy, e/cAiTreti', ? |6A$8S^2tDCi9i0^n tlie 
Imp. Sin^. second Aor. Mid. of verbs in -o>, the circumflex remains on the 
ultimate in compounds also. e. g. t/t/SaAoO, a^i/coD, eVAwroO, eViAad-oD, a^eAou, 
^ej/7/coD; so in verbs in -/ii, when the verb is compounded with a monosylla- 
bic preposition, e. g. irpo8ov, evbov, a$ov : yet the accent is drawn back, when 
the verb is compounded with a dissyllabic preposition, e. g. a.ir65ov, Karddov, 
bir6&ov: but in the Dual and PL of the second Aor. Mid., the accent is in all 
ca<es drawn back, e. g. e'/cjSciAeo-d-e, a7roAa/3e<r&e, Trp65o(r&e, 

(c) The acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -s (Gen. -TOS), con- 
sequently in all active Participles of verbs in -pi, as well as in those of the first 
and second Perf. Act. and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs, e. g. eov- 
\fjKws (Gen. -6Tos), irety-riixas (Gen. -OTOS), jSoyAeu&ets (Gen. -eWos), rvireis (Gen. 
-ei/Tos), Iffras (Gen. -&vros], r&ds (Gen. -eVros), SiSovs (Gen. -6vros), SCIKVVS 
(Gen. -VVTOS), Staffrds, fK&eis, irpoSovs, Gen. Siacrrduros, ^/fi&ej/Tos, TrpoS6vros. 

EEM. 2. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep- 
tion, e. g. 7rai8eu<rds, Gen. 7rai8eu<raj/Tos. 

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex, e. g. 
Pov\fv&>, Tpifiu (<a being contracted from -e'cc). 

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms : 

(a) In the Inf. of Perf. Mid. or Pass., of first Aor. Act. and second Aor. 

Mid. ; also in all infinitives in -rat, hence in all active infinitives according to 

the formation in -pi, as well as in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and 

of the first and second Perf. Act. of all verbs, e. g. Terv^d-at, j8e/3ouAe{5(rd - at, 

i ; \nreff&ai, e/c&eV&cu, SiaSocr&ai ; UTTCII/CU, Tt&eVat, 

e'/ctrrrji/at, frftvat, e/c^6?j/a, 8oi)j/c, jUeraSouj/at : jSofAeu^vot, rpijSrjJ'at 5 

vai, AeAoiTreVat. 
(b) In the Participle Peif. Mid. or Pass., e. g. 

(c) As circumflex in the Dual and Plu. of the first and second Aor. Subj. 
Pass., e. g. 

HEM. 3. The three corresponding forms of the Inf. first Aor. Act., Imp. 
first Aor. Mid., and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act., when they consist 
of three or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished 
from one another by the accent, in the following manner : 

Inf. 1st Aor. A. Pov\evaai, Imp. 1st Aor. M. jSouAcuo-ot, Opt. 1 st Aor. 

But when the penult is short by nature or long only by position, the Inf. 
first Aor. Act. corresponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt., first Aor. Act., e. g. 
<f>uAa|ai ; but Imp. first Aor. Mid. </>uAa|cu. 


146 VERBS. SYLLABIC AUGMENT. [$ 119, 120. 

$ 119. Further view of the Augment and Redu- 

1. After the general view of the Augment and Reduplication 
($ 108, 3), it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

2. As has been already seen, all the historical tenses (the 
Impf, Plup., and Aor.) take the augment, but retain it only in 
the Ind. There are two augments, the syllabic and temporal 

$ 120. (a) Syllabic Augment." 

1. The syllabic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem 
begins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing c 1 to the 
stem, in the Impf. and Aorists, but to the reduplication in the 
Plup. In this way, the verb is increased by one syllable, and 
hence this augment is called the syllabic augment, e. g. (3ov- 
Xeuco, Impf. c-(3ov\evov, Aor. Z-fiovXcvo-a, Plup. l-fie-fiovXevKuv. 

2. If the stem begins with p, this letter is doubled when the 
augment is prefixed ($ 23, 3), e. g. pun-to, to throw, Impf. 

Aor. tppuf/a, Perf. eppt^a. Plup. 

REMARK 1. The three verbs jSouAo^at, to will ; Swj/a/ucu, to be able ; and 
jueAAw, to be about to do, to intend, among the Attic writers take 77, instead of e, 
for the augment ; still, this is found more among the later than the earlier 
Attic writers, e. g. e@ov\'f)frr)v and ri^ovK-^^v ; e'SiWjUTjj/ and i]$vi'd. l ur]i', tSuv-fi&r]!' 
and ySvvfi&riv (but always fSvydc^v) ; ejiieAAoj' and T^ueAAov. The Aorist is 
very seldom T)(j.e\\-r)(Ta (comp. X. H. 7. 4, 16. 26). 

REM. 2. Among the Attic writers, the augment e is often omitted in the 
Pluperfect ; in compounds, when the preposition ends with a vowel ; in sim- 
ples, when a vowel which is not to be elided precedes, e. g. dj/ajSe^/cet, X. An. 
5, 2, 15 ; KaTaSeSpa^/ceo-cw, X. H. 5. 3, 1 ; KaraAeAeiTTTo, X. Cy. 4. 1, 9 ; Kara- 
TreTTTw/cet, Th. 4, 90 ; ai ffvv^Kai yeyevnvro, X. Cy. 3. 2, 24 (according to the 
best MSS.) ; but in the Impf. and Aorists, the syllabic augment is omitted 

1 According to analogy, we may suppose that e is prefixed to all verbs in the 
augmented tenses, whether the verbs begin with a vowel or consonant. If the 
verb begins with a consonant, e appears as an additional syllable, e. g. e-Trpar- 
TOJ>, but if with a vowel, e is assimilated with that vowel and lengthens it, if it 
is not already long, e. g. &yca, Impf. sayov = ^yoy ; e'&e'Aco, Impf. ee&eAoi/ = ^fre- 
\ov ; o/ce'AAco, Impf. eMtfeAAoi' = &KC\\OV. If the word begins with a long vowel, 
it absorbs e, e. g. 7)Aci<r/cco, Impf. e'rjAacr/coi' = ^Aacrwov; w&iaj, Impf. ec6<Shbv = 
&&iov. When the verb begins with e, the augment is sometimes contracted 
with this into et, e. g. e?xov, instead of 

121, 12:3. J VKKUS. - TEMPORAL AUGMENT. 147 

only in the lyric parts of the tragedies, and here not often : in the dramatic 
portions it is rarely omitted, and only in the speeches of the messengers (/^aety 
ayyeAucal) ; also at the beginning and middle of the trimeter, and likewise at the 
beginning of a sentence, and even in these cases but seldom. The Impf. 
I which, together with fXP'n"> is used in prose, is an exception. 

$ 121. (b) Temporal Augment, 

The temporal augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 
with a vowel; it consists in lengthening 1he fii>f >' in -vowel. 
This is called the temporal augment because it increases the 
time, e. g. 

a becomes 77, e. g. "d-yw Impf. ^yov Perf. fix - Plup. tfx* 1 " 
i t, ' ; 'tAcereucu ' ; 'IKSTSVOV " 'ftelrcMfa 

ij y. ' v'jSpiOw *' ' vQoiCov t; f vQptKCL 

cu 77, " alpfco " rfpovv 

01 " &', " OlKTlfa " (pKTl&V " (pKTlKO. 

R KM ARK. Verbs which begin with 77, t, u, w, ow, and ei, do not admit the 
augment, e. g. yTTdopai, to be overcome, Impf. 77x^^77^, Perf. ^TTTJ^CU, Plup. 
; 'iTr^w, to press, Aor. "iTroxra; 'UTTJ/^OJ, to /// to sZeep, Aor. "1)7 
, to benefit, Impf. u<pf \c-ov ; oura^'co, to wound, Impf. 
to #/t/f/, Impf. C?KOI/, Aor. e?|a; et/co^, to ///tew, is an exception, which among 
the Attic writers, though seldom, is augmented, e. g. f?Kaov, efaao-a, efrcao-^ai, 
seldom p/ca^oz/ (e. g. Th. 6, 92. i]Kaov, in the best MSS.), Tj/catra, rjifacr/j-ai. 
Also those verbs whose stem begins with eu, are usually without an augment, 
c. g. ftixopat, to supplicate, ei/xoV 7 ?*'* more rarely TJUX^UTJJ/, but Perf. Tjv-y/ucu (not ; eupi<r/ca>, to find, in good prose, always omits the augment. 

$ 122. Remarks on the Augment 

\. Verbs beginning with d followed by a vowel, have d instead of 77, e. g. 
'dia>, (poet.), to perceive, Impf.'di'oj'-, but those beginning with d, au, and 01 t'ol- 
luwi'd by a vowel, do not admit the augment, e. g. 'dijSi'^Ojucu, to //are an wn- 
pfcastint sensation, lmj)f. 'd?j5t^oju.i7J/; avaivca, to dry, Impf. atiau/ov. oia.Kl(i> y to 
N/.-I /-. Impf. o(aH-tC oz/ j a ^- so oi/dAtWa;, to destroy, though no vowel follows d, has 
aj/a/\a><ra, a^dXcuKa, as well as avT)\(affa, a^XcaKa. But the poetic eteiSo? (prose 
a>co), to siiiit. and d'/'o-trw (Att. o'cnrco), to ?7/sA, take the augment, e.g. fjetSoj/ (prose 
pSo^). ^"<fa (Att. p|o) ; ofojuai, to believe, ^^/ATJI/, etc. does not belong here, since 
the o following ot, is not a part of the stem. 

148 VERBS. - REDUPLICATION. [$ 123. 

2. Some verbs also beginning with 01 and followed by a consonant, do not 
take the augment, e. g. ot/coupew, to guard the house, Aor. oiKovpija-ti : olvlfa, to 
smell of wine, Impf. olvi&v; o I v 6 CD, to intoxicate, Perf. Mid. or i'as;. olixa^vis 
and <pvtafj.evos ; olffTpdca,to make furious, Aor. oiVrp-^crcc. 

3. The twelve following verbs, beginning with e, have ei instead of rj for the 
augment, viz. e'aw, to permit, Impf. efoj/, Aov. efatra: e8ria>, to accustom (to 
which belongs also efcwd-a, to &e accustomed, from the Epic &>a>) ; efo- a, poetic 
Aor. (stem 'EA), to place (in prose only, Part. Aor. Mid. kcra.fji.syos and eurauez/os, 
establishing, founding); lAi<r<ra>, to wind; eA/ca>, to draw; Aor. e'/A/cucra (stem 
'EAKT) ; efAoy, to tore, Aor. (stem C EA) of cupe'co; eTro^uai, to follow ; epyd- 
o /j. a i, to work ; e p TT a>, e p TT u a>, to creep, to '/o ; e a- T t a co, to entertain ; e X w, to 
Aaye (on the Epic ef^at, see 230). 

4. The six following verbs take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, 
augment : 

&yvvm, to break, Aor. caa, etc. ( 187, 1). 

a\lffKO pa i, capior, Perf. ta^uita and ^ACOKO, captus sum ( 161, 1). 

aj/Sdva, to please (Ion. and poet.), Impf. ta.vSa.vov, Perf. eaSa, Aor. taoov 

( 230.) 

ovpeca, mingere, eovpovv, (ovpijKa. 
<^a>, to push, edfrow, etc. (sometimes without the augment, e. g. Stw&ovvro, 

Th. 2, 84; ^wo-^jo-ai/, X. H. 4. 3, 12 ; &, PI. Cli;-.rm. 155, c.). 
uvfofj-ai, to buy, Impf. f<avov/j.r)v (wvovfjirjv, Lys. Purg. Sacril. 108. 4; e'o>- 

VOVVTO, Aeschin. c. Ctes. c. 33; owTojj/etTo, Andoc. p. 122.), Aor. ewrjad- 

}t.i\v (see however 179, 6.), Perf. ewvr)/ 

5. The verb copra^cu, to celebrate a feast, takes the augment in the second 
syllable, Impf. edjpra^ov. The same is true of the following forms of the 
Plup. II.: 

EIKfl, second Perf. eoi/co, 7am like, Plup. 

e\, to hope, second Perf. eoATra, I hope, Plup. e^ATretf. ) 


, to c?o, second Perf. eopya, Plup. ecipye tz/. 
6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at the 
same time, the Spiritus Asper of the stem being then transferred to the e of 
the augment : 

6 paw, to see, Impf. t&pu>v, Perf. e^pa/ca, ecopa^uat. 
avolyta, to open, Impf. aveuyov, Aor. afe<w|a (Inf. avoiai), etc. 
^cu, to be taken, Aor. laAwj/ (Inf. aXwvai, a), and f/Acoj/. 

^ 123. Reduplication. 

1. Reduplication ($ 108, 4) is the repeating the first conso- 
nant of the stem with e. This implies a completed action, and 
hence is prefixed to the Perf., 1 e. g. Xe-Xv/ca, to the Fut. Perf., 

1 Strictly, we may say that the first letter of all verbs is repeated in the 
Perf., whether the verb begins with a vowel or a consonant. When the conso- 


e. g. Ke-KooyxT/o-ojuat (from fcocr/ftlu), and to the Plup., which, as an 
historical tense, takes also the augment e before the reduplica- 
tion, e. g. e-oc-ySo 'AericEir. This remains in all the modes, as 
well as in the Inf. and Part. 

:1. Those verbs only admit the reduplication, whose stem 
begins with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid ; but 
verbs beginning with p, yv, yX, /2A., 1 take only the simple aug- 
ment, except /3Xa7mu /3e/3Xa<a, /?Xao-</>r7yu.ecu /3e/3Xaa<?//A77Ka, and 
/jXacrravw /3(3Xaa"nr]Ka and /3Xao-r^/ca, e. g. 

AiW, to loose. Perf. Ac-AvKa 

bvu, to sacrifice, " re'-dma ( 21, 2.) 

(pvTfva), to plant, " ire-(pinVKa ( 21, 2.) 

Xoptvo), to dance, " Kf-xopfVKa ( 21, 2.) 

ypd<p(a, to write, ' ye-ypcxpa 

K\lv<a y to bend down, " KC-KAJKO 

Kpivw, to judge, " Ke-xpiKa 

irvtca, to breathe, ' ire-irvevKa 

&\du, to bruise, ' rc-^AaKO ( 21. '2.) 

piiTT<a, to throw, a Hpf>i<pa ( 23, 3.) 

yvvpifa, to make knoicn, " t-yi/wpiKct. 

)8/\aKeu&j, to be slotltful, " e-)8AaKeuKo 

yAu<w, fo carve, " $-y\vfya 

3. Besides the verbs just mentioned beginning with p, yv, y8X, 
yX, the reduplication is not used, when the stem begins with a 
double consonant or with two single consonants, which are not 
a mute and liquid, or with three consonants, e. g. 

^VjA^co, to emulate, Perf. -0)\c0Ka 

ei/o', to entertain, ' e-|eVw/ca 

^/aAAw, to siny, " e-^aA/ca 

<7iT^pa>, fo sow, -(T7rap/ca 

KTi'i, <0 //<V//V/. ' ; <i-KTlKa 

TTTVVffCl), tO fold, ' C-TTTVXO. 

(TTparriytw, to be a general, " 

nant is repeated, e is joined with it in order to vocalize it. If the verb begins 
with a vowel, the vowel is doubled and the two coalesce, if the initial vowel is 
short, and thus form a long vowel ; but if the initial vowel is long, it absorbs 
the other, e. g. 

&y<a, Perf. properly &axa = -fix* 

eyelpto, ' : ftyepKa tfyepKa 

OlKfU, " " OOlKTJKa = <fKT}KO.. 

Sometimes when the verb b -ir;: with e, the double e, instead of coalescing 
into -TJ, is contracted into -et, c. . law, Perf. 6?a/ca, instead of ^a/ca. 

1 Words beginning with t\\e^ letters are excepted on account of the diffi- 
culty of repeating them. 


150 VEitBS. ATTii: KKlMJI'LICATiON. |$ I'M 

RKMARIC 1. The two verbs & i u. v i) a :< & (.ucm MNA), to remind, and i:rdo-, to acquire, though their sU'ni begins with two consonants, which are not a 
mate and a liquid, still take the reduplication, ue-,uj/?jjua{, Ke-KT-r)/.iai, t'-^e-^t^/i^v, 
f-Kf-KTfi[j.r)v, The regular form sxTrmai, is Ionic, but it is found also in Ae:-ch. 
Prom. 792, and in Plato with :e-KT?^icu; likewise in Th. 2, 62. Trpose/crrj^Va 
(as according to the MSS. it must probably be read, though elsewhere. Th 
always uses K(KTrj/ Perfects formed by Metathesis or Syncope, are seem- 
ing exceptions to the rules of reduplication, e. g. SeS^Tj/co, ireVTa.ucu, etc. ( 22, 
and 16, 8.) 

4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat this 
liquid, but take ei for the augment : 

\ctppAvw, to take, Perf. etA^a Plup. fl\-f]<peiv 

Aay%aj/co, to obtain, 

Xfja), (ruAAeyw, to collect, 

'PE.Q, to say, " e^Tj/co " elpriKeiv 

/j.eipo/, to obtain, " elfj-aprai (with rough breathing), it is fated. 

EEM. 2. The regular reduplication is sometimes found in the Attic poets, 
e. g. A.eATj/UjUe&a, yA\r.\c-vufVos, also in Xen. e'TnAeAey^eVot occurs, Cy. .3. 3, 41 
(Altorf, aTrciAc^/^cVoi). ;i'i-J c- 'AcA/x^-ai, II. 1. 6, 16. Ai a A 6-y o/j.a i, to converse, 
has Perf. Ste/Aey/zat, though the simple Ae'yw, in the sense of to say, always 
takes die regular reduplication, AeAey^at, dictus sum (Perf. Act. wanting). 

$ 121. Attic Reduplication. 

1. Several verbs, beginning with a, e, or o, repeat, in the Perf. 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of 
the stem. This is called the Attic Reduplication. The Plup. 
then very rarely takes, an additional augment ; e. g. StwpcopvKro, 
X. An. 7. 8, 14 ; so ^K-^/coeu/, but sometimes dKTyKoetv. 

2. The verbs, which in the Attic dialect have this reduplica- 
tion, are the following : 

(a) Those whose second stem-syllable is short by nature : 

aAew, -w, to grind, e^eco, -w, to vomit, 

) aA-^Aeoyicu 

ap6u), -S>, to plour/h, e'Aaco (e'Aawco), to drive, 

ap-^ipofj-at eA-'/7Aa/ca cA-^Aa,uaj 

) ap-7)p6/jL7)v e'A-rjAaKeiv eA-TjAa/xTji' 
'OMOil, o/j.vv/j,i, to swear, 'OAEH, V\\V/JLL, to destroy, 

Ofj.-^)/j.oKa o/j.-dafj.oar/ oA-wAe/ca Perf. II. ?A-coAa 

ojj.-w/J.6(r/,n)v oA-wAeweiv Plup. II. oA-wAe 


125.) AI (;.\ii;.\T AM> i'.i:i>i I'l ic.\Ti<>.\ i.\ COMPOUNDS. 151 

, to convince, opvrrta, to dig. 

(t\--f]\cyxa) totfaeffUU op-wpuxa op-dipvy^ai and 


Further: I \l<rff<a, to icind, (e'A TjAtxa), t\--f]\ (the rough breathing he- 
ing rejected). :uul in good usage among later writers. ( r tXiy/ ; t> 
to smelt, oS-w5a ; (fiepco ('ENEKfl), fr> carry, lv-r\vo~xa., ev-jjvey/jia.1 ; <r&i<a (' 
to eat, tS-'fjfioKa, e8-r i 5eo'[j.a,i: &yca, to lead, Pci*f. usually ^x a 5 7''7 X a (i>)>f ( '-'i ( l 
of a7-?j7oxa, so as to soften the pronunciation) is later, and is rejected by the 
Atticists as not Attic, though in Lysias ; but Peif. Mid. or Pass, always $y/ 

(b) Those which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel 
long by nature, and shorten this after prefixing the reduplication 
(except epei'Sw) : 

, to anoint, aKovw, to hear, 

'EAET0H, pxo/, to come, epetScu, to prop, 

p-Ti p e i KO. 

j to collect, e-yeipw, to icake, 

ay-riyepfjiou (ey-i t yepKa.) ey- 

ay-nyfp^Tjv (ey-iiyepicew) ey- 

So from tyeipw comes the second Perf. eyp-fjyopa (on account of euphony 
instead of ey-riyopa), I wake, second Plup. Act. fyprjy6piv, I aivoJce. 

REMARK 1. The forms included in parentheses are such as are not found 
in good Attic prose. 

REM. 2. The verb &yu, to lead, forms the second Aor. Act. and Mid., and 
Qfpco, to carry, forms all the Aorists with this reduplication ; here, however, the 
reduplicated vowel takes the temporal augment, and that only in the Ind., and 
the vowel of the stem remains pure : 

&yw, to lead, Aor. II. %y-ayov, Inf. ayayciv, Aor. II. Mid. rjyiry^uTji' ; 
(pepus, to carry (stem 'EFK), Aor. II. tfy-eyKov, Inf. ev-eyKeiv, Aor. I. fyV-e-y/co, 
Inf. tv-eyicai, Aor. Pass. V-e'xd^J', Inf. 

$ 125. Augment and Reduplication in Compound 

1. First rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take the 
augment and reduplication between the preposition and the 
verb ; the final vowel of prepositions, except Trcpt and Trpo, is 
elided [$ 13,'2, (a)] ; irpo frequently combines with the augment 
by means of Crasis ($ 10), and becomes 7rpo; IK before the 
syllabic augment is changed to e ($ 15, 3 ) ; and ev and <ruv 

152 VERBS. - REMARKS. [$ 126. 

resume their v which had been assimilated ($18, 2), or changed 
($ 19, 3), or dropped (20, 2), e. g. 

d7ro-j8aAAw, to throw from, Im. OTr-e/SaAAoj' Pf. aTro-ySe'^A^/ca Pip. 

TTept-)SaAAa>, to throw around, Trept-ejSaAAoi' Trepi-/3e/3A?7x:a irepi-e/3tl3\-f)Keiv 

,, to few, fee/ore, 

eV)8aAAa>, to throw out, e-eaAAoy 

cri>A-A /< ya>, to collect together, a"uv-\eyov ffvv-ei\oj(a 

(rvp-p'nrr<a, to throw together, ffw-eppiirrov ffvf-eppKpa <rvv-tppi<peiv 

ey-ytyvo/j.a.1, to be in, fV-eyiy^/jL^v ey-yeyova 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with Svs, take the aug- 
ment and reduplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem 
of the simple verb begins with a consonant or with 17 or o> ; (b) 
but in the middle, when the stem of the simple verb begins 
with a vowel, except 77 or w, e. g. 

SUS-TI/XCW, to 6e unfortunate, e-Sus-Tlr^ouj/ Se-5us-T^77/fa 
8us-a>7rea>, to /nafce ashamed, (-Svs-cairovv Se-Svs-caTrrjKa 
Sus-apeaWw, to 6e displeased, Svs-ripea-rov Sus-Tj/jeVrTj/ca 

REMARK 1. Verbs compounded with eS may take the augment and redupli- 
cation at the beginning or in the middle, yet they commonly omit them at the 
beginning, and euepyere'cy usually in the middle, e. g. 

eu-Tuxeew, to be fortunate, Inipf. -r)v-Tv-%eov, but commonly eu-ru^eov 

ir-co%eouai, to feast ivell, " ew-coxcJ/tTjj/ 

ev-fpyereca, to do good, " ev-rjpyereov, but commonly ev-epyereoj/, Perf. 

ev-ypyeTfjKa, but commonly ev-epyerrjKa. 

3. Third Rule. All other compounds take the augment and 
reduplication at the beginning, e. g. 

p.v&o\oyea), to relate e/j.v&oX6yeov 

e'w, to build, cpKoS6fj.eov 

Thus irapp'nffid& (from irapp^ffia, and this from ?ra^ and ffiffis], to speak 
openly, Aor. ^-Trappr}(na(rdfj.riv, Perf. Tre-irappr](ria(r/ 

REM. 2. 'OSoTToie'cu has the Perf. a>8o7re7ro](r&aj, X. An. 5. 3, 1. Lycurg. c. 
Leocr. 139, has 

126. Remarks. 

1. The six following words compounded with prepositions take the augment 
in both places, viz. at the beginning of the simple verb and before the preposi- 
tion : 

$ 126.] VERBS. - REMARKS. 153 

iL/jLirfxofJLat, to clothe one's self, Impf. 
dj/c'xo/iou, to endure (not avexu), '' 

eto, to be uncertain, : T}fj.($>fyv6ovv and 

avop&6(i), to raise up, ; fjvvp&ovv Perf. 

eoj, to molest, ' i]v&x^ ovv " 

eu, to 7*z'0, ; t-rrapcpvovv " TreTrapwi/rj/ca " irapcfVT)(ra. 

2. The analogy of these verbs is followed by three others, which are not 
compounded with prepositions, but are derived from other compound words, 

(from Siaira,food), (a) to feed, (b) to 6e a judge, Impf. ^nyrtav and 
Trcoi', Aor. e&rfTTjo-a and 8477x770-0 ; Perf. SeSiTJTTj/ca ; Impf. Mid.' 
u, to serve (from Sta/coj/os, servant), Impf. 5i7jK(Ji'ouv and 
Perf. SeStrjK^/fa 

eca (from AM4>I2BHTH2), to dispute, Impf. ^^(pfa-^Tovv and 

3. Exceptions to the first rule. Several verbs compounded with prepositions, 
take the augment before the preposition, since they have nearly the same 
signification as the simple verbs, e. g. 

(voe'w), to 6e uncertain, Impf. y/jt.<piyv6ovv, or -ri/j.(pfyv6ovv (No. 1) 

1) to clothe, Aor. Tjju^iWo, Perf. r^^fetr/iai 

4iricna/, to know, Impf. TjTrjtrrcfyiTjj' 

a<pjT7/ii, to dismiss, " d^iouj/ and iityiovv, or 7]<pifiv [&LKOI 

Kc&ifa, to set, " eKa&ifrv (old Att. also Ko^t^oi/), Pf. /<e/<o- 

Ka&fo/, to sit, " e/ca^e^^Tjf and /co<d-e (without Aug.) 

Ko&T)/, to sit, eVa^jUTji/ a 

/co^6t;Sco, to s/ee/>, " ^Ka.^evSoi', seldom 

4. Those verbs are apparently an exception to the first rule, which are not 
formed by the composition of a simple verb with a preposition, but by deriva- 
tion from a word already compounded, e. g. 

evavTiov/, to oppose one's self to (from evaj/rios) Impf. 
avTiStKfo), to defend at law ( " avrtfiiKos) " r/j/rtSi/couj/ and 

avTifioKita, to /til npmi ( " ai/Tipo\.-f)) 

4/j.Tropd.Q), to f/aia \>tj traffic ( " 

, to establish ( " 

5. Many verbs, however, which apparentlv are formed only by derivation, are 
treated, even by the best classical writers,'as if they were compounded of a 
simple verb and a preposition. Thus, Trapavo/j.fia, ira.pT]v6p.ovv and irapfi/6fj.ovv, 
Trapnv6fj.ri(ra, Perf. Trapavev6/j.riKa, although it is not from irapd and ai/Ojuew or 
yo/xe'a>, which two verbs are not in use, but from the compound irapdvo/j.os ; so 
further, eyxeipv (from 'EFXEIPO2), to take in hand, Impf. &(x e lp vv e >ir '^ u - 
/ic'eu (from 'EIII0TMO2), to desire, Impf. -rre^vfji.ovv ; eV&u/ie'ojuot, Aor. eVc^v/x^- 
1^77^, Perf. ffTf&v/j.ri[', K arwyopeti) (from Kar^yopos), to accuse, Impf. /caTTj7(J- 
pou^, Perf. KarT)y6pf)Ka', irpo&vfjio vfj.a i (from irp6&vfj.os), to desire earnestly, 
Impf. Trpov^vfjiovfj.^ and irpo^vij.ovfj.-r]v ; so tyiccafjud^fiv, irpocprjTfvetv, 

) etc. 

1 So PI. Phaed. 87, 6, according to most and the best MSS. 

2 Eur. Med. 1128, and Aristoph. Thesm. \G5. 

154 VE?,BS IN -co. DERIVATION OF TENSES. [$$ 127, 128. 


$ 127. Division of Verbs in -co according to the 

Verbs in -co are divided into two principal classes, accord- 
ing to the difference of the characteristic ( 108, 5) : 

I. Pure verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel ; these are 
again divided into two classes : 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, 
except a, e, o, e. g. TraiBev-co, to educate; \v-co, to loose ; 

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic is a, e, or o, e. g. 
Tipd-co, to honor ; </>tXe-a>, to love ; JJLLO^O-W, to let out 

for hire. 

II. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant; 
these are again divided into two classes : 

A. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine 
mutes, e. g. Xe/TT-w, to leave ; 7rXe/e-o>, to twine ; 7refe-co, 
to persuade ; 

B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four 
liquids, X, p, v, p, e. g. ayye\\-co, to announce ; vifji-w, 
to divide ; <j>aiv-a), to show ; <f&eip-w, to destroy. 

REMARK. According to the accentuation of the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act., 
all verbs are divided into : 

(a) Barytones, whose final syllable in the first Pers. Pres. Ind. Act. is not 
accented, e. g. \u-o>, 7r\K-a>, etc. ; 

(t) Perispomena, whose final syllable is circumflexed in the first Pers. ; these 
are consequently contract verbs, e. g. Tipta, <j>i\u, 

$ 128. Derivation of Tenses. 

All tenses are formed from the stem of the verb, the inflection-endings men- 
tioned above ( 113), being appended to this. The Primary tenses only have 
a distinct tense-characteristic ( 110); this is always wanting in the Pres. 
and Impf., the mode-vowels and personal-endings being sufficient; but the 
Pres. and Impf. very frequently strengthen or increase the pure stem, e. g. 
TVTTT-U) (pure stem TYn), afMpr-dvca (pure stem 'AMAPT) ; the Secondary tenses 
never admit such an increase, but are formed from the pure stem, and without 
the tense-characteristic ; yet, in certain cases ( 140), they admit a change of 


the stem-vowel. Hence, certain tenses, which are formed from a common stem, 
may be distinguished from each other and classed by themselves. Tenses, 
included in such a class, may he said to be derived from one another. The 
principal classes are the three following: 

I. Tenses, which may strengthen the pure stem. Tli^e aiv tiie I';-o--. and 
Impf. Act., Mid., or Pass., e. g. 

(pure stem TTn) TVTT-T-W 

%-TVTT-T-OV ^-TV7T-T-(fyiTJI/. 

II. Tenses, which have a tense-characteristic. These arc the Primary 
tenses, e. g. 
(a) First Perf. and first Plup. Act., c. g. (Tre-^paS-Ko) 7re-</>paKa, 

(b) Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass. These do not have the tense-charac- 
teristic; from the Perf. Mid. or Pass, the Fut. Perf. is formed by 
rejecting -pat and annexing -<ro/, e. g. Te-Tu/i-jwu (instead of rervir- 
jiiat), Te-Tu/U|U7jj/, TeTvtyo[ (instead of TervTTffo-fji.a.i). The Perf. has 
a short vowel, but the Fut. Act. and Mid. a long vowel, e. g. Au, 
AeAC/ca, \4\vfjLcu t AWTCO, Autrojucu, Sew, Se8rja, Se'Se/xat, 5r,(T(s>, 

so the Fut. Perf. has a long vowel, e. g. 

(c) First Fut. and Aor. Act. and Mid., e. g. 

-TUI|/CI t-Tv$d/j.r)v ; 

(d) First Aor. and first Fut. Pass., e. g. e-rv(p-^r)v Tu^-dijc-o/ucu. 
III. Tenses, which are formed from the pure stem without a tense-character- 

istic, may yet, in certain cases, admit a change of the stem-vowel. These 
are the Secondary tenses, e. g. 

(a) The second Perf. and second Plup. Act. c. g. Te-rihr-o, e-Te-TUTr-eiv ; 

(b) The second Aor. Act. and Mid., e. g. e-Ao-oj/, 4-\c&-6iJ.T)v from Aav- 
&dv<a (pure stem AA0) ; 

(c) The second Aor. and second Fut. Pass., e. g. l-T$ir-r)v, rSTiH 


1. In pure verbs, both Barytoned and Perispomena, the 
tense-endings are commonly appended to the unchanged char- 
acteristic of the verb, e. g. /JovAew-o-co, pfiov\tv-Ka.. Pure verbs 
commonly form no Secondary tenses, but only the Primary 
tenses; the Perf. with K (KO), the Fut. and Aor. with o- and # 
(o-<o, o-a, Srjv, ^ija-o-/xai). Pure verbs, however, are subject to the 
following regular change in the stem : 

2. The short characteristic vowel of the Pres. and Impf., is 
lengthened in the other tenses, viz. 

li into t, c. g. jioji/fiw, tp 6e angry, fAijt/t-aw, ^u.7/j/f(ra, etc. 

" v, - Kw\v-u> ( v commonly long), to hinder. Ko>AO-<7a;, K-K^AVM<"> 6te. 


e into 77, e. g. <pi\e-<a (0tA.), to love, (pi^-ffca, ire-cpiXrj-Ka, etc. 

o " , " fj.i<T&6-(0 (/j.i<r&a>), to let out for hire, /j.Hr&ct>-<rca, /Jt-e-fjiiff^ca-Ka, etc. 

d " 77, " rifjL&-u (TI/J.GO), to honor, rip.i]-(r(a, T^-ri^-Ka, etc. 

REMARK 1. d is lengthened into a, when e, <, or p precedes it [comp. 43 
1, (a)], e. g. 

ea-co, to permit, ea-o-co, etao-a, efcwca, efyucu, CJ'O^TJI/ ; e0TiS-cu, to entertain, 6<mci- 
<ra> ; (pcapa-(a, to steal, (pcapa-ffd) ; but eyyua-w, to (/z've as a pledge, eyyf-^trw ; j8oaa>, 
to ca# OM?, jSo^trojuat, ^o?j<ra (like 078077). 
The two following imitate those in -, -icta, -pcw, viz. 
aAoa-w, to s^'Are, to <AresA, old Att. Fut. oAod-o-co ; but usually oAo^irw; 
a.Kpoa-0/, to hear, Fut. aKpoaLtro/j-ai, Aor. TjKpod(rdfji.r)f (like a&poa). 

REM. 2. The verbs %pta>, to give an oracle; xpao^uat, to wse; an 
to bore, though p precedes, lengthen d into TJ, e. g. 

^ 130. Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs ivith 
a short Characteristic-vowel. 

The following pure verbs, contrary to the rule ($ 129, 2) re- 
tain the short characteristic-vowel, either in forming all the 
tenses, or in particular tenses. Most of these verbs assume a 
<r in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, and first Aor. Pass., and in the 
tenses derived from these, and also in the verbal adjectives; 
such verbs are designated by : Pass, with o-. 

(a) -iu. 
Xptto, to sting, Fut. xpft rw > A r - ^XP" 7 " * I n ^- XP^ ffal ' P ass - with or; (but XP^ W > 

to anoint, Fut. xpr<ro>, Aor. IxP" 7 " ? ^f- XP* ffal > ^ or - MM- ^?fl^4w 5 Perf. 

Mid. or Pass. Kcxpi-ff-pai, /cexp^o-^ot; Aor. Pass, ^xp^-^iv ; verbal adj. 

REMARK 1. <hrofa>, to perceive, of the Ionic dialect, belongs here ( 230). 
The poetie euw is found only in the Pres. and Impf. ("aiov, 122, 1). 

(b) -fo. 

1. 'Ai/^w (also old Att. avvTu) to complete, Fut. aj/uo-w ; Aor. tfi/vtra. Pass. 
with <r. 

apucu (also old Att. apvTca'), to draw water. Fut. bpvffoo ; Aor. tfpvffa. Pass. 

with <r. 
^u w (5), to cfose, e. g. fAe eyes, Fut. jw&rco, Aor. e/iva-o; but Perf. ^e/iD/ca, to is 

closed, to be silent. 
TTTUCO(O), to spit. Fut. TTTUO-CU; Aor. eTTTuo-a. Pass, with a (iirrv-ff-S-r)v), verbal 

adj. Trry-o'-To'y. 

2. The following dissyllables in -vco lengthen the short characteristic-vowel 
in the Fut and Aor. Act. and Mid. and in Fut. Per?. Mid., and 8vca also in the 
Perf. and Plup. Act.; but they resume the short vcwel in the Perf. and Plup. 


Act. (except Svco), Mid. or Pass., in the Aor. and Fut. Pass., and in verbal 
adjectives : 

$ v w, to wrap up, Fut. 5u<rw Aor. cSucra Perf. SeSO/c a StSC//.at Aor Pass. 
&uo>, to sacrifice, " d&rw " f&vira " rfavita T&VHHI " " 
At/w, to loose, " A6(T " &.u<ro " AcAftra AeAv/wu " " 

REM. 2. The doubtful vowel u is commonly used as long in the Pres. and 
Impf. by the Attic poets ; but in prose it must be considered as short ; hence to 
be accented /tue, imJf, Aue, etc., and not /tue, irrve, AiJc, etc. 

(c) -&. 

FeAaw, to laugh, Fut. yf\a.<ro/ (seldom yeXaGO)} ; Aor. ^yc'Acura. Pass. 

with <r. 

^A(o> (usually ^AeuW), to drive, Fut. ^Aa<ra> (Att. e'Aw), etc. See 158, 3. 
&Aaa>, to bruise, dAaaaj, etc. Pass, with <r (rf^\a-<, fS\d-<r-friiv). 
K\do), to break, K\&ffa>, etc. Pass, with a (/ce/cAo-<r-/uai, e/cAc-<r-&7/j/). 
XoAca), to /oosen, -)(o^ ja<a -> etc - Pass, with o- (exoA^-o--^??*'). 
5o/uao> (usually 5a/icCa>), domo, Aor. tSdfjiaffa. Pass, with o 1 . 
TT cpdca, to transport, to sell, Fnt. irep&vca ; Aor. tirepa<ra ; Perf. TreTrepa/co (but 

irepdti), to pass over, In trans., Fut. irep&rw ; Aor. eWpdaa). These seven 

verbs have a liquid before the characteristic-vowel a. 
trircCeo, to draw, tnrcurw, etc. Pass, with a (tcrird-<r-frr)v). 
<rxd<0, to loose, to open, ffxacrw, etc. 

(d) - e '. 
1 . A. IS e opai, to reverence. See 166,1. 

t, to Aea/, a/ce<ro/iot, r)K<rd/j.r}v ; Perf. IVIid. or Pass. ^Ke-ff-ftat; Aor. Pass. 

&A e w, to ^rz'nc?, to fcecrf, oAe'-(r-(w, Att., yet seldom aAw ; Aor. ^Aeo-o; Perf. Mid. or 

Pass. a\faeffiMi ( 117, 2, and 124, 2). 
apKtta, to suffice, etc. Pass, with a. 
^/ic w, to wmiVFut. Ipc'crce, etc.; Perf. Act. ^/teKo ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ty-f)pf<r- 

fjuit ( 124, 2). 

e, to 6ozZ (usually intrans., and ^eVvu/tt, usually trans.). Pass, with <r. 
few, to scrape. Pass with cr. reAew, to accomplish. Pass, with o- ( 117, 2). 
rp4(i>, to tremble, -e<ro>, etc.; verbal adj. rpe-ff-rfa. X 6/(W > to P ltr - See 154, 

Rem. 1. 

2. The following have in some tenses the long, in others the short vowel: 
alvfu (in Attic prose ^Tratj/ew), to praise, Fut. ewVe'erw ; Aor. ijij/e<ra; Perf. ijvfKa] 

Aor. Pass. ^v4^v\ Fut. Pass. cwVc&^cro/tai ; verb. adj. atVeT<Js, -reos; but 

Perf. Mid. or Pass. rjvTj^ai. 

alpfca, to choose, Aor. Pass, rjpefrrjv; also T)pJ)frriv', cup-ffffca, rjfrr)Ka, ftpy/Acu. 
ya/j.f(a, to marry, Fut. yapta; Aor. ^717^0; Perf. yfyd^Ka ; Aor. Pass, tyafdifrnv 

(I was taken to wife). 
5ew, to 6inrf, S^trco, 7?(ra, ^-nadfj.^ ; but Se'SeKa, S&epcu, e'Se^i' ; Fi^t. Perf. 

ScS^cro/iou is commonly used for 8t&-f)<roiMi (the latter is used by Dem. and 

later writers). 



KO\&>, to call, Fut. /coAecra>, Att. /caAw ( 117,2); Aor. AwUeoM ; Perf. Act. 

/ee/cATj/ca ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. /ce/cAtyucu, Zai called ; Fut. Pcii'. KtK\'!}(Top.a.i, 

I shall be called; Aor. Pass. 4K\-f)frrjv ; Fut. Pass. K\r)S-f)ffofj.a.i ; Fut. Mid. 

KaAoDjuai ; Aor. Mid. e/cctAecra.uTjj'. 
iro&ea>, to dest're, Tro^cVo^uar, Lys. 8, 18, PI. Phaed. 97, a. ; cVd&eo-o, Isoc. 4. 1^'J. 19, 

17; elsewhere, irofrf)ffco, cTro&Tj-ra; Perf. Act. TCTr^Tj/ca; ireTro.^-Tj/iK/ ; Aor. 

Pass, firo&ea&rjv. 

to), laboro, Fut. jrovfjo'w, etc. (to work) ; TiweVw (to / z'n pain) ; Perf. TreTro- 

I/TJKCC in both senses ; Mid. and Pass, always have 77, e. g. fTrovrja-d^rjv and 

^TToi/Tjd-TjK, Perf. ireTr^j/Tj/xaj. 

(e) -ow. 

Jw, to plough, Fut. ap6<r(a t Aor. f/pcxra; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ap-f}pofj,cu ( 124, 
2) ; Aor. Pass. T]p6frr)v. 

131. Formation of the Aor. and Fut. Pass., and 
the Perf., Pluperf. Mid. or Pass, with cr. 

1. Pure verbs, which retain the short characteristic- vowel in 
forming the tenses, in the Aor. and Fut. Pass, and in the Perf. 
and Plup. Mid. or Pass, (also in the verb, adj.), unite the tense- 
endings Srfv, /x,cu, etc. to the tense-forms by inserting o- ($ 130), 


2. Besides these verbs, several others also, which either have 
a long characteristic-vowel in the stem, or lengthen the short 
characteristic- vowel of the stem in forming the tenses, have the 
same formation, viz. 

a/couct), to hear, Aor. Pass. yKov-<r-&r)i', Fut. Pass. aKov-ff-fr-fiffoncu, Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. ^Kov-ff-fj-ai, Plup. T/KOU-OT-/*^ ; evaixa, to kindle; /ccAevw, to command; 
the Deponent Sioirapa/ceAeuo^at, to arouse; Kvaica, wf)<a, to scratch 
KKV7]-ff-fjiai, sKvai-v-frriv, fKrfi-ff-&ijv) ; Kv\to>, to roll; Aeuco, to stone 
Perf. seems to be wanting) ; |uw, to scrape; iraiu, to strike; ira\al<a, to wrestle 
(fTra\ai-<r-frr)v) ; TrAew, to saz7; irpi<o, to saw ; irratia, to strike against, to stum- 
ble; paica (poetic), to destroy; cre/w, to shake; vw, to rain, Aor. Pass. S-cr-^rji/, 
/ was rained upon, Perf. Pass. %-< (tyv-ff-jjLfi/os, X. Ven. 9, 5),'Fut. v<ro/ 
(instead of v-ff-frf)-ff-o( ; type to, to send (only in compounds, e. g. fl<r<p., 
fK(p., to lead in), Fut. (pp^ffca, etc., Mid. <f>p-f)(rofjuu, Aor. Pass. &/>p^-oS&ijj/ ; x^co, to 
heap up (Ke'xw-o'-^ai, e'x^-(r-^7ji/) ; XP W ^ ^^ an orac/e (Ke' 
^j/, 129, Rem. 2) ; XP^ to anorn^ [ 130, (a)] ; ^/auo>, to 

$ 131. J VlCIir.S. - AORIST AKD Fl'TUKE PASSIVE V/1TH <T. 169 

3 The following vary between the regular formation and 
that with a- : 

yf v w, to cwse to taste, Mid. to fasfc, to cn/oy, Pcrf. Mid. or Pass, yeyevpcu (Eurip.); 

but Aor. Pass, probably lycv-<r-Sniv. Comp. yfv/jut, but yev-ff-reov. 
5poo>, to cfo, Fut. 8pd(tw, etc.; Perf. Se'Spd/ca; Pcrf. Mid. or Pass. 8e5pd/xai and 
(Th.) ; Aor. Pass. fSpdtr^v (Th.). Verbal adjective Spo-tr-ros, 

w, to break in pieces, Perf '. Mid. or Pass, rffrpav-a-fjiai (Plat. 
Aor. Pass, t&pav-ff-frriv. Verbal adjective dpau-<r-T(fc. 

, Att. /cAda>, to ireep. Perf. Mid. or Pass. Ke/cAccv/uci and KfK\av-ff-/ 
, to s/ittf, Perf. Mid. or Pass. KfKteifjuu commonly, KAet-(r-/xot Aristoph.; 
Tragedians, Thu., sometimes PL, rarely Xen. ; Aor. Pass. e'/c\ei'- 
, Attic tK\r$-ff-frnv (Th.) ; Fut. Pass. /cAet-o-^aoftat. Verbal adjective 

KO\OVW, to maim. Perf. Mid. or Pass. KfK6\ and /ce/coAou-<r-^ot ; Aor. 

Pass. lKo\ov-a-Zn\v and iKO\ovfrr\v. 
Kpoixa, to strike itpon. Perf. Mid. or Pass. /cticpou^ot and (seldom) K(Kpov-(r-/ 

(X. H. 7. 4, 26) ; Aor. Pass. lKpov-a-Srnv. 
v4w, to heap /), Fut. K^O-W, etc. ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. j//i?/iai (j/e^-y-yiiai doubt- 

ful) ; but Aor. Pass, ^-(r-^rjv CArrian). Verbal adjective vTjrds. 
vf<a (collateral form Hj^w), to spin, Perf. Mid. or Pass, viv^-a-pai; but Aor. 

Pass. Iv4$n\v. Verbal adjective vT\r6s. 

tyd(o,to rub, Pcif. Mid. or Pass, tifrnai and e^-tr-^ot ; Aor. Pass, ty-fifrnv and 
(inr-tcad of which the Attic writers use tyi], tyix&n* from 

1. The following verbs assume o- in the Aor. Pass., but not 
in the Perf. : 

(MNA-n), to remind, Pf. pffuipiu, I remember, A. P. ^v^-ff-Sniv 
, to fc/ou', it 4irvi> (JLCU (poet.) 

p&P-a-i), utor, K^xp^/J-ai 

iravca, ''> rintxf 'o rf-dsc: to Jinish, irira.v/jLCU 

and tiravbTjv, iraudVo/iai Ion. and Th. Verbal adject 

5. The following verbs, though they retain the short charac- 
teristic-vowel in the Perf. and Aor. Pass., do not assume o- : 

8uo>, Srva>, \w [$ 130 (b), 2], ^A(o> [ 130 (c)], euVcv, ofpcv, Sew [ 130 (d), 2], 
apow [ 130 (e)], x [ 154. Rem. 1], <re<5, to ej:c/fe ( 230). 




A. Uncontracted Pure Verbs. 
132. (a) without a- in the Mid. and Pass. 

KwAiJw, to hinder. ACTIVE. 


K&/AU-W I Perf. 








/ccuAii-o^aij Perf. 










KU\V &h<ro/ 

133. (b) with a- in the Mid. and Pass. ($ 131). 

Perf. S. 1. 

Mid. 2. 

or 3. 

Pass. 1. 

Ind. D. 2. 



Mid. or b< I' 
Pass. * 
Ind. d ' 









or /c6-KeAv-(Tidw] 

Aorist Pass. f-Ke\i>-(r-frriv 

Future Pass. 

B. Contract Pure Verbs. 
$ 134. Preliminary Remarks. 

1. The characteristic of contract pure verbs is either a, , or o ($ 127) ; these 
are contracted with the mode-vowel following. The contraction, which is made 
according to the rules stated above ( 9, 1.), belongs only to the Pres. and 
Impf. Act. and Mid., because in these two tenses only is the characteristic- 
vowel followed by another vowel. The Paragogic v in the third Pers. Sing. 
Impf. Act. disappears in the contraction. On the tense-formation, sec 


2. The contract forms of verbs in -du in the Indicative and Subjuncxive are 
the same ; contracts in -<fa have the same form for the second and third Pers. 
Sing, in the Indie. Opt. and Snl>j. viz. -o?s, -o?. 

3. The contracted Infinitive of verbs in -ow, which, in ouv editions of the 
classics, is more commonly written with an Iota Subscript, is without that lette 
in the ancient inscriptions, being contracted from -oev, e. g. rip-av, not r 

4. If only one syllable follows the parenthesis in the paradigm, the termina 
tion of the uncontractcd form is the last syllable in the parenthesis, and the 
syllable after the parenthesis is the termination of the contracted form, e. g. 
Tifj.(d-u)a} = ri/j.dw, TI/JLU, Tif.(.(d.-tiv}a.v = Ti/j.dfiv, Tificiv] but if more than one 
syllable follows the parenthesis, the syllable, or syllables, after the last hyphen 
is the common ending of the contract and uncontracted forms, the uncontracted 
word embracing all the letters of the form except the vowel after the paren- 
thesis ; the contract, all without the parenthesis. 





135. Paradigms of 







S. 1. 




P. 1. 



S. 1. 




P. 1. 




P. 2. 




TtyU,(cc-cu)fti, to honor, 



ri/j.(a-e)d-TC>)(rav, or 


(f)i\(-ca)w, to love. 


<bi\(e-e)i-T(t)(rai' or 

Ti/j,(d-o)u-vTos '<t>i\(e-o)ov-vTOS 

Ti/j.(a-ov)co-(riis \<f>i\(e-ov)ov-(rr)s 

Characteristic o. 

'&(o-(i>)(ii), to let, 

/J.l(TS( 0-77)0? 



i p e rj'e c t . 




eTj;t(a-t)a-ro^ (<pi\[(-e 

t ri;.i(a-j)w-,aej/ 

! ,uj(T l S-(o'-e)oi/- 





Pne stint. 





TI ( U( a-ajJaJ 


Clianictoristic t>. 


J o-w ) o;-,uat 

i O-;, 1 }-'jl 


, or 




d-f )a-ro 

CTtjtl ( O-d ) W 

f<j)l\( 6-6 ) tl-ff&OV 

TljLl(t-o)(i J/TO 

6-e )OI!-TO 





rS "3 ? ^3 -S 

|S| ! 

S. 1. 






P. 1. 

S. 1. 







Indica- Plup. 





Characteristic e. 


T lfJ.(d-Ol)-TOI' 




<pi\(e-oi)oi-T-r)i' \ /j.t<r&(o-oi}oi-Tr)v 

Characteristic o. 





Verbal adjectives : ri/j.r)-Tos, -Tea, -reoi/, tpcapd-reos, -rea, -reW, 

136. With short Vowel 








Aorist, e<T7ra<ra 

Characteristic o. 
rr7r(a-o>)aj, to draw. 

Characteristic e. 

, tocom- 


Characteristic o. 

ap(6-(a}co, to plough, 





Verbal adjectives : (nra-ff-Tfos, -reo, -reov, 




Characteristic o. 

Characteristic e. Characteristic o. 




I Ttfji(d-oi)ep-vTo 


<f><i> O/J.CLI 

/J.l(T&( 6-01 ) ol-VTO 


Future, | 

<pa>p<i&fi< \ (f>i\Tj^ri( f fj.Hrb<afrf)( 

4>iA.7j-Te'oy, -rea, -TCOJ/, /iitrd-w-Teos, -Tea, -r4ov. 

in forming the Tenses. 


Characteristic o. Characteristic e. Characteristic o. 



TT 6 A.6-0-- flUl 

er fT\-cr-fj.r] 




| Future, | <rira-a-&T]ffop.a.i \ rf\e-<r-^'f]a'o/ 
TeXe-tr-Tcos, -e'a, -eoi/, apo-Te'os, -ea, -4ov. 


REMARK. On the formation of the Perf. and Aor. Pas?, with a, sec 130, 
131 ; on the omission of the o* in ap-fipo/aaL, ypo&rjv, see 131. 5 ; and on the Attic 
Reduplication in ap-ripo^ai, see 124, 2. The further inflection of co-ira-a-pai, 
<nra-ff-iJ.i]v, rereAe-<r-/, eVeTfAe-a'-^UTjf, is like that of /ce/feAey-o'-^ai, 133. On 
the Attic Fut., reAeVco = re Aw, -e?s, etc., reAeVo,uaJ = re\, reAj7 [el], 
etc., see 117. 

137. Remarks on the Conjugation of Contract 
Ve rbs . 

1 . The Attic dialect omits contraction only in the cases mentioned under 
9, Rein. 3 ; but. verbs in -e'w with a monosyllabic stem, e. g. irAe'co, to sail, TiWco, 
to blow, &6<y, to run, etc. are uniformly uncontractcd, except in the syllable -& 
(from -eet or -ee). e. g. 

Act. Pr. Ind. TrAe'co, 7rAe?s, irAe?, TrAeo^uei/, TrAerre, ir\4ov<rt(v), . 

Subj. TrAeco, TrAeps, TrAe'r?, TrAecojiiei/, TrAeTjre, 7rAew(Tt(v), 

Imp. TrAe?. Inf. 7rAe/. Part. TrAeco j/. 
Impf. Ind. eirAeoj/, 7rAeis, eVAet, e 1 TT A e' o /* e j>, eTrAetre, e TrAe op. 

Opt. TrAe'otjUt, TrAe'ots, etc. 
Mid. Pr. Ind. irAeo/iot, Tr\4rj, -jrAerrat, TrAe^jue^ov, irAera^of, etc. 

Inf. 7rAer<7&cu. Part. ir\f6(j.vos. Impf. eTrAe ^^v. 

2. The verb Sew, to ^'HC?, is commonly contracted in all the forms, particu- 
larly in compounds, e. g. rb Sow, roD SoOj/ros, SfaSoC^uat, KareSovv. But Se?, z' 
is necessary, and $eo/, to need, follow the analogy of verbs in -ew, with a 
monosyllabic stem, e. g. i}> SeW, Seo^at, SeTo-^at ; uncontracted forms of Seo^aj 
occur, instead of those contracted into -ei, c. g. Se'erat, Seecr^at, ^Se'ero, Xen., 
and sometimes also forms of other verbs belonging here are uncontracted, e. g. 
eVAeej>, X. H. G. 2, 27 ; irAeei, Th. 4, 28 ; oWx"*', PL Rp. 379, e. 

3. Several verbs deviate in contraction from the general rules, e. g. 

(a) -ae, -aet, -or;, are contracted into -rj and -77, instead of into -a and -9, e. g. 
C(c-o>) cD, to live, CT?S, -C??, -^?TO^, -C5)Te, Inf. V, Imp. ^, Impf. e^, -^s, 
-rj, -T}TO^, -j)TT)v, -?jT6 ; Trety ((-) w, to hunger, Inf. Treiz/rji', etc.; Si^- 
((-a>)aJ, to f/iirs^, Si^?7s, etc. Inf. SnJ/V; KJ/((i-)w, to scratcJi, Inf. KVTJV; 
(T/u (c-o) w, to smear, Inf. OTATJI/; ij/ (ci-co) cD, to rub, Inf. i^^; %P (^"), to use, XP?7> XP^ Tctt XP^ ff ^ al 5 so a^oXP^M "* ^ ^ ue enough, 
OTTOXP?>CU; aTr6xp-r) (abridged from aTroxpi?), A suffices, Inf. OTTOXP^I', 
Impf. aTre'x/"? ; X P (" ' w ) ^> fo ^^ an orac ^ to propfiesy, xp^s> XP??> XP^"- 

(b) -oo and -oe are contracted, as in the Ionic, into -co, instead of into -ov, and 
-6rj into -w, instead of into -o?, e. g. ^t7((i-w)cS, to freeze, Inf. p^cDv 
(Aristoph., but piyow, X. Cy. 5. 1, 11), Part. G. piywros (Aristoph., but 
piyovvrcai', X. H. 4. 5, 4), and piySxra (Simon, de mulier. 26), Subj. pty$ 
(PI. Gorg. 517, d.), Opt. piyfa (Hippocr.). 

REMARK 1. The Ionic verb i$p6w, to sweat, corresponds in respect to con- 
traction with 17600, to freeze, though with an opposite meaning: iSpwffi, 


4. The following things arc to be noted on the use of the Attic forms of the 
Opt. in -TJI/ ( 116, 8), viz. in the Sing., especially in the first and second person, 
of verbs in -ecu and -6<a, the form in -o(i\v is far more in use than the common 
form, and in verbs in -doa it is used almost exclusively; but in the Dual and 
PI. the common form is more in use. The third Pers. PI. has always the 
shorter form, except that Aeschin., 2. 108, Bekk., uses So/conjo-cu/. 

5. The verb \ovu, to wash, though properly not a contract, admits contrac- 
tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act. and of the Pres. and Impf. Mid., which 
have -e or -o in the ending, e. g. eAou instead of eAoue, eAoD^uev instead of e'Aou- 
ojMei', Mid. AoO/icu (Ao'ei, Aristoph. Nub. 835. according to MSS.), \OVTCU, etc., 
Imp. AoO, Inf. \ovffbcu, Impf. e'Aofywjj', e'AoO, eAoDro, etc., as if from the stem 
AOEil ; still, uncontracted forms are found, e. g. Aovo^oi, e'AoiWro (Xen.). 

REM. 2. On the change of the accent in contraction, see 30, 2. 


$ 138. General Remarks. 
Pure and Impure Stem. Theme. 

1. Impure verbs ($ 127, II.) undergo a variety of changes in 
the stem. In the first place, the stem of the verb is strength- 

(a) Either by an additional consonant, e. g. TVTT-T-W, stem TTI1; Kpd-<a, stem 
KPAF ; <ppdfa, stem $PAA ; and even by inserting an entire syllable, e. g. 
afj-apr-dv-u, stem 'AMAPT ; 

(b) Or by lengthening the stem-vowel, e. g. (peiry-ta, stem *YF; A^-w, stem 
AA0 ; T-fiK-o), stem TAK ; 

(c) Or secondly there is a change of the stem-vowel in some of the tenses; 
this change may be called a Variation ( 16, 6), e. g. KACTTT-W, c'-KAcbr-Tji', 
Ke'-KAo<-a ; comp. Eng. ring, rang, rung, 

2. The original and simple stem is to be distinguished from 
the strengthened stem ; the first is called the pure stem, the 
last, the impure. The Pres. and Impf. commonly contain the 
impure stem ; the Secondary tenses, when such are formed, and 
specially the- second Aor., contain the pure stem; the remaining 
tenses may contain either the pure or the impure stem, e. g. 

Pres. TUTT-T-W, to strike, Aor. II. Pass, f-rvir-rtv Fut. Act. rtyca (ir-cra>) 
" X(lir-<a, to leave, " Act. e-Atir-oi/ " " Aetyw (AeiWco) 

" <r<t>dC-w, to kill, Pass, t - * $ 0.7 - t\v " " <r$<%<* (<r<t>dy-<ra) 

" <j>alv-w, to show, " " l-Q&v-nv " Mid. $ a v-ov^ai 

>, to destroy, " " 4-<j>b&p-nv " Act. ^3p-w. 


3. When a form of a verb cannot be derived from the Pres. 
tense in use, another Present is assumed ; this assumed Pres. 
may be termed the TJte-me (#e//.a), and is printed in capitals, 
to distinguish it from the Pres. in actual use ; thus, e. g. <ei/ya) 
is the Pres. in use, 4>YPO is the assumed Pres., or the Theme, 
designed merely to form the second Aor., 

\ 139. Strengthening of the Stem. 

1. The stem is strengthened, first, by adding another conso- 
nant to the simple characteristic consonant of the stem, e. g. 

rinrrca (TWIT), to strike, Aor. II. Pass. 4-Tvir-nv 

Tdrroa (ray), to arrange, " e-ra.y-r]v 

fy (Kpay), to cry, " Act. f-Kpay-ov. 

2. Yet the strengthened stem is found only in the Pres. and 
Impf. ; in the other tenses the simple stem appears, e. g. 

Pres. TVTTTOI) Impf. ZTVITTOV Aor. II. Pass. hvTrtjv Fut. rfyca 

REMARK 1 . The characteristic of the pure stem, e. g. IT in THI-H is called 
the pure characteristic ; that of the impure stem, e. g. TTT in TUTTT-W, the impure 

3. The stem of many verbs is strengthened also by length- 
ening the short stem-vowel in the Pres. and Impf. ; this short 
rowel reappears in the second Aor., and in liquid verbs, in the 
Fut. Thus, 

a is changed into t\ in mute verbs, e. g. (e-A.a&-oj/) 

a at in liquid verbs, ' ((pav-u) tpaivca 

e " et in liquid verbs, " ((p&ep-u) <}>&eip<a 

I " ei in mute verbs, " (c- \lir-ov) Xenrco 

t " I in mute and liquid verbs, " (e-rptft-^v) rptpca 

iJ C in mute and liquid verbs, " (i-^pvy-r)v) 

v " eu in mute verbs, " (%-<$>vy-ov) 

REM. 2. This strengthening of the stem distinguishes the Impf. Ind. and 
Opt. from the same modes of the second Aor. ; likewise the Pres. Subj. and 
Impf. from the same modes of the second Aor., e. g. %Kpaov tttpayov, Kpdoi/j.i 
{pdyoi/j-i, Kpdfa Kpayw, Kpdfc Kpdye ] eAeiTroi/ HXltrov, \fiiroi[u XtiroifJ.1, 


$ 140. Change or Variation of the Stem-vowel. 

1. The change or variation of the stem- vowel [$ 138, 1 (c)], 
occurs only in the Secondaiy tenses, with the exception of a 
few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute and all liquid verbs, with a monosyllabic stem, 
and with c as a stem-vowel, take the variable a in the second 
Aor., e. g. 

rpfir-w, to turn, Aor. II. Act. f-rpair-ov 

KAeW-w, to steal, " Pass. f-K\\v 

Tpe<J>-, to nourish, " -Tpa<f>-fjv 

<rrpf<j>-a>, to turn, " e-ffrpa<p-ijv 

e'x-w, to "**, 

trreAA-w, to send, " " 

ffirdp-o), to sow, " - O"JT a p 

<t&ftp-u, to destroy, " " 

rffjiv-ta, to cut, " Act. 

The second Aor. erfyiov (from re/ww, to cut), is very rare in Attic prose (Th. 1. 
81. To/iw^ev) ; regular erc/xov; the second Aor. e^pexw (from jfyje'xw, to u?e<^, is 
poetic and late ; common form e'jSpe'xdr?*'. The first Aor. Pass, ^rpe^j/ (from 
T/)6irw), f&pt<f&T)v (fr.Tpe'<po>), eVrpe^^i/ (fr. (TTpetpo)), belong more to poetry than 
prose ; tK\t<t&nv (fr. KAeVrw) Ionic and Eur. Or. 1575 (:A.^eiy). Aepw, <nrelp<a, 
and <t&ipa>, have no first Aor. Pass. The variable a does not occur in polysyl- 
lables, e. g. ^yyeA.oi', TjyyeA.Tji', &fyt\ov, ^yep6(JLnv. 

KEMARK 1. As this variable vowel distinguishes the Impf. from the second 
Aor. Act., e. g. %Tpeirov (Impf.), erpanw (Aor. II.), in some verbs of this class 
(2, above), whose second Aor. Act. is not in use, the variable vowel does not occur 
in the second Aor. Pass., because that tense cannot be mistaken for the Impf, 
see 141, Hem., e. g. A 4 IT w, to see, Impf. e-f}\eTr-ov, second Aor. Pass. -/3\eV- 
nv (first Aor. Pass, is wanting) ; \4y<a, to collect (in compounds), second Aor. 
Pass. Kare-\ty-riv, ffvvt \eyrjv (more seldom Aor. I. oweAe'x&jjj/, e|^jjy ; with 
the meaning to say, always ^Ac'x^ji'); so also \eir-u, to peal, t-\eir-i]v (first 
Aor. Pass, wanting) ; TT Ae-o?, to braid, usually i-Tr\dK-T)v, but also e-Tr\K-rjv 
Plat, (first Aor. Pass. ^irAe'x^i', Aesch. Eum. 259) ; <t>\4y-a,to burn, ^Ae'-y-Tjj/ 
(more seldom ^Ae'x&rjf ) ; tyeyw, to censure, l-tyey-qv, first Aor. Pass, wanting. 

HEM. 2. The verb TTA^TTW, to strike, when uncompounded, retains the i\ 
in the second Aor. and second Put. Pass., but when compounded, it takes the 
variable a; thus, ^-v\-fiy-T\v, TrA7jyi}(ro^cu, Qt-ir\ay-t)v, /care-irAay-Tji/, e/c-TrAdyij- 
<rofuu; ff-fjiru, to make rotten, and T^KU, to melt (trans.), also have the variable o; 
hence Perf. oVo-rpra, / am rotten, second Aor. Pass. ^troTn/j', second Fut. Pass. 
o-oTrtjo-o^oi ; Fut.r^o>,Aor.rT77{a; second Perf. TeVrj/ca, lam melted; second Aor. 
Pass, tr&env; also first Aor. Pass, frfad'?*', PI- Tim. 61. b., Eur. Supp. 1033. 


3. Liquid verbs with a monosyllabic stem and with e for a 
stem-vowel, take the variable a, not only in the second Aor., but 
also in the first Perf. Act., in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and the 
first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

(TTcAAw, to send, Put. <TT6\- Pf. f-ffTa\-Ka -oTToA.-/iat Aor. 
<t&eipw, to destroy, Put. <pfrep-> Pf. f-<p&ap-Ka e<pbap-fjiai. 

The first Aor. Pass. cVraAdTjv is poetic ; the first Aor. Pass, of Sepu, 
<p&ftp<a is not in use ; but instead of it the second Aor. Pass., thus, 
<nrdpyi)v, ^(f^dprjv. The variable a does not occur in polysyllables, e. g. 
fryyeAjca, i]yy\^rjv from a-yyeAAa, ayjiycpucu, yyfpfrqv from ayetpw. Comp. 
No. 1. 

4. Mute verbs, which have e in the final stem-syllable of the 
Pres., take the variable o in the second Perf. ; but those which 
have , take ot; liquid- verbs, which have e or ei in this syllable, 
take o, e. g. 

ScpKo/Mu (poet.), to see, SeSopica. Se'pw, to flay, Se'Sopa 

rpf(pw, to nourish, rerpocpa eyflpw, to wake, tytfyopa, I awoke, 

, to leave, AeXowra ffirclpw, to sow, Zcnropa 

, to persuade, ireiro&a, I trust, Q&eipw, to destroy, <pbopa poetic, (etp&apua, 

REM. 3. Here are classed the following anomalous second Perfs. ; e&u 
(Epic), ffa&a instead of el&a, to be wont, dw&evai, fia&ds, Plup. eld^eiv; 
'EIAH, video, oT5o, I know; 'EIKil, eonta, to be like, to appear, Plup. ^/ceu/; 
?\iro> (poet.), to cause to hope, $o\ira, I hope, Plup. M>\Treiv, I hoped,- 'EPHl, to 
do, eopya, Plup. Mpyeiv; pty-w/j-i, to break, eppwya, lam broken (but on a-fjvw, 
see Rem. 2). 

5. The following take the variable o in the first Perf. also, 
contrary to the rule in No. 1. 

KXeTTTw, to steal, first Perf. /c6/cAo^>o, but Perf. Mid. or Pass. KK\/ (very 

rare and only poet. K&Xequ/Mtt}. 
Xryw, to collect, first Perf. <ruj/e/Aox, ^|e/\ox; but Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

, to send, first Perf. ire iro/i^o ; but Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
to turn, first Perf. r4rpo<pa (like the second Perf. of rpe^ca, to nourish), 
and rerpa^a ; still, this last form is rare ; the more usual form is TeVpo^o. 
The variable a in the Perf. Act. is not found elsewhere, and is probably 
here used only to distinguish it from rerpo^a, Perf. of Tpe<|)&>. 

6. The following mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem, and 
with e for a stem-vowel, like liquid verbs (No. 3), take the 
variable a in the Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; still, the a is not found in 
the first Aor. Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs, e. g. 


(rrpfyw, to turn, Pf. Mid. or Pass. $<rrpanfjiai, but first Aor. Pass. 
rp(TTQ>, to turn, " 

rpe<p(a, to nourish, " " 

On K\rrw, see No. 5. 

$ 141. Remarks on the Secondary Tenses. 

1. The Secondary tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting the 
tense-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal-endings (-<>/, 
-tfjaiVi -nv, -^(To/uu, -a, and -en/) immediately to the pure characteristic of the 
verb, e. g. f-\"nr-ov, second Aor., but ^-TrcwSeu-tr-a, first Aor. ; partly, in being 
formed throughout from an unchanged pure verb-stem (except the Perf. which 
prefers a long vowel, see No. 2), e. g. Aeforw, e-Atir-oj/, <pfvy<a -<j>vy-ov; and 
partly, in taking the variable vowel, e. g. <rrpe<poo t-vrp&Q-ni' <rTpa<p-4j<ro/u, 
but t-ffTpe<p-&T]v ( 140, 2). 

2. The second Perf. either lengthens the short stem-vowel I into I, a into 77, 
and, when it stands after other vowels or p, into d, e. g. 

icpdfy, to cry out, second Aor. %-Kpay-ov second Perf. Kf-Kpay-a 
<ppiff<rca, to shudder, stem: *PIK (i) Tr4-<ppiK-a 

doAAw, to bloom, Put. ba\-u " T6-&7jA-o ; 

so, vc<pijva, \f\qba, from *AN-o>, AA0- ; or it retains the long vowel or diph- 
thong of the Pres., e. g. TTf<pevya from (pevyw (but second Aor. Act. fyvyov), 
TTTj/ca, o-eo-Tpra from T^/CW, o-^ira) (but second Aor. Pass, era/c^p, fff&Tnjv, see 
140, Rem. 2) ; a short vowel occurs only in the cases referred to in 124, and 
140, 4. 

REMARK. Those verbs whose second Aor. Act. could not be distinguished 
from the Impf., or at least, only by the quantity of the stem-vowel, have no 
second Aor. Act. and Mid., but only the second Aor. Pass., since this last form 
has a different ending from the Impf, and could not be mistaken for it, e. g. 

yp&jxa Impf. typafov A. I. typa^a A. II. Act. want, A. II. P. typ&<trnv (A. I. P. does 

not occur in classical writers). 

Z K \lvov " toOta " " A. H. P. Ae\fwjv (A. I. P. eW- 

&T)J/ in Aristoph). 

Aristoph. Nub. 1 52 [with the variation tyvxfi<rri] and often in the later writers ; 
A. I. ^vx^nv, Plat.). 

3. The following points, also, are to be noted: (a) There is no verb which, 
together with the second Aorist, forms the three first Aorists; (b) There is no 
verb which has in use at the same time the second Aor. Act. and Mid. and the 
second Aor. Pass. ; but all verbs, which form the second Aor. have either the 
second Aor. Act. and Mid. only, or the second Aor. Pass. only. A single 
exception, in regard to both the particulars specified, is seen in the verb 
to turn, which has three first Aorists together with three second Aorists : e 
(Ion.), frpS.Tr6fj.rjv, ^rpaTrnv, erpei^a (the common form in Attic). 
(transitive, e. g. rpfyaffbcu eis <t>vrt)v, to put tofliglit), Irpfyfrnv (used more by the 


poets, see 140, 2) ; but in compounds, e. g. fviTpeQ&fjvcu, Antiph. 4. 126, 4. 
127, 5). 

There are but few exceptions to the statement under (b), since the second 
Aor. Act. and Mid. and the second Aor. Pass., occur but rarely, and mostly 
in the poet, dialect, e. g. CTVTTOV Eur., and eruTTTji/ ; tXiirov and eA^Tjv ; e/\ei>^?jv, 
and very seldom f\nr6fjLi)t>. 

4. It is rare that a verb has both Aor. forms ; where this is the case, the two 
forms are used under certain conditions, namely : 

(a) The two Aor. forms of the Act. and Mid. have a different meaning, i. e. 
the first Aor. has a transitive meaning, the second Aor., an intransitive. The 
same is true of the two forms of the Perf., where they are constructed from the 
same verb. See 249, 2. 

(b) The two forms of the Aor. belong either to different dialects, or differ- 
ent periods, or to different species of literature, prose or poetry. Still, in some 
verbs, both forms occur even in prose, e. g. o7T7j\Aax^ 7 7 / j an <i usually aTrr)\\ayT}v ) 
ft\a<f>&Tii/cu and pxa&rjvat, both for ex. in Thuc. Several verbs in poetry have a 
second Aor. Act., which in prose have commonly a first Aor. only, e. g. Kreit/u, 
to kill, Aor. prose, e/cTeu/a, poet. ZKT&VOV and e/croi/. 

(c) The two Aorists stand in such a relation to each other, that the forms 
of one Aorist take the place of the forms of the other not in use, and in this 
way each supplies, respectively, the place of the other, as will be seen under 
the verbs rtdrifu and Si 

$ 142. Classes of Mute Verbs. 

Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three 
classes, according to their characteristic ; in each of these 
classes, verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf. are distinguished from those with an impure charac- 
teristic ( 139, Rem. 1) : 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi-mute (ft, TT, $ pure 

characteristic; TTT ([ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 

(a) Pure characteristic: tre/ATr-co, to send; rpift-co, to 
rub ; ypd(j)-a}, to write ; 

(b) Impure characteristic : TUTTT-G), to strike (pure char- 
acteristic TT, pure stem TTJI) ; ft\a7rr-co, to injure 
(ft, BAAB) ; pbrr-to, to hurl (<, f PI<). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute (K, 7, ^ 


pure characteristic ; a-a- or Attic rr [ 24, 1] impure 
characteristic), e. g. 

(a) Pure characteristic: TrXe/c-to, to weave; cuy-co, to 
lead; reu^-cu, to prepare; 

(b) Impure characteristic: (frplo-cr-a), Ait. <f>pLrr-co, to 
shudder (pure characteristic K, pure stem <&PIK) ; 
Tacrcr-a), Att. Tarr-co, to arrange (7, TAP) ; ^crcr-Q), 
Att. pqrr-a), to cough (%, BHX). 

3. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute (r, 8, S-, 
pure characteristic ; [ 24, 1] impure characteristic), 

(a) Pure characteristic : avvT-co, to complete ; aS-co, to 
sing ; Trefe-co, to persuade ; 

(b) Impure characteristic : <^/?af-o), to say (pure charac- 
teristic S, pure stem &PAA). 

143. Remarks on the Characteristic. 

\. The following mute verbs in -ITTW and -<ro-a> (-TTCO) form the Secondary 
tenses, especially the second Aor. Pass., and have for their characteristic : 

IT: K\eirT-a>, to steal; K^TTT-W, to cut; Tt/irr-ai, to strike (second Aor. Passive 
l-K\&ir-t)v, etc.). 

: ft\dtrr-<a, to injure, and Kpvirr-w, to conceal (second Aor. Pass. -f}\&0-i]jr 
and fp\d<p&Tjv, t-Kpvft-rii' and ^pu^^i/). 

^> : fidirr-u, to tinge ; Stdirr-<a, to bury ; S-puTrr-w, to break ; ^TTT-W, to sew to- 
gether ; PITTT-W, to cast; (r/c<7rr-a>, to dig (second Aor. Pass. e-jSa^-Tj*/, 
t-r&Q-nv, f-rpv(f>-i}Vy tp'-p&Q-'ni', 4p'-pt<t>-i)v and ^ppiip^v, t-critaQ- 

K: 4>pt<rff<a y to shudder (second Perf. ir4-<pplK-a). 

7: aAAao-crw, to change (second Aor. Pass, d \\ay-7jvcu, first Aor. Pass. 
a\\ax&rivcu, poetic), pdo-arw, to knead (nay-rivou). opvaffta, to dig (opvy -riven 
and opvxbrii'a.i), icXfoaV) to strike (t-Tr\fiy-r)i', Qe-tr \ay-tiv), Trp&affu, Att. 
irpdrrw, to do (W-irp 07- a), ff<pdca (Attic mostly <r<pdrTca). to kill (t-atyay- 
ijv, rarely, and never in Attic prose, t(r<pdx&riv), rd<r<r(a, to arrange (rayfis, 
Ear., elsewhere tTdxfrnv), Qpdo-ffw, to hedge round (typay-yv and e<ppdx^n^)- 

2. Two verbs strengthen the pure characteristic K by T, like verbs with the 
impure characteristic TTT : 

ireVr-w (commonly Tre/creco, also ire//cw), to shear, to comb, Fut. Wo>, etc. ; 

still, Keipeiv is commonly used for ireta-civ with the meaning to shear, and 

KTfvifatv and fcatvfiv with the meaning to comb ; 
rlKT-u (formed from TI-TCK-O)), to beget, Fut. re'lo/tcw, second Aor. Act 

ere/col/, second Perf. TCTO/CO. 

3. The following verbs in -<ra<a, -TTW have a Tau-mute, not a Kappa- 
mute, for the pure characteristic: apm<$TTo> (non-Attic ap/no'Cw), to Jit, Fut. 
-6<ra>; /J\fTT, to take honey, Fut. -iau; ftpdffffta (non- Attic fipd(ca), to 
shake ; e p e <r o- &>, to row, Fut. -4<r<u ; ir d <r <r a>, to scatter, Fut. -<<ra> ; IT A a er - 
trw, to form, Fut. -ckrw; irrfo-o-w, to husk, Fut. -f<r ; and Poet, //uc<rcr, to 



whip, Fut. -dffoa ; K v ct> ff a- <a, to sleep, Fut. -wera ; Aeu(T(r, to look, Fut. 
\lff( (poetic, especially Horn., also AITO/UCU)? to pray, Aor. IXiadfjaiv, 
\n&p.T)v\ vi<r<ro/, vfiffffo/uiai, to go, Fut. vfi<ro/mi ; KO pvffffw, to equip 
(Epic Perf. Ke-/c<{pi;&-ju)- 

Here are classed derivatives in - c T T oo : \i/j.<f>Tro),to hunger ; oyeipcarru, 
to dream ; v TT v da r r w, to be sleepy. 

4. The following verbs in -a era) vary between the two formations : v d <r a- a, 
to press together, Fut. vda>, etc. ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. veVa<r/*ot ; verbal Adj. va<n6s ; 
aQvarffw (Poet.), to draw, Fut. -u, Aor. 1j<pv(ra, i)<pv(rd(j.-nv. 

5. Of verbs in -a>, whose pure characteristic is a Tau-raute, commonly 5, 
there are only a few primitives, e.g. eojueu, Poet., /co&c'fouat, prose, / seat 
myself, ?a>, commonly Kc&ify, to seat; <rxia, to separate; x*C w > alvum 
dejicere ; yet there are very many derivatives, namely, all in -cJ and most in 
-tfy, e. g. &f0, ejKctCw, etc. 

6. Verbs in - , whose pure characteristic is a Kappa-mute, commonly 7, 
are mostly Onomatopoetics, i. e. words whose sound corresponds to the sense ; 
the greater part of these denote a call, or sound, e. g. aid , to groan, Fut. 
ma|o>; a\a\d(o, to shout (av$dcurbai, to speak, Aor. wanting in Her.); ypvfa, 
to grunt; /cofo>, to squeak, to grunt (like a swine), Fut. KO?|O> ; Kpdta, to 
scream, Aor. fKpayov, Kp(6<a t to caw, to croak; /j.a<rTia>, to whip ; 68dou, to 
scratch ; o t /* c o>, to lament, Fut. ol/j.uo/ ; o \ o \ i) , to cry out, to shout ; pvff- 
rd<i), to drag about; VT<i<a and ffTa\d<a, to trickle; <rrevd(a, to sigh; 
<rrriplu, to make firm; <TT(^<W, to mark, to prick; <rvpiw, to whistle (Fut. 
ffvpttofuu, etc.; <rvpi<r<a, etc., later, and not Attic) ; a<pdw (Attic mostly ffQdr- 
TOI), to kill ; ff <{> v f co, to throb ; rpl o>, to chirp (rerplya, Ion. and poet.) ; $ \ v ^w, 
to bubble, and the Poet. & d (>, to prate, Fut. j8d|w, third Pers. Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. fifpoKTai ; ft p t <a, to slumber ( Pp?cu ) ; 5 o f o>, to divide, to kill ; t\f\la, 
to whirl, to tumble; tvapica, spolio ; p eca, to do (eopya). 

7. The following verbs in - o> vary between the two modes of formation : 
fia<Trd a>, to lift up, to support, Fut. -dcrto, etc., Aor. ^affrdx^nv ; Siffrd , 
to doubt, Siffrda'd}, from which the verbal Subst. SKrray/j.6s and Sicrraffis ; vvff- 
r d <a, to nod, to sleep, Fut. -dffa>, Aor. frv<rTa<ra, in the later writers vvcrrd^(a y 
etc., e. g. Plut. Brut. 36 ; TT a i a>, to jest, Fut. Trat^ov/jLat and Tralo/, Aor. 
Att. !7rara (in later writers firai^a, TreTraixa), Perf. Mid. or Pass. Att. TreVato-^at 
(in later writers TreVaty/wu, 4vcdx^nv) 5 verbal Adj. iraurrcos ; ap-rrd^ta, to rob, 
Att. apTrd<, f/p7rcura, etc. (but in the Epic and Common language apird^u and 
-dffca, etc., second Aor. Pass. ^pTrdyriv) ; p.v o, to moan, has II. 5, 20. eVe^ulcw, 
but in Hippocr. e/xwev. 

8. The following verbs in - have 77 for a pure characteristic : /c\cC, to 
sound, to cry, Perf. Ke-K\ayy-a, Fut. K\dya>, Aor. e/cAo7|a; TrXci^w (poet.) to 
cause to wander, Fut. TAcfylw, etc. Aor. Pass. fTr\dyx&nv ; ffa\iriw, to blow a 
trumpet, Fut. -iyfr, etc. (later also -Iffw, etc.) 

144. Formation of the Tenses. 

Mute verbs form the Fut. and the first Aor. Act. and 
Mid. with the tense-characteristic <r, and the first Perf. and 
first Plup. Act. with the aspirated 1 endings -a and -eiv, when 
the characteristic is a Pi or Kappa-mute ; but with the 

1 The Perf. Act. of all verbs properly ends in KO, but where K is preceded by 
a Pi or Kappa-mute, that mute combines with K and is changed into the cor- 
responding rough. On the contrary, a Tau-mute before K is dropped, e. g. 
TCTUir/ca = rervQa ; ireirpayKO, = irfirpaxa, but TreTret/co instead of 


endings -/ca, -Kiv, when the characteristic is a Tau-mute ; 
though the Tau-mute is omitted before K ( 17, 5). 

REMARK 1. For the change of a Tau-mute into cr, before p. in the Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, see 19, 1 ; for the change of a Tau-mute into a before r, see 17, 5, 
but this ff is omitted before a of the personal-endings, e. g. ireirftar/juju, -<TT<U, 
TTt'^pacr/icu, -OTCU; but second Pers. ireirei-ffcu, Trf<ppa-ffai instead of jrcVeio'-o'flu, 
trf<ppa<r-(rai. The vowels a, i, u are short in verbs which have a Tau-mute as a 
characteristic before endings with the tense-characteristic <r and K (-a, -KCIV), 
e. g. Qpdfa, <ppa.ffw, f<f>pa<ra, irtypajca. ; ir\dff(Tw, to form, ir\affa> ; voplfa, to think, 
4v6i<ra ; K\vfa, to uoash, K\v<r<a y etc. ; in like manner, short vowels remain short, 
e. g. apn6fy, fy/jiOKa. 

HEM. 2. On the changes which the mutes undergo by the addition of the 
endings beginning with <r, &, ft, or r, and before the aspirated endings -a, -e!v, 
see 17, 2 and 3. 19, 1. 20, 1 ; on the lengthening of -e into -ei before <r of 
verbs in -eV8a> or -ei&a, e. g. enreVS-w, Fuk (trvfj/S-ffoa) o"irei<rci), Aor. e(nret(ra, 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. eoTreto-jucu, see 20, 2 ; on the omission of <r in endings 
beginning with <r&, e. g. KeKpv(f>&ai instead of KfKpty&cu (/cKpu</><r^ot), ireirhex- 
bcu instead of irevXe^cu, see 25, 3 ; on the endings of the third Pers. PI. 
Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., -arm and instead of -vrcu, -vro, see 18, 
1 and 116, 15 5 on the variable vowel in the Secondary tenses, and in some first 
Perfects and Perfects Mid. or Pass., see 140 ; on the Att. Fut. of verbs in 
-, and -tfa, e. g. Pi&dfy, Fut. Ptp&rw, pipa, -$s, -, -arov, -w/xey, etc., Kopify, 
Fut. KOfJo-a, Kofuai, -tely, etc., see 117. 

HEM. 3. When /* precedes a Pi-mute, which is the characteristic of the 
verb, e. g. in irc/wr-w, the /* is rejected in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, before endings 
beginning with /f, thus, ire/iir-w, to send, jr4-ir/j.-fjLcu (instead of ire-7T6ft7r-/AO(, ire- 
7re/Li)U.-jtiat), ireVe/uf'at, VfTrefj.irrai t etc., Inf. ireW/i^&at, Part, ireirffi^fvos ; SO 
KdfJLirr-w, to bend down, K6-/caju-/tew (instead of ic-/fo/uTr-/icu, Ke-KO/uyti-juot). Also 
when two gammas would stand before ft, one 7 is omitted, e. g. aQiyy-u, to tie, 
f-fftyiy-fMu (instead of e-ff^iyy-jjiai), H<r<f>iyai, *<r<piyKrcu, etc., Inf. 
Part. iffQiyfjifvos ; so Qf\fyx<o, to convince, QcMiteyfjuu (instead of Qt 
te\-fiyynai), t\fafycu, etc. Both the ^ and y are here dropped to prevent 
the concurrence of three consonants. 



[ 145, 

$ 145. A. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Pi-mute 

(A *> <) 

(a) Pure Characteristic, , IT, <p (Fut. -tyw). 
rptftw, to rub. 


Ind. TL 


Ind. r- 
Ind. (7 




Ind. (i 
Ind. (i 

Aor. I. 

Ind. f- 


Ind. T/ 


Ind. ?- 



S. 1. 






P. 1. 




S. 1. 






Ind. TJ 

Aor. I. 

Ind. <?- 


Ind. T 

Aor. I. 

Ind. ( 

Fut. I. 

Ind. T 


Ind. e'- 

F. II. 

Ind. T 



Ind. Tpfj8-w Subj. rpi&-o> Imp. Tpl)8-e Inf. rpip-eiv Part, rpifr-uv 
Ind. f-rplp-oi/ Opt. rptp-oifu 

Ind. (rf-rpl0-a) r4-rpi<p-a Subj. rf-rpfy-co Imp. not used, Inf. re- 

rpl<p-vai Part. re-rpl<p-(i>s 

Ind. (ii-re-rptft-eiv) t-re-rpty-eiv Opt. re-rphp-oi/M 
Ind. (rp/jS-crw) rptyw Opt. Tptyoipi Inf. 7ptyetj/ Part, rptyeov 
Ind. e-rpt^o Subj. r/jfyw Opt. rpl^oup.o.i. Imp. rpfyov Inf. rpT^ 



Ind. Tpifi-ofjuu Subj. rptp-( Imp. rprjS-ou Inf. Tpf-e<rdut Part. 


T-TplU-/J.VOl flffi ( 

or T-rpt<p-aTai 


or re-Tpi<p-&ct)V 



-77, -oy 


D. f-re 

Te-rpi/j.-/j.fvos ffyv 


Te-Tpi/jL-/j.evoi fiffav 

[or -Tf-Tpi<p-a.TO 

Inf. rp^eo'^at Part. 

Opt. rpi^atfji.'rjv Imp. Tp?i|/ai Inf. 
Part. rpi\j/d/>os 

Inf. Te-Tp/i//6(r,^ot Part, re-rpi^/6- 


. Subj. rpuf>-bS> Opt. rpiQ-bei-nv Inf. 

. r .^ _, Imp. rpi<p-&riri Part, rpitp-frfis, (instead of I. Aor. 

Pass., commonly II. Aor. Pass.) 

Opt. rpi<t>-frn<Toi/j.7)i' Inf. rpi(p-frfifffff&ai Part. 


pry8-w Opt. 
Part. Tplft-tis 


Verbal adjective: (rpifi-r6s) rpnr-r6s, -"fi, -6v, rpnr-rfos, -co, -*ov. 



146. (b) Impure Characteristic, ITT in Pres. and Impf. (Fut. -\><a}. 

, to cut. 



Perf. I. 
Perf. II. 

Aor. I. 
Fut. Pf. 

(Ke-K<nr-a) Kt-Koty-a 

Kf-KOTT-a (Horn.) 


KOTTT-OfjMl t like 

A. I. t-K6<t>-frr)v 

F. I. Ko<f>-frf)< 

A. II. 

F. II. 

Verbal adjective : KOTT-TOS, -$, -6v, Koir-reos, -Te'o, 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
-w, to bend down ( for KfKa l u/j.-/, 144, Hem. 3). 


S. 1. 


D. 1. Kfxd/j.p.f&oi> 


P. l.j 



/ceca/ijuevoy, 17, -ov 


Verbal adjective : Kafj.irir6s, -/;, -6v, Kafj-Trreos, -re'a, -Te'oj/. 

^ 147. B. Verbs, whose Characteristic is a Kappa- 
mute (y, /c, x)- 

(a) Pure Characteristic, 7, K, x- (b) Impure Characteristic in the Pres. and 
Impf., cr<r, Att. TT, rarer 

irXe/c-o), to weave. Fut. -o>. T&r<ro>, Att. Tarrw, to arrange. 












Aor. I. 
Fut. I. 
A. II. 
F. II. 

l--ir\dK-nv and 

Verbal adjective : 7rXe/cT({s, -T\, -6v ; irAe/c-reos, -Tea, TeW ; TOKT^S, rcucrfos. 




Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
TCUTO-W, to arrange, and <r<ptyyw ( 144, Rem. 3), to bind. 

Ind. S. 1. 







Tfray/Jifvoi fiffi 
or Terea rat 




tr<plyx&cu Part. TeTay/tci/os 

BEMAKK. The student will observe particularly the changes which take 
place in the inflection of the Perf. Pass, of these verbs : Wr/)j/t-/iot (instead of 
reTpifi-fuiu), $ before p being changed into p. ; rerpityat (instead of Te'Tpwr-ereu), 
T and ff forming ^ ; Tcrptir-Tot, the characteristic ir remaining unchanged ; 
TfTpup-bov (instead of Terpiir-^ov), the characteristic it being changed into <, to 
be of the same order as the & following ( 17, 2) ; so others similar. In like 
manner, rerayfuu : reTaJ-cu (instead of Teroy-aot), y and a forming ; Tera/cTcu 
(instead of TeTcryrai), y being changed into K, to be of the same order as the 
T following ; rerax^ov (instead of Teroy&ox), y being changed to correspond 

148. C. VerbSy whose Characteristic is a Tau- 
mute (8, T, ). 

(a) Pure Characteristic, 8, T, S-. (b) Impure Characteristic in Pres. and Impf., 
, rarer <r<r. Fut. <rw. 





Aor. I. 

to deceive. 

to ^'e 

<o say, 

to think 






Aor. I. 
Fut. I. 

Verbal Adj.: (^euS-reos) $v<r-reos, -Tea, -TeW; ^pewr-reoy, -TCO, -reov. 


Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

Ind. S. 1. 











, or 



-77, -ov 


REMARK. 2c6i, to save, has in the Perf. Mid. or Pass. <reVw-/tot from 
(Attic), and o-cVwo-ficw, but Aor. ^^TJJ/, verbal Adj. 


1. Liquid verbs ( 127, II. B.) form the Fut. Act. and 
Mid. and the first Aor. Act. and Mid. without the tense- 
characteristic cr (20, 3) but the Perf. Act. with the tense- 
characteristic K, e. g. 

ff<pd\\o> (stem 2*AA), Fut. o-^oX-w, first Aor. e-ff^A-a, Perf. 

EEMARK 1. The endings of the Fut. in liquid verbs, namely, -w, -ovfjuu, arc 
formed by contraction from -eVcw, -eVo/ucw after the rejection of cr ( 20, 3). The 
inflection of these contracted endings is like that of contracts in -e' in the 
Pres. Act. and Mid.: <A-5, <f>i\ ( 135) ; a- is omitted in the Fut. of liquid 
verbs, to prevent the harshness occasioned by the combination of that letter with 
the preceding liquid. The Fut. Perf. is wanting in liquid verbs. 

2. The Present tense of Liquid verbs, with the exception 
of a few whose stem-vowel is e, is strengthened, either by 
doubling the characteristic X, or by inserting the liquid v 
after the characteristic ; also, by lengthening the short stem- 
vowel, as in all verbs in -tvw, -vvco, -vpco, or by changing it 
into a diphthong ( 16, 3), e. g. <r<f)d\-\-a), re/jL-v-co, Kpiv-w, 
d^vv-co, Kreiv-o), <j>alv-co (stems 2$AA, TEM, KPIN(t), 
^MTN(i)), KTEN, $AN) ; but ph-v, vk^<*> with a pure 

3. Except the Pres. and Impf. the tenses are formed from 
the pure stem, but the final vowel of the stem is lengthened 
in the first Aor. Act. and Mid. (see No. 5), e. g. <r<aXX-o> 
(Z&AA), Fut. o-<aX-w, second Aor. Pass. e-cr^aX-Tyi/, first 
Perf. Act. -a-<j)a\-Ka, first Aor. Act. e-cr(f>r)\-a. The second 
Aorists Act. and Mid. rarely occur, and scarcely at all in 


prose ; on the contrary, the second Aor. Pass, is more in use 
than the first Aor. ; the first Aor. is wholly wanting in many 

4. In liquid verbs with an impure characteristic, the 
ground-form of the stem is not borrowed, as in the case 
of mute verbs, from the second Aor., but from the Fut., 
since only a few verbs of this class form a second Aor. Act. 
and Mid. 

5. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes according as 
the stem-vowel of the Fut. is a, e, I, or v before the ending -. 
In the first Aor. Act. and Mid. a is lengthened into 77, e into 
ei, I into l y v into v ( 16, 3). Thus : 

I. Class with o in the Future. 

Pres. Fut. Aor. 

ff<pd\\~u, to deceive, fftpa\-w f-ffQijX-a 

K&IJ.V-U, to labor, fca/j.-ov/ wanting 

rtK/j.atp-<0, to point out, r e K /i d p - & e-re/e^Tjp-a 

fya(v-(a, to show, <pav-u> -(pi]V-a. 

n. Class with e in the Future. 

fiey-w, to remain, fifv-> 

ayye'AA-w, to announce, ayye\-ca 

7fjLv-ca, to cut, rffjL-w wanting 

vffj.-o), to divide, vefj.-S> -vei/j.-a 

Kreiv-tc, to kill, KTSV-W 

lfj.eip-u, to desire, t/tep-w 

HI. Class with t in the Future. 

T&A-w, to pluck, TiA.-w -TiA.-a 

Kpiv-(o, to separate, Kp1v-> e-Kplv-a 

IV. Class with in the Future. 

ffVp-o), to draw, avp-u <[-<rvp-a, 

a.p.vv-<a, to defend, afivv-w 

REM. 2. The following verbs in -cuvw of the first class take a in the Aor. 
instead of 77, namely, l<rxva.iv(a, to make emaciated ("iffxvo-va, Iff^vavai) ; KepSatvw, 
to gain (e/cepSdi/a, /cep5ai/ai) ; KOiXalvca, to hollow out (fKol\ai>a, KOiXavai) : \euKaivca, 
to whiten ; opyatvo), to enrage ; ire-ira'tvo), to ripen ; also all verbs in -pa.iv<a, e. g. 
irfpaivci), Fut. irepavu, Aor. firep&va, Inf. irepavai (except Terpaivu, to bore, ^rerpr)- 
va, rerprivai), and all in -iaiv<a, e. g. irtalvo), to make fat,, xia.vai (except 
fj.iaivw, to stain, fufycu, rarely piavai). The verbs <rr)/j.aiv(o, to give a signal, and 
KcStaipca, to purify, have both tryj^i/at (which is usual among the Attic writers), 
Ko&ripai, and or^/xai/oj, KaStapcu. Also afyco, to raise, and oAXo^at, to leap, are 
formed with a: apai, aAoo-^ai, but in the Ind. the a is changed into 17 on account 
of the augment, e. g. ^pa, r/Aa^Tj^ (second Aor. ^A<fynjj/ is not used in the Ind. 
and very rarely elsewhere). Comp. on a, 16, 7 (a). 


6. The first Perf. Act. of verbs with the characteristic v 
(according to 19, 3), must end in -ytca, e. g. ^e/-ua/y-/ea, 
Plut. (from fuaivw instead of pe-piav-Ka), Trefyaryica, Dinarch. 
(from </>aiVo>), Trapco^vyKa^ Polyb. (from Trapogvvco, to excite). 
But the form in -y/ca is found only among later writers. The 
best writers endeavor to avoid it, sometimes by dropping the 
v, e. g. Ke/cpZ/ca, /ceK\l/ca from Kpivw, K\IVW (so also /ce/cepSd/ca, 
among later writers, also /cetcepScvy/ca, but /ce/cepbrjica, Dem. 
56, 30. from Kep&aivco) ; or also, as in /creiva), by using the 
form of the second Perf., e. g. aTre/crova, in the sense of the 
first Perf. (eicrarjica, e/craKa, from the time of Maenander), 
or, as in the case of verbs in -eva), by not forming any Perf., 
as, e. g. in fjuevco, by forming it from a new theme, as /te/^e- 
vrjica from MENEn. 

7. The three following verbs with the characteristic v 
drop that letter, not only in the Perf. and Plup. Act., but 
also in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, and in the first 
Aor. Pass. : 

to separate, /ce/cpi/ca /ce/cpt/tat 
K\tvu>, to bend down, Ke'/c\j/ca /ce/cAi/iat ^/cAferji/ (the 2d Aor. iKXtvrjv is rare). 
, to wash, (ireir\vita) ireV\u/u tirXvfrriv (Hippoc.) 

EEM. 3. Telva, to stretch, and Krelvw, to kill, form the above-mentioned tenses 
from new themes, viz. TAn, KTANH, KTAX1, thus : 

(and e/croyKo) ^/cTa^at ^/crd^jj/ (fKTdvfrrjv among the later writers); 

yet the forms of fcre^w here presented, are not Attic. The Attic writers use 
&CTOI/O as the Perf. Act. (see No. 6), and instead of e/cra/ncu and eVrc&rji', sub- 
stitute Te&jrjKo and airfbavov in passive phrases with \nr6 and the Gen., or 
ainjpriiJMi and avypffrriv, without a preposition. 

KEM. 4. K/nW, K\ivu, TT\WW, and /crciW, among the poets, often retain v in 
the first Aor. Pass, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. lK\(vdrqv t 
lTr\vvfri]v; in prose, these forms seem to be doubtful, yet /ectTe/cAh'&ij is found in 
X. Hell. 4. 1, 30, in all the copies. 

8. On the formation of the Perf. Mid., the following 
points should be noted: 

Verbs in -aivu and w/w, usually drop the v before the endings beginning with 
fiy and insert <r to strengthen the syllable, e. g. <paiv-w irt<f> 7re-<pa-0--/te&a ; 
vQalvca vtyaffiuu; fj.epaii/<a /xe/xapour/iat (Luc.) ; (TTj/iaiVw <re<Hj|Uao>ieu ; 7repa/j/a> TreW- 
paff/j.a.i ', paivu ', ito.\\)v< Trfirdxv( ; TjSiW v^Sixr/xat ; \firrvvw \f\eir- 
n\vv<i> Te^TjA.u<r/xot (Luc.); irtalvca 7r 



[$ 150. 

(Luc.) ; \ XeXv/ucMT/ieVoi cl<ri(v) ; lualvw ; but 
some verbs of this kind assimilate the v to the following p, e. g. frpaiv-w, 
instead of ^pav-fuu (also ^potr/xat), irapo|<W, irap(av/j,/, al<rxvv-<a 
(Homer) ; a very few verbs drop v among the later writers, without 
substituting a strengthening <r; the vowel, however, is made long, e. g. rpoxw-w, 
to make rough, rf-rpdxv-fuu also rfrpdxvo-fjuu and It is evident that 
in the personal-endings, except those beginning with p., the v remains, e. g. 
irf<}>a<r-/, Kftyav-crai, Tre'-^cu/rai, ^, -avffai, -avrat, y<, -vv<rcu t 
-wrai, -vn-n&ov (see <paiv-w and ^palvu, 151) ; still, it is to be noted that the 
form of the second Pers. Sing., in -vffai, is rare ; instead of it the Part, with 
el is used, e. g. ir^affp.4vos el, etc. 

REM. 5. On the omission of <r in endings beginning with ad-, see 25, 3 ; 
on the variable a, in the first Perf. Act. and Mid. and in the first Aor. Pass., and 
also in the second Aorists of liquid verbs with a monosyllabic stem and the 
stem-vowel e, see 140, 3 5 on the Perf. of ayelpu, and eyetpot with Att. Eedup., 
see 124, 2 (b). 

9. In the second Perf. (which, however, belongs only to 
a few verbs) the short stem-vowel before the ending -a, is 
lengthened, as in the first Aor. Act., except in verbs with e 
in the Fut, which take the variable o ( 140, 4), e. g. $aiv-to y 
first Aor. -<f>rjv-a, second Perf. ire-fyrfv-a] but cr7retp-o>, Fut. 
GTrep-5), second Perf. e-cnrop-a. 

REM. 6. Second Aorists Act. and Mid. are rare in liquid verbs, e. g. 
^8oA(fyi7jj', e/fcu/oi/, fTTTapov (doubtful in prose) from /JaAAw, *eatVa>, irralpu, 
v<a ; Aorists are also formed from some irregular verbs ; a few verbs, also, have 
a second Aor. Pass., e. g. those with monosyllabic stems, as 8e/>, 
pw, (TTeAAw, (paivw, /xcuVw, K\iv<a, etc. 

150. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs. 
ayjf\\w, to announce. 


Pres. ayye\\ca Perf. I. tfyye\-Ka Perf. II. 

, perdidi, from 

Fut. Ind. 

S. 1. 


D. 2. 

P. 1. 





or ayye\oii]v 



0776X0^6 " 0776X0^77x6 

i') 0776X0761' " o776Xo?6j' 

Inf. ayyf\e'iv Part. 0776X0)1', -oCo"o, -ovv 

Aor. I. 

Aor. II. 


ayyei\a>, ayyei\aifj.i, &yyfi\ov, &yyei\ai, ayyfl\as 
Ind. tfyyeX-ov Subj. <ryye'Aa> Opt. ayyeAot^ut Imp. ^776X6 
Inf. ayyeAeiV Part. ayyeXwv , -ovffa, -6v. 





Pcrf. Ind. 

S. 1. 




P. 1. 







Plup. Ind. 

Fut. Ind. 

S. 1. 




P. 1. 



, -fj.&a, -de, 


ayye \-ovfif da 

Opt. ayy\-olfj.r]V 




Aor I. 

Aor. II. 


Ind. fryyetA.-ci/iTjj/, etc. 

Ind. 7J77fA.-<fyji' Subj. ayye\ Opt. a.yye\-oi[j.T)t/ Imp. 
ayy\-ov Inf. a-yYcA-cVid-ot Part. d-yyeA.-JjLiej/oy. 

Verbal adjective : ayy\-T(os, -rca, -r4ov. 

151. Shorter Paradigms, arranged according to the 
stem-vowel of the Future. 

(a) with a in the Future: <r<f>d\\u, fnllo; Qalvw, to show, Mid. 

to appear. 





Perf. I. 
Perf. II. 
Aor. I. 


7r6-</>7jj/-o, 1 appear, 



1 I shall appear, airoQ., I shall affirm. 2 Prose dire</>., it was affirmed In/ me. 


Aor. I. 
Fut. I. 
Aor. II. 
Fut. II. 

<r<f>a\-frfi<ronat (poet.) 

t-<t>dt'-frr)v, I appeared, 
, I appeared, 

Verbal adjective : o-</>oA-T6oy, -rco, -Ttov, </>ov-Teos. 



Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of 
(patv-w, to show ; |7jpaj/-co, to dry, and reiv-ta ( 149, Hem. 3), to stretch. 

Ind. S. 1. 



re- tyav-frov 

Imp. S. 2. 

D. 2. 

P. 2. 




re ra-ffo 
re-rd- tr&u 

, or 



152. (b) with e in the Future: 'r/ue/p-w (Ion. and Poet.), to 
desire, and <rTAA.a>, to send. 





Perf. I. 
Aor. I. 












Aor. I. 
Fut. I. 

l/j.fp-&i)V 1 i-<rra.\-frfiv A. II. ^-<TTaA-?jj/ 
i/j.ep-&-f)ffo/ \ crraX-^'fja'o/ F. II. <TTa.\-4iffop.a.i 

Verbal Adj. fyiep-ros, -^7, -6v, t^tep-reos, -Tea, -Te'o;/, (rroA-Tos, <TTa\-TfOS. 
REMARK. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is like #y7e\-/. 

153. (c) With t and i) in the Future, 
(a) T/AA-w, to pluck; <rvp<a, to draw ; p.o\vj/-u, to defile. 



Aor. I. 
A. I. P. 
F. I. P. 

Aor. II. and Fut. II. P. 





) (rvp-'f)O'o/ 


/j.e- fj.6\v(T- fiat 

fJLO\VI/-U fiO\\>V-OVfJL(U 


Verbal Adj. Ti\-r6s, TiA-reos, <rvp-T6s, <rvp-reos, p.o\vv-r6s t fj.o\vv-rfos. 
REMARK 1. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass, of T-TI\-/J.CU, ff(-<rvp- 
/xat, is like tfyye\, and that of /ue- J u^Au<r-jiiO{ like v4-<f>, that of ^(r%u/u- 
^tat (from cuVxui'-w, to sAame), like 4-^pa/ 



, to lend down; ir\dv-(i), to wash, with v dropped ( 149, 7). 

Aor. I. 










Aor. I. 
Aor. II. 


Fut. I. K 
Fut. II 

Verbal Adj. K\i-r6s, -{}, -6v, /cAi-re'os, -rea, -reov, ir\v-r6s, irAu-reos. 
REM. 2. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. KC-KX/L-IMI and ' Tre'irAu- 
tuu is like re'-ret'/uu, and corresponds with that of pure verbs. 

$ 154. Special Peculiarities in the Formation of 
single Verbs, both Pure and Impure. 

1. The Future of very many Active verbs is in the Middle 
form, e. g, d/covw, I hear, Fut. aKovo-o/xat, I shall hear, Aor. r?Kovo-a, 
I heard. See $ 198. 

2. The following verbs in -ai'w or -aw and -cw, whose stem 
ended originally in -av ] and -ev (aJF 1 , fF), resume the v in the 
Aorist and Future ($ 25, 2) : 

Kcdca (old Attic KcLw seldom, and without contraction), to burn, Fut. /cot5<rw; Aor. 

ticavffa ; Perf. K^KOLVKO. ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. K^KW/JLUI ; Aor. Pass. fKavfrnv ; 

Fut. Pass. Ka.vfrfiffoiJ.ou] verbal Adj. /cavoWos, Kavffros, Kavr6s; but second 

Aor. Act. ticfyv, I burned, Intrans., in the Ion. and later writers. 
K\aia> (K\&W seldom, and without contraction), to weep, K\ or K\avffov/j,ai 

(No. 3), K\a.vff<a late ; first Aor. Act. 6/cA.ouo-o, etc. ; Perf. Pass. /ce'/cAa^uai ; 

Aor. Pass. 4K\avfffrnv late. See 166, 18. 
du, to run, Fut. &ev<ro/ or &fv<rov/j.ou (No. 3), ^euercu late; the other tenses 

are wanting. See rpe'xw, 167, 5. 

vfd), to swim, Fut. vevcrofiai or yev( (No. 3) ; Aor. Zt/fvffa] Perf. vtvcvKa. 
TAew, to sail, Fut. ir\ev<, usually ir\ev<Tov/ (No. 3); Aor. fn-Aevo-o; Perf. 

TreVAeu/ca ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ir7r\eu<r/zax ; Aor. Pass. ^7rAew(r^?j/ ; verbal 

Adj. 1T\fVffT05. 

1 The u in the Fut. of these verbs is occasioned by the reappearance of the 
Di^amma (F) softened into the vowel u. The D'igamma would regularly 
stand in the Pres. before the personal-ending o>, but is omitted where it comes 
between two vowels ; it appears, however, in the Fut., as it there stands before 
the consonant <r. This is analogous to the disappearance, in the Pres., of some 
aspirate, perhaps h (comp. veho), in the Latin verbs fluo, stnto, and the reap- 
pearance of the same in the Perf. before s, with which 'it combines and forms x. 


, to blow, Fut. Trvetffofjiai or (No. 3); Aor. eirvevffa; Perf. 
irfin/fvKa ; late Fut. irvevffw, and Aor. Pass. 
co, fo ,/fou?, Fut. fieiKrofjiai ; Aor. eppevffa ; both forms extremely rare in the 
Attic, which uses instead of them ^vfiffo^ai, eppvijv ( 192, 7), and so als 
the Perf. e 

HEM ARK 1. The verb x e/ft > (x e/J ^>> X 6 ^ w )) to P our out -> differs from the pi 
ceding verbs: Fut. x e/a >j Fut. Mid. x^ t jial ( see No. 4); Aor. e^eo, Subj. 
Inf. xeoz, Imp. x 6/ol/ > X e ^ Ta >> etc > Aor. Mid. ^x e ^W ( see No. 7); Perf. A< 
/ce'xwca; Perf. Mid. or Pass, jclxfyuu; Aor. Pass. ^x^7"5 ^ ut - ^erf- X^ 
( 223, E. 2). The forms with eu belong only to the Epic; Fut. x 6 ^; 

3. The circumflexed Put. in -ovpai which properly belongs to 
liquid verbs only, is used by the Doric writers with other verbs 
also, whose Future would regularly be in -o-w or -o-o/xat, e. g. 
TUI//XO, -fl<s } -ct, -ov/x.ev, -ctrc, -OVVTO.L \ Tvi^oO/xat, etc. ; this is called the 
Doric Fut. and is in common use in the following verbs, yet 
only in the Middle form, with the signification of the Fut. 
Act. : 

<f>evy-a, to flee, Fut. 

TTOI^-W, to sport, " 7rcuoD / ucu " 7rai|ojttot 

XeC' w > alvum exonerare, " x* " "!" 11 

), to fall, " ireffov/jiai (lIETil) 

to inquire,, usually irevffop.a.i y 

and also in those mentioned under No. 2 : /cAai'w, 7rAw, irvew, j/cw 

4. Future without the tense-characteristic. The Fut. of the 
following verbs, being without the Fut. characteristic a-, and 
having the inflection of the Present, takes entirely the form of 
a Present, viz. : 

5-w, Epic, usually &rd-o>, to eat, Fut. eS-tyiat ; irlv-<a (nifl), to drink, Fut. irl- 
0/ ; x^w, to pour out, Fut. x, X e ^ s > X e ^> etc< j ^ ut - Mid. x^ - 1 ( see Rem. 1 ). 

5. Also two mute verbs take the Future form of liquid verbs 
in -ov/mt without o- : 

, to fight, Fut. / (formed from the Ion. 
('EAn), to s#, Fut. 

6. The Flit Perf. of the following verbs has an Act. form: 

, to die, Perf. T&Sh/Tj/ca, I am dead, Fut. Perf. Te3r^| or, I shall 
be dead ; 

, to station, Perf. lo-ry^-a, 7 stand, Fut. Perf. <nr}^ca or -^o^ai, I shall 

155. VERBS. - SYNCOPE. 187 

stand. 'Effr-fifc and Te&rfifr are old Attic ; ^r^o/mi and r^^ofuu are 
only in the Attic, X. Cy. 6. 2, 17. 

7. The three following verbs, though not liquid, form the 
first Aor. according to the analogy of the second Aor., without 
the tense -characteristic o- : 

eliffTi/ (second Aor.), to say, first Aor. flv-a; <f>fpa> ('ErKfl), to bear, first Aor. 
1}vfyK-a (second Aor. Ijvfynov) ; x, %X* a ( see 

EEM. 2. In the second Aor. fircrov, from HET-w (Trtirr-ca), to fall, the ff is 
not the tense-characteristic, but belongs to the stem, the r having here been 
changed into a- (Dor. firerov). The first Aor. eirco-a, is late ; in Eurip. Ale. 471 
and Troad. 294, the readings are not sufficiently confirmed. 

8. The following pure and impure verbs form the Perf. Subj. 
and Plup. Opt. Mid. or Pass, without the aid of the auxiliary 
ei/u; the impure verbs by assuming an e as their characteristic 
in forming the tenses, become analogous to pure verbs : 

i, lobtain, Perf. JC&TWMU, I possess, Subj. /ce/crw/icw, -77, -rjrai; Plup. 
I possessed, Opt. KficnffjLriv, Kfttrfjo, KfKrpro or /ce/cT<j\u7j', -<po, 

(MNAH), to remind, Perf. /te/ij^^oi, Iremember, Subj. (if/ju/w/JM, -77, 
; Plup. tfjie/j.rfi/j.rii', Opt. /j.ffjivy/jLifjv, -po, -pro or /ic/tvy/xrjv, -<o, -^JTO, and 
in X. An. 1. 7, 5. /te^foio (in all the MSS.). 
)8cAA&>, to throw (BAA), Perf. jSc^ATj^eu, second Pers. PI. Perf. Subj. 5iae- 

0\r)<rbf, Andoc. p. 22. 24. 

Ka\fw,to name, Perf. KfKXrmcu, I am named; Plup. IraeX///^, Opt. /ce/cArj/iTji', 
-170, -pro. 

REM. 3. tKTeT[jiri(r&ov may be found in PI. Up. 564, c ; at present, however, 
the right reading is ticreTfjifofffbov, according to most MSS. 

$ 155. Syncope. 

1. A few verbs, in some forms, suffer Syncope ( 16, 8). 
E. g. the following words in prose : 

, to fly, Aor. ^n-r^rji/, TrreV&ai, Fut. icr-i\oo\uu. (e syncopated). 
yef/>, to wake, second Aor. rjyp6fjLijv (also the Inf. fypeffSai with the accent 

of the Pres.), I awoke (rryepdr??, I was awake), (ex or i syncopated.) 
tpxofuu, to go, second Aor. ^A&ov, Inf. eA&e?i/, etc., from 'EAET0I1 (u synco- 

pated), ( 167, 2.) 
oT/wu, to suppose, instead of ofyiuw, <jfyiTj> instead 

188 VERBS. METATHESIS. [$ 156. 

2. This Syncope 
plication ; thus, e. g. 

2. This Syncope occurs most frequently after the redu- j 

a. In the Present: 

i, to become, instead of, stem TENil.>, to remain. Poet., instead of fj.i-fj.evu. 
TTITTTW, to fall, instead of iri-ireTw, stem IIETfl. 
TrnrpdcTKca from irepda). 

b. In the Perfect: 

ireTdwv/j.1, to spread out, ireTrrojuat; vfirruita (from HETH), to fall. 

$ 156. Metathesis. 

1. Metathesis ( 22) occurs in the formation of the tenses 
of several verbs, most frequently in the Perf., Plup., first 
Aor. Pass., and first Fut. Pass, (seldom in the second Aor. 
Act.), sometimes also in the Pres., both for the sake of an 
easier or more euphonic form, and, in poetry, for the sake 
of making a syllable long by position. 

2. In the Common language, the following verbs are 
subject to Metathesis : 

&d\\w,to throw, Put. pa\S> (f3a\\-fiffa>, Aristoph. Vesp. 222); Aor. 

Aor. Mid. ef3a\6fir)V : BAA: Perf . 6)8X07 /co; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

fjiai] Aor. Pass. ^jSX^&Tjj'; Fut. Pass. 0A?jdVo,ucu ; Put. Perf. 
5afj.da>, usually, to tame, Fut. Sajuaaw; Aor. e'SdyUcwra; AMA:. Perf. SeS- 

^UTJKO; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; Aor. Pass. fSfj.^^T] 
Sefj.0), to build (mostly Poet, and Ion.) ; Aor. Act. eSet/xo ; Aor. Mid. 

AME: Perf. SeS^/ca; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ScS^rj/iot. 
& v -f) <r K a), to die, Aor. aire&avov ; Perf. re&vriKa. 
frpctxrica), to leap, Aor. e&opov. 

KoXew, to call (Poet. KiK\-f)ffKO}, like &vf)ffKca), Fut. /coXw; Perf. /C\OJKO. 
ndfj-vo), laboro, Aor. eKa(j.ov\ Perf. K e K fj.rj K a. 
ffKe\\ta, <rKf\(0, to make dry, second Aor. ^ffK\i]V] Perf. eo-KXrj/co; Fut. 

ff K \-fiarofj. a i. 

Tf/j.v<o, to cut ; Aor. %Tep.ov, Perf. rer/irj/co. 
r \-fjffo fiat, I will bear ; Aor. CTATJ?; Perf. TCT A TJ/CO, from the stem TAAA. 

EEMAKK. When the stem of the verb is dissyllabic, then the vowel trans- 
posed by Metathesis coalesces with the following vowel; (a) In inflection: 

Kepd-vvvfj.i (Poet. Kepd-u), to mingle ; Fut. Kepaffw ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
( instead of K ; Aor. Pass. ^Kp&^tjv. 

, to sell (instead of iwrepdcrita), vnrpedffKu), from irep&u (hence Fut, 


: Perf. IT eirpaKa, ir(irpdfj.a.] Aor. Pass. ^irpd&Tjy; Fut. Perf. 

f-vwui, to strou ; secondary form ffrpuvvvfjn (instead of 
Fut. ff T p y w ; Aor. fo-Tpoxro; Yerf. Mid. or Pass. ZffTpuuai; Aor. 
Pass, tffrpfbbiit'. 

6A<{, appropinquo, to bring to, ir\o&o>, IT \dd-w; Aor. Pass. irc\d<rfrr)i' ; 
Poet. Att. ^irAA^r;*'; second Aor. Att. ^ir\i^?ji>; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
Att. ir t IT \ a fiat. 

(b) The same holds also in the stem of the verb &P&TTU, to disturb (formed 
from ropeiTTw, rpadrro)), an Attic form of rapdtrffw ; Aor. 

157. Verbs in -w with the Stem of the Present 

1. It has already been seen ($$ 138-140), that the stem of 
many verbs is strengthened in the Present ; but this strength- 
ening remains only in the Present and Imperfect. Besides the 
modes of strengthening already mentioned, by T (TTT, KT), o- (cro-, 
), and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are others, which 
will now be specified. 

REMARK. All the forms which are assumed for the sake of constructing the 
tenses in use, are indicated by capitals ( 138, 3). The abbreviations, D. M., 
signify Deponent Middle, and D. P., Deponent Passive ( 102, 3). The /t*, placed 
in parenthesis, shows that the form standing before it, is analogous to the con- 
jugation in -/JLI, to be treated below. See 191. 

4158. I. Verbs, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the 
Pres. and Impf. by inserting v before the ending. 

PRELIMINARY REMARK. Balvw lengthens the stem- vowel a into ou; 
a into av ; Sbi/w and irba, v and I into and f. 

1. BcuVw, to go (BA-), Fut. ^O-O/ACU; Perf. /3e/fyca ($ 194, 2); 
second Aor. ly&yv (/xi, $ 191); the Pass, occurs in compounds, 
e. g. dva/Jcuvo/xai, dvayS^Sa/xat, 7rapa/3e/3a/Aai, dvcySa-^v, 

[ft 130 (c), and 131, 5]. Verbal adjectives, ySaro'?, ySa 

REMARK. First Aor. Act. /37jera, and Fut. /3^<rw, are transitive, 7 brought, 
will bring, and belong only to the poetic, Ionic, and later writers. 

2. 8wu), to go in, to go under, to put on. The unstrengthened 
verb 8vo) (*caTe8va>) has in the Pres., in the Fut Svo-w and first 
Aor. Act. eSvo-o, a transitive signification, to wrap up, to immerse, 


to sink; (so also Perf. in X. An. 5. 8, 23, dTroSe'Si'Ko/;) Aor. 
Pass. I8&V; Fut. Pass. S^o-opu [$ 130 (b),2J. But the Mid. 
Svofjiat, 6VSu/mi, ovcro/Aat, l&vcrdfJiTrjv, signifies to wrap up one's self, to 
go into, or under, to clothe one's self; likewise the Perf. Sc'Sviea 
and the Aor. 2<W (/u, $ 191), have an intransitive signification, 
like Svojj.a.1. Verbal adjectives, Swos, oVre'os. 

3. c'Aaww, to rfmre (secondary form eXu>, -as, etc. poetic, yet 
also in X. Cy. 8. 3, 32. cra-eXa, Imp.) ; Fut. cXaaw (in later writers, 
though also X. An. 7. 7, 55. eXao-oi/ras), commonly Att. eXw, -as, 
-a, Inf. eXav ($ 117); Aor. jjfXaou; Perf. cX^Xa/ca; Mid. to drive 
from me, Aor. rjXaa-a^rjv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eX^Xa/xai ; Inf. IX-rj- 
Aaav&u [j 124, 2 (a)] ; Aor. Pass. ^Xa-V [a in the tense-forma- 
tion, $ 130 (c) ; without <r, 131, 5]. Verbal adjectives, eXoVo's, 
(X. Hipparch. 2, 7). 

4. ^u^w and && (poet.), to rage, Fut. fruerw, etc. ; second Aor. Part, 

5. TTtVo), to drink, Fut. Trfo/tac (^ 154, 4), among the later 
writers Trtov/xat, but also, in X. Symp. 4, 7. Tneur^c ; second Aor. 
jnov, Inf. 7rieV, Part, -n-wov, Imp. 7n$i (^ 191), poet., and seldom 
prose Trte ; IIO- Perf. TreVwKa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 7re7ro/x,ai ; Aor. 
Pass. eVo^v, Fut. Pass, -rro^o-o/xai [W 130 (c), and 131, 5]. 
Verbal adjectives, TTOTOS, TTOTCOS. 

6. T/VCO, to pay, to expiate, Fut. rfo-w; Aor. erlo-a; Perf. Act. 
rertKa; Perf. Mid. or Pass, reno-fuu, Aor. Pass, eno-^v (^ 131). 
Mid. rtvo/xai, to ^e^ pay from, to avenge, to punish, Ticro/tat, erlcra- 
/Lwyv. Verbal Adj. TIO-TCOV. In the Pres. and Impf. the penult is 
long in Epic, short in Attic ; in the other tenses, it is long in all 
the poets. 

T/w, to honor, Ttffw, erfora, reVi/icu, Poet. 

7. <f>$avio, to anticipate, Fut. <^o-o/xai, more rarely <#acrco, e g. 
X. Cy. 5. 4, 38. 7. 1, 19; first Aor. t^ao-a, and (in prose more 
seldom) second Aor. l^v (/u, 191) ; Perf. l^aKa. In Pres, 
and Impf. a in Epic, a in Attic. 

8. $bivu> (poet., rarely prose and only in the Pres., e. g. PL Phaedr. 246, c. 
Symp 211, a.), to perish (seldom to consume), Fut. Q&fow and Aor. e^d-uro, trans. 
to consume. Intrans., Fut. 4&iVo/icu; Perf. e</>dfyu, %<pbivTai] Plup. and second 
Aor. f^tfMijv, Subj. 4>&foyu, Opt. Qblpiiv, ^tro, Imp. Qfrlff&w, Inf. 


Part. <^e>os, c. g. X. Cy. 8. 7, 18. rots ^ipfvots, the dead (/it, $ 192). Verbal 

Here belong also three verbs, whose pure stem ends with a consonant : 

9. SaKvw, to bite, Aor. cSoucov ; Fut. 8$b/u (late 8^w) ; Perf. 
Apr. Se&jxa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Se'Sryy/Aai; Aor. Mid. 

( Hippoc.) ; Aor. Pass. &tjxfh]v ; Fut. Pass. S^X^O-O/ACU. 

10. Ka/tma, to Zafor, to be weary, Aor. eKa/nov; Fut. 
Perf. jccK/upca ($ 156, 2). 

11. T/xvw, to CM, Ftlt. re/xai; Aor. ere/xov (era/xov, $ 140, 2); 
Perf. Tcr/xT/Ka (^ 156, 2) ; Mid. to cut for one's self (something) ; 
Aor. Mid ere/xo/^v; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Te'r/^/xcu (Subj. Tc 
^ov, $ 154, Hem. 3); Aor. Pass. CT/A^V; Fut. Perf. 

Verbal Adj. 

$ 159. II. Fer&s, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres. and Impf. by inserting the syllable vc 
before the ending. 

1. fiv-vw, to stop up, Fut. /2ixra> ; Aor. !/?v<ro ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
/?e/?v<r/nai ; Aor. Mid. e/iWa/ATyv ; Aor. Pass, fftvar^rjv ($ 131). 

Pres. ^8uw, not used by the Attic writers. 

2. iK-veofjuu (the simple is seldom used in prose, e. g. Th. 5, 
40. PL Phaedr. 276, d., the compound being generally used 
instead of it), d^t/cveo/Aat, to come, Fut. d^t^bfuu; Aor. a^lKo^rjVy 
a^tKeV^at ; Perf. d^ty/wu, d^ix^at ; Plup. d^ty/xiyv, d^t/cTO. Verb. 

Adj. IKTO5. 

3. Kw-euj to Arw5, Fut. KVOTW: Aor. ocuo-a [^ 130 (b)]. But Trpos- 
Kvvca), to worship, Fut. TrposKw^crw ; Aor. 7rpo<sKvvrja-a (also poetic 
TrposcKuo-o, Inf. 7rposKvo-ai). 

4. vTruTx-vtojjMi (vTrwr^-o/xat Ion.), strengthened form of vrrej(0fuu, 
properly, to fo&? ow^'^ self under, to promise, Aor. vrreo-x-o/M^v, Imp. 

; but Fut. vrroo-^o-o/xai ; Perf. inrccrfflfuu. ' So, d/x,7rwr^(i/ov- 
or oLfj-TrexofMu, to clothe (from d/xTre^w, to surround), Impf. d/ATret- 
, Fut. d/x^>^w, Aor. rjfjLTTurxov, d/ATrwrxetv, Fut. d/>t^>c^o/xat ; Aor. 
and ^/xTreaxoft^v (^ 126, 1). 


$ 160. III. Verbs, whose Pure Stein is strengthened in 
the Pres. and Impf. by inserting the syllable a.v, 
more rarely aiv, before the ending. 

a. Q.V or aiv is inserted without any change. 
PKELIMINART REMARK. All verbs of this kind form their tenses from a 
threefold stem, viz. the Pres. and Impf. from the strengthened stem, the second 
Aor. from the pure stem, the Fut. and Perf. from a third stem, consisting of a 
pure stem and an assumed e, which is changed in the inflection into t\ ; hence 
the Fut. and Perf. are formed like the same tenses of verbs in -4o>. The o in 
the ending -dv<a is also short in Epic (except in the three verbs, 
and Kix<ivw) ; but long in IK&VW in Attic. 

1. awr^-av-o/xat (seldom aur&yuu), to perceive, Aor. 
ato-$r$ai ; Perf. $o-$?7//,ai ; Flit, aicr^o-o/xat ; verb. Adj. cdcrSrjTos. 

2. d/m/orcw'u), to miss, Aor. ^/xaprov (late ^/xapr^o-a) ; Fut. a/xap- 
T^o-o/Aat (d/xapT^o-w, only in Alexandrine Greek) ; Perf. ^adpr^Ko. ; 
Perf. Pass, ^aprq/xai ; Aor. Pass. fjfjiapT'tjSrjv (X. An. 5. 9, 21. 
Vect. 4, 37). Verb. Adj. d^apr^reov. 

3. avexSavofJiai, to be hated, Aor. am^opTV (poet. ^X^Y t7 ? v ) > 
Inf. aTrcx^eo-^ai with irregular accent; Fut. ob-ex^o'cpu ; Perf. 
dTnfo^juai, I am hated. 

4. auava) (and cu5a>), to increase, Fut. a^^crw; Aor. 
Perf. r/v^7]Ka ; Mid. and Pass, to thrive, Perf. iyv^/xat ; Fut. 
cro/xat and avr)$r)(rop.aL ; Aor. rjvr)97)v. 

5. fiXao-Tavo), to sprout, Aor. efiXao-rov (later e^SXacrr^o-a) ; Fut.^o-a) ; Perf. e/JAao-rrj/ca and ^Xaa-njKa ( 123, 2). 

6. Sap&xi/co, commonly in composition, KaraS., to s/eep, Aor. 
Kare'Sap^ov ( KaraSap^evra, Aristoph. Plut. 300) ; Fut. KaTaSap^ao- 
/xai; Perf. KaraSeSap^Ka. 

7. tavw and fco^i^avw, secondary form of ?<o, Ka^w. See 
$ 166, 16. 

8. /cAayyavto, used of dogs, a secondary form of /, to cry 
OW^, Fut. KXdygo) (/ceKXay^o/xai, Aristoph. Vesp. 930) ; Aor. KXaya, 
acXayov, Eur. Iph. T. 1062; Perf. KK\ayya (old form /ce/cX^ya). 

9. oioavco, otSatVw (also otSaw, otSew), to swe#, Fut otSrjo-w; Perf. 

10. oXto-^ava) (oXio-^aiW used by later writers), to s/z}?, Aor. 
wXtcr^ov ; Fut. oXtcr^cra) ; Perf. (iXtcr^Ka (first Aor. 



11. ooxpaiVo/>uxt, to smell, Aor. (uo-^potoyv ; Fut. 

Prcs. o<r<f>pao-frai was a rare Attic form ; Aor. caar(ppT]ffdfj.ijy and 

12. o^Xio-Kavo) (rare Inf. o<Xctv, Part. o<Xcoi/), to 6 
^2/ie, to mcwr punishment (the double strengthening or* and ay 
is to be noted) ; Aor. w<Xov (w<X>?a-a, Lys. 13, 65. and by later 
writers) ; Fut. 6</>X?jo-<o ; Perf. w<f>\r)Ka ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

b. o.v is appended to the pure stem, and v is inserted before 
the Characteristic-consonant. 

PRELIMINARY KEMARK. The short vowel in the middle of the pure stem 
is changed into a long one, in inflection. The v is subject to the usual changes 
before the Pi and Kappa-mutes ( 19, 3). 

13. epvyyavw (instead of cpv-v-yavco), ructo, Aor. r/pvyoi/, Fut. 

14. #ryyai/a>, to touch, Aor. $iyov; Fut. 9iopcu.. 

15. Xay^avw, to obtain by lot, Aor. eXa^ov; Fut. X^o/xat; Perf. 

(rarely XeXoy^a from AEFX-, comp. TreTrov^a, 7ra$e/, TTCJ/- 
; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ctX?/y/tai (^ 123, 4) ; Aor. Pass. eX^^v. 
Verbal Adj. X^KTCOS. 

16. Xa/x/Javco, to to;7i;e, Aor. eXaySov, Imp. Xa/?e and Attic Xa/? 
[HI 8, 3 (a)]; Fut. X^o/xat; Perf. ctX^a; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
eiX^ju/u 123, 4), (XeX>7/xa6 Aesch. Ag. 876) ; Aor. Mid. 

Aor. Pass. eXrJ^^v ; Fut. Pass. X^&jo-opu. Verbal Adj. 

17. Xav^avw (poet, and also X. O. 7, 31, also XiJ&o), to 
cealedy Aor. IXa^oi/ (I. Aor. eXi;o-a late in simple words) ; Fut. 
Xiyo-w; Perf. XeX^a, J aw concealed; Mid. Xav^avo//,at (Ion. and 
poet, also X^o/xat), in prose tTrtX. (seldom euX.), to forget, Fut. 
X^o-o/xat; Perf. XeXr/tr/xat (^ 131) ; Aor. eXcu^o^v; Fut. Perf. XeX^- 
o-o/xat, Eur. Ale. 1981. 

18. Xt/x,7ravw, rare secondary form of Xewroo. 

19. /xav^ai/w, to learn, Aor. l/*,a$oi/; Fut. /xa^o-o/xat ; Perf. 
//.e/xa^/ca. The a remains short, and the Fut. and Perf. are 
formed from the stem MA0E, according to No. a. Verb. Adj. 

20. Trw^avouai, to inquire, to perceive, Aor. eTrv^ott^v ; Perf. TTC- 


Trw/itu, TreTruo-at, etc. ($ 131); Fut. Trewro/Aat (very rarely TTCVO-OV- 
/u,ai, $ 154, 3). Verb. Adj. Treuorrds, Treuareos. 

21. rvyxavw, to happen, Aor. erfyov; Fut. re^o/xat (TEYX-) ; 
Perf. TTvxr)Ka (TYXE- according to No. a). The transitive of 
this verb is the poetic rev^co, paro. 

22. <iryycu/(o, secondary form of <evyo>, to flee, Fut. <evo//,cu 
and -ofyxi ($ 154, 3) ; Aor. c^vyov ; Perf. 7re<euya. Verb. Adj. 

<f>eVKTO<S, -TOS. 

23. x<wSai/w, to hold, contain (spoken of vessels), Aor. exaSov; 
Perf. with a Pres. signification K^avBa; Fut. x^o/wti (stem 
XENA-, COmp. 7ra$ov, Treiicro/xai). 

161. IV. Feris, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres. and Impf. by annexing the two conso- 
nants, O-K or the syllable ICTK. 

2/c is annexed, when the stem-characteristic is a vowel, and KTK, when it is a 
consonant 5 Ku-fovccw and xp'n-^ ffKO f JiaL are exceptions. Most verbs, whose pure 
stem ends with a consonant, form the Future, etc. according to the analogy of 
pure verbs, in -etw, -e'co, and -6a>, e. g. evp-la-Kw, Fut. efy^-<r from 'ETPE- ; afj.&\icr- 
KU, Fut. a/\(a-ff(0 from 'AMBAO-. Some of these verbs, in the Pres. and Impf, 
take a reduplication also, which consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with t, and may be called the improper reduplication. Most of these verbs 
correspond to the Latin Inchoatives in sco : yi-yvtbcrKw, ^/3a<r/ca>, yrjpdffKw. 

1. aX-iV/c-ojLuu, to be taken, to be conquered, with this meaning, is 
used as the Pass, of cupe'co, Impf. yXLo-Kopyv; fAAO-) Fut. cUW>o-o/x<u ; 
second Aor. ^Xwv, Att. edXcov and r/Aoov (pi, 192, 9), I was taken; 
Perf. -^Aw/ca, and Att. eoAwKa and ^Awm, I have been taken (Aug., 
122, 4 and 6). The Active is supplied by at/aetv, signifying, to 
take captive, to conquer. Verb. Adj. aXwrds. Xen. uses both 
caXwv and r/Awv, An. 4, 4. 21. ; Thu. only eoXwv and eoAcoKa: Plato 
also only eaA.wKa. 

2. d/AjSAio-Kw (seldom d/iySXo'w), i5o miscarry ('AMBAO-), Fut 
d/xj8X(oo-w ; Aor. r^SAxoo-a ; Perf. ^/xySAtoKa ; Perf. Pass. rj/^Aw/xcu ; 
Aor. Pass. ^^SAw^i/. 

3. dj/aj8two-Ko/xat, (a) to reca# to /^/e, (b) to /we ^-am, Aor. 
dvj8ta)o-a/x77v, I recalled to life ; but second Aor. di/e/3iW (jut, $ 192, 
10), J liverf again. 

4. dvaAto-KO) (also dvaAdw), to spend, to consume, Impf. dv^Ato-Kov 

without Aug.) ; Fut. dvdAwcrto ; Aor. cU/^Acoo-a and dm- 


Atocra, Ka-np'aA.Gocra ; Perf. dv^Aw/ca and draAwKa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
avrj\.ij)fJML and dvoAw/tat ; Aor. di/aAa^ryv, dnyXaj^v ; Flit. Pass. 
dyoAw^TJo-o/Aai. Thu. and the Tragedians preferred the unaug- 
mented forms ; Plato and the orators, the augmented. 

5. dpeo-Kw, to please, Fut. dpe'crw; Aor. rjpeo-a [ 130 (d)] ; (Perf. 
ap-qpfKa in Sext. Emp. ;) Mid. with Accusative, to appease, to 
satisfy, Fut. dpcVo/xcu, Aesch. Suppl. 654 ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. rjpeo-- 
fuu; Aor. Pass. ^/aeV^v, Soph. Ant 500. Verbal Adj. dpecn-dg. 

6. /Ji/3pd>o-Ka>, to eat (Fut. Att. eSo/>tat from ecr^iw, second Aor. 
e<dyov), Perf. /^pw/ca; Part. /3e/?pws ($ 194) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
Ptppufiat, (Aor. Pass. IjBpuSrjv, and Fut. Pass. /?po>$?j<ro/mi non- 
Attic ; instead, the forms of eV^iw are used). 

7. 77o>j/io-K&> (mostly Poet.), to ca/Z, to make known, Fut. 77a>j/Va> j Aor. 
fyey(amr)<ra ; Perf. yeyuva, with a Present signification; further, 7e7o>j/e/Tw, 
Xen., 767WJ/6?*', Poet., seldom prose, e. g. PL Hipp. M. 292, d, from the Prim. 

8. yr/pao-Kw (or yr)pa.w), senesco, to grow old, Fut. yiypao-o/xat (sel- 
dom y7pacra> Plato) ; Aor. ey^/adcra (in Aesch. Suppl. 901., Trans. 
to cause to grow old}, Inf. y^pao-tu (instead of it yrjpavai, from an 
old second Aor. ey^pttv, was preferred by the Attics, /At, 192, 1) ; 
Perf. yeyTJpaKa, Jam old. 

9. yiyW)o-Ka> (ylj/oxrKa)), cognosco, to know (FNO-), Fut. yvwo-o- 
/tat; second Aor. cyvwi/ (/zi, $ 191); Perf. eyvcoKa; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, lyvoxryaat (^ 131) ; Aor. Pass, eyvwo-^v; Fut. Pass. yvwo-^TJ- 
crop.a.i. Verbal Adj. yvwcrro? (old form yi/wros), yvcooreo?. 

10. StSpao-Kto, ^o rww away (only in compounds, e. g. 0.77-08., exS., 
8ta8.), Fut. Spao-ofuu; Perf. 8c8pd/ca; second Aor. ISpdv (/xt, $ 192, 


11. evptb-Kcu, to find, second Aor. eupov; Imp. cvpe [^ 118, 3 

(a)]; C EYPE ') Fllt ev/^o-w; Perf. evp^a; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
eup^/xat; Aor. Pass, evpe^v [$ 130 (d)] ; Fut. Pass, evp^o-o/xcu ; 
Mid. to obtain, Aor. evpo'/^i/ (Aug. $ 121, Rem.). Verbal Adj. 
evpero?, eupT/reos. 

12. fjfido-Kw, pubesco, to become marriageable, Fut. i^o-w ; Aor. 
TJ/Bya-a ', Perf. rjftyKa (f)j3d(o, to be young, but dny^dw, to become 
young again). 

13. ^V^O-KO), commonly aTro^r/TJo-Kco, to ^Zz'e (Metathesis, $ 156, 
2), (AN-) Aor. aTre'&xvov (Poet. Uavov; ^a^wv, ot ^avoVrcs, tAfi 


dead, in prose) ; Fut. d7ro.Wojuai (Poet, ^avov/w-ai) ; Perf. 
TtSwjKa (not aTTore^^/ca) both in prose and poetry, re$va//,ev 
($ 194), etc., Inf. re^avai; Fut Perf. re^/^w ($ 154, 6), and 
among later writers redi/i^o/xat, / shall be dead. Verbal Adj. 
SVTJTOS, mortal. 

14. $POJO-KW ($ 156, 2), to spring, to leap, Aor. e^opov; Fut. 
Sopovpai ; Perf. re^opa. 

15. LXda-KOfjLai, to propitiate, Fut. iXoo-o/xai ; Aor. I. tAao-apyv ; Aor. 
Pass. tXao-^v. 

16. //-e^'cr/cco, to intoxicate, Fut. //.e^vo-w; Aor. e//,e'$uo-a. But 
/Ae^vw, to 6e intoxicated (only Pres. and Impf), borrows its tenses 
from the Passive, e. g. c/Ac&xr&p/ ($ 131). 

17. fjufMnfja-Kd), to remind (MNA-), Fut. //.VTJO-W ; Aor. fyanrjo-a ; Mid. 
to remind one's self, to remember, also to mention ; Perf. p-e/xv^/Acu, 
memini, I remember, I am mindful (Redup. $ 123, Hem. 1), 
Subj. ficfivStfjuiit -77, -^rat ($ 154, 8), Imp. ^i^vrjcro; Plup. e/xe/xv^- 
/x^v, I remembered, Opt. /Ac/xny/x^i/, -^o, -^ro, or /xe/x,v(o/x,?;i/, -wo, -<3ro 
($ 154, 8) ; Fut. Perf. /Ae/xi/^a-o/xai, I shall be mindful (among the 
Tragedians also, J wz# mention) ; Aor. /xv>;o-^v, J remembered 

Poet); Fut juv^cr^cro/Mat, I shall remember (<XTTO/XI^- 
Th. 1, 137). 

18. TTCUTXW (formed from TraSo-Ku, by transferring the aspiration 
of $ to K), to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor. ra3oi/; 
(HEN-) Fut. Treio-o/xat ; Perf. TreVov^a. Verbal Adj. TTO^TOS. 

1 9. TTITTIO-KW, to ^ive to drink, Fut. Trto-w ; Aor. rZ<ra. 

20. TriTrpao-Kw, to se#, rare in Pres. Act. (Fut. and Aor. in the 
Common language expressed by aTroSoxro/xat, a^So^v) ; Perf. 
irf.Trpa.Ko. (^ 156, Hem.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. TreVpa/mt (Inf. ireirpav- 
$0.1, often instead of the Aor. ) ; Aor. eTrpa^v ; Fut. Perf. TrtTrpa- 
(T-o/xat in the sense of the simple Fut. Trpa^o-o/xat, which is rare 
and not Attic. Verbal Adj. Trparos, Trpdreos. 

21. arcpLo-Ko) (seldom o-rcpeco, aTroarepowras, Isoc. 12, 243, 
according to the Ms. Urb.), to deprive of, Fut. crrep^o-co; Aor. 
<TTprjo-a ; Perf. eorep^Ka ; Mid. and Pass. o-repicrKO/xat, 

privor ; but 0Tpo/x,ai, 7 am deprived, Fut. o-rcp^cro/xat, rarer 

(ttTroo-repeto-^c, Andoc. My St. 149); Perf. ea-rep^/xat ; Aor. 
The simple occurs most frequently in the middle 
form ; in the Act., the compound a7rocrrepi'crKco is more frequent. 


22. TiT/oo>o-K(o, to wound, Fut. rpwo-w ; Aor. Irpcoo-a ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. Terpoyxcu, Inf. TT/3ojo-$ai, Part. TeTpo>/>tei/os ; Aor. Tp(t)3~r)V ; 
Fut. TP<D$T;O-O/A<U and Tpuxro/xai. Verbal Adj. T/XOTOS. 

23. <ao-Ko>, to say, to /M'H& (Ind. and Imp. very rare), Impf. 

; Fut. </>TJo-a>; Aor. tyrjaa. (Pass. e</>ao-/cTO, S. Ph. 114). 

24. XOO-KW, to gape (XAN-, among the later writers x at/l/w )> Aor. 
; Fut. xavoi)/Acu ; Perf. 

REMARK. In 5t5a<r/ca>, cfoc-eo, the /c belonging to the stem is strengthened 
by a- prefixed ; hence the K remains in forming the tenses, Fut. SiSd^u ; Aor. 81- 
5oo; Perf'. 5e5i'5axo; Perf. Mid. or Pass. SeSiSayfjuu ; Aor. Pass. cSfidxfrnv. 
Verb. Adj. SjScucrJs, -rcos. The same usage is found in the Epic and poetic 
verbs, oAdV/co>, a\u<r/cw, Aaovcw. See 230. 

162. V. Fer&s which have a Secondary Form in -$<o. 

Several verbs, particularly in poetry, have secondary forms in -&o>, e. g. 
/, poetic (instead of <p\yeiv), to burn; Tjyepe&oitrai and rjcpe'- 
t, Epic, instead of fryelpojrcu and atipovrai. Here belong also the end- 
ings -a&ov and -d&otfju of the Impf., and -<&> of the Pres. Inf., which are used 
even in Attic prose, e. g. ctAe'lw, to ward off, tragic Inf. a\Kc&eiv (stem 'AAK) ; 
i/tiW, to ward off\ a.fivvd&fu', Impf. T]^vvaStov] Siw/cw, to pursue, Suaicd&fiv, 
Impf. tSKaKc&ov, also prose ; eftcw, to yzWrf, Impf. cr/co^ov, /cc&oi/ut ; elfryw, 
to shut up, Impf. and Aor. (tpyo&ov, ?x> to ^ ye > <rx& fuf ( in Homer irx&&i 
as Aor.). 

$ 163. VI. Fer&5, whose Pure Stem is strengthened in 
the Pres. and Impf. by prefixing a Reduplication. 

The reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the root with 
the vowel i. In the Epic and poetic dialects, there are also verbs, which take 
the Attic reduplication, i. e. they repeat the first two letters of the root ; see 
C c "> a.Tra<pi<rK(i>, apapiffKw, 230. 

1. /?i/?oa>, to make go, to convey, Fut. Att. /?i/3o), -as, -a (still 
also /tyScurco, X. An. 4, 8, 8. 5. 2, 10). Verbal Adj. ySi^oorcos. 

2. ylyvopai (yu/o/xai) instead of ytyei/o/xat ($ 155, 2), to become, 
to be, (TEN-) Aor. lycvoprjv (late Attic cyevrj^v) ; Flit, yoojcro/zcu 
(PI. Parm. 141, e. yev^o-eTat, fiet, and moreover yevc^rjo-erat, efficie- 
tur); Perf. yeyei^/xat, I have become, factus sum, exstiti, and ye'yova 
with a present signification, lam, implying lam by birth; 

prjv and yeyova are also used as preterites of ei/xt, to be. 

3. 7rtW<o (instead of TrtTreVw, $ 155, 2), to fatt, Imp. 
(KET-) Fut. Treo-oupu (^ 154, 3) ; Aor. ITTCO-OV (very seldom first 


198 VERBS IN -(0 WITH STRENGTHENED STEM. [$ 164, 165. 

Aor. errora), 154, Hem. 2 ; Perf. TreVrw/ca with irregular variable 
vowel (Part. TreTrrws, TreTmoTos, Poet $ 194, 5). 

4. Tirpaco, to 6<?re, Fut. rprjo-a) ; Aor. erp^cra. More usual the 
secondary form Terpcu'vw, Fut. Ter/oavw; Aor. ererp^va ($ 149, Hem. 
2) ; Perf. rerp^Ka, rerp^/xai. Verbal Adj. 

Several verbs of class IV ( 161) belong here, as yiyvdxrito), and several verbs 
in -/*j, as 5i5o>/xi. 

164. VII. Verbs, whose Pure Stem-vowel a zs 
strengthened in the Pres. and Impf. by i. 

Here belong the dialectic verbs, mostly Epic and poetic : ayaiopcu, to be in- 
dignant; 8aiw, to divide and burn ; palofjuu, to rage; vaieo, to dwell. See 230. 

165. VIII. Verbs, whose Pure Stem assumes c in the 
Pres. and Impf. 

1. ya/xea>, to marry (of the man), Perf. yeya/x^/ca; but Fut. 
yfyc,a>; Aor. ey^/aa, y^u-ai (eya/x^o-a first in Menander, then in 
Lucian. ; ya/x^o-eia? with the better reading ya/x^o-etets in X. Cy. 
8. 4, 20). Mid. ya/x,oO/xat (with the Dat), to marry (of the 
Woman, nubo), Fut. yajuov/zai ; Aor. ey>7/>ta/x^v ; Perf. ycya/x^/xat. 
Pass, in matrimonium ducor, Aor. eya/x^^v, etc. [$ 130 (d), 2]. 

2. y^^ew, Poet., usually Perf. yey^^a (also prose), to rejoice, 
Fut. yrjSijarta. 

3. SoKeco, to 5eem, videor, to think, Fut. 8o^o> (SoK?jo-a> poet); 
Aor. eSo^a (eSo'^o-a Poet.) ; Aor. Pass. KaraSox^ct?, Antiph. 2. 116, 
2; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Se'Soy/im (SeSo'^/xai, Ionic and Eurip.), 
visus sum. 

4. KTvireca (Poet.), to resound, Fut. --{jffci), etc. ; second Aor. SKTVTTOV (Epic and 
g. 0. C. 1450) ; first Aor. e'/cT^o-o (ib. 1606). 

5. /Aaprvpeco, to 6ear witness, Fut. /mprvp^o-w, etc. But /xaprvpo- 
ftat, Dep. Mid. to ca/Z 05 witnesses. 

6. ^upeto, to shear, to shave, Mid. vpo/xat; Aor. c^upa/^v ; but 
Perf. ^vpyjfj,ai. 

7. a>$e'a>, to push, Impf. cto^ow ; Fut. wo-to and w^crw ; Aor. 
uxra, wo-at ; Perf. ew/ca late, Pint. ; Flit. Mid. wcrojaai ; Aor. eaxra- 
/A^V; Perf. Mid. or Pass, coxr/uu; Aor. Pass, e^or^i/; Fut Pass. 

(Aug. ^ 122, 4). Verbal Adj. WO-TOS, -reos. 


$ 166. Verbs, whose Stem is Pure in the Pres. and 
Impf., but which assume an e in forming the 

This change has taken place in the formation of verbs in -ew, partly from 
necessity, as is the case with verbs whose characteristic is (, >// ; partly for the 
sake of perspicuity, that the root may not wholly disappear by the introduction 
of consonants, as in verbs whose characteristic is <TK, x& j an( l partly from mere 
choice or the desire of euphony, as in verbs whose characteristic is 8, r, , A, 
P> "*> if, x> a > "> > ot - The e is changed into TJ in inflection. Exceptions : 
, &x&, and paxopcu [ 130 (d)]. 

1. dfSo/icu, to fed shame, to fear (Pres. and Impf. old poetic, in the Common 
language otSeo/uu), Impf. a,iS6fj.i)v without Aug.; Fut. aiSeffopeu and -fao^ai 
(&rcu5e<r&ij<r<viat, Eur. Iph. A. 889) ; Perf. jJSeer^eVos, Dem. Aristocr. 646, 1 ; 
Aor. rj8TdfjiT)v (with Ace.), as a law-term in Attic prose, signifying to pardon a 
suppliant ; but also in poetry, signifying to be ashamed of, to fear ; but in this 
sense pSeVdrji' is commonly used. 

2. oAe'&o, to ward off, Act. seldom in prose, X. Cy. 4. 3. 2, d\e- 
eiv; Fut. dXc^T/o-co (Aor. ^A^o-a, Horn.); Mid. to ward off from 
one's self, Fut. dXc^o-o/xat (dAe^o/Aat as Fut. of 'AAEK- is rare, 
e. g. S. Or. 171. 539. X. An. 7. 7, 3) ; Aor. rjXc&prjv (^Xe^o-a/x^v, 
Horn, and X. An. 1. 3, 6. in all the best MSS.) (Inf. second 
Aor. dAKo-Sew, used by the Trag., $ 162.) 

3. av|oj, to increase; see av<w/a>, 160, 4. 

4. a^o/x,at, to be vexed, Fut. dg^coxy/uu, and in prose usually 
dx#co-#>7o-o//,cu (both with the same signification) ; Aor. yx^vSw 

5. fioo-Ku), to feed, Fut. /?OO-KT}O-<O ; Aor. e/Socr/oyo-a ; Mid. intrans. 
Zo yeec?, to eat. Verbal Adj. /Sore's, ySoo-K^rcos. 

6. /?ov'Ao/, ^o t&is^ (second Pers. fiovXti, 116, 11), Fut. /3ov- 
X^o-o/xat ; Perf. /3e/?ovA?7/x,ai ; Aor. ejSovAr/^v and ^SovA.y^i/ (Aug., 
$ 120, Hem. 1). 

7. oVo>, ^o want, to need, usually Impers. Sei, it is wanting, it is 
necessary ($ 137, 2), Subj. 807, Part. Se'ov, Inf. Se^; Impf. e8a, Opt. 
Scot; Fut. SeTyo-et; Aor. e8e>/cr(i/) ; Perf. SeSeryKe^) ; Mid. Se'o/Aai, ^0 
weeo?, Fut. Seiycro/xat ; Aor. eSerJ^v ; Perf. 3e8e^/xat. 

8. e^e'Aw and e'Aa>, ^o z^7/, Impf. ^eXov and eSeAov; Fut 

and eA^o-<o ; Aor. ^^eXr/o-a and eSeAiyo-a; Perf. only 


9. tXw, etAAoo, tXXw, also eiAew, to press, to shut up, Fut. 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. cZA^/xai ; Aor. Pass. eiAi^v. 

10. eAjcw, to draw, Fut. cAo> (which is preferred to the other 
form cA.Kvo-0) from 'EAKY&) ; Aor. eiA/cvcra ($ 122, 3), eXxvo-ai 
(more common than ct\|a) ; Perf. e?A.Kv/ca ; Mid. to draw to one's 
self, cA-Kvo-o/xat, eiA/cvcrap^v ; Aor. Pass., Fut. Pass., and Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, only clX/cvo^v, cAxw^cro/Acu, eiA.KV(r/>uxt. 

11. *EIPOMAI, Aor. ^po/x^v, I inquired, ep&r&u, epw/xcu, epoi/^v, 
epov, epo/xevos ; Fut. epr/cro/xat. The other tenses are supplied by 
epwrav; but the Aor. ^pamyo-a is rejected. 

12. ^pa>, to go forth, Fut. epp^o-w; Aor. ^p/fyo-a; Perf. rjpprjKa. 

13. evSco, commonly Ka^evSw, to sfeep, Fut. Ka^evS^o-w ; Aor. rare 
and late; Perf. wanting (Aug., $} 121, Hem. and 126, 3). Verb. 
Adj. KaSev&rrreov. 

14. ej(w, to have, to hold, Impf. cT^ov (^ 122, 3) ; Aor. rj(ov 
(instead of l-o-c^ov), Inf. a^eiv, Imp. o-^e?, Trapao^es according to 
verbs in /u (in composition also tr^e, as Karaoke, Trapaaxe), Subj. 
07(o>, -^s, Trapatrxci), Trapda-^^ etc., Opt. oyofyv (ph 192, Kem.), 
but in compounds Trapacrxoi/xi, etc., Part, o^wv; Fut. e^w and 
<rx^o"w; Perf. ecr^Ka; Aor. Mid. la^op^v, Subj. o^((up:at, Opt. 07(01- 
/u,^v, Imp. CT^OU, 7rapa(rj(ov, Inf. <r^e<r^at, Trapaa^eo-^at, Part. CT^O/XCVOS ; 
Fut. CO/ACU and <rx^o-o/xat ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ICT-X^CU ; Aor. Pass. 
ecrxe^v (not used in good Attic). Verbal Adj. CKTOS, and oftener 
poetic (T^CTOS, -reos. 

15. l^o), to coo^, Fut. ei/^o-w (Fut. Mid. e'^o-o/Acw, Plat. Rp. 372, 
c.); Aor. ^170-0,; Aor. Pass. f)\f/rjSr)v ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ^j/^/xat. 
Verbal Adj. e<$05, or tyrjros, tyrjrcos. 

16. r^w (Plat. Symp. 196, 6), commonly KO$I(O, to sea, to sif, 
Impf. tKa^^ov, old Attic Ka^ov; Fut. KO^IW (117, 2); Aor. 
e'Ka^ura, old Attic KaSto-a ($ 126, 3) ; (Perf. Kcxc^tKa;) Mid. J^e^ 
myself, Fut. Ka^i^o-o/xai ; Aor. cKa^io-a^v, J seated for myself, I 
caused to sit. But Kae'o//.ai, Jsm myself, I sit, Impf. eKa^o/^v ; 
Fut. Ka^eSoS/xat. 

17. K^S<o, to ma^e anxious (Act. only Epic), Fut. K^Sijoxo ; Perf. 
KK^8a, J w anxious; Mid. K^So/xai, to 6e anxious, in prose only 
Pres. and Impf. ; in Aesch. S. 138, is found Imp. Aor. Mid. 

18. KXaiiw, to weep (KXaw seldom, and without contraction), 

$ 1GG.] VERBS IN -<0 WITH STI1K.\(, Til I. M. 201 

Fut. K\aixro/xat (/cAavcrou/xai, $ 154, 2, m^jtStiBfoffii.) , rarer (in 
Dem.) KAao7O-<o, Or KA.a,7/o-(o; Aor. IxXavo-a; KAav(ra/ar/v, S. Trach. 
153; Perf. KKXav/xai, and later KCKAavoyxai ($ 131, 3). Comp. 
$ 154, 2. Fut. Perf. KCKAauWat, Aristoph. Nub. 1440. Verbal 
Adj. /cAavoTOS and KXaurds, KAavtrrcos. 

19. fuxxo/xat, to fight, Fut. /xaxov/xat, $ 154, 5 (Epic and late 
prose fiaxfja-ofJMt) ; Aor. e/xa^eo-a/x^v ; Perf. yu,e/za;(r7ju,ai ; Aor. Pass. 
p.a.xea-$r)V late. Verbal Adj. ^a^erecs and ^a^r/rcos. 

20. tteAAo), to intend, to be about to do, hence to cfe&zy, Impf. 

and T//xeAAoi/ ; Fut. /xeAArJo-w ; Aor. e/xe'AAr/o-a ; Pass. tieAAeo-- 
to 6e j?w o^ delayed. (Aug., $ 120, Rem. 1.) Verbal Adj. 

21. /xeAet /xot, curae mihi est, ^ concerns me, I lay it to heart 
(rarely personal /xeXw), Fut. //.eX7/o-i; Aor. e/xeA.^(r(i/) ; Perf. 
fjLffjL\.7)K^v) ; Mid. jLieXo/xat, commonly cTri/xeAo/xat (and eTrt/xcXov/Acu, 
but Inf. probably 7ri/xe'A.o-3at) ; Fut. cTrt/uteX^o-o/xat (sometimes 
7ri/AeA.T7$T7<ro/xcu) ; Perf. cTrt/xe/xeATy/xat ; Aor. 7re/xeX^^;i/. Verbal 
Adj. 7ri^teA.?7Tov. 

The compounds, e. g. /tcra/xeXet, poenitet, are used as impersonate only ; sel- 
dom /icra/ieXo/iat, to repent (Thuc.), Aor. /icrc^eA^^Tjv (late) ; /ie^rjXws, caring 

22. /AV<O, to ^wcA;, Fut. /xv^o-w, etc. 

23. o^o>, to swe#, i. e. to ew& a/i ocfe>r, Fut. o^o-w ; Aor. 
(Perf. oSwSa with the meaning of the Pres. in Homer and the 
later writers, $ 124, 2). 

24. oto/u and ot/xat, to think, second Pers. otei ($ 116, 11); 
Impf. u>6fji.r)v and w/xiyv ; Fut. oujo-o/xcu ; Aor. w^^v, olrjS^vaL ; Perf. 
wanting. (Aug., $ 122, 1.) Verbal Adj. otV /0 - 

The abbreviated forms, ol/ioi, $i.-t\v, are used in prose as a mere paren- 
thetic expression, like the Lat. credo, and hence are often employed in an 
ironical sense; ofo/uai, on the contrary, has such a sense, only when it is a 
governing verb ; still, this difference of usage is not fully observed even by the 
best Attic writers. 

25. oixojxat, lam gone, have gone (with sense of Perf), abii, 
Impf. (OXO/A^ (sense of Aor., also Plup.), I went away, had gone, 
Fut. oi^o-o/xat; Perf. a^/x-cu, commonly as a compound, e. g 

X. .An. 2. 4, 1. in the best MSS., Ion. and Att. Poet. 


(so originate, oT^a, otK-w^a, OI^-COKO, comp. the Epic 
from ej(a>, $ 230). 

26. 6<eiAu>, to ow-'e, debeo, I ought, must, Fut. o^etA^o-co ; Aor. 
<j)<f>i\.r)(ra ; Perf. &<f>eiXrjKa ; second Aor. w<eAoi/, -es, -e(v) (first and 
second Pers. PL not used), in forms expressing a t&&,utuxam. 

27. Trato), to strike, Fut. Trato-w (Att. secondary form TTCU^O-W in 
Aristoph.); Aor. iTrato-a; Perf. TreVatKa (the simple late); Aor. 
Mid. cTratora^v ; Pass, with <r ($ 131* 2) ; yet instead of TrcTratV- 
/MU and e7rai(r#?7v, eTrXi/y^v and 7re'7rA?7y/x,ai were commonly used. 
Verbal Adj. Traioreos. 

28. TrepSw, usually TrepSo/xat, emittere flatuin, Aor. cTrapSoi/ ; Fut. 
TrapS^cro/xat ; Perf. TreTropSa (^ 140, 4). 

29. Trero/Aai, ?o ^/?y, Fut. (Tre-njcro/Aai, Aristoph.) commonly 
o-oftat ; Aor. commonly in prose and in the Comic writers, 

/iiyv, Trrecr^at (rarer eTrra/xiyv; ermyi', TTTO), Trrat^v, Trr^vat, TTTCIS, poet. 
and in the later writers ($ 192, 2) ; Perf. TreTrony/mt (Aristoph.). 
Syncope ($ 155, 1). 

30. o-AceAAw (or cr/ceXe'o)), ifo d'ry, Aor. <TK\r)v (^ 192, 4), and Perf. 
lo-KXry/ca, and Fut. o-KATJo-o/tat, intrans. ^o c?ry wjo, to wither. Met- 
athesis, 156, 2. 

31. Turn-to, to strike, Fut. Attic TUTTT^O-O) (rvt/fco, Homer) ; (Aor. 
I. ervTmyo-a late; erv^a, Horn. ; Aor. II. ervrrov, Eur. Ion. 779; for 
the Aor. of this word, the Attics use eTrara^a, errato-a ;) (Perf. 
TCTvrmyKa, Pollux) ; Fut. Mid. rvTrr^o-o/Aat, Aristoph. Nub. 1382. 
Pass, blows will be inflicted; Perf. renyA/Aai, Aesch. 

late); Aor. Pass. CTUTT^V (erwmj-Sfyi' late). Verbal Adj. 

32. x a W w > t rejoice, Fut. xaipr?<rw (^ap>;o-o/xat late) ; Aor. f 

(/x,t, ^ 192, 8); Perf. Ke^ap^Ka (Aristoph. and Herod.), I have 
rejoiced, and Ke^apr;/xat (poet.), I am glad. Verbal Adj. 

REMARK 1. Of the preceding classes, there belong here verbs in -cUw ( 160), 
and vTrurxyfo/juu, of those in 159. 

REM. 2. With these verbs several liquid verbs are classed ( 149, 6) ; still, 
they form the Fut. and the Aor. regularly, e. g. 

to remain, Fut. /iej/; Aor. e/iij>a ; Perf. /iejucVrj/ca. Verbal Adj. 

, never eos. 

, to divide, Fut. pe/D; Aor. evcz/ta; Perf. j'ej'e^^Ko; Aor. Pass, eve- 
/t^&rjv. Mid., Fut.] Aor. eveip.dfj.rjj' ; Perf. Mid. Of 
Pass. yei/e^Tj/ioi. Verbal Adj. 


167. Verbs, whose Tenses are formed from different 
Roots, and which are classed together only in 
respect to Signification. 

1. aipew, to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Impf. $pow; Fut. 

Perf. yjprjKa; Aor. (from C EA) euW, eAeti/; Aor. Pass. 
Fut. Pass, aipe$>jcro/x<u [$ 130 (d)]. Mid. to choose, Aor. 
Fut. atprjo-o/iat ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, flpiy/xai; Fut. Perf. 
2/pTJo-o/xcu, PI. Prot. 338, b. Verbal Adj. atpero?, -re'os. 

2. (jpxo/uu, to #0, to cows (only the Indie, of the Pres. in use in 
Attic, the remaining modes and the participials being borrowed 
from c7/xt ($ 181) ; thus, Ip^o/xeu, tw, J$i, tcVat, icov), Impf. ^p^o/xT/v, 
commonly yen/ and Ja, Opt. ?oi/xi; Fut. el/xi, I shall go (T/^W, I shall 
come) ; ('EAEY0-) Perf. e^XvSa [$ 124, 2 (b)] ; Fut. eAevVo/xai 
almost exclusively poetical and later prose, still also Lys. p. 
165, HI; Aor. rjXSov, eX&o, e\otfu, eXSe' [^ 118, 3 (a)], 'A^?/, 

Verbal Adj. /xercXevoTeov. 

in common the signification of to come and to go ; the idea of 
coming commonly belongs to the form from ^A&etV, and the idea of going to that 
of (Jfjii. But in compounds, each of these three verbs expresses both ideas, and 
only the preposition limits it to the one or to the other signification. 

3. *$>, to eat, Impf. r}o-3iov; (eSw, Ep.) Fut. I8o/x,at, ($ 154, 4) ; 
Perf. eSr/SoKa ; Aor. !<ayov, ^ayea/ ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eS^Secr/xai, 
($ 124), 2; Aor. Pass. rjSta-STjv. Verbal Adj. eSecrro's, cSeo-rco?. 

4. opcuo, to see, Impf. ecopwi/; Perf. eupaKo, (Poet, also eopaxa, 
Aug., * 122, 6) ; Aor. (from 'IA-) eTSov, t8a>, JSoifit, c, $118, 3 (a), 
iServ, i8wv. (On the second Perf. oTSa, I know, see $ 195.) Fut 
(from 'OH) o^o/Ltat (2. Pers. <tyet, 116, 11). Mid. or Pass, opoi- 
fjuu; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ctupcyuu, or w^fiat, w^at, etc. ; Inf. 

Aor. Mid. i8o'/x.7yv, iSeo-Sat, tSov (and with the meaning ecce, 
as a simple only Poet. ; Aor. Pass. u><f>9r)v, 6<f>$fjvai. ; Fut. 
oftat. Verbal Adj. opdros and OTTTOS, OTTTCOS. 

5. rpe^w, to rzm, (APEM-) Fut. 8pa/xov/xat ; Aor. eSpa^tov; Perf. 
8c8pa/xryKa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eTrtSeSpa/^/xcu (X. O. 15. 1). Verb. 
Adj. SpcKreov. 

pe'|o/xcu, ?^pc|a, rare and poet. Second Perf. only Epic Se'Spo/za (APEMfl). 

6. ^>pa> (only Pres. and Impf.), to bear, COI-) Fut. OMTW (Aor. 
Imp. oto-e, oiVcTcu, bring, in Aristoph., see ^ 230, under <f>ep<a) ; 


fErKQ, or *ENEFKO) Aor. II. rjveyKov (rarer Aor. I. rjveyKai), -es, 
c(i/), -o/-tev, -ere, -ov (and -a/^ev, -arc, -av), ($ 124, Rem. 2), Opt. 
etc. (rarer -at/At, etc.), Inf. eveyKe>, Part. eVeyKon' (rarer 
, Imp. eVeyKC, -erco, etc. (and -arw, etc.) ; ('ENEK-) Perf. 
eviyvoxa ($ 124, 2) ; Mid. to carry of, carry away, win, Fut. oto-o- 
uat; Perf. Mid. or Pass, en^ey/xat (-yat, -yKTat, or ev^e/crai) ; Aor. 
Mid. -^i/eyKa/xryv, eVey/cai, -aa$ai, -a/xevo5 ; Pass, (a) to &e borne, 
carried, (b) to ear one's self, to hasten; Aor. Pass, ^ve^ryv; Fut. 
rarer our$^<ro/>uu). Verb. Adj. OIOTOS, otoreos (Poet. 

7. <i7/u' ($ 178), to say, Impf. <^>7^/ with the meaning of the 
Aor. also <av<u and <as ($ 178, Rem. 2); ('EII-) Aor. etTrov, 
t7rco, eiTTot/xt, ci?T [^ 118, 3 (a)], (the other forms of the Imp. are 
rarely or never used, compound Trpoewre), ctTrctv, ewron/ (first Aor. 
ctTro, not very frequent in Attic writers, more frequent etTras, 
very frequent etTrare, rarely etTrav, Imp. etTrov rarely, very frequent 
ctTraTo), ctTrarov, t7raTwv, and always ctTrare ; all other forms want- 
ing in the Att). From the Epic Pres. ?/><>, come Fut. epw, Perf. 
iprjKa, Perf. Mid. or Pass, eip^at (^ 123, 4) ; C PE ~) -A- 01 "- P 8 - 88 - 
cppTjSrjv (eppe&yv appears not to be Attic), p-rjSfyaL, p^ets; Fut. 
Pass. pTy&Jo-ofUH and ctp^o-o/xat. Mid. only in compounds, Fut. 
cwrepovjaai, and first Aor. aTretTrao-^at, to deny, to be wearied out, to 
give up, like aTrewrecv. Verbal Adj. p^ros, pi/reos. 

Instead of the Pres. ^>7jjuf, other words are sometimes used, particularly in 
composition. Compare ctoreryopeuw, I forbid, a-rretTrov, I forbade; avriXeyw, I 
contradict, avrtiirov, I contradicted, the compounds of flirflv in the Aor. being 
more frequent than aTnrySpevcra, and oyreAe^a. So, ayopevw riva KCUCUS, I speak 
ill of one, but avrfiirov KOKWS. 

168. Conjugation of Verbs in -pi. 

1. Verbs in -pi, the number of which is small, differ from 
those in -to, principally in taking different personal-endings 
in the Pres. and Impf., several also in the second Aor. Act. 
and Mid. ; and also in omitting the mode-vowel in the Ind. 
of the above tenses. The formation of the remaining 

1 The first Aor. is preferred to the second, in the first Pers. Sing. Indie., when 
the next word begins with a consonant 5 also in the persons of the Imp. which 
have a ; hence SWy/ce, but 

169.] DIVISION OF VERBS IN -fit. 205 

tenses is like that of verbs in -o>, with a few exceptions. In 
omitting the mode-vowel, these verbs are analogous to those 
in -oo), -eo), and -oo>. 

2. In the Pres. and Impf., most verbs in -/u with a mono- 
syllabic stem, take a reduplication ( 163) ; this consists in 
repeating the first consonant of the stem with 4, when the 
stem begins with a simple consonant or a mute and liquid ; 
but, when the stem begins with err, TTT, or with an aspirated 
vowel, i with the rough breathing is prefixed to the stem. 
These verbs are the following : 

2TA T-0T77-/U IIPA Trl-/j.-vpT]-fjLi 

XPA Ki-xpn-pu AE (5-57j-/Ai) 5i5e'cwrt(j/) 

BA (01-fa-ju ftiftds E 

IITA l-irra-fMU, 'E T-TJ-/U 


REMARK. Most verbs in -fit do not follow this conjugation throughout in 
the three tenses above named, but only in some particular forms ; four verbs, 
T&rj/it, to put ; Tern^u, to place ; Si'Swyut, to give, and ftj/w, to send, have this 
conjugation most full, though even these have forms in use borrowed from the 
conjugation in -, together with several forms of the inflection in -/. See 
$ 172, Rem. 8 

$ 169. Division of Verbs in -fu. 

Verbs in ~fu are divided into two principal classes : 

1. Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-vowel. 
The stem of verbs of this class ends : 

(a) in o, e. g. l-crry-pi, to place^ Stem 2TA- 

(b) " , " Tf-d7j-/ii, to put, " 0E- 

(c) " o, " 5i'-5-/ui, to give, " AO- 

(d) " i, " 3^, to go, 'I- 

(e) " ff, " tlfii, instead of &r/*f, to be, " 'E3-. 

2. Such as annex to their stems the syllable -wv or -vv, 
and then append to this syllable the personal-endings. The 
stem of verbs of this class ends : 

A. In one of the four vowels, a, e, i, o, and assumes -wv 

(a) in a, e. g. <rK&a-vvv-p.i, to scatter, Stem 2KEAA- 

(b) " e, " Kope-vvv-iJLi, to satisfy, " KOPE- 

(c) " i, only ri-vvv-fu, to atone, " TI- 

(d) " o, e. g. arrpta-wv-fju, to spread out, " 2TPO-. 



B. In a consonant, and assumes -vv. 

(a) in a mute, e. g. SeiK-vv-fu, to show, Stem AEIK- 

(b) " liquid, " fyi-w-jut, to swear, " 'OM-. 
REMARK 1. When a diphthong precedes the final consonant of the stem, 

that consonant is omitted before the -vv, except it be a Kappa-mute, e. g. Stem 'AIP (comp. afy-w, &p-]/v/ 

Sai-vvfii " A AIT (comp. Sais, Sair-6s) 

Kai-vvfjL<u " KAIA from KAA (comp. Perf. Ke/ca5-,wc, /ce/ccKT/icw) 

KTft-vvfj.1 " KTEIN from KTEN (Put. KTW-U) ; but 

SfiK-vO/j.1, etpy-w/u, ^vy-vvp.i, o'iy-vvfj.1. 

REM. 2. Verbs of the second class, those in -vfu, form only the Pres. 
and Impf. like verbs in pi, and even in these tenses, only a part of the forms 
are in -v/tj, the others in -&; in the Sing. Impf. the forms in -vw are predomi- 
nant, and in the Pres. Subj. and in the Impf. Opt., these are the regular forms. 
The verb <re-j>j>t;-jiu, from the stem 2BE-, is the only verb of this class which 
forms the second Aor., namely, eo-jSajj/ ; several verbs in -a;, form their second 
Aor. according to the analogy of these verbs, e. g. Svw, e5uv. 

170. Characteristic-vowel and Strengthening of 
the Stem of the Present. 

1. In verbs of the first class, the short characteristic-vowel 
of the stem, a, e, o, is lengthened in the Pres., Impf., and 
second Aor. Act. : 

a and e into ij, and o into w. 

Still, in verbs in -e and -o this lengthening extends only to the 
Ind. Sing, of these three tenses ; but in verbs in -a, to the Dual 
and PL Ind. also, and likewise to the entire Imp. and the 
second Aor. Inf. Act. In the second Aor. Inf. Act. of verbs in 
-e and -o, is lengthened into et, and o into ov, e. g. $a-vcu, Soi)- 
vai. But in the same tenses of the Mid., the short character- 
istic-vowel remains throughout. 

2. Verbs in -v^i, whose stems end in a vowel, and hence 
annex -vw, retain the short characteristic-vowel, except those 
whose stem ends in -o, e. g. crr/ow-i/w/u (3TPO-) ; but verbs 
whose stems end in a consonant, and hence annex -w, are 
strengthened in the stem of the Pres. by lengthening the stem- 
vowel, namely, 

a becomes 07, as in -jr-fjy-vv/jn, second Aor. Pass, firay-fiv 
a " at, " at-vv^ai instead of &pvv/, stem 'AP, 'AIP 
" ei, " Se/K-w/tt, stem AEK, hence Ion. eSea 
v " eu, " f6y-iri)iu, second_Aor. Pass, 

$$171,172.] VERBS IN -/U. - PERSONAL-ENDINGS. 207 

$ 171. Mode-vowels. 

1. The Ind. Pres., Impf., and second Aor. do not take the 
mode-vowel ($ 168, 1), and hence the personal-endings are 
annexed immediately to the stem of the verb, e. g. 

2. Tlie Subj. has the mode-vowels CD and ?;, as in verbs in -co ; 
but these vowels coalesce with the characteristic-vowel and 
fprm one syllable ; this coalescence differs from the contraction 
of verbs in -co, as follows : 

d-n and dp coalesce into TJ and $ (not, as in contracts in -eta, into a and a), 6rj 
coalesces into (not, as in contracts in -6a>, into ot), e. g. 
l-ffTd-o) = I-O-TW 1-ffTa-rjs = i-ffrrjs 

<rrd-o> = <TTO> ffrd-rjs = arris 

8i-86-a> = 8i-8a> 

REMARK 1. This form of the Subj. of fcrrrj/u and r&ijjut is like the Subj. 
of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs, e. g. Ti/</>d<S, -jjs, -rj, etc., TUTT-OJ, -ps, -77, 
from rvir-Tu, ffra-^u, -fjs, -fj, from fcrrTj/u. 

EEM. 2. The S-ubj. of verbs in -0/tt is like that of verbs in -Oo>, e. g. Sei/o/vw, 
-vys, etc. 

3. The Impf. and second Aor. Opt. have the mode-vowel i, 
which is annexed to the characteristic- vowel, and with it forms 
a diphthong, e. g. 

Impf. Opt. A. l-ffra-i-tiv l-ffTai-Tjv Aor. II. A. oro.(-i\v Impf. M. i-(rral-/j.ijy 


HEM. 3. The Opt. of verbs in - (ri^/ju) is like the Aorists Opt. Pass, of 
all verbs, e. g. <rra-&ei-ijj/, rv^-^el-Tjj/, ruir-ef-Tji/. 

REM. 4. The Impf. Opt. of verbs in -0/tj, like the Subj. Pres., follows the 
form in -, e. g. 8ttKvvoifj.i. The few exceptions will be considered below. 

$ 172. Personal-endings. 

I. The following are the personal endings for the Act. : 
(a) For the Indicative Present, 

Sing. 1. 


(properly -<n) 

-<TI(V) (properly -TI) 1-ffrij-<ri(v) 

208 VERBS IN "fil. PERSONAL-ENDINGS. [$ 172. 

Dual 2. 

Plur. 1. 

-rov '1-ffTa-Tov 

-TOV 1-ffTa-TOV 

-p.ev (properly -/*) t-<rra-,iiex 

-T6 T-<rra-T 

[-vo^x)] (properly -VTI) \i-crra.-vri 

The ending of the third Pers. PL -v<ri(v) is changed into -a<ri(v), and then 
is contracted with the preceding stem- vowel of the verb. Still, the Attic dia- 
lect admits contraction only in the stems ending in -a, thus : 

from t-ffra-vffi is formed l-ffraffi (i-ffTa-o.o'i) 

" Ti-freTo-t Att. ri-&f-affi 

" St-Souo-t " Si-56-a.ffi 

SeiK-vuffi SeiK-vv-a<ri. 

REMARK 1. The uncontracted form in -euo-t, -(fdcn, -va<ri, is the only one 
used in Attic prose, though it also occurs in the Ionic dialect ; the contracted 
form in -e?<n, -ovffi, -v<ri, is the usual form in the Ionic writers, very seldom in 
the Attic poets. But from fy/u (stem C E), to send, this Attic form la<ri (con- 
tracted from i-e-do-t) always occurs. 

(b) The personal-endings of the Subj. Pres. and second 
Aor. do not differ from those of verbs in -.- 

(c) The following are used for the Impf. and second Aor. 

Sing. 1. 


Impf. l-ffry-v 







Dual 2. 


A. II. e-tTTTJ-TOJ/ 




Plur. 1. 


(properly -/tcs) e-<TTf)-[jLv 








REM. 2. The Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs is like the second 
Aor. HffTijv, e. g. CTUTT-TJ*', 3-ffTa-frriVy -rjy, -rj, -TJTO*', -i\Tf\Vy -rj/tex, -Tjre, -T 

(d) The personal-endings of the Opt. Impf. and second Aor. 
(except the first Pers. Sing.) differ from those of the Opt. of 
the historical tenses of verbs in -co, only in being preceded by 
t] ; comp. the endings of /3ovA.evoi/zi, /3ovXei;o-at/xt, etc. with those 

ffrai-rjv, l-irrat-Tjv &el-r)v ri-bfl-ijv Sol-Tjt/ $i-8ot-i]v. 
REM. 3. In the Dual and PL Impf. Opt., the -i\ is commonly rejected in the 
Attic dialect, and the ending of the third Pers. PL -t\aov is almost always 
shortened into -ej/, e. g. 


The same holds of the Opt. Pass. Aorists of all verbs, e. g. TeuSeudefy/xei/ = 
TrcuSfv^-(7/j.(v (wholly like Tidelijv). On the contrary, in the second Aor. Opt. 
Act. of ToTTj/ii, Tforjfju, 5t5&>/ii, the abbreviated forms are very rare, except the 
third Pers. PL, which is commonly abridged. 
REM. 4. The forms SiSyrjv and S^TJJ/ also occur. 
(e) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. Imp. are: 

Sing. 2. -bi (1-ffra-bt) (rl-bf-bi) ($l-$o-&i) 

3. -TW I-0-TO-TO) n-bf-TW Sl-56-TU 

Dual 2. -TOJ> 1-ffTa-rov ri-bf-Tov Sl-So-rov 


?-o"Ta-T6 ri-fre-Tf 5i-8o-T 

Tt-fre-raxrcu' oVSo'-Taxraj/ 

Plural 2. 


or l-ffT&vruv Ti-&(iT(oy 5t-5oVra>j/. 

REM. 5. The second Pers. Sing. Imp. Pres. rejects the ending -&i, and, as a 
compensation, lengthens the short characteristic-vowel, namely, a into 17, e into 
t, o into ov, v into 0, 

T-o-rd-^t becomes T-O-TTJ rl-bf-bi becomes rl-bet 

The ending -^t is retained in the Pres. only in a very few verbs, e. g. <pd&i 
from (font, fobi from ei'/xf , foi from e?/ti, and some others ; it also occurs in cer- 
tain Perfects of verbs in -, e. g. r&ve&i. 

In the second Aor. of rlby/At, "TJ^J, and SiSufii, the ending &i is softened into 
s ; thus, (^c-^t becomes &es, t-bt = es, 56-bi = $6s ; but in the second Aor. of 
T0T7?jttj, the ending -bi is retained ; thus, O-TTJ-&I ; also in the two Aorists Pass, 
of all verbs, e. g. TUTnj-^t, ircu$evfrr)Ti (instead of ircu8evfrr)-&i, 21, Rem. 3). In 
compounds of o-Trj&i and P?i&i, the ending -jj&t is often abbreviated into d, in 
the poet, dialect, e. g. irapdffTd, cwroVrd, Trp6&d, nard-fid. 

(f } The ending of the Pres. and second Aor. Inf. is -vat. 
This is appended in the Pres. to the short characteristic- vowel ; 
but in the second Aor., to the lengthened vowel (a being 
lengthened into rj, e into a, o into ov, 170, 1) ; thus, 

Pres. i-(rr&-v(u TI-&C-VCU 

Second Aor. OTTJ-J/CU ^eT-vot Sov-vcu. 

REM. 6. The Inf. Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like arrival, e. g. 

(g) The endings of the Pres. and second Aor. participle are 
-vrs, -VTCTO, -vr, which are joined to the characteristic- vowel 
according to the common rules ; thus, 

t-rr(-vTs = f-<rrds, i-(rTa<ra, l-<rr&y ffrAs, ffraffa, 

Ti-^e-vrs ~ n-bels, -e?(ro, -eV &e(s, &e?<ro, 

$i-$6-irr$ = fit-Sous, -oCo-a, -6v Sovs, -ovffa, - 
-v<ra, -vv. 


210 VERBS IN /at. - FORMATION OF THE TENSES.' [$ 173. 

HEM. 7. The participles of the two Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like the 1 
Part. T&eis, or &eis, e. g. rvir-eis, -e?(Ta, -ey, /3ov\ev&-eis. 

2. The personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of verbs | 
in -u), except that uniformly, in the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and 
almost always in the Impf. Ind. and in the Imp., the personal- 
endings retain their full form, -acu and -o-o. Still, the following 
points are to be noted : 

(a) The second Pers. Pres. Ind. of verbs in -a (as '/(mjjut, duw/ucw), is only -acrcu 
in Attic prose ; the contracted form is found, from the earliest period, only 
in the poetic dialect, e. g. eTnV-nj from &r/<rra/uai in Aesch., Siivri (from the Ionic 
ending -eat) instead of SUJ/GJ, in' Soph, and Eurip. In the second Pers. Imp. 
and in the Impf., 'lo-ru seems to be only poetic ; but, 4 ir terra, f/Trio-T&j, Svvw, 
7)5yj/a>, are the regular forms in good prose, and the uncontracted forms 
scarcely occur except in the poets and later writers. 

(b) In verbs in -e, the contract forms in the Imp. Pres. are poetic and rare, and 
in the Indie. Impf. not at all in use; thus, Impf. eri&ecro, Imp. ri&fcro (ri&ov) ; in 
the second Aor., both of verbs in -e and -o, the contract are the regular forms, 
e. g. Indie, e&ov, Imp. &ov ; eSou, Sou. In verbs in -o also, the uncontracted 
forms seem to be the usual ones in the Impf. and Imp.: eSt'Sotro, St'Soo-o. 

(c) The contracted forms are uniformly employed throughout the Subj.; in 
the Opt., as in verbs in -a, the or is always omitted, yet the form remains 

REM. 8. The Sing. Impf. Act. of T&T?^, is eV&rjj/, 2 Pers. M&eis, 3. 
(from TI0EH), er&ejs and eT/det being more frequent than e'n'&Tjs, eTidij; on 
'irjfj.1, see 180; the Sing. Impf. Act. of StSoyu is always eSlSow (fr. AIAOH), 
^StSous, etc. (X. An. 5. 8, 4. is to be read eStSovs instead of e8/8a>s, according to 
the best MSS.) In verbs in -v/j.i, the forms in -vu are usual throughout the Pres. 
and Impf., especially in third Pers. PI. Indie. Act., e. g. SeiKvvova-i^), and 
the only forms in the Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt., e. g. SfiKvvco, 6/j.vixa, 0-v/ 

together with SfiKWfii, op.vv(j.i, In Attic poetry, there are also 
and I'TJ/U in the second and third Pers. Sing. Pres. 

contracted forms of 

Ind. Act., e. g. T&e?s, ms, n&eT, tV?. But the Middle admits the formation in 

-vu only in the Subj. and Opt. 

173. I First Class of Verbs in -uu. 

1. In forming the tenses of the Act., the short characteristic- 
vowel is lengthened, both in the Fut. and first Aor. Mid., 
namely, a into rj, e into rj ; also in the Perf. Act. of TI^/U and 
Ttjfu, e is lengthened into ei, and o into w ; but in the remaining 
tenses of the Mid., and throughout the Pass., the short charac- 
teristic-vowel is retained, with the exception of the Perf. and 
Plup. Mid. and Pass, of TI^/U and fy/u, where the et of the 
Perf. Act. (re^a/cd, re^et/xat, et/x, et/xat) is retained. 

2. The first Aor. Act. and Mid. of r$%u, fyfu, and oYSw/xi, has 
K for the characteristic of the tense, not o-; thus, 


The forms of the first Aor. Act e&y/ca, ^/ca, and loWa, however, 
are usual only in the Intl., and generally only in the Sing. ; in 
the other persons, the Attic writers commonly used the forms 
of the second Aor. ; in the other modes and the participials, 
the forms of the second Aor. were always used. 

Examples of the first Aor. in the PI. Ind. are: l&^fcopcir, X. C. 4. 2, 15. 
tofcopci', X. An. 3. 2, 5. O. 9, 9. 10. tfcfcore, Antiph. 138, 77. &VKOV, X. Cy. 
4. 6, 12. tfrqicar, H. 2. 3, 20. a^/coi/, Cy. 4. 5, 14. 

Also the forms of the second Aor. Mid. of rt^/xt, fy/xi, and 
8i8to/xt, are used by the Attic writers instead of the first Aor. ; 
rjKa^riv from fy/u occurs, though but seldom. On the contrary, 
the forms of the second Aor. Ind. Act. of T^fy/u, fyut, and Si'Scu/xi 
(ZS-rjv, ty, eSwv), are not in use. 

3. The verb wmjiu forms the first Aor. Act and Mid., like 
verbs in -o>, with the tense-characteristic o-, e. g. l-ony-cr-a, e-o-n/- 
o-a/ATjv. The second Aor. Mid. eora/xT/v is not used. Some 
other verbs, however, have a second Aor. Mid., e. g. 

K KM ARK 1. The second Aor. and the second Put. Pass, are wanting in these 
verbs, also the Fut. Perf., except in lo-Trim, the Fut. Perf. of which is e<rnft|co 
and (<rTf)o/jMi, $ 154, 6. 

REM. 2. On the meaning of the verb "ITTTJ/UI, the following things are to be 
noted : the Pres., Impf., Fut., and first Aor. Act. have a Trans, meaning, to 
place ; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Perf. and Plup., Act. and the Fut. 
Perf., have a reflexive or Intrans. meaning, to place one's self, to stand, namely, 
eo-TTji/, I placed myself, or I stood; eVrTjKa (with present signification), / have 
placed myself, Island, sto; fffr-fiKeiv, stabam ; i<TT^|a>, i(TT?j|o/iat, stabo (d<|)e<rT7]|a, 
1 shall withdraw}. The Mid. denotes either to place for one's self, to erect, to stand, 
consislere, or to place one's self; Pass, to be placed. "EerrTj/ca and Itrr^/cety usually 
take the place also of the forms e'aTa/icu and ecrrdfujv, which occur but rarely. 

174. II. Second Class of Verbs in -/x,t. 

There is no difficulty in forming the tenses of verbs of the 
second class ($ 169, 2). All the tenses are formed from the 
stem, after rejecting the ending -wv/u, or -vvfu. Verbs in -o, 
which in the Pres. have lengthened the o into o>, retain the w 
through all the tenses, e. g. (rrpw-wv-fju, w-wv-//.i, pw-wv-/u, Fut 
o-rpw-o-w, etc. But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, in form- 
ing some of the tenses, assume a Theme ending in a vowel, 
e. g. o/x-vv-fii, Aor. (o/x-o-cra, from 'OMOfi. The second Aor. and 
the second Fut. Pass, occur only in a few verbs, e. g. 
See $ 182. 



$ 175. Paradigms of 










(from lard-aa i) 

S. 1. 








P. 2. 




2TA- to place. 





t crrS) 





1-o-rr, * 
(from to-raSi 



1-ffTcLs, affa, o.v 
G. dvros 

E- to put. 

and Ti-&eT(n(i/ 





and Ti-&ci'T(i)v 

, e?o"a, e 







) and 8euc-vv<ri(v) 




(from SiSo&i) 



5i-8ous, oDtra, 







, iJtro, vv 





P. 1. 






S. 1. 




P. 1. 










nd SeiKvv-w, -eis, etc., especially 8eiKj/uov<n(/). Also Impf. 
, and the Part. usually SGIKVV-W, -oG<ra, -ov ( 172, Rem. 8). 







2TA- to place. 


AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 











f-ard-o-o and 


Tl-&e-<ro and 

8i-So-<ro and 



1-ffTO. ff&dSV 

l-<TTa.-a^<affav and 

i-Sf (T&dxrav and 

8i-86-<r&ca<rav and 

and 8eiK-vv-<r&(av 


l-<rr&-fjLevos, rj, ov 

Tl-&f-(JLI/OS, TJ, 0V 

St-86-fjifvos, rj, ov 

?-(TTd-(To and T-O-TW 














5. s $ 172, Rem. 8. 4 172, Rcm. 3. 5 On the irreg. accent of ^rforajuou 
etc., see 176, 1. "On the accent in ^THO-TCUO, etc. see 176, 1. 7 176, 2 






S. 1. 






2TA- to place. 

e-(TT7]-v, I stood 

@E- to 

) A. I 

} used 
( 6-^77) ) for it 


AO- to give. 

. ^ A. I 

(e-Sw-s) > used 
(l-a) ) for i 





Sai 1 











(TT^-^t 3 
or 4] -rca 
a T TJ -roy 

0" T ^ -TOJV 


(T T ^J -TftXTOW 


&e-T<i>crav and 


ti6-Tooffav and 




trrds, Stra, ay 

(&-e^s, eTtra, e 
Gen. &eVros 

Sous, .oDo~o, J 
Gen. 56vTos 



Instead of these forms, the 2d Aor. is 
used in the Dual, PI. Ind. and in the 
other Modes and Participials, $ 173, 2. 

e'-tTTTJ-KO, 5 StO, 

T- & 6 t -K O 


e-a-T-f)-Keiv and 

6-re- & e 

e-8e- 8 c6 -/ 

Put. Perf. 





A_ I 

e compounds, e. g. awo-Too, e'/cfrw, StoSS, have the same accentuation as 
the simples, e. g. onroo-TcSo-t, e'/oSHjToi/, StctSo^ey. 2 See 1 72, Rem. 3. 3 In 
composition, irapdo'T'ri&i, irapdcrTa, a,Tr6ffTr)&i, a-jr^ffTa, 172, Rem. 5. 4 In 
composition, Trepi&cs, ev&es: a-rr65os, e8os; 7Tpl3-eT, ef/cSorc, $ 118, Rem. 1. 
6 See 176, 3. 6 tr&7iv and refrfja-oiMt instead of &ffrr)v and 





2TA- 1 ' place. 


AO- to give. 

AEIK- to show. 

not occur, but 

%-&ov (from 


Z-8ov (from e5o<ro) 




(arca-fiuu does not 
occur, but irpia- 
Hcu, -77, ijrot, 



(o-rai-jLiTjv does not 
occur, but vptcu- 
fiijv, -euo -CMTO 



or <TT> 
does not occur, 
but TTpia-ao, or 

&ov (from 

5oO (from 5^<ro) 9 

&-<r&<i)ffcu' and 


( (TTa-/xe j/os ) Trpla- 


-rj, -ov 


Instead of these forms, the second Aor. Mid. is 
used by the Attic writers, $ 173, 2. 


T- 3 1 i -/ittt 


l-OT^-pipr, $ 173, 

Rem. 2. 




S I V E . 

/""wf. /. | \ T e- 

21, 2. 7 Also in composition, eV^WjUoi, -?7, -rjrat, etc.. ciTro^wua/, -^, -fjTOi, 
etc., t/v5d)uat, -y, -wrot, etc., airoSe^uai, -w, -oorat, etc. 8 See 176, 2. 'In 
composition. KardSov, &Tr6bov: Trepi'Sou, oTnJSou; /car<^f tr^f , irfptSov&e ; ev&ecr- 
&, 7rp(J5ocr^ ; but &/&oO, ets^ov ; irpoSoG, ^5o3, 1 18, Rem. 1. 10 154, 6, and 
173, Rem. 2. 

216 SUMMARY OF VERBS IN -fJLl. [ft 176, 177. 

176. Remarks on the Paradigms. 

1. The verbs Suva^ai, tobe able;, to know, and xpeVa^ai, to hang, 
have a different accentuation from icrra^at, in the Pi-es. Subj. and Impf. Opt., 
namely, Subj. SiW.uot, eiri(TT<a/, -77, -TJTCU, -TJQ-^OV, -Tjo-fre, -wj^roi; Opt. SvvaifJL-nv, 
fetord/npr, -ato, -euro, -at<rfroj/, -CUO&E, -au/To; so also 6i>aifJ,T)v, -aio, -airo ( 177, 
4), and ivpidpriv ( 179, 6). 

2. The foi*ms of the Opt. Mid. Impf. and second Aor. in -01, viz. 
^oifjifiv, were preferred to those in -et, viz. rtd-efyuji/, -e?o, -etro, etc., fret 
-m>, etc. In compounds, the accent remains as in simples ; thus, 
(eV&et'iwjj/), eV&otb (eV&etb), etc.; so also in compounds of SofyiTji/, e. g. 
SiaSoTo, etc. 

3. On the abbreviated form of the Perf. and Plup. : e-ora-Tov, e'-<rra-,uei/, 
-o-To-T, e'-ara-o-i^), see 193. 

4. Verbs in -O/ut, as has been seen, form the Subj. and Opt. like verbs in -vco. 
Still, there are some examples where these modes follow the analogy of verbs 
in -^t: OTTOS /x^ Sfatr/ceSavj/OTot (instead of -UTJTCU), PL Phaedon. 77, b. ^u%o/T(J 
re /cat ire7j/uTo (from -WTO, instead of -vom>), Ibid. 118, a. 

5. In the later writers, e. g. Polybius, a Perf. and Plup. are found with the 
Trans, meaning, 7 have placed, namely, etrTa/co, 


1. Verbs in -/tt which annex the Personal-endings immediately 
to the Stem-vowel. 

177. (a) Verbs in -a (?-o-r^-/xt; 2TA-): 
1. KL-xpy-fu, to lend, to bestow (XPA-), Inf. Ki^pavai, Fut. 
Aor. exprjo-a. Mid. to borrow, Fut. ^pTyo-o/Aat. (Aor. e^o-a/^v in 
this sense is avoided by the Attic writers.) To the same stem 
belong : 

2. xp^i ^ ?s necessary, oportet (stem XPA- and XPE-), Subj. xp$> Inf. xpW<u> 
Part, (rb) xp 6 ^ (usually only Nom. and Ace.) ; Impf. <?xpV> or x/>V (with 
irregular accent), Opt. XP 6 ^ (from XPE-) ; Fut. x/") "" in Soph, (but not 

Inf. XP^^J oiroxprjJ', in Eurip., by contraction from xpoetj/. 

3. airtxpTl, it suffices, sufficit; the following also are formed regularly from 
XPAH: aTToxp^ff^v), Inf. airoxpr)!/] Part, diroxpws, -wtro, -cSv ; Impf. aTrexpr? ; Fut. 
cwroxpVet; Aor. aire'xp?<re(i'), etc. Mid. aTroxpw/xot, to aftwse, abutor, or consumo, 
Inf. d7roxp^o"^at, is inflected like xpo/> 12 9, Kem. 2. 

4. ovLin/jfjLL (with Attic reduplication instead of ovovrj^i), to ben- 
efit, ('ONA-) Inf. ovtmvat; Impf. Act. wanting, ei</>eA.ow being 
used for it ; Fut. 6i/^o-w ; Aor. wnyo-a, Inf. ovycrai (for it 6v^i/at, like 
o"njvai, in PL Rp. 600, d.). Mid. 6vtVa/xat, to ^e^ benefit, be bene- 
fitted, Fut. 6v^cro/>iai; Aor. a>v^/x,^v (uvdfjirjv later, but also in Eur. 

, -770-0, -77x0, etc., Imp. oVryo-o, Part. ovrjjJLtvos (Horn.), Opt. 
-aio, -atro ($ 176, 1), Inf. 6Vao-$ai ; Aor. Pass. &vf}&r)v rarer 

$ 178.] SUMMARY OP VERBS IN -/u. 217 

instead of wvrj^v. The remaining forms are supplied by 

5. 7u'-//.-7rXi^/u, to Jill, (IIAA-) Iilf. 7ri/x7rXdrai ; Impf. 7rt/x,7rX?yv ; 
Fut. TrXrjo-to ; Perf. TreTrX^Ka ; Aor. en-X^o-a ; Mid. to Jill for one's 
self, TTtjj.TrXaf/.ai, Inf. 7ri/u.7rXao-$ai ; Impf. eTri/w-TrXa^i/ ; Aor. CTrXrja-d- 
fjirjv; Fut. TrAT/o-o/x-at; Perf. Mid. or Pass. TreTrXr/oyxcu, ; Aor. Pass. 

131); Fut. Pass. TrXrjo-^o-o/Acu ($ 131); second Aor. 
, Poet. Verb. Adj. TrX^oreo?. 
The fi in the reduplication of this and the following verb is usually omitted 
in composition, when /u precedes the reduplication, e. g. t/j.irtir\a/juju, but ti/eiri/j.- 
w\d/j.ijy. Contrary to this rule, however, forms with and without p. are both 
used by the poets, according to the necessities of the verse. 

6. TTLfjLTrprjfjn, to burn, Trans., in all respects like TTI/ATTX^I : 717317- 

7. TAH-MI, to endure, Pres. and Impf. wanting (instead of 
them VTTO/AO/CO, di/t^o/xai) ; Aor. erXTyv, (rXai,) rXair/v, rX^t, rXas 
(rXao-a) ; Fut. rX^o-o/xat; Perf. rcVXryKa. Verbal Adj. rXipros. (In 
Attic prose this verb is rare.) 

8. </7-/u, to say (stem 3>A-), has the following formation: 

$ 178. 







S. 1. 







, or 

Qarov, (paruv, <j>&rc, 
ffav and 

<pa.s, <a<ra 












and (pcurov, 





Perf. Imp. TteQaaSKa (PL Tim. 72, d.), Ze< it be said. Impf. Ind. fyavro, Lys. 
Fragm. 3. [X. Cy. 6. 1, 21, is a false reading] ; Inf. tyaabai, Aesch. Pers. 
687, in chorus. Part, ^a/xevoj (rare , affirming. 

Verbal adjective, tpar6s, 

1 In composition : 

r (accent on ultimate), 

, crt5/t<f>i7jii, a^ri</>77<rt(i'), ffvp<priffi(v), etc., but Axn- 
, and Subj. OVTJ^>W, ovrt^pJ, etc. 



REMAKK 1. In the second person Qys, both the accentuation and the Iota 
subscript are contrary to all analogy. On the inclination of this verb in the 
Pres. Ind. (except Qys), see 33, a. 

HEM. 2. This verb has two significations, (a) to say in general, (b) to affirm, 
(aio) to assert, to assure, etc. The Fut. <p7'/cr, and Aor. fy-rjcra, have only the 
last signification. The Part. <}>ds is not used in Attic prose ; still, ^ PL Ale. 2, 
139, C. fyavres. 

HEM. 3. With <(>r)fj.i the verb ypi, inquam, may be compared, which, like 
inquam, is used in the spirited repetition of what had been said ; the imperfect 
fy, $ is used in the phrases 3\v 5' e'ycS, said 7, ^ 5" 2s, said he, to describe a con- 

$ 179. The following Deponents also belong here. 

1 . aya//,ai, to ivonder, Impf. ^ya/x^v ; Aor. Y]ydo-3~r)v (^yacra/^v, 
Epic and Dem. 18, 204) ; Fut. dydo-o/xat. Verbal Adj. dyao-ros. 

2. Swa/tat, to be able, second Pers. Swao-ai [SuV?? from the Ion. 
Sweat, tragic and later, $ 172, 2, (a)], Subj. owco/^u 176, 1), Imp. 
Swcuro, Inf. Swacr&xi, Part. 8wd/x,evos ; Impf. eSwa/xvp' and 
second Pers. eSiW (not c8wao-o, $ 172, 2), Opt 

( 176, 1) ; Fut. Sw^tro/Aat; Aor. eSw^-dip', ^Sw^^iyv and 

(not ^Suvacr^v), the last Ion. and in Xen. (Aug., $ 120, Hem. 

1) ; Perf. SeS^/xat. Verbal Adj. Swaros, <x^/e and possible. 

3. eVtbrafiat (like to-Ta/xat), to know, (properly, to stand upon 
something, to be distinguished from e^tara/xai), second Pers. 
eTriorraorat (eVurra seldom and only Poet.), Subj. eTrto-rco/xat (|| 176, 
1), Imp. cTrurro) [seldom and only in the poets and later writers, 
eTuoTcuro, $ 172, 2 (b)] ; Impf. rjTna-TafJirjv, rjTTLcrroi [seldom and 
only in the poets and later writers, rprurrcuro, $ 172, 2 (b)], Opt. 
fTncTTaifjirjv, Ijrumuo (^ 176, 1) ; Fut. c7rio-T7yo-o/xat ; Aor. fjTno-TrjS'rjv. 
(Aug., $ 126, 3.) Verbal Adj. eTncrrqro's. 

4. ^oa/^at, to Zove (in the Pres. and Impf. only poetic, in prose 
cpaco is used instead of it) ; Aor. rjpdo-Srjv, I loved; Fut. e 
o-ottai, J sM? love. [Pass, cpoyxai (from epaw), J s/ja# 6e 
Verbal Adj. cpao-ro's. 

5. Kpcjj&fuuj to hang, be suspended, pendeo, Subj. 
($ 176, 1), Part. Kpc/xa/xcvos ; Impf. eKpe/m/A^v, Opt. 
-airo ($ 176, 1), (Arist. Vesp. 298, Kpe/xowr^e, comp. 

^ 230, and /xe/uvot/A^K, $ 154, 8); Aor. e/cpe/xao-^v ; Fut. Pass 

* 180.] 



/ shall be hung ; Fut. Mid. Kpc/xrja-o/xat, pcndebo, 
I shall luing. 

6. irpicurScu, to ZWT/, eTrpta/xTyv, second Pers. eTrpiw (an Aor. Mid., 
and found only in this tense, which the Attic writers employ 
instead of the Aor. of wi/eo/xat, viz. eu^o-a/A^v, which is not used 
by them, $ 122, 4), Subj. Trpiw/xat ($ 176, 1) ; Opt. Trpuxi/xT/v, -ato, 
-aiTO ($ 176, 1); Imp. 7rpia>; Part. 7rpia/A/os. 

$ 180. (b) "Per&s iw -e (rt-^-fu, 0E-). 

"I-rj-fjLi (stem 'E-), to smd. Many forms of this verb are found 
only in composition. 



Ind. Tty/zt, js, 
Subj. ttt, tps, 

Imp. T, IC'TW, etc. Inf. IcVeu. Part, fe/r, i?(ra, 

re, m<rt(j/) 
j lijre, luffi(u) ; d^>tw, d^ips, 



Ind. low (from 'IEfl), tuplovv (rarer ^0^ou>/, rare tetv, irpotfiv, T)<j>idt>), 
lets, tet, et^^t (rarer 4$fci) ; ?eroj/, UTTJJ/; Te/iey, tere, Tecrcu/, 
a<f>ic<rav (rarer ^(/)^(ro'). 

Opt. /C/TJI' (second Pers. PI. eupfotre, Plat.; third Pers. PI. utyioiev, 
X. H. 6. 4, 3). 

cffca. Plup f'tKfiv. Put. ?}o-- Aor. I. ^ita ( 173, 2). 
Ind. Sing, is supplied by Aor. I. ( 173, 2) ; Dual eTroi', 

Plur. fTpey, /ca^er/icj/, cfre, ct^erre, ctroi', commonly 

, etrrji' ; 

eV, d^cV, Gen. cWos, et'enys, 

Subj. w, ^y, d</>, dc^ps, etc. 
Opt. etrjj/, e7rjy, etrj ; efrof , 

T, L(]/, d(/)6?6t/. 

Imp. e'y, 6<^>6S, TCO ; C'T 

Inf. efi/ai, d^ervat. P. efr, efffa, d 

EEMARK 1. On the Aug. of d<f/7j/, see 126, 3. 

REM. 2. The form of the Impf. 1i\v is very doubtful, and the forms frjs, Tr; 
are very rare. The form 1w has the ending of the Plup., like the Impf. of e?/, 
to go ; it is Att. and Ion., a secondary form of 'low. 



[$ 181. 



Ind. 'le/icu, '/erai, '/erat, etc. Subj. ia>/xcu, d<J>ia>;imt, nj, a^>tp, etc. 
Imp. tWo, or You. Inf. tW&at. Part. Ifpei/os, -rj, -ov. 


ie/UTjj', 'if ffo, etc. Opt. ifl/j.T)v, Att. ioi/j.r)v, Io?o, d^xolb, etc. 

Aor. II. 

Ind. cfyiTj*' Subj. w^at, a^u/j-ai, 77, a.(j>T), ^raJ, o^^rot 
efcro, et^>er<70 Opt. irpoofyn/j/, -o7o, -O?TO, -oi/j.f&a, -o?<r&e, 
tiro, d0e?To -orvro (Tr/JoeTro, 7rpoet(r&e, irpoewTO 
fi(j.&a, etc. are rarer forms) 
Imp. o5 (et^ou, irpoov), second Pers. PI. 
60-3-e (&e<r&e, 7rp<$6(r3-), eV^w, etc.). 
Inf. ftr&cu. Part, e/ievos, -77, -ov. 

Perf. eF/im, /we&ci/uii ; Inf. cTir&cu, ju6&e?(r&ai. Plup. ftpr)v, eliro, d</>ei<ro, etc. 
Fut. 5}o-Auu. Aor. I. JiKdpyv (rare, 173, 2). 


A. I. ft^jv, P. e&Tjycw, etc. Fut. e^ffo/xat. Verb. Adj.e-nk, ereos (6</>eTos). 

REM. 3. Besides the two verbs rlbyfju and tTj/tJ, only the following dialectic 
verbs belong here, viz., 'AH-MI, AI-AH-MI (AE), (though SiSeaa-i(v), from the 
last is found in X.) ; SifrfjMi and AIH-MI. 

181. (c) Verbs in -t, only eT/x,i ('I), to go. 

PRELIMINARY REMARK. The verbs efyi, to go, and dpi, to be, are pre- 
sented together (though the last, on account of its stem 'E5, does not belong 
here), in order to exhibit to the eye the agreement and disagreement of the two 
verbs in their formation. 


Ind. S. 1. 

flfjil, to be 

Subj. 3 


el/it, to go 

Subj. la 



V s 






























i re 





l '<7 l 





Imp. S. 2. 


Inf. flvai 


?^i, irp6s&i 

Inf. Ififcu 



(seld. irpdsfi) 

D. 2 

fan of 

Part. v, ovffa, 



Part, idy, lov- 





irov, irptisiTOv 

<ro, Wv 

P. 2. 


G. OfTOS, OVfff]S 



Gen. Uvros, 



(irap(av, irapov- 

P. 2. 

5fr6, TTposire 


(rare fffTwv; 

(ra, irapdv, 


iTaxraj/, or 

(7rap'.<tv, trapi- 

OVTW, Plat. 

G. iraptrros) 

IOVTUV (trtav 

ovo~a, irapi6v, 



G. ira.pi6vTOs). 


VERBS IN -/it. 




P. 1. 











?Tj/iv (seldom fl/ 
ffTrrefseld. poet, tire) 
ffno'ai' and /e/ 


S.I. $tiv or 770, / wen* 






and TjtHTba 
us'ly prop 

" W 


Fut. <ro)twu, I shall be, COTJ, or 6<Ti, &TTCII, etc. Opt. 
Part. &r<fyie'oy. Verbal Adj. forfov, GWCVTSOV. 





Inf. eereer^cu. 

MIDDLE FORM : Pres. fe/j-ai, lea-cu or ft?, IfeTat, etc., Imp. faro, Inf. 

Part. If/jifvos; the Impf. tcV^", 5feo-o, etc., signifying to hasten, ought 
probably to be written with the rough breathing, which is strongly 
confirmed by the manuscripts, and to be referred to ft?/". Verbal Adj. 
ire's, fWox, rarer rrrjTe'oi/. 

REMARK 1. On the inclination of the Ind. of ej/J, to be (except the second 
Pers. el), see $ 33 (a). In compounds, the accent is on the preposition, as far back 
as the general rules of accentuation permit, e. g. irdptifu, irapet, irdpTTi(v), etc. 
Imp. irdpurbi, ZVVKT&I ; but iraprjv on account of the temporal augment, iropeVrat 
on account of the omission of (irapeVerat), irapiivcu like infinitives with the 
ending -vai, irapw, -ps, -p, etc., irap?Te, irapeTei/, on account of the contraction ; 
the accentuation of the Part, in compound words should be particularly noted, 
e. g. irapffiv, irapovo'a, TropoV, Gen. Trapdvros (so also Trapiuiv, Gen. irapiotrros). 

REM. 2. The compounds of e?/it, to go, follow the same rules as those of 
flui, to be ; hence several forms of these two verbs are the same in compounds, 
e. g. irdpfi/jii, irapti, and irdpfi<rt(v) (the last being third Pers. Sing, of efyu and 
third Pers. PL of ei'/*0 ; but Inf. irapifvcu, Part, irapidv. 

REM. 3. The form cley, esto, be it so ! good! shortened from eJfTj and strength- 
ened by a v, must be distinguished from the shortened form fltv instead of 
ff-narav of the third Pers. PL Opt. Impf. A secondary form, yet critically to be 
rejected, of the third Pers. Imp. fjrta instead of eorw, is found once in PL Rp. 
361, c., with the varying reading 3f<rr. The form of the first Pers. Impf. is 
often 3, among the Attic poets, and sometimes also in Plato ; the form ijfiijv is 
rare (Lys. 7, 34, X. Cy. 6. 1, 9). The form of the second Pers. Impf. ijs is 
found frequently in the later writers, and rarely in lyric passages of the Attic 
poets. The Dual forms with <r are preferred to those without <r \ on the con- 
trary, ijre is preferred to %<rre (Aristoph.). 

REM. 4. The form of the third Pers. Sing. Impf. fc iv instead of fffi, from 
6?/iu, sometimes occurs, even before consonants, Ar. Plut. 696. irposTjW (in 


Senarius) ; PL Crit. p. 114, d. (in the best MSS.) ; jfetv, PL Crit. 117, e.' (in the 
best MSS.) ; irpopW, PL Tim. 43, 6 ; lurjetv, ib. 60, 'c ; ewnfct*', ib. 76, b. 

REM. 5. The Ind. Pres. of C?AU, to go, has regularly in the Attic prose- 
writers the meaning of the Fut. I shall or will go or come; hence the Pres. is 
supplied by fyxofuu ($ 167, 2) ; the Inf. and Part, have likewise a Pres. and 
Fut. meaning. 



VERBS IN -/it. 


II. Verbs in -fit which annex the Syllable vvv or vv to the 
Stem-vowel and append to this the Personal-endings. 

182. Formation of the Tenses of Verbs whose Stem 
ends with a, e, o, or ivith a Consonant. 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends with a, e, or o. 



a. Stem in o. 

b. Stem in 6. 

c. Stem in o (a) 





KOpf-VVV-fJ.1 l 



Att. tr/ccSw, -as, 

Att. KopcD, -els, -c? 










F. Pf. 




Verbal Adj. 


1 And 
<TTpd>-vwov (v always short). 


KOpe-vvvoa, %-KOps-vvvov ffrpw-vv^w, f- 

B. Verbs whose Stem ends with a Consonant. 

Perf. I. 

Perf. II. 
Plnp. I. 
Plup. II. 
Aor. I. 

perdo, oA-Av-/*ai, pereo, 

('OAEfl), perdidi, 
124, 2. 


eiv, perdiaeram, 
oA-t^A-etj', perieram, 
oA-w, -e?y, -e? oA-ou^ioiJ, -e? 

A. II. o>A-(fot 


124, 2. 

1 And oAAu-w, \\v-ov o/j.vv-<a, 

6/jL-ovfjiati 'ft 


A. L P. 

F. I. P. 6fj.o-<r-^f)( 

(always C). 

BEMARK. "OAAO^t comes by assimilation from oA-w/it (18, Rem.). For an 
example of a stem-ending with a mute, see SfiKvv/j.1 above, under the para- 
digms ( 175). The Part. Perf. Mid. or Pass, of fyiw/u is o/toyiooyteVos. The 
remaining forms of the Perf. and Plup. commonly omit the <r among the Attic 
writers, e. g. fytcfyxorcu, 

$ 183.] SUMMARY OF SOME VERBS IN -/Xl. 223 


The Stem ends, 
A. In a Vowel and assumes -vvv. 

$ 183. (a) Verbs whose Stem ends in a. 

1. Kcpd-wv-p.i (poetic secondary form /ctpi/aw, Kipvrjfju; Epic and 
poet. Kepdw), to mix, F\\t. Kepao-a>, Att. Kepw; Aor. eKcpao-a; Perf. 
KCKpa/ca ; Mid. to mix for one's self, Aor. eKepao-a/x^v ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. KCKpa/xai (/ctKpao-/xa, Anacr. 29, 13 ; Illf. Ke/cepao-#ai, LllC. 
Dial. Meretr. 4, 4) ; Aor. Pass. iKpaS-qv, Att. also eKepao-^v 
(Metathesis, $ 156, Rem.). 

2. Kpefjt.a-wv-fJLL, to /ia?2g-, Flit /cpe/xao-w, Att Kpe/xai ; Aor. e*pe/xa- 
<ra ; Mid. or Pass. Kpexiavw/xcu, to toi^ orce's self, or 6e /mftg' (but 
icpe/xa/xai, to Aa^, $ 179, 5) ; (Perf. Mid. or Pass. KeKpe/xaxuu in 
later writers;) Fut Pass. Kpe/xao-^TJo-o/xat ; Aor. e/cpe/xaovJr/i', I was 
hung, or I hung. 

3. TreTa-wv-fii, to spread out, to open, Fut. Trerao-co, Att. irerw ; 
Aor. 7rera<ra (Perf. Act. TTCTreraKa, Diod.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
7T7rra/xat (^ 155, 2) (TrcTreratr/tat, lion- Attic and Luc.) ; Aor. Pass. 

4. <TKc8a-na;-fW, to scatter, Fut. tr/ceSao-co, Att. o-/ce8w ; Aor. CC 
; Perf. Mid. or Pass. co-Kc'Scur/xcu ; Aor. Pass. 

184. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in e. 

PRELIMINARY REMARK. The verbs ewujtu, (r^ewu/it, and also 
( 186), do not properly belong here, since their stem originally ended in <r, 'E2- 
(comp. ves-tire), 2BE2- (comp. fi(r^6(r-Tos), ZH2- (comp. ^oxr-r^p, a><r-rpov, (t><r- 
TTJS, CWO'-T^S) ; but by the omission of the <r, they become analogous to verbs in 
- and -o. 

1. ?-vn5-/xt, to clothe, in prose a/x^tewu/xt, Impf. <l/x<iWw with- 
out Aug. ; Fut. d/x<ieVio, Att d/x<^>tco ; Aor. ^/x</>i'eo-a ; Perf. Act. 
wanting ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ^/x<^tco-/xat, ^/x^teo-at, ^/x^teorat, etc., 
Inf. ^/x<i'o-cu ; Fut. Mid. d/x^teVo/xat. (Aug. $$ 126, 3. and 230.) 
The vowel of the Prep, is not elided in the Common language, 
hence also e-uaaovScu, X. Cy. 6. 4, 6. 

2. '-viaJ-/u, to 6oz7, Trans., Fut. ^eo-w ; Aor. !eo-a ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. !eo7xat; Aor. Pass, e^e'o-^v. (^ew, on the contrary, is 
usually intransitive V 

224 SUMMARY OF SOME VERBS IN fit. [$$ 185-187. 

3. Kope-vvv-fii, to satiate, Fut. Kope<ro>, Alt. /copco ; Aor. 
Aor. Mid. eKopaa-a/x^v ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. jccfcopeo-fuu ; Aor. Pass. 

4. crfii-wv-pi, to extinguish, Fut. o-/?eo-o> ; first Aor. r/3co-a, J 
extinguished; second Aor. ccr/^v, J ceased to burn; Perf. ecr/ify/ca, 
I have ceased to burn. Mid. o-jSeWv/xai, to cease to 5wm, intrans. 
Fut. o-/??7cro/x,ai ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eo-jSeo-pu ; Aor. Pass. eo-/?o-- 
^i/; Fut. Pass, o-^ea^cro/xat. No other verb in -w/xt has a 
second Aor. Act. ($ 191, 2). 

5. (rrope-wv-fu, to spread out (shortened form oro/n/vfu, Poet. 
and X. Cy. 8. 8, 16), Fut. <rropo-w, Att. o-TOpoi; Aor. eo-ropecra; 
Mid. to spread out for one's self. The other tenses are formed 
from (rrpwwvfju ', co'Tpoxra/A'/^v J ecrr/oto/xat, ecrrpoj^^v, crrpwros (non- 
Att. (rrop<T/x,at, ecjTopecr^^v, and co-Top^?^)- See * 182. 

185. (c) Fer5s whose Stem ends in e. 

ri-yvv-fj.1 (TI-), to pay, to expiate, Mid. rf-wifyiai, to get pay, to punish, to avenge, 
secondary Epic form of TU/W and rivofjuu. In Attic poetry, the Mid. is often 
found, and with one v, 

$ 186. (d) Verbs in o, with the o lengthened into to. 

1. &-wv-fju, to gird, Fut. too-o>; Perf. e&o/ca, Pans.; Aor. cwo-a ; 
Mid. to gm pwe's self, Aor. Mid. e^axra^v ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 
(oo7/,ai (^ 131). 

2. pw-wv-fju, to strengthen, Fut. pcao-co; Aor. Ippwo-a; Perf. "Mid. 
or Pass. epp(o/>uxt, Imp. eppwo-o, vale, farewell, Inf. IppGxrSau.; Aor. 
Pass, cppoxr^v (^ 131) ; Fut. Pass. pwo-^ryo-o/Aat. 

3. <TTp<i)-vvv-fjLi (^ 182), to spread out, Fut. o-rpwo-w; Aor. eorpu)- 
cra, etc. See crTopewv-fJu (^ 184, 5). 

4. xpw-wv-fju, to co/or, Fut. xpuxra) ; Aor. l^pcoo-a ; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. Ke^pwo-/ ; Aor. Pass, 

B. Verbs whose Stem ends in a Consonant and assumes -pi/. 
$ 187. (a) Jw a .MwZe. 

1. ay-ia}-ju-t, to break, Fut. a^a>; Aor. ca^a, Inf. aai (Part. Lys. 
100, 5. /carca^avres with the Aug.) ; second Perf. cdya, / ;? 
broken ; Mid. to /ea& yor owe'5 ^e^ Aor. la^d^rjv ; Aor. Pass. 
(Aug., $ 122, 4). 


2. SciK-vv-pt, see $ 175. 

3. cipy-vv-fu (or eipyo>), to s*te in, Fut. eipo>; Aor. e!pa, Inf. 

Part. lpa ? (PI. Polit. 285, b.), 7repiepan- 9 (Th. 5, 11), 
(PI. Up. 5. 461, b), Subj. Ka$ap#s (with the variation 
PI. Gorg. 461, d; Aor. Pass. tp^7/v; Perf. elpy/xat. 
(But etpyo), ipa>, eTpa, tipx&rjv, to S/JW 0w, etc.) 

4. evy-'v-tu, to ypm together, Fut. eva> ; Aor. eva ; Mid. to 
yarn to or^/or orae's self, Fut. evo/xai ; Aor. eeva/x,>7v ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass ee//.y/A<u; Aor. Pass, c^eux^v, and more frequently 

5. fjity-vv-fjLi, to mix (/xfo-yw, secondary form), Fut. /u.ta>; Aor. 

jutai; Perf. /xe/xl^a (Polyb.) ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, 

Aor. Pass. e/Aix^v, and e/xtyTyv ; Fut. Pass, 
Fut. Perf. ncfjLigofuu. 

6. oty-vv-^ usually as a compound: (The Attic use of the 
form otyi/v/u is not certain) dvotyi-i5/>it, Siotyvv/xi (but instead, 
dj'otya), Stoi'yu), are more frequently used in the Pres. and (Woryov 
always in the Impf), to opera, Fut. dvot^w ; Aor. dvew^a, dvot^at (in 
X. Hell, ^votyov, fjvoiga, signifying to put to sea, to u-eigh anchor) ; 
first Perf. <Ww;(a, / have opened; second Perf. dvewya, I stand 
open, instead of which Att. di/eorypu; Impf. Mid. dvewyo/xTjv ; Aor. 
Pass. dvcw^^T/v, droix-^vat. (Aug. $ 122, 6.) Verb. Adj. di/oucreos. 

7. ofjiopy-vv-fJiL, to wipe off, Fut. o/xop^a> ; Aor. w/xop^a ; Mid. to 
trzpe o^ y>o?ra orae'^ 5e^*; Fut o/xop^ofiat ; Aor. wftop^d/xryv ; Aor. 
Pass. Mfjiopx&rjv. 

8. 7r77y-i/u-/xt, to fix, fasten, freeze, Fut. -7n}!o>; Aor. eTny^a; first 
Perf. TreVr/xa, I have fastened ; second Perf. TrcTn/ya, / standfast, 
am frozen ; Mid. Tnjyvfyuu, J s^'cA: yarf ; Perf. irtTnrynai, I stand 
fast ; Aor. Pass. cTrayT/v (more seldom cTnJx&yv) ; second Fut. 
Pass. Trayrjo-o/icu. Verbal Adj. TTTJKTOS. 

9. pT/y-vv-^u, to mw/, Fut. pij^w; Aor. eppry^a; second Perf. 
cp*pwya, /aw reni ($ 140, R,em. 3); Aor. Mid. epp^d/x^v; Aor. 
Pass, cppaiyrjv (iftp-q^rjv rare) ; second Fut. payijo-otwu. 

10. <^pdy-ia5-tti (commonly ^>pdo-o-a), <pdrra>, $ 143, 1), to 6rea&, 
Impf. e^pdywv (Thuc. 7, 74. S. Ant. 241); Fut. <pdo; Aor. 

Perf. Mid. or Pass. Tre^pay/xat ; Aor. Pass. 
first used among the later writers). 

226 VERBS. KCtfUZt AND ^/X,ttt. [$$188, 189. 

$ 188. (b) Verbs whose Stem ends in a Liquid. 

1. & (Epic and also in Plato), to take, obtain, secondary form of alpo- 
juot, and used only in particular phrases, to obtain, to acquire, namely, a reward, 
spoils, etc. Impf. fyv\>pt\v. The remaining forms come from 

2. KTcC-vv-fu, commonly written jcrtWv/u in the MSS., to put to 
death, Att. prose secondary form of KrctVw, is used in the Pres. 
and Impf. The stem is KTEIN-, lengthened from KTEN-. 
The v of the stem is omitted on account of the diphthong ($ 169, 
Hem. 1). 

3. oA-Av-/u (instead of oA.-w-/u), to destroy. See $ 182, B. In 
prose, only in compounds. 

4. ofji-vv-fu, to swear. See $ 182, B. 

5. op-vv-fu (poet), to rouse ($ 230). 

6. (TTop-vv-fu, to spread out. See oro/oem5/Ai, $ 184, 5. 

$ 189. Inflection of the two forms of the Perf.. net pat 

PRELIMINARY EEMARK. The two forms of the Perf. Kel> at and 
are so essentially different, in their formation, from the other verbs in -/it, that 
they require to be treated by themselves. 

a. Ket//,cu, to lie. 

Ket/xat, properly, I have laid myself down, hence I lie down ; 
then Pass. I Jiave been laid down, I am lying down (e. g. draKei- 
yuai, I am laid up, i. e. consecrated, o-vy/ceirat, it has been agreed 
upon, compositum est, constat, but crvvrtSurai VTTO rtvos, it has 
been agreed by some one) ; this verb is a Perf. without reduplica- 
tion, from the stem KEI- (contracted from KEE-). 



Ind. KM/MI, Keiffcu, KCITM, Keijj.e&a, /ce?<rd-e, 

Subj. Ktcapai, /ce?7, /cerjrot, etc. 

Imp. /cro, Keiff&w, etc. ; Inf. /celcrd-cu ; Part. 

Ind. e/cet^v, e/cej(ro, e/ceiro, third Pers. PI. c/fewro. 

Opt. KeoifjLf)V t Kfoto, /ce'oiro, etc. 
Compounds avaKeijiai, /caTc/cet/xoi, /caTo/cet(rot, etc. ; Inf. /caTa/ceur&at ; Imp. 


$ 190. b. T H/, to sit. 

1. r H/xat, properly, / 7*ayc scarce? myself, I have been seated, 
hence, / sit (Ion. and poetic, also used of inanimate objects, 
instead of i<Spv//.<u, / have been fixed, established) ; this verb is 
a Perf. of the poet. Aor. Act. eto-o, to set, to establish. The stem 
is 'HA- (comp. ^cr-rat instead of rj&-r<u, according to $ 17, 5, and 
the Lat. scd-eo). 

REMARK 1. The active Aorist-forms of elcra are dialectic ( 230) and poet., 
but the Mid. signifying to erect, to establish, belongs also to Attic prose, et<ro/x7j'; 
Part. fl<rdfj.fuos (Th. 3, 58, eoWjttei/os) ; Imp. &TCU, eWoi (fycffffcu) ; Fut. poetic 
(<ro/, fffffojMi (tycovopai). The defective forms of this verb are supplied by 

Perf. Ind. ^;ucu, ^<rcu, ^<rrai, 7}/xe^o, fia&e, i\vrcu. ; 

Imp. ?j<ro, )(r&(0, etc. ; Inf. ficrSat ; Part, ^/xevos. 
Plup. rj/j.'rjy, i\ffo, fjo'TO, ^jueid'a, 7jo"3, ^JTO. 

2. In prose, the compound Ka^/xai is commonly used instead 
of the simple. The inflection of the compound differs from the 
simple in never taking o- in the third Pers. Sing., and in the 
Plup., only when it has the temporal Augment : 


i, Ko&ti<rai, Kd^yrat, etc.; Subj. Kdbwfiuu, 
rcu, etc. ; Imp. KC&IJO-O, etc.; Inf. Ko&fja&at; Part. 


Plup. ^Ka^f)fj.ijv and KO&^UTJJ/, ^/cct^iro and Ko&7}<ro, ^icd&ijTo and 

>, etc. ; Opt. /ca&o//7i>, /ca^oto, /ca&oiro, etc. 
REM. 2. The Opt. forms : ica&i/juip', -po, -pro, etc. are doubtful. The 
defective forms of ^/xcu are supplied by e^eo-^at, or 'le<r&ai (prose 



191. I Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

1. Several verbs with the characteristic a, , o, v, form a 
second Aor. Act. and (though rarely) a second Aor. Mid., ac- 
cording to the analogy of verbs in -/u, this tense being without 
the mode- vowel, and appending the personal- endings to the 
stem. But all the remaining forms of these verbs are like 
verbs in -co. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act., through all the 
modes and participials, is like that of the second Aor. Act. of 



verbs in -/u. ' The characteristic-vowel, with some exceptions, 
is lengthened, as in cor^v, viz. a and e into 17, o into w, t and v 
into I and (5. This lengthened vowel remains, as in 
throughout the Ind., Imp., and Inf. The third Pers. PI. in - 
(Char, a) and -vo-av shortens the vowel, when the poets use the 
abridged form in -v, instead of -o-av, e. g. e/3ai/, eSw. The Subj., 
Opt., and Part., with some exceptions, which will be noticed in 
the following tables, are like verbs in /*, e. g. fiafyv (<rrawjv), 
a-flcirjv (Sety), yvoirjv (Sofyv), yvovs (Sovs). The Imp., like crri^i, 
in the second Pers. Sing., takes the ending -&, and the stem- 
vowel remains long through all the persons ; in compounds of 
/3tuv<a, /?77#t is also shortened into fia, e. g. Kara/3a, Trpofia, eis/3d, 
7ri/?d instead of /cara/fy^i, etc. 




a. Characteris. a 

to go. 

b. Characteris. e 
E-il, (T^eVvuMt, 
to extinguish. 

c. Characteris. o 

TNO-il, ytyvwa"- 

KW, to know. 

d. Character, i) 



Ind. S. 1. 



Subj. S. 

Opt. S.I. 






Imp. S. 


P. 2. 



-&v)-v, I vient, 

Mn S 


, I ceased to 

eyi/wv, I knew, 

eSw/, I went in 
*8vs [or under, 


<r)3w, ps, 



(Poet. rSui/) 

SVQ), TJS, 77 l 




et aTroi' 


fiairi/jLfv et a?; 

<r&elr)Tov et 




et ei/j. 

(T/SetTJTC et ?T 



yvoifirov et 
yvoi-fiTTjv et otTTjy 
yvoti)/j.fif et 
7/oi7jTe et oTre 
yvoiev (rarely 

yvw&i, WTW 3 

j8ds, So-a, 



yv<ar<affav and 


SG&i, t5ro> 3 





1 Compounds, e. g. avafiu, avafifjs, etc. ; O7roo"/3w ; 8m7'cD ; avaSvu. 

2 Aeschyl. Suppl. 230 (215) ffvyyvepr) ; but in the Mid. form <rvyyvoiTO. 

3 Compounds, e. g. 

M 192, 193.] VERBS IN -W LIKE VERBS IN -/U. 229 

KI.MAUK. The Opt. form $or)i> (instead of tivli\v) is not found in the Attic 
dialect, but in the Epic ( 227). 

$ 192. Summary of Verbs with a second Aor . like 
Verbs in -/xi. 

Besides the verbs mentioned above, some others have this form : 

1. ofifxiffKw, to run away ( 161, 10), Aor. (APA-) eSpfly, -as, -a, -d/uei', -ore, 

(tSpdv Poet.), Subj. 5p, Spas, Spa, Sparo*', 5pa>,ue>/, Spore, 5pa><n(j/), Opt. 
', Imp. 5pa&<, -ara>, Inf. Spcu/cu, Part. Spd$, -oVa, -<iv, Gen. Spdvros. 

2. WTO/MU, to^/Ty ($ 166, 29), Aor. (ETTA-) lirrrji', Inf. Trnjj'cu, Part, xrds ; Aor. 
Mid. cVrcijUTji', irrda'^cu. 

3. Trplcurbcu, see 179, 6. 

4. <TKf\\<o or crfccAc'0, to c/ry, second Aor. (2KAA-) ecr/cXrjj/, to u?i*Aer, Intrans., 
Inf. (TKATjxcu, Opt. ffK\alrtv. 

5. ^eJ-vw, to come before, to anticipate ($ 158, 7), Aor. 

6. KO/W, to 6um, Trans. ( 154, 2), Aor. (KAE-) ^TJV, I burned. Intrans. ; but 
first Aor. cKawrct, Trans. 

7. pV, to>w ( 154, 2), Aor. ('PTE-) ^p' 

8. x'p to r? >'' ce (^ 166 > 32 )> Aor - (XAPE- 

9. oAunco/teu, to 6e taAren, Aor. ('AAO-) f/Awv and eaAcov ( 161, 1), 
oAi, -s, -y, etc., oAo/Tjv, oAous (always a, except in the Ind.). 

10. 0i6w, to live, Aor. 43iW, Subj. /3<a, -yy, -y, etc., Opt. fttyijv (not 
as TJ/O/TJI/, to distinguish it from the Opt. Impf. jSiofojv), Inf. Pttovcu, Part. 
[oCtra, ovv] ; but the cases of jStouy are supplied by the first Aor. Part, 
Thus: av(0i<av, I returned to life, from ava^iuxTKOfjuu ( 161, 3). The Pres. and 
Impf. of fiitco arc but little used by the Attic writers ; for these tenses, they em- 
ploy < ; besides these tenses, only the Put. f,<Tfiv was in good use among Attic 
writers ; the remaining tenses were borrowed from $1600 ; thus, Pres. w ; Impf. 
Cw ( 137, 3) ; Fut. &iu<ro/juti, more rarely C^5 Aor. ^iW (X. O. 4, 18, has 
also ctfiWei/) ; Perf. /3e/3iWca; Perf. Mid. or Pass, pfftlwrcu, Part. jSefroyieVos. 

11. <t>v<a (uorv), toproduce. second Aor. ?<pO', Intrans., to be produced, beborn,o 
naturally, <pvvcu, <p6s, Subj. <j>v<o (Opt. wanting in the Attic dialect) ; but the first 
Aor. fytxra, Trans. / produced; Fut. <j>uo-a>, Trans. / mil produce. The Perf. 
ir(<t>vKa, I am produced, also has an intransitive sense, so also the Pres. Mid. 

; Fut. 

REMARK. Here also belong the forms <TX*S and <rxoi"nv of the second 
Aor. <rx<"' from fx, to have ( 166, 14), and *?&< of the second Aor. tiriov 
from ifw, to drink ( 158, 5). 

f 193. IL Perfect and Pluperfect. 

The Attic dialect, in imitation of the Epic, forms a few Per- 
fects of pure verbs immediately from the stem, e. g. AI-Q, to 



[ 193. 

fear, Se-Si-a, then rejecting the mode-vowel, in the Dual and PI. 
Ind. Perf. and Plup., and to some extent in the Inf., e. g. Se'-Si- 
/uev instead of 8e-8t-a-^ev. In this way, these forms of the Perf. 
and Plup. become wholly analogous to the Pres. and Impf. of 
verbs in -/u, e. g. i-ora-/^. The stem- vowel remains short, e. g. 
SeSi/xcv, rerXa/xev, TerA.arai ; but in the third Pers. PL Perf, the 
mode-vowel a is not rejected, e. g. Sc-Si'-ao-i; with verbs in -aa>, 
however, a is contracted with the stem- vowel, e. g. Tc-rXa-ao-i = 

REMARK 1. Except the forms of Am and ftm^u, all the Perfects of this 
kind belong almost exclusively to poetry, particularly to the Epic. The Sing. 
St'Sta is not Attic. 

REM. 2. The Imp. of these Perfects is also in use, and, since it not only 
wants the mode-vowel, but takes the ending -&i in the second Pers. Sing., it is 
wholly analogous to the forms in -yut. So the Inf. Both append their termi- 
nations to the short stem-vowel; SeSicvai is an exception. The Subj. Perf. and 
the Opt. Plup. of verbs whose stem-vowel is o, are formed like verbs in -/u, since 
the Subj. Perf. admits the contraction of the stem-vowel with the termination, 
and the Opt. Plup. ends in -airiv, e. g. <TTC-CI>, <rra>, -ys, etc., TCT\ali}v. The 
Part, of verbs in -dot contracts the stem-vowel a with the ending -&$ and -6s, 
e. g. Caracas = earths, fffra-6s fffrdas and e<rros, and also have a peculiar 
feminine form in -u<ra, e. g. effrcaffa ; all the Cases retain the o>, e. g. eo-ranos, 
<rrci><n7s, etc. 

REM. 3. The form resolved by e is retained in some participles, in the Ionic 
dialect, e.g. eo-recfo, standing firm; so from rc&?7}Ka, r&vttas Cnever redvcfo) 
together with re^^/ccos, is retained in the Attic dialect also. In these forms, 
o> remains in all the Cases, e. g. 

effrecoffa, effre&s, Gen. fffreuros, -cao"ris. 
re&j/ewo-a, Tedi/ccfo, Gen. Tf&vca>Tos, -(t>a"r]S. 

and TCTATJ/CO never have this form of the participle. 





Ind. S. 1. 

D. 2. 














, etc. 
l-Wy -ys, -77, etc. 

, etc., 3 Pers. PI. 
and -dvrow 


tie-Sl-ds, -via, -6s, Gen. -6ros 


e-(TTc6s, -Siffa, -6s (-dis?) 
Gen. -CCTOS, -(tx 

Subj. Pf. 
Opt. Plup. 

ea-rw, fjs, -fj, etc. 

tcrraiiiv, Dual fffraltirov and -CUTOV, PI. effTal-rj/' and -a"ip.ev, 
etc., third Pers. PI. ecrrcuef. 

194, 195.] VERBS WITH A PERF. LIKE VERBS IN -/At. 231 

REM. 4. The Opt. Plup. third Pers. Sing. SfSien;, PI. Phaedr. 251, a. is re- 
stored according to traces in the MSS. The Plup. of 1(rrrj/jn, in this form never 
takes the strengthened augment ci. The Imp. Perf. eVrddi, etc., and the Opt. 
Plup. (arTaii)v, etc., are poetic only. But the Inf. (<rr&vcu is in constant use ; 
yet ItfTTjfceVcu is very seldom ; also the Part, eo-rwr, -axra, is far more frequent 
than eo-TTj/caJs, -u?a; the neuter COTTJ/C^S, on the contrary, is more frequent than 
faros. Instead of the Ind. Sing. Perf., Plup., and Part, of 648ia, the forms 
of 8<5oj/ca are more frequent ; besides the Indie. Perf. and Plup., particularly 
in the Sing., the Inf. and Part, were used. 

$ 194. Summary of Verbs with a Perfect like Verbs 

in -/At. 

Besides the two verbs above, the following have this form of the Perfect: 

1. ylyvofuu, to become, TEFAA (stem FA) : Perf. (Sing, yeyova, -as, -c), 7670- 
J16V, 77aTe, yfydaffi(v), Inf. yfydfMfv (Epic), Part, yeyws, yeyuffa, yfyc&s, Gen. 

2. oW, to go, Perf. /3e'7Ka, BEBAA : PI. flefla/iev, -arc, -a<ri(v), third Pers. 
PI. Subj. tnfcpwffi(v) (PI. Phaedr. 225, e), Inf. e#u/cu, Part. fc06s (X. Hell. 
7. 2, 3), j8j8t/?a (e<ra, PI. Phaedr. 254, b), fcpds, Gen. Pefiuros ; Plup. 104- 
ftanev, -arc, -daav. These abridged forms are almost wholly poetic and dia- 
lectic ( 230). 

3. brfiffKw, to die, r&tn>]Ka, TE0NAA : PI. Tc^ya/tcv, Tei^varc, rfbva<ri(v), Imp. 
T&vS&i, Part. Tf&vT)K(as, T&mjKv'ia, rc&vTjKds, or T&vfws, Tfbvfu>cra (Lys. and 
Dem.), T&vfts, Inf. r&v&vai (Aesch. rffrvavcu from rc^voeVtu) ; Plup. tr&va- 
fftu', Opt. T&valiiv. 

4. TAAfl, to bear, Perf. TC'TATJ/CO, TETAAA: Dual rerXarov, PL TTAa/i6i/, 
TTAdT6, TfT\a<ri(v), Imp. T(T\S&i, -arw, etc., Subj. wanting, Inf. reT\avat, but 
Part. rer\ijK(as ; Plup. ^-erAa/tei/, ^TeTAdre, ^TeTA-aa-ew, Dual TfT\a.Tov, 

TTJK, Opt. TerXa^Tji/. 

5. Here belong the two participles of, 

)8i/3pe<r/ca> (^ 161, 6), to ecrf, Perf. jSe'jSpw/ca, poetic fSe&p<as, Gen. -arro 
163, 3), to/a//, 7reVrw/ca, Att. Poet, ireirrtis (comp. 230). 

REMARK. There are also found, in imitation of Homer, KeKpaynfv and 
the Imp. KfKpax&i, from the Perf. KfKpdya (from Kpdfa, to cry out) ; also the 
Imp. ireirerdi, from ireVoida, to <n/5< (from TTC&W, to persuade), is found in 
Aesch. Eum. 602. See 230. The Perfects oI5a and &/ca require a distinct 

195. OtSa and cot/ca. 

1. O?5a, Perf. from 'EIAH (second Aor. eTSoi/, 7 sa*t<, Inf. iSe?^, videre), 
properly / have seen, hence I know; for the syllable oT, see 140, 4; for the 
change of 8 into <r in roToy, etc., see 17, 5; for the change of 5 into <r in 
ftr/iev, see 19, 1. Its inflection is as follows : 

232 OTSa AND coiKa. [$ 196. 


Ind. S. 1. 

D. 2. 3. 




olSa Subj. ct'Sw Imp. 


oTSe(j') ciSfj fora 

forov t tffTov fiSrjTOj/, -r\Tov forov, foray 

5f(TT ftSTJre fore elScos, -um, - 


Ind. S. 1. 

Dual PL.JflfyMV (Poet, 


5e<s and -<r&o l ySftrov, Poet. $<TToy p'Setrc ( " 7?(rre) 
5ei(i/) TJSernjj/, " floral/ fficffav ( " ^(roi/) 

Opt. Sing. et'Sefyp, -rjs, -17 ; Dual i'5enjTOj/, -^-nji/; PI. eiSefyjuep (seldom et'Se?- 

/A6v), eiSe^Tc, 6t5c?e' (seldom ej'Se/rjo'oi'). 
Fut. cfo-Ojttai (Ion. t'8V, though Isocr. (ruvetS^<rets), / shall know or 

experience ; sometimes also ei'5eW, ct'Sw, *Sefrji/, have the same 

meaning. Verbal Adj. 

compounded of oT5a, / am conscious. Inf. crwetSeVcu, Imp. 
Subj. (ryj/etSw, etc. 

1 116, 2, oTSor scarcely occurs in Attic. 

2 First person #817, second p'STja&o, third $877, are considered as Attic 
forms ; yet pSew', J7'8er&a (also TjScis), ^Set, are found in the best Attic wri- 
ters. OKa/jifv, oiSare, ot8a(Ti(j'), instead of fopfv, etc., are rarely found in 
the Attic writers. Comp. X. An. 2. 4, 6. Antiph. p. 115, 3. PL Ale. 141, 
e. Eur. Suppl. 1047. X. O. 20, 14. oTSas occurs in X. C. 4. 6, 6. The 
shortening of the ei into c in the Dual and PL of the Opt. yfSe^ei/, is poetic 
and rare. S. O. T. 1232. 

REMARK. The Perfect, / have known, is expressed by eyvwKa, and the Aorist, 
I knew, by tyv<av. 

2. "Eoiita, lam like, I seem, Perf. of 'EIKfl (of this the Impf. el/ce, is used in 
Homer), poetic el/m instead of eoz/co, ctVeeVot instead of eotweVat, and (instead 
of eoi/co<ri) the anomalous Att. third Pers. PL t|art, even in prose (Plat.), Part. 
totKc&s, in the Attic writers only in the sense of like ; Att. eiKcSs and et/ccVot 
(instead of eoiicAs, ^oi/ceVot) commonly in the dramatists, only in the sense of 
probable, likely, right; hence especially in the neuter tints, as &s fiitts, as is 
natural; Plup. ifaew (122, 5), Fut. c^w (Ar.). 

Here belongs the abridged form eoiy/xev, among the Tragedians, instead of 
tolKa/jLfv ; comp. fo/a.fv. The poetic Mid. forms ^t|oj (Eur. Ale. 1065), second 
Pers. Sing. Perf., and #KTO, third Pers. Sing. Plup., are constructed according 
to the same analogy. 

196. III. Present and Imperfect. 

There are also some Present and Imperfect forms, mostly in the Epic dialect, 
which, according to the analogy of verbs in -/it, take the personal-endings 
without the mode-vowel. See 230, under avvw, TOJ/UW, tpvu, <rctW, &, <{>epa> ; 
olua* ( 166, 24), of the Common language, belongs here. 


$ 197. Summary of the Deponent Passives 
102, 2, 3). 

, to ironder, Swa/icu, to be able, Kpena/j,at, to hang, 

to reverence, Susapeareo/iai, to be dissat- AoiSopeo/uu, to revile, 

, to irander, isfied, naivopai, to be mad, 

afju\\, to contend, ivavri6o/j.aiy to resist, ^era/ieAo/iou, to regret, 

ion- 160^0.1 (Poet.) adversor, fa&tyubpuu, to lay to heart, /uy<raTTo/tox, to loathe, 
airovofo/, to be distracted, tvvoeopcu, to consider, ve/te<r<o/icu (Poet.), to be 

to be perplexed, lin/xeAojuai and -foficu, to justly indignant, 
fo/jLai, to have an take care, ofo/j,ai, to suppose, 

aristocracy, tirtvoeofjuu, to reflect upon, oXiyafX^ofjuii, to have an 

ipveofjuu, to refuse tir foremen, to know, oligarchy, 

&X&ofjuu, to be displeased, Ipofuu (Poet.), to love, irtipdofjai, to try, 
&ov\o/, to wish, (, to be happy, irpobvpconcu, to desire, 

Ppvxdo/juu, to roar, . fv\afito(, to be cautious, irpovofOfuu, to foresee, 

StofjLcu, to want, ' fvyo^ofjuu, bonis legibus <rf0o/jicu, to reverence (Aor. 

MpKopai (Poet.), to see, utor, to-ffj&Tjv, PL Phaedr. 

&i)/, to have a evTropeo/ww, to be opulent, 254, b). 

democracy, TJSojum, to rejoice, <f>i\orifj.fOfuu, to be ambi- 

tia\tyoncu, to converse, &tpo/ (Poet.), to become tious, 
Jhcwoe'o^cu, to think; hot, irjroroir4ofjuu t to conjecture. 

REMARK 1. The Aor. of several verbs have a Mid. as well as a Pass, form, 
e. g. av\io/j,cu, to lodge; AojSopeo^ou, to revile; opfyofMi, to strive after; irpay/j.a- 
rfvofjcu, to carry on business (Pass, rarer); <f>t\o<ppoi'to{j,ai, to treat kindly. Also 
several of the above verbs belong here, yet they more seldom have a middle 
Aoristj e. g. &, Aor. Mid. in Dem. cu'Se'o/xai, see 166, 1, a/uAAao/zcu, Aor. 
^lid. in later writers, apvto/ in Herod. Aesch. and in later writers, Sia\eyo/jun 
in non-Attic writers, ^irivofo/ in later writers, AotSopeo^at, Aor. Mid. in Isae. 
6, 59, Treipdo/jLcu often in Thu., trpovofofiat, Eur. Hipp. 683. Paus. 4. 20, 1. <f>i\o- 
rifj-fo/jLcu in Isoc. and Aristid. Several of the above list of verbs have a mid- 
dle ;\s well as a Passive form in the Fut. : cu'Se'o/w". 166 > 1 ^x^o/ioj, 166, 4. 
Sia\, to converse with, S(oAe|ojucu and rarer SiaXfx^fl^ofjicu, SiavofOfj-ai, to 
think. eVtyieAo/iW, 166, 21. Trpo^, to desire. irpobv/jL-fiffo/JLcu and rarer irpo&v- 
fja^aofuu. Both J}5o/w, to rejoice, and the poetic epafjuu, to love, have a passive 
form for their Fut. : rifffrfjirofjicu, fycurdijtrojucu, 179, 4. 

KKM. 2. All the other Deponents are Middle Deponents, or are used only 
in the Pres. and Impf. 

KKM. 3. Among the Deponent Passives, are very many Active verbs, which 
in the Mid. express a reflexive or intransitive action, but have a Passive form 
for their Aorist ; on the contrary, a Middle form for their Future, e. g. <j>o&4<a, 
t'i-r<(>, to terrify ; 4>oj?&rjj/eu and <j>o&r](Tf(rdai, timere, to fear. Here belong all 
verbs in -aiveiv and -vvetv, derived from substantives and adjectives, almost 
all in -ovv, and most in -ifiv, c. g. ev^pcdvfiv, to gladden, fwppai/^vcu, ev<ppa- 
vfltTdai, and fv(ppav^ifffff^ai, to be joyful, to be hapny ; irriraivfiv, to make ripe, 
ji/cu, ireTrofeTo-^at, inaturescere, to rijten; tbtjfv9tar t to shame, au.(Txvv^>ivcu t 
'i(T^cu (rarer ouVxw^Vj<r6<r^at), to feel shame; iKwnovv, to make less, e'Aar- 
, t\\aTT(t>fff<T&ai t to be inferior, to be conquered; x^-v v i ' ma ^ e an $f r yi 
^^ " 60 " 1 ^ 6 "? snccensere, to be angry; /uaAa/a'^eij/, to make effeminate^ 
(rarer /zoAcuctVcur^at), /LiaAcucteTffi^at, to make one's self effeminate, to 




[$ 198. 

be effeminate ; bpyi&iv, to make angry, bpyHTSyvat, 6pyte7(r^ai, and bp 

succensere, to be angry ; there are very many others also, of which only those 

most in use will be mentioned here : 

"Ayciv (from avdyeiv, come, avax^wai and avayaye<r&ai, signifying to be carried 
to sea, in mare provehi, but Fut. ai/a|eff&cu), ayeipeiv, ayvwai, a&poifciv, 
aviav, alpsiv, ctAAaTTeij' (a.\\ay^a-o/, often also ciAAa|e<rdcu), apfj.6eiv, 
au|cu/eu/, a<$>a.visiv ; /JaAAea/ ; SaTravav, Siairav ; f&i&iv, eTreiyeiv 
&TIV), eariav, eux " / 5 iirrav (F. j]TTr)&-f)(rouai and rarer r}TT-f]<ronat ) ; ISpiW; 
Kivsiv, K\lvfiv, /cot/way, Ko/j.ifiv (Ko/jucr&rjvai, to travel, but K0fj.i(racr&ai, sibi recu- 
perare, to recover for one's self), Kpivtiv, Kv\iv$eiv; heyeiv, AetVeti', \veiv, 
\we7v] /tte&;<rKJj', fjnyvvvai, p.ijj(.viiffKfiv', bpeyeiv ( opex^yjyat, and rarer 
bpQcur&at,), 6p/j.av, 6x"iv ; jrei&eu' (Fut. irelffo/jiai, I ivill obey, but Trurfrfi<To/, I 
will be persuaded) , irriyvvvai, ir\a.vav t irAe/ceti', TT^TTSIV, irohirevew (also iro\iTev- 
cracr&ai), iroycveiv; pyyvvvai, puvvvvcu', (Tei6/, ff^ir^iv (craTTTjj/cu, <raTnij(re(r3-ai), 

(<rrpa<pT'ivai, o'Tpa<p'h<ra'&ai), fftydhXew (ff<pa\rivai, ff^aX^arfa^ai, seldom ff<pa\e?a i - 
&cu), crda^civ (ffu^vai, to save one's self, but ffdxraff&ai, to save for one's self, sibi 
servare) ; Tapdrrfiv, TepireiVy rpeireiv (rpaTTTjj/ai, to turn one's self, to turn, Tpe^oo"- 
&ai, to put to flight), rpeQeif, (patveiv ((paviji'ai, <$>](recr&ai and (pavf'icr&ai, to 
appear, but <pav&riva.i, to be shoum), fyavrafav (<f)ai>Ta(rfrf]a'e(r&a,t), (j)fpcw 
voi, otcrea'&cu and ^yex^o'eo'^a', rarer oiVdTjcro^cu), ^eipe 
i^at [<&e/>er&ai, Ion. and poet.J, tpofteTv (^o^Tjcrea^at artd 
5cty (//u(r^ijj/at, ^vff^T]<Top.a.^ to deceive one's self, be deceived, 
t, to lie) ; X 6 " 7 - 

198. Summary of the Active Verbs most in use ivith 
a Middle Future, 154, 1. 

i, to be, 

to praise, 
, to eat, 

w, to wonder, 
to run, 

aitovca, to hear, 

fa, to shout, 
, to miss, 
), to meet, 
to enjoy, 
u, to seize, 

to </o, 
au/a>, to gro, 
)3toa>, to live, 
jSAeVa, to see, 
/3oaw, to cry oz<f, 
, to laugh, 
, to grow old, 
, to know 
5a/cfw, to bite, 

SeTtroj, to fear, 
Siairdw, to live, 
StSpatr/cw, to 

to pursue, 
fa, to praise, 

), to towcA, 
), to die, 
a, to leap, 
Ka/j.v(a, to labor, 
to weep, 

to reyeZ, 
, to obtain, 
\$dv(i>, to take, 
<a, to lick, 

, to learn, 
ve'w, to sw/, 
vevct), to nod, 

, to swear, 
6pdoa, to see, 
ovpeu, urinam redere, 
iraifa, to sport, 
ird(rx<>>i to suffer 
TrrjSdca, to leap, 
iriva, to drink, 

TT/TTTW, tO fall, 

TrAew, to sail, 

to blow (but 

irviya>, to strangle, 
, to desire, 

fO), to reverence, 
peca, to flow, 
po<p4(a, to gulp down, 
(riydco, to be silent, 
triceirda), to be silent, 
ffKtaiTTO), to mock, 
a-irovddfa, to be zealous, 
<n/piTTco, to whistle, etc., 
TIKTW, to produce, 


Tpe'x, to run, rw&dfa, to rail at, x^ ffK(a i to ( J a P e > 

, to gnaw, tpfvyw, to flee, X 6 'C a ') to ease one ' s se lft 

, to obtain, ^cu/w, to come before, X w P* 6l 'i to contain. 

REMARK. Some have both the Active and Middle form for the Future ; the 
Middle, however, is preferred, e. . o'8a> (aa-w non-Attic), a/wroa>, i<fa>, yrjpd- 

x w P* v - &npaw, frriptvw, Ko\dfa are also used with the middle form. 
The following compounds of x^pc'w have an Active and Middle form in the 
Put. : diro-, <rvy- irposxwptv, but ava- and ir/>oxpe' have only the Active form. 


199. Prepositions and Conjunctions. 

Besides the Substantive, Adjective, Pronoun, Numeral, 
Adverb, and Verb, there are also the two following parts of 
speech, viz. Prepositions and Conjunctions. On the forms of 
these nothing need be said ; hence these parts of speech are 
treated in the Syntax, so far as it is necessary. 




200. Digamma, or Labial Breathing F. 

1. The Greek language had originally, in addition to the Spiritus Asper (') 
and the Lingual Breathing cr, a Labial Breathing, 1 the sound of which corre- 
sponds nearly to the Eng.y^ or the Latin v. In accordance with its form (F), 
which is like one Gamma standing upon another, it is named Digamma (double 
Gamma) ; and as the ^Eolians retained it longer than the other Grecian tribes, 
it is called the ^Eolic Digamma. It has the sixth place in the alphabet, namely, 
between and , and is named Bay. Comp. $ 26, 1 and 25, 2. 

2. This character disappeared very early ; but its sound was in some cases 
changed, in some of the dialects, into the smooth Labial , e. g. /3io, vis, Fis 
(later fr) ; in other instances, it was softened into the vowel u, and, after other 
vowels, coalesced with these, and formed the diphthongs ay, eu, yv, ov, v, e. g. 
vavs (vdFs), navis, x u (x^) -Sol., povs (&6Fs), bdvs, bos, Gen. bovis; in 
others still, it was changed into a mere gentle breathing, which at the beginning 
of a word is denoted by the Spiritus Lenis, but in the middle of a word and 
before p is not indicated, e. g. Fis, vis, ft ; SFts, ovis, fas ; ctAcu, volvo ; FpoSov, 
p65ov, etc. ; it was also changed, in the beginning of some words, into a sharp 
breathing, which is denoted by the Spiritus Asper, e.g. c<nrepos, vesperus; fvvv/j.1, 

3. In the Homeric poems, no character denoting the breathing F any longer 
exists ; but it is very clear that, in the time of Homer, many words were 
sounded with the Digamma, e. g. &ywfju, oi/a, avaffvu, aj/SdVw, tap, ver, the 

1 " The Vau, or Digamma, an important agent in early Greek orthography, 
less, however, a principal than a subsidiary letter, retained much of its previous 
character of vowel-consonant, or, in the technical language of the Oriental 
schools, of quiescible letter. It was chiefly used as a liquid guttural, or aspirate, 
somewhat akin to our English wh, to impart emphasis to the initial vowel of 
words, and possessed the power, with certain limitations, of creating metrical po- 
sition. But these vague and indefinite properties, were not such as to entitle it to 
a regular or habitual place in the uritten texts of the popular Epic poems. It 
was retained by the Boeotian states in monumental inscriptions till the 145 
Olympiad." Mure's Hist, of the Language and Literature of Greece, vol. i, p. 85 ; 
vol. iii, p. 513. 

238 DIALECTS. [$ 201. 

forms of 'EIAH, video ; eotwa, eftcoo**, viginti ; cT/xa, vestis ; et7re/ (comp. vocare) 
fKtj\os, fvyvfii, vestio ; e6s and '6s, suns ; ov, sui ; oT, sibi ; fcrirepos, vesperus ; oT/cos 
vicus; otvos, vinum, etc. ; this is obvious from the following facts : (a) words Un- 
bare the Digamma cause no Hiatus, e. g. irpb e&cv (= irpb F&ev) ; (b) henc 
also a vowel capable of Elision, when placed before a digammated word, camK 
be elided, e. g. \lirev Se (= 54 Fe), OTTO e'o (= OTTO F4o) ; (c) the paragogic . 
( 15) is wanting before words which have the Digamma, e. g. Sa?e ol (= Sale 
Foi) ; (d) ov instead of owe or oix> is found before the Digamma, e. g. eTrel 
otf efre v Ian x P ^ W1 ' ( = V Ff&w); (e) in compounds, neither Elision 
nor Crasis occurs, e. g. Siafiirefj.ev (= StcuPetTre^cv), aayfjs (= aFayfts) ; (f ) a 
digammated word with a preceding consonant, makes a vowel long by position, 
e. g. yap e&ev (where the p and the Digamma belonging to efrev make a long 
by position) ; (g) long vowels are not shortened before words that have the 
Digamma, e. g. /ccfoAef re aTiKfiuv KO.I e'/]ua<n (= ical FeliMfft), II. 7, 392. 

(201. Interchange of Vowels. 

PRELIMINARY REMARK. The dialectic peculiarities in the change of vow- 
els, as well as of consonants, never extend to all the words of a dialect, but are 
uniformly limited to certain words and forms. 

1. The three vowels, e, o, o, called ($ 140, 2 and 4) variable vowels 
TfrpoQa, tTpd<fnr)v) undergo various changes in the dialects : 

a is used instead "of e (Ion.), e. g. rpaTru, ra^i/w, /urya&os instead of 
rf(j.t>(o t peyebos ; SO also Doric rpaQca, ffKiapSs, "AprafjLis instead of 
(TKiepoy, "Apre/jLis ; and in several particles, e. g. ctaa, r<foa, TTOKO. instead of 
0Ve, T<JT, Wre. 

e instead of o in the Ionic dialect, when followed by a Liquid, e. g. reWcpes, 
pa"i\v, 8f\os, fiepe&pov (Ion.) instead of TcV<rapes, four, &pffrjv,a male, uaA.os, 
glass, pdpa&pov, gulf; also in many verbs in -aw, e. g. ^otrew, 6pe<a (Ion.), 
instead of <j>ojTd'a>, 6pdu. 

e instead of o (Doric), e. g. e^f^Kovra instead of e/38o/d7Koj>Ta. 

a instead of o (Ion.), in ap'paSf'iv instead of bppuSeiv. 

2. The following cases are to be noted in addition : 

The long o is a special peculiarity of the Doric dialect, and causes, in par- 
ticular, the so-called Plateiasm (i. e. the broad pronunciation) of the Dorians, 
e. g. ojuepa, Kairoy, o8us, Aa/iorrjp. The older and the later Ionic have softened 
this grave d into 77. The Attic uses both the Doric o and the softened 77, ( 16, 
7). Comp. Dor. a^uepo, Ion. fi/j.epa, Att. fj/j-fpa (with the Ion. 77 and Doric o) ; Ion. 
tro(/)i7j, Dor. and Att. ffo<pla ; Ion. &cfyn;|, Dor. and Att. S-t6po|. So, also, in 
the diphthong ou, among the Ionic writers o is changed into 17 : vnvs, ypr)vs, 
instead of j/aus, ypavs] likewise in the diphthong at in the Dat. PL of the first 
Dec., ys and 770*1 (Ion.) instead of cus and aun. Still, in certain words, the 
Dorians retain the 77, as the lonians do the d. 

i\ instead of ei ( JEolic and Doric), e. g. ffa^ov, TT>OS, 0^7)0, so the Infinitive, 
e. g. XafirfVy Ka\T)V., instead of o*77^?or, tteivos, o|e?a, \afteii>, Ko\eiv. 

at instead of t (Doric), e. g. <pfralpw instead of <pbelpca. 


v often instead of o (JEolic), c. g. crvfts, tvv^a. instead of <ro$6s, tvo^a ; so in 
f llonu'r byvpis instead of ayopd; and in the Common language, tituwpMs, TraHj- 

s, etc. 

, u instead of ov before a Liquid and ff, and at the end of a word in the termi- 
jations of the second Dec., and in the stem of several words; 01 instead of 
3 hi- fore the breathing a in the third Pers. PL ouri(v) instead of ov<rt(v), and in 
the participle ending -oura instead of -ov<ra, and in Molira and 'Ape&otaa instead 
of Movtra, and 'Ape&ouo-o ; the above use of instead of ou is Dor., yet not in 
Pindar; the use of 01 instead of ov is JEolic and Pindaric, e. g. 

To tydflw instead of rov ty^jSov, 2>v (also Ion. and Pindar.) instead of olv, 
instead of 5ov/\os, upav6s instead of ovpav6s, fius instead of ftovs ; rinr- 
TOUTI(V) instead of TUTnovffi(v), rinrroKra instead of rvirrovaa, <f)i\foiffi(v) instead 
of <fH\ov<riv, ^x lffa instead of exovffa. 

Some other instances will be considered below, in treating of the Declensions 
and Conjugations. 

202. Interchange of Consonants. 

The change of consonants in the different dialects is according to the two 
following laws : 

Coordinate consonants ( 5, Rem. 4) interchange with each other; and cog- 
nate consonants ( 5, Rem. 1) interchange with each other. 

$ 203. I. Interchange of coordinate Consonants. 

A. THE MUTES : (a) The smooth Mutes IT and K. The interrogative and 
indefinite pronouns, irws, v6re t iroTos, 6iro7os, etc., are in Ion. KUS, /c<$re, etc. 

K instead of r : ir^re, TTOTC, 8re, rdre, (JiroTe, dtAAore, are in Dor. irJ/ca, iroicd, 
8/ca, T<i/co, 6ir6ica. (Poet. ^TTO/C/CO), &\\OKO. ; so 8/ca (shortened from 'oKcuca) instead 
of Srow. On the contrary, r instead of K : ryvos Dor. instead of /c/os, 

v instead of T (JEol. and Dor.), e. g. Wjuire instead of ireWt! 

(b) The Medials ^3 and 7, e. g. MX ( Att.), penny-royal, is in Ion. 
f}\((papov, eye-lash, is y\f(j>apov. 

8 instead of 7 (Dor.), e. g. 55 instead of 77} ; hence Arj/u^T*?? instead of 

5 instead of ft (Dor.), oSe\6s instead of of3e\6s. 

(c) The Aspirates b and <p, e. g. dY;p, beast, b\Zv, b\l0fiv, oy^op, udder, are 
in Dor. (fnjp, <p\av, <f>\i&iv, oltyap (uber) ; tp-rjp and <p\lfteiv also in Homer. 

X instead of 3- : fopa is in Dor. f^A" 1 * an d 6pv&os y etc. (from 8pvis) is fyvixos, 

B. THE LIQUIDS : (a) The Liquids interchange with one another: v instead 
of \ before & and r, often in the Dor. dialect, e. g. 4?&o?, pema-ros (Dor.) 
instead of $\&ov, ft&Tiffros; also (Ion. and Att.) ir\t-v/juov, pulmo, instead of 
irvtvfjKi)]/, \trpov instead of viTpov. 

p is rarely used instead of A, e. g. Kptpavos, oven, Att., instead of K\lpavos. 



[$ 204. 

(b) The Liquid p and the breathing <r in the later and often in the middle 
Attic : ft instead of the Ion. and old Attic per, e. g. &p<r-r]v and &tf Wy a male ; 
Kopa-rj and Kopprj, back; but pp remains where the augment is used, and in com- 

204. II. Interchange of cognate Consonants. 

(a) The Palatals 7 and K, e. g. KvaQevs, fuller, is preferred by the Att. writers 
to the other form, yvafyets. 

K and x i n Sc/co^ai (Ion.) instead of S^XO/JM. 

(b) The Linguals 3- and T, e. g. avrts (Ion. and Epic) instead of au&js, again. 

REMARK. In some words a change of the aspiration, from one syllable to 
the other, occurs, e.g. K&<av (Ion.) instead of X'TWJ/, tV&auTa, hie, tV&eDrej/, June, 
(Ion.), instead of Ivravba, frrevfrev] ici/Spy (Ion.) instead of x^ T P a t Pt- 

a and T, e. g. UorfiSay, eire-roy, efaarz, TV, re (Dor.) instead of Uoffefiuv, eTre- 
aov, ejf/co<n, crv, <7. The Attic forms reDrAov, 6ee; ri)\ia, sieve (from 0-7}&o>), 
Tvp/iTj (from orupw), tar&a ; r^fpov, to-day, and TTJTCS, f/iz's year (the two last only 
in the comedians, but in tragedians and in other Attic writers <rr)fj.fpov t o^res), 
are in the Ion. and Common language o-eDrXoi/, o"n\ia, ffvpfii}. 

ff<r and TT. Instead of o-<r, employed in the older and the later Ionic, in old 
Attic and in most other dialects, the new and often also the middle Attic 
in most words uses TT, e.g. Tatro-w, y\to<r<ra'j but Att. TCITTW, yXurra.. (But 
when <rff results from composition, it remains unchanged.) Yet the Ionic 
forms prevail, not only in the older Attic writers, but are also found in other 
authors, some words always having crcr, e. g. vdaffw, to scatter; irT-f)<r<ra>, to 
crouch; fivo-ffos, a deep; TrnVtrw, to husk; TrriWw, to fold ; ftpdff<rca, to shake; 
Trrdaffffco, to cower; epe'ertrcu (epeTTi> is rejected), etc. 

o- and v in the Dor. verb-ending -/, e. g. rvvr Q/U.CS (instead of the common 
form TVTtTO[jLsV) see 220, 6) ; also ales Dor. instead of alctr. 

0-5 instead of (^Eol., so also in Theoc.) but only in the middle of words, e. g. 
/ueAtVSeTcu, /ieV5a>i> instead of TC > V-efav or jU6i / o'> not at the beginning of 
words, nor if & precedes, or <r follows, e. g. lioxM 

and TT, ffvp'iTTeiv, apfj.6TTeiv (Att.) instead of 
Here belong : 

| and or and o-<r, e. g. %vv (Epic and old Attic) instead of <rvv ; 8t|Js and rpi6s 
(Ion.) instead of SKTO-OS, ipiff<r6s ; *c\ei| Dor. instead of K\OIS (/c\e?s) ; even in the 
Fut. and Aorists, the Dorians, and also Homer, in several verbs use | instead 
of cr, see 223, 5. 

(c) The Labials <f> and T, the first Att., the last Ion., e. g. ao-Qapayos Att., 
aa-Trdpayos Ion. So ^Eol. and Dor. TT, instead of <j>, e. g. apirt ( JEol.) instead of 
a/x^>i ; hence in the Common language. d^Trexeti/, etc. 

jit and ir, e. g. ireSd (JEol. and Dor.) instead of perd. 

(d) The double consonants and t|/, and the two single consonants of which 
they are formed, though transposed, in the JEol. dialect, e. g. tr/feVos, <nrd\ts 
instead of eVos, ^oXis, yet only at the beginning of a word. So <r$ and ^, 
e. g. ^4 Dor. instead of tr<pt. 


$205. Contraction. Diaeresis. 

\, In the Dialects, the following contractions, which differ from those men- 
tioned in 9, are to be noted : eo and eou, sometimes also oo and oe are con- 
tracted into ew in Dor. and Ion. not, as commonly, into ou ; so ao, aou, and 
oow (Ion.) arc contracted into u not, as usual, into <u and ou, e. g. 4>tA.6ufrom 
<pt\(ov = <f>t\ov] ir\(vves from ir\foi/fs 5 TrA.TjpeuVres from Tr\t]p6oyrs ir\r]povv- 
TCS ; etiiKdiev from tStKcdoe = tSiKalov ; elpwrevy from flpurraov elpArwv ; yt- 
\eiffa from yt\a.ov<ra. = yf\<a<ra; SiKaievffi from SiKatoovffi = SiKaiovai. But 
commonly the Dorians contracted oe into <a (instead of ou), e. g. rvpoevra = 
Tvptovra instead of rvpovvra, piyuv instead of piyovv. 

2. Ao, oou, and aw are contracted in the Doric dialect into d (instead of o>), 
namely, in verbs in -dw, in genitives in -oo and -deaf, in substantives in -dwv, 
Gen. -davos, and in proper names in -\aos, e. g. <f>vcra.vres, x ^-" "'* ye\av from 
<pv<rdovres, x a ^ OU(rt > yf^dcav] v Kopav from rdcav Kopdwv = -r<av Kopuiv; 
Iloo-eiSai', -aj/os, Att. noo'ctSwj', -wvos; Mej/eAds, 'Ap/ceo-/Aay, Gen. -a, Dat. -a. 

3. A and oet are contracted in the Dor. (but not in Pindar) into rj and 77 
instead of d and qt, in verbs, e. g. tyolTT], (poirys instead of e'^oiVo, <potras. See 
222,111. (1). 

4. The Attic dialect is the opposite of the other dialects, particularly of the 
later Ionic ; since, while the other dialects often avoid contraction, and the later 
Ionic commonly, the Attic almost always admits it. The tendency of the later 
Ionic towards uncontracted syllables is so great, that it even resolves the long 
sounds (which are never resolved in the other dialects) into their simple ele- 
ments, e. g. <j>i\ffcu instead of <t>t\f), which had been contracted from <pi\trj. 
Epic poetry often uses, indiscriminately, contracted and uncontracted forms, 
according to the necessity of the verse, e. g. afKwv and #KO>J/. 

5. On the contrary, it is a special peculiarity of the Ionic dialect, that while 
it delights to avoid contractions, it still, in particular cases, admits them, where 
the Attic dialect does not, e. g. Ip6s (r), tpevs, IpcvaaaStai Ion., instead of /epo's, 
etc., and especially the contraction of OTJ into w, particularly in the verbs 0ouv 
and votiv, e. g. f/3a><ra, tWa'a (ayvuxraffKev Horn, from ayvofv), (WfvtoKa instead 
of ^3oT70"a, ^JTJO'O, tvvev6i]Ka. ; so oyStaKOVTa in Homer, instead of oytioJiKovra. 

6. The opposite of contraction is Diaeresis (Sta/pe<rts), the separation of a 
diphthong into its vowels. Diaeresis is specially used in the JEol. dialect. 
The use of it in Homer, also, is not rare ; most frequently, in such words as 
separate the two vowels by means of the Digamma, namely, cu in irdis ; ai) in 

), breath (from 6.Fr]/ni) ; dOo-TaAeoy, dirty; et in tfffKd), to make like, ei'/cro, 
, &KTTJV; i> very often in the adverb e'u (= e5, well), e. g. 4to Kpivas, ^UKT/- 
when jo, v, p, or a follows c'u in compounds then they are doubled, e. g. 
wT]Tos, t'up'p'oos, (v<rff\fj.os ] o* in tis (8Fis, outs), otojjuu (comp. opi- 
nor), blffrts, &'ia. &iav (from 

242 DIALECTS. [$ 206. 

206. Crasis, Synizesis, Elision, N Paragogic, 

1. In particular instances the Dialects differ from the laws of Crasis stated in 
10 and 11 ; namely, in the Ionic dialect and in Pindar and Thcoc., the o of 
the Article coalesces with d and forms &>, and with at and forms (a, e. g. rb &yaA- 
ua = T&yatyta ; SO TwArj&e's, ruvrd, wrfp, uvSpes, &v&pcoTrot, (pir6\oi, from Tt> aArj- 
&e's, rb avr6, 6 avfjp, ol &v8pes. ol ap&pcoTrot. ol anr6\oi. In Herodot. occur, &piffTos, 
uT<fc, SAAot, with the smooth instead of the rough breathing (from 6 apto-roy, 
6 avTtk, ol fiAAot) ; Homer uses Crasis seldom, namely, only in tipio-ros, iavr6s, 
raAAa, of>fj.6s (instead of 6 e^s), rowe/co, owena (instead of ou eVe/ca) j Kayu is 

2. Instances of Crasis in Doric are : r&\yeo$, r&vrpta instead of TOV oAyeos, 
r(f &vrp(a ; so o and = o>, at and e = 77, e. g. 6 eAa^os = 8>\a(pos, 6 e'| = <w, /cal 
K = KT]K t Kai elite = Kyire, /col eav or ^y = K^J/, which last is also Ion. 

3. Ionic writers admit the common Crasis in ov, in the Masc. and Neut. of 
the Art. and in erepos, e. g. ourepos, rovrepov. 

4. The use of Synizesis ( 12) is very frequent in the Homeric poems: 

(a) In the middle of words, it is oftenest found in the following combination of 
vowels (the vowels over which the line is placed being pronounced as one 
syllable, whether consisting of two or more vowels) : ca, ea, eat, eas; eo, 
eot, fov ] tea, ea> ; e. g. 0"H?&ea, i?jue'as, &eot', xpwe'ots, redrewre ; much rarer 
in ae, to, tat. ill, ty, to, e. g. ae^AeiW, ir^Atas, ir6\ios; oo only in 
frySoop; uot only in Scucpvouri] 771 in Srjfoto, dy'iay, S7jfoir<, ^'taj 

(b) Between two words in the following combination of vowels : 77 a, i\ e, 77 77, 
YI ct, 77 ou, 77 ot ; et ou ; a> a, a ou ; the first word is either #, ^, 5^, /i^, and 
&re, or a word with the inflection-endings, 77, o>, e. g. %, ou, ST? acpvedTaros, 
fji^j aAAot, ctAoTTifTj 7/6 70/^05, aafieffTca ovS' uMv. 

5. Elision (13 and 14) is found very often in Homer, particularly as fol- 
lows : 

(a) The a is elided in the PI. Neut. and the Ace. Sing, of the third Dec., 
rarely in the Aor. ending -<ra, e. g. aAetiJ/' e'jue Od. /t, 200 ; commonly in 
the particle &pa: 

(b) The in e><-', /ue', ere', etc. ; in the Voc. of the second Dec., in the Dual of 
the third Dec., in endings of the verb, and in particles, e. g. 5e', re', Tore, 
etc. (but never in t5e'). 

(c) The t in the Dat. PL of the third Dec. ; much rarer in the Dat. Sing., 
and only when jt could not be mistaken for the Ace., e. g. x a <P e 8e T< 
6pvi& 'OSucreus, II. K, 277 ; in a^m, fyi^u, and <r<pi ; in adverbs of place in 
-&i, except those derived from substantives ; in eftcoert ; finally, in all end- 
ings of the verb ; 

(d) The o in aTi-tf, inr6 (but never in irpo), in 5i;o, in the Neut. of pronouns 
(except TJ), and in all endings of the verb ; 


(e) The aj in endings of the verb /icu, TCU, ffbcu (<rai only in rjo-' o 

H. o, 245, and ou in the Nom. of the first Dec. in o|e? o5u/a/, II. A, 272) ; 
(f ) The o in /zoi, to me, and in the particle, roi. 
6. The v paragogic ( 15) is commonly rejected in Ion. prose, e. g. iro<ri 

7. The Hiatus ($ 8) is admitted by Homer in the following cases : 

(a) In long vowels or diphthongs either in the Arsis of the verse, e. g. 
air&e | W 'O5u [ <n}r ; or in the Thesis, in which case the long vowel or 
diphthong is considered short, e. g. otnoi e [ <rav ; 

(b) When the vowel does not admit Elision, or but rarely, e. g. iratSl apvvfv ; 

(c) When two words are separated by a punctuation-mark, e. g. a\\' ava, et 

(d) In the Fern. Caesura (i. e. the caesura succeeding a short syllable) after 
the first short syllable of the third foot ; as this caesura here divides the 
line into two parts, it is opposed to the close connection which would 
arise from eliding the final vowel, e. g. 

Kfiid) | 8e rpvtyd | Aeta || o/x' | cWero [ X l pl 1l " a I X et '?7> U- 7i 376. 
rwv o! | c eye | vomo || e | vl fj.jd | poifft ye | ye^XTj, II. s, 270 ; 

(e) In the metrical Diaeresis,' after the first and fourth foot of the verse, e. g. 

IfyX 6 * | 'iSoftft/rjos ayavov AeuoA:5ao, II. ju, 117. 

Tre/i^oi ^TT' 'ArpeiSp "" \ od\ov 'Qveipov, II. /J, 6. Comp. , 422 ; 
(f ) Where the first word has the apostrophe, e. g. 5/5/>e' e^oAAcv ; 
fe) Sometimes in proper names ; 

(h) Words, which have the digamma occasion no Hiatus ( 203, 3), e. g. 
ov | 5e ous | TrcuSas e | affKev (= ou5e Fovs). 

207. Lengthening and Shortening of Vowels. 

1. The following vowels are lengthened : 

A in Homer is sometimes lengthened into ot ; this occurs in atVro's, oV, a/yaf- 
oyucu, instead of ae-nfc, etc. ; so also ' irapai (also /caTcujSoTcu), in the tragedians 
5taf, and analogous to these, j/rraf, instead of irapd, Sid, \nr6. 

a. into 77 in Homer, in f/epe'dotrai, fofptboin-at, ^i/e^fis in the Arsis, conse- 
quently on account of the metre. 

o into at before a (^Eol.) in the Ace. PI. of the first Dec. ; also in /j.e\ais and 
ToAcws instead of /i\ds, raAds, rcus instead of rdy, /coAoTs instead of KaX&s ; in 
Pindar, in the first Aor. Act. Part., e. g. rtyats, -aura instead of -ds, -a<ra ; but 
always iras. 

Au into (ov (Ion.) in rpavpa, ^au/uo and its derivatives : Tp6vfj.a, 
buvudfa ; and in pronouns compounded with avrts into ww, e, g. IWUTOU, 
rov. ^/icwuToV instead of IOUTOU, etc. ; so also Ttavr6 instead of ravr6. 

E into et in the Ion. writers before a Liq. in a number of words, e. g. 
(also in Attic prose), Keiv6s, C e ^y 5 o-rciv6s, elpcardca. Homer lengthens e into 

1 Metrical Diaeresis, is where a word and a foot end together, 

244 DIALECTS. [$ 207. 

according to the necessities of the verse, in other words, also, which in Ionic 
prose have e, e. g. etV, uTreip, Tretpos, end, ^peiara (from (ppeap, a well) ; also before 
vowels in adjectives in -eos, e. g. x/^o-etos j * n substantives and pronouns, e. g. 
<T7reToy, e/mo ; in verbs in -e'o>, e. g. reAefw, TTJ/C/W, also in etW instead of eo>y, 
urab7; sometimes also in the Augment and Reduplication, e. g. et'ATjAou&a, etot- 
Kviai) SctSta, SetSexoTat. 

E into 77 (Horn, and Dor.), in the Dec. of substantives in -euy, e. g. fiao-iXfiis, 
Gen. -Tjos, etc. 5 further (also Ion.), in adjectives in -eios, e. g. /Jao-tArji'oy, royal; 
likewise in single words, e. g. /cATjfy, /cATji'Soy (Ion.), etc., instead of /cAets, and 
in very many substantives in a of Dec. L, e. g. dATjdrjfy instead of dA^&eta. 

H sometimes into at (JEol.), e. g. Srvaia-Kca instead of Srvtifftua. 

O into ot (Ion. and Horn.) before a vowel in several words, e. g. irolt], TrotTjety, 
Xporf, poi-f}, etc. ; in the Gen. of the second Dec. in Homer, e. g. frcoTo instead 
of &(ov, and in (poivios, xopoirvTriii, 6fionr6piov, ayKoiisr)o'i(j'), and i)yvoir)cre(v). 

O is changed into ov (Ion. and Horn.) before a Liq. or Sigma, still only in a 
certain number of words ; and, in the Dor., before a Liq. into w, e. g. 

ic6pos Ion. Kovpos Dor. K&pos pAvos Ion. juoCj/os 

<!>vo/j.a ' ofoofjut ' tavofta *O\v/j<.Tros " Ov\vfj.iros J 

also in the oblique cases of S6pv and yow. But substantives, which have the 
variable vowel o, cannot be thus lengthened, e. g. ir6vos from ireVo/ww, S6fj.os from 

O into w in Homer, on account of the verse, in 
wrao^uot (and also Tpoxaco, Trordofuu), 
f into ov often (Dor.), e. g. bovydrrip instead of frvydrrip. In Homer, in 

2. The Epic dialect can resolve contracted syllables, when necessary, 
namely, a. into aa, a into aa ; t\ into 77, fir], i\f\ ; ca into ow, wo, o>o> ; particularly 
in the inflection of verbs, e. g. 6pdas instead of &pas, Kpfavov instead of K/JTJJ/OV, 
6pow instead of 6pa>, yeXcbovres instead of yeXcavres, TJ/Jcoaxra instead of rj/Saxra ; 
also <p6eas instead of <}>>s, light (from <|>aos), and proper names in -<pai/, e. g. 

3. Another mode of lengthening a vowel in the Epic dialect is by resolving 
an original Digamma or a Spiritus Asper into a vowel, e. g. e&cTjAos and e/cr/Aoy 

), ofipos instead of Spos, bound; oSAos instead of SAGS, f/eAjos instead of 
; fia-os instead of Itros ; i\iffffo> instead of AiV<rw (comp. volvo), yds instead 
of ecas. In the Ionic, and sometimes in the Epic dialect, the CD (contracted 
from oo and aco), is resolved by e, e. g. (t/ce'rw) t/cereco instead of i'/ceroo, TruAe'ow 
instead of TruAdojj/. 

4. The following vowels are shortened : 

At into a before a vowel, often in the 2Eol. dialect, e. g. apx&os, 'AA/caoy, 
instead of apxaios, 'AAa?os ; in Homer, in era/>oy, erapTj, eT&pi&o&ai. 

Ei into e before liquids (Ion. and in Horn.), in the forms x*p6s> X f p' L > fro m 
Xeip, hand, so also Att. x f P^ X e P ffi 't also ( Ion - and Dor -) before a vowel, in 
Proparoxytones in -etoy, and in Properispomena in -e?a ; in Homer, onlyiaa 
few Fern, adjectives in -vy, e. g. 


, -e'??, -cov Ion. instead of -etos w/te'a instead of i/ccm from o>/ct5s 
re'Aeos, -CTJ, -eoj> " -ftos fia&tri " j8o&e?a " fia&ts 

fvpci) from eupus " -eTa 5a<rei7 c: SeweTa " Scurvs ; 

so also in Horn. 'Ep^ue'a instead of 'EpMffa; also et in Ion. is shortened into c, 
when two consonants follow which make the vowel long by position, e. g. 
iirJSefu instead of oirJSejis, ncfav instead of ju/o>/, Kp4<rff<av instead of Kpfi<r- 
awv] finally (Doric) in forms of the verb, e. g. etei'Ses instead of aet'Scis. 

REMARK 1. In the JEol. dialect, ei before a liquid is very often shortened 
into 6, and the Liq. is doubled, e. g. /creWw, ffireppu, wreAAa, instead of .KTCIJ/W, 

ffTTflpd), WTeiATJ. 

H is changed into e in Horn, in apyeTi, apyera, from apyfjs, -T)TOS, shining, and 
in the Subj. ending -ere instead of -TJTC ; also -oju> instead of -upey, e. g. 

Oi into o often in the Dor. and JEol. dialects, e. g. TTOW instead of iroi>. 

Ov into o in Horn, in the compounds of vovs, e. g. aeAA<foroy, apriiros ; often 
in Theocritus in the Ace. PI. of the second Dec., e. g. rcbs Ay/cos instead of rovs 
\VKOVS 5 also JEol. &6\\a instead of ftov\-f) ; so too in Horn. /SJAerot, &6\f(r&* 
from jBouAoueu. 

5. On the Ionic- Attic interchange of the vowels, see 1Q, 5. 

6. The use of Syncope ( 16, 8) is frequent in Homer, particularly in forms 
of the verb, as will be seen below ; he also has T/TTTC instead of riirore, yKoKro- 
<pdyos instead of ya\aKTO(pdyos. 

7. Apocope (airoKOTT-f)) is the rejection of a short final vowel before a word 
beginning with a consonant. It is employed by the Epic and Doric poets, 
sometimes also by the Ionic, and in a few single forms even by Attic prose 
writers. It occurs with the prepositions, e. g. cb/a, /cora, napd, rarely with a.ir6 
and vif6y and with the (Epic) conjunction &pa. The accent is then thrown 
back; &v before j8, ir, <, jit, is changed into &/JL ( 19, 3), e.g. &^t /3aytor<n, 
appaivciVy k/j. Tre\ayos, tt-p. <p6vov, a/xjuei/w; the T in /car is always 'assimilated 
to the following consonant, except that the corresponding smooth mute stands 
before a rough mute ( 17, 4), e. g. /caS 8vva/j.iv, KO.TT <pd\apa, KO.K Ke<pa\TJs, Kay 
y6w; examples of air6 and vir6 are, aTTTre/t^et, v^^d\\fiv (Horn.); examples 
from Attic prose, a/j-ftdr-ns, OjUjSoAay, X. Cy. 4, 5, 46. 7. 5, 12, 

REM. 2. In the concurrence of three consonants, assimilation is omitted, and 
the final consonant of the preposition is rejected, e. g. /co/crave, 
cr, instead of 

8. Prothesis ( 16, 10) occurs in Homer, in acrrfpoir-f] (o-repoTr^), &e\co (^eAw), 
&ce/os (/ceTi/os), epvo/mt (pvofjuu) ; Homer also often resolves the ^into the vowel 
, namely, 4fp<ri], eeSva, eeiKOfft, ei'tros, eetTrov, eeA5o/xat, eep/ievoy. 

9. Sometimes, for the sake of the metre, Homer inserts e, e. g. 
fco'fds, instead of et5eA</>oy, /cei/o's; so also in the Gen. PI. Fern. oureW, 

To prevent the accumulation of short syllables, he inserts in several compound 
words an TJ in place of the short vowel, e. g. TovTjAeyeoy, ir/j)8oAos, eVrjerco'^s, 
oAryrjireAe'w, e'Aa^jSoAos, instead of ravuA., eVtjS., eVteT., 6\iyoir., f\a(po^6\os. 


246 DIALECTS. [$ 208. 

An i is inserted in Homer after ot in f>p.oli6s instead of '6/j.oios, and in the Dual 
oitv instead of -oiv. 

10. The later Ionic, also, sometimes inserts e before a long vowel : (a) in 
some genitives of substantives and Fern, pronouns before o>, and in OVTOS, roi- 
ovros, and avr6s before long inflection-endings, e. g. avtipeav, x^W, e/ceu/eW, 
TovTfwir, aurtwj/, avTfta ; (b) in some forms of the verb before a long vowel, e. g. 
/(Tre'curi, 8vt/ew/, 8iW<wi/Tc ; (c) some verbs in -&> have forms as if from -ew, 
e. g. /3oAAo> ffv/j.^a\\e6/ui.j/os, u7repoAAeW ; irica> irifevpfvos (also in Horn. 
ineew instead of eirie&ov) ; also etyee, ^et%e, (J>Aee, from e\J/eo, eVe'xw, 3><p\oi/; 
finally, the three following forms of the Perf. in -ee instead of -e 

$ 208. Change of Consonants. 

1. In the Ion. dialect, the rough breathing has no effect on the preceding 
smooth mute, e. g. air ov, c-n-fipcpos, OVK dtritas, etc. 

2. In the Horn., Ion., and Dor. dialects, a 5 or 3- remains before /* in certain 
words and phrases (contrary to 19, 1), e. g. 68^ instead of oir^, 18/j.ev, opx~n&- 
fj.6s, TTfiri&iJ.fv, KeKopv&/j.evos ; also in the Horn, dialect, the v remains before or 
(contrary to 20, 2) in awrds, ai/o-x&ffu', ircaxrvtiir) instead of iratravUri ; 
finally x before /i ( 19, Rem. 1) in a/cox/W, acwfe. 

3. The Metathesis ( 22) of p often occurs in Horn, and in other poets, e. g. 
KpaSii] instead of KapSia, heart, Kaprepos and Kpdrepos, strong, KdpTurros, fidpSurTos 
(from jSpaSus, s?ow) ; also in the second Aorists firpc&oj', eSpo^oi/, eSpaKov (from 
irep&w, to destroy, Sap&dva, to sleep, StpKofiai, to see) ; here belongs also IJJJ.PPOTOV 
instead of tfupaTov (= %/j.apTov, according to 24, 2). 

4. Homer doubles a consonant (comp. 23, Rem.) after a short vowel, 
according to the necessities of the verse in the following cases : 

(a) The liquids and Sigma on the addition of the augment, mostly when 
there* are three successive short syllables, e. g. 

(b) In compounds also, the liquids and Sigma are doubled, e. g. ve6\\ovros 
(from vfos and Aouw) ; a/i^opos, <pi\o/j./j.d8r)S ; oj/j/e^eAos, tvvvnros ; . 

f>oos ; fi)<r<re\iJ.os ; 

(c) In the inflection of the Dat. in -<n, and of the Put. and Aor., e. g. 
$<i>/j.aff<n ; KC^Aecnra, o/xJ(T(rat, <f>pd(ra'o/, e^eiviffffa ; 

(d) In the middle of several words, e. g. &r<rop, r6crffov, omWco, irp6ff<r&, 

Homer doubles the mute IT in Interrogative pronouns which begin with 6ir, e. g. 
OTTTTWS, etc.; K in TreAfK/cov, TreAe/c/cow; T in OTTI, OTTCO, OTTeu; S in 
-a, aSSee's, SSSrjy. 

REMARK. The doubling of p, which always takes place in the Common 
language when the augment is prefixed, and in compounds when a short vowel 
precedes, may be omitted in the Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
verse, e. g.' epe^bi/ from ftefy, xP vff 6pvros. For the same reason, one of the 
consonants, which is elsewhere doubled, is omitted in the Epic dialect, though 

209.] QUALITY* 247 

nuvly, c. g. 'OSutreus, 'Ax'Afus, (pdpvyos, instead of 'O$vcr<Tfvs, 

5. Homer often places a consonant before a short syllable, to make it long 
by position, namely, a v in viavv/jLvos, a7raAa/*j/os, ISpuj/^, a^v 
a T after ?r in irroAe^os, irroA<s, irro\lf&pov ; a & after x in 
Tpix&d, TfTpax^d, and after A. or p in fj.d\&a.Kos, yp-ny6p&a<ri ; or he places a y 
before 5 in tpiySoinros, tySovTryire, and a c before JJL and K in ap.LKp6s (also Att. 
^ 24, 4), (rKf^dfvv/j.1 (conip. K/SI/TJ/XJ), ar/jLoyepus (comp. poyepus), <7>iep8aAeos. 
Here belongs also the Epic prefix of p. ( v, according to 24, 3), before /Spo- 
re's in composition, so as to strengthen tho long syllable and give fulness to the 
word, e. g. fyfipoTos, rep^ifj-ftporos, and in a.^afflf) instead of 

$209. Quantity. 

PRELIMINARY REMARK. Only a few general rules will be given here ; the 
quantity of particular words, not embraced in these rules, may be learned from 
rules previously given, or by observation. 

1 . A syllable which has the vowels or o, followed by another vowel or a 
single consonant, is short by nature, e. g. re/ccfs, dec's, jSdij. 

2. A syllable which has the vowel 7? or <a, or a diphthong, is long by nature; 
so all contracted and circumflexed syllables are long by nature, e. g. "iipws, 
ovpavds, lUKUv (instead 01 oe'/cwj'), er(ud (from eri^ude), Tray, trl-ros, ^C^oy, vvv. 

3. A syllable which has a doubtful vowel (a, t, v), followed by another vowel 
or a single consonant, or at the end of a word, is short by position, e. g. 'de/- 
Soi/res, Scu/ioi/iTj, <pvr), juax??, <pt\os, apyvpeos. 

4. A syllable which has a short or doubtful vowel followed by two consonants 
or a double consonant, is long by position ; e. g. 

Exceptions to No. 3. 

(a) a of nouns of the first Dec., which have the Gen. in -as, is long in all the 
Cases in which it occurs, e. g. r^ue'pd, <pi\ia, -ds, -o, -d>/, etc. (Comp. 45.) 

(b) a in the Dual of all nouns of the first Dec., is long, e. g. Nom. Sing. 
Ae'aipd, Dual \ecuVd. 

(c) o is long in the Gen. Sing, in -oo and Gen. PL in -&<av, e. g. 'Arpei'Sdo, 

(d) the ending -as of the first Dec. is long, both in the Nom. and Gen. Sing., 
and in the Ace. PL, e. g. Nom. rapids, Gen. CTK^OS, Ace. PL $6ds. 

(e) a of masculine and feminine participles in -as is long; so also other words 
in -as where vr or v have been dropped, e. g. aKovards (a/couo-avrs), a/cotJ- 
(rdcra. lo-Tas. )8as; yiyds (yiyavrs], jUeAds (jueAai's). 

(f ) a in the third Pers. PL Perf. Ind. Act., e. g. TeTityutn. 

(g) v is long in the Sing, of the Prcs. and Impf. Ind. Act. of verbs in -u/ut, 
also in the masculine and feminine Sing, of the participle; e. g. Sfitcvvfu, 
e'SeiKwj/. Seixvss, 5eiKvv<ra. Other exceptions may be learned by obser- 

248 DIALECTS. [$ 209. 

5 In Epic poetry, a mute and a liquid ( 27, Rem. 2) commonly make a 
syllable long by position ; the vowel is shortened, for the most part, only when 
the form cannot otherwise be suited to the verse, e. g. reix^nr^Ta. 

6. The final syllable of a word in verse, is uniformly long by position: (a) 
when it ends with a consonant, and the following word begins with a conso- 
nant, e.g. /co&t | aov Tpo> | as; also (b) when the final syllable ends with a 
short vowel, but the following word begins witli a double consonant, or with 
two single consonants, which arc not a mute and liquid, e. g. a8/u^ | TTJI/, ir\v \ 
oijiro) v \ no vybv | tfyayev \ ajrfjp, H- ? 293. But a mute and a liquid in this 
case, always make the syllable in the Arsis long ; on the contrary, the syllable 
in the Thesis, may be either long or short according to the necessities of the 
verse ; e. g. /j.-f) /i< \ 5o>p' (pa \ TO irp6(pe \ pi XP V I O'erjs *A<ppo \ SI'TTJS, II. 7, 64 ; 
on the contrary, in the Thesis, wrap '6 \ -nX-riffiov \ eo-rr) \ /cet, II. 5, 329 ; but 
&v8pa | Srvri'r'bv 4 \ 6vra, TTO | \cu ire \ irpu/j.evoi' \ (tiffy, II. ir, 441. 

REM. 2. . In the names 'ZKd./j.avSpos, Za/cuz/^os, Ze\eto, even O~K and do not 
make a syllable long by position in Homer; so also eir | etrd awe [ irapvov, Od. 
c, 237, occurs. 

7. A long vowel or a diphthong at the end of a word, in Homer, commonly 
becomes short before a word beginning with a vowel, when it is in the Thesis, 
but it remains long when it is in the Arsis, or when the following word has the 
digamma, e. g. ^/ueV?; | eV $tv \ &e<r(nv, II. a, 358. ufes, 6 \ Krea | TOW, 6 S 5 
&p | Evpvrov | 'AKTOpl | au/os, II. j8, 621. avrap 6 \ eyvv \ yffiv e j j/i (ppfffl \ $&v*t\ 
\ff4v re (yo-iv = Ffiffiv}. But sometimes a long vowel in the Thesis is not short- 
ened before words which do not have the digamma, especially in the fourth foot 
of an Hexameter, e. g. T< ^ | /J.OL ware \ pas TTO& 6 \ twifj \ ei/^eo | Ti(j.rj, II. 8, 
410, and before a punctuation-mark, c. g. Ke?<r&al, \ a\A" tird \ pwov, II. e, 685. 

8. A long vowel or a diphthong in the middle of a word before another 
vowel is but seldom shortened by the poets, and for the most part, in certain 
words and forms; thus, e. g. in Homer, eVet^ ( w "~), e/j.-rraios ("""), olos (""), j8e- 
j8\7jai ( vv ~), and often in the Iambuses of the Attic dramatists, e. g. olos, Trows, 
TOIOVTOS, Tot(is8e, o?et (from ofcyiai), iroiew ; and always before the demonstrative 
i in pronouns, e. g. rovrovi, avraii. 

9. In Epic poetry, a short syllable in the Arsis is usually considered long, 
if it stands at the beginning of a word, e. g. acnriSos \ 'd/cajuo | TOV irvp, II. e, 4 ; 
or at the end, in which case it is followed either by a liquid (A, /JL, p, p), or a <r 
or 5, the sound of which is easily doubled in pronunciation, or by a word with 
the digamma, e. g. /col TreSi | a \a> \ TetVro, II. /*, 283. frwyare \ pa, lf\v (= F-ffv), 
H. A, 226. 

REM. 3. A syllable in itself short, may be used as long or short in the same 
word, according as it is or is not. in the Arsis, e. g." 7 Apes "'A | pes jSporo J Xoryc; 
avfipes "I | ffaffiv and -nXs'iova \ 'iffaffiv. 

10. Not unfrequently in Homer, from the mere necessities of the verse, 
a short vowel is measured as long in the Thesis, when it stands between 
two long syllables. This occurs in the middle of a word, and oftenest with 
t, e. g. (rd-' VTTO | 8e|f | 77, II. j, 73. 770-1 Trpo | Sfv/j.t | yet, II. j8, 588 ; this is rarely 
the case at the end of a word, e. g. TTVKVCL \ p(aya\e \ i\v^ Od. p, 198. T?; 8' tirl \ 
fiev Top | 70* /3Ao<ru [ pcams \ eVre^a | rwro, II. \, 36. 

H 210, 211.] FIRST DECLENSION. 249 


210. Homeric Suffix <i (</>tv). 

1. In the Homeric dialect there is, besides the Case-inflections, a Suffix <j>i(v), 
whii'h properly and originally denotes the indefinite where, like ' the local Dat. 
(see the Syntax) ; it is also used to express other relations of the Dat., as the 
Dat. of the instrument, and with prepositions (such as in Lat. govern the Abl.), 
it expresses those relations of the Gen. which in Latin would be denoted by 
the Abl. 

2. The Suffix <pi is found with substantives of all the declensions, and is 
always annexed to the unchanged stem of the word : 

I. Declension only in the Singular : (a) Dat. aye\ii-<pi, ctyAanjcpi (in the 
herd), &up7j<f>t, before or without the door (in several ancient editions Tj<pt is 
incorrectly written with an Iota Subs. rj<pi) ; (b) Gen. (Lat. Abl.) airb 
Vfvprityii' ld\\u/ (to shoot an arrow from the string), e| evvytyi Sope'tv (to spring 
from bed), KpaTfpij({)i plnQi, II. <p, 501 (with great force), fyt' rjot ^cwo/teVrj- 
<t>iv, Od. 5, 407 (as soon as the morning dawned). 

II. Declension both Singular and Plural. All these forms, without respect to 
the accent of the Nom., are paroxytone (-6<f>u>) : (a) Dat. SaKpv6(f>iv (with 
tears), ^(rrosp araXavros S^tyiv (an adviser equal to the gods) ; (b) Geni- 
tive (Abl.) OTTO or /c Tra(T(ra\6(j)iv (to take from the pin), e/c &6<piv (through 
the gods), air o<rTe6<f>iv (from the bones). 

III. Declension almost exclusively in the PL &iv is here used with not a large 
number of neuter substantives in -os (Gen. -cos), also with KOTv\T)5<t>v and 
vavs, e. g. irpbs KorvXySo^cp^v) (with the union-vowel o), to the arms, vav- 
<pi(v) (at the ships) ; in words in -os, the ending -os must always be restored 
to its original form -es, since <pi is always annexed to the pure stem ; thus, 

), airb, 8t 

$211. First Declension. 

1. (a) The Epic and Ionic writers use TJ instead of the original long a (which 
the Dorians use) through all the Cases of the Sing., e. g. rj/id, -as, -a, -g.v 
(Dor.) ; cro^iTj, -TJS, -??, -f\v, &vpij, -TJS, ve-nviys, -v, -i\v (Epic and Ion,) : so 
ir;, from Tlrjvf 'Aoirejo, ^pTjrpTj, BopeTjs, Bope'?;, Boperji/. 

Exceptions in Plomer are &c&, goddess, -as, -a, -a.v, Nouo-t/cad, *e/d, also AiVe/ds, 
Atryetds, 'Epfj-eias, and some other proper names in -os pure. The Voc. 
is vv^a instead of vv^-n, II. y, 130. Od. S, 743. 

(b) In substantives in -eta and -ota, derived from adjectives in -TJS and -ovs, as 
also in some other feminines, the short a in Attic is also changed into 77 in 
Ionic, e. g. dATj&efoy, avaiSefy, 6U7r\oi7j, Kviavi] instead of a\-f)^fia, ai/a/Seio, 

(c) The JEol. and some other dialects have -a instead of -TJS, as the Masc. 
ending in the Nom. Sing., like the Latin. The Epic also uses this form, accord- 

250 DIALECTS [$ 212. 

ing to the necessities of the verse, in a great number of words, particularly in 
-rot, e. g. tTTTroVd, at'x^To, /cuavoxatrd, j/e<|>eA777epeTd, nrTnjAdVd, /uTjT/ero, fvpuoira. 
The Voc. retains the ending -a in all these words. 

2. The Gen. Sing, of masculines in -rjs and -as originally ended in -do ; -do 
was then contracted into - (Dor. into -d). In Horn, both the uncontracted 
and contracted form is found ; he also resolves the -o>, originating from 
-oo, by means of e (comp 207, 3) ; it is further to be remarked, that the -co 
in respect to accent is considered short ( 29, Kem. 7) and the e is always pro- 
nounced with the Synizesis ; -e becomes - when a vowel or p precedes (still 
AtVeieco, II. e, 534). Thus there occur in Homer, 'Ep/uetos, Gen. 'Epjuetdo and 
'Ep/j.fico] Eoperis, Gen. Bopedo and Bopew; 'ArpeiSrjs, 'Arpei'Sdo, and 'ATpei'Sew, 
iKfTao and i/cerew ; et)/^ieAia>, 'A<n'w. In Homer, then, the Gen. endings of nouns 
in -as or -TJS, are -oo, -, or -ew (not -ou). The Gen. ending -ew, becomes, in 
the Ion. writers, the usual ending, e. g. TroAfrrecw, 'ArpetSew. 

3. The Ace. Sing, and PI. of masculines in -TJS is commonly formed in the 
Ion. dialect like the third Dec., e. g. TOJ> 5eo*7roVea, TOUS Seo-TroVeos from Seo-Tnmjs, 
-ou, MtATioSea from MiA-rtd'o'Tjs, -ou. 

4. The Gen. PI. of all the endings was originally in -dW ; -duv was after- 
wards contracted into -&v (Dor. in -oV). Homer uses both the uncontracted and 
contracted forms, e. g. fredW and frewv, irapeiduv and irapeiuv. He can also, 
as in the Gen. Sing., again resolve, by means of e, the -wi/ originating from 
-dcav] the ending thus becomes -eW, which is commonly pronounced with 
Synizesis, e. g. TruAeW, &upeW, oyopeW. The Gen. ending -eW becomes in the 
Ion. writers, the common form, e. g. MouaeW, TI^WV. 

5. The Dat. PI. originally ended in -ojo-i(j') ; this ending is found in the Dor. 
writers, in the Att. poets, and even in the older Att. prose writers ; in the Ion. 
writers, -oto-t was changed into -ri<ri(v) and -T?S; and in the Att. and Common 
language, -oio-t was shortened in -ots. In Homer, the Dat. PI. ends in -770-*, -ys, 
and -o:s, yet the last is found only in beats and o/cTo?y. 

6. The Ace. PL, in JEol., ends in -ais (as in the second Dec. in -ois instead 
of -ous), and in Dor. in -as (as in the second Dec. in -os instead of -ous), e. g. 
TCHS Tip.ais (JEol.) instead of TOS rifj.ds (but Dat. PI. rip.aia'i) ; 7rao"os Kovoas 
(Dor.) instead of TrdVds Kovpds. 

212. Second Declension. 

1. Nominative Sing. Proper names in -Xoos are changed in the Dor. dialect 
into -Ads (Gen. d, Dat. ef), e. g. Me^eAds instead of Mei/e'Aaos, Ni/cJAds, 'A.pxf(ri- 

2. Genitive Sing. Homer uses both the common form in -ou, and that in -010 ; 
the tragedians, also, in the lyric passages, use the ending -oto. Theocritus has 
the Dor. ending -w and -010. 

3. Genitive Sing, and PL Some genitives are formed according to the 
analogy of the first Dec. (a) Herodotus has some Masc. proper names in -os 
with the ending -ew in the Gen. Sing., e. g. BdVrew instead of BOTTOU, Kpofo-ew, 

Me/i/3Aiape&>, and some Masc. common nouns with the ending 


~ewv in the Gen. PL, e.g. irea-fffuv ; (b) The ending -dcav instead of the Ion. 
~4(av belongs to the Dor. (comp. alyav instead of alydcoi/ from o?, 213, 5). 

4. The Gen. and Dat. Dual in the Epic dialect ends in -ouv instead of -<w, 
e. . tapouv instead of &/J.OLV ( 207, 9). 

5. The Dat. PI. originally ended in -oicri(v). This form, as well as the 
abridged form in -ois is found in Homer and in all the poets, and in Ion. prose. 

6. The Ace. PI. ends, in the Dor. writers (except Pindar) in -s and in -os 
(like -os in the first Dec., 211, 6), e. g. TS jxfyxws, vdpos, so also r&s \ayds, the 
hares ; JEol. in -ois, e. g. ira<ro-d\ois instead of ~ovs. 

7. Attic Declension. The Gen. Sing, in the Epic dialect ends in -wo, instead 
of -w, in riTyi/eAewo (II. , 489 ; though most MSS. have Urjyt Aeoto) from Il-rjj/4- 
\fws, and in rierewo from rie'rear. In yd\us, sister-in-hw, "ASus and Kws, the 
w originating by contraction, is resolved, in the Epic dialect, by means of o; 
hence ya\6a>s, 'Ado'wy, Kttas, Gen. -6<a. On the words yf\ws, ISpws, epus, see 
213, 7. 

8. Contracted forms of the second Dec. are rare in Homer, namely, vovs only 
Od. K, 240 (elsewhere v6os), x^f^o-ppovs, II. X, 493 (but v, 138. xM^ oos ) and 
Xeifj.ap'poi, II. 8, 452. also ndv&ovs, nctj/^ou, ndvby. Homer does not contract 
other words; in words in -eos, -eoj/, he either lengthens the e into et ( 207, 1), 
or employs Synizesis, as the measure requires. 

213. Third Declension. 

1. In the Dor. uialect the long a here also takes the place of >;, e. g. adv, 
yudi/Js instead of /xVjj', fj.i]v6s, etc., "EAAd;/, "EAAd^es, Tfoi^av instead of iroifj.^]v y Gen. 

ds, -aros instead of j/e^TTjy, -TJTOS. 

fjp, &rjpes, and all names of persons in -r-fjp, are exceptions to this 
Dor. usage. 

2. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, on the contrary, 77 commonly takes the place 
of the long o, as also elsewhere, e. g. &&PT]!-, ofrj, '/PTJ instead of ^c5pd|, /epd|. 

3. The Dat. PI. in the Epic dialect, ends, according to the necessities of the 
measure, in -a-t(j'), -<rrt(i/), -(rt(j/), and -e<r<ri(v). The ground-form is -f<ri(v) 
and the strengthened form is -ff<ri(v). This ending is always annexed, like 
the other Case-endings, to the pure stem, e. g. Kvv-ecra-i (from KVWV, Gen. KUP-O'S), 
vcKv-fo-fft (from vfKvs, -u-os). The ending -cori(v) is found in Homer only in 
tvtaiv, ofc<n, x e *P 6trt > an( ^ a-vdicr-fffiv (from fiva|, oVa/cr-os). In Neuters, which 
have a radical a in the Nom., the or is omitted when it stands between two 
vowels ( 25, 1), e.g. &re-e<r<n (instead of &reV-f(T<n from rb eras), 8eird-<Tffiv 
(from rb SeVas). In stems in -ou, -ew, -ou (aJF 7 , eF, oF), the u (^) must be 
omitted, according to 25, 2 ; thus, ftd-effffi instead of fidF-evai, itnrf)-f<r<ri 
instead of l-mrfiF-fo-yi. The ending -<r<rt is annexed almost exclusively to 
stems which end in a vowel, e. g. vtKv-affi from VCKVS -v-6s ; but also 1pi-<r<ri. 
from Ipis (-tSos) and commonly iroff<rt from irovs (iro5-6s). The Dat. form in 
ajffi never admits the doubling of <r. The ground-form -ctrt is very common 
in the Dor. poets and prose-writers ; also the Ionic prose has this form fre- 
quently in stems ending in -v t e. g. 

252 DIALECTS. [ 213. 

4. The Gen. and Dat. Dual in the Epic dialect, ends in -otiv (as in the 
second Dec., 212, 4), e. g. iroSoiw, 'Seip-fivouv. 

5. The Gen. PI. in the Ion. dialect often ends in -4<av, e. g. xWw> a^SpeW 
( 207, 10). Theocritus has TO.V alyav (instead of ruv alycav] from 77 ot|, a goat, 
after the analogy of the first Dec. 

6. The Epic dialect sometimes forms the Ace. Sing, of words in -us (stem u) 
in a instead of v, e. g. eupea irSi/rov, t%&ua, yea from vavs. 

7. The words ye\ws, laughter ; ISpds, sweat ; epcas, love, which properly belong 
to the third Dec., in Homer follow the Attic second Dec. in some of the Cases, 
e. g. ISpca, ISpw instead of t'Spwra and /Spam ; y4\<a and yt\<av, yeAw, instead of 
yeAwTa and -yeAwrj, ep instead of epcari. 

8. Words in -is, 1 Gen. -iSos. The Horn., Ion., and Dor. dialects often 
inflect these substantives, particularly proper names, in -toy, e. g. p^vios, Horn., 
&e/j.ios, Herod., ertos, Dat. err, Horn. Those ending in -js, -iSos, in the Epic 
dialect have the Dat. only in -i instead of -Si. Substantives in -TJ'<S, -TjfSos, 
are sometimes contracted in the inflection, by the poets, e. g. Trapvjts, irapfjSos 
(instead of irapyiSos), N^prfis, NiipfjSes. See 54 (c). 

9. The Neut. oSs, WTO'S, ear, is in Dor. <s, euros, etc., and in Horn, ouas, Gen. 
ovaros, PL oi/aro; the Neuters, crTfap,fat; ov&ap, udder, and Tretpap, end, have 
-arcs in the Gen., namely, O~T&XTOS, ov&aTa, Tretpara, ireipacri. In the words 
repos, Kepas, Kpe'as, the Epic writers reject T, e. g. repaa, -day, -de(r<n(v) ; Kepat 
Dat.; PL /ce'pa, /cepacoj/, -decr(n(v), and -a<n(v) ; PL wpea, /cpeawj/, Kpewv, and /cpejw*', 
Kpeaffi(v). Among the Ionic writers these words, like /3peVas, etc. ( 61, Eem. 
1), often change the a into e, e. g. epeos, /ce'pea, /cepewv, TO, repea, Kpeea'a'i(v). 
See ^ 54 (c). 

10. In the words Trar^p, /U^TTJP, etc - 5 Homer either retains or rejects the e 
through all the Cases, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. aj/e'pos and 
dvSprfs, avepi and ai/8pf, etc., but only avfiptav, avSpdai and -o"o"j; yao"T7jp, -yoo*- 
repos, -ept, and yacrrpSs, yaffTpi, -yao"T6po, ycurrepes ] Arj/j.-fiTrip, -r/repos, and -Tjrpos, 
ATjjUTjre'po ; bvydr-np, -repos, and -Tp<Js ; etc., &iryaTe'pe(r<n(i'),.but bvyarpuv ; /i^rryp 
and TTOT^P, -repos, and -rpJs. etc. See 55, 2. 

11. In Homer, the word t'x^P) WoocZ of the gods, has in the Ace. i^^ instead of 
!x<pa, and /cu/cewj/, 6, nu'xec? c?n/z&, has in the Ace. KUKCW or /cu/cetw. See 56, 
Eem. 1. 

12. In -ous, -eus, -ous. Of 7paDs, there are found in Homer only the Nom. 
yprjvs and yp-n'iis, Dat. yprji and the Voc. yp-rjv and ypr)v. In the Ion. dialect, 
also, the long a is changed to 77 ; thus, Gen. ypT)6s, PL 7pr)s ; this also appears 
in vavs, navis, see the Anomalies. The word jSoi/s is regularly declined in 
Her., hence Norn. PL o'es, Ace. jSoOs; in the Ace. PL Homer uses both 06as 
and fiovs. On the Epic Dat. j8oWo-t, see No. 3. In Doric, the Nom. is jSwy, 
Ace. j8wi/, Ace. PL )3ais. This form of the Ace. Sing., occurs also in the II. 77, 
238, in the sense of butt's hide, a shield made of bull's hide. See 57. 

1 The student may consult the first part of the Grammar, where similar 
words are declined ; references to the particular section will be given at the end 
of the paragraphs here. 

t) 213.] THIRD DECLENSION. 253 

13. In common nouns in -eta, and in the proper name 'Ax*AAeus, TJ is used in 
tin- F-i'if di.iK-rt. instead of e, in all the forms which omit v (F) of the stem, 
this is done to compensate by the length of the vowel for the omitted u (F); 
thus, pcuri\fv$, Voc. -eG; Dat. PI. -tv<ri (except apurrfoffo-^v) from dpio-reus), but 
/Bao-tATjos, -7}?, -rja, -fas, -Tja>", -Tjas. Yet the long a in the Ace. -u, -eds of the 
Attic dialri-t. a-ain becomes short. Among the proper names, the following 
are to be specially noted : 'OSuo-ereus, Gen. 'O8v<ro-Tjos or 'OSvoTjos and 'OSuoWos, 
also 'OSvfffvs (Od. w, 398), Dat. 'O5i/cr7ji and 'OSvo-eT, Ace. 'OSva-ffija and ' 
o-e'a, also 'OSvo-Tj (Od. T, 136) ; rbjAeus, IlTjATjos and IlTjAe'os, IlTjATji and 
rhjATJa; the others, as 'ArpeiJs, TuSevy, generally retain the - and contract -eos 
in the Gen. by Synizesis, and sometimes -eo in the Ace., into -TJ ; thus, Ti/Se'os, 
-(I, -e'a, and -TJ. In the Ion. of Herodotus, the inflection with TJ in common 
nouns is very doubtful ; in proper names, the e is regular, e. g. nepae'os, Awpie'es, 
*W, AioAeas. 

14. In -TJS and -es, Gen. -eos. In Homer, the Gen. Sing, remains uncon- 
tracted. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, both the uncontracted form -ees, and 
the contracted form -eis is used for the Nom. PI. The Gen. PL remains uncon- 
tracted (except when a vowel precedes the ending -eW, e. g. faxpyuv from 
fcxpjfW) ; so also the Ace. PI. ending -eos. "Aprjs has in Homer "ApTjos and 
"Apeos, "ApTji or "Apr;, "Apei", y Aprj and "Aprji/, II. e, 909, T Ap6s and "Apes ( 209, 
Rcm. 3). See 59. 

15. In proper names in -ATJS, the Epic dialect contracts ee into TJ, e.g. 
'HpcucAeTjs, -KATJOS (instead of jcAe'eos), -r)'i t -T^O, Voc. 'Hpd/fAew; but in adjectives 
in -6Tjs it varies between - and TJ, e. g. (rya/cAe^y, Gen. ayaK\T]os, but ^i)/cAe?as 
(Ace. PI.) from e'u/cAeifc, Ivppefo, Gen. Ivppiios. The Ion. and Dor. writers, and 
sometimes the poets for the sake of the verse, reject an e in these words, e. g. 
TIfpiK\(os, -f'i', etc.; so also in Homer, SusKAe'a, II. j8, 115, and urrepSeo, II. p, 330. 

16. In (a) -CDS, Gen. -coos. In Homer, the contracted forms, T}po> Dat., and 
MiVw Ace. occur. (b) -<s and -w, Gen. -6os. Words of this kind even in the 
Epic and Ion. writers, as well as in the Attic, always have the contracted form, 
except xP^ y an( i i ts compounds, e. g. XP' S XP ^ XP^ a ' The Ion. dialect fre- 
quently forms the Ace. Sing, in -ovv instead of -, e. g. 'Ic6, 'low, Tjds, rjovv. 
The JEol. Gen. Sing, ends in -s, e. g. aiSws, Sauces instead of cuSovs, 'Sair^ovs ; 
thus, in Moschus, ras 'Ax^y. See 60. 

17. In (a) -as, Gen. -aos. In Homer, the Dat. Sing, is either uncontracted 
or contracted, according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. y<jpof and -y^/po, 
ScVa, cre'Ao. But the Nom. and Ace. PL is always contracted, e. g. Stira. On 
those in -as, Gen. -eos, see 61 (a), and Rem. 1. 

(b) In -os, Gen. -eos. The Epic dialect, according to the necessities of the 
verse, has sometimes the uncontracted and sometimes the contract forms, 
except in the Gen. PI., which is always uncontracted. The Gen. Sing, is also 
uncontracted, except in some substantives which contract -eos, as in the Dor., 
into -evs ; thus, 'Epe'/Beus, Sdpvevs, yevtvs, &dV/3eus, &e'peus ; Dat. Sing. &e'pei' and 
&e'pe, jcaXXei and /caAAei. Nom. and Ace. Plurals in -eo, commonly remain 
uncontracted, but they must be pronounced with Synizesis, i. e. as one syllable, 
e. g. veuceo, jSe'Aeo. The Ion. dialect is like the Epic. In (nre'os, KAe'os, Se'os, 


254 DIALECTS. [$ 214. 

Xp*os, the Epic dialect lengthens e, sometimes into ct, sometimes into TJ ; thus, 
Gen. (TTrefous, Dat. a"irrj'i, Ace. aWos and OTrcibs, Gen. PL <nrel<av, Dat. cnreffffi(v) 
and <nr<je<r(n(j') ; XP /OS an< ^ XP f ^ os 5 f Aed and Ae?a. 

18. In -Is, Gen. -tos; -Os, Gen. -uos. The Epic dialect contracts those in 
-us, in the Dat. Sing., e. g. oi'u?, irAed-i/?, pe'/cut; the Ace. PL appears with tho 
contracted or uncontracted forms, according to the necessities of the verse, 
though more usually contracted, e. g. Ix&vs instead of i'x&uas, fyDs ; veKvas is 
always uncontracted ; the Nom. PL never suffers contraction, but is pronounced 
with Synizesis. The Dat. PL ends in -uWt and -veo-<ri (dissyllable), e.g. t'x&uV- 
ffiv and ix&ve<r<riv. See 62. 

19. In -Is and -t, Gen. -tos, Att. -cws; -us and -u, Gen. -Cos, Att. -ews: 

(a) The words in -Is, Att. Gen. -cws, in the Epic and Ionic dialect, retain t 
of the stem through all the Cases, and in the Dat. Sing, always suffer contrac- 
tion, and usually in the Ace. PL in the Ionic writers, and sometimes also in 
Homer (-u = -t, -ios = -Zs), e. g. ir6\is, ir6\ios, Tr6\i, Tr6\tv, Tr6\tes, Tro\iwv, ir6\i(ri ) 
ir6\ias, and ir6\ls. In the Dat. Sing, however, the ending -ei' and -ei is found 
in Homer, e. g. Wo-et and 7rJ<ret from ir6<ris ; in some words, the t of the stem is 
changed into e in other Cases also, e. g. eW\|eis instead of e7rci\|(as, ird\f<rt(v) t 
especially in ir6\ts, which, moreover, according to the necessities of the verse, 
can lengthen e into i\ ; thus, Gen. TroAtos, iroAeos, and TT^ATJOS, Dat. Tr^Aei', ir6\fi, 
and WATJ?, Nom. PL WAees and TrjA^es, Gen. iroA^wv, Dat. 7roAfe(T<ri, Ace. ir^Atas, 
TriJAets, v6\i)as ; from gis, outs, Dat. PL o?e<r(n(>), o5fc<n(j/), oe<ri(v). See 63. 

(b) The words in -us, whose Gen. in the Attic ends in -ews, in the Ionic 
make the Gen. in -eos, e. g. ir-f)x fos i except eyxeAus, Gen. -uos ; in the Dat. Sing., 
both the contracted and uncontracted forms are found in Homer, e. g. eupet, 
?rrjx et > irAore?. In the Nom. PL, the form can be either contracted or uncon- 
tracted ; in the Ace. PL, the uncontracted form in -eas is regular, which, when 
the verse requires, can be pronounced as a monosyllable, e. g. TreAeVeos (tri- 

$ 214. Anomalous and Defective Words. Metaplasts. 

1. T6w (TO. knee) and S6pv (rb, spear, 68, 1), are declined in Homer as 
follows : 

Sing. "youVoTos and yovvos Sotiparos and Soupos dovpan and Sovpl 

PL Nom. yovvasra " yovva. Sovpara " Sovpa Dual Sovpe 

Gen. yovvwv Sovpow 

Dat. yovva<n(v) and yovveff<n(v) Sovpa<Ti(v) and 8ou/>e<rcri(j>). 
The form yovi>a<r<n. (II. t, 488, />, 451, 569) has critically little authority. 

2. The following forms of icdpa (rb, head, 68, 6) are found in the Homeric 

Sing. Nom. Kefprj Gen. K^TJTOS /cop^oros Kparts Kpdaros 

Dat. icdprjTi Kap^ari Kpari Kpdan. 

Acc. itdpi) (riv Kparo, Od. ^, 92, and eVi KC/), II. TT, 392). 

215.] ADJECTIVES. 255 

PI. Nom. Kdpa, Katfara ; secondary form 
Gen. Kpdrwv " 

Dat. Kpaa-l(v) 
Ace. Kpdara " 

3. AH as (6, stone, Horn., instead of Aas), Gen. Aaos, Dat. Ao7, Ace. Aooy, Gen. 
PL \dtuv, Dat. \dfff <ri(y) t 

4. Me/s (o, month), Gen. ^vo's, Ion., instead of /*tV, -4s, but also in Plato. 

5. Nci/s (77, ship) is inflected in the Epic, Ionic, and Doric dialects as 
follows : 

S. Nom. Ep. and Ion. vrjvs j/Tjtfs Dor. vavs 

Gen. w6s (also Tragic) ve6s va&s (also Trag.) 

Dat. vrjt vat 

Ace. VTja pea paDv and vav 

D. Nom. Ace. Voc. f7Je vS* 

Gen. and Dat. vtoiv vadiv 

P. Nom. K7/6S VffS VttfS 

Gen. KTJWI' (vaC<p only Ep.) vfS>v vauv 

Dat. tn]v(ri (vau<ionlyEp.) irficffffi(v), vfffffft(v) vavffi(v) 

Acc. vrjas vfas vaas. 

6. "Opvts (6 77, ftird), Gen. &pvt&-os, Doric opvlx-os, etc. (^ 203). 

7. Xflp (TJ, hand), Ion. x f p6s, X f P >l i X*P a -> Dual x *P e > X f P ?" (poet, also xetpoiV), 
PL x*P fS i X f P& v i X f P ff ' l ( v ) (x f ^P fffl ( v )i an( ^ -fffo'i(v) in Homer), x*P as ' 

REMARK 1. Metaplasm (72) occurs in Homer in the following words: 

./a/, T^, strength, Dat. dA/cf (from Nom. *AAH) ; 'Afttys, -ou, 6, Gen. fii'Sos, Dat. 

Ji j'AI2) ; 'AvTi<pd-ojs, -ao, 6, Acc. 'Ayr^oT^o ('ANTI*ATET2) ; luicf], i), pur- 
suit, Acc. luKa ('IflHj; v(Tfj.tv7j, T), battle, Dat. txrfuvi (varftis) ; narpo/fAos, Gen. 
riarprf/cAou and -xA^os, Acc. -KAo^ and -K\rja, Voc. -/cAejy (IIATPOKAH2) ; avSpd- 
iroSov. rb, slave, Dat. PL dj/5poTr(J50'(rt(') ; irp6s<atrov, TO, ^ace, PL Trposfairara, 
irposuTTaa-i ; vtos, 6, son, has from 'TIET2 and 'TI2 the following forms : Gen. 
vlfos and vlos, Dat. utet and vli, Acc. wVa and via ; Dual ufe ; Nom. PL utVes and 
vlf7s and ufcs, Dat. ut(<rt, Acc. vleas and u?as ; OlSiirovs, Gen. Ot'5<7rJ8ao 

REM. 2. The following are defective in Homer : \iri Dat. and ra A?ro, Zrnen ; 
A?j and Alv = \fuv and \covra ; p.d(m and ^.acmv = (jLatmyi and -o ; VTIXOS, 
ffrtxf s, orfxas, row? ; oero", Ti>, Nom. and Acc. Dual, 6o<A eyes ; ^tAos, advantage, 
and T^Sos, pleasure, in the Nom. only ; ^pa, something pleasing, and Se^as, foi~m, in 
the Acc. only ; r)A<fe, infatuated, Voc. ^Ae and fAee ; finallv, Sc5, p?, iA^t, aa 
Nom. and Acc. Sing., from which come the forms Supa, house, Kp&-fi, barley, 
a\<ptrov, dried barley. 


1. Some adjectives in -us, -eta, -u, have sometimes in the Homeric dialect, 
the feminine form -ea or -77; viz. wKt'a (instead of wccela), j8a&6'a (instead of 
/3o&eTa) ; Gen. /SO&C'TJS (and jSo^eirjs) , Acc. Pa&eriv ; so also in Herodotus, -eo, 
seldom -eio, e. g. /3ode'a, -77 and -e?o, /Sope'a, cupe'o, i^us, -ca and -?o, t&tjA^a (from 

REJIARK. In Epic and Doric, poetry, some adjectives of this kind, and also 
some in -6tts and -7jts, are of the common gender, i. e. they have but one 

256 DIALECTS. [$ 216. 

termination for the Masc. and Fern., e. g. "Hp?? ^\vs ^oCo-o, II. T, 97 ; so ^5us 
di)r^7j, Od. /*, 309, and the irregular iro\vs: TTO\VV ty' vyp-fjv, II. K, 27 ; so ^o- 
^eis, cu/^ejio'ets, apyivdets, -jroifais, agreeing with feminine substantives. The 
Epic !>: or TJUS, Neut. TJV (ei) and eS only as an adverb), wants the feminine 
form ; in II. ca, 528, is found Sapuv ola SiScaai KO.KWV, erepos 5e eao>j> (sc. SwpcDj/), 
therefore ed'wy as the Gen. PI. Neut., unless perhaps from Sddpw the cognate 
SoVewp is to be supplied for taw to agree with, as in 5&m/pes e'owv 
the Gen. Sing, is eojos. 

2. Adjectives in -7?eis, -ijcao-a, -yjej/, are often found in Homer in the contracted 
form -775, -9j(T(ra, -TJV, e. g. Ti/tps (and rt^/cis), TIJUTJI/TO; those in -o^ts, -o'etro'a, 
-oW, contract -oe into -eu, e. g. ireSia AcoTeSira. 

3. In the Epic dialect, iro\vs is regularly inflected in the masculine and 
neuter, viz. Nom. TTO\VS and irouAuj, Neut. TTO\J, with the secondary forms 
iro\\6s, iro\\6v. Gen. iroAeos, Ace. iroXvv and TTOV\VU, TTO\V and TroAAoi' ; Nom. 
PL TroAees and 7roAe?y, Gen. iroAeW, Dat. TroAeV^j/), TroAeVo'ifj'), and iroAeetrtr^v), 
Acc. iroAeoy and TroAels. The Ionic dialect inflects iroAAos, -^, -J>', regularly 

4. Compound Adj. in -os (comp. 78, 1.) often have in Horn, a feminine ending, 
viz. -i), e. g. o&cwaTTj, dcr^eo-TTj, iro\v(j>6p&ri, apt^Arj (but also apln\oi avyai, II. 
X, 27), &^0t/3pJT7j, o^x 4 ^ 1 ?? apyvpoirtfa, a/j.(f)ipvrr) ; on the contrary, /cAurJs as a 
feminine is found in II. )8, 742. Od. e, 422, from the simple KAimfc, -4j, -<J^. Also 
the ending -os of the superlative is sometimes found as feminine, e. g. oAociraTos 
oS^, Od. 8, 442. KOTO irptariffTov OTTWIT^J/, H. Cer. 157. Comp. 78, Hem. 1. 

5. Compound adjectives in -TTOUS, -wow, Gen. TTO&OS, in the Epic dialect, can 
shorten -irovs into -ires, e. g.^lpis aeAAoVos, II. &, 409. Tpliros, II. x 443. 

6. 'Eplypfs from tpt-npos, epua-ap/uares and -os from epvo-dpnaros, are examples 
of Metaplastic forms of adjectives in Homer. ^ 

$ 216. Comparison. 

1. In the Epic dialect, the endings -cSrepos and -tiroros are used for the sake 
of the metre, even when the vowel of the preceding syllable is long, e. g. 
6iup(t>Tepos t 6ivp<aTaTos, KaKoeiv<i>Tfpos, \dp(t>Taros. 'AvtTjptta, troublesome, has 
the Comparative oj/tTjpeo-Tepoj/, Od. )8, 190, and &x a P iS > disagreeable, axapivrfpos, 
Od. u, 392. Comp. 82, Kem. 6. Adjectives in -us and -pos, in the Homeric 
dialect, form the Comparative and Superlative in -icov, -iov, and -ttfros, -rj, -oc, 
sometimes also regularly, e. g. eAax^Sj little, e\dx t<TTOS ) y^Kvs y\vKiwv, fia&vs, 
)8<d-i(TTos, *ct/5pJs, KvSiffTos, o'iKTp6s o'iKTia'Tos and ot/crpoTOTos, Trax^ TrdxiffTos, 
irpefffivs Trpea-jSio-Tos, WKUS &KHTTOS. 

2. Besides the anomalous forms of comparison mentioned under 84, the 
following Epic and dialectic forms require to be noticed : 

aya&6s, Comp. ctpeW, Awtwi/, Acotrepos (Ion. Kpeffffav, Dor. /{/5/W), Sup. 

Ka/cJs, KaKdarepos, xpo' T6 P os X P*' icav i X f P ei ^ T P os (Dor. x^Wj Ion. eWco?), 

Sup. ^/CJO-TOS (II. i|>, 531, with the variation ^/CKTTOS, which Spitzner prefers). 
oA/yos, Comp. o\ia>v (b\ioves ?i<roa>> populi suberant statura minores, II. <r, 

519); fijwv, Bion, 5, 10. 

^TjfSios, Ion., Comp. pTjtrepos (Ion. pV'coj'), Sup. prjinvros and ffii 
/3pa8us, S/OM;, Comp. fipdffffcuv, Sup. jSapSjoros (by Metathesis). 
/i a /epos, fon^r, fjidffffw, ' 




KI-.MXKK 1. Tho positive XEPH2 (x<W X'f"? x4"7 X e/ P?) found in 
lloim-r. iiiid l.rluii-iii- to x f p f i uv > always has the signification of the Compara- 
tive /..N-.S-, ftoaer, iceotcr. The PI. irAj and (Ace.) irAe'as arc found in Homer 
from the Comp. irXfW. 

RI:M. 2. In the Kpic dialect, the forms of the Comparative and Superlative, 
in many instance's, arc derived from Substantives; some of these forms have 
Urn tran>U'nvd to the Common language : & a a i A. e v s &a<ri\cvTtpos; rb 
KtpSos, </(iin, KtpSiov, more lucrative. /cepSioros ; rb &\yos,pain, a\yi<av, more 
j*i infill, &\yurros; rb ptyos, cold, piyiov, colder, more dreadful, piyurros] TO KTJ- 
$ os,' cure, Kifiurros, most dear ; 6 ij KVUV, dog, Kvvrepos, more sliameless, KVVTO.TOS. 



ly<a and ( before a vow- 

<rv Epic; TU Dor. and 

el) tywv Epic-; ey<a 

JEol. ; TVVTJ Epic 

and tyuv JKolic 


f'ue'o, Jjueu, ptv (/xeu) 

TeG Dor.; trco (<rco), 

eo (eo), fv (fv) Epic 

Epic and Ion. 

aev (treu), Ep. and Ion. 

and Ion. 

(fj.f'io Epic 

o-cTo and Teo?o Epic 

efo Ep. ; eeio later Ep. 

t/jLf&fv Epic 

(re^ej/ Epic 

e&ej/ (ci^ey) Epic 

^ueGs, ^toGs Doric 

TeGs, TeoGs Dor. 

eoGs Dor. 


l/iot,/uoi (/uoi),e/iOt^Eol. 

crot Epic 

^in> Doric 

TTV Dor. ; Tffv Dor. et 

tv Dor. (usually or- 

Ep. ( usually Orthot.) 
roi (TOI) Ep. and Ion. 

eoT, of (ot)Ep( Reflex.) 


^te, (t.4 (fj.f) Epic 

<re (fff) Ep. ; Te Dor. 

4e, e (f) (as 

TU (TU) Dor. 

a, 236.) 

T/I/ in Theocritus 

viV(^j/)Dor. (andAtt. 

poet.) (him, her, it) 

/JLIV (fji.iv) Ion. (him, her, 

it; seldom PI.) 

<r(e Dor. et Att. poet. 


rail I 

(T(|)cotV (o"(|)wiV) 1 


. 1 

ff(p(ai t ff(f>w \ -p 

ff^Av.c^lv ) 


Vtol, Vd) ) 

<T0t, V<^ J 

<r<pue, (T<pd)e > Epic 

P. N. 

fjfj.e'is Epic ; rjfjLffs Ion. 

v[j.(is Ep. ; Ujiiees Ion. 

ff^)W, (T^W 

a/ies Dor. ; fy^tes Epic 

u/xe's Dor. ; u)t/ies Ep. 


r)(jLeo)v Ion. and Epic 

u^ieW Ion. and Epic 

fftyfuv (ffQeiav) Ion. 

r]/j.(twv Epic 

v/j.fiwv Epic 

and Epic 


i>fj.fjL(cav JEiQ\. 

<r<$xav Epic 


<r^>ei'a/ Epic 


^UP, ^/UIP, ^/i/ Epic 

vfjuv, vfj.iv, v/j-iv Epic 

6/xyut(j') jEol. and Ep. : 

VLLLiltl/) EpiC 

<r<^t ( 0-^)1 ) Ion.; <r^>^- 

aiuv and o^/v Dor. 

r^te'tf. 1 )^' 


T]fj.fas Ion. and Epic 

fyie'as Epic and Ion. 

rJJ C^) Ion. 

and Epic 

^os, r]fj.ds Epic 
a^e Epic ; aue Dor. 

V/J.CLS, vfj.ds Epic 
tf/i^e Epic ; vp.4 Dor. 

ff<pas, a^)?as Epic 

KKMAIIK. The forms susceptible of inclination are those written without 

an accent. 

258 DIALECTS. [$ 218. 

2. The compound forms of the reflexive pronouns, e'/j.avrov, o-eaurou, etc., are 
never found in Homer ; instead of them, he writes the personal pronouns and 
the pronoun avros separate, e. g. ep avrtv, ffj,ol avr$, ^ueD aiirrjs, I ounfji/, of 
avrri. When the pronoun avros stands first, it signifies himself, herself itself, 
even. But the Ion. writers use the compound forms e/xewurou, (reuvrov, SOOVTOV, 
etc. Comp. 207, 1. 

3. Possessive pronouns : Te<fo, -^, -6v Dor. and Epic, instead of cr6s ; Jo's. -^, 
-6v, and '6s, ?}, oi>, situs, Epic ; a/j.6s, --f), -&v Dor. and Epic, fyt^uos, a^ueVepos JEol., 
instead of r)/j.erepos ; vcai'repos, of us both, Epic ; fytJs, -^, -<fc Dor. and Epic, 
ij^fj.os JEol., instead of fyierepos: ff^whepos, of you both, II. o, 216; <r<fxfe, -^, -6v 
JEol. and Epic, instead of o-cperfpos. 

4. Demonstrative pronouns : (a) 6 fj TO (Dor. 'a. instead of 97) ; Gen. TW Dor., 
roTo and rev Epic, ras Dor. ; Dat. TO, Dor. ; Ace. rdv Dor. ; PL rot and raf Dor. 
and Epic ; Gen. rdwv Epic, rav Dor. ; Dat. TO?O-Z, TCUO-J, T^(T<, and rj/s Epic ; 
Ace. rtt>s, r6s Dor. 

(b) #8: Epic Dat. PI. To2s5e<n and TotsSco-o-i instead of ToIsSe; Epic Dat. 
roifftSe instead of rotsSe is found also in the Tragedians. 

(c) OVTOS and avr6s: an e stands before the long inflection-endings in the 
Ion. dialect ( 207, 10), e. g. rovreov, ravre^s, Towrew, rovreovs, OUTCTJ, aurecuj/. 

(d) tKttvos is written in Ion. and also in Att. poetry Ke/os, ^Eol. Krjvos, Dor. 

(e) On the Ion. forms WUT^S, rwurJ instead of 6 avr6s, rb avr6, see ^ 206, 1, 
and 207, 1. 

5. Relative pronouns : o Dor. and Horn., instead of os ; ofo Ion. and Epic ; 
8ov Epic seldom, eV II. IT, 208 ; ]7<n and fjs instead of aTs. Besides os, ^, the 
other forms of the pronouns are supplied, in the Dor. dialect, by the forms of 
the article, e. g. r6 instead of o, TOW instead of ou, rrjs instead of ys, etc. The 
Epic dialect uses both forms promiscuously, according to the necessities of the 
verse. In the Ion. dialect also, the forms of the article are frequently used 
instead of the relative. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronouns: (a) ris, rl: Gen. reo (reo) Epic 
and Ion., rev (rev) Epic, Ion., and Dor., Dat. reta (reo*), rep (ry) Epic and Ion.; 
PI. &ffffa Neut., o-jriro? &<Tffa, Od. r, 218, Gen. reW (reuv) Epic and. Ion., Dat. 
rfotffi Epic and Ion. (roltri, S. Trach. 984). 

(b) rls, rl: Gen. reo Epic and Ion., rev Epic, Ion., and Dor., re'w Ion. 

Neut. PI. oriva Iliad, 
orew// Epic and Ion. 

6Teourt Epic and Ion., dreyo-i Her. 
orivas Epic, Neut. ariva and acrtro Epic. 


The JEol. and secondary form of is fa, frjs, fy, iav ; also i$, II. ^, 422, is 
instead of &i: Avo and Svo are indeclinable in Homer ; the secondary forms 

(c) osris: Nom. #Tis,Neut.8Ti,o'TrtEp. 
Gen. #TevEp.andIon.,3Teo, 

OTTeo, orrev Epic. 
Dat. Sre<^, ora) Ep. and Ion. 
Ace. tini/a Epic, Neut. on, 

orn Epic. 


are ooiu (imlcrl.), Soiol, Sotad, Soul, Dat. 5oio?y, SoioTvi, Ace. Soua (indecl.), 
-tU, -<{. n'urvpts, -a JKol. and Epic, instead of Tfo-aapa, -a. At/ciStita and Svo- 
KaiSfKa Kpir, also 55*ca. 'Eehco<ri Epic, instead of fico<r. 'OySw/coira and 
ivvi\Kovra. Epic, instead of o^So^/coira, tvtirfiKoira. 'Ej/j/taxJAot and 8e/faxA.oj 
I'.pir. instead of ^wucisx^Aioi and pvpioi. The endings -aKovra. and -0^60101 in 
the Kpic and Ion. become -^KGI/TO, -T]KOO~IOI. The Epic forms of the ordinals 
are rplraros, TfVpoTos, e/SSo'/ioros, o-ySJaroj, Iva-roy, and e^aroy. 


$219. Augment. Reduplication. 

1. All the poets, except the Attic, may reject the augment, according to the 
necessities of the verse, e. g. \0<re, o-rei\avro, &4<ra.v, 6paro, ?A.e. The Ion. 
prose, as well as the Epic dialect, may omit the temporal augment ; it may also 
omit it in the Perf., e. g. &/j./, tpyao~/jiai, of/oj/toi, which is done by the Epic 
writers only in i/arya and fyxarai from ftpyw. 

2. On the omission of the Epic dialect to double the p when the augment is 
prefixed, e. g. fy(as, and on the doubling the liquids, e. g. tWeva, see 208, 
4, and Rem. 

3. a in the Dor. writers is changed into d by the augment, and at suffers no 
change, e. g. ayov instead of $yov, atpfov instead of ypfov. 

4. Verbs which have the Digamma, in Homer take the syllabic augment, 
according to the rule, e. g. avtidvw, to please, Impf. edV&wo*', Aor. ZaSoj', 15o- 
fuuj vidcor, lettrcC/ii}!', also in the participle ^ejo-a/uei/os. On account of the verse, 
the seems to be lengthened in Wv?a, etfaSe (eFaSe) from avSdvw. 

5. In Homer, the verbs otVoxoew and avSdvw, take at the same time both the 
syllabic and temporal augment, viz. ^i/oxo'et, II. 5, 3, yet more frequently cpvo- 
Xoti ; i-^vSavf and VScwe. 

6. The reduplication of p is found in Homer, in pepuTrco/teVos, from pvirdw, to 
make dirty. On the contrary, the Epic and poetic Perfects, f^opa from /itffyjOjuai 
and IWu/ucu from <TUO>, are formed according to the analogy of those beginning 
with p, i. e. by Metathesis ; hence e/^opa, etc., instead of fj.ffj.opa. The Epic 
and Ion. Perf. of KT(O/U is I/CTTJ/XCU. A strengthened reduplication is found in 
the Horn, forms SeiSe'xarai and Sei'Se/cro. 

7. In the Epic dialect, the second Aor. Act. and Mid. also often takes the 
reduplication, which remains through all the modes. In the Ind. the simple 
augment e is commonly omitted; thus, e. g. Ka/xj/w, to grow weary, Subj. Aor. 
KtK<ifi(a ; Kt \ofjLai, to command, ^KfK\6/j.rjv] K\VW, to hear, Aor. Imp. KtK\vSi, 
K(K\vrf, \ayxdvw, to obtain, \t\axov] Aa^jSarew, to receive, AeAa/3eV&at ; 
Xov^tva>, latfo, to escape notice, A.eAa&oj/ ; iref&aj, to persuade, Treiribov, ireTn&J- 
fitjv : repireo, to delight, TTpair6fj.r)i' ; rvyxdvta, to obtain, TTy/ce/, 

#ENfl, ^o murder, Zirttpt/ov, irtcpvov; <ppdw y to say, to show, irttypaSo 
Aorists with the Att. reduplication (comp. 124, Rem. 2) commonly take the 
augment: 'APH, to Jit, ^p-apov; 'AXfl, to grieve, ijK-axov ; aA.e^o, to ward off, 
a\a\Kt?y ; opvvu i, to excite, &p-ooov : ^V/TTTW, to chide, tv-evlirov. Two 

260 DIALECTS. [$ 220. 

verbs in the Aor. take the reduplication in the middle of the word : viz. 

, and epu/cw, to restrain, ijpv-KaKoy, epv/ca/ceW. Comp. the Presents, 

8. In the Dialects, there are still other forms of the Perf. and Plup. with the 
Att. reduplication ( 124); thus, e. g. alpfw, to take, Ion. ap-aip-nxa, ap-aipyfjicu: 
a\, to wander, Epic Perf. with a Pres. signification dA-aATj/xcu; 'A Pa 
(apapiffKca), to Jit, Poet. &p-apa, I Jit, (Intrans.), Ion. &pr]pa; 'AXfl (d/cax'C w )) to 
grieve, Epic and Ion. o/c-^x e M at > a.K-ax'np.a.i ; 'ENEK& (<pe'pa>), to carry, Ion. <=V- 
f] ; epeiTrco, to demolish, Poet. ep-^ptTra, Epic ep-eprTo ; ep, to contend, 
Epic ep-Tjpta/tcu. 

$220. Personal-endings and Mode-vowels. 

1. First Pers. Sing. Act. The original ending -/LU of the first Pers. Sing., is 
found in the Epic dialect in several subjunctives, e. g. Kreivu/Jti, aydywfu, TVX&Y", 
ftcw/u, ed-eAojjtu, ?5a>,iu. Comp. 116, 1. 

2. Second Pers. Sing. Act. In the Dor., and particularly in the JEol. and Ep. 
dialect, the lengthened form -<rfra is found ( 116, 2). In the Ind., this 
belongs almost exclusively to the conjugation in -/it, e. g. Ti&rjerfra, 
5i8oi<r&a, irapr)<T&a. In Homer, this ending is frequent in the Subj., e. g. 

3-a, ei7T7?(r^a, more seldom in the Opt., e. g. K\aioi<r&a, #aAot<r&a. 

3. Instead of the ending -eis, the Dor. frequently has the old form -es, e. g. 
TUTrres instead of rinrreis ; so in Theocritus ffvpia-Ses = ffvpi^ts. 

4. Third Pers. Sing. Act. In the Epic dialect, the Subj. sometimes has the 
ending -<7i (arising from -ri) appended to the usual ending of the Subj., e. g. 
6&eA77<rt(i/), &yrjffi, aActA/cpo-t; the Opt. only in Trapac^&anjtn. 

5. Instead of the ending -et in the Pres. Ind. of the Dor. dialect, the form -rj 
is used, though seldom, e. g. StS&r/cTj instead of &t5c<r/cei. In the second and 
third Pers. Sing. Perf. Act., Theocritus uses the endings -TJS, -77 instead of -ay, 
-e, e. g. TreWj'&Tjs, OTTWTTTJ instead of Tre-noi/bas, OTTCOTTC. 

6. First Pers. PL Act. The Dor. dialect has retained the original ending, e. g. instead of Tvirrop.fv ( 204). 

7. The third Pers. PL Act. of the principal tenses, in the Dor. dialect, ends 
throughout in -vrt, e. g. rvirrovrt (instead of Tthrroutn), TV^OVTI, TVTTTWTI 
(instead of TuTTToxn), reTixpavTi, fTcaiveovn, QairasruvTi. In the ^Eol. and Dor., 
this ending in the Pres. and Fut. is -ouri instead of -ovcri, e. g. TrepiTn/eWt^), 

8. Personal endings of the Plup. Act. In the Epic and Ion. dialects, the 
following forms occur : 

First Pers. Sing., -ea the only Epic and Ion. form (-77 old Att.. 116, 6), e. g. 
e're&^Treo, ]?5ea, TreTroi'd-ea instead of ere&TjTreH/, etc. 
Second " " -fas, e. g. eVe^Treas, Od. w, 90, instead of ere^Trets. 
Third " " -ee(i/), e. g. &yey6vff t /caroAeAoiTree, e'jSejSp^/ceej/ (not Horn.). 
Second " PL -e'are, e. g. <ruj/r/5e'are, Her. 9, 58. 

KEMARK 1. The third Pers. Sing. Plup. Act. in -et, as well as the same 
Pers. of the Impf. in -et, is found in Homer before a vowel with the v paragogic ; 


:.rr-f] K fiv, II. i^, 691. fcMxfiv, 11. e, 6G1. &, 270. {,412. 55<nrHj/ij>, Od. 
; tfovcerv, 11. 7, 388. 

9. The second and third Pers. Dual of the historical tenses are sometimes 
cchan^vil lor each other. Thus in Homer, the forms -rov and -vbov (second 

Pers. Dual) stand instead of -TTJJ/ and -<rfrr]v (third Pers. Dual), c. g. SidKerov, 
II. ic, 364. AcKpiWfTov, II. o-, 583. SufrfiffffeffSov, II. v, 301. On this inter- 
change in Attic, see $ 116, Rem. 

10. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Ind. and Subj., Impf. Ind. and Opt. Mid. or 
Pass., the first Aor. Mid. Ind., after dropping <r, remain uncontracted in the 
Ion. and often in the Epic dialect, e. g. cVircAAecu ; Homer uses either these 
forms, e. g. Aenrecu, \i\aifai, a.<piKT]ai, lpi><T<rfat, eVavpTjcu, foreAutrao, tyfivao, or 
the contract forms, -77 (from -ecu), -eu (from -eo), -a (from -ao), e. g. en-Aet;, cpx* v -> 
<l>pdfv t iKpt/jLu. When the characteristic of the verb is e, it is very frequently 
omitted in the Ion. dialect, before -ecu and -eo, e. g. </Ae'cu instead of <pi\ffai, 
$iAe'o instead of ^jAe'eo ; so in Homer, eVAe", II. a>, 202, yet with the variation 
f*Ae' from K\eo/ Comp. 222, B (3). The ending -eo in Homer is 
lengthened into -etc, e. g. epeto, o-TreTo, and the ending -e'ecu is contracted into 
-flat, in verbs in -e'w, e. g. fivbeicu, vfiai. Homer sometimes drops a in the 
second Pers. Sing. Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass, also, viz. /ie'/iur/ai (and /-le'/wi?), 

/3e'/3A7)CU, IWVO. 

11. The Dual endings -TTJV, -O-&TJJ/, and first Pers. Sing. -/MJP, in the Doric 
are, -rdv, -a-^dv, -p.a.v ( 201, 2), e. g. t<ppaad/j.av. In the later Doric, the 
change of 77 into a is found, though seldom, even in the Aor. Pass., e. g. eVurrdv 
instead of eVi/irTjv. 

12. The personal-endings -pcSoy, -yueda, in Epic, as well as in Doric, Ionic, 
and Attic poetry, often have the original forms -jie<r&o', -^eo&a, e. g. 

13. The third Pers. PI. Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., in the Ionic and Epic 
dialect, very generally ends in -area, -OTO, instead of -vrai, -JTO, e. g. irevel- 
&areu, -irtiravaTou, e'jSe/JouXcuaTo, eVraAaTo; very often also the third Pers. PL 
Opt. Mid. or Pass, is -of OTO, -aloro, instead of -otjn-o, -curro, e. g. rvTrroiaro 
instead of TUTTTOJITO, apTjo-amro (Homeric), instead of ap^ffaivro. Also the 
ending -OVTO, in the Ion. dialect, has this change, though the o before v becomes 
, e. g. t&ovKfaro instead of t&ov\orro. In verbs in -dw and -e'w, the rj in the 
ending of the Perf. and Plup. -TJJTCU, -TJKTO, is shortened in the Ionic into e, e. g. 
ot/fcarcu instead of (fKrjvTai from oi/ce'w, ^rfrifjifaro instead of eTeTfytrjjTo from 
Ti/j.dd). Also instead of -canai, the Ionic dialect has -eoroi (instead of -aarcu), 
e. g. Treirre'oTo* instead of WTTTCUTCU. 'ATrf/carot, in Hero^tus, from the Perf. 
a.< (Pres. aQtweofjiai) is the only example in which the rule stated 116, 
5, is not observed. 

REM. 2. Two Perf. and Plup. forms are found in Homer with the ending 
-Saroj, -8aro, from verbs whose characteristic is not S, viz. e'AoiW (c?Aoa>) 
MjAa^cu eArjAaSaro, Od. rj, 86, and a.Kaxify a.K-f]X f l J - ai aiojx^oTot, II. p, 637 ; the 
8 seems to be merely euphonic ; yet it is to be noted, that the reading is not 
wholly settled ; the forms tppdSaTtu and (ppatiaro (from paivw) must be derived 
from the stem 'PAZfl (comp. pdcrffarf, Od. u, 150). 

262 DIALECTS. [$ 220. 

14. The third Pers. PL Aor. Pass, --riffav is abridged into -ev, in the Doric, 
and also frequently in the Epic and poetic dialect, e. g. rpd<f>ev instead of erpd- 
Qrjffav. In the Opt. this abridged form is regular in the Common language 
( 116, 7), e. g. TiK^freTej/ instead of rvcf>&eir)<rav. 

15. The third Pers. PL Imp. Act. in -rca<rav, and Mid. or Pass, in vbcaffav, is 
abridged in the Ionic and Doric dialect (always in Homer) into -VTUV and -o-frcav 
( 116, 12), e. g. Tvinovruv instead of rvirT^ruxrav, TreTroi&6vr(av instead of ireiroi- 
SfTciMrai') TVTrreff&cav instead of Tinrreo'&aHrcu'. 

16. The long mode-vowels of the Subj., viz. w and 77, are very frequently 
shortened in the Epic dialect into o and e, according to the necessities of the 
verse, e. g. 'iojj.zv instead of tufjisv, <$>&i6}j.<r&a instead of -cfyie&a; <rrpe<>eTat 
instead of -nrai ( 207, 4). 

17. The first Aor. Opt. Act., in the JEolic dialect ends in -eta, -etas, -eie, etc., 
third Pers. PL -eiav, instead of -cu/u, -ais, -at, etc., third Pers. PL -aiev. See 
116, 9. 

18. Infinitive. The original full form of the Inf. Act. is -fj-evai, and with 
the mode-vowel, -e/uei/ai, which is found in the Epic, Doric, and ^olic dialects. 
This form is sometimes shortened into -/j.ev (-e^v) by dropping at, sometimes 
into -vai by syncopating /te (e/*e). But in the Epic dialect, the ending -eiv also 
is found, formed from -e/iev, and in contract verbs, and in the second Aor., also 
the endings -eeiv and -e/. The Pres., Fut., and second Aor. take the mode- 
vowel e and the ending -pev, hence -fftev, e. g. rvTrr-e-fjiff, rmJ/eVtei/, flir^fv. 
Verbs in -da and -ecu, as they contract the characteristic-vowel a and the 
mode-vowel 6 of the Inf. ending -^vai, have the form -^/teyat, e. g. yoii^vai 
(yodco), (piX-hpevai (<pi\cw), (pop^/Jievai (<f>opfw). With the ending -f)fj.euai corre- 
sponds that of the Aorists Pass., e. g. rvTr-fipevcu instead of ruTT^yat, aoAAto- 
3^/iei/at ; so always in the Epic dialect ; but the Doric has the abridged form in 
-fj/zei', e. g. ruTTTj/iev. In the Pres. of verbs in -/, the ending -/JLCV and -^vai is 
appended to the unchanged stem of the Pres., and in the second Aor. Act., to 
the pure stem, e. g. Tt^6-/iy, Ti&e'-jueyat, Iffrd-^ev, lara.-p.evai, 8i86-/j.ey, StS^-fiej/at, 
Sei/cj/u-^iej/, SeiKvv-iJLevai ; &e-fj.ev, ^e'-yuevai, So-/j.ev, SJ-^evat; so also in Perfects 
derived immediately from the stem of the verb, e. g. Tedycfyiei/, /SejSauev. The 
following are exceptions, viz. T^^VOLI, II. ^, 83 (with which the forms of the 
Pres. Part. Mid. rt^/tevos, Kixfowos, correspond), SiSowot, II. o>, 425, also the 
Inf. second Aor. Act. of verbs in -a and -u, which also retain the long vowel 
( 191, 2), e. g. ffr^-fj-evat, 0-f)-fj.evai, 5v-fj.evat, instead of crr^vai, Swai. 

19. Besides the forms in -eleven and -e/zev, the Doric dialect has one in -ev 
abridged from thes^pe. g. &yw instead of &yeiv ; Fut. ap(j.6<ret> instead of apfj.6- 
fffiv ; second Aor. 2SeV instead of iSeTv, Ao)8eV instead of \apetv, etc. In the 
Doric of Theocritus, the JEol. Inf. ending -i\v is found, e. g. x a ^"? I/ > second 
Aor. \aftriv, instead of xcupeij/, Xo/3e?v. 

20. The Inf. ending of the Aor. Pass. -^i/ot, -%tei/, is abridged into -t\v in 
the Doric Avriters, yet only after a preceding long syllable, e. g. it,&va*rt)v instead 
of -dfjwu. The Inf. ending of the Perf. Act. varies between -t]v and -eiv in 
the Doric and JEolic writers, e. g. reS-ewp^KTjy, yey6vw instead of 


21. Participle. The JEoYic dialect has the diphthong 01 instead of ov before 
tr in participle's, and ai instead of a, C. g. TWITTOH/, rvirrotffa, rinrrof, Aao?<ra, 
Aro?<ra instead of -ov<ra ; rtycus, -aura, instead of Tttyci?, -euro ( 201, 2. and 
20;. 1). The Epic dialect can lengthen the accented o into u in the oblique 
cases, c. g. /uffiowros, vf^vwras. The Perf. Act. Part., in the Doric dialect, 
sometimes takes the ending of the Pres., c. g. ire^piKovrfs instead of 

$ 221. Epic and Ionic Iterative form. 

1. The Ionic and particularly the Epic dialect, and not unfrequently, in 
imitation of these, the Tragedians, have a special Impf. and Aor. form with the 
ending -<TKOV, to denote an action often repeated, or continued. This is called 
the Iterative form. It is regularly without the augment. 

2. It is generally found only in the Sing, and in the third Pers. PI. Ind. of 
the Impf. and Aor., and is inflected like the Impf. ; for in the Impf. and 
second Aor. Act. and Mid., the endings -GKOV, -(r/ccs, <r/ce(i/), -OVC^T/I/, -(ncou(eo, w), 
-<TK6To, preceded by the union-vowel e, are used instead of -o/, -owv, and in the 
first Aor. Act. and Mid. the endings -CUTKOV, -aoW/iTjj/ are used instead of -a, 
-</XTJV, e. g. 

(a) Impf. Sti/cv-fffKOV, &e'A-0"/ces, eir-<rKe(j'), irtA-eV/ceTO, (3o<rK-f<rKovTO. In 
verbs in -o, -deo-Kov is abridged into -aa-Kov, which, according to the necessities 
of the verse, can be again lengthened into -daffKov, e. g. viKaffKopev, va.irraa.ff- 
KOV. Verbs in -4w have -cecr/cov and -TKOV, e. g. /coAe-eovce, fiovKo\cf<rKc ; or^y<r- 
icoj/, tru\(ffKTo, Ka\fffKfTo ; when the verse requires, -4f<n<ov can be lengthened 
into -ctfffKov, e. g. vftKfifo-Kov] verbs in -6<a do not have this Iterative form 
among the older authors ; verbs in -fit omit the mode-vowel here also, c. g. 
Ti'df-o-Ko*', SiSo-ffKov, Selxvv-o-Kov ; in some verbs the ending -otr/coi/ has taken the 
place of -eoTcoj', e. g. friirr-affKOV, xpinn-affKov, from ^/TTTW, Kpirrrrci). 

(b) Second Aor. e\-<r/f, jSoA-eo-Ke, <t>vy~ffKe ; in verbs in -/a, without a mode- 
vowel, e.g. ffrd-ffKf (= ccrrrj), irapefid<rK (= TrapcjSr)), 86ffK, SixrKe, also an 
Iterative form of the second Aor. Pass, is found, viz. (po^ea/re instead of 

II. A, 64. Od. /z, 241, 242. 

(c) First Aor. ^Ada-ao-Key, ouS^a-owr/cc*', #<r-cur/ce, /uj/Tjer-aavceTO, 
(instead of a.yvoT\<raffKt from 

^ 222. Contraction and Resolution in Verbs. 

I. The Epic dialect. In the Epic dialect, verbs in -cw, -ew, -6w, are subject 
contraction, but by no means so generally as in the Attic. The contraction 
made according to the general rules, with a few exceptions, as will be seen in 
the following remarks. 

A. Verbs in -da. (1) In these verbs, the uncontracted form occurs only in 
certain words and forms, e. g. Wpooj/, xarevKiaov, vaifrdova-t ; always in uAaw, and 
in verbs which have a long a for their characteristic, or whose stem is a mono- 
syllable, e. g. Sufdwy, Trcij/dwr, *xP a > txp& (re (from XP W > to attack). 

264 DIALECTS. [$ 222. 

(2) In some words, a is changed into e, viz. psvoiveov from 
from avrdca, opoitXeov from 6/j.oK\dco. Comp. 201, 1. 

(3) Instead of the uncontracted and contracted forms, the contracted syllable 
is resolved, as often as the measure requires it ; this is done by inserting a simi- 
lar vowel, commonly shorter, more seldom longer, before the vowel formed 
by contraction ; in this way, a is resolved into ad or da, and <a into oca or caca 
( 207, 2). The short vowel is used here, when the syllable preceding the 
contracted one is short, e. g. (op>} bp6u>\ but if this syllable is long, the long 
vowel must be used on account of the verse, e. g. r)f}caca<ra. The resolution does 
not take place with the vowel d before a personal-ending beginning with T, 
e. g. 6pa-Tai, 6pa-TO. Thus : 

(dpdeis) 6pSs dpays (&pdca) 6pw 6p6ca 

(opdefffrai) opacr&ai 6paao~&ai (dpdovffa) opcacra opocacra. 

(/j.voivdei) fjLevoivcfi p.fvoiva.a. (fiodovffi) fiouio'i /3o6caffi 

(fdrjs) e^s eaas (6pdoi/j.i) op(S/j.i 6p6ca/j.i 

(fj.vdeo~&cu) p.vao'^a.i ( (Spdoutti) SpSxri Spcacaffi. 

REMARK 1. In Od. |, 343, the form oprjat (from dpdeai) occurs instead of the 
oprjai, which Eustath. cites. In the following Dual forms, oe is contracted into 
77 : TrposavS-rjrifjv, O'IIATJTTJI', ffvva.vr-i]rt]v^ (poiT-t)TT]v instead of -drrjv ; so also in the 
two verbs in -, b^a.pTr\Tt]v^ aTrei\.^TT]v instead of -eirr)v. 

4. When vr comes after a contracted vowel, a short vowel may be inserted 
between vr and such a contracted syllable, e. g. yfiwovra instead of fjfiwt>Ta, 
ye\ct>ovTts, nvcaot/ro ; in the Opt. also, the protracted -wot instead of -co is found 
in jjfr&otfu (instead of jipdoifu = J?0?/u). The following are anomalous forms: 
vaierdwffa (instead of -oWa), crdca, second Pers. Imp. Pres. Mid. and third Pcrs. 
Sing, Impf. Act. from 2An, to save. 

HEM. 2. On the Inf. in ^evtu of verbs in ~dca and -ew, see 220, 18, and on 
the Epic-Ionic contraction of or? into , see 205, 5. 

B. Verbs in- e w. To this conjugation belong also all Futures in -e'co and 
-eo/xo'j all second Persons in -eo, -eoi, and -you, second Aor. Inf. Act. in -eW, 
and the Aor. Pass. Subj. in -eo> and -ica. 

( 1 ) Contraction does not take place in all forms in which e is followed by the 
vowels w, o>, rj, p, ot, and ou, e. g. <j>i\4canev, </>tA.e'o*/a, etc. ; yet such uncontracted 
forms must commonly be read with Synizesis. In other instances, the contrac- 
tion is either omitted according to the necessities of the verse, e. g. (JuAe'ei, epeca 
Tut., oTpvvtovffa Put., |8aAeW second Aor. Act., Tretreeo-^at Put. Mid., piyfcafft 
second Aor. Subj. Pass. ; or contraction takes place, and then, when eo is con- 
tracted, it becomes eu ( 205, 1), e. g. afpeu/wjj', aiirevu, y4vev ; except aveppiirTovv 
and eir6p&ovv. 

(2) Sometimes the open e is lengthened into t ( 207, 1), e. g. IrcXefero, 
fT&eiov, irXfteiv, OKveica, Sajueiw instead of Sajuw, p.iyeir) instead of fuyfi 
(second Aor. Subj. Pass.). 

(3) In the ending of the second Pers. Sing. Pres. Mid. or Pass., two Epsilons 
coming together are either contracted, as in the third Pers., e. g. ' 

f'iai, like /u>&eTTat, veiai, like veTrat, or one e is elided, e. g. 


This elision commonly occurs both among the Epic and Ionic writers, 
in tlu- second 1'ers. luijtf. and Imp. Pros. Mid. or Pass., e. g. </>oeo, o<fo, cuVeo, 
1iryfo. In such cases, the accent is on the penult, whether the word ends with 
u or -co ( 220, 10). 

i. 3. On the irregular contraction in the Dual, see Rem. 1 ; on the Inf. 
in -fjfjLfvcu, see 220, 18. 

C. Verbs in -6 a. These verbs follow either the common rules of contrac- 
tion, c. g. yowovfjuu, yovvovff&ai, or they are not contracted, but lengthen o into 
u, and then the forms of verbs in -oca resemble those of verbs in -dot, e. g. 
i$pu>oirra, iSpuovcra, virvuotnas (comp. ^/3woj/To, 4 above) ; or they become wholly 
analogous to verbs in -du, since they resolve -oviri (third Pers. PL Pres.) into 
owffiy -OVVTO into -Jwi/ro, and -otev into -6u>ev, and consequently suppose a 
contraction like that of verbs in -aw: (aptovvi) apovvi ap6a><ri (comp. &p6ca<ri), 
($T\i6ovTo) 8r)'iovi>TO SrjiduvTO (comp. 6p6<avTo), (dr]i6oiv) 8r)'io7v 8 771^ wee (comp. 
6p6cafv). But this resolution into -6a> or -wo is confined to such forms as admit 
it in verbs in -du> ; hence, e. g. the Pres. apoTs, apol, apovre, and the Inf. apow, do 
not admit this resolution. 

II. Ionic dialect. (1) In the Ionic dialect, only verbs in -d<a and -600 suffer 
contraction ; verbs in -w commonly omit it, except the contraction of -eo and 
-fov into -ev, which frequently occurs ( 205, 1), e. g. <f>i\eufj.ev instead of (pt\to- 
fnf V = </>iAoC^e>', t<pi\fw instead of tylteov = tyi\ovv, <pi\ev instead of </>tAeou 
= <pi\ov. 

(2) The unrontracted forms exhibited in the table ( 135) of the second 
Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf. Mid. or Pass, in -erj, -({77, -077, -e'ou, -oou, -6ov, e. g. 
<pi\frj, Tt/j.d.r), fjiiff&6r], <pi\fov, Ti/j.dov, jj.ur&6ov, etc., are found in no dialect, and 
are presented merely to explain the contraction. For even the Ionic writers 
use here the contracted forms of verbs in -dca and -<ta, e. g. r/^ua, /ii<r&o?, TI^W, 
/LUO-&OU, etc. ; but of verbs in -e', as also in barytone verbs, they do not use the 
endings -rj, -ou, but -toi, -eo, e. g. Tuirr-ecw, eruirT-eo, <f>i\-eai, e^iAe-eo. On the 
elision of e in the ending -e'eo, see above, No. 1, B (3). 

(3) Verbs in -aw follow the common rules of contraction; but in the uncon- 
tractcd form, the o is changed into e, e. g. 6pew, <5pe'o,uef instead of dpdca, xpeera*, 

tovTcu instead of xp^rat, etc. Comp. 201, 1. 

(4) Ao in the uncontracted forms is frequently lengthened into eo> ( 207, 3), 
e. g. x/ )e ' wl/Ta '? tKTeooivo, 6pea>KTS, ireipeujj.ei>os instead of (xpaojrcu) xP^VTai, 

(5) The change of the a into e, as in <J/>e'w, explains the usage among the Ion. 
writers of sometimes contracting oo and aov, and also and tov in verbs in 
-fw, into -eu ( 205, 1), e. g. tlpurevv instead of flpuraov, y(\ev<ra instead of 

, ayairfvirres instead of ayandovrfs. So also in the Doric dialect, C. g. 
instead of yf\dov<ri. This contraction into i> instead of ov is often 
found even in verbs in -6ia, e. g. SIKOKVO-I instead of (StKadovcri) SiKaiovvi, 
Kcufvv instead of 5tatoDv, eSiKaievv, (rrfQavtvyrcu from <TTe$av6<a. 

(6) In Ionic prose, the Epic resolution is found but seldom in verbs in -<, 
g. Ko/j.6fi}cri, IjyoptavTo, Her. 


266 DIALECTS. [$ 223. 

III. Doric dialect. (I) Contrary to the common usage of the Doric, ae and 
ot are contracted into t\ and y ( 205, 3), e. g. Ti/trjTe instead of n^dere = 
Ti/iore, tyoiTfjs instead of (poiras, bpr\v instead of 6pw. The Inf. is written 
without an t subscript, as the uncontracted form originally ended in -cuv. 
Comp. also II. 5, also 134, 3. 

(2) The Inf. of verhs in -ea> has a double form, either the abridged form in 
-/ instead of -e?y, e. g. TroieV instead of iroieli/, or according to the analogy of 
verbs in -dw, a form in -TJV (from -erjv), e. g. <pi\9iv instead of tyiXeeiv = ^AeTj/, 
Koff^v instead of Koar/j.f'iv, $povT\v instead of (ppove'tv. 

(3) In the Doric and JEolic dialects, -ao, -aoy, and -aw are contracted into d 
( 205, 2), e. g. TreivS/ies instead of iretvwjuey (ir^iv&o^v}, ireivavri instead of 
ireiv(d-ov)u>-(ri, yeXav instead of ye\(d-wf)(ev, Qvaavrfs instead of (j>v<r(d-o)a>-rres. 

REM. 4. On the contraction into -eu instead of -ov, see 205, 1. A striking 
peculiarity of the Doric dialect, especially of the later Doric as used by The- 
ocritus, is, that it frequently has a long a even in the inflection of verbs in -e, 
e. g. firSvcura instead of tv6v^<ra. from -rcov4u>, tyi\cura instead of e<J>i\7j(ra from 

$ 223. Formation of the Tenses. 

1. Besides the verbs mentioned ( 130), the following also in the Homeric 
dialect retain the short characteristic-vowel in forming the tenses, viz. KOTCW, to 
have a grudge ; veiKw, to quarrel ; ravvu, to stretch ; fyuw, to draw. On the con- 
trary, eVcuve'oj, to approve, has tTrr}inr}ffa. 

2. In the Fut. and first Aor. Act. and Mid. of pure verbs, which retain the 
short characteristic- vowel in forming the tenses, and in the same tenses of verbs 
in -o>, -arffu (-TTW), the <r can be doubled in the ending, in Homer and other 
non- Attic poets ( 208, 4), e. g. fycAcurcre, Koreaffdpeitos, o/wWeu, erdvvffffe, 

SlKdffffai, K6/J.Lffff. 

3. The form of the Attic Eut. ( 117) occurs in the Homeric dialect in verbs 
in -i'o>, e. g. Krepiovffi, dyAai'ero-^ot, together with the common Futures dp/j.ia-a'o- 
[j.Vj KOTrpiffffovres, Kovi<r<Tovcri.(v). From verbs in -ea>, -da, -vw, Horn, forms 
Futures which are similar to the present of these words, viz. in verbs in -ew, he 
often uses the ending -4<a instead of -cVw, e. g. /cope'ei, II. &, 379. xopeeis, II. v, 
831. jua;foj/Taj, II. j8, 366; in verbs in -aw, after dropping <r, he places before 
the vowel formed by contraction, a corresponding short vowel, e. g. avri6a, 
&\.(Wi, Sanda, ; in verbs in - u w, tyvovffi and ravvovffi are found. 

4. In the Doric dialect, all verbs in - a> take | instead of <r in those tenses 
whose characteristic is er, i. e. in the Fut. and Aor., e. g. Siitdfy, Si/co^w, e'Si'/calo, 
instead of 8t/cccny, e'Si/cao-a. But the other tenses of verbs with the pure charac- 
teristic S, follow the regular formation, e. g. tSiKdff&yv, not tSiKaxfrnV' This 
peculiarity of the Doric appears even in certain verbs in -du, which, in forming 
the tenses, retain the short a, and in this respect are analogous to those in -i, 
which likewise have a short vowel, e. g. ye\dca, eye\aa instead of cy4\cura, yet 
not j/iKcta, i/i/fd|w. but vixaffca (Att. VIKT}<T(D). In Doric poetry, the regular form 
of all these words can be used, according to the necessities of the metre. 

5. The following verbs in ~fa have, in Homer and the Ionic dialect, | instead 


of ff, through the whole formation, viz. &ftpoTd((a,to wander,- a \ air d , to 
emjiti/, Fut. oAaTrd^tt, etc. (so also Xenoph. An. 1. 1, 29) ; Svoira\i ca, to shake; 
8 a f C, ' diride, to put to death ; tyyva\l C, to give ; ii/api , to S/XH/ a dead 
*ne/ny ; &pv\\l . to frreafc in pieces ; fifpuripl a>, to r^cd ; tr e A e /* f a>, to 
shake ; ir o A e /* f a>, to contend ; <rrv<pf\i a>, to smite. 

G. Liquid verbs in -of VG>, which in the Attic dialect form the Aor. with the 
ending -ova instead of -t\va. ( 149, Rcm. 2), have d in the Doric, and t\ in the 
Epic and Ionic. The following liquid verbs, in the Epic and poetic dialect of 
all periods, form the Fut. and first Aor. with the ending -vu and -o-o, viz. 
<cAAw, to land (jceAffai, comp. /ceWat from Kejre'w, to goad) ; elfAw, to crowd 
together (A(rcu) ; ifvpw, to meet, to fall upon; apapla-Kw ('AP-ft), to Jit (ityxra, p<rai) ; 
op-yv/j.1, to excite (opffca, 5p<ra) ; Sicup&fipw, to destroy (Sicup&epa'cu in Homer) ; 
Kcipw, to shave (eicfpaa in Homer, but first Aor. Mid. tKftpd/jLi)v) ; <pvpu, to mix, to 
knaul (<pvp<Tu, t<pvp<ra, irf<pvp(ronat, Epic and old poetic; second Aor. Pass. 
tyvpyv in Lucian, who also has the poetic Perf. ire<pvpn<u, while in prose, the 
verb 4>upd, tyvpaaa, ir<f>vpa/wcu, etc., is used). The Opt. o^eAAetcy, Od. ft, 334. 
II. , 651, is formed according to the usage of the JEolic. 

7. To verbs which form the Fut. without the tense-characteristic o* ($ 154, 4) 
belong the following forms of the Epic dialect : fttopcu or ftfioficu, second Pers. 
ftty, I shall live, perhaps from ftaivta, to go, to live, also from A An, to know, to 
learn, and KEIft (/cel^ou, to lie down), Srjca, STJCIS, S-rjo/jLev, Sricre (I shall view,Jind), 
and Kfiu Or KIW, KCif/xcp, Keiwv, Kfcov. 

8. To verbs which form the first Aor. without the tense-characteristic <r 
( 154, 7) belong the following forms of the Epic and poetic dialect: x e/w > to 
pour out, fxeua (Homer; Att. fX fa ) 5 <revw, to shake, taaeua and eVo-eua/iTj^ 
(Homer), a\fo/nai and oAevo/xcu, to avoid, rjAcvoro, etc. ( 230) ; /caw, to 6urn, 
t/C77a, eK64a Epic, eKea Tragic ( 230). 

9. To verbs which have an active form for the Fut. Perf. ( 154, 6), belongs 
also the Epic Kexap4\<T(o (with Kfx a P^) (T f jLai )' I shall be joyful, from xafyw. 

10. The exchange of the endings of the second Aor. with those of the first 
Aor. ( 154, 7) is somewhat frequent in the Epic dialect, e.g. ftalvu, to go, 
tft-hfffTo, Imp. /3^(reo ; 8uo/w, to plunge, 48v<rfTo, Imp. 8u<reo, Part. 8v<r6(j.cvos ; 
&yu, to lead, 6|er, a4/j.v ;, to come, foi/; ^Ae-y/iTjv, I laid myself down 
to sleep, Imp. A'o, A|CO ; 6pwfii, excito, Imp. 8p<rfo, 5p<rev; <p(p<a, to bear, 
oJfff (ol<rc is also Att.), ofo"Te, oiVcroj, olcroirwv, otVe/Lif, olffffievai; atiow, to 
sing, Imp. d t cr e o. 

11. Several second Aorists, in Homer, are formed by a Metathesis of the 
consonants ( 156), in order to make a dactyle, e. g. ZSpoKov instead of 8apKov 
(from Se'pjco/icu), tirpc&ov (from Wp&w), eSpa&oi/ (from Sop^afw), fjfiftpoTov 
(instead of ^aprov from a/tapr<ii/cw). For the same reason Homer syncopates 
the stem ($ 155), e.g. ayp6/j.cvos from dyepeVdat (076^, to collect)] 

typto (Imp.), typoiro, eypfff&ai (with the accent of the Pres.), typt 

'<rbai (tyflpu, to wake) ; TTT^/UT]!/, CTTT^TJI/, irrcffbcu, irT^uevos (irfTO(*ai, to 
fly) ; tKK\fTo, KfK\ero, KfK\6fj.evos (/ceAo/ttat, to summon, excite) ; irtQvov, tirtfyvov 
(*ENfl, to ATI//). 

12. In the first Aor. Pass. Homer inserts a v, according to the necessities of 

268 DIALECTS. [$ 223. 

the verse, not only as other poets ( 149, Rem. 4) in Kpivca and K\lvu 
&7JT6, Kptv&eis, eKAij'&Tj), but also in ISpvw, to establish, and TTVCW, to blow 
and iSpvfrt)]/, a.(j.TrvvvS-(] ) . 

13. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impure verbs 
as in the tense-formation assume an e ( 166) or are subject to Metathesis 
( 156, 2), e. g. x' l P> KexapW* (from XAIPE-n), aAAcu fi(p\T)Ka. (from BAA). 
Except these, he forms only second Perfects (which belong commonly to 
intransitive verbs, or have an intransitive signification) ; but even in pure verbs 
and in the impure verbs mentioned above, he rejects the in certain persons 
and modes, and regularly in the Part. ; in this way, these forms become analo- 
gous to those of the second Perf. These participles either lengthen a and e into 
77, e. g. /SejSaprjws, burdened (from BAPEn), Keicopycas, satisfied (from fcope'-i/w/it), 
K*KOTir)<as, enraged (from /core'co), renews, troubled (from TIEfi), TerATjcSs, enduring 
(from TAAA), KfKa<pr)tas, gasping for breath (from KA*E,Q), /ce/r/iTjcoy, wearied (from 
KO.JJLVO)), TTfTTTijws (from TTT-hffffu, to shrink through fear), rebvyds, KeKT-rjon, /x a ' 
prjcfo (from x a ^ w ) ; or they retain, though more seldom, the stem-vowel without 
change, e. g. )8ej8dc6s (from jSaiVco, BAfl), ficyeyavta (from, FAfl), 
(from SiScurxw, AAft), Tre^i/uTa (from <uco), tffraus (from 'IO-TTJ/JLI, 2TAH), 
(with /ie/idcfo and /teyuaJrey from MAH). The accented o of the oblique cases 
can, in the first instance, according to the necessities of the verse, be lengthened 
into w, hence T&VTIOTOS and -WTOS, TC^J'TJ^TO and -core, KCK^TJ^TO and -WTO ; but 
when the Nom. has a short penult, to is always used (except in lo-raJros), e. g. 
fif&auTos. The ending -ws, formed by contraction, is resolved by e in TreTrre&h-a 
(from iriTTTeo), Te&yeam, and according to the necessities of the verse, e can be 
lengthened into ei, e. g. Tedreiw-ros. The feminine form -wtro is found only in 
Pefiajcra, Od. u, 14 ; in some feminine forms, the antepenult, which properly would 
be long, is shortened on account of the verse, e. g. apapv'ia (Fern, of apripc&s from 
apaplffKu), p.f/j.a.Kuia (of ^ue^uTjKcos, from fj-rjicdiofjuu), re&aAvTa (of T&r)\<i>s } from 
3xiAA), \f\aKv7a (of \f\iiK<i>s, from \d(TKw), ireTra&vta (from TTCIO-XCU). 

REMARK 1. The form resolved by e, in the Ionic dialect, has become the 

permanent one with some participles, e. g. e<rrec6s; so rebveds (never 

from re'&j/TjKa, remains even in the Attic dialect. In these forms, 

the u remains through all the cases, e. g. 

fffT(>s, eo-Tewtro, effreds, Gen. eo-rewTOS, -(ixrr]s 
r&Vfcas, TedreaJtra, Te^j/ec5s, Gen. Tf&vewros, -dxrris. 

BejSTjKo and rerXrjKa never have these forms. Comp. 193, Hem. 3. 

14. Some verbs, which in the stem of the Pres. have the diphthong /, 
shorten it in the Epic and poetic dialect into v, in the Perf. Mid. or Pass., and 
in the first Aor. Pass., e. g. 

t, to ask, IT eirvff ; ffevca, to shake, Mid. and Pass, to hasten, eff<rv- 
Aor. Pass. eVo-udrji/; reux w (P oet -)> paro, Perf. Teruy^at, Aor. 
' < / >6 ^7 5 to flee, Perf. irec 

REM. 2. X eeo (formed from x^ X 6 ^)! * ^ OMr Ouf 5 follows the analogy of 
these verbs, in the forms KC'XVKO, /cc'x^at, ^x^" 5 tnese forms have been trans- 
ferred to the Common language also ($ 154, Rem. 1 ). Contrary to the analogy 

224. CONJUGATION IN -fit. 269 

-tatcd, the v is long in the Homeric form ir^iryvfuu from irveu (*WF), to 

REM. 3. In Homer, Od. <r, 238, the third Pers. Opt. Plup. AeADro instead of 
\t\viro is found, according to the analogy of irrryvvro, Satvvro. 

KIM. 4. Tin- Homeric Perfects cwaxV c " os ) aAaX^eyoy, apr/^/xevoy, t\i]\dnf- 
vos, OKOXTJO'&CU, a\d\rjff^ai, have the accentuation of the Pres. 

$ 224. Conjugation in -fu. 

1. On the lengthened form of the second Pers. T/^TJO-^O, S&onr&a, see 220, 
2; on the Iterative forms in -a/coi', see 221 ; on the Inf. forms in -/xei/aj, -^ev, 
see 220, 18. 

2. In the Epic, Ion., and Dor. writers, some verbs in -/JLI in the second and 
third Pers. Sing. Pres. and Impf., frequently have the contracted forms of verbs 
in -4<a and -o ( 172, Rem. 8), e.g. ri&ely, Ti&e?, 8i5o?y, 5t5oT, eV&ei, tSiSovs, 

fr( ; contracted forms of tbrTjjiu are very rare, e.g. lira, instead of 
Her. 4, 103. In the second Aor. Opt. Mid. the Ionic writers have the 
resolved form &eo f/tijy, as if from EH, e. g. irpos&eoiTo, vpo&eour&f. 

3. In the Epic dialect, verbs in -D^u form an Opt., not only in the Mid., as 
sometimes in Attic writers, c. g. Sou/Dro, II. , 665. (comp. AeAOro, 223, Rem. 
3), from Ja/j/tvwu, but also in the Act., e. g. l/cSv/tcp (instead of ^Sy^ei/) from 

j (instead of <f>v/7j) from <^uo>; so <^?o, ^?TO Opt. of l<^ip.f]v from 

4. The third Pers. PL Impf. and second Aor. in -e-o-cw, -7j-<r<w, -o-o-eo/, 
-u-o-oj/, are abridged in the Epic and Dor. dialects into -ey, -dj/, -ov, -vv, e. g. 
eT&ev instead of 4ridfffav, e&fv, &eV instead of e&e<rai' ; lardj/, GTO.V instead of 
to-Tr)<rav, <pb&y instead of Ify&Tjo-cw, e)8a', )3ai/ instead of (0r}<Tav; e5t5oy, 5j'5oi/ 
intend of 45i8o<rav. 5o^, 5oV instead of eSoeraj/ ; e^i/j/ instead of etyvffav. 

5. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. Act. has in Horn, the common form 
TO-TTJ, but II. i, 202. Kc&io-Ta ; Troribet in Theoc. instead of -jrorl^fs or irp6s&fs 
from TI0EH. In the second Pers. Sing. Pres. and second Aor. Mid. Imp., 
Homer rejects the <r and admits the uncontracted form even when it could be 
contracted, e. g. Sa^vo, /xapj/ao, <ao, avv&fo, /&eo. In the Ion. dialect, the first 
a of the ending -curou, second Pers. Mid. or Pass., is changed into e, after the 
rejection of the <r, e. g. ^irf ITT eat, Svveat, instead of 4Tri<rTa<rcu, 8W<rcu; hence 
the contracted forms ^IT/O-TTJ in the Ion. poets, and also Svvri ( 172, 2) in the 

6. The short stem-vowel is sometimes lengthened before personal-endings 
beginning with p and j/, according to the demand of the measure, e. g. rj^ij^e- 
vos ; SiSovvcu ; so also 8f5a>&i. 1\7)&i instead of VAddi. 

7. The third Pers. Sing. Subj. has often in the Epic dialect the ending -<n 
( 220, 4), e. g. 8<<n and Scfyen (instead of S), /j.e&irj<n. 

8. The contracted Subj. of verbs with the characteristic a and e, is sometimes 
rc-ulvcd by e in the second Aor., Epic dialect, and regularly in the Ion. 

(a) Verbs in -a (UTTT^I) : 

(Iffrd-) Iffrta Ion. icrre-co, jVre-Tjs, IffTf-ufjiev^ -e'-Tjre, -t-<a<ri 
(ffrd-) crru " O"T-W, (TT6-7?s, O-T-OJ^^, etc. 




[$ 224. 

REMARK 1. So also in Herod.: Trpoeo-Teore and eo-reWt, eo-rec^s, instead of 
-ocun, -acbs, Gen. eo-rewros, Neut. etrrecfo, Fern, eorewo-o. So also in the Att 
ds (with Te&vrjKws), Tedrewcra, Te&j/ews, Gen. 

(b) Verbs in e (rfthj^t) : 
n&w Ion. Tifre- 


, -e-Tjre, -e-a<ri 

, etc. 


, etc. 

REM. 2. Here also the two Aorists of the Pass, of all verbs are like the 
verb TJ&TJ^I, e. g. 

-775 Ion. rvTreca, -eps, -c<a/j.fv, -c'Tjre 
-ps " Sa/ue'w, -eps, -ecD^tej/, -eTjre 
, -77$ " eupe&ew, -eps, etc. 

(c) Verbs in o (St5a/xi) ; the contracted second Aor. Subj. is resolved in 
Homer by means of o>, e. g. Sdxavt instead of Sun. 

9. In the Subj. second Aor., Homer uses the following forms, according to 
the nature of the verse : 

Sing. 1. 



Plur. 1. 


Sing. 1. 



Plur. 1. 


Sing. 1. 


Plur. 1. 










Resolved and lengthened forms, 

ffr-fjp, ^87^77, ^77, 

(dissyllable) o-Te/o/ief, KaTo^efo/xev 

i, n. P , 95. 

(&677S, ^TJTJS, and 
^77, ^77, 0^77, a 


Sce77<rt(y) and Scij 

REM. 3. The resolution by means of e is found in verbs with the stem- 
vowels o or e; the e is commonly lengthened, (a) into ei before an o sound; 
(b) into rj before 77 in verbs with the stem-vowel o; (c) sometimes into i, some- 
times into i] before 77, in verbs with the stem-vowel e. Verbs with the stem- 
vowel o are resolved by w. 

10. The Impf. ^TI^T/J/, or commonly erl&ovv, has in the Ion. the form 
(like eVeru^ea Ion. instead of CTCTV^IV, 220, 8), e'r/frces, -ee, etc. 

11. In Homer, a shortened form of the first Aor. e<rT7j<rc/, is found, namely, 

', they placed, II. /A, 56. Od. 7, 182. (r, 307 ; also e'aTTjre (with the variation 
)i II. S, 243, 246, instead of e'cn-dre 

", 22G.] CONJUGATION IN -/At. Ei/u, TO BE. E7/XI, TO GO. 271 

12. In the third TIT-. I'l. Mid. or Pa-<. tin- v hi- fore the personal-endings -rat 
and -TO is regularly rhan<M>d, hy the Ion. writers, into o ( 220, 13), c. g. 

T&tarcu, StSJareu, t'SeiKj/uaro Ion., instead of T&eirai, etc. 

But when nn a precedes the v, the a is changed into , and v into o, e. g. iVrcarcu 
Ion., instead of 'iffravrai^ Ion., instead of arTairo. 

13. The third Pel's. Sing, in the Doric is -TI, c. g. for art, T^TI, Si'Sam, 8f//c- 
rOr, and the third Pers. PI. ends in -VTI, c. g. /O-TCUTJ, Ti&eVri, 5i5<W, IfUtP&Tf. 

14. The forms of the first Aor. Mid. ^/cefyoji/ and &UK&HW and the Part. 
dijKo^ej/os arc found in the Ion. and Dor. writers ; on the contrary, the Att. 
writers use here also, the forms of the second Aor. Mid. The remaining 
Modes, as also the Part. SwKa.^et/os, arc not found. 

15. From 8i8w/u, Homer has a reduplicated Fut. StScScrofiep and StSc&rew. 

$225. Et/xi ('E2-) to be. 




ip.pi JEo\., instead of c<r-/j.t 
laal Epic, also Eur. Hel. 1250. 
fls Ion. 
^KT/ Dor. 
flfjifv Epic and Ion. 
<<TT6 regular 
eurt(i') Epic and Ion., ^yrf Dor. 

1. ew Ep. and Ion. per flu Ep. 
2. j?s Ion. 
3. rj?, tfffi(v), $ffi(t>), efy Epic, ^ 
Ep. and Ion. 
PI. eoj/iev, 77Te, eo)(rt Ep. and Ion. 

S. 2. 0-<ro JEol. and Epic 
P. 3. Uvtwv Ion. 

Inf. e/icj'cu., epci', f/jt/j.fv Epic 
fyuej' or ^/ics, e?/xi' or et/xes Dor. 

t<t>V, ^oG(TO, 

tov Ep. and Ion. 



P. 1. 


%a (comp. ^-n'&ea), ^a, eor, to-Kov Epic and Ion. 
e7j<r^o Epic, eos Ion. 
TJI/ Ep. and Ion. ffaj/, ^ei/, <r('), Ep., ^s Dor. 
^O-TTJV Epic 
^uei/ or ?5/ns, cT/xei/ or el/^es Dor. 
tare Ion. 
(ra/ (eTreffoi/) Epic and Ion. ; ctaro (instead of 
3/To) Od. u, 106. 


01 Epic and Ion. 

e?T Epic 
flev Epic 

Fid. &ro/ and favo^ou. etc. Epic, according to the necessities of the verse, 
2. e<Toz. 3. 6<reTat, ^<r?Tat. 

Pres. Ind. S. 2. 


Lnpf Ind. S. 1. 



22G. ET/At ('!-)> to S- 

i Epic, els Ion. Subj. Sing. 2. Pcrs. fytrda Epic 
i, fytfj/ Epic 

fjifa (and jyeii/) Epic and Ion., %'iov Epic 

tfies (and ^fets), ?S Epic 

#e (and pet) Epic and Ion , fjiefj/) Epic, ^ 


r\iov Epic, fiiaa.v and rjaav Epic and Ion., tffav Epic 

frriv Epic 

tot Epic, tetT? II. T, 209. (eV and efy II. o, 82. w, 139. Od. |, 496, 

272 DIALECTS. [$ 227. 




Opt. S. 3. 

come from et'/it)- 
jFu*. and J.o/\ Mid. efrro/xat, efrraro, third Pers. Dual teicrd<r&r)v, II. o, 544. 



$227. (1) Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 

In addition to the Aor. forms mentioned ( 191, 192), the poetic and 
especially the Epic dialect has the following : 


(a) Stem- Vowel a (e/3T?v, BA-) : 

/3a"AAa>, to throw, Epic second Aor. Act. (BAA-, e/JArjv) |u / u/3A7jTTji', Od. <, 15, 
Inf. lu/ijSA^uepai (instead of -?}i/at), II. <J>, 578 ; Epic second Aor. Mid. (e')8Arj- 
/MJJ>) C^ATJTO, 1^1/3 AT; J/TO, II. |, 27, Inf. A?5cr&a(, Part. j8AT?,uej/os, Subj. II^ATJ- 
rat, )8AtjeTat (instead of /BAT/r/Tat), Od. p, 472, Opt. Ae?o (from BAE-, comp. 
irt^TrATj^t), II. y, 288. Hence the Put. ^\^{ro/ 

"Ynpdca, or yrjpdtTKG}, to grow old, second Aor. third Pers. Sing, ty-ftpa, II. p, 197, 
KaTfyfjpa, Herod. 6, 72, Inf. (Att.) ynpavai, Part. (Epic) yripds. The a. in 
tyripa., etc. is used instead of i\ on account of the preceding p. See StSpoV/cw, 
192, 1. 

KTeiVco, to fc/7/, Epic and poet, second Aor. Act. (KTA-) e/crav retains the short 
vowel ; thus, e/cTd^tej/, tf/cTare, third Pers. PL also ZKTO.V instead of c/crdcraj', 
Subj. KTW (first Pers. PI. KT^W^V Epic), Opt. /craiTji/, Inf. /cravat, (Epic /cxa^tei/, 
Kra^uevat), Part. ACTOJ ; Epic second Aor. Mid. with Pass, sense, cbre'/craro, 
/cracTidat, Ka.Ta.KTa.iJ.tvos. 

ovrdw, to wound, Epic second Aor. Act. oSra third Pers. Sing., Inf. ovrdpej/ai, 
ovrdfj-ev (the a remains short as in e/cTdv) ; Epic second Aor. Mid. 

, fo approach, Epic second Aor. Mid. CTTATJ^I/, (Att. eVAa/nji'), ir\TJTO 

(irt/j.Tr\T]fj.i), to Jill, Epic second Aor. Mid. ^TTATJTO and TTA^TO, 
also in Aristoph., who uses the following forms also : Imp. TTA^O-O, Part. e^uTrA^- 
/ievos, Opt. f/j.w\yfj.i]v with the variation ^iwrAet'/w/J', as xp et/7 7 from xp-fj(dca) and 
)3Ae?o from ejSA^Tji/ (BAA-). 

'fjaffw, to shrink with fear, Epic second Aor. Act. (IITA-) (CTTTTJI/) 
tliird Pers. Dual. 
dvci), to come before, Epic second Aor. Mid. 

REMARK. From e^v (/3afi/o>) are found in Homer the forms /3aT7jj> (third 
Pers. Dual) and unep^dcrai' (third Pers. PI.) with the short stem-vowel. 

$ 227.] VERBS IN -0) LIKE VERBS IN -fU. 273 

(b) Stem- Vowel (tafav, 2BE-): 

AAfl. Epic, stem of 5i8cunc, to teach, second Aor. Act. (AAE-) iSdrjy t I learned, 
Sulj. Saw, Epic 8ae/u>, Inf. 5a/]raj, Epic 8a.-f)p.tvai. 

(c) Stem-Vowel i: 
, to consume nnd to vanish. Epic second Aor. Mid. tydfyiT/i', <p&lffbou, <pbl- 

(d) Stem-Vowel o (yiw, TNO-) : 

TKot, to eat, Epic second Aor. Act. f/3pw. See 161, 6. 
(Epic and Ion. secondary form of irAe'w), to sail, Epic second Aor. Act. 
, Part. irAws, Gen. ir\u>vros. 

(e) Stem- Vowel v (SfSuv): 
(poet.), to /tear, Epic Imp. second Aor. Act. /cAu&t, AcAvre; and 

219, 7). 

Auw, to /oose, Epic second Aor. Mid. AUTO, \wro. 

ew, to breathe, Epic second Aor. Mid. (I1NT-, from irvtFw, irvtvu) &f*irvvro 

instead of aveirvvro, to breathe again. 

vta, to shake, Epic second Aor. Mid. cVo-ujuTjj/, I strove, co-ffvo, ffvro. 
X<w, to pour out, Epic second Aor. Mid. (XT-, from x 6 '^"* 


$AAo,uaj, to /ea/>, Epic and second Aor. Mid. oA<ro,, 
Subj. &\T]Tat. 

('AP-), to^f, Epic &pfj.fvos, fitted. 

, to take, Epic, from, tbe Digamma being changed into 7 and the 
radical A before r into v ( 203, B). 
i, to become, poet. eyei/To, ytvro. 

to tol-e, Epic cSe/cro, Inf. Se'x&a', Imp. Se'lo. The first Pers. Sing. 
and tbe Part. Seypfi/os have, like the Perf. SeScy/juu, the meaning to 
expect, aicait. 

Cw, to tcfoW, Epic ^AeAiKTO. 

y to come, Epic Tro, "iK^tvos and IK^VOS, favorable. 
AEXn, to /ic rfoirn, Epic i\fyfjLijv, ^Ae/cro, to /(/?/ one's self down (same sense as 
i\f^dfj.rjy), Imp. Ae'|o. Ae^w, to collect, to choose, to count, Od. i, 335. e\yfjLr)v, 
I counted myself, Od. 8, 451. AeVro apt^^v, he counted the number. 
utaivta, to soil, Epic puivfrr)!' (third Pers. Dual, instead of ^/uic(v-<r^jv). 
uiiryu (/j.iywiju), to mix, Epic filter o. 

opvvca (tpwfju), to excite, Epic pro, Inf. ^p^cu, Imp. 8p<ro, 6p<reo, Part, op/twos. 
ird\\(t>, to brandish, Epic TTCATO, Ae sprang. 

, to destroy, perdo. Homer uses irtpbcu instead of 
), to Jix, Epic WTJKTO, 

274 DIALECTS. [$ 228. 

$228. (2) Perf. and Plup. Act. (Comp. ft 193, 194). 

(a) The Stem ends in a Vowel. 
ylyvo/ t to become; TEFAA, Stem TA : Perf. (Sing, yeyova, -as, -e) Epic and 

poet, yeya./', -are, -dd.<n(v), Inf. Epic yeyd/j.ev, Part. poet. yeyds, 767050-0, 

ycyds, Gen. ytywTos : Plup. Epic Kyfya.Tt)v. 
Batvw, to go, Perf. ftfft-rjKa, BEBAA: Epic and poet. PI. ej8d,uei/, -are, -a<n(v), and 

fepda<ri(v) ; third Pers. PL Subj. ^e^axri (PL Phaed. 252, e), Inf. fefr&vai, 

Part. Epic fa&ads (also Attic prose fcBi&s, Xen. Hell. 7. 2, 3), -via (BeBw<ra, 

PL Phaed. 254, b), Gen. BeBauTos (Att. jSefrSros) ; Plup. ^SejSa/Aep, -are, 

SefSw, to fear ; besides the forms mentioned ( 193), the following Epic forms 

are to be noted: Sfititfuev, Sef&re; Inf. SfiHipev instead of SeSzeVcu; Imp. 

SfiS&i, SeiSire] Plup. eSeiSijuev, fSefoiffav., to come, Perf. Epic eiA^Aoufra instead of eA^jAvd-a, PL el\-f)\ov&u.ev. 
&VT]<TK<i)i to die, Perf. rebvyxa, TE0NAA : PL Tedj/d/*ej/, re'draTe, Ted-i/o<n('), Imp. 

r&yo&f, Part. T&VTIK&S, Tc^vr]Kv?a, re^j/Tj/c^s or re^i/etcy (re^i/ewd-a. Demosth. 

40, 24), re&vec&s (Epic re^r/ws, -WTOS, -TJ^TOS), Inf. Te3-/afai (Aesch. 

from re&vafvcu, Epic re^o/Aev, -a^tei/ot) : Plup. eTfavaffav, Opt. 
TAAIi, to endure (second Aor. erA.Tjj'), Perf. TfT\ijKa, TETAAA: Dual 

PL TfT\dfiev, TerAdre, TTAa(rt(v), Imp. re'rAd^t, -OTO>, etc., Subj. wanting, 

Inf. T6TAcu/a< (Epic TfT\d/j.v), but Part. Epic TerA^ccs ; Plup. Dual eVe'rAd-roy, 

fTfT\aT7)v, PL tTeT\afj.ev, eTeVAdre, ^TeT\a.<rav, Opt. TerAairjj/. 
MAX1, to sfn'ye, Perf. fj.ifj.ova; MEMAA : Epic /j.efj.afj.ev, -Urov, -ore, -ia<n(r), Imp. 
w, Part. (j.e/j.a(as, Gen. (j.efj.a<oros and p.ffjia.6ros, third Pers. PL Plup. 

Here belong the two participles of 

>, to ectf (second Aor. eppwv), Perf. j8e)3pa>Ka, poet. j3ej8pc6s, Gen. -WTOS; 
JT/TTTW, to ,/a//, TreTTTWKa, Epic TreTrrews, Att. poet. TreTrrc^s. 

(b) The Stem ends in a Consonant. 

It is to be observed in respect to the formation, that when the consonant of 
the stem comes before a personal-ending beginning with T, the r is changed 
into &, and thus these forms assume the appearance of a Mid. form, e. g. 
irei'bco, to persuade, ireiro&a, to trust, Epic Plup. ^reViid/tei', Imp. in Aeschyl. 

Eum. 602, TreVeHT&i (instead of TreW&t)- 

EEMARK. Thus the Epic form ireiroff&e, stem HEN with the variable o 
(I1ON0), instead of TreiroV^are from ird<rx*>] from TreTroV&are by dropping the 
connecting vowel o, comes ireVoj/^Te ; and hence as a Tau-mute before another 
Tau-mute is changed into <r (17, 5, comp. ZS-re = fore), TreTroi/^re becomes 
ireTrovff&e, and as v is dropped before <r, TreVoo-Te ; finally, this form, as has been 
seen, assumed the appearance of the Mid. form (&e) and so became ireirocr&e. 

Perf. Ind. S. 



KfKpaya, -as, -e(v) (/cpao>, to bawl), Plup. 
KfKpayaTOV KfKpax&ov 
Kficpayarov K.tKpax&ov 

...] vrnns IN -co LIKE VERBS IN -/xi. 275 

P. 1. 


p&yafJLfV Ktitpayptv itttitpdyeintv ^K(Kpayfj.fy 



' a X&*i ctc - ^ n ^ Kfitpaywai, Part. KfKpayus. 

So the Epic Pcrf. tfyo^a with the sense of the Pres. I command, Hvcoyas, 

PI. axe^ieK; Imp. &vtayf and ifo>x^', dj/aryeVew and aj/^x&w, apcfycrc and 
co,-X&; Suhj. di/wT?;; Inf. aporxcjuei/ ; Plup- ^^c^ea, tytayfi ; Opt. avdryois. 

tydpta, to nimArw, Perf. typrfjyopa (stem 'EFEP with the variable o), /am awake; 
from this, Homer has the forms: Imp. eypjiyopbe instead of fypryjpare, Inf. 
typijydp&ou (as if from 3ypJ) and typrjy6pSa(n(v) instead of typriy6pa- 
<ri(v) third Pers. PL 

I5a, I know, the regular forms ofSa^ep, oJfSore, of5o<rt(i') are found but rarely in 
the Ion. and Att. writers ( 195, 1), second Pers. olSas in Horn, and Ion 
(rarely Att. 195, 1). The form ft-pcy is Epic, Ion., and Doric. Inf. ffyteveu 
and Tfytev Epic, Subj. iScw Epic instead of ct'Sw (Ion. 5e'), Part. I5via Epic 
and eJ5i/?o, 

P/wp. 1. Pers. Sing. rjiSea (hence the Att. $5ij) Epic instead of rjSfiv 

2. " " ijftiifis and ^elSTjs Epic instead of fjSeis 

3. " " fci'Sei and Tje^T?, ';5('), Epic instead of fjtet ; fctSe, 

Herod. f.ttS 

3. " PL fray Epic instead of pSeo-ew. 
Fut. etSijtrw Epic and also efcro/xat. 

, 7am W-, Epic, CIKTOV (Dual), eticTijv (Plup. Dual) ; hence in Plup. Mid. 
or Pass. i/cTo. 

$229. (3) Present and Imperfect. 

Finally, there arc certain forms of the Pres. and Impf. mostly in the Epic 
dialect, which after the analogy of verbs in -j, take the personal-endings with- 
out the Mode- vowel. Thus : 

, to complete, in Theocritus : Impf. &vv-(ifs (instead of ^n5o/t'), 6.v\>-ro (instead 
of TJWCTO). 

, to stretch, to span, H. p, 393. rdvv-rai (instead of ravuerai). 
, to draw, tpvrtu, ftpvro, Ipvro, %pvao, pvtr&cu ( 230). 

, to shake, Epic Pres. <reDrat and (by variation) <roOrot, Imp. <rov<ro and 
abridged <rov, <rov(rb(, ffovff&to (to move one's self, to hasten). The Imp. haa 
passed into the common colloquial language. 
&, commonly &r&fo>, to eat, Epic, Inf. eS^iei/cu. 
<p(p<0, to carry, Epic Imp. Qfprf instead of <ptperf, 

276 DIALECTS. [$ 230. 

230. Alphabetical List of Verbs in the Dialects 
to be specially noted. 

'Ada (aFdw), to hurt, to deceive; Horn. d-f^cu; the Att. Tragedians use the 

has the following forms : Aor. oocra following forms : qvarw and &acra>, 

and a<ra ; Pres. Mid. aarai, Aor. aatrd- jja, aai and ^a. aai. 

IJ.T]V, Aor. Pass, adadriv. Verb. Adj. d'/a> (Ep.). to hear, only Pres. and Impf. 

a.ar6s (a-daros). aiov. Comp. eira/'w., Epic and Ion. prose ( 164) d/cax'C*' (Epic), to trouble, stem 'AXU, 

and aydo/ (Ep.), to be angry at, and second Aor. ^/ca%oy; Fut. dK-ax'V' 1 ') 

in the Pres. Epic also to grudge, to first Aor. rj/raxw* j Mid d/cax'CoA 40 ") 

enuy, Put. ayd< ; Aor. yyaad/j.yv. &xo/J,ai or axwfjai, to 6e sarf, Aor. 
>, to collect, Epic second Aor. Mid. r?/cax<V? 1 ' (219, 7) ; Perf. d/c^x^A 40 " 

ayspovTo, Part, ayp6fj.evos ( 223, 11); ( 219, 8, comp. apr), 6pu>pffj,ai) 

Plup. aynyeparo > Aor. Pass. d/ye'pdTj, and aKa-x^^ai, third Pers. PI. aKrjx^- 

third Pers. PI. ayep&ev ; Epic Pres. Sarat ( 220, Rem. 2) and d/ojxe'arai, 

i) ( 162). Part. d;c7JxeV ei/0 s an( l d/cox^/wej/os, Inf. 

d-yj/oe'co, to 6e ignorant, Ep. Aor. j)yvoir)(re a.Kdx'no'&ai ( 223, Rem. 4); Plup. 

( 207, I), dy^o-oo-Ke ( 205, 5). Epic d/caxe/oro. 

&7fO/i(. to 6reaA:, Aor. Epic ^|a instead aKax^vos (Epic), sharpened, pointed, 

of ea|a ; third Pers. PI. Aor. Pass. from 'AKft, acuo, instead of ct.Kdyfj.evos 

&yfv Epic instead of (dyi)<rai>. ( 19, Rem. 1, and 208, 2). The x 

&yca, to lead, Epic second Aor. Imp. comes from the Perf. Act. 

&|eTe, Inf. dle^ej/ai, d|e' J uei' ( 223, d/cijSew, to neglect, Aor. d*ii75e<re(i>). 

10); first Aor. Mid. &a<r&, ^lai'To. oAao/, to wander about. Ep. Perf. d\t- 
(prose a'Sa>), to sm#, Epic second A^ai ( 219, 8), a^^/jL^os, dAaATjo- 

Aor. Imp. de/a-60 ( 223, 10). ^ai ( 223, Rem. 4). 

(prose ctipca), to raise, Epic first dASaiVw, to ma^e increase, Epic Aor. 

Aor. Act. #etpa, Mid. detpa.uTji/, Pass. f?A.5ai'e('). 

aepSrriv ; Epic second Aor. Mid. ap6- a\fw, to keep off, Epic second Aor. 

fiijp from aipw; Epic Plup. ^wpro ij\a\Kov ( 219, 7), (from 'AAKfl), 

instead of fipro with the variable dA.aA.KeIV, a\a\K(ai/ ; Fill. dAa\/dj(ra>. 

vowel, and transposition of the aug- dAe'o/tat and a\evo/ (Epic), to s/iwn, 

ment; Epic Pres. f/epe'&o^cu ( 162). Aor. ytevd/j.rjj', Subj. dAeTjrat, Opt. 
'AHMI, ('AE-,) to 6/ow; in Homer, are: dAe'curo, Imp. dAeW^e, Inf. oAeuatr^at 

Part, dei's, deVros ; third Pers. Sing. and dAe'cwrdcu ( 223, 8). 

Impf. #77, ^et, Siciet ('AEH) ; in the dA&V/cco, dA^iV/cw (Ion. prose), to 7iea?, 

other forms, the 77 remains contrary Eut. dA^e|w, etc. 

to the analogy of T&T^I ( 224, 6): dAiraiW (Epic and poet.), to sm, Fut. 

STJTOJ/, d^vat, a-f),ufvai ; Mid. and Pass. aXir-fiffoa ; Aor. tfXirov, a.\ir6fj.t]Vy a\i- 

&ri/, to blow, v6/j.evos Kal a-fi^-fvos, reV&aj ; Perf. a\ir-f]fj.fvos, sinful ( 223, 

drenched with rain and beaten with the Rem. 4). 

wind; Impf. Mid. &JTO. aAAo^tat, to spring, Epic second Aor. 

otSo^ot and euMofuu in Homer, to 6e Mid. aAtro, etc. ( 227, B). 

ashamed, to respect, Epic ai8-f)<, aXvitrtca, to be in trouble, Epic Perf. dAa- 
SeV^Tji' and TjSeo-a^T?;/. AwcTTj/zai ( 219, 8). 

(Ep.), to ta&e ( instead of ctfpvv/j.a.1, dAuo-/cw (Ep.), to escape, dAu|o>, ^Au|o. 
169, Rem. 1), only Pres. and Impf. dA^aiW (Ep.)> to find, Sec. Aor. dA<j!>e?i/. 
aipeca, to take, Ion. Perf. apaiprjKa, apai- d^apra^a), to m/ss, Epic Aor. ?nj.$poTov 

pwai ( 219, 8); Epic second Aor. (ft 223, 11, and 208, 3). 

Mid. 7eVro instead of cAero ( 227, d/iTrAa/ctV/cco (Ep. and poet.), to err, Fut. 

B). d/*7TAa:7]<rw 5 Aor. ^TrAaKOi/. 

atffffw, Epic (a, but uTra'^ei, II. ^>, 126 ; d^Sai/a) (Ep., poet., and Ion.), to please, 

I) instead of oto-ow, to rus/i, Ep. forms : Impf. eai/Sowoj/ (Herod.), 4V5. and 

#'!a ; Subj. df|co, Part. dt|as ; Aor. 5jj/S. (Ep.) ; Aor. eaSoi/ (Herod.), a5o? 

Pass. i)txfrnv (also in Plat.), Inf. di*- (Ep.) ; Inf. dSely; Peif. ed8a; Fut 


a.H<T<a. Aug.. 219, 4, 5. In The- Mid. Trans., to lead, ^TJCTO, 
ocritus Ia5e ; Ep. Aor. fSaSov (ft 219, /UTJJ/ ; second Aor. Mid. Iftfotro, Imp. 

4, and 207, 3). ixi&itreo ($ 223, 10). En. secondary 

' tfe, 

to sj-.riiiij up, Ep. Pert', with form : /Si/SaVdwi/, to itetfe, strength- 

Ait. R duplication and the variable ened secondary form from &alvu\ 

o ($$ 219. 8, and 140, 4), from also .j8o, jSijSdura, piQuea and (from 

'ANEefl. BIBHMI) <j8(*y; finally, Imp. /3((T/cf, 

, /o wieef. Epic ^i/rco? [$ 222. A and Jnf. <?7rij8a<T/c>fj>. 

(2)J ; <ru'aj/T^TTj> ( 222. Rem. 1 ). /JaAAw, to throw, Ep. second Aor. 
avvw, to complete. Epic Impf. in Theoc. ^A^TJJ/ [ 227, A (a)], Fut. 

<m~juc;, &IWTO ( 229). /uou ; Ep. Perf. /BejSo'Aijjucu (used of the 

tfj/arya ( Ep. and poet. Perf), to command, mind) ; but cj3A7)/uu (of the body). 

&'ary 1 uej>, Imp. aVa>x&t, etc. (228); ftaptu (Ep.), tote Aeary. ej8ap7?cs ( 223, 

riup. i><7e ( 220, 8). In certain 13). 

forms this Perf. is changed into the &f0pu&ois (Ep.), to eat, instead of 0i- 

infleetion of the Pres., e. g. third PptfxrKots. 

Pcrs. Sing. ai><f>yct, Impf. rfvcayov and and, I will go, will live, 

avoryoi/; Fut. aj/c|o>; Aor. ^o>a. Ep. Fut. /Ser?, 0e6nrba ( 223, 7). 

iuravpdca (Epic), to take away, Impf. 0ido( (Ep.) instead of tao/xc, to 

air-nvpuv, -as, -o ; first Aor. Act. Part. force, tfti-fjo-aro, &ffi'n]Kf. 

airovpas ; first Aor. Mid. &7rrji;poTo, (3tfipw<TKo<), to eat, Ep. Aor. t/Spwv [ 227, 

Part. a.irovpdiJ.evos. A (d)] ; Perf. Part, fitfipus, -uros 

biraQiffKa (Ep.), to deceive, Fut. aira<p-fi- (228). 

(Tw, second Aor. Act. ijiraQoi', Opt. fi\<t>ffK(a (Ep. and poet.), to 90, instead 

Mid. air<i<poiTO. of fj.\ca<ric(i) ( 18, 3), Aor. tfj.o\ov, 

iTTfiAew (Ep.), to threaten, aTrejA^-njj' /uoA?i/, fio\cav (also X. An. 7. 1,33, 

( 222, Rem. 1). /u($Aaxnj/) ; Perf. p.4^\<aKa( instead of 

a.ir6(p<rf, an Ep. Aor., he hurried off, /ie^e'Aw/co) ; Fut. /j.o\ov/ 

Subj. iLirotpar), Opt. airoepfffie. )8oao>, to cry ow<, Ep. Aor. e/3a>cra instead 

OTTTW, to join to, Ep. Aor. Pass, ecty&r;, of tf6r]<ra. ( 205, 5). 

ye// on. Pov\, to will, Ep. <to.eTai, 

apap'urxca (Ep.), to ^, Stem APn, first ( 207, 4), 7rpo)8e)3ouAa, I prefer. 

Aor. ^p<ra, opcraj ( 223, 6) ; first Aor., to roar, Ep. Perf. 

Pass. fi/)<^^ instead of ip&n<rav ; sec- with the sense of the Pres. 

ond Aor. fyapov ( 219, 7; also In- Tafj.(ca, to marry, Ep. Fut. japta; Ep. 

trans, to 6e adapted, to please), more Fut. -yc/ieVo-erai, II. t, 394, will give in 

usual than the first Aor. ; Perf. &pd- marriage. 

pa (Ion. &pT)pa) ( 219, 8), I am fitted, ydvi'/ (Ep.), to 6e <7/ac?, ydvvrai ; Fut. 

Intrans., Ep. apdpi/?a ( 223, 13), Perf. ya.vva<rrrai. 

Mid. or Pass, ap-hpf/j-at, ap^pt^vos TAH, Ep. Perf., yfya/jLev, to have become, 

( 223, Rem. 4) j Aor. &p^vos, adapted etc. ( 228). 

( 227, B). ytyuva Ep and poet. Perf. with the 

'APAfl, apdo/j-ai, to pray, Epic second sense of the Pres. to cry out ; in Horn., 

Aor. apji/jifvai, Od. x 322. third Pel's. Sing, ytyavf (also with 

&pvufiat, to gain ( 188, 1 ). the sense of the Aor.), Part, yrycovc&s, 

'Afl, Ep., (ft) to blow, see &i)fu; (b) to Inf. y^oW/ie*' ; Plup. iycycavti. From 

s/eep, Aor. fieo-o, 6<ra/ii'5 (c) to sah's- the Perf. a Pres. has been formed of 
ft/ (also Intrans. to 6e satisfied), Inf. which there are in Horn.: Inf.yeyu- 
""d/j.ft'ai instead of a.ffj.fva.i: Fut. &ff<o ; //, Impf. ^767^1/6^1'. 

Aor. 6o-a, aaaadai. Verb. Adj. fioros, ydvop-ai (Ep.), to 6e 6om, to be produced, 

arcs. Aor. Mid. to fojrrf, to 6ear, Subj. yel- 

Balv<a, to walk, to go, Ep. forms : Perf. veai instead of yeiinrjcu. 

fttfantv, etc. ( 228); second Aor. 7Vro, to seize ( 227, B). 

Dual fidr-riv, third Pers. PI. fnrfpfia- yrjpdw, to (jroio old, second Aor. 

( 227, Rem.), third Pers PI. etc. [ 227, A (a)]. 

, 7000; (poet.), to wail, Ep. third Pers. PI. 

tptu>, pdv ( 224, 4), Inf. 

Subj. besides )8cD, etc. : /Seta, jS^jp, /3cf- Aor. 

o/tcv ( 224, 9); first Aor. Act. and Aalviifu (Ep.), to entertain, to feed (in- 


'278 DIALECTS. [$ 230. 

stead of Salr-vvfju, 169, Rem. 1), ere, to await (e. g. an attack, a wild 
Fut. Saurw ; Mid. SaiVu/iat, to feast, to beast), in the following forms : Se'xa- 
consume, second Pers. Sing. Impf. Ind. rat instead of Se'xoi/Tat ( 220, 13), 
SatW (Satwo instead of e'Safo/uao, II. ^ct, 147, Perf. Se'Sey/uat with the 
$ 224, 5), third Pers. Sing. Opt. Sat- sense of the Pres., Fut. SeSe'lo^at, 
VVTO instead of -WTO, third Pers. PI. excipiam, second Aor. Mid. eSe/cro, 
3a.ivva.To; Aor. e'SauraMT?". etc. ( 227, B) ; Perf. Mid. SeSo/ojjue'- 

8aia>, Ep., (a) to divide ($ 164), Fut. vos, awaiting, lurking, II. o, 730. 
SdVoiuat; Aor. (also prose) ^affd^v ; Seuw (instead of Se^w), Ep. instead of 
Perf. Pass. Se'Saoytat, am divided,broken, 8eo?, to wani, from which come eSevr/- 
SeSaioTat ; (b) to burn, to inflame, Perf. ae, Ae wanted, 8/J<rei', Ae was in want 
Se'S^e, Ae burnt; Mid. to 6urn, blaze, of; Mid. Sevo^ai, to 6e wanting, Fut. 
Intrans., second Aor. Subj. SOTJTCU. Sewjcrojuat. 

80,111/0*0; and 8d/j.vT)iJ.i, Ep. secondary AIAHMI (AE-), Ep. and older Ionic- 
form of 8a,uaa>, to subdue, from Att. (Xen.), secondary form of Sew, 
which come third Pers. Sing. Pres. to bind, StSeWt (Xen. An. 5. 8, 24) ; 
Safjiva ; third Pers. Sing. Impf. e'Sajtm* Impf. Si'Srj instead of e'St'Stj, II. A, 105. 
and, Sc^u/aavce ; second Pers. Sifr/jicu (Ep. and Ion.), to seefc; it re- 
Sing. Pres. Mid. Sa^va; Sdfj.vr](ri, tains the i\ (contrary to 170, 1, 
Sd/jLvaficu, etc. comp. 'AH MI) : eSt^jTo, eSi^rjyro, Sf- 

Sap&dvot, to sleep, Epic Aor. eSpo^oy C 7 ?^ 01 ? Si^cvos (in Herod.) ; 
( 223, 11). (Horn.), St'Ceat (Theoc.) ; Fut. 

SoTe'o^iai, Ep. secondary form, used in pai ; Aor. e5t7jcra/jj>. 

the Pres. and Impf., from Soto/ww, to AIHMI (AIE-), of the Act. only eVSt'eorai/ 
divide. (third Pers. PI. Impf.), II. tr, 584, they 

AAH (Ep. and poet.), (a) to feacA (= drove away ; Mid., to wa&e one run, to 
Si^dffKca), (b) to /earn (= SiScur/co/xcu) 5 make free, oftener to scare, to chase 
to (a) belong the Ep. second Aor. (specially with the Inf.), Siej/rot, II. 
Se'Sae (Horn.), e5oe (Theoc. and ^, 475, Star&eu, II, /u, 304, Subj. 
Apoll.); to (b) Sfticuas (Horn.), 8e5e- 8i?jTa<, StWrat, Opt. Stoiro (comp. 
off i (in other authors) ; Ep. second ri&oiro). 

Aor. Act. e'Sarjf, / /earned [ 227, A Si'cw (Ep.), to yfee, Sie, Sei'Ste, S/ov, I fled. 
(b)], from which Ep. Sa^o-o/iat, SeSa^j- SovTrtw (Ep.), to soimrf, Perf. SeSouWroy ; 
/ca, SeSaTj^eVos. From the Perf. a Aor. eSovirriira and ^SOUTTTJO-O (from 
new Ep. Pres. has been formed, SeSd- TAOTn-, comp. rvirrta and KTVTTCW). 
o<rS-at, Inf. Here belongs also the 5iW/, to 6e able, second Pers. Ion. 
Ep. Fut. 8-fico (I shall find, meet with), Sweat; Aor. Ep. tdwdcrfrrjv and e'Swjj- 
STjets, S^o/uei/, S^ere ( 223, 7). crd^v ( 179, 2). 

Se'oro (Ep.), if seemed, Aor. Sodffffaro, Svw, to ^ro in, to wrap t<p, Ep. Su/xerat in- 
third Pers. Sing. Subj. SodWerat stead of Svvai from eSuy ; Ep. second 
(instead of -rjrat). Aor. Mid. Sua-ero, Syo-eo, Sv<r6fjievos 

Set'Sw, to fear, the Pres. occurs only in ( 223, 10). 

the first Pers., Fut. SetVo/xat ; Aor. 'Eye/poo, to awake, Ep. Aor. eypero, Ae 
eSeto-a, Ep. eS5era (as is probable auwe, etc. ( 223, 11); Ep. forms of 
originally eS^ettra), Perf. Ep. Set8ot/ca Perf. ejp^yopa are typ-fiyopbe, etc. 
instead of 5e'5<n/ca, and Se/Sto Ep. ( 228). From the Perf 1 . has been 
instead of Se'Sta ( 228). formed the Pres. lypyyopotav, watch- 

8eiKvv/j.i, to show, Ion. (AEK) Se'|w, e8ea, ing, Od. y, 6, as if from eypyyopdw. 
etc.; Mid. Set/w^at in the Ep. dialect eSco and eo-^w (Ep.), to eat (= eV^tw), 
has also the sense, to ^ree, to welcome, Inf. eS/uevat ( 229) ; Impf. eSoi/ and 
to drink to; so also in the Perf. Set- eSeencoi' ; ^ Perf. e'8?jSc6s; Perf. Mid. or 
Seyfj-ai with the sense of the Pres., Pass. e'SijSoTat. 
SetSe'xarat third Pers. PI. ; Plup. Sef- 'En, from which come the Ep. 
Sefcro, to welcome, SetSe'xaro. wonf, accustomed, and the Perf. 

SepKo^at, to see, Ep. second Aor. eSpebcoj/ ( 140, Rem. 3). 

( 223, 11). 'EIAfl, 'lAfl, Aor. eTSov, I saw, Ep. ISor, 

5e'xo/uai, to receive. Ion. Se'/co^uat; in Horn. Inf. t'Se'etj/, Subj. fSw/it ; Ep. Pres. 
this verb signifies also, to ta&e, ea;ci/>- Mid. etSeroi, it seems, et'Sjjueyos, op- 




pcariixj, making like ; Fut. tfoouai ; 
lirst Aor. eurtfytijv and ififfd/jL-nv, tlffd- 
Hevos nnd ^eio-a/uei/os ( 219, 4); sec- 
ond Aor. (SffyiTjv, I saw. 
EIKA, third Pers. Sing. Impf. e7*f, it 
, II. a, 520 ; Perf. OJKO, lam 
, Ep. third Pcrs. Dual ftVrov and 
Plup. tfimji' ( 228), Part, loutcfcand 
II. ;/>, 254. ciK-oSy, eiKuTa and II. <r, 418. 
eiWi/rai; Ep. Plup. Mid. IJIKTO and 
ftVrro, lY tms /i%e. 

t'Av (Ep.), to cover, envelop, fi\6ff(, 

t rxu/ww, third Pers. PI. fl\varai ; from 

Avo> comes Aor. Pass. t\vcrfrr)i>. 

eJfAw, to p-ess, to drive, from which in 

Horn, only fl\6/j.fvos ; in the same 

author, etAe'w, tti\eov ; the rest are 

from 'EA, e. g. cAaai/, Inf. eAo-cu and 

^eA<rcu, Part. eA<ras ( 22,3, 6); 

te\/j.i/os ; second Aor. Pass. 

(from *AA), third Pers. PL 

d\7}/ai and aAT^uevai, a\eis. 

<V, to 6e, 225. 

7/, to (70, 226. 

ffpyw. to shut out, Ep. Impf. 

(162). Comp. rp7<w. 
ftpo/j.a.1 (Ep. nnd Ion.), to ask, Impf. 
c}p6fj.i)v ; Fut. tJpVjo' ; second Aor. 
ilpopyv, Subj. (pw^Lfda, Opt. epojTO, 
Inf. fytffbcu in Horn, with the accent 
of the Pres. ; Ep. secondary forms 
of the Pres. (a) Ipfonc 
Impf. tpcorro; (b) ^pew, Subj. 
/ucv, Opt. tpfoipev, Part. e'pcW. 
'EIPTMI, see ^uo>. 

Ep. and Ion., sero, to arrange in a 
row, to string, first Aor. Qflpas, exse- 
rens, Herod. 3, 87 ; Ep. Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, tepucu, ifppevos (in Herod. 4p- 
/j.fvos), Plup. tepro. 
tfpu, to say, Pres. only Ep., Fut. tpw, 

Ep. ipw. 

f(ra, Ep. Aor., I placed, from the stem 
'EA- (comp. sed-eo), Opt. 
Imp. dffov, Part. Jiff as ( 
vireiffas, Her. 3, 126. 6, 103), Inf. 
<ro* ; Aor. Mid. kcra.fjii]v and 
Part, tycffffdufvos ( Her. 1, 66. el(rd/j.e- 
voi), Imp. ((ptffffai ; Fut. t<p(<rfffff&ai. 
i\a.wco, to drive, Pres. &.<, Ep. 
Impf. Ep. ^Awv; Fut. Ep. 
instead of ^Awtrj; Ep. Perf. 
fie^oy ( 223, Rem. 4), third Pers. 
Sing. Plup. ^AT)Ao8oTo ( 220, Rem. 
2) ; Ion. Perf. t\-{)\a<T/ and Aor. 
Pass, fadffbyv. 

i\f\ifa, to whirl, Ep. second Aor. Mid. 
( 227, B). 

or Ivvtirw (Ep.), to say, to f//, 
Impf. with the sense of the Aor. 
tvfirov, ZvvcnoVi Aor. tvunrov (comp. 
4(nr(fyi7ji' from eVo/xaj), Imp. ^vj<nrer, 
Subj. ivlffTru, Opt. Iviffiroim, Inf. &>t<r- 
ireri/, Fut. 4vty<0 and ^vKrirrjcrw. 
/o^o, Ep. Perf. from 'EN0fl or 'EN- 
E0fl with the sense of the Pres. and 
Impf., iirfvi\vo&t, to sit on, II. 0, 219. 
to /j'e on, H. Cer. 280. Comp. dHjj/o- 
de above. 

(Ep.), to cAz'cfe, second Aor. iv- 
tvltrov, ijv-tTrairfv ( 219, 7). 

tvyvfj.1, to clothe, Ep. and Ion. eft/u^it; 
Ep. Fut. e'trtro) ; Aor. eWo and <ro, 
(ff(rdfj.ijv t ffffffaro, (ffaff&cu ; Perf. 
ef/uat, carat (and eV(rat), efrai, etc., 
flfjitvos: second Pers. Plup. eV<ro, 
third Pers. eVro and eeo-ro, third Pers. 
Dual cadi}?, third Pers. PI. etoro; 
on leWoro, eeo-To, comp. 219, 4. 

?OIK*, 7a; /^-e, 228. Comp. 'EIKA. 

^Trafw, to understand, Aor. &r^t<ra (), 
Herod, and Apollon. (130, Rem. 1 ) ; 
the poet, atd) is found only in Pres. 
and Impf. 

^ (Ep. and poet.), to receive 
advantage or injury from a thing, Aor. 
4inivp6/j.i)v, tiravpfff&cu (first Aor. ^TTTJU- 
po/iT/c in Aeschyl. and in the later 
writers) ; Fut. fTravp^a-ofjiai. Of the 
Act. in the sense to touch, to injure, 
Homer uses, second Aor. Subj. lirav- 
prj, Inf. tiravpt'ii/, eiravpf/j.ev. 

M(rra/, to know, second Pers. &rfo"r?7, 
Ion. poet. 

firu, as a simple, in Act. only Ep. in 
the sense tracto aliquid, to take care of 
(II. , 321); generally used as a 
compound, e. g. ircpteTrw, Sittrca, etc., 
second Aor. Act. eorrov instead of 
y in Homer Itrfffirov, iirunriiv, 
av ; Fut. e//w, Ep. tyfyfis ; Mid. 
also as a simple, generally signifying 
to follow ; Impf. Ep. CTT^TJI/ instead 
of cfa^mp ; Fut. e^ojuai ; second Aor. 
Mid. tOTr^/ttTji/, (TTTeeri^ot, <nrou 
iroC); Ep. forms: (TTreTo, 
Subj. fffrrtafiai, Opt. eenro/^Tji/, Inf. 
e<nreff&ai and ffirfff&ai, Part. 6(nr<fyxe- 
i/os. Herodot. has from irfpieira also 
pt<^'ot and irep<e'if/ea-dcu instead 
of irepie<pfrf]fffff&ai. 

, commonly ^'pyw, Ep., instead of 
efpyta, to shut in and s/if/^ o/, with the 
secondary forms efpyvvpi, tpydSa, 
tfpya&ia,' Aor. tpa; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, etpyijuu, third Pers. PL pxoTu, 

280 DIALECTS. [$ 230. 

third Pers. PL Plup. ee'pxaro and Attic Rcdup.) ; Ep. Plup. 

epXaro ; Aor. Pass, epx&eis. they were closed, II. ytt, 340. 

epSco and p"ew (Ep.), to do, Fut. pe'cw, ^H^cu, to sit, earcu, eoro (Ion.), and eVo- 

Aor. eppe|cc and pea, or epa>, ep|a ; rat, eVaro Ep., instead of rivrat, T\vro. 

Perf. eopya, Plup. e<apyeiv ( 140, rj^w (Ep.), to sw&, Perf. uTre^^uD/fe, to 

Kcm. 3), Perf. Mid. or Pass, eepyjue- let the head sink, II. x, 491. The 

vos, Aor. Pass. pfx&efr, pex^l vai - above form has the Att. reduplication 

epei'Sco, to pro/?, Ep. Perf. epTjpe'SdTa: e/n-h/uvKe ( 219, 8), and is strength- 

( 219, 8). ened by v ( 208, 5). 

tyeiTroa (poet, and prose), to throw down, fpo/ (Ep.), to warm one's self, Fut. 

Ep. Plup. tptpiiTTO ( 219, 8). &ep< ( 223, 6); Aor. ebepr)j>, 

<?p<5cuVw (Ep.), to fight, Aor. Mid. eptS^- Subj. &epea>. 

a-aff&ai. ^TjAew (Ep. and poet.), to sprout, Fut. 

<?pio>, to /srfa, Ep. tpi(o/, Perf. Mid. &7jA^(ro>, etc. ; Perf. re'drjAo ( 

fp-npiff/jiai ( 219, 8). Ep. 223, 13) ; second Aor. 

ej3/3w, to wander about, Ep. Aor. eporcu. to 0HI1I1 (Ep.), to siiw, Perf. 

hurry away ( 223, 6). Plup. ere^/Trea; second Aor. (from 

(poet.), to redden, Fut. e'pu&Vw. TA*Ii) erdcpov. 

to keep ojf, Ep. second Aor. Act. &vf)(n<ca y to die, Perf. T6^rj:a, PI. 

tyvKaKOJ', (pvKaiteeiv ( 219, 7). /uej>, etc. ( 228). 

epvw and cipuw (Ion. and Ep.), to draw, &pdo<TK(i) (Ep., Ion., and poet.), to spring, 

Fut. fpvffoa (ffff) and Ep. epvovvi] Aor. <i&opov ; Fut. &opov/, Ep. ^ope- 

Aor. ?ptVa (o-o-j and ctpvcro; Fut. o/xctt ; Perf. re'dopa. See 161, 14. 

Mid. tpvcro/jicu and Ep. fpvf<r&cu ; Aor. 'iSptta (Ion.), to sweat, tSpwert, ZSpwKres, 

epuo-^tTjv jo-0-) and flpvadfjLrjv ; Perf. t'5pcD(ra, I8pyr}v ( 137, Rem. 1). 

Pass, third Pers. PI. e/'pvarai, II. , tTjjiii, to senrf (Ep. and Ion.), Aor. 77*0 : 

75, and Plup. eJpwro, II. 0-, 69. e/pu- Fut. V W 5 but Od. (r, 265, di/eVei ; in 

a, II. o, 654 (of ships drawn to the Ep. and Ion. dialects, there are 

land. long in the Arsis); Plup. several foi-ms from the theme 'in, 

Mid. ctpi/To (<pocr7 avoir, had drawn the e. g. aviei instead of avir)<ri Her., 

sword, long in the Arsis), Od. %i tyviov instead of fyvieffav Horn., e^ 6 " 

90. Secondly, the Mid. in Horn. T/ero and /xe/ie-n.ueVoy Herod., instead 

and poet, takes the sense to save, to of /ue&/eTo, jUe^et/ueVos. 

shelter (from danger) ; in this sense, to come, Ep. Pres. ? and 

there are the following forms : epDo-o, Impf. I/coy; Ep. Aor. lov ( 223, 10) 

(tpvro and epuro, which are to be and TKTO, etc. ( 227, B). 

regarded as syncopated forms of the 'IAHM1 (instead of 'IAA). to be merciful. 

Impf. The two following Mid. Of the Act. only the Ep. Imp. '/AT^J, 

secondary forms have also the sense be merciful (in addresses to the gods) 

of to gum-d: (a) Ep. 'EU>TMI, Inf. instead of '/Ac^i ( 224, 6), as in 

elpv/Mfvai, Hes. Opp. 816, Mid. to Theoc. 15, 143, Subj. Ep. i\T)Kr)<n; 

guard, f'tpuarai instead of dpvvra.i, Plup. Opt. Ep. i\-f)Koi ; Mid. poet. 

Inf. eputr^at, efputrdcu ; (b) Ep., 'i\a/, to appease. 

poet, and, though very rare, Attic fcrctyu (Dor.), to know, Iffys, foari, 
prose pvo/, Inf. pu<rbai instead of Part, fcras. 

pueo-^oi; Impf. third Pers. Sing. KatVu^at (Ep.) instead of 

epu-ro, ivas ivatched, Hesiod. Th. 304, ( 169, Hem. 1) from the stem KAA, 

third Pers. PL puar' instead of epvov- to excel, Perf. /ce'/caoytoi; Plup. &ce- 

TO (they protected) ; Aor. ppva-d/j.r)v Kd<rfj.r)is. 

and Ep. pixTdp.-rjif (but II. o, 29. pv<rd- Kaiw, to burn, Ep. Aor. C/CTJO (Trag. 

fj.r]v). e/cca), Subj. K-fjOfJ-ev instead of -oyiei/, 

epXopai, to go, Ep. Perf. el\-fi\ov&a, first Opt. third Pers. Sing. K-fiai, third 

Pers. PL ct'ArjAoy^e^; Epic Aor. Pers. PI. K-f]aiv, Inf. /cfjat (in the 

Odyss. also /ce?at, Keto^ev, Ketavres) ; 

. Aor. <r%er^oi', GX&OV Aor. Mid. e/cTjciyiiTjj/, /c?ja^j/oy (in the 

and etrxov ( 162); Ep. Perf. ox*"" 1 Odyss. /ceicfyiei/os, /cetavro) ; second 

(for o/ccoxo, and x being trans- Aor. Act. COTJJ/ (/ burned, Intrans.), 

posed, and the word having the Inf. 


u-r<tri/ > :>. KKju7ju>r, K\dfa, to sound, Kp. Pcrf. \\ith the pcnso 

WTO?, -6ros ($ i'-'? !">>. Kp. second of the Pres. KtK\ijya, KfK\ijy<l>s, PL 

. Snhj. KfKd/^u ( 219, 7). KfK\-f)yovTfs (as if from KeJcA^-yw) ; 

KfiHat, t<> li< . in Horn. Kforrcu, as if from Aor. ^/cA^oj/. 

Ktop.a.i ; Kp. and Ion. /CTCU, fce'c <rdoi ; /cActa, to s/wf, Ep. and Ion., K\-rft<a, Aor. 

Ml IVrs. Sing. Kra* and /ce?ai, IjcAi'jiVra (t), KATjftrcu ; Perf. Mid. or 

third IVrs. PI. /CCO/TOI and Kp. *cefa- Pass. K/cAr,i>ai (third Pers. PI. KtK\e- 

rat and (Ion.) Kttnat, Suhj. Ktu/, arcu instead of KeK\^arai) ; Aor. Pass. 

tliird Pers. Sing. JCT/TCU ; Impf. iccaro ^KAT/fa-dTjj/ ; from the Ion. KATJ'/W come 

and rffurro Kp. instead of tKfirro; the forms often found in the Att. 

KfffKfTo ; Ep. Fut. Ktiw, Ktco, Kfitav, writers, viz. KArfw. ^/cATjtra, KtK\rj/ 

<fW, Kfttfifv. K\fd> (Ep.), fo celebrate, of which only 

Kflpa), to shear ojf, cttt off, Ep. Kfp<r<t>, K\, Jmpf. t/cAe'o instead of ^cAceo 

titepaa ( 223, 0), hut iKGipdpr)v. ( 220, 10). 

KeAAw, /o art'ye, P'p. (Kt\ffa ( 223, 6). /cAvw (Ep.), to Arar, Imp. KAiJe. K\verf ; 

Kf\ofiai (Ep. and poet.), to M/Y/P, Fut. second Aor. Imp. KAO^, /cADrc; and 

Kf \faonat, first Aor. taAqan^M}*; /ce/cAv^t, /ce/cAurf [^ 227, A (e)] ; the 

ml Aor. ^/ce/cA(fyi7jj', etc. ( 223, Impf. e/cAuoi/ is used instead of the 

Ind. Pres. 

(Ep.), to pVcA:, stimulo, Aor, Ktkrraj, to sfr/^e, second Perf. KtKoira in 

i ( 223, 6). Horn , instead of /ce'/co^a. 

K(pa.vviiiiu, to mix, Ep. Kfpd<a (wepcDi^ros) /copcVwjui, to satisfy, Ep Fut. Kopfta and 

and Ktpaica (Imp. icepaie), Ktpvdca (Kip- icopeau, Pcif. Kfn6pT)iJ.a.i, to which the 

i>5s. Impf. iKlpva.) and Kipvyni (Impf. Part. KeKop-qus ( 223, 13) in respect 

iKipm}, Kipvas) ; Ep. Mid. Kfpcavrai (as to its meaning belongs. 

if from Kfpauai) ; Impf. K(p6<amo Ep. Korea and Kortouai (Ep.), to 6e angry t 

instead of iKeptavro from Kfpdca. first Aor. Part. Kore'eras ; Pcrf. Part. 

, to //a/w, in Ion. and later wri- KSKOTIJUS ( 223, 13) ; Mid. Fut. /core- 


ters: ^cepSTjtra ; KepSTjaea^at and /ce'p- cro/wu (tro-; Aor. 

in Herod. /cpa^eo, to 6azt'/, cry OM<, poet. Pei*f. 

(Ep.). to conceal, Fut. /ce5<ra>, Aor. 70, KCKpay^ev, etc. ( 228) ; Fut. /ce- 

e/ceuo-a ; Perf. KfKfv&a ; second Aor. Kpd$o/, Aristoph. 

e/crdoj/. icu^oi/, Suhj. KfKvbw ( 219, Kpatvca (Ep. and poet.), to complete, ac- 

7) ; Mid. only Pres. and Impf. complish, Ion. commonly Kpaiaivw, 

w, to make anxious, in the Act. only Impf. eitpaiaivov ; Ep. Fut. Kpaveia] 

Ep. Fut. K?;57j(rw ; Perf. /ce'/cTj&o, / a/ Aor. (KpT}i>a and Ep. iKfrfnva, Imp. 

anxious ; Ep. Fut. Perf. /ccfcaS^crojUcu, Kpr\vov and Ep. Kp4\t\vov. Inf. Kprivcu. 

II. ,&, 3.)3. and Ep. KpTjrjvai ; Ep. Perf. Pass. 

Ki'Sj/ajucu, Ep. SOCOndniT form of o-weSa^- KtKpdavrai (Eur. /ce'/cpcwTcu) ; Ep. Fut. 

i/t/uaj, to scatter, only Pres. and Impf. Mid. Kpavfo^ou. 

KivvfjLai (Ep.) instead of Kiveofuu, to stir Kitlvta, to kill, Ep. Fut. Kreveca (Ep. 

'j s(V/j to 6e moved, Pass. KIVV/J-CVOS. Part. KTavtovra., Ka.rcu<ra.veov<n(v) and 

Kipvdta and jctpirj/ij, Ep. secondary form Kara/cTaWeo-^e with the variable a] 

of Kfpdwvfj.1, to mix, from which comes Aor. Ep. and poet. ZICT&VOV ; Ep. 

the Part. Kipvds, Impf. ^cfyu/a and second Aor. Act. C/CTCU/, etc. [ 227, 

. A (a)] ; first Aor. Pass, third Pers. 

an d Kix&vo^ai (Ep. and poet.), PL tKrabev Ep., instead of &crodrj- 

C/J, 7/jee< MV//J, Aor. e/axoi', Fut. <rai/., other forms not found in Kvptca, rarely /cvpw (Ep. and poet.), to 

the Att. poets; but Ep. Impf. &a'xo- ./?</, to reac/i, Aor. e/cupo-a ( 223, 6), 

vov, second Pers. tidxets (from and more seldom eKvpyrra, Fut. /cupo-o> 

KIXE-) : second Aor. Suhj /c<x<i and and more seldom Kvp^a-ta ; Perf. Kexu- 

Ktx (/i(a i Opt. KtxtiT}v, Inf. Kix^ rai > p?jca. 

I'art. Kix'J nd Mid. irtx^juefos; Aor. Aa>x" w i ' partake. Ion. Fut. Aa|o/xai ; 

Mid. (Kixr,ffaTo, E]. Aor. Suhj. AeAax ( 219, 7), 

KIW (Ep.), to </o, only Pros, and Impf. Trans, to make partaker in the phrase 

The Part. Kiwy is accented like t'wf , i &ou/oi>ra nvpts, to alve the dead the 

Aor. /xer tKic&oy ( 162). /io/ior of jure, i. e. ?/uze Awn partaker 


282 DIALECTS. [$ 230. 

of; Perf. \e\oyxa Ep., instead of MAn (Ep.), to strive for, Perf. with the 
elATjxa [Od. A, 304, \e\6yxao-i]. sense of tlie Pres., in Sing. fj.ffj.ova 

AAZTMAI (= \, to take], Epic (comp. yeyova with TEFAA), fj.efj.arov, 
e'Ac{>TO. pefj.afj.fv, etc. ( 228). 

\a/j.t3dvw, to receive, Ion. \dfj.^, AeA<{- (poet.), to obtain, Ep. 
f3r]Ka, AeAifyt/icu, AeAaju<J>dc, e'Aa^&rjy, third Pers. Sing. Perf. (and II. a, 
AajUTrreos; also Dor. AeAa77/ca, but 278), third Pers. Sing, second Aor. 
AeAa/*,u, AeAa^at ; in Dramatists Act. (Augment, 219, 6) ; Perf. Pass. 
AeArj/t^at; Ep.Aor.AeAa/3eV&cu( 219, f"fj.aprai, A is determined ($. 123, 4). 
7). /teAw, commonly Impers. jiteAet, zf corc- 

Aay&<{ye0, Ep. oftener A^co, to 6e hidden, cerns, I lay it to heart, Ep. Perf. /ic'/irj- 
concealed ; Ep. second Aor. Act. Ae, Part. ^e^irjAciJs ; Ep. Perf. Mid. juc/t- 
Subj. AeAddw and Mid. \f\a&6fj.r)v P\erai and Plup. /ue'jujSAero instead of 
( 219, 7); Perf. Mid. AeAao^icu ; in ute/^AajTcu, e/xe^A^To, comp. $Aco<r- 
Theoc. \ao~&r)fj.ev ( = A7j<r&?}yai) in- /ca>; yet these forms were more 
stead of Aod-eo-dcu ; eViA^w and properly considered as a Pres. and 
a>, to cause to forget, Ep. Aor. Impf. 
jo-a ; <?/cA-'Aa&oy. ' /iei/otvaw, fjievoiveov, 222, I, A (2). 

Ae&r/cw (Ep. and poet.), Aor. eAa/coy; /trj/e^o^ai, to Weaf, Ep. Perf. ^e^yjfca with 
Ep. Perf. AeA?jKa (poet. AeAdfca and the sense of the Pres., fj.ffj.a.Kv'ia 
eKAeAcwca even in Demos.) with the ( 223, 13); Aor. /j-aK^-; from the 
sense of the Pres. ; Ep. Part. AeArj- Perf. the Impf. f^4p.T]Kov is formed. 
KCS, AeAaKv?a ( 223, 13) ; Fut. Aa/c^- /J-iaivca, to stain, Ep. second Aor. ^utai/- 
(Tojttat ; first Aor. poet. e'Aa/crja-a, Ep. d^y ( 227, B). 
Aor. Mid. AeAcfowro ( 219, 7). ulyvvpi, to mix, Ep. Aor. (ufo ( 227, 

AEXil (Ep.), to cause to lie down, eAea, B). 

eAe|a / u7?i', / /aW myself down, I lay, I (j,vKdo/, to roar, Ep. jiie^O/ca, Aor. 
rested, Ep.Aor.e'Ae^Tyv^tc. ( 227,B). e^woy. 

A.OUW, to u;asA, Ep. Aoew, Aouew, Impf. Na^w, Ep. and poet., to c?we#, first Aor. 
4\ovfov, fahoir ; Aor. Inf. AoeWcu, tva<r<Ta, I caused to dwell ; Mid. with 
Part. AoeWos; second Aor. Act. Pass. Aor., to se/e down: vd<r<, 
eAoov, third Pers. Sing. AJe Od. K a.TTfvaffa'd/j.rjv, cvdcrfrrii'. 
361, A<W; Mid. Pres. Inf. Aoueo-^at j/et/ceco (Ep., poet., and Ion.), to quarrel, 
and Aoucr.iat; Fut. Mid. AoeWo^at ; Fut. yei/ceVw , Aor. tveiite<ra ( 223, 
Aor. Mid. Inf. AoeVo-atr&ai ; Part. 1). 

Perf. Mid. or Pass. ?/"> to ^ as ^> Pres - and I m P f -5 the other 
tenses are formed from VITTTW, which 

to /oose, Ep. second Aor. Mid. among the later writers came to be 
Auro, ArWo [ 227, A (e)] ; Ep. Plup. used in the Pres. and Impf. also; 
Opt. AeAOro ( 224, 3). thus, Fut. vtyto, Perf. Mid. or^Pass. 

MaiVojttot, To rave (e/c^a/j/aj, to make, poet. ; Aor. Pass, frf^&ip', 
raving, also Aor. e/i7jva, Arist. ; doubt- Hippocr. 

ful X. H. 3.4, 8) ; second Perf. /*^- j//<r<ro,ucu (Ep.), to (70, Fut. Wtnytat (the 
yo (Soph.), / am rav*iy (Theoc. 10, form vetWo/xai is rejected). 
31, fj.ffj,dyr}/ ; the Fut. is fj.avov/j,aL 'OAT22OMAI (Ep.), Aor. wSuo-^y, to 
in Herod. dj.avficro/j,ai in the later be angry, b^vffd^vos ; Perf. oScoSuer^oi 
writers). with 'tlie sense of the Pres. ( 219, 8). (Ep.), to see^, Fut. dlSa, to know, 228. 

('o'eTai) ; Aor. e/j.a(rdfj.r]v. ofo^at, to <7u'wA;; Ep. ofco, o/a>, ofofiat, 

/tav^-ayco, to /earn, Fut. in Theoc. /*a&eC- wiVfywjy, ofoiro ; Aor. Mid. 6'iffdfj.r)v 5 
juai (like /xaxoO^iat). Aor. Pass. wfo&Tjy, oi'cr^eis. (Ep.), to ^/i<, only Pres. and ovo^ai (Ep. and Ion.), to Warns, 
Impf., like Suya^at, but Opt. /j.apvoi- third Pers. PI. uvovrai, Imp. 
;u.7jy, Od. A, 513. Impf. wv6fj.-rjv, Opt. 6yoifj,r)v, OVOITO ; 

to contend, Epic /ia%e'oyTat, Fut. '. Aor. uvoo~dfj.T)v and 
t > Max e ' OITO > M a X^ oll ' TO > P ar t- wyJcr^77y ; Ep. owyetrid-e (comp. ov\6fj,- 
t ' /os an( i^ov/j.vos ; Ep. eyos), 11. w, 241, instead of oveo-Se 
Fut.^o-o/ and /j.axfo' ; Aor. and this instead of oyoa&e from 'ON- ; 

Ep. Aor. Mid. #yaro. 


6pdw, to see, Ion. 6pfa t Epic 6p6w t Impf. first Aor. tirepa-a, ( 223, 6) ; second 
fy>oi>; Kp. second PITS. Sing. Pros. Aor. ftrpfi&oi' ( $ 223, 1 1 ) ; Ep. second 
Mid. 4p>l<u, tliinl IVrs. Shu;. Impf. Aor. Mid. Inf. Wp^a* ( 227, B). 

ipfjro ; Ion. Perl', oirwira. irtTopai, to /Ay, second Aor. iirr6p.riv, etc. 

'OPEFNTMI, from which Ep. opcyvvs, ($223, 11). 

t-ti-ttrhinti out ; optyw,to stretch; Mid. vtvibofjicu (poet, instead of irt/j/dci 

Co ttntA one's self, to reach after, Ep. Ep. second Aor. Mid. Opt. ir 

IVrf. Mid. opwpcyfMi, third Peri. PI. TO; Pcrf. ireWjuai ( 223, 14). 

opwptxarai ( 219, 8), Plup. third irtQvov, tirfQvov, Ep. second Aor. Act. 

iVis. PI. opupfxaro. of *ENfl, to fci7/ ($ 219, 7), Part. W<J>- 

tfpwjiu (poet.), to ere//?, Put. Sptru, Aor. y&>i> with irregular accentuation; Ep. 

Sypaa, ($ 233, 6) ; Ep. Pcrf. In trans. Perf. Pass, irtipaTai, irpa.<rbcu ; Fut. 

t/pwpo ( 219, 8), Subj. opuprj, Plup. Perf. vp-f)ffo/ (comp. SeSTjo-o^cu 

&pwpfi and u>p<t>pfi ; Ep. Aor.' tipoptv ; from Se'Se/zcu). 

Mid. 8pvv/, to rouse one's self, to stir, irf)yvv/, to fix, Ep. Aor. TTTJ/CTO, Kare- 

Ep. Fut. op6?roj, Aor. Ap^tifr; Ep. irrj/cro ( 227, B). 

Aor. Mid. Spro, etc. ( 227, B) ; Ep. iri\va/, Eq. secondary form of ireAa^w, 

Perf. opajperaz, Subj. opeapijrat (^ 219, to ofrau; near, only Pres. and Impf. 

8). Tn'/iTrA.Tjjiii, to Jill, Ep. Aor. Mid. TTATJTO, 

6a<ppaiuofjiai, to smell, Ion. Aor. Mid. etc. [ 227, A (a)]. 

oafypavro. irtirru, to fall, Ep. ircTrrecfo (^ 228). 

oyraw, to icound, Ep. Aor. o5ro, etc. iriTvaw and iriri^fjn, Ep. secondary form 

[ 227, A (a)]. of irrTavvvp.1, to spread out, from 

o<pti\w, to owe, be under obligation, ought, which come Impf. irlrva instead of 

must. Ion., poet, (except in the dra- iirlrva.* and Part, trirvas. 

matic dialogues of Att. writers), and irArj0-<ro>, to strike, Ep. second Aor. Act. 

in late prose o<pf\ov, -er, -e, Ep. tirfirXnyov, TreVATjyov and ireTrATry^/UTjj' 

ItycAAov, &<pf \\ov, in forms which ( 219, 7). 

express a ir/sA. n-Ac^w (Ion.), to sai7, Ep. second Aor. 

>AAw (Ep.), to increase, only Pros., Act, cirAwi/, etc. f 227, A (d)]. 

Impf., and Opt. Aor. o^eAActe^, Od. vvtta, to breathe, in Horn. Perf. ireVi/u/uu 

^8, 334. ( 223, Rem. 2), to 6e animated, intel- 

aAAa), to s^a/:<?, Ep. second Aor. Act. ligent; second Aor. Act. Imp. &/J.TT- 

apircira\wv ( 207, 7, and 219, 7) and i/ue, second Aor. Mid. fytiri/C-To [^ 227, 

second Aor. Mid. iroAro ( 227, B). A (e)] ; Aor. Pass, afjurvvvfrri instead 
>, to suffer, Ep. Perf. Part. ireTra- of a^irvv^n ( 223. 12). 

as if from TreVa^a; Ep. Perf. TTT^O-O-W, to crouch, shrink from fear, Aor. 
de (^ 228, Rem.). ^7TTrj|a ; second Aor. KOTaTrTd/c^, 

iraro/Aai (Ion.), to tas<e, to eaf, Aor. Aeschyl. Eum. 247; Perf. eTn-Tjxa, 

eirao-ajuTjj/ ; Porf. TreTraa-^cu. Part. Ep. TreTTTTjcis, WTOS ( 223, 13); 

irefdo>, to persuade, second Aor. Act. Ep. second Aor. /caTctTTTTjTTjj/ [ 227, 

eirtioj', Aor. Mid. &n&<fyujj/, only poet. A (a)]. 

in the Att. writers (TT&OV is a false PoW, to sprinkle, regular Aor. fypava ; 

reading in Plat. Phaed. p. 117, a); Perf. Mid. or Pass, typac-pat. In 

Ep. second Aor. Act. ire'Tridoi/, Subj. Horn. tppa.8a.Tai ( 220, Rem. 2). 

TreTr/dw, Opt. irein'&oijLU. Inf. ireTrt&eTi/, pefy, see cpSw. 

Part. TTfiribw, Imp. ireVi^e (^ 219, 7) ; piyw (Ep. and poet.), to shudder, Fut. 

second Aor. Mid. fw^fjaiv, to trust, piy^yu ; Aor. tppiynffa, ; Perf. Ep. 

Opt. ireirfootTo ; from the second Aor. eppiya. 

come irtfrf)ff<a, to be oliedient, ireTr^o-o), 2a^o>, <rww and crow (Epic), to sv 

to 6e convinced, irt^o-os, obedient; on (== o-^C'") 5 from aa<$&) Fut. aawaw , 

eireiri^/tcv and ireVeiO-dt (see 228). Imp. Pres. Act. oraco [ 222, I, A 

ireAaa>, to r/*-w near (Trag. TreAo^co, (4)] ; third Pers. Sing. Impf. Act. 

TrAa^o?), Fut.TreAaaw. poet, sometimes <raou and <rao> instead of eVooc ; Aor. 

ircAw ; Ep. Aor. Pass. <hreAaa-&7jj/, evduffa. ; Fut. Mid. <, Aor. 

poet. Att. ^7rAa<bjj/, Mid. Ep. tirXttwv, Pass. ^(rao&Tjf ; from (rwa> Part. <rw- 

etc., Att. VAd^7jj/ [ 227, A (a)]; oz/res and Impf. <rce(ncoj> ; from <r6w 

Ep. Pcrf. Trtir\rifj.fvos. Att. irfir\ Subj. Pres. <T({T;, fftJps, ff6ca<ri. 
Te'p^w (poet.), to destroy, Fut. Wpo-w ; trcuw (poet.), to' put 'in violent motion, 

284 DIALECTS. [$ 230. 

Mid. to haste, Ep. Aor. e<r<reua and (pel5o/, to spare, Ep. second Aor. Mid. 

ffeva, e'<r<reua,inji' and trfvd t ur]v ( 223, 7re<i8ot/r>? z/ : irecpiSecr&ai ( 219, 7); 

8); Perf. ecro-t^tai (223, 14); Plup. from ( comes Trecpi^ffo^ai. 

fffffv/jL-rji' ; second Aor. Mid. fff<rv/j.r]v, <e'pa>, to carry, (pepre Ep. instead of 

etc. [ 227, A (e)]; Aor. Pass. e<rcrv- Qepere ( 229) ; Ion. and Ep. forms 

d-ijj' Soph., Qeartfrriv Horn. On the arc : Aor. ^j/ewa, eveiKai, etc., T}vtiKa- 

Ep. o-eDrat, trofrrat, etc., see 229. ^TJI/ ; Perf. fvr}veiy(Jia.i ; Aor. Pass. 

(TKiSj'a/, to scatter, Ep. secondary form i)veix&r)v ; Ep. second Aor. Imp. 

of a-KfSdvw^ai, only Pres. and Impf. olo-e, Inf. ol<re(j.v ( 223, 10); first 

(Trepeco, to rob, first Aor. Inf. <rrepeVat Aor. avwirai, Herod. 1, 157 (comp. 

Ep. instead of (rrepria'ai. 6, 66. ai/da'iffros instead of cb^i'trros). 

(TTvyeoa, to fear, to hate, Ep. second Aor. ^ewyw, to flee, Ep. Tre(pvy/>os, escaped 

earvyov; first Aor. rrv|a, Trans., to ( 223, 14). 

make fearful. <p&dvca, to come before, anticipate, Epic 

TAm, Epic second Aor. reray<av, Q&d/jLevos [ 227, A (a)]. 

seizing. (p&tipca, to destroy, Ion. Fut. 

TAAAJ1, to endure, Ep. Aor. eraAatra, instead of (pSap-fia-opai ; Aor. 

Subj. raXaffffca ; second Aor. Hr\r)v trat ( 223, 6). 

( 194, 4); Perf. rerATj/ca, TerAa^tev ^ri/co, to vanish, and Ep. <f>&tw, to con- 

228), Eut. r\-f]ffo/ sume, and sometimes to vanish, perish 

ca (poet.), to stretch, Ep. TC^CTCM (Ep. first Pers. long), Fut. <drcrw; 

(^229). Aor. e^ro-o; Mid. to pemA, Fut. 

a, to disturb, Ep. second Perf. ^T<T 0^0.1 ; Perf. e<&/iai ; Plup. e^i- 

rerpTjxa, f am disturbed JJL-TIV] Ep. Aor. tyStiprit', etc. [227, 

TEMfi, to 7-eacA, overtake, Ep. Aor. erer- A (c)] ; Ep. Aor. Pass, third Pers. PI. 

P.OV ( 219, 7). aire(p2n&v. 

, to delight, Ep. era/j^Tji', erapTTT/j/, ^>iAea>, to foye, Ep. Aor. e^tA^Tjj' ($/- 

, Subj. first Pers. PL rpairelo- ACOI/TOJ, ^>?Aot). 

; second Aor. Mid. iTpair6/j,T]v and typdfa, to speak, Ep. Aor. Tre^poSoi' 

p7r6wv ( 219, 7). (219,7). 

(poet.), to ma&e rearfy, to obtain, tyvpca, to knead, in prose, forms its tenses 

Fut. Teu|&) ; Aor. eTeu|a, Perf. Ep. from (pvpaea, e. g. </>vpa<rco, etc., Aor. 

Terei/xcos, having obtained ; Fut. Mid. Pass. fQvpd&rjis, Plat. Theaet. 147, c. 

Tev|o/iat; Aor. Mid. re^ao-^-oi ; Perf. (but ecpvp&rii/, Aesch. Ag. 714); yet ( 223, 14), third Pers. PI. Perf. Tre'^up^ai, and in Aristoph. Tre- 

Ep. Terevxarai, Inf. Tervx&ai ; Plup. (pvpa/nai ; Fut. Perf. 7re^)vp(r6<r3-at 

fTTvy/j.r}v, third Pers. PI. Ep. erereu- Pind., Epic and poet, ^uptrw, etc. 

Xaro ; Aor. Pass. M x ^nv] Fut. Perf. ^( 223, 6). 

Tereu|o/xat ; Ep. second Aor. reru- ^>uw, to produce, Perf. irfcpvita, Ep. third 

/cetV, rervKovro, TeruKeV^at ( 219, 7). Pers. PL irftyvain, Part. Tre^i/wras, 

TIEn, Ep. Perf. Act. TeTiTjcfo, -(^TOS, Tre^vuta ( 223, 13); Impf. Ep. eVe- 

anxious, and Perf. Mid. /am anxious, ^VKOV. 

second Pers. Dual reTiV&oi/, Part. Xdo/ (Ep.), to retreat, yield, Aor. Mid. 

TCTtTj^eWs. Ke/ca5oi/To ( 219, 7); Aor. Act. /ce'/ca- 

Tlvvvp-ai, Ep. secondary form of rivofjLai, Sov and Fut. /ceKaS^crw, Trans., to o?e- 

to punish; in Att. poetry with one prive of, rob. 

v, ( 185). X at/ P w to re ji ce i Ep. Fut. /cexapVw, 

r/j.-fiyco, Ep. secondary form of refj.vca, Kex a P^ ffo / Liat 5 ^ rst -^- or - -^^- X^P aTO 5 

to CM, first Aor. r^as ; Aor. Pass. second Aor. Kfx<^P OJ/T t Kexa.poia.To 

third Pers. PL r^yev. ( 219, 7); KexapT^s ( 223, 13); 

rpetyca, to nourish, Ep. second Aor. Perf. /cexw^os, Eur.; Verb. Adj. 

erpa<|>oj>, / nourished, Perf. rerpocpa, x a P T ^ s - 

Intrans.; Aor. Pass, frpdcprjv, third x al/ 5c{vco (Ep.), to hold, to contain, Aor. 

Pers. PL rpafytv. exctSov ; Perf. with the sense of the 

$aiVa>, to sAow, Ep. (paeij/uv, enlightening ; Pres. Ke'xafSa: Fut. X 6 ^^ at (comp. 

Ep. Aor. Pass. ^aa.v^f]v ; Perf. Mid. eTrad-o;/, TretVo^at). 

or Pass. Trec/xw/, third Pers. Sing. x e/co ' ' f " 7 ' ou ^i Ep., Fut. x e ^ w 5 Aor. 

jreQavTcu : Fut. Tre$>-f]ffo/ ; second exeua; second Aor. Mid. 

Aor. QdwKei', II. A, 64. fos [ 227, A (e)L 

$ 231.] FORMATION OF WORDS. 285 



$231. Primitive words. Stems. Derivatives. 

1. Words are formed, (a) by derivation, and (b) by composition, in accord- 
ance with certain laws. 

2. Those words, from which other words are derived, but which are them- 
selves underived, are called primitives (vocabula primitiva). Primitive words 
are either verbs (which constitute the greater part), substantives, adjectives, or 
pronouns. A primitive has two parts, the root and the inflection-ending, e. g. 
Tp(<j>-u, ypd<p~<a, 0f'p-o>, \ey-ca, \&-os ; Ka\-4s ; ^u-e. 

3. The roots, i. e. the forms which remain, after the rejection of the inflection- 
endings, are all monosyllabic. Still, the roots do not always appear pure in 
the primitives, but often with a strengthened form, e.g. SOK-V-W, IK-VI-O/JUU, 
av-dv-<a t rv(y)x-dv-(i), a\-iffK-o/ t iri-Trpd-ffKQ). Comp. 139, and 157, 1. 
Yet these strengthened forms extend only to the Pres. and Impf. 

4. Words which are derived (vocabula derivata) from primitive words, are: 

(a) Either Stems, i. e. such words as are formed from primitives by merely 
assuming another inflection-ending, which is without any special signification. 
To these indefinite endings belong several of the third Dec., e. g. the gender- 
sign $ (o -yity, 77 dty, 77 /8Vj, rj ITTU|, 77 vav-s, 6 77 &ov-s, 6 77 TTOI-S, instead of iraiS-s] 
in many words the s is omitted, see 52, 1) ; the endings -is (77 airdv-is, ivant, 
77 <?A7r-ij), and -us (& ardx-vs, f) !<rx-vs) ; also the endings of the first and sec- 
ond declensions, e. g. -77, -a, -os, -ov (VIK-TJ, AUTT-TJ, pi^-a, TT\OVT-OS, v6a--os, p68-ov) ; 
finally, several adjective-endings, e. g. -os, -77, -ov (<pi\-os, -77, -ov), -vs, -em, -v 
(y\vK-vs, -6?a, -u), etc. ; 

(b) or Derivatives, i. e. such words as are formed either from primitives, 
or from stems, by assuming a special derivation-syllable with a special l sig- 
nification, e. g. xpy<r-J-o>, to make golden, to gild ; pri-rup, orator ; ypa<p-ii<6s, skilled 
in painting. 

5. The root is often lengthened in derivation ( 16, 3), e. g. AT^-TJ (from 
Ae&-iV), xV (from x at/ - f ?") '> or ^ takes the variable vowel ( 16, 6), e. g. Tp4$- 
o>, rpo<p-rj, rpo<p-6s, rp6(p-i/j.os, rpaQ-tpos. A strengthening consonant ( 139, 
1, and 157, seq.) may also be added ; or the final consonant A be doubled, e. g. 
K<AAOS from Ka\6s ; some stems also take a reduplication, e. g. oir-anr--^, e'5-w5-^, 
ay-wy-os, ~5,i-<nj<}>-os (from 2E*-fl, comp. ffo<p-6s). Other changes also may be 
made in the root, as has been shown in 16. 

6. The change of e into o (seldom into a) and of ei into 01 ( 16, 6) requires 

1 By comparing the examples under (a) and (b), it will be seen that the 
terminations of the former are not significant, while those of the latter are. 

286 FORMATION OF WORDS. [$ 232. 

special attention. It occurs, (a) in Oxytones of the first Dec. in ^ and d of 
more than one syllable, e. g. rpoQ-fj, nourishment (from rpe^-w) ; ftov-4 a remain- 
ing (from jueV-w) ; <pop-d, a carrying (from <pep-ca) ; dAoi^-j], salve (from a\ei(p- 
o>)5 (b) in dissyllabic Barytones of the second Dec., which denote what is 
done, or the result of an action, e. g. \6yos, ivord (from xfy-ta) ; <f>6j/-os, murder 
(from *EN-n, comp. eTre^i/oj/) ; vofjios, a law (from i/e/j.-ca) ; (c) in dissyllabic 
Oxytones of the second Dec. in -juo's, and in dissyllabic oxytone adjectives of the 
second Dec. in -6s, which, for the most part, denote an active object and often have 
a substantive meaning, e. g. irAox-^os, plait of hair (from TrAe/c-oj) ; arro\-/j.6s, 
garment (from oWAA-w) ; TTO/JLTT-OS, attendant (from ire/ ; <ro(f>-6s, wise (from 
2E*-fi, sapio); rpo<p-6s, nourishing, nourisher (from rpeQ-u) ; (d) in monosyl- 
labic substantives of the third Dec., e. g. <p\6l-, flame (from <p\*y-ca) ; 8op, 
antelope (from Septc-opai) ; (e) in oxytone substantives in-us and adjectives 
in -as, which, however, have sometimes a substantive sense, e. g. rpoty-evs, nour- 
isher (from Tpec/>-) ; o-rrop-ds, scattered (from enrcp-eTj/) ; \oy-ds, chosen (from 
\ey-u) ; tipo/j.-ds, running (from APEM-n, comp. Spa/i-eli/) ; (f ) in all derivatives 
of the forms mentioned, e. g. in substantives in -a/j.os, adjectives in -tyttos, verbs 
in -aw, -e'a>, -600, -euw, -ifa, e. g. Tr\6K-a/j.os] rp6(p-ifjLOS ; <p&ov-6<a (from 
(from S6/j.-os, and this from Se/t-w), etc. 

REMARK. The change of into a (comp. 16, 6) is found only in a few old 
poetic derivatives, e. g. rpaQ-fpds. 

REM. 2. Words derived from verbs are called verbals; those derived from 
substantives or adjectives, denominatives. 

$ 232. I Verbs. 

1. All derivative verbs end in -da>, -e'w, -&>, -600, -i5w, -etfeu, -<> -^ "> 
-<$&>, -vC^j -atvwy -tJi/w, -afpw, -efpw. All these verbs must be considered 
as denominatives ; for though the stem-substantive for several verbs of this 
kind is not in use, yet the analogy of the other verbs requires that" a substan- 
tive should be assumed as the stem of these also. Many of these derivative 
verbs, especially many in -ew and -dco, supply the place of obsolete primitives, 
e. g. <f)i\tco, Ti/j.d(D. On the formation and signification of derivative verbs the 
following points are to be noted : 

(a) Verbs in -do* and -da>, which are mostly derived from substantives of 
the first Dec., and those in -ifa which are derived from substantives and 
adjectives of all declensions, are partly transitive, partly intransitive, since 
they denote either a condition or the exercise of agency or activity, e. g. roX^dca, 
to be bold, from r6\fj.a, boldness; %oA.cta, to be angry, from x^7 goRj yoda, to 
weep, from 7<fos; 8jKao>, to judge, from St'/a?; e'Tur^co, to hope, from c\iris; 6pifa, 
to limit, from opos] alrtfa, to beg, from ai'rrjs, beggar; sometimes those in -d<a 
denote fulness, abundance, e. g. %o\ci&>, to be full of bile, have much bile. -. Verbs 
in -dCw and -lca formed from proper names, express the effort to resemble 
single individuals or whole nations, in custom, nature, language, sentiment. 


Such verbs arc called Imitative verbs, e. g. Swpidfa, to &e orian, i. e. to 

or think as a Dorian, Awpiews ; \ATJJ//^W, /o personate the custom or language of a 

Greek, to be a Greek in ntalimi, etc. ; lUTjSffc, to be a Mcde in sentiment. 

KIM VI;K 1. Verbs in -tfa often signify to make something into that which 
tin- root tirnotos. Si'O (c). 

U & Verbs in -6fa and -t$iw are very rare, e. g. ap/j.6fa, to Jit ; ^piruw, to 
creep. By the ending -dw also, verbs are formed, which denote the repetition 
or strengthening of the idea expressed by the simple verb; these are called 
Frvtinentative and Intensive verbs, e. g. biirrdfa, to throw to and fro, jacto, from 
friirrta, jacio ; <rrfvdfa, to sigh much and deeply, from trr4v<a, to sigh ; et/cci^aj. properly, 
to liken again and again, to compare on all sides ; hence to infer, conjecture. 

(b) Verbs in -tw and -*5 are derived from substantives and adjectives of 
all declensions, and commonly express the intransitive idea of the primitive, for 
the most part, the being in a condition, or the exercise of agency, the practising of 
that which is signified by the primitive ; but they are sometimes transitive also. 
When the stem ends in -es, which is the case, e. g. in adjectives in -775, -es, the 
s is omitted, and when it ends in -cu, the eu is omitted before the ending -tv<a, 
e. g. <pi\f(i), to be a friend, to love, from <pt\os, dru^eo), to be unfortunate, from 
ari/x^y (stem drives), fvHaifj-ovtu, to be prosperous, from evScdfj-tav (stem ev$cu/j.ov), 
iyoptvu, to speak in public, from ayopd, market, /eooy'a>, to adorn, from K&r/ios, 
Pa<Ti\(V(i>, to be a king, from jScunAeus. 

(c) Verbs in -J, which are mostly derived from substantives and adjectives 
of the second Dec., those in -alvw, which are commonly derived from adjec- 
tives, more rarely from substantives, and those in -vv<a, from adjectives only, 
generally denote the making or transforming something into that which the primitive 
word signifies; in like manner several in -ia>, see Rem. 1, e. g. xP vff ^ ta i to 
make golden, to gild, from %pv<r6s, 8rj\6(a, to make evident, from Sf)A.os, ayvifa, to 
make pure, from ayvos, ir\ovri(a, to make rich, to enrich, from TT\OVTOS, KoiXcuvw, 
to make hollow, from KOI\OS, Aeu/cafvw, to make white, from Aeu/cJy, fSapvvw, to 
burden, from fiapvs. 

REM. 3. From the Fut. of several verbs, are formed verbs in -a-eica, which 
denote a desire for that which the primitive word signifies; these are called 
Desiderative verbs, e. g. -yeAcwrcta, to desire to laugh, from yf\dca, to laugh, iroAe- 
fi.i)(Tftw, to desire to engage in war, from iroAe/Jo>, irapaSuo-fiw, to be inclined to sur- 
render. There are also other Desideratives in -da and -law, e. g. Savarata, to 
wish to die, ^o&TjTia&j, to wish to become a disciple. 

REM. 4. Some verbs in -ffKca have an inceptive sense (beginning to be), and are 
called Inceptive or Inchoative verbs, e. g. y^pdffKu, to begin to be old, to grow old; 
yevfido-Kfi), to begin to have a beard ; yfidtricca, pubesco. 

$ 233. II. Substantives. 

Substantives are derived : 
1. From verbs and substantives, and express 

a. A concrete idea, i. e. the idea of an active person (concrete nouns): 
(o) With the endings -eus (Gen. -e'ws) for the Masc., -eta or -i<r<ra for tho 
Fern.; -TTJS [-CTTJS, -6r-r)s, -iT-rjs, -CCTTJS] (Gen. -ou) (mostly Paroxytones), -r-fip 
and -reap (Paroxytones) for the Masc., -rpia (Proparoxytones), -Tpis, -TIS, 


and -is (Gen. -j&os), -rfipa (Proparoxytone) for the Pern. ; -wvfor the Masc,, 
-aiva. for the Fern.; -us for the Masc., -w'is and -<a j ivt] for the Fern., e.g. 
Upevs, priest, Fern, /epeta, from /coo's; OUATJTTJS and --f)p, flute-player, Fern. av\r)- 
rpia, auATjTois, from ouAeco ; a-car-fjp, deliverer, ff&Ttipa, from <r^(a> ; TroAmjs, 
citizen, iroAms, from Tr^Ats ; p-hrup, orator, from 'PE-,0. ; ^epaTrwr, servant, Stepd- 
iraiva., from ^epai// ; oi/ceT?js, a s/ave, from o?/cos ; S^oV^s, one q/" fo people, from 
Srjfj.os ; oTrA/TTjs, a hoplite, from oirXov ; o-TparicoTTjs, a soldier, from ffrpana. 

() With the ending -<Js (Gen. -oO), seldom, and only from verbs with the 
variable vowel [ 231, 6 (c)], e. g. Trope's, attendant, from vf^Trca; 6 fj rpotyos, 
nourisher, nurse, from rpe<p(a ; apoxyo's, an ally, from apij-yco. 

b. They express the abstract idea of action, i. e. action or energy apart from 
the person who manifests it. These are abstract nouns : 

(a) From verbs : 

(o) with the endings -<ris (Gen. -o-ews) and (more seldom) -<rla, substantives 
which denote the transitive or active idea of the verb, e. g. Trpa&s, actio, an acting, 
from TrpaTTca ; iroir)<ris, a making, from iroieco ; SoKi/uaa-ia, a proving, from 5o/c*/tci^ ; 

() with the ending -fj.6s (Gen. -oD), such as denote the intransitive idea of 
the verb, e. g. o5vp/j.6s, weeping, from oSvpofuu ; 

(y) with the ending -/ia, such as denote the effect or result of the transitive 
action of the verb, e. g. irpay{j.a, something done, /J.vf)fj.a, monumentum, Tronj^a, 1 the 
thing made or done ; 

(8) with the endings -/iTj, -TJ, -a (all for the most part Oxytones), and (from 
verbs in -euo,-), -eta, such as denote sometimes a transitive relation, and some- 
times the effect of that relation, e. g. TO/Z^, a cutting, from re^j/w ; doiS^j, song, 
from oei'Sw, <propd, destruction; iro/5eta, education; 

(c) with the endings -os (Gen. -ov), -ros (Gen. -TOU) and -or (Gen. -ous) 
such as denote, generally, an intransitive relation, also a transitive, and partly 
the effect of the action of the verb, e. g. Ao^os, word, from Ae'yw ; KWKVTJS, 
lamentation ; TO Krfios, care. 

(b) From adjectives (and substantives, which are sometimes used in an 
attributive sense) : 

(o) with the endings -la, from adjectives in -os, and some in the third Dec., 
e. g. <ro(pla, wisdom (from ffo(p6s) ; euSai^uoj'/a, happiness (from euSat/iwv, Gen. 
-OJ/-DS) ; 

(#) -i a (Proparoxytones) from adjectives in -Tjsand -ovs, whose stem ends in 
e and o, Avith which the i of the ending coalesces and forms et and 01 (thus -eta, 
-oto), e. g. aA^&eia, truth (from aAvj^fjs, Gen. -e-os), et/roia, benevolence (from 
evvo-os, fvvovs) ; 

(y) -ffvv-n mostly from adjectives in -wv (Gen. -ovos) and -os, e. g. ffvfypo- 
ffvvri, modesty (from (r&typcav, Gen. -o^-os) ; diKaio-arvi/v), justice (from SiKaios) ; 

(S) -TTJS, Gen. -TTJTOS (commonly Paroxytones) from adjectives in -os and 

1 Nouns derived from the first Pers. Perf. Pass, denote the result of the action 
of the verb, e. g. (euprjuai), eupT]/j.a, the thing found, the discovery ; those from tho 
second Pers., the abstract act, e. g. (efy>?7crat), et/pe<ns, the act of finding ; those 
from the third Pers., the agent or doer, e. g (efyr/jroi), fvper^s, the discoverer. 


-us, c. . <V<fnjy, Gen. -OTTJTOS, equality (from firoy) ; TTOXUTTJS, thickness (from 

(*) -oy, Gen. -oy = -ouy, from adjectives in -uy and -TJS, and such as have 
tin- forms of comparison in -Itav and -rroy, e. g. T&XOS, TO, Gen. T<XOWS, szt*//?- 
n?ss (from Tax<k), ^eCSoy, TO*, Gen. -oi/y, falsehood (from ^euS^jy), al(rx os > TO*, 
>> (from aiffxpts, tuo")(l<av) 5 

(0 -<*, -aSos (only in abstract numeral substantives), e.g. ?; /xovd'y, unity ; 
5vas, duality ; rpids, a triad. 

Hi MARK 1. In abstracts in -rlo, which express both a transitive and in tran- 
sit ivo ivlation, from compounds in -ros and -T?jy (Gen. -ov), the T is commonly 
dialled into ff. C. g. d&AodT/a and -via. (cuyAo&eVrjy), a^avaffia (abdvaros), d/ca- 
dapo-ia, ou/3Aei|/fa, etc. So also with adjectives in -(os, e. g. MtArjtnoy (MiATjroy), 
lviav<rios (eViauro'y). Comp. ^ 17, 6, and 234, Rem. 2. 

HEM. 2. The older Attic poetry sometimes makes the a long in the endings 
-eid and -otd, e. g. dfcuSeid, irpovoid. 

2. From substantives alone, the following classes denoting the names of 
persons and things, are derived : 

(a) Gentile nouns, i. c. the names of persons derived from their country, in 
-fvs (Fern, -ts, -i5os), -frrjs (Fern, -ms), -&TTJS (Fern, -ans), -fjrris, -WTTJS, e. g. 
Aupifvs (a Dorian, one from Doris), Aupts, 2,v0aptTi)s, -ins, ^TrapTt6.Ti]s, 'AryiHy- 
TTJS, 'H7Tj/)a>T7js. Comp. 234, 3 (g), etc. 

(b) Patronymics, i. e. the names of persons derived from their ancestors, with 
the endings -tSijs (Fern, -is, Gen. -iSos) ; also -i&8r)s l ; but substantives of the 
first Dec. in -jjs and -ay, and many of the second and third Dec. whose stem 
ends in i, and some others, have -d5r)s (Fern, -ds, Gen. -dSos) ; these endings are 
appended to the stem, and where the stem ends in 6, this e and < of the ending 
-iSrjy combine and form a diphthong, as in nrjAet'S^y, e. g. Upta^-iS-ns, Fern. Upia^-is 
from Tlpla.fji.-us, ITTjAei'S^y from TIr)\fvs, Gen. EtyAe'-eoy, Ke/cpoTri'STjy from KeVpoi^, 
Gen. -oir-oy, na^oiS^y from ria^ooy, -ovs ; TeAa/uwi'-taSTjs from TeAo^cij', AiVeo- 
8rjy from AiVeoy, ctrrtaSTjy, Fern, eo-ri-ay from eVrtoy. 

(c) Diminutives (frequently with the accompanying idea of contempt) with 
the endings -IQV which is the most usual, -aptoi/ [-aa-iov] (seldom) and some 
few with the endings -v\\iov, -uAAfy, -vbpiov, -v<piov (-deploy) (which 
belong mostly to the language of the common people and to comedy) ; -- Is 
(Gen. -tSos and -I5oy), -tSiov (formed from -is); -- IO-KOS, -la-K-n (-iffKiov, 

IXVT), -ix"">v) ; -- 1 5 e v s ( but only of the young of animals), e. g. utipdmov, youth, 
from /ue?pa|. -a/c-oy, iroiS-toj/, a little child, from irais, iraiS-6s ; ira.i5-d.piov ; - a ff i o v 
instead of -ipiov only in Kopda-iov (from K6pa, young woman) on account of the 
preceding p ; /xeipcuc-uAAtoi/, a.Kai'&-v\\(s from &/cap&a, thorn, vriff-vSptov, islet ; 
fav-<t>iov, little animal ; xP vff ~d-<P lov fr m \pvff6s ; irivax-is, little tablet, from 
iriva; afjio^ls, little wagon; tnf]<r-tStou, islet, from a?<ros; Kptfotov (instead of 
-a.Siov) from Kpc'ay, oiKiSioi/ (instead of oiKi-iSiov) from otKta ; vtavi-ffKos, 
ffKi] fro^n i/cavfay ; -'KTKIOV seldom, e. g. Korv\tffKiov from KOTV\T) ; - 

1 This form is used, when the syllable preceding the Patronymic ending is 
long, otherwise the word would not be adapted to hexameter verse, since one 
ihort syllable would stand between two long syllables ; thus, TIrj\iit8i)S. 


290 FORMATION OF WORDS. [$ 234. 

in iroXixvn, iroA/xi'toj/ from ir6\is, KvXixvn, Kv\(-)(yiov from uAt; 
, youw^r hare, from Acrycfo ; aer-iSeus, young eagle, from deros. 

(d) Designations of place, with the endings -iov (in connection with the 
preceding vowels -aio;/, -eiov, -ov) and -e toy, which denote the abode of the 
person designated by the primitive word, or a place consecrated to a divinity 
or hero ; -6v (Gen. ->vos), seldom -fdv, and -arvid, which denote the residence 
of persons or a place filled with plants, e. g. fpycurrrip-ioj', workshop, from tpyaa- 
r-f)p, and so others in -r-rjpiov from -Tfjp or -TTJS; sometimes also this ending is 
used with reference to vessels, e. g. TTOT-^PIOV, drinking vessel; Koupeibj/, barber's 
shop, from Kovpevs, -e-cos (several in -iov [-etoz/] have another signification, e. g. 
rptxpeiov, wages of a nurse, from rpcxpevs) ; Tjcretbj/ from &r)(revs, -e-ovs, 'A^r)vaiof, 
MouereToi' ; avSpcav and yvvaiKckv, apartments for men and women; linruv, stable 
for horses ; po56v and pe&cavia, bed of roses ; irepiffrepeuv and 7rept0Tepc6j/, dove- 
cote. , 

(e) Substantives which denote an instrument or a means of accomplishing 
some object, with the endings -rpov and -rpa, e. g. ^vtrrpa, curry-comb ; 8/5a/c- 
rpov, tuition-money ; \ovrpov, water for washing ; \ovrp6v, bath ; also to designate 
place, e. g. opxhtfTpa, dancing-room, instead of the ending -raptor. 

234. III. Adjectives. 

1. Erom verbs are derived adjectives with the following endings : 

(a) With the ending -os, which is annexed to the stem of the verb. These 
adjectives express the transitive, intransitive, or passive idea of the verb from 
which they are derived, e. g. <f>av6s, brilliant, from <paivu> ; \onr6s, the remainder; 
the verb-stem of many is not in use, e. g. /ccuctta. 

(b) With the endings -<K(Js, -#, -6v, and -I/J.QS, -oi>, -I/J.OS,-TJ, -ov or 
-ffifjLoS) -ov, which denote ability, fitness, aptness. Of these, those in -iic6s have 
a transitive signification, those in -ipos both a transitive and passive, e. g. 
ypa<p-ii<6s, fit or able to paint ; rpdty-ifjios, nutritive ; Id-ffip-os, curable. 

(c) A few with the ending -v6s, -{], -6v with an intransitive or passive 
signification, e. g. i-v6s, frightful (AEIfl), ffen-v6s, honored, honorable (o-ejSo^at), 
<TTvy-v6s, hated, hateful (2TTm), irobeiv6s (iro&e'o)), desired. 

(d) A few with the ending -\6s with a transitive signification, -a>\6s, -^, 
-<J/and (from verbs in -da) -ijAcJs, -#, -6i/ with a transitive and intransitive 
signification, e. g. Sei-\6s, timid; e/ciray-Aos (instead of eKTr\ay\6s from e/f7rA^<r- 
ffof), frightful ; <peiti-(a\6s, sparing; criyi)\6s, silent; aira.Tr)\6s, deceitful. 

(e) With the ending -ap6s, -d, -6v (from verbs in -dot and -aivw) with an 
intransitive signification, e. g. xoAapos, slack ; fj.ia.p6s, stained; also in <p&ovp6s, 
envious; vo<rr)p6s, diseased; oiKrpds, pitiable. 

(f) With the ending -pcav, -pov (Gen. -ovos) with an intransitive significa- 
tion, e. g. /j-vfi-fjuav, mindful, memor (MNAH), vo-fi/juav, intelligent (i/oeo>). 

(g) With the ending -77 s, -es (Gen. -eos), e. g. Tr\-f)pris, plenus. 

(h) With the ending -ds (Gen. -aSos) with a transitive, intransitive, x or pas- 
sive signification, e. g. <pop-ds, bearing (4>e'pw) ; 5/jo/t<s, running (APEMil) ; \oyds, 
chosen (Aeyw). 


(i) With the endings -r6s, -r-fj, -r6v, and -T^OS, -T^O, -rtov (verbal 
mljci ti\f-) ; tlii^e in -r6s denote either a completed action like the Perf. Pass. 
Part., c. g. \eK-rds (from \yu), dictus ; or the idea of possibility = English 
termination -He, which is their usual signification, e. g. &pa-r6s, capable of being 
seen, visible. In their formation, most of these follow either an existing or an 
assumed Perf. Pass., e. g. 

f3f-f3ov\cv-Tcu /'s, -re'os 

Tf-TlfJ-TfJ-TCU T(jU7J-T(fe 

TTf-(p<t>p<i-Tcu <p<apa.-TOS 

\fy-W \-\K-TCU \fK-TOS 

ffT(\-\-u If-oraA-Tcu ffra\-Teos 

Tf(v-<a (TA-fl) rc-ra-rai ra-rcos 

(AO-H) Se'-So-roi So-ros, -rtos. 

REMARK 1. Very many 'verbal adjectives, however, follow the analogy of 
other forms of the verb, not according to any definite rule, but take precisely 
such a form as suited the ear of the Greeks. ? rhus, for example, a considerable 
number followed the form of the first Aor. Pass., e. g. eu'pe'-w, ypf-frnv, alpf-r6s ; 
irau-o>, ^-trav-a'-^Tjv, irau-<r-T(Js, -Tfos] xP c ^" A tat > ^-XP^' <r '^n v i 
<rrpf<f>-<i), ^-0"rp / <f>-&Tjj', (rrpfir-r6s ; TpeV-w, ^-rpe'^-^Tji/, rpfir-re 
^TJV, Sbpfir-Tfos ; T-(TTi7-/LiJ, foTa-friji/, ffra-rSs, -reos ; firaive-w, 
r6s] some the form of the second Aor. Act., e. g. 
aiptca, e1\c-Tov t f \e-r6s ; ?TJ/, t-rov (commonly clTov), 
/LIJ, 6-^e-roi/, be-r6s, -re'os ; some the form of the Pres. Act., e. g. /ieVw, p.4v- 
frov, /ieve-Wy, -Ttos ; eT/ii, f-roi/, j-re'os; so aTr-cux^-Tos from 'ETXE-TON 
MU 5vva-r6s 

2. Adjectives are formed from substantives and adjectives : 
By the ending -toy (in connection with the preceding vowel of the stem 
-euos, -ctos, -otos, -o>os, -vios) and -IK 6s (which, when v precedes, becomes -/k, 
and when t, often -ai<6s). These adjectives have a very great variety of mean- 
ings. They frequently indicate the mode or manner of the adjective idea, 
often also in a very general manner, that which proceeds from an object and is 
connected with it or related to it, e. g. ovpdv-ios, heavenly, pertaining to heaven ; 
cleanly (but Kc&ap6s, clean)] ^Aeu&e'pios, frank, liberal, liberalis (but 
, liber) ; ayopatos, belonging to the market-place (ayopd) ; frtpttos, summer- 
like (dVpos, -e-os), at'ooTos (aiSus, -6-os), ijpifos and -fjpuos] Tpur-f)x vios j 

REM. 2. In some words the ending -aios also -icuos occurs, e. g. 
ffKorcuos and VKOTICUOS. In several words the ending -<rtos ( 17, 6) is used in- 
stead of -r-tos, e. g. <pi\OT-f)<rios (<J>A.<$TTJS, -rjros), eKov<rios (e/cco/, -6irros). 

3. Adjectives are formed from substantives alone : 

(a) With the ending -tios (mostly Paroxy tones), which are formed from 
words denoting persons, especially from proper names ; but in respect to their 
signification they are like adjectives in -uc6s, e. g. arfpf'ios, belonging to a man, 
manly, yvvcuKt'ios, 

292 FORMATION OF WORDS. [$ 235. 

(b) With the endings -eos = -oDs and -tvos, which denote the material 
of which anything is made, like the English ending -en, e. g. ^pucr-eoy = XP V ~ 
<rouSy golden ; x^Keos = XO\KOVS, brazen ; |uA.-ivos, wooden ; (TKVTIVOS, made of 
leather, leathern. 

(c) "With the ending -\v6s (seldom -lv6s), derived from substantives. These 
express certain relations of time ; sometimes, also, an abundance or fulness, 
e. g. O"irp-tv6s, vespertinus ; x^ fff ~ tv ^ 5 y hesternus ; 6psiv6s, mountainous (opos, Gen. 

(d) "With the endings -eis, Gen. -fvros (always preceded by a vowel, 77, 
when the substantive from which the Adj. is formed, is of the first Dec., and o, 
when it is the first or second); -p6s, -fp6s, -ypts, -dAeos, which denote 
fulness or abundance, e. g. v\7j-eis, ivoody ; irvpo-eis, fiery ; al<rx-p6s, base ; vos- 
fp6s, and i/off-ypos, unhealthy ; pwfj.-a\(os, strong. Exceptions to those in -6jy, 
are SevSpfais from SeVSpoi/, x a p' lfis from x<*P 1 *' 

(e) With the ending --fjpios, which have the transitive sense of verbal sub- 
stantives in -rip and -TJS, e. g. aur^ptos, preserving, that preserves. 

(f) With the ending -6$ 77 s, Neut. -wSes (formed from -o-etS^s from eTSos, 
form, quality). These adjectives denote a quality or resemblance, but often 
also a fulness or abundance, e.g. (^07^8775, resembling flame, fiery ; TTOI^STJS, 
abounding in grass, grassy. 

(g) With the endings -los (Fern, -id), -icts, -IKOS (Fern, -icfi, -tK-f)), -i\v6s 
(Fern, -ijvfi), and when i or p precedes, -av6s (Fern, -av-t)), -tvos (Fern, -fi^j) ; 
these are Gentile adjectives, which are also frequently used as substantives, 
particularly those in ^v6s, -aj/6s, -ivos, which are formed only from names 
of cities and countries out of Greece, e. g. Koplvfr-ios, -to, 'A&rjvcuos, -aia, X?os 
(instead of -iios from Xi os ), 'A^eTos (from"Ap-yos,-f-os) ; A.aKeSaifj.ov-iKos ; KVIK- 
i)v6s, -r)irfi (K.V&KOS), 2ap8i-aj/ds, -av-fi (2cfy>8ets, Ion. Gen. -i-wv), ' 
("AyKvpa), TapavT-'ii/os, -(vt] (Tapas, -avr-os). 

235. IV. Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs are formed from verbs : 

With the endings -Syv or, when the primitive has the variable 
which denote mode or manner, e. g. Kpu/85jj.-, secretly (/cpuTrrw) ; ypdp-Syi', by 
writing, scribendo (ypd<pa>) ; fftrop-dSrjt/, scatteredly, sparsim. 

2. From verbs and substantives : 

With the ending -86v or -aUtv, -77801' (mostly from substantives). These 
also denote manner, or, when derived from substantives, the external form, e. g. 
ava(f>avS6v, openly, aperte ; 8ia/cpiSop, distinctly ; fioTpv$6v, grape-like, in clusters 
(p6rpvs), l\aS6v, in troops, catervatim ; ayehySdv, in herds, gregatim ; KWTjSJp, 
like a dog. 

3. From substantives, pronouns, and adverbs, adverbs are formed to denote the 
three relations of place, viz., whence, whither, and where, by the endings -&ev, -8e 
(-<re), and -3-t, e. g. ovpav6-bei>,from heaven ; ovpat>6j/-5e, into or to heaven, ovpav6- 
&i, in heaven ; &\\o-&tv, from another place, aliunde, &\\o-ffe, to another place, alio, 
&\\o-bi, at another place, alibi. Rules in respect to the accent of those in -fop 


and -bt : (a) Dissyllables are cither Paroxytoncs or Properispomena, c. g. 
vpfobfr, yfjdei', o5di; (b) polysyllables are Paroxytones, when the penult is 
short by nature, e. g. Afcr&fofv from Mcrfios, K.virp6&a> from Kvirpos, 
ovpavo&i from ovpav6s\ exceptions: otKodcv, ohoSt, tvSoSfi/, tvSodi, 
&\\o&cv, ^KdVrodf*', and some poetic words ; (c) polysyllables whose penult is 
long by position, are without exception Proparoxytones, e. g. IfvTotr&fi/, uirurbeif ; 
(d) polysyllables whose penult is long by nature, are Proparoxytones, when the 
primitive was a Barytone, c. g. e|w&ej/ (f|o>), irtpw^fv (eVepos), 'Ad^i/rjfov 
('A&fjrcu) ; but Properispomena, when the primitive was an Oxytone, e. g. 
Tlvdta&fv (riy&w), Qptri&ev (&pid). On the accent of those in -5e (-<re), see 34, 
Kern. 3. 

REMARK 1. "Words of the first Dec. retain their a or ij before -bcv; those 
of the second, their o ; and those of the third, the o of the Gen. ending, e. g. 
'O\v/jLirlaev, 27rapTTj-&ei/, ofrco-dei/, &AAo-$e' ; but the vowels o, 77, and o are 
often exchanged with each other, e. g. pi6-&ev from pifa] Mryop&o' from 
Me'-yapo, rcL 

KEM. 2. Adverbs in -a>, and also others, append the endings to the un- 
changed vowels, e. g. &vot-&ev, ffdtrvr-dty, e^w-idw, ^cel-d-ey, jyy^&i, e'5o-&ej', 
evSo-^i. Some forms of the comparative in -repos lengthen o into , e. g. 
a/juportpu-bfi'. In some of the above forms, o> can be shortened into o in poetry, 
and then rejected entirely, e. g. o-&cj/, irpoa-Srev (instead of elwdev, irp^o-w^ei/), 
and in imitation of Doric usage, a is often omitted before &, e. g. briber, e/cro- 
&/ (instead of faurSev, ("Kroabev). 

REM. 3. The ending -5e is commonly appended to substantives only, and to 
the unchanged form of the Ace., e. g. oAoSe, to or into the sea (fi\s), TlvbwSe (from 
nv&w), oftc^Se only Epic, elsewhere ofreaSe (from the stem 'OIS), as ^iryoSt (from 
*YE) instead of QvyyvSc which is not in use, 'EXei/o-IVoSe). In pronouns and 
adverbs, -ere is appended instead of -5e, e. g. ^/ce?-o-e, &\Ao<re, erepoxre, ouSo/u^tre, 
TTjA^o-f ; more seldom in substantives, e. g. ofcoo-6. In plural substantives in 
-as, <r8e becomes e, e. g. 'A^ro^e, 0T?/3ae ; but some substantives in the singu- 
lar, also, follow this analogy, e. g. 'O\vp.irla^f ; so the poetic adverbs, &vpaf, 
to the door,foras, epae, xMC e > to the ground, humum (from the obsolete sub- 
stantives, epa, x a l JM i earth). 

REM. 4. Instead of -8e or -<rt, the Epic dialect has -Sis also, e. g. x a ^ 15 
instead of x a f jL '* i &\\vSis instead of &AAo<re, and o5f/ca5ts, domum. 

REM. 5. Several pronominal forms with the usual suffix, have, between the 
stem and the suffix, the syllable ox, which is to be accounted for by the ending 
-cucis coming before the aspirated relative, e. g. iroA\-ax-^e" (from iro\\a.Kts 
and o&ev), iravr-ax-6<re ; this occurs also in most pronominal adverbs of place 
in -rj, -ou, -o*, e. g. dAA-ox-o^i flfiftlj 


1. Every compound consists of two words, one of which explains the other 
more definitely. The explanatory word usually stands first, e. g. vou-/uox^o, 
sea-figld, as is usual in English in composite words. The word which is explained 
by the other, shows to what class of words the compound belongs, i. e. whether 
it is a substantive or verb, etc. ; thus, c. g. vav-jMtxia. is a substantive, vav-fj-ax^v 
a verb, va.v-p.dxos an adjective. 

REMARK 1. The explanatory word takes the second place in the compound 
but seldom, and mostly in poetic words, e. g. ScunSal/xwi', i- c. Seuras robs oai- 


294 FORMATION OF WORDS. [$ 237. 

2. Both words stand either in an attributive relation to each other (= a substan- 
tive qualified by an adjective or by another substantive in the Gen.), e. g. KO.X- 
e|io (= KaK^i e|ts, bad condition) ; ffKiaypa(pia (= cnticis ypaQ-fi), painting in light and 
shade; iirir-ovpis (= tirnov ovpd), horse-tailed; or in an objective relation (= a 
verb, adjective, or substantive with the Case of a substantive in the relation of 
an object, or with an adverb in the same relation), e. g. liriroTpofpfw ( = 

), lirirorpofpos ; vav/^ (i- e vavffl yu.axe<r3-at), yavfj.dxos, 
:/, curves ; aviffTavai, avd.ffTa.Tos, avaffTaffis. 

3. The verb can be compounded with prepositions only, e. g. O.TTO-, e/c-, O.VTI-, 
irpo-, e'yu-, Sto-, Kara-, irapa-, Trpocr-fiaivfiv ; comp. 237, 5 ; the substantive and 
adjective, either with substantives and adjectives, or with prepositions, or with 
separable and inseparable adverbs and prefixes, e. g. o-aytaTo-^uAa!, f)8v-\6yos ; 
vepi-ffTaffis, Sia-Aey/cos ; ev-Tvxhs, av-airios ; the adverb, with prepositions only, 
e. g. irepi-<TTa,86v. 

REM. 2. All other compounds are formed by derivation from words pre- 
viously compounded, e. g. fv-rvxcw and ev-Tvx&s from fv-Tvx~ns. 

REM. 3. (a) Separable adverbs are such as are used alone, as well as in 
composition, e. g. e5, well; irA^j, except ; a/*a, at the same time; &yx i i near; &pri, 
now. recently ; fryai' (070-), very; irtiAtv, again; ird\at, long since; Sis from Suo, 
6s, or the same as 8i'x, dis, separately ; TTOJ/, wholly ; euruxe"', EVTI/X^S, prosperous ; 
TrATjfi/ueATJs (ir\T]v, /xeAos), violating harmony ; TrA^/xeAeti/, TrAe^eA.Tjff'ts ; a^iorpo- 
Xaw, to run together, a/j-arpoxia ; ^x^arerj/, to ^70 nea?' to ; 07x^aAa(rcros, mari 
propinqmis; eipTiaA^s, /zoiw; blooming ; aycur&fvfjs, aydppoos, aydvi/Kpos, very snowy ; 
7raAt/xj3Aa(TTos, that buds again ; TraAai^vros, planted long since ; Sisxfaioi, two thou- 
sand ; 8i<f>&oyyos : having a double sound ; 7rai/(ro^)os, all-wise. 

(b) Inseparable adverbs arc such as are used only in composition. They are 
as follows : 

(a) ^/it-, half, semi, e. g. ^ufyAeKros, half-burned, semiustus. 

(0) Svs- expresses difficulty, adversity, or aversion, and is often the antith- 
esis of 6<5. e. g. SVSTVX^V and evrvx^v^ dvsScufj.oi'ia, misfortune; 

(y) a Privative (usually a.v- before a vowel) has the force of the Latin in, and 
expresses the negation of the idea contained in the simple word, e. g. 
&ffo<pos, unwise ; OTI/X/O, dishonor ; &TTO.IS, childless ; avainos, innocens. 

(S) a Collective and Intensive, like the Latin con in composition, expresses com- 
munity, equality, or a collective idea, and hence also intensity, e. g. (commu- 
nity, especially in the names of kindred and companions^dSeA^Js, brother, 
from $f\<pvs, womb; (equality) aroi\avTos, of the same weight ; HireSds, even ; 
(in a collective sense) abp6os, collected (&peta, &, to cry aloud), doAA^js, 
collected (from oA^s or dA^s), ayfipw,\t\ ; (intensity) drej^jy, intent, in- 
tentus ; &<TKIOS, very shady ; &J3pofj.os, making a loud noise. 

BJEM. 4. The Euphonic a ( 16, 10) must be distinguished from the Collec- 
tive a, e. g. ffT<ix vs an( i &ffTcixvs, an ear of grain ; ffrepoir-f] and affrepoTr'fj, lightning. 

237. Formation of Compounds. 

1. When the first part of the compound is a verb ( 236, Rem. 1), the pure 
(sometimes also the strengthened) stem of the verb remains unchanged, if the 
following word- begins with a vowel, e. g. <p(p-avyf)s, irfib-apxew ; or the final 
vowels e, o, i, also the syllables tn, eff, 6<n, tro, are annexed to the stem of the 
verb, if the following word begins with a consonant ; cr also is annexed when 


tin- followinir wonl hc-iii- with a vowel, e.g. SaK-f-bvfjios, Anr-o-rtforTjs and 

f.itlo&dp$apos (= /juyiro-p.), ptyacnris (= plir-ff-curirts), irAr^tinroy (= v\-fry-ff~ 

2. When the first part of the compound is a substantive or adjective, the 
!<< lension-stem. of the substantive generally remains unchanged, e.g. (first 
Dec.) riKi]-<p6pos, ayopa-vd/jios ; (second Dec.) \oyo-ypd<pos, iV-Vjfte^oy (by Elision), 
KOKovpyos (by Crasis), \ay<a&o\os (\ay<tbs) ; (third Dec.) acrrv-ySfjios, 7i$v-\6yos, 
&ov-<popfl6s, yav-fiaxia.', irvp-Qdpos, /xeAay-xoA/a, Trarfiyvpis ; in some, the union- 
vmvel o is annexed to the stem, c. g. <rtytaT-o-</>uAa|, <t>v<rt-o-\6yos, SaSovxos (by 
( 'rusis, instead of 8a$-6-cxs) ; in neuters in -oy, Gen. -e-oy, the is elided before 
0, e. g. up-o-<f>6pos, or the declension-stem in -es [ 61, (b)] is retained, e. g. 
Tt\fs-<popos ; so also in other neuters, e. g. Kfpas-06\os, <pws-<p6pos. 

REMARK 1. In the first Dec., however, the union-vowel o is often found 
instead of the declension-stem, c. g. SiK-o-ypd<pos (Si'/o?), \oyx-o-<f>6pos ; so also 
the ending -TJ or -a is annexed even to words of the second and third Dec., e. g. 
bavaTij-^pos, a<rirt1>Ti-<j)6pos ; neuters in -os (Gen. -eos, PL -7?) frequently vary 
between the o and 77, e. g. i<po<pdpos and i<pri<f>6pos, (TKfvo<p6pos and <rKfirri<p6pos. 

HUM. 2. In some words of the third Dec^ more seldom of the first and 
second, i is annexed to the pure stem, as a union-vowel, e. g. irvpiirvovs, alyi- 
&6rT)s; nv<mir6\os (JUWTTTJS), fjLvpiirvovs. In several words a euphonic o (<ri) is 
inserted, e. g. fj.oyo-<r-r6Kos t &eo-<r-ex<fyfa, together with the regular &eoex<fyfa> 

3. When the first part of the compound is an adverb, only those changes 
take place, which arise from the general rules respecting the change of 

4. Respecting the second part of the compound, it is to be noted, that the 
words beginning with d, *, o, in composition regularly lengthen these vowels 
(if the last part of the compound is a simple) into TJ and w, e. g. (o) 

from foe/las, a-Tpa.TT)y6s from &yca, fv-fjvup from arfjp] (e) Svs-fipfT/jLos from 
fj.6s t SusTjAaros from e'AoiW ; (o) ayw^eA^s from 8<pf\os, iravAtebpos from oAAv/ii, 
avuvvp.os from vvo/j.a. 

5. In relation to the end of the word, the following points should be noted : 
A- In the Greek language, as has been seen ( 236, 3), a verb can be com- 

pounded only with prepositions ; but if it is necessary to compound a verb with 
another part of speech, this is never done immediately, but by means of a 
derivation from a compound word either actually existing or assumed. Then 
the derivative-ending, commonly -e'w, is regularly appended to this compound 
word : e. g. from "inrovs rpfQfiv, to keep horses, the derivative is not linroTpftpeu', 
but by means of the compound substantive iinroTp6<pos, it is linroTpoQew ; so 
&(o<r(fi(<a from &o<re|8T}y, vav^ax^v from va.vjj.dxos, tvrvx^v from eyrup^y. 
B. The compound is an adjective or noun : 

n. The second part is derived from a verb, and has the following endings: 
(o) Most frequently -or, -ov, e. g. &T)porp6<pos, nourishing wild beasts, frnp6rpo- 

4>ot, nourished by uild beasts. See 75, Rem. 4. 

() -TJS (-TTJS) or -ay (Gen. -ou), -rjp (-TTJP), -rup, commonly used as 
substantives with a transitive signification, e. g. fvfpytTijs, benefactor; 
y, legislator; //upoTrc^Aijy, opvibodi'ipas, Trcu$o\(T(i>p ; 

296 FORMATION OF WORDS. [$ 237. 

(7) -rjs, -es, commonly with a passive or intransitive signification, e. g. 
&o<j)i\r)s, beloved of God; efyio&ifa, quick to learn, docilis ; evirpeir-fis, 

(8) -s (-), e. g. \l/fvS6fJiapTvs from MAPTTfl, vojj.o<pv\a. 

b. Or the second part is a substantive : 

(a) An attributive relation exists between the two parts of the compound, the 
first containing a more definite explanation of the last. T]he substantive 
remains unchanged. The first part is an adverb or preposition, sometimes also 
a substantive or adjective, e. g. 6fj.68ov\os, a fellow-slave ; fjov\ifj.os, excessive hun- 
ger, bulimy ; a.Kp6iro\is, citadel. 

(b) An objective relation exists between the two parts of the compound, the 
last denoting the object of the first. This division includes a large number of 
adjectives, the first part of which consists either of a verb, or, though more 
seldom, of an adjective, of a separable or inseparable adverb, or of a preposi- 
tion used as an adverb, e. g. 8en8cujua>j/ = 6 rovs 5ai/j.oi/as Seuras, tirixcupeKaKos 
= 6 ro7s KOKO'IS fTrixaipow, KaKoSaifJuav = 6 /co/cbi/ Satfioi/a e%a>i/, Svsepws, one who 
has an unhappy love, ei/(^eos = 6 rov i^eby / eaimjJ exwv, &TTOLKOS 6 cbrb TOV 
of/coy &v, Hirais = 6 iratSas OVK ex&>j/. In all these examples the form of the sub- 
stantive remains unchanged, 1 where the substantive has a form which is appro- 
priate for the Masc. or Fern, of the adjective, but where this is not the case, the 
substantive assumes a corresponding adjective-ending, viz. -os (Gen. -ov), -as 
(Gen. -o>), -TJS (Gen. -ovs), -is (Gen. -tSos), -<av and (when it ends in -v) -s, e. g, 

(8eT7rj/oj/), a fellow-guest, fv&vfiucos (S//CTJ), &TI/J.OS (rtjUTj). Sex^l^P 05 
), <f>i\oxp^lf^O'Tos (xpf}/ia, xp^ara), &(TTO/J.OS (trr^/ia), efryecos (yil), having a 
fertile soil; \snr6vews (va.vs], one who deserts the ship ; ww(pe\^s (rb &(pe\os), &vaX- 
KLS (a\irfi), axp'hfACDi', &5a.Kpvs, Gen. -uos (TO Sditpv). 

c. Or the second part is an adjective : 

The adjective retains its form, except that those in -us commonly take the 
ending ->js ; the first part consists either of a substantive or an adverb, e. g. 
ao-Tvjfircav, near the city, urbi vicinus ; Tr&vffofyos or Trd(r<ro<pos, -ov, very wise; av6- 
fioios, -ov y unlike ; Trp6S-r)\os, -ov, arjS^js from r;8us, TroSc^KTjs from UKVS. 

1 For example, SettnSai/iO)^ is an adjective of two endings, the ending -o?i/ 
being both. Masc. and Fern., therefore the substantive $uip.<av is not changed in 
composition ; but truj/Senrj/os takes a regular adjective termination, as the sub- 
stantive Seiirvov has neither a Masc. nor Fern, ending. 



Parts of a Simple Sentence. 

$238. Nature of a Sentence. Subject. Predicate. 

1. SYNTAX treats of sentences. A sentence is the ex- 
pression of a thought in words, e. g. To pobov ^aXXet; 6 

The conceptions of the mind are 
related both to each other and to the speaker. The con- 
ceptions or ideas themselves are expressed by Essential 
words ( 38, 4) ; their relations to each other, partly by 
inflection and partly by Formal words. 

Thus, e. g. in the sentence T& Ka\bv p6Sov &aAA-ei Iv rip TOV irar 
there are five essential words : Ka\6s, p65ov t bd\\ftv t irar-fip, KTJTTOS ; their rela- 
tions to each other are expressed partly by their inflection and partly by the 
Formal words r6, tv, r$, TOV. 

2. Every sentence must necessarily have two parts, a sub- 
ject and a predicate. The subject is that, of which some- 
thing is affirmed ; the predicate that, which is affirmed of the 
subject, e. g. in the sentences, TO po&ov ^aXXet 6 

^rvrfTos ev-rw, TO pobov and 6 av^poyiros are the subjects, 
\eu and ^I^TO? e'cmi>, the predicates. 

3. The predicate properly contains the substance of the 
sentence; the subject is subordinate to it and can be 

298 SYNTAX. [$ 238. 

expressed by a mere inflection-ending of the verb, e. g. 
i&w -//.t, (/) give. 

4. The subject is a substantive or a word used as a 
substantive, viz. a substantive pronoun or numeral; an 
adjective or participle used as a substantive ; an adverb 
which becomes a substantive by prefixing the article ; a 
preposition with its Case ; an infinitive ; finally, every word, 
letter, syllable, and every combination of words can be con- 
sidered as a substantive, and with the neuter article com- 
monly agreeing with it, can be used as a subject. The 
subject is in the Nom. 

T b p6 5 o v &cAA.ei. 5 E y <a ypdfpca, <r v ypd(peis. Tpels i5\3w. 'O ff o <p b s eu- 
8ai,uo>j/ ecri. Ot (p&ovov vr e s fjuffovvrai. O I ir d \ a t ai/Spe'ioi ^ffav. O I TT e p I 
KO\WS tyuax^Vaj'To. X. Cy. 8. 3, 42. Ofrroi ovrcas rjSv fori rb 
aj'iapbv rb aTrojS^A.A.etv. Tb Si5aa"/cet^ Ka\6v ecru/. 
X. R. L. 9, 2, eVeTot rp apery <rcae(r&ai els rbv TrAetw %p6vov p.a\\ov, ^ 
rp Kanla. Tb e t (rvySfff^s iffTiv. Tb ^ra fj.oKp6t> t<rriv. Tb yvS>&i fftav- 

rbv KOAflV <TTiV. 

REMARK 1. In the construction of the Accusative with the Infinitive, the 
subject is in the Ace., as will be seen 307, 3. In indefinite and distributive 
designations of number, the subject is expressed by a preposition (eis, irepi, icard) 
with its Case, e. g. Els r err apas %\&ov, as many as four came (with round num- 
bers els also signifies about, at most). X. Cy. 8. 3, 9. cffraaav irp&rov (JLCV TUV 
8opv(f>6pwv els rerpaKisx^iovs (about four thousand stood), ejLurpo<r&ev Se TWV 
irv\&v els T<r<rapas, StsxtAiot 8e e/eaTe'pco&ei/ rS>v -rrvXiav. X. H. 6. 5, 10. 
e(pvyov els AcwceSaf/iora TWV Trepl ~2,rdffnnrov Teyearuv ire pi OKraKOffiovs. 
So KO^ 4/ca(TTous, each one singly, one by one, singuli ; KOTO, e&vri, singulae gentes, 

5. In the following cases the subject is not expressed by 
any special word : 

(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun and is not particularly emphatic, 
e. g. Tpd^xa, ypd(peis, ypd<pei] 

(b) When the idea contained in the predicate is such, that it cannot appro- 
priately belong to every subject, but only to a particular one, the subject 
being, as it were, implied in the predicate. Thus, olvoxoftici in Horn. 
sc. 6 olvoxtos, the cup-bearer pours out the wine ; bvei in Her. sc. 6 ^vr-fjp. 
X. An. 3. 4, 36. eirel lyiyvwffKOV avrovs oi"E\\T)ves frovXapevovs oirteVat Kal 
Siayye\\ofjLefovs, e'K'fjpv^e (sc. 6 /ci';pt>) TO?S "E\\T]<ri TrapaffKevda-aff^ai. So 
ffT)fj.aive t rr} <rd\iriyyi, e<rd\ir iye v, sc. 6 ffaXiriKT-{]s (the signal is 
[was] given by the trumpet). So we must explain words which denote the 
state of the weather or the phenomena of nature ; as 8 e i, it rains ; vl<pct, 
it snows, $POJ/T, acrrpdirre i, sc. 6 Zeus. Th. 4, 52. e ff e i ff e, there was 
an earthquake. X. Cy. 4. 5, 5, ffva-Kord^ci, it is dark; 

(c) The subject is easily supplied from the context ; thus, in designations of 
time, e. g. fy eyyvs i]\iov Sucr/xwj/ (sc. r] T]/J.epa). ^Hv a/j.<pl ayopav TT\^ov<rav 
and the like ; irape'xet /i<u, sc. KcupAs, it is time, it is allowed, one can = licet, 


c, :. Her. .1, 73. rjfur irap<ft avaffuffturbcu r^v ipxfa' In this way the 
word 6 &t6s is very i'renueiitly omitted in certain phrases, e. g. rp 00-77 - 
fj.aivti, sc. o dec's; irpoxvp*? A 101 (sc. ri irpefy/iara), thinys jnrosj)er to me, 
I succeed, comp. Th. 1, 109. In such expressions as <f>aerf, A^ouo-i, etc.. 

tin- Miliject av&puiroi is regularly omitteil, us it is readily apparent; 

(d) Sometimes the subject is supplied from some word of the sentence. Her. 
9, 8. rttv 'l<rb( irel\cov ital <r<pt $v irpbs Tt\et, sc. TO TX OS > tne y 
uitlll the Istlunus, and the [wall] was, etc. X. Cy. 2. 4, 24. iropcfoofjuu 
ci&i/s vpbs ret /8ao-f A tia, *cal fy av^iffrTjrai, PC. <5 jStwtAft/y. So also 
other Cases as well as the Nom. are thus supplied, e. g. PI. L. 8C4, d. 
s, oi5eV TTCW TWV roiovrw (sc. 

(e) With the third Pers. Sing, of the verb, in a subordinate clause containing 
a general idea, and in definitions, the indefinite pronoun rls is sometimes 
omitted. PI. Criton. 49, c. otfre arra.SiKtti' 8, otfre KOXU>S iroifiy ovStva 
&.V&PWTTWV, ou5* &y fciovy ir ivxy ^ 7r ' awTwv, nof even if any one should 
suffer from them ; so often with the Inf. ; but if a participle stands in 
connection with the Inf., e. g. Eur. M. 1018. K.ov<p<as tytpeiv X 

st the participle must be considered as the subject. 

HEM. 2. Such expressions as Sc?, x^ Sowe?, irpf-jrct, f<rri(v), ^i/Sexercu (it is 
possible), KoAcDs, e5 ex '> *X et b-dyov (consentaneum est), Ae-yeTeu (?< J5 said), etc., 
the Greek language always considers as personal, the following Inf. or substan- 
tive sentence being regarded as the subject of these verbs. 

6. The predicate is a verb, an adjective, participle, ad- 
jective pronoun or numeral, or a substantive with the 
Formal word elvai ; elvat,, in this relation, is usually called 
the copula, since it connects the adjective, substantive, etc. 
with the subject, and forms one thought, e. g. 

i. 'O &vbpwiros &vt]r6s iariv. 'Abdvaroi tlffiv ol 
foi. 'H apfT^j Ka\"f) 4 IT T iv. 'Aya&fy irapaiQcuris tVTiv fraipou. Kvpos 
fjv jSacriAeus. TOVTO TO irpaypA 4<rrt rd5f. 2u i)o*&a TT&VTUV irpwros, 
Ot &v5pS ^ffav 

REM. 3. The finite verb denotes both the thing affirmed (id quod praedicatur) 
and the relation of the affirmation to the subject and speaker ; the relation to 
the subject, is denoted by the personal-endings of the verb ; the relation to the 
speaker, bv its Modes and Tenses ; e. g. the ending of the verb \fy*> shows 
that its subject is in the first person, and its being in the Ind. mode Pres. tense, 
indicates that the speaker asserts something directly, at the present time. But 
if the predicate is expressed by an adjective or substantive with ? v a i, the 
affirmation is denoted by the adjective or substantive, and its relation to the 
speaker by cTxoi, e. g. evSaip-uv et/t/ = evo'ai/KOj'e-w, ev$al/j.(ov eT = evScu/iove'-ety, 
fvSaifjLovfs &rorrcu = ev$cu/j.orf)-<rov<rit' 1 though there is a difference between the 
two modes of expression. 

EEM. 4. It is necessary to distinguish between the use of ?voi, as a Formal 
and as an Essential word ; in the former relation, it is merely a copula, con- 
necting the subject with the substantive or adjective, etc. ( 238, 6); in the 
latter, it has the idea of being or existence, being in a certain condition, etc., e. g. 
&rri be6s = bets fy-Tw lav (there is a God, God exists), as in Her. 3, 108. rov 
deiov i] -xpovoti) 4<rrl tovaa cro<t>f). 

300 SYNTAX. [$ 239. 

BEM. 5. In order to give greater emphasis to the predicate, the simple idea 
expressed by the verh, is resolved into the participle and copula elvai. This 
mode of expression, however, is more usual in poetiy, though it is found also 
in prose, particularly in Herodotus, comp. Hem. 3. Eur. C. 381. ir&s & ra\at- 
ircop', ^re iraffx VTS TciSe ; Id. H. 117. ^v o"7rev5i/. Her. 3,99. a Trap - 
ve6fj.ev6s eVrt. Id. 9, 51. ^ vrjff6s effri curb TOV ' Affcairov Se/co ffraSiovs 
aTre'xoua-a. PI. L. 860, e. et TO.VTO. ovrcas ex ovT< * tffrtv. Dem. Ol. 3. 
(v. 1.) 11, 7. TOUT' &v eyvcoKSres ^ffav, they would have been convinced of these 

HEM. 6. The copula sJvai is sometimes omitted, though commonly only in 
the Ind. Pres. ; etWi is sometimes omitted, even when it is not a copula, but 
properly a verb. This ellipsis is most frequent in the following cases : 

(a) In general propositions, observations, and proverbs. Eur. 0. 330. 

oA)3os ou fj.6viiJ.os ev Pporois. X. Cy. 2. 4, 27. (rrpari^, yap 77 paffrr] (686s) 

(b) Very often with vei'bal adjectives in -reoy, as also with other expres- 
sions denoting necessity and duty, e. g. a v ay KTJ, xpecoi', fre/ity, et/co's, 
also with Kaipos, &pa and the like. Dem. Ph. 3, 129, 70. ijfuv y virep rrjs 
\fv&fpias aycaviffreov. Id. Cor. 296, 205. ci.Tifj.ias eV SovXevoixry rfj 
ir6\ei (eetv 

(c) Often with certain adjectives, e. g. erotjuos, irp6&v/jios, oT6sT, Swa- 
rds, fx8iov, xa\Gir6v, STJ\OJ/, &iot>, etc. PI. Phaedr. 252, a. (^ 
fiov\(Vfiv fToifJ.r). Dem. Ph. 1. 48, 29. eyca Tratrxeij/ oriovv erot- 
X. C. 1, 1, 5. TJ\OJ/ oivv, '6ri OVK Uv (~2,dOKpdrr}s) irpof\fyfv, et /j,r) 
euo-eti/. Comp. ib. 2, 34. Here belong also the expressions 
, it is very ivonderful ( mirum quantum), d^x "' " oVoi/, it 
is quite impossible, inconceivable (= immane quantum), see 332, Kem. 10. 
On ovSfls fans ov (= nemo non), see 332, item. 12. 

HEM. 7. The Ind. Impf. is but seldom omitted, e. g. Aeschin. Ctes. 71, vb 
iv fj,<rca (sc. fa) KOI irap7J/j.v rrj ixTTepala els rty fKK\T)<rlav ; the Ind. Pros, also is 
not very often omitted after conjunctions, e. g. dTnfre, eVei (comp. X. C. 1, 46) ; 
on the contrary, very frequently after '6ri and us (that), e. g. X. C. 1. 2. 52. 
\fyc0v, &s ovSev 8(pf\os. The subjunctive is but seldom omitted after the rela- 
tive t>s &v, and especially after conjunctions, e. g. PI. Rp. 370, e. &i> &i/ avrois 
XP*' ia ( sc - ^)- The ellipsis of the Opt. when &v belongs to it is more frequent, 
e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 12. ris yap av, e(pa<rav, ffov ye iKav&repos irelffai (sc. etVj) ; Ib. 2. 
3, 2. $v fj-ev rt/j.e'is viKUfj.ev, SJJA.OJ/, 6'rt o't re Tro\/j.ioi &!/ 7]fj.frepoi (sc. ffya'a.v). The 
ellipsis of the Imp. is very rare, e. g. S. O. C. 1480. i'Aaos, 5 Sal/icav. X. An. 3. 
3, 14. TOIS oiii/ &eo?s %a/?is (sc. effrca), '6ri ov GVV iro\\rj pdafJirj, aAAo ffliv o\iyois 
^A^OJ/. The participle is very often omitted, especially after verba intelligendi 
and declarandi, e. g. X. S. 3, 7. ST/A^P 76, on <f>av\os (sc. &v) (pavov/, but else- 
where also, e. g. X. C. 2. 3, 15. aroira \eyeis xal ovSa/j.S>s irpbs aov (sc. ovra), et 
nullo modo tibi convenientia ; even in such cases as Th. 4, 135. x/"wws TeAeurwj/- 
TOS Kal Trpbs eop fjSrj (sc. ovros). The Inf. is often omitted after SoweTf, yyfitr- 
&at, vofiifciv and the like, e.g. Th. 7, 60. jSouAeurea e'So'/cet. X. Cy. 1. 6, 14. 
OTnoWa ^ie e/ceAeu<ras Tory <TT partly IKOIS (sc. elvai) vo^i^o^evGLS avSpdffi 8ia\fyeff- 

$239. Comparison. Attribute and Object. 

1. When the predicate belongs to the subject in a higher or 
lower degree than to another object, this relation is denoted by 
the Comparative, e. g. 'O Trarr/p /^ct^cov eo-rtv, ^ 6 mos. C O 


trcx^o? fj.aXXov \atpfi rg aperr;, f) rots xp7//xacru'. And when the 
predicate belongs to the subject in the highest or lowest 
degree, as respects all other objects compared, the Superlative 
is used, and commonly takes with it a partitive Genitive, e. g. 
TraiToov 'EAA^vcov <ro<a>TaTos rjv. 'O cro<6s Traircov 
/xaXiora 7rt^v/xet T^S apcr^s. 

UI.M M;K 1. The Comparative is strengthened or more definitely stated in 
the following ways : (a) by rt, still, even, etiam, e. g. ntlfav tn, still greater ; 
(b) by /J.O.KP&, o\iy(p, iroAA^, en TroAAy, 8<ro>, Totrovro*; /j.fya, 
o \iyov, TroAu, Sffov, roaovro, which show how much more or less of the 
quality expressed by the adjective is intended, e. g. IT o \ A $ /j-cifav, multo major, 
Jar gnater, TroAAcp tri /jLfi&vfs, multo majores etiam ; (c) sometimes by /uaA- 
\ov. Her. 1, 32. na\\ov oAjStwrepo's fan (far). 

KKM. 2. The Superlative is strengthened or more definitely stated in the 

following ways: (a) by it a/, vel, even, e. g. *al /tcUioTa, vel maxime, very greatly 

! : (b) by words denoting measure or the degree of difference, viz. iroAAy, 

/*a/cp<, iroAu, irap it iro\v, offtf, roaovrtp, e. g, iroAAy fipjtTTov, 77t//o 

raitaiitissimus, the best by far; /uaicpy &PKTTOS, longe praestantissimtts ; (c) even 
the Superlative: /j.d\t<rTa (irAe?(rTov and /j.<iy icrrov poet), e. g. S. 
C). C. 743. ir\f1<rrov av^pcairtav KCLKHTTOS. Th. 7, 42. n<i\iffra. Stivoraros ; 
(d) by the relative: ws' (girws). or* and $, oloy ( 343, Rem. 2), e. g. ws 
T(X^TO, <7Mcrm celerrime, Sri /tdAio-ra, ^ fywrroi/, e. g. PI. Apol. 23, a. wo AAai 
/xeV airex^ejaf /to( 767<i'curj al ofat x a ^ 7rc '' TaTat Ka ^ ftapvrarai. X. An. 4. 8, 
2. x w pt ov ofov xa\fird}Ta.Tov ; (e) by fs, MS, e. g. Her. 6, 127. ^A&e 2/i/- 
5upi'S7js Zvflaplrris, is eVl jrAeTa'Toj' 5); x^'^ s e ^ s w^p aTrf/cero. X. An. 1. 
9, 22. 5ajpa 7r^.7(rTa efs 76 aj/y}p &v ^Aa^/3aj/e, Ae received the most gifts, at least 
cnnsiiJei-incj the fact that he was but a single individual (C. Tusc. 2. 26, 64. amplitu- 
dinem animi unam esse omnium rem pulcherrimam) ; (f ) a peculiar mode of 
strriiirtliening the Superlative, is by joining tv rots with it, in which case the 
Superlative must be repeated, e. g. 'O "Epo>s lv roTs irpe(rftvraT6s eVrt 
(i. e. lv rois irpecr^vraTois ovtri), the oldest among those who are very old.- Her. 7, 
137. Tour6 fj.01 tv ToTtrt ^fi6rarov QaivfTcu ycvfa&cu. PI. Symp. 173, b. 
SwK-paTous ^PCUTT^S &v tv rols pd\ terra rwv r6re. The construction with the 
1-Vni. is found only in Thuc., e. g. 3, 81. (trrdo-ts) tv rols irptar-n tytvero. Ib. 
17. tv TO?S TrAeTa-Tai vrjfs. In such instances, ro?y must be considered 
as Neut. In like manner, the expression '6/j.oia (VoTa Ion.) rots was used 
Avith the Superlative. Her. 3, 8. tre/Soi/rat 5e 'Apd&ioi irians av&ptairwv dfj.o'ia 
T o ?(r t /xaAi(TTo(sc. (TejSo^ueVots), like those wlio respect very much, ut qui maxime. 
Th. 1, 25. \pT\iJLQ.T(t)v 8vvd/j.ft owes OT' tKelvov T))V xp6vov OfJ.oia r ols 'EAA^i/wi/ 
irAoixra>T(iTOis. The Superlative is also intensified by joining a positive 
with it, c. g. 'Aya&tov iinrfwv itpdrurros, the best among the good horsemen = the 
very best. 

REM. 3. The Superlative relation is often expressed more emphatically by 
negative adjectives or adverbs in the Superlative, preceded by ov (Litdtes), 
in-tend of jxtsitive adjectives or adverbs in the Superlative, e. g. oi>x ^iKiffra, 
not the least, especially, ov KK ivr o s t ov K ^Aax'^roy, stronger than p.d- 
, /Be'-Vno-Tos, /^KTTOS. Sometimes, also, it is expressed antithetically, e. g. 

1 'fls, on are not in themselves intensive particles, but merely connect some 
part of Svvanai understood, and in that way may be said to give intensity to 
the Superlative. Sometimes Swa/Mi is expressed, e. g. e.fyo<pwv aviararai 
loroAftej/os ^Tt ToAe^tov ws tSuvaro KaAAto'Ta. 


302 SYNTAX. [$ 240. 

2. A sentence consisting of a subject and predicate may be 
extended by defining the subject and predicate more exactly. 
The word or words which define the subject more fully, is 
called an attribute, or attributive. The subject is more exactly 
described, therefore, (a) by the addition of an adjective (attrib- 
utive 1 adjective), e. g. TO KO.KOV poSov, (b) by the Gen. of a 
substantive (attributive Gen.), e. g. 6 TOV fiacriXews /O/TTOS, 
regis hortus (=regius hortus) ; (c) by a substantive in the same 
Case as the word which is more definitely described, e. g. 
KC/305, 6 f3a.<ri\vs. The explanatory word is here said to be in 
apposition with the word explained, and may be called an 
appositive of that word. The predicate (which is termed the 
object), is more exactly described, (a) by a Case of a substan- 
tive ; (b) by a preposition with a substantive ; (c) by the Inf., 
(d) by an adverb, e. g. 'O <ro<os ryv aperrjv dovce?. Ilept T^S 
'ATTIC vat, 

$ 240. Agreement. 

1. The finite verb agrees with the subject in Person and 
Number; the adjective, participle, pronoun, and numeral, in 
Gender, Number, and Case. The substantive, as a predicate, 
agrees with the subject only in Case; in Gender, Number, and 
Case, only when it denotes a person, and hence either has a 
particular form for the Masc. and Fern., or is of common gender. 
The same principle applies to substantives in apposition ($ 266,. 
1). But when the substantive denotes a thing, it agrees with 
the subject only in Case, e. g. 

'70; ypd<])Q), ffv ypdfpets, ovros ypd(pei. 'O &v&pcairos bvi)T6s eernj/. 'H aperr) 
KoA.7) etTTtf. Tb irpay/jia al(TXP^ v eVrti/. Of r 'E\\r]VfS Tro\/uu&TaToi tfffav. 
'O icaXbs Trews, 77 <ro07? 71^77, rb /it/cpby TSKVOV. 'Eyevftr^ijv rw fotipe TOVTW 
(Kpirias KOI 3 A\Kipid8ris) fybvei <pi\OTi/j.oT<LT(a -navraiv "ASnjvalwv, X. C. 1.2, 14. 
Kvpos T)J/ j8a<rt\eus. To/j.vpis fr fiaffiteia.. KOpos, 6 /8a<rt\et;s, T6/j.vpis, 77 fiaffl- 
\eia. On the contrary, T^V frvyarepa, 5cu/6v n icd\\os ical ft-eye- 
bos, Qdywi' 5e fine? (his daughter a wonder in beauty and size), X. Cy. 5. 2, 7. 

1 When the adjective merely ascribes some quality to the substantive with 
which it agrees, it is called an attributive adjective, but when it belongs to the 
predicate and is used in describing what is said of the subject, it is called a 
predicative adjective, e. g. in the expression 6 ayc&bs avfip (the good man), 070- 
&6s is attributive, but in 6 ay-rip eort ayc&6s (the man is good), it is predicative. 

240.] AGREEMENT. 303 

2. The predicative adjective or substantive agrees with the 
subject as above stated, when the following and other similar 
verbs, wlm-h do not of themselves express a complete predicate 
sense, have chiefly the force of the copula : 

(a) The verb vrrapxcw, to be the cause of, to be, to exist ; 

(b) Verbs signifying to become, to increase, to grow, e. g. ytyvo- 
/tat, w, auavo/xai ; 

(c) The verbs /ACIXO, to remain, and Ka.ri<mjv t to be established, 
appointed, to stand; 

(d) Verbs signifying to seem, appear, show one's self, e. g. 

(e) Verbs signifying to be named, e. g. KaAov/xai, oVo/xaofiat, 
Aeyo/nai, d/coucu, to be called (like audire) ; 

(f) Verbs signifying to be appointed to something, to be cliosen, 
to be named, e. g. atpoi^uu, a,7ro8ctKw//.at j 

(g) Verbs signifying to be regarded as something, to be recog- 
nized as something, to be supposed, e. g. vo/nio/xat, 

(h) Verbs signifying to be given as something, to be received as 
sometfiing, to be abandoned, cast off, and the like, e. g. 

Kvpos tyevero /SewnAeus riav Tltpviav. TOUTOIS 6 <J>tAi7nros peyas Tjvf 173-7; 
(Dem.). 'AAtfi/JtaSTjs rjpf&Ti <npart]y6s. 'Ayrl tyix&v Kal %4v<av vvv K^Ao/ccs 
icai btois fybpol a.Kovov<riv (audiunt), they hear themselves called flatterers, etc., 
Dem. Cor. 241. 

REMARK 1. When the verbs mentioned under (e), (f ), (g), (h), have the 
active form, they take two accusatives ( 280, 4). 

REM. 2. Several of the verbs above named, are also joined with adverbs, 
but they then express a complete predicate sense ; e. g. SWKP^TTJS ^v (lived) oel 
<rvv ro?y vtois. KaAws, KO.KUS Iffriv (it is ivell, etc.). Aeo/ws eerai/ Iv 
<t>v\aKyffi ol Baf}v\(f>viot (diligenter versabantur in custodia), Her. 3, 152. 
Mdrrju ftvai, to be in cain. Elvat, as well as the verbs ytyveffbai and irt^u- 
Ktvat, is very often connected with adverbs of place and degree, of which 
the corresponding adjective-forms are not in use, as 8/x> X W P^ S > 4cs, (j.aic- 
pdv, Tr6pp<D, tyyvs, TrArjtr lov, 6/j.ov, &\ts, /ioAAov, fid\i(rra, e. g. 
To?(Ti ' Ai$nr)vai(i)v ar par-try oicri iylvovr o S i % a cu yvw/jicu (sententiae in diversas 
fortes discedebant), Her. 6, 109. 

3. When a Demonstrative, Relative, or Interrogative pronoun, 
either as a subject or predicate, is connected with a substantive 
by the copula eTvcu, or one of the verbs mentioned in No. 2, 
the Greek commonly, as the Latin regularly, put the pronoun 
by means of attraction, in the same gender and number with 

304 SYNTAX. [ 241. 

the substantive to which it belongs. So too, when the pronoun 
is in the Ace. and depends on a verb of naming, e. g. 

O 5 T 6 s 4o~TU/ & avf] p. A (/ T 77 lo-rl iryyl) Kal apx^l iravrtav TUV KO.KUV. 
OVTOI 5$) 'A&ijvouoi ye SiK-rjv avr^v KaXovffiv, a\\a ypa<p*f)Vj PL Eutyphr. 
princ. Hapa rwv irpoyeyfvri/j.ft'ui' uavfrdveTe a.\m\ yap apt ffrrj 5 1 8 a or K a - 
\ia, X. Cy. 8. 7, 24. T I s eVri TT rj y )) TTJS apeTrjs ; Tldi/res OVTOI v6p.oi 
fiffivy ovs TO ir\ri&os ffvv\Sbv Kal Hypafyf, X. C. 1. 2, 42. *Edv TIS 
<pt\os pot yev6/ ev iroitiv e'&eA.?;, ovr6s pot fiios fort (this is my means of 
life, hie mihi est victus) 3. 11, 4. 

REM. 3. Yet the Greeks not unfrequently put the pronoun in the Neut. 
Sing., e. g. "Eo-Ti 8e TOVTO rvp aw is, PI. Kp. 344, a, where in Lat. it would 
be, Est autcm haec tyrannis, Tovr6 &<TTIV r) S IKO.I o<rvvr), ib. 432, b. Tot) TO 
71-7)7)7 icat apx^} Kivha-ecos, Phaedr. 245, c. The Ncut. PL is sometimes used 
instead of the Neut. Sing. '70)76 ^TJ/X! ravra ntv <$>\vapias eli/at, X. An. 
1. 3, 18. See 241, Rem. 3. The neuter pronoun denotes the nature of an object ; 
on the contrary, the pronoun that agrees with a noun, denotes the quality of the 
object. Hence there are cases where the two forms of expression cannot be 
interchanged, e. g. Ti tern <p&6i'os: quid est invidia? (what is its nature?) 
and T I s eVri <p & 6 v o s ; quae est invidia ? (what is envy ?) The neuter demon- 
strative is also always used, when it is more fully explained by a word in appo- 
sition, e.g. Ou TOVT' $v euSoujuoj/i'a, ws eot/cc, KO.KOV a.ira\\ayfi, PL Gorg. 478, c. 

$241. Exceptions to the general rules of Agreement. 

1. The form of the predicate in many cases does not agree 
with the subject grammatically, but in sense only (Constructio 
Kara o-uvccrtv). Hence, after a collective noun in the Singular, 
when it is used of persons, as \vell as after the names of cities 
and countries, used for the inhabitants, and also with abstracts 
which stand for concretes, the Plural is used, and such a gender 
as belongs to the persons denoted by these words. 

Her. 9, 23. TO TrAfJ&os eTrejSo^rj crav. Th. 4, 32. b &\\o's o-r parks 
air ejSot vov. 5, 60. TO O"T p ar 6 IT eSo v avextapovv. 2, 21. Travrl TpdVw 
avripfbiffTO r) ir6\is Kal TOJ/ TleptK\fa tv bpyfj etxov. "With attributive adjec- 
tives, this construction is rare and only poetic, e.g. II. x, 84. ^tAe TSKVOV (Hec- 
tor) ; but it is very common in prose with a Part, which stands in a remoter 
attributive relation, e. g. Th. 3, 79. M TT)J> TO\IV i-jreirXfov eV TroAA.]? Tapa\p 
Kal fy6fica OVTO.S. X. Cy. 7.3, 8. 5 aya^ij Kal Triffrr) ^v%"h-, o?xy ty airo\i- 
TTWV rj/ X. H. 1. 4, 13. 6 e/c TOU ao-reos o%Aos ybpoiff&ii irpbs ras vavs, 
$ravp.aovTes Kal iSeiv fiov\6/j.evoi rbv 'A\Kt0id5r}V. It is very frequent 
with the pronouns, Th. 1, 136. (pevyei e's KepKvpav us avruv (sc. KepKvpai- 
tav) evepyeTys. 4, 15. 4s r^v ~2,irapri}v ws i)yyf\frr) ra yeyevrj^eya irepl Uv\ov, 
5o|ei/ ouTots (sc. TO?S ^irapTidrais). X. Cy. 3. 3, 14. ffvyKoXeaas irav TO ff T pa- 
rt car j K b i/ e\e<= Trpbs a v T o v s roidSe. Also with the relative pronoun ; see on 
adjective-sentences, 332, 5. 


llr.M \I;K 1. When tin- subject i-; expre^ed by the Ncnt. article r 6 or r d in 
connection with a substantive in the (Jen. 1'L tlic jm <li< ate is commonly in the 

]'!.. being conformed to-theattribatiregeaitiYe; the bredicatire adjective or par< 

tidple takes tlu' gender of tlu- attributive genitive. S. Ph. 497. T A riav Slant- 
v<av r~bv oinao' ijirttyov 0r6\ov (fiirfiyov which has the Nent. 1*1. rd for its 
subject would regularly have been in the Sing, according to No. 4, but is con- 
lormcil to the i)lurality in SiaK6vuv). PI. Rp. 8. 563, c. TO rwv bijpiwv 
t\(v&fpurtpd la-Tiv (the Sing. lai(v is used on account of the Neut. PI. 
t\fvdfpu>T(pa, according to No. 4, while ttevbepwrtpa is conformed to the idea 
of frriia contained in 

KI.M. 2. Closely related to the construction just stated, is the following: 
When a substantive subject with an attributive substantive in the Gen. PI. 
c\;>ivr> periphrastically a substantive idea, as ^ux^ Tctpcfflao, the Participle 
which stands in a remoter attributive relation to the subject, agrees in Case 
with the subject, but in Gender and Number with the substantive in the Gen., 
which expresses the principal idea of the periphrasis. Od. A, 90. $\&e 5' eVi 
tlux^ Qii&aiov Tdpfffiao x/jutreo*' (TKrjirTpov cx&>j/, the shade of the Thtban 
-nis antic, liai-int/ a golden sceptre (here ex^j/ agrees in number with vj/i/x^> 
but in gender with Tftpe<n'oo). 11. j8, 459, bpvlStwv ircreTjj/w^ l^veo iroAAa, 
cv^a Kal tv&a teoruvrcu aya\\6/>ai irTfpvytaffiv. 

2. "When the subject is expressed, not as a special and defi- 
nite object, but as a general idea, the predicative adjective is 
put in the Neut. Sing, without reference to the gender and 
number of the subject. 

(The English sometimes uses the words thing, or something. Sometimes the 
pronoun rl t or the substantives xp^/* a > wpay/xa, are connected with the 
adjective. When the adjective is in the Superlative, the English uses the 
article the). 

II. ft, 204. OVK ayabbv Tro\vKoipavlr) (a multiplicity of rulers is not a good 
\iny) : efs Koipavos ecrrw. Eur. 0. 760. dtivov ol TroAAof, Kcutovpyovs OTOV 
oo-Toras. Id. M. 329. TrA?V 70^ reKvcav e/uotye <pi\rarov ir6\is. Id. H. 
1295. at fj.frafto\al \viryp6v. Her. 3, 82. 77 /j. ovv apxii) Kpdrt<rrov(a 
rclty is the best thing, or most desirable). PI. Rp. 2. 364, a. Ka\bv ukv 77 
><p p o a v v TJ T Kal S IK a i off vvt], %a.\fir'bv /j.fvroi KO! siriirovov. Also 
abbreviated adjective sentences, e. g. Her. 3, 108. ; Ae'cuvo, tbv lffx v P<^' 
irov KaL ^potruTaroi', oiro| tv T(p &i(a rtKrei <iv. PI. Rp. 4, 420, c. ol 
iof, KaAA(TT ov ov, OVK offTpetca tva\T)\i/jL/j.evoi tiffiv. Her. 3, 53. 
w\s XP^M ^Aqprfr. PI. Th. 122, b. <rv/j.ftov\ij Itpbv x.PVP - Dem. 
'.. 21, 12. &TTO.S p.\v \6yos, kv airfj TO irpdypaTa, fj.dra.i6v TI (paivfrai Kal 

3. When the subject is an Inf. or an entire sentence, the 
eks usually put the predicative adjective in the Neut. PL 
istead of the Sing., where the English uses the pronoun \t, 
g. it is pleasant to see the sun. This occurs most frequently 
r ith verbal adjectives in -TO? and -reo?; with those in -rc'os 
id many in -TO'S, the Inf. is implied in the word itself, e- g. 

306 SYNTAX. [$ 241. 

d/xwrea ecrrt TWL, some one is to be helped; Tricrm TTI rots <j>t\oi$, 
friends are to be trusted. 

Her. 1, 91. rty TreTrpoo/xe'j/Tjj' fj.o'ipav a8 visard eVrt (if is impossible) airofyvyesiv 
Kal bff. 3, 83. Srj\a, '6ri Sel eVo 76 Tiro j^teW acn\ea ytrcV&cu. Th. 1, 86. 
ovs ou TrapaSoTea TO<S 'Abyvaiois <rriv, of/Se /col \6yois Sia/cptTe'o, aAAa 
4, 1. dS5j/ara ^?/ eV T< irap6vTi rovs AoKpovs afj.v- 

REM. 3. In like manner, the Greek very often uses the PL ravra, rd5e 
(sometimes also ewea/a), to express an idea in its whole extent or in the most 
general manner, the plural bringing before the mind all the particulars involved 
in the idea. Th. 6, 77. OVK "leaves ra5e eiViV, oi>5' 'E\\r)sir6]/Tioi, a\\a Awpnjs, 
it (this) is not lonians, etc. Aeschin. Ctes. p. 55. OVK tcrri ravra apxt (Ms is 
not an office). Id. Leg. p. 50. TO Or' e(mj> 6 TrpoScmjs, this is the traitor. PI. 
Phaedon. 62, d. 6 avdrjTos &V&PUTTOS rax &v ol^Sffi-r] ravra, </)eu/cTeoj/ elj/at airb 
TOV Sea-ir^Tov. In the English these plurals are generally translated by the 
singular, as this, that. 

4. The subject in the Neut. PL is connected with a verb in 
the Sing., inasmuch as a plurality of objects in the neuter, was 
regarded by the Greeks as one connected wJwle, the individual- 
ity being lost sight of. 

Ta CeDa Tp/X* << Tei TT p d y p. a T d tffTiicaXd. X. Yen. 12, 11. avv rrj 
da^fTai KcA. a.Tr6\\vrai TO. oiKeta fKd<rrov. Eur. M. 618. /co/couyap 
Swp* ovijffiv OVK 

HEM. 4. Also in adverbial participial phrases, a neuter plural is joined with 
a participle in the singular, e. g. $6av ravra, quum haec visa, decreta essent. 
X. An. 4 1, 13. 86ai' Se TOUT a, eV/jpi/lav OUTOJ Trotelj/, when these things had 
been agreed upon, orders were given, etc. Yet, X. H. 3. 2, 19. So | av TO Se TOU- 
T a Kal TT e p a v & e j/ T a, TO /ley (TTpaTfVfj.aTa aTrrjA^ev. 

HEM. 5. There are some exceptions, however, to the rule just stated ; most 
of them may be referred to the following cases : 

(a) When the subject in the Neut. PI. denotes persons or living creatures, 
the verb is very often put in the PI. in accordance with the Constructio 
Kara avvsfftv. Th. 4, 88. TO TeArj (the magistrates) TUJV AoKeSt/ioj/iW 
6fj.6<ravTa 'BpaariSav ee / 7re^^aj'. 7, 57. TocraSe pera 'A&ijwaiat? 
eid-vrj ffr pdr evov. PI. Lach. 180, e. TO fj-etpaKia S ia\ey6fj.ey 01 
Trip 4 it-vt] VT a i "SwKpdrovs Kal <r^)o5pa e TT a t v o v a i v. 

(b) When the objects contained in the plural are to be represented individib- 
ally rather than collectively, or when the idea of plurality composed of 
several parts (which may also have relation to different times and places) 
is to be made prominent, 1 e. g. X. An. 1. 7, 17. ravrri T-fj ^ue'pcc 

ffaro /3a<nA.ei/s, d.\A.' virox^povvr<av <avepo ?)ffav Kal 'iirirwv Kal 
l^vt] iro\\d (many tracks here and there}. Cy. 5. 1, 14. TO 
av&p(t>TTia iraff&v, ol/, rwv ^iriSrv^.tcav aKparr) e<TTi, /caVerni e 

1 It will often, therefore, depend upon the view in the speaker's mind, whether 
the Sing, or PL is to be used. 


i, the singular larl is used here because mankind is referred to as a 
class, but the plural alriuvrai, to denote that each individual blames love, the 
c/i(in/i' liii<j made too, in a (//(/< rit innnix r am/ a/ tlijf'rri-iit tinn-g. Th. 5, 
26. a> (/>m<t<r) rovruv trpos rbv MavriviKOV Kal 'EirtSaupiov ir6\ffjLOV Kal ts 
a\\a a^tyorfpois afjiapr-f] / a lycvovro, mistakes of each of 'the two, at 
various jvints and times. X. An. 1. 4, 4. -fiffuv 8e ravra Svo 

I (c) The non-Attic poets from Homer down, very often use the PI. simply on 
account of the metre. 

I REM. 6.' The plural subject, masculine or feminine, is connected in the poets, 
jthough rarely, with a verb in the Sing. Pind. 01. 11. (10.) princ. nc\i < ydpves 
V/JLVOI vvrtpuv apxal ^-oyuv re A A. era*. This construction is very limited in 
prose-writers; it occurs with etrri and ^v, but only at the beginning of a sen- 
tence (comp. il est cent usages), which then assume the character of impersonal 
expressions. Her. 1, 26. tan Kal /j.frav rfjy re iroAatrjs Tr6\ios Kal rov vt\ov lirra 
ffrafiioi. PL Rp. 5, 462, e. e<rri KO! tv rais &\\ais iroXtaiv apxovres re Kal STJ/UOS. 
In like manner the Greeks regularly say ecm*/, ot', sunt, qui. See 331, Rem. 
4. The construction mentioned 242, Rem. 2, is very different from this. 

5. A subject in the Dual, as well as two subjects in the Sin- 
gular, very often have a predicate in the PL, e. g. Avo> o-rpara) 
dv^a>p7/o-ai/. Taiv avroiv Seovrat KCU 17 yvvr) Kal 6 avrjp. The 
rule seems to be, that when the affirmation is made of each of 
the two separately, the Dual is used, but when of both together, 
the Plural, e. g. Mtvws KCU Av/covpyos vopovs e$Tir]v (each 
gave laws) ; ^8ov; o~oi /ecu Kvirrj ev ry TroXct 

REM. 7. The Dual is not used in all cases where two objects are spoken of, 
but only where two similar objects are mentioned, either naturally connected, 
e. g. tr6Sf, x f ?P f > &r f t or sucn as we conceive to stand in a close and reciprocal 
relation, e. g. two combatants, two friends, etc. 

REM. 8. The Dual very often interchanges with the PI., especially in par- 
ticiples, e.g. II. \, 621. r ol 5 s ISpu a IT e ty v x o v T o xircavcav aravr e TTOT! 
PI. Euthyd. 273, d. ty(\a<raT ijv &fJi(p(a /3A.^/oj/TS ets 

KI.M. 9. A subject in the PI. sometimes has a verb in the Dual, when two 
objects mutually connected, or two pairs, are spoken of, e. g. II. 5, 452, sqq. us 
5' 'ore x f tf J - a PP t TOTa/tof, /car' ope<r</H p c o v r s, ^s /j.iffydyKfiay ffvp.^d\- 
A.6TOJ/ ofiptfjov vScap, . . us TUV jj.t<ryoii4vu>v yfveTo lax"f) T6 <f>6fios re (two streams 
running on opposite sides are compared with two hostile parties). II. &, 185, 
sqq. Ec'3 p e re Kal ffv Tl68apye, Kal Atibuv Aci/xTre re 5?e, vvv /not T-fjv KopiSty airo- 
rlvfTov, 191. oAA* 2<po/j.apT tlrov Kal ffirevo'cT ov (two pairs). 

REM. 10. The following points also are to be noted in respect to the 

(a) A substantive in the PI. is very often connected with the Duals 5uo>, 
Suo, but seldom with SuoiV. II. e, 10. 5ua> vices. II. i, 4. avf/Jioi 
ovo. Aesch. Ag. 1395. SuoIV ol/j-uynaffiv. PI. Soph. 244, b. irpos- 

8uotV o v6/j.a(r i v. PI. Rep. 614, c. 5vo x aff l JiaTa 

(b) The Duals TW, TO?J/, rwSe, To?j/5e, TOVTCO, TOUTOU', avru, avroiv, u, oTv, in 
prose are used both as masculine and feminine (i. e. they are of common 
gender), e. g. &u<t>w ru iro\f ru yvvatKf a/j.<f>u rovru rcl; f)fj.epa TOIV 
yeveatoiv rovru ru ri-^va rovroiv roiv Kivqffeoiv ru 6Su. The Fem. 

308 SYNTAX. [j 241. 

form of the article rd, is extremely rare, e. g. TO. 8* ovv K6pa, S. Ant. 
769 ; oftener the form Ta.1v, X. H. 6, 4. 17. PI. Tim. 79, d; so 4* rcuj/Se 
8* ovffa.iv TTap&fvoii', S. O. C. 445. Tavra occurs Av. Pac. 847, but 
T a v T a i v is more frequent, e. g. T o u T o t y /* <$ v a i v, S. O. C. 859 ; e/c r a v - 
raty, 1149: TO.VTO.IV 5e To.1v 8ia&"i]Kau>, Isae. 5, 15. A (fro, S. Ant. 
570. Besides the pronouns mentioned, sometimes other attributives also 
in the Dual are used as of common gender ; the participle but seldom. 
PL Phaedr. 237, d. TUJLUV eV e/ccfo-Tw Svo Tivi eVroj/ iSea apxovTe Kal 
ayovre, olv eTro/ue&a 'TOVTW Se K. T. \. 

6. When the predicate is a substantive connected to the 
subject by ami or any other verb having the character of a 
copula ($ 240, 2), the verb often agrees by means of attraction, 
as commonly in Latin, with the nearest predicative substantive. 

Her. 3, 60. rb /UJKOS TOV bpvy^aros cirra (rrdSiol ei<ri. 2, 15. at rjjSai 
AfyviTTOs Ka\To. Th. 3, 112. eo-rby 8u&> \6q><a TJ 'iSo/ieVrj v^i}\d). 

4, 102. rb -)(<ap[ov TOVTO, oirep irp6rspov 'Ej/i/ea 6Sol fKa\ovt>TO. Isocr. 
Paneg. 51, b. e<rrt dpx" cc ^ TaTa T w" e^vaJv /cal peyta-ras SwaaTelas exotna 
2/cu^ai /cai pyxes Kal Tlepffai. So also in the participial construction, e. g. Th. 

5, 4. Ka.Ta\a[j.pd.vov(ri KOI PpiKtvi/ias, %v epvfj.a eV TT? Aeo^Tij^?. PI. L. 735, e. 
TOVS fj-fyiffra |TjjuapT7j/c^Tos, O.VIO.TOVS 8e OJ/TOS, fj.yiffTT]v 8e oSerav jSAajSrjv 
TT^ACCOS, aira.\\a.TTeiv etu&tv (instead of tWas). So also Her. 3, 108. r) \eau>a, 
bv lff^vooTa.Tov KOI &pa<rvTaTov, aira^ ev T$ )8to> T'IKTSI eV, instead of 
fovffa. Comp. No. 2. A similar attraction occurs sometimes in sentences 
denoting comparison, e. g. ruv KOIVUV TI apa 8ievoov/jLr)v, v>v ovSev &v /tSAAoi/, ^ 
TIS &\\os exet, PL Theaet. 209. a. (e^et here agreeing with -m instead of <rv). 
In Latin this is much more frequent. 

7. A superlative connected with a partitive Gen. commonly 
takes the gender of the subject, more rarely that of the partitive 

II. <, 253. (cue-roD) fistf apa KapTi<TT6s re Kal &KKTTOS 
139. KipKos, e\a<pp6raTos TreTerjvwv. Her. 4, 85. & UOVTOS 
airavTuv TretpvKe &a>u/xa<rtc6TOTos. Menandr. p. 193. (Mein.) votrwv x a ^*~ 
iruraros (p&Jvos. X. C. 4. 7, 7. & '/i\ios T)>V travra xp^ov iravTuv \apirp6- 
TO.TOS &v Sia^eVei. PL Tim. 29, a. 6 K6<r/j.os Kd\\iffTOS TU>V yeyovoTtav. 
Plutarch. Consol. 102. c. rj Xvir-rj x aA - 67rwT * T7 ' "*<>&<*>'' O n tne contrary, 
Isocr. ad Nicocl. extr. o-v/ijSouAos 070^^5 xP'n (ri f J -^ raT01/ Ka ^ TvpavvutA- 
TO.TOV a.ira.vT(ov KTT)fj.dT(ov ea-rt (the Superlative here taking the gender 
of the partitive Gen. 

REM. 11. When the idea of personality in general is to be expressed, the 
Masc. form may be used, referring to words denoting females; (in this and 
other similar irregularities, less regard is had to strict grammatical principles 
than to the general idea to be expressed,) e. g. ~2,vvf\Tj\v^affiv ws e'/xe KaTa\e\ei/j.- 
fjLfvai dSeA^cu re Kal afieXtyiSa't Kal avefyial TOffavrat, &ST" tlvai eV rfj oiKia Tfffffa- 
pfSKatSfKa TOUS 4\ev&e p ovs (free men), X. C. 2. 7, 2. 'H <rre?jpos ovffa (j.6ffxs 
OVK ave^erai riKTovras &\\ovs, OVK fx ov( ^ " T ^ TtKva, she cannot endure 


thnt other persons ( should bring forth yoninj. Kur. Amir. 711. So also tho 

tr;i.L r if I'oi'ls use tin- M;IM-.. uhrii a \vnm:in sju-;iks of lirrsrll' in the PI., c. g. 
S. El. .'{'.' 1 (KUvtra says of herself) irco-ovped', tl xpili irarpl T j/ 

REM. 12. Sometimes the first Pcrs. PI., or the IVr*. pronoun first Pcrs. PI. 
i- iiM-d. tor the sake of modesty, instead of the Sing., the speaker representing 
his own views and actions as common to others. This usage, which is very 
frequent in Latin, is rarely found among the Greeks in the Common language. 
*fl 'AAKj/Std'STj, Ktd rjficis TI}\IKOUTOI tfi/res Sfii/ol TO roiavra 3fj.fv ( I also teas at 
tliat (Hie s/t<ir}i in these matters), X. C. 1. 2, 46. "Evvotd nob' inj.1v tytvfro (the 
thought once occurred to me), Cy. 1. 1, 1. Tltpl ftei/ olv TUV irpax&fVrwc Iv rep 
vapdrri ravr' ilx o P (V *"'. Among the poets, particularly the Tragedians, 
tli is use of the PI. is more frequent, and a transition from the Sing, to the PI. 
often occurs, e. g. Eur. H. F. 858. "H\iov jtapTt/p(f/t<r&a 5p<r', a 5pai> ov 
&OV\O/JLCU. Hipp. 244. alSovfjif&a yap ra \e\eyfjitva fioi. 

KI.M. 13. In an address directed to several persons, the Greek has several 
peculiar idioms : 

(a) The Imp. Sing. etTre and some others, which denote an exhortation or 
animating call, e. g. aye, <>, i Sc, is frequently connected in the Attic 
writers with a Voc. PL, or with several vocatives, e. g. PI. Euthyd. 283, 
b. <W jioi, & 2wpoTe's re /cal fyms of tfAAoj. Dem. Chers. 108, 74. W 

(b) In an address directed to several persons, the predicate in the PI. often 
refers to a Voc. which denotes only one of the persons addressed; this ia 
done for the purpose of making the principal person prominent. Od. /9, 
310. 'AVT/I/O', oforws forty U7rep<pi<\oi<ri /j-efr' vp.7v tiuivvff&ai. /z, 82. 

. H. 4. 

, <palSi/ii 'OSvffffcv. X. H. 4. 1, 11. fr', ^>ij, u/LteTy, & 
'H p i IT ic i 5 a, Kal 8 iSdffKfTe ainbv jSovArj^vai airep fi/Afts ol fjiev $)) avaff- 
rdrrfs (SiScurKov. An interchange of the Sing, and PI. often occurs 
among the Tragedians, when the chorus is either addressed by others, or 
speaks of itself, the poet having in mind, at one moment, the whole 
chorus, at another their leader, e. g. S. 0. C. 167. leTj/ot, p.^ STJT' aSt/cTj- 
$< <r o t iriffTfvcras. 

(c) The second Pers. Imp. instead of the third, is sometimes connected with 
the indefinite pronoun rls or iras ris, or even with a substantive and 
rls : this idiom, which is not common, occurs mostly in the Attic dia- 

logue, e. g. Ar. Av. 1186. xcopei (instead of xcopefrw) SeDpo iras 

TTJS (every servant come hither): rofvf (instead of To|eteTa>) iras TIS 

(every one use his bow). Hence, also, the transition from the third Pers. to 

the second, e. g. Eur. Bacch. 327. (345.) <TTtx /Taj ris 

8* Sdxovs TousS', 1v oiuvoffKoire'i, /JLOX^OIS rpiatvov Kavdr pfty 

Kal fjif&cs. Comp. Larger Grammar, 430, 2 (7). 

242. Agreement when there are several subjects. 

1. When there are two or more subjects connected together, 
there is a double relation to be distinguished : 

(a) The subjects are regarded as expressing multitude, and 
the predicate is referred to all the subjects equally ; then 
the predicate is in the Plural, and when there are but two 
subjects, in the Dual or even in the Plural (comp. $ 241, 

310 SYNTAX. [$ 242. 

5) ; the gender of the predicative adjective is determined 

according to the following rules : 

(a) With words of like gender denoting persons, the 
adjective has the same gender; with words of dif- 
ferent gender denoting persons, the gender of the 
adjective is conformed to the masculine subject, 
rather than to the feminine or neuter, and to the 
feminine rather than the neuter; in both cases the 
adjective and verb are plural. 

(/?) With words of like gender denoting things, the 
adjective is either in the same gender and in the 
plural, or is in the neuter plural; with words of 
different gender denoting things, the adjective is in 
the neuter plural. 

(y) When words denoting persons and things stand in 
connection, the adjective is plural and takes the 
gender of the words denoting persons, when the 
persons are to be considered as the more prominent 
idea, or the things are to be viewed personally ; but 
when both are to be viewed merely as things, the 
adjective is in the neuter plural. 

Kal \-fibr) 5e Kal afrvfila Kal 8vsKO\ia Kal p.avia iro\\di<is iro\\ois Sia 
rty TOV ff<i>u.a.Tos Ka^e^iav els Tty Siavoiav e (jLTriirTova tv, X. C. 3. 12, 6. ScoKpa*- 
Tet dyuiATjTa 7 e v o p. e v ft) KpiTlas re Kai 'A \K i &id8i)s Tr\e?o~Ta wa/ca rrjv 
rr6\iv TT o 1 17 ff d r t\ v, ib. 1 . 2, 12. 'H p a K A TJ s Kal 77 <r e i; s U.&VQI ruv Trpoye- 
yei/Tj/ieVwi' inrep TOV fiiov TOV T<OV av&p&ircov a^\7jTal KOT(TTTJ ffav, Isocr. 
Pan. 212. Kal f) yvv^ Kal 6 av^p aya&oi tlo-tv, PL Men. 73. At Se TTOU 
j]fj.eTpai T*a\oxot Kal v^tria. TCKVU et'or 1 tvl ftfydpois TTOT icy pevai, 
II. j8, 137. 'Us cTSe iraTtpa. re Kal /xrjrepo Kal dSeA^oi/s Kal TT\V eaurou 
yvva"iKa otx/iaXc^TOus yeyevrj/Jievovs, e'Sd/cpuerei/, X. Cy. 3. 1, 7. 'H 
bpy^l al T) affvv cffla elarl K a K a i. ^ct>u.aTos K&\\OS Kal io~x v s 8et\< Kal 
Ka.K$ ^vvoiKovvTa irpfirovTa ^aiVerot, PI. Menex. 246, e. Evyevetai Te 
Kal Swdpeis Kal Tip.a.1 Srj\d tffTiv aya&a o/Ta, PI. ^Hv f) ayopaKalTb 
irpvTavf}'iov Tlapica A^w i] ff K 77 /i e'j/a, Her. 3, 57. At&oi re Kal ir\tv&oi 
Kal u\a al KfpafJLOS aTdKTus ovSev XP^^'M^ effrtv, X. C. 
3. 1, 7. 'H Ti>X"n Kal *iAtTT7ros ?i<rav TU>V epycov Kvpioi, Aesch. C H oX- 
KloTt] Tro\iTelaTf Kal 6 K.a\\iffT os o.v^p \onra &v rjfjuv etr) StcAi^e?^, 
Tvpavvis Te Kal Tvpavvos, PL lip. 562, a. 

(b) Each subject is considered separately and by itself; then 
the predicate is confined to one of the subjects and 


agrees with it. This construction is also used, when one 
of the subjects is to In- rcpivsrnti'd as more prominent 
than the others. There are here three positions of the 
predicate: (a) before all the subjects; (b) after all the 
subjects; (c) after the first subject 

PI. Lys. 207, d. <pi\f"i ff 6 var^p Kal f) jurjTTjp. Her. 5, 21. e'/ ire TO ff<f>i 
Kal OX^MOTO Kal btpdirovTcs Kal 77 ira.<ra TroAA^ irapaffKfv)). X. R. Ath. 1, 2. 
! wlryrct Jttt) & STJ/XOS ir\*ov x t< ^- Symp. 109, c. ai ripal airrols Kal Ta 
/ 6 p a TO. irapa ruv avdpuiruv r; <p a v / T o. Th. 8, 63. of eV rfj M i \ ?'j r (p Kal 6 
'3&dp(n)O'f. Th. 3, 5. MeXeos Aa/cajv a^iKfeTrat Kal 
rj/SaTos. X. An. 2. 2, 1. * a AtVos < X 6TO f a* ot <ruj> OUT. 

K KM ARK 1. Sometimes the verb, though it follows different subjects, agrees 
with the first subject, the remaining subjects being then represented as subor- 
dinate, e. g. X. An. 1. 10, 1. fia<ri\vs 5e Kal ol avv ainy SKI>KUV elsiritr- 
Tfi. So also with the attributive adjective, e. g. X. An. 1. 5, 6. eirra 60o- 
\ovs Kal f}fj.iofi6\ioi' 'A.TTIKOVS (the adjective here agreeing with o&o\ovs 
ratlu-r than jjyuojBrfXur); Th. 8, 63. 'Acrrvoxos tirv&fro rbv 2 
Kal r as vavs 

REM. 2. The verb sometimes stands in the Sing., if several nouns in the 
PI. denoting things precede, when it is intended to represent those nouns as 
making up one whole, as a condition, state, etc., e. g. PL S. 188, b. /col iraxvat 
Kal x a * a C a ' K ^ pvffi (3ai K 9rAeove|tas Kal aKOff/J-ias irepl a\\7j\a T)V roiov- 
ruv ylyverai e 

REM. 3. When the subjects are connected by ^ ^, aut aut, Kat /cof, 
et et, otirc afire, neque neque, the predicate agrees with the subject 
standing nearest to it, if each subject is to be regarded separately and by itself, 
e. g. *) OUTOS, % fKfwos a\T]&?i \eyei, aut hie, aut illc vera elicit ; but when the 
subjects arc not considered separately or as independent of each other, but as 
expressing plurality, the predicate is in the PL, e.g. Dem. Aph. 817, 12. & 
&TjpnririST)s cravat. 

REM. 4. The attributive adjective commonly agrees with the substantive 
nearest to it, e. g. 'A/j.(poTepois ol avrolftpKot Kal v /j./j.axia KareVrrj, Th. 
But where perspicuity or emphasis requires it, the adjective is repeated with 
each substantive, e.g. irdvrfs avSpes Kal iraaai yvvatKes', or the con- 
structions stated under No. 1 are observed, e. g. 'H p a K \ fj s Kal Q rj <r c v s n6voi. 
riaTTjp al ft^TTjp Kal aSf\<pol atxi ua ^-*'' TO1 y*y*vnp-*vo i, etc. See 
examples under No. 1. 

2. When several subjects of different persons have a com- 
mon predicate, the verb (which is commonly plural) is in the 
first person rather than the second or third, and in the second 
rather than the third. 

'70? Kal av 7pd*4>o^j/, ego et tu scribimus. '70? Kal &c?j/os ypd(f>o/j.V,'ego et ille 
scribimus. '741) Kal <rv Kal fKelvos ypd(po/j.fv, ego et tu et ille scribimus. 2u Kal 
^Kf7vos 7pa<peTe, tu et ille scribitis. '70? Kal ^Ktlvoi ypd<po/j.fv. 5u Kal eKttvoi 
ypd(j>Te. 'H/xeTs Kal IKWOI ypaQopfv. 'T^eTs Kal ^/celvos ypd<p*Tf. 

REM. 5. Sometimes also for the sake of a more forcible contrast, the person 
of the verb agrees with the subject nearest to it, e. g. X. C. 4. 4, 7. *epl rov 

312 SYNTAX. [$ 243. 

SiKaiov irdvu o7/xat vvv ex eij/ e<Ve?^, irpbs a oure o"u OUT' ay ciAAos ovSels 
ratr' avTeiire'tv. PL Phaedon. 77, d. opus Se yuoj So/eels tru re Kal 
^Secus &/ Kal TOVTOV Lairpa'y[j.aTev(ra(r&ai (pertractare) Thy \6-*ov. X. An. 2. 1, 
16. (TV re 7ctp"EAA7jy el KCU r^ets. Comp. Hem. 4. 

$ 243. Remarks on certain Peculiarities in the use 
of Number. 

1. The Sing, has sometimes a collective sense and takes the place of the 
PL; thus in the poets: Sdicpvov, auris, a-ray^y, crrdx^s, harvest, etc.] 
in prose: KV/J.CI, eff^^js (like vestis), Aid-os, ir\iv&os, &/J.TT\OS, ?j 'Lir- 
TTOS, cavalry, ^ a<nrts,a body of troops, etc. 

2. Entire nations, that live under a monarchical government, are sometimes 
designated in prose, by the Sing., e. g. 6 n4p(rr)s, the Persians, 6 'Apa/3tos, 
6 Av$6s, 6 'Aa-ffvpios, etc. This rarely occurs in respect to nations that 
have a free government, e.g. rov "EAArjva <pl\ov Tiyjos&eV&cu, Her. 1, 69. Also 
the words o-TpcmwTTjs, iroAe'/xios and the like, are sometimes used in the Sing, 
instead of the PL 

3. The PI. properly belongs only to common nouns, not to proper names, nor 
to the names of materials, nor to abstracts ; still, even such nouns in certain rela- 
tions take the PL, namely, when they express the idea of a common noun : 

(1) Proper names: (a) to denote several individuals of the same name, e. g. 
Svo KoruAot; (b)to denote persons that possess the nature or the qualities 
of the individual named, e.g. PL Theaet. 169, b. of 'Hpo/cAees re Kal OTJ- 
o- e t s, men like Hercules and Theseus. 

(2) Names of materials occur not seldom in the PL, since either the single 
parts, which make up the material, or the different kinds of a given material, 
are contemplated, e. g. a\es, salt ; \l/dfj.a&oi, sand; irvpol Kal Kpi&ai; &ve- 
fj.os Kal vSara, o7i/ot iro \vr eAe?s, olvoi Tra\aioi] |uAo Kal Aid-os, 

(3) Abstracts in the plural have a concrete signification, since the plural is 
used when the separate kinds or circumstances or relations of the abstract idea, 
are denoted, or the manifestation of the abstract action, as repeated in different 
places or times ; hence also when the abstract idea relates to several persons, 
e.g. Herod. 7, 158. vfiv peyd\ai w<pf\iai re Kal firavpe ere is yey6vaffi. 3, 
40. tfj.01 a! ffal /j.eyd\ai evrvxiai OVK apfffKOvffi. So e%&?7, inimicitiae; vrd- 
<rets, seditiones; <iAiot, Ta\anr<apiat, aerumnae; frdvaroi, mortes ; 

Kal SrdXirn, Stv/j.oi, animi ; <p6$oi, <ppovf)(Tis, reflections; aTre'x 
avSptat, brave deeds; vyletai Kal eveiat r5>v <ra>p.aru>v, like valetudinett, 
etc. ; TT I <T T e i s, testimonia ; evvolas Sovvai, to show acts of kindness ; x^P tres t 
presents; in many cases, the PL denotes a plurality of parts, e. g. ir A o T o t, 
treasures, divitiae (irXovros, riches, abstract) ; yd/j.oi, nuptiae; vvKres, the hours 
or watches of the night, horae nocturnae ; rafpai, funera, etc. So, e. g. in Eng- 
lish, How long these nights are ? when one night is meant. 

EEMARK. The Greeks commonly use the PL of Abstracts as well as Con- 
cretes, when they refer to a PL Adj.,' the idea contained in the abstract term 

- 14.] THE ARTICLE. 313 

then applicable to several perxms, C. g. tccutol ras $vxds; Ka\ol rit 
0-w/j.ara; apuri-oi ras <j>i>fffis~, Kal rats yvwpais Kal ro7s <rufj.affi 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 10. 

4. When neuter adjectives, pronouns, and numerals are used as substantives, 
the Greek, like the Latin, always employs the PI., when several individual 
things, individual relations or circumstances, a whole which is represented as 
consisting of single parts, are to be understood by these words : the English often 
uses the singular here, as this, that (TOUTO, ^/ce/a). Comp. 241, Rem. 3. The 
Sing, of adjectives used substan lively is put in the Neut., when an abstract idea, 
a whole as such, is to be expressed, e. g. TO Ka\6v, the beautiful in the abstract, 
TO KOKOV, the bad. The PL, on the contrary, denotes a concrete idea, i. e. the 
different parts, classes or conditions which are implied in the abstract, e. g. Ta 
Ka\d, res pulchrae ; Ta Kcucd, mala, the evil deeds, things, etc. 

$ 244. THE ARTICLE. 

1. The subject as well as every substantive, takes the 
article, when the speaker wishes to represent an object as 
a definite one, and to distinguish it from other objects of the 
same kind. The substantive without the article denotes 
either an indefinite individual, or it represents an abstract 
idea in the most general manner, without any limitation. 

"A vbp air os : (a) a man, as an individual, i. e. some one of the race of men ; 
(b) man, a man, as a species; 6 av&pwiros: (a) the man, as an individual, the 
man whom I have in view and consider as an individual distinguished from 
other men ; (b) the man, as a class or species, as I think of him as something 
definite and limited in respect to his entire nature or constitution; yd\a, 
milk, TO yd\a, the milk (as a particular substance) ; <ro<pia, wisdom, 77 aocpia, 
the wisdom (viewed as a definite property or particular kind of wisdom) ; <pi\o<ro<(>ia t 
philosophy in general, 77 QiXoffotyia, as a particular science or a particular branch of 
philosophy. When the Inf. is to be considered as an abstract substantive, it has 
the article, e. g. r b ypd<f>etv. But the abstract noun takes the article when 
it expresses a concrete idea, e. g. 77 <rrdffis, the (particular) sedition; TO 
Trpay/j.a, the (particular) deed; hence also the PL of ffrdffets, ra IT pay - 
(J.O.T a. 

REMARK 1. From what has been said, it follows: (a) That the substantive, 
as the subject of a sentence, may stand with or without the article, according 
as it is intended to be represented, either as a definite or an indefinite object; 
(b) on the contrary, that the substantive, as a predicate, must be generally with- 
out the article, since the predicate does not denote a definite individual, but only 
the abstract idea of a quality in general. Her. 1, 103. vb rj ?;/ue'pa fyeWro, the 
day became night. Isocr. Nicool. 28, a. \6yos faybfo Kal ripifu)* Ka * MKCUOS ^XTJS 
ayabris Kal in<rrf}s f"iSa>\6v eVrt. But when the predicate denotes a definite, 
a before-mentioned, or a well-known object (No. 6), it of course takes the 
article. Her. 1, 68. o-ui/e/SaAAero rbv 'Opeffrrjv TOVTOV flvai, he concluded that 
this icas the Orestes, namely, the one before-mentioned. 5, 77. ol $ c nnr p6Tai 
ol irax**s, the rich bore the name of (before-mentioned) iinro&oTcu. In 


314 SYNTAX. [$ 244. 

passages like X. Cy. 3. 3, 4. 6 yuev ravra etVaJi/ Trapr,\affev 6 8e 'Ap/j.fvtos <rvyU- 
7rpot7re;U7re Kal ol &\\oi irajsrcs oV&pwTrot, O.VO.K aXowres T 2> j/ evepy ir-qv, rbv 
&v$pa rbv ayaStov. An. 6. 6, 7. ol 8e a\\oi ol irapSvres roov ffrparicar&v 
^d\\eiv rbv Af^iTTirov, a.vaKa\ovvres rbv TT poS 6rrj v, the article 

denotes, that the ideas expressed by benefactor, honest man, traitor, point to a 
definite action either before named, or well-known. When the predicate is a 
superlative or a substantive with a superlative, the article is not used in Greek j 
the English, however, uses it here. Ol Qaffntirai elffi irovnp6rar 01 avSrp&Truii/ 
Kal aS iKcarar o i (the most wicked, etc.), Dem. 25, 2. 'AvSpl /caA.< Kaya&y e pya- 
ffia KpariffT-r) earl yewpyia, X. Oec. 6, 8. Comp. 241, 7. 

2. Hence the article is used to denote the whole compass of 
the idea, everything which can be included under the term 
used; one object is here considered as a representative of the 
whole class. 

'O av&pwTros &vt)r6s eo-rt, man (i. e. all men) is mortal Xp^ rb avrb <pbey- 
rbv p^ropa Kal rbv v6fj.ov, Aesch. Ctes. 16. 'H avSpeia KaX-fi 
i. e. everything which is understood by the idea of avSpeia. Ti> yd\a 

REM. 2. Where the English uses the indefinite article a or an, denoting 
merely a class, as a man, or an individual of a class who is not distinguished 
from the others, as some man, it not being determined what man, the Greek 
omits the article ; hence &v&p(inros in both instances. 

REM. 3. Common nouns sometimes omit the article, where, according to the 
statement in No. 1, it would be inserted. This is the case: (a) In appellations 
denoting kindred and the like, where the particular relation is obvious of itself, 
or is sufficiently definite from the connection or the context, e. g. irar^p, firir-rtp, 
vlos, a$e\<p6s, TraTSes, yove'is, av-fip, husband, yvv-fj, wife, etc. Comp. the expres- 
sions, Father has said it, Mother comes ; (b) When two or more independent sub- 
stantives are united, forming one whole, e. g. ircudes Kal yvvaiKes (like English 
wife and child, horse and rider), tr6\is Kal oiKiai (city and houses), Th. 2, 72; (c) 
When common nouns are, at the same time, used as proper nouns ; these being 
definite from their nature or from usage, do not need the article, e. g. T^AIOS, ovpav- 
v6s, &O-TV, used of Athens, Tr6\is, of a particular city, known from the context, 
77), of a particular country, fiacritevs, of a particular king, commonly the king of 
Persia, etc. ; other like expressions are arenas, ^oAao-tro, etc. The article is 

often omitted also with words denoting time, though this is generally the case 
only in connection with prepositions, e. g. a^' 7//ieptts, /uexP 1 VVKT&S, a/j.a Sp&pw, 
irfpl jj\iov Svfffj.ds, ^tera 'IA/ou aXtaffiv. The omission of the article is altogether 
natural when a common noun has an abstract signification, or expresses an 
action, or the manner of an action, most frequently in connection with prepo- 
sitions, e. g. 7)7e?o-&cu freouy, to believe in gods. 'Eirl Sti-rrvov eXd-eli/, to come to 
supper, to a feast, X. C. 1. 3, 6. '</>' 'lirirov tivcu, horse-back. 'Eirl Sr^pav e'|ieVat 
(i. e. ad venandum). X. Cy. 1. 2, 9. nJrepov 7rto"ra^evoz/ fjvioxeiv ^ ^eCyos 
AajSeTi/ KptiTTov, // /xr/ ivurrdfteifw (ad vehendum), X. C. 1. 1, 9. 'ETT! vStap teVcu 
(aquatum ire), Her. 3, 14. 

R.EM. 4. The names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and vices, often 
omit the article, even where they occur in a definite relation, since, as well- 
known appellatives, they have come to be used as a kind of proper names, e. g. 
Tldvra ovv e/.ioiye SoKeT ra Ka\a Kal TO aya&a affKrjra elvai, oi>x ^Kitrra Se 
(Tea (ppoff i)vt\. X. C. 1. 2, 23. 'Enel ovv TO. re SiKaia Kal ra &\\a Ka\d re Kal 
rdvTa aperrj irpdrrerai, SrjAov elvai, 6n Kal S iKatoffiivt] Kal TJ a\\r] iraffa. 
<ro<j>la eVrf, 3. 9, 5. 'Eiricr^ p.t) apa <ro<pla effrlv, 4. 6, 7. Md\urra yap 

244.] THE ARTICLE. 315 

ft avr$ iir v IK ?}s, Cy. 8. 3, 25. The omission of the article is natural 
also, when an abstract is to be represented </<///////, e.g. 'Ev <p t \o o~o<p iot ^wo-iy, 
/;/ ]>hil(>si>l>hi;iiitj (in />/<//<wy<//am/o). 1M 1'haed. 68, e. But where a ])a'rticular 
art or science, etc. is to !>e distinguished from another, the article is used, e. g. 
^ pTjropiK-f), r) &pi&(j.i]TiKr). The substantives /j-fycbos, irATj&oy, uJ/os, e3- 
pos, fid& os, yevos and the like, are very often found in the Ace. or Dat. 
without the article, as they are to be received as a kind of adverbial expression, 
e. ir- KvSvos uvo/j.a, tvpos Svo irAe&po/, ttco plethra wide, X. An. 1. 
2. !':{. 

3. The article is very often used with common nouns to 
denote what belongs to an object or is requisite for it, what is 
due to it. 

X. Cy. 3. 3, 6. 'Evoju/^ie ydp, tl fxcurros rb /J. tp o s a.itira.ivov trort)0~if, rb o\ov 
avrcf KaXcas $x lv (partem, cui praeest; centuriam swam). 8. 3, 3. vel/ 5c rovruv 
(TUV aro\S)v) rb pcpos /ca(TTaj ra>v rjyt^vwi', tKf\fvcrev avrovs roinois /coayielV 
rovs O.VTUV <pi\ovs (partcm debitam). An. 7. 6, 23. &AA(, QairiTf &v, 5et r& 
tvtX v P a T ^ T c A.ajSeTj', a>y /iTjSe ft e)3ouA.TO ttivvaro &v ravra ^airoraj/ (the meas- 
ures requisite to guard against deception). 5. 6, 34. ol crrpaTiatTai T/TTC/AOUJ' aur<p 
el \r)tyoirai aTroSiSpaffKovTa, on r^v SlKijv tirifrf)(Toifi/ (the due, deserved pun- 

4. Hence the article very often takes the place of the posses- 
sive pronoun, when it is connected with such substantives as 
naturally belong to a particular person, mentioned in the sen- 
tence. In such cases, the English uses the possessive pronoun. 

Qiyoveis r& reitva <rrfpyovffiv (parents love THEIR children). 'O 
rovs O~T par i(f>r as cVi rovs Tro\ff^.lovs &yet (leads HIS soldiers). Kvpds re 
KaTa7TTj5T)(ras a-rrb r ov ap par os rbv & u pa.K a eVe'Su /coi dvajScks C'TT! r b v 
'iirirov TO iroArcb els rets x 'P as ^AajSe, X. An. 1. 8, 3. 

5. As the article may make one object prominent, by indi- 
vidualizing it and presenting it apart from others, it is often 
used, when an object is to be represented in a distributive rela- 
tion to the predicate of the sentence. 

Tlposairovcn 8e fj.i(T&bv 6 Kvpos virKTxvtiTat. Sdffeiv avrl SopetKou rpla 
TOW fjuiirbs r$ ffrpar Karri (singulis mensibus singiilis militibus, three half- 
Darics a month to each soldier, comp. English so much the pound), X. An. 1. 3, 21. 
(comp. 5. 6, 23.) Aapei/cbi/ Kao~ros ofoei rov /j.r)vbs vp.uv (each of you shall 
have a Daric each month), 7. 6, 7. 'O Se o-weburbfls rbv tva tya/nov kv\ fyca 
Trpoirf/jLiTfiv, ore fj.^ irapfi-r) iro\\d, $vvair kv aAuTrws ry fvl xp^f^at (singula panis 
frustra, to dip each morsel into the different sauces), Id. C. 3. 14, 6. 

6. The article is properly and originally a demonstrative 
pronoun, and is still often used in a demonstrative sense. This 

316 SYNTAX. [$ 244. 

is particularly the case in Homer, where the article almost uni- 
formly has a pronominal relation. Comp. 247. 

The simplest use of the article as a demonstrative, is as follows : An object 
not before described or referred to, when it is first mentioned as an indefinite 
individual, does not take the article; but when it is repeated, it takes the article, 
because it has been already referred to and is known, e. g. ElSov &j/Spa' & Se 
avfjp fjiOi e\eej/. Hence the article is also used when the speaker points to an 
object, e. g. <e'pe ^ot, 5 irat, rb $ if$\iov (the book = this or that book). In this 
relation, the article may be used with material nouns, e. g. Aos /J.QI ri> yd\a (the 
milk, ivhich had been pointed out) ; and even when a part only of the material is 
referred to, the article is employed, though material nouns elsewhere are always 
without the article, as they contain no idea of individuality, e. g. Uivu rov 
otvov (of this wine). The article is often used in speaking of persons or things 
known and celebrated, where the Latin uses the pronoun ille, e. g. 6 Ka\bs Trews, 
that beautiful boy ; this is very frequent with proper names. See No. 7. "Ore 
Eep|7)s ayeipas r^v ai/api& [t.f\Tov ffTpariav $\&ei' eirl v^v 'E\\d5a (that 
numberless host), X. An. 3. 2, 13. 

7. Personal proper names as such, i. e. so far as they in them- 
selves denote merely individuals, do not take the article. But 
they take it, when they have been already mentioned, and 
are afterwards referred to (No. 6) ; or even when they have not 
been before named, if it is intended to designate them as well- 
known and distinguished (No. 6). Plural names of nations, 
and also the names of countries, districts, and festivals, are 
both with and without the article. 

6(pT). So also where an adjective is joined with a proper name, 
e.g. o-ocpbs 2, (a itpdrvs, the wise Socrates, ^EviK^ffav rjjSaTot Aa.Ke5aifj.o- 
viovs. 'Aftpo KO/JLO.S ov rovr' fTro'njfffV, a\\' eVei tficove Kvpov eV KtAi/ffo 
ovra, ai/cwrrpeij/ay e/c ^OIV'IKIJS Trapct. /JcunAea airfaawev, X. An. 1.4, 5. Ku- 
pov Se ^eTaTre'uTrerai (Aapetbs) . . dva/Satvet ovv 6 Kvpos, X. An. 1. 1, 2. 'ATT^ 
TOU 'I\i(T(roD \eyeTai d Bope'as rrjv 'flpciiS-uiaj' apirdffai, PL Phaedr. 229, b 
(as well-known names). 

HEM. 5. "When a noun in apposition, accompanied by the article, follows 
a personal proper name, the proper name does not take the article, e. g. 
KpoTcros, 6 riav AvScov ficurtXevs. But yet when the article is used, e. g. 
6 K.po'iffos, 6 riav AvSuv ficuriXevs, it has a demonstrative sense, and desig- 
nates the proper name as one already mentioned or known. The noun 
in apposition is accompanied by the article, when it serves to distin- 
guish the person or thing mentioned from others of the same kind, or 
when the person or thing named is to be pointed out as one known, e. g. 

r, the 

<j>i\ocro<pos ; 2corpciT7js, 6 'A&rjvcuos, Socrates, the philosopher, 
Athenian; Xeipivotyos, 6 Aa/ceSot/x^tos ; on the contrary, the noun in apposi- 
tion does not take the article, -when it expresses merely an adjective attribu- 
tive, e. g. Her. 1, 1. 'HpoSoros 'AXiKapvao-vcvs, Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Th. 
1, 1, 0ou/cu8i'$7?y ^Afrrjvcuos, Thucydides an Athenian, or of Athens. K\edvcap 
j, Cleanor of Qrchomenus, X. An. 3. 2, 4. The names of rivers are 

$ 244.] THE ARTICLE. 3l7 

commonly placed ns adjectives between the article and the word irorands, c. g. 
d"A\vs TToro/uJs (tin' //// //uli/s). Her. 1, 72. f> 'AxeAwos irora^6s, Th. 2. 102. 
&rl T&:/ 2apo/ irorafj.oi', &rl rb/ riupa/xov irorap.6v, X. An. 1.4, 1. ni rbv Ev<ppd' 
rt]v irorafjidv, 11. irpbs rbv *Apdr)v irora/j.6v, ID. Examples like the f'ollou inir 
an 1 ni<>re >eldt>m : M T< iroTo^aJ KaKvirdpa, Th. 7, 80. ^irt rbi/ rin/ 
'EpijWv, il>. 82. Sometimes the article is wanting : tirl "Vdpov vorap.6v (accord- 
ing to the best MSS.), X. An. 1. 4, 1 ; M "Apircurov irornp.6v (according to the 
best MSS.), ib. 4. 7, 18; woro/ubs ISeAu'oCs, 5. 3, 8. The names of mountains, 
islands, seas, cities, etc., are also placed between the article and the noun, when 
they are of the same gender or, at least, of the same declension as the nouns to 
which they belong, viz. 77}, &Kpov, upos, i>rj<ros, etc., e. g. iirl rty ~2,o\vyeiav K<t>/j.Tju, 
Th. 4, 43 ; rb 2otWi/ &Kpoi/, 7; Qeo-irptorls 77}, 77 AfyAos vrjffos] rov 2,K6fj.0pov upovs, 
Th. 2, 96; rov A'(/JLOV upovs, Th. 2, 96 (<J Af/nos) ; 77 B^TJ X/fiv7j, Th. 1, 58. 4, 
103; 4 MeVSrj ir6\ts, Th. 4, 130. But if the gender (or declension) is not the 
same, they must be regarded as in apposition with the nouns to which they 
belong, and are placed before or after them, e. g. TO> opet rrj Tcpai/cio, Th. 4, 70 ; 
T7;v &Kpav rb Kvvbs (TTj^a, 8. 105; r^s'lS^s rov upovs, 108; 77 AyKu&os rb <ppov- 
piov, 4, 113 ; rb x a> P*'> / at ' 'EiWa dooi, 1, 100 ; rijv TTO\IV rovs Tap(rou$, X. All. 1. 
2, 26. The article is seldom omitted, e. g. anb 'A/3S7jpajj/ ir6\fcas, Th. 2, 97. 

8. When adjectives or participles are used as substantives, 
they regularly (according to No. 2) take the article. The Eng- 
lish here either employs an adjective used substantively, as the 
good; or a substantive, as the speaker (the one speaking) ; or 
resolves the participle by he who, they who, that ivhich (= to the 
Lat. w, qui). This usage is very frequent in Greek with all the 

'O <ro<pos, the wise (man), a wise (man), ol ayc&ot, ol KUKOI, ol SiKd^ot/res (those 
who judye), the j udyes ; ol Ac'-yoires, the orators; rb ayafrdv, rb KaX6v, ra Ka\d, 6 
(3ov\6/j.evos, qirivis ; 6 rvx&v, whoever happens. 'O irXeicrra w(p\u>v rb Koivbv 
u.fyto~r (av rip-wv a^iovrai. 'O irXfiffra. o><> eA^tras rb K. p.. r. a^iovrai. 'O TrAeT- 
(TTo w(f)\-f)ff(i}j/ r. K. p.. r. a|ia>&i](reTat. 'O aperr]? ex MV TrAoure? ovruv 
(pi\cav TroAAcDi', TrAovreT 5e /cat &\\cav ^ov\o/j.fvci}j/ "yei/eV&cu /cal e5 p.fv irpdrroov e%ei 
Tois o" f i/ TJ a" 3- TJ ffofjievovs, lav 5e Tt o~(pa\TJ, ov o"jravifi ru>v fioT)&r) o~6v- 
r ca v, X. An. 7. 7, 42. But when the adjectives and participles are designed to 
express only a part of a whole, the article is omitted, e. g. 070^01, good men ; 
<pi\oo~o<povvTS, p.a&6tnes ; KO.KO. Kal alo~xpa e7rpo|e'. 

9. Participles also take the article, when definite individuals 
are spoken of, in the sense of those, who ; a participle with the 
article is very often appended to a preceding substantive, in the 
form of apposition, in order to give prominence to the attribu- 
tive meaning, somewhat in the sense of eum, earn, id dico, qui, 
quac, quod, or ct is qtiidcm, qui. 

Ik-r. 9. 70. vpurot is?i\bov Teyf^rai es rb rt?xos, Kal TT> ffmiv^v rov Mapooviov 
oirroi (crav ol 8 ictptraffav r cs (and these are they tluit robbed, etc.). X. C. 2. 6, 18. 
ou u,6vov ol ISitorai rovro iroiovo~iv, aAAa Kal TroAfts a I rwv re KO\WV jUaA^rro 
t, Kal ra alo~xpa T^/CITTO TT posif pevai -jroAAa/cjy 


318 SYNTAX. [$ 245. 

irpbs dAArjAccs. 3. 5, 4. Botwrot /xeV, of irpAffSsv ouS' eV TT; tavrSiv ro\- 

'A&Trjvaiois &vev Aa/ceSat^oi'iWj' TC /cal TOO;/ aAAwj 
, vw/ a.Tcei\o\J(Tiv avrol /ca^' eaurous t/ij3aAeiV ei's TTJV ' 

10. The Greek may convert adverbs of place and time, more 
seldom of quality, into adjectives or substantives by prefixing 
the article. In like manner a preposition with its Case may be 
made to express an adjective or substantive meaning. 

'H &v<a ir6\i5 t the upper city. 'O /iTo|u r6iros, the intervening place. Ol ev&dde 
&v&pcairoi or of eV&aSe. 'O vvv fia<ri\fvs. Of TraAai (700ol &v8pes. Ol r6rf, the 
men of that time. 'H avpiov (sc. rj/j.4pa). C H f^ai((>vt]s fjLfTdffTaffis. 'O def, an im- 
mortal. So TO and TO vvv t now, i. e. at the present time; rb ird\ai, formerly, in the 
former time ; TO irplv, rb avrlita, immediately. Oi irdvv ru>v OT par tear >v, the best of 
the soldiers. Tb K^pra tyvxos. 'H &yau d/xeAeto. 'O bp.o\oyovjj.4v(as Sov\os. Th. 
6, 80. r))V a.Kti>$vv<as SovXelav. So also T> Tra/xTrav and rb Trapd-nav, omnino, rb 
K dpra, rb irapa.iro\v used adverbially. Even : 'H rwv yecpvpcav o u 8id\vffis, the 
not destroying of the bridges. *O -jrpbs rovs Tlfpffas ir6\e[j.os. Ol irepl (fuAoero^icw, 
the philosophers. Of Iv &a~rei. 'H tv Xeppovfjcry rvpavvls. 

11. The neuter article TO, may be placed before every word 
or part of speech, when the word is not considered in relation 
to its meaning, but is used only as a form of speech, or when 
a preceding word is repeated, without regard to the structure 
of the sentence in which it is repeated. The Greek, by prefix- 
ing the article, may give even to whole phrases the form and 
meaning of an adjective or substantive. 

Tb rvirru, rb rvirreis. Dem. Cor. 255, 4. fyiels, 5 oVSpes 'A^i/cuot rb 8* 
u/*6?s orav efrrw, rfyv ir6\iv Xsyu). PL Rp. 352, d. ov irepl rov ^irirv)(6vros (de re 
levi) 6 \6yos (fffriv), ctAAo irepl rov ovni/a rp6irov XP^I C^^* 

245. Position of the Article. 

1. The article is sometimes separated from its substantive by 
intervening particles, e. g. /*eV, 8e, ye, re, yap, 877 ; by the indefinite 
pronoun rl<s (in Herodotus very often), and by avros eavrov. 

Tbv per &vf>pa, r^v 8e ywalKa. When a preposition stands before the article, 
the prose-writers say either : wpbs 8e rbv &vSpa, or irpbs rbv fodpa 5e, but not irpbs 
rbv 8e &v$pa. Tcai> ris Tlepcreow, Her. 1, 85. To?s avrbs avrov Trf)/j,a<n ftapwerai, 
Aeschyl. Ag. 845. 

2. When several substantives are connected by KM. or re 
KO.I, there are two Cases : (1) the article is repeated with each; 
then the separate ideas expressed by the substantives are con- 


independent of each other, or they stand in contrast; 
or (2) the article is not repeated; then the separate ideas are 
considered as forming one single conception. 

r irdvra, TjyciTo beovs ctScVcu, rd T \cy6fj.tva /col irpa.TT6iJ.fva, oi T& 
oriyfi ftovtevofjifra. (the first two members form a whole, but the last is contrasted 
with them), X. C. 1. 1, 19. At patiiovpylat /col <? TOV vapaxprif^a ftovai, 2. 1, 20. 
At liriiif\ticu TO>V KO\UV Tf Kaya&wv <tpy<av, ib. Te T ffvfjLtytpovra Kal /ce^opw- 
pcVa, 2. 2, 5. Ol <rTpaTi)yol Kal \oxayol, An. 7. 3, 21. Tb pfyaAoirpcirfs Tt Koi Kal rb roTTcn/oV re KO.\ a.v(\ev&(pov (here the first two and also the 
List two form one single conception), X. C. 3. 10. 5. Toi/s aypovs TOVS eavrov ol 
, Th. 2, 13. Ol vcuMs Tf Kal yvwKfs (so many MSS.), PI. Rp. 557, c. 

3. \\lien a substantive having the article has attributive 
expletives joined with it, viz., an adjective, participle, adjec- 
tive pronoun or numeral, a substantive in the Gen., an adverb 
or preposition with its Case ($ 244, 10), then the article has a 
different position according to the idea to be expressed, as will 
be seen from the two following cases : 

(a) The attributive is joined with its substantive to express 
a single idea, as tJie wise man = the sage, and is designed to 
contrast the object denoted by its substantive with other objects 
of the same kind. In this case, the attributive stands either 
between the article and the substantive, or after the substantive 
with the article repeated ; or the substantive stands first without 
the article, and the attributive follows l with the article. 

O ayc&bs aisf]p or 6 av^ip 6 ayabds or av^p 6 aya&os (in contrast with the bad 
man). See Rem. 1. Ol TT\OV<TIOI iroA-n-ot or of iroAlroi ot ir\o6<rioi (in contrast with 
poor citizens) . 'O t'juos iraT-fjp or 6 irorr/p 6 fyds. Ol rpels HvSpes or of &vSpfs ol rp?y. 
'O TUV 'Afrrivaitay Srjfj.os or 6 STJ/XOS 6 TUV 'A&iji/cucoj/ (the Athenians in contrast with 
another people). Of vvv HvSpcairoi or of &vbp<airoi ol vvv. C O irpbs TOVS Ufp<ras 
v6\f/j.o5 or 6 ir6\fj.os 6 vpbs TOVS Utpa-as (literally the against the Persians trar, i. e. 
the war against the Persians, in contrast with other wars). 'Airb &oAcuro-7js rr)s 
/. Tvpayvls f) Iv Xfppoy^ffw. 'H Iv ^,aXafuyi irpby TOJ/ Tlfpffiju mtfrnxfa the in 

1 Where the attributive expletive consists of several words, or where the 
expletive is itself qualified by another expletive, it is usually placed after its 
substantive, otherwise too long a phrase would intervene between the article 
and its substantive; such expletives involved the idea of some such phrase as, / 
)nni. etc., e. g. TjuAiV&Tjeraj/ Iv TCLIS Kfafjuus ra?s fartp TOV irfSiov TOV irapa TOC 
KfvrpiTf)v (///<y tncamjicd in the ril/aycs [I mean] those afore, etc.). Here 
Ktafjuus is qualified by inrfp ireSiW and this by napa. KeirpiTrji/, etc., X. An. 4. 3,^. 
TpiTos p.ojffT\>s XoiTrbs ^j/, . . . 6 inrtp rfjs eVl T$ trvpl KaTaXTi<p^fi<rr)S <pv\cucns TTJS 
WKTOS inrb TWV IdcAoWa'?, here 6 vvtp and what follows qualifies the word naff- 
TOS, X. An. 4. 2, 14. 

320 SYNTAX. [$ 245. 

Salamis against the Persian sea-fight, i. c. the sea-fight in Salamis against, etc. These 
last examples show that a substantive with its Case has an adjective force. 

REMARK 1. In the first position (6 aya&bs avfip), the emphasis is on the 
attributive, C. g. Ae? TrcuSeias Koivcavslv rb &ri\v yevos r/fuy Tip rwv appfv<av 
(yevei), PL L. 805, d. But in the second position (6 av^p 6 ayc&6s), the idea 
expressed by the substantive is represented as a definite one or one already 
mentioned, or is contrasted with that of another substantive ; in the third posi- 
tion (oi/??p 6 aya&6s), the idea expressed by the substantive is represented as in- 
definite, but in contrast with another. Ti Sto^e'pet av&pcairos aKparrjs bripiov 
rov aKpareffrdrov, X. C. 4. 5, 11. 'H dperr; <rvyeo~ri U.GV 3-eo?s, vvveffn Se 
avSpwirois rots 0701^0X5,2.1,32. Tb apiffrov ov rovs VOU.QVS fO~rlv iax i ''~ 
/, aAA.' ai'Spa TOJ/ u-era typovr) crews /3a<r i \IKOV, PL P. 294, a. AioiKOvvrat al 
(J.W rvpavviSfS Kal oAi7opX' at T0 ? s T POTTO is ruiv e (J> e tr r 77 /c (^ T a> i/, ai 5 
irdAeiy (republics) al Si] /U.OK par ov /jifvai TOIS v6p.ois rots /cei/xeyots, 
Aeschin. 3, 6. Tb iinriK'bv rb tKeivcav (sc. TUV ^KvSfS)^) ovrca /j.dx*Tai, rb 
Se 6ir\iTiKbv r6 ye ran/ 'E \\-fjv a v, &s eyw \eyco, PL Lach. 191, b. 'Eyw 
/j.V oiiv fKtivovs TOVS avSpas <f>ii/Jii ov fjiovov T&V o~ (a JJ.O.T wv Ttav Tj/J-CTepuy 
irarepas elvat, aAXa Kal TTJS 6 \evfrfpias T rj s re cpas Kal vp.irdi' TO>J/, 
TU>V Iv TrjSe TTJ rjTreipw, PL Mcnex. 240, e. Ate^epxovrai rds re ffv u. (pop as ras 
IK rov iroXe/j.ov T ov Trpbs a\\-f]\ovs iifuv yfyfvyfj. tvas Kal ras a^>e- 
\fias ras e/c T-/JS o~Tpareias rrjs eir' ticc'tvov e a o u. e v a s, Isocr. Paneg. 
43, 15. Sometimes the position varies in the same sentence, e. g. Toy ^670- 
Aas 7}5ovas Kal TO. aya&a TO /J.yd\a ?; Tre&ca Kal r) Kapvepia Kal ol *v 
Tip Kaipff Tr6voi Kal Kivfivvoi. irapex VTai (great pleasures and advantages), X. Cy. 3. 
3, 8. ITws iroTf: ri aKpar o s 8 IKUIO crvvr) irpbs a 5 iKiav T^\V aKparov 
exet ; PL Rp. 555, a. Then the second position does not differ from the first. 

HEM. 2. "With a verbal substantive, the attributive expressed by a preposi- 
tion and its Case, is often placed after its substantive without the repetition of 
the article. So also, when an attributive explanation comes between the article 
and the substantive : 'H (Tiry/co/iiSr? /c ra>v aypwv es rb affrv, Th. 2, 52. 'H vvv 
v/J.fT(pa opy}] es WltTv\r}vaiovs y 3, 44. TTJS TUV yvvaiK&v <pi\ias Trpbs TOVS av^pas, 
X. Hicr. 3, 4. Also the more definite expletives of an Inf., Part, or adjective, 
frequently are not placed between the article and these words: T^J/ o~o<piav 
rovs apyvpiov rtf fiovXou.tvu> irwXovvras o~o<pio-Tas aTroKa\ovaii/, X. C. 1. 6, 13 
(instead of rovs rfyv o-o<piav . . . irw\ovi'Tas ) in order to make prominent the idea 
in TT]V o-o<piav). 

(b) The attributive is joined with its substantive not to 
express a single idea, but is to be regarded as the predicate of 
an abridged subordinate clause ; then the attributive is not con- 
trasted with another object of the same kind, but with itself; it 
being designed to show that the object to which the attributive 
belongs, is to be considered, in respect to a certain property, by 
itself, without reference to another. In this case the adjective 
without the article is placed either after the article and the 
substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

'O avrjp aya&6s or ayabbs 6 av-fip, a good man (= ayadrbs &v, the man who 
is good, inasmuch as, because, if he is good), Ol av&pwn-oi rbv avfipa Ka- 
KOV or /co/cbi/ rov avSpa, they hate the bad man, i. e. they hate the man, inasmuch 
as, because, if he is bad. (On the contrary, rbv Kanibv avSpa or rbv avSpa rbv 
1 the bad man, in distinction from the good ; hence, rovs p.\v aya&obs av- 


bpcbirovs ayairwfj.d', rovs 5^ KOKOVS fju<rovnti>.) 'O fia<ri\cvs yStus x a plC (r<u TOIS 
iro\irats ayabo'is, good citizens, i. c. if or because they are good (on the contrary, 
roil a-yao?j iro\lrais or ro7s iro\irais TO?S a^odo?*, good citizens, in distinction 
from bad citizens). 'O &tbs ryv if^xV fpar (arr\v r<$ avfrpuTri? Ivttyvfftv (a 
soul, as it is the most excellent), X. C. 1. 4, 13. Of inrb rov f)\iov Kara\afj.Tr6n(foi 
TO, xpoyttiTa n(\dvrpa %x ovcriv (a blacker skin; the blackness of the skin is 
the consequence of the KOToAa/reo-da irirb TOV rjAt'ov), 4. 7, 7. 'Ei/eirpTjo-aV re ras 
a/cTji'or ^ pi) fiov s /ecu TO XP^/^TO Sj^pracra*' (^m'a deserta erant), Th. 1, 49. 'Ata> 
(postnlo) rovs depdVoiras faol /nev a</>&oj/a T& tirir-fiotia irapa<TK(vdeiv, avrovs 8i 
UTWJ/ aVreo-&ai (= fisTe auTcfc a^oya eTj/ai), X. C. 2. 1, 9. 

REM. 3. If a substantive having the article has a Gen. or a preposition and 
its Case connected with it, the position under (a) occurs, only when the sub- 
stantive with its Gen., etc. forms a contrast with another object of the same kind, 
e. g. & TUV ' A&ijvaioai' 5rj/ios or 6 5f;/uos 6 riav ' A&rivaicoi' (the Athenians in contrast 
with another people) ; the emphasis here is on the Gen., e. p. OUK a\\6rptov ^yeti-cu 
cleat & *A.&r)vai(ov Sr)^.os rbis 77 fiaiuiv 87} f*oi> t^<TKfrai Of /col TOLS 
rS>v Trpoy6v(av T&V tavrov fls rovs 07j/3atous irpoydvovs Vfpyrias t 
Dem. (Psephism.) 18, 186. 'E^aearw^Tj virb TUV ev rfj STroprTj T\UV, X. 
An. 2. 6, 4. On the contrary, the Gen. without the article, is placed either before 
or after the other substantive, when that substantive denotes only a part of that 
expressed in the genitive ; the emphasis is then on the governing substantive, 
e. g. 6 Srjfji.os 'A&Tjj/euW, or 'A^Tjvaiw*' 6 Sfj/ios, the people and not the nobles. 
Hence, with this position, a partitive and not an attributive genitive is used; 
the Athenian people is not here considered in contrast with another people, but 
a part of the Athenian people is contrasted with another part of the same, viz., 
the nobles. Compare further, /? SaHcparovs ^uXotroc/x'o or rj 4>i\o(ro<pia. rj ~2.(aKp<LTovs, 
i. e. the philosophy of SOCRATES, the SOCRATIC philosophy, in contrast with the 
philosophy of another, e. g. Plato's, the Platonic, with y Qi\o<ro<pia, ^cotipdrovs or 
ZwKpdrovs rj cpiXoo-oQia, i. e. the PHILOSOPHY of Socrates and not something 
else of his, e. g. his life, "fls-rrep oiKias TO /COTW^CC (domus infimas paries) 
eTi/cu Se?, OVTU KO\ TWV irpd^ewv ras apxas Kal ras VTTO&- 
0X77^6?$ Kal Smaias flvai Trponfj/cei, Dem. 2. 10. Tovrov ev e^pev^e Kal ^Tral- 
, ws SoKf? 'A ^77 valtav rep ir\-f)&i y to the multitude, not to the intelligent, 
PI. Menon. 90, b. Tb elSos rov irai$6s (contrasted with rovvoua rov irot- 
Ws), PI. Lysid. 204, c. 

HEM. 4. When the genitive of the substantive pronouns is used instead of 
the possessives, the reflexives (pavrov, o-couroG, etc. are placed according to (a), 
e. g. Tb/ ^uavToG irarcpa or rbv irartpa rbv tpavrov, etc. ; but the simple personal 
pronouns /JLOV, troi), etc. stand without the article, either after or before the sub- 
stantive with the article, e. g. 6 irar'fip /J.QV or fiov 6 Trar-fip, b irar-fip <rov or <rov 6 
-rar-fip, 6 irarijp avrov (OUTTJS) or OUTOU (OUTTJS) 6 TTOTTJP, my, thy, his (e jus) father, 
6 iroT^p rifjiuv, vfjLuv, v$v, avruv, or rjfj.uu t vfjLtov, v<av, aiT&v 6 trar-fip, our, your, 
their (eorum) father. But when the substantive has another attributive joined 
with it, these pronouns can stand between the substantive and that attributive. 
c. g. 'H ird\ai TJ/JLUV <pvffis. In the Sing, and Dual, the enclitic forms are always 
used ; these never stand at the beginning of a sentence ; but in connected dis- 
course they can stand before the substantive which has the article. The Gen. 
of demonstrative and also of reciprocal pronouns, have the position of (a), e.g. 
6 rovrov (eKfivov) irarlip or 6 irarfyp 6 rovrov (^Kflvov). Tfj oAA^jAwv fvvoia. The 
demonstratives are sometimes also found without the article after the substan- 
tive with the article, e. g. Of avayKaioi tKtivov, Isae. 9. 10. To lepa taciVov, ib. 
36. ToC iroTpbs rovruv, 10, 3. Tp vvv vfipti rovrov, Dem. 4, 3. 

HEM. 5. The difference between the two cases mentioned is very manifest 
with the adjectives 6. K p o s, ^ecros, laxaroi. When the position mentioned 

322 SYNTAX. [$ 245. 

under (a) occurs, the substantive with its attributive forms a contrast with 
other objects of the same kind, e.g. T\ ^at\ ir6\is or iroAts rj ^ueVrj, the MIDDLE city, 
in contrast with other cities ; f) eVx^Trj i/f}(ros, the MOST REMOTE island, in contrast 
with other islands. 'Es TO effxarov cpvpa rrjs Hj<r y (in contrast with other tyv- 
fjiaan), Th. 4, 35. When, on the contrary, the position mentioned under (b) 
occurs, the substantive is contrasted with itself, the attributive then only denn- 
ing it more fully. In this last case, we usually translate these adjectives into 
English by substantives, and the substantives with which they agree as though 
they were in the genitive, e. g. eVi T$ opet o/cpo? or eV &Kpw T< opei, on the top 
of the mountain (properly on the mountain where it is the highest) ; eV yueVp rfj 
ir6\ei (seldom tv 1$ Tro'Aei peer)), in the middle of the city; tv ftrxdrp rp j/^tra 
or ev v4i<r(a rfj eirxdrp, on the border of the island. 'Ev jueVots rots iro\ffj.iois 
OTred-oi/e, X. H. 5. 4, 33. KOTO piaov rbv /cwcAoj/, Cy. 2. 2, 3. Of Ile'pcrai Trept 

- 8 > 17. 

REM. 6. In like manner, the word fi6vos has the position mentioned under 
(a), when it expresses an actual attributive explanation of its substantive, e. g. 
6 juoVos 7ra?s, the ONLY son; on the contrary, the position mentioned under (b), 
when it is a more definite explanation of the predicate, e. g. 'O TTCUS /xoVos or 
fj.6vos 6 Trots iraifei, the boy plays alone (without company). MoVrjj/ rwv avfrpwirw 
(y\urra.v) eirolT)(rav (of freol) o'lav ap&povv r^jv <pwf)i>, i. e. r) TWV av&p. y\<t>TTa 
\i.6vT\ to-Tlv, ^]v ^Trolrjffav o'lav K, r. X., they made the human tongue only, capable of 
articulating sounds, X. C. 1. 4, 12. 

REM. 7. When a substantive has two or more attributives, one of which 
limits the other ( 264, 2), one position maybe as an English, e.g. Of &\\oi aya- 
bol fobpotiroi, the other good men ; or the limiting attributive with the article either 
stands first, and the second follows with the article and substantive, or the 
limited attributive with the article stands first, and the limiting attributive fol- 
lows with the article and substantive. 'O i/avriicbs 6 rS>v fiapfidptov <rrpa- 
T 6 s. Af &\\ai at K ara rb a u /.ia r)S ovat, the other bodily pleasures, PL Rp. 
565, d. 'Ej> roils &\\ois rots l/toTs x w P^' s > ^y s - 281 - (When & aAAos is 
joined with an adjective used substantively, the article is commonly repeated, 
e. g. raAAa TO. 7roA.m/cci, X. Hicr. 9, 5. Of &\\oi of irapaTvyx&vovTes, X. Apol. 
11.) 'H oux ^Kiffra /8Acx\|/ao-a rj \oin<t>5->)s v6ffos, Th. 1, 23. 'Ev rfj rov 
Albs rr} /jLeyicrrr) eoprp, Th. 1, 126. J Es aurbu rbv ftrl TO? <rr6/uiari TOV At^eVoy 
rbv fTtpov Trvpyov, 8, 90. 'Ej/ rrj apxaia rrj r]fj.ere pet <p<avfi, PL Cratyl. 
398, b. Tb Iv 'Ap/ca8to rb rov Aibs 'fep'o'j/, Rp. 565, d. *The limiting 
attributive can also stand between the substantive and the limited attributive ; 
in this case the article is used before each of the three parts, e. g. T& re t'x i] 
TO eavruv TO /J.O.K pa OTTCT e '\effav, Th. 1, 108. (But the article is omitted with 
a limiting demonstrative standing between the substantive and the limited 
attributive, e. g. T^i/ TOVTOV ravr^vl TT?V Sa.vfj.a.<TT}}V Kf(pa\"fjv, PL Symp. 213, e.) 
Finally, if the limiting attributive with the article is placed first, the limited 
substantive and its attributive follow, both without the article, e. g..ripbs TOS 
irdpo&e ffv[j.<popas euSof/uoras, Eur. Hel. 476. Tc^Aas eya; rf/s cV 
jSopefos, Ar. Acharn. 1210. 'An-o r<av Iv ry Evpdlnrp 
/, X. H. 4. 3, 15. Tots virb Trj pa.Kri olKovvas TroAeis ' 
Sos, 4. 8, 26. 

REM. 8. When an attributive participle has a more definite expletive belong- 
ing to it, their relative position is as follows : 

(a) 'O irpbs TOJ/ Tc6\ffjiov ofpe&els ff r p a'r t]y 6 s. 

(b) C O o-Tpori77bs 6 irpbs rbv TrJAe^oj' ofpe<^6^s. 

When there are two of these more definite expletives, one stands either 
after the substantive or after the participle, e. g. TV irpbs Ei/jSouAoj/ yei/o^eVrjj/ 
iri(TTiv vp.1v, Aeschin. 3, 25. Twv wa^' u/uas'cav /coAiii/ rfj Tr6\ei, 
Dem. 18, 95. Trjs vvv wrapxouo'Tjs OUT 9? Swd/j-eus, 4, 4. Tas Trap' vfj.(av farap- 
t^us, 20, 83. 


(c) 'O aipcbds xpbs rbv ir&\tp.ov (FT partly 6s. T}]v virdpxovffay rrj 
', J)em. 8, 10. 

(d) 'O aipt&fls <rr parriybs irpbs rbv ir<5\e/uox. Tijr IT po s o v <r a. v a5o- 
f ai> T< irpdyftariy Dem. 6, 8. 

(c) 'O wp&s rbv W\e/ioi> (rrpaT^ybs aipfbt is (this position is most fre- 
quent, when the i>:irtk'i]>le has two more definite expletives). T&s inrb 
VOVTOV 0\a(r<f>r)pias e f prj /JL f v as, 1H, 126. Ai irpi TOW (TTd/uaroj VTJCJ 
i'av^ax'0'', Th. 7, 23. T& TT^S A^vifj/ /afpos r tr papntv o v, 58. 
When there arc two or more explanatory words belonging to the partici- 
ple. they a iv cither placed between the article and the substantive, e. g. 
T^f T<$T6 G-n&aiois p<a/j.i)v KM $6av vir apxovvav, Dem. 18, 98; or 
they are so separated, that one is placed either before the participle or 
after it, c. g. O< irapa. TOVTOU \6yoi TO'T pybevTes, Dem. 18, 35. 
jurb rov r6irov a<r(pd.\ftav virdipxovffat' rf) v6\ft, 19, 84. 

REM. 9. When a participle used substantively has predicative expletives 
joined with it, these are placed between the article and the participle. Thus, 
for example, Trpdrtpos, irpuTos^ utrrepos, S<TTTOS (he came jirst, etc.), becomes : 
6 irp6rfpos (TTpwros, virrcpos, VO-TO.TOS) o.(^iK6^fvos (he who came 
first)] O.KUI' auapraffL becomes: & &K(av a/j.aprdvuv] avSpt'ios v ofj.l^erai : 6 
avSpfios vop.l6(Ji(vos\ avr&s dSi/ce?: 6 avrbs aSi/cuv (one doing icrong of 
his otm accord); roiovrts lanv. 6 TOIOVTOS &v\ p.6vos l<n(v. 6 p.6vos &v. 
When the predicative expletive consists of an adjective and substantive, the 
substantive is usually placed directly after the participle, e.g. irpuros rfray 
Hfvos ralapxs (he who had been placed as tkejirst centurion). 

$246. Use of the Article with Pronouns and Numer- 
als^ with and without a Substantive. 

1. The article is sometimes used with personal substantive 
pronouns in the Ace., either when the personality is to be made 
prominent instead of the person merely, or, what is more fre- 
quent, when a person previously mentioned is referred to. On 
6 TTOIOS, see $ 344, Rem. 3. 

Tbv favrby S^ \4y<ur ^uaXo ae/ii/ws Kai eyifji.i<i((av (his important person], PL 
Phaedr. 258, a. AeOpo STJ, i) 5' fo, fv&v ypuv. not", e<pt]v ^7^, \cycis, ical irapii 
rivas TOUS u/tas (i. e. /col rives tifflr o&rot, ovs \eytis TifJMs), PI. Lys. 203, b. 

2. The article is used with a substantive which has a pos- 
sessive pronoun belonging to it, or the Gen. of a personal or 
reflexive pronoun ($ 245, Hem. 4), when the object is considered 
as a definite one or as relating exclusively to possession ; the 
possessive is placed between the article and the substantive 
[ 245, 3 (a)]. 

'O irar-fip, 6 crbs \6yos, thy word (a definite or particular one), 6 Ifibs iroTy, 
my son (a definite one of several, or even the only one) ; also 6 \6yos <rov; -rbv 
veavrov irartpa. or rbv irartpa rbv vfavrov ; on the contrary, the article is omitted 
when it is to be denoted, that the object named belongs to the possessor in 
common with others of the same kind, or when the substantive with the posses- 

324 SYNTAX. [$ 246. 

sive is a predicate or in apposition : e/i&s dSeA^os or dSeAdxfe /j.ov, a brother of 
mine (it not being determined which) ; c/tbs irais or TTCUS /J.QV ; o5r<fc &rrt(j/) 
aSe\<pbs eras or aSeA^os <rou ; OTOS, dSeA^bs e'^tos or 

3. A substantive to which one of the demonstrative pronouns 
ovTO9, oSe, e/ceiVos, and even avros, ipse, is joined, regularly 
has the article. As these pronouns are not considered as at- 
tributives, but either as substantives {he, the man), or are taken 
in a predicative sense (the man, who is here), they stand either 
before the article and the substantive, which is then in apposi- 
tion with the pronoun, or after the article and substantive [comp. 
$ 245, 3 (b)] ; thus: 

ouros 6 avf)p or 6 avfyp ovros (not 6 ovros o.vf]p), 
?}e 7] yvtap-T) or r) yvdifj.1] fj5e (not rj ?j5e yvca/j.ri), 
e/ce?i'os 6 avrip or 6 a.v)]p e/ce?i/os (not 6 e/ce?vos o.vfjp), 

airrbs 6 |8a<nAeys or 6 /SacnAeus auras (but 6 avrbs a<nAeus [seldom (6) fiaffi- 
\fvs 6 avr6s] signifies idem rex, the same king). 

EEMARK 1. The substantive does not take the article : 

(a) When the pronoun is used as the subject, and the substantive as the 
predicate ( 244, Rem. 1), e. g. 01/7-17 4<rr\v avSpbs dpe-Hj (this is the virtue of 
a man), PI. Men. 71, e. Avrr) earea iKavw. airohoyia, Apol. 24, b. K/J/TJO-IS 
OUTTJ nfyio-Tr) }) To7s"E\\tj(riv e^eVcro (this was the greatest agitation), Th. 

I, 1 ; hence a distinction must be made between TOVTU T$ SiSoo-/caAw 
Xpwj/rcu (they have this teacher), and TOVTM 5:Sao-/caAw xp^vrai (they have this 
man for a teacher). TcK/^pita Tovrca xP^ fVOS (which signifies rovr6 effri 
TCKn-f)pioi>, & e'xpf?To), X. C. 1. 2, 49. 1a.\)Tt\v ^vd}^t\v exw (which signifies 
OI^TTJ eVrti/ % yv&fjiT), fy ex w )) -^ n - 2. 2, 12. If, however, the predicative 
substantive is to be represented as a definite object or one before-men- 
tioned, it takes the article, e. g. 'OTroVe ('ScaKparris) TI r$ \6y<? 5ie|un, Sick 
rial/ fjidXiffra 6/j.o\oyov/j.i/(av (iropevfro, vojjiifav ravr-^v rrjv dcr^aAemi' 
e?vat \6yov (hanc esse lirmam illam disputandi rationem, viz. such a mode 
as had been cleai-ly shown by previous examples), X. C. 4. 6, 15. 

(b) When the substantive is a proper name, e. g. olros, e'/ceu/os, avrbs 2w/c/ja- 
TTJS. EuS-uS^os ovroffi, X. C. 4. 2, 3. Nt/CTjparou TOUTOU, Symp. 2, 3. 
Xapfj.i5-r]s ovTovt, 2, 19. Aurbj/ MeVcova, An. 1.5, 13 ; or when a common 
name is used instead of a proper name, e. g. AuroO /JcwnAe'ws, An. 1. 7, 

II. 'ETTi yrjv TTjz/Se ^A&o//ei/ (with the variation eVl ryv yr\v T.), Th. 2, 
74. The article occurs but seldom, and then with a demonstrative force. 
Tt STJT' eKflvov rbv a\rtv ^av/j.d^o/j.fv ; Ar. Nub. 181. Tjj/Se rbv 
'l-rriri-rjv /ji.ereire/j.^dfjLeSra, Her. 5, 91. Comp. 8, 27. 

(c) When the idea of an object is to be expressed absolutely, the substantive 
without the article is joined with the pronoun avr6s. Comp. 244, 1. 

SecrTroTefa aurfjs SouAei'as, PI. Parmen. 133, d. AVTTJS 
ov jueTexo^iei/, 134, b. OVK avrov St<nr6Tov S^TTOV, '6 tff 
8ov\6s fffriv, 133, d. 

(d) When OVTOS avfip is used to denote emotion, especially scorn or con- 
tempt, instead of the pronoun av. Ovro<rl av^p o-j TravcreTai (p\vapu>v 5 
EtTre ju.oi, Sci/cpares, OVK atffx^^p ov^uara Syptvcav ; ( = blockhead, why dont 
you cease ?) PI. Gorg. 489, b. OVK oIS' arra \eyets, & SwK/jares, oAA' ^AAoi' 
Ttj/a tpfoTa* 2. Ovros dvJjp oix fnrofj.Vi ca<pe\oviJ.fvos (= you, oh man, 
can you not bear to be benefited? Ib. 505, c. 


(e) In p:is<:tLn>s like OJroi, ofcs dpart, fidpfiapoi iro\t/j.iu>T(poi ^ui/ Ifforrai, X. 
An. 1. ('). It'), tlu- relative claiiM 1 supplies the place of tlie article. Hut 
then- are lew pa-sa^es like: $fpe \afiwv x tr ^ >lfas u^v rovrovai and the 
following rovsSe x ir <*>>'cis, X. Cy. 8. 3, G, wlicrc tlic demonstrative is 
u-ed like a tkicttC (that irlu'cli fxiiiifs out) adverl) (here, tlicrr). The poets 
very often omit the article where the prose-writers mu>t use it. 

REM. '2. When the pronoun ouros or tKt?vos belongs to a substantive having 
the article and an attributive, then these pronouns are often placed betAveen the 
attributive and the substantive, e. g. Ai ruv UfKoirovv^ffiuv alrai Kf/es, Th. 8. 
80. 'H ff-Tfvi] OVTTJ &5os, X. An. 4. 2, 6. 'O A<j8i/y ^/ceTj/os AfW, Ad. H. A. 
7. 4 s . So 6 a-jrbs ouros WAf/xoy, Luc. dc hist, conscr. c. 14. So also with the 
genitives /xou, <ro, ouroG, etc. (^ 245, Rem. 4) ; likewise with iras, oAoy, e. g. 6 
s fiou irarTjp ; ?; T>V 'AbTjiraiav iraffa. (O'ATJ) ir6\is. 

4. A substantive with which TOIOVTO?, rotosSe, TOO-OI)TOS, 

To?, are joined, takes the article placed according to 
$ 245, 3 (a), when the quality or quantity designated by these, 
is to be considered as belonging to a definite object, one before 
mentioned or known, or as belonging to a whole class of objects 
previously named. 

TAp' aiftv Svvcuo rbv TOIOVT ov fi/xe/uTrroj' <f>i\ov vop.leiv ; (i. e. talem, qnalis anted 
descriptns est). X. Cy. 5. 5,32. Ilus kv olv 6 roioufos avfy 8ia<pbfipoi rovs 
vtovs (i. e. talis n'r, quale.m descripsimus Socratem), C. 1.2, 8. Tu>v TOGOVTUIV 
Kai TOIOVT uv a-yc&uv vp.'iv Kal rats &\\ots 'Afrrivaiots ex VTfS X-P IV (' n relation 
to what precedes), Dem. Cor. 327, 305. 'Opa>v rovs TIJ\IKOVTOVS tyvXar- 
Tovras /xoAttrro ras ywaiKas (relating to the preceding yepoucp, but at the same 
time designating the whole class of the yepaioi), X. R. L. 1, 7. So also when 
taken substantivcly : 6 TOIOUTOS, TO. roiavra. On the contrary, the article must 
be omitted, when the object is indefinite : any one of those who are of such a 
nature, or are so great, e. g. TOIOVTOV &v$pa OVK Uv tiraivoiiis. 

5. "When Tra?, Travres, 0X05 belong to a substantive, the 
following cases must be distinguished : 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is considered 
as altogether a general one, the article is not used. 

Flay &V&PUTTOS (seldom &v&pwiros iras), every man (i e. every one to whom 
the predicate man belongs ; Trdires &v&p<airoi, all men. So also 6'A.r; Tr6\ts, a 
WHOLE city, Tr6\is O'ATJ, a whole CITY. Then iras in the singular signifies each, 
every. Has may often be translated by mere, or utter, e. g. 'O "Epus Iv irdffr} avap- 
X"? Kal a.vop.ia wv, PI. Rp. 575, a. llama aya&a Kal Ka\a aTrepyd^omai, Polit. 
284, a. 

(/3) When the substantive to which Tra?, Travres belong, is to 
be considered as a whole in distinction from its parts, it takes 
the article, which is placed according to $ 245, 3 (a). Here 
are emphatic. 


326 SYNTAX. [ 246. 

'H iraara yfj, the WHOLE earth ; ol irdvres iro\1rai, all citizens without exception* 
This usage is more seldom than that under (a). This construction occurs also 
with o A. o s, but it is still rarer than with -iras, e. g. 77 0X77 ir6\is, iro\is 77 0X77, the 
WHOLE city. Here the singular was always has the sense of ivhole. TleLpaff&at 
(X/)?}) Koivfj fftii^fiv T)}V iraffav St/ceXfa*', Th. 4, 61. y E8o|e;> avTols ov TOVS 
vap6vTa.s fj.6^ov avoKTe'tvai, aXXa Kal TOVS airavras MirvXyvaiovs, 3, 36. Tb 
'6\ov avdyKr] TO. travra. /j. 6 p 77 elj/at, PI. Theaet. 204, a. 'AvfrpdiroKTi yap TOIS 
ir aff i KOIVOV Tou|ajuapTdVetJ', S. Ant. 1023. 'EKfivcas (JLOI fyaiverai, Sjsirep TO. TOV 
irposwirov p6pia exet irpbs rb '6\ov IT pdswiroi', PL Prot. 329, e. Hence it 
signifies, in all. Tlf/jiirova-i x i ^' lovs TOVS irdvras 6ir\tras, a thousand hop- 
lites IN ALL. Sfi'eTrA.Tjpwi^TjO'aj' y^es at iraffai Se/co fj-aKiffra. ai l/carcy, Th. 3, 66. 

(y) When the words Tras, Travres, intended merely as. a more 
definite explanation, without any special emphasis, belong to a 
word denoting a definite object and hence having the article, they 
are then placed according to $ 245, 3 (b). This is by far the 
most frequent use of Tras, Travres. The word oXos also is usually 
constructed in the same manner, in connection with a substan- 
tive and the article. 

Ol ffrpaTLUTcu d\ov T& ffr par JireSoj' airav or &TTO.V rb ffr par 
Ol ffrpaTiwrcu vdifres or irdvres ol ffrpaTtwrai Ka\ws 
Aia r^v ir&\iv o\i)v or Siei 8X17^ r^v ir6\iv (simply through the whole 
city, whereas Sick T^\V '6Xf\v ir6\iv, through the WHOLE city). Ataj8ouz/ouert irdvr es 
fls rb ftv^avriov ol O~T par icar at, X. An. 7. 1, 7. Et inrb rrjs 'E \\d5os 
ir a ff rj s allots eir* apery (^av^a^eer^at, T^V 'EAAaSa ireipaTfov ev 'iroit1v y X. C. 2. 

6. When ocao-ros, each, every, belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, as with ?ras in the sense of each, every, when 
the idea expressed by the substantive is considered as a general 
one ; but when the idea contained in the substantive is to be 
made prominent, it takes the article which is always placed 
according to $ 245, 3 (b). 

Kara r^v fjfiepav fKairrr^v, Dem. Cor. 310, 249, or o^' fKa.ffTi)v r^v 
T]fi4pa.V) every single day, but OVK 6\iya fcrrl KC&' tK&trrfiv T}fj.epav (quotidie, 
each day, every day, general) TotaOro opav re /cal aitovfiv, X. C. 4. 2, 12. *A 
fKaffry y Xt/cta irposrzTOKTai TroteTv, 8ir]yT)(r6iJ.(&a, X. Cy. 1.2, 5. Tvpavvovv- 
TOI inrb SfKa avSpcav, ovs AvffavSpos /careVrTjo'ej' ev e/catTTT? IT 6 A e t, H. 3. 5, 13 ; 
but "O Tt av ev T rj 7 77 e K a cr r 77 Ka\bv f) aya&bv rj, fj.e/ji.ff)(ro]/Tai, in every single 
land, Cy. 8. 6, 6. Kal fjyf/jihv pfv 3\v 6 Seo-Tr^TTjs fitdffTi)s rijs oiiclas, An. 
7. 4, 14. 

7. When c/carepo?, each of two, a/*<a> and a/x^orepos, both, 
belong to a substantive, the article is always used, since here 


only two knt)u'n, therefore definite objects can be spoken of. 
The article is here placed according to $ 245, 3 (b). 

'Eirl T tav ir\fvpuv 4 K ar tpctfp, X. An. 3. 2, 36, or or} I KO.T t p<av r wv 
Tc\fvp>v. Ta wra ikp.<j>6r tpa. or afi<p6rtpa ra 2>ra. 'A/n^oiv -rotv 
XpoIV or ToiV x f P*" butyo'iv. Ko&' iKarepov rbv IsirKovv, Th. 
4,14. Ty url iicarepu, X. Ven. 5, 32. 

8. In respect to the pronoun avros and the indefinite pronouns 
or numerals aXXo?, crepos, TroAv?, TrXeiwv, TrActo-ros, the 
following points are to be observed : 

(a) 'O avr6s signifies the same, idem, e. g. 6 avrbs avbpviros, idem homo ; rail- 
r 6, the same ; but 6 HvbpuTros a.vr6s or avrbs & avbpwiros, homo IPSE. 

(b) *AA.\os = alius, another, in contrast with ipse (avr6s) ; & &\\os = reliquus, 
the other ; ol a\Xoi = reliqui, certeri, the rest, e. g. ij &\\rj "EAXas, reliqua Graecia, 
the rest of Greece, in contrast with some part before named ; ol &\\ot &v&p<airot, 
the other men or the others, in relation to definite individuals. T fl 'Apicuc /col o I 
&\\oi foot $Tf Kvpov <f>t\ot, Ariaeus and the rest. But 'O T\ovs &re<J><j/ij per' 
&\\(av, Glus appeared icith others, in contrast with himself; erepoy = one 
of tico (it not being determined which), or it forms a contrast with b avr6s and 
denotes difference or contrast; & erepos = the other, i. e. the definite one of 
two, e. g. rj trtpa x f ^P T P *T*P% XP?i rat i ' ertpot in reference to two parties. 

(c) The following cases ofiro\us, iro\\ol are to be distinguished: (o) 
When iro\vs, iro\\ol belong to a substantive without the article, as iroXvs ir6vos, 
iroAA^ <nrou57j, iro\vs \6yos, iroAAol &V&PCOTTOI, an object is denoted as an indefi- 
nite one, e.g. no\i>v cx ov<rai irbvov arcXeTs TT)S rov Svros &eas airfpxovrai 
(having much toil), PI. Phaedr. 243, b. Ho\\ol &v&p<airoi rov irXoinov 6p- 
yovrcu (many men, general) ; (ft) but if the object is represented as definite, or 
one previously mentioned or known, the article is used with the substantive, 
and TTO\VS is then placed : (1) as an attributive between the article and the sub- 
stantive, e. g. $ iro\\)) <rirov$)) TO dArj^eios i'5eti/ ireSiov (magnum illud, de quo 
dixi, studium, that great zeal, of which I have spoken), PI. Phaedr. 248, b. *Civ ir4pi 
rov vo\vv \6yov liroieiro ' A.vaay6pas (multum ilium sermonem, e scriptis ejus 
satis cognitum), 270, a. 'Ei/ raTs iro\\a'is yeveffo~i (among the many genera- 
tions mentioned), Phaedon. 88, a; ol -jro\\ol tivbowiroi signifies either the 
many men named or a multitude of men belonging together, in opposition to the parts 
of the whole, hence also of iroAAot, the many, the multitude, the populace, plebs, 
or even the most, the majority (in contrast with the separate individuals), e. g. 
"Off a ol 6\iyoi rovs iro \\oiis fj.^ irfio-avres, oAAefc Kparovvres ypdtpovffi (what the 
few prescribe to the many [the majority] not by persuasion but by force), X. C. 1. 2, 45 ; 
rb iroXu, the greater part, e. g. Ta>v iroXf/jiiwv rb fjLtv iro\v ffJLfvcv, p.cpos b" av- 
ruv airfivra rots Kara ra a/cpa (most of the enemy remained), X. An. 4. 6, 24. What 
is true of the Positive, is true also of the Comparative and Superlative. 'Eov 
<f>i\ovs f) ir6\iv w<pf\(?v Sf'p, irorfpci) rj irXt'iwv ffx^T) rovrtav irifi(\('io-&ai t 
ry us tyw vvv, t) rtp us ov paKapi^tis Stair ufj.fvu (the greater leisure, considered 
as a definite thing, or as a definite whole), X. C. 1. 6, 9. Ei tSiSov, tirl rovrcp 

228 SYNTAX. [$ 246. 

kv etiiSov, oVwy c/uoi Sota /ieToj/ ^ cbroSo/rj fyuj/ TO irAeToj/, An. 7. 6, 16. "Eirerot 
TT; cioeTTj (Tce(rid-cu ej's Toy TrAefco XP VOV A t <*^*'> ^ T ?7 KOMia, R. L. 9, 2; of 
irAefovsorTO TT \ e o y signifies the majority in opposition to the minority (of c?Aacr- 
o"ous), therefore a definite whole; of ir\e7cn 01, the most, TO TT \f1a-rov, the greatest 
part, also to be considered as a definite whole. Or, (2) iro A us is joined with 
the substantive having the article, and is placed according to 245, 3 (b) ; 
TroAvs is then to be taken in a predicative sense, e. g. 'ETTC! ec6pa TroAAa TO 
K pea (when he saw the flesh that it was much, the flesh in great abundance), X. Cy. 
1.3,6. 2</>kn iro AA& ret &iropa |ujU]8e)8TjKOTa (sc. op&vres), Th. 1, 52. IIoA- 
A^v T^JI/ alriav flx ov (they had censure in great abundance, i. e. were very 
severely censured), 6, 46. 

(d) 'O \lyoi, few, e. g. oAfyot Sv^panrot ; of o At 701, fAe /ew, i. e. either the 
few mentioned, or to be considered as a definite whole, viz., emphatically the 
Oligarchy, considered as a whole, in opposition to of iroAAof, e.g. IlpeV^ets 
of MTJ\IOI Trobs fjiev TO TTATJ&OS OVK tfyo.'yoi', eV 8e rats apxais Kal rots 6\lyois 
Xtyeiv ^eAcuov, Th. 5, 84 ; but when only an indefinite idea is expressed by the 
word oAiyos, the article is omitted, e. g. UpoSofrrjvai r^v iro\iv VTT' bxlytav (by 
oligarcJis, not by the Oligarchs). 

9. When a cardinal number belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, if the idea expressed by the substantive is 
indefinite, e. g. r/ms avSpes yXSov ; but the substantive takes the 
article which is placed : (a) according to $ 245, 3 (a), when the 
substantive with which the numeral agrees, contains the idea 
of a united whole; hence also, when the number of objects is to 
be represented as a sum-total, after the prepositions a^i, Trept, 
ets, vTTtp ; but the article is here used most frequently, when a 
preceding substantive with a cardinal number agreeing with it, 
and without the article, is referred to. 

Of T>V jScwnAeW oiVo%^ot 5i86a<ri TO Is T0io"l 8oCTi5Aots 
<}>id\riv (aith the three fingers, i. e. the three generally used), X. Cy. 1. 3, 8. "^Hi/, 
oVe cTeAcuro, afj.(f>l TO irivT^Kovra HT?) (he had reached about the sum of 
fifty years), X. An. 2. 6, 15. 'Iinrffs els rovs rerpaKisx i^iovs crweAe- 
yovro camp, KOI ToloVat els TOVS pvpiovs, Cy. 3. 2, 3. Tots KepKvpaiois T&V 

ve>v ov Trapovtrav (referring to the preceding words of KepKupaioi 

vav(T\v avrovs rpefyap.evoi, Th. 1, 49). 

((3) But the article is placed according to 245, 3 (b), when 
the numeral without any emphasis, is joined with the definite 
object, merely to define it more definitely, and when the nu- 
meral had not been previously mentioned, e. g. *E/mxravro 
ot //.era Kept/cAto^s OTrXtrat ^tAtot or ^tAiot ot /xera II. OTrXtrat, the 
hoplites with Pericles, a thousand in number, fought. 

$ 247.] ARTICLE AS A PRONOUN. 329 

I,'I:M. ;{. The article is frequently omitted with substantives which hnve an 
onliiiiil number joined witli them, as tin- ordinal in u measure supplies the place 
<>f the article-. Tplroy TOJ ry iro\(fj.c,> tTt\tvra (lie. died the third i/(or), Th. 
L'. KIM. (,'omp. ;{. i>5, 88. 

$-'17. The Article as a Demonstrative and Relative 

1. The article 6 77 r6 had originally the sense both of a demonstrative and 
relative pronoun. 

i'. In the Homeric poems, the pronoun 6 rj r6 has almost wholly the sense 
both of a substantive and adjective demonstrative pronoun, which refers to an 
object, and represents it as known or already spoken of, or brings it before the 
mind of the hearer, e. g. II. o, 12. 6 (he) yap $\&e boas tirl /7)as 'Axouwv. 29. 
r)) v (her) 6" fyeu ov \\xr<a. Od. K, 74. ou yap /tot &tfj.ts forl K0fj.i^f/j.fv ouo" aTroW/x- 
irfiv avSpa rov (that wan), Ss /ce freoiffii' dWx&TjTat /ia/capeo'o'ij/. Hence, in 
Homer, the substantive is found in very many passages without the article, 
where later writers, particularly the Attic, would use it. Comp. II. a, 12 seq. 
with PL Up. 393, e. Yet there arc, in Homer, evident traces of an approxima- 
tion or agreement of this apparent article with the real article, which was not 
fully developed before the time of the Attic writers. Thus in Homer, as in 
the Attic writers, it gives the force of substantives to adjectives and participles, 
e. g. & apiaros, 6 j/JicTjtros, 6 yfpai6s] so also, rb irplv, rb Trp6abfv (prius) ; it is 
found in connection with a substantive and an attributive adjective or adverb, 
the attributive being placed between the article and substantive, e. g. T<av -n-po- 
Ttpuv <?T?W, II. A, 691. Tbv 5e|tbf 'iirirov ^, 336. O< tvepSe beoi , 274. Tb a\>v yepas 
o, 185. Tb (rbv / a, 207 ; so it is used in case of apposition, e. g. Od. A, 298. 
Kal AT^STJV elSoj/ T^U TuvSopeou irapaKoiTtv. Od. |, 61. avaKTes ol vfoi; further, 
"Ajriryes ot irepl Sicppov, II. A, 535. 'A.v$pu>i> TUV r6re i, 559. Ttels ol AoAt'oco, Od. at, 
497 ; also with the demonstrative, a! KVVCS oTSe T, 372 ; it also takes the place 
of the possessive pronoun, e. g. II. A, 142. vvv p.fv Sfy rov irar pb s act/ceo Tttrere 
\W&T)V (of your father), and denotes what belongs to an object, e. g. Od. o, 218. 
4yKO<T/jLf'iTf -ra Ti>xe\ croupot, vyt p.f\aivri (the reuxf<* belonging to the ship). 

3. The use of the article as a demonstrative adjective, is not unfrequent in all 
the post-Homeric writers ($ 244, 6) ; but as a demonstrative substantive pronoun, 
it was retained, in certain cases, through every period of the language ; thus : 

(a) Tb Sf (id autem, or on the contrary), very frequently at the beginning of a 
sentence; 6 p4v (is quidem), 6 5e (is autem), ol 5e' (ri autem) very fre- 
quently at the beginning of a sentence; irpb rov (irporov). formerly ; 
often Kal r6v, T-f)t/, et eum, et earn, at the beginning of a sentence, e. g. 
X. Cy. 1. 3, 9. Kal rbv Kt \fvcrat Sovvat. In connection with KOJ, the 
Greek says in the Norn. : /cat os, Kal ?}, Kal ot ( 334), but in the Ace. Kal 
rbv, Kal TTJI/; seldom TO* ye, id quidem, TO?, idr-o, and the like. 

(b) In such phrases as, rbv Kal r6v, TO Kal r6, this man and that man, this 
thiny and that tltlni] ; ra Kal rd f varia, bona et mala. 

(c) It is used immediately before a sentence introduced by 8s, oo*os or ofos, 
which sentence expresses periphrastically the force of an adjective, or 


330 SYNTAX. [ 248. 

especially, an abstract idea. This usage is confined mostly to Plato. 
PL Phaedon. 75, b. opeyerai TO v '6 tarty 1<iov (= TOV Iffov OVTOS), lie. reaches 
after that which is equal. Prot. 320, d. C'K yr\s teal irvpbs /aaj/Tes Kal TWV 
'6 GO. irvpl Kal 777 KGp<ivvvTai. Soph. 241, e. efre jj.ifj.i](jia.r<av t ejre (payTacr/j.d- 
TCOV aiiTtav 3) /cat Trepi re^vwv T >v, Off ai irepl Tavrd fl<rt. 
(d) In such phrases as, 6 /xeV 6 Se, ol fj.4v of Se,the one the other, 
some, the others. Isocr. Paneg. 41. els /uev TOVS vfipifrvres, TO?S Se SouAeiW- 
res, treating some with contempt, and being. slaves to others. Very frequently 
rb fj.ev rb 6, T^ fj.fv TO Se, partly partly, rfj pev rp Se, 
on one side on the other side, 

4. In the Homeric language, the demonstrative 6 }) TO, is frequently used in 
place of the relative. II. a, 125. a\\ci ra (lev iroXiwv e'|e7rpa^0juev, T^ 8e'8a<rrai 
(quae ex urbibus praedati sumus, ea sunt distributa). The relative use was 
transferred from Homer to the Ionic and Doric writers also ; so the Tragedians 
take this liberty, though very rarely. Her. 3, 81. T& ^Iv 'Oraj/Tjs etTre, Tavra T el S' Is rb TTATJ^OS &voiye (pfpciv TO KpaTos, yv&pijs TTJS 
f. Comp. Larger Grammar, Part II. 482. 


In relation to the subject, the predicate can be expressed 
in different ways. Hence arise different classes of verbs, 
which are indicated by different forms : 

(1) The subject appears as active, e. g. f O vrat? <ypd(j>ei, 
TO az&o? S-aXXe^. But the active form has a two-fold 
signification : 

(a) Transitive, when the object to which the action is 
directed, is in the Ace., and therefore appears as pas- 
sive or as receiving' the action, e. g. TUTTTW TOV TralBa, 
ypd<fx0 rrjv ejrurTO\qv, Transitive verb. 

(ft) Intransitive, when the action is either confined to the 
subject, as To arfbos ^d\\6i, or when the verb has an 
object in the Gen. or Dat., or is constructed with a 
preposition, e. g. 'J^TT^v/iai T5 dperrjs, 'Xfdpto ry <ro<f>la, 
fiabifa el? rr)v iroKiv, Intransitive verb. 

(2) Or the subject performs an action which is confined 
to, or is reflected upon itself, e. g. Tvirrofjiai, I strike MY- 
SELF ; /3ov\evo/jLai,, I advise MYSELF, or / deliberate ; TUTTTO- 
fiau TTJV K(j)a\TJv, I strike MY OWN head; Karacrrpe^ofiat, rrjv 
yrjv, I subjugate the land for MYSELF ; a^vo^ai row 


ou9, I keep off the enemy from MYSELF, Middle or Reflex- 
ive verb. 

Hi MARK 1. When the ivllrxive action is performed by two or more subjects 
on ruch other, as Tinrrorrat, they strike each othrr ; StaKt\fvoi>Tcu, they exhort each 
other, it is called a reciprocal action, and the verb, Reciprocal verb. 

(3) Or the subject appears as receiving' the action, i. e. 
the action is performed upon the subject, e. g. Ol o-rpancoTai, 
VTTO TWV 7ro\e/jLicov ou)')fi'r)o~av, were pursued, Passive verb. 

REM. 2. The Act. and Mid. have complete forms. For the Pass., the 
Greek has only two tenses: the Fut. and Aor. All the other passive forms 
are indicated by the Mid., since the passive action was considered as a reflexive 

$ 249. A. Active Form. 

1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion, 
besides a transitive signification, have an intransitive or reflex- 
ive sense. (So in English, as he leads, the birds move, the car- 
riage breaks, the snow melts, which have also a transitive sense ; 
so the Lat. vertere, mutare, declinare, etc.) 

irora/jLOs 4s&d\\fi ts r V A./wrfj/, Th. 1 , 46. 'H B6\fa \((J.VT\ <? f T? - 
<riv ts Std\aaffav t 4, 103. 'Eyyus ?iyov ol "E\\rtvcs (comp. to draw near), X. 
An. 4. 2, 1 5. So also avdyetv, to go back, to withdraw ; Sidyetv, perstare, to 
continue, are found in prose. 'E\avvfiv or tKavveiv frnra? (X. An. 1. 8, 1), 
to ride ; irpos\avy(iv, adequitare, to ride up to. Many compounds of ^d\\fiv, 
e.g. t(j.0d\\eiv and flspd\\eiv, to fall into, to empty (of a river); iit0d\- 
\fiv, to spring forth, to put forth (of plants, etc.) ; per a&d\\eiv (like mutare), 
8 ( a /8 a A \ e t v, to cross over ; irposfid\\e i v nvi, to make an attack upon ; <rv(ji- 
/3 a A. A. e i v rivi, manus conserere, to engage in combat with ; e' it i & a A A. e j v, to fall 
upon; virtp&d\\eiv, to exceed, to be prominent. Khlvfiv and its com- 
pounds, e. g. ttriK\(vtiv, to incline to something; b.iroK\iveiv, declinare. Tpcirejj/, 
like vertere ; tiriTpeirciv, se permittere, to entrust one's self to. 2Tpe^tv (like 
mutare) and its compounds. Tlraieiv, to strike against, to stumble ; irposTrraitiv, 
as fjLeyd\ws irposfirTaiirav, they suffered a total shipwreck (Her. 6, 95). 'AiraA- 
X d r r i v, to get off. escape. Compounds of 8 1 8 6 v a. t, as eVStSJj/cu, to discharge 
itself (of a stream); ^n8i5($j/cu, praficere,to increase, advance. Compounds of 
If fa i, e. g. avifvai, to relax, be remiss; e</neVcu (sc. tavrbv) l<rx v P "yeAwri (indul- 
gere), PI. Rp. 388, e. Compounds of plffyfiv, niyvvvai, as o-v^uryeu', 
commisceri ; irpos/juyvvvai, to Jight with, also appropinquare, e. g. irpose/jn^av T<$ 
rtixti, Th. 3, 22. Afpciv, to get under way, set out (of ships, to weigh anchor), 
also compounds, e. g. ol /3ap/3apoi OTT^OU/ IK rf)s A-f}\ov (to set sail), Her. 6, 99 ; 
(sc. x 'P as ) T ^t to fojht with, to icithstand. 'S.vvdirreiv, manus con- 

332 SYNTAX. [$ 249. 

serere. "Ex^iy, to land; ^x flv TWOS (desistere), Th. 1, 112; *x* lv with adverbs, 
as e3, KoAois, KO.KWS, like fene, 7a/e Jta&ere ; 6%6/j/ d^<i TI, ?'n aliqua re occupatum 
esse; vpos^x^f ( sc - vovv), attendere, to give one's attention to, or appellare, to land; 
irpofx flv i praestare ; eVe^et^, se sustinere, or expectare, in mente habere, e. g. eVe?- 
Xov arparevea^ai ; /carexeii', se retinere, also to /ac?; napfxeu', e. g. rf; /j.ovffiitrj, 
musicae se dare ; aire^etj', to 6e distant from ; avrex^Vi resistere. Uparrfiv with 
adverbs, e. g. eS, /cavws, or with the Ace. of adjectives, e. g. KaXA, icwd, to fare 
well or ill. Atarpipfiv (consumere), versari, to employ one's self. Compounds 
of (pfpeiv, as 8ta<pepeiv, to be different, differre; vTreptyepeii/ (eminere) TT\OVT<U. 
'Ava\afj.pdvLi', rejici, recreari. Oi :?>/, administrari, e. g. WAts oiyce? (the 
state is managed), Plat. T e A. e v r a v, to end, to die. Karopbovv, to succeed. 
Nt/cSy, to prevail, e. g. tviKa i) x e 'P COI/ ^^ yv(a{j.f(av (like vincit sententia), Her. 
6, 109. 'E A. A e ITT e t >, o^cz'o swo rfeesse ; aTroAetTreiv, to remain behind, etc. 

2. Several active verbs with a transitive signification, which 
form both Aorists, have in the first Aor. a transitive, but in the 
second Aor. an intransitive sense : 

Svco, to wrap up, first Aor. eSi/<ra, / wrapped up, second Aor. e8Dv, / went in, 
1ffTTip.i, to place, " eo-TTjo-o, I placed, effrriv, I stood, 

<pvco, to produce, Z<pv<Ta, I produced, e<pvi/, I was produced, 

(TKeAAw, to make dry, " ( eo-KTjAa, poet. I make dry), " ea-KATjj/, 7 withered. 

So several active verbs with a transitive signification, which 
form both Perfects, have in the first Perf. a transitive, but in the 
second an intransitive sense : 

tyelpo), to wake, first Pf. eyrjyepKa, I have awakened, sec'd Pf. eyp-fiyopa, lam awake, 
#AAD/ii, perdo, " oAc6A.e/ca, perdidi, " #AwA.a, peril, 

irei^w, to persuade, " ireireiKa, I have persuaded, " TreVot^a, I trust, 
aj/oiyea, to open, " avea>x a > I have opened, " aveyya, I stand open 

(* 187, 6), 
Trpdrrca, to do. irfirpaxa, I have done, " Trcirpaya (sc. u), / 

Moreover some second Perfects of transitive verbs, which do 
not form a first Perf, have an intransitive sense : 

, to break, second Pf. eaya, lam broken, 
i, to tear, ' : Zpp<oya, I am torn, 

r-f)K(a, to smelt (iron), " rer^/ca, I am smelted, 

Tr-fiyvv/j.1, to fasten, " ir^irriya, lam fastened, 

(T-f)Trca, to make rotten, " crfo-nira, I am rotten, 

<paii/ca, to show, " irf<pr)va, I appear. 

REMARK 1. Tho Pass. a\icrKo/, to be taken, has an active form in the 
Perf. and Aor., viz., eaAw/co, I have been taken, eaAwf, I was taken ( 161, 1). 

3. Intransitive active verbs are sometimes used in the place 
of the passive. 

$250.] CLASSES OF VERBS. Mf^gAotak. 333 

This is particularly the case with ir&ax* tv > vtirre iv, <pfvyiv t c <5, KCL- 
KUS a-Kovfiv, 3vTjo-/cetv, more seldom rtXturav. These active verbs 
with virb and the Gen. are very commonly used instead of the passive of such 
vnlis as o5i/, piirrfiv or ftd\\fiv, StuKftv, KTf ivtiv ; bidiffKtiv in certain forms 
is always so used ( 161, 13). MryoAa irfffAvra. (eversa, were destroyed by) 
virb i\<rff6vuv, Her. 7, 18. Ativtrfpov Iit6p.iov flvai KOKUS M ruv 
a-Kovfiv (audire, they thought it worse to be evil spoken of by the citizens), 
1) KaXus virlp TTJS irJAews a.iro&VT\ffKe iv t Isocr. Paneg. 56, 77. So ^ K IT i IT T e i v v IT 6 
TIVO y, ejcpdli ab aliquo ; very often <pcvycw inro rii/os,fugari ab aliquo, to be put 
to flight by some one, or in a judicial sense, accusatum esse ab aliquo, e. g. 
<pfi>ye iv vv 6 r ivos, to be accused by some one of impiety. E5, KCLKUS 
it IT 6 <rov t I am benefited, injured by you. 'EreAcuTTjeroj/ vir' 'ASrivaiuv 
(intcrfecti sunt), Her. 6, 92. 

REM. 2. It will be seen ( 279, Rem. 5) that intransitive active verbs are 
frequently used in poetry in a transitive sense, e. g. iLffTpdwrfiv <rcXas, froivti.? 

REM. 3. The transitive active is not unfrequently used, when the subject 
does not itself perform an action, but causes it to be performed by another ; 
yet this usage is admissible, only when it is evident from the context or from 
the nature of the ca$p, that the subject does not itself perform the action. . X. 
An. 1.4,10. Kupos rbi/ irapd^fiaov e e K o ^ c al ra a(T/A.eia /COT e' /cat/trey, caused 
to be cut down. So frequently airo/creiVftv, ^d-rrrfiv, otKoSo/j.f'ii/ and similar exam- 
ples ; often also 5i5ao-/ce>, ira&tveiv (comp.Pl. Prot.320, a. 324, d. Menon. 94, b). 

250. B. Middle Form. 

1. The Mid. denotes an action, which is performed by the 
subject, and is again reflected upon it or is confined to it. Two 
cases are here to be distinguished : 

(a) The Mid. denotes, first and most frequently, an action 
which the subject performs upon an object within its own 
sphere, i. e. upon an object belonging to the subject, connected 
with it, or standing in any near relation to it. In English, this 
relation of the Middle voice is expressed by a possessive pro- 
noun, or by the preposition to or for with a personal pronoun. 

, fTv^dfj.-r]v rr?v Ke^oA^i/, 7 strike, I struck my own head (rfarrtiv K., to 
strike the head of another) ; \ovaa<rbai TOVS ir^Sas, to wash one's own feet (\oueiv r. 
., to wash the feet of another) ; airoKptyaffibai TO. eavrov, to conceal one's own 
affairs ; ir(pippT]aff&cu x' T "a> suam vestem, to rend one's own garment (irfpipprftcu, 
alius, that of another) : irapa<rxe<r&(u T '> to give something from one's own means, to 
furnish of one's self, as voDs, hence also to show, e. g. f&voiav Trapx ecr & ai ( on * no 
contrary irapt'xeiv nj/l Trpcry.uara, (pSfiov, etc., to cause trouble, fear, etc., to some 
one); airoSfi^aff^ai TJ, c. g. fpyov, yvu>(j.rii>, Svva/jiiv, to show one's own work, etc. ; 
tirayyti\a<rbcd n, to promise ; in a reciprocal relation : j/efyioerW ri t aliquid inter 
te partiri, to divide something u-ith each other, so ^fptcraff^ai ; iroi^o-curdm TI, to do 

334 SYNTAX. [$ 250. 

or make something for one's self, e. g. fip-fivyv, trrrovSas (7roie?j/, to do or accomplish), 
iroiT}ffacFiba.i Tr6\fj.ov, to carry on war ; &rt / u / A.eKW, to use care ; &yeo-&ai ywdiKa, to 
take a wife for one's self, to marry ; eAeV&ai Tt, sibi sumere, hence to choose, prefer ; 
&pa(T&at TI, to take up for one's self, to lay on one's self (aXpeiv TI, to take up something 
in order to lay it upon another) ; an^ffacr^ai TI, to ask for one's self (ahe'iv, to ask) ; 
7iy>c|a<r&cu XP?W T T " /a J sibi ao aliquo pecuniam exigere ; maSxaffcxrSrai, conducere, to 
hire for one's self (but /j.t<rSu<rcu, locare, to let out) ; jueTaTre^atrd-ai, to cause to come 
to one's self, to send for ; KaTaffTptyaff&cu, KaTaSovXitxracr^ai yrjv, sibi subjicere ter- 
ram ; avapT-fio-curbai Tiva, sibi devincire, to make dependent on one's self; a.Tro\v<racr&al 
T/a, to free for one's self, to ransom; iroptffaff&al TI, sibi aliquid comparare (iropifciv 
vi TIM, alii aliquid comparare), /co/xfcrcur&ai, e. g. n\aTaiets TraTSos KO.\ yvvauxas 
^KKfKO/niO'fj.fvoi %<rav 3s T&S 'A&rjvas, Th. 2, 78; KT^ffaa-^ai, irapaa'Kevdo'ao'- 
&at TI, sibi comparare ; frecrfrai and ypd\l/aa&ai v6/j.ovs are used of one who makes 
laws for himself, or of a law-giver, who is himself, also, subject to the laws 
which he has made for others ; on the contrary, S-fT^at and ypdfycu vopov are used 
of one who is not subject to the law which he has made, or generally of one 
who gives laws to others, without expressing any further relation, e. g. "EXOIS 
&i/ etireH', ori ol &v&p(i)irot rovs a-ypd<povs j>6/j.ovs e&e;/To; '7^ fjikv f$eo\>s ol/ 
robs v6povs rovrovs rots avfrpwirois freww, X. C. 4. 4, 19; *ap.vva.(r&ai TOUS iroAe- 
fjiiovs, propulsare a se hostes, hence to defend one's self against any one (d/xtWii/, 
properly to ward off", then to help) ; rifjLup^ffaa^ai TI, to revenge one's self on some 
one, to punish him (T ifj.cape7i/ TIVI, to help one) : Tpfyacrbat, to put to flight; aircao-aff- 
bai KO.KO., a se propulsare mala ; a.iroTrep\iaff8ra( Tiva, a se dimittere ; a.iroffei<ra.(r&a.i 
TI, a se depellere; irapcuT-f)(ra<r&ai, deprecari ; Sta^eV^at, aTro86<r&ai, to sell; OTTO- 
Tpe'i//ao-3-ai, ctTro/SaAeV&cu, aTroKpoixraffbcu. Several Deponent Middle verbs also 
belong here ( 102, 3). 

(b) The Middle denotes, second, but much more seldom, an 
action which the subject performs immediately on itself, so that 
the subject is at the same time, also, the object of the action. 
The English here uses the active verb with the Ace. of the 
reflexive pronoun, e. g., I strike myself; e-rui^a/x^j/, / 
struck myself. Here belong particularly the following verbs : 

'Airdy^ai Tiud, to strangle some one ; air dya<r&ai, to strangle one's self; 
Ti5vf>a<rd-ai, itttyaffbai, to strike one's self; Kv\l/a<rbai, to bend one's self 
down ; olKiffa<r&ai, migrare ; firipa\f<r&at,to apply or devote one's self to 
something; TrapaffKevda-aff^rai, se parare; Toa<r&cu, to place one's self in 
order of battle, e. g. OVTU /JLCI/ Kepitvpcuot eTa^at/To, Th. 1, 48 ; [but also to fix or 
establish for one's self according to No. (a), e. g. Tdacr&ai (popov, to agree to pay 
tribute;] Trpos&eerd-at, se adjungere, to agree with; 7o-Ta<r&ai (O-TTJI/OI, e<rrdvai) 
and its compounds, to place one's self [but also according to No. (a), sibi ponere, 
to place for one's self, e. g. Tp6iraiov] ; 6 putffaff&ai, Kabopniffacr bat, to land 
(comp. Th. 4, 15) ; Ki//c\w<roo-&ai, to encircle (comp. Th. 5, 72), but KVKXw^rj- 
vai, to form a circle or place one's self in a circle; Tpavea-bai [not Tpfyaabai, 
see No. (a)], to turn one's self(Th.5.29, 73) ; iyyv-fiffaffbai, to pledge one's self; 


jravffaff&ai, to cease (from rravw, to cause to cease)] Se(a<r&a<, to show one's 

.irti.-uhily vrrU which express an action performed l.v the subject upon 

lii-i own body, c. g. Aou(ra<r&ai, vl^affbai, i A i\J/a<rdai, 

KO er^<ra<rda, 
at, air o/j.6plaffbai, se abster- 
gere; &iro/it/(a<r&a(, se cmungere ; airoty-ficraff&ai, se abstergere ; ffTf<pa- 
vuffaffbai; ffrfl\aff&ai, to get ready, to Jit one's self out; also some few 
which in the Mid. express internal, mental action, e.g. <t>v\d acrbat, to 
be on one's guard, to be cautious (but <j>v\drrtiv rtvd, to guard some one) ; tyijtyl- 
i, to determine or decree by vote (but ifaQlfcit/y to put the vote) ; /SouAeu- 
i, to deliberate, to advise one's self (but fiovXivftv Tivt, to advise some one) ; 
i, to taste (yweiv, to cause to taste, to give a taste of) ; ri^wp^ffaff- 
& a i, to avenge ; the reciprocals StaKaraXvffaff&ai irp6s riva, to be reconciled 
to any one ; trvvbta&ai, to bind one's self, to agree with any one ; fftrfiffaff&at, 
to make a treaty, peace with; atroffx^ ff ^ al ^ t restrain one's self, to abstain 
from; several compounds of frj/it, e.g. ififff&at, to strive; ixplevbai, to 
yield, be remiss ; /u e & f e cr & o t, to neglect, be remiss ; CLVT iir oiT]ffaff&ai rivas, to 
strive for something; avri\a&4a& at rivds, to lay hold of something. Here 
belong, also, most Deponent Middle verbs ($ 197, Rem. 2). 

REMARK 1. This immediate reflexive relation is expressed also: (a)^by middle 
verbs with a Pass. Aor., e. g. StoAiW, to separate, SioAu&rji'ai, $ia\vtrtff&ai, to 
separate one's self discedere (see 197, Rem. 3); (b) by the active form, e. g. 
fieTajSoAAeip, to change one's self (see 249. 1 ) ; (c) by the active form with the 
Ace. of the reflexive pronoun, e. g. liraivfiv faurov, avaprav faur6v, to attach one's 
self to, to make one's self depend on any one ; airoKpinrTtiv tam6v, e^i^tiv tavr6t/ t 
irap(x ftv fourJi/, airo\vfiv (avrov, to free one's self, airofftyaTTfiv eaurov, airoKrfi- 
vfiv *avr6v ; the Mid. then has the signification of the Pass. ; thus, liraivfi<T&ai, 
airoKTflvfff&ai, a.iro(r<pa.TTtcr&ai, laudari. inter/id, jugulari ab alio, and has for its 
Aor. and Fut. a Pass. form. Sometimes the active form with the reflexive 
pronoun is used, even when the verb has a middle form. This mode of expres- 
sion is very natural in antithesis or contrast, e. g. 'Efrfipevev O.TTO tirirov, OTTOTC lour 6v re Kal r oiis lirirovs, X. An. 1. 2, 7. 

REM. 2. The Mid. in the same manner as the Act. ( 249, Rem. 3), can be 
used, when the subject does not itself perform an action, but causes it to be 
done by another. There is this difference, however, in the two cases, that in 
the Mid. the action always refers, in some way, to the subject. 'O -jrarrjp robs 
woTSas t8i$aaTo (eiraiStvffaro), which signifies either, the father educated the chil- 
dren for himself, or, if it is clear from the context, he caused them to be educated 
(as X. C. 1. 6, 2 ; on the contrary, SiSdffKeiv, iraiSfveiv are used without referring 
back to the subject, 249, Rem. 3) ; Kftpaff&ai, to shave one's self or to get shaved. 
'Ap7?ot ffQetav eii(6vas ironj erojuej/oi (having caused to be made) a.v&fffav ts 
Af\(povs, Her. 1, 31. Havffavias rpdirffav TlspffiKyv TrapeTi&ero (caused to be set 
It- fore him), Th. 1, 130. Ot Aa/ceSa^uoi/ioi /ajpu/ca W/i^oKres rovs vetcpovs 8ie/co- 
/i iffavr o (caused to be removed), 4, 38. 

REM. 3. The reflexive relation of the middle to the subject, is often so 
slitrht, that in our mode of considering it, it almost disappears, and sometimes 
consists only in a very gentle intimation, that the action will be completed to 
the advantage or dixadcuittacje of the subject, e. g. II. o, 409. ofrrc TTOTC Tpues 
Aaraajv &vvavro <f>a\ayyas pridp.fvoL (in sttu/n commodum) K\tffir)ffi fjuyrif+fvat. 
Hence the reflexive pronoun is not seldom used with the middle', particularly 
in antitheses, in order to bring out emphatically the reflexive sense which 
exists in the middle only in a general and indefinite manner, e. g. a,<vo<t>vt> 

336 SYNTAX. [$ 251. 

ftovXeverai eourw ovo/j.a Kai ovva.ij.iv TT e p nroi-fi<ra(r&ai (to gain a name and 
power for himself ) X. An. 5. 6, 17. 'ETreSe i^avro rct.s avrwv aperds, Isocr. 
Paneg. 58, 85. 'Pd&v/j.ov avro'is KO.T e(rr-f)(ravT o r'bv PLOI-, 63, 108. Trjv 
f/j.avTov yi'do/j.rji' air ofyaiv 6/j.e vos, Id. Permut. 309, 22. 

REM. 4. In many verbs, the active and Mid. appear to have a similar sig- 
nification ; but on a closer investigation, the difference in the meaning is 
obvious; the active expresses the action absolutely, or objectively, without any 
accessary idea; the middle, on the other hand, expresses the same action in 
relation to the subject, or subjectively. Hence, the middle is employed When 
the literal meaning is changed into the figurative, e. g. Sioiice'iv of an outward 
arrangement, SioiKe'ia-frcu of mental ; dpi&ii/ literally, 6pic<rbai figuratively ; 
<rTatJLaj/ only in a literal sense, to measure, but ffTa&pacr&ai also in a figurative 
signification, to weigh or measure in one's mind, aliquid secum perpendere ; GKoirslv, 
to look at something, ovco7re?(rfrc, to look mentally, to consider ; so in derivative 
verbs in -evca and -euoytuu, the active form is used absolutely, to be in a certain 
state ; the middle, on the other hand, signifies, to act the part of that which is 
indicated by the root, to show one's self as such, to have the tendency or habit, to act 
as such, e. g. irovyptvu), to be bad, irovr), to demean one's self badly ; TTO\I- 
reva), to be a citizen, Tro\iTevo/jLai, to live and act as a citizen ; Ta/iueua>, to be a 
manager, Ta(j.ifvo/, to conduct business, to arrange, especially in a metaphorical 
sense, e. g. rovs v6/j.ovs ; a-Tparfvu, to undertake an expedition, used of a general or 
a state, (, to engage in an expedition, used of the soldiers. Derivatives 
in -l&fuu correspond in sense to those in, e. g. ctcrTetfouat, to demean my- 
self as a citizen ; ^ap/evT/^b/tiat, to act in an agreeable manner. Still, derivatives 
in -ifa, from names of nations, reject the middle, e. g. Sapifa, to demean myself or 
to speak like a Dorian. 

REM. 5. Several verbs which in the active have a causative sense, in the 
middle have a simple intransitive sense, though some of them are constructed 
with an Ace., e. g. (popTjecu, to cause to fear, <orjcra<r&ai, to fear; ai<rxvvai, to 
make ashamed, cd<rxyvelff&ai, to be ashamed, to feel shame; iropevcrat, to cause to 
go, to convey, iropeixraa^ai, to go ; trepaiucrat, to cause to pass over, irepaic*xre<r&ai, 
to pass over ; Koifj.r)<rai, to cause to sleep, lull to sleep, Koi^craff^ai, to sleep ; Trawrai, 
to cause to cease, iravcracr&ai, to cease; irXdy^ai, to cause to wander, ir\dye(r&ai, 
to ivander, etc. 

REM. 6. The middle form, as already stated ( 248, Rem. 1 ), is often used 
to express reciprocal actions. This is particularly the case with verbs signify- 
ing to contend, vie with, converse with, embrace, salute, to make an agreement or coin- 
pact, e. g. /j.dxf(?Sa.i, to fight with ; a/iiAAao^ai, to contend with ; aya)vie(r&ai, to 
strive ; SiaXeyeafrai, to converse with ; a<nrde<r&ai, to salute ; ravra ffvvTi&eff&ai, 
mutually to agree on these points ; a-irovSas <r7reV5e<rdat or iroif'icr&ai, to make a treaty 
(o-TToi/Sas 7rote?v signifying to make a libation). So also, where the action is not 
strictly reciprocal, but where the idea expressed by the verb necessarily sup- 
poses two persons or two parties, as in questions and answers, e. g. Trvv&di>f(r&aL 
and Upecr&cu, to inquire; airoKpivecr&ai and aTra/ieijSetr&a:, to answer; ffvpftovXtv- 
((r&at, to consult ivith one, ask his advice, and to consult one (O.VO.KOIVOVI> 
being especially used of consulting oracles). 

$ 251. C. The Passive. 

I. From the reflexive signification of the Middle, the Passive 
is derived. Here the subject receives the action from another 
upon itself, permits the action to be performed upon itself. 
Hence the subject always appears as a passive or suffering 


Maffriyov/, ^fuovfiai (inr6 TWOS), I receive Wows, punishment, I let myself be 
k, punished = I am stnirk, /ni>ii.<lt''d (by some one) ; (3\dirTojjicu, d8/coC/u f 
iiijuri/, injii.-itiir ; SiSdffKo^ai, I let myself 6 instructed, I receive instruction, 
I Inirn, hence \nr6 TWOS, from some one = doceor ab aliquo; irtlSo[, I persuade 
IN//.* //; or / permit mymlf to be persuaded, inr6 nvos, by some one = / am per- 


2. Yet, there are but two tenses, the Fut. and the Aor., which 
have special forms to express the passive sense of an action ; 
the remaining tenses are expressed by the Mid. 

3. Hence the following rule : The Fut. and Aor. Mid. have 
a reflexive (or intransitive) sense only; but all the other tenses 
of the Mid. serve at the same time for the Passive also. 

REMARK 1 . Still, the Fut. Mid. has sometimes a Pass, sense also. The reason 
of this may be found in a great measure in the shorter form of this Fut. compared 
with that of the Fut. Pass. This passive use of the Fut. Mid. is found most 
frequently with Pure verbs; much more seldom with Mute verbs, and very sel- 
dom with Liquid verbs (probably not at all in Attic prose). 

.i, PI. Rp. 361, e. TT; TUV Xf n H J -'* r<av o~irdi>fi Kta\v- 
ffovrai, Th. 1, 142. "Hv TIS /3ov\-r)frf) KOK^S yfvfa&cu, Ko\aff&r)<reTai 777 Trperrovo-r) 
frifiiif.' ol 5e ayc&ol r tfj.T) ff ovr at TO?S irposTjKovo'iv &&\ots TT)$ apfTijs (but the 
bntrr s}i<ill be honored with the befitting rewards of valor), 2, 87. Tlfpl r>v o~<pfTf- 
p<av <f>povpi(i)v, &s irifiov\evo-ofj.ei'<i}i', TroAAo/cis irpdy/jiana fix ov t X. C. 6, 1, 
10. E I p | o'/i e & a (includemur), X. An. 6. 6, 16. 'H yrj e3 <^> v \ d e r a i inrb TU>V 
<ppovpovirra>v. OVK ayvoovvrfs, on tvftipfvffoivTo VTTO ruv TroAe/utcoj/, H. 7. 2, 
18. Very commonly a 8 1 K 4\ ff o /j. a i, tipl-opai (from &px<, impero), ft\d\j/o-, ^pV^o/iot. So always a\u>(To/ Some verbs have both forms 
of the future, as, e. g. u<pf\f7v, (r)fj.iovv, o-rfpeTv, (po^e?i/, &yetv ; then the Mid. 
form seems to denote a condition, the Pass, an action received. But in very 
many instances, the Pass, sense is only apparent, e. g. 'H ir6\is Ppaxea fja-^e'icra 
ftcydXa ^7j/ito<r ercu, shall suffer great loss therefor, in contrast with /Spo^eo 
flffS., Th. 3, 40. 2oO favTos, fit\riov frpetyoi/Tai KO! iraiS e vaovrai (they 
sJiall grow up better and educate themselves), PI. Crito. 54, a. 

. 2. The use of the Mid. Aor. instead of the Pass, is, in all instances, 
only apparent ; so Od. &, 35. Kovp<a 8e 5vca /coi Trf:vr^]Kovra Kpivd(T&u)v /car^t 
8^/Lioi/, means, let them select for themselves (on the contrary, 48. Kovpw 5 npiv- 
VTf Suca K. ireiT., the selected). Hes. Sc. 173. Kairpoi Sotol O.TT ov> o i \}/v- 
, they had deprived each other of life. PI. Phaedr. 244, e. T$ op&us IMVCVTI KO! 
), "in fine frenzy " and in ecstasy. 

REM. 3. It has been shown, 197, and Rem. 3 (comp. 250, Rem. 1), that 
the Aor. Pass, of very many verbs is employed by the Greeks to denote a 
reflexive and intransitive action, c. g. fiov\o/, I u-ill, c^ovA^^rji/, / willed ; 
evcppatvca, T gladden, cheer. ev<j>patvo/, I am glad, ev <p pdv&r)v, I was glad. In 
a few verbs, the Pass. Fut. is used in the same way, e. g. ^5o/, 2 rejoice, 
, I rejoiced, V&Tjo-o/xaj, I shall rejoice. See 197, Rem. 1. 

REM. 4. The author or cause of the passive condition or state is generally 
expressed by the Prep. vir6 with the Gen., e. g. Ol (rrpariurat virb TWVTTOA.- 
efj.i(av fSiu>x^T]a-ay. Instead of faro, irp6s with the Gen. is used, when at the 
same time a strong and direct influence of a person, or of a thing viewed as a 
person, is to be expressed, e. g. \A.T<juaecr&aj, d5ce?<r&at irp6s TIVOS. Bai/au- 


338 SYNTAX. [$ 251. 

-rrpbs T>V Tr6\ewv,~X. 0. 4, 2; also irapd 
with the Gen. is used, when the author is at the same time to be represented as 
the person from near whom, or from whose vicinity, or through whose means 
internal or outward, the action has proceeded ; hence used specially with W/*- 
irfff&ai, SiSocr&eu, a><eA.e?(rat, (rv\\eye(r&ai, \fyf<r&cu, 6 l uo\oyf'i(r&a.i, o-r}iJ.aive<r&a.i, 
^TrtSei/cj'uo'&ai (demonstrari), e.g. 'O &yye\os eire/j.<p&r) Trap a /SacrtA. ecos (sent 
both by and from near the king). 'H fjieyiffrr) cvrvxia TOVTW TW avSpl Trap a, 
decoy SeSoroJ. IIoAAa xP"hf^ ara Kvpy IT a pa TUV <pi\coj/ <r we i\ey jue'j/a 
?iv. Ta Soapa IT e /J.TT erai TT apa ro v fiaff i\e v OVTOS, Her. 7, 106. Ta?rapa 
Tcav i&ewv (rrj fj.aiv6 fi eya, X. Cy. 1. 6, 2. TLapa iravTtav 6/j.o Ao-yeTr cu, 
An. 1. 9, 1. O?^at 7ap ,ue Tropa ffov (Tobias TT \r) p cabr) a e cr^at, PI. Symp. 
175, e. 'E/c is still stronger than Trapd, used especially with verbs of giving ; yet 
it is seldom used by the Attic writers, e. g. 'E/ceiVy aD'rrj ^ x^P a e ' K j8 o <r i X w s 
e'SJ^rj, X. H. 3. 1, 6: in Her., however, e'/c is very often used instead of viro 
simply. The use of v TT 6 with the Dat. is almost wholly poetic, e. g. Sa^vat 
inr6 Tivi\ in Attic prose only in certain connections, e. g.'m'bs virb T$ irarpl 
Tf&pan/j.ei'os, PL Rp- 558, d. Tvyx^^ 1 v-jrb iraiSoTpifiy aya&<$ TreTraiSeu->os, Lach. 184, e. When the passive condition is not caused by persons, but 
by things, the Dat. is commonly used (= Lat. Ablative), e. g. 'H v6\is TTO \\aTs 
<riu^>opo?s e'lrie'^eTo, the city was distressed by great misfortunes. The above 
usage corresponds with that of the Latin, the voluntary agent with a passive 
verb being put in the Abl. with the preposition a or a&, the involuntary agent 
in the Abl. without a preposition. 

REM. 5. The Dat. of persons, however, is very often used, particularly with 
the Perf. tense, and regularly with verbal adjectives. The Pass, has in such 
instances an intransitive or reflexive sense, and the Dat. indicates the person by 
whom the action was performed, or for whom it was performed. While viro 
with the Gen. denotes merely the author of the passive action, the Dat., at the 
same time, denotes that this action stands in relation to the author, e. g. "fly 
fioi irpSrepov 8e7]A.a>Tc, i. e. as the thing has been before pointed out by me, and for 
me now stands as pointed out, Her. 6, 123. 

4. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that the Act, not merely 
of transitive verbs with the Ace., may be changed into the per- 
sonal Pass., like the Latin, but also the Act. of intransitive 
verbs with the Gen. and Dat. 

inr6 TWOS (from q&ovelv TU>I, invidere alicui), i. e. I experience 
envy from some one, am envied (in Latin, on the contrary, invidetur mihi ab 
aliquo). X. Conv. 4, 29. Kpetrr&v eVri ir icrr ev evSrai virb TTJS irarplSos fj.a\\ov, t) 
OTT i<rr etff&ai (from TrKrreveu/ and airio'Te'iv nvi), I am trusted, I am distrusted. 
Th. 1, 82. rj/Afls VTT 'A&r)i>-ai(av eir ifto v Ae v6fj.&a (e'TnjSouAevew rivi). "PI. Up. 

3. 417, b. Kal eTajSouAeiWres, Kal eiril3ov\v6iJ.evoi $idov<ri KO.VTO. T}>V fiiov. 
8. 551, a. cur/cerTou 8)7 rb ael Ti/j.w/j.fvoi', a/J.e\e7rai 8e rb a.Tt/j.atyfjievoi'. X. S. 

4, 31. OVKGTI oTre t\ov pat, a\\' tfSr) a7rejAft> &\\ois. So apx&Tji/o., Kpar-rj- 
Syvai, y'ye/j.ovfv&rivai, KarcKppovrj&rivai vir6 TWOS (from &pxfiv, ttpa- 
ve'ii', yyefj-ovcveiv, KaTcuppovc'iv TWOS), fir ix 6 'P 7 ?&r) l/at (from tirix*iptiv TWI). 
On K6TTTO/JMI T^]V /ce^aA.Tjj', firiTp( T}\V (f>v\aK-f)v, see 281, 3. 

REM. 6. The Greek may form a Pass, from other intransitives also, yet, for 
the most part, only when the subject is a thing, particularly a Neut. pronoun, 
or a Part. used as a Neut. substantive, e. g. Kal fj.iKpa ay.apTn&4vTa (vel parva 
peccata), X. An. 5. 8, 20. 'ATux^freVrcuJ' (rerum infeliciter gestarum), Dem. 
Cor. 298. 212. 'ETT! Tofaois eyw a.\fi^fvofj.fvois SfS'w^ <roi T^V tyyy Setfay 

W 252, 253.] TENSES AND MODES. 339 

(ea ronditionc, lit hacc vtre dintnfiir). X. Cy. 4. 6, 10. 'Ei/ Ivl ii>fy>< iro\\uv 
rij K ivtivvfVfffbai (in /wr/r////w rocuri), Til. 2,35. Ou fatiov ^a. inrb iroAAwi' 
ixp' ivbs pT)$?ivai, Lys. 5, 1 1J. 

$252. Remarks on the Deponents. 

It has been seen above ( 102, 3) that Deponents are simply verbs which 
occur either in the Mid. only, or in the Mid. with a Pass. Aor., and have a 
reflexive or intransitive signification ; and, also, that they are divided into Mid. 
or Pass. Deponents, according as their Aor. has a Mid. or Pass. form. The 
reflexive sense of many Deponents is so slight, that they seem to be, in our 
mode of regarding them, merely transitive verbs, e. g. Sexo/ n, I take (namely, 
to viysflf) something, tpyd&nai n, fit<iopal TWO., etc. Such Deponents are often 
used in a Pass, sense, particularly in the Perf. and in the Pass. Aor. Examples 
of the Pres., Impf., and Fut. in a Pass, sense are very rare, and are found only 
in such Deponents as have in single examples an active form, e. g. 0idfff&cu, 

Uavra air ef pyaffrai T< &e<, PI. L. 710, d. M efii/i 77/1161/05 (ad imitatio- 
nem expressus, made like). Her. 2, 78. Eu 4vrf^vfjL-rnji4vov( well-considered), PL 
Crat. 404, a, Nijes OVK txp'h<rb-n<rai' (adhibitae sunt), Her. 7, 144. 

REMARK. Several Deponents have both a Mid. and Pass. Aor. ; the Pass, 
form has then a Pass, sense, e. g., except, S 4 x & *? "t ^xceptus sum ; 
i 0ia<rdft.r)v, coSgi, (&id<r&t)v, coar.tus sum; ^KTT](T dfj.T]v t mihi comparavi y 
IK TTJI^TJ v, comparatus sum (I was gained)] o Xotyv paff&at, to lament, 6\o- 
<t>vpbr)vai y to be lamented; O.K tff a<r & ai, to heal, a.K(cr&riva.i, to be healed? 
O.TT o K piva<T&a.i, to reply. O.TT OK p i&r\vai, to be separated. In a few verbs only 
are both Aorists used without distinction of meaning ( 197, liem. 1). 

$253. Tenses and Modes of the Verb. 

(a) Tenses denote the relation of time expressed by the 
predicate, this being designated either as Present, Future, or 
Past, e. g. the rose blooms, will bloom, bloomed; 

(b) Modes denote the relation of what is affirmed in the predi- 
cate to the subject; this relation being denoted either as an 
actual fact, as a conception or representation, or as a direct 
expression of the will. The mode which expresses a fact, as 
the rose blooms, is called the Indicative ; that which denotes a 
conception, as the rose may bloom, the Subjunctive ; that which 
denotes the direct expression of the will, the Imperative, as 

340 SYNTAX. [N 254, 255. 

$ 254. A. More Particular Vieiv of the Tenses. 

1. The tenses are divided, according to their form and mean- 
ing, into two classes : (a) into Principal tenses, which, both in 
the Ind. and Subj., always denote something present or future; 
(b) into Historical tenses, which in the Ind. always denote 
something past, in the Optative, something present or future. 

2. The Principal tenses are : 

(a) The Present: (a) Indicative, e.g. ypdjopev, scribimus; () Subjunctive, 
e. g. ypdQwfj.w, scribamus ; 

(b) The Perfect: (a) Indicative, e.g. ycypaQanev, scripsimus ; () Subjunc- 
tive, e. g. yeypd(p<iJ.ev, scripserimus ; 

(e\ The Future Indicative, e. g. ypd\^o/j.ev t scribemus, we shall write ; Subjunc- 

tive wanting ; 
(d) The Future Perfect Indicative, e. g. fie&ovX(vo-o/, I shall have advised 

myself, or / shall have been advised; Subjunctive wanting. 
The Subj. Aor. also belongs here, e. g. ypd^u, scripserim or scribam. See 
* 257, 1 (a). 

3. The Historical tenses are : 

(a) The Aorist : (a) Indicative, e.g. eypafya, I wrote; (/3) Optative, e.g. 
ypd^aifii, I might write, or / might have written ; 

(b) The Imperfect: (a) Indicative, e.g. fypa<pov, scribebam ; () Optative, 
e. g. ypd<)>oi/j.i, scriberem; 

(c) The Pluperfect : (a) Indicative, e.g. eyeypdQeiv, scripseram; (ft) Optative, 
e. g. ycypdQoifju, scripsissem ; 

(d) The Optative of the simple Future, e. g. ypdfyot/j.i, I would write, and of 
the Fut. Perf., e. g. /Se/SouAeucrofytrji/, I would have deliberated, or I would have 
been advised, when in narration (and consequently in reference to the 
past), the representation of a future action, or of one to be completed at 
a future time, is to be expressed, e. g. 6 &yye\os eteyev, '6ri ol iro\ffj.iot 
vncf)ffoiv, the messenger said, that the enemy WOULD conquer ; eXeyev, 'dn 
irdvra urrb rov ffrpaTyyov e5 /3e), he said that everything 
WOULD be well planned by the general. 

$255. (a) Principal Tenses: Present, Perfect, Future. 

1. The Present Indicative represents the action as taking 
place in time present to the speaker. The Present is often 
used, in the narration of past events, for the purpose of a more 
vivid and graphic representation ; past time is then viewed as 
present. This is called the Historical Present. 

$ 255.] PRINCIPAL TENSES. 341 

Tavn)v r^v rdfypov f3affi\vs ptyas iroicT ami tpvparos, tiretty irvvbavtrai 
Kvpov -irpost\avvoma, X. An. 1. 7, 16. T Hi/ ris Upiap&iav vturaros Tlo\vSwpos t 
'Endfiris irais, bv IK Tpoias 4/j.ol irar^p SiStaffi Iv 86/j.ois rpftyfit,-, Kur. 
Hoc. 1116. The Hist. Pres. is sometimes used even in passages which in them- 
si-lvi's, aside from adverbs like irore, Trd\ai (poet, irdpos), are considered as 
involving past time, c. g. Zwvr' dsoKovaras irditia, t>v tir<f>(i TOT*', Eur. El. 

KKMARK 1. An action is often viewed by the language as present, which 
belongs, indeed, to the past, but at the same time extends to the present, or ia 
its results reaches to the present. In this manner, the following verbs particu- 
larly are used: (a) verbs of perceiving, e. g. OKOVW, irvv&dvofiai, altr&d- 
vonai, yiyvuxTKu, pavbdvu (like Lat. audio, video, etc., and Eng. to hear, 
to see, to perceive, to observe), when the object of these verbs is to be represented 
as .-till continuing in the present; (b) <pfvyw, I have given myself to flight, and 
I am now a fugitive, hence to live in exile; VIKU and K parti (I am a victor, 
hence have conquered), TJTT w/uat (I am vanquished, have been vanquished), aSiKu 
(lam in the wrong, have done wrong), yiyvopai (I am descended), etc.; (c) in 
poetry: Qovcvu (I am a murderer, have murdered, e. g. S. Ant. 1174), bvf)<rKQ> 
(lam dead, have died, S. El. 113), rlKru, yevvu (I am a father or mother, Eur. 
Ion. 356. Her. 209), etc. This usage extends to all the Modes and Participials 
of the Prcs. as well as to the Impf. e^urroKAea OVK a/covets avtipa aya&bv 
yfyov6ra; PI. Gorg. 503, c. HoWa irvv&avo /JLCVOS o Kpowos fire/jure e's 'S.irdp- 
TI\V ayy(\ov5 y Her. 1, 69. Tf 8e ; tri; tKfTfo d/c^/coos, '6n Mv<rol KO! UiffiSai Iv rrj 
fiacri\t(i)s X^Py KaTfxorrfs ipv/ irdvv xupia tivvavrai ^fji/ 4\(v&fpoi; Kal TOVTO 
y, (<pr]j O.KOVU>, hast thou heard? dwouw, yes, I have known of it, X. C. 3. 5, 26. 
'AirayyeA.eTf ^Apiaiia, OTI V]/j.f?s 76 t/iKu/nev a<riA.e'a, KOJ, &s dparf, ovStls rjfuv 
en /jidxrrcu, An. 2. 1,4. Twi/ v i K a> v r u v iar\ ai ra kamuv <r<*>fiv /cat TO tStv 
^rrufjLfvtav Aaju)3a^tj/, 3. 2, 39. Aapiov Kal TlapuffdriSos irai8es ylyvovra.1 
Svo, 1. 1, 1. 

HEM. 2. OfxM at an d ^KW, with Pres. forms, are often translated in Eng. 
by Perfects, namely, otxf- a ^ I have departed, and $}/c, I have come; yet 
oVx<>M<u properly means, / am gone, and T^KU, I am here (adsum), e. g. M)/ 
\vvov, on "Apao-iras otx fTal ' s T0 "s TroAefttous, that Araspas is gone, has 
departed (= transfugit) to the enemy, X. Cy. 6. 1, 45. "H/cw vfKpcav jceu^yuwya 
ical <rK.6rov iruAas Xnr&v, Eui*. Hec. 1. 'T/te?s p.6\is cupiKvtia'Se, oiroi ^e?s iraAat 
X. Cy. 1.3,4. 

HEM. 3. But the language often considers an action as present, which is not 
yet accomplished, but is either actually begun, or is begun in our mind, or pur- 
pose ; such an action is virtually future, though considered as present. Com- 
pare the English : I go to-morrow, i. e. I shall go, I intend to go, and the like. This 
usage also belongs to all the Modes and Participials of the Pres. and the Impf. 
It specially holds of the Pres. of e T^i t, which, in the Ind. has regularly the mean- 
ing of the Fut., / shall go; the Subj. includes a Fut. meaning in itself ( 257, 
Hem. 4) ; but the Inf. and Part, have both a Pres. and Fut. meaning. "E TT TO 
TO Te vvv oira Iv Tfp TTopaSfiff^ i^Tjpto 8 i S (i) fj. I ffoi, Kal oAAo TToiToSaTrd <rv\' 
A <'&>, X. Cy. 1. 3, 14 (5/5a>/ii, / offer). "E/cacrnk TIS Zirfibci' ZevoQuvra 
{nroffrrivai r^v apx^v (persuadere studebat), X. An. 6. 1, 19, MiTuA^valbi M 
M-iiStvfjivav is irpoS 1 8o/j.f vt\v Iffrpdreuffav (putantes parari ibi proditionem), 
Th. 3, 18. In like manner often the PITS. Part, after verbs of motion, e. g. 'H 
vdpaXos (s ras 'A^i/as eir\fv(rcv, airayyc A \ov(ra TO ytyovtra (for tkepvnOj^ 
of announcing) . X. H. 2. 1, 29. Kai re? ptyet O.TTW A A u/ie^a, Kal X'^y TrAetVTTj 
fiv (ire atpetted tn pi-fish), An. 5. 8, 2. OVK tv&vs a<p-fi<r(0 aurby, ouS' airf tp.i, 
ciAA' fp-f)<ronai avrbv Kal ^eraffca. PL Apol. 29, C. 'Eirel r) MaJ>5cw<?7 
xtvd&ro ws airiovffa iraAu/ irpbs riv avSpo, e'SelTO atTTJs o 'AffTvdyrjs Km 
r)>v Kvpov, X. Cy. 1.3, 13. 


342 SYNTAX. [ 255. 

REM. 4. But also actions or events wholly future are sometimes indicated 
as present, by the use of the Pres. tense, when in the view of the speaker 
the action or event yet future is vividly apprehended, or when he is so firmly 
convinced of its occurrence, that it appears already present, e. g. 5 Ej/ piS. fj,dxp 
T7|i/5e r^v x^P av T pos KTaafr e /cat &ctinjv jUaAAov eAeufrepoGre (you, gain, 
vj'dl gain, and free], Th. 4, 95. "Hi/ Savris <rv, irais 68' eK<pevyei fj.6pov <rov 8' 
oii deAouoT/s Kar&ave'ii;, roVSe /crew, Ear. Andr. 381. 

2. The Perfect (Indicative) represents a past action in time 
present to the speaker ; the action appears as already accom- 
plished at the present time. Hence the Perf. represents not 
only a past action, but its present effects or results. 

eiriff'To\4iv, I HAVE WRITTEN the letter, the letter is NOW WRIT- 
TEN, whether written now, or some time ago ; the writing is the past act, the 
letter is the result still present. 'H TTO'AIS eicna-rat, the city WAS BUILT (in past 
time), is NOW built, and there it now stands built. 'Ao-rvdyns TUV tv MTjSots iravrcav 
Seffir^Tijv favrbi/ ire Trot 77 Ktv, X. Cy. 1. 3, 18. OuSeV eerrt KfpSaXecarcpov rov 
VIKO.V 6 yap Kpar&v apa irdma ff vvf) pirait e, KCCI rovs avSpas, Kal ras ywdiKas, 
4. 2, 26. 

REM. 5. Since the Perf. brings past time into close connection with the 
present, the Greeks in many Perfects contemplated less the peculiar act of 
completion, than its result as exhibited at the present moment ; and hence they 
used the Perf., in order to indicate a present condition or state that was occa- 
sioned by the completion of the action. As such a use of the Perfect does not 
belong to the English, we translate many Greek Perfects by our Present, where 
the present condition is more prominent than the past act ; the Plupf. of such 
verbs is then translated by our Impf., e. g. re^rj/ca (I have died), lam dead 
(Eur. Ale. 557. re^vaa-iv ol &cm>Wes, those who died, are dead); /ceVr^ai (I 
have acquired), I possess; Te^ou^ovo (I have been wondering), I am astonished; 
(I have taken counsel with myself), lam determined; v^i\va. (I 

have shown myself), I appear ; o?8o, novi (I have seen), 7 know ; re&ri\a (I have 
blossomed),/ bloom; ireVot^o (I have convinced myself), I trust; 0e&i]Ka (I 
have taken steps), 7 am going; fj.f/, memini (I have called to mind), / am 
mindful, or remember; /ce'/cAT/^uai (I have been named), / am called, etc. The 
Pres. and Impf. of many verbs, especially such as express the idea of to sound, 
to call, are not used at all, or but very seldom, so that the Perf. and Plup. seem 
to take entirely the place of the Pres. and Impf., e. g. /ce'/cpaya, I cry, properly, 
/ am a crier ; fj.ffj.vKa, I roar. 

REM. 6. The transition from the completed action to the condition or state 
produced by it, is more obvious in the Pass, than in the active. Comp. f/ &vpa 
K(K\eiffTat, the door has been shut, and it is NOW SHUT. So particularly the 
third Pers. Sing. Perf. Imp. Pass, is often used, when one would command with 
emphasis, that the thing spoken of should remain fixed and permanent in its 
condition, i. e. not only that the action should be performed, but particularly 
that the result should continue, e. g. rb ayKvpiov avecrxdo-bca, let the anchor be 
drawn up and remain so ; AcAefydco, reliqmnn eslo. let it remain permanently ; ireTrei- 
pdcr&ca, let it be tried ; vvv 8e TOVTO TeroA^o-^o) flire'tv. So the Inf. in the Oratio 
obliqua, X. H. 5. 4, 7. QIOVTGS Se flirov, T^V bvpav KeKMlfffrai, that it be shut, and 
remain shut. 

REM. 7. The Perf. is used with special emphasis, even of future actions, the 
occurrence of these being affirmed with the same definiteness and confidence, 
as if they had already taken place. II. o, 128. Siecp&opas! you are lost, will be 

$ 255.] PRINCIPAL TENSES. 343 

lost. So tfXa>Aa, like ;wnY, inf<rii, act inn rxt d<' inc. //'.? all orrr with me, will be, 
etc. PI. I'luu'il. SO, d. TJ \^ix^ o,Tra\\arrofitvr{ roQ ffw/taros, cu&i/s 

3. The Future ( Indicative) denotes an action as future in re- 
lation to the present time of the speaker. The Greeks very 
often use the Fut. Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an 
Hist, tense, to express that which shall, s/iould, must, or can be, 
\\IKMV the Latin employs the Subj.; the other forms of the 
Fut., particularly the Part, are also so used. 

N6/j.ovs vrrdp^ai 5e? TOIOUTOUS, 5t' >v rois aya&ois eWtjuos K 
irapa<TK fvaffSyff era* (should be obtained), rois 8c KOKOIS raireiv6s re /col aA- 
yftfos KO! aftiwTos 6 aliav ITTO.V a.Kflo~ er at (should be imposed upon them), X. Cy. 
3. 3, 52. Oi (is TTJJ/ $CUTI\LK)}V T^x^nv ira.i5fv6p.fvoi rl Sia^epourt TUV 4 avd-yitTjs 
/, ef 76 ire tv-fja'ova' i KO! Sityr) crovffi Kal piyaxrovffi Kal ay- 
(if they must hunger, etc.), C. 2. 1, 17. "E5oe T< STJ/XW rpidKovra. 
i t ot rovs irarpiovs v6iJ.ovs vyypdtyova' i, *caA* o&s iro\ir fv<rovffi 
(who should draw up fow^s, according to which they should live), II. 3. 2, 3. 

4. The second person of the Fut. Ind. is often used to express 
commands, exhortations, admonitions, entreaties, and, in con- 
nection with the negative ov, prohibitions ; here the accomplish- 
ment of what is affirmed is not demanded, as is the case in the 
Imp., but is left to the choice of the person addressed, and is 
only expected. This differs chiefly from the Imp. only in being 
a milder form of expression. On the contrary, the Fut. is used 
with the negative ov, interrogatively, when, in a strong and 
indignant tone, the accomplishment of the action is expected 

"Op a t&v Kal irpo&vjjiov /cartSeTv, e'cw/ trus irp6rfpos ^toD JfSps, Kai (JLOI <ppd- 
fffis (you will communicate it to me = communicate), PL Rp. 432, c. *fls oftv 
troi-fifffre KO! irci&fff&f not (you will do thus, etc. = do thus), Prot. 338, a. 
Ou Spdffeis TOVTO, thou wilt not do this, as I hope = do it not ; but ov Spda-ets 
TOVTO ,- icilt thou not do this? = do it. Ov iravari \fyuv; non desines dicere? 
instead of desine dicere. PI. Symp. in. ov irtpi/j.ei'f'is , wilt thou not wait ? Dem. 
Phil. 2, 72. ou <pv\dc(T&\ e<i7", oirus ^ SecTTr^TTjv fvprjre ; But when in this 
manner, a negative command is to be expressed, the negative /^ is to be used 
with ov; and when two sentences of this kind, one with an affirmative meaning 
and the other with a negative, follow each other, ov stands in the first sentence, 
/i^j in the last. Ou /u); (t>\va.rf<rfis ; Ou /XT? \oA^(rets, oAA.' O.KO AOU^TJ ff e is 
^oi, Ar. Nub. 505 (instead of ^ $\vdp(i, ^ \d\ti, dAA' aKo\ofofi). PL Symp. 
175, a. OUK ovv Ka\cis a,vTbv KO! jj.^} a<p i {i<rc is. 

344 SYNTAX. [$ 256. 

5. The Future Perfect (Indicative) represents a future action 
as past (completed) in relation to another future action ; hence 
a future prior to another future. Such an action is future with 
reference to the present, past with reference to another future. 

Kai Toiai fj.e/j.t^frai ff&\a Ka.Ko'iffi.v (the good shall have been mixed with evil), 
Hes. Op. 177. 'H Tro\ireia rfXecas KeKOff/A-fjcr era/, eav 6 TOIOVTOS avrrji^ tiriff- 
Ko-n-r) <vAa| 6 TOVTWV fTTia-T-fj/jLcav, PI. Ep. 506, a. As the Greek Perf. frequently 
denotes the present condition or result of a completed action, so the Fut. Perf. 
frequently denotes the future condition or result of a completed action. Hence 
the Fut. Perf. of those verbs whose perfects arc translated by the present tense 
of other verbs (see Rem. 5), must be translated by the simple Fut., e. g. fj.cfj.vrj- 
0-o/, meminero (I shall have reminded myself), I shall be mindful, shall remember 
(but /uivfjarofjLaL, I shall remind myself) ; /ce/crrjo-OjUcu (I shall have acquired), I shall 
possess (but KT-fio-opcu, I shall acquire), etc. 

REM. 8. The Fut. Perf., like the Perf. (Rem. 7), is used instead of the sim- 
ple Fut., to express a thing emphatically. Here as in the Perf. used for the 
Fut., the speaker looks upon the action as already accomplished ; hence the 
Fut. Perf. often denotes the rapidity and certainty of the action, the process 
or progress being left wholly out of view, e. g. #pctCe, Kal ireirpdj-eT ai (and it 
shall be [CERTAINLY, IMMEDIATELY] done), Ar. Plut. 1127; <j>i\os rjfjuv ovSels 
AeAef^eTcu (no friend will [CERTAINLY] be left tis), X. An. 2. 4, 5. So also in 
the Inf. Avoiv % rpicav rj/j.fp&i' TOUTO IT fir pdftr &ai, Dem. 19, 74. In the Act. 
the periphrasis 0e&ov\evKws eo-o^uat is found. 

REM. 9. The Fut. Perf. is used in Greek only in principal clauses, and in 
subordinate clauses introduced by on and us (that), by e I used instead of O'TZ, 
and by &ST6 (so that), all with the Ind. In all other subordinate clauses, the 
Aor. Subj. (more seldom the Perf.) is used instead of it, in connection with a 
conjunction compounded of &i>, as cdu, eirdv, eireiSdv, OTCU/, irpiv &/, esr' &v, t>$ 
&v t etc., e. g. 'Ecif TOVTO Ae ?? s (si hoc dixeris), a^ 

$256. (b) Historical Tenses: Aorist, Imperfect, and 
Plup e rfe c t . 

1. The Aorist (Ind.) expresses past time, in a wholly indefi- 
nite manner, with no other relation, e. g. eypai/^a, I wrote,- Kv/oos 
TroAAa ZSvr) IviKfjo-ev. It thus stands in contrast with the other 
tenses which express past time ; still, so far as it indicates past 
time indefinitely, it may be used instead of either of these 

2. Both the Impf. and Plup. (Ind.) represent an action as 
past, but always as having relation to another past action. But 
the Impf. expresses the action as contemporary with this other 
past action ; the Plup. expresses the action as already past 
before this other past action. 


'Eif $ av drat C< J, ^yw typa<f>o v, while you were jihiyinrf. I MY;.-,- vrithnj. "Ort 
^771/5 ^o-av 01 &dpfrn>oi, ol"E\\ijvfS i^dxovro. "Ore ot &dp0apot 
be<ray, ol "EAATjvfr ipdixovTO. T6r (or ^/ TOUT?; rp M^Xfl) * 
&ap t pa\aTara. ip.<ixovro. 'Eir8^ ol "EAATjvey ^TreATjAv&eo'aj', ot 
&,ir*irf(ptvyto~av. "Ore ot ffv^uaxoi ^irKriffia^ov, ol 'Adrjj/cuoi rous ricp(rax 
iv (v ltd)*.* a av. > I'.ycypd<pii' rty lirio~ro\-f)i' ) I had written the letter (before 
the friend came). 

KIM \KK 1. It is to bo noted that the Greeks freely use the Aor. instead of 
the Plup., when the relation of the past time to another past time can he easily 
inferred from the context, and no special emphasis lies in this relation, e. g. 
'EwetS^ ol "E\\-rjvfs t JTT) A^ov (quum Graeci venissent), ol iro\f/j.toi airfirp(irye~ 
<rav. The Aor. is often employed even instead of the Perf., when the relation 
of the past time to the present need not be expressed emphatically. 

3. Hence the Aorist (Ind.) is used in historical narrations, in 
order to indicate the principal events, while the Impf. (Ind.) is 
used to denote the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. 
narrates, the Impf. describes. Hence in the narration of past 
events, the Aor., which introduces the principal facts, is very 
often interchanged with the Impf, which describes and paints ; 
often, also, with the Hist. Pres., which, like the Aor., relates the 
principal events, and places them vividly in the present ; not 
seldom, also, with the Plup., sometimes with the Perf. By this 
interchange of the tenses, the narration has the greatest liveli- 
ness of representation, and the finest shades of expression. 

T H/aos 5 s 'Ed>s(p($pos e?<rt <p6us tpfav firl ytuav, 8e <p\6 (the fire upon the funeral pile began to abate, and the flame 
ceased), II. \J>, 228. Tovs ire\raffTas ^Sf^ai/ro ol fidpfiapoi KoH f^a-xovro- 
firtl 8' lyyvs fiffa.v ol 6Tr\1rai, trpd-rrovTO' Kal ol irfXraffral eu&i/s t'Lirovro 
(tlie barbarians withstood the peltasts and continued to fight with them; but ichen the 
hoplites drew near, they fled, and immediately the peltasts set out in pursuit), X. An. 
5. 4, 24. Euve'^Tj T$ a5oK"<7T<w /cat QCLTT'IVTIS a/j.<porfpa)&fv TOVS 'A&rjvaiovs &opv/3i}~ 
Srivau' K(d rb *vd>vvnov Kfpas OUTOJV, oirep 8)7 /cat irpo/cex^P^fet, cv&vs 
inroppayev $<pvy*' KO! 6 BpaffiSas, vTrox^povvros ^817 avrov, iirnrapiwv T< 8e|tw, 
T IT p&ffKfTai' /cat irtff6vTa avrbv ol /uev 'Afrrjvdioi OVK aio~&dvot/Tai, ol Se 
ir\f)o~lov &pavres air-fji/ eyicav Kal 6 /j.fv K\fuv, us TO irpwroi/ ov Sievoe'iTo 
/>fiv, fv&vs (pevywv, /cal /caTaATj^eis inrb MvpKiviov TT\Tao~Tov, airo&vf)o-Kfi' ol 
8 avrov vo~Tpa<pfi'Tfs oirXiTai T\V.VVOVTO K. T. A., Th. 5, 10. 'O p.fv ir6\t/j.os 
airdfToii' fi/juis fiav flprifjifvcov a ire ff reprj/ce /cai ydp TOI ireveo-Ttpovs iriro^7j/C, 
Kal iroAAous KivSvvovs irojueVetv yvdyKafff, Kal irpbs robs "EAArji/as Sta/Se/SATj- 
Kf Kal vdvra TpAirov reTa\aiiru> pr) Kfv T), Isocr. Pac. 163, a. (The 
Perfects denote the result, the Aorist the event.) 

Kern. 2. Inasmuch sis the Aor. Ind. represents a past action independently 
and absolutely, iincon iccted with any other past time, while the Impf. Ind. 
represents a past action as always connected with another past action, being, 

346 SYNTAX. [$ 256. 

consequently, employed in exhibiting an action in its duration and progress, and 
hence used in description ; accordingly the Aor. expresses a moment or point of 
time, while the Impf., denotes duration or continuance. The Aor. therefore 
describes a momentary action or a single action ; the action, however, described 
by the Aor. may be a continued or protracted one, but the Avriter in using the 
Aor. presents no such view of it, communicating merely the fact of the occur- 
rence. The Impf., on the other hand, describes an action in its continuance 
and progress, not merely a single act, but a series of acts. It often depends on 
the choice of the writer whether the Impf. or Aor. is used. An action graphi- 
cally presented in its duration and progress by the Impf., can be stated histor- 
ically as a mere past act, by the Aor. And so, many actions stated in the Aor. 
might be more vividly described by the Impf., if the writer wished it. 

4. On the use of the Impf. and Aor. Ind., the following things 
are to be noted : 

(a) The Impf. appears sometimes to stand instead of the Pres., since an 
action which continues into the present time, is referred to a past time in which 
it occurred, or was known to the speaker. Kvpos ej-f\a6vei tirl riv Xd\ov 
iroTau.6v, OVTO. rb evpos ir\f&pov, irATjpTj 8' lx&v(av /j.eyd\cay Kal irpaeow, ovs ol ~2,vpoi 
&eoi>s fv6fj.i^ov Kal aStKf'iy OVK fttav (which the Syrians CONSIDER as gods, 
namely, as I then saw), X. An. 1. 4, 9. 'A^/KOVTO Trpbs rb MTjStas 

Te?xos O7re?%e Se BajSuA.dJj'os ov iro\v, 2. 4, 12. Tj; Se Trpiarr) ^uepot cupi 
tirl rbj/ TroTcyxdj/, os &pie ii]V re ra>v Ma 
4. 8, 1. 'Ara/j, & troupe, ap' ov r6fie i\v rb Sevopov, e^>' oircp tfyes rj/j-as ; PI. Phaedr. 
230, a. OVK &p aya&bs TO TTOXITIKO. UepiK\rls 3\v e/c TOVTOV TOV \6yov (namely, 
when he so appeared to us, consequently = OVK &p aya&6s f<mv, us tQalvcro, 
he is not therefore distinguished, as he then seemed to be), Gorg. 516, d. From the 
idea of duration or continuance contained in the Impf. several other relations orig- 
inate : (a) The beginning of an action, e. g. eVel eyyvs eyevoi/ro, ^airivrfs ol per 
avTwv e T o'| e v o j/, some of them began to shoot their arrows ; (j8) habit or custom, 
e. g. a.irr'bv otVep irp6s&(v TT posfKvv ovv, Kal rJre Trpose/cv^traj/, those who were 
before accustomed to do obeisance to him, did it then also ; (y) wish, endeavor or 
attempt, e. g. irpajros KA.e'ap%os TOVS aurov (rrpaTicaras eiaeTo tfVat, Clearchus 
endeavored to compel his soldiers to advance. 

(b) The Aor. is often used in general propositions which express a fact bor- 
rowed from experience, and hence what is customary ; here a single fact which 
has been observed to be true in many instances, but not established as universal, 
is stated to be generally true, the truth frequently observed in regard to a 
single event, is considered as holding in the case of other similar events. In 
such cases the Aor. is usually translated into English by the present, or by the 
verb is wont, is accustomed, with the Inf. II. p, 177. alel re Albs Kpettrffcav v6os 
alyioxoio, '6sTf Kal aXKi^ov avSpa 4>o/3e?, Kal a<J>e/A.eTo V(KI\V pTj'fiias (who 
inspires the brave man with fear, and bears off the victory). X. Cy. 1. 2, 2. al p\v 
yap irKtiffTai ir6\fis irposTdrrovffi TO?S iroXlrais /j.)) K\eirTfiy, ^ apirdCfiv, Kal ra\\a 
TO, roiavra wsavrcas' $v Se TIS rovrcav TI irapafiaivr) , Cw' 05 avTo"is fire&effav 
(were accustomed to impose a penalty upon them). Dem. Ol. 1(2). 20, 9. '6rav IK 
ir\foveias Kal irovrjptas ris, fasirfp OVTOS ($i 

teal fjLiKpbi/ TTTaiviJLa avcana turfxainae Kal 


I;IM.:>. Wlu-n tin- idea of Ix-inif trout to do, as found in tho Anr., is to be 
in;nlc promim-m, or when a mil in' lil>it \< to l>e exjuv-M-d. tin; lircek uses the 
ij>t\tw and ^f'Ativ. Her. 7. 10, 5. <J>iA^e ybp & &tbs ri \nrtptxotna. trdma 
157. T<p (Z /3ov\tv&(VTt vfrfjyuan rc\(vri) us TO ^WITTCU/ XOT\VT)\ Id e Act 

(c) Hence in poetry. the Aor. is often used in comparisons, instead of the 
Prcs., since comparisons contain facts that are known and founded on often 
repeated 6X(tori611C6. II. 7, 33 36. us 3' ore rts re SpaLKoyra i$uv iraXivopffos 
&vttrrrj ovptos tv &ri<r(rris, \TKO re rp6/j.os AAae yvTa, &ty r' avex &pi\(T ev, 
2>xp<$s re H.LV el\e irapetds us avris KC&' op.i\ov IfSu Tpuuv aytpuxuv (sc. Flapis). 
II. IT, 482. ijpiirf 8', us ore ns 5pvs tfpnrtv. 

(d) The Tragedians often use the Aor. in dialogue as an impassioned or 
emphatic expression of a decision or determination, which has respect, indeed, 
to the present time, but which the speaker wishes to represent as having been 
previously established and settled in his own mind. The English often trans- 
lates such Aorists, in a very imperfect manner, by the Pres. Here belong 
especially verbs expressing strong feeling or passion, e.g. airfirrvffa (I do 
abhor), tyf\a<ra (I cannot help laughing), 4 IT rj v a a, <jJ/i&>|a, e'&au/ta<ra, 
a IT u n o cr a, rjo'&Tji'. S. Phil. 1434. & S 1 &p \df$T)s <ri> <r/cuAo rovSe TOV <TTparov y 
r6^uv fault nirti/j.f'ia, irpbs Trupctv fa^ji/ K6(i.if Kal ffol TOUT', 'Ax'AAfCDS rtKvov, ira- 

this I counsel thee, this 1 have counselled thee, Eur. Med. 223. xrf ^ 
y Kdfna. Trposxopctv (se accommodate) WAet ou5' curr^y 17 peer', OSTIS 
ytyus irtKpbs iro\lrais I<TT\V apadias viro (neclaudo, nee unquam laudavi). 
Hec. 1276. Polym. : KO! ai\v] iraTSa K.curdi>5pav bavfiv. Hecuba : aireir- 
Ti/(ra, this thought I do abhor = a thought ichich I have abhorred. 

(e) With like effect the Aor. is often used by Attic writers, apparently instead 
of the Pres. in urgent appeals or commands, expressed in the form of a question 
introduced byrf olv ov or ri ov. The speaker wishes, as it were, to see the 
desired action already accomplished. X. Cy. 2. 1, 4. ri ovv, <^j 6 Kvpoy, ov KO! 
r^v Mvafuv f\eds pot (quin igitur mihi recenses ? why hast thou not yet told me of 
the forces? instead of tell me forthwith !) 5. 4, 37. ri olv, </>TJ, u TaSaro, 
ovxl TO, /.ifv Tfix-r) <t>v\aKy tx v P- ttroirjfras (why therefore have you not made 
the walls strong by a guard ? = at once make them, etc.) ; PL Phaedon. 86, d. d olv 
TIS vnuv fviropdrrtpos faou, rl OVK air tup ; (is quam celerrime respondeat, 
let him answer at once). The Pres. is also so used ; yet the expression is then 
far weaker, e. g. Tl olv, $ 8' fcs, OVK tpur$s; (stronger than tpura, but 
weaker than Ti olv OVK ijpurfio-as or ^pou;) PL Lysid. 211, d. Ti olv ov 

ffKOTTOVlJLfy, X. C. 3. 1 , 10. 

(f ) The Aor., like the Perf. ( 255, Rem. 7) is used, when the speaker confi- 
dently considers a future event as already taken place. II. S, 160 162. efrrtp 
ydp T KO! avrlK 'OAu/tTrios OVK trt \fo-fffv, /c re Kal o^ reAel, avv re (j.eyd\ta 
aiTfT iffav ffvv o-Qrjffiv K(f>a\TJ<ri yvvaitf re oi reKeeffffiv (then have they paid a 
heavy penalty, then shall they pay). Eur. Med. 78. air ot\6(j.eff& &p\ el Kajcbv 
irposolo-o/jitv vtov iraXaiy (then we shall perish, if. etc.). 

(g) The Aorist is very often used in all its forms to denote the coming into a 
condition ; this the Ind. always represents naturally in the past. 

348 SYNTAX. [$ 257. 

am a king, 4&affi\ev(ra (not I was a king, but) I came to be a king, ivas made a 
king, fiaff i\V(r as, having been made king, rex factus. BouAeuco, lam a senator 
(X. C. 1. 2, 35), fiov\fv(ras, having been made a senator, senator factus (ib. 1. 1, 
18). Sot; ffrparnyfia-avTos, te duce facto (ib. 3. 5, 1). 'I<rxt/o>, I am strong, 
iffxvffas, having become or been made strong, potens factus (Th. 1,3). Avv-t)- 
3" e i s, potentiam nactus. 'A (r&e 1/7)0*01, to have become sick, in morbum incidisse. 
Kvpos T]ya.ff&T) auroV (VL\ia.pxov), X. An. 1. 1, 9. Cyrus came to admire him, ejus 
admiratione captus est. 

257. Subordinate Modes. 

I. As the Aorist Indicative expresses a past action as inde- 
pendent and completed, having no relation to another past ac- 
tion ; while the Imperfect, always representing a past action in 
relation to another past, and being used in describing and paint- 
ing, presents the action in its duration and progress, so the 
same distinction holds in regard to the subordinate modes of 
the Aorist and Present : l The subordinate modes of the Aor. 
(Subj. Opt. and Impr.) together with the Infinitive and Partici- 
ple, are used, when the speaker wishes to represent the action 
by itself, as completed ; the subordinate modes of the Present 
together with the Infinitive and Participle, and also the Imper- 
fect Opt. are used, when the speaker, considering the perform- 
ance of the action, wishes to represent it descriptively in its dura- 
tion and progress. In this way the following modes stand in 
contrast with each other : 

(a) The Subjunctive and Optative Aorist with the Subjunctive Present and the 
Optative Imperfect, e. g. ^vyta^v and ^eirywjuei/, let us flee. With 
Qvycafj.ev, the idea of fleeing itself is urged and is had in mind; with 
4>eu7/xej', I rather have reference to the performance and progress of 
the action ; the Aor. expresses the action with more energy, as it denotes 
an instantaneous, momentary act. The same distinction exists "in all 
the following examples. Ti Troirjo-co/iei/ and iroi&fj.ev , what shall we do? 
Ae'-yw, 'iva pd^-ps and ft/a pavbavris , ut discas; f\eyov, 'iva patois 
and ft/a navfrdvois, ut disceres. The Greek Subj. always refers to the 
future, and hence is never used, as in Latin, of the present and past, e. g. 
Laudat puerum, quod diligens sit or fuerit, because he is or has been. In 
subordinate clauses with fcs &v, %av, %Tav, etc. [260. (a)], the Subj. Aor. 
corresponds with Latin Fut. Perf. (255, Hem. 9). 'Eav TOVTO Xeyys, 
(si hoc dices or quotiescunque hoc dicis, errabis). 'Eaj/ TOVTO 

1 The subordinate modes of the Imperf. are supplied by those of the Pres. 

f 257.] SUBORDINATE MODES. .>19 

\ ri y , apaprriffr) (*i hoc dixeria, if yon shall hare .laid). Comp. the exam- 
ple under $333, 3. 337. ft. 335>, 2, II. (li). The Impf. ami A or. Opt. has 
tin- SCUM- of tlu- present or future in clause.* which express n suppti- 
tion, conjecture, or undetermined possibility, in prose commonly with aV, 
in hypothetical clauses with ei; the Opt. in this sense is found in clauses 
denoting a wish, in final clauses, and in direct interrogative clauses, 
particularly in deliberative questions. Touro pittas b.v ytyvotro or 
yevoiro, tin's HI it/lit easily be done. See 259, 3 and 6, and 260, 4. Ei 
rovro \tyois or Ae^eios, a/j.aprdvois or apdprois &v, if you 
should say this, you would err. See 339, II, (a). EZ^e rovro yiyvoiro 
or ytvoiro, that this might be! See $ 259, 3. (b). "EAryov, fro 
Havbdvois or ndbots,utdisceres. See$330,2. Tls roiavra inro\afi- 
&dvoi or vKo\d&oi; who would suppose such things ? See $ 259, 3, (e ). 
Owe tlx ov i * 01 Tpfvoiftriv or r pairolfjniv, I knew not what I should 
do. See $ 259, 2. The following case also belongs here : When tho 
subordinate clauses in 333, 3. 337, 6. and 339, II, (b), arc made to 
depend on an historical tense, and the Opt. without &v takes the place of 
the Subj. with &s &/, '6ra.v, ^7r5af, Hav, etc., the Opt. has a future sense. 
O&s ttv ISc: ra Ka\a tirirrjo'fvoi'ras, n^crta (quos videro). *E<fiv obs 
TSojjit ra /coAi lTnr-r\$fvovra.s, rifj.-r\<rfiv (quos visurus essem). 'E Tret Say 
<rv &ov\r) $ia\eyeo-&cu, <rol $ia\( (si or quoticscunque vis). "E^rjy, 
liTfio'}) <TV &ou\oio $ia\fy(ff&a.i, <rol 8ta\(f(r!bcu (si or quotiescunque 
r Iks, of the future). In other kinds of clauses, the Opt. of the Impf. and 
Aor. has &past sense, so that it corresponds with the Ind. of each of these 
tenses. Tio-(ra<pepvT)s 5tej8aA.e r~bv Kvpov, us eirt0ov\evoi avr$ (that he 
u-as plotting against him). "EAe<w, ori Kvpos airobavoi (that C. teas 
dead). 'OWre ol "EAATjvcy rols iro\ffj.tois eirlotev or tire\boii>, air4- 
(pevyov, quotiescunque impetum faciebant). 'Avaftioiis Zteyfis, a t/ce? 
15 ot (what he had there seen, a dependent question). Comp. No. 2, (b). 
(b) The Imperative Aorist with the Imperative Present, e. g. &vye and 
ipevye, flee. Aos and Sf Sou p.oi TO fiifixiov, give. M)) depute Tre, 8> &vtipfs 
oAA' tnneivarc pot, ofs eSe^^Tjj/ vfj.u>v, ^i bopv&fiv ty ots &v 
(the principal fact is here fy/jifivarc, the more definite explanation 
bopv&eirf) PI. Apol. 30, c. 'EirtiSai/ airavra a.Koii<rr)Tf, Kplvare, ^ irp6- 
rtpov Trpo\afJ.&di'Te. Dem. Ph. 1. 44, 14. 'AAA.', & ^.uKpares, ert KO) 
vvv tfjiol ireidou ol ff(abi]Ti PI. Crito 44, b (= (fiol Tret^6fj.vos O-W&TJTI, 
i. e. by a process of persuasion, save yourself). In precepts respecting 
the rules of life. etc. the Pros, is the natural and usual tense. Tous yuej/ 
&ous <> o )8 o v , TOUS 8e yove"ts rlp.a, rovs 8e <f>t\ovs oto"^uj/ou, TO?S 
Se i/oVots iref^ou, Isocr. Demon. 16. Comp. 259, 4. 
The Infinitive Aorist with the Infinitive Present, e. g. 'Ede'Aw Qvytlv 
and (^eu-yttv, / u't'sA to flee. 'lKcu>6s dpi iroiijo~a.i and Troterv rt. 
('H yftapyia) naSfii' T ^ao-TT? e'So'/cet Tj/at Koi ^SiWij t pyd fffbai , X. 
Oec. 6, 9. AipfTwTfp6i' fori KaAws aTTo&ai'erj'jj) ^TJ v cuVxpws, Isocr. 
Pan. 95. Ou TO ^ A o /3 e T v TO ayada OVTW ye x^^ v -> &strfp TO \a&6rra 

350 SYNTAX. [$ 257. 

\vTT-r\p6v, X. Cy. 7. 5, 82. KcAeuw ere SoOi/at and 

KaAeVay 6 KOpos 'Apdcnrrtv MfjSov, TOI/TOJ/ e/c 

Aaat OUT< -Hji/ re yt/pcu/ca /cal r^r o"K7jff)i/, X. Cy. 5. 1, 2, with which 
compare in 3. following: ravrrjv ovv fKf \evo~ev 6 Kvpos 5ia(pv\drrf iv 
rbv 'Apdffiniv, fees Uv avrbs Aa/ty (to continue to guard, the subordinate 
clause necessarily implying duration in Sia<pv\drrfiv). In the oratio obliqua 
after verbs of saying and thinking, the Inf. Aor. and Pres. is frequently 
used to denote what is past ; then the Inf. Aor., like the Ind. Aor., is used to 
denote the principal events, the Inf. Pres., like the Ind. Impf., to denote the 
accompanying subordinate circumstances, e. g. 'A&rjvaioi \fyovo~i, Sixains 
(robs TIf\ao~yovs)' /caroiKT^teVous 70^ rovs TIf\acryobs virb r$ 
&fvrfv 6p/j.f a, aSiKffiv rdSf <poirav yap alfl ras 
ff(peTepas i^iryarepos re /cat rovs ircuSas eV vfiup ' ov ykp eTveu rovrov r~ov 
Xpovov <r<pio~i KU otKeras ' $K<as Se eA&otev avrat, robs fl^acryobs inrb vfipios 
&iao-&ai o-<peas K. r. X. (Oratio recta: 4i)\do-a(j.fV ol yap UfXavyol 
tSiitovv rdfe' tQoiruv, etc.) Her. 6, 137. The Inf. Aor. has a 
past relation only after verbs of saying or thinking, and in the construction 
of the Ace. with the Infinitive with the article. ^Evrav&a \eyerai 
'Air<$AAw> e'Ke?pat Vlapffvav Kal rb Se'/yia eV rep avrpca, X. 
An. 1. 2, 8 (cittern detraxisse suspendisse, to have flayed, and hung up). 
Comp. No. 2, (c). avjuaarbj' (palverai p.oi rb Treio~&T)vai rtvas, us 
2w/cpoT7js TOUS vfovs Sifty&tiptv, X. C. 1. 2, 1 (persuasum esse quibusdam, 
that certain individuals had been persuaded). Tb fj.e8ffj.lav TWV TroAewv 
a A c!) v a t 7roAtopta, p.fyiffr6v tcrri fffip.fiov r ov Sia rovrovs TT fiff&fvr as 
robs *a>Ke'as ravra irofif^?*', Dem. 19,61. (But when by the Ace. 
with the Inf. with the article, a purpose is expressed, the Inf. Aor. has 
naturally something of a future relation, e. g. 'Eire/ieA^&Tjy rov SiSao-- 
Ka\6v fj.ot nva yfvfcr&ai, / took care that I might have some one as a 
teacher, X. C. 4. 2, 4.) In all other cases the Inf. Aor. has the relation of 
present time. 

(d) The Participle of the Aorist with the Participle of the Present ; comp. 
Ao&e (pvyc&v with \dv&avf tyfvytav. T\.fpifir\<aov Sovviov, fiov\6/j.evoi (p&rjvai 
aviK^ftfvoi 4s rb &<rrv (wishing to come into the city sooner) Her. 6, 115. 
Tovs av&p&trovs \-f)o~ofj.fv firnrfffAvrfs (will secretly attack], X. An. 7. 3, 43. 
In all such examples the Aor. does not express the relation of past time, 
but merely the action of the verb taken by itself; the time is denoted by 
the finite verb with which the Part, is connected ; the Aor. Part., there- 
fore, denotes only that the subordinate action (expressed by the Part.) is 
contemporaneous with the principal action (expressed by the verb). Yet 
it is to be observed, that the Aor. Part, is commonly used to designate 
past time, e. g. Tain' flwuv oTre'ySTj = ravr' fl-rrf Kal cbre'/STj. It may be 
added here as a general principle, that while the Aor. Part, generally 
denotes past time, the subordinate modes of the Aor. and Present, of 
themselves denote no relation of time, the Aor., however, designating a 
momentary, the Pres. a continued action. 


2. The subordinate modes and participials of the Aonsl, form 
a contrast also with the sulionlinale modes and participials of 
the Perl'ert ami Pluperfect; the former denote an action af}so- 
//c/!/, as past or completed; the latter, on the contrary, in rela- 
tion to the subject of the finite verb; by this relation the sub- 
ordinate idea of the Duration of the result of what is denoted by 
the verb, is naturally derived. In this way the following forms 
stand in contrast with each other: 

(a) The Subjunctive Aorist with the Subjunctive Perfect, e. g. 'Eac <nroi/8al 
ytvtavrai, Qovaiv (^celcre), $v&ev eou<n rk tirirriSfia (if a treaty shall 
have been made), X. A. 2.3, 6. *Or k.v yv&pipov (KVWV fSr;), ao-ird&rai, ktiv 
fj.r)Sfv irwiroTf uir* avrov aya&bv TrTf6v^rj (whomsoever he recognizes, he 
greets, even if he shall have received no favor from him), PI. Rp. 376, a. 

ru>v a\\orpt<av, tv cur(f>aA(rrepoj/ robs olxovs robs v/j.erfpous avriav 
, Isoc. Nic. 49. ( Comp. 255, Rem. 5.) It has already been 
stated No. 1. (a) that the Greek Suhj. always refers to the future. 

(b) The Optative Aorist with the Optative Pluperfect, e. g. Ol "IvSol &.ecu/, 
tri IT >// te <r<pas 6 'Ivtiuv 0a<ri\fvs (had sent), X. Cy. 2. 4, 6. "ESe/ow, 
ph \vrra ris SisTrep KV<T\V rip-wv t /j.ireirT<aKoi (that some madness had 
fallen upon us, the effects still continuing), X. An. 5. 7, 26. 'Ayrja/Aaos 

^Se^dr) rrjs ir6\fws acpe'tyai avrbv Tatrrrjs TT)S ffTparrtyias, Ae'ywj/, '6ri rep irarpl 
avrov iroAAa virijpfT'f)KOi j\ ruv Mcumvfwv ir6\is Iv Tails irpbs Mfffff-fj^jv 
7ro\e>ois, H. 5. 2, 3. In what instances the Opt. Aor. is used of the 
present or future, and in what of the past, has been stated in No. 1, (a). 

(c) The Infinitive Aorist with the Infinitive Perfect; comp. airo&a.i'iiv with 
redirjKeVaJ. Uarpbs Kvpos \4yfrai yevtff&ai 

\f<i>s X. Cy. 1. 2, 1. Ae-ycrai HvSpa TIVO. ruv 

tro\vv STJ nva. xp^ov tirl ry /caAAet TOV Kvpov (stood or continued amazed), 

ib. 1. 4, 27. Comp. 255, Rem. 6. 

(d) The Aorist Participle with the Perfect Participle ; comp. airobavuiv with 

, Plut. Aem. Paul. c. 36. extr. Hc/xrcus /Jtei> ex I vtvtKf\- 
(even tltongh vanquished, in the condition of one vanquished) robs 
ircuSas, Al/j.i\ios 5e rubs avrov (sc. ira?5as) viK-f)<ras dnre'/BaAei/ = j/eW/cTjTcu 
^ _ % Xfl si , Mic-n<re ^v air(0a\ 5e. Perseus even though conquered 
still has his children ; Aemilius in his otherwise successful war, lost his. 

REMARK 1 . From the above explanation, it is evident why the Aor., though 
an Historical tense, has besides an Opt. a Subj. also : the Aor. Subj. stands in 
contrast, on the one hand, with the Subj. Pres. ; on the other, with the Subj. 
Perf. The Greek Fut. has no Subj. as in Latin (e. g. Gaudef, quod pater ven- 
turus sit), because the Greek Subj. of itself denotes future time. But the Aor. 
has an Opt., which stands in dependent sentences after an historical tense, and 
consequently, in direct discourse, takes the place of the Ind. Future, e. g. 
'Hyyti\tv, Sri iroAe/LiJot i>iicf)<roifv (that the enemy WOULD conquer). X. An. 7. 
1, 33. t\cytv, OTI eVot^os efrj TfrcTo-dcu abrols els T*> AeXra KoXovp-fVOv, tv&a. *u\\& 

352 SYNTAX. [$ 258. 

Ka\ aya&a \iityoivro (where they WOULD receive)* X. Cy. 8. 1, 43. eV^eAeTro 
STTWS (J.-f)Te affiroi, ^re &TTOTOL vrore e<ro t I/TO . (But 67ri,ueAe?Tai, OTTOS .... eo-oj/- 
TCU). X. An. 4. 1,25. 6^7? eTvat itwpoj/, & el ^ ris irpOKaTa\-f)fyo IT o , aSwarou 
rapeze?!/. ( rat to recta : el irpoKaTaX-rjtyeTai, aSwaroj/ etrrat 

EEM. 2. Verbs of willing, refusing, delaying, entreating, persuading, com- 
manding, forbidding, hindering, of being able, and unable, expecting (irpos- 
So/cw, 6iri8o|Js elfj.1, elic6s eVnj/, it is likely, to be expected), when they relate to a 
future object, are sometimes connected with the Fut. Inf., sometimes with the 
Pres., sometimes with the Aor. The Fut. Inf. is used, when the idea of futurity is 
to be made specially prominent, e. g. a condition continuing in the future ; the 
Inf. Pres:, to denote a continuing or permanent condition, the idea of futurity, 
evident of itself, being left out of sight ; this Inf. is also used to denote the 
immediate occurrence of the action ; the Inf. Aor., when the idea of the action 
itself is made prominent. In English all three forms of the Inf., when the subject 
of the Inf. is the same as that of the governing verb, are translated by the Pres. 
Inf. : MeAAw yp a ty e i v, y p d </> e i v , y p a |/ a t (/ am now about to ivrite, intending 
to write). 'ASvvar oi ei'trti/ cTri/neAe?* e a e or & a i (unable to become and continue 
careful), X. Oec. 12,12. 'A 5 v v a. T o i elffiv els ein^eAetcu/ ruiv /COT' aypbv epycav 
, ib. 12, 15. 'ASuyaToi rjfuv <rovrai ravryv rfy eTrt^eAemy 
ib. 12, 13. 'A j/ajSaAAeTat TTO j/Tjere i v TO. SeWra, Dem. 31, 9. 
iot /Sc^AAovTO rb tcav /U7jxa>'^ (Taer^oi, Her. 6, 58. 'E\iriei 
paSiws vfj-cis 6|o7raT^(retj/, Dem. 860, 54 (he hopes to deceive you) . 'E \iriS as 
TrapfX fTal W s fvHaipovas iroiri<ra.i, PL Symp. 193, d. (he gives hope that he 
will make us happy). With verbs of willing or being able, the Fut. Inf. is more 
seldom than the Aor. or Pres. After verbs of saying, promising, swearing, 
thinking, the above threefold construction (Inf. Fut., Pres., Aor.) is used, but the 
Inf. Aor. regularly expresses something past (see No. 1). seldom what is future, 
e. g. Of IlAaTaiTjs fv6 (JLiffav 7ri&(/ paS'uas K parri ff ai, Th. 2, 3, (se victores 
fore). 'Air6i(pivai, & *Ay6par' ov yap ol/ <re Qapvov yeveff&ai, a tvavriov 
'Afrnvaitai' airavTuv eTroirjaaj, Lys. Agor. 32 (credo te negaturum). After verbs 
of saying, thinking, hoping, the Inf. Aor. and Pres. with &v, is often used in 
nearly the same sense as the Inf. Fut. without &v. See 260, (5), (a). 

$258. B. A more particular View of the Modes. 

The Indicative, the Subjunctive (Optative) and the Im- 
perative Modes [$ 253, (b)], are distinguished as follows : 

(a) The Indicative expresses a direct assertion, an actual fact. 

Tb p6Sov &aAA6i. 'O iraT^p ytypatye T}]V ^TriffTO\t]v. Ol 
ov. Ol TroArrat TOUS TroAe/uous vt/ 

(b) The Subjunctive denotes a supposition, conception, or 
representation. The Subj. of the Hist, tenses is called the 

"Ica/j-fv! eamus! Tl TTOIUI^V , quid faciamus ? what shall we do? OVK ex, 
oiroi T p d IT ca fj. a i, nescio, quo me vertam. OVK f?x"> o-noi T p a TT o ifj. i) v, ncscie- 
6am t quo me verterem. Aeyu, 'iv eiSrj s, dico, ut scias, in order that you may know 
it. y EAea, tV 6 i 8 e i v) s, dixi, ut scires, in order that you might know it. 

(c) The Imperative denotes the immediate expression of the 
will, being used in commands, entreaties, etc. 


and ypdQf, iiritr. Bpa8'ws piy $l\os ylyvov, 
i'tu: I-. I Vm. 7. rpa^dVa* and ypcuptru, lit film irrife ( 257, 1. b). The /,//- 
7/r;m/ expressed by tin- Imp. is not always to he understood as a strong com- 
mand, entreaties, exhortations, and counsels, being also expressed by the Imp. 

KIM.VRK. The Modes exhibit the relation of an expressed thought to i 
the mind of the speaker. Hence they denote nothing objective, i.e. they never ' 
show the ttrtiinl condition of an action; the Ind., in itself, docs not denote 
something actual; nor the Subj., in itself, something possible; nor the Imp., 
something necessary; the language represents these ideas by special expres- 
sions, c. g. iArj&ws, Svvcurbai, 5e?, xtfh ctc - The modes express subjective rela- . 
tion< M>lely, i. e. the relations to the mind of the speaker, showing how he I 
conceives of an action. A mental operation is either an act of perception, an i 
act of supposition or conception, or an act of desire. The Ind. expresses ' 
an actual perception ; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents 
as a real it if. whether an actual, objective fact, or a conception; even the future, 
which, in itself is something merely imagined, can be conceived by the speaker 
as a reality, and hence is expressed by the Fut. Ind. The Subj. expresses i 
a conception ; it indicates what the speaker conceives and represents as a j 
conci-ption, whether it has an actual objective existence, or is a mere mental ' 
conception. The Imp. expresses desire; it denotes what the speaker conceives 
and represents as something desired, whether it be an actual objective necessity 

$ 259. Use of the Subjunctive, Optative and Im- 

1. The Subj. of the Principal tenses, the Pres. and Perf., as 
well as the Sub. Aor., alway relates io future time [$ 257, 1, (a)], 
and is used in Principal clauses : 

(a) In the first Pers. Sing, and PI. in exhortations 1 and warn- 
ings, where the Eng. uses let, let us, with the infinitive ; the 
negative is here //.rj. 

(b) In the first Pers. Sing, and PI. in deliberative 2 questions, 
wlu-ii the speaker deliberates with himself what he is to do, 
what it is best to do ; here also the negative is yu,?j. 

, eamus! let us go, suppose we go! M)j f(afj.ev. "Aye (<pfpf, 
*'pe JfSw (come now, let me see), Her. 7, 103. *ep 877, ^ 5' 8s, Tret pa&w irpbs 
v/ 071-0X0773 <ro(r&cu, PI. Phaedon. 63, b. Such an exhortation is very often ex- 
pressed in the form of a question preceded by /JouAet; yet in this case, the 
subjunctive is a subordinate clause dependent on fiovtei, e. g. BouAei olv, Svo 
etSTj bw/jicv iTf&ovs ; (do yon then wish that we propose two kinds of persuasions = 
Itt us propose), PI. Gorg. 454, e. 1l iro icap-tv ; quid faciamus ? what shall we 
do? Efirunfv, 3} ffiyafjiev; Eur. Ion. 771. In no? TIS QpovriSos eA&p; S. 

1 This use of the Subj. is called Conjunctivus adhortativus. 

2 Conjttnctiius deliberations. 


354 SYNTAX. [$ 259. 

O. C. 170, rls is used instead of the first Pers., where shall one go? (~ iroi 
or eA&ojjwej/, like irdi Qpevuut eA&w ; 310). M^ epwfiat; shall 1 not ask? X. C. 1. 
2, 36. "Offa ol 6\iyoi rovs TroAAous (ify ireurai'Tes, ctAAa Kparovvrts ypd(j)ov<ri, ir6r- 
fpov &iav (pa/AGP, ?) /j.% <pu/j.ev eli/at; 45. So also in indirect discourse, 
and in all persons. Owe exw, oiroi rpdiru/j.ev (/ know not, whither 7 shall turn 
myself, what I shall do). OVK eov<riv e/ce<Voj, oiroi (pvycaffi, X. An. 2.4, 20. OVK 
oT5' et 8cD (rb e/cTToyia), /cfo noi know whether I shall give the cup, Cy. 8. 4, 16. 

REMARK 1. In the second and third Pers. the exhortation takes the form 
of a command or wish, and hence is expressed by the Imp. or Opt. Od. x> 77. 
eA&w/uei' 8' &<rrv, )8o^ 8' &KUTTO. ycvoiTo, Yet there are also passages 
in which the second Pers. Subj. stands in connection with aye and <pfpe instead 
of the Imp., e. g. *ep', S> TSKVOV, vvv Kal rb TTJS v^aov paSy s, S. Ph. 300. 

HEM. 2. On the use of the second Pers. Subj. with ^ to express a prohibi- 
tion, e. g. /*)> ypdtyys, ne scripseris, do not write, see No. 5. 

HEM. 3. A wish is very seldom expressed by ei&e with the Subj. instead of 
the Opt. E?&' al&fpos &vo> TTTWKoSes bvr6vov Si^ Trveu/xaros e \oxri fA (o si 
aves me sursum in aefherem per auras stridentes capiant), S. Ph. 1094 (without varia- 
tion). Comp. Efd-e rives vval SiKatow fyutfofop eV "Apyet fyavGxri Ttnvoiffiv 
Eur. Suppl. 1028. E5fi^' O&TXIOI' elSoy aj/rl TOV KaXov AajSw (in some MSS. 
AajSelj/), Hel. 262. 

HEM. 4. In the third place, the Subjunctive is somewhat frequently used in 
principal clauses, in the Epic language, instead of the Fut. Ind., though with a 
slight difference of meaning. Both express a present conception of a future 
action ; but the Put. Ind. represents what is still in the future as known and 
certain in the view of the speaker, while the Subj. represents what is future as 
merely a concession or admission of something expected. II. , 459. /cot 
irore TIS eiirr)<riv (and one MAY say, it may be expected or conceded that one will 
say). II. T;, 197. ov yap ris /j.e jSi'j? ye e/fwj/ de/coj/Ta SJTJTCU (one will not force me 
away = I will not admit that one ivill, etc.). a, 262. ou yap TTW roious JfSoj/ di/epas, 
ou5e i'S Wjticu (nor do I expect that I shall see such men, nor am I to see ; ouSe 
o\j/o/, would mean, / certainly shall not see). Od. 201. OVK etrd 1 OVTOS af^p 
Siepbs fipords, ow5e ycvijTai. TT, 437. OVK ecrfr' OVTOS avf]p, ov5' efffferat oi'Se 
y e v T] T a i (nor is it to be expected that he ivill be). The frequent use of the Subj. 
with ouSe ^7} in the Attic writers, is wholly analogous to the principle just 
stated. See under 318, 6."f B 

2. The Opt. Impf. and Aor. is also used in principal sen- 
tences, to denote deliberative questions (i. e. such as express 
doubt and propriety), but differs from the Subj. in such ques- 
tions in referring to past time. 

Theocr. 27, 24; iroAAoi fi tfju/AovTO, v6ov 8' e/j-bv ovris eaSe ' /col Tt, (pt\os, 
p eai(Jii; yd/j.oi ir\-}]Sov(riv ch/ias, i. e. quid FACEREM ? sc. turn, quum multi nup- 
tias meas ambiebant, sed eorum nullus mild placebat, what could I then do ? The 
deliberative Opt. is very frequently used in indirect questions, in relation to an 
historical tense in the principal clause. 'EirTjpero 6 Seud^js T^V iralSa, el 7rai<retej/ 
avr6i/, X. An. 7. 4, 10 (whether he should put him to death). Ol 'EmSa/mot W/x- 
ipcwTes e's Ae\<povs rbi/ i^ebv eV^povro, et irap aS oltv Kopw&iois T^V TrJAtv, Th. 
1, 25 (ivhether they should surrender the city). 


KIM. r>. In tin- jiriiK -iplc Driven in No. 2, the act of supposition or conception 
hcloni:- to the past, ami this is tin- common use of tin- Opt. (tin- Sulij. of the 
historical tenses), in subordinate clauses. But the Opt. is also used, when- the 
act of .-imposition or conception is u present one. When a present conception is 
expressed by the subjunctive. e. <r. tup-tv, nitnns, ri (firuntv : quid dicumusf 
then the rcaii/.ation of the conception may be assumed or expected from the 
present point of time. But when a present conception is expressed by the 
Opt. (Suhj. of the historical tenses), the speaker places himself back, as it 
were, out of the present and the vivid connection, which exists between the 
pn -cut and the actual accomplishment, and represents the conception as one 
separate from his present point of time. Hence a present conception expressed 
in this way. very naturally suggests the subordinate idea of uncertainty. Thence 
the following use : 

3. The Opt. Aor. and Impf. (Subj. of the historical tenses), 
is used, in principal clauses, of present or future time in the 
following cases : 

(a) To express, in a general manner, a supposition, a present 
or future uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, presumption 
or admission. The prose-writers here commonly use the modal 
adverb av with the Opt., $ 260, 2, (4), (a), but the poets very 
frequently use the Opt. without av. A negation is here ex- 
pressed by ov (OVK). 

*O 8 avrb avrcp av6(j.oiov fty teal Sidtyopov, ffxo^f} ye TOV TO> &\\y OJJ.OLOV % <f>(\ov 
yevoiro (that would scarcely be like or friendly to another, as one would readily 
admit), PI. Lysid. 214, d. 'AiroAo/ueVTjs 8c TTJS tywxris TOT* ^Srj T^V <pv<nv rrjs 
a<rb(vfias t TT iSe IKVVOI ri aup-a Kal TO.XV aairtv Sioixoiro (animo exstincto 
turn vero corpus imbecUlitatem suam ostendat et intercidat, it is natural to suppose or 
assume, that the body would give signs of weakness), Phaed. 87, e. 

(b) To express a wish. A negation is here expressed by /XT/. 

II. x> 304. /urj tutv affTTovSi 76 Kal aAeio)s airo \olfjLrjv, may I not perish ! S. 
Aj. 550. 2> ircu, yevoio irarpos euTuxeVrepos, TO 8' &\\' '6/j.oios ! KCU yfi/oi Uv ov 
Kai(6s, may you be more fortunate than your father, but in other things like him! then 
you ucould not be wicked. X. Cy. 6. 3, 11. 'AAA', 5 Zev /jityiarf, AajScu/ /xoi 
ytvoiro avrdv, us tyw /3ouAo/u, may I be able to take him. The wish is com- 
monly introduced by efde, ci yap (in the poets also by et alone). Od. y, 205. 
t yap (fj.ol Toa-a-rivSe bfol Svva/j.iv irapabf'ict'! X. Cy. 6. 1,38. ei yap 
yevoLTo! (In poetry us is used like Lat. utinam. Eur. Hipp. 407. &s 
a TT 6 \ o i r o TrayKOKws ! ) 

HEM. 6. When a wish is expressed, which the speaker knows cannot be 
realized, the Ind. of the historical tenses is used, e. g. Et^c TOVTO tyiyvfro ! 
tfof TOVTO tyevfTo ! utinam hoc fartinn -.s>v-/ .' that this were done, or had been 
done! So &<pf\s ypd^at ! 6 that you had written ! (but I know that you have 
not). X. An. '2. 1. 4. <xA\' &<pf\f n(v Kvpos ? t v! that Cyrus were still alive! 
(but I know that he is not). Also ef&e, ct yap, us &<pf\ov, r, *(v) with 

356 SYNTAX. [ 259. 

the Inf., particularly in poetry. On the wish expressed by TTWS av with the Opt., 
see 260, 2, (4), (d). On the infrequent use of the Subj. to denote a wish, see 
Hem. 3. 

(c) A command is also expressed in a milder way, in the 
form of a wish. 

Od. |, 408. Taxurrd p.oi iySov erdipot eTcy, kt my companions come within. II. 
K7jpu| TIS ol eroiTo yepaiTepos, let some herald follow. Arist. Vesp. 1431. 
epSot T is fy e/ccwrros et'Seirj T^xyriv. X. An. 3. 2, 37. et fjiev ovv &\\os TIS 
x* T(a ' et 8e p.^, Xfipt(ro<pos juej/ 7770 IT o. 

(d) The Optative is used to express a desire, wish, and 
inclination, in a general manner, without expecting the realiza- 
tion. A negation is here expressed by ^. 

Theocr. 8, 20. ravrav (rty crvpiyya) Karbcl-nv (1 would be willing or desire 
to place)' TO, 8e T< irarpbs ov Kcna&r)ffu. Her. 7, 11. yu^ yap fftjv e/c Aapziov 
yeyovcos, /j.)) Ti/iwprjcrcSyuej'os 'A&Tji/afous, / should not be descended from Darius, 
unless, etc. 

(e) In direct questions the Opt. is used, when a mere admis- 
sion or supposition is expressed. 

(a) In Homer the interrogative clause then forms, in a measure, the protasis 
to the conditioned clause, i. e. to the clause depending on the condition ex- 
pressed by the question. II. S, 93, seq. ^ pa vv fj.oi n iri&oio, AvKaovos vie 
Satypov ; T\aii)s Kev Mei/eActa firnrpoffMev ra%w lov, iraffi Se /ce Tpcaeacri X&P IV 
/cat KvSos apoiOy will you now listen to me, i. e. if you will, you would dare, etc. (the 
same as e5f T( poi iriboio, T \ai-ns KCV, etc.). Here iri&oio, etc. is the in- 
terrogative clause containing the condition, and rAa/7?s, etc. the conditioned 
clause depending on the preceding. When the question has two members, the 
first, expressed by the Opt. without &v, contains the condition, the last, ex- 
pressed by the Opt. with &v, contains the conditioned clause. II. , 191. ^ pa. 
vv fj.oi rt Trt&oio, <pih.ov re/cos, orri KCV etTrw, ^e KZV apviiffaio KOTfffffafj.fVT] roye 
frvpip; will you be persuaded by me, or will you refuse ? (ft) In the Attic writers, 
the Opt. is also used in a question without reference to a conditioned clause. 
These questions, however, always imply a negative. Aesch. Choeph. aAA.' 
vireproXfjiov avSpbs <pp6int)/j.a rts \eyot; who could describe? no one, i. e. who 
can you suppose could describe ? S. Ant. 604. redv, Zev, Svvacriv T(S avpS>v virfp- 
fiaffia Karda-xoi; who could restrain? i.e. who can be supposed to restrain? 
Arist. Plut. 438. z/a| v A7roAAo</ Kal beoi, iroi TIS <pvyoi, where could one fly ? 
Dem. Phorm. 921, 1. Kal offa fj.ev flire /uera TVJS a\7)&eias, ^ xp^cr^e TfK/Aijptu ' a 
8' fyfvcraTO rb i/Vrepoz/, TriffT^Tepa Tav& viroXafion e clvai ; haec vos veriora 
existimaturos quis putet ! PI. Rp. 437, b. ap ovv Trai/ra TO. ToiavTa TUV evavTiwv 
a\Xri\ois ^firjs ; can you consider all such things to be opposite to each other ? i. e. 
can I assume that you, etc. 


RKM. 7. The deliberative Opt. (No. 2) differs from this. 

M\ M. 8. All the cases mentioned under (n) (b) (c) (d) (e), are to be regarded 
as i-lli|tical sentences, which have, originated from a conditional sentence like 
er rt x ots > tolrjs &v [$ 339, II, (a)J, if you had, you imuld give. 

(4) The following points in addition arc to be observed 
respecting the Imp., [$ 258, 1, (c)] : Though the Imp. always 
refers to time present to the speaker, yet the Greek has several 
Imp. forms, viz., a Pres., Perf., and Aor. These forms, how- 
ever, do not express a different relation of time, but only the 
different condition or circumstances of the predicate. The dif- 
ference between the Imp. Aor. ypanj/ov and the Pres. ypdfa, has 
been explained, 257, 1, (b). The Imp. Perf. has always the 
sense of the Pres., with the accompanying idea of the perma- 
nence or continuance of the result, e. g. /AC/XVT/O-O, memento, be 
mindful, remember; y Svpa$w, let the door be shut 
(and remain shut). See $ 255, Hem. 5. 

5. In negative or prohibitive expressions with ^ (ne), the 
Greek commonly uses only the Pres. Imp., not the Aor. Imp. ; 
but instead of the Aor. Imp., the Aor. Subjunctive is used. 

M)j ypdfe or /xrj 7^0^77$ (but neither ^77 ypdfys, nor rf ypd^ov). M^ 
ypatperu or /*)) ypdtyrj,ne scribito (but neither ^ ypdtpri, nor yu?) ypatydru). 
M?) pot a.vrl\fye or fjL-f\ fj.oi avTt\(7)s, do not speak against me (but 
neither ^ avri\4yr)s nor ^ avri\^ov). Isoc. Dem. 24. M r? 8 e v a. <pi\ov iroiov 
trfiv &j/ e'lercunjs, irws Kexwrcu TO?S irp^repoi/ 0tA.oty. 36, 29. ^iTjSci/l ffvfitpopas 
ovtiS lays' KOIV^I yap rj rvx"n Kal rb fj.f\\ov a.6parov. Th. 3. 39. KoXacr^ruffav 
Sc /foi vvv a^iws TTJS aSuc'ias, Kal p.)) fois /nej/ 6\iyois i) alria, irposTf&fj, T~bv 8e 

EEM. 9. Yet sometimes in the Epic poets, though very seldom in other 
poets, p-fi is found with the second Pers. of the Aor. Imp., e. g. II. 8, 410. r$ 
H"(] fju)i iraTtpas TTO& Apo'iy ev^eo ^u/iy- The third Pers. is frequently found 
even in the Attic prose writers. X. Cy. 8. 7, 26. 

6. The third Pers. Imp. is very often used (the second more 
seldom), to denote that the speaker admits or grants something, 
the correctness or incorrectness of which depends upon himself. 
This is called the concessive Imp. 

OVTUS ^x /Taj i ^ s < A*'7 6JS (admit that it is as you say), P. Symp. 201, c. 
'EOIKC'TW 5?/ (TJ vj/vx^) |ujLK/>uTa> 5wo/xet inroirrfpov fcvyovs TC Kal T]vi6~)(ov (grant 
that the soul is like, etc.), Phaedr. 246, a. Ae-yc'rco irepi avrov, us 
(admit that each one speaks of it), Th. 2, 48. 

358 SYNTAX. [$ 260. 

REM. 10. In the interrogative formula of the Attic poets: o!cr& t> Spao-ov,- 
d!<r& us TToitjffov ; (do you Jcnow what you are to do ?), the Imperative is to be 
explained as a transition, easy to the Greeks, from the indirect to the direct 
form of speech. It is also explained by considering it the same as 5pa<rov, 
oiffb' '6; do, do you know what? The formula is a softer mode of expression 
than the Imp. Spaaov or TTOITJOW. The use of the third Pers. Imp., not only 
in dependent questions, but also in other subordinate sentences, is according to 
the same analogy. Her. 1, 89. vvv &v iroiyffov o>8e, ejf TOI dpeovm, ret ycl> Xt-yw 
Kanaov T>V Sopvipdpav CTTI irdo"r)<ri rrjffi irv\r]<ri <f)v\d.Kovs o* \ey6vTtav , &s 
<r<pfa (sc. xp^juora) avayKaioas ex et 5e/faTev&>jj>cu T<j5 Arf (o? \ey6vT<av = Kal 
OVTOI XeyJvTwv, who should say, or and let them say). Th. 4, 92. Set^eci, 
8 T i Kardff&axrav, they might obtain / 

REM. 11. On the transition of the third Pers. Imp. to the second, see 241, 
Rem. 13, (c) ; on the use of the Fut. instead of the Imp., see 255, 4, and on 
the Opt. with &v in the sense of the Imp., 260, 2, (4) (b). 

$ 260. The Modes in connection with the Modal 
Adverb av (*', *eV). 

1. The Modal adverb av (Epic KC'(V), Doric *d, *av), denotes the 
relation of a conditioning expression or sentence to a condi- 
tioned one ; indicating that the predicate of the sentence to 
which it belongs, is conditioned by another thought either ex- 
pressed or to be supplied. By the particle av, the realization 
of the predicate is made to depend upon the realization of 
another predicate. Therefore, where a predicate is accom- 
panied by av, the predicate is represented as conditioned by 
another thought ; oV always refers to a condition. 

2. A complete view of the use of oV cannot be presented 
except in connection with conditional sentences. Yet, as it 
is used in all kinds of sentences, it is necessary to explain 
its construction here. It is connected : 

(1) With the Fut. Ind. The predicate expressed by the 
Fut. Ind.f seems to the speaker, at the time then present, 
always to depend on conditions and circumstances. "Whenever 
this idea of dependence is to be made specially prominent, oV 
(Epic KC) can be joined with the Fut. ; yet this construction is 
rare in the Attic dialect. 

Od. p, 540. et S* 'OSvo-eiis eA&oi , afyci KC <ri>v $ irafil jSi'as OITOT ifferai 
avSp&i', he would punish. II. f, 267. aAA' ?&', eyh Se we rot KaptrtiM. pinf 
6TT\oTepda:v Suxro) oTrvif[j.cvai,dabo,sciLsitibilubuerit. X. Cy. 6. 1,45. vfipurr ty ofiv 
vofjiifyav avr6v, e3 o?8' '6n Afffifvos tiv Trpbs &v$pa, cilos <rv el, oiraA.A.ayiij(reTai 
(so the MSS.). 7. 5, 2l.'6rav 8e KCU atff&uvTai rj/ sv^ov OVTO.S, iro\v Uv CTI /j.a\\ov t 
1) vvv> axpftoi ItrovToi virb TOV ^Kirif\TJx^ ai (& v i s wanting in only two MSS.). 

$ MC>O.J MODAL ADVERB av. 359 

Ki \IVKK 1. With tin- 1'res. and P-'if. Ind.. Avis not u-ed. I'l.r that which 
the speaker expresses ;is a present objeet, cannot at the same time IM- ex; 
a^ -('inetliiiiir. the rcali/.ation of which is dependent on another thought. In 
tho^e pa->a-e-. where av is found with tin- 1'res. or IVrf Ind.. either the reading 
i> <|iie>tional>le. or av must he referred to another verh of the -ciitenee. e. %. OUK 
o!5' av (I TTfivaini (instead of ft irtiffcum "K I'' 111 '- Mcd. M~ : so often vofilfa av, 
011*01 av and the like followed by an Inf., where av belongs to the Inf.; or it is 
to he considered as an elliptical mode of expression, as in X. S. 4, 37. tyw Se 
OVTOO iro\\a tx 6 ** us fj.6\ts avra Kal lyw & v avrbs tupiaitu, I have so main/ t/n'nt/s 
thut / irith ili (fit-nil ij jind t/<> tit. indi-<-d if 1 should seek for fain myself, I should not 
find than. Nor is av used with the Imp. For what the speaker expresses as 
his immediate will, cannot be considered as dependent on a condition. The 
few passages referred to in proof of the use of av with the Imp., are all, criti- 
cally considered,, questionable and prove nothing. 

(2) "Av is used with the Ind. of the historical tenses : the 
Aor., Iinpf. and PI up. : 

(a) To denote that something might take place under a cer- 
tain condition, but did not take place, because the condi- 
tion was not fulfilled. The condition is then expressed 
by ct with the Ind. of the historical tenses. 

Ei TOVTO fatyts (<t\cas), f) pdpTavfs (% pap res) &v, i. e. if you said this, 
you were wrong, or if you had said this, you would have been wrong, but now I know 
that you did not say it, consequently you are not wrong ; Lat. si hoc dixisses, 
errasses (at non dixisti ; ergo non errasti). E? TI el'xo/uep, ISldo^cy 
(tSofjLfv) &v, if ice had anything, we would give it to you, or if we had had any- 
thing, we would have given it to you ; si quid habuissemus, dedissemus. Also with- 
out an antecedent clause, e. g. txd-Pn 5 & v -> laetatus fuisses (scil. si hoc vidisses). 

REM. 2. Here belong also the expressions, ^6u.f\v &v, %yvu ns Hv, 
rfffbero ris &v, ycrtJ TIS av, and the like, as in Latin, putares, crederes, diceres, 
cernercs, videres, you (one) would think, or you (one) would have thought. Here ei 
irapfjj/, ei e\eytv, d eTSfv, fl ^Suj/aro, and the like, as conditioning antecedent 
clauses, are to be supplied. "Ev&a 8r/ 7^0? TIS b.v TOVS 6/jLorlfj.ovs TreTratSev^-e- 
vovs, us 5(7 (turn vero videres, then one might see, were he present), X. Cy. 3. 3, 
70. y Ei/&a 8?; fyvca ns av, ocrov a^iov etrj tl> <pjA.?a&cu apxovra virb TUV apxofjif- 
v<av, 7. 1, 38. Ev&vs avv rovrois dsTrnSyo-avrfs fls rbv in)\bv ^arrov, % us TIS ttv 
iff TO, peTeupovs ^fK6/j.i(rav TO.S a/Mias (celerius.quam quis crederet), An. 1. 5, 8. 
"Eirfppucr&ri 5' av ns KaKtlva iStav (one might be encouraged if he saw those 
things), Ag. 1, 27. 

REM. 3. With the Ind. of the historical tenses, av is often omitted. Then 
the speaker has no reference, in his representation, to the condition contained 
in the protasis or antecedent, on account of which the action expressed in the 
apodosis or conclusion could not be completed, but he emphatically represents 
the predicate as an aetual fact. X. An. 7. 6, 21. Eliroi STJ TIS av OVKOVV alvxvvri 
OUTU fjuapus ^aTraT<t!fj.(vos ; Nal ytio Ata TJ er \vv 6 /J.vv fityroi. fl inrb iro\/j.iov yt ZVTOS 
QrjiraTTi&riv ' 8' 6vrt tairaTav afoxtov poi SOKC? (?vat, J) f^airaTaff^ai. l^vc'tirg. 
Leocr. p. 154. 23. ct ^tv ovv fav ^Tvyxwfv 6 'AuiWas, tKflvov avTbv irapetx^- 
ftrjv' vvv 8c vfuv KO\U TOVS avvuSoTas. The ellipsis of av is most frequent in 
expressions which denote the idea of necessity, duty, reasonableness, possibili- 
ty, liberty, and inclination, e. g. xpyv* 5ei. *f Aoy; with verbal adjectives 
in T^OS; with irpoj^/ce, /coipbs ij v, litbs TIV, /coAbv ^v, alffXP*> v 3*9 

360 SYNTAX. [$ 260. 

_ Lys. 

123,3. XPV" Se <re, efirep $<r&a. X^TJCTTOS, TroAu fia\\ov (JLT^VVT^V yei/fa&ai ' vvv 5e 
aov TO, epya <pavepa yeyevrjrai K. r. A., you ought or you ought to have been 
(oportebat). X. C. 2. 7, 10. el per rolvvv altrxpov n e/j.e\\ov fpydaaff&ai, Sdva- 
TOV ctj/r' ouroO irpoaipereov %V vvv 5' a yuev 8o/cet KaAAurra Kal irpeirooSfo-Tepa 
ywai^lv etvai eVwrreuTat, o>s eo</ce *c. T. A., ?ors praeferenda crat. So also with 
the Inf. X. C. 1. 3, 3. of/re yap &eo?s e<pr) KO.\US ex^tv, el rats fj.eyd\ats 
&vffiai.s juaAAov % rats fffj.tKpa'is Hx<upov, for he said it would not be proper for the 
gods, if, etc. Very often without an antecedent sentence, e. g. al<rxpbv $v 
rat/To, TroieiV, tnrpe erat, it would be base, would have been; e'l^v raOra iroitlv 
licebat, it would be lawful ; KaXws e?x 6 - Comp. with the above the use of the 
Ind. in Latin, where the Subj. might have been expected, in such expressions as 
aequum, justum, rectum est, it would be proper, longum est, it would be tedious, and 
the participle in dus in the conclusion of a conditional clause, as i Roinae 
Cn. Pompeius privatus ESSEX, tamen is ERAT DELIGENDUS. 

REM. 4. In all the above expressions, however. &v can be used ; so also in 
Latin, the Subj. is sometimes found instead of the Ind. Dem. Phil. 1. 40, 1. 
et yap tn TOV irpoe\i)\v&6Tos XP^ VOV Ta Sfovra duroi ffvvefiovteva'ai', ouSei/ &i/ 
v/ vvv eSei f}ov\fve<rbai. So also in Lat. the Subj. is used instead of the 

REM. 5. The Pres. tense of xp^> &e?, Tpos-fjKei, KaA&s ex fl ^ etc -? ls used of 
things which can yet take place. Comp. possum commemorare, which implies 
that I still can do the act, and poteram commemorare, which implies that I 
cannot do it. 

REM. 6. "Av is very naturally omitted, if in the apodosis there is an Ind. 
of an historical tense of the verb K i v 8 u v v e i v, to be in danger, to seem, since 
the verb by itself implies that the action expressed by the Inf. connected with it, 
did not take place ; for what is only in danger of occurring, actually does not 
occur. Th. 3, 74. r} ir6\is ^KivSvvevffe iraffa Sia(p^apr)vai, el &ve(j.os eireyevero 
rfj (p\oyl eirityopos es avr-fjv, the whole city was or would have been in danger 
of destruction, if. Aeschin. c. Ctes. 515, R. et p.)] Sp6/j.Cf) /n6\is e^e^)vyo^.ev els 
Ae\(povs, i K ivSv vevffa/JLev eiTroAeVi^at. So if in the apodosis, o \tyov, 
fjLtKpov, rdxa-i nearly, almost, are joined with the Ind. of a historical tense 
in the concluding clause ; for what only nearly takes place, actually docs 
not take place, hence the Ind. without av is appropriate in both these cases. 
Plat. Symp. p. 198, C. eycaye ev&v/j.ov/j.ei'os, on avrbs oi>x ol6s T' ecrojuat ouS' 77^^ 
TOVTCOV ovSev Ka\bv elire'iv, vir' aio"x vvi\s 6 \iyov air 08 pas caxo/j.t]v, ei irr) elx ov i 
I had almost fled for shame, if. Without a protasis, e. g. X. Cy. 1. 4, 8. /cot TTOJS 
otairrjSwv avrq 6 VTTTTOS Tr'nrrei els yovara, Kal /j.iKpov KaKelvov e |er pax?) ^-*' 
ff e v. Comp. the Lat. prope (paene) cecidi, 1 came near falling. 

(/?) To denote that an action takes plaae (is repeated), in 
certain cases, and under certain circumstances. The his- 
torical tense in the principal clause is then commonly the 
Impf. The condition under which the action is repeated, 
is expressed by a subordinate clause with et, ore, etc. and 
the Opt. ; the condition, however, is often omitted. 

Eiirev av, he was accustomed to say, he would say as often as this or that happened, 
as often as it was necessary, and the like. X. C. 4. 6, 13. et Se TIS avry irepi TOV 
avrt \eyot, eirl r^v virfoeffiv eiravrjyev 'av iravra rbv \6yov, as often as 
one contradicted him, he would (he icas accustomed to) carry back the whole argument 
to the original proposition. 1. 3, 4. et 5e' rt 8<$etej/ avry (^uKparet) (nj/j.atveff- 

260.) MODAL ADVERB av. 361 

deu iraparuv bf&v, JjTror I* tirclffbii irapa Ta crrjuaivoufva wotjjo-ot, *; f TJJ 
ft&tj/ 68ov Aae?j/ iiytptt'o. Twp\bv OVTI /SAfVoiros. An. 2. ,3, 11. Jf TIJ 
SoKoir) TUV irpbs TOVTO TfTayptvuv ft\aK(Vftv, eTraiev fiv, //e would beat 
him. 1. 5, 2. 01 /iif UPOI, liret rts 8ta>*rot, irooS/jajUoWes ttv fffra.ffa.Vy as often at 
any one fir*til tin in, t/n-y trwiM xtajt (the Flup. having tlic sense of the Impf. 
23J, Rcm.3). 3. 4, 22.. 0>oVe Se Stdffxotfv at irAevpol TOU v\cu<riov, rb /ieVox 

\Vith the Subjunctive, to represent the future conception, 
which the Greek expresses by the Sub. [$ 257, 1, (a)], as con- 
ditional, and depending on circumstances. The following cases 
are to be distinguished : 

(a) The deliberative Subj. [$ 159, 1, (b)], takes av, though but 
seldom in direct, more frequently in indirect questions, when 
a condition is to be referred to. 

Ti VOT' kv olv \ey(a/j.ev; ( what shall we therefore say, if the thing is so ? ) 
etc. PI. L. 655, c. tyti) ycip TOVTO, S> TlpoTay6pa, OVK ^(JLI\V SiSaKTbv tlvai, ffol 8e 
\tyovriovK x w ft 5 &" avio-Tu (\.c.fio~v \fyfts), I know not how 1 could 
disbelieve it, if you say so, Prot. 319, b. *Av 8' av j)fj.fis, \c\v/j.fvr)s T^S 
yt>vpa$ ovx fov<riv licfivot, ftirov bv <pvy<i)<rtv t X. An. 2. 4, 20. Et Sc cot ^ 
SOKC?, oTcfycu, lav (i. e. ' &v) T65e <roi /iaAAoy dpeV/cp, C. 4. 4, 12. 

(b) The Subj., which is often used in the Homeric language instead of the 
Fut. Ind. ( 259, Rem. 4), is frequently found with &v, which is to be explained 
in the same manner as with the Fut. Ind. [No. 2, (1 )]. Et 8e /ce /i); Swoxrtv, tyb 
Sf Kfv avrbs e \cafj. a t II. o, 137, then I myself ivitt (without doubt) take it, less 
direct than the Fut. OVK &v TOI xpaifffiri K&apis, II. 7, 54. 

(c) In subordinate clauses. In this case, av usually stands 
with the conjunction of the subordinate clause, or combines 
with the conjunction and forms one word. 

In this way originate &v (from et &/), liray (from eirel &v), OTOV (from ore &v), 
oirorav (from oWre &v), irplv &v, o^' av, S^t av, ou av, oirov av, ol av, oirot av, fj 
av, OTTJJ av, o$tv av, 6rr6frev av, etc., fcs av (quicunque or quis),olos av, biroios av, 
go-os av, 6*6<ros av, etc. In all these expressions, a possible assumption is de- 
noted ; it is assumed that something is possible in the future ; the future occur- 
rence of it depends upon the assumption of the speaker, i. e. the speaker 
assumes and expects that it will be, e. g. tav Tovro.Keyys, if you say, shall say 
this (viz. according to my assumption, or as I expect you will), a/MpT-fiey, you 
will be urong. 

(4) With the Opt, but not with the Opt. Fut. 
(a) The Opt. with &v must always be considered as the principal clause of a 
conditional sentence, even if the condition is omitted, e. g. ff TI ex'*> 


362 SYNTAX. [$ 260. 

if you had anything, you would give it (you. may perhaps have something, and 
then you may give it to me). The Attic writers in particular, use this mode 
of expression, to denote firmly established and definite opinions and views of 
anything, and even to denote actual facts with a degree of reserve, moderation 
and modesty. A negation is here expressed by ou(/c). Her. 3, 82. ai/5pbs evbs, 
rov apiffrov (i. c. et apurros etr)) ovSev aptivov civ (pavei-rj, nothing would seem 
better than. 7, 184. &vSpes kv e?ev eV avrotai reff&epes /AvpidSes Kal efrccxn, there 
may have been two hundred and forty thousand men. 5, 9. y evoiro 8' Uv irav tv 
r<p iJ.a.Kp< xp^yw, all might happen. X. Cy. 1, 2, 11. &i)pjvTes OVK &v apiarr-f)- 
ffaiev, while hunting they would not breakfast = they do not breakfast. 13. 
iTTfiSaf ra trevre Kal f'lKOffiv err) 5iare\eff<affiv, ett]crav fj-ev &v ovroi ir\ei6v ri 
yeyov6res 77 irevr^Kovra. err] cbrb yei/eas. PI. Gorg. 502, d. Arjwyopia &pa ris 
tanv 77 Tron)TiK-f], Call. QcdveTcu. Socr. OVKOVV T] pr}TopiK^j r)/j.r)yopia &V etr). 
By the Opt. with &/, Homer [$ 339, 3, (a) (j8)] and Herodotus often denote a 
supposition respecting something that is past. Her. 9, 71. Tavra pei/ KCU $&6vta 
&/ ftvoifv, they might have said these things from envy. 1, 2. e^ffay 5' av 
ovroi KprjTcs, these might have been Cretans. 

EEM. 7. If the Opt. is used without &>, as 259, 3, (a), the action is ex- 
pressed with greater emphasis and definiteness, since the speaker has no refer- 
ence to the conditioning circumstances, which might prevent the realization of 
the thing conceived. Comp. peta &e6s 7' &4\a>v Kal rr)\6^ev avSpa a a d> a a. <, 
the propitious deity, I THINK, CAN save, Od. 7, 231, and ffa&ffai &v, COULD, 
MIGHT save, if he wished. Hence the omission of &v in the freer language of 
poetry, is far more frequent than in prose, which has more regard to the actual 
relation of the things described. 

(b) So also the Opt. is used with av, as a more modest and 
mild expression of a command or request, since the thing de- 
sired is represented as dependent on the will of the person 
addressed and is thereby made conditional. Here also a nega- 
tion is expressed by <W(K). 

PI. Phaedr. 227, c. \eyois &v instead of \eye (properly, you may speak, if you 
choose). Tim. 19, o. OKOUOIT* Uv f/5r) TO. /j.Th raura irepl rrjs iro\neias, you 
might hear then, instead of hear then. S. El. 1491. -^(apois &v, you might go. II. 
, 250. with a degree of irony, Qepfflr' fox* " yty 7^ " 6/0 <p"nij.l- x P et ^' 
repay fipor'bv &XXov f/j./itfvai * T< OVK &V ficuriXTJas avh ffrdfj,' excoy ay ope v- 
Ois, Kai fffyiv ovfiSed re Trpotpepois, v6ffrov re fyvX&ffff o is! instead of fj.rj 
aydpeve, etc., you should not harangue, nor be heaping up reproaches, etc. In the form 
of a question, X. Hier. 1, 1. a.p &v pot e&e\-f)ffats, 3> 'lepcav, $ir)yf](ra.(r&ai, & 
et/cbs elSevai <re fieXnov e/ioD ; would you be inclined, viz., if I should ask you. With 
ov in the form of a question, II. e, 456. OVK &v &-/? roVS' &vo~pa, ^X 7 ? 5 epvffcuo 
HeTe\&ci>i' ; might you not, could you not restrain the man, instead of, restrain him. 
In a sharper and more urgent tone as an exclamation, II. w, 263. OVK tcv S^i 
fjioi^av e(poTr\l ffcraire Tax^Ta, ravrd re ira.vr' eiri^e'ire, 'tva. 
would you not get ready the chariot, if I commanded it ? 

$ 'J60.] MODAL ADVERB ay. 3G3 

(c) The Optative with av has the same force in interrogative 
as in other sentences, and may commonly be translated by the 
auxiliaries can, could, would. 

II. o>, 367. tt rls fft ftoiTO . . , rls kv o-f) roi v6os Jfrj ,- how ivould you then feel 9 
II. r, 90. oXAa rt K<V p^aifJLi ; what could Idol S. Ph. 1393. rl OTJT' &i/ r^m* 
Spupfy; Dem. Phil. 1, p. 43, 10. \cyeral TI K<uv6v; yfvoiro ykp &v n Kcuvd- 
repay, 1) Mcuc5a>i> dj/ty) 'Adijfa/ot/s /carairoAe^wv ; can there be any stranger news 
than ? 

REM. 8. Comp. wo? ns (jxvyei ; whither does one flee ? Arist. Pint. 438. trot 
TIS (f>vyoi ; whither may one flee f (more definite than with &v). Eur. Or. 598. 
TO? TIS 6.v <f>vyot ; tchither would one flee ? whither could one flee, f where in the. 
icorld could he flee ? S. Aj. 403. irol -m olv Qvyrj ; whither shall one flee or is one 
to flee, f 

(d) The Dramatists, particularly, often express a wish, in the 
form of a question, by TTWS and the Optative with av, it being 
asked how something might, could, would take place under a 
given condition. 

Soph. Aj. 338. & Zeu, ircDs &v TOV cdfj.v\u>TaToi> . . oAeWos T*\OS bttvoi/ju 
Kavr6s ; how might, could, would I die ? instead of, that I might die ! Eur. Ale. 
867. irus &v oAof/iTjy; PI. Euthyd. 275, c. irs &f KO\WS trot Siijyrjffat- 
/i 77 v ; how can I appropriately describe to you ? that I could! 

REM. 9. But the Opt. in itself, as the expression of a wish, does not take 
the conditioning adverb &v [$ 259,3, (b)]. II. 281. 8>s KC ol afoi ya?a x<*"<>* 
is not properly expressed as a wish, but as a doubtful condition, thus (&s = 
the earth should then open for him. 

(5) The Inf. and Part, take av (/ce), when the finite verb, which 
stands instead of the Inf. and Part., would take it : 

(a) The Inf. with &v after verba sentiendi and declarandi, consequently the Inf. 
Pres. and Aor. with &v, instead of the Ind. Pres. and Aor. with &v, or instead of 
the Opt. Impf. and Aor. with &v in direct discourse; the same principle holds 
when the Inf. is used as a substantive. The Inf. Perf. with &v instead of the 
Ind. and Opt. Plup. with &v, is more seldom. The Inf. Fut. with &v is rare in 
Attic ; instead of it the Inf. Aor. or even the Pres. with 6.v is commonly used. 

E? rt fTxey, Itynj, So vv at & v ( Oratio recta : tl rt eix ov i eSwKo Hv), he said that 
if he had anything, he would have given it, dixit. se, si quid habuisset, daturum fuisse. 
Ef TJ tx'> ^j Sowai &v (Or. recta : tfrt exotjUj Soitjv &v), dixit, se, si quid haberet, 
daturum, esse. 'Eyca $OKO> SSKUKIS & v Kara rrjs yJjs Karaovvai 7/5ioi/, ^) 0^)1^77- 
vai o'vTQ} Ta.iTfii/6s, X. Cv. 5. 5, 9 (Or. recta: SCKO-KIS by airo&dvoim 9)5iov, # 
6<pi$fiTjv), methinks I would rather sink ten times beneath the earth, than to be seen in 
this humble condition. 'Hyoufjicu . . OVK bv aKplrovs avrovs air<a\o\fva.i, a\\k 
T^V irpos^Kovffay SI'KTJJ/ SfScaKfvai, Lys . 27,8 (Or. recta : OVK &v oiroXwAe- 
ffav tSfSunteffav &v). Ofyai yap OVK by axapio-rus /JLOI e f i v, I think you 
ivould not be unthankful to me, if I entreated the king, etc., ( Or. recta : OVK &v dx a * 

364 SYNTAX. [$ 261. 

xotre or ff\o(-r\T^^ but not c^oire, see No. 4). "Oa-ca yap neifa 
Svvafj.iv ex t V WC>7, TO<TQVTU> fj.a\\ov &z/ yy-fiffaTO avrrjv Kal KO.T airh-fj^eiv robs 
7roA.iTas, K. L. 8, 3. Tlcas ex els nphs T& e&e'A.eip &j/ ifvai aKXrjTos eirl Sftirvov] 
(the same as mis ex ets irpbs TOVTO ori f&f\ois Uv teWt &K\T]TOS eVl Sern-j/oi/;) 
PI. Symp. 174, b. Ei ouy Aey<u/u, eu olS', 8rt Srj/XTjyopeTj/ #j> ^e ^OITJS, PI. 
R. 350, e. 

HEM. 10. In Latin the conditioned Inf. is expressed as follows : 
ypd<peiv &v = scripturum esse, yeypa(pvai av = scripturum fuisse, 
av = (a) scripturum fuisse, or (b) as Pres., scripturum esse, 
&v = scripturum fore. 

(b) The Participle with &v after verba sentiendi, or when the Participle takes 
the place of an adverbial subordinate clause. The same principles hold here 
as with the Inf. The Put. Part, with &v is rare in Attic Greek (the reading is 
commonly doubtful when it occurs) : instead of the Fut. Part., the Aor. or 
even the Pres. with &/, is generally used. 

Her. 7, 15. evpiffKw Se w5e &j/ yiv6(j.fva ravra, et \dfiois rfc tyfc ffKev^v 
(reperio, sic haec FDTURA ESSE, si sumas vestes meets). X. C. 2. 2, 3. of Tr6\tts 
firl rots fjLfyiffrois a^iK^acri frinlav &O.VO.TOV TreiroiTjKaanv, ws OVK &y fj.Gtoi>os KO.KOV 
(p6fi(p T))V aSiKiav Travcrovres (existimantes se non gravioris mali metu injuriam 
COERCITUROS FORE, thinking that they could deter from crime by the fear of no 
greater evil). Th. 6,38. ot/re ovra, o#re Uv yfv6fj.fva \oyoiroiovffiv (i. e. & 
oisre tffriv, ot/r' tiv y 4 v o i r o, they fabricate what neither is nor will be). Isocr. 
Phil. 133. Eu fofri ^TjSev &v p.e TOVTUV eTTj%etp^(Toj'Ta (re Treti^etj/, t Swaff- 
Tfiav i*.6vov KOL irXovrov f(t>put> e avrtaf r yfvr}<r6/j.evo)' (= tin sir f% f ' l P'n ffa ' &*) 
PI. Phil. 52, c. 5ia.KeKpifj.fSa X^P^ 5 Tc ^ s Te KaSapas fjSovas Kal ras (TX^ 5bv aKa&dp- 
rovs op&as &y \X& f l ffas ( == Ka ^ S ffX f ^ v o-KdSaproi opb&s fe*' \X& f ? l ')' 
So, also, with the case absolute : X. An. 5. 2, 8. ^/coTm-TO, ir&repov eJfrj Kpeirrov 
curdy f tv Kal rovs SiajSejSTjKcJros, ^ Kal rovs 6ir\'iTas 5iaf3Lf3d^iv, &s a\6vTos &J/ 
TOV x <a p' i v ( = vofj-ifav, OTI rb -^fiov a A. 0(77 &v). 

261. Position and Repetition of av. "Av without a 


1. With the combination mentioned in 260, (3), c., as t>s &v, irp\v &v, small 
particles like Se, re, /teV, ydp, sometimes come between, e. g. &s 8' &v. 

2. As &v represents the predicate as conditional, it ought properly to be joined 
with the predicate, e. g. \fyoi/j.i av, t\fyov av ; yet it commonly follows that 
member of a sentence which is to be made emphatic, e. g. PI. Crito. 53, c. 
Kal OVK o?et affxtlpoi' & " <pave?(r&ai rb TOV SCOK/XXTOUS Trpay/J.a. Hence it is 
regularly joined to such words also as change the idea of the sentence, viz., to 
negative adverbs and interrogatives, c. g. OVK av y ouS' &v, ov-irar* av, ovSeVor' av, 
etc. ris &v, ri av, T( S' av, ri Srjr' av, irws av, TTWS yap av, ap av, etc.; also 
to adverbs of place, time, manner, and other adverbs, which, in various ways 
modify the expression contained in the predicate and define it more exactly, 


6. g. ^rraCda av, r6r' /, thArus &v, ICTUS &v, TO.\ 

&v, (rxo\fj &v, patiiws if, ^(rr' 4i>, rdxurr' 6.v, crQoty &v, 7?5'j i>, K&V (instead 

of Kal v, etiam, iW), etc. 

REMARK 1. In certain constructions, the &v belonging to the Opt. is re- 
moved from the dependent clause, and joined with the principal clause ; this 
is particularly the cnse in the phrase, OVK o'iS' &i> '. PI. Tim. 26, h. lyu ydp, 

RKM. 2. In certain parenthetic sentences, the Hv belonging to the Opt is 
placed first; thus particularly, &v TIS ?TTOJ, <j>cdr). PL Phaed. 87, a. ri olv (,) tu/ 
<f>airj 6 \6yos ( , ) TJ a.irio'Tt'is ; 

3. "Av is very often repeated in the same sentence (/ce very seldom). The 
reason of this is two-fold: 

(a) It is used once at the beginning of the sentence, in order to show, in 
the outset, that the predicate is conditional. This is particularly the case, 
when the principal sentence is divided by intervening subordinate clauses, or 
when several words precede the conditioned verb to which &/ belongs. &ST* 
fo, < ffbtvos \d&oi/j.t STJXWO-CU/H' kv oV aitro7s Qpovu, S. El. 333. 

(b) The second reason is a rhetorical one. "Ay is joined with the word 
which requires to be made emphatic. If the rhetorical emphasis belongs to 
several words in one sentence, Hv can be repeated with each. But besides this, 
&v can be again placed after the conditioned verb to which it properly belongs. 
PL Apol. 35, d. ffatyws yap &i>, tl ire&ot/it u/ias, deous & v SiSacr/coi/ut ^ 
iiyfi<T&cu vfj.a.5 flvou. Eur. Troad. 1244. a <p affix &v ovrts OVK &</ ^ftPif&Ci/cci' 
&v Movacus. 

REM. 3. Homer sometimes joins the weaker e with &v, in order to make 
the conditionality or contingency still more prominent. II. v, 127, sq. 
, as ofrr* &v KCV "Aprjs ov6<rairo f\&ii>v, otire 

4. 'A.v is very frequently found with a conjunction or a relative without a 
verb, when the verb can be easily supplied from the context ; thus especially 
& s &v, >siTfp 6.v et, IT MS yap av, TrSts 5* OVK &v y Ssirep &v and the 
like. &ofiov/j.fvos, &sirep kv fl vats (i. C. &sirep kv ^o^SoIro, ft vous el?;), PL 
Gorg. 479, a. 


262. The Attributive Construction. 

Attributives serve to explain more definitely the idea 
contained in the substantive to which they belong, e. g. 
TO K a \ o v po'Bov, o /j, e 7 a ? Trat?. The attributive may be : 

a. An adjective or participle, e. g. TO ica\ov poBov, TO 
Sr a X X o v a^o? ; 


366 SYNTAX. [$ 263. 

b. A substantive in the genitive, e. g. ol rov Sev&pov 

c. A substantive with a preposition, e.g. rj TT p o s rrjv 

7T X I V 656? J 

d. An adverb, e. g. ol vvv av^pcoTroi ; 

e. A substantive in apposition, e. g. Kpola-os, o 

263. Ellipsis of the Substantive to which the 
Attributive belongs.. 

When the substantive which is to be more fully explained by the attributive, 
contains a general idea, or one which can be easily supplied from the context, 
or is indicated by some word of the sentence, or, by frequent usage in a particu- 
lar connection, may be supposed to be known, then the substantive, as the 
less important member in the attributive relation, is often omitted, and the 
adjective or participle becomes a substantive. Substantives which are often 
omitted with attributive adjectives, are : &*&pcoiros, fobpiairoi, av-rjp, avSpts, yvv-i], 
Pyf*** XPtpa-, irpay^a, Trpdynara, rj/J-fpa, 777, X^P a -> M-o7pa, 66s, x*' l P> 
\J/y)4>os, Te^j/Tj, ir6\e/j.os, etc. ; those omitted with the attributive genitive are : 
Tar-ftp, p-fiT-np, vlos, irais, bvydrrip, oSeAcfxk, avf)p (husband), yvirf] (wife), ot/cia, 
olwor, x^P a > TV (land). The substantive is omitted with the following classes 
of words : 

a. The attributive adjective, adjective pronoun, and participle. 

(a) Such as denote persons : of &vr)roi, mortales; ol ffotyoi, ol (instead 
of yoveis) : ol exovres, the rich; ol fyvXarrovTes (^uAawes) ; ol 5t/cc{bj/Tes, judges ; 
ol \fyoirrfs, orators, etc. 

(j8) Such as denote names of things : (a) appellatives : T& ^erepa (xpfoaTa), res 
nostrac ; TO e/no, res meae, everything which relates to me ; TO Ka\d, res pulchrae ; TO 
KO/CO, mala ( 243, 4), rj vo-repaia, r) ^irtovo-a, T] irptaTt], Sevrfpa, etc. (r}/j.fpa) ; i) 
Tro\f/j.ia (x^pa), the enemy's country ; 77 0tXto, a friendly country ; 77 otVouiuewj (77?), 
the inhabited earth ; 77 &vvpos (777), a desert ; ij cui^eTo (6S({s) ; rfyv Taxio~Tif]v, quam 
celerrime ; Trjv to"riv (fioTpav) etTroStSoj/ot ; 77 irfirpoj^vi] (po'ipa) ; 77 Se^ta, 77 apio'Tepd 
(X 6t/ P)j ^ viKtaffa. ( yvci>iJ.r) ); T^V tvavTiav ( tyrityov) Ti&fff&cu; 77 pyropiirfi (rex 1 ^)' 

(b) Abstracts : T& Ka\6v, T^I 070^^, or ra.ya&6v, the beautiful, the good ; TO 
euTi/xe'y, good fortune; rb avalo-^-r}Tov t want of feeling ; rb Koiv6v, the common- 
wealth (e. g. TU>V "2,a.(}v) ; -TO frapffovv, confidence. 

(c) Collective nouns denoting persons: T& Ivavriov, the enemy ; rb VTT^KOOV, 
the subjects. Adjectives in -IKOV especially belong here, e. g. rb iroXninov, the 
citizens; rb oirXiriKov, the heavy armed; T> oiKfTiK6i>, the servants; rb 'E\\t]viKou, 
Tb &ap0aptK6v, Ti> iTTTTjK^, etc. The plural of adjectives of this ending is often 
used to denote a number, collection, or series of single events, e. g. TO Tywi'/ca, 
the Trojan war ; TO 'EAA.Tjvi/ca, the Grecian history; TO, ^ovTi/ca, naval war, but also 
naval affairs. . 


b. The attributive genitive also is used without the governing substantive, 
e. g. *AA'{cu'5/)os, 6 *iAnnroi; (vl6s), Mcua 77 "ArAorros (birydrrip) ; then with the 
prepositions V, tls and IK with the Gen. of a person to denote his abode, e. g. 
iv aSov (ofctu) tivai; tls a'5ot (olxov) ^A&eu> ; (Is S<5cur/caAa>i' <pona.v, to go to the 

rs; fls U^druvos Qoirav, irtfjLVfiv, to go or send to Plato's ; IK 

PI. Protag. 32G, c. to leave school ; fls T^V Kvpov (yriv) 
TO. TTJJ TUX?S, the events of fortune ; rek TTJS ir6\tws, the affairs of state ; TO. rov 
*o\tfu>v, the whole extent of the war ; r& 'A&Tji/afwj' <J>poi/e?j/, ab Atheniensium par- 
tibits stare; rek TT)S opyTJs-, TO TTJS (/juretpias, rb ruv lir&vfjLiwv (that which pertains 
to anger, the nature or essence of anger, etc.) ; rb TUV iraiScw, the custom of boys; 
TO TUV aAtc'wr. 

c. The attributive adverb is used without a substantive, e. g. 01 vvv t ol rore, oi 
ireUoi, o/ tvddSf l&v&pcairoi), TO. olnoi (irpd'yfj.a.Ta), res domesticae, 77 irjs, (^jucpa), 
the following day, etc. 

d. The attributive substantive or substantive pronoun with the preposition 
by which it is governed, e. g. ol KO& was, ol ty' four, our contemporaries ; oi 
a/j.(j)l or trtpi riva, e. g. riAarw^o, signifies (a) a person with his companions, 
followers, or scholars ; of i/*^l TIcuriffTpaTov, Pisistratus and his troops ; ol a/j.<pl 

, T/iales and other philosophers of his school ; *Apa At'-yeis rfyv rfov i&ewj/ 
ol ire pi Kfxpova 8 1* apeTTj*' $Kplva.V) which Cecrops and his tribunal 
on account of their excellence, decided, X. C. 3. 5, 10. (b) more seldom the com- 
panions, followers, or scholars alone, without the person named. Further, ol 
o-vv TII/I, ol fjLfrd rivos, the followers, etc. of any one ; ol inr6 nvt, Hie subjects of 
any one ; ol avo TWOS, asseclae, or descendants of one ; ol eV turret 5 ot irfpl (piXoffo- 
<piav ; ol irtpl T^V frfipav ; ot ap.(pl TOP ir^Ae/xo*', etc. ; T^ itapd TWOS, intelligence 
respecting any one, or commands of any one, ; TO Kar' e/t, TO eV ^fi, as far as in 
my power, as far as in me lies. 

$ 264. a. Attributive Adjective. 

1. The attributive adjective (participle, adjective pronoun 
and numeral), expresses a quality which belongs to an object, 
as the beautiful and blooming rose. On the agreement of the 
adjective with the word which it defines, see 240. 

E EM ARK 1. The participles Xfyopfvos and Ka\ov/j.evos are used, where the 
Latin has md didtttr, vocatur, quern dicunt, vocant, etc., and the English the 
phrase so-called, as it is called, are called, etc., e. g. AoKeScu/uoVtoi T'OV Ifpov K aAo u- 
fitvov ir6\ffji.ov f<TTpdTfv(rav (the /Sacred war, as it is called, or the so-called Sacred 
war). Th. 1, 112. 2KOira>>, OTTUS 6 /caAov ptvo s VTTO TUV aotyun&v K6cr/j.os f<pv 
(the K 6a p.os as it is called by tlie sophists), X. C. 1. 1, 11. 

HUM. 2. It has already been stated ( 245, Rem. 5), that the adjectives 
ij.f<ros, effxaros, must in certain cases be translated into English by 

KI;M. 3. Many personal nouns which denote an employment, station or 
age, arc treated as adjectives, and the word ariip is joined with them, if the 
man is to be considered in relation to his employment, station or age ; but 

368 SYNTAX. [$ 264. 

the word ariip is omitted,, if the man is considered as merely performing 
the duties of a particular office or employment. Thus avrjp fiavrts signifies a 
man who is by profession a prophet, and H.O.VTIS without dj/rjp, a man who, for 
the time being, acts as a pi-ophet ; thus av^p )8a<, avfy rvpavvos, avty TTOI- 
itojj/, av^p p-hrup, avfy 7rpe<7j8uT7)S, ai%) veavias, ypavs yvrf), etc. ; also in the 
respectful form of address among the Attic orators and historians, e. g. frvSpfs 
HiKcuTTai, &v8pes arpaTiarat. So likewise with national names, e. g. ai^p 'A&T?- 
vaios, 'AjSSTjpiTTjs. This usage is still more extensive in poetry. See Larger 
Grammar, Part II. 477. 

2. When two or more attributive adjectives belong to a sub- 
stantive, the relation is two-fold. The relation is: (a) coordinate, 
when each adjective is equally a more full explanation of the 
substantive ; then the adjectives are commonly connected by 
Kat, re Kat; where there are several adjectives, the con- 
nective is used only before the last ; (b) subordinate, when a 
substantive with one of the adjectives forms, as it were, a 
single idea, and is more definitely defined by another adjective. 
In this case there is no connective between the two adjec- 
tives. The subordinate relation occurs particularly when pro- 
nouns, numerals, adjectives of time, place, and material are 
joined with other adjectives. 

ayc&bs Kal <ro<bs car^p -f^v. H o \ \ o I ayc&ol &u5pes or IT o \ \ o I 
aya&ol KOI ao<pol fodpss. Ho\\a KaXa epya. 'O e p. b s eratpos ffo$>6s. 
OUT os 6 avT)p aya&ds. Tpe?y a-ya^ot &v8pes. Tb irpurov ita\bv irpayfMa. 
Od. *, 322, sq. tVrbs vrfbs fino<r6poio ne\aivi]s. 

EEM. 4. The numeral iro\\oi is used in Greek, like multi in Latin, 
generally in the coordinate relation, and in this way the idea of plurality is 
made emphatic, while the English commonly uses the subordinate, e. g. iroXXa 
Koi KoAa e/xya, multa et praedara facinora. The Greek and Latin is many and 
noble deeds, the English commonly many noble deeds. 

REM. 5. In the Greek, the attributive adjective very frequently takes the 
force of a substantive, and the substantive to which the adjective properly 
belongs, is put in the attributive genitive. Here the following cases are to 
be distinguished : 

a. The substantive stands with the plural adjective which takes the gender 
of the substantive, e. g. of XPW 7 " * r <*v avSp&irow ; TO. (nrouSaia T&V irpay/J.aTcai'. 

b. The adjective which becomes a substantive is sometimes in the Neut. 
Sing., sometimes also in the Neut. PI. Th.