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Full text of "A grammar of the Hebrew language"

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Iro 



Hugh S. Robertson Esq. 






GEAMMAR 



OF THE 



HEBREW LANGUAGE. 




BY 

AVILLIAM HENRY GREEN, 

PEOFESSOR IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AT PRINCETON, N. J. 



THIRD EDITION, 



XEW YORK: 

JOHN WILEY. & SON, PUBLISHERS, 

2 Clinton Hall, Astor Place. 

1871. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year of 1861, by 

JOnX WILEY, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 



PREFACE. 



This work was begun at the instance of my friend, 
preceptor, and colleague, Dr. J. Addison Alexander. The 
aid of his counsels and suggestions was freely promised in 
the undertaking ; and he was to give to it the sanction of 
his name before the public. It appears shorn of these ad- 
vantages. A few consultations respecting the general plan 
of Ihe book and the method to be observed in its prepara- 
tion, were all that could be had before this greatest of 
American orientalists and scholars was taken from us. De- 
prived thus early of his invaluable assistance, I have yet 
found a melancholy satisfaction in the prosecution of a task 
begun under such auspices, and which seemed still to link 
me to one with whom I count it one of the greatest blessings 
of my life to have been associated. 

The grammatical system of Gesenius has, from causes 
which can readily be explained, had a predominance in this 
country to which it is not justly entitled. The grammar of 
Prof. Stuart, for a long time the text-book in most common 
use, Avas substantially a reproduction of that of Gesenius. 
Nordheimer was an adherent of the same system in its essen- 
tial features, though he illustrated it with wonderful clearness 
and philosophical tact. And finally, the smaller grammar of 
Gesenius became current in the excellent translation of Prof. 
Conant. Now, while Gesenius is unquestionably the prince 
of Hebrew lexicographers, Lwald is as certainly entitled to 



IV PREFACE. 

the precedence among grammarians ; and the latter cannot 
be ignored Idj him who would appreciate correctly the exist- 
ing state of oriental learninor. 

The present work is mainly based upon the three leading 
grammars of Gesenius, Ewald, and Nordheinier, and the at- 
tempt has been made to combine whatever is valuable in 
each. For the sake of a more complete survey of the history 
of opinion, the grammars of R. Chayug, R. Kimchi, Reuch- 
]in, Buxtorf, Schultens, Simonis, Robertson, Lee, Stier, 
Hupfeld, Freytag, Nagelsbach, and Stuart, besides others of 
less consequence from Jewish or Cliristian sources, have also 
been consulted to a greater or less extent. The author 
has not, however, contented himself vrith an indolent com- 
pilation ; but, while availing himself freely of the labours 
of his predecessors, he has sought to maintain an independ- 
ent position by investigating the whole subject freshly and 
thoroughly for himself. His design in the following pages 
has been to reflect the phenomena of the language precisely 
as they are exhibited in the Hebrew Bible ; and it is be- 
lieved that this is more exactly accomplished than it has been 
in any preceding grammar. The rule was adopted at the 
outset, and rigorously adhered to, that no supposititious 
forms should be admitted, that no example should be al- 
leged which is not found in actual use, that no statement 
should be made and no rule given the evidence of which had 
not personally been subjected to careful scrutiny. Thus, for 
example, before treating of any class of verbs, perfect or im- 
perfect, every verb of that description in the language was 
separately traced through all its forms as shown by a con- 
cordance ; tlie facts were thus absolutely ascertained in the 
first instance before a single paradigm was prepared or a 
word of explanation written. 

Some may be disposed, at first, to look suspiciously 
upon the triple division of the Hebrew vowels, adopted 



PREFACE. 



from Ewald, as an innovation: further reflection, however, 
will show that it is the only division consistent with ac- 
curacy, and it is really more ancient than the one which 
commonly prevails. 

The importance of the accent, especially to the proper 
understanding of the vowels of a word and the laws of 
vowel-changes, is such that the example of Ewald has been 
followed in constantly marking its position by an appropriate 
sign. He uses a Methegh for tiiis purpose, which is objec- 
tionable on account^ of the liability to error and confusion 
when the same sign is used for distmct purposes. The use 
of any one of the many Hebrew accents would also be liable 
to objection, since they not only indicate the tone syllable, 
but have besides a conjunctive or disjunctive force, which it 
would be out of place to suggest. Accordingly, a special 
symbol has been employed, analogous to that which is in use 
in our own and other languages, thus Vjjp hatal' . 

The remarks upon the consecution of poetic accents 
were in type before the appearance of the able discussion of 
that subject by Baer, in an appendix to the Commentary of 
Delitzsch upon the Psalms. The rules of Baer, however, 
depend for their justification upon the assumption of the 
accurate accentuation of his own recent edition of the He- 
brew Psalter, which departs in numerous instances from the 
current editions as they do in fact from one another. Inas- 
much as this is a question which can only be settled by 
manuscripts that are not accessible in this country, it seems 
best to wait until it has been tested and pronounced upon 
by those who are capable of doing so. What has here been 
written on that subject, has accordingly been suffered to re- 
main, imperfect and unsatisfactory as it is. 

The laws which regulate the formation of nouns have 
been derived from Ewald, with a few modifications chiefly 
tending to simplify them. 



VI PREFACE. 

The declensions of nouns, as made out by Gesenius, 
have the merit of affording a convenient and tolerably 
complete classification of their forms and of the changes 
to which each is linble. Nordheimer al^andoned them 
for a method of his own, in which he aimed at greater 
simplicity, but in reality rendered the subject more per- 
plexed. The system of Ewald is complicated witli the 
derivation and formation of nouns, from which their 
subsequent modifications are quite distinct. The fact 
is, however, that there are no declensions, properly 
speaking, in Hebrew; and the attempt to foist upon the 
language what is alien to its nature, embarrasses the subject 
instead of relieving it. A few general rules respecting the 
vowel-changes, which are liable to occiu- in different kinds 
of syllables, solve the whole mystery, and are all that the 
case requires or even admits. 

In the syntax the aim has been to develop not so much 
what is common to the Hebrew with other languages, as 
what is characteristic and distinctive of the former, those 
points being pai'ticularly dwelt upon which are of chief im- 
portance to the interpreter. 

In the entire work special reference has been had to the 
wants of theoloo;ical students. The author has endeavoured 
to make it at once elementary and thorough, so that it might 
both ser\-e as a manual for beginners and yet possess all that 
completeness which is demanded by riper scholars. The 
parts of most immediate importance to those commencing 
the study of the language are distinguished by being printed 
in large type. 



Peixceton, August 22rf, 1S61. 



OOIsTTEXTS. 



PAET I.— OKTHOGRAPHY. 

Divisions of Grammar, §1. 

OETHOGEAPniC SYMBOLS. 

The Letters. — Alphabet, § 2 ; Sounds, § 3 ; Double forms, § 4 ; Xames, 

§ 5 ; Order, § 6 ; Classification, § 7 ; Words never divided, § 8 ; 

Abbreviations and Signs of Xumber, § 9. 
The Vowels. — Masoretic Points, §10; Vowel Letters, |11; Signs for the 

Vowels, §12; Mutual Relation of this twofold dotation, §gl3, 14; 

Pure and Diphthongal Vowels, § 15. 
Sh'va, silent and vocal, simple and compound, § 16. 
Pattahh Furtive, § 17. 
Syllables, § 18. 
Ambiguous Signs. — Hhirik, Shurek, and Kibbuts, §19.1; Kamets and 

Kamets-Hhatuph, § 19. 2 ; Silent and Vocal Sh'va, §20. 
Points affectixg Coxsonaxts: — Daghesh-lene, §§21, 22. 

Daghesh-forte, § 23 ; ditferent kinds, § 24 ; omission of, § 25. 
Mappik, §26. 
Raphe, §27. 
PoufTS ATTACHED TO WoRDS. — Acceuts, their design, § 28 ; forms and 

classes, §29; like forms distinguished, §30; poetic accents, §81; 

position as determined by the character of the syllables, §32. 1; in 

unintlected words, § 32. 2. 3 ; with affixes, suffixes and prefixes, § 33 ; 

use in distinguishing words, § 34 ; shifted in special cases, § 35. 
Consecution of the Accents in Prose. — Clauses and their subdivisions, 

§ 36 ; tabular view, § 37 ; explnnation of the table, § 38 ; adaptation of 

the trains of accents to sentences, § 39. 



Vm CONTEXTS. 

Poetic Consecution. — Clauses and their subdivisions, §40; tabular view 
and explanation, § 41 ; adai^tation of the trains of accents to sen- 
tences, §42. 

Makkeph, §43. 

Methegh, its form and position, §44; special rules, §45; KVi and 
K'thibh, meaning of the terms, § 46 ; constant K'ris not noted in the 
margin, § 47 ; their design and value, § 48. 

Accuracy of the points, § 49. 

OETHOGEAPHIC CHANGES. 

Significant mutations belong to the domain of the lexicon, §§ 50. 51 ; eu' 
phonic mutations to the domain of grammar, § 52. 

Mutations of Coxsoxaxts at the beginning of syllables, § 53 ; at the close 
of syllables, §54; at the end of words, §55 ; special rules, §56. 

CnAXGES OF Consonants to Vowels in reduplicated syllables and letters 
and in quiescents, § 57. 

Mutations of Vowels, significant and euphonic, §58; due to syllabic 
changes, § 59 ; to contiguous gutturals, § 60 ; to concurrent conso- 
nants, § 61 ; concurring vowels, § 62 ; proximity of vowels. § 63 ; the 
accent, § 04 ; pause accents, § 65 ; shortening or lengthening of 
words, §66. 



PAET II.— ETYMOLOGY. 

Roots of TToeds. — Design of Etymology,- three stages in the growth of 

words, §67; pronominal and verbal roots, §68; formation and 

infiection of words by external and internal changes, § 69 ; parts of 

speech, §70. 

Pronouns personal, § 71 ; pronominal sufiixes, § 72 ; demonstrative, § 73 ; 

relative, § 74 ; interrogative and indefinite, § 75. 
Veebs, the species and their signification, §§ 76-80. 

Peefect Veebs, § 81 ; formation of the species, §§82,83; their inflection, 
§§ 84, 85. 1 ; paradigm of bip. § 85. 2. 
Semarks on the Perfect Verbs. — Kal preterite, § 86 ; Infinitive, § 87 ; 
Future, § 88 ; Imperative, S 89 ; Participles, § 90 : Xiphal, S 91 ; Piel, 
§92; Pual, §93; Hiphil, ?94; Hophal, §95; Hithpael, §96. 
Paragogic and Apocopated Future, § 97 ; and Imperative, § 98. 
Vav Conversive with the Future, § 99 ; with the Preterite, § 100. 
Verbs with suflSxes, §§ 101, 102 ; paradigm, § 103 ; Remarks on the Per- 
fect Verbs with sufiixes, Preterite, § 104; Future, §105; Infinitive 
and Imperative, § 106. 
Impeefect Verbs, classified. § 107. 

Pe Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, §§108, 109; paradigm, §110; 
Remarks, §§111-115. 



CONTENTS. iX 

Ayin Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, §116; paradigm, §117; Ee- 
marks, §§118-122. 

Lamedli Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, § 123 ; paradigm, § 124 ; 
Remarks, §§ 125-128. 

Pe Nun Verbs, their peculiarities, § 129 ; paradigm, § 130 ; Remarks, 
§§131, 132. 

Ayiu Doubled Verbs, their peculiarities, §§133-137; paradigm, §138; 
Remarks, §§ 139-142. 

Pe Yodh Verbs, their peculiarities, §§ 143-145 ; paradigm, § 146 ; Re- 
marks, §§ 147-151. 

Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh Verbs, their peculiarities, §§ 152-154 ; para- 
digm, §155 ; Remarks, §§ 156-161. 

Lamedh Aleph Verbs, their peculiarities, § 162 ; paradigm, § 163; Re- 
marks, §§164-167. 

Lamedh He Verbs, their peculiarities, §§168, 169; paradigm, §170; 
shortened future and imperative, § 171 ; Remarks, §§ 172-177. 

Doubly Imperfect Verbs, § 178. 

Defective Verbs, § 17&. 

Quadriliteral Verbs, § 180. 
Nouns, their formation, §181; Class I. §§182-186; Class 11. §§187, 188; 
Class III. §§189-192; Class IV. §§193, 194; Multiliterals, §195. 

Gender and Number. — Feminine endings, § 196 ; anomalies in the use of, 
§197; employment in the formation of words, §198; plural end- 
ings, § 199 ; anomalies, § 200 ; nouns confined to one number, § 201 ; 
Dual ending, § 202 ; usage of the dual, § 203 ; changes consequent 
upon affixing the endings for gender and number, §§ 206-211. 

The Construct State, its meaning and formation, §§ 212-216. 

Declension of Nouns, paradigm, §217. 

Paragogic Vowels added to Nouns, §§218, 219. 

Nouna with suffixes, §§ 220, 221 ; paradigm, § 222. 
Numerals.— Cardinal numbers, §§223-226; Ordinals, etc., §227. 
Peefixed Particles, §228; the Article, §229: the Interrogative, § 230 ; 

Inseparable prepositions, §§ 231-233 ; Vav Conjunctive, § 234. 
Separate Particles. — Adverbs, §235 ; with suflSxes, §236; Prepositions, 
§237; with sufl5xes, § 238 ; Conjunctions, §239 ; Interjections, § 240. 



PART III.— SYNTAX. 



OflSce of Syntax, § 241. 1 ; Elements of the sentence, §241. 2. 

The Subject, a noun or pronoun, § 242 ; when omitted, § 243 ; its exten- 
sion, §244. 

The Article, when used, § 245 ; nouns definite without it, § 246 ; omitted 
in poetry, § 247 ; indefinite nouns, § 248. 

Adjectives and Demonstratives qualifying a noun, § 249. 



X CONTENTS. 

Numerals. — Cardinal numbers, §§250, 251 ; Ordinals, etc., §252. 

Apposition, §253. 

The Construct state and Suffixes, §§25^^-256; resolved by the preposition h 
§257. 

The Predicate, Copula, § 258 ; Nouns, adjectives, and demonstratives, § 259. 

Comparison of adjectives, § 260. 

Verls. — Hebrew conception of time, § 261 ; the primary tenses : use of th© 
preterite, §262 ; the future, § 263 ; paragogic and apocopated future, 
§264; the secondary tenses, § 265 ; participles, §266; Infinitive, 
§§267-269. 

Olject of Verbs. — The direct object of transitive verbs, §270 ; transitive con- 
struction of intransitive verbs, § 271 ; indirect object of verbs, § 272 ; 
verbs with more than one object, § 273. 

Adverbs and adverbial expressions, § 274. 

Neglect of agreement, § 275 ; compound subject, § 276 ; nouns in the con- 
struct, § 277 ; dual nouns, § 278 ; changes of person, § 279. 

Repetition of nouns, § 280 ; pronouns, §281 ; verbs, § 282. 

Interrogative Sentences, §§ 288, 284. 

Compound Sentences. — Relative pronoun, § 285 ; poetic use of the de- 
monstrative, § 286 ; conjunctions, § 287. 

Geammatioal Analysis, ..... page 315 

Index I. Subjects, ...•«." 323 

Index II. Texts of Scripture, . . . . "331 

Index III. Hebrew Words, "343 

Index IV. Hebrew Grammatical Terms, . . . . *' 399 



PART FIRST. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

§1. Language is the communication of thought by means 
of spoken or written sounds. The utterance of a single thought 
constitutes a sentence. Each sentence is composed of words 
expressing individual conceptions or their relations. And 
words are made up of sounds produced by the organs of 
speech and represented by written signs. It is the province 
of grammar as the science of language to investigate these 
several elements. It hence consists of three parts. Mrst, 
Orthography, which treats of the sounds employed and the 
mode of representing them. Second, Etymology, which treats 
of the different kinds of words, their formation, and the 
changes which they undergo. Third, Syntax, which treats of 
sentences, or the manner in which w^ords are joined together 
to express ideas. The task of the Hebrew grammarian is to 
furnish a complete exhibition of the phenomena of this partic- 
idar language, caref idly digested and referred as far as practi- 
cable to their appropriate causes in the organs of speech and 
the operations of the mind. 

The Letters. 

§2. The Hebrew being no longer a spoken tongue, is 
only known as the language of books, and particularly of the 
Old Testament, which is the most interesting and important 
as weU as the only pure monument of it. The first step 



2 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^2 

towards its investigation must accordingly be to ascertain tlie 
meanino; of the symbols in wliicli it is recorded. Then 
having learned its sounds, as they are thus represented, it 
will be possible to advance one step further, and inquire into 
the laws by which these are governed in their employment 
and mutations. 

The symbols used in writing Hebrew are of two sorts, 
viz. letters (ni'^nis) and points (n-i-^p:). The number of the 
letters is twenty -two ; these are ^mtten from right to left, and 
are exclusively consonants. The following alphabetical table 
exhibits their forms, English equivalents, names, and numeri- 
cal values, together with the corresponding forms of the Rab- 
binical character employed to a considerable extent in the 
commentaries and other writings of the modern Jews. 



Y6 






LETTERS. 




a 


Order. 


Forma 


and Equivalents. 


Names. 


Rabbinical 
Alphabet. 


Numerical 

values. 


1 


X 




?ir^ 


Aleph 


f> 


1 




2 


1 


Bh, B 


n-13 


Beth 


3 


2 


3 


a 


Gh, G 


-^■•a 


Gi'-mel 


J 


3 


4 


n 


Dh, D 


V T 


Da'-leth 


7 


4 


5 


n 


H 


S^O 


He 


n 


5 


6 


^ 


V 


in 


Vav 


1 


6 


7 


T 


Z 


rt 


Ziiyin 


) 


7 


8 


n 


Hh 


n^n 


Hheth 


p 


8 


9 


12 


T 


ni-j 


Teth 


u 


9 


10 


1 


Y 


^i-* 


Yodh 


» 


10 


11 


3 1 


Kh, K 


?|3 


Kaph 


1 = 


20 


12 


b 


L 


V T 


La'-medh 


i 


30 


13 


tt 


M 


0^ 


Mem 


tv 


40 


14 


2 1 


N 


11= 


Nun 


]' 


50 


15 


D 


S 


^^9 


Sa'-mekh 


p 


60 


16 


y 




r^ 


Ayin 


r 


70 




17 


s 51 


Ph, P 


i(3 


Pe 


^5 


80 


18 


2 r 


Ts 


•''ji 


Tsa'-dhe 


1 ^ 


90 


19 


P 


K 


qip 


Koph 


? 


100 


20 


1 


R 


iri-i 


Resh 


r> 


200 


21 


o 


Sh, S 


r^ 


Shin 


c 


300 


22 


n 


Th, T 


-,n 


Tav 


P 


400 



^3. There is always more or less difficulty in represent- 
ing the sounds of one language by those of another. But 
this is in the case of the Hebrew greatly aggravated by its 
having been for ages a dead language, so that some of its 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY. §3 

souiuls cannot now be accurately determined, and also by its 
belonging to a different family or group of tongues from our 
OAvn, possessing sounds entirely foreign to the English, for 
which it consequently affords no equivalent, and which are in 
fact incapable of being pronounced by our organs. The 
equivalents of the foregoing table are not therefore to be re- 
garded as in every instance exact representations of the proper 
powers of the letters. They are simply approximations suffi- 
ciently near the truth for every practical purpose, the best 
which can now be proposed, and sanctioned by tradition and 
the conventional usao-e of the best Hebraists. 

1. It will be observed that a double pronunciation has 
been assigned to seven of the letters. A native Hebrew would 
readily decide without assistance which of these v/as to be 
adopted in any given case, just as we are sensible of no in- 
convenience from the various sounds of the Eno-lish letters 
which are so embarrassino; to foreici-ners leaminsr our languao-e. 
The ambiguity is in every case removed, however, by the ad- 
dition of a dot or point indicating which sound they are to 
receive. Thus a with a point in its bosom has the sound of 
h, 2 unpointed that of the corresponding y, or as it is com- 
monly represented for the sake of uniformity in notation, hli ; a 
is pronounced as g, !^ unpointed had an aspirated sound Avhich 
may accordingly be represented ^^}' ffh, but as it is difficult to 
produce it, or even to determine with exactness what it was, 
and as there is no corresponding sound in English, the aspira- 
tion is mostly neglected, and the letter, whether pointed or not, 
sounded indifferently as^; '^ is cl, T unpointed is the aspirate 
dh, equivalent to th in the ; 3 is k, 3 unpointed its aspirate kh, 
perhaps resembling the German ch in icli, though its aspira- 
tion, like that of '*, is commonly neglected in modern reading ; 
£ is/*, s unpointed i^ pJi or/j l^ is /, ri unpointed f/i in f/n/i. 
The letter t with a dot over its right arm is pronounced like 
s/t, and called S/iln ; iu with a dot over its left arm is called 
Siji, and pronounced like s, no attempt being made in modern 



§3 LETTERS. 5 

usage to discriminate between its sound and that of C 
Samekli. Although there may anciently have been a distinc- 
tion between them, this can no longer be defined nor even 
positively asserted ; it has therefore been thought unneces- 
sary to preserve the individuality of these letters in the 
notation, and both of them will accordingly be represented 
by s. 

a. The double sound of the first six of the letters just named is purely 
euphonic, and has no effect whatever upon the meaning of the words in 
which they stand. The case of U3 is different. Its primary sound was that 
of sh. as is evident from the contrast in Judg. 12 : 6 of r^Sr shibboleth 
with rbsp sibbolelh. In certain words, however, and sometimes for the 
Bake of creating a distinction between different words of like ortliography, 
it received the sound of s, tlius almost assuming the character of a distinct 
letter, e. g. "i'-iJ to break, i2b to hope. That Sin and Samekh were dis- 
tinguishable to the ear, appears probable from the fact that tiiere are words 
of separate significations which differ only in the use of one or the other 
of these letters, and in which they are never interchanged, e. g. bz':i to he 
bereaved, bib to be wise, bsD to be foolish; "ssuj to be drunken, "cb to hire, 
■13C to shut up; lib to look, "ilb to ride, "ilD to titrn back; nob a lip, 
nso to destroy. The close affinity between the sounds which they repre- 
sent is, however, shown by the fact that O is in a few instances written for 
b, e. g. nD3 Ps. 4: 7 from KC; , r^5=b Eccles. 1 : 17 for n!|p:p . The original 
identity of b and "O is apparent from the etymological connection between 
"itb leaven and r"ixbp a vessel in tchich bread is leavened; "i"LJ to shudder, 
■ "i!in"b horrible, causing- a shudder. In Arabic the division of single letters 
into two distinguished by diacritical points is carried to a much greater 
length, the alphabet of that language being by this means enlarged from 
twenty-two to twenty-eight letters 

2. In their original power t: t differed from n f, and 3 k 
from p /•, for these letters are not confused nor liable to inter- 
change, and the distinction is preserved to this day in the 
cognate Arabic ; yet it is not easy to state intelHgibly where- 
in the difference consisted. They are currently pronounced 
precisely alike. 

3. The letter n has a stronger sound than n the simple 
k, and is accordingly represented by M ; '^ is represented by 
r, although it had some peculiarity of sound which we can- 
not at this day attempt to reproduce, by which it was allied 
to the gutturals. 



■ 6 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^4 

4. For two letters, i5 and y, no equivalent lias been given 
in the table, and they are commonly altogether neglected in 
pronunciation, x is the weakest of the letters, and was prob- 
ably always inaudible. It stands for the slight and involun- 
tary emission of breath necessary to the utterance of a vowel 
unattended by a more distinct consonant sound. It there- 
fore merely ser^'^es to mark the beginning or the close of the 
syllable of which it is a part, while to the ear it is entirely 
lost in the accompanying or preceding vowel. Its power has 
been likened to that of the smooth breathing (' ) of the 
Greeks or the English silent // in hour. On the other hand 
y had a deep guttural sound which was always heard, but 
like that of the corresponding letter among the Arabs is very 
difficult of utterance by occidental organs ; consequently no 
attempt is made to reproduce it. In the Septuagint it is some- 
times represented by y, sometimes by the rough and some- 
times by the smooth breathing ; thus "^yy^.. r6^uoQ^a, "'^y 
'Hli, 'p^'^t ^J/iiah']}f. Some of the modem Jews give it the 
sound of ji(/ or of the French (^n in campagne, either wherever 
it occurs or only at the end of w^ords, e. g. ^*^^_ SJimanf/, 'Tiz'S 
gndmbdh. 

§4. The forms of the letters exhibited in the preceding 
table, though found without important variation in all existing 
manuscripts, are not the original ones. An older character 
is preserved upon the Jewish coins struck in the age of the 
Maccabees, which bears a considerable resemblance to the 
Samaritan and still more to the Phenician. Some of the 
steps in the transition from one to the other can still be traced 
'v. I upon extant monuments. There was first a cursive tendency, 
, /^rYj disposing to unite the different letters of the same word, 
which is the established practice in Syriac and Arabic. This 
was followed by a predominance of the calligraphic principle, 
which again separated the letters and reduced them to their 
present rectangular forms and nearly uniform size. The 
cursive stage has, however, left its traces upon the five lettera 



§0 LETTERS. 7 

which appear in the table with double forms ; D 'a : s s when 
standing at the beginning or in the middle of words'termi- 
nate in a bottom horizontal stroke, which is the remnant of 
the connecting link with the following letter ; at the end of 
words no such link was needed, and the letter was continued 
vertically downward in a sort of terminal flourish thus, 1 "j ^ f , 
or closed up by joining its last with its initial stroke, thus D. 

a. The i'ew instances in which final letters are found in the middle of 
words, as "^.'la^ Isa. 9: 6, or their ordinary Ibrms at the end. as ^n Neh. 
2 : 13. J^ Job 38 : 1, are probably due to the inadvertence of early tran- 
scribers which has been faithfully perpetuated since, or if intentional they 
may have had a connection now unknown with the enumeration of letters 
or the signification of words. The same may be said of letters larger than 
usual, as nrSi Ps. SO: 16, or smaller, as DX"'3rS Gen. 2:4. or above the 
line, as "^^^ Ps. SO : 14, or inverted, as ~b:a Num. 10: 35. (in manuscripts 
and the older editions, e. g. thatof Stephanus in 1541). or with extraordinary 
points, as ^r.^M}'^ Gen. 33 : 4, N^')H Ps. 27 : 13. in all w^hich the Rabbins find 
concealed meanings of the most fanciful and absurd character. Thus in 
theif opinion the suspended 3 in nii,;-^ Judg. 18 : 30 suggests that ihe idola- 
ters described were descended from Moses but had the character of Ma- 
nasseh. In "pris Lev. 11 : 42 the Vav, which is of unusual size, is the middle 
letter of tlie Pentateuch ; ^"'P.^^'l Gen. 16: 5 with an extraordinary point 
over the second Yodh, is the only instance in which the word is written with 
that letter; the large letters in Deut. 6: 4 emphasize the capital article of 
the Jewish faith. All such anomalous forms or marks, with the conceits of 
the Rabbins respecting them, are reviewed in detail in Buxtorf's Tiberias, 
pp. 152 etc. 

§5. All the names of the letters were probably significant 
at first, although the meanings of some of them are now doubt- 
ful or obscure. It is commonly supposed that these describe 
the objects to which their forms originally bore a rude resem- 
blance. If this be so, however, the mutations which they 
have since undergone are such, that the relation is no longer 
traceable, unless it be faintly in a few. The power of the 
letter is in every instance the initial sound of its name. 

a. The opinion advocated by Schultens. Fundamenta Ling. Heb. p. 10. 
that the invention of the letters was long anterior to that of their names, 
and that the latter was a pedagogical expedient to facilitate the learning of 
the letters by associating their forms and sounds with familiar objects, has 
met vvith little favour and possesses little intrinsic probability. An interest- 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^6 

ing corroboration of the antiquity of these names is found in their preserva 
tion in tlie Greel< alphabet, though destitute of meaning in tliat language, 
the Greeks having borrowed their letters at an early period from the Plie- 
nicians. and hence the appended a of AXcpa, etc., whicl> points to the Ara- 
maeic form XD-X . 

T : - 

h. The Semitic derivation of the names proves incontestably that the 
alphabet had its origin among a people speaking a language kindred to 
the Hebrew. Their most probable meanings, so far as they are still ex- 
plicable, are as follows, viz: Aleph. an o.v ; Beth, a house j Gimel. a camel; 
Daleth, a door ; He. doubtful, possibly a window; Vav, a hook ; Zayin. a 
weapon; Hheth. probably a fence ; Teth. probably a snake ; Yodh. a hand ; 
Kaph. the palm of the hand; Lamedh. an ox-goad; Mem. icater ; Xun. a 
■fish; Samekh, a ;j/o/j; Ayin. a?i e!/e; Pe. amouth ; Tsadhe. a fish-hook or 
a hitnter^s dart ; Koph. perhaps iJie back of the head ; Resh. a head; Shin, 
a tooth ; Tav, a cross mark. 

§6. The order of the letters appears to be entirely arbi- 
trary, though it has been remarked that the thi'ee middle 
mutes 1 ;< T succeed each other, as in like manner the three 
hquids b ^ : . The juxtaposition of a few of the letters may 
perhaps be owing to the kindred signification of their names, 
e. g. Yodh and Kaph the hand, ^lem wafer and Nun a fsh, 
Resh fhe /^.rac/and Shin a tooih. The antiquity of the existing 
arrangement of the alphabet is shown, 1. by psalms and other 
portions of the Old Testament in which successive clauses or 
verses begin with the letters disposed in regular order, viz. 
Ps. 25 (p omitted), 34, 37 (alternate verses, V omitted), 111 
(every clause), 112 (every clause), 119 (each letter eight 
times), 145 (: omitted), Prov. 31 : 10-31, Lam. ch. 1, 2, 3 
(each letter three times), 4. In the first chapter of Lamenta- 
tions the order is exactly preserved, but in the remaining 
three chapters y and s are transposed. 2. By the coitcs- 
pondence of the Greek and Roman alphabets, which have 
sprung from the same origin with the Hebrew. 

a. The most ingenious attempt to discover a regular structure in the 
Hebrew alphabet is that of I.epsius, in an essay upon this subject published 
in 1836. Omitting the sibilants and Resh, he finds the following triple 
correspondence of a breathing succeeded by the same three mutes carried 
through eac!;i of the three orders, the second rank being enlarged by the 
addition of the liquids. 



^7 



LETTERS. 





Breathings. 


Mutes. 




■ - 1 

Liquids. 


Middle 

Smooth 

Rough 


X 

n 

5 


a a 1 
1 n a 
B p n 


M 


bas 



Curious as this result certainly is, it must be confessed that the alleged 
correspondence is in part imaginary, and the method by which it is reached 
is too arbitrary to warrant the conclusion that this scheme was really in 
the mind of the author of the alphabet, much less to sustain the further 
speculations built upon it, reducing the original number and modifying the 
powers of the letters. 

b. It is curious to see how, in the adaptation of the alphabet to different 
languages, the sounds of the letters have been modified, needless ones 
dropped, and others found necessary added at the end, without disturbing 
the arrangement of the original stock. Thus the Greeks dropped i and p, 
only retaining them as numerical signs, while the Roman alphabet has F 
and Q,; on the other hand the Romans found a and superfluous, while 
the Greeks made of them ,9^ and ^; a and t , in Greek 7 and f, become in 
Latin C and G, while n, in Latin H, is in Greek converted like the rest of 
the gutturals into a vowel t]. 

§ 7. The letters may be variously divided : 

1. First, with respect to the organs by which they are 
pronounced. 



Gutturals 


it 


n 


n 


y 


Palatals 


5 


1 


D 


P 


Linguals 


^ 


t: 


b 


3 


Dentals 


T 





2 


ID 


Labials 


n 


1 


tt 


& 



"I has been differently classed, but as its peculiarities are 
those of the gutturals, it is usually reckoned with them. 

2. Secondly, according to their respective strength, into 
three classes, which may be denominated Aveuk, medium, and 
strong. The strong consonants offer the greatest resistance 
to change, and are capable of entering into any combinations 
which the formation or inflection of words may require. The 
weak have not this capacity, but when analogy would bring 
them into combinations foreign to then* nature, they are either 



10 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 7 

liable to mntation themselves or occasion changes in the rest 
of the word. Those of medium streno-th have neither the 
absolute stability of the former nor the feeble and fluctuating 
character of the latter. 



X n 1 1 Vowel-Letters, 
X n n :? Guttm-als. 



Weak, -j 

Medium, [)l '^^ l^^l^ll 

(- ' ] 

Strong, -{ 5 D p >- Aspirates and ]\lutes. 




The special characteristics of these several classes and the 
influence which they exert upon the constitution of words 
will be considered hereafter. It is sufficient to remark here 
that the vowel-letters are so called because they sometimes 
represent not consonant but vowel-sounds. 

a. It will be observed that while the p, k. and ^mutes agree in having 
emooth S D n and middle forms 2 a T, which may be either aspirated or 
unaspirated. the two last have each an additional representative p :: which 
is lacking to the first. This, coupled with the fact that two of the alpha- 
betic Psalms. Ps. 25. 34. repeat S as the initial of the closing verse, has 
given rise to the conjecture that the missing p mute was supplied by this 
letter, having a double sound and a double place in the alphabet. In curi- 
ous coincidence with this ingenious but unsustamed hypothesis, the Ethio- 
pic alphabet has an additional p. and the Greek and Roman alphabets 
agree one step and onlj' one beyond the letter T, viz. in adding next a 
labial, which in Greek is divided into v and (f). and in Latin into U and V, 
as "^ into I and J. 

3. Thirdly, The letters may be divided, with respect to 
their function in the formation of words, into radicals and 
seniles. The former, which comprise just one half of the 
alphabet, are never employed except in the roots or radical 
portions of words. The latter may also enter into the con- 
stitution of roots, but they are likewise put to the less inde- 
pendent use of the formation of derivatives and inflections, 
of prefixes and suffixes. The seniles are embraced in the 



§8 LETTERS. 11 

memorial words nbpi mria "jn^x (Ethan Moses and Caleb) ; of 
these, besides other uses, "jn^x are prefixed to form the futm-e 
of verbs, and the remainder are prefixed as particles to nouns. 
The letters IT^w^itn are used in the formation of nouns from 
their roots. The only exception to the division now stated 
is the substitution of "J for servile n in a certain class of cases, 
as explained § 54. 4, 

a. Kimchi in his Mikhlol (bibsTS) fol. 46. gives several additional ana- 
grams of the serviles made out by different grammarians as aids to the 
memory, e. g. ."I3i3 irDsbiia/or his work is understanding ; n?3biy ^Jst 
3ni3 / Solomon am writing; nssn ^x iTDlbiU 07ily build thou my peace ; 
"(ITan DX bTlTD like a branch of the father of multitude ; iS'^bx nnD nir:a 
Moses has written to us. To which Nordheimer has added ■'3PD^ pn bsa 
considt the riches of my book. 

\ 8. In Hebrew writing and printing, words are never 
divided. Hence various expedients are resorted to upon 
occasion, in manuscripts and old printed editions, to fill out 
the lines, sach as giving a broad form to certain letters, >< ri 
S u— rn , occupying the vacant space with some letter, as p, 
repeated as often as may be necessary, or with the first letters 
of th-e next word, which were not, however, accounted part 
of the text, as they were left without vowels, and the Avord 
was written in full at the beginning of the following line. 
The same end is accomplished more neatly in modern print- 
ing by judicious spacing. 

§9.1. The later Jews make frequent use of abbreviations. 
There are none, however, in the text of the Hebrew Bible ; 
such as are found in the margin are explained in a special 
lexicon at the back of the editions in most common use, e. g. 
1^'^ for '^'Q'^y) ef complefio = etc. 

2. The numerical employment of the letters, common to 
the Hebrews with the Greeks, is indicated in the table of the 
alphabet. The hundreds from 500 to 900 are represented 
either by the five final letters or by the combination of n with 
the letters immediately preceding; thus T or pn 500, D or "in 
600, 1 ttJn or pnn 700, ?] or nn 800, f or pnn 900. Thou- 



12 ORTHOGRAPHY. §10 

sands are represented by units \\'ith two dots placed over them, 

thus i5 1000, etc. Compound numbers are formed by joining 

the appropriate units to the tens and hundreds, thus 5i;ri 421. 

_ Fifteen is, however, made not by "i, which are the initial 

7 ~^L letters of the divine name Jehovah, nini, but by tj 9-|-G. 

This use of the letters is found in the accessories of the 
Hebrew text, e. g. in the numeration of the chapters and verses, 
and in the Masoretic notes, but not in the text itself. Whethei 
these or any other signs of number were ever employed by 
the original writers of Scripture, or by the scribes in copying 
it, may be a doubtful matter. It has been ingeniously con- 
jectured, and with a show of plausibility, that some of the 
discrepancies of numbers in the Old Testament may be 
accounted for by assuming the existence of such a system of 
symbols, in which errors might more easily arise than in fully 
written words. 

The Vowels. 

§ 10. The letters now explained constitute the body of 
the Hebrew text. These are all that belonged to it in its 
original form, and so long as the language was a living one 
nothing more was necessaiy, for the reader could mentally 
supply the deficiencies of the notation from his familiarity 
with his native tongue. But when Hebrew ceased to be 
spoken the case was different ; the knowledge of the true 
pronunciation could no longer be presumed, and difficulties 
would arise from the ambiguity of individual words and their 
doubtful relation to one another. It is the design of the 
Masoretic points ( rnica tradition) to remedy or obviate these 
inconveniences by supplying what was lacking in this mode 
of writing. The authors of this system did not venture to 
make any change in the letters of the sacred text. The signs 
which they introduced were entirely supplementary, consist- 
ing of dots and marks about the text fixing its true pronun- 



§11 VOWELS. 13 

ciatioii and auxiliary to its proper interpretation. This has 
been clone with the utmost nicety and minuteness, and with 
such evident accuracy and care as to make them rehable and 
ethcient if not indispensable helps. These points or signs are 
of three kinds, 1. those representing the vowels, 2. those 
affecting the consonants, 3. those attached to words. 

a. As illustrations of the ambiguity both as to sound and sense of indi- 
vidual words, when written by the letters only, it may be stated that "iST 
is in Gen. 12: 4 "k'n he spake, in Ex. 6: 29 ni:"n speak and ii^ speak- 
ing, in Prov. 2-5: 11 "^br} spoken, in Gen. 37 : 14 "i" word, in 1 Kin. 6 : 16 ^i"!! 
(he oracle or most holy place of the temple, in Ex. 9: 3 ^zh pestilence. So 
Pw-1 is in Gen. 29: 10 P^'a;; and he watered, and in the next verse T'4':'! 
and he kissed; Nj"'1 occurs twice in Gen. 29 : 23, the first time it is si*'. and 
he brought, the second xii|'i arid, he came; DT^'rn"^ is in Jer. 32: 37 first 
C^rarn;; and I will bring them again, and then n"ri3i:;n': and J will cause 
them to dwell ; c-'ica is in Gen. 14 : 19 D-;i:'r heaven, and in Isa. 5 : 20 Q'^V^ 
putting. This ambiguity is, however, in most cases removed by the con- 
nection in which the words are found, so that there is little practical difii- 
euity for one who is well acquainted with the language. Modern Hebrew 
is conimoidy written and read without the points: and the same is true of 
its kindred tongues the Syriac and Arabic, though each of these has a 
system of points additional to the letters. 

§ 11. 1. The alphabet, as has been seen, consisted exclu- 
sively of consonants, since these were regarded as a sufficiently 
exact representation of the syllables into which in Hebrew 
they invariably enter. And the omission of the vowels occa- 
sioned less emban-assment, because in the Semitic family of 
languages generalU', unlike the Indo-European, they form no 
part, properly speaking, of the radical structure of the word, 
and consequently do not aid in expressing its essential mean- 
ing, but only its nicer shades and modifications. Still some 
notation of vowels was always necessary, and this was furnish- 
ed in a scanty measure by the vowel-letters, or, as they are 
also called, quiescents, or ;;^«/';*es lecfioiiis (guides in reading). 
The weakest of the palatals "^ was taken as the representative 
of the vowels i and e of the same organ to which in sound 
it bears a close affinity ; the weakest of the labials 1 was in 
hke manner made to represent its cognates u and 6 ; and the 



14 ORTHOGRAPHY. §11 

two "weak guttiu-als s and n were written for the guttural 
vowel a, as well as for the coiupouud vowels B and o of which 
a is one of the elements. Letters were more rarely employed 
to represent short vowels ; n or ■> for c is the most frequent 
case ; others are exceptional. 

a. Medial a when written at all, as it very rarely is, is denoted by X, e. g, 
CJSb lat Judg. 4 : 21, 5sn dag Neh. 13: 16 K'thibh, csp kani Hos. 10: 14, 
b'JiT" "zazel Lev. 16: 8, ITXi rash Prov. 10: 4 and in a ^ew other passages, 
m53X"i sometimes for Tainolh, ^Ni:£ isavvar, ~xCxt2X Hos. 4 : 6 if not an 
error in the text perhaps lor einasak ; final &, which is much more frequent- 
ly written, is denoted by n, e. g. nbj gala. •13^'2 malka, nns (i//a. rarely 
and only as an Aramaeism by x, e. g. san hhogga Isa. 19 : 17, xn-ip korhkn 
Ezek. 27 : 31 K'thibh, NH^s gabb?ha Ezek. 31 : 5 K'thibh. The writing of 
e and t. o and u is optional in the middle of words but necessary at the end, 
e. g. Dpiia or ninin tsiomlhtm, ^^r•^'^1 tsivvith'i ; •:y:i or "inr:; shuhfiu. \\\ 
the former position "^ stands for the first pair of vowels, and 1 for the second, 
e. g. mp'i3"'72 }7ienlkolh, Taios n'sugholhl ; x for e and o so situated is rare 
and exceptional, e. g. CN~i resh Prov. 6 : 11, 30 : S, and perhaps y^'"^ yaneis 
Eccles. 12:5 ; nxT zOlh. nxiB poroth Ezek. 31 : 8. irx^in hilstsothav Ezek. 
47: 11. At the end of words e is commonly expressed by "^j and o by i, 
though n is frequently and N rarely employed for the same purpose, e. g. 
''zh-o malkhe, isb^a malko; n'^ri h'ye, nsis parO; xb lo. Final e is re 
presented by n, medial e if written at all by '^ , e. g. !T^n"' yWye, T\':^'^'nr or 
nrnn tih'yena. 

h. The employment of the vowel-letters in conformity with the scale 
]ust given, is further governed, (1.) By usage, which is in many words and 
ibrms almost or quite invariable; in others it fluctuates, thus sobhebh is 
commonly 220 or D21D, only once i^3D 2 Kin. 8:21 ; ycfkobh is ~pJ"^ ex- 
cept in Jer. 33:26 where it is sipr"^; thease is nasTi, but in Ex. 25: 31 
n^Ji'in ; ethdm according to the analogy of similar grammatical (brms would 
be ens, but in Ps. 19: 14 it is crr^x; hemfr is in Jer. 2: 11 written in both 
the usual and an unusual way, T^Tsn and "i"'l3"'n ; mHakh'im is oisbr except 
in 2 Sam. 11 : 1, where it is Q-'Dxba; g^bhulolh is in Deut. 32:8 rb:3, in 
Isa. 10: 13 nbi::5, in Ps. 74:17 n'.bi^j; lo meaning not is sb, meaning /o 
him is lb, though these are occasionally interchanged ; zu is written both 
nT and IT; and pO ns, "iS and SS. (2.) The indisposition to multiply the 
vowel-letters unduly in the same word, e. g; 'lo'h mbx , 'lohim c-ii-ibx ; 
ndthun '|1P3, nHhunlm C":r3 or c:ir3 . (3.) The increased tendency to their 
employment in the later books of the Bible, e. g. niD ko'hh Dan. 11:6, 
always elsewhere riD ; Dilp kodhesh Dan. 11 : 30, for ^"ip ; ■fT' ddvldh in 
the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Zechariah, elsewhere com- 
monly in. This must, however, be taken with considerable abatement, 
as is shown by such examples as add'inm C^t^ts Ex. 15: 10, D~rtx Ezek. 
32: 18. 

It is to be observed that those cases in which N is used to record 
vowels must be carefully distinguished from those in which it properly 



§12 



VOWELS. 



15 



belongs to the consonantal structure of the word, though from its weak 
nefes it may have lost its sound, as XSia matsQ. "p-X" rlshon. § 57. 2. 

2. When used to represent the Hebrew vowels, a is 
sounded as in father, a as in fat, B as in t/iere, t as in met, 
I as in machine, ? as in pi?i, o as in note, o as in not, m as in 
rule, and u as in full. The quantity will be marked when 
the vowels are long, but not when they are short. 

§ 12. There are nine points or masoretic signs represent- 
ing vowels (n""i:r\ motions, viz., by which consonants are 
moved or pronounced) ; of these three are long, three short, 
and three doubtful. They are shown in the following table, 
the horizontal stroke indicating their position with reference 
to the letters of the text. 



Long Vowels. 

■j^^;? Ka'-mets a 

^i^. Tse'-rc E 

D'rin Hho'-lem o 



Short Vowels. 
nns Pat-tahh a 

biao Se'-ghol e 

:]rjn f ttJ5 Ka'-mets Hha-tuph' o 



Doubtful Vowels. 
P'l'^n Hhl'-rik ~^ f or ^ 
pnTO Shu'-rek 
T^p Kib'-buts 



u or u 



All these vowel-points are written under the letter after 
which they are pronounced except two, viz., Hholem and 
Shiuek. Hholem is placed over the left edge of the letter 
to which it belongs, and is thus distinguished from the 
accent R'bhi*, which is a dot over its centre. When fol- 
lowed by c or preceded by t? it coincides \s\\\i the diacritical 
point over the letter, e. g. niria moshe, Niis sonB ; when it 
foUows t or precedes tJ it is written over its opposite arm. 



16 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^12 

e. g. *TatD sJtomtr, ''ik'^T^ fi)yjds. Its presence in tliese cases 
must accordingly be determined by the circumstances. If 
preceded by a letter without a vowel-sign, t' will be os/i and 
ilj 05 / if it have itself no vowel-sign, iu will be sO and izj s/io, 
except at the end of words. Shurek is a dot in the 
bosom of the letter Vav, thus 'i. It Avill be observed that 
there is a double notation of the vowel //. When there is a 
"i in the text this vowel, \vhether long or short, is indicated 
by a single dot within it, and called Shurek ; in the absence 
of 1 it is indicated by three dots placed obliquely beneath 
the letter to which it belongs, and called Kibbuts. 

a. The division of the vowels given above differs from tlie common 
one, into five long and five short, according to which Hhirik is counted as 
two, viz., Hhirik magnum '^, = i. and Hhirik parvum -r =■ i; and Shurek 
is reckoned a distinct vowel from Kibbuts, the former being u and the latter 
u. To this there are two objections. (1.) It confuses the raasoretic signs 
with the letters of the text, as though they were coeval with them and 
formed part of the same primitive mode of writing, instead of being quite 
distinct in origin and character. The masoretic vowel-sign is not "> . but 
-.-. The punctuators never introduced the letter "^ into the text; tliey 
found it already written precisely where it is at present, and all that they 
did was to add the point. And instead of using two signs for i. as they 
had done in the case of a, e. and o, they used but one. viz., a dot beneath 
the letter, whether i was long or short. The confusion of things thus sep- 
arate in their nature was pardonable at a time when the points were sup- 
posed to be an original constituent of the sacred text, but not now when 
their more recent origin is universally admitted. (2.) It is inaccurate. 
The distinction between "'. and ^, ^ and ^~, is not one of quantity, for I 
and u are expressed iadiflerentiy with or without Yodh and Vav. 

Gesenius. in his Lehrgebaude. while he retains the division of the 
vowels into five long and five short, admits that it is erroneous and calcu- 
lated to mislead ; and it has been discarded by Rodiger in the latest edi- 
tions of his smaller grammar. That which was proposed by Gesenius, 
however, as a substitute, is perplexed and obscure, and for this reason, if 
there were no others, is unfitted for the wants of pupils in the early stage 
of their progress. On the other hand, the triple arrangement here 
adopted after the example of Ewald, has the recommendation not only of 
clearness and correctness, but of being, instead of an innovation, a return to 
old opinions. The scheme of five long and five short vowels originated 
with Moses and David Kimchi, who were led to it by a comparison of the 
Latin and its derivatives. From them it was adopted by Reuchlin in his 
Rudimenta Hebraica, and thus became current among Christians. The 
Jewish grammarians, before the Kimchis, however, reckoned Kibbuts and 
Shurek as one vowel. Hhirik as one, and even Kamets and Kamets- 



^13 VOWELS. 17 

Hhatuph as one on account of the identity of the symbol employed to 
represent them. They thus made out seven vowels, the same number as 
in Greek, where the distinction into long, short and doubtful also pre- 
vails. That the literary impulses of the Orientals were chiefly received 
from tlie Greeks is well known ; that the suggestion of a vowel-system 
came to the Syrians from this quarter is certain, both from direct testi 
mony to this effect and from the shapes of their vowels, which still betray 
their origin. May not the Hebrews have learned something from the 
same school ? 

b. The names of the vowels, with the exception of Kamets-Hhatuph 
contain the sounds of the vowels which they are intended to represent. 
Kibbnts in the last, the others in their first syllable. Their signification 
le indicative either of the figure of the vowel or the mode of pronouncing 
it. Kamets and Kibbuts, contraction^ i. .. of the mouth; Pattahh. open- 
ing; Tsere. bursting- forth ; Seghol, ^'uster of grapes ; Hhlrik, gnashing ; 
Hholem. strength; Kamets-Hhatuph, hurried Kamets; Shurek^whistliug. 
It is a curious circumstance that notwithstanding the diversity of the 
voAvel-systems in the Syriac, Arabic, and Hebrew, the name Pattahh is 
common to them all. 



§13. This later and more complete method of notmg 
the vowels does not displace but is superinduced upon the 
scanty one previously described. Hence it comes to pass 
that such vowels as were indicated by letters in the first in- 
stance are now doubly written, i. e. both by letters and 
points. By this combination each of the two methods serves 
to illustrate and explain the other. Thus the added signs 
determine whether the letters '•'ins (which have been formed 
into the teclmical word "^inx E/i'uJ) are in any given case to 
be regarded as vowels or as consonants. If these letters are 
themselves followed by a vowel or a Sh'va, §16, or have a 
Daghesh forte, §.23, they retain their consonant sound ; for 
two vowels never come together in Hebrew, and Sh'va and 
Daghesh forte belong only to consonants : thus ^"'"Ip I'Ove/id, 
Piis^ n/ifsvuf/t (where 2 being provided with a separate point, 
the Hholem must belong after i), '<^'^,'^'} vliiiyd n^p kiijyam. 
Otherwise they quiesce in a preceding or accompanying 
vowel-sign, provided it is homogeneous with themselves ; 
that is to say, they have the sound indicated by it, the vowel- 
sign merely interpreting what was originally denoted by the 



18 ORTHOGRAPHY. §14 

letter. E and i are homogeneous to "^ , o and u io^ ^ and 
these bemg the only vowels which they were ever employed 
to represent, they can quiesce in no others ; thns "'3. bl, "''a 
TiB, sia ffc, ia bo, "b 111, but "^ys^ sural/, "'iS yoy, "^l^a (/Cdiiy, 
"\7\tai\ "i?t? shalBv, IT ^rz?;; the combination T'^is pronounced 
uv, i\:^ and \::^ t7?^(/^;, T'ro and "^rc sthav. A, e, and o 
are homogeneous to 55 and n . These letters deviate so far 
from the rule just given that « from its extreme weakness 
not only quiesces when it is properly a vowel-letter, but may 
give up its consonant sound and character after any vowel 
whatever, e. g. st?55y tltt, "iriJST rishon, rnss purCi ; n is 
never used as a vowel-letter except at the end of words, and 
there it always quiesces unless it receives a iMappik, ^-IQ. 

a. As a letter was scarce!}^ ever used to express o, the quiescence of ' 
In Kamets-Hhatuph is very rare, and where it does occur the margin 
always substitutes a reading without the i, e. g. !^^2i2"|i Jer. 27:20. 
ci^-'n Ezek. 27: 15, ■>''2""'1i"^^ Ps. 30:4, i^-TiJO': Isa. AX : \1 . -h^■zh Jer. 
33 : 8. Vs-b'^nj!! Nah. 1:3. 'in ri-'rx 2 Chron! 8:18, and "^n'ljsa Dent. 
32: 13. 1 represents or quiesces in the still briefer 6 of Hhateph-Kamets, 
§ 16. 3. 

h. In a few proper names medial n quiesces at tfie end of the first 
member of the compound, e. g. -rknns Num. 1 : 10, ^Nnrs; 2 Sam. 2: 19, 
also written b5<-n">U5 1 Chron. 2: 16. In such words as i^^'^"!: Jer. 22:6, 
nisr Deut. 21 : 7, n does not quiesce in Kibbuts, for the points belong to 
the marginal readings 1TC:i3 , "32":3 § 46. 

§14. On the other hand the vowel-letters shed light 
upon the stability of the vowels and the quantity of the 
doubtful signs. 1. As z was scarcely ever and u seldom 
represented by a vowel-letter, Hhirik with Yodh (V) is almost 
invariably long and Shurek (') commonly so. .2. The occa- 
sional absence in individual cases of tlie vowel-letters, does 
not determine the quantity of the signs for i and u ; but 
their uniform absence in any particular words or forms makes 
it almost certain that the vowel is short. 3. The occasional 
presence of T and ^ to represent one of their homogeneous 
'ong vowels proves nothing as to its character ; but if in any 



§15, 16 VOWELS. 19 

word or fonn these letters are regularly written, the vowel is, 
as a general rule, immutable. When l and "' stand for their 
long homogeneous vowels, these latter are said to be written 
fully, e. g. ^ypkol, i''? nir, T\rti muth ; without these quies- 
cent letters they are said to be written defectively, e. g. 
in^pn h^'kliiidthl, c^3 kamus. 

a. Hhirik with Yodh is short in 1''ri''^f!i.^5 vah^mitiiv 1 Sam. 17:35 
?|ipin;3-3 bikk' rothekha Ps. 45:10, THls-^b 'likk'hath Prov. 30:17. In 
5b|?"'S 1 Chron. 12: 1. 20. i is probably long, although the word is always 
elsewhere written without the Yodh; as it sometimes has a secondary 
accent on the first syllable and sometimes not (see 1 Sam. 30: 1). it may 
have had a twofold pronunciation tslkUag. and tsiklag. Shurek as u ia 
of much more frequent occurrence, e. g. "'fsin hhitkke, O'lsisb ricmmlm, 
nsin hhukka Ps. 102: 5, csi^'^x 2 Chron. 2 ;7, n:^T Ezek. 16: 34. 

§15. The vowels may be further distinguished into pure, 
a, i, u, and diphthongal, e, o ; e being a combination of a and 
i, or intermediate between them, and o holding the same re- 
lation to a and u. 



Sh'va. 

§16. 1. The absence of a vowel is indicated by — Sh'va 
(55^© emptiness, or as written by Chayug, the oldest of Jew- 
ish grammarians, i^^^), which serves to assure the reader that 
one has not been inadvertently omitted. It is accordingly 
placed under all vowelless consonants except at the end of 
words, where it is regarded as unnecessary, the absence of a 
vowel being there a matter of course. If, however, the last 
letter of a word be T , or if it be immediately preceded by 
another vowelless letter, or be doubled by the point called 
Daghesh-forte, § 23, Sh*va is written to preclude the doubt 
which is possible in these cases, e. g. ninisilJia , tfsbia, riirp, 
nn"bN, ns, pn:. Sh'va is not given to a quiescent letter, 
since it represents not a consonant but a vowel, e. g. !"'p''rr!i, 
nor as a general rule to a final consonant preceded by a 



20 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 10 

quiescent; thus r.ai^' , rs;^ Ruth 3 : 4 ; roVn Isa. 62:3, 
though in this case it is sometimes v^-ritteu, e. 2;. ^s^-^ 2 Sam. 
14 : 3; r.^Vn 2 Sam. 14 : 2 ; r^-^^r^-} Judg. 13 : 3; rsiin 
1 Kill. 11:13. X at the end of a word, preceded either by 
a vovvelless letter or a quiescent, is termed otiant, and is left 
unpointed, e. g. i?"J;n xi^] X'ii s^.n . 

a. Final ~ may receive ShVa for the sake of distinction not only from 
?] . as already suggested, but also from I with which it might be in danger 
of being confounded in manuscripts; Freylag conjectures that it is prop- 
erly a part of the letter, like the stroke in the corresponding final ti^ in 
Arabic. In such forms as "Bsn Sh'va is omitted with the closing letters 
because the "^ is not sounded. 

2. Sh'va may be either silent (n: quiescens), or vocal 
(j?: mobile). At the close of syllables it is silent. But at the 
beginning of a syllable the Hebrews always facilitated the 
pronunciation of concurrent consonants by the introduction 
of a hiatus or slight breatliino- between them ; a Sh'va so 
situated is consequently said to be vocal, and has a sound 
approaching that of a hastily uttered e, as in given. This 
will be represented by an apostrophe, thus, "i?"^^ b'midhbar, 
2P~if p'kadhtem, 

a. According to Kimchi (Mikhlol fol. 1S9) Sh'va was pronounced in 
three different ways, according to circumstances. (1.) Before a guttural 
it inclined to the sound of the following vowel, e. g. "ii<^ i/abbedh, rs'j 
teth. "~^ d'u, and if accompanied by Metliegh. §44, it had the full sound 
of that vowel, e. g. "Xw tsuu. "rn t'lhhl. ^'j'~\ loolam. (2.) Before Yodh 
it inclined to ?', e. g. -Pi''3 b'ya''kobh. ~">3 k'yoin. and with IVIethegh waa 
sounded as Hhirik, e. g. i"2 biyadh. (3.) Before any other letter it in- 
clined to a. e. g. "^"^a b'Tdkhd. ~""?""5; "-"liltm. and with Methegh was 
pronounced as Pattahh r."5n;r":2 bamakheloth. 

3. Sh'va may, again, be simple or compound. Some- 
times, particularly when the first consonant is a guttural, 
which from its weakness is in danger of not being distinctly 
heard, the hiatus becomes stUl more audible, and is assimi- 
lated in sound to the short guttural vowel a, or the diph- 
thongal e or 0, into which it enters. This assimilation is rep- 



§17 vowET.a. 21 

resented by combining the sign for Sli'va with those for the 
short vowels, thus forming what are called the compound 
Sh'vas in distinction from the simple ShVa previously ex- 
plained. 

These are, 

Hhateph-Pattahh -; thus, "lb? ''mbdh. 
Hhatcph-Seghol -; thus, nbx 'mor. 
Hhatcph-Kamets -^ ; thus, ■'?n liWli. 

a. Hhaie'ih (ri:n s/iatiiiing) denotes the rapidity of utterance or the 
hurried character of the sounds represented by these symbols. 

6. The compound Sh'vas. though for the most part restricted to the 
gutturals, are occasionally written under other consonants in place of sim- 
ple ShVa. to indicate more distinctly that it is vocal: thus, Hhateph- 
Pattahh znij Gen. 2:12, nirnrn Gen. 27:38; Hhateph-Kamets nnpb 
Gen. 2 : 23, n:zri=X Jer. 31 : 33 ; but neyer Hhateph-Seghol except 
c'r^b^ 2 Sam. 6:5 in some editions, e. g. that of Stephanus. This is 
done with so little uniformity that the same word is difterently written in 
this respect, e. g. nnrsa 2 Kin. 2 : 1. "''^^"r^ ^'er. 11. 



Pattahh Furtive. 

^17. A similar hiatus or slight transition sound was 
used at the end of words in connection with the gutturals. 
When y , n , or the consonantal n at the end of words is pre- 
ceded by a long heterogeneous vowel (i. e. another than a), 
or is followed by another vowelless consonant, it receives a 
Pattahh furtive — , which resembles in sound an extremely 
short a, and is pronounced before the letter under which it 
is written, e. g. n^i riT/dt, ?'^'^ sJiCmb'' , ^''k'-fQ magUh'fh, 
vpyii: shamd't, ^yn yi'^UM. 

a. Some grammarians deny that Pattahh furtive can be found under a 
penultimate guttural, contending that the vowel-sign is in such cases a 
proper Pattahh. and that T\"'Z'^ Khould accordingly be read shamaat, and 
*in"^ yihiiad. But both the Sh'va under the final letter, §16, and the 
Daghesh-lene in it. § 21. show that the guttural is not followed by a vowel. 
The sign beneath it must consequently be Pattahh furtive, and represent 
an antecedent vowel-sound. In some manuscripts Pattahh furtive is writ- 
ten as Hhateph-Pattahh. or even as simple Sh'va; thus, ^.^P,"^ or S""p'7 for 
VP.-}- 



22 orthoguaphy. §18 

Syllables. 

^18. 1. Syllables are formed by the combination of 
consonants and vowels. As two vowels never come tooetliel 
in the same word in Hebrew without an intervening conso- 
nant, there can never be more than one vowel in the same 
syllable ; and with the single exception of 'i occurring at the 
beginning of words, no syllable ever consists of a vowel 
alone. Every syllable, with the exception just stated, must 
begin with a consonant, and may begin with two, but never 
with more than two. Syllables ending with a vowel, whether 
represented by a quiescent letter or not, are called simple, 
e. g. ^^ Z'Mw, nbiy d-ld. (The first syllable of this second 
example begins, it will l?e perceived, with the consonant y , 
though this disappears in the notation given of its sound.) 
Syllables ending with a consonant, or, as is possible at the 
close of a word, with two consonants, are said to be mixed : 
thus DJ^'Sj? kam-tem, r^P^^^ hd-lakht. As the vocal Sh'vas, 
whether simple or compound, are not vowels properly speak- 
ing, but simply involuntary transition sounds, they, with the 
consonants under which they stand, cannot form distinct 
syllables, but are attached to that of the following vowel. 
Pattahh furtive in like manner belongs to the syllable formed 
by the preceding vowel. Thus ?i"iT z'ro^, ''?i|! '^m are mono- 
syllables. 

2. Long vowels always stand in simple syllables, and 
short vowels in mixed syllables, unless they be accented. 
But accented syllables, whether simple or mixed, may con- 
tain indifferently a long or a short vowel. 

a. The following may serve as a specimen of the division of Hebrew 
words into their proper syllables ; thus. 

a-dha'm "lo-hl'ra b'ro' b'yo'm a-dha'm to-1'dho'th se'-pher ze' 
Gen. 5 : \. irs nas oifirs r!i?:"i3 

O-tho' a-sa' ''lo-hi'm bidh-mu'tb 



^19 ^ SYLLABLES. 23 

b. The reason of tne ruie for the quantity of syllables appears to be 
this. In consequence of their brevity, the short vowels required the ad 
dition of a following consonant to make the utterance full and complete 
unless the want of this was compensated by the greater energy of pronun- 
ciation due to the accent. The long vowels were sufficiently complete 
without any such addition, though they were capable of receiving it under 
the new energy imparted by the accent. This pervading regularity, 
which is so striking a feature of the Hebrew language, was the foundation 
of the syslenia morarum advocated by some of the older grammarians of 
Holland and Germany. The idea ol" this was, that each syllable was 
equal to three moras, that is, three rests, or a bar of three beats ; a long 
vowel being equivalent to two niorae, or two beats, a short vowel to one. 
and the initial or final consonant or consonants also to one : thus P^iiJ? 
Ar (1) + a (2) = 3. C (1) + a (1) -\- It (l) = 3. An accented syllable 
might have one mora or beat either more or less than the normal quan- 
tity. This system was not only proposed by way of grammatical explana- 
tion, but also made the basis of a peculiar theory ot Hebrew prosody. See 
Gesenius, Geschichte d. Heb. Sprache, p. 123. 

c. The cases in which short vowels occur in unaccented simple sylla- 
bles, are all due to the disturbing influence exerted by the weak letters 
upon the normal forms of words ; thus, rsn hd-eth is for rrn, and x^inn 
ha-hu for hah-hu : such words as ST^.'!!. X".*?) ^Ir?) '^?.'1; ^"^P. 'ire formed 
after the analogy of T(^^. A long vowel in an unaccented mixed syllable 
is found in but one word, and that of foreign origin, ^SX-|w^3 bel-Cshats- 
tsdr , though here, as in the majority of instances falling under the previ- 
ous remark, the syllable receives, if not the primary, yet the secondary 
accent, e. g. "mT^rn. C'lnn. nb"n. The same is the case when a long 
vowel is retained before Makkeph, e. g. "pT"^. In the Arabic, which is 
exceedingly rich in vowels, there are comparatively few mixed syllables; 
nearly every consonant has its own vowel, and this more frequently short 
than long. The Chaldee, which is more sparing in its use of vowels than 
the Hebrew, observes in general the same rule with respect to the quan- 
tity of syllables, though not with the same inflexible consistency. 



Ambiguous Signs. 

§19. It will now be possible, by aid of the principles 
already recited, to determine the quantity of the doubtful 
vowels, and to remove the ambiguity which appears to exist 
in certain vowel-signs. 

1. Hhirik, Shurek, and Kibbuts, in unaccented simple 
syllables, must be long, and in unaccented mixed syllables, 
short, e. g. TZJT? or tbV. yi-rasU, ^is'? yihh-nu, i^ina or i'^aa 
ffbhu-lo, i'i\ or l^n'' yd-ladh, 0^3 or D2^3 kul-ldm, '^hy^ 



24 ORTHOGRAPHY. §1 9 

or ''•Tyia mduzzi. In accented syllables, whether simple or 
mixed, they are always long, e. g. Dn"'to or □"'rfia si-hhii, "^3 U, 
^23 or b^na (j'hliiil, T^y\ or iniirn^ cVm-shu-hu, the only ex- 
ception being that llhirik is short in the monosyllabic parti- 
cles as , ^'^ , OS' , ■J'a , and in some abbreviated verbal forms 
of the class called Lamedh-He, e. g. t'^^, aiu'^'i, 'Tp, . 

The only cases of remaining doubt are those in which 
these vowels are followed by a letter with Sh'va, either sim- 
ple or compound. If the former, it might be a cjuestion 
whether it was silent or vocal, and consequently whether the 
syllable was simple or mixed. If the latter, though the syl- 
lable is of course simple, the weak letter which follows may 
interfere with the operation of the law. Here the etymology 
must decide. The vowel is long or short as the grammatical 
form may require ; thus in n"|n;i, '^^"i? , 'i^'!^i?7,';' Gen. 22 : 8, 
which follow the analogy of 'j'^ijp'? , and in ^^ino Isa. 10 : 34, 
ii^ajp the first vowel is short ; in Bif^3 , ^^T?'' the first vowel 
is long. In a few instances the grannnatical form in which 
Hliirik is employed is itself doubtful ; the distinction is then 
made by means of Methegh, §>44, which is added to the vowel- 
sign if it is long, but not if it is short ; thus, li^i,';' i/i-ru, from 
i?'b^ to fear, and ^bia;' yi-sJinu from "liiJ^ to sleep ; but ^S'l': 
pr-u from Siij'^ to see, and ^bffi^ yish-nu from nbttj to do a 
second time. 

2. Kamets a and Kamets-Hhatuph o are both repre- 
sented by the same sign ( t ), but may be distinguished by 
rules similar to those just given. In an unaccented simple 
syllable it is Kamets ; in an unaccented mixed syhable it is 
Kamets-Hhatuph ; in an accented syllable, whether simple 
or mixed it is Kamets, e. g. "%^ dd-bhdr, ''psn hhoph-shi, 
T\yi md-veth, nis^ Idni-md, D'^rs bot-tJm. Before a letter with 
simple Sh'va, the distinction is mostly made by Methegh, 
§44 ; without Methegh it is always Kamets-Hhatuph, with 
it commonly Kamets, e. g. !^''??n hhol-h-rnd, n'bsn hhd-kJi'md. 
Before a guttural with Hhateph-Kamets or Kamets-Hhatuph 



§19 AMBIGUOUS SIGNS. 25 

it is frequently 6, thoiigli standing in a simple syllable and 
accompanied by Methegli, e. g. ■'"ina ho-Wn, ^~\^^J^ to^ 
ohMMm. The surest criteiion, liowe\er, and in many cases 
the only decisive one, is found in the etymology. If the 
vowel be derived from Hliolem, or the grammatical form re- 
quires an or a short vowel, it is Kamets-Hhatupli ; but if 
it be derived from Pattalih, or the form requires an a or a 
long vowel, it is Kamets : thus ri"i>s*} Anth the prefixed con- 
junction vd'niyi/btli, n^rxn with the article hd^nij/j/Ci ; "'by;; in 
the Hophal yd'madli, ^"nsr;' Isa. 44 : 13 in the Piel ytMe- 
r^hit. The first vowel is o in D;*nr-ii from "ini, c^ir";^ from 
r-p, n^ryr from -tjd , '^';^"";?'^'^" Isa. 38 : 14, ^Y'-i^ Num. 22 : 
II, ■^'rJ'O^ Num. 23 : 7 and the like, and the first two vow- 
els in such words as 2b''p^'3 from '?3, D^vSJ^ Isa. 30 : 12 from 
CS5T2, cb2^;^ Dent. 20 -. 2, ?i2-j;: TIos. 13 : 14, 4"J]^ 2 Clu-on. 
10:10, 2y"'T)^ 2 Kin. 15:10, because they are shortened 
from Hholem. On the other hand the first vowel is a in 
innt Job 10:19 from 'inr, cir^n from t^J] , T^s from 
Ti'ba, and in ^9x12, n^njp and the like, because it is originally 
and properly Kamets. The Avord rin'oc is in Ps. SG : 2 the 
imperative shomrCi, in Job 10:12 the preterite sJiamrd. 

a. In a very ^e\y instances Kamets-Hhatuph is fonnd in a syllable 
bearinor a conjunctive accent, viz.: ^sm Ps. 38:21. -" Ps. 35:10, also 
Prov. 19:7 (in some copies), and in the judgment of Evvali Irp Judg. 
19 : 5. conip. ver. 8 and 2S Ezek. 41 : 25 ; in Dan. 11 : 12 ="";i7 the points 
belong to the marginal reading c^l, and the vowel is consequently Ka- 
mets. There are also a lew cases in which Kamets remains in a mixed 
syllable, deprived of its accent bj- Makkeph. §43. without receiving 
Methegh, viz. : -ryo Ps. 16 : 5, -=■:;? P.s. 55: 19. 22. "-=3 Ps, 74 : 5 ; and a 
final u'laccented Kamets is not affected by the insertion of Da<rhesh-forte 
conjunctive. §24. in the initial letter of the following word. e. g. :"i" nnr-Q 
Gen. 31:13. When an accent takes the place of Methegh. it serves 
equally to distinguish*? from o. e. g. 't}'."] Ex. 21:22 v''ndgh^ph>2. ^"^.zh^ 
Ex. 21 : 35 umnkWi-u. §45. 5. 

b. Inasmuch as ^"""^ is derived from """": iiifjihnr. its first vowel 
nii^ht be suspected to be a; but as it is so constantly' written with 
Hhateph-Kamets. the preceding vowel is probably conformed to it. It is 
consequently regarded and pronounced as 6. Kimchi (Mikhlol. fol. 188) 
declares that the first vowel in "■r'^" 1 Sam. 13: 21. rirbi^ Eccles. 12 : 11 



26 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 20 

and V'^bn Num. 24 : 7 was universally held to be Kamets, and that with the 
exception of Rabbi Jonah ben Gannach, who was of a contrary mind, the 
same unanimity prevailed in regard to the first vowel of "^"^5 Ezek. 40: 
43. As, however, this last word is in every other place written without 
the Methegh, and there is no analogy tor such words as those mentioned 
above having d in their initial syllable, the best authorities are now agreed 
that the vowel is 6. and the words are accordingly read dorbhan. etc. In 
nsd"! _/as/jer, and rpin emerald, Ezek. 28:13, which are mentioned by 
Kimchi in the same connection, the first vowel is Kamets. 

c. In some manuscripts and a ^e\\ of the older printed books, e. g. Ste- 
phanus' Hebrew Bible and Reuchlin's Rudimenta Hebraica. Kamets- 
Hhatuph is denoted by ( t: ). It then differs from Kamets, bul is liable to 
be confounded with Hhateph-Kamets. It can, however, be distinguished 
from it by the circumstance that Kamets-Hhatuph is always followed 
either by simple Sh'va, Daghesh-forte, or Methegh ; none of which ever 
immediately succeed Hhateph-Kamets. Such a form as '^"^J^ Ezek. 26: 9 
in the editions of Michaelis and Van der Hoo^ht is an impossible one if ( t: ) 
have its ordinary meaning. 

d. It is surprising that in so minute and careful a system of orthogra- 
phy as that of the Masorites, there should be no symbol for 6 distinct from 
that for a; and some have felt constrained in consequence to suppose that 
the signs for these two vowels were originally different, but became 
assimilated in the course of transcription. This seems unlikely, however. 
The probability is that a and 6, whose resemblance even we can perceive, 
were so closely allied in the genuine Hebrew pronunciation, that one sign 
was thought sufficient to represent them, especially as the Masorites were 
intent simply on indicating sounds without concerning themselves with 
grammatical relations. 



§ 20. 1. As simple Sh'va is vocal at the beginning of a 
syllable and silent at its close, there can be no doubt as to its 
character when it stands under initial or final letters. Pre- 
ceding the first vowel of a word it must of course be vocal, 
and following the last vowel it must be silent, nrnDj z'khartdm, 
pro} zuJihart. In the middle of a word, the question whether 
it belongs to the syllable of the preceding or the following 
vowel must be determined by the circumstances. If a com- 
plete syllable precedes, that is, either an unaccented long 
vowel or a vowelless consonant serving as the complement 
of a previous short vowel, it is vocal. If it be preceded by 
a short vowel which cannot make a complete syllable with- 
out the aid of a following consonant, or by a long accented 



^21 DAGHESH-LENE. 27 

vowel, it is silent: """bsT zo-kJirB, ^"Gjn tiz-kWu, I'^ST zikh-iv^ ncr-e..*^. 
rcVcj^n tiktol-nu. Sh'va under a letter doubled by Dagbesh 
forte, § 23, is vocal, such a letter being equivalent to two, 
the first of which completes the previous syllable, and the 
second begins the syllable which follows : 0"'^2"n = D'^'^T.^T-n 
liaz-z khan ill. 

2. In addition to this it is to be remarked that Sh'va is 
vocal after what may be called intermediate syllables ; that 
is to say, when the consonant under which it stands per- 
forms, as it occasionally does, the double office of completing 
one syllable and beginning the next. Thus, when it foUows 
a consonant from which Daghesh-forte has been omitted, 
'^^'!r^'!1 vay hhak' shii for vcuj-yhltak-k'sliu, or the first of two 
similar letters, in order that the reduplication may be made 
more distinct, ^^'^n haVlu, ri^bp kiVlath, i^^2 tsiVlo, "^'ibx 
aVlay, "pi^ri hJiik'kt, and in several other cases, which \-\ill be 
more particularly described in § 22. 

a. The same double office is performed by gutturals beginning one 
syllable and yet inclining to complete the one before it, § IS. 2. c. In 
rrn. for example. 5 belongs in a measure to both syllables. It properly 
begins the second, and yet it is preceded by a short vowel just as if it 
ended the first, which is accordingly to be reckoned an intermediate sylla- 
ble, being in strictness neither simple nor mixed, but partaking of the 
nature of both. 



Daghesh-Lexe. 

§ 21. The second class of signs added to the Hebrew 
text are those which are designed to guide in the pronuncia- 
tion of the consonants. These are the diacritical point over 
Shin, Daghesh-lene, Daghesh-forte, Mappik, and Raphe.. 
The use of the fu'st of these has already been sufficiently 
explained, ^ 3. 1. 

1. Daghesh-lene ('^ TCrfl) is a point inserted in the six 
letters n s d 1 ^ a (technically called B'gliadh K'jjJiatli), 
to indicate the loss of their aspii-ation, e. g. a bh, 3 b, etc. 



■ I. *»* •^y'-y^ • 



28 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 21 

As these letters are always aspirated after a vowel-sound, 
however slight, and never as an initial utterance or when fol- 
lowing a consonant, they invariably require Daghesh-lene 
whenever they are not immediately preceded by a vowel or 
a vocal Sli'va. It is consequently inserted in the initial 
aspirate of a word which begins a verse, rT'ir^iii Gen. 1 :1, 
or which follows a word bearing a disjunctive accent (inas- 
much as this represents a pause of longer or shorter dura- 
tion), ii«3 ■J^"'3^ Ex. 1 : 1, "js I npy Gen. 3:22, or ending in a 
^r- - consonant, 'ra-'^x , ''sn^ n^b:iT2 Gen. 24 : 42 ; but not if it fol- 
^^ ; lows a v»ord ending in a vowel and having a conjunctive 
[*' accent, D"nri •'^e, ^nh "n-^n Gen. 1:2. The sacred name 

,^ w.w^--£.^;jj^^ is followed by Daghesh-lene, even though it may have a 
conjunctive accent, Num. 10 : 29, Dent. 3 : 20, Josh. 10 : 30, 
11 : 8, Ps. 18 : 21, because in reading the Jews always sub- 
stitute for it the word "'j^ii;, which ends in a consonant. In 
a very few cases, however, e. g. en "iris? Ps. 68 : 18, "r.n-i|? 
Isa. 34:11, nn ird Ezek. 23:42, Daghesh-lene is not in- 
serted after a voAvel-letter, which retains its consonant sound. 
2. Daghesh-lene is inserted in a medial or final aspirate 
preceded by a voweUess consonant, whether this be accom- 
panied by silent Sh'va or Pattahh furtive, e. g. r^ipp:, ^"^2^; 
but not if it be preceded by a vowel or vocal Sh'va, whether 
simple or compound, e. g. n^ini, nn'in? . 



a. Tlie primary signification of the name Dagliesh is commonly ex- 
plained from the Syriac ^-a.^? C'^'?'^)) to which Ca.'itelius in his lexicon 
gives the sense o^ piercing. This is hy some applied to the puncture or 
point which is its written sign, by others to its power of sharpening the 
eound of letters by removing their aspiration or doubling them. Buxtorf, 
Mowever, in his Chaldes Lexicon, disputes the existence of such a root in 
cither Syriac or Chaldee, alleging that in Prov. 12: 18, the passage quoted 
to prove the word, the true reading is ]-^-,* (s'di-i). The six letters which 
receive Daghesh-lene in Hebrew have the same twofold pronunciation in 
S^vriac. a red dot called Rukhokh (-^ci srfluess). being written beneath 
them when they were to be aspirated, and another called Kushoi (w..A,aj 
hardness), being written above them when they were not. 



§ 32 DAGHESH-LENE. 29 

b. Grammarians are not agreed whether the aspirated or vmaspirated 
Bound of these consonants was the original one. There being no data for 
the settlement of the question, each decides it by his own theory of pho- 
netic changes. The correctness of the Masoretic punctuation has some- 
times been questioned in regard to this matter, on the ground of the im- 
probability of such fluctuation in the sound of these letters in the same 
word. But besides the Syriac analogy just referred to, the Sanskrit lan- 
guage shows the almost unlimited extent to which euphonic changes may 
be carried by a people possessing a sensitive and discriminating ear. The 
Sanskrit aspirates, besides being subjected to other mutations which can- 
not here be detailed, regularly lose their aspiration when finals, and under 
certain conditions when medials, throwing it back, where this is possible, 
upon a previous letter. Boj)p Kritische Grammatik, pp. 30. 42. Similar 
laws prevail to some extent in Greek, e. g. OptS, Tpi^os', Tpe<j>u), $p€\p(D] 6vw, 
ervdrjv ; ovk ep^w, o{'_>^ 'i^ui ; p.(.B vplv. 

§ 22. The absence of Daghesli-lene in an aspii-ate some- 
times shows a preceding simple Sh'va to be vocal when this 
would not otherwise have been known. In most of the cases 
referred to, a letter originally belonging to the succeeding 
syllable is by the prefixing of a short vowel drawn back to 
complete the syllable before it ; instead, however, of giving 
up its previous connection altogether, it forms an interme- f*^*-- ^ .. 
diate syllable, § 20. 2, the Sh'va remaining vocal though the '^ ' "T"^ 
antecedent vowel is sliort ; thus, nnb Vbhibh with the prefix 
a becomes anba hiVbhahli, not 33:3 hil-hahh. 

a. The particular instances in which this may occur are the following, 
viz. : (1) The Kal imperative of verbs and the Kul infinitive with suffixes, 
e. g. ^T^" . "i""^-? . ^'7-r'' • ''-1-^' from i-?. ; yet with occasional exceptions, aa 
DrECXS Lev. 23 : 39. (2) Those forms of Pe Guttural verbs in which the 
first radical assumes a short vowel in place of the silent Sh'va in the reg 
ular inflexion, e. g. 1"i2",^, c^n^n for =n2:?7. C^i'iri. (3) The construct 
plural of nouns "inns from c^^?., risrs i'rom nisirs, r^diri from n^i-in, 
though with occasional exceptions, as 'B'l'"] Cant. 8 : 6, but ^SUJn Ps. 76:4, 
1T113S Isa. 5: 10, ris-in Ps. 69 : 10. ^Iia Gen. 50:23. but cn-'3-i2 .Tudg.7: 6; 
''~33.in;3 from 152 are peculiar in omitting Daghesh in the singular with 
suffixes. (4) Three feminine nouns ending in ri, rnrbia from T)'''?, rmS^ 
from "157., t"~^^ (only occurring with suffixes) from T^?, but not r^'ni^ 
Also a {'e.w other nouns of different forms, viz.: c'raiv but ''n^"}^, nis'::, • 
•'d-iS, a"'r-i'r, ni'n2-i?3, "i^ri*, Vsrpr^ Josh. 15:38, cirnp^ Jo.'-'h. 15:56. 
(5) After prefixes, as He interrogative, e.g. cn^T^n Gen. 29:5 from 
CriS'17, and inseparable prepositions, e.g. "'*2"ib from "'"'^'l, njna from r^'n, 
"12*13 from "-'^. Usage is not uniform in the case of Kal infinitives follow- 



30 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^23 

ing inseparable prepositions, e. g. -"r=5. nrrra; ^"2"3. ^3?S>. -s:^; NS^b 
Isa. 31 :4. N2-/3 Num. 4: 23. 8: 24; rrith, ^ifs). (6) The'suffixes of the 
second person "i, C3 . "2 never receive Daghesh-Iene, T^;2. L=~;r2. 

These rules are sometimes of importance in etymolog-y ; thus. ~":i~;3 
Ezek. 27:12 must have as its ground form li-J^ , not 'f^T^ ; and s^'^X 
Hos. 7 :6, ~\~'} Ps. 90 : 10 cannot be infinitives with suffixes, but must be 
from the segholates -"^.s, inn. 

b. The omission of Dagliesh-Iene in the final letter of vO"'n Prov. 30 : 6, 
abbreviated from "''pin or ~p"n , is exceptional. The Daghesh occasion- 
allv occurring in initial aspirates after words ending in a vowel and having 
a conjunctive accent, is best explained not as an exception to the ordinary 
rules, but as Daghesh forte conjunctive. §24. e. g. ■|^';2 '"'^■^^. Gen. 11:31 
and elsewhere, yri na-x Gen. 46:28, nx; ns; Ex. 15: 1. 21, r;x5 ^i] Ex. 
15:13, ncE n^rsi Deut."" 16 : 1 (com.p. r.) r-r^ Gen. 20:9). C2 ny^XT 
Deut. 31:28'(c^'mp. •''k ^T^i<' Isa. 8:2), rhz'S -n-^] Josh. 8:24', 10^20, 
7~S M'^il Gen. 35:29, 13 nnt'^'lsa. 40:7. See alsS Gen. 39:12. Ex. 14: 
4. 17, isa'. 10:9. Job 9:2. e'x.''^15: U. 16, Ps. 35: 10, Isa. 54: 12, Jer. 20: 9, 
Dan. 3:3. 5:11. The old strife as to the Daghesh in the word f^rsJ two 
is not yet settled. Kimchi explained it as Daghesh-lene upon the suppo- 
sition that the word was abridged from L'^P-is ; Schultens as Daghesh- 
forte arising from an assimilated 3, contending that it was for C^ptli from 
c"^r:ir ; Nordheimer as an anomalous Daghesh-Iene, introduced as a 
eupiionic expedient to prevent the combination of an aspirated n with a 
sibilant, such as is obviated in the Hithpael of verbs by a transposition 
that would here be inadmissible. The puzzle is still further perplexed by 
the circumstance that it once appears with the preposition '^ without the 
Daghesh. ^^^"0 Judg. 16 : 28, and again with the same preposition with it, 
C"r,ri2 Jon. 4: 11, the Methegh showing the Sh'va to be vocal, as might 
also be inferred from the fact that Daghesh-forte has been omitted. 



Daghesh-Porte, 

§ 23. 1. When the same consoTiaiit was repeated with a 
vowel or even the shghtest hiatus intervening, so that suc- 
cessive movements of the organs of speech were required in 
the pronunciation, the Hebrews invariably wrote the lettsr 
twice. When, however, there was no inten^al between the 
reduplicated consonants, and the only audible result was a 
more protracted or vehement utterance of the same sound 
effected by a single effort of the organs, the letter was written 
but once. This fact the ^lasoretic punctuators have indi- 
cated by placing a point called Daghesh-forte (pTn Tj^) in 
the bosom of a letter so affected, to show that it is to be 



^ 24 DAGHESH-FORTE. 31 

doubled in the pronunciation ; thus, b72|^1 vayyimmCd. Da- 
ghesh-forte may be found in any letter with the exception 
of the gutturals X n n y , which on account of their weak 
ness do not admit of reduplication. The letter i, par- 
taking of this with other peculiarities of the gutturals, re- 
ceives it only in a very few exceptional cases, e. g. ''Ci^'ntD , 

2. The aspirates, when doubled, always at the same time 
lose their aspiration ; thus, i;ps;> yipjpCiMdk. Daghesh-forte 
in these letters is readily distinguishable from Daghesh-lene 
by the consideration that a consonant cannot be pronounced 
double except after a vowel. A point in one of the aspirates 
is, therefore, Daghesh-forte if a vowel precedes, otherwise it 
is Daghesh-lene. 

3. Daghesh-forte in 1 may be distinguished from Shurek 
in the same way. Inasmuch as two vowels cannot come to- 
gether in the same word, if a vowel precedes it is Daghesh- 
forte, if not it is Shurek. 

a. Some Grammarians spenk of Daghesh-forte implicilum in the gut- 
turals, by which they mean that these letters appear in cRftain cases tc 
complete a foregoing syllable as well as to begin that in which they prop- 
erly stanf], in spite of the omission of Daghesh, which analogy would re- 
quire them to receive. As these are included under what have already, 
§ 20. 2. a. been explained as intermediate syllables, it is not thought neces- 
sary to employ an additional term. 

6. The Arabs have a sign of reduplication, Teshdid ( «- ), which is 
written above the doubled letter. The Syrians have no written sign for 
this purpose, and it is disputed whether their letters were ever doubled in 
pronunciation. According to Asseman Biblioth. Orient. III. 2. p. 379, the 
Western differed from the Eastern Syrians in this respect, "Occidentalea 
nullibi literas geminant." 



§ 24. Different epithets have been applied to Daghesh- 
forte to describe its various uses or the occasions of its em- 
ployment. 1. When separate letters, whether originally 
alike, or made so by assimilation, are by the inflection or 
formation of words brought into juxtaposition, the Daghesh- 



,.^t 



32 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



§24 






{^.f 



4 



forte which represents such a doubling is called compensa 
tive; e. g. '^ri'lf, formed by appending the syllable t;! to the 
root rns ; ipn: composed of the same syllable and the root 
"in: , whose last letter is changed to n to conform with that 
which follows ; "^33 from 220, 2. AVhen the reduplication is 
indicative of a particular grammatical form the Daghesh- 
forte is called characteristic, e. g. in the Piel, Pual, and 
Hithpael of verbs ; as, ?I#n, ^'jnrin, and certain forms of nouns, 
as, TS^ . 3. AVhen it has arisen from the necessity of con- 
verting a previous simple syllable into a mixed one in order 
to preserve the quantity of a short vowel which it contains, 
it is Daghesh-forte conservative ; e. g. 23^ for 20:* . 4. When 
the initial letter of a word is doubled under the influence of 
the final voweL of the word preceding, it is Daghesh-forte 
conjunctive; e. g. n-T-n^, !ri3-r.;)n;i , ^xsi ^'a^p. 5. When the 
last letter of an intermediate syllable is doubled in order to 
make the following hiatus or vocal Sh'va more distinct, it is 
Daghesh-forte dirimens or separative, because the letter which 
receives it is thus separated in part from the syllable to which 
it belongs ; e. g. ''i::? huihliB for "'2::^ inbht. 6. When \\iQ 
first letter ^f a final syllable is doubled under the influence 
of a previous vowel bearing the accent (mostly a pause ac- 
cent, § 36. 2. «.), for the sake of increased fullness and force 
"of pronunciation, it is Daghesh-forte emphatic; e. g. ^'"in for 
^'"n . In the first three uses named above Daghesh-forte is 
said to be essential, in the last three it is euphonic. 



a. Daghesh-forte conjunctive occurs regularly after the pronoun nr, 
e. g. D"i?2-n?2!i irji n^ Ps. 133: 1. and in a multitude of cases after final Ka- 
mets or Seg-hnI in words accented on the penult or followed by Makkeph. 
§43. e.g. rST-nnj^b Gen. 2: 23. cik--nb=x Deut.27 : 7,ii nr":nT Num. 25: 13, 
-^z-r^T^}^ Gen. SoTsS; fT:.n;;-nT Num.' 34:6. 7. 9. -^x^ nr-c Ex. 13:1 
(where" the accent is on the'ultimate), riT^??"? P^ov. 15: 1 (in some edi 
tions), more rarely after other vowel.'?, e.g. ^xs 'i-^p Gen. 19: 14. N2 l"'^i<7- 
1 Sam. 8: 19. once after the liquid i, e. g. N^ -i^.5<'':! 1 Kin. 11: 22. See 
also § 22. h. In a few instances words thus united are written as one. e. g. 
ma Ex.4: 2 for n-T m2, so C2|^ Isa. 3:15, nxbn?? Mai. 1:13, nxasca 



§ 25 DAGHESH-FOETE. 33 

Isa. 27:8. and possibly t^x^X Isa. 33:7. See Dr. Alexander's Com> 
mentary upon this passage. 

b. Daghesh-forte separative occurs only in the following examples: 

n-isx Hos. 3 : 2. rnis': 1 Sam. 28 : 10. "ibso Isa. 9:3. 10 : 

:]'^n-i-i;3-'2 Ps. 45 : 10. nja'^rir&s (?) Ezek. ^' ' 27. 

c-^nr-Tn Am. 5:2-5. ' ' 13 : 20. ''22S Deut. 32 : 32. 

nr;rr>^^rn Gen. 18:21. :;rib:3 isa. 33: l. tH? 2 Sam. 23: 

' rJbsn Gen. 37 : 32. i'b? ^ or i'^-j^ Ps. ' 27. Jer. 29 : 27. 

'i:bn Gen. 17 : 17. ' ^ 89 : 45. c=''=as Isa. 58 : 3. 

Dri''N'vn 1 Sam. 10: ni-.;ar Joel 1:17. CD-'riS? Am. 5:21. 

24, 17 : 25, C^nna^ Job 9:18. ' ^zi^ (?) Cant. 1 : 8. 

2 Kin. 6: 32. TCV,h Nah. 3: 17. r.-.Z-p;J Ps. 89:52. 

oni-iar. Job n : 2. tj^s-o Ex. 15 : 17. "riiriss Ps. 77 : 20. 

'i3-'E3n Ex. 2 : 3. Jrn;?-: Deut. 23 : 11. rir^i::; Prov. 27 : 25. 

sms-in'nn (?) Jiulg. 20: ^XIJ .Job 30 : 8. '^v^'s'^i Ps. 119 ; 139. 

43. nns: Ps. 141^3. ■Jnrrr:: Ps. 88: 17. 

n-cs'rr! 1 Sam. 1 : 6. n-is; Prov. 4: 13. cr-r'r;:? (?) Ps. 37: 

-in:'£n Isa. 57 : 6. WiiJisr: Judg.20: 32. ' ' 15.1sa.5:28. 

r.n;5- Gen. 49 : 10. i=30 Jer.l : 7. "^ba*:) Zech. 4 : 12. 

rnis^b Prov. 30: 17. ' ' bsib^-iJ Ps. 58 : 9. 

This list is corrected and enlarged from Gesen. Lehrg. pp. 86 ff. Those 
words which are followed by a note of interrogation (?) are found in some 
editions but not in others. Daghesh separative may be found after He 
interrogative in some instances not included in the above list. 

c. Daghesh-forte emphatic occurs only in ^bnn Judg. 5:7, 1 Sam. 2:5; 
i^h') Job 29 : 21 ; Wn: or ^inn;: Job 21:13; sna'": Isa.^ 33 : 12, Jer. 51 : 58 ; 
n-J-nb Ezek. 21: 15; rj-pj Ezek. 6:9; nni-j Jer. 51:30; r,r} Ezek. 27- 
IqVi^^;^ C?) Isa. 19 : 6 ; and probably l^rnn Job 13 : 9 (not in pause). 



§ 25. In order to tlie distinct utterance of a reduplicated 
consonant, it must be followed as well as preceded by a 
vowel-sound. Daghesh-forte is consequently never written 
in a final vowelless letter, with the exception of the two words 
px , nnp , both of which end in aspirates Avhose pronuncia- 
tion would be changed by the removal of the Daghesh. In 
every other instance the doubling is neglected, even though 
the letter be an aspirate, which will for this reason resume 
its aspiration ; e. g. ^f? , ^'5p; 3D, lao; ^n^T abridged from 
"sn^i ; qi^n from nss;^^ . In a medial letter with Sh'va 
Daghesh mav be written, because the Sh'va beino; thus ren^ 
dered vocal the reduplication can be made audible by means 
3 



34 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 26, 27 

of the hiatus which it represents ; it is, however, quite as 
frequently omitted, the Sh'va commonly remaining vocal as 
if it were inserted, and compound Sh'va being occasionally 
substituted for simple to indicate this fact, ^ 16. 3. h.\ e. g. 
D'^'i'iS' for 0^"^!!?, iXv? for 1X22, particularly after prefixes, as 
Vav conversive, the article and preposition 'a, so "^6;^^, tj^n"an. 
It is seldom omitted from a medial aspirate on account of the 
change in its sound involved : yet even this is done occasion- 
ally, e. g. n-i^nti Judg. 8 : 2 for "iu:3ia, U'nn Isa. 22 : 10 for 
'^'IV}^ , "iiiDT from "jiil" . In a few rare instances it is dropped 
from a letter followed by a vowel, when the laws of syllables 
will permit and the pronunciation will not be materially 
affected ; e. g. nii^n Ruth 1 : 13 for nziyn. 

Mappik. 

§ 26. Mappik (p"^?^ bringing out or uttering), is a point 
in one of the letters i5 n 1 ■• , showing that it represents a 
consonant and not a vowel, or in other words that it does 
not quiesce in the preceding vowel-sign. It is unnecessary, _ 
however, to employ any notation for this purpose in the case 
of X 1 and "^ , for their quiescence can be readily determined 
in aU cases by the rules already given, ^13. Although it is 
much more extensively used in manuscripts, therefore, ^lap- 
pik is in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible only inserted 
in finai n when it retains its consonantal poAver ; e. g. !^i"i^ 
artsali, n^ns artsa, nnpb VMIiMIl, nnpb UlSliha. The point 
four times found in S5, ^S?"'^^:! Gen. 43:26, Ezra 8:18, 
^s^ip Lev. 23 : 17, ^sn Job 33 : 21, though called aDaghesh 
in the ^lasoretic notes in the margin, is probably to be re- 
garded as Mappik. 

Raphe. 

§ 27. Raphe (nsn weal^, is a small horizontal stroke 
placed over a letter, and denotes the opposite of Daghesh- 



5 28 ACCENTS. 35 

lene, Daghesh-forte, or Mappik, as the case may be. As nc 
inconvenience can arise from its omission, it is only occa- 
sionally used in modern Bibles, and not witb entire uni- 
formity in the different editions. It is chiefly found where 
a Mappik has been omitted in n , which according to analogy 
might be expected to be inserted, e. g. n'7CiJ'7 Ex. 9:18, 
rri^Tai Lev. 13:4, n&ftpna Num. 15:28, hb Num. 32:42, 
h^D'^^"a Job 31 : 22 in some copies. In ^^-nia?n Ex. 20:4, 
Deut. 5 : 8, it is the opposite of Daghesh-forte, and shows 
that b may either be doubled agreeably to the point in its 
bosom or not. In nsnn sb Ex. 20 : 13, Deut. 5 : 17, it is the 
opposite of Daghesh-lene, and shows that the n may either 
have its unaspirated sound, as the Daghesh indicates, or 
may be aspirated. It is often referred to in the marghial 
Masoretic notes even where it is no longer found in the text, 
e.g. Judg. 16:16, 28. 



Accents 

§28. The third class of Masoretic additions to the text 
are those which relate to the words. These are the accents, 
Makkeph, Methegh, and the K'ri. An accent (D?t3) is writ- 
ten upon every word with a twofold design, 1st, of marking 
its tone-syllable, and 2dly, of indicating its relation to other 
words in the sentence. The great number of the accents 
has respect entirely to this second function, there being no 
difference in the quality of the stress laid upon particular 
syllables, such for example as is marked by the Greek acute, 
grave, and circumflex, but only that difference in its amount 
wliich arises from the unequal emphasis naturally laid upon 
the different members of a clause or period. The punc- 
tuators have attempted not only to indicate the pauses to be 
made in reading, as is done by the stops in use in other Ian 
guages, but to represent to the eye the precise position held 



36 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 29 

by each word in the structure of the sentence, and the 
various grades of attraction or repulsion arising from the re- 
lations whether co-ordinate or subordinate which subsist 
among them. Every sentence is fancifully regarded as a ter- 
ritory, which, partitioned into its several clauses, forms em- 
pires, kingdoms, and principalities, ruled by their respective 
sovereigns, each of whom has his own train of inferiors and 
dependants. The accents are accordingly divided into Dis 
junctives or Rulers (a^ibia), and Conjunctives or Servants 
(Di'in?). The former indicate that the word upon which 
they are placed is more or less separated from those that 
follow ; they mark thus the end of a clause or of the section 
of a clause over which they exert control. The latter indi- 
cate that the word over or under which they are written is 
connected with what follows and belongs to the clause or 
section ruled by the next succeeding Disjunctive. 

a. The stress of voice denoted by the accent must not be confounded 
with quantity. An accented syllable may nevertheless be short, the 
energy with which it is pronounced not necessarily affecting its length. 

b. The Jews made use of the accents as musical notes in the cantilla- 
tion of the synagogue, whence they are also called n'i3"'53. In the judg- 
ment of some this is a part, and perhaps a leading part, of their original 
design. Their great variety, the frequent occurrence of accents of oppo- 
site powers upon the same word, and the distinct system of poetical 
accents, favor this opinion. Such as are curious to know the details may 
find the mode of their employment for this purpose explained at length in 
Bartoloccii Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica, vol. iv. pp. 427-444. 

§ 29. The Disjunctive accents may be divided into four 
classes of various rank or power, as follows, viz : 





Class I. Emperors. 




*1. Silluk 


(,) 


ip^^o 


*2. Athnahh 


(*) 





§ Id ACCENTS. 37 









ACCENTS. 












Class II. Kings. 






3. 


S'gholta 




{•') 




postp. 


4. 


Zakeph : 


Katon 


C) 


■ji^i? 5]l5i 




5. 


Zakeph ( 


3adhol 


C) 


H-ia di^J 




*6. 


Tiphhha 




(J 

Class III. Z^Tces. 


Knsa 




*7. 


R'bhr 




(•) 


s-'h-i 




*8. 


Shalshel 


eth 


(') 


rilrb© 




*9. 


Zarka 




(~) 


^^11 


postp. 


10. 


Pashta 




C) 


i<L;ii:B 


postp. 


11. 


Y'thibh 




(<) 


2*'^'?. 


prep. 


12. 


T'bhir 




(.) 







Class IV. Counts. 



*13. Pazer 


/ K N 




"TS 


14. Karne Phara 


f'KP. 


rr\ 


B ■^jn;? 


15. T'llsha Gh'dhola 


I ''\ 


nbiia 


xui-ibn prep. 


16. Geresh 


C \ 




ttj-il 


17. G'rashayim 


( " \ 




n-^ana 


*18. P'slk 


( ') 




ip-'OB 


The Conjunctive accents, or 


Servants^ are the foU< 


viz. : 








*19. Merka 


V 1 / 






*20. Munahh 


\j) 






21. Merka Kh'phala 


^ u ' 




1 H3"na 


•22. Mahpakh 


\< ) 




•^sno 


23. Darga 


\« / 




^^1^ 


*24. Kadhma 


, ^ . 




^?1i? 



*25. Yerahh ben Yomo ( ) 'i'2i"'"*)3 nn^ 

26. T'lisha K'taniia ( ) f^S^P !<^"<3n po*/!/). 



38 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 30 

a. Merka Kh'phula has sometimes been reckoned among the Disjunc 
tives, as by Gesenius in his Lehrgehaude ; but the absence ot' Daghesh- 
lene in the word ibllowing that on which it stands in Ex. 5:15. Ezek 
14:4, proves that it is a Conjunctive. 

h. According to their most probable significations, the names of the 
accents appear to be in part borrowed from their forms and in part from 
their uses. Thus the Disjunctives: Silluk, e«rf; Athnahh, resf y Segholta, 
hunch of grapes ; Zakeph. small and great, causing suspension ; Tiphhha, 
palm ofihehand; R'bhi". square or reposing ; Shalsheieth, chain; Zarka. 
dispersion; Pashta. expansion or letting down {ihe voice); Y'thibh. sj7- 
iing still ; T'bhir, interruption; Pazer, separator ; Karne Phara, a heifer's 
hor)is ; T'lisha. great and smaW, shield ; Geresh. earpulsion ; G'rashayim, 
double Geresh; P'sik. cut of. Conjunctives: Merka, prolonging; Mu- 
nahh, (a trumpet) at rest, i. e., in its proper position ; Merka Kh'phqla, 
double Merka; Mahpakh, (a trumpet) inverted; Darga, progress ; Kadh- 
ma, beginning ; Yerahh ben-Yomo. moon a day old. 

Other names are given to some of these accents, particularly where they 
occur in certain situations or combinations; thus Tiphhha is also called 
Tarhha ( xn"^:: ), Munahh with P'sik is called L'gharmeh ( Prr-lb ). etc. 

c. The classification of the Disjunctives, according to their respective 
powers and the laws of their consecution, has been the work of Christian 
writers, from whom all accurate investigations of the accentual system 
have proceeded. In fact, this whole subject is treated by the Jewish 
grammarians in the crudest and most perplexed manner. Buxtorf says, in 
his Thesaurus Grammaticus. p. 45: Accentuum ratio hactenus nee a quo- 
quam nostrorum nee ab ipsis etiam Hebraeis sufficienter explicata est. 
The division exhibited above is the one now commonly adopted. The 
current names. Imperatores. Reges, Duces, Comites. are those used by 
Wasmuth in his Institutio Accent. Heb. 1664. Others have divided them 
differently. The learned PfeifTer, author of the Dubia Vexata, distin- 
guishes one Emperor, one Archduke, four Dukes, seven Counts, and five 
Barons. Boston, the well-known author of the Fourfold Slate, in an elab- 
orate Latin treatise upon this subject left by him in manuscript and pub- 
lished shortly after his death, distributes them into three classes of 
superior and one of inferior rank. Mention is made, in a commendatory 
preface by Mill, the distinguished critic of the New Testament, of another 
manuscript in English, in which Boston applied his views practically in a 
twofold translation of the first twenty-three chapters of Genesis, with 
copious notes, both philological and theological. This, it is believed, has 
never been published. A curious little book upon the Canon by Ferdinand 
Parkhurst. London. 1660. makes six Regal and ten Principial Disjunctives, 
Y'thibh and P'sik being omitted altogether. 

§30. 1. Fourteen of tlie accents are written over, and eleven 
under, the words to whicli they are ^attached. P'sik, whose 
only use is to modify the power of other accents, is wiitten 
after the word to which it belongs, and in the same line 



§ 30 ACCENTS. 39 

with it. The place of the accents is either over or under the 
letter preceding the tone-vowel, with the exception of the 
prepositives Y'thibh and T'lisha Gh'dhola, which always ac- 
company the initial letter of the word, and the postpositives 
S'gliDlta, Zarka, Pashta, and T'hsha K'tanna, which stand 
upon the final letter. Y'thibh is only used when the first is 
the tone-syllable. Pashta is repeated if the word on which 
it stands is accented on the penult, e. g. ^nn Gen. 1 : 2, or 
ends with two vowelless letters, e. g. rn^^i Ruth 3 : 7, or if 
the last letter has Pattahh furtive, e. g. S?!^ Gen. 33 : 13, and 
in some manuscripts and editions there is a like repetition of 
S'gholta and Zarka. When a word bears the other preposi- 
tive or 1 ostpositives, there is nothing to mark its tone-syllable 
unless this may chance to be the one upon which the nature 
of the accent in question requires it to be placed. 

2. Silluk has the same form as Methegh, § 44 ; but the 
former invariably stands on the tone-syllable of the last 
word in the verse, while Methegh is never written under a 
tone-syllable. Pashta is likewise distinguished from Kadhma 
only by its position upon the last letter of the word, and 
after the superscribed vowel, if there be one, e. g. "it^'^ Gen. 
1 : 7, ^s^r'? Gen. 24 : 7, while Kadhma is placed upon the 
letter preceding the tone-vowel, e. g. i^;n Gen. 2 : 19 : where 
this chances to be a final letter the laws of consecution only 
can decide ; thus, in t^^nT Gen. 26 : 4, ?ins2 Dent. 16:3, the 
accent is Pashta, but in ^?"»i^;i Gen. 17:8, ?ins2 1 Sam. 
29 : 6, it is Kadhma. Y'thibh is distinguished from Mahpakh 
by being written under the first letter of the word and taking 
precedence of its vowel if this be subscribed, e. g. ^ii?.?', Geii. 
1 : 11, ^3 Gen. 31 : 6, Deut. 10:17; Mahpakh belongs under 
the consonant which precedes the tone-vowel, and after its 
vowel-sign if this be subscribed, e. g. "inin Gen. 2 : 14, "^1 
Gen. 32 : 33, Deut. 4 : 7. When the initial syllable bears the 
tone and there is no subscribed vowel, the laws of consecu- 
tion must decide ; thus, in «^n the accent is Y'thibh in Gen. 



40 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Pl 



3:15, 44:17; Deut. 10 : 17 ; but Mahpakh in Josk 

17:1. 

§ 31. The accents already explained are called the prosaic 
accents, and are found in all the books of the Old Testament 
with the exception of the Psalms (n''^nn), Proverbs {'^^T'Q), 
and the poetic portion of Job (-'1''^?), whose initials form the 
technical word rras . Here a different system of accentua- 
tion prevails. Thirteen of the prosaic accents, one-half of the 
whole number, nowhere occur in the books just named, viz. : 
S'gholta, Zakeph-Katon, and Zakeph-Gadhol of the Kings, 
Paslita, Y'thibh, and T'bhir of tli£ Dukes, Karne Phara, 
T'lisha Gh'dhola, Geresh, and G'rashayim, of the Counts, 
Merka Kh'phula, Darga, and T'lisha K'tanna of the Con- 
junctives. Such as are common to both systems are in the 
previous table distinguished by an asterisk. The powers of 
some of these, however, are altered, so that a new arrange- 
ment of them is necessary ; and they are supplemented by 
additional signs formed by combining the prosaic accents or 
assigning them unusual positions. The scale of the poetical 
or metrical accents thus constituted is as follows, viz. : 





Disjunctive Accents. 










Class I. 






1. 


Silluk 


(•■) 


• "^^"^V^ 




2. 


Athnahh 


(J 


"I'rS'l 




3. 


Merka-Mahpakh 


C) 

Class II. 


Tirln 




4. 


R-bhi'' 


(■) 


Tiasn 




5. 


Pazer 


(^) 


1133 r? 




6. 


R'bhr Geresh 


(•') 


liisri 




7. 


Tiphhha initial 


(J 




frep. 


8. 


Zarka 


D 


•ninsn 


postp. 


9. 


P'sik 


(0 


1 Tiasn 


poslp. 



^32 





POSITION 


OF THE 


ACCENT. 






OoNjxjiTOTivE Accents. 




10. 


Merka 


^ J ' 




iinsn 


11. 


Merka-Zarka 


w / 




■'^r^r! 


12. 


Mahpakh 


\< / 




liasn 


13. 


Mahpakh-Zarka 


>■•< / 




linsn 


14. 


Munahh 


\-> ) 




J T - 


15. 


Munahh superior 


f ■> \ 




niasn 


16. 


Yerahh ben Yomo 


\ v/ 




''■i^sn 


17. 


Kadhraa 


/ % \ 




ni23n 


18. 


Tiphhha 


V V / 




lissn 


19. 


Shalsheleth 


( ^\ 




Tinsn 



41 



a. It will be perceived that there are fewer Disjunctives but more 
Conjunctives than are exhibited by the prosaic accents. Merka-Mahpakh 
answers substantially to S'gholta; R'hbi''-Geresh to Tiphhha before Silluk, 
and Tiphhha initial to Tiphhha before Athnahh. Tiphhha and Shalshe- 
leth are transferred from the list of Disjunctives to that of the Conjunc- 
tives, whence it comes to pass that if a word bearing either of these 
accents terminates in a vowel. Daghesh-lene will not be inserted in a fol- 
lowing initial aspirate, e. g. D?33 '^^'^S Ps. 31: 10, cnrs? xin^ Prov. 8:3, 
niBTra siii*sn7 Ps. 10:2. 

b. P'sik, in the poetic as in the prosaic accents, is never used alone but 
always in conjunction with another accent. It serves to strengthen Dis- 
junctives and to reduce the power of Conjunctives without disturbing the 
order of their consecution. It is thus used with Merka-Mahpakh Ps. 5:13, 
Pazer Ps. 10: 14, Tiphhha initial Ps. 31:4, Mahpakh Ps. 5: 9, Munahh 
Prov. 1:22, Merka Ps. 10:13, Kadhma Ps 10:5, Shalsheleth Ps. 7:6. 



Position op the Accent 



§ 32. The accent in Hebrew may fall either -upon the 
ultimate or the penultimate syllable, but never at a greater 
remove from the end of the word. In the former case 
words are technically termed Milra i'S^^'a from below), and 
in the latter Milel ("s'^^bTa froin above). 



42 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 33 

1. The position of the accent may be considered in rela- 
tion either to the syllabic or to the etymological structure 
of a word, that is to say, as affected by the natiu-e of its syl- 
lables on the one hand or of the elements of which it is com- 
posed as a significant part of speech on the other. It is so 
far determined by the syllabic structure of words, that a 
long mixed syllable or a short simple syUable, whether in the 
ultimate or the penultimate, must receive the accent, §18. 2. 
thus: p^'i"}, n;^a?nT, rnir, nn'i . 

2. Considered in reference to theii* etymological structure, 
words exist in two conditions, (1.) their primary uninfiected 
state, by which their essential and proper meaning is con- 
veyed ; (2.) with added affixes and prefixes, by which that 
meaning is variously modified. In their nude or primary 
state aU words, whether primitives or derivatives, are ac- 
cented ujjon the ultimate, and so continue to whatever flexion, 
involving no terminational appendages, they may be sub- 
jected. Thus, nj?s, nps, -ipb, "T^3, "ijjs, nps^, "ipsrn; t'^il , 

3. The only exception is a class of words called Se- 
gholates, in Avhich the last vowel does not belong originally 
or essentially to the form, but is introduced for the sake of 
softening the pronunciation, §G1. 2; these are accented on 
the penultimate, as tfb^a, nsb, nsb, n^3, ^nn, r:n3, b^^ , b,)^;, 

a. i'i'^'OT^ Is. 50: 8 is said to be the only instance ofa word accented on 
the antepenult. The proper tone-syllable of this word is the ultimate, but 
upon the recession of the accent by § 35. the vowel next preceding, which 
has arisen from Sh'va and is unessential to the form, cannot receive it, so 
that it necessarily falls upon the one still further back. 

§33. The additions which words may receive at the he- 
ginning or end affect the accent in proportion to the respect- 
ive weight accorded to them. Additions to the end of words 
are of two sorts, which may be distinguished as affixes and 
suffixes. Affixes are so welded to the word or merged in it 



^33 POSITION OF THE ACCENT. 43 

that in the popular consciousness they have become an in- 
tegral part of it, and their independent existence or separate 
origin is no longer thought of; such are the personal inflec- 
tions of verbs and the terminations indicating gender and 
number in nouns and adjectives. Suffixes are not so inti- 
mately blended with the word to which they are attached as 
to have lost their individual identity and independent charac- 
ter, and consequently are of greater weight as respects the 
accent; such are the fragmentary pronouns appended to 
verbs, nouns, and prepositions. 

1. If the appendage consists of a vowel (as n^, Ji, ^, 
i, r, \.), or begins with one (as f^,, \, 1\, n\, ni, tj^, tj.., n^, 
"j^, □;'., 1^"},), and can consequently only be pronounced by 
the aid of the final consonant of the word to which it is at- 
tached, it will attract the accent to itself or to its initial vowel 
from a noun, adjective, participle, or preposition, as "''b^'i , 
i-b^, n^nan, '^'in^, i\'!^y^ , ^'''in^ from ^n^; n^'ipni^, ■'irj-;^, 
from T^'"p . Such an appendage to a verb, if a suffix, will 
so far accord with the rule just given as to carry the accent 
forward one syllable ; but the accent will remain in its origi- 
nal position if it be an affix, unless it is either dissyllabic or 
causes the rejection of the vowel previously accented ; c^n^! 
with a suffix aia'^-'.rin , but mth an affix TO-^nnn ; ^2:^ with a 
sufflx i^n? , but with an affix Tq^ , ^"iny ; Djb , n^^ , nrj? ; bj?, 
n>j? , ^^p , T'?p ; ^Hi? , nnnx , tfnnn-y: . It is to be observed, 
however, that a paragogic n^ or n . , § 61. 6, attached to 
nouns, pronouns, and adverbs, and occasionally a paragogic 
"'. does not disturb the position of the accent, e. g. y^i^ , 
r.2^i?; n:,r.n:; so n-^n, n|.v,-Tsia, ^nsn Lam. 1:1, but 
"tiifhiz Isa. 1:21; neither does the feminine ending n.. , 
which is a Segholate formation, e. g. "^ii^'o , rrni'iTa . 

a. Paragogic n^ receives the secondary accent Metiiegh in n*;x nsna 
Gen. 28:2, 5, 6,7.' 

2. The appending of a simple syllable, such as the 



44 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 33 

suffixes ''i , 13 , ^n , n , i^ , or the verbal affixes P , ''n , 'is , ns , 
will not alter the position of the accent provided it originally 
stood upon the ultimate ; if, however, its original place was 
the penult, or if the syllable in question be attached to the 
word by a union vowel, the accent must be carried forward 
one syllable to prevent its standing on the antepenult, which 
is never admissible: nss, iriDS, i^&3, ^?ri&3; tk-g, ncsti, 
i:pDS'a; bjb, ni'ip, "in'?]?. Suffixes appended to a word ending 
with a consonant mostly require a connecting vowel, and con- 
sequently shift the position of the accent. Affixes, by reason 
of the less weight accorded to them, commonly do not. The 
suffix ^ follows the general rule when preceded by a union 
vowel, but draws the accent upon itself when it is not, e. g. 
"^x , '^'^^ , 'nl^ , ^■'^^ • A consonantal appendage to a long un- 
accented vowel, inasmuch as it converts the ultimate into a 
mixed syllable, necessarily draws the accent upon it from the 
penult, § 32. 1, e. g. ^noi?^ , l^ncsti , n-'ricsia ; in^'b;^, i^h^'a;' . 

3. A mixed syllable, whether an affix as on, ]ri, or suffix 
asDD, 13, on, in, will attract the accent to itself, npp^n 
from tf^n ; ub-zrq , QD'^Dbia , from tjb^ ; Dnbnn from Q^^n . In 
the unusual form dn^s 2 Sam. 23 : 6, the accent stands upon 
the union vowel. 

4. The only prefixes which exercise any influence upon 
the position of the accent, are the Vav conversive of the 
futm-e, which draws back the accent from a mixed ultimate 
to a simple penult, n'bsi-', n^S";), nil?;:, mci:i ; and the Vav con- 
versive of the preterite, which throws it forward from the 
penult to a simple ultimate, n^^x, ^7^^^, ^i^-": , ^^'^.^) > 

r -: 1- 

a. Some languages invariably accent the same part of the word; thus, 
Bohemian and Lettish the initial syllable, Polish and Lazian, one of the 
Caucasian tongues, the penult of all polysyllables. Others, in which 
more freedom is allowed, have no respect to the etymological structure of 
words, but are guided entirely by the character of their syllables. Thus, 
in Arabic and Latin words are accented according to the quantity of the 
penult; the accent is given to the penult if it is long, to the antepenult 



^ 34, 35 POSITION OF THE ACCENT. 45 

if the penult is short. In others still the etymological principle is the 
prevailing one, and this often has a wider scope than in Hebrew. Thus, 
in Greek the accent has the range of the last three syllables. In San- 
scrit it may stand upon any syllable whatever even of the longest wordg. 
In English it is almost equally free. e. g. peremptorily, inconsideration, its 
removal from its primary position upon the radical portion of the word 
being conditioned by the respective weight of the formative syllables ap- 
pended, e. g. person, personate, personally, personify^ personality, per- 
sonijication. 

§ 34. The location of the accent being thus influenced 
by the etymological stmcture of words, it may sei-ve to dis- 
tinguish words of like appearance but different formation. 
Thus, "h^ Gen. 30 : 1, r.sa Gen. 29 : 6, are participles, but 
nr")2 Gen. 35 : 18, "S3 Gen. 29 : 9, are preterites, the femi- 
nine affix receiving the accent in one case but not in the other, 
§ 33. ].. So ^33 thei/ built from n:3, but 1:2 in us; ^nc the?/ 
curried captive from rc^r , but ^30 thei/ returned from -''i; 
Tns he has seized, but ins Job 23 : 9 I shall see from nrn 
T]";^ it shall be evil from y?^ , ^il he shall feed from nyn 
nn)a he loas rebellious, trfq it was bitter from "rb ; ^'a^jp arise 
thou (fem.), '^'a^p mi/ rising up. 

§ 35. The position of the accent may be shifted from the 
following causes, viz. : 

1 . A Conjunctive is frequently removed from the ultimate 
to the penult if a Disjunctive immediately follows, whether 
upon a monosyllable or a dissyllable accented on the penult, 
in order to prevent the unpleasant concurrence of two ac- 
cented syllables in closely connected words, e. g. Th"^^ s'^p^ 
Gen. 1:'^5, n-"^ niia Gen. 4:17, t ^^!?? I>eut. 32:36, 
Xh 'i^rS^ri^ Ps. 2:12, Tib rrb Isa. 36:8. In a few excep- 
tional cases the secondary accent Methegh remains to mark 
the original tone-syllable, after the principal accent has been 
thrown back, ^E "^^S*? ^'^m. 24 : 22, T% bns Isa. 40 : 7, 
bs yicrn Deut. 4 : 33. 

2. The special emphasis given to the last word of a 
clause or section, and represented by what are called the 



46 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 86 

pause accents, § 3G, 2, a, is sometimes rendered more distinct 
by a change of the accented syllable from the ultimate to the 
penuU,e. g. ""Dis , ^d:s ; nps , nrs; nn?, npy; ips, ^b|; or 
from the penult to the ultimate, particularly in the case of 
forms Avith Yav conversive of the future ?I^i:i , i;}Ti ; so 
b'ca'^n , DJy^T , "I'cs;'^] . The accent is in a few instances at- 
tracted to a short final syllable ending in a weak letter, which 
either loses its sound entirely, converting the syllable into a 
simple one, or requires considerable effort: and energy of voice 
to make it distinctly heard, e. g. X'^!? Gen. 41 : 33 for i?")^! ; 
so Nnn Zech. 9 : 5, Mic. 7:10, S^irn Ps. 39 : 14 for yrn . 



Consecution of Accents in Peose. 

§36. 1. The second use of the accents is to point out 
the relation of words to one another. The Disjunctives in- 
dicate a greater or less separation between the word on which 
they stand and the following one ; the Conjunctives indicate 
a connection. The greatest separation of all is effected by 
Silluk, which is written under the last word of every verse, 
and is followed invariably by two dots vertically placed ( : ), 
called Soph Pasiik (pics q-io end of the verse). The next in 
power are Athnahh and S'gholta. When a verse was to be 
divided into two clauses, Athnahh was placed under the last 
word of the first clause, Silluk maintaining its position at 
the end of the verse. If it was to be divided into three 
clauses, which is th6 greatest number that any verse can 
have, the last word of the first clause receives S'gholta, the 
last word of the second Athnahh, and the last of all Silluk. 
Verses of one clause range from Gen. 26 : 6, containing 
three words, to such as Jer. 13: 13 and 1 Chron. 28 : 1, con- 
taining more than twenty : the most common division is intc 
two clauses, e. g. Gen. 1 : 1 : V>^'7 • • • °^V^^. ; t^^^ee clauses 



§37 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 47 

are mucli less frequent, Gen. 1:7 J I? . Tli"^^ ■ . . k'^^y^ 
23 : 16, 24 : 30, 26 : 28. 

a. In Job 1 : 8 S'gholta occurs in a verse of two clauses without Ath 
nahh, probably because the accentuation is conformed to that of Job 2 : 3. 

2. Each of these clauses is capable of subdivision to 
whatever extent its length or character may seem to demand 
by the Disjunctives Zakeph Katon, Zakeph Gadhol, R'blii'', 
Pazer, and T'lisha Gh'dhola, according to the number of sec- 
tions to be made and the various degrees of their completeness. 
Thus, ia Josh. 1 : 8 the clause of Athnahh is divided into 
five sections, ""a . niir?b . . nrS . . . tj^s^ . . . c^'c;' , in 2 Kin. 
1 : 6 into six, pn;p? . . . rn-ib nStj . bxniri'a . . rnn;' . . i-^bs . 
The choice of the accent to govern a particular section de- 
pends not only upon its power, but likewise upon its rank, 
the more exalted officer standing in ordinary cases nearer 
the sovereign. Accordingly toward the beginning of a clause 
an inferior Disjunctive will be used, even though the separa- 
tion is such as would require an accent of much higher 
power to indicate it in a more advanced portion of the same 
clause. These accents, moreover, have not a fixed value like 
the stops in other languages ; their power is not absolute but 
relative, and varies endlessly with the circumstances of the 
case. Athnahh in Gen. 1 :1 marks the greatest division in the 
verse, but that is not sufficient to require a comma. In the 
next verse Zakeph Katon is equal to a semicolon in the first 
clause and less than a comma in the second. In Gen. 27:16 
the separation indicated by K-'bhi"* is wholly rhythmical. • 

a. T io?e accents which, as above described, mark the limits of clauses 
and sections, are denominated pause accents. 

§37. In the sections thus created the accents are dis- 
posed relatively to the Disjunctive which marks its close. 
Each ruler has his servant and subordinate officer, whose 



48 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



§37 



function it is to wait upon him. In other words, each Dis- 
junctive is regularly preceded by a particular Conjunctive and 
inferior Disjunctive ; and the train of accents in each section 
is formed by arranging the Disjunctives in their fixed order 
of succession with or without their regular Conjunctives until 
all its words are supplied. The trains proper to the different 
sections are shown in the following table : 



Primart 

Sections. 


P 


w 
o 

is 

o 


m 

ft 


> 

o 

iz; 

D 

C 

D 


mO 


o 

z; 
u 

o 




a 
H 

H 

o 
z 

Q 

►^ 

O 
O 


*l 


J 




.(,.) 


y 


.00 


,'(") 


Ik J. 


A 


J 






A 


..C) 


CO 


LVS 


Secoxdart 
Sections. 






' 


<J J 




jSiS 






:i 
















• 


jpiij |j'.» j 














H 


-1 -I J J 












1 


P 


Uncsual 
Sections. 








1 


















<KI> 


V J J J J J 



§38 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 49 

a. Accents of like forms are readily distinguishable in the table by the 
column in which they stand. Where perspicuity requires it the distinction 
will hereafter be made by appending their initial letters, thus : Kadhma "* 
Pashta X Mahpakh "", Y'thibh'". 

^38. Explanation of the Table. — The trains preceding 
the three principal accents are exhibited in the horizontal 
lines of the uppermost division ; those of the ordinary de- 
pendent sections in the middle division, and those of rare 
occurrence at the bottom. 

1 . Train of Silluk. — If Silluk be immediately preceded 
by a Conjunctive, it T\-ill be Merka ; if a Disjunctive precede 
it in the same section, with or without an intervening Merka, 
it will be Tiphhha, Gen. 1:1. If there be a Conjunctive 
before Tiphhha, it will be Merka, Gen. 1 : 1 ; if two Con- 
junctives, which occurs but fourteen times, they will be 
Merka Kh'phula and Darga, Gen. 27:25, Lev. 10:1, 2 
Chron. 20 : 30. The next Disjimctive before Tiphhha, in 
the same section, will be T'bhir, Gen. 1:4. If T'bhir be pre- 
ceded by one Conjunctive, it will be Darga, Gen. 1 : 12, or 
IMerka, Gen. 1:26; if by two, the second will be Kadhma, 
1 Sam. 15 : 33, or Munahh, Gen. 2:4; and if by three, 
the third will be T'lisha K'tanna, Gen. 2:19. The next 
Disjunctive before T'bhir, in the same section, will be Geresh, 
Gen. 26 : 11, 27 : 4, or G'rashayim, Ex. 23 : 4. If Geresh 
be preceded by one Conjunctive, it will be Kadhma, Gen. 
24 : 7, or Munahh, Isa. 60 : 17 ; if by a second, it will be 
T'lisha K'tanna, Gen. 2:5, or Munahh with P'sik, Gen. 
28 : 9 ; if by a third, it will be Munahh, 1 Sam. 14 : 34 ; if 
by a fourth, it will also be Munahh, Deut. 1 : 19. 

a. The parentheses of the table contain alternate accents. Thus, 
Merka is substituted for Darga and for Mahpakh (before Pashta in the 
clause of Zakeph Katon) if no more than one vowel intervenes between 
the Conjunctive and the king which it pre'cedes, e. g. Gen. 1 : 22. Gen. 
1 : 24. 26 ; Gen. 5: 17, Deut. 1 : 2. 3-5. Munahh is also regularly substi- 
tuted for Kadhma, whenever the accent stands on the initial letter of the 
word, Gen. 25 : 8, Gen. 19:35j 1 Kin. 19:7. Deut. 1:28; Gen. 19:12; 
4 



50 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 38 

Eccl. 5 : 7. G'rashayim takes the place of Geresh provided the accent ia 
on the ultimate and it is not preceded by Kadhma either on the same or 
the previous word, Ex. 16 : 23, 36 : 3. When two accents are included in a 
parenthesis the meaning is that if an additional accent is required, these 
two will take the place of the one before the parenthesis. P'sik has no 
separate place in the consecution, but is joined with the other accents to 
modily their power. It is constantly associated with the Disjunctive 
Shalsheleth to add to its strength, and occasionally with the different 
Conjunctives to reduce their strength, but without disturbing the order 
of their consecution, e.g. with Merka Ex. 16:5, Munahh Gen. 46:2, 
Mahpakh Ex. 30:34. Kadhma Lev. 11:32, Darga Gen. 42:13, T'lisha 
K'tanna 1 Sam. 12:3. 



2. Train of Aihnalili. — If Atlmahli be preceded by a 
Conjunctive, it will be ]\Iunalih, Gen. 1:1; if by a Disjunc- 
tive in its own section, it will be Tiphlilia, Gen. 1:1. The 
accents which precede Tiphhha have already been mentioned 
in explaining the train of SiUuk. 

3. Train of S'yUolta. — The first Conjunctive before 
S'gholta will be jNIunahh, Gen. 3:3; if there be two, the 
second wiU be Munahh, Lev. 8 : 31, or Merka, Gen. 3 : 14. 
The first Disjunctive in its section "v\tl11 be Zarka, Gen. 1 : 28; 
and if this be preceded by one Conjunctive, it will be i\lu- 
nahh, Gen. 1 : 7, or Merka, 1 Chron. 5:18; if by two, the 
second wiU be Kadhma, Gen. 30 : 16, 31 : 32 ; if by three, 
the second will be Munahh and the third Kadhma, Lev. 
4 : 35. The next Disjunctive before Zarka will be Geresh, 
Gen. 24:7, or G'rashayim, Ex. 39:3. The accents pre- 
ceding these have been explained in 1. 

4. Train of ZaJccph Katon. — The first Conjunctive before, 
Zakeph Katon will be Munahh, Gen. 1 : 2, the second like- 
wise Munahh, Gen. 27 : 45. The first Disjunctive will be 
Pashta, Gen. 1:2; or, if the proper place of the accent be 
the first letter of the word, Y'thibh, Gen. 1 : 11, 2 : 11. 
The first Conjunctive before Pashta will be Mahpakli, Gen. 
1 : 9, or Merka, Gen. 1:2; the second, Kadhma, Gen. 
39 : 19, or Munahh, Gen. 1 : 12; the third wiU be T'lisha 
K'tanna, Ezr. 3 : 11. The Disjunctive before Pashta will be 



J 38 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 51 

Geresh, Gen. 1 : 24, or G'rashayim, Gen. 1:11; the further 
consecution is explained in 1. 

a. In some instances Pashta is found not in the train of Zakeph Katon 
but seeming to govern an independent section, e.g. Ex. 29:20 Deut 
9:6, Josh. 10: 11, 2 Sam. 14:7, 2 Chron. 18:23. ' 

5. Zakeph Gadhol is mostly used instead of Zakeph 
Katon when no other accent precedes it in its own section, 
whether upon the same word or one before it : "im ?fs Gen. 
9 : 4 (in some editions), in which it is preceded by Munahh, 
is exceptional. 

6. ^'ramo/i?'«5/^^■^— The first Conjunctive before R'bhia'" 
will be Munahh, Gen. 1:9; the second, Munahh commonly 
with P'sik, Gen. 2:5, or Darga, Gen. 6:15; the third, 
Munahh with P'sik, Gen. 7 : 23, 31 : 29, or Merka, Ex.' 
14 : 10. The Disjunctive before R'bhi=* will be Geresh, Ex. 
16 : 3, or G'rashayim, Deut. 1:11, which are preceded as 
in 1. 

7. Train of Fazer. — Pazer may be preceded by one 
Munahh, 1 Sam. 14 : 34, by two, Ezek. 9 : 2, by tlu-ee, 1 
Sam. 14 : 34, or by four, Isa. ^^ : 20. 

8. Train of Tlisha 6'//f///o/«.— T'lisha Gh'dhola is the 
weakest of the Disjunctives which are ever set to rule inde- 
pendent sections. Its weakness is in fact such, that it is 
sometimes drawn into the section of a stronger Disjunctive ; 
thus, in Gen. 1 : 12, Lev. 4 : 7, 1 Sam. 17 : 51, Isa. 9 : \ 
Neh. 5 : 18, it takes the place of T'hsha K'tanna among the 
antecedents of Pashta, standing between it and Geresh or 
G'rashayim ; in Gen. 13 : 1, 21 : 14, Deut. 26 : 12, it stands 
similarly between T'bhir and Geresh or G'rashayim. And 
in many cases, perhaps in most, when it rules a section of 
its own, this is a mere subsection, not so much a division of 
one of the principal clauses as a fragment broken off from 
one of the larger sections at a point where T'lisha K'tanna 
would have stood had the connection been sufficiently close 



52 . ORTHOGRAPHY. §39 

to require a Conjunctive, e. g. Gen. 19:2, 1 Kin. 20 : 28. 
That this is not always so appears, however, from examples 
like 2 Sam. 14 : 32, Gen. 7 : 7, Isa. 66 : 19, Jer. 39 : 5, and 
particularly Gen. 31 : 52, w^iere nns-asn corresponds to the 
preceding '':s"ns<! . T'lisha Gh'dhola may be preceded by 
one Munahh, Gen. 27 : 46, by two. Josh. 2:1, by three, 
or by four, 1 Kin. 2:5. 

9. Shalsheleth occurs but seven times, viz., Gen. 19:16, 
24 : 12, 39 : 8, Lev. 8:23, Isa. 13 : 8, Am. 1 : 2, Ezr. 5 : 12, 
and in eveiy instance stands upon the initial word of the 
verse, and is accompanied by P'sik. It has consequently no 
antecedents. 

10. Karne Phara is only used sixteen times. Its section 
never contains less than three words : its immediate prede- 
cessor is always Yerahh ben Yomo, to which may be added 
one Munahh, Num. 35 : 5, Neh. 5:13, 13:5, 2 Chron. 
24 : 5 ; two, 2 Kin. 10 : 5, Jer. 38 : 25, Est. 7 : 9, Neh. 1 : 6, 
2 Chron. 35 : 7 ; three, Josh. 19 : 51, 2 Sam. 4 : 2, Jer. 
13 : 13 ; four, 1 Chron. 28 : 1 ; or five, Ezek. 48:21. 

§ 39. 1. The complete trains of the several accents con- 
tain one Disjunctive from each of the inferior orders, dis- 
posed in due succession of rank, with one Conjunctive 
immediately preceding the first class of Disjunctives, two 
Conjunctives preceding the second class, three the third class, 
four or more the fourth class. These trains are adapted to 
sections of difierent length and character by omitting such 
of the Conjunctives, and more rarely by repeating such of 
the Disjunctives, as the mutual relations of the words may 
seem to require, and breaking off" the series as soon as every 
word in the section is supplied. Thus, while the general 
order of consecution is fixed and invariable, there is the 
utmost liberty and variety in particular cases. 

a. In a very few instances the Conjunctives go beyond the number 
here assigned. Thus^ Athnahh is preceded by two Munahhs in Ex. 3:4, 



^ 39 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 53 

and. according to some editions, in Isa. 48: 11. T'bhir is preceded bj four 
Conjunctives, Josh. 10: 11. 2 Chron. 22: 11, Isa. 66:20; Pashta by four, 
Ex. 5 : S. 2 Kin. 5 : 1, and even by five. Josh. 19 : 51. 



2. If a section consists of but a single word, this will re- 
ceive the appropriate Disjunctive, the entire antecedent series 
of the table being then omitted as unnecessary ; thus, Silluk 
: rrn^^ Gen. 5:5; Athnahh I'Ci?'^^ Gen. 24 : 34 ; Zakeph 
Katon rsh^^ Isa. 1 : 30 ; R'bhr' a^-ani Gen. 7:19; Pazer 
n^s^] Gen. 22 : 2 ; T'lisha Gh'dhola pn Gen. 19 : 8. This, 
as has been already said, is the regular length of the sections 
of Zakeph Gadhol and Shalsheleth ; but those of S'gholta 
are never composed of less than two words, and those of 
Karne Phara never of less than three. 

3. In sections of greater length there is a disposition 
towards a regular alternation of Disjunctives and Conjunc- 
tives upon successive words, e. g. Gen. 23 : 11 J , , ^ , .^ . , 
Gen. 24 : 7 " , " ^ ' '^' , and consequently though two or more 
Conjunctives may be alloAved before a particular Disjunctive, 
only the first of these is in the majority of cases employed. 
The actual relations of words may, however, so interfere with 
this regularity as on the one hand to cause the intervening 
Conjunctives to be dropped entirely, e. g. Gen. 1 : 22 ,,.,,, 
1 Clu'on. 15 : 18 ' ./ ' ' , or, on the other, to introduce 
as many Conjunctives as the table will admit, e. g. Gen. 
3 : 1^ . , ",. '^'' But if either of the three primary sec- 
tions consist of but two words, the first must have a Dis- 
junctive accent, however close its relation may be to the 
second, e. g. : D-i2 yc'^i Gen. 9 : 20, D3^r? ^^Jr^^) Gen. 3 : 5, 
■123©^ nrj Gen. 19:4. 



a. In Gen. 24: 15. where, however, editions differ, Silluk is in a section 
of two words immediately preceded by Merka. 

b. Sometimes an excluded term of the series will take the place of the 
secondary accent Methegh, §44. Tiphhha is thus five times written upon 
*he same word with Silluk, e.g. Num. 15:21, and eleven times with 



64 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 4G 

Athnahh, e. g. Num. 28 : S6, Munalih, Gen. 21 : 17, for which Kailhma is 
sometimes substituted, Gen. 18: 21, often stands upon the same word with 
Zakeph Katon. Kadhma is also joined in this manner with Munahh. Lev. 
10:12, Merka, Judg. 21:21, Neh. 12:44, Mahpakh, Lev. 25:46, and 
Geresh, Ex. 16 : 15. 21 : 22. 35. Mahpakh with Munahh, Lam. 4 : 9. 

4. Occasionally a subordinate Disjunctive or its alternate 
is repeated in the same section wdtli or without its ante- 
cedents. Thus, T'bhir, Deut. 26:2 ,,,,,, '^., , '^', so 
Deut. 30 : 20, 1 Sam. 20 : 21, 2 Kin. 17 : 36. Zaiia, 2 Kin. 
1:16 ■■//"/, so ver. 6, Gen. 42:21, Jer. 21:4, Neh. 
2:12. Pashta, Gen. 24:14, 4.2, 48, 65; 1 Kin. 20:9. 
Pashta, Pashta and Y'thibh, 2 Kin. 10:30, Ezr. 7:25. 
Geresh and G'rashayim, Gen. 28 : 9. 

a. There is a double accentuation of part of Gen. 35 : 22, and of the 
entire decalogue, both in Ex. 20: 2-17, and Deut. 5: 6-21, which involves 
a double vocalization in certain words, e.g. :^b3 Ex. 20:3, i.e. either 
!'^:3 or "^is. Single words also occur with alternative accents, e.g. with 
G'rashayim or Geresh and T'lisha Gh'dhola nV Gen. 5 : 29, !!2"ip Lev. 
10 : 4, sirb' 2 Kin. 17 : 13, n^.xbq Ezek. 48 : 10, rxV Zeph. 2:15. 



Poetic Consecution. 

§40. 1. The principle of the consecution is the same in 
the poetic as in the prosaic accents, although there is consid- 
erable diversity in the details. There is a like division of 
verses into clauses and sections ruled by a Disjiuictive at the 
end, AA'hich imposes upon them its own special train of 
accents. The sections are fewer, however, and the trains 
shorter than in prose, on account of the greater brevity of 
the sentences in poetry for the most part. But this reduc- 
tion is more than compensated by the new complexity arising 
from the latitude allowed in the choice of Conjunctives, 
which it seems impossible to reduce to fixed rules, and is 
probably to be referred to their use as musical notes for the 



§ 40 POETIC CONSECUTION. 55 

cantillation of the synagogue. It should be added, that the 
embarrassment arising from this inherent complexity of the 
subject is seriously aggravated by the numerous discrepancies 
in the different editions of the Bible, by which the true ac- 
centuation in the three poetical books is often involved in 
doubt and uncertainty. 

a. In addition to availing himself of the researches of others, particu- 
larly of Nordheimer and Ewald in their discussions of this subject, the 
author has examined verse by verse the entire book of Proverbs and the 
first division of the Psalms (Ps. 1-41), as well as other selected Psalms 
and portions of Job. As the result, he confesses himself quite unable to 
disentangle the mystery; and as the only contribution he can make 
towards its solution he has concluded to present in detail, and in as con- 
venient a form as possible, the facts observed, hoping that some future ex- 
ploration may discover the principle of order, if any such principle there 
be. in this apparently inextricable confusion. 

.2. Verses may consist of one, two, or three clauses, dis- 
tinguished by the three Disjunctives of the first class. If 
the verse contain but one clause, Silluk wiU be written upon 
the last vrord, Ps. 4:1; if it contain two clauses, the divi- 
sion will be made by Athnahh, Ps. 1:4, or by Merka- 
Mahpakh, Ps. I : 2. 3 : 3, upon the last word of the fii-st 
clause ; if it contain three, the last word of the first will have 
Merka-]\Iahpakh, the last word of the second Athnahh, and 
the last word of the third SiUuk, Ps. 1:1. Clauses may 
consist of a single section when no subdivision of them is 
necessary ; or they may consist of two or more sections, 
when the subdivision is effected by R'bhi'' or Pazer, e. g. 

: • Ps. 1S:51, : . ^ Prov. 1 : 10, '. ' Ps. 

41:7, • .' Ps. 7:6,, : ' .."Ps. 17:14. 



56 



OilTHOGRAl-HY. 



§41 



§41. The order of the accents in tlie vai'ious sections 



is exhibited in the following table : 



Priscipal 
Sections. 


> M 

IB -1 
33 


Conjunctives. 


k5 


Conjunctives. 


1 


^C);. oic^jT 


J 


5/- 


.:.(.):•. 


or ""s : . 
: js- 

1^ > '. 


i * J 


A 


1 ; 1 . 1 1 


;,(J 


^ in. 


•H:iH:! 


"n:);Y'(j] 


J 


•i^l 


^ 




SrBORDIN'ATE 

Sections. 






• 


•i;i:^ni:i-i 






H 


im-" 



Explaiiation of the Table. 

a. Train of Silluk. — If Silluk is preceded by a single Conjunctive, it 
will be Munahh, Prov. 1 : 4, or Merka either alone as Prov. 1 : 2. or com- 
pounded with Zarka. Ps. 10 : 5, and P'sik, Ps. 10 : 3. If it be preceded by 
two Conjunctives, they will be ^ Ps. 5:5,^^ Ps. 10 : 6, Prov. 12 : 1 
(in some editions), Prov. 25 : 26, ^ Ps. IS : 7, Ps. 36 : 1, or Prov. 



^41 ' POETIC CONSECUTION. 57 

8: 13. If it be preceded by three Conjunctives, they will be ^ , ^ Ps. 24:6 

'Ps. 10:2 (or 'Ps.7:6), Prov. 26:25 (or " Ps. 28: 8 or ^ ^ ^ 

Prov. 29: 13), , . "* Ps. 4 : 8, ^ ^ ' Prov. 3:27, ■* ■" . If it be preceded by 
four Conjunctives, they vi^ill be ^ ^ / ^ Ps. 89: 2, ^ ^ / ^' Ps. 32:5, or 
"* ■* ' Ps. 3 : 3 (in some editions "" "" ^). If it be preceded by five Con- 
junctives, they will be ^ ^ '^ ^ Job 32:6, 37:12 (in this latter example 
some editions substitute a Makkeph for Merka). 

If Silluk be preceded by a Disjunctive in its own section, it will be 
R'bhi^-Geresh, Ps. 1:1, 5:3, 10. R'bhi'^-Geresh may be preceded by one 
Conjunctive, , Ps. 5 : 4 ; by two, ^ ^ Ps. 8 : 2, or^ ^ Ps. 31 : 10, 19 ; by three, 
^ _ or, ^^ Ps. 73:4. 

There are occasional deviations from the Conjunctives of the table; 
thus, R'bhi''-Geresh is in Ps. 34:8 preceded by ^ " ^. In some of these 
cases, however, editions differ in their notation of the accents. Thus, in 
Ps. 5:7 some editions have ^ ' before Silluk, others , " ; in Ps. 18:36, 
Prov. 30: 17, some have , , others, ; in Ps. 20:2 some have ^ ^^ , others 

; in Prov. 24 : 8 some have , , , others , , the two words being joined 
by Makkeph. So, again, some editions have in Ps. 9: 11 ^ before R'bhi"- 
Geresh, in Ps. 18:44^, in Prov. 27:19,^, in Prov. 21:17,^; while 
other editions do not depart in these passages from the order given in the 
table. Similar discrepancies exist in the other sections likewise. 

b. Train of Alhnahh. — Athnahh may be preceded by one Conjunctive, 
^ Ps. 5:8 (or ^ ^ Prov. 8 : 30, 34), , Ps. 5 : 3 (or ^ , Ps. 35 : 21, / Ps. 69 : 2), 
.Prov. 23:3,^ Ps. 14:3, Prov. 6:3 (or _ ^ Prov. 16:10); by two, ^ ^ Ps. 
6:8 (or^ ^^ Ps. 7:17), ^ ^ Prov. 28:25, Ps. 5:2 (in some editions the 
latter example has _ ^ , ), ^ ,^ Ps. 14:5,, ^ Prov. 11:12, 14:21,, / Ps. 
37:1, Prov. 8:21, Ps. 25 : 16 ; by three, Prov. 24:21. Ps. 
6:6 (or "Ps. 9:10, or Ps. 16 : 10), ""Ps. 10:17, ' 'Prov. 
8:13, ^^ _^ Ps. 18:50, ,, ^ „ Ps. 10:13, " Prov. 6:27. , " \ Ps. 72:3; 
by four, Prov. 3:12, Prov. 24:16, Ps. 34:7, ■" Ps 
32:2 (in some editions), ■■ ' Prov. 1 : 19, " ' "■ Ps. 65:2. 

If Athnahh be preceded by a Disjunctive in its own section, it will be 
Tiphhha initial. Ps. 1 : 6, 26 : 4, Tiphhha initial may be preceded by one 
Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 5 : 6 ; by two, ^ ^ Ps. 9 : 19 (or ^ " Ps. 14 : 1, or Ps. 

16:9),^ ""Ps. 32:11,^ ^ Ps. 35:14, 15,^ ' Prov. 25:20; by three, ^^ 
Ps. 23:6, 'Ps. 27:1, ' Ps. 12:5 (or ' Prov. 27: 14)!* * ' ' 

Ps. 9:14. 

c. Train of Merka-Mahpakh. — Merka-Mahpakh maybe preceded by 
one Conjunctive, which is almost always Yerahh ben Yomo, Ps, 1:1 



58 ORTHOGRAPHY. §42 

though occasionally it is. in some editions at least, Merka, Ps. 15: 5. 35: 10, 
or Mahpakh, Ps. 24: 8, 31 : 10. If it be preceded by a DisjuiiCtive in its 
own section, Zarka will be employed, Ps. 1: 1, Prov. 1:11. 

Zarka may be preceded by one Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 12: 7 (or ^^ Prov. 
1 : 22), ^ Ps. 6 : 3, ^ , Ps. 12 : 3, ^ ' Ps. 31:12; by two, ^ _ ' Prov. 30 : 15 (in 
some editions *), Ps. 24 : 10 (or Ps. 13:6). Ps. 21 : 10. ' 

Ps. 27 : 2 (or ,\ " Ps. 35 : 26), / ■* Ps. 7 ; 10 ; by three, ^ ,\Ps. 29 : 9, 

' Ps. 31:14. ' " Ps. 10: 14; or by four. ' Ps. 40 : 6. 

d. Train of R^bhi". — R'bhi" may be preceded by one Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 
5:1, Ps. 8 : 2 (or " Ps. 23 : 4. or Ps. 6 : 7), Prov. 28 : 22. ■" Ps. 22 : 25, 

' Ps. 11 :2 (or/ Ps. 5 : 11); by two, ^ ^ Prov. 8 : 33, ^ ^ Ps. 28:7 (or ^ ^ ^ - 
Ps. 18:3), *Ps. 9:7, * Ps. 11:4, ' Ps. 26 : 1. ■" Ps. 27 : 6 (or ■" 
Ps. 5:9). 'Prov. 6:22. " Ps. 18:1 (or ' " Ps. 7 : 7. or ' " Ps. 
39 : 5), / ■■ Job 16 : 10 ; or by three, ^ / ^ Ps. 40 : 7, ^ , \ Ps. 41 : 7 (or 
" ' Ps. 39:6. or " ' " Ps. 3 : 8. or ' " Ps. 41:14). ■* * Ps. 
19: 14 (or' ' " Ps. 39 : 12), ■* '""Ps. 40:11. " ' Prov. 21 : 31. 

e. Train of Pazer. — Pazer may be preceded by one Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 
89:20 (or_ ^ Prov. .30:8),* Ps. 32:5 (or/ Ps. 17:14); by two, ^ ^ Ps. 
5 : 10, Prov. 7 : 23 (or ^ _^ Ps. 28 : 5). ' Ps. 13 : 3 (or ^ / Prov. 27 : 10), 

Ps. 90:4. ' Ps. 7:6. ' Ps. 39:13. Ps. 11:2, 'Ps. 5:12;or 
by three, ^' Ps. 22 : 35, 23 : 4. ^ ^ ^ Prov. 2o : 29 (where sone editions 
have ^ ). 

§4.2. The trains of these several accents are adjusted 
to sections of varying length by expedients similai to those 
employed with the prose accents, viz. : 1. Omitting the Con- 
junctives in whole or in part. 2. Repeating the Disjunc- 
tives, e. g. " Ps. 14 : 1, " Ps. 17 : 14, or their equivalents, e. g. 
Tiphhha initial before " Ps. 7:10, before ' Ps. 9:1; " before 
" Ps. 18 : 1, before * Ps. 22 : 15 ; ' before Tiphhha initial Ps. 
1(3 : 17. 3. Writing two accents upon the same word, 
an^nis?i2"a Ps. 5:11, "^ijri Ps. 27:11, 'is'?:::! Ps. 18:16. 
4. Uniting two or more words by JMakkeph, so that they 
require but a single accent. 5. Writing the different parts 
of a compound accent upon separate words ; thus, ]\lerka- 
Mahpakh ^:x ^p^s Ps. 6:3, Merka-Zarka 'fsn ^s Ps. 22:9, 
Mahpakh-Zarka rsn 12 Prov. 6:3. 



§43 MAKKEPH. 59 

a. Sometimes when two accents are written upon the same wor i. one 
is the alternate of the other; thus, r^ls l*rov. 1 : 19. may be either "^"2 or 
SS2 according as the accent remains in its proper position in the ultimate, 
or is thrown back upon the penult in consequence of the next word being 
accented upon its initial syllable. 



Makkeph. 

§43. Makkepli ^y^ joining) is a horizontal stroke by 
which two, three, or even four words may be united. 
tf^-IPJ^, ^';5-nirw-DS Gen. 30:31, "ib-h't^^ Gen. 33:11, 
iS-itss-b^-rsi Gen. 12 : .20, 25 : 5, Ex. 20 : 11, rrs-nn^-bs-by 
Ex. 22 : 8, fr!^'"T?2-'::3-b? Job 41 : 26. It belongs properly 
to the accentual system, words which are closely related 
being often connected in this manner in order to obviate 
the necessity of unduly multiplying Conjunctive accents. 
Thus, the first fifteen words of Ex. 22 : 8 are in this manner 
reduced to eight. Monosyllabic particles are frequently, and 
some almost constantly, linked with the succeeding or pre- 
ceding word, of which they may be regarded as in a manner 
appendages; thus, bi« , by , ns , bb , bs , "J? , 03 , i<3 , etc. Exam- 
ples are not wanting, however, of longer words similarly 
united, e. g. D^irmrb^ Deut. 19:15, ^h^rrtt,;:^ 1 Kin. 17 : 21, 
n'in^-i'cs Isa. 31:4. This use of Makkeph is not to be con- 
founded with that of the hyphen in modern languages between 
the members of a compound, as self-same, master-builder. 
Words united by IMakkeph are still as separate as ever in char- 
acter and signification ; but they are pronounced together and 
are accented as though they formed but one word. Hence, 
whatever number of words be thus joined, the last only will 
receive an accent. And, as a further consequence, if a word 
preceding Makkeph properly ends in a long mixed syllable, 
this will, by the loss of the accent, be shortened, ''i'tSTS', 
Clis^bs, ty:'1\^tyrT\ , or failing this, will commonly receive the 
secondary accent Methegh, vloi''"D"i)J , nkn;i-']''S. 



60 , ORTHOGRAPHY. § 44 

a. Tsere remains before Makkeph in ",2, -:. is. ys ; i( sometimes re- 
mains and is sometimes shortened in n'w\ 'i'Ti; six. r? e.g. Gen. 16:13 
n':.-!';!-:!!; . but ver. 15 i23"='r. It once remains according to some editions 
in -rx'job 41:26, a word which is three times written rx without 
Makkeph. Ps. 47 : 5, 60 : 2, Prov. 3 : 12. Comp. § 19. 2, a. 

b. Makkeph is occasionally found in the middle of a long word, which 
has been erroneously divided into two, e. g. n^S'ns-J Jer. 46 : 20, and 
perhaps n-p-n;r2 Isa. 61 : 1. Sometimes words are thus divided without 
a Makkeph to unite the sundered parts, e. g. crr '_z Lam. 4: 3. ^H'^s "^na 
2 Chron. 34: 6, and probably iiin ^inx Hos. 4: 18. rins -Ens Isa. 2 : 20. 
(See Dr. Alexander's Commentary on this passage.) The last two ex- 
amples are plainly intended by the punctuators to be read as separate 
words. This miaht likewise be done in the preceding examples if they 
were pointed WZV "^3 and =n"P2 "ina . 



Methegh. 

§ 44. Metliegli (^ri'a bridle), a small perpendicular stroke 
under the initial letter of the ' syllalole to which it belongs, 
is a secondary accent denoting a stress of voice inferior to 
the main accent. As this latter always has its place in 
Hebrew either upon the ultimate or the penult, distinctness 
was promoted and monotony relieved, especially in long 
words, by giving prominence to one or more of the antece- 
dent syllables. Tliere is a natural tendency to heighten the 
force of the accent by passing lightly over the immediately 
preceding syllable, this diminished force creating in its turn 
a new stress upon that next beyond it, and so on in alternate 
elevations and depressions to the beginning of the word. 
Agreeably to the principle just stated, Methegh regularly 
stands in polysyllables upon the second syllable before the 
accent, and again upon the fourth if the word have so many, 
e. g. D'7^n, ?6s^, ^:i?"'j?i;', ch^i??, cron-nSyisTp , nirb^pniai . 
And so upon two or more words connected by jMakkeph, 
wdhch are pronounced as one, e. g. Vmsn';' Gen. 22 : 8, 
cni-DS^-^s 1 Sam. 21 : 7. 

a. Sometimes, however, particularly when the nature of the syllables 
requires it. §32. 1, Methegh takes the place of the principal accent before 



§45 METHEGH. 61 

Makkeph irrespectiv^e of the position of the accent upon the following 
word, iii-T^Xtlin Num. 21: 3^. ir^r!""^?. Num. 21: 33, ^ia"^.^ Jer. 34:1 
D!in-nb-b=i Gen. 30: 32, ni-xibn/l Sam. 21 : 12, •'i:-'3 Ex. 19": 5. 

b. It is to be observed that the position of Methegh is determined by 
that of the lone-syllable, not by that of the accentual sign when these are 
not coin.-ident. as frequently happens with prepositives and postpositives, 
e.g. ^Tn-^yn Deut. 4:26. ?mini*j Josh. 22:27, where the tone falls on 
the penult, n"'piini Jer. 26 : 21, where the tone is upon the ultimate. 



§45. The secondary accent is liable to be shifted from 
its normal position for the following reasons, viz. : 

1, If the syllable which should receive it is mixed, it 
may be given in preference to an antecedent simple syllable, 
e.g. nntinTTi^i 2 Sam. 22:24, ?I?nnrR2^ Job 1:7, niihnpr,^ 
Ezek. 42 : 5, liJ^xn-bsTZJ Gen. 43 : 7 ; or if none such precede, 
it may be omitted altogether, e. g. nCiJ'Oi'^ Jer. 33 : 24, 
''?N?-\rn 1 Kin. 21 : 1, nisisn-bs-ns Deut. 6 : 25. 

2. It is always given to simple syllables Avhen followed 
by a vocal Sh'va, whether simple or compound, or a vowel 
which has arisen from Sh'va, the slight pronunciation proper 
to the Sh'va or its derivative giving new prominence to the 
preceding vowel, r^riiki , rnn^ , nirsb, nini^Tra Gen. 30 : 38, 
I'i'^in;; ; sometimes to intermediate syllables, § 20. 2, e. g. 
''ino Isa. 9:17, 10:34, ^W Obad. ver. 11, particularly 
after He interrogative or when Daghesh-forte has been 
omitted as after the article, Vav conversive, and the prepo- 
sition 1^2 , e. g. bizj^n , n Vi'nn , ^I'ibr; , nin?3 , D-^y-nssn , nkz-ab , 
''H^'n ; rarely and only as an exception to a mixed syllable 
standing in the first place before the principal accent, e. g, 
si5';in Gen. 1:11, D^nan Ex. 12 : 7, Zech. 14 : 2. 



a. It hence appears how Methegh comes to be of use in distinguishing 
the doubtful vowels, § 19, and to what extent it can be relied upon for this 
end. As it invariably accompanies the vowel of a simple syllable when 
followed by vocal Sh'va, it must always be found with a. I, and u preced- 
ing Sh'va. inasmuch as this will necessarily be vocal. Initial 1 u. the un 
emphatic conjunction, is an exception, with which it is commonly not 
written, e. g. nn;^:^ Gen. 6: 19, J^xsbsi Gen. 31 : 4, though it is sometimes, 



62 -ORTnO GRAPH Y. § 45 

e.g. b"^^^!r? Gen. 1:18, r^h'ii^ Judg. 5: 12. The absence of Methegh, 
except in the case just mentioned, is consequently conclusive evidence of 
the shortness of the vowel. As, however, short v6wels in intermediate 
syllables, and in a i'ew rare instances even in mixed syllables, may receive 
Methegh. the presence of this sign does not of itself determine the vowe' 
to be long; the ultimate decision must in this case depend on other con- 
siderations. 



3. When by the operation of the precedmg nile Me- 
thegh conies to stand in the first place before the accent, 
another ]\Iethegh is nevertheless occasionally found in the 
second place, the two thus standing in immediate succession, 
e. g. n;ri^:i Gen. 32 : 22, ^^?;:n Gen. 45 : 25 ; and even three 
occur upon successive syllables, e. g. ^'^l'^v^12'Q^ Isa. 22 : 19. 
But commonly where there is more than one Methegh, their 
position relatively to each other is governed by the same 
rules as the position of Methegh generally with relation to 
the principal accent, e. g. ?in;?vi-^b , nhtini , ^irr^'^qso » 

4. j\Iethe2:h is sometimes written under a letter with 
Sh'va, e. g. ^rnbis Job 1 : 11, 2 : 5, iss-^:?^ Job 19 : 6, npp;: 
Ps. 2 : 3, n5sn^3 Jer. 49 : 18, ''^^a Ruth 1 : 11. 



a. A Methegh so situated is called Gaya ( x^^? bellowing) by Jewish 
grammarians, and, according to Elias Levita, it occurs eighty-four times, 
the number yielded by its name arithmetically reckoned. Methegh upon 
a short vowel before a compound Sh'va was called Ma''rlkh (""""X^ pro- 
longing), with a short Hhirik it was called Hhlrtik (p^n^n gnashing). 



5. The place of IMethegh is frequently supplied by an 
accent chosen agreeably to the laws of consecution, § 39. 
3. b., e. g. ab'inrs* Isa. 66 : 13, cHT'>*^ Deut. 12 : 31, 
c'}?':?^?^ Zech. 7:14, Nni-:?i Num. 10:23, 'ibq^:'^ Josh. 
22:12. 



a. The want of consistency or of uniformity, which may be occasion 
ally observed, in regard to the insertion or omission of Methegh, e. g. 
ninxa Cant. 1 : 7, ninxir Cant. 3:1; cn'J Cant. 6 : 5. cnr Lam. 4:9; 



§46 k'ri akd k'thibh. 63 

m3"i? Num. 31:12, r'iS'iS Josh. 4:13. and the discrepancies between 
different nianuscripts and editions, e. g. '"^9^55 or nsbx Gen. 45 : 28, 
nnTiT-i'.xb or nnrT-sixb Ps. 81 : 3, if not arising in the first instance from 
clerical errors, are probably to be attributed to the inferior importance cf 
the sign itself, whose place might be presumed to be sufficiently determined 
even if not written. 



K'ri and K'thibh. 

§46. Various notes extracted from the Masora (•"•'^''^cia 
traditio?i), a collection of remarks upon the text, are found 
in the margin of the Hebrew Bible, which are explained in 
the glossary at the end of most editions. The most im- 
portant of these are the various readings known as the K'ri 
(■'11? read), and K'thibh (^"^1^3 icritten). If in any instance 
traditional usage sanctioned a reading different from that 
which was written in the text or the K'thibh, the punctuators 
did not venture to alter the text itself for the sake of making 
the correction ; they went no further than to connect with 
tlie letters of the text the vowels of the word to be substi- 
tuted for it in reading or the K'ri, with a reference to the 
maro;in Avhere the letters of the substitute niioht be found. 
Thus, with the word "I'^'Ci^^T Josh. 6:7 is connected the 
marginal note ''">p *i'Cii"'T . The vowels here attached to the 
K'thibh belong not to it but to the unpointed word in the 
margin, which is accordingly '^'isS'i. The proper vowels for 
the pronunciation of the K'thibh are not written, but must 
be supplied from a knoAvledge of the form indicated by the 
letters, which in this case is ^i'Pi?"^ . Again, in ver. 9, "ii^pin 
in the text refers to p ''3?pn in the margin ; the K'ri is here 
''J^pn , and the K'thibh, whose vowels are left to be deter- 
mined by the reader, '^'i^^. Jer. 42:6 has i!2i|! where the 
marginal note is "^ip "irnis ; the K'ri is accordingly ^:n':s!:, 
and the K'thibh "is , In order to indicate that a given word 
was to be omitted in reading, it was left unpointed, and the 



64 -ORTHOGRAPHY. § 4? 

note '^^p xbi n'lns , icritten but not read, placed in the margin, 
e.g. ri2n Ezek. 48:16, S3 2 Kin. 5:18, TiT Jer. 51:3. 
If, on the other hand, a word was to be supplied, its vowels 
were inserted in the text and its letters placed in the margin, 
with the note n^^^ sbi iip, read hut not icritten, e. g. Jndg. 
20:13 in the text ^... and in the margin ■':3, to be read 
:.:3 ; so Jer. 31 : 38 d\n:2 . In 1 Kin. 21 : 8 the first letter 
of c^scn is left unpointed as superfluous, and in Job 2 : 7 
n?^ is explained by the margin to stand for ^\t] : so Jer. 18:23 
rr\^ for tpot . 

a. The number of these marginal readings differs in different editions. 
Elias Levita states that there are 848. Others have computed them to 
be 1,000; others still, 1.200. 

§47. Sometimes a different reading from that of the text 
is suggested by the points alone without a marginal note 
being added in explanation, as when a particular word or 
orthography is regularly substituted for another of frequent 
occurrence. These cases are presumed to be so familiar to 
the reader as to require no other index of their existence 
than the presence of the appropriate vowels. Thus, the 
divine name "Vi'i , wliich the Jews had a superstitious dread 
of pronouncing, was and still is read by them as if it were 
''nii Lord, whose points it accordingly receives, '^'i^') , unless 
these two names stand in immediate connection, when, to 
avoid repetition, it is read n"'n"bs and pointed n^.h;; Gen. 
15:2, Hab. 3:19. The antiquity of this superstition is 
attested by the Kvptof of the Septuagint, followed in the 
English as well as in other modern versions by the rendering 
Lord. The true sound of the name never having been 
noted, is now lost ; the only clue that is left being its ety- 
mology and the form which it assumes in composition, 
§62. 1, from which the conclusion has been variously di'awn 
that it was nin;^, ^)^1, or nin;^. The common pronunciation 
Jehovah is manifestly founded upon the error of combining 



§48 k'ri and k'thibh. 65 

the consonants of this word with the vowels of another and 
an entirely different one. There is, however, especially as it 
is uncertain whether YaJwe or Yah"va, or either of these, was 
its original sound, no good reason for abandoning the pro- 
nunciation familiar to the Christian world and hallowed by 
the association of constant usage for the sake of adopting 
another which is, or is supposed to be, phonetically more 
exact, any more than we need be guilty of the pedantry of 
preferring Yeshayahu to Isaiah because it approaches more 
nearly to the original pronunciation of the prophet's name. 
Other standing K'ris, unnoted in the margin, are Nin , the 
form of the pronoun of the third person feminine which is 
used throughout the Pentateuch ; this is designed to be read 
S'^n, though the sound indicated by the letters is in all proba- 
bihty s^n . So iDWis;^ read '^ii?'? , and uitT\i read n':'im'r} . 

§48. In the absence of definite information respecting 
the origin and sources of these various readings, it is difficult 
to determine with absolute precision the Aveight to which 
they are respectively entitled. The current opinion of the 
ablest Hebraists, based upon a careful scrutiny of their in- 
ternal character and the relation which ordinarily appears to 
subsist between them, is that while the K'ri may perhaps, in 
a few cases, correct errors in the K'thibh, and so restore the 
original reading, it is in the great majority of instances an 
explanatory gloss rather than an emendation. With the rare 
exceptions already suggested, the K'thibh is esteemed the 
true reading, the object of the K'ri being to remove ortho- 
graphical anomalies, secure grammatical uniformity, substi- 
tute usual for unusual, prevailing for obsolete words and 
forms, and occasionally to introduce euphemistic expressions. 
While the K'ri is probably not to be esteemed the original 
reading, therefore, it deserves attention as the grammatical 
or exegetical comment of a steadfast tradition. 



66 .. orthography. §49 

Accuracy of the Points. 

§49. 1. All the Masoretic additions to the text designed 
to facilitate its reading have now been considered. The cor- 
rectness of the pronunciation, which they yield, is vouched 
for not only by the esteem in which they are universally 
held by the Jews, but by the scrupulous minuteness of the 
system, its consistency with itself and with the vowel-letters 
of the text,' its affinity with and yet independence of the 
vocalization of the kindred languages the Arabic and Syriac, 
and the veneration for the already established text which 
evidently characterized its authors, since they did not ventiu-e 
to change the text even in the slightest particular. 

2. The only additional information which has come down 
to us respecting the true sound of Hebrew words, is fiu-nished 
by the mode of writing proper names in the Septuagint 
version, and the few Hebrew words preserved by ancient 
authors, particularly Origen and Jerome. These have been 
subjected to an elaborate comparison with the Masoretic 
punctuation, and the result has been to establish their sub- 
stantial agreement in the main, with, however, not a few 
remarkable points of divergence. In relation to this subject 
it should be observed, that the Hebrew pronunciation of the 
Seventy is inferred entirely from their mode of spelling 
proper names, not from words in living use in the language. 
The chances of inaccuracy, on the part of the translators, are 
here peculiarly great. ]\Iany names were not familiar and 
were of rare occurrence ; and as no system of vowel notation 
then existed, they were left entirely to their independent 
knowledo-e of the sound of each individual Avord. These 
words were Avi-itten by them in a foreign alphabet, whose 
sounds did not coincide precisely with those of the Hebrew^, 
and in which the proper equivalents varied somewhat accord- 
ing to their combinations. The true sound was also de- 



09 ACCURACY OF THE POINTS. 67 

parted from sometimes because the laws of Greek euphony 
forbade its exact reproduction. The neghgence with which 
they are chargeable elsewhere was also probably aggravated 
here, and in fact there are many instances in which they not 
merely deviate from the vowels but transpose or change the 
letters. Leaving out of view, therefore, such incidental dis- 
crepancies as are to be accounted for in the ways now sug- 
gested, a thorough and extended examination of the subject 
reveals, with all the general agreement, a number of regular 
and systematic deviations. 

a. These are thus stated by EwaUl, Lehrbuch, p. 1 16. (1.) An e or i de- 
rived from a is written a, as nnn ©apa, csb2 BaXaajU,. "il^na TajSawv, O'^'l^ 
Mapittyu, ; and on the other hand, a is sometimes written e, ii?23"'?J]5< 
OXiBifia. np Kevc^ ^'-i Te^, especially before n, as n")'p Kope, rr^T Zape. 
(2.) e is written for i and for u, C"'ri3 XcTratot, c'3n">5 Feevra, 'psna 
TtSewv, D?*]^^ Mco-pai/x r.ins^ Oxoi^a.^. r^!!^? O^ia. (3.) for the diph- 
thongal e and 6 their constituents ai and au are substituted, "ipl? Katvav, 
i-5 Na^au. (4.) The vowel letters are softened into their homogeneous 
vowels X^p'!! ovtKpa, "'3'i"i ovi^a^rjp. (5.) Vocal Sh'va is written as a 
full vowel, commonly a, or if an follow, o, riX32 Sa^Saw.^, ^X^^""! Payovr/A, 
nisiis Xcpov/Stju,, cho 2o8o/Aa ; the final vowel of Segholates is also 
written 6 if o precedes, T^b'Q MoAo;(, "^^." yojaop. 

3. The regularity of these deviations seems to be best 
accounted for by the assumption that the pronunciation 
represented in the Septnagint is that which prevailed among 
the Jews in Egypt, which would naturally be less pure than 
that of Palestine represented in the vowel points, and which, 
moreover, betrays in the particulars recited above a strong 
leaning to Aramaean forms and sounds. Accordingly the 
view now commonly entertained is that the vowel notation 
of the Masorites is correct, at least in all essential particulars, 
and that it is properly to be put at the basis of all investiga" 
tions into the phenomena of the language. 



68 ' ORTHOGRAPHY. §50 



Orthographic Changes. 

§50. The signs thus far described represent all the 
sounds of the Hebrew language. Its stock of words is 
formed by combining these in various significant ways. The 
laws of such combinations, and especially the mutations to 
which they are subject, or which they occasion, next demand 
attention. When a particular idea has been attached to a 
certain combination of sounds, its dilFerent modifications 
may naturally be expressed by slightly varying those sounds. 
This may take place, 

1. By the substitution of one letter for another of like 
character, and for the most part of the same organ, e. g. : 

iT^ to be. exist, n^n to live ; 3.'33 to ponr forth. S33 the same idea ap- 
plied to words, to prophesfy ; p2:j to encircle the neck with an ornament, 
pan to strangle, pJN applied to sounds uttered in strangulation, to groan; 
bsn to go about as a spy, brn to go about as a. merchant; 0:3 to collect, 
D"in3 treasures; 5^35 a cup, y3i3 or Jsip a helmet (of similar shape); 
TjT tender, delicate, p"] thin ; "ipn to make straight, "iSn to straighten the 
beam of the balance, to weigh ; "133 Jirsiborn. "i^33 Jirst ripe, ~ip3 the first 
portion of the day. the vtorning ; nbn to suspend, nb'n applied to a bucket, 
to let down; iT5 to cut. isp to reap; 3nt gold,, 3h:i: yelloic ; "'20 to con- 
ceal, "|S"vU and "S^ to hide away as treasures, "ED to cover with boards ; 
Vn3 to destroy by tearing down. CPJ to destroy by uprooting; n3:: to slay, 
n3T to sacrifice; bsn to bind. b33i to bound ; n"]3 to break up. JJte, nns 
to break out, blossom, p"ia to break in pieces ; 3ap to cut off. 3a;n to hew 
stone. 3:2n to cut wood ; ins to surround, "it:s to encircle the head with a 
crown; 7)^5 to pour out, T|03 to pour in libation or in casting metals ; "ins 
to shine, ina to be pure; nnn to engrave, d"in to plough; )t:z to prove, 
"ins to approve, choose ; nnia /o f/r/7iA". its causative np;rn ; inn to break 
through, "ipn to investigate ; 3^3 to place, its reflexive 3S']nn. 

2. By the transposition of letters, e. g. : 

l^'iQ to deal violently, i:iS to urge ; i^p to cut with the sickle, reap, y^p 
to cut with the teeth, bite ; Ti'Iij to blow, t'S: breath; 0:3 to collect, 033 
riches, ni33D^ storehouses. 

3. By the addition of a letter : 

Thus, from the letters i:s, in which inheres the idea of compression, 
are formed "I'S to bind, lis to press together, "iss to heap zrp, ~s^ to be 



4 51 ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES. 69 

siraiteiipcl. "S: to guard, besiege. ~s? (o restrain. ~sn an enclosure ; from Tl 
are formed ""5 to cut. T~5 ?o cut off. Tsi:. ^o c?<^ loose, go away. TTJ ?o shear, 
bu /o plunder, r"'T3 ^eif?2 stone; C~s /o unfold, make distinct, y-_')^ to 
spread out ; c-ir a vineyard, i^^"? a garden. 

§ 51. Such literal changes as those just recited not only 
serve to express new shades of meaning, but even where the 
meaning remains precisely the same, they may represent 
diversities of other sorts. Thus, the distinction may be, 

1. In point of currency or style : One form of the word 
being in more common and familiar use, the other more rare 
and savoring, perhaps, of the elevated or poetic style, e. g. : 

"is; to guard. "::: poetic; il'"!is cypress. ri^3 once in poetry; i^O to 
shut, rarely "^^9 ; ""^^P storm. '">^""'^! rare and poetic; ~?S to cover, once 
Ti^r : TyV':[ to be quenched, once Tyi] ; -~n to abhor, once :xri ; bio to be 
foolish, once bc2 ; ni'r iniquity, once n"5" . 

2. Of antiquity : The pronunciation of a word or its 
form may undergo changes in the lapse of time. Of the 
feAv instances of this sort, which our imperfect data enable 
us to fix upon with some measm-e of confidence, the follow- 
ing may be taken as specimens, e. g. : 

To laugh, in the Pentateuch pn:i . in other books (Jndg. 16:25 ex- 
cepted) pni" ; to cry out in the Peniateuch p?^ . only once (Ex. 2 : 23) 
prr whiih is the more frequent form in other books ; 2"c;3 . na'i"^ a lamb, 
occur in the Pentateuch interchangeably with br3, na^s, which are the 
only forms found in other books ; a sceptre 133^3 . but in the book of Esther 
w"'2"i"^' ; Damascus prs'n . in Chronicles pCw'^'n ; how 1 Chron. 13:12, 
Dan. 10 : 17 "Ti , in earlier books -''X . 

3. Of Dialect : The same word may come to be pro- 
nounced differently by those who speak distinct though re- 
lated languages. Thus, the Aramaean dialects, the Chaldee 
and Syriac, in very many words regularly substitute N for the 
Hebrew final n , and the corresponding linguals for the He- 
brew sibilants, 2: being sometimes stiU further weakened by 
the loss even of the lingual sound to that of the guttural ^ , 
e.g.: 



70 - ORTHOGRAPHY. § 52 

Heb. nrn to wander, Chald. n^'l: , Syr. \Ll ; Heb. snj g-o/d Chald. 
srfl , Syr. Icffi? ; Heb. nsis a rock, Chald. nrj , Syr. l^a^ ; Heb. dbd 

s ^ ^ 

f^T-ee. Chald. rip. Syr. lO^Z , Arab. vi,>k3 ; Heb. 7-x the earth. Arab, 
,jO»f . Chald. ""^N, Syr. ]^^] . Other consonant changes: Heb. "12 a son, 
Arab. \]\ , Chald. 13, Syr. j^ ; Heb. b-j;r io A:///. Arab. JJiS"; Heb. 
bb|57, Syr. '\a4uai; Heb. XB3 a throne, Chald. -D-n^SjSyr. jJjcjiS; Arab, 
ll^; Heb. np^bn a feld, Chald. wsbpn . Syr. |lll . Eth. lIl4»A. .' . 

4. Of simple euphony : An alternate form of a word 
may be produced to facilitate its pronunciation or make its 
sound more pleasing, e. g. : 

',^5-ix , "i^rHX jmrple ; c::b . ■;::':: to hate; f^srb , iiri'D chamber, 
'0T,'Z-J Achan; -SSl'iz!):: , ^SX-.-rrsi^J Nebuchadnezzar; JX'l , Sl^in 
Doeg ; c^y-sbx, n-'riiybx almng or algum trees ; nirnb^a, nij^n^ teeth. 

a. Mere varieties of orthography must not be mistaken for consonantal 
changes, e. g..S<b occasional!)' for ib and vice versd, probably r^lSDb for 
ribzo , and such permutations of gutturals as abound in the manuscripts 
of the Samaritans, who, making no distinction in the sounds of these 
letters, perpetually confounded them in writing, Gesen. Sam. Pent. p. 52. 
A like faulty pronunciation has been attributed to the Galileans, to which 
there is a probable allusion in Matt. 26:73. Buxtorf Lex. Chald. p. 431. 

§52. The changes thus far described result in the pro- 
duction of distinct words, and belong to the domain of the 
lexicon rather than of the grammar. The lexicographer re- 
gards such words as cognate, and traces them back to their 
common source ; but, in the view of the grammarian, they 
are totally distinct. The mutations with which the latter 
concerns himself are such as take place in the direct deriva- 
tion and inflection of words. These are altogether euphonic, 
are more restricted in their character, and take place within 
far narrower limits, than those heretofore considered. When 
words are subjected to grammatical changes then* sounds 
are brought into new connections, attended, it may be, with 



^ 53 CONSONANT CHANGES. 71 

a difficulty of utterance which demands some measure of 
rehef, or they pass readily and naturally into other sounds, 
which are easier of pronunciation or more agreeable to the 
ear. The mutations thus induced are of three sorts, viz. : 
Consonant Changes, the Conversion of Consonants into 
Vowels, and Vowel Changes. These will require to be con- 
sidered separately. 



Consonant Changes. 

§ 53. The first class of changes embraces those which 
affect the consonants. These mostly arise from the concur- 
rence of tw^o consonants, creating a difficulty in the pronun- 
ciation or yielding a sound displeasing to the ear. This may 
take place either at the beginning or the close of a syllable. 
Syllables in HebrcAv may, and often do, begin with two con- 
sonants, §18. 1; but the necessity of this is avoided in 
certain cases by the following expedients : 

1. In the beginning of words the weak letter n is some- 
times prefixed with a short vowel, thus creating a new initial 
syllable to which the first consonant may be transferred. 

a. The only instances of this are afforded by the second and seventh 
conjugations of verbs, the Niphal and Hithpael, e. o-. 'i^isn ^=. iicprln for 
bb;^: ; b-j-r^n probably for ?i:;rn §82. 5. h. In C-.'nx Ezek. 14 : 3 N ia 
prefixed instead of n . Prosthesis is more common in the domain of the 
lexicon, where X is always the letter used, e.g. "y^\. ?i"^!i<. arm ; birn, 
bi~rx yesterday. A prefixed N. is even occasionally employed to soften 
the pronunciation without the necessity stated above, e.g. cnii^x, CDJS;, 
n"«:3n-ix, D-fsTX^. So in Chaldee nnx Wood Heb, M; "jSN garden, Ueh. 
•ja. In Arabic the concurrence of two consonants at the beginning of a 
word is regularly obviated by prefixing I . Comp. Greek x^^'^y ^X^^^- 

2. The first of the concurrent consonants, if it has a 
comparatively feeble sound, is sometimes dropped. 



72 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 53 

a. This occurs regularly in verbs whose first radical is "^ or 3, and in 
nouns derived from such verbs, e.g. -^3 for 3^3^, nyTi for n>1'?, ^12 for 
i^di, in for "in:, •'n Ezek. 2: 10 for "'hj, badn Ezek. 1:4 for biffins, and 
perhaps -N3 Am. 8 : 8 for ^N^B . 

S is ihus dropped in ^:ri? for Jisnrx. ui for "ili'X; also in a few instances from 
the bearinning of the second syllable of words, e.g. ^j^r.^i^^ Ezek. 28:16 
for ?j"'25<x;; ; t\^ Jot) 32: 11 for 'p't.nx ; D^'n^on Eccl. 4:14 for nin^oxrt; 
D-'ia-in 2 Chron. 22:5 for D-'Enx^n; riBiJ Ezek. 20:37 \'ov r-iCN??: rVs^ 
1 Kin. 5:25 with Daghesh-lorte conscvative for rbiXTS ; l^nx Prov. 
8 : 17 for ^nxx; T!'? Prov. 17:4 for "p'iX^; T(riir 1 Sum. 1:17 tor 
TjrbxUJ . These examples likewise admit ol" a dirt'erent explanation; j^ 
maj'^ give up its consonantal power, losing its sound in that of the pre- 
ceding vowel, agreeably to §57. 2 (2), after which it may readily be 
dropped altogether. 

a is occasionally dropped from the participles of the Pual or fourth 
conjugation, as n^b for nisbia ; b in nj:? for Hi^b ; n in r^b Ex. 3:2 for 
5^^f7.^ ; ^n."''^^ Ex. 7:22 tbr'cn-^Lsnb Ex. 7:11; and perhaps z in nreo 
Gen. 49: 11, which appears to be for nhncs . 

b. The rejection of a consonant from the beginning of a syllable, when 
not immediately followed by another consonant, is exceptional ; as Ti 
Judg. 9:11 for in;; nnn 2 Sam. 22:41 for nnn: ; -If] Ezek. 33:30 for 
inx ; mrrn Neh. 3:13 for nisrxri; "^nbnnn Judg. 9:9 for ^nbnnnn, and 
perhaps ^ic Jer. 42: 10, which seems to be ibr Sidv 



3. The second consonant is sometimes dropped, if it is a 
letter of feeble sound. 



a. This is regularly the case with n of the article and of verbal pre- 
fixes, and "^ as the final radical of verbs, e. g. r^sb for n'^srib ; bi:p^ for 
baisn^ ; ^Ba for i-^'ba . 

It occurs besides in a few sporadic examples with these eame letters, 
and more rarely still with N.I, and 5 . e. g. 11 for Itit , "'J Ezek. 2 : 10 for 
"'!i3 , :;2"^"i"' for ::2 win^ , !!ib:jpi and 'iribi^p with Daghesh-forte conserva- 
tive for sinD^-j;?''' and ^inr^-jp ; Ji'n^n Lam. 3:53 for l^^^^ "^.i^n Gen. 
3 : 16 for -i:'T'-}n ; i:h:>^ .Tob 35 : 11 for 1:e^xt; . c-'rn Ex. 26: 24 for n"^^i<ri, 
bn^ Isa. 13 : 20 for bnx-^ , '^Tni 2 Sam. 22 :'40 for ^JnTxni ; -^3 Isa. 3 : 24 
for "'■3, '''S for "'i" . C"'?:^ for C""""^ ; "'S as a particle of entreaty, probably 
for •'li'ia , npr: Am. 8:8 (K'thibh) for nsprs ; ba the name of a Baby- 
lonish deity for bra is a foreign contraction. The conjecture thfit 133 
Mic. 1 : 10 is for "is^'s in Accho is ingenious and favoured by the occurrence 
of P."a in Oath in the parallel clause; but it is at variance with the points, 
which, upon this hypothesis, should be i33. 

b. In rare cases this rejection occurs even after a mixed syllable, 
whose final consonant is thus drawn forward, e. g. Mrx for nnrx , nrn 
Job 29:6 for nxrn, rsrn Ex. 2:4 for -k-rV) and probably pEJ* Ps. 
139 : 8 with Daghesh-forte conservative for "p^^^. . 



§.54 CONSONANT CHANGES. 73 

§ 54. "V\Tien the concurrence takes place at the close of 
a syllable, whether the second consonant belongs to the same 
syllable with the first as at the end of words, or to a differ- 
ent syllable as in the middle of words, the following changes 
may be produced, 

1. An aspirate following another consonant loses its 
aspiration, §21 ; or if it be brought into juxtaposition with 
its like so as to form a doubled letter, the aspiration of both 
will be removed,' §23. 2, unless the combination occurs at 
the end of a word, where the reduplication is not expressed, 
§ 25. Thus, P^ for rn-b , aiirn for Di?nr,n , "jna? for innnb , 
but n-n from nnn, rrir^ 1 Kin. 1 : 15 for rnri"^ or ^i^H'^, 
niTO Ezek. 4 : 3 for t-\)2rra, rhi^-a Mai. 1 : 14 for rr-rticia . 

2. The first of two concurring consonants is in certain 
cases assimilated to the second, the doubling thus occasioned 
being expressed as in the case of letters originally alike by 
Daghesh-forte, except at the end of words, §25, where 
Daghesh disappears or is only \irtually present, being re- 
sumed upon the addition of a fresh vowel or syllable. This 
is most frequently the case with the liquid 3 , rarely with ^ 
and "i and only in particular Avords ; so n of the Hithpael 
of verbs before " and "J , and in a few instances before sibi- 
lants and other letters, and " at the end of a few words 
before n. Thus, ip.'! for irr , rh-q for r^fP:^; ri^:* for r\'^)\ 
ni? Ezek. 27 : 23 for n^b? Am. 6:2; "^^r for ^b nirx ; ^jks'^:' 
for *St"P^ s^^^? for si2-jn\ ^i-n for ^iirn, oisri'n for 
D'aiirrn , ^S3:n for ^sasnn , n5?n for ns2nn ; nb for n^b , nns? 
for n^ns . 

a. So perhaps D in nsTD according to Gesenius for nc='3 and D« for 
Bw^a. Compare Greek cruyyci/T;s for (Tvvy(.vi]^, TerviJifj.at for TeTvir/jiai, and 
Eng. il-logkal. ir-religion, im-maliire formed by the negative prefix in. 

3. A few isolated cases occur of the reverse process more 
common in Cbaldee and Syriac, by which a doubled letter is 
resolved into two different consonants by the change of the 



74 - ORTHOGRAPHY. § 55 

fii-sl or the second member of the reduplication to a liquid 
"1 or : , e. g. '^7=^ for 'is^ , pi?^"^" for pes- , r;^:.T<;^ Isa. 
23 : 11 for ""ts?^, ■'irp Job IS : 2 in the judgment of some 
for ''Sip ends, though others make the : a radical, and give 
the word the sense of snares. The conjecture that T^'cr. Ps. 
64 : 7, Lam. 3:22 is for ^isn is unnecessary and unwar- 
ranted. 

4. When J^ of the Hithpael of verbs would stand before 
a sibilant, it is transposed with c and 'O , and A^ith :: it is in 
addition changed to t: . Thus, ^rps^s for i???™, "i^i?^? for 
^%tr\-^ , ■^4"^?"'?? for '^'^y^^^ , PT'?^? for pt?^'? • 

a. In n:u:;"]ilTn Jer. 49 : 3 the transposition does not take place in con- 
sequence of the number of similar letters which would thus be brought 
into proximity. In the cognate languages n is likewise transposed with T 
and changed to l: thus, Chald. 'r'^Tn Ibr "iSTrri; so. also, in Syriac and 
Arabic, The only example of a Hebrew verb whose first letter is T ap- 
pearing in this conjugation is 13?n Isa. 1:16. where n is assimilated 
agreeably to 2. Compare with these transpositions the frequent Doric 
change of ^ (zzzScr) into ah, as crvptcrSw for crvpi^u). 

§ 55. The occurrence of a consonant at the end of a 
word may, inasmuch as the succeeding word must necessarily 
bcEfin with one, be regarded as an additional case of the con- 
curreuce of consonants. As the contact is less close, how- 
ever, than when they meet in the same word, it is less fruitful 
of changes than in the cases already considered. 

1. There are three instances in which it has been doubt- 
fully conjectm-ed that a final ] has been assimilated to a fol- 
lowing initial «; viz. D^icti^ Isa. 35:1 presumed to be for 
ri'u^; Di^-s Num. 3 :49 for tV^ Ex. 21 : 30, Ps. 49 : 9 ; 
D33 Gen. 28:12. 

a. Final consonants are in Sanskrit perpetually modified by the initia. 
letter of the following word. But it is by no means clear that this is so in 
Hebrew, even in the examples alleged, as the forms admit of a different 
explanation. See in regard to the first passage, Dr. Alexander's Com 
inentary. 



^ 56 CONSONANT CHANGES. 75 

2. A few cases occur of the rejection of a letter, chiefly 
1 and 'a , from the end of a word. 

a. 't of the verbal endings '(1 and 'j"' _ is almost always dropped, being 
only retained as an archaic or emphatic form, and chiefly at the end of a 
clause, e. g. "iisi;^ Dent. 8 : 16. but mostly sirn;;; -liinann Gen. 32:20, com- 
monly ^"i3"]P!; "pb^.n Ruth 3:4, commonly "'b^.n. So, too, in eorae 
proper nouns, "|i^5^ Zech. 12: 11. Tn:i3 Josh. 12 :2l ; "il^'^b, whose original 
■] is shown in the derivative ""S'^^b and is perpetuated in the modern name 
Sdliin. 

h. In like manner "O is rejected from the dual and plural terminationa 
of nouns upon their entering into the close connection of the construct 
state with the following word, "^rTX li-om c"]:!5<, "na Irom C"ri3 . 

c. If the feminine endings n_ and n^ have, as is probable, a common 
origin, this may be best explained by the assumption that ri is in many 
cases rejected li-om the termination, leaving only the vowel, though it is 
always retained when any addition is made to the word: thus, the con- 
struct state rirrn, absolute nr:n, but with a suffix "Ti^sn ; rib::j5 
(comp. rbfx Deut. 32 : 36), •'irb::^ . It is to be observed here, that this 
phenomenon does not establish the possibility of an interchange between 
the consonants n and n, because n in this case represents not h but the 
vowel a. 

§ 56. A few other changes remain to be mentioned which 
are due to special causes. 

1. Nun is often inserted in certain forms of verbal 
suffixes to prevent the hiatus between two vowels, ^ro'in?'] 
Je.r. 5:22, or ^53. 3.^. ^2^^?: Isa. 33:21 for ^nnny^, 
ircisiai^i? Ex. 15:2 for ^n^tiinij:. Comp. Gr. awo-io? and 
EngUsh indefinite article an. 

2. Vav at the beginning of words is changed to "> , e. g. 
"!?;» for "i?n , n^: for "ib^ , bi:p:« for bb^pn . The only exceptions 
are the four words ^^ , nn Prov. 21 : 8, n^i Gen. 11 : 30, 
^bn 2 Sam. 6 : 23 (K'ri), and the prefixes Vav Conjunctive 
and Vav Conversive. 

3. Vav, though capable of being reduplicated, e. g. "i^^s 
is in most instances relieved from this necessity by tlie sub- 
stitution of ■> , or by doubling the following letter in its 
stead, e. g. D!px or atT^ for u^;^^ . 



76 - ORTHOGRAPHY. § 57 

a. In one instance after such a change of 1 to "^j a following "^ suffers 
the contrary change to 1 to prevent the triple recurrence of the sama 
letter, T\':.\~l'^.. Isa. 6: 9 for -;:^"^i<^. 

4. Yoclli before the plural termination ni is in a few 
cases changed to N to prevent the conjunction of like 
sounds, D-'sibn Hos. 11 : 7 for u^t^t\ Josh. 10 : .:2(3 ; csin^f 
Hos. 11:8 for a^hi Gen. 10 : 19 ; u^if^y- from ^-t->; 13>'22 
(also nisz^) for a^'^32 ; ^Niba Jer. 38 : 12 for Ti':2 (or as some 
read, ^':ib3) ver. 11. 



a. In like manner i is changed to X before m' in the word n'ixs for 
m>3 from n'.p; it is consequently unnecessary to assume, as Gesenius does. 
a singular nx: which never occurs. 



Change of Consonants to Vowels. 

§57. The second class of changes is the conversion of 
consonants into vowels, or the substitution of the latter foi 
the former. This occurs, 

1. Occasionally in reduplicated syllables or letters, aiis 
for nsns ; nisi:it: for nir^r^; bis for ba'pa Gen. 11 :9 ; ninb? 
2 Chron. 35 : 13 from nn^s Prov. 19 : 24. 

2. j\luch more frequently with the quiescents. 

(1) A prefixed ) is softened to its homogeneous vowel u 
before otlier labials or vowelless letters, e. g. n"'i^ , "ii"i^ '> ^^ 
softening of an initial "' to i only occurs in ''iL'"'S 1 Chron. 
2:13 for ■^i?-' ver. 1 2, «s 2 Sam. 14 : 19, Mic. 6:10 for ©: . 

(2) Medial or final quiescents without vowels of their 
own often lose then* sound in that of a preceding vowel. 
This is invariably the case with 1 and "^ folloAving their homo- 
geneous vowels, e. g. Ti^n for ^"iin § 59, ni^n'^a for n'^^n^a, 
unless they are doubled, as ■'iis^'a , r.^2 , and occasionally even 



§ 57 CHANGE OF CONSONANTS TO VOWELS. 77 

tlien, e. g. "'t''^ for '^'h^'n . Final x always, and medial » fre- 
quently, gives up its consonant sound after any vowel what- 
ever, e. g. s^i? , ssTfl , nsi'b for rxib . 

a. Medial s regularly loses its consonantal power in the future Kal of 
Pe Aleph verbs, e.g. bix'i ; in "'^x preceded by b, thus "^x? ; in ="n"b5< 
and certain forms of "iiN preceded by the prefixes 2 b 3 1, thus. z-n?xb , 
In'bxb but PjiJxb; "^insb. i'':Txb, "'j^xb but 'liTxb , "'nsb . !ir_pxb . The 
following examples are of a more individual character, e.g. nix: for ir^ss, 
nbsi 1 Kin. 11:39 for nsrsr. rcspxn Num. 11:4, c^^r^x^ Jer. 40:1, 
ri"<nx^x:: Isa. 14:23. In a few cases this has led to a change of ortho- 
graphy, the X which is no longer heard being dropped, or another vowel 
letter substituted for it. e. g. lb2"» Ezek. 42:5. and b-'Z'is Hos. 11 : 4 from 
bix, y.b--} Job 8:8 for "irx-i," iri'-. Deut. 32:32 for ^rxi, and the exam- 
ples cited § 53. 2, a. 

b. The consonant n never loses its sound in that of a preceding vowel 
like the rest of the quiescents. The letter n is often used to denote a 
vowel, but if in any word it properly expresses a consonant this is never 
converted into a vowel, or vice versd. The exceptions are apparent not 
real, as in the frequent abbreviation of the ending ^in^ in proper names to 
n^, thus I'l'i^^n. rt^j:?7n. The change here does not consist in the rejec- 
tion of the vowel ^ and the sottening of the consonant n, but the syllable 
in is dropped, whereupon final Kamets is written by its appropriate vowel 
letter. §11. 1. a. just as in'^z"'^ after the rejection of in^ becomes niiia . 
So in those rare cases in which n is substituted for the suffix n, e.g. 
nnrb Lev. 13:4 for ~t'%'^'- The proper name bxnns Num. 34:28 is de- 
rived not from n~Q but nis. a root of kindred meaning, of whose exist- 
ence, though otherwise unattested, this word is itself a sufficient voucher. 

(3) ]\Iedial X often gives its vowel to a preceding vowel- 
less letter and rests in its sound ; "^ occasionally does the 
same with a homogeneous vowel, when preceded by a vowel- 
less prefix. 

a. Thus. X: n-'-iixn for C'wX-i . nxcn for rx'jn ; ?i'jxd Ezek. 25:6 
from axr ver. 15; XTJj Ps. 139:20 for ^V^: , so J<^'rr Jer."l0:5; ""i^ix-i 
from •i'lXi; nxnia Neh. 6:Sfor cx^'a ; X"'n Isa. 51:20. ixri Deut. 14:5; 
D-'xvh 1 Sam. 'l4:33 for CX-Jn ; '"^^t^s Isa. 10:13 fori'4x3; ^rrxi 
Zech. 11:5 for "^l^'"X* ; tliis even occurs after mixed syllables, e. g. nrxb^a 
for nixb:: ; •j'^xr for Vxr : r«<-'";rb for rxnpb. particularly in proper 
nouns bx-;^ri tor bxr-;-^-; , bxi-in lor bxr-:^.' So, "':'|i-in-'3 Eccles. 2:13 
for v:-ir:":3; rpb^i Jer. 25:36 for rpb-;;! ; rn;5^b Prov. 30:17 for ri^-^-^i. 
There is no instance of this with ". on the contrary, nia*;? Cant. 5:2. 12. 

(4) At the end of words 1 and "^ , when \\'ithout a vowel 
of their own and preceded by a vowelless letter, invariably 



78 - OBTHOGRAPHY. § 58 

quiesce in their homogeneous vowels, i in an unaccented u, 
"^ in 7, which draws the accent upon itself and frequently 
causes the dissolution of a previous syllable and the rejection 
of its vowel, ^r\i for )rp. , ^npir^ for inrir^ ; ^n"j for "^rr^, "''ia 
for ^-is , ^^- for yq"^ . 

(5) When preceded or accompanied hy heterogeneous 
vowels, 1 and "^ are sometimes dropped, or if the vowel be a, 
they not unfrequently combine with it, forming the diph- 
thongal and e, § 62. 1, e. g. ps-r. for pi^ri , n"!:3 for '''^ , nSa 
for ''^^ , cp for □*jp , a-'pn for o-^npn , rw for rSi2 -, n^i'-'n for 
n^i'^.n, ir'^; for ^'17?, iTi'2 construct state of nj-Q, n^a const, 
of n^i , b-^^^n for b'^?;'n , nir for ^'iro . 

a. Vav rarely remains with a heterogeneous vowel unless accompanied 
by weak letters, by contrast with which it becomes comparatively strong, 
e. g. n"in, ins, nin . 



Vowel Changes, 

§ 58. 1. The third class of changes embraces those which 
take place in the vowels. The primary office of the vowels 
is to aid in pronouncing the consonants, to which conse- 
quently they are quite subordinate, merely occupying, so to 
speak, the interstices between them. Their number and 
variety being greater, however, than is demanded for this 
single purpose, they have besides to a certain extent an in- 
dependent value and meaning of their own in the constitu- 
tion of words. (1) Changes of vowels, while they cannot 
like a difference of consonants create distinct verbal roots, are 
yet fruitful of those minor modifications of which etymology 
takes co2;nizance, such as the formation of derivatives and 
grammatical mflexions, e. g. '5~3 to be (/reat, b'la greatness^ 
bins great; ^1:7 he killed, biT:^ to kill, bibp kill thou, bpp 
hilling, br^ killed ; c^D a horse, ric^o a mare. (2) They 
may indicate differences in the forms of words which have 



^58 VOWEL CHANGES. 79 

arisen in the lapse of time; 'i?: in tlie Pentateuch means in- 
differently girl or hoij, in later books girl is nn?D ; sin in the 
Pentateuch he or she, in other books she is always s^n ; the 
form of the demonstrative njjn is found only in Genesis, 
T^n in writers after the time of Moses, ^T2n in Ezekiel; 
the plural of the demonstrative in the Pentateuch ^J^ or "^s , 
elsewhere, with a single exception, n5X . The imperfect no- 
tation of the vowels in the original mode of writing by letters 
alone has, however, left us without the means of ascertaining 
to what extent such changes may have taken place. (3) They 
may indicate diversity of dialect, e. g. ^t:]? to kill, Chald. 'J'O)?, 

Syr. V4L0 , Arab. Jjci , Ethiop. 4>'t-A : . 

2. The vowel changes w^ith which orthography is con- 
cerned, on the other hand, are purely euphonic, being in 
themselves void of significance, and springing , solely from the 
natural preference for what is easier of utterance or more 
agreeable to the ear. Orthographically considered, vowels 
are either mutable or immutable, the latter being uuaffected 
by those circumstances which occasion changes in the former. 
A vowel may be immutable by nature, or made so by posi- 
tion. A short vowel in a mixed syllable before the ac- 
cent is ordinarily immutable by position, being beyond the 
reach of the common causes of mutation, e. g. is"^, T\r\^wi . 
Long vowels are inunutable by nature in certain words or 
classes of Mords ; but they are only distinguishable as such 
by a knowledge of the etymological forms which require 
them. It may, however, be observed, as a general though 
not an invariable rule, that the voAvels of such words and 
forms as are prevaihngly written with the vowel letters are 
less liable to mutation than those Avhich are prevailingly 
written without them. Mutable vowels are liable to changes 
both of quantity, from long to short, and the reverse, and 
of quality from pure to mixed (a to 0, i to e, a to r) and the 
reverse, these changes being confined, except in rare in- 



80 - ORTHOGRAPHY. §» 59, 60 

stances, to the cognate forms ; thus, i never passes mto u or 
0, nor these into a. Only as c stands m relation to both i 
and <7, it serves to mediate the interval between them, and 
thus accounts for the occasional changes of i to a or the re- 
verse, e. g. -"^'^pn , Jl^r'^i?^ J ^^ for r.:| , "^rja ; c" , c?^'^ comp. 



T J 



a. Tlie exceptional change from v or o to e occurs only in the pro- 
nouns, e. g. cr.b:;p. belbre suffixes !inb::p ; and in the particle TN . before 
suffixes rs . There are also a few examples of the change of short 
vowels in mixed syllables before the accent, e. g. nsx"}!: . construct r;;s~?3 , 
plural r"3~":. 

§ 59. The mutations of vowels are due to one or other 
of the folloAving causes, viz. : 1. Sylla])ic changes. 2. The 
influence of consonants. 3. The influence of vowels. 4. The 
accent. 5. The shortening or lengthening of words. As the 
vowel of unaccented mixed syllables is always short, and that 
of simple syllables long, ^18. 2, it is evident that a change 
in the character of a syllable wiU involve a corresponding 
change in its vowel, unless the accent interfere to prevent. 
Accordingly, when for any cause a mixed syllable becomes 
simple, its short vow^el will be converted into a long one ; 
and when a simple syllable becomes mixed, the reverse 
change will take place, e. g. in , a"^in ; rrajb , T\'i2p_ . In 
the case of the vowels i and ?i there is frequently an addi- 
tional change of quality, viz., of i to (? and ii to 0, e. g. D'^pn 
for 0^*1^-; p^is for "jro in place of 1^3 § 56. 3. 

a. Daghesh-forte is thus resolved b}'' the prolongation of the previous 
vowel in "^'lar?- ^"i^"'P; ^'5|s , Ti-":i";?^0; "'^•rn, ■^ffi-'^n ; c-i-iia, c"'i"'-n:Q; 
••jsn. ipn; =^'l-;?!i-< Eccles. 9:12 for'c-'iy;?^T3 §33. 2. a; S'lpspn for !l-i;sBnri ; 
prifJ Lam. 1:8. if this is for pri: see ver. 17; and if the conjecture of 
Gesenius (Thesaurus, p. 483) be correct as to the true reading in I Chron. 
23:6,24:3 ^i^^^^"} for cn:^n:. 

§ 60. Contiguous consonants may give rise to vowel 
changes by their individual peculiarities, as is the case with 



^ 60 VOWEL CHANGES. 81 

the gutturals, or by their concurrence. The pecuharities of 
the gutturals are fourfold, viz. : 

1. A preference for the vowel Pattahh of the same organ, 
into which, consequently, a preceding or accompanying vowel 
is frequently converted, e. g. nrc for nrc ; d^'e for 2?s ; tz^^"^ 
for ^h"^ ; 'J'k''^ for ^'^r ; r\if.}t from siic . 

a. The instances in which this permutation occurs cannot easily be 
embraced under any general rules. In some cases it was optional ; in 
others, usage decides for it or against it without, however, being absolutely 
uniform.' The following statements embrace what is of most importance. 
(1) The stability of the vowel often depends upon the weight attached to 
it in the etymological form ; thus, S-^" in the imperative but not in the in- 
finitive for "t-r; "i'i"7 for yq^"} , but yhb not vh^ lor vhb. (2) The 
vowel preceding the guttural is more liable to change than that wliich 
succeeds it. e. g. "k'r"! always, but SSts^ and ^S"^ri; n:rin but Onr,]; flprj, 
but ^"^"cv . (3) An accented vowel is sometimes retained where one un- 
accented would suffer change, e. g. !i3n;i but "|n*i; "^n^i; cr^ . (4) O and 
u are less subject to alteration than / and e, e.g. ^?3 for brb ; a which is 
already cognate with the gutturals is mostly retained, though it occasion- 
ally becomes a before n, e. g. n-^nx from nx, '''n'^^'O Job 31 :24 (in most 
copies) from nbii3, nB";i from nnr-^ . (5) X in many cases prefers the 
diphthoncfal vowels e and o, thus btij^x, ''r5<i^?- ,"i^^^^! ''^^^ but ^^'^^^ll; 
xn^ , ?=N"'. (H) 1 partakes of this preference for d to a limited extent, 
e.g. 'C'/j for "pf] or "iD^]; xi;?] from nxn^ . 

2. The reception of Pattahh fnrtive, § 17, at the end of a 
word after a long heterogeneous vowel (i. e. any other than 
a), or before a vowelless final consonant, e. g. ^.'^ , ^i^^'O, r;2, 

a. This is necessary when the vowel preceding a final guttural cannot 
be converted into Pattahh. Sometimes the form wiih Pattahh and tiiat with 
Pattahh furtive occur interchangeably, e. g. fj^rb and n^rb , or with a 
slight distinction, as n|cx, in pause in^rx; HSTtq, construct riaf^. In 
a few instances a guttural preceding a final vowelless letter takes simple 
Sh'va instead of Pattahh furtive, e. g. Pvpb 1 Kin. 14 : 3, and in most 
editions nnir Jer. 13 : 25. As final X is always either quiescent or otiant, 
it never receives Pattahh furtive. The letter "i never takes it unless it be 
in a single instance, and that in a penultimate syllable Cin"' Ps. 7:6, 
which is probabl}- to be read yi'^rdoph ; though it might be pronounced 
yiraddoph. which some conceive to be an anomalous form for C|"il^ , after 
the analogy of pnri];' Gen. 21:6, the compound Sh'va being lengthened 
into a vowel followed by euphonic Daghesh, as in the related words 
6 



82 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 60 

in^isn Isa. 1:6, and <T^2ri Isa. 53:5, while others adopt the explanation 
of the old Jewish Grammarians, that it is a peculiar combination of the 
Kal t{n-\1 and the Piel Cl^t!'? • 

3. A preference for compound rather than simple Sh'va, 
§ 16. 3, whether silent or vocal, inasmuch as the gutturals 
are more readily made audible at the beginning than at the 
close of a syllable, and the hiatus accompanying them as- 
sumes more of the complexion of a vowel than is usual with 
stronger consonants. 

a. The gutturals occasionally retain simple Sh'va when silent. This 
is regularly done by a final radical n, tl or S, followed by a servile letter, 
e.g. nnij, W":;, ci^i^';', cnjJTs'ia , innBd^a, with few exceptions as 
r^^h'}'} 'Hos. 8:2, ~\^h^}' Gen. 26: 29, C^2?;i^in' 2 Sam. 21 : 6. Other cases 
have more of a casual or sporadic character, and occur chiefly with the 
stronger gutturals n and n. r^ifi^, T\k^?., n;;n';i , Virip , iian-inn. mrrna 
but m3rn?2, Trin^^_ but >itr:2n;i, n^n: a possession, but nbni from bn: a 
brook; more rarely with St and r, c^s'J Lev. 4 : 13, NOS'S 1 Kin. 15:16, 
c-jsa Isa. 11 : 15, nn^u Deut. 25 : 7 but in pause J'T^s^iU Isa. 28 : 6, "''1^X3 
Ex. 15 : 6; "i has for the most part simple Sh'va rn3"i , c^'fi'} . though in 
a few instances it has compound is^a , ^ns'ia^T . 

6. (l) Among the compound Sh'vas the preference, unless there is some 
reason for choosing another, is ordinarily given to Hhateph Pattahh, as 
the simplest and most in accordance with the nature of the gutturals, and 
to this an antecedent Hhirik. when unessential to the form, is commonly 
made to correspond, e.g. "i^?. . "^^'J:"^. for ^'o^,'} . Sometimes, particularly 
with X (see 1. a. 5.) Hhateph Segliol is taken roli^x . ni^i^aN , nnjx, nrx, 
niax, c-inx, cn"''?rj, "7;y, n^:s, T\^-\-j Joel 2:5, Ti^thx;! Jer. 13 :'21, which 
not infrequently becomes Hhateph Pattahh upon the prolongation of the 
word VT^^X, -■ iriN Prov. 25 : 7, irnsN , "^riinX . !in^TqN";i Judg. 10:2, or the 
carrying forward of its accent "'n'rixn , "'n'l^xn'i . Ti^s'nnn, "'rrnnni . 

(2) If, however, z or 6, characteristic of the form, precede, this commonly 
determines the Sh'va to be selected, e. g. "fTS^Jn for "^^-a'Jii, I7:s"' for lisJi, 

& ■•■: IV • : ' ' - t: T - : T 7 

■i3s;q for ''^^S; though sometimes Hhateph Pattahh is retained and the 
intermediate syllable, §20. 2, resolved into a simple one by prolonging the 
vowels, e. g. rj'n2?n Josh. 7 : 7. ^'^z'^ . 1^.^'S Isa. 1 : 31. Hhirik may, how- 
ever, remain short, e. g. "^H.P , yirjyia, snnd Job 6: 22, particularly if a 
Daghesh-forte has been omitted from the guttural, e. g. I^EI<5 Jer. 3:8, 
though even in this case the assimilation sometimes takes place, e. g. 
lin;;i_ Gen. 30:39 for >i'2ni, tl-nriN Judg. 5:28 for nns. If a vowel has 
been rejected from the form, the corresponding Hhateph is generally pre- 
ferred, e.g. C-iEr from "^tv . n"'cnn . •'■inrn Ezek. 16:33, ^xn Gen. 
16:13; in-^cn I'kin. 13:20 from n-^'i'n ; Vi^dn^ Gen. 37 : 22 from's^lijn. 
There are occasional instances of the same word being variously written 
in this respect, e. g. "lins Ruth 3 : 15, linx Cant. 2 : 15 ; 'innsn^ and 



§ 61 VOWEL CHANGES. 83 

!innxri"| Isa. 44: 13 ; I'^r'n^n Job 16: 16 (K'ri in some copies). 1ia'^«n Lam. 
1 : 20.' i"is/n Isa. 52 : u". -i^Nn 1 Sara. 28 : 14. 

c. Before another guttural the compound Sh'va is frequently re- 
placed by the corresponding short vowel, e.g. Typ^i^ for "^Nrr, inn^sn 
for ■'n'i"'sn , CDTixn for C^^nxri ; and occasionally under X by a long 
vowel before other letters as well as gutturals, or by a short vowel with 
Daghesh. e. g. C'pnx for C"?r;x, rr'n-jx. C'ix for C^ix . n-iTX for ^'tx , 
1SX for "CX. This disposition to render the gutturals more audible by the 
aid of a vowel is further shown by their attracting to themselves the 
vowel of another letter, particularlj' in triliteral monosj-llables, e. g. 5'it 
for 5":! (?"?0) ^4'P?- 5^^?- -?r- 'Hh' 2 Kin. 12:9. rX3 for irx2 , -X3* 
also' l^-ip Ex. 2 : 20 for' ;iX'np' Ruth'l : 20. 'lin^xn Prov.'l : 22 lor ^inxn, 
^n'iz.xn .Job 20:26 for ^inyaxn. cisoijl Zech. 7 : 14 for C";irDXi , and by 
their sometimes causing an antecedent or accompanying vowel to be re- 
tained where analogy would require its rejection, e. g. "'XS'iia for "'XlJia 
from xi-"a, "'x::" . "r^"? . "O"'":© and "O^-p, c^nwS from "^'tia comp. 
1. a. (4), 'inxri-a-; Deut. 32: 10; ryj-q. psrn '. 

4. An incapacity for being doubled, whence they never 
receive Daghesh-forte, and the previous syllable thus becom- 
ing a simple one, its vowel is generally lengthened, § 59, 6« to 
il, } to e, u to 0, e. g. ]XT2 for 'i^ra , into for "jsia , tph;* for 

a. Sometimes an intermediate syllable, §20. 2. is formed, and the vowel 
remains short. (1) This is commonly the case before n, frequently be- 
fore n, less often before 5. rarely before X. never before "i . e.g. Cn3, 
Wl". "n"?, -~n . yxa . (2) It is more likely to occur in the body of a word 
than after a prefix, e. g. "^nbn- Ps. 119 : 'IS from bti^. but pbn;;] Job 38:24 
from pBn . (3) When the guttural comes to stand at the end of the word 
the short vowel is often resumed, e. g. ""^nn Prov. 22 : 24 from nrnrrij "I'rn 
Ps. 141:8 from n";2Pi but "ijrn Deut. 2:9. There are a very few in- 
stances in which Daghesh-forte is found in i, e. g. T\^'^ ^"^13 Ezek. 16: 4, 
rr}-: Prov. 14: 10. -Tn:?^^ Prov. 15: 1 (in some editions), ^CX^d Cant. 
5: 2, see also §24. h. 

§61. The concurrence of consonants gives rise to the 
following vowel changes, viz. : 

1. When two vowelless letters come together at the be- 
ginning of a syllable in contravention of the law in §18, the 
impossible combination is relieved by giving to the first of 
them a short vowel. This, if there be no reason for prefer- 
ring another, will be the briefest of the vowels, Hhirik, e. g. 



84 ORTPIOGRAPIIT. §G1 

''^S V for 'i^in'i , nn7a for 1173 , ^prn for ^prn . If a vowel has 
been omitted from tlie word, the coiTesponding short vowel 
is fi'eqiiently employed, e. g. '^H^'Q for "'s'p'a from ^fb^2 ( if^iz ) ; 
"obT? from i\"i-q ; ''pan from ban , r\:ri-; for ^fh;* from ')n^-« . Or 
if one of the consonants be a guttural, the vowel mostly con- 
forms to the compound Sh'va, which it has or might have, 
e. g. ^'^f^'J for ^"i^'j , ^prn;; for ^pjn^ , ^^nb for "'bn'" , nkrib for 
nbrib , ^qbys for ^bys . 

a. Vav before a guttural follows the rule just given; before '', and 
sometimes before n or n followed by i, it takes Hhirik ; before other 
vowelless letters it gives up its consonant sound and quiesoes in its homo- 
geneous vowel Shurek, §57. 2. (1), thus inn:;; ; ^^''l , i^f^,') and ri^,ri^^_ , zih^, 
rnn . 

6. In triliteral monosyllables or final syllables with the vowel Pattahh, 
the first letter sometimes receives an accented Seghol. to which the fol- 
lowing Pattahh is then assimilated, e. g. Cirs for viPS construct of rrs, 
nDB^i? for TDb^oa , the Seghols being liable to be changed to Pattahhs by 
the presence of a guttural rriB'>:;'0 for rns'i'TD . 

c. In cix^i^ Gen. 32 : 20 for c=xs:a the vowelless letters belong to 
different syllables, and the introduction of the new vowel makes it neces- 
sary to lengthen the one before it. 

2. Although two vowelless letters are admissible at the 
end of a word, ^18, the harshness of the combination is 
commonly relieved by the insertion of Seghol, e. g. 27'? for 
^"i"' , I"?'? for Psb . If either letter is a guttural, Pattahh is 
mostly used instead, e. g. ns2 , bys, 'jn'i . If either letter is 
"'j its homogeneous vowel Hhirik is used; if the second letter 
is 1, it will rest in Shurek, ^ 57. 2. (4.), e. g. n^i, •'S^, nnr\, 
but nitt . 

a. When the penultimate letter is n or n, it in a few instances takes 
Seghol. as >ns. '^rvi . wn'i. cr,"!. When the final letter is x, it either 
remains otiant, § 16. or requires Seghol, xia . K"i*;; , Xi.^ , X"^^ ; a penulti- 
mate X either quiesces in the antecedent vowel or attracts it to itself, 
§60.3. c. nx?;i , rxb or rxb , rxi. The alternate mode of facilitating 
the pronunciation of gutturals before a vowelless letter at the end of a 
word by means of Pattahh furtive, has been explained §60. 2. 

3. When the same letter is repeated with or -vAithout a 
mutable vowel intervening, there is often a contraction into 



^61 VOWEL CHANGES. 85 

one doubled letter, and the vowel is rejected or thrown back 
upon the preceding consonant, e. g. *2S"' for "^^ci , ao^ for 
nzc-' (Daghesh-forte disappearing at the end of the word), 
rb for =;■', ^sr27 Job 31 : 15 for ■i::"^? (see 4. below); if 
another consonant itnniediateh' follow the contracted letters, 
a diphthongal vowel "i.. or i maybe inserted to render the re- 
du})hcation more audible and prevent the concurrence of 
three consonants, T'^o , nr-^^cn. 

4. In accented syllables the diphthongal vowels e and o 
are employed before two consonants or a doubled consonant 
in preference to the pure i and u, e. g. ^'^li?!?, "v^t^s?; °"P, 
T^yd^ ; r-jjpp , n:'-i:;pn , so ^2tr\ , -jrp, ^^^^ . This is still the 
case when at the end of a word an auxiliarv Seghol or Pattahh 
has been inserted between the letters (according to 2.), e. g. 
•js:;: , ntc , b:^?r, rj^f^ia from p:""^ , or the rednplication of the 
doubled letter is no longer heai'd aud the Daghesh-forte does 
not appear, § 25, e. g. -cn comp. 's-i'cpn . 

a. The vowel e is in like circumstances often reduced to one of its con- 
stituents a. e. a. -r.bipn from h-'h^n . "Tibbp from bap, n:=^ri from Ti^n, 
~5"i"pri. nj~3-7n. ^;cn, and occasionally to its other constituent i. e. g. 

cj^^r'^^r^^ from 'r-;~rn . nrr-^^ from Tl"n;. The only example of Shurek 
in a Segholate form is n";/i':;ri Lev. 5 : 21. 

5. In unaccented syllables t and ti are preferred to c and 
6 before doubled letters, "nx , •'ns ; "rn, ■'nn; rzicrj from 
zbn ; 2cH , ^:ic;' ; t^-Q comp. ba;pT2 , -pn , ipn , though such 
forms as "^^in, Tj-y, rfls, r.'^'^ likewise occur. 

6. A vowel is occasionally given to a final consonant to 
soften the termination of the Avord, and make the transition 
easier to the initial consonant of that which follows ; thus, 
y^ , "'?;"?; "i;;b3 for n?5 ; en, n-sri; bx, nbs ; ■'S, n^S; l\hr\, 
^rsh; "■'if 72, V^z^i2; r>n , ihrri; 'i^ss Ex. 15:10; ■''^y^'} 
Ex. 15:5. 

a. These paragogic vowels have established themselves in the cur- 
rent forms of certain words, as hp^p, ^^T}, nVx , "^is^, inx, "'E. But, 



86 " ORTHOGRAPHY. § 62 

with these exceptions, they are chiefly found in poetry. The vowels "^ . 
and i are mostly attached to words in what is called the construct state, 
il to words in the absolute; and all of them to the feminine ending n. 
Examples of i: "1:3 Num. 23: 18, 24:3, 15, ir^n several times, "ii-s;^ Ps. 
114:8. Examples of "I.: -^niinx Hos. 10 : 11. ^^cx Gen. 49: 11, 13 V "bid., 
-^hz:-^ Gen. 31:39, ^r.-^z-i Ps. 110:4. ^zt!i Ps. 114:8. -rd-; Ps. 123:1, 
"'H-'aiiT? Ps. 113:5, ■■^■'aT^r'a ver. 6, "'i'^p^ ver. 7, "^Virin ver. 8, "':i:"'C'ia 
ver. 9, "r.xb'a Isa. 1 :21, "^"^"x.; Ex. 15:6.' ^biiv Zech. 11 : 17, ■'ran Lam. 
1 : 1, T'T'^ ibid.. "^I^t" Deut. 33 : 16. It is also attached to the first member 
of the compound in many proper names, e.g. ^X"!"!^:!. p'i:J~"'2'5's , to certain 
particles, as "Fi''^ , "T^"^, '^t'C. and perhaps to such participial forms as 
""PiZ-b-^ Jer. 22 : 23. Of n ^ : nrr^x Ex. 15 : 16. n:i-iX Isa. 8 : 23. Job 34 : 13, 
37 i 12, no-.n Judg. 14 : 18, nrrrr^ Ps. 3 : 3. SO : 3', Jon. 2 : 10, nb-S almost 
constantly, nn^a Ps. 116 : 15. nbni' Num. 34 : 5, Ps. 124: 4. rtr^^i Ps. 92: 16 
(K'ri). 125 : 3, Ezek. 28 : 15. Hos.' 10: 13. nrbi? Job 5: 16, nrnfs Ps. 44:27, 
63:8, 94:17, nnss Job 10:22, rtr\^T\ Josh' 19:43, Judg. 14:1, and regu- 
larly in the third person feminine of the preterite of nb verbs. In 
modern Persian i is similarly appended to nouns in close connection with a 
following word, to remove the obstruction of the final consonant and serve 
as a uniting link. 

§ 6.2. The changes due to the influence of vowels may 
arise from their concurrence or proximity. 

1. Concurring vowels may coalesce; a uniting mth a 
forms a, uniting with i or a it forms the diphthongal e or o, 
e. g. ^''t:::! Neh. 3:13 from rrsrsn after the rejection of i? 
by § 53. 2. 6 ; m'l'S after the softening of ■* to i becomes rP3 ; 
inSiip by the rejection of n becomes i'^Vl? ; "i"? prefixed to 
proper names is from ^rr^ for in;; , § 57. 2 (4). 

2. One of them may be hardened into its corresponding 
semi-vowel ; / '' . with I "^ may form * "> . , or the first i may 
be changed to ly, which, upon the reduplication of the "i to 
preserve the brevity of the antecedent vowel, § 24. 3, becomes 
■'''., e. g. ''Sny with Q"^ . becomes D^nny or D^'iny . So, \ be- 
fore n ^ forms n^ , and before i forms i' . , e. g. nHs:? , 
riiHny ; in like manner l is changed before i into uv, form- 
ing ii. , which, by § 56. 3, becomes i''. , e. g. n^ib^ , by the 
substitution of ni for f\ , ini^rb'a . / 1 followed by u ^ forms 
Iv, ^r.-^rib-j]? , rnbi:;?; ^n^s, i^S; I'^crn for -'^bizn Josh. 14 : S. 
jEJ "^ . before f "^ . or m ^i is resolved into u^, which, joined with 
the appropriate semi- vowels, becomes ■• . and l^ ^, the virtual 



§ 63 TOWEL CHANGES. 87 

reduplication of the final consonant in the one case preserv- 
ing the short vowel, which is lengthened in the other ; thus 
"^c^w with "I . becomes ■^c^o , and with ^n , tc^c . The same 
resolution of "^ „ occurs before final ^ , forming 1\1 ,, and by 
§ 61. 2 T. -, thus ^ysz with ^ becomes tj:>iv2 . 

a. Grammarians have disputed whether in such words as C"*i35, 
n'Z3^ ihe point in "^ is Daghesh-forte or Mappik, §26, and accordingly 
whether they are to be read ibhn'yyini, vialkhiiyyolh. or ibhnylm^ 
malkhfiyoth. If the explanation given above be correct, it is Daghesh- 
forte Conservative. Comp. c^p. c;^p . 

b. Such forms as ■^■;";3. "i^"?. -^"^3 from "'"i3 are only apparent excep- 
tions to the above rules. The word is properly 7?S . and to this the addi- 
tions are made, the auxiliary Hhirik being dropped with the cessation of 
the cause from which it originated, §57. 2.(4). In nik-'r'ir 2 Chron. 17:11 
from ■'^"iS and C"' the vowels are kept separate by an interposed X. 

c. In words of nb formation, such as nibs, iius, cas Irom nds and 
n , i. c"^ , it might appear as though one vowel were rejected before 
another. But the correct explanation is that "^ is the true final radical, 
and the forms above given are for n^iir, i'^'CS, c-^yrs* (like C'b:;^) from 
which ■< is rejected by §53. 3. In the same way Vrr. ~-^, etc., from tni'S 
are for ^'''^^ . ~C''^^- ^"^ such alternate forms as n^~s from n-'a . the radi- 
cal ■< is retained by preserving the antecedent vowel, which, before 
Daghesh-forte Conservative, becomes Hhirik, §61. 5. 

^63. The folloAnng euphonic changes are attributable to 
the proximity of vowels, viz. : 

1. Pattahh before a guttural is often changed to Seghol 
if another a follows, and the same change sometimes occurs 
after a guttural if another a precedes. 

The particular cases are the following : 

a. "When (_) stands before a guttural with (^) always before n, e.g. 
Snn for :nn, r^rrjiZ-q Prov. 21:22. c = nn. "nrnrn (also when n has 
Hhateph Kamets, e.g. C'iiTnn . ■'"b^nri Judg. 9:9), often before n and :>, 
particularly if it receives the secondary accent, e.g. ^■'"^nn lbr c^nn, 
tisnb but rrnb , !)-in::n; r'ovri. r''6v "': . rarely before x and i, nnn 
Gem' U : 10, ri:jx: Neh. 9 : 18, 26' but -^ri-:ix= Ezek. 35 : 12. 

b. When ( ) before a guttural is followed by another consonant with 
(.) or (J ^^T^Z- ^^^~'!! ^ut fl-'nn% xirip but ns?"?, ^'^^'^.■. once before 
the liquid b, e.g. ^"r.^. Ex. 33:3 lbr ?i^=X, and once before :, e.g. 
pi::nb for wpnb. 

c. In nxnpx^ 1 Sam. 28:15 and the cnmbination iri C?i3 a similar 
change takes place after a guttural to prevent the repetition of the vowel 
a; so in MiiS'i'? Ps. 20:4, and n:x: n:i< alter the liquid 3. 



88 -- ORTHOGRAPHY. § 64, 65. 

2. Pattalih is sometimes assimilated to a following 
Seghol, or to a preceding Kamets or Tsere. 

a. The assimilation to (,.) takes place regularly in what are called 
Segholate forms, in which an auxiliary Seghol lias by §61. 2 been intro- 
duced between two vowelless letters. T\\'^. for ~ri'?' -"?.!'. ^Jr -"!.; Yl^ ^"'" 
y^M, but rc^a , crs ; only before 1, which can combine with a and not 
with e, a is retained and lengthened to (J by §59, "fK, T\'V\. Rarely in 
other cases cs'i;] for ci"]^, where the change is facilitated by the pre- 
ceding "^ . 

b. The assimilation to (J occurs in a ^evf cases after a guttural with in 
prefixed, e. g. ci'n for crn, nrn for -nn , yixn for Y'^.^~- 

c. The assimilation to ( ) occurs in the Kal future of Pe Yodh verbs 
where the alternate forms are -to|) and Y'P-'^I • 

§ 64. The follomng vowel changes are dne to the accent, 
viz. : 

1. If a long vowel in a mixed syllable be deprived of its 
accent, it will be shortened, §18, e.g. Tairn, msirn; id;*, 
nc^] ; Q'r^ DTT*"!; nb:!, -2ij,^, . 

a. If a vowel preceding Makkeph is incapable of being shortened, it 
will receive the secondary accent Methegh, agreeably to §43. 

2. The accent prefers to be immediately preceded by a 
simple syllable and a long vowel. Accordingly an antece- 
dent vo\velless letter often receives what may be called a pre- 
tonic vowel. This is commonly the simplest of the long 
vowels u, e. g. ^'jj? , ^b"; , rn{:b , 1"%n;; , occasionaUy e, e. g. 
^r^."^ , nirir , i^ibi ^ )ri2ikr\ , rarely 0, e. g. "j-Hip:^ . Such a 
vowel is sometimes inserted, even though a pre-existing 
mixed syllable is thereby destroyed, e. g. in the plurals of 
Segholates and of feminine nouns derived from them, D'^i^'a 
from vl)r:, niibia from nib); . 

§65. The special emphasis, with which the last word of 
a clause is dwelt upon, gives rise to certain vowel changes 
in connection with the pause accents, ^36. 2. «. These are 
(1) lengthening short vowels, viz., (.) and not infrequently 
(..) which has arisen from (.) to (J, e. g. "^t^, "i"cx ; J?^r]3, 
rans ; 71s , ris? ; 132? , "inr , and brinGrins: back Kamets 



§ 66 VOWEL CHANGES. 89 

Hhatupli shortened from Hliolem to its original length trat!?, 
nbn . (2) Restoring vowels which have been dropped 
in the conrse of inflection, e. g. lis;? , ^"3? ; ^"12" , ^in"! ; 
^"i^y , ^"ib? . (3) Changing simple Sh'va in triliteral sylla- 
bles and before the suffix ^ to Seghol, e. g. ^ri'^s, "^^"^^ ; '^H'', 
'^n^ ; UD'O , DDTT . (4) Changing compound Sh'va to the cor- 
responding long vowel, e. g. "'is, "^iX; "'in (i'^sin)^ tiin ; ^Sn^ 

a. Pattahh sometimes remains without changej e.g. 13 Ps. 132:12, 
Fr,rr\ 2 Sam. 2:27, ^ib^J Jer. 7 : 10. "nnn Prov. 30:9. "^npniJ .Tob 34:5, 
i-in^sx Nell. 5:14. Seghol more frequently, ~ba, pns. ct;?., r,-,^ and 
T|"!'^ . Long vowels are mostly unaltered ; only Tsere is in mixeJ syllables 
occasionally changed to Pattahh. e.g. JTnn Isa. 18:5 lor inn, so '<^^i^ 
Isa. 42:22, fsn Gen. 17:14, b^j'^l Gen. 21:8, Ty^^.^ Gen. 25:34, which, 
in one word of Segholate formation, is converted to Seghol. e. g. 3?TS5^, 
yd""'. Where the same word has alternate Ibrms, one is sometimes se- 
lected as the ordinary and the other as the pausal form, thus "j'Sn'i. yssli;; ; 
cnn^. ^'3":?; ""^■■^7, ~^^? ; "'S^'^-'V- '"'^"?!5'^ GJen. 43:14; 'izn'^ Eccl. 
12:11, r^-}^ 1 Sam. 13:21; tS", ':t3 Gen. '49:3. rsrn . nls'i'r Lev. 
26:34, 35; ^t"Ei, ^-iJs^ • Sometimes, instead of changmg the Sh'va be- 
fore Tj to Seghol. its vowel is shifted thus ?j3. ~3; ~b. T(5sy, T)rx, and in 
Ex. 29:35 "^fJ^J*. The position of the pause accent, so far as it differs 
from that of the ordinary accent, has been explained §35. 2. 

b. Of the pause accents, or those which mark the limits of clauses and 
sections, the first class, viz.. Silluk. Athnahh. and Merka with Malipakh, 
almost alu'ays give rise to the vowel changes which have been described; 
the second and third classes. S'gholta. Zakeph Katon, Zakepii Gadhol, 
R'bhi" and Shalsheleth. e.g. >i-n^:;! Isa. 13:8. do so frequently; the fourth 
class, Pazer. e.g. 2 Kin. 3:25,'Prov. 30:4, and T'lisha Gh'dhola, e.g. 
Ezek. 20: 21, but seldom. Pausal forms are occasionally found with other 
Disjunctives, thus, Tiphhha ^irbn Deut. 13:5, Pashta f|"i3'isn ibid..Geresh 
Thv E/ek. 40: 4. and even with Conjunctives, e. g. "'JX Isa. 49: 18, nb^i^tn 
Ezek. 17 : 15, Vlis 2 Chron. 29 : 31. 

§66. 1. The shortening and lengthening of words has an 
effect upon their vowels. The shortening may take place 
(1) At the end of a word by the rejection of a vowel. 

This occurs only with (..) or (..) in certain forms of Hb verbs, e. g.br>ri from 
n^jn, is'::j for nis-^n , in^n 1 Sam. 21 : 14 for n'iir^T , ncai, for nna«i . in 
the last two examples the short vowel is lengthened upon its receiving the 
accent, comp. §64.1. If the rejected vowel was preceded by two con- 
sonants, these will now stand together at the end of the word, and be lia- 
ble to the changes described §61. 2. e. g. r,~rt for nii'iTz . 



90 «. ORTHOGRAniY. § GG 

(2) In the body of a word by shortening a long vowel in 
a mixed syllable, which must, of course, be the one bearing 
the accent, § 32. 1, or rejecting a long vowel in a simple syl- 
lable before the accent (the pretonic vowel, §64. 2), 'li'i, 

'in'l; If^-g, Ifb^; TlJtip^; TlJtp^. 

a. This is in general the only reduction possible. The vowel of a 
mixed syllable, if short already, is capable of no further abbreviation; and 
it cannot be rejected, or there would be a concurrence of vowelless con- 
sonants which the language seeks to avoid (~p'n Prov. 30:6 is an excep- 
tion). And the vowel of a simple syllable, if short, must have the accent, 
§32. 1, which preserves it from rejection. The changes above recited are 
confined to the last two. or, in case the accent is upon the penult, the last 
three syllables of the word; for the antecedent portions of polysyllables 
are already abbreviated to the utmost. Contractions due to the peculiari- 
ties of certain letters, as the gutturals and quiescents, which have been 
before explained, are not here taken into the account, e.g. ?i^'^ , 5."^UJ ; 
n;;o, m'To; ^'"j"^, "'"i"?. 

b. Where the last vowel cannot be shortened, it sometimes ^periences 
a change of quality from pure to diphthongal, such as is produced by the 
pressure of two following consonants, §61.4, e.g. b"''nn;;| , ^'^2^] ; r'^'Cin, 

2. If a word be lengthened by additions at the end, its 
vowels are liable to changes in consequence. 

(1) Such additions create a tendency to shorten the pre- 
vious part of the word in the manner just described. For 
the normal length of words in Hebrew being dissyllabic, the 
genius of the language is opposed to transcending this limit 
any further than is absolutely necessary. If the addition is 
not of sufficient weight to affect the position of the accent, 
no abbreviation results. But if it is of weight enough to 
remove the accent, an abbreviation follows if it is possible for 
one to be made, e.g. in-i, D^^n^, ni^nn^ for 03^:^17 by 
§61. 1. 

(2) They produce changes in an ultimate mixed syllable. 
If the appendage begin with a consonant, the antecedent 
vowel will now be succeeded by two consonants and be liable 
to the changes consequent upon such a position, § 61. 4, e. g. 
J^?'?t?pJ? from ^^tspn; np)2p from D^p; '^n'^tspn from ^^t:pn; 



^QQ VOWEL CHANGES. 91 

ipbiap from ^tJp . If the appendage begin with a vowel, it 
will attach itself to the final consonant, which will in conse- 
quence be drawn away from its own syllable to begin the new 
one. This may occasion the following changes : 

{a) If the preceding vowel is an auxiliary Seghol or 
Pattahh, introduced to facilitate the pronunciation of the 
second of two vowelless consonants, § 61. 2, it will be rejected, 
inasmuch as it is no longer requii-ed for this pm'pose, e. g. 
i3b)2 from ^b^ , innp from nno . 

(6) If it be a short vowel, it must either be lengthened 
to adapt it to the simple syllable in which it now stands, or 
rejected on account of the disposition to abbreviate words 
upon their receiving accessions at the end, e. g. S^^^I? and 
nrjjJ from bbp . The cases are very rare in which a short 
vowel remains unchanged in consequence of its having the 
accent, §18. 2, e. g. rns*!^ 1 Kin. 19 : 15 from na^ia, nbisrn 
Ezek. 8 : 2 from bisTrn . 

(c) If it be a long vowel, it may be rejected, as ^^t2jp;i 
from b'jjp;* , '^hw from uw , or retained either unaltered, as 
ri'Cyn from D"'^ri, "^-.l^"'? from')iffi^,or with a change of 
quality from pure to diphthongal or the reverse, n(?in^ from 
pir,^ , ^riTiD^ from i^io^ , i:^pn from D^pn , D^bbs from 'J^Sa . 

TABLE SHOWING THE CHARACTER AND AFFINITIES OF THE VOWELS 
AND THE ORDINARY LIMITS OF EUPHONIC CHANGES. 

ORGAN. QLALlTr. QUAXTITT 

Long. Short. 

Guttural, . . . pure a 

C dijjldhongal t 



Palatal, . 



Labial, . 



1 





PART SECO]S^D. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

Roots of Words. 

§G7. Etymoi,<5gt treats of the various kinds of words, 
their forri/ation and inflections. Three successive stages are 
/ here to be distinguished. The first is the root or radical 

/'„ "^ ((..-• portion of words, ■ This embraces those fundamental sounds, 
in which the essential idea originally inheres. Roots do 
'• ■_ not enter, in their nude or primitive form, into the cm^rent 
'^ use of language, but they constitute the basis upon which all 
actually occurring words, with the exception of the inorganic 
^ interjections, are constructed. The second stage is the word 

itself in its simple uninflected state ; this is formed, if a prim- 
^j^^' itive, directly from the root, if a derivative, from a pre-existing 

. s. x.y.. primitive, by certain changes or additions, which serve to con- 
vert the radical idea into the precise conception intended, 
which is as yet, however, expressed absohitely. The third 
and only remaining stage is the word as it appears in the ac- 
tual utterances of speech, so modified by inflections as to 
suggest the definite qualifications of the idea, such as the 
tense of verbs, the gender and number of nouns, and the de- 
gree of adjectives, or its relations whether of agreement or 
subordination, such as the persons and modes of verbs and 
the cases of nouns. 

§ 68. There are in Hebrew, as in most languages, tAvo 
classes of roots, which may be denominated respectively pro- 



^ 68 ROOTS OF WORDS. 93 

nominal and verbal. Pronominal roots form tlie basis of such 
words as express the relations of things to the speaker or to 
one another, viz., pronouns and certain prepositions, adverbs, 
and other particles. From verbal roots, which are by far 
the more numerous, spring words expressive of ideas, viz., 
verbs, nouns, and such particles as are derived from them. 
Verbal roots consist exclusively of consonants, and are almost 
invariably triliteral. The introduction of a vowel or vowels, 
even for the sake of pronouncing them, destroys their abstract 
radical character, and converts them into specific words of 
this or that description. Nevertheless, for reasons of conve- 
nience, the letters of the root are usually pronounced by the 
aid of the vowels belonging to them in the simplest form of 
the corresponding verb, which is mostly the third person sin- 
gidar of the preterite, e. g. ^"j)5, tj^ri . This must not be 
suffered, however, to lead to the confusion of identifying 
that particular verbal form with the proper radical, nor of 
supposing tlie verb to be the radical part of speech from 
which nouns in all cases are derived : verbs and nouns are 
rather to be regarded as co-ordinate branches springing from 
a common root. 

a. The few quadriliterals and quinqueliterals which occur are mostly 
formed from pre-existing trililerals by the addition of a weak letter, or a 
letter similar to one of the original radicals, e. g. CO"^? to lay waste comp. 
CDS; Cl^^T to burn comp. pi'T ; inEy"iD a branch comp. MQ"p ; C'Qinb 
thoughts comp. D'^cyb ; a^i-id a sceptre comp. 1:20 ; 'lixblT tranquil 
comp. "i^XtJ; vrns to spread comp. td'^S ; or by blending two different 
roots, e.g. w.'E^,i to be fresh composed of -liT and C'EIJ ; "'i^'S a. certain 
one = ''i^^N "^i'S ; ?-11E^ a frog from ~E:2 to leap rnn (in Arabic) a 
marsh. Some, which are not thus reducible, may perhaps be of foreign 
origin. 

b. Many of the triliteral roots appear to be based upon pre-existing 
biliterals. Thus, the cognates "i]5, ^b, Tn, ma, tna, Tia , have in com- 
mon the two letters 73 with the associated idea of cutting. §50.3. The 
frequent examples of this description, together with the fact of the exist- 
ence of a few biliterals, e. g. ^X father., riK brother, CX mollier, have 
suggested the thought that the ultimate roots may in all cases have been 
biliterals, and that the triliterals were a secondary formation. Various in- 
genious but unsuccessful attempts have been made to demonstrate thia 



V 



94 '• ETYMOLOGY. § 69 

position by an actual analysis, and to effect the reduction of all roots to 
two primitive letters. Still more extravagant and fancitijl is the endea- 
vour, wliicli has actually been made, to explain the origin of roots from the 
individual letters of which they are composed, and to deduce their mean- 
ings from the names, the shapes, or other peculiarities of those letters. 
The existence of roots and the meanings attached to them must be ac- 
cepted as ultimate facts. Some have arisen, no doubt, from the imitation 
of sounds in nature; but in most cases no satisfactory reason can be given 
why a given combination of sounds has that particular sense, which is in 
fact connected with it. 

§ 69. The formation of words and their inflection are ac- 
comphshed partly by internal changes and partly by external 
additions. The internal changes are the insertion of vowels 
4wX <^', and the reduplication of consonants in various significant 
ways, e. g. bt:ip , ^'Jp , "^isp , ^^j5 . The external additions are 
", , ^ significant syllal)les welded to the root or to the word, either 
at the beginning or the end, e. g. '"op , in^ijp , 5-jp^, ^:5Dpnn. 

a. The triliteral and exclusively consonantal character of Semitic 
roots is their most remarkable peculiarity in distinction from those of the 
Indo-European languages which are as prevailingly monosyllabic, the 
vowel being an essential constituent, while the number of consonants is 
variable. The fact of the vowel being an integral part of the root in 
these languages interferes with their employment of internal changes for 
purposes of derivation and inflection, and confines them almost entirely to 
external additions, e. g. voco, vocabam, vocatio, vocabuhnn, vocito, etc. 
The composition of words of which such large use is made in the Indo- 
European tongues, e. g. ad-voco, -in-voco, etc., is almost unknown in He- 
brew except in the formation of proper names. 

6. Different languages differ greatly in their flexibility, that is to say, 
in the variety of words which may spring from a common root, and the 
number of forms which the same word may assume to express the various 
relations into which it enters. Relations, which in some languages are 
expressed by flection, as the cases of nouns, tenses of verbs, concord 
of adjectives, are in others indicated by additional words, as prepo- 
sitions, auxiliary verbs, etc., or suggested by the order of words in the 
sentence. 

c. Formative syllables, added either at the beginning or the end of 
words for the sake of inflection, are, in the ordinary consciousness of those 
who use the language, completely amalgamated with them, so that their 
separate orisrin and signification is never thought of They are thus to 
be distinguished from those words which, by reason of their dependent 
character, are attached to others as prefixes or suffixes, but yet preserve 
their separate identity as prefixed conjunctions and prepositions and suf- 
fixed pronouns. 



§ 70, 71 PRONOUNS. 95 

§70. The parts of speech in Hebrew are either dechna- 
ble as pronouns, verbs, and nouns (induding adjectives) ; or 
indechnable, as the article, adverbs, prepositions, conjunc- 
tions, and interjections. As most if not all of the syUables 
employed in the formation and inflection of verbs and nouns 
are of pronominal origin, it will be necessary to consider the 
pronouns first. 

a. The classification usual with the Jewish grammarians is into verbi 
(C"'bi"Q actions), nouns ( niad names), and particles (o**):^ words). 



Pronouns. 

PERSONAL PEONOTJNS. 

§71. The Hebrew pronouns are personal, demonstrative, 
relative, and interrogative or indefinite. The personal pro- 
nouns are the following, viz. : 







S I N Q L' L A R. 


PLUBAL. 


1. 


I 


''p:i5, 


^?? 


We ^:n:^i:, 


^:ni 


2.' 


( Thou m. 
\ Thou/ 


nps? 


ipS? 


Ye m. CPS 
Ye/ m. 


™i? 


3. 


( He 
(She 






They m. on, 
They/ in, 





There are, it will be perceived, distinct forms for singular 
and plural in the three persons, and for masculine and fem- 
inine in the second and third. There is no form for the 
neuter, as that gender is not recognized in Hebrew. 

a. (l) The alternate forms of the first person singular "'::bx (in pause 
*'3bx with the accent on the penult except Job 33 : 9). and "^^N (in pause 
"•pX) are used interchangeably and with perhaps equal frequency. It has 
been observed, however, that while the former is the more common in 
the Pentateuch, it never occurs in the books of Chronicles, and but once 
in Ezekiel. viz., 36:28, a passage borrowed frpm the Pentateuch. The 
usual plural of this person is 'iinrx.; irni occurs but six times, viz., Gen. 



96 - ETYMOLOGY. § 71 

42 : 11, Ex. 16 : 7. 8, Num. 32 : 32, 2 Sam. 17 : 12, Lam. 3 : 42 ; ^3X though 
common in later Hebrew, occurs but once in the Old Testament, viz., Jer. 
42 : 6 K'tiiibh, where the K'ri substitutes the usual form. 

(2) The second person masc. sing, nnx (in pause occasionally iirnx Ps. 
2 : 7, 25 : 27, 40 : 18, 70 : 6, but mostly nnx ) is in five instances written inx 
without the final He, which is however restored in the K'ri, viz., 1 Sam. 
24 ; 19, Ps. 6 : 4, Job 1 : 10, Eccles. 7 : 22, Neh. 9 : 6, and in three instances 
PiX without the final vowel Num. 11 : 15, Deut. 5 : 24, Ezek. 28 : 14. The 
feminine nx is occasionally written Tis Judg. 17:2, 1 Kin. 14:2. 2 Kin. 
4 : 16. 23, S : 1, Jer. 4 : 30, Ezek. 36 : 13 ; the K'ri invariably retrenches the 
superfluous ">, though it is probable that the original pronunciation proper 
to this orthography was *^nx . The feminine plural "inx occurs only Ezek. 
34:31, where a few manuscripts read "(PS ; the alternate form n:ns oc- 
curs Gen. 31 : 6. Ezek. 13 : 11. 34 : 17; in Ezek. 13 : 20 most editions have 
njnx . 

(3) The third person fem. sing. 5<"'rt occurs but eleven times in the 
books of JNIoses. viz.. Gen. 14 : 2, 20: 5. 38: 25, Lev. 2: 15 (in some editions), 
11:39, 13: 10. 21, 16: 31, 21:9. Num. 5: 13, 14. In its stead is found Xin 
a combination of the letters of the masculine with the vowel of the fem- 
inine. The explanation of this is that Kin hu was at that early period of 
common gender and used indifi'erently for both masculine and leminine. 
As this primitive usage subsequently became obsolete, the word, when 
used lor the feminine, was read if^n hi according to the uniform practice 
of the later books, and the punctuators have suggested this by giving it 
the corresponding vowel, §47. According to Kimchi 1!n Ruth 1:13 and 
nsn 2 Sam. 4 : 6, Jer. 50:5, stand for the masculine plural; this assump- 
tion is unnecessary, however, as in the first passage the feminine may 
have the sense of the neuter '•^ these things,''' and in the last two it is an 
adverb of place, meaning here. 

6. (1) The pronoun "^bss unites the palatal found in the nominative 
singular of the first person in Indo-European languages, Gr. eyw, Lat. ego, 
Goth. ik. with the nasal of its other parts Gr. ^i, vwi, Lat. me. vos. Goth. 
viik. The same combination is found in the Coptic and tlie Phoenician. 
The Arabic and Syriac have retained only the abbreviated form in the 
singular and the prolonged form in the plural. The second person tiFiJt 
is based upon the lingual n as the Doric rv, Lat. tu, Ger. du, Eng. thou ; 
and the third person Kin upon the guttural n as the Zend hO, Gr. 6, 
Lat. hie. Eng. Ae. 

(2) Words in such constant and flimiliar use as the pronouns are sub- 
ject to more or less irregularity in all languages. The original plural 
termination, as will be shown more fully hereafter in the case of verbs 
and nouns, is ri. In the first person D is omitted to prevent the concur- 
rence of nasals in the same syllable, "'JX , "DX ; the plural of the prolonged 
form seems to be best explained by supposing it to have been originally 
•iSJSX , which was in the singular softened to "'bbx by §57. 1, and in the 
plural by a transposition and weakening of the palatal to a guttural (comp, 
Gr. iyw, Sans. aham). became ^Jn'jx^ or by §53.2, !i3n: . The plurals of 
the second and third persons were originally cipix, cirij which are still 



^72 PRONOUNS. 07 

preserved in the Arabic, and have left their traces in the inflections of 
verbs, e.g. ■,!131!;?";'. "^S'lriblsP . The vowel ii. however, wliich in the plu- 
rals of masculine nouns has been converted into i. has in the pronouns 
undergone a still further modification into the diphthongal e en or e cnx . 
The distinction of gender is indicated in the plural not by affixing the 
characteristic termination of that gender as in nouns, but by a change of 
the final nasal. An unaccented n ^ is often added by §61. 6. to relieve the 
harshness of the consonantal ending. 

c. In the technical language of the Jewish grammarians pronouns are 
called C'^ViS cognomina ; the first person is "2T^ the speaker, the second 
Klt^S present, the third ~rp3 hidden or absent. 

§72. AMien the pronouns are used in their separate form 
as distinct "words they have the forms already given. When, 
however, they stand in a relation of dependence to verbs, 
nouns, and particles, they are appended to them in the follow- 
ing abbreviated forms, called the pronominal suffixes : 







SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


1. 


Com. 


1 


"I? 




13 





j 3Iasc. 




^ 




0? 


<o. 


1 Fem. 




^ 




1? 


3. 


f Masc. 




in 


D 


on 


\ Fem. 


n 


n 


1 


10 



In the first person singular "^ . is attached to nouns, and 
■^2 to verbs. In the second person the palatal 3 is substituted 
for the lingual M of the separate prouoim. For a similar 
change in the first person see § 85. a. (i). The modifications 
in the forms of the suffixes, occasioned by the endings of the 
words to which they are attached, will be considered here- 
after, §§101,220. The third plural fonus on, "jn are used 
■with plural nouns ; 3 , 1 with verbs and singular nouns. 

The suffixes of the second and third persons plural DD, 
1? , Qv} J "iO ^i'6 caUed grave, the rest are light. The former 
being mixed syllables, always receive the accent, § 33. 3, and 
tend more strongly to shorten the words to which they are 
attached than the latter. 



98 " etymology. § 73, 74 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

i 
^73. 1. The ordinary demonstrative is — I 

3fase. Fern. Common. 

Singular, ht ni?T this Plural, -i? n^i? t/wse. 

The poetic form ^T is sometimes a demonstrative, Ps. 
12:8, Hab. 1 : 11, but more frequently a relative (like the 
English f/iaf), in which case it is used without change for 
both genders and numbers. The feminine is occasionally 
written without the final n and with a different vowel letter 
nr or it . The plural, coming from a different root, is suffi- 
ci-ently distinguished without the usual termination ; bs occurs 
eight times in the books of Moses and once in 1 Chron. 20 : 8 ; 
in all other places the consonantal termination is softened by 
an appended n .. . 

2. The singular of this pronoun is in a few instances 
compounded with b either without any change of meaning, or, 
as Ewald and Nordheimer follow Jarchi in supposing, in the 
sense of the remote demonstrative t/mt. Thus (with the 
article n prefixed) — 



Masc. Fern. Ccm. 



Sing. tUs oy that nT^n ^T>n Tsn 

a. The first form occurs twice in Genesis (24 : 65, 37: 19). the third si^ 
times in the post-Mosaic books as a mascuhne (Judg. 6 : 20, 1 Sam. 14 : 1, 
17:26. 2 Kin. 23:17, Dan. 8:16, Zech. 2:8). and once as a feminine 
(2 Kin. 4:25), the second once in Ezekiel (36 : 35). 

3. The personal pronoun of the third person K'.n is used 
for the remote demonstrative that. 



Relative Pronoun. 

§ 74. The relative 2cho, tohich is nt'S? , which may be em- 
ployed as a separate word, or may be shortened to a prefix © 



§75 INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 99 

with Daghesli-forte compensative in the following letter, 
unless it be a guttural and consequently incapable of receiv- 
ing it, §23. 1. In a few instances the prefix tJ takes the 
vowel (.) followed by Daghesh-forte, Judg. 5:7, Cant. 1 : 7, 
Job 19 : 29 ; once it has (J before N Judg. 6:17, and twe 
(.) Eccl. 2:22 (in some copies), 3:18. The relative suffers 
no change for gender or number either in its separate or its 
prefixed state. Its objective relation to verbs and particles 
and its possessive relation to nouns are expressed without 
changing the relative itself, or removing it from its position 
at the beginning of its clause by appending the appropriate 
pronominal suffix to the governing word, e. g. inb« nrs who 
he sent him, i. e. whom he sent, "^i'lT mrs ivhich its seed, i. e. 
whose seed. It may also receive an adverbial sense from 
being followed by the pronominal adverb D® there, e. g. 
mr — 1T25|: tchere, nsffi — ncsj: whither, Dffiia — niDii w-hence. 

a. The prefix 'J occurs to the exclusion of the full form of the relative 
in the Song of Solomon, and with great frequency in another production 
of Solomon's. Ecclesiastes. There are besides occasional examples of it in 
other books, e.g. Judg. 5:7, 6:17, 7:12,8:26.2 Kin. 6:11, 1 Chron. 5:20, 
Job 19: 29, Ps. 122-124, 129, 133-137, 144, Lam. 2:15, 16. The word 
nr.'i'a Gen. 6:3 is in several ancient versions and in the common English 
translation rendered as though it were made up of the preposition 3 . the 
relative ^_ and the particle ^'; for that also; but the most recent inter- 
preters derive it from the verb a5"i3 to err. and tran.slate in their erring. 

b. iwjx or V is also used for the conjunction that. Comp. Lat. quod. 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

§75. 1. The pronouns "^"Q icho ? or ^^-^o^i/'^r relating to 
persons, and r.-a ichat? or irhatever relating to things, are 
employed both as interrogatives and in an indefinite sense. 
They experience no change for gender or number. 

The vowel of "'q is regulated by the initial sounds of 
the succeeding word. Before a letter capable of receiving 
Daghesh-forte it is pointed n^ and the following letter is 
doubled, e. g. "iib'S-n^ Ex. 3:13. Before the stronger gut- 



100 ' ETYMOLOGY. §76 

tiirals n and n it also commonly receives (.), e. g. X'^n-n^ 
Ps. 39 : 5, ^r\i<m na Gen. 31 -. 36. Before the weaker gut- 
turals N, 5? and "I, it commonly takes (J, e. g. r.^5«"n^ Zech. 
1 : 9, Tj^n? n73 2 Kin. 8 -. 13, nn^s?"} nia Judg. 9 : 48. Before 
n , n , and 3? with Kamets, and occasionally before other let- 
ters it takes (..), § 63. 1. «, e. g. i^ n;>n-m9 Ex. 32:1, Tsibn-nTa 
Gen. 20 : 9, n-'ry-n^ ib., bip nia 1 Sam. 4 : 14, uBria ma 
2 Kin. 1:7. In a few instances the final vowel letter is 
omitted and the inteiTogative is joined with the following 
word, e. g. HTia Ex. 4 : 2, u6))2 Isa. 3:15, nxbp)? Mai. 1 : 13, 
nni? Ezek. 8 : 6 K'thibh. 

2. Another interrogative is formed by prefixing the par- 
ticle '^^? to the pronoun nt ^ ri<T, thus nr '^s icliich? or ichat? 
1 Kin. 13 : 12,Eccles. 11:6, T^-h ^)i^, for loliat? why? Jer. 5:7. 

3. The words ''ibbs? ifbs which are always used in com- 
bination, or contracted into one '^i'abs , are in usage equivalent 
to an indefinite or indeterminate pronoun, Eng. a certain one, 
Lat. quidam, Gr. 6 helva; they are, however, derived not from 
pronominal but verbal roots. 

Verbs. 

THEIR SPECIES. 

§76. 1. Hebrew verbs have seven different forms which 
have been denominated species or conjugations (D'':*33 build- 
ings). These represent as many modifications of the verbal 
idea, and are as follows, viz. : 

1. bp Kal Simple active. 

2. b?S3 Niphal " passive. 

3. b?s Piel Intensive active. 

4. b?s Pual " passive. 

5. b'l^En Hipliil Causative active. 

6. ^?sn Hophal " passive. 

7. bysnn Hithpael Reflexive. 



§77 SPECIES OF VERBS. 101 

a. The term conjugations was introduced by Reuchlin. and is very gen- 
erally employed in Hebrew grammars and in those of the cognate lan- 
guages. It must be borne in mind, howev^er, that Hebrew conjugations 
are totally unlike the conjugations of Latin and Greek. The latter denote 
the various modes of inflecl ion adopted by different roots. The former are 
modifications of the same root, which differ in meaning while their inflec- 
tions are substantially alike. They correspond rather with voices or with 
derivative verbs, such as frequenlatives and causatives. although they not 
infrequently require to be translated by words radically distinct. The 
term species proposed by Schultens, though less commonly adopted, is 
more descriptive. 

2. Kal means li(/ht, and denotes that species in which no 
other than the three radical letters appear, and these only in 
their single power. The other species are called heavi/ 
(a"n23), because burdened by the reduplication of the radi- 
cals or the addition of other letters. Their names are de- 
rived from bys to do, which was the model for inflection, the 
form assumed by this verb in each species serving as its 
designation. Unusual verbal forms are in like manner de- 
noted by the corresponding forms imposed upon its radicals. 

3. Other technical expressions, such as the names of the 
various classes of verbs, are also to be traced to this source. 
A verb whose first radical is a guttural, a Nun, or a Yodh, is 
called a Pe Guttural, Pe Nun (fs), or Pe Yodh ("^'s) verb, 
Pe as the initial of -ys becoming the technical designation 
of a first radical generally. So a verb whose second radical 
is Yav is called an Ayin Yav (*'b ) ; one whose third radical 
is He, a Lamedh He (i^»^) ; one whose second and third rad- 
icals are alike an Ayin Doubled {''•^■^), etc. 

§77. The general idea of the several species already 
stated is liable to certain modifications in the variety of cases 
to which it is applied. 

1. The Niphal is commonly the passive of Kal or of the 
simple idea of the verb, 23 a /o steal, Ni. to be stolen ; sns to 
icrite, Ni. to be writteii. 

2. Sometimes, like the Greek middle voice which coin- 
cides with the passive in certain of its forms, it has a reflex- 



102 ETYMOLOGY. §78 

ive signification, I^V to hide, Ni. to hide ones self; ^t^? to 
keej), Ni. to keej) one's self, (j^vXarrecrdaL ; nnp Ni. to rejjenf, 
lit. to grieve ones sef, fierafxeXeaOaL; or expresses reciprocal 
action, yi"^ to counsel, Ni. to take counsel together ; nnb Ni. to 
fight, ixa-)(eaQaL, lit. to devour one another. In some verbs it 
has both a passive and a reflexive sense, 'li'O Ni. to he sold 
and to sell ones self ; "sn Ni. to he seen and to let ones self 
he seen, to appear. 

3. Sometimes when the Kal is intransitive and does not 
admit of a proper passive, the Niphal is either identical with 
it in signification, nnp K. and Ni. to apjjroach, or retains a 
shade of its original force by representing the state or condi- 
tion not absohitely as in Kal, but as something effected and 
involving a change from another previous condition, N?^ to 
be full, Ni. to he filled, rr^n to he, Ni. to become. 

§ 78. 1. The Piel gives new intensity to the simple idea 
of the verb, by which its meaning is variously modified ac- 
cording to the nature of the case, 'oV'q to he feiu. Pi. to he 
very feio ; y\\'\ to folloio,Y\. to follow ardently, to pursue ; 
ins to fear. Pi. to fear constantly, to he timid; ''i?Tl? to ask. 
Pi. to ash repeatedly and earnestly, to heg ; ^'^^ to create, 
as God, Pi. to form with pains and labour, as man ; iJns to 
write. Pi. to write much with the implication that it is to little 
pm'pose, to scrihhle ; "^nj? to bury. Pi. to bury great numbers. 

2. The energy resident in this species displays itself by 
signifying the producing or causing of that which is denoted 
by the simple idea of the verb, thus quickening intransitive 
verbs into transitives, and making such as were transitive 
before to be doubly so. In this, which is the more frequent 
case, it becomes virtually equivalent to a causative, 'liij to 
perish. Pi. to make to perish, to destroy ; 'i^b to learn, Pi. to 
teach, i. e. cause to learn. Both these senses are occasionally 
found united in the same verb, yy\> Pi. to be very near and to 
bring near ; nHT? Pi. to be very corrujjt and to corrupt or de- 
stroy. 



^79,80 SPECIES OF VERBS. 103 

3. Pual is the passive of Piel, and therefore can only exist 
when the sense of the latter is such that a passive is possible. 

§79. 1. The Hiphil denotes the causing or producing ofv 
that Avhich is signified by the simple form of the verb, and, 
as in tJie corresponding case of Piel, intransitive verbs become 
transitive, and such as admitted of one object before are now 
capable of receiving two : T]^ to descend. Hi. to cause to de- 
scend, bring doion ; ^""^ to come, Hi. to bring ; r.sn to see, Hi. 
to show. 

2. In some verbs Hiphil has an intransitive sense, but 
m most of these cases there is either an eUipsis of the object 
or the idea of production and causation can still be obscurely 
traced, iirp Hi. to be attentive, prop, to make {ones ear) at- 
tend ; P?:"C Hi. to be sweet, prop, to cause siveetness ; 'iii^ Hi. 
to be wise, prop, to act imsely, exldbit wisdom ; f^ij Hi. to be 
brave, yc^y^. to act bravely; ])?• lii. to grow old, prop, to acquire 
age. In a few instances both senses are found united in the 
same verb, nns Hi. to cause to bud and to jnd forth buds ; 
tiS"? Hi. to prolong and to be long ; ^t'? Hi. to enrich and to 
groiD rich ; Ti?'^ Hi. to make fat and to become fat (comp. 
Yng. fatten). 

3. Hophal is the passive of Hiphil. 

a. When Kal has both a transitive and an intransitive sense. Hiphil. 
as the causative of the latter, becomes substantially identical with the 
former. ri33 K. to extend or to bend, trans, and intrans.. Hi. id. trans. In 
Job 23: 11, Ps. 125:5. Isa. 30: 11, where the Hiphil of this verb appears to 
be used intransitively in the sense of turning aside, there is an ellipsis of 
its proper object, to bend (the steps). 

§80. 1. The Hithpael is reflexive or reciprocal of the 
idea of the verb, mostly as this is expressed in the Piel spe- 
cies (from which it is formed, §8.2. 5), the particular shade 
of meanin"; beino; modified accordinsr to the circumstances 

O CI o 

of the case. (1) It indicates that the subject is hkew^ise the 
direct object of the action, 'Siiz Pi. to deliver, Hith. to escape, 
deliver ones self; pt'? Pi. to justify, Hith. to just fg ones self; 



104 ETYMOLOGY. § 80 

tesn Pi. to seek, Hitli. to disguise ones self, prop, to let ones 
self he sought for ; ^i)n Pi. to make sick, Hith. to make one's 
self sick whether in reahty or in the esteem of others, i. e. to 
feign sickness ; Din Hith. to show ones self wise whether in 
reahty or in his own conceit. (2) Or that he is the indirect 
object of the action, which is for his benefit, or rehites en- 
tu-ely to him, nns Pi. to ojoen, Hith. to open for ones self ; 
bnp Hith. to inherit {for one's self) ; "j^n Pi. /o make gracious, 
Hith. to implore favour, prop, to make to he gracious to ones 
self (3) Or that the action is mutual between two or more 
parties, "li'J? Pi. to hind, Hith. to conspire, prop, to band to- 
gether ; ^^t■^ to see, Hith. to look upon one another. 

2. This species is sometimes a mere passive hke the 
Niphal n5is to forget, Hith. to he forgotten ; *iE3 Pi, to atone, 
Hith. to he atoned ; 'ipy Pi. to prepare, Hith. to he jirepared. 
In a few instances the reflexive and the passive senses are 
found in the same verb, li'a Hith. to sell ones self and to he 
sold. 

o. (1) The affinity between the Piel and Hiphil species is such as in 
very many verbs to render it unnecessary to retain them both, and one or 
the other has been allowed to fall into disuse. Where both exist, they 
are often nearly or quite synonyn)ous, and are used indiscriminately, UJ^fs 
Pi. and Hi. to sanctify, or differ only in the frequency of their employment, 
Pi^'j Pi. and Hi. (rare) to send, rid Pi. (rare) and Hi. to cause to hear. 
In other cases they are distinguished by adhering to those significations 
of the species in which they depart palpably from one another, n:o^ Pi. 
(intens.) to grow lu.rurianlly. Hi. (caus.) to make to grou\ tro Pi. (caus.) 
to make foolish. Hi. (intrans.) to act foolishly ; or by developing them from 
different significations of the root, blba Pi. to cook (food), Hi. to ripen 
(fruit) ; T^'ia Pi. to bless (prop, to kneel in worship). Hi. to cause to kneel 
(as a physical act), cis Pi. to break the bones (css), Hi. /o render 
strong ; or by restricting them to special applications, "iBj? Pi. to burn in- 
cense (to idols). Hi. to burn incense (to God); T^n Hi. to change, Pi. to 
change (the clothes) ; i:C3 Hi. to strip. Pi. to strip (the slain in battle). 

(2) It is still less common to find both Niphal and Hithpael in the same 
verb. Where this does occur they are sometimes used inlerclumgeably, 
at otiiers a di.«tinction is created or adhered to, ~£d Ni. and Hith. to be 
poured, out; ^i'H Ni. and Hith. to talk with one annlher ; ""^^ Ni. to be 
blessed, Hith. to hle.?s one\s self; dnn Ni. to be ploughed, Hith. to keep {one''s 
self) quiet ; ittjfs Ni. to be bound, Hith. to conspire. 

(3) When in particular verbs two species have substantially the same 



§S1 PERFECT VERBS. 105 

sense, it sometimes happens that parts only of each are in use. one supple- 
menting the dL'ficiencies of the other, or that one of the active species, 
losing its proper passive, is suppUed by another whose correspondmg 
active is wanting. Thus bb^ to be able has a Kal preterite and infinitive; 
but its future is Hophal (strictly, to be made able, but in usage the equiva- 
lent of Kal) ; "DS to be pale., "c;.3 to draw near. ~r.J to be poured out. have 
their futures in the Kal but their preterites in the Niphal; rc^ to add has 
both a Kal and a Hiphii preterite, which are synonymous, but only a 
Hiphil future. Again, in b'js to separate and t^d to destroy, the Kal has 
yielded to the Hiphil (strictly, to cause separation., destruction), but the 
Niphal is retained as its passive ; |'nn to bathe and p"J to sprinkle, have 
in the active the Kal form and in the passive the Pual. 

(4) All verbs are found in one or more of these species or conjugations, 
but very fe IV in the whole of them. Of the 1.^32 triliterai verbs in the 
Hebrew Bible, 530 appear in some one species only. 360 in two species. 
235 in three. 118 in four, 70 in five, 12 in six, and but 7 in the entire num- 
ber, viz.: ~;33 to cleave asunder, Jitia to uncover, nbn to be sick. ^"V^ to 
know, Vpi to bring forth, "lirs to visit, C!l"i to be high. The number of 
species in which a given verb appears, is sometimes limited by the ne- 
cessity of the case, as when its meaning will not admit of the modifica- 
tioiis denoted by all the species; or by usage, as when certain species are 
dropped as unnecessary, the ideas which they would convoy being ex- 
pressed in another manner; or by the circumstance that in the small vol- 
ume of the Old Testament, examples may not occur of all the species 
which actually were in use. 

b. Instances occur in which the active species, and less frequently the 
passives, derive their meanings not directly from the root, but from some 
noun which has sprung from it. These are called Denominatives. Thus, 
fi^r K. to break the neck (~~i^); "C^' K.. to tithe ("-i; te)i); '\'zh to make 
bricks (nz'zh); rrbj Xi. to be possessed of understanding, or. according to 
others, to be devoid of xinderstanding (-33 heart); '{r>D Pi. to act as priest 
dr!^); 'i?P Pi- io build a nest ("i2); -4T'^ Pu. part, s^j/are (ri-ix /oi<r) ; 
n;3t:^ Pu. almond-shaped, (li^'r); r'^ro Pu. dyed scarlet ("3'iP); ^'^^'n Hi. 
to snow (sVl"): "pTSn Hi. to give ear'{"i<); nsn Hi. to snare (ns); n^-in 
Ho. to be salted (nb?;); inrrn Hith. to make one's self a Jew ("''7'''"'^); 
l2':;sn Hith. to supply one's self icith provision ("i'S). A verbal form may 
occasionally arise even from an adverb. f^N^r?.^ Ni. part, removed far away 
(nxbnj. or an interjection, cn^] Hi. and he stilled (en hush.'). 



Perfect Verbs. 

§ 81. There is one normal standard for the formation of 
these several species and their further inflection, to which all 
verbs conform unless prevented by the character of their 
radicals. There are no anomalous or irregular deviations 



106 " ETYMOLOGY. § 82 

from this standard, such as are found in other languages, for 
which no explanation can be given but the fact of their oc- 
currence. AMiatever deviations do occur result from the 
presence of letters in the root which do not admit of certain 
combinations and forms, and compel the adoption of others 
in their stead. A^erbs are hence distinguished into perfect 
and imperfect. They are styled perfect when their radical 
letters are capable of entering into all those combinations 
and exhibiting all those forms which conformity with the 
standard requires. They are imperfect when the root con- 
tains a weak letter, §7.2, or is otherwise so constituted as 
to lead to a departure from the standard inflections. 

§82. 1. In perfect verbs the Kal is formed by giving 
Pattahh, or more rarely one of its compounds, Tsere or 
Hholem, to the second radical as its essential or characteristic 
vowel, and to the first radical a pretonic Kamets, § G4. 2, 
thus : ^b)? , ^ns , Pi? . 

a. The number of verbs, perfect and imperfect, whose second radical 
has Tsere or Hholem. or as they are technically called middle e and mid- 
dle O; is quite inconsiderable. They are mostly of an intransitive sig- 
nification. 

(1) The following have Tsere, viz. : 

*,J?J to he old. "lis (Isa, 24:20 lir) to be na to die. 

yen to delight. heavy. bs3 to fade, 

"zkn to hew. ^iis to be right. xr:j to thirst. 

nn-J to be clean. Iliib and "cib to put on. hhp^ (Isa. 33:9 b^.p?) '" 

X^:: to be unclean. ^"O trans. or intrans. (Esth. wither. 

"cbr^ to be dry. 1 : b n513 trans.) to N:b to hate. 

^"T^ to fear. fill or be full. bc'r to be brought low. 

(2) The following have Tsere in pause, § 65. 3. a, or as a pretonic vowel, 
§64. 2, before a suffix, but Pattahh in other cases. Such as only occur in 
pause or with suffixes are printed wiih Tsere. 

"fjX to love. h-\^ to be or become bnn to cease. 

cfcx to be guilty. great. ""cn to be leavened. 

pS3 to swell. pl^"^ to cleave to. rpn to be profaned. 

■15a to prevail. '{S^'^ to grow fat. "Dn to lack. 



§ 82 PERFECT VERBS. 107 

isn to blush (Jisiia- c:|3 to be strong. y^'^V ^^ ^^ sated. 

guished from "Sn r'i'i to come upon, to n^'J to rejoice. 

to dig). prosper. nzJ to forget. 

C]?"^ to be weary. 'C~'p^ to be holy. "jDiJ to dwell. 

irn"' to possess. I'^i^i to come near. c:a'J to be desolate. 

CS3 to 6e pleasant. -yn to 6e hungry. J'C'i to /(cur. 

Several others are marked with Tsere in the lexicon of Gesenius. in 
■which that vowel does not occur. 
(3) The following have Hholem : 

n-ijt to shiiie. h'^-; to be able. -H (Ps. 18 : 15 nn ) to 

ffiia to be ashamed. Cp^ to snare. shoot. 

Sir: to be good. br: (;see §86. a) to flow. bS',a (Gen. 43: 14 "'f?^=<^)) 

"IJ"! to dread. *ibp to 6^ small. to be bereaved. 

2. The Niplial is formed by prefixing ? to tlie letters of 
the root ; tlius, ^'^'^^. , wliich by § Gl. 1. becomes ^bipD . 

3. Tlie Piel and Pual are formed by doubling the second 
radical and attaching the appropriate vowels ; thus, bap? , 
bibp. 

4. The Hiphil and Hophal are formed by prefixing n 
with the proper vowels; thus, bi'jjpn, b-jjpn. 

5. The Hithpael is formed by prefixing rn to the con- 
struct infinitive of the Piel ; thus, bD^rn . If the first radi- 
cal be one of the sibilants c , ffi or T2J , the n of the prefixed 
syllable wall be transposed with it, biincn, ^jsnrn, rnnirn. 
If the first radical be si , the ri will be transposed, and in 
addition changed to "J , e. g. ^'^'^'^'^ . If the first radical be 
one of the Unguals T , t: or n , the n will be assimilated or 
united to it by Daghesh-forte, 'p%'^'^ , "inan , D^nn , 

a. In one instance n:i::;"icrrT .Ter. 49:3 n remains before d without 
transposition, which would bring three linguals in close connection, and 
once it is assimilated to d. Eccl. 7: 16 Dpid^, elsewhere crind';'; n is 
likewise assimilated to the sibilant T in ihe only Hithpael form in which 
that letter is the initial of the root ^is-rn Isa. 1 : 16. In one irvstance 
C'pB'nrns Judg. 19:22 n remains without assimilation before 1. The n 
may either be assimilated or not to the initial 3 of two verbs s::3, xiUJ, 
and the initial D of two "^3, "S3. It is assimilated to the S of 0^3. which 
occurs but twice in the Hithpael. to the 3 of 7x3 , which only occurs once, 
and in one instance to 1, viz. c^iii< Isa. 33:10 but naiin^ Dan. 11:36. 



108 ETYMOLOGY. § 83 

h. The seven species may. agreeably to their formation, be reduced to 
three with their derivatives, viz.: 

Active 1. Kal 2. Piel 3. Hiphil 

Passive Pnal Hophal 

Middle Niphal Hithpael 

(1) The prefixed letters of the Niphal and Hithpael 3 and n (with n 
prosthetic. §53. 1. a) are probably in their origin fragmentary pronouns 
signifying self; whether they are referable to "'3N and nrix of the first 
and second persons must be left to conjecture. The idea primarily sug- 
gested is that of perlurming an action upon one's self; but in the Niphal 
usually, and in the Hithpael occasionally, the reflexive signification has, 
as in certain ten:?es of the Greek middle and in the reciprocal verbs of 
some modern language.?, given place to the passive. In the Aranifpan 
the forms with a prefixed rs have not only quite lost their original char- 
acter as reflexives, but have superseded all other passives. 

(2) The idea of causation in the Hiphil and Hophal. if the author may 
venture to offer his own opinion upon this perplexed subject, is not due, 
as in the Indo-European causatives, to the introduction of a syllable 
directly suggesting it. It appears to be primarily another intensive form, 
with which u.^age has ordinarily connected, as it frequently has with the 
Piel, the notion of productive energy or the quickening of an intransitive 
into a transitive. As in the Piel and its derivatives, the idea of intensity 
is suggested by giving a doubled and consequently more intense pronun- 
ciation to the central radical; so in the Hipliil. by a like symbolism, the 
power of the root is augmented by the accession of a new initial syl- 
lable, whether the weak letter n is merely for the sake of pronouncing 
the vowel, which seems likely from the corresponding X in Aramsean and 
Arabic, or is itself significant, in which case it must be of pronominal 
origin, related possibly to Xin of the third person, and having a prepo- 
sitional or intensive force. 

(3) The distinction between active and passive in the intensive and 
causative species is made by the vowels alone, and that in a way perfectly 
simple, and yet as clearly marked as possible. Of the three pure vowels 
i and u oft'er the most striking contrast, and these are severally set in op- 
posite syllables in the forms to be distinguished; i or its cognate e marks 
the second syllable of the actives.?/ or its cognate o the first syllable of the 
passives, the other syllable receiving in every case the simplest and only 
remaining vowel : thus, h^'s.'pr] , bd;? — b::p . 'tw~n . For that a primarily 
belonged to the first syllable of both Piel and Hiphil is apparent from its 
retaining its place throuffhout these species with the exception of the 
preterite, and from its preservation in the cognate languages. 

§>S3. If 't:p to kill be taken as the representative of the 
regiiLar verb, the vaiious species with their sigDitications will 
be as follows, viz. : 



§ 83 PERFECT VERBS. 109 



1. 


Kal 


bt:]5 


to MIL 


2. 


Niphal 


bbp: 


to be killed. 


3. 


Piel 


ifp 


to kill many or to massacre. 


4. 


Pual 


brap 


to he massacred. 


5. 


Hiphil 


'=^H~n 


to cause to kill. 


6. 


Hoplial 


^'^PD 


to be caused to kill. 


7. 


Hithpael 


^^)?'"?'r' 


to kill one's self. 



a. It is in each case the third person masculine singular of the preterite 
which is given above, and the strict signification therefore is lie has killed, 
etc. These being the simplest tbrms of the various species, however, and 
destitute of any sign of tense or person, are commonly used to represent 
the species; and in this sense the proper equivalent is the infinitive, which 
is the form used for designating verbs in English. 

b. The verb 1:U|5 is well fitted for a model, and is now generally so 
employed. The consonants, which compose its root, have no peculiarities 
to interfere with its inflection, it has a signification capable of being car- 
ried through all the species, and as it exists likewise in the cognate lan- 
guages, it offers a good basis for their comparison. It occurs, indeed, but 
three times in the Bible, Job 13:15, 24: J4, Ps. 139:19, and in but one 
species; still the very rarity of its occurrence only restricts it more com- 
pletely to its use as a representative or typical verb. The old Jewish 
model H"S, §76. 2, is objectionable on account of its weak letter S, and 
on account of ihe twofold sound of its initial radical D, which, with its 
Daghesh-lene, might prove perplexing to beginners. 

c. (1) The existence of other and less usual species is a needless as- 
sumption. The Poel, Pilel. Pilpel and the like, are not additional species 
but identical in character and signification with those already named. The 
more copious Arabic, with its nicer shades of distinction, has greatly mul- 
tiplied the number of its species or conjugations, incorporating into its 
standard paradigm forms corresponding to some of these which the He- 
brew only occasionally employs. In the latter language, however, they 
are at the utmost alternate forms substituted in place of the ordinary 
ones, and found for the most part in the imperfect verbs, to the nature of 
whose radicals they owe their peculiarities of structure. When, as is the 
case in a very few instances, there is a double form to a particular species 
in the same verb, usage has mostly created an arbitrary distinction be- 
tween them, e.g. Pi. end lo uproot and b'^'U (o take root; Pi. D^p to 
cause to stand, applied to covenants and oaths, to ratify, and CTiip , in a 
physical sense, to raise up; Hi. n^2n to ca^ise to rest, to set down, and 
n^rn to leave, to let alone. There is no objection to the employment of 
these names as convenient designations of particular modes of formation, 
provided it is understood that they mean nothing more. 

(2) There are very few instances of what may be called compound 
species; thus, Niphal of Pual lSx^J3 Isa. 59; 3, Lani. 4:14, lo be exceed- 



110 " ETYMOLOGY. §• 84 

ii}ely d^ifUeri. slroriffer than the pimplo Xipli;\l -Si: ; Niphal of Hithpael 
!|-.S>; Ezok. 23 : 4S. "Cr: Deut. 21 : S. : -:nr5 Prov. 27 : 15. 

§84. To each of these species belong a preterite and fu- 
ture, two forms of the intiniti\e, an absohite and a construct, 
a pai'ticiple, and, except to the Pual and Hoplial which as 
pure passives cannot express a command, an imperative. The 
Kal lias both an active and a passive participle, one more, con- 
sequently, than the other species. The preterite of each 
species is the form already described, §83. The remaining 
parts are formed in the following manner, viz. : 

1 . The absolute infinitive is formed by changing the last 
vowel in liipliil and llophal to Tsere, and in each of the 
other species to Hholem, obsen^ing likewise that Hhirik in 
the penult of Piel and Iliphil is to be changed to Pattahh. 
(See Paradigm of the Perfect Verb.) This rule gives to 
\iphal the iiitinitive """-;p: , which form actually occurs, §91.5. 
If. however, the original Sh'va be suffered to remain after 
tlio prolixcd :. §S.C. .0. thus, ''"^T- , a prosthetic " will be re- 
quired in order to its pronunciation, §53. 1. a, after which 2 
will be assimilated to the following letter, § 54. '2, and a pre- 
tonic Kamets, §G4. 2, added to the p in order to give full 
effect to the reduplication ; thus '^i^P , which is the form 
written in the paradigm. 

.0. The construct infinitive is formed from the absolute 
in the Kal by rejecting the pretonic Kamets, §8.:2. 1, in 
Xiphal by changing the last vowel to Tsere, and in the re- 
maining species by making the last vowel conform to the 
corresponding vowel of the preterite. 

3. The future is formed from the construct infinitive by 
the appropriate personal prefixes ; if the first letter of the 
infinitive be n, it is rejected, § 53. 3, and its vowel given to 
the prefix. 

a. (1) Some verbs take Pattahh in the last syllable of the Kal future 
instead of the Hholem of the construct infinitive. This is particularly the 
case with intransitive verbs. Such as have Tsere in the preterite regu- 



^84 



PERFECT VERBS. 



Ill 



larly take Pattalih in llio fnturft; of tlie list given §82. I.a. (!) and (2) 
but tliree z^n, bij, )h'V take Hliolem, and two "j'Dn and oaia take indif- 
ferently Hlioleni or Pattalih. Of verbs with middle in tiie preterite 
three Mj, 'b^ and ^sd take Pattahh in the future; the rest either do not 
occur in the future, or have imperfect letters in their root which obscure 
their true l()rmation. 

(2) The following verbs witli Pattahh in the preterite have Pattahh 
likewise in the Kal future. Those which do not occur in the Kal preterite, 
or occur only in fbrms which do not reveal the character of the vowel fol- 
lowing the second radical, are distinguished by an asterisk. Verbs having 
a Pattahh in the future, which is due to imperfect letters in the root, (e. g. 
Pe Yodh, Ayin Guttural, Laniedh Guttural), are not included in this list. 



P^X lo ninnrn. 
*rip5< to luarn. 
* y^ii to be strong. 
*~:x to be angry. 
*i5fi to become vain. 
pin to he strong. 
rsii to be wise. 
~^n to he dark. 
*bD3 to I)e foolish. 
'^'cb to learn. 
pris to he siceei. 



yz"^ to lie down. 
T;n to rage or tremble. 
* Z'C~\ to be wet. 
-31 to ride. 



lUJj to come near. 
bda (intrans.) lo fall 

off. 
* "r3 to he poured. 

pbo {<^SQ).h.) to ascend. *TEn to spread. 

•|Uis to smoke. * -pi to rot. 

*pry to he removed. 32'iJ to lie down. 

*pis to he righteons. 'dS^ to rule. 

>bp to be lightly es- * cVr to be complete, 

teemed. ^)'0'ii to groivfat. 
*-ii;p to be attentive. 



(:^) The following with Pattahh in the preterite have both Pattahh and 
Hholem in the future. 



r\iu: to bite. 
bjQ to do. 



153 to deal treacher- C^sn to be hot. 

onshj. "in to he gracious. 

in fut. o. to tear., fut. *u;in jbt. o, to ])lough, i:U.'0 lo st/'i/i off. 

a, lo resolve. i'ut.a,tohesilent. cop lo use divination. 



T\^T} (mostly fut. e) logo, t,^'^:^ to tear. 
t"T to curse. ik^ to form, 

*'C'ZT\ to hind. hv'O to trespass. 

♦irbn fut. 0, to srdjdue, ii3 to fee. 
fut. a, to he weak. 113 lo vow. 



iSp fut.(5,^>c?<<o^fut. 
a, to be short. 

nsyj to rest. 

crn to he finished. 



b. Some imperfect verbs, chiefly Pe Yodh, take Tsere in the second 
syllable of the Kal future, e.g. 3ir7_, 'jP^ . 

4. The imperative lias the same form with the construct 
infinitive except in Iliphil, where the last vowel is Tsere as 
in the infinitive absolute. 



112 " ETYMOLOGY. §85 

a. Where the Kal future has Patlahh or Tsere the imperative takes 
the same. 

5. The Kal active participle takes the form '"i? and the 
passive '"^p. The participle of the Niphal lengthens the 
last vowel of the preterite from Pattahh to Kamets ; those 
of the other species are formed by prefixing "n to the con- 
struct infinitive, rejecting n where this is the initial letter, 
§ 53. 3, and lengthening the last vowel where this is short. 

§85. 1. The preterite and futm^e are inflected through 
three persons, the imperative only in the second person, a 
command presupposing the form of direct address. There 
are also distinct forms for the singular and plural numbers 
and for tlie masculine and feminine genders. Verbal inflec- 
tions are made by means of pronominal fragments added to 
the end of the preterite and imperative, and for the most part 
prefixed to the future. 

a. The following are the fragments used for this purpose in the various 
parts of the verb : 

Preterite Ci^). 

(1) Singular. 2rd pers. masc. The third person alone has no per- 
sonal ending in any of its forms; as each of the others has such a termi- 
nation, none was needed for the sake of distinction. Nothing more was 
required than to indicate the gender and number. The masculine singu- 
lar is expressed by the simple form of the species with no appended sign 
whatever. 

3 fern. The original feminine termination is n_, which, appended to 
the masculine, would give r?-j;r. a form used before suffixes, §101.1. in 
Lamedh He verbs and occasionally elsewhere, §86.6. Commonly, how- 
ever, in verbs as in nouns and adjectives, the final n is dropped, §55. 2. c, 
and the previous vowel, which thus comes to stand in a simple syllable, is 
lengthened, ""'"pri^- 

2 77iasc. The appended n is derived from npx. 

2fem. n from rix . 

1 com. "'T} changed from '^'3 of "rbs ; compare the similar relation of 
the suffixes T] . C3 to the pronouns nnx , crx §72. The Ethiopic retains 
the k unaltered, katalku. 



^85 PERFECT VERBS. 113 

Pldral. 3 com. The original plural termination §71. b. (2) is a nasal 
d or 1 preceded by the vowel 1 . The full ending ')1 is still found in a 
very ihw instances, §86.6, generally the *) is dropped, §55. 2. a. 

2 masc. ctn from CP.S< . 
2 fern, in from )hi<. 

1 com. 13 from t3J< . 

Future (Tin^). 

(2) Singular. 3rd pers. masc. The prefixed '' is from Nin ; the 
vowel u, which distinguishes the masculine pronoun, is changed to the 
corresponding semivowel 1, and this at tlie beginning of words becomes '', 
§56.2. 

3 fern, ri, the sign of the feminine, is here prefixed. 

2 masc. andfevi. The prefixed n is from "nx, "Fix, from the latter 
of which is derived the appended "> . of the feminine. 

1. com. The prefixed N is from i:x . 

Plural. 3 masc. and 2 masc. The same plural termination as in the 
preterite is appended to the corresponding singular forms. 

3 fern, and 2 fern. The feminine plural is. as in the pronouns nrn , 
Mjns, denoted by ns appended to the singular, the 2 fern. sing, termina- 
tion "'. being dropped as superfluous. 

1 com. The prefixed 3 is from !i:x . 

Imperative (''*^22), etc. 

(3) No designation of the person is here necessary as the second is the 
only one in use. Gender and number are indicated by the same termina- 
tions as in the corresponding person of the future. The future forms will, 
in fact, in every case directly yield those of the imperative by rejectino- 
the prefixed n , the sign of the second person, and restoring the n in 
those cases inf which it has been suppressed. 

(4) The Infinitive {'ip'^ fountain^ whence other forms are derived) is 
an abstract verbal noun commonly masculine, but sometimes with a femi- 
nine termination. 

(5) The Participle (■'Ji's'^a intermediate between the preterite and the 
future) shares the inflections of nouns and adjectives. 

2. The inflections of the perfect verb in all the species 
are shown by the paradigm of ^'Jp upon the next page. 



Paradigm op 






KAL. 


NIPIIAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


Pret. 


3 m. 


its 


^^P? 


^t2p 


^^P. 




3/. 




1 i^'l^I>^ 
T : ': ' 


nbiip 


nbtop 




2 m. 


r.btp 


rbi:^? 


^^^P 


nbibp 




2/ 


^"r^P 


nb-jp: 


rib"jp 


^r^P 




1 c. 


T^^t:i^ 


"J!^rt:pp 


T'r^P 


^pb^p 


Plur. 


3 c. 


!i3i:p 


^-tfp? 


^ibt^p 


^btfp 




2 m. 


Dr)bt:p 


C)Pbt:p; 


Drbt^p 


l^nb-^p 




2/ 


"fe'r^p 


l^r'^P? 


V'l^i^ 


l^^^R 




1 c. 


: — 'r 


^^'^^P? 


^-r^P 


^-r^P 


Infin. 


absol. 


bit:;^ 


biijsri 


btop 


% 




constr. 


bibp 




^^P 


(^^1?) 


FUT. 


3 HI. 


v^^, 
■^ i"^. 


^^pr 


btsp' 


%<: 




3/ 


bi-pri 


>t?pn 


-fepP 


b^pn 




2 m. 


b'ipn 


'^^p^ 


btspin 


btapn 




2/ 


"bt:pr, 


"bp]5n 


^bt2pri 


^pippn 




1 c. 


^i^P^? 


'^P^ 


-tipwst 


^^p!^ 


Plur. 


3 m. 


^-PP: 


^'^^Px^ 


^^tfp' 


•'^^p: 




3/ 


nibiipn 

T : ': • 


rubbpn 

T : ■• )r • 


ri:bt2pn 

X : -1— : 


nrb^pn 




2 ?u. 


^bcipn 


^br:pri 


iibtfpn 


^ibtspn 




2/ 


^rbtipn 


nrbtpn 

T : •• Ix • 




^,-^ppi 




1 f. 


^iip: 


bppp 


'^b<?E? 


bibpD 


Imper. 


2 ?n. 


bt:f5 


-^pn 


ifer. 






2/ 


"bi:p 




^bi:p 




Plur. 


2 m. 


^-PP 


^bt:pn 

: IrX • 


^^P 


wanting 




2/ 


nrbrip 


X ; •■ Ir • 


-x-H:p 




Part. 


act. 


^i?P 




^^P? 






pass. 


b^t:|5 


^^P? 




btsp-^ 



114 



Perfect Verbs. 



iiiTHPAEL. KAL (jTiid. e). KAL {mid. o). 



rbt:pn 

T ; —': • 

ribt:pri 
•ribtbpn 

b-'tbpn 



>*up3n 

''b^ibpn 

b-tps 

^Vibp-_ 

M:bt:pn 

T : ■••: — 

^ib^tppn 
^'PP^ 



'r^^Pu 
^b-tbpri 
r)jbt2pji 



bi:pn 
r.bt:pn 

}-Uj 

^nbtbpn 

-^br:pn 

Dribrpn 

inbiip^ 



tb::p- 



bDprn 



V : —I; T 

n 



nbisprn 
rb^prn 
rb^i:nr7 

^b'i2pnn 
nnb'uprn 

^Dbtrpnn 






bi:pn 
^bt:pn 

• : ': T 

btbp^^ 

— ': T 

iibi:D^ 



--J.^.,- 



i::t:pn 
r;:bi:pn 

T : —1; T 

bt2p: 



wantinor 



^^r? 



(btipnr;) 



btjprn 
^bioprn 

^fepr^ 
^bt:pr,- 



t:pn r;:5t2P 



^btfpnri 
btipr] 



. ::btDprn 



T ; • * '— 



bt:pn7j 



T : IT 
• ; — T 



T 






T ; — ; 



bi-oj 

T 

nbi'tz: 

■^ : FT 

nbiir 

T : T 

rbbu: 



• : T 



(Dnb^TT) 



biiii: 

T 

b'iiz: 



b|i^^ 
b:btri 
btoiri 

biirsj? 

nrbstP 



n^bsirn 

r ; — ; • 



115 



116 ETYMOLOGY. §86 

a. In order to a better understanding of the preceding paradigm, it 
should be observed that certain changes result from attaching the per- 
sonal inflections to the verb, which are to be explained by the general 
laws of sounds and syllables. 

(1) The prefixes of the future occasion no changes unless they stand 
before n which is rejected, and its vowel given to the prefix, §53. 3, e. g. 
^iLJp"^ for bapli";!, or stand before a vovveliess letter when tlie Sli'va of the 
prefix becomes Hhirik. §61. 1. thus forming a new syllable to which the 
initial radical is attached, e. g. ^ii^!' for -tsp'^. Where X of the first per- 
son singular would receive Hhirik, it takes the diphthongal Seghol in- 
stead, §60. La (5), 6. g. bi:p^x. V^y>^^. 

(2) Terminations consisting of a vowel, viz.. n^ and "^ . of the femi- 
nine singular and ^ of the plural, occasion the rejection of the vowel in 
the ultimate. §66. 2, which is no longer needed, except in the Hiphil whose 
long ^ . is retained in the preterite and future, and takes the place of ( ) 
in the imperative, e.g. '^'^^i', "^^"P but nb-^ispn . In the Kal impera- 
tive the rejection takes place although it creates a necessity for the forma- 
tion of a new syllable, ■'"^:2F?. =i^P for ■'^:?p, li-jp from bi:p,§61. 1. 

(3) Terminations consisting of a consonant fi or of a simple syllable 
Pi. ^n. "3. MS occasion no change, except the compression of the antece- 
dent vowel, which now stands before two consonants, to (.) in the preterite, 
and from "^ . to (__) in the future, nbbjrn , nsbapR , §61.4. But verbs 
with middle o retain the Hholem in the Kal preterite, "^P^js^ . 

(4) Terminations consisting of a mixed syllable cn. ",P) occasion the 
same compression of the vowel of the ultimate, and inasmuch as they 
always receive the accent, §33.3, they likewise cause the rejection from 
the penult of the Kal preterite of the pretonic Kamets. which owes its ex- 
istence to the proximity of the tone syllable, §82. 1, cn^t^jr" from ^i?]^. 



Remarks on the Perfect Verbs. 



§86. o. Preterite. Verbs with middle Tsere exchange this for Pat- 
tahh upon the accession of a personal affix beginning with a consonant. 
Those with middle Hholem retain this vowel, unless it be deprived of the 
accent when it is shortened to Kamets Hhatuph. Pi'":V ■'ri"i:i;j , ""thz-^^ 
jhbz'i'i , vpibs'^ . The second vowel, whatever it he, is regularly dropped 
before affixes beginning with a vowel, but here, as elsewhere throughout 
the paradigm, is restored and if need be lengthened on the reception of a 
pause accent, e.g. ^"^pS, tn^tn, li-|! . The words >lbn .Tudg. 5:5, 
n^ya Isa. 63:19, 64: 2" are by^Kimchi, Mikhol fol. 5, regarded as Kal 
preterites from hti Jiowed, in which case the second must be added to the 
list of forms with Daghesh-forte emphatic. §24. c, by Gesenius as Niphal 
preterites from bbj shook, comp. 1^)^33 Gen. 11:7, 'i-Th; Am. 3:11 from 
ii^a, TT3. 



^87 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 117 

b. Sing. 3 fern. The old form with n is found constantly in Lamedh 
He verbs, occasionally in Lamedh Aleph, and in two instances besides, 
rbTN Deut. 32 : 36 (with the accent on the penult because of a following 
moii'osylhtbie. §35. 1.), and rzv Ezek. 46: 17 from rid. The vowel letter 
K is once written in place ol n , Nnra Ezek. 31 : 5 K^thibh, § 11. 1. a. 

2 mai^c. The vowel letter n is sometimes appended as in the pro- 
noun nr.x ti"om which liie termination is taken. nri"i:.2 Mai. 2 : 14. nn::rd 
Jer. 17:4; so in other species besides Kal, nriscr; Gen. 31 : 30. nn:.""^^ 
Job 3S : 12 KHIiibh, i^nr^l-j Ps. 73 : 27. In the last example the n of the 
root is united by Daghesh-forte with the n of the personal affix ; this 
union regularly occurs between roots ending with n and affixes beginning 
with the same letter "'rni:^: Job 23:17. narn Ps. 89:45, "Tiarn Isa. 
16:10. cnnrn Ex. 5:5. nn^ Ezek. 2S:'s. '"ni? Gen. 19:19, -^nnrinT 
Jer. 49:37. 

2 fern. The full termination "'Fi of "^PN is frequently added in Jere- 
miah and Ezekiel and occasionally elsewhere, ''n'lij Ezek. 16:22, and 
repeatedly in the same chapter. "'riT]^ Ruth 3 : 3 ; so in other species 
Ti'^i^ Jer. 3 : 5, "'nnab Jer. 13 : 21. 'See also Jer. 4 : 19, 22 : 23, 46 : 11. 

1 com. The vowel letter "^ i.s, contrary to the ordinary rule, §11. 1. a, 
omitted in four instances in the K'thibh, though it is supplied by the K'ri, 
tns'i; Ps. 140 : 13. Job 42 : 2. n-^ia 1 Kin. 8 : 48, n-'b? Ezek. 16 : 59, 

Plur. Scum. The full ending "I only occurs in )^v~]'^^ Deut. S : 3, 16 
'iipa Isa. 26:16, and ivrp-i Isa. 29:21 irom "-^-p; , tlie restoration of the 
Hholem before the pause accent causing the rejection of the Kamets, 
which is a pretonic vowel and can only remain in the immediate vicinity 
of the accent; the form is thus sufficiently explained without the neces- 
sity of assuming it to be the future of a verb dip which nowhere else 
occurs. An otiant X, § 16. 1. is twice added to this person, as is regularly 
the case in Arabic, Xiibn Josh. 10:24. X^ix Isa. 28: 12. The forms of 
similar appearance X^lij Ps. 139 : 20, n^'b^'] Jer. 10 : 5. are in reality of 
dilTcrent character as the X is in these a radical, whose vowel has been 
shifted to the preceding letter, §57. 2. (3). The occasional onnssion of the 
vowel letter 1 from the K'thibh, e.g. "i^x 1 Sam. 13: 19. ^3p Esth.9:27, 
nisd Deut. 21:7. r\'-^r\ Josh. 18:12\'l4. 19 indicates a' difference of 
reading. The words of the text are in the singular, and require the 
pointing "isx etc. i^=sd etc.; the K'ri has substituted l^^x. ^isd etc. 
lor the sake of a more exact concord of the verbs with their subjects, §48. 

2 masc. and fern. There is no example of a verb middle o in the 
second person plural ; the forms in the paradigm are inferred from 
analogy, to indicate which they are enclosed in parentheses. In njrirb'rn 
Am. 4:3, n^ is added to the 2 fern, as to the corresponding pronoun. 

§87. Infinitive. The Hholem of the construct is usually written with- 
out 1, "1^2 Isa. 3 5 : 1, though not invariably, liJd and "'id. d33 and d'is, 
and before Makkeph is shortened to Kamets Hhatuph. §64. 1, "CDp Ezek. 
21 :26. 28. 34. The Hholem of the absolute infinitive is usually though 



118 ' ETYMOLOGY. §88 

not invariably written with 1. e. g. TiJa Isa. 48 : S but --"J Lev. 15:24, 
and is immutable. The construct infinitive has Pattahh in place of Hho- 
leni in 2ZO 1 Kin. 1 : 21 et passim and bs'i Eccles. 12 :4. The feminine 
form of liie construct infinitive occurs repeatedly in imperfect though it is 
of rare occurrence in perfect verbs, e. g. ^j^"'^ Deut. 11 : 22. 30 : 20, Jo.^h. 
22:5, r\ity3, rtzn^ii, nx-j% nix^ Jer. 31 ;'l2' n^rn Ezek. 16:5, nx-::: 
Lev. 15 : 32. In Pe Yodh and Luniedh He verbs the feminine is the cus- 
tomary form. 

§88. F0TDRE. 3 masc. The Hholem is commonly written without Vav, 
though often with it Tj"' w' , in:^ and sins^, and before Makkeph is 
shortened to Kamets Hhaluph. §64. 1. Ti'^^";' Isa. 32: 1. the Vav being in 
such cases rejected by the K'ri if found in the K'tliibh.e. g.~"rirN Hos. 
8: 12; in 'hiz^"; Josh. 18: 20 the Hholem remains. The vowel of the last 
Byllable is rejected, as is the case throughout the paradigm, upon the recep- 
tion of a vowel affix, §66.2. unless retained or restored by the pause accent, 
§65.2. "-^^T Prov. 8 : 15. 'n^'n Jer. 10 : 12; twice, however, instead of re- 
jection Hiiolem is changed to Shurek iiiiQ^J" Ex. 18 : 26, ■'1^=?n Ruth 2:8. 
A like form appears in the K'thibh. Prov. 4 : 16 ibiir:"' . 

3 fern. The sign of the feminine is in two instances added both at the 
beginning and the end of the verb. viz. : nPNlin Deut. 33:16, 'r,rx'i:ri 
Job 22:21, paragogic n^. being appended to the former, §97. 1, and a 
pronominal suffix to the latter. A like duplication of the sign of the 
second person feminine occurs in rx;n 1 Sam. 25:34 K'ri, where the 
K'thibh has the fuller ending "^rw^^n . 

2 fern. "] is sometimes added to the long vowel with which this person 
ends "jr^'itn Ruth 2:8, "ri?.n Ruth 3: 4. -'-Smi-n 1 Sam. 1: 14. Occa- 
sionally the feminine ending is omitted and the masculine form used in- 
stead, e. g. "r'~rn Isa. 57 : 8. 

1 co7n. 'phii Ps. 139: 8. though by some grammarians referred to pcj , 
is probably for p^px from pbo. tlie liquid h being excluded, and Daghesh- 
forte conservative inserted in the previous letter. §53. 3. 

Plur. 2 masc. and 3 masc. The full plural termination "t is o? more 
frequent occurrence here than in the preterite, the vowel of the second 
radical being either retained or rejected, ■i!i"ii;p7 Ruth 2 : 9. "jiiX'ri Josh. 
24: lo. •v^i'rni Ex. 9:29, 'yi^^t'; Josh. 4:6, "("^jipb^, •y{bz-C'^_ Ps. 104:28, 
'iSr-; 1 Sam.' 2 : 22. Josh. 2 : s' -i^n^rn Deut. 1 T: 22, T^XPi Jer. 21:3; so 
in other species. '^^zr-S") Job 19:23.' isiss;?-! Job 2 1 : 24, V'^^'nn Gen. 32:20 
and 'i^nsnn Ps. 58:2' '^e;5=r 2 Kin.*6ri9. ^'f-Sn Mic.'2':8, :i!i^^3r7 
Job 9:6. It is chiefly found at the end of a clause or verse, the pausal 
emphasis delighting in lengthened forms, or before words beginning Avith 
a weak letter, to separate the final vowel more completely from that of the 
following initial syllable. In the judgment of Nordheimer n!ir"^|"i Isa. 
35 : 1 preserves this ending in a still older form : Ewald thinks the final T 
has been assimilated to the initial J3 of the following word, §55. 1; in all 
probability, however, D is here, as it usually is, the 3 plur. suffix, and it is 



§89 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 119 

properly so rendered in the common English version shall be glad for 
them. 

3 fern. In a very few cases the initial "^ of the masculine form is re- 
tained, the distinction of gender being sufficiently marked by the termina- 
tion nji'i;;: Dan, S : 22. nj^n;; Gen. 30 : 38, n-Ml 1 Sam. 6 : 12 ; or, on 
the other hand, the termination 1 of the masculine is retained, the gender 
being sufficiently indicated by the prefixed T\ . i^rr^'ZT} Jer. 49: 11. inipn 
Ezek. 37 : 7; sometimes the gender is neglected entirely and the masculine 
form used for the feminine, e. g. 'iwiiT^ Hos. 14 : 1. The assumption that 
the 3 feni. phir. is used for the 3 fern. sing, in njS'npn Ex. 1 : 10, Hi'i'ijF} 
Job 17 : 16. n:op-;n Isa. 28 : 3, f^27='i■^l Isa, 27 : 1 1. 'njnSi^^n Judg. 5':"26^ 
is unnecessary; in the first passage n^nbia , the subject of the verb, is 
used in a coilecth'e sense, wa7s shall occur; the others are to be similarly 
explained with the exception of the last, where n: maybe the suffix with 
JNun epenthetic in place of the more usual Ibrm nsnbtTn her hwid — she 
puts it forth. Comp. Obad. ver. 13. 

2 and 3 fern. The vowel letter n is occasionally in the Pentateuch, 
and more rarely in other books, omitted from the termination rij . particu- 
larly when there are other vowel letters in the word. ^T^nzn^ Gen. 27 : 1, 
;iJ<i:ri Gen. 30:38, /I'r^.F?] Gen. 33:6, ^pijn Ezek. ^3 : 20, ^rSlR nine 
times in the Pentateuch, three times in Ezekiel, and once in 1 Samuel. 

When the root of the verb ends with "i this is united by Daghesh-forte 
with the affix nj. §25. npan Ezek. 17:23. i^riipn Ezek. 32 : 16. or with- 
out Daghesh, njiirn Ruth 1 : iS. Jnj^csn Isa. 60:4. rijsnn Ps. 71 :23 in most 
editions. So in the lem. plur. imperative, l^ijxn Gen. 4 : 23. 

§S9. Imperative. Sing. muse. The Hholem of the last syllable, as in 
the future and infinitive construct, is mostly written without 1, e. g.'ipS , 
yet not always, T|3'J and TpStti ; before Makkeph it is shortened to Kamets 
Hhatuph "~5^ Judg, 9: 14. It may perhaps be similarly shortened with- 
out Makkeph in "ISO Judg. 19 : 5, comp. ver. 8. §19. 2. a, or the vowel may 
be Kamets lengthened from Pattahh by the accent, which does occur, 
though rarely, with conjunctives. §65. 3, 6. 

Fern. sing, and masc. plur. The vowel of the first syllable is com- 
monly Hhirik, but under the influence of the rejected Hholem it is occa- 
sionally Kamets Hhatuph, §61.1, ^zh^ Judg. 9:10. sibupia Ezek. 32:20 
(but rrr-: Ex. 12:21, lor the Methegh see §45.2), "'fts Zeph. 3:14, 
"^n-^P Mic. 1 : 16. and (with "i retained in the K'thibh) ^"C'Qp^ 1 Sam. 28: 8, 
Judg. 9: 12. Upon the restoration of the original vowel by the pause ac- 
cent, the vowel under the first radical is dropped as no longer necessary, 
iia&y Zech. 7 : 9, ^ntS Nah. 2 ;9. When the third radical is an aspirate 
it rarely receives Dagesh-Iene in this mood though preceded by Sh'va, 
§22. a. (l); such cases as ^C'i'n Isa. 47:2, ""CpX Jer. 10:17, are excep- 
tional. 

Fern. plur. The final vowel n^ is dropped in' ■)?5:'i!J Gen. 4 : 23. §90; 
occasionally n is not written though the vowel remains. jXSTS Ruth. 1 : 9. 



l.CO ETYMOLOGY. §00 

§90. Participles. Actire. Tlie Hholein of the first syllable is written in- 
ditTerently with or without Vav. nii and 'isia, mostly without when addi- 
tions are made to the word. In "-jr!;^ Prov. 25: 19 Shurek is substituted 
for Hholem, unless, as Ewald suggests, it is a Pual participle with 73 
omitted ; or, as others propose, it is to be taken as an abstract noun. The 
Tsere of the second syllable is v.-ritten without "^ except -'zb 2 Kin. 8:21 ; 
it is shortened to Seghol in -'5"n Isa. 41 : 7, upon the recession of the ac- 
cent. Ti'^'n Ps. IG : 5 and rcii Isa. 29 : 14, 3S : 5. Eccles. 1 : IS. have been 
improperly regarded as participles with Hhirik in place of Tsere. The 
former is the Hiph. fut. of the verb T|'?"' , which is found in Arabic though 
it occurs only in this place in Hebrew, and means thou wilt enlarge; the 
latter is the ordinary Hiphil future ofr,D"^, and the construction is ellip- 
tical. I {^am he who) will add, see Dr. Alexander's Commentaries. Partici- 
ples are rarely formed from neuter verbs, yet ''^Z^ fading, cri desolate, 
verbal adjectives of the same form with the preterites middle e and 
being mostly used instead. a'j'O full, "ij^T old, ~5^ afraid. 

Passive. This, in the few cases in which it is in use in intransi- 
tive verbs, has the sense of the active, UJnb and "C'zb wearing, 'zb and 
"!l3'r dwelling, n!i::2 trusting ; there are occasional instances of the same 
thing in transitive verbs, ~i"ZT remembering, Tnnx holding. The last 
vowel is with few exceptions as c^3 Deut. 32 : 34, cr'dj. ex: written 
with Vav. 

There are a very few instances in which participles appear to be in- 
flected in the different persons by means of the terminations proper to the 
preterite. This, aUhough common in Chaldee and Sj-riac. occurs in He- 
brew only in the following examples : 

2 fern. sing. Finp"' Gen. 16 : 11. Judg. 13 : 5. 7 ; and with the fuller end- 
ing ^Pir'^Ji, •'ririjr'a Jer. 22 :23. "n^i- Jer. 51 : 13. The punctuators must 
have regarded these terminations as personal inflections, because the 
simple form of the feminine participle and that which it always has when 
joined with a noun of the third person, is r""?"' Gen. 17:19, and w^ith "^ 
paragogic in the K'thibh T.^ii Ezek. 27 : 3. 

2 masc. phir. cn'innr^ Ezek. S : 16. the Hithpael participle of nn'd. 
There is, it is true, an abruptness and difficulty in the construction, they, 
ye were worshipping, which can only be explained upon the assumption 
that after describing these bold transgressors in the third person. Ezekiel 
turns to them and directly addresses them in the second, or that his mean- 
ing is, not only they but ye too (the people) were worshipping in these 
your representatives. But in view of the frequent and sudden changes of 
person found in the prophets, and the unusual forms and bold constructions 
which abound in Ezekiel. almost any explanation seems preferable to an 
unauthorized change of the text, with most modern interpreters, to the 
ordinary plural CinrTTTa which is contained in a very few manuscripts, 
but not enough to overcome the presumption in Hivor of the more difficult 
reading; or the supposition of a mongrel word compounded of the two 
roots nn'i" to icors/n'p, and "Tj-r to corrupt, in order to suggest the idea of 
a corrupt or corrupting service. 



§ 91 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 121 

3 j)lur. ; ''51^b|rti they are ciirsivg me, Jer. 15:10. Kimchi explains 
this word as a compound of the roots b^;? to curse, and nbi:? to treat as 
vile; Gesenius, as a confusing of two distinct readings, the participle 
''^^hp^'O and the preterite "'rilibp; and Ewald changes the text to "'r?^"?^'?, 
though his conjecture is unsustained by a single manuscript, and Nun 
epenthetic never occurs with participles. The suggestion is here offered 
that the letters of the word may be regarded as the plural of the partici- 
ple inflected after the manner of the preterite, with the added suffix, so 
that the proper pointing would be "'Dflpp^ri ; the punctuators, however, have 
60ught here, as not infrequently elsewhere, §48. to establish a more exact 
agreement between the participle and its subject n'^3 by pointing the 
former as a singular, whereupon the Vav must be looked upon as epen- 
thetic or superfluous, : "'?';^^k^ as if for ! "'2^^^^ . In fact, a few manu- 
scripts omit the Vav. wliile others remark that it is superfluous; the 
weight of authority is certainly in favor of retaining it, though the other 
reading may be accepted as an explanatory gloss. 



§91. a. Preterite Sing. 3 masc. Some copies have S-"^?? Jer. 50:23 
with Seghol under the prefixed Nun ibr "'^S?. 

6. Infinitive. The following may be mentioned as examples of the 
shorter form of the absolute qbsD Gen. 31 : 30, cnbs Judg. 11 :25. n?:; 1 Sam. 
2:27, X'^P? 2 Sam. 1:6; of the longer form given in the paradigm "(hsn 
Jer. 32 : 4, which once appears with prosthetic X in place of n Ezek. 14 : 3 
It'n'nx, §53. 1. a. The construct infinitive usually has Tsere T|E^"n Ezek. 
16: 36; but is in one instance ri:i7 Ps. 68 : 3. formed as in Kal by rejecting 
the pretonic Kamets from the absolute. There are a few examples of the 
construct form used for the absolute ipsn 1 Kin. 20 : 39, "i'cytn Deut. 
4:26. The prosthetic n is commonly retained after prefixed prepositions 
*ij?Qr.b which are less closely connected with the word than the formative 
prefixes of the future; it is, however, rejected in 'i>'-;^32 Prov. 24:17, 
comp. cy-rsna Dan. 11 : 34. The Tsere of the last syllable of the con- 
struct infinitive, as well as of the future and imperative which are formed 
from it. is shortened to Seghol upon losing its accent, "Tisn Job 34:22, 
BPi^n Judg. 9:38, 1=,^": Eccles. 7:26, rarely to Pattahh, 3]rn Job 18:4. 
In the Imperative I'^.Ti'n the form with Seghol is the usual one, that with 
Tsere only occurring in Isa. 7:4. The pretonic Kamets of this species is 
singular in not being liable to rejection on the shifting of the tone, e. g. 
^?~lr^^ Ezek. 21 : 29, 'I'ln-^S^ Ps.37 : 9, 

c. Future Sing. 1 com. The prefixed N occasionally has Hhirik, 
asCN Ezek. 20:36, 1 Sam. 12:7, cn'nx Ezek. 14:3, irnzsx Ex. 14:4,17. 

Plur. fern. Tsere rarely remains in the second sj-Ilable i^J^^P! Ruth 
1: 13, being, as in the Piel preterite, commonly changed to Pattahli before 
the concurring consonants. n:52xn Jer. 24:2. so with a pause accent, 
n;::^-n Isa. 13: 16 K'ri. ZechVl4:'2 K'ri, njpp.-jn Isa. 28: 3; the first, as 
the original form, is, however, placed in the paradigm. 



122 ETYMOLOGY. §92 

d. Imperative. Ewald regards *is3ir3 Isa. 43:9, Joel 4:11. ^nb: Jer. 
50 : 5, as imperatives without the usual n prosthetic ; but this assumption 
is needless, for they can readily be explained as preterites. 

e. Participle. In 1 Sam. 15:9 •^J^'S? co?i/e)7!p<i6/e, is in form aNiphal 
participle from the noun HTSia contempt. 



§92. a. The inten.^ive species is usually formed by doubling the 
second radical; in 1=^23 Ezek. 28 : 23, and the passive form ^^rx the 
third radical is doubled instead, an expedient resorted to repeatedly in 
Ayin Vav verbs and occasionally in Ayin guttural. In "^JWrsiJ Ps. 88 : 17 
both radicals are doubled; the entire second syllable is repeated in "in-irD 
Ps. 38:11, ^inri-iTan Lam. 2: 11, 1:20 a passive Ibrm, as shown by the 
Hhateph-Kamets, "j82. .5. h (3), and in lin-inx Hos. 4:18, provided this 
is to be read as one word, §43. b; if according to the division in the 
Masoretic text, linn is a separate word, it is the imperative of rn^ to give, 
though this is always elsewhere pointed isn . In ^''3^2^ Ps. 45:3, the 
first syllable is repeated, the 6 under the first letter indicating it to be a 
passive form. 

b. Intensity may likewise be denoted without a reduplication by insert- 
ing the long vowel Hholem in the first syllable of the root. This is often 
done in Ayin doubled verbs, but only in the following instances in others, 
pret. •'mi'ii"' 1 Sam. 21:3, TlJniiJ Isa. 40 : 24. sii-ij Ps. 77:18, '^ncjiirJ Isa. 
10:13/?^^ "i^b-: Hos. 13:3. inf. abs. Yj^r^ and inh Isa. 59: 13. inf. const. 
tiodia Am. b:\\,part. '^htib'q Job 9:15. ^3Cib72 Ps. 101:5 K'thibh. 
These are called Poel forms by many grammarians, and those in the pre- 
ceding paragraph Pilel, Pulal. Pealal, etc. They are in reality, however, 
only modified forms of the Piel, whose signification they share. 

c. Preterite Sing. 3 masc. The original Pattahh of the first syllable 
§82. 5. b (3) is preserved in ""VCt-i Gen. 41 : 51. Tlie second syllable has 
Seghol in -Z"^ (in pause -^■^y\_), ^k~. • ^kr. (twice DZ3). Pattahii in 12S. '"M 
(b-nj in pause), pin. ;^3 . la'np, C^d (in pause n^'Vir" Isa. 19: 21), andbctbre 
Makke'ph in ""I53^', ~'^\'^ {' ^|^ ia pause); a appears likewise in the pausal 
form nssp Mic. 1 : 7. The Tsere is always retained in the infinitive con- 
struct and future, and with the exception of :^3 Ps. 55: 10. in the impera- 
tive; though throughout the species it is shortened to Seghol upon losing 
the accent," Tjsap Deut. 30 : 3, '^^p. Ex. 13:2, -c|d^ Deut. 7: 10. 

d. INFI^'ITIVE. The primitive form of the infinitive absolute is of rare 
occurrence, e. g. ^S^ Ps. 118:18, sSj^ 1 Kin. 19: 10, wSqt Ex. 21: 19. "1^ 
Josh. 24: 10. Most commonly it has Tsere in the second syllable like the 
infinitive construct, -I2N Jer. 12: 17, liab Jer. 32:33. "J^? Jer. 39:18, ysp 
Mic. 2 : 12, n^^tJ Ex. 21 : 36; and in one instance it has Hhirik in the first 
syllable like the preterite "fK? 2 Sam. 12 : 14. There is no need of assum- 
ing a similar form for the infinitive construct in ysn Lev. 14: 43, which 
can readily be explained as a jtreterite. T.^ere of the construct is short- 
ened to Segliol before Makkeph, "-^-n Isa. 59: 13, or on the recession of the 



§ 93 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 123 

accent, pHS Gen. 39: 14, 17, and in one instance besides, cnb Judg. 5:8. 
There are a few examples of the construct infinitive with a feminine ter- 
mination, njrs-^ Lev. 26:18, nnST Ps. 147:1, r:=2a Isa. 6:13, riPp'ns 
Ezeis. 16 : 52. 

e. FcTCRE Sing. 1 com. X is commonly prefixed with Hhateph-Pat- 
tahh; it has, however, the diphthongal Hhateph-Seghol in nnix Lev. 
26: 33. §60. 3. 6. and draws to itself the full vowel which has hence arisen 
to a preceding 1 , in cn?^DX" Zech. 7 : 14 for nn?.ox" , § 60. 3. c. 

Plur. 2 and 3 fem. Tsere under the second radical is sometimes 
changed to Pattahh, though not with the same frequency as in the Niphal, 
nrr^"!!^} Isa. 13 : 18, but n:-.i'nri Job 27 : 4, and in pause Prov. 24 : 2. 



§93. a. Of the vowels proper to the first syllable of the passive, 
§82. 5. b (3). Pual ordinarily has u. which is preferred before a doubled 
consonant -"^'O , §61. 5, and Hophal 6 betbre concurrent consonants "liiSn, 
This distinction is not steadfastly adhered to. however, and Pual occasion- 
ally appears with Kamets Hhatuph, r^is Ezek. 16:4, ""J^"^ Nah. 3:7, 
!l^3 Ps. 72: 20. ^S3 Ps. 80: 11, Prov. 24: 31, '?]":="■? Ps. 94: 20, cnx^ passim. 
This seems to furnish the best explanation of the disputed words 'tnanri or 
insnn Ps. 62:4. ■'i^'b:a Ps. 101:5 K'ri. inp^sn Job 20:26. Gesenius re- 
gards these as Piel forms with (.) lengthened to (J on the omission of 
Daght'.«'i forte, §59. aj but the absence of Methegh, which Gesenius in- 
serts without authority, shows the vowel to be not a. Others think that 
Jin^zsPi is the Kal tuture for iin^^xn, the vowel being attracted to the 
guttural from the previous letter. §60. 3. c. There is no difficulty, however, 
in regarding them all as Pual forms, and translating severally viay yon be. 
slain, armed with the tongiie (of a slanderer), shall be wade to consume 
him. In Ps. 62; 4 the reading of Ben Naphtali wa-n is probably to be 
preferred to that of Ben Asher, which is found in the common text; the 
former is a Piel and has an active sense: (how long) uill ye slay or mur- 
der? See Alexander and Delitzsch, in loc. 

b. The vowel « of the first syllable is occasionally written with Vav, 
n^T Ezek. 16:34. : ^bbnn Ps. 78:63. l^'l"' Judg. 18:29, 13:8, Job 5:7, 
Vnx^ Ezek. 27 : 19, but n)ostly without it. 

c. Preterite Sing. 3 wcrsc. An instance of paragogic n_ appended to 
the preterite is tbund in ~E3" Ezek. 31: 15. 

d. Infinitive. The absolute form occurs in -!}• Gen. 40: 15; there is 
no example of the construct. 

e. Participle. As '2DT3, T^t'p^ , l;?'!'?:; in a few instances the initial 
a is omitted, n;?^ 2 Kin.' 2: 10 for n;35T3' , n::^t (with Daghesh-forte 
euphonic) Ezek. '21 : l.^i, 16. C-'t"-:!!-' Eccles. 9:12 for D-'i;;?^^ , §59. a. 
Some of the forms in which this has been alleged, may however be better 
explained as preterites. 



124 " ETYMOLOGY. ^ 94 



HIPHIL. 

§94. a. Preterite. The first vowel is usually Hhirik but occasionally 
Seghol. e.g. dirrin 1 Sam. 25:7. particularly in Pe guttural and a few 
Lamedh He verbs. Once X is prefixed instead of n. : ■^nbxix Isa. 63:3; 
in Isa. 19: 6 iniiixli is not a double Hiphil with both x and n prefixed, 
but is a denonninative from ri;TN , a derivative of n;T. which does not 
indeed occur in its simple form but is justified by the analogy of Sjrx from 
2TD . n takes the place of n in Til^'^ri Hos. 11:3; so likewise the future 
nnnrn Jer. 12:5, and participle rr^nn^a Jer. 22: 15. though the corres- 
ponding preterite is fT^Dv? Neh. 3:20. 

Sing. 3 masc. The I of the second syllable is almost always written 
with Yodh. rarely without it. e. g. i'^^n 1 Sam. 12 : 24. but in every other 
place 1=* "?•! • So i'l the participle npr*: Job 11:3 but w"B:'C Judg. 18 : 7. 

b. Infixitive. Absolute, The Tsere of the second syllable which be- 
fore Makkeph is shortened to Seghol "isn Prov. 24:23. 28:21. is mostly 
written without "^ , thus^nrn, -ifrn . ^£bn . birn. -icri. trip^ri. rsrn, 
T\i-.^, thouffh sometimes with it "T'"?rr! Am. 9:8 hut "i^'^'H Isa. 14:23, 
b-'Sirn and br -n . twice c-'Srn . nine times =r-'n. ~"^i^'"i. "'"■irn . Hhirik 
in this syllable is rare and exceptional. 5"C-;n Ezek. 21 : 31. i*i~!j!! Josh. 
7:7. X is prefixed instead of n in C'srx Jer. 25:3 and Tj'ii^fX Gen. 41:43, 
provided the latter is a Hebrew and not a Coptic word. 

Co7tstnirf. The second vowel is commonly Hhirik written with "^ , 
T^''i'npn. ~""?>^'n rarely and as an exception without "', l^'il'5 Isa. 23:11, 
or with Tsere bn:n Deut. 32:8. "Crb Deut. 26:12, Neh. 10:39, libb 
Dan. 11:35. In a few instances the first vowel is Hhirik as in the 
preterite ^-i^rn Deut. 7:24. 28:48. Josh. 11:14, 1 Kin. 15:29, rhn 
Jer. 50: 34.'R-:--"7n Jer. 51:33. nii-n Lev. 14:43. The initial His 
mostly retained after prefixed prepositions, though it is sometimes rejected, 
as n-i^b Am. 8 : 4 but r^'irnb Ps. 8:3, i^rb once but 'T'i':;nb fifteen 
times. 

c. FuTi'RE Plur. In a very few instances Hhirik is rejected upon the 
addition of the masculine plural termination ^pz"7^2 1 Sam. 14:22. 31:2, 
^^11!] Jer. 9:2. There is no example of this without the presence of 
Vav conversive unless it be "!i~snn Job 19 : 3. which may be regarded 
as Kal. 

d. Imperative Sing. masc. The second syllable usually has Tsere 
without Yodh wp'rn . "brn. and before Makkeph, Seghol ""i^pn Job 
22:21, -Ian 1 Sara. 23:1), "Jan Isa. 64:8. There are a very Jew ex- 
amples with Hhirik in pause. : 5'^S'in Ps. 94 : 1, to which some would add 
X-'kin Isa. 43: 8, but see Alexander, niiw Prov. 19:25, x-'in Jer. 17: 18. 

e. Participle. In SS'ii Ps. 135:7, Tsere is taken in place of Hhirik 
upon the recession of the accent; '"nOT? Isa. 53: 3 is not a participle but a 
noun, Alexander in loc. Hhirik is. in a few exceptional cases occurring in 




§95, 96 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 125 

the later books, rejected in the plural, C^D^n^ Zech. 3:7 for d'^Di^rro, 
D^^bn^ Jer. 29:8, Qi-iT?^ 2 Chron. 28: 23. D^'isnp 1 Chron. 15:24 K'ri, 
2 Cliron. 7:6 K'ri. Comp. Chald. -pibn?? Dan. '3^25. .- 

HO PH AL. 

§95. a. The first vowel, though mostly Kamets Hhatuph T\^p'} . ^^h'z'n^ 
(Tclsiyiri. is occasionally Kibbuts. both vowels even appearing in the same 
verb. :2'r' 
8: 
Lc 
Ezek. 29:18. 

h. Pheterite,. In "^Pi^inn am I obliged to leave? Judg. 9:9, 11. 13, 
the characteristic fi is rejected after n interrogative. 

c. Infinitive. The absolute has Tsere in the second syllable, ^pnn 
Ezek. 16 : 4, ikn Josh. 9 : 24. The construct has Pattahh, ipsiD Ezr. 3:11.' 

d. Imperative. This mood occurs twice, r!33".:3n Ezek. 32 : 19, 13£ii 
Jer. 49 : 8. 

e. Participle. In nisspti^ Ezek. 46:22 n remains after the pre- 
formative 53 . 

HITHPAEL. 

§96. a. Preterite. In two instances J^X is prefixed instead of Pii, 
viz., ""innx 2 Chron. 20 : 35, l^^in'rx Ps. 76 : 6. In the verb ipS Daghesh- 
forte is omitted in the second radical and the previous vowel lengthened, 
§59. a. !in-ern, 'I'ipQn^ Judg. 20: 15, 17, "'l^Qn';' Judg. 21 : 9, in addition 
to which the vowel of the prefixed syllable is 6 in ^nporii Num. 1:47, 
2 : 33, 26: 62, 1 Kin. 20 : 27. In three verbs upon the assimilation of n to 
the first radical, the prefix takes U. §61. 5, '^3^"'I»7 (the accentuation is 
unusual) Isa. 34:6, nxisan Deut. 24 : 4 (but in the future always ^"k'^"] 
Lev. 21 : 1 and repeatedly elsewhere), 033!7 {inf. const.) Lev. 13: 55, £6. 
These are sometimes called Hothpaal and regarded as passives of Hith- 
pael. Where both forms exist in the same verb, however, as in "ipS and 
ttloi; , there appears to be no distinction in their meaning; they seem 
rather to have arisen from a disposition to give to the Hithpael, where it 
has a passive signification, §80. 2, the vowels of a proper passive species, 
§82. 5. h (3). In !ia?.arn Jer. 25: 16, fl^lir^ani Jer. 46:8 (elsewhere ^u:?^^';), 
and '. 7Xbi3 Isa. 52 : 5, prolonged from u, on account of the absence of 
Daghesh-forte, is for a like reason given to the first radical. 

6. The last vowel of the preterite, infinitive construct, future, impera- 
tive and participle, is Tsere written without Yodh, Ti^irinri , ^''nsn^ , 
asan*;, ffl'nprn inf. const., ^is^H imper.. "!23n?3, which before Makkeph 
is shortened' to Seghol, "lU'^prn Isa. 30 : 29,' -"n^nnn Gen. 6 : 9, -c|?n'? 
Job 6 : 16. Frequently, however. Pattahh is used, or, with a pause accent, 
Kamets, "lapnn pret., p-innn pre', ami imper. (but inf. const, and part. 



1-26 ETYMOLOGY. §97 

with e. tut. a and e). '"i'^rrn . C5;rr7, tbpsrp. TTi'-*^?' '-!^""''- •'-,1"?""'! 
:?i"!35PV ri^sssri. nrssr^ Ezek. 27: 30. : -"iis-n Mic. 1 : 10 K'ri. : f'XSa 
Isa. n2 : 5. Pattahh is also sometimes found in the feminine plural of the 
future. n:^'inrri Zech. 6: 7 but nircrwri Lam. 4: 1. where some copies 
have ~;:2r-n. Hhirik orcurs instead of Pattahh in the preterites. 
''^^lr^5^^^ "^-;^;T~~" Ezek. 3S : 23. =rrn;rrn- Lev. 11 : 44. 20 : 7. each of 
which has Vav conversive. throwing the accent more strongly on the final 
syllable. 

c. There is no example of the infinitive absolute. 



Paragogic and Apocopated Future and Imperative. 

§ 97. The paucity of moods in Hebrew is partiallv com- 
pensated by modifications of the future, known as the para- 
gogic and apocopated futures. 

1. The paragogic or cohortative is formed from the ordi- 
nary future by appending the termination n^ to the first person 
singular or phiral. and in a very few instances to the third 
person singular, thus converting it from a simple declaration 
of futiuity to an expression of desire or determination, 
"172CS / s/ial/ keep, "^^^is* / n'iU surehj keep or let me keep, 
Ps. 39 : :2 ; "p:: let m break, "?"?~? let us cast away, Ps. 
~ : 3 ; "^T? let him hasten, Isa. 5 : 19. 

a. The third person of the paragogic future occurs besides the example 
just given, in nx-cn let it come Isa. 5: 19, nsrn he it dark (by some ex- 
plained as a noun, darkness) Job 11 : 17. nri;"*! may he accept (as fat), or, 
according to Kirachi, may he reduce to ashes. Ps. 20 : 4, fii~ri Prov. 1 : 20. 
S : 3. and after Vav conversive riisrri Ezek. 23 : 20. and ver. 16 K'ri. It 
has also been suspected in nn-^p* Lev. 21 : 5 K'thibh. 

b. Instead of n^. n_ is appended in nx-ps; 1 Sam. 2S : 15. niTSn"^ 
Ps. 20 : 4. §63. 1. c ; so in the imperative nr'n or nr'^ Prov. 24 : 14. 

2. The apocopated or jussive future is an abbrenation of 
the second or third persons singular and expresses a wish or 
command, or with a negative, dissuasion or prohibition. In 
the perfect \evh it has a separate form only in the Hiphil 
species, the "'. of the ultimate being changed to („), or before 
Makkeph to (..), p"'i"!) he will cause to cleave, "pkl"^ maj/ he or 
let him cause to cleave ; '*^?t'i! thou icilt understand, "5?pn 



§ 98 PARAGOGIC FUTURE, ETC. 127 

thou mayest understand or understand tJiou, Dan. 9 : 25, 
-jbrp-'rx ma?/ it not or let it not rule^ Ps. 119 : 133. In 
some classes of imperfect verbs, as in the Ayin-Vav and par- 
ticularly the Lamedli-He, it is used in other species still. 

a. The onlv instances of the abbreviated future occurring in the first 
person are pinx Isa. 42:6 and 6t~3 Isa. 41:23 K'thibh, where the K'ri 

has "i?"^?. 

6. The paragooic and apocopated futures may be regarded as mutually 
supplementary, and as forming together something like a complete Opta- 
tive or Subjunctive mood. The apocopated future has. it is true, no sep- 
arate form for the second fern. sing, or the second and third pers. pliir.. in 
which the verb has terminal inflections, but it may be regarded as coin- 
ciding in these with the ordinary future, except that it never has the 
final • . So in those species in which it is indistinguishable from the 
ordinary future, it may yet be regarded as included under it. Neither the 
apocopated nor the paragogic llitures occur in the strictly passive species, 
viz.. the Pual and Hophal. self-determination and command both implying 
that the subject is the originator of the action. The more flexible Arabic 
has three varieties of the future in addition to the ordinary one. to express 
as many modifications or moods. 

c. The apocopated future derives its name from the apocopation of the 
final letter by which it is characterized in Sib verbs; the brevity of its 
form is adapted to the energy and rapid utterance of a command. On 
the other hand, the speaker dwells upon the word expressive of his own 
desire or determination, thus giving rise to the prolonged form of the 
paragogic future. The appended n^ may perhaps be identical with a like 
termination added to nouns to indicate motion or direction, denoting as it 
does the direction of the speaker's will or wishes towards that which the 
verb expresses. 

§98. 1. Paragogic n^ is sometimes appended to the 
masculine singular of the imperative, softening the command 
into an earnest entreaty or expression of strong desire, ^12'^ 
hear (thou), r.^^O oh, hear! or pray, hear! 3^1?^' listen, 
ra"C]:n pray, listen! The addition of this vowel to the im- 
perative and to the future causes, as in the regular inflections 
of the paradigm, § 85. 2. a. (2), the rejection of the vowel of 
the ultnnate syllable, except in the Hiphil where '^. remains 
in the future and is restored in the imperative. In the Kal 
imperative this rejection occasions the concurrence of two 
vowelless consonants, the first of which must accordingly 
tike a short vowel, § Gl. 1 ; if the rejected vowel was Hho- 



128 ETYMOLOGY. §99 

lem this will be Kamets-Hhatuph, otherwise it will be the 
briefest of the vowels, Hhirik, nV:;? , rm Jer. 49 : 11 ; 137, 
nJDT 2 Chron. 6 : 42, nirj , nisic Gen. 39 : 7. 12. 

a. In a few instances the vowel-letter remains in the K'tliibh though 
invariably thrown out in the K'ri, e. g.. ns".~:i KUhibh, "21^ K'ri Ps. 
26:2. n:i:-a K'thibh. nib^: K'ri Judg. 9:8; nb-ipcsi K'tluVh' nH^TTSj 
K'ri Ezr. S : 25; frjiptix' K'thibh. r.hppii K'ri Isa. IS : 4. This may not 
indicate, however, the retention of the full vowel but only of an audible 
remnant of it, § 13. a, which is likewise attested by the occasional appear- 
ance of Hhateph Kamets, -njriri* 1 Kin. 19:20, nrrirxj Dan. 8: 13 (in 
some copies) or Hhateph Pattahh nHi:;':;NT Ezr. 8 : 26, Jer. 32 : 9. and by 
the fact that the resulting Sh'va. even when simple, is always vocal, 
§22. a (1). Occasionally Kamcts-Hhatupii is found in the paragogic im- 
perative when the vowel of the ordinary imperative is Pattahh ; thus, 
znp Lev. 9:7. n:^-i;? Ps. 69: 19. and on the contrary, nnzTS Gen. 25: 31, 
ful. ^'st:^ Ex. 21': 7, nnaD (with Daghesh separative) Ps. 141 : 3. 

2. As the imperative is itself a shortened form there is 
little room for further abbreviation ; it sometimes, however, 
suffers apocopation of the final n^ of the feminine plural, 
pht Gen. 4:23 for 'yjhiD , §G1. 2, ixip Ex. 2:20 for 
nrxnip , § GO. 3. c, and in Lamedh He verbs of final r. of the 
masculine singular, "^jn 2 Kin, G : 18 for Ten Ezek. 6:11, 
ba Ps. 119 : 18 for nsa; qnn Deut. 9 : 14 for nsin Judg. 
11 : 37, but without any evident change of meaning. 



Vav Conversive. 

§99. 1. The primary tenses are supplemented by two 
others, formed in a peculiar manner by Avhat is called Vav 
Co'nversive (tf^sn in). This prefix has the remarkable effect, 
from which its name is derived, of^ converting the ordinary 
future into a preterite and the ordinary preterite into a future. 
The following appear to be the reasons of this singular phe- 
nomenon. Past and future are relative and depend for their 
signification in any given case upon the point of time from 
which they are reckoned. This may be the moment of speak- 
ing, when all anterior to that moment will be past, and all 



§99 VAV CONVERSIVE. 129 

posterior to it future. Or by some conventional method 
understood between the speaker and his hearers, an ideal 
present may be fixed distinct from the real present and the 
measurements of past and future made from the former. 
Now Yav Conversive placed before a future indicates that its 
tense is to be reckoned not from the actual present but from 
the time denoted by some previous word, whether verb, 
noun, or adverb. And when the stand-point is thus taken 
in the past, events may be described as future with reference 
to it, though they have actually taken place at the time of 
narration. Vav is properly the copula and ; when this is 
prefixed to the futm^e for the purpose already designated, it 
is followed by Pattahh and Daghesh-forte, which give to it the 
force of and thenov and so, indicating that what follows is 
the sequel of what precedes. Consequently a narration be- 
gun in the preterite may be continued in the future with Vav 
Conversive, the opening words fixing the initial point from 
which all that come after proceed in regidar succession ; and 
the future so employed is converted into what may be called 
a continuative preterite. Thus, in the account of the crea- 
tion in Gen. 1, the original condition of things is described 
in the preterite, ver. 2, t/te earfk was "Jv;\3 icithout form and 
void. The subsequent scene is then surveyed from this point. 
The next statement is accordingly made by a future with Vav 
Conversive, ver. 3, "i^X'^1 and God said, in its primitive im- 
port, and then God sai/s or will say, his speaking being future 
to the state of things previously described. This fixes a new 
stand-point from which the next step in the process is a fresh 
advance ; it is hence followed by another future with Vav 
Conversive, ver. 4, x-i^in and he saio ; and so on, >"!f3^i and 
he divided, ver. 5, i^ jp'^ ayid he called, etc. 

a. The. nnture of this prefix wonhl he more precisely expressed perhaps 

by cnllirii^ it Vav Consecutive, as Ewald and others propose. But as Vav 

Conversive is the namdin common use. and as this Sufficiently characterizes 

its most striking effect, it is here retained. There have been various con- 

9 



130 ETYMOLOGY. §99 

jectiir^s respecting its origin. In the judgment of some 5 is an abbrevia- 
tion of the verb nin was, hence "i^X'] he was or it xcas (so that) he will 
say i. e. he was about to say or was saying, which is then likened to the 
Arabic combination of the preterite of the substantive verb with the 
future tense to express past action; but "l evidently has the sense of the 
conjunction and. "t:x'] does not mean he said, but and he said. Others 
regard it as an abbreviation of n^ni and he icas ; Evvald of TKi and then. 
RoJiger thinks that the vowel has no inherent significance, but is attached 
to the conjunction on account of tlie emphasis of its peculiar use. Perhaps 
the best suggestion is that of Schultens, 7Ks^i7. p. 424, that I'aX'i maybe for 
"irx^m. by § 53. 3 ; rt prefixed to a noun is the definite article, and points 
it out as one previously known ; its use in this particular case is to define 
the time of the action of the verb before which it stands by pointing it out as 
known from what preceded. The vowel of this prefix is upon this hypothesis 
analogous both in its origin and its effects to the augment e in Greek, or a 
in Sanskrit, by v/hich a preterite is formed from a present or a future, 
TVTTTM, ervTrrov; rvij/ix), ervi/za, and which is traced by Bopp to a pronominal 
root having a demonstrative sense, Vergleichende Grammatik pp. 786 fF. 
The fact that the Samaritan Pentateuch sometimes substitutes n for T 
conversive might seem to lend confirmation to this theory of its derivation. 
But as n stands with equal frequency for 1 copulative, and 1 for the arti- 
cle n. it is probable that these commutations are to be classed with the 
other numerous inaccuracies of this edition. 

2. This employment of Vav Conversive to alter the mean- 
ing of the tenses by transporting the mind of the hearer or 
reader to an ideal present in the past or future is one of the 
most remarkable idioms of the Hebrew language, and one 
which may appear to be extremely arbitrary, as it certainly 
is in some of its applications, at least, quite difficult of con- 
ception and foreign to our habits of thought. It neverthe- 
less imparts a beauty and a vividness to Hebrew description 
which are altogether peculiar and which are incapable of 
being adequately transferred to any other language. The 
narrator lives in the midst of that which he records, and 
watches its progress step by step telling what he sees. This 
peculiarity of the Hebrew tenses may perhaps be illustrated 
by an analogous though far more restricted usage in English, 
by which certain tenses may be transferred to another sphere 
than that which they describe if measured from the time of 
narration, without any confusion or liability to mistake re- 
sulting from it. Thus, the present may be used of past 



^99 VAV CONVERSIVE. 131 

events, as, Then the devil taheth him up into an exceedino- 
high mountain and slieweth him, etc. Or the present and the 
perfect may be used of what is still future, as. When thou 
art converted strengthen thy brethren ; When he is come he 
will reprove the world of sin, 

3. Vav Conversive, it has already been stated, is prefixed 
to the future with Pattahh and Daghesh-forte in the follow- 
ing letter, V^^iPl^^ ^=^'?^:! , "^h- If the first letter of the 
future be Yodh with Sh'va, Daghesh is commonly omitted, 
§ 25, but rarely if it be f , and never if it be r\, since its re- 
moval in this case would change the sound of the letter by re- 
storing its aspiration, "^S'^i , "SO^^ but "itin"] , "iscn . Before 
fi< of the first person singular, which cannot receive Daghesh, 
§23.1, Pattahh is lengthened to Kamets, §60.4, n?^!: , 
■'^'j^.i; . In the Hiphil "^ . is, with few exceptions, e. g. "^'^yy^^ 
Ps. 105 : 2S, compressed to (J as in the apocopated future. 



nirp^T 



u^ 



"^rii , and before ]\Iakkepli it is shortened to (..) 
■"^y • In the first person singular, however, "^ . remains in 
the Hiphil, and a paragogic n ^ is not infrequently appended 
in all the species, e. g. T^^^^, , ^'?t2;s?i or ro^pTrxi ; T'ssn or 
"^^sij; "i^'arxi; n-jb72si; lii-sn or n-ia^isti ; paragogic n^ 
also occm'S though more rarely in the first pers. plur, !">''2rii|'3 
Gen. 41 : 11, ms^in , nrpn:] Ezr. 8:23, nyc:i ver. 31. 

a. The tendency to abbreviation produced by Vav Conversive is much 
more apparent in some classes of imperfect verbs. Tlius. final M.. is re- 
jected from Mb verbs as in the apocopated future nb.^7 , ba-ii , n^Js^, b?"?^; 
the accent is drawn back from a mixed ultimate to a simple penult in the 
Kal and Hiphil of Ayin doubled verbs and of those which have a quiescent 
for their first or second radical, in consequence of which the vowel of the 
last syllable, if long, is shortened. §64. 1, ic;>. =0^T ; 1:=N-' . i^sx'T; nuJ;; , 
rr^]; ^■''ii'i''. ^r-'':; c^ip^, Cj^f]; Cp;, tj^^l. The same drawing back 
of the accent and shortening of the ultimate syllable occurs in the Piel 
of the following verbs, whose middle radical is *i , ""5371, 1S"!571 , n'lUJ';'! 
but not in "^n^T ; so in Tl''^i?j Hab.-3:6, and the Hithpael crsnin;] Dan. 
2:1. It occurs also in the Niphal of a feAV verbs, which form the ex- 
ception, however, not the rule, r^i"], t)n|:';i1, C:C)X''1 or tiDi<*V B5Bni 
but Srril, iD^V, -553*1, "i;?*], T|E'i"*^, etc. The first person singular 
is mostly exempted from shortening or change of accent, b?X"', -^'?J, 



132 " ETYMOLOGY. § 100 

C'pxi or -pxi . f^P^* . though it sometimes suffers apocopation in n b v^rbs 
^"'i*'' • 'h^,^ ■ The prolonged plural ending '^ is very rarely used after Vav 
Conversive; it does, however, occur, e. g. "I'C'ipFii Deut. 1:22, 'I'n^^ni 
Deut. 4:11, ".'lin^] Judg. 11 ; 18. 

b. In a very few instances Vav Conversive takes Pattahh before X. its 
vowel being conformed to the compound Sh'v^a. which follows, e. g. li'^^xi 
Judg. 6 : 9. '.nrr'^x^ 2 Sam. 1 : 10. -e=xt. Ezek. 16: 10 but nsax^i ver. 8, 
'•^^vj-'x; Job 30':'2a i^^'^'^J^:?- ^^- "^ : Id.'' 

^100. 1. Vav Conversive prefixed to the preterite makes 
of it a continuative futui'e or imperative, by connecting with 
it the idea of futurity or command expressed in a preceding 
verb. It is properly the conjunction T and, whose pointing it 
takes, its pecuhar force being derived from its connecting 
power. Accordingly, in speaking of coming events, the 
stand-point is first fixed in the future by the opening words, 
and the description is then continued by the preterite with 
Yav Conversive. Thus, in Samuel's recital, 1 Sam. 10: 1-8, 
of what was to happen to Saul, he first refers the whole to 
the future by the word, ver. :2, 'H^^bzi i/jjo/i thy dejjart- 
ing, and then proceeds with preterites with Vav prefixed, 
rsi^^ thou shaltpid, ^"^^si and ihey shall say, ver. 3, r^S^n^ 
and thou shall pass on, etc. etc. In hke manner injunctions 
begun in the imperative are continued in the preterite with 
Vav Conversive. Thus the Lord directed Ehjah, 1 Kin. 17:3 
^? (imper.)^o, ^^•'^'^ (pret.) and turn, Pi'^PiC?"' (pret.) and hide, 
•^js}! (pret.) and it shall he. 

2. This prefix commonly has the effect of removing the 
accent to the ultimate in those forms in which it ordinarily 
stands upon the penult ; and if the penult be a long mixed 
syllable, as in the Kal preterite of verbs with Hholem, it will 
in consequence be shortened, X^i^l , ^'"3*^ . 

a. The shifring of the accent, which served in some measure to indicate 
to the ear the alteration in the sense, lakes place chiefly in the following 
cases, viz. : 

(1) It occurs with great regularity in the first and second persons sin- 
gular of every species, Fir?" ^^ou host gone. P25nn a7id thou shall go, 
•"rspn^i and I will go, so P":?"?; . "^rh'^nj^. ^nr^nrni , though ^n'-^sinj 
Zeph. 1 : 17, except in x'b and n'b verbs, where the accent usually re- 



§101 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 133 

mains in its original position although the usage is not uniform, ■ir'':E!i 
Lev. 26 : 9. ^pai^ 1 Kin. 18 : 12. T-^^k"!^"! 1 Chron. 4 : 10. ■'n''.'!nri':inn 1 Sam. 
15 : 30, ■^n-'Sn;' Isa. S : 17 but ^""2X1 Lev. 24 : 5, nxni Gen. 6 : 18, ^n-^anni 
''^"'l^^l Lev. 26:9. rxrriT Ex. 26: 33. In the first person plural of all 
verbs tlie accent generally remains upon the penult, ''3n:;n Ex. 8 : 23, 
:^:=bn^. ^2-^h-} Gen. 34: 17. 

(2) It occurs, though less constantly, in the third feminine singular 
and third plural of the Iliphil of perfect verbs, and of the various species 
of Ayin-Vav and Ayin-doubled verbs. nB^n::.-!" Ex. 26 : 33, nx-'ilini Lev. 
15:29. nn:n Isa. 11:2, 'i'ip^'i, ^'hni Hab.' 1:8 but sis^yrn-i Ezek. 43:24, 
rrrn Hab."l : 8. 



Verbs with Suffixes. 

§101. Pronouns are frequently suffixed to the verbs of 
which they are the object. The forms of the suffixes h^ve 
akeady been given §72. It only remains to consider the 
changes resulting from their combination with the various 
parts of the verb. 

1. The personal terminations of the verbs undergo the 
following changes : 

Preterite. 

Sing. ^ fern. The old ending n. , §85. a (1), takes the 
place of n ^ . 

2 masc. T\ sometimes shortens its final vowel be- 
fore the suffix *•? of the first person. 

% fern. The old ending "'H , § 86. 5, instead of n . 
Plur. 2 masc. ^n from the old pronominal ending Din , 
§ 71. ^ (2), takes the place of nn . The fem- 
inine of this person does not occur with 
suffixes. 

Future. 

Plur. 2 and %fem. The distinctive feminine termina- 
tion is dropped, and that of the mascuhne 
assumed, 'I'^tppn for nibibjpn . 



134 . ETYMOLOGY. §101 

a. In several of these cases it would be more correct to say that it is 
the uncompounded state of the verb in which the change has taken place, 
and that belbre suffixes the original form has been preserved, the added 
syllable having as it were protected it from mutation. 

2. Changes in the suffixes : The suffixes are joined 
directly to those verbal forms which end in a vowel ; those 
forms which end in a consonant insert before the suffixes of 
the second pers. plur. DD , "js , and the second masc. sing. ^ , a 
vocal Sh'va, and before the remaining suffixes a full vowel, 
which in the preterite is mostly a and in the future and im- 
perative mostly e. 

The 3 fern, sing, preterite inserts a before the suffixes of 
the third pers. plural, and t before the second fern, singular; 
when it stands before the third sing, suffixes ^n , n , there is 
frequently an elision of n , requiring Daghesh-forte conserva- 
tive in the verbal ending n to preserve the quantity of the 
previous short vowel, ^ri^tpjp for ^nnS'jjp, ripp'tip for t^thz'^^ , 
see §57. 2. b. 

When the third masc. sing, suffix in is preceded by (J, 
the n may be elided and the vowels coalesce into i , iHi:p for 
^in^iSi? ; when it is preceded by "^ . , Shurek may be hardened 
to its corresponding semi-vowel 1 , l"^ri't:|p for irT'ri':::^ § 62. 2. 

When the third fem. suffix n is preceded by (;), final 
Kamets is omitted to prevent the recurrence of the same 
sound, nS-jp for nVujjp. 

WTien in , n of the third pers. singular are preceded by 
(..), the vowel of union for the future, a 3, called Nun Epen- 
thetic, is sometimes inserted, particularly in emphatic and 
pausal forms, to prevent the hiatus between the two vowels, 
(..) being at the same time shortened to (..) ; n is then com- 
monly elided and a euphonic Daghesh-forte inserted in the 
Nun, i2Vjp;> for mp'jjp'' . The same shortening of the (..) and 
insertion of Daghesh may occur in the first person singular 
and plural and the second masculine singular ; this, like the 
preceding, takes place chiefly at the end of clauses. 



§101 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 135 

a. The Nun Epenthetic of the future and the Preterite vowel of 
union a. which is abbreviated to Sh'va before T^, C3 , 'D . may be reHcs 
of old forms of the verb still represented in the Arabic, Avhere the 
Preterite ends in a, and one mode of the future has an appended Nun. 
Daghesh-forte in the suffixes of the first and second persons may be ex- 
plained, as is usually done, by assuming the insertion and assimilation of 
Nun Epenthetic, ^^ap^ for "(I^'^P'? ; or it may be Daghesh-forte emphatic, 
§24. 6, and the few cases in which Nun appears in tliese persons may be 
accounted for by the resolution of Daghesh. §54. 3, instead of the Daghesh 
having arisen from the assimilation of Nun, so that riJSzfp* may be for 
7j]?»?P? instead of the reverse. 

h. The suffixes, since they do not in strictness form a part of the word 
with which they are connected, are more loosely attached to it than the 
pronominal fragments which make up the inflections; hence vowels of 
union are employed with the former which serve to separate as well as 
to unite. Hence too the vocal Sh'va, inserted before the suffixes of the 
second person, does not so completely draw the final consonant of the verb 
to the appended syllable as to detach it from that to which it formerly be- 
longed ; this latter becomes, therefore, not a simple but an intermediate 
syllable, §20. 2. A like distinction exists between prefixed prepositions, 
etc.. and the personal prefixes of the future. The latter form part and 
parcel of the word, while the former preserve a measure of their original 
separateness. Hence when they form a new initial syllable by the aid of 
the first consonant of the word, this is properly a mixed syllable after a 
personal prefix but intermediate after a preposition, -"ins^ but sinss, 
§22. a. Hence, too. a liability to contraction in one case which does not 
exist m the other, bijs'^ but i=i;5nb. b's"; but Vs:3. 

3. Changes in the body of the verb : 

Except in the Kal preterite those forms which have per- 
sonal terminations experience no further change from the 
addition of suffixes ; those which are without such termina- 
tions reject the vowel of the last syllable before suffixes re- 
quiring a vowel of union and shorten it before the remainder, 
^S-jp:*, '':^rjp:», b-jp^, ^:!?■Ji?^ '^I'rVI?!'; but \ of the Hiphil 
species is almost always preserved, ^:^''t:pn, ''r'i'^'^jp!;' . 

In the Kal imperative and infinitive the rejection of the 
vowel occasions the concurrence of two vowelless letters at 
the beginning of the word, which impossible combination is 
obviated by the insertion of Hhirik to form a new syllable ; 
or, if the rejected vowel was Hholem, by the insertion of 
Kamets Hhatuph. 



136 ' ETYMOLOGY. § 102 

In the Kal preterite, where both vowels are liable to mu- 
tation, a distinction is made by rejecting the first before suf- 
fixes and the second before personal inflections where this is 
possible, e. g. ^'op, ^}''i2> ^''9S but f^^Vpj "^^'91? • Accordingly 
upon the reception of a suffix the vowel of the second rad- 
ical, whether it be a, e, or o, must be restored, and if need 
be lengthened, whenever, in the course of regular inflec- 
tion, it has been dropped, and the vowel of the first rad- 
ical, wherever it remains in the regular inflection, must be 
rejected. 

a. Final mixed syllables, as shown in 2 6, ordinarily become interme- 
diate upon appending CD, 'D , T^, and consequently take a short vowel 
notwithstanding the following vocal Sh'va. This is invariably the case 
before C2 and "jS, unless the word to which they are attached has a long 
immutable vowel in the ultimate which is of course incapable of being 
shortened; it is also usually the case before ?]. the principal exception, so 
far as verbal forms are concerned, being the a and e of the Kal preterite, 
a of the Kal future, and i of the Hiphil. ^|?f^? , ^\^.'^^ , ^^f}.^. : ^\k^^.^. : 
j^srjjwX , ?ia-'ii:ri, but 7i"l?3n, ^^^p. , ^"}sx. 

^102. 1. The first and second persons of the verb do 
not receive suffixes of the same person with themselves, for 
when the subject is at the same time the object of the action 
the Hithpael species is employed or a reciprocal pronoun is 
formed from the noun isisi soui, self, as "'ics? myself. Suffixes 
of the third person may, however, be attached to the third 
person of verbs, provided the subject and object be distinct. 

a. There is a single example of a verb in the first person with a suffix 
of the first person, but in this case the pronoun expresses the indirect 
object of the verb, "'Dn'^b? / have made for me, Ezek. 29 : 3. 

2. Neuter verbs and passive species, whose signification 
does not admit of a direct object, may yet receive suffixes 
expressive of indirect relations, such as would be denoted 
by the dative or ablative in occidental languages, ''pj?''?? y<? 
fasted for me Zech. 7 : 5, ''?i?3r\ thou slialt he forgotten hy me, 
Isa. 44 : 21. 



^103 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 137 

3. The infinitive may be viewed as a noun, in which case 
its suffix is to be regarded as a possessive, and represents the 
subject of the action ; or it may be viewed as a verb when 
its suffix represents the object, e. g. ^^i:]? my Hlitiy, i. e. tliat 
which I perform, ^:!?i2j? killing me. The participle may also 
receive the suffix either of a verb or a noun, the pronoun in 
either case denoting the object, "^pis;'"! seeing me Isa. 47 : 10, 
''Kfp hating me, ht. my haters, Ps. 35 : 19. 

a. The infinitive with a verbal suffix represents the subject in '^ir'iaia 
at my returning, Ezek. 47 : 7. 

§ 103. The paradigm upon the next page exhibits certain 
portions of the regular verb 'J'bip with all the suffixes. 

a. The parts of the verb selected are sufficient representatives of all 
the rest, and by the aid of the rules already given will enable the student 
to determine any other required form for himself. The third person sin- 
gular of the Hiphil preterite, which undergoes no change in the body of 
the verb, will answer mutatis mutandis for all the forms in that species 
ending with the final radical. The third singular of the Piel preterite, 
which suffers a change in its last syllable only, will in like manner answer 
for all the forms in that species ending with the final radical. The Kal 
preterite is given in all the persons, both on account of the peculiarity 
of that tense, which suffers ciianges in both its vowels, and in order to 
exhibit the changes in the personal terminations which apply equally to 
the preterites of the other species. The Kal infinitive and imperative 
are peculiar in forming a new initial syllable which echoes the rejected 
vowel. The third person singular of the Kal future affords a type of all 
the forms in that tense which end with the final radical ; and the third 
plural of the same tense is a type of all the future forms in this and in 
the other species which have personal terminations appended. The par- 
ticiples undergo the same changes in receiving suffixes with nouns of like 
formation, and are therefore not included in this table. 



Paradigm of the Perfect 



1 com. 



Singular. 
2 masc. Ifem. 3 masG. 3 fern. 



Kal Preterite. 

Sing. 3 masc. ^pBop ^h'OQ t^5i:p ^"^^p } f^'^^p 

i3t^pj 

3/m. ^rnS^p 'Jjn^tip T]nbt:p ^nn?i:p ) Mp)^t^p 



2 wiasc. ""pribtip 
^?P]b^P 

2/m. ^p'nbtip 



q-ribt:p 



1 CO??l. 



Plue. 3 covi. ''P^btip 
2 masc. ^3^ribl2p 



inbtip 
'in"nbr:p ) r;"nbt:p 

i"J!^b"^I? ) 
^■nb-jp ?|"nbt:p rn^'^p v'^r^l? 
^^b::p Tjib'jp ^n-ibi:p M^bt:p 



^;vi 



-V¥»»-> h*-"i-Vr*' 



ic(>;«. '^^Jip^p ^^'r^I? ^^^-r^p O^-r^I? 



i-v-,. 



Infinitive. ^bt2p ) ^bt:p !]bt:p iBtpp nb"Jp 



Future. 



Sing. 3 masc. ^:5t:p;^ ) !?ibt:p;^ ) t|bt:p;^ ^nStpp- ) vbtfp'; 



^T'^'^i'' \ ?T^<^T*T^■ 



Plue. 3 7«asc. '^p^btpp: ^^btpp? t]^bt;p: 'in^b-upp: O^^^^l?." 



Imperative. 

Sing. 2 masc. *'" J^p 



iinbt:p nbtip 



PiEL Preterite. 



Sing. 3 masc. "iblpp ^b^p Tj'blfp ibtfp r:b"Jp 

HiPHiL Preterite. 
Sing. 3 masc. ^DrtipH ^b-t^pH I^B'tppri ib^tppH l^b^tppr; 



138 



Verbs with Suffixes. 


1 com. 


2 ??i«st'. 


Plural. 

2jem. 


3 masc. 


Zfem. 


^:nbt:p 

: - t': 

ti]ribt2p 

^irrbiip 


Dinbt:p 




dbt^p 
Dnbt:p 

— T T •: 

nnbt:p 

DTibt2p 

Q-nbtip 
D^bt:p 

D^nbt:p 
D^:bt:p 


yribt2j^ 
"nbt:p 
■j^ribt:p 






Drrbt:p 
DD^bi:p 

it': 


"ib-nbt3p 


^:^bt:p 
t^nbr:p 


D?^-r^p 


l?^=r^I? 




^^Jti)^ 


Dib-jp 

V : T 1 : 


l^^^I? 


Dbt:p 

T ; It 


i^^r^ 


^3?9p: ) 


DDbt:p: 




D^btpp;^ 




^:bt:p 






Dbt:p 

•■ : 't 








il3^tpp 


Dib^P 


l^r^P 


Dbtpp 


i^^p 


^5b^t2pn 

T • ': • 


dib^t^pri 


i5r"?i?r! 


ti^'9i?n 


i^'9i?'7 



139 



140 ■ etymology. § 104 

Remarks on the Pereect Verbs with Suffixes. 



PRETEE ITE. 



§104. a. There are two examples of (_.) as the union vowel of the 
preterite. 'I^S'? Isa. S : 11. "px'r' Jutig. 4:20. Daghesh-tbrte euphonic is 
sometimes inserted in the sutRx ol" the first pers. sing., '■t'^'^ Ps. 118:18, 
-•??7 Gen. 30 : 6. 

b. The suffix of the seoond masc. sing, is occasionally Tj ^ in pause : ""^J^Q 
Isa. 55 : 5, so with the infinitive. TQ^'i'n Deut. 2S : 24. 45 ; and a similar 
form with the future may perhaps be indicated by the K'thibh in Hos. 4:6 
-XDX-^N. §11. I. a. where the K'ri has TjrNTiS . With xb and rib verbs 
tills form of the suffix is of frequent occurrence. : ~2" Isa. 30 : 19. Jer. 23:37, 
r)S~rn Ezek. 28 : 15. In a few instances the final a is represented by the 
vowel letter n. and th.e suffix is written ns . ni-is?]! 1 Kin. 18:44, 
r.xV^zn Prov. 2: 11, nr^i-^^^ Ps. 145: 10, nD?,:?^;! Jer. 7:27. 

c. The suffix of the second fern. sing, is commonly T\^, 'n'$'?P ^s^- 54:6, 
T('nss Isa. 60 : 9, except after the third fern. sing, of the verb, when it is 
T\... T\r.~'l^. Ruth 4: 15. T("i;"l"^ Isa. 47: 10; sometimes, especially in the 
later Psalms, it has the form ^3 corresponding to the pronoun "^rii;^ , 
^::,2TX Ps. 137 : 6, ^zy^t^r: Ps. 103 : 4. 

d. The suffix of the third masc. sing, is written with the vowel letter n 
instead of 1 in nif^s Ex. 32 : 25, nid;? Num. 28 : 8, and in some copies n'^sJt 
1 Sam. 1 : 9, where it would be feminine ; this form is more frequently ap- 
pended to nouns than to verbs. 

€. In a few instances the n of the third fem. suffix is not pointed with 
INIappik, and consequently represents a vowel instead of a consonant, 
r!~"ij (with the accent on the penult because followed by an accented 
syllable) Am. 1 : 11. so with the infinitive, iripj" Ex. 9: 18, ^"^^t^l Jer. 
44 : 19, and the future, n^rnni Ex. 2:3. 

/. The suffix of the third masc. plur. receives a paragogic i once in prose, 
irrirna Ex. 23:31, and repeatedly in poetry, "inxbrn. irc-^-iin Ex. 15:9; 
once 1 is appended, i^^pr^ Ex. 15:5; nn is used but once as a verbal 
suffix, i:r!":<Si< Deut. 32 : 26. 

^. The suffix of thfe third fem. plur. " is seldom used, 'p^'™'^"' I^a- 48:7, 
"""n"" Hab. 2:17; more frequently the masculine n is substituted for it, 
c^iisno Gen. 26: 15, 18, csiir-jri Ex. 2: 17. nnpx;^: 1 Sam. 6: 10. so Num. 
17 : 3, 4. Josh. 4 : 8, 2 Kin. 18*: 13, Hos. 2 : 14, Prov.'"6 : 21 ; 'n is never used 
with verbs. When attached to infinitives a paragogic n is sometimes 
added to ], njxia Ruth 1 : 19, n:n-ib Job 39 : 2. 

h. Verbs, which have Tsere for the second vowel in the Kal preterite, re- 
tain it before suffixes, Tjpns; Deut. 7 : 13. cbzh Lev. 16 : 4. nN:b Deut. 
24:3, insixn';! Job 37:24. The only example of a suffix appended to a 
preterite whose second vowel is Hholem, is l"'n^3'^ Ps. 13 : 5 from "'rib^^) 



^ 105 PERFECT VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 141 

the Hholem being shortened to Kamets Hhatuph by the shifting of the 
accent. Tsere of the Piel species is mostly shortened to Seghol before 
Tj. ZD. "3. ?^S2p Deut. 30:3. ^^Sj^'? ver. 4, but occasionally to Hhirik, 
ci:i53SN (the Methegh in most editions is explained by §45. 2) Job 16:5, 
?|T3T2inx Isa. 25:1, ci'i'n;?^ Ex. 31 : 13, nsO-iQ Isa. 1:15. Hhirik of the 
Hiphil species is retained before ail suffixes with very few exceptions, 
^S-ir""l 1 Sam. 17:25. P.s. 65: 10; in r,-i5^ Deut. 32:7, the verb has the 
form of the apocopated future. 

i. The third fern, preterite sometimes takes the third masc. sing, suffix in 
its full form. Wr^^i. Prov. 31 : 12. 'inrpDS^ Ezek. 15 : 5, so in pause ; ^nnsnx 
1 Sam. 18:28. *innb3X Gen. 37 :20, ' : ^trcjap Isa. 59:16. and sometimes 
contracted by the exclusion of n , W^^ji 1 Sam. 1:24, wib^ Ruth 4: 15, 
ilF.zjy Job 21:18. The third fern, suffix is always contracted, nn'mx Jer. 
49:24, nnjb^n Isa. 34:17. nnor^S 1 Sam. 1:6. The suffix of 'the third 
masc. plural is D., not D^, with this person of the verb, the accent 
falling on the penult. cni;a Gen. 31:32, nrx^a Ex. 18:8, cr^S3 Ps. 
119:129, crsnb Isa. 47:14. In the intermediate syllable before tj the 
vowel is usually short in this person. "(H"'''? Jer. 22:26, ")~^=!!< Ezek. 
28: IS, though it is sometimes long. Tjrbari Cant. 8:5, as it regularly is in 
pause : Tjnnb" ibid.; so before "'3 and 13 of the first person, "'Srbsx Ps. 
69 : 10, : irnNli^ Num. 20 : 14. 

j. The second masc. sing, preterite xjsually takes Pattahh before ^} ex- 
cept in pause. "^Jri-ii^n Ps. 139: 1, "'Jririn Job 7:14, "^irjit:: Ps. 22:2. It 
takes the third masc. sing, suffix either in its full form, :>l.~ri-is3 Ezek. 
43:20, or contracted, inspx 2 Kin. 5:6. "nrb Hab. 1:12. "ira;? (accent 
thrown back by §35. 1) Num. 23 :27, irtjrn Ps. 89: 44. 

k. The second fem. sing, preterite assumes (_). commonly without Yodh, 
§11. 1. a. before suffixes, and is accordingly indistinguishable from the first 
person except by the suffix which it receives. § 102. 1. or by the connection 
in which it is found, '':n"]37 Jer. 15:10. ""^nrsb Cant. 4:9, ''?r'':£"i 1 Sam. 
19: 17, nnn-i"::^ Ex. 2: 10; once it takes (J. i:ni"!'in Josh. 2: 18. and in a 
ievf instances the masculine form is adopted in its stead. :^;riJ'2irri Josh. 
2:17, 20, Cant. 5:9, isrinb-j Jer. 2:27 K'ri, inxsn 2 Sam. hViO.' 

I. The plural endings of the verb may be written fully >! or defectively 
(.), thus, in the third person. "3^2=0 Ps. 18:6. "'siro Hos. 12:1; the 
second ■^:r.'=:i Zech. 7 : 5, iin-^brn Num. 20: 5, 21 : 5 ; and the first wid-;;':; 
] Chron. 13: 3. 

FTTTTJEE. 

§105.0. The union vowel a is sometimes attached to the future, thus ''S., 
''3;b3-in Gen. 19:19, "^linN^^ Gen. 29:32, ^rxn"' Ex. 33:20, Num. 22:33, 
•i^^Vtian ]ga. 56:3. ■'33 3b] Job 9:18; >13 ,. "^^/S] Isa. 63:16; i (for !inj, 
■iS^n^'Hos. 8:3, inxbn Ps. 35 : 8. 'Sirn] Eccles. 4 : 12. '^^.t^^ 1 Sam. 21: 14, 
so in the K'thibh, 1 Sam. 18:1 iinx-^i, where the K'ri has wins;;:;!; R^ 
(for nj. nn^3»i Gen. .37:33, ninni 2 Chron. 20:7, Rb'-Qb] Isa. 26:5; 
0^, ni^'ab": Ex. 29:30, c^-'C? Deut. 7:15, Bn'^S Num'. 21:30, ci-'S Ps. 



142 " ETYMOLOGY. ^lOG 

74: S. c^-rx^ Ps. lis : 10: 1^ . irr-^ Ex. 2: 17. In 1 Kin. 2 : 24 the K'ri 
has '^:r"''wi"' . while the K'thibh has the vowel letter "^ representing the 
ordinary e, "'a'^-'^^aT^ . 

b. The suffixes with Daghesh inserted occur chiefly in pause ; thus "'S^, 
•'in"i-« Jer. 50 : 44 ; ''2.. •'li'i^ri Gen. 27: 19. :-:-".rri Job 7 : 14. 9: 34; ^:\ 
(1st plur.). ^2?^="; Job 31:15;';^.., i^i^Si^X Isa. 43:5. -,"!3f: Isa. 44:^ 
> ~Q'i< Ps- 30:13; siS .. (3 masc. sing.). ?]':^;rsn. : li:n:n Job 7: 18. "y\S'j 
Job 41:2 K"ri. ^li^-S-z-; Hos. 12:5; ns. . nr-.rrn Ps.'65: 10. or without 
Daghesh. nrnprn Judg. 5 : 26, Obad. ver. 13 ; the unemphatic form of the 
suffix and that with Daghesh occur in conjunction. FiK'^BC'] nrli-'B'd^ Isa. 
26 : 5. There are a very few examples. Ibund only in poetry, of : inserted 
between the verb and the suffix without further cliange. ■':;"'S="' Ps. 50 : 23, 
'•7l?;^f}i<. Jer. 22:24. inrnnr^, Jer.5:22. '.■-:=■?=•? Ps. 72 : 15. >in:".2-' Deut. 
32/16,' nn:^T3ns« Ex. 15:2. 

c. The plural ending '^ is in a few instances found before suffixes, chiefly 
in pause, "'rjinf?':, ■'rr^qr-i , :''::x^r'^ Prov. 1:28. : Tjiiinsr^ Ps. 63:4, 
?;:>ix">ai Ps. 9i:i2, 'n:'irnd'^ Isa.' 60:' 7. 10, nn:-:?'^ Jer. '5': 22, trir^ss-:"' 
Jer. 2:24; twice it has the union vowel a. "isr^xinri Job 19:2. il^SS^ 
Prov. 5 : 22. 

d. When the second vowel of the Kal future is 0. it is rejected before 
suffixes requiring a union vowel, compound Sh'va being occasionally sub- 
stituted for it in the place of simple. n~&X Hos. 10:10. 'ISS";! Num. 
35:20, :ns;:;Si< Isa. 27:3, : "S^iS"? Isa. 62 -.V. -t-^-}": Ezek. 35:6, nrnriDX 
Jer. 31 : 33 ; once the vowel remains, but is changed to Shurelc. : C~!T>:i!:ri 
Prov. 14: 3 ; a, on the other hand, is retained as a pretonic vowel. §64. 2, 
^yqzhp. Job 29:14, =t"2b^ Ex. 29:30, nrirsbx Cant. 5:3, ^ifi^'T} Gen. 
19:19. Hholem is shortened before ~. C3 . "|3, though the vowel letter 
^ is occasionally written in the K'thihh, ^"'SX Jer. 1: 5. 

e. The following are examples of feminine plurals with suffixes: 2 fern, 
■pliir. ""rx-in Cant. 1: 6, 3 fern. plur. "'."ztprs Job 19: 15. "vr'-?' Jer. 2: 19. 
The masculine form is sometimes substituted for the feminine, ri^"ili'X^ , 
nnSbn-; Cant. 6:9. 

IXFIXITIVE AND IMPKBATITE. 

§ 106 a. Kal Injinitive. Before ?]. CD, "3. Hholem is shortened to Ka- 
mets Hhatuph, i^sss Gen. 2: 17, ?|"7^3J (Methegh by §45. 2) Obad. ver. 
11, rrbrx Gen. 3:5, cinTix Mai. 1:7. Pattahh remains in the single 
example, crrrn Isa. 30 : IS ; sometimes the vowel of the second radical 
is rejected before these as it is before the other suffixes, and a short 
vowel given to the first radical, commonly Kamets Hhatuph. "~"^ Deut. 
29:11, 'H"-;:: 2 Kin. 22:19. C=-=s' Deut. 27:4. once Kibbuts'. cinsj? 
Lev. 23: 22,' sometimes Hhirik, T\'zzt Gen. 19: 33. 35 but 'zzt Ruth 3:4^ 
irjb Zech. 3:1. i>E3 2 Sam. I:i0. "inrB Nch. 8:5. and occasionally 
Pattahh. i^^pT! Ezek. 25: 6. In the feminine form of the infinitive, as in 
nouns, the old feminine ending n is substituted for n, inrria Isa. 30:19, 
"irsrn Hos. 7 : 4. The Niphal infinitive retains its pretonic Kamets before 
suffixes, cr-.r-Tn Ezek. 21 : 29. 



§ 107 IMPERFECT VERBS. 143 

b. Kal Imperative. The first radical commonly receives Kamets Hhatuph 
upon the rejection of Hholem, ■'3"!2T, "'S'lpS Jer. 15 : 15, but occasionally it 
takes Hhirik, n'liS: (with Daghesh-lbrte euphonic) Prov. 4: 13. 



Imperfect Verbs. 

§107. Imperfect verbs depart more or less from the 
standard already given, as the nature of their radicals may 
require. They are of three classes, viz. : 

I. Guttural verbs, or those which have a guttural letter 
in the root. 

II. Contracted verbs, two of whose radicals are in cer- 
tain cases contracted into one. 

III. Quiescent verbs, or those which have a quiescent or 
vowel letter in the root. 

These classes may again be subdivided according to the 
particular radical affected. Thus there are three kinds of 
guttural verbs : 

1. Pe guttural verbs, or those whose first radical is a 
guttural. 

2. Ayin guttural verbs, or those whose second radical is 
a guttural. 

3. Lamedh guttural verbs, or those whose third radical 
is a guttural. 

There are two kinds of contracted verbs : 

1. Pe Nun verbs, or those whose first radical is Nun, 
and is liable to be contracted by assimilation with the second. 

2. Ayin doubled verbs, or those whose second and third 
radicals are alike, and are hable to be contracted into one. 

There are four kinds of quiescent verbs : 

1. Pe Yodh verbs, or those whose first radical is Yodh. 



144 ^ ETYMOLOGY. § 108, 109 

2. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs, or those whose 
second radical is Vav or Yodh. 

3. Lamedh Aleph verbs, or those whose third radical is 
Aleph. 

4. Lamedh He verbs, or those in wliich He takes the 
place of the third radical. 

The guttural differ from the perfect verbs in the vowels 
only ; the first division of the contracted verbs differ only in 
the consonants ; the quiescent and the second division of the 
contracted verbs differ fi'om the perfect verbs in both vowels 
and consonants. 

a. The third class of imperfect verbs may either be regarded as hav- 
ing a quiescent letter in the root, which in certain forms is clianged into 
a vowel, or as having a vowel in the root, which in certain forms is 
changed into a quiescent letter. As the settlement of this question is 
purely a matter of theory, the usual name of quiescent verbs has been 
retained as sufficiently descriptive. 

b. The origin of these various technical names for the different kinds 
of imperfect verbs is explained §76. 3. 

Pe Guttural Verbs. 

§108. Guttiu-als have the fom- following peculiarities, 
§60, viz. : 

1. They often cause a preceding or accompanying vowel 
to be converted into Pattahh. 

2. They receive Pattahh furtive at the end of a word 
after a long heterogeneous vowel or before a voweUess final 
consonant. 

3. They take compound in preference to simple Sh'va. 

4. They are incapable of being doubled, and conse- 
quently do not receive Daghesh-forte. 

§109. Pe guttural verbs ai'e affected by these peculiari- 
ties as follows, viz. : 



^109 PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 145 

1. The Hhirik of the preformatives is clianged to Pat- 
talih before the guttural m the Kal future, if the second 
vowel be Hholem, "iw^"^. for l'^^/^ ; but if the second radical 
has Pattahh this change does not occur, because it would 
occasion a repetition of the same vowel in successive sylla- 
bles, §63. \.b. In the Kal future a, therefore, in the Niphal 
preterite and participle, where the vowel of the second sylla- 
ble is likewise a, and in the Jliphil preterite, where i is 
characteristic and therefore less subject to change, Hhirik is 
compounded with Pattahh, or, in other words, is changed to 
the diphthongal Seghol, ptn;] , -^-qv^ , '^^'a?^v) . Seghol accom- 
panying 55 of the first person singular of the Kal future, 
§60. 1. a (5), and Kamets Ilhatuph, characteristic of the 
Hophal species, suffer no change. The same is true of 
Hholem in the first syllable of the Kal participle, Hhirik of 
the Piel preterite, and Kibbuts of the Pual species, for the 
double reason that these vowels are characteristic of those 
forms, and that their position after the guttural renders them 
less liable to mutation, § 60. 1. a (2) ; the second reason ap- 
plies likewise to the Hhirik of the feminine singidar and 
masculine phu'al of the Kal imperative, which, as the briefest 
of the short vowels, is besides best adapted to the quick ut- 
terance of a command, "^i'Oj) , 'H'qy . 

2. As the guttural does not stand at the end of the word, 
there is no occasion for applying the rule respecting Pattalih 
furtive ; this consequently does not appear except in "^t\^ , 
apocopated future of rrin , and in one other doubtful exam- 
ple, §114. 

3. Wherever the first radical should receive simple Sh'va 
the guttural takes compound Sh'va instead ; this, if there be 
no reason for preferring another, and especially if it be pre- 
ceded by the vowel Pattahh, will be Hhateph Pattahh, whose 
sound is most consonant with that of the gutturals ; this is 
the case in the Kal second plural preterite, construct infini- 
tive, future and imperative with Hholem, and in the Hiphil, 

10 



146 ' ETYMOLOGY. §110 

infinitives, future, imperative, and participle, DJn"'a? , "iih^ . 
If, however, the guttural be preceded by another vowel than 
Pattahh the compound Sli'va will generally be conformed to 
it ; thus, after Seghol it becomes Hhateph Seghol as in the 
Kal future and imperative a, the Niphal preterite and par- 
ticiple, and the Hiphil preterite, PXk}:^, '^"^''^^O' ^^^^ ^^^^^ 
Kamets Hhatuph it becomes Hhateph Kamets as in the 
Hophal species, ^'s?^'vJ • If this compound Sh'va in the 
course of inflection comes to be followed by a vowelless 
letter, it is changed to the corresponding short vowel, §61.1, 
thus, (..) becomes (.) in the second feminine singular and the 
second and thii'd masculine plural of the Kal future ; (.J be- 
comes (..) in the third feminine singular and the third plural 
of the Niphal preterite ; and (^) becomes (J in the corres- 
ponding persons of the preterite and future Hophal, '^7'ayp, 

a. The simple Sh'va following a short vowel thus formed, remains 
vocal as in the corresponding forms of the perfect verb, the new syllable 
being not mixed but intermediate, and hence a succeeding aspirate will 
retain its aspiration, thus ^'^'^t^ yaam''(JhU. not ^"^^",!! yaamdu. §22. a. 
In like manner the Kal imperative has ^"'r" • ^""^^ not "'^t"; '''^^?; show- 
ing tiiat even in the perfect verb "^Hi^it- ''^^i? were pronounced kit'll, 
kilHu, not kitll, kitlu. 

4. The reduplication of the first radical being impossible 
in the infinitive, future and imperative Niphal, the preceding 
vowel, which now stands in a simple syllable, is lengthened 
in consequence from Hhirik to Tsere, § 60. 4, 'irs'n for i^yn. 
§110, 1. The verb "TC^ ^o stand, whose inflections are shown 
in the follow^ing paradigm, may serv^e as a representative of 
Pe guttural verbs. The Piel, Pual, and Hithpael are omit- 
ted, as they present no deviation from the regular verbs. 
The Niphal of Tc^ is not in use, but is here formed from 
analogy for the sake of giving completeness to the paradigm. 



Paradigm 


OF Pe Guttural Verbs. 






KAL, 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


— r 


Tj;?: 


T'i2'3n 


^t'jrs 


3/. 


T : IT 


T : viv 


rrr:2-$n 

T • v: IV 


r ; T IT 


2 m. 


T : — T 


rn'^>3 


mis^ri 


r : — t: IT 


2/ 


Tnw 


nT::>'3 


n--:i:?n 


riTbi'n 


\c. 


^TniZV 


^m-b:?] 


■m7brn 


^VTr,2Vr\ 


Plur. 3 e. 


^nay 


^Tij^'j 


in^7b:?n 

• "' IV 


T^-Z-JTi 


2 m. 


C3r)T^? 


DriTi^-] 


Drn53yn 


Dri-"::-'n 


2/ 


1^7=? 


i^7^S 


'\W}'^\^- 


■rn-^^M 


1 c. 


^"■=? 


^-'"=>'?. 


^J^'s^^V* 


^=7'=?0 


Infix. Absol. 


T 


T I'* 


-■2:''n 


-'b"i-i 

•• T- IT 


Constr. 


-53? 




"''^?" 


^2Vr\ 


FuT. 3 m. 


-'22;- 


•• Tl" 


irb::?" 


Tbr 

— T-.IT 


3/ 


nti3>n 


-•2"n 


i"7b:?n 


-•br^'n 

— r: PT 


2 m. 


I'^irn 




T'b^n 


Tb"n 


2/. 


^T^:?n 


^i'j^n 


^n^/b^'n 


^T^i^-n 


1 c. 


I'^SS-X 


Tb^'^5 


n^7by« 


Tbi^s 

— r: rT 


PZz<r. 3 TO 


^1523?^ 


: IT" 


^-^i::5?^ 


: TIT 


3/ 


n:""ri^n 


T : •• T 1" 


M;i:b?n 


T ; — t; IT 


2 m. 


Trivr^ 


iTj:?n 


sn^ryn 


^-■::"n 


2/. 


r^ravr^ 


n^Tr??] 


5^?'"i??J^ 


n:Tb3?n 

T : — t; IT 


1 c. 


■!^??. 


T^y: 


■'^^r?,^ 


"'"s^Pt 


ImPER. 2 TO. 


n53? 


•■ T 1" 


"i7byn 




2/ 


''I'P. 


^Ti2vr-\ 


^-rcvt] 


wanting 


Plur. 2 TO. 


r]W 


T^iyj'n 


r^^-as'n 




2/ 


T ; -: 


T : •• T 1" 


re-'b^n 




Pakt. Act. 


iiys 




i^7b:'"j 




Pass. 


T 


Tb3>3 

T V.IV 




T t: IT 



147 



148 ETYMOLOGY. §111 

2. The Kal imperative and future of those verbs which 
have Pattahh in the second syllable may be represented by 
pTn to he strong. 









Imperative. 








Singular. 


P 


LDR A L. 






raasc. 


fem 


masc. 


fem. 






pit] 


t^- 


Future. 


"?pin 






3 masc. 




%fem,. 2 m(uc. 




2 fem. 


1 com. 


Sing. 


Pfe 




pTr;n prnn 


'l?'"^ 


pT-5< 



plur. ^pTn" MDpTnn ^ip7r:n nDpinn pTrc 

) : viv tI; — v.iv ' : v iv t':— -: iv • — v.iv 

3. Certain verbs, whose first radical is i5 , receive Hholem 
in the first syllable of the Kal future after the following, 
which is distinctively called the Pe Aleph (i«s) mode. 



Future of Pe Aleph Verbs. 

3 ma^e. Sfem. 2 masc. 2 fem. 1 com. 

Sing. bis^ bi5<n bz^r\ ^5z>5n bbj^ 

plue. ^5::5<^ nabij^n ^%^t^ nrbiijin bis: 



T ; — 



Five verbs uniformly adopt this mode of inflection, viz. : 
'lii? to perish, nix to be willing, bis to eat, *it^ to sag, HEX 
to hahe ; a few others indifferently foUow this or the ordinary 
Pe guttural mode, nnx to love, tns to take hold, qOwS to 
gather. 

Remarks on Pe Guttural Verbs. 

\ 111. 1. The preformative of the Kal future a has (.) in one instance, 
abni Ezek. 23 : 5. That of the Kal future has (J in q^n;i Prov. 10 : 3, 
CjonV Pe. 29 : 9. Three verbs with future o, D^n , onrj , "lan have Pat- 



§111 REMARKS ON PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 149 

tahh in the first syllable when the Hholem appears, but Seghol in those 
forms in which the Hholera is dropped. DT".n.i;. Job V2 : 14. iDin^l 2 Kin. 
3:25 but lO-in-; Ex. 19:21, 24; so with s'uffixes. ■'?^^n^ Psf 141:5, 
"(CIH; Isa. 22: 19. -ini^nj Isa. 53 : 2. "isn has ^^sn^ but I'-sn;:. 

2. a. If the first radical be N , which has a strong preference for the 
diphthongal vowels, §60. La (5). the preformative takes Seghol in most 
verbs in the Kal future. Avhetlier a or o. prsv ^0?<V "'^?<ri. fr^Kn as well 
:is 7^?7- ^-.^2- *'^?V5- ~"??!?V^ ; i" ^ ^^^ ^^''"^ luture a. §110. 3,. it takes the 
other compound vowel Hliolem when to complete the diphthongal charac- 
ter of the word the (.) of the second syllable usually becomes ( ) in pause, 
and in a i'ew instances without a pause accent. "i^N"*. '^^.^<'' . 'i"'^.^"' • T!!^''j 
and in two verbs it becomes ( .) after Vav conversive, i?.5<'] . 'nx'] . 

b. As X is always quiescent after Hholem in this latter form of the 
future, §57. 2. (2) a. Pe Aleph verbs might be classed among quiescent 
verbs, and this is in fact done by some grammarians. But as N has the 
double character of a guttural and a quiescent in different forms sprung 
from the same root, and as its quiescence is confined almost entirely to a 
single-tense of a single species, it seems better to avoid sundering what 
really belongs together, by considering the Pe Aleph as a variety of the 
Pe guttural verbs. In a few instances X gives up its consonantal charac- 
ter after (..) which is then lengthened to (_). ~rxri Mic. 4 : 8. When 
thus quiescent after either Tsere or Hholem, x is always omitted in the 
first person singular after the preformative X, inx Gen. 32:5 for ~nxx , 
rnx Prov. S: 17 Ujr =n?!?>5, i^sx Gen. 24:33 for iixx . and occasionally 
in other persons, ipyn'jer. 2:36 for "?Txn ; so xr] Deut. 33:21. xiin 
Prov.. 1:10, qon Ps.' 104:29, sii^n 2 Sam. 19:14. TTini 2 Sam. 20 : 9, 
^ns'n] 1 Sam. 28 : 24 ; in a few instances the vowel letter 1 is substituted 
lor it. ^ss'i;' Ezek. 42 : 5 for isax^, i^'^x Neh. 2 : 7. Ps. 42: 10. 

c. A like quiescence or omission of X occurs in ^^X"" Num. 11:25 Hi. 
fut. for bix;;]. ':>-bri Ezek. 21 : 33 Hi. inf for ''^^^i<,^. 'M^i Job 32: 11 Hi. 
fut. for "PTSX. -pTO Prov. 17:4 Hi. part, for "pix-a . §53. 2. a. ^srs^ Job 
35: 11 Pi. part, for ^!?2X"a . §53. 3. "'D-^Tn 2 Sam. 22: 40 Pi. fut. for ■':t;^r\'; 
=n^l 1 Sam. 15 : 5 Hi. fut.' tor ="iX!T , ^rn Isa. 21 : 14 Hi. pret. for ^"rxri, 
bn^ Isa. 13: 20 Pi. fut. for -nx? . and afier prefixes '■'csh for "^n; . the 
Kal infinitive of n^x with the preposition h. ?i"i?iO Ezek. 28: 16 Pi. fijt. 
with Vav conversive for ^i^axxi . tOSXi Zech. 11:5 Hi. fut. with Vav 
conjunctive for "t'yxi . cnsicn Eccles. 4:14 Kal pass. part, with the 
article for n^nnoxn. 

d. The diphthongal Hholem is further assumed by Pe Aleph roots 
once in the Niphal preterite, iTnXD Num. 32 : 30 for iTnxD , and five times 
in the Hiphil future. rri'^SX Jer. 16:8 for "n-ixx . b'z-n Hos. 11:4 for 
b-'DXX. -n^-ix Neh. 13:'l3 for nn-axx, bX'i 1 Sam. 14:24 abbreviated 
from nsx'T for n^ix'^ , "ni'i 2Sam. 20:5 K'ri for "inx* ] . 

e. X draws the vowel to itself from the preformative in ''S^'.xn Prov. 
1:22 Kal fut. for >i:-xn in pause l=nsn Zech. 8: 17, Ps. 4 : 3, §6n. 3. c;. 
Some so explain ?-."i=xn Job 20:26, regarding it as a Kal future for 



150 -- ETYMOLOGY. §112 

sinbzxn with the vowel attracted to the N from the preibrmative ; it ia 
simpler, however, to regard it as a Pual future with Kamets Hhatuph in- 
stead of Kibbuts, as cnsa Nah. 2 :4. ^)~r\!7 Ps. 94:20. 

3. a. Kamets Hhatuph for the most part remains in the Kal infinitive 
and imperative with suffixes, as n~zr , T)i;>. "'1^?; being rarely changed 
to Pattahh, as in ^npzn Prov. 20: 16. or Seghol, as ""lEpN Num. 11 : 10, 
in2"i~ Job 33 : 5. In the inflected imperative Seghol occurs once instead 
of Hhirik, ""'2wn Isa. 47 : 2. and Kamets Hhatuph twice in compensation 
for the omitted Hholem, "^Tb^ Zeph. 3 : 14 but ITSS Ps. 68 : 5, ^liin Jer, 
2:12 but ^iin Jer. 50:27, though the o sound is once retained in the 
compound Sh'va of a pausal form, ''r"'^ ^^•^- 'li-27. Ewald explains 
B-i^yn Ex. 20 : 5, 23 : 24. Deut. 5 : 9, aud"cn=r3 Deut. 13 : 3 as Kal futures, 
the excluded Hholem giving character to the preceding vowels; the forms, 
however, are properly Hophal futures, and there is no reason why the 
words may not be translated accordingly be induced to serve. In a few Kal 
infinitives with a feminine termination n has ( ), fib^sn Ezek. 16:5. 
insrn Hos. 7:4. 

6. In a very ^ew instances Pattahh is found in the first syllable of the 
Niphal and of the Hiphil preterite, '{1^^ ^^' ^^ ' ^' ^^l':"';] Judg. 8 : 19. 

§112. 1. The guttural invariably receives compound Sh'va in place of 
simple, where this is vocal in the perfect verb ; and as in these cases it 
stands at the beginning of the word, it is more at liberty to follow its na- 
tive prelerences, and therefore usually takes {..). In cr-'";!! 2 plur. pret.. 
ni'^n inf. n^n imper. of n"n, the initial n has (_) under the influence of 
the following "^ ; K receives (..) in the second plural of the Kal preterite, 
and in the feminine and plural of the passive participle. nri~::x. crbrs, 
fWliX , but commonly (_) in the imperative and infinitive, §60. 3. 6, bb'x 
imper., h'i^ and }>'i^. inf, Thx and ;nx^ inf, yrx imper.. nax inf and 
imper. (but ~^i<^!^ Job 34: IS with ri interrogative), pbx . J;cx (with n^ 
paragogic nscx), and in a very few instances the long vowel („). §60. 3.c, 
siEX Ex. 16: 23 for siEN , rri< Isa. 21 : 12. 

2. Where the first radical in perfect verbs stands after a short vowel 
and completes its syllable, the guttural does the same, but mostly admits 
an echo of the preceding vowel after it, inclining it likewise to begin the 
syllable which follows. In the intermediate syllable thus formed, §20. 2, 
the vowel remains short, only being modified agreeably to the rules 
already given by the proximity of the guttural, which itself receives the 
corresponding Hhateph. The succession is, therefore, usually (_. ), (_ ) or 
(,. _^). In a very few^ instances this correspondence is neglected; thus, in 
Tj^npTi 3 fern. fut. of 7\?'!^ to go (comp. pn:^];' from pri:i to laugh) the Hhirik 
of the preformative remains and the guttural takes Hhateph Pattahh; in 
nbrrj (once. viz.. Hab. 1 : 15 for -^^li^) and '^^".n Hiphil and Hophal 
preterites of nbs ^o ^o ?/p. and ri"i^~n (once. viz.. Josh. 7:7 lor ri~2rri) 
Hi. pret. of ~3S to pass over, the guttural is entirely transferred to the 
second syllable, and the preceding vowel is lengthened. The forms H'.'^ns, 
JT^n^ . En"^Tii. n^nj from n-n to be, and n^n*' from trri to live, are pecu- 
liar in having simple vocal Sh'va. 



§112 REMARKS ON PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 151 

3. Where (^) or (._ .) are proper to the form these are frequently- 
changed to (..) or (.. ^) upon the prolongation of the word or the removal 
of its accent forward. Thus, in the Kal future, CjDX;; 2 Kin. 5 : 3, ^edn,"! 
Ex. 4: 29. "'IEDn; Ps. 27: 10, "'ijpxFi Josh. 2 : IS ; ^:r^it.^_ Isa. 59: 5, "^i-Wn 
Judg. 16:13; the Niphal, 0^??. i Kin. 10:3, n^Dbr^Nah. 3 : 11. C^Tsbrs 
Ps. 26:4; and especially in the Hiphil preterite with Vav conversive, 
lJ72Nn Job 14:19, n-inxni Deut. 7:24, cnnnxn^ Deut. 9:3 (comp. 
Dnbzxn Ps. 80:6), ^n"73l<.ni Lev. 23:3(1; ■^rir=''f.C!f Isa. 49:26; ^npTnii 
Neil. 5 : 16, "'npinni E/.ek." 30 : 25 ; "f nnnrn ' Isa.'43 : 23, Ti-pi-iryni' Jer! 
17:4; "pyxn Deut. 1:45, nsixni Ex. 15:26, ■'riPinrii Jer. 49:" 37; after 
Vav conjunctive, however, the vowels remain unchanged, '^Opinri'i 1 Sam. 
17:35, "^nrnnni Ps. 50:21. The change from (... ^.) to (..j after Vav 
conversive occurs once in the third person of the Hiphil preterite, *|ilNiil 
Ps. 77: 2, but is not usual, e. g. Tfiriv!) • • • l'''''??:v!l Lev. 27: 8. There 
is one instance of (__) instead of (_ .) in the Hiphil infinitive, ^p'^tnri 
Jer. 31:32. 

4. A vowel which has arisen from Sh'va in consequence of the rejec- 
tion of the vowel of a following consonant, will he dropped in guttural as 
in perfect verbs upon the latter vowel being restored by a pause accent, 

5. Sometimes the silent Sh'va of the perfect verb is retained by the 
guttural instead of being replaced by a compound Sh'va or a subssidiary 
vowel which has arisen from it. This is mo.st frequent in the Kal future, 
though it occurs likewise in the Kal infinitive after inseparable preposi- 
tions, in the Niphal preterite and participle, in the Hiphil species, and 
also though rarely in the Hophal. There are examples of it with all the 
gutturals, though these are most numerous in the case ol" n, which is the 
strongest of that class of letters. In the majority- of roots and forms there 
is a fixed or at least a prevailing usage in liivour either of the simple or 
of the compound Sh'va; in some, however, the use of one or the other ap- 
pears to be discretionary. 

a. The following verbs always take simple Sh'va under the first radical 
in the species whose initial letters are annexed to the root, viz. : 

Cnx Hi. to be red. bin K. Hi. to he vain. nin K. to gird. 

"ins Ni. Hi. to be illus- r^\n K. Hi. to meditate, bnn K. (not Ho.) to 

trious. Cl'^n K. to thrust. cease. 

cix Hi. to close. ^"nn K. Ni. to honour. ::iin K. to cut. 

*"^tix K. to shut. n^n K. Ni. to be. n^n K. (not Hi.) to 

Clbx K. to learn. *"'?'7 K.toi7ijure,wound. lire. 

1£!< K. to gird on. snn Ni. Hi. Ho. to hide, czn K. Hi. to be wise. 

fim K. Ni. (not Hi.) •Liin K. to beat off. *'j'^n K. meaning doubt- 

io be guilty. ^zn Hi. to join together. ful. 

* 07ro| \fy6fjLfuov. 



152 " ETYMOLOGY. ^112 

nrn K. Ni. to desire. "lEt^ K. to dig. M^S K. to put on as an 

ien K. to spare. "lEfi K. Hi. to blush. ornamenl. 

can K. Ni. to do vio- ban K. ]S*i. to search. ri"|> Wi. to gather much. 

lence to. -in K. (not Hi.);o/ietc. in^ Ni. to be scanting. 

van K. to be leavened, i'i^rj K. Ni. fo incesti- "i=S K. Ni. to trouble. 
nan K. to ferment. gate. i>32J Hi. /o ie presump- 

r.in K. ^o dedicate. * inn K. ^o tremble. titous. 

bon K. to devour. nnn K. io ^aA-e 7<p. it'ps K. Ni. to pervert. 

con K. /o muzzle. Tjrn Ni. ?o 6e destined, "iby K. Hi. fo /?7Ae. 

■l6n K. Hi. to lack. brn Ho.io6esica(/c//e(Z. *Cr3 Ni. to be burnt up. 

nsn Ni. to cover. nrn K. Ni. Hi. to seal, php^ K. Hi. to be re- 
Tsn K. Ni. to be panic- Cinn K. to seize. moved. 

struck. "rn K. to break through. '^V'S K. Ni. Hi. to en- 

Y'^'^ K- '0 delight. mi? K. ^o /ore, (/oie. //ea/. 

6. The following are used witli both simple and compound Sh'va, either 
in the same form or in different forms, viz. : 

~bx to bind. non to trust. nos to wear. 

T|En to tarn. Tj'i'n to u-ilhhold. "lis to encircle. 

bin to take in pledge. r]t'n to uncover. th'J to conceal. 

dnn to bind. -iin to think. "i^S to shut up. restrain, 

pTn to be strong. T|i"n to be dark. -jT^ to supplant. 

n^n /o be sick. i^s /o /jass over. "ji'S ?o smoke. 

pBn ^0 divide. "its /o AeZp. "itSs /o 6e /zV^. 

c. The following have simple Sh'va only in the passages or parts al- 
leged, but elsewhere always compound Sh'va, viz. : 

rns 2 Chr, 19 : 2, Pr. 15 : 9, to love. lAn Ezek. 26 : 18, to tremble. 

nits Ps. 65 : 7, to gird. nrn tli. part, to be silent. 

r]DS Ps. 47 : 10. to gather. rbn Jer. 49 : 37, to be dismayed. 

-^n Ps. 109 : 23, to go. 1=? Eccl. 5:S,to serve. 
C^n Job 39 : 4, Jer. 29: S.to dream. I'iv Jer. 15 : 17. Ps. 149:5, and 

t\^n Job 20 : 24, to change, pierce. y^'-i ^^- ^ '• ^^j to exidt. 

All other Pe guttural verbs, if they occur in forms requiring a Sh'va 
under the first radical, have invariably compound Sh'va. 

The use or disuse of simple Sh'vfi is so uniform and pervading in cer- 
tain verbs, that it must in all probability be traced to the fixed usage of 
actual speech. This need not be so in all cases, however, as in other and 
less common words its occurrence or non-occurrence may be fortuitous; 
additional examples might have been pointed differently. 

* SttoI \ey6ixeyov. f Except Ps. 44 : 22. 



§113-116 AYIN GUTTURAL VERBS. 153 

§113. 1. The Hhirik of the prefix is in the Niphal future, imperative 
and participle, almost invariably lengthened to Tsere upon the omission 
of Dagliesh-forte in the first radical, 10n?_, lix';; Isa. 23 : 18, urn;] (the re- 
trocession of the accent by §35. 1) Isa. 28:27, p\r}2 Job 38:24. 'f^nj 
Num. 32 : 17, F^^n^!! 2 Sam. 17 : 23, which is in one instance expressed by 
the vowel letter "^ , ni^;y"'rj Ex. 25 : 31. The only exception is ^y^^. (two 
accents explained by §42. a) Ezek. 26: 15 for jnrins . where tlie vowel 
remains short as in an intermediate syllable, only being changed to 
Seghol before the guttural as in the Niphal and Hiphil preterites. Ac- 
cording to some copies, wliich differ in this from the received text, the 
vowel likewise remains short in >^}J^i< Job 19:7, "inibrn Ezek. 43:18, 
Cj-^bnsT 1 Chron. 24:3, CitJsa Lam.V:"ll. 

2. The initial n of the Hiphil infinitive is. as in perfect verbs, rarely 
rejected after prefixed prepositions, as ppn^^ Jer. 37: 12 for p?nnb . N''i:nb 
Eccles. 5:5, T'":~b 2 Sam. 19:19, "irb Deut. 26: 12, ^tr? Neh. 10:39, 
"i^Trb 2 Sam. 18 : 3 K'thibh ; and still more rarely that of the Nipiial infin- 
itive, ^ikii^ ham. 2:11 lor Tiirria, 5nna Ezek. 26 : 15. 

§114. The letter "i resembles the other gutturals in not admitting 
Daghesli-forte, and in requiring the previous vowel to be lengthened in- 
stead, c"2"^*1 Jon. 1 : 5, 135]^?] Ps. 106 : 25. In other cases, however, it 
causes no change in an antecedent Hhirik, Cl^"^"^ Deut. 19 : 6. li^;" 2 Sam. 
7 : 10. ri:;2"if7 Ps. 66 : 12. except in certain forms of the verb nxn to see, 
viz.; N'n^] Kal future with Vav conversive, shortened from nsi";', n5<"ii"; 
which alternates with nsjin as Hiphil preterite, and once with Vav con- 
versive preterite. "'ri'^N'^n' Nah. 3:5. It is in two instances preceded by 
Hhirik in the Hiphil infinitive, 5-inn, rj-in Jer. 50:34. In the Hophal 
speciss the participles "'nnp Isa. 14:6, n=2"i'3 Lev. 6: 14 take Kibbuts in 
the first syllable, but nxn , bsn have the ordinary Kamets Hhatuph. 
Resh always retains the simple Sh'va of perfect verbs whether silent or 
vocal, vjn-i Gen. 44 : 4. "'JsiS'i-i Ps. 129 : 86. except in one instance. T{h-j-^ 
Ps. 7 : 6. where it appears to receive Pattahh furtive contrary to the ordi- 
nary rule wiiich restricts it to the end of the word. §60. 2. a. 

§115. The verb b^ax reduplicates its last instead of its second radical 
in the Pual, b^rx ; ^in reduplicates its last syllable, sinia-iTan Lam. 2 : 11, 
§92. a. Tibi^-in Hos. 11:3 has the appearance of a Hiphil preterite with 
Pi prefixed instead of n. 

brn is a secondary root, based upon the Hiphil of bbn. See ""'3 verbs. 

For the peculiar forms of ~,6j< and T|^n see the "^'s verbs, ti'6'^ and T|r JJ • 



Ayin Guttural Verbs. 

^116. Ayin guttural verbs, or those whicli have a gut- 
tural for their second radical, are affected by the peculiarities 
of these letters, §108, in the following manner, viz. : 



154 '■ ETYMOLOGY. §117 

1. The influence of the giittnral upon a following vowel 
being comparatively shght, this latter is only converted into 
Pattahh in the future and imperative Kal, and the feminine 
plural of the future and imperative Niphal, Piel, and Hith- 
pael, where the like change sometimes occurs even without 
the presence of a guttural, "sro for bsj^;' ; r.:bi«3n for ?"'r''i?3n . 

2. No forms occm* which could give rise to Pattahh 
fui'tive. 

3. When the second radical should receive simple Sh'va, 
it takes Hhateph Pattahh instead as the compound Sh'va 
best suited to its nature ; and to tliis the new vowel, formed 
from Sh'va in the feminine singular and masculine plural of 
the Kal imperative, is assimilated, "^'psa for "'psa . 

4. Daghesh-forte is always omitted from the second radi- 
cal in Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, in which case the preceding 
vowel may either remain short as in an intermediate syllable, 
or Hhirik may be lengthened to Tsere, Pattahli to Kamets, 
and Kibbuts to Hliolem, § 60. 4, ^ns , bh . 

§117. The inflections of Ay in guttural verbs may be 
shown by the example of ^k^ , which in some species means 
to redeem, and in others tojjollute. The Iliphil and Hophal 
are omitted, as the former agrees precisely with that of per- 
fect verbs, and the latter difi'ers only in the substitution of 
compound for simple Sh'va in a manner sufficiently illus- 
trated by the foregoing species. 

a. The Pual infinitive is omitted from the paradigm as it is of rare 
occurrence, and there is no example of it in this class of verbs. As the 
absolute infinitive Piel mostly gives up its distinctive form and adopts that 
of the construct, §92. d, it is printed with Tsere in this and the following 
paradigms. 





Paradigm 


OF Ayin 


Guttural Verbs 






KAL. 


XIPUAL. 


PIEL. 


PLAL. 


niTHPAEL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


— T 


^^^'P 


bi:?^ 


bxb 


bw^srn 


3/ 


•^bw^3 


nbN:.a 


!^bx3 


5^b^2 


nbj^r^rn 

7 -;■ r ; • 


2 m. 


nbx-i 

T ; — r 


^b-"^"'? 


nb!k?; 


nbs3 

T ; — 


nbi^-irn 

T : — T : • 


2/ 


^^"5^ 


^b^?;v 


rbxrt 


rb.sb 


rbi^^rr; 


Ic. 


"li^^^? 


T'^^f? 


^^b5<3 


^^^b^^b 


"rbkr^nri 


Plur. 3 c. 


^bx-i 

-:'T 


^^^f? 


^bxs 


^b^^^ 


•b^^prt 


2 TO. 


nnbw^ii 


C3nb^?:o 


ciPibiJ^s 


dr^bi<3 


nnbw^^rn 


2/. 


I'^^^f 


•nbi<:o 


•nbxs 


"^'"^t' 


■nb^r.p- 


1 c. 


r.b^55 

: — T 


^:bJi:o 


^■-b'^^) 


ii;b^3 


^:bi<^rri 


Infi:n'. ^5soZ. 


bij<3 

T 


bi^nn 

T • 








Comtr 


bi<3 


•■ T • 


bi<!» 

•• T 




bksnn 

•• T ; • 


FUT. 3 TO. 


b^^f? 


b.S5^ 


" r I 


bs'j^ 


bk-in^ 

•• T : • 


3/ 


bJ5;.n 


bw^-in 


" T ; 


bx3ri 


bi^srn 

•• r ; • 


2 TO. 


bik:n 


" T • 


bx;n 


bwS^n 


b.^^rr, 


2/ 


"P-^vSn 


^bx^n 


'b.s:ri 


'"^^t'^ 


v^^^r^^ 


Ic. 


^^v^ 


bXy5< 


•■T -: 


b^?:'^ 


bk:,r5< 

■• T ; V 


PZ«r. 3 7?i. 


"^^^T- 


^-!^s: 


-:it: 


^bxy 


^vS^n;^ 


3/. 


Tipk-j^ 


n^bsr^n 


njbs^r;) 


n:bws:n 


n:b.<^5rri 


2 TO. 


^3x^n 


'bws;^n 


^bJ5:»n 


^ib!S5:.n 


^b.NJ^rn 


2/. 


r;:bi<:.ri 


n:b^<-in 

T : — T • 


r;:bk:.n 

T : — T : 


^:b^<;.^l 


M:bwS3rn 


Ic. 


. ^^^?? 




bs;o 


b.s:g 


bj<r.nD 

•• T ; • 


ImPER. 2 TO. 


bJ5| 


bj^sn 

** T • 


bx3 




^^^^r^n 


2/ 


'?^^ • 


"bis^n 


"bs55 

• -:iT 


wanting 


^^^.t'^" 


P?Mr. 2 TO. . 


^^'^ 


^-!!J?5D 


^bs3 




^bxsrr; 


2/ 


•^rr^^ 


r;:b>i^n 


r;:bs3 

r ; — T 




riDbiJsnr; 

T : — T ; • 


Pabt. J.c^. 


bii<b 




b^"j 

"T : 




^J<5P"^ 


Pass. 


T 


T ; • 




■ bi<"2 

T ; 





155 



156 " ETYMOLOGY. §118,119 



Remarks on Ayin Guttural Verbs. 

§118. 1. If the second radical is "i, the Kal future and imperative 
commonly iiave Hholem; but the following take Patlahh. Tj'^N to belong, 
S~n to be (hied or desolate, "l^n to tremble, ri^r. to reproach, to winter^ 
rnn to sharpen, 3^s to be sweet, -"^j^ to come near, C^j? to cocer ; ^i^'^i to 
ttar in pieces, has either Hholem or Pattahh ; uSnn to plough lias fut. 5, 
to be silent has fut. a. 

2. With any other guttural for the second radical the Kal future and 
imperative have Pattahh; only -H: to roar, and cnn to luce, have Hho- 
lem; ci'i to curse, hv'o to trespass, and b"3 to do. have either Pattahh 
or Hholem; the future of inx to grasp, is tHn;^ or 'nxi. 

3. Pattahh in the ultimate is as in perfect verbs commonly prolonged 
to Kamets before suffixes, where Hholem would be rejected, f^^i^X Prov. 
4:6. cn-jn'i-^ 2 Kin. 10 : U, ={rnrs 2 Sam. 22:43, ^:^Bn':J Isa. 45:11, 
•^sinx;] Gen. 29: 32. 

4. The feminine plurals of the Niphal and Piel futures have Pattahh 
with the second radical whether this be "i or another guttural. Dpbnan 
Ezek.7:27, njryin Prov. 6:27. nD:nnn Ezek. 16:6. :n3ES:n Hos. 4:13, 
but Tsere occasionally in pause. n:"irj":n Jer. 9 : 17. 

§119. 1. With these exceptions the vowel accompanying the guttural 
is the same as in the perfect verb ; thus the Kal preterite mid. c ! -nx 
Gen. 27 : 9, r,2nN; Deut. 15 : 16; infinitive pn 1 Sam. 7 : 8, =np Jer. 15:3, 
with Makkepl'i! "nnsi 1 Kin. 5:20; Niphal infinitive, cn^n Ex. 17:10, 
with suffixes. ?i:~'i'n 2 Chron. 16: 7, S, with prefixed 3, cnbj Judg. 11 :25, 
iix^'3 1 Sam. 20 : 6. 28. and once anomalously with prefixed N . u;n~N Ezek. 
14: 3 (a like substitution of X for n occurring once in the Hij)hil preterite, 
frbx^x Isa. 63:3); future cn^i Ex. 14:14, witii Vav conversive, 
: 0x52'^]' Job 7:5, ^n;5^T Ex. 32:1, prj'i Judg. 6:34. in^ni Ex. 9:15, 
ynsni i\um. 22:25. or with the accent on the penult, nn^'] Ex. 17:8, 
crkni Gen. 41:8; imperative. cn|r, 1 Sam. 18:17, or with the accent 
thrown back, l-icn Gen. 13:9; Hiphil infinitive, l^JXSn 1 Sam. 27:12. 
pnnn Gen. 21: 16. D-'^nin Deut. 7:2. apocopated future, cri^ 1 Sam. 
2: 10, blhp^ 1 Kin. 8:1 (in the parallel passage. 2 Chron. 5^:2. b^np^), 
rnrn Deut. 9 : 26, n-ns^ Ps. 12 : 4. with Vav conversive. Dr2^;i 1 Kin. 22 : 54. 
Tn=xi Zech. 11:8; imperative, zr^^-^r, Ex.28 : 1. with Makkeph, "=n-in Ps. 
81 : 11. "pv^ry 2 Sam. 20:4. ~^r-}X:^X] Deut. 4: 10, with a pause accent the 
last vowel sometimes becomes Pattahh. pnnn Job 13 : 21, ! "ijt^n Ps. 69:24, 
though not always, ^npn Lev. 8 : 3. Hophal infinitive. 3"inn 2 Kin. 3: 23. 
Tsere is commonly retained in the last syllable of the Piel and Hithpael, 
which upon the retrocession or loss of the accent is shortened to Seghol. 
C-ns Lev. 5:22. trp^_ Hos. 9:2, pnib Gen. 39:14. -pnrb Ps. 104:26, 
q-nn:" 74 : 10. r-j'i"^V Gen. 39 : 4, n^lErn:. Dan. 2 : 1. Z'}is.^ 2 Kin. IS : 23, 
and occasionally belbre suffixes to Hhirik. csriB Isa. 1 : 15, :r,nr2i2 (fern. 
form for ?jrny5^, §01. 5) 1 Sam. 16: 15 but c=^nnb Isa. 30 : IS, c=rind 



^120,121 REMARKS ON A YIN GUTTURAL VERBS. 157 

Ezek. 5 : 16; in a few instances, however, as in the perfect verb, Pattahh 
is taken instead, thus in the preterite, Dtib Mai. 3: 19, en*. Ps. 103:13, 
pnn Isa. 6 : 12, tnx Deut. 20 : 7, Tpa Gen. 24 : 1 (-■i? rarely occurs ex- 
cept in pause), wHS Isa. 25:11, and more rarely still in the imperative, 
S-i;^ Ezek. 37 : 17, and future ^^l^rr? Prov. 14: 10, bxJn'^ . t^Xjr"^ Dan. 1 : 8. 

2. ^X'^; which has Kamets in pause. ^xiU, ^^JJi^. but most commonly 
Tsere before suffixes. "|^5^'4'- 'i^lbx'r. exluiiifs the peculiar forms, cnbyd 
1 Sam. 12:13, irnbx^' l' Sam. l':20, WnbxuJ Judg. 13:6, sin-r.PX'iii 
1 Sam. 1 : 28. 

3. Kamets Hhatuph sometimes remains before the guttural in the Kal 
imperative and infinitive with suffixes or appended n , C-'^.i* Hos. 9: 10, 
ri^NJ Ruth 3: 13, 00X73 Am. 2:4. 0=0X73 (by §61. 1) Isa'.^O : 12, ci^'i^? 
Deut. 20 : 2 (the alte/imie form being cz;-i'-^^ Josh. 22 : 16), ninn Ex. 30 :' \8, 
n|?n"i Ezek. 8:6. and sometimes is changed to Pattahh, T(p?.i Isa. 57 : 13, 
e^Vi? Ezeks20:27, ni:ro Hos. 5 : 2. n^n s Deut. 10:15. nistj Jer. 31 : 12, 
or with simple Sh'va under the guttural, TjTtr:! Ps. 68:8, isn 2 Chron. 
26:19. In nhvh Num. 23:7. Kamets Hhatuph is lengthened to Hholem 
in the simple syllable. Once the paragogic imperative takes the form 
nbsd Isa. 7:11, comp. nnb'p, ni^'icj Dan. 9: 19, nXEi Ps. 41 : 5. 

4. Hhirik of the inflected Kal imperative is retained before "i, 'innB 
Josh. 9:6, and once before n. Hn^] Job 6: 22; when the first radical is X 
it becomes Seghol, "inx Ps. 31 ; 24. "iTnx Cant. 2r 15 ; in other cases it 
is changed to Pattahh, ""^k?:. Isa. 14:31, 'p-JJ. Judg. 10:14. 

§ 120. 1. The compound Sh'va after Kamets Hhatuph is (^.), after 
Seghol (_). in other cases (..), as is sufficiently shown by the examples 
already adduced. Exceptions are rare, ''inx Ruth 3:15, "''in'l'ri Ezek. 
16: 33, in;jxn': y'tha'rehu Isa. 44: 13. 

2. The letter before the guttural receives compound Sh'va in T^j^l^ 
Gen. 21:6; in "l^?^>N5 Ezek. 9:8. this leads to the prolongation of the 
preceding vowel and its expression by the vowel letter X, § 11. 1. a. This 
fetter form, though without an exact parallel, is thus susceptible of ready 
explanation, and there is no need of resorting to the hypothesis of an error 
in the text or a confusion of two distinct readings, iX'^'3 and "Xli'X. 

3. Resh commonly receives simple Sh'va, though it has compound in 
some forms of 7(^3; e.g. 1="?,aPi Num. 6:23, io^a Gen. 27:27. 

§121. 1. Upon the omission of Daghesh-forte from the second radical 
the previous vowel is always lentrthened before 1, alrnost always before 
X, and prevailingly before 5, but rarely before n or n. The previous 
vowel remains short in P.ya to terrify. Dr3 to provoke, '^'J'O to be few, "i53 
to shake, and pSS to cry. It is sometimes lengthened, though not always, 
in "1X3 to wake plain, PXS to commit adultery, ^^XJ to despise, ""XJ to re- 
ject, bxd to ask ; i?3 to consume, "'■i'b to sweep away by a tempest. -'S7\ to 
abhor ; bna to affright, nris to be dim, bna to lead. It is also lengthened 
in nn|5 to be dull, which only occurs Eccl. 10: 10. The only instances of . 



158 ETYMOLOGY. §122,123 

the prolongation of the vowel before n are cnb Pi. inf Judg. 5 : S. "(na Pu. 
pret. Ezek. 21: IS. W^ Pu. pret. Ps. 36: 13, 'r\^rr,rrs Job 9:30, the first two 
of which may, however, be regarded as nouns. Daghesh-lbrte is retained 
and the vowel consequently remains short in r.'^s Ezek. 16:4. : >!N"i Job 
33:21, unless the point in the latter example is to be regarded as Mappik. §26. 

2. When not lengthened, Hhirik of the Piel preterite commonly re- 
mains unaltered before the guttural, i^n.3 Job 15:18. wnilJ Jer. 12:10, 
though it is in two instances changed to Seghol, l^nx Judg. 5: 2S. "^rnim 
Ps. 51:7. 

3. When under the influence of a pause accent the guttural receives 
Kamets, a preceding Pattahh is converted to Seghol, §63. 1. a. iri'^n:n 
Ezek. 5:13, cn:ri' Num. 23: 19, il-ni^n Num. 8:7. 

§122. 1. "i??"! and "(ixifj are Piel forms with the third radical redupli- 
cated in place of the second; "Hino doubles the second syllable; and ^-f^.ij 
*l2n Hos. 4 : 18. is by the ablest Hebraists regarded as one word, the last 
two radicals being reduplicated together with the personal ending, §92. a. 

2. v:y:i and "i'O have two forms of the Piel. irnia and ir'iiij , -so and 
ISO, §92. b.; and C?a two forms of the Hithpael, vla^sn"^, 1^?f~? Jer. 
46:7.8; : 'f •JS'S Isa. 52:5. follows the analogy of the latter; yail Eccl. 
12: 5, is sometimes derived from "X3 to despise, as if it were for "|'""i<2'^ ; 
such a form would however be unexampled. The vowels show it to be 
the Hiphil future of yi or rather yii^ iojiourish or blossom, the X being 
inserted as a vowel letter, § 11. \. a. ^>it53 Isa. 59:3. Lam. 4:14 is a 
Niphal formed upon the basis of a Pual. §83. c. (2). Uir'-n Ezra 10: 16 
is an anomalous infinitive from vy^ , which some regard as Kal. others 
as Piel. 



Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 

§123. Lamedh guttural verbs, or those which have a 
guttural for their third radical, are affected by the peculiari- 
ties of these letters, § lOS, in the following manner, viz. : 

1 . The vowel preceding the third radical becomes Pat- 
tahh in the future and imperative Kal, and in the feminine 
plurals of the future and imperative Piel, Hiphil, and Hith- 
pael, n?ir\ 

2. Tsere preceding the third radical, as in the Piel and 
Hithpael and in some forms of the other species, may either 
be changed to Pattahh or retained ; in the latter case the 
guttural takes Pattahh-furtive, §17, after the long heteroge- 
neous vowel, e. g. n'ii?^ or nl?T?"' . 



§124 LAMEDH GUTTURAL VERBS. 159 

3. Hhirik of the Hipliil species, Hholem of the Kal and 
Niphal infinitives, and Shurek of the Kal passive participle, 
suffer no change before the final guttural, which receives a 
Pattahh-furtive, n-'Srn , n"Sc . 

4. The guttural retains the simple Sh'va of the perfect 
verb before all afformatives beginning with a consonant, 
though compound Sh'va is substituted for it before suffixes, 
which are less closely attached to the verb, r^i7^T^ , ^nb© . 

5. When, however, a personal afformative consists of a 
single vowelless letter, as in the second feminine singular of 
the preterite, the guttiu'al receives a Pattahh-furtive to aid in 
its pronunciation without sundering it from the affixed ter- 
mination, rin^iT . 

a. Some grammarians regard tin's as a Pattahh inserted between the 
guttural and the final vowelless consonant by §61. 2, and accordingly pro- 
nounce rin^o shalahhat instead of shala''hht. But as these verbs do 
not suffer even a compound Sh'va to be inserted before the affixed per- 
sonal termination, it is scarcely probable that a full vowel would be ad- 
mitted. And the Daghesh-lene in the final Tav and the Sh'va under it 
show that the preceding vowel sign is not Pattahh but Pattahh-furtive, 
§ 17. a. 

6. There is no occasion in these verbs for the application 
of .the rule requiring the omission of Daghesh-forte from the 
gutturals. 

^124. The inflections of Lamedh guttural verbs maybe 
represented by Ti'jx to send. The Pual and Hophal, which 
agree with perfect verbs except in the Pattahh-furtive of the 
second feminine preterite and of the absolute infinitive, are 
omitted from the paradigm. The Hithpael of this verb does 
not occur, but is here formed from analogy, the initial sib- 
ilant being transposed with n of the prefix, according to 
§82.5. 

a. Instead of the Niphal infinitive absolute with prefixed n, which 
does not happen to occur in any verb of this class, the alternate form with 
prefixed 3, §91. 6, is given in the paradigm, H'^ui? being in actual use. 



Paradigm 


OF Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


HIPHIL. 


HITHPAEL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


- T 


nbic? 


T^t 


n^b"::n 


nbr-i'n 


3/. 


nfibuj 


nnb-ji] 

T : : • 






nnbr-Lrn 


2 m. 


T : - T 


r-biiiD 


r ; - • 


r-b*ubn 


T : - - ; • 


2/ 


n-b'ij 


prip'^rp 


r.rbd 


n-b-rn 


nnbricn 


1 c. 


• ; - r 


^nnb-dJD 


^n-rij 


^nnbu^n 


"nnbrnun 


Plur. 3 G. 


■nbuj 


•'^b"^'? 


^ihbTD 


^-■br- 


•1) lii-_IU,» J 


2 m. 


nnnb-ij 


Drnb'i'D 


nnnb-^z: 


Drrbzn 


□ri"!iria,"n 


2/ 


iri"V^ 


"1^1"^^? 


■p)"V^ 


■nnb'i'n 


■irir;*riii'r) 


1 c. 


: ' T 


^:-5'i\] 


^]-b-j 




^r-br-cr; 


Intin. ^5soZ. 


nibiT 


nbir: 


•1 


^5?'^" 






Constr. 


riD'^ 


rbT2n 

- T , 


nbd 


tt yzT} 


rbnuT'n 


Fpt. 3 m. 


-3t^ 


nbilj^ 


^?'^' 


'j'lip: 


"br^^j? 


3/ 


-S'iri 


nb'ijn 

" r • 


nj-i-n 


ij'b'^'^ 


rbr,Tn 


2 w. 


rp-j:'ri 


n^^n 


n'i'^n 


r^'^r^ 


nsnirn 


2/ 


•nb'siin 


■nbiiin 


"fib^n 


"Ti'p'i'ri 


'nbFi'i'n 


Ic. 


i^H^^ 


-b■^I}^< 

■ T V 


nVi.\N5 


n-b-i\si 


nbn-i-x 


P^wr. 8 TO. 


^nb'x:-' 


^nb":3^ 


^inr^':' 


r-bd: 


'II l>iM^ 


3/ 


nsribxri 




r;:nb'an 




ri:r;bri-.L-n 


2 TO. 


^nbojn 


^nb^n 

: IT • 


^nboji^ 


^n-b-dn 


^iM^S7i'»rri 


2/ 


ns-b-i-n 




r;:r;^v2:'n 


r;:n5"dn 


riinbn^ijn 


Ic. 


nb'j:? 


Th'^} 


nbdp 


U^>"^: 


-r^'^? 


Impek. 2 TO. 


nb'oj 


rb^an 


nb'^ 


^buin 


rbr-dn- 


2/ 


"nbuj 


^nb'iJn 


• ^r'V^? 


'^''?'■^'^ 


"ribriupn 


PZ«r. 2 m. 


^fib'^ 


^fibujn 

: tT • 


^nb^? 


^n^b'dn 


^nbn-j;- 


2/ 


^^s'^'^ 


1 I.I i^ui 1 

T ; - r • 


T : " - 


1 iDmDoJ* 1 


» irriinirn 


Paet. Act. 


nb'i? 




n'iir:j 


rrii'&2 


nbruk] 


Pass. 


T 


nbu:3 

T : • 









160 



§125,126 REMARKS ON LAMEDH GUTTURAL VERBS. 161 



Remarks on Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 

§ 125. 1. The Kal future and imperative have Pattahh without exception ; 
in one instance the K'thibh inserts ^. mbos Jer. 5:7, where the K'ri is 
"nbox . The vowel a is retained before suffixes, remaining short in nrsa 
Am. 9:1, but usually lengthened to Kamels, rj!i2r;^3';> 2 Chron. 21:1?', 
'':rr":J Gen. 23:11. In the paragogic imperative a may be retained, 
nnb'o . nrrd Dan. 9: 19, or rejected, and Hhirilc given to the first radical, 
-nsris Job 32 : 10, nnbd Gen. 43: 8. Hhirilc appears in r-ADTS Gen. 25:31. 
but verbs whose last radical is i commonly take Kamets Hhatuph like 
perfect verbs both before paragogic n^, and suffixes, "irn^a 1 Chron. 
29: 18, CTw-fs Prov. 3:3. 

2. The Kal infinitive construct mostly has o, yp^b Jon. 2:1, : ;i;b 
Num. 17:28, "ira Isa. 54:9, rarely a. n^d Isa. 58:9, sia Num. 20:3, 
?jnirT3 i Sam. 15: 1. With a feminine ending, the first syllable takes 
Kamets Hhatuph. S^f^rS Zeph. 3:11; so sometimes before suffixes, inat 
2 Sam. 15:12. 'S-Q'a i\eh. 1:4. cbsria Josh. 6:5, but more commonly 
Hhirik. =rp3 Am.'l : 13, "isas Num. 35: 19, inns Neh. 8 : .5, rarely Pat- 
tahh, ^^i^"? Ez^k. 25:6. 

3. Most verbs with final "^ haveHholem in the Kal future and impera- 
tive. But such as have middle e in the preterite take Pattaiih. §82. 1. a; 
and in addition the following, viz.: ~ax to shut, "^x to say. ""in to honour, 
*i"n to gi'ow jHile, "iPJ to shake, "U,"? to be rich, "^riS to entreat, "^'c^ to slip 
away, "iSS to press, "iDO to drink or be drunken. The following have 
Pattahh or Hholem, *iTa to decree, I'lJ to vow, "iki^ fut. o, to reap, fut. a, 
to be short. 

§ 126. 1. Tsere is almost always changed to Pattahh before the guttural 
in the preterite, infinitive construct, future and imperative; but it is re- 
tained and Pattahh-furtive given to the guttural in pause, and in the in- 
finitive absolute and participle which partake of the character of nouns 
and prefer lengthened forms. Thus, Niphal : infin. constr.. S^^'n Eslh. 
2:8, nrsjn Isa. 51: 14, future, n=^;^ Ps, 9: 19. : r;rn';' Job 17 : 3,' impera- 
tive, even in pause, HINn. Piel: preterite, r^a Lev. 14:8. i"^3i 2 Chron. 
34 : 4. infin. constr., rs2 Hah. 1:13. ?^3 Lam. 2 : 8, future. r??7 Job 16:13. 
!?i?:n 2 Kin. 8 : 12, ;rhtr\ Deut. 7 :5,'^imperative, n^-;: Ex. 4:23. Hipliil : 
apocopated future, n^a^ 2 Kin. 18:30, fut. vv'ith Vav conversive, "i:?:] 
Judg. 4:23, fem. plur.. i-ijrsn Ps. 119: 171, imperative, ?C"n Ps. 86:' 2. 
and even in pause, nB:in 1 Kin. 22:12. Hithpael: ^^arn Prov. 17:14, 
Harn"! Dan. 11:40. nspi'rn Ps. 106:47; this species sometimes has 
Kamets in its pausal forms.' >i-;?2rri Josh. 9:13, : "|?rri Ps. 107 : 27. On 
the other hand, the absolute infinitives: Piel. ri^d Deut. 22:7. Hiphil, 
!!J2?n Isa. 7:11. Hophal. rHon Ey.ek. 16:4. Partifiples: Kal. n-J2 Deut. 
28:52. but occasionally in the construct state with Pattahh, ra; Ps. 94: 9, 
si'n Isa. 51:15, rpn Isa. 42:5, ro'j Lev. 11:7, Piel. nsT^ 1 Kin, 3:3, 
Hithpael, yancia 1 Sam. 21 : 15. Tsere is retained before suffixes of the 
second person instead of being either changed to Pattahh or as in perfect 
11 



162 



ETYMOLOGY. § 1^7, 128 



verbs shortened to Seghol, Pi. inf. const. f,n>.^ Deut. 15: 18 fv:L ^|n>jr8S 
Gen. 31 : 27. There is one instance of Pattahh in the Hiphil int. const., 
nsin Job 6 : 26. 

2 In verbs with final "> Pattahh takes the place of Tsere for the most 
part in the Piel preterite (in pause Tsere), and frequently in the Hithpael 
Cm pause Kamets) ; but Tsere (in pause Tsere or Pattahh^ §65.a) is com- 
monly retained elsewhere, niir Ps. 76:4, :^3^ Ex. 9 : 25, n.,nrn Prov. 
25 • 6 -^-snn Ps. 93: 1, ^^^«^ Gen. 22 : 14, nts: Gen. 10 : 19. : -i^rn Zeph. 
2:4.' Two verbs have Seghol in the Piel preterite, n?? (in pause, nsrr.) 
and 1B3. 

§ 127 1 The cTuttural almost always has Patfahh-furtive in the second 
fern. eing. of the'prelerile, m:7?^ Ruth 2:8, :m'=a Ezek. 16:28, njan 
Esth 4:° 4. V\r,'S^r^ Ezek. 16: 4, scarcely ever simple Sh'va, nn;?b 1 Kin. 
14-3 nnrd Jer.'l'3:5, and never Pattahh (which might arise from the 
concurrence' of consonants at the end of a word, §61. 2), unless in rnpb 
Gen 30-5 and '.rnsb Gen. 20: 16, the former of which admits of ready 
explanation as a construct infinitive, and the latter may be a Niphal par- 
ticiple in the feminine singular, whether it be understood as in the common 
Enali.h version "sAe was reproved.'' or it is adjudged {\. e. iusl\y due. 
as a compensation) to thee ; the latest authorities, however, preler to 
render it ihou art judged, i. e. justice is done thee by this indemnification. 
Pattahh is once inserted before the abbreviated terminationof the feminine 
plural imperative, )V^^_ Gen. 4: 23 for njTrrJ . 

2 The guttural takes compound instead of simple Sh'va before suf- 
fixes' not only when it stands ai the end of the verb. !q>3i2 Num. 24: 11, 
VST^^ Prov 25:17, but also in the first plural of the preterite, r,«n.=a 
Ps"44- 18 (wis ver. 21), ciiirn": Isa. 59: 12, W!i:r^.2 Ps. 35 : 25, C^=?,irin 
2 Sam' 21-6 WyiDd Ps. 132:6; ^ retains simple Sh'va before all per- 
sonal terminations^ and suffixes, nnix Judg.4:20, c=n^X Mal.l:7, C=n3S 
Josh. 4 : 23. 

3. In a few exceptional cases the letter before the guttural receives 
compound Sh'va, nrbsx Isa. 27:4, -nnj^b Gen. 2:23. 

^1^8 The Hiphil infinitive construct once has the feminine ending ns, 
n-'rdn Ezek. 24:26; nrnaSPn Ezek. 16:50 for n:ns;n^ perhaps owes 
its'anomalous form to its being assimilated in termination to the following 
word, which is a Lamedh He verb. In nprJ Am. 8 : 8 K'thibh for nypia? 
the guttural 5 is elided, §53, 3. 

Pe Nun (fs) Veubs. 

§129. Nun, as the first radical of verbs, lias two pecu- 
liarities, viz. : 

1. At the end of a syllable it is assimilated to the fol- 



§ 130 PE NUN VERBS. 163 

lowing consonant, the two letters being written as one, and 
the doubling indicated by Daghesh-forte. This occurs in the 
Kal future, Niphal preterite and participle, and in the Hiphil 
and Hophal species throughout; thus, TIJ 3 3"' becomes '^i'^\ 
written t^'! , so 1^53 for t"5:D , r-'sn for ©-^iifn. In the 
Hophal, Kamets Hhatuph becomes Kibbuts before the 
doubled letter, §61. 5, TOan for i2Ja:n. 

2. In the Kal imperative with Pattahh it is frequently 
dropped, its sound being easily lost from the beginning of a 
syllable when it is without a vowel, t'3 for icip , § 53. 2. A 
like rejection occurs in the Kal infinitive construct of a few 
verbs, the abbreviation being in this case compensated by 
adding the feminine ternunation n ; thus, rnra for riica (by 
§ 63. 2. a), the primary form being ilJis . 

a. In the Indo-European languages likewise, n is frequently conformed 
lo or affected by a following consonant, and in certain circumstances it is 
liable to rejection, e. g. eyypa<^a), €/>i/3aAAw, o-va-Tpicfxj}. 

§ 130. 1. The inflections of Pe Nun verbs may be repre- 
sented by ci? to apjjroach. In the Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, 
they do not differ from perfect verbs. The last column of 
the paradigm is occupied by the Kal. species of in: to ffive, 
which is pecidiar in assimilating its last as well as its first 
radical, and in having Tsere in the future. 

a. The Kal of 11553 is used only in the infinitive, future, and imperative, 
the preterite and participle being supplied by the Niphal, which has sub- 
stantially the same sense: the missing parts are in the paradigm supplied 
from analogy. 

b. The future of 'jPS has Pattahh in one instance before Makkeph, 
"in? Judg. 16 : 5. 





Paradigm of Pe Nun Y 


ERBS. 






KAL. 


XIPHAL. 


HipniL. 


nOPHAL. 


KAL. j 


Pp.ET. 3 7?i, 


— r 


T ^Z 


'C'^ri 


Tr>ri 


T". 


3/. 


* >*>''•'•. 


T ; • 


1 1— "ilt 1 

T • • 




T ; rT 


2 77i. 


T ; — T 


r"i'3i 


r°^5~ 


""-•5" 


rr: | 


2/. 


^r^- 


iv'r^z 


iTwiin 


~'-r^~ 


rsr: j 

: — r I 


Ic. 


*~""r^- 


T-.l'r 


"r"i.'5ri 


"r"Ti>n 


■nr: ; 

• — T 1 


Plur. 3 c. 


: IT 


rc". 


^ui^sn 


^■:5n ' 


: IT 


2 wi. 


cr-^:-: 


^r-r;: 


c~'C3ri 


cr^i'r^ri 


^^^T 


2/ 


"jpi\rrc 


■~'^5" 


"~"^"^v 


"JT'^^n 


m-. 


1 c. 




*!'^5r 


vi"C."ir! 




— T 


IsYis. AMol. 


T 


wT'ii 1 


w^n 






Comtr. 


^■^^ 


■•T • 


'*-"?" 




rn ! 


Frx. 3 m. 


Dr 


125'ir 

"T - 


''~'^1 


-•■. 


"i^t 


3/ 


■iin 


••T • 


-■^^ 


•dtPi 


IIDT. ^ 


2ni. 


'csri 


-rli^ 


•c-n 


thr\ 


]t^ 


2/. 


"r^r 


" -r ''?*■ 


"'r'lii^! 


-r-in ' 


*;rr 


1 c. 


-5^ 


•T V 


■-■3X 


■c^s 


■ptS ' 


Plur. 3 7/6. 


*■-?" 


v-rc" 


" — "li" 


■'"•-" 


':rr 


3/ 


nr'w^r* 


r:-r;.:;n 


""r^ri 


r^r-r^ri 


(-1-^)1 


2m. 


■'—v^'.' 


• t::n 


Vr-iiH 


"—31^ 


^:rri 


2/ 


nzw^r": 


T ; --T • 


^,-rr:^ 


rn'riip 


("^)! 


Ic 


'tT^r 


••T • 


"vT'IC 


'tT^r 


1 


Impeb. 2 m. 


'>rri 


">i'r>iri 


"'" r!~ 




t 


2/ 


"'iiii 


"Zj>m* J 




wanting 


^:ri 


P/!^r. 2 m. 


VC3 


v'"'"n 


' -'^n 




^DD 


2/ 


T : — 


T : --T • 


nrcsij 




{r>m 


Pabt. J.c<. 


'^}} 




•c'i'j 




ir^'= 


Paw. 


T 


T • 




tt'2 1 


l^hs 



164 



§131,132 REMARKS ON PE NUN VERBS. 165 



Remarks on Pe Nun Verbs. 

§ 131. 1. If the second radical be a guttural or a vowel letter. Xun be- 
comes strong by contrast and is not liable to rejection or assimilation, 
bn: Num. 34: I's, ;n: 2 Kin. 4:24. •:hri Gen. 24:4S, nni:x Ex. \5:2. 
It i.=, however, always assimilated in -n: the Niphal preterite of rnj to 
repent, and occasionally in rn: to descend, e. sr. rn;^ Jer. 21 : 13. r.nn 
Prov. 17: 10, wn: Ps. 38: 3 but rn:ri ibid.. rn:n Joel 4 : 11. 

2. Before other consonants the rule (or assimilation is observed with 
rare exceptions, viz. : : i-5:ri Isa. 5S : 3, ~^:ri Ps. 68 : 3. ""S:"^ Jer. 3 : 5. 
:^-is:7 Deut. 33 : 9 (and occasionally elsewhere), ~;?:"^ Job 40 : 24. i^sp:") 
Isa.'ii9: 1. rrn:" Ezek. 22:20. be:? (ibr -5:nb) Num. 5:22, ryr'zvz (for 
Tjrbrns with Daghesh-forte separative. §21. 5) Isa. 33:1, ''p~:r! Judg. 
20:31.' 

3. Nun IS commonly rejected from the Kal imperative with a. C5 
2 Sam. 1 : 15 (once before Makkeph. "-5 Gen. 19: 9, in plural ^ii; 1 Kin. 
IS: 30 and rra Josh. 3 : 9). "rs Ex. 3:5, r; Job 1 : 11. !!rq Deut. 2 : 24. 
"ns Ezek. 37: 9. """'r;' Gen. 27:26. though it is occasionally retained. 
sir-J3 2 Kin. 19:29, x'i': Ps. 10 : 12. or by a variant orthography, re: Ps! 
4 : 7 but always elsewhere Xw . In imperatives with o. and in Lamedh He 
verbs which have e in the imperative. Nun is invariably retained, t;-::: 
Prov. 17:14. -213 Ps. 24:14, cp? Num. 31:2, yr: Ps. 58:7, rcp: Gen. 
30:27, rhz Ex. 8: 1. ' ' ' 

4. The rejection of Nun from the Kal construct infinitive occurs in but 
few verbs; viz.: rds (with suffix, T.-;;) from ci:, rns from no;, rr'a 
(twice) and r;3 from "33. rr^ (once) and ri: li-om r::: . si: has rx'.D 
(by §60. 3. c), with the preposition h. rxcb by §57. 2. (3). once ra 
(j53. 3) Job 41 : 17, once without the feminine ending. X"- Ps. 89: 10, and 
twice x'i": : "r: has commonly rr (for r:rj. with suffixes "rn. but *r: 
Num. 20 :'21, and -,-: Gen. 38 : 9. 

5. The absolute infinitive Niphal appears in the three forms 'riri Jer. 
32 : 4, 7-kzr\ Ps. 68 : 3. and r-j; Judg. 20 : 39. 

6. The n of the prefix in the Hithpael species is in a few instances 
assimilated to the first radical. §82. 5. a, "r,~n:n Ezek. 5:13. "rxi|n 
Ezek. 37 : 10, Jer. 23; 13, vrkvp^ Num. 24 : 7. Dan.'ll : 14, : ^^xs^ Isa. 52: 5. 

§ 132 ]. The last radical of *»"3 is assimilated in the Niphal as well as 
in the Kal species. -rP3 Lev. 26:25. The final Nun of other verbs re- 
mains without assimilation, R?ES. P??'~. ~P^?- In 2 Sam. 22 : 41 nrn is 
for ~rr3 which is (bund in the parallel pa.s.=age Ps. 18:41. "jBri 1 Kin. 
6: 19. 17:14 K'thibh. is probablv. as explained by Ewald. the Kal con- 
struct infinitive without the feminine ending (^) prolonged by reduplica- 
tion, which is the case with some other short words, e. e- 'VZ'i from 'w. 
^sr: lor ""2 ; others regard it as the infinitive rn with the 3 fern. plur. suffix 
or with •) paragogic ; Gesenius takes it to be, as always elsewhere, the 



166 ETTMOLOGY. ^133,134. 

2 iiiasc. sing, of the Kal future. n:ri P.«. 8:2, is the Kal iufin.. comp. 
n'7"i Gen. 46 : 3. not the 3 fern. sing. pret. for njr: (Xordheimer). nor the 
imperative with paragogic n^, as n;n is always to be explained elsewhere. 

2. The peculiarities of Pe Nun verbs are shared by rpb (o take, whose 
first radical is assimilated or rejected in the same manner as 3. Kal inf 
const, rinj? (with prep. b. rn;rb. to be distinguished from Pnpb 2 feni. 
sing. pret.). once "rnp (by §6(). 3. c) 2 Kin. 12: 9. with soffixes "r;";^. 
fut. nj?-;. imper. rp, "'hp rarely n;rb, "njT'b . Hoph. fut. P.j5i , but Niph. 
pret. nj^b;. In Hos. 11:3 en;? is the masculine infinitive with tlie sutfi.x 
for nn~;5 ; the same form occurs without a &Liffi.\'. np? Ezek. 17: 5, or this 
may be explained with Gesenius as a preterite for "irb . 

3. In Isa. 64: 5 b~:} has the form of a Hiphil future from bb'a. but the 
eense shows it to be from ^33 for bsri . Daghesh-forte being omitted and 
the previous vowel lengthened in consequence, §59. a. 



Atin Doubled {"sv) Verbs. 

§133. The imperfect verbs, thus far considered, differ 
from the perfect verbs either in the vowels alone or in the 
consonants alone ; those "which follow, differ in both vowels 
and consonants, §107, and consequently depart much more 
seriously from the standard paradigm. The widest diver- 
gence of all is found in the Ayin doubled and Ayin Yav 
verbs, in both of which the root gives up its dissyllabic 
character and is converted into a monosyllable ; a common 
feature, which gives rise to many striking resemblances and 
even to an occasional interchange of forms. 

§134. 1. In explaining the inflections peculiar to Ayin 
doubled verbs, it will be most convenient to separate the in- 
tensive species Piel and Pual with their derivative the Hitli- 
pael from the other four. That which gives rise to all their 
pecuhar forms in the Kal, Xiphal, Hiphil, and Hoplial 
species, is the disposition to avoid the repetition of the same 
sound by uniting the two similar radicals and giving the in- 
tervening vowel to the previous letter, thus, 2D for -29 , 
no for 229 §61.3. 

2. In the Kal species this contraction is optional in the 
preterite ; it is rare in the infinitive absolute though usual in 



§135 AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 167 

the construct, and it never occurs in the participles. With 
these exceptions, it is universal in the species akeacly named. 
§135. This contraction produces certain changes both in 
the vowel, which is thrown back, and in that of the preced- 
ing syllable. 

1 . When the first radical has a vowel (pretonic Kamets, 
§ 82. 1), as in the Kal preterite and infinitive absolute, and 
in the Niphal infinitive, future and imperative, this is simply 
displaced by the vowel thrown back from the second radical, 
thus nio , no , nifio , nb ; 3n3n , nion ; lisn , ntbn , 

2. When the first radical ends a mixed syllable as in the 
Kal future, the Niphal preterite, and throughout the Hiphil 
and Hophal, this will be converted into a simple syllable by 
the shifting of the vowel from the second radical to the first, 
whence arise the following mutations : 

In the Kal future aMo^ becomes ^o;^ with ^ in a simple 
syllable, contrary to §18.2. This may, however, be con- 
verted into a mixed syllable by means of Daghesh-forte, and 
the short vowel be retained, thus yo"} ; or the syllable may 
remain simple and the vowtI be lengthened from Hhirik to 
Tsere, §59, thus, in verbs fut. a, 1^.? for ^'^'a'^ ; or as the 
Hhirik of this tense is not an original vowel but has arisen 
from Sh'va, §85.2.«(l),it may be neglected and d, the simplest 
of the long vowels, given to the preformative, which is the 
most common expedient, thus no^ . The three possible 
forms of this tense are consequently 3c;> , n©;' and ip"' , 

In the Niphal preterite 3303 becomes by contraction 26: . 
In a few verbs beginning with n the short vowel is retained 
in an intermediate syllable, thus in? for ninp ; in other cases 
Hhirik is lengthened to Tsere, ]n.3 for ]in3 , or as the Hhirik 
is not essential to the form but has arisen from Sh'va, 
§ 82. 2, it is more frequently neglected, and Kamets, the 
simplest of the long vowels, substituted in its place, thus 3p3 . 
The forms of this tense are, therefore, 3D3 , "jn? , nnp . 

In the Hiphil and Hophal species the vowels of the pre- 



168 -- ETYMOLOGY. ^ 13C 

fixed n are characteristic and essential. They must, there- 
fore, either be retained by inserting Daghesh-forte in the first 
radical, or be simply lengthened ; no other vowel can be sub- 
stituted for them, non for n-^ion , sd: or np; for n-'ao] , nDn 
(Kibbuts before the doubled letter by §61. 5) or SO'n for 

3. The vowel, which is tlu-own back from the second radi- 
cal to the first, stands no longer before a single consonant, but 
before one which, though single in appearance, is in reality 
equivalent to two. It is consequently subjected to the com- 
pression which affects vowels so situated, §61. 4. Thus, in 
the Niplial future and imperative Tsere is compressed to 
Pattahh, anc;', ^i-^ -, adcn, ncn (comp. ^^p, r^^ij:) though it 
remains in the infinitive which, partaking of the character of 
a noun, prefers longer forms. So in the Hiphil long Ilhirik 
is compressed to Tsere, ^■'39^, ^y^i (comp. ^'''^'i^l , nzriipp). 

§136. Although the letter, into which the second and 
third radicals have been contracted, represents two con- 
sonants, the doubling cannot be made to appear at the end 
of the word. But 

1 . AVlien in the course of inflection a vowel is added, the 
letter receives Daghesh-forte, and the preceding vowel, even 
where it would be dropped in perfect verbs, is retained to 
make the doubling possible, and hence preserves its accent, 
§33.1, nap, 'sd^ . 

2. Upon the addition of a personal ending which begins 
with a consonant, the utterance of the doubled letter is aided 
by inserting one of the diphthongal vowels, 6 (i) in the 
preterite, and e ( "'..) in the future. By the dissyllabic append- 
age thus formed the accent is carried forward, §32, and 
the pre\ious part of the word is shortened in consequence 
as much as possible, ncn , n-'ipn ; no; , np'^icn . 

3. When by the operation of the rules already given, 
§135. 2, the first radical has been doubled, the reduplica- 
tion of the last radical is frequently omitted in order to 



^137,138 AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 169 

relieve the word of too many doubled letters. In this case 
the retention of the vowel before the last radical, contrary to 
the analogy of perfect verbs, and the insertion of a vowel 
after it, are alike unnecessary, and the accent takes its accus- 
tomed position, ^0"! , rcDsn . 

§137. The Piel, Pual, and Ilithpael sometimes preserve 
the regular form, as -^n , Vjn , b'inrn . The triple repetition 
of the same letter thus caused is in a few instances avoided, 
however, by reduplicating the contracted root "wdth appro- 
priate vowels, as ^cdd , -ji^'^prn . Or more commonly, the 
reduplication is given up and the idea of intensity conveyed 
by the simple prolongation of the root, the long vowel 
Hholem being inserted after the first radical for this purpose, 
as iniD , Vphrn . 

§ 138. In the following paradigm the inflections of Ay in 
doubled verbs are shown by the example of 233 ^o surround. 
The Pual is omitted, as this species almost invariably follows 
the inflections of the perfect verb ; certain persons of the 
Hophal, of which there is no example, are likewise omitted. 
An instance of Piel, with the radical syllable reduplicated, is 
given in !t6dp to excite. 

a. The Hithpael of "D does not actually occur ; but it is in the para- 
digm formed from analogy, the initial sibilant being transposed with the n 
of the prefix, agreeably to §82. 5. 

b. In his Manual Lexicon, Gesenius gives to "DtP ^he meaning to 
arm. but the best authorities prefer the definition subsequently introduced 
by him into his Thesaurus, to excite. 











Paradigm 


OF Ayin 




KAL. 




NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


— T 




-? 


no3 

— T 


nnio 


3/. 


T ; IT 




T — 


r;n63 

T — T 


nnnio 

T : 1 


2 m. 


(=;Ti?) 




T — 


T — : 


nnnio 


2/ 


(=?~5) 




niiiD 


ninop 


nziio 


\c. 


T'T^? 




^niiiD 


^niiiop 


^rnnio 


Plur. 3 e. 


!li30 




^s6 


^ncD 

— r 


^nnio 

: 1 


2 m. 


(O^f??) 




DniZD 


Dninop 


Dnnnio 

V : - 1 


2/ 


(l!?~9) 




it)"^-? 


■ninop 


m^^ 


Ic. 


: — T 




ii:iso 


^:ino? 


^nniio 


Infin. Absol. 


T 




20 


nion 


-nio 


Constr. 


--9 




.1 

ro 


nor; 


niio 


FuT. 3 m. 


20^ 

T 




■1 

ID": 


~T. 


-nio"; 


3/. 


T 




ion 


non 


nnion 


2 TO. 


zcn 

T 




ion 


non 


-nion 


2/. 


T 




't?^ 


'non 


'—■iorn 


l«j. 


ZC5J 




lSi< 


-?^ 


n4'"^iii 


PZwr. 3 m. 


T 




^-9: 


^so: 


^cnio": 


3/. 


nrzcn 




r;:2on 

T ; • 


nrnori 


nrnnion 


2 ??i. 


r 




mZOH 


^non 


^nnion 


2/ 






n:zon 

T : 


r;:non 

T : — • 


r;:ndion 


1 c. 


T 




nop 


-^? 


niiop 


Impek. 2 m. 




no 




non 


niio 


2/ 


1 


^no 




^non 


^nnio 


PZwr, 2 7W. 


iQD 




^nori 


^nnio 

: 1 


2/. 


T 


■ZD 




^.^nori 




Part. -4c^. 


^ib 






niic^j 


Pass. 


T 




nD3 

TT 





170 



Doubled 


Verbs. 






HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


PIEL. 


zcn 


HCnH 


-iircn 


^fe^? 


r^^tn 


T — 


T ; 1 ; • 


n?v?9 


niscn 




rczircn 


T ; — : • 


n^mc- 




n-iircn 


nrDczc 


^n-ncn 




^niiimcn 


TPfe?? 


^^?n 


^lic^n 


: 1 : • 


^-v"o 


Dn-:ncn 




crir-incn 


Dn::cic 


ii^^^^M 




-,n2iiryri 


l^???v 


arisen 




iirziirpn 


"^fe?P 


-fen 






tj659 


-feO 




niin^r; 


T]CZD 


-?: 


-fe^' 


rnirc"; 


^=r" 


-fe^ 


ic-.n 


niin;?ri 


t]cpcri 


=cn 


zc^n 


riircn 


TjCICSn 


'^^^cn 


^IC^P 


1 : • 


"icrcri 


-fe^ 


nc^j< 


-fe"iJ^9^ 


^Qt?^ 


^-?: 


iQC^^ 


: 1 : • 


^ivr?*: 


^r^^^ 




n:niircn 


t i^c^cri 


^scn 


^nib^n 


^inipcn 


^iPr?I^ 


nr^;n 




• i-zzTicri 




-fe? 


IZD^ID 


^;^^^v? 


:|w^i^^ 


-fen 




-^'^^■■^•7 


^fe?? 


^^feg 


•wanting 






nr^^^n 




njniirpri 


T : •• ; — 


^o:j 


T 


nninp-j 


T|C1jC"^ 



171 



172 ETYMOLOGY. §139,140 



Remarks ox Ayin Doubled Verbs. 

§ 139. 1. The uncontracted and the contracted forms of the Kal preter- 
ite are used with perhaps equal frequency in the third person; the Ibrmer 
is rare in the first person. TiTirj Zech. 8: 14. 15. ^:n3 Deut. 2:35. and 
there are no examples of it in the second; 131 Gen. -19:23 and lri Job 
24 ; 24 are preterites with Hholem, §82. 1. In Ps. 1 18: 11, ■':n^3D-:5 ^i^Z'Q 
the uncontracted is added to the contracted form for the sake of greater 
emphasis. Compound Sh'va is sometimes used with these verhs instead 
of simple to make its vocal character more distinct, § 16. 1. b, 13=5 Gen. 
29: 3, S, iH'?."^ Ex. 15:10, r,!i"^bn Isa. 64: 10, ■^:.;s Gen. 9 : 14, I2=pn Num. 
23:25. 

2. The following are examples of the contracted infinitive absolute, 
ap Num. 23:25. b"jj Ruth 2:16, liS Isa. 24:19. n>"S (with a para- 
goffic termination) ibid.; of the uncontracted, "i""N, Ti:5 . "(lin . C|"E::, 
pifs. r'irs. "n"i^' ; of the infinitive construct, na and ^'a. 320 and lb, 
DO'S, nij. T2'. nri. once with u as in Ayin Vav verbs. "in3 Eccles. 9: 1, 
and occasionally with a. "in Isa. 45: 1, T\^ Jer. 5: 26, ens (with 3 plur. 
suf) Eccl. 3: IS. c=:3n^ Isa. 30: IS (-::n Ps. 102: 14); cir^h Isa. 17 : 14, 
thougli sometimes explained as the noun cnp with the suffix their bread, 
is the infinitive of con to grow warm; C5"J3 Gen. 6 : 3 Eng. ver. for that 
also, as if compounded of the prep. 3. the abbreviated relative and C3, is 
by the latest authorities regarded as the infinitive of Jsd in their erring ; 
iiH Job 29:3 has Hhirik before the suffix. The feminine termination ri 
is appended to the following infinitives. riSn Ps. 77: 10, Job 19: 17. nisd 
Ezek. 36 : 3. "'r^T Ps. 17 : 3. The imperative, which is always contracted, 
has mostly Hholem. 3b. zrM and =^ but sometimes Pattahh. bi Ps. 119:22 
(elsewhere bh), HiS Ps. SO : 16. Fiirst regards rn as a contracted par- 
ticiple from rnn , analagous to the Ayin Vav form cf? . 

3. The following uncontracted forms occur in the Kal future, "i:""^ Am. 
5:15, ni'n^ and n^n from nn: ; in the Niphal, 33|7 Job 11:12; Hiphil, 
ccrn Mic. 6: 13, C^'cria Ezek. 3 : 15, ^rnnni Jer! 49 : 37, and constantly 
in "(in and bi; ; Hophal, nn^ Job 20:8 froni nna . In a few instances 
the repetition of the same letter is avoided by the substitution of X for 
the second radical, ibxa-; = icp^-;' Ps. 58 : 8 and perhaps also Job 7 : 5, 
l^X":^ = i^^ST3 Ezek. 28:24, Lev. 13:51. 52. ■^^Cxr = Tj^CD'i Jer. 30: 16 
K'lhibh. Comp. in Syriac w^i? part, of wc> . According to the Rabbins 
iS'lS^^w:! Isa. 18 : 2, but see Alexander in loc. 

§140. 1. Examples of different forms of the Kal future: (1) With 
Daghesh-forte in the first radical, c^"' . rsx. 35% npi. cir^. cn^ ; or 
with a as the second vowel. ^737. -5">. nrn"". (2) With Tsere under the 
personal prefix, cn^ . rn^. li^, T;nv bj^n^ Jisn;; . e being once written 
by means of the vowel letter "^ . sr-'X . (3) With Kamets under the 
personal prefix, '('n^, 367, Ti?;>, nbi^.'^p-^. rn;;, nc^; this occurs once 
with fut. a, nn;; Prov. 27: 17. With Vav Conversive\he accent is drawn 



^ 140 EEMARKS ON AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 173 

back to the simple penult syllable in this form of the future, and Hholera 
is consequently shortened, §64. 1, tj^i, "Taj}, TSni , on^i, "(n^]. There 
are a few examples of « in the future as in Ayin Vav verbs, "jl"!^ Prov. 
29:6, y'in^ Isa. 42:4, Eccles. 12:6, DPin Ezek. 24: 11 and perhaps ns^ 
Gen. 49 : 19, Hab. 3: 16, "illiJ^ Ps. 91 : 6, though Gesenius assumes the ex- 
istence of "ila and ^^U as distinct roots from inj and Tid . 

2. The Niphal preterite and participle: (l) With Hhirik under the 
prefixed 3, ninaD Job 20:28, bn?, nnj , nri?. (2) With Tsere under the 
prefix, ■'tisna Jer. 22:23, cins; Mai. 3:9, O^oriD Isa. 57:5. (3) With 
Kamets under the prefix, 303, bjpD, "ina, "lij ; sometimes the repetition 
of like vowels in successive syllables is avoided by exchanging a of the 
last syllable for Tsere, bpj and bpi . Dtoj and 0^3, naoj Ezek. 26:2, 
or for Hholem as in Ayin Vav verbs, ilT'nj, ynj Eccl. 12:6, ifij Am. 
3:11, >iTiii3 Nah. 1 : 12, ^^5: Isa. 34 : 4. 

3. The Niphal future preserves the Tsere of perfect verbs in one ex- 
ample, ^nn Lev. 21 : 9. but mostly compresses it to Pattahh, bj^, h'h^. n."^, 
'la'^, "S"' . D537 , ri^"'. f)liN ; like the preterite it sometimes has Hholem, 
Tian Isa. 24 : 3, p'ian ibid. If the first radical is a guttural and incapable 
of receiving Daghesh, the preceding Hhirik is lengthened to Tsere, "in;;, 
in«, cin;;, yi^^ir}, ^a'Av The Kal and Niphal futures, it will be perceived, 
coincide in some of their forms ; and as the signification of these species 
is not always clearly distinguishable in intransitive verbs, it is often a 
matter of doubt or of indifference to which a given form should be referred. 
Thus, b'h'; . "537, nt"';> are in the Niphal according to Gesenius, while 
Ewald makes them to be Kal, and Fiirst the first two Niphal and the 
third Kal. 

4. The Niphal infinitive absolute : nin Isa. 24:3, p'^^fi ibid., or with 
Tsere in the last syllable, orn 2 Sam. 17: 10. The infinitive construct: 
oin Ps. 68 : 3, inn Ezek. 20 : 9, and once with Pattahh before a suffix, 
i^nn Lev. 21 :4. The imperative: ^isn Isa. 52: 11, ^ann Num. 17: 10, 

5. In the Hiphil preterite the vowel of the last syllable is compressed 
to Tsere, ^bln . isn (in pause "lEH, so ! iS'rn . : ^53Pr.). or even to Pat- 
tahh, p'^ri . bpn , i^P] , lin , r,nn\ snn , niln , ^iS^n , sison . Both infini- 
tives have Tsere, thus the absolute: P'ln , "if^ , ^^^ , "^S^ ) ^Dv? ; the 
construct: n^n, r^on , ^en (l^sn Zech. 11:10), lin , bpn , crn . in 
pause !i3n. p''ir\. with a final guttural, 3."nn, 5nn. The imperative: 
aon, ~icn. bpn, inn, Sirfi; larn Job 21 : 5 is a Hiphil and not a Hophal 
form as stated by Gesenius, the first vowel being Kamets and not Kamets 
Hhatuph. Futures with a short vowel before Daghesh-forte in the first 
radical: -4l, Cirj'!, "^k^, ^^^"1; with a long vowel, '>'^, t-Q"^ , "'E^, bn"; 
or ^'T!!)^r}f) ^'^'v' ^"'i ?'!)'?' 'n^'^j Y^h (e expressed by the vowel letter 
K, §11. 1. a) Eccles. 12:5. When in this latter class of futures the 
accent is removed from the ultimate, whether by Vav Conversive or any 
other cause, Tsere is shortened to Seghol, ^5^!!, P"!;*, *^St-- """IT-' '^\9-1j 
iinn, and in one instance to Hhirik, ^■iri] Judg. 9:53(7"!Fin would be 
from Y^^) before a guttural it becomes Pattahh, jn^i, 'in'], ~1SV Par- 
ticiples: 30^, 1^^, bn^, bs^ Ezek. 31:3, snti Prov. 17:4. In a very 



174 " ETYMOLOGY. § 141 

few instnnces the Hhirik of the perfect paradigm is retained in the last 
syllable of this species as in Ayin Vav verbs. "iiV Judg. 3 : 21. C"t"^ Jer, 
49 : 20, Cirsi Num. 21 : 30. 

6. Hophal preterites: bniin. ninsin . 'zisrt; futures: ci'l"' . "ixsi"', p'll^, 
•jni, -EH. it"^"' , ^Bl"', rs;]'. T)S7; participles: Tssin , *i:a or in some 
copies Tp 2 Sam. 23:6; infinitive with suffix, nsirn Lev. 2(3:34, with 
prep., ii'!2~r[2 ver. 43. 

§141. 1. Upon the addition of a vowel affix and the consequent inser- 
tion of Dagiiesh-forte in the last radical, the preceding vowel and the 
position of the accent continue unchanged. 13"r . tTS;. tiar: (distintruished 
from the fem. part. n^-:). ^isn^ ; if the last radical does not admit 
Daghesh-forte a preceding Pattahh sometimes remains short before n, 
but it is lengthened to Kamets before other gutturals, nnr. irn^ (100. 2), 
^nan . nniu and ^lAlU. When the first radical is doubled. Daghesh is 
omitted from the last in the Kal fut. 6. li'=i?. 1"'i57, ^^R^, and occasionally 
elsewhere ins^ Hi. fut. iDSn Ho. pret. Other cases are exceptional, 
whether of the shifting of the accent, ^lan Ps. 3:2. »2n Ps. 55:22, ^l^ 
Jer. 4 : 13, and consequent shortening of the vowel, "^'il Jer. 7 : 29 lor "'•'jfa, 
•'n, ^iH for "^s'n, is'"i . ^'TT'J Jer. 49:28 (with the letter repeated instead 
of being simply doubled by Daghesh. so lilcewise in Cilw^ Jer. 5 : 6. "'Jiin 
Ps. 9: 14). for 'nib; the omission of Daghesh. njd: 1 Sam. 14:36, njrn 
Prov. 7: 13, is:n Cant. 6: 11, 7 : 13. npn^ Job 19 : 23. -.1:5 Num.22:'lf, 
17 (Kal imper. with n^ parag. for "nsp shortened by Makkeph from nap, 
60 "n^X ora Num. 23:7). or in addition, the rejection of the vowel, Ittp 
K. futV'Gen. 11:6 for ^isr, nr23 Gen. 11 : 7 K. fut. for n^iD, n;^a3 Isa. 
19:3 Ni. pret. for np^i} or npaj. r\'zq\ Ezek. 41:7 Ni. fut. for nsDS ; 
13t: Judg. 5:5 according to Gesenius for ii'3 Ni. pret. of ^bj to sliahe, 
according to others K. pret. of bn to jioio ; lijni Ezek. 36:3 for l^'P}!! 
(Ewald) from bbr to enter, or for I'^pi Ni. fut. of nBs" to go up. ^ibnjj 
Ezek. 7 : 24 Ni. pret. for ^l^nj , "^^nJ Cant. 1:6 Ni. pret. for "I"';,?. Once 
instead of doubling the last radical ■» is inserted, ^'^h'ri Prov. 26 : 7 for I's^, 
comp. C'i^-i'n Ezr. 10 : 16 for iTi'nn , 

2. Upon the insertion of a vowel before affixes beginning with a con- 
sonant, the accent is shifted and the previous part of the word shortened 
if possible; thus, with in the preterite, r'^^p . "T"''^: (Kamets before 1 
which cannot be doubled). nr"S? , ^ir-Ta . "rip: . crp-:3 . r'p-in^ . ^^/^^r^ 
(the vowel remaining long before "), rhnn (Pattahh instead of compound 
Sh'va on account of the following guttural. §60. 3. c). ■'r'snn . once with 
u. wr3 Mic. 2:4; with e in the future, nj-iion , nrfsn . nr|nn . If the 
first radical be doubled. Daghesh is omitted from the last, and the cus- 
tomary vowel is in consequence not inserted. n:p)2ri , njbsn ; other cases 
are rare and exceptional, nn^cn, Pi^H3 , "^nsns, cnsrs, isrn which is 
first plur. pret. for i;^n not third plur. for isp (Ewald), §54. 3; ''T\'^V^ 
Deut. 32:41, ''hr.^zr} Isa. 44:16, "'niS'^ Ps. 116:6. have the accent upon 
the ultimate instead of the penult. 

3. Before suffixes the accent is always shifted, and if possible the 
vowels shortened, •':io"', inioi from z6^, =isb"', niiri-^ from n^ir'. !i:iin 



§141 



REMARKS ON AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 



175 



from B^i^. D'^^sn. Trom "En; in Tiin-i Gen. 43:29, Tsa. 30 : 19, from ',ri;;, 
CDisn Lev. 26: 15 from ^sn , the original vowels have been not only ab- 
breviated but rejected, and the requisite short vowel given to the first of the 
concurring consonants, §61. 1. In a very few instances a form resembling 
that of Ayin Vav verbs is assumed, Daghesh being omitted from the last 
radical and the preceding vowel lengthened in consequence, ipw Prov. 
8:29 lor ipn ver. 27, ^^"r^r^, Isa. 33: 1 for T^^riq , ^in^pi-O'rn Ezek. 14:8 
for ^n-'nis^n, rt^'^-'^n Larii. 1 : 8 for niS-Tn Hi. pret. of b^T ,' •,n-n'^ Hab. 
2 : 17 for "(nn-^ Hi. fut. of nnn with 3 fem. plur. suf , Cib^ix^ 2 Sam. 22 : 43 
in a few editions for cjsnx . Nun is once inserted before the suffix in place 
of doubling the radical, -^2^p^ Num. 23: 13 for "ia;^ . 

§141. 1. Of the verbs which occur in Piel, Pual, or Hithpael, the fol- 
lowing adopt the forms of perfect verbs, viz. : 



nnx to curse. 
na to plunder. 
nna to purify. 
iriua to grope. 
pfej f^ refine. 
nril to warm. 
ysn to divide. 
nnn to be broken. 
\)h'.2 to cover. 



aa"^ to cry. "|?|5 to make a nest. 

rns to smite, break. yk^ to cut off. 

sib to take away the ai";! to be many, 

heart. Tp."} to be tender. 

pi^b to lick. 1T^ to harrow. 

ti^-o to feel, to grope. i'i)b to rule. 

"riQ to leap. "i?^ to sharpen. 

b^Q to judge, to inter- crn to be perfect, 
cede. 



2. The following, which are mostly suggestive of a short, quick, re- 
peated motion, reduplicate the radical syllable, viz. : 

SSiy to sport, delight. 



"inn to burn. 
"ina to dance. 
i^nb to be mad. 



nn^a to linger. 
~3D to excite. 
PjES to chirp. 



pp'r to run. 
yyn to mock. 



3. The following insert Hholem after the first radical, viz. 



"jix to complain. 

bba to mix. 
ppa to empty. 

IT J to cut. 

"1^5 to sweep away. 

cr-n to be still. 
rnn to break loose 



in; to fly. y'^l to break. 

DD3 to lift up. nh'j to sink. 

PlED to occupy the thres- bbd to spoil. 

hold. C73'r to be desolate or 

^■nS to bind. amazed, 

tbp^ to cut off. ClEP to beat. 
^"C|^ to gather. 



4. The following employ two forms, commonly in different senses, viz. : 

bjjba and bbia to roll. ")|n to make gracious, ')3.in to be 

bbn to praise, bbin to make mad. gracious. 

bfri to profane, bHin to wound. b^'O to speak, bb'iTa to mow. 



176 ETYMOLOGY. § 142, 143 

220 to change, -210 to surround. ^b';? to curse, 'p^P to whet. 

■js's to gather clouds, 'ibi? to prac- vk"] and y^ii /o crush. 

tise sorcery. Tn'i' and TiilJ ^o treat with vio- 
"I'^lB to burst, '••£~}^ to shake to pieces. lence. 

0. The following use different forms in different species, viz. : 

pj^n Pi. to decree, Pu. ppn . '(r'n Pi. to shout, Hith. 'ii^rn.* 

*T^p Pi. to measure. Hith. "ri^nn . 'bc'-i Pi. ^o 6/eaA:. Pu. tk'\ . 

"in^ Pi./omaA-eftj^er.Hith.^n-nsnn. '(s'u: Pi. to inctdcate, Hith. IJindn 

^obo Pi. to e.valt, Hith. 'y'npri . to pierce. 
bS^s Pi. ^0 maltreat, Hith. bb'rnn 
and bBirnn, 

6. The following examples exhibit the effect of gutturals upon redu- 
plicated forms: Preterite. ?"iJ?iiJ Isa. 11:8; Infinitive. "Tnn^ Prov. 
26:21, nrniirn Ex. 12 : 39 ; Future, ri:?nm Ps. 119:47, iirirrd-: Ps. 
94:19; Imperative, dornrn Isa. 29:9; Participle, ?n"r:a Gen. 27 : 12, 
n^nbra Prov. 26:18. 

§142. 1. The Pual species adheres fo the analogy of perfect verbs 
with the exception of the preterites, TilJ Nah. 3: 17. b^is Lam. 1 : 12. the 
future nrirryrn Isa. 66:12, and the participles, i^^b'ij^Q Isa. 9:4, Vfr>-q 
Isa. 53 : 5. 

2. •.rrr-; Isa. 15 : 5 is for : ^y.y.'! Pi. fut. of nnr . §57. 1. i2nri 2 Sara. 
22:7 is contracted for "']|J2rn Ps. 18:27, probably with the view of as- 
similating it in form to the preceding : nrsriPi ; in regard to : bsnn in the 
same verse, Nordheimer adopts the explanation of Alting that it is a simi- 
lar contraction of the Hithpael of bbs thou wilt sho^o thyself a jud ge.hut as 
it answers to ;bn2rr. Ps. 18:27. the best authorities are almost unanimous 
in supposing a tran-sposition of the second radical with the first and its 
union with n of the prefix. 

3. brn and bbn . The prefixed n remains in the Hiphil future of bbn, 
e- g. bnn^ , ibrn^ . "Srnn and in the derivative nouns n"i!rn, rirrrr'ia , 
whence these forms are in the lexicons referred to the secondary root brfi . 



Pe Yodh C^s) Verbs. 

§143. In quiescent verbs one of the original radicals is 
i< , 1 or ■> , which in certain forms is converted into or ex- 
changed for a vowel. As x preserves its consonantal charac- 
ter when occupying the second place in the root, and also 

* 'SIT^^ Ps. 78:65 is not from ',11 (Gesenius) but from "jin, see 
Alexander in loc. 



§144 PE YODH VERBS. 177 

(with the exception of the Pe Aleph future, §110. 3, and a 
few occasional forms, §111. 2) when it stands in the first 
place, verbs having this letter as a first or second radical be- 
long to the guttural class ; those only in which it is the third 
radical (Lamedh Aleph) are properly reckoned quiescent. On 
the other hand, if the first, second, or third radical be either 
Yodh or Vav, the verb is classed as quiescent. All verbs 
into which either 1 or "^ enter as a first radical are promiscu- 
ously called Pe Yodh, as the modes of inflection arising from 
these two letters have been blended, and Yodh in either case 
appears in the Kal preterite from which roots are ordinarily 
named, § S3, a. In the second radical the Vav forms (Ayin 
Vav) preponderate greatly over those with Yodh (Ayin 
Yodh). In the third radical the Y^odh forms have almost 
entirely superseded those with Vav, though the current de- 
nomination of the verbs is derived from neither of these 
letters but from He (Lamedh He), which is used to express 
the final vowel of the root in the Kal preterite after the 
proper radical has been rejected. 

a. Verbs whose third radical is the consonant n belong to the guttural 
class, e. g. 1^3^, PTBFi, and are quite distinct Irom the quiescent verbs tib 
in whicli n always represents a vowel, e. g. tisa , "^33. 

§144. 1. In Pe Yodh verbs the first radical is mostly 
Yodh at the beginning, § 56. 2, and Vav at the close of a 
syllable. It is accordingly Yodh in the Kal, Piel, and Pual 
species, and commonly in the Hithpael, ini?;", i^*: , ill;', 
aiBtinn . It is Vav in the N iphal and commonly in the 
Hiphil and Hophal species, nu?iD , n^ia-n , mrin . 

2. In the Kal future, if Yodh be retained, it will quiesce 

in and prolong the previous Hhirik, and the second radical 

will take Pattahh, e. g. loi"';' ; if the first radical be rejected 

the previous Hhirik is commonly lengthened to Tsere, ^J?';' , 

the Pattahh of the second syllable being sometimes changed 

to Tsere to correspond with it, § 63. 2. c, e. g. :n?.'i ; in a few 

instances Hhirik is preserved by giving Daghesh-forte to the 
12 



178 ETYMOLOGY. §145,146 

second radical as in Pe Nun verbs, the following vowel being 
either Pattahh or Hholem, rk": , ps^ . 

3. Those verbs which reject Yodh m the Kal future, re- 
ject it Kkewise in the imperative and infinitive construct, 
where it would be accompanied by Sh'va at the beginning 
of a syllable, § 53. 2. «', the infinitive being prolonged as in 
Pe Nun verbs by the feminine termination, nfe , rnfe . 

§ 145. 1. In the Niphal preterite and participle Vav 
quiesces in its homogeneous vowel Hholem, ^tr. , nfc'3 ; in 
the infinitive, future, and imperative, where it is doubled by 
Daghesh-forte, it retains its consonantal character, sfcjn, 

2. In the Hiphil Yav quiesces in Hholem, S'lfcin, n^ci""; 
a few verbs have Yodh quiescing in Tsere, 3'^'b'^n , a'^b'i^ ; 
more rarely still, the first radical is dropped and the preced- 
ing short vowel is preserved, as in Pe Nun verbs, by doubling 
the second radical, r^" , ^''i?^ . 

3. In the Hophal Vav quiesces in Shurek, 30"n , 2'xv ; 
occasionally the short vowel is preserved and Daghesh-forte 
inserted in the second radical, i^"" . 

a. The Hholem or Tsere of the Hiphil arises from the combination of 
a. the primary vowel of the first syllable in this species. §S2. 5. b. (3), 
with u or ;'. into which the letters ^ and "> are readily softened. §57. 2. (5). 
The Hholem of the Niphal is to be similarly explained : the Hhirik of 
this species, which has arisen from Sh'va and cannot combine with Vav, 
is exchanged for the simplest of the vowels a (comp. 203 , Cip:), and the 
union of this with 1 forms 6. The Hophal retains the passive vowel u, 
which is occasionally found in perfect verbs, §95. a. 

§146. The inflections of Pe Yodh verbs may be repre- 
sented by those of ar;" fo sit or cIiceH. The Piel, Pual, 
and Hithpael are omitted from the paradigm, as they do not 
differ from perfect verbs. The alternate fortn of the Kal 
futm-e is shown by the example of th"^ to be dry. 





Paradigm of 


Pe Yodh 


Verbs. 






KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


KAL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


— r 


ni-iD 


u^iain 


n^^in 


^^: 


3/ 


r : IT 


ni-:Ji2 


r • 


T : 1 


T ;iT 


2 m. 


T : — r 


T ; — 


nn-jjin 


nniT^n 


T ; — r 


2/ 


nniD'- 


PlIOT 


nnir^.n 


nnir^n 


: : — r 


1 c. 


^p2'ij^ 


^riniri] 


^nniijin 


Tair^n 


^n-^n^ 


Plur. 3 c. 


: IT 


: 1 


^2-^irin 


: 1 


^{rn^ 


2 m. 


cnn-^-; 


Dnnu:i] 


Dnmain 


DraiD^n 


ori'iij?^ 


2/. 


■jnnTT; 


l^?"^"^'? 


■jnztin 


-(nn'r^ri 


"jinirn^ 


1 c. 


: — r 


^DZiri: 


^:iirin 


^:nte 


; — T 


Infiii. ^5soZ. 


T 




iiiin 


1 


T 


Comtr. 


f^^^' 




n^'djin 


nizj^n 1 


iri^ 


FuT. 3 m. 


-"i??!! 


••T • 


n^-iji^ 


mrv 


iijn^^ 


8/ 


nibn 


•*r • 


3"Trin 


mr^n 


^n^n 


2 m. 


2^^ 




n^iaiP 


n-ij^n 


ird-ri 


2/ 


. : i~ 


^n^-n 


^n"d'in 


■ : 1 


^i-n-n 


Ic. 


^^^"i? 


••T • 


n^i'i.^ 


n^^i< 


^^n^N; 


PZi«\ 3 TO. 


: i" 


^^T^^ 


^n^i'r 


: 1 


: 1" 


3/ 


™^'i;p) 


T ; "T • 




nriTT^n 


n;^'n"ri 


2 m. 


^nirn 


:iT • 


^^^•^in 


: 1 


: r 


2/. 


npn^n 


»^^'^'4?;'f!^ 


T : ■• 


T ; — 


n:^in-n 


Ic. 


^"i^.? 




n^iriD 


nic'^D 


Trn^D 


Imper. 2 TO. 


2^ 


niT^n 


n'i:in 




izjn^ 


2/ 
PZwr. 2 TO. 




• :iT • 
:iT • 




wanting 




2/. 


T : •• 


T : "T • 


T : •• 




nriJi: 


Part. J.ci. 


ii-ij'^ 




n^iTTj 




tir 


Pass. 


n^b"; 


T 




T 


T 



179 



180 ETYMOLOGY. §147 



Remarks on Pe Yodh Verbs. 

§147. 1. The following verbs retain Yodh in the Kal future, viz.: 

iri' lo he dry. TjO^ to be poured. xn^ to fear. 

r;^ to toil. 1S^ to appoint. ^^^ to cast. 

ini to delay. 5)"^ to he weary. C"^^ to possess. 

ni* to oppress. ys^ to coimsel. nb^ to put. 

pp to suck. <"i£^ to be beautiful. V^^ 'o sleep. 

The concurrence of Yodhs in the third person of the future is some- 
times prevented by omitting the quiescent >ai?. 15<7!)> ^^'•^7' ^'^^ '°"S 
vowel receiving Methegh before vocal Sh'va. and thus distinguishing the 
last two words from the Lamedh He forms, ixn^ from nkn and 131^'^ from 
njd, §45. 2. 

2. The following have Tsere under the preformative ; those in which 
the second vowel is likewise Tsere are distinguished by an asterisk: 

Sn^ to know. * "A^ to bear. ^^^ to be dislocated. 

"Tn^ to be joined. * xs^ to go out. * "rb^ to go down. 

Dn"' to conceive. "is"' to he straitened. * sb"* io sit, dwell. 

The second syllable has Pattahh in l^n Jer. 13: 17. Lam. 3:48. and 
in the feminine plurals, nnBpi, n:nnn; njxijn has Seghol after the 
analogy of Lamedh Aleph verbs; T^':z'::^r' (with the vowel-letter "> for e) 
occurs only in the K'thibh, Ezek. 35 : 9, and of course has not its proper 
vowels. In '•>'^Z''. Ps. 138 :6 the radical Yodh remains and has attracted 
to itself the Tsere of the preformative. Comp. §60. 3. c. 

3. The following insert Daghesh-forte in the second radical, viz.: "iD"; 
to chastise, iustnict, rk^ to bum. In ^r.-\T\ Isa. 44 : 8 short Hhirik re- 
mains before a letter with ShVa ; ^y^,'}'] Job 16: 11 is explained by some 
as a Kal future, by others as a Piel preterite. 

4. The following have more than one form : 1^^ io he good fut. sa''7 , 
once ''i'J'n Nah. 3:8; pk^ to pour p'si . once ps|;i 1 Kin. 22:35; "i;; 
to form. "lU": and IS"?! ; np'^ lo burn, ip;; Isa. 10 : 16, and ip-p Deut, 
32:22; 7p^ to awake. yp"'7 once '(k^. 1 ^i"- 3:15; ip^ to be precious. 
"P'''^ and "p;^ , or with a vowel letter for e. ~p"';; ; nb^ io be desolate, cuin 
once n:^c-n Ezek. 6:6; ~\^1 lo be right. -^^•''^ , once npi"-;! (3 fem.plur., 
§88) 1 Sam. 6 : 12. Some copies have ^rj'^ Isa. 40 : 30 for in^ . 

5. In futures having Tsere under the preformative. the accent is shifted 
to the penult alter Vav Conversive in the persons liable to such a change, 
viz. : 3 sing., 2 masc. sing., and 1 plur., Tsere in the ultimate being in con- 
sequence shortened to Seghol. i'T^V ibni. T].?;! . Pattahh in the ultimate 
becomes Seghol in ■"^.';^ , "i^"'^" (with a postpositive accent) Gen. 2:7, 19, 
ca-^3 Gen. 50:26; but -a^^], tni'^], V'^"'*!!) "fR"''! j on'y o"ce before a 



§148-150 REMARKS ON PE YODH VERBS. 181 

monosyllable, §35. 1. yi^"!^! Gen. 9:24. The accent remains on the ulti- 
mate in the Lamedh Aleph form sic.^] , unless the following word begins 
with an accented syllable, e. g. KSJ^l Gen. 4 : 16, 8 : IS. The pause re- 
stores the accent in all these cases to it.s original position, ! -w'] Ruth 
4 : 1, : rnn- Ps. 139 : 1, ly^ Ps. IS : 10, §35. 2. 

§148. 1. Kal construct infinitives with Yodh : \aa'^ and with a feminine 
ending nri^, rbb"; , ib"^ with suf. "'"io;;', once with prep. Tis-'b 2 Chron. 
31 : 7, Dagiiesh conservative after*, §14. a; f^ii"}"! , §87. once KI7 Josh. 
22:25 and with prep. Nib 1 Sam. 18:29 from KT^; rin^ once J<Ti";> 2 bhron. 
26: 15 from nn;| , -(-i^'?- 

2. Iijfinirives without Yodh : rr-n (with suf "'PS^). ns"n Ex. 2 : 4. and 
without the feminine termination S"n , nnp (with suf T}"}'?) and nnb , once 
rB ] Sam. 4:19, §54. 2. nxk (with suf "'rx^). nfrk', nnn (with suf. 
•'rn-)) once nnn Gen. 46:3, nr-n (with snf. !nnd-)),'n3ir' "(nn'r . with 
suf -"T^z^ once "^n^U Ps. 23 : 6). Yodh is perhaps dropped from the ab- 
solute infinitive Silb Jer. 42: 10, which is usually explained to be for -rl'"^ ; 
it may, however, be derived from the Ayin Vav verb zv3 . 

^. Imperatives with Yodh: ^n-^. S-j^ , nA^ . Witliout Yodh : yi (with 
n parag. nyn Prov. 24 : 14), zn (with n parag. n:rt; for ^liri Hos. 4:18, 
see §92. a), xs (nxk, fem. plur. nrx:: Cant. 3:11), zb ("nd , nso). 
With both forms: pk and pi"] (*ip:i7), T^ (nn-)), twice Ti": Judg. 5:13,'uJ7! 
ttjl and nd-11 . 

AT T T • 

§149. 1. The Niphal of riil has u instead of 0. "aiS Zeph. 3 : 18, ni^ita 
Lam. 1:4; >1^*>13 1 Chron. 3 : 5. 20 : 8 has u followed by Daghesh. rs:, 
which according to Gesenius is from rs^ . has i; Evvald assumes the root 
to be nr^ , and refers to it likewise the Kal future and the Hiphil ascribed 
to nk;. §147.3. and §150.4. In that case the Daghesh in ^P.T] Isa. 33: 12, 
Jer. 51 : 58. will not require the explanation suggested in §24. c, but the 
K'thibh n^n-'^I'n 2 Sam. 14:30 will be unexplained. TTp-'S Ps. 9:17 is 
not the Niphal preterite or participle of t'p^, but the Kal participle of Cpj . 

2. Yodh appears in the Niphal future of two verbs instead of Vav, 
bn^*i Gen. 8: 12, 1 Sam. 13:8 K'ri, nn^^ Ex. 19: 13. In the first person 
singular X always has Hhirik, ynjs. l^JN, "CJX, v:^^ii, sir-ix, "ir;X. 

§ 150. 1. In the Hiphil the following verbs have Yodh preceded by 
Tsere. viz. : ^t:^ to be good, hb"^ to howl, 'i^ to go to the right. "73'^ to 
change. p3^ to suck. Yodh is likewise found in "'Jd^'n Judg. 16:26 
K'thibh. and in the following instances in which the prefix has Pattahh as 
in perfect verb.s, n-n-iq-^S Hos. 7 : 12, li'O":: Prov. 4 : 25, "'Tr'^n Ps. 5:9 
K'ri (K'thibh nuin), 'v.'klty Gen. 8 : 17 K'ri (K'thibh N:J"in), Cpic^T? 
1 Chron. 12 : 2. ' 

2. In i-'i:!!'? Job 24 : 21 (elsewhere Z^iz^"^} and b^S;;-. (once i^^"')3''N Mic. 
1:8), the radical Yodh attracts to itself the vowel of the preformative, 
comp. § 147. 2. He remains after the preformative in l^'^p^n^ Isa. 52 : 5, 
nni.-T^ Neh. 11:17. Ps. 28:7, 5-'6in';i 1 Sam. 17:47, Ps. 116:6. Both 
Yodh and Vav. quiescing in their appropriate vowels, are liable to omis- 
sion, 'p^n . 'P"'?'^. "'"Vn . Vi:""h, and once the vowel Tsere is dropped 
before a suffix, inp'^sn Ex. 2 : 9 for ^inpirn . 



182 ETYMULOGT. §150,151 

3. Vav conversive draws the accent back to the penultimate Tsere or 
Hhoiem of the Hiphil future in the persons Hable to be atfectetl by it, 
§147. 5. and shortens the final vowel, -w""*] , F.:"'n!!, -^1*" , -:;:■, "SR!! ; 
but with a pause accent : ~r'ni Ruth 2 : 14. 

4 The followinff verbs insert Daorhesh in the second radical in the 
Hiphil, viz. : J:|; to set. place, y^'^ to spread. p:i^ to pour, except : rp^lTa 
2 Kin. 4 : 5 K'ri (K'thibh rps-ir), rk; to hum, except nT-^ain 2 Sam. 
14 : 30 K'thibh. 

5. In the Hophal a few examples occur of u followed by Daghesh, 5S7 
Ex. 10:24, rk;' Isa. 14: 11, Esth. 4:3, nb^-a Isa. 28:16, pS^ Job 11:15 • 
and a few of Hhoiem. rnin Lev. 4 : 23, 28, N^i"" Prov. 11 : 25 for n-ii"" from 
ftT'' . The construct infinitive: '^h'^ri Ezr. 3: 11, and with the fen)inine 
termination ^^<i^n Ezek. 16:4, nnsn Gen. 40:20, Ezek. 16:5. 

§ 150. 1. In the Kal preterite Yodh is once dropped. Ti Judg. 19 : 11 for 
"in"^ . Hhirik occurs with the second radical of l'?^ and dn'j in the first 
and second persons singular with suffixes, and in the second person plural, 
which is perhaps due to the assimilating power of the antecedent Yodh, 
e. g. ■'snnb';', nnirn^, cnsiiv 

2. In the Piel future the prefix Yodh of the third person is contracted 
with the radical after Vav conversive. ^nraf] Nah. 1:4 for l^r!?^'!'!!. ^\l1 
Lam. 3 : 33, ^i^?] Lam. 3 : 53, nnuj^l 2 Chron. 32 : 30 K'ri ' (K'thibh 

3. Three verbs have Vav in the Hithpael, nVrn , rVrn . rs-rn; n 
is assimilated to the following "i and contracted with it in 11S?3 Ezek. 
23:48 for l"iS"ri3 a peculiar Niphal formed on the basis of a Hithpael, 
§83. c. (2). In -tiTV\ Ex. 2:4 for -k^rPi Yodh is rejected and its vowel 
given to the preceding letter, §53. 3. h. 

§151. 1. "^rj and T(r^ . T(^~ to go in the Hiphil and for the most part in 
the infinitive construct, future and imperative Kal follows the analogy of Pe 
Yodh verbs, as though the root were ~r^ . Thus. Kal inf const. r;;"|? ("2^ , 
with suf. ■'n^b) rarely T|"^n ; fut. T^"^ (once with the vowel letter "< fore, 
ni:b""X Mic. 1 : 8, fem. pi. nrr?n), occasionally in poetry ""'Q! (3 fem. sing. 
'Mr^'.^) j imj)er. "^ (with n^ parag. "ij^ , or without the vowel letter Tjb , 
fem. pi. nj^i; and J")=^) once "i^n Jer. 51:50. Hiphil: ~"r"'^ once in 
the imper. "'^''^''^n Ex. 2:9, and once in the participle cbbn"? Zech. 3:7 
for c^z^bnTS, §94. e. 

2. ~DX to gather and fo^ to add are liable to be confounded in certain 
forms. In the Hiphil future of rb^. o is twice represented by the vowel 
letter X. PDX'i 1 Sam. 18:29. I'tspxri Ex. 5 : 7 ; rbx drops its x in the 
Kal future, when it follows the Pe Aleph inflection. § 110. 3. which it does 
only in the following instances, ro'i 2 Sam. 6 : 1, "Cn Ps.l04:29. J^CDK 
Mic. 4:6. ^jSo's 1 Sam. 15:6. where the Hhirik. being abbreviated from 
Tsere, is short, notwithstanding the Methegh in the intermediate syllable, 
§45. 2. a. The apoc. Hiph. fut. of rc"^ when joined with the negative 
particle bx is accented on the penult, ~0''P'5X Deut. 3 :26, and in one in- 
stance the vowel of the ultimate is dropped entirely, Cipin-bx Prov. 30:6. 



$153,153 AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODH VERBS. 183 

3. Qir.i j'lJin Zech. 10:6 is probably, as explained by Gesenius and 
Heng^^^tenberg, for D'^riSdin from -O^ lo dwell, tiiougli Evvald derives it 
from 21113 to 7'elurn. as if for □"^niaiL'n, and Kimchi supposes it to be a 
combination of both words suggesting the sense of both, in wiiich he is 
followed by the English translators. / will bring them again to place them. 

llj^xsh Isa. 30: 5 ''is regarded by Gesenius as an incorrect orthography 
for ti'^iin ; but Maurer and Knobei read it lU^xan and assume a root laxa 
synonymous with laia ". Alexander in loc. 

rpnin Ps. 16:5, see §90. 



Ayin Vav {^y) AND Ayin Yodh ('''y) Verbs. 

§152. Yodh and Vav, as the second radical of verbs, 
have the following peculiarities, viz : 

1. They may be converted into their homogeneous 
vowels i and u. 

2, They may be rejected when accompanied by a hetero- 
geneous vowel, which is characteristic of the form. Yodh 
forms are confined to the Kal of a few verbs ; in the other 
species Vav forms are universal. 

a. Yodh is never found as a quiescent middle radical in any species 
but Kal: it enters as a consonant into the Piel of two verbs, and the Hith- 
pael of two, § 161. 1, the Niphal of T^'^^'n to be, and the Hiphil of n'jn to live. 

§153. 1, In the Kal preterite and active participle and 
in the Hiphil and Hophal species, the quiescent is rejected 
and its vowel given to the preceding radical. Thus, 

Kal preterite : D]^ for oi)? where a, which arises from 
blending a with the pretonic Kamets, §62. 1, is in partial 
compensation for the contraction, T\'Q for t^yq , ira for t?i2 , 
'2r\ for I'ilT . For an exceptional formation, see §158. 1. 

Active participle : D]^ for nj]? , nia for ni^ , m for ic^a , 
21 for '21'^ , the ordinary participial form being superseded 
by that of another verbal derivative, as is the case in some 
perfect verbs of a neuter signification, § 90. 



184 ETYMOLOGY. §154 

Hipliil and Hoplial : D^pn for o^ll^n, c-'p; for D^^p^ 
Dp^n for D^lpri, the short vowel of the prefix bemg pro- 
longed in a smiple syllable, § 59. 

2. In the Kal construct mfinitive, future, imperative and 
passive participle, the quiescent is softened into its homo- 
geneous vowel, D'p , ^''l ; in the future the preformative 
commonly takes the simplest of the long vowels u, D'p^ , 
3^\\ comp. no;. 

3. In the Kal absolute infinitive and in the Xiphal 
species a similar softening of 1 occurs, which, with the 
accompanying or preceding a, forms o, § 57. 2. (5), n"p (kom= 
kaum) for Di'ip ; D"ip3 for Dip: , the prefix usually taking the 
simplest of the long vowels a ; D"p;> for DTp^ . 

4. In the first and second persons of the Niphal and 
Hiphil preterites (i) is inserted before the afiixed termina- 
tion in order to preserve the long vowel of the root from the 
compression incident to standing before two consonants, 
§61,4; in the feminine plurals of the Kal future c ("'..) is 
sometimes inserted for a similar reason, this prolongation of 
the Avord being attended by a shifting of the accent and a 
consequent rejection of the pretonic vowel of the first sylla- 
ble, Dri'aipp, n"'a"pn, nrb^pn. Li the Niphal preterite, 
when the inserted i receives the accent, the preceding i is for 
euphony changed to ^ , e. g. ''niiaip: . 

5. In the Kal and Hipliil species the apocopated future 
takes the diphthongal vowels o and 8 in distinction from the 
ordinary future, which has the pure vowels ii and J, § 65. 2. (5, 
thus sir;' , nir^ . With Vav Conversive the accent is ckawn 
back to the simple penult, and the vowel of the last syllable 
is shortened, 3ir^i , ar^T . 

§154. 1. In the Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, the form of 
perfect verbs is rarely adopted, the second radical appearing 
as "I , e. g. "lil!?, or as "^ , e. g. D!p . 

2. Commonly the third radical is reduplicated instead 



§155 AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODH VERBS. 185 

of the second, which then quiesces in Hholem, Pi. cbip, 
Pu. Di2ip , Hith. Q^ipnn . 

a. In the Pual o is the passive vowel here adopted in preference to u: 
in the Piel and Hithpael it arises (roni the combination of u. to whicli 1 is 
Eoftened, with the antecedent a, L^p for crp . §82. 5. 6 (3). 

3. Sometimes the quiescent letter is omitted from the 
root, and the resulting bihteral is reduplicated, Pi. ^55?, 

Pu. 5353 . 

a. The two forms of the intensive species, which depart from the regu 
lar paradigm, precisely resemble in appearance those of AjMn doubled 
verbs, though constructed upon a difterent principle, as already explained. 

§155. The inflections of Ayin Vav verbs are sho\\Ti in 
those of D'p to stand or rise, in the following paradigm ; the 
divergent forms of Ayin Yodh verbs in the Kal species are 
exhibited by n^n to contend. 

a. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs are named not from the Kal 
preterite, in which the quiescent is rejected, but from the construct infini- 
tive, the simplest form in which all the radicals appear. 

h. No Hophal forms occur in those persons in which the inflective ter- 
minations begin with a consonant. The same is true of the Ayin Yodh 
imperative. 







Paradigm of 


Ayin Vav 




KAT,. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


Pket. 3 m. 


^Pr 


nip: 


n:bip 


n'bip 


3/ 


^rPr 


n-2ip: 


^"rrt 


nt-:ii^ 


2 m. 


^r2 


t^rz^p: 


n-fr,p 


n-f=P 


2/. 


I^'r)2 


TTuZ^p^ 


Trzzip 


^"f=P 


Ic. 


^n-^p 


^t^rz'^p'^. 


"n-;-bip 


^rr^-^ip 


Plur. 3 c. 


^-1? 


rripD 


t-ii. 


TJ-2ip 


2 m. 


t35n-^P 


nnr^^pj 


nn-r;ip 


Di?"f='')f 


3/ 


I^rl2 


i^^'-t? 


l^T^^I? 


)p)-f^^I? 


Ic. 


^"t)2 


^:i-!2^pD 


r.-2'2^p 


r.'z-zip 


Infix. Absol. 


nip 


nipn 






Constr. 


n^p 


nipn 


O^ip 




FuT. 3 w. 


np; 


nip"; 


n-jip": 


n-^ip^ 


3/ 


D^pn 


nipn 


n'!:"ipn 


n-ripn 


2m 


n^pn 


n*pn 


n-^-ipn 


n-:ipn 


2/ 


-;^pn 


^aipn 


*-!:aipn 


rhppn 


Ic. 


Q^-piJ 


n'-ipx 


^'tV^. 


i2=T^ 


PZwr. 8 171. 


^-t>. 


^-ip: 


; 'i : 


^"^Ti?: 


3/. 


-r^^p^ 


^^Yr^^ 


^'i^Tr^ 


T ; — 1 : 


2 TO. 


^-■pn 


^-■ipn 


^■-r't?^ 


rz^^pri 


2/ 


n:"":^pn 


n:-;ipn 


r;:'f;"pip 


M-f^Tn 


1 c. 


nT>3 


n^.p? 


D'^T? 


t3=T? 


Impee. 2 TO. 


Dp 


nipn 


CJ'rip 




2/ 


-;^ 


rripn 


^■;^t 


■wanting 


PZwr, 2 TO. 


^12^p 


r^ipn 


^^•li^ 




2/ 


'VrP 


. 1 

n^'^ipri 


n:-:^ip 




Part. ^c^. 


^Pr 




n-bip-j 




Paws. 


n^p 


nip3 




n-^ipa 



186 



AND Ay IN 



YoDH Verbs. 

HOPHAL. HITHPAEL. 

C)2-" D-r'prn 

(r-^jbin) r-frprn 

( "^"rp'~ ) ^"'rs'pr" 

(Dnrp"-) Drrrri:rn 

("J^tP"") l^^^'pr- 



D'pn 

♦"•t'jP" 
rri-pn 

T '• -: 

"r^i'-'Pu 
■i-"pn 



Dpn 



D'p»~ 






cTprn 


^■p: 




Dp-- 


Cr'pn: 


c-pn 




npin 


Cr'prri 


D-pi? 




cp^in 


Or'pr^ 


^•;-pi^ 




^■bp^n 


^^r'prn 


Q-pi? 




cpii< 


Cr"P^^ 


v--p: 




^■^p^: 


^-r'pr: 


•^•^p^ 


(' 


-:rp^r) 


nrfrprn 


^•rpn 




^.ap-n 


r^-rprn 

; 'i : • 




(r 


— p-in) 


n3--'prn 

T : •• ' : • 


D-p3 




np^3 


c-r'pr-- 


^P~ 






D-rprn n 


^■P- 




wanting 


"r^t^n 


rj-pn 






V-'^-prn 


^"rP" 






n"i"-"prn 

T : •• ' : • 


t3"P'^ 




dprj 


nrbipn-j 








187 



T T 



T : — T 

T • 






• T 

• T 

• r 

T : •• T 

• T 



IT 

T 



z-n 



188 ETYMOLOGY. §156,157 



Remarks on Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh Verbs. 

§ 156. 1. Medial Yodh and Vav remain without quiescence or rejection 
in a few verbs, whose root contains another feeble consonant by cotitrast 
witi) which these letters acquire new strength. This is ahvays the case 
in Lamedh He verbs, e. g. n^n. ni3 ; so Iii<ewise intiie following guttural 
verbs and forms, y^i to expire, •''".T-r"'- ^'"^- 29:22. : W^^"^ Isa. 42:11, 
^'■^J? to be an enemy, '{^i^ 1 Sam. 18:9 K'ri (K'thibh l"r), ns-r Jer. 
4: 31. which are confined to the Kal species, and in n:n to be airy or re- 
freshing, which is besides Ibund in the Pual participle. 

2. The Kal preterite has Pattahli in two instances as in Ayin Vav 
verbs. T2 Zech. 4 : 10, ni Isa. 44 : 18 but r-j Lev. 14 : 42. It has Tsere 
in r^ to die, ni Isa. 17:11 but iliD .Ter. 60 : 3. and Hholem in n-is to shine, 
laia to be ashamed. :ia to be good. §82. 1. a, and in !is2 Jer. 27 : 18, else- 
where 1X3. "-'t Isa. 1:6. Ps. 58:4. elsewhere 'nj. Hhirik once occurs 
instead of Pattalih in the second person plural, cprs Mai. 3:20. Tlie 
following participles have Tsere, n"<:b . y^ . y^ , ri , ">? ; the following 
have Hholem. c-'6i3, cb-ia , n-'rip 2 Kin. 16:7 (comp. cfT'w-'.p Ex. 32:25 
in the Samaritan copy), elsewhere C"'ip . 

3. The vowel letter S is written for fl, § li. \. a, once in the preterite, 
CJtjb Hos. 10:11. and occasionally in the participle, ax^ Judg. 4:21, 
ria'sT Prov. 24:7, iTxn 2 Sam. 12:1. 4. Prov. 10:4. 13:23, c-'-jxd 
despising Ezek. 16:57. 28:24. 26. to be distinguished from C"<i:':: rowing 
Ezek. 27:8. 26. The consonant S is once introduced in place of the 
omitted 1 . '^'^x.n Zech. 14 : 10 for T^'cn ; the ancient versions favour the 
assumption; that "'"ixs Ps. 22:17 is in like manner for c^n: piercing, 
though tiie most recent and ablest expositors take it to be a preposition 
and noun //Ae the lion. Alexaniler in loc. 

4. The accent regularly remains upon the radical syllable before 
affixes consisting of a vowel or a simple syllable, though with occasional 
exceptions, e. g. nx;? Lev. IS : 28, i:-; Gen. 26 : 22, !i^b Gen. 40 : 15, sinn 
Num. 13 : 32. In a few instances it is shifted by Vav conversive preterite, 
§100.2. ili'bi Obad. ver. 16, sisoi Am. 3 : 15, niir Isa. 1 1 : 2. sirei Isa. 7: 19 
but >ix:i:!i ibid., f^x::1 Zech. 5 : 4, nrpn ibid., where the feminine ending is 
n.. instead of n^; so in the passive participle, rrisiT Isa. 59: 5 for nnsiT . 

§157. 1. Hholem is in a few instances found instead of Shurek in the 
construct infinitive. N"iz , u;"2 Judg. 3 : 25. i:'*3, Ht: and riiii) . ~"5 Isa.7:2, 
elsewhere y^2, tis Isa. 30: 2. which is not from Tt?. -r Josh. 2: 16, else- 
where -vij, and with suf. crii Ezek. 10 : 17. "'Tij Ps. 71 :6. which is not 
the participle from HTj (Gesenius). Tia my breaking forth, i. e. the cause 
of it Ps. 22: 10, see Alexander in loc; Gesenius explains this form as a 
participle, but is oblifred in consequence to assume a transitive sense 
which nowhere else belongs to the verb. 

2. The following imperatives have Hholem, ''"I'X Isa. 60: 1. N2 . ^ia, 



^ 158 AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODH VERBS. 189 

ina Mic. 4:10, ''irii Mic. 4:13. With paragogic n, ni^ip or n^Jip, 
nira or navd. Examples of the feminine plural. n;^p, njzc. 

3. The following futures have Hholem. Xiii;, "pi;; Gen. 6: 3. elsewhere 
•ji"!^, ai6: Ps. 80:19, Din^ and Din^. vi'^il where the Hhirik of the per- 
fect paradigm is lengthened to Tsere under the preformative. Examples 
of the feminine pkiral : npxhn and njx'dri . nriiirn. nj^ksi^n and Zech. 
1:17 nr^nsn (in some editions without Daghesh), n3"'iri'ri and njacn, 
nsiiin. nsriiiari Ezek. 13: 19. The accent is shifted and Kamets rejected 
from the preformative upon the addition of a suffix or paragogic Nun, the 
latter of which is particularly frequent in this class of verbs both in tlie 
Kal and Hiphil future, "'2S^':i7. ^-i^^x , r!"?.1iri, cn=Di, "j^-iiip^. ■(^ri^n, 

ni?"n Ezek. 4 : 12, with Dasrhesh euphonic in the a which is omitted in 

' ■■\ ■• , - , I .. . . J .1 . , 

some copies. Apocopated future: na^ , 3'J^ and "-'■^'^ ; ^30. 'fP^}- -?f?) 

Dp* with the accent thrown back to the penult cp^ . Future with Vav 

conversive : r'ch (in pause rit^]), zc^i (^iy^l), br)^i , cp*i , ypfv cirjn 

the last vowel is changed to Pattahh belbre a final guttural, "?^] . n;'?n, 

and sometimes before i or after an initial guttural "i^i^l but "i5*\ Cjr*^ he 

was weeny. ^>'^1 hejicw. orriT ; the vowel of the preformative is likewise 

changed to Pattahh in UJnn: Job 31 : 5, 'J?*! 1 Sam. 14: 32, -JiVT}} 1 Sam, 

15: 19 hut -J?^i 1 Sam. 25 : 14. 

§158. 1. The verbs which exhibit peculiar Ayin Yodh forms in Kal, 
with unimportant exceptions, either do not occur in the Hiphil or retain 
the same signification in both these species. This has led sorhe gram- 
marians to entertain the opinion that these are not Kal hut abbreviated 
Hiphil forms, while others suppose that the Hiphil in these verbs is a 
secondary formation, and has arisen from the Kal future having the form 
of the Hi|)hil. Only three examples occur of quiescent Yodh in the Kal 
preterite, n'ii"'i Job 33: 13 (nrn Lam. 3:58). Tra Dan. 9:2 (nri:3 Ps. 
139:2) c^j'-n Jer. 16 : IG. " 

2. The following verbs have "^ in the Kal future and imperative. ""'3 
to tmde/stand. rri (once "'Ha Mic. 4: 10) to break forth. b"j (once bia"i 
Prov. 23 : 24 K'thibh) to exult, V^ (once lin^ Gen. 6 : 3) to judge, y"^ to 
lodge, S"'n to contend, n"!'!!? to muse, D"'U3 (once cii^ Ex. 4:11) to ptit, 
bib (once C!iar7 Isa. 35 : 1) to rejoice, i^uj (once iB^ Job 33 : 27) to sing, 
rui; to place ; b?rn or b-'fl to twist, writhe, has both Yodh and Vav. To 
these are to be added t-iii Jer. 4 : 3, Hos. 10: 12, nd^n Ps. 71 : 12 K'thibh, 
K'ri iTi'W as always elsewhere; 'f^"^ to tirge, y^"^ to flourish, "f'^i to 
wander, are in the Hiphil according to Gesenius : but as the corresponding 
preterites are not Hiphil but Kal, and there are no other forms of the Kal 
future, they might with equal propriety be regarded as Kal futures of 
Ayin Yodh roots ; the second of them is so regarded by Ewald. Apoco- 
pated futures: "lii. br and ia^J. Z'y^, Dir-i , nti. "i^n and tlbpi. With 
Vav conversive : \>^i.■^^ , •b^i . cb^l , "i^irO , bnPI , njpi'i , iirw . With para- 
gogic Nun and suffixes : liS^a"!; l^^Tin. cai'vai. Feminine plural: njWn. 

3. The infinitives show a stronger disposition to adopt Vav forms. 
Yodh is only retained in the following absoluleinfinitives: ■)"'3 Prov. 23: 1, 
nij and na, b^a Prov. 23:24 K'ri (b'a K'thibh), 2iS Jer. 50:34, else- 



190 " ETYMOLOGY. §159,160 

where 2'"i. Construct infinitives: '"""n . '"b Gen. 24:23. elsewhere 'flS ^ 
r-in once 211 Judg. 21 : 22 K'thibh. n^ib and nri, C'ib Job 20:4.2 Sam. 
14:7 K'ri, elsewhere csia, "i-'Ui 1 Sam. 18:6 K'ri (K'thibh irr), rT>liJ, 
also with suf. lii'^'n Deut. 25:4, elsewhere ^n . In the difficult verse 
Hos. 7:4 "'■'S^ has been variously explained, as the Kal infinitive pre- 
ceded by the preposition '{O or as the Hiphil participle. The only certain 
instance of a Kal passive participle of Ayin Yoxlh verbs is nrrw 2 Sam. 
13: 32 K-ri (K'thibh ms^b) ; some explain C^U Num.24: 21. Obad. ver.4, 
as a passive participle, others as an infinitive. 

4. Ayin Yodh verbs adopt the Vav ibrms in all the derivative species, 
e.g. T^'^t?- "'i?- "J^?.?"??- ■,^''3rn- ^k^^; ■'■'J5 cooked, [. e. pottage, is the 
only instance of a Niphal participle with Yodh. 

§159. 1. Examples of the Niphal preterite: r^: . aios , yiDJ , -iis<3; 
the accidental Hhirik of the perfect paradigm is preserved in b",S5 by 
means of Daghesh-forte in the first radical ; in ii"3 it is lengthened to 
Tsere before the guttural; in : ~'^: Jer. 48: 11 the radical 1 is rejected, 
which gives it the appearance of an Ayin doubled verb. Inflected forms : 
njiz: (part. fem. n:i=;). >i=r3 , isi: . iissira, fh^z, ■^rJiDS . 'ri-zz , crises: , 
crbJDD . 

2. Infinitive absolute: biTsn . Construct: b'isn, niin , with n re- 
jected after the preposition ~ii<^ Job 33: 30, ^91. b ; once it has Shurek, 
^■^"hri Isa. 25: 10. Imperative, *|iin. tiban . 

3. Future: rd^. i:"iar Viav fr Ps. 72 : 17 K'ri (K'thibh ^r), i\yh , 
"■r. "ii:, Jirx;;, — ir;;. Participle: 7=3, T'!:3 , n^iiE3 , c-i-iDs , c-'r^s , 

§ 160. 1. The short vowel of the perfect paradigm is in a few instances 
preserved in the Hiphil by doubling the first radical, thus r\''iri and n-'in, 
r-cn and rT'bn , b-^in , rs?: , 'pS*; , and y^l , I'n"; and "Fifl 2 Sam. 
22 : 33. 

2. Hiphil preterite inflected: nj^-^^n, '1:"'=^ ■ ^^'^p. and ^rin. with 
syllabic affixes: r':-=n . r/b'^'zri ." ri->2-'-}n and n'i-n , =5-^?"'";}?^ and 
cri"~r!. . crh"'li^n, iniS'Sr;'. or when the first radical is a guttural, 
^ri'ii'^rn, rn-'rn and nrnrn, or without the inserted Hholem. Psin. 
Tinsn "and "'nir.'^iri. . is=v! and »:'i3"'=n . Onx^n^ and crx-'^n . •'prn and 
co^r!, §61. 4. a. With suffixes, •'■Z^zr}^. nV-on, r,r^t!-, ■':.^-'jn. "insi^rt^ . 

3. Hipliil future inflected: vrzi . l-'-zn, feminine phiral nj^fc'n , 
n3r-'pn , nit-'nn . With Nun paragogic and suffixes: ■sb'^r'^, en"''?';. 
Apocopated future : 70: . 2^: , ijS^, ; "i'; . With Vav conversive : 
riTi'l, r:^"'. cp_^^.. irx'^ and "'"^'JV if the last radical be a guttural, 51*1, 
ni'V r.i'". . or'x. nz^i once k-'2'1 and once X^a"] ; upon the reception 
of a suffix the vowel is restored to its original length, nz-^'d-;] , iinE'?^:. 

4. Hiphil infinitive absolute: 2'rn . prn. =T;rn once c^jrn Jer. 44 : 25 ; 
construct. ?-=n.r-:n, r-rn . =-pr; . with suffi.x _-b-in . -yon. c?.r-'in, 
ciE":n and once with a feminine termination ~c:n Isa. 30 : 28. 



§161,162 LAMEDH ALEPH VERBS. 191 

5. In a few instances u is found in the Hophal before Daghesh-forte or 
Sh'va. ^rrir\ Zech. 5:11. njia Ezek. 41:9, 11 but n'nn Lam. 5:5, and 
in some editions ciJn 2 Sam.' 23:1, J^a^ Job 41:1, siran 2 Sam. 21:9, 
thouofh others read cpn . jbai. ^irian. 

§161. 1. The following verbs, which are only found in one or more of 
the three reduplicated species, double the middle radical either as Vav or 
as Yodh, viz. : 3"n to render liable. b|i5 to do wickedly, "i-iS to blind. r?ir 
to pervert, "Srs to cry fur help, ^Viyc'S.'n Josh. 9:12, li'^i^i Josh. 9:4; so 
also c^p fut. c;^|5^ and SQi'p?, "i-is fut. T^i?^ , which have quiescent Vav 
in other species, and n^i , which has consonantal Vav likewise in the Kal. 

2. The following omit the quiescent in the Piel and double the result- 
ing biliteral, bsbr to sustain, rrrsisxa Isa. 14:23, r\h::\-^jo Isa. 22:17, 
^■'^:H!'3 Hab. 2:7, '^ll^c::?': Job 16: 12 but yis';' Jer. 23: 29, -p-ip Num. 
24:17 and "ip-ipia Isa. '22:5. ''apaiyn Isa. 17:11; ! ^i^ys? Isa. 15:5 is for 
'^y.lV,, §57. i; iirbr'i Job 39: 3 is perhaps for silisbj^ 'from Ub , comp. 
pSN-Ps. 139:8 for PtO^*. §88, though Gesenius conjectures that it is an 
erroneous reading for l"brb from ^ib . The only Hithpael formed by a 
like reduplication is bnbnnpi Esth. 4:4, elsewhere bBinnn. 

3. Other verbs double the third radical in the Piel and Hithpael. Ex- 
amples of the feminine plural : n:"i"ii^ri . riibipn. ;n:5r>2rri. n:i;i:'irrn. 
Hliolem is changed to u before the doubled letter in the contracted form, 
^ipz"^"} Job 31: 15 for i:?:'!:-:^ , §61. 3. Furst explains i;?^Tsrii Isa. 61:6 as 
in like manner for ^"Jjii'irij . while Gesenius makes it a Kal tuture. used in 
ihis single instance in a transitive sense. csD^-'i's Am. 5 : 11 is probably a 
variant orthography for DrCDia , § 92. 6. 

4. The following are the only examples of the Pual in Ayin Vav verbs, 
viz.: With 1 doubled, nbri Eccles. 1: 15, C'^n^-i^ Jer. 22: 14. Redupli- 
cated biliteral, lb=b3 1 Kin. 20:27. The third radical redujilicated. bb'n 
to be born, '.V.:i3 Ezek. 28 : 13. Ps. 37 : 23. njrbi^n Ps. 75 : 1 1 and ci=i-;a 
Neh. 9:5. rr-7 Isa. 16: 10, ^ESiT: Job 26: 11, rsiic^a Ezek. 38 : 8. ' 

o. ciTi'isisn Jer. 25 : 31 is an anomalous preterite from y^h to scatter, 
with n prefixed and inflected after the analogy of Niphal ; some copies 
have the noun CDTnisiEn your dispersio7is. 

In "^rh'jni Ezek. 36: 11 lor ''V'Z'jri*^. from S'ii , Tsere is retained under 
the prefix as though the word were from the related Pe Yodh verb -^'^ , 
e. g. •^n^'J-'n'i . On the other hand, in wp-^jnl Ex. 2 : 9 from pi; , Tsere 
is rejected as though it were from an Ayin Vav verb. 



Lamedh Aleph (i«b) Verbs. 

H62. 1. Alepb, as the third radical of verbs, retains its 
consonantal character only when it stands at the beginning 
of a syllable, nx^^a , ix^i^n . 



192 ' ETYMOLOGY. § 1G3 

2. At fhe end of the word it invariably qiiiesces in the 
preceding vowel, §57.2. {2), si^ , sst2 , s^i^n . If this 
vowel be Pattahh, as in the Kal and Niphal preterites and 
in the Pual and Hophal species, it is in the simple syllable 
lengthened into Kamets, § 59, si^ for xsp , N2T2; for siis? ; 
so likewise in the Kal future and imperative, where ii as 
a guttural requires a, si^a"' for siia'' , s^^ for si^ . A like 
prolongation of Pattahh to Kamets occurs before medial x 
in the first and second persons of the Kal preterite, T)^^"^ , 

3. With the single exception just stated, medial i? quiesces 
in the diphthongal vowel e Ijefore syllabic affixes ; thus, in the 
first and second persons of the preterites of the derivative 
species in Tsere, ri^H?"^? , "'rsiiin , in the feminine plurals of 
all the futures and imperatives in Seghol, rcss'an , n:s2^ . 

o. This e may arise from the diphthongal preferences of x, §60.1.0,(5), 
or it may be borrowed from the corresponding forms of nb verbs, between 
which and xb verbs there is a close affinity and a strong tendency to 
mutual assimilation. In Chaldee and Syriac no distinction is made be- 
tween them. 

§103. This class of verbs is represented in the follow- 
ing paradigm by Ni)2 to find; the Piel and Hithpael, though 
wanting in this verb, are supplied from analogy. The Pual 
and Hophal are omitted because they are of rare occurrence, 
and they present no peculiarities but such as are common to 
the other species. 

a. In their ordinary inflection Lamedh Aleph verbs diflfer from the 
perfect paradigm in the vowels only. 



Paradigm of Lamedh Aleph Verbs. 



HIPHIL. imnPAEL. 



Pret. 3 m. ^'"^"^ 

3/ t-,ik'^^ 

•^ T : rx 

2 7«. r.5<:i"- 

T T r 

2/. rxi:^ 

^ T T 

1 c. T.sri'j 

T T 

Flur. 3 c. ^^'^'2 

2 m. DlP.Sr^ 

T : 

2/ -nxrj 
1 c. ^:i<rj 



T •• : • T •• • 



^5<-i::ar; ?iS2rrr 



^:i<::-:n •cj^r^rn 



IXFIN. Ahsol. 


i?"::^ 


n::,:? 


^^r^ 


^'4P2r: 




Constr. 


sii'j 


•■ T • 


5^^'^ 


^5-r^n 


^4=PJ7 


FuT. 3 m. 


jj^r::^ 




^^=' 


u<-rr 


^4'^5^! 


3/ 


T ; • 


•* T • 


^'4=^1 


.^5-r;n 


Kr^rri 


2 »i. 


T : • 


•• T • 


^4=ri 


.s"i:rn 


^4=r^ 


2/ 


\N;:;';ri 


^s:i^n 


•b^'ii-n 


\s;-r;n 


"5^"iirrri 


1 c. 


T ; V 




wsik-i^ 


^^■^^i< 


.si:-:r.s 


PZwr. 3 7W. 


^'^^r? 


; IT • 


^.srr 


^x-:ir 


^:^!i-n" 


3/ 


T V ; • 


nrsirn 


r;:x!|:2ri 




^:^^^r^^l 


2 w. 


^^^^r^ 


^'^'11Z7\ 


^:^r;ri 


^i!^T^^ 


j-isr-nn 


2/. 




n:&5i^ri 


nixis-^n 


^3^^lI"I^^ 


n:x!i"^rn 


1 c. 


.s:i-;] 


•• T • 


^'4=r 


N-:i-i3 


^4"=?"'? 


[mper. 2 w. 


T : 


K^izri 


^"^'4^ 


^IJI'^M 


^k^^^} 


2/ 


\N;r^ 


\s:::2n 


-xr^ 


\s-::^n 


'^TZTT} 


Plur. 2 m. 


^^^^■^ 


; 'T • 


^il^r^ 


^s"r:rj 


'^:^'T1TT} 


2/ 


T V : 


1 

T V T • 


i^?^4"^ 


M"iJ{Is»'=»J 





Part. Act. ^-2.12 

Pass. J^^rj 

13 



&?rrj j5-rrj ^'i'zr:2 



K::a: 



193 



194 '. ETYMOLOGY. §164,165 



Remarks on Lamedh Aleph Verbs. 

§164. 1. Verbs having Tsere as their second vowel, §82. 1. a. retain it 
in the first and second persons of the Kal preterite, ^J^^"!^^, rSTsis , "'pxbiu. 

2. Quiescent N is occasionally omitted from the body of tlie word, 
e. g. Kal pret. "'r^^ Job 1:21 for •^rxi'; , ir:iT: Num. 11: 11. -^rrs Judg. 
4: 19, Tiiiz Job 32': 18, !i:3 1 Sam. 25:8Vor !12S2: fut. nstan and n3NTapi ; 
rs^ Deut. 28:57 part. fem. sing, for rsk^ ; ih^-a Job 41:17 for irx',ai3 
const, inf with prep, and suf. from NU.'3 . Niph. pret. crsnj Josh. 2:16, 
cnT:i32 Lev. 11:43. Oliant K, §16. 1, may in like manner be dropped 
from the end of the word aftor quiescent Vav or Yodh. e. g. "iiin Gen, 
20:6 for KVJn^ . iij] 1 Kin. 12:12 for Kii*:, ''^^.r^_ 2 Kin. 13:6. '"^^nn 
Jer. 32:35, ■'r Ps.' 141 : 5. •^^ Ps. 55:16, -'ix 1 Kin. 21:29, Mic. 1:15, 
"^"Q 2 Sam. 5:2, and in three other passages; ''ZT^ Ruth 3:15 is Hiph. 
iraper. fem. for ■'X''af^ , § 62. 2. 

3. The vowel following X is in a few instances given to a preceding 
vowelleps consonant, and the S becomes otiant or quiescent, §57. 2 (.'!), 
NflOJ Ps. 139:20 for ^iXiTJ , Jtvir Jer. 10:5 for iSwr, ^ixn^ imp. for tix-.'^ , 
Ni'i^Eccles. 10:5 Kal part. fem. for nxi?";' . CX-j'n 1 Sam. 14:33 for 
c-^V-^n, csnia Neh. 6:8 Kal part, with suf for DN'i'ia, !ixa"j5 Ezek. 47:8 
for 1X3*^3; and, on the contrary, quiescent X attracts to itself the vowel 
of the preceding consonant in "K"^;:? Ex. 2:20 Kal imp. for '^J>''!!P and 
npx^ Cant. 3:11 for nrsk fromxi^. 

4. Final 6t resumes its consonantal character upon the addition of 
suffixes ixba, receiving (.) before ~, CD and ")3, in consequence of which 
a previous Tsere or Sh'va is converted into Pattahh, §60. 1, ^•*,">^"3 . ^5<.3"*U, 
ViN-^ia. Tixnsn, ?|Sn73 Pi. inf, tssN^^D, n=x^b Kal iiif for c=x^:;Ta, §61. 1. c. 

5. Kamets in the ultimate is mostly retained before sutTixes and para- 
gogic n, f,x:£T:'i, n^S"i Ps. 41:5. i^X'^h'^'l 1 Sam. 23: 15, but nx2D3 Isa. 
56: ]2. Tsere is rejected t^K^JS Neh. 2:13, 2 Chron. 1:10, or retained 
only in pause ! i^N^ Judg. 9:29. 

§165. 1. He is, in a few instances, substituted for N, nD"! Ps. 60:4 for 
Nt]"i, ni-in Jer. 19:11 for NS";^!, no? Ps, 4 : 7 for Nii"? . §3. i. a, r.rns Jer. 
49V10 for' sin:, ninn 1 Kin.' 22:25, 2 Kin. 7:12 (hr ^<3^r^ nrr'^ Jo!) 
8:21 for N^'9'v' 

2. Sometimes X remains, but the vowels are those of flh forms, ''riXr'3 
Ps. 119:101 for "'nx^s, xin Eccl. 8: 12, 9: IS. Isa. 65:20 ibr Ni:n , nb: 

1 Sam. 22:2, Isa. 24:^2, nki^ Eccl. 7:26, ii%} 1 Kin. 9:11, Am. 4:2 Pi. 
pret. for S<"J25, N2n Ps. 143:3 for NS'n , X^^s Jer. 51:;!4 for n|^, T-'^sn 

2 Kin. 2:21 for T^Bn , !i:XE-i Jer. 51:9 for lixsn, '^H.'Si'; Job 39:24 for 
-N535^ vS^sn Deut. 28:59 Hiph. pret. for X-'V^H , ^^'^'^ Ps- 135:7 Hiph. 
part, const, for X'liiTO from xi^ ; to which maybe added na-^xtan Ezek. 
23 : 49 nrx^^tn Jer. 50 : 20, with "^ inserted as in nb verbs. 



§ 166-168 LAMEDH HE VERBS. 195 

3. Sometimes the M"b form is adopted both in consonants and vowels. 
^"i-o Ezelc. 28:16 for >ixb-a. ^'i^ 1 Sam. 6:10, vjj Ezek. 39:26, ■'^ris 

1 Sam. 25 : 33 for -^inNbr, Viu^Ruth 2:9 for rx^:£ , n^z^ Gen. 23:6 for 
N^s-", nrcin Job 5: IS tor n:xE"^n comp. Jer. 8:11. 51:9,2 Kin. 2:22, 
■"iir: Ps.'32:"l for Nr,y3 . r^i; 'jer. 26 : 9 for rX22 . n-3:rn l Sam. 10:6, 
niiDPn l Sam. 10:13, Tin-'STin 2 Sam. 3 : 8, n^b.^ Isa.'29:7for n^x;::; 
nip/O Ezek. 8 : 3 is by some interpreters thought to be lor S'^ip^ provuk- 
ing to jealousy, and by others explained in the sense of the n'b verb selling 
(Israel to their foes). 

§166. 1. The 3 fern, preterite has the old ending n^, §86. b. in rxin 
Ex. 5:16 Ibr ni<'Jn, nxn;^ Deut. 31 : 29, Isa. 7: 14. Jer. 44:23. nsin Geii^ 
33:11 Hoph. from Xis' nx?23 Ps. 118:23 (rxps? Deut. 30: ll' 'is the 
feminine participle), to which ilie customary ending ii^ is further added 
in nniibs: 2 Sam. 1 : 26. nnxanH Josh. 6: 17 for nxiarrn. 

2. A feminine termination n^, n, or as in nb verbs ri, is occasionally 
added to the construrt infinitive, e. g. K;tl, nx-::: . nx-17, nxab, rs-^p from 
S^p to meet, distinguished from Xip and n'Xnp Judg. 8 : 1 from S''^^ to 
call. rsB^ and r-x:>T2 never sbia. rN':b Prov. 8:13, with suf "irx'^n 
Ezek. 33:12. Niphal. 'Ksnrri Zech. 13:4. Piel, P1i<^i3 and s|t5 j 
•inxsp 2 Sam. 21 : 2; nix-^-a Ezek. 17 : 9 is a Kal inf. const., formed as in 
Chaldee by prefixing "O. 

3. There are two examples of the Niphal infinitive absolute. X"ip3 

2 Sam. ] : 6 and XSan Ex. 22 : 3: the analogy of the former has been re- 
tained in the paradigm for the sake of distinction from the construct. Piel 
infinitive absolute: x:p, xsn , xna. Hiphil inf. abs. : J^^sn , xii-n . 

4. The Hiphil future with Vav conversive commonly has Tsere in the 
ultimate, thougli Hhirik also occurs X^k^)!! • ^P'^ . ^^^n.!? • S<2nriv NS^'l 
and xii's}, xi^T, once S«''3jn Ezek. 40 : 3, and once N"'f:^] Neh. S : 2. 

5. Kamets sometimes occurs in the ultimate of the Hithpael future, 
N'^Jri Num. 23:24 but x-i:rn Ezek. 29: 15, so Ni:nri7 , n-k^"^ . x^srin, 
: 'i^x^'sn';' ; more rarely in the preterite, nxaan, 

§167. 1. The following are the only Pual forms which occur. Pret. : 

"xsn , !tX2n . xnp . Fut. : Nsn^. Part.: xsn^a , nxs::^, c-'XsrTo . c^kroia, 
m'x2::i2,'with suf ■'^'^i^'? • 

2. The following are the only Hophal forms: Pret. ixann. ns:iin, 
xi^n, nxin , nrxin. >ix2?in. Fut.: xri"'. "xir. Part.: xs^i-a. nxinia. 

3 For the anomalous forms, nnxiiri Deut. 33:16, ^inxian Job 22:21, 
Pxin 1 Sam. 25 :34 (K'thibh Tixsn), see §88 (sing. 3 fern.) ' 



Lamedh He (nb) Verbs. 

§ 168. In these verbs the third radical, which is Yodh or 
Vav, does not appear at the end of the word except in the 



196 " ETYMOLOGY. §169 

Kal passive participle, e. g. "'^"'^ ; in all other cases it is re- 
jected or softened, the resulting vowel termination being 
usually expressed by the letter n , § 1 1 . 1 . «. 

In the various preterites n stands for the vowel a, and 
is hence pointed n ^ . 

In the futures and participles it stands for e, and is 
pomted n . 

In the imperatives it stands for t, and is pointed n . 

In the absolute infinitives it stands for b or e ; in the 
Kal it is pointed ri , in the Hiphil and Hophal n _ , in the 
Niphal and Piel n ' or H _ . There are no examples in Pual 
and Hithpael. 

The construct infinitives have the feminine ending rii . 

a. In this class of verbs the Yodh forms have almost entirely super- 
seded those with Vav. The latter are confined to the construct infinitive 
where m" , occurring in all the species, is best explained by assuming i to 
be radical (comp. ^^^^ Ezek. 28: 17 as an alternate of r'xn) and to a few 
other sporadic cases, viz.: a single Kal preterite, "'P'.b'j Job 3:25. the 
reduplicated forms of three verbs, nix:, ■'j^n^b^'O. n'nndn, and the pecu- 
liar form, "■'f'^X Isa. 16:9. 

h. In the Kal preterite, Yodh is rejected after the heterogeneous 
vowel Pattahh, §57. 2. (5). which is then prolonged to Kamets in tlie sim- 
ple syllable, nsa for "'^r.. As Pattahh is likewise the regular vowel of the 
ultimate in the preterites of Niphal and Hophal, and occasionally appears 
in Piel. § 92. c. and Hithpael, §96. h, the final Kameisof these species may 
be similarly explained. The ending, thus made uniform in the other 
species, passed over likewise into the Hiphil preterite, which it did the 
more readily since a belongs at least to some of its persons in the perfect 
verb. Yodh is in like manner rejected after the heterogeneous Hholem 
of certain infinitives, while it leaves the homogeneous Tsere of others un- 
modified. 

c. The futures, imperatives, and participles of certain of the species 
have e as the normal vowel of their ultimate; in this Yodh can quiesce, 
leaving it unchanged. Those of the other species (except the Hiphil, 
which is once more attracted into conformity with the rest) have or may 
have a in the ultimate ; this, c-ombined with the i latent in ■> . will again 
form e. In the future this becomes e (..) in distinction from the ending e(..) 
of the more energetic imperative ; and the absolute is distinguished from 
the construct slate of the participle in the same way. 

§169. 1. Before personal endings beginning with a 
voAvel the last radical is occasionaUy retained as ■" , particu- 



§170 LAMEDH HE VERBS, 197 

larly in prolonged or pausal forms, n^^Dn , ^"^on , : ll'^cri^ ; it 
is, however, commonly rejected and its vowel given to the 
antecedent consonant, ^^ for ^^^5 , i^.^n for '''?^?r^ ; in like 
manner the preterite 3 fera., which in these verbs retains the 
primary characteristic ti, , §86. 3, riSa for rrjba, to which is 
further appended the softened ending n ^ , thus nnba , in 
pause "rt'|i . 

a. The n^ of the 3 fem. pret. is frequently explained as a second fem- 
inine (.'iidiiig added after the first had lost its significance in tlie popular 
consciousness. It might, perliaps with equal propriety, he regarded as 
paragogicaily appended, §61.6, comp. sucli nouns as npy^id^, nrb^S , 
nnr'^x , in order to produce a softer termination and one more conformed 
to that which obtains in the generaUty of verbs. Nordheimer's explanation 
of the n as hardened from n, i^nb." for •^i^V?) labours under the double 
difficulty that there is neither proof nor probability for the assumption that 
the coiisonant n could be exchanged for n , and that H in the preterite of 
these verbs is not a radical nor even a consonant, but simply the represen- 
tative of tlie vowel a. 

2. Before personal endings beginning with a consonant 
the third radical "^ remains but is softened to a vowel, so 
that in the Kal preterite it quiesces in Hhirik, in the Pual 
and liophal preterites in Tsere, in . the Niphal, Piel, Hiphil, 
and liithpael preterites in either Hhirik or Tsere, and in the 
futures and imperatives of all the species in Seghol, n^>5 , 

3. Forms not augmented by personal endings lose their 
final vowel before suffixes, e. g. ^^% , M^}, from n'ia , ^^'i^, 
from n^.'i^ '^%T\ from M?.)n. The preterite 3 fem. takes its 
simple form, e. g. ^nn^3 or wSa , and in pause t^nba . 

§170. The Lamedh He verbs will be represented by 
^% to uncover^ reveal, which is used in all the species. 



"' 




Paradigm 


OF Lamedh 




KAL. 


XIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PfiET. 3 m. 


T T 


Mb':o 

T ; • 


T • 


3/ 


mp:?^ 




T ; " 


2 m. 


T • T 


T •• : • 


^■?? 


2/ 


• T 


3^"?fP 


n-53 


Ic. 


• • T 


T"?^'? 


T"?v 


PZur. 3 c. 


T 


•'^v? 


^b;i 


2 7?». 


t^ri"'?^' 


cti'5?;'3 


Dh-bii 


2/ 


1^-^^ 


-^r-b:.; 


1^1? 


Ic. 


• T 


^2"l?f? 


^rb'3 


ISFtN-. ^JsoZ. 


T 




to.-'*'. 
» 1*5 


Constr. 


n-,:3 


.•1 

T • 


m:-3 


FuT. 3 m. 


Ti^y 


* 1 

V T • 


"fer 


3/. 


^^■^ 


".r^^ 


nii^ri 


2f». 


nb^n 


V r • 


> 1 


2/ 


''^v^^ 


• T • 


■"?'2»r> 


Ic 


~.-:<^? 


r;;;s 


n5:.x 


PZur. 3 m. 


"^?: 


T • 


^'ir 


3/ 


» 1. vJiM 




n:"b:n 


2 m. 


•iB^n 


^:3n 


^^:n 


2/. 


T V ; • 


T V T • 


r!"_fr<ri 


1 c. 


1 l.-'-*- 


^.?lv 


^T^ 


Impee. 2 m. 


np3 


•• T • 


nb'a 


2/. 




• T • 


^b'a 


PZur. 2 771. 


iiBii 


^br.n 


^'ra 


2/ 


— ..u. 

T V : 


• »-*.:^^» J 


• 1 


Part. ^ci. 


-bb 




tiipro 


Pass. 


T 


n?^? 





198 



He Verbs. 


PUAL. 


niPHiL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITIIPAEL. 




T : ■ 


T ; T 


r^^Tj 


nh^a 




r : : T 


Mr^sriri 


m 


r\"b'3n 

T • : • 




T • — : • 


n^Vii 


n^b'jn 


n^b':>n 

*• ; T 


n-Vsrr: 


^n^iJii 


^n^b'^n 


■n^b'^n 

• - : T 


^n"^r.rn 


^i. 


^^:- 


^h- 


Alburn 


Qj}'*? 


t]^-b.-n 


ch-b.-n 


cn-bnrri 


1^)-*? 


■jr)"br*n 


't}%r^ 


-n-br,rn 


"'33 


^-■b':n 


^D-b:ii 

** : T 


iirb^rn 


(rfe) 






(-•bsrn) 


m;a 


niS^n 


(nib:-) 


nibsrri 


"i^: 


~'?^C 


nb'.r 

V ; r 


1 i.f^n. 


nwn 


nbrtn 


V : T 


1 1 
1 i^^rn 


"1?? 




nb:n 

V : r 


Mb'r.rn 


"?::!? 


^pjn 


^b':,n 


^y^rii^ 


")'?« 


nb'3&5 


r:b;*^5 


nb'rPN 


^^?^ 


^lir 


6.r 

: T 


^br,n^ 


"r>'?!? 


MrJ^^n 


r::"b':.n 

T V : T 


• 1 


«;i? 


^br^n 


^b3n 

: T 


^b-,rn 


~".?<!^ 


^r^'^'^ 


T V : T 


•^r)'^^^ 


-??i 




nb'ro 

V : r 


^.)'5P? 




•^.-r'"*'^ 




nV-inn 


wanting 


^b'^ri 


wanting 


"i^riM 








^b'snn 




j^rS»L! 




1— -:.'-^_ 








nVsr-j 


n.^ra 




V ;, T 





199 



200 ■ ETYMOLOGY. §171,172 

6H0ETEXED FrTUEE AND IMPEEATIVE. 

§171. 1. The final vowel r. is rejected from the futures 
when apocopated or when preceded by Vav conversive. The 
concurrence of final consonants thence resultmg in the Kal 
and Hiphil is commonly relieved by inserting an unaccented 
Seghol between them, §61. 2, to which the preceding Pat- 
tahh is assimilated in the Hiphil, § 63. 2. a, the Hhirik of 
the Kal either remaining unchanged or being lengthened to 
Tsere in the simple syllable. 



KAL. 




KIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


HIPHIL. 


HITHPABL. 


n'^?"' 




T\ij'] 


""^-0 


*"'?"*? 


r^l^r^ 


bj^ oi 


- b!P 


bill 


biji 


b-i-i 


b3r,-> 



Future. 

Apoc. Fut. iji"? o'" 

Vav. conv. b^H or br*'|i b^"] bi;'i b:^i bhr^'i 

2. The final vowel n is sometimes rejected from the im- 
perative in the Piel, Hiphil, and Hithpael species, e. g. Pi. % 
for r.ba, lliph. bsn for "b:n, Hith. bsnn for ~.^5nn. 



Remarks on Lamedh He Verbs. 

§172. 1. Kal preterite: The third person feminine rarely occurs with 
the simple ending n^ , ni'S Lev. 25 : 21, n"'n 2 Kin. 9 : 37 K'thibh ; so in 
the Hiphil. r^i^^.ri Ezek.' 24 : 12. rijin Lev. 26 : 34, and Hophal, rjJsn 
Jer. 13:19. Yodh is occasionally retained before asyllabic affixes. ~"bn 
Ps. 57 : 2, the only instance in which the feminine has the ending usual in 
other verbs. !l"'Cn Dent. 32 : 37. ^"i: Ps. 73 : 2 K'ri ; so in the imperative, 
si-nx, rra Isa. 21:12; future, ■|l"3r'' ; ?"'':='?. "^""J"^ r 'i'''''90i!! • "^''n''^"'', 
?''^!:JV "^i'^^^r?- 'I'jS"??; 't'V.T-- ^'"f^":, ^^rx;, Nipharpreterite'ri:;. P'iel 
future, "(^'■'snn, la'iipa'^, Hiphil future. '|i'"'Vri'- imperative, 1"'r~ for vrxn . 

2. Infinitive: Vav is sometimes written for the final vowel of the infini- 
tive absolute instead of n, 1=3. "irj. "jn. inn, i-it: . idr . 'if;, "xn . ina, 
and in a few instances the feminine termination is added, r^isx . nixn, 
r'lr'w . There are also examples of the omission of this termination from 
the construct infinitive, n":;~. and "iw? , n;p , "NT, inc ; once it has the 
form n;i<n Ezek. 28 : 17. 

3. Future : There are a very few examples of Tsere as the last vowel 
of the fnture. nx-p Dan. 1 : 13. nir n Josh. 7 : 9, nir :n Josh. 9 : 24, 
"n^nn Jer. 17: 17; so in the Piel, n^;ri Lev. 18:7 ff.; and, on the other 



^173 REMARKS ON LAMEDH HE VERBS. 201 

hand, there is one instance of an imperative ending in Seghol, viz., the 
Piel, n?"] Judg. 9:29. The radical "> remains and rests in Hhirik in 
•lilWi (3 fern.) Jer. 3 : 6, in the Hipliil, "^ryzv. (2 masc.) Jer. 18 : 23, and in 
the Kal imperative, ''in (2 masc.) Isa. 26: 20. Yodli appears once as a 
consonant before a suffix. ■'?';[n^*T Job 3 : 25, and once before n paragogic, 
n^Tanx Ps. 77:4, which is very rare in tliese verbs, but perhaps displaces 
tlie filial vowel in ni-OS Ps. 119 : 117, and the Hithpael, nynC3 I.sa.41:23. 
In a few instances ^ is restored as a quiescent before suffixes, ''S^^ni Hos. 
6:2, "^rsn 1 Kin. 20:35, i^-^fe:? Ps. 140:10K'ri, cn\N!SS<; Deut. 32 : 26. 
Examples of tlie feminine plural: nrsrn , njlp-iPi , ^l^nr.r.i , nr^yni , 
nrirn and s^f b.^n . 

4. The future of a few verbs when apocopated or preceded bj' Vav con- 
versive simply drops its last vowel, either retaining Hhirik under the per- 
sonal prefix or lengthening it to Tsere. PiD*l , 3c^i , rj3^;;i , "rin^n , r:iy|j ^ 
Pid;fl ; so in the Pe Nun forms, T?i and T'si , t3^ , and Pe Yodh rp'^i^ , with 
Pattahh-furtive under the first radical of the Pe guttural, '^n'^, § 17. , or 
the vowel of the personal prefix changed to Pattahh, §60. 1, rix^l, X'l^l 
but Ni."; , 2<?.ni . Most conmnoniy Seghol is inserted between the concur- 
ring consonants, t^fil, '■21, ^5^. tni. bo-i and Vrn, Y^}\ "iS'i and "sni, 
^i^.^.- liT.'?- "'nt'!'!? • ■'^I^-'^j 2"!? find ="^P5, v)"!!]. V.P'; N^i*!, Nbnv bd;i . or 
Pattahh if one of the consonants is a guttural, §61. 2; tlius, in Ayin gut- 
tural verbs, STU'Ti, fi?rT , -":!;:, S'nt?, in Pe guttural "n'fi from nin'^ , 
§60. La. (3), iri'^ from ir^nv or with the additional change of the vowel 
of the prefix to Pattahh, -inpi] , Tnn from nmn , ■j-'n*' from nun;) , irpii , 
■^-'f] Isa. 59: 17 (in 1 Sam. 15:19. 14:32 K'ri, this same form is from 
1213? or 'J-'S, §157. 3), br^i , •,y'|;_i , iyr*i. The rejection of the final vowel 
takes place frequently even in the first person singular, which in other 
verbs is commoidy exempt from shortening, §99. 3. a. "SN;|l . S";xi and 
'^^."■^'■- ''^-Mr- ''"■;?; ^???^i "i^^J; '^^.^"^ iind nibrx;!. In a few instances 
the final vowel is retained in other persons after Vav conversive, e. g. 
niijr*l l Kin. 16:25, r\p:,;^l 2 Kin. 1 : 10. nin'i Josh. 19: 50. nr-n;;, 1 Sam. 
l:9j '^^i;!!! 1 Ki'i. 16:17'^ ns"^^] 1 Sam. 17:42. nA^^i 2 Kin. 6: 23, •'irn 
Deut. 32": 18 is fut. apoc. of n^ir as •^rt'j or •'h'^ of n|;n . 

5. The pa.ssive participle drops the final "^ in ^lo:! Job 15:22 for ""lOS, 
sii"^" Job 41:25 for ■'sicr, and fern. plur. rni::3 Isa.' 3:16 K'thibh (K'ri 
m'^a?). mbs 1 Sam. 25': 18 K'thibh. 

§173. 1. In the Niphal preterite Yodh may quiesce in either Tsere or 
Hhirik, though the former is more frequent, n"')53 and Ti'^jS: , ri"'bS3 and 
!i3-'b;3. cn?;:;3 and l^"''?:??, •'n^^ES and i^'^^^a . 

2. Examples of the infinitive absolute : n'Bas , ri^*i3 , nj^iH . Construct : 
riiBsn and ni?;!, mbn, nixnn and nxnn ; with suffixes, nrbrn, inibrn, 
once as though it were a plural noun, nD^rin-Tn Ezek. 6:8, so the Kal 
infin., ~"'r''3^ Ezek. 16: 31, once with a preposition, ri:rb Ex. 10:3. 

3 Future apocopated and Avith Vav conversive: isjn, nbsni, ncx^ , 
Vnn. ci-n, xn;»i, "{3*1. and in one verb with Pattahli before n, na*] 
Gen. 7:23, Ps. 109: 13, though some editions omit the Daghesh-forte in the 
former passage, thus making it a Kal future. 



202 " ETYMOLOGY. §174,175 

§174. 1. Piel : Two verbs, nN3 iu be becoming and nna to ih'cno (the 
bow), having a guttural for their second radic^al, double the tliird instead, 
which in the reduplication appears as Vav, though tlie general law is ad- 
hered to requiring its rejection from the end of the word and the substitu- 
tion of the vowel letter n. The only forms which occur are. of the 
former, the preterite n'lxj Ps. 93:5, ^lix: Cant. 1:10, Isa. 52:7, and of 
the latter the participle phir. constr. ''in^'S Gen. 21 : 16. There are 
three examples of Hholem inserted after the first radical, §92. b, ''^''Oy3 
Isa. 10: 13 from noJ , the u: being an orthographic equivalent for O, 
§3. 1. a. and in the infinitive, isH, Tin Isa. 59: 13. 

2. In the first person singular of the Piel preterite ^ sometimes quiesces 
in Tsere ; in all the other persons, however, and even in the first singu- 
lar, when a suffix is added, it invariably quiesces in Hhirik, ""ri^ba and 
T)"'!^, ■'T'lr?) once "'n-'-ip, Tiips and ■'n-'23 , r,''n-'23. cni^s . 

3. Infinitive absolute: ri^|5 and n^]^, n^s . nf?? . nb. iiin. inn. The 
construct always ends in ni with the exception of ~^3 also ribs, and 
i2n Hos. 6:9. 

4. Future : in ""^"^X Isa. 16 : 9 from H'^ , the second radical is doubled 
as ^, §153. 1, and the third appears as 1, §56. 3. a; ~\'^^i<. Ex. 33: 3 is 
for ?i^=x. §63.1.6. With Vav conversive : bi'" . bb-ii. cb-il. lii"!], 
^"prii . "Sril , so in the first person singular, ^3N^ . "il^NIi ; once Pattahh is 
lengthened to Kamets. in';'] 1 Sam. 21 : 14; so in pause, ibJin Prov. 25: 9. 

5. The imperative has Seghol in a single instance, nis"! Judg. 9:29 
and sometimes drops its final vowel 55, hn. ""a , Dd . is and M^S . 

6. Pual infinitive construct with suffix: iri:? Ps. 132:1. 

§175. 1. Hiphil preterite: The prefixed n has occasionally Seghol, 
r^j'^r: and nb'sn , rxbn . m^sn, nx-in. T^-r-Nin. Yodh may quiesce in 
Hhirik or Tsere. n-'iijn, "'n"'5:n , riiiin, "'n-'an . Yodh once remains as 
a quiescent in the 3 masc. sing.. ''h>^>^ Isa. 53: 10, and once in the 3 masc. 
plur., TD^n Josh. 14:8 for sfp^n, '"§62. 2. 

2. The infinitive absolute has Kamets in n2"in by way of distinction 
from ninn and ^2"!^! Jer. 42:2, which are always used adverbially. 
Construct: The prefixed n has Hhirik in one instance, niipn Lev. 
14:43 ; n'i'rnb 2 Kin. 19: 25 K'lhibh is for r^Nrnb . 

3. The future, when apocopated or preceded by Vav conversive. some- 
times simply rejects its final vowel. PE"" . J<"i;^i, "^"^j. P^l^, "iTi from 
•^"i'j ':. f'O'^ '^Ih ^-- ^^om n:::, r^^i from M=: ; commonly, however, 
Seghol is inserted between the concurring consonants. bx*1 from n'px, 
§111.2. a, b^^'i. -ij'i;], O^n:, "isn] , "2^1. 2-t^i. r,-;r;. or Pattahh if one 
of the consonants rs a guttural, "n^l. nrn. br'i . rr^" . Occasionally the 
final vowel remains, nl??.*] 1 Kin. 16:17. 18:42, ns-^ni Ezek. 23:19; 
once the radical "^ appears quiescing in Hhirik, "~~ri (2 masc. apoc. for 
nrn) Jer. 18:23. The retention or rejection of the vowel is optional in 
the first person singular, ninx;; , ni^^'XT , nisxi and r(S"i Irom nbj, bsxi, 
OX from nbj . 



^176,177 REMARKS ON LAMEDH HE VERBS. 203 

4. The imperative is sometimes abbreviated, n2~n and -"ri . ncTn 
and T\';h. bs'n for J^.^?.!^ , ~^'"! and ::fi. nsn and Tjij ; -Cn (accent on 
the ultimate) Ps. 39:14 is tor n>;rn , the same word Isa. 6:9 is from 
si'U, § 140. 5. 

5. Hophal infinitive absolute: rrisn Lev. 19:20. 

§176. 1. Hithpael: One verb nn'a reduplicates its third radical, which 
appears as i, ninndn lo u-orship. i'at. <^''.n,'^'~''. . with Vav conv. irptr'si 
for ^'"''^r!!!, §61. 2, plur. >l"r|PiU,"|iT , infin. nnri'rn , and once with suf. 
T't;'-'.'^^'7 2 Kin. 5: 18, the accent being thrown back by a following 
monosyllable. For the inflected participle, cr"'^nnCB Ezek. 8:16, see 
§90, page 120. 

2. In the preterite "^ mostly qniesces in T.«ere in the first person singu- 
lar, and in Hhirik in the other persons, "'n'''ixrn, ■'n"'']nr]\i"n, ni|nn'rn, 
cb';n.|^'-:"n , riif^-rn. n-enrn, r.i'njrn, n">:nirn. 

3. The future apocopated and with Vav conversive : bsr*^ , car's;, 
"innn. '?ri"i, j^";]rri, "ncn, or with Kamcts in the accented syllable, 
■'^^'l!. "i^r'i?) so always in pause. 'H^'!'!; :D2rnT Gen. 24:65. 

4. The shortened imperative : "li'vlj ''^^^H • 

§ 177. 1. ri'n to be. fut. <^7.~]^ . Hhirik being retained before the guttural 
under the influence of the following Yodh, wlience the Sh'va. though 
vocal, remains simple ; so in the inf const, with prep, ni'^tna. ni^ps . ri^ns, 
though without a prefix it is niin. once fi'jn Ezek. 21: 15. The apoco- 
pated future "^irj"; (in pause ""H^^) and with Vav conversive ''n?''i is lor 
t'!^7, the vowel of the prefix returning to the Sh'va from which it arose, 
§85. 2. a (1). page 116. when the quiescence of the middle radical gives a 
vowel to the first. The same thing occurs in the peculiar form of the 
future x^irr; Eccl. 11 : 3. where the second radical ajipears as l, which it 
sometimes does in the imperative, n^n and niin Gen. 27: 29 or N"n Job 
37:6. and in the participle nSn Neh. 6;6, Eccl. 2:22, fern, ri-^^- E.\ 9:3. 

2. n^n tn live. The root "^in is usunlly inflected as a Lamedh He 
verb pret. rr^n, fut. i^^ni; , apoc. "'n^ . with Vav conversive "'n'p. ihouirli 
in the i)reterite 3 masc. it occasionall_v takes an Ayin doubled form. "n. 
e. g. Gen. 3:22, 5:5, and once in the 3 fern, an Ayin Yodh form ; rr^n E.x. 
1: 16, or it may be explained as an Ayin doubled form with Daghesh-forte 
omitted, §25. 

3. In a few instances K is substituted for the third radical in Lamedh 
He verbs, "^rx^n Ezek. 43:27, Nnx Isa. 21:12. NC3 Jer. 23:39, Nin^i 
2 Chron. 26: 15, 'nZP\ Prov. 1 : 10 from'ni:x . sn*5 Deut.'33:21 from nrx' 
^fri?.] 2 Chron. 16:12. XJC"! Lam. 4:1. ak: 2 Kin. 25:29. sri";i Eccl, 
8: Ccixbpi 2 Sam. 21 : 12 K'ri for Cl^n. C-'X^Vn Hos. 11:7, Deut!"28: 66 
for Ci'ilbn^ §56. 4. C-'xV'^n . ^sAi'i 2 Sam. 11:21 from rn"; ; the vowels 
are those of Lamedh Aleph verbs in l:rx .Ter. 3 : 22 for irrx , ny=n 1 Kin. 
17 : 14 for rozT} , n'-rp^ Dan. 10 : 14 for n%-- ; and the full Lamedh Aleph 
form is adopted in i<''^z2 Hos. 13: 15 for n'lS';. 



204 ETYMOLOGY. ' ^178,179 

Doubly Imperfect Verbs. 

^178. Verbs which have two weak letters in the root, or 
which are so constituted as to belong to two difierent classes 
of imperfect verbs, counnonly exhibit the peculiarities of 
both, unless they interfere with or limit one another. Thus, 
a verb which is both sb and n"'5 will follow the analogy of 
both paradigms, the former in its initial and the latter in its 
second syllable. But in verbs which are both VJ and Hb 
the 1 is invariably treated as a perfect consonant, and the nb 
peculiarities alone preserved. All such cases have been re- 
marked upon individually under the several classes of verbs 
to which they respectively belong. 



Defective Verbs. 

§179. 1. It has been seen in repeated instances in the 
foregoing pages that verbs belonging to one class of imper- 
fect verbs may occasionally adopt forms from another and 
closely related class. Thus a x '3 verb may appear with a 
!ib form, or an "i^ verb with an TJ form or vice versCi. The 
occurrence of an individual example, or of a few examples 
of such divergent forms, may be explained in the manner 
just suggested without the assumption of an additional verb 
as their source. Sometimes, however, the number of diver- 
gent forms is so considerable, or the divergence itself so wide, 
that it is simpler to assume two co-existent roots of the same 
signification, and differing only in the weak letter which they 
contain, than to refer all to a sino-le root. 

a. Thus. sb3 means to shut tip or restrain^ and Jibs to be finished: 
yet a few riP forms occur in the sense not of the hitter but of the ibrmer 
verb. They are accordingly hehl to be from ^bs. but assimilated in inflec- 
tion to the nb paradigm. On tiie other hand, X''^;r means to call, and 
iT^I^ to meet; but so many X b forms are found with this latter significa- 
tion that it seems necessary to assume a second root X'lpJ having that 



§180 QUADRILITERAL VERBS. 205 

meaning. The verb to mm is ordinarily yn ; but Ki'lt'n Ezek. 1: 14 is too 
remote from an IS form to be referred to that root ; hence it is traced to 
another verb i<S"|i of the same sense. No clear line of distinction can be 
drawn between the cases in which divergent forms are to be traced to a 
single root, and those in which the assumption of a second is admissible or 
necessary. This must be decided in detail, and the best authorities not 
infrequently differ in tlieir judgment of particular examples. 

2. Where two verbs exist which are thus radically con- 
nected and identical in signification, it not infrequently hap- 
pens that they are defective or mutually supplementary, that 
is to say, that one of them is in usage restricted to certain 
parts or species, the remainder being supplied by the other. 

a. The following arn ex mhjiIps ofdefective verbs : Uii: io be good, used 
in the Kal species only in the preterite, the corresponding future is from 
:b^ ; ~;^ Kal pret. to f tar. tiie fut. and imper. from "i1 j ; p'^^ Kal pret. 
and inf. to spit, fut. from pp^ ; "j'SJ Kal pret. and inf to break or disperse, 
fut. and imp. from y'Q ; rp: Kal pret. to be alieiiated, fut. from J'p^ ; rrib 
K. pret. to be a prince, fut. from "^'O ; ain Kal pret. and inf to be many, 
fut. from i'>'Z'^ which is used throughout the species ; Drt^ Kal fut. to be hot, 
pret. and inf from can , which is also used in the future ; ysj^ to counsel, 
borrows its Kal imper. fi-om 'j'l? ; f^^ Kal fut. to aivake, pret. from the 
Hiphil of y^P; which is also used in inf imper. and fut.; 3SD to place, the 
reflexive is expressed by ~3"rn from Z'll ; nni^ to drink, the causative 
is i^p'-VI from f^I^"'^; C"^!Iin from li'^'^ is used as the causative of uiia to 
he ashamed, as well as '^""in ; 7\?^ to go, derives many of its forms from 
~\?1 ; -hi to give, is only used in the Kal imperative, it is eupplemented 
by 'iP: of totally distinct radicals. 



QUADRILITERAL VeRBS. 

§180. Quadriliteral verbs are either primitives formed 
from quadriliteral roots, whose origin is explained, § 68. a, 
or denominatives, the formative letter of the noun or adjective 
being admitted into the stem along w^ith the three original 
radicals. The former class adopt the vowels and inflections 
of the Piel and Pual species, while the latter follow the 
Hiphil 

a. The only examples of quadriliteral verbs are the following, viz. : Piel 
pret. li'-S he spread.. Job 26 : 9, where the original Pattahh of the initial 
syllable of the Piel, §82. 5. h (3), is preserved; fut. with suf. r^^htrrz'] he 



206 ETYMOLOGY. § 181 

shall waste it, Vs. 80 : 14. Pual pret. rcayi it freshened, Job 33 : 25, the 
Methegh and the Hhateph Pattahli being used to indicate that the Sh'va 
is vocal, and that the form is equivalent to li?^^ ; part. CSOnia scaled off 
or resembling' scales, Ex. 16: 14. ^2"ir^ clothed. 1 Chron. 15:27. Hiphil 
pret. sin-'iTxn they stank, Isa. 19: 6 lor !ini;Ti<n as 1"i^s;3 for i^^"?, de- 
rived from nr'X putrescent, wiiicli is simpler than to make it with Gesenius 
a double or anomalous Hiphil from riDT . §94. a, comp. Alexander in loc. ; 
fut. nb-'X'ibx Ircill turn to the left. Gen. 13:9; ibiXTqrri Isa. 30 : 21. part, 
c^ilx^sri: 1 Ciiron. 12 : 2 from bs^ab the left hand, elsewhere reduced to a 
triliteral by the rejection ofx, ^"'cbnb 2 Sam. 14:19, ■'V'r'^Zt'f!! Ezek. 
21 :21. To these may be added the form, w^hich occurs several times in 
the K'thihh c-iisn^ 1 Chron. 15:24. etc., and c-'iisnt) 2 Chron. 5:12, 
for which the K'ri substitutes C""i^n^ or c^'nsn'a. As it is a denomina- 
tive from n"!SUn a trumpet, it has been suspected that the form first men- 
tioned should be pointed C"'*i3isn^ ; the other, if a genuine reading, is 
probably to be read D'^nnsnia , 

Nouns. 

THEIR FOEMATION. 

§181. Nouns, embracing adjectives and participles as 
well as substantives, may be primitive, i. e. formed directly 
from their ultimate roots, or derivative, i. e. formed from pre- 
existing words. Those which are derived from verbs are 
called verbals; those which are derived from nouns are 
called denominatives. The vast multiplicity of objects to 
which names were to be applied and the diversity of aspects 
under which they are capable of being contemplated, have led 
to a variety in the constitution of nouns greatly exceeding 
that of verbs, and also to considerable laxity in the significa- 
tions attached to individual forms. But whatever complexity 
may beset the details of this subject, its main outlines are 
sufficiently plain. AU nouns are, in respect to their forma- 
tion, reducible to certain leading types or classes of forms, 
each ha\TLng a primary and proper import of its own. The 
derivation of nouns, as of the verbal species, from their 
respective roots and themes calls into requisition all the expe- 
dients, whether of internal or external changes, known to the 
language, § 69. Hence arise four classes of nouns according 
as they are formed by internal changes, viz. : 



§182,183 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 207 

1. The introcluction of one or more vowels. 

2. The reduphcation of one or more of the letters of the 
root. Or by external changes, viz. : 

3. The prefixing of vowels or consonants at the begin- 
ning of the root. 

4. The affixing of vowels or consonants at the end. 

a. The mnss of nouns are to be regarded as primitives and not as de- 
rived from their cognate verbs. Many roots are represented by nouns 
alone, without any verbs from vvliich they could have sprung, e. g. -J< 
father, yx earth. And where verbs of kindred meaning do exist, it is 
probable that they are not the source or theme of the nouns, but that 
both spring alike directly from their common root, as T\^'0 to reign, and 
"rjbia king from the root "bia . Since, however, these roots or elemental 
themes are destitute of vowels, and consequently are incapable of being 
pronounced in their primitive or abstract state, it is customary and con- 
venient in referring to them to name the verb which though a derivative 
form has the advantage of simplicity and regularity of structure, and is 
often the best representative of the radical sicrnificalion. Accordingly, 
T|bb king may be said to be derived from the root ~?^ to reign, that is, it 
is derived from the root "'"■>: of which that verbal form is the conven- 
tional designation. §C8. 

h. Infinitives, participles, nouns which follow the forms of the secondary 
or derived species. § 187. 2. a. and some others, are evidently verbals. 
Most nonns of the fourth class, as well as some others, are denominatives. 

Cla.ss I. — Kouns formed ly the insertion of vowels. 

§182. The first class of nouns, or those which are 
formed by means of vowels given to the root, embraces three 
distinct forms, viz. : 

1. ]\Ionosyllables, or those in which the triliteral root 
receives but one vowel. 

2. Dissyllables, in which the second is the principal 
vowel and the first a pretonic Kamets or Tsere. 

3. Dissyllables, in which the first is the principal vowel 
and the second a mutable Kamets or Tsere. 

1. Triliteral Monosyllablea. 

§183. The formative vowel may be given either to the 
second radical bpp , b^t:]5, bii:;?, bTJp3,,or to the first, "pt?^, 



208 . ETYMOLOGY. §184 

bipp, btfp; in the latter case an unaccented Segliol is com- 
monly interposed between the concurring consonants, §61. 2, 
to which a preceding Pattahh is assimilated, §03. 2. a, Vjp , 
b'ljp , b-jp . Forms thus augmented by the introduction of 
an auxiliary vowel are termed Segholates. 

a. In this and the following sections b:;p is used as a representative 
root in order more conveniently to indicate to the eye the formation of the 
different classes of nouns. No root could be selected which would afford 
examples in actual use of the entire series of derivative forms; b::p has 
but one derivative bljp slaughter, and this only occurs in Obad. ver. 9. 

6. As i. 6. and u rarely or never occur in mixed accented syllables. § 19, 
they are excluded from monosyllabic nouns. Every other vowel is. how- 
ever, found with the second radical, thus a. ^V'a a little prop, paucity, 
laii'n honey, lis man; a, ^"X strength. -ri3 writing, '^ii'd residue; e, nio 
shoulder, nz'O bush; e, ^^7 howling, ::X3 grief, 2XT a wolf; especially f, 
o, and u. which occur with greater frequency than any others. When the 
first radical receives the vowel, I and u are likewise excluded, inasmuch as 
they rarely or never stand before concurrent consonants, §61. 4. Few of 
these nouns remain without the auxiliary Seghol N"y a valley, xyr 
vanity. H'Jin sin, ■nnp spikenard, '^'-"p truth. Kamets is only found before 
Vav, §6.3. 2. a, r^ia, and in pause, §65. ")::x , C"i3. 

c. When the second radical receives the vowel, there is a concurrence 
of consonants at the beginning of the word, which is sometimes relieved 
by prefixing X, §53. 1. a. with a short vowel, mostly e, §60. 1. a (5), but 
occasionally ft. J-2^X ^»o-er for ris . ij'rx lattice, ::::x belt, ?"i"i?S and 
SiiT arm, '""^r^x and 5Tcn yesterday. 

§184. These nouns, standing at the first remove from 
the root, express as nearly as possible its simple idea 
either abstractly, e. g. b^^x ewptiness, bliDir hereavement, T^iy 
strencjih, yi% righteousness, ITS? help, ^"^ fjreatness, or as it 
is realized in some person or object which may be regarded 
as its embodiment or representative, ^"'i^ lord from ^33 to he 
miglity, TiJi^i^ man from "cis to he sick, b^ii* houndarij, tjoi 
libation y^ori^. pouring out, p'cb valleij prop, dejoth, f^n vine- 
gar prop, sourness. 

a. That the position of the formative vowel before or after the second 
radical does not materially affect the character of the form, appears from 
the following considerations: (1.) The sameness of signification already 
exhibited, and which may be verified in detail. (2.) Tlie occasional ap- 
pearance of the same word in both forms, e. g. "i^y and "i^a man, Jaa 



§ 185 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 209 

and "^? flant, N^.3 and X''^3 prison, 'iria and "lina thumb, tnsij and nnijs 
bn'ghtne.ts. (3.) The concurrence of both forms in the Kal construct infi- 
nitive itih' and ^}'^p,, §87, ■'H-j;^ and C=^'^r? . (4 ) The flict that Segho- 
lates may arise alike li-om b::p and ^^p . §61. 1.6. (5.) The cognate 
languages ; monosyUables in Arabic, whose vowel precedes the second radi- 
cal, answer to those whose vowel succeeds the same radical in Aramaean, 
and both to the Hebrew Seghoiates, e. g. "13^; servant, Aram. 1??., Arab. 

^ 

b. The presence of imperfect letters in the root may occasion the fol- 
lowing modifications: 

KS roots. Aleph. as a first radical, sometimes receives a Ions vowel (_) 
instead of Sh'va (J, §60. 3. c, 'yfl^it. fidelity for '\rc^_, liTX girdle for liTX . 

S Guttinrd and ^ Guttural. If the third radical be a guttural, Pat- 
tahh is substituted for the auxiliary Seghol, §61. 2, n'S'Z confidence, vcjs 
hearing, wna height ; if the second radical be a guttural, the preceding 
vowel if Hholem remains unchanged, otherwise it also commonly becomes 
Pattahh ^S'i young man, 1J"3 youth, Tna/fiarbut bnx tent, nn]? bread. 

"2 and "iS roots. A vowelless "^ or 3 is in a few instances rejected 
from the beginning of a word. §53. 2. a, b^is produce for b'lri"'. I'l^ famil- 
iarity lor lio"^ , N'^'ia elevation for s^'^ii"? , "'<! lamentation for ^hz . particu- 
larly in feminines and secondary derivatives ; thus, nrn , n^? , n^S, ruin 
drop an initial Yodh, and <'i'2p , "'^''3 an initial Nun. Nun may also ex- 
perience a.ssimilation when it is a second radical, CjX anger for w)3X, dib 
cup for p:i3 . 

IS o.?jcZ "^^ roofs. In Seghoiates 1 is preceded by Kamets b'S (accord- 
ing to Kimchi biy in Ezek. 28 : 18) wickedness, "in uiidst, unless the last 
radical is a guttural, nil space; "^ is preceded by Pattahh and followed 
byHhirik, ^'''p night, 'fiV eye. These letters frequently give up their con- 
sonantal character and become quiescent, §57. 2. Vav is rejected in a few 
words as "'S brand for ''13, *^N island for "^"N , "'"I watering for ''^"i , §53. 3. 

n b roo/s. In a very few instances the proper final radical is rejected, 
as it is in verbs, and the final vowel written tn, as n:0 bush, nsa weep- 
ing, nan thought. When " appears as the radical, it prefers the form 
"'33 weeping, '''}B fruit, "bs vessel; 1 retains its consonantal character in 
"iro winter, ISO quail, or it may be changed to its cognate vowel u, 
which combines with the preceding a to form o, §62. 1, i""!l (for d^ydu) 
ihA"; ixpi antelope. In Seghoiates 1 quiesces in Shurek, §57. 2. (4), iiniu 
swimming for inia, ina emptiness; the lexicon of Gesenius contains the 
forms IT'S garment, iltp. enr/, i^d security, but these words only occur in 
the plural or with suffixes, and the absolute singular is quite as likely to 
have been in^ , r^p^ , siba . 

2. TIic main vowel in the ultimate. 

§185. 1. The second form of this cLass is a dissyllable 
with one of the long vowels in the second which is its prin- 
14 



210 ■ ETTMOLOGT. §185 

cipal syllable, and in the first a pretonic Kamets, for which 
Tsere is occasionally substituted when the second vowel is 
Kamets, thus b-j;? or Vjp , bbj? , b-^bp , bibp , brjp . 

2. These are properly adjectives, and have for the most 
part an intransitive signification when the vowel of the 
ultimate is a^ e, or 0, and a passive signification when it is 
I or u, "jb)? and fisp small, if^^fat, T2"n: made of brass, "iTia 
chosen. Those with a. and l in the ultimate are, however, 
prevailingly and the others occasionally used as substantives, 
and designate objects distinguished by the quality which 
they primarily denote, p'^^ herbs prop, green, lii?? strong 
drinJc prop, into.vicating, "1^23 leopard prop, spotted, '^'^ and 
?]^i2 turban prop, looitnd aroimd, Tiis g^org, tJiat which is 
glorious. 

a. The intransitive adjectives supply the place of Kal active partici- 
ples to neuter verbs. §90. and in IS verbs they have superseded the regu- 
lar formation, §153. 1, Cp for n'^i^. Kal passive participles are verbals 
with u. This formation with I in the ultimate is adopted in several names 
of seasons,, a-^ix Abib, the. time of ears of corn. C]"'6x ingathering prop. 
the being gathered, nisa vintage, "iisj pruning-time, t-^^n ploughing- 
time, "'■'S;:? harvest, Coinp. § 201. 1. h. 

b. Adjectives with o commonly express permanent qualities, those 
with e variable ones, bina great, bna growing great ; pjn strong, pTn be- 
coming strong ; jiip near. S'^p? approaching ; pinn remote, pnn receding. 
Hence the former are used of those physical and moral conditions which 
are fi.ved and constant, such as figure, colour, character, etc., ~"iJ$ ^ong, 
Vys ronnd. pis deep. R'dj high; n^x red, l'"i3 spotted, ~fp^ speckled, pii^ 



green 



mud. pis deep. R'dj high; n^x red, l'"i3 spo/ted, "ip: 
, ipS striped, ^'n:£ ichite. p"nb bai/. ~r::i black; pir 



inn sweet. -i"ir;:3 



pure, lyiip holy. And tlie latter are employed of shifting and evanescent 
states of body and of mind, xfcs thirsty, rin hungry, rrb sated, PlJ^ 
weary, bix grieving, Yzr\ desiring, "^'"^n fearing, Tbr exulting. 

c. The active signification asserted for the form '"iis;? in a few instances 
cannot be certainly established; Cl'p^ or ^^pi fowler, is intransitive in 
Hebrew conception as is shown by the construction of the corresponding 
verb, corap. Lat. aucupari, aiicupatus. Other alleged cases are probably 
not nouns but absolute infinitives of Kal, '(ifia Jer. 6 : 27 may as well be 
rendered 1 have set thee to try as for a trier (of metals) ; T'lisn Isa. 1 : 17 is 
not oppressor nor oppressed but wrong-doing, to aStKeiv, see Alexander in 
loc. ; and even piii^ Jer. 22 : 3 may in like manner be oppression instead 
of oppressor. 

d. n'b roots are restricted to forms with i. in which the radical "^ 
quiesces, "'n'J /res/i, "'33 afflicted, ''''p^'i^ or ifp; with otiant X, §16. 1,/Jwre; 



§186 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 211 

or with a which combines with it to form e. Ji . ^"b and t^^pjield. iis'' 
fair. nx5 high; in a few nouns this final vowel is dropped, y^ fish for 
ni^ , in mark for n"n . 75 /ree for nks . 12 son for inis . r\hi mouth lor n'-^a . 
unless, indeed, these and the like are to be regarded as primitive biiit- 
erals. Vav, as a final radical, may be preceded by a. "135 meek, or e, "i^d 
secure. 

3. The main voicel in the penult. 

§186. 1. The third form of this class is a dissyllable 
having an immutable vowel, mostly Hholem, though occa- 
sionally Shurek or Tsere in the first, which is its principal 
syllable, and a mutable Kainets or Tsere in the second, thus 

2. These indicate the agent, and are either active par- 
ticiples, -ip'P killing, or substantives, Dnin signet-ring prop. 
seeder, l^l^s enemy, one practising hostility, ^'T't fox prop. 
digger, ri'?"'? hammer prop, pounder, V5"'n morning star prop. 
shining one. __ 

a. A number of nouns, indicative of occupation, follow the participial 
form, which thus serves to express permanent and professional activity, 
■ipis hf-rdsmaii. ^^'n ^<fa(7orprop. rope-handler. ^"-Sn ploughman, ^^"i"' potter 
prop, former. 0213 fuller, "ns priest. 2";3 vine-dresser, "itiio merchant, 
^biD scribe. ^2ii tiajficker. nrn shepherd. XEi physician, npn dealer in 
ung^ients. ^^^^ embroiderer. "r"0 icatchman, "^siv: porter prop, gate-keeper, 
wE'.UJ judge. 

b. In a very few instances u in the first syllable is shortened and fol- 
lowed by Daghesh-lbrte conservative. 2;"" and 25" pipe. V^^^ pit. 

c. 55 roots. The contraction of 53 and the quiescence of 15 roots, by 
reducing them to biliteral monosyllables, obliterates to a considerable ex- 
tent the distinctions which have been described and which are possible 
only in triliterals. The contracted forms which arise from 55 roots are 
20 . 20 . 20 . 20, § 183. b. Of these 20 = 22b belongs to the monosylla- 
bic formation, and is chiefly used of abstracts, 12 purity, 2"i vmltitude, en 
integrity, hs yoke ; and 20 = 220 to the first species of dissyllables, era- 
bracing adjectives and concrete nouns, en perfect, in feast j while 20 
and 20 may arise indifferently from either, p^g rottenness is an abstract 
noun for p^is . but ""■ tender is an adjective for "^t , Kamefs being com- 
pressed to Pattahh before the doubled letter, comp. §135. 3; 2b heart is 
for the dissyllable 22b, but "|n yaroi^r for the monosyllable ."n . 

15 and. ^5 roots. Nouns from quiescent 15 and "5 roots may be 
divided into three pairs of forms, cpj . 2n ; Ci'p , 2'''i ; c^ip , 2"'n . Of these 
the last pair (with the exception of Kal passive participles) belong to the 
primitive monosyllabic formation, 2^") strife. 21a goodness ; the first pair 



212 ' ETYMOLOGY. §187 

to the first species of dissyllables, ^n poor, 11 proud, hit God prop, the 
mighty one; and the second pair may belong to either. Ui'^'^ = ui"^"! jmverty, 
p">n = p^n empty, "px =.')^!? strength, -iii z= :h':j g-ooc/. 

Class II. — Xouns with reduplicated radicals. 

§187. 1. The simple form proper to adjectives is ex- 
plained §185; it may be converted into an intensive by 
doubling the middle radical, retaining the long vowel of the 
second syllable and giving a short I or a to the first. This 
reduplicated or intensive form denotes what is characteristic, 
habitual, or possessed in a high degree. Adjectives of this 
nature are sometimes used as descriptive epithets of persons 
or thhigs distinguished by the C|uality, which they denote, 
t^T] very tceak, Hj^s seeing prop, (having eyes) icide open, 
pi^2 righteous, "lisa mighty man, V^D fM of grace, D'HT 
merciful. 

a. As a general though not an invariable rule, the first syllable has 
Pattahh when a pure vowel a. I, or u stands in the ultimate, but Hhirik 
when the ultimate has one of the diphthongal vowels e or 6. Several 
nouns with a in the second syllable are descriptive of occupations or 
modes of life, comp. §186. 2. a. ^2N husband man. '^''^'^ fisherman. 'v!ri judge, 
d"in (=r^n) workman, ns:^ cook. n^T3 seaman (from np"a salt). bsD 
hearer of burdens. i"S hunter, r^'p bowman. -iJ thief, not a mere equiva- 
lent to i:i3 one who steals, but one who steals habitually, who makes steal- 
ing his occupation. 

b. Since the idea of intensity easily passes into that of excess, the 
form bi:p is applied to deformities and defects, physical or moral, C^X 
dumb. 'Z^^hiiinp-backed, Onri (^ui^n) deaf, i-i? blind, HsB lame, r!"|ip 
bald, w'p:? perverse. 

c. In a few instances instead of doubling the second radical, the pre- 
vious Hhirik is prolonged, §59. a. li'isp and ^"iTS'^p 7ieltle prop, badly 
pricking, ■ni3"'p smoke, "nri"'":} the Nile prop, very black, p'ii"'^ prison. 
TiniS spark, niViS battle. 7'ii"'? spark. 

d. The following double the third radical in place of the second, nn'is 
brood. "J".! green, "JX/J quiet. nnx3 comely from nx:, the last radical 
appearing as 1 , § 169. h^-qit., feeble, where the long vowel Tsere is in- 
serted to prevent the concurrence of consonants. 

e. SS and more rarelj' ^S roots reduplicate the biliteral formed by their 
contraction, bjbj and bjbj wheel prop, roller, rnrn frightful. I'^pl girt, 
lp"7p croicn of the head prop, dividing (the hair) ; so fern, '"ibnbn .severe pain, 
n'jaba casting down, riiiaba skull, and plur. rrrspbo baskets, csis turning 



^188 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 213 

upside rlou-n from fi'^V = VS. rixbiib (sing. *'^lb) loops and 0^)=^^ (sing, 
probably n|;nb = 'b'h) loinding slairs from rt'^b = ITS ; a root bnb is need- 
lessly assumed by Gesenius. Sometimes tiie harsh concurrence of con- 
sonants is prevented by tiie insertion of a long vowel, b:ibs (const. b:jbs) 
cymbal prop, tiukiing. "li'i? and "i?"!^? stark naked, totally destitute, ^irbp 
despicable, or the softening of the ibrmer of the two consonants to a vowel, 
So7. I. 2Z13 star for -3:13, niSwi:: bands worn on the forehead for 
T'Z'JiZ'J: . "|ib'ir'-p (with the ending "|i added) ignominy for "pbirbp, bra 
Babylon for b^b^ . or its assimilation to the succeeding consonant, "i23 
soinelhiiig circular, a circuit for "iS"i3. The second member of the redu- 
plication suffers contraction or change in na-id chain for rrnuiniS and 
^p.".?. f^oor Ibr "j;^'!P, . 

2. Abstracts are formed witli a doubled middle radical 
by giving u to the second syllable and t to the first, pirt 
foldinfj the hands, a^3iD retrihution, f'p^ ahomination, and 
in the pliu-al D"''^S3 atonement, Di^^ps commandments, D"ini^ir 
divorce. 

a. These may be regarded as verbals formed from the Piel. A like 
formation is in a {&vi instances based upon other species, e. g. Hiphil "Wn 
ineltin g ^vom. ~r3. n'jsri cessation from the 13' root 513, Niphal cb^inss 
u-rest lings: crsinp when derived from the Niphal means repentings, when 
from the Pie! consolations. 

c. s'v roots reduplicate the biliteral to which they are contracted, "in"in 
iiiflavimation, c^rTird delight. 

c. A few roots, which are either li' or y guttural, or have a liquid for 
their third letter, double the last radical with u in the final syllable, 
yi:j".3 thorn-hedge, "iliXQ (=:"i>nN3) ruddy glow, C^^ili^n upright columns 
designed for way-marks, rinl~ird horror, n"'EirX3 adulteries, C^rpra ridges, 
also with o or 2 in the last syllable, nrr'D acquiescence, b'3np_ pasture, 
n-inSD shower, "i"'^^3 obscuration, "i"''^SCJ (K'thibh Ti^Eb) tapestry, b-'b'rn 
whence "^b'bsn dark. The concurrence of consonants is relieved in ^sibaiu 
(in some editions) snail by Daghesh-forte separative. 

§188. A few words reduplicate the two last radicals. 
These may express intensity in general, n^p'i^I^s complete 
openiiifj, n^E-ns"! very beautiful, or more particularly repeti- 
tion, ^sssn twisted prop. tuTning again and again, p^p^n 
slipper g, ^^}^x^., crooked, ^'rht^^ perverse, ^csps? mixed multi- 
tude prop, gathered here and there, riinannn spots or stripes, 
r'nsnsn moles prop, incessant diggers. As energy is con- 
sumed by repeated acts or exhibitions and so gradually 



214 ' ETYMOLOGY. §189,190 

weakened, this form becomes a diminutive when apphed to 
adjectives of colour, Di'a'is* reddish, 'p^'^T! greenish, "innnrj 
blackish. 

a. The first of two concurring consonants is softened to a vowel in 
rrn'jJisn trumpet for nn^n^n, and probably ^IXJ?. Lev. 16 : 8 for ^i^Tr • 

b. ''S roots drop their initial radical, C^nnsn gifts from -H^, C^NlJNS 
offspring, issue from nk"^ . 

Class III. — Nouns formed ly prefixes. 

§189. The third class of nouns is formed by prefixing 
either a vowel or a consonant to the root. In the followiuo: 
instances the vowel a is prefixed with a in the ultimate to 
form adjectives of an intensive signification, 3T3S utterly de- 
ceitful., "iTDS violent, ']^■'^5 ( = 'jn*x) j^erennial, n:Ti< (only 
represented by a derivative, § 94. a) very foul, fetid, 1^t?s? 
exceedingly gross or thick (applied to darkness, Isa. 59 : 10), 
or verbal nouns borrowing their meaning from the Hiphil 
species, •"t'^l'Ti? memorial, ^^"^^ declaration. 

a. This form corresponds with Jk^"f the Arabic comparative or super- 
lative. Its adoption for Hiphil derivatives corroborates the suggestion, 
§82 5. b (2). respecting the formation of the Hiphil species and the origin 
of its causal idea. 

6. The letter X is merely the bearer of the initial vowel and has no 
significance of its ow^n in these forms; n is substituted for it in '3'^r? 
( = b3'^s) palace, temple prop, very capacious from bz^ in the sense of its 
cognate b'^3 In contain. So, likewise, in a few verbals with feminine ter- 
minations. r!i?73dn Ezek. 24 : 26 causing to hear used for the Hiph. infin., 
§128, nban deliverance from isj , ■"injn grant of rest (=nn^:n) from 

c. The short vowel prefixed with X to monosyllables of the first 
species, as explained § 183. c. has no effect upon the meaning, and does not 
properly enter into the constitution of the Ibrm. 

§190. The consonants prefixed in the formation of nouns 
are "a , n , and ■> . They are sometimes prefixed without a 
vowel, the stem letters constituting a dissyllable of them- 
selves, bbpia , nnica , b^'nn , iTiJsn ; more commonly they 
receive a or t followed by a long vowel in the ultimate, e. g. 



§191 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 215 

a. Pattahh commonly stands before e, l. and u. and Hhirik before a and 
0, unless the first radical is a guttural or an assimilated Nun. when Pattahh 
is again preferred, h^^'O food^ "'^"^ planting. ~iib"a saw. O^nn a species 
of bird, nbn^ a kind of gem. Seghol is occasionally employed before a 
guttural or liquid followed by a. §63. 1. b. ""P;"'? depth. 23"1'2 chariot, 
cnjribTa pair of tongs. These rules are not invariable, however, as will 
appear from such forms as nsTis. "ISO'S. "ISO':. Cipb^ , Pjipc^ . A few 
words have d in the ultimate, f'Vn^ ha/p, p:n^ strangling. The inser- 
tion of Daghesh-lbrte separative in the first radical is exceptional. 1^7|5^ 
Ex. 15: 17. c-'V-ia^ Job 9: 18, ninaa?: Joel 1 : 17. 

b. """S roots. The first radical appears as "^ resting in Hhirik or Tsere, 
"itj'^'2 and ^'^'^^ recliliide. 'C^r\'7\ new wine. ''^'^Pi south, or as T resting 
in Hholem or Shurek. 'i?''3 appointed time. ~0!i"3 correction, -w'.n sojourner, 
iiiW sorrow. In a few instances it is rejected, ^zn world, or assimilated 
to the following radical, -S^ bed, S'^'O knowledge. 

'" and ''? roots. The root is reduced to a monosyllabic biliteral by 
the quiescence or rejection of the second radical, the prefix receiving 
Sh'va. i:i"3 citadel, cri^ sound place, msiri ocean. Cipii living tiling, or 
more commonly a pretnnic Kamets or Tsere, liXTO luminary, ^i"^ , "'^'7^ 
and '\~}'0 strife. y""i^ race. 3"''i^ adcersary. The feminine form is almost 
always adopted after n, nrvrn salvation^ rnsnin oblation. 

5r roots. The root is mostly contracted to a biliteral and the vowel 
compressed to a, «, e or o. §61. 4. the prefix sometimes receiving Sh'va 
which gives rise to a Segholate form. §61. 1. b. 02^ tribute for tiz-o, "r^ 
bitterness for 1S^ . bsn defilement for i^sr!, Tj-'TS fear for Tp^. "il^i mast 
for '("in ; more frequently it receives a pretonic Kamets or Tsere. ~C^ 
covering, ':;"9 shield, ^'iv^ fortress, '^^^^0 anguish. In p^'O running, the 
short vowel of the perfect root is preserved by means of Daghesh-forte in 
the first radical, n is almost always followed by the feminine ending, 
n^nn yb////, ~^~n beginning, >^'^^.^ prayer. 

n 5 j^oois. The ultimate has n , iT;"1'!2 disease, nri^ pasture, wiiich 
is apocopated in a few words, br^ lifting up. b>73 higher part, '"b and 
k'- o/i «c(t»/«/ f^/! and always disappears belbre the feminine ending n^, 
§62. 2. c, ~'j'".9 ascent, ^"^"3 commandment, ri'pn Iiope, t^x'^n weariless. 
Before the leminine termination n the final radical appears as quiev^cent 
"I or 1, r'^S'^ri interest, rniTn whoredom., ni:nn encamping, T\'^'S^'^ pajiture. 
Yodh is retained as a consonant after u, C^'pn? diseases. 

§191. The letter 'a is a fragraent of the pronoun ''12 
who or "Ta what. Nouns, to which it is prefixed, denote 

1. The agent icho does what is indicated by the root, as 
the participles, §84. 5, formed by an iniiial 'a, and a fe^y 
substantives, '^''xira didactic jys^/;;^ prop, instructor, '^sa 
(from '?: ) chaff prop, ichat falls off. 

2. The instrument bt/ which it is done, nPEia h:e^ from 



216 - ETYMOLOGY. § 192 

nns to open, ^^"a goad from l^b to learn, I'^ife'Q saio from 

3. The place or time in tchich it is done, naya altar 
from nzT /o sacrifice, t?"!^ /«/r, 'jsip'a brick-kiln, ^t^"^^ jjeriod 
of residence. 

4. The action or the quality loliich is expressed by the 
root, nS'L:'^ slauglder, "nscTa mourning, •"n'^'a sickness, "512?^ 
^rroy, "iiT"''!? straightness. Verbals of this nature sometimes 
approximate the infinitive in signification and construction, 
as '^c^T}'^ overturni7ig, rii&;ir'a Ezet. 17:9, §166.2. In 
Chaldee the infinitive regularly takes this form, e. g. b^pi? 
to kill. 

5. The object upon icliich the action is directed or the 
subject in loUiclt the quality inheres, '2S'a food from ^iij to 
eat, "li^Tip jy5«/?« from ^'at i'o 6"//'/y, n^pba booty from nj^b fo 
^«/i^e, niari-a/ft^ ///%.5 from l)3">r /o be fat, ^'S;rci that ickicli 
is small, pn^a that which is remote. 

a. These different significations blend into one another in such a man- 
ner that it is not always easy to distinguish the precise shade of meaning 
oriffinally attached to a word: and not infrequently more than one of these 
senses co-exist in the same word. Thus. "".S'a luminary, may suggest the 
idea of agency, dispenser of light, or of place, reservoir of light; rbrs^ 
knife, may be so called as an agent, a devoiirer. or as an instrument, nsed in 
eating; O'^p^ means both a holy thing and o. holy place; "2^13 sale and 
something sold or for sale ; nDb?3^ royal aitthority and kingdom ; N^i?2 the 
act. place, and time of going forth and that which goes forth ; "U"i^ theplace 
and time of sitting or dwelling as well as they who sit or dwell. 

§ 192. Nouns formed by prefixing "^ or t-\ denote persons 
or thino;s to which the idea of the root is attached. 

1. "I is identical in origin with the prefix of the 3 masc. 
future in verbs, and is largely used in the formation of names 
of persons, 'p'^'^'} Isaac, nps^ Jejjhtha, but rarely in forming 
ap|>ellatives, 3i"i^ adversary proj). contender, "i^D^ apostate 
prop, departer, 't2^pb;; bag prop, gatherer, D'p!' living thing 
prop, that (which) stands, "ins^ fresh oil prop, that {ichich) 
shines. 



§193 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 217 

2. f\ , probably the same with tlie prefix of the 3 fern, 
future of verbs, which is here used in a neuter sense, is em- 
ployed in the formation of a few concrete nouns, "in"iP oak 
prop, t/tat {ickicU) endures, ^"""9^1 cloak prop, ihat {jchich) 
wraps ujj, ^^sn ftirnace prop, that [lohicli) hams, n^sr^ apple 
prop, that {wJiich) exhales fragrance. But it more frequently 
appears in abstract terms like the feminine ending in other 
forms, '}^2ri undersiandlng , '\T\'fiT\ bitterness, 5-:?r! delight. 
It is very rarely found in designations of persons, and only 
when they occupy a relation of dependence and subordina- 
tion, and may consequently be viewed as things, ^''''a^ri 
learner, nirin one dwelling on another's lands, tenant, vassal. 

a. The great majority of nouns with r prefixed have likewise a 
feminine ending, n^'^i^ri deep sleep, nrl-n salvation, IT^XEri beauty, 
n^TS'in fraud. 

Class IV. — Kouns formed hy affixes. 

§193. The nouns formed by means of an affixed letter 
or vowel are chiefly denominatives. The consonant "J ap- 
pended by means of the vowel o, or less frequently a, forms 

1. Adjectives, 'li'^ns lastiTom inj? after, X^^"} first from 
rs"^ head, fb'^n middle from '^'^T\ midst, IJ^i^n? brazen from 
rcn: brass. A very few are formed directly from the root, 
■ji^sx poor, "'■''"^ most high, l^"^^? widon:ed. 

2. Abstract substantives, the most common form of 
which is r-^p , e. g. "ji^!:? blindness, X^^'^"^ confidence, 1"!^^^ 
2min, X"?17. paleness, though various other forms likcAvise 
occm', e. g. "i'l^^i^ and I79X destruction, X'm dominion, X^^r^ 
success, '\^'^x ^ff^^''^^^0' 

a. In a few words the termination "i has been thouglit to he intensive, 
ri'r sabbath, V'^?''^ « e-reat salAxUh. "it proud. ""T'.'l exceedingly proud, 
and once diminutive lli'^X man, '(v^"^. ^'''^^ man, i. e. the pupil of the eye, 
so called from the image reflected in it. The word jli'^^^ Jeshurun from 
■"I'JJ^ iipright, is by some explained as a diminutive or term of endearment, 
while otliers think that the termination "|1 has no further meaning than 
to make of the word a proper name, comp. '(1?^! • See Alexander on 
Isaiah 44:2. 



218 . ETYMOLOGY. §194,195 

b. ■) is occasionally affixed with the vowel e, "iia axe. "nss nail. 

c. A few words are tbrmed by appending D, e. g. Ci""72 and ^^'j^ ran- 
som, C^p ladder from b^O <o Z//J: ?<p. cbin sacred scribe troni :3"!n stylus, 
ninn so«^/i li-oni nn'n ^o shine j or b, e.g. b^n? garden from c-i2 fwe- 
2/arrf, ^liJza calyx or cup of a Jlower Irom y'^rs cztp, Vo^p a/iAr/e from D".;? 
_70???/, ba"in locust from S^n indicative of tremulous morion, '2."i? ^/lic/c 
darkness from ^""i^ cloudy bna iron probably from tna /o pierce. 

§194. The vowel "i . forms adjectives indicating relation 
or derivation. 

1 . It is added to proper names to denote nationality or 
family descent, "'^^y Hebrew, "'P^i!^ Jebusite, """^'^^^ PJulistine^ 
iTZ-^.s Aramean, ''i^'2 Egjjptian, ■'?X"i^'? Israelitish, an Israel- 
ite, ""^^ Danite, ""n")? Kohatlilte, "^si^na Gershonite. 

2. It is also added to other substantives, "'b's:: northerner, 
"^'yyi foreigner^ "'H? villager, '^%'\ footman, ''P? timelg, '%''-^ 
inner ivoiw the plural s'^i?; to a few adjectives, "'■^jss and 
"i'tss violent, "'PTS and ^'^\'&^ foolish, and even to prepositions, 
"iTi^ loicest imm rnh , "^is^/roz/if from ""bsb + i , §G2. 2. 

a. Tiie feminine ending n^ is dropped beibre this ending, "'"i'''^? •^^"' 
from nnir.i. "^biiS Beriite from nri"i3. or the old ending n^ takes its 
place. "rT?.!? Maachathite from '"12?.^ , or i is inserted between the vowels, 
"^iVw Shelanite from nbd. Final "^ _ combines with the appended "'. into 
2, §62. 2, "^"b Levite and Z/eri. ^irJ Shunite and Shuni. 

h. In a very few instances i_ takes the place of ^ . , e. g. """n white 
stiifs, '^ni'n basket, "^P'b /oo/;. and perhaps "^r'fen. in a collective sense 
icindoics, "^r^jn uncovered. "b^3 which Gesenius derives from bs: and 
takes to mean cunning; if however, it is derived from nss, §1S7. 1. c, 
and means spendthrift, the final Yodh will be a radical. 



MULTILITERALS. 

§195. 1. Quadriliteral nouns are for the most part 
evenly divided into two syllables, nnp? scorpion, "iSTS treas- 
urer, Ti^''?7n sickle, l-'ib^ barren. Sometimes the second rad- 
ical receives a vowel, that of the first radical beino; either 
rejected, "pt^^ damask, ^^in frost, "i~^9 ^'^^^^ blossom, or pre- 
served by the insertion of Daghesh-forte, ©"^bsn fint, ©"'il? 



^196 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 219 

sjjider, liJ^^S and t':h■^'^ concubine. Occasionally the third 
radical has Daghesh-forte, r]3u? bat, "T^hzD^n. 

2. Words of five or more letters are of rare occurrence 
and appear to be chiefly of foreign origin, l^ais purjjie, ?'^"1S2 
/roy, Trj?!? cloi/i, nriTi'ns mule, )h-}^_^nif.^ satrap. 

3. Compound words are few and of doubtful character, 
ni^aba shadow of death, rra^sia anything prop, what and what, 
n/b"»':3 nothing prop, no ichat, b?!'53 worthlessness prop, no 
2)roJit, n'l'bESTa darkness of JeJiovah, n'jnsnbiri ffame of Jeho- 
vah, except in proper names, p'ti'^'sb^ Melchizedek, king of 
righteousness, Ts^'si'S ObaJiah, serving Jehovah, Q"'p^'ii7'^ J^- 
hoiakim, Jehovah shall establish. 



Gender and Number. 

§196. There are in Hebrew, as in the other Semitic 
languages, but two genders, the masculine ("i?J) and the 
feminine (nipD). The masculine, as the primary form, has 
no characteristic termination ; the feminine ends in n^ or n , 
e, g. bip masc, '*^t4?, or nb'jp fem. 

a. The only trace of the neuter in Hebrew is in the interrogative, na 
7/Vj(7; being used of things as "'^ u-/jo of persons. The function assigned 
to the neuter in other languages is divided between the masculine and the 
feminine, being principidly committed to the latter. 

b. The original feminine ending in nouns as in verbs, §85. 1. a (1), ap- 
pears to have been n, which was either attached directly to the word, 
pb^'p which, by §61. 2, becomes nbi:p, or added by means of the vowel a. 
Tii'sip or n^Lfp. which by the rejection of the consonant from the end of 
the word, §55.2.0, becomes H^::p. The termination n_ or n^ is still 
found in a very few words. rp-i3 emerald. Pxp pelican, nrSO company 
2 Kin. 9 : 17, ri-'jri^ mnrrow. n:-3 portion, rip end. X^-"-^- Josh. 13: l-S, and 
the poetic forms, nnT3t song, i^^"?. inheritance, nAn; lieip, r"i'Q fruitful^ 
niir sleep. Two other words, n?n Ps. 74 : ly and rrJ3 Vs. 61 : 1, have 
been cited as additional examples, but these are in the construct state, 
which always preserves the original n final ; it is likewise always re- 
tained before suffixes and paragogic letters, §61. 6. a, '^nSIC^, nr?ld'|i, 
'in'^n. 

c. The feminine ending n^ receives the accent and is thus readily dis- 



220 - ETYMOLOGY. §197 

tinguished from the unaccented paragogic n^ . In a few instances gram- 
marians have suspected that forms may perhaps be feminine, though 
the punctuators have decided otherwise by placing the accent on the 
penult, e.g. n"^r2 hiirmng Hos. 7 : 4. nb^Bj Galilee 2 Kin. 15:20. nnc;? 
destniction Ezei<. 7 : 25, n^nn vulture Dent. 14 : 17, M'Da low Ezek. 
21 : 31. 

(/. Tlie vowel letter X, which is the usual sign of the feminine in 
Clialdee and Syriac. takes tlie place of n in sr'n llireshing Jer. 50:11, 
X;n terror Un. 10: 17, a'cn irrath Dan. 1 1 : 44. X^zb lioness Ezek. 19:2, 
N^::^ mark Lam. 3:12. x^^ bitter Ruth 1:20, xn-|T baldness Ezek. 
27:31. x:";^ sleep Ps. 127:2. No such form is found in the Pentateuch 
unless it be xnt loathing Num. 1 1 : 20, where, however, as Ewald sug- 
gests, X may be a radical since it is easy to assume a root xnj cognate to 
"111 . The feminine ending in pronouns of the second and third persons, and 
in verbal futures is I "^ . ; an intermediate form in e appears in ""ilT Isa. 
59 ; 5 and nnrr the numeral ten, or rather teen, as it oidy occurs in num- 
bers compounded with the units. For like unusual forms in verbs see 
§S6. b. and § 156. 4. 

e. The sign of the feminine in the Indo-European languages is a final 
vowel, corre^sponding to the vowel-ending in Hebrew; the Latin has a. the 
Greek a or ?;, the Sanskrit e. And inasmuch as the feminine in Hebrew 
covers, in part at least, the territory of the neuter, its consonantal ending 
n may be compared with t. the sign of the neuter in certain Sanskrit pro- 
nouns, represented by d in Latin, id, illnd, istud. quid; in English it, 
ichat. that. This distinctive neuter sign has, however, been largely super- 
seded in Indo-European tongues by m or v, which is properly the sign of 
the accusative, boman. KaXov, the passivity of the personal object being 
allied to the lifeless non-personaliry of the neuter. Bopp Vergleich. 
Gramra. §152. In curious coincidence with this, the Hebrew sign of the 
definite object is rx prefixed to nouns; and its principal consonant is 
affixed to form the inferior gender, the neuter being comprehended in the 
feminine. 

§197. It is obvious that this transfer to all existing 
things, and even to abstract ideas, of the distinction of sex 
found in living beings, must often be purely arbitrary. Por 
although some thinsrs have marked characteristics or associa- 
tions in virtue of which they might readily be classed with 
a particular sex, a far greater number hold an indeterminate 
position, and might with quite as much or quite as little 
reason be assigned to either. It hence happens that, there is 
no general rule other than usage for the gender of Hebrew 
words, and that there is a great want of uniformity in usage 
itself. 



§197 



GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 



221 



a. The following names of females are without the proper distinctive 
feminine termination : 

ck mother. "jinx she-ass. . ^'5""*? concubine. ^W queen. 

So the names of double members of the body, whether of men or ani- 
mals, which are feminine with rare exceptions : 



'|tX ear. 
S2SX finger. 
■jni thiimb. 
7]"iil knee. 



SJITT arm. 
1^ hand. 
T^n; thigh. 
C]5 3 wing. 



t\3 palm. 
v]n3 shoulder, 

V^S. side. 



1"!!?. horn. 
hn foot. 
•jla loath. 
pib leg. 



The followinff nouns are also feminine 



nx brazier. 013 ctip. 'd'^_^ Great Bear. Irtij light. 

~!lirx footstep. "133 circuit. 'dV couch. sB^ siV/e. 

1X3 ire/i. 1^53 brightness, rds workmanship. Xi3"i myriad. 

"ipa 6e//;/. ^^i s/ioe. rs morsel. hzu world. 

Sin sword. "I'^y cj7?/. 

6. The following nouns are of doubtful gender, being sometimes con- 
strued as masculine and sometimes as feminine. Those which are com- 
monly masculine are distinguished thus C*") ; those which are commonly 
feminine are distinguished thus (f). 



f "i^X stone. 

* nix light. 
rix sign. 
■'ix feet. 

'|iix ark. 
n"ix path. 
t y-X earth. 
t i::x fre. 

* ^153 garment. 

* rr^s house. 

X'^a valley. 
■ja garden. 
"I" "Sj tu'??e. 



T|"l'!l u'a?/. 

*b3'iri temple. 

* li^n midtitude. 

")i3j beard. 

■p^n window. 

isn court. 

bsi^ jubilee. 



* "i:i3T2 fortress. 

* ni!^ r///ar. 
nDri.72 camp. 

* niii; rod. 

* mp^ place. 

t rE3 soif^. 



t "r^^ '■^^■'''■^ /ia«(/. ■i"'D /;o<. 



* ni33 glory. 

13 /;a//. 
* C"i3 vineyard. 

* 35 heart. 

cnb bread. 



t rihp four. 

* c^ people. 
t crii; 6o?te. 
3" 3.' evening. 



f D3'Q iime (repe- 
tition). 

"jiss north, 

rt;p 6o20. 
t Ijill spirit. 
t 3n"i street. 

* Gni womb. 

* cnn juniper. 
bixu Ae/^. 

* aauJ sceptre. 
nio sabbath. 

"i?t3 g-a<e. 



* "i^a threshing' f ')i^^ tongue, 
floor. * ^3X72 /oocZ. 



t r3? time(dura- oinn ocean. 

tion). * 'r'^n j?oi«i/t. 

* CIS face. * ISP] razor. 



t ^^!1 f/oor. 

Gesenius ascribes only one gender to a few of these words, but 3b is 
once fem. Prov. 12:25; so bbxTs fem. Hab. 1:16, i-|3^ fern. Hab. 1:10, 
n3Ti3 fem. Ezek. 43: 13, nsi; masc. Ezek. 24: 10. The list might be re- 



222 - ETYMOLOGY. §198 

duced by referring the vacillation in gender, wherever it is possible, to the 
syntax rather than the noun. Verbs, adjectives, and pronouns, which be- 
long to feminine nouns may in certain cases, as will be shown hereafter, be 
put in the masculine as the more indefinite and primary form. While, on 
the other hand, those which belong to masculine names of inanimate ob- 
jects are sometimes put in tlie feminine as a substitute for the neuter. 

c. Some species of animals exhibit a distinct name for each sex, the 
feminine being formed from the masculine by the appropriate termination, 
IB bullock, nns heifer. bjT calf. fern. nb;>' . '"CII lamb. lem. ni:::3. or 
being represented by a word of different radicals, ~"i^n ass. fem. liriX . 
When this is not the case, the name of the species may be construed in 
either gender according to the sex of the individual spoken of as bra 
camel. "J^a cattle, lis^ bird, or it may have a fixed gender of its own 
irrespective of the sex of the individual; thus, 3^3 dog., -NT wolf, "li'i o.r, 
are masculine, ri2:~iS hare. il3i^ dove. bnT sheep, are feminine. 

d. The names of nations, rivers, and mountains are commonly mascu- 
line, those of countries and cities feminine. Accordingly, such words as 
ninx Edom. SX'^ Moab, nnsin-i Judnh, ^^^h^'^ Egypt. s^V'V'? Chaldees, 
are construed in the masculine when the people is meant, and in the fem- 
inine when the country is meant. 

§198. The feminine ending is frequently emploj^ed in 
the formation of abstract nouns, and is sometimes extended 
to the formation of official designations (comp. /lis Honour, 
Ills Excellency, his Reverence), "ns governor, r;2 coUeacjue, 
rbfip jjreacher, and of collectives (comp. Itumanity for man- 
kind), V) afsh, ^'^"^fsh, y.'^ a cloud, n;;? clouds, yV. a tree, 
r-kv timber, n^s? a traveller, nn-is caravan, wVs Zeph. 3:19 
tlie halting, r.'jibsp the escajjed. 

a. (1) The feminine ending added to Segholates gives new prominence 
to the orisrinally abstract character of this formation, ""C;"! and nyi::"i 
wickedness, distinguished by Evvald as to clSlkov and dStKta, nc~n shame, 
nb:jr slothfulness. 

(2) So to monosyllables whose second radical receives the vowel, i^l^^^ 
right eoxisness. which is more abstract and at the same time used more ex- 
clusively in a moral sense than the Segholate. P^^ rightne.'is. ribEN rfar/f- 
7zesS; equivalent to bss, nhhs (=r;':) brightness, nr^i-l' (:="Ti^J salva- 
tion. Or nouns of this description might be supposed to have sprung from 
the adjectives belonging to the second form of Class I., the pretonic vowel 
falling away upon the addition of the feminine ending. bSN dark. "bsN 
the dark, to ctkotuvov, T^v^''d'] the being saved from ""'iiV nb'bs jf»s/?ce 
from h^^ii judge. The following nouns, descriptive of the station or func- 
tions of a particular class, follow this form. ~bi king. nz^'ii2 kingly office 
or sway., X'^SJ prophet. ni<!t:3 prophecy. "!n3 priest, <^5n3 priesthood or 
priestly duty, bsH merchant, n^3-i traffic. 



§198 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 223 

(3) The feminine ending occasionally gives an abstract signification to 
reduplicated forms, "iJiS blind, ri"iny blindness, nsa having a bald fore- 
htad, rnka baldness in front, N^n sinner, rxiin and HNijn sin, nns3 
terror, no^f? scoffing, nbnbn anguish, or to tiiose which have a prefixed 
letter "Q, r^z'Sp'O overthrow, nbi'rTS dominion, ntiriTS confusion, or particu- 
larly n, nJVJn salvation, rrnii'ri testimony, n^ipn hope, nisbn weariness. 

(4) It is likewise added to forms in *'.. n*b"'bQ judgment, M-iVby work- 
ing. ri"'':^'xn begi)ining, ni~ins e?<(i, ri'^'^XO remnant, the termination ri 
being often found in place of ni_, niCEH 2 Chron. 26:21 K'ri. n-ilTSJn 
K'thihh. disease prop, freedom, from duty, "^llfEn /ree. f^lbb^n redness, 
"^"^••hzn Ted, nsinin^Q bitterness, "'~i"''i'3 6//^er, nn^S heaviness, r^iirbx 
■if/c/ojr/iooc/, and occasionally ni , m'^^n wisdom, nibHnyo//^, though the 
latter may perhaps be a plural as it is explained by Gesenius. Ewald 
suggests a connection between the final "^ of the relative adjective, which 
thus passes into >) and even to i in this abstract formation, and the old 
construct ending "^^ and i. The further suggestion is here offered that 
both may not improbably be derived from the pronoun Sin, which was 
originally of common gender. §71. a (3). Thus. ■j'";)N~'in'^n Gen. 1:24 
beast of earth is equivalent to 7"iN Kin P^n beast viz. that cf earth, and 
pn:i— 2bT3 (which may be for isbri as the plural ending C. for t.f\ . §199. e), 
is equivalent to Pl^ N^T ~b^ king viz. that of righteousness. The ap- 
pended pronominal vowel thus became indicative of the genitive relation; 
and its employment in adjectives, involving this relation, is but an exten- 
sion of this same use. ■'bxiiai' of or belo7iging to Israel, hraelilish. The 
further addition of tiie feminine ending in its abstract sense, has mostly 
preserved the vowel from that attenuation to I which it has experienced at 
the end of the word, comp. § 101. 1. a. r^is^bs widowhood prop, the state 
of a widow "i^bs , rn"2rn wisdom prop, the quality belonging to the wise 
nail. Tlie rare instances in which the termination ni is superimposed 
upon "^_ viz.: ts's-itdx . nif^aiaip , may belong to a time when the origin 
of the ending was no longer retained in the popular consciousness. The 
termination n"' or HI in abstracts derived from fib roots is of a different 
origin from that just explained and must not be confounded with it; "^ or 1 
is there the final radical softened to a vowel, § 168, as fT^id or ri-d cap- 
tivity from nz'J to lead captive. 

b. In Arabic, nouns of unity, or those which designate an individual, 
are often formed by appending the feminine termination to masculines 
which have a generic or collective signification. This has been thought 
to be the case in a fevr words in Hebrew, ''^^Jleet, n^:N: ship, lyb hair, 

I • .Go I . 

iTir/vU a hair, <^> swarm, nniri a bee. 

c. Some names of inanimate objects are formed from those of ani- 
mated beings or parts of living bodies, which they were conceived to 
resemble, by means of the feminine ending, taken in a neuter sense. CX 
mother, nax metropolis, T\'}^. thigh, nsi'^ hinder part, extremity, tk palm 
of the hand, nS3 palm-branch, n:i55 forehead, nriS53 greave, HE mouth, 
n^D edge. 



224 '■ ETYMOLOGY. § 199 

^199. There are three numbers in Hebrew, the smgular 
(Tn- yz)), dual (D?:t: -jiirb), and plural (n^sn )'zb). The 
plural of masculme nouns is formed by adding D"'. , or de- 
fectively written Q . , to the singular, c^6 horse, D"'C"0 horseSy 
pi'hs rif^htcous {man), C'^p''"? or Dp""'? righteous {men). The 
plural of feminine nouns is fonned by the addition of rn , 
also Amtten ri", the feminine ending of the singular, if it 
has one, being di'opped as superfluous, since the plural ter- 
mination of itself distinguishes the gender, cis cup, VZ3 
cups, "?'"t drgin, r^'ii'ra and r'b^na virgins, T)>c^r] sin, 
rr'sr^'n sins; in two instances the vowel-letter N takes the 
place of 1 , §11. 1. a, rs-^.s Ezek. 31 : 8, rsi^2 Ezek. 47 : 11. 

a. The masculine plural sometimes has "i"*. instead of C . e.g. ""2T3 
oftener than c"'^^ in the book of Job. Vr"^^ Prov. 31 : 3, "fisT 2 Kin. 11 : 13, 
•;-iy5 Mic. 3:12. T^-?"':: Lam. 1:4, •f'-T' Ezek. 4:9, y^;^ Dan. 12:13. 
This ending, which is the common one in Chaldee, is chiefly found in 
poetry or in the later books of the Bible. 

h. Some grammarians have contended for the existence of a ^^vf plurals 
in ■' without the final D, but the instances alleged are capable of another 
and more satisfactory explanation. Thus. "'"^3 2 Kin. 11:4, "^r'^S. "rfes 
2 Sam. 8: 18, ^^:^ 2 Sara. 23:8. and ''Sn 1 Sam. 20: 38 K'thibh (K'ri 
c^'Sn). are singulars used collectively; "'H? 2 Sam. 22:44, Ps. 144:2, 
Lam. 3 : 14. and '^i'^sn Cant. 8 : 2. are in the singular with the suffix of the 
first person; "r^ Ps. 45 : 9 is not for c'l'O stringed insiruments. hut is the 
poetic form of the preposition '(d from ; ""^XS Ps. 22:17 is not ibr c-'-is 
piercins^. but is the noun "^"^X with the preposition D like the lion. §156. 3. 

c. There are also a few words which have been regarded as plurals in 
" . But "ti^ Zech. 14:5 and "^^^^ Judg. 5: 15. are plurals with the suffix 
of the first per>-on. In :"'tin 2 Chron. 33 : 19. which is probably a proper 
name, and "^ia Am. 7 : 1, Nah. 3 : 17. which is a singular used collectively, 
final "^ is a radical as in "'"ib = r\^):i . :';^'in Isa. 19 : 9 is a singular with 
the formative ending "i. , §194.&; ■'■r'bn j'er. 22: 14 and "^S-in Isa. 20:4, 
might be explained in the same way. tliough Ewald prefers to regard the 
former as an abbreviated dual Ibr n-^rrn r/onble (i. e. large and shoicy) 
u-inrlows. and the latter as a construct plural for ■'E^irn , the diphthongal e 
being resolved into oij. comp. §57. 2 (5). "'^^ Ezek. 13: 18 is probably a 
dual for ="b"' . though it might be for the unabridged singular ""iV which, 
however, never occurs. The divine name "'"J Almighty is best explained 
as a singular; the name ""px. Lord is a plural of excellence, §201.2, 
with the suffix of the first person, the original signification being my 
Lord. 

d. In a few words the sign of the feminine singular is retained before 
the plural termination, as though it were one of the radicals, instead of 



§ 200 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 225 

being dropped agreeably to the ordinary rule, rb'n dour pi. nir^'^i. So, 
ros pillow. nCj? bow. rij^ii trough, n^:n spear, r^ij^bx widoichood. nwns 
divorce, rsiirn whoredom., '^?'V ^'f P'- '^''^?''^- To these must be added 
rrriO, provided it be derived i'rom ~nrr in ihe sense oC pit j it may, how- 
ever, signify (/es^r«c/('o?«, from the root nn'j, when the final n will be a 
radical. See Alexander on Psalm 107 : 20. 

e. The original ending of the plural in nouns, verbs, and pronouns, 
seems to have been CI, §71.6. (2). In verbs the vowel has been pre- 
served, but ihe final nasal has been changed or lost, I'l's^P';' or liap"^, 
§85. 1. a. (1). In masculine nouns and pronouns the final nasal has been 
retained, but the vowel has been attenuated to? ore, o^p^io, cn, cnx : 
the Arabic has una for the nominative and lua for the oblique' case. If 
we suppose n, the sign of the feminine, to be added to ni , the sign of the 
plural, the vowel will regularly be changed to i before the two con- 
sonants, §61.4; then if the nasal be rejected before the final consonant, 
agreeably to the analogy of ra for ri:3 and Dis for 0313. the resulting 
form will be ri, the actual ending of the feminine plural. If the sign of 
the plural, like all the other inflective letters and syllables, is of pronom- 
inal origin, this D, which is joined to words by the connecting vowel ^l, 
may perhaps be related to tin taUen indefinitely in the quantitative or 
numerical sense of quot or aliquot, comp. Zech. 7:3; and the adverbial or 
adjective ending 3^ or c' may in liUe manner be referred to the same in 
its qualitative sense, comp. Ps. 8 : 5. so that cp?"'"] vaciie, would strictly be 
qud vacuus. The pronoun seems in fact to be preserved without abbrevia- 
tion in the Syriac jv^C^ .) =: cT2'i"' interdiu. 

^200. The gender of adjectives and participles is care- 
fully discriminated, both in the singular and in the plural, by 
means of the appropriate terminations. But the same want 
of precision or uniformity which has been remarked in the 
singular, §197, characterizes likewise the use of the plural 
terminations of substantives. Some masculine substantives 
take ri in the plural, some feminines take D'^. , and some 
of each gender take indifferently Q"^ . or ri . 

a. The following masculine nouns form their plural by adding ni : 
those which are distinguished by an asterisk are sometimes construed as 
ferainipp. 

^Vi father. * nns path. * l"!^ threshing- 'i"'Tn vision 

'l^X bowl. "'i'2"^N palace. floor. Olbn dream. 

SIX familiar V3'i;x cluster. 'i^'i'n goad. V'^^P. invention. 

spirit. nia pj7. "IT tail. nsc) hand breadth. 

"iix treasure. ^ roof. yin street. NSS throne. 

* riN sign. bn'iJ lot. •"•Tn breast. 'nfi tablet. 
15 



226 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§200 



^"? night. 
*n2T^ altar. 
"iB"a rain. 
nib:?^ tithe. 
* ^S"2 summit. 
* t^p'Q place. 
^^5^ stnff- 



1X3 holtle. 
"1.3 lamp. 
"iSi? sAruj. 

y^B leader. 
*^Z'J. host. 



"iri3S m6e. 
*~iB^ bi7xl. 
"lins bundle. 
hyp voice. 

*2"ini street. 



pini chain. 

c^5 name. 
"lEid trumpet. 
my pillar. 
* cinn deep. 



b. The following feminine nouns form their plural by adding C : those 
marked thus (f) are sometimes masculine: 

t '"X stone. t ""i ifoy. 



"Hx terebinth. r'n /aw. 

r!i3T:3X iridowhood. frr'^i branch. 



riiL'X icoman. 
pbna coaZ. 
t "25 rene. 
inbr'n Jig-cake. 



rizT whoredom.. 
ni2n vheal. 
nr'in darkness. 
n;ii rfoi-e. 
1 13 pitcher. 



njrb brick. 
n2i2 word. 
n'^^3 a«L 
nxo measure. 
13.; she- goat. 

r^iS concubine. 



re morsel. 

bni sheep. 
nii'b barley. 
r'Sii':: ear of corn. 

T^d acacia. 



Also C"^2Si3 e^^.? which is not found in the singular. 

c. The following nouns form their plural by adding either D"^. or M: 



MASCULINE N0TJN8. 



bB"'X 

■lix 
. r 

IT'S 

-lirz! 



nr"'x 
ni:bx 



c-^nx^ 

riiT 



porch, 
lion. 

generation, 
sacrifice, 
memorial. 
day. 
forest, 
la cer. 
harp. 



2rb heart. 
liXTS light. 



'1?^ delicacy. 
Y^yi fountain. 

1DT3 foundation. '"S'-"^ dwelling. 

"lOiia 6o?ifZ. "ifi3 river. 

'y^i'O seat. tp_ basin. 

piT^a bowl. "I'l? iniquity. 



172D73 7Za?7. 



Sp2 Aee/. 



l^iQ breach. 

ixi:£ 72ec/c. 

"i::p grave. 

ii:p reed. 

C^ip o.re. 

nnb ^eZ(*. 

i'lsd treefc. 

5!i3;;ri delight. 



FEMININE N0TTN8. 



terror. n'i""^w'X grape-cake. bS3 sAoe. ■^^~Q ^oo/". 

sheaf. 'i'7^!^<. Astarte. i^TJS /(eap. H:r year. 
people. f^'^?'!! spear. 

NOTTKS CONSTRTTED IN EITHER GENDER. 

. P'bnx a/oe*'. "2" window. Pa"3 /-oc/. c:i3; 6o?2e. 

garment. "^n court. Tl.'£3 soz<Z. rs ii'we. 

r/m. 133 circle. "I'^D thorn. crs ^/boZ. 

temple. "^^^ fortress. "? cloud. rbst sic/e. 

arwi. •I.-.'!!^ camp. rSS cord. 



§ 201 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 227 

d. The two furms of the plural, though mostly synonj-mou?, occasion- 
allv differ in sense as in Latin loci and lota. Thus CiSD is used of 
round masses of money, talents. riT'SS of bread, round loaces ; C"'^iq 
thorns, ri~i"^p hooks; S'S;??. heels, Viiz'g'V foot-piints ; ^"^"OS^ footsteps of 
men, rl'c^'S^eei of articles of furniture. Conip. §198. c. Sometimes they 
differ in usage or frequency of employment: thus ri^^ days. nistK years, 
are poetical and rare, the customary forms being C^isv C^r.^. 

e. Nouns mostly preserve their proper gender in the plural irrespective 
of the termination wiiich they adopt; though there are occasional excep- 
tions, in which feminine nouns in C^ are construed as masculines, e. g. 
D-«Trj women Gen. 7 : 13, c-ip-a words Job 4:4, cirr? ants Pro v. 30:25, 
and masculine nouns in m are construed as feininines, e. g. PiIDSCTD dwell- 
ings Ps. 84 : 2. 

f. In explanation of the apparently promiscuous or capricious use of the 
masculine and feminine endings, it may be remarked that the termination 
C in strictness simply indicates the plural number, and is indeterminate 
as to gender, § 199. e, though the existence of a distinct form for the fem- 
inine lett it to be appropriated by the masculine. The occurrence of C in 
feminine nouns, and even in the names of females, as c^03 women, C"^TS 
sAe-n-0(jf.9. may therefore, like the absence of the distinctive feminine ending 
from the singular, be esteemed a mere neglect to distinguish the gender by 
the outward form. The occurrence of the leminine ending in a masculine 
noun, whether singular or plural, is less easily accounted for. Such words 
may perhaps, at o:ie period of tlie language, have been regarded as fem- 
inine, the subsequent change of conception, by which they are construed 
as masculine, fxiling to obliterate their original form. Such a change is 
readily supposable in words, which there is no natural or evident reason 
for assigning to one sex rather than the other; but not in r\izi< fathers, 
which can never have been a feminine. One might be tempted in this 
case to suspect that m w^as not the sign of the plural, comp. rins sister, 
"i^n mother-in-law, but that "i belonged to the radical portion of the 
word, and that n was appended to form a col lective, /a/ZierAoocZ. §198, 
which has in usage taken the place of the proper plural. More probably, 
however, the idea of official dignity, which was so prominently attached 
to the paternal relation in patriarchal times, is the secret of the feminine 
form which -X assumes in the plural, comp. r'"~Q leaders, ribnp preacher, 
while its construction as a masculine springs so directly out of its significa- 
tion as to remain unaffected. And this suggests the idea that the like may 
have happened to names of inanimate objects. They may receive the 
feminine ending in its neuter sense to designate them as things, §198. c, 
while at the same time they are so conceived that the masculine construc- 
tion is maintained. 

§ 201. 1. Some substantives are, by their signification or 
by usage, limited to the singular, such as material nouns 
taken in a universal or indefinite sense, tDk fire, ^iyi ^old, 
rra^s (jroiind ; collectives, ^t? children, ^'3 foid, t:^? birds of 



228 ' ETYMOLOGY. § 202 

prey, ^j?a large cattle (noun of unity "liilJ an ox), "jiii small 
cattle (noun of unity <iii? a sUeep or goat) ; many abstracts, 
yi?? salvation, rri^? blindness. On the other hand some are 
found only in the plural, such as nouns, whose singular, if it 
ever existed, is obsolete, D^ia water, d^;d face oy faces, D'^'OiC 
heaven, D>'^ bowels, D^Ta men, niiUKn^ adjacent to the head, 
and abstracts, which have a plural form, D"^hn /{/<!', ff^^v*^ 
/oye, c^nn mercy, niS^ann government. 

a. The intimate connection between a collective and an abstract is 
shown by the use of the feminine singular to express both, § 198. In like 
manner the plural, whose office it is to gather separate units into one ex- 
pression, is used to denote in its totality or abstract form that common 
quality which pervades them all and renders such a summation possible, 
comp. TO, SiKttia right, to. aStKa wrong. Some abstracts adopt indifferently 
the leminine or the plural form, iii'i^s and n-^i^i^N fidelity, n^x? and 
Bi^iixa redemption, rv^n and C'fn life,, ^k^J^-. ^^^ °''^^'^: darkness. ^^\'^. 
and C"<xbi3 setting of gems. 

b. The form c^Ssiap; is adopted by certain words which denote periods 
of human life, C'^ili"? childhood. c-'TDfibi' youth, c-'-ina adolescence, Q-iS^na 
virginity, nib^ibs period of espousals, D^?P1 old age. 

c. Abstracts, which are properly singular, are sometimes used in the 
plural to denote a higii degree of the quality which they represent, or re- 
peated exhibitions and embodiments of it, n^^a might, nin^^a deeds of 
might, 

2. There are a few examples of the employment of the 
plural form when a single individual is spoken of, to suggest 
the idea of exaltation or greatness. It is thus intimated that 
the individual embraces a plurality, or contains within itself 
what is elsewhere divided amongst many. Such plurals of 
majesty are D'^nbs God the supreme object of worship, ''jix 
Supreme Lord prop, my Lord, § 199. c, and some other terms 
referring to the divine being, T^T? Eccles. 12:1, D'^niZii 
Eccles. 5 : 7, tM'S Isa. 54 : 5, D^irinp Hos. 12 : 1; also, D^ns? 
(rarely with a plural sense) lord, D^^ya (when followed by a 
singular suffix) master, fii'ana Behemoth, great beast, and 
possibly D^B"^r^ Terapjhim, which seems to be used of a single 
image, 1 Sam. 19 : 13, 16. 

§202. The dual is formed by adding 0\ to the singular 



^203 GENDER A>'D NUMBER OF NOUNS. 229 

of both genders, n as the sign of the feminine remaining 
unchanged, and "^ reverting to its original form n,, §>196.(5, 
l) hand du. Q-^; , rb^ door du. D^nb^ , nsir //}^ du. n^nsio . 

o. The dual ending in Hebrew, as in the Indo-European languages, 
B.)|ip Vergleich. Gramm. §206. is a modified and strengthened form of the 
plural ending. The Arabic goes beyond the Hebrew in extending the 
dual to verbs and pronouns. The Chaldee and Syriac scarcely retain a 
trace of it except in the numeral two and its compounds. 

§203. The dual in Hebrew expresses not merely two, but 
a couple or a paii'. Hence it is not employed with the same 
latitude as in Greek of any two objects of the same kind, 
but only of two which belong together and complete each 
other. It is hence restricted to 

1. Double organs of men or animals, D^jTS ears, D'?SN 
nostrils, Q'??'^^ horns, Q!'?;3 wings. 

2. Objects of art which are made double or which con- 
sist of two corresponding parts, W;'^V}__ pair of shoes ^ Dl^il^*^ 
pair of scales, WT^'^^'q 2)air of tongs, 'cHrb'^ folding doors. 

3. Objects wdiich are conceived of as constituting to- 
gether a complete whole, particularly measures of time or 
quantity, 'nyf^i'^ jjeriod of two days, bidiutm, ci'^iD tico weeks, 
fortnight, "orhys: two years, hiennium, D'riND two measures, 
D"i23 two talents, D!'?f7 Prov, 28 : 6, 18 double way (comp. 
in English douhle dealing), D"'"!'!!,? pair of rivers, i. e. the 
Tigris and Euphrates viewed in combination. 

4. The numerals D"'3'a3 two, c'^ss double, C3';'ns'a two hun- 
dred, D'I'fi? two thousand, D'^ri'3"! two myriads, D'i'nya© seven- 
fold, Dl'Xbs of two sorts. 

5. A few abstracts, in which it expresses intensity, D'^i^'p^:? 
double-slot J fulness, "^"hy^ double-rebellion, Q!'^!^^ double-light, 
i. e. noon, D'nyiDn double-wickedness. 

a. Names of objects occurring in pairs take the dual form even when a 
hiiiher number than two is spoken of. n'ft'n dbd 1 Sam. 2 : 13 the three 
teeth, O"??!' ^'?"!5< Ezek. 1 : 6 /o?«r wings, n^cis lyq Isa. 6 : 2 six wings, 



:230 ' ETYMOLOGY. § 204, 205 

n''3'^? !^t^- Zecli. 3 : 9 seven eyes. C^S-^S-bDl c";'"^^n-l:3 all the hands and 
all knees Ezek. 7 : 17. Several names ol" double organs of the human or 
animal body have a plural form likewise, wliicli is used of artificial imita- 
tions or of inamniale objects, to which these names are applied by a figure 
of speech. §19S. c, ='!":)5 hums. n''':"^p horns of the altar, C^Ers wings, 
T'srs extremities, c^srr shoulders, nsrr shoulder-pieces of a garment, 
E^i'r eyes, rii;;'? fountains. c"'2;"i feel. C"'p3i"i times prop, beats of the 
foot. In a few instances this distinction is neglected, 0";rs'i' and TTSd 
lips, c^n^ and rin^ sides, c^r^n^ extremities. 

b. The dual ending is in a very few words superadded to that of 
the plural, m'-iln walls of a city, n'l'rt'n double walls, rrin^b boards, 
c-fjhb double boarding of a ship, D-^rin; name of a town in Judah, Josh. 
15 : 36. 

c. The words z"q water and -"^'^' heaven have the appearance of 
dual forms, and might possibly be so explained by the conception of the 
element of water as existing in two localities, viz. under and above the 
firmament. Gen. 1 : 7, and heaven as consisting of two hemispheres. They 
are. however, commonly regarded as plurals, and compared with such 
plural forms in Chaldee as "|75'^ Dan. 5:9 from the singular 5<;w". In 
n7S'i"!n7 Jerusalem, or as it is commonly written without the Yodh cb:|'"i7j 
the final Mem is not a dual ending but a radical, and the pronunciation is 
simply prolonged from cVi'it^. comp. Gen. 14:18. Ps. 76 : 3. though in 
this assimilation to a dual form some have suspected an allusion to the 
current division into the upper and the lower city. 

^204. It remains to consider the changes in the nouns 
themselves, which result from attaching to them the various 
endino;s for jjender and number that have now been recited. 
These depend upon the stnicture of the nouns, that is to say, 
upon the character of their letters and syllables, and are gov- 
erned by the laws of Hebrew orthography aheady unfolded. 
These endings may be divided into two classes, viz. : 

1. The feminine n, which, consisting of a single con- 
sonant, causes no removal of the accent and produces changes 
in the ultimate only. 

2. The feminine "^ , the plural C. and ri , and the 
dual 2;^. , M'hich remove the accent to their own initial 
vowel, and may occasion changes in both the ultimate and 
the penult. 

§205. Nouns which terminate in a vowel undergo no 
chancre on receivmor the feminine charactefistic ri •'ix'p 



§ 206 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 231 

Moabite, n^isi^ Moahitess, s«i?"'a finding fem. nssb , Js'bn 
sinner, rsEn 6'/;;, § 198. Nouns which terminate in a con- 
sonant experience a compression of their final syllable, which, 
upon the addition of T\ , ends in two consonants instead of 
one, \Q)^. 2, and an auxiliary Seghol is introduced to relieve 
the harshness of the combination, §61. 2. In consequence 
of this the vowel of the ultimate is changed from a or a to 
e, §63. 2. a, from 8 or l to c, or in a few words to P, and 
from o or w to o, §61. 4. 1211': dro/ce/i fem. ^')^^^ , ^I'oi^^ 
reddisli fem. T'cr^xr^, , tjSn (joing fem. TD^h , -iina waster, 
rr^ia mistress, TiJ^n ^ye fem. niT'bn , ©■'ik ^;^«;/, rirx looman, 
§214. 1. /5, t's? scattered hm. f^t"'^? . "■^'■'"? and nirnp «5ra55. 
AYhen the final consonant is a guttural, there is the usual 
substitution of Pattahh for Seghol, y^tJ hearing fem. ri;?bt2J , 
T>^ touching fem. trAyi . 

a. In many eases the feminine is formed indifferently by n or by n^ ; 
in others usage incHnes in favor of one or of tlie other ending, though no 
absolute rule can be given upon the subject. It may be said, however, 
that adjectives in "'. almost always receive r; active participles, except 
those of y:? , l" and n? verbs, oftener take ri than rt^ ; n is also found, 
though Jess frequently, with the passive participles except that of Kal, 
from which it is excluded. 

b. A final "j, 1 or n is sometimes assimilated to the feminine charac- 
teristic n and contracted with it. §54, na for r:2 diiughter. rn'O for 
nsnr gift, nix ibr r^rx truth, rnx for rnnx one, rrvd-q ] Kin. 1 : 15 
for nrnr-2 ministering, nnc*T3 Mai. 1 : 14 for nnft'r^ corrupt, rbxjp^ for 
nnsn^ pan. The changes of tlie ultimate vowel are due to its compres- 
sion betbre concurring consonants. 

c. The vowel u remains in nsiiiun Lev. 5: 21 deposit, and the proper 
name n^n:n Tanhumeth. From pin brother, zn father-in-law are formed 
nins sister, ri^an mother-in-lmv, the radical ", which has been dropped 
from the masculine, retaining its place before the sign of the feminine, 
comp. § 101. 1. a; rs^£3 difficuH Deut. 30: 11 is for r\iiit: from N^s?. 

§206. The changes which result from appending the 
feminine termination n^ , the ])hiral terminations D"'. and ?Ti, 
and the dual termination D''. , are of three sorts, viz. : 

1. Those which take place in the ultimate, when it is a 
mixed syllable. 



232 " ETYMOLOGY. § 207 

2. Those which take place in the ultiaiate, when it is a 
simple s}' liable. 

3. Those which take place in the penult. 

§ 207. AYhen the ultimate is a mixed syllable bearing 
the accent, it is affected as follows, viz. : 

1 . Tsere remains unchanged, if the word is a monosylla- 
ble or the preceding vowel is Kamets, otherwise it is rejected ; 
other vowels suffer no change, T'q dead fem. ~n73 , pi. wr^ ; 
1\^'; thifjh du. D^in;', "dit complete fem. "'fl^is, pi. D-'isbir, 
f. pi. niiabtj ; ^r\ going fem. r.5bh , pi. n^ibh , f. pi. niibn . 

a. The rejection of Tsere is due to the tendency to abbreviate words 
which are increased by additions at the end, §66. I. It is only retained 
as a pretonic vowel. §64. 2, when the word is otherwise sufficiently abbre- 
viated, or its rejection would shorten the word unduly. Tsere is retained 
contrary to the rule by cic^a, crzn children of the third and fourth 
generations^ by a few exceptional forms, e.g. nnsa Jer. 3 : 8. 11, nbsrr 
Ex. 23:26, nniiii Cant. 1:6. nrriw Isa. 54: 1. and frequently with the 
pause accents. '§65. e.g. i^;^^'^'; Isa. 21:3, t:"^rrid Lam. 1 : 16, :rio^]ia 
Isa. 49:8, O^'jrnx Ex. 28:40. =-^::d Gen. 19: 11. 2 Kin. 6 : 18 (once with 
Tiphhha), : c'-'Dfe-J?^ Isa. 2 : 20. n^D^-,Q Eccles. 2 : 5. m^rTTS Isa. 2:4. It 
also appears in several feminine substantives, both singular and plural, e. g. 
nbcn^ overthrow. nii^;io counsels. tvz'J'^T\ abomination, nj^t'^ staff- ■"^E^"?'? 
witch. On the other hand, the following feminines reject it though pre- 
ceded by Kamets. by'^ wild-goat. fem. •^^?." , "i?^ ostrich, fem. ii;?;; , Tjn^ 
thigh, fem. nbiV It is also dropped from the plural of the monosyllable 
*)2 son. and its place supplied by a pretonic Kamets, C^ra sons. ri:!3 daugh- 
ters, the singular of the feminine being r2 for r?2; §205. 6 _; so 5^11? 
fork pi. niJbT^ . 

b. Kamets in the ultimate is retained as a pretonic vnwel. "iB white, 
fem. nbb. pi. c-'i^b, f. pi. ri:=b; ■^^'z-q fortr-ess. pi. c-'-i^jr?: and ni-^::^^:, 
only disappeiiring in a few exceptional cases, "isb hair. feni. !Tnr'»I3, ibb 
quail. p\. c^'i^'-a. C-isTa pasliire.pl. C"'an5T3 once mb-i5^. ninzyia and ^i'^SS"'? 
fords. 123 talent du. c-^iss but in pause D'^n23. "fi: 7-H-e/-du. C';in: . The 
xb participles, niz': prophesying p\. c^NSJ. Nr:;3 polluledpl. C'it.^:^: . n^t:? 
found pi. nis^irj adopt the vowels of Kb forms. § 165. 2 ; but with the 
pause accents Kamets returns. C'NS? Ezek. 13:2, : c-N:i'c: Ezr. 8:25. 
The foreign word ■'2';iS subiirbs forms its plural irregularly C"'")'"^^. 

c. Hholem and Hhirik commonly suffer no change ; but in a few words 
Shurek takes the place of the former, and in one Tsere is substituted for 
the latter. §66.2(3). -iii^ terror pi. ni'^^Sia, 'prTS habitation pi. c^irJira, 
pin's siceet fem. nj^sima pi. cpin^ . pis distress (em. np^is , y''i^ lodging 
fem. ni!i5T3. ti'^'z^^ fight fem. nfenDi: . n'^-q rest fem. r^m^-q , "firtq fortifica- 
tion fem. nn!i:i5a\ pis:^ deep fem. nrrn^? Prov. 23:27 and n'p^^^", piFi"^ 



^ 207 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 233 

chain pi. nipW: 1 Kin. 6:21 K'ri; •Jf'i^ escaped pi. ts^ii-^bs or B^b^Q 
fern, nb-ibs or nibs. 

d. Hholein is dropped from the plural of "is:: bird pi. cns:! . as well 
as from the plural of nouns having the feminine chararteristic' n in the 
singular; thus nbiiba skull, by the substitution of the plural ending 
ni for n, , §199, becomes riPi^bs . njTsnTg course, pi. ryphn-q . or with 
Hhateph-Kamets under a doubled letter. §16. 3.6, r:n3 coat \>\. rins , 
ribad ear of corn, pi. C'baB ; in two instances a pretonic Kamets is inserted, 
n-isa drought pi. nin^a . n-inr? Asiarte pi. m-ind:y . 

e. Seghol in nouns with the feminine characteristic n affixed mostly fol- 
lows the law of the vowel from which it has sprung. §205; if it has been 
derived from Tsere it is rejected, if from any other vowel it is still in some 
instances rejected, though more commonly it reverts to its original form 
and is retained, rpbi"" sucker (from pJT') pi. rip:i"i, nif-N epistle (from 
"i;x) pi. mAjx, ri^.=.i<,^ kinfe (iVom b-:x.r) pi. nibzN-Q . r?3^i3is: reddish 
(from c-^nisj pi. n-i-sti-a-Tx^, npiit? nurse (from p""?"??) pi. mpr'a, nbp"»Up 
scale pi. ciapbp and ni-pcp . Pattahh, which has arisen from a Seghol 
so situated under the influence of a guttural, follows the same rule. r.:?aa 
ringip]. nira:: , nrji (from ^ii) touching y>^. ns'.}3 . 

J". A few nouns w^ith quiescents in the ultimate present apparent ex- 
ceptions, which are, however, reiidiiy explained by the contractions which 
they have undergone. Thus rjin for l^^n, §57.2 (5). thorn, has its 
plural Lifiin or c-^n;n ; cr (n^^;) day. pi. c^i;> (c^rn-;) ; y^'^-q ("01'?) str^ife, 
pi. c"iiin^; -.ib (ir>:3J ox. pi. cinri ; niTi for n-'n or 'i"^, § 1S6. 2. c, po/, pi. 
C-inn'n or c^nin, §20S. 3; p^h (p"L" or p"ib) street, pi. n-p;d ; n-^s; {-r^b or 
"17.S) city. pi. once ci"}^?. Judg. 10 : 4 usually contracted to D"'~i3 ; Bsil 
(TTx'-i) head, pi. ci^'xi (r-^irNi). So nxp measure becomes in the dual 
C7PXD for C'i'rND and HK^a one hundred, du. C^rx^ for D'l'nX'i ; n=sbia 
(nixbia , §57.2(3)), li-or/i,-. probably had in the absolute plural niixbTa , 
whence the construct is msxb^ . 

2. The final consonant sometimes receives Da2;liesh-forte 
before tlie added termination, causing the preceding vowel 
to be shortened from a io a, from E or I to i, and from o or 
IL to u, §C1. 5. This takes place regularly in nouns which 
are derived from contracted VV roots, ori perfect fem. r./SP , 
a':; sea pi. o^i^?; P^ (from l':5) shield, pi. Q^ir*^ and m'L)^ , 
fern, r.irt'a ; pn statute pi. Q''pn , fem. n^n , pi. ri'pn , or in 
whose final letter two consonants have coalesced, vii? for ^1:55 
du. D"sx nose ; T^ for t;? sUe-goat pi. Di-'y ; riy for ti"? time 
pi. n^ri? and niny ; ir^x for irrs? w^«;?, tim, iooman, and it 
not infrequently occurs in other cases. 

a. Nouns with Pattahh in the ultimate with few exceptions double their 
final letter, being either contracted forms, h^ tceak pi. C^s^ fem. ^1^ pi. 



234 ' ETYMOLOGY. §207 

nii!^, or receiving Daghesh-forte conservative in order to preserve the 
short vowel. C^X pool pi. Cfias ; so "jElX wheel. D^n myrtle. 'C:;'>2 J'e^o. '"nrn 
frighlful. P'bh'~7 greenish. "'IX^ desire. Before gutturals Pattahh may 
be retained in an intermediate syllable, rh fresh pi. CTib . or lengthened 
to Kamets, §60.4, "I'J prince pi. c-^na tern, n'nb ; so nirsiSwX fingers., 
nrsiK four, crnSs helmets. cniJ^S straits and C-^N-ifi^ baskets. rxVs loops, 
which do not occur in the singular, but are commonly referred to ''~}^'^, 
''b'lb. §194. 6. "> being changed to N as in §208. 3. (/; also no breast, 
which omits Daghesh du. C^nd . Pattahh is in the fdllowing examples 
changed lo Hhirik before the doubled letter, §58. 2, T2 prey fern, nja, nn 
fear \'em. nnn, ra wine-press pi. nim , no garment pi. C'^^'d and d^'o, 
D^ tribute, wjb basiii, rh morsel, "is s?V//^, bjbs wheel, nrcbo baskets, 
n"'JO:D palm- branches, a";i^ threshing-sledge pi. Ca"!"!^ or by the resolu- 
tion of Daghesh-forte, §59. a. C"'3"'"ii?3 . It is rejected from bk^S cymbal 
pi. cb^bi:, -jT 5077 pi. CST . n"'''ia"^j berries, probalily from "I515 and n"'nT3 
???e??, from the obsolete singular, rh . The plural of ci" people is CiK? 
and in a very few instances with the doubled letter repeated. C"'rr? ; so 
"in mountain pi. cnn and C^nnn^ Deut. 8:9. bs shadow pi. c-^^bs . pPl 
statute pi. n"|5n . and twice in tlie construct, "^i^hn Judg. 5 : 15. Isa. 10: 1, 
which implies the absolute form D'jbirn . 

b. The final letter is doubled after Kamets in the following words be- 
sides those from "S roots, cbix porch pi. C'^sbx ; so "(irx hire, brj camel, 
",131 time. T('-^'n^ darkness. pn~i^ distance, "bi? small, "i^"^ green, "bx'j 
^w/t^ "(irid /?/;/. "|20 coney, to which should perhaps be added zr'\^_'J Deut. 
8: 15 scorpion, though as it has a pause accent in this place which is the 
only one where it is found with Kamets, its proper form may perhaps have 
been -"!"?. §65. The Niphal participle ni^D honored has in the plural 
both c"'-!333 and D'^'narj . Several other words, which only occur in the 
plural, are in the lexicons referred to singulars with Kamets in the ulti- 
mate ; but the vowel may. w'ith equal if not greater probability, be sup- 
posed to have been Pattahh. Kamets is shortened to Pattahh belbre n, 
which does not admit Daghesh-li)ite. in the plurals of nx brother \>\. CTiX , 
nn liooli. riii^-a confidence. §60. 4. a. 

c. The following nouns with Hholem in the ultimate fall under this 
rule, in addition to those derived from S"" roots, y.^^ peak pi. C^::::?!, cbin 
sacred scribe. -S"in band, cisb nation, C"i"3 naked, and several adjectives 
of the form bb;^ . which are mostly written without the vowel-letter 1, 
§14.3, e.g. C-is red fern. ninN . ="i'jx. n^'x terrible, Tpx long, etc.; 
rbwX dunghill takes tlie form nincrx in the plural. 

d. There are only two examples of doubling when tlie vowel of the 
ultimate is Shurek. cb'^n Prov. 24:31 nellies or brambles Irom b!l~n , 
nl'Xn Esth. 2 : 9 from ^>lNn Kal pass, part of nxn . 

e. ^■'X (ursx) mrt?« is not contracted in the plural -'ijpx meji ; in the 
feminine, for the sake of distinction, the initial weak letter is dropped, f "i"! 
women, which is used as the plural of nu'X woman ; cd-'X men and pt'X 
women are rare and poetic, rx ploughshare has either CTix or C'^nx ia 
the plural. 



^208 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 235 

§208. 1. Segholate nouns, or those which have an unac- 
cented vowel in the ultimate, drop it Avhen any addition is 
made to them, ^GG. 2. (1). As this vowel arose from liie 
concurrence of vowelless consonants at the end of the word, 
the necessity for its presence ceases when that condition no 
longer exists. Segholates thus revert to their original form 
of a monosyllable ending in concurrent consonants, §183. 

2. jMonosyllables of this description receive the feminine 
ending with no further change than the shortening due to the 
removal of the accent, in consequence of which 6 becomes o 
or more rarely ii, B becomes i or more rarely C ; c may be 
restored to a from which it has commonly arisen, §183, or 
like 8 it may become t or c, 0^2^ (P^2?) strength fern, •".'bry, 
rsn (t'En) fem. rsirzn freedom , ^'as C}^^) saying fem. rnrs? 
and nnisN , ^b'b ( i^vq ) king nsbia q^ueen, tint: slaughter fem. 
nnz'j . 

a. Nouns having either of the forms Mb^j^. i^^iip. , t^h'Sp . •^-isi:', 
n^lip , are consequently to be regarded as sprung from nionosyliahles with 
the vowel given to the first radical. 

3. Before the plm-al terminations a pretonic Kamets is 
inserted, and the original vowel of the monosyllable falls 
away, l^fq ( !fb)2 ) king pi. D^i"^^ , nib^ qiwen pi. tv^)i2 , niax 
{-rck) saying pi. C-^nisN , nnrx id. pi. nii^.Nt , bys (^v%) loork, 
pi. D^bi's , Ntpn sin pi. Q^J<V'^ • 

a. Pretonic Kamets is not admitted by the numerals Cinb^; twmli) 
from "-ir ten. C^yti'd serenty from ~?b seven. C"'yrn ninety from VC7\ 
nine. The words c"^i::3 pis/achio-nuls. C-'irn ebony. C'bx^ Job 40:21.22, 
C^rnn mercies. Z'''C'p_':i and ri'Cjr'J sycamores, which do not occur in the 
singular, have been regarded as examples of a like omission. But there 
need be no assumption of irregularity if the first is taken with Fiirst from 
ii3::a , the second with Gesenius from ''^rn . and the others are ex[)lained 
after a like analogy. Q,uadriiiteral Segholates also receive pretonic Ka- 
mets in the plural "|3r:3 pi. n":r:3 mprchanls. unless the new letter creates 
an additional syllable, in which case the introduction of Kamets would 
prolong the word too much. -'."^3 concubine pi. D-irs^Q , "jn'ss nail C"3"iES . 

6. The superior tenacity of Hholem. §60. 1. a (4). is shown by the occa- 
sional retention of o. not only as a compound Sh'va under gutturals, nnk 
«;aypl. rin"ix, so d'ln month. C"h thicket, "^"CV sheaf , "^Zy fawn ; but as 



236 '■ ETYMOLOGY. § 209 

Kamets-Hhatuph in tt-Hp holiness pi. c-iO^;? and C'tn;^. irniy root pi. 
fi-^r-iir, 6 19.2. or as a lonor vowel in inx teiitul c^b'nx . niis s^a/i pi. nliX . 
§60. 3. c, or shitled lo tlie following letter so as to take llie place of the 
pretonir, Kamets in "rJi thumb pi. n;in2 , <n;3 brightness pi. ninii3 , 
§ 184. a. Corap. bcQ (^CE) graven image pi. C^p'DQ. In other nouns it is 
rejected. "ij^S morning pi. ci-if;3 ; so T^a threshing-Jloor, iE3 cypress, yiyp 
handfail. man spear, cn'n juniper, bs'ib hollow of the hand. 

c. Middle Vav quiesces in the plural of the following nouns: P"^ death 
pi. crnn . n^i^' iniquity pi. nils'. Gesenius regards D"':'ix Prov. 11:7, 
Hos. 9 : 4, as the plural of "I'X, while others derive it from "["ix, translating 
it riches in the former passage and sorrow in the latter, the primary idea 
out of which hoth senses spring being that of toil. Middle Yodh quiesces 
in the plural ofb^tt ram pi. C-'li-'S . rri olive pi. Cinil . h''^ night pi. n-i^ib, 
but not in h'T] strength pi. C^b^n , 't''T fntintain pi. niS'S . i""? ass-coll pL 
DiVy , f'l'n o-oa^ pi. 3-'C^n. The plural of N";5 valley is rvxii by trans- 
position from the regular form mx"'a which is twice found in the K'thibh 
2 Kin. 2: 16. Ezek. 6:3; n^? house has as its plural C"r.2, whether this 
be explained as for n"*n:3 from n33 to build or for n^pra from rl3 to 
lodge. Middle Yodh always quiesces before the feminine and dual endings, 
l^k prov isi 071 fem. P'^"'^ , "i"^? eye da. C^l'S, 

d. Monosyllables in "^^ from rib roots belong properly to this forma- 
tion, §57. 2 (4) and §184. b. and follow the rules given above botii in the 
feminine "'bn ("^bn) necklace fern, n'^bn, and the plural "'"ix ("■]J<) Hon 
pi. D-'^nX and P"!^";!*! "'l? kid pi. Ci^nj. or with the change of"' to N, 
§56. 4, which also occurs in verbs, §177.3, "'bn necklace pi. D^xVri , ■'PS 
simple pi. tD^^ns. nVa and B^XPQ , ''Z^ gazelle pi. ni';za . ciNl'^ and 
pixail ; in like manner CNS^. branches, CX3b lions are referred to ''h^. 
and "'ib though these singulars do not occur; "'p3 ("bs) utensil does not 
receive Kamets in the plural C'ps. 

4. The dual sometimes takes a pretonic Kamets like the 
plural, but more frequently follows the feminine in not re- 
quiring its insertion, rbi (rb^) door du. O^rbi , TQ^i (=T7'ii) 
wa^ du. D"?7v, ni? (j7J?) //on^ du. c^i-nip and D^Hp, "'H'? 
c/^et^/[- du. D^i'rib, ?fn? (^ns) Zvz^^ du. D-'sin , so D:^:r^ , 0;^%, 



§209. AVhen the ultimate is a simple syllable, the follow- 
ing cases occur, viz : 

1. Final n. is rejected before the feminine and plural 
endings, r.?^ beautiful fern, ns^ f. pi. nis;;' , •^^T'? loork pi. 
D'llb?^; SO nin-a camp du. a'':n'53 . 

a. The last radical in words of this description is properly "^ , Avhich is 
rejected after a vowelless letter, §62. 2. c. so that ns^ is lor n^E"' and 



§ 209 GENDER AND NUMBER OP NOUNS. 237 

CiaSTD for d'^'^bS'iD . In a very few instances the radical "^ remains, e.g. 
n'-^as Cant. 1:7 from neb ("ii's) Q^n-z-c Isa. 25 : 6 from nhr^ (-n-ai:) 
and is even strengthened hy Daghesh-ibrte, §207.2. n^:'2 L;un. 1:16 
from ni:l2. nWtj and n'^S. §196. 6. feiii. of n^Q. ni'-iH Hos. 14: 1, else- 
where mn. nh viouth. edge pi. C'e . r">Q and rii'O . or changed to N, 
§56. 4. nba (^^^) ynimg lamb C'xb:: (C'^bt:). so that it is not necessary 
to assume a sinaular "'pzi which no where occurs, n:bn Ps. 10:8 D^xabn 
ver. 10. See Alexander in loc. 

2. Final '^. may combine with the feminine and pkiral 
endings, so as to form n^ , D"'^ . , ni" . , or it may in the 
mascuUne phiral be contracted to D"^. , §02. 2, "'i^y Hebrew 
pi. D^nny and D^'^'n^y fern, npn:? f. pi. ri^-iny ; ^i shlj) pi. 
0^2 and D^'^2, •'insn/z-^e pi. D-'ircri, ''ppj^^/re pi. D^'^p?- So 
nouns in ^■'. upon the exchange of the feminine singular for 
the plural termination Tnz'yizv Ammonitess pi. ni^'viiE?' , nTH 
Hittitess n^'pn. 

a. In fX"*::"? 2 Chron. 17: 11 Arabians from "'^"i? an S is interposed, 
elsewhere D"'2'^5 ; n'i'b'n branches, nT^'T corners and ni'l??^ bowls, which 
do not occur in the singular, are assumed to be from tT'b'n , n'^'J and 

b. A few monosyllables in "'^ form their feminines in this manner, 
though in the masculine plural they follow the rule before given, §20S. 3. d, 
'nii kid fern, n^ns . "^zh lion. S^-b lioness. § 196. d. ""^^ gazelle fern. n^3S 
(fTjrs and N'^jil are used as proper names), "'rd drinking fern, irnd , 

3. There are few examples of final ^ or i with added 
endings. The folloAnng are the forms which they assume : 
iptj drin^ pi. D'^ipp , n^bb^a hingdom pi. '^'^'i}^ , K>--3, 
nTi? testimony pi. ni"? , '^^^^ sister pi. trh^ and ri'-'nx for 
ni-ifix , i2-! and xini myriad pi. n-an , n^sian and nisan ; 
the dual 0T3i inserts the sign of the feminine. 

a. rri'pn or rii^jn Jer. 37 : 16 cells is referred to the assumed singular 
Msn; r---j3 Iga. 3:16 K'thibh and n^rrs 1 Sam. 25:18 K'thibh are 
formed from 'laj , V.::^ abbreviated Kal passive participles. § 172. 5, but in 
the absence of the appropriate vowel points their precise pronunciation 
cannot be determined. 

h. Nouns ending in a quiescent radical X may be regarded as termina- 
ting in a consonant, since this letter resumes its consonantal power upon 
an addiiion being made to the word. Comp. §162. k:j^3 found fern. 
.-iK:i^: , x-s wild ass pi. c^x-s . 



238 .- ETYMOLOGY. ^10 

§210. The changes, Avhich occur in the penult, arise 
from the disposition to shorten the former part of a word, 
when its accent has been carried forward by accessions at the 
end, §06.1. Tliey consist in the rejection of Kamets or 
Tsere, b-,i3 great fem. "rh^ pL n^^siia f. pL nibi^a, ni^ 
word pi. D"^"??"? , "s^^^";. • wemorial pL ri°:"-iDT, q:3 ?a;/y du. 
D-s:3, ^'^^'Ci resforiiif/ pi. rr^-^tr^ fem. r-i^^'^* ^"^"^ distress 
p]. D'^n^'Q , "lib Lcvitc pi. D"'''''.'? , except from nouns in n.. in 
which the place of the accent is not changed by the addition 
of the terminations for gender and number, §:209. 1, riB^ 
heautiful fem. rk-^^ pi. T's; , nib field pi. riiiy , nr;p lard 
pi. D^i-p, ni:Ta pi. ^-hti and miy-a ^o?6r/^, ni; smitten pi. 
D""?: . Other penultimate vowels are mostly exempt from 
change. 

a. Kamets, which has arisen from Pattahh in consequence of the suc- 
ceeding letter not being able to receive Daghcsh-lbrte. as the form properly 
requires, is incapable of rejection. Such a Kamets is accordinglj' retained 
without change before "i, e. g. d'ln for tJ'hn, § 187. 1, workman pi. C'^cJ'^n, 
so ens horseman, 'j"'~3 fugilice, Di"iD (const. C'^'^p) eunuch, y'^'^S terri- 
ble, 7"'':? violent, y^in diligent, or shortened lo Pattahh before n, 
§G0. 1. a (4). "isna young man p\. fitna. Kamets is also retained in 
certain J" and n b derivatives as a sort of compensation for the reduction 
of the root by contraction or quiescence, e. g. "5^ shield pi. C'iSTS and 
nib^ . trJ-o fortress pi. Ciira, n^^'n branch pi. ri'sbn . ni'J corner pi. ni'^T . 
Other instances of its retention are rare and exceptional, lii\3 treacherous 
fem. nn"i;3 . V'l'C (const, ^"t?"-) week pi. C'j'^w and ri"i":^a but du. C^J'Sili , 
Tli-'pr iraz-r/o/- pi. C'^b-'bTr. 

b. When Kamets following a doubled letter is rejected, and Dnghesh- 
forte is omitted in consequence. j25, the antepenultimate vowel is in a \'evf 
instances changed from Hhirik to Seghol. §61. 5. """"n visiowpX. n"':i"';n, 
■jlS'^as a tenth pi. n-^ihbS , but V'^Sf memorial pi. rii'"".:: . 

c. Tpcre is not rejected if it has arisen from Hhirik before a guttural 
in a form which properly requires Daghesh-forte, la'^n for ttJ'jin, § 187. 1.6, 
deo/pl. D"'ir"^n , or if it is commonly represented by '^ , §14.3, rb'S or 
Cib'^S, §186, Aa777.OTfr pi. nieb'^S, or a radical "^ quiesces in it, *(r""N or iriX 
(from "iP^, '^.\S^>) perennial pi. C^ir-^X or c^irs. ba^n temple pi. n"'^3-n 
and r-isz-n, c^ycji^ ?irArry±'0 rectitude, t:"rn^T (from Tlf or -i''h) proud. 
Other cases are rare and exceptional, e. g. D"'bb'cx Neh. 3 : 3i feeble. 

d. Hholem is almost invariably retained in the penult, yet it yields to 
the strong tendency to abbreviation in the following trisyllables : n^'7"i'n'.:;5< 
Ashdoditess p\. n^'-in^rx Neh. 13:23 K'ri (K'thibh riinnrs). r^:i:2V Am- 
monitess pi. m'3S? id. (K'thibh niir?:;', 1 Kin. 11: 1 ni'Jis?), "in-^S 



§211 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 239 

Sidonian f pi. J"*?"^ where long Hhirik becomes Tsere before concurrent 
consonants, §61. 4. 

e. When the penult is a mixed syllable containing a short vowel, it is 
orJinariiy not subject to change. §58.2. The tendency to the greatest 
possible abbreviation is betrayed, liowever. in a few examples by the re- 
duction of the diphthongal Seghol to Pattahh. comp. JGO. 3. b. 'S'^'J* 
cluster pi. rro'srx Cant. 7 : 8. ::2""3 chariot fern. nz3~?. pi. r-ii"^^ . pn— a 
distance pi. c^^n-na and D-^prj-n?, or of Pattahh to the briefest of the 
short vowels Hhirik, comp. §207. 2. a. nsrbt fury pi. msr^l . S^T^/orA: 
pi. niibTO. §190. a. nn^:: disk pi. rrinb^ by the resolution of Daghesh- 
forte for rinb^. §59. a; "nx Ibr "inx other has in the plural C^nx. , r-Snx. 
as if from "inx , rbna coal has pi. c'pni; by §63. 1. 

§2 11. In forming the plural of nomis, which have a 
feminine ending; in the sinijiilar, the latter must first be 
omitted before the rules already given are applied. Thus, 
ni'tr'a l-higdom by the omission of the feminine ending be- 
comes m?'t"^ , hence, by § 207. l,its plural is r-rb-s")? ; so •^sb'a 
queen \)tQ.Gm.t^ ^^^ , and by §20S. 3. its plural is rr^i'^'D; 
rnas epistle becomes "lijx, and by §207.1. its plural is 
rinax . As precisely the same changes result from append- 
ing the feminine n^ and the plural endings, except in the 
single case of Segholate nouns or monosyllables terminating 
in concurrent consonants, §208, nouns in n^ become plural 
with no further change than that of their termmation ; only 
in the exceptional case referred to a pretonic Kamets must 
be inserted. Nouns in ri, after omitting the feminine end- 
ing, are liable to the rejection or modification of the vowel 
of the ultimate in forming the plural, as explained § 207. 1. ^. 
and e. On the other hand, as the dual endino; is not substi- 
tuted for that of the feminine singular, but added to it, no 
such omission is necessary in applying the rides for the 
formation of the dual, it being simply necessar}' to observe 
that the old ending t\^ takes the place of n^ , §202. Thus 
TxVt {PV^,) year, by §210, becomes in the dual CT:ir, '^^% 
door, by §208.4, du. 3T'r " , ^^T^} hrass du. D:^r)t"n: . 

a. In the following examples a radical, which has been rejected from 
the singular is restored in the plural, nix (for nn"SX) maidservant pi. 



240 - ETYMOLOGY. §212-214 

ninrx . r:^ (for r,":^ from nin) portion pi. nrjiD and rix:T3 . comp. 
§208. 3. f/. r:^p (for ri;!^p from ":£|5) pi. nirj;?; in like manner mj3 co^ 
/eagi<es is referred to tiie assumed singular n33. nns (nins) governor 
has in the plural both r,:"!nQ (const, ni'.nc) and rins . 



The CoNSTRrcT State. 

§212. When one noun stands in a relation of depend- 
ence on another, the second or specifying noun is, in occi- 
dental languages, put in the genitive case ; in Hebre\y, on the 
other hand, the second noun undergoes no cliange, but the 
first is put into what is commonly called the construct state 
(^^^co or tjrc? supported). A noun which is not so related 
to a fohowing one is said to be in the absolute state (rr^D^'a 
cut off). Thus, "^ii icord is in the absolute state ; but in the 
expression "H^i??!! nin verbum reps, the icord of the khicj, "^47 
is in the construct state. By the juxtaposition of the two 
nouns a sort of compound expression is formed, and the 
speaker hastens forward from the first noim to the second, 
which is necessary to complete the idea. Hence results the 
abbreviation, which characterizes the construct state. 

a. The term absolute state was introduced by Reuchlin; he called the 
construct the state of regimen. 

§213. The changes, which take place in the formation 
of the construct, affect 

1. The endings for gender and number. 

2. The final syllable of nouns, which are without these 
endings. 

3. The syllable preceding the accent. 

§ 214. The following changes occur in the endings for 
gender and number, viz. : 

1. The feminine endincr n is changed to n , nns© 
handmaid const. rriET!: ; the ending n remains unchanged, 
fTittica observance const, rri'aicia . 



§215 THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF NOUNS. 241 

a. The explanation of this appears to be that the construct state re- 
tains the old consonantal ending n_, the close connection with the follow- 
ing noun preserving it as if in the centre of a compound word. §55. 2. c ; 
whereas in the isolation of the absolute state, the end of the word is more 
liable to attrition and the consonant I'alls away. 

h. Some nouns in n^ preceded by Kamets adopt a Segholate form in 
the construct, nzbis^ kingdom const, rcb^^ instead of r:b^T2, §61. 1. 6, 
nbir^'a dominion const, rbturo . nixbis work const. n=sb^ , f^35"T3 chariot 
const. rz3~o. nniiS' crown const, nni:", . nznb y?ai//e const, rrnb. nAbS 
teJi con.=;t. nii" . or with the Seghols changed to Paitahhs under the influ- 
ence of a ffutfural. T^Ti^^^fainili/ const. rrSw': , t^y3'\i< four const. Pj-'arx ; 
60 fhz"^ Jig-cake const, nbs'n; rrx woniun. though it occurs in the abso- 
lute. Deut. 21 : 11, 1 Sam. 28 : 7, Ps. 58 : 'J, is mostly used as the construct 
of nii'X . On the other hand, rcn bottle has in the construct rrn Gen. 
21 : 14 (tlie accent thrown back by §35. 1) as if from iT^O. 

2. The ending D"^. of the masculine plural and 0;^. of the 
dual are alike changed to '^„ , D"'i£? nations const, "^isy , D??^)? 
horns const, '^i:"!]? ; ri of the feminine plm'al suffers no change 
tri^p voices const, trh^ . 

a. The compression of z to e regularly takes place upon its being fol- 
lowed by concurrent consonants. §61. 4. This is here suggested as the 
explanation of the change of vowel in the plural. It results from the 
close, cotmection of the construct state, which as it were, unites the two 
words into one compound term; thus, ETia houses joined to n"'T5 hevm 
stone would become T'^Tjc'^ria, and by the dropping of the nasal, accord- 
ing to §55. 2. b. rr^ia "^ria houses of hewn stone. Comp. §199. e. .In the 
dual the final nasal is likewise rejected, and ay combines to form the diph- 
thongal e. § 57. 2 (5). 

b. In a very few instances the vowel ending of the masculine plural 
construct is added to feminine nouns ■'r'^3 (the accent invariably thrown 
back by §35. 1), commonly in the K'thibh T'lsz const, of niia high- 
places. ■'rii;S'^'?3 1 Sam. 26:12; this takes place regularly before suf- 
fi.xes. §220.2. 

§215. 1. In a mixed final syllable Kamets is commonly 
shortened to Pattahh : so is Tsere when preceded by Kamets ; 
other vowels remain without change, 'T^ hand const. TJ; , 
niri^ seat const, ni^ji-a, ns^2 neck const. ^S!?, "i]:; o/f/ const. 
•jpT , nb heart const. Sl? , "i^aa might jj man const. I'ii3 . 

a. Kamets remains in the construct of sb^ix porch. ~r3 writing, 'na 
gift, zv cloud (once const. -3 Ex. 19:9). nr.rs decree and n^ sea. e. g. 
'^t^'l~-,T ^'^o of salt., except in the phrase "10 c^ sea of weed., i. e. Red 
Sea; zbn ?nj7/c becomes 2^n , and '|ib white "sb Gen. 49 : 12 in the con- 
struct. 

16 



242 ETYMOLOGY. 



^215 



b Tsere remains in t^n fve const, thn, li: miVe_ const, l^*?, np-J 
breathhi'T const. nc% n;^? Wz const. 1^:?= , •" ^he SS derivative ',-» 
shield const. ",5^ and in brx found in several proper names. It is occa- 
sionally shortened to Seghol before MakUeph in bii:< moiirnhig const. 
-bzx . ry lime const, ni' , -ns and "n? . na Jiame const. CO. -c\U and "ca: 
■)2^.TO«, which in the absolute retains' Tsere before Makkeph, Gen. 30: 19, 
Ezek. 18 : 10, has in the construct ",3 , ",3 or " )3 . Tsere is shortened to 
Pattahh in a few cases not embraced in the rule, viz.: ",1^ nest const. "p_, 
bji-2 rod const, bp^ and bpa , nix Deut. 32:28 perishing const, of -I3X, 
iheKal participles of Lamedh guttural verbs, H26. 1, and the following 
nouns with prefixed ^ in several of which a preceding Pattahh is likewise 
changed to Hliirik. §190. a, ^C?.^ tithe const, ^i-;^ , IBD^ mourning const. 
nsoTs". nnso key const. npiBTS and nns^, y'^-^-q lair const. -7?-^, nj.-il? 
c/a»»o«r const. n,no, na-i^ia' 7»a/n.r const, nrr?? , nno^ corrwpaoJi const. 
nfiuia, ns^n altar const. nsTTS. 

"c, Hhoiem is shortened to Kamets-Hhatuph before Makkeph in tha 
construct of monosyllables from SS roots, pn statute const, pn and "pn , 
rarely in other words "bna Prov. 19 : 19, Ps. 145 : 8, Nah. 1 : 3 (in the last 
two passages the K'thibh'has bnnj), "nni: Job 17 : 10, Prov. 22: 11, "i^^P 
Ex. 30: 23. "obd Ex.21 : 11 ; this becom'es Pattahh before the guttural in 
-^3^ for R3^ construct of Piha high, bs kOl construct of bs all occurs 
twice, viz. : Ps. 35 : 10, Prov. 19 : 7, without a Makkeph following, § 19. 2. a; 
it must not be confounded with bs kal Isa. 40 : 12 he comprehended pret. 
of bis. ' _ . 

d. The termination •>. becomes ''„ in the construct, §57.2(5), •>'n 
enough const, "'t , "'n ///e const, "'f] . 

e. Three monosyllabic nouns form the construct by adding a vowel, SX 
father coxxsL 3X Gen. 17 : 4, 5, elsewhere ^rx^, nx brother const. ^7])<,, 5n 
friend const. X^^-}, 2 Sam. 15 : 37, 1 Kin. 4 : 5, or r^k":^ 2 Sam. 16 : 16, Prov. 
27 : 10 K'thibh. These may be relics of the archaic form of the construct, 
§218, or the monosyllables may be abridged from tib roots, §185. 2. c. 

2. In a simple final syllable n.. is changed to n.. , nio 
skeejy const, nib , nirh shepherd const. n?i , rywfeld const. 
niir ; other vowels remain unchanged. 

a. This is an exception to the general law of shortening, which obtains 
in the construct. It has. perhaps, arisen from the increased emphasis 
thrown upon the end of the word, as the voice hastens forward to that 
which is to follow. In like manner the brief and energetic imperative 
ends in Tsere in n"b verbs, while the future has Seghol, § 168. c. An 
analogous flict is found in the Sanskrit vocative. The language of address 
calls for a quick and emphatic utterance ; and this end is sometimes at- 
tained by shortening the final vowel, and sometimes by the directly oppo- 
site method of lengthening it. Bopp Vergleich. Gramm. §205. 

6. ns month has "iQ in the construct. 

c. Nouns ending in quiescent X preserve their final vowel unchanged 
in the construct, ^y^^ fearing const. K^'?, N3S host const. N3S. 



§216 THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF NOUNS. 243 

§216, 1. Kamets and Tsere are commonly rejected from 

the syllable preceding tlie accent, Dip's jAace const. D'p'a , 
T\vo year const, rrir , D'^bTr years const. "^iTi^, mnsis ^re<z5- 
?<;re5 const, ninsiix , wn"; hands const. "^T , l"^, heart const. 
nib , n^n ^6•r«M const, risn . 

a. Kamets preceding the accented syllable is retained (1) when it has 
arisen from Pattaiih before a guttural in consequence of the omission of 
Daghesh-forte, d^n (for i^^'^n) workman const, lii'in, ^"Q ('J^^s) horse- 
man const. 1I3ts, riw'iD (rr'na) vail const. TDTD, iTi:J (~"^-?) distress const. 
rns ; (2) in words from "'S and "^v roots, c^^ns (from I'^r) cities const, '^'is, 
csa (from i<"i3) coming const. "'NS; (3) under a prefixed to SS roots, 
~C'2 (from T(?0) covering const. T(D^, '(S'O (from "IS) shield const. *|5T3, 
Ti"'^ (from 1]V) fo7'tress const. '^'^y"0; (4) in nb derivatives of the form 
pilbw (from nbw) e.rj'/e const, riis. r^;n meditation const, nijn. (5) in the 
construct dual and plural of triliteral monosyllables or Segholates from 
^h and H'b roots, ^'}'ir\h (from TiB) c/jeete const. "'I^nb, o'^'^na (from "'na) 
A-jrfs const. ■'I^na , C'x::!! (from N^n) s?«s const, "^xcjn ; (6) in the follow- 
ing nouns in most of which it stands immediately before or after a guttural, 
§60. 3. c. n^x czirse, f^^^'O care, i^^^n conduit, and the plurals, "^xn^, 
ifc-in, '^:3":i^'^Lev. 7: SS-^-ixriN-j:. "'SU-ri'. •'i;';i'3, "^yiiT?, "in?"? 2 Kin. 12:8, 
''h^-q Ezek."27:9. "^^a-T? Job 34 : 25!^ ''^'^J^'i, '"^"il^^'Eccles'. 9: 1, "^iiiiJin . 

b. Tsere is retained in words in which it is commonly represented by 
the vowel-letter '', or has ^ quiescing in it. bb-^n temple const. bsTi, and. 
in addition in the following, Diix crib const. D12S , so "liiX girdle, "^bx 
thread, "^zz foreign land const. — ^^23, fr^-s^: /o.9s const. rn;:J< . so n^EX Isa. 
58:10 darkness, ninS pool, nirs Ex.' 22 : 2 theft. r\ii-q plague^ r\-i^rj'q 
overthrow, n^D^ Gen. 49 : 5 sword, ncSTS molten-image, nn'ia Job 16 : 13 
gall, n^n?. heap, nsst excrement, ni^V] fg-tree. n:c'^npi deep sleep, and the 
plurals "'^^X mourning from c^linx (''2X). so "^Stsn desiring. "^IC^ sleep- 
ing, ■'n'2'J and ""'n^il? rejoicing, "'nsd forgetting. "^t^XT wolves from B"'2J<t 
(3ST) ; C"'??'^ weary becomes "?"'5';' in the construct, and 0"ii:bs escaped 

c. Hholem is rejected from the syllable before the accent in nisTS'nX 
const, pi. of ■,1'i3"i!< palace. ribsON and n'^DCN const, pi. of VsCi< cluster., 
•^oixn Cant. 4:5 and "^XPi Cant. 7:4 twins, "'rta from pi^a A/g-A- 
places. see §214. 2, 6; it is changed to a in ^?t3I353 from DiDiaKia treasures, 
comp. §88. 

d. Medial Vav and Yodh. though thev may retain their consonantal 
power in ttie absolute, quiesce in Hholem and Tsere in the construct. "W 
midst const. Tpn, ^i^'^VP cnps const, riicp, r''2 house const. P"'? . n'isi'? 
fountains const, niiij? . S^a valleij const. X^a . pi. "'i'^xa , §208. 3. c. const. 
r'ix"'a Ezek. 35:8. Exceptions are rare, bis (according to Kimchi b^r) 
Ezek. 28:18 iniquity, ''i'']^ Prov. 19:13 contentions ">6<n^ neck const. 
1x5:1 and "'nxJia. 

e. A few nouns of the forms b:2|5, bi:;?, hbp have baj? or bzjp in the 
construct instead of b^p, §61. 1.6, T^a wall const. I'lii. bia roftfeer^^ const 



244 ETYMOLOGY. §216 

^TJi . T\'}1 thigh const. Tp."". , 1^3 heavy const. "123 and 'iSS , t^r3 shoulder 
const, vini), "fiis smo/tre const, "its and V^'?, 2-'^:^ s/r/e const, sbi: and J'^S; 
Tjlt? /()?!§• is only found in the construct, the corresponding absolute was 
probably T\^i<; 3."3i3 helmet simply shifts its accent in the construct, 5' 2*13 . 
On the other hand, while most Segholate nouns suffer no change in the 
construct, a few adopt the form ^^P i "'"11 chamber const, "i^n, sn!r seed 
const, once ~""iT Num. 11:7 elsewhere S^'iT , t"Ji plant const. ri:3 . "isia 
fcelus const. "15a, '?'>:) sere/i const. 52'^, r\un nine const. S^'irn ; in hke 
manner ^^ri vanity const, i^n . 

2. When this rejection occasions an inadmissible concur- 
rence of vowelless consonants at the Ijeginning of a syllable, 
§61.1, it is remedied by inserting a short vowel between 
them, commonly Hhirik, unless it is modified by the presence 
of guttm-als, b2£b:2 tinkUng const, bl^ba for bibi , D'^nn^ words 
const, '^'^a'7 for ''"i^'i , Ts'p^^l rigid eousn ess const, f^ii;^^ , ph 
nipn:: const. frip'S, "Tana 5<?<25if const. £^^^3, D^'aDn wise 
const, ■''apn . In the construct plural and dual of Segholates, 
however, the vowel is frequently regulated by the character- 
istic vowel of the singular which has been dropped, comp. 
§208.2, n^ibia from th (^r^) '^'^^ const. ''3'p^, Q^pais 
(t:nr) irihes const, "^"j^ti^, mi "15 ("jnii) thresUng-Jloors const. 
niii"i3, n-^Enn (riE'^n) rcjjroaches const, nisin, n"t]b^ (J'-^'i 
or rh^) folding doors const, ''t)^ , yet not invariably D^'pr'TO 
(byic) hand/ids const, ^kir , npuj //o^/y/^ (pi. n-hpTD) cdnst. 

a. When in the construct plural the introduction of a new vowel is 
demanded by the concurrence of consonants, the syllable so formed is an 
intermediate one, so that the following ShVa is vocal, and the next letter, 
if an aspirate, does not receive Daghesh-lene. thus. "''1^7, "'r^^, ^^iJ^^v?, 
p-idnn not "'ii't?"'. ^?r^ , nnb'n, n'2'^n, §22. a. 3. Exceptions are infre- 
quent'! as n^rsi Deut. 3 : 17, •'^cn Lam. 3 : 22 but "inon Ps. 89: 2, Piis-.n 
Ps. 69:10. "^E-i-Li Ezek. 17:9. •'bp3 Gen. 42:25, 35. ^303 Lev. 23:18, 
-■"nra Isa. 5 : lb, nri-;;? Neh. 4 : 7, "'B'r'i Cant. 8 : 6 but "■sen Ps. 76 : 4. In 
a kw instances Daghesh-forte separative is inserted to indicate more dis- 
tinctly the vocal nature of the Sh'va, §24. 5, "^^rbn Isa. 57 : 6, '^iss Lev. 
25:5, ''223 Isa. 58:3. "il?:? Gen. 49:17. ri2;3r Ps. 89 : 52, n'i"Jai? Prov. 
27 : 25. or compound Sh'va is taken instead of simple for the same reason, 
m'rpuj Gen. 30 : 38. The presence or absence of Daghesh-lene in the 
dual construct depends upon the form of the absolute, thus *'risb from 
D'PEU lips but ■'3"^2 from" D"'3'73 knees. When the concurring con- 
sonants belong to different syllables a new vowel is not needed between 



§217 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 245 

them; one is sometimes inserted, however, after a guttural. "'s'^STa, 
ri2-iyi2 but niirrna . In the opinion of Ewald ''ttJ'ii^a Ezek. 7 : 24 is for 
•"r^p-Q from n^ir'nprri. and ry::p^3 Ex. 26:23, 36:28 for nrspx? ; they 
may be better explained, liowever, as Piel and Pual participles. 

6. The second syllable before the accent rarely undergoes any change. 
In a very few instances Seghol becomes Hhirik or Pattahh, the pure 
vowels being reckoned shorter than the diphthongal, comp. §210. e. 
n:2i^ chdiiot const. n53"}73. The changes in ii'z'nh Jiame const, r^fib 
pi. mdnb const, nianb , cbna coals const, "'l?'!!? are due to the influence 
of the proximate vowels, §63. 1; those in '("i^''! vision const. ")'i"'fn , nbns 
coals const, rsris are consequent upon the dropping of Daghesh-forte, 
§61. 5; that in ciVris (Irom bnx) tents const. "'^•^i< arises from the con- 
version of a simple into an intermediate syllable, §59. 

§217. The following table of the declension of nouns 
will sufficiently exemplify the rules which have been given. 



Declexsiox of ]^oixn^s. 

I. Nouns loTiich -s-u^'cr a change in the votvels only. 
i. With Kamets or Tsere in the penult. 

Srs'G. Ahs. Vll5< master Const, "illij^ Pl. Ahs. C^JI^S Const. IJIIS: 

lin|T memorial pSpT tj^i^Pt ^TOX 

Y'blp interpreter 7"'^'P D''!i"'b72 "'5°'?^ 

Masc. bins great Few. nbllS ^asc. tj^bllS Fern- l?.i5il!\ 

T T : 

bvJp^ KaL pass. part, ni^top t^b'top m'irjp 

ii. With Tsere in the ultimate. 

a. Monos}'llables. 

Sing. Jbs. y?. *^^®- ^^"^^ Tk ^^ ^^^- l^^^? ^'"'•^^- '!?? 

b. Polysyllables having pretonic Kamets in the penult. 

Sing. Jhs. 1|23 beavy Const, nisor-;^!? P^, Ahs. tj"''113 Const. '^"[I'li 

Masc. '©5'' dry Fern, ntl'j'' ^asc. t]''©!'' Fern. Ti" "dll'' 

c. Polysyllables having any other vowel than Kamets in the 
penult. 

Sing. Ais. tDSi'^" judge. Co7ist. tOBTIJ P^- ^t's- CpS'uJ Cotist. 'tJS'ilJ 

ilasc. btO":) KaL Act. part. Fern. ribt3p or ribt3p Masc. Qibtip Fein, ^i: tip 

••1 T : ) I V V I -ill : ) I 

b'J^''2 Piel part. nb'lDP'O "r nbtOP^ Q^bt2P?2 Dlb^P'O 





DECLENSION OF 


NOUNS. 






iii. With Kamets in 


the ultimate. 




Sing. 


Ais. tiT fish 


Const 


^1 


PL. Abs. D'^ri" 

• T 


Cwis^. l^T 




^""p^ saucluary 




^Sp'? 


n^iip?? 


^'i'lj?^ 




^'2,1 word 

T T 




"^ii 


Dnni 


"'i^'^. 




'l^i' cloud 

It t 




1^? 




■•i^^? 




iib teart 

T •• 




^^? 


G^?r^ 


^i^;> 




Masc. '□Dm ""^se 


Fern. 


"i73Dn 

T T -: 


J/asc. Q^)2Dn 


Fern. Di?23!l 




bip5 Niph. part. 


nb 


ppportibippi Li^b::pD 


niitpp: 




iv 


Wi 


th final n.,. 




Sdjo. 


1 

-46s. Ili^"!"^ appearance 


Const. 


"^1"? 


Pl, Abs. D"^i<"l73 


Co/tsf. ''lSJ5''i?2 




^^?. reed 




^i? 


S'?H 


'? 




Masc nS"^ fair 


Fen 


T T 


i/asc. 0*1 S"! 


T 






V. S 


egliolates. 




SING. 


•4fe- nb^ king 


Const. 


^='? 


PL. ^&s. QiibTO 

• T : 


co«5^ tpb^ 




iriiD covert 




ID? 


* T ; 


^i'pp 




Q^i? strougth 




op 


* T t: 






b>'3 lord 




i?3 


n^>;s 


''H'^ 




m)2 death 

V T 




nia 


D^nl^ 


"b"i"- 




nn^? eye 




T? 


Dual. D''j"'5 


"'.^'^ , 




^31 foot 




bji 


t:":b;j'i 


'.rfl 




1 
>|T5< ear 




It!* 


• - : T 


•• : T 




II. Nouns which dovlde their final consonant. 


Sing. 


Abs. b^'3 camel 


Const. 


ii} 


Pl. Abs. fb'iii 


Const. -i^^Oil 




1 
"13 garden 




i 


H? 


'b 




1 

pn statute 




pn 


D^pn 


^RH 




"i"© tooth 




1» 


Dual. S'lStl? 


■"i?" 




"^IZi^ Hebrew 


*15? PL. 


D^Hn:?orC-'-i;i5 


■^"."i^? 



246 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



Masc "itpj^ small 
pb? deep 
i-i';;^ fresh 



Fern. HBtOp Pl. Ma^c. tJ'^StOp Fern. i^lStpp 

r^frlZ i='P'?? t^ip^.^?, 

n-i-it: c^^nt? sni^np 



III. 6>^A<?r nouns svfer no change. 

Sura /l^.^.t;>Sb)2 garment Co»sf. tlj-^'p): Pi- ^^«- l-^'C'^))? Cons<. llp^SD)? 

Masc. nitD good •J?'e'». Milt: ^«««- t^^lt: -fe'»- Jninit) 
b^ppTD Hiph. part, nb^pp^ or Jibip>2 Q-'b^Pp^ Ji1b'Pn>3 
Nouns loith the feminine ending n^. 
i. With Kainets or Tsere in the penult. 

Sing. Ahs. n'jT, fish ConsU T\'T\ ^^ ^^'' ^"^^1 Const flll^l^ 

n73pD vengeance fl'rp^ ^"^'^R? 

1 ' • 

X'^2,'J counsel il^!?. Slli? 






ii. From Segholatee 



Sixa. Ahs. T\'^'^12 queeu 

nninp covert 

n)2!S3' strength 



Const. 



nnnp iiiino niitpp 

iii. All others. 

SiXG. Ahs. ri5!« garden Const. TS^ ^^ -^'^■*- f^'*^^ 

n5?^l£)^ salvation ii:^"®"". m^'^iD"'. 

T ; ' 

Nouns with the feminine ending Jn- 

Slvg. ^l>s.n*,^'4J^ observance Co«sf.ni^;^'^ "^l. Als. nll^tp?? CV.;<.yf. r.in^^:5_72 



Cons', niss 



np.jV sucker 

nb'-iib-i skuu 






JTi-li3? Hebrew-woman STl'in^ 



t1^iDb?a kingdom 



n-Db'o 



247 



nip5T 
nib^b^ 

m'^Db^ 



nippT 



248 - ETYMOLOGY. §218,219 



Paragogic Vowels. 

§218. The termination ^. or i is sometimes added to 
nomis in tlie construct singular, §C1. G, "'ba Gen. 49 : 11 for 
]i, T^*'"^ l«a. 1 : 21 for rs'-i2 , T^"? Lam. 1 : 1 for ra-i, 
"ip^s^r^ Ps. 113:6 for ^^Eiria, in^n Gen. 1:24 for n^jn. 
This occurs chiefly in poetry and is regarded as an archaism. 
Th^se vowels for the most part receive the accent, and com- 
monly occasion the rejection of Pattalih or Tsere from the 
ultimate. 

a. Examples of this antique formation of the construct are lil<ewise 
preserved in proper names, as p"|:J~"'2Vo Melchizedek, nb'^;!ir7D Methuselah. 
Respecting the origin of these vowel endings, see § 19S. a (4). 

§219. 1. The unaccented vowel n^ added to nouns in- 
dicates motion or direction towards a place, ":"is^ northward, 
n2:>: south icard, "'c^'atS heavenward, nr^an to the house, 
ocKovSe, "y"}^ to the mountain, whence it is called He du'ective 
or He local. The subsidiary vowel of Segholates is rejected 
before this ending, §GG. 2 (1), but other vowels are mostly 
unaiFected, nnii from l^h' , n^'^k from y^i< , nnn-^ from "i3"n , 
nn3"^ 1 Kin. 19 : 15 from the construct state "i?~^. 

a. He directive is appended to the adverb cb there, nsa thither, and 
to the adjective "'"'bn profane in the peculiar phrase <"ib"rn ad prqfanum 
i.e. be it far from. etc. It is rarely used to indicate relations of time, 
ri'D"'?!"' c^^^^ 1 Sam. 1 : 3 from days to days i. e. yearly. rir'i'"b';J Ezek. 
21 : 19 for the third time, nn^ 7iow prop, at {this) time. For the sake of 
greater force and definiteness a preposition denoting direction is some- 
times prefixed to words, which receive this ending, so that the latter 
becomes in a measure superfluous, "brrb upwards, narb downwards, 
nnnTnb 2 Chron. 31 : 14 to the east, r<'':i^'.^-ci) Ps. 9 : 18 ^ Sheol. corap. aTro 

6. The ending n^ rarely receives the accent <T7"i^a Deut. 4:41; in 
Cf^- ■^J':!? '•• receives in some editions an alternate accent. §42. a. in 
others the secondary accent Methegh, §33. 1. a. In iT^n Gen. 14: 10 and 
nn3 a is changed to e before this ending. §63. 1, in nsnn Ezek. 25: 13, 
n33 1 Sam. 21:2 the vowel of the ending is itself changed to e. 

c. He directive is probably to be traced to the same origin with 
the definite article n, whose demonstrative force it shares. The syl- 



§220 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 249 

lable H is prefixed to a noun to single out a particular thing from all 
others oi' like kind as the object of attention. Appended to a word its 
weak guttural would be rejected and its vowel prolonged to n , §53.3; 
and in this form it is added to nouns to point out the object or direction ot 
motion, and to verbs to indicate the object of desire, §97. 1. In Chaldee 
this appended vowel ibrms what is called tiie emphatic state, and has the 
sense of the definite article, """'? king, "s"""? or Nsb^ the king. 

2. Paragogic n^ is sometimes appended to nouns, par- 
ticularly in poetry, for the purpose of softening the termina- 
tion without affecting the sense, § Gl. 6. 



Nouns with Suffixes. 

§ 220. The pronominal suffixes, whose forms are given 
§72, are appended to nouns in the sense of possessive pro- 
nouns, ""t) hand, ''i^ my hand, etc. They suffer, in conse- 
quence, the following changes, viz : 

1 . Of the suffixes, Mdiicli begin with a consonant, ^ , 03 , 
15 of the second person are connected with nouns in the sin- 
gular by a vocal Sh'va, ^3 of the first person plural and ?I 
of the second fem. singular by Tsere, and ^n , n , d , "i of 
the third person by Kamets ; ^.n^ is invariably contracted to 
i, rarely written rr, §62. 1, and n^ to ^^ , §101. 2. 

a. There is one example of a noun in the construct before the full form 
of.the pronoun, N'^h -r^ her days Nah. 2: 9. 

h. First person: ^D is in a few instances preceded by Kamels, !i:ri""io 
Ruth 3:2, !i:r^p Job22:20. 

Second j)erson. The final vowel of T\ is occasionally expressed by the 
vowel letter n. nbt"^ Ex. 13 : 16, nb'cm Jer. 29: 25. In pause the Sh'va 
bt-lbre T) becomes Seghol. §65, *. 7;yiz? Gen. 33:5, inzcz Ps. 139:5, or 
Kan)ets may be inserted as a connecting vowel, particularly after nouns 
in n_. whereupon the final Kamets is dropped to prevent the recurrence 
of like pounds, r|:n Ps. 53:6. In the feminine the connecting vowel e 
is rarely written "^ . ""rwbd Ezek. 5: 12; "'., which belongs to the full 
form of the pronoun. §71. a (2), is sometimes added to the suffix. ■'?r>n 
Jer. 11:15, ■=='ir3 Ps. 116: 19. ^z-^'::: 2 Kin. 4 : 7 K'thibh, where the KVi 
has ~"'it": . Sometimes the distinction of gender is neglected in the plural 
and C3 is used in place of the feminine "i?, C3^::x Gen. 31:9. ssris, 
C2"r:2 Jer. 9: 19; n_ is sometimes added to the I'eminine suffix as to the 
full pronoun, n:irsi Ezek. 23:49. 



250 ' ETYMOLOGY. ^220 

Third person. The connecting vowel before in and fi is occasionally 
e. ini-^rls Gen. 1:12, int;b-'Q Judg. 9:24. in-jb iNah. l': 13. sinn-.x Job 
25:3. so insn from i'") and 1'"i?")^ from y~.T3 and frequently witli nouns in 
n_, , >inx-i^ and ."jx-i^ from nxiis. ^^7:J from nna, ininia. ^nk;?; e does 
not occur before the plural D unless it is represented by the vowel-letter 
"^ in C"inn2Tt3 2 Chron. 34:5 K'thibh. where the K'ri has crinaTi: ; it is 
once found in the fern, plural n:inp Gen. 41:21. The form n' in the 
masc. sing, is commonly reckoned an archaism. n"bns Gen. 12:8, nH^ttJ 
Ps. 42: 9. nSs Jer. 2:21. so several times in the K'lhibh n-iiy , nniD Gen. 
49:11, nn.xinn Ex. 22:4, nrxiDD Ex. 22:26. n=03 Lev. 23:13. r\th-6 
2 Kin. 9:25, nnxizn Ezek. 48: 18, where the K'ri in each instance sub- 
stitutes i. In a few instances the consonant is rejected from the femi- 
nine, n being retained simply as a vowel-letter; where this occurs it is 
commonly indicated in modern editions of the Bible by Raphe, ^iriu Lev. 
13:4, niJVn Num. 15:28, or by a Masoretic note in the margin, "lijTN 
Isa. 23:17. 18 for wr:rs; once X is substituted for n, n^s Ezek. 36:5. 
The longer forms of the plural suffixes en. "jn are rarely affixed to nouns 
in the singular, 'flrj'z'i Gen. 21:28. '\hz^_-o Ezek. 13:17, inrJizu: Ezek. 
16:53, or with the connecting vowel Kamets, cri^3 2 Sam. 23:6, or with 
n^ appended. ":n^3 i Kin. 7:37, nani-n Ezek. 16:53. The vowel n^ is 
also sometimes added to the briefer ibrm of the fern, plural. i~'.:'^~b Gen. 
21:29, n:33 Gen. 42:36. The distinction of gender is sometimes ne- 
glected in the plural, D or cn being used for the feminine, C33 Cant. 
4:2. 6:6 for is's . cni-)-; Job 1 : 14 for 'h^T. ■ 

c. Tile nouns ~x father, nx brolher. HE mouth take the ending i be- 
fore suffixes, as they do likewise in the construct state, ^l^iiX . ci:'":x ; ''. of 
the first person coalesces with this vowel, "^X, "'fix, •'Q and ^in of the 
third person, commonly becomes 1 §62.2. 1"'2X. 1"^nx, 1"Q more frequent 
than ^n-'ix. in-'nx, sin-iQ . In ^-ia Zeph. 2:9 the vowel-letter "^ of the 
first person suffix is dropped after the final "^ of the noun. 

2. The masculine plural termination D"'. and the dual 
D?. are changed to ''.. before suffixes as in the construct state ; 
the same vowel is likewise inserted as a connective between 
suffixes and feminine plural nouns, §214. 2. b. This "'.. re- 
mains unchanged before the plural suffixes ; but before "^ the 
second masc. sino-ular and n third fern, sino-nlar it becomes 
■".. , and before the remaining suffixes the diphthongal vowel 
is resolved into ''. , which combined with "'. the first singular 
forms "'. , with 1\ the second feminine tj\ , and with ^n the 
third masculine T"^ , §C2. 2. 

a. In a very few instances suffixes are appended to feminine plurals 
without the vowel \ or its modifications, "'rbnn 2 Kin. 6:8 for Trrn, 
•^nis Ps. 132: 12 for "^nn?, r,ns55 Deuf. 28:59 for ^"r^^ , T|ni^nx Ezek. 



§221 



NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 



251 



16:52 for -''r5i"'ns« . QniaNi and cn-'ni^x^ , crhix Ps. 74:4. crxi^n , tnin-in, 
crnsi^. crhais. On llie other h;;iid, suffixes proper to plural nouns are 
occasionally appended to feminine nouns in the lingular, perhaps to indi- 
cate that they are used in a plural or collective sense, T'ndtjn Lev. 5: 24, 
?i^r|nn Ps. 9: 15, ^"'nNsb Ezek. 35: 11. T^^^^?, Isa. 47: 13.' 

b. The vowel-letter "i is not infrequently omitted after plural and dual 
nouns, ri'sn'n Ex. 33:13 for ^■'i?^? , oil": Ps- 134:2 for ci^n^, n^a Ex. 
32:19 K'th'ibh (K'ri Tin^^). mi:? 1 Sam. 18:22 K'thibh (K'ri 1''72?.), 
chy}' Gen. 10:5 for DH-^^'is, in::^!-! Gen. 4:4 for "iriinbn . 

c. S-^co)id person. The vowel "^ _ remains unchanged before the fem. 
siniT. Tj in ~^T^'^ Eccl. 10: 17 and with n appended ! n^pxb^ Nah. 2: 14. 
Sometimes, as in the ilill pronoun, '^. is appended to the fem. sing, suffix 
and n^ to the plural, : ■'i^xsibnn Ps. 103:3, !'^37*n ver. 4, njiirinos 
Ezek. '13 : 20. 

Third person. The uncontracted form of the masc. sing. >in'i occurs 
in in-'ni33 Nah. 2:4 for T^y.aa , iin-^n; Hab. 3:10, wh? Job 24:23; 
ehu = ailiu by transposition of the vowels becomes auhi ^ ohl ■'Hi which 
is found once "TilPTOjn Ps. 116: 12, and is the ordinary form of this suffix 
in Chaldee. The final a of the fem. sing, is once represented by S, 
xn'p^rix Ezek. 41: 15. In a few instances n^ is appended to the plural 
of either gender, nTsn-iVx Ezek. 40:16. r'3n''n*;t5 Ezek. 1:11. and i to 
the abbreviated masc. D, "i^'^n'bx Deut. 32 :'37, W-'n2T ver. 38, i^^Q? Job 
27:23, 'i'2-':0 Ps. U : 7. 

3. The suffixes thus modified are as follows, viz. : 



Appended to 


SINGrLAE. 






PLURAL. 




Ic. 2 m. 2/ 2,711. 3/ 


\c. 


2 w 


2/ 3 m 


Sing. Founs 


'. '1: \. ^' ^. 


^2.. 


D5 


15= Q. 


Dual and 
Plur. Nouns 


\ ^ T... ^'- 1\ "', 


^r.. 


^T. 


• '\T- ^D'. 



3/. 



§ 221. Certain changes likewise take place in nouns re- 
ceiving suffixes, which arise from the disposition to shorten 
words, which are increased at the end, \Q>(S. 1. These are 
as follows, viz. : 

1. The grave suffixes, §72, D5 , "Q , en, "jn shorten the 
nouns, to which they are attached, to the greatest possible 
extent. Before them, therefore, nouns of both genders and 
all numbers take the form of the construct, 3i^ heart, D^^nb 
your heart, lO^^b their hearts; "sis Uj) du. Dn"'!n?T2J pi. 
DH-'nirsir their lips. 

a, Cn ft^oocZ becomes D3^'n and "i^ hand DdT^. 



252 '- ETYMOLOGY. § 221 

2. Feminine nouns, both singular and plural, take the 
construct form before the light suftlxes likewise, with the ex- 
ception that in the singular the ending ri_ becomes r^ in 
consequence of the change from a mixed to a simple syllable, 
§ 5 'J, HEb Up, ih2© Ids lijj, arsb their I'q), ^^^■^^EiI3 thy lips, 
vnirsb his lijjs. 

a. If the construct has a Segholate form it will experience the change 
indicLiled in 5. nbr:cp const. riC'^T'? suf. "inbir^^ . If two consonants 
have coalesced in tlie final letter, it will receive Daghesh-forte agreeably 
to 6. "ina from n2. "iFirx from pis. :T^n;?2?3 1 Sam. 16: 15 from the fern, 
of rbz-q . 1 205. b. 

b. In a few exceptional instances the absolute form is preserved before 
suffixes, "^rbz: Isa. 26:19 from nif:3 but r,r'5=3. '•r?:::; ^'rti Cant. 2:10 
irom Ht"^ const, rs^ ; so "T^s . '"^r""'.; , "'"^r"'"'] , Cr^rb^d but const, 
r-rr, cotnp. zh^vo const, "^r.. 

3. Masculine nouns, both singular and plural, on receiv- 
ina; lio;ht suffixes take the form which thev assume before the 
absolute plural termination, 32? heart, "'^i^'p wj/ heart, Tjnnb 
thy heart, '^-''^^} our hearts. 

a. Tsere in the ultimate is shortened to Hhirilc or Seghol before T] , 
C3. -p, c. g.*^(:2. cir'n-';. nrt;?^. or with a guttural to Pattahh. r,::ns, 
Crbxj . though with occasional exceptions, ^--^^ Isa. 22:21, ^ri^ty 
1 Sam. 21 ;r!. r,J<C3 from SE2 . Before other suffixes it is rejected from 
some monosyllables, which retain it in the plural. isU) from cr plur. 
nrc, i;3 from ■,2 plur. i^'zz but "'"J , T^-s , "'r';; . 'r^v'p_. ' 

4. Dual nouns retain before li2;ht suffixes the form which 
they have before the absolute dual termination, "'rx'P my t/jjs, 
^rnsir o/w tijjs, ""bys my ears, '''-^'r'^ our ears; Dl'i^p and 
^'l-.''^^ horns, "^"^^'^^ and ^'"'I'^'p his horns. 

5. Segholate nouns in the dual and plural follow the 
preceding rules, but in the singular they assume before all 
suffixes, whether light or grave, their original monosyllabic 
form as before the feminine ending n^ , §2 OS, tj^'a hiny, 
''^•'a my Jdny, cisbTa your king ; "jTS? ear, "'"ij my ear ; in 
like manner r,;:;';"' sucker, iP]p?''0 J^is sucker. 

a. When the first radical has Hholera in the absolute. Hhateph-Kamets 
or Kamets-Hiiatuph is sometimes given to the second radical before sut- 



§222 ■ NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 253 

fixes, "^^Sa and i^isQ from bsQ, ^i^rj,;? Hos. 13:14, with Daghesh-forte 
sepamtive! 1^3];? Eze'k. 26:9. •'hp^ "{'^Kin. 12:10, '^yo Isa. 9:3, iiao 
Jer. 4:7; 152 garment has ■'nS3 , iiaa instead of "^isS , 11:3 . 

6. Middle Yodh and Vav mostly quiesce in e and before suffixes, '^5"'5 
from y^k eye, "'nin from r;;79 death; hut nn^S Gen. 49:11 from 1";'5 
?/OT«??5- ass, in-'a Isa. 10: 17 from n-'JJ ///or?i, i^;!? Ezek. 18:26, 33: 13 from 
biy iuirpdlij. 

c. Triliteral monosyllables sometimes shift their vowel from the second 
radical to the first, thus assuming tiie same form with Segholates, comp. 
§184. a. lirni from iri-n , ''as'r from cbd. but ir^S from bns; T^ -lb 3 from 
•1)33 ; ^\'^}^ , ^"^IS , CD7-1Q . d'^^ID but t:ni";Q from ■'■nQ ; i'''3d . T]73ir but 
ci^3":: from "^hii . By a like transposition niejs Ezek. 36:8 is lor nis;?. 
from 7\\v . " 

d. The noun ^rx blessedness, which only occurs in the plural con- 
struct and witii suffixes, preserves before all suffixes the construct form, 
^j-'nqs, iiyrx not T^-inTyx, T'ii^x. 

6. Nouns in whose final letter two consonants have 
coalesced, or which double their final letter in the plural, 
§207. 2, receive Daghesh-forte likewise before suffixes, the 
vowel of the ultimate being modified accordingly, "'•Ty and 
•'•t:^ from T2> (root Tb), DDP3 from n? (nrs), niin^ from 
■jinx (pi. D^sinx). 

a. 3;bn lattice, bp"^3 garden, 3r>C?3 refuge, which do not occur in the 
plural, lake Dnffhesh-fcrte before suffixes ; rsd has in the plural ninsia 
but before suffixes in3UJ , cbRsd; "is (root '(33) bose has "'53, i:3. 

6. In a very few instances a final liquid is repeated instead of being 
doubled by Daghesh, comp. §207.2. a. ^nn Jer. 17:3, •'-.nn Ps. 30:8, 
onnn Gen. 14:6 from "in ; i^bs Job 40:22 and '^^ from h^'; r^h^, Ezek. 
16:4 and TQ"}^ Cant. 7:3. Once Daghesh-forte is resolved by the in- 
sertion of D, H'^iT:;^ Isa. 23: 11 for ^^Tr^, §54. 3. 

7. Nouns ending in n . drop this vowel before suffixes 
as before the plural terminations, §209.1, T'rfs: feld ^y^^ , 
T^is: , rriir ; nb)>)a caff/e ^ifjp^ . 

a. The vowel e commonly remains as a connecting vowel before suf 
fixes of the tliird person singular, §220. 1. b; and in a few instances the 
radical "^ is restored, giving to singular nouns the appearance of being 
plural, t^-^'ibb Isa. 22:11, rfris^ Hos. 2:16, on-'aip Isa. 42:5, nib sheep 
becomes 'i'^'CJ or in'jb. 

§ 222. The following examples of nouns with suffixes 
will sufficiently illustrate the preceding rules : 





Paradigm of 


N 


OUNS WITH 


Suffixes. 












SiNGULAE. 












heart itb 

T " 


kin, 




queen mS^^'J 


hand "I^ 

T 




Const. 


nnb 




Tjb79 


- 


nsb^ 




ri 


Sing 


1 c. my ' 




u 


^^b-^ 


(i 


^t>|^'^ 


(( 


• T 




2 m. thy ' 


' *i?=^ 


u 


srjsb^a 


u 


^03b-J 


u 


^■; 




2/ thy ' 


' ^) 


(( 


^^i^ 


u 


^^ 


(1 


re 




3 m. his ' 




u 


ii:b-j 


" 


ihsb-j 


(( 


T 




3/. her ' 


T T : 


u 


n^b-j 

T : — 


li 


nnsb-j 


(( 


Tr 


Plur 


. 1 c. our ' 


•• T ; 


u 


"^^ 


u 


^:r)2f'^ 


u 


••T 




2 m. your ' 


' Di-lb 


u 


Disb-j 


u 


t3ir>?^"^ 


(1 


°57v 




2/. your ' 


' 1=?^^ 


u 


1=?^-^ 


a 


l^^^T*^ 


a 


i?7: 




3 m. their ' 


' Dnib 

T T : 


u 


Dib-J 

T : — 


" 


Dhsb-j 

T r ; — 


a 


1 

TT 




3/. their ' 


■ 1=?^ 




■|3b:a 

LTR AL. 


u 


-,h2b-:3 

1 T T : — 


a 

D 


17; 

TJ AL, 




hea 


rts D^nnb 

• T ; 


kings D"^b"J 


queens D'lD!?'^ 


hands D'""^ 




Const. 


*i^b 




^5^^ 




nibb-j 




"T 


Sing 


1 c. my ' 


' -idb 


u 


^iV-? 


(; 


^ni:b-^ 


a 


— T 




2 TO. thy 


' T=T^ 


l( 


llH 


u 


^"fi'feb-j 


u 


Ti: 




2/. thy 


' Tir^ 


u 


T5^^ 


u 


T^^^ 


a 


T5; 




3 m. his ' 


T T : 


u 


rib'j 

T r : 


u 


rhibb-j 

T : — 


u 


Tr 




3/. her ' 


T V T : 


a 


V"=!^"^ 


1( 


n"r)i'3>"^ 


u 


T VT 


Plur 


. 1 c. our ' 


*• T : 


u 


^■■ib-j 

•• T : 


a 


^rni-b-^ 


u 






2 m. your ' 


' ^^ 


u 


D^"?-^ 


u 


Di-ni^b"^ 


u 


CJi't 




2/. your 


' "5'^T^ 


" 


■jr-b-:: 


u 


■rni'^-a 


11 


ir": 




3 m. their ' 


' Dn-nib 


u 


nri^b^ 


u 


DnTi::b"j 


11 


Dfl"T 




3/. their ' 


' tr^ 


u 


>^"5r^ 


u 


■;n-nirb-^ 


11 


IT"?? 



254 



§ 223 numerals. 255 

Numerals. 

§223. 1. The Hebrew numerals (nsonn n™) are of 
two kinds, cardinals and ordnials. The cardinals from one 
to ten are as follows, viz. : 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 




Abaol. 


Constr 


-45so/. 


Constr. 


One 


"!n^ 


ir;« 


nh^ 


n-55 


Two 


D^yjj 


^DIC 


D;riTip 


T'"-? 


Three 


mrb"^ 


rnrS'jJ 


T 


tb"^ 


Four 




^'?:^T!|< 


yn^^ 


^■^T^ 


Five 


T • -: 


^^^n 




■d-Jn 


Six 


T • 


r:j;-§ 


irizj' 


ITTIJ 


Seven 




m^nij 


yri: 


'Jt'd 


Eight 


T : 


nib-j: 


nib-jp 


f^rm 


Nine 


r ; • 


r.r^rn 


yxn 


yirn 


Ten 


rr^Z 


n-iib::? 


n'^i? 


■^iri? 



a. inx is for "ins. §63. \. a ; the Seghol returns to Pattahh from 
which it has ariseti. upon the shortening of the following Kamets in the 
construct and in the feminine, rnx for riTns. §54. 2, hut in pause Pnx; 
ins occurs in the ahsolute in Gen. 48: 22. 2 Sam. 17:22, Isa. 27:'']2, 
Ezek. 33 : 30, Zech. 11:7, and once in E/ek. 33 : 30. The plural Cinx 
is also in use in the sense of one. Gen. 11:1, Ezek. 37 : 17, or some. Gen. 
27 : 44, 29 : 20. Comp. Span. unos. 

C^niL" is for B"n:0 ; for the Daghesh in r see §22. h; this is once 
omitted after Daghesh-forte, "'rra Judg. 16 : 28. 

A dual form is (>iven to some of the units to denote repetition, D^nyaiX 
fourfold, Clipy^d sevevfold. 

nyat" occurs once with a pnragogic syllable. n2;"air Job 42: 13, and 
once with a suffix in the firm crrad 2 Sam. 21:9 K'ri. 

2. In all the Semitic languages the cardinals from three 
to fen are in form of the sin2:ular number, and have a femi- 
nine»termination when joined to masculine nouns, but omit 
it when joined to feminine nouns. The explanation of this 



256 " ETYMOLOGY. ^224,225 

curious phenomenon appears to be that they are properly col- 
lective nouns like triad, decad, and as such of the feminine 
gender. With masculine nouns they appear in their primary 
form, with feminine nouns, for the sake of distinction, they 
undergo a change of termination. 

a. An analogous anomaly meets us in this same class of words in Indo- 
European tongues. The Sanskrit cardinals from^t^e to ten^ though they 
agree in case with the nouns to which they belong, are in form of the 
neuter gender and in the nominative, accusative and vocative they are of 
the singular number. In Greek and Latin they are not declined. 

§224. The cardinals from eleven to nineteen are formed 
by combining its' or rnir? modifications of the numeral 
ten with the several units, those which end in n^ preserving 
the absolute form and the remainder the construct. Thus, 



Eleven 



Twelve 



Mascttline. 

'izy "TO? 

T r •* : 

TV •• ; 



Thirteen 

Fourteen "iC'J TrJ'ZT^ 

T r T T : — 

Fifteen 'ibV n'uS'^n 

T T T • -: 

.1 I • • 

Sixteen TiT" n°i3"kI3 

T T T • 

Seventeen ^'CV n"Z"J3 



Feminixe. 


J^"!^'"!?? 


rrr^ 


•^T*^'? 


•v\ti 




n-niD 


HT^'? 


'p}"^ 


^r^y^^. 


t^t 


nVir:? 


"i-^H 


J^^'^'? 


■^'fe" 


♦^^'■^'<: 


^^ 


fr^z^^ 


:'ii2 


•^"b'"^? 


nib^ 


Tr<w 


TZT\ 



Eighteen ^'Z'; mj^^ 

° T T T : 

Is'ineteen TiT" mP ujIH 

a. The origin of "ITXC'S . the alternate of *inx in the number eleven, is 
obscure. R. Jona thinks it to be an abbreviation for "ibs" ■'nu; ly next to 
twelce. Comp. Lat. vnderiginti. nineteen. Kimchi derives it from rirs 
to think, ten being reckoned upon the fingers, and eleven the first number 
which is mentally conceived beyond. 

-lirs rrrn ffteen occurs Judg. 8:10, 2 Sam. 19 : 18, and "I'l'S nb'JJ 
eighteen Judg. 20 : 25. 

§225. 1. The tens are formed by adding the masculine 



§226,227 NUMERALS. 257 

plural termination to the units, ciis? twenty being, however, 
derived not from two but from ten "itpi? . 



Twenty 


D^niry 


Sixty 


d-isia 


Thirty 


D^-^bu: 


Seventy 


D'^"^"^ 


Forty 


D-i^'n";i? 


Eiglity 


D^ib-iS 


Fifty 


n-i^un 


Ninety 


n^riiri 



a. These nnmhers have no distinct form for the feminine, and are used 
indifferently with nouns of either gender. riSb?. Ex. 18 : 21, 25, Deut. 1: 15 
means not txoenty hut tens. 

2. The units are added to the tens by means of the con- 
junction "I and ; the order of precedence is not invariable, 
thousrh it has been remarked that the earliest writers of the 
Old Testament commonly place the units first, e. g. cri© 
D^izJirn two and sixty Gen. 5:18, while the latest writers as 
commonly place the tens first, D'^iiC'i D"'i)JiiJ sixty and two 
Dan. 9:25. 

% 226. Numerals of a higher grade are TO-a one hundred, 
pbx one thousand, nsnn , iin or i^iaT ten thousand. These 
are duplicated by affixing the dual termination D^'tj^'^ two 
Ji^ndred, D"^Dbs? two thousand, D^'niai or l^iiii '^PiJJ twenty 
thousand. Higher multiples are formed by prefixing the 
appropriate units riisia iDbJia three hundred, D"^£'55!t T\ipit 
three thousand, rTi&53"i TlJilJ sixty thousand, D"^s^i? ^'^x one 
million. 

§227. 1. The ordinals are formed by adding "'. to the 
corresponding cardinals, the same vowel being likewise in- 
serted in several instances before the final consonant ; lifexn 
first is derived from tJsn head. 



First 


■iiiu^"] 




Sixth 


'"i?"^ 


Second 


^bi2 




Seventh 


^3?''2T23 


Third 


■■^"^^ 




Eighth 


^T'lyn 


Fourth 


^i^^.n 




Ninth 


•i^-dn 


Fifth 


'T2J-:jn 


or ^TS22n 


Tenth 


^\-^w 



17 



258 - ETYMOLOGY. §228,229 

The feminine commonly ends in in"> . , occasionally in Ji|: . . 

a. There are two examples of the orthography *(iiJ"'X"i Josh. 21 : 10, 
Job 15:7. and one of "|ViJ''"i Job 8 : 8. in all of which the K'ri restores the 
customary form. 

2. There are no distinct forms for ordinals above ten, 
the cardinal numbers being used instead. 

3. fractional numbers are expressed by the feminine 
ordinals, niiD"'bTr one third, rr^y'^sn one fourth, etc., and by 
the following additional terais, "^in one half, 3?3"i and 7?n one 
quarter, ttiit] oneffth, "i"!^"? one tenth. 



Prefixed Particles. 

§228. The remaining parts of speech are indeclinable, 
and may be comprehended under the general name of par- 
ticles. These may be divided into 

1. Prefixed particles, which are only found in combina- 
tion with a following word, viz. the article. He interrogative, 
the inseparable prepositions, and Vav conjunctive. 

2. Those particles, which are written as separate words, 
and which comprise the great majority of adverbs, preposi- 
tions, conjunctions, and interjections. 

a. No word in Hebrew lias less than two letters; all particles of one 
letter are consequently prefixes. There is one example of two prefixes 
combined constituting a word bn Deut. 32 : 6, though editions vary. 

The Article. 

§229. 1. The Definite Article (nri:n ^b) consists of 
n with Pattahh followed by Daghesh-forte in the first letter 
of the word to which it is prefixed, ^'"'a a Izing, ^^^^n the 
king. 

a. As the Arabic article j| is in certain cases followed by a like 
doubling of the initial letter, some have imagined ihat the original form of 



I 



§ 229 THE ARTICLE. 259 

the Hebrew article was bn and that the Daghesh-forte has arisen from 
the assimilation ol"b and its contraction with the succeeding letter. Since, 
however, there is no trace of such a ibrm, it seems better to acquiesce in 
the old opinion, which has in its favour the analogy of other languages, 
that the article n is related to the personal pronoun N>in , whose principal 
consonant it retains, and that the following Daghesh is conservative, §24. 3 ; 
comp. the demonstrative particle xn and xn behold! In ST^in Jer. 29:23 
K'thibh (if read ?'|"''''^) ^'^^ article may perhaps be found in an unabridged 
form ; the K'ri has ?7"i'fi . The Arabic article is supposed to be found in 
the proper name iniTabx Gen. 10: 26, li'^i^^x hail^ the equivalent of i^'^is, 
and possibly in Oipbx Prov. 30:31. 

b. There is, properly speaking, no indefinite article in Hebrew, al- 
though the numeral inx one is so employed in a few instances, as N'^is 
nnx a prophet 1 Kin. 20: 13. 

2. If the first letter of the word have Sh'va, Daghesh- 
forte may be omitted except from the aspirates, §25, "I'i^^n, 

3. Before gutturals, which cannot receive Daghesh-forte, 
§ GO. 4, Pattahh is lengthened to Karaets ; the short vowel 
Pattahh is, however, commonly retained before n and n , and 
sometimes before V , the syllable being converted into an inter- 
mediate, §20, 2. a, instead of a simple one, 'v'^O , "^nn , T2^yn 
Gen. 15 : 11, ^is-^n but ^tJnn, N^hn, -Ji^yn Jer. 12 : 9. 

a. The article very rarely has Kamets before n, "^ntn Gen. 6:19, 
CJBnri Isa. 17 : 8 ; in a very few instances initial N quiesces in the vowel 
of the article, ClOSDxn Nunf. 11:4. 

4. Before H with Kamets or Hhateph-Kamets, Pattahh 
is changed to Seghol : before n or ^ with Kamets, it is 
likewise changed to Seghol if it stands in the second syllable 
before the accent, and consequently receives the secondary 
accent Methegh, ."^nn , ninn , D^i'inn , D^inn , D^nyn . 

a. This change very rarely occurs before X, "Wxn Mic. 2:7. When 
n is followed by Kamets-Hhatuph, Pattahh remaitis nibsnn. 

b. The article does not usually affect the vowels of the word before 
which it stands ; in "iH mountain and CS people, however, Pattahh is 
changed to Kamets to correspond with the vowel of the article "^nT^ . ci'n, 
60 ]'-ix earth but 7"!X^ . The plurals of bnx tent and ir"ip holiness with- 
out the article are n-lins Gen. 25 : 27. ^''i^1\^ Ex. 29 : 37, but with the 
article Ciynx2 (for c-Bnxna) Judg. 8:11, □■'anpn Ex. 26 : 33, §208. 3 b 



260 ' ETYMOLOGY. §230,231 

nxj? pelican Isa. 34 : 11. Zeph. 2 : 14. is pointed rxj^ln Lev. 11 : IS, Deut. 
14 : 17 upon receiving the article. 

5, When preceded by the inseparable prepositions the 
letter n of the article is mostly rejected, and its vowel given 
to the preposition, §53. 3, a-^iaiEa fqr D^^'^nii, see §231. 5. 



He Interrogative. 

^230. 1. The letter n (nb's;£n sn) may also be pre- 
fixed to words to indicate an interrogation ; it is then pointed 
with Hhateph-Pattahh, ^"?',:n shall we go ? s*rri«'"n is he not ? 

2. Before avowelless letter this becomes Pattahh, §01. 1, 
njiTsn Gen. 34 -. 31, ^sy<'<t^r\ Job 18:4, ""^sn Jer. 8 : 22. 

a. The new syllable thus formed is an intermediate one, §22. and the 
succeeding Sh'va remains vocal, as is shown by the absence of Daghesh- 
lene in such forms as cnr"7';ri Gen. 29:5. In order to render this still 
more evident recourse is frequently had to Daghesh-forte separative, 
§24. 5. -i^n Gen. 17 : 17, nr;7s;^rn 18 :21, Methegh, §45. 2, birrn Judg. 
9 : 2, nydrn Job 38: 35, or compound Sh'va, § 16. 3. h, nb^sn Gen! 27: 38. 

6. He interrogative has Pattahh and Daghesh-forte in one instance 
before a letter with a vowel of its own, Sl?""n Lev. 10: 19. 

3. Before gutturals it likewise usually becomes Pattahh, 
?f?sn Ex. 2 : 7, "ii?S!tvi 2 Kin. 6 : 22, T'ia^nn Jer. 2:11, nyn 
Hag. 1:4. 

a. There are a few examples of He interrogative with Kamets be- 
fore N. nrxn Judg. 6:31, •'Henh Judg. 12:5. b^sn Neh. 6:11. 

4. Before gutturals with Kamets it is changed to Seghol, 
-i^asn Ezek. 28 : 9, nn;'nn Joel 1 : 2, ^';ir)r^^ Eccles. 2:19. 



Inseparable Prepositions. 

§231. 1. The prepositions 3 in, D according fo, ^ to, are 
regularly prefixed with Sh'va, rffci^'ia in the beginning^ bb3 
accorduig to all, Drnnsb to Abraham. 



§ 232 INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS. 261 

2. Before vowelless letters this Sb'va is changed to 

Hhirik, Tp"}^ for ?^ji?73 , biijrb for biriab , nans for nn^s . 

3. Before gutturals with compound Sh'va it is changed 
to the corresponding short vowel, "^^^^ , bssb , inna . 

a. Initial S quiesces in the following words after the inseparable pre- 
positions. §57. 2. (2) a, "jiTX master when connected with singular suffixes, 
■'i"iS Lord. C^fi'bx God. and also in the inf const, ibx to say after b. 
•»3n.X2. ■^-:nx3. n-p.xb. ''inxb, crrb.xa for cnsxa the Seghol lengthened 
to Tsere in the simple syllable, 'in'rx^ but n'5X^ . I'ixb but "i^N^, li^NS. 
Before the divine name mn^ the inseparable prepositions are pointed as 
they would be before "^jHs or CTtPN , whose vowels it receives. §47, tiirT'b 
Gen. 4:3; n>=i^b Ps. 68:21. 

b. In a very Cew instances X with Pattahh and "^ with Hhirik give up 
their vowel to the preposition and become quiescent, i''2J<3 Isa. 10 : 13 for 

"i-'3N3, "ji-in-^s Eccles. 2: 13 for IT^n-^S. 

4. Before monosyllables and before dissyllables, accented 
upon the penult, these prepositions frequently receive a pre- 
tonic Kamets, § 64. 2, n^jka , r.tkh , m:b . 

a. This regularly occurs with the Kal construct infinitive of "iS , "'S . ""> 
*I5 and ">'? verbs when preceded by b, e. g. r^rib, nrb, ri'i'lb, a'nb , a'^nb ; 
also with different forms of the demonstrative til and with personal suf- 
fixes; and with monosyllabic or Segholate nouns when accompanied by 
disjunctive and especially pause accents. Belbre the pronoun tn: what 
they are commonly pointed n522 , nss, Hsb' or followed by a guttural, 

nib. " " " 

5. Before the article its n is rejected and the vowel 
given to the preposition, "li'^? for "Q'v'^^j T"?^^ fo^ 7"?^0'?> 
D^nna for D^'irina . 

a. .n not infrequently remains after 3 , Dl'lns Gen. 39 : 11. more rarely 
after the other prepositions, tsnb 2 Cliron. 10:7. The initial n of the 
Hiphil and Niphal infinitives is occasionally rejected in like manner, 
n-irrb Am. 8: 4 for r.-iarnb, ibdsa Prov. 24: 17 for ibirsns. 

§232. The preposition "^^ from, though used in its sep- 
arate form, may also be abbreviated to a prefix by the assim- 
ilation and contraction of its final Nun with the initial letter 
of the following word, which accordingly receives Daghesh- 
forte, X>/^ for Xh T'? • Before n Hhirik is commonly re- 



Ic. ^4 




^P 


2 m. 'nn , 
2/ ?i^ 

3 m. is 


^^ 




3/ n^ 




T 



262 - ETYMOLOGY. §233,234 

tained in an intermediate syllable, but before other gutturals 
it is lengthened to Tsere, fin^ for V^n p , f n^^ , i\')vr\'n , D?^ • 

a. '"0 is sometimes poetically lengthened to "'i^, and once has the 
form of a construct plural, "'J^ Isa. 30 : 11. 

§ 233. These prepositions are combined with the pro- 
nominal suffixes in the following manner : 

Singular. 

T T T V • 

PlUE AL, 

ic. ^;s ^25 ^:i-!23 ^ii2'2 

2m.nb::i ebb nii5,DDr-5 c:|"^ 

T ' V T T V T V T V : V ; • V •• 

8/ "jrin, -jris "|nb — '■^ri-2 

a. The syllable "i^ inserted between 3 and the suffixes, and which is 
in poetry sometimes added to 3. 3 and b witliout suffixes to convert them 
into independent words, i^3 . "1133. inb , is commonly thought to be re- 
lated in its origin to the pronoun riTS what, so that "'p'^S would in strict- 
ness denote like what I am, i. e. like me. The preposition "i^, with the 
exception of some poetical forms, reduplicates itself beHire the light suf- 
fixes, ■'35213 =i '"'i'oyo . Comp. a similar reduplication of a short word, "^a'^a 
or •'^ construct of W'k water. 



Vav Conjunctive. 

§ 234. The conjunction and is expressed by *i prefixed 
with Sh'va, '^tcril , f ^if n^ . Before one of the labials ^ , '53 , 
fi, § 57. 2 (1), or before a vowelless letter Vav quiesces in 



§235 SEPARATE PARTICLES. 263 

Shurek, r4^ ^r^^ Q'^rS^ H^nb^ . Before a vowelless 
Yodh it receives Hliirik, in wliich the Yodli quiesces, cpjpjti , 
■'n"'l . Before a guttural with compound Sh'va it receives the 
corresponding short vowel, ''i?^^;!, "^^^^ , "^^C!^- Before mono- 
syllables and dissyllables accented on the penult it frequently 
receives a pretonic Kamets, '^ra'} , f'tbpbi , 3?^) . 

a. After Vav with Shurek, compound Sh'va is sometimes substi- 
tuted for simple Sh'va in order to indicate more distinctly its vocal 
cliaracter, rnT^i Gen. 2:12, "'iv-pnr^li Ezek. 26:21, nn^^on 1 Kin. 13:7, 
^pssj Jer. 22 -'20. 

b. Vav receives Hhirik before He followed by Yodh in the forms 
-r"'^n'}, 1"'n,!'; ^r5"'?n,?j '■"'I,} 2 plur. preterite and imperative of the verbs 
^^■^ to be and iT^n to live ; before the 2 masc. sing, imperative of the 
same verbs it has Seghol, <^^"!i , n^ni for n'l'ni, n'l^n'i. 

c. K quiesces after Vav conjunctive as after the inseparable preposi- 
tions, §231. 3. a. in "jinx viasler when connected with singular suffixes, 
"px^ Lord and n'^si'^x God, ■^inx] , "^ps] , "^b^x.! , 'i2"'n=5<T the Seghol 
being lengthened to Tsere in the simple syliable. Hence also t^^^^l 
when mni has the vowels of "'J'lN . A very lew instances occur in which 
X with Pattahh and "^ with Hhirik give up their vowel to Vav conjunctive 
and become quiescent, 1ia~i<l Zech. 11:5 for "ii^s'xi, nHb^n Jer. 25 : 36 
for rrb-il. 



Separate Particles. 

ADVERBS. 

§ 235. 1, A few adverbs of negation, place and time, are 
commonly classed as piimitive, although they are probably 
related to pronomiual roots, as bx and i^b not, Dt^ f/iere, 
"is* f/ieu. 

a. It is natural to suspect that the pronominal root b, which gave rise 
to the near demonstrative bx , nsx these and to tlie prepositions indicative 
of nearness or approach, b to, bs unto, and which has a remote demon- 
strative force in '^5<^'7 yonder, beyond, may also be the basis of N'^ and bx 
the idea of remoteness taken absolutely funning a negation. The same 
idea, in a less absolute sense, may be traced in the conditional conjunction 
lb if. The pronoun HT, of which probably U3 is originally only a modi- 
fication (comp. the relative use of IT, §73. 1), is plainly connected with TN 
at that time and od iii that place. 



264 - ETYMOLOGY. ^236 

2. Derivative adverbs are formed 

(1.) By affixing the terminations D^ or D*, ci'Sij and 
d:^x truly from "i^i* truth, 02 n gratuitously from "p, grace, 
Q'bi"^ by day from zrr> day, D;^"^n in vain from p"^^ empty, Dsins 
suddenly from yris moment, Dirbin ^//(? ^/«y before yesterday 
from t^5-.r ///ree. 

(2.) By abbreviation, as ^x surely, only from "jix. 

(3.) By composition, as vy\ti ichy ? from ?^i; H'a ^^/;?W 
edoctus, T^Ti2'^i2 from above from 'J'a , > and rib:?^ . 

3. Besides tliose adverbs, which are such originally and 
properly, other parts of speech are sometimes used as ad- 
verbs. Thus 

(1.) Nouns, "i^i^ miyJitily, exceedingly prop, miglit, ^'^io 
around prop, circuit, 1"^ again prop, repetition, CSS no more 
prop, cessation ; with a preposition, ^S^2 exceedingly, ^sb 
^«/-^ prop. /<9 separation, or a suffix ^"57;' together prop. «?z ?75 
union. Compare the adverbial accusative and adverbial 
phrases of Greek and other languages. 

(2.) Absolute infinitives, which are really verbal nouns, 
nt:''ri tcell prop, recte faciendo, "snri much, X*^ quickly. 

(3.) Adjectives, particularly in the feminine, which is 
used as a neuter, li'J icell, riiirsn at first, rr^iiij the second 
time, ran and rian much, r"i"^n^ in Jewish i. e. Hebrew, rr^^ni? 
2W Aramaic, f^isbsip wonderfully. 

(4.) Pronouns, n| i^erg", ;zoz^; prop. //^/^ place, this time, 
t^ih hither prop, /o i'/zcs^ j'j/ffc^^, with a preposition nis /)^7/5 
prop, accordijig to it, "J? 50 perhaps for "jn? according to these 
things, though others explain it as an adverbial use of the 
participle 1? right, true, ns here probably for "13 in this 
(place). 

§236. A few adverbs are capable of receiving pronom- 
inal suffixes, as "i" or n:n behold, "fo yet, ""S? ivhere, to which 
may be added "j^s there is not prop, non-existence and BJ!? 



§237 PREPOSITIONS. 265 

there is prop, existence. As the idea of action or of exis- 
tence is suggested by tliem, they take the verbal suffixes, 
frequently with D epenthetic. Thus 

1. nrn. First person "^bfri, ''s^n and ^^r\; ^i:n, ^iir\ 
and ^:jn . Second person masc. ^2n once niiin ; oiin , fern, 
%\r\. TUrd person iin and ^riin; Dsn. 

2. "Tiy . First person "^anSy and "liis? ; once with plur. 
iriiy Lam. 4 : 17 K'ri. Second person masc. *?l7'^y fern. ^'iis?. 
Third person masc. Wilis' , oils' fern. J^sniy . 

3. "^X , Second person ns^x . Third person 'y^'A , D^s? . 

4. 'J"'i? . First person '^|3.''5? . Second person masc. ^?''X , 
DDf^s , fem. tjrs . :Z7z?V(^ person masc. 'lai^x , oi^i? and 
itt^ij>: fem. r.spx . 

5. TT.'' . Second person ^tf^^. , oiir;: and Ddtc;i . 57^2>(f 
person 'y^'^l . 

Prepositions. 

§237. 1. The simple prepositions in most comm.on use, 
besides the inseparable prefixes, §231, are chiefly ^Hi? 
behind, after, "^N to, tmto, b:2N beside, ty& loith^ y%, between, 
"ipba tvithout, 1V^ ihrougli, nb^T except, "J?^ on account of, 
bi^ or '•'a over against, 'ijb in presence of, HDb in front of. 
Iff ore, 'I? unto, b:? ^^joow, D5' «6"«M, nnn under. Most of these 
appear to have been originally nouns ; and some of them are 
still used both as nonns and as prepositions. 

2. Other prepositions are compound, and consist of 
(1.) Two prepositions, as "^y^^y^from after, Jns'a and Dyifl 

from icith, ^TQfrom upon, tT\T\'Q front under, 'yc^ from, 'l^sb 

and npbb before^ b^ia-bx toward. 

(2.) A preposition and a noun 'lib and lib'a besides 

from 13 separation, ""^sb before and '^is'o, "^Dsb^ /ro;;/ before 

from D^39/«c^, bb.;\3 and l^i?a/or //^e 5«/l-^ o/; "I'^n by prop. 



266 " ETYMOLOGY. §238,239 

hy the hand of, ^2y-bi? bet/ojid, ^ "»^?^ from beyond, f^^^'? in 
conjunction lo'dh, X^^^ and ^^'^T'^V. on account of, "^23, ''s'p 
and "^£"5? according to prop, at the mouth of 

(3.) A preposition and an infinitive, f^^npb toivard prop, 
^'o meet. 

(4.) A preposition and an adverb, "^"^bs and '^"?bs'a 
without from ba y^o^f H? nnto, b nsbn^a beyond, "^bna ivithout. 

§238. 1. The prepositions take suflfixes in the same 
manner as singular nouns, e. g. ''b^rs beside me, '^rh^i ^ ^-^^d , 
''T?^, except "ins? after, "bs? /o, "i? unto, b:? ?/^o;z and rnn 
under, which before suffixes assume the form of nouns in the 
mascuhne phn-al, e. g. "^"ins , T]^nns , I'^'jins^ ; X% between 
adopts sometimes a singidar, sometimes a mascuhne plural, 
and sometimes a feminine plural form, e. g. '^r? , "^-""^ and 
rii3 , ^^2^3. and ^;^^iD■'3 . 

a. Tlie plural form "^"inx occurs without suffixes more frequently than 
"'H^ j "^^?!i 1 '^'}-i- ) "^^^ ''^^^^ occur ill poetry. 

6. rnn in a very few instances takes a verbal suffix. ''?nnri 2 Sam. 
22:37, 40, 4S; with the 3 masc. plur. suffix it is i:nnn oftener than 

Dn-^nnn . 

2. The preposition Mi? ivith is to be distinguished from 
n&? the sign of the definite object, which is prefixed to a pro- 
noun or definite noun, to indicate that it is the object of an 
active verb. With pronominal suffixes the M of the prepo- 
sition is doubled and its voAvel shortened to Hhirik, thus 
''ns , iqns , oiJ^i* ; the sign of the accusative becomes fili? 
before suffixes or before grave suffixes commonly rii< , thus, 
^ns , !i^ny: , Dsnx rarely obnis , cni? rarely Qr^nii? and 

a. Sometimes, particularly in the books of Kings, Jeremiah, and Eze- 
kiel, the preposition takes the form "'riix, '^^''li*. 

CONJUNCTIOIS'S. 

§239. 1. In addition to the prefixed copulative ) , §234, 
the following are the simple conjunctions in most common 



§240 INTERJECTIONS. 2G7 

use, ii5 or, v|5? also, Ci? and i^ if, "lirx and "^2 that, because, 
•Jl lest. 

2. Compound conjunctions are formed by combining 

(1.) Two conjunctions zs ^2 but, "^3 Tj^ how much more 
prop, also that. 

(2.) The conjunction ''2 or "icx with a preposition, as 
nrs2 as, Ti'Si: "i^^b «/? order that, "rrx 1?': and "lirs 2;:? 5^. 
cause, "^2 ^:? ?/;('/^7, ''2 nnr, because. 

(3.) An adverb with a preposition or conjunction, D'^'^3 
before, "J^b or l?"'":? therefore, "^^'S unless from ^b ^/^ sb ;^o^. 

Interjections. 

§240. The Hebrew interjections, hke those of other lan- 
guages, are of two sorts, viz. : 

1. Natural sounds expressive of various emotions, as 
ns, nr. , rrni? ah! oh! r^r-yaha! ^'' ho! woe!^''&, n^-s, 
ris?, ■'S icoe! "^pb^ alas! en hush! 

2. Words originally belonging to other parts of speech, 
which by frequent use were converted into interjections, 
"zn come! prop, give, rcb come! prop, go, !~'i.n behold! 
prop, a demonstrative adverb, "bi'in yb;;- be it ! "'2 ///-(Qy .-' 
from ^'S!2. entreaty, i^J now! Ijjrai/ thee! 



PAPtT THIRD. 
SYNTAX. 

§241. 1. Syntax treats of sentences or of the manner 
in which words are employed in the utterance of thought. 
Its office, therefore, is to exhibit the several functions of the 
different parts of speech in the mechanism of the sentence, 
tlie relations which they sustain to each other, and how those 
relations are outwardly expressed. 

2. Every sentence must embrace first a subject or the 
thing spoken of, and secondly, a predicate or that which is 
said about it. Upon these two simple elements is built the 
entire structure of human speech. 

The Subject. 

§ 242. The subject of every sentence must be either a 
noun, as D'H'bx icna God created Gen. 1 : 1, or a pronoun, 
as ''^s TiJiip /(am) //o/y Lev. 11 : 44. This includes infini- 
tives, which are verbal nouns, ni'j-iib p^i2ib rJib? to punish 
the just is not (jood Prov. 17 : 26, and adjectives and partici- 
ples when used substantively, scau sin^i'Sb an unclean (per- 
son) shall not enter 2 Chron. 23 : 19, f^r^bbn;^ D^n^n i?b the 
dead shall not praise the Lord Ps. 115 : 17. 

a. The subject of a sentence mny lie a noun preceded by the preposition 
1?a in a partitive sense, crr.""i3 ^ixa^ there went out (some) of the people 
Ex. 16:27, or by the particle of connparison 3, nskn; S'sis (something) 
like a plague has appeared Lev. 14 : 35. 



§ 243 THE SUBJECT. 2G9 

b. When the subject is an infinitive, it is mostly, as in English, pre- 
ceded by the preposition b to. rA~iir\b ri*J (it is) good to give thanks Ps. 
92:2. unless it is in the construct before a following noun ni'n riis'xb 
nib Cixn mail's being alone (is) not good Gen. 2: IS. 

c. The subject is very rarely an adverb, crn-p bs3 n2~n mamj 
(prop, much) of the people have fallen 2 Sam. 1:4. 

§ 243. The subject may be omitted in the following cases, 



VIZ. : 

1. When it is sufficiently plain from the connection, 
^y *T7n 28 there yet with thee (a corpse) ? Am. 6 : 10, or is 
obvious in itself, ""'*;; "ns (his mother) hare him 1 Kin. 1 : 6. 
The personal pronouns are for this reason rarely used before 
verbal forms, which of themselves indicate the person, '^^"I'bx 
I said, Jn'''^s? tJiou saidst, unless with the view of expressing 
emphasis or opposition, ":'52J? ■-"s^ii '^'S?'^ ^>'"'? •"''^n they are 
hrouglit down and fallen, but we are risen Ps. 20 : 9. 

2. When it is indefinite ; thus, if an action is spoken of 
and it is not known or is not stated by whom it is performed. 
The third person plural may be so employed, b^scb ^"la^;;. a?id 
they told Saul 1 Sam. 18 : 20, or third person singular, comp. 
the French on and German man, ^53 n-q'S xn;^ one called its 
name Babel i. e. its name was called Babel, or the second 
person singular, particularly in laws or in proverbs, the lan- 
guage of direct address being employed while every one who 
hears is intended, ^cs Tjb--"^"5r-sib tliou shall not make unto 
thee a graven image Ex. 20 : 4, ~3b 'nor'Eb ns"i2n apjjly tJiine 
heart unto instruction Prov. 23 : 12. 

a. Sometimes the word w'X man is used as an indefinite subject, 
*^5T "riDbi -"'5<n ~^x "3 a man said thus, when he went, etc. 1 Sam. 9: 9, 
and sometimes the participle of the following verb. "^'^ZJn "7?"I."; and the 
hearer shall hear 2 Sam. 17 : 9. c-^C-'n flir-r; ploughers ploughed Ps. 129 : 3. 

b. The third person plural indefinite seems to be used sometimes Avith- 
out any thought of the real agency concerned in the action spoken of and 
where the English would require a passive construction, "'b"'!:^ brs rn;;"'b 
wearisome nights are appointed to me lit. they have appointed Job 7 ; 3. 

* 151 is an abbreviation for "i^'-i et completion and so forth, §9. 1. 



270 -■ SYNTAX. §244,245 

3. When the construction is impersonal ; in this case 
the third person singular masculine is the form commonly 
adopted, 'Tr?-? 2'"i;?~'S? let it not he (jrievous in tht/ sight Gen. 
21 :12, ^n^iH TS then it urns begun i.e. men began, though 
the feminine is also employed on account of its special affinity 
with the neuter, ^^'^^^'p "i^riT and Israel loas distressed lit. it 
teas strait to Israel Judg. 10:9. 

§244. 1. The subject maybe extended by connecting two 
or more nouns or pronouns and thus forming what is called 
a compound subject, ckn^-bsT H'^r^^ D^''?^'^ ^^3?^ and the 
heavens and the earth and ail their host icere finished Gen. 
2 : 1, nibs -lysni -"iifil and I and the lad toill go Gen. 22 : 5. 

2. Or it may be extended by adding to the noun an 
article, adjective, demonstrative pronoun, pronominal suffix, 
or another noun with which it may be either in apposition 
or in constniction. When thus united with other qualifying 
words the noun alone is called the grammatical subject, the 
noun, together with its adjuncts, is called the logical subject. 



The Article. 

§ 245. The definite article is used in Hebrew as in other 
languages to particularize the object spoken of, and distin- 
guish it from all others. It is accordingly prefixed in the 
following cases, viz. : 

1. When the thing referred to is one which has been 
mentioned before, and God said, Let there be ?''p'7 a firma- 
ment, etc., and God made VVl*} the firmament Gen. 1 : 6, 7. 

2. When it is defined by accompanying words, as a rela- 
tive clause, 1^1 ^T) ^ nir?N tj-^xn ^nirx blessed is the man 
who has not walked, etc., Ps. 1 : 1, an adjective, bisn nis'sn 
the greater light, fij^n nisian the lesser light Gen. 1 : 16, or 
a demonstrative pronoun, "in a mountain, nin inn this moun- 
tain, ^^'^^Ti ^T\T\ that mountain, or by being directly ad- 



§.C45 THE ARTICLE. 271 

dressed, fen hlng 1 Sam. 17:55, D'?t^^l heavens^ 
TW) carili Deut. 32 : 1. 

3. AVhen it is obviously suggested by the circumstances, 
or may be presumed to be well known : she emjjticd her 
pitcher into r;:iEn the trou(jh Gen 24 : 20, viz., the one which 
must have been by a well used for watering cattle ; Ahime- 
lech looked through T^^'v! the window Gen. 26 :8, i. e. of the 
house in which it is taken for granted that he was; let H8 go 
to "^"^r^ the (well-known) seer 1 Sam. 9 : 9. 

a. The article is accordingly used as in Greek and in some modern lan- 
guages in place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun : she took ""^sn the 
veil Gen. 24:65. i.e. the one which she had. or. according to the English 
idiom, her veil ; David took iliSn the harp i. e. his harp 1 Sam. 16 : 23, so 
the LXX. iXoLfjifSavc AamS r^v KLvvpav. 

b. With words denoting time it expresses the present as that which 
would most readily occur to the mind. ci'H the day i. e. that which is now 
passing, to-day Gen. 4: 14, •^^'I'in the night i. e. to-night Gen. 30: 15. nri'n 
the year i. e. this year Jer. 28 : 16. =^"3n the time i. e. this time Gen. 29: 35, 
unie.^s another idea is more naturally suggested by the context, ci'n "^"5 
and it came to pass on the day i. e. at the period belbre spoken of at that 
time 1 Sa:n. 1 :4, Job 1:6. 

4. AThcn it is distino-uished above all others of like kind 
or is the only one of its class, r^^sn the house viz. of God, the 
temple Mic. 3:12, p'Hsn t/ie lord Isa. 1 : 24, C^nbsn the 
(true) God, n':^ir\ the heavens, T^xn the earth Gen. 1:1, 
Zfi-iLT] the sun Gen. 15 : 12. 

5. When it is an appellative noun used in a generic or 
universal sense, S'l'^n the sword devoureth one as icell as 
another 2 Sara. 11 : 25 ; theij shall mount uj) with icings 
2*1^13 as the eagles Isa. 40 : 31, and sometimes when it is a 
material or abstract noun, in which case the English idiom does 
not admit the iXYticle, tchere there is -t}'^ gold Gen. 2 : 11 
LXX. TO xP^(^>ov; thgtcine mired n''"23 icith water Isa. 1 : 22, 
lohere shall T\^'2r)7\ tcisdoni be found i* Job 28 : 12 LXX. rj 8e 
croj)!a kt\; they smote tlie men D'i"i]:S3 with blindness Gen. 
19:11. 



272 • SYNTAX. §246 

a. The article is thus used with urljectives to denote the class, which 
they describe, God shall judge rTrnlnTiNI p"''H:in"rN the righteous and the 
wicked Eccl. 3:17; the proverb of '^373"i;3n the ancients 1 Sam. 24:14; 
and witii Gentile nouns, Avhich are properly adjectives, §194. 1, "^"li^xin the 
Amorite, ""S^^iri the Canaanite, Gen. 15:21. 

6. The Hebrew infinitive does not receive the article; Pj."^ , which is 
the only exception, see Gen. 2 :9 and elsewhere, may be regarded as a 
noun. In a very few instances the article is prefixed to finite tenses of the 
verb with the force of a relative pronoun. Nsisbrin roho went Josh. 10:24, 
•j|!!»n that shall be born Judg. 13: 8, d^'npnn ivhich he sanctified 1 Chron. 
26:28. 'is:?':?^! who are present 1 Chron. 29:17. 'pir^a into (the place) 
which he prepared 2 Chron. 1:4; so also 2 Chron. 29:36, Ezr. 8:25, 
10: 14, 17. Isa. 56 : 3, Jer. 5: 13, Dan. 8 : 1. It is once prefixed to a prepo- 
sition. •7''';?>vl what (was) upon it 1 Sam. 9:24. 

c. In the uses of the article, as stated above, Nos. 4 and 5 are really 
varieties of No. 3, since the prominent member of a class is the best known 
and most readily suggested, and when a word is used generically it 
designates a definite and well-known class of objects which is to be distin- 
guished from every other class. 

d. The Hebrew article is sometimes found where the English requires 
the indefinite article or none at all ; but it must not on that account be sup- 
posed that it ever loses its proper force or becomes equivalent to an in- 
definite article. The difference of idiom is due to a difference in the mode 
of conception. Thus, in comparisons the Hebrew commonly conceived of 
the whole class of objects of which he spoke, while we mostly think of 
one or more individuals belonging to the class, "ii^S as (the) a nest, Isa. 
10:14, "isfes as (the) a scroll Isa. 34:4. like rending ^')ir\ (the) a kid 
Judg. 14: 6, as Qinh'nn (the) bees do Deut. 1 : 44. ciii;i"3 as (the) scarlet, 
jbtrs as (the) snow, ^^^ins as (the) crimson. 1^4? <^'-^ (the) wool Isa. 1 : 18. 
Cases also not infrequently occur in which the article may either be in- 
serted or omitted with equal propriety and without any material change 
of sense, according as the noun is to the mind of the speaker definite or 
indefinite. In speaking of the invasion of his father's flocks. David says. 
"nxn the lion and ainn the bear came 1 Sam. 17 : 34, because he thinks 
of these as the enemies to be expected under the circumstances; had he 
thought of them indefinitely as beasts of prey he would have said, without 
the article, a lion and a bear. It is said. Gen. 13:2. that Abram was very 
rich anjnii ^033 fi?.i^533 in (the) cattle, in (the) silrer. and in (the) gold, 
since these are viewed as definite and well-known species of property; 
hut in Gen. 2i: 35 he hath given him shji ^P?! '^k'^^ 'i<:i Jlocks and herds 
and silver and gold, these are viewed indefinitely in Hebrew as in English. 

§ 246. Nouns are definite without the article in the fol- 
lowing cases, viz. : 

1. Proper nouns, which are definite by signification, 
Dnnns Abraham, ')?b3 Canaan, Q.^T?^"i!' Jerusalem. 



§246 THE ARTICLE. 273 

a. Proper names, originally applied in an appellative sense, sometimes 
retain the definite article. ^ri?n the lord, Baal. "|i;"^"n the adversary. Satan, 
nniri the river, the Euphrates, T^~*n the descending (stream), tlie Jor- 
dan. I':^^" the white (moinifain). Lebanon, ^i~?n the garden. Curinel, 
"issn the circuit of the Jordan, ri5:i:2n the walch-loicer, Mizpah. cnxtn 
and C~N the (first) man, Adam, cribx" and =""'??< the (true) God. In 
nii.;:^- :;ib ■'kq the half tribe of Munasseh Dent. 3: 13 and often else- 
where, the article makes more prominent the definiteness of the entire ex- 
pression : it also occurs without the" article, e. g. Num. 32 : 33. 

2. Xoims with suffixes, wbicli are rendered definite by 
tlie appended pronoun, ^risj our father, "iiiin his name, but 
ill Greek 6 trarrip 7]fX(t)V, TO 6vop,a avrov. 

a. There are a few instances in which, for special reasons, the article 
is prefixed to nouns having suffixes. It is emphatic in 'i"'ijnn the (other) 
half of them Josh. 8:33. opposed to a preceding 'i'^sn one half of them ; so 
in ~n~ir>2 Isa. 24:2. In ^^~rn r.C=^ the north of thy estimation Lev. 
27 : 23. it serves to indicate more clearly the definiteness of the entire ex- 
pression ; so ■'r'H^'!^ '="("^^ ^'^ '^^ midst of my tent Josh. 7 : 21, "i"!^"^!"? Tpra 
in the midst of its fold Mic. 2 : 12. H"'r'i"nn"b3 the whole of the women with 
child 2 Kin. 15 : 16; in in2?sb Prov. 16:4 it distinguishes the noun n^s^a 
from the prepojiition "i?^?. 

b. A suffix which is the direct object of a participle does not supersede 
the necessity of the article, irissn the (one) smiling him Isa. 9 : 12, 
?)b^"^ri the (one) bringing thee up Ps. 81 : 11, ^zyjt^izli the (one) crowning 
tfiee Ps. 103 : 4. 

3. Nouns in the construct state before a definite noun, 
whether this has the article D:^'«?r} ''49'i? the stars of heaven 
Gen. 26 : 4, a^r^l^n ^S:-! the feet of the priests Josh. 3 : 13, 
is a proper name, '^'i^f'. ^t?rP the tribes of Israel Ex. 24 : 4, 
niro ni^ the icord of Jehovah Gen. 15:1, has a pronominal 
suffix, 'n"'i:?^ ''■i'^23 the first fruits of thj labours, l"*?^-^^: the 
icives of his sons Gen. 7 : 13, or is itself definite by construc- 
tion, r/psDisn niir rh-si2 the cave of the field of Jlachpelah 
Gen. 23 : 19, nnn^i-r.-ina xr\^_ the ark of the covenant of Je- 
hovah Josh. 3:3. 

a. Nouns in the construct are occasionally found with the article, 
n^j nb-xn to the tent of Sarah Gen. 24 : 67. bx-r"-? bsn the God of^ 
Bethel Gen.' 31 : 13. 5-ixn nr-n the pin of the webixiAg. 16: 14. rir-inn Vs 
n^ljn all the abominations of the nations I Kin. 14 : 24. r'n^sn-'-'X '^"T^.n 
th4i grave of the man of God 2 Kin. 23 : 17, y-isn ni3:r^^n-=2 all the kiiig- 
18 



274 - SYNTAX. §247 248 

doms of the earth Jer. 25 : 26. nipsn "iBcti the bill of the purchase, Jer. 
32:12, nrzb '(Sr-n Jer. 48:32; see Josh. 3:11. 8:11. 1 Chroti. 15:27, 
2 Chron. 8 ': 16. 15 : 8, Ezr. 8 : 29, Isa." 36 : 8. Ezek. 45 : 16, 47 : 15. Zeph. 
3:ia Zech. 4:7. Ps. 123 : 4 ; also 1 Sam. 26:22 K'thibh. 2 Kin. 7:13 
K'thibh. where the K'ri omits ihe article. 

b. Gentile nouns, derived from a compound proper name, Treqiiently re- 
ceive tiie article before the second member of the compound, "'3"'^7ri-*,3 
the Bf-Djatnite Judg. 3:15. •^"!:;rt-n-r''2 the Bethshemite 1 Sam. 6:14, 
'^'-cr-^^ri n-3 the Bethlehemite 1 Sam. 16:18, ''"■|?n -^ix the Abiezrite 
Judg. 6:11, though this last word also appears in the abbreviated form 
""'V.V^^ Num. 26 : 30. 

§ 247. The article is frequently omitted in the brief and 
emphatic language of poetry, where it would be required in 
prose, ■f-is-^?b"a kin^s of (the) earth Ps. 2:2, t-dtt "^isb m 
the presence of (the) sun Ps. 72:17, "^ipn Krs tqc nisx (the) 
watchman says, (the) morning comes Isa. 21 : 12 ; to give 
Kh^n (Thpi both sanctuary and host to he trainpledJ)^\s.. 8 :13. 

a. Occasional instances occur of its being dropped from familiar or fre- 
quently repeated expressions in prose. n:':i ri'i^nx lr to year''s end Deut. 
11:12. ii.;'i"2 ^ni<a in (the) tabernacle of (the; congregation Kth. 21 -.21 
(comp. English in church). xr™-ib (the) captain of (the) host 1 Kin. 
16:16. Ti^'b bs'^b king Lemuel Prov. 31:1; also in geographical and 
architectural details, such technical terms as b^li:^ and (the) border Josh. 
13 :23, nnni and (the) breadth 2 Chron. 3:3. 

6. When two definite nouns are connected by and the article is com- 
monly repeated ; it may. however, particularly in poetry, stand only before 
the first and be understood with the second, icoe unto C^'pjTi'n the (persons) 
decreeing unrighteous decrees C"2T\^^^ and writing, etc. Isa. 10:1. birn 
Tiir^. O psaltery and harp Ps. 57 : 9. Still more rarely a pronominal suffix 
may be attached to the first only of two words to which it belongs, "'••? 
rn^n my strength and song Ex. 15:2. 

§ 248. There is no indefinite article in Hebrew ; indefinite 
nouns are sufficiently characterized as such by the absence 
of the article. Thus, nha a river Gen. 2:10, D-'tD^s-na n?n-Da 
doth chariots and horsemen Gen. 50 : 9, ri"^ nSn milh: and 
honey Ex. 3 : 8, ^""^l -2? an infant of days Isa. 65 : 20. 

a. The numeral "ifix one is occasionally employed in the sense of an 
indefinite article, ~nx bo a basket Ex. 29:3. inx r"X a wan Judg. 13:2. 
or in the construct before a plural noun, nibnrn rns one of the foolish 
women i. e. a foolish woman Job 2 : 10. 



§249 ADJECTIVES AND DEMONSTRATIVES. 275 



Adjectives and Demonstratives. 

§249. 1. Adjectives and participles, qualifying a noun, 
are commonl}^ placed after it and agree with it not only in 
gender and number but in detiniteness, that is to say, if the 
noun is indefinite they remain without the article, but if the 
noun is made definite, Avhether by the article or in any of the 
ways specified in § .'24 G, they receive the article, Din )i a 
whe son Prov. 10:11, i??"' TPi a bridegroom going out Ps. 
19 : 6, rai-Lsn fnsn the good land Dexxi. 1 :35, n-^ann Ti-^-iann 
t It >/ manifold mercies Neh. 9:19. If more than one adjec- 
tive accompany a definite noun, the article is repeated before 
each of them, i^'^'isn'i HS^in nirn the glorious and fearful 
name Deut. 28 : 58. 

a. The adjective C"'a'i mavy is in a few instances, for the sake of 
greater emphasis, prefixed to the noun which it qualifies, D^^sa CS") many 
sons 1 Chron. 28 : 5, cni" man many times Neh. 9 : 28. so Ps. 32 : 10, 89: 51, 
Jer. 16: 16. Other instances are rare, ''nibj-;'? IT his strange work, i^JJ^rJ 
"irnhs his strange task Isa. 28:21. "'"nas" p"'"^^ my righteous servant Isa. 
53: 11, nrins rriisa her treacherous sister Jer. 3 : 7, 10. 

b. Some exceptional cases oircur, in which an adjective qualifying a 
definite noun does not receive the article, i^^^^n iib3"n the new cart 
2 Sam. 6:3. ti;i=3 "lEsn the strange vine Jer. 2:21, Ezek. 39:27, Dan. 
8:13, 11:31, or when the noun is made definite by a suffix, ^nx cs-Tti: 
ynnr other brother Gen. 43: 14. inx brsn the one lamb Num. 28:4. Ezek. 
31 : 12. Hag. 1 : 4, In n!?T cra'n an evil report respecting them Gen. 37 : 2, 
the suffix denotes the object and tiie noun is really indefinite. Comp. 
§246. 2. 6. 

c. On the otiier hand, the article is sometimes dropped from the noun, 
hut retained before the adjective, npiisn -is;n the great court 1 Kin. 7: 12, 
^■"rrn ir-'X the rich man 2 Sam. 12:4, l5i"i5n "lii the great well 1 Sam. 
19:22, Neh. 9:35, Ps. 104: 18, Jer. 27:3. 32': 14. 40:3 K'thibh, Ezek. 9:2, 
Zech. 4:7; so with the ordinal numbers, "^^"df^ CT^ the sixth day Gen. 
1:31, 2:3, Ex. 20:10. Deut. 5: 14, Judg. 6:25, Jer. 38:14. 

2. Demonstrative pronouns follow the same rule of posi- 
tion and agreement, only the nouns which they qualify are 
invariably definite, §245. 2, nin urr\ this dag Gen. 7 : 13, 
n^i?n n^^2^n these things Gen. 15:1, n^nn D^irri^n those 
men Num. 9:7. If both an adjective and a demonstrative 



276 SYNTAX. §250 

qualify the same noun, the demonstrative is placed last, T"^^*? 
rsiin ra-'isn Deut. 9 : G, nisn rib- ninbn D^iiEn these good 
years that (are) coming Gen. 41 : 35. 

a. The demonstrative irr occasionally stands emphatically before its 
noun. ~r!^ ""'j! this Moses Ex. 32:1, where it is probably contemptuous 
like the Latin isle, 15^nb nt (his our bread Josh. 9: 12. Judg. 5:5. 1 Sam. 
17:55. 56, crn nt this'people Isa. 23: 13. Hab. 1 : 11. The demonstrative 
both ibilows the noun and is repeated after the adjective in HiXfi C"]"';?! 
I'iTjkri c-^Niirn these nations these that remain Josh. 23 : 7. 12. 

b. The article is sometimes omitted from the demonstrative. ^T "i^n 
this generation Ps. 12:8. XW nb'ta in that night Gen. 19:33, 30:16, 
32:23. 1 Sam. 19:10, particularly if the noun is made definite by means 
of a suffix, rXT "'n^-w" this my oath Gen. 24:8. Mrx "'rrx these my sig?is 
Ex. 10:1, 11:8. Deut. 11:18. Josh. 2:14. 20. Judg. 6:14, 1 Kin. 22:23, 
2 Chron. 18:22. 24:18, Jer. 31:21. 

c. The article is still more rarely dropped from the noun. M."n wr^ :;"?a 
this small quantity of honey 1 Sam. 14: 29. n-7n •'nnsx t^k that Ephrathitt 
17: 12, nj •'bn this sickness 2 Kin. 1 : 2, 8 : 8. 

Numerals. 

Cardinal Xunibers. 

§.250. 1. The numeral "rns o;?^ is treated like other ad- 
jectives, and follows the rules of position and agreement 
already given, ins a-pri one place Gen. 1 : 9, r.nsn r.yin^n 
the one curtain Ex. 26 : 2. 

a. In a very few instances the noun is in the construct before the nu- 
meral one. in.x ^e-I't: one law Lev. 24: 22. nnx y.^'^. a chest 2 Kin. 12: 10, 
~~^ ~~? one governor Isa. 36 : 9, comp. §254. 6. b. 

2. The other cardinal numbers ai'e joined to nouns as 
follows, viz. : 

(1.) They commonly stand before the noun to which 
they belong and in the absolute state, ^''i^^ "^"^"'^ fi'^^ 
kings Gen. 14 : 9, "^^v zr^iD sixty cities Deut. 3 : 4, rkq 
D'^p^as a hundred cakes of raisins 2 Sam. 16 : 1, a"£"^N rtti 
Oitjns six thousand horsemen 1 Sam. 13 : 5. 

(2.) Such as have a distinct form for the construct (nz. 



§251 NUMERALS. 277 

2-1 0, r*5?'a hundred, '^B'pi? thousands) may also stand before 
the noun in the construct state, D"^3n ibiu tivo sons prop, two 
o/so/zs Gen. 10 : 25, n-'h'^ ryi-is four days Judg. 11 : 40, 

D'':";^? riv^a a hundred sockets Y,^. 38:27, D''?^3 '^Sr*? f^T?:''T? 
//^/"(?t^ thousand camels Job 1 : 3. 

a. Th(! Lumbers ;«-o. three, four, and seveJi, occur with the suffixes of 
pronouns which are in apposition with them. 13n':x '^^lyi we. both of us 
1 Sam. 20 : 42. in"'riO thet/ two or both of them 1 Sam. 25 : 43. cindVq ye 
three. Dnrbi:: they three Num. 12 : 4, nriya-is they four Dan. 1:17, Cri;"2C 
they seven 2 Sam. 21:9 K'ri. The Toliowing numerals occur with pro- 
nominal sufR.xes having a possessive sense, ?]^"iaT3n thy ffly, 'I'^k'cn his 
fflij 2 Kin. 1 : 10. DH'^'li.-^q their ffties ver. 14, "'Obx my thousand Judg. 
6: 15, cb-'E^N your thousands 1 Sam. 10:19, T^nhnn his ten thousands 
1 Sam. IS: 7. 

(3.) Less frequently the numerals stand after the noun 
in the al^solute state, >3i^ f'^'i^?^ seven stejjs Ezek. 40 : 22, 
D^TiJ? r:hx ttventj/ she-asses Gen. 32:16, Sl^S'nx^ D^n|3 a 
hundred thousand talents 1 Chron. 22 : 14. 

§251. 1. The units (including ten), whether they stand 
singly or are compounded with other numbers, agree with 
their nouns in gender, nihbn cSir three leaves Jer. 36 : 23, 
^nh ■'30 Tlipt three baskets of bread Gen. 40:16, Wani? 
cins 'ib"^^ fourteen lambs Num. 29 : 15 ; the other numerals 
observe no distinction of gender. 

a. When the units qualify riNt; hundreds or C^E^X thousands, their 
gender is determined by that of these words respectively. In "T^jn'iir; ncHud 
the three wives of his sons Gen. 7 : 13, the masculine adjective is probably 
to be explained by the fact that the noun, though in reality feminine, has 
a masculine termination. 

2. Nouns accompanied by the units (2-10) are almost 
invariably plural, while those which are preceded by the tens 
(20-90) or numbers compounded with them (21, etc.), are 
commonly put in the singular, n^^3 °"'?'^'?^'!' ^"^^ ^""^^"^^ forty 
days and forty niyhts Gen. 7:4, r^'zw u^pb^^ vi-^i^ four and 
thirty years Gen. 11 : 16, D^:i? ^^i^T n:iD U'Hw, twenty years 
and seven years Gen. 23 : 1. 



278 ' SYNTAX. §251 

a. This phenomenon is probably to be accounted for upon a principle 
analogous to that by wliich the anomalous terminations for gender in the 
numerals has been explained. §223. 2. When the numeral has itself a 
plural Ibrm. as it has in the tens, the plurality of the entire expression is 
sufficiently indicated without giving a plural ending to the noun likewise. 
But with the units which have a singular termination, the noun must take 
a plural form. It may be observed, however, that this peculiarity chiefly 
affects a certain class of nouns, viz. those which are most frequently 
numbered, and in which, consequently, the tendency to abbreviate the 
expression by retrenching the plural ending is most strongly manifested. 
These are such as 'i""!* man, and various measures of time, space, weight, 
etc.. e. g. ni'iJ year, cii day. nax cubit, ''^'^'^ shtkel. These nouns are 
also found, though less constantly, in the singular with himrhecls and 
thousands, ni'^ ^'•^'9. ^"^^ ""'^ hundred years Gen. 5:5, nisx psx a 
thousand cubits Num. 35: 4, and with the numbers from 11 to 19, !^t•^:^ 
>p;!i 'I'hs Jif/een shekels Lev. 27:7. Comp. in German himdert Fuss lang, 
funfzig Pfund schwer, and in English twenty head of cattle, a ten foot 
pole. 

b. The numbers from 2 to 10 are very rarely found with singular nouns, 
nrj nit-:; eight years 2 Kin. 22: 1, niax irbd three cubits 2b: 17 K'thibh 
where the K'ri has nijsx . The tens are occasionally followed by the 
plural cyio ciibd thirty companions Judg. 14:11. b"'n"'':3 cr'.'i'J 
eighty sons of valour 2 Chron. 26: 17, C^n^^ ^'y::^ ^'i:::-iii forty-tico chil- 
dren 2 Kin. 2: 24. When the noun precedes the numeral it is always put 
in the plural. 

c. In enumerations of familiar objects the noun is sometimes omitted, 
when the meaning is sufficiently plain from the connection, :nj '^""'^'j:'^ ten 
(shekels) of gold Gen. 24:22, r;D3 nix^ cb'j three hundred (shekels) of 
silver Gen. 45:22, cnS-^nr lico (loaves) of bread 1 Sam. 10:4, C"ni'C"Cd 
six (ephahs) of barley Ruth 3: 15. In measurements, the word "HN cubit 
is occasionally preceded by the preposition S. thus n53S3 i'Z'ii four by 
the cubit i. e. four cubits. 

3. Coiupoimd numbers may either proceed from the 
higher to the lower denomination, ni'3"',si D'^'i'rn D'ns'a ?]bi? 

O .fit:-:. t.. 

a thousand tico liandred fifty and four Neh. 7 : 34, or the re- 
verse, nbiT' rsTsn D'^irbi-T ynir seven and thirty and a hundred 
years Ex. 6:16. The nonn sometimes stands at the begin- 
ning or end of the entire series as in preceding examples, 
and sometimes it is repeated after each numeral. Si?!? nk"!? 
ni:;D yniri nb'»2J D'^'^.ir:^'! a hundred years and twenty years and 
seven years Gen. 23 : 1. 

4. Numeral adjectives may receive the article when they 
represent an absolute number, or the noun is not expressed ; 



§252 ORDINAL NUMBERS, ETC. 279 

but when they are joined to a definite noun the latter alone 
receives the article, u-]'2Wn {the) two are better than '^^'^ 
{the) one Eccles. 4 : 9, D^i?2-ii<n the forty Gen. 18 : 29, D-^#Tan 
np'i^^n thefft// righteous ver. 28, T'i^i^i "^Jnis his two daugh- 
ters 19 : 30, □i^^ Q-'y^ns the forty days Deut. 9 : 25. 

a. AVhen compound numbers 11, 12, etc., receive the article, it maybe 
given to the first member of the compound, libi' C^s'i'n the twelve 1 Chron. 
25:19.27:15, 1 Kin. 6:38, or to the second, b-ix "librn D-^iq the twelve 
men Josh. 4 : 4, 1 Kin. 19 : 19. In the example just cited the article is given 
to the numeral instead of to the noun, but in "iiL">'"C"jd "ifi^an the ticehe 
oxen 1 Kin. 7:44, the general rule is observed. In cr)"3iN M^Xi"i □"'■ib*'.'] 
these four children Dan. 1 : 17. the numeral Ibllowing a definite noun re- 
ceives a pronominal suflix referring to it. 



Ordinal Numbers, etc. 

§252. 1. The ordinal numbers follow the general law 
of adjectives in position and agreement with the substantive, 
to which they belong, ""^t?? "j? « second son Gen. 30 :7, n:"iE3 
n^ir^bi^n in the third year 1 Kin. IS : 1. 

2. The lack of ordinals above ten is supplied by using 
the cardinals instead, which are then commonly preceded by 
the noun in the construct state, S'niri D"^nTr^ rs© the twenty- 
seventh year 1 Kin. 16:10, although this order is not always 
observed, Tht rniD:^-iiJb-.c thirteenth year Gen. 14 : 4. 

a. A fuller form of expression is sometimes employed, e. g. ^'3^3 
i-.:d MD73d!i D''ijb'j in the thirly-eighlh year prop, in the year of thirty-eight 
years 1 Kin. 16:29, 2 Kin. 15: I. 

h. In dates the cardinals are used for the day of the month and some- 
times for the year, even though the number is below ten; the words day 
and month are also frequently omitted. i'^wJ rvd the seventh year 2 Kin. 
12: 1. "'3"-'nn irnri^ i^^'?"^^ the fourth (day) of the ninth month Zech. 7: 1, 
•iS"'3T22 in the seventh (month) ver. 5. 

3. When the ordinals are used to express fractional parts, 
§ 227. 3, they stand before the noun, V^r? ™bTU the third 
of a hin Num. 15:6. 

4. Distributive numbers are formed by repeating the car- 
dinals, n^iir D^it: two by two Gen. 7:9, nyair ny^ic by 



280 SYNTAX. § 253 

sevens ver. 2. The numeral adverbs once, hoice, etc., are ex- 
pressed by the femmine of the cardinals, tht^ otice, D"!!!© 
twice 2 Km. G : 10, Ps. 62 :12, or by means of the noun 
Q?s stroke or beat, a"^^?2 twice Gen. 27 : 36, D^^ys ntelb 
^e;? zf/y>z(?5 Job 19:3 or tr%'\ stejss, U''%'} TC^© three times 
Ex. 23 : 14. 

a. This use of these nouns has arisen from the method of counting by 
beats or taps with the hand or loot. 



Apposition. 

§253. When one noun serves to define or to describe 
another it may be put in apposition with it. This construc- 
tion, of which a more extended use is made in Hebrew than 
in occidental languages, may be employed in the following 
cases, viz. : 

1. When both nouns denote the same person or thing, 
"l^" i^%^ 2 Sam. 6 -. 16, or less commonly, 1\)tri ^h-i 13 -.39 
kin^ David, nbiabs ni'i? a woman (who was) a widow 

1 Kin. 7 : 14. 

2. When the second specifies the first by stating the 
material of which it consists, its quantity, character or the 
like, ritjnsn ^jbar; the oxen the brass i. e. the brazen oxen 

2 Kin. 16:17, n^]b d^no t^t three measures (consisting of) 
meal Gen. 18:6, nyn D^iffi-ynilJ seven years {oi) famine 
2 Sam. 24 : 13, a^p^ D^i7niD mrSuJ three tceel's (of) dai/s Dan. 
10:3, "ispi2 D'^'a;' days (which are) a number, i. e. such as can 
be readily numbered, a few Num. 9 : 20, nias n'^n^cx words 
(which are) truth Prov. 22 : 21. 

a. In this latter case the closer connection of the construct state 
might, with equal propriety, be employed, §254. 4, etc. The following 
examples will show with what latitude ihe rule of apposition is occasion- 
ally applied, I'nB o^b iL-ntrr (which is) affliction i. e. identified with it or 
characterized by it 1 Kin. 22:27. !^^?"in '{^'l w^me (which \s) intoxication 
I. e. produces it Ps. 60:5, ^T~^, "il^a pasture-cattle i. e. those wiiose charac- 
teristic it is that they have been in the pastures 1 Kin. 5:3; bearing 



^254 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES. 281 

n"i^3fi "iixn the ark viz. the covenant, which was the thing of chief con- 
sequence about the ark Josh. 3: 14, a hundred thousand "i2^ c'^b'x 2 Kin. 
3:4. wliich \s by some understood to mean wool-bearing rams i. e. charac- 
terized by tlie production of wool ; according to otliers, the first word de- 
notes the quantity and the second the material, rams (of) wool i. e. as 
much as rams have,^eeces. 

6. Proper nouns, which have no construct state, may be followed by 
qualifying nouns in a loose sort of apposition, nnw;^ cnb rr's Bethlehem 
(in) Judah 1 Sam. 17:12. compare in English, Princeton. New Jersey; 
C-nnj n-is ^irs Pethor (in) Mesopotamia Deut. 2'.\ : 5, crBbETJ. Galh 
(of) the Philistines Am. 6:2; the destined possessor of my house is pi^fs^ 
iir/'bx Damascus (in the person of its citizen) Eliezer Gen. 15:2. n^isx 
nX3:j God (of) Hosts Ps. 80:5, 8, 15, 20; when c-insx is regarded as an 
appellative noun instead of a proper name, this divine title becomes 
n-ix^s "^ri'^x Ps. 89 : 9. 



The Construct State and Suffixes. 

§254. AYhen one noun is limited or restricted in its 
meaning by another, the first is put in the construct state ; 
if the hmiting word be a personal pronoun it is suffixed to 
the noun. The relation thus expressed corresponds, for the 
most part, to the occidental genitive or to that denoted in 
English by the preposition of. The primary notion of the 
grammatical form is simply the juxtaposition of two nouns, 
or the union of a nomi and a pronoun, to represent the sub- 
ordination of one to the other in the expression of a single 
idea, §.C!12. The particular relation, which it suggests, is 
consequently dependent on the meanings of the words them- 
selves, and is in each case that which is most naturally sug- 
gested by their combination. Thus, the second noun or the 
pronominal suffix may denote 

1 . The possessor of that which is represented by the pre- 
ceding noun, "ih^ bD"^r; f/te temjjJe of Jehovah 1 Sam. 1 : 9, 
ni'^zn their substance Gen. 12:5, This embraces the various 
degrees of relationship, cn^n«"";2 so.i of Abraham Gen. 
25 : 12, ?iPcs« % ivfe Gen. 12:5. 

2. The whole^ of wliich the preceding word denotes a part, 



282 - SYNTAX. §254 

^i|? ■'?''^2i5 the poor of thj people Ex. 23 : 11, ■j^ns-^'iaD: the 
honourable of the earth Isa. 23:9. 

a. The construct relation, when thus employed, indicates that the part 
singled out from the whole possesses the quality referred to in an eminent 
degree. The first word is sometimes an abstract noun. 1"'Tns TxS'p the 
height of his cedars i. e. his highest cedars 2 Kin. 19:23. Here too be- 
long the superlative expressions. CC'ii^ ujnp holy of holies. D"'n''^"n "i^d 
the song (f songs. C'lnr? nas servant of servants, one that is a servant by 
way of eminence when compared with all others. 

3. An individual of the class denoted by the preceding 
noun, thus sei-ving the purpose of a more exact designation, 
0^212 ]^-)i{ the land of Efjijpt Gen. 41 : 19, rris-in: the river 
(of) Euphrates Gen. 15:18, Q-'nx ^%v cedar trees, 2 Chron. 
2 : 7, np?;: r?r'n tcorm (of) Jacob Isa. 41 : 14, n^^i?n lirij? 
men (who are) merchants 1 Kin. 10 : 15. 

4. The material of which the preceding noun is com- 
posed, Snj dt; a ring of gold Gen. 24: 22, V?"'-'? vessel of 
ivoodljQW 11 : 32, rrkvn n-ii? the flock of goats Cant. 4:1. 

5. The measure of its extent, value, duration, etc., tf^n^ 
D''l2^ nr'iir a journey of three days Jon. 3 : 3, "i?2 ^y_;tq. the 
weight of a talent 1 Chron. 20 : 2, ivv'? "'"''? ^^^(^^^ of number 
i. e. readily numbered, few. Gen. 34 : 30, DJ":? ''•i^'^ a pos- 
session of p)erp)etuity Gen. 17 : 8. 

6. An attribute, by which it is characterized, '"n niia 
mighty man of valour Judg. 11 : 1, "'IS yi? //-e^' of fruit Gen. 
1:11, "ii^jn i5->3 i,Y///(:y of vision i. e. distinguished as the one 
where visions are received Isa. 22 : 1, nrnr^v! 1^^^ the flock of 
slaughter i.e. which is to be slaughtered Zech. 11:4. 

a. It will be observed that the Hebrew uses nouns to express many of 
the ideas lor which adjectives are employed in other lariijuages; thus, in 
the examples under Nos. 4. 5, and 6, vessel of wood for wooden vessel, posses- 
sion of perpelnitij for perpetual possession, niighhj man (f vidour fi.r valiant 
mighly man. fock of slaughter ior gre.v wacttrnda.. This both arises from 
and explains the comparative paucity of adjectives in Hebrew : though 
even where corresponding adjectives exist the other construction is fre- 
quently preferred, f "tp ""n;3 garments of holiness Ex. 2S : 2. p^i^Tiz) 
sacrifices of righteousness, ^"i^;^ holy and p"''^^ righteous being used with 



^254 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES. 283 

less latitude and with a stricter regard to the ethiral idea which they in- 
volve. Attributives are frequently Ibrmed by prefixing such words as 
STX man. bra lord., "3 son^ ^^z ddughltr. to abstract nouns or other sub- 
stantives, thus, "ixri lli'^S a man of form i.e. comt^ly 1 Sam. 16:18. C'X 
D"'-2'n }iian of words i. e. eloquent Ex. 4:10. riri'brn bra the possessor of 
dreams i. e. dreamer Gen. 37 : 19, C"'i:^ r5t'j",2 son of eight days i.e. eight 
days old Gen. 17:12, r"^— ,3 son of death \. e. deserving to die 1 Sam. 
20 -.31. br^b3~"'33 sons ofworthlessness i. e. wicked Deut. 13 : 14. Cir'i"n"r3 
njcj daughter of ninety years i. e. ninety years old Gen. 17 : 17. 

6. Occasionally in poetry an adjective instead of agreeing with its sub- 
stantive is treated as though it were an abstract noun, "itjl^n "^Hs vessels 
of small (capacity) Isa. 22 : 24. xb-Q "'a waters offidness Ps. 73 : Id, rria-bs 
binjn periiaps every house of great (size), though olhers render every great 
(man's) house Jer. 52:13. So sometimes an adverb, nyo 'rrc few men 
Deut. 26:5, n^in nSsi contimial burnt-ofenng Nom. 23:6, Ctn'-h-:} blood 
(shed) causelessly 1 Kin. 2:31. cri"! ^ns enemies in the day time Ezek. 
30 : 16, caw 13N dumb stone Hab. 2 : 19, or adverbial phrase. 3'np^ "^n'bx 
a God nigh at hand, pnn^ inbx a God afar o/f Jer. 23 : 23. 

7. The source from which the preceding noun is derived, 
T^^r^1 nnin the laio of Jehovah Ex. 13 : 9, nir^ nsD the book 
of Moses 2 Chron. 25:4, "inx nblin sick f win love Cant. 2 : 5. 

8. The subject by which an action is performed, or in 
which an attribute inheres, n*,n^ ^^"i^? the love of God i. e. 
exercised by him 1 Kin. 10:9, n^'bir rrasn the icisdom of 
Solomon 1 Kin. 5 :10. 

9. The object, upon which an action is directed, rsi"' 
D^n'bs the fear of God Gen. 20 : 11, DPn nbicr^ the rule of 
the day Gen. 1:16. 

a. After nouns, which express or imply action, the following noun or 
suffix denotes the subject 'or the object as the sense or the connection may 
demand, n'lh^ nssp the zeal of Jehovah, vfhich he feels Isa. 37:32. ci-PNjp 
zeal of the people, which is felt for them Isa. 26: 11; cnp rpri the cry 
against Sodom Gen. 18:20, b'n-npr.l_ the cry of the poor Prov. 21:13; 
iD^n his wrong i. e. done by him Ps. 7: 17, ''O'^n my wrong i. e. done to 
me Gen. 16:5; c''^"r|-i"r| the ivny of the sea i.e. leading to it 1 Kin. 18:43, 
nssn"^ Tp.'n the way of Jeroboam i. e. in which he walked 1 Kin. 16: 26. 

6. Active participles are frequently put in the construct state before 
their object. ITS 3 r3-'";y'3 restoring the soul Ps. 19:8. Ti^d ''Snk loving thy 
«ame Ps. 5:12, iro Pxs entering the gale Gen. 23:10. So even before 
an infinitive which they govern, C^ip 'it3"'3^13 being early to rise Ps. 127: 2. 
Passive participles may be in the construct before the subject of the ac- 
tion, C^■^■bx nia smitten of God Isa. 53:4, ntx l^ib^ born of a woman 



284 '- SYNTAX. §255 

Job 14:1. or before the secondary object, if the verb is capable in the 
active of having a double object. p'^Tjjn girded with sackcloth Joel 1:8, 
C^zn dizb clothed with linen Ezek. 9:11. When a noun follows the in- 
finitive it may be in construction with it as its subject, "7(5.'^ i<~ii?3 on the 
king's reading 2 Kin. 5: 7. i^y-in his driviiig out Num. 32:21. or be gov- 
erned by it as its object. bN!n:b-x-ip io call Samuel 1 Sam. 3:8, ca"'")"^t7 
to drive them out Deut. 7 : 17. 

10. The respect in wliicli a preceding attribute holds, so 
that it ansAvers the purpose of specification, 'cryrixr'&'ayi nn- 
clcan as to lips Isa. 6 : 5, sip'^'Cip hard hearted Ezek. 3 : 7, 
D"'irg "^rnp rent as to (jarments, 2 Sam. 13 : 31. 

a. This answers to Avhat is known as tlie Greek accusative. TrdSas wkvs ; 
the English has in certain cases adopted the Hebrew idiom, so that we 
can say svcifl of foot, blind of an eye., etc. 

§ 255. 1. When the relation between two nouns is ex- 
pressed by an intervening preposition, the first commonly 
remains in the absolute state : it may, however, particularly 
in poetry, be put in the construct, ?2"~53 i";,n mountains in 
Gilhoa 2 Sam. 1 : 21, Q35'a ''k'^lLl prophets out of their own 
heart Ezek. 13:2, "^ "'"3 according to the ahilitij in us 
Neh. 5:8. 

2. A noun is sometimes put in the construct before a 
succeeding clause with which it is closely connected : thus, 
before a relative clause, "li'J^^ D'jba the place v:here, etc.. Gen. 
89:20, "lir.v; li-'-^/or the reason that Deut. 22:24, par- 
ticularly when the relative is itself omitted, nbT^r\-n;^3 hij the 
hand of (him whom) thou wilt send Ex. 4.: 13, nih;'~i5'v n'inn 
the beginning of (what) Jehovah spake Hos. 1 : 2, or before 
the conjunction ^ and, r:;7"i T'lizn tcisdom and hwicledge Isa. 
33 : 6, T:^^ S5^T '^^7^. drunken and not with wine Isa. 51 : 21. 

3. Three, four, or even five nouns are sometimes joined 
together in the relation of the construct state, CPhsjt-n'^^ lirsn 
the heads of the houses of their fathers Ex. 6:14, "^O^l,' "129^ 
bi5n"a'^~"':n the number of the tribes of the children of Israel 
Josh. 4:5, nriJx-tjbTa nnb bni-'ns the fruit of the greatness 
of heart of the ling of Assyria Isa. 10 : 12. 



§ 25G THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES, 2S5 

a. In a very few instances, only occurring in poetry, two words of like 
meaning are united in the construct before the same noun. "CZ'n "bn: "'^ns 
rivers, brooks of honey Job 20 : 17. rr;r— 'rin "^l^'iip Ps. 78 : 9, if rendered 
as it is by some armed with, shooting the bow, though ''hii^'is may be in con- 
struction not with ndp but with '^'21-1 armed ones of those who shoot the 
bow, armed bowmen. See Alexander in loc. 

§25G. AVhen two words are in the construct relation 
they must stand in immediate conjunction, and no other 
word can be suffered to come between them as it would ob- 
scure the sense. Hence an adjective, participle or demon- 
strative, qualifying a noun in the construct state, cannot 
stand immediately after it, but must be placed after the gov- 
erned noun, ^n^n nnhp ""ir'^'a the great work of Jehovah 
Judg. 2 : 7, '^T^'^ -C'J ^T^< a great crown of gold Esth. 
8:15. So an article or suffix, belonging to a noun in the 
construct, must be attached not to it but to the governed 
noun, 5':nn ^niaa the mighty men of valour Josh. 1:14, ''^■'b« 
inr.T his idols of gold Isa. 2:20, ''C")? ni? mg name of holi- 
ness i. e. mg holg name Lev. 20 : 3. 

a. Wiien the governing and the governed noun are of the same gender 
and number it may be doubtful to which of them the following adjective 
is to be referred, thus binsn rS'^ ""nx Gen. 10 : 21 may either mean the 
elder brother of Japheth or the brother of Japhelh the elder. 

b. In a very few instances, only occurring in poetry, a noun with a suf- 
fix stands in the construct belbre a following word. nrVw-i r|''r.Z2~o thy 
chariots of salvation Hab. 3:8. Ti""" >Dn?2 my refuge of strength Ps. 71 : 7, 
nat T)2"i'n Ihy way of lewdness Ezek. 16 : 27, though these are rather to be 
regarded as instances of apposition in the wide sense. §253. 2. Nouns in 
the construct occasionally receive the article, §246. 3. a. 

c. In the foliowing passages a brief word intervenes between b's, 
which, tliough properly a noun signifying totality, is in usaae equivalent 
to a pronominal adjective all. every, and the noun which it governs, 
"pr N-i'n-b3 take away all iniquity Hos. 14 : 3, so 2 Sam. 1 : 9, Job 27 : 3, 
and perhaps Isa. 38 : 16; but see Alexander in loc. Like the Greek ttSs, 
when followed by a definite noun bs means the whole or all. c"~"53 all 
the people, "('"ixn-bs the whole earth, when followed by an indefinite noun 
every, r"";3 every house; though here as elsewhere the poets may omit 
the article, which would be necessary in prose, CN^'tS the whole head 
Isa. 1:5. Connected with a negative adverb it forms a universal nega- 
tion no. or if the words be rendered separately our idiom requires us to 
translate b's by any, nrr^-xb ni:j<^"a~b3 no work shall be done Ex. 12:16, 



286 - SYNTAX. ^257,258 

U-'Tri'Va 'I'^x there is no new thing Eccl. 1 : 9. Pr'bx-^S bbl"^ xb neither can 
any god 2 Chron. 32 : 15. Comp. ov 8LKaiw&i]cr€Tai Tracra adp$ Rom. 3 : 20. 
d. He paragogic may be attached to a noun in the construct state, 
t'ria nn~iT^ toward the r-ising of the sitn Deut. 4:41, Gen. 24 : 67. 

§257. The preposition ^ to, heJoiiging to, ^Yith or "with- 
out a preceding relative pronoun, may be substituted for the 
construct relation in its possessive sense, n-insb "irsj! "pkr\ 
her father 8 sheep prop, the sheep which belonged to her father 
Gen. 29 : 9, comp. Dr>-'n5|! -js^i Gen. 37 : 12, ^^'■''^sb n;'sn the 
house of Elisha 2 Kin. 5 : 9, comp. Latin 2^o,ter mihi. Tliis 
is particularly the case 

1. When the first noun is omitted ^l^r (^ psalm) of 
David Ps. 11:1, Q^rnsb "':^x Amnoii (son) of Ahinoam 
2 Sam. 3 : 2. 

2. AVhen the first noun is indefinite and the second 
definite, ■'i?']'? li a son of Jesse 1 Sam. 16:18 [ytn^ 2 Sam. 
20 : 1 is the son of Jesse, § 246. 3), a^n?i^T' "^i'"? W a servant 
of the captain of the guard Gen. 41 : 12. 

a. Hence the frequent use of b (Lamedh oMcton's) in the titles of the 
Psalms and other compositions "i"]"'' "'T^'f^ a ])sal m rf David i. e. belong- 
ing to him as its author, p^'psrb njlsn a prayer of Habakkuk. 

3. When the first noun is accompanied by a numeral 
adjective, especially in dates, '^yi^ ni"' "ir<"n'irrn the fifteenth 
dag of the month 1 Kin. 12 : 32, 1^ n-^fc-^-ann nbirs in the 
fifth gear of the king 1 Kin. 14 : 25, Nosb t'iib n;t:2 in the 
third gear of Asa 1 Kin. 15 : 33. 

4. When several genitives are connected together, "i?D 
rriTP 'ibb'cb Q'''b;^n "^Sn- the hook of the Chronicles of the kings 
ofjudah 1 Kin. 15 : 23. 

The Predicate. 

§258. 1. The predicate of a sentence, if a substantive, 
adjective, or pronoun, may be connected with its subject 
without an intervening copula, their mutual relation being 



§ 259 THE PREDICATE. 287 

sufficiently suggested by simply placing them together, 
D"'5iD n\'^"n-r:-'r|) all her paths (are) peace Prov. 3:17, s'it: 
yyn the tree (was) (jood Gen. 3:6, ?f':.'^n nr //^/^ (is) ^//<7 ?r«^ 
Isa. 30:21. 

2. Or the pronoun ii^n of the third person may be used 
as a copula, nns s-n ■'i?"'2i"in iriin the fourth river is Eu- 
phrates prop, it (is) Euphrates Gen. 2 : 14, "'^s riTsrrn^a 
^r/^^?* are these? Zech. 4:5, "'Sb'a N^rrnps thou art my king 
Ps. 44 : 5, an D'^'cbo roxn n'trps^n //^e5(? wie/e are pieaceahle 
Gen. 34:21. 

3. Or the verb nj'n /o he may be employed for a like 
purpose, particularly if the idea of past or future time is in- 
volved, '^nn nn'n f")^n the earth icas desolate Gen. 1 : 2, 
niirnh ^ti "i^sn //^^ oxen were p)lovghing Job 1 : 14. 

a. Verbs which denote some modification of being are sometimes em- 
ployed in the same way; tlius. his eyes nins l^nn began (to be) dim 
1 Sam. 3:2; i^i'i-^n ii3^K nb' hrM and Noah began (to be) a husbandman 
Gen. 9 : 20 ; "ly. w T^'^'^rriS i/Vje^j ^Ao?( ceasest spoiling Isa. 33 : 1, the hair 
•z^ ~sn //f/.f turned while Lev. 13:3; so to be called, to be esteemed, etc. 

b. Simple existence or non-existence is predicated by means of the 
j)articles 'd^ and "X , the latter of which retains its absolute form when 
following the noun, but takes the con.struct form "pX w'^r^n it precedes the 
noun either immediately or separated from it by intervening words, bxa d'^ 
there is a kinsman Ruth 3: 12, "i^X cix there was not a man Gen. 2:5, 
M"^ "^ Ihere was no king in Israel Judg. 21 : 25. These particles may 
also be used as copulas with the personal pronouns, when the predicate is 
a participle. n.^"^""a Tjl^S thou art not letting go Ex. 8 ; 17. JialiQ Vj^li;) thou 
art saving Judg. 6 : 36. 

§ 259. 1. A noun in the predicate may receive the same 
adjuncts as in the subject, ^ 244. 

2. Adjectives and demonstrative pronouns in the predi- 
cate agree with the nouns to which they relate in gender and 
number, but differ from qualifying adjectives and demonstra- 
tives, § 249, in standing before the noun and in not receiv- 
ing the article, though the noun be definite, ^i"'-' -"^ l^'^ 
tvo?'d is good Deut. 1 : 14, '^'^''oT}.'} C'Sn his 'mercies are great 
1 Chron. 21 : 13, a:'"ei?n rr^nbin r^k these are the genera- 
tions of the heavens Gen. 2:4. 



288 - SYNTAX. §260 

a. A predicate atljective may also, though less frequently, stand after 
the noun, nsi mrrn the damsel was fair 1 Kin. 1:4, H^hn yiiiJi :ri"!i 
2iu and the gold of that land is good Gen. 2 : 12. 

6. If tlie sense require the predicate to be made definite, it will receive 
the article, "2"753r! iQ my mouth is the (one) speaking Gen. 45 : 12. 



CoMPARisox or Adjectives. 

\ 260. 1. Adjectives have no distinct form for the com- 
parative or superlative. Comparison is expressed by means 
of the preposition y>2from phiced after the adjective, rin"J 
n'iO"^:s)a n/bsn wisdom is better than rubies prop, is good from 
rubies, differs from them and by imphcation is superior to 
them in point of goodness, Prov. 8:11; ''sii^ nn&i pi^2 
thou art more ri(/hteous than I, 1 Sam. 24 : 17. 

2. The superlative degree may be expressed 

(1.) By adding bb all to the comparative particle "j^, 
D';:;^"'^.:^-'::^^ biia great from all the sons of the east i. e. the 
greatest of all, etc., Job 1:3. 

(2.) By an emphatic use of the positive, so as to imply 
the possession of the attribute in an eminent degree, 1'':3 fj^ 
the least of his sons prop, the little (one) 2 Chron. 21 : 17, 
D''t":S "E^n fairest among icomen Cant. 1 : 8, "i'tri^n the 
least, '"i^sn the greatest 1 Chron. 12:14, nni'J the best of 
them Mic. 7:4. 

a. When the predicate is a verb instead of an adjective, comparison 
may be expressed in the same manner, Tj52"2 bnSN / will be greater than 
thou prop, great from thee Gen. 4 1 : 40, cnxri-bsia csn^i and he was the 
wisest of all men 1 Kin. 5:11. In a k\v passages, chiefly occurring in the 
book of Ecciesiastes, comparison is made by means of the adverb "ir'i'i 
more, ir'' tn i3N "'n^^n I was then more wise Eccl. 2 : 15. 

b. The construction with *^ may also be used to denote excess, bl'na 
XiwiO '-y--. my iniquity is too great to be forgiven prop, greater than (it is 
possible) to forgive Gen. 4: 13. Tj^ri ::r"2 too little for thee Job 15: 11. 

c. A comparative sense is commonly ascribed to '|"3 in the following 
passages, in which an adjective, suggested by the context, must be supplied, 
nr!iC53?3 Ti^ the upright (is sharper) tha7i a thorn-hedge M'lc. 7 : i, OSS^ 
less than nothing Isa. 40 : 17. 41 :24, Ps. 62:10. Isa. 10: 10, Job 11 : 17; in 
some of these cases, however, ")"3 may have the sense of from or of and 
denote that from which any thing is derived or of which it forms a part. 



§261,262 the primary tenses. 289 

Verbs. 

^2C1. 1. The doctrine of the Hebrew tenses rests upon 
a conception of time radically different from that which pre- 
vails in our own and in other Indo-European languages. 
Time is conceived of, not as distributed into three portions, 
viz. : past, present, and future, but as consisting of the past 
and future only. The present is, in this view, an inappreciable 
moment, without extension or cognizable existence, the mere 
point of contact between two boundless periods of duration, 
or the instant of transition from one to the other, and, as 
such, not entitled to be represented by a distinct verbal form. 
Every action or state of being is accordingly viewed as be- 
longing to the past or to the future ; and such as do not 
belong exclusively to one, may be referred indifferently to 
either. 

2. Within these two grand divisions of time no account 
is made of those minuter distinctions, in the expression of 
which we are accustomed to employ such a variety of tenses, 
nor of those modal differences which are with us indicated 
by the indicative, subjunctive, and potential, except to that 
Hmited extent to which these may be regarded as covered by 
the paragogic and apocopated futures, § 264. Whatever is, 
or is conceived of as past, must be put in the preterite ; the 
future is used for all that is, or is conceived of as future, 
while all subordinate modifications or shades of meaning 
are either suggested by accompanying particles, or, without 
being precisely indicated, are left to be inferred from the 
connection. 

The Primary Tenses. 

^262. The preterite is accordingly used of 
1. The past, whether our idiom would require the abso- 
19 



290 ' SYNTAX. §262 

lute past tense, i. e. the histoiical imperfect, in the heginning 
God sf^ created, etc., Gen, 1:1, God "C2 tempted Abraham 
Gen. 22:1; or one of the relative tenses, viz. the past viewed 
in relation to the present, i. e. the perfect, what is this that 
tn'^O thou hast done Gen. 3:13, thee "^ri^jijn have I seen right- 
eous Gen. 7:1; the past in relation to another past, i. e. the 
pluperfect, God ended his work ichich niby he had made Gen. 
2:2; and they did so as the Lord n^s had commanded Ex. 
7:10; or the past in relation to a future, i. e. the future 
jDerfect, luheji ihe Lord "JTin shall have loashed aioay, etc., Isa. 
4 : 4, until the time that she which travaileth FT^^^ shall have 
brought forth Mic. 5:2; or a conditional mood, except the 
Lord of hosts had left unto its a very small remnant '^'-''IT^ we 
should have been as Sodom Isa. 1:9,/ would there were a 
sword in mine hand, for now tf^ri^nn L icoidd have killed thee 
Xum. 22 : 29 ; or an optative, denoting something which was 
to have been desired but which nevertheless did not occur, 
Mrfq-b that we had died Num. 14 : 2, ^^dh -^ that they 
had been loise that they (fut.) would consider this Deut. 
32 : 29, or a subjunctive (the Jordan was dried up), that 
chxn^ ye might fear the Lord, at that time and thencefor- 
ward /br^y^;- Josh. 4 : 24. 

a. Ill all these cases the verbal form merely expresses in the general 
that the action belongs to the past, but whether this is to be taken abso- 
lutely, relatively, or conditionally, must be learned from the circumstances 
of the case or from accompanying words. The proper English imperfect 
is expressed in Hebrew not by the preterite but by the participle, -'wp Niril 
and he (was) sitting Gen. 18: 1, §266. 3. 

h. In promises, contracts, etc., the preterite is sometimes employed, 
where we might have expected the future, because the inward act or pur- 
pose is intended rather than its outward execution, unto thy seed Tirs / 
have given this land Gen. 15 : 18. the grant was made though they were 
not yet put in posses.^ion; accordingly, when the latter idea is prominent, 
the future is used of the same transaction, vntn thy seed, 'pit I will give 
this land Gen. 12: 7, 26 : 3. Comp. Gen. 4 : U. 23: 11, 13. 

2. The present, regarded as the continuation or natural 
sequence of a pre-existing action or condition. Anything 



^262 THE PRIMARY TENSES. 291 

begun in the past and continued in the present may be con- 
sidered to belong to the past and accoitlingly spoken of in 
the preterite, give me a little icater for "^r^''?^ / am thirsty 
Judg. 4:19 prop. I have been thirsty and (it is imphed) I 
am so still ; the earth nkbia is full of violence prop, has been 
and still is fdl Gen. 6:13; ?i02v "'P^i^ / know that Jehovah 
is the greatest of all the gods Ex. 18 : 11, prop. I have h:nown, 
the knowledge being in fact contemporaneous with the in- 
formation upon which it was based. Comp. in Latin ?iovi, 
memini, odi. 

a. It is comparatively a matter of indifference whether the preterite 
or the future be used to designate the present. That which now exists 
may either be regarded as continued from the past or as perpetuated in the 
future ; and as it is contemplated under one or the other of these aspects, 
will the tense be determined accordingly. Thus, the question whence come 
ye is in Gen. 42:7 crs2 "X^ whence hace ye come, but in Josh. 9:8 
*1X2PI '("^x^ whence are ye coming or will ye come ; because, in the former 
instance, the past action of coming is uppermost in the mind of the speaker, 
and in the latter this action is regarded as having not yet ceased. 

3. Permanent facts or general truths ; these, though true 
for all time, are gathered from experience and observation, 
and hence may be appropriately referred to the past, an ox 
TV) hioweth his owner Isa. 1 : 3, oxen always have done so 
and it is implied that they always will; the Lord ^Tn j^itieth 
them that fear him Ps. 103 : 13. 

a. The future is used in this case with the same frequency and pro- 
priety as the preterite. An ox will know his- ou-ner expresses the same 
general truth as an ox has known his owner ; only in the former case at- 
tention is chiefly drawn to its future, and in the latter to its past realiza- 
tions, §263. 3. 

4. The future, when viewed as past; the prophets, in 
their inspired descriptions of events Avhich had not yet come 
to pass, often transport themselves to the time when they 
shall have been accomplished : and, surveying the future from 
this ideal point of view, they give to their predictions the 
form of a recital of wdiat has already taken place, Babylon 



292 '■ SYNTAX. §263 

nbED has fallen Isa. 21 : 9, he Xib; hath home our griefs Iseu 
53 : 4, /or / Tisibn have made Esau hare Jer. 49 : 10. 

a. The counterpart of this prophetic preterite is the use of the 
future in vivid descriptions of the past, in which the writer appears, in 
imagination, to live over again what has already taken place, §263. 5. 

§ 263. The future is used in speaking of 

1 . The future, whether absolutely, ^ITl'^x / icill mahe of 
thee a great nation Gen. 12:2, or relatively to something in 
the past, he took his eldest son icho ^"'5)3';' teas to reign 2 Kin. 
3: 27, Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness whereof ri^^^ he 
icas to die 2 Kin. 13:14; or conditionally, (would that I 
had died) for I icoidd have lain down (pret.) aiid tiipcs? 
icould he at rest Job 3:13; hut (if it were my case) / Ti"i^s 
would seek unto God Job 5:8; or optatively in the various 
grades of desire, determination, permission, or command, so 
^inns"' may all thine enemies perish Judg. 5 : 31 : that my 
grief ^'^!^'l might he weighed Job 6:2; all that thou com- 
mandest us '^i??^ we icill do Josh. 1 : 16; deeds that ^Iby"". 
ought not to he done Gen. 20:9; of the fruit of the trees of 
the garden bisKb we may eat Gen. 3 : 2, ^^osn si's ye shall not 
eat ver. 3, mine ordinances I'l'Dirn ye shall keej) Lev. 18 :4 ; 
or su^junctively, especially after conjunctions signifying that, 
in order that, lest, etc., (bring the venison) '^^'^i^'P 'j^'^b in 
order that my soul may hless thee Gen, 27 : 25, against thee 
have I sinned that p^^n thou mightest he justified Y%. 51 :6. 

a. When employed in requests, the future is frequently accompanied 
by the particle N3, thus, S3""'3'37 lei thy servant speak. J pray thee Gen. 
44: 18. xi'iTSS^ let the wickedness of the wicked cease, J pray Ps. 7: 10. 

b. The future is idiomatically used with nna and CjliS not yet. before, 
whether the period referred to is past or future, the time denoted by the 
particle being antecedent to the action of the verb. Thus, referring to the 
past, / ate of all X":dtn C"^i2 before thou earnest Gen. 27: 33. the lamp of 
God nsn^ c"ii: had. not yet gone out 1 Sam. 3:4; to the future, that my 
soul may ble.fs thee rsirix cnca bffore I die Gen. 27:4, isni?';' C~b bpfore 
they call. I will answer Isa. 65: 24. There are three examples of the use 
of the preterite with these particles, the reference being to past time, 
1 Sam, 3 : 7, Ps. 90 : 2, Prov, 8 : 25. 



^ 2G3 THE PRIMARY TENSES. 293 

2. The present, when it is conceived of as extending 
into the future, comfort my people "I'^s?"' saith your God Isa. 
40 : 1, the divine utterance though begun is not yet finished; 
^^"n i^5n do ye not hioio ? ver. 21, are you ignorant, and 
is this ignorance to continue ? lohy ''33n weepest thou ? 
1 Sam. 1:8. 

3. General truths or permanent facts, when the attention 
is directed to their vahdity for all time to come, righteousness 
D'binp Lwalteth a nation Prov. 14 : 34, it does so now and 
always will ; a son ^^D"* honoureth his father ]\[al. 1 : 6. 

4. Constant or habitual acts or states viewed as con- 
tinuing for an indefinite period from the time spoken of, 
even though they may have ceased at the time of speaking, 
and so belong entirely to the past, a mist nS:?;^ used to go up 
from the earth Gen. 2 : 6, i. e. not only at the moment of time 
previously referred to but from that onward ; thus Job nibs?*; 
did continually Job 1:5; the daughters of Israel n:pbn ivere 
in the habit of going from time to time Judg. 11:40; so Gen. 
29 : 2, Ex. 13 : 22, Num. 11 : 5, 1 Sam. 2:19. 

5. The past, when the speaker or writer assumes an ideal 
point of vision prior to its occurrence, and so regards it as 
future. Thus, a historian in animated description, as we 
might use the present, nir'a""i''t'^ TN then sings Moses Ex. 
15:1, Balak ^i^}1 brings me from Aram Num. 23 : 7 ; or a 
poet, who lives in the midst of that of which he sings, "ix"' 
"3 ^^-is? UT^ let the day perish on ichich I am to be born Job 
3 : 3, where the speaker, by a bold figure, places himself be- 
fore his birth, and prays that the day which was to give him 
existence might be annihilated, so that he might be saved 
from the misery of living ; n^izs? tFrro ^^ n^sb ichy may I 
not die from the loomb ? ver. 11, where his position is shifted 
to the time immediately after his bii'th ; ntD-ab T^in-^ y->iii he 
makes known his ways unto Moses Ps. 103 : 7. 

a. The intermingling of different tenses in relation to the same sub- 
ject, which is so frequent in poetry, foreign as it may be to our modes of 



294 " SYNTAX. ^264,265 

thought, does not justify the conclusion that they are used promiscuously 
or without regard to their distinctive signification. Tiius tlie preterite 
and the luture are frequently combined in order to give greater emphasis 
and compass to the statement made, by asserting it at once of both the 
grand divisions of time, the wicked who "'J^^C have wasted me. my deadly 
enemies ^S^;?^ will surround me Ps. 17:9. ^re l^'^x devoured before them, 
and after them aflame isnbn shall consume Joel 2:3. Or the writer may 
place himseh' in the midst of an event, and regard part as having already 
taken place and part as yet to be performed; thus, in Ex. 15:14, 15. the 
nations VJ'O'd hace heard ')lTS~i7 they will be afraid; pangs 7ns have 
seized iipon the inhabitants of Philistia ; then the dukes of Edom ^i~_'Z'i 
were troubled, the mighty men of Moab trembling i'CTriN^ shall seize them, 
all the inhabitants of Canaan 'IJ'^D have melted. Or a verb may be put in 
the future to sliow that the action which it denotes, though in reality past, 
is subsequent to, or a consequence of a preceding preterite, they were both 
naked T-iljan^ nSi and were not ashamed Gen. 2:25. Deut. 2: 12. 

§» 264. The apocopated and paragogic forms of the future 
are mostly used in their respective persons, § 97, to express 
its optative, conditional, or subjunctive senses, §2G3. 1. The 
negative imperative is made by prefixing -s ?tof to the apoco- 
pated future, ^^'^r^'i? /larm not Ps. 105 : 15 ; -i^'^t i?5 would 
mean you shall not harm. 

a. These modified forms of the future, although they give a more dis- 
tinct expression to the modal senses just indicated, are not essential to that 
end. since the same shades of meaning may be and often are suggested 
by the simple future. Instances are more rare, and only found in poetry, 
in which the apocopated or paragogic forms are used, when simple futurity 
is intended, Job 13 : 27. 24 : 25. 



The Secondary Tenses. 

h 265. The secondary tenses agree in signification with 
their respective primaries. The future with Vav conversive, 
forming a secondary preterite, § 99. 1, has the same variety of 
senses with the primary or proper preterite, and is in fact a 
simple substitute for it. In hke manner, the secondary 
future or the preterite with Vav conversive, >^ 100. 1, is a 
substitute for the primary future. A narrative or a para- 
graph, which begins with one of the primary tenses, is 
mostly continued by means of the corresponding secondary 



§265 THE SECONDARY TENSES. 295 

tense, provided the verb stands at the beginning of its clause, 
so that it can be attached to the conjunction, which is an 
essential part of the secondary formation. If, for any reason, 
this order of the words is interrupted or prevented, the 
primary tense must again be used. Thus, Gen. 22 : 1, God 
nSD tempted Abraham ^'G^'^'] and said . . . 'raN'^i and he said . . . 
ver. 3, D?T^!)l and he rose up early . . . ^2'n^.'\ a?id saddled . . . 
np'^l and took . . . S'^n^i and clave . . . D)P^T atid rose up tjb);'! 
and went unto the place iS-niasj— n?j&? of which God had told 
him. Gen. 17:5, thy name N'ij?''"^?^ shall not he called Abram 
n^n'] and it shall he . . . ver. 6, "^nnsnn and I will make thee 
fruiifid . . . 'n'^jP^r"^ afid I loill make nations of thee' ci^^^ 
^KS."^ 'Ti^'a and kinys shall come out of thee, 

a. The future with Vav coiiversive describes an act subsequent to or 
contemporary with the time denoted by the words with which it is con- 
nected. It can. therefore, only relate to the past when it is preceded by 
a preterite with a past signification, or by some other word or phrase whicla 
refers to past time, in the rjear of king UzziaWs death nx'^xi (^and) 1 ficno 
Isa. 6: 1. But if it be preceded by a future tense, it has a future siynifica- 
tion. "pTya"; he shall deride every stronghold ^Slt*;; and shall lieaj) up earth 
nnsb^:: a)id lake it Hab. 1:10, who nil;?^-^ shall do evil . . . "^'iy^^,^ Ti^.^.i and 
shall go and serce other gods Deut. 17:2, 3; unless a pause intervenes in 
which a preterite is to be supplied, as in Hab. 2: 1, 2. / \iiill watch to see 
what he will say to me . . . n Vn^ "^i'?.?*^ and (after I had thus watched) the 
Lord answered me. The future with Vav conversive occurs in a preterite 
sense at the beginning of certain books, because they were regarded by 
their authors as supplements or continuations of preceding histories, "^filil 
And it came to pass Josh. 1 : 1, Judg. 1 : 1, 1 Sam. 1 : 1. etc., etc. 

b. The preterite with Vav has a future signification only alter a future 
tense or an expression suggestive of futurity, e. g. in thy distress r,*iN^T2!l 
when there shall come upon thee all these things Deut. 4 : 30 ; or as the 
initial word of a prophecy, which is regarded as linked with other dis- 
closures of the future previou.^ly made, n^ni aiid it shall come to pass 
Isa. 2:2. After an imperative it commonly has an imperative sense, this 
being one of the sigfiifications of the future, §263. 1. go untn Phaiaoh 
nirxi and say to him prop, and thou sh(dt say Ex. 7:26. When a 
preterite precedes, the Vav is not conversive. thy servant was keeping his 
father\s sheep sil and there came . . . n't'."} and. took . . . ■^rx^;!' and I went 
owi . . . T'riSni and smote him. etc., 1 Sam. 17:34, 35, unless it involves a 
reference to what is to take place hereafter, / have blessed him (the 
blessing is of course prospective). "'n^"]Sn^ and J will make him/rui/ful, 
''n"'3"ini and I will vmltiply him Gen. 17 : 20. 



296 ■ SYNTAX. §266 

Participles. 

§266. The participles being properly verbal nouns, do 
not in strictness involve any definite notion of time, and the 
connection must decide whether they are to be referred to 
the past, present, or future, thus ^5 3 means falling Num. 
24 : ^, fallen Judg. 4:22, or about to fall Jer. 37:14. Their 
principal uses are the following, viz. : 

1 . They express what is permanent or habitual, § 1 86. 2. «, 
(the Lord) nni? loveth righteousness and justice Ps. 33 : 5, « 
generation ^l?n goetli, and a generation N3 cometli, and the 
earth l"^'?^ ahideth for ever Eccles. 1 : 4. Passive participles 
so used suggest not only a constant experience of what is 
denoted by the verb, but in addition a permanent quality as 
the ground of it, Nn"D not only feared but worthg to be 
feared, '^^"'a icorthj to be praised, ^'2'^? desirable. 

2. Allien a particular time is intended the active partici- 
ples most commonly relate to the present or to the proximate 
future, and passive participles to the past, "ijh nns"rii2 ichat 
seest thou? Jer. 1:11, S'^^'a "^'yir) behold, I am about to bring 
the flood Gen. 6:17, "ji^i giving "jTij given, ^''C'a restoring 
ifc^a restored. 

a. The active participles of neuter verbs, which have no passive forms, 
are used in both a past and a present sense, r^ dying and drad. tz} fall- 
ing aiu] fallen ; this is less frequently the case with active verbs, who then 
is he T^'^'f'iin that hath hunted venison Gen. 27:33; these are the gods 
cs^sn that smote Egypt 1 Sam. 4:8. Participles of passive form but 
active sense are ordinarily used of the present or proximate future, cnbs 
Jighting. 

3. In narrations and predictions the time of the partici- 
ples is reckoned not from the moment of speaking but from 
the period spoken of, the tico angels came . . . 2©"' t:'^':^ and 
Lot (was) sitting in the gate of Sodom Gen. 19 : 1 ; he spake 
to his so7is-in-law T^ri-T^ "^^'l?'? '^^ho (were) to marry his daugh- 
ters ver. 14 ; he came to Shiloh . . . D"^i?'}]5 '\'^iy^ with his clothes 



^267 INFINITIVE. 297 

rent 1 Sam. 4:12; thou shalt meet a companij of prophets 
D"''7"i'"' coming down 1 Sam. 10:5; they shall declare his 
righteousness unto a people ^^"is (who shall then be) horn Ps. 
22:32, 102:19, Judg. 13:8. 

a. The period to which a participle is to be referred is sometimes de- 
termined by connecting witii it the past or future tense of the substantive 
verb, Muses nb'n n'-^ri was keeping the Jlock of Jethro Ex. 3:1; his throne 
•jiij rt7_n7 shall be established for ever 1 Chron. 17:4. 



Infinitive. 

§ 267. The infinitive is an abstract verbal noun, and, like 
the participles, partakes of the character both of a noun and 
a verb. As a noun it may be the subject of a proposition, 
§ 242, or it maybe governed by a verb, noun, or preposition; 
it may also be put in the construct state before a noun de- 
noting either its subject or its object. 

a. The Infinitive as a subject: v;x!t riJsi ryky\ uJnD: n?K (there is) 
cursing' and lying and killing and stealing and committing adidtery Hos. 
4:2, tssro mib?'. to do justice (is) a joy to the righteous Prov. 21 : 15. 

6. The construct infinitive is used after verbs, nouns, and preposition.^?, 
and when governed by a verb or noun it is usually thougli not invariably 
preceded as in English by the preposition h to, i3 cnsnb brnx / shall be 
able to fight with him Num. 22:11, M^b ni"i nnB^ nj a time to be born 
and a time to die Eccl. 3:2; h is seldom omitted in prose but often in 
poetry, / know not (how) xii rxi to go out and to come in 1 Kin. 3:7, 
c^sn ri:Nri thou hast refused to be ashamed Jer. 3 : 3. -i"'p"i nr^ Tiso rr a 
time to mourn and a time to dance Eccles. 3 : 4, 1"]^ Q-'nTr ready to rouse 
leviathan Job 3:8. Various prepositions may precede the infinitive, as b 
to, a in. 3 like. at. '^Z from, n? until, h^ upon, ")rrb in order to. '1?^ be- 
cause of, "^ssb before, etc. 

c. The absolute infinitive is rarely governed by a verb. -uJT! ^n^b 
learn to do well. "J^i'^n >inTi"X redress wrong Isa. 1 : 17. iintil he knows 
C3is<o to refuse the evil, '^hz^ and to choose the good, 7 : 15. I'^i";"!^ «N~NbT 
Tp'^in and they woidd not walk in his waijs, 42 :2i, thou wilt make us off- 
scouring DiN'CI and refuse Lam. 3:45. 

d. The infinitive in the construct before its subject. DXisna in their 
being created \. e. when they were created; in the day -'H'bx njn^ riwS 
of the Lord God's making earth and hearen Gen. 2:4; there iras no water 
CSn rnrbybr the drinking <fthe people Ex. 17:1 ; "^Fi^'il and my dwelling 



29S - SYNTAX. ^2CS, 2C9 

(shall be) i. e. I shall dwell Ps. 23: 0. Before its object. rr-r-:E rxb the 
accepting of the person of the tricked Prov. 18:5. nns-rn to yield ils 
strength Gen. 4: 12. 

§ 268. The absolute infinitive, expressing as it does the 
abstract idea of the verb ii'respective of tense, number, or 
person, may be used instead of any of the finite forms of the 
verb, when the sense is duly qualified by the context. Thus, 
it may take the place of 

1. The preterite or the future, when one of those tenses 
immediately precedes, ^"t?r!'!] a/id t/iej/ blew the truwjjets 
■j^sp and brake the jjitc/ters Y)mp. (there was) a breaking of 
the jjitchers Judg. 7:19; all this ^i'JTi? xh"} ''*^>*"? I have 
seen and apjjiied vuj heart Eccl. 8:9; ■:;p:' theij shall buy 
fields for money SiriDi and write the i^apers D'rri'i and seal 
(them) ";"nT and take icitncsses Jer. 32 : 44. 

a. This rarely occurs when no verb precedes in the same sentence, 
•nici ■'"It'r-c? "n (sludl) the fault-finder contend with the Almighty Job 
40:2. -"-■ N"i"i r''.'^rin the living creatures lan and returned Eztk. I: \-i, 
lix nid /;j?-a/sef/ Eccl. 4:2. 

2. The imperative, when it stands at the beginning of 
a sentence, "T^ijJ remember the sabbath-day prop, (let .there 
be) a remembering Ex. 20 : 8, ri^^lT 1\-:ir\ go and say 
2 Sam. 24:12. 

§269. The dependence of one verb upon another is 
most cUstinctly expressed by putting the second verb in the 
infinitive. The second verb may, however, be in form co- 
ordinated with the first by being put in the same or an 
equivalent tense with or without a copulative, the true rela- 
tion between the verbs being left to be inferred from their 
obvious signification, ?)P~ '"^s""' he v:as tcilling, icalked i. e. 
lie teas willing to icalk or walked willingly Hos. 5:11, 
or)":s? "'>■ "^^"i^ ^'" I v'l^ll >fO 'i^'ore add to pity i. e. will not 
again jjity Hos. 1 : 6, ^pr, zr2itti being early to go or going 
early IIos. 6:4, how ''""'S7.1 ""i^s shall I endure and see i. e. 
endure to see Esth. ^ -.Q. 



§ 270 OBJECT OF VERBS. 299 

a. This co-orJination most frequently occurs when the second verb ex- 
presses the principal idea and the first, simj)iy qualifies it. so that the latter 
might be rendered by an adverb. Tliough even in this case the second 
verb is often put in the infinitive, nsd Cjo'^i Gen. 8: 10 and he added to 
send or nbtt-'^i vjO'si 1 Sam. 19:21 and he added and sent lor he sent again. 

b. In the ibllowing instances the verbs thus co-ordinated have different 
subjects, i3"n33 ba^ix / shall be able, lue shall smite him i. e. I shall with 
your aid be able to smite him, Num. 22 : 6, T(^"1>t")P'? "'S^pin N^ thoit shalt 
not add, they shall call thee i. e. thou shalt no more be called by them, Isa. 
47: 1, 5; or are in different tenses, nssx ^'P}".!'; ^^ I know nut (liow) /shall 
Jiatter i. e. how to flatter, Job 32:22; O that sinx^TSXl '''^"hl I knew arid 
might Jind him i. e. how to find him, Job 23 : 3. 



Object of Verbs. 

§ 270. The object of ii transitive verb ordinarily stands 
after both tlie verb and its subject, and if it is an indefinite 
noun is distinguished simply by its position or by its rela- 
tion to the verb as determined by its meaning ; if a definite 
noun, or a demonstrative, relative, or interrogative pronoun, 
it may, at the pleasure of the writer, be further distinguished 
by prefixing to it rix the sign of the definite object ; if a 
personal pronoun, it is suffixed either to fix or to the govern- 
ing verb. 

a. Considerable liberty is allowed in respect to the position of words, 
particularly in poetry ; although, according to the natural order in Hebrew, 
the verb stands first, its subject next, and its object last, nk C^n'^X N^a 
c';iJ2ian God created the heavens Gen. 1 : 1, this is liable to any alteration 
that emphasis may require: the subject may precede the verb, and the ob- 
ject may stand between them or belbre them both. 

b. A noun, which is the direct object of a verb, may receive nx , 
whether it is definite by signification, as a proper noun, God tempted 
cnn^NTX Abraham Gen. 22:1, or is made so by the article, God saw 
mxn-nx the light Gen. 1 : 4, a pronominal suffix, take, now, ""ns-ia-ni* mij 
blessing Gen. 33:11, or construction with a definite noun, Jacob called 
cipari D{y-ni< the name of the place Gen. 35:15. The particle rs is not 
essential in any of these cases and is often omitted, p,';irticularly in poetry. 
If several definite nouns are connected togetiier as the object of a verb, 
or if a verb has more than one definite object, rx may be repeated before 
each of them, / have given nNin yiXHTN this /c/,?uZ .. . "'i/'lsn-PN the 
Kenite "^TDlsn-nNl and the Kenizzite, etc., etc.. Gen. 15: 18-21 ; they stripped 
ribi'^'Hx Joseph lh3ri3-nx (f his coat Disan nDfi3"nx the full-length coat 



300 - SYNTAX. §271 

Gen. 37 : 23 ; or it may stand before a part of them only. Dent. 12 : 6. or it 
may be omitted altogetiier. Deut. 11:14. In a very IVnv instances the 
article is dropped after nx , which of itself indicates the definiteness of the 
noun, he reartd up for himself rzk'C'niii the pillar 2 Sam. 18:18; and 
carver strengthened v|"]iJ"nj< gilder Isa. 41:7, where the omission of the 
article is poelic. §247. 

c. Pronouns with rs : tiTTX this ye shall eat Lev. 11:9; ])i(t HTTX 
this (fellow) in the prison 1 Kin. 22:27; — iCN rx whom they have cast 
into the prison Jer. 38:9; he knew riis~i"rN rx what his youngest son 
had done to him Gen. 9:24; l^o^n ""^"nx whom hast thou reproached? 
Isa. 37:23; it does not occur before the neuter ma. It is also extended 
eometimes to the following words, which partake to a certain degree of the 
pronominal character, ^3 all, every. Gen. 1:29, C"'X any one, each Ex. 
21:28, nnx one 1 Sam. 9:3. With personal pronouns, cnrx Ti'^i'^] Gen. 
32: 1, or c=n^"':! Gen. 48 : 20 arid he blessed them. 

§ 271. Many verbs, which are not properly transitive, are 
nevertheless capable of a transitive construction ; thus 

1. Verbs signifying plenty or want : ci^-'r^'^! N?"'? r;-^- f/ie 
louse was full (of) men Judg. 16 : 27, D-'^^s niSi? ■^pr'i:r I am 
sated (with) hurnt-offerings of raws Isa. 1:11, '"i) ^:ncn w(? 
lacked evertj thing Jer. 44 : 18. Here belongs that peculiar 
Hebrew idiom, which expresses abundance by such phrases 
as the following : the hills 3^n n:3?n shall run (with) milk 
Joel 4: 18, mine eye D''i? JTiy runneth doicn (with) water 
Lam. 1:16; D"^i'iCT2p i53 r.Si' it had all come 2if) (with) thorns 
i. e. was overgrown with them, Prov. 24 : 31. 

2. Verbs signifying motion may have for their object the 
place which it immediately concerns, whether it be directed 
upon it, to it, or from it, "(^"Tzn-bs rx tjbn and ive icent 
(through) all the loilderness Deut. 1:19, and figuratively, 
T\^y'^ Tf'?n icalking (in) righteousness Isa. 33:15, 'T'i"ri ^X2^n 
and they came into the city Josh. 8:19, "I'^rn-nx ^S2^ they 
went out (of) the city Gen. 44 : 4. 

3. Intransitive verbs may, as in other languages, govern 
their co2;nate noun, n"'bn ipisSn 1 have dreamed a dream 
Gen. 37:9; ^sc"'^ CiS"^1ipc''i and they lamented there a lamen- 
tation Gen. 50 : 10 ; ^binri bnn ye will be vain a vanity i. e. 
utterly vain Job 27 : 12 ; or even one from a different root if 



§272 OBJECT or verbs. 301 

it be related or analogous in signification, ''inssp t^^j',1':^ rrcn 
I have been zealous a great fury Zecli. 8 : 2, t^^i^n ■jir-'S / 
shall sleejJ death i. e. the sleep of death, Ps. 13:4. 

4. Any verb may take as its object a noun which defines 
the extent of its application, "pV^n-ns nSn he toas diseased in 
his feet 1 Kin. 15 : 23 ; only b"i.ns N52n in {he throne icill I 
he greater than thou Gen. 44 : 40 ; Xt) ^^^s^ri ye perish as to 
the loay i. e. lose the loay Ps. 2:12. 

a. B}^ an impersonal construction of passive verbs their subject is some- 
times converted into the object, which in fact it logically is, yiNf^'inx "n^ 
dandum est terram, let the land be giveti Num. 32:5, "'ns'nTiN n)?2"ib 1j»i 
lii;^ and it was told to Rebekuh (i. e. some one told her) tlie words of Esau 
Gen. 27:42, so Gen. 17:5, Ex. 10:8, Lev. 10:18, 2 Sam. 21: 11, etc. This 
construction is sometimes extended to neuter verbs in familiar phrases, 
which have become associated with an active idea, "li'^n'ns Tj"'3'^r3 S^l^ bit 
let not be evil in thine eyes (i. e. do not regard as evil) the thing 2 Sam. 
11 : 25. 1 Sam. 20 : 13, Josh. 22 : 17, Neh. 9 : 32. In 2 Kin. 18 : 30 n^rn-PN -,n5n 
the city shall be given, the verb agrees with "i"'5 notwithstanding its re- 
ception of the sign of the object: rs is omitted in the parallel passage. 
Isa. 36 : 15. 

b. A noun, about which a statement is to be made, sometimes stands 
absolutely and is preceded by the sign of the object, bsj bliariTis as for 
the iron, it fell 2 Kin. 6:5; b^n ^c:x n^x-bs-ns as for all these (they 
were) me« q/'uatoir J udg. 20: 44; "^nipriTiN as for my statides they did 
not walk in them Ezek. 20: 16. Some regard nx as the sign of the object 
in such passages as Si'^n-PNi "^nxn xa 1 Sam. 17:34, and refer to the fact 
that the Arabic conjunction is followed by the accusative when it is used 
in the sense of together with ; more probably, however, rx is the preposi- 
tion with. §238.2, and the passage is to be rendered the lion came and (that 
too) %dth the bear, so Num. 3:26. 1 Sam. 26: 16, 1 Kin. 11:25. etc. 

§ 272. 1. When a noun or pronoun is regarded as the 
indirect object of a verb, the relation is indicated by means 
of the appropriate preposition. 

2. Many verbs vary then- construction without any ma- 
terial difference of meaning according to the form of the con- 
ception in the mind of the speaker or writer, being followed 
by one preposition or by another or by none at all, as he views 
the relation as direct or indirect, and if the latter, under one 
aspect or another : thus, they iccnt out from the city may be 
expressed by the direct relation, ni^n-nx iss;^ Gen. 44 : 4, 



,302 • SYNTAX. §273 

or by the indirect, n'^yn-j^ ^xs,'; Josh. 8 : 22 ; Dnbs to fight is 
followed by D^ with Josh. 10:29, by a in (na in earn) 
ver. 31, by b? against ver. 38, by nx Judg. 12 : 4. 

a. A number of verbs are indifferently construed with a direct object or 
with b tn. in reference to, thus, snx to lore any one and to have love to 
any one, SE"i ^o c»re and to perform a cure for any one. S^CJin to save and 
to grant salvation to any one, nno io destroy and ^o bring destruction to 
any one. 

6. As the object of an action may, in certain cases, be regarded as the 
instrument with which it is performed, some transitive verbs also admit a 
construction with 3 with, thus isid IS'pn blow the trumpet Hos. 5 : 8, 
-ifcit"? 5ibr'»l and he blew with the trumpet Judg. 3:27; O'l^n^n bns to 
spread forth the hands Ps. 143:6, but followed by 3 to spread forth with 
the hands Lam. 1 : 17. 

3. By a condensed style of expression {constructio praeg- 
nans) prepositions are sometimes connected with verbs, to 
whose meaning they are not strictly conformed ; thus, motion 
may be suggested by the preposition though the verb of it- 
self implies no such idea, yy^^ nb^in thou hast profaned to 
the ground i. e. profaned by casting to the ground, Ps. 89 : 40, 
'■'"'?'')"'^ 1^"'^ ^Vf^ they trembled one unto another i. e. one 
turned tremblingly to another, Jer. 36: 16, ^^fj''?? C's'i ''hl?^ 
thou hast ansicered (by saving) me from the horns of the uni- 
corns Ps. 22 : 22. 

§ 273. Some verbs have more than one object, \\z. : 

1. The causatives of transitive verbs: tf^ii^aTX "inbDxni 
DniS3"nK and I ivill make thy oppressors eat their own flesh 
Isa. 49 : 26 ; n^N"52"ns« ^:xnn j^S he would not have caused its 
to see all these things Judg. 13:23; bsnirj^i-pj^ nsSnr he shall 
cause Israel to inherit it Deut. 1 : 38. 

2. Verbs whose action may be regarded under different 
aspects as terminating upon different objects, or which, under 
the rules already given, may take a direct object of more 
than one kind, all ^tr^ n^s: nrx which God commanded him 
Gen. 6 : 22 ; Q^nn-bs m bjs-^b': ^a-rx nninb to teach the chil- 
dren of Israel all the statutes Lev. 10:11 ; "^n^bj^'-s-ns n^in 
"•nb thou hast smitten all my enemies on the cheek Ps. 3:8; 



§273 OBJECT OF VERBS. 303 

XD'ip ai'i^nXTZJ liff up your hands to the sanctuary Ps. 134 : 2 ; 
MlQ^nt: D'9v'i' f^^^d he shall disconifit them a discomjiture 
Deut. 7 : 23. 

3. The instrument of an action, the material used in its 
performance, its design, or its result, is often regarded as its 
secondary or remote object, 1^y& inx to^"i^i and they over- 
whelmed him loith stones \jQ\. 24:23; t;i:3X ori^ P'^"'n'i a7id 
thou shalt yird them ivith a belt Ex. 29 : 9 ; thy seed y^Tp-ir!!): 
n'b'isrrrx toith ichich thou shall soio the ground Isa. 30 : 23 ; 
"isy DiNrrrx ^si'ii and he formed the man of dust Gen. 2:7; 
rnnb© Tics for which I have sent it Isa. 55:11; n:n^n 
riaya □•^s^iin-nN and he built the stones into an altar 1 Kin. 

18:32. 

a. The person affected by an action, of which he is not the immediate 
object, is occasionally regarded as its remote object, though not so fre- 
quently as in English, "^snr? ;;in ^nx thou hast given me the land of the 
south Judg. 1:15, comp. in the same verse, "'b iiFir^l; ^IS'^Ji ns"i they did 
thee evil Gen. 50: 17. comp. ris"i chb !i5732 Isa. 3:9; "=?.'2 "5r-rs Hrr'l 
t:3"'S v|bN and they hired of the king of Maacah a thousand men 1 Sam. 10:6. 
The same thing occurs in a few instances after intransitive verbs, "'rb'ia 
he grew tip to me as to a father Job 31 : 18; '';Pi'3S did ye fast unto me 
Zech. 7:5. 

4. Some verbs may govern the subject and predicate of 

a subordinate clause, bos ytn r^"°b to know wichedness (to 
he) folly Eccl. 7:25, the latter, if it be an adjective or par- 
ticiple, -will remain without the article, §259. 2, D^'^SN T^'a^ 
"H'isri'a I have heard Efjhraim bemoaning himself Z ex. 31 : 18, 
yk-l -T^^^ Tjpb? thee have I seen righteous Gen. 7:1. 

5. If an active verb is capable of governing a double 
object, its passive may govern the more remote of them, 
osnbny -i'4*2 nx DPb"^:'^ and ye shall be circumcised in the flesh 
of your foreskin Gen. 17:11, oris ^n^^n i5l?rini and the land 
was filled with them Ex. 1 : 7, "^rifPli y^njp rent as to his coat 
i.e. icith his coat rent 2 Sam. 15:32, "iCjp n^'ito sent (or 
charged) with a painful message 1 Kin. 14 : 6. 



304 ' SYNTAX. § 274 



Adverbial Expressions. 

^274. The predicate of a proposition may be further 
quahfied 

1 . By adverbs, which commonly stand after the words to 
which they refer, ^^^12 liu'nin'i and hehold (it was) very good 
Gen. 1 : 31 ; ninn cys^^ and he was greatly provoked ^^\. 
3 : 33 ; / am ^'Sia rt3"in ^"isto thy exceeding great reicard 
prop, thy reward very much Gen. 15:1. 

a. Adjectives belonging to the subject may of course be qualified in 
the same mapner as though they were found in the predicate. 

2. By nouns used absolutely to express the relations of 
time, place, measiu'e, number, or manner. 

a. Thus, time when : C'ln^i "i!^-J -"!? exreving and morning and noon 
will I pray Ps. 55:18; tarry here >^^"'"n to-night Num. 22:8; Gideon 
came n"i72"irxrt dNn at the beginning of the watch. Time how long: and 
he shall shut tip the house O"^'?^ ^?3^ seven c/ay.s Lev. 14:38; the land 
rested ni;:^ cijinuj eighty years Judg. 3: 30. 

6. The place where: the absolute use of nouns in this sense is confined 
almost entirely to the familiar words, nrs at the door of Gen. 18: 1. Judg. 
9:35, n"'3 at the house of Gen. 38:11, Num. 30:11, and a few proper 
names, cnb n^2 at Bethlehem 2 Sam. 2:32, ^X-n"'? at Bethel Hos. 12:4. 

c. Measures of space: rin« m'HN nii^d three cubits high Ezek. 41:22; 
he went DT^ Tp'n a day''s journey 1 Kin. 19:4. 

d. Number: Q'^aS'Q 2>3ia 2U3 return seven times 1 Kin. 18:43; he of- 
fered sacrifices Di)3 "Q05a according to the number of them all Job 1 : 5. 

e. Manner, answering to the Greek adverbial accusative: ye shall 
dwell rilia in security Deut. 12:10; 7je shall not go iniaii loftily Mic. 2:3; 
the tribes went up h'^'yiyh ri^iiy according to a. law of Israel Ps. 122: 4 ; 
thou shall not go there "^^"O'd nk'i'! for fear of briers Isa. 7:25; to serve 
him inx DDUJ with one consent prop, shoulder Zeph. 3 : 9. 

3. By nouns preceded by a preposition forming a qualify- 
ing phrase. 

a. For the meanings and usage of the several prepositions see the 
lexicon. 



§ 275 NEGLECT OF AGREEMENT. 305 



Neglect of Agreement. 

§ 275. The general rule that verbs, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns agree in gender and number with the noun to which 
they respectively relate, is subject to some remarkable excep- 
tions ; the prmcipal of which are the foUowing, viz. : 

1. TMien the predicate adjective or verb precedes the 
noun it often prefers a primary to a secondary form, that is 
to say, the masculine may be used instead of the feminine 
and the singular instead of the plural. The reason of this is 
that the attention is not so particularly drawn to the acci- 
dents of gender and number in the subject until it is uttered, 
and consequently the predicate is not required to conform so 
precisely to it. 

a. Thus, the masculine for the feminine: '('"^xn CPX N'r:-xi the land 
could not bear thetn Gen. 13:6, nrVi'^ C^riT":^ P"''^7 salvation is far from 
the wicked Ps. 119; 155, niriNO liin tremble ye careless icoDteii Isa. 32: 11. 
The singuhir for the plural: ~p":^"7 N3'J let thy xcords come to pass Judg. 
13: 12, r,-':3Edl3 n'r|) upright are thy judgments Ps. 119: 137, nT^is?? nc!i:x 
her wounds are incurable, ov the singular maybe understood distributively, 
each of her wounds is incurable Mic. 1 : 9. The masculine singular for the 
feminine plural: ni352 53^ X3 reproaches cease not Mic. 2:6, "(-"""ns 
ni^n xintil calamities be overpast Ps. 57:2, C"'"C3 'ii'""^n';'n aiid there were to 
him wives 1 Kin. 11:3. 

6. When the predicate consists of several verbs or adjectives, one of 
which precedes and the rest follow the noun, the latter must agree with it, 
while the first may be put in its primary form, n"iN^ "^n^ let there be 
lights . . . rnsb rn^ and let them be for signs Gen. 1 : 14. icJx' D"'C:i< "'ri-^^ 
S''XT3a >i">n and there were men who were defiled Num. 9:6. In 1 Kin. 
10 : 12 two verbs are put in the masc. sing, with a plural subject. 

c. The predicate, even when it follows the subject, occasionally departs 
from it in gender or number, retaining its primary form ; this takes place 
with passive or neuter verbs of familiar occurrence, and which are proba- 
bly used impersonally as the same verbs are elsewhere, §271.4. a. the sons 
of Jacob i"5"n27 ibx whom (his wives) had born to him prop, there had 
been born to him Gen. 35:26. comp. Gen. 4: 18. 46:22. 27, '''p n'-^n n^i-';^ 
there icas to me (i. e. I had) house-born servants Ecclcs. 2:7. comp. Gen. 
47:24, Ex. 12:49. 28:7. Num. 9: 14, 15:29. Deut. 18:2. 1 Chron. 24:28, 
2 Chron. 17: 13, it'^r: nba? it was dark prop, darhiess Gen. 15: 17. The 
disposition to recur to their primary form discovers itself in a very few 
instances in qualifying adjectives when separated from the noun to which 
20 



306 '" SYNTAX. § 275 

they belong,^ pmi nHila nsin a great and strong wind 1 Kin. 19:11 ; in 
Ps. 63:2, ClS^i n^z-y-jNS quoted by Nordheimer as an additional exam- 
pie the second adjective may agree not with J"^'^. but with the pre- 
ceding noun. "'■^02 for thee longs my Jiesh, in a dry land, and weary. 
Alex, in loc. 

2. Collective nouns may have verbs, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns agreeing with them in the plural, ^"i^?,'!:^ D^n ^"iTO'^n 
and the people hasted and passed over Josh. 4:10, riiins "js^i: 
lost sheep Jer. 50 : G, n^ilh;? d^s niyn-bs all the congregation, 
all of them are holy Num. 16:3. 

a. When a predicate consists of more than one verb or adjective, the 
first sometimes agrees with it formally in the singular and the rest 
logically in the plural, nHip-nN !13n*1 rT^rn'bs Kiani and all the congre- 
gation lifted up and uttered their voice Num. 14:1; I5^t;i'1 ci'fi "jCN*! 
and the people believed and they heard Ex. 4 ; 31. 

b. The noun y»X land^ earth, which is properly a feminine singular, 
may, when it is put lor its inhabitants, be construed with the masculine 
plural, 2 Sam. 15:23, Ps. 66:4. Names of nations borrowed from those 
of their progenitors, as Israel, Edom, Amalek. may be strictly construed in 
the masculine singular, Ex. 17 : 11. Am. 1 : 11, or as a collective in the mas- 
culine plural, Hos. 8:2, Ob. ver. 6, 2 Sam. 10: 17, or again in the feminine 
singular, whether this arises from a prominent reference to tlie land or 
from the frequent personification of a people as a maiden, 2 Sam. 10: 11, 
Jer. 13:19, 49:17; so D5 people in the following examples, ^^SS nxbn 
thy people has done wrong Ex. 5: 16, ns'bi"' cs'fi the people dwelling Judg. 
IS : 7. Different constructions may be united in the same passage, Jer. 
48:15, Hos. 14:1. 

3. Nouns, which are plural in form but singular in sig- 
nification, commonly have verbs, adjectives, and pronouns 
agreeing with them in the singular, D"^nb« ^5■^a God created 
Gen. 1:1, n'Qi'' T'byn ifs owner shall he put to death Ex. 
21 : 29, nrp Q^njs; a hard master Isa. 19 : 4, *'':r]y\'i} TZJ^nnn 
thy youth is renewed Ps. 103 : 5. 

a. When the word Q'^n'bx refers to false deities, the sense is plural 
and it is construed accordingly. T^'^n'^N ~^s these are thy gods Ex. 32:4, 8, 
C'l^-* *'ito3-'^-n3 so viay the gods do 1 Kin. 19:2; but where it refers to 
the true God, it is with ^qw exceptions construed in the singular. Yet 
see Gen. 20:13, 35:7, Ex. 22:8, Josh. 24:19, 1 Sam. 17:26, 2 Sam. 
7:23. The exceptional construction in these and similar passages may 
have arisen from the attention being directed to the Supreme Being in 
general, and to the fulness or variety of his manifestations without epe- 



^276 NEGLECT OF AGREEMENT. 307 

cific reference to the divine unity, and may. besides, involve an allusion to 
the personal distinction in the Godhead. See Alexander on Ps. 11:7 and 
58 : 12. 

4. Plural names of inanimate or irrational objects of 
either gender are occasionally joined with the feminine singu- 
lar, T)^5N :;in?n niia niisna the beasts of the field pant for 
thee Joel 1 : 20, v''T?9 ''^'^''^y^ its foods wash away Job 
14:19, npTHSi; Q"^pnri 'pangs have taken her Jer. 49:24, 
nsnn D""?!? wild beasts, their lair Isa. 35 : 7. 

a. In objects devoid of personality the individual is of small account, 
and may be easily sunk in the mass. A pluralis inhumaniis may conse- 
quently be regarded as equivalent to a collective, the proper form of which 
is the feminine singular, § 198, and words belonging to it may be dealt 
with accordingly. The same principle prevails in the construction of neu- 
ter plurals in Greek, ra ^wa Tpe^ei. 

5. Mascnhne verbs, adjectives, -and pronouns are some- 
times used when females are spoken of from a neglect to note 
the gender, if no stress is laid upon it, n'b'bn;'|i and they (queens 
and concubines) praised her Cant. 6:9; the Lord deal kindly 
0312^ loith you (Ruth and Orpah) as 'dr\^V^..^ ye have dealt 
Ruth 1:8; ""n^ my dead (Sarah) Gen. 23 :4 ; "i^lir ''Pi? thou 
art destroyed Jer. 4 : 30 ; this last passage may, however, be 
rendered thou, it is destroyed, ichat wilt thou do ? 

6. Singular predicates and pronouns are sometimes em- 
ployed in a distributive sense of plural subjects, ^^13 ^■'?"!5''3 
they that bless thee shall each be blessed Num. 24 : 9 ; rfffTva 
n^T r.iia they u-ho jnofane it shall every one be put to death 
Ex. 31 : 14 ; ^3i3^ ^1^6;' D^P^^i? I^p"i22 they take away the right- 
eousness of the righteous from each of them Isa. 5 : 23. 

^276. 1. When the subject consists of two or more 
words connected by the conjunction and, the predicate, if it 
precedes its subject, may be put in the masculine singular as 
its primary form, 's'^'pn niin uryc xsrn and from them shall 
proceed thanksgiving and a voice Jer. 30 : 19, or it may be 
put in the plural, referring to them all, f'^nxi n^^ Tib?;:5 



308 ' SYNTAX. §277-279 

and Moses and Aaron did so Ex. 7 : 20, or it may agree with 
the nearest word, T^n^*"! Q^"'''? '^^'^^ and Miriam and Aaron 
spake Num. 12:1; ^^^W}. '^^'^. VpX ^ ^^^ou and thy fathers 
have not known Deat. 13:7. 

2. If the predicate follows a compound subject it is 
commonly put in the plural, though it may agree with the 
principal word to which the others are subordinate, '"^T'T-) ''?S5 
mis I with my ynaidens will fast prop, and my maidens Est. 
4:16, S3 ^kii"! TiT '''13? the servants of David and Joab 
came 2 Sam. 3 : 22. 

3. If a predicate refers equally to two words of different 
genders, it will be put in the masculine in preference to the 
feminine, cij^T rnTl3"i cnnns Abraham and Sarah were old 
Gen. 18 :11 ; if they are of different persons, the predicate 
will be put in the second in preference to the third, and in 
the first in preference to either of the others, ""ba iir\fr>^ "iDfi? 
n^n? I and Jonathan my son icill be 1 Sam. 14:40, !"t)ns 
DFi"i3"TT ^I'lhij finST thou and Aaron thy brother and ye shall 
speak Num. 20 : 8. 

§277. If two or more nouns are united in the construct 
state the predicate ordinarily agrees with the first as the lead- 
ing word in such combinations : it may, however, agree with 
the second, if that is the more important, or the predicate 
might with propriety be referred directly to it, Ti3TJ^n roa'iTD 
bb'as the fields of Heshbon languish Isa. 16 : 8, nfe D^ ^ktT2? 
D'^ii^ns is found the blood of the souls of the poor Jer. 2 : 34. 

a. The predicate agrees generally though not invariably with the 
second noun when the first is bs . or an abstract expressing a quality of 
that wliich lollows, rij— ^t3';'-b3 >l"n;»i and all the days of Seth were Gen. 
5:8, Ditrn-bD ^ixin^ and all the women went out K\. 15:20, 1''i^^'^ ""1?^ 
1531? the choice of his captains were drowned ver. 4. 

§ 278. Nouns in the dual have verbs, adjectives, and 
pronouns, agreeing with them in the plural, nis") nsb •'iiy 
the eyes of Leah were tender Gen. 29: 17. 

§ 279. The abrupt changes of the person from the tliird 



§ 280 REPETITION OF WORDS. 309 

to tbe first or second, and vice versa, which are especially 
frequent with the prophets and psalmists, Isa. 1 : 29, Ps. 
81 : 17, are due to the boldness and vividness of their con- 
ceptions, in virtue of which they often pass in the course of 
the same sentence from speaking of God to speaking in his 
name, and from describing men to directly addressing them. 

a. The occasional combination of the pronoun of the first person with 
a verb in the tiiird is to be explained by an ellipsis, IS";! ^Jirj behold /(am 
he who) has laid Isa. 28 : 16, 7]Di"' "^JDn behold I (am he who) will add 
29:14, 3S:5. 

Repetition of Words. 

§ 280. The repetition of nouns may denote 

1. Distribution, nb^n nio q^ear hij year Deut. 14 : 22, 
^l?33 "^1533 in the morning, in the morning i. e. every morning 
2 Sam. 13:4, un'i^b -inx-u^'^N "inx-tD^x one man for each tribe 
Josh. 3:12; so with numeral adjectives, § 252. 4, nynir nyno 
by sevens Gen. 7 : 2, and adverbs, tW2 WXi little by little 
Ex. 23 : 30. 

2. Plurality, "iil~"iT generation and generation i. e. many 
generations Deut. 32 : 7, 'ij?^ ^j? ij?^ 1]? l^b ii lib is p^e- 
cejd upon precept, precept tipon precept, line upon line, line 
upon line Isa. 28:10, 13, ri'isa n'ii«3 pits on pits Gen. 
14 : 10 ; or with the implication of diversity, "jsiji pN a 
weight and a loeight i. e. loeights of two so7'ts Deut. 25 : 13, 
a!?i nb) a double heart Ps. 12 : 3. 

3. Emphasis or intensity, p'lS p'lir justice, justice i. e. 
nothing but justice Deut. 16 : 20, pb^ pb:? exceeding deep 
Eccl. 7 : 24 ; so with adverbs, ^5?'a ^i^'a mightily, mightily 
Gen. 7:19, and even a conjunction, '}?^3i 'j?'] because even 
because. 

a. Sometimes the second word is put in a different gender from the 
first, nirrisi 'VJCi2 all kinds of support Isa. 3:1, comp. Jer. 48 : 19, or a 
diffirent nuniher, CT'^tn "l^n a heap, tiro heaps Judg. 15:16. ^''}'^ 
ri^\:;'. Errl. 2:8. Or a cognate word may be employed, riH1^'J:l ni535z3 
waste and desolate Ezek. 6: 14, 'iinai^J rid Lev. 23:3. 



310 ■ SYNTAX. §281,282 

6. Instances occur of triple repetition, ^'i'7|5 laiTj? aJilfJ holy. hoJy.hohj, 
Isa. 6:3, yiN y-^k ynx O earth, earth, earth, Jer. 22 : 29, Jar. 7 : 4, EzeL 
21 : 32, Ex. 25 : 35." 

§281. A separate pronoun may be added to a pro- 
nominal suffix for the sake of emphasis, "^ifi* '^n^'a m?/ dying, 
mine 2 Sam. 19:1, ^liii'' nni? thee, thee shall they praise 
Gen. 49 : 8, or to a nomi to which it refers, x^n-ca nirb to 
Seth, to him also Gen. 4:26. 

§282. In verbs the absolute infinitive is joined with the 
finite forms to add emphasis or intensity to the idea, m'^^tH 
1(^127} shall thou actually reign over lis? Gen. 37 : 8, ri"7:n ni'b 
thou shall surely die Gen. 2:17. This combination some- 
times expresses continuance or repetition, particularly when 
two infinitives are connected together and both follow the 
finite verb, nifci s^iil:^ si'^'i and it went out going out and re- 
turning i. e. it kept going to and fro Gen. 8 : 7, *y?'i T^y^ ^^'fH 
they went on lowing as they loent 1 Sam. 6:12, d^'h'^^ "'^'^^iJ 
lii'i'i DiTpn and I spake to you rising up early arid speaking 
Jer. 7 : 13. 

a. The infinitive is mostly of the same species with the finite verb to 
which it is added, although this is not always the case. Thus, the Kal, 
on account of its greater simplicity of form, may be joined with a deriva- 
tive species, e.g. Niphal bjrB-^ bipD Ex. 19:13. Piel Tp'^2 ri'^"?] Josh. 
24:10, Pual qnb qn-J Gen. ^37 : 33, Hiphil c-iS': cn5 1 Sam. 23:22, 
Hophal n^i"' na Ex.'l9: 12. Hithpael n-jairrn -jlTa Isa. 24: 19; or one 
derivative species with another of like signification, •"'J^'^ES sis n"£fi Lev. 
19:20. nbnn xi i'nnn Ezek. 16:4. Occasionally the infinitive is bor- 
rowed from a cognate verb, Ciqx rjox Zeph. 1:2 (rjOS and rjio), cns 
"IS^sn: Isa. 28 : 28 (ir-jN and t^^'). 

b. The construct infinitive is very rarely used in such combinations in- 
stead of the absolute, ^:bin h'iin Neh. 1 : 7, n-'nx-rrn Ps. 50 : 21 ; once 
it is added in a varied form to a preceding construct infinitive, nbrtis 
niBas 2 Sam. 6:20. The finite verb is repeated, '''i'h"-^1 S-'ir^ 2 Sam. 15:8 
K'thibh. A verbal noun takes the place of the infinitive, lisn n^ns 
Hab. 3:9. 

c. When two verbs are connected together to express continuous ac- 
tion, a participle is sometimes substituted for tiie absolute infinitive in the 
case of one or both, riz'.i^ r<^-J . . . nb'i" "ii'n 2 Sam. 15 : 30, nih^ "Sn r,^n 
Jer. 41:6; an adjective may even take the place of the second, "^ibn "b^l 
bnai Gen, 26:13, nib;?! -^ilsn . . . T)^ni Judg. 4:24; the finite verb ia 



§283,284 INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 311 

omitted ill ^"i"?; "Vn ■'3'=i^^ Est. 9:4. the substantive verb takes its place, 
^ioti"! r(i5n si-n Gen. 8:5, bnii T^^h liSOin^ %"i7n 2 Chron. 17: 12. The 
second verb may also be put in one of the finite tenses, ^isprn r^iBn Di:Vn 
Josh. 6: i:^. ^^P,11 T<p^ ■ ■• Ti^H 2 Sam. 16 : 13, and in fact other construc- 
tions, begun with a participle or infinitive, are not infrequently continued 
in the preterite or future, Job 12 ;21. 



Interrogative Sentences. 

§283. 1. A direct question is indicated by the interroga- 
tive particle n, ""^^^^l loilt thoit go? Gen. 24:58, rnnn 
13X D'^nbx am I in the place of God? Gen. 50 :19 ; an in- 
direct question by n or DS? if, to Icnow D-iZHS DS'C'^n whether 
you love Deut. \k> -A, inquire n^ns-DX whether I shall re- 
cover prop, if I shall 2 Kin. 1:2. 

a. The particle <i. is in Job 4 : 2 separated from the proper interroga- 
tive clause. 

2. In a disjunctive question the first member is commonly 
introduced by r; and the second by DS or t3Si , Tjia f^znsri 
fciS-DX Kin is this thy soiUs coat or not? Gen. 37:32; f Enn 
is it any pleasure to the Almighty that thou art righteous 
y22~nsi or is it gain to him, etc., Job 22 :3. 

a. The second member is more rarely introduced by "ix or, v:h,o know- 
elh bsD ix n'ln') sonn whether he shall be a wise man or a fool Eccl. 2 : 19. 
or by n repeated i^k^i^'. ^'^'^ '^l'^'} whether they be strong or weak Num. 
13:18, XPn !i:b crifip iijj'i^bn have ye called us to impoverish us omot 7 
Judg. 14 : 15. The construction of the second clause is interrupted and re- 
sumed again in Gen. 17 : 17. 

6. If a question stand in a disjunctive relation to something previously 
expressed or implied, it may begin with CS, ik^n ■ir"n3"cx nirsn your 
perversion ! or is the potter to be reckoned as the clay? Isa. 29 : 10, rx'O ci< 
■'3^x or is this thing from my lord 7 1 Kin. 1 : 27. 

§284. A question may also be asked by means of the 
interrogative pronouns or interrogative adverbs. Or it may, 
without any particle of interrogation, be indicated simply by 
the tone of voice in which it is uttered, Tisia d'5td thy coming 
is peaceful? 1 Sam. 16:4. 



312 - SYNTAX. §285 



Relative Pronoun. 

§285. 1. From simple we pass to compound sentences. 
These are made up of distinct clauses united for the most 
part by the relative pronoun or by conjunctions. As the rela- 
tive invariably occupies the first place in its own clause, and 
as the Hebrew admits of no inflections to represent case, 
some special device was necessary to indicate its relation to 
the following words. Accordingly, wdien the relative "i^'si: is 
governed by a verb, noun, or preposition, this is shown by 
appending an appropriate pronominal suffix to the governing 
word, inbiD -nrx wliom he has sent 2 Kin. 19 -.4 ; the (/round 
nnns "licx tohich he has cursed Gen. 5 : 29 ; iyiT nirt« tchose 
seed Gen. 1 : 11 ; houses of clay ^T'^"} "^sya niril! ichose foun- 
dation is in the dust Job 4:19; the place 1"'^'^ . . . "ii?i? upon 
which Ex. 3:5; thou ^I'^R'^ns niDi? whom I have chosen Isa. 
41:8. 

a. When the relative is the object of a verb the sufHx is frequently 
omitted, the sense being sufficiently plain without it, ^nx^S'ilTN whom 
I have created Gen. 6 : 7. 

2. When the relative "ii"S!> is preceded by ns? the sign 
of the definite object, or by a preposition, these pertain not 
to the relative but to its antecedent, which is in this case 
embraced with it as in the English compound relative 
what = that ivhich, ihi3"5S' "liTNtTiS li^l and he commanded 
him lolio was over his house Gen. 44 : 1 ; to make thee under- 
stand nn;p;^-iiri« nx what shall befall Dan. 10 : 14. 

a. The only exception is "iCX CS wiih whoin Gen. 31 : 32. Gesenius 
finds another in "ibN3 Isa. 47 : 12, but see Alexander in loc. 

3. The relative is frequently omitted, not only as in 
English, when it is the object of its clause, ^ib^' r^nirs into 
the pit (which) the?/ have made Ps. 9:16, but also when it is 
the subject, and he forsook God ^ni»y (who) made him Deut. 
32:15, and even when it would stand for the compomid 



^ 286, 287 CONJUNCTIONS. 313 

relative and include its antecedent, nbicn-'ii^a hy the hand of 
(him whom) thou wilt send Ex. 4:13, (so doth) ^st:n b'ixTS 
the (/rave (those who) have sinned Job 24 : 19. 

§ 286. The demonstrative HT or ^T is frequently used in 
poetry with the force of a relative, and it then, like the 
English that, suffers no change for gender or number, nipp 
P>7'^? ^t f^'''^ place that thou hast founded Ps. 104 : 8, tiiET'D 
^n^n ^T devices, which they have contrived Ps. 10:2. 



Conjunctions. 

^287. The Hebrew sedulously avoids all involution of 
sentences. Consequently, instead of hnking its clauses to- 
gether into a complex whole by conjunctions of various 
power expressing their precise relation of dependence and 
subordination, it prefers, where this is possible, to connect 
them by means of the simple conjunction 1 and, leaving the 
exact nature of the connection intended to be inferred from 
the meanings of the clauses themselves. 

1. The conjunction i may accordingly be employed not 
only where w'e woidd use and, but before an adversative 
clause, of every tree thou mayest eat 7"?^^ l>ut of the tree of 
the hioivledye, etc.'. Gen. 2:16, 17, or one expressing a rea- 
son, give us help from trouble ii'itn for vain is the help of 
man Ps. 60 : 13, an inference, I have 710 jjleasure in the death 
of him that dieth ^n'lirnT ivherefore turn Ezek. 18 : 32, design, 
i'rr\ lib? ns'f do this and live i. e. in order that you may live, 
Gen. 42: 18, a comparison, man is born unto trouble ?lffin "^in^ 
and (i. e. as) the sparhs fy upicard Job 5 : 7, or a co-existing 
act or condition, Noah was six hundred years old b^Siani and 
(i. e. wdien) the food ivas upon the earth Gen. 7 : 6. 

2. It serves to introduce the apodosis or second member 



314 •- SYNTAX. ^287 

of a conditional sentence, if God will he with me and keep me 
rsyr^i n^ni then shall Jehovah he my God Gen. 28 : 20, 21. 

3. It may also connect a statement of time or a noun 
placed absolutely, with the clause to which it relates, Di*3 
l-^ry-nx DPO^i? K^*3 ^0^'?Tfn on the third day Ahraham lifted 
vj) his eyes Gen. 22 : 4 ; ^'^It'? °^0 ^^)J)r^ ^^^^ hope, (is it not) 
the integrity of thy ways ? Job 4 : 6. Both these uses, 
which are wholly foreign from our idiom, are combined in 
2 Sam. 15 : 34, thy father s servant ''2X1 I have heen so hith- 
erto, hut now "'ii^n I will he thy servant. 

a. For the meanings and usage of other conjunctions see the lexicon. 



GEAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

GENESIS, CHAPTER I. 

VERSE 1. 

tT'CSna composed of the inseparable preposition a, 
§231.1, mth Dagliesh-lene, §21.1, and the feminine de- 
rivative nomi n^csn, §198. «. (4), without the article, 
§248, conip. ev apxv John 1:1, Ger. anfangs^ Eng. at first ; 
position of the accent, § 32. 1. 

xna, i«b verb, § 162. 2, the preterite denoting past time 
absolutely, §262. 1, lack of formal agreement with its sub- 
ject, §275. 3, order of words, § 270. «, position of accent, 
§32.2. 

D"v}^^ a monosyllabic noun of class I., §183, plural, 
§199, of majesty, §201. 2, without the article, §246.1. 

rs$ sign of the definite object, § 270. 

O":''?^?^' the article, §229.1, §245.4, and noun of the 
second form of class I., §185. 2. </, only used in the phu'al, 
§201.1, §203. 5. c. 

nxi the conjunction 1 , § 234, and fii? . 

{ y'\)^T\ the article, § 229. 3, and Segholate noun of class I., 
§ 183 ; Seghol changed to Kamets by, § 229. 4. 3, or § 65 (1). 

This verse is divided by the accents into two clauses, 
§ 36. 1 ; Athnahh is preceded by Munahh and Tiphhha, 
§38. 2 ; Silluk by Merka and Tiphhha, and Tiphhha again 
by Merka, §38. 1. 



316 ■ - GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

TERSE 2. 

nn;'n, nb verb r^r^, ^1G9. 1, with ^Methegh, ^45.2, 
Kamets distinguished from Kamets-Hhatuph, §19. 2. 

'"a, V.n Segholate nouns of class I. from Tib roots, 
§184./$, abstracts used instead of adjectives, §254.6.(2, 
assonance or paronomasia. Double accent, § 30. 1. 

1??"^? Makkeph, § 43, n:s noun of class I., form 2, 
§185. 2.d, only used in the plm-al, §201. i, §209. 1 ; here 
in the construct state, § 214. 2, § 216. 1, with its possessive 
sense, §254. 1. 

cnn noun of class III from iz'root § 190. b, article omitted 
as if from a proper noun, § 246. 1, or by a kind of poetic 
brevity, §247, the face of ocean. 

rsn^'a Piel participle of the Ayin Guttural verb Xp^ , 
§116.4, §121. 1, feminine, §205, as the predicate without 
the article, § 259. 2, although its subject is definite, § 246. 3; 
the participle expresses continuous action, §266. 1, belong- 
ing to the period before spoken of, § 266. 3. 

:D';''2ri noun used only in the plural, § 201. 1, § 203. 5. c ; 
vowel changed by the pause accent, §65. 1. 

This verse consists of two clauses, §36. 1 ; the clause of 
Athnahh is subdivided by Zakeph Katon and R'bhia, §36.2; 
Zakeph Katon is preceded by Pashta, and Pashta by Merka, 
§38.4, Athnahh by Munahh and Tiphhha, §38.2. The 
clause of Silluk is subdivided by Zakeph Katon ; this is 
preceded by Munahh, §38.4, and Silluk by Merka and 
Tiphhha, §38.1. 

TERSE 3. 

^^N^'i Kal future of Pe Aleph verb nrx , §110. 3, with 
Yav Conversive, §99. 1, §265, which removes the accent to 
the penult and changes the vowel of the ultimate, §99. 3. a, 
§111. 2. «. 



GENESIS, CHAPTER I. '317 

•^n;* apocopated future of nb verb n^n , §171.1, § 177. 1, 
witli a jussive sense, § 264. 

"'^'J'} future with Vav Conversive ; Dagliesli-forte omitted, 
§99.3, Methegh, §45.2. 

VERSE 4. 

i5"i.-!^ K^l futm-e of s^ib verb •"ifij'n with Vav Conversive, 
§171.1, §172.4. 

3it3 the predicate adjective without the article, §259. 2. 

b^ii'l Hiphil future of b^a with Vav Conversive, § 99. 3. 

)'^2^ Vav Conjunctive, § 234, with the preposition "J"^? , 
§237.1. 

VERSE 5. 

snip^l from the J^b verb s^i?, §162.2. 

.D^n-bi«^ P'sik, §38. l.«. 

nixb preposition b with the vowel of the article, § 231. 5. 

Di'^ noun, whose plural is D"^^rj §207. 1./. 

N"^)? the preterite, used rather than the future with Vav 
Conversive, because the verb does not begin the clause, 
§265, the accent removed to the penult, § 35. 1. 

nb;^b paragogic n^ , §61. 6, §219. 2, with the noun b;*^, 
a Segholate of class 1. from an "''^ root, §184. 6, having a 
pause accent, § 65. 1. 

:'^^^^ numeral, §223. 1, agreement and position, §250.1. 

VERSE 6. 

r|5'? noun of class I. form 2, §185. 1. 
?fin3 preposition n, §231. 1, with the construct of l\)r\, 
§216. 1. d, in a partitive sense, §254. 2. 



318 - GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

bi'^n'a Hiphil participle of bna , ^ 84. 5, denoting con- 
tinuous action, ^266. 1, and referred by the tense of the ac- 
companying substantive verb to the future, ^ 266. 3. a. 

VERSE 7. 

to?^"! s guttural and rib verb niry with Vav Conversive, 
§109.3, §171.1, §172.4. 

nnn'a composed of the prepositions 'j's and nnn , 
§237.2(1). 

byia composed of the prepositions 'J'a and by . 

VERSE 8. 

D'^'CT^ with pause accent, §65 (1). 

njph, nny class I. Segholates, §183. 

J"*^© ordinal number, §227. 1, agreement with noun and 
position, §252. 1. 

VERSE 9. 

'11)5:' Niphal future of rb verb nnp, §169.1, with an 
imperative sense, § 263. 1. 

Di^^ noun of class III. from an 15' root, §190. h. 

^^7^ Niphal future of nsn , § 109. 4, § 168. 

VERSE 10. 

'^i)?''?'?^ conjunction 1, §234, preposition b, §231. 1, and 
noun of class III. from Tb root, §190. <5, in the construct 
state, §215. 2, followed by the material of which it consists, 
§254.4. 

D'l/Q^ plural, §207. 2, of D*; , a noun of class I. from an 
y'b root, §186. 2. c. 



GENESIS, CHAPTER I. 319 

VERSE 11. 

scnn apocopated Hip'hil future of «fcn , §97.2, §264, 
governing its cognate noun NTC"i , §271.3. Methegh by 
§45. 2. 

T'^'^'^ the participle expresses what is constant and habit- 
ual, §266.1. 

■j^;? collective noun, §201.1, probably abridged from a 
ti^ root, class I. form 2, § 185. 2. ^, in the construct, §215.1, 
with the following word, which denotes its quahty, §254. 6. 

"'ns noun from nb root class I. form 1, §184. 6. 

ntoi? Kal participle of rib verb, §168 ; the accent is not 
Y'thibh but Mahpakh, as is shown by its standing before 
Pashta in the subdivision of Zakeph Katon, §30. 2, §38. 4, 
shifted to the penult by, §35. 1, followed by Daghesh-forte 
conjunctive in the first letter of the next word, § 24. a. 

iriab preposition b, §231. 1, noun T12 from an ^'b root 
class I, §186. 2.5, and pronominal suffix, §220. 1. 

innynr nisx oblique case of the relative pronoun, §74, 
§285. 1; the preposition i with a pronominal suffix, §233. 

VERSE 12. 

ssini Hiphd future of ""S) and sb verb, §144. 1, §162, 
with Vav Conversive, the accent remaining on the ultimate, 
§147.5, §166.4. 

^nr-ab suffix of third person, §220. 1. (5, singular in dis- 
tributive sense referring to the preceding collective, §275. 6. 

VERSE 13. 

ftribti: ordinal number, §227. 1, §252. 1. 



320 -GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS 

VERSE 14. 

^i^"} lack of agreement with subject, ^275. 1. 

try&'Q masculine noim in the plural, ^ 200. c, class III. 
from an lb root, §.190. 3. 

bi"i3nb the construct form of the infinitive used with pre- 
positions, §267. 3. 

rriT preterite mth A^av Conversive, §100.1, §265, in 
the plural because following the noun, § 275. 1. (5. 

VERSE 15. 

'T'sri'5 Hiphil infinitive construct of 15' verb, §153. 1. 

VERSE 16, 

^^ifi cardinal number, §223. 1, joined with noun, 
§250. 2 (2), without the article, §251. 4. 

D'^bnsn qualifying adjective with the article after the 
noun, §249.1. 

fnj5n . . . Snsn class I. form 2, §185. 1, emphatic use of 
the positive degree, §260. 2 (2). 

nbria'a noun of class III., §190, in the construct state, 
§214. 1. d, the following noun denoting the object, §254. 9. 
:D^nDi2n noun of class II. from an y'b root, §187. I.e. 

VERSE 17. 

■jPi^l from 5D verb ln3, §129.1. 
fin« sign of the definite object with a pronominal suffix, 
§238^2. 

VERSE 18. 

b^"hnnbi . . . SfeJtjbn construct infinitive with the preposi- 
tion, §267.^; Metheghwith l, §45. 2.a. 



GENESIS CHAPTER I. 321 

VERSE 20. ' 

flB-i:?;' Piel future of iV verb, §154. 2. 

VERSE 21. 

Dj^rnn plural of lin, §199; the Hhirik of the ultimate 
is long, § 19. 1. 

nc'ahn Kal feminine participle, §205, with the article, 
§249.1. 

■iiDX the object of the verb "iy*^ though without the ap- 
propriate pronominal suffix, §285. l.<a;. 

Dnriab plural noun with plural suffix, § 220. 2. h. 

VERSE 22. 

T^:^'^ Piel future of y Guttural verb, §116.4, §121. 1, 
with Yav conversive, §99. 3. «, no Daghesh-lene in n since 
the preceding Sh'va is vocal, §25. 

^bs5 the preposition with Tsere, §231. 3. a, so as to say 
i. e. 171 saying. 

'an, ^ns Kal imperatives of ran, nns, §169.1. 

an;? Kal apocopated future, §171.1, Hhirik short though 
accented, §19. 1. 

VERSE 24. 

"in^ni constnict of n^n, §214.1, with i paragogic, 
§218. jMethegh, §45. 2, Daghesh-forte omitted, §25. 

VERSE 26, 

nis?3 Kal future of rkv , §109.1, §168, in the plural 
number, §275. 3. ^r. 

^iiabra preposition, §231.1, Segholate noun, class I., 
§183, and pronominal suffix, §221.5. 
21 



322 - GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

'in'i^i from n"in, §169. 1. 

ninn preposition, ^231.2, construct of the collective 
noun n^T, §198, §214.1, §216.1; no Dagliesh-lene in a, 
^22. a (5). 

TERSE 27. 

r.n)?:i idt predicates, §273.4, and consequently in- 
definite. 

: ans5 pronoun, referring to both genders put in the mas- 
culine, § 276. 3. 

VERSE 28. 

ncnpi conjunction 1, §234, imperative Kal of tJis, 
§84.4, and pronominal suffix, §101. Kibbuts is long, 
§19.1. 

VERSE 29. 

''nns from "jnp, §130.1, preterite in the sense of the 
present, §262. 1. (^. 

n;in7 singular, referring formally to the nearest collective 
subject, §276. 1, or taken distributively, §275. 6. 

VERSE 30. 

pn-i-bs-ns, nx before ^3 without the article, §270. c. 

VERSE 31. 

lijf'a position of adverb, §274. 1. 

♦ iirtsn uv article omitted before the noun, §249. 1. c. 



i:ndex I. 

SUBJECTS TREATED FULLY OR INCIDENTALLY. 



The numbers in this and the following Indexes refer to the Sections of the Grammar. 



Abhreviations 3. 1. 

Absolute infinitive. See Infinitive abso- 
lute. 
Abstract nouns, feminine 198, plural 201. 

1. a, c. 

Accents 28, use in cantillation 28. b, forms 
and classes 29, meaning of names 29. 6, 
like forms distinguished 30, position of 
32-35, aid in distinguishing words 34, 
change of position 35, effect of Vav 
conversive 33. 4, 99. 3, 100. 2, in place 
of Methegh 39. 3. b, 45. 5, give sta- 
bility to vowels 60. 1. a, vowel changes 
produced by 64. 

Accents, consecution of in prose 36-39, 
poetic 31, consecution of 40-42. 

Accents pause 37. 2. a, position of 35. 2. 

Accentuation double 39. 4. a, 42. a. 

Addition of letters 50. 3. 

Adjectives in place of participles of neuter 
verbs 90, 185. 1. a, formation of 185. 2, 
expressing permanent or variable quali- 
ties 185. 2. a, intensity 187. 1, 189, 
defects 187. 1. b, diminutives of color 
188, declension of 217, qualifying nouns 
249. 1, qualifying nouns in the con- 
struct 256, predicate 259. 2, compari- 
son of 260, emphatic use with verbs 
282. c. 

Adjectives numeral 223-227, 250-252. 

Adverbial idea expressed by a verb 269. a. 

Adverbial expressions 274. 

Adverbs 235, with suffixes 236, as the sub- 
ject 242. c, numeral 252. 4, position of 
274. 

Affixes 33. 

Agreement neglected 275-279. 

Aleph, sound of 3. 4, used as a vowel-letter 
11. 1, in a few verbal forms 120. 2, 122. 

2, 156. 3, once in 3 f. s. suffix 220. 2. 
b, otiant 16. 1, with Mappik 26, with 
Daghesh forte (?) 121. 1, substituted for 



He in Chaldee 51. 3, in Niphal infini- 
tive 91. 6, in Hiphil 94. a, 6, in Hith- 
pael 96. a, in feminine ending of verbs 
86. b, and nouns 196. d, for Vav in fem. 
plur. of nouns 199, prosthesis of 53. 1. 
a, 183. c, omitted 53. 2, 3, 57. 2 (2) a, 
111. 2. 6, 0, 151. 2, 164. 2, quiescent 
57. 2, after prefixed prepositions 231. 3. 
a, b, after Vav Conjunctive 234. c, pre- 
fers diphthongal vowels 60. 1. a, 110. 3, 
111. 2, previous vowel rarely short if 
Daghesh forte omitted 60. 4. "a, 121. 1, 
229. 3, added to 3 pi. preterite 86 6, 
prefixed in the formation of nouns 189. 

Alphabet 2, order of 6, Lepsius' theorj 
6. a. 

Animals, names of 197. c. 

Apocopated future 97. 2, 264, not in pas- 
sive species 97. 2. b, in Ayin Guttural 
verbs 119. 1, Lamedh Guttural 126. 1, 
Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh 153. 5, 157. 
3,' 158. 2, 160. 3, Lamedh He 171. 1, 
172. 4, 173. 3, 174. 4, 175. 3, 176. 3. 

Apocopated imperative 98. 2, 171. 1. 

Apposition of nouns 253. 

Arabic letters 3. I. a, currently read with- 
out vowels 10. a, svllables 18. 2. c, 
Teshdid 23. 3. 6, accent 33. 4. a, Elif 
prosthetic 53. 1. a, conjugations 83. e 
(1), comparative or superlative 189. a, 
nouns of unity 198. 6, piural ending 
199. c, dual 202, article 229. 1. a, con- 
junction with the accusative 271. 4. b. 

Article definite 229, use of 245, with 
verbs, etc. 245. 5. 6, with proper nouns 
246. 1. a, before nouns with suffixes 
246. 2. a, before nouns in the construct 
246. 3. a, when omitted 247, 249. 1. b, 
c, 249. 2. 6, c. 

Article indefinite 229. 1. b, 248. a. 

Aspirates 3. 1, 7. 2, receive Daghesh lene 
21, their original sound 21. b, aff'ftcted 



324 



INDEX I. 



bv concurrence of consonants or doub- 
ling 54. 1. 

Athnahh divides verse 86. 1, train of 38. 2. 

Augment, Greek and Sanskrit 99. 1. a. 

Avin, sound of 3. 4, Chaldee substitutes 
"for Tsadhe 51. 8, elided 58. 3. a, 128, 
previous towel sometimes short when 
Daghesh omitted 60. 4. a. 

Ayin doubled verbs, origin of term 76. 3, 
their peculiarities 133-137, paradigm 
138, remarks 139-142. 

Avin Guttural verbs 116, paradigm 117, 
'remarks 118-122. 

Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs, origin of 
term 76. 3, their peculiarities 152-154, 
paradigm 155, remarks 156—161. 

Biliteral roots 68. b. 

Bohemian accent 83. 4. a. 

Cardinal numbers 223-266, with dual end- 
ing 223. 1. a, position and agreement 

250, 251, with suthses 250. 2 (2) a, 

251. 4. n, with the article 251. 4. 
Chaldee syllables 18. 2. c, words modified 

from Hebrew 51. 3. dual 202. 

Changes of person 279. 

Cities names of, feminine 197. d. 

Collectives with feminine ending 198, con- 
strued with the plural 275. 2. 

Commutation of letters 50. 1, Aleph for 
He 86. 6, 91. 6, 94. a, 96. a, 196. d. He 
for Aleph 189. b, Aleph for Yodh 56. 
4, or Vav 56. 4. a, 199, Vav for Aleph 
57. 2 (2) a. 111. 2. 6, d, Yodh for Vav 
56. 2, Teth for Tav 54. 4, 82. 5. 

Comparison, how expressed 260. 

Compound numbers 224, 225. 2, with 
nouns 251. 3, with the article 251. 4. a. 

Compound predicate 275. 1. 6, 275. 2. a. 

Compound sentences 285. 1. 

Compound species 83. c (2). 

Compound subject 244. 1, 276. 

Conjugations 76. 1. 

Conjunctions 239, 287. 

Consecution of accents in prose 36-39, in 
poetry, 40-42. 

Consonant changes, 53-56. 

Consonants changed to vowels 57, vowel 
changes occasioned by contiguous con- 
sonants 60, by concurrent consonants, 
61. 

Construct infinitive. See Infinitive con- 
struct. 

Construct state of nouns 212-216, rela- 
tions denoted by 254, resolved by pre- 
position Lamedh 257. 

Consriuctio praegnans 272. 3. 

Contraction of two similar letters 61. 3, 
134. 1. 

Contracted verbs 107. 

Copula 258. 2, 3. 

Countries names of, feminine 197. d. 
jesh meaning of word 21. 2. a. 



Daghesh-forte 23, distinguished from Da- 
ghesh-lene 23. 2, from Shurek 23. 3, 
difi'erent kinds of 24, conjunctive, in- 
stances of 24. a, 75. 1, separative 24. 6, 
190. a, 216. 2. a, 221. 5. a, 230. 2. a, 
emphatic 24. c, 86. a, 149. 1, omission 
of 25, resolved by the insertion of a 
liquid 54. 3, 221. 6. 6, or Yodh 141. 1, 
or by prolonging the previous vowel, 
59. a, never in gutturals 60. 4, 108, 
rarely in Resh 23. 1, 60. 4. a, omitted 
from Hithpael 96. a, in suffixes of verbs 
! 104. a, 105. b. 

Daghesh Icne 21, 22, omitted from Kal 

imperative 89 (f. s. and m. pi.), from 

I guttural forms 109. 3. «, from coiibtiuct 

I plural of notms 216. 2. a, after prefixes' 

' 101. 2. b. 

Daleth assimilated to the feminine ending 
Tav 54. 2, 148. 2, 205. b. 

Day of the month 252. 2. b. 

Declension of nouns, adjectives and parti- 
ciples 217. 

Demonstrative pronouns 73, qualifying 
nouns 249. 2, qualifying nouns in the 
construct 256, predicate 259. 2, used for 
relative 286. 

Dental letters 7. 1. 

Dialects, efi'ect upon words 51. 3. 

Diphthongal vowels 15. 

Distributive numbers 252. 4. 

Distributive sense expressed bv repetition 
252. 4, 280. 1. 

Division erroneous, of words 43. b. 

Divisions of Grammar 1. 

Dual, ending of 202, signification of 203, 
superadded to the plural 203. 5. 6, 
I nouns with suffixes 221. 4, joined with 
the plural 278. 

Emphasis expressed by repetition 280-282. 

English accent 33. 4. a. 

Excess, how denoted 260. 2 (2') b. 

Feminine endings 196, how related 55. 2. 
c, 196. 6, compared with Indo-European 
endings 196. e, used to form abstracts, 
collectives, official designations 198, and 
nouns of unity 198. 6, appended to in- 
finitive. See Infinitive construct. 

Feminine nouns without fern, ending in 
I the singular 197. a, with masc. ending 
I in plural 200. 6, with two plural forms 
I 200. c, with suffixes 221. 2. 

Feminine sign of, duplicated 88 (3 f.), 167. 
3, 169. 1. a (?), neglected 88 (2 f. s, 
3 f pi.), 197. a. 

Final forms of letters 4, in middle of 
■words 4. a. 

Flexibility various, of different languages 
69. b. 

Formative svllables differ from prefixes 
and suffixes 33, 69. c, 101. 2. 6, 123. 4. 

Fractional numbers 227. 3, 262. 3. 



INDEX I. 



325 



Future, formation of 84. 3, its personal 
endings and prefixes 85. 1. a (2) with 
suffixes 105, uses of 263, shortened 
form. See Apocopated future. 

Galilean pronunciation 51. 4. a. 

Grammar, function and divisions of 1. 

Grammatical subject 244. 2. 

Grave sullixes 72, 221. 1. 

Greek alphabet 5. a, 6. 6, Y. 2. a, accent 
33. 4. a, augment 99. 1. a, feminine 
and neuter 196. e, numerals 223. 2. a, 
construction of neuter plurals 275. 4. a. 

Guttural letters 7. 1, their peculiarities 60, 
108, attract or preserve vowels 60. 3. c. 

Guttural verbs 107. 

He and Ilheth 3. 3. 

He as a vowel letter 11. 1, 57. 2 (2) ft, 
with Mappilv 26, prosthesis of 53. 1. a, 
rejection of 53. 2, 3, 85. 2. a (1), 95. 6, 
211. a, 229. 5, 231. 5, preceding vowel 
often short when Daghesh omitted 60. 

4. a, 121. 1, 229. 3, added to 2 m. s. 
and 2 f pi. preterite 86. 6, to 2 m. s. 
suffix 104. ft, 220. 1. ft, to 2 f s. suffix 
220. 2. c, to 2 and 3 f pi. suffix 104. g, 
220. 1. ft, 220. 2. c, for 3. m. s. suffix 
104. d, 220. 1. ft, omitted from f. pi. 
future 88 and imperative 89, omitted 
after prefixes 85. 2. a (1), 91. ft, 94. ft, 
95. ft, 113. 2, 229. 5, retained in excep- 
tional cases 95. e, 142. 3, 150. 2, 231. 

5. a, for Aleph 165. 1, prefixed in the 
formation of nouns 189. ft. 

He directive 219. 1. 

He interrogative 230. 

He paragogic, effect on accent 33. 1, with 
Methegh 33. 1. «, examples of 61. 6. a, 
219. 2, distinguished from feminine 
ending 196. c, added to preterite 93. c, 
to future. See Paragogic future. 

Hhateph Seghol in 1 Sing, future Piel 92. e. 

Hheth, preceding vowel mostly short, when 
Daghesh omitted 60. 4. a, 121. 1, 
229. 3. 

Hhirik, quantity of 14, 19. 1, between 
concurring consonants 61. 1, 85. 2. a, 
216. 2, 231. 2, 234, in Segholates 61. 2, 
184. ft, never in the ultimate of Kal ac- 
tive participles 90, in 1 sing. Niphal fu- 
ture 91. c, 149. 2, in Piel before suffixes 
104. h, in penult of Piel infinitive 92. </, 
in Hipliil infinitive 94. ft, rejected from 
Hiphil future 94. c, and participle 94. e, 
in the inflected preterite of Kal, Hiphil 
119. 2, and Hithpael 96. ft, retained in 
Hiphil before suffixes 104. h, in the ul- 
timate of nouns 207. 1. c, 209. 2. 

Hholem, stability of 60. 1. a (4), in in- 
flected verbs Ayin doubled 61. 3, 136. 
2, 141. 2, and Ayin Vav and Ayin 
Yodh 153. 4, 159. 1, 160. 2. shortened 
to Kamets Hbatuph in Kal infinitive 



construct 87, future 88, and imperative 
89, once retained in Kal future before 
Makkeph 88, in intensive species 92. ft, 
rejected from Kal future before suffixes 
105. d, in the ultimate of nouns 207. 1. 
c, d, 207. 2. c, 215. 1. c, 209. 2, in the 
penult 210. fi?, 216. 1. c. 

Hiphil, signification of 79, relation to Piel 
80. 2. a (1), formation of 82. 4, origin 
of prefixed He 82. 5. ft (2), nouns de- 
rived from 187. 2. a, 189. 

Hithpael, signification of 80, relation to Ni- 
phal 80. 2. a (2), formation of 82. 5, 
origin of prefixed syllable 82. 5. ft (1), 
verbs having two forms of 122. 2. 141. 

Hophal, signification of 79. 3, formation 
of 82. 4, origin of prefixed He 82. 5. ft 
(2), no imperative 84, except in two in- 
stances 95. d, in Ayin doubled verbs 
140. 6, in Pe Yodh verbs 150. 5, in 
Ayin Vav verbs 160. 5, in Lamedh 
Aleph verbs 167. 2, in Lamedh He 
verbs 175. 5. 

Imperative, formation of 84. 4, its per- 
sonal endings 85. 1. a (3), Kal with suf- 
fixes 101, 3. 106. ft, paragogic 98. 1, 
111. 3. a, 125. 1, 132. 1, 148. 3, 157. 2, 
apocopated 98. 2, 171. 2, twice in Ho- 
phal 95. d. 

Imperfect verbs classified 107. 

Impersonal subject 243. 3, construction of 
passive and neuter verbs 271. 4. a, 275. 
1. c. . 

Inanimate objects, names of 198. c, in plu- 
ral 203. 5. a, plural with feminine sin- 
gular 275. 4. 

Indefinite subject 243. 2, article 229. 1. 6, 
248. a 

Indo-European roots 69. «, pronouns 71. 
ft, feminine and neuter 196. e, dual 202. 
(z, numerals 223. 2. a, conception of 
time 261. 

Infinitive, a verbal noun 267, as the sub- 
ject 242. 6, 267. a, does not admit the 
article 245. 5. ft, with prepositions 242. 
ft, 267. ft, governed by verbs or nouns 

267. ft, c, construction changed to pret- 
erite or future 282. c. 

Infinitive absolute, formation of 84. 1, 
with feminine ending 160. 4, for pret- 
erite or future 268. 1, for imperative 

268. 2, emphatic use of 282. 
Infinitive construct, formation of 84. 2, in 

Kal usually without Vav 87, with femi- 
nine ending in perfect verbs 87, in Pe 
Guttural 111. 3. a, in Ayin Guttural 
119. 3, in Lamedh Guttural 125. 2, in 
Pe Nun 131. 4, in Avin doubled 139. 2, 
in Pe Yodh 148, in Piel 92. f/, in Ho- 
phal 150. 5, in Hiphil 128, in Lamedh 
Aleph verbs 166. 2, in Lamedh He 168, 
with suffixes 101. 3, 106. a, following 



326 



INDEX I. 



noun or suffix denote subject or object ! 
102. 3, 254. 9. 6, emphatic use of 2S2. b. ! 

Inseparable prepositions 231-283. j 

Intensity expressed by repetition 280. 3, i 
282. j 

Interjections 240. 1 

Interrogative and indefinite pronouns 75, 
trace of neuter in 196. a. 

Interrogative sentences 283, 284. 

Intransitive verbs construed transitively 
271. 

Irrational objects, plural, with feminine 
singular 275. 4. 

Jews modern, use Rabbinical letter 2, 
their pronunciation of Ayin 3. 4, use 
abbreviations 9. 1. 

Kal, meaning of term 76. 2, formation in 
perfect verbs 82. 1, remarks upon S6-90. 

Kamets and Kamets-Hhatuph distinguished 
19. 2. 

Kamets in the ultimate of nouns 207. 1. 6, 
207. 2. 6, 215. 1, in the penult 210, 
216. 1. 

Kamets-Hhatuph in Kal infin. constr. be- 
fore Makkeph 87, before suffixes 106, 
in future 88, in imperative 89, 106, in 
passive species 82. 5. b (3), 93. a, 95. a. 

Kaph and Koph 3. 2. 

Kaph initial rejected 53. 2. a, assimilation 
of 54. 2. a. 

Karne Phara 38. 10. 

Kibbuts, quantity of 19. 1, in passive spe- 
cies 82. 5. b (3), 93. a, 95. a, in Hith- 
pael 96. a. 

K'ri and K'thibh 46-48, number of 46. a. 

Kushoi 21. 2. a. 

Labial letters 7. 1. 

Lamedh initial rejected 53. 2. a, 132. 2, 
medial rejected 53. 3. 6, 88 (1 c), assim- 
ilated to following consonant 54. 2, 132. 
2, appended in formation of nouns 193. 
2. c. 

Lamedh Aleph verbs 162, paradigm 163, 
remarks 164-167. 

Lamedh Guttural verbs 123, paradigm 124, 
remarks 125-128. 

Lamedh He verbs, origin of term 76. 3, 
their peculiarities 168, 169, paradigm 

170, shortened future and imperative 

171, remarks 172-177. 

Latin alphabet 6. b, 7. 2. a, accent 33. 4. a, 
feminine and neuter 196. 2, numerals 
223. 2. a. 

Lazian accent 33. 4. a. 

Letters, sounds of 3, double forms of 4, 
of unusual size or position 4. a, names 
of 5, order of 6, classification of 7, nu- 
merical use of 9. 2, commutation of 50. 
1, transposition of 50. 2, addition of 
50. 3. 

Lettish accent 33. 4. a. 

Light suffixes 72, 221. 2-4. 



Linguals 7. 1, substituted for sibilants in 
Chaldee 51. 3. 

Liquids 7. 2. 

Losiieal subject, 244. 2. 

Makkeph 43. 

Manner 274. 2. e. 

Mappik 26, omitted from 3 f. s. suffix 104. 
e, 220. 1. b. 

Masculine for feminine, suffixes 104 g, 
220. 1. 6, future 88 (3 f. pi.), 105. e, 
predicate and pronouns 275. 1. a, 275. .5. 

Masculine nouns with suffixes 221. 3, with 
fem. ending in plural 200. a, with two 
endings in plural 200. c. 

Matres lectionis 11. 1. 

Measure 274. 2. c. 

Medial letters for finals 4. a. 

Medium strength, letters of 7. 2. 

Mem dropped from Pual participle 53. 2. a, 
93. e, final rejected 55. 2, 214. 2, ap- 
pended to 3 m. pi. future (?) 88, pre- 
fixed in formation of nouns 193. 2. c, 
omitted from plural ending (V) 199. b. 

Methegh 44, 45, aid in distinguishing 
doubtful vowels 19, 45. 2. a, with He 
paragogic 33. 1. a, in place of an accent 
shifted in position 35. 1, or removed by 
Makkeph 43, 44. a, 64. 1. a, after He 
interrogative 230. 2. a, its place sup- 
plied by an accent 39. 3. 6, 45. 5. 

Modern Hebrew read without vowel points 
10. a. 

Monosyllabic nouns 183. 

Mountains, names of, masculine 197. d. 

Multiliteral nouns 195. 

Mutes 7. 2, a p-mute missing (?) 7. 2. a. 

Names of letters 5, their antiquity 5. a, 
their origin and signification 5. 6. 

Nations, names of 197. c?, 275. 2. 6. 

Neuter gender, trace of 196. a. 

Neuter verbs rarely have participles 90, 
with suffixes 102. 2. 

Niphal, signification of 77, relation to 
Hithpael SO. 2. a (2), its formation 82. 
2, origin of the prefixed Nun 82. 5. 6 
(1), participle from a noun 91. e, from 
an adverb 80. 2. b, nouns derived from 
187. 2. a. 

Nouns, formation of 181, Class 1 182-186, 
Class II 187, 188, Class III 189-192, 
Class IV 193, 194, multiliterals 195, . 
from imperfect roots 184. 6, 185. 2. «/, 
186, 2. c, 187. 1. d, e, 187. 2. b, c, 190. , 
6, plural from quiescent roots 207. 1. f, 
208. 3. c, with suffixes 221. 5. a. 

Nouns, gender and number of 196-211, 
construct state of 212-216, declension 
of 217, with suffixes 220, 221, para- 
digm 222. 

Nouns, feminine, without fern, ending 197. 
a, with masc. ending in plural 200. b, 
masculine with fem. ending in plural 



INDEX I. 



327 



200. a, with either ending 200. c, of 
doubtful gender 197. b, "200. c, having 
but one number 201. 1, definite without 
the article 246, used for adjectives 254. 
6. a, in construct before adjectives 250. 
1. a, 254. 6. b, in construct before pre- 
positions 255. 1, in construct before a 
clause 255. 2, placed absolutely 271. 4. 
b, 274. 2, repetition of 280. 

Nouns, primitive 181. a, derivative 181. b, 
of unity 198 6. 

Number, relations of 274. 2. d. 

Numeral adjectives 223-227, 250-252, ad- 
verbs 252. 4. 

Numerical use of letters 9. 2. 

Nun, rejected 53. 2. a, b, 55. 2, from 
verbs 129. 2, 131. 3, 4, from nouns 184. 
6, 194. 2. 6, assimilated to a following 
consonant 54. 2, in verbs 129. 1, 131. 2, 
132. 1, in nouns 184. b, 190. a, 205. b, 
to initial Mem (?) 55. 1, 88 (m. pi.), 
inserted in lieu of reduplication 54. 3, 
221. 6. 6, epenthetic 56. 1, 101. 2, 105. 
b, added to 3 pi. preterite 86. b, to fu- 
ture 88 (2 f s., m. pi.), before suffixes 
105. c, in Niphal absolute infinitive 91. 6, 
131. 5, 166. 3, 173, 2, in Niphal impera- 
tive (?) 91. d, appended in formation of 
nouns 193, in masc. plur. ending 199. a. 

Object, definite, sign of 238. 2, 270, of 
transitive verbs 270, of intransitive verbs 
271, indirect 272, multiple 273. 

Occupations 186. 2. a, 187. 1. a. 

Office, names of 198. a (2). 

Official designations 198. 

Ordinal numbers 227, 252. 

Orthographic symbols 1-49, changes 50- 
66. 

Orthography, various 11. 1. 6, 51. 4. a. 

Palatal letters 7. 1. 

Paradigm, see Verbs paradigms of, and 
Nouns. 

Paragogie, future 97. 1, 264, not in passive 
species 97. 2. 6, in Lamedh He verbs 
172. 3, imperative 98, 1. 

Paragogie letters, effect on accent 33. 1, 
instances of 61. 6. a, 218, 219. 

Participles, formation of 84. 5, of neuter 
verbs 90, with personal inflections 90, 
declined 217, qualifying nouns 249. 1, 
qualifying nouns in the construct 256, 
in the construct before nouns and in- 
finitives 254. 9. b, signification of 266, 
emphatic use of 282. c, construction 
changed to preterite or future 282. c. 

Particles prefixed 228-234, separate 235- 
240. 

Parts of speech 70. 

Passive species with suffixes 102. 2, of 
doubly transitive verbs 273. 5. 

Pattahh preferred by gutturals 60. 1, 108, 
changed to Seghol 63. 1, assimilated to 



Seghol 61. 1. b, 63. 2, to Kamets or 
Tsere 63. 2, in Segholates 61. 2, with 
pause accents 65, in Kal constr. infin. 
87, inf. pi. future Niphal 91. c, and Piel 
92. e, in preterite and imperative Piel 
92. c, in Hithpael 96. b, in the ultimate 
of nouns 207. 2. a. 

Pattahh furtive 17, 60. 2, 109. 2, 114 (?), 
123. 

Pausal forms with inferior accents 65. b. 

Pause accents 37. 2. a, position of 35. 2, 
occasion vowel changes 65, with the 
preterite 86. a, with the future 88, with 
the imperative 89 (f s. and m. pL), with 
2 m. s. suffix 104. b, 220. 1. 6, with Pe 
Guttural verbs 112. 4, with Aviu Guttu- 
ral 119. 1, 121. 3, with Lamedh Guttu- 
ral 126. 1. 

Pazer, clause divided by 36. 2, train of 
38. 7. 

Pe Aleph verbs 110. 3. 

Pe Guttural verbs, origin of term, 76. 3, 
their peculiarities 108, 109, paradigm 
110, remarks 111-115. 

Pe Nun verbs, origin of term 76. 3, their 
peculiarities 129, paradigm 130, re- 
marks 131, 132. 

Perfect verbs 81-85, paradigm of 85. 2, 
remarks 86-96, with suffixes 101, 102, 
paradigm 103, remarks 104-106. 

Periods of human life 201. 1. 6. 

Persian construct state 61. 6. a. 

Personal endings and prefixes of verbs 85. 

1. a, before suffixes 101. 1, more closely 
attached than suffixes or prefixed prepo- 
sitions 101. 2. b. 

Personal pronouns 71, not expressed in 
the subject 243. 1. 

Pe Yodh verbs, origin of term 76. 3, pe- 
culiarities 143-145, paradigm 146, re- 
marks 147-151. 

Piel, signification of 78, relation to Hiphil 
80. 2. a (1), formation of 82. 3, with the 
active vowels 82. 5. 6 (3), unusual forms 
of 92. a, b, verbs with two forms of 122. 

2, 141. 4, nouns derived fiom 187. 2. a. 
Pilel, Pilpel, Poel not distinct species from 

Piel 83. f (1). 
Place where ,274. 2. b. 
j Plural endings 199. 

i Plural for singular in verbs (?) 88 (3 f. pi.), 
j of majesty 201. 2, 275. 3. 
j Pluralis inhumanus 275. 4. a. 
j Plurality expressed by repetition 280. 2. 
I Points extraordinary 4. a. 
[ Points Masoretic 10, accuracy of 49. 
Polish accent 33. 4. a. 
Predicate 258, compound 275. 1. b, 275. 
2. a, agreement with nouns in the con- 
struct relation 277. 
Prefixed particles 228-234, two constitut- 
ing a word 228. 2. a. 



328 



INDEX I. 



Prepositions inseparable 231-233, separate 

237, with suffixes 238. 

Preterite, personal endings of 85. 1. rt(l), 
with suffixes 101. 1, 104, Kal before 
suffixes 101. 3, uses of 262. 

Pretonic vowels 64. 2, in Kal preterite 
82. 1, not rejected fiom Niphal 91. b, 
106. a. 

Primary preferred to a secondary form 
275. "l. 

Pronominal roots 68, the basis of adverbs, 
prepositions and conjunctions 235. 1. «. 

Pronominal suffixes 72. See Suffixes. 

Pronouns, personal 71, 243. 1, repetition 
of 281, demonstrative 73, 249. 2, 256, 
259. 2, relative 74, 285, interrogative 
and indefinite 75, 196. a, 284. 

Proper nouns with the article 246. 1. a, in 
loose apposition 253. 2. b. 

Pual, signification of 78. 3, formation of 
82. 3, with the passive vowels 82. 5. 
b (3), no imperative 84, in perfect verbs 
93, Avin Guttural verbs 121. 1, Ayin 
doubled verbs 142. 1, Ayin Vav verbs 
161. 4, Lamedh Aleph verbs 167. 1, 
Lamedh He verbs 174. 6. 

Pure vowels 15. 

Quadriliteral roots 68. a, verbs 180, nouns 
195. 1, Segholates plural of 208. 3. a. 

Question, direct and indirect 283. 1, dis- 
junctive 283. 2. 

Quiescent letters 11. 1, their two uses dis- 
tinguished 13, softened to vowels 57. 2. 

Quiescent verbs 107, 143. 

Quinquelitcral roots 68. a, nouns 195. 2. 

Radical letters 7. 3. 

Raphe 27. 

R'bhi", clause divided by 36. 2, train of 
38. 6. 

Reduplication of second radical in verbs 
82. 3, in nouns 187, of third radical in 
verbs 92. a, 115, 122. 1, 154. 2, 161. 3, 
174. 1, 176. 1, in nouns 187. 1. d, 187. 
2. c, of two radicals in verbs 92. a, 115, 
122. 1, 137, 141. 2, 154. 3, 161. 2, in 
nouns 187. 1. e, 187. 2. 6, 188, of a 
short word 132. 1, 233. a. 

Relative pronoun 74, 285. 

Repetition of nouns 280, pronouns 281, 
verbs 282. 

Resh, sound of 3. 3, assimilated to a fol- 
lowing consonant 54. 2, inserted in lieu 
of reduplication 54. 3, preference for 
Pattahh 60. 1. a, with Pattahh furtive (?) 
60. 2. «, 114, with simple or compound 
Sh'va 60. 3. a, 120. 3, with Daghesh- 
forte 23. 1, 60. 4. a, previous vowel 
lengthened on the omission of Daghesh, 
60. 4. a, as the first radical of verbs 114, 
as the second radical 118. 1, 120. 3, as 
the third radical 125. 3, 126. 2, 127. 2. 

Rivers, names of, masculine 197. d. 



Roots of words 67, 68. 

Rukhokh 21. 2. a. 

Samaritan Pentateuch, its negligent or- 
thography, 51. 4. a, 99. 1. a, and va- 
riant forms 156. 2. 

Samekh, Shin and Sin 3. 1, 3. 1. a. 

Sanskrit laws of euphony 21. 2. 6, 55. 1. a, 
accent 33. 4. a, augment 99. 1. a, femi- 
nine and neuter 196. e, numerals 223. 
2. a. 

Scriptio plena, defectiva 14. 

Seasons, names of 185. 2. a. 

Seghol inserted between concurring con- 
sonants 61. 2, 171. 1, in Ayin doubled 
verbs 61. 3, 136. 2, 141. "2, in Avin 
Vav verbs 153. 4, 157. 3, 160. 3, final 
rejected 66. 1 (1), 171. 1, with pause 
accents 65, in Kal active participle 90, 
in Kiphal 91. a, b, in Piel 92. <•, d, 126. 

2, before suffixes 104. //, in Hiphil 94. 
«, 6, in Hithpael 96. b, in the ultimate 
of nouns 208, 209. 1, 215. 2, in the 
penult of feminine nouns '2.07. 1. e. 

Segholate forms from triliteral monosvlla- 
bles or final syllables 61. 1. 6, 183, 184. 
a, in feminine 205, con.«truct 214. 1. b. 

Segholate nouns 183, signification of 184, 
their feminine 208. 2, plural 208. 3, 
dual 208. 4, construct 216. 2, with He 
paragogic 219. 1, with suffixes 221. 5. 

Segholta, verse divided bv 36. 1, train of 
38. 3. 

Sentence, elements of 241. 2, sulject of 
242, predicate of 258. 1. 

Separate particles 235-240. 

Septuagint, equivalents for Ayin 3. 4, 
mode of writing Hebrew words 49. 2, 3. 

Servile letters 7. 3, anagrams of 7. 3. a, 

Shalsheleth, when used 38. 9. 

Sliin, Sin, and Samekh 3. 1, 3. 1. a. 

Shurek, quantity of 14. 19. 1, in the ulti- 
mate of Segholates 61. 2, in the penult 
of Segholates 61. 4. a, 205. c, in Kal 
future of perfect veibs 88, before suffix- 
es 105. d, in Kal active participle 90, in 
the ultimate of nouns 207. 2. </, 209. 3. 

Sh'va 16, silent and vocal 16. 2, 20. 1, 
simple and compound 16. 3. 

Sh'va compound, with gutturals 16. 3, 60. 

3, 108, with Resh 60. 3. a, 120. 3, with 
strong letters 16. 3. b, before guttuials 
120. 2, 127. 3, in construct plural of 
nouns 216. 2. a, after He interrogative 
230. 2. a, after Vav Conjunctive 234. n, 
which is selected 60. 8. b, 109. 3, 112, 
changed to a short vowel 60. 3. c, with 
pause accent to a long vowel 65. 

Sh'va simple with gutturals 60. 3. a, in 
Pe Guttural verbs 112. 2, 5, in Lamedh 
Guttural verbs 123. 4, 127. 1, changed 
to Seghol by pause accent 65. 

SibUants 7. 2. 



INDEX I. 



329 



Silluk, position of 36. 1, train of 38. 1. 
Singular predicate or prououu with plural 

subject "275. 1. a, 275. 6. 
Sounds of the letters 3. 
Species of verbs 76-80, mutually supple- 
mentary 80. 2. a (3), what number in 
use in different verbs So. 2. a (4), forma- 
tion of 82, with double forms in distinct 
senses 83. c (1), 122. 2, 1-11. 4, com- 
pound 83. c (2). 
Strong lettei-s 7. 2. 

Subject 242, omitted 243, indefinite 243. 
2, impersonal 243. 3, compound 244. 1, 
276, grammatical and logical 244. 2. 
SufBxes, pronominal 72, of verbs 101. 2, 
of nouns 220. 3, relation denoted by 
2.54, more loosely attached than affixes 
101. 2. b, with neuter verbs and passive 
species 102. 2, with infinitives and parti- 
ciples 102. 3, with cardinal numbers 223. 
1. a, 250. 2 (2) a, omitted 247. 6, with 
nouns in the construct 256. 
Superlative degree 260. 
Syllables 18, intermediate 20. 2, mutations 

in, a source of vowel changes 59. 
Syriac currently read without vowels 10. 
a, aspirates 21. a, doubling of letters 
23. 3. b, words modified from Hebrew 
51. 3, dual 20. 2. 
Svstema morarum 18. b. 
Tav and Teth 3. 2. 

Tav unites with Tav of personal affixes 
86. b (2 m.), or feminine ending 54. 1, 
205. 6, prefixed in anomalous verbal 
forms 94. a, 115, 161. 5, in the forma- 
tion of nouns 190, 192. 2, in Hithpael 
assimilated 54. 2, 54. 4. a, 82. 5, 131. 6, 
transposed 54. 4, 82. 5. 
Tav of feminine ending rejected 55. 2. c, 
196. 6, origin of 196. e, added to verbs 
86. 6, 166. 1, 169. 1, 172. 1, m nouns 
196. 6, 205. 
T'^nses, primary 84, 262-264, secondary 
99, 265, past and future not promiscu- 
ously used 263. 5. a. 
Time, conception of 261. 
Time, when and how long 274. 2. a. 
T'lisha Gh'dhola, clause divided by 36. 2, 

train of 38. 8. 
Transitive construction of intransitive 

verbs 271. 
Transposition of letters 50. 2, 54. 4, 82. 5. 
Tsere rejected from the uUimate of verbs 
66. 1 (1), 171. 2, in Kal preterite 86. a, 
164. 1, in fem. plur. future Xiphal 91. <\ 
and Piel 92. e, in Piel inf abs. 92. d, in 
Hiphil 94. b. e, in Hophal inf. abs. 95. c, 
with Aleph in place of Sh'va 60. 3. c, 
92. e, 112. 1, 184. 6, as union vowel 
with the preterite 1<>4. «, in the ulti- 
mate of verbs before suffixes 104. A, 
of Lamedh Guttural verbs 126. 1, of 



Lamedh Aleph verbs 164. 5, in the ulti- 
mate of nouns 2U7, 215. 1, in the penult 
of nouns 210, 216. 1. 
Vav rejected after vowelless consonants 
53. 3. a, 184. b, initial changed to Yodh 
56. 2, 144. 1, rarely reduplicated 56. 3, 
in verbs 154. 1, 161. 1, or nouns 1S7. 

2. c, softened or rejected 57. 2, 152, 
184. 6, 186. 2. c, 190. 6, 207. 1./, 208. 

3. c, 211. a, 216. 1. d, preceding a vow- 
elless consonant 61. 1. a, 234, paragogie 
61. 6. rt, 218, omitted from 3. pi. pre- 
terite 86. 6, in Kal infinitive 87, in Kal 
future 88, in Kul imperative 89, in Kal 
passive participle 90, in Pual 93. 6, 
added to 3. m. pi. suffix 104. /. 

Vav in K'thibh, where K'ri has Kamets- 
Hhatuph 13. a, 88, 105. d, 215. 1. c, 
Pattahh 125. 1, or Hhateph-Kamets 13. 
a, 214. 2. 6, 89 (f s.). 

Yav Conjunctive 234, 287. 

Vav Conversive of the future 33. 4, 99, 
with Ayin Guttural verbs 119. 1, Lamedh 
Guttural 126. 1, Avin doubled 140. 1. 5, 
Pe Yodh 147. 5, 150. 3, 150. 2 (p. 182), 
Avin Vav and Ayin Yodh 153. 5, 157. 
3," 158. 2, 160. 3," Lamedh Aleph 166. 4, 
Lamedh He 171. 1, 172. 4, 173. 3, 174. 

4. 175. 3, 176. 3, time denoted by 265. a. 
Vav Conversive of the preterite 33. 4, 99, 

with Pe Guttural verbs 112. 3, time de- 
noted by 265. b. 

Verbs, their species 76-80, occurring in 
all the species 80. 2. a (4), denomina- 
tives 80. 2. b, perfect 81-100, with suffix- 
es 101-106, imperfect 107-177, doubly 
imperfect 178, defective 179, quadrilite- 
ral 180, syntax of 261-269, coordinated 
269, object of 270-272, with more than 
one object 273, passive, object of 273. 5, 
repetition of 282. 

Verbs, paradigms of, perfect 85. 2, with 
suffixes 103, Pe Guttui;,! 110, Ayin Gut- 
tural 117, Lamedh Guttural i24, Pe 
Xun 130, Ayin doubled 138, Pe Yodh 
146, Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh 155, 
Lamedh Aleph 163, Lamedh He 170. 

Verbs, pereonal endings and prefixes of 

85. 1. a, 85. 2. a, suffixes of 101-106. 
Verbs, middle e and o 82. 1. a, have Pat- 
tahh in Kal future 84. 3. a (1), inflected 

86. rt, before suffixes 104. h. 

Verbs with Pattahh in Kal future 84. 3. a, 

111. 1, 116. 1, 123. 1, 140. 1, 144. 2, 

with Tsere in Kal future 84. 3. b, 130, 

144. 2, 147, 172. 3. 

Vowel changes 58-66, significant 58. 1, 

euphonic 58. 2, causes of 59, due to 

mutations of syllables 59, to contiguous 

gutturals 60, to concurrent consonants 

I 61, to concurring vowels 63, to the ac- 

i cent 64, to pause accents 65, to the 



330 



INDEX I. 



shortening or lengthening of words 66, 
of short vowels in mixed penult 58. 2, 
210. e, 216. 2. 6. 

Vowel letters 7. 2, use of 11. 1, distin- 
guished from their consonantal use 13. 

Vowels 10-17, Masoretic signs for 12, 
diftereut modes of dividing them 12. a, 
meanings of their names 12. 6, mutual 
relations of their notation by letters and 
by paints 1-i, 14, mutable and immuta- 
ble 14, 58. 2, pure and diphthongal 15, 
ambiguity of certain signs 19, 20, o and 
M more stable than i and e 60. 1. a, in- 
serted between concurrent consQnants 
61. 1, 2, e and o preferred before con- 
current consonants 61. 4, > and ii before 
doubled letters 61. 5, paragogic 61. 6, 
218, 219, concurring 62, proximity of, 
a source of changes 63, pretonic 64. 2, 
rejected or shortened 66. 1, 2, of union 
before suffixes 101. 2, twice e with pre- 
terite 104. a, sometimes a with future 
105. a, final of verbs before suffixes 
104. /:, Z, vowel a retained in ultimate 
before suffixes 105. d, 118. 3, 164. 5. 

Weaii letters 7. 2, effect of upon syllables 
18. 2. c. 



Words not divided in writing 8, ambiguity 
when unpointed lo. a, sources of change 
in 51, three stages in (he formation of 67, 
changes in formation and inflection 69. 

Written symbols of two sorts 2. 

Yodh as a vowel letter 11. 1, in Kal active 
participle 90, in Xiphal future 113. 1, 
before suffix 105. a, 220. 1. 6, initial re- 
jected 53. 2. a, b, 144. 3, 148, 150. 1, 
184. i, 188. b, medial rejected 53. 3. 
a, 6, 150. 3, 168, 169, softened or re- 
jected 57. 2, 152, 184. b, 186. 2. c, 
190. 6, 207. 1. /, 208. 3. c, 211. a, 
216. 1. d, changed to Aleph 56. 4, para- 
gogic 61. 6. a, 218, added to 2 f. s. pre- 
terite 86. b, to 2 f. s. suffix 104. c, 220. 
1. b, 220. 2. c, omitted fiom 1 sing, 
preterite 86. b, from Hiphil 94, in 
Lamedh He veibs 169, 172. 1, prefixed 
in formation of nouns 190, 192. 1, ap- 
pended in formation of nouns 194, 
quiescent after prefixed prepositions 
231. 3. b, after Yav Conjunctive 234. e. 

Zakeph Gadhol, clause divided by 36. 2, 
when used 38. 5. 

Zakeph Katon, clause divided by 36. 2, 
train of 38. 4. 



I 



IISTDEX II. 



TEXTS OF SCRIPTURE EXPLAINED OR REFERRED TO. 



GENESIS. 


4 : 17 ... § 35. 1 


12: 12. ..§243.3 


19 : 33 ... § 249. 2. 6 




18 . . . 275. 1. c 


20 ... 43 


33, 35 . . . 10b. a 


1: 1... §21. 1,36. 1, 


23...88(f. pi.), 89 


13 : 2 ... 245. 5. d 


35 . . . 38. 1. a 


242, 245. 4, 2G2. 


(f. pi.), 98. 2, 


4 ... 4. a 


20: 5... 71. a (3) 


1, 270. a, 275. 3 


127. 1 


6. . . 275. 1. a 


6 ... 164. 2 


2... 21. 1, 258.3 


26 . . . 281 


9 . . . 119. 1, 180. a 


9 . . . 22. b. To. 1, 


4 . . . 270. b 


5: 5... 177. 2, 251. 


14 : 2 ... 71. a (3) 


263.1 


5 ... 31. 1 


2. a 


4 ... 252. 2 


11 . . . 254. 9 


6, 7 ... 245. 1 


8 . . . 277. a 


6 . . . 221. 6. b 


13 . . . 275. 3. a 


7... 36. 1,203. 5. c 


17 . . . 38. 1. a 


8 . . . 203. 5. c 


18 . . . 127, 1 


9 . . . 250. 1 


18 . . . 225. 2 


9 . . . 250. 2 (1) 


21 : 6 . . . 60. 2. a, 120. 2 


11 . . . 45. 2, 254. 6, 


29 . . . 39. 4. a, 285. 1 


10 . . . 63. 1. a, 219. 


8 ... 65. a 


285. 1 


6 : 3 ... 74. a, 139. 2, 


1. h, 280. 2 


14... 214. 1. b 


12 . . . 220. 1. b 


157. 3, 158. 2 


19 ... 10. a 


16... 119. 1, 174. 1 


14 . . . 275. 1. h 


7 . . . 285. 1. a 


15 : 1 . . . 246. 3, 249. 2, 


17 . . . 39. 3. b 


16 . . . 245. 2, 254. 9 


9 ... 96. 6 


274. 1 


28, 29 . . . 220, 1. b 


18 . . . 45. 2. a 


13 . . . 262. 2 


2 ... 47, 253. 2. 6 


22: 1...262. 1, 265, 


22 . . . 38. 1. a 


17 . . . 266. 2 


8... 262. 1. b 


270. b ' 


24... 198. a (4), 218 


18 . . . 100. 2. a (1) 


11 . . . 229. 3 


3 ... 265 


24, 26 . . . 38. 1. a 


19 . . . 45. 2. a, 229. 


12 . . . 245. 4 


4... 287. 3 


29 . . . 270. c 


3. o 


17 . . . 275. 1. c 


5 ... 244. 1 


31...249.1.c,274. 1 


22 . . . 273. 2 


18 . . . 254. 3 


8. ..44 


2 : 1 . : . 244. 1 


7 : 1 . . . 262. 1, 273. 4 


18-21 . . . 270. b 


14 . . . 126. 2 


2 . . . 262. 1 


2 . . . 252. 4, 280. 1 


22 . . . 245. 5. a 


23 : 1 . . . 251. 2, 3 


3 . . . 249. 1. c 


4 . . . 251. 2 


16 : 5 ... 4. a, 254. 9. a 


4 . . . 275. 5 


4 ... 4. a, 259. 2. 


6 . . . 287. 1 


11 ... 90 (2 f. s.) 


6 . . . 165. 3 


267. d 


9 . . . 252. 4 


13, 15 ... 43. a 


10 . . . 254. 9. b 


5 . . . 258. 3. 6 


13 . . . 200. e, 246. 3, 


30 . . . 60. 3. b (2) 


11... 125. 1 


6 . . . 263. 4 


249. 2, 251. 1. a 


17 : 4 ... 65. a 


11, 13 . . . 262. 1. 6 


7 . . . 147. 5, 273. 3 


19 . . . 280. 3 


4, 5 . . . 215. 1. e 


16 ... 36. 1 


9 . . . 245. 5. b 


23 . . . 173. 3 


5 ... 271 . 4. a 


19 . . . 246. 3 


10 . . . 248 


8 : 5 . . . 282. c 


5, 6 ... 265 


24: 1... 119.1 


11 . . . 245. 5 


7 ... 282 


8 ... 30. 2, 254. 5 


8 . . . 249, 2. b 


12 . . . 16. 3. 6, 234. 


10 . . . 269. a 


11 . . . 273. 5 


14 ... 39. 4 


a, 259. 2. a 


12 . . . 149. 2 


12 . . . 254. 6. a 


15 . . . S9. 3. a 


14 . . . 258. 2 


17 . . . 150. 1 


17 ... 24. b, 2.30. 2. 


20 . . . 245. 3 


16, 17 . . . 287. 1 


18 . . . 147. 5 


a, 254. 6. a, 283. 


22... 251. 2.C, 254. 


17 . . . 103. a, 282 


9 : 14 . . . 139. 1 


2. a 


4 


18 ... 242. 6 


20 . . . 258. 3. a 


19...90(f. 8.) 


23 . . . 158. 3 


19 . . . 147. 5 


24 . . . 147. 5, 270. c 


20 . . . 265. b 


30 ... 36. 1 


23 . . . 16. 3. 6, 24. 


10 : 5 . . . 220. 2. b 


18 : 1 . . . 262. 1. a, 274. 


33 . . . 111. 2. b 


a, 127. 3 


19 . . . 56. 4, 126. 2 


2. b 


35 . . . 245. 5. d 


25 . . . 263. 5. a 


21 . . . 256. a 


6 . . . 2.53. 2 


42 ... 21. 1 


3 : 2, 3 ... 263. 1 


25 . . . 250. 2 (2) 


11 . . . 276. 3 


42, 48, 65 ... 39. 4 


6 . . . 106. a 


26 . . . 229. 1. a 


20 . . . 254. 9. a 


48 . . . 131. 1 


6 . . . 258. 1 


11 : 1 . . . 223. 1. a 


21 . . . 24. h, 39. 3. 6, 


58 . . . 283. 1 


IS . . . 262. 1 


6, 7 . . . 141. 1 


2:.10. 2. a 


65 . . . 73. 2. a, 176, 


15 ... 30. 2 


7 ... 86. rt 


28, 29 . . . 251. 4 


3, 245. 3. a 


16 . . . 53. 3. a 


9 ... 67. 1 


19 : 1,4... 266. 3 


67 . . . 246. 3. a, 256, 


22 . . . 21. 1, 177. 2 


16 . . . 251. 2 


9 . . . 131. 3 


d 


4 : 3 . . . 231. 3. a 


30 ... 56. 2 


11 . . . 207. 1. a, 245. 


25 : 5 ... 43 


4 . . . 220. 2. b 


31 . . . 22. b 


5 


8... 38. 1. a 


12 . . . 267. d 


12 : 2 . . . 263. 1 


12 . . . 38. 1. a 


12 . . . 254. 1 


13 . . . 260. 2 (2) 6 


4 ... 10. a 


14 ... 24. a 


27 . . . 229. 4. b 


14 . . . 245. 3. b, 262. 


5 ... 2.54. 1 bis 


19... 86. b (2m.), 


31 . . . 98, 1. a, 125. 1 


1. b 


7 . . . 262. 1. A 


105. a, 105. d 


34 ... 65. a 


16... 147. 5 


8. ..19. 1,220. 1.6 


30... 251. 4 


26 : 3 . . . 262. L 6 



5 


rz 






INDEX 


II. 




26 


: 4....5 30. 2, 246. 3 


34 


30. 


...§254.5 


49 


19. 


...5 140. 1 




6.... 36. 1 




31. 


...230. 2 




23. 


...139. 1 




8 245. 3 


35 


: 7 


...275.3. a 


50 


9. 


. . .248 




13.... 282. c 




15. 


...270. 6 




10. 


...271. 3 




15, 1S....104. g- 




IS. 


...34 




17. 


...273. 3. a 




22.... 150. 4 




22. 


...39. 4. a 




19. 


. . .283. 1 




28 30. 1 




26. 


...275. 1. c 




23. 


...-rz. a 




29.... 60. 3. a 




29. 


. . .22. 6 




26. 


...147. 5 


27 


: 1 SS (f. yl.) 

4.... 263. 1. 6 


37 


8. 


. . .249. 1. b 
...282 










9 U9. 1 




9. 


...271.3 




EXODUS. 




12.... 141. 6 




12. 


...257 










16 36. 2 




14. 


...10. a 


1 


1. 


...§21.1 




19.... 105. b 




19. 


...73. 2. a, 254. 






. . .273. 5 




23.... 270. 6 






6. a 




10." 


...88 (3f. pi.) 




25. ...203. 1 




20. 


...104. i 




10. 


...177. 2 




26.... 131. 3 




22. 


. . .60. 3. 6 (2) 


2 


. 3. 


...24. 6, 104. e 




27.... 120. 3 




32. 


...24. 6,283. 2 




4. 


...53. 3. 6,148. 




29.... 177. 1 




33. 


...105. a, 282. a 






2, 150. 3 (p. 182) 




S3.... 263. 1. 6,266. 


38 


9. 


...131.4 




7. 


. . .230. 3 




2. a 




11. 


...274. 2. 6 




9. 


...150. 2.151.1, 




36.... 252. 4 




25. 


...71. a (3) 






161. 5 




38.... 16. 3. 6,230. 


39 


4. 


...119. 1 




10. 


...104. k 




2. a 




7, 


12.... 98. 1 




17. 


...104. sr, 105. a 




42.... 271. 4. a 




11. 


...231. 5. a 




20. 


...eo.src, 98. 2, 




44.... 223. 1. a 




12 


...22. b 






164. 3 


28 


2, 5, 6, 7.... 33.1. a 




14. 


...119.1 




23. 


...51. 2 




9.... 39. 4 




14, 


17.... 92. d 


3 


1. 


...266.3. a 




12.... 55. 1 




20. 


...255. 2 




2. 


....53.2. a 




20, 21.... 287. 2 


40 


15. 


. . .93. d, 156. 4 




4.' 


. . .39. 1. a 


29 


2.... 263. 4 




16. 


...251. 1 




5. 


...131. 3, 285.1 




3.... 139. 1 




20. 


...150. 




8. 


...248 




5....22. a,230. 2.a 


41 


8. 


...119. 1 




13. 


...75. 1 




6.... 34 
8.... 139. 1 




11. 
12. 


...99. 3 
...257 2 


4 





...24. a, 75. 1 




10." 


...254. 6. a 




9.... 34, 257 




19. 


. . .254. 3 




11. 


...158. 2 




10.... 10. a 




21. 


...220. 1. b 




13. 


. . .255. 2, 285. 3 




17.... 278 




33. 


...35. 2 




23. 


...126. 1 




20.... 223. 1. a 




35. 


...249. 2 




29. 


...112.3 




23.... 10. a 




40. 


...260. 2 (2) a 




31. 


...275. 2. a 




32.... 105. a, 118.3 




43. 


. . .94. 6 


5 


5. 


...86. 6 (2m.) 




35.... 245. 3. b 




51. 


...92. c 




7. 


...151.2 


80 


1....34 


42 


7. 


. . .262. 2. a 




8. 


. . .39. 1. a 




5.... 127. 1 




11. 


...71. a(l) 




16. 


...166. 1, 275. 




6.... 104. a 




13. 


...38. 1. a 






2.6 




7.... 252. 1 




18. 


...287.1 


6 


14. 


...255.3 




15.... 245. 3. b 




21. 


. . .39. 4 




16. 


. . .251. 3 




16.... 249. 2. b 




25, 


35.... 216. 2. a 




29. 


...10. a 




19.... 215. 1. b 




36. 


...220. 1. 6 


7 


10. 


...262.1 




27.... 131. 3 


43 


7. 


...45. 1 




11. 


...53. 2. a 




31.... 43 




8. 


...125. 1 




20. 


. . .276. 1 




32.... 44. a 




14. 


...65. a, 82. I. a 




22. 


. . .53. 2. a 




33.... 24. a 






(3), 249. 1. 6 




20. 


. . .265. 6 




38.... 45. 2, 88 (f. 




26. 


...26 


8 


1. 


...131. 3 




pl.)bi?,216. 2. a 




29. 


...141. 3 




17. 


. . .258. 3. b 




39.... 60. 3. 6(2) 


44 


1. 


...285. 2 




23. 


...100. 2. (I a) 


81 


4.... 45. 2. a 




4. 


...114. 271. 2, 


9 


3. 


...10. o, 177. 1 




6. ...71. «(2) 






21-1 2 




15. 


...119. 1 




9.... 220. 1. 6 




17. 


7.730.2 




18. 


. . .27, 104. e 




13.... 19. 2. a, 246. 




18. 


. . .263. 1. o 




25. 


...126. 2 




3. a 




40. 


...271.4 




29. 


...88 (pi.) 




27.... 126. 1 


45 


22. 


...2.51. 2. c 


10 


1. 


. . .249. 2. 6 




30 86. 6 (2in.), 




25. 


. . .45. 3 




3. 


...173. 2 




91. h 




28. 


. . .45. 5. a 




8. 


...271. 4. a 




32.... 104. i, 285. 


46 


2. 


...38. 1. a 




24. 


...150. 5 




2. a 




3. 


...148. 2 


11 


8. 


...249.2. 6 




36....75. 1 




22, 


27.... 275. 1. c 


12 


7. 


...45. 2 




39.... 01. 6. a 




28. 


...22. 6 




16. 


...256. c 


82 


1....270. c 


47 


24. 


...275. 1. c 




21. 


...89 (f. 6. & 




5.... 111. 2. b 


48 


20. 


...270. c 






111. pi.) 




16 250. 2(3) 




22. 


. . .223. 1. a 




39. 


...141. 6 




20. ...61. 1. f, 88 


49 


3. 


...65. a 




49. 


. . .275. 1. c 




(pi.), 55. 2. a 




5. 


. . .216. 1. 6 


13 


1. 


...24. a 




22.... 45. 3 
23.... 249. 2. 6 




8. 
10. 


...281 




2. 
9. 


...92. c 




...24. b 


...254. 7 


33 


5 220. 1. 6 




11. 


...53. 2. n, 61. 6. 




16. 


...220. 1. b 




6....88(f. pi.) 






a, 218, 220. 1. 6, 




22. 


...263.4 




11.... 43, 166. 1, 
270. 6 




12. 


221. 5. 6 
...215. 1. a, 259. 


14 


4. 
14. 


. ..2'>. 6, 91. c 




...119.1 


34 


17....100. 2.a(l) 






2. 6 




17. 


...22. 6,91. c 




21.... 258. 2 




17. 


...216. 2. a 


15 


1. 


...22. 6,263. 5 



15 


2. 


...§ 56. 1, 105. 
6, 131. 1, 247. b 




4. 


. . .277. a 




6. 


...61. 0, 104./ 




6. 


...60. 3. a, 61. 
6. a 




9. 


...1U4./ 




10. 


...11.1.6,61.6, 
139.1 




11, 


13.... 22. 6 




14, 


16 203. 6. a 




16. 


...■2i. 6,61. 6.0 




17. 


. . .24. 6, 190. a 




20. 


...277. a 




21. 


. . .22. 6 




26. 


...112. 3 


16 


5. 


...38. 1. a 




7, 


8.... 71. a(l) 




14. 


...180. a 




15. 


...39. 3. 6 




23. 


...o8. l.(/,112.1 




27. 


...242. a 


17 


1. 


. . .2i7. d 




8, 


10.... 119. 1 




11. 


...275.2.6 


18 


8. 


. . .104. i 




10. 


...215. 1. b 




11. 


...262.2 




21, 


25.... 225. 1. a 




26. 


...88 


19 


5. 


. . .44. a 




9. 


. . .215. 1. a 




12. 


. . .282. a 




13. 


...149.2, 282. a 




21, 


24.... 111. 1 


20 


2-17.... 39. 4. a 




4. 


. . .27, 243. 2 




5. 


...111. 3. a 




8. 


. . .268. 2 




10. 


...249. 1. c 




11. 


...43 




13. 


...27 


21 


7. 


...98.1. a 




9. 


...275. 3 




11. 


...215. 1. c 




19. 


. . .92. rf 




22. 


...19. 2. a. 39. 
3. 6 




28. 


...270. c 




30. 


...55. 1 




35. 


...19. 2. a, 39. 
3. 6 




30. 


...92. rf 


22 


2 


...216.1.6 




3. 


...166. 3 




4. 


...220. 1. 6 




8. 


...43, 275. 3. a 




20. 


...2:;0. 1. 6 


23 


11. 


...254. 2 




14. 


. . .252. 4 




20. 


...207. 1. a 




30. 


...280. 1 




SI. 


...104./ 


24 


4. 


...246. 3 


25 


ol. 


...11.1.6,113.1 




35 


. . .280. 3. 6 


26 


2. 


. . .250. 1 




23. 


. . .216. 2. a 




24. 


....53.3. a 




33. 


...100. 2. n(l), 
100. 2. a (2), 
229. 4. 6 


27 


21 


...247. a 


28 


1. 


...119. 1 




2. 


...254. 6. a 




7. 


...275. 1. c 




40. 


...207. 1. a 


29 


3. 


...248. a 




9. 


. . .273. 3 




20. 


...38. 4. a 




30. 


...105. a 



i 



I 





INDEX 


II. 




333 


29: 35.... §65. a 


23: 17. ...§26 


22 


33....§105. a 1 


7: 2. 


..§119. 1 


37.... 229. 4. b 


18.... 216. 2. a 




37.... 141. 1 


5. 


..126. 1 


30: 18 109. 3 


22.... 106 a 


23 


7.... 19. 2, 119.3, 


10. 


..92. c 


23 215. 1. c 


30.... 112. 3 




141. 1. 263. 6 


13. 


. .104. h 


34.... 38. 1. a 


39.... 22. a 




13.... 141. 3 


15. 


...105. a 


31: 13.... 104. h 


24: 5 100. 2. a (1) 




18.... 61. 6. a 


17. 


...254. 9. b 


14 275. 6 


22 250. 1. a 




19.... 121. 3 


23. 


. . 273. 2 


32: 1....75. 1, 119. 1, 


23.... 273. 3 




24 166. 5 


24. 


. . .94. V, 112. 3 


249. 2. a 


25: 5.... 216. 2. a 




25.... 139. 1,2 


8: 3. 


...86. 6 (3 pi.) 


4, 8 275. 3. a 


21.... 172. 1 




27.... 104.7 


9. 


. . .207. 2. a 


19.... 2-20. 2. b 


46.... 39. 3. 6 


24 


3 61. 6. a 


16. 


..55. 2. a, 86. 


25.... 104. d, 156. 2 


26: 9.... 100. 2. a (1) 




4.... 266 




b (3 pi.) 


33: 3....63. 1.6,174.4 


bie. 




7....19. 2. 6,131.6 


9: 3. 


...112.3 


13.... 220. 2. b 


15.... 141. 3 




9. ...275. 6 


6. 


...38. 4. a, 249. 2 


20 105. a 


18.... 92. d 




11. ...127. 2 


14. 


...98. 2 


24.... 111. 3. a 


25.... 132. 1 




15 61. 6. a 


25. 


. . .251. 4 


36: 3 38. 1. a 


33.... 92. e 




17.... 161. 2 


26. 


...119. 1 


28 21G. 2. a 


34.... 172. 1 




21.... 158. 3 


10: 15. 


. . .119. 3 


38: 27.... 250. 2(2) 


34, 35 65. a 




22....05. 1 


17. 


. . .30. 2 


39: 30 105. d 


34, 43.... 140. 6 


25 


13.... 24. a 


11 : 12. 


. . .247. a 


40: 3.... 100. 4 


27: 7....251. 2. a 


26 


30.... 246. 3. 6 


14. 


...270. 6 




8.. ..112. 3 




62 96. a 


18. 


. . .249. 2. 6 




23.... 246. 2. a 


28 


4.... 249. 1. 6 


22. 


...87. 88 (pi.) 


LEVITICUS. 






6.... 254. 6. 6 


12: 6. 


...270.6 








8....104. d 


10. 


...274. 2. e 


2: 15.... §71. a (3) 


NUMBERS. 




26 39. 3. 6 


31. 


...45. 5 


4 : 13. . . .60. 3. a 




29 


15.... 251. 1 


13: Z. 


...111.3.0 


23, 28.... 150. 5 


1: 10....§13. 6 


30 


11.... 274. 2. b 


4. 


. . .283. 1 


5: 21.... 61. 4. a, 


47 96. a 


31 


2.... 131. 3 


5. 


...65. 6 


205. c 


2: Zi 96. a 




12.... 45. 5. a 


7. 


...276. 1 


22.... 119. 1 


3: 26.... 271. 4. 6 


32 


5. ...271. 4. a 


14. 


...254. 6. a 


24 220. 2. a 


49.... 55. 1 




7. ...113. 1 


14: 5. 


...57. 2 (3) a 


6: 14.... 114 


4: 23. ...22. a 




21.... 254. 9. 6 


7. 


...196. c 


15. . . .95. a 


5: 13. 14.... 71. a (3) 




33.... 71. a (1), 246. 


17. 


...229.4. 6 


7: 38.... 216. 1. a 


22:... 131. 2 
6 : 23 120. 3 




1. a 

42.... 27 


22. 
15 : 16. 


...280. 1 


8: 3. ...119.1 


...119. 1 


9: 7....98. 1. a 


8: 7. ...121.3 


33 


30.... 111. 2. d 


18. 


...126. 1 


10: 4....39. 4. a 


24.... 22. a 


34 


5 61. 6. a 


16: 1. 


. . .22. 6 


11.... 273. 2 


9: 6....275. 1. 6 




6, 7. 9.... 24. a 


3. 


...30. 2 


12.... 39. 3. b 


7.... 248. 2 




18.... 131. 1 


20. 


...280.3 


18.... 271. 4. a 


14.... 275. 1. c 




28.... .57. 2(2)6 


17: 2, 


3.... 265. a 


19.... 230. 2. 6 


20.... 253. 2 


35 


4.... 251. 2. 


18: 2. 


...275. 1. c 


11: 7....r26. 1 


10: 23.... 45. 5 




19.... 125. 2 


19: 6. 


...114 


9.... 270. c 


29.... 21. 1 




20.... 105. d 


15. 


...43 


18....229. 4. 6 


35 4. a 






20: 2. 


...19. 2,119. 3 


32.... 38.1. a, 254. 4 


11: 4.... 57. 2 (2) a, 






7. 


...119. 1 


39. ...71. a (3) 


229. 3. a 


DEUTERONOMY. 


21: 7. 


...13. 6, 86. 6 


42.... 4. a 


5. ...-203. 4 








(3 pi.) 


43.... 164. 2 


11... .164. 2 


1 


2....5 38. 1. 


8. 


...S3, c. (2) 


44.... 96. 6,242 


1.J....71. a (2) 




14.... 259. 2 


11. 


...214. 1.6 


13: 3 258. 3. a 


16... .111. 3. a 




15.... 225. 1. a 


22: 7. 


...126. 1 


4.... 27, 57. 2 (2) 


20 196. d 




19.... 271. 2 


24. 


. . .265. 2 


6, 220. 1. 6 


25.... 111. 2. c 




22 99. 3. a 


23: 6. 


. . .253. 2. 6 


10, 21.... 71. a (3) 


12: 1....276. 1 




28....38. 1. a 


11. 


...24.6 


51, 52 139. 3 


4.... 250. 2(2)o 




35.... 38.1. a, 249.1 


24: 3. 


...104. A 


55, 56 96. a 


13: 18.... 283. 2. a 




3S....273. 1 


4. 


...96. a 


14: 8 126. 1 


32.... 1.56. 4 




44 245. 5. d 


25: 4. 


. . .158. 3 


13 17.5. 2 


14: 1....275. 2. a 




45.... 112. 3 


7. 


. . .60. 3. a 


35.... 242. a 


2.... 262. 1 


2 


9 60. 4. 


13. 


...280. 2 


38 274. 2. a 


15: 6.... 252. 3 




12.... 203. 5. a 


26: 2. 


. . .39. 4 


42 1.56. 2 


21 39. 3. 6 




24. ...131. 3 


5. 


...254. 6.6 


43 92. (1, 94. b 


28.... 27, 2iO. 1. b 




35.... 139. 1 


12. 


...94. 6, 113. 2 


15: 24.... 87 


29.... 275. 1. c 


3 


4.... 250. 2(1) 


27: 4. 


...106. a 


29 inc. 2. a (2) 


16: 3 275.2 




13.... 246. 1. a 


7. 


...24. a 


32.... 87 


17: 3, 4....104. §• 




17.... 216. 2. a 


28: 24. 


...104. 6 


16: 4 104. ;i 


10 140. 4 




26.... 21. 1,151.2 


45. 


...104. 6 


8 n.l.o,188.a 


28.... 125. 2 


4 


10. ...119. 1 


48. 


. . .94. 6 


31 71. a (3) 


20: 3.... 125. 2 




11.... 99. 3. a 


52. 


...126. 1 


18: 4 263.1 


5.... 104. I 




26.... 44. 6,91. 6 


57. 


...164. 2 


7 ft" 172. 3 


8.... 276. 3 




30.... 26.5. 6 


58. 


. . .249. 1 


28.... 1.56. 4 


14.... 104. i 




33.... 35. 1 


59. 


...165. 2, 220. 


19: 20.... 175. 5, 282. a 


21.... 131. 4 




41.... 219. 1. 6, 




2. a 


20; 3 256 


21: 5 104.? 




256. d 


66. 


...177. 3 


7 m. h 


30 105. a, 140. 5 


5 


6-21.... 39. 4. a 


29: 11. 


...106.0 


21: 1....96. a 


33. 35 44. a 




8. ...27 


30: 3. 


...02. c 


4.... 140. 4 


22: 6 269.6 




9. ...111. 3. a 


3, 


4 104. h 


5 97. 1. a 


8....274. 2. a 




14....249. 1. c 


11. 


...166. 1.205. c 


9 71. a (3), 


11.... 19. 2, 141.1, 




17.... 27 


20. 


...39. 4, 87 


140. 3 


267. 6 




24.... 71. a (2) 


31 : 28. 


. . .22. b 


23: 3 2S0. 3. a 


25.... 119. 1 


6 


: 4.... 4. a 


29. 


...166. 1 


13.... 220. 1. 6 


29.... 262. 1 




25.... 45. 1 


32: 1. 


...245. 2 



r5a4 


INDEX II. 




32: 6....§228. 2. n 


12: 21. ...§55. 2. a 


9: 11....5 53. 2. I, 


2: 8....?88,88(2f.> 


7.... 104. A, 280. 2 


13: 13.... 196. b 


95. b 


127. 1 


8.... 11. 1. 6,94.6 


23.... 247. a 


12.... 89 (f. 8. & 


9.... 88 (pi.), 165. 


10.... 63. c, 105. 6 


14: 8.... 62. 2, 175. 1 


m. pi.) 


3 


13 13. a 


15; 36.... 203. 5. b 


13.... 95. 6 


14.... 150. 3 


15.... 28,=). 3 


38.... 22. a 


14.... 89 


16.... 139. 2 


18.... 172. 4 


56.... 22. . -I 


24.... 220. 1. b 


3: 3.... 86. 6(2 f.) 


21.... 111. 2. b 


17: 1....30. 2 


25.... 174. 6 


4....16.1,a5. 2. a, 


22.... 147. 4 


18: 12, 14.... 86. 6 (3 


29.... 164. 5,172.3 


88 (2 f.), 106. a 


26.... 104. /■. 172. 3 


pi.) 


35.... 274. 2. 6 


12.... 258. 3. 6 


28.... 215. 1 b 


20.... 88 


38.... 91. b 


13.... 119. 3 


29.... 262.1 


19: 43.... 61. 6. a 


48. ...75. 1 


15.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


32.... ai. 6, 57. 2 


50.... 172. 4 


53.... 140. 5 


120. 1, 164. 2, 


(2) a 


51.... 39. 1. a 


10: 2....60. 3. &(1) 


251. 2. c 


34.... 90 (pass.) 


21: 10.... 227. 1. a 


4....207. 1./ 


20.... 220. 1. 6 


36. . . .35. 1, 86. b 


22: 6.... 87 


9.... 243. 3 


4: 1....147. 5 


37.... 172. 1 


12.... 45. 5 


14.... 119. 4 


15....104.C, t 


37, 38.... 220. 2. c 


16.... 119. 3 


11: 1....254. 6 




41.... 141. 2 


17.... 271. 4. a 


18 99. 3. a 




33: 16.... 61. 6. a, 88 


25.... 148. 1 


25.... 91. &, 119. 1 


1 SAMUEL. 


(3f.), 167. 3 


27.... 44. b 


37.... 98. 2 




21.... 177. 3 


23: 7, 12.... 249. 2. a 


40.... 250. 2 (2), 


1: 1....5 265. rt 




24: 10.... 92. rf, 282. a 


263.4 


3.... 219. 1. a 




15 88 (pi.) 


12: 4.... 272. 2 


4.... 245. 3. 6 


JOSHUA. 


19.... 275. 3. a 


5.... 230. 3. a 


6.... 24. 6,104. i 






6.... 3. 1. a 


8.... 263. 2 


1: !....§ 265. a 




13: 2....248. o 


9. . . .104. d, 172. 4, 


8.... 36. 2 


JTDGES. 


3....16. 1 


254. 1 


14.... 256 




5, 7.... 90 (2 f. 6.) 


14.... 88 (2 f.) 


16.... 263. 1 


1: l....§265. ra 


6 119. 2 


17....53. 2. a 


2: 8....88(pK) 


15.... 273. 3. a 


8.... 93. 6, 245. 5. 


20.... 119. 2 


14.... 249. 2. b 


2: 7.... 256 


6, 266. 3 


24.... 104. ;: 


16.... 157. 1, 164.2 


3: 15.... 246. 3. b 


12.... 275. 1. a 


28.... 119. 2 


17, 18, 20.... 104. k 


24.... 140. 5 


23.... 273. 1 


2: 5....24. c 


18.... 112. 3 


25.... 157. 1 


14: 1....61. 6. a 


10.... 119. 1 


20.... 249. 2. 6 


27.... 272. 2. b 


6.... 245. 5. d 


13.... 203. 5. o 


3: 3 246.3 


30.... 274. 2. a 


11.... 251. 2. b 


22.... 88 (pi.) 


9.... 131. 3 


4: 19.... 164. 2, 262. 2 


15.... 283. 2. a 


27.... 91. 6 


11.... 246. 3. a 


20.... 104. a, 127. 2 


18.... 61. 6. a 


3: 2....258. 3. a 


12.... 280. 1 


21....11.1.a,156.3 


15: 16.... 280. 3. a 


4.... 26.3. 1. 6 


13.... 246. 3 


22.... 266 


16: 5....1.S0. 1. 6 


7....263. 1. 6 


. 14. . . .253. 2. a 


23.... 126. 1 


13.... 112. 3 


8.... 2.54. 9. 6 


4: 4....251. 4. a 


24.... 282. c 


14.... 246. 3. a 


19.... 263. 4 


5.... 255. 3 


5: 5.... 86. a, 141.1, 


16.... 27 


4: S....266. 2. a 


6. ...88 (pi.) 


249. 2. a 


25.... 51. 2 


12.... 266. 3 


8....104. g- 


7....24. f,74,74. a 


26.... 150. 1 


14.... 75. 1 


10.... 275. 2 


8.... 92. rf, 121. 1 


27.... 271. 1 


19. ...148. 2 


13.... 4.5. 5. a 


12.... 45. 2. a 


28.... 22. &. 27, 223. 


6: 10....104. ff, 165. 3 


23.... 127. 2 


13.... 148. 3 


1. a 


12.... 88 (3f. pi.), 


24.... 262. 1 


15.... 199. c, 207. 


17: 2....71. a. 2 


147. 4, 282 


6. 5.... 125. 2 


2. a 


IS: 7.... 94. a, 27.5. 


14.... 246. 3. 6 


v.... 46 


26.... 88 (3 f. pi.). 


2.6 


15.... 119. 1 


13.... 282. c 


105. b 


29.... 93. 6 


7: 8....119. 1 


IT.... 166. 1 


28.... 60. 3. b (2), 


30.. ..4. a 


8: 19.... 24. a 


7 : 7.... 60. 3. b (2), 


121. 2 


19: 5.... 19. 2. a, 89 


9: 3....270. c 


94. h. 112. 2 


31.... 263. 1 


11.... 150. 1(2) 


9....243. 2. a, 


9.... 172. 3 


6: 9....99. 3. 6 


22.... 82. 5. a 


245. 3 


21.... 246. 2. a 


11.... 246. 3. b 


20: 13.... 46 


24.... 245. 5. 6 


8: 11.... 246. 3. a 


14.... 249. 2. b 


15. 17.... 96. a 


10: 1-8.... 100. 1 


19.... 271. 2 


15.... 250. 2(2) a 


25 224. a 


4.... 251. 2. c 


22.... 272. 2 


17.... 74, 74. a 


31. ...131. 2 


5.... 266. 3 


24 22. b 


20.... 73. 2. a 


32.... 24. b 


6.... 165. 3, 273. 


33.... 246. 2. a 


25.... 249. 1. c 


39.... 131. 5 


3. a 


9: 4....161. 1 


31.... 230. 3. a 


43.... 24. 6 


13.... 165. 3 


6.... 119. 4 


34.... 119. 1 


44.... 271. 4. b 


19.... 250. 2(2)o 


8....26Z2. a 


36.... 2.58. 3. 6 


21: 9.... £6. a 


24.... 24. 6 


12.... 161. 1, 249. 


7: 6.... 2-2. a 


21.... .39. 3. b 


12: 3....38. 1. a 


2. a 


12.... 74. a 


22.... 158. 3 


7.... 91. c 


13.... 126. 1 


19.... 268. 1 


25.... 258. 3.6 


13.... 119. 2 


24.... 95. r, 172. 3 


8: 1....166. 2 




24.... 94. a 


10: 11.... 38. 4. a, 39. 


2 25 




13: 5.... 250. 2(1) 


1. a 


10.... 224. a 


RUTH. 


8.... 149. 2 


20.... 22. 6 


11.... 229. 4. b 




19.... S6. 6 (3 pi.) 


24.... 86. b (3 pL), 


19.... 111. 3. b 


1: 8.... 5 275. 5 


21.... 19. 2.6. 65. a 


245. 5. b 


26 74. a 


9....89(f. pi.) 


14: 1....73. 2. a 


26.... 56. 4 


9: 2....230. 2. a 


11.... 45. 4 


22.... 94. <• 


29. . . .272. 2 


8.... 98. 1. a 


13.... 25, 71. a (3), 


24. ...111. 2. d 


30.... 21. 1 


9....53. 2.6,63.1. 


88 (f. pi.), 91. c 


29 249. 2. c 


31. 3S....272. 2 


o, 95. h 


19.... 104. e^ 


32.... 157. 3,172. 4 


11: 8....21. 1 


10.... 89 (f. g. & 


20.... 60. Z. c, 196. 


33.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


14.... 94. b 


m. pi.) 


d 


164. 3 



INDEX II. 



335 



14: 36....5141. 1 


1 28.24.. 


.§111. 2. 6 


21:11... 


.§271. 4. a 


16: 26.... §254. 9. a 


40....27t;. 3 


30: 1.. 


.14. a 


12.. 


.177. 3 


29.... 252. 2. a 


15: 1....125. 2 


31: 2... 


.94. c 


22: 7.. 


.142. 2 


17: 3....100. 1 


5. ...111. 2. c 






24.. 


.45.1 


14.... 177. 3 


6.... 151. 2 






S3.. 


.160. 1 


21.... 43 


9. ...91. e 


2 SAMUEL. 


37, 40 238. 1. 6 


18: 1....252. 1 


19.... 157. 3, 172.4 






40.. 


.53. 3. a. 111. 


12.... 100. 2.0 (1) 


30 100.2. a(l) 


1: 4... 


.§242. c 


2. 


c 


13.... 104. e 


16 : 4....2S4 


6... 


.91. 6, 166. 3 


41.. 


.53. 2. 6, 132. 


30.... 131. 3 


12 214. 2. 6 


9... 


.256. c 


1 

43.. 


.118. 3, 141. 3 


32. ...273. 3 


15.... 221. 2. a 


10.. 


.99.3.6,106.0 


42.... 175. 3 


18 246.3.6,254. 


15... 


.131. 3 


44.. 


.199. 6 


43.... 254. 9.0, 


6. a, 257, 2 


21... 


.255. 1 


48.. 


.238. 1. 6 


274. 2 d 


23 245. 3. a 


26.. 


.166. 1 


23: 1.. 


.160. 5 


44.... 104. 6 


17 :12....249. 2. c, 253. 


2:19... 


.13. 6 


6.. 


.33. 3, 140. 6, 


19: 2.... 275. 3. a 


2. b 


27... 


.65. a 


221. 6 


4 274. 2. c 


25.... 24. 6,104, h 


32... 


.274. 2. 6 


8.. 


.199. 6 


7.... 38. 1. a 


26 73. 2. a, 275, 


3: 2... 


.257. 1 


27.. 


.24. 6 


10.... 92. d 


3. a 


8... 


.105. 3 


24:12.. 


.268. 2 


11....275. 1. r 


34 215. 5. rf, 265. 


22... 


.276. 2 


13.. 


.253. 2 


15.... 66. 2(2)6, 


6, 271. 4. 6 


4: 6... 


.71. a (3) 






219.1 


35.... 14. a, 112.3, 


5: 2... 


.164. 2 






19.... 251. 4. a 


265. 6 


6: 1... 


.151.2 


1 KINGS. 


20.... 98. 1. o 


42.... 172. 4 


3... 


.249. 1. b 






20: 9.... 39. 4 


47.... 150. 2 


5... 


.16. 3. b 


1: 6.. 


.§243.1 


13.... 229. 1. 6 


55.... 245. 2, 249. 


13... 


.282. c 


14.. 


.259. 2. a 


27....96. o. 161.4 


2. (7 


16... 


.253. 1 


15.. 


.54. 1, 205. 6 


35.... 172. 3 


56....249. 2. a 


20... 


.282. b 


21.. 


.87 


39.... 91. 6 


18: 1....105. a 


23... 


.56. 2 


27.. 


.283. 2. 6 


21: 1....45. 1 


6.... 158. 3 


7 :10... 


.114 


2:24.. 


.105. a 


8.... 46 


7.... 250. 2 (2) a 


8:18... 


.199. 6 


31.. 


.254. 6. b 


29.... 164. 2 


9.... 156. 1 


10: 3... 


.253. 2 


3: 3.. 


.126. 1 


22 : 12.... 126. 1 


17.... 119. 1 


11,1" 


....275.2. 6 


7.. 


.267. 6 


23.... 249. 2. 6 


20.... 243. 2 


11: 1... 


.11. 1. 6 


15.. 


.147. 4 


25.... 165. 1 


22.... 220. 2. 6 


24... 


.177. 3 


4: 5... 


.150. 4, 215. 


27.... 253. 2. a, 


28.... 104. i 


25... 


.245. 5, 271. 


1. 


e 


270. c 


29.... 148. 1, 151.2 


4. 


a 


6: 3... 


.253. 2. a 


35.... 147. 4 


19: 10.... 249. 2. 6 


12: 1,4 


...156. 3 


10.. 


.254. 8 


54.... 119. 1 


13,16 201. 2 


4... 


.249. 1. c 


11.. 


.260. 2 (2) a 




17.... 104. k 


14... 


.92. d 


20.. 


.119. 1 




21 269. a 


13: 4... 


.280. 1 


25.. 


.53. 2. a 


2 KINGS. 


22.... 249. 1. c 


31... 


.254. 10 


6: 16.. 


.10. a 




20: 6 119.1 


32... 


.158. 3 


19.. 


.132. 1 


1: 2.... §249. 2. c, 


• 13....271. 4. a 


39... 


.253. 1 


21.. 


.207. 1. c 


283. 1 


21.... 39. 4 


14 : 2, 3 


...16. 1 


38.. 


.251. 4. a 


6.... 36. 2,39.4 


28.... 119. 1 


7... 


.38.4.0,158.3 


7:12.. 


.249. 1. c 


7.. ..75. 1 


31.... 254. 6. a 


10... 


.104. k 


14.. 


.132. 1, 253. 1 


10.... 172. 4 


38.... 199. h 


19... 


.bl. 2 (1), 


37.. 


.220. 1. 6 


10, 14.... 250. 2 


42.... 250. 2 (2) a 


180. a 


44.. 


.251. 4. a 


(2)o 


21: 2. ...219. 1.6 


30... 


.149. 1, 150. 4 


8: 1... 


.119. 1 


16....S9. 4 


3.... 92. 6, 221. 3. a 


15: 8... 


.282. 6 


48.. 


.86. 6 (1 c.) 


2: 1....16. 3. 6 


7. ...44 


12... 


.125. 2 


9:11... 


.165. 2 


10.... 93. c 


12.... 44. a 


23... 


.275. 2. 6 


10: 3... 


.112. 3 


11.... 16. 3. 6 


14.... 66. 1(1), 105. 


30... 


.282. c 


9.. 


.254. 8 


16 208. 3. c 


a, 174. 4 


32... 


.273. 6 


12... 


.275. 1. 6 


21.... 165. 2 


15.... 126. 1 


34... 


.287. 3 


15.. 


.254. 3 


22.... 165. 3 


22: 2.... 165. 2 


37... 


.215. 1. e 


11: 1... 


.210. d 


24.... 251. 2. 6 


23: 11. ...94. d 


16: 1... 


.250. 2 (1) 


3.. 


.275. 1. a 


3: 4.... 253. 2. a 


22 2S2. a 


16... 


.215. 1. e 


13... 


.16. 1 


23.... 119. 1 


24: 14.'.!!245.'5. a 


17: 9... 


.243. 2. o 


22. . 


.24. a 


25.... 65. 6,111. 1 


17.... 260. 1 


10... 


.140. 4 


25!.'. 


.271. 4. 6 


27.... 263. 1 


19. ...71. a(2) 


12... 


.71. a (1) 


39.. 


.57. 2 (2) a 


4: 7.... 220. 1. 6 


25: 7.... 94. a 


22... 


.223. 1. a 


12:10.. 


.221. 5. a 


16, 23.... 71. a. 2 


8.. ..164. 2 


23... 


.113. 1, 275. 


12.. 


.164. 2 


24.... 131. 1 


14.... 157. 3 


3. 


a 


32... 


.257. 3 


25.... 73. 2. a 


18.... 172. &, 209. 


18: 3... 


.113. 2 


13: 7... 


.234. a 


32.... 95. a 


3. a 


18... 


.270. 6 


12... 


.75. 2 


5: 1....39. 1. a 


33.... 165. 3 


19: 1... 


.281 


20... 


.60. 3. 6 (2) 


3.... 112. 3 


34....88(3f.), 167. 


14... 


.111. 2. 6 


14: 2... 


.71. a (2) 


6.... 104. 7 


3 


18... 


.224. a 


3... 


.60.2.0,127.1 


1....2U. 9. 6 


43.... 2.50. 2 (2) a 


19... 


.113. 2 


6... 


.273. 5 


9.... 257 


26: 16.... 271. 4. 6 


20: 1... 


.257. 2 


24... 


.246. 3. a 


18.... 46, 176. 1 


22....246. 3. a 


4... 


.119. 1 


25... 


.257. 3 


6: 5.... 271. 4. 6 


27 : 12.... 119. 1 


5... 


.111. 2. d 


15:16... 


.60. 3. a 


8.... 220. 2.0 


28: 7....2U. 1. b 


9... 


.111. 2. b 


23... 


.271. 4 


10.... 252. 4 


8....89(f. s. &in. 


21... 


.95. a 


29... 


.94. 6 


11.... 74. a 


pi.) 


21 : 2.. . 


.166. 2. 


33... 


.257. 3, 4 


18.... 98. 2,207. 


10.... 24. b 


6.'.. 


.60. 3. a, 127. 


16:10... 


.252. 2 


1. 


14.... 60. 3. 6(2) 


2 




16... 


.247. a 


19.... 88 (pi.) 


15.... 63. 1. c, 97. 


9... 


.160. 5, 223. 1. 


17... 


.172. 4, 175. 3 


22.... 230. 3 


L 6, 164. 5 


a. 


250. 2 (2) a 


25... 


.172. 4 


23.... 172. 4 



336 




INDEX II. 






6:32... 


.§24. & 


3: 3. ...§247. a 


6: 11. ...§233. a ] 


9:18... 


§24.6,105.0, 


7 :12... 


.165. 1 


5: 2....119. 1 


7 : 34.... 251. 3 


190. a. 


13... 


.246. 3. a 


12.... 180. a 


8: 2 166.4 


30... 


.121. 1 


8: 1... 


.71. a (2) 


6 :42....98. 1 


5 106. 0,125. 2 


34... 


.105. b 


8... 


.249. 2. c 


7 : 6 94. e 


9: 5 161.4 


10: 12... 


.19. 2 


12... 


.126. 1 


8 : 16 246. 3. a 


6.... 71. a (2) 


"2. . . 


.61. 6. a 


13... 


.75. 1 


18.... 13. a 


18.... 63. 1. a 


11: "3!.'.' 


.94. a 


21... 


.11. 1. b, 90 


10: 7....231. 5. a 


19 249. 1 


12... 


.139. 3 


9:17... 


.196. 6 


10.... 19. 2 


26.... 63. 1. a 


15... 


.150. 5 


25... 


.220. 1. b 


15: 8.... 246. 3. a 


28 249. 1. a 


17... 


.97. 1. a, 260. 


37... 


.172. 1 


16: 7. 8.... 119. 1 


32.... 271. 4. a 


2 


2)c 


10:14... 


.118. 3 


12.... 177. 3 


35.... 249. 1. c 


12:14... 


.111. 1 


30... 


.39.4 


17: 11.... 62. 2. 6, 209. 


10: 39.... 94. 6, 113. 2 


21... 


.282. c 


11: 4... 


.199. 6 


2.rf 


11 : 17 150. 2 


13: 9... 


.24. c 


13... 


.199. a 


12.... 282. c 


12:44....:39. 3. b 


15... 


.83. 6 


12: 1... 


.252. 2. b 


13.... 275. 1. c 


13; 13.... 111. 2. d 


21... 


.119. 1 


8.. 
9... 


.216. 1. a 


18 : 22 249. 2. b 


16 11. 1. a 


27 . . . 


.264. a 


'.h. 3. c, 132. 2 


23....38.4. a 


23.... 210. d 


14: 1... 


.254. 9. 6 


10... 


.•250. 1. a 


19: 2.... 112. 5. c 




19... 


.112. 3, 275. 4 


13: 6... 


.164. 2 


20: 7.... 105. a 




15: 7... 


.227. 1. a 


14.. 


.263. 1 


35.... 96. a 


ESTHER. 


11... 


.260. 2 (2) b 


15: 1... 


.252. 2. a 


21: 17.... 125. 1, 260. 




1-S... 


.121. 2 


10.. 


.19. 2 


2(2) 


2: 8.... §126. 1 
9.... 207. 2.d 

4: 3 150.5 

4.... 161. 2 

14.... 127. 1 

16.... 276. 2 
7: 5....82. 1. a(l) 
8: 6.... 269 

15.... 256 
9; 4.... 282. c 

27.... 86. 6 (3 pi.) 


22 . . . 


.172. 5 


16.. 


.246. 2. a 


22: 5.... 53. 2. a 


16: 5... 


.104. /j 


16: 7.. 


.1.56. 2 


11 30. 1. a 


11... 


.147. 3 


17.. 


.253. 2 


23: 19.... 242 


12... 


.161. 2 


17 :13... 


.39. 4. a 


24 : 18.... 249. 2. 6 


13... 


.126. 1, 216. 


36.. 


.39.4 


25: 4.... 254. 7 


1. 


h 


18:23... 


.119. 1 


26: 15.... 148. 1, 177.3 


16... 


.60. 3. 6(2) 


30.. 


.126. 1, 271. 


17.... 251. 2.6 


19... 


.19. 2 


4. 


a 


19.... 119. 3 


17: 2... 


.24. 6 


19: 4... 


.285. 1 


21 198. a.i 


3... 


.126. 1 


23.. 
25.. 


.254. 2. a 
.175. 2 


28: 23.... 94. e 
29: 31.... 65. b 


10.. 
16... 


.215. 1. c 
.88 (3 f. pi.) 


29.. 


.131. 3 


36.... 24.5. 5. 6 




18: 2... 


.54. 3 


22: 19.. 


.106. a 


31: 7. ...148.1 




4... 


.91. b, 230. 2 


23: 1... 


.251. 2. b 


14.... 219. 1. a 


JOB. 


19: 2... 


.105. c 


17.. 


.73. 2. a, 246. 


32: 15.... 256. c 




3.. 


.94. c, 252. 4 


3. 


a 


30.... 150. 2 (p. 


1: 3.... §250. 2 (2), 


7.. 


.113. 1 


25:17.. 


.251. 2. b 


1S2) 


260. 2. (1) 


15.. 


.10.5. e 


29.. 


.177. 3 


33 : 19. . . .199. c 


5.... 263. 4, 274. 


16.. 


.45.4 






34: 4.... 126. 1 


2. (/ 


17.. 


.139. 2 






5.... 220. 1. b 


6.... 245. 3. b 


23.. 


.88 (pi.), 14L 


1 CHRONICLES. 


6.... 43. b 


7. ...45. 1 


1 








35 : 13.... 57. 1 


10.... 71. a (2) 


29.. 


.74, 74. a 


2:13.. 


.§57.2(1) 




11.... 45. 4,131.3 


20: 4.. 


.158. 3 


16.. 
3: 5.. 


.13. b 
.149. 1 


EZRA. 


14....220. l.&,258. 
3 


8.. 
17.. 


.139. 3 
.255. 3. a 


4:10.. 

5:20.. 


.100. 2. a (1) 
.74. a 


3: 11. ...§95. c, 150. 5 
7 : 25. ...39. 4 
8: 18.... 26 

23.... 99. 3 

25.... 98. 1. a, 207. 
1. b, 245. 5. b 

26.... 98. 1. a 

29.... 246. 3. a 

31.... 99. 3 
10: 14 245. b. h 

16.... 122. 2, 141. 1 

17.... 245. 5. b 


21.... 164. 2 
2: 3 36. 1. a 


24.. 
26.. 


.112. 5. c 
.60. 3. c, 93. a, 


12: 1.. 


.14. a 


5.... 45. 4 


111. 2. e 


2.. 


.150. 1, 180. a 


7... .46 


28.. 


.140. 2 


14.. 
20.. 


.260. 2 (2) 
.14. a 


10.... 248. a 
3: 3 263. 5 


21: 5.. 
13.. 


.140. 5 
.24. c 


13: 3.. 


.VU. I 


8. ...267. 6 


18.. 


.104. i 


12.. 


.51. 2 


11.... 263. 5 


24.. 


.88 (pi.) 


15:24.. 


.94. e, 180. o 


13.... 263. 1 


22: 3.. 


.283. 2 


27.. 


.180. a, 246. 


25.... 168. a, 172. 3 


20.. 


.220. 1. b 


3 


a 


4: 2.... 283. 1. a 


21.. 


.88 (3.f.), 94 


17: 4.. 


.266. 3. a 


4 200. e 


rf 


, 167. 3 


20: 2.. 


.254. 5 


6.... 287. 3 


23: 3.. 


.269. 6 


8.. 


.73. a, 149. 1 




19.... 285. 1 


9.. 


.34 


21 : 13. . 


.259. 2 


NEHEMIAH. 


6: 7.... 93. b, 287. 1 


11.. 


.79. 3. a 


22:14.. 


.250. 2 (3) 




8.... 263. 1 


17.. 


.86 6 (2 m.) 


23: 6.. 


.59. n 


1: 4.... §125. 2 


16.... 61. 6. a 


24:14.. 


.83. b 


24: 3.. 


.59. n, 113. 1 


7 282. b 


18.... 165. 3 


19.. 


.285. 3 


28.. 


.275. 1. c 


2: 4. ...111. 2. e 


6: 2....263. 1 


21.. 


.150. 2 


25:19.. 


..2.51.4. a 


7.... 111. 2. 6 


16.... 96. b 


24.. 


.189. 1 


26:28.. 


.24.5. 5. 6 


12.... 39. 4 


22.... 60. 3. b (2), 


25.. 


.264. a 


27 :15.. 


..251.4. a 


13.... 4. a, 164. 5 


119. 4 


33.. 


. .220. 2. c 


28: 1.. 


..36.1 


3: 13.... 53. 2. 6,62.1 


26.... 126. 1 


25: 3.. 


. .220. 1. & 


5.. 


..249. 1. a 


20.... 94. a 


7: 3....243.2. A 


26: 9.. 


. .1«0. a 


29:17.. 


..245. 5. 6 


33.... 274. 1 


5.... 119. 1, 139. 3 


11.. 


..161.4 


18.. 


. .125. 1 


34.... 210. c 


14.... 104. 7, 105. b 


27: 3.. 


..256. c 






4: 7....216. 2. c 


18.... 105. 6 


4.. 


..92. e 






5: 8....255. 1 


8: 8.... .57. 2 (2) a, 


12.. 


..271.3 


2 CHROXICLES. 


14. ...65. a 


227. 1. a 


33.. 


. .220. 2. c 






16. ...112. 3 


21.... 165. 1 


28:12.. 


.245. 5 


1: 4.. 


..§245.5. b 


6: 6.... 177. 1 


9: 2....22. * 


29: 3.. 


.139. 2 


10.. 


. .164. b 


8. ...57. 2 (3) a, 


6.... 88 (pi.) 


6.. 


..53. 3. b 


2: 7.. 


..14. a, 254. 3 


164.3. 


1 15..,. 92. 6 


14.. 


..105. d 



INDEX II. 



337 



»:21....524. c | 


9 


17. ...5149.1 1 


45: 3. 


..592. a 


78:63... 


.5 93. 6 


80: •8..,.24. b 


IS.... 219. 1. a 


9. 


..199. b 


65... 


.141. 5* 


26.... 99. 3. b 


19.... 126. 1 


10. 


..14. o, 24. b 


80: 3... 


.61. 6. a 


31: 5. ...157. 3 


10: 2 31. a, 286 


47 : 5. 


. .43. a 


6, 8 


...253. 2. 6 


16.... 61. 3, 105. b, 


5.... 31. 6 


10. 


..112. 5. c 


e... 


.112. 3 


161. 3. 


8, 10.... 209. La 


49; 9. 


. .55. 1 


11... 


.98. a 


18.... 273. 3. a 


12.... 131. 3 


50:21. 


. .112. 3, 282. 6 


14... 


.4. a, 180. a 


22.... 27 


13, 14.... 31. 6 


23. 


..105. b 


15... 


.253. 2. b 


24.... 60. 1. a 


11: 1....257. 1 


51: 6. 


..263.1 


16... 


.4. o, 130. 2 


32: 2.... 269. 6 


7.... 220. 2. c, 275. 


7. 


..121. 2 


19... 


.157. 3 


10.... 125. 1 


3. a 


63: 6. 


..220. 1. 6 


20... 


.253. 2. 6 


11.... 53. 2. a, 111. 


12: 3.... 280. 2 


55 : 10. 


..92. c 


81: 3... 


.45. 5. a 


2. c 


4. ...119. 1 


16. 


...164. 2 


11... 


.119. 1, 246. 


18.... 164. 2 


8.... 73. 1,249.2.6 


18. 


. . .274. 2. a 


2. 


b 


33: 5.... 111. 3. a 


13: 4.... 271. 3 


19, 


22.... 19. 2. a 


17... 


.279 


9.... 71. a(l) 


6.... 104. h 


22. 


. . .141. 1 


84: 2... 


.200. e 


13.... 158. 1 


16: 5.... 19. 2. a, 90, 


87: 2. 


...172. 1, 275. 


86: 2... 


.19. 2, 126. 1 


21.... 26, 121. 1 


151. 3 




1. a 


88:17... 


.24. 6, 92. a 


25.... 180. a 


17: 3....1S9. 2 


9. 


...247. 6 


89: 2... 


.216. 2. a 


27.... 158. 2 


9.... 263. 5.0 


68: 2. 


...88 (pi.) 


8... 


.111. 3. 6 


30. ...159 2 


18: 6.... 104. I 


4. 


...156. 2 


9... 


.253. 2. 6 


34: 5. ...65. a 


10.... 147. 5 


7. 


...131.3 


10... 


.131. 4 


13.... 61. 6. a 


15.... 82. 1. a (3) 


8. 


...1S9. 3 


40... 


.272. 3 


18. ...112. 1 


21. ...21. 1 


9. 


...24. 6, 214. 


44... 


.104. j 


22.... 91. b 


27.... 142. 2 




1. 6 


46... 


.24. 6, 86. 6 


25.... 216. 1. a 


41.... 132. 1 


12. 


...275. 3. a 


(2 


m.) 


35: 11.... 53. 3. a, 111. 


19: 6.... 249. 1 


60; 2. 


...43. a 


61... 


.249. 1. a 


2. c 


8.... 2.54. 9. 6 


4. 


...165. 1 


62... 


.24. 6, 216. 


37: 6....177. 1 


14.. ..11. 1. b 


5. 


...253. 2. a 


2. 


a 


12.... 61. 6. a 


20: 4.... 63. 1. c, 97. 


13. 


. . .287. 1 


90: 2... 


.263. 1. 6 


24.... 104. A 


1. a, 6 


61 : 1. 


...196. b 


10... 


.22.0 


38: 1....4. a 


9....243. 1 


62 : 4. 


. . .93. a. bis 


91: 6... 


.140. 1 


12 86. b (2 m.) 


22: 2....104. j 


10. 


...260. 2(2)c 


12... 


.105. c 


24.... 60. 4.0,113.1 


9.... 42 


12. 


...252.4 


92: 2.. 


.242. 6 


35.... 230. 2. a 


10.... 157. 1 


63: 2. 


...275. 1. c 


16... 


.61. 6. a 


39: 2....104. g- 


17.... 156. 3. 199. b 


4. 


. . .105. c 


93: 1... 


.126. 2 


3. ...161. 2 


22.... 272. 3 


8. 


...61. 6. a 


5.. 


.174. 1 


4.... 112. 5. c 


32 266. 3 


64: 7. 


...54. 3 


94: 1... 


.94. d 


24.... 165. 2 


23 


6....148. 2,267. d 


65: 7. 


...112. 5. c 


9... 


.126. 1 


40: 2....268. 1. a 


24 


14.... 131. 3 


10. 


. . .104. A, 105. 6 


17... 


.61. 6. o 


21, 22.... 208. 3. a 


25 


....6, 7. 2. a 


66: 4. 


...275.2.6 


19... 


.141. 6 


22.... 221. 6. b 




27. ...71. o. 2 


12. 


...114 


20... 


.93. o. 111. 


41: 1....160. 5 


26 


2.... 98. 1. a 


68: 3. 


...91. 6, 131. 2, 


2. 


e 


2.... 105. b 


4.... 112. 3 




5, 140. 4 


101: 5... 


.92. 6, 93. a 


17. ...131. 4, 164. 2 


27: 10.... 112. 3 


5. 


...111. 3. a 


102; 5... 


.14. a 


25.... 172. 5 


13.... 4. a 


8. 


...119. 3 


14... 


.139. 2 


26.... 43, 43. a 


28 


7.... 150. 2 


18. 


...21.1 


19.. 


.266. 3 


42: 2.. ..86. &(lc.) 


29 


9... .111. 1 


21. 


...231. 3. a 


103: 3,4 


...220. 2. c 


13.... 223. 1. a 


30 


4.... 13. a 


69 : 10. 


. . .22. a, 104. i, 


4... 


.104. c, 246. 




8.... 221. 6. 6 




216. 2. a 


2 


6 




13 105. b 


19. 


...98. 1. a 


5.7. 


.275. 3 


PSALMS. 


31: 10.... 31. a 


24. 


...119. 1 


7... 


.263. 6 




14.... 31. 6 


70: 6. 


...71. o. 2 


13.. 


.119.1,262.3 


1: 1....5245. 2 


24... .119. 4 


71: 6. 


...157. 1 


104: 8.. 


.286 


2: 2. ...247 


32: 1....165. 3 


7. 


...256. 6 


18... 


.249. 1. c 


3.... 45. 4,97.1 


10....249. 1. o 


12. 


...158. 2 


26.. 


.119, 1 


7.. ..71. a(2) 


33: 5. ...266. 1 


23. 


...88. (f. pi.) 


28.. 


.88 (pi.) 


12.... 35. 1,271.4 


34: ....6, 7. 2. a 


72 : 15. 


...105. 6 


29.. 


.111. 2. 6, 


3: 2.... 141. 1 


35 : 8 105. a 


17. 


...159. 3,247 


151. 2 


3.... 61. 6. a 


10.... 19. 2. a, 22. 


20. 


...93. a 


105 15.. 


.264 


8.... 273. 2 


6, 215. 1. c 


73: 2. 


...172.1 


28.. 


.99. 3 


4: 3.... Ill 2. e 


19.... 102. 3 


10. 


...254. 6. b 


106:25... 


.114 


7.... 3. 1.0,131.3, 


25.... 127. 2 


16. 


...99. 3. 6 


47... 


.126. 1 


165. 1 


36: 13.... 121. 1 


27. 


...86. 6 (2ni.) 


107:20.. 


.199. d 


6: 9.... 31. 6.150. 1 


37; ....6 


74; 4. 


. . .220. 2. a 


27.. 


.126. 1 


11.... 42 


9.... 91. 6 


5. 


...19. 2. a 


109:13... 


.173. 3 


12....112.5.c,254. 


15.. ..24. 6 


8. 


...105. a 


23.. 


.112. 5. c 


9.6 


23.... 161. 4 


10. 


...119. 1 


110: 4.. 


.61. 6. a 


13. ...31. b 


38: 3....1S1. 1 


17. 


...11. 1. 6 


Ill : ... 


.6 


6: 3. ...42 


11.... 92. o 


19. 


. . .196. 6 


112: ... 


.6 


4.... 71. a. 2 


21.... 19. 2. a 


75:11. 


...161.4 


113: 5-9 


...61. 6. a 


7: 6....31. 6,60. 2.0, 


39- 2.. ..97. 1 


76: 3. 


. . .203. 5. c 


6.. 


.218 


114 


5. ...75.1 


4. 


...22. a, 126.2, 


114: 8.. 


.61. 6. a 


10.... 263. 1. a 


14.... 35. 2,175. 4 




216. 2. a 


115:17.. 


.242 


17.... 254. 9. a 


40: 18.... 71. a (2) 


6. 


...96. a 


116: 6.. 


.141.2,150.2 


8: 2. ...132.1 


41: 5.... 119. 3, 164. 5 


77: 2. 


...112.3 


12.. 


.220. 2. c 


3.. ..94. 6 


42; 9....220. 1. 6 


4. 


...172. 3 


15.. 


.61. 6. a 


5.... 199. e 


io....ni. 2. 6 


10. 


. . .i.^.a 2 


19.. 


.2C0. 1. 6 


9: 14.... 141. 1 


44: 5.... 258. 2 


IS. 


. . .92. 6 


118:10.. 


.105. a 


15.... 220. 2. a 


18, 21. ...127. 2 


20. 


...24. b 


11.. 


.1.39. 1 


16,... 285 3 


27.... 61. 6. a 


' 78 ; 9. 


. . .255. 3. a 


18.. 


.92. d, 104. a 




22 













338 



INDEX II. 



118: 23. 


...§166.1 


6:11... 


.§11.1. a 


30: 25.... §200. e 


5: 3.... §105, d 


119: . 


...6 


21.. 


.104. g 


31 229. 1. a 


9 104. A- 


18. 


...98. 2 


27.. 


.118. 4 


31 : 3.... 199. a 


12.... 57. 2 (3) a 


22. 


...139. 2 


7:13.. 


.141. 1 


10-31.... 6 


6 : 5 45. 5. o 


43. 


...00. 4. a 


14.. 


.53. 2. a 


12.... 104. J 


6.... 220. 1. 6 


47. 


. . .141. 6 


8: 3... 


.31. a, 97. 1. a 


31.... 247. a 


9.... 105. e, 275. 5 


71. 


...123. 1 


11.. 


.260. 1 




11.... 141. 1 


101. 


...165. 2 


13.. 


.166. 2 




7: 3.... 221. 6. 6 


117. 


...172.3 


15.. 


.88 


ECCLESIASTES. 


4.... 216. 1. c 


129. 


...104. i 


17.. 


.53. 2. a, 111. 




8.... 210. e 


133. 


. . .97. 2 


2. 


6 


1: 4. ...§266. 1 


13.... 141. 1 


137. 


. . .275. 1. a 


25.. 


.263. 1. 6 


9.... 256. c 


8: 2.... 199. 6 


139. 


...24. A 


27, 29.... 141. 3 


15.... 161. 4 


5.... 104. i 


155. 


. . .275. 1. a 


10: 3... 


.111. 1 


17.... 3. 1. a 


6.... 22. a, 216. 2. a 


122-124 


....74. a 


4.. 


.11.1.(2,156.3 


18. ...90 




122: 4. 


. . .274. 2. 6 


11... 


.249. 1 


2: 5....207. 1. a 




123: 1. 


...61.6. a 


11: 7... 


.208. 3. c 


7. ...275. 1. c 


ISAIAH. 


4. 


. . .246. 3. a 


25.. 


.150. 5 


8 280. 3. a 




124: 4. 


...61. 6. a 


12:25... 


.197. 6 


13.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


1: 3.... §262. 3 


125 : 3. 


...61. 6. a 


13:23... 


.156. 3 


231. 3. 6 


5.... 256. c 


5. 


...73. 3. a 


14: 3... 


.105. d 


15.... 260. 2 (2) a 


6.... CO. 2. a, 156.2 


127 : 2. 


...19o. J, 254. 


10... 


.60.4. a, 119.1 


19.... 230. 4, 283. 


9.... 262. 1 




9. /) 


34... 


.263. U 


2. a 


11.... 271. 1 


129 : . 


...74. a 


15: 1... 


.24. a, 60. 4. a 


22.... 74, 177. 1 


15.... 104. h, 119. 1 


3. 


...243. 2. a 


9... 


.112. 5. c 


3: 2, 4.... 267. 6 


16.... 54. 4. a, 82. 


86. 


...114 


16: 4... 


.246. 2. a 


17.... 245. 5. a 


5. a 


132: 1. 


...174. 6 


17: 4... 


.111. 2. c, 140. 


18.... 74, 139. 2 


17.... 185. 2. c, 


6. 


...127. 2 


5 




4 : 2 268. 1. a 


267. c 


12. 


...65. a, 220. 


10... 


.131. 1 


9.... 251. 4 


18.... 245. 5. d 




2. a 


14... 


.126. 1, 131. 3 


12.... 105. a 


21.... 33. 1,61. 6. a, 


133: 1. 


. . .24. a 


26... 


.242 


14....53. 2. a, 111. 


218 


134-137. 


..74. a 


18: 5... 


.267 d 


2. c 


22.... 24.5. 5 


134: 2. 


...220. 2. 6, 


19: 7... 


.19. 2. a, 215. 


5: 5.... 113. 2 


24. . . .24-5. 4 




273. 2 


1. 


c 


7....38. 1.0,201.2 


29.... 279 


135: 7. 


...94. 6,165.2 


13... 


.216. 1. d 


8.... 112. 5. e 


31.... 60, 3, 6(2) 


137: 6. 


...104. c 


19... 


.215. 1. c 


7: 16.... 82. 5. a 


2: 2.... 26.5, 6 


13S : 6. 


...147. 2 


24... 


.51.1 


22.... 71. a (.2) 


4.... 207. 1. a 


139 : 1. 


...104.^-, 147. 5 


25... 


.94. d 


24....2S0. 3 


20.... 43. 6,207. 1. 


2. 


...15S. 1 


20:16... 


.111. 3. a 


25.... 273. 4 


o, 256 


5. 


. . .220. 1. b 


21: 8... 


.56. 2 


26.... 91. 6,165. 2 


3: 1....2S0. 3. a 


8. 


. . .53. 3. b, 88 


13... 


.254. 9. a 


8: 1....177. 3 


9,... 273. 3. a 




(1. c), 161. 2 


15... 


.267. a 


9.... 268. 1 


15.,.. 24. a, 75. 1 


19. 


...83.6 


22... 


.63. 1. a 


12.... 165. 2 


16.... 172.5,209.3,0 


20. 


...57. 2 (3) a, 


22:11... 


.215. 1. c 


9: 1....139. 2, 216. 


24 53. 3. a 




86. b (3 pi.), 


21... 


.253. 2 


l.a 


4: 4....262. 1 




164.3 


24... 


.60. 4. a 


12.... 59. a, 93. e 


5: 10.... 22. 0,216.2,0 


140 : 10. 


...172.3 


23: 1... 


.158. 3 


18.... 165. 2 


19,.,,97. 1.97. l.a 


13. 


...86. ftdc.) 


12... 


.243. 2 


10: 5.... 164. 3 


20.... 10. a 


141: 3. 


...24.&,98. l.a 


24... 


.158. 2, 3 


10.... 121. 2 


23.... 275. 6 


5. 


...111.1,164.2 


27... 


.207. 1. c 


17.... 220. 2. c 


28.... 24, 6 


8. 


...60. 4. a 


24: 2... 


.92. e 


11: 3....177. 1 


6: 1....265. a 


143: 3. 


...165. 2 


7... 


.156. 3 


6.. ..75. 2 


2.... 203. 5, a 


6. 


...272.2.6 


14... 


.97.1.6,148.3 


12: 1....201. 2 


5.,,, 254. 10 


144: . 


...74 « 


17... 


.916, 231. 5. a 


4.... 87 


9,.,, .56. 3. a, 175,4 


2. 


...199. b 


23... 


.94. 6 


5....11. 1. a, 122. 


12.... 119, 1 


145 : . 


...6 


31... 


.93. a, 207. 2. 


2, 140. 5 


13....92. d 


8. 


...21.5. 1. c 


d 


271.1 


6.... 140. 1,2 


7: 2....157. 1 


10. 


...104. b 


25; 6.. 


.126. 2 


11.... 19. 2. 6, 65. a 


4.... 91, 6 


147 : 1. 


...92. d 


7. . 


.60. 3. 6 (1) 




11.... 119, 3, 126, 1 


149 : 5. 


...112. 5. c 


9... 


.174.4 




14.... 166, 1 






11... 


.10. a 


SONG OF SOLOMON. 


15.... 207. c 






17... 


.127. 2 




19.... 156. 4 


PROVERBS. 


19... 


.90 


1: 6.... §105. e, 141. 


25.... 274. 2. e 






26: 7... 


.141. 1 


1, 207. 1. a 


8: 2.... 22, 6 


1: 10. 


...nil. 2. b, 


IS.. 


.141. 6 


7.... 45. 5. a, 74, 


11.... 104, a 


1 


77.3 


21... 


.141. 6 


209. 1. a 


17.... 100, 2, a(l) 


20. 


...97.1. a 


27:10... 


.215. 1. c 


8.... 24. 6,260.2(2) 


23.... 61. 6. o 


22. 


...31. 6,60.3. 


15.. 


.83. c (2) 


10.... 174. 1 


9: 3.... 24, 6,221,5,0 




c, 111. 2. e 


17.. 


.140. 1 


2: 5.... 254. 7 


4,,,, 142, 1 


28. 


...105. c 


25.. 


.24.6. 216. 2. a 


10 221. 2. 6 


6 4, o 


2: 11. 


...104.6 


28: 6. 18.... 203. 3. 


15 60. 3. 6 (2), 


12.... 246, 2. 6 


3: 3. 


...125.1 


21... 


.94. 6 


119.4 


17.... 45. 2 


12. 


. . .43. a 


29: 6.. 


.140. 1 


3: 1....45. 5. a 


10: 1.... 207. 2, a, 


17. 


...258.1 


30: 4.. 


.65. 6 


11.... 148. 3, 164.3 


247. 6 


4: 6. 


...118. 3 


6.. 


.22.6,66.1(2) 


4: 1....254. 4 


9.... 22, 6 


13. 


...24.6,106.6 


a 


151. 2 


2.... 220. 1. 6 


10.... 260, 2(2)C 


16. 


...88 


8.. 


.11. 1. a 


5.... 216. 1. c 


12, , , ,255. 3 


25. 


...150. 1 


9.. 


.65. a 


9.... 104. k 


13. ...11, 1, 6,57.8 


6: 22. 


...105. c 


17.. 


.14. a, 24. 6, 


5: 2.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


(3) o, 92. 6, 174 


6: 3. 


...49 


5' 


. 2 (3) a 


60. 4. o 


1, 231, 3. 6 



INDEX II. 



339 



10:14 
16 
17 
27 
S4 

11: 2 



15 

13: 8 

16 

18 
20 

14: 6 
11 
19 
23 

31 

15 : 5, 

16: 8. 

9 

10, 

17: 8, 
11, 
14, 
2. 
4, 
5 
3, 
4, 



18 



19 



22 



23; 



13 

17, 

18 

24: 2, 

3 

19 

20 

25: 1 

6 
10 
11 
26: 5 
11 
16 
19 
20 
27: 3 

4 

8 
11 
12 

3 



28 



§ 245. 5. d 
....147.4 

...221. 5. 6 

...•:4 b 

...19. 1, 45. 2 

...100. 2. a (2), 

156. 4 

...141. 6 

60. 3. a 

....65. b 
....91. c 
. . . .92. e 
'. '. '. .53.' 3. a, 111. 

2. c 

....114 
....150. 5 

95. a 

....57. 2 (2) a, 

94. b, 161. 2 
....119. 4 
....142. 2, 161. 2 
....277 

....168. a, 174. 4 
....86. 6 (2iu.), 

161.4 

229. 3. a 

....156. 2, 161. 2 
. . . .139. 2 
. . . .139. 3 
....98. 1. o 

65. n 

....141. 1 
....275. 3 
....24. c, 94. a, 

LSO. a 
. . . .199. c 
.... 11.1. o, 196. d 
....92. c 
. . . .199. c 
....207. 1. a 
....262. 4 
....112.1,172.1, 

177. 3, 247 
....111. 2. c 
,...254. 6 

...161. 2 

25 

....221. 7. a 
....161. 2 
. . . .45. 3. 111. 1 
....221. 3. a 
....254. 6. 6 

...254. 2 
....54. 3, 94. b, 

221. 6. b 
....249. 2. a 

18.... 220. 1. b 
....113. 1 

...165. 2, 246. 

2. a 

....140. 3,4 

, . . .139. 2, 282. a 

...82. 1. ad) 

...104. A 
,...209. 1. a 

...159. 2 
,...119. 1 

...105. a,b 

...254. 9. a 

...86. 6 (3 pi.) 

...221. 2. 6 
,...172. 3 

...105. (I 

...127.3 

...24. a 
,...88 (3 f. pi.) 

...223. 1. a 

...88 (3 f. pi.), 

91. c 
,..,60. 3. a 



28 



42 



10.... 5 280. 2 

12.... 86. 6 (3 pi.) 

13.... 280. 2 

16.... 150. 5,279. a 

21.... 249. 1. a 
27.... 113. 1 
28.... 282. a 

1....131. 2 

7.... 165. 3 

9. ...141. 6 
14.... 90, 279. a 
16.... 283. 2. 6 
21.... 86. 6 (3 pi.) 
22.... 156. 1 

2.... 157. 1 

5....m. 3 

11 79.3. a. 232a 

12.... 19. 2, 119. 3 
18....106. a, 119. 1, 

139. 2 
19.... 104. 6, 106. a, 

141. 3 
21.... 180. a, 258. 1 
23.... 273. 3 
28.... 160. 4 
29 96. h 

4.... 22. a, 43 

1....88 
11.... 275. 1. a 

1....24. /j, 87, 131. 
2,141.3,253.3.0 

6 255. 2 

7.... 24. a 

9 82. 1. a(l) 

10.... S2. 5. a 
12.... 24. c, 149. 1 
15.... 271. 2 
21... .56. 1 

4.... 140. 2, 245. 
5. d 

6 96, a 

11....21.1,229.4, i 
17.... 104, V 

1.... 55, 1,88 (pi.), 
158. 2 

7.... 275. 4 

8... .35.1,246.3.0 

9.... 250. 1. a 
15.... 271. 4. a 

23 270. c 

32.... 254. 9. a 

5 90, 279. a 

14. ...19. 2 
16.... 256, c 

1....263. 2 

7.... 22. 6,35.1 
12.... 215. 1. c 
17.... 260. 2(2) c 

21 263. 2 

24.... 92. 6 
30.... 147. 4 
31.... 245. 5 

7.... 90, 270. b 

8.... 285. 1 
14.... 254. 3 
23.... 97. 2.0,172.3 
24.... 260. 2(2)c 

4.... 140. 1 

5.... 126. 1, 221. 
7. f> 

6.... 97. 2. o 
11.... 156. 1 

22 6.5. a 

24.... 267. c 

5.... 105. b 

8.... 94. d 

9. ...91. d 
23.... 112. 3 

2.... 105. 6, 193. 
2. b 



44 


: 8. 


...514 7.3 




13. 


...19. 2,60.3. 6 
(2), 120. 1 




16. 


...141.2 




17. 


...13. o 




18. 


...156. 2 




21. 


...102, 2 




27. 


...111,3, a 


45 


'l. 


...139. 2 




11. 


...118,3 


47 


1. 


...269, b 




2. 


. ..88(f. g, &m, 
pi,). 111. 3. a 




5, 


. . .269. b 




10. 


. . .102. 3. 104. C 




12. 


...285.2: a 




13. 


...220. 2. a 




14. 


...104, i 


48 


: 7. 


...104. g- 




8. 


...87 




11. 


...39. 1. a 


49 


8. 


. . .207. 1. a 




18. 


...65. b 




26. 


...112.3, 273.1 


51 


14. 


...126. 1 




15. 


. . .126. 1 




20. 


. . .57. 2 (3) a 




21. 


. . .255. 2 


52 


5. 


. . .96. o, b, 122. 
2, 131. 6, 150. 2 




7. 


...174.1 




11. 


...140. 4 




14. 


...60. 3. 6(2) 


53 


2. 


...111.1 




3. 


...94. e 




4. 


...254.9.6.262.4 




5. 


...60.2.0,142.1 




10. 


...175. 1 




11. 


. . .249. 1. a 


54 


1. 


..207. 1. a 




6. 


. . ,201, 2 




6. 


...104. c 




9. 


...125. 2 




12. 


. . .-22. 6 


55 


5. 


...104. 6 




11. 


...273. 3 


56 


3. 


..105. o, 245. 
5. b 




12. 


...164. 5 


57 


5. 


..140. 2 




6. 


...24. 6 




8. 


...88 (2 f.) 




13. 


. .119. 3 


58 


3. 


..24, 6, 131, 2 
216. 2. a 




9. 


...125. 2 




10. 


. .216. 1. 6 


59 


3. 


..83. c. (2), 
122. 2 




5. 


."il2.3, 156.4, 
196. d 




10. 


..189 




12. 


..127. 2 




13. 


...92. 6, rf, 174.1 




16. 


. .104, i 




17. 


..,172.4 


60 


1. 


..157. 2 




4. 


..88 (f. pi.) 




7. 


..105. c 




9. 


..104. c 




10. 


..105. 


61 


1. 


.,43, 6 


62 


2. 


..105. d 




3. 


..16.1 


63 


3. 


..94. o, 119. 1 




16. 


..105. a 




19. 


..86. a 


64 


2. 


..86. a 




6. 


. .132. 3 




6. 


..161.3 



64: 8....5 94. (Z 
10.... 139. 1 

65: 20.... 165. 2, 248 
24.... 263. 1. b 

66: 12.... 142. 1 
13.... 45. 5 
20. . . .39. 1. a 



JEREMIAH. 



1: 5, 
11 

2:11. 
12. 
19, 
21, 

24, 
27, 
34, 
36, 
3: 3. 
5, 



10 
11 
22 
4: 3 
7 
13 
19 
30 

31 

5: 6, 

7 

13 

22 

26 

6:27. 

7: 4. 
10 
13, 
27. 
29, 

8:11. 
22. 

9: 2. 

17, 

19, 

10: 5. 

12. 

17, 

11:15. 

12: 5. 

9. 

10. 

17. 

13: 5. 

7. 

13. 

19. 

21. 





25 


15 


3 




10 




15 




17 


16 


16 



...§105. d 

. . .266. 2 

...11.1.6,230.3 

...111. 3. a 

...105. e 

...220.1.6,249. 

1.6 

105. c 

....104, A- 

!."!.'lll, 2.5' 
....267.6 
. . . .86. 6 (2 f), 
131. 2 
. . . .172. 3 
....249. 1. a 
....60. 3. 6 (2), 
207. 1. a 
....249. 1. a 
. . . .207. 1. a 
....177. 3 
....158. 2 
....24.6,221.5.0 
....141. 1 
. . . .86. 6 (2 f.) 
...71. a (2), 
275. 5 
. . . .156. 1 
. . . .141. 1 
....75. 2,125.1 
....245. 5. 6 
....56. 1,105. 5,c 
. . . .139. 2 
...185. 2, c 
, . . .280, 3. b 
, . . .65, a 
....282 
...104. 6 
...141,1 
...165, 3 
...230. 2 
...94. c 
...lis. 4 
...220, 1. b 
...57.2(3)0,86, 
b (3 pi,), 164, 3 
....88 

...89(f, 8. &in. 
pl.) 

. . .220, 1, 6 
...94. o 
...229. 3 
...121. 2 
...92. d 
...127. 1 
...147. 2 
...36. 1 

...172. 1, 275. 
2. 6 

...60. 3. b (1), 
86. 6 (2 f.) 
...60. 2. a 
...119. 1 
...93 (pl.), 104 

fC 

. . .106. A 
...112. 5. c 
...158. 1, 24fl. 



340 




INDEX II. 




17: 3.. 


..V2:l. 6. h 


44 : 18.... §271. 1 


4 : 14.... § 83. c. 2, 122. 


17: 15.. ..§65. 6 


4.. 


..86. u C2 lu.), 


19 104. e 


2 


23....88(f. pi.) 


112. 3 


23 166. 1 


17.... 236. 2 


18: 26.... 221. 5.6 


17.. 


..172. 3 


25.... 160. 4 


6: 5 160.5 


32.... 287. 1 


18.. 


..94. d 


46: 7, 8.... 122. 2 




19: 2....196. d 


18 : 23. . 


..46. 172. 3. 


8....96.a,111.2.d 




20: 9.... 140. 4 


175. 3 


11.... 86. 6(2. f.) 


EZEKIEL. 


16.... 271. 4. 6 


19; 11.. 


..165. 1 


20 43. 6 




21.... 65. 6 


20: 9. 


. .22. b 


48: 11. ...159. 1 


1: 4.... §53. 2. a 


27.... 119. 3 


21: 3.. 


..88 (pi.) 


19 280. 3. a 


6 203. 5. a 


36.... 91. c 


4.. 


. .39. 4 


32.... 246. 3. a 


11.... 220. 2. c 


37....53. 2. a 


13.. 


..131. 1 


49: 3.... 54. 4. a, 82. 


14.... 179. 1. a, 268. 


21:15....2ic, 177. 1 


22: 3.. 


..185. 2. c 


5. a 


1. a 


15, 16.... 93. e 


6.. 


..13. ft 


8.... 95. d 


2: 10.... 53.2.0,53.3.0 


18.... 121. 1 


14.. 


..161. 4, 199. c 


10.... 165. 1, 262.4 


3: 7.... 254. 10 


19.... 219. 1. a 


15.. 


. .94. a 


11.... 88 (3 f. pi.), 


15.... 139. 3 


21.... ISO. a 


20.. 


. .234. a 


98. 1 


20 88 (f. pi.) 


26, 28.... 87 


23.. 


..61. 6. a, 86. 


15, 17.... 275. 2. 6 


4: 3.... 54. 1 


29.... 91. 6, 106. a 


I 


(2 f.) 90 (2f. 


18.... 45. 4 


9.... 199. a 


31.... 94. 6,196. c 


s 


.), 140. 2 


20.... 140. 5 


12.... 157. 3 


32....280. 3. 6 


24.. 


..105. b 


24.... 104. i, 275. 4 


5: 12.... 220. 1. b 


33.... 111. 2. c 


26.. 


..104.2 


28.... 141. 1 


13.... 121. 3, 131. 6 


34. ...87 


29.. 


..280 3. & 


37 86. 6(2 m.). 


16.... 119. 1 


22: 20.... 131. 2 


23:13.. 


..131. 6 


112, 3, 5. c, 139. 3 


6: 3 208. 3. c 


23: 5.... 111. 1 


23.. 


..254. 6.6 


50: 3.... 156. 2 


6.... 147. 4 


16. 20.... 97. 1. a 


29.. 


..161. 2 


5 71. a (3), 


8.... 173. 2 


19.... 175. 3 


37.. 


..104. 6 


91. d 


9 24. c 


42....21. 1 


39.. 


..177.3 


6.... 275. 2 


11.... 98. 2 


48....83. c(2),15a 


24: 2.. 


..91. c 


11.... 196. d 


14 280.3. a 


3 (p. 182) 


25: 3.. 


. .94. b 


20.... 165. 2 


16.... 118. 4 


49.... 165. 2, 220. 


16.. 


. .96. a 


23.... 91. a 


7 : 17.... 203. 5. a 


1.6 


26.. 


..246. 3. a 


27. ...111. 3. a 


24.... 141. 1, 216. 


24: 10.... 197. 6 


34.. 


..161. 5 


34.... 94. 6, 114, 


2. o 


11.... 140. 1 


36.. 


..57. 2 (3) a. 


158.3 


25.... 196. c 


12.... 172. 1 


234. c 


44.... 105. 6 


27. ...118. 4 


26.... 128, 189. 6 


26: 9.. 


..165.3 


51: 3. ...46 


8: 2.... 66. 2 (2) a 


25: 6.... 57. 2 (3) a. 


21.. 


. .44. b 


9.... 165. 2,3 


3.... 165. 3 


106. a, 125. 2 


27: 3.. 


..249. 1. c 


13.... 90 (2 f. 8.) 


6....75. 1, 119. 3 


13.... 219. 1. 6 


18.. 


..156. 2 


30.... 24. c 


16 90. (2 m. pi.), 


15.... 57. 2 (3) a 


20.. 


..13. a 


33.... 94. 6 


176. 1 


26: 2.... 140. 2 


28:16.. 


..245.3. b 


34.... 165. 2 


9: 2.... 249. 1. c 


9.... 19. 2. c, 221 


29: 8.. 


..94. e, 112.5. c 


60.... 151. 1 


8.... 120. 2 


5. a 


23.. 


. .229. 1. a 


58.... 24. c, 149. 1 


10.... 254. 9. b 


15.... 113. 1,2 


25.. 


. .220. 1. b 


52: 13.... 254. 6.6 


10: 17.... 157. 1 


18....112. 5. c 


27.. 


..24. b 




13: 2....207.1.6, 255. 


21.... 234. a 


30:16.. 


..139.3 




1 ' 


27: 3. ...90 (2. f. s) 


19.. 


..276. 1 


LAMENTATIONS. 


8....199. c 


8.... 156. 3 


31:12.. 


..87,119.3 




11.... 71. a(2) 


9....24.c,216.1.a 


18.. 


. .273. 4 


1: ....§6 


17.... 220. 1. 6 


12....22. o 


21.. 


..249. 2. b 


1: 1....33. 1,61. 6.a, 


19.... 157. 3 


15. ...13. a 


32.. 


..112.3 


218 


20.... 24. 6, 71. a 


19.... 93. 6 


33.. 


..16.3.&,105.d 


4.... 149. 1,199. a 


(2), 220. 2. c 


23.... 54. 2 


38.. 


..46 


8.... 141. 3 


14: 3.... 53. 1. a, 91. 


26.... 156. 3 


32: 4.. 


. .91. b, 131. 5 


12.... 142. 1 


6, c, 119. 1 


30.... 96. 6 


9.. 


..98.1. a 


16....207.1. a,209. 


8.... 141. 3 


31....11.1.CT,196.d 


12.. 


..246. 3. a 


1. a, 271. 1 


15: 5.... 104. i 


28: 8.... 86. A (2 m.) 


14.. 


. .249. 1. c 


17....272. 2. 6 


16: 4.... 60. 4. a, 93. 


9 230.4 


33.. 


..92. d 


20.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 
92. a 


a, 95. c, 121. 1, 
i;>6. 1, 127. 1, 


13.... 19. 2. 6, 161. 4 
14.... 71. a (2) 


35.. 


..164. 2 


37.. 


..10. a 


2: ....6 


150. 5, 221. 6. 6, 


15. ...61. 6. 0,104.6 


44.. 


..268.1 


2: 8....126. 1 


282. n 


16.... 53. 2. o, 111. 


33: 8.. 


..13. a 


11.... 92. a, 113. 1, 


5.... 87, 95. a, 111. 


2. c, 165. 3 


24.. 


..45.1 


2, 115 


3. a, 150. 5 


17.... 168 0,172. 2 


26.. 


..11. 1. b 


15, 16.... 74. a 


8, 10 99. 3. 6 


18....104. (, 184. 6, 


34: 1.. 


..44. a 


3: ....6 


22.... 86. 6(2f.) 


216. 1. d 


36:16.. 


..272.3 


3 : 12.... 196. d 


27.... 256. 6 


23.... 92. a 


23.. 


..2.51. 1 


14.... 199. 6 


28.... 127. 1 


24.... 139. 3 


37:12.. 


..113.2 


22.... 54. 3, 216. 


31.... 173. 2 


24, 26.... 156. 3 


14.. 


. .266 


2. a 


33.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


29: 3.... 102. 1. a 


16.. 


..209.3. o 


33....150.2(p.l82) 


120. 1 


15.... 166. 5 


38: 9.. 


..270. c 


42.... 71. n(l) 


34.... 14. ra, 19. 6 


18.... 95. a 


12.. 


..56.4 


45.... 267. c 


36.... 91. 6 


30:16....254. 6. 6 


14.. 


..249. 1. c 


48.... 147. 2 


50.... 128 


25.... 112. 3 


39:18.. 


. .92. d 


53 53. 3. a, 150. 


52....92.rf,220.2.a 


31: 3.... 140. 5 


40: 1.. 


. .57. 2 (2) o 


2 (p. 182) 


53.... 220. 1. 6 


5.... 11. 1. o, 86.4 


3.. 


..249. 1. c 


58.... 158. 1 


57.... 156. 3 


8.... 11. 1. o, 199 


41: 6.. 


..282. c 


4: ....6 


59 86. 6(lc.) 


15.... 93. c 


42: 2.. 


..175.2 


4: 1....96. 6,177.3 


17: 5.... 132. 2 


32:16....88(f. pi.) 


6.. 


. .46, 71. a (1) 


3.... 43. 6 


9....166. 2, 191.4, 


18.... 11. 1. 6 


10.. 


..53.2.6,148.2 


9. ...39.3.6,45.5.0 


216. 2. o 


19....95. o,«l 





INDEX II. 


341 


32: 20. ...§89 (f. s. &. ' 


10:14.... §177. 3,285.2 I 


AMOS. 


2: 9....l89{f. F. it 


m. pi.) 


17.. ..51. 2 1 




m. pi.) 220. 1. a 


32.... 9o. a 


11: 6. ...11. 1. 6 


1 : 11 § 104. e, 275. 


14 220. 2. c 


33: 12.... 166. 2 


12.... 19. 2. a 


2.6 


3 : 6 114 


13.... 221. 5.6 


14.... 131. 6 


13 ... . 125. 2 


7 93. a 


30.. ..53. 2. 6, 223. 


30....11. 1. 6 


2 : 4 119. 3 


8 147. 4 


1. a bis 


31.... 249. 1. b 


3 : 11 .... 86. a, 140. 2 


11 ... . 112. 3 


34: 12.... 249. 1. 6 


34.... 91. 6 


15 156. 4 


17 .... 24. 6, 142. 


17.... 71. «(2) 


35. ...94. b 


4 : 2 165. 2 


1, 199. c 


31 71. a(2) 


36.... 82. 5. a 


3 86. 6 (2 pi.) 




55: 6....10O. d 


40 126. 1 


5 : 11 92. 6, 161. 3 




8.... 216. \.d 


44.... 196. d 


15 139. 3 




9 147. 2 


12: 13.... 199. a 


21, 25 24. 6 


HABAKKUK. 


11. ...220. 2. a 




6 : 2 54. 2, 263. 




12 63. 1. a 




2. 6 


1: 8.... §100. 2. a 


36: 3.... 139. 2, 141.1 


HOSEA. 


10 243. 1 


(2) bis 


5.... 220. 1. 6 




7 : 1 .... 199. c 


10 197.6,265.a 


8 221. 5. c 


1: 2. ...§255. 2 


8 : 4 .... 94. 6, 23L 


11 73. 1, 249. 


11.... 161. 5 


6.... 269 


5. a 


2. a 


13.... 71. a (2) 


2 : 14.... 104. ^ 


8 53. 2. a, 53. 


12.... 104. J- 


28. ...71. a(l) 


16.... 221. 7. a 


3. a, 128 


13 ... . 126. 1 


35....73. 2. a 


3: 2.... 24. 6 


9 : 1 125. 1 


15 112. 2 


37: 7....88{2f. pi.) 


4: 2.... 267. a 


8.... 94. 6 


16 ... . 197. 6 


9.... 131. 3 


6.... 11. 1. a, 104. 




2 : 1, 2 265. a 


10.... 131. 6 


h 




7 161. 2 


17.... 119. 1, 223. 


13.... 118. 4 


OBADIAH. 


17 104.^,141.3 


1. a 


18.... 43. 6, 92. a. 




19 254. 6. 6 


38: 8. ...161. 4 


122. 1, 148. 3 


ver. 4 .... § 158. 3 


3 : 6 99. 3. a 


23.... 96. b 


5: 2.... 119. 3 


9 183. a 


8 256. 6 


39: 26.... 165. 3 


8.... 272. 2.6 


11 .... 46. 2, 106. a 


9 282. 6 


27.... 249. 1. b 


11.... 269 


13 105. 6 


10.... 220. 2. C 


40: 4.... 65. b 


6: 2.... 172. 3 


16 156. 4 


16 140. 1 


16 220. 2. c 


4.... 269 




19.... 47 


22.... 250. 2(3) 


9.... 174. 3 






43 19. 2. 6 


7: 4....106. a, 111.3. 


JONAH. 




41: 7....141. 1 


fl, 158. 3 






9, 11.... 160. 5 


6.... 22. a 


1 : 5 § 114 


ZEPHANIAH. 


15.... 220. 2. c 


12.... 150. 1 


2 : 1 125. 2 




22.... 274. 2. c 


8: 2.... 60. 3. a, 275. 


10 61. 6. a 


1 : 2 § 282. a 


25.... 19. 2. a 


2. b 


3 : 3 254. 5 


17 100. 2. a (1) 


42: 5.... 45. 1. 57. 2 


3.... 105. a 


4 : 11 .... 22. 6 


2 : 4 126. 2 


(2) o, 111. 2. 6 


6.... 275. 2. 6 




9 220. L c 


43: 13.... 197. b 


12.... 88 




14 ... . 229. 4. 6 


18.... 113. 1 


9: 2....119. 1 


MICAH. 


15 39. 4. a 


20.... 104.^' 


4.... 208. 3. c 




3 : 9 274. 2. e 


24.... 100. 2. a (2) 


10.... 119. 3 


1 : 7 § 92. c 


11 125. 2 


27.... 177. 3 


10: 10.... 105. d 


9 . . . . 275. 1. a 


14 89 (f. 8. & 


45: 16.... 246. 3. a 


11.... 61. 6. a 


10 53.3. a, 96.6 


m. pi.), 111. 3. a 


46: 17. ...86. b 


12.... 158. 2 


15 164. 2 


18 149. 1 


22.... 95. e 


13 61. 6. a 


16 89 (f. B. Sc 


19 198, 246. Z.a 


47: 7....102. 3. a 


14.... 11. 1. a, 156. 


m. pi.) 




8. ...164. 3 


3 


2 : 3 274. 2. e 




11....11. 1. a, 199 


11: 3.... 94. o, 115, 


4 141. 2 




15. ...246. 3. a 


132. 2 


6 275. 1. a 


HAGGAL 


48: 10.... 39. 4. o 


4.... 57. 2 (2) a. 


7 229. 4. a 




16.... 46 


111. 2. d 


8 88 (pi.) 


1 : 4 § 230. 3, 249. 


18.... 220. 1. 6 


7.... 177. 3 


12.... 92. d, 246. 


1.6 




7, 8.... 56. 4 


2. a 






12: 1....104. /. 201. 2 


3 : 12 .... 199. a, 245.4 






4.... 274. 2. 6 


4: 6 151.2 


ZECHARIAH. 


DANIEL. 


5.... 105. 6 


8.... 111. 2.6 






13: 3.... 92. 6 


10 158. 2 


1: 9....§75. 1 


1: 8..,. §119.1 


14.... 19. 2, 221. 5. 


10, 13 ... . 157. 2 


17 ... . 157. 3 


13.... 172. 3 


a, 275. 2. 6 


5 : 2 262. 1 


2 : 8 73. 2. a 


17 250. 2 (2) a, 


15. ...177. 3 


6 : 10 .... 57. 2 (1) 


3 : 1 106. a 


251. 4. a 


14: 1....88(3. f. pi.). 


13....1S9. 3 


7 94. e, 151. 1 


2: 1.... 99. 3. a, 119.1 


209. 1. o 


7 : 4 . . . . 260. 2 (2), 


9... .203. 5. a 


3: 3.... 22. 6 


3 256 c 


260. 2 (2) c 


4 : 5 258. 2 


25.... 94. e 




10 36. 2 


7 246. 3. a, 


5: 9 203. 5. c 






249. 1. c 


11.... 22. b 


JOEL. 




10 156. 2 


8: 1....245. 5. b 




NAHUM. 


12 .... 24. 6 


11.... 95. a 


1: 2 §230. 4 




5 : 4 156. 4 


13.... 98. 1. a, 247, 


8 254. 9. 6 


1: 3.... §13. a, 215. 


11 160. 5 


249. 1. b 


17 24. 6, 190. a 


1. c 


6 : 7 96. 6 


16.... 73. 2. a 


20 275. 4 


4 150. 2 (p. 


7 : 1 252. 2. 6 


22.... 88 f. 3. f. pi.) 


2 : 5 60. 3. 6 (1) 


182) 


3 199. € 


9: 2....158. 1 


3 : 3 263. 5. a 


12 140. 2 


5 102. 2, 104. 


19.... 119. 3. 125. 1 


4 : 11 91, d, 131. 1 


13 220. 1. b 


I, 252. 2. 6, 27a 


25....97. 2,225. 2 


18. . . .27L 1 


2 : 4 220. 2. c 


S.a 



34!^ 




INDEX II. 




7 : 9 § 89 (f. B. & 


11: 5. 


...§57. 2 (3) a, 


MALACHI. 


3 : 19.... §119. 1 


m. pi.) 




111. 2. c, 234. c 




20 156. 2 


14 45. 5, 60. 


7 


. . . 223. 1. a 


1 : 6 § 263. 3 




3. c, 92. e 


8 


. . . 119. 1 


7 106. a, 127. 




8 : 2 271. 3 


10. 


. . . 140. 5 


2 


MATTHEW. 


14, 15 139. 1 


17. 


... 61. 6. a 


11 95. a 


26 : 73 § 51. 4. a 


17 ... . 111. 2. e 


12 : 11 . 


... 65. 2. a 


13 24. a, 75. 1 


9 : 5 35. 2 


13: 4. 


. . . 166, 2 


14 54. 1, 205. 




10 ; 6 151. 3 

11 : 4 . . . . 254. 6 


14: 2. 
5. 


... 45. 2, 91. c 
. . . 199. c 


b 
2 : 14 SG.h(2 m.) 


ROMANa 




10. 


. . . 156. 3 


3 : 9 140. 2 


3 : 20 .... § 256. c 



IInTDEX III 

HEBREW WORDS ADDUCED OR REMARKED UPON. 



Words preceded by Yav Conjunctive or Vav Oonversive will be found io 
their proper place irrespective of these prefixes. A few abbreviations are 
employed, which are mostly of such a nature as to explain themselves as n. 
verb, n. noun, pron. pronoun, adj. adjective, adv. adverb, int. interjectior^ 
inf. infinitive, imp. imperative, pret. preterite. The numbers refer to tha 
sections of the Grammar. 



DD2"aNS 104. h 

nS 68. 6, 200. a, 215. 

1. e, 220. 1. c 
'13i« 78. 2, 110. 3 
"ini^ 215. 1. 6 
^aX 92. d 

^aX 92. c 

nnai? 216. 1. h 
'ji'ias 193. 2 

?i73i<^, 53. 2. a, 111. 

2. c 

■JinS? 22. 0, 193. 2 

Dni^ij! 112. 1 
nns no. 3 

NinX 86. h (3 pi.) 

•'inx 240. 1 

D^3S 60. 3. c, 216. 1. h 

D^D^3S 112. 1 



nn^ninx 220. 2. a 
Dninx 220. 2. a 
n^npisJt 53. 1. a 
^nx (i^ia) 164. 2 

■'ns 61. 6. a 
n'^nX 185. 2. a 

n'l'^ns 111. 2. (^ 

■'"iTyn inx 246. 3. h 
•jiilS 193. 1 
DD^ns? 220. 1. h 
bnS 84. 3. a (2) 
b5« 185. 2. 6, 215. 1. h 
bns (pr. n.) 215. 1. h 
''bns: 216. 1. 6 
■jnx 197. 5, 200. 6 
■jnx 183. 6 
tJSns? 183. c 

n^t:2ns 207. 1. a 



Tj-JSaS? 221. 3. a ' 

^nas 94. h 
\^rhym 94. a, 119. 1 
"lasn 99. 3 

T5XT 99. 3 
DjS« 207. 2. a 
•jax 200. a 
D-iS-jX 53. 1. a 
©n^SI 99. 3. h 
m'& 207. 1. e, 211 
nS'lX'J 99. 3 

rna'isi 99. s 

Di-5S60.3.6(1), 197.a 
•jinx 231. 3. a 
n-^TlX 11. 1. & 
DIS 112. 5. a 
D^S 185. 2. 6, 207. 2. < 
D-^1X 188 



344 



INDEX III. 



niB'l^'jS 207. 1. e 
ri^'l)2'jX 205 

n^ns 201. 1 

ItinS 60. 3. h (1) 
■'p^S 199. c, 201. 2, 

231. ?,. a 
•iinx: 234. c 
'':-:S1 234 c 

03 \;n!!5 21. 1 

O-iDhi* 201. 2 
D^-IS , nj^lJC 141. 3 
n^S 112. 5. a 

n^:sn-x 53, 1. a 

D-|"IN 11. 1. f 

cnnx 91. c 

C-|'^X53.1.a,91.6,119.1 
nnS 82. 1. a (2), 110. 
3, 112. 5. c 

:nns 119. 1 
ans 53. 2. a, 111. 2.5 
nnns 87, 119. 3 
nnriK 11 8. 3 

TV r T. 

innx 119. 4 
inn nnnx 43. 5, 92. a, 
122. 1 

C^ansjl 201. 1 

?i2nN 101. 3. a, 104. A, 

119. 1 
D?nr.5< 221. 3. o 

onns 119. 3 
nnnnnx 104. i 
^v^iry^ 61. 6. a 
•ynnnsi; 104. c 

ftnx 240. 1 



"ins) 99. 3. a 

bnS5 61. 2. a, 18 i. 6, 
208. 3. h 

n"bns 220. 1. h 
ni'jnx 200. c 
•'bnx 216. 2. 6 
D-'':ris? 60. 3. c 
D'^bns 200. c 
^Ctv]^ i'^2. 3 

"iX 239. 1, 283. 2. a 

n-'x 200. a 

^"iiS 105. 6 

y'jI'.K 149. 2 

''is 240. 1 

a::ifi5 186. 2 

b^lS 194. 2 

'^bi^iS 194. 2 

b-'DIS 57. 2 (2) a, 111. 

2. c? 
ib^'S? 149. 2 
Db?N 207. 2. 6, 215. 

1. a 
^ttis 111. 2. 6 
1^S« 63. 2. a 
■jiN 186. 2. c 

ni^rns 13. a 
a^:is 208. 3. c 

"iD^^.Si! 149. 2 
"Ty,^,X 56. 3 
■JS'iS 207. 2. a 
■^rs 200. a, 216. 1 

rnsix 111. 2. 0? 

n-S (v.) 82. 1. c. (3), 
156. 2 



li« (n.) 197. 5 

'innis 220. 1. 6 
^niis? 157. 2 

Cn^S 149. 2 
?TSJS 149. 2 
nis 197. 5, 200. a 
nn^i? 140. 2 

Dnhis 220. 2. a 

TS 235. 1 

m'TS 60. 3. c, 184. 6, 

216. 1. h 
^i? 53. 2. a, 111. 2. r- 

nn2TS 189 

''pn^TK 104. c 

nbrx 86. h 
nj nbrs 35. 1 

■JTS 197. a, 217,221. 6 

n:Ti? 189 

'':T« 221. 4 
D\:TS 203. 1 

ir:Ts 221. 4 

DDiTiJ 220. 1. i 
n^]57« 53. 1. a 

nrs 112. 5. c 

nnrs 60. 3. h (i), 

92. c 
?ilTS 53. 1. a, 183. c 
nx (n.) 68. 6, 197. a, 

207. 2. 5, 215. 1. «, 

220. 1. r 
nsj (int.) 240. 1 
TO 223. 1, 248. a, 

250. 1. 
D'^nns 223. 1. a 



INDEX III. 



345 



n^n» 189 

Tinx 90 pass. 

ninij 205. c, 209. 3 
Tns$ 34, no. 3, 118. 2 
mx 34, 172. 4 
Thx, Thij: 112. 1 

ims 60. 3. 6(2), 119. 4 

imi? 60. 3. & (2). 120. 1 

pTTIX 97. 2. a 

nnrniii 104. i 

■^nX 61. 6. a 

5yni^ns 220. 2. a 

D'^riX 60. 1. a 

bn« 140. 3 

nnS5 237. 1, 238. 1 

-ins 210. e 

ins 60. 4, 111. 2. b 
1-ins?60. 3. 6(2), 121. 2 

•ji-inx 193. ] 

inriX 238. 1. a 

n^nns? i98. a (4) 
ni'ffins'i 99. 3.b 
'jsn'icns 195. 2 
•jnrnrns 195. 2 

rnS 54. 2, 205. b, 223. 

1. a 
nn« 223. 1. a 

AT •.• 

i:k 175. 3 

'J'-m 216. 1. 6 

nt3X 112. 5. a 

TDX 112. 5. a, 125. 3 

•^i? 61. 6, 236 

''N (n.) 184. b 

"•K (int.) 240. 1 



a^X 156. 1 
n^'S 61. 6 
nbrii^si 99. 3. b 
nr ■'X 75. 2 

?J^S 51. 2 
b^S? 208. 3. c 
b;>X 183. b 

n^b;>s: 60. 3. 6 (i) 

nSTb iji 75. 2 

nbib^s 150. 2 

nDb^X 151. 1 

nb-^i? 200. c 

n'"i5j 207. 2. c 
n^"^N 200. c 
nn'Q'i&J 61. 6. a 
'J'^X 236, 258. 3. b 
DTP'^S? 150. 1 
tJ^X 207. 2, 243. 2. a 
■jittJ-iX 193. 2. a 
^C^X 57. 2 (1) 
DrT'X 11. l.b 

nn-is 140. 1 

"jn^i? 189, 210. c 
•!« (adv.) 235. 2 (2) 
?fS?^ (v.) 175. 3 

n^nsx 91. c 

nSSI 175. 3 
nTD^ 189 
"ITS^ 189 
''■iTpX 194. 2 
n^'^nTDX 198. a (4) 
"iriDS^I 119. 1 

bpx no. 3 
bb«, biDK 112. 1 



b?bit^ (rib) 174. 4 

bDb5 111. 2. 6 
bpi^n 99. 3. a 
n"bD2j 104. d 

^bDK (rib) 63. 1. b, 

174. 4 
t^bDSC 106. a 
DpbDX 106. a 

innbDS 104. i 
'innbDs 104. i 

■inbDiJ 65. a 
?jlnbDS 104. i 

Dnbpij: 112. i 

^pnbDX 104. i 

ncpsi 99. 3. 6 

■^GpNI 99. 3. b 
5l?« 140. 3 
ISN 187. 1. a 

rinps? 24. 6 
nbs 140. 1 

nsnPpS 16. 3. b, 105. d 
-nippSJ 88 
bx 235. 1, 264 
bx (pron.) 58. 1, 73. 1 
b&5 (n.) 186. 2. c 
-bx 237. 1, 238. 1 
©■•aabX 229. 1. a 
n^'Dl5bi? 14. a, 51. 4 
nbs 216. 1. a 

nbs 200. 6 

nbS 58. 1, 61. 6, 73. 1 
''n'bsi 234. c 

D"^nbx 11. 1. 6 

D'^n'bX 201. 2, 231. 3. a 



346 



INDEX III. 



112^n"5S 220. 2. c 
^31.-15551 234. c 
mbx 11. I. b 

nibs (v.) 172. 2 

•lbs? 238. 1. a 

T]'gr\''bi/i 220. 2. c 
b^b^ 184 
^bxi 99. 3 

HDbs HDbs? 45. 5. a 

ibbi? 20. 2, 240. 1 

DbS 187. 1. b 
DM)abs? 51. 4 
nribic 200. c 

niliabi? 229. I. a 

b^ia-bi? 237. 2 (1) 
■jiabs? 193. 1 

niDpbi? 198. a (4), 
199. fZ, 200. b 

nay-bi5 237. 2 (2) 

tf>^ 84. 3. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

■qbs 226 
"isbs^ 250. 2 (2) a 
Orsbii 250. 2. (2) a 
D;^sb>< 203. 4, 226 
0"ipbi< 229. 1. a 
■^nbsj 221. 2. b 
DS 68. b, 197. a 
Di5 239. 1, 283 
^SDSiaJi 11. 1. a 
?lS{0S?T3i? 104. b 

maij 53. 3. b, 211. a. 

nriS? 198. c 
HTLS 200. c 



•J^^S 184. 6 
np^^S 60. 3. b (1), 
201. 1. a 

n"i:TCS5 201. 1. a 

Dbi^SH 105. a 

n'jib'as^ 99. 3 
bb^s: 187. 1. d 

bbiaS 92. a, 115 

^:x bb)2S 42 
Q-^bbTa^ 210. c 
n:i9S 235. 2 (1) 

D:pX 235. 2 (1) 
■fas 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 

V^as 112. 1 

1)25? 110. 3, 125. 3 

n^S 65 

■niaN 86. b (3 pi.) 

"Tax 208. 3 

'im 60. 3. b{l), 112. 1 

-Ta55 60 3. b (1) 

nn^5« 208. 3 

^n)25{ 60. 3. 5 (1) 

DDI^aX 106. rt, 127. 2 

Pni2^ 127. 2 

rii'as'i 33. 4 

^TTTaS? 157. 3 
n)?N 60 3. b (1), 205. 6 
iniSX 60. 3. 6 (1), 221. 
2. a 

^rtnnbsi 99. 3. b 
^r>ri:x 101. 3. a 
nps^ n:s 63. 1. c 
^:s 71. a (1) 

^,3« 46 



^n^Sii 131. 1 
tn:K 184 

^^^_ 197. & 

^;n 71 

^:S 65, 71. a (1) 
•i^X 65. b 
n^3S 198. b 

^pbs 71 

):^ 141. 3 (p. 175) 
5]25< 84. 3. a (2) 
pis 112. 1 
p:S 50. 1 

CtCrS 207. 2. c 
Cl'^DN 185. 2. a 

-mbcs 125. 1 

DI^CNI 60. 3. c, 92. e 
qcS no. 3, 112. 5. c, 

115, 151. 2 
C]bS 112. 1 
n£CN 111. 3. a, 112. 1 

nscbi 151. 2 

■'SCS 89 (f. s.) 
^TiSCS 151. 2 
qCSCS 188 

irscs 104. y 

pSS 53. 3. 6, 88 (1 c.) 
nCS 112. 5. b 
nCS 60. 3. c 

nes 60. 3. c 

^nCS 01. 6. a 
CneS 105. d 
""^*^ T"Sn 160. 3 
b:?ST 172. 4, 175. 3 

- - T ' 

•}?«;? 172. 4 



INDEX III. 



347 



n;yi5 113. i 
ns^si 57. 2 (2) a 

TD:?X1 172. 4 
nbys?) 172. 4 
"icy ST 57. 2 (3) a, 
111. 2. c, 234. c 
SIS (n.) 184. b, 207. 2 
5]S (conj.) 239. 1 
nn^SSN 104. £, 172. 3 
nSS 112. 5. a 

nss 110. 3 

!|SS 112. 1 
D;*?!? 203. 1 
niSSJT 100. 2. a (1) 
13 qs 239. 2 (1) 
nbsS 198. a (2), 216. 

1. b 
•JSSI 172. 4 
DSS4 235. 3 (1) 

n:?icsi« 127. 3 

nsS^l 173. 3 

ns:2S 164. 5 

yni^S 183. c, 197. a 

niyass 207. 2. a 

12ST 174. 4 
T|-n^S 105. (/ 
to 237. 1 
nSS 50. 3 
?j"lSS 101. 3. o 

nnas 105. c? 

523pS« 105. b 
D^psjT 99. 3. a 
DttipS 56. 3 
D^pSn 99. 3. a 



n^pS 56. 3 
Opsi 99. 3. a 
nsnpsn 63. 1. r, 97. 1. 

b, 164. 5 
SnST 99. 3. a, 172. 4 
nSISI 172. 4 
D|snS 24. a 

nans^ i75. 3 

a^-lS 22. a 
TOans? 207. 2. a, 214. 
1. b, 223. 1 

d'^yans 225. 1 
D'prnns 223. 1 

DPyanS 250. 2 (2) a 

■jiais 51. 4 

■j^aiins 51. 4, 195. 2 

-rns 141. 1 
^^-n-^ni 19. 2 
nnns 208. 3. b 

D'ailS 82. 5. a 

^lya^'^Si 104. ^ 
■jins 197. i 
nils 139. 2 
ininsi 141. 2 

nnS 197. 6, 200. a, 

208. 3. 6 
nnS 198 

nnis 198 
I'^nhns 60. 3. c 

■'"IS 200. c. 208. 3. c? 
^;:;^nS 56. 3. a, 168. a, 

174. 4 
^nS 79. 2, 118. 1 
?j"lS 185. 2. 6, 207.2. c 



?jnS 216. 1. e 

liians 200. a 
"irins 194. 1 
ni^ns 235. 3 (3) 
in:i2i2'ii« 56. 1, 105. 6 

niSTQIS 216. 1. c 
n^p-lS 197. c 
yns 51. 3, 63. 2. a, 
197. 6 

n^ 65 

nS-lS 61. 6. o, 219. 1 

lira n^-is 22. b 
p':3 nins 22. & 

I - - : T : - 

ins 141. 1 (p. 175) 

ens 119. 1 ■ 

nbiSTStoS 180. a 
»S 197. b, 201. 1 

m 57. 2 (1) 

TlbSTTS 101. 3. a 

mrsT 99. 3. a 
n">"TiiT»s 210. d 

nniDS 216. 2. a 
m|S 200. b, e, 207. 2 
niTCS 197. « 
QpnOS 118. 3 
mr^TTS 200 c 
D^STTS 94. S 
bST^S 200. ff, 210. « 

nibses 216. 1. c 
nib3Trs 216. 1. c 

nbcs 60. 2. a 
: nbcs 60. 2. a 
"nbtL's 126. 1 

•IiblCS^ 99. 3 

• • : - T 



34.8 



INDEX III. 



nD-'blBNI 99. 3 
DiTS 82. 1. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

n^'arsi 99. 3 
^)aCS< 189 
TO-arXI 98. 1. a 

nnrrs 97. 1 

n:Trs< i83. r, 221. 6. a 

nyirx 1Y2. 3 

"JE'i'S 91. c 

rsnrs 207. 2. c 
np^s 98. 1. a 
Ty•Dt'&^ 175. 3 



n-J-:;:CS 98. 1. a 

nbn;^xn 98. 1. a 

n'^~rS5^ 98. 1. a 

"nrsf: 74, 285 

nCX (conj.) 239. 1 

nncs 200. c 

rniri? 221. 5. d 
1\^'\tl< 220. 2. c 

^■^■nrs 221. 5. c? 

nCS 205, 214. 1. h 

rnrsT 172. 4 
ibb-nujx 96. a 
yT??r\c« 141. 6 

nx (n.) 207. 2. e 
nX, nS 58. 2. a, 238. 

2, 270 
-rX 43. a 
nX 43. a 
nx (prep.) 237. 1, 

238. 2 
-nX 61. 5 



riX, PX 71. a (2) 
PS 71. a (2) 
Srs 177. 3 

nrs 11. 1. a 

nps 71 

nrs, nns 71. a (2) 

"rs 197. a, c 
"12nr.55 96. a 
■'PS? 71. a (2) 
■^PK 61. 5 
^V,» 112. 1, 172. 1 

i^Tr^'^ 220. 2. c 
1\Xy& 65. a 
nsrs? 65. a 
biTCrS 53. 1. Of, 183. c 

"irs 210. c 

IPS, -PS 71. a (2) 

n:ps, niPS 71. a (2) 
i:ns 177. 3 
•jrrsc 207. 2. J 
n::rs 220. 1. 5, 221. 6 
^:]xps 105. 6 

a 231. 1, 233, 267. &, 

272. 2. 6 
i?3 157. 2 

nicn 34 
ns^ 34 
nsii 156. 4 
D^bnsa 229. 4. 6 

^N3 156. 2 
^Sa (pret.) 156. 2 
^Sa^ 156. 4 
O^j^TSa 57. 2 (2) a 



•^Sa 216. 1. a. 
DDECSa 22. a 

nsa 121. 1 

nsa 60. 3. c, 197. a 

L'Sa 60. 3. c 

nsa^ nsa^ i6. i 
'insa'!, rsa^ loo. 2. 

T ' T T 

a {I) 

baa 57. 1, 187. 1. e 
""b^a 237. 2 (4) 

T'a 84. 3. a (3) 

^ra 90 

15a 22. fl, 197. 6, 200. c, 
221. 5. a 

"iha 87 

HT.a 207. 1. a 
nPT-a 86. h (2 m.) 

^i:^a 87, 210. a 
bbja 237. 2 (2) 
na^a 61. 1 
b'^a 80. 2. a (3) 
DS"iara 4. a 

Ta 57. 2 (4), 184. b 

ni^na 17 7. 1 

'J"'2~a 245. 5. h 

nbirrria 91. 6 
bra 121. 1 
nrsna 21 6. 2 
nirna 201. 2 

■jna 61. 2. cf, 184. a, 
197. a, 208. 3. 6 

anna 113. i, 2 
niscna i4o. 6 

N-'a 79. 1, 157. 1 



INDEX III. 



349 



nDSia 104. g 

15ii3 90 

DST21 57. 2 (3) a, 

164. 3 
n^pia 209. 1. a 
bis 53. 2. a, 184. 6 

n"^Dia 156. 2 

npia 186. 2. a 
ni3 139. 2 
"lia 200. a 

?;i«nia 201. 2 

Oia 82. 1. a (3), 156. 

2, 157. 1, 2. 
D^tDia 156. 2 
DDDTSia 92. 6, 161. 3 
Ta (n.) 207. 2. a 
Ta (from T^a) 156. 2 
ta 139. 2 
ISta 139. 3 
13i-Ta 141. 2 
Tta 141. 1 (p. 175) 

i:TTa 139. 1 
■jina 185. 2, c 
n^na 210. a 
a'^-i^na eo. 3. c 
riij'jna 27 
-iina 185. 2 
■jna 50. 1 
ina 121. 1 
ina 50. 1 
DH^na nna 43. b 
'•nna 19. 2 
o'^nna 201. 1. 6 

nitsa 90. J5as5. 



ni2a 184. 6 
n-ja 126. 1 
■jinaa 193. 2 

"i'ja 197. a 
D^SUa 208. 3. a 
Dnua 239. 2 (3), 263. 

1.6 
■la (for ■'ya) 53. 3. a, 

240. 2 
Ta 237. 2 (2) 
Va 16. 2. a 

nnin^a 57. 2 (2) 
Va 158. 2, 3 

'J'la 237. 1, 238. 1 

^I'-'pai 4. a 
^nb-^a 158. 1 
ap?:a 16. 2. a 
D^r^a 200. 6 

^■^rii-lp^a 14. a, 24. 6 

n^a 61. 2, 63. 2. a, 

197. &, 208. 3. c 

n^a 57. 2 (5), 62. \, 

216. 1. d 

"'ttn^rrrr'a 246. 3. 6 
i©ip'i"n-n^a 246. 3. b 
?]nia 65 

•ja 65. a 

naa i84. b 

iaa 172. 2 

isa (for isya?) 53. 

3. a 

niaa 50. 1 
nisa 50. 1 

iDa 184. 6 



ibtJSa 91. 6, 231. 5. a 

ainsa 22. a, 101. 2. 6 
ba 53. 3. a 
nn>a 19 8. a (3) 
ixiba 56. 4 
n^XTiJtpba 18. 2. <? 
n^-'ba 195. 3 
b?:'ba 195. 3 
bba 141. 3 (p. 175) 
yba, yba 126. 1 

''"TSJba 237. 2 (4) 

in^:?^a 127. 2 

^P^ba 61. 6. a, 237. 1 
^i512a 235. 3 (1) 
nria 231. 4. a 
iisa 233. a 

■"riTaa 13. a, 214. 2. 6 
^?^a 45. 4 
nsyiaa 45. 3 
nibnp^a 16. 2. a 

ma 19. 2, 216. 1. c 
ia 51. 3, 185. 2. (?, 215. 
1. b 

''3'''Q:'n-';a 246. 3. 5 
Ti? n:a 35. 1 

?l3a (from Sia) 164. 2 
ilia 34 

T 

12a 34 

isa (suf.) 221. 3. a 

i:a (parag.) 61. 6. a 

nisa 207. 1. a. 
^j-'nisa (v.) 173. 2 
DD"^ni:a 220. 1. b 

■^33 61. 6. a, 218 



350 



INDEX III. 



0^53 207. 1. a 
n^:a 86. b (1 c.) 
Tipa 221. 3. a 
?b;2 4. a 
bbsn 22. a, 101. 2. 6 

nn:3 132. 1, i58. 1 

nsJSKCa 24. a 

nny33,n7yp2i6. 3. 6 
iin?.;:? 237. 2 (2) 

*7?3 237. 1 

tjt:^?, ci'jy^ 113. 1. 2 
i-^i^a 172. 1 

n'^V^ CO. 3. a 
D^5r'2 201. 2 

"i?a 151. 1 

nn^3 196. c 
n02 113. 2 
i/iX2^^ 60. 3. a 

n?3 121. 1 
nskn 199 
insssn 11. 1. a 

TXa 185. 2. a 
ySlh 42. a 
D?2n 125. 1 
p2?3 82. 1. a (2) 

nnk3 207. 1. (? 

yp3 80. 2. a (4) 
Oypa 125. 2 
ppa 141. 3 (p. 175) 
-Ipa 197. c, 201. 1 
np3 50. 1, 208. 3. b 
"13 186. 2. c 

sna 78. 1 
snai66. 3 



t;i<:"i3 164. 4 

n'"^.! 185. 2. 6 

?yina 92. d 
TTiin 51. 1 
nina 51. 1 
bna 193. 2. c 
rrns 50. 1 
n^na 210. a 

■'S^ina 194. 2. a 
^■^a 80. 2. a (1), 80. 
2. a (2), 120. 3 

1\^^, ^na 119. 1 

•ina 197. a 

nana le. 2. a 
nana 21 6. 1. 5 
isna 60. 3. a, 120. 3 

^Sia 22. o, 216. 2. a 

nn^ana 22. a 

D:^3'?a 208. 4 

nna 139. 2 

r.|5-ia 19. 2. &, 196. 5 

nna 141. 1 (p. 175) 

Q5m 74. a, 139. 2 

ipa^m 102. 3. a 

btJa 80. 2. a (1) 

nspm 220. 1. b 
ninpira 45. 2 
na 205. b 
ina 221. 2. a 
^DD-'na 220. 1. b 
D-^bina 201. 1. 6 
ina 58. 2 

D"'pa 208. 3. c 
DDna 221. 6 



nx5 ns«a 22. 6 

nS5 185. 2. (Z 
D^b^Sa 201. 1. a 

ni"^sa 208. 3. c 
bxa 117 
bsa 116. 4 
nbxa 201. 1. a 
tjbsa 119. 3 
CDbsh 221. 3. a 
aa 200. c 

na5 143. a 

-naa 215. 1. c 

ria5 185. 2. b 

nah 184. 6 
xnaa 11. 1. a 
xna5 86. 6 
nnaa 125. 2 
rinaa 60. 3. a 
D^niaa 201. 2 
b^aa 184 
ninias 201. 1. c 
r,naa i98. a (3) 
?^aa 50. 1 
niaa i87. 1, 215. 1 
^n^niaa 220. 2. c 

laa 199. c 

Taa 184 
baa 50. 1 

- T 

nbaa 11. 1. & 
■jaa 187. 1. b 
■jbaa 207. 2. c 
D'^apaa i87. 2. c 
byaa 193. 2. c 
naa 82, 1. a (2) 



INDEX III. 351 

nna 183. &, 184. a 713^5 186. 2. b nba 51. 2 (5), 80. 2. a 

nna i84. « yna 125. 2, ise, 1 (4), 143. a, \io 

bs"^-ina 61. 6. a ma (v.) 179. 2. a trb^ 216. 1. a 

n"i2a 205 bnia 200. a n^a 126. 1 

W 200. a Th 139. 2 nb'i^a 196. c 

•Tia 141. 3 (p. 175) nan 195. 1 n^^^>a 16. 2. « 

bina 58. 1, 185. 2. b, nra 68. b '^tr^ba, ^n^b^i 174. 2 

210, 217 TTa 50. 3, 68. h ^bba 139. 1 

-bi'ia 215. 1. c TTa 139. 2 miaba 195. 1 

n!3-b'Ti;\i 13. a i-Ta 141. 1 nnba ei. 6 

I'la 208. 3. (/ n^a 50. 3 b^a 197. c, 207. 2. b 

r\^1^ 209. 2. b bTa 50. 3, 68. b Tjb^a 101. 3. a 

i.'^na 21G. 1. a bn 216. 1. e 'innbTaa 104. i 

b'la 82. 1. a (2) nn so. 1, 3, 68. s, 84. wbra 104. i 

bna (v.) 58. 1 3. a (3), 125. 3 ]a 197. b, 217 

b^a (adj.) 185. 2. 6 m 158. 3 n;a 77. 1 

b'la 58. 1, 184 "{ina 4. « asa i87. 1. a 

-bna 215. 1. c ina 157. 1 asa 93. d 

^"ll^, ^^5 92. c ina 157. 2, 158. 2 na:a 216. 1. 6 

y'^a 126. 1 n^bna 216, 2. 6 inasa 104. » 
-ina 197. b, 216. 1. c, nbna 200. b, 210. e •'pa?a 65. « 

217 «^a 183. b, 197. &, "Tiara 61. 6. « 

nnia 217 208. 3. c onasa 104. i 

wn'ja 221. 2. 5 «^a 216. 1. d nsa 217 

D"'nh"a 203. 5. & ri''a i58. 2, 3 "jisa 139. 2 

T^a 50. 3, 68. 6 b^a 158. 2, 3 D'^Tpa 50. 1 

nria 157. 1 ba (nb) 98. 2, 174. 5 ya 131. 3 

•'"la 221. 3. a ba, ba (yy) 139. 2 iya 172. 2 

^ia 220. 1. c baba i87. 1. e, 207. 2. a -nya 125. 2 

on^ia 220. 2 6 baba i87. 1. e n?a 131. 4 

npn'^ni'^^a 220. 2. c baba 141. 4 "jsa 197. 5. 200. 6 

Tjia 221. 3. a nbaba i87. 1. ^, 207. nana 207. 2. « 

bna 158. 3 1. fZ, 217 tna 50. 3, 68. b 

bbia 141. 4 nba 11. 1. a fna 193. 2. 6 



352 



INDEX III. 



■jnil 197. h, 200. a, 208. 
3. b 

rm 219. 1 
niiia 21 6. 2 
nna ui. 3 (p. i75) 
isona 194. 1 
™ir"ia 104./. 
Tca, -ira 131. 3 
itsa, i©a 131. 3 
lira 65. h 

tjoa 141. 1 (p. 175) 

r\m 131. 4 
imca 131. 4 

na 207. 2. a 

nnK'^ 87, 119. 3 

3iSn 11. 1. a 
axn 51. 4 

nnin"i i98. ft, 200. 6 
nbm 200. 6, 214. 1. 6 

pn-l 82. 1. a (2) 

n^nn 87 
nn^i 10. a 
nnn 210 
W 80. 2. a (2) 
— in-i 92. d 

W, nan 92. c, 126.2 

inan 65 

•'ni^ 61. 1, 216. 2 
nnai 65. a 

ninni 100. 2. a (1) 
■'nna'i 86. 6 (2 f.) 

inw 61. 6. a 

tjnn 183. 6 



''OS'7 221. 5. c 
'n 185. 2. c?, 198, 

na"! 198, 217 

nsn-^ 219. 1. 6 
ni"! 207. 1./. 
''i^n^'n 216. 1. a 
D^Sn^'l 56. 4, 207. 
'^ni'n 194. 2. b 

y:'T\ 51. 4 

Tn 11. \.b 
Un 139. 2 

ni"!! 200. c 
^s-^ninin 44. 6 

tj^n 158. 3 
■'©i'^ 157. 2 

^m 121. 1 

^■1 215. 1. (/ 
SJ^'n 187. 1. a 
D^a^^ 158. 1 
i"''! 184. 6 
■j"''! 158. 2, 3 
l^'l 187. 1. a 
i©1'^ 158. 3 
SS"n 165. 2 
^X2n 167. 1 
b'1 207. 2. a 
nb"! 50. 1 

irii>'^ 141. 2 
^■^b-i 141. 1 

l^bn 19. 2. J 
ni'^b'l 209. 2. a 

nib'1 210. a 

Tb^_ 197. ft, 199. c?, 
ninbn 216. 2. a 



''nb'^ 216. 2 

217 D';nb'7 203. 2, 208. 4 

ni 139. 2 

''tt^ 57. 2 (4) 

DDW 58. 2, 221. 1. a 

WT\ 141. 3 (p. 175) 
2. a piriS'l 51. 2 

pTT^vt 195. 1 

''5'^ 194. 1 

*'33'1 104. a 

y^l 148. 3 

TJt 148. 2 

TO'^ 53. 2. o, 148. 2 

n?'n,n3?'^97. 1.5, 148.3 

ly"! 16. 2. a 

iBS-13?^ 45. 4 

1\T\ 50. 1 

T\T\ 148. 2 

'^nrpn 148. 2 

■jnn'^ 19.2.5, 65.a, 200. a 

ini:h-i'i 19. 2. b, 65. a 

Diin 193. 2. c 
tjii-in 122. 2, 141. 1 
Xy^_ 197. 5, 200. 6 
Xn, XT^, 65. a 
D;^D'1'7 203. 3, 208. 4 
?|Dn'l 220. 2. 5 
p'TCttn'l 51. 2, 54. 3 

^n:cnn 104. i 

Vit^ 196. c? 

xir'ij 18. 2. c 

■JTT'I (v.) 82. 1. a (2) 
211 "ilCn (adj.) 185. 2 
m 200. b 



INDEX III. 



353 



.n, n, n 229, 245 
n, n, n 2.30, 28.3 
nnnsn 112. 3 
rt-insni 112. 3 
innnxn eo. 3. 6 (1) 
•'n'lnsni 60. 3. 6 (1) 

n^Sn 246. 1. a 
'>^T\i!iT} 246. 2. a 

rT^i^n so. 2. 6, 112. 3 

•J^Sn-l 112. 3 
S^ST^lI S8 (pi. f.) 

^n-tDTSn 94. «, 180. a 
npTsnn 112. 3 
nxn 240. 1 
n?''r!^r> 60. 3. c 

^^"^T^r} 246. 3. b 
©■"Sn 230. 3. a 

■'nbDitni 112. 3 
DnbDsn 112. 3 

ta^n'^^J^ 246. 1. a 
•jb5?n 60. 3. c 
nil2Xn 229. 4. a 

•nbijn 112. 1 
n?xn 126. 1 

qOSOXn 57. 2 (2) a, 

229. 3. a 
•>mS5?n 230. 3. a 
fn«n 63. 2. 6, 229. 4. S 
Dnsn 230. 3. a 

nn 148. 3 

©^xan 1.51. 3 

man 119. 1 

nsnn i66. i, i67. 2 

nxnni 100. 2. a (1) 
2a 



^n^{nn i67. 2 
irsnn 104. k 
onsnn leo. 2 
nb-T^nn^ 100. 2. « (2) 
b'lnn 94. 6 
nnn i48. 3, 240. 2 
D^nnnn iss. 6 
^nn 148. 3 
Tian 140. 4 
pSan 140. 4 
-iDar; 94. rZ 

inn (from sis) 164. 2 

i?^an (imp.) 94. d 
nsciani 100. 2. a (2) 
nns<''nn 160. 2 

ffi"»an 179. 2. a 

itD^an 150. 2 
nio^an 160. 2 
nn'^an 219. 1 
ban 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. a 

ban 216. 1. e 
^nban 111. 3. « 
ni:an 173. 2 
byan 246. 1. « 
nan i4o. 5 
?ys-ian 104. 6 
T^iinan i64. 4 
^nan 140. 4, 141. 1 
nanan 16. 3.^,230.2. a 
n^nan 45. 2 
n^a.nn 126. 1 
-^an 94. d 
^5n 95. c 



b'^yn 94. a 
nr^n 112. 5. a 

n^n 18. 2. c, 184. b 

i^n 172. 2 

^yn 92. i, 174. 1, 3 

n^^n 216. 1. a 

nbsn, nb^n 175. 1 
niban 173. 2 
n'lbsn 175. 1. 
'^n^b^n 175. 1 
nbr^n 172. 1 
n?5n 127. 1 
pa^n 82. 5 
ina'^n 246. 2. a 

min 159. 2 

^sia^n 141. 3 

Cnn 207. 2. a 

ny'^n 245. 5. 6 

51'in 112. 5. a 

p'l'n 140. 5 

p'l'n (pret.) 140. 5 

p'ln (inf.) 140. 5 

nipin 141. 2 

1in 112. 5. a, 125. 3 

na-'nnn (inf) 94. b 

npTCnn 96. a 

nn 240. 1 
s^abnn 245. 5. b 
tj^^pnn 245. 5. 6 

inn 63. 2. fi, 229. 4. 6 

nnnn 219. 1 
n^ninnn 246. 2. a 

0'^"inn 63. 1. a. 229. 4 
sin 177. 1 



354 



INDEX III. 



Sin 47, Tl. a (3) 
S^n 58. 1, 71, 73. 3, 

258. 2 
S5^n 30. 2 
S?3in 167. 2 

^i«3^n 167. 2 
L'-'n'^n 179. 2. a 
n-isnin i3. a, 208. 3. « 
y'lin 150. 5 
nin 57. 2 (5) a, 177. 1 
nin 177. 1 
r-,n^n 140. 6 
bnin 140. 6 
lin 240. 1 

^■^"n 229. 1. a 

n^"^n 177. 1 

HDin (inf.) 126. 1 
n-'pin (imp.) 94. d 

n'lb^n 150. 5 
Tj-'bin 151. 1 
bbin 141. 4 
'bb^n 93. h 
nibbin 198. a (4) 
Dbin 90 
ns'n 160. 5 
ic^n 95. f, 150. 5 

rnC;" 27, 104. e 

: ^■'sin (imp.) 94, (/ 
s2-n 150. 1 
nx2-n 167. 2 
nx::-n 16. 1 
x^sin (imp. ?) 94. d 
n-'n^sin 149. 1, 150. 4 
ps'n 57. 2. (5) 



D;:^n 153. 1 5^-^?HH 229. 4. a 

D^:?)?in 60. 3. a, 127. 2 bn- i40. 5 
*T":.^n 57. 2. (2) 



iinnnin 104. k 

^W7\ 66. 1 (2) h 

D^^■imri^ 151. 3 
n-^rin 57. 2 (5) 

■'n^TTin 61. 6. a 

yrjin 126. 1 
rncnr, 150. 1 
D'^nsTn 24. 6 
b-'-n 160. 1 
n^b^TH 141. 3 

nSTH 54. 2, 4. a, 82. 5. a 
DDID-jn 91. 6, 106. a 
TpZ'r^ 175. 1 
'p?'- 119. 1 
DD^ni^.•T^ 173. 2 

'isinn 167. 2 
nrsnnn i66. i 
rinnn i65. i 

Snn 63. 1. o, 229. 4 

''pb'jnn 53. 2. 6, 63. 

1. o, 95. 5 

D'' '?'70^ 63. 1. a, 229. 4 
■ip^nn (iuf.) 112. 3 
ippTnn 112. 3 

^npjnni 112. 3 
""nprnro 112. 3 
^■jnn 164. 2 
^i2nn 164. 2 

•^nn 229. 3. a 
Qr^nn 111. 3. 5 

CSnn 63. 1. a, 229. 4 



bnn 140. 4 
ibnn i40. 4 
"^^^0 175. 1 
^n'bnn ui. 2 
D"':T2nr! 229. 3. a 
i-i^inn 246. 2. a 
nnnn 119. 1 
Dnnn 119. 1 
■'ri'cnnri 60. 3. h (1) 
''rn2-'r|ni eo. 3. 6 (1) 
•'rnrnnni 112. 3 
bpnn 95. c 
nrinn 141. 2 
irinnnn 86. b (2 m.), 

112. 3, 139. 3 

"jn 175. 4 
•irih'jni 161. 5 
nt:n 175. 4 
"iTOn 82. 5 
^nn^n 63. 1. «, 121. 3 
niisn 159. 2 
'^rb'i'jn 160. 2 
■•n-'icn 175. 1 

r.iJTS^n 96. a, 166. 5 
in 53. 2. a, 184. 6 
S^n 71. rt (3) 
Dri"'j'^n 230. 2. a 

ni- 11. 1. « 

n^n50. 1, 77. 3, 112. 5. 

a, 152. 2. ff, 156. 1, 
177. 1, 258. 2 
n^n 86. b (3 pi.) 



INDEX III. 



355 



n-^n^impOii^.i, m. 1 

n^n (inf.) 177. 1 
r\';r['\ 61. l. a, 234. b 
Vr\l 61. 1. a, 234. b 

iin,."i 46 

nb^'^n 245. 5. 6 
nVT] 245. 3. 6 

ni-in 112. 1, 177. 1 

rj^n 235. 3 (2) 

a-'-j'^n 145. 2 
n-j^^n 230. 2. 6 
n">"im, ni'^m i6. i 

D^!"'!''!! 60. 3. 6 (1), 
112. 1 

On^l^ni 112. 2, 234. 6 

•j^n 51. 2 

brn 189. 6, 197. b, 
200. c, 210. c, 216. 
1. b 

■ip^b^n 151. 1 
b">!:-'n 57. 2 (5) 
bb^n 186. 2 
T^^n 11. 1. 6 
'i:iua^n 150. 1 
N2;'n 150. 1 
nb^'^n 65. b 

n-\::n 246. 1. a 

To3;in 150. 1 

HT. 172. 1 
"7ri;'n 246. 3. a 
?in 98. 2, 175. 4 

napn 94. 6 

C32n 96. a 

nsn 175. 4 



I^Sn 159. 2 

b-'DPi (-y) 160. 4 
b^sn (b^Dsn) 111. 2. c 
irsn 160. 2 

^rDH 160. 2 
ilDiS^Dn 160. 2 

nirpn 16O. 2 

152" 246. 1. a 

^■abpn 95. a 
D^:rbpn 94. a 
'ispn 160. 2 
nnj^y^sn 24. b, 230. 

2. a 
"IDH 112. 5. a 
-nsn 94. 6 
b^'ISn 246. 1. a 
T:b.2T} 24. 6 

rNbn 172. 1, 175. 1 

■jnbn 24. b, 230. 2. a 

■jiDnbn 246. 1. a 
©abn 94. b 
Trf^r} 150. 5 
ibn 139. 2 
nrxibn 44. a 
Tbn 58. 1, 73. 2 
ntbn 58. 1, 73. 2 

17bn 58. 1, 73. 2 

cnbn 119. 1 
cnbn 91. 5 
Tbn 150. 2 
nb^bn 245. 3. b 
?fbn 84. 3. « (3), 112. 

5. f, 115, 151. 1,179. 
2. a 



^'bn 151. 1 
^zbn 151, 1 

S^Dbn 86. 6 (3 pi.) 

niDbm 100. 2. a (1) 

: IT T : \ / 

ripbm 100. 2. a (1) 
nsbn 205 
bbn 137, 141. 4 
bbn 137 

^bbn 20. 2, 45. 2 
n^bbn 139. 1 
Dbn 111. 1 
•an 4. a 
D". riTsn 61. 6 
"jirn 197. 6 
biisn 159. 2. bis 
^biTsn 159. 2 
ff'XTOn 177. 3 

l^rn 150. 2 
n^Tpn 160. 4 
Tn''i:nn 14. a 
Tirprn 160. 2 
^n2rn 246. 2. 6 

^12n 140. 6, 141. 1 

nbicn 126. 1 
nbrn 80. 2. & 
nnbian 127. 1 
^ybisn 95. a 

rrisb^'^n 246. 3. a 

n-ttj:!?:! 246. 1. a 
CT2n 140. 4 

^Gisn 140. 5 
VC^n 62. 2, 175. 1 
tl^TSn 119. 1 
ipntp?^ni04. c, 246. 2.5 



356 



INDEX III. 



ribmn 246. 2. b 

iJi^n 166. 3 

nS2ST2n 246. 1. a 

nian i4o. 5 
ynn 140. 5 

Dnin/2n 24. b 

birj^an 45. 2, 230. 2 
bi^ian 94. 6 
nan 160. 4 
'in^n, iiran 160. 5 
in'an 160. 2 
ni^iian leo. 2 

■}n (pron.) 71. a (3) 
■jn (adv.) 236 

isasn 54, 2 
insiasn i66. 2 
insnin 131. 6 

q^DH 91. 6, 131. 5 

nan 236, 240. 2 
nan (pron.) 71. « (3) 

nsn (adv.) 235. 3 (4) 

isren 131. 1 
nnsn 246. i. « 
nnDn i89. 6 
bn:n 94. & 
■iniamn 63. 1. a, 121. 

3, 131. 6 

nnsn 131. 1 

■"nnsn leo. 2 

n^DH, nijn S3. c (1), 

160. 1 

nn^sn 160. 5 
'inin-'rn i60. 2 



QDB'i;n 160. 4 

^p-'Dn 150. 2 
1552X33n 245. 5. 6 

nspn 160. 4 
pBin 160. 2 

122n 141. 1 
•^)?3n 173. 2 

?T^n:n 131. 2 

]h3n 91. b, 131. 5 

^pwn 131. 2 

en 240. 1 

non 140. 5 

aDn61.4, 135.3, 140.5 
^aon 61. 4. a, 140. 5 

lapn 61. 4 
niapn 61. 5, i36. 2 
Qin^on (n^^iDJijn) 53. 

2. rt, 111. 2. c 

tnyqr\ 160. 2 
Tjnipn 160. 4 
n^sn, n^pn leo. 1 
•[pn 140. 5 
•json 94. b 
-"{scn 94. (? 
banpn 82. 5 
bbinpn i4i. 5 
nnsn 91. 6 
r\nn?^ri 63. 3. b (2) 
Tfin^ns^n 112. 3 
T|in7n?ni 112. 3 
n^ns^n (inf. abs.) 94. b 
nnayn 112. 2 
nm^n 160. 2 
nryn ui. 1 



riT2?n 160.2 
"^riT^^n 60. 3. c 
'inn-iyn 44. b 
t::'?n, •j^'yn 229. 3 
■ini-i'iyn 160. 2 
byn (v.) 175. 4 
nbyn, nb?ri 112. 2 
nb3?h 60.3. 6(2), 112. 2 
nbyn 63. 1. a 
n^byn 245. 5. 6 
^rrT'byn 104. i 
in'byn 173. 2 

D^n 63. 2. 6, 229. 4. b 
^''■a?n 60. 3. 6 (2) 

T'a?n 94. 6 
iT'a2?nn 112. 3 
nn]:^;n 104. e 
tj-'iynn 112. 3 
D'^ni^n 229. 4 

'rj3"l?n 246. 2. a 

iniiDS'n 173. 2 
iniin^n 113. 1 
nrn 18. 2. c 

niSSn 187. 2. a 

n'isn 175. 1 

msn 175. 4 

nsn 140. 5 
nsn 80. 2. b 
inia^sn'i leo. 3 
n^sn 140. 5 
•fEH 112. 5. b 

"ipSn 61. 6 
tjspsn 188 

sbsn 166. 3 



INDEX III. 



357 



Sbsn 165. 2 

r.zrs 95. d 

n??- 245. 3. b 
"ipsn (inf. abs.) 91. 6 
"PSn 9o. (7, 95. a 
nsn 229. 4. b 
-I2n 140. 5 
nsn 65. ff, 140. 5 

I- •■ ' 

nsn 140. 5 
nnsn 119. 1 
^-l1■",s^1 100. 2. a (i) 

DDIEH 141. 3 
D^.Sn 141. 3 

nmsn 141. 2 
nnsn 126. 1 
'PY^'.i'r^ 82. 5 
"^.^-jirn so. 2. h 
^n^-jin 161. 1 
i-ijj^n 161. 1 

'X^'Sn 145. 2 

n^-iin 160. 2 
nb^r. 189. 6 
n'i::n 126. 1 
nr\T32n 86. 6 (2 m.) 
irSSn 24. 6 

"i2rn 140. 5 

"I2n 140. 5 

in'iirrn 100. 2. a (1), 

141. 2 

rs;^n 229. 4. 6 
'i''^i5;:n 160. 2 
c-i'vpn 94. 6 
cipn 94. 6 

D^C-pn 229. 4. 6 



'"iPri 110. 1 
■'"p^I 119-1 
'^■''-rp" 94. h 
C^pn 160. 4 

rr'^r\ 160. 4 

D-^pr; 57. 2 (5), 59, 

153. 1 

niis^pn 66. 2 (2) c 
bpn 140. 5 
b;:" 140. 5 
c~ri 160. 4 
ni^r', 2i?\5 160. 5 
'irbpn 66. 2 (2) c 
I'^^t^^l io4.y 
niapn 94. b, 175. 2 
^iir^ 119. 1 
n3^r;pn 98. 1 

nn 207. 2. a 

nxnn, nxnn 114, 

175. 1 

risnn 173. 2 
n-'xin 173. 2 
''n-'Xiro 114 
Ti\n^xnn 175. 
Dn^x-nn 24. 6 
^y), 5^3in 175. 4 
na-in 175. 2 
rs2r\7^, nnnn 175. 2, 

235. 3 (2) 

r'^nnrn 100. 2. a (1) 
T.^nnni 100. 2. a (i) 
rann (inf.) 94. 6, 114 

?^5nn (inf) 114 

^ns-i^T-nn 24. 6 



T\y^ 63. 1. a, 219. 1. h 

iin 172. 2 
inn 92. 6, 174. 1, 3 
?y;i-ir; 53. 3. a 
"zn-in 119. 1 

pri';''", v^r:'^^ 119. i 

"'iri 199. c 

r'>nri 209. 1. a 
D'^nn 59 

• T 

niy^nn 160. 2 

''12"'-:" 160. 4 
CD'C-'l- 160. 4 

'y^n 160. 2 
cri'"''":" 160. 2 
ri^")ni 16. 1 
i\'y\ 140. 5 
nn^-in lu 
mhn 140. 4 
n^'22':,n (n^'E'^xr;) 53 

2. a 

r.b'i'.n 160. 2 
cnn 111. 1 
ynn, 3?nn uo. 5 

- T ' - A" T 

?":n 140. 5 
vin 160. 2 
r^ry-nn 24. ^> 
Dnb'in 160. 2 
iqnn 66. 1 (1), 98. 2, 

175. 4 
nsnn 175. 4 
ns-in 165. 1 
ns-in 172. 1 
'^'^nn 221. 6. h 
iiin 221. 6. J 



358 



INDEX III. 



D'^nnn 207. 2. a 
nnnn 221. 6. h 

■j-JISn 24G. \. a 

bsisn, b-'sian 94. h 

'i'r)2bn 180. a 

:^nnii5n 82. 5 
x;;jn 166. 3 
'in^nbsirn 119. 2 

:3T2Jn 65. a 
ST^n 160. 4 

jnsnysiyn 104. h 
^p:itr) 86. h (2. m.) 
Tihtpn^ 100. 2. a (1) 
D\nmum 10. a 
n©n 140. 5 
a-'ttjri 160. 4 
in-^irn 60. 3. i (2) 
in-iTiJn 60. 3. 1 (2) 
''hin-'i2Jni 33. 4 

'Tjn^'Cn 101. 3. a 

Dnh^irn loo. 2 
n3T»n 94. 6 
nsTDn 95. a 
nnsujn 95. «, tZ 
ns'cn, a''5TDn 94. 6 
a^birn 80. 2. 6 
siibion 94. h 

^D"ibTrriT 100. 2. a (2) 

^fbirn (inf.) 94. 6 
?fbian (imp.) 94. (Z 
^jbirn 95. a 
rpbTtjn 95. a 
npriDbrn 86. h (2 pi.) 
n^abirjn 95. a 



'i^at'n 94. h 

~!ri"iL"n (iuf. abs.) 91. & 

r,TOirJn (iuf.) 94. 6 
■Fin-cTirn 104. 6 
m2%"n 140. 6 
^iGuin 140. 5 
si^irn 140. 5 
^rpni^^cn i4i. 3 

Dr)TCn 139. 3 
y^-£in 126. 1 

n^:?iaOT 128, 1 89. 6 
h'j y^^n 35. 1 

n^l|n 64. 1, 91. h 
npl^n 245. 3. h 

nir^ a^:'.?n 251. 4. a 
yen (y>) 140. 5 
yisn (nb) 35. 2, 175. 4 
nis'-rn (nisirsn) 53. 

2. 6, 62. 1 

b^snrn (inf. abs.) 94. 6 

•jSlEn 91. 6 

n]5T»n 50. 1, 179. 2. a 

r;;?rn 94. tZ 
narnrn 126. 1 
l^inrn i4i. 5 
nnnn^^n 168. a 
niinpt'n i76. 2 
^0?^nJ?TZ?r' iV6. 1 
^n^inrnrn i76. 2 
^rr^inrnrni ioo.2.«(i) 
cn-iinnTrn i76. 2 
n'lnnirn i76. 1 
rr'snirjn i76. 2 

riyitiynirn 141. 6 



tfsij^Trn 82. 5 

\T.'i?riri 1*^6. 2 

n^Txnn 126. 2 
irnrn 15 8. 4 
^:?|zrn 126. 1 
■'pb-srnn 96. 6 
nb^rn 126. 1 
^iry^rn 96. a 
"i5nn 176. 4 
r,i"i3nn i76. 2 

^bnnn 96. h 

"tjbnrn 96. 6 
ip;bnrn^ 100. 2.a(i) 
bbnnn 137 

mnnn iso. 3 (p. 182) 
S^i^.nn 150. 3 (p. 182) 
•f^nn 187. 2. «. 
nsinn 150. 3 (p. 182) 

rh?^Pn 246. 3. a 
JTrn 65. a 

bbinrn 161. 2 
p-nrn 96. h 
bnrn i76. 4 
"jn^Tin 80. 2. h 
^"'rn ill. 2. c, 172. 1 
^icn-nn eo. 3. a 
r|T3^nn ui. 3 
iis^nn 50. 1, 179. 2. « 
'iszrn 96. 6 
brn 115 
n^bnn 142. 3 

'UTTs 140. 5 
"rfaVT) 141. 5 

fti^n^rn 141. 6 



INDEX III. 



359 



niafin i4o. 5 
Diann 82. 5 
ni2n)3nn i4i. 5 
ni3:nn lOo. 3. 
niasnn i65. 3 
bbiynn i4i. 5 
b>?nn 141. 5 
n-'synn 176. 2 
nnyrn 119. i 
jiirbsnn 96. b 

iinjpsnn 59. a, 96. a 

'npsnri 96. a 
tj'npnri- 96. ^» 

-TSlpnn 96. b 

wnpnn 96. 6 
"^niij^prinn 96. 6 
Dnir^pnn ei. 4. a, 

96. 6 

Ci^pnn 96. 6 
"jiiinn ui. 5 
iri^rnnnn 121. 1 
ri^snnn i76. 2 
n:i:'jirnn 54. 4. a, 

82. 5. a 

nVirnn 45. 2, 230. 2. 
nnn i4i, 3 (p. 175) 

^ 100. 1, 234, 287 
•1 99. 1 
in 56. 2 
"in 56. 2 

'ipn 56. 2 

^bl 56. 2 



SXT 183. 5, 197. c 
13ST 216. 1. b 
ni^T 11. 1. a 
ni?T 39. 4. a 
rOT 50. 1 

-T 

nnr 200. c 
innt 125. 2 
iia^nnr 220. 2. c 
i:rinn 100. 2. a (1) 

l^bST 193. 2. a 

^T 186. 2. c 

HT 73. 1, 235. 3 (4), 

249. 2. a 
:¥ 39. 4. a 
r.T, IT 11. 1. h 

nr, it 73. 1 

ant 50. 1, 51. 3, 201. 1 
ann 16. 3. b, 61. 1. a, 

234. a 
^T 73. 1 
IT 53. 3. a 

ribxa IT 22. 6 

ni'i'^.T 209. 2. a 
rr^'lT 210. a 

nb^T 237. 1 

a Tlb^T 61. 6. a 
nsiT 14. a, 93. 6 
n'n^T 156. 4, 196. d 
■jin^T 193. 2. a 
CSiTT 210. c 
m 208. 3. c 
^3T 141. 1 
11DT 90. pass. 
n-l3T 98. 1 



linpT 25 

■ji-lST 200. c, 210, 210. 

b, 217 
''nDT 106. b 
IP'IDT 86. i (2 f.) 
?|?bT 68. a 
JlSybT 210. e 

n'l'i'aT 200. 6 

^■^^T 185. 2. a 
'^Tpllll 139. 1 
•jiaT 207. 2. b 
rntlT 92. fZ 
tTTHT 196. & 
"^n'TST 139. 2 
nrsn'BT 220. 1. b 
■JT 207. 2. a 
aST 200. a 

ni:T 200. & 

tf^T 51. 1 

D?T 84. 3. a (3), 118.2 

r.^^T 119. 3 

iSS'T 119. 3 

P?T 51. 1 

p'S'T 119. 1 

^pyT 60. 1. a, 119. 4 

^P?T 119. 4 

tJp?T 119. 3 

IPT (v.) 79. 2, 82. 1. a 

(1) 
■jpT (adj.) 90, 215. 1 

n-'ppT 201. 1. b 

ppT 141. 1 (p. 175) 

SnT 19G. d 



360 



INDEX III. 



^■IT, !nT 156. 2 

?i-|T 183. c, 197. a, 

200. c 
Tnr 187. 1. e 
TOn'T 92. b 

ynr 60. 3. c, 216. i. e 

yn? 216. 1. e 
pnT 80. 2. a (3) 

Knn 112. 5. a 

!i«2n 167. 1 

nn^an, nnnn 60. 2. a 

t:2n 112. 5. a 

■^nn 172. 3 

bnn 50. 1, 112. 5. h 

bnh 186. 2. a 

''bnn 61. 1 
^nban 104. i 
pan 187. 2 
"\nn 112. 5. a 
ninanin iss 

tJnn 84. 3. a (3), 112. 

5. b 
yn 186. 2. c 

Krin 11. 1. a 
San 196. d 
nan 112. 5. « 

^Jl 53. 2. 6, 223. 1, a 
'I'^n^ 100. 2. a (2) 
bnn 82. 1. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

i^nn 24. c 

n"n 216. 1. e 
C^n 208. 3. 6 



d'lffi'in 60. 3. 5 (2) 
nrin 199. c 
nin 207. 1./ 
nsin 14. a 
b^n 158. 2 
bbin 161. 4 
bbin 141, 4 
■jDin 141. 4 
V^n 200. a 
ipin 59. «, 141. 3 

"ip^n 14. a 

nin 125. 3 
"^nin 194. 2. 6 
{''nin 199. c 
t'yyn 186. 2. « 
mr^n iss. 2 
nnin 186. 2 
njn 200. a 
'ji'^Tn 200. a, 210. 6, 

216. 2. b 
pm 84. 3. a (2), 110. 

2, 112. 5. b 
pm 185. 2. 6 
pTn 185. 2. 6 
p-Tn 92. c 

ipm 61. 1 

'i^^^PI" , n^^pTH 57. 2 

(2) 5 

nn 207. 2. b 

N'jn 183. 6, 208. 3 
K'jh 165. 2 

ns'jn 220. 1. b 

nx^n 198. a (3) 
iS"jn 60. 3.C, 216. 1. a 



D''Xpn 57. 2 (3) a, 
164. 3 

rs-jn 166. 1 

nx^n 198. a (3), 205, 
217 

nxton 57. 2 (3) a 
inxbn 166. 2 
orisbn 220. 2. a 
^•jn 50. 1, 112. 5. a 

- T ' 

n^n 200. b 
i'cn 164. 2 

■J-^rsn 199. a 

^n (v.) 177. 2 

in (n.) 215. 1. d 

n^n 161. 1 

iT^n 50. 1, 112. 5. a, 
152. 2. a, 177. 2 

:n^in i77. 2 
n':ni 234. 6 
n;'n 201. 1. a 
r'r]^ 234. b 
pDl^^n 220. 2. c 

D^*"!! 201. 1, 201. I. a 

on^'^m 234. 6 

bin 158. 2 
b^n 208. 3. c 

main i58. 2 
n^n 196. & 
in^n 61. 6, 218 
i^n 174. 3 
nr|n 172. 3 
in-^sn^ 100. 2. a (1) 
ibibsn 187. 2. c 

nfen 198. a (4) 



INDEX III. 



3G1 



DDn 80. 1, 84. 3. a (2), 

112 5. a 
m'-QDn 198. a. 4 
i^Dn 216. 2 

bn 174. 5 
abn 215. 1. a 
■jnnbn 220. 2. b 
rbn 80. 2. a (4), 112. 

5. b 
njn 80. 1 
Dibn 200. a 
•ji^n 197. 6, 200. c 

''bT?n 194. 2. b, 199. c 
•"•bnbn 187. 1. e, 198. 
a (3) . 

tjbn 112. 5. a 

''bn 208. 3. f/ 

ibii 65 

nbibn 219. 1. «, 240. 2 

DiSDbn 209. 1. a 
robn 209. 1. a 

bbn 141. 4 
Dbn 112. 5. c 
TL'^'abn 19.5. 1 
5ibn 80. 2. a (1), 112. 

5. c 

fbn 92. rf 
pbn 112. 5. 6 
~bn 51. 3 

^Jibn 24. ft, 216. 2. « 

p^pfH 188 

nnpbn 104. ^ 
Cbn 84. 3. a (3) 

TSbn 187. 1 



S5T3ln 196. (? 

"i^n 111. 1, 112. 5. a 
nrn (nxTcn) 53. 3. 6 
rrqn i84. ft, 216. 1 
yiian i85. 2. c 
nw 197. c 
nran 205. c 
■'niian i4i. 2 

iffi^'an 59. a, 227. 1 

bi2n 112. 5. a 
nbi2ri 87, 111. 3. a 

man 84. 3. a (3), 141. 
1 (p. 175), 179. 2. a 

can 112. 5. a 

fttn 82. 1. a (2), 112. 

5. a 
Y'dn 184 

inS^n 106. a, 111. 3. a 
"irn 112. 5. a 

iian^n, 'n-an'an eo. 

3. ft (2) 
^n'an'on 92. «, 115 
•can 46 

iran 205, 215. 1. ft 
tjan 227. 3 
msan 223. 1 
'^TE'an 59. a, 227. 1 
on'^tEan 250. 2 (2) a 
v^'an 250. 2 (2) ffl 

Ti'^tlJan 250. 2 (2) a 

D'^'i'Tan 225. 1 
i-irnran 220. 2. « 
^to^ nran 224. a 
nttn 214. 1. ft 



ai^nbn 203. 5. 6 

•jn 186. 2. c 

■jirn 139. 2 

•j^in 187. 1 

niin 139. 2 

ni'*;n, ni^.;n 209. 3. a 

rr^rn 199. fZ, 200. c 

?i:n 112. 5. a 

l\vn 220. 1. ft 

D:n 235. 2 (1) 

br:n 195. 1 

■j:n 80. 1, 84. 3. a (3) 

T?n 141. 4 
n:;n 139. 2 
■'pin 61. 5 

n5;:n 106. o, 139. 2 
^::;n ui. 1 
?i:n 82. 1. a (2) 
p:n 50. 1 

■'jCn, I'lCn 216. 2. a 

ncn 112. 5. ft 
n;cn, Tcn i69. 1, 

172. 1 

ben 112. 5. a 
ccn 112. 5. a 

ncn 82. 1. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

ncn 112. 5. a 

TEn 112. 5. a 

■f'Sn (v.) 82. 1.0(1), 84. 

3. a (1), 112. 5. a 
fSn (adj.) 185. 2. ft 
:ni'En 86. a 
iSSn 216. 1. ft 



363 



INDEX III. 



n&n 82. 1 a (2), 112. 

5. a 
n&n 82. 1. a (2), 112. 

5. a 

ninsnsn iss 

tosn 112. 5. a 

tosn 80. 1 

mTUSn 198. a (4) 

^mn 209. 2 

n-iTrsn 198. a (4) 
n2?n 50. 1, 82. 1. a (l), 
84. 3. a (1), 112. 5. a 
i^n 199. 6 
''^n 65, 227. 3 

ysn 141. 1 (p. 175) 

TT^l'in 188. a 
n2!:n50. 3, 197. h. 200. c 

*• T ' 

ph207. 2, 207. 2.a,215. 

1. c, 217 
■pfl Gl. 5 

npn 217 

ipn 59. a 

^pri 61. 5 

pph 141. 5 

ppri 141. 5 

"•ppn 20, 2, 207. 2. a 
^pn 50. 1, 112. 5. a 

"isnnpn io4. y 
n'ln 118. 1 
nnn 197. a 
innn, ^nnn in. 3. a 
ninnn 21 6. 2. a 
nniann 220. 2. a 

^3in 111. 3. a 



"T^n 112. 5. a 

biinn 193. 2. c 
inn 112. 5. c, 118. 1 

Tin 185. 2. b 
bT\n 207. 2. (/ 

pnn 210. a 
nnnn i87. 2. h 
Qbnn 193. 2. c, 207. 2. c 

tj-^nn 185. 2. a 

ir^in 195. 1 
nonn ei. 6. a 
vjnn 118. 1 

nisnn 22. «, 216.2,2. « 
fnn 118. 1 
n'lsnn 207. 2. c 
nnn 141. 2 (p. 175) 

tyj 187. 1. a, 210. o, 

216. 1. a 
ffinn 50. 1, 80. 2. a (2), 

84. 3. « (3), 118. 1 
ty\ 187. 1. h, 210. c 
''tC'nn 216. 1. a 

trn 50. 1 

^B^irn 194. 2. 6, 199. c 

tjicn 112. 5. 6 
fiian 112. 5. b 

i^TSn 89 (f. s,). 111. 3. a 

m»n 112. 5. b 
■jimin 200. a 
nffin 112. 5. c 
tjirn 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. 6 
nDTcn 200. b, 201. 1. a 
O'^Dirn 201. 1. a 



b'52©n 53. 2. a 
nb^airn 66. 2 (2) 6 

tin 139. 2, 207. 2. a 

nnn 112. 5. « 
r,nrini87. i.f, 207. 2. a 
rr^nn 209. 2 
^nn 112. 5. a 
bm 112. 5. a 
nnn 112. 5. a 
qnn 112. 5. a 
"inn 50. 1, 112. 5. a 
nnn 112. 5. c, i4i. 1 

(p. 175) 

"linnn 104. y 
n'^nx'cN-j 57. 2. a (2), 

161. 2 

nntp 50. 1 

nS'J 187. 1. a 

nyrj 207. 1. e 
"lin-j 185. 2. 6 
-ini: 215. 1. c 

nnr) 50. 1, 82. 1. a (1) 

Srj 186. 2. c 

nil3 (v.) 82. 1. « (3), 

156. 2, 179. 2. a 
nit: (adj.) 186. 2. c, 

235. 3 (3) 
ni£Dil2 57. 1, 187. 1. e 

ni:, nt: i56. 2 

Q-^sbp 209. 1. a 

nb-jbiD 187. 1. c 
bb'j 141. 1 (p. 175) 

V02'^ 82. 1. a (1) 



INDEX III. 



363 



nSJ^-J 87, 166. 2 

DDSB'J 164. 4 

nST3-J 164. 1 

■jTSIfl 50. 1, 77. 2 

tT?t2 131. 4 

Sja 201. 1 

SliS'J 139. 2 

nSD 200. a 

^ilip 185. 2. c? 

DTJ 263. 1. b 

5]yj 84. 3. a (3), 118. 1 

iSn'J 216. 2. a 

'^3i5^ IDX^ 111. 2. a 

lai?;' 16. 2. a 
innx^i 105. a 
■'snns';' los. «, lis. 3 

VnS\ TnS'^l 111. 2. a 

^)n^Tni5-> 60. 3. h (1) 

•J^jns?"' 60. 3 6 (1) 

ys;! 158. 2 

bDSi-' 57. 2 (2) o, 60. 1. a 

bDS?'^^ 99. 3. a 

bi?''] 111. 2. d, 175. 3 

y73S;^ 111. 2. a 

ni2s^ niasj:;' i26. 2 

T52S^n ill. 2. a 

ITaS^] 46 

S3 '^t21h'^ 24. a 

qrS': 111. 2. a 

pbS"^ 111. 2. a 

qbS^ 111. 2. a, 112. 3 

qDS:^1, qOXl^l 99. 3. a 

qos'^;} 151. 2 



^SCi?:' 112. 3 
'^:ECS:' 112. 3 
lbs;', D^nCX^ 60. 1. a 
DinCS^n 104. g 
!:2S^T 111. 2. 6 

nss?:? 113. 1 

"li5.'^ 159. 3 

'i.V-iii;) 112. 3 
ninm;> i05. e 

rs:;l 61. 2. a, 172. 4 

^ri?:: 159. 3 

^'^nSC':' 172. 1 

'irni5:':i i72. 3 
iin^ 60. 1. a 

^1'^^ 10. a 

Sn;>T 160. 3, 166. 4 

nn;> 141. 1 (p. 175) 

^IT'^y^. 105. a 

b■^n::n 66. i (2) h 
in;'! 164. 2 
sin;" 157. 3 
!n?;in:' i58. 4 
•ip'^n;' 194. 1 
irin'^ 157. 3 
rn^^T 172. 4 
^■h;' 141. 1 
n-jn^ 126. 1 
s^-^n^i, ^■•n^n i6o. 3, 

166. 4 

^S''n;'i 26 

^n:^! 61. 4, 172. 4 

•jTCn;' 172. 1 

i;i? 158. 2 

"jn^ 172. 4 



np;*- 172. 4 
n'>'pn;> 125. i 
'rpn;*! 20. 2 
tjnh^ 60. 4 
?f^-n;'n 99. 3. a 
^ro-nn^n 60. 3. a 
ns^^n^"' 104. b 
rr.rsnn:' 105. b 

r?: (v.) 82. 1. a (1), 
146, 147. 1 

rn"^ 147. 1 
m"* 148. 1 

'^T^2^^ 150. 2 (p. 182) 
T\tp.1_ 148. 1 

na;^"' 60. 1 

-^'y^.y: 88 
rnsro 60. 2 

TO 140. 1 
Ti'tS^ 104. A 
n5^1 150. 2 (p. 182) 
bl^-" 158. 2 

T^;'^ 140. 1 
l^b^s;' 158. 2 

■'y^S'' 216. 1. 6 
h;», b;" 158. 2 
h^n (*2?) 158. 2 

b^;'! (y'i?) 140. 5 
bro 172. 4 
bj^n 99. 3. a 
broi 99. 3. a 
b.vn 175. 3 

b5^ 140. 3 

nb;\;' 57. 2 (5) 

Sri-l^ 165. 2 



364 



INDEX III. 



b^S^'l 65. a 
P? 140. 5 

y^;* 147. 1 
nyr, ^ya*" i47. 4 

W ' AT 

Vpy) 60. 2 

nh;" (v.) 82. 1. a (3), 

179. 2. a 
ni«^ (adj.) 90 
■1.V1 157. 3 

TCn^'^l 99. 3. a 
niTC'lS^] 104. y 
Triy^ 86. a 

^M97.a,215.1, 217,222 
X'l;:^ 172. 4 
p3-!:> 97. 2 

^pa":::^ 94. c 
nai:^^ 99- 3 

Ti;! 139. 3 
^T 148. 3 
'I'l^in 53. 3. a, 150. 2 
(p. 182) 

"li'n^ 139. 3 

■jii;^ 157. 3, 158. 2 

nin;" 203. 5. a 

■'i;' 216. 1 

"^T^ 199. c 
^nin^i 220. 2. c 

nn'i'i;' 220. 1. h 

D^n;' 203. 5. a 

y^yi 157. 3 
ssn;' 167. 7 
iss'n;' 54. 2 
ro'T' 220. 1. a 



QD^i;: 58. 2, 63. 2. «, 

22.1. 1. a 
ODi;' 220. 2. h 
b^7 140. 3 
n^;! 140. 1 

'mri 141. 1 

yi^ 80. 2. a (4), 147. 2 
yn^n 147. 5 
■Jiy^;; 55. 2. a, 86. 6 
(3 pi.) 

^:y"i;' 60. 3. a 
'T^T.Iiy] 60. 3. a 
D^iyi:! 127. 2 ' 

ny*!;^ 86. h (1 c.) 
nny'i;' 86. h (2 m.) 
Vn^T 104. g 
ony^;^ 60. 3. a 

p'l^l 140. 5 

-jnT 46 

^Dl-i^^l 94. c 

np\Ln;'63.i.c, 97.i.a,6 

nn^i 179. 2. a 

n|n;^ 60. 3. a 
qnn^ 111. 1 
^:B'in;i 105. d 
sin;' 177. 1 
n'l^n;' 197. <z 
n'lin'' 150. 2 

^yr\'-^ 194. 2. a 

n^nin;i 235. 3 (3) 
nini 47 
nin'i'T 234. c 
D'^p^in-' 195. 3 
D'^pr''?^'' ■*■*• ^ 



y^TC-rri 150. 2 

Ti;! 57. 2 (4), 177. 1 

•in^ 177. 1 

''n;*^ 45. 2, 61. 1. a, 

177. 1 

r.in'i 11. 1. a 
n^n;^ 19. 1, 60. 3. a, 
112. 2, 177. 1 

ni>D3 ''n:ii 22. 6 

^^^'?'^ri^ 150. 2 

bn;! 140. 5 

^ro ('Hi?;') 53. 3. a, 

111. 2. c 
^f'bn^ 151. 1 
nibbni 105. e 
Q'bn;' (11.) 190. a 
^r'abn;: 111. 1 
Dm;^^ 140. 1 
tn.'^ 140. 3 
zr^^^ 80. 2. 6 
cinn^ 111. 1 
^D"-n^ ^c-irp 111. 1 
^cnn^ 111. 1 
bnn;' 142. 3 
^bhn^ 142. 3 

nsii 140. 6 

i?n^'« 167. 2 
^xn^ii 167. 2 
bni^ 197. 6 

'^ny'ji''' 92. 5 

pl^"" 140. 6 

nni'ii 111. 2. (f 

^bDi^ 57. 2. (2) a, 111. 

2.6 



INDEX III. 



363 



i^V 93. b 

nnbi^ 20 7. 1. a 

Di"^ 200. c, d, 207. 1./ 

a^'TOi"' 203. 3 

UnV 235. 2 (1) 

■Jl^ 215. 1. b 

n2V 197. c, 200. b 

p?ii 217 

njpsii 207. 1. e, 217, 

221. 5 
nO^i 140. 6 

iqpi"' 90 
^D^yi"" 105. 6 
D?1^ 140. 6 

ssi'^n, Ksi^n 166. 4 

"1211 186. 2. a 

Qicj^i^ (DiTr;?"^^) 59. «, 

93. e 
'\V'\ 175. 3 
i5-|ii 150. 5 

mri'^1 99. 3. a, 150. 3 

nf ^1 140. 6 
ipaipi"' 105. a 
"jyffii'' 105. a 
tiDTT'P 53. 3. a 
ntV 158. 4 

ri 175. 3 

T'^'l, PI 172. 4 

nr 140. 3 
rav 141. 1 

p2?ri 119. 1 

■\T^1 157. 3 
"iT'^n 172. 4 



bx?-ir 57. 2 (3) a 
•L:nni 113. 1 
Tiinn;' 93. a 

mnD 60. 3. a, 60. a 

iran;;! 65. a 
lonn:' 60. 3. a 
nn'; (y'b) 140. 1 
nn^ (I'b) 147. 2 
^n^ (yy) 140. 5 
w^ 109. 2, 172. 4 
inn;) 235. 3 (1) 
b'^n;) 63. 1. & 
^b-in^, ib^n;) 63. 1. 6 
•jib'^n;) 64. 2, 88 (m. pi.) 
cin^, Din;* 157. 3 
nnim 156. 1 
ITTn;^ 172. 1 
iprn^ 61. 1 
xt:n') 63. 1. b 

S'jn^T 166. 4 

''^I^ v;i i^^. 2 

in;: 65 
ni^ni 177. 2 
ir;:ni 172. 3 
mr^n^ 97. 1 
■jn^n;' 104. c/, i4i. 3 
^^^ ^rj? 140. 5 

i^^n;!!] 1'77. 3 

'bn;" 141. 1 
^bn^i (ibn:ii) 24. c 
pbn;^ 60. 4. o, 113. 1 
Dpbn;' 59. a 

Dp'^'^v^ 113. 1 
ir\bfT» 60. 4. a 



nn-; 147. 2, 179. 2. a 
Dn.1 140. 1 

TCn;i 60. 3. b (2) 
^■an.") 140. 1 
pian^ 172. 1 
nr^n": 88 (3 f. pi.) 
i:n'an;i 121. 2 
P^, "jn^n 140. 1 
■jn;' 61. 2 

■jn^l 60. 1. a, 172. 4 

'jn;^ 140. 6 
n:n^ 172. 4 
^:n^ 60. 1. a 

l^-H^T 99. 3. a 

!r|3n^ 61. 1, 141. 3 

■jSm 139. 3 

p:n::i 113. 1 
pcni^ 169. 1, 172. 1 
]cn:: 113. 1 
Tin^i 25 

ysn^ , f 2n;i 65. a 
^nsn^ insn") 111. 1 
!■•?'^^ T'^D^ 1^2. 4 
sipn'i 141. 1 
-in;» 147. 1 
nn::n 175. 3 
in;: 140. 3 
nn;' 172. 4 
nn^'i 60. 1. a 
nnn;;! i72. 4 
Sjini 119. 1 
;qnn;'i 99. 3. a 
ciTCn;^ 111. 1 
^1^5^?^ 99. 3 



366 -- INDEX III. 

rn."' (fe) isi. i tn^-^ 119. 1 ^rV:^)': lOo. d 

^■TC C^'J) 1-^0- 1 ^-^?r 160. 3 nb;" 56. 2, 80. 2. a (4), 

nnn^ nnn."? 24. c t^^y^^l 105. a 147. 2 

■j^T 175. 3 ^-T?- 1^5- « 1^"^" *5^- 2 

•j;^ 172. 4 bb;! 80. 2. a (3), 82. 1. Ti^i^'^ 22. a 

a'j;" 150. 1, 179. 2. a a (3) I'lb'i 216. 2. a 

:b:2;^, tb-j"' i60. 5 bD;i i72. 4 r\"ib'i 90 (2 f.) 

ia-B:^-^ 54. 2, 96. o, 166.5 bD;'T 174. 4 wnb';! 104. i 

Cl'i::^ qni:;" 65. a nbpi i65. 3 "r^'l'?!', •"r^l^!' lo^- * 

TT?^:' 144. 2 'ibb;* 86. a ^^P"''?:' 104. A: 

::?Ti^ 147. 2 "j^^bDi 172. 1 i:p";b^ io4. A-, iso. i 

bn;^:'^ 149. 1 nbb;> i48. i (p. i82) 

n-j^'l' 147. 4 ribD^'i 86. a, 100. 2 ^irb;» 159. 3 

aU'i^T 147. 5 "T^bi? 86. a Wn)"! 119. 1 

n■J^n 150. 3 l^'Pbs:^ 86. a, 104. h Dnb'^T 99. 3. a, 119. 1 

n'^-J^'^ 145. 2, 150. 2 2?:D^1 126. 1 rb^i 160. 1 

n^-j;^'' 150. 2 cd;'] 174. 4 i-^b;", i-ib^ leo. 1 

bir^ 150. 2 ^tt;'C3;'61. 6, 104./, ^jb-i 151. 1 

q^^n 172. 4 172. 1 ?jb))1 65. a 

nS-^i^T 147. 4, 5 i^^V?'' 172. 3 ^O)"^ 91. ft 

yP;! 63. 2. r, 147. 4 t^D^_^ 119. 1 IDbl^;! 99. 3. a 

Tfe^!""). T'p'''^^ i-^"- 5 rns^n i72. 4 'i:"^^!^ 105. c 

^r^ ">r.'' l-^'J'- 4 "l^y"!^?'^ 180. a bb^ 139. 3, 150. 1 

Wy^'l 147. 5 ^"^P^ 119- 1 -^^ 183. ft 

DTC^'^n 147. 5 V^'^T 91. 6 flbb-^l 57. 2 (3) a, 234. e 

^n^TS"^^ 150. 1 iblTTDi 88 "jb^T 158. 2 

■jTDi^T 147. 5 r?;i 140. 6 ^ tJ^pb^ 192. 1 

mc^;i 147. 4 npp"', rnp^" 88, loi. 'j-'^pb;' 88. (m. pi.) 

Q!??"'?^ 150. 2 (p. 182) 2. ft n;* 207. 2, 215. 1. a 

?f^T 175. 3 nns':! 99. 3. « cs'e'^t 119. 1 

'^ZZ'l^lD': 105. ft r^r^?;' 88 (m. pi.) ^CSflTS^ 139. 3 

•jis;! 159. 3 ',r2^ 140. 5, 141. 1 "112^1 140. 1 

n-:iD;' 13. a anb;! 139. 3 "I'S"' i4o. 3 

lS3^D:'61.3,105.ft,161.3 UtZ'^'J 105. a ^T''^?^ 99. 3. a 



INDEX III. 



3GT 



I2il2') 159. 3 
bin^ 159. 3 
r\-B'} 60. 1. a 
rnS^I 173. 3 
S^n '•^)2'} 220. 1. a 
D'^'a^ 58. 3. a 
7V2''12'; 219. 1. a 
l^'a^ 197. b, 199. a 
■J^TT"'^'' 160. 3 
On^'a'' 160. 3 
ll-B"} 140. 3 
ba^^n 157. 3 
blZ"^ 140. 1 

nb^T 165. 1 

^■b^^ -!ybi2;i 88 

•jb^Sl^n 99. 3. a 
^D'bl3;< 88 
l-Q"^ 150. 1 
DT2^ 140. 3 

bya;* 60. 1. a 

'pS'^n 172. 4 

inssa;' 60. 3. c 
nrs^a;' 105. c 

TiSSa'' 164. 5 
^SSS'C';' 105. b 

•^::S2'D^ 105. c 
na^ 150. 1 

to;: 135. 2, 140. 1 

Tca;: 140. 5 
nb^ 157. 3 

nb^l 65, 157. 3 

rra^'] 157. 3 
ra;'] 160. 3 

fSr 11. 1. a 



VX?: 57. 2 (3)a(?), 

122. 2, 140. 5 
q^l^l 99. 3. a 
-31 147. 1 

TT 

n^3;i 60. 2 

p^i 159. 3 
yis^ 159. 3 

n:;^i 157. 3 
nri 160. 3 
nrj?;' 131. 2 

•^r 164. 2 

■j^r 159. 3 
in£i;:»T 160, 3 

:?3^^ 157. 3 
5]:^^ 160. 3 
p5;> 147. 1, 150. 1 
-2^:^ 131. 2 

naps': 131. 2 
mi:'' 131. 2 

S^tos^ 57. 2 (3) a, 86. 

(3 pL), 164. 3 
nb;" 61. 3,64.2, 135. 

140. 1 
nC^I 64. 1, 99. 3. a 
nO^ 140. 5 
nb^ 135. 2, 140. 1 
^Sb^ 136. 1 
^357 61. 3 

inso;' 141. 3 

''pao:' 61. 5, 141. 3 

ib-nsD;' 13. a 

It"} 148. 1 
I'lD^ 148. 1 
n^w^ (n.) 192. 1 



^d;" 147. 1 

^JD;* 140. 5 
tfD;' 140. 6 
n'^DO'} 157. 3 

n5?b;i 92. b 

^L"^ 80. 2. a (3), 151. 2 
fjC^n 151. 2 
nSC;!! 99. 3 
"IC^ 147. 3 

nb^ 92. (/ 

nC^I 60. 1. a 

nn©:' 92. d 

isnO;' 104. a 
■"Sn©"? 104. a 

^nnn?^ 56. i, 105. 6 
^n;-i2?^ 105. c 
^nn?:i 56. 1 

"1?^ 56. 2, 147. 1 

inr;* 161. 1 

b niy-^ 159. 3 

^syv"} 105. 6 

2, T27^ 140. 1 
-37?;: 64. 1 

^-.ry^ 105. 6 
i:y^T C^) 157. 3 
t:?^^ (rib) 172. 4 
t:?;'i 157. 3 

^?::^ "^S^I'T (k.) 172.4 
>?''Vnb?::i(Hi.)i75. 3 
nb?^ 207. 1. a 
^^■?.'^'}. 45. 3 

^:7by:> 161. 2 

to;: 60. 3. b (!) 
"lay^ 60. 3. b (2) 



368 



INDEX III. 



I^^y;: 109. 3. a 

^nby;: 112. 4 
ns^^a?^ 88 (2 f. pi.) 

P_^ 190. b, 237. 1, 

267. b 
^TTX 1?^ 239. 2. (2) 

1??^, n;?::i 172. 4 

n:?^ 207. 1. a 
HD^:?^ 104. b 
niyi^:* 142. 2, 161. 2 
^2?^ (v.) 82. 1. a (2), 

147. 1 
S]?;" (adj.) 185. 2. 6 

5l?;'i 157. 3 
qy^i 157. 3 

P^ 77. 2, 147. 1, 179. 

2. rt 
HDnS^^ 104. S 
nipy"" 11. 1. 5 

n?:^ 200. c 
i2'?::i, niryi^i 172. 4 
^sniry^ 104. h 
ns;i 147. 1 

nBM85.2.f/, 209. 1,210 

r.^B-ns;) 43. 5, 188 
ns^ (v.) 160. 3 

ln£;i (adj.) 215. 1. b 
ri^B;^B^ 92. a 

bb^ 101. 2. b 
n5B;> 126. 1 

'jSi'l 172. 4 
T^r 160. 3 

''ii'BiB;' 161. 2 
T?b;i 161. 2 



ns^, ns^n 140. 5 
ns^i 175. 3 
x^-is;: 177. 3 

"JTTB": 65. a 
rJirs;' 65. a 
PB^ 175. 3 
nB'^'l 172. 4 

nns;' 192. 1 
"inB;" 221. 2. 6 
x^;« 147. 2 

X2?1 147. 5 
N2*'' 164. 3 

nXS'i 164. 2 

52^ 150. 4 

yil"^ 145. 3, 150. 5 

nns;! 192. 1 

is;!"! 66. 1 (1), 174. 4 

nni2;i i56. 1 

D"^^^T 157. 3 

pns^ 192. 1 
pnsi 120. 2 

?^^^ 145. 2 
7^2;! 158. 2 

y^;! 150. 4 
y^;* 150. 5 

^\V l'^2. 4 
qS^I 25 
p2^ 150. 4 
p2^ 148. 3 
pk^i 144. 2, 147. 4 
p2))1 147. 4 
Ip^;! 148. 3 
ns; 50. 3, 84. 3. a (3), 
147. 2 



"IS^ (3)'3>) 140. 6 
"12^ 140. 1 
12:^1 147. 5 

nsr;' 147. 4 
^n:ns:"i 105. 6 
m'' 147. 3, 150. 4 
n^^ 144. 2 

in^^ 24. c, 149. 1 
^nS^ 164. 2 
i«P^n 166. 4 
isnp") 105. c? 
ppl^T 99. 3 

irisrip^ 104. A 
"in;5^i 99. 3. a 

'Ip.'i 144. 2, 147. 4 
•ip^ 140. 1 
^np^ 141. 1 

Dy'7P'' 22. a 
-^lp^ b-'np.^ 119. 1 
bnp^i 119. 1 
nnp;i 24. s 

D^p^ 190. ^', 192. 1 
D^p;" 153. 2 

•j^tt^p;! 157. 3 

D^ip'' 161. 1 

tlp^^ , ttJip^i 185. 2. c 

np;i 54. 2, 132. 2 

np;> 132. 2 

bbp^ 51. 3 

D'^p^ 153. 1 

D'^p;' 161. 1 

bp!? 64. 2 

Dl^^ Dp^ 157.3 

Dp^5 99. 3. a, 157. 3 



INDEX III. 



369 



D]?^1 99. 3. a, 160. 3 
I^^T 172. 4 
yp^ 147. 2, 179. 2. a 
yp' 179. 2. a 

y•^}^^ 157. 3 

VI?? 147. 4 

'J^S^;?:' 88 (m. pi.) 
'jnsp'' 64. 2, 88 (m. pi.) 
"Ip": 147. 4 
"lj?«n 172. 4 
np'l 173. 3 

''Spsnpp'^ 105. c 
nnp^ 177. 3 
nnnpi 97. 1. „ 
?[np;' 24. 6 
©p;;' 82. 1. a (3) 
t5p'»1 172. 4 
STDp:''! 99. 3 
■J^'Cp;' 86. 6 (3 pi.) 
bsnp^ 22. a 

sn;* 148. 3 

SH^ 148. 1 

Nn;^(v.)82.1.rt(l),147.1 
«n^ (adj.) 215. 2. c 
»n^] (k.) 60. 1. a, 61. 

2. a, 114, 172. 4 
«n?1 (Hi.) 175. 3 
Xn7 61. 2. ff, 172. 4 
Sn?1 173. 3 
n»n^ 87, 148. 1, 166. 2 
f^«T 114 

nsn;^i 172. 4 
i>-nxn:» 19. 1 

IS"!'' 164. 3 



^X'^:' 19. 1, 147. 1 

'ixn-i 19. 1^ 147. 1 
isnh 177. 3 
in^xn;' 104. h 
''wsn;' 105. a 
ni«n^ 164. 1 
y^1 158. 2 
nn;«i (™?^) 111. 2. 
y^'^ 61. 2, 172. 4 
an^ 63. 2. a 

an^i 175. 3 
■};'3n:' 172. 1 

W'^l 114 
Ti;! 148. 3 
•^V 175. 3 

ir\'; 79. 1, 147. 2 

"in^'^l 140. 5 

"^n^i 172. 4 
"n^i 147. 5 
D^in^n 114 
si^-i;' 114 

Vi'n"^ 60. 2. a, 114 
iS^V 105. a 
^S'ln"? 105. d 
"•Tot 86. S (2 f.) 

nn^i 147. 1 
nn^ 148. 3 
sin;» 148. 1, 177. 3 

)^-}^'^ 172. 1 
mnt' 19. 2. a 
■J^-I^ 140. 1 
IBSil" 161. 4 
yin^^ (y>) 140. 1 



p^'^'^ 185. 2. 6 
o^bc^n;!, obc^n^ 47, 

203. 5. c 

rrn"^ us. 1 
nn^\ ny^'] uo. 3 
'^r'J'i? 147. 3 
•^t^'^^ 88. (3. f. pi.) 

c S'^n;' (n.) 190. b, 192. 1 
a'^n^ (v.) 153. 2 
lin;! 158. 2 
^n^ 197. a, 216. 1. e 
•fn;: 140. 1 
ron^ 198. c, 207. 1. a 

n^nan^ 22. a, 203. 5. a 

ir)""!."? 140. 3 

y'n;' 140. 1 

?"?? 140. 5 

yn^i (yy) 140. 5 
yn^'i (ny) 160. 3 
^T (yy) 34 
yn^i (nb) 34, 172. 4 
oy'n^ 119. 1 
yy"-Ti 161. 4 

AT : 

qn^i 172. 4 

pn^i 179. 2. a 
pV 185. 2 

pn^ 140. 1 
'}ipn'? 193. 2 

pnpn;* 188, 207. 2. a 
llj'i; 82. 1. a (2), 147. 1 
m&n^ 148. 3 

fnnicn:' 150. 1 (p. 182) 

DFlOn;' 61. 4. a, 150. 1 
(p. 182) 



370 



INDEX III. 



-inxir:* 105. c 

'{•^^%-S:'! 88 (m. pi.) 

T^yair-' 127. 2 

^:?3b: 105. a 

n^ir;' 158. 2 
■js: 172. 4 
a^-'r;' 105. «, 15 8. 2 
at';' uv. 1 

DTS^ 158. 2 

nT?;^T 04. 1, 158. 2 

^bsnir-^ 194. 1 
□^■ffiir;' 55. 1, 88 (m. pi.), 

158. 2 
IDiUiS"' 47 

-iyn-(3;i 54. 4 

t:."^ 236, 258. 3. 6 
^lbS'C;i 88 (m. pi.) 

nr^ 146, 147. 2 

niZJp 66. 1 (2) b, 153. 5, 

157. 3 
-2.ij'^ 157. 3 ■ 
nr;'] 153. 5, 157. 3 

ni^i^T 157. 3 

3iC;i,m»;'1 153.5,160.3 
mC.7 63. 2. c, 84. 3. b, 
144. 2 

trns;:] 147. 5 
nir^i 99. 3. a 
^'^^^ 172. 4 
"rna'JD';' 105. c 

'^yd-' 61. 6. ff 

nnr;!! 33. 4 

•innp 61. 6. a(?), 90 
(2f.) 



'^nnc'' 90 (2 f.) 
D'i"c;' 141. 1 
^^TS^' 140. 1 
DTaiis:* 82. 5. o 

■jilZJ: 148. 1 

nry^-iij;i 61. 6. a 

^llt^t-J 157. 3 

rw"^ 140. 1 

VMS'] 140. 3 

CTjn-r;^ 118. 3 
■'rnnir;' 105. c 
■'tr:' 164. 2 
ns^r;'^ 160. 3 

D^t'^ 140. 5 
')32T^:' 88. (m. pi.) 
nDtL'^i 126. 1 
biT.^ 172. 4 
?l'.5tc:' 141. 3 
^^blS^ 172. 1 
-D5C;' 92. c 
D'tT"' 140. 1 
:?T2^;' 60. 1. a 

bsyiatJ:! 57. 2 (3) a 

10? 147. 1 

N:r:^ 177. 3 
x:r) 177. 3 
^rc" 19. 1, 147. 1 
^sr;;' 19. 1, 147. 1 

iSTC'^n 105. a 

'^rc;' 216. 1. b 

2?r^ yr^ 65. a, 201 
yr;^1 172. 4 
^ycy^r•l 141. 6 

nsc^ 19. 2. 6 



!|t2^B©;i 88 
nb-'BTB^ 105. a 

nsb^STr:* 105. 6 

tfE'iE^] 99. 3. a 
pTT'^l 10. a 

;:t?^l 175. 3 
ir.pi^^n 4. a 
nic? 158. 2 

'J^ITC'? 193. 2. ct 
nr-lTE^ 88 (3 f. pi.), 
147. 4 

nnrtii 09. 3. «, 119. 1 
^:^nnc:' 105. c 

nt? 66. 1 (2) 6, 158. 2 
nr^n 66. 1 (1), 172. 4 

Q'ainc;' 82. 5. a 
?inpTr^::57.2(4), 176. J 
^innc^n i76. 1 

fl'^PTT:' 172. 1 

mane;' 54. 4 
sn;;' 111. 2. b 
sr;^i 177. 3 
isn^n 176. 3 
^nnsri^ eo. 3. b (2) 
!innNni 19. 2, 60. 3. b 

(2), 120. 1 

bxsn:", -xsn:* 119. 1 
bisn;' 96. & 

VjXy^'^_ 176. 3 

nirir.;' 96. b 
1 icy^r'^ 96. ff, 122. 2 
loiin;! 96. ff, 122. 2 
^n? 197. & 
r^Tht\'^ 221. 2. 6 



INDEX III. 



371 



W 66. 1 (1), 174. 4 

XEjnn\i66. 5 
bnn^i 176. 3 
nin^ 160. 1 
Dsn'^n 176. 3 
msbn"^ 96. h 

on:' 140. 5 
Dh"' 140. 1 

top;! 141. 1 
j'l^ri:^ 140. 1 

S'JIS^^n:' 166. 5 , 
rJ^T2n"' 96. h 

AT - : ■ 

';r\:' 54. 2, 84. 3. h 

na:n^ 126. 1 
on:n;^ 121. 3 
XTs:n:' 166. 5 
yn^n 175. 3 
byn;i i76. 3 
-nbyn^ 96. h 
nn:?n";' 119. 1 

•.■j^25Dn;'88.(m.pI.),96.6 
nii'lsn^ 96. b 
lfc?Sn'' 96. a 

w^ipn;^ 96. i 
DS;?n^ 96. h 
:rp.ri'] 126. 1 

iSpn^ 105. a 

"iJ?!)!! O'i?) 160. 1 
n^inn-i 82. 5. a 

3 231. 1, 242. a, 267. h 
nX3 183. h 

T3S53 57. 2 (3) a, 231. 
3. b 



^■«3 (ni^'iS) 53. 2. a 
ini<3 156. 3, 199. b 
"nrX3 239. 2 (2) 
^nS (v.) 82. 1. a (1), 

85. 2 
^n3(adj.) 216. 1. e, 217 
ITiaS 198. a (4) 
nin? 185. 2, 197. b 

©in? 87 

C23 82. 5. a 
C33, C33 92. c 

irns.nirassi. 2,197. c 
ens 87 
nrinns? 246. 2. « 

^3 197. b, 200. 6 
nb 235. 3 (4) 

nns 121. 1 

Di^'TO 231. 5. a 
■jnis 186. 2. a 
•jns 80. 2. 6 

nrns 198. « (2) 

Cn'3 186. 2. a 
yn'iS 50. 1, 216. 1. e 

D^ynin 207. 2. a 

mn 11. 1. b 

nnin 57. 1, i87. 1. e 

1^3 82. 5. a 
•jliS 59 
n?5i3 161. 4 
Di3 184. 5, 197. a 
"I3T3 22. a 
"ins 116. 4 

^nns 121. 2 
trns 119. 1 



"in (n.) 53. 3. a, 184. b 
3 (coDJ.) 239. 1 
DX "^3 239. 2 (1) 

nn-'s 187. 1. c 

ITS 187. 1. c 
nV3 16. 2. a 

ni'^s 200. c 

■'b'^S 184. 6, 194. 2.6 
5lb''3 186. 2, 210. c 

D^:? ^3 43. 6 

fnrp^ 57. 2 (3) a, 

231. 3. 6 
n33 187. 1. e, 197. a, 

200. c, d, 207. 1. 6 
D;^'n33 203. 3 
bs A«Z 215. 1. c 
b3 AoZig. 2. a, 215. l.e 
bb 277. a 
Xb3 179. 1. a 
i5b3 184. a 
XbS 220. 1. 6 
D;'Sb3 203. 4 
\nNb3 165. 2 
nb5 197. c 
nb3 179. 1. a 
nb3 174. 3 bis. 

nnbs 33. 3, 220. 1. b 
n:nb3 220. 1. b 

^b3 165. 3 
^b3 93. a 
ib3 220. 1. b 

nib^bs 201. 1. 6 
nibs 174. 3 

•lbs 61. 2, 184. 6 



T"^2 


llM). 


h 


-''^?. ' 


"2'u 


2 51. 2 


^^T'T^'T' 


id: 


. (/ 


nrs s 


2. 1. 


«(1) 


■}■!■^r^ 


193. 


2 



372 INDEX III. 

S'^bS 184. u ^E3 0^. a r^lS 60. 4. a, 01. 5 

?^;'b3 221. 5. f nrS'-CD i>lH1. l. ft O:?. (J. 121. 1. 

D""'?? 208. 3. d 5C3 51. 1, 84. 3. « (2) ^r->2 1 10. 4 

\V?r. ''n'^53 174. 2 irss oi. i; 

Ti^r^br 174. 2 r"!:Es 200. ft 

D'^r'^l:? 174. 2 rC3 8O. 2. a (3) 

bsbS 154. 3. U')l. 2 "29: 2h;. 2. a 

^5253 If.l. 4 rC5 190. (/ 

D32 220. 1. 6 n:D-'nircD 24. ft, 220. nrs i83. ft, 215. 1. a 

n:33 220. 1. ft '2. c nr2 77. 1, 7s. 1 

■^:nb3 165. 3 w2 121. 1 r.irs 139. 2 

rra? 231. 4. a nncy^ 104. « nbrs 210. 2. ft 

rrsn-cr 45. 4 ^? i97. a, 21 7 r:P2 207. 1. d 

i-CS 233. a ^B3 198. c ClPS 197. a, 216. 1. «? 

UQ2 90 (pass.) "'SS -'^^7. 2 (2) ClPS 61. 1. ft 

nil^S 187. 2. <• "'^^ES 220. 2. c T.-'trS 203. 5. a 

1? ^n.) 221. 6. rt :n;S3 220. 1. ft npr 50. 1 

^3 (adv.) 43. rt, 235. 3 (4) ^"^"^^^ -^03. 4 Pr2 141. 1 (p. 175) 

naS 139. 2 "'ES 82. 5. a 

n:5l 4. a "Ip 208. 3. ft ^ 231. 1. l':^;\ 242. ft, 

nrS 54. 2 "IE? 80. 2, 92. c, 120. 2 267. ft, 272. 2. a 

nisS 200. c D''':iBS 187. 2 «b 11. 1. „. ft 

ri:3 211. o :^~P123 104.; Sb 51. 4. (I, 235. 1 

T^nibs? 24. ft, 131. 2 ■'■^3 199. ft T^^*'?' "".^^i*?, ^^nsb 

D33 50. 1, 2 n''n"<nD 199. d 57. 2 (2) « 

1^:3 208. 3. a 0^3 50. 3, 107. ft \:^^'?, ^IS*'?, T'ansb 

:i:3 197. rt, 210, 217 C")3 183. ft 57. 2 (2) a 

n'lEIS 203. 5. a 2j3 186. 2. rt D'^^S^Sb 14. a 

W^^p 203. 1 bl2n3 50. 3, 193. 2. c, VSb 159. 2 

bb33 22. a 221. 6. a t:sb i l. 1. a 

ni-l33 45. 2 Dp-is 68. a "JSb 156. 3 

r:3 198 n'13 i4i. 2 (p. 175) nVs'::^ r.O. 4. a 

KP3 51. 3, 200. rt irns 221. 5. c "isTrsb. o^nbsb 57. -2 

T^SPS 221. 3. a "mS 119. 1 (2) a 



TNDKX Iir. 



^573 



nib«b r,7. 2. (2) a 

DJ<b 207. 2. r 
ibxb fjT. 2 (2) «, 111. 
2. r, 231. .'{, a 

m-in «b 27 

ab (;i. :;, iHf?. 2. r, 

1!)7. h, 21.7. 1 
DSab 20H. :5. r/ 
33b Ml. I (p. I7r,) 
nnb fii. :;, 200. r, 2ifi. 

1,217, 221, 1, :j, 222 

anbi 01. 1. « 

i:P33b 101. k 

"lab 2:j5. :} (I), 2:;7. 

2(2) 

■jn'inb 220. 1. h 

n:';iib 220. 1. h 

tj'iab 90 (pjwH.) 

K^nb I w. (I, 200. 2. h 

y'bnb 125. 2 

■jnb HO, 2. /-» 

■jab 207. 1. //, 215. 1. « 

npab 200. 6 

X}2^ nynb .'55. 1 

cab, T2Jab 82. i. « (1) 

uja'b (JO (p;iHH.) 

Dcab 104. /* 

nab (nanb) 5:5. 2. a 

t'p 12.5. 2 

ncab 2:51. 4. « , 

nnb 14H. 2 

n'lb 148. 2 

innb 148. 2 

nsn*!!? 104. f/ 



hb 27 

nanb, nanb f;:',. 1. «, 

2 J 4. 1. h, 210. 2. /> 
nnb 141. 2 (p. J 75) 
T:rb 119. 1 
ni-^nb 112. 2, 177. 1 
c?nb 2.'!!. 5. « 
npEnb 01. h 
b^TaiDnb 1 80. a 
n-'arnb (m. h 
T'crnb <.)\. h 
lb 11. \. I, 
ib 51. 4. « 
^b 2:!0. 1 
nib 200. a 

''lb 1 04. 2. a, 2 1 

Nb^b 4. « 
nixbib, Hcc n«bb 
"'bib H)4. 2. A 
■'bib 2.",9. 2 (.",) 

D-iblb 187. \.e 
■J^b 158. .'} 
nb 207. 2. a 

K'ltpnb 1 1 .",. 2 

D^::nb 208. 4 
''.'^nb 210. 1. a 

•'bnb 01. 1 

p^bnb 1 1 .",. 2 

onb 77. 2 

onb 02. f/, 121. 1 

onb 00. 1. «, 01. 2. a, 

184. />, 107. h 

Q-anb 1:50. 2 
n::nb <;.'!. 1. /> 



ncnb 01. 1 
niiD ncnb 4:;. ^/ 
-nninb 141. 
mcnb 17.5. 2 
D'^nnb 20.'!. 5. 6 
on-'ub 5.'}. 2. « 
n;;'n''b, nirpb 2;n. 3. « 
b;'b 1 84. h, 200. «, 208. 

3. c 
nb^'b 01. 

'J-'b 158. 2, 3 
1G''b 148. 1 

-nn;^^b i4. a, 24. 6 

57. 2 (:i) « 
tjb 05. a 

nab 151. I, 240. 2 
-blab 1.-]. « 
lab 2:50. 2 (.".) 
n;ab, ^pb 151. 1 
nab 01. 2, 151. 1 
nab 151. 1 
ainab 22. a 
•^pab 151. 1 

n«bb 187. ].(', 207. 2. a 

•jabb 94. h 

113b 78. 2, 84. 3. « (2) 
T£b 02. r/ 

"iiib 02. c 
^rriTzb 80. /> (2 f.) 
mob, n"£b 2:!1. 4. a 
i'ab 23.3. « 
nnnrsb 210. 1. a 
niD'ab 210. 1 . « 



374 INDEX III. 

^nrtlb 220. 1. h r,n;^b 64.2,127.1,132.2 rbsS^ 191. 5. a, 207. 

ych 237. 2 (1) p^b 141. 1 (p. 175) 1. e 

nisi^b 45. 2 f"ii«"!i?r'? ^''- - l'^) "' -'^''- "i^^ 6^- ^ 

nb:?T;b 219. 1. a 2 (3) crcxT? 19. 2, 119. 3 

]?ttb 237. 2 (2), 267. 6 iihb 148. 1 CCST? 119. 3 

ncs ■jr^b 239. 2 (2) n'-ib 231. 4. a ^TvS?^ 33. 2 

ir.:?^b 246. 2. a n"t-|b 231. 4. a D'^rCS^ 33. 2 

n3"^ab 4. a D?^""^b 119. l "CrS^?^ 195. 3 

^^:b 237. 2 (1) n^nb 231. 4. a rs^ 237. 2 (1) 

n:bT 156. 4 rsisb 131. 4 dt^^*^ 203. 4, 226 

D"':b 156. 2 pninb 119. 1 t^?^ -O"- 2. b 

nsib 237. 2 (1) nbisrb 219. 1. a 'r-'cz-a as. 1. a 

bs:b 131. 2 n^rrb 94. 6, 231. 5. a ^n-^z^ 60. 1. a 

bs:b 22. a -jirb 197. h ^zyi 164. 2 

Tn?b 113. 2 n^Trb 51. 4 ''j?"'^^ 237. 2 (4) 

i^'5T 156. 4 nbcb, nb-rb eo. 2. a ''"r"?^ 119. 1, 221. 

□b"y5 16. 2. a 'ircb 94. b 2. a 

r.72^b 237. 2 (2) nb 54. 2, us. 2 "^^^^"Q 25 

ni::?b 173. 2 nnb 231. 4. a nsits 197. 5, 200. c, 

"wsb 94. 6, 113. 2 Tjb nnb 35. 1 lo7. 1. b 

nnsb 22. a T'"2^^ 61. 6 

■^Sb 237. 2 (2) p, )2 see yn V'"^, '■■'^?^ 55. 2. a 

■^rsb 194. 2 1S513 235. 3 (l) ^'^12 200. c 

i:Bb 237. 2 (2), 267. 6 Dv^l? 93. a "b""^'? 142. 1 

T? 156. 2 nST2 207. 1./, 226 "1"'-*''2 207. 1. c 

xis^rb, xh^b 22. a brxia 93. 6 ')5)2 190. b, 207. 2, 210. 

pnsb 119. 1 i]y:"a 207. 2. a o, 215. 1. b, 216. 1. a 

npb, inpb 132. 2 n)2^sia 195. 3 nraia 205 

J^pb 132. 2 niSS^ 190. 6, 191. 5. a, n23^ 216. 1. b 

'^I?^ C^IfC^) 53. 2. a, 200. c tn^-a 207. 1. 6 

93. e ni^rrsb 203. 2 caia ei. 5 

nnpb 16. 3. b, 127. 3 ■'■^.ns^ 237. 2 (1) ^-t-a 207. 2. a 

n:npbT 100. 2. « (1) b^s;: 190. a, 191. 5, ps-ia 9.5. a 

nnpb 60. 2. a, 127. 1 197. 6 "Ot"^ -19- 1 



INDEX III. 



375 



nnani? 66. 2 (2) 5, 

219. 1 

^1-a 141. 5 

r:-Q 184. b 

ni"I^ 190. ft, 191. 4 

•jiia 190. 6, 207. 1./ 

y^ii2 2.35. 2 (3) 

)^'1'Q 190. 6 

''S^inia 216. i.d 

Vi^'l'Q 167. 1 
pTQ 190. 5 
yi^ 190. 6 
i:P^"Tb 220. 1. 6 

n^, ma, n^a 75. 1, 

196. a 
?nntl 141. 2 (p. 175) 

r^m'n'Q i98. a (3) 
ni-inp 177. 1 
b nxbr.13 237. 2 (4) 
D-'pbn^ 94. e, 151. 1 
nrna 75. 1 
n-»isy rra 63. 1. a 

JlDSnia 191. 4, 198. a 
(3), 207. 1. a, 216. 
1. b 

niy^pnia 95. e 
nnia 60. 4. a, 235. 3 (2) 
nibnn'52 1 12. 3 
nsiia 197. c? 
iT'nK-'a 205 
sn^'a 167. 2 

t2itt 157. 1 

b^ia, bi^ 237. 1 
bbitt 141. 4 



noi^ 200. c 
"is^'a 150. 5 

"10^72 190. b 

npitt 200. c 

"iria 190. b 

rn'j'^'n 90 
nisyia 207. 1. a 

TS^tt 140. 6 
X^i^ 191. 5. a 
NSi'a C^E) 94. e, 165. 2 
N:|il2 (i5b) 165. 2 
^N2il3 60. .3. f, 216. 1. a 

nssj^'a 167. 2 
:ni?2i^ 150. 4 
r^niia 207. 2. « 
D^anitt, D^;\"i'nii3 59. a 
''isnitt 216. 1. « 
aici^ 191. 3, 5. a, 200. 

c, 215. 1 

^y^t'i'a 61. 6. a 

nitt 61. 2, 183. 6, 208. 
3. c, 217 

nia 57. 2 (5) 
nni'a 61. 6. a 
'^riii3 221. 5. a 

nara 60. 2. a, 190. «, 
191. 3,197. 6, 200. a, 
215. 1. b 

nsT^a 126. 1 
D-ininnTTa 220. 1. b 
onnatia 220. 2. « 

HiTTa 24. «, 75. 1 

"J^Tia 53. 2. «, 111. 2. c 

abr^ 207. 1. a, 210. e 



Tittra 191. 5 
nin'ara 207. 1. a 
Tj->5mia 101. 2 
rin-iTa 219. 1.16 
P^Tip 200. c 
?ii!;n)a i64. 4 
rinna 54. 1, 205. b 
bbina 142. 1 
bni3 140. 5 

D^^bTO 190. b 

D^abnia 94. e 
r^I^'bria 207. 1. d 
nbn^ 190. a 
r\:rrn 197. 6, 200. c, 

209. 1 

^fi^rra 220. 1. b 

pzni2 190. a 
DBCri'a 180. a 

n^n2i2;na iso. a 

D-'ISTO 94. e 
D^-nsna 180. a 
Ij^TO 190. a 

rrnri'a 19. 2. ft, 196. ft 

nimtri^a, ninirn^ eo 

3. Of, 216. 2. a 
ptn'Q 207. 2. 6 
ln2I2T3 191. 4 
ne^ 197. ft, 200. c 

^n-jb 220. 1. ft 
innap, inntjp 24. ft 

•"int?^ 168. a, 174. 1 

nisVL:!? 167. 1 
?|bpbt:T3 161. 2 
nxn'j^ 167. 1 



5/0 


INDEX III. 




I312t2^ 216. 1. c 


vhq 82. 1. a (1) 


5jbtt 63. 2. a, 217. 22L 


y!213 190. a 


r^lZ (v.) 77. 3, 82. 1, 


5, 222 


"^^E!^ 60. 3. c, 216. 1. 


a a (1) 


1\hy^ 65. a 


"112^ 200. a 

T T 


Sbia (adj.) 90 ^ 


b32-?jbia 44. a 


KniO)3 196. (? 

T T - 


Xb^ 166. 2 


rdra 11. 1. a 


^12 15. 1, 196. a 


i{b^ 165. 2 


nsbtt 211, 217, 222 


'r\'^12 220. 2. 6 


nsb^ 201. 1. a 


■jcarrtjb^ 44. a 


-^"ini;^^ 13. a 


niiibp 166. 2 


^Db^ 11. 1. a 


'>T\'^2n'Q, TO'^12 57. 2 

T T ■ ' T 


niiib^ 166. 2 


isb^a 66. 2 (2) a 


(2)6 


D^S?b)3 201. 1. a 

• \ ■ 


idvq 61. 1 


Uya 201. 1, 203. 5. c 


nDSb)2 57. 2(3)a, 214, 


. n-3b^ 22. «, 209. 3, 217 


•'M 57. 2 (2) 


1. b 


niDb^ 64. 2 


Q-'rTp-T? 150. 1 


D'^Dsbia 11. 1. 6 


''Db^ 11. 1. a 


mp-ir^ 11. I. a 


jriDDsbia 220. 2. c 


i?btl 61. 1, 216. 2, 2. a 


nj53"'ia 61. 4, 207. 1. e 


nx'b^ 166. 2 ■ 


■iDb^a 89 (f. s.) 


'P'^'12 4. a 

-T ■ 


■ipiib^ 33. 1, 61. 6. a, 


ni'^pbia 62. 2 


nps^'a 150. 4 


218 


O^pb^ 64. 2 


nic^'a 190. 6 


■rnbtt 237. 2 (2) 


l^pbia 199. a 


i2Tr''13 57. 2 (2) 


•jnabia 220. 1. 6 


p^i-'pbia 61. 6. a, 195. 


"lia^'a 190. 6, 191. 4 


■jab^ 191. 3 


3, 218. a 


n"'"nr->^ 210. c 


nb^ 200. 6, e 


DDb^ 75. 1 


ni'sD^ 200. c 


^b^ 165. 3 


bbti 141. 4 


bbl2 260. 2 (1) 


nsib^ 198. a (2) 


^ttb^ 191. 2 


D^'~3^ , DbpT? 94. a 


HDlb^ 98. 1. a 


nbyiab^ 235. 2 (3) 


nbb^ 53. 2. a 


•jibtt 207. 1. c 


^:esi3 53. 3. ff, 111. 2. c 


DDT3 190. 6 


•'^tjnbtt 92. 6 


■^:2b^ 237. 2 (2) 


-\yq 77. 2, 80. 2 


nb^a 187. 1. a 


nipb)? 191. 5 


bansri 54. 3, ISO. a 


"inbia 216. I. a 


CJipb^ 190. a 


Ts'^ya 21 6. 1. 6 


t:b^ 92. (Z 


Q':r?Pr^ 190. «, 203. 2 


Tr012 98. 1. 0, 125. 1 


-•jba. :t:b^80. 1, 92.C 


■"pTSbia 93. a 


IIS)? 216. La 


n^bp, pbia 199. « 


^nbl3 164. 2 


D"'5irpT2 95. a 


y-»b^ 217 


niypb^ 51. 4 


nDT2JDT3 207. 1. a 


ns^bia 217 


TS)3Ta 139. 3 


rs'r\2'Q 220. 2. a 


-!fb^ 89 


ninsrna 24. 6, 190. a 



INDEX 111. 



377 



^"^013 140. 5 nD?Ta 196. b 

?|CT2 190. b, 216. 1. a T??^ 194- ^ « 

b?^ 190. b 

b»U 84. 3. a (3), 118. 2 



D'^niap 209. 1. a 
1273)2 191. 5. a 

WaO'C'Q 167. 1 '"'3s?''? 216. l.b 

robl212 191. 5. a, 211, I^C^ 190. a 

214. 1. b 12013 93. e 

TDbtj^ 61. 1. s rii:2CTa so. 2 

rn^^TSp^ 45. 3 D^S5C73 167. 1 

nT2T2 190. 6 "l^v"'? 200. c 

D''l""i.'a'a 24. b, 190. a Cb"53 139. 2 

n'W'Q'n 93. e nsCTS 190. a, 191. 4, "j?^ 190. & 

Tht'Q'Q 198. a (3), 214. 215. 1. b ^'?~:?^ 60. 4. a 

1. b, 221. 2. a rnC"Q 53. 2. a 

"■a 174. 5 "^JTv''? 94. e 
■JTS 232, 233, 242. o, 260. "IPriCTS 54. 4 



bp-a 237. 2 (1) 
bl^b 190. 6 
rhv-Q 190. 6 
Cb?^ 119. 3 
Z'J-Q 237. 2 (1) 



1, 267. b 
:i3 4. a 
f SS-a 96. a, b, 122. 2, 

131. 6 
^212, ^,Z'Q 140. 6 
n-:a 207. 1. c 
Cr.12 207. 1. c 
•j^njsp 24. 6 
nra i60. 5 



rnyiS 216. 1. a 
r-r^y^ 216. 2. a 
■^;i?a 216. 2. a 

r^ya 60. 3. c 



•'-S^a 216. 1, a 

ninaya, nin2?a 207. rir^a 209. 1 

1. b "irriS 200. (/, 215. 1 

b in?')? 237. 2 (2) bs^ 191. 1 

]'}?'Q 200. c ''rSTS 237. 2 (2) 

nya 210 C'ii^S^ 95. a 

ryi2 190. 5, 210. a, 216. "^S^ 140. 5 

1. a nrS)? 191. 2, 215. 1. b 

']'";3?'a 207. 1. c "■'rsa 221. 7. a 

''Stt 61. 6. a, 199. &, rrj-Q 161. 4 7^ 156. 2 
232. a ""^""^ 54. 3, 221. 6. b Ki'52 11. 1. b 

D"^":^.7^"T3 94. e N^'C 57. 2 (2), 163 

'CT2 60. 3. f, 183. b, U2^;4^ 61. 1. c, 164. 4 

207. 2. a jS:s:r! 89 (f. pi.) 

t:?a 78. 1, 121.- 1 rs;:i3 57. 2 (2), 205 
on"^?)? 221. 2. b 

D^?)3 201. 1 



IM 232. a 

Tiyp'a 127. 2 

tri^'^Z'Q 209. 2. a 

niT:!? 4. a 

r:^ 196. 6, 211. a 

-n:T3 19. 2. a 



Ca 54. 2. a, 207. 2. a "j^ya 200. c 
2013 140. 5 i:''5T3 61. 6. a 

nE13 54. 2. a T^a 158. 3 



crsr-a io4. i 
rirss'a 104. i 

CrhS'53 220. 2. a 
"ISa 190. 6, 200. a 
mStt 190. 6 



378 



INDEX III. 



niST? 207. 1. c 
nn^'a i98. c 
bsia 140. 5 
ysia 190. h 

^ySTS 191. 5 
p^P 150. 5 
ni'^ 190. J, 210 

^•y^fi 194. 1 

D:ini^ 197. d 
D"'ni'a 207. 2. a 
\n^T2 164. 2 
p"? 186. 2. c 
r-ip^ 191. 5. a 

r-;|ia 24. 6, 190. a 

''Cip'a 216. 2. a 

aD-.r-]:ia 104. A, 221. 

3. a 
D-pT2 197. 6, 200. «, 

216. 1 
b-i-jp^ 217. a 
■^yPP 95. a 
■iTaip^ 61. 6. a 
bp)2 200. ff, 215. 1. 6 
nD'~pl2 221. .3. a 
^yfP^y^ 90 {3 pi.) 

ri:p"a i65. 3 
n:p^ 221. 7 
"^n^rpr! 90 (2 f.) 
ni::2p"a 216. 2. « 
"lifinpp 167. 1 

•'S'^pTa 216. 1. a 

nnpp 24. h 

tripTp 95. a 
ipnp72 161. 2 



sn-a 196. d 
nxna 217 

n5?-ia 217 

nsii? 220. 1. 6 
inxn^ 220. 1. h 
niTCsnia 201. 1 
inrsnTD 214. 2. 6 
ya-ia 80. 2. 5 
I'nn^ 191. 3, 215. 1. 6 

DD'^^.a 119. 3 
?l"7'a 114 

nnia 34, 141. 1 
rh2 34 
mia 61. 5 
iTa 172. 2 
D^n;i-i^ 161. 4 
D'ain'a 16I. 4 

yil^ 190. b 

nn^ 215. 1. h 

pn"173 191. 5, 207. 2. 6. 
210. e 

niana 24. c, 93. e 

nn-l'i-'.^S 198. a (4) 

^nb 190. h 

I'sya 190. a 

nnsnia 58. 2. «, 210. e. 

214. 1. 6, 216. 2. b 

n23"na lu 
s?*:!^ 140. 5 
n^^a 190. 5 
^n?ni2 220. 1. b 
n-'y-iia 190. b 
nnia i4i. 5 



rn")^ 216. 1. b 
trna 60. 4. a 
O'l'ma 203. 5 
niscT? 166. 2, 191. 4 
naira 221. 6. « 

TiTS^ 190. ff, 191. 2 

!:"'2t"a 191. 1 
D'^b-'saira iso. a 
iris^ 164. 2 
rnxir^ 3. 1. a 
^ar^ 215. 1. 6 

nr£l2 191. 4 

rnn^'r)3 161. 4 

^nC'a {ml) 125. 2 

mt'a 215. 1. b 
nriTEia 54. 1, 205. b 
n^ca 210 
^n-'n-'Ti;^ 104. h 
S|C^ 200. c 
nitca 95. a 

^2tl2 , "^2^12 89 (m. pi.) 
r.'^?"£a 207. 1. a 

riap'ia 27. 
Iir^ 200. f, e 
''irr'a 66. 2 (2) c 
tjbrTp 95. a 

'n'^IZZ'Q 139. 3 

D'^sTcra 191. 5 
crraira 60. 3. a 
yat'o 217 
innTcrip 214. 1, 217 
n::;Ti'a 207. 1. a 
nnsTT'a 214. 1. b 

rnSTTTQ 61. 1. b 



INDEX III. 



379 



ipnBt"52 60. 3. a 

"ipsiria 92. 6 

^b-iSTZJia 61. 6. a, 218 
pffiiia 190. h 
^]5'*»^ 80. 2. 6, 93. e 
qipTCl? 190. a 
D^'ITTTa 210. c 
nni?^ 54. 1, 205. h 



D;>:ntt 208. 4 
spynia i4i. 6 

pr,73 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 

l^i-inp 141. 5* 
nnia 54. 2, 205./ 

KD 46 

Sp 240. 2, 263. 1. a 
ttt'q 141. 1 (p. 175) 'li^D 200. a 
l^ant!?^ 126. 1 ^T}^}. 60- 3. o, 61. 6. a 

Dn-'nnriirTs 90 (2 m.), nns? 168. a, 174. 1 

176. 1 niS3 57. 2 (2) o, 187. 

"iniTi'D 22. 6, 223. 1. a 1. (? 

n'^riria 22. 6 ^isp 174. 1 

tra 57. 2 (5), 82. 1. a nis3 159. 1 

(1), 153. 1, 156. 2 bis nix; 56. 4 

n^ 54. 1 

D''ps"n'a 82. 5. a 

r-nia 34 
nn'a 34 
np^ 86. 6 (2 m.) 



^THXb 111. 2. cZ 
DS; 90 (j9ass.) 

rix: 121. 1 

nSi?3 60. 3. 6 (2) 
p^D^SS? 187. 2. c 



p™ 185. 2. 5, 207. 1. c yXp 82. 5. o, 121. 1 

np^n^ 66. 2 (2) c f S<D 60. 4. a, 92. cZ 

nbth™ 218. a tr\1'A': 63. l. a 

rnnnp 94. a ^^J^i^sp 63. 1. a 

nnn'a 237. 2 (1) nsp 121. 1 

D^n^ 201. 1, 207. 2. a D'^nS? 140. 2 

nasn^ 96. 6 ■^s?!?^? 120. 2 

nijbnia 24. a, 75. 1 sinp 50. 1, 82. 5. a 



s^^r'^r?^ 141. 6 
i^rfq 80. 2. b 
niy^nia 51. 4 

Dhip 190. 6 
■jn^ 215. 1. a 



XaS 207. 1. 6 

nnb 219. 1. & 

^bn23"1 65. h 
ni«^33 198. a (2) 

n2ix;"i3in3 51. 4 



"issn^Dins 51. 4 
•jinp 158. 4 
npD 141. 1 
^■np 140, 2 

n^3D 165. 3 

^Dh: 159. 1 

Q-iDnD 159. 3 

b33 82. 1. a (1), 84. 3. 

« (1) 
bnsi 132. 3 

bnb 90 

nba: (y'i?) i4i. i 
y^i bnD 35. 1 
inb::3 221. 2. 6 
•^nb^D 221. 2. 6 
'TinbnD 221. 2. 6 
'ini:n: i58. 4 
ynp 50. 1 
npns 141. 1 

" : IT 

ntpnsT 99. 3 

^n: 140. 2 

ibshs 83. c (2), 122. 2 

n3^5 219. 1 

^53 237. 1 

-^^2^ 99. 3 

2>'153 91. a 

mb 184. a, 197. a, 208. 

3.6 
nnSSS 184. a, 198. a. 2 
'',"i.'^2 140. 2 
Jl-^'a? 131. 5 

riD-'s; 196. & 
n'b?? 91. 6, 173. 2 

^^3i3 140. 2 



380 '• INDEX III. 

nibr*? 173. 2 ?i:, ^/: isr. i ^:r\: 53. 2. a, 7i. a (1) 

^-■-:: 173. 1 c;>i: 149. 1 "^rfzn: i4o. 2, i4i. 2 

r^'*:: 173. 1 J^rT'^ i^- ^ ^"^r i'^'^- - 

51-: 131. 4 TT2 158. 4 "^.n: 135. 2, 140. 2 

?i':?5: 60. 3. a Vt: 82. 1. a (3), 84, 3. ^1": 1-tl. 1 

rsy. 207. 1. e o (1) rT;n: 197. b, 205, 211 

n-ns? 140. 2 ^bj: S6. a, 141. 1 K^"? 193. 1 

Cj: 80. 2. a (3), 84. ^VtI S6. a Tn: 131. 1 

3. a (2), 130. 1 n: 60. 2 rn: (yy) i4o. 2 

7: (v.) 156. 2 snn? 63. 1. b rrn: (]£) 131. 1 

7": 84. 3. a (3), 141. 3 rssn: 63. 1. b rc: 79. 3. a 

(p. 17.5) r.2n: i65. 1 rrj; 131. 3 

Ti2 156. 2 crzn: i64. 2 r'l^t:: 172. 5, 209. a a 

•Gii: 57. 2 (.5) nn:^ 100. 2.0(2), 156.4 ©rj: 131. 3 

nb^: 173. 2 'in:'! i56. 4 ^i^i:: 172. 1 

-1^: 84. 3. a (3), 125. 3 B-'TC^n: 187. 2. a T'i!^^ 172. 1 

5n: 131. 1 Cvh: i85. 2 s^-j: 207. 1. 5 

ron: 112. 2 nc^n; 205 ^ri;:;: 173. 1 

'^-; 121. 1 bn: 80. 1 onri?; i64. 2, 173. 1 

nsbro 80. 2. 6 -"? 60. 3. a r-j? ao. 3. c, i84. a 

Vbn; 187. 2. c '^n: i3i. 1 y'^: 131. 4 

en: 118. 2 'm: i40. 2 r^: i84. «, 21 6. 1. « 

•ysn: 60. 3. a nbn: 60. 3. a, 6I. a. a rS: 126. 1 

"in: 200. c, 207. 1. & nbn: 60. 3. a ^rj; i3i. 3 

D'^n-: 203. 3 ^*"n: i4i. 1 tj: 51. 1 

n-'j^: 149. 1 n^abnr. 99. 3 rr-^: 207. 1. a 

•»5';: 149. 1 ' fbn: 113. 1 % 53. 3. a 

7T: 142. 1 r.^n; 196. b rrrz 59. a 

n-,: 156. 1 n'"": i4i. 2 nn*': i87. 2. c 

ijr., n": 157. 1 en: 77. 2 n:n 105. a 

cn^-ji": 221. 7. a en: 60. 4. «. i3i. 1 }^-i^; i87. 1. c 

''"'r: 149. 1 ^nTcn: 111. 1 in'^: i58. 2 

iiB^: 83. c (2), 150. 3 crn: uo. 2 e"n^: 105. a 

(p. 182) -jri: 135. 2 1X2: 24. 6 



INDEX III. 



381 



^3D5 207. 2. h 
HD? 210 
■jiSp 159. 3 
HDIDS 159. 1 
npiDD 159. 1 

riDb 237. 1 
:nnDi: i27. i 

DD3 50. 2 

qbD3 91. 6 

nnSDpp 86. h (2 m.) 

nS3D 83. c (2) 

■ID? 216. 1. h 

'inDp 194. 2 

aab? 80. 2. 6 

in"?? 91. (/ 

Tibp 159. 3 

Onbp 91. 5, 119. 1 

npbp 132. 2 
nn^: 9i. e 

1.Vap 159. 1 

:^i^3 159. 1 
'irji'ap 159. 1 

bilQp 159. 1 
D^biTS: 159. 3 
nb^3 200. 6, e 
^V-a; 159. 1 

DriblOS 141. 2 

0"ap, cap 140. 2 

X^tlp 207. 1. 5, 209. 

3. 6 
^nSS^p 60. 1. a 
Onp^p 141. 2 

n-ap (ni?) 159. 1 
n'as 185. 2 



n^ppp 45. 4, 97. 1 

Dp 174. 5 

nop 135. 2, 140. 2 

n^app 164. 5 

nnD3 141. 1 

nspp 140. 2 

nop 3. 1. a, 131. 3, 

165. 1 
r^iDp (K. fut.) 157. 3 
r^iOp (Ni.) 159. 1 
D\'\iCp 159. 3 
^nSIDD 11. 1. a 
"'nh^Dp 66. 2 (2) c, 

159. 1 

typp 50. 1 

^0? 184 
rODD 220. 1. 6 
I3pp 216. 2. a 
Cpp 141. 3 (p. 175) 

nyesi 99. 3 
nspsi 99. 3 

DWp 111. 3. a 
"liy? 159. 1 
^^niyp 62. 2 

w^ys} 201. 1. 6 

byp 197. a, 200. c 
D^'by? 203. 2, 208. 4 
Cbyp 60. 3. a, 112. 3 

ntib??, D'^ipbyp 112. 

Oyp 82. 1. a (2) 
rm$} 32. 3. a 
p2?p 187. 2. c 

nyp 121. 1 

n?3 58. 1, 184. b. 



ny; i84. h 
n-i?? 58. 1 
yny? 111. 3. h 
ntei 172. 3 
^nh^Bp 159. 1 

fiEp 159. 1 

anisisp 159. 1 
n^:?is? 159. 3 
nii?b£p 235. 3 (3) 
rsbss 166. 1 

nsbSp 166. 1, 205. c 

nniibsp 166. 1 
ibep 106. a 

'irbsp 173. 1 

•in^bBp 173. 1 

bb£p 92. a 

1B.21 61. 4 

fBp 179. 2. a 

tJBp50. 2,102. 1, 197.6, 

200. c 
D'^b^PB? 187. 2. a 
P 217 
asp 50. 1, 179. 2. a 

ns3 217 
n^^ssi 99. 3 
nsp 61. 2 
p'nipsp 54. 4, 96. 6 

^:b^D 65. a 
3 in^Sp 86. h (2 m.) 
"iSp 50. 3, 51. 1 
n23 131. 3 

nnjrp 24. b, 98. 1. a 
nnsrp 24. b, 106. 6 
onnsa 104. i 



382 



INDEX III. 



na? 149. 1 
rqj^2 131. 3 

^23p; 91. fZ 
lp'2 185. 2. 6 

r.;?: i74. 3 

^IS-'p: 24.. c 
'V?? 217 

nnbp: 159. i 

ip2, N'lpD 185. 2. rf, 
209. 2 

n^;;?? 173. 1 
■^n*^]?? 173. 1 

bp3, bp3 140. 2 

•in'^p: 141. 2 
cp: 217 
Dp: 131. 3 
ni2;?2 217 

yp5 179. 2. a 
Snp: 91. b, 166. 3 
n; 43. a, 200. a 
KnS 97. 2. a 

nn: 183. 6 

Tn 99. 3, 147. 5 

^SS-\: 164. 3 

p: 140. 2 

Nte3 82. 5. a 

xb: 131. 3 
sir: 131. 4 
xir: (Pi.) 165. 2 
is5ir: i64. 4 
T^xto: 164. 4 

W} 165. 3 

sits: 57. 2 (3) «, 86. 6 
(3 pi.), 164. 3 



lite: 165. 3 
XC: 177. 3~ 

Sir: 165. 2 
bsr: 119. 1 
mrsi 150. 3 
trnar: 205 
^:"c: 141. 2 
id;itc3 220. 1. b 

D-iTS: 207. 2. e 
D'^BJa^ 140. 5 
^C: 84. 3. a (3) 

n|t:: 51. 4 
br: 84. 3. a (2) 

n*b©3 124. a 

nrVr: 97. 1 

T\1Zt} 141. 1 

nisc: 141. 1 
'':©: 92. c 
qr: 50. 2 
npr: 53. 3. o, 128 
nnr: 24. c 
rnnc: 83. c (2) 
TOP©: 172. 3 
•j^r: 11. 1. 6 
D:in3 11. 1. 6 

^n: 50. 1, 80. 2. a 
84. 3. a (2) 

■jn: 130. 1, 132. 1 
fn:, -jri: 131. 4 

"P: 130. 1. b 

i:n: 24. c 
D^:r: u. 1. b 
^:r,: 101. 3. a 
)X- 50. 1 



7r: 131. 3 

^n^:pn: 24. b 
nn: 125. 3 

TDW 50. 1 
DPP: 132. 1 

nsp 200. b, 207. 1./ 
D^'nSD 203. 3 

nb, nhD 134. 1, 139.2 
nno 138 
sap 141. 4 
^:'nnp, •':n2D 104. /, 

139. 1 
''p^Sp 139. 1 

•^riiap 61. 3 
n'^no 11. 1. & 

n^aC 235. 3 (1) 

n'^3b 90 

-?inD 19. 2. a 
iD2p 24. 5, 221. 5. a 
^22^ 19. 1, 45. 2 
bap 187. 1. a 
ibac 24. 5, 221. 5. a 
nbap 3. 1. a 

150 51. 1 
(3), "l^"?;*? 187. 2. c 

naio 137, 141. 4 

TC 184. b 
nniO 186. 2. a 
D^D 58. 1 
nc^C 58. 1 
•^P^O 62. 2 
"ip^O 66. 1 (2) b 
T'D'.O 62. 2 



INDEX III. 383 

nSio 186. 2. a D^"1D 210. a bJ!? 185. 2. h 

n^D .3. La ■'D'^'^O, ^Ty^ 60. 3. c bS? 197. c 

nhiO 53. 2. a, 220. 1. i HS^ID 68. a Th^'p_ 197. c 

nho 119. 1 iriO 184. h *!? 237. 1, 238. 1, 267. h 

nnnno 92. «, 122. 1 Di^np 104. g 1^ 65. a 

nip 197. b, 200. c, (? nnp 217 n?^ (n?)) 46 

i\y^ 51. 1, 141. 2 (p. 175) nnnp 217 'i? 43. a 

bDD 3. 1. o, 51. 1, 80. iinp 66. 2 (2) a H"!!^ 112. 5. a 

2. a (1) rriS? 184. 6 

?fpDp 138 a:^ 197. 6, 200. c, 215. nn? 209. 3 

nSO 3. 1. o, 51. 1 I. a ^'-\5, 238. 1. a 

nnbo 125. 1 ^V {ohh?) 19. 2. a ^p ^T? 239. 2 (2) 

^jpbp 141. 5 W 112. 5. c t\yj 112. 5. a 

nibpbp 187.1.6,207.2. a W 65 W 112. 6. a 

pbo 84. 3. a (2) fTlir 111. 3. a '"tl'l? 220. 2. a 

Obo 55. 1, 193. 2. c 1W 220. 2. 6 S^^3? 186. 2. 6 

nbb 197. h ^W 65 ni2^ 235. 3 (l), 286 

I'j'ap 195. 1 iin?1 61. 1. a 'W 161. 1 

nnnD-ap i04. ^ •''iny 216. 1. a r> (v.) 157. 1 

n:D 183. b, 184. 6 ■'"rn? 6I. 1 "jl^iy 156. 1 

D^niip 207. 1. a 'in;^';ipS^ 195. 3 bl^, bl? 184. b, 216. 

D^ICDD 207. 2. a 5^"^P? 220. 1. 6 1. (/ 

TS:p 195. 1 nW 22. a bp_ 161. 1 

n:?D 19. 2. a, 89 "Ipy 112. 5. b nbl? 51. 1, 208. 3. c 

Tr\m 234. a ■'-in:? 194. 1, 209. 2, 217 ibiy 221. 5. b 

^V^ 131. 3 nnpy 62. 2 bb-y 142. 1 

n2?p, nyb 122. 2 ^y^^y^ 62. 2 bbi:> 141. 5 

nnyp 51. 1 D'^'''^;iy, D"''^2S' 62. 2 n?! Dbiy 63. 1. c 

qp 200. r, 207. 2. a ri^')^^? 217 nnb^.? 61. 6. a 

nsp 3. 1. a ^^-iny 106. « X^V 156. 1 

^EDI 156. 4 DP'lp;? 106. a, 127. 2 p!? 200. c 

ISO 50. 1 nhy 200. c isiy ui. 4 

C12D 141. 3 (p. 175) n^y 112. 5. a D^^iy 187. 1. e 

"lep 61. 4 nay i86. 2. 6 5ii» 201. 1 



384 



INDEX III. 



y^y 179. 2. a 

"liy 200. a 

T,^ (v.) 57. 2 (5) a, 

161. 1 
-i:^y (adj.) 187. 1. b 

pn^^y 193. 2 

r.n:^y 198. a (3), 201. 1 

n?^ 161. 1 

Ty, T5? 65. a 

T? 200. 6, 207. 2 

blST? 11. 1. a, 168. a 

nnry 98. i 

^'^:i3TS' 22. a 

inri? 61. 6. a 

IjnT!? 111. 3. a 

VrJ 60. 3. b (1), 184 
i-Ty, ^-3? 221. 6 
^•77 61. 5 
nry 112. 5. b 

"IJ? 184 

nnr? i96. 6 
nnnr? 6i. 6. a 
n-jy 112. 5. 5 

nvj-j O09. 1. a 

?,rj^ 195. 1 

Q-'SrJ? 207. 1. a 
TJ5 50. 1, 112. 5. J 

rn-j? 214. 1. 6 

''y 53. 3. a 
"J":? 201. 1 
T^^y 199. a 

V? 184. b, 197. a, 208, 
3. c bis, 217 



ni:^? 203. 5. a 

niry 216. 1. c? 

•^r? 221. 5. b 

irT>r? 220. 2. c 

ns^y 156. 1 

n;^? 208. 3. e 

Ty 197. «, 200. 6, 207. 

1./ 

nhiy 220. 1. 6, 221. 5. b 

Dh-'? 207. 2. c 

t']S 197. a 

TS^nS? 195. 1 

■jry, nDy 51. 4 

IDy 112. 5. a 

by 237. 1, 238. 1, 267. b 

by 186. 2. c 

rnby 51. i 
zri2^*j 201. 1. b 
Tby 112. 5. c 

Tby 185. 2. 6 

ITby 111. 3. a 

"•Tby 89 (f. s.), 111. 3. a 

ib?^ 238. 1. a 

"iby 3. 4 

pb? 193. 1 

n^^b^b? 198. a (4) 

irby 239. 2 (3) 

nby 112. 5. b 
nj^y-b? 237. 2 (2) 
nsby 93. c 
""S-by 237. 2 (2) 
fby 112. 5. c 
nriby ei. 6. a 

Dy 197. b, 207. 2. a 



tDy 237. 1 

"iry 110. 1 

"It!? 60. 3. b (1) 
l^b? 65, 89 (m. pi.) 
^";i2y 60. 1. a 
''"!12y 111. 3. « 
^"12? 45. 2, 106. a 

n^?ii£y 209. 2, 210. rf 

■>"£? 199. b 

"^ry 214. 2 

tJTSy 65. a 

P^^? 3. 4 

0^'C^y 207. 2. a 

pby 185. 2. 6, 207. 1. c; 

217 
pry 184 
•nicy 208. 3. b 

nnby 3. 4 

••nfy 24. 5, 216. 2. a 

nay 174. 3 
iry 185. 2. c? 
n^:y 60. 3. b (1) 
ini:y i74. 6 

''Sy 185. 2. d 

:^:y 104. 6 

Ipy 198, 217 

1iy 141. 4 

n::? 198, 217 
i:.:y 139. 1 
D3s:y 221. 5. c 
p:y 50. 1 
inhsy 24. 5 
DniGy 141. 2 

D^SSy 208. 3. i 



INDEX III. 



385 



bS^ 112. 5. a 
nsy 200. a 
nsiy 208. 3. b 
D''"1B3? 60. 3. 6 (2) 
nnsy 61. 6. a 



•p-y 43. a, 185. 2 d, 198, '^T\y 60. 3. 6 (l) 

217 ■»?'i^? 18V. 1. e 

■jmjy 193. 2 "I"!!? 216. 1. a 

D?"^?!:? 24. b, 216. 2. a 'j^'^n:? 210. a 

nsy 184. 6 c'b), 217 riD-i:? m. 3. a 

Hi? 198 

Dl^nb?? 203. 5 

D?:^ 80. 2. a (1), 82. 1. t^S 80. 2. 6 

«(2) 
02? 197. b, 200. c 
D23> 217 
T^mV 217 
nsy 50. 3, 112. 5. b 

n^'^rp-iiy 24. b 
•y;'n2? 220. 2. « 
npy 112. 5. 6 

nj?y 200. f, (?, 215. 1. 6 ^iry (part.) 172. 5 
"!©«, 2;:3? 239. 2 (2) to 172. 2 
ninj^y 24. b, 216. 2. a iiC? 172. 2 



ninns^, ninnj? 45. 5. a n^toj? 214. 1. 5, 223. 1 

: - ' : I- T T -: ' 

"in^i? 22. a nnir? 196. </, 224 

D^N^nn? 62. 2. 6, 209. 'jintey 210. J, 227. 3 

2. a a^^iC? 208. 3. a, 225. 1 

n^any 208. 4 ri"iic? 225. 1. a 

rry 172. 1 

piC^ 185. 2, c 

•JTC:^ 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. 6 
Iffly 216. 1. e 



n^on? 200. c, 216. 1. 6 ■'^-npr^ i7. 2 
^yny 187. 1. e nr:^ 79. 2, 112. 5. 6, 



bS-l?: 193. 2. c 
tjn^ 197. a 

ntey 200. a 



125. 3 

mr:? 197. a 

ipri? 224. a 

n^rnrs' 207. 1. </ 



Tj^n-'n;?? 24. b 



ninir:? 24. b, 216. 2. « n:? 43. «, 197. /j, 200. c, 

nte? 172. 2 207. 2, 215. 1. 6 

nicy 62. 2. c 'iny 80. 2 

bsr.te?, bs-no 13. 6 nr:? 219. 1. a 

^iCy (pret.) 62. 2. c ''P3? 194. 2 

Onr 112. 5. a 
pn:? 84. 3. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

iiSi? 62. 2. c ^inl? 112. 5. a, 125. 3 



■"a;?? 24. b, 216. 2. a miTSy l72. 5, 209. 3. a 

"ip^ 185. 2. 6 n^teS? 221. 7. a 

^p'?P? 188 tf^tCy 201. 2 

anp? 195. 1, 207. 2. 6 ''T^ii;? 227. 1 

ttjp:^ 112. 5. a T)'^m 86. 6 (1 c.) 

©^55' 187. 1. 6 ^?™? 102. 1. a 

n? 156. 2 ^iry 62. 2. c 

nny iis. i ntoy 224 
an3> 197. 6 



se 11. 1. b 

ninxs 189. 2. c 
•ynsits 104. c 

:tyn5|;s 104. b 
ins 125. 2 

bisn'js 57. 2 (2) 6 
nu^ms 13. b 



ntoy 80. 2. b, 112. 5. a Di->^fi 55. 1, 193. 2. c 



386 INDEX III. 

'j'i'lB 193. 2. c Mb-ibs 198. a (2) Hj^S) 187. 1 

nnS nns 33. 1. a, 219. n^^b^bB 198. a (4) r!"ip"nj?S 43. b, 188 

1. 6 bbs 141. 1 (p. 175) ns 197. c 

nS 11. 1. b iDbbs 68. «, 75. 3 Ji'lS 18. 2. c, ol. 2. a, 

ns 185. 2. c?, 209. 1. a, ■«:bbx iD'bs 75. 3 209. 3. b 

215. 2. b, 220. 1. c "^Pffibs 194. 1 nXISl 11. 1. a 

nb 235. 3(4) 'inbs 199. 6 niins 199 

IS 11. 1. b 12 239. 1 nans 207. 1. b 

pS 179. 2. a n23 143. a D'^Onns 207. 1. a 

niSS 139. 1 J^'iS 39. 4. a HnS 197. c 

nnis 141. 4 D^Ds 197. 6, 201. 1 n'^^'^^^ 207. 1. b 

ns 141. 1 (p. 175) i^a^^D 220. 2. c "jins 193. 2 

nne 78. 1 ''^^is 194. 2 ■'ns 194. 2 

nns 184. 5 T^ps^ 100. 2. a (1) nns 50. 1, 79. 2 

nns 198, 211. a n?s 187. 1. b nnns i87. 1. d 

ins 131. 3 bos 208. 3. b ins 57. 2 (4), 184. b, 

nns 131. 4 b:?S 76. 2, 83. b, 84. 3. 221. 5. c 

TJS 125. 3 a (3), 118. 2 n;^"^.S 62. 2. f, 209. 1. a 

ID 61. 6. a b:^S 60. 1. a, 61. 2, 4, i;^ns 62. 2. 6 

n^B 198. c 208. 3 )^ins 210. a 

^n^S, VS 62. 2 ib?S 60. 3. 6 (2), 221. nshs 216. 1. a 

ffiib^S 59. a, 195. 1, ' 5. a HOns 200. c 

197. a, 200. 6 ib^S 221. 5. a yns 200. a 

^imrstb^s 220. 1. 6 ^bys 60. 3. b (2) nyns 11. 1. a 

xbs 18. 2. c ^bys 61. 1 nyns 104. </ 

Sbs 92. c D?'??^) 19. 2 nsns 141. 4 

:\bB 92. c a?2 60. 1, 63. 2. a, ^ns 50. 2 

O^bS 59. a, 195. 1, 197. b, 200. c, d pS 200. c 

197. a, 200. J, 208. nSS 50. 2, 125. 3 pns 50. 1 

3. a npS 80. 2. a (4) TSnS 210. a, 216. 1. a 

D-^'jbs 66. 2 (2) c ^pS 89 TBnS 50. 3 

•J^bs 207. 1. c ^npS 86. a t5"^S 119. 1 

nipibs 198 i:nps loe. b tens 50. 3, 68. «, 180. a 

iD-'bs 216. 1. b D^n^pS 187. 2 Q?T?1? 104. A, 119. 1 



INDEX III. 



387 



nns 196. 6, 209. 1. a 
^t!t^ 100. 2. a (2) 
"OlTS 80. 2. a (l), 84. 
3. a (3) 

nr\irs 200. b 

DniDS 156. 1 
na 197. ff, 200. 5, 207. 
2. a 

DSinS 23.5. 2 (1) 
cans 215. 1. a 

nins 139. 2 

nps 80. 1 

inns 106. a, 125. 2 

TIS 208. 3. (/ 

bhbns 188 

N2 148. 3 
nS2 (n.) 216. 1. 6 
jnjJSr (v.) 148. 3, 164. 5 
np^XS 148. 3, 164. 3 
D^bSi 208. 3. a 
"jSS 201. 1 
''i^SX^ 216. 1. a 
D"'X^S2r 188. a 

ns2r 148. 2 
■'risa 148. 2 

?|nS2 30. 2 

S32 200. a, 215. 2. c 

0^X322 56. 4 

D"^S|:i32 58. 4 

ina 208. 3. (^ 

n^ns 209. 2. 6 

nm 165. 3 
"72 207, 2. a 



p-'^a 187. 1 
pn2 84. 3. a (2) 
pnr 184, 198. a (2) 
p"12 65. a 
P^^ 80. 1 

np^22 198. a (2), 216, 
^npnS 65. a 
1\T\pl'l 92. <; 

nns 50. 1 
nni* 197. a 

Dt'nn^ 19. 2, 203. 5, 

208. 4 
IS 174. 5 
"1X12 11. 1. a 
"lii^a 200. c, 215. 1, 

216. 1. d 
ms 174. 5 

n;i2 57. 2 (2) 

Tl^nS 11. 1. a 

D^niis, on^is 11. 1, 

pis 207. 1. c 
1^2 (v.) 50. 3 
n^S (n.) 51. 3 
pnS 51. 2 
pnS 92. d 

nns 50. 1 
nhs 185. 2. 6 

•'S 209. 2 
'T;'? 208. 3. c 
"l^S 187. 1. a 
■^3^12 210. d 
pb"^^ 187. 1. c 
^bp^S 14. a 
bS 207. 2. a 



nbS 82. 1. a (2) 

ninbs 57. i 
nnbs 57. 1, 210. e 
ibbs 139. 1 

ibbS 20. 2, 221. 6. 6 
2 D'^bbS 209. 2. a 

niiabs 195. 3 

:?b2r 197. a, 200. c, 216. 
1. e 

n:?b2 198 

bsbs 187. 1. e, 207. 2. 

ft, 216. 2 
D^bsbs 16. 3. 6 
S^S (v.) 82. 1. a (1) 
Sm (adj.) 185. 2. 6 
'''^^S 22. a, 216. 2. a 
n^S 80. 2. a (1) 
nm 165. 3 

■'nias 164. 2 

a ^pn^S 102. 2, 104. I 
•^mr'SS 24. i, 92. a 

•^pnntis 24. 6 

qi:S, vl^pS 185. 2 
-iPiS 200. a 
Tj^^S 119. 3 
p?S 51. 2, 121. 1 
^eS (part.) 172. 5 
■jiSS 197. & 

n:iss 219. 1 
*^:iS2r 194. 2 

"liSS 197. f, 200. a, 

207. 1. d 
•JBS 50. 1 
WSS 132. 1 



388 ' INDEX III. 

qSi 141. 2 (p. 175) Q'l)?. 65. a b^ittj? 2X7 

?1-|D2 68. a, 195. 2 'ipn^ 187. 1. e bl3jp 51. 3, 83, 83. 6, 

yiSil 193. 2. 6, 208. 3. a ©np §0. 2. a (1), 82. 1. 85. 2, 103 

p2 148. 3 a (2) bt2p 183. a 

•jnpS 86. 6 (3 pi.) t'ip 208. 3. 6 b'jp 217 

np2 148. 2 -©'^p 92. c "JVp 185. -2, 207. 2. &, 

ma 216. 1. a mp 92. c 217 

nS1"l2 98. 1. a Q^TP^I? 19- 2 pp (adj.) 185. 2 

"iii.2 200. a nnp 121. 1 pp (v.) 82. 1. a (3), 

nna 50. 3, 141. 3 nbnp 197. t^ 84. 3. a (1) 

(p. 175) "innp 194. 1 "'Stpp 19. 2, 221. 5. a 

5?nip 50. 1 "it:p 80. 2. « (i) 

n^P 156. 4 ©"i^p 11. 1. b "ii"L:^p 187. 1. c 

nxp 11. 1. a n>ip, n^p 174. 3 n::p 83. c (1), 154. 1, 

DSp 156. 3 T^'llp, ''f^T'^p 174. 2 161. 1 

nsp 196. 6 bip 200. a tJWp 59. </, 187. 1. c 

ap 139. 2 Dip 153. 2, 155 i:t!^p 220. 1. 6 

nnp 184. h 5^^9, ni2^p 157. 2 P^p^I? 187. 1. e 

Tq"^ 19. 2, 141. 1 "ip^p 34 "lip 200. a 

nap 104. d ipip 34 i!5p 141. 1 

bap 86. b (3 pi.) Di^ip 156. 2 1^p;i 100. 2. a (2) 

ibap, ibip 19. 2. c, DT2ip 83. c (1) snibp 214. 2 

221. 5. a ni'^OTp 198. a (4) i^i^p 141. 2 

D^-bnp 19. 2 yip 179. 2. a bbp 84. 3. a (2) 

i:3p 141. 3 nisrip 57. 2 (3) a b^p 141. 4 

V?)? 92. (? inhnp 21. 1 nbbp 20. 2 

n^ip 92. c np 132. 2 ncbp 198. a (3) 

^2ap 92. c, 101. 3. a, Hp 53. 2. a, 132. 2 bpbp 141. 4 

104. h ^T)'^ 132. 2 bp'bp 187. 1. e 

"l?p ^8. 1 Cnp 132. 2 Dp 57. 2 (5), 153. 1, 

"inp 200. c -nnp 60. 3. c, 132. 2 185. 2. a 

inap 104. j nnp 132. 2 iciTap 59. «, i87. 1. c 

©i-p 185. 2. 6 ipnp 132. 2 D^'ap 156. 2 

Diffiinp 201. 2 Tjn'jp 19. 2, 221. 5. a brp, b^p 82. 1. a (l) 



INDEX III. 



389 



^^'Q'^ 24. c 

npiap 61. 4, 66. 2 (2), 
157. 2 

yyyp 208. 3. b 
r\^)? 59 

■Jl? 215. 1. 6 
S3p 92. d, 166. 3 
insap 166. 2 
n?!? 200. c 

nbp 172. 2 

iDp 172. 2 
■■j^3p 215. 1. c 
■J?)? 141. 1 (p. 175) 
"JSp 80. 2. 6 
^??P 54. 3 
^^IDp 89 (f. s.) 
nop 84. 3. a (3) 
"DDp 87 
DDp 141. 3 (p. 175) 

nnsp 196. c 
nsp 50. 1 
nap 18. 2. c 
^nsp 220. 1. 6 

lap 184. 6 
Tap 185. 2. a 
TO 141. 1 (p. 175) 
nap 50. 1, 2, 84. 3. a 

(3), 125. 3 
DDnap 106. a 
nap 196. b, 211. a 
«np 179. 1. a 
Xnp 166. 2 
sjnp 167. 1 
nis^np 166. 2 



tfXnp 104. c 

nb;^b s-ip^ 35. 1 

IS7P 60. 3. c, 98. 2, 
164. 3 

nsnp 166. 1 
rsnp 166. 2 

nnp 77. 3, V8. 2, 82. 

1. a (2), 118. 1 
n'^p (imp.) 119. 1 
S'lp 185. 2. 6 

anp 200. a 
-nnp 19. 2. a 

nnnp 98. 1. a 
innp 39. 4. a 

DDnnp 19. 2, 119. 3 

in-ip 19. 2. 6, 193. 2 
■•iSnp 216. 1. a 
D^np 200. c 

nnp 179. 1. a 
ninp 185. 2. 6 
nnp 187. 1. b 
^5^np 11. 1. « 
xnnp 196. (? 

^n-lp 89 (f. s.) 
D"np 118. 1 
I'lp 197. a 
niDnp 203. 5. a 
'^5'^p 214. 2 

mp, Tsnp 221. 4 

0\:'?P, D^3":ll? 203. 1, 

208. 4 
bb')'i> 193. 2. c 
PP 50. 2 

S^P^p 187. 1. e 



"I'^'i^ 161. 2 

nirpirp 207. 1. e 
rnrp 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 
nirp 210 
nitp 216. 1. (Z 

tSt'p 61. 4, 183. 6 
"^Tl'p 80. 2. a (2) 
m2?p 80. 1 
C^T^p 125. 1 
tjffip 141. 3 (p. 175) 
ri^^ 197. b, 199. c? 
ri^P 187. 1. a 

cnin^p 24. 6 
nhirp 216. 2. a 

nsn 77. 2, 79. 1, 80. 1, 

114 

nsn 172. 2 
ix"! 172. 2 

^i5"l 26, 121. 1 

•irn^N-i 57. 2 (3) a 
n^sn 172. 2 
nixn 172. 2 

•^Sn 60. 3. b (2) 
ni'S:'! 207. 2. c? 
liir^N-l 227. 1. a 

rroKn 1.56. 3 
nTasn 11. 1. a 
ni'asn i56. 3 
'':sh 102. 3 

TSS1 11. 1. a bis 
rxn 156. 3 
CXh 61. 2. a, 207. 1./ 
IITUN-I 11. 1. b 



390 



INDEX III. 



f'trxn 193. 1, 227. 1 
n:icxn 235. 3 (3) 
a^TTST 57. 2 (3) a 
n-'irxn i98. « (4) 

Sn (fv) 153. 1 
3n,S'l (y'b) 82. 1. a(3) 

nn 217 

n'l (■'>) 158. 3 

nh (n.) 186. 2. f 

nnn ui. 1 (p. 175), 

179. 2. a 

iinhnn 250. 2 (2) a 

nnn 179. 2. a 
nnn 235. 3 (3) 
nan i72. 3, 174. 5 

^27 (^'2?) 156. 4 

^an 141. 1 
nan 139. 1 
ian, xian 197. a, 209. 

3, 226 

nian eo. 3. a 
D'^nian 203. 4, 226 
n"^an 249. 1. a 
'':?^an 227. 1 
rr^y^an 227. 3 
yan, yah 227. 3 

D"'ya-l 207. 1. a 

yan 84. 3. a (2) 
nan iss. 1 
nan 235. 3 (3) 
inan33. 1, 6I. 6.a, 21 8 

nn 84. 3. a (2) 

b5n 50. 1 

b^n 197. a, 217 



■^hn 194. 2 
D^b:n 203. 5. a 

y-Vn 126. 1 

"■3 (T,^) 53. 2. 6, 150. 
1 (p. 182) 

"in {ib) 139. 2 
nn, nnn i48. 3 

..7 T : 

nnn (inf.) i48. 2 

ri'in 78. 1 
cihn 114 
^D^snn 114 

^E-n 19. 2. a 

nnn i48. 2 
^nnn i48. 2 
nann 22. a 
ain 158. 3 

nin 57. 2 (5) a, 156. 1 

n^n 184. h 
nin 197. 6 
n^.n 161. 1 
bain 186. 2. a 
Din 80. 2. a (4) 
□)3in 157. 1 

pn 179. 1. a 
'^Tn 141. 4 

tr\ 57. 2 (2) a 
ann,ainn 197. 6, 200.0 
Dinn 187. 1 
pinn 185. 2. 6 
bnn 197. c, 200. 6 
onn 118. 2 
Dnn 119. 1 
onn 61. 2. o, 197. h 
n'afin 196. c 



D^'ann 201. 1, 208. 3. a 
ynn 80. 2. a (3) 
nsnn 119. 3 
pnn 185. 2. 6 
pnn 119. 1 
npnn 119. 3 
2-jn 84. 3. a (2) 
C£t:n 68. o, 180. a 

in 184. 6 

a^n (v.) 153. 2, 155, 

158. 2, 3 
n^n (n.) 186. 2. c 

niain 158. 1 

'P'''^ 186. 2. e 

Dp"'n 235. 2 (1) 

tJin 186. 2. c 

^ilS^n 57. 2 (2) a, 227. 

1. a 
^n 50. 1, 186. 2. c 

aan 84. 3. « (2) 
'isn 141. 1 
^an 141. 1 (p. 175) 
ban 50. 1 
nban i98. « (2) 
rsh 139. 1 
^r-'rin 199. b 
niah 208. 3. h 
^rn^ian 104. /t 
'lin, "^n 141. 1 

■jSn 139. 3 

jsn 141. 5 

yn 60. 2, 215. 1. e 
ayn (v.) 82. 1. a (2) 
a?n (adj.) 185. 2. 6 



i:>^DEX III. 



391 



TO'-I 139. 2 

r.:?h 186. 2. a, 215. e 

in?n 220. 1. b 

'ini 141. 1 

lyn 221. 3. a 

^y^ 221. 3. a 

b?n 114 

1??^ 122. 1 

■Jp^n 187. 1. d, 207. 2. 5 

5??n 141. 3 (p. 175) 

^D^}V'^ 220. 1. 6 

SB'n 186. 2. a 

XSn 92. d, 166. 3 

nsjsn 164. 5 
^:ssn 165. 2 

^r.SSI 165. 2 
nan 84. 3. a (2) 
n&T 165. 1 
■inSSl 177. 3 
Misn 179. 1. a 
V^n 199. a 
T^^'l 141. 4 

pn 50. 1 

apn 84. 3. a (2) 
nph 186. 2. a 
Dp 186. 2. a 
yp 126. 1 
T]?pn 106. a, 125. 2 
ppn 179. 2. a 
«n (^y) 186. 2. c 
on, TDn C^S) 148. 3 
yen 198. a 
nyCl 198. a (1) 
D^nyCl 203. 5 



lipOn, ■'STS-l 22. a, 216. 

2. a 
«j«l 141. 5 
tJTSn 141. 5 

Jnen (v.) 148. 2 

ncn (n.) 184. & 
I'^nCI 148. 2 
pinn 200. a, 207. l. c 
Dinh 197. 5, 208. 3. b 

Xto 131. 3 

'IXto, ^Nto 16. 2. a, 45. 

5. a 
"1«T» 3. 1. a 
riSte 16. 2. a, 61. 2. a, 

131.- 4 
nxte 61. 2. a 
ynte 82. 1. o (2) 
?niO 185. 2. S 

tnynto 127. 1 
into 3. 1. a 

"litO 141. 1 (p. 175) 
iTftg 185. 2. 0?, 200. c, 

210, 215. 2, 221. 7 
^nnto 220. 1. b 
'I'jO 185. 2. (^ 

ni? 201. 1, 215. 2 
■''in© 19. 2 

XiiS 131. 4 

n^is 158. 3 

D'to 158. 3 

nttitoisB. 3 

"1^123 3. 1. a, 179. 2. a 

into 184. 6 



pnfci 51. 2 

Dt2W, I'jto 51. 4 

irupUJ 106. a 

X^to 184. 6 

^n-:© 221. 7. a 

i^T? 221. 7. a 

n^to 158. 2, 3 

n^to 158. 2, 3 bis 

n^^© 158. 3 

iS^O 158. 2 

?f3tD 51. 1 

b?© 3. 1. a, 79. 2 

n^'-Sir 3. 1. a, 51. 4. a 

"13© 3. 1. a 

l^to 184. 5, 207. 1. b 

^^to 156. 4 

n^to 82. 1. a (2) 

"ini:©, -in^to 21 6. 1. 6 
ir^ir 104. y 
x:i» 82. 1. « (1) 
nx:i2J 87, 166. 2, 
fis:iri 104. a 
''s:© 102. 3 
Tii«:to 60. 1, 164. 4 
nsbto 166. 2 
."'ns:iri i64. 1 
Tj'^rs:© 220. 2. a 
nyto 3. 1. a, 121. 1 

nyiO 207. 1. b 

nnyic 51. 1 

nnyto 198. 6 

rnyip 200. b 
nnyte^ 27, 57. 2 (2) 6, 
220. 1. 6 



392 " INDEX III. 

nsr 3. 1. 0, 199. d, T'Zi/i'C 139. 3 ^t?, !"Qt: 126. 2 

217, 221. 2. 4 -Xr 183. 6 rzr 84. 3. a (3), 86. h 

ISC .50. 1 """>?t? 198. a (4) TZt 148. 2 

•^rsr 216. 2. a ZZ_ 53. 2. a, 144. 3, T^TT 144. 3, 148. 2 

cr;"'r"r?t? 221. 1 148. 3 Tzz 197. 6, 221. 6. a 

"^^rzz 221. 1 -20, rar i48. 3 ""^ts 193. 2. a 

"^i: 207. 2. a id 157. 1 "^nnc, TP^ 148. 2 

n-'r 179. 2. a 'ilu 11. 1. a ^5C 197. a 

"U 199. c ''ir 34 ^TS 216. 1. e 

Z'57-r 68. a '.nC 34 HC 207. 2. a 

:rs7t 104. i ^,2C 39. 4. a ^hz 139. 2 

p'^b I8.5. 2. 5 ""-^ 200. c, 210. a T;.Z 141. 4 

"nb 141. 1 (p. 175) r^lC 198. a (4) ""i^ 93. a 

ir-'r 61. 6. a K'r*^^ 220. 1. 6 '^'~nZ 141. 1 

rr 131. 4 "23 51. 2, 197. h T'-U 139. 2 

arc 90 {pa$s.) •'•^23 216. 2 ^'Z 199. c. 

■'2C 221. 5. c nr.ttj 45. 5. a 

Z 53. 2. a, 74 T-^ 227. 1 N';iC 61. 2. a 

-2-Sr 45. 5. a r"2t5 198. a (4) IT 157. 1 

rsr 197. h b?,b2© 24. 6 2-r (21©;?) 53. 2. 6, 

•JSr 5J. 2 (3) a •'^^C 24. 5 148. 2 

Z'Z^Z 156. 3 r.bir 3. 1. a, 200. t, ""22-ir 104. c 

-■JSr 57. 2 (.3) a 207. 1. c? TC-r. r.2^t:i57. 2 

bSE 78. 1, 121. 1 rr.ZZ 157. 2 "T 11. 1. a 

';i«r. ?:srr 119. 2 r2t; 216. 1. e "iT'c i4i. 4 

"':sr 119. 3 n72Z 223. 1 ""^^'C 207. 1. a 

^:-:xr 119. 2 n^:?2t: 208. .3. o, 225. 1 ""c^'ir 199. a 

^:-"-sr 118. 3 D^^i© 203. 3 "•rr 194. 2. a 

"■-sr no. 2 n:r2© 22.3. 1. a re lei. 1 

!I"Sw 104. a ZZ^rVIZ 221. 2. b ^'J'Z 186. 2 

■^rbsc 119. 2 ="r:'2r 203.4,223.1.0 -irc 186. 2. a 

=rrss 119. 2 zrvzt 223. 1. o, 250. ere ise. 2. a 

■:s<t: 122. 1 2 (2) a ns-t: 200. a 

"iJi^O 187. 1. c?, 207. 2. 5 n2C .3. 1. a p^C 207. 1. / 



INDEX III. 393 

p-r 197. a -pbT 87 nbo GO. 1 

1^0 3. 1. a nrr so. 2. 82. 1. a (2) nbr i-2o. 2 

lie (v.) 158. 3 ""nrr 210. 1. h n?r 126. 1 

"li»(n.) 197. c, 201. 1, ^:n2S 127. 2 mC 126. 1 

207. 1./. 'J^'l^n^O 127. 2 r.nbc 125. 1 

•irir-ltj 92. b, 174. 1 rr'72C co. 2. a, 127. i -nbr 221. 3. « 

l^itj 207. 2. 6 '?i^ 3. 1. rt ^n'r*^ l-*5- 1 

^ine 60. 3. h (2), 119. 4 ^20 82. 1. a (3), 84. 3. fn'rC 200. a 

nnr 141. 1 a (i). 85. 2 i«r"'?^ ^^- 4 

inC 00. 4. fl, 141. 1 5T\r2'«r 65. «, 82. l.a(3) Pnbr 123. 5. a 

r.t:no 119. 3 ^Tcb-a 65. n t:bc 84. 3.(7 (2) 

PPnp 199. <Z DDp 183. 6 ^JC 54. 2 

nil© 185. 2. 6 0D« 65 tibc 210. a 

nhnnc iss ■'^d« 221. 5. c ""'^"''•^ 199. J 

rnr 78. 2 "jsr 82. 1. « (2), 84. 3. '^t'^bc 227. 1 

'nnc 121. 2 a (1) r-pbc 227. 3 

DSnnO 119. 1 )bT» 87 ^'"P^rP 219. 1. a 

mat 200. h pis 90 (;>flS5.) rr?c 92. (/ 

D^::© 156. 3 ipDis 61. 6. (7 bbc i4i. 3 (p. 175) 

nh^O 187. 1. c r:DC 132. 1 Cbc 84. 3. a (2) 

ib">c, ^i'rtj 55. 2. « ■'PrrirJ 90 (2 f.) D5C 92. d 

T^O 158. 2, 3 ^30 3. 1. o, 125. 3 C^C 92. c 

n'T^p 220. 1. 6 "ISTr 185. 2 D^© 93. a 

riO 158. 2, 3 "be 131. 3 ^^>C 92. c 

ini© 221. 5. & bte 139. 2 '':'"c 194. 2. a 

?JC 139. 2 irsbc 68. a 't^-q 215. 1. c 

nDTD 84. 3. a (2) n^TinnbTn 195. 3 rbr 51. 3 

nbtD 87 ibw 185. 2. d r^r^r 220. 1. 6 

nso 87 nbaj i84. 6 ncbr 223. 1 

nnDC 98. 1 nn ibo 21. 1 D-^rbr 225. 1 

rrnstj 106. a a-'n^bc i87. 2 dt?? 207. 1. a 

ilDTD 106. a Dl?® 187. 2 Cr'-TT 235. 2 (l) 

b-bC 184 ■'P^bO 168. a T^^:^"!^ 220. 1. h 

y^'zt 90 (;w[5s.) nbo 8o. 2. « (1), 124 Drprbc 250. 2 (2) a 



394 



INDEX III. 



nntJbO 250. 2 (2) a 

l^rhta 53. 2. a 

UtD 235. 1 

DTD 43. a, 200. a, 215. 

1. b 
^W 80. 2. a (3) 
ni2TS 219. 1. a 
i'QTr 221. 3. a 

nir« 64. 2 
nirn? 139. 2 

nn-JTOT^ 86. & (2 m.) 
^1210 66. 2 (2) c 
D^^TU 10. a 
n'^'QIB 201. 1, 203. 5. c 
TYQ'^'Q-0 219. 1 
nji-atj 227. 1 
unto 82. 1. a (2), 84. 3. 
a (1), 141. 3 (p. 175) 

wya 90 

XQID 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 
n:b© 223. 1 

B'^:b'(r 225. 1 
itey n:bt3 224. « 

yttTD 80. 2. a (1), 82. 1. 

«\2) 
y)2tj 60. 1. a 
ybC 65. b 
^730 184. 6 
y'dta 60. 1. ffl 
^72© 60. 1 
'■$^•0 125. 1 

nyiao 98. 1, 125. 1 

iTQ© 125. 2 
^?13T» 106. a 



n2S?^« 125. 2 
"j?^© 89 (f. pi.), 98. 2, 
127. 1 

rmry-atj 12 7. 2 

i:S?^UJ 125. 1 

pyatD 127. 1 

n^'CtJ 205 
iry^ffi 106. a 

ni2C 77. 2 

'rem 186. 2. a 

-nn'oG 125. 1 
nnipc 19. 2 

nn^p 104. e 
0)2TD 197. 6 
1C 197. «, 217 
Sra 196. d 
sra 177. 3 

n:Tr 200.0, f/, 211,216.1 

iriisTD 141. 2 

•>D© 227. 1 

D^:tp 203. 4, 223. 1 

Tcyn D"^:!!; 251. 4. a 

r.'^l'O 250. 2 (2) a 
n^STC 235. 3 (3) 
130 141. 1 (p. 175) 
11© 141. 5 
niD 196. 5 

n^j^:tp 203. 3 

yCTD 126. 1 
TrjyO 195. 2 
byilj 208. 3. b 
^b?0 216. 2 

yyo 141. 2 (p. 175) 
ny© 197. 6 



WC, Jn'^yC 60. 3. a 

n^nyt 3. 1. a 
nn^ny© 187. 2, c 
yooeo. 3.6(2), 141.6 

n-^yrjJiD 187. 2. 5 

?)*£© 89 

nnsc 214. 1 
VL:Et: 89 (m. pi.) 
tJBTC 80. 2. a (2) 
IfSTT 89 

rcz-q 13. 6, 86. 5 (3 pi.) 
rOETa 22. a 
bSTT 82. 1. a (l) 
bS© 87 

nbt© 196. c 

•}£© 207. 2. 6 
n?S© 196. 6 
n-^-^SC 187. 2. c 
r,"r.S© 203. 5. a 
D^rsC 203. 5. a 

n;:©^ 131. 3 

^ptj 209. 3 

f^pTD 187. 2 

D^rpir, ni^jp© 208. 3. a 

pj^ir 141. 2 (p. 175) 

Ti^ilj 199. f/ 

ninp© 216. 2, 216. 2. a 

'^t!:s''^TD 60. 4. a 

t:"'3"l©22. cf, 51.2, 68. a 

tJilO 60. 4. a, 221. 6. b 

tjnntD 221. 6. b 

©"ITS 208. 3. b 

cnc, tj-^iu* 83. c (1), 

92. h, 122. 2 



INDEX III. 



395 



nWITlJ 187. I. e 
W^ty^ 19. 2 
TTttJ 43. a 
ntSTD 223. 1 
iTJJT^ 227. 1 
QiffiTJJ 225. 1 

n© 200. a v; 

nn© 50. 1, 179. 2. a 
™ 172. 2 

ima, nin© 172. 2 

inUJ 209. 2. 6 

■ n^^n-ii: 209. 2. b 

^n-'ri© 250. 2 (2) a 
n^riTD 22. 6, 223. 1. a 

axn 51. 1 
bnxn 111. 2. a 
?j"iT ^nnsini 35. 1 
^nnsh 64. 2 

ihxn 111. 2. a 

'Q^^{^l 60. 3. c, 111. 2. e 

isr\ 57. 2 (3) a, 184. b 

iiaixn 216. 1. c 

Thsn 111. 2. a 
inbDsn 60. 3. c (?), 

93. Of, 111. 2. e 

X •npbDsri 91. c 
qbsn 111. 2. a 

■•TSSn 216. 1. c 

^ jn:T2sn 88 (f. pi.) v 

■j-TQSh 88 (m. pi.) 
nD^{n 200. 6, 216. 1. b 

•jispsn 151. 2 

^BDXn 112. 3 



*^i^xri 112. 3 
insp , ins5n 60. 3. b (2) 
np-ib^n 157. 3 
^•^mp, 190 
nnsn 111. 2. 6 
sah 111. 2. b, 111. 3 
n^N^nn 157. 3 
^liinn 88 (f. pi.) 
n:s2n 157. 3 
■ini^nri 88 (3 f.), i67. 3 
n:bnsn 11 8. 4 
nxian 97. 1. a 
nnsinn 220. 1. b 
nnx'inn88(3f.), 167. 3 
^nsiian 88(3f.),i67. 3 
mn 140. 3 
■j^nn 192. 2 
piari 140. 3 
^3:r;nn 105. b 
^n*jnn- 88 (3 f. pi.) 
'iSi^an 26 
^©■^an 160. 3 
n|nni 172. 4 
np^snn 172. 3 

bnn 190. b, 197. a 

bnri 190. b 
bbnn 190 
"jnni 158. 2 
l^^ynn 172. 1 
npysn 126. 1 

i3n?3Pl 105. 6 

:3?i5nn 126. 1 
■jiir)?nr\ 88 (m. pi.) 

•'■pipnni 234. a 



^Dtl^n 120. 3 
^3D-inP\ 105. ft 

nrri2r,r\i 128 
b^sm 99. 3 
■j^y'^.^n 126. 1 
mpi 158. 2 
'j^^fr\i72. 1 

:b^n 174. 4 

ban 66. 1 (1), 173. 3 
nb?n 172. 3 
nb^riT 173. 3 
nsb^n 158. 2 
■'riib'i^^ri 220. 2. c 
;}tarii ss (f. pi.) 
'j^j^a'in 88 (2 f.) 

^Pl^n^n 105. a, d 

nanpi 99. 3 

'J^na'jn 55. 2. a, 88 

(m. pi.) 
•{^"[jann 88 (m. pi.) 

np-ia'in 92. e 
•inn 139. 3 
in-in 192. 2 
"'ss^ss'in 105. c 
r.:b"in 172. 3 
'j^'i'E'jn 172. 1 
jynni 147. 5 
stD^n 45. 2 
inh 61. 2 
inin 30. 1 

Dinn 190. 5, 197. h, 
200. a 

n.'^nn 172. 3 
^i^nn 88 (f. pi.) 



396 



INDEX III. 



nr'^nn, nrnn ii. i. a 
nr^-^nn 160. 3 

^"l3-ri 94. c 

bnn 140. 5 

nbnn loo. 6 

?[bnn 19. 1, 60. 3. 6 (2), 

112. 2, 151. 1 
?i\-5~n 220. 2. a 

nnnn 172. 4 
nps^nn iis. 4 

^5nnr\ 24. c, 142. 3 
ir\ 185. 2. d 
Xin 57. 2 (3) a 

™^n 190. 6 

^i'ln 63. 2. a, 184. 6 

^f'n 216. 1. f? 
nrnr'n 220. 1. b 

^JuDin 105. e 
T^^'C'^n 90, 151. 3 

wioin 22. 6, 151. 2 

7\C^T\ 151. 2 

nnyin 207. 1. a 
nin 217 

r.T'n 217 
i^r^T'n 104./ 

nC-n 190. b, 192. 2 
''n^D-':^ 216. l.a 
nVTP 157. 3 
^nsjn 88 (f. pi.) 

n^-is-jn 61. 4. a 
•'brn 111. 2. 6 
n^:Tn 190. b, 199. c/ 
■^PJ^:^! (3 f.) 172. 3 



^r^^". 53. 3. a, 111. 2. c 
S2nr* 166. 4 

nib^ann 201. 1 
bsnn 60. 3. a 
Tnn 172. 4 

TmPI 111. 2. 6 '^ 

nrnn 172. 4 
Tin 16. 2. a 
I'^vTin 158. 2 
bnnn 158. 2 
bnp 140. 3 
n^np 190. b 
:'^D"'s^bnr\ 220. 2. c 
nr'3nn ui. 2 
CTsnri 190. a 

r.irnn 190. b 
^"::^n 220. 2. a 

CnP] 60. 1. a, 157. 3 

1*nn 173. 3 
rnn: 157. z 
^rncnn 105. e 
r.nn 237. 1, 233. 1 
nnn (fc) 131. 1 
^pnn 194. 2 
on-'rinn 233. 1. b 
12 rnn 239. 2 (2) 
Dnnn 233. 1. b 
•^innn 238. 1. b 
■'rjin 147. 4 

■)"D"^n 193. 1 
■|T2''n 190. 6, 197. 6 

ppn] 150. 3 
m2^'\n 11. 1. 6 



nfer^n 113. 1 

"ij^^n 147. 4 

tn^n 190. 6 

©""n 208. 3. c 

niiTT^n 147. 2 
nr^r^n 147. 4 
Tj'iasn 101. 3. a 
rtDnn 172. 4 
.Vr^^J?] 88 (f. pi.) 
";n:ni 119. 1 

bsn 172. 4 

nbsn 177. 3 
"jsn 50. 1 
riG?n 54. 2 

tfi-lSn 192. 2 

-n^Dn 88 (2 f.) 
sbni 172. 4 

r.N^n 190. 6, 198. a (3) 
C^iibn 177. 3 
■^bnn 147. 5 
np'jbn 147. 2 
rfcn 50. 1 

D'^S^bn 56. 4, 177. 3 

ymni 119. i 
iisbn 105. a 

^Dbn 65. 6 

n:Dbn ei. 4. a, isi. 1 

^n^bn 88 
T'cbn 192. 2 

"IrZ?, "i^n 158. 2 
on 186. 2. c, 207. 2 
on (v.) 139. 2 
on (n.) 186. 2. c 
M^n 143. a 



I 



INDEX III. 



397 



r.pn^n iis. 4 
':5i''oni 161. 3 
nru^iDn is 7. 3 
biian i83. c 

■JinTOP 157. 3 

nsr.^ian is 7. 3 
n^n 175. 3 
*irnari(2m.)i72.3,i75.3 

D^iari 53. 3. a 

iiasbpn io4./ 
iD^biam 99. 3 

D^n 84. 3. a (3), 141. 

1 (p. 175) 
?ia)2P, 54. 3, 141. 2 

nns'ari ei. 6. a 
carii 175. 3 
byian 60. 1. a 
r.rssisn 165. 2 

;|X2T3r\ 60. 1. a 

n:pT2n i4i. 2 
niann i7.5. 3 
man i4o. 5 
inttp 111. 2. 6 

TTTan 192. 2 

D^nii'cn 187. 2. c 

tflTs 157. 3 
■^n 53. 2. a 

:n:ss:n lis. 4 
nira:n i3i. 2 
nbr\ 157. 3 
iq^Dn 131. 2 
npn 132. 1 

l^sn 192. 2 

nsn^ 60. 1. a 
trarc7\ 205. c 



nren 131. 1 n:?n 197. h 

^5^i?^-I?^ 150. 2, 161. 5 "lyn 60. 4. a 

n3")2::n 104. b ^rni 174. 4 

NT2?:r\ 131. 6 Tsrn i73. 3 

lairsn 102. 2 nicyri 172. 3 

nr2cn 61. 3, 136. 2, T;>-niL'?n 27 



141. 2 

tfon 140. 5 

qop 111. 2. 6, 151. 2 

nyp 51. 1, 121. 1 
a?r\ 60. 4. a 
■j^nh?n 88 (m. pi.) 



•ftST\ 55. 2. a, 88. 2./ 

n|nop 105. 6 
nnstn 192. 2. a 
',nshn 111. 2. 6 

n^EPl 192. 2 

nmiriEP 161. 5 



DWn 19. 2, 111. 3. a nrS^EP 157. 3 

"^i^nyp 88 n:^^EP, rc^^sp 157. 3 

2a:?PT 111. 1 n^£P 190. 6 

raaypi 97. 1. « 'j£Pi 172. 4 

n:5i:?P25, 88(f.pl.), 91.C 'st■^\^ 150. 3 

n3.)yp, ns^yp 157. 3 d?2p:] 99. 3. «, 119. 1 

^?pn 172. 4 51EP 141. 3 (p. 175) 

TOP 51. 3 ^S'lpSP 105. 6 

nniyp 198. a (3) nsp 140. 5 



Tym 140. 1 

nryp 91. 6 
atyp 60. 4 
■oypn (■''i^) 157. 3 
nbyp 216. 1. a 
'bypn 140. 5 
nrb2?pi 172. 3 
nb:?p 60. 3. c 
•jiniaypn 99. 3. a 

yT.Vr\ 192. 2, 200. c 

nrrs^p, n3.:3?p 172. 3 ]J5P 50. 1 

3>yP 141. 2 (p. 175) ^ypp 46 

nsyp 97. 1. a -j^pn 157, 3 

njjyp 126. 2 «:ipPi] 166. 4 



•j^UirSP 88 (m. pi.) 

n;s2P 147. 2 
npnisp 161. 3 
nr^sp 141. 2 
n:bsp 141. 2 
^inj^p 139. 1 

rnjpP 190. b, 198. o (3) 

n2rpP88(f. p].), 161. 3 
ri:i2''pp 160. 3 

bpp 140. 1 



398 



INDEX III. 



n:sn;pn ss (3 f. pi) 
'innjjn 88 (3 f. pi.) 
■(in-ipm 99. 3. a 

Cpp\1 174. 4 

nnpn 95, a 
s-iri 35. 2 
xnrn 172. 4 
nsin 172. 3 

VSiin 105. e 

nnriT 172. 4 
nanni 175. 3 
ni2iri 190. 6 
^nba-in 94. a, 115 
"Tin 147. 2 
nr!^nr\i92.2.a, 21 6.1 
n:^nn 88 (3f.pl.), 147. 
^n-in 147. 3 
^■nn 156. 4 
maiin 190. b 
nj'a'aiip 161. 4 
pin 140. 3 
n:rann 92. e 
n^'cnn 192. 2. a 
n:9^nr\88(3f.pi.), 91 

■jlh 190. 6 

nnn 97. 1. « 
n;.?^Jii 88 (f. pi.) 
yin (v.) 140. 5 
?|iri 175. 3 
D'^Ein 201. 2 
nrsnn i65. 3 
ynn-i 140. 5 
V"ini 172. 4 
insinn, ^in^rnn 93. a 
n:^sii'n i65. 2 



nrsten i64. 2 
■l:^^r^^^n lei. 2 

r^^irn 61. 4. a, 205. c 

bsirn 97. 2 
?b-'i<tiiiJn 180. a 
n:';2n i64. 2 
n:nirn 157. 3 
nrnirn ei. 4, 160. 3 
n;-inirn 88 (3 f. pi.) 
narn, rarn 65. a 
np-iinrn 157. 3 
D'oiTrn 54. 2 
n^^T2;n 190. 6, 192. 2. a, 

198. a (3) 

b I'lnirneo. 3.6(2),i20. 1 

2 nncn 119. 1 
■icn 172. 4 
•'SJ'^irn 227. 1 
nisz'i'n 91. c 
npTiJn 88. (f. pi.) 
ninbirn 88 (3 f. pi.), 

105. 6 

-•jbTTn 97. 2 
c ''pbcn 95. a 

DTCn 147. 4 
DI^'OTrn 105. d 

^nbrn 65. b 

111"affin 88 (m. pi.) 
Si'irn 216. 1. e 

3?rn 60. 3. c 

T^Vt^\ 223. 1 

Q"^ytJP. 208. 3. a, 225. 1 

ny;EyTrri i42. i 
nrn'i 153. 2 
nrsiirn iis. 4 



■jnsnTTn 88 (2 f.) 
s^nicn 176. 3 
nrpEnirn, nrpEnrri 

96. b 

nn 131. 4 
-nn 61. 5 
!:752nn 126. 1 
nsnn 142. 2 
"i5nn 60. 4. ff, 176. 3 
nnn (nnn:) 53. 2. 6, 

132. 1 

"i"^nrF! 126. 2 
rcrbnrn 96. b 

'H-nrJ? 161. 2 
inrn i76. 3 

fT!>r!r)r* 94. a 

■'nn 61. 5, 131. 4 
:c^rn^ 176. 3 
Enn 140. 1 
np.v;rnn 161. 3 
:Di2Pri 142. 2 
inn 132. 1 
ii:nni 105. a 
sb:nn i66. 5 
5?rn 172. 4 
:bEnn 142. 2 
xbenn 166. 5 
a^'snni 99. 3. «, 119. 1 
jbnErn 96. b 
asnn 53. 3. b, 150. 3 

(p. 182) 

^srn 25 
:irhn 150. 3 
rnrn 60. 4. fl, 176. 3 
n:t:'jicnn 16I. 3 



Il^DEX IT. 

HEBREW GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 



nbDi r\tD)2 'jn^x 7. 3 

f^^ifl 31 

nniD n)2bii5 •':x 7. 3. a 

riDS n?3 21. 1 

iDira 85. 1. a 
D^?;^5a 76. 1 
S;55 45. 4. a 
pm ©5i'7 23. ] 
bp ICji"! 21. 1 

ny^Tn xn 229. 1 
nbiiiL'n sn 230. 1 
n-ini^xn 7. 3 

n-ai^l 9. 1, 243. 2. a* 

tf^sn 11 99. 1 

nDT 196 

q-jn 16. 3. a 
p^n^n 45. 4. a 

D?t3 28 

Nnnu 29. 6 

D-^iaS 76. 2 
□^^^33 71. c 



p-QH ni? b^nffiD 7. 3. a N|^? 71. c 



a^ns 46 

"i-ip sbi n'lns 46 

?l^n.^b 29. 6 

Tn;* liiab 199 
D"^nn liffib 199 

D^DTp )itb 199 
?J'inii5T3 45. 4. a 

na^^a 71. c 
rriD^'a 212 

n-^b^ 70. a 
D^sb^ 28 

b-'^b'a 32 
^^nbia 32 
nnica 10. 46 

p-'S^ 26 
"lipl3 85. l.a 
CIP^ 43 

isibx nPD ntJ'a 7. 

3. a 

nis^w 28. 6 
ns 16. 2 



tfOCD 212 
"IPpD 71. c 

yp 16. 2 
nnp; 196 

D'^l-iP? 2 
prCS qiO 36. 1 
^^•QD 212 

ni"in? 28 

"15:^ 85. 1 a 
Tny 85. 1. a 
n^b'S 70. a 
i^^2 85. 1. a 
inp 46 
n^P3 ^bl ^'ip 46 

nsn 27 

^nrD^ -j-n bxc 7. 3. a 
i^nir, ii)w 16. 1 
nsnn ^^t -^'aibiij 7. 3. a 
ni^tj 70. a 
nsp-sn ni-ao 223. 1 
rc^n irDxb)3» 7. 3. a 
ni3?^:r\ 12 



iN'araes of the letters ? 2, their signification § 5. 5 
Names of the vowels § 12, their signification § 12. h 
Names of the accents § 29, their signification § 29. b 
Names of the verbal species §7G. 1. 2. 
Designations of imperfect verbs § 76. 3.- 



POSTSOEIPT 



The folded leaf Avliich follows contains a general view of 
the inflections of the various kinds of verbs, perfect and im- 
perfect, the rules for the changes to which nouns are liable, 
the personal pronouns in their separate and suffixed forms, 
and the different vowels assumed by the inseparable prefixes 
and the interrogative ttq . It is designed to be taken out 
of the book and mounted upon pasteboard. The student 
will thus have the most material parts of the grammar brought 
together and exhibited to his eye upon a single page. 

Two sections of the grammar have been inadvertently 
numbered 141 and two 150. To prevent embarrassment 
from this cause in the use of the indexes, the page is almost 
always added when the second of the duplicate sections is 
intended. 



/