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January, 1837. 







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SKETCHES of GERMANY, and the GERMANS; with a 
Glance at Poland, Hungary, and Switzerland, in 1834, 1835, and 1836. By AN 
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2? Genealogy of the Bj-igantes . I. L<<ijlini,l l<\-iU<-;,. 

V -ir-Z< 








Jtom Oriental founts, 











Macintosh, Priiittr, 
Grral N< \v Street, London. 







The very munificent and disinterested manner, 
in which your Lordship has been pleased to notice my 
labours, (devoted as they have been for many years to 
the advancement of sacred and oriental literature in this 
country,) has made it a duty to seize the earliest oppor- 
tunity in my power, publicly to express my obligations 
for the favours so unexpectedly, and I will say so 
unusually, conferred. I will not affirm that our public 
institutions are generally not well endowed, but I may 
that to have performed the duties of both Hebrew and 
Arabic Professor in the University of Cambridge with 
some public credit, for nearly the last dozen years 
with a salary of forty pounds,* was not very likely 
to impress any one so circumstanced with the idea, 
that his pluralities were such as to render him an 
object of public animadversion, or to buoy him up with 
the notion, that his services had been met by his country 

* In addition to this, Lord Liverpool allowed me to draw annually upon 
the Treasury for the sura of 100/., upon producing a certificate of having 
delivered lectures. 

A 2 



with more than ordinary encouragement. How these 
particulars first found their way to your Lordship's 
notice, I have not the means of knowing : but I do 
know that the very handsome manner, in which you 
have been pleased to meet them, has left me no alter- 
native but that of gratefully acknowledging the obliga- 
tions which I owe and feel, and of assuring your Lordship, 
that I shall ever consider it my duty to endeavour 
to deserve the distinction. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your Lordship's most obliged, 
Humble Servant, 



THE first Edition of this Grammar having been entirely 
sold off, and having been requested by the Publisher to 
prepare another, I avail myself of this opportunity to state 
why the Work appears in its present form, and how the 
Learner may most profitably use it. 

After all, then, that has been said about it, either publicly 
or privately, (and I here beg to offer my acknowledgments 
for all the favours thus done me,) my conviction is, that to 
present the Student with both the Synthetical and Analytical 
methods, at the same time, is by far the most likely to give 
him an interest, and to ground him, in the study of the 
Hebrew Language. To cultivate the memory, as well in this 
as in every other sort of study, I hold to be good ; but then 
I must insist upon it, that to interest and inform the mind 
is infinitely better. A very learned and deservedly celebrated 
opponent of mine, on this question, has argued that to give 
naked rules in Grammar, is always the most likely to insure 
the progress, and to advance the truth : while, however, he has 
not hesitated to advance reasons, analytically, in support of his 
own rules, whenever he thought fit to do so. My opinion 
has been, and still is, that where we have Men, and not mere 
Children, to study any Language or Science, it is our duty 
to lay before them at once, both the rule and the reasons for it : 
and thus, at one and the same time, to present the grounds 

* This edition consisted of 1,500 copies; and I cannot help looking upon 
the circumstance as a proof that Hebrew Literature is on the increase 
among us. 


of the matter proposed for instruction, with rules calculated 
to assist the memory in retaining it; and thus to contribute 
towards improving the mind by habits of close investigation 
und inquiry. By these means the Learner will have the advan- 
tage of seeing on what grounds his instructions rest, and 
consequently of determining for himself, whether they are such 
as are entitled to his cordial reception or not : while, on 
the other hand, the Grammarian who is accustomed only to 
consider the Language on which he is treating synthetically, 
is apt to form rules upon every example with which he meets, 
less in conformity with its real principles, than with those 
of that in which he has been accustomed to speak and write : 
which, it may be shewn, has abundantly been the case with 
all European Writers on the Arabic and Hebrew Grammar, 
and of which M. de Sacy (the Writer alluded to) is an 
illustrious and striking example.* 

With the view therefore of accomplishing this, I have, in 
the first place, considered the Vowels as either perfect or 
imperfect : not abstractedly, or with reference to the nature 
of things generally; but with reference to the formation of 
syllables as they are found to exist in this Language. I 
have, for example, termed (T) Kamets, ( ) Tsere, (^~] Kfur'ik 
giidol, (') Kholem, and ( ^ ) Shurek, Perfect vowels; be- 
cause, when combined with any one consonant, they will 
generally form full and perfect syllables. For a similar reason, 
I have termed another set of vowels, as ( - ) Pathakh, &c., 
Imperfect vowels; because, when employed in the forma- 
tion of syllables, they require the addition either of a second 
consonant or of an accent to form such full and perfect syl- 
lables. My reasons are these : When we come to read the 
Hebrew text, it is important to know where every syllable 
commences and terminates, in order duly to pronounce the 
words. And, again, when a Hebrew word is changed from 

* Proofs of this will hereafter be given in a Tract which it is my intention 
to publish. 


the singular to the plural form, or when found in what 
is termed the state of construction, or receives one or other 
of the pronouns, the vowels composing it are usually found 
to vary ; and this in exact accordance with this view of 
the syllabication, in conjunction with the character of their 
etymology or derivation. I have therefore, in the first place, 
stated and exemplified this system of perfect and imperfect 
vowels with regard to the formation of syllables. The ex- 
ceptions introduced by the accents are next noticed : so that 
the Learner is, in a few hours, put in possession of one of 
the main principles which regulate the structure of this 

I have, in the next place, considered the forms and force of 
the several sorts of Nouns, beginning with those which are the 
most simple, and proceeding to those which are the most 
augmented. The forms and force of the unaugmented nouns, 
we must necessarily take as postulates, grounded however 
on the usage of the Language. For the augmented ones I 
have endeavoured to account, by supposing them to present 
two or more of the simpler forms, joined together as com- 
pounds. By this means I have also endeavoured to ascer- 
tain their precise force ; and, in some instances at least, 
I think I have succeeded.* In all these cases too, or in as 
many as it seemed necessary, I have accounted for the changes 
of the vowels, in a way perhaps which can neither be bur- 
densome to the memory, perplexing to the Learner, nor liable 
to be soon forgotten ; and by which the numerous rules and 
exceptions of the school of Buxtorf are avoided, as is also 
the multifarious and indistinct doctrine of .the German Gram- 
marians, by which these nouns are distributed into not fewer 
than thirteen declensions ! 

* See the derivations proposed for the Niphhal, HipKhil, Hophhal, and Hith- 
species of the conjugation, Gram., pp.114 117. 118. 122. 123: 
and the doctrine respecting the use of the tenses of the Verbs, p. 327. 


The Particles I have treated, after Schroederus and others, 
as fragments of nouns, which enables us at once to ascertain 
their precise forms, force, and modes of construction. 

The Verbs I consider, in the next place, as consisting of 
nouns either simple or augmented, conjugated with one or 
other of the pronouns in an abridged form. In this I am not 
singular ; for the Hindoos, Arabs, and even some of our own 
European Grammarians, have done so before me. I adopt 
this view of the case, because it is both easy and natural, and 
because it will at once account both for the form and force of 
the verb in all its varieties of person. A point, however, of 
very great importance here is, the investigation of the prin- 
ciples by which primitive words are occasionally abridged, and 
by which the defective forms of both verbs and nouns can be 
easily and naturally accounted for. This investigation will 
be found in the third Lecture of this Work. Its use is, to 
shew in what particular cases certain letters and vowels are 
dropped or changed, and how all the verbs termed defective, 
are reducible to the Paradigm of the regular triliteral verb. 
This affords the advantage of saving much time and labour, 
and of cutting off the sources of almost infinite perplexity to 
the Student : the result being, that the conjugation is only 
one, and this the most simple and regular possible. 

The next improvement which, I flatter myself, I first pre- 
sented to the Public, is, an analytical investigation of the 
principles which regulate the use of the Tenses of the verb. 
It had been customary to suppose, that the two tenses were 
a past and a future ; and, because it had often been urged, 
forsooth, that this was extremely philosophical, (there being no 
point of time which could properly be termed present,} it was 
thought, that this was one of the greatest beauties of the 
Hebrew Language ! Unfortunately, however, it appears that 
this future is occasionally used as a present tense, and also 
as a past. No reason has been offered, as far as I know, for 
this its usage as a present tense ; but, for its use as a past, the 
conjunction T and, so, &c. has, most unaccountably, been made 


to account, and thence has taken the name of the conversive 
Faw ! A considerable number of instances however occurs, 
in which this tense is so used without any such conversive 
Faw : and What has been done in these cases ? Why, the 
instances have been said to present an enallage temporis ; and 
here the matter very wisely ended ! 

The next shift adopted by the Learned was, to term both 
these tenses Aorists ; and by this their uncertainty was regu- 
larly determined beyond all doubt. For now the Preterite 
could be construed as a past, present, or future, tense, as could 
also this Future, by rule the most indeterminate possible : so 
that the Translator or Commentator had nothing whatever 
to do, but to adopt whatever sense he pleased : his Grammar 
always supplying him with a law comprehensive enough to 
justify all his wanderings. Upon a little consideration, however, 
and with the assistance of a few native Commentators on the 
Arabic Grammar, I felt convinced that the whole of this was 
a mere tissue of trifling and error. I found (what indeed our 
Writers on the Arabic Grammar ought long ago to have told 
us) that these two tenses exhibited really a past, and a 
present, tense : and that they were universally used as such 
in one sense or other : it being customary with the Orientals 
of this family to contemplate past, present, or future, events, 
either as we do, or, as past, present, &c. with respect to some 
other time or circumstance introduced into the context : and 
also, to speak of events, which they believed should surely 
come to pass, as if they had already taken place. These 
usages too are not only natural, but they are also found to 
exist, more or less, in perhaps every language. With the 
Hebrews and Arabians however, owing probably to their 
natural warmth of temperament and expression, they are 
more frequent, and apparently abrupt, than they are found 
elsewhere. In this view of the case, then, all is natural, 
regular, and constant. The tenses are as certain and orderly 
in their use, as any framers of Language could make them : 
and the only instances in which failure is most likely to happen 
in their application, are those in which the Interpreter himself 


is either uninstructed or unpractised in the usages of these 
particular dialects. 

To this doctrine, however, M. de Sacy has loudly, though 
not argumentatively, objected : not so much, I believe, because 
he thought it untrue, as because it appeared to be inconsistent 
with the doctrines laid down in his own Arabic Grammar ; 
which treats one of them, at least as an Aorist, and gives 
no just account of the use of the other. But, Is it likely 
that M. de Sacy can here be right, and the whole nation 
of the Arabs, the Persians, the Syrians, and others, wrong? 
Is it probable that they are ignoiant of the principles upon 
which they speak and write ? Or, that they speak and 
write upon no principles whatever, but go on at random 
(o/>//<TTa>s,) leaving the hearer or reader to make them out 
as well as he can ? This is to my mind quite incredible : 
and, if I am at liberty to believe their best Writers on the 
subject, it is as untrue as it is incredible. In this view of the 
case too, there is a perfect end to the power of the conversive 
Vaw ; which I should consider a great advantage gained, 
knowing as I do, that it is in very many cases worse than 
useless.* To this again my learned opponent loudly objects, 
although he very well knows that no Arab Writer whatever, 
circumstanced nevertheless just as every Hebrew one is in 
this respect, has ever once thought of having recourse to such 
a conversive power in his conjunctive ( ^ ) IVaw ! The Arabs, 
as every one knows, can do very well without this unac- 
countable conversive letter, and so can the Syrians and the 
Ethiopians, employing nevertheless, at the same time, dialects 
most intimately connected with that of the Hebrew, and 
using the tenses of the verbs, just as I have exhibited them 
in this work. They, moreover, feel no want either of this 

Take one only out of the many which may be cited, viz. Is. ix. 5 : 
iapttrbV rnbjpn, which, according to the doctrine about the conversii-t 1, 
ought to be translated, " And the government was, or hath been, upon his 
shoulder" than which nothing can be more incongruous or false. 


doctrine of Aorists, or of the still broader precepts which 
took in the enallage temporum. The principles they have 
adopted are clearly stated and well defined, so that their con- 
versation is easy to be understood, and their written compo- 
sition clear and precise. The same is in all respects the case 
with the Hebrew; and, if it has here been accused of irregu- 
larity or indefiniteness, it was not because the Language itself 
was irregular or indefinite, but because its Grammarians had 
made it so. 

To the doctrine of the tenses, (which I now consider estab- 
lished,) I have in this Edition added that which determines 
the use of the Apocopated form and of the Paragogic letters, 
as found in the verbs. M. de Sacy has endeavoured to shew 
in his Arabic Grammar, that certain terminations of the Arabic 
verb are equivalent to the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Condi- 
tional modes, of the European Grammars ; and it is certain that 
cases occur in which these forms may be so translated. Upon a 
close and long continued examination of this question, however, 
I have been convinced, that no two things can be more distant 
from each other, than are the principles by which these modes 
of expression are regulated in the Oriental and European 
Grammars respectively. The detail will be too long to be 
inserted here, I reserve it therefore for publication in the Tract 
already alluded to. I will only remark now, that if any 
reliance can be placed on this doctrine, as laid down in this 
work for the first time, (and certain it is that it is most amply 
acknowledged by the Grammarians of Arabia,) a most im- 
portant improvement has been made in this part of Hebrew 
Grammar; and the consequence is, the Language itself, so far 
from being poor or defective, as it has been fashionable to 
affirm, is just as full and precise in these respects as its 
neighbour the Greek can be shewn to be. In the first Edition 
of this work, I expressed my doubts indeed, whether the 
paragogic H had in itself any thing like an optative force, such 
as had been ascribed to it by Dr. Gesenius and others. Upon 
more mature consideration, however, I have not only been con- 
vinced that this is the case generally, but that it also possesses 


the power of expressing a correlative one in the subsequent 
members of antithetic sentences, as now stated in the Syntax. 
My reason for doubting then was, an apparent want of extent 
and uniformity in its use, which the results I have since 
arrived at have wholly satisfied. 

Very considerable improvements have likewise been made in 
every page of the Grammar, which need not now be specified. 
I may perhaps say, that I believe the Student will find it, if not 
every thing he may wish, yet certainly much nearer being so 
than it was when it first appeared. The attention of some 
more years to this subject, with the remarks and admonitions 
of others, will perhaps enable me to render this work still 
more worthy of the patronage of the Public : and, should 
a kind Providence continue to afford me health and oppor- 
tunities favourable for bringing about such a result, I trust 
I shall not be remiss in exerting my best efforts for its 

I now proceed to offer a few remarks on Oriental Grammar 
in general, and particularly with reference to its effects on 
the interpretation of the Bible. It has been the misfortune 
of the Hebrew Scriptures, (and indeed of the New Testa- 
ment in a great degree,) that they have generally been treated 
in Europe as if they had been mere European compositions. 
Hebrew Grammars have been constructed, not so much to 
shew the learner what was real Hebrew idiom, as to reduce the 
Hebrew Language itself to a comparison with one or other of 
the Languages of Europe. This might perhaps have been 
tolerable in the days of Buxtorf, when good Oriental Grammars 
and Commentaries on Grammar were extremely difficult of 
access. An opinion, too, has unfortunately prevailed, that 
many exceedingly valuable traditional interpretations were to 
be found in the hands of the Jews. And hence, the Buxtorfs 
and others were assiduous in giving currency to the notion, 
that no man could study the Holy Scriptures, with any 
prospect of success, who had not drunk deeply into the 
streams which had thus providentially come down to us. Hence 


originated the endless appeals to the Grammars, Lexicons, 
Commentaries, and Cabbala, of the Rabbins. The Talmud 
too was now ranked as a work, from which there was scarcely 
any appeal. And the consequence was, the obscurity of the Old 
Testament gradually became so great, and particularly when 
considered in connection with the New, that but few Divines 
among us would dare to attempt an explanation, (not to mention 
a reconciliation with the New,) of any considerable part of it. 
Out of this untractable obscurity seems to have arisen the art 
of applying a double, triple, &c., interpretation to Prophecy, 
as well as to much of the History of the Old Testament. The 
Writers of the New Testament, with some of the elder Fathers 
of the Church, took one consistent and steady view of these 
Scriptures :* the Rabbins, with their followers, took another : 
and, rather than break with either of these, the timid and inex- 
perienced preferred the alternative of taking both ! Hence too 
arose what has been termed " the Grammatical interpre- 
lotion," as opposed to the Theological one; when, alas! the 
first rudiments of the Grammar were scarcely known. And 
the consequence was, the Commentaries of the learned pre- 
sented the inquirer with scarcely any thing more than mere 
statements of Jewish opinions; or, with interpretations of the 
Sacred Text, which stood on no better grounds than those of 
ingenious conjecture. 

But this was not all. The Rabbins with Maimonides at 
their head, (a writer who obtained the flattering title of being 
the first Jew who ceased to play the fool,) drank pretty deeply 
into the metaphysics of Arabia, which, as might have been 
expected, afforded ample amends for the defects of Hebrew 
philology, which were then acknowledged and felt. I will 
not now enter into a consideration of the results actually 
arrived at: I will only affirm, that the work of desolation, 

* See my Sermons and Dissertations on the interpretation of the Holy 
Scriptures, London, 1830, particularly the Preface and the former part of the 
Second Dissertation. 


as it regarded Scriptural knowledge, seems to have arrived 
almost at its summit. Learning of the most imposing and 
most trifling character now filled the writings of the Commen- 
tators : and bodies of divinity, grounded upon these, were 
published to the world in numbers sufficiently great, both to 
surprise and confound the few, who were found bold enough to 
venture upon them. It was of little consequence, in this case, 
whether the Divine was of the orthodox or fanatical party, 
(parties which were then best known from the cast of their 
political opinions,) each was equally removed from the sim- 
plicity of the Scriptures: while each (I am not willing to 
allow) was in actual possession of the saving truths of religion. 
Their misfortune was, to have been led aside into an obscure, 
a steep, and a thorny, path. They had unwarily injured their 
own visual powers by subtleties and refinements, and the con- 
sequence was, they groped as in darkness at noon-day. 

Of late years these studies, (and it is much to be regretted 
these very methods of carrying them on,) have been revived, 
and greatly extended in Germany. And the result has been, 
(as it might have been expected it would,) that under Judaism 
and heathenism combined, a monstrous system, termed by its 
abettors " Rationalism," has actually been formed and most 
lavishly recommended. This, however, exhibits nothing more 
than a revival of the exploded scheme of the once celebrated 
Spinoza, adorned indeed with the splendid trappings of many 
an hour's, ay many a year's, laborious but crude and undigested 
lucubrations. The Grammars, Lexicons, and Commentaries of 
the Divines of this school, imitate as closely as possible those 
of the Jewish Rabbins. They incessantly appeal likewise 
to the Oriental dialects:* but in no case do they evince an 
acquaintance with real Oriental Grammar, or beyond what is 
given in the Grammaire Arabe of the Baron de Sacy ; which, as 
I shall shortly shew, exhibits little more than an endeavour to 
reduce the Grammar of the Arabs to the standard of that of 

* See my Sermons and Dissertations, Dissertation I. throughout. 


the Greeks and Latins. The system of conjecture, therefore, 
so extensively cultivated by the Rabbins, (not to insist on 
the false and foolish system of Theology also adopted by 
these Divines,) has at length so far succeeded in reducing 
the standard of the Holy Scriptures, that it is difficult to 
say, whether we should most admire or condemn the almost 
unexampled patience and industry, which has thus so nearly 
heathenized and unchurched this once venerable and pious 

Their great defects appear to me to be these : I. The \vant of 
a thorough acquaintance with real Oriental Philology ; which, I 
must be allowed to say, is not to be found in the Grammars of 
Oriental Languages composed by Europeans generally, nor yet 
in the Lexicons of Golius, Castell, or Giggeius, which they are 
in the daily habit of citing. Information of this sort is only to 
be found in the Grammars, Commentaries on Grammar, and 
Scholiasts, of the East : and these, if we except one or two 
Individuals, they have not yet read. In the next place, they 
are deficient in real Scriptural knowledge; I mean, in a 
knowledge of the Scriptures distinct and separate fi-om the 
systems and commentaries of the Jewish Rabbins.* Generally 

* See my Sermons and Dissertations, Cambridge, 1830. Diss. I. part ii. 
p. 124. Since writing the above, I have been favoured with a sight of the last 
number of the " Edinburgh Review" (No. 107), in which T am directly 
charged both with ignorance and misrepresentation in what I have said on the 
Rationalism of Germany, and on Dr. Gesenius in particular. My ignorance, 
it should seem, is apparent from the badness of my English, from my not 
knowing where to find a certain work of Bertholdt's, and from a false translation 
of a part of Dr. Gesenius's Commentary on Isaiah; and my disposition to 
misrepresent (coupled with this ignorance) from the manner in which I have 
stated and combated the opinions of Dr. Gesenius. On my bad English I will 
say nothing ; because no faulty passage is pointed out by my censor. On my 
ignorance of the works of Bertholdr, which the Reviewer says I have avowed, 
I need only say, no such avowal is made any where in my work, nor any 
mention whatever of an interpretation of the fifty-second and fifty-third 
chapters of Isaiah by Bertholdt. I have only said, (p. 152.) that " Mr. 
Bertholdt refers us here to a work by J. D. Kruiger, entitled " Commentatio, 


speaking, no Commentary on the Old Testament is to be found 
at all comparable to that given by inspiration in the New. In 

&c." but, as I have not access to this work, I must lake my materials from others, 
&c. The learned Reviewer might, therefore, have spared his charitable help, 
as he terms it, as well as his uncharitable misrepresentation. Come we now 
to the false translation. The words of Gesenius are these, " Die Rede des 
Propheten wechselt hier mil der Rede Jehova'sso ab, dass. lii. 13 15. Jehova 
zu reden fortfahrt, wie in dem Vorgehenden : liii. 1 der Prophet redet, und 
zuar communicativ im Namen seines standes." My false translation is this: 
" The speaking of the Prophet is here so changed for that of Jehovah, that 
chap. lii. 13 15. (not chapter lii. 15, as the Reviewer has been pleased to give 
it,) Jehovah continues to speak as in the preceding context: in liii. 1. the 
prophet communicates in the name proper for his own station." The amended 
translation of the Reviewer is, " Jehovah and the Prophet speak here alter- 
nately. Thus, at the end of the fifty-second chapter, it is Jehovah who continues 
to speak, as in the foregoing verses; but, in the beginning of the fifty-third 
chapter, it is the prophet who speaks, communicatively indeed, (or in the 
manner of one who is holding communication with others,) and in the name of his 
order." Now, I should like to know what the real difference between these 
two translations is, as far as the matter discussed by me is concerned. I 
can see none : and I know my adversary can find none. But, if it be asked, 
Which of these versions is the most literal ? I think I know what the answer 
must be. The first three charges, therefore, of my Reviewer end in mere 
assumptions, just as creditable to himself as they are likely to be serviceable 
to the infidel cause, of which he is anxious to be thought a champion. 
Now for the case of misrepresentation and ignorance combined. " The con- 
clusion," it is said, " he (Dr. Gesenius) comes to at last is, that, in those pas- 
sages where the Prophet speaks of the servant of the Lord, he had in view not 
any one particular person, past, present, or future, but the body, or aggregate, 
of the prophets of the Lord collectively considered : in other words, the Prophetic 
order, which he thus personifies," &c. " In the face of all this Professor Lee ... 
comes forward and attributes to him an interpretation of the passage totally 
different from that which he has thus plainly and distinctly enounced. The 
servant of the Lord here mentioned, says Mr. Lee, is, according to Gesenius's 
comment, the Prophet Isaiah." " We should be inclined," it is added, " to 
consider this misrepresentation as merely a blunder of ignorance, had not Mr. 
Lee turned it to such triumphant account in taunting and exulting over his 

brother Doctor, &c." "This would be merely ridiculous, were there not 

strong reasons for suspecting that there is full as much of unfairness as of 
ignorance at the bottom of it." I think I may say, that my antagonist is not 
excessively ceremonious : he seems quite disposed too to give up the charge 
of ignorance, if he can thereby bring home that of malignity. But why all 


this we must look for the Theology of the ancient Hebrews, 
not in the writings of modern or even ancient unbelieving 

this waste of strength and of good breeding ? Surely there must be some object 
here besides that of a desire for the truth. But let this pass, and let us adopt 
the Reviewer's own statement of the case. Will the matter now be mended ? 
" The servant of the Lord, he (Dr. G.) had in view," (is) " not any one, &c.,. . . . 
but the body or aggregate of the prophets of the Lord collectively considered; 
in other words, the Prophetic order, which he thus personifies." Well : let us 
now apply either or both of these things, which however are very far from 
being identical. The passage had in view is, Is. lii. 13. liii. 9; and my 
general question was, How could this all possibly apply to Isaiah the Prophet? 
Let it now be asked, How could it, either to the body or aggregate of the 
Prophets, or to the Prophetic order personified ? Suppose we allow that 
these persons, or this office, may deal prudently, be extolled, &c., the ques- 
tion now will be, At what period was it, that one or both of them suffered 
martyrdom for the sins of the Jewish nation ? And then, as a reward for these 
sufferings, (liii. 11, 12.) enjoyed the blessings of a long life, with the happiness 
of contemplating a numerous offspring? (i. e. of Prophets and prophetic 
offices personified !) Again, How we are to make the notion of the whole body 
of the Prophets, alias the prophetic office, growing up before him, &c. to 
square with, "when WE shall see HIM. ...WE hid as it were OUR faces from 
HIM.... HE was despised, and WE esteemed HIM not : surely HE hath borne OUR 
GRIEFS," &c.? Who, I ask, is the WE and the HIM, in these passages? If 
Isaiah is now speaking in the " name of his order," surely he must form a part 
of both these bodies; and, as I formerly remarked, must be "acting moonshine 
and wall too !" My Censor is very well aware, that even on his own view of 
the case, the matter proposed is quite indefensible; but he has forgotten to say, 
that in endeavouring to set this right, he has only placed it in an infinitely more 
ludicrous light than I had done. And, let it be remembered, this is all with 
which 1 am concerned: my only object being to shew, that the Theological 
views of this school are untrue and unsound. With Dr. Gesenius's literary 
or gentlemanly reputation, I have nothing to do, except to express my admi- 
ration of both, which I have repeatedly done in the work in question ; but 
which I am sorry to be compelled to say, I cannot do for my Reviewer. I 
thank him, however, for having called my attention to the particular just 
noticed, as it has afforded me an opportunity to correct what I had said on the 
person of Isaiah being meant by Dr. Gesenius, and so to direct my arguments 
as eventually to shew, that the state of the case is really worse than I had 
represented it. My Censor now dismisses me, having, as he natters himself, 
determined that I am quite incapable of considering questions of this nature. 
The question at issue, however, is not whether the persons concerned are igno- 
rant ur learned ; hut whether the Orthodox or the Rationalist Divine be right 


xviii PREFACE. 

Jews, nor yet in the Apocryphal books of Scripture. These 
may profitably be consulted ; but then, the greatest care must 
be taken to give them no more than their real due ; to make 
a prudent use of their Philology and History ; but to treat 
their Theology as a system adopted by blind and misguided 

I myself have been much surprised at the similarity of 
character discoverable between the Philology and Theology of 
the ancient Hebrews. Both appear to me to be of the most 
easy, simple, and definite, character. In neither have we any 
thing forced, unnatural, or metaphysical. They generally 
exhibit things as they are, or as they appear to be, naked, 
unincumbered, and detached from every species of refinement. 
The principal difficulty which an European has to contend with, 
accustomed as he has been to art and to abstract considerations, 
is, to divest himself of these, and to return to the simplicity of 
primitive times. The state of the mind too, unless I am very 
greatly mistaken, has quite as much to do as the powers 
or the head have in making the able Theologian, or the 
good Oriental Grammarian. There must always be a willing- 
ness to learn; to divest self of long-rooted prejudices, and in 
simplicity and godly sincerity, (qualities by far too lowly rated 
in general,) to drink deeply into the sincere milk of the word 
of truth. Without these, the interpreter of Scripture may 
write very learned commentaries, but they will be very 
useless, if not dangerous, books. With this, however, and 
with the aids now accessible to every one, there is great 
probability that the light which the Scriptures have long 
afforded us, will shine more and more, perhaps to the perfect 
day : and will not only put to flight the instances of darkness 
still visible among ourselves, but will succeed in dispensing 
their healing beams to the most distant parts of the earth. 

in his views. Personalities are certainly easier advanced than arguments; and 
where arguments are not to be had, which I have reason to suspect is the case 
here, the enlightened and liberal system attempted to be propped up must 
necessarily rest on personalities ! 


I have been anxious to say thus much on the subject of 
Oriental Grammar considered in connection with the question 
of scriptural interpretation ; because I am of opinion that 
Theologians, of this and other European countries in general, 
evince a much greater lack of knowledge of this sort, than 
they do of natural ability, industry, or perseverance : while 
there are others, not indeed deficient in personal piety, 
but so little accustomed to extensive literary inquiry, and to 
modes of thinking and expression unlike their own, that they 
make no hesitation in coming at once to conclusions the most 
plausible, splendid, and flattering; but which have not the least 
possible foundation in truth ; and which, instead of recom- 
mending religion, as they might have been intended to do, 
tend eventually to injure it. Religion, to deserve that name, 
must necessarily be founded in TRUTH ; and this the most 
extended, the most scientific, and the most rigid inquiry, never 
can, and never will, injure. 

I may now offer a few remarks on the use of this Grammar. 
It is one of the greatest misfortunes to this country in general, 
and to the interest of true religion in particular, that so little en- 
couragement is given in our Universities to the study of sacred 
literature.* The necessary consequence is, a few may be found 
hardy enough to encounter the many years' labour, which is 
absolutely requisite to form the truly learned and enlightened 
Theologian : but these can never be numerous ; and times may 
come in which there may not be even one. In such a state of 
things, short, and if I may so speak, royal roads to this kind 
of eminence will daily be advanced and recommended by 
empirics, whom ignorance will not have it in its power to 
detect, and whom idleness and vanity will applaud as the 
prodigies of their times. f I need now say no more on 
this subject, than that these short and royal roads had very 

* The circumstance noticed in ray Dedication will, I trust, have a different 

f I need not say how remarkably this was exemplified a few years ago, in an 
attempt which was pretty extensively supported, to obtrude upon the British 
public a new translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. 


nearly succeeded in putting to flight every trace of real Hebrew 
learning in this country. The wire-drawn theories of Masclef, 
John Hutchinson, Parkhurst, and a host of others, certainly 
made every thing appear very easy to the learner, while, in 
fact, they effectually enveloped it in impenetrable darkness. 

It has more than once been suggested to me, that ni) 
Grammar had better be made more popular, and if possible, 
shorter. My answer once for all is : To those who have made 
up their minds to take none but a short and popular path, this 
Grammar will be found to answer full as well as any other 
can ; while it will have the advantage of enabling them to 
make a far greater progress, than such works themselves ever 
pretend to, should they eventually find courage enough to 
study it thoroughly. All that mere learners can first want 
must be, to see what terminations the nouns will take under 
their various inflexions, and how the verbs are generally con- 
jugated. With these the historical books of the Hebrew 
Bible can generally be made out, with the help of an analysis 
or translation, or both. And to the beginner who has a 
teacher at hand, perhaps, this will generally be the best method 
that can be recommended. I very well know how mxich a 
progress even of this sort will encourage the learner, who is 
otherwise unencouraged and unassisted. I know too how slo\v 
the very best of us are to imbibe, and to lay up in the mind, 
notions, with which we were not previously acquainted. 
Besides, it is natural and prudent to restrict our first efforts 
to limits which they will conveniently comprehend, and effec- 
tually fill. Time and opportunity will enable us to extend 
them ; and, if we proceed not more rapidly than sure, we shall 
at least have the satisfaction to know, that what we have done, 
we have hitherto done well; and, in these studies, this is 
every thing. The driveller in Theology is soon detected ; and, 
should he be so fortunate as to live and die without doing 
extensive mischief, he will not without having convinced the 
world that he was a mere pretender. 

These first steps then being taken, the next will necessarily 
be, to examine with care the nature and character of tho 


etymology of the Hebrew language, the laws by which the 
syntax is regulated, the customs, modes of thinking, antiquities, 
religious belief, and expectations, of the ancient Hebrew 
nation, which will include the use of Commentaries, Concord- 
ances, ancient and modern Translations, the Oriental Lan- 
guages, Travellers, and in short every other help usually 
recommended to the student of Scripture. I mention these 
things, because some are apt to think that a knowledge of the 
Grammar, with the use of the Dictionary only, is quite enough 
to enable any one to be an able interpreter of Holy Writ ; 
while the truth is, language, opinions, and customs, are so 
intimately connected together, that they never can entirely 
be separated. Where however this is attempted, (and it is 
often attempted,) conjecture, uncertainty, and doubt, must 
necessarily supply their place. The study of the Oriental 
Languages indeed, which is indispensable to the critic, opens a 
very extensive field of inquiry. Our daily intercourse how- 
ever with the East, in addition to the numerous valuable ele- 
mentary and other Oriental works, which are now, by the 
munificence of the British public, daily making their appear- 
ance, has rendered this study comparatively easy and sure. 
And the probability is, that at no distant period it will be in 
the power of the British Divine, to call in to his aid every 
assistance which the East can afford him.* And my own 
opinion is, that if all these helps be duly appreciated and 
applied, we may indeed never have it in our power to boast of 
more erudite, laborious, acute, or pious, Divines than we now 
can, but we may of those who are more simple, more easy, 
more engaging, and more practical. 

I need now only add, what it is important the student should 
know, that the Hebrew Bible from which the extracts in this 
work are taken, is that which was printed under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Judah d'Allemand for the Publisher of this work. 

* I allude to the Oriental translation Committee which was established a few 
years ago, principally by the zeal and activity of the Earl of Munster, aided 
by the assistance of our present gracious and beloved Sovereign, His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex, and other members of the Royal Family. See 
the Reports of this Institution. 




On the Alphabet 25 

On the Powers of the Consonants 5 9 

On their Numerical Values 9 10 

Division into Gutturals, Palatals, &c 10 ib. 

Quiescence of the "OnS letters ib. 1 1 

Division into Radical and Servile ib. 

On the Vowels ....< 12 13 

On Sheva and its Substitutes 13 

On the Formation of Syllables ib. 15 

On the Combination of the Vowels with the Consonants 15 16 

On the Initial and Final Characters of Sheva and its Substitutes .... 1 7 18 

On Puthakh when termed Furtive 19 

Use of Sheva and its Substitutes 19 20 

On the Points, Dagesh and Muppik 2021 

On the Mark Rapte 21 

On the Vowel Kholem, with iff and EJ 21 

On Khirik with or without 22 

Distinctions between Kamets and Kamtts Khatuph 22 23 



Tables of the Hebrew Accents 24 26 

On the Use of the Accents 26 28 

Praxis on the Reading with Accents 28 32 



Euphonic Changes in the Orthography, as it regards the Consonants 33 37 

On the Contractions which take place in the Vowels. 37 38 

On the General Changes of the Vowels 39 41 

On the Use of Sheva and its Substitutes 41 44 

Particular rules for the insertion of Dagesh 44 47 




Their offices, Tonic and Euphonic 48 

On the Tonic Accent 48 50 

On the anomalies found in its situation 50 56 

On the use and situation of the Euphonic Accent 56 57 

Rules for its insertion , 57 59 

On the use and position of Makkaph 59 60 

Rules for its insertion 60 61 



On the Masculine Gender 62 64 

On the formation of the Feminine from the Masculine 64 66 

On the inflection of Nouns 66 

On the formation of the Dual Number 66 67 

On the formation of the Plural Number Masculine 67 70 

On the formation of the Plural Number Feminine 70 72 

On the changes of termination, &c. necessary for the state of con- 
struction 72 74 



On the primitive character of the Nouns 74 75 

On the Personal Pronouns, Separable and Inseparable 76 80 

On the Inseparable Pronouns when attached to Nouns 80 83 

Anomalies in Do 83 84 

On the use and signification of Words generally 84 89 

On the measures applied to the primitive forms 89 91 

The Primitive Segolate forms, and their Euphonic character 91 93 

On the first Species of Do. of the forms ^pS and IpQ 94 96 

On the Second Species of Do. of the forms "TpQ and "Tf?Q 96 

On the third, of the forms "T)"?? and "TpS 96 97 

On the fourth, of the forms "TpQ and IpS 97 93 

On the fifth, of the forms "Tp*S and "fpQ 98 100 

On the abstract force of these Nouns 100 101 

On the second general class of Primitive Nouns not Segolate, and 

which are concrete in sense 101 

Their forms .101 


Tables, exhibiting their several inflections, as to gender, number, 

conjunction with the pronouns, and state of construction 101 105 



Classification of these 1 5 * 07 

On the reduplicated class of words 107108 

The force of these when conjugated as Verbs 108 1 10 

Tables exhibiting their inflections, &c 110 112 

On Nouns said to be reduplicated by implication 11 2 1 1 3 

On the augmented Nouns termed "'FDENH He-cmanti 11 3 1 1 5 

Their force when conjugated as Verbs active and passive, in the 

forms Hiphhil and Hophhal 115117 

Do. when in the form Hithpahil 118 121 

Etymology of Nouns commencing with Z3 and 2 121 122 

On the force of those conjugated in the Niphlml species 123 124 

Tables of these forms generally 125 131 

On those forms which have the He-emanti letters prefixed 131 132 



On those forms which have the He-emanti letters postfixed 132137 

On the Reduplicated, and otherwise Compounded words 137 141 

On the forms and composition of Nouns, adopted as Proper Names 141 148 



On the forms and characters of the Separable Particles 148 153 

Do. of the Inseparable Particles 153 157 

On those termed Paragogic 157 164 

On the Demonstrative Pronouns 164 

On the Relative Pronoun "1CPM 164 165 

On the Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns, &c 166 169 

On the Definite Article n 169 174 

On the Numerals f 174 173 



On Iheir etymology, forms, and properties 1 79 -187 


Etymology and forms of the conjugation of the two Tenses of the 

first species Kal ., 187 199 

On the Infinitive and Imperative forms , 199 203 

On the Participles (as they have been termed) 203 


Etymology and forms of the conjugation in the second species, or 

Niphh&l 204208 

Do. in the third species, or Pthtl 208 

Do. in the fourth species, or Puhal 209212 

Do. in the fifth and sixth species, or Hiphhil and Hophhdl 212 217 

Do. in the seventh species, or Hithpahel 217 21 9 

On the remaining augmented, but less usual, species of the con- 
jugation of Hebrew Verbs 219 221 



On the causes of the Defects found to exist in Hebrew Verbs gene- 
rally 222 

The conjugations of those commencing with 3, reconciled with 

those of the regular triliteral Verbs 223 224 

Do. of those commencing with N, and \ respectively 225 231 

Do. of those having *), or \ for the middle radical letter respect- 
ively 231 233 

Do. of those in which the third radical letter is subject to elision . . 234 237 

Do. of those Verbs which have M for their third radical letter 238 239 


On those Verbs which have their second and third radical letters the 

same 239 242 

On those Verbs which are doubly defective 243 248 

On the Abbreviated Pronouns as attached to Verbs 248 254 

On the mode of affixing these to the Defective Verbs 254 255 

Tables exhibiting the conjugation, in the several species, of every 
sort of Verb, whether Defective or not, with their Infinitive and 
Participial forms 256 269 



On the construction of the several sorts of Propositions generally . . 270 272 


On the Predicate of Propositions in Hebrew 272274 

On the concordance of the Subject with the Predicate 274 278 

On the concordance of the Nominative with its Verb. . . 278 281 

On the Nominative Absolute 281284 



This dependence is regulated by two principles, generally, i. e. that 

of Apposition, and that of the Definite State of Construction.. 285 

On the Apposition of words, immediate and mediate 285 291 

On that termed Hendiadys 291 

On that affecting the Nouns of Time and Place 292293 

On Attributives when in Apposition 293 295 

On the Use of the Definite Article 295298 

On the Adverbs, and other qualifying terms 298 301 

On the emphatic repetition of words and phrases 301 302 

On Nouns put in the Definite State of Construction, both imme- 
diately and mediately 303 307 

On that sort of Definite Construction which has been termed 

Distinctive 308 309 

On the construction of the Numerals 309 310 

On their concordance with the thing numbered 310 

Other modes of construction 310 312 



The Principles by which these are regulated stated 312 314 

Examples illustrative of these 315 321 

On apparently Elliptical Constructions 321 325 

On Impersonal Expressions 326 



On the Principles which regulate the use of the Tenses generally, in 

direct (or indicative) constructions 327337 

Ditto in Subjunctive or Conditional constructions, whether regulated 
by the separable particles, or by the forms termed Apocope and 

Paragoge 337 347 

On the Preterite used as a Future, or Imperative, emphatically 347 351 


Miscellaneous constructions 351 352 

Opinions enounced as facts generally 352 354 

Hypothetical sentences how enounced 354 356 

Commands, requests, &c. enounced by the Imperative forms 356 357 

Remarks on the Principles regulating these 357 



On the Adverbs generally 358 360 

The construction of ^H, ^b, DDN, 113?, ^21, ^2 360367 



On their general usage 367 

On the Relative Pronoun ~)27M (also p. 283.) 368 

Of Adverbs, Prepositions, &c., simple and compound, DM ^fo /3, 

^3 nps, -itPN 2,73?, DN T?, nata is, rnto, 79, DN, and 

on the forms used in oaths ib. 372 

On the Copulative Conjunction 1 generally: when redundant, or 

defective : or denoting distribution 372 373 

On the Conditional, Causal, and Conclusive, Conjunctions. 

^VlH, DN, ^3, DM vp, 13, IS'b?;, 7^, "IK^ ^ab, 

nnri, -itfs nnri, -ircy nj?y, ]5b, -itw iv!, ^ ^ & c . 373374 

On the Interjections , 374 375 



On the distinctive powers of the Accents ... 376 378 

A Table, &c. pointing out their rank, order, and powers 378 381 

Words in Apposition, or definite construction, the nominative with 

its verb, &c. how combined 381 383 

Nominative Absolute, how distinguished 383 

Qualifying words and phrases, parentheses, &c 383 384 

Parallelism, how pointed out 384 385 

On the Accentuation of the Metrical Books, Job, Proverbs, and the 

Psalms . . . 385 388 







may, for will 



may, for must 










1 , T . . 



n '7? 






Kimkhi. ib.Mikhlol 









rn^Dn D^BB, j 



or flTj9B ' 



which ' 





1. AS it is proposed to offer, in the present course of 
Lectures, a comprehensive and practical view of the 
structure of the Hebrew Language, all discussions re- 
lating to General Grammar, Philology, and Antiquities, 
will be avoided as much as possible ; referring as we pro- 
ceed to Authors who have treated on these subjects. 
It will also be taken for granted, that the Student is 
acquainted with Grammar as generally taught ; and, 
that he is penman sufficiently good to write down such 
forms of letters, &c., as shall be laid before him. 

2. But, although it is desirable that the Learner 
should know something of the principles of Grammar as 
generally taught ; yet, he must not hence be tempted to 
infer, that a system almost entirely at variance with that 
to which he has been accustomed, is unphilosophical or 
wrong : or, because he cannot at first sight comprehend 
all its bearings, that it is therefore uncouth, embar- 
rassed, or ambiguous. For it may be true, that the 
Language of the Patriarchs and Prophets is as con- 
sistent in its structure, as the subjects on which it treats 


2 LECTURE i. CART. 3. 

are interesting and momentous ; and, that it is as explicit 
and regular as other languages, which have been cul- 
tivated with much greater ardour, while they had infi- 
nitely less to offer in return. He must, therefore, allow 
the Language on which we are now entering, to stand or 
fall on its own merits ; and, our delineation of it to be 
judged by the rules of criticism peculiar to itself. We 
mention this in the outset, not to depreciate the labours 
of others who may have taken a different view of this 
subject ; but to warn the student, that the idioms of the 
Hebrew and other Dialects connected with it, are neither 
to be judged of nor explained by those of European lan- 
guages ; and hence, to caution him against that trouble 
and confusion, into which some have had the misfortune 
to fall. 

On the Alphabet. 

3. The system of Orthography found in our Hebrew 
Bibles, and that which has ever been taught with the 
greatest success,* presents a succession of consonants 
written in a direction proceeding from the right hand of 
the page towards the left. Two or more of these are 
found in every word ; while the words themselves are 
separated from each other by a moderate space. To this 
system of consonants another is added consisting of 
vowels ; and these are placed above, in the middle, or 
below, the line of consonants, as their several natures 
may require. To this, again, is superadded another, con- 
sisting of Accents, which are also placed either above, in 
the middle, or below, the consonants, in the same line or 
rank with the vowels. Before the student can possibly 
read the Hebrew text, therefore, he must be made 
familiar with these several parts of Hebrew orthography. 

4. We shall proceed, in the first place, to delineate 
and explain the characters of the consonants ; the number, 
forms, names, powers, and numerical values, of which are 
as follows. 

* We say, the greatest success; for after all that has been said by the advo- 
cates for the unpointed system, it will be extremely difficult to point out one 
writer of that school who has really advanced Hebrew learning. 

ART. 4.]] 












P|7^ Alef 

I unaspirated, as in 



humble, hour, 


^ r 3 



!T3 Beth 

V or B respectively, 


as in van or ban. 



^ jrl 



7O il Gimel 

i hard, as in gird, 


7 or r\ 



H/T Daleth 

), as in do, dare. 





^H He 

I aspirated, as in 





_ _ 



] Vaw, or 

V, by some, as in 
vow, by others, 



W, as in work. 




pt Ziyin 

Z, as in seal, or S in 





IT!"! Kh^th 

h strongly aspirat- 


ed, as ch in the 

German, nicht. 




n^co Tab 

f, as in turn. 





"TV Y6d 

Y, as in yes, yonder. 


j or j and 


2 and as a 

P]3 Caph 

C, as in carry, cash. 


affinal let- 

final *| 

L, 1 ') 



^^7 Lamed 

L, as in love, &c. 


7j and as a 


P and as a 


M, as in man, &c. 


final ^^ 

final P 

J and as a 


J and as a 

|U Nun 

N, as in no, &c. 


final | 

final | 



S, as in Sir ; never 





] j! Ayin 

as S in those. 
The true sound of this 
letter being un- 


known, it is usu- 

ally passed over 

in silence, as H 

in humble : we 

shall designate it 

thus, H. 

ft or ft and 


P and as a 

HS Pe 

PH, when without 


* * ^* ta 

the point, as in 

as a final CT 

final Cl 




pointed, as in 


V and as 


j and as a 

^"T^ TsadcS 

TS, as in mats, &c. 


a final V 

final [ 




P]1p K6ph 

K, as in look, &c. 




Ji'^l R^sh 

R, as in roast, &c. 




P&h Shin 

SH, as in shine. 




j"lj^j Sin 

S, as in son, neve 

as S in those. 





TH orTrespectivelj 
as in thin or tin 



In this and all future examples where the Roman 
vowels will be put to represent the Hebrew ones, #, or #, 
will have the sound of the Italian a, or a in far ; and , 
as a in man ; e, or e, as a in wane or at in rain ; e, the 
same sound shortened : i, or i, as 00 in **0 ; i, as * in in : 
6, or o, as o in 7*0*0 ; o, the same sound shortened : u, or 
?7, as oo in #00 ; w, as oo in good. The first vowel in 
each case will represent the accented or emphatical 
syllable, e. g. a in father, &c. ; the second with the mark 
(-) as a, e, &c. will shew, that, as such vowel generally 
terminates a syllable, it will be pronounced openly, but 
not with an accent. 

5. The Samaritan and Rabbinical forms of the Hebrew 
character have been given for the following reasons : 

1 . The Samaritan Pentateuch being nothing more than 
a different edition of that in use among the Jews, the 
Student will want no other help for reading it, than the 
forms of the Samaritan character : and, 

2. As the Rabbinical commentaries are composed, for 
the most part, in Biblical Hebrew, he will stand in need 
of little more than a copy of their alphabet to enable 
him to read them.* 

6. The number and order of the consonants, as given in the table, 
are found in the text of the Hebrew Bible. The following are the 
passages : Psalms xxxiv. cxix. cxlv. ; Proverbs xxxi., from verse 
10 to the end ; Lamentations i. ii. iii. iv. In Psalm xxxiv. how- 
ever, the verse beginning with 1 Van has either been lost, or both 
"f He and 1 Van are found in the 6th verse ; and in the cxlvth, 
that which should commence with 3 is also wanting. In the ii. iii. 
and ivth chapters of the Lamentations, y Aytn and Q Pe are found 
transposed, which may perhaps be attributed to the copyists. 

* Should he wish to make a considerable progress in Rabbinical learning, 
he will find some of the best books pointed out in Sect. xi. of my Sylloge 
Labrorum Orientalium. Cantab. 1821. 


7. As to the forms of the consonants, it is highly probable that 
they were originally hieroglyphical :* but, whether the Hebrew or 
Samaritan form is the most ancient, a difference of opinion seems to 
have prevailed as early as the times of Jerome ; and which, as 
Schultens has justly remarked, has been contested in some instances 
with an acrimony, which neither the nature of the case, nor the 
love of truth, could justify ;-f- some maintaining, that the Samaritan 
was the primitive form, and that Ezra adopted the other on the 
return from Babylon : others, that the Biblical character, as we now 
have it, is the same with that in which Moses composed his Auto- 
graph. J For my own part, I am inclined to believe with Baver 
and some others, that which of the characters soever we take as 
exhibiting the most ancient form, the other is no greater a varia- 
tion from it, than may be traced in our own black letter as derived 
from the Roman ; and, by no means so great as that discernible 
between our own hand-writing and the printed letter, from which 
it has been derived. 

8. The letters N H 7 D *\ D, when occurring at the 
end of a line, are sometimes lengthened out thus, 
K n^Q *1 .T"i, in order to fill up the space. 

On the Powers of the Consonants. 

9. N Alef, as already remarked, has the power of an 
unaspirated H : that is, it is used for the purpose of 
enouncing the vowel following it without any audible 
aspiration. It appears probable also, that this was its 
power in ancient times ; not only, because the same letter 
has to this day the same power in the Syriac, Arabic, and 

* Champollion Precis, du Syst. Hier. pp. 312, 316. Plates A to K. 
P. Lacour. Essai sur les Hier. Bordeaux. 1821. pp. 45 48, 131, 166, &c. 
Though I can see no reason why we are to go to Egypt for the Hebrew Letters, 
unless we are to suppose that marks, representing certain substances and sounds, 
could not be formed elsewhere. See Geschichte der Hebraische Sprache, &c., 
von Wil. Gesenius, 4045. See my Sermons and Dissertations on Pro- 
phecy, &c. p. 1 17, &c. Proleg. to Bagster's Polyglott Bible, Prol. I. ii. 

f Fundam. Ling. Heb., p. 18. 

t See the controversy between Capell and Buxtorf. 

Crit. Sac. Buveri, Tract i. 12. p. 125 (mihi). 

6 LECTURE i. CART. 10. 

Ethiopic, which are nothing more than dialects of the 
Hebrew, but because we find it occasionally put for H 
He, or y Ay in, in the Hebrew Bible itself ; and, in the 
cognate dialects, the Syriac and Chaldee, for ^ Y6d.* 
Among the Greeks and Latins it was expressed by 
one or other of the vowels unaspirated, and mostly by 
Alpha or A.f In writing Hebrew words in Roman 
letters, we shall form the syllable in which this letter is 
found, by representing that vowel only which accom- 
panies it. 

10. 1 Beth is found either with or without a point in- 
scribed, as 3 or 1. In the first case it is pronounced as 
our B ; in the second, as V ; and hence, it is sometimes 
represented by 1 Vaw, as 23, occasionally written 13. In 
the cognate dialects it is often changed for S Pe or 
O Mem, being a letter of the same organ with them. 
But of this more will be said hereafter. 

11. 3 Gtmelis also written with or without the point, 
thus 3 or X In the first case, all are agreed that it 
should be pronounced like G in the words gird, give, 
and the like. How it should be pronounced in the 
second, grammarians are not agreed. Some think it 
should take the sound of G in ginger ; others, that it 
should be pronounced as G in the German Gtemacht, &c. 
The usual practice, however, is, to sound it like G in 
gird, in every case.J 

1 2. 1 Daleth is also found both with and without this 

* As will be shewn in my Hebrew Dictionary. 

t See the Bibliotheca Sacra by Masch, partis secund. vol. ii. pref. p. 35, 
&c. : also, the Dissertatio R. P. Bernhardi de Montfaucon de veteri literarum 
et vocalium Hebraicarum pronuntiatione, torn. ii. of his Hexapla of Origen, or 
in the Bibliotheca Hebraea of Wolfius, torn. ii. p. 648 ; or the Appendix to 
Jahn's Gramm. Ling. Heb. &c. 

J The manner in which the ancients represented this, and other letters of the 
Alphabet, may be seen in Masch or Montfaucon, as cited above. 


point, as "n and T In the first case it is pronounced like 
D in dare, do, &c. In the second, some give it the sound 
of TH, in thine, this; others neglect this distinction, and 
pronounce it like D in every case. It is probable, that 
it was originally pronounced with the tip of the tongue 
placed against the roots of the fore-teeth, just as its 
corresponding letter is still pronounced by the Orientals ; 
which will give it rather a softer sound than that of our 
D. It is also probable, that it had two sounds, as it is 
the case now with the Arabic, where we have j Dal and 
j Dhal ; the former pronounced like D dental, the latter 
like th in thine. Hence we may account for "111 Davdr 
meaning a word, and "111 Dever, meaning a pestilence : 
the root of the former being j j Dhdbara, scripsit librum, 
&c., the other ^ Ddbara, ulcer atumfuit, &c. We also 
have j j Dhdbr from the first root signifying Scriptura, 
and j| j Dhdbir, bene discens, et edoctus, sapientiam, of 
similar import with "Ql Ddvdr, a word, relation, &c. ; 
and from the second, ^ Ddbr mors, of similar significa- 
tion with "HI Dever, pestis, &c. This method of con- 
sidering the powers of several other letters of the 
Alphabet, will generally explain the apparently conflicting 
significations sometimes found to prevail in the same 
Hebrew root, of which the modern Lexicographers have 
very properly availed themselves.* 

13. It will be unnecessary to make any additional 
remarks on the following letters till we come to 11 Kheth; 
and, on this it is only necessary to say, that like 1 Ddleth, 
it probably had two sounds originally, the one more, the 
other less, aspirated, as noticed in the Dictionaries. 

* Eichhorn in his Edition of the Lexicon of Simonis, Schulz in his edition 
of Cocceius, and Dr. Gesenius in the Hebrew Dictionary. See also Storr's 
Observationes ad Analogiam et Syntaxin Hebraicam, p. 48. 

8 LECTURE i. ART. 15, 

14. 15 Teth should be pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue against the roof of the mouth, just as our own T 
is, and hence it may be termed cerebral. 

15. ^ Y6d is equivalent to our Y, as stated in the table. 
The Italians and Germans represent this letter by J, 
which they pronounce like our Y: and, as the first 
Hebrew Grammars studied in this country were imported 
from the Continent, we adopted the word Jehovah, Jehu, 
&c. which they very properly pronounced Yehovak, 
Yehu, &e. When occurring at the beginning of a 
word with the vowel i, it loses its power as a consonant, 
and takes the sound of the vowel only, as Is-ra-el, not 
Yis-ra-el. This is also found to take place in the Arabic, 
as Iktoby not Yektob, for <J^j& ^ ee ^ e Sacy's Gram. 
Arab., vol. i. p. 4, note. 

16. The sound of D, without a point, probably partook 
more of the sound of K than of n Kheth, which will 
account for its being represented by the Greek ^ and x. 
With the point (3) it is universally sounded like our C in 
carry, as already stated. 

17. D Sdmek, and & Sin, have for many centuries been 
pronounced alike, i. e. like S, in sin; and, although many 
Hebrew words are now found written with either pro- 
miscuously, it is doubtful whether this is not owing to 
the copyists ; possibly it may be a departure from the 
pronunciation of V) Shin which may have been peculiar to 

this form (tt>) even in ancient times. See Judg. xii. 6. 

18. y Ay in probably had, like 1 Daleth and n Kheth, 

two sounds originally ; one approaching to that of g 
mixed with h or r ; another to that of N Alef, just as it 
is the case with the Arabs, who have both c Ghain, and 
c Ain. The examples to be found in the modern Lexicons 
under this letter, as well as the various orthography of 


proper names found in the Septuagint, may be considered 
as sufficient proof of this position.* At present, this 
letter is usually passed over, like the Alef, in silence. 
The sound of ng in king, given to it generally by the 
Jews, may probably have prevailed even in ancient times. 
I have observed in the pronunciation of the Arabs of 
Barbary, that they give a nasal sound to their Ain, c ; 
and, that the Archbishop of Jerusalem, who was some 
time ago in this country, pronounced the Syriac ** in this 
way, although the Maronites inform us, that it should be 
pronounced with a sort of compression of the throat.f 
We shall designate it in the Roman characters by an H, 
with a point under it. 

19. The sound of p Koph is rather harder than 
that of 3 Cciph : it is made by a sudden compression of 
the throat, and may be compared to the noise made by 
water when discharging itself from a bottle : it is, perhaps, 
analogous with the Roman Q. The explanations given 
in the table will be sufficient for the remaining letters. 

20. We now come to the numerical values of the letters. We 
have given in the Table (Art. 4) the letters corresponding to the 
units, tens, and hundreds, up to 400. The remaining hundreds up 
to one thousand, are thus expressed : the *f final Cdph is put for 
500 ; Q final Mem for 600; j final Nun for 700; ?] final Pe 800; 
and If final Tsdde 900. One thousand is mostly expressed by the 
word ffbs Elef, a thousand; two thousand by C^sbs Alpdyim ; 
any number of thousands by using the word F]^S efef, thousand, 
or CTsbN Alafim, thousands, with the proper numeral prefixed, as 
the rules of Syntax shall require. Sometimes, as in the notes of 
the Masora, & stands for one thousand ; but on this subject the 
Hebrew tables of abbreviations should be consulted. 

* See the Lexicons of Gesenius, (and Simonis, edd. Eichhorn and Winer,) 
under this letter. See also Storr as above, p. 48. 

f Amira's Grammatica Syriaca, Rome, 1596, p. 6. 

I Joannis Buxtorfii de Abbreviaturis Hebraicis Liber, with the Supplement 
of Wolfius. Biblioth. Heb., torn. ii. p. 575. For the abbreviations found in the 
Masora, see the Tiberias, or Commentarius Masorethicus, of Buxtorf. 

10 LECTURE i. CART. 21. 

21. The numbers from ten to twenty are made by adding such 
unit to the numeral for ten, as will make the number required. 
Thus M* will represent eleven, i^ twelve, and so on. The number 
15, however, is made by ItD, i. e. 9+6, not 7T, i. e. 10+5, because 
JT is one of the names of God. In like manner, 21 will be ND, 
22 23, 32 nb, 42 3, and so on. On this principle, the number 
given at the end of Genesis for the verses found in that book 
is, lb < fS=1534. 

22. Whether this method of expressing numbers formerly pre- 
vailed in the Hebrew manuscripts, has been a subject of some 
dispute, and one which it is now impossible to determine. That the 
numbers have been expressed in words written at length for some 
centuries, there seems to be no doubt, but whether this was the case 
in very ancient times or not, it is difficult to say.* 

23. As the Hebrew letters are sometimes changed for 
one another, both in primitive words, and in the process 
of derivation ; and, as this change mostly takes place in 
letters of the same organ,f the following classification of 
them, according to the different organs of speech, has 
usually been given : 

1 Gutturals, N Alef, H He, H Kheth, V Ayin. 

2 Palatals, 3 Gimel, * Yod, 5 Cdph, p Koph. 

3 Linguals, ^ Ddleth,U Teth, n Taw. 

4 Sibilants, t Zdyin, D Sdmek, * Tsade, & Shin, US Sin. 

5 Labials, 3. Beth, 1 Vaw, Q Mem, D Pe. 

24. The letters b, Q, 3, "1, are termed liquids. J 

25. Four of the letters of the Alphabet occasionally 
lose their powers as consonants, and are then said to be 
quiescent or silent. These letters are, N Alef, P! He, 
1 Vaw, and ^ Yod, which form a sort of memoria tec/mica 

* See Baver's Critica Sacra, Tract i. 23, page (mihi) 188. 

t As 13 for S3 and fp the back; N^IE and Knn/af; and many others 
to be found in the dictionaries. 

J Whether any of the letters nWTIQ be with or without the points, as 
given in the table of the Alphabet, or whether others assume their own final 
forms or not, makes no difference as to their classification, they will still belong 
to one or other of the above classes. 


in the word ^HM Ehevi, Those letters too which occa- 
sionally have a point inscribed, have, for the same reason, 
been formed into the technical word fiQSTQ Begad- 
kephdth. The final letters which are sometimes length- 
ened are exhibited in the words ^ftH >TTN Ohel Tamdr, 
Tamar's tent : and the finals which vary in form, as men- 
tioned in the table, are comprehended in the words 
YQ2to5 Cammenappets, " Like a disperser." 

26. The letters have been further divided into two 
classes ; one containing such letters as are occasionally 
servile, that is, are employed in the process of gram- 
matical accidence and derivation; the other, those only 
which are never so employed ; the first have been termed 
servile, the second radical, letters. The servile letters 
are, however, occasionally radical, though the radical 
ones are never servile. 

27. The servile letters are all comprehended in the 
following memoria technica, viz. 1751 JffN H$, Moshe 
Ethan Vecalev, i. e. Moses, Ethan, and Caleb. The 
remaining letters are termed radical.* 

28. The best method the learner can adopt for 
making himself acquainted with the letters is, to write 
them over carefully and frequently, till he is quite familiar 
with all their forms. In doing this, he should strongly 
mark the difference between those letters, which are in 
some respects similar, such as 1 Beth, and 5 Cdph, 
A Gimel, and 2 Nun, and so on ; in order to avoid the 

* In almost all the printed copies of the Hebrew Bible, we find some of the 
letters occasionally larger or smaller than others ; others inverted, or suspended 
a little above the general line of printing; in one instance, we have a final letter 
in the middle of a word ; in others, a medial letter is used as a final : out of all 
which the Jews, and indeed some Christian writers, have endeavoured to elicit 
certain mysteries. But as they are most likely all owing to some accident in 
the transcription of the MSS., we may be excused in dismissing them without 
further notice. 


12 LECTURE i. CART. 20. 

confusion which beginners often experience, and to make 
that pleasant which is to many extremely irksome. If he 
use a pen, the point should be cut a little oblique, in 
order to make the horizontal strokes strong and regular ; 
the others, which should be perpendicular, should be 
made fine and equal. An oriental reed, however, makes 
by far the best pen for writing* these letters, which should 
be cut nearly like a pen, with a slit, and the point 
oblique, as already mentioned.* 

On the Vowels. 

29. It has already been remarked, (Art. 3.) that the 
Hebrew vowels present a system of marks or characters 
arranged sometimes above, at others in the middle, and 
at others beneath, the consonants : we now proceed to 
delineate and explain this. 

Table of the Hebrew Vowels. 

Figure. Name. Power. KM Mipliticalions. 

Kamets a as 3 ba, % ga, *n da, &c 

T T T 

Tsere e ^ be, ?| ge, TJ de, &c 

Klnr'ik Gddol i ^ bl, 1J g~ t) 1TJ dl, &C 

It D/in KAo/ew b *J2 bo, *]% gd, "jt] do,kc, 

1 t Pllt^ Slturtk u 13 bit, t|jj gu, !)T] du, &c 

* These reeds may be purchased at Messrs. Parbury and Allen's, Book- 
sellers in Leadenhall-street, London ; and at Stevenson's, Cambridge. 
The exact method of cutting and holding them may be seen in the Deve- 
loppemens des Principes de la Langue Arabe Moderne, par Auguste 
F. I. Herbin. 

f In these cases, the consonant ") is considered merely as the fulcrum of the 
accompanying vowels, and in the first it is often omitted, the point then rest- 
ing on the side of the preceding or following consonant. The * too is pretty 
much in the same predicament, and is also occasionally left out. In this case 
analogy must determine, whether it stand for a perfect or imperfect vowel. 

ART. 30.]] ON THE VOWELS. 13 

Figure. Name. Power. Exemplifications. 

l Pdthakh a - "f3 bad, *7| gad, "H dad. 

<?g<>/ c "73 fed, II ged, fq ded. 

owel? . ]to P^TH KA*^ ffatf* i - 13 6/, "73 g^ "H <** 

zeft Khatuph o *|3 tod, 15 god, *H dod. 

Kibbuts u " 6d, *f ?| gwd, "7 rfurf. 

Sheva, and its Substitutes.* 

Shevd e ^^ ben, ^|| geH, 

Khatef Pdthakh a - l")^, 6rz, ^^ grz, 11^ </arz 

KhattfSegol t 

30. It will be seen from the Exemplifications, which of 
the vowels-marks are placed above, which in the middle, 
and which below, the line. From the note appended to 
the table of consonants, will also be seen what sounds are 
given to the Roman vowels, as here made to represent 
the powers of the Hebrew ones ; and, consequently, what 
powers the Hebrew vowels have. 

31. The learner cannot now do better than make out 
a syllabarium for himself, extending throughout the 
whole of the alphabet, in the manner of the Exempli- 
fications just given ; bearing in mind, that whenever 
either of the letters contained in the memoria technica, 
,HOTO Begadkephdth, begins a syllable, the point should 
be inscribed. The exceptions will be given hereafter. 
He should also bear in mind, that the consonant must 

* The sound of e in these examples is remarkably short, better expressed by 
our bri, gri, drl, &c., without a vowel. So in the substitutes, which usually 
accompany the guttural letters. The final vowel IT, &c. has been added, in 
order to facilitate this rapidity of utterance in bhri, gari, behe, boha, &c., 
making one syllable only. 

14 LECTURE i. [[ART. 32. 

always precede the vowel, as marked in the table : a few 
exceptions to this rule will be noticed hereafter.* 

32. By perfect vowels, as given in the first class, is 
meant, vowels which, being preceded by a consonant, 
will constitute a complete syllable in Hebrew ortho- 
graphy, as 2 bd, in which both the consonant and vowel 
are fully and properly enounced. The same is the case, 
when either of the letters contained in the memoria tech- 
nica, ^7$ Ehevi, which occasionally lose their powers as 
consonants, (Art. 25,) follows its homogeneous vowel, (of 
which more hereafter,) as, N3 ba. 

33. By imperfect vowels is meant, those vowels which 
are not generally found to constitute syllables without 
either the addition of another consonant, or of an accent. 
Such syllable, therefore, must either be like *T!3 bad, or 
ba, i. e. followed by a consonant, or accompanied by an 
accent. When, moreover, a consonant is found to follow 
a perfect vowel, with an accent, as Dip, &c., this vowel 
maybe considered as an imperfect one: i. e. generally, an 
imperfect vowel, accompanied by an accent, will have the 
power of a perfect one ; and, vice versa, a perfect vowel 
so accompanied will exert the power of an imperfect one. 
Hence it will follow generally, that no syllable, excepting 
the last of any word, can have more than one quiescent 

* The usual classification of the vowels has been, 1. Long vowels, 2. Short 
vowels, and 3. Vowels still shorter than the preceding. We have adopted a 
different one, for the following reason. These distinctions cease to exist when 
the vowels are combined with the consonants ; for then, the second class of 
vowels becomes long, either by position, that is, when a consonant follows, or, 
by being accompanied by an accent. Both these classes of the vowels are, 
therefore, long when reduced to practice; and it is useless to speak of them in 
any other point of view. 

It can never be necessary, we believe, to trouble the learner with the five 
different lengths of time ascribed to these vowels by Albert Schultens and 
Schroeder; although the latter has declared, that it is a law amplissimum usurn 
habens, because we have been unable to discover in what the use consists. 

ART. 34.)] ON THE VOWELS. 15 

letter after a vowel; as in Dip, W- Such forms as 
Hpjin, il31T, are anomalous, and occur but rarely. 

34. The last class of signs has been designated " Sub- 
stitutes for the mark (:) Shevd" which, in truth, they 
are, as we shall see hereafter.* 

On the Combination of the Vowels with the Consonants. 

35. Considering then, as we do, all the letters of the 
alphabet as consonants, no possible difficulty can arise 
from their combination with the vowels, when a consonant 
only precedes, as is the case in our exemplifications, 
(Art. 29.) ; but, when a consonant also follows, some 
questions may arise as to the conjoint effect produced. 
This we now proceed to explain. 

36. The only difficulty that can present itself to a 
learner, will be in the concurrence of any of the letters 
^ilN Ehevi, with certain vowels preceding. 

37. It has been remarked (Art. 25.), that these letters 
will occasionally lose their powers as consonants. We 
now say, this happens only when they are preceded by 
those vowels which are, or may become, homogeneous 
with them in sound, respectively. In this sense N may 
become quiescent after any vowel, as may also H. 1 will 
be quiescent with Kholem or Shurek only : and 1 with 
Khirik, Tsere, Segol, and occasionally with Kdmets; as 
K3 bd, H3 be, 13 Id, ^3 In, *\ty halelta, V^ hdldu. 
The reason of this seems to be, that, as these consonants 
are made up of sounds nearly allied to those of the 
vowels respectively, when the vowel precedes both will 

* Our object in adopting this new nomenclature is, to avoid the inconsistency 
of detailing a system of long, short, and most short vowels ; and then, of inform- 
ing the learner, that after all, every short vowel becomes long in practice ; and, 
that the class of the shortest vowels contains nothing more than snbstitutes for 
what, in fact, are no vowels at all. 

16 LECTURE i. CART. 38. 

coalesce, and consequently the power of the consonant 
will be merged in that of the vowel. When these 
letters have no vowel, they will necessarily be silent, as 
in Npn Khet; N^H Hevi, where the M is in each case 
said to be otiose. 

38. A vowel, however, may precede, which is not homo- 
geneous with such consonant ; this will happen only in 
the cases of 1 and % and then a diphthongal sound will be 
formed, as ai, in ^"TK Addnai or Adonay ; oi, in MS Goi 
or Goy ; ui, in ^hb Gd-lui or Galuy. Other diphthongs 
may be formed; but more do not occur in Hebrew. It 
must be remembered, however, that when any of these 
letters happens also to have a vowel of its own, i. e. fol- 
lowing it, it will not be quiescent. 

39. There are, moreover, a few instances in which two 
such letters may be found following a vowel, which is 
homogeneous with neither of them, as "Ivtf, w^', and the 
like ; in which, according to analogy, ^ should form 
the diphthong ai or ay, and the last letter 1 be considered 
either as a consonant, or as combining with the fore- 
going in a kind of triphthong, as JE-laiv, or E-laiu, 
Hci-laiv, or Ha-laiu, but, generally, the ^ is in these 
cases considered as quiescent,* and the following 1 read 
as the consonant v, or w, as E-lav, or E-law, and so on. 
Indeed, in the case of the diphthong, it is of little conse- 
quence whether we consider the concluding letter as a 
vowel or a consonant, i. e. whether we sound ^ as i, or y, 
1 as w, or v. 

* It seems to be a general rule, that when a final (:) Sheva, either expressed 
or understood, comes under i or 1, the diphthongal sound takes place : in other 
cases these consonants become quiescent, as in Vbfc$ or V by , where it would 
be contrary to usage to supply a Sheva (:) under the ", ns 

ART. 40.]] ON SHEVA. 17 


40. Shevd ( ) has two situations, one at the beginning 
of a syllable, the other at its ending. At the beginning 
of a syllable, (where it may be said to be initial,) it is, from 
the necessity of the case, pronounced like a very short e, 
as mentioned in the Table (Art. 29.). The only question, 
then, which can arise here will be, How is it to be known 
when this mark begins, or concludes, a syllable ? The 
answer is : Whenever it is found at the beginning of a 
word, it must necessarily be considered as commencing 
the syllable ; and, consequently, must be pronounced as a 
short vowel, otherwise the consonant, under which it is 
placed, cannot be uttered at all : as in the word JVIQ 
Bevd-ith. The same holds good, whenever it follows a 
perfect vowel unaccompanied by a tone-accent ; because, 
as that vowel must conclude the preceding syllable, the 
consonant, under which this mark is found, must neces- 
sarily commence the next. In this case, therefore, as 
before, it must be enounced as a very short vowel, as in 
the word njTH Hd-yethd ; here too, it will be termed 
initial, because it commences the syllable. 

41. When, however, Shevd (:) commences a word, 
(and must therefore be audible,) but is, by accident, pre- 
ceded by some particle with an imperfect vowel, it will 
become final ; e. g. 713,? Gevul, a boundary ; prefix- 
ing 7 for 7, we shall have 71 3,? 7 Lig-vul, not Lige-vul. 

42. In the next place, whenever the mark (:) Shevd 
follows an imperfect vowel, having no tone-accent either 
expressed or implied, the consonant under which it is 
found must be taken as the last of the syllable. In this 
case, therefore, Shevd (=) will have no sound, and may be 
said to be final or quiescent : e. g. DJHj? Kam-tem, not 

18 LECTURE i. CART. 43. 

43. To these rules, however, there are two exceptions 
of very extensive application ; and these arise from the 
introduction of an accent. For, as it has already been 
remarked (Art. 33.), the operation of an accent will 
generally give to a perfect vowel the character of an 
imperfect one, and vice versa. In these cases, therefore, 
SJievd (;) may be final after a perfect vowel, and initial 
after an imperfect one : e. g. of the first case, rnrQ 
Ba-kliar-ta, 1 Kings iii. 8, ro/J.F) Ta-gcl-na, Ps. li. 10 ; 
and of the second, ^(TT. Vd-yeM, &c. When, however, 
such accent is purely euphonic, of which more hereafter, 
this does not always take place ; as irnSHD Makh-bar- 
t6y Exod. xxxix. 20, &c.* 

44. S/ievd is rarely written at the end of a word. 
The reason probably is, that, as no vowel usually follows 
the last letter of Hebrew words, it would be superfluous 
to express Shevd in order to shew this : the mark is con- 
sequently omitted. In one case, however, in which the 
preceding consonant has also a final Shevd, it seems to 
have been added to shew, that no vowel has been omitted 
through negligence ; as in the word 1PJ? kamt, &c., to 
distinguish it from fip, &c. It is also found in the 
letter "ij, but this may be considered as a part of the 

* The instances occurring of this kind are numerous : as H^H Hd-yt th, 
Gen. i. 2 ; ib., ver. 7, ^i?"?)? Ha-ra-kiah ; HfrTlfl The-ra-k, ib., ver. 9. So 
also NtZ?"?!? Tad-shi, ver. 11, and nSp^E) in ver. 2. In some of which cases, 
the accent seems not to interfere with the syllabication. So likewise in many 
cases, wherein the accent marks the tone syllable, and in which there is no eu- 
phonic one; as Gen. i. 2, ^rfi Vb-hu, "H^n Kho-sfick, ib., ver. 3, "T5^*l 
Vui-yo-mer, &c. The word ^nn Th'o-liu, ib., ver. 2, seems to present two 
accentuations, viz. one with the emphasis on the penultima, the other on the 
ultima. These apparent anomalies, however, arise from the operation of other 
considerations connected either with Euphony, the Etymology, or the Syntax, 
or from the mistakes of the copyists. 

ART. 45.]] ON SHEVA. 19 

45. A part of one of the substitutes of Shevd is occa- 
sionally found under the last letter of a word ; but this 
happens only when such letter is one of the gutturals, IT, 
y, or FJ, with Mappik. The reason of this substitution 
seems to be, that, as these letters will not admit of the 
rapidity of utterance which the other consonants will, 
this vowel, or substitute, is added for the purpose of 
affording due time for their enunciation ; but here the 
(:) is dropped, as before, and the mark (-) only remains. 
This mark, termed Furtive Pdthakh, is, however, not to 
be pronounced after, but before, the letter under which it 
is placed, as JTtt'/p Ma-shiakh, not Ma-shi-kha, Messiah, 
or Anointed. The same is the case when such guttural 
letter is followed by any other consonant having a point, 
or Dagesh, within it, accompanied also by Shevd ; as, 
JTU/j^S Pa-shdaht, ITU^n Hig-gddht ; not Pa-shdhat, &c. 

46. Those marks, which have been termed " the Sub- 
stitutes of Shevd" supply, as it has already been inti- 
mated, the place of Shevd, with one or other of the 
guttural letters N, H, PI, or y, for the reason just given 
with reference to the Furtive Pdthakh. In many cases, 
therefore, in which analogy would require the insertion 
of an initial Shevd (:), upon the occurrence of one or 
other of the gutturals, some one of these substitutes will 
take its place. If a vowel immediately precede, the sub- 
stitute will be that which is homogeneous with it : i. e. if 
( - ) precede, ( -= ) will be the substitute ; if ( -.- ), ( : ) ; if 
(T) o, then ( T =) will be the substitute. When no such 
vowel precedes, the substitute most congenial with such 
guttural, or with the analogy of the word, will be pre- 
ferred. In the first case, N will mostly take ( - : ), occa- 
sionally ( : ) ; H (:), rarely (- : ) ; H or y ( - ), rarely ( : ) ; 
(T-. ) is seldom used, unless (T) Khatuph, i. e. o, precedes, 
or unless it stands in the place of a 1 Kholem, which has 


20 LECTURE i. CART. 47. 

been rejected. In these last cases, however, usage alone 
can be relied on. 

On the Points DAGESH and MAPPIK. 

47. Some notice has already been taken of Dagesh 
(Articles 10, 11, 12, 31.) ; we now have to shew what its 
offices are. 1st. It will double any letter, which is from 
its situation capable of being doubled ; and, 2dly, it will 
deprive the letters r>D^"JJIl f their aspiration. In the 
first case, whenever any consonant has this point inscribed, 
and is, at the same time, both preceded and followed by 
a vowel, or is preceded by a vowel, and has also a Shevd, 
such consonant is to be read as two, e. g. "T?7 Limmed, 
or 1"Tp7 Limmedu. But, if such consonant is not so pre- 
ceded, &c., it cannot be doubled ; and in that case, it is 
found only in the letters nD5"TJ3, inscribed merely for 
the purpose of taking away their aspiration, as already 
noticed. Now, this last mostly takes place when such 
letter commences a syllable, as ^3 Caph, |3 Ben, &c. ; in 
some instances when it ends it, as Jpp hamt. It must 
also be remembered, that whenever any one of these 
letters is in a situation to be doubled, the aspiration will 
also be taken away by the influence of this point, e. g. 
1S3 Kipper, not klphpher. 

48. In the first of these cases, this mark has been 
termed Dagesh forte, in the second Dagesh lene ; 
terms, it must be confessed, ill chosen to designate the 
offices just described. I should prefer terming it Dugesh 
in every case, its situation being always sufficient to 
determine its powers, according to our rule. 

49. Mappih is a single point (like Dagesh} inscribed in 
the letter Jl only, thus H. Its office is to shew, that this 
letter, when so marked, retains its power as a consonant, 
and is to be treated as such, both in the pronunciation 

ART. 50-3 ON THIS MARK 11A-PHE. 21 

and etymology. The Jews consider it also as extending 
to the letter 1, as in rPTlfP Yehu-diy-yd ; but this is a 
useless distinction. 

On the Mark HSn RA-PHE. 


50. Formerly when Ddgesh was not found in any of the 
letters, a mark called H^H Bd-phe, was placed above it, in order to 
shew that the point had not been omitted by mistake. With the 
ancient Syrians this was nothing more than a point made with red ink. 
The Hebrews probably wrote it in the same way : but, as this 
point might be mistaken for the vowel Kholem, when printed, or, for 
one of the accents, the form of it was altered for a short line thus 
( - ), which is still found in the Hebrew manuscripts,* though very 
rarely in the printed books. 

51. Other points are sometimes found placed over certain words 
in the Hebrew Bible, the use of which is now unknown. The ac- 
counts given of these by the Rabbins may be seen in Buxtorf 's 
Thesaurus Grammaticus, lib. i. cap. v. art. 6, which need not be 
detailed here. 

52. It will be seen by recurring to the table of vowels 
(Art. 29.), that Kholem is given with a "\ Vaw for its 
fulcrum, thus 1. The Vaw, however, is frequently left 
out. But, as the letters & Sin and W Shin are also 
written with a point on the left or right side, respectively, 
a question may arise, as to how the Kholem is to be 
represented in the case of its following W, or preceding 
VJ. The answer is : Supposing any consonant to follow 
&> Sin, and this fc> to have no other vowel-mark, then 
will its own diacritical point also stand for Kholem ; as 
!"13iP So-ne. In every other case, W will be merely the 
consonant s, as given in the Table (Art. 4.). In the next 
place, with respect to VJ Shin : Supposing any consonant 
to precede W Shin, having neither Vowel-mark nor Sheva, 

* And in these it is sometimes put over a letter requiring Dag&h forte by 
analogy, also over N and H when quiescent. 

22 LECTURE i. HART. 53. 

then will the diacritical point of $ Shin stand also for 
Kholem, thus, Z^3 Bosh. But, if the preceding letter 
have a Vowel or Shevci, UJ Shin will be used merely as 
directed in the table of consonants. This expedient has 
been resorted to, in order to avoid the inconvenience of 
marking these points twice over, which must otherwise 
have taken place. 

53. It will also be seen in the table of the vowels, that 
the letter h Yod has been placed above the point () 
then called Kliirik Gddol, in order to shew that it is a 
perfect vowel. This *" Yod, however, is frequently 
omitted ; and, when that is the case, an accent, as it will 
be seen hereafter, is mostly added to make the distinction. 
But, as this accent is also sometimes omitted, analogy 
will then be the only criterion by which the distinction 
can be known. 

54. The learner will also perceive, that Kdmets, and 
Kdmets Khdtuph, have the same form, viz. (T). How 
then, it may be asked, are they to be distinguished ? I 
answer; Whenever any consonant follows the mark (*) 
having also a vowel of its own, it will be seen, that 
(T) must make a complete syllable, and must therefore 
be the vowel Kdmets, as in the word HD"1 Rd-phe. For 
here, as Q begins the following syllable, the "1 with (T) must 
necessarily constitute the preceding one : (T) therefore 
will here be the perfect vowel Kdmets. In the next 
place, (') found under any one of the letters 1731, 
(Art. 27.) at the beginning of a word, will be Kdmets ; 
because, in this case, a contraction must have taken 
place; as, vH3 Bd-khoti, for "^nn?, the (T) here being 
compensative of (-). So in l/ngtt Ba-d-hol-Jta, for 
T?0$'7-? These cases will be explained hereafter. 

55. The following are the exceptions: 1. Should (T : ) 
Khdteph Kdmets follow (*), or a (T) which has arisen 


out of (T : ) by the operation of a rule hereafter to be 
given, then will ( T ) be Kcimets Khdtuph, and must be 
read as o, although an accent accompany it ; as, ^J7^ 
Po-hol-kd, in which case the (T) Khdtuph being sustained 
by an accent, becomes equal to the perfect vowel ( 1 ), And, 
2dly, when any consonant following (T) has no vowel, 
and the syllable is also without an accent, (T) will then 
be Kdmets Khdtuph ; as, HD^n Khok-ma, 13") Ron-nu, 
^jj; Ik-botz, &c. 

56. As to the names of the vowels, &c., they are generally 
Chaldee or Syriac, whence some have argued that their invention is 
modern.* But, as this will involve questions of no importance to 
the learner, nothing need be said on the subject here. 

57. Whether the pronunciation here ascribed to the different 
consonants and vowels was that in use in ancient times, it is impos- 
sible now to say : nor is it of much importance either to the learner 

. or the critic. That the approximation is near, there cannot be 
much doubt ; and, that the system is generally the same, is, per- 
haps, sufficiently certain. But, as the Jews differ in their pronun- 
ciation in different countries, we have here taken that of the 
Portuguese Jews, as nearly as it could be obtained, which is gene- 
rally allowed to be the best. 

* The heads of the arguments urged on this question may be seen in the 
Inslitutiones Ling. Heb. by Schultens, p. 53, &c., or in the Arcanum punctua- 
tionis revelatum, by Capell, &c. Various hypotheses have been offered 
on the names of the letters : one of the latest, and perhaps most improbable, 
is, that, as they occasionally present forms not in use in the Hebrew, they must 
therefore have been taken from some more ancient form of the language ! 

24f LECTURE ii. QART. 68. 



58. HAVING given tables of the Hebrew consonants 
and vowels, with some explanations and rules as to 
their powers and use, we now come to consider the 
accents, and to give a table exhibiting their forms, situa- 
tions, and names, to be followed, as before, with some 
observations on their nature and application. The fol- 
lowing table given by Alting and adopted by Schultens 
and Gesenius, has been chosen as sufficiently extensive 
and explicit for our present purpose. The word here 
taken for the purpose of exhibiting the situation, &c. of 
accents, is cited from Isaiah Ivii. 18, and signifies, with 
its affixes, " And I will heal him." The distinctive 
powers which these accents are believed to possess, will 
be considered hereafter. 

59. The Hebrew accents are found placed below, 
above, or on a level with, the line of the consonants. 
Those which are found below, are twelve in number : 
their situations, forms, and names, are as follows : 

No. Sit. and Form. Name. 

2. i HNS") si runs ^OMSJA. 

3. 1PJ i* 3"! Kl SHDED Tiphkha. 

4. inSS"njSI1 Do. anterior.* 

6. inSllST Hl^n^ Yethm. 

7. in^ai^f n:i.d Mun&kh. 

s- inxs"i^i "nanD Mahptk. 

* Used in the poetical books only. 

ART. 59.]] ON THE ACCENTS. 25 

No. Sit. and Form. Name. 


11. in&snsi D - rniDjD Id - doubled. 


Those which are placed above the line of consonants, 
are eighteen in number. Their names, forms, and situa- 
tions, are as follows : 

No. Sit. and Form. Name. 

1. 'I^V^i"*1^1 l^Tl Rcviah. 

2- inS5*lS1 Jrf. with J/|3. G&resh in the poetical books. 

3. in^Entf"! l^P ^i?^ Zdkt/Kdtbn. 

4- in^SI^T ^iTil Blpt ZaMfGaddl. 

5. inxa")^ 1 ! ^^T^P *bw; 

^ Pashtd. 
7. inNS"IST n 1 ?^ 1 ?^ Shalshtleth. 


9- lilKSTNT KpTT Sarfttfantcrior. 

5) Paz^r. 

)J3 Id. doubled. 
T : 

Karn Ptidrd. 
14. sinssni n^lTJ J2/^r TefeAa Gedbla. 

15. lnB->n n33D Ktt^l*l nilshd KZtannd. 


n^lO Mundch superior. 
18. inNS"l^1 ^FSn/D Mahpdk superior. 

T : v : ' - : - 

Zarka anterior, and the two last, are found thus in the 
poetical books only. 

The accents, written both above and below the line at 

26 LECTURE II. CART. 60 ' 

the same time are four: their names, forms, and situa- 
tions, are as follows : 

No. Sit. and Form. Name. 

* injSt|")^1. Mahpdk with Merca. 

2- intfihST Zarka with Merca. 

j- t : v : 

3- inSSnSfl Zarkd with Mahpdk. 

4 - 1 HNS") SI Munakh with Mahpdk. 

One only is found in the same line with the consonants. 

I irma-m'l ND^ L^*, or p^P) Pesik, 
according to its situation. 

It should be observed that, as several of these accents 
have the same form, they can be distinguished by their 
positions only. The best way to get acquainted with 
them is, to write them over a few times, first with, and 
then without, the tables.* 

60. These marks are divided, with respect to their 
offices, into Tonic, and Euphonic, accents. 

61. The tonic accent, however situated, can affect only 
the ultimate or penultimate syllable of any word, which 

* Various offices have been ascribed to these accents. By some they are 
thought to have been attached to the sacred text, in order to regulate the tone 
of voice, either in reading or chanting. Others have supposed them to have 
been affixed for the purpose of dividing it into its several members, as verses, 
the larger and smaller members of sentences, &c., and to point out the different 
dependence which these parts exhibit on one another. Others, again, have as- 
signed to them emphasis, parenthesis, parallelism, &c., while others have given 
them all these offices together. Some, again, have supposed them to be of 
divine, others of human, origin. In the present work we shall consider their 
application to the text, as the best grammarians usually have done, viz., as in- 
tended to divide the context into its different members, and to determine (for 
the most part) the tone-accent of the words in which they are found. As to 
their authority, we cannot allow it to be divine, until better proofs than any 
hitherto offered shall have been given on that point. As coming from men, 
who had perhaps made the Hebrew Bible the study of their lives, they are 
valuable. They may, nevertheless, be rejected, whenever a more convenient 
division can be discovered. 


it does by directing the accentuation to be placed on that 
syllable. When this accent is found on any other 
syllable, the tone-accentuation of such word can be known 
only from its analogy. In other cases, the accent will 
point it out. 

62. When a word happens to have more than one 
tonic accent, and both are the same, the first will govern 
the accentuation; as, inn Tho-hu: but, when they are 
not the same, the last will have it ; e. g. D v 1'JiD7'l 

63. Generally, all words either being, or terminating 
in the form of, Segolates (to be considered hereafter), 
will have the accentuation on the penultimate syllable: 
all others on the ultimate. 

64. The Euphonic accent supplies a sort of secondary 
accentuation to the syllable on which it is found, which 
can never be the ultimate of any word, nor even the 
penultimate of those having the Segolate form. 

65. Of this accent, modern grammarians count two 
sorts, Metheg Jpp, and Makkdph ^D. The former of 
these has the same form with Silluk ( ) ; but, as it can 
never hold the same situation, the distinction is easily 
made. The latter takes the form of our hyphen ; as in 
^3 "Jit* Eth-Ml, and generally deprives the preceding 
word of its tone-accent. In neither case is their insertion 
always solitary ; for, several Methegs are sometimes found 
in the same word, and several words are occasionally 
connected by the operation of Makkdph. Particular 
rules for their insertion will be given hereafter. 

66. One mark more it may suffice to notice here, and that is, a 
small circle sometimes found over a word in the Hebrew context ; 


thus, WSirr. The word over which this mark is found is said to be 
^tys Kethio, or written ; and the mark itself is intended to direct 
the attention of the reader to some note to be found either in the 

28 LECTURE H. [[ART. 67. 

margin, or at the foot of the page. For the most part, it directs 
the reader to a various reading, on the right side of which we find 
the word "Hi? Kert, meaning either reading or read* The 
readings thus pointed out in the Hebrew Bible amount to about 
] 000, and are generally preferred to those found in the text. The 
far greater part of them has been found by Kennicott and De 
Rossi in the MSS. which they collated. f 

67. Having thus far explained the powers of the 
several consonants, vowels, accents, &c., and given some 
rules on the subject of their combination, we now proceed 
to examine a portion or two of the Hebrew text, in 
exemplification of what has been said. The passage we 
shall first take is, Zephaniah iii. 8, in which we have all 
the letters of the Alphabet with most of the vowels and 
other marks. In reading this, we would advise the 
learner to mark each syllable distinctly with a slight 
pause, and to continue this practice until he is perfectly 
familiar with all the consonants, vowels, &c 

Ku-mi ley'om Yeho-vdl neum li khak-ku La-k6n. 

14 13 12 11 10 9 

lish-jiuk mum-ld-kbth lekov-tsi go-im le-esvph Mish-pa-ti ki 

23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 

kin-a-thi be&h ki ap-pi kharbn kbl zah-mi hale-litm 

20 25 24 

hu-d-rets kol te-a-ktl 

For an explanation of these Masorelic marks, the Tiberias of Buxtorfius 
should be consulted. 

f Kennicott's Dissertatio Generalis, 39. De Rossi Proleg. xxxix. 

\ This word is pronounced "O'Tbjl Adb-ndl by the Jews, whenever it is found 
as pointed above : but, when it precedes the word ^3"TSI in the text, it then 
takes the points of the word D^nbs %.ldhiin, thus rTJrj!!, and is then pro- 
nounced Elohim. This is a mere Jewish superstition, derived from a consider- 
able antiquity ; it having been their opinion, that this name ought to be pro- 
nounced by none except the High Priest, and by him only once in the year. 


The learner will recollect that he is to read, beginning 
at the right, and proceeding towards the left, hand 
(Art. 3.) ; and that the consonants must precede the 
vowels (Art. 31.). The numerals are added to shew the 
order of the words. Let us now proceed to analyse the 
syllables, &c. 

In No. 1, we have Lamed with Kdmets, making the 
open syllable La. After this we have Caph with Tsere, 
followed by Nun, making the syllable ken. Here, 
according to our system of syllabication, we should have 
had some imperfect vowel under the Caph (Art. 33.), 
which would have been sufficient to complete this syllable; 
but the accent Mahpak being added, the anomaly is cor- 
rected (ib.). 

No. 2. Kheth with Pathakh, followed by Caph with 
the point Dcigesh inscribed : and, as a vowel follows this 
letter, it must be doubled, the point is, therefore, Dcigesh 
forte (Art. 47.). The first syllable, consequently, is 
JchaJc, the second is ku, and this is composed of the second 
Caph, and the vowel Shurek. We next have the mark 
called MakMph, which is used to connect numbers 2 and 
3 together, like our hyphen (Art. 65.). 

No. 3. Lamed with Khlrik followed by Y6d, making 
the open syllable It; to this is added the tonic accent 
Pas/itd, which may be represented by li. 

No. 4. we have Nun with S/ievd. In this case Sheva 
is very slightly pronounced (Art. 40.), but it is not 
reckoned as a syllable. In the next place we have Alef 
with Kibbuts followed by Mem. This syllable, therefore, 
must be pronounced urn, in which u has the sound of oo 
in good. The whole word will then be neum, in which 
the e will be passed over as rapidly as possible. We then 
have the mark Makltapli, as before. 

No. 5. is the word Jehovah, pronounced Yehd-vu. 

30 LECTURE ii. CART. 67. 

Here Shevd is passed over rapidly as before. The point 
over the left limb of He is the vowel Kholem (Art. 52.) ; 
and, as the Vaw following has a vowel of its own, it is 
not quiescent in the preceding vowel Kholem, which it 
otherwise would be (Art. 37.). The first syllable, 
therefore, including the Shevd, will be Ye ho, the next 
Vd, in which the terminating Jl will be quiescent in 
the preceding Kumets. Over the Vaw commencing 
this last syllable, we have the accent Zdkeph Kdton. In 
no respect, therefore, can the mark (T) under this Vaw 
be a Kdmets Khdtuph. (Art. 54.). 

Nothing now occurs worth remark till we come to 
No. 11. In the word rpvfo Le-esoph, then, the first 
syllable consists of Lamed with Segol, accompanied by 
an Euphonic accent (Art. 65.) called MetJieg, making a 
complete syllable (Art. 33.). This syllable, therefore, is 
open Le. The Alef following, with Khdteph Segol 
which is a substitute of Shevd (Art. 46.), does not con- 
stitute a syllable ; and, therefore, it is passed over as 
rapidly as convenient, in connection with the following 
syllable Soph, which has the tonic accent Pashtd 
(Art. 59.). 

No. 12. The first syllable consists of Glmel with ( 1 ) 
Kholem (Art. 29.). The next syllable is commenced by 
Yod, with Khlrik following, and which, by analogy, 
should be followed by another Yod, as D^ Yim, or im 
(Art. 15.) : but the second Yod is frequently omitted, as 
will be seen hereafter. Khirik thus situated is never- 
theless a perfect vowel : and, as the syllable also ends 
with a consonant, the accent Geresh is added to rectify 
the syllabication (Art. 33.). 

No. 13. ^?E7. Here the first letter has an Initial 
Shevd, which will therefore be passed over rapidly. In 
the next place we have p Koph, followed by ( * ), i. e. either 

ART. 68.]] ON THE READING. 31 

Kdmets or Kdmets Khdtuph. It cannot be Kdmets, 
because it precedes a consonant which has no vowel of 
its own, and is accompanied by no accent, (Art. 54.) 
The first syllable, therefore, will be Lekov, and the last, 
tst, which need not be further explained. 

On No. 14. it will be necessary only to remark, that 
the point placed over the middle of the letter 3 is the 
accent Revmh, not the vowel Kholem, which however 
follows that letter. A recurrence to the tables will 
always be sufficient to shew, that this accent is placed 
over the middle of the consonant, Kholem always on the 
one side. 

No. 19. forms one syllable only: the Khdteph Pathakh 
(-:) found under the T\ Kheth, being one of the sub- 
stitutes of Shevd, is not counted in the syllabication. 

68. The names of the different accents will be found 
by turning to the table (Art. 59.), with which the 
Learner will do well to make himself familiar : other- 
wise, he will occasionally confound them with the vowels, 
and, in many instances, be unable to determine whether 
Shevd begins, or ends a syllable, or whether the mark ( T ) 
be Kdmets, or Kdmets Khdtuph. We shall subjoin a 
passage, for the sake of practice, in which the greater 
part of the accents is found, with the syllables in Roman 
letters, as in the last, in order to facilitate the reading. 

2 KINGS I. 6. 

T^SK "ipx^. OTNij? 1 ? rhjj &$ V^N 'riEK'j 

e-le-nu vai-yo-mer Uk-ra-th&-nu, hd-ld ish e-ldw Vai-yb meru 


jv :- : 

vedib-bar-t&m eth-kem shd-ldkh asher ham-m^-lek el shu-vu leku 

$ rs 

at-td beis-ra~6l clo-him en hnmib-beli Yeho-va a-mdr k<> e-ltiu 

32 LECTURE ii. [[ART. 69. 

pf vhj$ ^8 ^3! ^33 

la-ktn hek-rdn elo-M zevuv bevd-hul lid-rush shb-ltakh 

? nape 

/ci m\m-mkn-na the-iki Id shsham hd-li-thaasher ham-mit-td 

; rnpn 


69. It will be unnecessary to point out the names of 
the different vowels and accents found in this extract, as 
the Learner will easily find them by recurring to the 
tables. It may be necessary however to remark, that the 
accent found between the third and fourth words is 
termed Legarme, not Pesik. The distinction consists in 
this : that when the accent Munach precedes the mark 
( I ) it is then termed Legarme. When any other accent 
precedes, it is termed Pesik. In the word p? too, the 
accent is found over the 7, while the accented syllable is 
the following one p : but this accent, viz., Tetishd 
gedold, is always found on the first letter, see the Table, 
while the accentuation is regulated by the analogy 
(Art. 61.) As the word D5S* commences with Dagesh in 
the >, the vowel (T) terminating the preceding word is 
so connected with it, as to enable the reader to pronounce 
it as two, as in shsham (Art. 47.). 

70. The Learner cannot now do better than to take 
a Hebrew Bible, and transcribe a chapter or more at 
a time, in Roman letters, divided into syllables as given 
above ; and this he should continue to do until he is quite 
familiar with the letters, vowels, accents, and syllables. 
After this he may read, which he had better do, aloud, 
until he finds no difficulty in enouncing every word fully 
and correctly. A little perseverance will accomplish this, 
which is perhaps the greatest difficulty he will have to 
encounter: and, when he has succeeded, he will find 
his progress both easy and delightful. 

ART. 71.)] LECTURE III. 33 



s\ 71. IT is well known that changes take place in the 
consonants and vowels of all languages, which can be 
accounted for on no other principles than those of 
euphony. Certain vowels and consonants would, in some 
situations, introduce sounds so difficult of utterance and 
so grating to the ear, that conversation would become 
painful both to the speaker and hearer. In order to 
avoid these, certain changes are found to take place in 
the constitution of words, which at first sight appear to 
be anomalous, and which give great trouble to the 
learner until the laws by which they are regulated are 
understood. In no language is this more apparent 
than in the Hebrew and its dialects, particularly the 
Arabic. In the Sanscrit it prevails in a much greater 
degree, and is found in its descendant the Greek to give 
more trouble to the learner than any thing else brought 
under his observation. It is our intention to commence 
our investigation of the principles of the Hebrew lan- 
guage, by detailing the rules by which these apparent 
anomalies are regulated, for the purpose of enabling the 
learner to account for the different forms of words as 
they occur. Because, until he has some knowledge of 
this subject, he will meet with scarcely any thing but 
difficulty ; and may, after a study of some years, be 
induced, as many have been, to confess that there is 
nothing certain in this language. 

72. It has been remarked (Art. 36, &c.), that the letters con- 
tained in the technical word ^IH^., will occasionally lose their power 
as consonants, or become quiescent in the sound of the preceding 



vowel, so that the pronunciation of the word will continue the same 
whether these letters be written or not : and, the consequence is, 
they are often omitted ; as, ^l?. 3 for "TfTiQ visitor, ^T 1 ?? f r C 7^ 
words, nh'M for nlnlH signs, n for nj elevation, l?7an for 

TOtp'an ffoy (fem.) approach, D?V^ f r c ,?V n ^ n ^ at ( is '0 * y" ? 
^V^T f r ^?X ^ '' are known, &c. And, rice rersa, these letters 
will occasionally be inserted when the analogy does not require 
them : as "Tip? for "Tpf visiting, BMf:. for E|7. sfood,* &c. 

73. Hence, when Aepa ( = ), or one of its substitutes, happens to 
be initial, and to precede one of the letters *TD$ t a contraction 
generally takes place, by which both (;) and the "^D^! letter is 
rejected, and the following vowel drawn back to the place of the 
rejected Shevd ; e. g. J"lb for njfW, TON for TONN, rP23 for 

jrana., T,7?i for fj?.?^, "ii?J?; for TjjSpr^ pn f or pri, >s f or ^3, 
^ for ^-|, iba for ^nba, n^p; f or D^V ( p i. O f D 

for D-n^S ( c j^,, pi. of "TO), Q^n for D^Sn ( p l. o f 
where, however, the S is retained). 

74. When any one of the letters V?r? terminates a word, and has 
no vowel either preceding or following, it is often rejected : as, ^E? 
for matt? a captive, ^ for $ a valley, 1f2 for n^|2 a /me, 1? for 
"0? a precept, "T3? for "1"!? or 1.17 (passing) yet, ever, eternal. 

1. When these letters remain, they are said to be otiose (Art. V7.}, 
and this may happen either in the middle or at the end of a word : 
as, ^^517 thou broughtest, ^2 a valley. 

2. Hence it is, that H standing as the third letter of a root, and 
losing its vowel, is rejected : as, ' for "T^, originally "l,??1 he 
reveals, '^ for H V^Jl, &c. This case is termed Apocope. The 
reason of it, as will be seen hereafter, is the removal of the accent. 

75. Any one of the letters H, 1, O r \ when preceded and fol- 
lowed by a vowel, will occasionally be dropped : as, QTlTp? for 
OrpJTTE? I visited them; DVT^S for DHn^S they visited them; Dp T 
for D}7 he stood; l|l for 1?S J te understood; nb for PPH7 a lamb, 

76. Either of the letters s or 3 \\hen initial,^ and 3 generally 

* Hence it is that the letters 1 H (for n rarely occurs in such situation,) 
have been termed " Matres lectionis," and supposed to have been used as 
vowels at some former period. 

t Mr. Stuart has, after Gesenius, given T1 for TV Jud. xix. 11 ; HJ-iri for 
n$ 2 Sam. xxii. 41, &c. ; niB? forS^ Jer. xlii/lO. as instances ia which 

ART. 77.)] 



when terminating a syllable (not the last) and having a Shevd (:), 
will be dropt: as, rnb for rnV] bearing a child; rip^T for f^T 
knowledge ; ^1 for V?fi approach ; ^3") for IP??"! he draws near ; 

"^Bl for Ti?|^ ; for^jsarr;. *)N f or m4g&| fifor J-I?BN. 

IrulA. In the latter case, when 3 is dropt, the following letter 
will, when it can, be doubled by Dagesh, which may therefore be 
considered as compensative, b likewise in the verb Hp v, when it 
ought to take ( : ) Shevd by analogy, is dropt : as, H|2 for Hpy 

1. The reason of these elisions seems to be, that as the "* would 
be enounced with some difficulty with an initial Shevd, and the 2 in 
each case on account of its being a nasal, both have been neglected 
in writing. 

77. When the last two letters of any root, and occasionally of 
derivatives, happen to be the same, one of them is usually dropt : 
as, ^^ for 3-j^p he surrounded ; 3D for 33D surrounding ; O3 for 
^^ a people; C3S for Oj-pN a mother; which, however, will 
return (by Dagesh ) when any augment is made : as, ^D they have 
surrounded; "^3? my people, &c. In this case the rejection has 
probably taken place, in order to avoid an ambiguity which might 
arise from the operation of a rule hereafter to be considered, by 
which the Learner or Reader may possibly misunderstand this 
for a reduplication, introduced for the sake of emphasis or 
the like. 

78. Letters of the same organ are, on account of a similarity of 
sound prevailing among them, sometimes changed the one for the 
other : e. g. 

1. Labials : 1,1, 33, O r *]2 the back ; 
he escaped. 

Palatals : "1|1D or "99 he shut up ; or JJH he travelled; 

or SS-lp a handle. 

3. Linguals : H^H or HpH he robbed. 

4. Sibilants : tb or ^ or vj? he exulted 
cried out ; Ppl? or P}?^ he laughed. 

5. Gutturals : HS3 O r ^(7^ he was weak ; 

f at ; 

O r 




he was 

* or 3 having a vowel, is dropt by the aphscresis. For my part, I doubt 
whether these are not rather infinitives than preterites ; and if they are so, the 
elision comes under the above rule, 

D 2 

30 LECTURE in. CART. 73. 

79. In a few instances, letters of different organs are changed one 
for another : as, 

1. Sibilants for Linguals : "H,?? or "H^ he quenched; "lj|3 or "\&3 
he matched; oft" O r fthSl a /r tree; ttnn or Hnn /,<? engraved. 

2. Liquids for one another : Yp? or VH? he oppressed ; ^H^H 
or "TO[l?n fo caused to s/ne; l^fo O r Deb Ae opposed; B-IO or ^3 
tottering ; 1]5? or "V? V a proper name. So " 1 '2M3"Tp ! 123 Nevu- 
kadnetstsar, or ~>^N'2"D- > G3 Nevukadretslsdr. 

80. The S |in^. letters, considered either as consonants or qui- 
escents, will occasionally be changed for one another : particularly, 
when the pronunciation of the word is not materially affected by 
the change : e. g. D^^S or D^? rags ; 3*fr or 3yn Z)o%, 
a proper name ; "H,?"? or "*VT ^ ^eraf ' ^IT?!? or "^ IT"! 1 "? baldness ; 
WpO or rnf?0 collection ; Vbh or ^"> Me Aeid ; C^ or D'?. 

'* * . ^_ 

an animal so called ; T 1 ^^"! or "P^"! the first ; H72 he revealed, 
for ^3, &c. 

81. In like manner, 3 is occasionally found in the place of one 
or other of the ^HN letters : as, 2S3 for 2^^ he set up ; H3 for 
HN^ he mas beautiful. So in the Syriac, ^&J for **&! he kills. 

82. The letters of a syllable are sometimes transposed ; as, 
for bDD / Je n,a* foolish ; 2^3 for Bg a lamb; *&* for ^S3 

lie breathed; ">^S for V^? he broke out; p3M for p3 Ae ^Arf; 
^1^W| fo r ms^l Dallies : and, in some cases, a letter is transposed 
to another syllable ; as, n jv?3? for n ^1? wickedness ; nttbb fo r 
n|?p27 a garment. 

1. These changes and transpositions (i. e. from Art. 78. to 
this place) do not otherwise affect the grammar of the language, 
than point out to the student what roots, &c., are said 
to be cognate ; that is, are related to one another in their radical 
letters, and have the same, or very nearly the same, signification. 
The preceding, as well as the following, will affect the grammatical 
forms of words. 

83. When the f"l of the Hithpdhel species of conjugation will, 
by analogy, precede any of the Sibilant letters (Art. 23.) a trans- 
position, and occasionally a change, of that letter will take place : 
e. g. In the first case, banpn fo r b ( 2pOn J ie loaded himself; 
""^tpj? for "raHWpn ] ie caused to keep. In the second : P^V'n 
for P^On he justified. In this case only, is the ^ changed to 13. 

I. But, when a letter of the same organ with f"l (see Art. 23.) 
follows, both will coalesce by Dagesh placed in the radical 


letter : e. g. ^^ for "iSnrin, root ~Q^ he spoke ; "iH^n f or 
"inEnn, root ">ni3 he n, as clean ; E^rii! for D^^n, root 2pW 
he was complete. 

2. This coalescence, which has been termed Assimilation, is found 
very generally to prevail ; but not without some exceptions which 
will be noticed hereafter. 

3. In a few instances, this principle of assimilation is found to 
extend itself to other letters : e. g. ^H for ^l^in, root I"Dt he 
was pure; n ?'T I for <"IE?0 J 7> root HD3 he covered; N22n for 
S25rirT, root 33 he declared; DB'hN for OtfhrW, root DTI exalt- 
ing ; Dai^ri for DBitttflJ-l, roo t ^ he desolated, &c. 

8*. Letters are sometimes added either for the purpose of facili- 
tating the pronunciation, or, for modifying the signification of 
words : e. g. in the first case : v^Bf^N for b'lXpJ;! yesterday ; *1\$ 
for ?1~JT the arm.* In the second : "^?^ most cruel, from ""ft? 
cruel, &c. Of this kind are the paragogic letters, as well as those 
used in forming the different species of nouns, conjugations, &c., of 
which an account will be given hereafter. The first of these cases 
is termed Prosthesis ; the second Epenthesis, Paragoge, Heemanthi, 
&c., according to their different offices and uses. 

85. Letters are occasionally dropt, (Art. 72. 76.), so also D, 
(and 1 in the Syriac, Chaltlaic, and Arabic,) terminating words in 
the plural number, when those words happen to be in the state of 
definite construction, of which more hereafter. 7 likewise, in a very 
few instances at the end of proper names : as, "l^P for P^P, for 
the reason given in Art. 76. 1. 

On the Contractions which take place in the Fbwels. 

86. As it may occasionally happen, in combining the vowels with 
the consonants, that certain sounds may arise either disagreeable to 
the ear, difficult of utterance, or, from some reason or other gene- 
rally avoided by the people speaking a given language ; it is of 
importance to know, in what cases these difficulties are found to 
arise in the language before us, and how they are obviated. 

87. Whenever any vowel not homogeneous with one of the 
letters ** or 1 (Art. 38.) happens to precede such letter, a vowel will 
be formed from the combination partaking of the sound of both. 

* Of this sort are the words stablish and establish, special and especial, in 
Knglish. So in the Greek ffrti^ni; <rr^o?, vtjtnts avtjtrTii;, &C. 

38 LECTURE in. CART. 86. i. 

1. (-) Pdthakh preceding 1 will become i Kholem : e. g. Hltt for 
TO death; ^ for ""p_ (for ~fyV?\ Art. 73.) he begets; attft" 
for 21Z7V (for ^EhiT ib.) he causes to reside.* 

2. Van 1 preceded by (T) Khdtuph, (\) Kibbiits, () Seg6/, or 
() TVere, will become *: e.g. "^ for V?V, or I^V (from "$W 
or ^.rT:. Art. 73.) Ae w begotten ; n|? for PIP. standing; rnp^J? 
for JTO^O (probably for rVjnp^B, Art. 73. of I] 1 ?? fon#, and 
rnn or nin being, root ^H was,,) reigning, kingdom. So infHtt^ 

for inn:?; 1 , root nnitf for inttf / /e n . fls / ow ; inhi f or inn em p. 

tiness ; 1H2 for ""^2 inanity, &c. 

3. In like manner, "! preceded by ( - ") Pdthakh, will become qui- 
escent in ( ), the ( -) disappearing : as, rPS for 0^2 a /w?/^ ; T^. 
for r? an eye; % or by Art. 74, '3 for ^3 a valley ; 2tt\n for 
aj?"W (for ^nn or ^^nn, Art. 73.) it does well. 

4. When the vowel (v) or () precedes "!, the contraction will 
take place in "*T perfect : e. g. ^^7? f r *?Tll i (f rme d perhaps from 
^7? cutting, and Oir? or ^T.v! from the root n^H ] te nas) a cove- 
nant ; FVWVn for'o^'?. 'beginning- ^ for ^ a man. So 
^O for ;np rebellion'; 7 for f f captivity; ^D for ^H />//. 

5. In like manner, when Shevd precedes any perfect or imperfect 
vowel, or, a substitute of Shevd follows an imperfect one, a con- 
traction may take place, in which the Shevd or its substitute will 
disappear: as, 1st. HSU? for nNt? elevation; n|?b for riSPpb 
meeting ; ~ 1 P^ > for "Ifc'^ he says, &c. 2. "^Nb for '"?&$> saying ; 
^SMJ for bj^ /, e separates ; and, by Art. 72, 2^ for 3^.1 ^e 

6. Either (-) or (T) preceding a guttural letter which has 
(T) Kdmets, is frequently changed into ( ) for the sake of euphony : 
as, "TfTO masc. njlMf fern, one; D^njl for n^HH </<e mountains. 

* So in the Sanscrit regularly, a and u become o; a and f, e. See the 
Grammars. From this and similar cases which will occur, it appears extremely 
probable, that % when a consonant, was originally pronounced like our w, as 
f"Of?/>Xp Mulkcwth, which is regularly written JTDbtt Malkuth : aad so of 

f There is a manifest anomaly in the first vowel of these words, which may 
be corrected thus : TRM or "TH^ nn or ring, 1HN or riHH. This last 
would approach the orthography of the Syrians; the other, that of the 


On the General Changes of the Vowels, 

88. Could we suppose Hebrew words to have remained unaltered 
as to their original forms, or unvaried in pronunciation with refe- 
rence to the syllable on which the accent is placed, we might also 
suppose that no variation would ever have taken place in the vowels. 
But the fact, is, the forms of words vary, in order to express the 
different shades of meaning of which the root is capable ; and 
from this, as well as other causes, the accented syllable will not 
always remain the same : and, consequently, as the pronunciation 
of the word thus varied must alter, the vowels accompanying it 
must vary likewise. 

89. Hence it will appear, that two circumstances are to be 
attended to with reference to the change of the Hebrew vowels. 
One is, the etymology or form of the word ; the other, the situa- 
tion of the accent. 

90. The form of the word can only be understood from 
rules hereafter to be detailed. The principles, however, upon 
which the etymology rests, may here be considered ; and that will 
be sufficient at the present. 

91. Any augment whatever prefixed to a word will not influence 
our present considerations, as the changes of the vowels do not 
depend upon this. We have now to do only with augments post- 

jixed to words ; because it is upon these alone that such changes 

92. These augments, then, may be considered as of two sorts : 
one commencing with a vowel, and which may be termed Asyllabic ; 
the other with a consonant, which may be termed Syllabic.* 

93. We can readily perceive, that, upon any Asyllabic augment 
being postfixed to a word, the terminating consonant of such word 
must be taken in order to enounce it, otherwise it will remain 
silent ; it being contrary to the laws of syllabication for any vowel 
to begin a syllable (Art. 31.). If, then, we attach the asyllabic 
augment &~, which is the mark of the plural number masculine, 
to any word, such as E37 a people, or "^ pure, we must necessarily 
take the last letter of either of these words to enounce it : and, if 

* The reason of these terms is obvious : a vowel cannot commence a syl- 
lable in Hebrew ; hence augments thus commencing are termed Asyllabic : 
those commencing with a consonant are, for a similar reason, termed Syllabic. 

40 LECTURE in. CART. 94. 

the word have by analogy but one such terminating letter, then 
must the preceding syllable necessarily be perfect; but, if not, im- 
perfect; e. g. "^ pure, (root ^^, the H being rejected by Art. 72.) 
adding &\, we have O'HSl Bu-rim, pure ones, &c. But, taking E? 
people, which is derived from the root E2 , (one of the radicals 
being rejected by Art. 77, we have E?,) and adding O^,. we shall 
have Q^V Ham-mim, peoples. It will entirely depend, therefore, 
upon the analogy of the word, whether the preceding vowel is to 
be perfect or not, due regard being had to the laws of syllabication. 

94. In the next place, if our augment is Syllabic, as CD , (which 
is one of the pronominal affixes signifying your, and carrying the 
accent with it,) as Hebrew words generally end in a consonant, the 
preceding vowel, in such case, must necessarily be imperfect ; 
because, both the vowel will be without an accent, and it will be 
followed by a consonant : e. g. E,?"!5 Bar-kern, your pure one ; or, 
Ejf?^? Ham-mekem, your people. 

95. Hence it will appear, that a perfect vowel will occasionally 
become imperfect; and, vice versa, an imperfect one, perfect: i. e. 
in other words, vowels will be changed for their homogeneous 
perfect or imperfect ones, as the rules of syllabication shall require. 

96. This correspondence however in the vowels is of two sorts, 
Direct, and Oblique. 

1. The direct correspondence is that of the perfect with the im- 
perfect vowels, respectively, as (T) with (-), () with (v), &-c. as 
given in the Table (Art 29.). 

2. The oblique correspondence is that of vowels, in some respects, 
dissimilar; as, (T) or (-) with () or (); () or () with (\) or 
(); and ( -0 with (s). 

97. Generally, therefore, when any change of the vowels must 
take place in order to comply with the laws of etymology and 
syllabication, those vowels which are either directly or obliquely 
homogeneous with their primitives, will be taken : the directly 
homogeneous ones for the most part; the other cases may be 
considered as exceptions to be learned by usage. 

98. This change of the vowels, moreover, will occasionally affect 
the penultimate syllable of a word, as well as the ultimate. Let us 
now consider by what laws the change will be regulated in this 

99. Generally, when the penultimate syllable ends in a perfect 
mutable vowel, that vowel will be rejected and its place be supplied 


either by Shevd or one of its substitutes, according to rules here- 
after to be given ; but, if that vowel be immutable,* it will remain 
unaltered : e. g. affixing E^ ( to ~!j^T a word, we shall have E^^H 
Deva-rim, words : but, attaching it to "fft.lS visiting, where the 
penultimate vowel is immutable by analogy, we have Q'Hp'te 
persons visiting. 

100. In like manner, if the penultimate syllable end in a con- 
sonant, and have no accent, it will necessarily remain immutable, 
whatever be the affix : as, 2^'jli?'? a sanctifier, 

iv : 

101. In all cases, in which the penultimate is immutable either 
by analogy or position, the ultimate vowel, if mutable by analogy, 
will be rejected : but, when both are immutable, no change will 
take place in the vowels, whatever be the affix. Examples of the 
first case, "TCpQ a person visited, E^^fj ^i?1^7?> f ^ e second, 


102. The changes to which the vowels are liable from the acci- 
dence of the Grammar, can affect no vowel beyond the penul- 
timate: because, first, the prefixing of any augment whatever to 
a word does not affect its vowels (Art. 91); and, secondly, as no 
syllable beyond the penultimate can be affected by the tone- 
accent, neither can it by any augment affixed to such word : 
the syllables thus situated will therefore remain undisturbed by 
grammatical accidence. 

103. The reason for abridging words, either in the ultimate, or 
penultimate, syllable (for both seldom occur together) when any 
augment is suffixed, seems to be this : Were words thus to be aug- 
mented in addition to their own primitive vowels, they would 
become inconveniently long. And, on the other hand, as those 
vowels, which have been termed immutable, constitute the distinctive 
character of the words in which they are found, perspicuity forbids 
that any change should take place in them. 

On the Use of Shevd and its Substitutes. 

104. Having laid down the general laws relating to the changes 
of the vowels, we now proceed to notice a few affecting the use 
of Shevd and its Substitutes. To enter into all the minufige 

It will be shewn hereafter, in what cases this takes place. 

42 LECTURE in. CAKT. 10.1. 

usually brought forward about these points, would neither be 
necessary nor agreeable to the student : the length and subtilty 
of the enquiry would not only be tedious and embarrassing, but 
when brought to a close, would probably leave him in possession 
of less practical knowledge on the subject, than the use of tables 
and his lexicon would supply. We shall therefore be brief, con- 
tenting ourselves with generals, and noticing a few anomalies as 
we proceed. 

105. Shevd ( : ) may be either initial or Jinal (Art. 40.). It will 
be initial at the commencement of any syllable, whether that be at 
the beginning or in the middle of a word ; final when at the end 
of any syllable. 

106. By grammatical accidence, however, two Shevds, or Shevd 
with a Substitute of Shevd, may concur as initials: but, as no one 
of them can stand for a vowel and so constitute a syllable 
when in conjunction with any consonant, some change must neces- 
sarily take place. In this case, the first Shevd, or Substitute 
for Shevd, will be changed into some imperfect vowel. 

1. Shevd so situated, which always happens at the beginning of 
a word, mostly becomes Khirik ( ), sometimes Pdthakh (-) or 
Segol (): as, 1. "f^l for t^ he visits, t? for "fj??? in 
visiting : 2, ''{M? for 'JM? wings, and "fj?SM for "tpSN / visit. 
The use of Pdthakh (-), however, is rare, and can be known only 
from usage : Segol will occur only with W* or H. 

2. One or other of the Substitutes of Shevd may concur with 
Shevd or with another Substitute of Shevd, either in the beginning 
or in the middle of a word, the change will then be into the 
imperfect vowel homogeneous with the substitute; e. g. ^?N for 
''HJDN men, "H,-?^?. for "H-il? he is turned over. So, in the middle, 
TfVsS for 1?SB thy work, ^P^ for ? : ! they stand. There 
are, however, many exceptions : as, ^,??^? 1 ? it is made, or done, 
masc., but fern. "M^^-P?, which can be known only by usage. 

3. But as the Substitutes of Shecd are various, it may be neces- 
sary here to state in what cases either of them is generally pre- 
ferred; because, upon this the operation of the foregoing rule 
will depend. 

* This is regularly the case in the first person singular of the species Kal, 
, and Pi/itt, when no guttural letter follows. 


4. Generally, when one of the guttural letters commences 
a syllable, whether in the beginning or in the middle of a word, 
and ought by analogy to take (;) Shevd; Khdteph Pdthakh (-:) is 
mostly taken in its place: e. g. 1. At the beginning of words: 
EH^y their father; ^,5"'?^ your brother ; "^^ who, which ; m&. 
make thou. 2. In the middle : '/?2 his redeemer; ^"fO?^ fear 
ye ; '"^V.^ she proceeded. 

5. There is, however, a considerable number of exceptions to 
this rule:* and, 1st, Several monosyllables with their compounds 
commencing with N will take ( .) Khdteph Segol in the place of 
Shevd; as "H.?^?.*? Eltmelek, a proper name. 2dly, Infinitives 
and Imperatives of the conjugation Kal, when commencing with 
M : as, ^ 'ip$ eating, or eat thou ; "$. saying, or say thou. 
Sdly, The characteristic H of the Hiphhtl species, in verbs 
having the middle radical letter quiescent, and receiving some 
augment: as, ^^H! he restored him or it; B/TZ2! fie put them to 
death. The first person singular mostly follows the general rule, 
and takes (-:). 4thly, In a few words (:) is found with 37 at the 
beginning of a word: as, ^^ : strength; y.? a pestil ; FPti&. 
affliction; "H'"!" 1 -?. arrayed; *&$. respond ye. 6thly, Khdteph Segol 
(:) is also found in the middle of a word : as, ^7H^(7 towards the 
tent; ^T^n^ they take hold of thee ; ^C!*l and they become 
inflamed ; ^nprT she conceived me. 7thly. In the following we 
have (T : ) similarly situated: ^}i$P$? / rest ; "Hntp.Pl thou (fern.) 
didst bribe. And, Sthly, Generally, whenever a mutable "1 has been 
rejected, its place may be supplied by (T:) when commencing 
a word, and frequently when in the middle, whatever be the 
accompanying consonant : as, D^ttnn months, from ^1^ a month ; 
a V<7^ from ^rj*f tent ; D > ^7'r- pl" ra l of ^7.^ holiness, &c. And, 
9thly, Some cases occur in which one or other of these Substitutes 
is found with a non-guttural letter, and when analogy does not 
seem to require it: e. g. ^L!$ gold, Gen. ii. 12; nnj?.^ she mas 
taken, ib. ver. 23; and a few others, which may perhaps be 
attributed to the mistakes of the copyists. 

107. Any guttural letter, originally commencing a word, and 
having a substitute of Shevd in its own right, by Art. 106. 4. upon 
being preceded by some particle with Shevd, but which by Art. 
106. 1. must become an imperfect vowel, will require that such 

* See nlso Art. 46. 

44- LECTURE in. CART. i>s. 

imperfect vowel be homogeneous with that in the Substitute : 
e. g. <"tf^7 making, &c. prefixing *!, ft, ?, &c. which are the per- 
sonal preformatives of the present tense, we shall have ^f?^ 
he makes ; FIWT}ft she makes; n ^,3 me make, c. So likewise 
with other particles : as, ?, ?, 7, P, "! ; as, "^22 for "i?? 2 i n 
making ; "T223, *??, &c.' 

There are, however, some exceptions, as in the first persons 
singular of some of the species of conjugation, &c. ; as, "'j?P.??^ / 
make, &c., which seems to be derived from ^^V. as before ; all of 
which, however, will be found in the dictionaries. 

108. There are also other substitutions made for the mark 
Shevd, which may be termed Euphonic. These take place, for the 
most part, at the end of words where two Shevds concurring, by 
analogy, would introduce some difficulty into the pronunciation. 

The vowels introduced in these cases are, (/), (-), or ( ). Segol 
is generally used when neither of the consonants concerned is 
guttural; (-)when one or two of them is so; and(-) when the 
first of them is "* Yod : e. g. "?].<$. for ^7^=> a king; where the 
primitive vowel, be that what it may, is generally made to corre- 
spond, in sound at least, with the substituted one for the mere sake 
of euphony : e. g. ">Bj? for "1?p a book ; "! for "?3?3 a boy ; JT3 

for n^a a house; rnaa for n-aa a i a d y; mpib f or nroS 

t ' ' t, u 

(fern.) learning. So in verbs : vjT for ?}? (for I"V?\ Art. 74. 2.} he 

* i ^ * * * . ' 

reveals ' for 7r (for "^7?-> ^-) he causes to reveal ; "IH 1 ] for 

") (for ^n^.ib.j, he becomes hot; ^?\] for b^rt (fo r nbyrt) rai s c 
thou, &c. Nouns of these forms, termed Segolate, having 1 for 
their middle radical letter, will take (T) Kdmets for their first 
vowel : as, ^"0$ death ; "H.)^) middle, &c. 

Particular Rules for the insertion of DAGESH. 

109. The guttural letters, viz. N } Tf, n, and 37, to which ""! may 
be added, are, on account of the difficulty with which they are 
enounced, incapable of being doubled ; the consequence is, they can- 
not receive Ddgesh forte : and, as they do not come under the rule 
relating to the letters n??-^l (Art. 31.), they are also impervious to the 
operation oiDagesh when termed lene. Ddgesh, therefore, cannot be 
regularly inscribed in any one of them.* But, when analogy requires 

* In a few instances, however, it is found in ~) and M ; as in 1 Sam. x. 24 ; 
xvii. 25 ; Gen. xliii. 26 ; Ezek. xvi. 4 ; Job xxxiii. 21, &c. 


its insertion, either the preceding vowel is made perfect, by way of 
compensation, as "H^l? Bd-rek, instead of "H^. Bar-rek, in which 
case it is said to be expressed ; or, it is only considered as being so, 
as, ^5(71*? mera-khe-pheth, instead of HSrnp for f-pflpP (Art. 43. 
note) ; here Ddgesh is said to be implied. 

110. Generally, Ddgesh is to be inscribed in any one of the 
letters H??"^?, whenever such letter begins a syllable ; provided 
the preceding syllable do not end in a perfect vowel, or in one of 
the letters ^U.^ in a quiescent state, or in one of the Substitutes of 
Shevd; for then it will not be inscribed in any of these letters. 
The exceptions are as follows : 

1. Should the preceding vowel be perfect, or the syllable end in 
one of the quiescent letters "^H!^, still, if two of the flPrn^a 
letters concur in the commencement of the following word, the 
first will receive Ddgesh; e. g. **&?* TjH^HM Emu-nd-thekd bepht, 
Psalm Ixxxix. 2. See also Isa. x. 9, Gen. xxxix. 12, &c. Ddgesh 
will also be inscribed, should such perfect vowel, or quiescent 
letter preceding, have a distinctive accent ; or, should the preceding 
word have any accent on the penultimate. A few exceptions are 
found when the preceding accent is conjunctive.-^ 

2. When the preceding word ends in H with Mappik (Art. 49.), 
or one of the letters 1 or \ used as a diphthong, Ddgesh will 
be regularly inscribed in any riQ?"Q2 letter : because, in this 
case, such letter is considered as a consonant terminating the pre- 
ceding syllable, as above : e. g. D^tt ^S^ Betsid-ddh td-stm, 
not thd-sim, Gen. vi. 1 6. See also Gen. xvii. 20, xxvii. 41 ; Ps. 
li. 17. Hence it is, that after ^""P or T'O'T. Ddgesh may be used, 
because the former of these is read by the Jews "^ly Adondi, the 
latter t3^n 7S Elo-Mm. (See Art. 67. note.) There are, however, 
a few exceptions to this rule. See Isa. xxxiv. 1 1 ; Ezek. xxiii. 42 ; 
Ps. Ixviii. 18. 

111. In the next place, when any one of the ^P?"!?? letters 
occurs, not being at the beginning of a word, but following ajinal 

* Some, however, read this passage without Ddgesh. 

f Exod. xv. 11, 16. Isa. liv.12. Jer. xx. 9. Dan. Hi. 3 ; v. 11. Ps. xxxv. 10. 
On the conjunctive and distinctive character of the accents, see the last lecture 
in this work. 

4,($ LECTURE in. CART. in. i. 

Sheva (:), it will regularly receive the point Dagesh; as, ^112? 
Pa-kdd-td, ^TiT? Pa-kddt, except in the following cases. 

1. When this (:) stands in the place originally occupied by either 
(T) or (), Ddgesh will not be inscribed in the f">??*!53 letter 
following : e. g. I,*?-?"?? kid-vd-re-kd, not *FJ2|n? kid-bd-re-kd : 
the primitive form of which is ""Q^T dd-vdr. So "*??*?, not ^ : ^ 
from "n^P or "H^E. So also ^r^ Bil-vav, from 3fjb Le-vtiv. 

2. After an initial if?Aea (:) which would be pronounced, but 
which becomes quiescent upon some particle being prefixed, (Art. 
41.) Ddgesh will not be inscribed : as, ''l^? Gevi'd, and, prefixing 
b, Via?? Lig-vul, not Lig-bid. So with BW2 1 ? ve/ure, "OS 
weeping, ^T? a he-goat, &c. as singulars, and B> 7-?^ worrf*, a< *7?T 
males, JTi"^|? sepulchres, &c. as plurals. Infinitives and Impera- 
tives of the form "^9, "Ip Q or "II?? with any augment, will also be 
excepted ; as, ^"n Rod-pho, his persecuting, ^^ Shik-vd, lie 
thou down, c. where the last radical letter is one of the fl??!^2 

3. After a. final Shevd (:) following an imperfect vowel which has 
arisen out of some one of the substitutes of Shevd (Art. 106. 2. 
&c.) ; e. g. ^P^? Nd-ham-dd, not TTOT3, I sa . ]. 8. 

But if such Shevd itself have arisen out of one of these substi- 
tutes, Ddgesh will be inscribed; as, V.^Hl Yakh-pots, Deut. xxv. 7. 

4. The affixed pronouns f , E3, 1^, never receive Ddgesh lene : 
the letters np?"j32 preceding m ; as, fVoba Mal-kiith, rWT3V 
Hav-duth, r\? 1 Yal-duth. So also I-?,?, and "f23 } when receiving 
any asyllabic augment, the latter in ^7?? Neg-dd only, Ps. cxvi. 
14;* *n?Sl Big-do, 2 Kings ix. 13, &c., to which a few others 
might be added. 

112. Ddgesh, in its capacity of reduplicating certain letters, is 
sometimes found at the beginning of words ; as, n-t~7TO pronounced 
Maz-ze, "VEk ^^^ Mo-shel Le-mor, &c., in which case it is purely 
euphonic. So also in ^$9 Mik-keddsh, for E7j?i?*? Mik-ddsh, 
Exod. xv. 17 ; rn?5 Vd-ek-kere-hd, for ^^, &c. 

113. And, on the contrary, there area few instances, particularly 
in verbs having one of the liquids either for the second, or the two 
last radicals, in which every letter is written at length ; as, t?7? 
Tsil-16, Job xl. 21 ; ^MH Khon-nc-ni, Ps. ix. 14; not fe O r 

Which, however, II). vcr. lo, lis 


"*?2n : and others in which it is omitted, contrary to analogy ; as, 
nnbJE for nnyJB? she sent; =lV?n f or lbv>n praise ye; D l?n for 
D?ifn, Exod. v. 14, &c. 

114. The following anomalies occur in the vowels occasionally, 
when coming in contact with Ddgesh either EXPRESSED or IMPLIED, 
&c. The vowel (-) coming before a guttural letter, and containing 
an implied Ddgesh (Art. 109.) is, for the sake of Euphony, often 
changed into ("); as, "fHN (masc.) and $$ (fern.) one ; D^nn 
for O^^p, or more commonly E'H/Jjri mountains; Httfy flames ; 
D^bn2 embers ; HpQ a leader ; E^V/? cities ; C f7.901 he repented 
himself; ^H?-'^ 1 ye become possessed; s nj!Jten they became puri- 
fad ; ^^$3 z * it I? & c> ' n some instances, (-) coming before 
Ddgesh forte is changed into () Khirik ; as, "i^? his daughter, 

from ^12 (rather from ^?? ; Arab. c^ou)i Gen. xxix. 6 ; 

D^jjn'zp thorns, from 2"nl3, 2 Sam. xxiv. 22. In the same manner, 
^"12 a nine-press ; J"IH consternation ; Tp measure ; ^p^? circuitous ; 
D|? tribute; *]$ door-post; ^ morsel; and "f? <^e *irfe, change 
(-) into () upon receiving any asyllabic augment. The same 
takes place with the verb H^p dying, when found in the conjuga- 
tion Hiphhil; as, Q^Pri ye put to death, for Bfnan, Numb. xvii. 6, 
&c. The same is also found to prevail in the following verbs with 
syllabic augments ; viz. ^TfH- 1 f r ^H^ I have begotten thee, 
Ps. ii. 7, &c.; BflHrp. for D^^T ye shall possess, Deut. xi. 8, &c. 
These all, however, may be considered as arising either for the 
sake of euphony, out of the etymology, or else from the mere 
mistakes of the copyists. 

48 LECTURE IV. C AR>1 '- 



115. OF the origin and use of these accents very little can now 
be said with any degree of certainty. Much labour and learning, 
indeed, have been bestowed on their investigation ; but, after all, 
the conclusions arrived at are beset with so much uncertainty, that 
some of the best Grammarians both Jewish and Christian have 
confessed that they knew but little on the subject.* We must, 
therefore, be content with the common rules respecting them, and 
here, with those only which are generally found to interfere with 
the vowels of the text. 

116. These accents (Art. 60.) are said to have two offices ; the 
one Tonic, that is, having the power to moderate the tone of voice 
in which any portion of the Scripture is to be read ; the other 
Euphonic, that is, when added either for the purpose of giving 
a kind of secondary accent to words, or of regulating the syllables. 
It seems most likely, however, that they are added generally, for 
the purpose of filling up the system, as to perfect or imperfect 
vowels, and of obviating a great number of anomalies, which 
would otherwise occur. 

On the Tonic Accent. 

1 1 7. The Tonic accent may be any one of those found in the 
table (Art. 59.) : and it will always be found either expressed, or 
implied,^ on the penultimate or ultimate syllable of every word. 
When on the penultimate, the word is said to be '^.rP Millicl ; 
when on the ultimate, ^7-: ^ Milrdh. The following are the general 
rules for its insertion. 

All words the penultimate vowel of which is imperfect and has 
not a consonant immediately following it, will have the Tonic 

* See my reply to Dr. Laurence, entitled, " A Vindication of certain 
Strictures," &c. Cambridge, 1 822, p. 1 7, &c. 

f That is, if the accent be one of those not placed on the regularly accen- 
tuated syllable, it must be considered as giving emphasis either to the penul- 
timate or ultimate, according to the analogy of the word. 

ART. 117. 2.3 ON THE ACCENTS. 49 

accent on that syllable. Of this kind are all duals, and segolate 
nouns ; nouns having the feminine affix "*] (thy}, attached to dual 
or plural forms ; and all nouns having terminations peculiar to the 
segolate forms: as, E^T[ both hands, Gen. xxvii. 22 ; "P-! hunting; 
*]D3 silver; "H^S thy eyes (fern.), Cant. i. 15; "H^B thy appear- 
ances, Ib. ii. 14; ^"Vp? a rose; ^^I?P perfumed with incense, 
Ib. Hi. 6, &c. 

The reason is obvious ; the penultimate syllable is in all these 
cases imperfect, the addition of the accent is, therefore, necessary 
for the purposes of syllabication (Art. 33. 43.). 

Segolate nouns having the penultimate vowel perfect, will, on 
account of their peculiar character, retain the accent on that syllable : 
as ~l.n}? concealment ; rng (for /?")) death ; ^na (for in2) empti- 
ness (See Art. 43. note). Also proper names ending in ^: as, 
irpfn* Zedekiah. 

2. Nouns receiving a syllabic pronominal affix, and at the same 
time a vowel of union (Art. 123. 1.), or, having likewise a paragogic 
7 Nun, will have the accent on the penultimate of the word so 
formed : (The pronominal affixes usually termed grave, i. e. C3, 
T3, Djl, ?n, are excepted) e. g. ^J9^C? Judge me, Psalm xliii. 1 ; 
33Q7D3 our soul ; ^Ty.^ its leaf, Ps. i. 3 ; 'in^rnJp thou rejoicest him, 
Ps. xxi. 7 ; V 1 ,?^- he imputes it, Gen. xv. 6 ; ^23 his face, 
Ps. xi. 7 ; *P,??? thy wings, Ps. xvii. 8 ; 'fn'QlH / rebuke thee, 
Ps. 1. 8; *PWn / have called thee, Ps. cxix. 146; ^"p they 
praise thee, Ps. Ixvii. 6 ; ^S^f? it (the wind) dispeileth it, Ps. i. 4. 
With the paragogic 1 of plural verbs: "M'TOfT! they seek me 
early, Prov. i. 28 ; "iT 3 / 1 *?"!^ they serve thee, Jsa. Ix. 7 ; ty^. 
they take him, Prov. v. 22. 

3. Verbs terminating (i. e. in the process of conjugation) in the 
pronominal syllables R, ^, 13, and T3 ; as Jp^pn* thou art milling, 
Ps. xl. 7; ^"ib? / have announced (good tidings), Ib. v. 10; 
aa-ji^ rve have dealt falsely, Ps. xliv. 18 ; T,^ 7 ? *% (&) 
shall come, Ps. xlv. 16. 

4. ^syllabic afformatives are subject to the same rule, in the 

* These cases ought, regularly, to be pointed, -nV^n, i. e . with ( T ) with the 
second syllable. The Jews however seem to have pointed verbs with (-), 
for the purpose of distinguishing them from nouns; as, "?)29 instead of "T|?5, 
and by this means an anomaly has been introduced among the syllables. 


50 LECTURE IV. C ART - U7.5. 

conjugation Hiphhil : as, V^P' 7 " 1 hope thou (fern.), Ps. xliii. 5; 
nyiZJ'in it (fern.) brought salvation, Ps. xliv. 4. Also in the surd 
and concave verbs : as, ^9 surround ye, Ps. xlviii. 1 3 ; ^O ^ <e # 
wore, Ps. xlvi. 7 ; likewise when these affixes are joined to the 
third person singular and plural of the preterite of verbs : as, 
^7? he MMted m e'> ^Op^ it (fem.) hath overwhelmed me, Ps. 
Ixix. 3 ; typf-inN Ae 7<afA loved thee, Ruth iv. 15 ; "^fP they 
surrounded me, Ps. xviii. 6.* 

5. When the paragogic H is added to nouns, pronouns, or 
particles, it exercises no influence on the accent, for the most part. 
In such cases, therefore, the accent will be in the penultima : as, 
nrn*p Ephratah, Gen. xxxv. 16, &c. 

118. The tonic accent will have its place on the last syllable 
of words, in the remaining cases, which are then termed 3?n 7 KJ 
Milrah, and are as follows : 

1. All words ending with a consonant preceded by a perfect 
vowel by analogy : as, v]2 great ; ""' '^ luminary ; E^j?-? sons ; 
m33l daughters. The same is the case when any of the ^IH^ 
letters are thus situated, being then considered as consonants : as, 
HT?^ ft year; ""^?*? a pillar: and even H preceded by (), as, 
^.Hl he is, &c. 

2. All words ending in one of the grave affixes : as, 
your blood; BfT?*? their father ; E^Lj ye shall be, Gen. iii. 5. 

3. Verbs having no affixed pronoun : as, n|T? J te took ; 
he is called. 

4. Verbs taking the asyllabic afformatives H T> ! \ > and **.: as, 
n i/^ i< ?M^; 1"|l?? they visited; ^WD ///rfe thyself ({em.}; 
and finally, all words not comprehended in any of the preceding 
rules (i. e. Art. 117.). 

On certain Anomalies as to the situation of the decent, and 
on the changes effected by it on the vowels and consonants 
of words. 

119. These generally take place, when the illative particle If 
is prefixed to verbs, in which case, 1st, the Tonic accent which is 

* These particulars will hereafter be illustrated by tables. 

f Usually termed Vow conversivum, but which corresponds to the Arabic 

-5 or > therefore, &c. 

ART. 119. 2-3 ON THE ACCENTS. 51 

proper for the penultimate vowel in the past tense (Art. 117. 3.), 
will be removed to the ultimate : and, 2dly, vice versa, the accent 
proper for the ultimate in the present (Art. 118. 1.) will be 
removed to the penultimate: as, 1st, ^^Ili?! so I mill consecrate 
(for "^Enf?), Exod. xxix. 44 ; f??P^(?.*! so t/iou shall be gathered 
(for tt&pN3), Numb, xxvii. 13; nJ^Tani. so it shall divide; 
{?^5{T| thus thou shall bring, Exod. xxvi. 33 ; '"$'!'! so she shall 
increase, Isa. vi. 12 ; j?P^ < ] therefore thou shall place, Lev. xxiv. 6 ; 
^JT^I so s ^ ie ^dl return, Lev. xxii. 13 ; ^tp. thus they shall place, 
Numb. vi. 27; ft^? 1 so thou shall enter, Gen. vi. 18. 

2. This rule, however, is often disregarded : as, ^OjTp. so me 
took, Gen. xxxiv. 17; ^P,?^! and me mill depart: particularly in 
verbs having a quiescent letter for the third radical; as, TJ^^l 
and thou shall fear, Lev. xix. 32 ; > <0 VT"] an< ^ I m *M reveal, 
1 Sam. xx. 12 ; ^,.'$1 an ^ ^ ou s ^ a ^ g in ^ captivity, Ezek. 
xii. 3. With some having the medial radical letter quiescent : as, 
nWD31 : an d thou shall Jlee, 2 Kings ix. 3. 

3. In the next place, the accent will be removed from the 
ultimate to the penultimate syllable of the present tense, when 
the illative particle 1 is prefixed, and when the form of the verb 
will allow of the change : e. g. "I ($5*1 (for "f i]?!P.) so he is visited. 
But in the third person plural masc. it will keep its place : as, 

flg'.l (from TJPfT.)' The same holds good also in the form 
as, 1|??*1 so he visits. 

Corollary. Hence it will follow, that the accent being removed 
from the last syllable, the ultimate vowel must necessarily become 
imperfect (Art. 33.) : as, *.?! and he was struck (for ^21) ; 
10rf"l (for 10^) and he said; n>! and he died (for ffltfi or 
rVttp^) ; and so of others. 

4. In the conjugation termed Hiphhil, as it will be seen here- 
after, the terminating vowel is either (\) or (). Whenever, 
therefore, the accent is drawn back, by this or any other rule, 
the imperfect vowel will be () not (): as, Bp*JJ. so he raised 
(from D,7X or O>i). So ft$ so he lodged (for fe or rfe, 
Gen. xxviii. 11, Josh. viii. 9 ; n^l so he rested (for n3^ O r T^), 
Exod. x. 14, where (-) is taken on account of the guttural letter 
following. (Art. 45.) 

In one instance, however, we have V"!$5 (for VT?, root 
and she broke, Judg. ix. 53. 

E 2 

52 LECTURE iv. ART. 119. 5. 

5. When, however, the last letter of the root happens to be one 
of the *ffi-$ letters in a state of quiescence, the perfect vowel will 
occasionally remain : as, ^?,!p and he brings, Gen. iv. 3. 

6. In many cases, also, this removal of the accent is altogether 
neglected: as, ^^^ so I sit, 1 Kings viii. 20, &c. 

7. In consequence of this removal of the accent, the terminating 
vowel of the present tense of verbs is changed (No. 3. above), and 
entirely rejected with the consonant following, when that is 
quiescent: e. g. ?j for ""vfl (Art. 74.) ; and, by 108, the former 
will be <, which is termed Apocope. 

8. Again, the accent is occasionally removed from the ultimate 
to the penultimate syllable both in the present tense and in the 
imperatives of verbs, for the purpose of expressing prohibition, for- 
bearance, exhortation, wishing or the like, with the greater 
emphasis ; as, ^??fp~ 'N turn not away, 1 Kings ii. 20 (for ^^1?) ; 
np-jn-bW chastise not, Prov. ix. 8 (for n^fl) ; JpiJ-rbN add not, 
Prov. xxx. 6 (for *lj5 < fal, where the vowel of the medial radical is 
also rejected though not followed by a quiescent H) ; "H.),*"!^. / mill 
mater thee (for "H^tf., the root being V\ usually HYI, in which 
case the final radical letter generally returns. In this case the ^ is 
doubled because the verb is in the conjugation Pthel). So ""'P^'H 
observe (for 1$n) ; rQTl gi V6) & c . Gen. xi. 3, 4 (for H^H Gen. 
xxix. 21). 

9. So in verbs having the third radical letter a quiescent H : as, 
T let him rule (for nTV.) ; ITO let him be blotted out (for nnP), 
Ps. cix. 13 ; tt?.may he dilate (for nW^),.Gen. ix. 27 ; ^ } et it 
be (for nVP), Gen. i. 3 ; t^fff^ drink not (for nfltpn), Lev. x. 9 ; 
N^r^N let it not be seen (for HST^), Exod. xxxiv. 3 ; T^-V^M 
relax not (for n ,B"1^ ; where the verb takes the form of a segolate 
noun, see Art. 108); ^nrrb be not (for HVTO) ; and so of others. 
But it may here be remarked, as before, that the common form of 
the verb and usual position of the accent are often adopted : as, 
nl'7 lest I should see, Gen. xxi. 16 ; njfj^ lest he should 
see, Job iii. 9. 

10. Examples of imperatives subject to Apocope : ^3 reveal thou 
(for H9| in Pihel); ^H sm i te thou (for HSH), Amos ix. 1 ; ^fl 
multiply thou (for rrj5p.n i n Hiphhil. Here the form assumed is 
that of a segolate noun, the first vowel becoming (), in order to 
accommodate itself to the sound of the second, Art. 108.), Ps. li. 4. 

ART. 119. 1J/] ON THE ACCENTS. 53 

So b3?n cause thou to ascend (for nbVPT), Exod. xxxiii. 12 ; 
^P?jl% thyself (to be) MC& (for nbnm), 2 Sam. xiii. 5. 

11. It frequently happens in verbs ending with a radical 51 
(for ") and receiving some asyllabic augment, that not only is the 
accent drawn back, as in the cases above mentioned (No. 8.), but 
the original radical letter also appears: as, ^R^ ** (fern.) hath 
trusted (for n P|7 according to the general paradigma, from the 
root non f or ^Jl), Ps. Ivii. 2. So -Vb^ they are tranquil (for 
*?#?, root nbttf or ^bttf, whence regularly ^^'), Ps. cxxii. 6, 
&c. ; VftW let them come (for -""P-Svi root n ^ r W). p s. Ixviii. 
32 ; ^U bring ye (for -IJpNrr, Art. 73.), Jer. xii. 9. 

12. In a few instances this drawing back of the accent also takes 
place in nouns and particles : as, D3? TljSn numerous art thou (in) 
peopfe (for y??"]). So D.l^? V!\?"3 grazZ art thou among the 
nations; rn} < nJ33 THE? a princess art thou among the provinces, 
Lam. i. 1 . In like manner we have *~fv, ! " tj ?b, or ^r 5 !? n hy ? 
(for ^^y, n ^7, or H^ab), where, according to Schrcederus, 
" subest adfectus exprobrantis, vel conquerentis, vel alius similis." 
To these he adds, ^ / (for ^), Ezek. xvii. 22.f 

120. Again, the accent will be withdrawn from the ultimate to 
the penultimate syllable, in order to avoid the concurrence of two 
Tonic accents, which would happen when the following word 
is a monosyllable with an , accent, or a dissyllable with an 
accent on the penultima. But here, the penultimate vowel of 
the former of such two words, will remain perfect : as, "^ ^O^ 
he opened the rock (for n P-?), Ps. cv. 41 ; V ":jbw / m m betake me, 
Cant. iv. 6 ; rib$T ?'?3 ? has this come to pass ? (for rrjTnrr) 
Joel i. 2 ; N'T 'n'iny she (is) my sister, Gen. xx. 2 ; *fb 7/13') and 
he will give thee, Deut. xix. 8 ; *^P <Q he will exult exceedingly, 
Ps. xxi. 2. 

2. Verbs, receiving any asyllabic augment, and on that account 
rejecting any of their primitive vowels, will, upon the removal of 
the accent by the above-mentioned rule, restore such rejected 

* These Imperatives are probably nothing more than primitive abstract 
nouns, termed Segolates, enounced with some energy. 

f The principles which regulate this retraction of the accent, and the con- 
sequent apocope, will be considered in the Syntax. 

51 LECTURE IV. C A R T - 120. 3. 

vowel : as, 'innn* ye shall delude him (for JVlJ-l), Job xiii. 
9 ; nan siBfc C oie AMer (for lip?), Josh. iii. 9 ; jj'n' I^HHn ye 
wi// /ot-e ramty (for l^D^), Ps. iv. 3 ; ^ ^DPI they trusted in 
him (for ^PP regularly, but ^Dn according to the tables for these 

3. Should, however, this drawing back of the accent with the 
consequent change of the ultimate vowel tend to destroy or obscure 
the original form and signification of the word, no such change will 
take place : as, ^/. ^^'?.^ the hidden things of the heart (not 
n?p73?.n with Kamets Khdtuph) ; E^ " l j?^ passing over the sea 


4. The accent will frequently fall on the penultimate instead of 
the ultimate syllable in words which conclude a sentence, or a 
member of a sentence. These accents are, for the most part, 
Silluk, Athndkh ; and, in the poetical books, Mercd with Mahpdk 
(Art. 59.). 

5. In many of these cases, the removal of the accent will occasion 
no change whatever in the vowels : as, nS27l2 (f or 
inhabited, Jer. vi. 8 ; 'nj? (for l"^) make bare, Ps. cxxxvii. 7 ; 
(for ^7?) ^ey are consumed, Ps. xxxvii. 20, &c. 

6. But, in those persons of the verb which are formed by some 
asyllabic augment, or have the paragogic n, and in which the 
second vowel of the root has been rejected, the accent, taking that 
syllable, will restore such vowel : as, ""f^R (for ""I-?")!^ from the 
root 3^.1?) she hath approached, Zeph. iiL 2 ; ^^ (for -1^3,^ root 
^p^) they mere able, 2 Kings iii. 26 ; Tliptttfl (f or ^~IO^, root, 
i. e. form for the Pres., "^tp) ye shall keep, Exod. xxxi. 13. So 
H3bM (from "*fe?) I mill walk, Gen. xxx. 26; IIBD (from "ISO) 
recount ye, Joel i. 3 ; s ? (for "^y, from "?!*?.) go thou, fern., &c. 

7. When the original final vowel is (-) it will generally become 
(T) when thus accompanying the accent: as, "9^rr sne departed 
(from the root ^vO, Is - xl vi. 2. So nn|?J?3 (from n i^?) it was 
taken, 1 Sam. iv. 17 ; h$ (from 1#M) and I sleep, Ps. iii. 6 ; 
rra^n (from r,?3) / e M5 Arnow, Is. v. 19 ; S ,?^S (from p^S) c? -y </ iOM 
(fem.), Jer. xxii. 20 ; ^nfoPl (from nttJ/1), I s . xx i x . 9. 

8. But, when a paragogic 1 follows the asyllabic augments 1 or 

* The Dagesh found here in the v> has, perhaps, been introduced for the 
sake of euphony only, (Art. 112.) 

ART. 121.]] ON THE ACCENTS. 55 

''T, the accent usually retains its proper situation, while the second 
vowel of the root is restored as in the last article: as, I^P/I 
(from t^Vl) they will collect; l^HSP (from ^p?"!) they mill be 
confounded; V&W (from Sftf!) they mill expire, Ps. civ. 28, 29.* 

121. Segolate nouns of the form TpS ; derived from roots having 
for the third radical letter a quiescent "!, will, upon taking the 
pause accent in the penultimate, restore the orginal vowel to the 
first radical : as, "*?] (for "^H, from the primitive form "!?!) the 
half, 1 Kings x. 7 ; ^"? (for ^P from < n) rebellion, Ezek. ii. 8 ; 
^ (for ^; : , from 'I?' 1 ,) fceawty, Is! iii. 24.' 

122. Apocopated present tenses of verbs having ''T in the place 
of the third radical letter n, take () for the vowel of the personal 
preformative, when so circumstanced as to receive the accent 
proper for the pause on that syllable : as, T^ (for "'^l from ^.r^), 
Psalm xxxiii. 9 ; T^- an d sne mas i Lam. iii. 37. So T^ he shall 
live (for "^T), Is. xxxviii. 21. 

123. When any word with the affixed pronoun 1 happens to be 
the last word of a sentence, &c., so that the accent proper for the 
pause will fall upon its penultimate vowel, two methods have been 
invented for the purpose of avoiding any disagreeable concurrence 
which may happen in the vowels. 

1. Instead of ( : ) which is proper for affixing this pronoun, as 
will be seen hereafter, () is introduced as a vowel of union: as 
T;^ (for T]^) thy rvord, Gen. xlvii. 30 ; ^Tfl^rn (f or ^bn?) 
thy inheritance, Ps. ii. 8 ; H?^ ( f <> r ^W"?) thy salvation, Ps. ii. 14; 
7[)tp (for 1P27) thy name, Ps. cxxxviii. 2, &c. 

2. The vowel proper for this pronoun is occasionally transposed : 
as, < JJ,7'?$'" T (for ^n^ 7 ?) % destruction, Deut. xxviii. 24 ; ^)M? 
(for VJ$P) he hath adorned thee, Is. Iv. 5 ; "i]$* (for *[]?) Ae hath 
commanded thee, 1 Sam. xiii. 13. 

3. The particles ri$, D^, ^1, and 7, having "H affixed to them 
and receiving a pause-accent, are always subject to this rule : "H^N 
thee, Deut. xxviii. 48; ^ffl with thee, Gen. viii. 17; ^l^V with 
thee, Gen. xxix. 25 ; "H^ m thee, Ps. ix. 3 ; "H^ to, for, or o/J <Aee, 
Exod. xxxii. 34, &c., for ^n'W, ^M, iJia^, t[2 } 7j> } &Ct 

4. The pronoun 1 is subject to this rule even when not in 

* Tlie influence and use of this adjunct will be considered in the Syntax. 

56 LECTURE iv. [[ART. 123. 5. 

the situation for receiving a pause-accent : as, "H^ he answered 
thee, Jer. xxiii. 37 ; for *P]?. 

5. When a pause-accent falls on an ultimate or penultimate (-) 
Pdthakh, or on a penultimate () Segol, in segolate forms, that 
vowel is, for the most part, changed into (T) Kamets : as, "f]9 for 
*T9 he hath siood > 2 #r for ^ he hat " sat, Ps. i. 1, &c. ; 
nVb for nVb n ;g/j<, Gen. i. 5 ; 2nn for 3"in a sword, Josh. 
viii. 24 ; ^Tl]?^ for ^7-^ standing, Eccl. i. 4. 

6. There are however certain exceptions : as, pn^*1* fie 
laughed, Gen. xvii. 17 ; "T,? p-ez/, Ib. xlix. 27 ; 1^1 *% sAa# be 
set on foe, Is. xxxiii. 1 2 ; ^!"!'^' : I thou hast spoken, Ib. xxxix. 8 ; 
ntt2 security, Prov. i. 33 ; fag'S a nurse, Ruth iv. 16. But these 
may be errors of the copyists. 

7. The pause-accent will sometimes change a terminating () 
into ( - ) : as, IT]??, for ife* Ae Aa// go, Job xxvii. 21 ; 3BJn return, 
restore, for Sj^H, Is. x lii. 22 ; l^" 1 ?^ (for l^W) farry no< aW 
night, Jud. xix. 20. 

124. Makkdph following a terminating perfect and mutable 
vowel which precedes a consonant, will change the vowel into its 
corresponding imperfect one : as, ^"""OT (for K3 "^pT) remember 
now; E^P" 1 ?? (for D'jpblp b$) a ibtiv*; ^n-nN (for D^H n,) 
fAe people, &c. 

2. But if such final vowel be immutable, no change can 
take place : as, " 1 P^?"^ %I ^7 ' or f or > another man, Jer. iii. 1 ; 
ri^Sin'mM the sign of the covenant, Gen. ix. 12. The reason of 
this is ; the addition of Makkdph deprives the word to which it is 
attached of its tonic accent, and this makes it necessary that the 
preceding vowel be imperfect, when that is possible (Art. 33.). 

On the Use and Situation of the Euphonic decent. 

125. It has already been remarked, that the Euphonic accent, 
Metheg, may be considered as supplying a secondary accentuation 
(Art. 64. 5.), with reference to some tonic accent preceding it. 
Monosyllables, therefore, can never have an Euphonic accent, 
unless indeed they happen to precede Makkdph ; but, in that case, 
they are considered as making an integral part of a compound 
word, and may receive the Euphonic accent according to rules 
presently to be laid down. Dissyllables may receive an Euphonic 

* In some editions 

ART. 126.)] ON THE ACCENTS. 57 

accent ; but these syllables must have a final ( . ) Shevd inter- 
vening : as, 7"/7l! he shall be, Sec. 

Rules for the Insertion of the Euphonic Accent. 

126. The third syllable (not ending with a consonant) of any 
word, reckoning inclusively from the tonic accent, will have the 
Euphonic accent Metheg ; as, "*(7^i7 ^ ne one, Gen. ii. 11 ; Tfbnn 
which proceedeth, Ib. v. 14; n ||!?^^ I shall possess it, Ib. xv. 8; 
I^Nia from our father, Ib. xix. 32 ; D l ' :i1 ^? 1 ? according to their 
tongues, Ib. x. 20 ; ^"rblSE?! and from thy kindred, Ib. xii. 1. 

127. But if this third syllable end in a consonant, the Euphonic 
accent will be with the fourth : as, ^5 7 nfl and of their fat, 
Gen. iv. 4; "^t}^ and I remain, 1 Kings xix. 10 (where \ being 
doubled by Ddgesh, concludes the syllable ; as, IplVWV). 

2. Perfect vowels preceding Shevd, and having no tonic accent, 
will, if occupying the third place from any tonic accent, (reckoning 
the Shevd), receive an euphonic one: as, '"'P^V? *' rvas i Gen. i. 2 ; 
"H^f? thou (fern.) shall bring forth, Ib. iii. 16; HY?^ Nineveh, 
Ib. x. 11; rvrrbta generations, Ib. ii. 4; J^f] he shall bruise 
thee, Ib. iii. 15. 

3. In many instances the Euphonic accent is omitted ; nor is it 
necessary it should ever be added, if we except one case, viz. when 
the figure of (T) Kdmets precedes Shevd, for then this vowel 
will be either d or o, just as the accent is added or not : as, ^?P 
she was wise ; or, ^$9^ wisdom (Art. 55.). In every other case, 
no difficulty can arise, whether the accent is added or not. 

4. In some cases, however, the Euphonic accent seems to 
mark the substitution of an imperfect for a perfect vowel : as, 
^52 (for sft'D? thy border, Exod. xxiii. 31 ; ^.1. for ^p.) 
and they shall fear, Mic. vii. 17; where it is necessary for the 
completion of the syllable (Art. 33.). It is, nevertheless, fre- 
quently omitted, and must be supplied by the reader, particularly 
before an implied Ddgesh (Art. 109), &c. 

5. The letter ^ with Shurek prefixed to a word, and situated 
as above, with respect to the tonic accent, will sometimes be 
found with the Euphonic accent, and followed by one of the 
substitutes of Shevd where ( : ) would be regular : as, rtSH?-! and 
lead thou captive, Jud. v. 12 ; "^i??^ and be thou sought, Ezek. 
xxvi. 21. 

58 LECTURE iv. [[ART. 128. 

128. Words consisting of more than two syllables, the first of 
which is terminated by Ddgesh, will receive the Euphonic accent 
on that syllable : as, -I^P^?,! and they heard, Gen. iii. 8 ; nVrai? 
on the morrow, Ib. xix. 34 ; ^/A?^? the knife, Ib. xxii. 6.* 

2. This will also hold good when the Ddgesh is omitted : as, 
int&a^l an d he felt him, Ib. xxvii. 22 ; n jv ^p which covereth, 
Exod. xxix. 13, &c. In all these cases Sheva is initial ; and, 
consequently, any one of the letters ^"12?^?^, which may happen 
to follow, will retain its aspiration: as, Q^??pPp the abhorrers, 
Mic. iii. 9. Hence ^7 : P ls to ^ e pronounced Hdlelu, not Halla. 
Something of the same kind is observable in the words *f 7 ?? and 

^F: J USt Cited ( Art - 127 - 4 

129. When any one of the substitutes of Sheva happens to be 
preceded by a vowel, that vowel will receive the Euphonic accent : 
as, n5j3 let us make, Gen. i. 26 ; 1J3M3 faithful, Numb. xii. 7 ; 
H^HN his tent, Gen. xiii. 3 ; n >"^J7 ine ground, Ib. i. 25 ; 
D^.?V crying out (pi.), Ib. iv. 10 ; ^rjj?.$Nj! and I would have dis- 
missed thee, Ib. xxxi. 27. 

2. When the substitute of Sheva, moreover, is resolved into its 
homogeneous imperfect vowel (Art. 106. 2.), the Euphonic accent 
will still remain: as, ^T?^,? thy sandal, Isa. xx. 2 ; ^7"? Clvl ana they 
shall fear, Hos. xi. 10. 

130. When any imperfect vowel at the beginning of a word, 
precedes a ( : ) Shevd not accompanied by Ddgesh forte, it will, 
for the most part, have the Euphonic accent: as, ^^?np its 
coupling, Exod. xxxix. 20 ; ^D^^Pp they boned themselves down, 
Jer. viii. 2 ; ^PlBOj! they broke off, Exod. xxxii. 3 ; D^nVTO 
becoming Jens, Esth. viii. 17. Hence we have ^.V^l, T."?^, 
HTP, nTW-1, &c., from the verbs rrn become, and n>n H ve . But, 
in these cases, the accents do not interfere with the syllabication 
(See Art. 43.). 

131. On some occasions, other accents are found to occupy the 
situation of Metheg. These are, ~ Munakh, 1. Kadmd, ~ Mercd : 
as, E' 1 ??n and the pieces of mood, Gen. xxii. 7 ; P^O^'l and Aaron, 
Exod. vii. 7 ; TJ 3 -?! and the priest, Levit. vii. 8 ; b^sV^V of 

* The Student must not be surprised, if lie finds the different editions of 
the Bible vary on these points. 

ART. 131. 2.]] ON THE ACCENTS. 59 

Malehtel, Numb. xxvi. 45. In these cases we have Mundkh or 
Kadma in the place of Metheg, followed by Zdkeph Kdton. In 
^7*5 so they proceed, Numb. xxii. 7, Kadma is followed by 
Geresh ; and, Ib. xxxii. 39, we have it again, coupled with Metheg, 

in some editions : as, ^f*.!, which, with many similar examples, 
is perhaps to be ascribed to the carelessness, hurry, or whims, of 
the copyists. 

2. In the following examples we have Mercd ~ in the place 
of Metheg : as, \5?5? like th * stars* Exod. xxxii. 13 ; inaotajl 
so he hides him, Exod. ii. 12,-j- In these cases Mercd is found 
with Tiphkhd for its tonic accent. 

3. In a few instances Yerakh ~ or Yethw ~ is found in the place 
of Metheg; as, Cn <i n'fe3Jba f rom t j ie i r counse l S) p s . v . 11 ; 

^?njr<.? whom it (fem.) loves, Cant. 1.7. In the last case, how- 
ever, E7 stands for ~ l $?^, and may therefore take any tonic accent. 
In numerous cases, as the student will find, many of these rules 
are never applied ; and, in many others, as already remarked, the 
printed copies of the Hebrew Bible differ, as do also the MSS. 
In many too, neither the syllabication nor the sense of the 
passage, is affected by these accents, whence it should seem pro- 
bable, that they have been added merely for the purpose of regu- 
lating the tone of voice in reading or chanting the text. 

On the Use and Position of MAKKAPH. 

132. Learned men are not agreed whether this mark is, or is 
not, to be ranked among the accents. Some have argued that 
it ought, because it is always found to supply the place of an 
accent. Others, again, that it ought not ; because it is universally 
found to deprive the word to which it is attached of its tone- 
accent. That it is equivalent in effect to an accent, I think, both 
parties allow : and, if I mistake not, its depriving the word to 
which it has been attached of its tone-accent, seems to make for 
the hypothesis, that it ought to be considered as performing the 
functions of such accent. It seems to me, therefore, but a loss of 
time to argue against its being termed an accent. 

* la some editions < O3'123 regularly. 

v : I : s J 

t Which is also with Mitheg in some editions. 

60 LECTURE iv. CART. 133. 

Rules for its Use and Insertion. 

133. Words immediately connected with each other, either in 
signification or by grammatical construction, are frequently con- 
nected by Makkdpk, the former being then deprived of its tone- 
accent: as, nlfT'OSa Jehovah's word, Amos ii. 16 ; a;?"~intp pure 
of heart, Prov. xxii. 11 ; D^'^.l and he pitched (his tent) there ; 
IjaiTI? a little son, 2 Sam. ix. 12; "fpN|3 one son, 1 Sam. 
xxii. 20 ; ?h2 - b3 every high thing, Job xli. 26 ; SfAHT^J it 
shall limit it, Josh, xviii. 20 ; ntt^sVna even to her husband, 
Gen. iii. 6 ; *7"TO ato aj^rDS 12^-|f lest thou speak with 
Jacob (any thing) from good to bad, Gen. xxxi. 24 ; ^^""ItpN which 
he called, Gen. xxvi. 18. So, H-??"'- a garden in Eden, Gen. 
ii. 8 ; HN^rrtth. come hither, Ib. xix. 9 ; 1^b-N2 he came to 
sojourn, Ib. ; a*TO"rP'5 and the evening was, Ib. i. 5, &c., to which 
many others might be added, in which two, three, or even four 
words, are thus connected (see Art. 65. \ In all these cases, the 
last word only in the connection will have the tone-accent. 

2. Since then the tone-accent is in all these cases taken away, 
words so connected, ending in a perfect mutable vowel, and fol- 
lowed by a consonant, will generally take the correspondent imper- 
fect one in that syllable : as, ?a2-73 every high thing, instead of 

nha Vs ; nN^n-BJa come hither, for nw^n a ; waVo? re . 

member, pray, Isa. xxxviii. 3, for Wa 13^ ; Dn~narp' preserve inte- 
grity, Psalm xxxvii. 37, for Dfl ~)btp (Art. 124.). 

3. In the following and similar cases, the terminating vowel of 
the preceding word is immutable : as, ^1 ^"f"^?? the daughters of 
Lot, Gen. xix. 36 ; T2"122 great (in) hunl'mg, Gen. x. 9 ; 
"inVrVtya.? it (the Jordan) shall limit it; "^"^ David's heart, 
2 Sam. xxiv. 10, where a? i s p u t for aD/7 ; nn'3"nri the giving 
of its (fern.) strength, Gen. iv. 12, Hl being put for ^?.). 

4. We have, however, Prov. xxii. 15, "1373"3.72 \ n the heart of 
a child. We also have, Gen. xvi. 13, rnrP'CU?, and, Ib. 15, 
"iaa-Dtt?, which, with similar instances, may perhaps be referred to 
the carelessness of the copyists.* 

* The most complete list of these exceptions is given in the second volume 
of the Heb. Gram, by Guarin, pp. 3201, 2. 

ART. 134.]] ON THE ACCENTS. 61 

134. Makkdph is inserted in the following cases : 

1. Particles, which from their nature can never have a dis- 
tinctive* accent, are mostly connected with other words by the 
mark Makktiph : as, ntZ^N^'Ca even to her husband ; ^sVcna 
in the integrity of my heart, Gen. xx. 5, &c. 

2. When words are to be construed together the tone-accents of 
which would concur ; i. e. when the accent of the preceding word 
is on the last syllable, and the following word is either a monosyl- 
lable or a dissyllable having the accent on the penultimate, then, in 
order to avoid such concurrence (Art. 120.), such words are to be 
connected by Makkaph : as, '^"1^1? its seed (is) within itself, Gen, 
i. 11, instead of "G ty")?. So tyflgyg iVpSnp so he embraced him, 
and kissed him, Ib. xxix. 13, instead of ^ P$3p, &c. ; nng-'n^ 

''!,! so evening was, and morning mas, Ib. i. 5, instead of 
T^Jlj & c The remaining rules, usually given by the gram- 
marians, may be resolved into one or other of the preceding. 

3. In any of the above cases, the Euphonic accent may be 
appended to the former of such words, according to the rules 
already laid down (Art. 126, &c.). 

See the last Lecture in this work. 

62 LECTURE V. C ART - 135. 



Of the Formation of the Feminine from the Masculine Gender. 

135. It should be premised that in the Hebrew 
Language there are but two genders, viz. the Masculine, 
and the Feminine. 

2. The Masculine is generally restricted to nouns 
signifying the proper names or offices of men : as, 
TH David ; HTJI/ Uzza ; HH^ or rifliS a governor ; 
n?np a preacher, &c., whatever be their termination. 

3. Also to words signifying People, Rivers, Mountains, 
or Months : as, ^"^l Israel ; ]TV Jordan ; ^D Sinai ; 
|p^2 Nlsdn, &c., without reference to their termination. 

4. Words ending in any radical letter (not included in 
No. 5.), also those ending in H preceded by (/), and 
others terminating in *% D, or \, servile, will be of the 
masculine gender: as, "I in a word; ^PP dominion; 
niJ^ a plain, or field ; n$"]7P vision', ^?J^ a Hebrew; 
DVIS redemption ; ]$& a table ; JSIJ? an offering.* 

* The exceptions are : ?3$ a stone; ?J3N a bowl; ^.^ a, viper ; ~W& or 
-fltpM a step, pace ; "^Sl a well ; \~ a corn-Jloor ; ^TlH a sword; Tp^ a stake, 
post; "T,3 a vessel so called: D"i3 a. full cup; "1J33 a talent; fQnp a frying- 
pan; nib light; 73?(3 a sandal; r^b four; 2,37 a cloud; W^J3_ a star so 
called; B^.}?. a bed; H^S a morsel; l"!^ the north ; 1^2? quail; bj3.Pl Me 
world; "TlZpn an ass; Dr\? bread; ]3Q a shiflil ; ^13?. 'Af evening, which are 
all feminine. 


5. Feminine nouns are the proper names of women, 
as well as words designating their offices ; the names of 
regions or cities, and nouns signifying the parts and 
double members of the body, whatever be their termi- 
nating letters; e. g. 7T1"1 Rakhel; 7^D Mlkdl; 7-3$ a 
consort; 3fflD Modb ; Dif Edom; ]i")5n Khebron; 
D^!>TT Yerushdldim ; ]Q3 the belly ; jjjjt the ear, &c. 
This distinction, therefore, arises from the signification 
not from the form of the word : cities and regions being 
considered perhaps as mothers, and so of others.* 

6. Nouns ending in Jl or H servile are also of the 
feminine gender: as, H1J512 or rn^.lS a female visitor \ 
HDH5 a beast ; njJZP^ or ID^D a kingdom. So i*3{# 
for njJi> sleep, &c. 

7. Many nouns are found in both genders, which are 
therefore termed common. These generally are, 1, The 
names of animals, flocks, birds: 2, Segolate nouns not 
restricted to the names or offices of men : and, 3, Others 
designating parts of the human body : 4, Participial 
nouns of the form "Tj?S : and, 5, The decimal numerals 
from twenty to one hundred, inclusive : e. g. 1, 7/p3 a 
camel; -PJ a bear ; |S and PJJ^ a flock of slieep ; "P^V 
a bird: 2, rn& a road; HI"! breath: 3, T a hand; 
\ty_ an eye; VjTft an arm; tt*p3. the sold : 4, "IVH an 
enclosure: 5, D"n^J? twenty; D^7Cp thirty, &c. To 
these several others of different forms may be added : as, 

* The exceptions are, HQ the mouth ; "1^5=" ^ e ne k T^-V Me back ; 
'ffOie navel; D?si?9V the eyelids; SfjIJT. the heel; fWpl likeness; 
a blasted fold; nri3!p a meat-offering; rnlQ a razor; nttJf??? 
a cucumber bed ; and '""T^^ a army, which are all masculine. I am inclined to 
believe, that this termination is nothing more than a fragment of some ancient 
form of the feminine pronoun of the third person singular, which we also find 
as the inseparable feminine pronoun of the same person. See the table of 
inseparable pronouns, Art. 145. 

64 LECTURE v. CART. 136. 

a chesty or ark ; ]% a garden ; jiyH a window ; 
%^T a couc h > ^r^ a jubilee, &c., which are noted in the 

136. We now come to shew how the noun of the 
feminine gender is formed from that of the masculine. 

1. It will readily be perceived, that the names of 
certain offices, &c., may apply to either men or women ; 
and that cases might occur, in which it may be necessary 
to designate the sex of the person, to which such word 
is applied. The masculine forms have already been 
pointed out ; it will be necessary here only to shew how 
those peculiar to the feminine are formed from them. 

2. Feminine nouns will be formed from the masculine 
generally by adding the termination H or fi ., and 
changing the preceding vowels of the ultimate or penul- 
timate syllable, according as the analogy of the word 
(hereafter to be considered) and the rules detailed (Artt. 
93, 101.) may require ; e. g. Hilp a good man, &c. ; 
rnltO a good woman, &c. ; yQ (original form l^P) a 
king, n^E a queen ; "TpS masc. HlpIS or ri"TjjiS fern. 
a visitor, or visiting. 

3. Let us now see in what instances these different 
terminations are taken. It will be extremely difficult to 
lay down rules comprehending every possible case : we 
shall content ourselves therefore with the following, given 
by Albert Schultens. 

4. Nouns ending in an immutable* vowel will generally 
take the termination T\~ : as, "Tip? visited, masc. ; 
!"lT)p5> fern. ; 31tJ) good, masc. ; n^lCD fern. ; ^illl great, 
masc. ; n|?1"T2 fern. ; p^ just, masc. ; np T "Hy fern. 

5. Patronymics, and nouns originally ending in % also 

* What vowels are to be considered as mutable or immutable, will be shewa 
in the next Lecture. 


ordinal numbers ending in ^ and falling under this rule, 
will double the ( 1 ) by Dagesh, upon receiving this femi- 
nine termination: as, "flNiO a Moabite ; ITZl^iD (or 
rPnSiD) a Moabitess. So, Vp") a Syrian; fem. rPEm 
(or rPCn$) ; nj"|ia bearing fruit; njpiS weeping; 
W^ti the third, mase. ; rW^ or JTti^V, fem. 

6. Participles of the Hiphhil conjugation are excepted: 
as, "PJ?5P, fem. n"lftj with some other nouns : as, 
CD^ttf a ruler ; T\V:hw, fem. ; T3| a master; HT5jl or 
rf)3| a mistress. 

7. Nouns receiving a final Shevd ( = ) in the penulti- 
mate syllable will take Pf for their feminine termination : 
as, D1"[K red, masc. ; Plg^K (for nig!!p"T) fem. ; lg> 
little, masc. ; H2^p, fem. ; 3DJ surrounded, masc. ; 
"Dp?, fem. So, H^3 revealed, for fin ^3, from nj?^, 
masc. by contraction (Art. 73.). 

8. Hence all segolate nouns will form their feminines 
in H ; as, "=1.7$, for ^Ift a king, fem. r\g)D a queen; 
hi* for ilX/ood, fem. rh?X ; ^ for ^ wickedness, 
fem. n^i/ ;' or, by contraction (Art. 87. 1 .), H 1 ?^ ; TV, for 
7;V contracted by (Art. 87. 3.) Ttf hatting, iem. HTV. 

9. Some nouns are found to take both forms of the feminine : 
as, robpD or rob)pa a kingdom ; nnStpp or nriB^Q a family, 
(Pdthakhs are here taken instead of Segols on account of the 
guttural H) JTViatpM or ri"J.Jptt7M a match or guard. So some par- 
ticiples and infinitives : as, nifTiQ or ^l^^ visiting, fem. ; HT? O r 
^7^ bringing forth. To which may be added the patronymics, &c. 
above noticed, as well as many other norms which will be learned 
best from practice. 

137. Nouns not subject to these restrictions will, for 
the most part, have their feminine forms ending in jn or 
in some equivalent termination : as,, "llpjtf a crown; 
fem. (which also has H^tpJf). 

2. The terminations equivalent to ^~ are : 1, f\pJ 
3, JV T : 4, n- : 5, HH- : 6, ri- O r H- : 7, f>r or 


66 LECTURE v. CART. 138. 

1, nVlS sister, for A^S; but on account of the guttural n, 
which, by Art. 87. 1, will become J"Tiny O r HIRS : 2, nib| for 
and by Art. 87. 2. JTfoa exile : 3, Hariri a pattern, for 
and by Art. 87. 4. ri^ri : 4, n^ for P^ finding, by 
Art. 87. 5 : 5, flHEn for HSIsn S m (by the same Article) ; 6, nn 
for fijJPl giving, (primitive form 0?^, the 3 being rejected by 
Art. 76.). So, n * rM <A, for O?^ or H?P : 7, rib for nib 
bringing forth a child, (primitive form OT?, and, rejecting the 
medial ~T for the sake of euphony, we have J"V). For the same 
reason, we have finN fo r rn^N one, fern. ; ^2 a daughter, for 
Op? or r^2 : but f"QP! a 50^, has the regular Chaldaic or Syriac 

On the Inflection of Nouns. 

138. Three numbers are recognised by Hebrew Gram- 
marians in the inflection of Nouns : viz. the Singular, the 
Dual, and the Plural. 

On the Formation of the Dual Number. 

1. The dual number is formed from the singular by 
adding the termination DJ_ : as, D"p a day ; D?Di^ two 
days ; ^.yjD (for !?) a king ; DO/D two kings ; njp^D 
a queen ; D^^7Q two queens. Instead of D"!^ two, 
we have, by contraction (Art. 87. 3.), D'O^, and fem. for 
B\F\&, D^ (for D?3# Art. 76.), by the same rule. 

2. All feminine nouns ending in Jl , change H to n 
upon receiving any increment whatsoever, as also when 
put in construction with any other noun, of which more 
will be said hereafter : hence we have D^fO^P as above. 

3. The dual number is, for the most part, restricted 
to things which are double by nature or art, as the parts 
or double members of the body, &c. It is never found in 
the conjugation verbs. 

4. A few instances occur in which a dual termination 
is added to a noun already in the plural number : as, 


two walls, Isa. xxii. 11; 
Ezek. xxvii. 5. 

The changes of the preceding vowels will be regulated 
as before (Art. 93, &c.) : these will be particularly con- 
sidered in the next Lecture. 

On the Formation of the Plural Number Masculine. 

139. Nouns of the masculine gender are made plural 
by attaching the asylldbic augment 0^ to the singular : 
as, nitt good, masc., D^ltD plur.; ^fo' (for f?D or ^P) 
a king, plur. DO^P 5 ^3 nation, plur. D)i3 (for D^13 
by omission, Art. 75.) nations ; ^53 stranger, plur. 
D^^] (for D^"O"! by contraction and omission, Artt. 75. 
and 7 T 2.). So D^Tirp Jews (for D^'T).* 

2. In many instances, however, words of this kind are written 
fully: as, E^f? Levites, sing. ^ ; D^B^S Cushites (vulgarly 
Ethiopians) ; ^fl? Chittim, Isa. xxiii. 12; D^Tim. Esth. iv. 7, 
viii. 7; ^f.^? Chaldeans, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17, &c.; where the 
marginal reading is generally of the contracted form. 

In one instance M is inserted in the place of Ddgesh : as, 
D^rny for W*?-}?, or contr. &^y Arabs, 2 Chron. xvii. 11. 

3. We sometimes have the Chaldaic termination V~ : as, 1^?7^ 
kings, Prov. xxxi. 3 ; 1*M (for T,^) islands, continents, Ezek. 
xxvi. 18, &c. 

* So D^.K pi. of "OB scr/^, Isa. i. 18; D^Bpn of DH/ree, Isa. 
Iviii. 6; 0^39 of ^3Q uwer, 1 Chron. xxviii. 11, for D^3ttf, &c. 

The D added to Hebrew masculine plurals, as well as the 1 of Syriac and 
Chaldaic ones, seems to me to have been added for the mere purpose of filling 
up the hiatus which would otherwise have happened. Such is the Tanween 
(., ^) of the Arabs ; which, according to them, is always cut off when the 
word is placed in the state of definite construction, as is also its vicegerent the 

final (j of the dual and plural. ^..^ ^ <~&^\ ^j?? S-^j 
*2rlj <XXUA!l jjy ^&j <MAiW *^aJ Loj &c. Hidayat-oon-Nahwe, 

p. Ov Calcutta, 1803. The Moolla Jami considers this as the index of a 
complete word, which, when lost in the state of construction, is supplied by the 

following word. Comment, on the Kafia, p. I i l 


68 LECTURE V. C AR T. 139. 4. 

4. The terminating letters D, or (Chaldiac) ], are 
always omitted, when the noun is in the state of definite 
construction with any following word (Art. 143.), or when 
any affixed pronoun is attached to it : as, JHK "O? kings 
of the land; DjT^Zp their kings, of which more will be 
said hereafter. The first of these forms is termed 
absolute, the second is said to be that of construction. 

5. In some cases also, when such plural words are not in the 
state of construction, these letters are omitted: as, "^ ''Eln for 
ia D^pin those mho trust in him, Ps. ii. 12, &c. 

6. We occasionally find the termination V used instead of & 
or * : as, "^ locusts, Amos vii. 1, Nah. iii. 17 : 1?''D windows, 
Jer. xxii. 14 ; ^& princes, Judg. v. 15 ; ^H mountains, Zech. 
xiv. 5 ; "^ 'H net works, Isa. xix. 9 ; ^^D (men, &c.) uncovered, 
Isa. xx. 4 ; and frequently, ^& the Almighty ; "^"^ Lord, &c. 
But, as we find that this diphthong (?T) is only another form for 
V (Art. 87. 3.), we may perhaps hence conclude, that this 
termination is nothing more than a contraction for ?T, and 
therefore, perfectly equivalent to it in signification: but, not con- 
taining any thing superlative as some have thought. This termi- 
nation has also been supposed to designate collective nouns ; but, 
as most plural nouns may be considered as collectives, there does 
not seem to be any necessity for this distinction. 

7. There are moreover several passages, in which ''T has been 
thought to be a plural termination : as, ^ vB?n ajrf") j iea d O f the 
captains, 2 Sam. xxiii. 8, which in the parallel passage, 1 Chron. 
xi. 1 1, is n^>B?n BW-1. So D^ni "nan the captains and the 
runners, 2 Kings xi. 4, 19. Of this kind some suppose %t j?T.??U 
Gen. xii. 6, xiii. 7 ; X 1 ^ Vr3 2 Sam. viii. 18, xx. 7, 23, &c. to 
be, while others believe the terminating ( ** ) to indicate nothing more 
than a patronymic or gentile noun.* To these some other passages 

* I am very much disposed to believe, that the plural termination attached 
to Hebrew nouns and verbs, is nothing more than a fragment of some word 
originally used to designate plurality. In the Malay, Sanscrit, and some other 
languages, the plural number is still formed by adding some word or words 
signifying much, many, or the like ; or, by repeating the same word : as, in the 
Malay, Orang baniak, or Orang {/rang, many man ; or man man. So in 
Sanscrit. See Yates's Gram. p. 59. 

ART. 139. 7.]] ON THE PLURAL NUMBER. 69 

might be added : as, V V? Job xxxi. 28, compared with Ib. 
v. 11; V ?H 1 Sam. xx. ,38; ^h Gen. xl. 16; ^ 2 Sam. 
xxii. 44, Ps. cxliv. 2, Lam. iii. 14, &c. 

In such cases as these, "'T may, according to our hypothesis, be 

In the Coptic and New Zealand also, the syllabic ni or na, which is prefixed 
for the purpose of designating the plural number, seems manifestly to be 
derived from the word naa or na, which in both these languages means great, 

much, or the like. In the Hebrew we find words derived from the root !~nn 

. . TT 

or "Pn being, signifying substance, &c. : as, pH wealth ; HIH a great 

misfortune, calamity ; or H^H a great deep, a bath. In the Arabic 

.S^" ' 

inordinate affection ; jla lust, a great deep, abyss : and hence, perhaps, H i"P 

Jehovah, the great being, emphatically styled <5 <wi/, *&, or N^H, as well as 
rrriH "ll&M rPnN Exod. iii. 14. So in the Sanscrit bhuvan, literally and 

etymologically, being, applied to God or any great man ; from the root bhu, 
be. Now, if we can conceive a noun of the primitive form "Tf?S, i. e. H^H 
being, substance, much, or the like, thus to be used, we shall have the forms 
7Tn by Euphony, (Art. 108 ), and TT\T1 by contraction, (Art. 87. 3.). 
Writing then i"Pn "IS 1 ^ in the form proper for construction but in one word, 
and striking out the first H by Art. 73, and the last by Art. 74, we shall have 
i"Ql for the contracted plural form, to which the Euphonic D or ] may be 
added or not: and without the () Khirik, "H^T, which is a form noticed 
above. Again, taking H^jl, which is the segolate form proper for con- 
struction, and striking out the two H He's as before, we shall have ^^[, 
which is the termination proper for the state of construction likewise. The 
termination 1 , or by contraction *\, (Art. 87. 2.), may, for the sake of dis- 
tinction, have been taken for the verbs from the cognate root !"T|n having the 
same signification : for, taking the segolate or primitive form !T)rT or (1)17, we 
shall have H^H by contraction ; and, writing VTpQ for n^n^pS, as before, 
we shall have the plural terminations for some parts of the verb, as also for 
some nouns above noticed, which I believe are real ancient forms of nouns 
in the plural number, and which therefore stood in no need of correction by 
the Masorets. 

The plural termination of the feminine nouns may have arisen from this 
same root: for if we take n"in of the form "T.f?S, and change the final H 
into H, which occasionally takes place, we shall have by contraction /Tin by 
Art: 87. 1, and, for ftfn npfe, nSlpfe as before, 

70 LECTURE v. CART. lay. s. 

a plural termination, the Euphonic D being cut off: but, as it will 
be hereafter seen, that ( \ ) is also the termination of patronymic 
or gentile nouns, the context alone must be our guide in ascer- 
taining the. sense in such passages. 

8. Dr. Gesenius is of opinion, that the termination "V is, in some 
cases, nothing more than an Arabism for the singular H ; as, 
"Hip for rnb a field, Deut. xxxii. 13; Ps. viii. 8. So Tin for 
nT"in a seer, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 19, &c., but this is unnecessary. 

9. Some have also supposed, that *P, and ^ without the Euphonic 
7, are occasionally used as plural terminations : as, "jriW^ Ye- 
shurun for Israel. ^.^ Tl?'~ f to be read c ?|?$ rah (by 
Art. 87. 2.) augurs, i. e. dividers of the heavens. So Isa. xlvii. 13, 
(^SH) "'JJYJ'i.n 12T the multitude of my laws. So 1?T Ps. cxix. 79 ; 
1N31Z7 2 Sam. v. 8; I^S 1 Chron. vi. 11, &c. In most of these 
and similar passages, however, we have a various reading in the 
margin, which supplies the regular plural termination, **". 

On the Formation of the Plural Number Feminine. 

140. The termination used to designate the feminine 
plural is fii--,* which like the preceding D 1 , &c. is 
asyllabic: as, Tft a generation, Hllil (or Art. 72. 
mil) generations. 

2. When the feminine singular ends in PJ , n , or 
n , &c., these terminations are rejected in forming the 
plural : as, iTJfjte or JVTgi3 visiting, (fern.) fii"Tj?i3, 
plural.f The same may be said of the Chaldaic termi- 
nation n ; as, r>,vn^ praise, rhyTIJp praises, Ps. 
ix. 15, &c. 

3. Feminine nouns ending in JV and fil take the 
same termination, with this difference, viz. that \ in the 

* See the note to the preceding article. 

f In other words, the feminine plural is formed from the masculine singular, 
not from the feminine singular. 


first case, is doubled by Dcigesh: as, TVIDJJ a Hebrew 
woman, plural nil")?,]/ (the singular being JT.^.17 or 
JTHPJ/) : and in the second by prefixing % and pre- 
serving the homogeneous imperfect vowel corresponding 
to 1 : as, JYpyD a kingdom, T\V t ^nft kingdoms, as if the 
singular were a contraction of JTTD^D. 

4. Nouns ending in IV are sometimes found with 
their plurals formed by the addition of the plural 
terminations D 1 * or m' : as, JVpn a spear, pi. D^JH^n 
and niJT^r) ; mj_t fornication, pi. D^plJf, &c. 

5. So also others ending in D ; as, fi^ a door, 

pi. nin^-i; n#p. a bow, pi. nin^l? bowsi r\$v (for 
a lip, pi. nl^a^ %?. 

141. The plural belonging to a considerable number of mas- 
culine nouns is found with the feminine termination ^~, while, on 
the other hand, many feminine nouns are also found with the mas- 
culine termination C^ in the plural: as, 1st, ^N a father, pi. 
rrhM; -IS'IN a treasure, pi. rri-JSiM; and, 2d, ?3M a stone, fern. pi. 
E"V32y ; ^j^M ajir-tree, Q^l?^? jir-lrees; all of which the Lexicons 
will supply as they occur. 

2. Nouns of the common gender are sometimes found with two 
plural forms: as, n3ttf a y ear , pi. D^ttf and ^tt? 2/ear*: so E"^ 
and nia; e?a^ 5 , for D^V or nini 1 ;, pi. of Dt| for PV. a rfay; and, 
a few others have the masculine added to the feminine form of the 
plural : as, Htt2 a high place, pi, >?? and Corrida. Others 
again are found only in the plural number: as, ET3S the face; 
D^n life 0*^5 women. Others are used in the dual only : as, 
a ?|T?. a mill ; D^T^ balances, &c. 

142. Generic nouns signifying any whole species, may, in the 
singular number, be construed as plurals when the context 
requires it: as, ^^ fowl, or fowls; *!] child, or children; 1^ 
Jlock, or flocks. 

2. Hence, nouns signifying Metals, Liquids, Virtues, Vices, to 
which may be added Proper names, are generally found in the 
singular number only: as, ^D3 silver, p-Q\ gold, T*. nine, 
n?n wisdom, ^^foolishness, ^^ hatred, nt Moses, 
Zipporah, ^fflfr. Israel, &c. 

72 LECTURE v. [[ART. 142. 3. 

3. We have, nevertheless, niyOJjl understandings, E"Ony loves, 
D"HDn graces, D^JP^? angers, riTOpn wisdoms, &c. ; but, in these 
cases, the signification is intensitive. 

4. Nouns implying age are mostly found in the plural number : 
as , B^W? childhood, D^-H^S youth, D^/lpt old age, &c. We have, 
nevertheless, fWi?! for childhood, and fVlS/V for youth, to which 
some others might be added. 

5. Words ending in f"\1 and ffl, generally denote the state in 
which any person or thing is said to be. Hence ^"V- will 
signify the state of childhood; these words therefore need not^be 
put in the plural number. In the other case, the word B^U? is 
probably understood; we shall therefore have D^jW? for Q^?^ 
D'H'ir? childish years ; and so of others, which will account for the 
apparent anomaly. 

The nouns generally found in tlie dual number have already 
been pointed out (Art. 138. 3.). 

On the Changes found to take place in Nouns when put in 
the Definite State of Construction. 

143. By the definite state of Construction is meant, 
the juxta position of two or more nouns not meaning 
the same thing, when the latter is added for the purpose 
of denning, or otherwise qualifying, that which imme- 
diately precedes it : as, PljiT T Jehovah's hand ; 03 IV 
^13 a rod of iron ; DjTI^K ^'^ W. the days of the 
years of the life of Abraham. 

2. Now, as such words are added for the sole purpose 
of presenting some one definite idea, the whole combi- 
nation seems to have been considered as presenting one 
Compound word only ; and, hence, the governing tone- 
accent has been supposed to rest on the last so construed ; 
and then the vowels of the preceding word have been 
contracted or rejected, as far as the analogy would allow. 

3. Hence, nouns having perfect and mutable* vowels 

* These will be shewn when we come to treat of the forms of nouns. 


in their ultimate and penultimate syllables, will generally 
change that in the ultimate to its homogeneous imperfect 
one, and reject that in the penultimate: as, HilT 1^] 
Jehovah's word (from "O^) ; Hj'T rnifi Jehovah's law 

(from rnirv). 

4. All feminine nouns however ending in PI will 
change the H to f"l, probably for the purpose of ren- 
dering the character of such words more susceptible to 
the ear, than they would be with the PT remaining 
(Art. 138. 2.). 

5. Exceptions : All masculine nouns singular ending 
in H * will take PT when preceding others in the state 
of construction: as, D^K'n^D Abram's stock. Sego- 
late nouns are subject to no variation in the singular 
number : as, "flt^S ^78 the king of Assyria. 

6. Segolate nouns having 1 or " for their middle radical 
letter, will undergo a contraction when preceding other 
nouns in the state of construction: as, [3P1 "^In the 
midst of the garden, (from ^l.fl of ^J]tt) by Art. 87. 1 ; 
3pJ JV3 the house of Jacob,^ ")j;.3 "H (for PPT) suffi- 
ciency of burning, Isa. xl, 16. (Art. 87. 3.). 

7. All masculine dual and plural nouns, ending in 
D^ and D" 1 respectively, will take the termination * , 
and reject, or otherwise contract, the preceding vowel, 
whenever it is perfect and mutable ; e. g. Hirp "H^H 

Jehovah's words (sing, "lin)' '"^'"^ ^M> ( Sm 8"- 1^ or 
^jj7, dual D^^j/) Jehovah's eyes. In these cases, the ter- 
minating D of the dual and plural may be considered as 

* This terminating vowel seems to have been taken in order to avoid the 
confounding of these nouns with feminines ending in H 

f- Hence, perhaps, the termination s in plural masculine nouns, as "'Tff'T 
see Art. 139. 7. note. 

74 LECTURE vi. AKT. 143. 8. 

euphonic, as the ) also is in the Chaldaic, Syriac, and 
Arabic (Art. 139. 4.). 

On the termination *, occasionally found in this 
situation, see Art. 139. 6. 

8. From the examples already given, it will be seen 
that this construction may generally be translated by 
the genitive case in other languages ; but, as one or 
other of the particles is occasionally introduced for this 
purpose, as well as to form combinations equivalent to 
the different cases of the Greek and Latin grammars, the 
Student is referred to the Syntax for further information 
on this subject. 



144. HAVING laid down and exemplified the general 
principles of syllabication, &c. as found to prevail in this 
Language, we may now consider its different parts of 
speech, and shew how they stood in their primitive forms, 
and how they have been derived from one another. 

1. The Hebrew language is, like all others, found to 
consist of nouns, verbs, and particles,* so arranged in sen- 
tences as to convey to the mind such ideas or notions 
as are intended to be inculcated by any Speaker or 
Writer. Of these, the third person singular masculine 
of the verb has generally been taken as the root or 
theme, from which the others have been derived. For 

* The Arabian and Jewish grammarians comprehend in these all the other 
parts of speech generally given in the grammars of Europe. 

ART. 144. I.)] PARTS OF SPEECH. 75 

my own part, I believe the noun ought rather to be 
considered as the root; not only because the learner 
may by this means be enabled more clearly to see how 
the conjugations of the verbs are carried on, but also 
because he may ascertain, with a much greater degree of 
precision, the force of all those nouns which have 
hitherto been considered as branches of the verb. 
Again, there are classes of the verb which do not exhibit 
the root fully in the third person singular masculine of 
the preterite ; and these comprehend all those which 
have 1 or ^ for the middle radical letter ; which are found 
complete in the noun, but defective in the verb. In some 
others, indeed, the noun appears in a defective form; 
but, in these cases, it is not found complete in the verb. 
Again, the variation found to prevail in the last vowel of 
the preterite, is more naturally accounted for in the noun 
than in the verb ; and it is a fact, that a noun having the 
same vowel is almost universally found to exist. Besides, 
the participial and other nouns, which have no tenses in 
themselves, are much better understood when considered 
as derived from the primitive nouns, than when derived 
from words conjugated as verbs. Add to this the circum- 
stance, that a verb in the state of conjugation either is, 
or must be considered as, compounded with a pronoun ; 
and, therefore, in a state unfit to be taken for a primitive 
word. It is when without these pronouns, as well as every 
other adjunct, and when a word is in its simplest form, 
that we consider it as the root ;* and, this we contend, is 

* The school of Basra hold the same opinion, with reference to the Arabic. 
See Ebn Farhat on this subject in M. de Sacy's Gram. Arabe, vol. i. p. 229, 
note. M. De Sacy himself thinks it will come to much the same thing, whether 
we consider the infinitive form as the root, or whether we take the third person 
singular of the masculine preterite, because the one may be termed the logical 
root, the other the etymological one, Ib. p. 197. But why, it may be asked, are 

76 LECTURE vi. CART. 145. 

the more natural way to proceed. Induced by these 
considerations to give the noun the first place in the 
etymology, we shall now proceed to lay down the forms 
of the personal pronouns, as used either in connection, or 
not, with other nouns ; not, because these words have 
any prior claim to our consideration ; but because, we 
shall thereby enable ourselves to shew, when we come to 
detail the forms of the nouns, how these pronouns are 
connected with them. 


145. The pronouns are, in the Hebrew, as in other 
languages, 1. Personal, 2. Demonstrative, 3. Relative, 
and, 4. Interrogative, with which, 5. the Rejlective, 
pronouns and the Definite Article, are sometimes classed. 
We shall at present consider the Personal Pronouns 

The Personal Pronouns. 

1. These are termed Separable, and Inseparable. 
When Separable, they may be considered as representing 
the person to which they belong in the nominative case : 

we to have two forms of the root for the same word ? And why may not that, 
which is termed the logical root, be also considered as the etymological one ? If 
the one presents a form more simple than the other, which is the fact, Why, 
I want to know, may not the less simple be considered as derived from the 
other ? I must confess, whatever the school of Koufa may think of it, that of 
Basra appears to me to have reason on their side in this question ; and to their 
opinion I am therefore compelled to subscribe, which M. De Sacy has also 
done at p. 128, note a of his second vol. See also the Mikhlol of Kimkhi, 
fol. NUp verso. The passage will be cited hereafter. I use the small 
edition of 1545. See also Le Court de Gebelin, Monde Primitif. vol. iii. 
pp. 55, 56, 80, &c. ; Mr. Forster's Essay on Sanscrit Gram., p. 540; Caroli 
Aurivillii Dissertationes Goet. 1790, p. 376, &c. It is a curious fact, that in 
the Burman, verbs are nothing more than participial nouns conjugated with 
the pronouns. See Carey's Grammar of the Burman, p. 79, &.c. See also 
Humboldt on the Chinese, Journal Asiatique, vol. iv. p. 115. 

ART. 145. 



when Inseparable, they exhibit only a part of the 
Separable pronoun combined with some other word. 
When attached to verbs, they may be said to represent 
either the objective or some other oblique case ; but, 
when attached to nouns, they stand for the correspondent 
possessive pronoun : there being no other way of ex- 
pressing the possessive pronominal sense in Hebrew. 
2. The Separable personal pronouns are as follows : 


1 Person. 


, Barely sjjrU, and once ft$.. We. 

2 Person. -I 

: i- -: i- : i- 


T1K, rarely f\$ (for f\}$, &c.) .. Thou. 

IT - IT - T : - 


rarely IJjlg (for 

rarely nlN (for 


3 Person. 




, &c.) Thou. 
,&c.) You. 


3. In a few instances ^ thou, is used in the masculine gender : 
viz. Num. xi. 15, Deut. v. 24, and Ezek. xxviii. 14. p^ is used 
as a feminine in Ezek. xiii. 20 : <^sn j s also used as a feminine, 
Cant. vi. 8, Ruth i. 22, Zech. v. 10 : and ^2*7 a s a masculine, 
2 Sam. iv. 6, Jer. 1. 5. ]f!7 also occurs as a masculine, Ruth i. 13. 
We also have S H for M-in, 1 Kings xvii. 15 4 and Nin f or H^n 
throughout the Pentateuch, if we except eleven instances. This is 



CART. us. 4. 

usually ascribed to an archaism, grounded on the supposition that 
in ancient times the pronouns were all considered as being of the 
common gender. 

4. *^N is probably a foreign word: Egyptian, perhaps, where we 
have <LriOK, there being no trace of it in any of the sister dialects 
of the Hebrew. Gesenius finds it, however, in the Phoenician.* 

5. The Inseparable pronouns are abbreviated forms 
of the pronouns above given ; they are invariably found 
attached to some preceding word, whether that be a 
noun, verb, or particle.f The following is a table of 
their forms when attached to nouns ; we shall give those 
for the verbs hereafter. 


we have "> 


2 Pers. 

: i- -: 


or - 


IV - 

J1, or 

my, or mine. 

our, or ours. 

r thine - 

~ your> 

^> or "? 

thy, or thine . 


^ your, or yours. 

3 Pers. - 


Kin i i, in, i> rt r 


on on, D >p et -lD 

s ' 

1 -' V >poet -' )n V{s s ' 



........ n-, n-, n--- n^- 

, ;n, t , n: in^-, 


* Lehregebaude, page 200, note. 

t This may be considered as an illustration of the general principle of 
abridging and compounding words in Hebrew, and as confirming, in a great 
degree, the remarks offered in the note, Art. 139. 7. above. 

ART. 145. 6-3 ON THE PRONOUNS. 79 

6. It is to be observed, that in affixing these abbreviated pro- 
nouns to singular nouns, it will be necessary when such word does 
not end in a vowel, to take that form of the pronoun which is pre- 
ceded by one, and thence called the Vowel of union. In this 
case, an accent will accompany it, as given in the table. But, 
when the preceding word ends in a vowel, no such union-vowel can 
be introduced : in that case, the abbreviated pronoun is taken 
which has no such preceding vowel of union. 

7. Nouns ending in "* will drop that letter, upon receiving the 
affixed pronoun of the first person singular: as, ^2 a nation; ,^2 
my nation, for "^12. 

8. The words ^ a father, HM a brother, EH a father-in-law, and 
nS the mouth, will take s when construed with a noun following, or 
when receiving any one of the above pronominal affixes : as, "^H 
155, the father of Canaan; *T?N, thy father. But, as. two Yods 
(v) would, in these cases, concur in the first person, as ^^^?, one 
of them will be dropped by the rule (No. 8.) : as, "^^ (the root 
being "^N or H2H) my father ; and so on of the rest. Some other 
words ending in ^ for n, may take the affixed pronouns in the same 
way : as, ^^ fruit ; ErPHS their fruit ; or, they may take it with a 
vorvel of union : as, B,Vl? or ?171? their (masc. and fern.} fruit. 

9. Here, however, the masculine form of the pronominal affix 
is sometimes taken, when the sense seems to require the feminine, 
and vice versa, see Gen. xxxi. 9, Ruth i. 8, 9, 11. 13, Ezek. xiii. 19, 
20, 21, Jer. ix. 19. So also in for H, !|nb| for nias Exod. xi. 6, 
twice. In the same manner we have 12$P for n2E}ft Jud. xi. 34 ; 
B for 1, as, obstt? fo r 1 )?3B7 Cant. iv. 2, vi. 6. So Exod. ii. 1 7, 
2 Sam. xx. 3, twice, Ps. cxix. 152. So CH for in Exod. i. 21, 
Num. xxxvi. 6, twice, Job. xix. 15, Ezek. xxiii. 45, 47, Ezra x. 
3, 44, Zech. v. 9, xi. 5 : ^ as a feminine in '? Lam. iv. 10. 
These apparent discrepancies, however, will be considered in the 

10. On the contrary, 1 occurs for D : as, JfTOSnH^ fo r BfTOSriN^ 
to them four, Ezek. i. 10, twice ; and again, verr, 16, IS. Also in 
1P^ Ib. verr. 9, 12, 17, in their going ; in also occurs as a 
masculine, in^^Tl their four (sides), Ib. ver. 17; and again, in 
verr. 18, 24, 25. Also with a paragogic n ; a s, n^rprPjte their 
bodies, Ib. ver. 11. 

11. In affixing these pronouns to nouns, it must be remembered 
that they are not made to agree, either in number, gender, or person, 

80 LECTURE vi. CART. 145. 12. 

with the nouns to which they are attached, but with those to which 
they relate, and which generally precede them in the context. 

12. Such of these inseparable pronouns as commence with a 
consonant, and make a syllable independently of any part of the 
preceding word, are termed Syllabic; these are, that of the first 
person plural, ^ ; those of the second, H3, "^ } D3, and ]2 5 of the 
third, in, H, DH, and VJ. Such as do not constitute a syllable in 
themselves, but require the addition of a letter from the preceding 
word, have been termed ^syllabic ; see Art. 92, &c. Of these are 
the remaining pronouns, viz. ^~, *~t "*! \ ^i ^ ^ r > and 7. 
13. Of these inseparable pronouns Dp, ], Djl, and 
Ijn, are termed grave (Art. 117. 2.), because they always 
have the accent. The others are, by way of contra- 
distinction, termed light. 

It is of importance to bear these distinctions 
in mind; because the changes of the vowels of 
the preceding word, will, in a great measure, depend 
upon them: e. g. if to ")jin a word. I affix '' my, 
mine, the "1 of "IIH must be taken in order to enounce 
this vowel : as, '^"VITfJ. But, by our laws of syllabi- 
cation, the preceding 1 must have a perfect vowel ; (T) 
will, therefore, remain unchanged. And, as the first (T) 
is not immutable, and as the accent is with the affix, this 
vowel will become (:), and we shall have ^^H devd-ri; 
where the asyttdbic affix exerts a considerable influence 
on the ultimate form of the word. But, if I take a syl- 
labic affix, let it be DjD your, we shall then have ^"0^1 
your word. In this case, the "") of "0*1 closes its last 
syllable; and as the accent is removed, the (T) preceding 
this letter originally, must, by our laws of syllabication, 
become (-); and we accordingly have D^TO" 7 ?. But, if 
we take *| which is also syllabic, we shall not have ll^n, 
but *PJ^n ; because, although the affix ^| is syllabic; 
still, as the accent accompanies the preceding syllable, 
it must remain perfect (Art. 33.) and we have ^l^R. 
The same holds good in all other cases. (Artt. 93. 94.). 

ART. 145. 15.)] 



15. Any word, preceding one or other of these affixes, 
may be considered as in construction with it, and there- 
fore subject to all those changes in the vowels, to which 
words so situated are (Art. 143. 3.). The only difference 
is, that instead of the latter noun being written at 
length, it has been abbreviated. 

16. The following examples will shew the application 
of the Inseparable pronouns to nouns singular and 
plural, masculine and feminine. No example of the dual 
is given, because it will always take the affixes proper for 
the plural : as, D?3M7 two eyes, ^# my eyes, &c. 

Examples of a noun masculine in both numbers, with 
the pronominal affixes. 

Sing. Masc. DID a horse. 

1 pers. sing, com. "*D1D m y horse. 

2 masc. TlDID or n^DID thy home. 

2 fern. *=TDTD thy horse. 

3 masc. 1D1D or HDTD his horse. 

3 fern. HD1D' rar ely HD1D her horse. 


1 pers. plur. com. 13 DID our horse. 

2 masc. D3DTD y ur horse. 

iv : 

2 fern. 1DDTD y our horse. 

3 masc. DD1D> poetic^ 1QD1D their horse. 


3 fern. | DTD or Hi DID their horse. 

Plur. Masc. D^DID horses. 

1 pers. sing. com. ^DTD m y horses. 

2 masc. ^DID thy horses. 

2 fern. ^PpID thy horses. 

3 masc. TpID or 1D1D his horses. 

3 fern. n^DID her horses. 

I pers. plur. com. 13^D1D our horses. 



CART. 145. 16. 

2 ... ..... masc. DP^DID y ur 

2 ........ fem. ]!DTHD y ur 

3 ........ masc. DiTDID* or poetice I^QID their hones. 

3 ........ fem. liTpID their horses. 

Example of a noun feminine in both numbers, with 
the pronominal affixes. 

Singular. '"T^ law ' 

1 pers. sing, com, ^"lln* m y lau> - 

2 pers. sing. masc. ^HTlH % law - 

2 ........ fem, ^rnln thy law. 

3 ........ masc. Irnln orrtlinifl fa, Hi Imc. 

3 . ... fem. nm1Jl> rarely nmilH )>er > if * /fl "'- 


1 pers. l^mln our law. 

I" T 

2 ........ masc. DpnTtf! y ur ^ aw - 

2 ........ fem. \^jrT\^\r\ your law. 

3 ........ masc. DfVllfV poetice "lOrVTij 5 ! their Inn-. 

|T T IT T 

3 ........ fem. 

piurai. rri.n ""Jlllifl 

2 ........ masc. ^Jlllln thy laivs. 

a ........ fem. "sprrhln r o^ <h y laws - 

3 ........ masc. VjPliTijn or IfilllD his, its laws. 

3 ....... fem. rPrnmn her, its laws. 

1 ^.TliTin our laws. 

2 ........ masc. Dj?v^i"iiJn y ur i aws - 

2 ........ fem. llD^Jlilln your laws. 

3 ........ masc. DiTjTnifij or P oetic 1^- their laws. 

3 ........ fem. r their law *- 

17. Nouns ending in H take the affix ^H instead of i or 

* The final H becomes H by Art. 143. 4. 

ART. 145. 17-3 ON THE PRONOUNS. 83 

H in the third person singular masculine, rejecting first their final 
letter n : as, nh>3 a leaf; inbs his leaf; nTO a field ; irnb 
his field. In like manner they reject their final letter when they 
receive the feminine affix of the same person, which is either 
H or H; as, HIE? a field; pnfo her field; ^l?*? an accident; 
7]?.I?P her accident, Ruth ii. 3 ; '"''"]'? an appearance ; ^rfl^ its 


18. VH? Ms flock (of sheep), Deut. xxii. 1, from rpfe. The 
affix ^n is occasionally found attached to other nouns : as, 
sinttttb"^ his concubine, Judg. xix. 24; ^ntOD his yoke, Nah. i. 13; 
^rniH /jjs #gAf, Job xxv. 3. And also with plurals : as, -irrniaa 
his heroes, Nah. ii. 4. 

19. The following examples are also anomalous. 2 Pers. masc. 
robn p s . x. 14. 2 Pers. fern. tfO^bBJ thy third part, with 

T I" . J L S 

inserted, Ezek. v. 12; "H, 3 /? 3 giving thee, Ib. xxiii. 28 ; M?3 for 

Of the first person plural ^Jnjna our acquaintance, Ruth iii. 2 ; 
owr substance, Job xxii. 20. Of the second fem. n2j3ni2lt 
your baseness, Ezek. xxiii. 48. 

Of the third masc. EL^! all of them, 2 Sam. xxiii. 6. Of the 
third fem. n3 '7 l v' : ? the whole of them. So Gen. xli. 21 ; n32np f or 
72pf? the midst of them. 

With Nouns Plural. 

20. 1 Pers. sing. "^M:? for ^pIT? my testimonies, Ps. cxxxii. 1 g. 
The union vowels of the affix of the 3 fem. sing, are sometimes 
contracted: as, "npl^qM for ^p^QW (Art. 87. 3.) thy sisters, 
Ezek. xvi. 52, &c., in which case the ** Yod is dropped. This 
sometimes takes place with the masc. pronoun : as, T013D thy 
strokes, for TTi3 Deut. xxviii. 59. So n^DSbtt thy mes- 
sengers, Nah. ii. 14. It. 2d fem. TOjSVtinTC) your pillons. Of 
the 2d. masc. 'Tl'ib^ri his benefits, Ps. cxvi. 12. Of the 
Chaldai'c form : rrarnbs their posts. 3d fem. Nn^TriM its gal- 
leries; n3n>n^ their bodies, Ezek. i. 11, &c. 

21. The affix D? of the 2d pers. plur. masc. is, in one instance, 

G 2 

84 LECTURE VI. CART. 145. 22. 

preceded by ( . ) ;* as, EDVTlC^ your dispersions, Jer. xxv. 34. 
These may all perhaps be errors of transcription. 

22. The **> which precedes the affixed pronouns in the plural 
numbers of nouns, is frequently dropped : as, If-TH for T,?"?^! thy 
ways, &c. But, many of these anomalies will come under the 
rules detailed in Art. 159. 7, and will, therefore, be rather ap- 
parent than real ; the rest perhaps are the mere mistakes of the 

N. B. The demonstrative and other separable pronouns will be 
given when we come to treat on the particles. 

On the Use, Signification., and Forms of Words generally. 

146. Words are nothing more than sounds, simple or 
compounded, which have been adopted in order to repre- 
sent the ideas conceived in the mind of one person to 
that of another. Whether any of these were first im- 
parted to man by the Creator, or whether he had only 
the powers given sufficient for appropriating such sounds 
for the purposes of life, it is impossible now to say : nor 
is it very important ; for, in either case, their adoption 
will be traced to the appointment of the Deity, either 
mediately, or immediately. From what is revealed in 
the Scriptures, however, I am inclined to believe, that it 
was an immediate appointment, as far at least as the 
necessities of society at first went ; leaving to his inge- 
nuity the further extension and cultivation of this power, 
as the increasing wants or refinements of life might 
suggest. If then the boon was immediate, nothing can 
be more probable, than that the use of words would be 
regulated by some analogy ; which, it is likely, would 
also have been the case, had unassisted reason been left 
to shift for itself. In any case, therefore, we might 

' In some editions regularly \. 

ART. M6. 2.]] THE USE,, &C. OF WORDS. 85. 

expect to find that some analogy had been resorted to in 
the structure of language, whether we originally pos- 
sessed the skeleton of it as given by inspiration, or, as 
made by man for his own use. Things must have had 
names ; and these must have been such, as would gene- 
rally be allowed and understood, whether we can now see 
their suitableness or not. Actions and events must like- 
wise have had names ; and, whether we can now see the 
reason why certain words or sorts of words have been 
employed for these purposes, or not, it must be next to 
certain, that there once was an immediate cause both for 
their adoption and forms. 

2. If then this be the true state of the case, it may be 
worth while to consider, in the next place, how the 
primitive significations of words would, in process of time, 
be varied in order to meet the necessities which would 
daily arise. Let us first take the word "f/H walking, 
going, proceeding. This, we can suppose, was the name 
given to that sort of action, by which a person removes 
himself from one place to another. If then we add 
another word, or words, the whole may now mean, pro- 
ceeding towards, either as a friend or an enemy : -from, 
with, &c. with the additional notions of co-operation, 
resistance, haste, delay, or the like. This action might, 
in the next place, be applied to the mind, and then 
signify its progress, improvement, general conduct, con- 
versation, &c. and, in such acceptations is this word 
used. Hence Enoch is said to have walked with God, 
DNT^grrn^ ^ian "^nrr, Gen. v. 22. Again, it may 
be applied to any thing in the sense of progress, and 
this may be understood to intimate either increase or 

L. 'L L 

diminution: as, /TH fl/H v?.!, Gen. xxvi. 13. So, he 
proceeded, proceeding and becoming great, i. e. gra- 
dually. And, Ib. viii. 3, &c. 31^T l$n D^H 13^1 
and the waters returned proceeding 

86 LECTURE vi. CAHT. 146. 3. 

and returning, so they decrease, &c. And, accord- 
ingly, this word is often used in the sense of proceeding 
gradually* Again, let us take the word H^ rising, 
mounting up, &c. This with certain adjuncts may 
signify, to become superior to, or to get the upper hand 
of, another ; to conquer him, to humble him ; also to 
excel in state, dignity, power, &c. : the being conversant 
upon, or about, any thing : being near a place or thing, 
before it, or, as we say in English, over against it : also, 
over and above, implying excess ; being incumbent upon, 
as a duty, &c. all of which might arise out of the primi- 
tive word, by considering it either in its proximate or 
remote bearings : and such are the acceptations, in which, 
in one form or other, it is actually found. 

3. If then we can conceive how words would thus be 
made to vary from their primitive significations, in con- 
sequence of their different bearings, as just noticed, we 
shall find no difficulty in seeing, how the cause, beginning, 
continuation, completion, consequence, &c. of any action 
may be likewise intimated by such words, as also the 
ability, duty, right, will, endeavour, custom, occasion, 
permission, or notification, &c. which may also be inti- 
mated or implied by their various forms ; and this in 
their more remote significations, according to the Gram- 
marians and Commentators/)- has actually taken place in 
many instances in the Hebrew ; as, indeed, it has, in a 
greater or less degree, in all languages ; but which is 
nothing more than what the necessity of the case abso- 
lutely requires. 

4. The law or necessity by which this variety has 

* So also the Persian &*>j &*ij going going, for gradually. So Virgil, 
Vires acquirit eundo. 

-t See Glass. Philolog. Sacr. Ed. Dalhe. p. 178240. &c. Storr. Observ. 
p. 1, Sec. 

ART. 146. 5/] THE USE, &C. OF WORDS. 87 

been brought about, has, for the sake of convenience, 
been termed Tropology, and this, for the same reason, 
has been divided into Metonymy, Irony, Metaphor, and 
Synecdoche. METONYMY respects cause and effect; 
subject and adjunct : IRONY, contrariety : METAPHOR, 
comparison : SYNECDOCHE, distribution, as to the whole 
with reference to its parts, the genus to its species, the 
material to the thing composed out of it, &c. For a 
full account of which the reader is referred to the second 
volume of the Philologia Sacra of Glassius, or the work 
of Storr, books which every student of the Hebrew 
Language ought to have. 

5. Let it be remembered, however, we are not to 
recur to these figures for the purpose of reconciling any 
passage of Scripture with our own preconceived notions. 
It must appear clearly from the context, considered in 
conjunction with the character of the writer we may be 
consulting, whether such figure has really been used or 
not, otherwise we shall make the sacred writers occa- 
sionally to talk like madmen : and shall, perhaps, extract 
from the same writer, nay the very same passage, the 
most incongruous and discordant notions. 

6. When, therefore, we have to ascertain the meaning 
of any given w r ord, we must carefully consider, whether 
the primitive or some derived signification is to be taken. 
When the literal acceptation of such word will answer 
our purpose, the work is done, and we need proceed no 
further : but, when this is not the case, we must try in 
what way our principles will help us : e. g. We find in 
Job ii. 9, the following passage, which has given con- 
siderable trouble to the Translators and Commentators : 
r\DT D^n/tf 113, which in our authorised version is, 
" Curse God and die." The word, about which the 
principal difficulty has here arisen, is ^"13. The best 

88 LECTURE vi. CART. HG. 7. 

explanation I can give is this : *]"D used as a verb seems 
first to have been applied to camels kneeling down to 
receive their burdens* Hence, perhaps, arose the idea 
of submission in kneeling, when receiving something from a 
superior : and hence also that of receiving a blessing ; and, 
actively, giving or bestowing one : also, to ask or receive 
a blessing on departing, &c. To this n?7p lightness, 
is opposed as implying a curse, Gen. xxvii. 12, c. In 
the next place, as the imposing of a burden seems to be 
connected with the primitive meaning of this word, this 
signification may also be taken in the sense of oppression 
or affliction',^ and, actively, treating or considering 
another as the author of it ; which, I believe, is the force 
of the word in this place. Storr (p. 37 8.) has taken it 
in the sense of bidding farewell, and hence of forsaking 
and giving up. Parkhurst, with some of his school, has 
taken it as an irony here, which is hardly necessary. 
What has now been said is intended to refer to un- 
augmented words generally. On the augmented ones 
we shall have something to offer hereafter. 

7. With reference to the forms of Hebrew words, the 
student will readily perceive, that if the root in its 
simplest form, which is constant, will always represent 
a certain class of words ; then, upon any augmentation 

* See the Slhah of Jauhari and the Kamoos under this word, which give 

S, t" ~s ? ss Z ' 


545^/1 increase, and SiXx**. liit]>i>im'ss, &cc , as its meaning, &c. See 
also Gen. xxvii. 36, Jos. xv. 19, &c. 

'C-' C"' ' Z " ' C-' ?/' '(*- 

f The Author of the Kamoos has (J^**^. ..ji^ T^ . J ^ 

&c., which are all to this purpose. So (J^t3 is taken to signify 
baseness in a bad sense and humility in a good one. See the Moallakah of 
Antara by Menil and Wilmet, p. 135. The same is the case with many other 
Arabic words. See also the Notae Mkcellaneac appended to the Porta Mosis 
by Pocockc, cap. ii. 

ART. 146. 8.)] THE USE, &C. OF WORDS. 81) 

being made, either in its vowels or consonants, or both, 
other forms will be produced, which may severally repre- 
sent words of other classes, each having meanings, or 
shades of meaning, peculiar to themselves : and, such is 
actually the case. 

8. If then this be the fact, we can adopt certain 
words representing the various forms found to prevail ; 
and these we can use, like the formula in Algebra, to 
designate whole classes of others having the same forms. 
Thus, "Tips, may be put for any word, having the vowel 
PdthaJfh only, between its first and second radical letters. 
In like manner "Tp2, "Tj?2>, T : i?2, may represent any others 
having a Kliolem, Tzere, or Khirik, in the same place, 
respectively ; and these are the forms of primitive nouns, 
generally having an abstract signification.* In the next 

* This is also the case with the Arabic words of these forms : as, fit? 

S<j 5 O ? 

comprehension, <J-c knowledge, -.*"* beauty ; and where the adscititious 

s tanwin may be considered as equivalent to our Hebrew euphonic Segol. 
We must carefully bear in mind, however, that, although words of this form 
will generally be abstract in sense, they will not necessarily always have an 

^ ? ^.s 

active signification. For example, &}j '-r^-*^ w ill mean Zaid's striking, i. e. 


either the striking which he receives, or gives, passively or actively, objectively or 
subjectively, as the context may require. In such instances, the abstract noun 

S <s' 

I ->* striking, may be considered as equivalent to a passive or active par- 
ticiple, respectively; and then the abstract may be said to occupy the place of a 
concrete noun : as, in Gen. xxxi. 42, we have pH!p THS the fear of Isaac, 
i. e. the object of Isaac's fear, his God, which in the parallel passage is, T! vS 
*IlN my Father's God. So also again in ver. 53, Ib., where it is similarly ex- 
plained. In Rom. ii. 26, iii. 30, the Gentiles are, in like manner, termed 
dxpo/3i/<7T/, and the Jews xeptTo/, i. e. uncircitmcised, and circumcised, 
respectively. These considerations will occasionally affect the verbs, so that 
the active form will have a passive sense and vice versa, of which examples will 
be given hereafter. See Viger on the Greek Idioms, Cap. v. i. Ed. 1813. 
Hence the various acceptations of ^mr/noavvn in the New Testament. See 
also Storr, p. '201, &c. 

90 LECTURE vi. CART. UG. y. 

place, "T|7_2> *Tp T 3, "f!J3> ^P,%, &c., or, with one or other 
of the letters M^P.^f?* as, ^Ili?!?* "^i??^> & c -> mav repre- 
sent other classes of words, and may each be severally put 
down as a formulae for such class of words. And, as the 
roots of words in Hebrew always consist of three letters, 
the servile letters or vowels being constant, these formulae 
can always be applied. 

9. In the Rabbinic grammars, dictionaries, and com- 
mentaries, the word TtyD, with its variations, is taken 
as the common measure of other words ; but, as great 
inconvenience arises from the use of this word, on account 
of the medial y, we have, with Schrcederus and others, 
taken IpD, not that it is entirely unexceptionable, there 
being one of the HDiDTQ letters, both as its initial and 
final letter, but because it is sufficiently easy of appli- 
cation for our purpose. 

147. It will appear from what has been said (Artt. 75. 
76. 77. &c.) that primitive nouns originally consisting 
of three radical letters, may frequently be found with 
two only ; and there are cases to be noticed here- 
after, in which we have but one. Making these allow- 
ances, therefore, the forms of all nouns will be either 
Simple, Augmented, or Compounded. 

2. The simple forms, as already noticed (Art. 146. 
8.) will consist of the radical letters (supposing none 
of them to have been dropped as just mentioned) ac- 
companied by one or two vowels. 

3. The augmented forms of nouns will exhibit one or 
other of the simple forms, augmented either by the 
reduplication of its middle radical letter by Dfigesh, or 
by the addition of one or more of the letters found in the 
word "Tlpfttfn, or by both taken together. 

4. Compounded words are those which are formed by 
the combination of one or more words, simple or aug- 

ART. 147. 5.]] THE USE, &C. OF WORDS., 01 

mented, written together as one, contracted however or 
abridged as the rules may require. 

5. The simple forms may be divided into two classes, 
the first of which may, from their peculiarities, be termed 
Segolate : the second, Primitive nouns, only. 

6 By Segolate nouns is meant, nouns which, in ad- 
dition to their primitive vowel, generally introduce an 
additional () for the sake of Euphony (Art. 108.). In 
the other class of primitive nouns this does not take 

7. We shall first consider the different sorts of Sego- 


late nouns, and then proceed to the others, whether 
simple, augmented, or compounded ; giving, at the same 
time, the forms which they severally assume in forming 
the plural number when in the state of construction, 
whether singular or plural, and when having any of the 
pronouns attached to them. 

148. The forms of the primitive Segolate nouns are 
the following : viz. I. "IpS, the alternate form of which 
is, -TJ33 or IpD : II. "IpsJ alt. "Tgg : III. -|p, alt. "Tj^* : 
IV. "[pS, alt. TJJ& : V. "(IPS, alt. TJJ5 ; which are gene- 
rally abstract in signification ; and, in the leading form, 
have the accent on the penultimate (Art. 117. 1.). 

2. Now, as the pronunciation of the leading forms of 
these words would, in many cases, be exceedingly dif- 
ficult, an additional vowel, () Segol, for the most part, 
is introduced for the purpose of obviating that difficulty 
(Art. 108.) : e. g. instead of saying "?j?3, (where it would 
scarcely be possible to enounce the 1) by introducing 

* As the vowels () and (), (T) and (-), may here be considered, 
respectively, as identical, the number of the forms will be reduced \ofour: viz. 
I. 1J7B, alt. IBS : II. I ; p5, TpB : III. ^B, Tf?Q : IV. "Ij?B, -fpB. See 
also Hoffmann's Syr. Gram., p. 239, &c., Halle, 1827. 

92 LECTURE vi. CAKT. 148. 3. 

() we shall have TS : and, in order to avoid the con- 
currence of two dissimilar vowels, the former will also 
become (), and then we shall have IPS instead of 

' L . ' ' 

Hence, we have ^70 for ^?p a king ; ""}D for 
or "Iplf? a book ; and so of the rest. In some cases, 
however, where no difficulty of pronunciation would arise, 
the primitive form is retained : as, i^3 a valley ; N fc?n 
sin; "H} nard ; CP^p justice, which also occurs with 
(-.-): as, CD$j?, Ps. Ix. 6, and again in the alternate form 
D&p, Dan. ii. 47, iv. 34. 

3. In all cases, in which this class of words will, by 
the accidence of Grammar, receive any asyllabic aug- 
ment, no necessity will exist for this Euphonic vowel, 
and then, either the primitive or the alternate form 
of the word will be used : as, 137D his king : "O^E 

' . i : - O 7 : - 

kings (in construction) ; and, DO7P (from the alternate 
form 17Q) kings, when not in the state of construction. 
So also in the feminine form, '^.SyP a queen, which in 
the plural number will take the alternate form niD^E, 

A IT. 

from \2Q, as before. The (-) becomes (T) Kamets, by 
Artt. 97! 136. So also 1p?# his shoulder, from p?^ 
shoulder; T^"?)? /"* holiness, from t^lp. The accent 
being removed, causes the first vowel to become imper- 
fect (Art. 33, &c.) 

4. As we have already laid down the rules relating to 
the formation of the feminine gender of nouns (Art. 135.), 
of the dual and plural number (Artt. 138, 139, &c.), 
to the state of construction (Art. 143.), and to the in- 
separable pronouns as affecting the forms of the nouns 
(Art. 145. 5.), it is now our intention to shew in each form, 
as far as it may be necessary, in what way the vowels are 
affected by these circumstances. We have chosen this 
method of detailing what has usually been termed the 
mutationes punctorum, because it appears to be the only 

ART. US. 4.3 ON THE NOUNS. 93 

one likely to be of any service to the Student. In the 
grammars of Buxtorf and others of his school, it was cus- 
tomary to give a considerable number of rules on this 
subject with examples ; and then to leave the Student to 
make his way as well as he could. But, as the analogy 
of the syllabication and of the forms of words are the only 
sure guides, little use could be made of those rules, until 
the Learner had become familiar with these ; and, when 
this was done, the rules themselves were almost useless. 
In the more elaborate grammars of modern Germany, the 
analogy is first taught, and then the nouns are divided 
into a certain number of declensions. This, however, 
seems to be labour thrown away ; for, when the Student 
is once made acquainted with the general laws of syllabi- 
cation, and the forms of words, a further classification of 
these forms must rather tend to confuse than to instruct 
him. But, supposing this not to be the case, still the 
labour is multiplied ; and, as far as I can see, for no 
useful purpose. 

I have been agreeably surprised to find, upon turning 
over the Rabbinic grammars of D. Kimkhi and some of 
those who succeeded him, that under the forms of the 
nouns, the changes of the vowel-points are in all cases 
given ; which, indeed, had appeared to me the most 
rational way of proceeding. In conformity with this 
principle then, it is my intention to proceed to the 
classification of the nouns, beginning with those termed 
Segolate, giving at once all that appears to be necessary 
for the information of the Student, and adding such notes 
on the different forms as the circumstances of each case 
may seem to require. Having already given a classifica- 
tion of the forms of the Segolate nouns, we shall now 
proceed to exemplify them. 

94 LECTURE vi. ART. 148. r>. 

On the First Species of Segolate Nouns of the forms 



Primitive. Usual Do. Fern. Gen. Masc. Fern. 

or Alternate Form, 

"Tp|> "O| man (Chald. Syr.) 


'IT: T : T : 

5. The Absolute masculine plurals (Art. 139. 4.) of all 
Segolate nouns, except those only which have (1) 
Kholem for one of their vowels, take the form of D^j?? ; 
feminines take that of nilj?^. In the first case, there- 
fore, we shall have 0070, and in the feminine n1p?P, 
from the alternate forms (Art. 148. 1 .). And, so of all 
the others, whether of the masculine or feminine gender, 
with the above exception. The plural form for construc- 
tion with other nouns, or with any of the inseparable pro- 
nouns, will follow the primitive form of these words 
(Ib. 3.). In the examples given above, we shall have 
^P7P, and n1p?D, for the plural forms of construction. 
But, 3J"G has 'QfO, and "1D5 does not occur in that 

' IT : 

situation. It should be observed, however, that the 
Chaldaic and Syriac forms lpJ5 or "Tj^iij) are to be referred 
sometimes to one class and sometimes to another, of the 
Segolate nouns : thus, 3H5 is manifestly of the class 
lp$, the plural in construction being "Qrup ; but ^p? 
belongs to "7p? the plural of construction, no less than 
the forms found with the pronouns being ^P3 : as, 1SP3 
his silver ; DfTp2 their pieces of silver. 

6. The regular forms for the affixed pronouns singular 
and plural of the first form, are, ijy?^ H? 1 ?^ ^^ 
DHvftp, DS^o, irpte, rrife, and, by" analogy, 
though not occurring in the text, ^7^, ?|O7p, &c. So 

ART. 148. 7.3 ON THE NOUNS. 95 

that the plural of construction, that used in connection 
with the pronouns of the second and third persons mas- 
culine and feminine plural, will follow the primitive forms 
of these nouns ; in all the other cases, they will follow 
the alternate form, "f(7J5> or *Ti?j$, due regard being had 
to the laws of syllabication. 

7. It should be remembered, that in every case in which a 
guttural letter is the second or third of such word, the accom- 
panying or preceding vowel may be ( - ) ; as, 3HT an arm (Art. 108.). 
For a list of nouns of this form, see the " Arcanum Formarum" of 
Simonis, p. 307, &c. 

8. It should also be observed, that some Segolate nouns are, in 
their original forms, of the feminine gender (Art. 135. 5.): and 
that, generally, words need not receive the termination H } as 
distinctive of that gender, except such as relate to sex. 

9. A considerable number of defective words may be referred to 
the Segolates, of which the following belong to this class in par- 
ticular : rW$ death (prim. Oil?, Art. 108.), which, in construction, 
or with the pronouns, will take the form fVlE (Art. 143. 6.) : as, 
lb*n nte the death of the child, Gen. xxi. 16. So i, Pinte, 
DnllD, &c., and in the plural number ''"'^pE, &c. ; vTO iniquity, 
fern, ^f?"!]? id. and contr. <"$ '37 ; "V|^ an age, generation (prim. 


"p."! Arab. ^ Art. 87. 1.). 


10. Examples with a medial " : T^ (prim. *P2, Arab. <Jo^) 
hunting, fern. HT2 id. (Art. 87. 3.); fpa (prim. 0??, Arab. 

in constr. JT% with pron. "WT21, MT2 f c . (Art. 143. 6.). 
The plural now in use, viz. D>l f? 2 , is evidently derived from some 
other primitive. 

11. Of Nouns doubling the last radical letter: 1? a garden, 
prim. P.2, by (Art. 77.) fem. ^22 id. (Ib.). And, with the pro- 
nouns, ""93, 132, & c . plur. abs. D'22 for B^M, and fem. niaa for 
^1332 5 i n order perhaps to avoid the too frequent recurrence of the 
same sound. The form of construction taken by the feminine is 
^1?, instead of f"l22 f probably for the sake of variety. So "12 

(prim. "I"!? Arab, ^j) : fem. !"n2L, f or H^2 (Art. 109.) purity. In 
the plur of constr. masc. 

J)6 LECTURE VI. C AilT - >48. 12. 

12. With a medial 1 and final M; Wip, prim, form, and, by 
apocope, It? (Art. 74.) vanity ; fern. nW"itt7 destruction. So with 
\ *^a prim, form, a valley. In constr. M\2, and, by apocope, "*?, 
and in construction, "*?. ; pi. f^a, and with the light affixes, 
TfWa thy rallies. 

13. With a final 1 or " : -TO (prim. TO) eternity; so ^HN for 
1H}* (Art. 87. 2.) a bulrush ; VlB? swimming. 

14. With a medial 3: *)N f or flaS (Art. 76.) *Ae nose, anger ; 
with the pronouns, "IBM, fBM, >S'/ p l. VE, *p5M, &c. ; and in 
constr. "^N. The absolute form of the plural does not occur : but, 
in the dual we have E^SN, which would have the same form, in 
construction, and with the pronouns, with those given above. 

For further examples of this sort, the Student is referred to the 
" Arcanum Formarum" of Simonis, sectio v. throughout. 

149. Of the Second Species of Segolate Nouns. 


Prim. Usual Do. Fem. Form. Masc. Fem. 

an age. ^^ society. 

Alternate form. 

*TS DpJ^ shoulder. 

Nouns of this species occur but rarely ; and it is 
doubtful whether the last of these does not more properly 
belong to the primitive form 7i?S, as we have it with the 
pronouns *Q3&, 'I??^, &c. But, as a proper name (as 
some think) with the local PT we have nZJPJ^ towards 
Shechem, Hos. vi. 9. 

In the first example, we have ^H, &c., with the pro- 

1 50. Of the Third Species. 


Primitive. Usual Do. p em . Ma*c. Fem. 

a portion, 

The absolute form of the plural is here, as before, 

ART. 150. 2/] ON THE NOUNS. 97 

DHp3 masc. and ]Ti"TpSfem. : as, DyTft. but n1p?n does 

i- 'T : , i IT : . " II-T-: ' li T -: 

not occur. So D^??D pains ; 7J3n vanity, Dylin vanities, 
and so of others. The pronouns are affixed thus : 1^70 
^ portion ; ^pyH #zy portion ; DjTp./n tf^zr portion. 
So fern. Hgtn, ''pjj? 11 ?* Dnj^n, &c. 750 P^- ^ n constr. 

: of *?3n, ^;in,&c. 

j?w, is with the pronouns lijMprvDNttpn, &c. In 
the plur. abs. D'iSsCpn, constr. ""jS^n ' with the pronouns, 
W>n, IJPKBrj, Dr>\Spn, &c., and" so on. 

2. The nouns of this species are numerous. The following are 
a few examples : V?P mill, delight ; 1*7$ pleasure, also the proper 
name of a place; ^F a girdle; ^p y a /. But ^{^ a rod; 
n2j3 the forehead; ' ) ?,^ understanding, acuteness, with some others, 
take the pronouns, &c. after the form "TPr : as, 1^?^ Az* 7 - oc?; 
in^Ki his forehead; ^f?^ ^ Z5 understanding. From ^ij?.^., which also 
occurs of the form ^i?.^. we have "n^f^V thy vestiges, Jer. xiii. 22 ; 
and, in construction in the feminine gender ^12)"?^ : but these may, 
perhaps, be derived from different primitives. 

3. The following are a few of the defective nouns, which seem 
to belong to this species : ^ ajleece ; (prim. T?$ Art. 77.), fern. HjT2 
for HT-' constr. f??, masc., in constr. *$? cuttings; ^^. the cud 
(prim. 1"??); "H^T the palate (prim. ^D, Art. 76.), with the pronouns 
"Van, TjSrT, D3H, &c. For further examples, see the " Arcanum 
Formarum," p. 326, &c. 

4. Chaldaic and Syriac words often occur of the form Tpj? : as 
^|D? , Heb. form ^JS silver ; "H^P counsel. So, in Hebrew, ^1^ 
instead of J" 1 ^? elevation. See the " Arcanum Formarum," pp. 309, 

Of the Fourth Species of Segolate Nouns. 

151. This, according to our arrangement, will com- 
prehend all primitive nouns of the forms 7pS, and "T)7.5, 
but of the latter no examples occur. 


Primitive. Usnal. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

excellence. PjnrV HfV 

IT : t : iv 


98 LECTURE VI. CART. 151. 2. 

2. Here, as before, the plurals, &c., are regularly formed : as, pi. 
abs. masc. D^bas, f e m. P??, the pi. masc. of construction does 
not occur in this example: but, for the fem. we have J"ltp^3. The 
only instance in which this word occurs with the pronoun is Job 
xxxi. 20, <I B^? . So "1"J3. a vow ; P"T- justice, righteousness ; ^\Q 
learning ; nifi2 confidence ; to which many more may be added. 
Of the Defective nouns, T 1 ? 0?) a city, pi. D'ny for Dn^S (Art. 
75.) ; **? the mouth (prim. H^?, tne latter H being dropped, Art. 74, 
and the first changed to "* , Art. 80.). So, with the pronouns : "*? 
for "79 (Art. 75.) my mouth; T? thy mouth ; VB his mouth, &c. : 
and, in the fem. plur. J"fi*B mouths, and masc. E^-?. The Learner 
should be informed, however, that it is often extremely difficult to 
say, to which of the forms such words as these belong ; and, as it is 
of no very great importance to which they are attached, we shall 
on every occasion offer but a very few. 

Of the Fifth Species. 

152. These have the primitive forms 7j?>, and "1p5>, 
and constitute a considerable class of Nouns in the 
Hebrew Language. 


Primitive. Usual Do. Fem. Masc. Fem. 



: I 

Alternate form. 

truth - 

2. Of this last form, perhaps, no other word occurs, 
unless the Infinitives of the form "fp5 are to be added : 
these, however, upon receiving one or other of the 
pronouns, assume the same form with the first, but are 
never found in the plural number. 

3. The masculine plural of the first of these forms is 
regularly of the form D^ES : as > E^TB : ; tne substitute 
for Shevd preserving the original vowel of the word. In 
the plural of construction we have ")$"T ; and with the 
pronouns singular and plural, ^"JR, ^71? > &c. ; pi. 

"&c., all regularly 

ART. 152.4.]] ON THE NOUNS. 99 

formed. In the word t>N") (for ^"l), we have in the 
plural D^lTl and ^0n, for D^JO and "^"J, by Art 
87. 5, N being preserved to avoid ambiguity; and with the 
pronouns ^S~l (for ^$"1), on account of the quiescence 
of N in the preceding vowel (Art. id.), CDD^S"), 
^Z$W"), &c. The same form prevails in the plural with 
the pronouns: as, V{^S"J, Dj^tJ/JO, &c. In some in- 
stances, tfi^jp is thought to take the same plural form : 
as, ffftfjZ*-y%y>t &c., for D^"[j? : , &c. But in these 
cases, the primitive may have been of a different form : 
if not, this word is occasionally anomalous or erroneously 
written. So, Bhttf a root, CD^I^, < PBhB>, &c. ; but in 

* VI f ' I' T T ' IT T T ' 

construction "^l^ : |12 a threshing floor, fern, makes 
its abs. pi. ni.jn|, for rniPil, by a similar anomaly : and, 

in the pi. of construction we have also nij")3. From 7*13 

./ . IT: . . 

we have *(\\ his greatness ; from ^Pp, I^Pj? his 

handful, by adopting the obliquely corresponding vowel. 

4. When the middle letter happens to be a guttural, the euphonic 
( ) becomes ( - ) (Art. 108.) : as, "wri form, P<!J3 a pustule, &c.j 
while in some instances the ( ) remains : as, ^D^ a tent ; l-^T 1 the 

5. In some cases Kholem remains in the abs, pi. as, D s j?nM ; as 
also in those which have not the grave pronominal affixes : as, rf T^'7^, 
V vHH ; but, in construction and with those affixes, the first vowel is 
Kamets Khatwph : as, VvJrr ohole, Q3 V?r?> ^ c< w ^ich are regular. 
D. Kimkhi takes it to be Kamets.* 

6. ^T 1 the thumb, fern, forms the plural ^'p n ?, but does not 
occur with any of the pronouns. In the same manner are formed 

* Michlol, fol. t"l, verso, which, according to him, is always the case when 
a guttural letter occupies the place of the second radical : as in D^T^ "^nfcS 
the tents of Edom, Ps. Ixxxiii. 7 ; rTSHSn vM2 the dealings of the priesthood, 
Neh. xiii. 29 ; n*22 ^%$ iwi n roes, Cant. vii. 5 ; but ^N^ Ib. iv. 5, is, he 
thinks, derived from a different primitive. I believe, however, that in the 
above cases, ( T ) is Kamets Khatuph, to be read as Kholem ; and if so, there is 
.no irregularity in the word, although there is a slight one in the syllabication. 


100 LECTURE VI. [[ART. 152.7. 

the plurals of T?-' splendour, and HDD front, presence : as, 
and rrinb? ; but these, according to D. Kimkhi, belong to some 
other form of the singular (perhaps nnia? , ^H2 f & c .) ; as, rT P'? 
Amos iii. 10. 

7. A few peculiarities prevail in the word 27W2 Z 7/ savour, which 
deserve notice. Its original form seems to be Eftf? ; but, with the 
pronouns it is written itttt^Si t Qttf^Sl } & c . i n which the o is drawn 
back (Art. 87. 5.). In the time of Kimkhi, however, it was irre- 
gularly written '^21, QK7W2, with a quiescent M, which inclined 
him to think that the singular form must have been ^ $21. 

8. In those cases, in which the last letter is a guttural, the sound 
of o is lost : as, I"TD"1 a spear, pi. ^F^l : but, with a pronoun it 
returns : as, OjT^^'r their spears ; .rnM a nay, makes flin^H p]. 
abs., but in construction fYinnM. 

9. Of the defective nouns, we have inijl for ^^ emptiness (Art. 
87. 2.); Irla for inS, waste; rnn f or JTV1O if e m. bitterness; to 
which many others may be added. 

10. These nouns are regularly abstracts in signification 
(Art. 146. 8.) : and, in many instances, where they 
appear not to be so, some translated sense takes its 
place : as, *=|7P king, which originally meant possession, 
dominion, or the like, but which, in process of time, 
seems to have lost its primitive force. Perhaps it still 
retains that sense in Proverbs xiv. 28. 

: ]n 

" In the multitude of people is the glory of rule ; 
But in the diminution of a nation is the stroke of poverty." 

In this case rflft is opposed to ]1n, which seems to me 
to prove, that ride or dominion is the sense in which it 
must be taken. Some indeed have proposed to read 
|.n prince, at the end of the second hemistich, but this 
will be unnecessary when we restore ^7^ to its primitive 

S '^ f 

signification. In like manner the word ^liai*- Sultan, 
which means power, rule, or the like, has been applied to 
the Emperor of Constantinople ; and in our own Ian- 

ART. 153-3 ON THE NOU NS. 101 

guage we use Justice, Magistrate, Lordship, and many 
similar expressions, which were originally abstract nouns. 
See also Hosea x. 15. 

On the Forms of the Second Class of Primitive Nouns, which 
are not Segolate. 

153. Having laid down the different forms and inflec- 
tions of the primitive nouns which are termed Segolate, 
we now come to others which are also primitive, but 
which have not the peculiarity of punctuation found to 
prevail in them; and which, moreover, have the tone- 
accent on the last syllable : and as it will be unnecessary, 
to give the forms of the plurals in all cases of the 
noun when in the state of construction, or when in con- 
nection with the several pronouns ; we shall only point 
out the instances in which any difficulty may arise, either 
from a vowel being immutable, or any other cause, 
which will be all the Learner can want. The following 
are the forms peculiar to this species of nouns : viz. 
: II. 1j?a : III. *Tj?a : IV. Tf>$ : V. Tp.3 : VI. 
VII. 11pS : VIII. TIP? : IX.'lp.iB: X. TiPS : 
XL "lip?.* The feminine forms will be given in their 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fem. 


"im a word - np"T rigltteou$ness. 



* If, however, we consider the forms, "Tj^Q and "T^ T S, lf?Q and 
and TpB, TtpS and TV?Q, "lif?? and TipS, respectively, identical, the 
number of the forms will be reduced to six. 

102 LECTURE VI, [[ART. 153. 2. 

2. As the last example exhibits the feminine form 
generally used in construction, nothing further need be 
said about it. In the first two, we have no vowel which 
can be said to be immutable. The plurals therefore and 
pronouns will take those forms, which a regard to the 
vowels and accents would suggest as proper : and the 
rule seems to be, that in every case, the vowel farthest 
removed from the accent will be rejected; as, "IJW, in 
constr. "IT 1 ! (Art. 143. 3.) with the pronouns 1")^^ ny^ 
&c. pi. abs.Dnai, in constr. "H^n (for ^P], Art. 106. 1.) : 
with pron. DjT'OT, BJ3 V "!3 <: }> & c * w ^ an asyllabic pron. 
^f\, T!?.? 1 !' ^ c> throughout. The same will hold good 
in all similar forms, in which the vowels are by analogy 

3. In some instances the first ( T ) is immutable, but in these it is 

s * 

believed to occupy the place of N : as E^TS a horseman; Arab. (j*j\* '> 


4. Nouns of these forms are generally Concrete, and 
will therefore designate substances : as, DlNt a man ; 
"TO hail ; "ifeO flesh : epithets ; as, DDH a wise man ; 
#1H a wicked man.* In some cases they seem to be 
abstract : as, fcOZ weeping ; nj?y? crying out, &c. ; but 
this may take place by the operation of a metonymy, just 
as the contrary effect sometimes takes place in the Segol- 
ates (Art. 152. 10.). 

* Whether the Hebrews ever considered words of this kind as adjectives, as 
we do, I very much doubt. But, whatever may be said on this subject, it is 
much more convenient, in considering the structure of this language, to treat 
them as epithets, including a substantive with their attributive properties, as in 
the English word fool, &c. See the Syntax. 

ART. 153. 5.3 ON THE NOUNS. 103 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fem. 

rnps or rqgg -ins <*/ DTT| or rrn$ . 

' stolen. 


5. In these forms, which are very nearly related to each 
other, the second vowel is generally immutable, the first 
not so: as, i""!"Tj? his fence ; T^"^ ^ 1 V ($&&.') fences ; 
tV^S her fences ; pi. fern, JTi"T!J| fences. This being 
known, the vowels proper for construction, &c., are also 
known. In a few instances we have a ^ inserted : as, 
"T!^t littleness ; 1 v.J^ tranquillity ; Hg)^75 escape, which 
seems to account for the attendant vowel's being im- 
mutable ; and also to suggest, that some affinity exists 
between this and the next form. 

6. The signification peculiar to these forms, is that of 
habit, custom, passion, whence they have by some been 
termed participles. Those of the third are found in 
words signifyingy^m^*, perception, or the like, and are 
often used as roots of verbs having this sense : as, 
willing ; Dp^ rejoicing, &c. 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fem. 

V. Tjja 'TTJ?5 W^ a prophet. PJ]?^ kiss - 

VI. TP) id- "^PP-1 a Cation. 1*17 V^ an action. 


VIII. T)p irf. "I1*J3 boasting. 1*1X133 prediction. 

7. In all these cases the * and T inserted are immutable* 
the other vowel is not: the plurals, &c. are, therefore, 
formed accordingly. In some instances the 1 or ** will be 

104 LECTURE vi. CART. 153. s. 

omitted, and their places supplied by () or () 
respectively ; in all which these vowels will remain 
immutable as before, for the purpose of preserving the 
original form of the word : as, "^n masc. HD^Il fern. 
darkness. So DV# fern, for HJfJP advice (Art. 76.) ; 
and '""Hi??) a visitation, being visited, &c. 

8. Forms V. and VI. are very nearly allied to the 
foregoing both in form and signification ; and from these, 
the forms VII. and VIII. scarcely present a shade of 
difference.* Simonis indeed makes a difference, but it 
is perhaps only an imaginary one. To the two last he 
ascribes the sense of past time, as if the action, of which 
this form is usually said to present the object, took place 
at some distant period ; but, innumerable instances may 
be pointed out, in which it has a present or a future sig- 
nification according to the context. The truth seems to 
be, that each of them implies habit, custom, &c., of such 
action, &c., as the root may signify ; but, that in some 
roots, the one form is found to prevail, in others, the 


. Maac. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

IX. TplB mpte YTP descending. HTT^ * 

if IT'; I- IT : 

nvvr *. 

x. -rips ripa na great. 

1 1 T IT I ; i T 


XI. "?1pa mlp2 y_^ the arm. mifc3 good news. 

'l : IT i : l IT . : 

a sort f dish. 

and T'pN bound, a captive ; "^HZl and T'pS chosen ; ^ and 
T^ born, a son ; rfttpW and n^2?D anointed Messiah : and in a great 
number of cases, in which the textual reading has the one form, the marginal 
reading will have the other. 


9. In these forms the 1 Kholem only is immutable. 
We shall have therefore in the plural, &c. D'HplD masc. 
nilpiS fern, and D^i"^ masc. -HiSl"?} fern., which will 
also be the forms proper for the state of construction, and 
for the pronominal affixes. 

10. Of these forms a few nouns will be found abstract 
in signification, "Tp.jS, with its feminine, is generally used 
as an agent. Sometimes the feminine occurs as, JTnl3 

fructifera: (Art. 136. 5.). 

11. It may be taken as a general rule, that whenever 
a 1 or \ or one of their equivalents (-') or (), happens to 
be found in one of this class of primitive words, that 
vowel will remain unchanged under all circumstances. 
The reason is : these vowels principally constitute these 



154. Having considered the Primitive nouns of both 
kinds, we now proceed to the Augmented ones, which 
may be classed under four heads. I. Those found 
to double any letter or syllable, which hence may be 
termed reduplicated. II. Those which are augmented 
by one or more of the letters contained in the technical 
word ^pp^n / have believed, reduplicating, or not, at 
the same time, any of their letters or syllables. III. 
Nouns compounded of two or more others, each of which 
may be otherwise augmented, or not: and, IV. Foreign 

106 LECTURE vii. CART. 154. 2. 

2. It is evident that whenever any addition is made to a word, 
some modification will be made in its sense. The great 
difficulty consists, however, in determining the law by which this 
process of augmentation is carried on, and thence ascertaining, 
what is the precise force of every form thus modified : and, it must 
be confessed, that although a considerable number of instances 
occur in most languages, in which we can clearly perceive a 
peculiar force attendant on certain specific forms ; yet, there are 
others, in which no such power is discoverable ; others again, in 
which one form is used for another, and even different forms 
linked together in the same phrase, or corresponding to one another 
in the parallel parts of the same context. To this may be added 
the figures of speech, which exercise a very considerable influence 
on the significations of words, and conspire very much to disconcert 
both the Learner and the Learned in enquiries of this nature. 
Still we must not throw away all the helps we have, merely 
because they will not conduct us to absolute knowledge in every 
case: besides, further enquiry may throw much new, and even 
sufficient, light on this subject. We shall, therefore, follow the 
course just marked out, in detailing the forms of augmented 

3. Writers on this subject seem generally to agree in the follow- 
ing principles, viz. That, by augmentation will be expressed either 
intensity, frequency, duration, defect, or the like, of that action, 
passion, habit, &c. which is contained in the signification afforded 
by the primitive word : that, in some instances, a word which is 
intransitive, will, by adding a letter, become transitive : as in the 
English words, rise and raise, which in Hebrew will be given in D)7. 
(for E1)7) and D|Jj? or ^? "P- A similar effect is produced in 
Hebrew by prefixing a letter : as, E^H which will also signify 
raise, the root being Elp rise. In many cases, however, as already 
remarked, the real force of the augment is not perceptible ; and in 
these, we must be content to abide by usage. As we proceed, 
however, it is my intention to offer some conjectures on the origin 
of the different augments ; and, should I not succeed in producing 
conviction, I shall certainly gain my point in another respect, 
namely, in impressing upon the Learner's mind, the different 
forms with which he will meet. Besides, by attempting to ascer- 
tain what these additional syllables really are, and what they mean, 
some light may be thrown on 'the manner in which language in 


general has been constructed. It is my belief, that language has 
grown up, in a great measure, out of necessity ; and, that words 
which now exceed their primitive length, must have been made so 
by the addition of others qualifying or otherwise modifying their 
significations, as circumstances should require. In process of time, 
many of these additional words may have become attached to others, 
and so abbreviated as greatly to obscure their original forms and 
significations : e. g. The English word attempting, seems to be com- 
pounded of at, (ad, whatever that word was originally) tempt, and 
ing. The last component part is probably the same with the Latin 
Ens, or Greek S>v, so that each part of the word might originally 
have stood singly, but is now so compounded as to stand for one. 
In such words as incomprehensibility, transubstantiation, &c., I 
suppose we have not fewer than five or six primitive words con- 
founded together in one. 

4. The Greek and Latin prepositions, with which so many 
words are compounded, were perhaps at first significant words : 
and, it strikes me as most probable, that their terminations 
of case and gender, no less than the variations found to prevail in 
the conjugations of their verbs, were all, at some titne, significant 
words, which have been so attached to the root, as to supply the 
sense which these conjugations, &c. now bear. It may, indeed, be 
impossible now to ascertain exactly what they were ; still the 
attempt to do so, cannot but be attended with beneficial results. 
To proceed, the following tables will exhibit the forms with some- 
examples of the first class of these nouns. 

Of Reduplicated Words, Intensitive, or otherwise modified in 
their Signification. 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Peru. 

I- "TJ9S Fn.frS WpP. ver y perverse. rfy$ 8 reat >% 
or "IPS or Jl"[pB D/tf 9"^ e dumb. nnip prompt obedience. 

or niB Ifo 1 ? teaching. ^HS;) baldness. 

5. To this form may be referred all those nouns, which, on 
account of having a 1 or "* for their middle radical letter, and there- 
fore not convenient for reduplication (Art. 75.), double the last : 

LECTURE VII. [[ART. 154-, 6. 

as, pfyB7 greatly desiring, fern. ; nf7;TlP id., root pW ; i? a 
sucking child, root '137. The same form is also found in words 
derived from roots having the second and third radical letters the 
same : as, OB.'W, fern. nntfia? desolate, desolation, root OBB?. The 
passive forms of these will be Enittf, Pip^, 'Vfy &c. Some 
others double the last radical letter by Ddgesh : as, 7^7 , pi. 
swa//; 1gi a wheel, pi. D'SplN; IBB? a field-mouse, pi. 
]0t ri we , pi. D'Spt, & c . 

6. Some one vowel will, in all these cases, necessarily be im- 
mutable; the other occasionally so: e. g. E^.V &c., pi. abs. E^ip^, 
constr. *$?$. The pronouns, therefore, will be affixed accordingly. 
Under this head may be placed all those verbal nouns, which are 
generally arranged as the infinitives, &c., of the Pihel conjugation. 

7. As this form is taken for the root of one of the species of the 
Conjugation, some account should be here given of its force. 

It has been laid down as a rule, that verbs which are intransitive 
in the first species, are generally transitive in this : as, Tp/ he 
learned; T]-?? he taught. The same property prevails in the 

Arabic : Ju: he knew ; ^ he taught. This they term the transitive 

9 ' Sm 

property ; ibtXaJk!). The other dialects also recognise this pro- 


8. Another property is, the becoming either in reality, or in 
estimation only, that which the primitive word signifies : as, "I,?? he 
became, or was adopted as, the first-born, from the primitive ""^pr 1 

first-born : but this word, when used of trees as producing fruit, 
will mean prematurity. 

Under this head may be placed all those cases, in which is 
intimated a Declaration, Announcement, Accusation, &c., of what 
the primitive word signifies : as, NJ213 pronouncing, or accusing 
another of being, unclean; *"'{!7^ pronouncing another clean. So 
perhaps, NteH pronouncing, confessing, &c. sin. And hence by a 
metonymy, expiating it.* These properties are termed by the 

& C ' 

* This property is termed by the Arabic Grammarians < ^1*M deprivation : 

as, *jfcU- I skinned him, or deprived him of his skin. Lumsden's Arab. Gram., 
p. 178. See also his Pers. Gram., vol. i. p. 230. 


'i-G>- JPX tsx 

Arabian Grammarians, Jjs"^l changing, and 4-Ua*a!l naming : as, 

1, ^1x^1 (jo^jthe place became a garden; u^-j>\ i/*^' the man 
became BOWED, or bent like a BOW. Where the English word boned 

is similarly formed from bow : 2, lAjj c^% a^i / vilified Zaid, i. e. 
pronounced him to be so ; J^ yo he called Zaid an infidel; 

S (,' 

calling one a coward, &c. Of this kind are 

shall bless me, Gen. xxx. 13; i. e. they shall declare that I am 
blessed ; '"1ij??.!!~" ' he shall not make innocent, i. e. declare to be so, 
Exod. xx. 7. The same may be said of all those passages given 
in this form, in which God is said to have hardened Pharaoh's 
heart. See Exod. iv. 21, ix. 12, x. 20. 27, &c., compared with 
Exod. vii. 13, 1 Sam. vi. 6, &c. 

* Hence from the noun (THS just, we have the verb in this form p^T2 he 
pronounced, esteemed some one just, i. e. he justified him, e. g. Jer. iii. 11, 
PTl27ip2 nfT'TS she justified herself. See also Job xxxiii. 32, &c. See also 
Buxtorfs Chaldai'c and Talmudic Lexicon under H3T. Greek verbs in 
<, /iw, eva, vvu, dvct), eca, aw, oca, &c. have frequently this force : so 
Ax/o<w or A<x/a> in the New Testament; so also 1 Cor. i. 20, ep.copa.vsv 6 
Qeo? rijv ao<f>ia.v rov xoff/j-ov TOVTOV, He hath made foolish, i. e. pro- 
nounced to be so, the wisdom of this world. So also with the verb voteea, 
which will give an equivalent sense, John xix. 7, iavrbv vtov TOV Qeov 
eiroi'ijffev, He made himself the Son of God, i. e. He declared himself to be so. 
In a similar manner the verbs ]ri3 he gave, appointed, and Dtp he placed, laid 
down, or the like, will intimate the mere declaration of something done or to be 
done, e.g. Gen. xxvii. 37. TVP1O2? "^S I have laid him down, declared him, 
great. T7 "VfirD VnS'vSTlMI, and all his brothers have I given to him, i. e. 
have declared shall be his. See Gen. xxxv. 12. Comp. Exod. xii. 25. So 
1 Kings xxii. 23. "1|"5t2? JTH JTirP ]H3 Jehovah hath given a spirit of lying, 
i. e. has declared that it is so. See Prov. ix. 9, where ]} give, in the first 
number, is explained by ^Tin make known, in the second. See also Ezekiel 
xx. 24 26- Other verbs too, not of this form but expressing some action, are 
occasionally used to signify a declaration of that action only; as in Jer. i. 10 : 
to root out, to pull down, &c. Hosea vi. 5, I have hewed them by the propltets, 
&c. i. e. I have declared that they are, or shall be, hewn. See Glass. Phil. 
Sacr. Lib. III. Tract. III. Canon XV., Sec. Storr. p. 26, &c. 

110 LECTURE vii. CART. 154. 9. 

9. Another property of this form is, to intimate Intensity, Abund- 
ance, or Frequency, of the action or passion signified by the primi- 
tive word : "^IjP he broke ; "" I j5?^ shivered or broke to pieces ; ^p^ 
it shot up, grew ; D^?? it shot up quickly and abundantly. Equiva- 

lent to this, is the property termed &1UJ or / of the Gram- 

marians of Arabia : as, Si^>- he praised him very much ; Uf*~ he 

exercised his horse very much ; J^sr 1 ~-fC the truth became very 
apparent, &c. 

10. In a few instances also, this form is thought to have a causa- 
tive signification; as, *T?n he walked; "H^n he caused another to 
walk, &c. 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

fTTIp PISH embracing. 


The vowels will in every case here be immutable ; the plurals, 
&c., will therefore be regularly formed, B^P?, B^TlpB, & c . 

To this form are referred some words having ""7 between the 
first and second radical letters, which is thought to be a mere com- 
pensation for the omission of Ragesh : as, 1 >P? for P"^? a 
spear; "Il"p? invasion; P'f\? a fetter ; and, according to some, 


Mate. Fem. Masc. 

III. "pga TDK >(? iound. 

3 extremely fugitive (Art. 45. 109.). 

11. Here, as before, the vowels are immutable. No feminine 
form occurs. 


Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

iv. ijja nnga or r\nj5^ 333 thief. 

or lj?2l ^"j|?^' or n*jj53 13 X a farmer. ]VTp3 enquiry. 




12. These nouns imply constant habit or the like, and are used to 
designate trades, professions, &c.* 

13. Both vowels are here necessarily immutable, the first on 
account of the syllabication, the second because it seems to supply 
the place of N, by analogy : as, ^"?n an artificer (Art. 153. 3.), pi. 

m construction ""^H artificers ; f"y?P a mariner, pi. 
pron. Ej^HV^ their mariners. A few instances occur 
in which () occupies the place of (-)or(-): as, ^^ (Art.87.6.) 
and ""II^T^ perturbation. To the feminine forms Simonis adds 
^7i?^ f which two examples only occur, viz. rnZibn coagulated 
milk, according to him, Job vi. 6 ; and H^bs terror, Ib. xxi. 6, 
&c. But these are probably compound forms. 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fem. 

V- Il JV i * n3 9* (herb). 

njha coat. 

rarel y- nn? taken. 

14. Simonis places T?^ Judg. xiii. 8, under this form ; but no- 
thing can be more probable than that this is the third person sin- 
gular of the verb, construed with n in the sense of "^$$, and to be 
understood as a future tense ; e. g. "Iv1 s n who should be born. 
Perhaps the word does not occur construed as a simple noun in any 

15. Under this head may be classed all those nouns which are 
generally arranged as infinitives of the Puhdl conjugation, and 
which may therefore be considered as passives corresponding with 
the active forms, 1|93, &c. 

16. In all these cases, the first vowel is necessarily immutable; 
the last not so universally: but, as examples do not occur suffi- 
ciently numerous to decide this question, we can say but little 
about it. 

* The same forms have the same force in Arabic : as, ^Uac a perfumer? 

S & ' S(j CO o 

j\**>- a baker ; from joz perfume, and JX>- bread. So in Syr. and Chaldaic 
Chald. ^71?- a simper, &c. 

112 LECTURE vii. [[ART. 154. 17. 

17. These forms are thought to be intensitive of those given 
under the preceding class (Art. 153.): but whether such force is 
always to be found when they occur is doubtful. 

Of those Nouns which are said to be reduplicated by 
implication (Art. 109.) 

155. These are nouns which are thought to have 
an intensitive signification, without presenting any redu- 
plication either in the vowels or consonants : but, as 
they generally have a perfect vowel, occasionally im- 
mutable, in the penultimate, it has been supposed that 
this presents a compensation for the Dagesh which has 
been omitted. The following are their forms : 


Maac. . Fern. Masc. Fern. 

i. *TPs rnpa. -Da unknown. firm-** 

IIT" 1-rl-r IT " IT 4 ~ 

or *Tp^S - /3\7 a temple. 

2. For further examples see the Arcan. Form. p. 202, &c. 

Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

II. I mIS 3J7 musical instrument so called. 

"I,J1D a fetter. JT"1K a stable, stall, &c. 
vacillatin S- 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

HI.'- nia nila hri tent. 



3. With respect to the inflection of these words, it may be re- 
marked, that the perfect vowel () in the first form, is sometimes 
immutable, at others not so. No rule, therefore, can be given, 


upon which reliance, as to the plurals, &c., can be placed. With 
respect to the other forms, whenever the ''or 1 remains, its vowel 
also remains unchangeable ; but, when it drops, the defect may be 
compensated by inserting the point Dagesh in the following conso- 
nant, as it is the case in the feminine "^lp? in which the perfect 
vowel is supplied by its corresponding imperfect one ; e. g. for 
^$3^ we have i ~Q$x- So also, vice versa, letters doubled by the 
insertion of Dagesh, will frequently lose this point, and then the 
preceding imperfect vowel will change into its correspondent perfect 
one. Hence it is, that these forms are supposed to contain an 
implicit reduplication, (Art. 109.), or, in other words, to be forms 
equivalent to those which have the middle radical letter doubled 
by a Dagesh forte. But, as the nouns of this class are few, it is 
scarcely possible to glean from the usage of the language, what 
vowels are mutable and what are not so. For the same reason, it is 
impossible even to say, whether we are right in all cases in our 
classification of them. 

On the Augmented Nouns, termed VODNH He-emanlt. 

156. In nouns of this description one or more of the 
letters contained in the technical word \PVjlQNn (Art. 
147. 3.) will be found attached to one or other of the 
preceding primitive or augmented forms, for the purpose 
apparently of varying the signification. That these are 
fragments of words I have no doubt : but, what they 
originally were, it may now be exceedingly difficult to 
say. I may, perhaps, be excused if I offer a few conjec- 
tures on this subject, hoping, that although I may not 
succeed to the extent that may be wished, I shall, 
nevertheless, afford something likely to fix these forms 
more permanently in the mind of the Learner ; and this 
is my principal object. 

2. Of these letters (viz. VIJD^n) one or other will 
be found at the beginning of words ; while H, % D, \, 
or n, will be found at their ends. In some instances, 
words are augmented by one or more of these letters, 


114 LECTURE vii. CART. 157. 

both at the beginning and the end at the same time, 
having also the middle radical letter doubled by the 
operation of Ddgesh forte, as in the Participial forms 
of Hithpahel, Dnj?>TO and m'lj^TO, &c. 

Of the Letters termed ^^D^Hj when prefixed to words. 

157. Simonis* considers nouns having M or s prefixed, as having 
some affinity in signification to those persons of the verbs which 
have these letters as preformatives ; and the J"l as presenting a force 
nearly allied to that of the Hithpahel conjugation. This may 
perhaps be true ; but, as it leaves these conjugations, &c., unex- 
plained, I have thought it would be better, to consider the force of 
these adjuncts in the nouns : because, if we can succeed in this, 
we shall have no difficulty whatever when we come to the verbs. 

I suppose, then, that the letters H , " , H } or JT"T , are nothing 
more than abbreviated forms of some primitive words, which might 
have originally been written in full, and placed before others, for 
the purpose of modifying their sense. These, in process of time, 
might have lost some of their letters, and then have been com- 
pounded with others presenting the forms which we now have. 
If, therefore, we can now find words which may be thus abbreviated 
when joined with others, and giving the significations which such 
augmented forms seem to have, we shall perhaps make this sub- 
ject more intelligible and interesting than it has usually been found 
to be. 

2. With respect to the first, N, w ith which we may join H, we 
perhaps have a fragment of the root ""HN (Arabic "^ 
desiring, impelling, casting down, and the like ; to which, 
^"V7 and j_5jl, as expressing certain affections of the mind, may 
perhaps be added, as cognate roots. Upon this supposition T'fj'?'!? 
(or "PijlSN, for the Chaldee or Syriac form) will stand for HIM, ^n, 
or ^1"7, *^7f (Form- VI. Art. 153.) impelling, causing, desiring, 
&c. another, to visit, &c. So ^}|?*? a milling, or great liar ; 
willingly, or greatly cruel.^ 

* Arcanum Formarum, p. 522. 

f It is remarkable, that the causative and other words in the Coptic aro 
formed in precisely the same manner. " Verba composita," says Scholz. Gram. 


3. We may now consider the force of words thus 
augmented : and, as some of them are taken for the 
leading words of a certain species of the conjugation 
of verbs, it will be as well now to determine their pro- 

4. If then the primitive word have an active sense, 
as, #P^ he heard, it will in this form have a causative 
one ; as, JP/pt^n causing to hear : but, if the primitive 
be neuter, this form will be active in signification : as, 
*?p# he stood; "T\PJ[p he set up ; npt^ he was glad; 
JT/ptyn he rejoiced another.* 

5. If, in the next place, the primitive be a noun 

substantive or adjective, it will, in this form, generally 

signify the being, making, becoming, doing, suffering, 

permitting, &c. the sense of the root: frO"l?n he made 

fat; noun, ^^fat (Form V. Art. 153.) ; pb^n he used 

Copt. 86. e duabus vocibus coalescunt. In compositions verbum ep esse, 
vel facere, cyGH suscipere, qi ferre, >! projicere, X6JUL invenire, 
6*1 accipere, *J~ dare, saepissime occurrunt: e. g. epOYCJOIItl lucere, 

ex ep et cnrtomi lux .... cyeTUULK<L& P ati > ex cyen et 

dolor, qipCJUOTOJ curare, ex qi et pCOCnfCLJ cura, 
fundare, ex ,! et CGrrf" fundaraentum, XCJULK^-'f" 
intelligere, ex X6JUL et K/f~ intellectus, <5*IttJITlI pudefieri, ex &\ 

et cyini pudor, ^O3OT glorificare, ex *|~ et CX3OT gloria." In these 
cases the words prefixed have precisely the same power with those above 
proposed, and one, viz., Q \ projicere, is very nearly allied both in sound 
and sense to our S or H, particularly in the HiphhU form Tp.Qn or "PpJDM, 

?(,' ffO^ s s^ 

* These properties are also common to the Arabic : as, 1. '^> &> 

f <*s ffc s c ' if 

Zaid dug a canal; l^J &j&~* I caused him to dig a canal; 1. 

Zaid had the faculty of night ; ^jj-aJi J srnv him. 

i 2 

116 LECTURE VII. [[ART. 157. 6. 

the right hand, or proceeded towards it ; noun, ^pj the 
right hand. So 'TNC^n he used, or went towards, the 


left hand ; noun, /NZpJ^ the left hand ; TZppH ^ caused 
ram; noun, ")OD ram; I^^H fo became white, root 
IJ3 1 ? white ; T3$n ^ permitted (to purchase) provision, 
root "")3j^ provision; "ISt^n // permitted (to) remain, 
root "1NI> remnant.* 

6. Another property is, the exhibiting, declaring, or 
esteeming, the person or thing designated by such word, 
as possessed of the quality intimated by the primitive : as, 
declared, or esteemed another, just, from p'HV 
declared, or esteemed another wicked, 

from .l" wicked. So, in the Arabic, atf) / called him 

an infidel; &*->\ I accused him of sin.^ To this pro- 
perty may be referred all those passages, in which this 
form is used, and in which God is said to have hardened 
the heart, blinded the eyes, made the heart gross, 
deceived the people, &c. where nothing more than 
declaring this to be the case can be meant. J 

7. Another property of this form is, excess, or inten- 
sity, of the action, passion, &c. afforded by the primitive 

* See Deut. ii. 28, 1 Sam. xxv. 22, Ps. cxix. 31, Is. Ixiii. 17. The proper- 
ties are all peculiar to the analogous forms in Arabic : see Lurasden's Arabic 
Gram., p. 173, &c. 

f Lumsden's Arab. Gram., p. 175. 

t Exod. vii. 3, x. 1, Deut. ii. 30, Is. vi. 10, comp. with Matth. xiii. 15. 
This property Storr refers to the influence of a metonymy. Observ. pp. 24, 
28, &c., which he thinks amounts to nothing more than permission. See also 
pp.194 56. This, however, leaves the matter nearly as unsatisfactory as 
it found it. Very nearly parallel to these Hebrew forms and usages, are those 
of Greek verbs terminating in <y, /, /Vo, vva>, eww, <xo, and <w, many of 
which are manifestly derived from nouns : as, iopro^ta from foprrj, o/n!a> 
from vo/xos, <re/Lt<Vo from <nyxos, ev^vfca from svfiof, naidevw from -nous, ooi/Aotu 
from <WAo$, Tifjuica from T//UIJ, </><Ae'o> from ^/Ao$, &c. See Glassii Phil. Sacr., 
Lib. iii., Tract iii., Canon xv. Note to Art. 152. 8. 


word : as, E^tf?! ^ e was veri J re ^- So, in the Arabic, 

/ c~ -o " c S 9 c s-o xxcS 

^a!) ybJ the morning was very bright; Js^l ^\ the 
palm tree bore much fruit. 

8. Many verbs, not used in the first species of the 
conjugation (Lect. X.*), have occasionally either a neuter 
or transitive signification in this form : as, D^S^H he 
rose early ; ^y^H he threw. Sometimes they will have 
both significations : as, ^p.'"} he watched, or he roused 
up another; ri~\n he sang, or he stimulated another to 

9. Several of the properties belonging to this form 
are also common to that of *fj?2, see Art. 154. 7. 

10. When the H is prefixed with (T) Khatuph, (), 

or (1), as in *fj?_5<7' ^l?-? 1 ! 1 * or EJJin > tne sense WU< 1 ^e 
passive of one or other of the above-mentioned pro- 
perties. f 

1 1 . With respect to ("*) prefixed to certain forms, it may perhaps 

be a fragment of the root W!?T Syr. j"h* or IK, Arab, b b decent, 
becoming, benign, beautiful, excellent, inviting one to rest, &c., 
which, when compounded with any other word, may afford the 
sense of durability, strength, excellency, or the like, which 
Grammarians are generally agreed is the force of words so com- 

* And so often in the unaugmented forms, the force will at one time be 
transitive and at another neuter in the very same word. 

f It will perhaps be difficult to assign a good reason for the adoption 
of this vowel to give a passive signification to words in the Shemitic 
dialects. Nothing can be more certain, however, than that this is the fact. 
And, hence, we not only have it in the passive conjugations of verbs both in 
the Hebrew and Arabic, but it will also impart a sort of passive, or rather 
habitual, signification to some verbs conjugated in the active form : as, vb"' 

s fs x 9 x s}s 

he was strong; *f he was bountiful; ..i****- he was beautiful; f>j he was 

exulted. So in nouns, l^pB visited, i. e. habitually ; j)**& patient, habitually, 

118 LECTURE vn. ART. 157. 12. 

bined ; examples will be given in Art. 159. But, as no conjuga- 
tion is grounded on this form, it will not be necessary to dwell very 
particularly on it here. 

12. We now come to the forms having fin, DN } or-H, pre- 
fixed. These then we take to be derived from some word, 
which, when combined with any other, will give the modification of 
sense usually attributed to these forms. If we take NpS Chald. 
or Heb. ^P^? coming, arriving at, as the primitive word, and 
suppose flNj nn, or J"l, to be a fragment of it, we shall have a par- 
ticle, which when prefixed to any word will give something like 
a passive or reciprocal sense, which all are agreed is the import 
of this form : e. g. "lj^O'7 or "f^SON ; of the Chaldee form, or 
IpBn, will mean, coming, or as we say in English, becoming, 
visited; and will be either passive or reflective, &c., as the sense 
of the context shall require. So in Latin, amatum iri, in which 
the word iri is manifestly derived from the verb Ire, to go. The 
passives of the Persian, Hindustani, and probably of the 
Sanscrit, are formed in a similar manner. 

Properties of the Conjugations grounded on this Form. 
13. First to be or become, that which the primi- 
tive word signifies (which in Arabic is termed cjlk sub- 

mission) ; as, /jK5Jin he became polluted ; pjtnjpPT he 
became strong ; D^NJin he became red ; or, if the con- 
text require it, he made himself so, reflectively, or, was 

' w'Z'" PP^St'i 

made so, passively. So in Arabic, L__>jUj <subjl I corrected 
him, and he became corrected, &c.* In the eighth 

* Lumsden's Arabic Grammar, p. 182 " Submission." Or, as the 
Arabic Grammarians define it, 

Jl yt ^A ^ (jjuo ^- (jsir*- i. e. The impression 
made upon any thing by the action of a transitive verb : as, J broke 
the gloss, and the glass became broken. Now, the glass's becoming broken, 


Arabic species, to which this is nearly allied, we have the 

XC"X //CtSx 

same property : as, J^U L**c I grieved him, and he 

expresses the impression made by the active verb breaking. In the 
ejlAJwx! cjlitf W e have: 

s < 

_ - 

(Jt)o (JjtflJ Job AiX! I^Lf>^ &j ^Jii^JUil (JsitflJl 

*x >*w jL, <KX**JJJ jly i AflJ jvo <!uc i. e. Almotawaat, is the 
receiving of an" impression from the operation of ao active verb upon its 

object : as, " I broke the vessel, and it became broken" So that 

it became broken is the Motdwaat (or Motawia), i. e. it is the word correspond- 

ing to that of the agent of the transitive verb, which is here, J broke 

; but the verb to which reference is made is termed Motawaa 

with the vowel a after the w : naming the thing in question by the 
name proper for that affected; i. e. the verb which has here the passive form 

is named by a word (^j^ 3 -*) which has an active signification, and vice 


I have been the more particular in pointing out this distinction, because we 
shall have occasion to refer to it again, and because Mr. de Sacy has entirely 
misunderstood its force. In his Gram. Arab., vol. i. p. 104, we have the 
following note. " La verbe dont la signification est passive ou neutre, se 

& X f 

nomme encore PjUo<o comme le dit Giggeius : et en effet, Be'idawi, sur le 
v. 4. de la surate 42 ou on lit ^yoaJJ CL>l^w*Il tioj> pen s'en faut que les 


cieux ne se fendenf, ou ne soient fendus, dit: jjyJb ^Xj jJlj ,jUj.*ax) I^J 

X X * XX 

.iaj P^Ua-o \b&* ,LJ f-^^o &fl T^>\ (JMM ' "Les deux lecteurs de 

Basra et Abou-Becr lisent e^* 18 ^. ; niais la premiere lejon est plus ener- 


xsxx 'ax xxxc, xxx 

gique, parce que JoAJ> es t l e passif de ;laJ, et jiaij I le passif de ?la. 


120 . LECTURE VII. C A RT. 157. N. 


was therefore grieved ; JiJU ***$ he reproached him 
vehemently, and he became reproached. 

14. Secondly, To feign, pretend, exhibit, &c. that 
which the primitive word signifies : as, Josh. ix. 4, ! H^V > . 
they feigned themselves to be messengers ; 2 Sam. xiii. 
5> 6, ^PO 1 ? he pretended to be sick ; Prov. xiii. 7, 
*lj^rip one boasting (himself) to be rich. So, VJVJ^jyS 
feigning (himself) to be poor ; IgH ATI thou she west 
(thyself) gracious; DSFtf;! thou shewest (thyself) 

perfect, Ps. xviii. 26. And, in Arabic, AJ* ^ pretended 

Nothing, I think, can be less accurate than to class the term PjUa^o with 

those of &****> ^AC , jSlj ^AC , and *p , as Mr. de Sacy has here done. 

st,a xxx 
All that Beidawi means, seems to be, that (jy^^V. is more elegant than 

x c, xGx s- x ;> xsx 

lil;k*"V. > because it is the Py* * (see the definitions above) of yaJ t not of 

^Ia3 , as the other reading is. 

The real difference between neuter verbs, termed by the Arabs &*J*o j^-t 
*j* , &c. is, that they imply intransitive action, habit, or inseparable properties : 

4?XX X f> & ' ? 

as, beauty, deformity, colour, &c. ; whereas ACjlloo or $&* signify the ac- 
cidental influence of any transitive verbs exerted upon their objects ; which is 
the real difference between the Hebrew forms TlpB and IpDS , as will be seen 

The real force, then, of this form will be best expressed by made, became, or 
the like : as in "sT^pf,?. made to go, 1(293 became visited, &c.; which will lay the 
groundwork for the reciprocal sense, &c., the context always determining who 
is the agent. 

* The fifth species which has often a passive sense ; and constantly in the 
Ethiopic. It was shewn, Art. 146. 8, that certain forms had occasionally an 
objective or subjective signification, according to the view in which they were 
taken ; the same appears to be the case in these forms ; and, hence it is, that 
these verbs have sometimes a passive, at others a reflective, and at others an 
active signification. The same is the case in the Niphhal form ; and apparently 
for the same reasons. 


satiety ; * 1^1 c^i^-y the woman assumed the manners of 
a man. 

15. Thirdly, Frequency, or intensity, of the action or 
passion meant by the primitive word : as, "^nflH he 
walked about much, or continually ; )2nj>"J he solicited 

a favour with great earnestness. In Arabic :sA^ he 


persevered in shewing bravery ; *W he persevered in 
acquiring mildness. And in the eighth Arabic species, 

X x'o 

L^vwJ/1 he persevered in acquiring ; and, in the sense of 

> XXX 

earnest request, ^arVJ he demanded his hire. 

16. Fourthly, In many instances the sense is the same 
as it would be, if the verb had been used in the primitive 
form termed Kal : as, IQfttyri he kept the laws, statutes, 
&c. This also, with many other properties unknown to 
the Hebrew, is found in the Arabic.* 

For the transpositions and other changes which take 
place in certain words, when augmented by the particles 
HI, or JIN, see Art. 83. 

17. Nouns which receive E at the beginning will generally de- 
signate the Instrument, Agent, Action, Passion, State, Place, or the 
like, by or in which the influence of any verb is exerted, suffered, 

* It is a curious fact that in the Arabic, the eighth species of the conjugation 

XX X(, 

of the form ij*&3< , equivalent in force to our "J|?J3.0il, has occasionally 

* XXX 

the sense of the first ( u* 3 ); in that case the seventh, t>*5j mostly used. 
Now, this seventh Arabic species corresponds exactly with our v^S3 
(see No. 19.); and, the consequence will be, if these dialects mutually illus- 
trate one another, that the Hebrew "7j?Srin and v^D3 will have the same, or 
very nearly the same, force : see Ps. ii. 2, where both occur in the same passage : 
and also that both will not be found under the same roots unless the "TjyiSrin 
have the force of the Kal: and, generally, these are found to be the facts of the 

122 LECTURE vii. [[ART. 157. is. 

&c. respectively : as, nnWD an ax (root "Jt| cutting) ; "^5*? one 
visiting ; D >)"]'? a >tace (root Dip standing}.* 

With respect to the reason for this variation of signification, 
Grammarians are generally silent. Simonis has supposed it to be 
equivalent to that which the preposition 2 similarly situated would 
supply.^ I may perhaps be excused if I offer a different solution. 
If we suppose, then, that the word originally prefixed was either 
^Z3 or 1 who, HE or HO which, or what, as the sense may require, 
we shall have significations corresponding to those of the words of 
these forms, e. g. "Ti?.? ^ he who visits, or is visiting ; and, striking 
out the ''TI for the purpose of abridging the word, we shall have 
"TJ9SB as above. The same will be the case, if we take T^-? ]!? , for 
then the 1 will be lost by Art. 76. These are the forms which de- 
signate agents when the verb is transitive : and such are all the 
participial forms commencing with E. J n the next place, if we 
take np or J"^ that which, &c. and prefix it, contracted as before, 
we shall have "ntSKl an ax, for *" T 7*? HO that which (is a) cutting, 
&c. So, n f?5p a work, for nb? n that which (is a) doing ; and 
so of others. 

18. We now come to give some account of the prefix 3, and of 
the modification of sense, which primitive words undergo in conse- 
quence of its influence. And here, as before, we may perhaps be 
allowed to offer a conjecture, as to its origin. If, then, we take it as 
the defective form of some primitive word, appearing sometimes as 
3H , at other times as 3 only, we may suppose it to be derived from 


the root ^>i , which, had it been preserved in the Hebrew, might 
have been" written "'SH, H3N, or ^9^- The senses attributed to it 
by Castell are, among others : " Ad extremum perfectionis terminum 
pervenit .... assecutus fuit, seu percepit. IV. Retinuit, detinuit, 
coercuit .... V. Lenitate, modestid et patientid usus fuit, fyc" 
Supposing, then, this word, or some defective form of it, to be 
construed with any other, the sense of both taken together will, in 
general, give the force of the forms thus compounded. And, as 
this form of compound is often used as the leading word of one of 
the species of the conjugation, it becomes the more important to 
ascertain its properties. 

* Hoffman's Gram. Syr., p. 244. 
t Arcanum Formarum, p. 447. 


19. First Property : Primitive words receiving this 
particle will have a sort of passive sense, or will exhibit 
subjection to the action implied by the primitive acci- 
dentally, but not habitually : and in this respect they 
differ from words of the form T)p3 : as, "^3 13") ?J they 
(shall) become blessed in thee, Gen. xii. 2, i. e. in thy seed. 
So in the Hithpdhel, Gen. xxii. 18, IJ/lt? 1D~QJpni, and 
they (shall) become blessed in thy seed ; their state shall 
be changed to that of blessedness : but in the phrase, 
nii"P >? P % "'3 blessed (is) Jehovah, we have no such intimation 
of accident or change : if, however, IT.rP be added, as in 
Gen. xxvii. 33, the two forms will have the same force. So, 
"TDfc' will mean an hireling ; but, ")2f0 a person hired 
on some particular occasion. So I understand Neh. vi. 
12, 13, KIP? TGfy Iggb : rot? toka?P Sanballat had 
hired him, because he was an hireling ; and 1 Sam. ii. 5, 
1"l|ft/? Dnv>3 D^3^ ^ostf w^o 7we 5mz (habitually) 

full, are (occasionally) hired for bread. 

This property is common to the Arabic, and is termed 

S " x 9 s sstsos /xxx 

by the Grammarians, as before, isjlk* : as, i^i^oJli <&o he 

x^^oox fff^^s 

sent him, and he was sent ; ^jLoli <&!! / shut it, and it 
was shut. (See No. 13, above.) 

This property of the Hebrew form (as a verb) was pointed out 
many years ago by Elias Levita in a work entitled "^HSn ; b u t } as 
he supposed it also to involve a preterite tense, Glassius and others 
very properly objected ; and, the consequence has been, two distinct 
forms, viz. ^i?-? , and "fl^?? , have been confounded together ; and, 
what is still worse, a tense has been ascribed to each, which is more 
than can be proved of either of them. 

20. Again : Words, receiving this augment subjecting 
them to the action implied by some primitive word, 
may, when the context requires it, be construed as 
having a reciprocal sense, or implying possibility, 
capability, exhibition, propriety, affectation, or the like, 

124 LECTURE vn. [[ART. 157. 21. 

of the action, &c. meant by the primitive : as, ")^3 he 
guarded himself, 2 Sam. xx. 10, Mai. ii. 15. To this 
property may be referred many passages, in which this 
form seems to have a neuter signification : as, 37P2 he 
brings himself near, i. e. draws near, Exod. xxii. 7, 
Josh. vii. 14 ; and, in a few instances, an active one : as, 
OH?,] he f ought ; ]$$! he leaned upon; J/3'3 he swore ; 
CDBtito he contended, disputed; ^^.l it is, or may be, 
eaten, Gen. vi. 21. So, |3 nj^~i^ it is not, may not, 
cannot, or ought not, to be done thus ; "13^3 he shewed 
himself honourable ; *Tj].N?. he shewed himself glorious ; 
nSNtt he sigJied. Such significations, according to 
European idiom, these passages seem to require, while in 
truth, became, or the like, will always satisfy the terms of 
the original. The subjective or objective force found 
respectively to prevail in these forms, was probably at 
first regulated by the view taken, in these respects, of the 
primitive noun. See Note on Artt. 146. 8. and 157. 14. 
21. These properties are intimated in the Arabic by the terms 

f XC-OX 99 f * 

_)U5!j * jjU\, necessity and remedy; which, Mr. Lumsden says, 

indicate " that verbs of this class must be INTENSITIVE by their own 
nature, and significant of actions performed by the members of the 
body :" but, the examples he adduces are not confined to this 

rule : j* he broke, is as much an active verb as any other can be ; 
which, when thus augmented becomes passive, not neuter : nor has 

and t^ssr* the market was unfrequented, any thing to do 
with the members of the body. I am induced to believe, therefore, 

I'XG-OX ? f> s 

that the terms ^-^'j *}j&\ ar e to be understood as intimating the 
properties above-mentioned. 

* Arab. Gram., p. 187. 

ART. 158.]] HEEMANTI NOUNS. 125 


First Class of Heemanti Nouns, having an tf prefixed. 

I. T|7 T S and TfljpM, f em . Tr^EM, mt home-born, indigenous, 

HOT (changing (T) to (v) on account of the following H, Art. 

139. 7, note), o<J>f, a name of God, Exod.iii. 14, ^S^H a bracelet, 

p" (for liTN Art. 87. 5.) rfroigfA, IjStfH reward, wage*, 3J3.SN a 

II. TppN, *Va *fo fist, Cri"lBN f fo young o/ any fo 
sometime ago, yesterday, ' iS?^ grapes. 

III. Ti?S, fem. rnp T ?N . 3Sj DN , 

ery /o^e, ^|T recollection, ED (for CJ^pN Art. 73.) a 
granary, i|pM (for 1|^ or 1(2?N Art. 87. 1. and 76.) an animal so 

IV. Tf?BM ; as, t3M a ^irrffe, n2^N the locust. 

V. TiipQH, fem. n^SM ; as, n^B?M 

VI. Tlfppy, fem. HTIPEM ; as, *PtpM (for ^1P Art. 73.) a 
, rn^Dfi7M guard, custody. 

VII. TjTSM; as, b^ or ^M (for baW) (never-failing) 

VIII. Some nouns which lose one of their radical letters by con- 
traction assume the form of the Segolates : as, *)3W (for ^B3N) the 
palm of the hand. 

2. Nouns of this class are few ; and of the last form, perhaps, 
a second does not occur. It is curious enough to remark, how 
easily nouns, deprived of any of their vowels, slide into the Segolate 
forms. We shall see, hereafter, that the same thing often takes 
place in the conjugations of the verbs, in similar cases. It will be 
seen that I have not entirely followed the classification of Simonis. 
My reason for doing so was this : he seems to me to have given 
some forms without examples to bear him out : and, in one case, 
he has given a form "^Jj>?? for which he has only one example, and 
that example he has also given in another class. (See 
pp. 547 and 639. Arcan. Form.) 

126 LECTURE vii. ART. 159. 

159. Second Class of Heemanti Nouns having "> prefixed. 

1. Form T,7^ ; as, "in?: oil, pp?? 

II. "1^. ; as, n^ <fo osfricA. 

III. 1^ or f|7^, fern. rPPpBi : as, V^ (for b^lT) one 
agree**, rnb; an ^ef^ja (for CP^), --TP; (for tjj?") the thigh, 3 
(for ^."7-) a disputant, rtjW (f or n,T^) a g erw i, stem, &c. 

IV. 1^ft: as, D^D: an adamant, *faf$ an owl. 

V. "WftP- : as, "Wpn^ a species of goat, VRtfslapurse, Mpl feeing 
(forB^IArt. 73.). 

VI. "f|7?!l: as, 7JT (for ^3V Art. 87. 2.) a constant river. 
And, according to some, the Segolate "sDIl- ^"^"^ (f r "^?7)> l ^ e ^ ast 
radical being rejected, and the () added, as in other Segolates, for 
the sake of Euphony. 

2. In this class also is placed, as a special anomaly, the word 
rnrp Jehovah,^ with a caution, however, that these vowels do not 
exhibit the ancient pronunciation of the word. The Jews, as it is 
known to every one, never pronounce this word, but substitute 
either ^"^ or E^H vM for it ; and hence it is, that we sometimes 
find it pointed ^,1^?.., i- e. with the vowels proper for the word 
^1?$, which is invariably the case when "J^^? and '"$'"''' occur 
together. The reason is, the word **? '$? would in this case be pro- 
nounced twice, which is not desirable ; the word C^p^ is, there- 
fore, pronounced instead of it (see page 28, note). That Jehovah 
is not the ancient pronunciation most writers are agreed : but what 
that was it may be difficult to determine. Some have proposed 
"1}U! Yahavo, of the form "fii??-, as Capellus, Walton, Clericus, &c. 
Others have proposed ""^Ov* Hv^?-> or Hv^-' as Mercer, Montanus, 
Amama, Scaliger, &c., taking the Samaritan pronunciation of it, as 
preserved by Theodoret, 'Ia/3L% Others again take the Latin 
Jove ; but which of these is nearest to the original pronunciation, 
no one can say. 

* Simoois places ""IfcO under this form : but as there is some difficulty in 
ascertaining the root from which it is derived, and as the word appears to be 
of Egyptian origin, it may as well be omitted. 

t See Art. 139. 7, note. 

J Simonis Arcanum Formarum, p. 545. 


160. Third Class of Heemanti Nouns beginning with Jl. 

These forms, according to Simonis and Reimarus, as quoted by 
him, were not much used before the time of the Captivity. He 
takes the liberty, however, of excluding all the Infinitives of the 
Hiphhil conjugation, which I think he ought not to do ; because, 
I believe these infinitives are nothing more than such nouns, upon 
which that species of the conjugation is constructed ; and, if this 
be the case, there will be no reason why they should not be con- 
sidered as forming a part of this class. 

I. Form : T^crr or "T(7??n ; a s, ^j^PU, rule, dominion, 

intelligence, ^pE^ proclaiming, causing to hear, ^pH (for ^-Spn) 
causing to turn, ' V^U for V" 1 }? 1 ?) dispersing. j^H (for Njtf?n) 
seduction. Roots ending in silent H often reject it in words of this 
kind, and take TO* as their terminating syllable: as, ^j?"?'!' and 
r02nn multitude, JTVpyn elevation, &c.* 

II.' n^D ; as, nrnq (f or nn^n^ tranquillity, nsaq (f or 

nBianj agitation, nj?sn (for nb2?n) liberation. 

III. HTlpBn ; a s, n22n (for rnTian) termination, cessation. 

IV. m-T^n . as , rwatprr relation^ &c. 

V. Tlfpon'; as, *TVin pouring out (pr. "H 5 ^ 3 ^ Art. 76.). 

VI. "Tf?Bn (for IpjMn); as, DpbrT (for ^r^^ making mar ; 
and so all the Infinitives of the Niphhdl species. 

VII. "J|7. Q f7 or " T '?-1 3J 75 as ' * T i?-? ! ? wted, appointed, np-IH s ; ai ' n 
(for flttln or ^l^in Art. 87. 2.). These forms have a passive 
signification (Art. 157. 10.). 

2. It will immediately be seen, that the forms to which the par- 
ticle H is here prefixed, are by no means peculiar to the Hiphhil 

* These, however, are probably compound nouns, formed of the original 
root with Hi, a contracted form of /Tin being, for fTtH. See Art. 139. 7. note. 

f Words having this termination are also compounds formed of the 
Heemanti noun, and the word Hin contracted to .TO by Art. 87. 2, &c. 
The signification of which words, ending in TO and .TP is, that of the slate of 
action or passion denoted by the primitive word; as, TOSyp a kingdom, or state 
of reigning; rVfD&^jirst state, or beginning (Art. 87. 2. 4.). 

128 LECTURE vii. [[ART. 161. 

conjugation, and consequently that no one can, without violating 
the principles of analogy, derive them from that conjugation. The 
truth appears to me to be, that the Hiphhil conjugation is nothing 
more than the adjunction of one or other of the pronouns to words 
of the form "^i?-' & c ' to w ^' c ^ & l so *he particle H, (or N for the 
Chaldee form) is prefixed, for the purpose of varying the sense, as 
already noticed. 

161. Fourth Class of Heementi Nouns commencing with D. 

I. -Tf?Q&, fem. rn$p, n^BB, O r n^Sttj masc. j a tower; 
fern, njahbtt war, nj3H73? oppression, rnntpa custody. 

II. "^7?^? ; for which Simonis gives only one example, and that 
has suffered contraction : as, ^pP for ^j?P*?. 

III. "TjL?*?; as, ISt? 1 ? poor ; with final H > rntB a fan, &c. 

IV. "rii/BB, fem. rnippp or JTTif?DD ; as,' l1T9 a psalm, 
nV^QJa a plummet. 

V. -T,7 T QB ; as, T]?)n a goad, info for "WTO gain (Art. 87. 1.), 
^5.9 for b|?0 ,o/l, & c . (Art. 76.). 

VI. "T|7_?9; as, P ( ?na (Art. 106. 2.) strangling. 

VII. lijjan or ^|?"5, fem. nipBO ; as, nStpp a slaughter- 
house, flp.ia for nS") (Art. 87. 1.) a wonder, HgnO a rmon, ?^TP 
producing seed, ^^? dividing, n3tt"|a sterquilinium, ^^^P (for 
nnnn) consternation, "^P? 1 ? (for nnnp) contusion. 

viii. Tii??, fem. niipon or riTij^j as, ilona wa <, 

rtatoB AirfAw (treasure), H^SP frarfmg', nb^O / 00 J, and rniap 
for rrVll? 1 ? (Art. 73.) a candlestick. 

IX. Tii^aa, fem. n^ipao ; as , D-iaytt a , te , b^p f or ^a?o 

(Art. 76.) a cfefage, fem. nCTnp trampling, (for nD-lpO Art. 73.). 

X. ^30; as, BSD for ^2?a (Art. 76.) expectation, TTtTTO 
vision (Art. 106. 2.) 

XI. "TJ^P^ or "fil? 1 ? ; as, "^E station, with all the participles 
usually ascribed to the Hophhal conjugation. 

XII. "Tij???p, Tj9Bp f and "fi|7? ; as, T)7?P owe ?z;Ao takes account, 
with all the participial nouns usually attached to the Pihel species. 
The remaining two are only variations of the same form, and occur 
but rarely. 

XIII. "fffSP ; as, "^j? learned, n ^P discovered. To which 
may be added all the participles usually ascribed to the species of 

ART. 161.]] HEEMANTI NOUNS. 129 

XIV. "I^IO*?; as, "nOE an invader, &c. with all the parti- 
ciples of the Hilhpdhel species. 

XV. Some defective nouns, which for ease of pronunciation 
assume a Segolate form, are derived from roots having a medial 
1 or \ or doubling the second radical, or having H for the third. 
The forms will vary with those of the Segolates, and for the same 
reasons. If, therefore, we reject the last radical, &c. and prefix 
, we shall have pBB, for TpS, pointed pDB, pBE, pBB, pcb, 
pQE, pBE, &c. as the nature of the word shall require ; or rather, 
as the jus et norma loquendi has established : as, EDO, number, sum ; 
fern. np?a (root ED3) ; V? or b?b elevation (root nbs) ; 
"TEE, pi. D^EE measures (root "HE) ; 1SE O r "T2D a lurking 
place (root "HS or "P2) ; EiriE O r Cnn soundness (root EEII), &c. 

2d, Simonis thinks (p. 450, Arcan. Form.), that the participles 
should not be considered as nouns of the ^^DSn class. I believe 
they ought to be so considered ; because I hold, that, properly 
speaking, there are no participles in the Hebrew language. It is 
true, the Grammarians have placed a number of these nouns in the 
same page with the paradigma of the verbs ; but it will not hence 
follow, that they are possessed of any of the properties of real 
Participles. If, indeed, it could be shewn, that they involve the 
tenses of the verb as the Greek participles do, the opinion of 
Simonis, &c. would have some weight ; but this has not been done ; 
and, I think, cannot be done satisfactorily. I have therefore 
thought it most conducive to the progress of the Student, as well 
as more conformable with the analogy of the Language, to class 
them all as nouns : it being from the context alone, that any thing 
like tense is to be discovered. 

162. Fifth Class of Heemunti Nouns beginning with 3 or 3H. 

I. -Tj?B3, -r,7&3, 1J7Q3, Y^BS, or YffMPT ; a s, a? (for ^33, 
perhaps for ^? or 3S3?n) fixed, setup; SETfo f or SttTp, (Art. 
87. 1.) inhabited; SCO (for ^?P?) turned back, &c. So all the par- 
ticiples and preterites of the Niphhdl conjugation, with this differ- 
ence, that the participle ends in ( T ), the preterite in ( - ) ; also, 
TpQr;n turned about; Q^-fpn? sealed; c pv>n making mar (for 
nnVsn, Art. 76.); V3n eatable (for ^,?^?, Artt. 76. 109.). 

II. "1$.?? 5 as, 23 (for 2P3), as 2D3 above. This is mostly 
found in words doubling their last radical letter ; a form not found 
used in the Niphhdl conjugation. 


130 LECTURE vii. CART. 163. 

163. Sixth Class of Heemunti Nouns having T\ prefixed. 

The forms commencing with n , as given by Simonis, are the fol- 
lowing : 

I. Tips*?, fern. n$?BJ;l 5 as ' n wl"?^ k P e ! n n^ conflict ; n")E>n 
(for nijJPI, Art. 87. 5.) self -exaltation. 

II. Tfjan^fem. nTippn and fTJ^F\ as, BJtTfi (for ttfiTfi) 
wew wm<? ; n -T' s ? 1 (for nsi'lSPl) dispersion ; ril^sbri clothing. 

III. -TftDn, fem. n^pn/or n-lftBri ; as, T^ri (for lj) and 
'"f'T.b'''^ generation, succession; fT^nVl Aope, expectation; EEnPl 
n ostrich. 

IV. IflBn, fem., or .mftBn ; as, nb^fl trembling, 
giddiness ; nn2 i^l (for nnD^ri), and, on account of the guttural, 
nnpin (for nn^lJ?) reprehension; n vp^ (for nbbpri) intercession; 
n^b^ri (for *^22LPI) self - consumption ; rPaajFl (for H^.?^, Art. 
87. 4.) /O/-TW, pattern ; n^ttl.JPI (for D^nn^ Ib.) deception; and 
nwn (for A),?.^*) whoredom. 

V. T|?BJ?I ,' fem. n^pBW ; as, Tpbn a <C*cfpfe; T^?^ a rote; 
^^p e^/" torment (for nrp2M.Pl } y^ m rnany instances standing 
for H, and, being doubled in this place, makes compensation for 
the n which is rejected). 

VI. "fipPJi 1 , fem. nTlpBn and nTlftBPl ; as, P^BW self-purga- 
tion; "fi"]PJ!) self-embittering; ^Js^P ( for rr ?'' 1 ^ ! I!^) continual 
walking ; n j??7^ self-perversion ; riKjn3W a proper name, Jer. 
xl. 8, &c. ^ So rblB?J? (for nS-ll^n , Art. 73.) conversion ; njMBH-1 
(for ntt^lpri) and nc^tpjjl reciprocal striking of hands in making a 
bargain, &c. 

VII. TJTBn, fem. n^?n ; as, ^nn or ^nri tt breast-plate, 
nbjJ1 (for nnbn) meanness, ^F\ (for Hnb^) self-exaltation. 

VIII. T^n, 'fem. nipDn ; as, npl? (for nnp-iri) deceit, 
TTOin (for nmW Artt. 73. 86. 2.) grie/, na^hl (for rn#> contr. 
for npasri or nnpKPl) occasion, opportunity. 

IX. ^BW, fem.'ni/ppri, VBV1 (for I^W, from the root ^B> 
or ?B1) division, separation, n^^n (for nrpH?)Jjl) solidity, substance, 

X. Here, as in the former class, the rejection of the last or 

* See Art. 87. 2., and the note. 

ART. 103.]] HEEMANTI NOUNS. 131 

second radical will reduce the nouns to one or other of the segolate 
forms : as, '5f? confusion, (for ',!??J? perhaps) : the latter v being 
rejected in order to avoid the repetition of similar sounds, we have 
??!?, which, for reasons already assigned, (Art. 148. 2.) will 
become '5l . In the same manner we have EZ3I (for DDQfl) 
melting, dissolution, &c. to which many others may be added. 

XI. "f^?^ 1 ; as 7-1v>5-^ suffusion (of the eye). To which may 
be added a few others, reduplicating some of the radical letters ; as, 
self-elevation, c. 

It must have appeared, I think, that the forms to which this 
letter ri is prefixed, are by no means peculiar to the Hithpdhel con- 
jugation, but that they exhibit a great variety of other forms. I 
cannot help thinking, therefore, that this conjugation owes some- 
thing to this letter, or to its more perfect form J"in or f"^ while the 
particle owes nothing whatever to the conjugation. 

164. Seventh Class of Heemanti Nouns, receiving nil a* a 


I. " T l}??r i r t ; as, IPpVirT (Art. 109.) genealogical computation. 
So all the infinitives of the Hithpdhel conjugation, due regard being 
paid to the radical letters composing such words. <1 0,TT^'^^''^ m y 
prostrating (2 Kings v, 18), with the pronoun \ seems to be an 
anomalous word, deformed perhaps by the carelessness of the 

II. "fij^r^ caused to be visited; but perhaps this form never 
occurs as a noun. 

III. rVTJipSOn ; as, rVnSinJ'irT confederation, &c.* 

In a few instances we have had, in the above examples, termina- 
tions in H , n , and HI , which may be said to be Heemantic. In 
these cases, therefore, we have anticipated our next chapter, which 
is to treat on the Heemantic postfixed syllables : but, as we could 
not adduce our examples without bringing in these forms, we shall 
perhaps be excused. 

* But this is perhaps a compound form as before, Art. 87. 2. and note. 





165. IT has been stated, (Art. 156. 2.) that, the 
Heemanti ktters il, "% D, ], and Jl, are severally found 
attached to the ends either of primitive or derived 
words. The cases in which H, n, JT), H% are found, 
have already been noticed (Artt. 135. 6, 137. 2, 164.). 
It will be unnecessary, therefore, to notice them further. 
We shall now proceed to consider those which end in *, 
D, and ], respectively. 

Eighth Class of Heemanti Nouns ending in ** . 

166. These nouns ending in ^ are used to express 
either persons or things, bearing some relation to the 
primitives from which they have been derived; and hence 
they have been termed Relative Nouns by the Arabian 
Grammarians.* Of this kind are the Patronymic or 
Gentile nouns of the Grammars of Europe ; all of 
which, must from their nature necessarily be attributive, 
and, therefore, subject to the variation of the gender 
(Art. 135.). 

2. In endeavouring to account for the form and signification of 
this class of words, I suppose, as before, that the additional letter 
(**) is the fragment of some word, which, if used at length, would 
impart the same signification which (**) now does to words thus 
augmented. In the Ethiopia we have the triliteral adjunct ^1^ used 
for the purpose of forming nouns of this class-}- ; and, occasionally, 


\ See Ludolfs Ethiop. Gram., fol. edit., pp. 95. 97. 

ART. 166.)] HEEMANTI NOUNS. 133 

in the Arabic ^, <_$">* which is also further abbreviated into ", 

t_ ;f and this is the augment universally found to prevail in the 



3. That the meaning attached to the root i_5_j1 in Arabic, is 
suitable to the signification of these words, the following definition 
of it given by Golius will be sufficient to shew : " Se recepit com- 
tnorandi vel quiescendi ergo, diversatus fuit interdiu vel noctu. 
Applying this, then, to any proper name, we shall have both the 
form and signification proper for these Patronymics ; e. g. Ethiopic 
form ^NvS~W Israelarvi: Hebrew and Arabic by contraction, 

J, a person related to the patriarch Israel, by con- 


nexion, residence, birth, &c. So ^"T (for "'vJ'^'T, Art. 75.) a 
descendant of Judah ; and so of others. 

4. It may also be considered confirmatory of this conjecture, that 
these Hebrew nouns, when receiving any asyllabic augment, are 
generally found with the ** doubled by Ddgesh : as, ^"1? Leviles ; 
n*rinFI below, &c., which are their true forms. See Art. 136. 5.-f- 

5. The following are a few examples, with their primitives : 
"\?5j33 a Canaanite, from IP,?? Canaan ; %I "]T'?! 1 princely, from "P-?? 
a prince ; <1 ^" 1 pastoral (for T^" 1 by contraction), from "!$ ' a 
shepherd ; ^"-F^ belonging to the north, from Pp^ the north. 

6. When, however, the primitive word ends" in \ the Patronymic 
is formed by prefixing the definite article only ;| as, "^E Mushi, a 
son of Merari : ''fi^En one of his descendants ; > 3/ltP the name of 
one of the sons of Gad ; ^2/^n one of his descendants. So "^2 
patron ; "^/iSn Gen. xlvi. 24. In one instance f"l is prefixed 
instead of <"f, which may have been done for the purpose of avoid- 
ing the concurrence of two aspirates : as, ^iQSn^l Takhkemoni, 
2 Sam. xxiii. 8, from ^1O3n 1 Chron. xi. 11. We have, however, 
'''JO for ^1?, a Mede, Dan. xi. 1, from "HO Media. 

* See Mr. de Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. i. p. 239, &c. 

f The teshdld which is also found to accompany this $ in Arabic, was, 
perhaps, added originally for the purpose of supplying the defect occasioned by 
the rejection of one or two letters from its primitive form. 

I Of this property of the definite article some account will be given 

134 LECTURE VIII. [[ART. 166. 7. 

7. In forming Patronymics from compounds, two methods have 
been adopted ; one, by adding ^ as before, which is regular ; the 
other, by also prefixing the article to the last word in the com- 
pound. Examples: 1. ^^\ "\^ a Benjamite ; 2. ^nbri JT3 the 
Bethlehemite, 1 Sam. xvii. 58; ^P^H ri^2 the native of Beth 
Shemesh, from &$$ ma ; ^Mn rP3 the native of Bethel; 
T 1 ? 1? the Benjamite, 1 Kings ii. 8. 

8. Nouns ending in } never form the Patronymic by the addition 
of *~, but by some periphrasis : as, ''n'H^vySl the citizens of 
Jericho, Josh xxiv. 11. So iJjtT^ "^3.*? men of Jericho, Neh. iii. 2; 
I'TO \3.S children of Jericho, Ib. vii. 36 ; nVttf nlaa daughters of 
Shiloh, Judg. xxi. 21. In a few instances, ^3 is added: as, 1?^2n 
Haggtloni, from riba Gilo, 2 Sam. xv. 12, Josh. xv. 51.* 

9. The same frequently takes place in compound words : as, 
n -l? ^ 2 <* children of Kiryath Harim, Ezra ii. 25 ; ^.3 

e children of Hazmdveth, Ib. ver. 24. 

10. Proper names ending in D are sometimes subject to the same 
rule : as, E*]p *^?M men of Sodom. 

11. In Patronymics derived from compounds, the last only of 
the compound is sometimes taken : as, "'JTPI V"2$, for ]^ VT!$ 
"'jTP^ the land of the Benjamite, 1 Sam. ix. 4.-f- 

12. Some primitives ending in 1 drop that letter in forming the 
patronymic : as, ''P??,^ Hanndhamt, Num. xxvi. 40, from 1]?^,? 

13. In forming Patronymics from dual or plural words, one or 
other of the following methods is adopted : 1, The word, from 
which such patronymic is to be derived, is reduced to its primitive 
form, and then S T is added as before ; as, E?P?P Egypt, primitive 
"}?P, and with *-, ^P an Egyptian. 2. Either ^^ inhabitant, 
f"l2f daughter, or IP out of, may precede such proper name : as, 
D^ttfrr nB7i> inhabitant of Jerusalem; Isa. v. 3, ^f*"*! na 
daughter of Jerusalem ; J or C3fbtt^rt^7tl n^y Jecoliah of Jeru- 
salem, 2 Chron. xxvi. 3. 

* So in the Arabic t ^ in ic^jj spiritual, -i**s>- belonging to the 

body, &c. 

f These abbreviations are found to take place in most languages. See M. de 
Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. i. p. 247. Lud.Gram. Eth., fol. edit., p. 22. Wilkins's 
Sanscrit Gram., Art. 1174., &c. 

J But here we have a personification ; in the other two cases a periphrasis. 

ART. 166. 14. ^ ^ HEEMANTI NOUNS. 135 

14. In a few instances the primitive is put for the patronymic; 
which may be considered, either as presenting a metonymy by 
which the progenitor, &c. is put for the descendant, or by sup- 
posing an ellipsis to be made of one of the words ^,?P '\ ^j?, 
IP, &c. as given above ; as, P^Jr?"! Damascus, for Damascene, 
Gen. xv. 2; Cn^ n>2 for *&$% rpa 2 Sam. xxiii. 15. So 
^T. for 2[?S> iba, bfcnip^ for ^jfOtp? \33, and so on, passim. 

15. Irregularities are occasionally met with in the forms of 
these words : as, ^7^ a Hagarene, 1 Chron. v. 1 0, from " 1 5'7 
Hagar, as if the primitive had been a Segolate noun of the form 
"13rr ; "OnPl Timnite, Judg. xv. 6, for ^Tpn, primitive 

So, ^bz^n Numb. xxvi. 20, primitive nbtP : and I| 

1 Chron. ix. 5 ; ^T^V^ <Ae Ammonite, the primitive being 

See 1 Sam. xi. 1, and Gen. xix. 38, from which, however, the 

collective form T^ Ammon has been formed, Ib., and thence 

probably the Patronymic. 

16. For the feminine forms of these nouns, see Art. 136. 5, 
and for the plurals, Art. 139. The forms taken in construction, 
or when any of the pronouns are affixed, will be regulated accord- 
ing to the analogy of the word. Art. 143. 

17. Another class of nouns ending in \ preceded by (-) or 
(T) has been thought to denote excess. These, however, are 
probably nothing more than nouns in the plural number (Art. 
139. 6.). The following are examples: ^la a smarm of locusts ; 
^ ^n many windows ; ^ 1 ? <> ? extremely greedy ; **1& a plain ; 

the Almighty, root ii* powerful; 1?'"^. supreme Lord, from 
1 '79' These will be considered in the Syntax. 

We now proceed to the IXth class of augmented nouns, which 
take the Heemanti letter D at the end. 

167. In this class the vowel immediately preceding the final D 
is either (T) or ( ), wfiich induced Hiller to suppose, that the 
adjunct was E<7, or D<1 ** respectively. It is believed that these 
nouns are intensitive in signification. If then we suppose Q^ to 
be a particle derived from '"^'7, which means tumult, as of 
a multitude, or noise, as of the waves of the sea, we can easily 
conceive how the addition of such a particle to any primitive word 
would make it intensitive in signification.* This will account, 

* Nothing, surely, can be more ridiculous than the opinion of Simonis and 
others, expressed in his "Arcanum Formarum," (p. 584. 5.), viz.: that the 

]36 LECTURE viii. CART. 167,. 

perhaps, for the termination B . In the next place, the root 
does not occur in the Hebrew Bible, but is to be found in the 

Arabic E5^, f>y signifying, he became fat, or corpulent. If, then, 
we can suppose an abbreviated form of this word to be attached to 
any other, we shall have the termination B1, which will also give an 
intensitive signification to the compound. The following are a few 
examples : the student may arrange them under their respective 
measures, if he shall think it necessary to do so. 

B33 lice; BEV the whole day; B3PN most truly; BE^H quite 
silent; th^., or BH9 quite naked; B^B and T^*T? full redemp- 
tion ; Bv3 the entire whole ; BriE? a body of men, Judg. xx. 48. 

Tenth Class of Heemanti Nouns, receiving ajinal . 

168. Grammarians are generally agreed, that nouns receiving 
this letter as a final are intensitive in signification. 

This letter is affixed to words simple or augmented, with the 
vowels (T) or ' ; thus \~ or Tj~ ; whence we may suppose, that 
1 iN, or pn, signifying strength, power, riches, wealth (the primitive 
form of which will be P.N, or TjH^ Art. 87.) is the root. And 
hence, also, we may have the form 1^, or 1^, contracted by 
Art. 75. to IN or 1>7, the words from which these terminations may 
have been taken; and which, added to any other word, would 
naturally give it an intensitive meaning. Some have also supposed 
the meaning to be occasionally diminutive,* which I am inclined to 
believe is the ease in some instances. 


!?, fern. napM a widow; ^0 a large gift ; 1gl (for 1 m* 
Art. 73.), root H^ corn ; also with 'the additional f"P 
a great palace. 

figures of D and } being extended, may account for the intensitive meaning of 
these forms ; and that D, being inclosed, will give the idea of comprehensiveness, 
representing as it were a pregnant mother inclosing her offspring within the 
womb ! For it is very probable these words were in use before the letters were 

* See the Arcanum Formarum, p. 564. 

ART. 168. 2.]] HEEMANTI NOUNS. 137 

?^ widowhood; TJTS (for TV1N Artt. 73. 96.) frequent 
entry; 1^~^, or T^pin a palace ; V'W?? TAe A/o*f #%A. So 
also with augmented nouns: as, "pn&S great confidence; 
great contempt ; T>N132 grraJ drought. 

In B>3hrj|? /H/mte?, Is. iii. 18, and 71'^N homunculus, i. e. 
reflected image of a man in the eye, Deut. xxxii. 10 (from 
the moon and ET^ a man) we have, perhaps, examples of a dimi- 

2d. This intensitive letter 1 is frequently attached to verbs, 
and has been termed the Nun Paragogic, or Epenthetic. It 
is found in the Arabic in the same situation, and is termed by 

the Arabian grammarians, ,_ftXwajl (j^ill The confirmatory Nun ; 
its office is to impart certainty or intensity to the verb, to 
which it is attached. The same powers have been ascribed to the 
Hebrew 1 similarly situated, though it must be confessed, such 
powers are not always apparent from the context.^ 

N. B. All words thus augmented, whether the augment is pre- 
fixed or postfixed, may be considered as compound words. 

On the Reduplicated and otherwise Compounded Words. 

169. We shall have no difficulty in perceiving, that, if one word 
may be qualified or otherwise restricted in its signification by the 
addition of another, a similar result will be obtained when any 
word is repeated : and, that the effect will be the same, whether 
both such words are written out at length, or whether they are 
combined in one. Both these methods are adopted in the Hebrew. 
In some cases entire words are repeated ; in others they are con- 
tracted into one word, by rules presently to be considered. In the 

* We have in the Syriac a diminutive of this form ; see Hoffmann's Grim. 
Syr., p. 251. 

\ Nun Paragogicum, Verborum personis in Jod et Vau finitis additum, 
semper esse Emphaticum notat Hottingerus de Officiis Literarum Servil. 
Analysi Jobi subjectis, 9. Arcan. Form. p. 564. And Schroder gives the 
following passage as illustrative of this opinion : 1 Sam. xvii. 25, "1G?N 
tj/psn !)2n273?^ ^23^ qui percusserit ilium, hunc ditablt rex : " ubi," says he, 
"sonus fortior est, quam si scriptum esset ^HS^ et irnB?Vl & c -" & 168. 
The true force of this particle will be given hereafter. 

138 LECTURE vin. 

first case, we have P '^y P"^?, deep deep, i. e. most deep, Eccl. 
vii. 24 ; 321D 25*)D turning turning, i. e. continually turning, or 
changing, Ib. i. 6 : 371 2v /*eari a^rf heart, i. e. double hearted, 
Ps. xii. 3 ; Tll"^? fl"" 1 .^? wells wells, i. e. many wells, Gen. 
xiv. 10; '"fteE) H^D r0 ci rod, i. e. rod by rod, Num. xvii. 17. 
In what signification such reduplicated expressions are to be taken, 
the context will always be sufficient to determine. This too may 
be said with respect to compound words : in some instances 
the force will be augmented, as in superlatives ; in others it will be 
modified ; and in some, perhaps, diminished as in the diminutive 
nouns of other languages. 

2. Let us now come, in the second place, to the rules which 
have been given for the formation of these reduplicated words.* 
It has been shewn (Art. 73.) that any one of the "'TTN letters, 
will in certain cases disappear. This will happen in the first class 
of these reduplicated words, where we have HNDND for HMD HND, 
which when compounded would become ^P^P, and striking 
out n by Art. 72, we shall have ?"WP^P, which, again, by drawing 
back the (-) and rejecting the (:) by Art. 73, we have HpND : 
and, if we place ( ) Ddgesh in the second Samek, either for the 
sake of euphony, or to compensate for the loss of f, we shall have 
nSDSD for the reduplicated word, meaning, measure by measure, 
as both the composition of the word and the context require. In 
some cases, as will presently be seenj the final n of such words is 
also rejected. It must be borne in mind by the student, that 
considerable difference of opinion is found to prevail among gram- 
marians, as to the original roots from which these words have 
been derived ; and, consequently, that great difference of opinion 
is found to prevail as to their precise meaning. 

3. The following are a few examples of the first class of this 
kind of nouns, which are generally thought to be formed by a 
reduplication of some word having "* for its final radical letter: 
e. g. % " | 5r]V quite naked, or deserted, from the root n"l3J naked : 
by some also supposed to mean the juniper, by others the tamarisk, 
tree ; n 5?f?.j?n the scales of a fish, from nttf|"? peeling ; 

* We use the word reduplicated to signify words which have been formed by 
the reduplication of some primitive word ; compound, to signify those which 
have been formed by the coalescence of two different words. In this sense 
Simonis uses the words Geminata and Composita. 


exquisite delights, from <"^^ looking on (with delight) ; 
copiously flowing (hair), from ^^ hanging, E^JTO 
great errors, from '"'J^p erring. 

4. The second class of reduplicated nouns consists of those 
combinations derived from primitive words, which have their 
second and third radical letters the same : as, D v j]2n2l most choice 
(beasts or birds), from ~n.2l selecting; ^,??3 a wheel, sphere, or 
any thing subject to continual turning about, as chaff", &c. from 
'?2 rolling. And hence ^!?2?2 the skull; ^$T& gargarism, 

gargle; also a grain, or berry, from ""^2 drawing, &c. to which 
many more may be added. It has been shewn (Art. 77.), that 
when the last two letters of any primitive word are the same, one 
of them may be dropped for the sake of euphony. This rule 
holds good when such words are combined, and for the same 

5. To this class may be added those reduplicated words, which, 
in their primitive forms, usually reject a medial 1 or "* : for here, as 
in the foregoing examples, we may consider the middle radical 
letter as rejected for the sake of euphony (Art. 75). Of this sort 
are the following examples : n^JTpn great pain, from '^H, or 

r giving; i^^tofQ grievous ejection, or captivity, from v^to 
casting out ; E^p^PV eyelids, from ^l^ moving quickly, flying ; 
nD^p^ flowing copiously, from ^^ flowing, Ezek. xvii. 5. 

6. The third class of reduplicated nouns includes those which 
are formed by a repetition of the last syllable, or, of the two last 
letters of the primitive noun : as, E^f^n great gifts, from 
^?T gw' in S> ^e "* being rejected ; tD^IW, fem. '"IP^J.'pl^. reddish, 
red here and there, having red spots, from E"TH being red ; f)DBDH 
mixed collection, or multitude, from HP^ collecting ; "sTSppn most 
perverse, from "tTP.^ turning over, &c. J"l ij9yp vJ most smooth, i. e. 
deceiving words, or things, from P?H polishing, smoothing, &c. 

7. The fourth class of reduplicated nouns are those which are 
found to repeat the last radical letter of the primitives, inserting, 
at the same time, some vowel between the letters so doubled : as, 

^?y, or '^?PN most languid, from ^?^ anxious; ^3132 emi- 
nences, great heaps, hills, from 1?2 gibbous; *1^^? great or 
frequent adultery, from ^3 committing adultery; ^If 5 ^!- a me ^ 
watered pasture, from 7H3 leading to the water, &c., to which many 
more might be added. 

8. In forming the plurals of these and similar compounds, 

140 LECTURE VIII. [[ART. 169. 8. 

regard is to be had principally to the analogy of the last component 
part of the word. In no case can the addition of any increment, 
whether syllabic or asyllabic, affect a syllable beyond the penul- 
timate of any word. In words, therefore, consisting of a large 
number of syllables, no change will take place in the vowels beyond 
the penultimate, and, in many instances, not beyond the ultimate. 
The only question, then, which can arise must be, as to the change 
of the ultimate or penultimate vowels of such words. In primi- 
tive words, indeed, a greater number of vowels does not exist : 
and, there, as we have seen, analogy alone can be relied upon. 
The same is true here. For, first : In all cases, except those in 
which the second and third radical is the same, upon any asyllabic 
augment being attached to the word, the preceding vowel must 
either be perfect or rejected ; otherwise the syllable will be incom- 
plete : as, E" 1 ^?^ great gifts, N?? '3 stars of . Here, as the 
asyllabic D^T or ^77 must necessarily take the last consonant of the 
word in order to be utterable, the preceding vowel must become 
perfect, or else be rejected. But, if the root had its second and 
third radical letters the same, and one had been thrown away for 
the sake of euphony, then, upon any augment being applied, this 
rejected letter would return, expressed by Ddgesh forte placed 
in the terminating letter (Art. 77.): as, E^VI?- worthless super- 
numerary shoots, from ^| ?}, the root of which is vvt vile, Isaiah 
xviii. 5. 

9. The only question which can now arise is, How will these 
vowels be affected, when the noun is in the state of construction ? 
Generally speaking, unless there be some reason for retaining a 
perfect vowel, i. e. when some letter has been retrenched for which 
compensation ought to be made, and hence a perfect vowel 
retained, either Sheva, or one of its substitutes, will appear in the 

penultimate : as, "^p i3 the stars of , &c., not "S?3 >3. But this 

can be determined only from a knowledge of the analogy of the 

10. We shall now give a few examples of each sort of compound 
words, omitting the classification of Simonis as unnecessary : ',?H? 
thick darkness, from ^"^ it became dark, and 'EH (Arab. ,Jj|) the 
sun set; vfifft filthy vomiting, from W|? vomiting, and 7 <1 ')7 base ; 
TOrnS widely expanding, from 2T]S expand, and '1-3 separating; 
^r^? invigorating, refreshing, from ^?"!J moisture, and E7S increas- 
ing, spreading ; D^?? a melon, from to^N Arab, he cast down, 

ART. 169. 10.3 ON PROPER NAMES. 

and ntD2 nearly the same thing ; 'to"}?? a bason, from "^N col- 
lecting, and vtfl blood, Arabic, or as others think vtfi dew, mater ; 
E^EnTtPnN chief satraps, according to some, from the Persic, 
^ n ^ , s~\ price, pre-eminence, and u-J,!^ *pni a satrap ; 
according to others, the chief door keepers, from tt?HM .Aj, as 
before, and ^/^ l^irT^ ^ 7 ' keeper ; " 1 ^T? treasurer, from * 
y* (Pers. jii or ^L>) and "JJ or "1^ (Pers. ^ or yj) agent, ^Tjt^S 

treasury (perhaps the diminutive ^J^o or l^Asr^ of the above) ; 
something, any thing, from HE IN HE ^MJC? aut quid; 
of the Lord, according to some, from ^, a Chalda'ic 
particle, ^JTv, or rQnv flame, and H s ^ e Lord ; according to 
others, from ^^ inflaming, Syriac, and rOTT? a flame, and IT* as 
before. Others, again, take the ^ as derived from the Arabic 

2Nnttf, UfA^M, flame, &c. as before. In the list of various read- 
ings given by Ben Naphtali, this word is read as two ^ .TQrTyH^ 
which is probably the ancient way in which it was written. Some 
of these, as it will be seen, are foreign words : but, as the number 
of such is few in the Hebrew Bible, and as the Dictionary must be 
consulted for their signification and etymology, we have thought it 
unnecessary to investigate their forms and composition any 

On the Forms and Composition of Nouns adopted as Proper 


170. By Proper Names, we understand those words or phrases 
which have been adopted for the purpose of conveying the ideas 
of certain specific persons or things. By names of persons are to be 
understood, names of God, Deities, Angels, Men, &c. ; of things, 
those of kingdoms, cities, towns, villages, mountains, rivers, &c. : 
as, first, 71^ Jehovah; M? ^22 Baal Zevuv ; 1 ? v }? Gavrtel ; 
r; JehoshUdh, &c. Second ; ^f AshsMr ; O^Sfi Egypt; 
^ Jerusalem, &c. And, in short, any word which is used to 
designate any specific object, (although the same may, in other 
instances, be used as an Appellative,) is termed a Proper Name, 
and is to be construed as such. Lion, for example, is an appella- 
tive ; and yet it is as often used among us as a proper name, and so 
of others. 

2. Whence it will be seen that occasions may occur, in which it 

142 LECTURE viii. ART. no. 3. 

will be extremely difficult to determine whether such word was 
originally intended to be taken as an appellative, or as a proper 

3. In the first place then, Proper names which are purely 
Hebrew, (for some appear to be of foreign extraction,) are, for the 
most part, found to follow the analogy of the Appellatives ; at 
others, to present forms unknown to them. Those which are of 
the same forms with the Appellatives, we need not now notice, as 
those forms have already been discussed. 

4. The simple forms of proper names which are found to 
differ from those of the appellatives, are, 1st, those which take 
some form peculiar to the persons of the verbs ; and, 2d, those 
which add 1* to the end : as, 1st, P,?^"! Ishbdk, he excelled; ^IZ^ 
Ydshuv, he returns, or shall return ; ""'P?1 Itskhdr, he shines, &c. ; 
and, 2d, as, 131N Ono ; '^T 1 . Yerekho, Jericho. A few foreign 
names are found of the form ^^11?^ ; as, flp^p^ Basmath. 

5. Names compounded with one or other of the divine names 
occur very frequently ; a circumstance, which, according to 
Simonis, happens only twice, with respect to the Appellatives ; i. e. 

in 'j^T"}^ Ariel, and JTyQNXa Maaphelyd. Another remarkable 
circumstance is, that in these compositions the order is sometimes 
inverted : as, rtj#Wf. Yehoshavhdth, for n1rr nV^V Shavhdth 
Yehovdh : which Simonis terms Anastrophe.^ This never takes 
place in the Appellatives. With these exceptions only, the forms 
of proper names, whether simple or compound, constantly follow 
those of the Appellatives ; the significations of both being ascer- 
tained precisely in the same way. It would be superfluous to swell 
this work with numerous examples ; particularly as they may be 
found in the " Onomastica" of Hiller and Simonis, classed, 
arranged, and discussed, as far perhaps as the most sanguine 
enquirer can wish. 

6. Having stated what the general rules relating to the formation 
and composition of Proper Names are, we may now notice a few 
irregularities which are occasionally found to take place. These 
may be classed under the heads of, I. Omissions, II. Additions, 

* Glass. Phil. Sac., pp. 696, 705, 780, &c. 
t Onomast. Vet. Test., p. 345. 

ART. 170. 7/3 ON PROPER NAMES. 143 

III. The Transpositions of certain letters or syllables ; and, IV. 
The Changes of certain letters of the same organs. 

7. Omissions : and in the first case, of the initial letter of the 
primitive word ; e. g. E^ l Chron. ii. 9, for Cn^, (Art. 84.) Matt, 
i. 3. Aptt/x, in the name of a person, Job xxxii. 2 ; and of a place, 
2 Chron. xxii. 5, CTlS. In a compound D^l DQ 1 Chron. xi. 13, 
for Q^^ D2M i Sam. xvii. 1. In this last case, DBS J s taken by 
some as an Appellative : HCft^T is thought by some to be the same 
with E'HS Edum, i. e. Edom. Others have taken it to be a 
mystical name, from the signification of the word E'H, to come to 

8. In the following instances, a letter has been dropped from the 
middle of the word: as, ^JT?*? 2 Sam. xvii. 25, for 

1 Chron. ii. 16, (Art. 75.) nanM 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, and 
1 Chron. xxi. 25. pfcp, but 2 Chron. xxviii. 5, PJp"n ; 
Gen. xlvi. 13, for which we have Mtft 1 Chron. vii. 1 ; 

1 Sam. xvii. 13, is written n $P?? 1 Chron. iii. 5, and ^ 

2 Sam. v. 14. In the following words a letter has been omitted at 
the end; CHS Josh. iii. 16, which is TTS. Chap. xix. 36; 
k~>n-Ti? I S . X vi. 11, and Ib. v. 7, "^0*^*5 n 3?S 1 Chr on. 
ii. 19; nrn? Ib. v. 24. 

9. Under the head omissions may be noticed those defects 
which are found to take place in patronymics, &c., derived from 
compound proper names. Compounds are, in any case, trouble- 
some words on account of their length; but in proper names 
this is less tolerable than in any other. The consequence has been, 
most nations have used contractions, by omitting some part or other 
of the compound word (see Art. 166. 11. note). Hence ^-TP^ for 
^B^a 1 Sam. ix. 1, Jud. xix. 16, and Esth. ii. 5; ^^ BPN a 
man, a Benjamlte. So 1 Chron. xx. 5, "^H?, put as some believe 
for ^HvTT fPS Bethlehemite, conf. 2 Sam. xxi. 19; ^nb 
Judg. xv. 17, Ib. ver. 9. 14. 19, is written simply 

* With respect to this last passage, Pilkington has remarked " The word 
Tl v, as an Appellative, signifies, a jaw bone ; but, as it was also the proper 
name of the place, where the Philistines met Samson, and where he slew a 
thousand of them with the jaw bone of an ass, the name also of Ramath-Lehi 
was given to the place, where he cast away the jaw bone. To consider the word 
then, as Appellative, in the next verse; and to say that, ' When Samson was 
thirsty, God clave an hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water 

144 LECTURE vni. CART. no. 10. 

10. To these maybe added, "\3P Ps. cxxxii. 6 ; for 

1 Sam. vii. 1, &c., where the English version has " the fields of the 
wood ;" n^tpT passim, is written Q7tt? p s . Ixxvi. 3 ; Bethlehem, 
Drib i Chron. iv. 22; Bethaven, Hos. x. 5, is "P.** ver. 8. 

11. Some additions which are peculiar to proper names have 
already been given (No. 8.). We now come to the transposition of 
letters or syllables : E^N 2 Sam. xi. 3, is bs^ES 1 Chron. iii. 5, 
in which the component parts of the compound change places by 
the Anastrophe, as above noticed (No. 5.) ; VS^in^ g Kings xxiv. 
6, 8, is Hr??"! * Chron. iii. 16 ; and, by omission, with the addition 
of \ irP Jer. xxii. 24 ; rnDTann Josh. xxiv. 30, is D-TJT 
Judg. ii. 9; nofan 1 Chron. iv. 4, but Ib. 11, nnittJ. So 

2 Sam. viii. 8, is written ^n!?t2 1 Chron. xviii. 8 ; to which some 
others might be added. According to Hiller,* examples of this 
kind are very numerous: but here, as the significations adduced 
by him are grounded on conjectural etymologies, little reliance can 
be placed on them. 

12. We shall now give a few examples, in which the letters of 
the same organ have taken place one of another (Art. 78.): "n^I"" 1 ^ 
2 Kings xx. 12, written "sT^^np I sa . xxxix. 1, and Tj!^? 2 Kings 
xxv. 27, Jer. 1. 2. In the last instance, a quiescent N is also 
omitted (Art. 72.); ?3? Josn - v - 18 written ^3^ ^ Chron. ii. 7, 
and to this last allusion is made in the text ; 3??E?~T"l|l 2 Sam. 
xi. 3, and yiBJTffl 1 Chron. iii. 5 ; *HOTilD3 Dan. i. 1 ; 
-igfcn-gsQ? Jer. xxi. 2; *)? Is. xix. 13, and *ft? Hos. ix. 6, 
Memphis. Several changes of *t and "1 may be observed in the 
words Khemddn Gen. xxxvi. 26 ; Khemrdn 1 Chron. i. 41 ; 
Dodanim Gen. x. 4, is given Rodanim 1 Chron. i. 7 ; RlpMth 
Gen. x. 3, is Diphdth 1 Chron. i. 6 ; Dehuel Num. i. 14, is 
Rehuel Ib. ii. 14 ; Hadad-Hezer 2 Sam. viii. 3, is Hadar-Hezer 
1 Chron. xviii. 5. These letters, although not of the same organ, 

thereout,' must be through want of common attention ; because, they imme- 
diately subjoin, ' Wherefore he called the name thereof En hakkore, (q. d. The 
well of him that called,) which is in Lehi, unto this day.' Such mistakes as 
these give wrong ideas to the ignorant; and furnish the scoffers with matter 
of ridicule." " The error indeed, is corrected in the margin, which hath 
Lehi, &c." Remarks upon several passages of Scripture, &c., by Matthew 
Pilkington, Cambridge, 1759, p. 157. 
* Onomasticon, V. Test., p. 365. 

ART. 170. 13.]] OF PROPER NAMES. 145 

are found in other languages frequently interchanged. Their 
change in Hebrew has been accounted for, by the supposition of 
the Scribes having mistaken the form of the one for that of the 
other, which is likely enough to have been the case. I think also, 
that confusion may have arisen from their similarity of sound, 
which we find has sometimes taken place in other languages. 

13. It may not be amiss to offer a few remarks here on those 
proper names, which are found to end in ("*) Yod, not only because 
their number is very considerable, but also, because they afford 
some curious information on the subject of ancient Hebrew 

14. These, according to Hiller,* may be classed under four heads. 
First, Those which may be termed Denominatives, on account of 

some particular circumstance being alluded to, when they were first 
given : as, ^ ? Levi, meaning Conjunctive, see Gen. xxix. 34. To 
which may be added all Patronymics used as proper names. 

Secondly, Words found in a mutilated state, which were 
originally composed of one or other of the Divine names : as, 
^li?*? for <"|*(/?r' or ! ini?7n > signifying, the Lord (is) a portion. 
So ^J]?,? for ^VT?? stripped of God ; to which many others might 
be added. The intervening ^ Yod, however, is in many cases 
allowed by all to be nothing more than a sort of connecting letter, 
as in the case of 'H" 1 ^^? for vM T29 servant of God. This 
method of compounding the Divine name with other words, for the 
purpose of forming proper names, is certainly of great antiquity 
among the Jews, and may safely be appealed to in proof of the 
position, that they never did, as a nation, acknowledge any other 
God, than that urged upon their notice by the last prophet. 
Whether we can extract from it the fact, that they also understood 
the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, of the Immutability, Invisibility, 
Incomprehensibility, and of the other attributes of the Deity, as 
known and taught among ourselves now, does not seem to be quite 
so clear as Hiller will have it.-!" It is also worthy of notice, that 
the names given to individuals among the Babylonians, and other 
nations contiguous to the Jews, were, for the most part, either the 
names of their idols, or compounds including one or other of their 

* Onomast. Vet. Test., p. 261, &c. 
t Ib., pp. 228, 229. 

146 LECTURE VIII. C ART ' 17 * 15 ' 

titles. The same practice is found to prevail among the pagans of 
the present day. 

15. Thirdly, Yod is said to be paragogic when found attached to 
substantives used as proper names : as, ">?$ "'tttta'Tl 1 Chron. 
xxv. 4. 31 ; ^^1 Numb. xxi. 33: "HS V Josh. xv. 62, &c. 

16. Fourthly, Yod is thought to be the pronoun of the 1st person 
singular in the following and similar examples : ^"ivE 1 Chron. 
xxv. 4 ; M?1^7_2 Ib. verr. 4. 29. 

17. Having said thus much on the analogy and irregularities 
found to prevail in the forms of proper names, and referred the 
Student to those writers who have treated these subjects at great 
length, we shall now offer a few remarks ; 1. On the persons by 
whom they were given, and the circumstances with which they 
were connected : and, 2, On the various names sometimes 
found attached to persons or places, which has by some been 
termed Polyonymia. 

18. With respect to the persons by whom proper names have 
been imposed, they are various, as likewise have been the occasions 
on which they have been given. In some instances God himself 
gave the name ; in others, the Father, Mother, or some one or 
other of the kindred. 

Of the first, examples may be found in Gen. xvi. 11, xvii. 19, 
1 Kings xiii. 2, 1 Chron. xxii. 9, Matt. i. 21, Luke i. 13, &c. Of 
the second and third,* examples occur very frequently ; and of the 
last, Luke i. 59, may suffice.f 

19. The principal causes or circumstances connected with the 
imposition of proper names amount, according to Simonis, to fifteen. J 
These, however, may all be reduced to the original number assumed 
by Glassius, which is two. " 1. XT' e<r, vel ratione etymi et 
significations, ej usque fundamenti. 2. XT' ea, vel ratione 
extensionis ad alia, et communionis." 

20. In the first place, proper names both of men and places, 
were first given with reference to some event, either past, present, 
or future, with regard to such person or place. 

* Simonis, p. 13. 

f Gen. xxix. xxx., 1 Sam. i. 20, 1 Chron. iv. 9. 

J Onom., pp. 14, 15, &c. 

Append. Gram., Tract, iii. p. 709, Ed. Datlie. 

ART. 170. 21.3 OF PROPER NAMES. 147 

21. Of the first sort, are the following: Gen. xvii. 17, 19, 
Isaac, so called on account of Abraham's smiling* upon receiving 
the promise of his birth ; Exod. ii. 10, Moses ('"^^) is so called 
on account of his having been taken out of the water, as the text 
shews, whether the word itself be Egyptian or Hebrew ; for, on this 
subject learned men differ. 

1 Sam. iv. 21, I-kdvod ("T "HD ^N) where is the glory ? on account 
of the ark of the covenant having been taken. 

22. Secondly ; Of names taken from present circumstances, the 
following are examples : Gen. iv. 2, 5 5{!7 vanity, on account, as it 
has been thought, of the vanity and instability of all human things, 
which had been occasioned by the fall ; Gen. iv. 25, Seth (fj?) 
because God had placed him in the situation of Abel, who had been 
murdered by Cain ; Gen. xxv. 25, Esau Of??), whether we deduce 

it from .f* ^^ , as Dathe will have it, which signifies to cover, 

&c., or from c s fTO to have long hair, after Simonis ; Ib. ver. 26, 
Jacob, ^17??- from 3.\$l : the heel, because he took hold of his bro- 
ther's heel at the time of his birth. 

23. The following names appear to have been given with refer- 
ence to something which was to take place afterwards : Gen. 
iii. 20, Eve (^0), because she was to be the mother of all who 
should live ; Gen. v. 29, Noah (D" 13 ), because he was to be the 
means of consoling, or giving rest to, the true believers. In this 
case, the verb used to explain the proper name is not the same 
with that included in the name itself, which signifies quiet, rest, &c. 
The only thing intended by the sacred Writer seems to be on this, 
as on many other occasions, to give the general sense, and not the 
exact etymology, of the word. 

24. The following are examples of names of places given with 
reference to certain present events. 

Gen. iv. 16, Nod V) is the place in which Cain is said to have 
resided, after he had been driven out from the presence of God, 
the meaning of which is wandering or wanderer. 

Gen. xi. 9, Babel ('??) vvas so called on account of the con- 
fusion which took place there, from 'j^.'?, a reduplicated form of 
V^S to mix, confound, &c. which, by contraction, will become 

* " Risus Abrahae exsultatio est gratulantis, non irrisio diffidentis." 
Eucherius apud Glass. Append. Gram., Tract, iii. p. 711. 

L 2 

148 LECTURE ix. CAIIT. n i. 

Gen. xxviii. 19, Bethel (N~>~^?) was so called by Jacob, because 
he deemed it worthy to be called the house of God, on account of 
the vision he saw there. Similar examples are to be found, 
Gen. xxxii. 3, with respect to Makhanaim ; Ib. xxxi. 47, Galeed; 
John v. 2, where Bethesda is intended to point out the favour of 
God, exerted at that place, as in a house of mercy. In Exod. xv. 
and Num. xxxiii. we have several examples of names thus given 
to the different stations in the wilderness, at which the Israelites 

It should be observed, that in writing Hebrew names in the 
Greek letters, the aspirates are frequently omitted : as, 'Etrpwfj., not 
Xorpw/x ; Nffff&>r, not N<x^;<rft>i/ ; and so of others. See Art. 9. note. 



171. These are nothing more than words, or frag- 
ments of words, attached to others for the purpose of 
qualifying or otherwise restricting them ; and they 
are written either separately, or together forming one 
compound word, as usage may require. In this point of 
view, therefore, they may be classed under one or other 
of the forms of nouns already detailed ; but, as they 
occur frequently, and exert a very considerable influence 
on the force and bearing of the context, they deserve a 
separate consideration. 

2. By these Particles are meant, words used occasion- 
ally as Pronouns, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, 
or Interjections. We say occasionally, because some of 
them will sometimes fill one or more of these offices, as 
the context shall require, just as similar words often do 
in our own language. 

3. That the Separable Prepositions are words of this 

ART. 171. 4.3 ON THE PARTICLES. 14-9 

kind, no doubt will remain when we consider, that in 
many instances they actually present all the peculiarities 
of nouns put in the state of construction : as, p'H'^Tjl 
for vanity, or in sufficientiam vanitatis,* Jer. li. 58 ; so 
D^H P3 between the waters, Gen. i. 7;f or, distinctio 
aqudrum: "H (for nyn) being the absolute form in the 
one case, and ]"Q in the other, which in construction regu- 
larly become "H and ]\3 respectively (Art. 143. 6.). And, 
again, words preceding these particles J are often found 
taking the forms proper for the state of constraction : as, 
13 ''Pin Ps.ii. 12; PVI'n^ fc>ifrp Delight of Remin 
Is. viii. 6, &c., which shews that they are nouns. 

4. In the Arabic and Ethiopic dialects, in each of which we have 
a peculiarity of termination for the state of construction, these par- 
ticles are clearly marked as being in that state : as, in the Arabic, 

cxc-ox^ -f 

J^S-W^A!' ,Ui] before the mosqiie, (i. e. pars, anterior templi,) where 

the first word loses its tanwin, and the last is put in the genitive 

case. So in the Ethiopic, (ITl*l"T* " 1*19^ \ to t or towards, 
heaven; where the first word only has this mark. And, generally, 
words of this kind, whether conjunctions, prepositions, or adverbs, 
will be found with the termination proper for construction, when 
they are intended to be so understood : and without it, when not so 

With respect to the adverbs, as they can be known to be such 
only from the situations in which they are found, and may consist 
of any form of word suitable to the sense required, something will 
be said on their character and use when we come to the syntax. 

* Nold. sub voce ^T? ' n notis, " ^ Est absoluti "^ constructum." 

f Ib. sub. v. "pS " Constituit substantivum nomen masculinum, cujus 

pluralis masc. est D^lSl, &c atque inde nominalem significationem, 

quam vix unquam exuit... .discrimen differentiam rerum, qua a se invicem 


t These particles are n, 3, \ or \Q, b, HN, by, ^^, Glass. 

Phil. Sacr., p. 80, &c. Storr. Observ., p. 105. 

150 LECTURE ix. [[ART. 171. 5. 

5. If then these particles were originally nouns, it is likely we 
should find them exhibiting the simple and augmented forms pecu- 
liar to nouns ; and such is actually the case, as the following 
examples will evince. Segolates : DHIS not yet ; '2N near, at ; 
n?3 before, in presence of; D i vH here, hither ; P*J1 only ; '^? ,* 
'?*,f by no means. Primitive nouns not Segolate : as, "'?''' more ; 

^j?D round about ; ^U'p (fern.) quickly, soon ; HST (root ^~ 1 ) 
much ; Ptyl besides, to which many others may be added. 

The following are forms augmented by one or other of the 
letters termed ^PPSn (Art. 156.) ; D*iVlQ suddenly, immediately; 
C2n gratis, freely (Art. 167.) ; y^N perhaps, which is probably a 

compound of "b IN, (Arab, jl); ""> (for "1RM) after, after- 
wards. Art. 109. 

6. Many of these particles are found in the plural number, (a 
sufficient proof, if any were wanting, that they are nouns); as, Vj?, 
fern, Hlpa distinction, between, pi. D^? , and rTlIPa . So masc. 
2> -?9> f em - '"'i?'*'?^* pl- ^V?9 surroundings, enclosures, adv. or 
prep, round about ; "^HS, pi. D'nQN, and, in construction, "TIQN 
"n/i?^ offer the king, q. d. subsequutionibus regis. 

7. In many instances these words are found in a compound state : 
as, fSB 1 ? (comp. of >, for ^, and 1*B, of and n33 anwerj 
on account of, because of, &c. ; D^^Qia (of ]Q and D^^f ) because of; 
"Tp??, ''l!!?^? 1 , or ^^5?^ besides, except : and, further, with ano- 
ther particle, > 7.?!7?S?'[! whether besides ? In this last case, the 
simplest form "TO??, is probably a compound of three primitives, 
viz. of "137 usque ad, &c. b, and 2, which are used as prepositions. 
In some of the others, also, we have the preposition E , and the in- 
terrogative particle H , with the word also put in the plural number 
and in the form proper for construction. 

8. In some cases several of these words will be found construed 

* This word is probably an abridged form of "TpN execration, thence, 
deprecation, prohibition, or the like ; or, from one or other of the Cognate roots, 
7,-N, 71N, 7N\ which will afford similar significations. See these roots in 
Castell and Simonis. 

-j- /a proprie defectus, sed in particulam abit . . notans non. Simonis 
Lex. sub voce nba atlritus full. I hope to throw some additional light on 
these particles in my Hebrew Lexicon. 

ART. 171.9.^ ON THE PARTICLES. 151 

together and qualifying one another; and, in all of these, those 
capable of receiving any variation from the state of construction, 
will invariably take that form. Of this sort are the following : 
rS. "TV, ^V? TS until. . .not; Han IP, and contracted, ^ and 
na^ Eccles. iv. 2, 3 ; nb 1*3 , ?3 12 hitherto ; Tp 1? to excess ; 
"TO Horn long ? Usquequo ? 71f?l? "TV until now, eax; rov vvv ; 
"TV to the summit ; "1$S T2 , ES"TV , ES ""!$ 1? , ^ IS 
M^a tmfew; S"b CS if not ; 7? S"b not so; 1? fe3 
even *o ; ]!? "T?7 and "f5pE besides, except, &c. 

9. These particles are also found in construction with the pro- 
nouns, sometimes in the singular, at others in the plural, number : 
as, 1?^ between thee ; ^-T? , and fem. ^ril^a between us. So 
nb^S near them; 'PV}? 1 ? ow account of thee ; ^M, and ^^M, 
they are not. The following, when in the plural number only, take 
the affixed pronouns singular or plural, viz. "^HN after ; T^.nM 
after thee ; bM to ; bj9 above, upon ; "TV to ; ^j??^ besides ; and, 
according to Schroaderus, ^.^^ the blessings of! E^jJQy before ; 
D> ??^ on account of. 

10. The pronominal affixes attached to some of these particles 
differ, in some respects, from those usually attached to nouns : e. g. 
''aXinn under or beneath me, for ^nfi ; 'pan for 'an behold me ; 
inan for "ian feAoW Aim ; D ^?V for Eg wj^A Mew ; Df7^W masc. 
and 1{JO^? fem. them, or as it respects them, for BrjM } O r ]p^?. 

11. The particle fW, put before any noun which is the object of 
some verb in the sentence, and used apparently for the purpose of 
pointing out this particular, appears in three different forms when 
connected with the pronouns, which Schroaderus thinks has arisen 
from the root's originally presenting three cognate forms, viz. 
nriM } rips , or HIS to proceed, come, &c.* 

* D. Kimchi has remarked in the Michlol, (fol. IS31 verso) 

pisn -isntt?3i 2i-inn ^i rninn ^ 37113 sb 

sin ^iVTatt? "o 3?Ti3i birsn bv bcis n nba n^rr prau? ns 
: ns nbab isisin sb bisDm brisn & -isina siniz? -ma T^ob 

So, should you say, ^5X307 2~IH 721N1 Reuben slew Simeon, it would not be 
known who was the slayer, or who the slain. But when you say Reuben slew 
nS Simeon, (i. e. Simeonem,) the particle HS points out the objective case, 
and it is known that Simeon is the person slain. In like manner, in a matter 
in which the agent and patient are evident, the particle nS is unnecessary. 

152 LECTURE ix. [[ART. m. 12. 

From the first we have ^,50^? you; EHJpN them, masc. 
them, fern. From the second, ^N with me ; I^N with thee, masc., 
"JTttH id. fern. ; "fa-lN n;z*A /'m ; ^riN wt V A her ; IpFIN with us ; 
DDnS with you ; OnM with them. From the third, ^H we, 10*^ 
tffoe, or with thee ; ^^^ thee, or with thee ; "[TIN /' WZ) O r wt</i Aim. 

Sowris, sorviN, DsrtiN, ?noi, , injpiM, O r ipiw. i n 

all which cases, coming to, as it respects, or the like, will give the 
sense of the particle. 

12. Some of these particles take (T) as the vowel of union 
before the affixed pronouns ^3 and Tf : as, ^JSV with us ; ^WS id. ; 
siani'W us, or with us ; "H^N n ,jth thee, fern. "JT^N ; and "Hpls irf. 
So "Jjan feeAo/rf fAee, fern. ; TT^S hitherto thou, fern. ; "H^V wiM *Ae<?, 
fern. ; E3B37 with you, masc. ; ^511337 nilh them, masc. 

1 3. The preposition 7p out, out of, apparently from the Arabic 
root 7?^ cut, doubles the 3 by Ddgesh, whenever any one of the 
pronouns is affixed : as, ^Q or ^E from me ; I^P or ^?Q (for 
^Hilp) from him ; EfJPP from them. But more frequently the root 
assumes a reduplicated form, and drops its final letter : as, V^ for 
73 (Art. 76.), and, with the affixed pronouns, 'SjaO (for V?^*?) 
from me; ^$1? from thee ; ^tefo from him ; ^^ from her ; *& 
from us : and, by a further abbreviation, ^P from thee, masc. ; 
and ^Iffi from thee, fern. 

14. The other prepositions take the affixed pronouns regularly, 
and, for the most part, in the plural number : as, vN to, towards, pi. 
V^? to me ; '$ upon, against, plural *P|?V upon, or against thee ; 
"Tj? to, usque ad, plural V^V <o Aim; ^V?^ 1 besides; 
besides thee. With the grave affix : Ejr>V?? <o yow 

15. The remaining prepositions, are ^T 1 ?^ on account of; 
by, through ; V^ without, fords ; "$?? before, in front of; 

This rule, however, is not universally true, as we shall see when we come to the 
syntax. Similar to this is the doctrine taught by the Persian Grammarians, on 

the use of the particle '^, (originally perhaps *\j wuy^) for where, according 
to Mr. Lumsden, there would be a difficulty in ascertaining from the context, 
which is the objective case to the verb, this particle is added ; and, when it is 
not so, the particle is always to be omitted. Pers. Gram., vol. ii. p. 202. My 
edition (9th) of Sir Wm. Jones's Pers. Gram., p. 118. 

ART, 172.]] ON THE PARTICLES. 153 

towards, over against ; P?J?? on this side, beyond (properly, passage) ; 
"123 and '?|"J before, in front of. 

On the Inseparable Particles. 

172. Having laid down the forms, and given some ex- 
amples of construction, of the Separable particles, we 
now come to those which have been termed Inseparable. 
These have been termed inseparable, because, as many 
of them are no longer found extant in their original and 
complete forms, but presenting one single letter only, 
they are always prefixed to some other word. They are 
all comprehended in the technical terms, 3,71)1 '""Jj^Ej 
Moses and Caleb. 

2. The first (D) is regularly prefixed to nouns with the imper- 
fect vowel ( ) Khirik, and consequently inserting a Dagesh forte 
in the following letter : as, T?jJJ? from, or out of, the nay. This 
word when written at length is "I*?, probably from P^3, signifying, 
according to Storr, cutting off, &c.* This Dagesh, therefore, may 
be considered as a compensation for the loss of the letter 3 
(Art. 76.). 

o. Dagesh, however, is frequently omitted when the following 
word commences with (:): as, ! " f ^ :Q ^? from greatness; "frWD 
from his right hand (for fa^"!*? Art. 87. 5.). Under this rule 
Schroederus places the word n31lZ7N"l2737 thence, from the begin- 
ning, 1 Chron. xv. 13. But here, the ?? prefixed is probably 
a part of HE which, what, or the like. 

4. .But when any letter incapable of receiving Dagesh follows, 
(Art. 109.) a compensation is made, either explicitly, or implicitly: 
i.e. either, 1st, by putting the vowel () instead of Khirik; or, 
2dly, by considering the following letter as doubled: as, 1st. 
^a (for ^0) from a man; SjBhn (for ^^ from a nicked 
(man); or, 2dly, tMrTO (for VPtifflfrom a thread. 

5. The particle E7, which is an abbreviation of ^j^^ mho, what, 
&c. will be considered with the demonstrative pronouns ; where 
the use of the inseparable particle H will ajso be shewn. 

* Sec last Ait. No. 13. 

154 LECTURE ix. ART. 173. 

On the Particle 1 and, but, moreover, $c. 


173. This particle is probably a fragment of the word 

Syriac w*oi, or Arabic ,_5j1, to augment, connect, 
&c. : its augmented form is JTjtf desiring wealth, con- 
nection, or the like : and, as a noun IT a liook, nail, or 
any thing by which one thing is connected with another. 
Hence, it is used as a conjunction, and is capable of all 
the variety of meaning to which such words are subject. 

2. This particle is generally prefixed to words with 
(=): as, "IpNH fc^jj he called and said ; T^W '^17?^ a 
servant maid and man. 

3. The Shevd, however, is liable to certain changes. When the 
word, to which *> is attached, commences also with Shevd, this 
1 takes the vowel Shurek : as, 13? ! > go ye, not ^vl (Art. 106. 1.) : 
Tjba 1 ?^* and to, or for, the king, not rflfi^. or ^^71. 

4. The same change takes place, whenever any one of the labial 
letters 0E1S) immediately follows : as, "I-?-? 5 ! and the garment, not 
^r^l. There are, however, some exceptions : as, -irQI and void ; 
12721 and they blushed, &c. 

5. When the letter "* with ( : ) follows, a contraction will take 
place (Art. 87. 5.) : as, W (for W or W) and he shall live; 
Ep^l (for ES^I) and their right hand. In a few cases we have 
() in this place : as, ^,?.'7?. and let him be. 

6. Any word beginning with one of the substitutes of Shevd, 
will prefix 1 with the correspondent imperfect vowel (Art. 10?.): 
as, "7! and I; riBNI and truth, &c. 

7. In some instances of this kind, however, we find Shurek: 
as, ^pl^ and gold, Gen. ii. 12 ; ^l"???^ and cry thou (fern.), 
Jer. xxii. 20. 

8. When the word commences with an S a contraction is often 
found to take place : as, ^ 'N1 and my Lord (for ^j? '?,!) ; so 
Dlf?H3 and God (for E^.N}), Art. 87. 5. 

9. Monosyllables, and dissyllables having the accent on the 
penultima, will generally prefix this particle with (T): as, D^DI and 

* Kimchi is of opinion, that in these cases the letter N is to be considered 
as dropped, and that we should read ^H universally. 

ART. 173. 10.] ON THE PARTICLES. 155 

a horse; '?fl?^ and a ram. To this, however, there are many 
exceptions : as, "112?"! and an ox ; ^?1?.1 and a chariot. 

10. This particle has been supposed to have the power of 
changing the tenses of the verb, i. e. of making the preterite tense 
future, and the future preterite, and hence has been termed Van 
Conversivum. From what will be said on the doctrine of the 
tenses of the verbs by and bye it will appear, that the conversive 
power supposed to exist in this particle is neither necessary nor 
true. When it takes the vowel Pdthdkh it ought perhaps to be 

considered as illative, corresponding to the Arabic < 9 then, 
therefore, &c., which is regularly so : when it takes ( : ), as being 
merely conjunctive (p. 50, note). 

11. In some cases when accompanied by (-), the Ddgesh of the 
following letter, as also the Euphonic accent, one or other of which 
is necessary to complete the syllable, is dropped, probably by the 
negligence of the scribes : as, ^?jT.l and he consecrated, Gen. ii. 3, 
for 8^12*1, or with the accent ^.rT.j!. 

12. In the first person singular of the present tense this particle 
takes (T) : as, 3^ttftO and I hear. 

174. The remaining particles 1, 3, and 7, signifying, 
in, according to, to, or the like, respectively, may be 
easily traced to their origin as nouns. The first is pro- 
bably a fragment of the word Nl3 entering into, &c., 
which is found in Arabic under the forms of ^^ he de- 

/ s ss 

scended to his house, lodging, &c. ; *b or b and in 
Ethiopic fKD A \ meaning nearly the same thing. 

2. With respect to the second ( D ) signifying like, as, 
just as, &c., it is probably a fragment of some primitive 
noun, from which we also have the words H3 thus ; ^3 

for, so; 1 13 and ]3 thus. For the etymology of 7 see 
Art. 171. 7. 

3. These particles are regularly prefixed with ( : ) ; as, 
^"0.3 in a way; yj7.? 'like a tree ; p. ft 1 ? to earth. 

If the word to which either of them is to be prefixed, 
have (:), the particle will regularly take (.) Khitik 

156 LECTURE IX. [[ART. 174. 4. 

(Art. 106. 1.) : as, HvOpIl in the volume ; y33 like a 
vessel ; 1^7 to his son. 

4. But, when any one of the substitutes of Shevd happens to be 
at the beginning of such word, the prefix will take the corres- 
pondent imperfect vowel (Art. 107.): as, ETfQ? * n a dreamy 
Vi3W3 like eating, c. 

x 5. When an S happens to be the first letter, a contraction gene- 
rally takes place : as, ^'^ (for ^INb) to my Lord ; DNjbNb . 
(for D'nbb) to God (Art. 87. 5.). 

6. But when prefixed to monosyllables, or to dissyllables having 
the accent in the penultimate, they generally take (T) as above 
(Art. 173. 9.); e. g. Ht2 i n this; <"lv>N3 like these; nx&for ever. 
So with verbal nouns or Infinitives, when not in construction with 
other nouns: as, D^P^/or standing ; ro^ for walking. 

7. The following affixed pronouns are often found attached to 
these particles : viz. ^ in me; ^S/ i n us; fS in thee, masc. ; "H^ id. 
fern. ; E,?2l in you, masc. ; 732 id. fern. ; "121 in him, masc. ; HS in 
her; Dn2 (or Art. 75.) E3 in them, masc. ; 1[7? "* ^ era - 

8. The particle v receives the pronouns in the same manner ; 
but D is so found in only two instances; viz. E33 ^ e y ou > an ^ 
EHS like them. When it is necessary to use the pronouns with 3, 
the paragogic particle >O is generally introduced thus : "^""pS like 
me; 13^3 like us; TiOS like thee; 03103 like you; infeB like 
him ; HlttS like her ; Onto like them. 

9. When either of the particles 3,, 3, or v, is prefixed to 
a noun with the definite article, the article is for the most part 
rejected (Art. 73.) and the particle takes its vowel: as, JTj?a i n 
the house (for rPSna) . B^MS like the man (for ^SHS); irinb 

/or the month (for Ennn 1 ?) ; nrrjnSl i n the dry (land, for 
n^nnn^ Art. 87. 6.). Exceptions : ^^T 1 ^ in the may, Neh. 

ix. 19: O?(7^ to the people, 2 Chron. x. 7; n^bnn3 ^ e ^A e 
windows, Ezek. xl. 25 ; O3nn3 like the wise man, Eccles. viii. 1. 

10. This contraction, moreover, sometimes takes place in those 
Infinitives which commence with a servile H : as, ^?-p? (for 
btt?3n2) in being impelled, Prov. xxiv. 17 ; T^^2 (for ^tpnb) 
for causing to hear, Ps. xxvi. 7 ; ^j?/ (for N'OiTp) y or bringing, 
Jer, xxxix. 7, &c., which is most usual in the Chaldee. 


On those Inseparable Particles which are termed Paragogic. 

175. To the preceding inseparable particles may 
be added others, which however are always found 
attached to the end, never to the beginning, of words ; 
and for the purpose most probably, of adding something 
to the force of the passages in which they are found. 
These were at first, perhaps, nouns of one form or other 
just as the prepositions were, but which, in after times, 
were abbreviated for the sake of convenience. 

2. These letters or syllables, then, (for they are now 
nothing more, have been termed paragogic, rather, I 
suppose, for the purpose of giving them a name, than for 
pointing out either their nature or their use), consist of 
one or other of the letters "piriN, which is found appended 
to words, either for the purpose of giving emphasis to 
the meaning, of promoting euphony, or for some other 

3. The letter N is mostly pleonastic, and is found at- 
tached to words terminating in the vowel ( < ) or 1 : as 
N^Pp.^ its galleries (for rPR^N), Ezek. xli. 15; 
W?7JJO they who went (for I??,??)* Josh. x. 24; Km 
they were witting, Isai. xxviii. 12 ; NI&'IP they shall be 
carried, Jer. x. 5. So NliT for 1PP. (for 1iT, Art. 87. 2.) 
he shall be, Eccl. xi. 3 ; also K1H instead of in he, 

" L L " 

Arab. y&; 817 for 17 Arab, $ would to God, utinam, &c., 
and so of others.* 

4. The use of n as a paragogic letter is very fre- 
quent. In some cases it is thought to augment the 
signification, in others to be merely pleonastic. On 

* This prevails in the Arabic, whence Schultens comes to the conclusion, 
that it is an ancient manner of writing : others, that it is a mere Arabism. 

158 LECTURE ix. [[ART. 175. ft. 

some occasions it is found appended to words ending 
in a consonant, with (T) ; on others, it is preceded by () 
or () : and in these it becomes quiescent : as, rn^DK 
(from "ISDN) / will recount, or, let me recount, Ps. ii. 7 ; 
nyiX (from pg) the earth', H-in from \T\ behold; 
tifjl (from *?$) these. 

5. It is attached to verbs. 1st, to the Infinitive or 
Verbal noun ; 2d, to both the tenses ; 3d, to the second 
person singular masculine of the Imperative ; and 4th, to 
the participles : e. g. 1st. HCO^ (for CD&5) spoiling ; 
ntri (for TJ-J) shaking, Isa. xxxii. 11 ; nSjRB* (for ^j#) 
asking, Isa. vii. 11, &c. 2d. Hn^ (for H^) he rested, 
Isa. vii. 2 ; rijjj (for ]V) fe lodged, Zech. v. 4 ; 
(for ]KpV (t ?) ^ **; np-l&U (for sflfeg) fe/ 
, Gen. xi. 3 ; r|3$T! (for ]j#T) 7^ wz7/ reduce to 
ashes, Ps. xx. 4, &c.* 

6. Verbs ending in n, usually drop that letter upon receiving the 
paragogic H : as, y* (for nnSttfN Art. 75.) / will look on, 
observe, Ps. cxix. 117. So n ?j?P'? (for nn$riB?3) we n ill observe, 
Isa. xli. 23. This last example Schroederus puts under the form 
of apocope, which appears to me to be unnecessary and erro- 

7. With Imperatives^: as, n j??^ repose thou (for S J?^), Gen. 
xxxix. 7: nBDM (for ^DS) collect, Num. xi. 16: ngptt? (fo r 
^eep, Ps. xxv. 20 ; na^BJpn (for ^tt7pH) a end, Ps. v. 3 ; 

(for rf?), and with n omitted ^ go, Num. xxiii. 13. So 
(for ni^SM, from "E??^) / mill be honoured, Hag. i. 8. 

5. With Participles : as, n "3$2l (from ">3?2!) burning, Hos. 
vii. 4 ; n ^P? (from ^P?) escaped, Jer. xlviii. 19. 

8. Nouns singular of both genders, as also nouns masculine of 
the dual and plural numbers, will occasionally receive a paragogic 

, still preserving the accent on the originally accentuated syllable : 
(from Vb) the night; nnb'tt (f rom nb^) iniquity,- 
(from BT3P) ^p; "0^ (from B$J) fay*. Any 

* The force of these will be considered in the Syntax. 


noun, however, ending in an imperfect vowel on account of con- 
struction (Art. 143. 3.), may, when the paragogic n is added, take 
the accent on the last syllable : as, ^P"]?^ (from n ^jTP> in con- 
struction n"]T!p) the rising of the sun, Deut. iv. 41, &c. In this 
case, such terminating vowel will suffer no change on account of 
the state of construction : as, E^tp i"tn"!?5, above : ^PJL 1 *~*^$ 
the southern country, Gen. xx. 1 ; ^1"$? ""^O^^ the tent of Sarah, 
Gen. xxiv. 67. 

9. This particle is occasionally added to the pronouns, whether 
separate or affixed : as, 1st, HIPJN you, fern.; '"^p they, masc. ; 
^3n they, fern. ; H vN these, com. 2d, ""^ivr to you; nDwfjlEt your 
(fern.) wickedness, &c. 

10. It will not be necessary to trouble the Reader with instances, 
in which this particle is found attached to other particles : as, ""^f^ 
for EB7 there, &c. : because, as these are manifestly nothing more 
than nouns, it is reasonable enough that they should receive H 
paragogic as well as others. 

1 1 . The following seem to be instances of pleonasm : i. e. in 
which this letter adds nothing whatever to the sense : viz. f$N for 
JHN thou ; n l O? for $13 thou gavest ; rOT} for *[T thy hand ; 
to which many more might be added. So in <"l | v'9 for -1757 they 
ascended, 2 Kings xxiv. 10 ; H\vH ^ or ^1*71 an ^ ^ey shall be, Josh. 
xv. 4, &c., where the Shurek has been supplied by (.). 

12. The paragogic letter 1 is sometimes found with 
Kholem; at others, without any vowel ; and, occasionally, 
coming between two nouns which are in the state of 
construction. It is thought by some to be nothing more 
than a pleonasm of the affixed pronoun ( 1 ) : as, "U/3 "fa? 
his son (viz.) of Beor, instead of "")#? ]5 Numb. xxiv. 
3. 15; ^l^.'irv.n its living creature (viz.) the earth's, 
instead of p.$ HTl Gen. i. 24 ; pJpn"3$D^ into its 
fountain (viz.) of water, for ]^? Ps. cxiv. 8. So V^IT 
and TjllT his (being) alone, Gen. xiii. 6 ; Ps iv. 9, &c. 
See also Ps. 1. 10, civ. 11, 20, Ixxix. 2 ; Isa. Ivi. 9. 

13. Professor Gesenius objects to this etymology, because the 
vowel points differ, in some respects, from those usually found with 
the affixed pronoun, and because the affix is also found to disagree 

160 LECTURE ix. CART. 175. 14. 

with the noun to which it refers.* I do not think, however, that 
much stress can be laid on the consideration of the vowel points, 
because anomalies of this kind frequently occur. Nor is the dis- 
agreement of gender discoverable between the noun and the affix of 
much moment ; because little regard is paid in the Hebrew either 
to the gender or number of words in cases like this, as we shall see 
hereafter. In the Syriac and Ethiopic, pleonasms of this sort are 
extremely frequent ; but, in general, a preposition is then added to 

the last word : as, <n-> aiA-ScnaiiO the gift of him, of God, or 
rather, the gift of him, who (is) God. The preposition in the 
Ethiopic is ' in these cases. See Ludolf. Gram. Eth., p. 138. 

14. There are some instances of verbs, in which 1 seems to be a 
paragogic letter : as, '3?1 and he smote, 2 Sam. xiv. 6, root f"^^ 
where however the 1 may probably be the true radical letter, for 
which H has been substituted : and, as Kholem is most frequently 
the second vowel proper for the present tense, nothing can be more 
likely, than that 1 is here made to quiesce in it. We also have 
"ipE^. in 1 Sam. xxi. 14; probably for n3ttP ; he changed. We 
have \ in like manner, not as a paragogic letter, but, as the true 
radical letter, in T^ft blot out, Jer. xviii. 23 ; *'?T^ 1 she committed 
fornication, Ib. iii. 6. 

15. The letter (") when Paragogic, is like the pre- 
ceding asylldbiCy and is mostly found between two 
nouns in the state of construction. Its vowel differs in 
no respect from that of the pronoun of the first person 
singular ; whence Schultens and some of his followers 
have supposed it to be nothing more than a pleonasm 
of that pronoun. To this, however, Storr and Gesenius 
object, and apparently with good reason.f The Persian 
etymology, however, proposed by Gesenius, is perhaps 

equally objectionable, as exemplified in the phrase, s 

o f 

the scent of musk. Whether it be the same with 

* Lehrgebaiide, p. 549. 

f Storr. Observations, pp. 441. 442. Gesenius Lehrgeb., p. 547. 


the axuJJl ^jb, or tj-J^l of the Arabs, which is the 

same with the patronymic ^ of the Hebrews (Art. 166.) ; 
or, whether it be that of the plural number, derived 
from the verbal noun !Tn (Art. 139. 7. note), and thence 
applied for the purpose of giving Emphasis, Intensity, 
or the like to any passage, it is impossible to say ; but, 
certain it is, that the significations thus derived will 
suit its application sufficiently well, where any variation 
of sense is discoverable in consequence of its insertion.* 

16. This particle is found appended both to nouns and 
particles : to nouns, as, fariN ^3 .... "Hpfc binding the 

/ole of his ass, Gen. x\ix. 11 ; D?iwQ T*3") great (fern.) 
among the nations, Lam. i. 1 ; \n3rin vipf the voice 
of my supplication, Ps. cxvi. 1 ; DV ^9J3 stolen (fern.) 
by day, Gen. %xxi. 39 ; see also Deut. xxxiii. 16, Ps. 
ex. 4, cxiii. 5, 6, 7, 9, &c. To particles : as, ]> ^E 

from the belly (for ]), Isa. xlvi. 3 ; DVH ^/S except 
to-day (for Jp??), Gen. xxi. 26 ; so ^H^lt besides (for 
n^T), Deut. iv. 12, &c. 

Schroederus and Schultens have also applied this paragogic 
letter to verbs ; but, as it is never found, except in those which 
have H for the last radical letter ; and, as "* is in these cases 
generally substituted for "T } there can be no doubt, that this is its 
character in all such instances, as Storr has justly remarked. 

17. The letter ) is mostly found with verbs : it is also 
affixed to particles, and is then preceded by () or (-) ; 
but when ^ or 1 precede, it is affixed without any other 
vowel : as, \r\r\ (for ]^^, on account of the accent, from 

* In some cases, however, the so affixed seems to be nothing more than a 
fragment of the feminine pronoun of the second person singular %7lW, as 
Vn^nW (Hos. x. ll.) thou hast luved, for "^riM 7"QnW, as it constantly occurs 
in the Syriac Participles, see the Grammars. So J^T? 5 * for riM myV thou 
bringest forth, Gen. xvi. 11. See also Jer. xxii. 23 ; li. 13 ; Mic. vii. 8, &c. 

f But this may be an instance of the Ilendiadys ; my voice, my supplication. 


162 LECTURE ix. [[ART. 175. is. 

giving ; DJjy $1 (for nytfi^) he shall turn her back, 
Jer. ii. 24 ; \r?W it shall hang over (thee), Hab. ii. 17 ;* 
"^IJ?^ he will honour me, Ps. 1. 23, where we have ( T ) 
for (-), on account of the accent perhaps : so, Jv^nj^ 
(for ^Jlfl thou) (fern.) shall bring forth, Is. xlv. 10 ; 
rij-fnfl thou shall adhere, Ruth ii. 8. So, |1NT^ ye 
shall fear ; pijOft ye shall see ; jl^T. they shall walk, 
&c., and with (.) when put for 1 : as, ]35^ they shall 
lie down, 1 Sam. ii. 22 ; |^V"V} they shall be watered, 
Ps. xxxvi. 9 ; in which cases the accent is always with the 
last syllable.*! 1 

18. Verbs having H (without Mappik\ for the third radical 
letter, will drop it by contraction (Art. 73.) when 1 paragogic is to 
be added : as, ^SN I mill smite him, 1 Sam. xxvi. 8 (for ^n^N) ; 
siaTfa / jviH confess to him (for ^rniW), p s . x ]ii. 6 ; ^"1N (for 
^H^W) / s h a ll see him, Numb. xxiv. 17, &c. But in these cases, 
we have also an affixed pronoun, the rules for the addition of which 
we now proceed to consider. 

19. When a paragogic 1 is followed by either of the affixed 
syllabic pronouns *1, *T, ^, or H (Art. 145. 6.), no vowel of 
union is required: as, ^33^12^ he mill honour me; T^fTPlN / mill 
root thee out (of 1&RM, from P%, for ph?M f roo t pH3) ;' *fl?|Hj 
he shall bless him (of ^51 > root "^" 1 ^) B ut if the pronoun is 
asyllabic, there must be a vowel of union : as, ^T.-?^"]??^ they shall 
serve thee, Isa. Ix. 7. 

20. The affixed pronouns "*? and ^ following the paragogic 7, 
are frequently expressed by inserting Ddgesh forte in the 1 : as, 
aw he judged me (for ^4, from 1?7 root 1TT). So, ^Hp"! he 
chastised me, Ps. cxviii. 1 8 ; ' I 3 | 5^J3];1 it shall bless me, Gen. xxvii. 1 9 ; 
13W he shall save us (for j^f! ,'from 1^. , from * , root "1S3) ; 
and, with the particle T^ is not ; "^N my not being, (for 

from 1, &c. 

* Institutiones, &c. Schultensii, p. 428. In every instance this 1 is probably 
nothing more than that, by which the intensitive form in nouns is sometimes 
designated. See Art. 168. 2. 

+ From these examples it appears, that the *\ is sometimes single, at others 
doubled by Ddgesh : its use will be investigated in the Syntax. 


21. The paragogic 1 is frequently inserted in the affix T, in the 
same manner : as, ^r?^ he has blessed thee (for I??.?. 3 / Art. 76.) ; 

chastising thee, Deut. viii. 5 ; ^T,?137 answering thee (for 
, and rejecting H by Art. 73. l??" 1 '^, rejecting 3 Art. 76. 
root n337). So, in the particles, 3$? behold thou, Ps. 
cxxxix. 8 ; ^3. *N where (art) thou ? (ending also with paragogic Jf, 
Art. 175.) Gen. iii. 9. 

22. The n of the affix If is omitted, and a compensation 
is made by doubling the paragogic 1 by Dagesh forte : as, ^3]Tj?9fl 
thou shalt visit him (for ^naiflpj-l } See Art. 73.), Ps. viii. 5. So, 
^33.1 he shall smite him, 1 Sam. xvii. 25 ; ^pr? take him, 1 Sam. 

xx. 21 ; 13a''M he is not, Gen. xxx. 33 ; IXfB he yet Gen. 

xviii. 22 ; and, with the feminine affixed pronoun n33?7^ he shall 
swallow her up (for H?^ /^ ), Isa. xxviii. 4 ; so ^Srjj? a &e Y, Jer. 
xxxvi. 14; <"l-!3Jjl gie it, 1 Sam. xxi. 10; ^1^ it is not, Lev. 
xiii. 21. In these cases, Schroaderus is of opinion, that the n of 
the feminine pronoun has been struck out, and that the paragogie 
H has been added. Storr, however, is of a different opinion ; his 
words are : " Similiter He paragogicum, in voce "'^Z7^, Ps. cxix. 
117, et similibus dubitationem habet, quoniam praeter formam 
^^P^?, ad quam He adjunctum videri possit, etiam alia datur, in 
Kamez desinens," &c. p. 440, note. 

23. When the affix 1 (which has always the accent) follows the 
paragogic 7 , no vowel of union is employed : as, ^T^J? curse him, 
Numb, xxiii. 13 (for '^rj, root 32p). In like manner, we have 
iaB?} his being (for JBE, root ^), 1 Sam. xiv. 39, &c. 

24. This ? has by some been termed Epenthetic; but, as it 
appears to have been originally the same in every case, it seems 
unnecessary to give it more names than one. 

25. The syllables which have been termed Paragogic are, ^7., ^, 
and ^Q , when preceded by the particles 3 , 3 , ^, and E : as, "H21 in; 
"7.3 like ; ^3 according to ; ^ to ; fa? in ; 1*33 Me ; ^ to, 
&c. These are mostly confined to highly energetic compositions ; 
whence we may infer, that they were intended to add something to 
the signification. 

26. The first of these is thought to be the same with the word 
""I, or ^, signifying sufficiency, &c. The second, Schultens and 
some others have derived from ^ , or IB water ; while Jahn thinks 
it is the same with ^B_ , or HD what, which, &c. In the Arabic 


164 LECTURE ix. ART. 175. 27. 

Lo , MH ) is frequently found attached to the same particles: as, 
lj , lo , 1/oJ , i. e; in that which, according to that which, to, or for, 

that which, &c. So in the Syriac, ^Q3 kemo ; isCO bemo, &c. 
having the same signification. 

27. The particle **Q is nothing more than another form of <^9 
the mouth, found in construction with other nouns. Its meaning, 
by a metonymy, will be any thing said, enforced, or commanded : as, 
a precept, edict, &~c. which will not always bear to be expressed in 
a translation. 

On the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

176. The Demonstrative Pronouns are always found 
written separately ; they are as follows : 

J"|f masc., nit fern, rarely IT or H? ; t ( ?n or IT this, sing. 
com. : n^jSt, rarely 71$ these, pi. com. 

2. The forms H{7j rityH, masc. this, have the particle 
7 to, or for, with the definite article H M#. The same 
may be said of If 7H this, fern, which occurs but once, viz. 
Ezek. xxxvi. 35, as also of f^H, of the common gender, 
as above. 

3. 7j$n these, is also found ; it is nothing more than 
the plural pronoun, as above, with the article prefixed. 

4. nt f however, is found construed as a plural, Gen. 
xxvii. 36, I Sam. xxix. 3, Job xix. 19, and Zech. i. 12, vii. 5. 
HvW i s also found as a singular, 1 Chron. xi. 11, 2 Chron. iii. 3, 
xvii. 14, and Ezra i. 9. But this has been done either by some 
figure of speech, or what is termed logical construction. 

On the Relative Pronoun. 

177. The Hebrew language recognises but one Rela- 
tive Pronoun : viz. "l$$ he who, that which, what, which 
is common to every gender and number. 

2. The gender and number, however, will be determined by that 
of the preceding or following noun, or pronoun : as, 


mho stand, i. e. they (masc.) who stand, 1 Kings xii. 8 ; 

who his harvest, i. e. whose harvest, Job v. 5 ; n-"H 

w/cA (masc.) //e wzwrf disperses it, i. e. wAJcA (masc.) the wind dis- 

perses, Ps. i. 4 ; E^" 1 ^? ---- "i^t? m wAose fonrf, Joel iv. 19. 

3. In some instances, the demonstrative pronouns HT, ^ and ^ 

take the place of "1$$ : as Fs. ix, 16, xii. 8, and cxxxii. 12, &c. 

A similar substitution takes place in the Arabic, which the Gram- 

marians ascribe to a difference of dialect.* 
4. This pronoun is frequently found prefixed to other 
words in an abbreviated form: as, Ef, <#, Uf, or \$ , the first 
and last letters being rejected. Examples : M$i 
for l^r^ K7 "lE'tf W/o //#,? not given us (up), Ps.cxxiv.6; 
l^i?^ for ^j? H^^ W'cA ^ WfliVec? (for), Lam. ii. 16 ; 
WJ3&* for ^Pjp Sf)x till I arose, Jud. v. 7 ; nns^ for 
af ^^ //ow, Ib. vi. 17 ; DH^ for CD I^K /A^ 
, Eccl. iii. 18, &c. It is perhaps difficult to say, in 
what cases the vowel ( ) is to be preferred to ( - ), but it 
is not of much importance. Kdmets is used only when 
a letter incapable of receiving Ddgesh follows : as, 
nrusj^ which thou, Judg. vi. 17. But, even in this case, 
( ) is occasionally found sustained by an accent : as, 
17^ f^ they who went up. The usage of ( : ) in these 
places cannot perhaps be easily accounted for. 

* In the Arabic commentary on the Kafia of Ibn Olhajib, published at 


Calcutta, (p. l"H ) we have the following remark: (_$ 1 (XA>J(Ui j<^j 


^3 Jj Jl ^I 

^ &c. That is, ^T o/' ^e tribe of Tdy : i.e. which is referred 
to that tribe, on account of its peculiar usage in their dialect, as the relative pro- 
noun, signifying who, which, $c. in both genders (i. e. masc. and fem.) The 
Poet has said, f My well which (^) I digged, and which fit) I enclosed.' 

Dathe thinks, that we have an ellipsis of "llpW, in these instances. See 
Glass. Pliilol. Sacr., od. 1776, p. 160. 


On the Interrogative, and occasionally Indefinite, Pronouns. 

178. These are ip for persons, PTjp, Pip, or 
which, whatl PI, H, H, what, whether? and ^ where, 
how ? &c. for things : all of which are invariable, and of 
the common gender : as, PJJFVg-^ID who (art) thou (masc.)? 
Gen. xxvii. 32 ; J-WpD w/*o (art) Mow (fern.) ? Ruth 
iii. 9 ; Pl;?iOp who (are) Mese Gen, xxxiii. 5. We 
also have ^JE^ ** ft^ (is) My w#/ which Schultens 
says, refers to the person nevertheless : as, Quis nomen 
tuum? (Institutiones ad Fund. Ling. Heb., p. 228.). 
Examples with PJD are : UJTIXBn Hpl Kftg Pip What 
(is) our iniquity, and what our sin ? Jer. xvi. 10 ; Pip 
t"J*n CDSt^P #?/* (is) M manner of the man ? 2 Kings 
i. 7 ; ?1p HP zr^# noise, 1 Sam. iv. 6, 14. 

2. HD, with Kdmets, is used when the article (PI), or 
any other letter, incapable of receiving Dagesh, imme- 
diately follows, excepting H or y : as, ]1ni2n np ivhat 
confidence? 2 Kings xviii. 19 ; t&h'}g~np what (is) man? 
Ps. viii. 5 ; PI3H Pig) what (are) ^y (fern.) ? Isa. xli. 22 ; 
PP'NIPT Pip what he (was) /o her, Esth. viii. 1. 

3. Exceptions : 1. We have HP with Pdthdkh, notwithstanding 
the article following: ^^^HTItt what prevarication ? Josh. xxii. 16. 
Also in NTTnp what it is, Ps. xxxix. 5 ; "'riW^n 7T what (is) my 
sin ? Gen. xxxi. 36. 

4. Whenever any letter capable of receiving Dagesh follows, HO 
is with Pdthdkh, and Dagesh is expressed in the following letter : 
as > B^aTrEfi nit2-ntt how good, and how pleasant ? Art. 112. In 
"J-lttrnE rvhat two (fern.) ? Zech. iv. 12, the Dagesh is omitted. 

5. When any guttural letter, having ( T ), or H or 27 not having 
it, immediately follows, we have HO with Segol, apparently for the 
sake of euphony : as, 1 v '"'^"'"'9 what has happened to him ? Exod. 
xxxii. 1 ; ^n'nn nhat defect ? Ps. xxxix. 5 ; VTKfr no m hat 
have I done? &c. Art. 114. 

ART. 179.]] ON THE PARTICLES. 167 

On the Interrogative Particles H and ^Jtf. 

179. The Interrogative particle H, PI, or H, has been 
classed by some with the definite article ; but, if we con- 
sider either its construction or office, we must be con- 
vinced that they are different words. 

2. The office of this particle is interrogation, like the 
Latin an, annon, num, utrum ? or the like ; and, in this 
capacity, strongly to affirm or deny ; and thus to increase 
or diminish the importance of subjects with which it is 
connected. It is also used indefinitely. 

3. It is always prefixed to some word, and is often fol- 
lowed in the succeeding member of the sentence, by the 
particle Dtf, having nearly the same signification with 
utrum followed by an, in Latin, and corresponding to 
each other in different members of the sentence ; or, as 
an and vel, in the following passage, Tt^J/ ^3 f!{ HJFIKn 
N^'OK "AN tu es,Jili mi Esave, VEL" nan? Gen. xxvii. 21.* 
In many instances it loses its interrogative power, as it 
happens with similar particles in other languages, and 
then may be construed either as a relative, or indefinitely ; 
as, iHN N'DyjlPl who came with him,^ Josh. x. 24 ; 
D^J^n whether you are, Deut. xiii. 4 ; nrnjDPt whether 
it blossoms, Cant. vi. 11, &c. 

* These particles correspond, both in sense and construction, with the Arabic 

3 (,s <s?s<,s(,3s 

i and *', as in the following passage from the Koran, c. l.v.5. *^.Ajn 

C 9 (, <,? (^ l-s 

* *M f t 

j*5yt\jj J >) WHETHER thou admonish them, OR whether thou do not admonish 

them. Their precise force will be considered in the Syntax. 

t In which case it differs but little from the definite article when equivalent 

to ". So, &* in Arabic, for <X*- ^ Gram. Arab, de Sacy, vol. i. 
p. 338. 

168 LECTURE IX. CART. 179> 4 - 

4. When prefixed to any word commencing with Sheva ( : ) or 
(-:), it will take the vowel (-) with the Euphonic accent, and, 
therefore, will not require that the following letter should take 
Ddgesh forte : as, ^^H?^;? have ye forgotten ? Jer. xliv. 9 ; 
nj3"l5^ num benediclio ? Gen. xxvii. 38 ; T^Eyn whether on thy 
account ? Job xviii. 4, &c. With gutturals ; ^P.^ whether 
truth 1 nj?!? whether time ? 

5. In these cases, however, the Ddgesh is often found written : 
as, N?"^'-^ whether my nays ? Ezek. xviii. 29 ; EJY'H^n have ye 
seen ? 1 Sam. x. 24 ; ^(J)^?^?'! 1 whether according to her cry ? 
Gen. xviii. 21. And once, when Sheva is not attached to the first 
letter of such word : as, 3^V7 mill it be well ? Lev. x. 19. 

6. When any word, to which this particle is prefixed, commences 
with a consonant and a vowel (excepting gutturals with T) the 
interrogative will take ( -.-) : as, Vr?^7"l*?n whether of the tree ? 
Gen. iii. 1 1 ; 1?D shall the flock ...? Num. xi. 22 ; TJITn 
shall it happen to thee ? 

7. Guttural letters having (T) require the Interrogative particle 
to be prefixed with (v): as, h 23Nn whether I? Num. xi. 12; 
'^ J P'!^'!7 has it come to pass ? Joel i. 2 ; P$7;7 whether strong ? 
We also have, ^WPpinn shall I cease ? Judg. ix. 9, &c., which is 
perhaps erroneous, for ^yinp. We also have, EWn whether 
you? Judg. vi. 31 ; and, ^fT^pNn whether an Ephrathite? Ib.xii^5, 
which are anomalous. (See Art. 114.) 

8. Noldius is of opinion, that this particle is a mere interjection 
forced out by the breath with some effort, in order to give the 
passage the force of an interrogation, or otherwise to heighten the 
expression, which is extremely probable. The passages too, 
which require to be construed interrogatively, but in which this 
particle is not found, must be so enounced, otherwise their interro- 
gative force will not be perceived; e. g. In 2 Sam. xviii. 29, we 
have E^ltf for D< ^?$?> which is found Ib. 32. and also in the 
similar passages, 2 Kings ix. 18, 19. In like manner perhaps 
' for MD shall I lift up? Ps.cxxi. 1 ; and JVHTO f or VTbsrr 
Ezek. xvi. 59, which, when expressed with emphasis, will have just 
the same effect as they would, had the particle been prefixed. 
This is very much the case in all languages ; and when no note of 
interrogation is used, we are compelled to determine by the context, 
whether such sentence is to be taken interrogatively or not ; and, 

ART. 179. 9/] ON THE PARTICLES. 169 

hence, whether it is to be understood in a positive or negative sense. 
When this particle is prefixed, however, this difficulty is removed ; 
but, unfortunately, this is not always the case. 

9. The Interrogative particle **$, which is sometimes 
written separately and at others is prefixed to pronouns, 
is probably nothing more than an interjection, like the 
preceding, so enounced as to imply a question. It 
is occasionally found of the forms NH and NiT, and in 
conjunction with a pronoun : as, "spn and "=|^.* Ex- 
amples : ^pnij *730 ^ where is Abel thy brother? Gen. 
iv. 9; "'J/'ni^pN! J^NT? **$ h w can I pardon thee for 
thisl Jer. v. 7. With pronouns; HJ"^ where, Esth. vii. 5, 
1 Sam. ix. 18, Is. 1. 1 ; ^ ^"m nj">g which way 
went he? 1 Kings xiii. 12 ; rtflK TJ7 njZp'NK from what 
city (art) thou? 2 Sam. xv. 2 ; flj^T ^$ how knowest 
thou? 2 Sam. i. 5; in?. nZP8 how can we know? Deut. 
xviii. 21, &c. 

10. It also occurs with a paragogic n, ^?.N : as, E^^n n 
where (are) the men ? Gen. xix. 5. 

11. This particle is sometimes expressive of desire, admiration, 
lamentation, expostulation, insult, or negation, as is also the case 
with most of the interrogative pronouns : as, 'tJ'T T.^ where is 
Jehovah/ Jer. ii. 8. (desire) T'Ji?'? "^^ T^ where is now my hope! 
Job xvii. 15. ^"75$? ^T^ how hast thou perished! Ezek. xxvi. 17, 

On the Definite Article n. 

180. The Hebrews have the fragment of some word, H, 
lich they prefix to others for the purpose of restricting, 
or otherwise modifying, their signification, as will pre- 
sently be seen. 

* In Persian, Sanscrit, and some other Oriental languages <_$i is an inter- 

S 5 

jection O, Oh, &c. In Arabic ^ has the same meaning as in Hebrew, viz. 
Quisnam, quis, quod, &c. 

170 LECTURE ix. [[ART. iso. 2. 

2. Some have supposed this particle to be an abbreviation of the 
pronoun N^n fog, or, of one or other of the interjections 1H, ^"7, ^H 
behold. Others, again, have affirmed that it is only another form 

of the Arabic article (J'> '^, which should be written vH. In 
this case, as in many others, each party is perhaps both right and 
wrong. That both these articles have a common origin is, to me, 
extremely probable ; and, that their force is the same in both these 
languages, there can be little doubt. No good reason can be 
assigned, perhaps, why we are to derive the Hebrew form of the 
article from the Arabic one, rather than we should derive the 
Arabic one from the Hebrew. Professor Gesenius thinks, that 
there are still manifest traces of the Arabic article to be found in 
the Hebrew Bible, such, for example, as, ElprS Prov. xxx. 31, 


which he considers as equal to the Arabic *y&\ the people ; 
TTib Gen. x. 26, and "T^inbH Josh. xv. 30, which, 1 Chron. 

* ' * * 

iv. 29, is written V^- With respect to the first of these, there 
seems to be but little necessity for supposing the syllable '*? to be 

the Arabic article u\. The interpretation of Schultens, Hiller, and 
others, who suppose vN to be the prohibitive particle here, 
appears to me to answer the intention of the Sacred Writer much 
better. With respect to the proper names "H'iEyN, and "Ij?^?^, 
the particle '*? or vN is sufficiently applicable, without having 
recourse to the Arabic article. The circumstance of vN being 
omitted in one place, in the parallel passage, is nothing more than 
what is found to happen in other words and phrases, and particu- 
larly in proper names (See Art. 170. 9, &c.). 

3. Another particular dwelt upon is, that in Hebrew the letter 
following the article is almost always doubled ; and, that in Arabic, 
the b of the article is so assimilated to the following letter, in many 
cases, that the first letter of the word may be said to be doubled : 

as, E?Bn in Hebrew, and ^^1 pronounced N i n Arabic, 

both signifying the sun. It might be suggested : In Hebrew the 
imperfect vowel ( - ), with which this article is usually attended, 
makes it necessary that the following letter be doubled, in order to 
complete the syllable commencing with the article, (Art. 33.). In 

* Storr. Observ., &c., p. 121. 

ART. 180. 4.3 ON THE PA11TICLES. 171 

Arabic, the ' of the article must according to rule either be pro- 
nounced or not. In many instances it must be pronounced : it is 
only in others, that the sound of ' is merged in that of the suc- 
ceeding letter ; and to this no parallel is to be found in Hebrew. 
I am of opinion, therefore, that the Arabs have introduced the v of 
the article, and not, that the Hebrews have rejected it.* 

4. The article is regularly prefixed with Pdthakh 
(-), occasionally with Kdmets (T) or Segol () : as, 
vil^n the great ; D*Jljn the man, or D^JS?? ^ ie c ^ies. 

5. Whenever any letter capable of receiving Dagesh 
follows the article, it will be doubled by that mark, and 
the article will take Pdthakh ; i^$n the sun. 

b. I . 
_. , ., . , 9, or f , (with Shevd) are frequently found so 

situated without Dagesh : as, nS^lZ^rr the salvation, Ps. iii. 9 ; 
"iN^n the river, Exod. vii. IS, &c. Where the euphonic accent is 
also omitted. 

7. Of words commencing with V, E^/H the Levites, Num. 
iii. 12. With P, "N^Pp the teacher, Ps. cxliv. 1 ; ntllpnEn the 
proclaimers (fern.) of good news, Ps. Ixviii. 12. Yet we have 
2|ttft?n the insane, 2 Kings ix. 11; n339pn the delicate woman, 
Jer. vi. 2; flEj^pn the adulteress, Ezek. xvi. 32, and D>btp2^n 
the cooks, Ib. xlvi. 24, &c. With ? : as, D^T^rj the frogs, 
Exod. vii. 29. Yet we have VjTI?^ the frog, Exod. viii. 2. In 
most of these instances, it is probable the negligence of the tran- 
scribers has been the sole cause of the omissions. 

8. If, however, either of the letters H , n, O r ^, follow such 
letter, Dagesh is mostly expressed : as, E <1 "jP'" 1 ?'^ the Jens, &c. 

9. But, when any letter incapable of receiving Dagesh follows 
the article, it will take the perfect vowel corresponding to (-) in 
order to complete its syllable : as, EPMn the man ; E7"~)n the head; 

in, &c. 

* In the Commentary on the Kafia by Moolla Jami, published at Calcutta, 
in 1818, it is cited as the opinion of El Mobarrad, that S is the original form 
of the article, and that the v has been added, in order to distinguish it from 

the interrogative, S, \, p. f. The words are, 
yts MJ (^.iuu Ji/JJ + 

172 LECTURE ix. [[ART. iso. it). 

10. In many instances, however, when H or H follows, (-}is still 
retained : as, "H^n that which proceedelh, Gen. ii. 14 ; '"ftOp the 
living creature, Gen. viii. 1. In all which cases (-) will either be 
sustained by an accent, or must be considered as placing an 
implicit Ddgesh in the following letter (Art. 109.). 

11. In words, not monosyllables, commencing with ^ , H, or 37 , 
and having Kdmets (T), the article usually takes (): as, ^-j?^^ 
the wise man ; D s "JJ^n the cities (Art. 114.) 

12. When such words are monosyllables the former rule pre- 
vails : as, ^J7"7 I? 16 mountain ; D ]?<7 ^ ie people, Par. 9. 

13. The letter H, however, having (T) of (n) in monosyllables, 
will mostly prefix the article with ^v) : as. "'nri 1 Kings iii. 22, 23 
(where it also occurs, ^H) ; rPITinn the wastes, Ezek. xxxvi. 35. 
The word VT?? earth, always takes (T) with the article, and changes 
its first (v) to (T) for the sake of euphony : as, VT???7 ^ ie ear th. 

14. On the use of the article we shall speak particu- 
larly when we come to the Syntax. It will suffice 
for the present to remark, that its offices appear to 
be two : one, to mark the noun to which it is prefixed, 
as already known and definite, either from the con- 
text, or from general consent: as, "ll^H ^ ie tight, Gen. 
i. 4 ; or, D?g$n the heavens, Ib. i. 1 ; ng^H* n ira/)0W, 
Is. vii. 14, &c. : the other, for the purpose of impressing 
upon the mind of the Hearer or Reader, the peculiar 
properly, nature, character, &c., of the noun to which 
it is prefixed : as, "H-C 1 an an ^ ma ^ remarkable for its 
properties as a lion, 1 Sam. xvii. 34. So Ib. 31^ n a 
very bear. So, passim D^^XJT the real or true God, 
In this sense it is occasionally used as a vocative : 
as, /J^n, the Being designed as Lord Possessor, or the 
like, 1 Kings xviii. 26. So, in the N. Test, o 0^?, Heb. 
i. 8. Apoc. xv. 3, &c. 

* The Jews and some of the German Divines have thought, that in this, 
and some other cases, the article is equivalent to the Demonstrative pronoun 
this, the intention of which however has been, to got rid of a certain unpala- 
table doctrine. 

ART. 180. 15.] ON THE PARTICLES. 173 

15. This particle is also said to occur in the sense of the Latin 
versus, when found either prefixed or postfixed, or both, to words : 
as, ffpEnn towards Ramah, 1 Sam. vii. 17 ; E^ritpbs L* to, or towards, 
the Philistines, Ib. xiii. 20 ; "T^H to the city, Ib. xx. 40, 42 ; 
iSN rnb n Y? N '7 to the tent of Sarah his mother* Gen. xxiv. 67. 
To which many others might be added. In these instances, how- 
ever, it is very doubtful whether the article does not retain its 
original signification, the noun following being considered as com- 
plementary to some preceding verb : as, Josh. viii. 19, "^V7 ^"^*- 
and they entered THE city, &c., or, by the preposition ' being 
understood. The following examples will tend to confirm this 
opinion, in which, according to Buxtorf,-j- the preposition is to be 
supplied ; Q.v^^l N 12*1 anc [ fr e came (to) Jerusalem, 1 Kings iii. 15 ; 
TJJT3 Ml'aM / mill enter thy house, Ps. v. 8 ; nirP JT2 1jb$n bs1 
and the king went up (to) the house of Jehovah, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 30 ; 

'?!* EN^I and he (caused them to enter) brought them to Babylon, 
Jer. xxviii. 3. 

16. The passages in which H occurs postfixed to words, and in 
which it is said to have the signification of versus, are numerous ; 
yet, it must not be dissembled, that passages which must be so con- 
strued, but in which this particle is not found, are also numerous. 
Noldius is of opinion, that it is nothing more than a paragogic 
letter, added for the mere sake of Euphony ; or, with the view of 
giving some emphasis : and, if this latter be the case, it will be the 
definite article, as used in the Chaldaic and Syriac.J Buxtorf 
holds, that it is not paragogic, because, says he, " tales literae nihil 
ad vocem consignificant." 

17. When this particle is postfixed, it does not take the accent, 
in which particular it differs from the feminine affix n . The fol- 

This sentence is elliptical, for ftS rn ilN nrTMH. See Gen. 

ii. 22, &c. npvi Vp bj?n . 

t Thesaurus Grammaticus, lib. ii. cap. xii. Reg. v. See also Hilleri. Onom., 
p. 339. 

J 71 paragogicum nil nisi pronunciantis nisus est, qui vel impetum et ten- 
dentiam ad locum objecturave aliud ; vel admirationem magnitudinis, aut, in 
negativis, exiguitatis rei significat; vel ob soni saltern suavitatem vocibus 
adjicitur." Concord, part. Ed. 1734, p. 217, note. 

Thesaur. Gram., p. 568. 

174 LECTURE IX. CART. 181> 

lowing are a few examples of its occurrence : FTO^T^E) to 
Gen. xii. 10, 14, &c. ; n^lptt^rr towards heaven, Gen. xv. 5, xxviii. 
11, &c. ; n ~)V^ into the river, Exod. i. 22 ; <~n2ns>n towards the 
desert, Exod. iv. 27, &c. In these cases it is said by some to be 
equivalent to the Syriac and Chaldaic S, which either makes the 
noun definite to which it is attached, or gives some emphasis to the 

On the Numerals. 

181. The last species of nouns, of which we have to 
treat, are the numerals : these are of two kinds : 1st, 
those which designate the number of persons or things to 
be thus defined, and are termed the Cardinal Numbers ; 
and, 2d, those which determine the order in which they 
are to be taken : as, first, second, &c., which are termed 
the Ordinal Numbers. 

2. The Cardinal Numbers are designated in Hebrew 
by substantives put either in apposition, or in the state of 
construction, with others designating the persons or 
things to be numbered : and they have this peculiarity, 
that those which designate the numbers from three to 
ten inclusively, generally take the feminine form with 
masculine nouns ; and, vice versa, the masculine form 
with feminine nouns. But of this more will be said in 
the Syntax. The decimal numbers may be considered as 
adjectives or epithets. 

Table of both the Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 


M :i-i . Abs. Constr. Fern. Abs. Constr. 

nrm nrm 

ART. 181. 2.]] 



Masc. Abs. 


Fena. Abs. 



Masc,, com. gen., twenty, D^.^JJ ; thirty, 

^3"|K ; ^fy, D^DPl ; sixty, D* 1 ^^ ; seventy, 
5^ ; eighty, D^jJfal^ ; ninety, D^^]l ; a hundred, 
$D, constr. r\KQ ; /wo hundred, D^tfE for D^SO ; 

IT . i- : .1- I- T . 

thousand, ^78 ; ^00 thousand, D^S/^ ; few thousand, 

or s1 "i"?' n "l or 


Masc. Fem. 











3. The rest of the Ordinal Numbers are made by the terms 
appropriated to the Cardinal ones : as, fnttTO rinNH n2B7n the 
eleventh year ; so, D ^ "^V ""^?r^ the seventeenth day. 

4. In some other cases also the Cardinal Number has been pre- 
ferred : as, "fHM DV day one, i. e. the first day ; O^tf 

176 LECTURE ix. [[ART. isi. 5. 

second year ; so, ^?$^ ^3^7 the seventh year. But these are pro- 
bably elliptical expressions, see Lev. xxv. 10, 11. E^KOn ^3^? 
<^2C? the year of jifty years, i.e. the f/tlelh. And Gen. vii. 11, 
713B? rriHE'ltfl? riSttfel i n the year of six hundred years, i. e. in the 
six hundredth year. 

5. The decimal numerals ending in & : as, E'HtpE are never 
found taking the form for construction, ^"?.^??, &c. (Art. 143. 7.) 

6. When the feminine form occurs in these numerals, distribution 
or parcels consisting each of that number of persons or things, is 
intended to be conveyed : as, JThtt?^ "nttf"] and chiefs of the tens, 
Exod. xviii. 25. 

7. The intermediate numbers from ten to twenty, 
twenty to thirty, &c. are made by connecting a decimal 
with an unit, in the following manner. 

Masc. Frm. 



Twelve, Ij^JI/ 








8. In a few cases "TpM J s found as the absolute form : as, 

I^? <o owe o/ them, Deut. xxviii. 55. So 2 Kings ix. 1, 
Ezek. xlvi. 1 7, Zech. xi. 7, &c. 

9. In two instances this word is found defectively written, Ezek. 
xviii. 10, nN ; and Ib. xxxiii. 30, "TH. 

10. The feminine form nnN, when found at the end of a sen- 
tence with the accent Athnakh, or Segol, is written J" 1 ^. See 
Exod. xxxvi. 10, where it occurs twice. 

ART. 181. 11.1 ON THE NUMERALS. 177 

11. This word (ins) is also found in the plural: as, 
E^ITnN dictiones WKJS, like mceniis unis in Latin, Gen. xi. 1, it. 
Ib. xxvii. 44, xxix. 20, Ezek. xxxvii. 17, Dan. xi. 20; EVHtt? is 
put for Q?(???^ the 3 being dropped, and its loss supplied by 
Ddgesh (not forte, Art. 76.). 

12. From twenty to thirty, &c., the intermediate nu- 
merals are formed thus : 

Com. IWasc. Fern.* 




Four-and-forty , 




Eighty-eight, D^Jb^l Hjlbi^ njlb# 


13. And the hundreds, &c., thus : 

Com. gen 

Three hundred, 

Four ditto, 

Five ditto, 

Three thousand, 

Four ditto, \ 

Five ditto, 

Twice ten thousand, 

Twenty thousand, 

Ten times ten thousand, 

A hundred thousand, *v>$ HND r 

Six hundred thousand, ? 

See No. 2. above, 


178 LECTURE x. CART. isi. 14. 

14. The Cardinal Numerals from three to ten inclusive, require 
the word designating the thing numbered to be put in the plural 
number : all the others require the singular. Examples, 

D'Ottf five years and a hundred year, Gen. v. 6 ; 
naDttfa D^tp seven years and eight hundred year, Ib. 7. 

Some instances occur in which this rule is not observed : as, 
a^Bhp D-nip^ twenty planks, Exod. xxxvi. 23 ; D^B* B^Oq 
fifty shekels, Josh. vii. 21 ; ^M flBa"]^ D'HJpB twenty and /our 
thousand, 1 Chron. xxvii. 1 ; H32? ttforn. bnZWpa a so of twenty 
and five years, i. e. a man five and twenty years old. So D'HIPE 
n3tp Sttfrn twenty and nine years, 2 Kings xiv. 2. But of this 
more will be said in the Syntax. 

15. When the decimal number takes the precedence, the con- 
junction 1 is used: as n V : ? l ?H B^? 1 ? seventy and seven; D^^n 
nt&t&l ninety and six, Ezr. viii. 35, &c. 

16. When the numerals are to be used distributively, they are 
repeated like other nouns : as, D??27 O^3tE two and two, i. e. by 
twos; H^M D^Oq D^Btori by fifties, or, every fiftieth man. 

17. Numerals signifying the repetition of any quantity or thing, 
are generally expressed by the dual number : as, E?pV?"]^ four- 
fold; Qlp^r 1 ^ seven-fold, or, seven times repeated. 



182. WE now come to treat on the Hebrew Verbs, 
and to shew, first, In what way they appear to have been 
formed; and, secondly, To delineate and explain their 
several conjugations. 

2. The verb, we believe (See Art. 146.), is, in its 
crude state, nothing more than a noun of one form or 


other,* and, that its signification will be regulated by 
that peculiar to the form of the noun to which it belongs, 
whether that form be primitive or derived. 

3. If, therefore, we have the means of knowing what 
signification is to be attached to the different forms of the 
primitive nouns, as also how the augmented forms are 
derived, and what sense they will bear ; we shall also 
know, to what class the verb itself is to be referred, and 
what must be its general force and meaning. 

4. In our Lectures on the forms and derivation of 
nouns, we laid before the Student all that appeared 
necessary on that subject, leaving it to his own industry 
to follow out the enquiry to any extent he might think 
proper. We now come to shew how this bears on the 
question before us. 

5. The different forms of the verb, as found generally 
in use, amount to seven ; four of these have an active, 
and three a passive (and sometimes a reciprocal) signi- 

* Kimkhi says in the Mikhlol. fol. 3. verso, 

us 1 * brsn >3 bssb n-np Dttrnttf 'a bs r\vn nbnra 
mpB IBS bscm onpnn Nona n^n IBS on *o YIBM 

" I first proceed to write the chapter on the Grammar of verbs, although the 
noun precedes the verb : for the verb proceeds from the noun. And they say, 
that the noun is, like the body, the subject of accident; but, that the verb (may 
be considered) as the accident (only).'' And again, fol. fc^p verso. 13 ... .y^ 

IN bsnsn p -itro Nino? aa? onE BP cppbn o^aa? on 
itaa ottf sinttf '-jb^ 'tfyQ$ 'jaiM"} 1122 "3n 
ja b^iDn -itaa Qnb tD^iim 'aba? 'a-in 'n^^rs '^ah nan 

1 T T T T 

i.e. "Observe that nouns are of two sorts. There are those which are either 
derived from verbs, or, from which verbs are derived: as, Reuben, Simeon, 
Zebulon, each of which is derived from a verb ; DDn wise ; VE7~' wicked '; 

, . T T ^ T T 

P <lt l? j" s ^ >' ^nn sM-orrf ; 2vj^ xrunv, and the like, are nouns from which 
verbs are derived." 

x 2 

180 LECTURE X. [[ART. 132. 6. 

6. The first of these has been termed Kal, ^p i. e. 
levis, light; because the root is here exhibited in its 
simple state. Verbs of this species are either active or 

7. In this conjugation, or species, as we shall term it, 
three forms are in use, which may be represented by the 
measures "Tj?_S, "Fjjjji, and "TpS, corresponding to the forms 
of nouns given in Artt. 153." Ff. II. III. X.* 

8. Again, in this, as in every other species of the con- 
jugation of Hebrew verbs, two tenses only are found ; 
namely, the Past, and the Present. 

9. The leading form in every species will designate 
the third person singular of the masculine gender of the 
Preterite Tense ; and, in Kal, this will always be a 
primitive noun of the form *fpS, "Tp.S, or "TpS. 

10. The leading form proper for the present tense 
of this species, is always a noun of one or other of the 
primitive Segolates ; as, "Tp, "Tpj?>, or "TpJ|! (See Art. 
148, &c.), which, when combined with one or other of 
the pronouns, will present both the vowels, and signifi- 
cation, proper for this species of the conjugation. 

183. The next species, taken in the usual order, is 
termed Niphhdl, 7J53, because, as it should seem, that 
word presents the conjugation itself of the word formerly 
taken as a paradigm for the verbs in general, which was 
7Jt/>. This forms the objective voice of the foregoing. 

* A similar variety, in the vowels proper for the medial radical letter of the 
root, exists in the Arabic, where, as in the Hebrew, the first generally 

denotes transitive verbs; as, *&> he assisted; the second, verbs of sense : as, 

~ s ' ' "> ' ^ 

A*M he heard; >^f he, was glad; the third, implies habit; as, * fie ivas 
generous, &c. So, ^pj3 fie visited ; n?3P he was glad ; 73^ lie was powerful. 

ART. 183. y.]] ON THE VERBS. 181 

2. This species, according to our system, is an aug- 
mented word, combined of two others, affording both 
the form and sense peculiar to this conjugation (See Artt. 
157. 18, 19, &c. 162. Ff. I. II.) ; "Tj33, therefore, will be 
the measure generally taken for the leading form of the 
Preterite Tense of this species ; as, "TpJM he was, or 
became, visited. 

3. The Present Tense of this species is formed on the 
measure Tj^? (for "TP^n Artt. 157. 18. 162, &c.) ; 
which, with the abbreviated form of the pronoun of the 
third person sing. masc. will be "fj?.^. he is or becomes 
visited, and, by Art. 76. "TjJ1. 

4. The third species has been termed Pihel 
This is always of the active voice, and has, for the most 
part, a transitive signification (See Art. 154. 7, 8, &c.). 
The measure proper for the leading person of the Prete- 
rite is *Tj?., which is one of the augmented and inten- 
sitive forms given under Art. 154. 4, &c. 

5. The form proper for the leading person of the 
Present Tense is of the cognate form, Ib. Form I. lj?2, 
which, with the abridged form of the pronoun, will 
become "Tfp.J5\ 

6. The objective species peculiar to this class of verbs 
is termed Puhdl ^S. Its leading word will be of the 
measure *!$%, and will always be a noun of the form 
given in Art. 154. Form V. This may be termed the 
fourth Species. 

7. The fifth species is termed Hiphhil rJJ^fi, the 
leading form of which is cognate with those of the 
augmented nouns given Art. 160 : that proper for the 
Preterite being of the measure *Tf?$PJ, for the Present, 
"HJWj for the force of which see Art. 157. 2 9. 

8. The sixth, and the objective of Hiphhil, is termed 
Hophhal TJJjjn. This takes, for the leading word of 

182 LECTURE X. [ART. 183. 9. 

both tenses, a noun of the augmented form "Tpj^n . See 
Artt. 157. 10. 160. F. VII. having an objective signifi- 

9. The seventh and last species is termed Hithpdhel, 
^jJin, which, as before, is the form taken in the old 
paradigm *?J[73 in this species. Our form is "Tjj!j3Jpn. 
The leading forms proper for both tenses, will always be 
of this measure, affording the sense common to nouns of 
this form, See Artt. 157. 1319. 164. Ff. I. II. 

184. These are the forms of the several Species of the Conju- 
gation of Hebrew verbs, as usually given in the Grammars. But 
to these a few others may be added: which, as they occur less 
frequently, have been considered anomalous. They are, how- 
ever, according to our view of the subject, just as regular in their 
formation as those already mentioned : and, although they occur 
less frequently, which might easily be accounted for, they are quite 
as consistent with the analogy of the language, as any verbs can 
possibly be. 

2. These additional species are thought to be analogous to those 
of Pthel, Puhdl, and Hithpdhel, because some reduplication of the 
letters or syllables of the root is generally found to take place in 
them, as it does in those forms; and, consequently, affording 
a similar shade of signification, although the same letters are not 
always doubled, nor the same vowels always found to accompany 

3. It has been remarked (Art. 154. 5.), that nouns of excess 
formed from roots having 1 or "* for their middle radical letter, or, 
which have the same letter in the second and third of the root, 
usually take the forms "^', for the active, and TjL , f r tne 
passive signification: as, Ettlp, TjJii, 2niD, for the active; and, 
E?*P, 7^*21, ^^'^> for the passive of these words, respectively. 

4. Instead of "TJ99 , and "J|9S, therefore, which are the measures 
proper for the species Plhel and Puhdl, we shall always have these 
forms from roots of this description ; and here the same form is 
taken for the leading word of each tense respectively; Ettlp, DJSlp^ 
active, and E^P, D^P"1 , objective. 

5. The first of these forms is also taken for the Hilhpdliel 
species, i. e. instead of "I^SO'7 , we shall have "niQrin , for the 
measure ; as, Dp^POH , ^la^n ; and so of others. 

ART. 185.]] ON THE VKltBS - 183 

185. There is, moreover, a considerable number of forms pecu- 
liar to certain verbs, as laid down by Schultens and Schrceder, and, 
before them, by David Kimkhi and other Grammarians : of these 
some notice should be taken. These writers, then, have supposed 
these forms of the conjugation to have sometime existed ; and, 
hence, they have proceeded to derive nouns of similar forms from 
them, even when the verb itself has not occurred ; all of which 
seems to me to be proceeding in an inverted order. According to 
our system, the addition of one or other of the pronouns to any 
noun, simple or augmented, will always have the effect of investing 
it with the powers of a verb ; and hence it probably is, that we 
occasionally find this done both in the Hebrew and all its dialects. 
This will sufficiently account for these rare augmented forms, as 
also for those instances in which nouns, which were originally the 
mere names of substances, are found acting as verbs in these 

2. But, to come to these remaining and rarer forms, which are 
sometimes found as verbs : "TjjJQOi^, is the passive form of "^10'? , 
just as ~ r i?J? ! 7 or "T?- 5 ?'? , is of ^r?"?. Of this [form, we have 
Hteten (for NStorin Art. 83. 1.) rendered impure, or polluted; prim, 
noun, NZ313. So rntfHn ma de fat, for n^E^On I s . xxxiv. 6, 
where, however, the Ddgesh proper for the & is omitted. 

3. Another form given by Schroeder is "Ti?.NQ, from which we 
have only a noun supposed to be derived from this species of the 
verb, viz. ^^? perfidious, Jer. iii. 7, 10. This, therefore, does 
not occur as a species of the Conjugation : it is also doubtful, 
whether it is to be referred to the form given by this excellent 
Grammarian. Surely, as the ( T ) is immutable, Y)pSQ would be 
the more suitable measure. 

4. Another form is lijWBJpn . Of this is VTpSJp'J , and ITflBJjin , 
occurring Judg. xx. 15. 17. But here we have no necessity for in 
troducing a new form ; the omission of Ddgesh in the P, which 
might have been merely accidental, would make it necessary that 
the preceding vowel should be a perfect one (Art. 32.). This 
form, therefore, may be considered as belonging to Hithpdhel, 
which has already been considered (Art. 183. 9.). 

5. The next form given by Schroeder is "TpNSJ^n, O r "T^nn, 
which may be referred to the first of these forms (No. 2.), with the 
additional consideration, that the Ddgesh proper for P has been 

184 LECTURE X. AUT. 185. G. 

omitted, and supplied as in the last. The examples occur, Num. 
i. 47, 1 Kings xx. 27, &c. 

6. His two next forms, viz. "fi^B and "fp'lB having a reciprocal 
sense, are not supported by the passages adduced. We may 
dismiss them, therefore, without further enquiry. 

7. The next form, "T/yJBJjin , should have been "TTiBJJin, i,i s 
example being vbiSHPT , which is manifestly derived from the root 
V?|. See Art. 184.' 5. 

8. In the form T^B. , as exemplified in ^!^ , and '<!? , we have, 
I believe, nothing more than a form equivalent to T^B , in which 
the Dagesh being omitted, we have a perfect vowel supplied to 
compensate for the defect thus occasioned. See Art. 109. 

9. The next form given is "TJ^B , which Schrceder exemplifies by 
vHin Is. xliv. 20 : but this does not occur as a verb. 

10. Of his next form "^i??, no example occurs; vM^tZ? a s 
given by him is fictitious. The noun is vMEtp left hand, &c. : 
which, when augmented, becomes '"^Tptpn , signifying to proceed 
in that direction. Whether Schrceder's derivation of it from vBK? } 
be correct or not, may be matter for dispute. 

11. We next have "T^P?, and the example given 7,3?7 green, 
which is said to be put for 13V"! , or 1,?.^*"! . But all this is ex- 
tremely doubtful. The noun appears to be merely one of those 
augmented by the addition of j (see Art. 168.) ; OB'Jp for Dp*]!?, 
as Schrceder has put it, we think comes more properly under ano- 
ther form, which, however, is nothing more than a noun. 

12. His next form Til"?? > has, for the same reason, no connection 
with EE ip. And the other example given is manifestly a noun, 

'?P^, and is referable to the compound form (Art. 169. 7.). 

13. The form TTpBrirT should rather have been "TTiB^n, in 
order to admit of the form c p %1 pf? l '7. But, as we have already 
considered this form (Art. 184. 5.), we need not dwell any longer 
on it here. 

14. The form "t|7-1i2 Q , is that of a reduplicated noun (Art. 169.), 
which is often conjugated as a verb : as, ~>p"inp travelling about as 
a merchant, &c. of which examples will be given hereafter. 

15. With respect to the other forms, viz. "^P 1 ?, ^l?.-?*?, "^PP, 
the first does not occur, and the rest have been given under the 

ART. 186-3 ON THE VERBS. 185 

different forms of the noun, and accounted for ; we need not, 
therefore, add any thing further on them now.* 

186. The forms., therefore, proper for the leading 
words of all the species of the conjugation now in use 
will be as follows : 


objective or 

'" : ' reciprocal. 

Simple, or translated, sense 
of the root. 

-v Transitive, when the root in 

!P) active, C **?,. u- I Kal is not so - Sometimes 

causal, &C. 4.7 ~l?-r OD J eC Ve> \ intensitive, frequentative, or 

[ ( f MB^.,. ; i even causal. Names of sub- 

i- " j stances often take this form 

when converted into verbs. 

active, C "Tp.5^ objective. i Causative. Transitive. Al- 

causal, &C. 6 < ' OT^ > 80 lhe form assumed by 

many substantives when used 
as verbs. 

* In the cognate dialects of the Hebrew, viz. the Arabic, Ethiopic, Syriac, 
and Chaldaic, we have a considerable number of forms seldom found in the 
common Grammars. In Erpenius's Arabic Grammar, we have only thirteen 
forms of the triliteral, and four of the quadriliteral, verb. In M. de Sacy's 
Grammar, we have two more noticed in the triliteral verbs, four under the 
quadriliterals, and a few others, which are said to belong to the triliterals, but 
which have been augmented by a letter or two. Scheidius gives upwards of 
forty forms in his " Primse Lineae Institutionum Arabicarum." Lugd. Batav. 
1779. And Mr. Lumsden, in his elaborate Volume on Arabic Grammar, has 
given a list of still greater extent, amounting to fifty (Gram., p. 162, &c.), from 
which it appears, that it has often been a matter of difficulty with the native 
Grammarians to determine, whether many of these should be referred to tri- 
literal or quadriliteral roots. Some of them do not occur more than once ; 
and this should suggest, that the language itself acknowledges no such conju- 
gations generally ; but, on the contrary, that nouns of these forms have occa- 
sionally been made to occupy the situation of verbs. 



CART. iso. 2. 




or &c. 


very rare. 


^"^Srin objective. -\ 

Op { Reciprocal. Passive. Rt 

f flective occasionally. 


I 12 


PfkJlfcT or "P"I? nCUter ' 

H neuter. 



Frequentative, Intensitive, 
or the like. 


Habit, or custom, it occurs 
however but seldom ; and, 
therefore, little can be laid 
as to its general force. 

2. But, for particulars, as to their several significations, 
see Artt. 183. 184. &c., with the references. 

3. It must be borne in mind, that any change occur- 
ring in the forms of the nouns, with respect either to the 
vowels or consonants, will also occur when they are used 
as verbs : i. e. whenever any guttural letter occurs in the 
root, certain changes may take place on that account in 
the vowels : even the consonants ''irTN, as well as the 

* It is remarkable enough, that some cases occur in the Arabic, in which 
L> ; n, occurs, even when the verb has already been augmented by that 

letter : as, 

O r it #os cut. The same excess occurs in the word 

( resembled, in which the additional *-> is implied in the ( - ) 
teshdeed pver the (Z . 

f In Arabic we also have verbs augmented by (*, E, as 


as in the phrases 'iU^***^? *^' *"*'*"./* " ^ a .V God make 
matters broad and easy for you." Lumsden's Arab. Gram., pp. 147, 154, in 
which there can be no doubt these words are nouns. 

ART. 187.]] ON THE VERBS. 187 

letters 2 and 7, may disappear in certain cases : of these 
we shall give examples hereafter, when we come to detail 
the forms of the conjugation at length ; we shall then 
point out the rules on which these changes, &c. are 

187. It should be premised, that there are in the 
Hebrew, as in other languages, three persons, each of 
the singular and plural number : that, in the verbs, there 
is no dual number ; and, that the second and third 
persons, both singular and plural, have forms peculiar 
to both genders. The first person is, under one form, 
common to both genders ; as in the pronouns (Art. 
145. 2.). 

2. These distinctions, however, do not arise out of the 
root itself, but out of the pronouns which are either pre- 
fixed or postfixed to it in an abbreviated form. 

188. Paradigm of the Preterite Tense of a Verb, conjugated 
with the Pronouns in the First Species, or KAL,. 

First Form, *Tj?|) visiting^ 


/"the same in the 

S the primitive concrete noun. PJ"TP3-< fern. gen. (Art. 

" ( 136.4.). 


Pers. Masc. Fern. 

/the same in the 

* This, according to D. Kimkhi, is the form taken by certain nouns : as, 
D3n wise; 37 2TJ wicked; v^D intelligent, &c. The only difference being 
that the noun ends in Kamtts, whereas the verb ends in Pathakh. But, he 
goes on to say, that the noun will end in Kam6ts, when at the end of a verse 
or accompanied by certain accents: as, ~)pN "1?7S3 as he had said, Gen. 
xxi. 1.; 3E7J fc$b has not sat, Ps. i. 1. There are also instances pointed out 
by him, in which Kamets is the terminating vowel, just as it is in the noun, 
when neither the position of the word, nor the accent, requires any change in 
the vowels: as, 1 Sam. vii. 17, bjtfnipyTlfr? BQIP DIP there he judged Israel. 
To which he adds a number of similar examples. Mikhlol. fol. 71, verso, et 
fol. 1, in which we have Kamets with the accent Zakef. 

188 LECTURE x. ART. iss. 2. 


Masc. Fem. 

for n 

) unknown. "'FTTpE) as Before. 

I-T " :M-T 


3 iiPB for mn or in ipa ( Art - 139 - 7 ) vrpa as before - 

I ' I T * I V * I ~ T 

2 Drn^ op 1 ^ "^i?.? 5 ffili?? for \$$ 

as before- 

2. In the other forms, viz. *TJ?.2 and "TftS in this tense, 
the final vowel is considered as mutable. The conju- 
gation, therefore, will proceed thus : 

Second Form, ^DPI willing^ 


p erg . Masc. Fern. Masc. Fem. 

3 ypn njjsjn 

* The pronouns of the second and first persons sing, and pi. have been 
abbreviated by Art. 73. The third sing, raasc. and fern, is merely the noun. 
In the third pi. the H is dropt also by Art. 73. The 3 of the first pers. pi. 
is rejected by Art. 76 ; and the guttural H is omitted, perhaps for the sake of 

f Of this form are the following : VP7 fermenting, 7|?T. old, tP^ dry, 
Mjb hating, npfo rejoicing, N^a filling, D5 defective, CEJN guilty, b^n 
ceasing, ]3n hypocritical, IDPI defective, ^H cutting wood, Npt3 impure, 
bj5!J withering, IZ7EJ3? corroding, *?P)!J becoming dry, rptt? forgetting, 
desolating, ^,5527 humbling; to which many more may be added. 

ART. 18$. 5.3 ON THE VERBS. 189 

Third Form, *? jj able* 

3 h'^ nhy to to 


2 ' 

3. It may be observed, in general, that the conjugation 
of the preterite tense of every species, will be carried on 
just as in the instances here given ; that is, by attaching 
the same abbreviations of the personal pronouns to the 
leading word of the species, whatever be its form or 
character ; whether it include one or more of the 
guttural letters, or whether it be defective by the loss of 
one or more of the letters ^HN, 7, or 3 : due regard 
being had to the rules laid down respecting these letters, 
as well as to those concerning the changes of the vowels. 
The conjugation, therefore, is but ONE, however varied 
the ground form or leading word may occasionally 

4. As the changes which take place in the vowels in the conju- 
gation depend, in a great measure, on the situation of the accent, 
it may be proper here to advert to that subject. 

5. It has been remarked, that in neither of the preceding 
leading words are the vowels immutable by usage. The nature 
of the syllabication, therefore, which very much depends on the 
situation of the accent, will regulate the vowels (Artt. 96. 96, 

6. It will be seen by a reference to the paradigm, that the 
asyllabic adjuncts H , -V-, as well as the syllabic ones D^l and 

* These, according to D. Kimkhi, (Mikhlol, fol. n), are of the same form 
with v"H2 great, "Jl^p small, pirjn distant, 2"i~lp near. The words so 
found as verbs are, "liP fearing, ^lSf7 /iM/e, 2?p^ snaring as a hunter, vlp^ 
able, b^ttJ bereaved, TiM lighting, for TIM , 232 stealing ; some of which occu r 
as nouns. 

190 LECTURE x. ART. 188. 7. 

1l~, take the tonic accent with them. The preceding vowels, 
therefore, of these words, will be shortened as far as circumstances 
will allow (Art. 98, &c.). In the first case, the vowel immediately 
preceding is rejected, in order to make way for the exertion of the 
accent ; and, as this restricts the word to its primitive quantity, 
there is no necessity that any further change should take place : 
we have, therefore, ""^i?f? and ^"JP? , in these instances. In the 
second case, we have the syllabic adjuncts EH, and 1& , with 
the tonic accent. The preceding syllable must, therefore, contain 
an imperfect vowel, in order to comply with the laws of syllabi- 
cation (Art. 33.). And as the first vowel is not immutable, it is 
rejected : the whole word still retaining its primitive quantity, i. e. 
consisting of two syllables, as in the former case, and no more. 

7. In all the other cases, the accent retains its original situation: 
and, as the noun seems here to be in apposition, not in con- 
struction, with the pronoun, the vowels remain unaltered through- 

8. Hence in the second form, exemplified by V^ willing, the 
(), when made imperfect, becomes (-) instead of (v), by what 
has been termed an oblique correspondence (Art. 96. 2.), as in 
prt^Drj, ]I??D, which is retained likewise in every other case of 
increment, in which the accent remains on that syllable. In the 
remaining cases, when the verb receives the asyllabic augment, 
Ff~, and ^7, it is rejected. 

9. The first syllable is rejected in DFlS&n, 7$??n, for the 
reasons already given. The substitute of Sheva (-) is added, on 
account of the guttural letter, see Art. 105. 4. 

10. In the third form, vD^, the vowels follow the paradigm 
of the first, and for the same reasons : except in the third person 
singular and plural, where the ' entirely disappears. 

11. When, however, verbs receive the illative particle *>* as 

* This has generally been termed Van conversivum. But, as I see no neces- 
sity whatever for supposing that it has any such conversive power as tins name 
implies, I have rejected it: as it has an illative power, however, and even in 
Arabic has a manifest influence on the vowels, and sometimes on the con- 
sonants of the verbs, I have thought it more consistent to give it the title of 
illative. See Schnabel's Commentary on the Agrumia, p. 26, where this pro- 
perty is ascribed to both j and < 9. See p. 50, note. The use and force of 
this particle will be considered in the Syntax. 

ART. 188. 12.]] ON THE VERBS. 191 

a prefix, the accent is removed to the first syllable of the verb, 
which will always be perfect, and the following one imperfect : 
as, "^Ti?^ and I will visit ; v??*l and thou rvilt be able. The last 
syllable will be subject to the same law, when the accent is 
removed on account of any affixed pronoun: as, I^V^ / have 
prevailed (against) him, Ps. xiii. 5. 

12. The () Tsere of the second form, and of the third and 
seventh species, viz. "Tij>.Q , and ^20'? , will undergo the same 
changes during the process of conjugation, as it does in V,?^ in 
the paradigm. 

13. The following examples present some anomalies, with which 
the Learner ought to be made acquainted. 

On the Third Person Singular Masculine. 

1 4. In one instance the verb n|T? drops its first radical letter : 
as, nj? he took, Ezek. xvii. 5 ; so, for T|, by a similar omission, 
we have "^1 he declined, Judg. xix. 11. But see p. 34, note. 

15. Whenever the third person singular of either gender is 
accompanied by a pause accent, the final vowel will be made 
perfect, and, in some instances changed : as, '3$\ "? he has not 
stood, Ps. i. 1 ; IfU? he dwelt, Deut. xxxiii. 12 (Art. 123. 5.). The 
same often happens in the feminine, as also in the plural number, 
whenever the accent is drawn back : as, ""^l"?^ it adheres to, Job 
xxix. 10; -TOa they were powerful, 2 Sam. i. 23 (Art. 120.): all 
apparently belonging to the roots ^\, 7p*p, or P^J, respectively. 
These may, nevertheless, be of the form "IpjQ. , although the other 
form most frequently occurs in the context. We have something 
similar to this in Gen. xliii. 14, "^pjDtt? ^^2? "lOfc even as 
1 am bereaved I am bereaved, where the first verb is of the form 
and the last of 

On the Third Person Singular Feminine. 

16. Our measure is ^Ji?f? in every case. In some few instances, 
however, we have the Chaldai'c instead of the Hebrew feminine 
termination: as, FIvTjN, instead of *V?Tj$ Deut. xxxii. 36. So 
flN^, for nS-l|7 she called; ribs, for rPj0 she made; which 
seems to shew, that this termination is not a part of the pronoun, 

192 LECTURE x. CART. 188. 17. 

but the distinctive form of the feminine gender, as stated above 
(Art. 188.). The same holds good in the Arabic dialect, where 
the feminine termination is also f"l, which cannot be derived from 
the feminine pronoun. See also Art. 137. 2. 

17. When the accent is removed from the ultimate to the 
penultimate syllable, the original vowels of the root will return : 
as, f^P? she gave, Judg. v. 25 ; ""7^? s ^ e nas glad, Est. 
viii. 15. So, n -??^-! it hath failed, Is. xli. 17, with an euphonic 
Ddgesh in the ri (Art. 120.). 

18. In Ezek. xxxi. 5, we have Nn?2 for ! ""7?iT> the Chaldai'c 
for the Hebrew termination. 

On the Third Person Plural, Common Gender. 

19. We have a final 7 sometimes added to this part of the 
verb, which is either intended to obviate a hiatus, or, as in the 
augmented nouns, to give some emphasis to the sentence : as, 
V^"JiT they knew, Deut. viii. 3 ; "PP^* for ^^ they poured out, Isa. 
xx'vi. 1C. See Art. 175. 17. 

20. In some cases this plural form appears with the vowel (\) 
and H : as, ! " T 3?nP they poured out, where the "^P, or marginal 
reading is ^PjSPi which is most likely the true one. According to 
the Masora, as cited by Buxtorf, there are fourteen such instances 
as these in the Biblical text, (Thes. Gram., p. 102.f) In a few 
cases the H is not found : as, "^?|$ they said. Art. 72. 

21. When the accent is, on any account, drawn back, the original 
vowels return : as, ^^ 'they have brought forth, Gen. xxxi. 43 ; 
^^n they ceased, Judg. v. 7 ; 1'{$ they became debased, Isaiah 
Ixiii. 19, Ixiv. 2 ; 1 '-Jr they mere able, Exod. viii. 14. In a few 
instances, a paragogic N is added : as, ^VO 7 nn J O s. x. 24 (Artt. 
119. 175. 3.). 

On the Second Person Masculine Singular. 

22. Instead of the termination ^ , we sometimes have H.FI t 
which is the more usual termination of the pronoun (Art. 145. 2.): 

* The force of this letter will be considered in the Syntax, 
f Ed. 1630. 

ART. 188. 23.3 ON THE VERBS. 193 

as, nrnia thou hast dealt perfidiously, Mai. ii. 14 ; " 1 ^ 1 ?i2? thou 
art grown old, Josh. xiii. 1, &c. 

23. Whenever the root ends in n, and also receives this prono- 
minal affix, both these letters will coalesce by Ddgesh : as, J;H3 
thou hast cut, Deut. xx. 20, for ^7? . "When 1 is the last letter 
of the root, and this or any similar suffix is added, the 1 is dropped 
(Art. 76.), and for this a compensation is made by inserting 
Ddgesh forte in the first letter of the affix ; as, nnna, for 

thou gavest, Gen. iii. 12. So, ^3, for "**???, I gave ; 
for EI3.0? you gave, &c. 

On the Second Person Singular Feminine. 

24. When the last radical letter happens to be H or 3?, (-) 
stands in the place of the first Sheva (Art. 45.): as, ^0(77, for 
^"7^7* thou didst receive, 1 Kings xiv. 3 ; Jp?EB7 thou didst hear, 
Jer. iv. 19 ; ^^ thou didst know, Jer. 1. 24. In roots ending in 
"I, that letter will be dropped as before: ^?p-J thou gavest, Ezek. 
xvi. 33. 

25. In many instances, particularly in the Books of Jeremiah 
and Ezekiel, this affix assumes the form ^ri, for fy, which is also 
a termination of the original pronoun (See Art. 145. 2. p. 161, 
note) : as, ^N^f? thou milt call, for ^ N ^/7 Jer. iii. 4 ; "*Jp?pttf thou 
hast heard, Ib. iv. 19 ; to which many others may be added. 

On the Second Person Plural Masculine. 

26. We have occasionally a Khirik with the second radical 
letter, instead of (-): as, Df? 1 ?"]'!, for^ |??^1 < ! ye shall possess, 
Deut. iv. 1 . In others (): as, "?*? y e ^sked, 1 Sam. xii. 1 3 ; 
and, as before, E0?, for E^POr 1 ye gave, Jer. xxxvii. 18 
(Art. 76.). 

On the Second Person Plural Feminine. 

27. Instead of the termination 1~> we sometimes have ^?)~ 

* In some editions only. 

194 LECTURE X. [ART. 188 ' 28> 

which is also a termination peculiar to the pronoun of this person 
(Art. 145. 2.); rurobtpn ye cast forth, Amos iv. 3. This, 
however, is an example belonging to the Hiphhil species. 

On the first Person Singular, common gender. 

28. A few verbs have Khlrtk for their second vowel : as "^"[/T* 
/ have begotten, Ps. ii. 7, for 'mV. So, ^W27* for ^V^ / 
asked, 1 Sam. i. 20. Here also, as before, (Nos. 23. 24.) roots 
ending in fl, O r 7, will reject those letters, and supply their place 
by Ddgesh. 

29. In the first person plural also, roots ending in 7 will cause 
that letter to coalesce with the 3 of the pronominal suffix : as, 
^P? (for ^pna.) me gave, Lam. v. 7. 

30. Upon the whole, then, these are rather apparent than real 
anomalies. It is consistent with the analogy of this language to 
make certain changes in the vowels, upon the occurrence of any of 
the guttural letters. The concurrence of any two identical letters 
is also regularly expressed, by placing a Ddgesh in one of them, 
and omitting the other, provided no vowel intervene (Art. 47.). 
Nun 2 likewise is regularly rejected, whenever it should receive a 
final Shevd (Art. 76.). Other varieties in the vowels may be 
accounted for, by supposing different nouns derived from the same 
primitive, to have been originally taken as the leading word. 

31. N. B. The remarks here made on the preterite tense of the 

* But perhaps these vowels do not belong to the form "Tj?-3> but "f|7.^ r 

perhaps, T*j?Q. <-i -^j> f"H5> is certi " nlv tne root > n Arabic to which 
Dflttryi must be referred ; and Ty** a son, may be the root of the second, 

and j??^, Arab. io*w a beggar, of the third. And hence, perhaps, it is 
that the same root is occasionally found with different vowels. In Arabic, 

S S ^ ' "' 

also, we have 15^*" hiding one's self; <e^" concealing something; *j 

he raised ; and f* , he was elevated, ennobled ; f>, he had a high voice, &c. 
De Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. i. p. 119. 

ART. 189.]] ON THC VliRBS. 195 

first species Kal, will apply, in a great measure, to those of all the 

On the Present Tense of the First Species KAL. 

189. It has been remarked (Art. 182. 10.) that the 
leading word of this tense in Kal is always one or other 
of the Segolate nouns of the forms IpS, "t5, or "Tj?.^. 
There are, however, a few examples in which T)j?5) is the 
form taken, as we shall see presently. These nouns are 
generally abstract as to sense (Art. 152. 10.) : if, then, a 
personal pronoun, or any abridged form of it, be affixed, 
we shall have a meaning something 1 like the following : 
He (is) a visiting ; Thou (art) a coming, &c., where the 
words visiting and coming are not used as participles 
but as abstract nouns, which must necessarily intimate 
a present tense. How this, as well as the preterite, 
tense, is used in composition, will be shewn when we 
come to the Syntax. 

Paradigm of the Present Tense. 

Form I. "fp. 

Peis. Masc. Etymon. Fem. Etymon. 

3 1p^ unknown. He visits "TpQ^ unknown. She visits. 

2 ip^'ri "rj?9 ns Thou visitest. vjg^fl ij?^ *$$ m, f em . 
visit - "r'i?b$ as ^ efore - 7 > fem - 


is. Masc. Etymon. Fem. Etymon. 

for j-^n or ^n Tj?$ The y visit - 
>n- 'id. Tjis) F\$ YOU visit, 

*TpD 1in5 ^ w ' si ''- "TpD2 as before. We visit. 


196 LECTURE x. CART. 189. 2. 

2. The form > 7P?^ 1 ma y> perhaps, stand for "TipC ^^, with the 
"* of *^N transposed, as we say, what man soever, for whatsoever 
man, &c., in English. 

3. Of ''IPPI the same may be said which has been said of 
others (Art. 139. 7. note). As to the n prefixed to the feminine, 
what has just been said of "^P?^ must suffice. The H3 suffixed is 
probably a fragment of the pronoun ^\1 , as Jahn has observed 

! (Gram., p. 177. Ed. 1809.). The derivations of the other forms 
are sufficiently obvious. See Comment on the Kafia, p. riv- 

4. Paradigm of the Second Form "Tptj).* 

Pers. Masc. Fem. 

3 33t^ H C ^ s down. nSlfi'fl She lies down. 

2 33L^n Thou liest down. "QSt^fl Thou liest down. 

I ; I* I 2 * 

1 !33i>K I He down. I'SUJR I He down. 

3 133t& : 

2 153^'n You lie down. n333t^n You lie 

I : : T : i- : 

1 ^5i^3 We lie down. 33^3 We lie down. 

5. Paradigm of the Third Form "Ip.S- 

This form never occurs except in verbs which are 
subject to some defect, and then but seldom. 



Pers. Masc. Fein. 

3 mi for ]I;JJp He gives (Art. 76.) \F\fr She gives. 

2 \r\r\ ll^n Thou givest. *}F\F\ Thougivest. 

1 1" 1 1" : i- : 


* So ^2n*! he rides ; *1S"1.1 fie spreads ; V-?11 ^ ^ ies down ; 7^5^ lie 
increases, &c. When the last letter is guttural, the final vowel is, for the most 
part, (-): as, 3"p?^. he hears; n]?HP he sends; H|l^ he rises, is exalted. 
This also will be the case when the middle letter is guttural, just as it is with 
the Segolate nouns (Art. 148. 7.). 

ART. 189. B.^ ON THE VERBS. 


Pers. Masc. Fern. 

3 SJJJ!^ They give. 

2 il^ Ye S ive - > wanting. 


6. It has been remarked (Art. 189.), that the form of "TOpS is 
sometimes taken as the leading word of the present tense. The 
following are examples : viz. 'IMB^ they judge, Exod. xviii. 26 ; 
""flDtP.P! it (fem.) preserves, or keeps, Prov. xiv. 3 ; 'H'Q^J? pass 
thou over (fem.), Ruth ii. 8 : nttfapN (for nafapNN Art. 72.) / am 
mortally pained, Ps. Ixix. 21. 

7. Of these forms, the first "f(?ip is the most generally used in 
Kal ; and, for the most part, it has a transitive signification. *^J? 
occurs but seldom, and is mostly intransitive. "Tf?Q is found in 
defective verbs only ; as, 1 or ">, ip^ O r "1^, 3J2^, nb, 

8. In all cases in which the terminating vowel is perfect and 
regularly accompanied by an accent, upon the accent's being with- 
drawn (which always takes place when the verb is joined with any 
other word by Makkdph, &c.), such final vowel will be changed for 
its correspondent imperfect one (Art. 119. 3. &c.) : as, "i Y" "^^ / 
mill keep for him, Ps. Ixxxix. 29 ; iS'TyQOM / n m sustain him, 
Is. xlii. 1, for "^^I? and ^PO^? respectively.* 

9. The same verb is sometimes found to occur in more than one 
of these forms ; as, H^IP 1 ) he rests, Gen. ii. 2 ; and ri2lZ7.n it rests, 
Neh. vi. 3 ; VpH^ & I am not witting, Ezek. xviii. 32 ; an 

* It is a curious fact that the tense corresponding to this in the Arabic 
verbs, is subject to a variation of ending, similar to that of the nouns, i. e. its 
terminations will answer to those of the nominative or objective cases. This 

s- s t 

tense they term )*&*> alike, because it is said to be like the noun. In a few 

instances, indeed, it has the ' of the accusative; as, A***A we will surely draw, 
&c. In others we have an additional ^, ], as in the nouns of excess (Art. 168 ) : 

= ' 9 </ 

as, <jj^U he will surely assist : but of this more in the Syntax. 

198 LECTURE x. CART. iso. 10. 

he will approve, Ps. xxxvii. 23 ; *ptPl he will tear, Ps. vii. 3; and 
*]PP1 Gen. xlix. 27. To which many others may be added. (See 
the Mikhlol of D. Kimkhi, fol. ^, verso.) This may be accounted 
for by supposing, that the Segolate noun corresponding to both 
these forms was once in use. 

10. When however any paragogic letter is added, this dis- 
tinctive vowel, be what it may, disappears (as it is the case with 
some of the Segolate nouns) : as, rnplpN, not nnb^N / m m f cee p i 
Ps. xxxix. 2 ; HMttte, not "SSttfa } mill lie down, Ps. iv. 9 ; 
TO"in / mill kill, not Hr* 1 Gen - xxvii. 41. In the last case, 
the substitute of Shecd is resolved by Art. 106. 2. 

11. In a few instances the letter 1 is still retained, which was 
perhaps formerly a mater lectionis : i. e. was used instead of the 
vowel i Kholem : as, nttl^S / rest, Isa. xviii. 4 ; rffllgfa I 
weigh, Ezra. viii. 25. In which cases the ^f?, or marginal reading, 
generally gives the more usual form. This 1, however, is mostly 
omitted, and Kdmets Khatef then found to supply the place of the 
rejected Kholem (see Art. 152- 3.) : as, n ,V^? / step, Isa. xxvii. 4; 
TTPElpW / h eart Dan. viii. 13; "^^ tllou bribest, Ezek. xvi. 33. 
In some copies, however, we have (: ) Shevd only in most of these 

12. With the third person plural masculine we sometimes have 
an additional paragogic 1, supplied; as, "l^P^?? they will hear, 
Exod. iv. 9. Sometimes the preceding vowel is perfect : as, 
Vlbstp*; they will ask, Josh. iv. 6 ; J*Tf3& they will reap, Ruth ii. 9. 
(See Art. 175. 17.) Of this more will be said in the Syntax. 

1 3. When the first radical letter happens to be a guttural, the 
substitute of Shevd will be resolved into its cognate imperfect 
vowel : as, ^"!^jl they will extend (for ^3"]^., by analogy ^l^f., 
see Art. 106. 2.). 

14. In the feminine we have nabtttel, for n^St^n, by Art. 
175. 20, &c., Ezek. xvii. 23. The final Jl is sometimes omitted by 
apocope, by Art. 73. 2., of which more will be said hereafter. 

15. The abbreviated pronouns are regularly prefixed to the 
present tense, in every species, with Shevd ( .- ) : as, " T l7?"* : ; but here, 
as two Shevds cannot concur at the commencement of a word, the 
first is changed to (), (-), or () as circumstances may require, 
(Art. 106., &c.): as, T}??'! , ^,8!, "^P^. &c. Where, however, 
no such necessity exists, Shevd remains, as it does with the particles 
b, 3, 3, Art. 174. &c.): as in 

ART. 189. 1G.J ON THE VERBS. 199 

16. The principles, therefore, by which the vowels both of the 
verbs and nouns are regulated, are precisely the same. This is 
also true of the letters, as well as of the forms of words : for these, 
as we have already seen, are such as the nature of the several 
cases seems to require. 

Of the Infinitives and Imperatives. 

190. It is difficult to say which of these two ought to 
take the precedence, since both present the same form : 
but, as that which has been termed the imperative is 
sometimes found conjugated with one or other of the 
pronouns, the Infinitive has usually been placed first, as 
exhibiting the more simple form of the verb. 

2. It is now generally allowed that the Infinitive (as it has been 
termed) is nothing more than a Verbal noun, having either an 
active, neuter, or passive, signification : as, "^f?^ and in construc- 
tion, *^ipS a visiting, visitatio, or the like, the acceptation of which 
may be either active or passive, (see p. 89. note) ; and, ^j?^ tying 
down, which is neuter. 

3. Any of these words according to Schroeder, when pronounced 
with some emphasis, will become imperative in signification : as, 
"I(^f or "T^S inspicere , i. e. " inspice, vel inspicite." So, continues 
he, " Ab initio nullum discrimen habuit numeri et generis : e. g. 
Siattf audire! non tantum pro audi, sed et pro audite, Deut. i. 16 ; 

"") infestare ! pro infestate, Num. xxv. 17, &c. 

4. We may now come to the forms, and other parti- 
culars, connected with this species of words. 

5. The forms of the Infinitives are various, and may 
be either primitive or augmented, according to the sense 
intended by the writer. We shall, at present, notice 
only the primitive forms, reserving the others till we 
come to treat on the augmented species of the conju- 

200 LECTURE x. CART. 190. 6. 

Forms of the Infinitive or Verbal Noun, belonging to the First 
Species of the Conjugation KAL. 

6. *lipS, constr. "Tj?5* is the most frequent; 

"H?..?, "Ij?_?, and Ij?^ are more rare. These forms 
are peculiar to the masculine gender. The following 
are feminine ; iTTj?3, ITJJ33, iTJj?^, .TTp, PTJj^, H^B, 
T!J?.?, '"np9, rnp> or JVJ$|jf, it$, &c. these all, 
excepting the first three, masc. and fern., are of the forms 
of the Segolate nouns (Artt. 148. 149, &c.) ; and, as 
these nouns are generally abstracts (Art. 152. 10.), 
they are well suited for the functions which they here 

7. These, when in conjunction with any of the par- 
ticles D7D1, will afford a sense similar to that of the 
Gerunds in Latin : as, "Tj?S>? in visiting ; *Tj?D? for visit- 
ing ; "Tj?55 according to the visiting ; "Tp^O from, or 
by, the visiting. In which cases, the form proper for 
construction is necessarily taken, on account of the fol- 
lowing context. 

8. In like manner with the pronouns, "Hf?? m y visit- 
ing ; ;|"Tj?S thy visiting, &c. in which "Tp2 is preferred.f 
We have, however, DD 1 ?^ your eating, 03*1 EK your 
saying, &c., of the form "Tp, as well as the other forms. 

f). When the terminating vowel (1 of IP?) happens to lose the 

* Of tins form in the nouns is n2, constr. l^S , P^^, 1^ which 
imply habit, custom, &c., and occasionally have an abstract signification. 

f- The nouns equivalent to these in Arabic are subject to the same laws ; 
and they are occasionally found in the plural number, which never occurs in 
Hebrew. In the last instance, (No. 8.) Grammarians have thought, that 
a transposition of the o has taken place, supposing "Ip5 to have been the 
original form. But, as rnj?S is regularly the feminine form of "IpS, I do not 
see why "^P-S may not be derived from the same form, particularly as these 
forms are in use. 

ART. 190. 10.]] ON THE VERBS. 201 

accent, it becomes imperfect as in the nouns : as, "jjvja"^^ 
a king's reigning, Gen. xxxvi. 31. In one instance we have an 
additional "* inserted : as, "'jj'^l? ^i"J"11? for investigating the 
matter, Ezra x. 16. 

10. Buxtorf* thinks, that, in the phrases <"Tni27D 7 for anointing, 
Exod. xxix. 29 ; ^^p?? 1 ? for elevating, Zeph. iii. 11 ; njparf? for 
using patience, Ezek. xvi. 5, the o has been transposed, on account 
of the additional paragogic H. But the truth of this is doubtful : 
First, because n is here not paragogic but feminine, as the situ- 
ation of the accent is sufficient to shew. In the next place, it is 
not necessary to suppose that the o is transposed, for reasons just 
given (No. 8, note) ; and hence we have, in the very next example 
adduced by him, njTJTTv fo r removing far away, Ezek. viii. 6, 
where the o is not transposed, but remains in its original situation. 

11. Again, the other examples which he gives, viz. "UlVBttfe, 
Ep^ni^-p shew, beyond all doubt, that the n above mentioned is of 
the feminine gender, but not paragogic. Other examples are, 
ntonH? slaying, Hos. v. 2; njgrtp' asking, Isa. vii, 11; ngn** 
fearing, Deut. iv. 10. These, however, Buxtorf confesses after 

all, are feminine forms of the Infinitive, which the Jewish Gram- 
marians term Verbal Nouns. 

12. It will be difficult, perhaps, and certainly unnecessary, to lay 
down rules for the use of the other forms. The Student may note 
them down as they occur. We shall merely remark, that cases 
will happen here, as in the Arabic, in which it will be extremely 
difficult to say, whether a noun is to be referred to this class, or to 
that of the participles: and further, that in some the very same 
word will occasionally be found in situations suitable to both. 

On the Imperative belonging to the first Species. 

191. This is usually of the form "7)75 or *TjJ2) visit, for 
the second person singular masculine; HpS^ for the same 
feminine; 17j?, masc. and njlJ?^ or na*Jp_5, fern, for 
the same person plural. In which will be perceived some 

* Tlies. Gram. lib. i. c. xiii. 

202 LECTURE x. [[ART. 191. 2. 

of the fragments of the pronouns as already mentioned 
(Art. 188.)- 

2. It has already been remarked, that the form "Tip?) 
is sometimes used for both numbers and genders (Art. 
190. 3.). 

3. As the Imperative is generally formed on the same word with 
the Infinitive, it will occasionally be found with the feminine termi- 
nation H , as also with the same vowels : as, ""^P^? keep* 
Ps. xxv. 20 ; ""^f ! remember, 2 Chron. vi. 42. Kholem remains 
unchanged in ^^? f vilify, curse, Num. xxiii. 7. Judg. xix. 5, we 
have "T$P support (from the form "T^P), and v. 8, ~~f?P with 
Makkdph (from T&P) : and, 1 Kings xiii. 7, rnSD (from "pp) 
with the paragogic letter H , whence it should seem, that each of 
these forms of the verbal noun was once in use. 

4. S?l?7 lie down, of the form Ti?Jp , will, upon receiving the 
feminine termination, lose (-), and then change the first (:) into 
Khtrtk: as, "" T 1 ??*?- Upon the same principle, the o of Tp2 is 
generally rejected: as in "^!i??, ! >7'?^' &c as above (Art. 

189. 10.). In '"'Tr^ keep, Ps. cxli. 3, we have either an euphonic 
or an intensitive Ddgesh. 

5. Of the form "|pb , I^TT cfe^ra/ ye, Jer. ii. 12 ; -"OtpB draw 
ye, Ezek. xxxii. 20; ^11^ lay ye waste, Jer. xlix. 28, are in- 
stances. So "9?*? re/gn *Aow, fern., Judg. ix. 10 ; ''i?^ cry thou, 
Jer. xxii. 20 ; (the medial t has been added on account of the 
accent's being drawn back, Art 120. 7.); so ^"^ make thou dry, 
Is. xliv. 27. 

6. When a guttural is the first letter of the root, () is taken 
instead of Khlrik ( ), whenever any asyllabic augment is affixed to 
the word : as, "*2B?n make thou bare, fern., Isa. xlvii. 2 ; *$3$ take 
thou, fern., Ruth iii. 15. 

7. s P?i? divine thou, 1 Sam. xxviii. 8, takes a substitute of Shevd 
with the second radical letter, upon the principle of assimilation, 
noticed Art. 108, for ^PPJ^. This is sometimes found to take 
place in the present tense also. 

* See Ps. cxli. 3, where this word is used as a noun; unless, indeed, we 
construe the former word n/Ttt? with it: thus, Hj^pU? HJTtZ? place, keep, 
i. e. keep constantly. But nruch reliance cannot be placed upon the accents. 

ART. 191. 8.3 ON THE VERBS. 203 

8. The feminine plural will occasionally suffer apocope ; as, 
]9Ett7 Gen. iv. 23, for n3^Etp hear ye, which will also happen 
occasionally in the present tense, as will be seen hereafter. 

On the Participles. 

192. We now come to that species of words which 
have been termed Participles, and have accordingly been 
classed with the verbs as such, contrary perhaps to every 
principle of Hebrew Grammar. The fact is, these are 
nothing more than attributives of one form or other, into 
the etymology of which nothing having the least possible 
connection with tense has ever entered. Nor is the force 
usually ascribed to these words, exclusively applicable 
to nouns of their forms : DDH wise, p1n"1 distant, 7*7/3 
growing, being just as much participles as TpjS, masc., 
rnpiS and rnj?i3 fem. visiting, or T)j?S, masc., n*71p5, 
fern, visited, can possibly be ; to which a very large number 
of other forms may be added. The truth appears to be, 
that all these nouns, together with those conjugated as 
verbs (which, indeed, is occasionally the case with some of 
these), are to be regulated in tense by other conside- 
rations, as will be shewn hereafter. 

2. It is curious enough to remark, that Simonis has, in his 
Arcanum Formarum, assigned a whole section to words of the form 
usually ascribed to the first participle, in which they occur as agents, 
without the least reference whatever to tense. Yet, in one of his 
notes he says,* " Exinde vero non sequitur, omnia Participla mera 
esse Nomina, quod contendit PAGNINUS in Institut. Hebr., p. 229. 
If by this he means, that these words may occasionally be con- 
strued as participles, perhaps no one will object ; but, if he 
contends, that they are not mere attributives, I believe he will 
contend for a position which will not admit of proof. 

* P. 601. 



C ART ' 193 - 


193. Having dwelt thus much on the first species of 
the Hebrew Conjugation, which is indeed the model, 
and contains the principles upon which all the rest are 
formed, we may now proceed to give the others, with 
such notes as shall seem necessary. 

Paradigm of the Second Species, or Objective Form of the 
First, usually termed NIPHHAL. 






H C l> ecame visited. 
Thou becamest visited. 
I became visited. 

They became visited. 
Ye became visited. 
We became visited. 

$he became visited. 
Thou becamest visited. 
^ became visited. 

They became visitcJ. 
Ye became visited. 
^ e became visited. 


H C be comes visited. 
Thou becomest visited. 
1 become visited. 

^' e becomes visited. 
Thou becomest visited. 
I become visited. 

They become visited. 
Ye become visited. 
We become visited. "TP33 

^V become visited. 
Ye become visited. 


We become visited. 

ART. 193.;] ON THE VERBS. 205 



Masc. Fern. 

2 *TpSn Be thou visited, ^"TpQil Be tflou visited. 

'I"T !): | T . 

2 ^i? 7>TJ B e ye visited. n^p.Sn Be ye visited. 

Forma of the INFINITIVE, or Abstract Ferbal Noun. 


"TjJ^a fi!J5?3 and f 

or T),>:>3 


2. We have here given the Infinitives, Participles, &c. as usually 
found in the Paradigm, as we shall in all the other Species ; not 
because we believe this arrangement to be the best, but because 
we would depart as little as may be from the usual methods ; and, 
because we may in this way familiarize the mind of the Learner 
with the several forms of these nouns. 

3. The sense afforded by this species is mostly objective ; some- 
times, however, it is subjective : as, ^1?^ he fought ; $-?^? he 
swore; 1-?^? he reclined ; ^-1^? he contended; where co-operation 
seems rather to be implied : at others it is reflective : as, * 1 ? 1 ^? 
watching one's self; '^f? asking for self; and at others, its force 
may be expressed in English, by using, may, can, must, ought, or 
the like. See Gen. vi. 21 ; xvi. 10 ; xx. 9. All of which may be 
very well comprehended in the compound form of this word, when 
regulated by the circumstances mentioned in the context. See 
Art. 157. 18. 20. 

206 LECTURE XI. A ttT. 193. -4. 

On the Preterite Tense. 

4. When the primitive word happens to begin with a guttural 
letter, the vowel accompanying 3 may be either ( ) or ( - ), but not 
( ) : as, ^^H5 accounted, Num. xviii. 27; " 1 P?,?. said, Dan. viii. 26; 
^P9Q? overturned, Esth. ix. 1 ; E^n? sealed, Ib. viii. 8 ; ito? 
placated, 1 Chron. v. 20 ; where we have the form "fif]? or "^P?* 
instead of "fpj?. So v TO3 and ! r?iZM circumcised, Gen. xvii. 27, for 
v"iD33 (Art. 7G.). In one instance 3 seems to have been affixed to 
one of the augmented forms "lj!??? if shall expiate, Deut. xxi. 8, for 
133^3, i n full "lES^ni (Art. 83. 1.), grounded on the form 


I,..- ; . ^ 

5. In "lMtDM3 left, Ezek. ix. 8, the additional word forming this 
species (see Art. 157. 18.) seems here to be given more at length 
than usual. Buxtorf thinks that we have here a form compounded 
of both tenses, than which nothing can be more unlikely.* For 
H in ""fTp-?? we sometimes have the Chaldee H , as in Kal (Art. 
188. 16.); as, ^13273 forgotten, Is. xxiii. 15. 

6. -ipNhp they were polluted, Lam. iv. 14, on the form "tip 3 , pro- 
bably from 'jfTfa an avenger. Of the same form is ^H^3 they 
shall be possessed of, Num. xxxii. 30. In the word "H"^??. Exod. 
xv. 6, we have perhaps an abbreviated form for ^H rn^W it is 
become glorious, the preceding word, T^, being regularly of the 
feminine gender. This, therefore^ need not be considered as 
anomalous, in any other point of view. 

On the Present Tense, Imperative, fyc. 

7. The leading form mostly taken for this tense is TI?.?, and 
sometimes the feminine form '"'^Ji?-? ; "1(7? and "f/J are also found, 
as in Kal : but, *T|7f is used only with the Infinitive or verbal noun, 
examples of each of which will presently be given. 

8. The S of the first person singular is sometimes regularly pre- 
fixed with ( ) ; as, ET^S / am enquired of, Ezek. xiv. 3 ; ?J?^ 
/ smear, Gen. xxi. 24. Also with the feminine form ; as, rT 1 ?]?^ 
/ escape, Ib. xix. 20 ; T |T?^ I am honoured, Exod. xiv. 17 ; and 

* Thes. Gram., lib. i. c. xiv. ad. particip. Niphhal. 

ART. 193. 9-3 ON THE VERBS. 207 

Hag. i. 8, where the H seems to have been lost, as in other 
instances (Art. 72, &c.), in most of which, however, it is restored 
in the marginal reading. 

9. For "TpBfi, we have "Q^ thou wilt* be broken, Ezek. 
xxxii. 23. So Ens'; he mas infirm, 2 Sam. xii. 15 ; &%& he mas 
refreshed, Exod. xxxi. 17 ; 'E2"] he mas weaned, Gen. xxi. 8 ; 
"'p?" *t rvas 5a id> Josh. ii. 2. So also, ^'"iID-Wn they shall be com- 
memorated, Isa. Ixv. 17 ; ^3vDNPl they shall be eaten up, Jer. 
xxiv. 2, to which many more may be added. 

10. To the plural ^"|f?,?1 a paragogic 1 is often added as in Kal : 
as, 1^P~}fJ1 they shall be cut off, Ps. xxxvii. 9, &c. 

11. We have in the Imperative, ^-2)73 assemble yourselves, Joel 
iv. 11, for ^S^jTTT, which seems to be grounded on the form "f|?j? 
or "TfjLS , if it is not the preterite used as an imperative. 

12. Whenever here, as in other instances, the first letter of the 
root is such as to be incapable of receiving Ddgesh forte, the pre- 
ceding vowel is necessarily made perfect, as in ^,2^.1 &c. above 
given (No. 9.). 

13. In the Infinitive we have ^SH eating, Levit. vii. 18 ; 
giving, Jer. xxxii. 4. And with 3 for the first letter, ^^7^Ji 
together, Judg. xi. 25 ; '^073 requesting, 1 Sam. xx. 28 ; 
desiring, Gen. xxxi. 30; Dbt273 sending, Esth. iii. 13; *p23, f or 
H'te?? striking, Judg. xx. 39, grounded on the form "f^S or ' 
To these may be referred ^H (by Art. 76.), for ^SH O r 
propelling, Ps. Ixviii. 3. We also have ^"i"]^^ enquiring, Ezek. 
xiv. 3, of the same form, with M instead of n prefixed, the letter 
usually taken by the Chaldees and Syrians. 

14. The Ddgesh forte, found in the first radical letter in these 
verbs, is merely compensative for the characteristic 3 which has 
been rejected according to rule (Art. 76.). 

15. The noun given here as a participle, has, in a few instances, 
() instead of ( T ) : as, B^, (for B^/H, form T^a Art. 87. 1.) 
taken in a net, Ps. ix. 17. Alting-j- is of opinion, that the plurals 

persons prophesying, 1 Sam. xix. 20, Jer. xiv. 15, Ezek. 

* Reasons for translating this present tense by a future will be given in the 

f Sect. vii. . 119. de verbo perfecto. 

208 LECTURE XI. C ART ' IL>4< 

xiii. 16; '2 hidden, Josh. x. 17; D^tM polluted, Ezek. 
xx. 30, 31 ; O^MSOa /ownrf, Esth. i. 5, iv. 16, 1 Sam. xiii. 15, and 
some others, are formed on the measure "^.P? But this is by no 
means necessary. The ( T ) of the singular is, it is true, mostly 
found with the second radical : as, E^Sp } b u t then, this vowel is 
not immutable, and may become ( : ) for the mere sake of euphony, 
which is perhaps the case in all these instances. 

194. Paradigm of the Conjugation of a Ferb of the Third 
Species, PIHHBL. 



Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 









Masc. Form. Fern. Forms. 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fciu. 

ART. 194. 2.~] ON THE VERBS. 209 

Objective Voice of the same, which is termed the Fourth 
Species, or PUHAL. 



Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 










On the Persons &c. of the Third Species PIHEL. 

-' v -M. * 

2. Whenever the last radical letter happens to be one of the 
gutturals, or "I , ( - ) Pdthakh will be the terminating vowel ; "I^J? 
will, therefore, be the measure in such cases: as, ^^P he broke, 
Ps. cvii. 16 ; 37y!3 he swallowed, Is. xxv. 8 ; Hvt& he sent, Exod. 


210 LECTURE xi. CART. 194. 3. 

ix. 7, &c. &c. Also when followed by Makkaph ; as, 
he taught knowledge, Eccl. xii. 9. 

3. In a few instances () is the terminating vowel: as, "^jr^t he 
said ; D23 he washed ; ^S? he expiated. 

4. When any letter incapable of receiving Ddgesh is the medial 
letter of the root, a compensation is made by changing the pre- 
ceding imperfect vowel to its corresponding perfect one : as, Iffi he 
refused, for 1$P. So "H^l? ^ e blessed; and, in the participle "^T^P 
blessing; ^j^P detesting, &c. ; ""^Sl he explained; """pS he delayed 
(Art. 109.). In a few instances ( ) Khlrik remains without 
any apparent compensation : as, "^2 he destroyed, 1 Kings xxii. 47 ; 
VJ??? he vexed, Ps. x. 3; ^H 1 ? fo inflamed, Mai. Hi. 19; En? fo 
consoled, Is. xlix. 13 ; ^"jDfc? ZAey delayed, Judg. v. 28, where M 
occurs with Segol. So, in the Participles ; ~fp?P fearing, Prov. 
xxviii. 14; ^p?P leading, Is. li. 18, &c. In all which cases 
Ddgesh is said to be implied (Art. 109.). 

5. When the accent is drawn back in the feminine (JTtpQ') the 

\ n t ' 

characteristic vowel () returns: as, ^?P? it licked, 1 Kings 
xviii. 38 ; H^b she gleaned, Ruth ii. 18, &c. (Art. 119. 11.). 

6. In some instances Ddgesh forte is omitted when the letter is 
capable of receiving it : as, nn 7 127 she sent, Ezek. xvii. 7 ; 'inbtt? 

they sent, Ps. Ixxiv. 7. So, ^f 7 L^ passim, for ^7 : "^ praise ye. See 
Art. 113. 

7. We have in the participle ^5?*? our teacher, Job xxxv. 11, 
for ^By^P, by Art. 73. And, Jer. xv. 10, ^iJ^pBP cursing me, 
but in the margin, ^fl"^' which is probably the true reading, 
giving the participle or concrete verbal noun, written like a verb, 
with the fragment of the first personal pronoun. See p. 180, 

8. In the participle of the feminine gender, () occasionally 
remains : as, JT?3l&a causing abortion, Exod. xxiii. 26 ; we also 
have fnjjJ.t&P inebriating, Jer. li. 7 ; and without Ddgesh, riJDM3ip 
(for fp^P) j committing adultery, Prov. xxx. 20 ; and by con- 
traction, fntffc? (for nrnttte) ministering, 1 Kings i. 15 (Art. 77.). 

9. For the particular force of this species, see Art. 154. 7 9. 

On the Objective Fbice, or Fourth Species, PUHAL. 

10. We sometimes have (T) Khdtuph in this species instead of 
(\), e.g. rn3 it was cut, Ezek. xvi. 4; where it should be 

ART. 194. M.3 ON THE VERBS. 211 

observed, that ""> receives Ddgesh, contrary to the usual practice : 
HTTttf it is destroyed, Nah. iii. 7. So also the participial noun 
D^TNa made red, Ib. ii. 4; and, in the plural number, D'WNa,* 
Exod. xxv. 5. 

11. In many instances, the Ddgesh is implied (Art. 109.); as, 
VP? mashed, Prov. xxx. 12 ; """^ft? object of mercy, fern., 
Hos. i. 6. The Kamets found here in the penultima is on account 
of the pause-accent (Art. 120. 4.). So, ^ft?. consoled, Is. liv. 11. 

12. When Ddgesh is neither written nor implied, the preceding 
vowel is necessarily made perfect ; as, 3"jin slain, Is. xxvii. 7 ; 

torn, Gen. xliv. 28; ^^ declared, revealed, Num. xv. 34; 
agitated, (as with a whirlwind,) Is. liv. 11. In all which 
cases the correspondence of the vowels is oblique (Art. 96. 2.). 

13. In some instances the correspondence is direct; as, 
"T JW born, Judg. xiii. 8 ; Q^j^V taken in a net, Eccles. ix. 1 2 : 
f^i? 5 ^ ou t f joint, Prov. xxv. 19. In the first two examples 
Ddgesh is perhaps euphonic ; in the last, Kamets is put for Segol 
on account of the pause (Art. 120. 4.). In Jer. xxii. 23, we have 
this participial noun, with several others, so combined with the 
feminine pronoun of the second person singular, as to have given 
considerable uneasiness to the Grammarians : the passage is, 


Thou (who) droellest in the Libanus art nestled in the cedars how 
shall thou be consoled when pains come upon thee? 

Here **&& is put for ^ *&, ^2p for NW 1^13, and 
>< f??'?3 for V;IN }H3. In all which cases, we have nothing more 
than the feminine form of the pronoun in conjunction with a par- 
ticipial, or verbal concrete, noun. In the example ^?s>i?E, Rabbi 
Jona was of opinion, according to Buxtorf, that some of the vowels 
only had been retrenched ; by which he probably meant, that the 
pronoun was added, some abbreviation being first made (See 
p. 176, note.) 

14. In a few instances we have a substitute of Shevd, where 

* In some editions, and as cited by Buxtorf, this word is written 
and D^^Np , with Kamets Khat'ef under S, which is contrary to the first 
principles of Hebrew syllabication. They are thus also cited by Kimkhi, in 
the Mikhlol, from which Buxtorf probably took his examples. 


212 . LECTURE ix. CART. 194. 15. 

analogy requires t\ie Sheva, which seems to have been introduced 
merely for the sake of euphony : as, '"'$?. taken, Gen. ii. 23 ; 
^lyinri thou shalt be sought, Ezek. xxvi. 21 (Art. 106. 5.). 

15. For the particular force of this Species, see Art. 154. 7 15. 

195. Paradigm of the Conjugation of the Fifth and Sixth 
Species, i. e. in both the Subjective and Objective Fbices, 



Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 







2 -rj?&n 'Tp^n i-pparr 


Masc. Forms. Fern. Forms. 

Tp.?n or ip^n nip^n, ni^n, nnpan 


Mast. Fern. Masc. l-Vm. 

ART. 195.2.]] 



Objective Voice, HOPHHAL. 



Masc. Fern. 



Masc. Fern. 









Active Voice. 

2. The characteristic H of this species occurs also with ( ), ( ), 
or ( - ), but this happens only when a guttural letter follows : as, 
^1Sn h e believed, Gen. xlv. 26 ; ^$17 he caused to stand, Lev. 
xiv. 11 ; Jjn'P^E thou hast professed, Deut. xxvi. 17 ; ^"!??p thou 
hast caused to pass over, Josh. vii. 7. We also have ^?V : C f Exod, 

214 LECTURE xi. [[ART. 195. 3. 

xiii. 12, and Vjn!Jl5!? Zech. iii. 4, &c. And with (:) under the 
guttural in DMnnn ^ i s obstructed, Lev. xv. 8. 

3. In one instance we have ( ) with the middle radical letter : 
as, ITTrrpN^n / have requested him, 1 Sam. i. 28. See the notes 
on Kal(A.rt. 188. 28.). 

4. On the word "^inn shall I leave? Judg. ix. 9, 11, 13, 
much has been written, but perhaps not very conclusively. Let us 
endeavour to analyze it. It will be seen by turning to the lexicons, 
that vin is the form of the Imperative in Kal : which, according 
to our system, will give TT^, f r tne primitive Segolate noun. 
Here, then, we have nothing more than a Segolate noun, conjugated 
with the pronoun, which in the first person will regularly be ^7*1^, 
and, by rejecting the Kholem (as in the Segolates, Art. 152. 3.), 
and retaining the correspondent substitute of Shevd, in order to 
preserve the form, we shall have "^yin, which, with the inter- 
rogative H prefixed (Art. 179.), we shall have "^^PH am I a 
leaving ? i. e. shall I leave ? According to this analysis, therefore, 
this word belongs not to the fifth, but to the first species, con- 
jugated with the abstract, instead of the concrete, noun, which is 
unusual. , 

5. In another instance, viz. VP7fJ?$ I have polluted. Is. Ixiii. 3, 
we have the augmented verbal noun commencing with N instead of 
H : i. e. the form usually taken in the Chaldee and Syriac (Art. 
157. 2., 158. 

6. Again, we have in Amos iv. 3, nsrpvlpn, which is an un- 
usual but more regular way of writing the second person plural 
feminine of the preterite tense : i. e. ^3$^ ^V? t P J 7 > usually 
7P 1 ?'prf (Art. 188. 27.), ye have cast. In Isaiah, chap. xix. 6, 
we have IT'DINn they shall abhor, with two letters of augmentation, 
M and H ; but here, T??$? is perhaps the ground-form. 

7. In the present tense we also have the form "'(JIPD ; and in both, 
the characteristic ** is frequently omitted. With the paragogic n, 
however, "* is always added : as, n^jplpM / will cast, Neh. 
xiii. 8. With ( ) ; as, ?P^ he may believe, Job xv. 31. And by 
a further contraction, ntS^ he will give confidence, 2 Kings xviii. 30, 

for ntt^ or rripx. 

8. In some instances every trace of the characteristic ** is lost ; 
as, ^7^1- they arrived at, 1 Sam. xxxi. 2 ; ^"H- they bend, tread, 
or direct, as a bow, Jer. ix. 2. Where the primitive form seems to 
have been taken instead of the usual one of the measure 

ART. 195. 9.]] ON THE VERBS. 215 

9. *lp / mil collect, 1 Sam. xv. 6, is put for TN (for 
Artt. 72., 87.1 .), root ^D" 1 or *1D1 . So, "T? S Jw# m, Jer. xlvi. 8 
(for HTil'S Ib. for n T?1^), root "O1, Arabic JoJ co gnate with 

10. W is sometimes rejected together with the characteristic n, 
to facilitate the pronunciation perhaps : as, T^ I mill hear, Job 
xxxii. 11 (for T,?^ Art. 72.). So, DEN?*? / will destroy them, 
Jer. viii. 13, for DSPpMM ; "biT he shall pitch a tent, for ^p*?-, Is - 
xiii. 20 ; ""'Hi 1 ' ^ e tarries, 2 Sam. xx. 5, is perhaps for the passive 
form "!$ , for ^P^rT. (Art. 73.) ; and, as the quiescence of S 
after Kamets Khatuf is rather unusual in Hebrew, the ' may have 
been taken to avoid this. The final ( ) is probably euphonic, and 
taken on account of the guttural, as in other cases. 

11. Some are of opinion, that ^T),^! 1 Sam. xv. 5, is put for 
^^i-l by omitting the W } as above, by Art. 73. . 

12. In the Imperative we may have a paragogic n, which will 
then, as before (No. 7.), take the characteristic "* : as, HIT /-^n 
prosper thou, Neh. i. 11. 

13. Whenever the second or third radical letter is either a gut- 
tural or "1 , the terminating vowel will be ( - ) : as, ^P^D cause to 
come down, Joel iv. 11 ; PP*1U remove far away, Job xiii. 21 ; 
l^n, margin "^H ma k e straight, Ps. v. 9. 

14. In the Infinitive or abstract verbal noun, the characteristic 
n has ( - ) for the most part : as, JTHSn cutting off] Jer. xliv. 8 ; 
" 1<t ^?'!7 commemorating, 2 Sam. xviii. 18. When any one of the 
particles contained in the word Q7D2 is prefixed, this form is 
always adopted ; when this is not the case, we may have "ffj!??'? , or 
" 7> li!?U : as, D?fi?n rising early, Jer. vii. 13; "^p^p setting up, 
Neh. vii. 3 ; ^p^U destroying, Amos ix. 8. 

15. When either the second or third letter is a guttural, or 1, 
we then have ( - ) for the final vowel, as before : as, " 1 ^P'! J resisting, 
1 Sam. xv. 23 ; 0,5"?^?^ y our bringing to recollection, Ezek. 
xxi. 29. 

16. In many instances, we have the first vowel of the Infinitive 
the same with that of the Preterite tense : as, ?^"!7 giving rest ; 

shaking, Jer. 1.34: ^P^ liberating; V'BrT saving, Is. 

17. a^M? 1 Sam. ii. 33, is probably put for ?*%!} (Art. 73.), 

216 LECTURE XL CART. 195. is. 

derived from the root t >i)1 ; ^N ne punished. Whence L-^Ot^lJ' 

correction, punishment. See Eichhorn's edition of the Lexicon of 
Simonis, sub voce 

On the Objective Fbice, HOPHHAL. 

18. This voice is grounded on nouns of the form of * T I?J?'7 <> r 
_pn (Art. 157. 10.). And here, as in the Puhdl, the agent never 

appears ; and hence, both are called by the Hebrew Grammarians, 
as are also those corresponding to them in Arabic by the Arabians, 
Conjugations the agents of which are not named.* 

19. Kibbuts occasionally accompanies H , instead of ( T ) Khatuph; 
as, ^j??fr? thrown down, Ezek. xxxii. 32 ; rf?U>ri cast down, Dan. 
viii. 11. 

20. When the first radical letter happens to be a guttural, ( T: ) 
occupies the place of Shevd : as, H^nnn she is laid waste, Ezek. 
xxvi. 2, where the Kdmets Khatuph becomes a perfect vowel, and 
remains under the characteristic H , by analogy (see Art. 55.). 

21. The participial nouns frequently occur with (s) instead of 
(T) Khatuph: as, ^j?^? laid down, 2 Kings iv. 32. So in the 
feminine, f"l-?^?tp cast down, 1 Kings xiii. 25. In one instance, 
the characteristic H is retained, as is often the case in the Chaldee : 
as , ntySpnp (for rriySpO) made angular, Ezek. xlvi. 22. But, 
when the first radical is a guttural, it will take ( T: ), as before : e. g. 
t]237n set up, 1 Kings xxii. 35 : D^? 1 ? !? contained, held, 2 Chron. 
ix. 18 ; fri^nnja wasted, Ezek. xxix. 12. So BnrP (who is) for- 
bidden, Exod. xxii. 19. Here also Kdm6ts Khatuph is equivalent 

* Heb. Sb^.Q Dltf 13W bft>$ , Arab. jkU ,*J J U &x* 

^ ' s 

The reason of this seems to be, that, as the nominative is included in the verb, 
and, as in these passive conjugations, this nominative is not the agent, but the 
patient on which the influence of the verb is exerted, if any other word were 
added as a nominative, (which would then be in apposition with the pronoun 
so included,) it would not represent the agent, but the patient; and further, it 
is unusual in the Shemitic dialects to use a periphrasis ; as, Judah was killed by 
Simeon ; for then it would be shorter to say, Simeon killed Judah ; the Gram- 
marians, therefore, have laid down this apparent omission as a rule, although 
some instances are to be found to the contrary. 

ART. 105. 22.]] 



22. The characteristic H of this and the last species is generally 
rejected, when preceded by any preformative taking an initial 
Sheva : as, TjTSP for TflBrp. ; 1,70; for Tp^, &c. See Art. 73. 

23. For the peculiar force of this species, both subjective and 
objective, see Art. 157. 2 10. 

196. Paradigm of the Conjugation of the Seventh Species 
termed HITHPAHEL. 


Masc. Fein. Mage. Fem. 












218 LECTURE XI. ART. 196. 2. 

On the Species termed HITHPAHEL. 

2. The last vowel in both tenses, as well as in the Imperative, 
is frequently (-) : as P;?n/^n he seemed strong, 2 Chron. xiii. 7 : 
nv20n he shall be shaved,* Lev. xiii. 33, and, with the Chalda'ic 
prefix ""lj?n/pM he joined himself, % Chron. xx. 35. So in the 
present tense, t3H3]^M / m \ll console myself, Ps. cxix. 52 (the 
primitive word being ^113, not En3) 5 "^^O^? thou arrogatest 
praise to thyself, Prov. xxv. 6 ; "Kpnri.n thou shewest thyself kind, 
2 Sam. xxii. 26; DBriJ-1 thou shervest thyself perfect, Ib. et Psalm 
xviii. 26 ; sgftft thou shervest thyself perverse, 2 Sam. xxii. 27. 
See Ps. xxxvii. 4, and 1 Kings xx. 22, for the Imperative. Here 
the primitive word seems to have had (-) for its last vowel. 

3. In "I,??? he shall be expiated, Deut. xxi. 8, we have a con- 
tracted form for ""\f??0? , a compound of both the Hithpdhel, and 
Niphhdl, forms. To which I see no ground for objection ; 
because I hold that the augment of the Niphhdl species may be 
prefixed to a noun commencing with H, with just as much pro- 
priety as it can to any other. The Rabbinical writers often use 
this form. 

4. Any root having a medial letter incapable of receiving 
Ddgesh, will make the usual compensation (See Art. 109.) The 
verb here also, as in other instances, may have the paragogic 
n (See Art. 175. 4.). 

5. In a few instances, ( ) attends the medial radical letter ; 
as> ifnufaEnn / will shew myself holy; VTpW? 1 ? / mill shew 
myself great, Ezek. xxxviii. 23. (See Lev. xi. 44.) We have 
also Kholem : as, W^Ori they . shall be moved ; **? pint! ^V 
shall be made mad, Jer. xxv. 16. The primitive nouns here are 
perhaps ^!7l7> ^!!|, ^j?^> and '/.^ , which will account suffi- 
ciently for the vowels. 

6. In the participial noun we have V$2X? irritated, Isa. lii. 5, for 
\fbjbnp, where the primitive noun is of the form "ff^. 

7. The feminine form has sometimes a segolate termination ; as, 
nsaWpa strengthening herself, Ruth i. 18 ; J"in|?b;pS3 contained, 
Exod. ix. 24. 

* The future signification of this tense will be accounted for in the Syntax. 

ART. 196. 8-3 ON THE VERBS. 219 

8. In Exod. ii. 4 : ^SHfll and she stood, we have a very singular 
anomaly, and one which has given great trouble to the Grammarians, 
among whom Albert Schultens seems to me to have approached 
nearest to the truth. His solution of the difficulty is : " It is not 
only," says he, " in the sibilants that a transposition might take 
place (Art. 83. 2. 3.), but also in any other letter, as in the Arabic 

species j^JJi. If then we take ^^ for the root, and write 

for ^ru? and then .drop the (Art. 72.) we shall have 

which will be sufficiently analogical. Alting refers the form to a 

Syriasm. Heb. Gram., 163. 

9. Of the objective form of this species only a few instances 
occur ; as, ^71? jf^ V* *hey mere set in order, arranged, Num. i. 47, 
ii. 33, xxvi. 62, 1 Kings xx. 27. In our authorized version, this 
word is translated by numbered, for which there seems to be no 
good authority. For some account of (T) instead of (-) under 
the first radical letter, see Art. 185. 4. 5 ; 157. 10, note. 

Other examples are : n Nj3ten polluted (for nS^^n , where ta 
and n combine under t3 , Art. 83.), Deut. xxiv. 4 ; and nattfan 
made fat, Is. xxxiv. 6, for naiZ^Win Art. 83. 1. 

10. For the properties of this species, see Art. 157. 12 16; 
and for the transpositions which sometimes take place in the letters, 
Art. 83. 

On the remaining and less usual Species of the Conjugation 
of Hebrew Ferbs. 

197. Of these, the forms TTiB, TliB, and 
classed under the third, fourth, and seventh species (Art. 
186.), will be considered when we come to treat on those 
roots which have 1 or * for their middle radical ; or, 
have the second and third the same ; because those verbs 
alone are subject to these forms. 

2. It must have appeared from what has already 
been said, that, although the roots or words to be con- 
jugated may be multiform, the conjugation is but one : 
that is to say, the different persons, &c., are formed 
in all cases by one general and regular process. The 

220 LECTURE XL CART. 197. 2. 

persons, for example, are formed either by prefixing 
or postfixing the defective forms of one or other of the 
pronouns (Artt. 188. 189.): the Imperative and In- 
finitive by taking the root and suffixing the pronouns 
or not ; and the participles by prefixing D, which may 
then be inflected like other nouns. The following ex- 
amples taken from the Mikhlol of D. Kimkhi will 
sufficiently illustrate this subject, as applied to pluriliteral 

73*7? he put on a garment so catted. 

3 pers. ^n?; 2 fi^H?; 1 V^ja-jS, &c. as before. 

3 pers. by\y\ ; 2 ^3-pJjl ; 1 ^Tpg, &c. 


Masc. *73"I32?, fern. n^"}5P or riSjTpP, sing.; 
masc. D^3"|3b, "fern. ni^lVp, pi. 

^-]p9, &c., 1 Chron. xv. 27. 

3. In the same manner may be conjugated BCH3 he cut off; 
ttJSttn he mas full of moisture; 1$"}% he spread; "V^E he under- 
mined ; "'PIT' he inflamed, &c., which are nothing more than re- 
duplicated nouns. See Art. 169. 

4. From the noun " r ^DJ? a breast-plate, we have "Firjnj-l thou 
puttest on a breast-plate, Jer. xii. 5. And as a participle, *" r j?.Dp'P, 
Ib. xxii. 15. 

5. Of primitive words dropping the medial 1 or \ and redupli- 
cating the first and last radical letters (Art. 169. 5.), the following 
are given as the leading forms of verbs : 'js?? sustaining ; " 1 I ?")? 
leaping; "5TPPP arming; *lpS chirping; "^l? (rather ^ip-lS, as . 

ART. 197. 6-3 ON THE VERBS. 221 

above), undermining. Many of these, however, are placed by other 
Grammarians under roots having the second and third radicals the 
same. In one instance we have an objective form, -ly? ?2 they 
were sustained, 1 Kings xx. 27. 

6. The following are supposed by Kimkhi to have been formed 
by reduplicating the first and second letter of the root (Art. 169. 3.): 
as, ^j?^ttp causing to increase ; 57^?^ soothing, delighting ; VpV^ 
ridiculing. Whence V^VOP Gen. xxvii. 12; ^?^T tnou art ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, Ps. xlv. 3; N]-?M? bowing down, overwhelming: 
these, by reduplicating the last two, and dropping the first, 
radical: "Hp??? turning about, tortuous; ^p^pn becoming very hot ; 
"ip^np perambulatory (see Art. 169. 6.); and the following, by 
also prefixing the particle f^ : as, <"'$'7^0'7 delaying. 

7. All these, as far as they are found conjugated, follow the 
general analogy already laid down : e. g. "^99?^ ^ (will) arm 
Is. xix. 2 ; *Tp3?^. he mill arm, Ib. ix. 10. From tyfo, *&?$$ 
tkou (fem.) causest to grow, Is. xvii. 11. So '^'7'^'^ he delayed ; 
inaiiarin they delayed, Judg. xix. 8 ; ^rrnr^non we delayed, 
Gen. xliii. 10. Infinitive, ^rP^T 1 delaying, Exod. xii. 39. Parti- 
ciple, f?^na^ia j ft. nnnOJT he mill, may, &c. delay, Hab. ii. 3. 

In the last instance, the final H is radical, and therefore it has 
the Mappik and remains unchangeable, of which more will be 
said hereafter. 

8. It should be observed, that these verbs are found in a very 
few of the persons at most, and some only as participles or verbal 
nouns : in no case, perhaps, is any verb found conjugated through- 
out all the species. 

On these pluriliteral verbs, see Jauhari under f*- t Martelotto's 
Gram. Arab., pp. 185. 162-3. Bochart. Hierozoicon, torn. II., 
col. 689. Orig. Edit. Hariri, by Mr. de Sacy, p I* in voce 
tjass***-. See also Jauhari and the Kamoos under this and 
similar words. 

222 LECTURE XII. CART. ly8 ' 



198. Having given tables of the verbs whether simple 
or augmented, and explained some occasional anomalies 
(as they have been called), we now proceed to consider 
those verbs which present certain defects in their several 
forms. We shall be brief, however, because a table of 
the conjugation of every kind of verb will be given at the 
end of these remarks. Our principal business now will 
be to shew, how these defective verbs are reconciled in 
form with those already considered. 

2. It has already been shewn, that primitive words 
having a 3 in certain situations (Art. 76.), or either of the 
letters ^inN (Art. 72,) will occasionally drop it ; and, that 
one of the two last radical letters of any word, when both 
are the same, (Art. 77.) may also be rejected. We now 
remark, that when words thus circumstanced are conju- 
gated with the pronouns, they will be affected both in 
their vowels and consonants by these considerations. 
We do not think it necessary here to divide tjiese verbs 
into Defectives and Quiescents, as has usually been done ; 
because that would, perhaps, be multiplying distinctions 
without sufficient reasons for doing so. 

3. All the anomalies or defects, then, that can pos- 
sibly occur, must arise from one or more of these letters 
occurring as the first, second, or third, radical letter of 
the root ; or, when the second and third radicals are the 

4. Let us begin with those commencing with 2. The 
rule is (Art. 76.), to this effect : Whenever 3 is affected 


with^ajinal SKevd (?), it must be dropped: i. e. when- 
ever the D in Tp_> of our paradigm has a final Shevd, 
then, putting any verb commencing with 3 in the same 
situation, the i will be rejected, and the defect supplied 
by Ddgesh forte. 

5. All verbs of this kind, therefore, will be conjugated 
regularly in the Preterite tense of Kal ; as, t^3, he 
approached; nt^JJ, &&}, ^,JJ, &c., as also in the 
Plhel, Puhdl, and Hithpahel, throughout. 

In the Present tense, the leading word is W?& ; here, 
then, we shall have &$\ but by Art. 76. tf, 

6. In the same manner in the preterite of Niphhdl, 
& ; 23, for ^53 ; and so on by the same rule through the 
Hiphhil and Hophhdl species. 

7. The Infinitive or abstract verbal noun is here, for the 
most part, of the form IVTjJS) ; as, DWR, and, dropping 
the i (Art. 76.), TW| ; but, if a guttural be the last 
radical letter, (..,..) will become (_,_) as it is the case 
with segolate nouns (Art. 108.). 

8. The Imperative is ^5 for $3, which is regularly 
conjugated : as, #3, ^|, 1B^|, HJ^g. It will be unne- 
cessary to notice this verb farther. 

9. As the verb j3 he gave, placed, &c., has a little 
peculiarity about it, in having ] also for its final letter, 
it will be necessary briefly to notice its conjugation. 

10. Here, then, the final 1 will also be rejected by our rule 
(Art. 76.), whenever that has a final Shevd: as, !??, for /???, 
See. And, as ?12 is the leading word for the present tense, we 
shall have regularly, 1P"!, lj?fl, &c.; but, by our rule, ^l, !$&, 
&c. This, however, does not universally take place in other verbs 
comnjencing with 3. 

11. In the Infinitive, for ri3n? or A-?!?, according to our last 
example, we have riJH, by a further contraction, as if ^3.^ or 

224 LECTURE XII. C ART - 198 ' 12 ' 

had been the primitive form ; and hence, with the affixed pronouns, 
^AFl my giving ; "^1 his giving, &c. 

12. In these, as in other verbs, we may have ( - ), (), or ( 1 ), 
for the last vowel of either of the tenses : hence tt72.P1 ^ OM s h a lt 
exact, Deut. xv. 3 ; viS* 1 . it shall wither, Ps. i. 3 ; the primitives 
being, perhaps, ttf??, and ' Y? respectively. 

13. When the second radical letter is either a guttural or "), and 
therefore incapable of receiving Dagesh, the compensation, when 
3 is dropped, is either expressed or implied, (Art. 109.); as, first, 
J"in.1, for riPP (for rin?^) / <e ;?'# descend; second, Dp?, for DPI?, 
of Ep33 ^g 7i>i/ receive consolation. 

14. In most cases when the middle radical is a guttural, the 
3 is not dropped ; as, Pj^?1 he groans ; EH? 1 ) he rages ; 'P?1 he 
mill possess ; E^. he is mild. There are also a few instances in 
which the 3 is retained, when the second radical is not guttural ; 
as, Tifc?1 he will keep, Jer. iii. 5 ; WS^ ye will exact, Is. Iviii. 3, 

15. The 3 is also occasionally preserved in the Infinitive ; as, 
withering; ?3p touching: and in the Imperative; as, EHp? 
; "&? &eep; "*!?? c% ; V^l plant, &c. 

16. As one verb commencing with ^, namely HjT? Ae <ooA, is 
subject, in some degree, to the same rule, it may be proper to 
notice it in this place. 

This verb, then, is found in the species Kal, Niphhal, and Puhdl 
only. In Kal, the ' is dropped whenever it is accompanied by 
a final ( : ), as also in the Imperative, and occasionally in the 
Infinitive. In the preterite tense, therefore, it will retain all its 
letters regularly. In the present, we shall have n|j , for n i?? ; 
and so on. In the Imperative we have n|? and HjTv, Nlj? and 
^Pif?, &c. In the Infinitive, we have two forms, ^DJ? (once 
nn,7 2 Kings xii. 9.), and C^b, Deut. xxxi. 26. 

17. In Niphhal the b is retained; as n ijL?? and ^Pf? 1 ?? it is 
taken, 1 Sam. iv. 11, 17, 22. Infinitive, n|T?n 6ez^ <A;e, Ibid. 

18. In Puhdl we have njjjb in the preterite, and nf?^, for 

in the present. But in the third person singular feminine of the 
preterite, n P^ (for ^pl? 1 ?.) Gen. ii. 23, which has probably been 
effected by attraction. 

1 9. The participles are regular as far as they are found : as, 
one who takes, fyc. 


On ike Verbs commencing with N or *' 

199. The next class of roots \ve shall notice as subject 
to certain defects, are those having an N or ^ for their 
first radical letter. 

2. Now, as these letters standing as the first of any 
word will lose their power as consonants only when pre- 
ceded by certain vowels (Art. 37.), the consequence is, 
the conjugation will be regular, as in "tp.S, in the prete- 
rite of Kal, the Infinitive and Participles ; as also in the 
whole of Plhel, Puhal, and Hithpahel ; but, in this last, 
they seldom occur. We need not therefore give any 
table of these forms. Let us now proceed to consider 
those parts in which any defect or contraction arises, in 
consequence of either of these letters losing their powers 
as consonants ; and, first, of those which have N for the 
first radical letter. 

3. The leading word for the preterite tense of Kal 
may be of either of the forms "IPS or "TPS : as, "iptf he 

J II-T 'i T ' I- T 

said ; "llK he shone (for "11K perhaps, Art 75.) ; that of 
the present of either "TP.S, "fj?^ or *VtfJ$> an d rarely 
Tfcg: as, -ipfc (for -)0* Art. 87. 5.) ' / say; "lf$ 
binding; ""!??!? thou kindest; ^3^ thou art angry ; 
(< "J.$v he comes. A few have two forms ; as, THK and 
Tni*Y ipj* and ipfc. 

In one case, we have "71p$ : as, fc"I}$ ; so ntt^K, 
contr. for ni^lJS^ I am languid, Ps, Ixix. 21. 

T i -: - O * 

4. Taking "!&, then, or any other of these leading 
words, and prefixing the abbreviated pronouns with ( ; ), 
(Art. 189. 15.), we shall have -\$X\ ipfcri, 'HZpfcin, 
"IDX^t he, she, thou, I, speak, &c. : but, by contraction, 
(Art. 87. 5.), "IK\ "ICSW, ^.PSJH, IpX ; and, with the 
accent drawn back, "1^JJ\ "1^^, &c. : also with (-), 

, &c. ; or, with omitted, ljp\ iph, &c. ; 

226 LECTURE XII. AR T. 199. 5. 

he held, has Trw and th$, THto, and 
&c. ; many other verbs also, of this kind, have two forms 
in the present tense. 

5. In the Imperative lJp8, ^9$' & c ' the Infinitive 
is "ifoN or ")pN ; the participle active "ipfc, plural D'Hptf, 
&c. as in "Tj?3. So in the Passive Participle, TMp9' 

6. In Niphhal the initial N is treated like any other 
guttural; as, lpN3, fTjIZpSJ, rnpNS, &c. ; and, in the 
present tense, "1/6$!, IpW?, ^Pgn, &c. ; THK has in 
this species, mtfj,* (for rn&3 Art/ 87. 5,), plural ITHM 
they are taken, Josh. xxii. 9 ; the leading word taken 
here being similar to that in the present tense of Kal. 
The participle is regular, "lp,3, ?pN2. &c. It will be 
observed, that the syllabication differs here in a slight 
degree from that in which a non-guttural letter is the 
first of the root ; as, ")p3 Ne-emar ; "fpj?3 Niph-kdd. 
In the first case the preformative with its vowel forms 
the first syllable ; in the second, the preformative with 
its vowel together with the first radical letter. 

7. In Hiphhil and Hophhdl, the same rule prevails ; 
as, rp|l he believed; fif^fi, 

^P$n, I^Ogn, &c. Present" tense,' 

rp'^g, &c. ; or, with the * omitted, ]*, ipKp, as in 

other cases. 

8. So in the Participial noun, |^D^p, fern. H^D^p, 
pi. D^jTS^p, &c. 

9. In a few instances the radical N is dropped ; as, 
H consuming, for TpNH, where we have also aeon- 

traction of the vowels (Art. 87. 5.) Ezek. xxi. 33. So 
2~P, for 23 i he lies in wait, 1 Sam. xv. 5; pJK / will 
hear, for pTNN, Job xxxii. 11; *|p$ for *)p$N 7 will 
collect, Zeph. i. 2, 3; IUJf^K for 13VnS : I will depress 
him, Jer. xlix. 19; to which several other of the same 
kind may be added. So in the participle PJQ for 
hearkening, Prov. xvii. 4. 

ART. 199. 10.]] ON THE DEFECTIVE VERBS. 227 

10. In Hophhal, D^nNQ things or persons held, con- 
tained, or the like, 2 Chron. ix. 18, is agreeable with the 

11. Enough perhaps has been said to shew what the 
process of conjugating these verbs is : we may now 
proceed, therefore, to those which have * for their first 

200. One remarkable circumstance attends these verbs, 
which is this : There is a difficulty in ascertaining, 
whether 1 or ** has the greater claim to be considered the 
first letter of these roots. The same is the case in the 
Arabic : and, from the frequent substitution of one for 
the other in the Hebrew, the same difficulty must have 
long existed in this language.* We shall, therefore, in 
considering the conjugations, take it for granted, that the 
primitive forms were written with either 1 or ^ , and, 
that the one or the other of these letters has been occa- 
sionally taken, as the most convenient for enunciation, 
when preceded by some vowel depriving it of its power 
as a consonant. 

On the KAL, PIHEL, PUHAL, and HITHPAHEL Species of 
Verbs commencing with *> . 

2. In Pihel, Puhal, and Hithpdhel, as before, we have 
no defect, which is also the case in the preterite of Kal. 
In the Infinitive, Imperative, and Present tense of Kal, 
and in the Niphhdl, Hiphhil, and Hophhal species, 
therefore, our only defects will occur ; and these we now 
proceed to consider. 

* Thus we have T|VJ for TT 1 descending, 1 Sara. xxx. 24 ; "ibl progeny, 
Gen. xi. 30; 1^1 id., 2 Sam. vi. 23; *1,T] heavy, Prov. xvii. 27; "]T1 laden, 
Ib. xxi. 8. In all which cases, and indeed in almost all others in the Arabic, 
1 is taken for the first radical letter. 


228 LECTURE XII. C ART - 200. 3. 

3. In the present tense of Kal, then, as in former 
cases, the last vowel of the root may be either ( - ) ( ) 
or (1), which may be accounted for in every case, by 
supposing a different form of the primitive word to have 
been originally taken. So far all is as before.* 

4. In the next place, when the preformatives are 
brought in contact with "*, two modes of adjustment will 
take place among the vowels and consonants-; the one 
by contraction and occasional omission also : the other 
by a sort of accommodation and omission : e. g. 1st. 
>IT becoming dry; present ^T!,; contracted by Art. 
87.5. tfi^l; and by omission, l^T, where () is a 
perfect vowel by analogy. So tH^ lie will possess ; 
jf^N / shall sleep; pjJM he will awake; Dfc^ he will 
place ; "1^ he will form. 

5. The second method is, by contracting the ( ) and 
(:) into (), and omitting the radical " : as, 3&t^, for 
3B^ Tie will dwell ; "SJ^K / 0t7/ g > J0$ % shall know ; 
*ni:) she shall descend. This sort of contraction gene- 
rally takes place, when the last vowel of the leading 
word is (), probably for the purpose of promoting 
euphony, as in the segolate nouns. See Art. 108. In 
the following examples, ( 1 ) is the last vowel of the pri- 
mitive form : nitfJJ we agree, Gen. xxxiv. 15 ; info.1 they 
agree, 2 Kings xii. 9 ; ttMy. he Hushes : but these two 
may be derived from TYIN and $13 as the roots. 

6. Of this kind, the following are, according to Alting, the only 
verbs which occur; viz. fljfO he agreed; 3T he knew; T?^ he 
begat; "H^ he went; Nj^. he went out; 3?j it was dislocated; 

* I roust dissent from Schrceder in supposing many of these roots to be 
conjugated like those commencing with 3 (Reg- 72.), because, the analogy of 
the language requires a different process when certain vowels precede 3, from 
what it does when they precede 1, or s ; and because the signification of these 
roots, though cognate, requires no such sacrifice of principle. 


"H^ he descended; 3T it seemed evil; 30 he dwelt. The fol- 
lowing have both forms ; EH^ he became hot ; "^ he formed ; 
"T|"P,. he burned ; T^ zV mas precious ; Ctt^ he desolated, and B??^ Ae 
became dry, to which l^ 1 ^ above noticed is referred by some. In 
a few the "* is retained with (): as, ^j??^ I ni ^ > ^ic. i. 8 ; 
*^f?-.1 he shall be precious, Ps. Ixxii. 14. 

7. The former of these modes may be considered, therefore, as 
conformable with analogy ; the latter, as accommodated to 

8. In all those verbs which conform with the analogy (and all are 
so except the few above noticed) the Imperatives and Infinitives 
follow the general paradigm : P^ spitting, abs. "TCpl founding, Wn"! 

fear thou, &c., in construction. 

9. But, when an elision takes place, Art. 76, the first 
radical letter is dropped, the final vowel remaining : as, "H Infi- 
nitive and Imperative, fern. TJ"1 and T^?.. This verb has also 
T" and ^"]t for the Infinitive. So Imp. l^n and ^U give, root 
-*pT> 37^T know thou, and with the paragogic "1, ^^T\ . Infin. 
J"l?1 for l" 1 ^. and '"f^. What verbs are to be used in the several 
forms, can be determined only by usage. 

10. Several forms of the Infinitive are occasionally derived from 
the same root : i. e. according to our system, sometimes the abstract 
noun of one form is taken, and sometimes that of another ; as, 
TiV bringing forth, Job xv. 35, form tij?? ; n ^ Gen. xvi. 16 ; 
ri)?* (for JTT 1 ?' form "]??B) 1 Sam. iv. 19. So HTH descending, 
Gen. xlvi. 3 ; ^7"?T (form "!P^) my descending, Ps. xxx. 4. 

1 1 . To this variety of forms may be referred the following 
examples; ^t?^ HittTDN J e r. xliii. 10, if ye mill still abide, where 
^"i^ is probably put for ^^, the "* being dropped, by Art. 76. 
vjDW /D'^3 that thou shall surely prevail; or, prevailing shall 
prevail, Job xlii. 2, where 73 stands for vb^ (root '3^) by ^ e 
same rule. 

* Kimkhi tells us, that his brother derived this word from Vb\ thus : for 
nVv, striking out the latter 7, Hv, and varying the vowel l\? . In the 
Mikhlol, we generally have the leading word for the Present tense given thus : 
the root S5^ 33^; root 2PT 2H; whence we are to infer, that the persons 
of the Present tense will be 3n.1, 3p^> &c., root 3^2^^ ; whence Prcs. 
3^1 1 and so on. 

230 LECTURE xii. CART. 200. 12. 

12. This verb '-^ forms the Present tense in Kal t as if the root 
had been ^j?V as, V M > bj3W &c., for ^, bjD}Fl. See Art. 
87. 2. 

13. In the other species, viz., Plhel, Puhdl, and Hithpahel, the 
analogy of the paradigm 1|2f is regularly followed ; excepting only, 
that in the verbs 3H^ he knew, HT he threw, and, HS^ fo contended, 
the "* of the root is changed to 1 : as, 27^nn he ma ^ e known ; 
'"'JJ-'?'-"' he confessed; nSV^in he disputed. In Plhel, however, we 
have na^. (for H2^ Art. 73.) he shall make grieve, Lam. iii. 33 ; ^ 
(for s n,!'!) jAey s/ja# cas ou, Ib. iii. 53. In Puhdl we have D<t j?Tx9 
for D^-ra Jer. v. 8. 

14. We now proceed to the others ; viz. Niphhdl, Hiphhil, and 
Hophhdl, in which the first letter of the root will lose its power as 
a consonant. 

15. It has already been remarked, that these verbs are sometimes 
conjugated as if 1 had been the first radical letter ; this is the case 
in the three species before us. In Niphhdl, for example, we shall 
have in the Preterite Sttfa (for S&Q Art. 87. 1.), from the root *& 
or 2]. Present tense 22?^ t (for 21271^) where 1 retains its power 
as a consonant. In a few instances "* remains in the Present : as, 
^7-T^- he shall be pierced with a dart, Exod. xix. 1 3 ; '?*"! he waits 
Gen. viii. 12 ; Eft?, for Bira made hot, Is. Ivii. 5. The Imperatives 
and Infinitives are regularly formed ; as, ^,?WT. The participial 

noun, aofo, fem. njattn: , rot^a ; p i. D^ttfa a nd n^ttrta. we 

have, however, 01213 made mournful, fem., Lam. i. 4, and ^^ id. 
masc., Zeph. iii. 18 (for rria^ &c. Art. 87. 2.). 

16. In Hiphhil we have r^ttnn (for ^^n Art. 87. 1.), and, in 
the Present tense, ^itf'P or 2ttfi\ ^^n, and so on throughout. 

17. In some roots, however, the ( s ) remains, and either forms a 
diphthong with the preceding vowel, or coalesces with it by contrac- 
tion ; as, first, ^n , O r M2^n according to the Kelhw (for NS'in, 
root ?}) lead out, Gen. viii. 17; ^p or "Itt^in direct thou, 
Ps. v. 9 ; "^y / mill chastise, Hos. vii. 12. So in the Participle 
or noun of agency, E^P?*? using the right hand, 1 Chron. xii. 2. 
In the second place, the contraction may take place by the preced- 
ing letter taking () : as, ^H (for 2^H Art. 87. 3.) he gave 
prosperity, Gen. xii. 16. So ^^V?, ZftPF\ , or ?&$ &c. through- 
out ; '" f ? r P %1 ^ / will take the right-hand direction, Gen. xiii, 9. Inf. 
"pan & c . In Exod v. 7, we have 7^fP^ repeat ye, where M 
stands in the place of 1 or V but, here the leading word might be 

ART. 200. 18.]] ON THE DEFECTIVE VERBS. 231 

, from the root *!, cognate with *)& : in 3*?. for 
Job xxiv. 21 ; VV* for V)V. Is. xvi. 7 ; and V^N for 
Jer. xlviii. 31, none of the contractions common to other words 
have taken place. 

18. In Hophhdl the 1 of the root takes -1 throughout: as, ^ttftn 
(for ^V?, see Art. 87. 2.) he was made to dwell. So in the Pre- 
sent tense, ^W, StPVl &c. ; or, in both cases with (%) for !) : as, 

e. Art. 72. 

On the Conjugation of those Verbs which have 1 or ^ for their 
Medial Radical Letter. 

201. When these verbs terminate either in a quiescent 
H, or in Pf, y, or "1 ; as also, when conjugated in those 
species which have Ddgesh in the middle radical, they 
follow the general paradigm ; as, PPH it was watered ; 
jrn it became ; Hjn he breathed ; 1^3 Tie expired ; "1T.H 
Tie became white. So also 'Pj? vomit ye, Jer. xxv. 27, 
from JTj? ; ITtf he acted as an enemy, *]U he was weary, 
which are perhaps only nouns. With Ddgesh in the 
middle radical ; as, fn# he made crooked ; rty and TVJjt/Jpn 
he was made crooked. So in verbs with a medial ", 
3T1 he criminated ; "T^VH Tie procured by hunting. In 
all other cases, the medial radical 1 or "" loses its power as 
a consonant, and gives rise to several apparently defective 

2. Whenever a single medial 1 or " is preceded, either 
by a vowel or a final Shevd, and is, at the same time, 
followed by any vowel, it will be dropped, with the pre- 
ceding vowel or Sheva, and its own vowel will be trans- 
posed to the first radical letter (Artt. 73. 75.) ; as, D for 
Dlj? he stood; np for rnO he died; TjK for "hi* he 
shone ; 3b for 31?p he was good ; Dip for D1JP or DlljJ to 
rise. l^Niphhdl, Dip; for DilpJ ; Hiphhil, TNrTfor 
"1^?> D^n for D^H; Hophhal, DfJIH for DIp.V, &c. 
In like manner, when ^ is the middle radical, ]J3 for |^3 /ta 

232 LECTURE xri. CART. 201. 3. 

understood ; p3 for |^3, or ]^3 to understand; Hiphhil, 
3 W former!, l^n'for VJ3H; Hophhal, |3in or ],an, 
for'l^H, &c> 

3. For the forms "Tp3 and "Tpj which are usual in the 
Imperatives and Infinitives, we here have Dip (for Dip. or 
P]!?. Art. 87. 2.), and, ^ (for j$, or ]^ Ib. 4.) 

4. In the Pihel, Puhal, and Hithpahel, Species, when 
the middle radical is not doubled, which is mostly the 
case, the leading forms will be, TTJS, TTJ3, and "n^nnf, 
respectively (Art. 197.) : as, Dpip he raised; DDIp and 
DDTpnn he teas raised. In these cases, the process 
of the conjugation is regular throughout. Nouns of 
agency, &c. will be DpipP, Dpipp, and DpipTO, 
respectively ; the feminines and plurals of which are regu- 
larly formed, when in use. 

5. The Participial noun in Kal is, for the most part, constructed 
on the same form with the Preterite : as, E)? T> pi. E^pl? &c. : n$, 
pi. D^na ; J3, pi. 0-03 & c . The passive, &b for tWlb involved, 
form ^ : l/7^ ; btt for Vnia circumcised. So D'W for &$ placed, 
form T*i/^ In a few instances the Participle, or noun of agency, 
seems to be of the form "ffi : as, D 'p for ^1^ standing, 2 Kings 
xvi. 7 ; &SS treading, for DllSl Zech. x. 5. 

6. In the first and second persons of both genders and numbers, 
in the Preterite of Niphhdl, the leading word seems to be a segolate 
of the form "l|?B or ~[pS, i. e. Mf? for Dlj"^, V$ for 3 Art. 87. 2. 4 ; 

in which cases, the vowel ( i ) is introduced between the root and the 

* InCf7 T) niDj and ]S, tlie vowels become perfect on account of the accent. 
In D^n, TMn, S^n, npjin, r^ anJ 1?1 n , th e first vowel is made 
perfect, in order to complete the syllable; which becomes necessary on account 
of the first radical being taken to commence tht next syllable. The ( - ) is 
taken in Hiphhil, being (he vowel obliquely corresponding to ( ) of the regular 
paradigm. See Art. 96. 2. 

t That is, dropping the middle radical letter out of our common measure 
"Tp5, as is the case in these verbs, then assuming the proper vowel r and 
doubling the last radical letter, we have T"PQ, &c. 


abbreviated pronoun: as, JTitMpa, fVa-lpa, DnaJlp^l, & c . So 
n V?? PJTfe 11 ??, nlp^ , and so on. Alting thinks this has been 
done, in order to give the fuller pronunciation to the accent, as in 
i ^P? ! b ut > in '"iv ?? the accent does not accompany that 
syllable. That reason, therefore, will not hold good. I am in- 
clined to believe, that the i has been introduced, in order to avoid 
the concurrence of two quiescent letters after one vowel (Art. 33.), 
as would be the case, had the form JJ'P'lp? been adopted : and if so, 
this vowel has been introduced, just as the () has in the segolate 
nouns (Art. 108. 148. 2.). 

7. In every other case Niphhal takes the leading word Eip ; as, 
n^ for Di-lp? , as in B^H?, nto? &c. (Art. 193. 4.) 

8. A similar anomaly takes place in the corresponding persons 
of the Hiphhil species, which may perhaps be accounted for in the 
same way; as, Ijjfa^JWJ, nla^pn, VTin^pO & c ., but here, we also 
have the regular form ; as, ?\]T! , ^PlTH. ^Pl^H- 

9. It must be remembered, that whenever the first radical letter 
is, by any accident, made to commence a syllable, the preformative 
must, by our laws of syllabication, either take Skevd or a perfect 
vowel. When the accent is far removed it will be Sheoa ; but, 
when not, the vowel will be perfect : as, Present tense, Kal, ^7r> 
D-1i7.Pl , ^nnijn , p l. nra!p];1 & c . So, in the nouns of patience and 
agency, in Niphhal and Hiphhil, D< ^, fern. n ^P?, pl. D> 9 <1 ''"' 1 ? &c - 

', fern. H^pa, pi. D^ipn &c. In Hophhdl, however, 
such change takes place: as, nfpj>^, 2 pers. pl. E/jJpJW"!, 

& c . 

10. Verbs having a medial ("*) will sometimes drop it, and 
supply its place by (), as it happens in other verbs in the Hiphhil 
species ; as, 1/.R for T/Q thou shall lodge ; and, with the accent 
drawn back, }!?! 2 Sam. xvii. 16. But, when either the first or 
last radical happens to be a guttural, we shall have ( - ) : as, *RPJ. 
he mas wearied, 1 Sam. xiv. 28 ; HJ he rested, Exod. x. 14, for 
T or DIP. So with ">, ~>P^ he put away, Gen. viii. 13. The 
same will occasionally take place with a pause accent : as, 7,?^ 
Judg. xix. 20. 

11. Hence it will appear, that verbs having a medial \ may, in 
the present tense of Kal, take the same form which they, as well 
as those having a medial 1, will in HiphhU ; and that they can be 
distinguished only by the context. 

234 LECTURE xii. CART. 202. 

On the the Third Class of Defective Verbs. 

202. These verbs are formed upon roots whose third 
radical letter is subject to elision ; and this may take 
place, either when one of the letters "nnN occupies that 
situation (Art. 198. 2.), or, when the second and third 
radical letters happen to be the same (Art. 77.) : as also 
in certain cases, when 2 or n is found in that place 
(Artt. 76. and 188. 23.). 

2. But, before we proceed to consider these defects, 
it will be necessary to offer a few observations on the 
causes which have led to them : and first, we shall con- 
sider those which have one or other of the letters "nriN 
for their third radical. 

3. It has already been remarked (Art. 200.), that 
considerable difficulty has been felt both in the Hebrew 
and Arabic, in ascertaining which is the proper root in 
many instances wherein these letters are concerned. It 
is also a fact, that primitive words having either of these 
letters for the first, second, or third radical, and forming 
words similar in some respects in sound, will generally 
have either the same, or very nearly the same, significa- 
tion : e. g. 3X^, 3,1, or 33 he SET UP, to which perhaps 
may be added, as cognate, X^XXhe arranged, or assembled, 
an army, performed divine service, &c. which some 
make cognate with "QV beauty, and (13V he became in- 
flated, &c. So bb*, ^3, TO, V^, H73 comprehending, 

completing, &c.,* to which many others may be added. 

So B; and 

Vi V^; ^1, 25T1 &c. See the Mikhlol of Kimkhi, fol. Ifi^p, where a 
large list of this sort of verbs is given. 

It may be proper here to notice remarks sometimes made on verbs of this 
kind, which, I am induced to believe, are entitled to little credit. " Singularis 
Lingua genius," says A. Schultens, Inst. Ling. Heb., p. 399, " et granditas 


4. If this be the case, then, we need not be surprised 
in occasionally finding the vowels, and even the sig- 
nification of one cognate root applied to another ; as, 
ngfl, for KEH heal thou (root H^l becoming lax], Ps. 
lxT4; na-wi for N3"m I will Veal, Jer. iii. 22. So, 
with respect to the vowels only; as, T\N{73, fiar* 

/ restrained, Ps. cxix. 101, as if the root had been 

for Njn'D finding, Eccles. vii. 26 ; tt"l, for 
S~l we have healed, Jer. li. 9 ; niiOjn prophesying, 
Zech. xiii. 4 ; N^H sinning, Eccl. viii. 12, where the 
vowels belong to roots having H or " for the last radical. 

5. The following assume the vowels, and in some 
instances the forms, of a cognate root ; "^JiO taken away, 
Ps. xxxii. 1, where the form is derived from nJ0, while 

' IT T " 

the root is tfj^J. So, JTPj^n, they (fern.) will heal, 
Job v. 18 ; I^TP they (masc.) will heal, Jer. viii. 11, and 
n2P3 she, or it, was healed, Ib. li. 9; <i rv^53 / wondered, 
Ps. cxxxix. 14 ; TOV thou hast thirsted, Ruth ii. 9 (for 
JVp, as if the root had been HDV, but which is KOV). 
In like manner, we have ItfcO they bear (root N&'J) Ezek. 
xxxix. 26 ; 1*7D they are full, Ib. xxviii. 16 ; irptpJ we 

stili, saepe ansam praebuere, ad gemi/ite Radicis formas in unam conflandas." 
The first example he gives is li^Sin Is. xxx. 5, which he calls " specimen 
insigne. Hiphh. Radicum 27^ aruil, et 27^2 fatuit, signantissimi prae se 
ferens : ex l^^S^rT fatere fecit, et l&^Ilin acescere fecil, coalitum." Remarks 
of this kind are often met with in the Thesaurus Grammaticus of Buxtorf, in 
the Mikhlol of Kimkhi, the Rabbinical Commentaries, &c. I must confess, 
however, I can see little in all this, but the occasional adoption of one or other 
of the cognate roots, as indeed it occasionally happens in the Arabic, without 
any intention whatever on the part of the writer, to combine more ideas than 
one in such verb. In the above instance, then, I believe 127K3 has been the 
root taken, to be used nevertheless in the sense of IZ^S . I must object to the 
vowel ( "i ) Khotem : because, I think, it may have been introduced for the 
mere purpose of supporting this hypothesis. In Eichhorn's edition of Sirnonis's 
Lexicon, sub vocc !^2i , S is said to be otiose. 

236 LECTURE xii. [[ART. 202. 6. 

are vile, Job xviii. 3, to which many more may be 
added ; but, as they are always noticed in the best 
Lexicons, they need not be detailed here. 

6. In the first place, then, every root terminating with 
a radical IT, that is, with PJ having Mappik inscribed, 
will be regularly conjugated like "Tjp_S ; as, HJ12 Tie was 
high ; ^l"Qi! thou wast high, in*?! they were high, &c. 
This letter, therefore, is not subject to any elision, either 
here or elsewhere. 

7. It is when H is a substitute for 1, or \ only, that 
any departure from the general paradigm can take place 
in any case. 

8. In the following instances, however, no such substitution takes 
place, but 1 and "* retain their original places ; ^^^ / have been 
tranquil, Job iii. 26 ; Infin. Kal, fern. HI 7 07 ; Participial noun, 
fcri, of the same root V?tf. So Hltn, Infin. Ezek. xxviii. 17, 
from the root 1N*1, usually nwn. I n PlMl, V"]^ I mill mater, 
Is. xvi. 9. But, in Job xii. 6, we have ("* ) for the last radical : 
as, ^ |?l?1 they mill be tranquil (where the accent has been drawn 
back) Art. 119. 11. So, !TDn it trusted, fern., Ps. Ivii. 2 ; l^n*! 
they multiply, Deut. viii. 13, where, in the next member, we have 
nsn 1 ? ; 1-VIjpin ye assimilate, Is. xl. 18. 25 ; !"& becoming 
languid, Cantic. i. 7 ; '"ft^? weeping, Lam. i. 16. So also, D i!r?^P 
things full of marrow, Is. xxv. 6. In all other instances, n will be 
substituted for either 1 or "* , and then will be subject to elision by 
the general rules affecting the letters ""inM . 

9. In the Preterite tense, therefore, of all the species, 
H will be the termination for the third person singular 
masculine, instead of v or 1 ; H of the feminine, just 
as it is in the feminine nouns in construction. In all the 
others, ^ will represent the third radical : as, Pn| he re- 
vealed, discovered ; fern. H-HyS ; 2 pers. masc. r*v|, id. 
fern. T\^1% ; 1 pers. com. ^? Vl > pi- 3 pers. com. 17| for 
in 1 ?! or 1$! Art. 73 ; 2 masc. DJT 1 ?! , id. fern. |H^ ; 
1 com. W7J. 


10. It must be remembered, however, that in every other species 
( ) is generally the vowel which precedes "^ in the Preterite. Even 
in Kal () would be more agreeable with the analogy than (), 
because ^Vv| &c. should be, according to the general paradigm, 
?!??, which by Art. 87. 3. would become Q$% : but, as () pre- 
ceding the ** may also become ( ) Art. 87. 4. this may have been 
adopted in this species. 

11. The Present tense of every species here ends in 
H * as do also the Participles. The Imperative has 
T\, but this is the form of construction assumed by all 
nouns ending in If (Art. 143. 5.), and such will the 
Imperative generally be. 

12. The Infinitives follow the general paradigm, and 
end in ii in the masculine ; as, HS"! and nJO seeing. ,f 
The feminine form always ends in TV ; as, JWJ or ni^ 
(for rnJ72 Art. 87. 1.). 

13. The agent or active participle will end in H ; as, 
rtl* ; fern. nj?}) (for HH^JI Art. 73.). The patient or 
passive participle ends in ^ ; as, "")7|, formT)p3, regu- 
larly, where the final "* is quiescent, fern. !"17;?, pi. D^;P| 
and ni")l7il : here "> appears as the proper radical letter.^ 

* Except the 2 pers. sing. fern, and pi. masc. and fern., as also the 3 masc. 
and fern, pi., where H is dropped, or changed to <1 ; as, 3 m. H^P, f. rrpaXjl ; 

2 m. nban, f. ''ban (for ^nbrsn Art. 73.); i com. nba. pi. 3 m. ibai 

(for *JlV^ Art. 73.), f. Hajari; 2 m. ^ft (for -inb^n as before), f. H^ban ; 
1 com. nbaa. In the same manner are the Present tenses of all the species 

f In "13J? acquiring, 2 Sam. xxiv. 24, and urn T"in conceiving and medi- 
tating, Is. lix. 13, Schrceder thinks we have a final 1 for the last radical letter : 
but this is far from being certain; '"^ I l7> ^"J 1 ^ and JTilH will terminate 
regularly according to our paradigm ; and, omitting the final H by Art. 72, we 
shall have the forms, "13(7, "Tin and "ia'n . The other example, viz. \3n Hos. 
vi. 9, adduced by him, is probably a plural noun in construction. 

\ In Is. iii. 16, we have a various reading, viz. nVltM and rVP'Hfll I, as also 

238 LECTURE xn. CART. 203. 

On those Verbs which have an ^ fur the Third Radical 


203. The only departure from the general paradigm 

in verbs of this kind is, in the N becoming quiescent in 

the preceding vowel ; as, Pret. Kal. NVQ for tf V p , he 

found, f. ngyp, 2 m. nKVD, f. riK^Jj" 1 com. M?S!p ; 

pi. 1NVE, com" 2 m. DrtRVP, f. insi'D, 1 com. 13HXO. 

f i : IT ' iv T : ' I iv T : * IT T 

2. The Present tense is, N.VP 1 ], NJ$ri, and so on. 

In every other species, the persons of both tenses, 
except the third singular and plural of the Preterite of 
both genders, those of Puhdl, and of the Present of 
Hiphhil, the vowel preceding M is ( ) . As Niphhdl, 
3 m. Hyp?, f. ngyP3, 2 m. nsj^J, f. n]pj, 1 com. 
WXP ; plur. com! 1NV3 &c. Pres. tense, $& &c. ; 
Hiph. X^Jpn , f. ng"yzpn 9 2 masc. J?NJftpn &c. T Pres. 
3 m. ^V?:, f. ^P^ & c - In PlhelvnA Hithpahel all 
is regular. In Puhdl we have, Pret. 3 pers. masc. 
f. ngV ; 2 m. nHJUp, f. rwyo &c. Pres. 3 m. 
^V^n ;' 2 m. 8$J9, f - ^^b &c. and so on throughout. 

We have, however, ^|^ it shall be changed, Eccl. viii. 1, where, 
according to Kitnkhi, the vowels belong to the root n ?^. Mikhlol, 
fol. TOP . 

3. In the Infinitives and Participles a contraction 
mostly takes place ; as, ngj^ or n^, for fig& or 
bearing; root ^3 ; r\SJ?iO for fi$iD ; root 

finding. We also have TlgylO. So also nx:i^ for 
hating, form J"Hp5)> root K3t^ ; nX")p or n1^"|lj? calling ; 
ro T\^D filling (Art 87. 5.J. 

in 1 Sam. xxv. 18; rVfitZ?^? a d rTfalQ?3?> no reliance, therefore, can be placed 
on Schroder's remark, that these are words retaining their primitive radical 1 . 
So likewise W3) Job xli. 24, may be a verb, and ^DjSJ Ib. xv. 22, for mDlJ by 
Art. 72. By the same role we have "*f?3 clear, innocent, for "Pj?3 &c. 


4. Some verbs here, as in the other classes, have () 
for the last vowel of the Preterite of Kal : as, NT he 
feared; Kj?O lie filled; JOiV he hated; Np he thirsted, 
which they will retain throughout that tense, where 
other verbs have () : as, 3 m. HjV, f. HjJT; 2 m. HT, 
f. ^N^ ; 1 com. TI^T! ; and so on. In every other 
tense and species they are conjugated like J*Q . 

5. For the rutes and examples relating to Apocope when hap- 
pening to these or any other verbs, see Artt. 74. 119. 3 8. 



204. It has been laid down as a rule, that whenever 
the last two letters of any primitive word happen to be 
the same, one of them may be dropped for the sake of 
euphony (Art. 77.) There are cases, however, in which 
this will not take place : these we shall notice first, and 
then proceed to shew in what instances and in what way 
our rule applies. 

2. First, then, in the reduplicated species, i. e. in 
Plhel, Puhdl, and Hithpahel, the middle radical letter 
will either receive Dagesh forte, as in "Tj?.IS, or, the redu- 
plication will take place on the measure TTiS, "TT'^> 
or "nlSnn ; or, lastly, on one or other of the redupli- 
cated forms (Art. 197.). In these cases, therefore, no 
defect will take place. 

3. In the next place, the following examples follow the general 
paradigm; as, DO* he intended, Deut. xix. 19; ^P^* I intended, 

240 LECTURE xiii. CART. 204. 4. 

Zech. viii. 14; -i?,? they finished, Ezek. xxvii. 11; 
surrounded, Eccles. xii. 5, &c. ; ^J^^j? < decayed, Ps. vi. 8 : 
p3n Jemg gracious, Isa. xxx. 1 9. 

4. The Participial nouns of Kal; as, ^j?E surrounding, Gen. 
ii. 13, pi. D^SD 2 Chron. iv. 3; "W-JM cwrsed, Gen. xxvii. 29, 
pi. B v 7l" | y, Josh. ix. 23, &c. 

5. In some instances the Infinitive also takes the form "^9 ; as, 
2Sp7 for surrounding, Numb. xxi. 4 ; Ettnv for warming, Isa. 
xlvii. 14, form "^jp , with (-) changed to (T) on account of the 
pause, (Art. 123. 5.). 

6. Again, in no case, in which either the first or third 
radical letter of any root is subject to elision or contrac- 
tion, will our rule take place ; as, in the first case, pTJT. 
for Vnil^ they flee, Ps. Ixviii. 13 ; ^jf*0 Tie exclaimed, 
root y?^; ^nri / broke to pieces, Jer. xlix. 37, for 
^r^n^ So, irn for ^n. But, when this is not the 
case, and the last radical retains its power as a consonant, 
one of the two is dropped : as, ^H for ^H he lived, 
Gen. v. 5. 

7. Whenever, therefore, one or other of these excep- 
tions does not take place, one of the two last radical 
letters of these verbs will regularly be rejected in both 
the tenses in the Imperative, and occasionally in the 
Infinitive of Kal, the whole of the species Nipkhdl, 
Hiphhil, and ffophhdl. 

8. The most convenient method, perhaps, of stating 
this defect will be by saying, that the second radical with 
the preceding vowel, or Sheva, is rejected; as, 3D, for 
33 ; Niph. 203, for 33P3, &c. which will generally 

9. In both tenses, then, of the species Kal, Niphhal, 
Hiphhil and Hophhdl, as also in their Infinitives, 
Imperatives, and Participles, excepting those already 
mentioned, will the second radical letter of all such 
roots be rejected ; but, whenever any asyllabic augment 


takes place, this rejected letter will be restored by the 
operation of Ddgesh forte (Art. 77.) 

10. If, in the next place, we except the first and 
second persons of both numbers and genders, throughout 
all the Preterites of these species, the abbreviated pro- 
nouns which are asyllabic will be the same in these as in 
other verbs. But, in all the first and second persons of 
these preterites, the vowel 1 is introduced, as in Art. 
201. 6. between the root and the pronouns ; e. g. taking 
33D for the root, 3 m. 3D, f. .130, 2 m. ni3D, 
f.'rVGD; Icom. "\ni3D; pi. Dni3D, ]ni3D, Ui^D. "So'in 
NipJihdl: 3 m. 3CO, f. H3D:, 2 m. nl3D^, JT13P3, and 
so on. 

11. It should be observed, that as the first letter of 
the root in the Present necessarily commences a syllable, 
the preformative will either take Shevd ( : ), or a perfect 
vowel. It will take Shevd when the accent is on the 
third letter, or farther from the beginning of the word ; 
in all other cases the vowel will be perfect : as Pres. Kal, 
3 pers. m. 1D\, fern. 3bn ; pi. m. 13CT, f. Dr3D?, &c. 
Nlphhdl, Pret. 3 m. 3j?}, fern. Hap:, 2 m. HiSDJ, 
f. ni3D}, &c. Hiphhil, Pret. 3 m'. 3DH, f. H3pn, 

2 m. rvi3pn, f. ^i?pn'; 3 pi. com. i3,pn,'2 m. onl3pn, 

f. inl3pn,"&c. Pres. 3 m. sing. 3D;, f. 3pJ^ 2 m. 
3DJ1, f. v-lpjp; 1 com. 3p$, 3 pi. m. lapj, f. n^3D]p, 

12. It should be remembered, that the ^ usually found 
between the second and third radical, and which is con- 
sidered as characteristic of the Hiphhil species, never 
appears in these verbs. 

13. In Hophhdl, 1 is inserted after the characteristic 
H, in order to complete the initial syllable, after which 
this species is conjugated like the preceding : as, Pret. 
3. m. sing. 3D1H, f. H3Din, 2 m. HlSDlH, f. JY!3pin ; 


242 LECTURE xiii. [[ART. 204. H. 

1 com. VTtopin, &c. Present: 3 sing. m. 3DV 1 , f. 

2 m. 3p1.n, f. \3p1fl; pi. Pirapin. In the last, and 
every similar case in this species, the first vowel is neces- 
sarily immutable : it must, therefore, remain perfect. 
So in the Imperative and Participle, 3pin, f. ^DIH, &c. 
3D1D, f. rODIp, &c. 

14. In these, as in all other verbs, the final vowel 
of both the tenses in Kal may be ( - ), ( ), or (1 ). 
The root above given exemplifies ( - ) for the last vowel 
of the Preterite, and ( 1 ) for that of the Present. The 
only variety however which occurs is, in having ( i ) for 
the last vowel of the Preterite, and ( - ) for that of the 
Present : as, 13h they cast, of 33"} Gen. xlix. 23 ; ^ll he 
hath devolved upon, Ps. xxii. 9. So in the Infinitives 
and Imperatives, which are generally constructed on the 
same form with the Present, with (-): as, ^3, for ^| 
devolve thou, Ps. cxix. 22. Present : 1 W they shall be 


vile, for ly/PI 1 Sam. ii. 30. In HiphhU also, we have 
occasionally ( - ) : as, 7pjl he made light, for ^pH 
Is. viii. 23. Participle, ^VO giving shade, for V?V 
Ezek. xxxi. 3. 

15. In the species Plliel, Puhdl, and Hithpdhel, the 
forms assumed for conjugation must be determined by 
usage, i. e. whether they are to be *Tj?), TTl3, "HIS, 
"Tftf1'! 1 * "niSOTj or any other of the reduplicated forms 
(Art. 197.) ; and when this is done, the process will be 
analogous to that of the general paradigm. 

16. Of the verbs terminating in 2 or Jl, enough has 
been said, Artt. 198. 10. 188. 23. 26. 28. 


On the doubly Defective Verbs: i. e. Verbs, in which more 
than one of the Radical Letters may be subject to quies- 
cence or elision., by the operation of the preceding Rules. 

205. Roots may be supposed to exist composed of 
such letters as may all be subject to elision or quies- 
cence, when occurring in certain situations : but, that 
they all should be subject, at the same time, to such 
rule, the nature of the case makes impossible : because, 
quiescence can take place, only when some homogeneous 
vowel precedes; and this pre-supposes that such vowel 
is enounced by a consonant. And, in the case of one of 
the two last radical letters of a verb being dropped, it is 
also supposed, that some preceding vowel is enounced, 
which cannot be done without the influence of a pre- 
ceding consonant. 

2. Hence it will follow, that such part of any root 
as is unaffected by the influence of a preceding vowel 
will remain unaltered : and also, that no two contiguous 
letters can at the same time be subject to defect by the 
process of conjugation, if we except the operation of 
apocope, and those cases in which any of the ^HN 
letters are dropped, as being unnecessary to the pronun- 
ciation. But, when the first and last are subject to qui- 
escence or elision, the middle radical letter, be that what 
it may, will generally retain its character as a consonant, 
and may receive a Ddgesh forte ; or if not capable of 
being doubled, may be compensated in the preceding 
vowel being made perfect. 

3. In this case, therefore, as in all the preceding ones, 
the general paradigm holds good : but, as the concur- 
rence of certain sounds is incompatible with the pronun- 
ciation of the Hebrews, some changes will take place, in 
order to avoid this difficulty. Example, however, is 

R 2 

244 LECTURE xin. [[ART. 205. 4. 

always easier to be understood than precept; we shall 
now give, therefore, a few examples of all the cases that 
occur ; which, after Schroder, we shall divide into three 

First Class. 

4. This class will have the first and third radical 
letters subject to elision, or quiescence. Arid first, 
both are subject to elision, as in ]H3 he gave, placed; 
li?3 he played on the psaltery ; J"\n3 he descended, which 
will drop either the 3 or P, or both, by rules already 
detailed (Artt. 198. 10. 188. 23. 28. &c.) : e. g. in 
NiphJidl, Pret. 2 pers. .Pirn, ^3, WO, for ty$#, 
J!^J!?3 : 3 ; and so of the rest. 

5. The first is subject to quiescence, and the third 
to elision, as in )ptf he was faithful; |J^ he slept; 
Jlg, or ri^, he was handsome. Here the ] will be 
rejected, as before, whenever it is affected by a final 
Shevd (:) by analogy; the final T\, by Art. 188. 23; 
and the initial ^ or N, will be quiescent, according to the 
rules detailed in Artt. 199. 200. 

6. In the next place, the first will be subject to 
elision and the third to quiescence, in such roots as 
Sj>3 he bore ; as, Present tense, 3 p. m. Kal, Njfi^ for 
j^ (Art. 198.) ; Imp. Nfc>; Inf. Nlfc>, n^, or rj*>. 
Niph. Pret. and Part. Kjfca HiphhU, Pret. N^H. Hoph. 
N&n : also in roots terminating in Jl, for 1 or ^ : as, HtD3 
he extended ; Pres. Kal, HEP ; and, by apocope (Art. 
74. 2.), CO^ or 0.1 . But here, the Imperative and Infini- 
tive are sometimes written at length ; as, HIjO^ extend, 
Exod. viii. 1, &c. ; nllp? declining, Num. xxii. 26. In 
Niphhdl, *\1 for in^? and, with a pause accent (Art. 
119. 11.), Vi}3 are they extended, Numb. xxiv. 6. 


HiphhU, Iri&H* 3 sing. fern, with the pronoun 1, for 
IHJintpjin she subdued him, Prov. vii. 21. Pres. tp for 
ntgri, by apocope, incline, Ps. cxli. 4, and Imper. ZDH for 
H$n incline thou, Ps. xvii. 6. 

7. Again, verbs having both the first and third radical 
letter subject to quiescence ; as, Np^ (for Kri*O , contrac- 
tion of Sngg Art. 87. 5., from the root ij$) he will 
come, Deut. xxxiii. 21 ; n^frT (for H^N") Ib. from the root 

Ae M?z7/ bake: and 1 Sam. xxviii. 24, in^h s^<? 

zV, where the first and last radicals are dropped ; 
NJE he will go out, for K^.l, root N. Imper. KJT. 
Infin. Niy, N, ngy, and nsjf. So TJ lie feared ; 
Pres. JfT/. n^ or T ; Infin. ri 1 ^ for iSi-j^. Niphhdl, 
Pret. or Part. NTti; ,TT he cast, Pres. #/, HJ1. 
Hence DTJ M;^ 5^oo# /^m, Num. xxi. 30. In HiphhU, 
PITT, and, by apocope, "IV he shot, 2 Kings xiii. 17: 
ryj ^^ grieved; Pret. HiphhU, HJin ; Pres. pi. IJifl ; 
and Job xix. 2 : j^ifl, with a paragogic Nun (Art. 
120. 8.) Hophhdl, JIJIH, whence HJin jom. Parti- 
ciple of Niphhdl, MiJIJ persons (fern.) pained, Lam. 
i. 4, &c. 

Second Class. 

8. The second class of doubly defective roots includes 
those which have a medial 1 or ^ subject to quiescence, 
and the third radical letter subject to elision ; as, )13 or 
|^3 he understood; \^ he lodged ; IT)$ he placed; as, 
T\U) for Jprn_^ thou hast placed\ 137 w<? te; lodged, for 
135^ (Artt/76. 188. 23.). But, in these verbs, the 
final \ is not universally rejected ; as, nri53 thou hast un- 
derstood, Ps. cxxxix. 2. 

Third Class. 

9. The third class comprehends those verbs which have 

246 LECTURE xin. [[ART. 205. 10. 

T or * for the middle radical, and N or n for the third ; 
each of which may be subject to quiescence, and in certain 
cases to rejection. 

10. Of the first sort Nl^ entering in; N13 being 
crude, and Nlj? or tf' 1 )? vomiting, are examples which may 
thus be conjugated. 

3 p. m. sing. NJ3, f. HjO; 2 m. fitfjp, f. flN^t ; 1 com. 
PI. 3 com. IX?, &c. 


3 p. m. sing. **, f. K^ ; 2 m. rtj, f. \^fl ; 1 com. 
PI. 3 m. *)&, &c. 


3 p. m. sing. 81?, f. ^13; 2 m. 1K3. PI. f. Df gi, 



or ^, 
Masc. sing. ^ , f. H#3. PI. D^?, f. 

11. In those cases in which Khottm would accompany the middle 
radical, 1 may be inserted or not: as, N"fcp, ^^ &c., or &^, 
&2FI & c . And, in others, where Kdmets attends the radical S, 
M is occasionally omitted (Art. 72.) : as, ^p3 for ^Sa me came in, 
1 Sam. xxv. 8. 

In HiphMl we have, Pret. ^H, npri, or jni^H, &c. 
Pres. Wj; or '^ or flj, W}$, and so on/ Infinitive, 
H , and with N dropped, ^H. Part. g?p or 


Pret. Hophhdl, 

Pres. RJT, Knifl &c. " PartKniO &c. 
12. Examples, in which both a medial 1 or \ and final n, are at 
the same time quiescent, seldom occur, if we except those forms of 
the Present which are said to be subject to apocope : as, 'rP , for 
^.VT. he shall, or may be ; so ^IT for I^T! by apocope (Art. 74. 2.) 
and having a paragogic M ; root HIH f or nVT Eccles. xi. 3. In all 
other cases the middle radical letter retains its character as a con- 
sonant, the third only being subject to quiescence : as, 


3 p. m. sing. n;n, f. rUTH; 2 m. nvn, f. JTVT; 1 com. 
3 p. com. pi. -Y|n, 2 m. OJT?n, f. ]n^ri ; i C o ra . 


3 p. m. sing, nVP, once N^PP, a poc. VT, f. HTTPl, apoc. 


2 p. m. sing. Hirr, id. f em . ^.H. 

Masc. sing. HVf n ^. 

18. Verbs of this kind are seldom found conjugated beyond the 
first or second species ; and perhaps never throughout those. 

It must be borne in mind, that, in any of these verbs, the para- 
gogic N or 7 niay occur in their usual places that any of the >*inN 
letters may be dropped or not, when the preceding vowels will pre- 
serve the pronunciation of the word that the second persons sin- 
gular of the Preterite may have H added : as, ^ftOf 1 thou gavest 
and that Ddgesh forte may occasionally be omitted, and a com- 
pensation made, by the preceding vowel becoming perfect. But, as 
the Dictionaries and Concordances will always shew in what cases 
these take place, it will be unnecessary to note them down here. 

On the Inseparable Pronouns when attached to Verbs. 
206. When the inseparable pronouns are attached to 

248 LECTURE xiii. ART. 206. 

nouns, the meaning of the compound will, as we have 
seen (Art. 145. 1.), be propriety, possession, or the like ; 
because in no other way can nouns and personal pronouns 
be construed together ; but, when the same pronouns are 
combined with verbs, which are already compounded with 
pronouns by the process of conjugation, then, if the verbs 
are transitive, these further affixed pronouns must be con- 
sidered as complementary of the signification of such 
verbs, or what we usually term an objective case : but, if 
such verbs be intransitive, then must they be translated 
by introducing some preposition or other word explana- 
tory of the connexion thus formed ; as, ^73 he grew up 
for me, or with me, Job xxxi. 18 ; ^pr^lj? / am holy 
(as to) thee, i. e. I am holier than thou, Is. Ixv. 5. So 
?pr shall dwell (with) thee, Ps. v. 5. We shall have 
occasion to speak more particularly on this subject when 
we come to the Syntax. 

207. The next question will be, How will the addition 
of these pronouns affect the vowels and consonants of 
the verbs ? Generally, having the vowels of the affixed 
pronouns given, those which precede and are mutable 
will be regulated by the general laws prevailing in the 
nouns ; that is to say, any mutable vowel, situated at 
some distance from the accent, will be rejected, while 
any perfect vowel, deprived of the accent and followed 
immediately by a consonant, will be changed for its 
correspondent imperfect one. But, as a table will make 
all plain, we shall now give one with the regular tri- 
literal verb : those which are subject to any defect will 
receive the same affixes, due attention being paid to their 
particular characters. 


2. Table of the Abbreviated Pronouns as attached to Verbs. 


Pers. Forms proper for the Preterite Tense. Do. for the Present. 

1 com. *>3 ^3 ^3 

2 masc. ?T, inpausa "-T or ?T ?T or ,1^ 

2 fern. "-T "-T It "n . "n or ^3 

I IT I I- I vi I i" I vi ft" 

3 masc. 1,1 J H i 

3 fern. ,1 ,1 H .1 



1 com. 13- 13- 13-- 

2 masc. Q3 D3 


2 fern. 73 ?> 

liv l!v 

3 masc. Q Q , poetice 1 Q Q , poelice "JQ 
3 fern. 7 7 \ 

I I- I T I I" 

3. Affixes of the Present, when preceded by an Epenthetic 
Nun, more properly the Nun of confirmation and inference. 
See Art. 175. 17. &c., and the Syntax. 


1 com. 

0- "3- for ^- V)?- 

2 masc. 1 ,13 ?I3 )133 

TMV T iv I : iv T : iv 

3 masc. 13 for 113 13 
3 fern. ,13- H3 

T IV T : IV 


^35? he visited me ; 13^5 us; ;f!p T 5 thee, 

, ^^tj?5 ^^, f.; D^lp.5 yow, m., Ufj?^ 

, f . ; 1i11J?5, or contr. 1"[^, or 11^5 him, n^i^5 

250 LECTURE XIII. C ART ' 208 ' 

- her; Dlg9, poetice iDljJSj) them, m., ]!? 

them, f . 

Third Person Singular Feminine. 

visited me, com. ; 13JVTJ25 lls > com - 

, m., irngs #&?<?, f, ; opm^ - 

or w 


m., nP them, f. 

Second Person Masculine. 
visitedst me, com. ; 1Ili;)*Tj?55 z^, com. ; 


m., 1P*TJ55 them, f. 

Second Person Feminine. 

w (fern.) visitedst me, com. ; l^l)??) us, 
com.; VT?nE? or Vp7]?9 
m., j^jp"!R5 ^OT, f. 

First Person Singular Com. 

V|125> / visited thee, m., T^Hl??) ^^, f. ; 

^lP? y u > m -> 15^11?? y u > ^ ^"^^li?? or 

Ti?? Am, n^lJ??) her ; D^plj?? #A^z, m., 
^Ae/w, f. 

Third Person Plural Com. 
31*T)??i they visited me, com. ; ^1*11?^ us > com - '> 

T^ y^, f.inn^ him, np T 5 

her; Dllj^ ^w, m., or, poetice 
, f. 


Second Person Plural Com. 

ye (com.) visited me ; 131]^*J[?5 us, com. ; 
him, rnnfj?9 her; blJTJi?5 them, 
m., jirnjPS?) them, f. 

First Person Plural Com. 

T),np we (com.) visited thee, m. ; ^IJ"!^?) thee, 
f. ; DJTiriJ^ you, m., ijS'ttlj^ you,'}'.; im^gS) 

him, ftt|*TgS her ; blp7J5$ ^wz, m., PJ-jj?^ 

them, f. 


Third Person Singular Masc. 

^!!P5 he visits me, com. ; 13^P?^ us t com. ; 
iHBSV thee, m., -sppp tf**, f. ; Dinp^ yow , m ., 
JJTJJ^ you, f. ; VJ3|$1 or Hi?^. ^'/w, nnj?^ or 
; DljP^I ^w, m., or, poetice iD^.p^, 
, f. : with the Epenthetic or Paragogic J, 
131p5^ he visits him, HS'Jj?^ her, ;!3j?0? thee ; 

* / ^?^V9^. ^y fi nd me > P r v. i- 28 ; 
serve thee, f. ; 1}T[? 1 ?'! they take him, 
and so on 


209. It will be seen by the Table, that every possible combi- 
nation of the verb with the pronoun thus affixed is not made : I 
visited myself, thou visitedst thyself, and the like, would rather fall 
under the province of one of the reciprocal species : as, ^Tfl?? , 
or "^"Jt?-^'^ m Niphhdl or Hithpdhel, and would not, therefore, be 
made in Kal by affixing the pronouns ; but, which of these species 
is to be adopted, custom alone can determine. We have, never- 
theless, a very few examples in which this combination is made in 

252 LECTURE xni. ART. 209. 2. 

Kal : as, < *?^ l> ^? "*?*? / made myself, or, for myself, Ezek. xxix. 3, 
in which the repetition of the pronoun seems to add some emphasis 
to the passage. 

2. With respect to the vowels of the root, it will immediately be 
perceived, that they are subject to the same laws which prevail in 
the nouns, when receiving similar additions. In the asyllabic 
affixes, for example, as the last consonant of the root must be taken 
in order to enounce the syllable, the preceding vowel must either 
be perfect, or rejected. But neither of the vowels of the root in 
Kal is immutable ; and, as the first is the farthest removed from 
the accent, it is rejected as in the nouns ; and we have "^II^P* j ust 
as we have "^^l (Art. 153. 2.). In like manner, when the affix is 
syllabic, we have the first vowel rejected, and the second made 
imperfect, as often as the accent is with the affix : as, Ejzn^?, just 
as we have ED'li' 1 ! in the nouns. This necessarily holds good in 
the Present tense, the Imperative, Infinitive and Participles ; as also 
in all the other species Niphhdl, Pihel, &c., as well as in the defec- 
tive verbs, nouns, and participles, due respect being had to the 
etymology of the words. 

3. In a few instances the affix of the first person has ( T ) instead 
of ( - ) : as, *}y% he hath heard me, Ps. cxviii. 5 ; "'PpT? thou hast 
despised me, 2 Sam. xii. 10. But in the last case this seems to 
have been brought about by the influence of the accent (Art. 
120. 7.). 

4. For the feminine affix "H" we sometimes have "H" ; as, "H^P 
he hath called thee (fern.), Is. liv. 6. So "n^"]^^ thy being created, 
Ezek. xxviii. 15, which are generally thought to be Chaldai'sms. 
In the last case, however, the pause-accent will be sufficient to 
account for the anomaly (Art. 123. 4.). 

5. When, however, the accent is on any occasion drawn back, 
the vowel accompanying the affix will necessarily be imperfect ; 
as, Tfranb* she hath loved thee (fem.) ; D O232 she hath stolen 
them, &c. Art. 119. 3. cor. 

6. It should also be observed, that whenever the root ends in 
either 1 or V" by the process of conjugation, &c. the affixes are 
simply added ; as, <t ? ! 1 % lJ7S without any previous vowel or Shevd ; 
and, that when the affixes are found both in the syllabic, and asyl- 
labic, forms, the syllabic must be taken in these cases : as, J^n^S, 
not Wjrjf they visited her ; ^"l^Q , not ^"fi?? tfie y visited him. 
The reason is obvious : one vowel following another will be unut- 


terable ; and, in order to avoid this, a consonant must be intro- 

7. In Jjnir? tne terminating- vowel gives place to the vowel of 
the affix ; as, ^^HE? thou visitedst me. 

8. The form flli? is found in a few instances with the pro- 
nominal affixes ; as, -"DfJIVSllprT thou (fern.) hast adjured us, Josh. ii. 
17, 20 : but, most frequently, the form ^"TE? is taken (see Art. 
188. 2.5.): as, ^"[i?? ; and, without \ ^"W thou (fern.) hast 
visited me. When this is the case, the context alone must determine 
whether the verb is of the first or second person. In a few cases 
also, ( ) takes the place of ( ) ; as, 13n~! < in thou (fern.) hast 
caused us to descend, Josh. ii. 18. 

9. The second persons masculine and feminine plural take the 
forms -VT]f2Q, instead of o $^jp or 7J- before the affixed pro- 
nouns ; as, >l ?^"!(2f ye (com.) visited me. In this case, the af- 
fixed pronoun seems to be of the Chaldaiic form, 7^^ you, instead 
of the Hebrew one &*$, or 

On the Vowels of the Present Tense, the Imperative, Infinitive, 
and Participles. 

210. As the terminating vowel of the Present tense is mutable in 
the regular triliteral verb in Kal, it will be rejected upon receiving 
any asyllabic affix ; as, ^III??"! he visits me ; but, when the affix is 
syllabic, it will be changed for its correspondent imperfect vowel ; 
as, ynir?- 1 h e visits thee, &c. due regard being had to the vowel as 
determined by usage : i. e. whether it be ( ' ) ( - ), ( ), or ( -.- ), 
and to the following consonant, whether it be guttural or not. 

In a few instances, the vowels proper for the affixes of the pre- 
terite are found with those of the present ; as, > ?]? > ^^! he mill jtll 
me, Job ix. 18 ; ^^3^ he mill acknowledge us, Is. Ixiii. 16; D^? 
me mill strike or pierce them, Num. xxi. 30, &c. And, vice versa, 
those proper for the present with the preterite ; as, "^E^ he hath 
corrected me, Is. viii. 11. 

2. These observations will apply to the affixing of the pronouns 
to the present tenses of verbs of every species and sort. 

3. In the Imperatives, however, which receive no preformatives, 
the vowels will be regulated as they are in the nouns (which in reality 
the Imperatives all are) ; and, as the form proper for construction 

254 LECTURE xni. CART. 210. 4. 

will take the affixed pronouns, the ultimate or penultimate vowels 
alone can be subject to change, as in the nouns ; e. g. ^pbttf senc [ 
me, from nblp sen d: <l ? ! >yOtt? hear ye me, from BjQttJ hear. So 
^ ,??^J know thou him, from 3J^[ . 

4. Those terminating in ( 1 ) have been thought to be subject to 
a transposition; as, %l ?7 1 .'?^ keep thou me, from ">btp. I believe, 
however, that "Iptp is the primitive word taken in these cases, 
whence we shall regularly have ^?^.P^ , &c. 

5. The Infinitives are subject to the same general laws with the 
Imperatives of Kal, and these also prevail in every species of the 
Segolate nouns ; i. e. we must inquire, in the first place, what form 
of the primitive has been taken, and then add our affixes, &c. just 
as we do to those nouns. Examples ; ">y 79 his reigning, from 
"HyP, or rather "H/'p ; "^"H m V persecuting, from *}y] or HI*" 1 . So 

for O3pNb (Art. 106. 2.) your spurning, from D*H?p or 

D3^nf? T , for Ej?.?"?^ y ur drawing near, from ^'"Ji? or ?l!p. 
Sometimes obliquely (Art. 9 6. 2.) : as, EITlSj? your reaping, from 

6. It may be observed that with the affixes *!", E?~, and 1?~, 
both forms are found ; as, ^T??^ thy eating, Gen. ii. 17; EJ372H 
your eating, Gen. iii. 5 ; ;T?P^ thy hearing, 2 Sam. v. 24 ; O33?IZ7 
your hearing, Josh. vi. 5. But it seldom happens that the same 
word is found in both forms : which seems to shew, that in one 
case, one primitive form has been preferred, and in another, 

7. Infinitives of other forms are subject to the general laws 
which prevail in nouns of the same forms. 

8. Nothing further need be said on the manner in which the par- 
ticiples receive the pronominal affixes. They are nothing but 
nouns, and are, therefore, subject to the same variations with them. 

On the mode of affixing the Pronouns to the different parts of 
the Defective Verbs. 

211. It will be quite unnecessary to detain the Student 
long on this subject. He will only have to bear in mind, 
what has been laid down in our Canons on the mutable 
and quiescent characters of the letters ^rjlj on 3, as 


occasionally rejected on roots having the second and 
third radical letter the same, and hence occasionally 
losing one, which will however return whenever cir- 
cumstances will allow it, under the form of Ddgesh 
forte and on the vowels, as regulated by the occurrence 
of gutturals, the addition of syllabic, or asyllabic aug- 
ments, and the like ; all of which has been abundantly 
exemplified in the preceding pages. We shall now, 
therefore, take our leave of this subject The following 
are tables, intended to show the full conjugations of the 
different kinds of verbs, in illustration of the rules 
detailed and exemplified in our present and preceding 

These Tables have been taken from the " Lehrgebaude 
der Hebraischen Sprache" of Dr. Gesenius, with some 
slight alterations. 



[[ART. 211. 

Sing. 3 m. 




1 com. 
Plur. 3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. 

INF. abs. 
INF. const. 
Sing. m. 

Plur. m. 


Sing. 3 m. 

2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 m. 

Paradigm of Verbs in KAL. 

Regular Verb. Verb. Verb. 
Verb. 1 gutt. 2 gutt. 3 gutt. 

Verb. Verb. 
3 init. Y^ 

t733 3D 

IT : IT 

nbpp rnas 

T : i- IT T : i- T 


'IT-: IT 


T ': FT T : I- T 

nti?23 niao 

T : I-T T i - 





3 f - n^Vtppri nsi'^^n n3f7^?^i n3i?n??n 

2 m. 

2 f. 

1 com. 
PRES. apoc. 

PART. act. btjb "T)!2^ pyV ^"3^ 12^.23 

pass. bitap iJin^ p^yr 3ntt? nf-tia 

ART. 211. J ON THE VERBS. 257 

Paradigm of ferbs in KAL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

init. ? init. '< init. ^ med. '< med. & final, ft final - 

I-T -T - T or? IT 

I I I n ^ 


nahobta naattfn naeJi^n nan^^n 

n^7 v$ te*? n ^? 
w7 7^ 

n ? w ,?^ n r.?? 

7^ ry NStt^ nba* 1 

i T i r T IT : iv : 

7^2ri Nsipfi nban 
c^^n 7^pn 

^73 r?? ^5? nb?? 

3 ?T PT *$". 



LECTURE xiii. 

CART. 211 

yci p^-rri ya?ri ^a 

m*?. rip^p Jn^]?? fitfa? rap? 


Paradigm of Verbs in NIPHHAL. 

Regular Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 
PRETBR. Verb. 1 gutt. 2 gutt. 3 gutt. 5 init - TT 

Sing. 3m. 

s f. 

Plur. 3 com. i 
2 m. 

i com. - .- 

Sing. m. 

f - 
Plur. m. 

Sing. 3 m. 

3 f. 

2 f. 

Plur. 3 m. 

3 f. 

2 f. 
i com. 

PRES. apoc. 

-|ri nsppn n3?33n n 




IZ?33 2D3 


ART. 211.)] ON THE VERBS. 259 

Paradigm of Verbs in NIPHHAL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

^ init. t init. ( med. > med. final. n final. 








[[ART. *ll, 

Paradigm of Ferbs in PIHKL. 

Sing. 3 m. 

2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. 

Sing. m. 
Plur. m. 


Sing. 3 m. 
S f. 

2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 m. 


2 m. 

1 com. 

PRES. apoc. 


1 gutt. 

Verb. Verb. 
2 gutt. 3 gutt. 

? init. 









ART. 811.] 'ON THE VERBS. 261 

Paradigm of Verbs in PIHEL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

>! init. ? or ^ init. { med. % med. ^ final. j-j final. 

bss 2$i nte 1 ; npip 

^ nt&! a^i tspip 

&c. &c. &c. -1)!3l2in &c. 


&c. See. &c. npipn &c. 




[ART. 211. 

Paradigm of Verbs in PUHAL. 

Regular Verb. 
Verb. 1 gutt. 


Sing. 3 m. 


2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. 


Sing. m. 

Pkir. m. 


Sing. 3 m. 

2 m. 

Plar. 3 m. 
2 m. 
1 com. 

PRES. apoc. 


2 gutt. 

3 gutt. 

3 init. 


ART. 211.3 ON THE VERBS. 203 

Paradigm of Ferbs in PUHAL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

$ init. ! or ^ init. j med. " med. & final. pj final. 



i 1 



264 LECTURE xiii. CART. 211. 

Paradigm of Ferbs in HIPHHIL. 

Regular Verb Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

PRETER. Verb. 1 gutt. 2 gutt. 3 gutt. 3 init. ^. 

Sing. 3 m. 

3 f. n 


2 m. r 

2 f - ^btopn np#n 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. 


Sing. m. btspn T5?n P$?n 2?p^<!7 o^iin 2pn 

Plur. m. nV'tonrr siTorn &c - 


Sing. 3 m. 

2 m. b^fcntt Ttt^n &c - 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 m. 


2 f. 

1 com. 

PRES. apoc. 

ART. 211.3 ON THE VERBS. 265 

Paradigm of Ferbs in HIPHHIL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

^ init. ( or ^ init. j med. > med. ^ final. fa final. 

a > tz?'in a^to^n Q^pn van H^^pn nbarr 
* riaaJirr 




>^n nban 
&c. >>'? -^rAMn ^<<mn s W^VVM^ nban 


j^n ^ipn ''N^pn 

naat&ln naaj? 

T iv : - 





LECTURE xiii. [[ART. 211 

Paradigm of Verbs in HOPHHAL. 

Regular Verb. Verb. Verb. 
Verb. i gutt. 2 gutt. 3 gutt 

Sing. 3 m. bppn 

Verb. Verb. 
3 init - "IT 

p2jn sppn eJan npin 

1 com. 
Pkr. 3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. | 


Sing. m. 

Plur. m. 

t. j 

Sing. 3 m. 

2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 m. 

2 m. 

1 com. 

PRES. apoc. 


2m. ri^&pn mpsn nps?n fppptf 



ART. 211. 3 ON THE VERBS. 267 

Paradigm of Ferbs in HOPHHAL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

S init - ^ or 1 i 1 "*- 1 med. > med. C final, fr final. 

&c. *i^stt &c. nrfti &c 


T i" : T 

i^ TV 




CART. 211. 

Sing. 3 m. 


2 ra. 


1 com. 
Plur. .3 com. 

2 m. 

1 com. 


Sing. m. 

Plur. m. 

f. j 
Sing. 3 m. 


2 m. 

1 com. 
Plur. 3 m. 


2 m. 

1 com. 

PRES. apoc. 

Paradigm of Verbs in HITHPAHEL. 

Regular Verb. 
Verb. 1 gutt. 

&c - 

2 gutt. 

3 gutt. 

5 init ' 


n baon Q?33rin 





ART. 211.)] ON THE VERBS. 269 

Paradigm of Verbs in HITHPAHEL. 

Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. Verb. 

init. '< init. > init. ^' med. ? raed. final. ft final. 

Mapwin ? 

Dpipnn p.i2nr 

&c. &c. &c. 

See. &c. Sec. &c. 

270 LECTURE XIV. CART. 212. 



212. IN endeavouring to investigate the principles of 
the Hebrew Syntax, we shall first consider the nature 
and construction of propositions ; secondly, those of their 
several parts ; and, lastly, shew how these have been 
combined, according to the Authors of the accents. 

2. In the first place, then, every proposition will be 
either general or particular. A general proposition is 
that which contains a complete sentence expressive of 
some general truth : as, " Men die." A particular, or 
singular, proposition (as it is sometimes called), expresses 
only that which relates to particular individuals : as, 
" The men die." Hence, 

3. When any general proposition is enounced in 
Hebrew, the word or words used for the purpose of 
enouncing the subject will, generally, be indefinite; 
i. e. will not have the definite article, or be otherwise 
limited ;* while that which is intended to be the most im- 
pressive, will stand first in the order ; e. g. 

* In such expressions as ni^E.n H rP rnl.Pl the law of the Lord is per- 
fect, &c. Ps* xix. 8, &cc. although the truth is general, the proposition is not 
so ; because it relates to one particular law, not to any general one. 

The subject and predicate are, according to the Grammarians of Arabia, 
two words so placed, that they may be independent of each other in & gram- 
matical or formal point of view, their relation being purely logical. The 

author of the Hiddyat oon Nahve (p. n*) says, J**>\ U& 

S - Sf . 


*_j> Jo; 

ART. 212. 4.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 271 

)1K""nj?'] (any one)* SOWING iniquity, reaps vanity, Prov. 
xxii. 8 ; W^-lbl ny# D^)?DJ7 D^.ID (as) DEEP WATERS (is) 
counsel in the heart of man, Ib. xx. 5. 

4. And, on the contrary, when any particular pro- 
position is to be enounced, the word or words expressive 
of its subject must be made definite : as, K^ ttf)$n (as 
to) THE SUN, IT HAD ARISEN, Gen. xix. 23; HiiT ^TIpSl 
D* 1 "}^"! THE PRECEPTS OF JEHOVAH (are) right, Ps. xix. 9. 
This holds good whether the proposition be affirmative 
or negative. 

5. Propositions will also be either Incomplex, or Com- 
plex ; Simple, or Compound. 

6. Incomplex propositions are those which contain 
no qualifying, or otherwise modifying, words in con- 
nection with either the subject or predicate. Complex 
propositions are those which have such words. Of the 
first, J"P3 njy. a house is built, Prov. xxiv. 3, is an ex- 


> AXJ, jbj " The subject and predicate are two uords construed inde- 
pendently of any GRAMMATICAL government. The first is that of which something 

is predicated, and is called 'iXxX^I or, the beginning: the second is that by 

which this predication is made, and is termed j^> the enouncer : as, ZAID (is) 
STANDING. The government of them is regulated by the sense (or, is logical), 
that is, by the beginning," or subject matter of the discourse. 

This conjunction of words is termed by them **~l, and is thus described 

by Ibn ul Hajib : ^ *1 ^* ^tu ^ MxJb c ^X*tf {J 4^ U 
iwj'j (J^a .s j| ^Xc^wl " It is that which comprehends two words in 
connection with each other, which cannot happen except in the concurrence 
of two nouns, or of a verb and noun." The word constituting the subject 

(^IjJUUJl) is, according to El Hazeri, placed first, on account of the importance 
which it holds in the estimation of the speaker or writer." See Commentary 

on the Agrumia by Schnabell, Amsterdam, 1755, pp. fl. 

* The capitals are intended to point out the words upon which the rule 
immediately bears. 

272 LECTURE XIV. j^ART. 212. 7. 

ample. Of the second, rvil H32P np^n^ in, or by, wis- 
dom is a house built, Ib. 

7. Simple propositions are those which have no 
supplementary or subordinate parts. Compound pro- 
positions are those which have such parts. Example of 
the first, rPJJl PIJ5T. TO^n^ in wisdom is a house built : 

of the second, 9n$V79) V*$\ ^-V FTO so the kin 8> 
and his princes, and tlie whole congregation, took coun- 
sel, 2 Chron. xxx. 2. In this case the subject only is 
compound : others occur in which the predicate is also 

8. We now proceed to consider the relation of the subject with 
the predicate, which is indeed necessary to point out the construc- 
tion of simple and incomplex propositions. We shall next shew how 
the complex and compound parts of propositions are constructed, 
i. e. on what principles their several parts are connected together. 

On the Predicate of Propositions. 

213. The predicate of any proposition may consist of 
nouns attributive or substantive (if predicables), or of 
verbs or pronouns, as in other languages. 

2. Every proposition, whether general or particular, 
will, unless something particular require the contrary, 
have its predicate indefinite. (Verbs, of course, when 
in the predicate, do not come under this rule, because 
it cannot be said of them, that they are either definite or 
indefinite) : e. g. H31T nj^D^ nnitt' a whore (is) a deep 
ditch, Prov. xxiii. 27. 

3. Here, HSIT being indefinite, the 'proposition will be general : 
and, as the rule requires the predicate also to be indefinite, this 
becomes a case in which some ambiguity might arise, as to which 
of the substantives is the subject of the proposition. The sense re- 
quires here that the last word HD1T be the subject, although HrWtt? 
a ditch precedes : the sentence may be thus rendered, (as) a deep 
ditch (is) a rvhore. 

ART. 213. 4.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 273 

4. Examples of particular propositions : 

and (as to) THE EARTH (it) existed, Gen. i. 2 ; Hi IT. 
*^!?Q Jehovah (is) fe#, Ps. x. 16. With a verb : loi 
D^rJ7N HE CREATED (i. e.) GOD, Gen. i. 1. 

5. When, however, any thing very specific is intended 
to be enounced by the predicate, it will be made definite : 

as, DM'^H Kin nirp D^nftn sin rnm Jehovah he is 

:: r T : :-. T T : 

THE GOD, Jehovah he is THE GOD, 1 Kings xviii. 39. 

6. Here, as both the subject and predicate are made definite, 
unless a pronoun (as ^H j n this instance) were introduced in the 
place of the logical copula, or, unless the construction should other- 
wise contribute to explain the intention of the writer, an ambiguity 
would arise, as to which of the words so defined is to be considered 
as the subject : e. g. "'rH^'IT MIT^y / (am) he who speaketh, Is. 
lii. 6. Or taking M'lH as the logical copula, / am the speaker. 
But by inverting the proposition we shall have, (as to) the speaker, 
it is I. In these cases, however, the sense aflbrded is generally the 
same whichever way we read the proposition. In others, where it 
is not, we have no other resource than the order of the construction, 
or the general sense of the context, to guide us. 

7. From this and the case above noticed (Art. 213. 3.), some 
difficulties will occasionally arise in construing the Hebrew text, 
particularly in the books of Job, the Psalms, the Proverbs, and the 
Prophets, where the style is often sententious, and the order 

It may be remarked, that as the Hebrews have no abstract verb 
which can stand for our logical copula is, and, as any pronoun may 
stand in the predicate of a sentence, due regard must be had to the 
subject of the context, in order to ascertain which of the pronouns, 
when more than one is used, is in the predicate : e. g. In Is. xli. 4, 
we have H^rfOM / he, where a very slight consideration of the 
context will shew us, that ^?^ is to be considered as in apposition 
with the subject of the sentence ^4^, and that S^n must be in the 

* Exod. xxxiv. 6, &c. ^SlTl Dim nirp nirP Jehovah Jehovah (is) 
a God merciful and gracious, &c. Both the construction and accents require 
that this passage be thus taken. Our translators, however, have taken it 


274 LECTURE XIV. CA11T. 215. 

predicate. See also Deut. xxxii. 39, Neb. ix. 7, Jer. xiv. 22, Isa. 
xli. 4, xliii. 25, &c. 

Of the Concordance of the Subject with the Predicate. 

215. Whatever is predicated of any thing must not 
be incongruous with it, in sense at least : what the 
grammatical agreement may be, we shall see presently. 

2. As the Grammatical forms of words were perhaps 
not much attended to in very early times, a difference in 
termination for the purpose of distinguishing between 
the feminine and the masculine gender would, probably, 
be among the first wanted, particularly in cases wherein 
there was no other means of intimating of what sex the 
person spoken of was. Number would soon be in the 
same predicament ; and hence, such terminations gene- 
rally agreed upon and allowed to intimate these par- 
ticulars, or other words used at first as attributes, 
and afterwards abridged and adopted as terminations, 
would be made to supply these defects. The latter of 
which I am inclined to believe was the case. 

3. If then it were ever necessary to make any such 
distinctions as these, it must have been so in the subjects 
and predicates of sentences : because, as the one must 
be known to refer to the other ; and, as this could not 
be pointed out, in many cases, without some mark to 
apprize us of such relation, these terminations would 
naturally be employed in such cases. 

4. In process of time, however, recourse would be 
had to the several figures of Rhetoric, such as Personi- 
fication, Epanorthosis, Metonymy, or the like ; each of 

which would exert a very considerable influence on the 
construction of sentences ; and this is often found to be 
the case. When, therefore, we are to consider the 
relation of a subject with its predicate in the Hebrew, it 

ART. 215. 5/j ON THE SYNTAX. 275 

will sometimes be necessary to have recourse to one or 
other of these figures. 

5. Generally then, the Predicate is found to agree 
with its subject in gender and number, considered either 
in a logical or a formal point of view. 

By logical we mean, when the gender, number, &c. is regulated, 
not according to the grammatical forms of words, but by their sig- 
nifications ; in which case they may be influenced by any of the 
figures of rhetoric, or not. By formal we mean, when the gender, 
number, &c. are considered with reference to the grammatical forms 
only : e. g. '53 rnVP"] O^vttWT nbtps Jerusalem HATH STUMBLED, 
and Judah HATH fallen. Is. iii. 8. Here EVttJ'P'] is considered 
as feminine, not as to form, but signification (Art. 135. 5.); its 
predicate, therefore, Hvt&Sj may be said to be in logical, not in 
formal, concordance with it. Tn the next member, nTHT) , though 
feminine in form, is not considered as being so in signification ; its 
predicate, therefore, is put in the masculine gender, ^-??.* 

6. In the example "Iv>Dp J " f ^'!'7 < ! And (there) shall be a high 
nay, Isa. xi. 16, the concordance is purely formal. The same 
may be said of .... O^Enp D^ri vN God (is) holy ones, Jos. 
xxiv. 19. BT17S ^M ^HPT They caused me to wander, i. e. God, 
Gen. xx. 13. See also Gen. xxxv. 7. 2 Sam. vii. 23. Jer. x. 10. 
In all which cases the agreement appears to have been made with 
reference to the forms only, and not to the significations, of 

* Hence the names of nations, tribes, or families, may be taken as collective 
and singular nouns, and the names of regions, cities, &c. as singular feminine 
nouns, considered as containers, &c. See Exod. xiv. 30, Jer. xlviii. 11, 
1 Kings xx. 20, 2 Sam. xvi. 3, Ps. cxiv. 2, Job i. 15. When, however, a verb 
is used as the predicate, as will be presently seen, the apparent nominative is 
not to be considered as the real nominative to it : but, as this must be in appo- 
sition with the real nominative, the rule respecting the concordance will hold 

f I am well aware that these and similar passages have been appealed to in 
support of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity; but, until it shall be made pro- 
bable, that the Sacred Writers did usually involve doctrines of this kind in 
the mere forms of words, I must be allowed to object to such methods of sup- 
porting an article of faith, which stands in need of no such support. For 
similar usages in the Greek and Latin, see Viger de idiotismis. Edit. 1813. 
pp. 32. 46, &c. Clarke's Homer. Iliad E., line 778, note. 

T 2 

276 LECTURE XIV. C ART - 215 7 - 

7. The following is an instance of Personification : 

1pfc>3 Dl^l p*T I^IW ^P^r^PO grace and truth have 
MET (each other), righteousness and peace have SALUTED 
(each other), Ps. Ixxxiv. 11 ; i. e. they have met and 
saluted as men generally do, when on good terms with 
one another. 

8. The following ones involve a Metonymy :* 73H 
t"S~\n 3J3 DliJ"^5 the sons of mean men (are) vanity, 
the sons of eminent men (are) a lie, i. e. they are in effect 
as deceptive as vanity, or a lie ; y# VJlTp its walls (are) 
wood, i. e. made of wood, Ezek. xli. 22 ; D^jt/fl '6? 'PfT 
ttHp the vessels of the young men are holiness, i. e. are 
made holy, 1 Sam. xxi. 6; Hariri HDtftenf The work 
(is) an increasing, Neh. iv. 13, i. e. is in a state of 
progress. So we say in English, " Knowledge is power," 
i. e. it is the cause of power ; " Money is a defence," is 
the means of obtaining a defence ; " a man goes a 
hunting," and the like. 

9. When one Predicate answers to several subjects 
differing from each other in gender or number or both, 
it may be put in the plural number, as referring to them 
all ; or it may be made to agree, both in gender and 
number, with the nearest, or, with that which may be 
considered the most worthy : J e. g. D^p.| rnfeO. DHl^N"! 
and Abraham and Sarah (were) OLD, Gen. xviii. 11 : 
latfj! iK5"")fe> ^Sil '^P'ON DjJJl So he arose, (i. e.) 
Abimelck and Phicol the captain of his host, AND THEY 
RETURNED, Gen. xxi. 32. 

* See Glass. Philolog. Sacr., p. 838 97. Storr. Observ., p. 13, &c. 

t Storr, pp. 11. 17, &c. refers the use of abstracts for concretes to 
a Synecdoche, see p. 20; and vice versa, p. 21. 

J The plural is considered as more worthy than the singular, and the mas- 
culine than the feminine gender. But, in the last case, the mother will be 
considered more worthy an the children. 

ART. 215. 10.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 277 

10. When, however, the predicate precedes, it generally agrees 
with the nearest noun ; when it follows, it will mostly take the 
plural form, as in the last example. See also Gen. viii. 16. 18, 
xxxi. 14, xxxiii. 7, Exod. xvii. 10, xxi. 4, xxix. 15, Num. xii. 1, 
xxvii. 21, Deut. xxviii. 32, Judg. xiii. 20, Ruth i. 3, Est. ix. 31, 
1 Chron. xxv. 1, Job xix. 15, Prov. xxvii. 9, Is. xvi. 10, li. 3, 
Jer. vii. 20, Ezek. i. 11, xxxv. 10. 

11. When the subject is a Collective noun, the Pre- 
dicate may be in the plural number, agreeing with its 
subject logically : e. g. D^nj.N3. PJSjr'73 the whole of her 
people (ARE) SIGHING, Lam. i. 11 ; D^'^IPV ^"]% 
Jin^ jl? ifefl^ ten acres of vineyard (THEY) YIELD one 
bath, Is. v. 10. 

12. When the subject of any Proposition is found in 
the definite state of construction with any word (see 
Art. 143.), the predicate is mostly made to agree in 
gender and number with the last of them, provided the 
signification of the predicate can apply to both (by the 
figure Zeugma) : e. g. ^N D^itf *pfl$ W V)p the 
voice of thy brother's bloods (THEY ARE) CRYING to me,* 
Gen. iv. 10 ; D^PI Dn33 n#g the bow of the mighty 
(ones, THEY ARE) BROKEN, 1 Sam. ii. 4. 

See also Lev. xiii. 9, 1 Kings i. 41, xvii. 16, Job xv. 20, xxxii. 7, 
xxxviii. 21, Jer. iv. 29, x. 22, &c. 

13. In some cases, however, it is made to agree with 

* M. de Sacy says on the Arabic construction which is parallel to this : 
" On peut regarder la concordance, en ce cas, comme une concordance logique, 
parce qu'on y a plus e"gard au rapport logique qui unit les idees, qu'au rapport 

<" G * <> 

grammatical qui se trouve entre les mots." Vol. ii. Art. 332. e.g. &*J>-i (.;' 

' i 

' C/C-O.' S S Xw-O 

JU**25?*M _o L^j^i <uJ] Surely the mercy of God (he is) NEAR to those 

who do good. And Storr, (Nornen) rectum numerari debet principale. Ohserv., 
p. 362. 

278 LECTURE XIV. [ART. 216. 

the subject : as, nfc^.1 K? n3$Q-3 the whole of the 
work (it) SHALL not BE DONE, Exod. xii. 16. 

See also Gen. v. 23. 31, Is. Ixiv. 10, Nah. iii. 7, &c. And par- 
ticularly when the predicate stands first in the order : as, f"lN3j? rPD 
Q !^!?$? the envy of Ephraim (it) SHALL DEPART, Isa. xi. 13. 

Of the Concordance of the Nominative with its Ferb. 

216. The Concordance of a real nominative with its 
verb, is that of a subject with its predicate. By a real 
nominative we mean, the pronoun which is always 
inherent in the verb when in the state of conjugation 
(See Art. 188.). What, therefore, is usually taken for 
the nominative is, in fact, either a noun or a pronoun put 
in apposition with the nominative ; and, consequently, 
as before, agreeing either logically or formally with it, 
or with the predicate. Considered, therefore, in this 
point of view, all the cases of apparent discrepancy 
which can happen under this head, may be resolved into 
one or other of the preceding ones : e. g. D^fjvN JO3 he 
(i. e.) GOD, created, Gen. i. 1. 

Here the word E^HvW is manifestly a plural form ; but, as the 
Being designated by this word is every where affirmed to be 
one, the agreement between the pronoun inherent in the verb N"}3 
and this word is logical, not formal. The same may be said of 
^nbs """S^ he says (i. e.) God; and of many other similar con- 

2. Examples of apparent discrepancy in gender and 
number : 1st, HDrpSn . . . ptn it (masc.) became strong 
(i. e.) the war, (fern.) 2 Kings'iii. 26 ; 2d, "^n^ K^fl 
he hath brought (i. e.) thy handmaid, 1 Sam. xxv. 27 ; 
3d, DyifQ rn^J 'TIT he may be (i. e.) the young woman, 
a virgin, Deut. xxii. 23 ; 4th, Vjnb/n vrP'nD what they 
(masc.) will be (i. e.) his dreams, Gen. xxvii. 20. 

3. With the apparent nominative preceding : 5th, 

ART. 216. 4.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 279 

D.I/IP . . . JTjn knowledge . . . it, or Jie, is pleasant, Prov. 
ii. 10 ; 6th, rh% iT^I/ (as to) her cities, it, or Jie, has 
ascended, Jei\ xlviii. 15 ; 7th, K3T D^DJV Pl^h| (as to) 
the arms of the orphans, it is broken, Job xxii. 9. 

4. The first four of these examples seem to involve an Epanor- 
thosis, a figure frequently used in the Arabic, by which something 
enounced in a general manner, is afterwards restricted by the addition 

~ 9 c-0 f '' 

of other words. Of this the Arabs count four sorts, 1, 

^*, i. e. the change of the whole for the whole, or, when any 
thing is enounced by one or more words, another enunciation is added 

;v>> s 

to the same effect but in a different point of view ; as, 

' ? "i x CXG-O f 

dJi-l Omar came to me (I mean) thy brother ; 2, . 

_ /"G-O O f 9 O ' 

the change of a "part for the whole ; as, /-v^o *jsd\ J* L>- 

' C C-0 ?* ' 

the people came to me (I mean) some of them ; 3, (JUJLJiJIi u &> 
the change of the contained for the container, or, vice versa ; as, 

ffCs'SCs' ' 9 s'ts-G f ' ' 

tey &)\ <*^\M Za'id was stripped (I mean) his garment;* 4, ialAi 1 (J&> 

<Ae change of error ; as, \j*>f S^-^ < "HiT* ^ passed by a dog (I 

*> 4- ' 

mean) a horse. See M. de Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. ii. pp. 225. 394 : 
the AW&1 ~j& by Moolla Jami, pp. rp'-rpo. Glass, edit. Dathe, 
on the Epanorthosis, pp. 1350 2. 

In the first example, then, it is generally enounced that some 

* We have a remarkable instance of this construction in Gen. xxxvii. 23. 

i 737 nttfN D^DGH n3n3TlM "inDDSTlN HDr nM ^tS^lED* 1 ! So they strip 

T T v . - - : : : : f \ " ' " v : R r 

Joseph, his coat, the coat of many colours rnhich was on him. See Ps. Ixxi. 
18.22; Ixxvi. 6. The whole of the men of might, (I mean) their hands (powers) 
have not prevailed: Jer. ix. 2; Job xxxviii. 12 ; 1 Cor. i. 15. rov 
OIKOV, Rev. i, 14, The Hendiadys of Europeans. 

280 LECTURE XIV. [[ART. 21tf. 5. 

person or thing has acquired power ; it is then added that this is 
the mar. The same may be said of the four following ones. In 
the sixth example, either a personification is resorted to, or some 
such word as "1^ affair, matter, thing, or the like, is to be supplied 
by the ellipsis : as, knowledge (it is a thing or person), that gives 
pleasure. In the seventh and eighth, the plurals seem to be taken 
collectively : as, her cities (the whole), has gone up.* The arms of 
the orphans (the whole), is broken. 

5. When the verb !Tn is introduced, it is sometimes 
found to agree with the subject, at others with the pre- 
dicate : e. g. *n^ iTrP D^j?3 thy reward SHALL BE the 
spotted ones, Gen. xxxi. 8 ; TJ/fr IH iT-in tlDDVf IT 
SHALL BE a devastation (i. e.) Mount Seir, Ezek. xxxv. 15. 
So, " The wages of sin is death" 

6. So also when a personal pronoun occupies the 
place of this verb : e. g. Kin *?3n D^H nlpH (as to) 
the statutes of tJie people, IT is VANITY, Jer. x. 3, i. e. 
taken collectively. 

7. When, however, inanimate or irrational beings are 
represented as agents, the feminine form of the verb is 
often taken :f e.g. pST"IDj; JTrpP v\fatf$ it bears 
away (i. e.) her effusions, the dust of the earth, Job 
xiv. 19 ; D^EZpn t^PSn T^fr the lips of the wise, it 
preserves them, Prov. xiv. 3. See also 1 Sam. iv. 15, 
2 Sam. x. 9, Job xii. 7, xx. 11, Ps. cxix. 98, Is. lix. 12, 
Jer. xlviii. 41, li. 56, Mic. iv. 11. 

8. When the apparent nominative is in the definite 
state of construction (see Art. 215. 12.) with another 
noun, the verb will occasionally agree with the latter : 

* So in the Greek, -no\iv ap^tjv lo\o$pevffa.t. aliquando (pj/7i/) significat 
sublime, Viger., Ed. 1813, p. 294. 

f This is a constant law in the Arabic, and generally in all the dialects of 
this family of languages, viz. that it is only when the agent is a rational being 
that the concordance is formal. 

ART. 216. 9/] ON THE SYNTAX. 281 

e.g. *1 L >1 npjglp 3^3 1^2* ^ concubine of Caleb 

(i. e.) Maachah (he) fegYitf Sfteber, 1 Chron. ii. 48. 

9. When courage, virility, fortitude, efficiency, or the 
like, is intended to be predicated of females, verbs expres- 
sive of acts, &c. done by them, seem to be put in the mas- 
culine gender in order to express that ; e. g. CTTfc'JJ ""1^5 
"nSJ/1 CT'lsrrDj/ as ye (women) HAVE DONE (cou- 
rageously) with the dead and with me, Ruth i. 8 ; 
iTirP "OIK NIK **? CJnj/TT and ye (women) SHALL KNOW 
(effectively) that I am the Lord Jehovah, Ezek. xxiii. 49 ; 
: *7 Jin] rrijnn ^JgFIl and thou (fern.) doest evil things, 
and thou PREVAILEST (manfully), Jer. iii. 5.f 

10. It has been laid down as a general rule, that the 
word intended to be considered as the most important in 
a sentence will stand first (Art. 212. 3.). When, there- 
fore, this happens to be the apparent nominative to a verb, 
it is usually termed the Nominative absolute. 

11. The office of this nominative is to enounce the 
subject matter of discourse (Art. 212. 3. note) ; which, 
as it is done in a manner independent of any of the fol- 
lowing context in a formal point of view, has been 
termed absolute. Any nouns, pronouns, &c. following, 
and referring to this nominative, must, however, agree 
with it either logically, or formally : e. g. Nipnrp3 J^^^. 
nfetftt .... &c. (as to) a soul, when it shall sin . . . AND 
HE DO, &c., Lev. iv. 2 ; i. e. as spoken of a person, 

nf^Jgl and (as to) TEN MEN, they were 

* But here we may have an ellipsis. 

-j- It is a curious fact that the Grammarians of Arabia consider females as 
unintelligent agents, not absolutely, but relatively ; and hence they account for 
these agents having, in grammar, the same government with collective inanimate 
nouns. See the Shurho Moolla Jami, p. .*.. 

282 LECTURE XIV. |^ART. 216. 12. 

found among them, Jer. xli. 8 ; 
TETjl but (as to) Mephibosheth, the son of thy master, 
HE SHALL EAT continually, 2 Sam. ix. 10 ; HDJ^I it^TDI 
T7J11 nDIN") and (as to) his concubine, and her name 
was Reumah, SHE ALSO BROUGHT FORTH, Gen. xxii. 24. 

12. A great number of instances moreover occur, in 
which the Subject of the discourse is thus absolutely 
enounced (Art. 212.) by one or more words, not apparent 
nominatives to verbs, but which are, nevertheless, termed 

NOMINATIVES ABSOLUTE : C. . flJ/Ofi^ "ll^tf 0^*131 "! (as to) 

o T : IT T v -: ' -r i - \ ' 

THE WORDS which thou hast heard, &c., 2 Kings xxii. 1 8 ; 
D^W iay .... JVOT")#8 O'nn (as to) THE WORD 
which thou hast spoken we regard it not, Jer. 
xliv. 16 ; DiT8"jD ni'nn niDTl and (as to) THE SIMILI- 
TUDE of the living creatures, THEIR appearances, &c., 
Ezek. i. 13; DNn-""T3 ^9?n "O^ ^b] and (as to) 
EVERY MATTER of wisdom (and) discrimination so Jie 
found them, Dan. i. 20 ; ^JIK iJT-jIl PI3PT ^8 (as for) ME, 
behold my covenant is with thee, Gen. xvii. 4, &c. 

13. The relative pronoun ")>{* is often subject to this 
kind of construction, though always in a subordinate 
point of view, and when the subject matter of the propo- 
sition in which it is found, is not the real subject of the 
discourse, but nevertheless relates to it : e. g. 13 nl 

HI"! (as to) WHICH, the wind disperses it, Ps. i. 4 ; 
IDJ^D'^SI " l ^ l ?? t ? TWV (as to) WHICH, / commanded 
thee for not eating of it, &c., Gen. iii. 11 ; iTH ")t^ : 
Iv^ I "'1.'T"^?*| (with respect to) WHOM, the word of the 
Lord came to him, &c., Jer. i. 2. 

14. This view of such constructions will account for 
the apparent pleonasm of the pronoun in Hebrew, 
which has in some instances found its way into our 
own version. See also Exod. vi. 4, Lev. xviii. 5, Num. 
xiii. 27, Dent, xxviii. 49, 2 Kings xiii. 14, Jer. xiv. 1, 

ART. 216. 15.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 283 

Ezek. xx. 11, xxxvii. 25, Joel iv. 2, Ps. xcv. 5, with 
# Eccles. ii. 21. 

15. From the unconnected situation of words thus 
placed, it will be necessary to render them in our 
language, and some others, by prefixing some such 
expression as, with reference to, with respect to, as to, 
or the like, otherwise our translations will appear bald 
and obscure. This will account for most of the addi- 
tional words found within brackets in this work. 
There are instances, however, in the Hebrew, in which 
these supplementary words are expressed in the text :* 
e. g. IHKl-nBJK D^ilP? AS TO the saints wJio are in 

O | - T T v . ': . 

the land, Ps. xvi. 3 ; *TQn liljtnp D7 AS TO the afflicted 
man, from his friend (there ought to be) kindness, Job 
vi. 14 ; ^P3 Dlpp~n$ WITH RESPECT TO the place of 
my throne, &c., Ezek. xliii. 7 ; "niTTliO and, AS TO his 
generation, &c., Is. liii. 8. (Art. 171. 11.) 

16. Any other word may, like "l^tf., be employed as 
a subordinate nominative absolute at the pleasure of the 
writer ; but, when this is done, its connection with some 
former word, &c., which may involve the real subject 
matter of the discourse, will be pointed out by the inter- 
vention of some other word: e. g. "ifcS 1 ? "v T3DH ^3 

- - 'I 

jTn NTH! FOR (as to) him who announced to me, saying 
and he was, &c., 2 Sam. iv. 10; "Olp? ^"D3 EVEN, 
(as to) me, it will happen (to) me, Eccl. ii. 15. 

17. In some instances, also, we find both the leading 
and subordinate subject of a discourse placed together, 
without any such mark of distinction : e. g. D1J/5$ 

vn D^vvgjb Bn^ni DPPT S filahs oo^q (as to) 

* So in the Arabic, Gram. Arabe, vol. ii. Art. 158. Also with tel <*, (J 
&c., passim. 

284- LECTURE XV. [[ART. 216. 18. 

seventy kings, the thumbs of their hands and (the great 
toes) of their feet being cut off, they were gathering, &c., 
Judg. i. 7, which however will, according to the Arabic 
idiom, admit of another solution and translation ; viz. 
(as to) seventy kings deprived of their thumbs and great 
toes, they were gathering, &c. The accents give the 

18. The recurrence of 1, in all such constructions as 
this, is said to have the effect of pointing out the com- 
parison or correspondence intended to be instituted 
between the preceding and following member, i. e. the 
relation between the prodosis and apodosis : e. g. DST 

. j. x <-* . 

np?V--- TVSn tDjJiyi AND if the house be small.... 
THEN let him take, &c. Exod. xii. 4. 



217. Having considered the principles of concordance 
found to prevail in this language, we now come to con- 
sider the dependence of words upon one another gene- 
rally, and to investigate the principles by which this is 

2. It will readily be admitted, that when words are 
added, either for the purpose of denning or modifying 
the signification of others, or for completing the ideas 
partially perhaps conveyed by them, the relation which 
such words will bear to one another must be regulated 
by some easy and intelligible principles. We now 
proceed to shew what these are. 

ART. 217. 3.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 285 

3. The principles found to prevail in the Hebrew 
language may be reduced to two : viz. apposition, and 
what has been termed the definite state of construction, 
(Art. 143.) 

4. By Apposition is meant the juxta-position of two 
or more words which are either different names for some 
idea, or some of which are added for the purpose of 
presenting it in a different point of view, or otherwise to 
modify and define it : e. g. OVT7$j HTTP Jehovah Elohim, 
presents two words in apposition ; by the first of these 
the reader is put in mind of that Being alone, who had 
revealed himself to the Jews ; by the second, the name 
of any Deity, either true or false. But, when these 
two are combined, the sense of the latter is so restricted, 
as to be applicable to none but the God of Israel. Again, 
in the example, TH "^Jgn the king David* by the 
first we shall understand the king, but shall not know 
what king is meant. It may be the king of Assyria, 
Samaria, Egypt, or of any other country ; when how- 
ever the word David is added, the phrase becomes 
perfectly definite. The first of these may be termed 
apposition of identity ; the second, of specification. 

5. Apposition may also be either immediate or me- 
diate : immediate, when the words so connected have no 
intervening word or particle : as, D^li?^. HI IT ; mediate, 
when some such word, &c. intervenes : as, ^pHyi! TV3 ^ 
Jesse the Bethlehemite. 

6. Under this head we shall consider the construction 
of attributives with substantives, or when used as adverbs : 
nouns substantive used as specificatives, i. e. when 

* Sophocl. (Edipus Rex. 1.27 8, 6 

286 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 217. G. 

in apposition with others signifying number, weight, 
measure, &c. : also the Pronouns demonstrative, inter- 
rogative, and personal, when added for the purpose of 
defining, specifying, or otherwise restricting, the signifi- 
cations of other words. 

7. The other principle just mentioned, by which two 
or more words are so connected as to present one definite 
idea, is that which regulates the juxta-position of two 
or more substantives, or attributives used as substan- 
tives,* which are not names for the same thing, but 
which, having a certain relation to one another, will by 
their combination afford the idea of proprietorship, mate- 
riality, peculiarity, or the like, which exists between 
them. This we term the definite state of construction, 
generally; but, when the first of two or more such 
words in construction is an attributive, used as a substan- 
tive, we shall, for the mere sake of distinction, term this 
the distinctive state of construction. 

8. This construction may be either immediate or 
mediate, as before, and for the same reasons. 

* It is usual with writers on the Arabic Grammar to say, when speaking 
of (what we term) adjectives or attributives, that they are put to stand for the 
essence or being of the person or thing described, including also the properties 
expressed by such words. So the Moolla Jami, on the Gram, of Ibn ul Hajib, 

See also the same sentiment repeated under the (, ^**> and 

. and Mr. de Sacy's Gram. Arabe, vol i. p. 228. The same is found 
to prevail in the Persian, Sanscrit, and Bengali. On the last, see Mr. 
Haughton's Gram., p. 35. Art. 120. See also Lumsden's Pers. Gram., vol. i. 

p. 147, &c. And the L.-/ yt^ of Shiva Ram. Calcutta.... p. . 

ART. 217. 9.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 287 

9. The complements of all verbs, (i. e. their objective 
cases, as considered in the Latin and other Grammars), 
whether transitive, intransitive, or neuter; as well as the 
construction of prepositions, adverbs, or interjections, we 
shall consider as regulated by one or other of these prin- 



218. AH indefinite attributives found in the predicates of propo- 
sitions, may be considered as in the state of immediate apposition 
with the noun, either expressed or implied, which is the real pre- 
dicate ; e. g. nVT) l^rn D^rn merciful and gracious (is) Jehovah, 
Ps. ciii. 8, &c., which, Exod. xxxiv. 6, &c. is given D'irn b TTirp 
^an 1 ) Jehovah (is) A GOD merciful and gracious. So the passage 
Bb^HJ n1 ? l P? Jerusalem hath stumbled, might be thus fully 
expressed, n /^| ""^V Bl/^Pni Jerusalem (is) A CITY (that) hath 
stumbled; and hence perhaps, ^vlPS is put in the feminine form. 
So Gen. vi. 9, p" 1 "?? EPM nb Noah (was) a just MAN. 

2. It is obvious from the first of these examples, that both MITT. 
and 1^2n are to be considered in apposition with vN which is there 
implied, but is expressed in the second. In the last example also 
the real predicate is expressed ( ^N ), with which the following 
word P"^? is in immediate apposition. In like manner, in the 

Arabic, *>j> xiJ! is put for *J/ 501 <xU! God (is) a bountiful GOD. 
Hence, the absence of the article universally after the negative 

particles "', '?, ^ , U>, &c. no, not, &c. because the word thus 
negatived must necessarily be a predicate, and not a subject as in 

the European languages.* Hence y& )H &! if <u)l (as to) God, 

i i- 

* We say in English, No one came ; not so in the Hebrew, &c. Here we 
must say, Any one came not, which is much more proper. So <^A)Uc ^1 

C5 ' <> ' *" <*? <*' ' ' <*' -05-0 ' ' < 

Ibn Malik, in the Alfia, jl CAJ, U^ Sj^o . yo ^ ^ Jn.! ^ 

^.X^e Its government is such, that * must accompany an indefinite word, 
whether it be single or repeated. 

288 LECTURE XV. C AR T. 218. 3. 

there is not a GOD besides him, &c. In all such cases as the above, 
then, we have a Nominative absolute (Art. 216. 10.), or a Subject 
attended by its predicate, e. g. as to Jehovah, (he is) a merciful and 
gracious God : and so of the rest : in which the subsequent words 
may also be considered as specific (Art. 217. 4.). 

3. In all cases, in which both the subject and predicate are made 
definite, we have nothing more or less than nouns in immediate appo- 
sition, where the following ones may be considered as specifica- 
tives as before : and hence the rules relating to the concordance of 
the subject with the predicate will also hold good here. 

4. The construction of apparent nominatives with their verbs, 
has been shewn to be nothing more than nouns, &c., in immediate 
apposition with the real nominatives, and which must always agree 
with them either in a logical or formal point of view. 

Of Words in Immediate Apposition with one another. 

219. When two or more substantives, or attributives 
used as substantives, are in Apposition, one or more of 
them may be considered as occupying the place of 
adjectives in other languages.* Examples of immediate 

* Nouns put in apposition, may, as already observed, be considered in 
two points of view : the one may be termed Identity ; as in the phrase 
D^n/N rn?"P Jehovah Elohim ; the other, Specification, as in the instances 

s c.^ 
above. This last is termed by the Arabian Grammarians )*>?** specification, 

and is thus explained in the Hiddyat oon Native, p. >*1 JS^Xj jb 

<* ^ ^G^S'CX ^o 

.U1 .1 Uir jl LJJU iiJ; t_^ll ^sr 1 L^JU**J THE (noun of) SPECIFICA- 
TION is always indefinite, and is placed after a noun of NUMBER, MEASURE, 

AHT. 21!). 2.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 289 

apposition : COjtfp O^ti^N men, a FEW, i. e. a Jew men, 
Neh. ii. 12 ; nDtf D'HEN words, TRUTH, i. e. true words, 
Prov. xxii. 21 : r"P~Q !"JJi> sheep, FATNESS, i. e. fat sheep, 
Ezek. xxxiv. 20. 

2. Examples in which the latter designates the mate- 
rials, metal, &c. out of which the first is made : 
*]P3 two talents (of) SILVER, 2 Kings v. 23 ; 

WEIGHT, DISTANCE, &c., iTi which the signification is vague, in order to 
render it SPECIFIC : as, twenty MEN, two measures (termed r^sj') (of ) WHEAT, 

Two pounds (of) FAT, Two measures (termed <*^o_^-) (of) COTTON: 

or, when speaking of a single date (fruit, saying) >^j THE CREAM. It is also 
used when quantity is not meant ; as, a ring (of) IRON, a bracelet (of) GOLD. 
ft sometimes comes after a sentence, in order to mark the thing referred 
to with the greater precision; as, Zaid (is) fortunate (in) PERSON, or, 
LEARNING, or (in his) FATHER." The following is the account given of it in 

? 9 s<.f c^ ' art. XGX & c 

the Alfia of Ibn Malik : L<U IjJUuS L 

jj JL* .V.^^j' ^ T^J ^*;' j^^' Xf** ^ i. e. A noun, which 

in the signification of ^.^o o/* explains something that is vague, is placed for 
the sake of specification in juxta-position with the word so restricted : as, a 
span (of) EARTH ; a measure (termed ^^AJ) of WHEAT; two pounds of HONEY, or 


According to the opinion of El Akhfash, ^pAi-JI], and Soheili ^^"t 

as recorded by El Azheri (Schnabell's Com. on the Agrumia, p. AP) and 
condemned by him, this construction is to be considered as a species of the 
Izdfat, or definite state of construction ; which is no doubt erroneous. 

* We have a construction perfectly parallel to this, which M. de Sacy has 
put down in his Gram. Arabe, (vol. ii. p. 110.), as anomalous ; it is 

given in these examples : viz. ^-^s-i ^*>\ the billets, the wood, 

x/*..,^ xxc,x x xc-o XG^X 

i. e. the wooden billets. So L^ftil) t^oysM, L,^-sJ1 ^ULaJl and 

LECTURE XV. [[ART. 219. 3. 

the oxen, THE BRASS, i. e. brazen, 2 Kings 
xvi. 17 ; j?N D'niCO orders (rows) STONE, i. e. of stone, 
Exod. xxviii. 17. 

3. So also, when the latter word signifies the person, 
thing, &c. numbered, measured, or weighed, and the 
preceding one the name of the measure, &c. ; e. g. 
D" 1 ^ D?n:i^ two years, DAYS, i. e. the space of two 
years, Gen. xli. 1 ; D^D) DIV?^ weeks, DAYS, i. e. the 
space of certain weeks, Dan. x. 3 ; D"^^ njP& an 
ephah (of) BARLEY, Ruth ii. 17 ; nSD'iliJP a seah (of) 

FINE FLOUR, 2 Kings vii. 1. 

See also Gen. xv. 1, Num. ix. 19, 20, xxviii. 23, 1 Kings xxii. 17, 
Prov. xxii. 21, Is. x. 19, xxx, 20, 33, &c. 

4. Apposition may also take place mediately, i. e. when 
one or more words intervene between the nouns to be thus 

Under this rule may be placed all those examples, in which 

So in the tale of Sindbad, by Langles, 

p. l*> and without the article <*- *,*>**+ f^i p. li There is no reason, 
however, for supposing, as M. de Sacy does, that this construction is modern, 
for it also occurs in the Koran ; nor, that these are to be considered as nouns 
in the definite state of construction. The fact is, they are nouns in apposition, 

and involve the rhetorical figure which the Arabs term (J 4 ^, and we, EPA- 
NORTHosis. This construction may also be explained, by supposing the prepo- 

sition (i j"o to be omitted, as done by El Azheri, u5/fcj, in his Com- 
mentary on the Agrfimia, published by Schnabell, p. A r- But I prefer the 

former method. See also Josh.iii. 14, 2 Kings ix. 4, 1 Chron. xv. 27, 2 Chron. 
xv. 8, Ps. lix. 6, Jer. xxxviii. 6, where there seems to be an excess of the 
definite article; but this may be accounted for without having recourse to 
the ellipsis, as Schrcederus has done. Synt. R. III. See also Freytag' 
Hamasa, vol. i. p. 3. 

ART. 219. 5/] ON THE SYNTAX. 291 

Schrcederus has said, " Emphatica est construendi ratio" &c. (Synt. 
R. 18.) which, however, are nothing more than words put in me- 
diate apposition with others, i. e. having an intervening particle 
expressed, which seems to be added rather for the purpose of 
modifying the signification of the preceding word, than for adding 
emphasis to the context : e. g. fc^n 37~Q *>3 for he is m evil, i. e. in 
an unfortunate situation, Exod. xxxii. 22 ; TS'H EH'^ IN holiness 
(is) thy nay, Ps. Ixxvii. 14 ; ^T?P?? 'TTT. TJ'T Jehovah SHALL BE 
IN (or for) thy confidence, Prov. iii. 26 ; * ^33 ^BBS *b* the 
Lord (is) AMONG the sustainers of my soul, Ps. liv. 6. 

See also Ps. Ixxxix. 14, cxviii. 7, Prov. xvi. 6, Is. xl. 10, Hos. 

xiii. 9. 

5. Words are sometimes put in the mediate state of 
apposition by means of a conjunction. This is gene- 
rally termed Hendiadys. Examples : Dtfl TJ7 a city 
AND mother, i. e. a mother city, or metropolis, 2 Sam. 
xx. 19 ; iTJjQI n"13 in Ramah AND in his own city, 
i. e. in his city Ramah, 1 Sam. xxviii. 3 ; D^LHil vplji 
Wlp^?! . ... in the shepherds' vessel, AND in the bag, 
Ib. xvii. 40. 

See also Is. xxxvii. 13, 2 Chron. xvi. 14, Ps. Ixvi. 20, Ixxiv. 16, 
Dan. iii. 5, viii. 10, &c. And in the New Test., Mark xvi. 7, Acts 
xiv. 13, xxiii. 6, Eph. ii. 3, &c. 

* X ? XG? X X 

* M. de Sacy remarks on the expression l**- ^ 'AJJJ yjl> Lockman was 

a wise (man), Gram. Arab., vol. ii. p. 74. . . . " enfin l*xC=- sage, est un 
lerme circonstantiel ou modificatif, un sur attribut . . . exprime sous une forme 

^ S s '9 ' 

adverbiale, e qui e"quivaut a *J^vs^, ou a **f^- f*}" And in a note, 


" C'est ainsi que Ton peut dire '>^& ^.j U ou 4-*^^, ou 

s # ' '" 

a la lettre, non Zeidus mendacem, ou in mendaci, ou ex mendacibus" So 
Sophoc. CEdip. Rex. 1. 286, OVK iv dpvois. Schol. TO ovo/uoc O.VTI eirippi)/u,<xTO<;. 

u 2 

292 LECTURE XV. ART, 220, 

On the Nouns of Time and Place. 

220. Under this head may be placed certain words, 
signifying the time or place in which any thing is done, 
the construction of which in the Arabic is absolute :* 
these words are, therefore, construed by them as if in the 
objective case, and as standing in no need of any 
intervening particle : e. g. D* 1 ^ 0^}$ two years (as to) 
DAYS, the space of two years, Gen. xli. 1 ; 3t^ Kim. 
/nfcn ~nJl|) and he standing (in) THE OPENING of the 
tent. Gen. xviii. 1 ; ^nfcn nP2 "T^Vl an ^ ^ * to d ( at ) 
THE OPENING of the tent, Exod. xxxiii. 9 ; rntP &7QV 
H3JS7 standing (at) THE EASTERN PART of the altar, 
2 Chron. v. 12. 

As the construction of the numerals will occasionally require the 
application of the other principle, which we have termed that of 
" definite construction" its consideration will be postponed till we 
come to treat on that subject specifically. 

The preposition, however, is sometimes used : e. g. 
"inn rv.Pinn5 'OVOT they stood BENEATH the mount, 
Exod. xix. 18. 

2. In all these cases, as the qualifying word seems to 
have no formal connection with the word qualified, its 
position may be termed absolute : and, in this point of 
view, it may be said to have the same relation to the 
word qualified that an adverb has when used for the 
purpose of qualifying a verb. 

3. We sometimes find a pronoun joined with the first 

* These are termed <j^\j (jo-*)' < 9^Jio containers of time and place : 
e. g. *t5jA**e UU \ytyCf<ut ye (for) days numbered; &x***\ .U1 before 

X X 

<//f mosque, Gram. Arab. M. de Sacy, vol. ii. p. 59, 60, &c. 

ART. 220. 4.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 293 

of such nouns : as, 13 TIE HIS GARMENT (of) linen, Lev. 
vi. 3 ; TJ/'^priD MY REFUGE (of) strength, Ps. Ixxi. 7. 

See also 1 Sain. xxii. 13, Is. xxxi. 7, Lam. iv. 17, Ezek. xvi. 27, 

4. Attributives in Hebrew being considered as in- 
cluding some substantive in their signification (see Art, 
217. 7.), need not, when put in apposition with other 
substantives, be made to agree with them formally, i. e. in 
the same gender and number : e. g. 7 v2) rnty an offer- 
ing, a COMPLETE ONE, i. e. a complete offering, 1 Sam. 
vii. 9 ; na-lp iTT^a -ifea flesh in the field, TORN (flesh) 
i. e. flesh torn in the field, Exod. xxii. 30 ; D^V? Ejt/ 1 ? 

for a people, for THE DESERT-ONES, i. e. for those in- 
habiting the desert, Ps. Ixxiv. 14, &c. 

5. When, however, attributives are put in apposition 
with substantives, they must agree with them in a logical 
point of view at least ; i. e. if the substantive is either 
definite or indefinite in signification, the attributive must 
also be made definite or indefinite. As to number and 
gender, the agreement is that of a predicate with its 
subject (see Art. 215, &c.). And, with respect to the 
order, it will be the same as before (Art. 212. 3.) : e. g. 
Dpn &>\S a man, WISE, 2 Sam. xiii. 3 ; nglCg nrnttf a 
ditch, DEEP, Prov. xxiii. 27 ; DHJ D ^l MANY, hunters, 
Jer. xvi. 16 ; H^XH D'Hl'^n the words, THESE, Gen. 
xlviii. 1 .; n&H \HNn the land, THIS, Ib. v. 4 ; ^3 
DHSian thy sons, THE BORN ONES, Ib. v. 5, 

6. Pronouns have the property of making the words 
to which they are attached definite ; and hence, in 
the last example, the article is necessarily affixed to the 

* Examples of this description have been improperly laid down by Schroe- 
derus as being in the definite stale of construction. Synt. R. 10. 

294 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 220. 7. 

attribute D^Vfa. Hence also, it is only when the ante- 
cedent is definite, that the relative pronoun ")$K, or any 
equivalent term being also definite, ought in any case to 
be introduced : e. g. ^"TEjtf PJjnnj "I$>N flB^n THE woman, 
WHOM thou hast placed with me, Gen. iii. 12 ; Hjtn HPP 
"TDK "1^8 7/M? (is) THIS shepherd WHO standeth ? Jer. 
xlix. 19 ; *5|5?nn HT^n tt^$rnp who (is) THIS MAN, THE 
(one) walking, Gen. xxiv. 65. But to this rule there 
are many exceptions, 

7. In some instances, however, the attributive appears to be 
made definite, when the preceding substantive is not so : as, "P? 
D^MSin SFlpfcO? by the hand of messengers, THE coming ones, Jer. 
xxvii. 3 ; E <l !2~l5riiarT D< '7?? servants, THE runaways, 1 Sam. 
xxv. 10. But, in these cases, we seem to have an Epanorthosis ; 
as, in the first case, / mean those mho are coming, &c. (see Art. 
216. 4.). 

8. In other cases, the latter is without the article when the first 
is not ; as, "TH? I^D THE basket, one, Jer. xxiv. 2 ; D^SH W'S 1 ? 
E^^n i n the eyes of THE nations, many, Ezek.xxxix. 27; nbsSTnVlN 
HEnri the new cart, 2 Sam. vi. 3. But, in these instances, we have 
probably an ellipsis of one of the words so connected : e. g. TFin 
"TnN "f'PT as to the basket, one basket, &c. : or, the latter word may 
be considered as specific : in wliich case the article is necessarily 
omitted ; and so of the rest. 

9. Proper names are to a certain degree definite in their own 
right ; they do not, therefore, receive the article. Nor will two 
nouns in the state of definite construction admit of the article being 
prefixed to the first ; as, ^""P " 1 ??L T or M/?'-?C T " ) ??L T : because, 
in all these cases, the last word (whether it be a proper name and 
therefore definite in itself, or, an appellative with an article) is 
added for the purpose of defining the first ; which will not then 
admit of being made still more so, by the further addition of the 

10. There are, however, many examples in which 
this doctrine about the force of the article seems to be 
contravened ; and in order to be able to account for these, 

ART. 221/] ON THE SYNTAX. 295 

it becomes necessary here to consider the principles by 
which the use of the article is regulated. 

On the Use of the Article. 

221. The article is used for two purposes generally 
(Art. 180. 14.) ; first, to point out any person or thing 
already mentioned or well known ; as, ^ "ISH the earth, 
Gen. i. 2, which had just been mentioned ; or, $$PT 
the sun. Secondly, to restrict the bearing of any 
generic, abstract, or other noun, to the peculiar property, 
quality, &c. expressed by such word ; e. g. Gen. xviii. 25, 

jTEn*? njn lira nfc^Q ^ rhhn 

ar b e it from tliee to do after this manner, 
to put to death RIGHTEOUS and EVIL ; so, THE RIGHTEOUS 
shall become as THE WICKED : or, and thus the man cha- 
racterised as RIGHTEOUS shall be (considered hereafter) 
as tlie man designated as WICKED. So Ib. xiii. 7, ^3?H1 
jHS3 D" TjJ Tl^l and THE CANAANITE and THE 
PERIZZITE dwelt then in the land. So also with respect 
to abstract nouns : 1 Kings vii. 14, 

roktarta nlfc|6 runrrnao 

T T : T -:- ^ -- v : 

zs jilted with SUCH WISDOM, awe? INTELLIGENCE, 
and KNOWLEDGE, (as are necessary) for making all work 
in brass,* &c. See also Gen. xxiii. 17, ^jt/H ; Deut. 
xxxii. 4, -Vltfn ; 2 Sam. xii. 7, tt^n, &c. 

* The following account of the force of the Arabic definite article is taken 
from a treatise on the Arabic Syntax, printed at Madras in 1820, p. rrr 

U JJII LJl &*t\ *. t>* VL uJ U 


296 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 221. 2. 

2. The reason of the rule seems to be this. These generic, or 
abstract, nouns may be considered as proper names for the ideas for 
which they severally stand ; and, therefore, as definite within them- 
selves to a certain degree. But, as they may stand for any indi- 
vidual of the species to which they belong, and, likewise, for every 
individual, they may represent whole classes. In this case, the 
addition of the definite article can affect their signification in no 
other way, than by giving a sort of importance, not to such class or 
individual, but to the property expressed by its name. And, again, 
any proper name receiving the definite article, may be considered 
as an attribute expressive of the properties, &c. expressed by such 

U u ^ 

U- s> U t> o bJ^ s'jsJl icxJ! l to 




JU- ,^ -> 
jib ^^ IjxJ ^JJJI ill y&j *UiXM3l!. That which is made 

definite by the article, is of four sorts. The first is, any word intimating cha- 
racter as it exists, without regard to particular or particulars; as, THE MAN u 
better than TIIE WOMAN. And hence by a metonymy, THE RED Dinar, THE 
WHITE Dlrhem, (i. e. of gold or silver, respectively). This is termed the 
article of kind. The second is that by which the character existing externally 
and habitually in an individual, is pointed out between the first and second 
person (in discourse); as, THE MALE is not like THE FEMALE. This is termed, 
The external convention . . .The third is that which points out the character of 
something inherent in any individual mentally : as, I am afraid THE WOLF will 
devour him. This is termed, The mental convention. In this the word is not 
actually defined, although it has received the form of words defined. The 
fourth is that which points out the property found to exist in all the individuals 
of any species ; as, "Tur. MAN'' (i. e. man generally) "is certainly" (impli- 
cated) "in sorrow:" in order to point out the force of the exception (fol- 
lowing, viz.) " except those who believe." This is termed the article of immersion. 

The Persians express these powers by adding the letter ^ to nouns. See Sir 
William Jones's Persian Grammar, edit. ix. pp. 26, 27, &c. 

ART. 221. 3.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 297 

3. Hence, we find words used as proper names, sometimes with, 
and at others without, the definite article ; e. g. IT)-'? the Jordan, 
(properly, the River, TT 1 or NT" 1 i n the Syriac, signifying to run, 

flow, &c.) Jer. xii. 5, xlix. 19 ; but Job xl. 23, &c. IT]- Jordan; 
"ityn the Nile, i. e. the River, Gen. xli. 1, 2. 18 ; "ity Isa. xix. 7, 
xxiii. 3, Zech. x. 11 ; p32pn the Libanus, Deut. iii. 25, &c. ; Ps. 
xxix. 6, &c. P 3 -? : as a proper name ; 'E"l3n 1 Sam. xv. 12, &c. 
b?TJ3 Josh. xv. 55. So ^n and 1^, TiSBn and TfrS. So 
also in the names of men : PIJ?^ Num. xiii. 22. 28 ; P^V. Deut. 
ix. 2 ; napMrt 3 Sam. xxiv. 16 ; ^EH Ezek. xxxviii. 2, &c.* 
See Nold. Concord. Part, annot. and vind. p. 855, &c. 

4. This sometimes takes place also, when a proper name, com- 
pounded of two words, is put in the definite state of construction ; 
as, SSnNn rp-],7 Neh. xi. 25, but 32-lH rPlj? Gen. xxiii. 2. So 

ffnjwi rrnp j er . xxvi. 20, but n'ny'j rrij? j os h. ix. 17, &c. 

So 1 Sam. xvii. 34, v "???7 an d ^'^'^> are P ut f r a ^' ow an ^ a bear, 
not *Ae lion, &c. See also Mr. de Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. i. 
pp. 3268, vol. ii. p. 276, &c. 

5. Some appellatives which are much in use, seem to take the 
article by way of distinction :]- as, "^SH the well, Exod. ii. 15; 
"^2(7 the servant, Gen. xviii. 7, &c. just as we use the corresponding 

* In the &*Hl ^ jif&d\ L_>Ui by Essoyuti, we have the following 

remark to this effect: < ftM <)JkU>-J Jj &3j**o LfljJ ^J\jOJ(s 

ie said, Why is EL FARAT with the. article, when its addition is not allowable? 
The answer is, that this is allowable in all proper names the origin of which is 

AN ATTRIBUTIVE; as, i/*' 1 ^' EL ABBAS; c-ysrl EL HARITH. And as to 
EL FARAT, its signification is, THE SWEET WATER : as it is said in the Koran, 
" And we will surely water you with sweet water." (Sur. 77.). See Weiske on 

the Greek Pleonasms, p. 23, edit. 1813 ; Freytag's Haraasa, p. f line 16, &c. 

t This the Arabs term <U^*Ji prevctlency, i. e. a sort of antonomasia. So in 
the Greek, o -noitiTW : 6 &>f, xal 6 tjv, KM 6 Ifxopwos. See also Freytag's 
Ilamasa, p. 1 

298 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 222. 

words in English without intending to make the word definite. 
For a similar reason perhaps others omit it: as, ^1 ^?? great king, 
for the great king, Ps. xxi. 2, xlv. 16, xlviii. 3, xlix. 7, Ixii. 1, 
Esth. i. 9. So Btetp for ^ntPrr p s . htxii. 17, Jer. xxxi. 35, &c. 
So Vl for Y"^n Ps. ii. 2, Job iii. 14, xxxv. 11, &c. ; and 
B^nbs frequently for D^nb.Nn, & c . see No. 3. 

Adverbs and other qualifying Terms. 

222. Words generally construed as adverbs are 
nothing more than nouns, attributives, or particles, 
put in immediate, or mediate, apposition with those 
which they are intended to qualify.* The order is regu- 
lated as before (Art. 212. 3.). Examples of such words 
in immediate apposition ; "^l^S TipS visiting,^ I have 
visited (or will surely visit) ; 3"]#rn D^H ^t^H B^l 
so the Philistine approaches rising EARLY and remaining 
LATE, i. e. early and late, 1 Sam. xvii. 16, &c. 

2. Examples of such words in mediate apposition 
with others, i. e. with some particle or other word or 

The construction is here, as before, absolute when immediate. This is 

termed by the Arabian Grammarians u-sn i. e. the state; and, as it consists 
of one or more words added for the purpose of qualifying either the subject or 
object of a verb, it must necessarily be an attributive. Mr. de Sacy seems to 

have confounded the (Jv~, with the j*** which is always a substantive. The 
principle, however, is the same in both. 

f Ibn Malik says on the use of the Infinitive thus added, 

y j < It is selected for 

the purpose of giving emphasis, or to specify, or to intimate number : as, I 
went two journeys, or, on a journey of observation." So in the Greek; o's a.v 
x.u.Ta.(f>vy<i>v KaToi^uyri es TOVTOV$. Herodot. iv. 23. See Weiske's Pleonas- 
GriEC., Ed. 1813, pp. 9. 15. 27. Bos. Ellipses Graec., p. 3., Edit. 1813. 

ART. 222. 3-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 299 

words intervening : *V2p/ /3N~]^ he giveth food to 
abundance, i. e. abundantly, Job xxxvi. 31 ; JOnrQ irniT 
they fie d in becoming hidden, i. e, secretly, Dan. x. 7, 

3. In all these cases specification is obviously the purpose for 
which such words have been introduced. With verbs these will 
necessarily be construed as adverbs, with nouns as adjectives, 
attributes, or the like. The addition of the particle can have no 
other influence than that of uniting the force of the several terms 
used, for the purpose of giving perspicuity to the whole. 

4. Hence, when it is necessary to express the com- 
mencement, repetition, hurry, progress, the power of 
effecting, the intensity, certainty, &c. of, any action, pas- 
sion, &c. this may be done either by putting two verbs 
in the tense and person suitable to the passage, with or 
without the copulative conjunction ; or, by one verb 
only in such tense and person, and the other, either in 
the Infinitive, or in the Participial, form :* e. g. JH ^Hil 
begin, possess, i. e. begin to possess, Deut. ii. 31 ; 

* This, according to the Moolla Jami, is done for the purpose of rousing the 
hearer, or to prevent the supposition of mistake (Com. on Ibn ul Hajib, p. rro-i ). 

His words are: <*&> *JJ \ oLJl kliill sjJ U>! 

e jss? ]osM\ j)j& ^yo gj.ySl cLXlJj .Jala! 

i3o ;: i-7->r"0 < *r > j*0 : " and this," he adds, " is done by repeating the word : as, 
He struck (i. e.) Zaid, Zaid: or, he struck, he struck (i. e.) Zaid. But, it is not 
to the repetition of the same words that this rule is confined, any other words 
may be added, as the sense may require. So Zuzeni on the Moallakah of 

Antara Ed. Menil. v. 5 : UftM ^ u-yal U^UJ **. . . . ^Ui'jllj *\jfl\ 

f \M t <Xx< ^Jl ^y^o tojb JU U^ i. e . The becoming void 
and desert. These words are "conjoined for the purpose of strengthening the 
passage, just as the poet Tarafat has said, When I come near him, he wanders 
and separates from me." So also Weiske Isagoge, .16, and Winer's Gram- 
mar of the New Testament, p. 91, Edit. Andover, 1825. 

300 LECTURE XV. C ART< 222< 5 ' 

D"13 P&F) . . . Hi 7JT] so Noah begins . . . and plants 
a vineyard, i. e. to plant, Gen. ix. 20 ; ^pln & 
'=J 1 7~ ! )N" I P < ! do not repeat (that) they call thee, i. e. do not 
allow them again to call thee, Is. xlvii. 1 ; H >> ^P^l 
and he repeats sending, i. e. he sends again, Gen. 

viii. 10 ; '77 ^DN K7 I add not to curse, i. e. I will not 
curse again, Ib. v. 21 ; *T$\\ 1HDJ?! so she hastes and 
puts down, i. e. hastens to put down, Gen. xxiv. 18 ; 
N3 |CnnO J^ilQ why have you hasted coming, i. e. to 
come, Exod. ii. 18 ; O^PT ^XV TVy\ prm ^H 1111 

. T T * T . 

D^vHI David (was) proceeding and becoming strong ; 
but the house of Saul (was) proceeding and becoming 
weak, i. e. David becomes gradually stronger, &c. 2 Sam. 
iii. 1 ; I3~n25 731N / may be able (that) we may smite 
him, Num. xxii. 6 ; nnyl&to nV"]5)3 fetf w* spread out, 
let us send, i. e. let us send out extensively, 1 Chron. 
xiii. 2. The force of the paragogic n will presently be 

5. The repetition of nouns or particles is often re- 
curred to, for the purpose of denoting distribution, 
diversity, comparison, or the like : e. g. 1N3 D^tp D?3> 
ni" 1 ?)^ TWO (and) TWO came they to Noah, Gen. vii. 9; 
"I"T# pni "H# |^3 between floclt and between flock, Gen. 
xxxii. 17: "Ip33 "lj?33 Ink ICOp^l w<7 /^^ them collect 
it MORNING by MORNING, Exod. xvi. 21 ; n^i"T| )3^1 |3^ 
n3Dp1 STONE and STONE, a great and a small (one), i. e. 
diverse weights, Deut. xxv. 13; 11 ^T 371373 in HEART 
and HEART they speak, i. e. while they profess one thing 
they mean another, Ps. xii. 3; 13^3 ]H33 0^3 frm 
"P3'"TNJ3 it shall be, LIKE people LIKE priest, LIKE servant 
LIKE master, &c., Isa. xxiv. 2 ; JUH^ ^nb^l tg "nb5 * 
ay STRENGTH (was) then, EVEN so (is) my STRENGTH now, 
Josh. xiv. 11. 

ART. 222. G.] ON THE SYNTAX. 301 

6. When, however, any demonstrative pronoun is 
used ; or, a singular personal pronoun referring to an 
antecedent in the plural number, distribution is generally 
intended : e. g. n?~7K Hf this to this, i. e. one to another, 
Exod. xiv. 20 ; hid T^J] iljp TTJ a wall from this, 
and a wall from this, i. e. on each side, Num. xxii. 24 ; 

ni.T : tirgi ^fc'ty njpnbp 1 ? K^cna when thou goest 

to the war against thy enemies, and Jehovah shall give 
HIM, i. e. wholly, or every one of them, Deut. xxi. 10; 

I^Vfi] D^Jgn \JSrn$ n$$n r\^y\ so the woman takes 
BOTH OF THE MEN and Mdes HIM, i. e. wholly, or each one 
of them, Josh. ii. 4. 

7. The context will always shew us whether we are to consider 
these repetitions emphatical, or distributive. There are, how- 
ever, instances of repetition which fall under neither of the pre- 
ceding heads, but which are to be ascribed to the simple and un- 
polished usage of a venerable antiquity. Such is the repetition of 
the word "ION j i Kings ii. 4, &c. of whole sentences : as, Gen. 
vi. 22, xiii. 5, 6, xiv. 5, 8, xxiv. 37, 1 Sam. x. 9. the introduc- 
tion of words apparently superfluous ; as, " he lifted up his eyes, 
feet," &c. Gen. xiii. 10, xviii. 2, xxix. 1, Dan. x. 5 : he put forth 
his hand," Gen. viii. 9, 2 Kings vi. 7, &c. ; " they arose," Jos. 
xviii. 4 ; " and it came to pass," TT1, nj?T] ; and " behold," H2n 
passim. These apparently superfluous terms are, however, of im- 
mense importance to the unity and perspicuity of the context.* 

r .t On the emphatic repetition of Words or Phrases. 

223. If, upon the addition of one word or phrase, 
another will be made more definite, specific, &c., then 
upon the repetition of either, a still greater definiteness, 
perspicuity, energy, fervency, or the like, will be given to 
the context :f e. g. WJH D9^T55 W& 131^ TURN YE, 

* See Weiske on the Greek Pleonasms, Isagoge, 15, &c., Ed. 1813. 

f For similar examples in the Arabic, see Mr. de Sacy's Gram., vol. ii. 

302 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 223. 2. 

TURN YE, from your evil ways, Ezek. xxxiii. 11 ; 1 
1^"1 D3Nljl CONTEND with your mother, CONTEND YE, 

HOS.H. 4"; nan rn.T ^rnn nirp ^n ni.T ^n THE 


OF JEHOVAH (are) these, Jer. vii. 4 : i. e. They insisted 

? ' s 

that the idols, which were called temples, (J%t>, see 


Pococke's Spec. Hist. Arab., p. 91.) REALLY contained the 
Deity; a principle of heathenism still prevailing in the 
East. For similar expressions, see Is. xxxviii. 19, xliii. 25, 
Ps. xciv. 3, Cant. vii. 1, &c. 

2. So with the pronouns : v~^9/?p1 ^Ztyfo my high 
tower, and MY deliverer FOR ME, i. e. my sure deliverer, 
Ps. cxliv. 2; ^nn ^8 ^1O |0! W who will put MY 
DEATH, ME, in the place of thee! i. e. O that some 
one had slain me, even me, instead of thee! 2 Sam. 
xix. 1 ; *h%?\ D1X Dy^Dl and YOUR carcases (even) 
YOU shall jail, Num. xiv. 32. See Artt. 216. 4. 219. 5. 

So n33?tpZM 1?lpj3, masc. and fern. i. e. every species of 
support, Is. iil 1. See the Concessus of Hariri by Schultens, 
p. 36, and the Moallakah Antarae by Menil (Lugd. Bat. 1816.), 

v. 71, fk*j &iaxi,, with the Scholia of Zuzeni, at p. 113. 

3. Hence, also, words put in the plural number, (which 
according to our system, consists of the juxta-position 
of two words) may be considered as emphatical : e. g. 
D^i* God; D^'TNl Lord; D^3 Baal; JThJJltfj; Ash- 
tar oth, Venus; niDHJ-J the Behemoth; JTiE^n real 
wisdom, &c. by way of eminence, and which may hence 
be termed the plural of excellence. 

Art. 671 2676; Moolla Jami's Commentary on the Kafia, p. fro. And 
with the pronouns, Mr. de Sacy's Gram., vol. ii. pp. 359, 360. 

ART. 224.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 303 

On Nouns put in the Definite State of Construction. 

224. Of this construction, or regimen as it has been 
sometimes called, there are two kinds (see Art. 217. 7.). 
The first we have termed the definite, the second the 
distinctive, state of construction ; merely to denote the 
different kinds of words thus used. 

2. Of the definite state of construction we may reckon 
two kinds : viz. the Immediate, and the Mediate. The 
Immediate is that which presents two or more substan- 
tive nouns (not being names for the same thing), so con- 
nected that the idea conveyed by them becomes sufficiently 
defined for the purposes of the speaker or writer. The 
Mediate is that, in which this is done by the intervention 
of one or more of the particles.* 

3. Examples of nouns in the definite state of con- 

* The truth is, however, the particles themselves are really nouns, as already 
intimated ; and, when they intervene, the construction is either that of appo- 
sition, or, of definite construction, or both. We have adopted the term 
mediate, both here and in Art. 217. 5., in order to conform to the usual mode of 
considering these skeletons of words. Hereafter, perhaps, we may get rid of 
this distinction. According to the doctrine of the Arabian Grammarians, 
every example of immediate construction which can occur, may be resolved by 

G-- ?'* 

an equivalent mediate one : e. g. iJ \ ** the slave of Zaid, is, according 

t^'S'? & 9* ' $ G S' ' 

to them, equivalent to <^.jJ ,*. So $*&* r^*~i to ^^ i.f* f^~ ring 

S\ ' I # s , I 

of (or out of) silver; and *jJUi \r>f to i_jJUl ^ v'j * ->j-"^ i. e. a stroke 
or blow of to-day, to a stroke or blow happening to-day. See the Shurho 

Moolla Jami, p. P*!* , &c. This process, according to my notions, is making 
the construction less simple than it stood originally; in other words, it is 
making a plain matter difficult, by placing a greater number of words in con- 
struction than in the original example. It shews, however, that both signify 
the same thing. See p. 291, note. 

304 LECTURE XV. [/VRT. 224. 4. 

struction termed Immediate: iKDyity captain (of) his 

host, 1 Sam. xxvi. 5 ; DHT9f9"\Q ^f9 </ 

(of) the sons (of) the prophets, 2 Kings iv. 1 ; 

the river (of) Euphrates, Gen. xv. 18 ; nin rP"lj? the 

town (of) Khuzoth, Num. xxii. 39 ; ^TQ h^lrig the 

virgin (of) ^ daughter (of) my people, Jer. xiv. 17. 

4. In these and all similar passages, this juxta-position of 
words has the property of defining the idea presented by the first, 
just as that kind of apposition does, to which we have given 
the term Identity. In the following, the idea presented by the 
first of the words so placed, is made more distinct or spe- 
cific, just as it is by that state of apposition which we have 
termed specific. It will readily be seen, that the distinctions here 
mentioned can arise only from the consideration of the character 
of the qualifying terms in each case. Examples: B^pn ^7?2 
garments (of) holiness, i. e. holy or sacred garments, Exod. 
xxix. 29 ; P^ .... 1^ a stone, or weight (of) justice, i. e. a just 
weight, Deut. xxv. 15 ; D"nTO? HIZ7W a wife (of) youth, i. e. a 
young wife, or, it may signify, a wife married in one's youth, Isa. 
liv. 6. See also Gen. xli. 42, Exod. xi. 2, Jud. viii. 1 3, 1 Sam. 
i. 11, Jer. xi. 20, &c. 

5. The case will be the same should a sentence stand in the 
place of the qualifying word :* e. g. 2EE7N MTOT: fc$b 

(or language which) / knew not, I heard, Ps. Ixxxi. 6 ; 
^^ the acquisition (of that which) he made, they have lost, Jer. 
xlviii. 36 ; &1p b?1N fcft> iTSL into the hands (of those) / am not 
able to rise against, Lam. i. 14. See Ps. Ixv. 5, cxxix. 6, Jer. 
ii. 8, &c. 

6. This construction, however, will admit of more than one 
solution. For, first, if we consider the particles, &c. as nouns, 

* A similar practice exists in the Persian with respect to the vowels which 

mark the state of construction : e. g. .J**) VIi-"J*j tfte time of going, &c. So 

c f < ' 

the will of (him who is) without a when, i. e. is eternal. 

But in these cases both { Jiij and &ff- may also be considered as nouns. 

A&T. 224 , 7-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 305 

which I believe we ought to do, we shall have nothing more than 
an immediate state of construction, with the preceding word in the 
proper form for such a state (Art. 171.). And, 2dly, if we suppose 
the relative pronoun "M^ mho, which, &c. to have been omitted by 
the ellipsis, which has been preferred by Schrcederus, the construc- 
tion will also be explained. 

7. In some cases, however, the order is inverted, and has hence 
been termed Hypallage ; e. g. C^D ^9? argentum scoriarum, 
for scoriae argenti, Prov. xxvi. 23 ; D > ???n "JSHp oblatio lignorum, 
For ligna oblationum. See also Lev. v. 15, vii. 21, xxii. 4, Deut. 
xii. 3, Josh. ii. 6, 1 Kings xvii. 14, Ezek. xxi. 30, Est. ix. 19. 

8. As this combination takes place only for the purpose 
of presenting some definite idea to the mind, should it be 
necessary further to define or qualify them by the addition 
of any pronoun, &c. such pronoun, &c. will generally 
be added to the last : e. g. ^1 p in the mountain (of) 
my holiness, i.e. my holy mountain, Ps. ii. 6; ^P? ^P^ 
the images (of) thy silver, i. e. thy silver images, Isaiah 
xxx. 22 ; n^tfn nlDJ/rin ^l*y the peoples (of) abomina- 
tions, these, i. e. these abominable people, Ezra ix. 14. 

See also Exod. xxviii. 38, Neh. ix. 14, Ps. iv. 2, lix. 18, ex. 2, 
cxix. 123, Is. ii. 20, xxx. 22, xxxi. 7, Dan. ix. 24. For similar 
constructions in the New Testament, see Rom. vii. 24, Col. i. 13, 

9. In the preceding examples, the qualified and qualifying noun 
have been considered as in juxta-position with one another; still 
this is neither necessary, nor is it always found, for in some in- 
stances we have the intervention of particles, such as the definite 
article, Sec., in others, whole words or phrases : e. g. HlTP rfitP37 
D?tth Y"?N CFribM THE LORD GOD'S making (of) the earth and 
heavens, Gen. ii. 4 ; ^^T? ^^ nl3D n /tpp THE SENDING GIFTS 
of each man to his friend, Est. ix. 19; l^nD in' nbtpa 1N 
SARGON'S sending him, Is. xx. 1. 

See also Gen. vii. 6, Jos. xx. 3, Isa. v. 24, xx. 1, Prov. xxv. 8, 
&c. Storr thinks that these examples are not to be considered as 
in the state of construction, but to be accounted for in some 
other way (Observ., p. 282.). I believe it is of little importance 
whether we consider them in this point of view, or as in apposition 


306 LECTURE XV. [[ART. 224. 10. 

with the preceding noun, or otherwise qualifying it, the end arrived 
at is precisely the same in every point of view : the only question 
here being, whether one or more words do not parenthetically in- 
tervene between such qualified and qualifying terms. That such is 
the case, perhaps, there can be little doubt ; and, as the usage of 
the language, in this particular, is all we wish to ascertain, we need 
not be very anxious as to the terms used, particularly where no 
change of vowels or consonants can be appealed to as decisive on 
the subject. The parallelism of the following passage requires 
that the construction be considered as definite : "^ ^SCP' "fit^M *frf 
"WT DTi NsnTlteE 5 ! O Ashshur, the rod of my anger : even the rod 
is he, for their sake, or, in their hand, OF my wrath,* Isa. x. v. 

1 0. Great care should be taken in translating passages found in 
this state of construction, i. e. in considering whether the last of 
such words is to be taken in an active or passive sense : e. g. 
2Si} nsnn the reproach of Moab, Zeph. ii. 8, is not to be under- 
stood as the reproach afflicting Moab, but that which they inflict 
on others. So T" fiB"\D Ps. Ixxxix. 51, the reproach of thy 
servants, is that which they suffer, not that which they inflict. 

In like manner D'Ot^n Dttp the violence (exercised by the) 

inhabitants, Exek. xii. 19; but ^rQ"! "*?? Dx ?n the violence 

(suffered by the) children of Jerubbaal, Judg. ix. 24. 'T"f"lj"2?t 
the cry of the poor, Prov. xxi. 13 : but uTP HjlV.! the cry (ex- 
cited by the oppression) of Sodom, Gen. xviii. 20. The same holds 
good with reference to the pronouns. See Gen. xvi. 15, 1. 4, Jer. 
li. 35, 2 Sam. xvi. 12, Is. xxi. 2, Ps. xcviii. 8, Ivi. 13, &c. See 
also Art. 146. 8. note. 

11. The following are examples of what has been 
termed the " mediate state of construction," i. e. when 
the connection of nouns thus situated is, in one way or 
other, denned or modified by the intervention of one or 


* So in the Arabic u^ttr 5 U*J < *& >U<Ji iai- U just as the book 

>/' - ' 

was written Ity the hand, one day, of a Jew. See Gram. Arab. M. de Sacy, 
vol. ii. p. 125 6. 

ART. 224: 12.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 30.7 

more of the particles :* "Ij^E TTH boar out of the 
forest, i. e. of the forest, or, a forest boar, Ps. Ixxx. 14 ; 
pirnft D^N? people of, or from a distance, i. e. distant, 
Isa. xlix. 1. 

See also Exod. i. 14, Ps. xc. 4, Cant. iii. 8, Jer. v. 6, &c. Of 
this kind are the passages TT\? ""^TP ^9^? ' a psalm of David, 
of Asaph ; nE7tt/p ""I27H which (is) Solomon's, i. e. belonging 
to Solomon, Cant. i. 1, &c., where the proprietor, author, pos- 
sessor, or the like, is designated. -j~ 

12. This rule, however, with its exemplifications, coincides with 
the corresponding one given under the article of mediate apposition 
(Art. 219. 4.), i. e. the preceding word generally suffers no abbre- 
viation either in the quantity of its vowels, or in the number of its 
consonants. The words so connected may, by taking the particle 
as a noun, all be considered as in immediate apposition. In the 
following cases, the first so connected is put in the definite state of 

construction, e.g. ^3? TO?!? ""Ift^ %I P >1 ?^ those arising 

early in the morning .... lingering after the twilight, Isa. v. 1 1 ; 
fWa 1 ?? V^? ^V?* 1 dwellers in the land of the shadow of death, 
Ib. ix. 1. 

See also 2 Sam. i. 21, Ps. ii. 12, Ixxxiv. 7, Isa. xiv. 19, 
xxviii. 9, Jer. xxiii. 23, Ezek. xiii. 2, xxi. 17, &c. So also with 
the conjunction 1 ; as, f"l3?11 ^P?H wisdom and knowledge, Isa. 
xxxiii. 6. With T? : as, ET^? 7"^? P"?J3 there is no deliverer from 
their hands, Lam. v. 8. 

13. It must appear from these passages, that the particle here 
found so influencing the preceding word, must either have been 
considered as a noun, or the following context must be supposed to 
exercise the influence, which the second of the nouns in construc- 
tion does. See Art. 217. 5.. 

* If we consider these particles as nouns, which we may, all these cases 
may be resolved into those of immediate construction or apposition, as before. 
New Test., John iii. 31, vi. 31, Rom. iii. 26, iv. 16, Gal. iii. 7, 8, &c. 

f It has already been remarked (Art. 224. 2.), that the Arabian Gram- 
marians consider every construction of this kind, as equivalent in signification 
to those in which the particle is not introduced. In most cases, however, the 
particles tend to define the relation more specifically. 

x 2 

308 LECTURE XV. C ART - 225. 

On the DISTINCTIVE State of Construction.* 

225. It has been remarked (Art. 217. 7.), that, in this 
case, the preceding word to be qualified must always 
be an attributive. The effect here produced is, that of 
rendering distinct or specific, the person or thing desig- 
nated by this attribute ; coinciding in this respect with 
what has been termed definite construction : the quali- 
fied word being always an attributive involving the signi- 
fication of a substantive (Ib.), e. g. nV#H ^il^l great 
(of) counsel, i. e. a great being, 8fc. (of) counsel, or 
counselling being, Jer. xxxii. 19 ; ^"l^l ^"Tj? the holy 
(one of) Israel, Isa. i. 4 ; ^Vp^D];! those perfect (of) 
way, i. e. men of perfect way, Ps. cxix. 1 ; ril")"'?^ low 
(of) spirit, i. e. an humble man, Prov. xxix. 23 ; JTC&'P 
niJT the anointed of tJie Lord, 2 Sam. i. 14. 

* This kind of construction is termed by the Arabian Grammarians- 

fSi (.Z ^ofs ' ' 

<Uia&lJl <XJUeJll i. e. verbal construction, in order to distinguish between it 
' * i. 

and that which we have termed " the definite" which they style 

the logical or significant, construction. It is curious enough to 

observe, that they exemplify this sort of construction in three different ways; 
which may serve to shew, that in fact they all amount to the same thing in 

if G " & ' ' 

meaning : e. g. A^-j ^/**^~ handsome (of) face, in immediate apposition 
c. * r s * 

**_} f ^f u * s> ~ handsome (of) face, in the state of definite construction ; and 

#,' S x x 

^-^ o/***" *d- wnen the latter or defining word is put absolutely, and con- 

strued as a noun of specification, j**> See M. de Sacy's Arab. Gram., 

vol. ii. p. 159, &c. So llev. xii. 1. yvvh iregifieflhii/jLlvtj rov tj\iov~ 

' S S 

Arab. I>**<>MW) A*i*Jx< Slw$l. 

ART. 225. 2.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 

See also Gen, xxxv. 29, Exod. xxxv. 22, Ps. xxiv. 4, Isa. i. 21, 

2. Under this general head may be placed certain idiomatical 
expressions which will frequently meet the Learner in his progress. 
These are, phrases having E^H man, each, 7? son, 'V5 Lord, pos- 
sessor, "*???*?, ^P men, &c. for the first member, followed by 
certain others in the definite state of construction : e. g. TIP ^"^ 

O V T 

H.F1N thou art a man of death, i. e. deserving death, 1 Kings ii. 26 ; 
"fr 1 ??? W$^\ D ^ ^ttrja *** son of seven years (was) Joash 
when his reign (began), i. e. he was seven years old, 2 Kings xii. 1 ; 
rnjp"]2l a son of death (is) he, i. e. he shall die, 1 Sam. xx. 31 ; 
M a ma n of lips, i. e. loquacious, Job xi. 2 ; D v l^ ! ^ 
wan o/" words, i. e. a speaker, Exod. iv. 10 ; JTOM EPN a ?na o/" 
ru^, i. e. a true man, Neh. vii. 2 ; D^<3 < *?7?W fAe men o/ name, 
i. e. famous, Gen. vi. 4; 'Ip'^lMN mew of might, i. e. mighty men, 
Gen. xlvii. 6 ; "" | Spp\np men of number, i. e. few, Gen. xxxiv. 30; 
*? a man possessed of hair, i. e. hairy, 2 Kings i. 8 ; 

~ ^ every (one) possessed of ning, i. e. winged bird, Prov. 
i. 17. 

So D'p "^p^? men of Sodom, Gen. xix. 4, for Sodomites. See Gen. 
xxiii. 3, xxiv. 13, Numb. xxi. 28, Josh. xxiv. 11, Judg. ix. 2, x. 1, 
Jer. ii. 16, Ezek. xvi. 26, Ps. cxlix. 2, Cant. 1. 5, &c. To this 
class may be referred ^n7Srt"^32 sons of God, pious persons, and 
E^rj H133 daughters of men, low, impious women, Gen. vi. 2, &c. 

On the Construction of the Numerals. 

226. The numerals in Hebrew being all substantive 
nouns, are put either in apposition, or in the definite 
state of construction, with the word signifying the thing 
numbered : e. g. In apposition : ^P^LT HSD1 ^7^ one 
thousand and one hundred (pieces of) silver, D?3! 
rams two, D^ Dnjg cities two, H^^ 0^2, or ' 
D"J3 sons three, or three sons, 0*011 D'ttf 1 ?^ thirty sons. 
In construction: D^^ fil^lf' #^r^, or, a triad, of men ; 
J^ /^o sons ; niJil "'J;?^ ^o daughters. 

2. The dual and decimal numerals, however, signify- 

310 LECTURE XV. j^AKT. 226. S. 

ing numbers above ten, such as D^.t$ twenty ; 
two hundred, &c. prefer the state of apposition. 

On the Concordance of the Numerals with the Thing, 8jc. 

3. The numerals from three to ten inclusively, are 
mostly in the gender different from that of the thing 
numbered, for the sake perhaps of variety : in this case 
the word representing the thing, &c. numbered is put in 
the plural number, e. g. 0^35 HJtptf, or D^3? Ainitf 
seven male lambs ; mi^Il-P V^W seven female lambs. 
The numeral is here taken as a collective noun, and 
stands either in apposition or in the state of definite con- 
struction with the thing numbered. 

4. In like manner when the numeral signifies any 
number exceeding ten, it may likewise disagree in gender 
with the thing, &c. to be numbered ; while the thing, &c. 
numbered, will be put in the singular number : e. g. 
tf ngljl&n 0^3$ seventy and seven men ; rn&tf J/3# 
njtt* seventeen years; iTjaJ fiSpl D^Jttf W fan Jive years 
and a hundred year, Gen. v. 6. 

5. There is nothing peculiar in the construction of such nume- 
rals as f"WD an hundred and I^W a thousand, other numerals being 
made to agree with them or not, according to the preceding rules, 
while they will be put either in apposition or construction, in the 
singular or plural number, according to those rules : e. g. flMp 
rViNE-Sa-lH-! D^bM-natol. *> ffObttfa rf?* an hundred thousand, 
and eighty thousand, and six thousands, and four hundreds, Num. 
ii. 9. See Gen. v. where a large number of examples occurs. 

Other modes of Construction. 

227. In many cases, too, when the numeral exceeds 
the number one, the thing, &c. numbered is put in the 
plural, whether the numeral precede or follow it; the 

ART. 227. 2.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 311 

gender is regulated as before : e. g. 
rams tivelve, Num. vii. 87 ; 1^ D^ . . . 0^3? lambs 
male .... twelve, Ib.; Q^S "Ifcflt/ DN3^ twelve bullocks, 
Ib.; D^D nj^a"jl Dnfctf twenty^ and four buttocks, Ib. 
v. 88. 

See also Gen. xvii. 20, xxv. 16, xxvi. 12, xxxii. 15, 23, Josh. 
iv. 2, xxi. 19, 2 Sam. xix. 18, 1 Kings iv. 13, Jer. xxxviii. 10, 
Ezra viii. 35, &c. And, vice versa, H3I27 ttfftn ^fo e year, 2 Kings 
xxii. 1. &c. 

2. The intermediate numbers between ten and twenty, twenty 
and thirty, &c. are regulated by the principles already investigated; 
that is, either by apposition or definite construction, immediate or 
mediate ; e. g. "^^ '"^?^ seventeen, in immediate apposition ; 
D^^Q?! 3721P seven and seventy, mediate apposition : ""^^ *3& 
twelve ; "^V ^5^^P eighteen, definite construction. 

3. In many cases when the numeral is in apposition, it is to be 
taken as an ordinal : e. g. *"^lp E^STlN the fortieth year, Deut. i. 3 ; 
i. e. taking it in the order of computation, the year, forty, or forty 
(by) year. So Gen. i. 5. "TH^? D<1%> day, one, i. e. the first. See 
also Exod. xii. 6, Num. xiii. 2, Deut. xv. 9, 1 Kings xvi. 10, 
2 Kings viii. 16, xii. 2, Ezek. xxix. 17, Dan. i. 1, 21, vii. 1, ix. 1, 
xi. 1, &c. 

4. When it is necessary to qualify the thing, &c. num- 
bered by some attributive, this attributive will agree with 
it either in a formal or logical point of view, at the pleasure 
of the writer : e. g. in the first case, t^N n$m D\3jbBf 
"TiD$ Kfett eighty and Jive men, (each, or the whole) 
bearing (sing.) an ephod, 1 Sam. xxii. 18. In the 
second, D^yn J"N &$%njifty men running (pi.), 1 Kings 
i. 5. 

5. The thing numbered, measured, &c. may also be 
considered as a specifying term (Art. 219. note), and 
construed as absolute with reference to the preceding 
noun ; as, D^3 DV?^ thirty, sons ; HP5 *\?X a thousand 
(of) silver, &c. We nevertheless have occasionally the 

312 XECTURE xvi. CART. 227. 6. 

state of construction : as, Dri'^JH^ two (pieces, &c. of) 
bread, I Sam. x. 4, &c. : ru# nK (Art. 226. 4.). 

6. As it is easy to supply certain names of weight and 
measure, on account of their frequent occurrence, they 
are often omitted by the ellipsis : e. g. np^-Jl^ l 1 ?^] 
*]E>3 D^/J^ so they weigh my price thirty (shekels of) 
silver, Zech. xi. 12 ; D'HJ/^'li^ T^T- so ^ e "measures six 
(measures of) barley, Ruth iii. 15. 17 ; ^rh "TnS3 in 
the first (day) of the month, Deut. i. 3 ; TIN! ifrjg'l 
]it>N!3 np^n and they keep the passover in the first 
(month), Num. ix. 5; ti'irh Trusqi ]i J *O3 in the first 
(month) in the first (day) of the month, Ezek. xxix. 17. 

See also Gen. xx. 16, xlv. 22, Lev. xxiii. 17, 1 Sam. x. 4, Ezek. 
xlv. 21. And, where some of these ellipses are supplied, Gen. 
xxiii. 15, Lev. xxvii. 3, 6, Rath ii. 17, &c. See Bos on the Greek 
ellipses, p. 4, Ed. 1813. 

The ordinals are construed like other attributives. 



228. It will perhaps readily be granted, that the 
character of the words necessary to complete any sen- 
tence must very much depend on the signification of the 
preceding ones ; or, which is the same thing, on the 
signification intended to be conveyed in them by the 
Writer. I may say, for example, lam now riding, equi- 
tans ego ; or, am a riding. But it may also be necessary 
to state whether this be on a horse, in a carriage, &c. as 

ART. 228. 2.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 313 

also to, or from, what place I am thus proceeding ; or, 
for what purpose, &c. The same will hold good of all 
attributives.* A man may be said to be swift generally, 
or swift on foot, swift in the chase, in the pursuit of an 
enemy, to revenge, to do good or evil, or a thousand 
other things, which it may be necessary for a Writer or 
Speaker to state. 

2. All verbs are necessarily attributive in signi- 
fication ; and, from what we have seen, as to their 
etymology, there is strong reason to suspect that they 
are composed of nothing more than nouns put in 
a state of conjugation or combination with one or 
other of the pronouns. If, then, attributive nouns will 
necessarily stand in need of such complementary words 
in order to complete or modify the sentences in which 
they are found, the same must necessarily be true of the 
same words, when found in the form of verbs. Usually, 
however, this has been stated by saying, that nouns de- 
rived from verbs are subject to the same mode of con- 
struction with the verbs from which they descend. I 
prefer the contrary method of stating this question ; be- 
cause I can see why nouns, as such, require this kind of 
construction ; of verbs we know nothing, on the other 

3. We have seen that nouns substantive or attributive 
may be qualified by the addition of other words, either 
in a state of apposition, of definite construction, imme- 
diate or mediate, or absolutely, just as the signification 
of such word shall require, or as the intention of the 
Writer may be. The same is the case with verbs 
whether active, passive, transitive, intransitive, or 

* So in Is. xiii. 19, and Amos iv. 11, we have npSPTp construed as a verb; 
and in Infinitives and Participial nouns this is done regularly. 

314 LECTURE XVI. [[ART. 228. 4. 

neuter : which are distinctions arising purely out of the 
signification of the primitive word or noun.* 

4. In treating of the complements or qualifying words 
of substantives and attributives, we adopted the terms 
Immediate and Mediate as best suited to our purpose on 
that occasion. We shall use the same now, because they 
are sufficiently easy and intelligible, and because it will 
be interesting to find the same principles prevailing 
throughout every part of this Language. 

5. The influence then of any noun or verb (arising 
out of its signification, or the intention of the Writer,) 
may extend to one or more subsequent words with some 
variation of the sense in each ; e. g. I may say as before, 
" I am riding a horse." Here I would term the influence 
of the verb riding, Simple, because it affects one object 
only, which is here " a horse." But, if I say, " I rode a 
horse towards the city at full speed," then I should term 
the influence of the verb Various, because the subsequent 
terms are variously affected by it. I prefer this method of 
considering the influence of verbs, &c. because the Latin 
cases of nominative, genitive, accusative, c. as taken 
by Schrcederus and others, are ill calculated to convey 
just notions on this subject ; and, because these dis- 
tinctions are perfectly foreign to this language. The 
truth is, the words added here, as in the rules already 
given, are nothing more than terms added for the 
purpose of defining, &c. the signification of such verb, 
and may be resolved by recurring into one or other of 
those rules. 

* Let it be remembered, however, some verbs which are at one time tran- 
sitive, will at another be intransitive, in these languages ; so, &***-j} { *-r > f > he 
struck with his foot, or kicked. See Ludolf. Gram. Eth., p. 32. ed. 1702. 

Freytag's Hainasa, p. I 


229. Having determined then, whether the signification 
of any verb or verbal noun, is to be taken actively or 
passively, (Art. 146. 8. note.) the influence of its action 
or passion, considered with reference to the subsequent 
terms in immediate or mediate connection with it, will 
always be either Simple or Various, just as the signifi- 
cation of such verb shall require, or, as the intention of 
the Writer or Speaker may be. Examples of active 
verbs and verbal nouns in immediate connection with the 
following term, and where the influence is, consequently, 
simple; D"TK D^I[3 let us make, MAN, Gen. i. 26; JHJ jtnt 
seeding, or producing, SEED, Ib. 29. 

2. In mediate connection, and where the influence is 
also simple: D^g$n J1K DVl^N *O3 God created THE 
HEAVENS, Gen. i. 1 ; "")isn~n# . . . N"1?T and lie saw . . . 
THE LIGHT, Ib. 4 ; ^HPl J^l TJsn r3 . . . ^.in and he 
divided . . . BETWEEN the light and BETWEEN the darkness, 
Ib. ; iOfc TVnh] . . . "lii^ &npn and he called the LIGHT 
.... and THE DARKNESS he called . . . . Ib. 5 ; p3 T^E 
D?D (a thing) dividing BETWEEN the waters, Ib. 6. 

3. Both in immediate and mediate connection, and 
where the influence is various : 1^P7 "H^ '""I^ ( a tree) 
producing FRUIT, ACCORDING TO ITS KIND, Gen. i. 11 ; 
injTP 1 ? jnj JtPlfJD (herb) producing SEED AFTER #* KIND, 
Ib. 12. 

Note. The proper office of the particles is, to point 
out the precise character of this influence. 

The verb ^"1^7 construed with ' will signify either to have, or to 
become, according to the context : e. g. 1&J rPH "WSJ? the rich 
man had flocks, 2 Sarn. xii. 2 ; ET? 'PIT) S o they shall become blood, 
i. e. the maters, Exod. iv. 9. 

4. Where the connection is mediate, and the influence 

316 LECTURE XVI. [[ART. 229. 5. 

they shall be FOR lights IN the firmament 
of the heavens, FOR giving light UPON the earth, and it 
was so, Gen. L 15; 


//j firmament of the heavens FOR giving light UPON tffo 
earth, and FOR ruling OVER Me diay wc? OVER tffo night, 
and FOR dividing BETWEEN ^ /eg-^ #we? BETWEEN the 
darkness. And God saw THAT (it was) good, Ib. 17, 18. 

5. In causative and other doubly transitive verbs, the 
influence will necessarily be various: e. g. n^^?nT 
"12nsn and I caused HER to walk THE DESERT, Hos. 
ii. 6 ; HJT3 D^TT 3^1 D who causes THE SOLITARY ones 
to possess A HOUSE, Ps. Ixviii. 7. In these instances the 
connection is immediate: in the following, it is both 
immediate and mediate : e. g. ")in r I7^~^ 5 -^7! 
wc? fo caused WORD to fo returned TO THE KING, 1 Kings 
ii. 30 ; Djt/riTl^ T$F\_ "FS7 he taught KNOWLEDGE TO the 
people, Eccl. xii. 9 ; 'gJTn^ ^! WQ&. let them cause 
MY PEOPLE to hear MY WORDS, Jer. xxiii. 22. 

6. In the following the connection is miscellaneous, 
and some of the verbs are passive : 11j?1 D^rt^X "IPS' 1 ! 

irust Dipp-^ D^D^n nnrip o'jan 

waters be gathered FROM 
BENEATH /^<? heavens TO 0W place, and let the dry land 
appear, and it becomes so, Gen. i. 9; 
then let it be shewn TO THE priest, Lev. xiii. 49 ; 
"^3 ^IC 1 which thou wast shewn IN the mount, Exod. 
xxvi. 30 ; Dl^H K 1 ? thou shalt not cause THEM to be 
worshipped, Exod. xx. 5, xxiii. 24 ; 

* The particles mostly used with passive verbs, however, are 7 and ID . See 
Gen. xiv. 19, Ts. i. 26, Ixii. 4, Ezek. xiv. 3, Neh, vi. 1, 1 Chron. v. 20, &c. 

ART. 229. 7-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 317 

?p"]Q.y7 let it be given (i. e.) this land TO thy servants, 
Num. xxxii. 5. 

See also Gen. xxvii. 42, 2 Sam. xxi. 6, Jer. xxxv. 14, &c. 


7. A little consideration will enable any one to see, that the con- 
struction must in all cases very much depend on the intention of 
the Writer. It is true, certain constructions only are allowed, 
because they have been generally adopted, and these are to be 
known only from long and constant practice in the language, or, 
from the use of the Concordance : but, in general, the principle is 
in the Hebrew, as it is in the English : viz. that the significations 
of words will always be influenced by those with which they are 
connected. A few remarks on the examples given will make all 
plain. In the first we have E"^ ^2??3 let us make man. Here, 
the word man may be said to be in immediate connection with the 
preceding word, and to qualify or restrict its signification, just as 
nDttJ year does the word ^^]^ forty, in the phrase H3K? D^SnN 
forty year (Art. 227. 3.) ; or, as the English word year does the 
word forty, in the same example, absolutely, as it regards the gram- 

matical construction, and, therefore, just as the j**S i* e. the specific 

construction does in the Arabic (Art. 219, note). This would be 
exemplified in that language, by what is termed a juxta-position, 

y /C'-C^ *-"G ?' C^ ^^O C'-CX 

L thus ; ULwjl 7^^, or UUJI jJuaJil , where 

the last or qualifying word is nothing more than a j***$ , i. e. speci- 
fication, with reference to the signification of the verb. The next 

B- t, > S s s 

example (Art. 229.) is perfectly parallel to the Arabic &* 

handsome (of) face. See Art. 225. note. 
8. The next case (Art. 229. 2.) affords an instance of mediate 
connection, that is, where we have the particle f"IM falling between 
the verb and its complementary or restricting term, for the purpose 
of shewing, that the following, not the preceding, word is to be con- 
strued as complementary to the signification of the verb. Kimkhi 

318 LECTURE XVI. C ART - 229. 9. 

has remarked long ago (see Art. 171. 11. note), that such is the 
office of this particle. His illustration is the sentence, Judah killed 
Simeon T^^^ HTirT) ^n ; where he says, that the particle being 
omitted, it could not be known which is the subjective, or which 
the objective, case to the verb. This would indeed be the case in 
this and all similar passages ; and, I believe, this is one of the 
offices of this particle, and perhaps of all the others so situated. 
The other particles have, moreover, the force of defining the 
relation, which the action of the verb has, with reference to the 
word or words which designate its object, either directly or in- 
directly : e. g. "n/^J construed with vN will signify, lie walked 
totvards ; with E or IP from ; with ^pb before ; with "HIS or "TinM 
after, and so on. Situated, then, as this and other particles are, in 
immediate connection with verbs, they ought to be considered as 
pointing out the objective, or some such case of the noun affected 
by them : and hence it is, that the particle HM has been said to 
mark the objective case in active, and the nominative (which is 
really the objective case) in passive, verbs.* 

{>. This particle, however, is often found without any such pre- 
ceding verb ; and, in these cases, it seems intended strongly to 
impress upon the mind the force of the word immediately follow- 
ing it, as being of considerable importance. Of this character is 
the following passage, to which many more might be added : 
1D"^b 133?rT ~nE3Tn AS TO the pillar of the cloud, it passed not 
away, Neh. ix. 19. The verb following is manifestly not passive; 
riM, therefore, does not point out an objective case; on the con- 
trary, it is found in apposition with the nominative of a verb in the 
active voice, and apparently for the purpose of impressing that 
word on the reader's mind, as of considerable importance. In 
most cases, a* to, with reference to, or the like, will express its real 
force : e. g. D^^n HM D^nbw W^2 God created (I speak) WITH 
REFERENCE to the heavens, &c. So O'*'? 'WrrnN "tJvrUT J ie walked 
about, i. e. daily exercised himself (I say) WITH REFERENCE to God, 
Gen. v. 22 ; "^rTTIS NS*1 and he went out (i. e.) WITH RESPECT to 

* The Bengali particle Ke is used for a similar purpose, as is also the 
Persian I;. See Professor Haughton's Bengali Gram. Art. 90, 91, 92. Sir 
W. Jones's Pers. Gram., Edit. 9. p. 111. 

ART. 229. 10/3 ON THE SYNTAX. 319 

the city* Exod. ix. 33. That is, generally, any person or thing 
strongly recommended to the attention of the reader, may, whether 
it be in the situation of a nominative or objective case, be pointed 
out by introducing the particle f")M. See Hosea ii. 23. 24. 

10. In the examples (n. 3.) we have both the immediate and 
mediate connection of a verb or verbal noun with its comple- 
mentary words. And here, it will be seen, that had not the 
particle ' been prefixed to the last, some ambiguity might have 
arisen, as to the precise sense in which it ought to be taken : or, in 

* Schroederus has endeavoured to explain this sort of construction, by 
having recourse to a metonymy, by which he says, intransitive verbs take the 
signification and construction of transitive ones (Synt. R. 69.)- For m y P ar t> 
I can see no necessity for this ; nor, for introducing the doctrine about nomi- 
native, accusative, or other cases in conformity with the usage of the Latin 
and Greek grammars, which in fact drove Schrcederus to this expedient. In 
Hebrew we have no cases. Why then should we talk about something which 
has no existence, and then coin rule after rule in order to explain it? But, if we 
can conceive these particles to possess the same denning character which they 
do when coming between nouns in construction or apposition (see Art. 219), 
we shall have no difficulty in perceiving, why they are sometimes omitted, or 
else used the one for the other : e. g. 1^33 V~l^? ^^*1 so they enter the land 
of Canaan, Gen. xlv. 25, for ^3 V"?.N b into the land of Canaan; rQtt? 
"T3?n return (to) the city, for "VS? ^ to the city, 2 Sam. xv. 27; 'iVsT 
JTiEin.Pl 'ITI?. E^Blp they ascend the heavens, they descend the deeps, Ps. 
cvii. 26. In all which cases, the latter word in the construction may be con- 
sidered as merely specific, as in the case of nouns of number, weight, measure, 
&c. In other instances the particles will vary ; as, "JJTJSrpnSI ^"3, 

i. 51 ; nX2vtt? "^QH ^"T < he feared the king he feared from before Solomon, 
Ib. 50. And Ps. \v. 20, D^nbW -"IN" they fear God, without a particle. So, 
with H!5\ -P3?n S^ he went out (into) the city, 2 Kings xx. 4; ~bM N2** 
nSTISn he u-ent out to the altar, Lev. xvi. 18; pStpPia HN^ Num. xxi. 28; 
rrirP n nV^ Num. xvi. 35 ; PlJrP \3py>E M2J Ib. xvii'. 11. With ^Ctt 
Est. vii. 8, Compare viii. 15; ~V37JTTW ^N!^ Gen. xliv. 4, &c. As to HM 
in Neh. ix. 19. we have apparently the ellipsis of some such verb as I speak, 
wean, &c., and, in this view, the case will identify itself with th Arabic con- 
struction termed Xu*a_WI ^iaJ^*' .e^ j*^\ t* i.e. what comprehends a condition 

P f<^s s *(,' ^C > C'' 

of explanation, as ^tf 6 ^j (as to) Zaid, I struck him,fo CU>i^o It^J \ (as to) 
Zaid, I pass&ed by him. See Jami's Com. on Ibn Ulhajib, p. ll"'^ & c . 

320 LECTURE xvi. [ART. 229. 11. 

other words, as to the precise relation of the latter, to the two 
former, words. The same has been remarked of words in the 
state of mediate apposition and construction. The principle in each 
case is one and the same. 

11. With respect to the causative verbs, If we suppose them to 
be actually composed of two words ; which, according to our 
system, is always the case with Hiphlnl and Hophhdl, we shall 
readily perceive why two complementary, or restricting, words 
would be necessary to complete the idea contained in each of them. 
This is what grammarians usually term a double accusative, just 
as they do verbs, doubly transitive. It is curious enough to 
remark, that when such verbs become passive, the object of 
one of them will stand as its nominative, that of the other as 
the accusative : for this reason, viz. that one of the verbs 
only in the compound takes the passive character, the other 
remains active : e. g. Lev. xiii. 49, as above, Fac earn videri a sa- 
cerdote. This is still more evident in the Arabic, where we have 

terminations marking these cases : e. g. active, LlXij] 

<> G ' * G ' ^ ^0-0 ' G s 

u>sr / caused thy son to eatjlesh ; passive, Us^ tiAJjJ **1?1 thy son 

nas caused to cat bread. See M. de Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. ii. 
p. 101. In the other species, viz. Pihel, and Puhdl, the accessory 
idea may be considered as equivalent to an additional word. 

12. Of the other examples nothing need be said : the particles 
introduced are only such as the various relations of the words to 
each other seem to require, in order to present to the mind of the 
reader the various circumstances which the writer wished to detail ; 
but without these, all must have been error and confusion. 

13. What has been here said of the verbs is true of all the 
verbal nouns, whether of the Infinitive or Participial kind ; i. e. 
the complementary or defining word may be put either in the state 
of apposition mediate or immediate, or in that of definite construc- 
tion. The former cases have been sufficiently exemplified ; the 
following are a few instances of the latter. Of infinitives, 
D^apWn fcblp in the days of the judges' judging, Ruth i. 1 ; 

" <n .?"I from the abundance of my speaking against him, Jer. 
xxxi. 20 ; Vrn^E 1W& the keeping of his statutes, Deut. viii. 1 1 ; 
IDn riarTN") tSBtpa nibs the doing of judgment, and the loving of 
piety, Mic. vi. 8. Of Participles, ^?3 ^I??P seekers of my soul, 

ART. 230.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 321 

1 and followers out of my evil, Ps. xxxviii. 13 ; 

9 carriers of the shield, and treaders of the bow, 

2 Clron. xiv. 7 ; ^3 ra^p a restorer of the soul, >,jgf nn^nn 
aw instructor of the simple, ^?. T^p^P delighters of the heart, &c., 
Ps. xix. 8, 9. See also Gen. ix. 10, xxiii. 10, xxxi. 16, 2 Sam. 
v. 8, Is. xxxviii. 18, liii. 4, Lam. i. 4, Joel i. 8, Ps. xxxviii. 6, 
Cant. ii. 5, &c. With pronouns, Ps. xxxvii. 2, Prov. ii. 9, ix. 18, 

On apparently Elliptical Constructions. 

230. Some active,* neuter, and all passive verbs, being 
such as to include within themselves the idea required for 
their object, complement, or other restriction, will stand 
in need of no other for that purpose, when their influence 
is simple ; but, when it is various, the connection will be 
either immediate or mediate, as before. In the one case, 
the connection may be termed Implicit, in the others, 
Explicit. N. B. This has been usually styled by the 
Grammarians, " Constructio praegnans." Examples : $7 
JV2T"! thou hast not made abundance or gain, Psalm 
xliv. 13. 

This is an instance in which the influence may be said to he 
simple and implicit; but, when we add ErP'V'nxpS by their price, 
it is various, and necessarily explicit; and we have the particle 

3 introduced for the purpose of pointing this out. So ETTttrbS 
\^~)S2 it hath not struck root into the earth, Is. xl. 24. See Jer. 
x. 18, Josh. xxiv. 20, &c. So r nrj^'7 cleanse yourselves, or rather, 
become ye clean, Gen. xxxv. 2. See also Ib. xxv. 22. 

2. Of this character are the following examples, which 

* These are for the most part verbs of the Pihel and Hiphhil species, which 
have been formed from substantive nouns, Art. 154. 8. 157. 5, &c. See Glass. 
Philol., Ed. Dathe, pp. 185 254, &c. Storr, p. 15, &c. For similar instances 
in the Arabic, see Mr. de Sacy's Gram., vol. ii. Art. 653 657. See also Bos. 

Ellipses Graecae, Ed. 1813, p. 2. Freytag's Haraasa, p. 6 , line 22. Ludolf. 
Gram. Eth., p. 32, 3. 


322 LECTURE XVI. [[ART. 230. 3. 

have usually been considered as impersonal : 1? ITTH HE 
became hot to himself (or, HEAT became hot to him), 
Ps. xviii. 8 ; YTK ^#3 in^S &tf IT not become hot 
(i. e. let not heat exist) in the eyes of my Lord, Gen. 
xxxi. 35 j *py#3 JH.1 *?$ fe o EVIL be in thy eyes, Ib. 
xxi. 12 ; Tn'p "lycn an ^ (pressure) pressed upon David, 
1 Sam. xxx. 6 ; Tlty TD$n K 1 ?* (rain) raz'ft not upon 
it, Amos iv. 7. 

3. So with passive verbs and participles; as, TIZpK'l 
Lt'N'iJ so they said, IT has become desperate, Jer. xviii. 12. 
i. e. $Nij "ipfc, or B?Ki3 "1IH THE MATTER to become 
desperate; "F&P rnj/.^O IT became very tempestuous, 
Ps. 1. 3, i. e. Me tempest ITjy^ became so ; TJJjf ")>$ 
^|3 which IT Atttf fotfw imposed as slavery upon thee, 
Isa. xiv. 3, i. e. iTTQJ/n ^ slavery mentioned just 
before ; 1? *TT "I&'N which had been caused to be born 

l/ - . V ~. 

to him, Gen. xxxv. 26, i. e. the sons mentioned just 
before ; PJ3 "13"T'l^ m which IT *A/Z ie spoken respect- 
ing her, Cant. viii. 8, i. e. "iyj tt ^or</. 

See also Gen. iv. 26, x. 25, xlvi. 22, Is. xxiii. 1, Lam. v. 5, 
Job xxx. 15. And with participles, Is. xxvi. 3, Ps. Ixxxvii. 3. 

4. Hence it is, that in many instances the word neces- 
sary to complete or qualify the sense of the verb, is fre- 
quently omitted by the ellipsis : e. g. 1*7 HIT fcw she had 
not borne to him, i. e. a son, Gen. xvi. 1 ; r6tf^1 so he 
sent, i. e. a messenger, Ib. xli. 14 ; ")3V^. he accumulated, 
i. e. wealth, Ps. xxxix. 7. 

See also Ps. Ixxvi. 12, 1 Sam. viii. 15, &c. The same often takes 
place in words of common occurrence : as, fTp^. he cut, or made, 

* This would universally be so supplied in the Persian XiXAJKu <XJ 

ART. 230. 5.] ON THE SYNTAX. 323 

i. e. a covenant, rP"|2 1 Sam. xx. 16; ^"Ipl b$ they broke not, 
i. e. Onb bread, Jer. xvi. 7 ; *VBn they cast, i. e. VV12 the lot, 
1 Sam. xiv. 42. 

5. Under this head may be arranged the apparently 
frequent ellipses of the antecedent to the relative pronoun 
")>N, which may be thus accounted for, viz. "I^N ought 
to be considered not as a mere adjective signifying qui, 
qu&, quod, &c. but, is qui, ea qute, id quod,* &c. in- 
cluding a substantive like other attributives. Hence, in 
such cases there is no real ellipsis : e. g. "It^lSpTjt/ ^J**^ 
jnN'tf 7 he will take thee up to (a place) which I know 
not, I Kings xviii. 12 ; Dn^jin \M$&. "#SD W^l and 
thou shalt drink out of THAT WHICH the young men draw, 
Ruth ii. 9 ; rflJJ WDJ1 1^83 in (THE PLACE in) WHICH 
thou diest, I will die, Ruth i. 17. 

6. This relative pronoun ("l^tf) ought to be con- 
sidered, moreover, as definite in its signification like other 
pronouns, and need not therefore be expressed when the 
antecedent is indefinite ; e. g. nt^Q'^K PlirP "1^1. DP5 
on a day (on which) Jehovah spoke to Moses, Exod. 
vi. 28 ; Ity I 1 ? niiT 3&0: & DIKTI^K blessed is ANT 
MAN, Jehovah imputes not to him iniquity, i. e. to whom, 
&c. Ps. xxxii. 2, comp. Ps. i. 1, &c. 

7. There are, however, instances in which this rule seems 
to be contravened : e. g. "^7: n ^1 ~ 1 ?? 1 ^ *^~ I am THE man (who) 
fow seen affliction, Lam. iii. 1 ; i 1 ^^ ^ D> *!^? ^HSir ^e/ sacri- 
ficed to the devils, (who are) not God, &c. Deut. xxxii. 1 7. But in 
these cases, the article does not refer so much to the definite cha- 

* See Noldius sub voce, p. 98, note d. This is also a remark of Noldius, 
" Praepositio semper pronominis relativi, ad quod se refert, objectum supponit, 
atque in quod ipsa influit ; sive id exprimendum concipiatur per nomen, sive 
per pronomen antecedens ^ vel HD," &c. See also his note 
Concord. Part. Ed. 1734. 


324- LECTURE XVI. [[ART. 230, 

racter of the noun, as to its properties, i. e. I am that sort of man, 
&c. See Art. 221. 

8. In the following examples, some consequence seems 
to be intimated by the influence of words termed preeg- 
nantia* which may, therefore, be supplied by the el- 
lipsis : in^ -)>N nirp TI^T'?!' J"IN pn** 1 ? nttfo TJPI 

so Moses relates to Aaron all the words of Jehovah, 
which he had sent him, (i. e. to relate) Exod. iv. 28 ; see 
also the remainder of the verse ; rpiT~ 7$ 'ITHDT and 
they shall fear towards Jehovah, i. e. fearing shall turn 
to Jehovah, Hos. iii. 5; iHlOp 1 ? WIIT.! and they fear 
for meeting him, i. e. they fearing proceed to meet him, 
1 Sam. xvi. 4 ; ?jp^ J3^ l^n jn*6 to the earth Jiave 
they profaned the habitation of thy name, i. e. profaned 
and cast it down to the earth, Ps. Ixxiv. 7. 

9. Hence, when several members of a sentence are 
connected together, the verb accompanying any one of 
them, may be supplied to them all : e. g. ~vN ""Zl^'Dfl 
J/yS"^ btt] *pfl ; n# INCLINE my heart to thy statutes, 
and INCLINE not (my heart) to gain, Ps. cxix. 36 ; 

-ia$n Vip n^i DT^rrnsi ni%prrn$ DW Djppr 1 ??! 

and the whole of the people were perceiving (SAW) the 
thunderings and (SAW) the lightnings, and (SAW) the 
sound of the trumpet, &c. Exod. xx. 18. 

See also Deut. iv. 12, xxxii. 13, Job x. 12, Est. iv. 1. And in 
the New Testament, 1 Cor. iii. 2, 1 Tim. iv. 3, James i. 9, 10. 
Hence, also, the word hear, &c. has often the signification of 
understanding, obeying, or the like. Comp. Acts ix. 7, with 
xxii. 9 : and, generally, verbs of sense are used the one for the 

10. Hence also verbs, nouns, or particles, which are 
expressed or implied in one part of the context, may be 

* By this term is meant, words not only used in their own proper signi- 
fications, but in others which may naturally be supposed to flow from them. 

ART. 230. ll.^j ON THE SYNTAX. 325 

supplied by the ellipsis in the other : e. g. of verbs : 

01*7^5^3 "W25 ^"inpt^ OBSERVE YE who (whoever of 
you) the young man (OBSERVE YE) Absalom, 2 Sam. 
xviii. 12 ; Itf"^-^ &X\ iTjT 1 ?** t^K (let) each man 
(GO) to his city, and each man (GO) to his land, 1 Kings 
xxii. 36. 

So Ps. xxv. 15, xxxiii. 18, xxxiv. 16, Prov. vi. 26, Is. Ixvi. 6, 
Hos. viii. 1, &c. And particularly "T"M? saying, e. g. ISaiarV 
2TSn ntn p!2S7) they consider (saying), Is this the man ? Is. 
xiv. 16, ib. 8, &c. which is perhaps owing to the direct and abrupt 
manner in which citations are generally made by the Hebrews. 

11. "This often happens also with the noun which 
should be the apparent nominative to a verb, and some- 
times when it must be supplied from different parts of 
the context : e. g. "TIN fe^ 1 ? jEV. tlJ2h why giveth he 
(Goo) light to the sorrowful, Job iii. 20 ; l 1 ?^ K3J1 ^XV 
Jie asked (i. e.) THE PEOPLE, and he (Goo) brought the 
quails, Ps. cv. 40; fll#] VJ?) 1 ? ^^1 YH frK'Igg 
3H#I1 NV2! irn.3? "11 and David called him (URIAH), and 
he (URIAH) ate before him (i. e. DAVID), and drank, and 
lie (DAVID) made him drunken, and he (URIAH) went out 
in the evening, 2 Sam. xi. 13. 

12. The most frequent ellipsis, perhaps, is of the 
negatives, tih, \*$, "?**, &c. : e. g. ]V?^ rDB* H^ 1 ? ^ 
: "Tj^ ID^n D^^ nij^n the poor (man) shall not be 

forgotten for ever, (NOR) shall the expectation of the 
humble (ones) t /br ever perish, Ps. ix. 19. 

See Deut. xxxiii. 6, 1 Sam. ii. 3, Ps. xliv. 19, Prov. xxv. 27, 
xxx. 3,' Is. xxxviii. 18, xli. 28, &c. Of If lest, Exod. xix. 22, 
Is. vi. 10 ; nab m hy? Ps. ii. 1, 2, x. 1 ; nZ23 how often? Job 
xxi. 17, 18, 19, 20: T*? how ? Ps. Ixxiii. 19; PD^M Jd. Lam. 
i. 1, 2, 3, 4, ii. 1. 2, iv. 1. 4. 8. 10; n what? Joel i. 18; 
n 9""f how long ? Ps. iv. 3, Ixxxix. 47 ; ''O^"" 1 ^ hoiv long ? 
Ps. xciv. 4, 5, 6, &c. For an ample consideration of this subject, 
see Glassius's Philologia Sacra, Edit. Dathe, vol. i. p. 608, &c. 

326 LECTURE XVI. [[ART. 230. 13. 

13. It ought to be remembered, that the orientals of 
this family generally enounce their propositions vaguely, 
and then add the restricting or defining terms (Art. 
216. 4.). When, therefore, the leading term happens to 
be a verb, its qualifying term or nominative will imme- 
diately follow ; as, D\"Tf7$ 8~$ He created, i. e. God. 
If, however, it be intended to leave the passage indefinite, 
as in English, SOME ONE said, or in French ON dit ; no 
such nominative will be added : and the greatest care 
ought to be taken in supplying it : e. g. Is. ix. 5, N"}j??l 
lJ^ and he, (i. e. some one, any one, or every one] calls 
his name, Ps. ex. 7 ; nflJ^ ^TJ? ^YRVQfrcm the torrent 
(i. e.) the abundance of spiritual waters which shall then 
abound) in the way, shall one (any one, every one] 
drink: 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, "TY"T~fiN ^P^l so (one, some one) 
tempts David; which is supplied, 1 Chron. xxi. 1, by 
\!to an adversary. We must not, therefore, take the 
name of God found in the preceding context, in order 
to supply this ellipsis, as some have imprudently done, 
nor charge the text with the inconsistencies which 
have arisen purely out of our own ignorance. This sort 
of construction frequently occurs. So also in the ob- 
jective voice, ^7 &np it hath been called to thee, i. e. 
thou hast been named, Is. xlviii. 8, equivalent to the 
Arabic *! J& . See also v. 11, ^JT T^ how would it be 
profaned ? 

ART. 231.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 327 



231. As the Hebrew Language recognizes no varia- 
tion of termination in verbs indicative of mode, no place 
has been assigned to that distinction in the paradigms : 
nor will it be necessary to enter on that consideration, 
until we have considered the doctrine of the tenses : but, 
when this is done, we shall offer a few remarks on that 

On the Tenses. 

2. We have in our theory of the verb proceeded 
upon the supposition, that the Preterite tense is formed 
on a Concrete noun as its basis ; the Present on an 

3. If then the basis of the Preterite be a Concrete 
noun, such word considered alone will naturally refer to 
some past time, for the commencement of the action, 
passion, state, &c. meant by the root ; and which, when 
put into a state of conjugation, may be considered as 
intimating some indefinite past tense. If, for example, 
I say in Latin, Amatus ego, or Amans ego, it will neces- 
sarily be understood, that at some time antecedent to the 
present, I began to be, and consequently am now, either 
the subj6ct or object of the action intimated by the verb 
amo ; but whether I shall be so hereafter, will depend 
upon other considerations. We find accordingly in the 
Hebrew, that our Preterite tense universally refers to 
past time, unless some of the circumstances hereafter to 
be mentioned shall require the contrary. 

328 LECTURE XVII. [\\RT. 231. 4. 

4. Again, if the Present tense be formed on an 
Abstract noun, as no intimation whatever can be given 
by this combination of any person or thing being at any 
time past or future subject to the influence expressed by 
such word, the sense afforded will naturally apply to the 
present time, unless indeed some of the circumstances 
hereafter to be detailed should suggest the contrary. 

5. But here an important question will arise, which is 
this : How are we to determine the period from which 
we are to reckon, when speaking of past, present, or 
future tenses ? This, I believe, involves the main part of 
the question before us ; which we shall now proceed to 
consider : and, if we can succeed, we shall perhaps solve 
the hitherto unsolved problem. 

6. In the first place then, any writer commencing his 
narrative will necessarily speak of past, present, or 
future time, with reference to the period in which his 
statement is made ; and to this period he may adhere, as 
long as it suits his purpose to do so. This use of the 
tenses may, therefore, be termed Absolute. 

7. In the next place, a person may speak of past, 
present, or future events, with reference to some other 
period or event, already introduced into the context. 
This may be termed the Relative use of the tenses. 

8. In the Hebrew paradigm, we have only two tenses, 
viz. a Past, and a Present tense. To the present tense, 
the Participles* and Infinitives are very nearly allied. 
That is, either of these when unrestricted by any other 

* Participial nouns may, indeed, have been used as preterites, for the 
reasons just given respecting concrete nouns : but, in practice, they include 
within themselves no particular tense, and are, very much like the present, 
to be construed either in the past, present, or future tense, as the context may 
require : and may in almost every case be substituted for the present. See 

Jami on Ibn Ulhajib, p. iTf . 

ART. 231. 9.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 329 

considerations, are generally to be understood as referring 
to the present time, either absolute or relative. Hence, 
too, a Preterite connected with another Preterite, will be 
equivalent to our pluperfect ; a Present following a pre- 
terite, to our imperfect ; and so on, affording every dis- 
tinction of time necessary for the purpose of language. 
Of these, examples will now be given, beginning with 
those which have been termed absolute. 

9. Generally, in the commencement of narrations, 
paragraphs, &c. the use of the tenses will be absolute, as 
in the English ; e. g. DMJfVg N"O rr^Nl.3 in the begin- 
ning God CREATED, Gen. i. 1 ; fJJPrn$ J7T D"Ttfrn 
InJi'S* and (as to) the man, he KNEW Eve his wife, Ib. 
iv. 1, &c., where we have the preterite tense so used. 
A great number of instances also occurs, in which the 
present tense is so used, and in which the writer takes 
the liberty of transporting himself and his reader into a 
time present to the narration, occasionally introducing 
some terms designating such time : as, S^nn HI/3 \*T1 
T3.11 So IT COMES to pass AT THAT TIME, that HE DE- 
SCENDS, Gen. xxxviii. 1 ; njT3n KIT"! HJH DVH3 'Tl 


house, Gen. xxxix. 11 ; D^rr^S m'*K nfe^ fOS Thus 
DOES Job at ALL TIMES, Job i. 5 : at other times totally 
omitting all such terms : as, "13T.1 rt^D*Vx K^pl So HE 
CALLS (at that time) to Moses, and SAYS, Lev. i. 1. So in 
the New Testament, John i. 29. 42. 46. &c. On the pleo- 
nastic use of the 1 in these cases see Noldius Concord, 
partic., Ed. 1734, pp. 309, 310. Mikhlol, fol. 13 verso. 

10. When, however, it is necessary to enounce any 
thing in the absolute present tense,* either our present 

* See also Is. v. 23, vi. 2, vii. 14. In this last instance I understand ]rP 
lie gives, to refer to the declaration or prediction of the Prophet, which is here 

330 LECTURE XVII. C ART ' 231 ' 10> 

tense, or one of the participles may be used : e. g. "v i"Jp7 
"! what (is) the multitude of your 

termed H iS sign, or wonder. See Gen. iv. 15, Exod. iii. 12, iv. 8. 28, 1 Sara. 
ii. 34, 2 Kings xix. 29, where it also means a prediction, not a visible sign. 
This has been termed an Aorist by modern writers on Arabic Grammar, 
but it is really a present tense, as will appear from the following considera- 

tions. In a Commentary on the Kafia <KS of Ibn ul Hajib, by Najm 
Oddeen of Irak, preserved among Mr. Burckhardt's books in the Public 

. .. .. \i" 

Library at Cambridge, it is said of this tense, 

it! JUJCUH Ji e-*>Jo ^ JJl Jx 1 

:s^ &5ARsr! ^ / i. e. " Some say that it is in truth a present tense, but 
allowed to be used as a future, which is the best opinion. For when it is accompanied 
by no other (words, 8cc.) it can refer to the present tense only : nor is it turned 
into a future, except when so accompanied. This is what we mean by true, 

and allowable" So in the following examples : (J&\ ^ 


Lu a man is HOT JUSTIFIED by the testimony of his own family ; 

J tjt- tflose wno nave not believed 


DO NOT LIKE that any good thing SHOULD BE SENT down to you from your 
Lord. M. de Sacy, Arab. Gram., vol. i. p. 132. 
Again, they consider the present tense as of two kinds ; one they term the 


real present ; la-Wisr* (JM) by which they mean, the tense which we have 
termed absolute ; or, in other words, that in which a person commits to writing 
any event or number of events he may have to detail. This is what our 
Grammarians always understand by The Present tense. The other they term 

*s s 9 s C' 

<XJu.- (Jlsc'l, i.e. the present, as to the narration; by which they mean, 

the time contemporary with any event, and which may therefore be con- 
sidered as present with it, although past, present, or future, with regard to the 
real or absolute present tense. The following passages taken from the Com- 
mentary on the Kafia by Moolla Jami will be sufficient to shew in what 

manner they speak on this subject (p. i"^-!*). When speaking of the use of 

ART. 231.10.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 331 

sacrifices to me ? SAITH Jehovah, Is. i. 11; 

JTjiT "IDS'* come now, LET us REASON together, SAITH JEHO- 
VAH, Ib. v. 18 ; ITHj^ rnfcO frittf rim TVa ^D ^in 
wo*? (to those) WHO JOIN house to house, (who) LAY field 
to field, Is. v. 8. In this last instance the participle 
holds a place in the parallelism corresponding with the 
present tense. p.$ n^ICO jn.8~^ 'Ig 

^aa D^ nlbhjpi niri; D:E> ^m /or 

thy God (now) BUINGETH tfte into a good land, a 


particle J**- he says, U> Jl ^xb il.UAM(- P;LiJ! ( _$\ ^ 1j| 

! y U*U J! ^U; Jl ^ilb ^ ^ 

i. e. when the P^Lflxi (i. e. our present) is to be taken as a future, with reference 
to what may have gone before ; or, with reference to the time in which the relation 

was first made, as A PAST, PRESENT, or FUTURE. And again, CUJ.) ^\s 
? ~ 

UjUsr* J(s$\ U u^ Jls^l 

Unj Jjlxil 




i. e. if you intend by the verb preceded by J^" to express the PRESENT TENSE, 
i. e. the time of the ABSOLUTE PRESENT ; that is to say, by way of verifying it as 
present with the time of the original narration itself, &c. .... or, by way of 

(subsequent) ^.&>- NARRATION, (i. e. relatively) as if you should say, I was (so 
circumstanced that) / proceeded yesterday, in order that I (may then) enter the 

city. Here the word (J>i-i3l I ENTER (is used in) the PRESENT TENSE of a 
past circumstance, as though you had expressed yourself in this manner (i. e. as 
present) at the TIME of entering ; relating the circumstance in the tense of (the 
first) enunciation in consequence of having so conceived the matter (in your own 
mind). Hence, it will be seen, that this present tense will occasionally be 
relative to the reader, when it was absolute with the original enouncer of any pro- 

position. On this use of the Arabic participles, see Jami's Comm., p. nr_. 

332 LECTURE XVII. [[ART. 231. 11. 

land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that 
SPRING out of the valleys and hills, Deut. viii. 7. 

11. When, however, any future event is enounced 
prophetically, or any circumstances are mentioned 
manifestly relating to a future period, either the present 
tense,* or one of the participles may then also be used ; 

e. g. ?J^ H^JS] 1?1?81 ^"T? ^ W%$] and I MAKE 
thee a great nation, and I BLESS thee, and so MAKE thy 
name great, Gen.xii.2; PO'"??^ MJSPO? & *)$$ p. 8 
PO *?3 "IpnjTTK 1 ? Dn|? a land wherein THOU MAYEST (or 
SHALT) EAT bread without scarceness, thou SHALT (DOST, 
MAYEST) not lack any thing in it, &c. Deut. viii. 9 ; ^! 
D^nnx D^-tt-nSI D3FK tfvn:jrn$ D^pp ^H and 
(as for) me, behold me ESTABLISHING (ABOUT TO ESTABLISH, 
or WILL ESTABLISH) my covenant with you, and with your 
seed after you, Gen. ix. 9. 

The reason of this usage seems to be, that when any thing is 
predicted, it may now be said either to be doing or done in the mind 
of him who makes the prediction. This is also the case in the 
Arabic and Persian, and apparently for the same reason. See Mr. 
Lumsden's Persian Gram,, vol. ii. p. 334 7. In the other case, 
i. e. when it takes a future signification from circumstances, the 
mind of the writer and reader are translated into the times referred 
to, and then the narration is necessarily carried on in the present 

12. Hence, in all cases in which any other person is 
introduced as speaking, or in which any event evidently 
of past occurrence is mentioned, the tenses will be 
reckoned from that period ; i. e. placing both the writer 
and reader in the times in which such declaration, pre- 
diction, citation, &c. took place. The same will also be 
the case, when the mind is carried forward in any predic- 

* See Viger de idiotismis Graecis, p. 165, Edit. 1813, with the notes. 
Winer's Gram, of the New Test., Ed. 1825, p. 104. 

ART. 231. 12.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 333 

tion.* Examples ; 


Lord 6r0e? of heaven, who TOOK z<? from my father's 
house and from the land of my kindred, and who SPAKE 
unto me, and that SWARE unto me, saying, Unto thy seed 
GIVE / this land, he SENDETH his angel before thee, 
Gen. xxiv. 7. 

Here we see the first three verbs IS" 7 ! , HJ5 v } and ^?27? , are all 
in the preterite tense. The first is necessarily so, by the operation 
of the rule, Art. 231. 9: The two following are so, because con- 
nected with the first by the relative pronoun ^$$, which is more 
consistently termed a conjunction (XLail c_9 ; s-) by the Arabs. In 
the next place we have a citation prefaced by ""^bT? saying. Then 
we have the present tense, 1^ I give, i. e. / now give, which may 
be taken as a prophetic future (Ib. 10. note.). In the next place, 
Abraham, having finished the citation, recurs to the period at 
which he set out, and from this the present H 7 07*1 he sends, he now 
sends, or, taken prophetically, he will send, is to be reckoned.^ 

* In these cases the use of the tenses is relative: or rather, partly absolute, 
and partly relative. 

f Of this kind are all those expressions in the Arabic, in which the leading 
verb is found in the preterite tense, and the following ones in the present, or (as 

the Grammarians have termed it) ihe future: e. g. li^, 

X S 

' ' <s " 

he sought something that he might (now) eat it, but he finds not ; ^Is^V. uo 


^ 99 

U^ji)Jb they two were (so situated that) they (now, i. e. in those circumstances) 

<" x 

but t with the horns of them both. The same principle generally holds good, when 
two preterites follow each other without an intervening conjunction ; for then, 
the first will have respect to some time anterior to that from which the writer 

had set out, the second to one anterior to that of such verb : e. g. ^j^~ (&*} 

s * '9 / 

^Uwy>- ^1 an d he was (so circumstanced that) he went out (before that time) 
to Khordsdn, i. e. and he had gone out. 

3,34 LECTURE XVII. [[ART. 213. 31. 

Corollary. Hence citations will generally be made 
in the words of the first speaker : i. e. it is not said, 
that God sware and declared, THAT HE WOULD GIVE the 
land to Abraham's seed, &c. but, in the original terms 
of the oath, unto thy seed DO, or WILL, I GIVE it : and 
also, that preterites and futures more or less remote 
from the time in which any declaration is made, 
answering to our imperfects, perfects, pluperfects, 
simple, compound, or paulo-post, futures, may be formed 

^ ^ 

Mr. de Sacy remarks, that " le verbe <j employe* comme auxiliare 

influe sur les preterits >g-j^~> &c. et les convertit tous en preterits anterieur." 
Arab. Gram., vol. i. p. 131. The reason of this is, that each of these verbs in- 
volves a preterite tense in its own right, and the reader is by the combination 
of both carried back into a time more remote than either alone could ex- 
press. This the European Grammarians have termed the Pluperfect tense. 

As the Persian language has for several centuries been cultivated on the prin- 
ciples of the Arabic grammar, it may not be amiss to cite Mr. Lumsden's remarks 
on this use of the present tense. " In the conversation of the Persians," says he 
(Pers. Gram., vol. ii. p. 336.), "though seldom perhaps in written composition, 
the present is often found to supersede the past tense of the verb, in the state- 
ment of those propositions which, though past in point of fact (i. e. as to the abso- 
lute time in which the statement is made) are recalled by the memory as if they 

were present. Example : *' ^ Juil .2*^ &j* (; **~ 

o jjJ &*jj & (C" if*}} ^T^^" l ast ght I went (rather 

/ go) to the home of a friend, and there saw (see) a delightful assembly, and en- 
joyed (enjoy) a most pleasing spectacle. Of this nature," adds he, " are the ex- 

am pies &> <j- ' The writer thus observes : 

the Prophet informs (or has informed) MS." This must bring to 

every one's mind, the ^170-}, ait, and inquit, of the Greeks and Latins, which are 
used in the same way, and upon the same principle. Citations are made in a 
similar manner in the Persian ; as, Zaid said, 1 am going to Calcutta, not 
obliquely, said that he was going, &c., but in the words of the original enun- 
ciation. See Pers. Gram., ib., pp. 349 355. 

ART. 231. 13/] ON THE SYNTAX. 335 

at the pleasure of the writer. The following passage 
from Isaiah must suffice on this subject : H ji"P 

^rto roab nin? TOSS 

W n 

-gg ^ inn jj; onjjpp &c., thus 

HATH Jehovah said of his anointed, of Cyrus, whose 
right hand I HAVE HOLDEN, for the subduing of nations 
before him, and that I MAY UNLOOSE the loins of kings ; 
to open before him, the two-leaved gates, and (that the) 
gates MAY not BE SHUT : / GO, (or WILL GO,) before thee, 
and MAKE LEVEL mountainous places; the gates of 
brass DO /BREAK, and the bars of iron DO / CUT ASUNDER. 
And I have given thee the treasures of darkness, and 
tlie hidden treasures of secret places, that thou MAYEST 
KNOW, that I am Jehovah who CALL (thee) by thy name, 
&c., Is. xlv. 13. 

Although this citation is not quite direct in the first verse, the 
passage is nevertheless all put in the first person ; and the second 
verse is a direct citation. As to the tenses, the first verb is in the 
preterite, because the prophet recites what he had already received, 
perhaps at some distance of time. The next is also preterite as 
referring to past events. The following nriQM and : V?C^ are pre- 
sent, referring to what may have been done at the time when the 
declaration was first made, or immediately subsequent to it. The 
same may be said of the four following verbs. The next, ^H3 is 
a preterite to be taken in an absolute future signification (see 
Art. 236.) : and the following SHJ? is present to the fulfilment of 
this or immediately subsequent to it. The second preterite, 
^PJOU refers to a time anterior to that of "^N, with which the 
declaration commences, though perhaps not so much so as to bear 
our pluperfect in the translation. The next two, H^ISM an d STDD^, 
though presents or futures to ^PICJU, seem, nevertheless, to be an- 
terior to "VQM as to tense. In the next place, "H ?.$ , ^^^ , and 
^5^ , are evidently present or future to lEN , and consequently, in 

336 LECTURE XVII. ^ART. 231. 13. 

a tense future to H^SM and : H?E >< !. In the last place, s 

manifestly future with respect to the preceding verb ^1!^?, &c. 
and ^1D, which is present or immediately future to this, may be 
considered as referring to something still further removed into 
futurity. Numerous instances of this kind occur in the New Tes- 
tament. For examples in which the present tense is thus carried 
backward or forward, see Matt. ii. 13, fyalvilat ; Mark ii. 4, 
XaKuffi, &c. As future, Matt. ii. 4, ysvatlat ; Ib. v. 46, e%ele ; Ib. 
xvii. 11, egxelou; Ib. xxvi. 29, nlvca. Paulo-post future, Matt. 
xxvi. 24, 7rfa5i3o]i ; Ib. v. 45. See Mark xiv. 41, Luke 
xxii. 21, 22, John xiii. 3. 11. 27. 33, &c. In like manner the 
Aorists are also used for the past, present, or future. It will be 
unnecessary to give examples of the past. Of the present, Matt. 
iii. 17, eVSoxijo-a. So Ib. xxiii. 2, Luke i. 47, xv. 16, John i. 12, 
1 John iv. 8. Of the future, John xi. 56, e\0tj : xv. 6, e/3\jj()>i, 
eufi/0i7. See also Rom. viii. 20. With -npiv or -ngo preceding, 
Mark xiv. 30, John iv. 49, viii. 58, xiii. 19, &c. See also Mat- 
thise's Greek Grammar, vol. ii., Artt. 504, 505, &c. 

14. From what has been said it must have appeared, 
that the writer, placing both himself and his reader 
in times contemporary with the events of which he is 
treating, can supply all the deficiency of tenses apparent 
in the Hebrew paradigm ; an expedient often resorted to, 
indeed, by the Latin and Greek historians, without the 
necessity which presents itself here. We must not hence 
suppose, however, that they never recur to the original 
time from which they set out. This they appear to do 
optionally, just as we find it done in the Greek and 
Latin historians* (Art. 231. 6.) : e. g. "lIS 1 ? 0^$ KHp.1 
nV? N"J|; ytinh] DV so God CALLS the light day ; 
but the darkness he CALLED night, Gen. i. 5 ; ink IJTIPI 

* So, "INSTANT Volsci recentes, qui e castris impetum FECERANT; INTEGRANT 
et illi piignam, qui simulata CESSERANT fuga. Livy, lib. vi., 24. 'EflPAKAS 
5' *E*H M *5f, r) yviauKa, w /*t KEAEYEIS f uXarlt/x ; Ma Ai *E*H o nvg as, &c. 
Xenoph. Cyropedia. Pantheia. See Matthise's Greek Gram., vol. ii., Art. 
504. 1. 

ART. 232.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 337 

rny ")#$3 ")j?>T"T# *0 ^<?y LAY IT UP 

Me morning, as Moses HAD COMMANDED, wc? it DID 

BECOME foetid, &c., Exod. xvi. 24. 
232. If then events consecutive of each other may 
be enounced by verbs intimating a presence of action, 
with reference to those primarily introduced into the 
context, then may Subjunctive or Conditional sentences 
also be enounced upon the same principle, by the present 
tense, while the dependence of the different members one 
upon another will be determined by the signification of 
the particles introduced for that purpose. Examples : 
Gen. xxiv. 49, 50, r\Kl 

wow?, if ye ARE DEALING kindly and truly 
with my master, tell me ; and if not, tell me ; and I 
turn (or that I MAY TURN) to the right hand or to the 

left ; Ib. v. 5, 

servant said (says) to 
Perhaps the woman MAY not BE (or, putting the case that 
she is not,") WILLING to follow me to this land, must I 
surely bring back thy son unto the land from whence 
thou earnest? 

233. There are, moreover, other modes of construc- 
tion, by which hypothetical and other sentences, ex- 
hibiting certain relations between their leading and sub- 
sequent members, are formed. These constructions have 
hitherto been unobserved by Christian Grammarians and 
Commentators. Some of the Jews seem to have enter- 
tained a few very imperfect notions respecting them,* 

* The words of D. Kimkhi on this subject are to be found in the 
Mikhlol, fol. rT3 verso, and are as follows: EN DlpttS "inNTYl tt^l 

raia?nn 'b.tian nn. DS ias imstti "Mann nait&nb mis 

338 LECTURE XVII. ART. 233. 2. 

which they probably borrowed from the Arabians, who 
detail them very much at length in their Grammars and 
Commentaries on Grammar.* 

2. It has more than once been remarked (Artt. 74. 2. 
108. 119, p. 256, &c.) that verbs will occasionally appear 
in an apocopated or abridged form : at others with a )!, 
usually termed paragogic (Artt. 175. 2. 4. 5, &c.), and, 
at others, with what has been termed an Epenthetic or 
Paragogic Nun ( \ ) Art. 175. 17, &c. We now proceed 
to state, in order, the several powers which these forms 
appear to exert upon the context of Scripture : and 
first, of that which has been termed apocope. 

3. We have seen, Artt. 119. 8. 9, that the apocopated 
forms are often used for the purpose of expressing com- 
mand, prohibition, exhortation, wishing, forbearance, 
or the like : as, N'T let him or it be ; l?>l let him, or, 

i. e. And there is another (use of) Vaw in the place of DS, and this indicates 
the reply of a conditional sentence ; as (in the examples), Putting the case that 
the iron is blunt, the corresponding member is, then must one increase the 
force, Eccl. x. 9. If ye, or putting the case that ye, walk in my statutes : the 
corresponding member is, then surely 1 will give your showers in their season, 
Lev. xxvi. 3, 4. This is precisely the doctrine of the Arabian Grammarians as 

far as it goes, (See Jkmi's Com. on Ibn Ulhajib, pp. rvl-rvv-rvA rA 
&c.) They investigate the matter, however, much more scientifically and pro- 
foundly. The result of a careful examination of this matter with me is, that 
although the subsequent members may often be translated by our subjunctive 
or conditional mode, yet, as positive comparisons are always instituted in their 
languages, no such doubtful mode actually exists with them. This will 
be proved at length in a tract which I shall shortly print. 

* See the &AJwl _. .jtlt by the Moolla Jami, and the work of J>iVJ! *=s* 

.tf 9 ^' in the collection of Mr. Burckhardt in the Public Library at Cam- 

ART. 233. 3.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 339 

may he, dilate ; H^ let him be blotted out ; PRJT/H let 
it not be seen, &c. We now say, that, apparently for the 
purpose of preserving an uniformity in the forms of 
words composing those members of sentences which have 
a mutual relation to each other, the verbs in such subse- 
quent members will also be apocopated : e. g. ")iN %T. 
"liN "''T.l L ET (therejBE light: AND light (accordingly) is. 
This connection is also preserved in the next verse ; thus, 

: "rm* : DV -^nrn any irn : wr^ AND GOD 

(accordingly) SEES the light, that (it is) good ; and GOD 
(accordingly) DIVIDES between the light and between the 
darkness . . . AND (hence) the evening BECOMES, AND the 
dawn BECOMES, day one. See the remaining instances 
occurring in this and the following chapters.f So Is. 

* The Arabic imperatives are regularly apocopated forms; as, ftu>\ assist 

thou : the preformative ' alif is added merely for the sake of facilitating the 
pronunciation, and is omitted by rule whenever it can be. In Hebrew an im- 
perative of the first person singular and plural must be made either by this 
form ; as, TlW let me be, Hos. xiii. 14. "sjl??. Num. xx. 17, &c., or by one of 
those presently to be considered. It must also be borne in mind, that impera- 
tives will express request as well as command. 

f The Arabian Grammarians reason on this subject in the following manner. 
The Moolla Jami says, in his commentary on Ibn Ulhajib (p. rAr), ^\ ,}L 

UJ jiiAJ fs? f (c^\ ^ lyXS J^JOj JxftJ! l# U-^ikJ) ^1 ^ 

. . J^J! CJy ^1 CJyu) \# c_>jlkJ] 31 b ^1 ^ . . ill! 

J_jitl JxflJl cUs* ^1 ^y^'^ (J*^^ And the lam 

\(J) of command, i. e. the LAM intimating a desire for the action of the verb. 

- c 

The LAM of prayer will also influence the verb; as, <wJ) u! a^] " ma y God 

forgive us :" also the word ^, (Heb. fc$7) of prohibition, i. e. intimating a request 
that the action of the verb be given up ; also expressions of retribution, 


340 LECTURE XVII. ,\ RT. 233. 3. 

xlviii. 17, 

thou attended to my commandments, THEN HAD BEEN tJnj 
peace like the river. When K? is used as a prohibitive, 
no apocopation takes place: see Exod. xx. 3 18. 
Similar consequent members seem also to be marked, 
when the illative T accompanies the preterite and exer- 
cises the influence of removing the accent, (Art. 119.) 

e. g. Exod. xxix. 13. ~hy onls nyi....-7n$ -ia 

(i. e. a consequent member in such sentences), these will influence two verbs, 
the first implying tfie cause (or antecedent), the second that upon which the cause 
acts (or the consequent), i. e. to mark the first verb as implying the cause, the 
second as the thing caused. The Moolla goes on to tell us, in the words of Ibn 
Ulhajib, that we must not, however, always understand such constructions as 
marking the absolute cause and effect, but only that the writer or speaker has 
expressed himself, as if this were actually the case ; i. e. just as we find it in 
the scriptural parables, he argues these cases as real, whether they are so or not 
in the nature of things. This is a principle exerting a most extensive influence 
on the language of Scripture. The idiomatic force of such passages seems to 
be : Let there be light, so, let there be light ; i. e. The Creator gives the com- 
mand in the first instance, the historian, writer, or speaker, in the second. Tuis 
will account for the use of the apocopated forms in each case, "and explain their 


concordance with one another. So in the Arabic < *-*$ 1 -X*xo ^u 

G C 

Putting the case (thus) or surely, despise me : let me honour thee : *"~~/ 
visit me, (so) let me visit Ihee. And hence the peculiar force of the Arabic 

f C P'-tO C '&" xx 

so, t here/ore, and the Hebrew illative particle ^ ; as, <tLo <u!1 *AAXAJ 

tl And as to him who returns to sin, God will accordingly take vengeance. on him : 
and, in the Hebrew, "TIN ^!Tj1 "liN S !T let there be light, ACCORDINGLY, 
CONSEQUENTLY, so (or the like) let it be taken for granted that light becomes, 

* So in the Arabic with the illative particle * ' AJ JUaxj ^6 ^1 
dxJtXa3, putting the case that his frock was torn.... then she has spoken 
truly. This < ' is termed by the Arabian Grammarians <^J^Ji*AJ| UUl 
tltc consequent < ' Jami's Com., p. r A * *iA> is mostly used in these cases. 

ART. 233 4.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 

1J1 DJ1K ra-lprn Tn$ D Take one heifer .... and 
place them upon one basket, and offer them (accordingly), 
&c. See the following verses. The preterite is ap- 
parently used in these cases for the greater emphasis. 

4. It is not, however, necessary that a command or 
prohibition should always precede ; any subject matter of 
discourse upon which a consequence will depend, may 
have its consequent members enounced by apocopated 
present tenses : as, ^n'tf 1 ? nnbj! n$ 3irnj} 

rr#3 ;n;i nirr. NT! .... MI^?. TO.8? -W! 

for truth hath stumbled in the open place, and integrity 
is unable to enter. SO, ACCORDINGLY, &c. truth hath 

failed: .... SO, THEREFORE, &c. tJie Lord saw, AND 
(therefore) it was evil in his eyes, &c.* Is. lix. 14. 

5. From what has been said, it may perhaps be con- 
cluded, that no passage of this sort can occur, in which 
such apocopation will not be found either as a mark of a 
leading imperative, or of a consequent and corresponding 
member. We must bear in mind, however, that a very 
great number of cases occurs in the verbs, in which we 
can have no mark whatever of this apocopation. Again, 
in a great variety of instances, it will be of but little im- 
portance whether the context contain narration only, or 
be prophetic ; for in either of these the particle "1 may 

* From this sort of connection in the context, we may see in what sense this 
connecting and illative particle 1, may be said to be conversive of the tense of 
the following verbs to that of the preceding ones : not that it exerts any such 
power absolutely,b\il only relatively, (Art. 231 . 9.). And in this sense D. Kimkhi 
has taken it, (Mikhlol, fol. HD verso.) where he cites Aben Ezra as appealing 
to the Arabic. And De Balmes expressly ascribes it to the tense of narration 
(Art. 231. 10. note) "^Tinn. It is very doubtful, therefore, whether the Jews 
ever believed an absolute conversive power to be vested in this 1. 

342 LECTURE XVII. [[ART. 234. 

be a simple conjunction.* In others a paragogic !"7, (of 
which hereafter,) may have been struck out for the sake 
of euphony : and, in others, the accents may have been 
misplaced through the ignorance of the copyists ; nothing 
being more certain, than that the modern Jews are per- 
fectly ignorant of this doctrine ; and, it is doubtful 
whether it was known to any considerable extent by 
their older and better writers. Examples of the kind 
alluded to are the following : Hzon") . . . D^H 11 j 
n^3^n &c. Let the waters be limited., . . . and let the 
dry (land) appear : or prophetically : The waters shall 
be limited . . . and the dry (land) shall appear. And 
then we have the consequent member : viz. p "'rP'l And 
it became thus (accordingly). Gen. i. 9. 26, &c. 

234. We have, in the next place, to state and exem- 
plify the laws which regulate the use of the paragogic Jl 
when attached to the present tense of verbs. This 
termination is used for two purposes : I. to express 
a command or request : and II. to designate, as in 
the last article, the member consequent to some pre- 
viously expressed antecedent. Examples of the first 
case : Gen. xxxvii. 13. D.^g ^^l HJ 1 ?, Come (I 
pray) and let me send thee to them. In the next 
verse this command is prefaced by K3"^7, come I pray, 
equal apparently to the preceding HD/ ' and in verse 16. 

* Nor is this mark always visible in the Arabic, particularly when the pre- 

f C, " X t,xx o 

terite tense is used : e. g. C^7y>- Clv&-^ ^1 If you have gone out, I 

have gone out; for, if you do so, then I will. So also &to 1 j 1 < I t>J ; ^^u 1 y;J 

//" 2^aJd conies to me, I will come to him, i. e. with or without the apocopated 
form : so in the Hebrew, Micah vii. 8, ^P)} VP/P? **? When I have fallen, 

(then) I have arisen : i. e. these are the constant facts of the case. 

ART. 234. 2.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 343 

we have both combined in N;f PlTiin, Shew now I pray. 
So also Ib. xxxviii. 16, SOTOn Give now I pray. See 
Ps. ii. 3, 7 ; Ixix. 19, &c. 

2. Examples of the second case : * Ps. ii. 8. "^SO hx& 
D?iJ! HJJjlSlO Ask of me, and I will (accordingly) give, or, 
let me (then) give, nations, c., Ib. Ixix. 15. ^^VH 
n / y3pJ*~'?Nl fcD^D Deliver me from the mire, and let me 
not (thence) sink down, Ib. cxix. 18. nCD^N"] Wy~hz 
JTiS793 Enlighten my eyes, in order that I 

* This relation is marked in the Arabic by the vowel Fatha placed on the 

last letter of the verb in the present tense, as j^**, instead of j-^-V. ; which 
Mr. de Sacy has mistaken for the subjunctive mode of European Grammars ; 
to which it will only occasionally correspond. The particles found to precede 
this form are various : see de Sacy's Gram. Arab., torn, ii., pp. 19 30. His 
mistakes will be pointed out in a tract which I shall shortly publish. This 
form is not used as an imperative in Arabic, unless preceded by a negative. The 
principle on which this construction proceeds, is thus stated by Jami in his 

commentary on the Kafia. Speaking of the particle < ', our illative 1, he says : 

cj'woxii! latino jjl &>>> &\ ^.^-^ tajoo PjLofcSI i^aJuj> Ji!l *UJ 

LfcJuO UJ UljJ' U JUU*w ,c! jJUU*51 
... ... . 

JAS ,_$! L^Ui' ^yC; ^,1 ^^Ijj &c ..... So the 
* 9 which marks the following verb with FATHA, as equivalent in sense to ^ UT. 

Now this equivalent to ^j ' after <5 ^ (added) /or f/te purpose of placing FATHA 
OK the (last letter of the root in the) present tense, is governed by two conditions. 
One of these is CAUSALITY, i. e. the causality of some antecedent acting upon its 
consequent : for, indeed, the change from (' ) to (') is intended to mark this cau- 
sality ; so that the change in the form of the word intimates the change intended 
in the sense. But, when no such causality is intended, there can be no want of 
any intimation of it. The second condition is, that one of the six things (as in 
the last article) precede the < 9 &c. These are, a command, a prohibition, an 
interrogation, a question, a negation, a wish or representation. 

344 LECTURE XVII. C ART ' 234 ' 3 * 

may see, or, and let me see, wonders out of thy law. 
See also ver. 27 ; Ps. cxlv. 5 ; Obad. ver. 1. 
Arise ye, and let us (too) arise, Hab. ii. 1. 

watch, that I may be set up on the fortress, and spy. 
In all of these cases, as in the preceding, a kind of im- 
perative force seems to belong to every verb employed in 
the succession. In this last case, the force is more of 
the precative or optative character. 

3. It must not be supposed, however, that this form is 
always had recourse to, for the purpose of marking 
this relation : for it is occasionally, and perhaps most 
frequently, designated by such particles as will best 
express it ; as, "l^K quod, or eo quod, "1$$ \yj^l for 
the purpose of, "n3J|3 in order to, because of, &c., "G 
that, ut, 7 to, in order to, jg) seeing that, and the like, 
with the unaugmented form of the verb. It is when 
these particles are omitted that the form is generally 
used. So also in the nouns, HD^VP will signify to, or 
towards, Egypt, and will be equivalent to 
but both are not usually combined ; as, 
whence perhaps we may conclude, that the real force of 
this particle is either to, in order to, or something nearly 
allied to this. (Art. 232.) 

235. The third case we have to consider is, that which 
involves the doctrine respecting the uses of the Epen- 
thetic and Paragogic Nun ( \ ) : and here, as before, the 
first of these is found with commands, prohibitions, and 
exhortations, and also in the consequent members of 
antithetic sentences : the second is used with inter- 

* In this place we have probably a contraction, i.e. HDSM for nHSSM, in 
order to avoid the concurrence of two Hex H. Art. 175, 6. 

ART. 235.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 345 

rogatives, and also in the consequent members of similar 
sentences. And, in both cases, strong asseveration, with 
futurity of action, seems to be implied.* Examples in 

* This is also the doctrine of the Arabian Grammarians on the same letter, 
which they term ^t^XiUM ^^', the confirmatory Nun, as the following 
extracts from one of their best writers will shew. Jami says: tXx> 

. . . . 

U ill Jo 


_ JLorl i/l UJ 

W U ^1 l^oji U>j Mi (p. 
i. e. the Nun of confirmation is of two sorts, the light quiescent Nun, and that 
doubled with fathu. Its particular usage is with a. future verb in an imperative 


signification ; as, Thou shult certainly strike ( /./?/"* ' ), in its light form, and 

in its reduplicated one; also with a prohibition; as, Thou shalt (cer- 
tainly) not strike : also with an interrogation; as, Wilt thou really strike? also 
with a wish ; as, I wish you would realty strike : and with a representation ; as,' 
Surely you will come down to us, so that it may be well with you : also with an 
oath ; as, And (as) God (exists) so, surely will I do it: and these cases all hold 
gocd, whether the form be light, or doubled ..... This confirmation is not used, 
except when something is requested ; but, it is most frequent in such examples 
as, "WHETHER YOU WILL SURELY DO IT, &c.," (i.e. in a condition, the 
accompanying particle of which is strengthened by tc, what, &c., For, when 
such particle gives force, the intention is, to strengthen the action of the 
verb likewise, in order to avoid otherwise missing the force intended by the 
passage,) TOGETHER WITH WHAT GOES BEFORE IT, i. e. whatever precedes such 
confirmatory Nun, whether it be light or heavy (i. e. single or double). That 
is, in all such antithetic sentences as those involving oaths, requests, and the 
like. The most complete account I have met with of the use of these forms 

is to be found in the work of ^j 9 '^' <j?. (^ already referred to, from 
which I shall give extracts in another publication. I have given this note more 

34-6 LECTURE xvii. ART. 235. 2. 

which the Epenthetic or Paragogic Nun is used in 
interrogations, &c., Ps. Ixviii. 17 ; |nyi]?l DS 1 ? why will 
ye (persevere to) watch? Job ix. 12; 133^ *fo who 
will (effectually) turn him back ? Mic. vi. 6 ; laigHj^n 
shall I (actually) approach him? Gen. xxxvii. 21 ; 
1^23 1333 $h let us by no means strike his person, 
Amos i. 3 ; li^T^Nj N? / will by no means restore him. 
See also Dan. ii. 5. 9, &c. 

2. In some instances the Paragogic Nun, in single sen- 
tences, seems strongly to intimate futurity of action, as 
in Joel ii. 4; |1T"P |3 so shall they assuredly run: Ib. 
ver. 7 ; JltflT D'nlBJJp like heroes shall they (certainly) 
run; p^v?. VO"n3 i^tf each in his ways shall they 
march; DnlPpfc ']1CO^ $1} neither shall they (at all) 
wander (from) their paths. 

3. In the following passages they strongly mark con- 
secutive members of sentences, implying perhaps, at the 
same time, futurity in the tense of the verb, Gen. 
xxxvii. 27 ; lip.?^] 137 come, let us actually sell him, 
Isa. xxvi. 5 7 ;'n3^D^ H33^ PP-jj? DllD U^ n#r? ^ 


(surely) bring down the inhabitants of (a) 
place; an exalted city, he shall assuredly debase her: 
he debaseth her to the earth; he shall assuredly make 
her touch even to the dust : the foot shall surely trample 


We may here remark that ^^9(1 , a manifest prophetic future, is 
parallel to na^^Qtp^ j n the following member : whence both must 

at length than I otherwise should have done, because I find Mr. de Sacy 
speaking in his Gram. Arabe (torn. ii. p. 35), as if there were no fixed rules for 
its use, aiid actually dislocating the last example he has cited, as if it had no 
connection with what went before. See the Koran, Sur. 102. 

ART. 235. 4/3 ON THE SYNTAX. 347 

be construed in the same tense : both therefore will be strong pro- 
phetic futures : the one grounded on the principle (Art. 236.) of the 
event having already come to pass ; the other enouncing a similar 
event in a corroborated present sense only : while the Epenthetic 
Nun in the latter, marks it as a consequent to the former. In the 
next place, the following f^^^P- has no such Nun : it commences, 
therefore, a new series of context, i. e. it resumes the original 
theme commenced with ntPH f and has n322^ with the Epenthetic 
Nun for its consequent ; and, in apposition with this is the follow- 
ing naDZTVl. See Ib. xliii. 5 ; Deut. viii. 5. 19, 20; Job. ix. 6. 
32. 34 ; xii, 7. 8, &c. In the nouns too, the termination 1 appears 
to have a corroborative force, see Art. 168. 
4. From the near approach of these forms in sense, 
\ve must not be surprised in occasionally finding con- 
structions in which they are mixed, for the purpose 
perhaps of imparting to its several members some par- 
ticular shade of meaning, or to keep up a variety in the 
modes of expression, e. g. Job ix. 14 ; 13J$$ ^N" 1 !) F|K 
ljt/ ^l^n '"nrGNt Nay, (supposing) that I may really 
answer him, (then) let me I pray select my ivords (for 
use) with him, Gen. xii. 2 ; n^|^ r Vl"T| ^fi ffrj^l 
rD^ irril 19^ and let me make thee a great nation, 
and let me (I pray) make thy name great, and become 
thou a blessing, Exod. xxiii. 10; 


six years sow THOU (imper.) thy land, and HAVE COL- 
LECTED (pret. i. e. prophetic fut.) its income. But the 
seventh (year) THOU SHALT DISMISS IT (Epenthetic form) : 
so THOU (shalt) HAVE LEFT IT, and the poor of thy people 
SHALL (surely) EAT : and their excess (i. e. leavings) the 
wild beast of the field SHALL EAT (pres. or contingent 
future). I translate these so as to express the force 
of the different forms as near as I can. See also Gen. 
xliii. 21. 

236. Another leading principle, by which the tenses 


are regulated, has arisen out of the circumstance, that 
the Hebrews, in common with some other nations of the 
East, often represent events, of the future occurrence of 
which they have no doubt, as having already taken 
place* Examples: VJfl] ^'jro ]3 ^"T^ ^'^ 

* The following observations on this use of the past tense of a Persian 
verb are taken from the Persian Grammar of Mr. Lumsden, vol. ii. p. 326. 

" The prophetic denunciation of a future event will be often expressed in 
the past tense, in order to indicate the certainty of its occurrence. Examples : 

a jCxJ c 


jiji l The infidel, however happy 

to-day, will be encircled to-morrow by a collar of curses, and will suffer miseries 
of every description.' 

" It seems to me," continues Mr. Lurnsden, " that most of the preceding 
rules have their basis in the following principle.... that the occurrence of a 
future event is naturally a matter of great uncertainty, and generally speaking, 
will be so considered, if expressed by the future tense of the verb. Past 
events having already occurred, are subject to no uncertainty at all. And 
hence it happens, that a Persian, having occasion to speak of a future event, 
which he believes to be of certain occurrence, will naturally enough employ 
the past tense of the verb : by the use of which he means to apprise his auditor, 
that the occurrence of the event, though still future, is, in his opinion, not less 
certain, than if it were past." 

Of this character is the passage cited by Mr. de Sacy, from the " Concessus 

of Hariri, Arab. Gram., vol. i. p. 123, &c. jl 1*^7^ C^ioAiJ Jl I 

BY NO MEANS TOUCH your meat, unless, &c. See Storr, p. 163 4. Pococke's 
Specim. Hist. Arab., p. 57. Gram. Syr. Isaac Sciadrensis, Rom. 1636, 

The following passages copied from a very valuable commentary on the 

Arabic Grammar of Ibn Ulhajib, by ^l/^ (J^.^ ^ which is preserved 
in the public library of Cambridge, will" put this question out of all doubt, as 
to the practice of the Orientals. Speaking of the preterite tense, it is said : 


_ _ 

<WoJb sli-l Li <Ly ^J lj.] JLJI iJ^c, Jc Jy ^ 

ART. 236.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 349 

J Di?^")^ ybr c^tYrf HAS BEEN (i. e, shall surely be) 
BORN to iis, a Son HATH BEEN (or surely shall be) GIVEN 
to us, so the government is upon his shoulder, and 

U ^> ... < j^lall x ^J>1)JI U J^i.Jo, &c., i. e. 
" T/te preterite takes the future signification, when used in passages intimating 

desire whether in prayer; as, ^1 \*-M-J MAY GOD HAVE MERCY ON 
THEE; or, command, as in the saying of All, LET THE MAN REWARD ars 

BROTHER. It is also changed into the future, when speaking of some future 
event, and intending to enounce it AS CERTAIN TO COME TO PASS; as in the 
passage (of the Koran), The inhabitants of Paradise SHALL call, #c. (have 
called. Surat. Alaraf.) u-here the speaker mentions the event as HAVING AL- 
READY COME TO PASS. It is also taken as a future, when accompanied by a nega- 
tive, or, as an answer to an oath : as, BY GOD, I WILL NOT DO IT, or, SHOULD 
I DO IT. It is also used as a future in hypothetical sentences, except with the 

particle SHOULD, UNLESS, &c. But, as to the verb ^ , it will retain 
its preterite signification: as, IF I HAD SAID IT. It is also changed when 
the particle ^o is used intimating time: e. g. As LONG AS THE HEAVENS HAVE 
ENDURED (i. e. SHALL ENDURE"), &c. It is very evident, that the same prin- 
ciple prevails throughout every instance here adduced, (if we except the hypo- 

thetical ones, of which something will be said hereafter, and y;v> which is 
used as an auxiliary), namely, that of certainty, and thence intense petition, or 
command, grafted upon this certainty. See Viger de idiotismis Grascis, 
p. 167. Edit. 1813, with the notes. Winer's Gram, of the New Test., 
p. 105. (V). 

350 LECTURE XVII. CART. 236. 2. 

(one) calls his name Wonder, Counsellor (or Preacher), 
Mighty God, the Father (or Proprietor) of an age, the 
Prince of peace ; Ib. vii. 18, phfch Kinn Di"3 JTm 
D.nyp 'Hfo? ntfj?3 ")#!* 3O6 Him., &c., and it SHALL 
(certainly) COME TO PASS, in that day, Jehovah hisses (or 
shall hiss) to the bee which (is) in the extremity of the 
rivers of Egypt, &c. ; Ib. 19, ^H33 D^D inri IKyi 
DU^PH 7;jmi nUian &c. and they SHALL (certainly) 
COME, and SHALL // REST in the desolate valleys, and in 
the holes of the rocks. 

2. Upon the same principle, the Preterite tense is 
often used as an Imperative; which may, therefore, be 
termed emphatical : e. g. Deut. vi. 5, 


SHALT (surely) LOVE 
Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy 
soul, and with all thy might. And these words which I 
command thee this day SHALL BE upon thy heart: and 
thou SHALT DILIGENTLY IMPRESS them upon thy children : 
and thou SHALT TALK of them when thou sittest in thy 
house, and when thou walkest by the way, and wJien thou 
liest down, and when thou risest up. And THOU SHALT 
BIND them for a sign on thy hand, and THEY SHALL BE 
for frontlets between thy eyes. And thou SHALT WRITE 
them upon the posts of thy house, and upon thy gates. 

It will be imagined, perhaps, from the use of the accents here, 
that these preterites have been affected by the preceding impe- 
rative ^Ptp (Art. 233. 3.). But this is unnecessary, as it regards 
their forms ; because, had nothing but a simple imperative 
been intended, the common imperative forms would have been 
used. Innumerable instances occur, however, in which no such 

ART. 236. 3-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 351 

form precedes, as is also the case with the prophetic preterites just 
noticed. See Gen. xl. 14, xlv. 13, xlvi. 34, Ezek. ii. 4, iii. 17, 
iv. 5, 6. 

3. In the following example, we have hoth the pre- 
terite and present tenses, used as prophetical futures ; 
the former for the purpose of intimating certainty, and 
thence of affording assurance ; the latter for the reasons 
already given (Artt. 231. 11. 235. 3.). Gen. xxvi. 3, 

n"QK ( sojourn in this land, and I am (or WILL 
BE) with thee, and so I bless (or WILL BLESS) thee ; for to 
ihee and to thy seed I give (or WILL GIVE) all these 
lands: and I WILL (surely) ESTABLISH the oath which 
I sware to Abraham thy father. 

4. The following has a prohibitive sentence in the 
Present, followed by two predictions enounced in the 
Preterite, tense : Gen. xxvi. 24, 'gJK ^JO3 KTfi-^K 

*Unrn? "W^l T#3"!31 f ear no** f or f ( am ) with 
thee and WILL (surely) BLESS thee, and MULTIPLY thy 


5. When a preterite follows a present (prophetical) 
tense in the same order of events, and in the same 
context, the second of these, with as many succeeding 
verbs as follow in the same tense, order, &c. may be 
translated by the English compound tense, shall 
have shall have had or the like.* Examples : 

Deut. vii. i, 

* In this case, the preterite is reckoned, not from the period in which the 
declaration is made, but from one future to it, as it is even in the English. 
The reason is : futurity is intended in the first, and consequently in every subse- 
quent verb, whatever other particulars the context may require in this respect. 

352 LECTURE XVII. C A RT. 236. 6. 

cnnn Dmsrn sp: ?pr$ &c. 

Jehovah thy God BRINGETH (or shall bring) THEE to the 
land whither thou art going to possess it, and SHALL 
HAVE CAST OUT many great nations from before thee .... 
and Jehovah thy God SHALL HAVE DELIVERED them up 
before thee, and thou SHALT HAVE -SMITTEN them, (then) 
devote thou them to utter destruction. 

6. In like manner when two events are enounced, one 
of which is prior to the other, and that which occurred 
first in the order of time, being to be taken in the past 
tense, (with reference to the time in which the relation 
was originally made,) the following one may be trans- 
lated into English in the preterpluperfect tense:* as, 
Gen. xxvi. 18, p 1 ? *ng--)#8 niE#3 m'D^ |r6 *Opn 
I YOtf so he calls them (i. e. at that time by) names, 
according to the names (by) which his father CALLED 
THEM (i. e. had called.). 

237. General opinions may be enounced either in the 
preterite,^ the participles, or in the present tense. 

* In this case, the verb M*1J?1 is an historical present, and hence contempo- 
rary in act with the preceding verb 2U?^, and therefore preterite with reference 
to the time in which the narration is made : but, the following verb N"1|"J 
is preterite with reference to this time, i. e. to the time of 327^ and N^i'T'., it 
is, therefore, a preterite still more remote, and equivalent to our pluperfect. So 

,j- (jo in Arabic, as already noticed. 

sst, ? s s ? (, ss xxx ^ c x 's ox 

\ So in the Arabic LLXllo 1**C C^L*i libco ,^^1 J had you 

X X V^x 

<* s f <,?L? r so xxcx 
taken me with you, I had made honey like yourself; *\& f-^ (^*LU| ^o J 

XG --o x x 

UJi^Ji C^o^i- HAD IT BEEN (so that) all men were wise, the world HAD BEEN 

DESTROYED. Mr. Lumsden has, I think, been very happy in his remarks on 
this sort of construction. "General opinions," says he, " ought, to result from 
the observation of facts; and whether we state a general opinion, or the facts 

ART. 237.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 353 

Examples: Ps. i. 1, nyya ^H ^7 1$*$ 


Blessed (is) ^ w#w w>k> HATH not WALKED in the counsel 
of the wicked, and HATH not STOOD in the way of sinners, 
and HATH not RESIDED in the habitation of the scorners ; 
Prov. xxviii. 7, D^_ D^ir n#'T| ]^Q |3 DTin iyiJ 
I V3tf ^ra intelligent son KEEPS the law ; hut he who 
ATTENDS upon base men, PUTS his father to shame ; 

ib. xi. 4, : rnsip ^yn ngnyi rn;# 01^3 ]in *r$rvh 

on which an opinion is founded, the effect is the same in either case. An 
Englishman will commonly state the opinion, as ' Force cannot cope with 
fortune :' and a Persian will be often disposed to state the facts on which the 
opinion is founded : as ' The strong have been generally foiled in the contest 
with fortune.' This, therefore," adds he, " is a case in which the past may be 

' C. ' O ' 

said to supersede the future tense of the verb." Example ; &} L/*"v (J^-J 

))* ft" (*^^ J Lff " henceforward I shall 

X S s ' " X 

retire and dwell in a corner, like the ant ; for even the elephant (which is the 
strongest of all anknals) cannot master (has not mastered) his fortune by force." 
Pers. Gram., vol. ii. p. 326. 

The Arabic Grammarians endeavour to account for this use of the verb, 
which they say must be taken as in the present tense, by saying, that we 

^ c ~o *-' c-' 

have here, ^cLftjiH >U*))i, by which they mean the retention of an event in 
S?y "* * 

the mind, which although past, as to fact, is nevertheless present in effect; as, 

9 c ' ^" c 

(^**j I have sold, and am now dispossessed of the thing sold, L^o^Cil 

I have bought, and do possess, &c., whereas, when we use the present tense in 
such cases, the thing sold, bought, &c. may be, or not, now in our possession. 
So we say in English, I AM come, he is gone, not I HAVE come, he HAS gone. 
And in Hebrew, Is. xiv. 7; 71F] ^Q V^T^I n ^1 l ? n ?3 &c > T/ie 
whole land is at rest, it is quiet (has been), they BREAK forth (into) singing 
(have broken forth). See also some of the following verses. This, however, 
mostly takes place in intransitive verbs, such as DSPI, vD^, 2T, "Hyn, 
Vja, ibrj, or the like. See Viger. de idiot. Grsec., p. 166. Edit. 1813, wjth 
the notes : also p. 163. 

A A 


riches PROFIT not in the day of wrath; but righteous- 
ness DELIVERS from death. 

238. Hypothetical sentences, which are very nearly allied 
to the foregoing, will be enounced either in the past or 
present tense, according to one or other of the preceding 
rules, or as it shall suit the intention of the writer. Ex- 
amples: Gen. xxvi. 10, 33$ CDJI/ZpS 13^ ]V&f nmo 

: D^K w^y riK^ni ^ste-rig qpn nni* what is this 

(that) thou hast done to us ? some one of the people 
MIGHT lightly HAVE LAIN with thy wife, so thou WOULDEST 
HAVE BROUGHT sin upon us ; Ib. xxvii. 12, 

Perfcaps my father MAY FEEL ;w<? ; (or, putting the case 
that he feels me) so SHALL I (certainly) BECOME 
as a great deceiver in his eyes, and SHALL (surely) 
BRING upon myself a curse and not a blessing ; Prov. 

vi. i, nrir ntog ...: ?p3 nrt nyp_n yrff ro-ijrDK ^33 

&c., A/y son, if thou HAST BECOME surety for thy neighbour, 
if thou HAST STRICKEN thy Jiand with a stranger 
do this, &c. ; Gen. xxviii, 20, &c., 

&c., i. e. as assuredly as that God is with me, 
and HATH PRESERVED me in this way in which I am 
(now) travelling, and HATH (hitherto) GIVEN me bread to 
eat and clothing to put on ; so assuredly SHALL I 
RETURN to my father's house in peace, and Jehovah SHALL 
assuredly CONTINUE my God; and this stone, &c.* Is. 

* This passage has been entirely misunderstood. It contains an oath, or row, 
which is the same thing. This usage of the preterite in the Hebrew, as in the 
Arabic, generally designates oaths ; and the principle upon which these are con- 
structed is, by taking something which is most certain as a basis, and then by 
comparing the subsequent terms with it. See Heb. vi. 13 19. And the 

ART. 238.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 355 

iii. 19, 

t ir|~P DM3 HADST tf^0M RENT the Jteovens, HADST tliou DE- 
SCENDED, HAD the mountains BEEN REDUCED before thee; . . . 
then the nations HAD TREMBLED before thee;* Lev. x. 19, 

Moolla Jami on Ibn Ulhajib, pp. ^i F-i*l v. These forms, therefore, imply 
no curse or ban, as the forms of cursing do which run thus, God do so to 
me, &c. 

* In translating this passage, I have taken ^vT3 as the Niphhdl of T7T, 
to which it seems to me most properly to belong, (see Simonis's Lexicon sub 
wee,) and fc^lb as a particle implying supposition with a negation, according 
to its most usual import both in Hebrew and Arabic. It should also be ob- 
served, that in the first and two last examples, the preterite is used, as in the 
statement of general opinions, and for the reasons assigned by Mr. Lumsden. 
The particles preceding such expressions may always be considered as intended 
to put a suppositious case ; or, in other words, to lay down a general fact as ac- 
cidental, and then to deduce the consequence: which may be stated, either in 
the past or present tense, as circumstances may require. Of this character are 

the following Arabic examples ; l^Ml^ JjUo Ui*flJ l^Jlw^ 31 HAD we 

not KNOWN thee, we HAD (surely) DONE after this manner; or, WE SHOULD 
(surely) HAVE DONE so, taking the second member as a future of certainty with 

respect to the first ; ^5*"' <****), r U*>>a> C^X> y HADST thou BEEN here, 

s .PCS' ^ ^ 9 (." I. 

my brother WOULD not HAVE DIED ; ^Jto VJix^Xo ^4/J J d^%l*9 ^1 HAD I 

x xx x * C Sx s t C 

DONE this, I SHOULD SURELY HAVE LOST my wealth; 4-ilc CLKJO U| jj! 

, X * 

JUUaAj ^^^ DID I INCREASE herfood, she WOULD (probably) LAY TWO eggs : 

i. e. putting the case that if I had done so, then she would perhaps lay, &c. 
De Sacy's Gram. Arab., vol. i. p. 124, &c. 

The Persian examples selected by Mr. Lumsden seem to me all subject to 
this distinction, i. e. of certainty or contingency, and to have been enounced ac- 
cordingly, either in the past, present, or future tense ; Cl^UaLl ^JoUjy Jt\ 

C C f OX x 

C^xw^o iXJbu^- HAD you not ARRIVED, the expectation of you, WOULD (pro- 
bably) HAVE KILLED (me) J ***-< :J9 JJ 

A A 2 

356 LECTURE XVII. [[ART. 239. 


sin-offering to-day, WOULD it HAVE (seemed) GOOD wa 
tlie eyes of Jehovah ? . 

239. Commands, requests, prohibitions, deprecations, 
blessings, and hence future events taken prophetically, will 
be enounced by the imperatives of verbs, or by any of those 
other forms, which are used as imperatives (Artt. 233. 3. 
234. 235.): as, Gen. xxvii. 3, *|f?fl ^3 K 


thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and GO OUT into 
the plain, and HUNT for me a hunting. Ib. v. 26, ~n^4 
j vjrj i7-pjH K3 COME NEAR NOW, and KISS me, my son. 

Ib. v. 28, b?^n to DTft^n ^HW w ^ MAY G d 

GIVE (or, he shall give) thee of the dew of heaven. 

PS. xxxvii. i, : rhyj fctys KIB^"T^ D'jy-ijps nnw-^ 

BE not IRRITATED at those who are evil; ENVY tJiou not 
the workers of iniquity. Gen. xxiv. 60, ^33"! ^ I ?lSt i ? v .n 
VKjif "1^^ n Wit ^T^.1 BECOME /AoM (i/e. thou shalt 
be) thousands of myriads, and LET thy seed POSSESS the 
gate of those who hate them. See also Gen. xii. 2, 
xx. 7, xlv. 18 ; Deut. xxxii. 50 ; Is. xlvii. 1 ; Ps. 
xxxvii. 27, xlv. 4, 5 : also Ps. Ixix. from v. 7 to the end, 
explained by St. Paul, Rom. xi. 9, &c., as prophetical. 
So also Ps. cix. compared with Acts i. 20; Ps. 
Ixxix. 6 12. See Glassius, Lib. i., Tract iv., i., 

if to-day you (by any chance) shew mercy to mankind, to-morrow you 

HAVE RECEIVED mercy, i. e. CERTAINLY SHALL RECEIVE it. See Pers. Gram., 
vol. ii. p. 322, &c. That is to say, the present tense appears to be chosen when 
contingency is intended to be intimated, the preterite when it is not. The one 
therefore is a less forcible form of expression than the other. It is, however, 
my intention shortly to treat this matter more at length in a tract devoted to this 
and similar questions. 

ART. 240.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 357 

Canon ii., Lib. in., Tract iii. ; Canon xliii. xlv., &c. 
Viger. de idiotismis Graecis, p. 155, Edit. 1813, with the 


240. The preceding rules seem to be governed by two general 
principles. One, in which the Writer, setting out from the period 
in which he commences his narrative, follows the different circum- 
stances of it, as if himself and his reader were present, and hence 
dates the tenses of his verbs from the different periods in which he 
thus places himself; still however reserving the right of returning 
to his original position whenever he pleases. 

2. By the other principle, events which it is believed will cer- 
tainly take place, are represented as having already come to pass : 
and thence preterites are used as Imperatives for the greater 
emphasis. Nothing surely can be more natural than the adoption 
of such principles. And, when we consider the great degree of 
precision, which their application must communicate to the con- 
text, we shall be induced to believe, that the poverty and uncer- 
tainty, of which it has been fashionable to accuse the Hebrew 
language, has rather arisen out of our own ignorance, than from any 
defect inherent in its construction. We do not mean to affirm, 
however, that we can always say, why one mode of enunciation is 
preferred to another, when, as far as we can see, either would have 
suited the character of the context : nor can we in the Greek and 
Latin, notwithstanding all that has been said in their favour. In 
many cases the parallelism may have had some influence, in others 
attraction ; but, upon the whole, I believe we can generally give 
as good an account of the use of the tenses in the Hebrew, as can 
be given in either the Greek, Latin, or any other language. 

358 LECTURE XVIII. [[ART. 241. 



241. IT has been seen (Art. 222.), that adverbs are 
nothing more than words added for the purpose of qua- 
lifying the signification of verbs generally ; we now 
come to consider some of those cases, which are not of 
the most common occurrence, and which may otherwise 
present some difficulties to the Learner. 

2. Adverbs in immediate connection with verbs may 
be considered as absolute (Art. 220. 2.), or, as added for 
the purpose of specification (Art. 219. note) : those in 
mediate connection, as in the definite state of con- 
struction with the preceding word or particle ; which 
word or particle may nevertheless be absolute with 
respect to the verb. General examples are given, Art. 
222. The following are some in which we have attri- 
butives singular and plural, pronouns, and particles, thus 
construed : D' 1 ^?^ TlJft she descends, WONDERS ! i. e. 
wonderfully, Lam. i. 9 ; 1Dt/F) D'H^D RIGHT THINGS 

judge ye, i. e. righteously, Ps. Iviii. 2 ; ^rw?}? MllOlU 
(in) DREADFUL THINGS / have become wonderful, i. e. 
I have become exceedingly wonderful, Ps. cxxxix. 14; 
^D? rnNnlJ Tpirn. and thy right hand shall shew thee 
(to be) WONDERS, i. e. very wonderful. Ps. xlv. 5. 
Comp. Is. ix. 5. and the Septuagint. 

3. It will immediately be seen, that these instances 
may all be construed by one or other of the rules already 
given. So also with pronouns : HT3 in this (place), for 

ART. 241. 4-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 359 

here; n.t3, Hf^, and rW3 like this, for thus; 
or Tltzh for what, why ? ""I&^S ^ ^^ which, i. e. place 
or time, as the context shall require ; or ")>N absolutely, 
for where, when ? or since, because, &c. 

4. Negative particles ought to be considered as affect- 
ing the action, &c. of the verb either expressed or un- 
derstood, not as negativing the substance implied by the 
noun ; f e. g. T^'N? D# a people, NOT strong, Prov. 

* The particles i and 7 are occasionally equivalent to the e/s of the New 
Testament, signifying for the purpose of, in order to, &c., as, Ps. xxix. 4, H32 
e/S Swapnv ', powerful, effective, ib. Tin2 i n ordinem, producing order. 

f Such expressions as, there is no man, no place, nothing, &c. would be con- 
sidered as monstrous by an Oriental, whom it would be extremely difficult to 
persuade that we were not affirming both the existence and non-existence of 
the same thing at the same time. They would say, there is not a man, &c., 
which is certainly more natural and intelligible. See Art. 218. 2. note. 

The Arabs make their adverbs by an indefinite attributive put absolutely, 
or in immediate, or mediate, apposition with the word intended to be qua- 
lified, which may be either the subject or the object of the verb : e. g. 

( X S <*' ' 

\j]j &>j ^jt U*- Zaid came to me, RIDING ; 

c^ ' > '? 
AA>)^ \jA. I struck Said VIOLENTLY, and I met Omar, BOTH RIDING. In these 

cases the adverbs are put in what is termed the accusative case, where the con- 
nection seems to be mediate, i. e. in which some intervening word is to be under- 
stood. In the following, they are in the nominative, and there the connection is 

manifestly immediate. *^**) ^oj ^ ^5*%" Zaid came to me, and his 
servant (was) RIDING. The reason given for the first of these examples by the author 
of the Hidayat oon Nahve (p. 1*1) is, that a verb is understood : his words are, 

The examples, in which the signification of a verb was the governing 

principle, as in " this Zaid (is) standing," require a verb to be understood : 
thus, " I intend, I point out."' His meaning is this : " as to this Zaid, / men- 


xxx. 25; ItfJ^ p"^/* NOT so (or, according to Schrce- 
derus, right) have they done, Jer. xlviii. 30 ; DH7 "Tiro 
D^3i0 K'? D^n / ascribed to them, i. e. declared that 
they were subject to, statutes (which are) NOT GOOD, 
(p. 109. note.) Ezek. xx. 25. So, ^"H"^ 1 ? inn EMPTINESS 
(want of culture, in which there is) not a way, Ps. 
cvii. 40 ; "IJN N 1 ? NOT giving light, Amos v. 20 ; I 1 ? D$~K7 
(there is) NOT a name to him, i. e. he is nameless ; "tf~N7 
(who is) NOT an eminent man, DIJ*"*^ 1 ? (who is) NOT a 
mean man, Is. xxxi. 8 ; ^^'K 1 ?/ "tfiHQK / will say to 
(her who is) NOT my people, Hos. ii. 25 ; ""IITT tih 1 ? D^UDl^n 
those who rejoice in (that which is) NOT a matter, i. e. in 
a non-reality, Amos vi. 13, &c. In many cases, too, 
tih may be construed as a noun put in the definite state 
of construction with the following word, intimating the 
want, defect, or the like, of the thing mentioned. 

5. In the particle |?N this is still more apparent ; for it 
takes the vowels necessary for the state of constructionf 
(Art. 143. 6.) : e. g. JlWlD \*$ WANT, LACK, of a saviour, 
Deut. xxii. 27 ; D^^ Ptf ""^D 1 ? t Hannah (was) A WANT 

tion him as standing." By this he means to shew why the accusative case 
is used in such places. Mr. de Sacy gives a different account of this con- 
struction, see vol. ii. Art. 630 ; where he considers U> \j as intended to point 

out a sort of logical objective case to the verb 5 L- . For my own part, I 
would prefer considering this termination as the fragment of some word for- 
merly used as a postposition, and therefore, as equivalent to the preposition 

i > 
x-' , see note, p. 291, and to be translated thus: Zuid came to me (IN the 

situation of) a person riding. 

* I'D establish, &c. Hence P.3 ; and Art. 73. "J3 establishing, right, just, 


f See Eichhorn's edition of Simonis sub voce. On the etymology of these 
particles, see Art. 171. 

ART. 241. 6-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 361 

of children, 1 Sam. i. 2 ; Jt/DJ^ \3^K A WANT of me 
hearing, i. e. I hear not, Jer. xiv. 12 ; so D"TN ^ /ta 
BEING, EXISTING, of a man, i. e. there is a man, Eccl. ii. 21 ; 
D^IV ty. THE EXISTENCE of just men, i. e. there are just 
men, Eccl. viii. 14 ; If1$3 "tiifTDK putting the case that 
HIS EXISTENCE (be) in the land, i. e. if he be, &c., 1 Sam. 
xxiii. 23. 

6. When any of these particles follow the word to be 
qualified, they will be absolute : e. g. N7 DfPn njFl#-\-) 

for now ye have become (of) NOTHING, Job vi. 21 ; ]^ D?ft 
water (is) NOT ; ^ Ni^pD provision, BEING, i. e. there is 
provision, Jud. xix. 19. 

7. Similar to JO and p$ is the construction and force 
of DpN* terminating, expiring; hence, defect, non- 
existence, &c. : e. g. D^N D3$ NOT a God, or, no God, 
Isa. xlv. 14 ; Tty ""PSS} ^ I am, and EXCEPTING ME, 
still (is none), Zeph. ii. 15. 

8. The following are examples of similar construction 
with the particles: *TiJ/f returning, reiteration, yet, 
still, &c. ; |H see, behold; 7$ defect, ivant, not; "D 
marking, observing, inferring, whether, that, &c. ; ]D, 
or D, cutting off, separating, from, than, &c. ; ^ and 
^1^13. growing old, decaying, lack, non-existence ; D1ED 
cutting off, defect, want, not yet, &c. with or without 
other particles, &c. ; p^tn/p ^\~\V THY CONTINUING a re- 
tainer, or holder, i. e. thou still retainest, Job ii. 9 ; 1^3 
DV in (being) YET full day, Jer. xv. 9; ''"Til^ in MY 
STILL "being, Ps. cxlvi. 2 ; vftPftfrom, or, since MY STILL 
existing, i. e. since my birth, Gen. xlviii. 15 ; 

* See also Art. 171. 2. 3. 


f Jy: returning, &c. ; "P^ and Art. 87. 1. 

362 LECTURE XVIII. H AR T. 241. 9. 

y 1371^* Abraham, HIS CONTINUING a stander, i. e. he 
still stood, Gen. xviii. 22 ; HJ^J/ IHSn BEHOLD HIM, a doer, 
i. e. he does, Jer. xviii. 3 ; ^|1O3 ]^D FROM (there) NOT 
BEING (any) like thee, Jer. x. 7 ; T)33E |i/j? ^3^ Mow 
r filled (with) ignominy, WANTING (being destitute of) 
glory, reputation, Hab. ii. 16. 

9. To this kind of construction may be referred all those pas- 
sages which are generally translated by a word in the comparative 
degree with than following it : e. g. Prov. viii. 1 0, 'nD'lE ^np 
"in^ Y'-l" 1 '?*? flini *l!?|" l? W < ! accept my castigation, and NOT, i. e. 
rather than, silver : and knowledge, NOT, i. e. rather than, choice 
gold: i. e. put silver and gold out of the question, when these 
things are proposed, as unworthy of being compared with them. 
The negative particle occurring here, in the first member of the 
parallelism, is sufficient to determine in what sense that in the 
second is to be taken. Of this sort of expression is, " If any 
man come to me, and hate not his father and mother," &c. Luke 
xiv. 26, John xii. 25, &c. where this hatred, or rather disregard, is 
not spoken of as absolute, but relative, i. e. the comparison is here, 
as in the case of oaths, (Art. 242. 8.) strong and positive, though 
not necessarily absolute. 

10. So with other negative particles, nan >n Crirfpttf DFlM'rfb 
D^nvjWn *>3 you sent me not hither, BUT God, Gen. xlv. 8, i. e. it is 
NOT you, but rather God, &c. See Exod. xvi. 8, 1 Sam. viii. 7, 
Jer. vii. 22. 23, Hos. i. 9, vi. 6, Ps. li. 18, Eccl. iv. 9, and Matt. 
xxiii. 23, Luke x. 20, xiv. 12. 14, 1 Pet. iii. 6. See Storr, 
p. 251, &c. 

Examples of ^3, &c. : 11T ^3'ty until the DECAY of 
the moon, i. e. as long as it shall endure, Ps. Ixxii. 7 ; 
D^Dt^ ^F\72~7JJ until THE DEFECT of the heavens, i. e. as 
long" as they shall last, Job xiv. 12 ; *73 iV 

* In the case of the Epenthetic 2 being added to this particle, as well as to 
some others, the relation of a subsequent member of a sentence seems to be 
occasionally pointed out as in Art. 235. 3. with some emphasis. Examine the 
instances of this and ! 123 <t M, &c. in Noldius. 

ART. 241. 11.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 363 

from THE NOT leaving to him every thing, i. e. any thing, 
Deut. xxviii. 55 ; 31 W'^rfyl 1 ? for the LACK of returning, 
i. e. the not returning, Ezek. xiii. 22 ; r>7bl "\Tv3Pyfowfc 
the WANT o/" power, Num. xiv, 16 ; INCpnf) M^IQ 1 ? for 
CESSATION of your sinning, i. e. that you should not sin, 
Exod. xx. 20 ; D'nnpT^ ^SPD *'* & from the WANT 
of graves? Exod. xiv. 11; Nih^ rf7~D"1ID3 in its NOT 
YET coming, Zeph. ii. 2. 

11. The following are examples of prepositions in 
immediate connection with the word to be qualified, 
restricted, &c. : D^S J ? D> D'Qtp'n DrrjE OF HAM (were) 
the dwellers there of former (times), 1 Chron. iv. 40 ; 
D^l E^D 7ip5 LIKE the sound of many waters, Ezek. 

i. 24 ; ^1 i^WfTW? ^?>3 m V sou l ( is ) ti& e a parched 
land (with respect) TO thee, Ps. cxliii. 6. 

In these, and all similar cases, it will be of no consequence 
whether we suppose the particles to be in apposition, or in the 
definite state of construction, there being no mark of case in the 
Hebrew. The latter perhaps agrees best with the analogy ; 
because we have, in some of the particles, the form proper for that 
state, as in ""I-^'V^ TO the grave, Job v. 26 ; l^"^?? OVER the 
nail, Gen. xlix. 22; nttHD "nqM after Moses, Exod. xxxiii. 8; 

and in the Arabic always, as, 4\s***^1 Ac i. e. THE UPPEU (part) 

x x Vrr 

of the mosque, for OVER the mosque. See Art. 171. 3. c. 

12. Examples of mediate construction, i. e. when one 
or more other particles intervene : VnrU---.37 J1E 1 ? jjt/y? 
3-irv,nn?$ FOR THE PURPOSE OF melting (the) heart . . . 
have I appointed the chastisement of the sword, Ezek. 
xxi. 20 ; DrP^'TJjJ N3 he came UP TO them, i. e. even to 
them, 2 Kings ix. 20 ; ^D "T3 1 ? for each, EXCLUDING 
infants, i. e. with respect to the men, excluding the 
children, or, beside the children, Exod. xii. 37 ; \^T\D 
n/Dln 1 ? from without (with respect) TO the wall, Jer. 
xxi. 4. 

364 LECTURE XVIII. [[ART. 241. 13. 

1 3. The intervening particles most in use are, ' and ft , which seem 
to be added for the purpose of marking the word to which the pre- 
ceding one has some relation, and also to point out the nature of that 
relation, e. g. ''QWI 7 ^1^? beneath (with reference) TO my head, i. e. 
under my head, Cant. ii. 6 ; "^ n!>n outwards (with reference) 
TO the city, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 15; naSsb JTSa'bN to (that which 
is) FROM within (with respect) TO the veil, Lev. xvi. 15 ; O^D n"lM 
nfett biNBte -fiD 750 1 ? Vsipttb nbytf? the way of life, or, reli- 
gious instruction (is) FOR the elevating OF the understanding (person,) 
FOR the purpose of receding from the grave beneath, Prov. xv. 24 ; 
^'l?*? '"'toEb J?-??^ thou hast refrained (with reference) TO 
bringing down (degrading) ON ACCOUNT OF our sins, Ezra ix. 13. 

Of this kind are the combinations TNEDv "TV 2 Chron. xvi. 14; 
T? Ib. xvii. 12 ; -] rV TO Ib. xxxvi. 16, &c. 

D-fr'P which (is) ew &? Jwavens from above, and 
which (is) in the earth from beneath, and which (is) in 
the waters from beneath (with respect) to the earth, 
Exod. xx. 4. 

The phrases here used, from above and from beneath, must 
necessarily be taken relatively : in the first instance above, with 
respect to the earth ; in the second, by ' beneath, with respect to 
the heavens, and in the third, beneath, or low, with reference to 
the earth, which is expressed by ' : i. e. Thou shalt make no 
image of the heavenly bodies which are above, nor of the creatures 
&c. which are on the earth beneath ; nor of those which are in the 
waters that are still lower than the earth : not, which are " in 
the waters under the earth," &c. Hence will be seen the great 
necessity there is of observing, to what words these particles have 
an immediate reference ; and hence, that we should not take them 
absolutely, as we often do in our own and other languages. 

14. When the preposition T? between, is used for the purpose 
of opposing one noun to another but is not repeated, it has this 
peculiarity, that it requires the insertion of ' before the latter : 
e. g. B?97 E^Q f 2 between waters (as opposed) TO waters, Gen. 
i. 6 ; VT? rT7^ between cause (as opposed) TO cause, i. e. between 
cause and cause, Deut. xvii. 8. If however this particle is re- 
peated, its influence is immediate : e. g. "H^nn ]^ 
BETWEEN the light, and BETWEEN the darkness, Gen. i. 4. 

ART. 241. 15.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 365 

15. From what has been said on the primitive and derived signi- 
fications of words (Art. 144.), it will be easy to conceive how cases 
may occur, in which it will be exceedingly difficult to ascertain the 
precise force of these particles ; and consequently, the relation 
between words which they are intended to point out and define. 
Generally, however, either the primitive, or one or other of the 
derived, senses of the particle, considered in conjunction with the 
context, will afford us sufficient light. But here Noldius should be 

16. The following instances, taken from Glassius, are 
intended to shew how these particles influence certain 
modes of expression ; *7TT7$ T^FID 1371 they proceed 
FROM strength TO strength, i. e. they become stronger 
and stronger, Ps. Ixxxiv. 8; 1K '"WT 7 ^ '""W12 ^ f or 
they go FROM evil to evil, i. e. they become worse and 
worse, Jer. ix. 2. 

For similar expressions in the Greek Testament, see Rom. i. 17, 
vi. 19, 2 Cor. iii. 18, Phil. ii. 27, &c. 

17. Of the particles which signify motion towards/)" 

* So in the Arabic &^-^ ,J' ^^"^ /./* from part to part, i.e. proceeding 

on. Tale of Sindbad, Ed. Langles, p. ', &c. So also x^ptv dvri 

grace for grace, i. e. an increase or excess of grace, far surpassing that of the 

Law of Moses, John i. 16. 

f In this respect the postposition H , the prepositions 7S, 737, 137 , and 
7, are found to have the same, or very nearly the same, force. From the con- 

struction and sense in which this particle is found, there is good reason for 


supposing, that it is the same with I which is said to mark the Arabic accusa- 
tive; and it is probably derived from the same root. No one I think can 

read n^"]^ ^TCySOT\ cast it to the earth, Exod. iv. 3, and *o 

&c. Surat of Joseph, without being struck with the identity of the expression 
in each case, especially when we know that the nasal of the Arabic is dis- 
regarded in common conversation. In this case too, we have no intervening 

particle ; yet, in other cases, we find each of these verbs construed also with 

-I w i' 

^,7, vM, 737, ]D, as may be seen in Castell; and the conclusion must be, 
that the particle prefixed in the one case, must be equivalent to the H post- 
fixed in the other. 

366 LECTURE XVIII. ART. 241. 17.)] 

or rest in, a place, the following are examples. The 
first fT is, more properly a postposition like the Latin 
versus: e. g. HDlp D^N^SH \3$ 1N2^1 and two of the 
angels came TO Sodom, Gen. xix. 1 ; "^ K3JSr"I^Ni Tjy 
rryjU^ ^"IN until I come in UNTO my Lord TOWARDS 
Seir, Gen. xxxiii. 14. 

See Gen. x. 19, xii. 5, xlvi. 1. 4, Deut. ii. 13, 1 Kings xviii. 45, 
xix. 15, Jer. xxix. 15, Jon. i. 3. In the following passages ' is 
also prefixed, Ps. ix. 18, 1 Chron. xxvi. 17. See Art. 180. 15. 16. 

18. In the following *?& seems to have the same force 

with i : .... ijratr^ 'nfc i-qj? wyhx *ip8J. ^8 

JTJJJZpa iTJjMprr^N &c. as for me, (I am) to fo g*- 

thered TO my people ; bury me: TO my fathers, TO 
cave .... IN the cave, &c., Gen. xlix. 29, 30. 

But here the particle vM refers in every case to the verb *)$?. , 
and 3 in v. 30, to ^r 1 )? ; and, if so, these particles retain their usual 
and proper signification. So 1 Kings viii. 30 ; n$I^n J ?M riSBtth 

SEfifri nrii mn Dipan-bN ^VpQjp'j -itttej *?%njp\ ^K33?i ^i^v 

Q^^n-b ^^tt? Dlpp'b and attend thou to the supplication of 
thy servant and of thy people Israel, mho shall pray TOWARDS this 
place ; and give ear thou TO the place of thy dwelling, TOWARDS 

The last two words here (Q^^^'vN) must, I think, be referred 
to the preceding 1 'V^^ > an( ^ if so tne construction will be 
regular and the signification of the particle 7N constant. Con- 
structions of this sort are frequent, and are looked upon as elegant 
in the Arabic. 

Of this character are the following passages, which, in any other 
point of view, are very obscure, Hos. x. 4 ; ^V ttStfte tt?rfi3 rTOl 
"Hip "'Pyf? and judgment blossoms forth just as hemlock (does) on 
the furrows of the field, i. e. abundant and deleterious, Isa. i. 12: 

: vn^rj obn O3-? s a n^T B^a^o ^35 nis-jb *\fon ^3 n ] ien ye 

come crawling in my courts, in order to be seen by me, (i. e. in this 
abject hypocritical manner), mho hath sought this (sort of sacrifice, 
mentioned just before) at your hands ? Ps. Ixiii. 2. 3 ; 1? *^^Pi| 

Tfmq anp? 15 : D? < " l ?a ^sn n^-v"i? "nipa if? nbs nJba 

t f ^"bi?^ Tf-^ nisi 1 ? j|/y 5 OM/ Aa<A thirsted for thee, my flesh hath 
become faint (for want) of thee, to see thy power and thy glory, 

ART. 241. 18.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 367 

even as I have seen thee In the sanctuary, (being now) in a land of 
drought and weakness (and) without water, Ps. Ixviii. 19; ^ f ^ 

PP ibttfb D^TTID nsi OTN3 rrfawa nnpb ^nts? rpntz? nin^b 

T ' : ; '-; TTT T - T :'~T T-T T ~ 

E^rOS thou, O Lord God, hast ascended up on high (there) to 
dwell ; thou hast taken captivity captive (i. e. hast overcome the 
great enemy and subduer of man) ; thou hast received gifts for man 
(i. e. mankind), nay even (for) the rebellious ones. 

Instances of this sort are numerous in the Psalms, book of Job, 
and in the Prophets, in all of which we should be careful to bring 
those parts together, the constructions of which are homogeneous. 
When this is done we shall find, that the significations and con- 
structions of the particles are neither so numerous nor so various 
as commentators have made them. 



242. Words standing in the situation of conjunctions 
in the Hebrew, are subject to the laws of apposition 
and definite construction, just as other words are. In 
many instances, indeed, they are the very words which, 
at other times, are used as pronouns, adverbs, or preposi- 
tions ; the situation alone in which they are found, giving 
them the character of conjunctions. A few such as 1, 
DH, &c.* are used only as conjunctions. 

* The first of these seems to be derived from 11 a hook, connector, &c. and 
consequently, to signify, in addition, besides, and, &c. The second is probably 

from the word +?- multiplying, becoming abundant, or the like, and equivalent 
to our moreover, much more, Stc. See Storr, p. 337. 

368 LECTURE XIX. [[ART. 242. 2. 

Examples in which the Relative Pronoun "l&'K is used as a 


h^tyD Kim^ VlNttf KT] AND Saul saw THAT 
(QUOD) he (was) intelligent, 1 Sam. xviii. 15 ; ntyj? ")K7* 
I^^H'n^ "P"T (because) THAT David did what (was) 
right, &c., i. e. quod fecit, &c., 1 Kings xv. 5 ; 3^1 
n^H^3 jHKPT^ "l^C 1 ftw ^ ^ ^^ returns to the earth 
like WHAT it was, Eccl. xii. 7. 

2. Of adverbs, prepositions, &c. simple or compound : 
"T^S'DK ^ /3 UNLESS TRULY A >&#0<? taken, Amos iii. 4 ; 
^f)t3 ^5 3# consequence THAT tf^ow ^#^ despised me, 
i. e. because that, &c. 2 Sam. xii. 10 ; VDV l^tf 3j?# 


Abraham hath heard my voice, Gen. xxvi. 5. 

So DN 1^ wnfjV, Ruth ii. 21 ; "18^8 1^ until that which, Jonah 
iv. 5 ; "'tpy ^V w/)o that 7vhich, whereupon, Deut. xxix. 24 ; "*? v!& 
7c?., Jud. iii. 12 ; "'^ ~ I 5' : I" ^^ upon the affair which; because; 
Itp^ nnri Deut. xxi. 14; ^? rinJ? beneath that which; because; 
Prov. i. 29 ; ^?$ 11?^? for the purpose of which ; because ; &c. 
Ezek. xx. 26. To these a great number of others may be added. 

3. The following passages are apparently elliptical, but really 
not so, when the force of the particles is seen : Q^ltf? ^T. ^P'TD 
: OH7~ >( ri7Il7 they have strengthened the hands of the evil doers, on 
account of their not having returned, fyc., i. e., because they have not 
returned from their evil mays, Jer. xxiii. 14. 

The word ^79 deficiency, &c. is very nearly equivalent to ? 
not, the particle v is added as before (Art. 241.): and the verb ^{J7 
is manifestly in the preterite tense. The sense seems to be, that it 
is because none have returned from their evil ways, that the hands 
of sinners have been so much strengthened ; and not, that none may 
return, the sense usually taken. So Is. xiv. 6, rnil^Sl D^ffi^ HSM 

D ^72 n3K> n ho strikes the people in wrath, a stroke (that) hath 

* But in many cases "12?W stands in the place of a subordinate nominative 
absolute. See Art. 216. 13. 

ART. 242. 3/] ON THE SYNTAX. 369 

NOT departed. Here fl?*? is evidently in the definite state of con- 
struction with ''fiba, to which ""^3 is added as a verb ; and, as it 
is contrary to the genius of every Oriental language to negative the 
noun, the force of this negative combination must eventually 
influence the verb thus, " a stroke without having passed away," 
i. e. continual. So we say in English, in-finite, never-ending, and the 
like, when we wish to express the indefinite continuity of any thing. 
In like manner : Deut. viii. 20, "j^Etpn rib 2p9 BECAUSE (that) 
you mill NOT hear ; or, of your not hearing ; taking rib as a noun 
signifying deficiency, lack, want, or the like. See also Gen. xxii. 16, 
xxvii. 5, xxxviii. 11, Num. xi. 20, 1 Kings xxii. 42, Ps. cxix. 136. 
And more particularly with Infinitives or verbal nouns, Num. xiv. 16, 
Judg. vi. 18, Is. xlviii. 4, Ix. 15, 2 Chron. xxviii. 6. 

4. It is not meant to be affirmed, however, that this sort of con- 
struction is universally adhered to. The truth is, it is very much 
left to the writer either to express himself thus, or to employ a 
greater number of words ; and what is most remarkable, we 
sometimes find both methods adopted in the same context : e. g. T-? 

raah ^n Tn^N nw TO : *pns naq awn-rate & c . until 

THAT (time in) WHICH the heat of thy brother shall turn away : 
UNTIL THE TURNING AWAY ofthy brother's anger from thee : AND (until) 
HE HAVE FORGOTTEN, &c. Gen. xxvii. 44 5 ; '37 . . . nttfbl^ bl? 

itf rib vp r n (-lEkrbvi) njrp min-nsi nosa O N ACCOUNT OF 

three .... ON ACCOUNT of their despising the Ian of Jehovah, AND 
(on the account that) they have not kept his statutes, Amos ii. 4. 
See also 1 Sam. iv. 19, 1 Kings xviii. 18, Is. x. 2, xxx. 12, 
xxxvii. 29, Jer. vii. 13. So the word B"lto not yet, is found twice 
in Zeph. ii. 2, with rib,_rib Bn&a. 

5. It is the opinion of Schrcederus (R. 105.), that 1 lest, and 
CM if, surely, &c. imply an ellipsis of some other word or words : 
as, bTIUyr^S (/ mill take care) lest thou take away, &c., Gen. 
xxxi. 31. I can see no necessity for this. The real meaning of 
the word "J-? is, seeing, observing, or the like, from the root <^32 ; 
and if so, the passage may be rendered thus : I feared, for I said, 
SEEING THOU (mighlest) TAKE AWAY, &c. So in the other passage 
cited, viz. 2 Kings ii. 16, <TJrP rTTl 'iBr79 SEEING (that) the 
Spirit of Jehovah (might) HAVE TAKEN HIM UP. So also with 
respect to the particle BM : 2 Sam. xi. 11, ^0? ^m *fTl 
H-tn -mn-nS nbS-BN ( as ) thy life and the life of thy soul (exists, 
so) SURELY shall I do this thing? And again, Gen. xxiv. 37, 38, 

B B 

370 LECTURE XIX. [[ART. 242. 6. 

SB?'' ^bw, & c ., and my Lord 

snore me, saying, Take not a wife for my son from the daughters of 
the Canaanite, in whose land I dwell: SURELY not. Go thou to 
my father's house, &c. And at v. 41, Wfon rp ^nbsa npan TN 

yree yrom wzz/ oath (i. e.), w/tew t/jow shall come to my kindred, and 
(upon the condition that, putting the matter on this issue) they mill 
SURELY NOT give her to thee, then shall thou be free from my oath, 
i. e. from the oath which I made thee swear. 

6. There is perhaps no real ellipsis in any one of the passages in 
which this particle is found. This, however, will depend very 
much on the signification which we attach to it, and on the nature 
of the construction in which it is found ; both of which we shall now 
endeavour to explain. 

7. If we derive this particle from 7^^ fam, steady, permanent, 
and hence, sure, surely, true, trust-worthy, faithful, and the like, 
and suppose it to be of the primitive form 1PN (see Art. 151.), 
which will make the elision of the 1 necessary (Art. 76.), then we 
shall have EN meaning, surely, truly, certainly, &c. which is perhaps 
its real force in every instance. 

8. We have seen (Art. 237, note), that in hypothetical sentences, 
enunciations are generally made as of facts, not as of opinions. If 
then we propose the certainty of one fact, with some strong asseve- 
ration in one member of a sentence, and compare another with it as 
equally certain of occurrence in another, we shall do nothing more 
than what is always done in oaths in the Hebrew, when this word 
is employed in one of the members. In some cases these construc- 
tions will imply a negation, and hence this particle has been often 
so interpreted.* There is a passage, viz. Ruth iii. 12, which seems 

S Zf 

* It is very nearly allied in signification and usage to the Arabic y;' or <.;', 

which will occasionally involve a negation, and always an asseveration : but 

more nearly in form to *!, which 13 thought to be derived from a word, 

4- s *. s I, 

signifying root, origin, &c. In like manner U- or ?4 surely in or by the 
truth, is used in the Arabic in swearing. See Gol. Lex. sub. voce. According 

ART. 242. 8.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 371 

to confirm the etymology just given: 
"^2H awrf now that (it is) Zrwe : for TRULY, SURELY, I am a Gael, or 
near kinsman. This word has been rejected by the Masorets in 
this passage, but without any good reason for doing so. In this 
place, and perhaps in most others, the words EN and E3XiN may be 
substituted the one for the other, and the sense will remain perfectly 
the same: e. g. Job xix. 5, VWttft? pSp) "fiM VVatf OaipM-^MI. 
and even (let it be) TRUE, SURE, (that) I have erred, with myself lodges 
my error. So Is. iv. 4, 5, -rTJTP. M-J!M . . . & c ____ ^M VCTJ CM 
TRULY JAe Lord shall mash . . . then shall Jehovah certainly create, 
&c. And in Job xix. 5, 6, we have both these particles occurring 
together, either for the purpose of strengthening the asseveration, 
or for qualifying both the prodosis and apodosis found in the con- 

text : e. g. -srcn : vie-in -<b3? sirppi'rn ib^ri ^ MPN-DH 

> 9^l^ ? ' '?"'? ^^' & c - SURELY, ye TRULY, or CONSTANTLY, magnify 
yourselves, or speak great things against me, and contend against 
me (to) my reproach; (so) know ye now, that God hath bent me 
(down), c. 

9. The following example seems to involve a negation : 

osTiy M-taa-CM >? n? -IM^-I-CM nina >n & c . ( as ) the life of 

Pharaoh (exists), (so) TRULY shall ye go forth hence, but ESPE- 
CIALLY, TRULY, REALLY, upon the coming in of your brother, Gen. 
xlii. 15. That is, as certainly as the one thing exists, the other 
being made to appear equally so, no less certain shall your libera- 
tion be : but not before this condition is complied with. On this 
principle, I think, every instance in which this particle occurs can be 
solved. That it is redundant, or that it has been omitted by the 

to Mr. de Sacy, this particle is negative when the verb preceding it im- 
plies negation. Gram. Arab., vol. ii., Art. 667. In the examples following, 
however, in which he has treated it as a pleonasm, he has entirely mistaken its 
force, especially as he himself has cited the Arabians in Art. 671, giving it the 

S ex 

title of &*?ji or corroboration. In every instance given by him, certainly, 

surely, moat certainly, or the like, will supply the sense of the passage. See 
Art. 651 2. 668 : i. e. putting the case either positively, or negatively, some 
consequence will, or will not, certainly come to pass ; which is a kind of 
swearing. But more on this subject in a tract which I intend shortly to; pub- 

B B 2 

372 LECTURE XIX. [[ART. 242. 10. 

ellipsis, as affirmed by Noldius, p. 69, &c. I deny : because every 

passage adduced by him can be accounted for, without having 

recourse to those suppositions. 

10. From what has been said on the use and signi- 
fication of some of these words, it will be easy to con- 
ceive how they may be used, either in their simple or 
compound state, for the purpose of connecting together 
such parts of a discourse, as the speaker or writer may 
wish should be considered in connection with one an- 
other : e. g. fn.n ntf") D?D$n n$ *m he created tlw 
heavens AND the earth, Gen. i. 1. So in the next verse : 
IfDJ liin njrn jHNni AND (as to) the earth, it was 
emptiness AND a vacuity, &c. in which these particles are 
said to be Copulative; in others they are said to be 
Disjunctive (better, Distinctive), Conditional, Causal, 
or Conclusive, according to the signification of the pas- 
sage in which they are found. The following are a few 
examples of each case. 

Examples of Copulative Conjunctions. 

11. nifin i3?. n$J~"l#K HID it is a good, THAT 
one becomingly eat and drink, &c. Eccl. v. 17 ; 
D?r# n^-qj; glD'TK Kim : and he was ruddy WITH 
(being) beautiful of eyes, 1 Sam. xvi. 12 ; "T^n? in3J|T1 
l3")n Tjn THO1 &c. AND he gave it to David, EVEN his 
garments AND EVEN TO his sword, &c. Ib. xviii. 4. 

See also Gen. vii. 23. In many cases there is an apparent excess 
in the use of the copulative conjunctions, which has been termed by 
the Grammarians irohvavvOeTov, see Gen. xxv. 34, xliii. 8, Jos. 
vii. 11,2 Kings ii. 14, Ps. cvii. 37, &c. and in the New Testament, 
John x. 27, 28, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, 2, 3, &c. perhaps to excite attention 
only. See Art. 222. 7. 

12. In other instances they are omitted, for the purpose of 
exhibiting the order of events, &c. the more closely or rapidly 
in succession, as in the Latin, " Veni, vidi, vici" &c. See 

ART. 242. 13.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 373 

Exod. xv. 9, Judg. v. 27, 1 Sam. xv. 6, &c. This has been termed 

By the former of these distribution is sometimes intended ; as, 
^5?- '"'r^l both Aiya and Ana, Gen. xxxvi. 24 ; D'IDT 2D~H fofA 
chariot and horse, Ps. Ixxvi. 7, &c. See Art. 216. 17, 18. 

13. Examples of Disjunctive (i. e. Distinctive or Distributive} 
Conjunctions ; f??lE3 IN* H1N *pvN ^n3"l anc l he shall give thee a 
sign OR a wonder, Deut. xiii. 2 ; lU^' 'N N'Oan IS EITHER the pro- 
phet OR a priest, Jer. xxiii. 33. 

This particle, however, is often construed as conjunctive, adversa- 
tive, or, conditional. See Noldius sub voce, and Glass. Phil. Sacr., 
p. 524, &c. where similar usages are collected from the New 
Testament. It is also occasionally omitted by the ellipsis. See 
1 Sam. xx. 12, 2 Kings ix. 32, Is. xvii. 6, Ib. xxxviii. 14, Jer. 
xi. 19, &c. See Noldius, p. 4. 

Examples of Conditional, Causal, and Conclusive, Con- 

14. nSDri *ln ____ O^Tra B^Hrj M SHOULD there be 

Jifty righteous .... wilt thou also destroy, &c. 1 Gen. xviii. 24 ; 
"JJpbrn ""lay "OT^'BN IF (or TRULY) thou go with me, then I mill 
surely go, Jud. iv. 8. But here the cases are put as positive, 
Art. 242. 8. Under this head may also be arranged the particles 
EN and ^b~DS of asseveration and swearing, &c. See No. 5, &c. 

15. The Causals are for the most part, 15, DK ^, ^tHf, 

*>, ^3 ]^!,ybr, whereupon, therefore, because, under 
or upon (the consideration that), &c. ; 813K N 1 ? ^ &c. 
that I may not come, &c., 1 Sam. xxix. 8 ; 

* Noldius derives this particle from HIM velle, i. e. (H^W Art. 74. IN and 
Art. 87. 1 . SN) just as the Latin vel from t-eWe. So in Persian we have S'^=>- 

0^ C x- 

used in the same signification, from tt /* rt *5* 1 ' to rfcs/re, uu's/j, &c. 

374- LECTURE XIX. [[ART. 242. 1C. 

therefore I hope, Lam. iii. 21 ; *JQ^ \^.7 because of thy 
name, 1 Kings viii. 41, &c. 

It would be endless to give examples of every case ; we must 
therefore refer the Reader to Noldius and Glassius as before. 

16. Of the Conclusive conjunctions it will be unne- 
cessary to say any thing. Those which are used as 
Causals in one place, may be employed as Conclusive in 
another ; the position and context being the only means 
by which the peculiar character and bearing of these 
words can be ascertained. 

Of the Interjections. 

243. These are words either insignificant as to their 
etymology ; as, in in oh oh ! "in O ! ntf n ahah ! 
^itf alas! nnx alas! or, significant: as, N3* U P T?J 
nj>?, 13?, goto! ("OH give! nWn profane! And, 
according to Schrrederus, "n.t^N blessings! Ps. i. 1, 
1 Kings x.8, Prov.xxix. 18, &c., which will be pronounced 
in a manner expressive of intreaty, aversion, pleasure, 
pain, excitation, &c. according to the intention of the 
Speaker. Examples : liTin 1")Jpfc$ <l they shall say, OH ! 
OH ! Amos v. 16 ; "'HiJ ^in O my brother ! Jer. xxii. 18 ; 
W25 HNn AHAH, our desire ! Ps. xxxv. 25 ; DB^3^ vftf 
ALAS, for them! Is. iii. 9; Div HnN ALAS, for the day! 
Joel i. 15 ; ntfitf/ ^ GO TO, Jo (it), 2 Sam. vii. 3 ; nan 
nT"\3. GIVE fwpj, GRANT (or the like), /^ us descend, 
Gen. xi. 7 ; NJ 1"11D proceed ye, MARK, OBSERVE ! Num. 
xvi. 26 ; '37&TF^fe KJ' 7 !^ Ds ^ If if *> e ( so 

* Imperat. a S|J3 surrexit, Schrced. R. 106. So in Golius, in the third conj. 
but in the first, which I would rather take, " Intendit, proposuit sibi . . . custo- 
clivil, servavit, &c." The meaning will then be, look. 1 observe .' preserve! 

Hence the phrase *D) V^'y may God preserve Ihee .' Ih. 

ART. 243. 2.)] ON THE SYNTAX. 375 

ATTEND (as) one prospering my journey, Gen. xxiv. 42 ; 
men N7 H? vFI ABOMINABLE ! FORBID IT ! thou slialt not 
die, 1 Sam. xx. 2 ; HiiTD *h H Wn ABOMINABLE to me ! 
from (or, as forbidden by} Jehovah, Ib. xxvi. 11. 

See also 1 Kings xxi. 3, 2 Sam. xxiii. 17, 1 Chron. xi. 19. 
Glassius, Schrcederus, &c. however, supply ^^70 imputabitur, by 
the ellipsis in this place ; see p. 550. Phil. Sacr. and Schrred. 
Gram., Rule 106. Synt. 
2. There are a few others, viz. N3K or flUK, the same 

T T f T ' 

perhaps with $3 ; and M2* attend, ?Afw?, or the like, "^ woe, 
alas ; r\7Q felix ! happy ! or the like. Examples : 

^3 nrrWH m'rp KUK KJ rur^in m'rv> KUK o Jehovah! 

T T':- T : TIT T T 1 T:TIT 

save NOW ; O Jehovah ! give NOW prosperity, Ps. 
cxviii. 25 (see Art. 234.) ; W1DT JTirp H3K O Jehovah! 

v ' T T : T : T IT 

remember NOW, 2 Kings xx. 3 ; 13"]"! T "'^T ^?"^^ ^ ATTEND, 
?wy Zorc?, w^ truly came down, &c., Gen. xliii. 20 ; "=}/ ^ 
"IjUJ ^jste?^ ^1 WOE /o M^, O land, whose king is a 
boy, Eccl. x. 16 ; ft HJl^l^ |^ ^3^ Dnpfc D^l 
Jl7p D^n/^n zwy .yj/ o/ 1 wzy ^owZ, ^/z^r^ is no salvation 

for him in God. PRAISE ! Ps. iii. 3 ; ^n tqpX rn.T'^ 
f n?p 1t^! ")nP ^ Jehovah do I cry, and he answers me 

from his holy Mil. PRAISE ! Ib. v. 5 ; ?jr\yp ^ ^ 
n?p WJOOTZ /% people (is) My blessing. PRAISE ! J Ib. 

* " Vox dolentis et supplicantis," says Noldius : which he derives from "f^l 

i 7 ' 
as *n is from HVH ..." notans consolationem, recrealionem," as (.^O with 

^S-O X ^ 

the Syrians, and *JJi ^'^ "recreet et consoletur te Deus," among the Arabs. 
Concord, part. p. 175. 

f Those who wish to see the various opinions entertained on the origin and 
meaning of this word may consult Noldius, Concord. Part. Annotationes et Vin- 
dicise, num. 1877. For my own part, I believe it to be descended from the root 

-La he blessed, &c., and used not unlike the word amen, or the doxology 
among ourselves. 

J It the Psalms were originally sung or chanted in the Temple by two 

376 LECTURE XX. [[ART. 244. 



244. After what has been said on the composition of incomplex 
and simple propositions (Art. 212.), in addition to what has been 
stated and exemplified on the concordance and government of 
words, it cannot be necessary to exemplify our rules by adducing 
and accounting for complex and compound propositions, as they 
occur in this language. We shall, therefore, now shew in what 
way this has been done by the authors of the accents. 

On the Distinctive Powers of the Tonic Accents. 

245. It has already been remarked (Artt. 58. 59.), that these ac- 
cents have been supposed to have the property of dividing sentences 
into their several members, just as our comma, semicolon, colon, 
and period, do. Nothing can be more likely, than that the Maso- 
rets, or, whoever else they were who affixed the vowel points to the 
Hebrew text, would apply some system to it, whereby the mutual 
dependence of its several parts upon one another would also be 
pointed out. It has been shewn, that these accents (Artt. 60. 64.) 
also serve to mark the accented syllable in any word, as also that 
which sustains a secondary kind of accent. 

2. But as they differ considerably from one another in shape 
and name, they may also have been intended to point out the 
grammatical relations of words, or of sentences, to one another. 
The Jews have attached certain musical notes to each of these 
marks, which may be seen in the Bibliotheca Rabbinica of Bar- 

parties in a sort of dialogue, in which the one responded to the other, and both 
joined occasionally in a kind of chorus, as has been well supposed and main- 
tained by Lowth and others, no word could, perhaps, be more suitable than this 
for such occasional chorus : and hence perhaps the A/a^A/x of the Seventy, 
and the ^b^b Sac. for ever, of the Chaldee. See Nold. num. 1877., as 

ART. 245. 3.3 ON THE SYNTAX. 377 

tollocci (vol. iv. p. 427, &c.); or in the second volume of the 
Hebrew Grammar by Guarin (page 329, &c.) :* but this is not to 
be wondered at. There has always existed a predilection for a 
sort of chanting in divine worship. The Mahomedans chant their 
Koran, and we ourselves still continue to chant several parts of our 
ritual in the cathedral and collegiate churches. 

3. It is not our intention to detain the Learner long on this sub- 
ject : we shall merely lay down a few of the general principles 
which regulate the accents, with a few examples by way of illus- 
tration, referring to other Writers for further particulars. 

4. In considering the nature and application of the accents, we 
have nothing to do with the grammatical or purely formal govern- 
ment of words (Art. 215. 5.). The logical import of passages is 
all we can now be concerned with ; and this may be considered in 
two points of view. The first is, that which respects the construc- 
tion of phrases, as of nouns in immediate or mediate apposition or 
construction, or of verbs with their apparent nominatives, or com- 
plementary words : in all which the connection is considered and 
represented, as being the closest possible. The second is, the 
combination of such phrases, or sentences, in the construction of 
periods ; and in this the connection will be considered and repre- 
sented, as more or less close or dependent, according to the inten- 
tion of the Writer. 

5. For the first of these cases, accents have been adopted, which 
have been termed Servants or Ministers, and which are rarely 
found in any other situation : for the second, two systems of accen- 
tuation are found to prevail in the Hebrew Bible : one peculiar to 
the Books which are generally termed Prosaic ; the other to those 
which are said to be Poetical. The Poetical Books are, Job ^i s N, 
Proverbs ^^ , and the Psalms ^ V"?*; 1 ; termed by the Rabbins 
riEN , which is a technical word, formed out of the initials of the 
names above mentioned. All the rest of the Books are said to be 

6. We shall first lay down a few rules for the prosaic, and after- 
wards, for the poetical, books. 

7. The following table gives the relative powers, and the order 

* Where we also have them in score, so that we can convert any part of the 
Hebrew Bible into a Quartett whenever we please ! 



[[ART. 246. 

of consecution, of the several accents : it has been taken from 
a Hebrew Grammar of considerable merit, which appeared for 
the third time at Vienna in 1810, by one Jehuda Leb Ben Zeb. 
This is adapted to the prosaic Books of the Bible only, and is 
sufficiently correct and extensive for our present purpose. Should 
the Student wish to pursue this subject to a greater length, he 
may consult the elaborate work of Ouseel, the Biblia Accen- 
tuata of Daschelius,* or the " Doctrina Accentuationis Hebraeae" 
by Daniel Weimar, f which last is certainly the best work I have 
seen on the subject; I have, therefore, generally followed it. 
See the Table of Accents (Art. 58. &c.) 

246. A Table pointing out the Rank, Order, and Powers, of 
the different Accents. 












: p"f?o 



^tip Hpt 











^p ^ipt 



i , 








H : 
















it r i 










// , -, 

a Ntt^n 








* Lipsite, 1729. 

Lipsiac, 1709. 

ART. 246. 2.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 379 

2. The reader will find considerable difference between this 
table, and that given by Ouseel* in his elaborate work on the 
Hebrew accents. Ouseel's table is much larger, and contains 
several instances of the power and consecution of the accents not 

U * i. 
to be found here. Shalshelcth, \ r\ ,& sW } for example, with 

Pesik, is placed among the subdistinctives, which does not occur 
at all in our table. Yerdch also is among the conjunctives, of 

which we have not a vestige here. Zakeph gddol, vTfa ?pT 

and Segoltd v1HD or MnvHD, are also found among the greatest 
distinctives in consecution, to which several more, found in other 
places, may be added. 

3. I have not translated the terms employed by the Hebrew 
Grammarian, but have used those which appeared to me the most 

4. It will be perceived, that many of the words are abbreviated : 

as H } for N^TS, which is the same with Geresh (Art. 59.), the 
mark for which is placed above the M . In every other case, the 
form of the accent meant is placed over the initial letter of its 

" p . Qlf 

name : as, 3n Telisha Gedola, pfl Telisha Ketanna, and so of 

others. In one instance we have T^P^, i. e. Zakeph gadol and 
Zakeph katon. The syllable id. is to shew, that the accent above 
is also to be used here. 

5. It will be unnecessary to explain the different names given to 
the several classes of accents in the tables, as Emperors, Kings, 
&c. ; every one will see, that a greater or less dependence, observed 
in the relation of phrases or sentences one to another, is intended 
to be pointed out by these titles. 

6. It should also be observed, that, in the above table, the 
accents greatest in rank, or, in other words, which point out those 
phrases, &c. which have the least dependence upon others, are 
placed uppermost : and, that those which accompany the closing 
word of any sentence, or member of a sentence, are placed at the 
left side. Silluk P i?&, for example, ranks highest, and is placed 
in the left-hand column. Its office, therefore, is to close a period. 

* " Tabula accentuationis," prefixed to his " Introductio in acceutuationem 
IJebrtBorum prosaicam. Lugd. Batav. 1715. 

380 LECTURE XX. [[ART. 246. 7. 

7. In the next place, as these leading accents are situated at the 
close of a sentence, or of a member of a sentence, and are placed 
in the left-hand column of the table, we must look towards the 
right hand for those which should either immediately, or more 
remotely, precede them. In this point of view, therefore, Mercd 
N3~lE, will be found to attend on, or to precede, Silluk, as its 

8. The second accent (proceeding downwards) in the left-hand 
column, is Aihn&kh f3nM. This accent, therefore, is the next 
inferior to Silluk ; and is usually found to close a larger member of 
a sentence. To the right of Athndkh we find Munakh n J 3>1 ^, in 
the capacity of a minister or servant. Athndkh, therefore, is to be 
considered, as usually accompanied by Munakh. 

9. In the same manner, proceeding downwards, and again to the 
right, we shall find the several accents with their attendants, 
which are supposed to mark the members of a sentence, each 
having a less dependence on one another than the preceding. 

10. We have now explained the use of the two first columns 
containing the distinctive, and their several accompanying, accents. 
Let us now proceed to the other three, containing the small, 
greater, and greatest, distinctive accents. 

11. If we can suppose a period to consist of several sentences, 
or members of sentences, we can also suppose that each of these 
will have a greater or less dependence on one another, with respect 
to signification. The Author, from whom our table is taken, is of 
opinion (and with him all other writers on this subject agree), that 
phrases, considerably removed from the end of a verse or period, 
have less dependence on those which immediately follow them, 
than others have on those nearer its conclusion. Hence he has 
supposed, that the first of these, considered in the capacity of 
distinctive, will have a greater dependence on those which imme- 
diately follow them, than others will, which are farther removed 
from the end of the period, &c. Hence, these have been termed 
small, the next greater, and the next or last, the greatest, distinc- 
tives. Now, most of these, considered as distinctives, will also be 
found in the left-hand column, their servants or attendants will be 
always found there also, in the next, or right-hand column, as 
already explained. 

12. Hence it should seem, that, for the most part, every second 
accent, counting from the end of a period or sentence, and pro- 

ART. 247.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 381 

ceeding backwards towards its beginning, will be a distinctive one : 
and that, immediately to its right, will be found its attendant or 
servant. And this is found to be the case. In the above table, 
therefore, we shall have the order of the accents for a very great 
variety of cases. That they are not all found here, must be 
certain, from the consideration, that there are several accents in 
use not to be found in this table at all. But, as our limits will 
not allow us to enter fully into this subject, we have deemed our 
table sufficient for the present. Let us now proceed to our rules 
and illustrations. 

247. Words in apposition or construction, either immediate or 
mediate, will be connected by a conjunctive accent; as, <TJTP 
DVfts the Lord God, Gen. iii. 1 ; OTTOM TO Abraham's servant, 
Gen. xxiv. 33 ; *%$**$ n one of a thousand, Job ix. 3. So 
' 7M the God of him who is near, &c. Jer. xxiii. 23 ; T3$ 

servant and maiden, Gen. xxxii. 6 ; ?nj? "*!"?.?.? in way 
(and) in way, i. e. in the common roads, Deut. ii. 27. .. .^?p ^n 
a sword (nay) a sword. . . . Ezek. xxi. 14; "T^a TSa exceedingly, 
exceedingly, Numb. xiv. 7 ; ^ffil 1$ rvit ^ a mighty hand, Exod. 
iii. 19. 

2. The same is the case when the construction is distinctive (Art. 
225.): as, D"!?? ^ clean (of) hands, Ps. xxiv. 4; ^n^-13 pure 
(of) heart, Ib.* 

3. The same holds good when one of the words so connected 
occupies the place of an adverb, or specificative (p. 288. note) : 
D0? fOp sudden fear, Prov. iii. 24 ; n&a biSttf the grave be- 
neath, Ib. xv. 24. 

4. The numerals are similarly connected with the thing num- 
bered, as are also particles with the words with which they are to 
be construed. To which also may be added verbs, when repeated 
for the purpose of giving greater emphasis, or when succeeding one 
another in order to vary the sense ; or, as found with, or without, 
the connecting particles. 

5. The verb is generally connected with its apparent nominative 
(Art. 216.), by means of a conjunctive accent; as, E^rl^N N"12 
God created, Gen. i. 1 ; D i?N "^^j! and Abram said, Ib. xv. 2. 

* Makkaph is to be considered as a conjunctive accent here and elsewhere. 
The distinctive accent here is a compound (see p. 26.), not found in our table. 

382 LECTURE XX. ART. 247. 6. 

6. The word complementary of the signification of a verb (Art. 
228, &c.), or its objective case, is frequently connected with it in 
the same way ; as, nbnyH ^^ they made war, Gen. xiv. 2. 

7. Also when a particle intervenes : as, ^^ "H/H^ walking with 
them, Gen. xviii. 16. There are many exceptions, however, to 
this rule. 

8. When more than two words, immediately following each 
other, stand in the same apparent relation to one another, those 
which are more immediately connected together in signification 
will have a conjunctive accent, the others disjunctive ones, accord- 
ing to the relation in which they are found with the former ; as, 

rjT gold and silver, and (also) brass, Exod. xxv. 3. So, 

U$n a breast-plate, an ephod, and (also) a robe, Ib. 
xxviii. 4. 

9. This holds good in members of sentences, verbs, &c. having 
such relations to each other ; as, Dn'3pa'b3"nM1 : nrranijrbs nS1 ; 
1TJS flVn bs-nM") and all their cattle, and all their flocks, and 
all their power, they spoiled, Num. xxxi. 9 ; t^nS'^bl. biarTN-^ 1 ? 
Dn*]S rfyl I mil neither suffer, nor spare, nor have mercy, Jer. 
xiii. 14. 

10. Also, when they are not all of the same person ; as, H^l^? 
IVfott? 1 ]'] itTlTN'! Let me speak, and attest, and they shall hear, Jer. 
vi. 10. 

11. Numerals are similarly connected; as, B?pNXM B'n^E'J 2!2B? 
seven and twenty and two hundred. See Gen. v. xi. &c. 

12. In all these cases, the two first words or sentences, so occur- 
ring, are connected in accordance with the rule. In the following, 
the two last are, for the same reason : as, "^Y! ^"IM? 7?*? corn, 
nine and oil, Deut. xxviii. 51 ; n !9 t ?h T?jP : 7^? flocks, and men- 
servants and maid-servants, Gen. xxxii. 6. 

13. The same will hold good in any number of words, subject to 

a similar regimen ; as, rrinbfpni bnaan nrinp-i sfrcasi fjoia 

with silver and with gold, and with brass and with iron, and with gar- 
ments, Josh. xxii. 8. 

14. When several nouns succeed one another, each in construc- 
tion with the following one, the leading words in the sentence 
will sometimes have disjunctive accents ; the former being always 
greater than the next in succession : or, they will be divided into 
pairs, according to the pleasure of the Writer, or, as the sense of 

ART. 247. 15-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 383 

the passage shall require ; Bn3n rnntp "T 1 .*? -1$ the superin- 
tendence of the keepers of the charge of the sanctuary, Num. iii. 32 ; 
^igrj prqP n-OS ^rjbs ffo J / Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
Exod. iii. 16. 

15. Nouns, or phrases, to be construed as nominatives absolute, 
will be distinguished from the following context by a disjunctive 
accent :* as, -in^T $nh rrjTrT VT?^! an d ( as to ) tne earth, it was 
vacuity and emptiness, Gen. i. 2 ; B?$n "5^5 n ?[TlP a<1 t^ OV]"] 
and (as to) the Spirit of God (it was) brooding upon the face of the 
waters, Ib. ; S"JN }2S CJT3Q /VlETl awrf (as to) the likeness of their 
faces (it was as) the faces of men, Ezek. i. 10. 

16. And, in the same manner, all nouns or phrases added for the 
purpose of qualifying, defining, or otherwise limiting others, but 
not so closely connected as to form phrases, &c. with them, will be 
marked by one or other of the disjunctive accents ; as, T^iJln 
t Ovia^ rPSa D^SB p / brought thee forth from the land of 
Egypt from the house of servants, Exod. xx. 2. 

The same holds good in all parenthetical passages : as, N2*l 

-n^l -!$b-n:?-ntf nfenp toia? ^.q) ''ins-ip 1 ? n'Tp-'-j^ 

HStt? p^B'^M CiWM ntp'M. n\?b^n n rf // <e JTig. of Sodom went out 
to meet him (after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, 
and of the kings ivho mere with him} at the valley of Shaveh, Gen. 
xiv. 17. And again: napl?-^ ^) SMf?^ Ba^-j D3^3 pn 

^^^jr^ 1 ^"*^ (R5-T ^ on % y our m ^ ves ) an d y our little ones, and 
your cattle (for I know that ye have much cattle), shall abide in your 

cities, Deut. iii. 19. Again: ^72 

-n^^i ^^y) n-jn 
ris (^^r' 

an ^ *'* e young men who had grown up with 

* Hence Jarchi's comment on Ezek. i. 11, which has so frequently been 
cited and misunderstood, is only intended to shew that DrPiS'l with Zakeph 


gadol is to be separated from the word following, thus ; 0(1^5331 DrP32^ 

1, X_ . J . . ~ . v : 

n^3?pv>p j"n"TnS and (as to) their faces, even their wings were spread out 
aZ>ove T (them). 'HIS words are: niD3ai DrPaDO nb^ab HITIID VH 
They were separated upwards from their faces, and covering them. 

384 LECTURE XX. [[ART. 248. 

him, spake unto him, saying. Thus shalt thou speak unto this people 
(who have spoken unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, 
but make thou it lighter unto us}, thus shalt thou say unto them, My 
little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins, 1 Kings xii. 10. 

Again: ninb $# 03ND in^ "in -is.-r 1 ? Vibp?) nBto-btf ]PP3 

D^T3?n and he gave unto Moses (when he had made an end of com- 
muning with him upon mount Sinai), the two tables of testimony, 
Exod. xxxi. 18. 

248. When a verse consists of more propositions than one, or 
of several members of a sentence, the greater distinctive accent will 
generally be found placed at the end of that proposition, or mem- 
ber, which is most complete in its signification ; or, if the context 
is sententious, at that part which marks the parallelism of the whole 
period. Example : t rn?1 Vtth#a -1231. W SB Iton b\ 
and there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse : and a 
branch out of his roots shall bear fruit, Is. xi. 1. 

2. Here, if we take the liberty to separate the context, accord- 
ing to the importance of the accents, we may write it out thus : 

: ms* Ptthnte -real *& 2t2fc -nan sm 

IVT n TIT '.V s : frr -jv v i JTT: 

3. The following example from Gen. i. 2, contains several pro- 

^rin nrrn 

And (as to) the earth (it was) emptiness and a void : 
And darkness (was) upon the face of the great deep : 
And (as to) the Spirit of God, (it was) brooding 
Upon the face of the waters. 

The terms V"?*? ! 71 and Q^H^M D^T), I take to be nominatives 
absolute, and therefore, as properly divided by distinctive accents 
from the context following (Art. 247. 15.). It should also be ob- 
served, we have three distinct propositions in this verse : the first 
ending with ^niT , having the distinctive accent Reviah ; the second 
with ^i^^ , having Athndkh ; and the third ending with Silluk 
and ( : ) Soph Pdsuk. Here also, as before, the accents distinctly 
mark the parallelism of the different members of the verse. 

ART. 248. 4.]] ON THE SYNTAX. 385 

4. In the following passage we have four distinct propositions, 
Isa. i. 2. 



//ear ye heavens, and give ear, earth, 

For Jehovah, he hath spoken, 

(As to) children, I have brought up, and exalted (them) ; 

But they, they have rebelled against me. 

5. Here the termination of every member marks the close of a 
distinct proposition, each of which is distinguished by a larger 
accent, which also serves to point out the parallelism, as before. So 
in the following : Isa. xlix. 4. 

iT-ib vnoN ^NI 

' jf -. - T < - r 

Tib bnm -inhb 

f>- ' J- v vv : i : 

But I / had said, I have laboured in vain : 

For emptiness and vanity, I have consumed my strength. 

On the Accentuation of the Metrical Books ilDtf , i. e. Job, 
Proverbs, and the Psalms. 

249. The accentuation which we now propose to consider com- 
mences at the third verse of the third chapter of the book of Job, 
and continues to the fifth of the forty-second, whence the prosaic 
accentuation is continued to the end. The whole book of Psalms, 
with that of Proverbs, is also subject to this metrical accentuation : 
the remaining books of the Bible are not. 

2. The system of the accents, generally, is the same both in the 
prosaic and metrical books : that is, one set of accents will serve as 
disjunctives, the other as conjunctives in both, either dividing or 
connecting the several parts of the context, according to the inter- 
pretation of the authors of these marks. The only difference 
observable in its application is, that the powers peculiar to some of 
the accents differ, in some respects, from those just mentioned, as 
does also their order of consecution. 

c c 

386 LECTURE XX. HART. 249. 3- 

3. The distinctive accents, according to this system, are, 
I Silluk, Mercd with Mahpdk, ~ Athndkh, Reviah with 
Geresh, Reviah, Zarkd, ~ Tiphkhd anterior, Pdzer, \L Shal- 
sheleth with Pestk, \LKadmd with Pesik, and '"7 Mahpdk with 

4. The conjunctive or servile accents are the following : ~ Mercd, 
Mercd with Zarkd, ~ Mahpdk, Mahpdk with Zarkd, ~ Mu- 
ndkh, . Mundkh superior, 7 Tiphkhd, not anterior, and Yerakh. 

5. The distinctives are here given according to their order of 
precedence : the conjunctives are considered as having no such 
order, as before. The distinctives on which these usually attend, 
may be found in the tables of Ouseel and others. 

6. It will be seen from the forms and titles above given, that 
several of these accents are mere combinations of two of those 
already given (See Art. 59.). 

7. The accents accompanying Soph-pdsuk and Pesik are always 
found on the tone-syllable. 

8. Of Mercd with Mahpdk . Mercd is always under the tone- 
syllable ; Mahpdk is placed on the preceding syllable, if there be 
any ; if not, it remains on the same syllable. If, however, the 
preceding word be connected by Makkdph, or end in a furtive 
Pathakh, Mahpdk may then be on its last syllable. 

9. The same holds good with respect to Mercd with Zarkd, 
and Mahpdk with Zarkd. 

10. In the occurrence of 'L Reviah with Geresh, Reviah is always 
on the tone-syllable, and Geresh carried as nearly to the beginning 

of the word as possible. But when no other syllable remains, they 

. ' , 't 

are placed together, as 1EE7 his name, and tfVto Jlee ye. 

250. It will easily be conceived, that if the disjunctives here, as 
before, have been invested with various powers for the purpose of 
dividing and subdividing any given part of the Biblical context 
into its several members, and thereby to facilitate the discovery of 
its meaning, the order of consecution of these disjunctives may be 
exceedingly various, just as the different modes of construction 
would require. With the view of familiarizing the Student with 
the different powers of these accents, therefore, tables have been 
formed, first giving the order of consecution found among these 
disjunctives ; and, lastly, of these with their several attendants. 

ART. 250. 2-3 ON THE SYNTAX. 387 

When speaking of the prose accents, we gave a table, rather 
with the view of complying with custom than for any thing else. 
At present we shall give a few examples only, and leave it to the 
industry of the Student to construct such tables for himself, should 
he think it necessary : believing it to be quite sufficient to make 
him acquainted with the principles, which it is trusted the following 
examples, in addition to what has been said, will be sufficient 
to do. 

2. The following is an abstract of the analysis given by Ouseel 
of the first verse of the first Psalm.* 

3. This is to be divided, in the first place, into the two larger 
divisions indicated by the greater distinctive accents, which are 
Silluk, and Mercd with Mahpdk (Art. 249. 3.). We shall 
have, therefore, for the first great division ; 

07^-1 nroa ip?n tfp i now ttton -ntpw The blessings of the 

man, who hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked. 

4. In the next place, the division to be taken, according to the 
importance of the accents, will be, first, tt^Nn "Hips the blessings of 
the man. Or, considering these two words as constituting a nomi- 
native absolute, (as to) the blessings of the man, which is universally 
accompanied by a larger distinctive accent (Art. 247. 15.). In the 
next place, the two words, viz. E^Ni! "HtpWj will, on account of 
their close connection, be coupled by a conjunctive accent ; and 
here we have ~ Munakh for that purpose (Art. 247.). 

5. The next portion we must take, will be "H?^ "7 ' ""<?- m ho 
hath not walked. Here we have first I ""!$?? with Mahpdk and 
Pesik, which is the least disjunctive in our table. And, according 
to our consecution in prose (Art. 247. 12.), when the two last of 
the consecutive words are more immediately connected with one 
another, than either is with the preceding, the former will have a 
smaller disjunctive accent. 

6. In the next place, "H?^ ; must be construed together (Art. 
247. 4.), they are, therefore, connected by a conjunctive accent. 

* Accentuatio Metrica, c. xvii. 18 19, &c. 

388 LECTURE XX. [[ART. 250. 7. 

7. The next two words are, D \V?H H^f? in tne counsel of the 
wicked, which, from their logical character, inust be construed toge- 
ther. They are therefore connected by the conjunctive accent 
Yerakh. This concludes the first division or parallel of our 

8. Let us now proceed to the second. 

t 3j Nb && aitol TOS b &mn Tf and in the nay 
of sinners hath not stood ; and in the habitation of scorners hath not 

9. The first larger division of this part of the verse will end at 
"$? , where we have the next larger distinctive accent. This may 
again be subdivided into two smaller ones, the former of which will 
end at O^tsn , having the distinctive accent ~ Tiphkhd anterior. 

10. In this smaller division, viz. D^Mian "TJ")^-"), we have two 
words in construction ; and this is marked by the conjunctive accent 

11. The next phrase, Tjg^ ST> is connected in the same way, and 
for the same reason. 

12. Our next subdivision will be E^l? SttfolW. Here we have 
Revtah with Geresh for a distinctive, and Merca for its preceding 
conjunctive, accent. 

13. In the last place, * ^^ "7 will be connected by the con- 
junctive accent ~ Mundkh ; and Silluk with Soph-pasuk will close 
the periojd. 

14. We do not think it necessary to pursue this subject farther : 
enough has been said to point out the general doctrine respecting 
the accents, and this is all we proposed to do. With regard to the 
formulae usually given, shewing the consecution of the accents, it 
may be remarked, that generally speaking they are sufficient to 
point out the way in which this subject is taught ; but, when we 
come to particulars, are very inadequate. Even in the few exam- 
ples here given, our own tables fail : and the truth seems to be, 
that, as the forms of composition may be exceedingly numerous, 
so may those of the consecution of the accents. 


Macintoth, Printer, Great New Street, London. 



ucsoUT tlli!iiiIiiiiiir 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 

A 000132211