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Full text of "A grammar of the Hebrew language"

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PRINCETON, W. J 



...PJ4.5G.4 



SAe//:. 



Division . 

Si'ction ....%.. 

Nwnber iD.fo.lO. 




GEAMMAE 



OF THE 



HEBREW LANGUAGE. 



WILLIAM HENRY GREEN, 

PEOFESSOa IN THK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AT PRINCETON, N. J. 



THIRD EDITION, 



NEW YORK: 
JOHlSr WILEY, 

1865. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year of 1861, by 

JOHN WILEY, 

in the Clerk's Oflice of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 



JOH!I p. TROW 

PKII7TCR, 8TEBE0TVPER, AND ELFCTEOTVTEK, 

46, iS & 50 Greene Street, 
New York. 



PREFACE. 



This work was begun at tlie instance of my friend, 
preceptor, and colleague. Dr. J. Addison Alexander. The 
aid of his counsels and suggestions was freely promised in 
the undertaking ; and he was to give to it the sanction of 
his name before the pubHc. It appears shorn of these ad- 
vantages. A fev/ consultations respecting the general plan 
of the book and the method to be observed in its prepara- 
tion, were all that could be had before this greatest of 
American orientalists and scholars was taken from us. De- 
prived thus early of his invaluable assistance, I have yet 
found a melancholy satisfaction in the prosecution of a task 
begun under such auspices, and w^hich seemed still to link 
me to one with whom I count it one of the greatest blessings 
of my life to have been associated. 

The grammatical system of Gesenius has, from causes 
which can readily be explained, had a predominance in this 
country to which it is not justly entitled. The grammar of 
Prof. Stuart, for a long time the text-book in most common 
use, was substantially a reproduction of that of Gesenius. 
Nordheimer was an adherent of the same system in its essen- 
tial features, though he illustrated it with wonderful clearness 
and philosophical tact. And finally, the smaller grammar of 
Gesenius became current in the excellent translation of Prof. 
Conant. Now, while Gesenius is unquestionably the prince 
of Hebrew lexicographers, Ewald is as certainly entitled to 



iv PREFACE. 

the precedence among grammarians ; and the latter cannot 
be ignored by him who would appreciate correctly the exist- 
ing state of oriental learning. 

The present work is mainly based upon the three leading 
grammars of Gesenius, Ewald, and Nordheimer, and the at- 
tempt has been made to combine whatever is valuable in 
each. For the sake of a more complete survey of the history 
of opinion, the grammars of R. Chayug, R. Kimchi, Reuch- 
lin, Buxtorf, Schultens, Simonis, Robertson, Lee, Stier, 
Hupfeld, Preytag, Nagelsbach, and Stuart, besides others of 
less consequence from Jewish or Christian sources, have also 
been consulted to a greater or less extent. The author 
has not, however, contented himself with an indolent com- 
pilation ; but, while availing himself freely of the labours 
of his predecessors, he has sought to maintain an independ- 
ent position by investigating the whole subject freshly and 
thoroughly for himself. His design in the following pages 
has been to reflect the phenomena of the language precisely 
as they are exhibited in the Hebrew Bible ; and it is be- 
lieved that this is more exactly accomphshed than it has been 
in any preceding grammar. The rule was adopted at the 
- outset, and rigorously adhered to, that no supposititious 
forms should be admitted, that no example should be al- 
leged which is not found in actual use, that no statement 
should be made and no rule given the evidence of which had 
not personally been subjected to careful scrutiny. Thus, for 
example, before treating of any class of verbs, perfect or im- 
perfect, every verb of that description in the language was 
separately traced through all its forms as shown by a con- 
cordance ; the facts were thus absolutely ascertained in the 
first instance before a single paradigm was prepared or a 
word of explanation written. 

Some may be disposed, at first, to look suspiciously 
upon the triple division of the Hebrew vowels, adopted 



PREFACE. 



from Evvald, as an innovation: further reflection, however, 
will show that it is the only division consistent with ac- 
curacy, and it is really more ancient than the one which 
commonly prevails. 

The importance of the accent, especially to the proper 
understandino- of the vowels of a word and the laws of 
vowel-chancres, is such that the example of Ewald has been 
followed in constantly marking its position by an appropriate 
sign. He uses a Methegh for this purpose, which is objec- 
tionable on account of the liability to error and confusion 
when the same sign is used for distinct purposes. The use 
of any one of the many Hebrew accents would also be liable 
to objection, since they not only indicate the tone-syllable, 
but have besides a conjunctive or disjunctive force, which it 
would be out of place to suggest. Accordingly, a special 
symbol has been employed, analogous to that which is in use 
in our own and other languages, thus -b)? hataV . 

The remarks upon the consecution of poetic accents 
were in type before the appearance of the able discussion of 
that subject by Baer, in an appendix to the Commentary of 
Delitzsch upon the Psalms. The rules of Baer, however, 
depend for their justification upon the assumption of the 
accurate accentuation of his own recent edition of the He- 
brew Psalter, which departs in numerous instances from the 
current editions as they do in fact from one another. Inas- 
much as this is a question which can only be settled by 
manuscripts that arc not accessible in this country, it seems 
best to wait until it has been tested and pronounced upon 
by those who are capable of doing so. What has here been 
■ written on that subject, has accordingly been suffered to re- 
main, imperfect and unsatisfactory as it is. 

The laws which regulate the formation of nouns have 
been derived from Ewald, with a few modifications chiefly 
tending to simplify them. 



VI PREFACE. 

The declensions of nouns, as made out by Gesenius, are 
purely artificial. Cumbrous as they are, they are not ex- 
haustive, and the student often finds no little difficulty in 
deciding to which declension certain nouns of frequent oc- 
currence are to be referred. For these reasons they were 
abandoned by Nordheimer, who substituted a different sys- 
tem, which is itself, however, more perplexing than service- 
able. The fact is, that there are no declensions, properly 
speaking, in Hebrew; and the attempt to foist upon the 
language what is alien to its nature, embarrasses the subject 
instead of relieving it. A few general rules respecting the 
vowel-changes, which are liable to occur in different kinds 
of syllables, solve the whole mystery, and are all that the 
case requires or even admits. 

In the syntax the aim has been to develop not so much 
what is common to the Hebrew with other languages, as 
what is characteristic and distinctive of the former, those 
points being particularly dwelt upon which are of chief im- 
portance to the interpreter. 

In the entire work special reference has been had to the 
wants of theological students. The author has endeavoured 
to make it at once elementary and thorough, so that it might 
both serve as a manual for beginners and yet possess all that 
completeness which is demanded by riper scholars. The 
parts of most immediate importance to those commencing 
the study of the language are distinguished by being printed 
in large type. 

Princeton, August 22(f, 1861. 



COISTTEI^TS. 



PAET I.— OETHOGRAPHY. 
Divisions of Grammar, §1. 

OEXnOGEAPniO SYMBOLS. 

The Letters. — Alphabet, §2; Sounds, §3; Double forms, §4; Names, 
§ 5 ; Order, § 6 ; Classification, § 7 ; Words never divided, § 8 ; 
Abbreviations and Signs of Number, § 9. 
The Vowels. — Masoretic Points, §10; Vowel Letters, §11; Signs for the 
Vowels, §12; Mutual Relation of this twofold Notation, §§13, 14; 
Pure and Diphthongal Vo\vels, § 15. 
Sh'va, silent and vocal, simple and compound, § IG. 
Pattahh Furtive, § 17. 
Syllables, § 18. 

Ambiguous Signs. — Hhirik, Shurek, and Kibbuts, §19.1; Kamets and 
Ivamets-Hhatuph, § 19. 2 ; Silent and Vocal Sh'va, §20. 
Points affectixg Consonants : — Daghesh-lene, §§ 21, 22. 

Daghesh-forte, § 23 ; diifcrent kinds, § 24 ; omission of, § 25. 
Mappik, §26. 
Raphe, § 27. 
Points attached to Words. — Accents, their design, § 28 ; forms and 
classes, §29; like forms distinguished, §30; poetic accents, §31; 
position as determined by the character of the syllables, § 32. 1 ; in 
uninflected words, § 32. 2. 3 ; with affixes, suffixes and prefixes, § 33 ; 
'use in distinguishing words, §34; shifted in special cases, §35. 
Consecution of the Accents in Prose. — Clauses and their subdivisions, 
§ 36 ; tabular view, § 37 ; explanation of the table, § 38 ; adaptation of 
the trains of accents to sentences, § 39. 



Vm CONTENTS. 

Poetic Consecution. — Clauses and their subdivisions, §40; tabular view 
and explanation, §41 ; adaptation of the trains of accents to sen- 
tences, §42. 

Makkeph, §43. 

Methegh, its form and position, § 44 ; special rules, § 45 ; K'ri and 
K'thibh, meaning of the terms, §46 ; constant Iv'ris not noted in the 
margin, § 47 ; their design and value, § 48. 

Accuracy of the points, § 49. 

ORTnOGRAPniO CHANGES. 

Significant mutations belong to the domain of the lexicon, §§ 50, 51 ; eu' 
phonic mutations to the domain of grammar, §52. 

Mutations of Consonants at the beginning of syllables, §53; at the closa 
of syllables, §54; at the end of words, §55 ; special rules, §56. 

Changes of Coxsonants to Vowels in reduplicated syllables and letters 
and in quiescents, § 57. 

Mutations of Vowels, significant and euphonic, §58; due to syllabic 
changes, § 59 ; to contiguous gutturals, § 60 ; to concurrent conso- 
nants, § 61 ; concurring vowels, § 62 ; proximity of vowels, § 63 ; the 
accent, § 64 ; pause accents, § 65 ; shortening or lengthening of 
words, §66. 



PAET II.— ETYMOLOGY. 

Roots of Wonos.p-Design of Etymology, three stages in the growth of 

words, §67; pronominal and verbal roots, §68; formation and 

inflection of words by external and internal changes, § 69 ; parts of 

speech, §70. 

Peonouns personal, § 71 ; pronominal suffixes, § 72 ; demonstrative, § 73 ; 

relative, § 74 ; interrogative and indefinite, § 75. 
Veebs, the species and their signification, §§ 76-80. 

Peefect Verbs, § 81 ; formation of the species, §§ 82, 83 ; their inflection, 
§§84, 85. 1 ; paradigm of bifr, §85. 2. 
liCmarJcs on the Perfect Verts. — Kal preterite, § 86 ; Infinitive, § 87 ; 
Future, § 88 ; Imperative, § 89 ; Participles, § 90 ; Niphal, § 91 ; Piel, 
§92; Pual, §93; Iliphil, §94; Ilophal, §95; Ilithpael, § 96. 
Paragogic and Apocopated Future, § 97 ; and Imperative, § 93. 
Vav Conversive with the Future, §99 ; with the Preterite, § 100. 
Verbs with suffixes, §§ 101, 102 ; paradigm, § 103 ; Remarks on the Per- 
fect Verbs with suflixes. Preterite, § 104 ; Future, §105; Infinitive 
and Imperative, § 100, 
Imperfect Verbs, classified, § 107. 

Pe Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, §§108, 109; paradigm, §110; 
Remarks, §§111-115. 



CONTENTS. IX 

Ayin Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, §116; paradigm, §117; Ee- 
mar lis, §§118-122. 

Lamedli Guttural Verbs, their peculiarities, §123; paradigm, §124; 
Remarks, §§ 125-128. 

Pe Nun Verbs, their peculiarities, § 129 ; paradigm, § 130 ; Remarks, 
§§131, 132. 

Ayiu Doubled Verbs, their peculiarities, §§133-137; paradigm, §138; 
Remarks, §§ 139-142. 

Pe Yodh Verbs, their peculiarities, §§ 143-145 ; paradigm, § 146 ; Re- 
marks, §§147-151. 

Ayin Vav and Ayln Yodh Verbs, their peculiarities, §§ 152-154 ; para- 
digm, §155 ; Remarks, §§ 156-161. 

Lamedh Aleph Verbs, their peculiarities, §162; paradigm, §163; Re- 
marks, §§164^167. 

Lamedh He Verbs, their peculiarities, §§168, 169; paradigm, §170; 
shortened future and imperative, § 171 ; Remarks, §§172-177. 

Doubly Imperfect Verbs, §178. 

Defective Verbs, § 179. 

Quadriliteral Verbs, § 180. 
NoTJNs, their formation, §181; Class I. §§182-186; Class 11. §§ 187, 188 ; 
Class III. §§189-192; Class IV. §§193, 194; Multiliterals, §195. 

Gender and Number. — Feminine endings, § 196 ; anomalies in the use of, 
§197; employment in the formation of words, §198; i^lural end- 
ings, § 199 ; anomalies, § 200 ; nouns confined to one number, § 201 ; 
Dual ending, §202; usage of the dual, §203; changes consequent 
upon affixing the endings for gender and number, §§206-211. 

The Construct State, its meaning and formation, §§212-216. 

Declension of Nouns, paradigm, §217. 

Paragogic Vowels added to Nouns, §§218, 219, 

Nouns with suffixes, §§ 220, 221 ; imradigm, § 222. 
Numerals. — Cardinal numbers, §§223-226; Ordinals, etc., §227. 
Prefixed Particles, §228; the Article, §229: the Interrogative, §230; 

Inseparable prepositions, §§ 231-233 ; Vav Conjunctive, § 234. 
Separate Particles. — Adverbs, §235 ; with suffixes, §236; Prepositions, 
§ 237 ; with suffixes, § 233 ; Conjunctions, § 239 ; Interjections, § 240. 



PART III.— SYNTAX. 



Office of Syntax, § 241. 1 ; Elements of the sentence, §241. 2. 

The Subject, a noun or pronoun, § 242 ; when omitted, § 243 ; its exten- 
sion, §244. 

The Article, when used, § 245 ; nouns definite without it, § 246 ; omitted 
in poetry, § 247 ; indefinite nouns, § 248. 

Adjectives and Demonstratives qualifying a noun, § 249. 



X CONTENTS. 

Numerals. — Cardinal numbers, §§250, 251 ; Qrdinals, etc., §252. 

Apposition, §253. 

The Construct state and Suffixes, §§ 254^256 ; resolved by the preposition b 
§257. 

The Peedicate, Copula, § 258 ; Nouns, adjectives, and demonstratives, § 259. 

Comparison of adjectives, §260. 

Verbs. — Hebrew conception of time, § 261 ; the primary tenses : use of the 
preterite, § 262 ; the future, § 263 ; paragogic and apocopated future, 
§264; the secondary tenses, §265; participles, §266; Infinitive, 
§§267-269. 

Ohject of Veris. — The direct object of transitive verbs, § 270 ; transitive con- 
struction of intransitive verbs, §271 ; indirect object of verbs, §272; 
verbs vrith more than one object, § 273. 

Adverbs and adverbial expressions, § 274. 

Neglect of agreement, §275; compound subject, §276; nouns in the con- 
struct, §277; dual nouns, §278; changes of person, §279. 

Repetition of nouns, §280 ; pronouns, §281 ; verbs, §282. 

Inteeeogative Sentences, §§283, 284. 

Compound Sentences. — Relative pronoun, § 285 ; poetic use of the de- 
monstrative, § 286 ; conjunctions, § 287. 

Gbammatioal Analysis, ..... page 315 

Index I. Subjects, ......" 823 

Index II. Texts of Scripture, .... "331 

Index III. Hebrew Words, "343 

Index IV. Hebrew Grammatical Terms, . . . . " 399 



PART FIRST. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

§1 . Language is the communication of thought by means 
of spoken or written sounds. The utterance of a single thought 
constitutes a sentence. Each sentence is composed of words 
expressing individual conceptions or their relations. And 
words are made up of sounds produced by the organs of 
speech and represented by written signs. It is the province 
of grammar as the science of language to investigate these 
several elements. It hence consists of tlnree parts. First, 
Orthography, which treats of the sounds employed and the 
mode of representing them. Second, Etymology, which treats 
of the different kinds of words, their formation, and the 
changes which they undergo. Third, Syntax, which treats of 
sentences, or the manner in which words arc joined together 
to express ideas. The task of the Hebrew grammarian is to 
fmiiish a complete exhibition of the phenomena of this partic- 
ular language, carefully digested and referred as far as practi- 
cable to their appropriate causes in the organs of speech and 
the operations of the mind. 

The Letters. 

§2. The Hebrew being no longer a spoken tongue, is 
only known as the language of books, and particularly of the 
Old Testament, which is the most interesting and important 
as well as the only pure monument of it. The first step 



2 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^2 

towards its investigation must accordingly be to ascertain the 
meaning of the symbols in which it is recorded. Then 
having learned its sounds, as they are thus represented, it 
will be possible to advance one step further, and inquire into 
the laws by which these are governed in then- employment 
and mutations. 

The symbols used in writing Hebrew are of two sorts, 
viz. letters (ni'^nii^) and points (ail^p?). The number of the 
letters is twenty -two ; these are written from right to left, and 
are exclusively consonants. The following alphabetical table 
exhibits their forms, English equivalents, names, and numeri- 
cal values, together with the corresponding forms of the Kab- 
binical character employed to a considerable extent in the 
commentaries and other writings of the modern Jews. 



^3 



LETTERS. 



Order. 


Forms and Equivalents. 


Names. 


Itnbbinical 
Alphiibfct. 


Numerical 
values. 


1 


^( 




^^ 


Aleph 


^ 


1 




2 


n 


Bh, B 


^"13 


Beth 


3 


2 


3 


a 


Gh, G 


^^''a 


Gl'-mel 


J 


3 


4 


^ 


Dh, D 


J^^-? 


Da'-leth 


7 


4 


5 


n 


H 


^r? 


He 


Xi 


5 


6 


1 


V 


11 

T 


Vav 


1 


6 


7 


T 


z 


rt 


Zciyin 


» 


7 


8 


n 


Hh 


n'ln 


Hheth 


P 


8 


9 


12 


T 


nip 


Teth 


U 


9 


10 


•) 


Y 


"li"' 


Yodh 


» 


10 


11 


3 1 


Kh, K 


?^? 


Kaph 


1 = 


20 


12 


b 


L 


ni2b' 


La'-meclli 


i 


80 


13 


12 d 


M 


n^ 


Mem 


r 


40 


14 


= 1 


N 


113 


Ni'in 


i^ 


50 


15 





S 


^^9 


Sa'-mekh 


P 


60 


16 


3^ 




r^ 


Ayin 


:? 


70 




17 


t> SI 


Pli, P 


x& 


Pe 


c]r) 


80 


18 


^r 


Ts 


I'ji 


Tsa'-dhe 


|i 


90 


19 


p 


K 


J^ip 


Koph 


? 


100 


20 


n 


R 


;S"Tn 


Kesh 


•5 


200 


21 


TJ? 


Sh, S 


VT2 


Shin 


C 


300 


22 


n 


Th, T 


in 


Tav 


P 


400 



§3. There is always more or less difficulty in represent- 
ing the sounds of one language by those of another. But 
this is in the case of the Hebrew greatly aggravated by its 
having been for ages a dead language, so that some of its 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY. §3 

sounds cannot now be accurately determined, and also by its 
belonging to a different family or group of tongues from our 
own, possessing sounds entirely foreign to the English, for 
which it consequently affords no equivalent, and which are in 
fact incapable of being pronounced by our organs. The 
equivalents of the foregoing table are not therefore to be re- 
garded as in every instance exact representations of the proper 
powers of the letters. They are simply approximations suffi- 
ciently near the truth for every practical purpose, the best 
which can now be proposed, and sanctioned by tradition and 
the conventional usage of the best Hebraists. 

1. It will be observed that a double pronunciation has 
been assigned to seven of the letters. A native Hebrew would 
readily decide without assistance which of these was to be 
adopted in any given case, just as we are sensible of no in- 
convenience from the various sounds of the English letters 
which are so embarrassing to foreigners learning our language. 
The ambiguity is in every case removed, however, by the ad- 
dition of a dot or point indicating which sound they are to 
receive. Thus a with a point in its bosom has the sound of 
b, a unpointed that of the corresponding v, or as it is com- 
monly represented for the sake of uniformity in notation, hh ; a 
is pronounced as g, ^ unpointed had an aspirated sound which 
may accordingly be represented byy/^, but as it is difficult to 
produce it, or even to determine with exactness what it was, 
and as there is no corresponding sound in English, the aspira- 
tion is mostly neglected, and the letter, whether pointed or not, 
sounded indifferently as y ; 1 is d, ^i unpointed is the aspirate 
dliy equivalent to tli in the ; 3 is h, 3 unpointed its aspirate Jch, 
perhaps resembling the German cli in ich, though its aspira- 
tion, like that of :^, is commonly neglected in modern reading ; 
& is J??, S unpointed is jfj/^ or/; X\'\% t,T^ unpointed ih in iUn. 
The letter t» with a dot over its right arm is pronounced like 
sh, and called Shin ; t) with a dot over its left arm is called 
Sin, and pronounced like s, no attempt being made in modern 



§3 LETTERS. 5 

usage to discriminate between its sound and that of D 
Samekli. Although there may anciently have been a distinc- 
tion between them, this can no longer be defined nor even 
positively asserted ; it has therefore been thought unneces- 
sary to preserve the individuality of these letters in the 
notation, and both of them will accordingly be represented 
by s. 

a. Tlie double sound of the first six of the letters just named is purely 
euphonic, and has no effect whatever upon the meaning of the words in 
which they stand. The case of D is different. Its primary sound was that 
of sh, as is evident from the contrast in Judg. 12 : 6 of n^M'i shibboleth 
with nb2p sibbulelh. In certain words, however, and sometimes for the 
sake of creating a distinction between different words of like orthography, 
it received the sound of s, thus almost assuming the character of a distinct 
letter, e. g. -6^ to break, ^ib to hope. That Sin and Samekh were dis- 
tinguishable to the ear, appears probable from the fact that there are words 
of separate significations which differ only in the use of one or the other 
of these letters, and in which they are never interchanged, e, g. bid to be 
bereaved, bib to be ivise. bio to be foolish; -si'di to be drunken, lib to hire, 
^?0 to shut up; nva to look, -iTJ to r2ile, '\^'o' to turn back; ^^-Q a lip, 
nSD to destroy. The close affinity between the sounds which they repre- 
sent is, however, shown bythe flxct that is in a \&w instances written for 
b, e. g. noi Ps. 4 : 7 from Nu:; , n^Bsb Eccles. 1 : 17 for m^ro . The original 
identity of b and b is apparent from the etymological connection between 
^xb haven and n-ixba a vessel in which bread is leavened; is'b to shudder, 
niin^Jb horrible, causing a shudder. In Arabic the division of s'ingle letters 
into two distinguished by diacritical points is carried to a much greater 
length, the alphabet of that language being by this means enlarged from 
twenty-two to twenty-eight letters. 

2. In their original power tj i differed from nt, and 5 Z- 
from p /c, for these letters are not confused nor liable to inter- 
change, and the distinction is preserved to this day in the 
cognate Arabic; yet it is not easy to state intelligibly where- 
in the difference consisted. They are cm-rently pronounced 
precisely alike. 

3. The letter n has a stronger sound than n the simple 
//, and is accordingly represented by M ; n is represented by 
r, although it had some peculiarity of sound which we can- 
not at this day attempt to reproduce, by which it was aUied 
to the gutturals. 



6 ORTHOGRAPHY. §4 

4. Per two letters, i? and y, no equivalent has been given 
in the table, and they are commonly altogether neglected in 
pronunciation. i5 is the weakest of the letters, and was prob- 
ably always inaudible. It stands for the slight and involun- 
tary emission of breath necessary to the utterance of a vowel 
unattended by a more distinct consonant sound. It there- 
fore merely serves to mark the beginning or the close of the 
syllable of which it is a part, while to the ear it is entirely 
lost in the accompanying or preceding vowel. Its power has 
been likened to that of the smooth breathing (') of the 
Greeks or the English silent h in hour. On the other hand 
"S had a deep guttural sound which was always heard, but 
like that of the corresponding letter among the Arabs is very 
difficult of utterance by occidental organs ; consequently no 
attempt is made to reproduce it. In the Septuagint it is some- 
times represented by /, sometimes by the rough and some- 
times by the smooth breathing ; thus '^^'^X Fo^ioQ^a, ''^3? 
'Hli, 'p^'^t ^A/.iaXr]?i. Some of the modern Jews give it the 
sound of wy or of the French (^n in camjpagne, either wherever 
it occm^s or only at the end of words, e. g. :?'52T1C SKmang, Ta? 
gnamodh. 

§4. The forms of the letters exhibited in the preceding 
table, though found without important variation in all existing 
manuscripts, are not the original ones. An older character 
is preserved upon the Jewish coins stmck in the age of the 
Maccabees, which bears a considerable resemblance to the 
Samaritan and still more to the Phenician. Some of the 
steps in the transition from one to the other can still be traced 
upon extant monuments. There was first a cursive tendency, 
disposing to unite the different letters of the same word, 
which is the established practice in Syriac and Arabic. This 
was followed by a predominance of the calligraphic principle, 
which again separated the letters and reduced them to their 
present rectangular forms and nearly uniform size. The 
cursive stage has, however, left its traces upon the five letters 



§5 LETTERS. 7 

which appear in the table with double forms ; D 'a i s 2 when 
standing at the beginning or in the middle of words termi- 
nate in a bottom horizontal stroke, which is the remnant of 
the connecting link with the following letter; at the end of 
words no such link was needed, and the letter was contiiuied 
vertically downward in a sort of terminal flourish thus, 1)^Y, 
or closed up by joining its last with its initial stroke, thus D . 

a. The few instances in which final letters are found in the middle of 
words, as ns'inb Isa. 9: 6, or their ordinary forms at the end, as "cn Neh. 
2: 13, i'O Job 38: 1, are probably due to the inadvertence of early tran- 
scribers which has been faithfully perpetuated since, or if intentional they 
may have had a connection now unknown Avith the enumeration of letters 
or the signification of words. The same may be said of letters larger than 
usual, as nsDl Ps. 80 : 16, or smaller, as DJjJ'ia^a Gen. 2:4, or above the 
line, as "i?^^ Ps. SO : 14, or inverted, as ?b:2 Num. 10 : 35, (in manuscripts 
and the older editions, e. g. thatof Stephanus in 1541), or with extraordinary 
points, as iinj?;^'^] Gen. 33 : 4, iCi^'S Ps. 27 : 13, in all which the Rabbins find 
concealed meanings of the most fanciful and absurd character. Thus in 
theif opinion the suspended 3 in nvij^Ta Judg. 18 : 30 suggests that the idola- 
ters described were descended from Moses but had the character of Ma- 
nasseh. In 'jViS Lev. 11 :42 the Vav, which is of unusual size, is the middle 
letter of the Pentateuch; ^p?.'':^! Gen. 16: 5 with an extraordinary point 
over the second Yodh, is the only instance in which the word is written with 
that letter ; the large letters in Deut. 6 : 4 emphasize the capital article of 
the Jewish faith. All such anomalous forms or marks, with the conceits of 
the Rabbins respecting them, are reviewed in detail in Buxtorf's Tiberias, 
pp. 152 etc. 

§5. All the names of the letters were probably significant 
at first, although the meanings of some of them are now doubt- 
ful or obscure. It is commonly supposed that these describe 
the objects to which their forms originally bore a rude resem- 
blance. If this be so, however, the mutations which they 
have since undergone are such, that the relation is no longer 
traceable, unless it be faintly in a few. The power of the 
letter is in every instance the initial sound of its name. 

a. The opinion advocated by Schultens, Fundamenta Ling. Heb. p. 10, 
that the invention of the letters was long anterior to that of their names, 
and that the latter was a pedagogical expedient to flicilitate the learning of 
the letters by associating their forms and sounds with fiimiliar objects, has 
met with little favour and possesses little intrinsic probability. An interest- 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY. §6 

ing corroboration of the antiquity of these names is found in their preserva 
tion in the Greek alphabet, though destitute of meaning in tliat language, 
the Greeks having borrowed their letters at an early period from tlie Phe- 
nicians, and hence the appended a of "AXcjia, etc., which points to the Ara- 
raaeic form XB^x . 

h. The Sernitic derivation of the names proves incontestably that the 
alphabet had its origin among a people speaking a language kindred to 
the Hebrew. Their most probable meanings, so far as they are still ex- 
plicable, are as follows, viz: Aleph, an ox; Beth, a house; Gimel, a camel; 
Daleth, a door; He, doubtful, possibly a window; Vav, a hook ; Zayin, a 
weapon; Hheth, probably a fence; Teth, probably a snake ; Yodh, a hand; 
Kaph, the palm of the hand; Lamedh, an ox-goad; Mem, water; Nun, a 
fish; Samekh, a prop ; Ayin, an eye; Pe,amouth; Tsadhe, afsh-hook or 
a hunter''s dart ; Koph, perhaps the hack of the head; Resh, a head; Shin, 
a tooth ; Tav, a cross mark. 

§6. The order of the letters appears to be entirely arbi- 
trary, though it has been remarked that the three middle 
mutes S ;^ " succeed each other, as in like manner the three 
Hquids b tt 2 . The juxtaposition of a few of the letters may 
perhaps be owing to the kindred signification of their names,. 
e. g. Yodh and Kaph t/ie hand, Mem tvater and Nun a fish, 
Resh the head and Shin a tooth. The antiquity of the existing 
arrangement of the alphabet is shown, 1. by psalms and other 
portions of the Old Testament in which successive clauses or 
verses begin with the letters disposed in regular order, viz. 
Ps. 25 (p omitted), 34, 37 (alternate verses, ^ omitted). 111 
(every clause), 112 (every clause), 119 (each letter eight 
times), 145 (= omitted), Prov. 31 : 10-31, Lam. ch. 1, 2, 3 
(each letter three times), 4. In the first chapter of Lamenta- 
tions the order is exactly preserved, but in the remaining 
three chapters 2? and S are transposed. 2. By the corres- 
pondence of the Greek and Roman , alphabets, which have 
sprung from the same origin with the Hebrew. 

a. The most ingenious attempt to discover a regular structure in the 
Hebrew alphabet is that of I<epsius, in an essay upon this subject published 
in 1836. Omitting the sibilants and Resh, he finds the following triple 
correspondence of a breathing succeeded by the same three mutes carried 
through each of the three orders, the second rank being enlarged by the 
addition of the liquids. 



^7 



LETTERS. 





Breathings. Mutes. 




1 

Liquids. 1 


. Middle 
Smooth 
Rough 


n 


3 5 1 

3 p n 


(^=) 


btj3 



Curious as this result certainly is. it must he confessed that the alleged 
correspondence is in part imaginary, and the method by which it is reached 
is too arbitrary to warrant the conclusion that this scheme was really in 
the mind of the author of the alphabet, much less to sustain the further 
speculations built upon it, reducing the original number and modifying the 
powers of the letters. 

b. It is curious to see how, in the adaptation of the alphabet to different 
languages, the sounds of the letters have been modified, needless ones 
dropped, and others found necessary added at the end, without disturbing 
the arrangement of the original stock. Thus the Greeks dropped 1 and p, 
only retaining them as numerical signs, while the Roman alphabet has F 
and Q,; on the other hand the Romans found 13 and t3 superfluous, while 
the Greeks made of them S- and ^; 5 and t , in Greek <y and ^, become in 
Latin G and G, while ri, in Latin H, is in Greek converted like the rest of 
the gutturals into a vowel rj. 

§ 7. The letters may be variously divided : 

1. First, with respect to the organs by which they are 
pronounced. 



Gutturals 


5? 


n n y 


Palatals 


S 


^ 2 P 


Linguals 


n 


t3 b D 


Dentals 


T 


D 2s ia 


Labials 


n 


1 ■□ s 



T has been differently classed, but as its peculiarities are 
those of the gutturals, it is usually reckoned with them. 

2. Secondly, according to their respective strength, into 
three classes, which may be denominated weak, medium, and 
strong. The strong consonants offer the greatest resistance 
to change, and are capable of entering into any combinations 
which the formation or inflection of words may require. The 
weak have not this capacity, but when analogy would bring 
them into combinations foreign to their nature, they are either 



10 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 7 

liable to mutation themselves or occasion changes in the rest 
of the word. Those of medimn strength have neither the 
absolute stability of the former nor the feeble and fluctuating 
character of the latter. 

.^^ , j N n 1 1 Vowel-Letters, 
^^^^' |s n n :? Gutturals. 

Medium, [,l '^^ Ibiknts. 

Strong, -j ^ D p V Aspirates and Mutes. 

(/I n t: ) 

The special characteristics of these several classes and the 
influence which they exert upon the constitution of words 
will be considered hereafter. It is suflicient to remark here 
that the vowel-letters are so called because they sometimes 
represent not consonant but vowel-sounds. 

a. It will be observed that while the p, k, and ^mutes agree in having 
smooth S 3 n and middle forms 3 J 1, which may be either aspirated or 
nnaspirated, the two last have each an additional representative p 12 which 
is lacking to the first. This, coupled with the fact that two of the alpha- 
betic Psalms, Ps. 25, 34, repeat S as the initial of the closing verse, has 
given rise to the conjecture that the missing p mute was supplied by this 
letter, having a double sound and a double place in the alphabet. In curi- 
ous coincidence with this ingenious but unsustained hypothesis, the Ethio- 
pic alphabet has an additional p, and the Greek and Roman alphabets 
agree one step and only one beyond the letter T, viz. in adding next a 
labial, which in Greek is divided into v and (jy, and in Latin into U and V, 
as "^ into I and J. 

3. Thirdly, The letters may be divided, with respect to 
their function in the formation of words, into radicals and 
serviles. The former, which comprise just one half of the 
alphabet, are never employed except in the roots or radical 
portions of words. The latter may also enter into the con- 
stitution of roots, but they are likewise put to the less inde- 
pendent use of the formation of derivatives and inflections, 
of prefixes and suffixes. The serviles are embraced in the 



§ 8 LETTERS. 11 

memorial words nbpi miJw "jn^* (Ethan Moses and Caleb) ; of 
these, besides other uses, 'jn'^N are prefixed to form the futm-e 
of verbs, and the remainder are prefixed as particles to nouns. 
The letters 1''ri3'asn are used in the formation of nouns from 
their roots. The only exception to the division now stated 
is the substitution of t: for servile ^ in a certain class of cases, 
as explained § 54. 4. 

a. Kimchi in his Mikhlol (bi^D^a) fol. 46, gives several additional ana- 
grams of the serviles made out by different grammarians as aids to the 
memory, e. g. ns'^a iri2Xb?iD/or his work is understanding; rnabu: "i3S 
nni3 / Solomon am icriling ; tiJ^n -]Jt i^s-ibo 07ily build thou my peace ; 
•jl^n 2X bTiUD like a branch of the father of midlitude ; "li^ha 2nD na^ 
Moses has xcriiten to us. To which Nordheimer has added i3n3^ 'pn bS'^J 
consult the riches of my book. 

§ 8. In Hebrew writing and printing, words are never 
divided. Hence various expedients are resorted to upon 
occasion, in manuscripts and old printed editions, to fill out 
the lines, such as giving a broad form to certain letters, >^ " 
S s !~i , occupying the vacant space with some letter, as p, 
repeated as often as may be necessary, or with the first letters 
of the next word, which were not, however, accounted part 
of the text, as they were left without vowels, and the word 
was written in full at the beginning of the following line. 
The same end is accomplished more neatly in modern print- 
ing by judicious spacing. 

§9.1. The later Jews make frequent use of abbreviations. 
There are none, however, in the text of the Hebrew Bible ; 
such as are found in the margin are explained in a special 
lexicon at the back of the editions in most common use, e. g. 
"ijil for "i^iJii et compUtio =. etc. 

2. The numerical employment of the letters, common to 
the Hebrews with the Greeks, is indicated in the table of the 
alphabet. The hundreds from 500 to 900 are represented 
either by the five final letters or by the combination of n with 
the letters immediately preceding ; thus T or pn 500, D or "^r 
600, 1 TSn or pnn 700, q or nn 800, T or pnn 900. Thou- 



12 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 10 

sands are represented by nnits witli two dots placed over them, 
thus i5 1000, etc. Compound numbers are formed by joining 
the appropriate units to the tens and hundreds, thus iisn 421. 
Fifteen is, however, made not by n"" , which are the initial 
letters of the divine name Jehovah, nirri, but by TJ 9+6. 

This use of the letters is found in the accessories of the 
Hebrew text, e. g. in the numeration of the chapters and verses, 
and in the Masoretic notes, but not in the text itself. Whether 
these or any other signs of number were ever employed by 
the original writers of Scripture, or by the scribes in copying 
it, may be a doubtful matter. It has been ingeniously con- 
jectured, and with a show of plausibility, that some of the 
discrepancies of numbers in the Old Testament may be 
accounted for by assuming the existence of such a system of 
symbols, in which errors might more easily arise than in fully 
written words. 

The Vowels. 

§ 10. The letters now explained constitute the body of 
the Hebrew text. These are all that belonged to it in its 
original form, and so long as the language was a living one 
nothing more was necessary, for the reader could mentally 
supply the deficiencies of the notation from his familiarity 
with his native tongue. But when Hebrew ceased to be 
spoken the case was different ; the knowledge of the true 
pronunciation could no longer be presumed, and difficulties 
would arise from the ambiguity of individual words and their 
doubtful relation to one another. Tt is the design of the 
Masoretic points ( sinica traditioii) to remedy or obviate these 
inconveniences by supplying what was lacking in this mode 
of writing. The authors of this system did not venture to 
make any change in the letters of the sacred text. The signs 
which they introdaced were entirely supplementary, consist- 
ing of dots and marks about the te.xt fixing its true pronnn- 



§11 VOWELS. 13 

ciation and auxiliary to its proper interpretation. This has 
been done with the utmost nicety and minuteness, and with 
such evident accuracy and care as to make them rehable and 
efficient if not indispensable helps. These points or signs are 
of three kinds, 1. those representing the vowels, 2. those 
affecting the consonants, 3. those attached to words. 

a. As illustrations of tlie ambiguity both as to sound and sense of indi- 
vidual words, when written by the letters only, it may be stated that "i::i 
is in Gen. 12: 4 "I's'n he spake, in Ex. 6: 29 nii'n speak and "ii=n speak- 
ing, in Prov. 25 : 1 1 na'n spoken, in Gen. 37 : 14 ia^ word, in 1 Kin. 6 : 16 "li'^ 
the oracle or most holy place of the temple, in Ex. 9 : 3 "i^n peslilence. So 
plT"'! is in Gen. 29: 10 p'w-il and he watered, and in the next verse p"i"^T 
and he kissed; NS'^I occurs twice in Gen. 29 : 23, the first time it is xi*] and 
he brought, the second ikh^l and he came; D">n3'::ni is in Jer. 32 : 37 first 
c^rh'^n;; and I will bring them again, and then n'^rirrn'i and I will cause 
them to dwell; Qi^O is in Gen. 14 : 19 n';i'b^ heaven, and in Isa. 5 : 20 C^r'^ 
putting. This ambiguity is, however, in most cases removed by the con- 
nection in which the words are found, so that there is little practical diffi- 
culty for one who is well acquainted with the language. Modern Hebrew 
is commonly written and read without the points: and the same is true of 
its kindred tongues the Syriac and Arabic, though each of these has a 
system of points additional to the letters. 

^11. 1. The alphabet, as has been seen, consisted exclu- 
sively of consonants, since these were regarded as a sufficiently 
exact representation of the syllables into which in Hebrew 
they invariably enter. And the omission of the vowels occa- 
sioned less embarrassment, because in the Semitic family of 
languages generally, unlike the Indo-European, they form no 
part, properly speaking, of the radical structure of the word, 
and consequently do not aid in expressing its essential mean- 
ing, but only its nicer shades and modifications. Still some 
notation of vowels was always necessary, and this was furnish- 
ed in a scanty measure by the vowel-letters, or, as they are 
also called, quiescents, or w^a^re^ ledionis (guides in reading). 
The weakest of the palatals "^ was taken as the representative 
of the vowels i and e of the same organ to which in sound 
it bears a close affinity ; the weakest of the labials ^ was in 
like manner made to represent its cognates a and u ; and the 



14 ORTHOGRAPHY. §11 

two weak guttm-als i5 and <i were written for the guttural 
vowel a, as well as for the compound vowels E and o of which 
a is one of the elements. Letters were more rarely employed 
to represent short vowels ; n or "^ for c is the most frequent 
case ; others are exceptional, 

a. Medial a when written at all, as it very rarely is, is denoted by X , e. g. 
osb lat Judg. 4 : 21, 5XT dag Neh. 13 : 16 K'thibh, DXp kdm Hos. 10 : 14, 
i)TXT3 "zazel Lev. 16: 8, UJXt rash Prov. 10: 4 and in a few other passages, 
maXT sometimes for ramoth, "^SI^S tsavvar, "jXDxrjx Hos. 4 : 6 if not an 
error in the text perhaps for einasak ; final d,, which is much more frequent- 
ly written, is denoted by n , e. g. nbs grda, tispa malko,, MHX altn. rarely 
and only as an Aramssism by X , e. g. X5n hJiogga Isa. 19 : 17, xnnp korhhd 
Ezek. 27 : 31 K'thibh, sn^j gabKha Ezek. 31 : 5 K'thibh. The writing of 
e and I, 6 and m is optional in the middle of words but necessary at the end, 
6. g. 5nii:i or n'^n'^iii tsiovllhlm, "^n"'!:: tsivvllhl ; 'Z'C or lUlU shubhu. In 
the former position "^ stands for the first pair of vowels, and 1 for the second, 
e. g. nip"'3'ia menikolh, TiJiOS ii'sughoUil ; X for e and 5 so situated is rare 
and exceptional, e. g. "i'Xi resh Prov. 6 : 11, 30 : S, and perhaps yXD"" yanels 
Eccles. 12:5 ; nXT zolh, nx-.S porolh Ezek. 31 : 8, InXliJa bilstsOthav Ezek. 
47: 11. At the end of words e is commonly expressed by ">, and o by I, 
though n is frequently and N rarely employed for the same purpose, e. g. 
i3ba malkhe, isba malkO; rT>n /t^T/e, ns-iS ;3ar5; xb /o. Final e is re- 
presented by n, medial e if written at all by i, e. g. fT^n^ yik'^ye, H3''"inn or 
nsTin tiWyena. 

b. The employment of the vowel-letters in conformity with the scale 
just given, is further governed, (1.) By usage, which is in many words and 
ibrms almost or quite invariable; in others it fluctuates, thus sobhebh is 
commonly SDO or SilD, only once S'^20 2 Kin. 8:21; ycfkobh is 2p5i ex- 
cept in Jer. 33:26 where it is iip^""; thease is nayn, but in Ex. 25: 31 
nc-Ti ; etham according to the analogy of similar grammatical forms would 
be nns, but in Ps. 19: 14 it is cn-'S ; hennr is in Jer. 2 : 11 written in both 
the usual and an unusual way, "i^^rt and "i^a"!"! ; mUaklnm is D'^aba except 
in 2 Sam. 11: 1, where it is cssbtt; g^bhfdoth is in Deut. 32:8 nb=3, in 
Isa. 10: 13 nbi:a , in Ps. 74:17 n"bi:;5; lo meaning not is sb, meaning to 
him is lb. though these are occasionally interchanged ; zo is written both 
t^7 and IT; and p6 MEJ, ns and SS. (2.) The indisposition to multiply the 
vowel-letters unduly in the same word, e.g. 'lu'h mbx, 'lohlm DTibx ; 
ndthun 'prJ, n'thunlm ti-iri or C3in3 . (3.) The increased tendency to their 
employment in the later books of the Bible, e. g. ril3 ko'hh Dan. 11:6, 
always elsewhere HD ; Clip kodhesh Dan. 11 : 30, for U3lp ; ^ilT ddv'idh in 
the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Zechariah, elsewhere com- 
monly T;*i . This must, however, be taken with considerable abatement, 
as is shown by such examples as add'irlm Qil'^IX Ex. 15: 10, n"i1X Ezek. 
32: IS. 

It is to be observed that those cases in which X is used to record 
vowels must be carefully distinguished from those in which it properly 



§12 



VOWELS. 



15 



belongs to the consonantal structure of the word, though from its weak- 
ness it may have lost its sound, as KSO matsa, 'jTiTXi rishon. § 57, 2. 

2. When used to represent the Hebrew vowels, a ia 
sounded as in father, a as in fat, 8 as in t/iere, c as in met, 
I as in machine, i as in pin, o as in note, u as in not, it as in 
rule, and it as in full. The quantity will be marked when 
the vowels are long, but not when they are short. 

§ 12. There are nine points or masoretic signs represent- 
ing vowels (niS'^Dn motions, viz., by which consonants are 
moved or pronounced) ; of these three are long, three short, 
and three doubtful. They are shown in the following table, 
the horizontal stroke indicating their position with reference 
to the letters of the text. 



Zon^ Vowels. 
T^]5 Ka'-mets a 
"inis Tse'-rc 8 
D^in Hho'-lem o 



Sho7't Voioels. 
nn| Pat-tahh a 

bi:\D Se'-ghol t 

q^bn Y'q^^ Ka'-mets Hha-tuph' o 



Doubtful Vowels. 
pn^ri Hhl'-rik ~^ I ov t 
pn^iij Shu'-rek 
■pap Kib'-buts 



u or u 



All these vowel-points are written under the letter after 
which they are pronounced except two, viz., Hholem and 
Shurek. liholem is placed over the left edge of the letter 
to which it belongs, and is thus distinguished from the 
accent R'bhi'', which is a dot over its centre. When fol- 
lowed by tj or preceded by ii: it coincides with the diacritical 
point over the letter, e. g. nizjy moshe, ^^p sunt; when it 
follows "iiJ or precedes to it is written over its opposite arm, 



16 ORTHOGRAPHY. §12 

e. g. "Tais shomEr, 'ijh'^T\ tixpOs. Its presence in these cases 
must accordingly be determined by the circumstances. If 
preceded by a letter without a vowel-sign, tJ Avill be os/i and 
ilj 05 / if it have itself no vowel-sign, UJ will be so and izJ s/io, 
except at the end of words. Shurek is a dot in the 
bosom of the letter Vav, thus ^. It will be observed that 
there is a double notation of the vowel u. When there is a 
1 in the text this vowel, whether long or short, is indicated 
by a single dot Avithin it, and called Shurek ; in the absence 
of 1 it is indicated by three dots placed obliquely beneath 
the letter to which it belongs, and called Kibbuts, 

a. The division of the vowels given above diflfers from the common 
one into five long and five short, according to which Hhirik is counted as 
two, viz., Hhirik magnum i. = ?, and Hhirik parvum -r = z; and Shurek 
is reckoned a distinct vowel from Kibbuts, the former being u and the latter 
a. To this there are two objections. (1.) It confuses the masoretic signs 
with the letters of the text, as though they were coeval with them and 
formed part of the same primitive mode of writing, instead of being quite 
distinct in origin and character. The masoretic vowel-sign is not "^ . but 
-7-. The punctuators never introduced the letter *> into the text; they 
found it already written precisely where it is at present, and all that they 
did was to add the point. And instead of using two signs for i, as they 
bad done in the case of a, e. and 0, they used but one, viz., a dot beneath 
the letter, whether i was long or short. The confusion of things thus sep- 
arate in their nature was pardonable at a time when the points were sup- 
posed to be an original constituent of the sacred text, but not now when 
their more recent origin is universally admitted. (2.) It is inaccurate. 
The distinction between "^ . and -7-, ^ and "T", is not one of quantity, for i 
and u are expressed indifferently with or without Yodh and Vav. 

Gesenius, in his Lehrgebaude. while he retains the division of the 
vowels into five long and five short, admits that it is erroneous and calcu- 
lated to mislead ; and it has been discarded by Rodiger in the latest edi- 
tions of his smaller grammar. Tliat which was proposed by Gesenius, 
however, as a substitute, is perplexed and oh.scure, and lor this reason, if 
there were no others, is unfitted for the wants of pupils in the early stage 
of their progress;. On the other hand, the triple arrangement here 
adopted after the example of Ewald, has the recommendation not only of 
clearness and correctness, but of being, instead of an innovation, a return to 
old opinions. The scheme of five, long and five short vowels originated 
with Moses and David Kimchi, who were led to it by a comparison of the 
Latin and its derivatives. From them it was adopted by Reuchlin in his 
Rudimenta Hebraica, and thus became current among Christians. The 
Jewish grammarians, before the Kimchis, however, reckoned Kibbuts and 
Shurek as one vowel, Hhirik as one, and even Kamets and Kamets- 



§13 VOWELS. 17 

Hhatuph as one on account of the identity of the symbol employed to 
represent them. They thus made out seven vowels, the same number as 
in Greek, where the distinction into long, short and doubtful also pre- 
vails. That the literary impulses of the Orientals were chiefly received 
from the Greeks is well known ; that the suggestion of a vowel-system 
came to the Syrians from this quarter is certain, both from direct testi- 
mony to this eflTect and from the shapes of their vowels, which still betray 
their origin. May not the Hebrews have learned something from the 
same school ? 

b. The names of the vowels, with the exception of Kamets-Hhatuph, 
contain the sounds of the vowels which they are intended to represent, 
Kibbuts in the last, the others in their first syllable. Their signification 
is indicative either of the figure of the vowel or the mode of pronouncing 
it. Kamets and Kibbuts, contraction^ i. e. of the mouth ; Pattahh, open- 
ing j Tsere, Imrsting forth; Seghol, chister of grapes ; Hhirik, gJiashiiig ; 
Hholem, strength; Kamets-Hhatuph, hurried Kamets; Shurek, whistling. 
It is a curious circumstance that notwithstanding the diversity of the 
vowel-systems in the Syriac, Arabic, and Hebrew, the name Pattahh is 
common to them all. 



§13. This later and more complete method of noting 
the vowels does not displace but is superinduced upon the 
scanty one previously described. Hence it comes to pass 
that such vowels as were indicated by letters in the first in- 
stance are now doubly written, i. e. both by letters and 
points. By this combination each of the two methods serves 
to illustrate and explain the other. Thus the added signs 
determine whether the letters "^inb? (which have been formed 
into the technical word '^^rn^^ Eh^vT) are in any given case to 
be regarded as vowels or as consonants. If these letters are 
themselves followed by a vowel or a Sh'va, §1G, or have a 
Daghesh forte, §23, they retain their consonant sound; for 
two vowels never come together in Hebrew, and Sh'va and 
Daghesh forte belong only to consonants : thus ^"^ip hoveled, 
mis'a mifsvoth (where 2 being provided with a separate point, 
the Hholem must belong after 1), n^ni vhCujCi a!p Iii^/jjam. 
Otherwise they quiesce in a preceding or accompanying 
vowel-sign, provided it is homogeneous with themselves;, 
that is to say, they have the sound indicated by it, the vowel- 
sign merely interpreting what was originally denoted by the 



18 ORTHOGRAPHY. §14 

letter. E and i are liomogeneous to "^ , o and u\o^^ and 
these being the only vowels which they were ever employed 
to represent, they can quiesce in no others ; thus ""31 bi, *''» 
lit, S'^a ^c, ia ho, ^b lu, but "^"bi? sdray, ''ia gby, ''^ba ff(iluy, 
in ^a^;, i^'i? shdlEv, IT ^^z; ; the combination 1"^^ is pronounced 
uv, ^'^')V and liy f7?2(7!;, T'rio ^^d "^^9 sthdv. A, e, and o 
are homogeneous to 155 and n . These letters deviate so far 
from the rule just given that S5 from its extreme weakness 
not only quiesces when it is properly a vowel-letter, but may 
give up its consonant sound and character after any vowel 
whatever, e. g. sb^t: ttfe, "jiuJsi nshon, nnss purd ; n is 
never used as a vowel-letter except at the end of words, and 
there it always quiesces unless it receives a Mappik, §26. 

a. As a letter was scarcely ever used to express o, the quiescence of 1 
In Kamets-Hhatuph is very rare, and where it does occur the margin 
always substitutes a reading without the 1, e. g. ■"'^'ID'^ Jer. 27:20, 
C^irin Ezek. 27:15, -lii"''!-:;^^ Ps. 30 : 4, ili-niat?': Isa. 44 : 17, "blsb Jer. 
33:8.V3-^Tn5!l Nah. 1:3. \n ni'?l»< 2 Chron. 8:18, and ''Dijaa Deut. 
32: 13, 1 represents or quiesces in the still briefer 6 of Hhateph-Kamets, 
§ 16. 3. 

6. In a ^evf proper names medial H quiesces at the end of the first 
member of the compound, e. g. nJikiTis Num. 1 :10, ^ky^'iys_ 2 Sam. 2: 19, 
also written bit-n\uy 1 Chron. 2 : 16. In such words as -^Sij^lS Jer. 22 : 6, 
nisd Deut. 21 : 7, n does not quiesce in Kibbuts, for the points belong to 
the marginal readings 121U13 , l3Eli3 § 46. 



§14. On the other hand the vowel-letters shed light 
upon the stability of the vowels and the quantity of the 
doubtful signs. 1. As z was scarcely ever and ii seldom 
represented by a vowel-letter, Hhiiik with Yodh C^.) is almost 
invariably long and Shurek (^) commonly so. 2. The occa- 
sional absence in individual cases of the vowel-letters, does 
not determine the quantity of the signs for i and u ; but 
their uniform absence in any particular words or forms makes 
it almost certain that the vowel is short. 3. The occasional 
presence of 1 and ■< to represent one of their homogeneous 
'ong vowels proves nothing as to its character ; but if in any 



^15, 16 VOWELS. 19 

word or form these letters are regularly written, the vowel is, 
as a general rule, immutable. When 1 and "^ stand for their 
long homogeneous vowels, these latter are said to be written 
fully, e. g. ^ip kol, "i"'? 7iir, rrra muth ; without these quies- 
cent letters they are said to be written defectively, e. g. 
in^pn h'^klmdthi, cias kdmus. 

a. Hhirik with Yodh is short in I'^^'^ani vah'miUlv 1 Sam. 17:35, 
^ini-^;3"i3 biklc'rolhekha Ps. 45:10, -nr!;5-'i likk'hath Prov. 30:17. In 
5^p''a i Chron. 12 : 1, 20, i is probably long, although the word is always 
elsewhere written without the Yodh; as it sometimes has a secondary 
accent on the first syllable and sometimes not (see 1 Sam. 30: 1), it may 
have had a twofold pronunciation tslkHag; and tsiklag. Shurek as u is 
of much more frequent occurrence, e. g. "'fsin hhukke, a'^r^xb Vummlm, 
nsw hhukka Ps. 102 : 5, n-^ffll^i^x 2 Chron. 2 ;7, n'jlT Ezek. 16 : 34. 

^15. The vowels may be further distinguished into pure, 
a, i, u, and diphthongal, e, o ; e being a combination of a and 
i, or intermediate between them, and o holding the same re- 
lation to a and u. 



Sh'va. 

§16. 1. The absence of a vowel is indicated by — Sh'va 
(«)© emptiness, or as written by Chayug, the oldest of Jew- 
ish grammarians, i^nis), which serves to assure the reader that 
one has not been inadvertently omitted. It is accordingly 
placed under all vowelless consonants except at the end of 
words, where it is regarded as unnecessary, the absence of a 
vowel being there a matter of course. If, however, the last 
letter of a word be T , or if it be immediately preceded by 
another vowelless letter, or be doubled by the point called 
Daghesh-forte, § 23, ShVa is written to preclude the doubt 
which is possible in these cases, e. g. DD'i'aTS'a, tfs'?''?, tptjp, 
n'l'HN, Pi?, nnp. Sh'va is not given to a quiescent letter, 
since it represents not a consonant but a vowel, e. g, npii'^n , 
nor as a general rule to a final consonant preceded by a 



20 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 16 

quiescent ; thus ti^ran , nxni Ruth 3:4; ti'^^ni Isa. 62:3, 
though in this case it is sometimes written, e. g. Jii^i'i 2 Sam. 
14 : 3; n^^ni 2 Sam. 14 : 2; n^nnn Judg. 13 : 3; risiin 
1 Kin. 11:13. X at the end of a Avord, preceded either by 
a vowelless letter or a quiescent, is termed otiant, and is left 
impointed, e. g. Kipn xnH Kiin i^^n . 

a. Final "] may receive Sh'va for the sake of distinction not only from 
'7\ , as already suggested, but also from 1 with which it n)ight be in danger 
of being confounded in manuscripts; Freytag conjectures that it is prop- 
erly a part of the letter, like the stroke in the corresponding final fc^in 
Arabic. In such forms as I'^Bj'n Sh'va is omitted with the closing letters 
because the "^ is not sounded. 

2. Sh'va may be either silent (ns quiescens), or vocal 
(y? mobile). At the close of syllables it is silent. But at the 
beginning of a syllable the Hebrev/s always facilitated the 
pronunciation of concurrent consonants by the introduction 
of a hiatus or slight breathing between them ; a Sh'va so 
situated is consequently said to be vocal, and has a sound 
approaching that of a hastily uttered e, as in given. This 
will be represented by an apostrophe, thus, "13^^^ b'midhbar, 
Dri^ps pkadMem, 

a. According to Kimchi (Mikhlol fol. 189) Sh'va was pronounced in 
three different ways, according to circumstances. (1.) Before a guttural 
it inclined to the sound of the following vowel, e. g. 13X';' y'abbedh, nsij 
s'eth, ^i"^ d"u, and if accompanied by Methegh, §44, it had the full sound 
of that vowel, e. g. ^ixb &-uu, Tin WiJn. c^ii"^ loolain. (2.) Before Yodh 
it inclined to ?', e. g. ^p?.;"'3 b'ya"kchh, Di">S> k'yoiu, and with Methegh was 
sounded as Hhirik, e. g. n"a hiyadh. (3.) Before any other letter it in- 
clined to G, e. g. i^-^na frakha, D"'^"'^a g''ltllm, and with Methegh was 
pronounced as Pattahh ni^npToa baniakhelqlh. 

3: Sh'va may, again, be simple or compound. Some- 
times, particularly when the first ■ consonant is a guttural, 
which from its weakness is in danger of not being distinctly 
heard, the hiatus becomes still more audible, and is assimi- 
lated in sound to the short guttural vowel u, or the diph- 
thongal V or o, into which it enters. This assimilation is rep- 



§17 VOWET.S. 21 

resented by combining the sign for Sli'va with those for the 
short vowels, thus forming what are called the compound 
Sh'vas in distinction from the simple Sh'va previously ex- 
plained. 

These are, 

Hhatcph-Pattahh — ; thus, "^t '^mbdh. 
Hhatcph-Seghol ^; thus, "ibii ^mbr. 
Hhateph-Kamets it; thus, "^bn hUHl. 

a. Hhateph (tji^H snatching) denotes the rapidity of utterance or the 
hurried character of the sounds represented by these symbols. 

b. The compound Sh'vas, though for the most part restricted to the 
gutturals, are occasionally written under other consonants in place of sim- 
ple Sh'va, to indicate more distinctly that it is vocal: thus, Hhateph- 
Pattahh 2n.n Gen. 2:12, i^='^2i^ Gen. 27:38; Hhateph-Kamets nnpb 
Gen. 2:23, nsinqx Jer. 31:33; but never Hhateph-Seghol except 
C^abs 2 Sam. 6:5 in some editions, e. g. that of Stephanus. This la 
done with so little uniformity that the same word is differently written in 
this respect, e. g. fr^l?? ^ ^^^"- 2 : 1, •^'^^^i? ver. 11. 

Pattahh Furtive. 

§17. A similar hiatus or slight transition sound was 
used at the end of words in connection with the gutturals. 
When y , n , or the consonantal fi at the end of words is pre- 
ceded by a long heterogeneous vowel (i. e. another than a), 
or is followed by another vowelless consonant, it receives a 
Pattahh furtive — , which resembles in sound an extremely 
short a, and is pronounced before the letter under which it 
is written, e. g. in^n rW/i//,, ^r(0 shdmb"' , ^'^k^p^ macjlih'fh, 
n^'biD shama^t, "^r]^ yi%M. 

a. Some grammarians deny that Pattahh furtive can be found under a 
penultimate guttural, contending that the vovvel-sign is in such cases a 
proper Pattahh. and that riS??iU should accordingly be read shamaat^ and 
l\Ty yihhad. But both the Sh'va under the final letter, §16, and the 
Daghesh-lene in it, § 21, show that the guttural is not followed by a vowel. 
The sign beneath it must consequently be Pattahh furtive, and represent 
an antecedent vowel-sound. In some manuscripts Pattahh furtive is writ- 
ten as Hhateph- Pattahh, or even as simple Sh'va ; thus, ipr?^ or ^"■'i^'^ for 



?2 orthoguapht. §18 

Syllables. 

§18. 1, Syllables are formed by the combination of 
consonants and vowels. As two vowels never come togetbei 
in the same word in Hebrew without an intervening conso- 
nant, there can never be more than one vowel in the same 
syllable ; and with the single exception of l occurring at the 
beginning of words, no syllable ever consists of a vowel 
alone. Every syllable, with the exception just stated, must 
begin with a consonant, and may begin with two, but never 
with more than two. Syllables ending with a vowel, whether 
represented by a quiescent letter or not, are called simple, 
e. g. iTjb VMu, r.biy o4a. (The first syllable of this second 
example begins, it will be perceived, with the consonant V , 
though this disappears in the notation given of its sound.) 
Syllables ending with a consonant, or, as is possible at the 
close of a word, with two consonants, are said to be mixed ; 
thus rty2'p_ kam-tem, nD^n hu-laJchf. As the vocal Sh'vas, 
whether simple or compound, are not vowels properly speak- 
ing, but simply involuntary transition sounds, they, with the 
consonants under which they stand, cannot form distinct 
syllables, but are attached to that of the following vowel. 
Pattahh furtive in like manner belongs to the syllable formed 
by the preceding vowel. Thus ?iiT zro", "lix "nl are mono- 
syllables. 

2. Long vowels always stand in simple syllables, and 
short vowels in mixed syllables, unless they be accented. 
But accented syllables, whether simple or mixed, may con- 
tain indifferently a long or a short vowel. 

a. The following may serve as a specimen of the division of Hebrew 
words into their proper syllables ; thus. 

DHX D"ik^x x-is Bin 3 D-ix nHbin •nsfc nt 

&-dha'm "lo-hi'm b'ro' b'yo'm a-dha'm tO-1'dho'th se'-pher ze' 
Gen. 5 : 1. irk nps o'^ihsN nsiriia 

o-tho' a-sa' 'lo-hl'm bidh-mfl'tb 



§19 SYLLABLES. 28 

b. The reason of the ruic for the quantity of syllables appears to be 
this. In consequence of their brevity, the short vowels required the ad- 
dition of a following consonant to make the utterance full and complete, 
unless the want of this was compensated by the greater energy of pronun- 
ciation due to the accent. The long vowels were sufficiently complete 
without any such addition, though they were capable of receiving it under 
the new energy imparted by the accent. This pervading regularity, 
which is so striking a feature of the Hebrew language, was the foundation 
of the syslema morarum advocated by some of the older grammarians of 
Holland and Germany. The idea of this was, that each syllable was 
equal to three morae, that is, three rests, or a bar of three beats ; a long 
vowel being equivalent to two morae, or two beats, a short vowel to one, 
and the initial or final consonant or consonants also to one : thus Fi^tJi^ 
k (1) + a (2) = 3, t (1) + a (1) + It (1) = 3. An accented syllable 
might have one mora or beat either more or less than the normal quan- 
tity. This system was not only proposed by way of grammatical explana- 
tion, but also made the basis of a peculiar theory of Hebrew prosody. See 
Gesenius, Geschichte d. Heb. Sprache, p. 123. 

c. The cases in which short vowels occur in unaccented simple sylla- 
bles, are all due to the disturbing influence exerted by the weak letters 
upon the normal forms of words ; thus, nsn hd-eth is for rs;ri, and Ninrt 
ha-hu for hdh-hu : .such words as Ntin , N"!B, N^c, f^?.!l, f^2t]^ are formed 
after the analogy of T)^^. A long vowel in an unaccented mixed syllable 
is found in but one word, and that of foreign origin, "-iNdaba bel-Vshdts- 
tsar ; though here, as in the majority of instances falling under the previ- 
ous remark, the syllable receives, if not the primary, yet the secondary 
accent, e. g. 'irn"i"':.|ri, fi'^nnfi, iJDJ'.n. The same is the case when a long 
vowel is retained before Makkeph, e. g. "^"^'nd. In the Arabic, which is 
exceedingly rich in vowels, there are comparatively few mixed syllables; 
nearly every consonant has its own vowel, and this more frequently short 
than long. The Chaldee, which is more sparing in its use of vowels than 
the Hebrew, observes in general the same rule with respect to the quan- 
tity of syllables, though not with the same inflexible consistency. 



Ambiguous Signs. 

§19. It will now be possible, by aid of the principles 
already recited, to determine tlie quantity of the doubtful 
vowels, and to remove the ambiguity which appears to exist 
in certain vowel-signs. 

1. Hhirik, Shurek, and Kibbuts, in unaccented simple 
syllables, must be long, and in unaccented mixed syllables, 
short, e. g. tJ'bV or tjni. p-rash, '^^''} yihh-nu, i^^a5 or iSna 
ghltu-lb, ^f:_ or "i^r^ yuUaclli, D^3 or D313 kul-lam, ^j^S'n 



24 ORTHOGRAPHY. §] 9 

or ''•'T^J'a mdiizzl. In accented syllables, wlietlier simple or 
mixed, they are always long, e. g. Dnib or Q'^niia si-hlm, ""^ U, 
5ia or b^Sii (fhliiil, ^"irn^ or ^n^nn d'rd-shu-hu, the only ex- 
ception being that llhirik is short in the monosyllabic parti- 
cles Ci? , ilJN , DS' , ■j'a , and in some abbreviated verbal forms 
of the class called Lamedh-He, e. g. T^^, :a©'^n, nv. 

The only cases of remaining doubt are those in which 
these vowels are followed by a letter with Sh'va, either sim- 
ple or compound. If the former, it might be a question 
whether it was silent or vocal, and consequently whether the 
syllable was simple or mixed. If the latter, though the syl- 
lable is of course simple, the weak letter which follows may 
interfere with the operation of the law. Here the etymology 
must decide. The vowel is long or short as the grammatical 
form may require ; thus in nVi^, ^^"^ ^ 'i^""^*!? Gen. 22 : 8, 
which follow the analogy of biijp'i , and in ''ino Isa. 10 : 34, 
iS'QjP the first vowel is short ; in cSbna , ij'airi^ the first vowel 
is long. In a few instances the grammatical form in which 
Hhirik is employed is itself doubtful ; the distinction is then 
made by means of Methegh, §44, which is added to the vowel- 
sign if it is long, but not if it is short ; thus, ^i^'^i,';' yi-ru, from 
^^T ^0 f(^o:''y aiid ^vd^, 1/i-sJinu from ]i?J^ to sleep ; but ^S'l': 
yir-ii from nsjn to see, and V:©;' yish-nil from n':t^ to do a 
second time. 

2. Kamets a and Kamets-Hhatuph o are both repre- 
sented by the same sign ( t ), but may be distinguished by 
rules similar to those just given. In an unaccented simple 
syllable it is Kamets ; in an unaccented mixed syUable it is 
Kamets-Hhatuph ; in an accented syllable, whether simple 
or mixed it is Kamets, e. g. ^i'l dd-bhar, ^icsn Miojjh-sJil, 
fil'a md-veth, mIG^ Idm-md, D^P3 hot-tim. Before a letter with 
simple Sh'va, the distinction is mostly made by Methegh, 
§44 ; without Methegh it is always Kamets-Hhatuph, with 
it commonly Kamets, e. g. Mosn hliolxli-md, H'bsn JiM-kJimd. 
Before a guttural with Hhateph-Kamets or Kamets-Hhatuph 



§19 AMBIGUOUS SIGNS. 25 

it is frequently o, tliougli standing in a simple syllable and 
accompanied by Methegli, e. g. '''nria bo-/i/i°rt, O'lnrn to- 
obMUtm. The surest criterion, however, and in many cases 
the only decisive one, is found in the etymology. If the 
vowel be derived from Hholem, or the grammatical form re- 
quires an or a short vowel, it is Kamets-Hhatupli ; but if 
it be derived from Pattahh, or the form requires an a or a 
long vowel, it is Kamets : thus s^'i^?^;] with the prefixed con- 
junction vo'^niyyoth, ^^t?^*^ with the article hd''m?/>/d ; "Tas?;; in 
the Hophal ijo'madh, ^^^^^^^^ Isa. 44 : 13 in the Piel ytlia''' 
I'Ehd. The first vowel is u in D^in? fro^^^ "^r^^, Q"^'«?7S from 
H^"^, D'lffiTiJ from t-k, ''r";?T232J Isa. 38 : 14, ''IJ-nn^ Num. 22 : 
11, "i^-nni? Num. 23 : 7 and the like, and the first two vow- 
els in such Avords as tsbbl^s from -?s, nibcbjia Isa. 30 : 12 from 
Di5^, obn'^i^ Deut. 20 : 2, ^nt:;^ PIos. 13 : 14, i-u]^ 2 Chron. 
10:10, I2i?"^3j;3 2 Kin. 15:10, because they are shortened 
from Hholem. On the other hand the first vowel is d in 
'''into Job 16:19 from "into, d^irnn from to"nn, ^nm from 
niaa, and in V}^k^, P>^^^ and the like, because it is originally 
and properly Kamets. The word 5"0''?''fT is in Ps. 86 : 2 the 
imperative shomrd, in Job 10:12 the preterite sham r a. 

a. In a very few instances Karaets-Hhatuph is found in a syllable 
bearing a conjunctive accent, viz.: ''S'li Ps. 38:21, bs Ps. 35:10, also 
Prov. 19: 7 (in some copies), and in the judgment of Ewald ^?0 Judg. 
19 : 5, comp. ver. 8 and 2S Ezek. 41 : 25 ; in Dan. 11:12 z.^yi the points 
belong to the marginal reading cm, and the vowel is consequently Ka- 
mets. Tliere are also a lew cases in Avhich Kamets remains in a mixed 
syllable, deprived of its accent by Makkeph, §43, without receiving 
Methegh, viz. : -P5T2 Ps. 16 : 5, -y\p_ Ps. 55: 19, 22, --=5 Ps. 74:5; and a 
final unaccented Kamets is not affected by the insertion of Daghesh-forte 
conjunctive, §24, in the initial letter of the following word, e. g. c'i^ Pin*^^ 
Gen. 31:13. When an accent takes the place of Methegh, it serves 
equally to distinguish rZ from 6, e. g. ^s^ri Ex. 21:22 v'nagh''plin, ^"3^^ 
Ex. 21 : 35 umaWru. §45. 5. 

b. Inasmuch as rnriTS is derived from "in^ mnJihar, its first vowel 
might be suspected to be u ; but as it is so constantly written with 
Hhateph-Kamets, the preceding vowel is probably conformed to it. It is 
consequently regarded and pronounced as 6. Kimchi (Alikhlol, fol. ISS) 
declares that the first vowel in )h'y^ 1 Sam. 13: 21. ""iTan^ Eccles. 12:11 



26 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 20 

and I'^bjj Num. 24 : 7 was universally held to be Kamets, and that with the 
exception of Rabbi Jonah ben Gannach, who was of a contrary mind, the 
same unanimity prevailed in regard to the first vowel of '(^'^5 Ezek. 40: 
43, As, however, this last word is in every other place written without 
the Methegh, and there is no analogy for such words as those mentioned 
above having a in their initial syllable, the best authorities are now agreed 
that the vowel is d. and the words are accordingly read dorbhQn, etc. In 
iiZip^ jiisper, and rj?"i3 emerald, Ezek. 28:13, which are mentioned by 
Kimchi in the same connection, the first vowel is Kamets. 

c. In some manuscripts and a few of the older printed books, e. g. Ste- 
phanus' Hebrew Bible and Reuchlin's Rudimenta Hebraica, Kamets- 
Hhatuph is denoted by ( t; ). It then differs from Kamets, but is liable to 
be confounded with Hhateph-Kamets. It can, however, be distinguished 
from it by the circumstance that Kamets-Khatuph is always followed 
either by simple Sh'va, Daghesh-forte, or Methegh ; none of which ever 
immediately succeed Hhateph-Kamets. Such a form as i^sip Ezek. 26: 9 
in the editions of Michaelis and Van der Hooght is an impossible one if ( t: ) 
have its ordinary meaning. 

d. It is surprising that in so minute and careful a system of orthogra- 
phy as that of tile Masorites, there should be no symbol for 6 distinct from 
that for a; and some have felt constrained in consequence to suppose that 
the signs for these two vowels were originally different, but became 
assimilated in the course of transcription. This seems unlikely, however. 
The probability is that a and 6, whose resemblance even we can perceive, 
were so closely allied in the genuine Hebrew pronunciation, that one sign 
was thought sufficient to represent them, especially as the Masorites were 
intent simply on indicaLing sounds without concerning themselves with 
grammatical relations. 



§ 20. 1. As simple Sh'va is vocal at the beginning of a 
syllable and silent at its close, there can be no doubt as to its 
character when it stands under initial or final letters. Pre- 
ceding the first vowel of a word it must of course be vocal, 
and following the last vowel it must be silent, ori'^ST z'Martam, 
tHdi zaklLcirt. In the middle of a word, the question whether 
it belongs to the syllable of the preceding or the following 
vowel must be determined by the circumstances. If a com- 
plete syllable precedes, that is, either an unaccented long 
vowel or a vowelless consonant serving as the complement 
of a previous short vowel, it is vocal. If it be preceded by 
a short vowel which cannot make a complete syllable with- 
out the aid of a following consonant, or by a long accented 



§ 21 DAGHESH-LENE. 27 

vowel, it is silent : '•'b^T zo-kJirB, T0]T\ tiz-Jcru, TOI zikh-ruy 
rDbii)5n Uktol-nd. Sh'va under a letter doubled by Daghesh- 
forte, § 23, is vocal, sucli a letter being equivalent to two, 
the first of which completes the previous syllable, and the 
second begins the syllable which follows : D'^'^^'n = D'^nDTTn 
haz-zkhdnm. 

2. In addition to this it is to be remarked that Sh'va is 
vocal after what may be called intermediate syllables ; that 
is to say, when the consonant under which it stands per- 
forms, as it occasionally does, the double office of completing 
one syllable and beginning the next. Thus, when it follows 
a consonant from which Daghesh-forte has been omitted, 
^©fpn^l vayhliah'shii for vay-yhliak-k'sliii, or the first of two 
similar letters, in order that the reduplication may be made 
more distinct, ^Hbn haVlu, n^^p kiVIath, i^^s tsiTlo, "^'ibs? 
aVlay, ""pipn hhik'kt, and in several other cases, which will be 
more particularly described in § 22. 

a. The same double office is performed by gutturals beginning one 
syllable and yet inclining to complete the one before it. § IS. 2. c. In 
n?n, ibr example. 5 belongs in a measure to both syllables. It properly 
begins the second, and yet it is preceded by a short vowel just as if il 
ended the first, which is accordingly to be reckoned an intermediate sylla- 
ble, being in strictness neither simple nor mixed, but partaking of the 
nature of both. 



Daghesh-Lene. 

§ 21. The second class of signs added to the Hebrew 
text are those which are designed to guide in the pronuncia- 
tion of the consonants. These are the diacritical point over 
Shin, Daghesh-lene, Daghesh-forte, Mappik, and Raphe. 
The use of the first of these has already been sufficiently 
explained, ^3. 1. 

1. Daghesh-lene (bj? tJ-^"!) is a point inserted in the six 
letters n s D 'i :; n (technically called B'yhadh K'j^lf-CLtli)^ 
to indicate the loss of their aspiration, e. g. n hh, 3 h, etc. 



28 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^21 

As these letters are always aspirated after a vowel-sound, 
however slight, and never as an initial utterance or when fol- 
lowing a consonant, they invariably require Daghesh-lene 
whenever they are not immediately preceded by a vowel or 
a vocal Sh'va. It is consequently inserted in the initial 
aspirate of a word which begins a verse, ri''t?«na Gen. 1:1, 
or which follows a word bearing a disjunctive accent (inas- 
much as this represents a pause of longer or shorter dura- 
tion), ^sa in^n^ Ex. 1 : 1, 13 1 nn:? Gen. 3 : 22, or ending in a 
consonant, ^?n-5i5, ^sn^ n'^sia Gen. 24 : 42 ; but not if it fol- 
lows a word ending in a vowel and having a conjunctive 
accent, ninri 15s, "^rri r.n'^n Gen, 1:2. The sacred name 
nHn^ is foIloAved by Daghesh-lene, even though it may have a 
conjunctive accent. Num. 10 : 29, Deut. 3 : 26, Josh. 10 : 30, 
11 : 8, Ps. 18 : 21, because in reading the Jews always sub- 
stitute for it the word ''p^,, which ends in a consonant. In 
a very few cases, however, e. g. D3 ''i^s? Ps. 68 : 18, iriri"l)5. 
Isa. 34 : 11, J^n ^b;y Ezek. 23 : 42, Daghesh-lene is not in- 
serted after a vowel-letter, which retains its consonant sound. 
2. Daghesh-lene is inserted in a medial or final aspirate 
preceded by a vowelless consonant, whether this be accom- 
panied by silent Sh'va or Pattahh furtive, e. g. ri*;ir)C?, f!^2?"bTiJ; 
but not if it be preceded by a vowel or vocal Sh'va, whether 
simple or compound, e. g. fT'i^^, Q^'7^? . 



a. The primary signification of the name Daghesh is commonly ex- 

y 

plained from the Syriac "-^-^ ? (^'?'^)» to which Castellus in his lexicon 
gives the sense o^ piercing. This is by some applied to the puncture or 
point which is its written sign, by others to its power of sharpening the 
sound of letters by removing their aspiration "or doubling them. Bnxtorf, 
however, in his Chalclee Lexicon, disputes the existence of such a root in 
either Syriac or Chaldee, alleging that in Prov. 12 : IS, the passage quoted 
to prove the word, the true reading is i-^9 (itT^5"i). The six letters which 
receive Daghesh-lene in Hebrew have the same twofold pronunciation in 
Syriac, a red dot called Rukhokh (^scb soflness), being written beneath 
them when they were to be aspirated, and another called Kushoi (»-Ajk.aj 
hardness), being written above them when they were not. 



§ 22 DAGHESH-LENE. 29 

b. Grammarians are not agreed whether the aspirated or unaspirated 
eound of these consonants was the original one. There being no data for 
the settlement of the question, each decides it by his own tlieory of pho- 
netic changes. The correctness of the Masoretic punctuation has some- 
times been questioned in regard to this matter, on the ground of the im- 
probability of such fluctuation in the sound of these letters in the samts 
word. But besides the Syriac analogy just referred to, tlie Sanskrit lan- 
guage shows the almost unlimited exient to which euphonic changes may 
be carried by a people possessing a sensitive and discriminating ear. The 
Sanskrit aspirates, besides being subjected to other mutations which can- 
not here be detailed, regularly lose their aspiration when finals, and under 
certain conditions when medials, throwing it back, where this is possible, 
upon a previous letter. Bopp Kritische Grammatik, pp. 30. 42. Similar 
laws prevail to some extent in Greek, e. g. Bpi^, rpi^os; rpe'c^w, Opeipoi-^ 6vu), 
Irvdrjv ; ovk e)(M, ov^ e'tw 5 //.e^' vfxlv. 



§ 22. The absence of Dagliesli-lene in an aspirate some- 
times shows a preceding simple Sh'va to be vocal when this 
would not otherwise have been known. In most of the cases 
referred to, a letter originally belonging to the succeeding 
syllable is by the prefixing of a short vowel drawn back to 
complete the syllable before it ; instead, however, of giving 
up its previous connection altogether, it forms an interme- 
diate syllable, § 20. 2, the Sh'va remaining vocal though the 
antecedent vowel is short ; 'thus, snb VhluibU with the prefix 
a becomes snba hiVhliahh, not snba hil-habh. 

a. The particular instances in which this may occur are the following, 
viz. : (1) The Kal imperative of verbs and the Kal infinitive with suffixes, 
e. g. ^133, ii3^, Cnn^, ^snay from 13?.; yet with occasional exceptions, aa 
D23pX2 Lev.' 23 : 39.' (2) Those forms of Pe Guttural verbs in which the 
first radical assumes a short vowel in place of the silent Sh'va in the reg- 
ular inflexion, e. g. ^"13?;;, ^'il^^v? '^'^^ ^"'r^'?) ^I^^'!?- (3) The construct 
plural of nouns ■'Tn? from C^n^?., nisrS from m'srs, ni^in from n'iz'in, 
though with occasional exceptions, as "'B^"^ Cant. 8 : 6, but "^SUJ"] Ps. 76:4, 
•i^^a Isa. 5 : 10, risnn Ps. 69 : 10, -^Sia Ge'n. 50 : 23, but nni3-i3 .Tudg. 7:6; 
•injs, "ixa from 153 are peculiar in omitting Daghesh in the singular with 
suffixes. (4) Three feminine nouns ending in ri, ri^b^ from 7)^52, mb^ 
^rom'^;?7, ri"3y (only occurring with suffixes) from "i^y, but not nl'^i'i'O 
Also a few other nouns of different forms, viz.: D''ri3"^V but T}^"^!?) "^t^'"^) 
•inns, 'J^'anir, c'^^s'n^, -(^Si*, bsnp;; Josh. 15:3S, ci-np^ Josh. 15:56. 
(5) After prefixes, as He interrogative, e.g. ct^^n'jn Gen. 29:5 from 
^P]?']'?, and inseparable prepositions, e. g. "I'^S'ib from l''3^l , nsna from r;"n, 
"li'is from '13'n. Usage is not uniform in the case of Kal infinitives follow- 



30 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^23 

ing inseparable prepositions, e. g. ainsb, sinsa; Vsja, Vsi's, Vssb; i<a2b 
Isa. 31 : 4, n'i^}) Num. 4: 23, 8: 24; n4sb, n's^i?. (6) Tlie' suffixes of the 
second person ^, 03, "(3 never receive Daghesh-lene, ?(33, Di/nj^a. 

These rules are sometimes of importance in etymology; thus, Tj'^aiaTS 
Ezek. 27:12 must have as its ground form '(i^J^i not V'^l^j &nd oanx 
Hos. 7 :6, cann Ps. 90 : 10 cannot be infinitives with suffixes, but must be 
from the segholates an'x, ainS. 

b. The omission of Daghesh-lene in the final letter of riDitn Prov. 30: 6, 
abbreviated from Ci"iDiSn or SlOiPi, is exceptional. The Daghesh occasion- 
ally occurring in initial aspirates after words ending in a vowel and having 
a conjunctive accent, is best explained not as an exception to the ordinary 
rules, but as Daghesh forte conjunctive, § 24, e. g. *|^33 i^^'^N Gen. 11:31 
and elsewhere, yvi nsnx Gen. 46: 28, nxs nka Ex. 15: l.'2i, tibijj >1T Ex. 
15: 13, ntos n-'t^n Deut.'^lG: 1 (comp. ^^3 r\^v;j Gen. 20:9), Da'nn''5XT 
Deut. 31:28'(c;omp. "'h nn-iSXl Isa. 8:2),'ni^D3 "'ri'^l Josh. 8:24', lo':20, 
fiQ "0^^ Clen. 35:29, ia nairj'lsa. 40:7. See 'also' Gen. 39:12, Ex. 14: 
4.'l7, Isa'. 10:9, Job 9:2. Ex.'"l5: 11. 16, Ps. 35: 10, Isa. 54: 12, Jer. 20: 9, 
Dan. 3:3. 5:11. The old strife as to the Daghesh in the word Df'T'^ ^'^o 
is not yet settled. Kimchi explained it as Daghesh-lene upon the suppo- 
sition that the word was abridged from D'^BTIJK ; Schultens as Daghesh- 
forte arising from an assimilated 3, contending that it was for D'^nttJ from 
C^n^TlJ ; Nordheimer as an anomalous Daghesh-lene, introduced as a 
euphonic expedient to prevent the combination of an aspirated n with a 
Bibilant, such as is obviated in the Hithpael of verbs by a transposition 
that would here be inadmissible. The puzzle is still further perplexed by 
the circumstance that it once appears with the preposition "jTa without the 
Daghesh, ''r^^ Judg. 16 : 28, and again with the same preposition with it, 
cnia^ Jon. 4: 11, the Methegh showing the Sh'va to be vocal, as might 
also be inferred from the fact that Daghesh-fbrte has been omitted. 



Daghesh-Fgrte. 

^23. 1. When the same consonant was repeated with a 
vowel or even the sHghtest hiatus intervening, so that suc- 
cessive movements of the organs of speech were required in 
the pronunciation, the Hebrews invariably wrote the letter 
twice. When, however, there was no interval between the 
reduplicated consonants, and the only audible result was a 
more protracted or vehement utterance of the same sound 
effected by a single effort of the organs, the letter was written 
but once. This fact the Masoretic punctuators have indi- 
cated by placing a point called Daghesh-forte (pjn tyi) in 
the bosom of a letter so affected, to show that it is to be 



§24 DAGHESH-rORTE. 3] 

doubled in the pronunciation ; thus, bb'}^ vayyimmal. Da- 
ghesh-forte may be found in any letter with the exception 
of the gutturals N n n y, which on account of their weak 
ness do not admit of reduplication. The letter "i, par- 
taking of this with other peculiarities of the gutturals, re- 
ceives it only in a very few exceptional cases, e. g. ''icii'^Tj^ , 

2. The aspirates, when doubled, always at the same time 
lose their aspiration ; thus, Ips^' yijppdhtdli. Daghesh-forte 
in these letters is readily distinguishable from Daghesh-lene 
by the consideration that a consonant cannot be pronounced 
double except after a vowel. A point in one of the aspirates 
is, therefore, Daghesh-forte if a vowel precedes, otherwise it 
is Daghesh-lene. 

3. Daghesh-forte in 1 may be distinguished from Shurek 
in the same way. Inasmuch as two vowels cannot come to- 
gether in the same word, if a vowel precedes it is Daghesh- 
forte, if not it is Shurek. 

a. Some Grammarians speak of Daghesh-forte iinplicilum in the gut- 
turals, by which they mean that these letters appear in certain cases tc 
complete a foregoing syllable as well as to begin that in which they prop- 
erly stand, in spite of the omission of Daghesh, which analogy would re- 
quire them to receive. As these are included under what have already, 
§ 20. 2. a, been explained as intermediate syllables, it is not thought neces- 
sary to employ an additional terra. 

b. The Arabs have a sign of reduplication, Teshdid ( >- ), which is 
written above the doubled letter. The Syrians have no written sign for 
this purpose, and it is disputed whether their letters were ever doubled in 
pronunciation. According to Asseman Biblioth. Orient. III. 2. p. 379, the 
Western differed from the Eastern Syrians in this respect, " Occidentales 
nullibi literas areminant." 



§ 24. Different epithets have been applied to Daghesh- 
forte to describe its various uses or the occasions of its em- 
ployment. 1. When se,parate letters, whether originally 
alike, or made so by assimilation, are by the inflection or 
formation of words brought into juxtaposition, the Daghesh- 



32 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 24 

forte which represents such a doubling is called compensa- 
tive; e. g. ''n^s, formed by appending the syllable ^r\ to the 
root m'bl ; ^nns composed of the same syllable and the root 
•jns , whose last letter is changed to n to conform with that 
which follows ; ''SO from nno. 2. When the reduphcation is 
indicative of a particular grammatical form the Daghesh- 
forte is called characteristic, e. g. in the Piel, Pual, and 
Hithpael of verbs ; as, ^fn, tjjnrin, and certain forms of nouns, 
as, "lis^ . 3. When it has arisen from the necessity of con- 
verting a previous simple syllable into a mixed one in order 
to preserve the quantity of a short vowel which it contains, 
it is Daghesh-forte conservative; e. g. S5^ for dD'^. 4. When 
the initial letter of a word is doubled under the influence of 
the final vowel of the word preceding, it is Daghesh-forte 
conjunctive; e. g. l^^'f^'Q, ^Y^--^'^ > '^^ "^^^P- ^- When the 
last letter of an intermediate syllable is doubled in order to 
make the following hiatus or vocal Sh'va more distinct, it is 
Daghesh-forte dirimens or separative, because the letter which 
receives it is thus separated in part from the syllable to which 
it belongs ; e. g. ^is:? innhM for "^^^y. inbJiB. 6. When the 
first letter of a final syllable is doubled under the influence 
of a previous vowel bearing the accent (mostly a pause ac- 
cent, § 36. 2. 6f.), for the sake of increased fullness and force 
of pronunciation, it is Daghesh-forte emphatic ; e. g. ^^^nn for 
^b'ln . In the first three uses named above Daghesh-forte is 
said to be essential, in the last three it is euphonic. 



a. Daghesh-forte conjunctive occurs regularly after the pronoun ^52, 
e. g. D"'i'3"n^!i niia n^ Ps. 133: 1, and in a multitude of cases after final Ka- 
mets or Seghol in words accented on the penult or followed by Makkeph, 
§ 43, e. g. rx-rnripb Gen. 2 : 23, Ci!<;-nb=X Deut. 27 : 7, "hi nn'^nl Num. 25 : 13, 
"la-nrss Gen. 3d:'33; •'T.nr''^!! Num.' 34: 6, 7, 9, njix^'niris Ex. 13:1 
(where the accent is on the ultimate), Tjt!"!^??!^ Prov. 15: 1 (in some edi- 
tions), more rarely after other vowels, e. g. ^XS !i-2^p Gen. 19:14. S<^ ^'^^'^11 
1 Sam. 8: 19, once after the hquid "i, e. g. i<^ "iri^^l 1 Kin. 11: 22. See 
also § 22. b. In a few instances words thus united are written as one, e. g. 
riTT? Ex.4: 2 for n-t Hts, so c=^-q Isa. 3:15, nijbrn? Mai. 1:13, .1X5X03 



§35 



DAGHESH-rORTE. 



33 



Isa. 27:8, and possibly t3^X"iN Isa. 33:7. See Dr. Alexander's Com 
mentary upon this passage. 

b. Daghesli-forte separative occurs only in the following examples : 



nnsx Hos. 3:2. 
?]"'rn'"ii3-'3 Ps. 45 : 10. 
n'lns-'rn Am. 5 : 25. 
nnir^Vrn Gen. 18:21. 
' Vii^ir] Gen. 37 : 32. 
■■j=^n Gen. 17 : 17. 
cn-'ji'nn l Sam. 10: 
24, 17 : 25, 
2 Kin. 6: 32. 
cni-iar, Job 17:2. 
iD'^ESn Ex. 2 : 3. 
!ins-^n^n (?) Judg.20: 
43. 
tnT2S':in 1 Sam. 1 : 6. 
"'^in Isa. 57:6. 
ir^rip_1 Gen. 49:10. 
rtnjs^b Prov.30:17. 



•^nis": 1 Sam. 28:10 
np.-'rirss (?) Ezek. 
13:20. 
?^nibs3 Isa. 33:1. 
'inna?3ori-in::73Ps. 
89 : 45. 
nin;,52T3 Joel 1: 17. 
^•115312 Job 9:18. 
r^l'ih Nah. 3:17. 
ir-i'isa Ex. 15 : 17. 
nn;?^ Deut. 23:11. 
flX33 Job 30 : 8. 
rTJS3 Ps. 141:3. 
n-iJi; Prov. 4: 13. 
^niiJ^spj Judg. 20 : 32. 
isino Jer. 4 : 7. 



ibst) Isa. 9:3, 10 : 

27. 
''ZIV Deut. 32:32. 
■'nhS? 2 Sam. 23: 
' 27, Jer. 29: 27. 
D3'^3Sy Isa. 58 : 3. 
n3-in-i:iy Am. 5:21. 
'■' ^:p5-j(?) Cant. 1:8. 
n-;3;53 Ps. 89 : 52. 
ti"^nin^a Ps. 77 : 20. 

ni'2t2Jl| Prov. 27 : 25. 
•^snnH'i: Ps. 119; 139. 
•'Dsinns:? Ps. 88 : 17. 
tninVj? (?) Ps. 37: 
15. Isa. 5: 28. 
■'battJ Zech. 4 : 12. 
^sibSUJ Ps. 58 : 9. 



This list is corrected and enlarged from Gesen. Lehrg. pp. 86 ff. Those 
words which are followed by a note of interrogation (?) are found in some 
editions but not in others. Daghesh separative may be found after He 
interrogative in some instances not included in the above list. 

c. Daghesh-forte emphatic occurs only in ^^"in Judg. 5 : 7, 1 Sam. 2 : 5 
Hhh'^) Job 29 : 21 ; inn;', or Wn;; Job 21:13; WS"; Isa. 33 : 12, Jer. 51 : 58 
n-^nb Ezek. 21:15; rjipj Ezek. 6:9; nn'C^J Jer. 51:30; siJrj Ezek. 27 
igV^^^i^ C?) Isa. 19 : 6 ; and probably l^n^jn Job 13 : 9 (not in pause). 



§ 25. In order to the distinct utterance of a reduplicated 
consonant, it must be followed as well as preceded by a 
vowel-sound. Dagliesh-forte is consequently never written 
in a final vowelless letter, witli the exception of the two words 
r\&{ , ns^? , both of which end in aspirates whose pronuncia- 
tion would be changed by the removal of the Daghesh. In 
every other instance the doubling is neglected, even though 
the letter be an aspirate, which will for this reason resume 
its aspiration ; e. g. ^]^ , ^?p; no, ^3D; qn^i abridged from 
^^T^"}^ ; ^'^^1 from nss^i . In a medial letter with Sh'va 
Daghesh may be written, because the Sh'va being thus ren- 
dered vocal the reduplication can be made audible by means 
8 



34 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 26, 27 

of the hiatus which it represents ; it is, however, quite as 
frequently omitted, the Sh'va commonly remaining vocal as 
if it were inserted, and compound Sh'va being occasionally 
substituted for simple to indicate this fact, ^ 16. 3. ^. ; e. g. 
DiniS^ for D"''i!i2?, is^P? for ii^BS, particularly after prefixes, as 
Vav conversive, the article and preposition 1? , so '^n;'] , ©^^^H. 
It is seldom omitted from a medial aspirate on account of the 
change in its sound involved : yet even this is done occasion- 
ally, e. g. n-'i^n^ Judg. 8 : 2 for T^223ti, ^sriP, Isa. 22 : 10 for 
isnn , "jinpr from ^ii3T • In a few rare instances it is dropped 
from a letter followed by a vowel, when the laws of syllables 
will permit and the pronunciation will not be materially 
affected ; e. g. riDayn Ruth 1:13 for nah^n . 

Mappik. 

^ 26. Mappik (P'^s^ hringing out or uttering), is a point 
in one of the letters i5 n 1 ^ , showing that it represents a 
consonant and not a vowel, or in other words that it does 
not quiesce in the preceding vowel-sign. It is unnecessary, 
however, to employ any notation for this purpose in the case 
of i5 1 and "^ , for their quiescence can be readily determined 
in all cases by the rules already given, § 13. Although it is 
much more extensively used in manuscripts, therefore, Map- 
pik is in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible only inserted 
in final n when it retains its consonantal power ; e. g. f^^ns? 
artsdh, n:?ni< artsd, J^npb VMhhah, t^nipb lak'hhd. The point 
four times found in i5, ^S^^i^:! Gen. 43:26, Ezra 8:18, 
^s^fin Lev. 23 : 17, ^s'^ Job 33 : 21, though called aDaghesh 
in the Masoretic notes in the margin, is probably to be re- 
garded as Mappik. 

Raphe. 

§ 27. Raphe (nsn weak), is a small horizontal stroke 
placed over a letter, and denotes the opposite of Daghesh- 



§ 28 ACCENTS. 35 

lene, Daghesli-forte, or Mappik, as the case may be. As na 
inconvenience can arise from its omission, it is only occa- 
sionally used in modern Bibles, and not with entire uni- 
formity in the different editions. It is chiefly found where 
a Mappik has been omitted in n , which according to analogy 
might be expected to be inserted, e.g. r"»'79n!^' Ex. 9:18, 
nnyici Lev. 13:4, nijtpna Num. 15:28, hb Num. 32:42, 
h^r^^a Job 31 : 22 in some copies. In ^n^'nto^n Ex. 20 : 4, 
Deut. 5:8, it is the opposite of Daghesh-forte, and shows 
that b may either be doubled agreeably to the point in its 
bosom or not. In ninn ikb Ex. 20 : 13, Deut. 5 : 17, it is the 
opposite of Daghesh-lene, and shows that the ri may either 
have its unaspirated sound, as the Daghesh indicates, or 
may be aspirated. It is often referred to in the marginal 
Masoretic notes even where it is no longer found in the text, 
e. g. Judg. 16:16, 28. 



Accents 

§ 28. The third class of Masoretic additions to the text 
are those which relate to the words. These are the accents, 
Makkeph, Methegh, and the K'ri. An accent ( Dyb ) is writ- 
ten upon every word with a twofold design, 1st, of m.arking 
its tone-syllable, and 2dly, of indicating its relation to other 
words in the sentence. The great number of the accents 
has respect entirely to this second function, there being no 
diff'erence in the quality of the stress laid upon particular 
syllables, such for example as is marked by the Greek acute, 
grave, and circumflex, but only that difierence in its amount 
which arises from the unequal emphasis naturally laid upon 
the different members of a clause or period. The punc- 
tuators have attempted not only to indicate the pauses to be 
made in reading, as is done by the stops in use in other lan- 
guages, but to represent to the eye the precise position held 



«J6 OUTHOGRAPHT. ^ 29 

by each word in the structure of the sentence, and the 
various grades of attraction or repulsion arising from the re- 
lations whether co-ordinate or subordinate which subsist 
among them. Every sentence is fancifully regarded as a ter- 
ritory, which, partitioned into its several clauses, forms em- 
pires, kingdoms, and principalities, ruled by their respective 
sovereigns, each of whom has his own train of inferiors and 
dependants. The accents are accordingly divided into Dis- 
junctives or Rulers (D^'pb'a), and Conjunctives or Servants 
(D'i'^3?). The former indicate that the word upon which 
they are placed is more or less separated from those that 
follow ; they mark thus the end of a clause or of the section 
of a clause over which they exert control. The latter indi- 
cate that the word over or under which they are written is 
connected with what follows and belongs to the clause oi 
section ruled by the next succeeding Disjunctive. 

a. The stress of voice denoted by the accent must not be confounded 
with quantity. An accented syllable may nevertheless be short, the 
energy with which it is pronounced not necessarily affecting its length. 

b. The Jews made use of the accents as musical notes in the cantilla- 
tion of the synagogue, whence they are also called nis'^SJ. In the judg- 
ment of some this is a part, and perhaps a leading part, of their original 
design. Their great variety, the frequent occurrence of accents of oppo- 
site powers upon the same word, and the distinct system of poetical 
accents, favor this opinion. Such as are curious to know the details may 
find the mode of their employment for this purpose explained at length in 
Bartoloccii Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica, vol. iv. pp. 427-444. 

§ 29. The Disjunctive accents may be divided into four 
classes of various rank or power, as follows, viz : 





Class I. Emperors. 




*1. Silluk 


(,) 


:p!i^D 


*2. Athnahh 


(.) 





i^9 





ACCENTS. 






Class II. Kings. 




3. S'gholta 


C) 


xnV:o postp. 


4. Zakeph Katon 


C) 


V'^Pr 5li?.J 


5. Zakeph Gadhol 


. (') 


^^% sil^J 


*6. Tiphhha 


Class III. luTces. 


xnsij 


*7. R'bhi* 


(■) 


?''=';' 


*8. Shalsheleth 


(') 


rVi'^'iJ 


*9. Zarka 


(~) 


KI^-iT pos^p. 


10. Pashta 


C) 


XwttJa pos/jj. 


11. Y'thlbh 


L) 


-^'^'?. prep. 


12. T'bhir 


Class IV. Counts. 




*13. Pazer 


C) 


" T 


14. KarnePhara 


n 


f^^s ^S^l^ 


15. T'lisha Gh'dhola ( ) 


n^iia xttj"'Vipi prep 


16. Geresh 


C) 


iij-iik 


17. G'rashayira 


(") 


equina 


*18. P'sik 


(') 


ip-'DJS 



37 



The Conjunctive accents, or Servants, are the following, 



VIZ. 



*19. Merka 
*20. Munahh 

21. Merka Kh'phula 
•22. Mahpakh 

23. Darga 
*24. Kadhma 
*25. Yerahh ben Yomo (^) 

26. T'lisha K'tanna ('') 



\ 1 / 


8t3"113 


V J / 


njiio 


^ J) ■' 




\< / 


T\fjm 


M / 


i«5-i'n 


/ ** \ 


Np"i;5 



•iri-'—.a nn;; 



n:::p x'^^'^'P pos/p. 



38 



ORTHOGRAPHY. § 30 



a. Merka Kh'phula has sometimes been reckoned among the Disjunc- 
tives, as by Gesenius in his Lehrgebaude ; but the absence of Daghesh- 
lene in the word following that on which it stands in Ex. 5 : 15, Ezek. 
14:4, proves that it is a Conjunctive. 

h. According to their most probable significations, the names of the 
accents appear to be in part borrowed from their forms and in part from 
their uses. Thus the Disjunctives: Silluk, encZ; Athnahh, resi; Segholta, 
hunch of grapes ; Zakeph, small and great, causing suspension ; Tiphhha, 
palm of the hand J 'R''hhi^, square or reposing ; Shalsheleth, c/ta?'j2; Zarka, 
dispersion; Pashta, e.vpansioii or leiling down (the voice); Y'thibh, si7- 
ting still; T'hhir, interruption ; Pazer, separator ; Karne Phara, a /ie//er's 
horns; T'lisha, great and small, shield ; Geresh., expidsion ; G'rashayim, 
double Geresh ; P'sik, cut off. Conjunctives: Merka, prolonging; Mu- 
nahh, (a trumpet) at rest, i. e., in its proper position ; Merka Kh'phula, 
double Merka ; Mahpakh, (a trumpet) wt;e;'/e(i; DavQa, progress ; Kadh- 
ma, beginning ; Yerahh ben-Yomo, moon a day old. 

Other names are given to some of these accents, particularly where they 
occur in certain situations or combinations; thus Tiphhha is also called 
Tarhha ( xn-,:? ), Munahh with P'sik is called L'gharmeh ( nii'isb ), etc. 

c. The classification of the Disjunctives, according to their respective 
powers and the laws of their consecution, has been the work of Christian 
writers, from whom all accurate investigations of the accentual system 
have proceeded. In fact, this whole subject is treated by the Jewish 
grammarians in the crudest and most perplexed manner. Buxtorf says, in 
his Thesaurus Grammaticus. p. 45: Accentuum ratio hactenus nee a quo- 
quam nostrorum nee ab ipsis etiam Hebraeis sufficienter explicata est. 
The division exhibited above is the one now commonly adopted. The 
current names, Imperatores, Reges, Duces, Comites, are those used by 
Wasmuth in his Institutio Accent. Heb. 1664. Others have divided them 
differently. The learned PfeifTer, author of the Dubia Vexata, distin- 
guishes one Emperor, one Archduke, four Dukes, seven Counts, and five 
Barons. Boston, the well-known author of the Fourfold State, in an elab- 
orate Latin treatise upon this subject left by him in manuscript and pub- 
lished shortly after his death, distributes them into three classes of 
superior and one of inferior rank. Mention is made, in a commendatory 
preface by Mill, the distinguished critic of the New Testament, of another 
manuscript in English, in which Boston applied his views practically in a 
twofold translation of the first twenty-three chapters of Genesis, with 
copious notes, both philological and theological. This, it is believed, has 
never been published. A curious little book upon the Canon by Ferdinand 
Parkhurst, London, 1660, makes six Regal and ten Principial Disjunctives, 
Y'thibh and P'sik being omitted altogether. 

§ 30, 1. Fourteen of the accents are written over, and eleven 
under, the words to which they are attached. P'sik, whose 
only use is to modify the power of other accents, is written 
after the word to which it belongs, and in the same line 



§30 ACCENTS. 39 

with it. The place of the accents is either over or under the 
letter preceding the tone-vowel, M^ith the exception of the 
prepositives Y'thibh and T'lisha Gh'dhola, which always ac- 
company the initial letter of the word, and the postpositives 
S'gholta, Zarka, Pashta, and T'lisha K'tanna, which stand 
upon the final letter. Y'thibh is only used when the first is 
the tone-syllable. Pashta is repeated if the word on which 
it stands is accented on the penult, e. g. ^^in Gen. 1 : 2, or 
ends with two vowelless letters, e. g. r\th Ruth 3 : 7, or if 
the last letter has Pattahh furtive, e. g. 'TP Gen. 33 : 13, and 
in some manuscripts and editions there is a like repetition of 
S'gholta and Zarka. When a word bears the other preposi- 
tive or postpositives, there is nothing to mark its tone-syllable 
unless this may chance to be the one upon which the nature 
of the accent in question requires it to be placed. 

2. Silluk has the same form as Methegh, § 44 ; but the 
former invariably stands on the tone-syllable of the last 
word in the verse, while Methegh is never written under a 
tone-syllable. Pashta is likewise distinguished from Kadhma 
only by its position upon the last letter of the word, and 
after the superscribed vowel, if there be one, e. g. "^i^x Gen. 
1 : 7, ^3i$'?^ Gen. 24 : 7, while Kadhma is placed upon the 
letter preceding the tone-vowel, e. g. '^i?^? Gen. 2 : 19 : where 
this chances to be a final letter the laws of consecution only 
can decide ; thus, in 'q?'!? Gen. 26 : 4, r\t^ii^, Deut. 16:3, the 
accent is Pashta, but in ^?';iTb;i Gen. 17 : 8, 7|ns2 1 Sam. 
29 : 6, it is Kadhma. Y'thibh is distinguished from Mahpakh 
by being written under the first letter of the word and taking 
precedence of its vowel if this be subscribed, e. g. ntoy Gen. 
1:11,"'? Gen. 31 -. 6, Deut. 10:17; Mahpakh belongs under 
the consonant which precedes the tone-vowel, and after its 
vowel-sign if this be subscribed, e. g. ^\}}'^ Gen. 2 : 14, ''I 
Gen. 32 : 33, Deut. 4 : 7. When the initial syllable bears the 
tone and there is no subscribed vowel, the laws of consecu- 
tion must decide ; thus, in x^.n the accent is Y'thibh in Gen. 



40 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 31 

3:15, 44:17; Deut. 10:17; but Mahpakli in Josh. 
17:1. 

§ 31. The accents akeady explamed are called the prosaic 
accents, and are found in all the books of the Old Testament 
with the exception of the Psalms (D"'!?rin), Proverbs ('^IpT^'a), 
and the poetic portion of Job (^'1''^?), whose initials form the 
technical word frax . Here a different system of accentua- 
tion prevails. Thirteen of the prosaic accents, one-half of the 
whole number, nowhere occur in the books just named, viz. : 
S'gholta, Zakeph-Katon, and Zakeph-Gadhol of the Kings, 
Pashta, Y'thibh, and T'bhir of the Dukes, Karne Phara, 
T'lisha Gh'dhola, Geresh, and G'rashayim, of the Counts, 
Merka Ivh'phula, Darga, and T'lisha K'tanna of the Con- 
junctives. Such as are common to both systems are in the 
previous table distinguished by an asterisk. The powers of 
some of these, however, are altered, so that a new arrange- 
ment of them is necessary ; and they are supplemented by 
additional signs formed by combining the prosaic accents or 
assigning them unusual positions. The scale of the poetical 
or metrical accents thus constituted is as follows, viz. : 







Disjunctive Accents. 












Class L 






1. 


Silluk 




(=,) 


: liasn 




2. 


Athnahh 




(J 


li^sri 




3. 


Merka-Mahpakh 


C) 


'Tinsn 










Claas II. 






4. 


R'bhi" 




O 


liasn 




6. 


Pazer 




C) 


1133 rt 




6. 


R'bhi* Geresh 


(■') 


liisn 




7. 


Tiphhha initial 


(J 


Tizsrn 


prep. 


8. 


Zarka 




D 


■^ "123^1 


posfp. 


9. 


P'sik 




(0 


ni^sn 


poslp. 



$32 





POSITION 


OP THE ACCENT, 




OoNjuNOTivE Accents. 


10. 


Merka 


(.) 


11. 


Merka-Zarka 


C) 


12. 


Mahpakh 


C) 


13. 


Mahpakh-Zarka 


C) 


14. 


Munahh 


L) ^ 


15. 


Munahh superior 


(') 


16. 


Yerahh ben Yomo 


(v) 


17. 


Kadhma 


C) 


18. 


Tiphhha 


(J 


19. 


Shalsheleth 


(') 



41 






a. It will be perceived that there are fewer Disjunctives but more 
Conjunctives than are exhibited by the prosaic accents. Merka-Mahpakh 
answers substantially to S'gholta; E'libi^-Geresh to Tiphhha before Silluk, 
and Tiphhha initial to Tiphhha before Athnahh. Tiphhha and Shalshe- 
leth are transferred from the list of Disjunctives to that of the Conjunc- 
tives, Avhence it comes to pass that if a word bearing either of these 
accents terminates in a vowel, Daghesh-lene will not be inserted in a fol- 
lowing initial aspirate, e. g. Di'in "^^'^^^ Ps. 31 : 10, n-'firs Ni^^a Prov. 8: 3, 
niHT522 5ii!3sn": Ps. 10:2. 

b. P'sik, in the poetic as in the prosaic accents, is never used alone but 
always in conjunction with another accent. It serves to strengthen Dis- 
junctives and to reduce the power of Conjunctives without disturbing the 
order of their consecution. It is thus used with Merka-Mahpakh Ps. 5:13, 
Pazer Ps. 10: 14, Tiphhha initial Ps. 31:4, Mahpakh Ps. 5: 9, Munahh 
Prov. 1:22, Merka Ps. 10:13, Kadhma Ps 10:5, Shalsheleth Ps. 7:6. 



Position of the Accent 



§ 32. The accent in Hebrew may fall either upon the 
ultimate or the penultimate syllable, but never at a greater 
remove from the end of the word. In the former case 
words are technically termed Milra {'S^^'Q from heloio), and 
in the latter Milel ("j^yb^ from above). 



42 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 33 

1. The position of the accent may be considered in rela- 
tion either to the syllabic or to the etymological structure 
of a word, that is to say, as affected by the nature of its syl- 
lables on the one hand or of the elements of which it is com- 
posed as a significant part of speech on the other. It is so 
far determined by the syllabic structure of words, that a 
long mixed syllable or a short simple syllable, whether in the 
ultimate or the penultimate, must receive the accent, §18. 2. 
thus : pn2\ npir)?ni , n^ir, n'l': . 

2. Considered in reference to their etymological structure, 
words exist in two conditions, (1.) their primary uninflected 
state, by which their essential and proper meaning is con- 
veyed ; (2.) with added affixes and prefixes, by which that 
meaning is variously modified. In their nude or primary 
state all words, whether primitives or derivatives, are ac- 
cented upon the ultimate, and so continue to whatever flexion, 
involving no terminational appendages, they may be sub- 
jected. Thus, ^j?s , "ips , ^pb , ip3 , 'ips , "ipB^ , ^^snn ; ^insT , 

3. The only exception is a class of words called Se- 
gholates, in which the last vowel does not belong originally 
or essentially to the form, but is introduced for the sake of 
softening the pronunciation, §61. 2; these are accented on 
the penidtimate, as 5jb'b, nsb, na?, n:'3, ^nn, nsris, b.^^, !3.)i;, 

a. '^'7'?"?- T^- 50: 8 is said to be the only instance of a word accented on 
the antepenult. The proper tone-syllable of this word is the ultimate, but 
upon the recession of the accent by § 35, the vowel next preceding, which 
has arisen from ShVa and is unessential to the form, cannot receive it, so 
that it necessarily falls upon the one still further back. 

§ 33. The additions which words may receive at the be- 
ginning or end affect the accent in proportion to the respect- 
ive weight accorded to them. Additions to the end of words 
are of two sorts, which may be distinguished as affixes and 
suffixes. Affixes are so welded to the word or merged in it 



§33 POSITION OF THE ACCENT. 43 

that in the popular consciousness they have become an in- 
tegral part of it, and their independent existence or separate 
origin is no longer tliought of; such are the personal inflec- 
tions of verbs and the terminations indicating gender and 
number in nouns and adjectives. Suffixes are not so inti- 
mately blended with the word to which they are attached as 
to have lost their individual identity and independent charac- 
ter, and consequently are of greater weight as respects the 
accent; such are the fragmentary pronouns appended to 
verbs, nouns, and prepositions. 

1. If the appendage consists of a vowel (as n^, ri, ^, 
"^'j ''., ''Jj ov begins with one (as Ti^, "i., v^, D""., ni, t[^, tf_, d^, 
1^, d;'., ?j\), and can consequently only be pronounced by 
the aid of the final consonant of the word to which it is at- 
tached, it will attract the accent to itself or to its initial vowel 
from a noun, adjective, participle, or preposition, as "^^^^ , 
inn"!, n^na^, ''nn'n, i]':';}^'^ , I'^^n^ from na^ ; Q^ii^vS, ^'^."72, 
from tJ'^p . Such an appendage to a verb, if a suffix, will 
so far accord with the rule just given as to carry the accent 
forward one syllable ; but the accent will remain in its origi- 
nal position if it be an affix, unless it is either dissyllabic or 
causes the rejection of the vowel previously accented ; D'^^nn 
with a suffix a^'''?Tin , but with an affix ^'a^^T}^^} ; ^3^ with a 
suffix iin? , but with an affix ^la:? , ^"D^ ; D)? , r.^^ , ^tz^ -, bJ3, 
^)P. , "^^P. , ''ri^ ; snx , nanx , tjnari-s} . It is to be observed, 
however, that a paragogic n^ or n . , § 61. 6, attached to 
nouns, pronouns, and adverbs, and occasionally a paragogic 
"', does not disturb the position of the accent, e. g. y"^s , 
n^'iS; ai:,na:; so nrn, n^N,n7si^, ^rian Lam. 1:1, but 
insbii Isa. 1:21; neither does the feminine ending M^ , 
which is a Segholate formation, e. g. ia'j''9 , ^'}k'^^ ■ 

a, Paragogic n^ receives the secondary accent Methegh in DTN 5^;^3 
Gen. 28:2, 5, 6, 7.' 

2. The appending of a simple syllable, such as the 



44 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 33 

suffixes "I? , ^D , ^n , n , i^ , or the verbal affixes n , '^n , ^3 , np, 
will not alter the position of the accent provided it originally 
stood upon the ultimate ; if, however, its original place was 
the penult, or if the syllable in question be attached to the 
word by a union vowel, the accent must be carried forward 
one syllable to prevent its standing on the antepenult, which 
is never admissible: n©5, ^,n53, iiafes, ''pn©?; Ci?^, s?cx^' 
^rncsTa ; bjj, ni'jp, •'nip . Suffixes appended to a word ending 
with a consonant mostly require a connecting vowel, and con- 
sequently shift the position of the accent. Affixes, by reason 
of the less weight accorded to them, commonly do not. The 
suffix "^ follows the general rule when preceded by a union 
vowel, but draws the accent upon itself when it is not, e. g. 
"li , 'n^^ , '^1^, , T'^^ . A consonantal appendage to a long un- 
accented vowel, inasmuch as it converts the ultimate into a 
mixed syllable, necessarily draws the accent upon it from the 
penult, § 82. 1, e. g. ^noi?^ , 'T'riCi?^ , Q'^nci?'? ; ^^^: , ^J^^^? . 

3. A mixed syllable, v/hether an affix as Dn , '^n, or suffix 
asD?, p, on, "Jti, will attract the accent to itself, nn^^O 
from tjpn ; Qisbio , Qs^Db^ , from f?^ ; tsnbpq from D^'iD . In 
the unusual form Qij^s 3 Sam. 23 : 6, the accent stands upon 
the union vowel. 

4. The only prefixes which exercise any influence upon 
the position of the accent, are the Yav conversive of the 
future, which draws back the accent from a mixed ultimate 
to a simple penult, i'bi?i, 'rdk^^., nizj^ m»i;l ; and the Vav con- 
versive of the preterite, which throws it forward from the 
penult to a simple ultimate, Trfa^, ™^^ J??^:, ^^t??:^ 

a. Some languages invariably accent the same part of the word ; tiuis, 
Bohemian and Lettish the initial syllable, Polish and Lazian, one of the 
Caucasian tongues, the penult of all polypyllables. Others, in which 
more freedom is allowed, have no respect to the etymological structure of 
words, but are guided entirely by the character of their syllables. Thus, 
in Arabic and Latin words are accented according to the quantity of the 
penull ; the accent is given to the penult if it is long, to the antepenult 



§ 34, 35 POSITION OF THE ACCENT. 45 

if the penult is short. In others still the etymological principle is the 
prevailing one, and this often has a wider scope than in Hebrew. Thus, 
in Greek the accent has the range of the last three syllables. In San- 
scrit it may stand upon any syllable whatever even of the longest words. 
In English it is almost equally free, e. g. peremptorily, inconsiderdtion, its 
removal from its primary position upon the radical portion of the word 
being conditioned by the respective weight of the formative syllables ap- 
pended, e. g. person, personate, personally, personify, jjersondlity, per- 
sonificdlion. 



§34. The location of the accent being thus influenced 
by the etymological structure of words, it may serve to dis- 
tinguish words of like appearance but different formation. 
Thus, nn^ Gen. 30 : 1, ns3 Gen. 29 : 6, are participles, but 
nnia Gen. 35 : 18, nsj^ Gen. 29 : 9, are preterites, the femi- 
nine affix receiving the accent in one case but not in the other, 
§ 33. 1. So 153 thei/ built from nbs, but 13 in us; iniy they 
carried captive from tsy^^ , but l^ia thei/ returned from "y^^ ; 
Thx he has seized, but TH^ Job 23 : 9 I shall see from sntn ; 
V^': it shall be evil from 2??n , 5)'!^; he shall feed from n^n ; 
Th2 he was rebellious, t\-fa it was bitter ixom. li? ; I'ai]? arise 
thou (fem.), ''^ip mi/ rising up. 

§ 35. The position of the accent may be shifted from the 
following causes, viz. : 

1 . A Conjunctive is frequently removed from the ultimate 
to the penult if a Disjunctive immediately follows, whether 
upon a monosyllable or a dissyllable ^accented on the penult, 
in order to prevent the unpleasant concurrence of tAvo ac- 
cented syllables in closely connected words, e. g. S^^';^^ is'^p^ 
Gen. 1 : 5, T^ nils Gen. 4 : 17, ^: nbri? Deut. 32 : 36, 
Xn l"l3sri^ Ps. 2 :12, Tjb nnb Isa. 36:8. In a few excep- 
tional cases the secondary accent Methegh remains to mark 
the original tone-syllable, after the principal accent has been 
thrown back, ^E ,"^?5'? Num. 24 : 22, T% ^?.? Isa. 40 : 7, 
Di? 2>^.Tan Deut. 4 : 33. 

2. The special emphasis given to the last word of a 
clause or section, and represented by what are called the 



46 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^86 

pause accents, § 3G, 2, a, is sometimes rendered more distinct 
by a change of the accented syllable from the ultimate to the 
penult, e. g. "'pbij , ipbx ; nnx , nnx ; rbp_ , nn3> ; ^33 , ^bs ; or 
from the penult to the ultimate, particularly in the case of 
forms with Vav conversive of the future tjb^;] , "^Ti \ so 
^??^5 > ^j?r5 » i^i^'^1 . The accent is in a few instances at- 
tracted to a short final syllable ending in a weak letter, which 
either loses its sound entirely, converting the syllable into a 
simple one, or requires considerable effort and energy of voice 
to make it distinctly heard, e. g. X'^;: Gen. 41 : 33 for sni) ; 
so ^-nn Zech. 9 : 5, Mic. 7 : 10, S^iiJn Ps. 39 : 14 for S-TCn . 



Consecution op Accents in Prose* 

^36. 1. The second use of the accents is to point out 
the relation of words to one another. The Disjunctives in- 
dicate a greater or less separation between the word on which 
they stand and the following one ; the Conjunctives indicate 
a connection. The greatest separation of all is effected by 
Silluk, which is written under the last word of every verse, 
and is followed invariably by two dots vertically placed ( : ), 
called Soph Pasiik (p^ca ?|iD end of the verse). The next in 
power are Athnahh and S'gholta. When a verse was to be 
divided into two clauses, Athnahh was placed under the last 
word of the first clause, Silluk maintaining its position at 
the end of the verse. If it was to be divided into three 
clauses, which is the greatest number that any verse can 
have, the last word of the first clause receives S'gholta, the 
last word of the second Athnahh, and the last of all Silluk. 
Verses of one clause range from Gen. 26 -. 6, containing 
three words, to such as Jer. 13:13 and 1 Chron. 28 : 1, con- 
taining more than twenty : the most common division is into 
two clauses, e. g. Gen. 1 : 1 J V"!)^0 • • • ^"^s? ''^: ; three clauses 



^ 37 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 47 

are mucli less frequent, Gen. 1:7 H? • ^-'^'2'i?. • • • ?''P'^\} 
23 : 16, 24 : 30, 26 : 28. 

a. In Job 1 : 8 S'gholta occurs in a verse of two clauses without Ath 
nahh, probably because the accentuation is conformed to that of Job 2 : 3. 

2. Eacli of these clauses is capable of subdivision tc 
whatever extent its length or character may seem to demand 
by the Disjunctives Zakeph Katon, Zakepli Gadhol, R'bhi'', 
Pazer, and T'lisha Gh'dhola, according to the number of sec- 
tions to be made and the various degrees of their completeness. 
Thus, in Josh. 1 : 8 the clause of Athnahh is divided intc 
five sections, ''a . niti^b . . n)-^^ . . . Tj^3^ . . . t^'a'^ , in 2 Kin. 
1 : 6 into six, linps^ . . . tJnib nbiij . bxiia'^s . . nirr^ . . vHs? . 
The choice of the accent to govern a particular section de- 
pends not only upon its power, but likewise upon its rank, 
the more exalted officer standing in ordinary cases nearer 
the sovereign. Accordingly toward the beginning of a clause 
an inferior Disjunctive will be used, even though the separa- 
tion is such as would require an accent of much higher 
power to indicate it in a more advanced portion of the same 
clause. These accents, moreover, have not a fixed value like 
the stops in other languages ; their power is not absolute but 
relative, and varies endlessly with the circumstances of the 
case. Athnahh in Gen. 1 : 1 marks the greatest division in the 
verse, but that is not sufficient to require a comma. In the 
next verse Zakeph Katon is equal to a semicolon in the first 
clause and less than a comma in the second. In Gen. 27 : 16 
the separation indicated by R'bhi* is wholly rhythmical. 

a. Those accents which, as above described, mark the limits of clauses 
and sections, are denominated pause accents, 

§37. In the sections thus created the accents are dis- 
posed relatively to the Disjunctive which marks its close. 
Each ruler has his servant and subordinate officer, whose 



48 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



§37 



function it is to wait upon him. In other words, each Dis- 
junctive is regularly preceded by a particular Conjunctive and 
inferior Disjunctive ; and the train of accents in each section 
is formed by arranging the Disjunctives in their fixed order 
of succession with or without their regular Conjunctives until 
all its words are supplied. The trains proper to the different 
sections are shown in the following table : 



■ ■■■ 

Primary 

Sectioks. 




p 

6 
o 


So 

O 


H 
O 

c 
O 


K 1—* 

11 

ft 


H 

O 

D 
O 

O 


13 

ft 


> 

O 

P 

o 
O 


» 

1 


J 


■ I 

1 


.(„.) 


•/ 


.(.)b' 


'(") 


lM.L 


A 


J 






••• 


..L) 


~ 


X)C)' 


Secondary 
Sections. 






' 


J J 


L) 


<C)\.)' 






:i 
















' 


..(,), X) 














H 


' J J J J 












;> 


TJnpsual 
Sections. 










1 




















<\/' 


y J J J J J 



§38 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 49 

a. Accents of like forms are readily distinguishable in the table by the 
column in which they stand. Where perspicuity requires it the distinction 
will hereafter be made by appending their initial letters, thus : Kadhma '' 
Pashta '^, Mahpakh "", Y'thibh'-". 

§ 38. Explanation of the Tabic. — The trains preceding 
the three principal accents are exhibited in the horizontal 
lines of the uppermost division ; those of the ordinary de- 
pendent sections in the middle division, and those of rare 
occmTence at the bottom. 

1. Train of Sillulc. — If Silluk be immediately preceded 
by a Conjunctive, it will be Merka ; if a Disjunctive precede 
it in the same section, with or without an intervening Merka, 
it will be Tiphhha, Gen. 1:1. If there be a Conjunctive 
before Tiphhha, it will be Merka, Gen. 1 : 1 ; if two Con- 
junctives, which occm^s but fourteen times, they will be 
Merka Kh'phula and Darga, Gen. 27 : 25, Lev. 10:1, 2 
Chron. 20 : 30. The next Disjunctive before Tiphhha, in 
the same section, will be T'bhir, Gen. 1:4. If T'bhir be pre- 
ceded by one Conjunctive, it will be Darga, Gen. 1 : 12, or 
Merka, Gen. 1 : 26 ; if by two, the second will be Kadhma, 
1 Sam. 15 : 33, or Munahh, Gen. 2:4; and if by three, 
the third will be T'lisha K'tanna, Gen. 2:19. The next 
Disjunctive before T'bhir, in the same section, will be Geresh, 
Gen. 26 : 11, 27 : 4, or G'rashayim, Ex. 23 : 4. If Geresh 
be preceded by one Conjunctive, it will be Kadhma, Gen. 
24 : 7, or Munahh, Isa. 60 : 17 ; if by a second, it will be 
T'lisha K'tanna, Gen. 2 : 5, or Munahh with P'sik, Gen. 
28 : 9 ; if by a third, it will be Munahh, 1 Sam. 14 : 34 ; if 
by a fourth, it will also be Munahh, Deut.- 1:19. 

a. The parentheses of the table contain alternate accents. Thus, 
Merka is substituted for Darga and for Mahpakh (before Pashta in the 
clause of Zakeph Katon) if no more than one vowel intervenes between 
the Conjunctive and the king which it precedes, e. g. Gen. 1 : 22, Gen. 
1: 24, 26 ; Gen. 5: 17, Deut. 1 : 2, 35. Munahh is also regularly substi- 
tuted for Kadhma, whenever the accent stands on the initial letter of the 
word, Gen. 25:8, Gen. 19:35; 1 Kin. 19:7, Deut. 1:28; Gen. 19:12; 
4 



60 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 38 

Eccl. 5 : 7. G'rashayim takes the place of Geresh provided the accent is 
on the ultimate and it is not preceded by Kadhma either on the same or 
the previous word, Ex. 16 : 23, 36 : 3. When tv^o accents are included in a 
parenthesis the meaning is that if an additional accent is required, these 
two will take the place of the one before the parenthesis. P'sik has no 
separate place in the consecution, but is joined with the other accents to 
modily their power. It is constantly associated with the Disjunctive 
Shalsheleth to add to its strength, and occasionally with the different 
Conjunctives to reduce their strength, but without disturbing the order 
of their consecution, e.g. with Merka Ex. 16:5, Munahh Gen. 46:2, 
Mahpakh Ex. 30:34, Kadhma Lev. 11:32, Darga Gen. 42:13, T'liaha 
K'tanna 1 Sam. 12 : 3. 



2. Train of Ailtnahh. — If Atlmahh be preceded by a 
Conjunctive, it will be Munahh, Gen. 1:1; if by a Disjunc- 
tive in its own section, it will be Tiphhha, Gen. 1:1. The 
accents which precede Tiphhha have already been mentioned 
in explaining the train of Silluk. 

3. Train of 8'(/Jiolta. — The first Conjunctive before 
S'gholta will be Munahh, Gen. 3:3; if there be two, the 
second will be Munahh, Lev. 8 : 31, or Merka, Gen. 3 : 14. 
The first Disjunctive in its section will be Zarka, Gen. 1 : 28; 
and if this be preceded by one Conjunctive, it will be Mu- 
nahh, Gen. 1 : 7, or Merka, 1 Chron. 5:18; if by two, the 
second will be Kadhma, Gen. 30 : 16, 31 : 32 ; if by three, 
the second will be Munahh and the third Kadhma, Lev. 
4:35. The next Disjunctive before Zarka will be Geresh, 
Gen. 24 : 7, or G'rashayim, Ex. 39 : 3. The accents pre- 
ceding these have been explained in 1. 

4. Train of Zaheph Katon. — The first Conjunctive before 
Zakeph Katon will be Munahh, Gen. 1 : 2, the second like- 
wise Munahh, Gen. 27 : 45. The first Disjunctive will be 
Pashta, Gen. 1:2; or, if the proper place of the accent be 
the first letter of the word, Y'thibh, Gen. 1 :11, 2:11. 
The first Conjunctive before Pashta will be Mahpakh, Gen. 
1 : 9, or Merka, Gen. 1:2; the second, Kadhma, Gen. 
39 : 19, or Munahh, Gen. 1:12; the third will be Tlisha 
K'tanna, Ezr. 3:11. The Disjunctive before Pashta will be 



§ 38 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 51 

Geresh, Gen. 1 : 24, or G'rashayim, Gen. 1:11; the further 
consecution is explained in 1. 

a. In some instances Pashta is found not in the train ofZakeph Katon, 
but seeming to govern an independent section, e.g. Ex. 29; 20, Deut. 
9 : 6, Josh. iT) : 11, 2 Sam. 14 : 7, 2 Chron. IS : 23. 

5. Zakepli Gadliol is mostly used instead of Zakeph 
Katon when no other accent precedes it in its own section, 
whether upon the same word or one before it : "ips ^^ Gen. 
9 : 4 (in some editions), in which it is preceded by Munahh, 
is exceptional. 

6. Train of B'bW^. — The first Conjunctive before R'bhia'' 
will be Munahh, Gen. 1:9; the second, Munahh commonly 
with P'sik, Gen. 2:5, or Darga, Gen. 6:15; the third, 
Munahh with P'sik, Gen. 7 : 23, 31 : 29, or Merka, Ex. 
14 : 10. The Disjunctive before R-'bhi"* will be Geresh, Ex. 
IG : 3, or G'rashayim, Deut. 1:11, which are preceded as 
inl. 

7. Train of Pazer. — Pazer may be preceded by one 
Munahh, 1 Sam. 14 : 34, by two, Ezek. 9:2, by three, 1 
Sam. 14 : 34, or by four, Isa. 66 : 20. 

8. Train of T'lisha Gh'dhola. — T'hsha Gh'dhola is the 
weakest of the Disjunctives which are ever set to rule inde- 
pendent sections. Its weakness is in fact such, that it is 
sometimes drawn into the section of a stronger Disjunctive ; 
thus, in Gen. 1 : 12, Lev. 4 : 7, 1 Sam. 17 : 51, Isa. 9 : 5, 
Neh. 5 : 18, it takes the place of T'lisha K'tanna among the 
antecedents of Pashta, standing between it and Geresh or 
G'rasha}dra ; in Gen. 13 : 1, 21 : 14, Deut. 26 : 12, it stands 
similarly between T'bhir and Geresh or G'rashayim. And 
in many cases, perhaps in most, when it rules a section of 
its own, this is a mere subsection, not so much a division of 
one of the principal clauses as a fragment broken off from 
one of the larger sections at a point wdiere T'lisha K'tanna 
would have stood had the connection been sufficiently close 



52 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 39 

to require a Conjunctive, e. g. Gen. 19 : 2, 1 Kin. 20 : 28. 
That this is not always so appears, however, from examples 
hke 2 Sam. 14 : 32, Gen. 7 : 7, Isa. 66 : 19, Jer. 39 : 5, and 
particularly Gen. 31 : 52, where nn^"Q5i:^ corresponds to the 
preceding ''pij-Di?. T'lisha Gh'dhola may be preceded by 
one Munahh, Gen. 27 : 46, by two, Josh. 2:1, by three, 
or by four, 1 Kin. 2:5. 

9. Shalsheleth occurs but seven times, viz., Gen. 19 :16, 
24 : 12, 39 : 8, Lev. 8 : 23, Isa. 13 : 8, Am. 1 : 2, Ezr. 5:12, 
and in every instance stands upon the initial word of the 
verse, and is accompanied by P*sik. It has consequently no 
antecedents. 

10. Karne Phara is only used sixteen times. Its section 
never contains less than three words : its immediate prede- 
cessor is always Yerahh ben Yomo, to which may be added 
one Munahh, Num. 35:5, Neh. 5:13, 13:5, 2 Chron. 
24 : 5 ; two, 2 Kin. 10 : 5, Jer. 38 : 25, Est. 7 : 9, Neh. 1 : 6, 
2 Chron. 35 : 7 ; three, Josh. 19 : 51, 2 Sam. 4 : 2, Jer. 
13:13; four, 1 Chron. 28 : 1 ; or five, Ezek. 48 : 21. 

§ 39. 1. The complete trains of the several accents con- 
tain one Disjunctive from each of the inferior orders, dis- 
posed in due succession of rank, with one Conjunctive 
immediately preceding the first class of Disjunctives, two 
Conjunctives preceding the second class, three the third class, 
four or more the fom-th class. These trains are adapted to 
sections of different length and character by omitting such 
of the Conjunctives, and more rarely by repeating such of 
the Disjunctives, as the mutual relations of the words may 
seem to require, and breaking off the series as soon as every 
word in the section is supplied. Thus, while the general 
order of consecution is fixed and invariable, there is the 
utmost liberty and variety in particular cases. 

a. In a very few instances the Conjunctives go beyond the number 
here assigned. Thus, Athnahh is preceded by two Munahhs in Ex. 3:4, 



§ 39 CONSECUTION OF ACCENTS IN PROSE. 53 

and, according to some editions, in Isa. 48 : 11. T'bhir is preceded by four 
Conjunctives, Josh. 10: 11, 2 Chron. 22: 11, Isa. 66:20; Pashta by four, 
Ex. 5 : 8. 2 Kin. 5 : 1, and even by five, Josh. 19 : 51. 



2. If a section consists of but a single word, this will re- 
ceive the appropriate Disjunctive, the entire antecedent series 
of the table being then omitted as unnecessary ; thus, Silluk 
: na^"} Gen. 5:5; Athnahh n'as'^l Gen. 24 : 34 ; Zakeph 
Katon nL^Di Isa. 1 : 30 ; R'bhi'^ U^tr^) Gen. 7:19; Pazer 
n^ii^T Gen. 22 : 2 ; T'lisha Gh'dhola pn Gen. 19 : 8. This, 
as has been already said, is the regular length of the sections 
of Zakeph Gadhol and Shalsheleth; but those of S'gholta 
are never composed of less than two words, and those of 
Karne Phara never of less than three. 

3. In sections of greater length there is a disposition 
towards a regular alternation of Disjunctives and Conjunc- 
tives upon successive words, e. g. Gen. 23 : 11 J , , , , .^ , , 
Gen. 24 : 7 ., "^ ' '^"j and consequently though two or more 
Conjunctives may be allowed before a particular Disjunctive, 
only the first of these is in the majority of cases employed. 
The actual relations of words may, however, so interfere with 
this regularity as on the one hand to cause the intervening 
Conjunctives to be dropped entirely, e. g. Gen. 1:22 ,,.,,, 
1 Chron. 15 : 18 ,/''', or, on the other, to introduce 
as many Conjunctives as the table will admit, e. g. Gen. 
3:14 \, , ",^ '^■\ But if either of the three primarv sec- 
tions consist of but two words, the first must have a Dis- 
junctive accent, however close its relation may be to the 
second, e. g. '. Dns yia^i Gen. 9 : 20, D^T? -'i?!???^ Gen. 3 : 5,, 
'instji ant? Gen. 19:4. 



a. In Gen. 24 : 15, where, however, editions differ, Silluk is in a section 
of two words immediately preceded by Merka. 

6. Sometimes an excluded term of the series will take the place of the 
secondary accent Methegh, §44. Tiphhha is thus five times written upon 
the same word with Silluk, e.g. Num. 15:21, and eleven times with 



54 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 40 

Athnahh, e. g. Num. 28 : 26. Munahh, Gen. 21 : 17, for which Karlhma is 
eometimes substituted, Gen. 18 : 21, often stands upon the same word with 
Zakeph Katon. Kadhma is also joined in this manner with Munalih, Lev. 
10:12, Merita, Judg. 21:21, Neh. 12:44, Malapakh, Lev. 25:46, and 
Geresh, Ex. 16 : 15, 21 : 22, 35. Mahpakh with Munahh, Lam. 4 : 9. 

4. Occasionally a subordinate Disjunctive or its alternate 
is repeated in the same section with or without its ante- 
cedents. Thus, T'bhir, Deut. 26:2 , , '\^ . '^ so 

Dent. 30 : 20, 1 Sam. 20 : 21, 2 Kin. 17 : 36. Zaiia, 2 Kin. 
1 : 16 ■■"//■*/, so ver. 6, Gen. 42 : 21, Jer. 21 :4, Neh. 
2:12. Pashta, Gen. 24:14, 42, 48, 65; 1 Kin. 20:9. 
Pashta, Pashta and Y'thibh, 2 Kin. 10:30, Ezr. 7:25. 
Geresh and G'rashayim, Gen. 28 : 9. 

a. There is a double accentuation of part of Gen. 35 : 22, and of the 
entire decalogue, both in Ex. 20 : 2-17, and Deut. 5 : 6-21, which involves 
a double vocalization in certain words, e.g. i^bs Ex. 20:3, i.e. either 
:"'3a or "^iQ. Single words also occur with alternative accents, e.g. with 
G'rashayim or Geresh and T'lisha Gh'dhola nV Gen. 5:29. *i:"ip Lev. 
10 : 4, ^=B' 2 Kin. 17 : 13, t^\ky^ Ezek. 48 : 10, n&<Y Zeph. 2:15. 



Poetic Consecution. 

§40. 1. The principle of the consecution is the same in 
the poetic as in the prosaic accents, although there is consid- 
erable diversity in the details. There is a like division of 
verses into clauses and sections ruled by a Disjunctive at the 
end, which imposes upon them its own special train of 
accents. The sections are fewer, however, and the trains 
shorter than in prose, on account of the greater brevity of 
the sentences in poetry for the most part. But this reduc- 
tion is more than compensated by the new complexity arising 
from the latitude allowed in the choice of Conjunctives, 
which it seems impossible to reduce to fixed rules, and is 
probably to be referred to their use as musical notes for the 



§ 40 POETIC CONSECUTION. 55 

cantillation of the synagogue. It sliould be added, that the 
embarrassment arising from this inherent complexity of the 
subject is seriously aggravated by the numerous discrepancies 
in the different editions of the Bible, by which the true ac- 
centuation in the three poetical books is often involved in 
doubt and uncertainty. 

a. In addition to availing himself of the researches of others, particu- 
larly of Nordheimer and Ewald. in their discussions of this subject, the 
author has examined verse by verse the entire book of Proverbs and the 
first division of the Psalms (Ps. 1-41), as well as other selected Psalms 
and portions of Job. As the result, he confesses himself quite unable to 
disentangle the m3'stery; and as the only contribution he can make 
towards its solution he has concluded to present in detail, and in as con- 
venient a form as possible, the facts observed, hoping that some future ex- 
ploration may discover the principle of order, if any such principle there 
be, in this apparently inextricable confusion. 

2. Verses may consist of one, two, or three clauses, dis- 
tinguished by the three Disjunctives of the first class. If 
the verse contain but one clause, Silluk will be written upon 
the last word, Ps. 4:1; if it contain two clauses, the divi- 
sion will be made by Athnahh, Ps. 1:4, or by Merka- 
Mahpakh, Ps. 1 : 2. 3 : 3, upon the last word of the first 
clause ; if it contain three, the last word of the first will have 
Merka-Mahpakh, the last word of the second Athnahh, and 
the last word of the third Silluk, Ps. 1 : 1, Clauses may 
consist of a single section when no subdivision of them is 
necessary ; or they may consist of two or more sections, 
wdien the subdivision is effected by R'bhi"" or Pazer, e. g. 

: • Ps. 18 : 51, : , ^ Prov. 1 : 10, '. ' Ps. 

41:7,,...' ." Ps. 7:6,/. • ..-Ps. 17:14. 



56 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Ml 



§41. The order of the accents in the various sections 



is exhibited in the following table 



Principal 
Sections. 


a 


Conjunctives. 





Conjunctives. 


1 


^c)U.)ic)|T 


J 


• r 


,;,(>);. 


or -"a 


« • J 


A 


1 
u J • u. • i< J 


<C) 


^ in. 


•h-ih:i 


°'r(:)r'r'(j] 


J 


•i-! 


CO 




Subordinate 
Sections. 






• 


mim 






H 


■\:\HV' 



Explanation of the Table. 

a. Train of Silhtk. — If Silluk is preceded by a single Conjunctive, it 
will be Munahh, Prov. 1 : 4, or Merka either alone as Prov. 1:2, or com- 
pounded with Zarka, Ps. 10:5, and P'sik, Ps. 10 : 3. If it be preceded by 
two Conjunctives, they will be ^ ^ Ps. 5:5,^^ Ps. 10 :G,^ ^ Prov. 12: 1 
(in some editions), ^ ^ Prov. 25 : 26, ' _^ Ps. 18 : 7, ■■ ■" Ps. 36 : 1, or ■" ' Prov. 



§41 POETIC CONSECUTION. 57 

8: 13. If it be preceded by three Conjunctives, they will be ^ , ^ Ps. 24:6, 

'Ps. 10:2 (or *Ps.7:6), Prov. 26:25 (or "Ps. 28:8or^ ., 

Prov. 29 : 13), , . '' Ps. 4:8,^^ ' Prov. 3 : 27, ■" ■* . If it be preceded by 
four Conjunctives, they virill be ^ ^ / ^ Ps. 89:2, ^ ^ / ^' Ps. 32:5, or 
'' '' * Ps. 3 : 3 (in some editions '"'',)■ If it be preceded by five Con- 
junctives, they will be ^ ^ ' ^ ^ Job 32:6, 37:12 (in this latter example 
some editions substitute a Makkeph for Merka). 

If Silluk be preceded by a Disjunctive in its own section, it will be 
R'bhi"-Geresh, Ps. 1:1, 5:3, 10. R'bhi''-Geresh may be preceded by one 
Conjunctive, , Ps. 5:4 ; by two,, , Ps. 8:2, or, ^ Ps. 31 : 10, 19; by three, 
, , ^ or, ,, Ps. 73:4. 

There are occasional deviations from the Conjunctives of the table; 
thus, R'bhi^-Geresh is in Ps. 34 : 8 preceded by ^ " ^. In some of these 
cases, however, editions differ in their notation of the accents. Thus, in 
Ps. 5:7 some editions have ^ " before Silluk, others , " ; in Ps. 18:36, 
Prov. 30: 17, some have , , others , ; in Ps. 20:2 some have ^ ^ , others 
^ . ; in Prov. 24 : 8 some have , , , others , , the two words being joined 
by Makkeph. So, again, some editions have in Ps. 9: 11 ^ before R'bhi"- 
Geresh, in Ps. 18:44^, in Prov. 27:19,^, in Prov. 21:17,^; while 
other editions do not depart in these passages from the order given in the 
table. Similar discrepancies exist in the other sections likewise. 

6. Train of Athnahh. — Athnahh may be preceded by one Conjunctive, 
^ Ps. 5:8 (or ^^ Prov. 8:30, 34), , Ps. 5 : 3 (or ^ , Ps. 33: 21, / Ps. 69:2), 
^Prov. 23:3,^ Ps. 14:3, Prov. 6:3 (or _ ^ Pro'v. 16: 10); by two, ^ ^ Ps. 
6:8 (or^ _^ Ps. 7:17), ^ ^ Prov. 28:25, Ps. 5:2 (in some editions the 
latter example has _ ^ ^ ), ^ , Ps. 14:5, , ^ Prov. 11:12, 14:21,, / Ps. 
37 : 1, , ^ Prov. 8 : 21, ._ ^ Ps. 2*5 : 16 ; by three, ^ ^ , Prov. 24 : 21, ^ ^ ^ Ps. 
6:6 (or^ ^ / Ps. 9:10, or ^ ^ ^^ Ps. 16:10), , , ' Ps. 10:17, ^ ^ ~ Prov. 
8:13, ^^ ,^ Ps. 18:50, ,, ^ ,, Ps. 10:13, •" \ Prov. 6:27, , " Vps-72:3; 
by four, Prov. 3:12, Prov. 24:16, Ps. 34:7, ' Ps. 

•' 'JJJ ■'JJ|< ^JtJ< 'jjj 

32 : 2 (in some editions), ""',,, Prov. 1:19,," * ''^ Ps. 65 : 2. 

If Athnahh be preceded by a Disjunctive in its own section, it will be 
Tiphhha initial, Ps. 1 : 6, 26 : 4. Tiphhha initial may be preceded by one 
Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 5 : 6 ; by two, ^ ^ Ps. 9 : 19 (or ^ ^ " Ps. 14 : 1, or ^ ^ Ps. 
16 : 9), ^ ■■ Ps. 32 : 11,^ ^ Ps. 35 : 14, 15, ^ / Prov. 25 : 20 ; by three, [^ ^^ 
Ps. 23:6, ' Ps. 27:1, .' Ps. 12 : 5 (or ' " Prov. 27:14),' ' 

Ps. 9 : 14. 

c. Train of Merka-Mahpakh. — Merka-Mahpakh maybe preceded by 
one Conjunctive, which is almost always Yerahh ben Yomo, Ps. 1 : 1 



58 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 42 

though occasionally it is, in some editions at least, Merka, Ps. 15 :5, 35: 10, 
or Mahpakh, Ps. 24:8, 31:10. If it be preceded by a Disjunctive in its 
own section, Zarka will be employed, Ps. 1 : 1, Prov. 1:11. 

Zarka may be preceded by one Conjunctive, Ps. 12: 7 (or ^^ Prov. 
1 : 22), ^ Ps. 6 : 3, _ ^ Ps. 12: 3, ^ ' Ps. 31 : 12 ; by two, ^ , ' Prov. 30 : 15 (in 
some editions '), Ps. 24 : 10 (or Ps. 13 : 6), Ps. 21 : 10, ' 

Ps. 27 : 2 (or ,\ " Ps. 35 ;26), ^ * ■■ Ps. 7 ; 10 ; by three, , , \ Ps. 29 : 9, 

' Ps. 31 : M. ' " Ps. 10: 14: or by four, * Ps. 40 : 6. 

d. Train of R'bhi". — R'bhi" may be preceded by one Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 
5 : 1, ^ Ps. 8 : 2 (or / Ps. 23 : 4, or ^ ^ Ps. 6 : 7),^ Prov. 28 : 22, "■ Ps. 22 : 25, 
* Ps. 11 :2(or, ' Ps. 5 : 11); by two, ^ ^ Prov. 8 : 33, ^ ^ Ps. 28:7 (or ^ 
Ps. 18:3), 'Ps. 9:7, " Ps. 11 : 4, ' Ps. 26 : 1, ■" Ps. 27 : 6 (or ^ " 
Ps. 5:9), 'Prov. 6:22, ' Ps. 18:1 (or ' " Ps. 7 : 7, or ' " Ps. 
39 : 5), / ■■ Job 16:10; or by three, ^ / ^ Ps. 40 : 7, ^ / ^ Ps. 41 : 7 (or 

" * Ps. 39:6, or ' ' " Ps. 3 : 8, or ' " Ps. 41:14), ■* ' Ps. 
19: 14 (or", ' / Ps. 39: 12), ""^ ' ■" Ps. 40 : 11, , / ' Prov. 24:31. 

e. Train of Pazer.^Fazer may be preceded by one Conjunctive, ^ Ps. 
89:20 (or_ ^ Prov. 30:8),' Ps. 32:5 (or _ ' Ps. 17:14); by two, ^ ^ Ps. 
5 : 10, Prov. 7 : 23 (or ^ ,^ Ps. 28 : 5), / Ps. 13 : 3 (or ^ / Prov. 27 : 10), 

Ps. 90:4, ' Ps. 7:6, ' Ps. 39:13, Ps. 11 : 2, ' Ps. 5 : 12 : or 
by three, ^\ Ps. 22:35, 23 : 4, ^ ^ ^ Prov. 23:29 (vi^here sone editions 
have ). 

V » ' 

§42. The trains of these several accents are adjusted 
to sections of varying length by expedients similai to those 
employed with the prose accents, viz. : 1 . Omitting the Con- 
junctives in whole or in part. 2. Repeating the Disjunc- 
tives, e. g. "' Ps. 14 : 1, "Ps. 17 : 14, or their equivalents, e. g. 
Tiphhha initial before "' Ps. 7:10, before ' Ps. 9:1; " before 
■' Ps. 18:1, before ' Ps. 22 : 15 ; •' before Tiphhha initial Ps. 
1(3 : 17. 3. Writing two accents upon the same word, 
amis^'n^ Ps. 5:11, ^?;]in Ps. 27:11, ^i^n^i Ps. 18:16. 
4. Uniting two or more words by Makkeph, so that they 
require but a single accent. 5. Writing the different parts 
of a compound accent upon separate words; thus, Merka- 
Mahpakh ^:^ b^^x Ps. 6 : 3, Merka-Zarka fsn ^5 Ps. 22:9, 
Mahpakh-Zarka tii^n ^3 Prov. 6:3. 



§43 MAKKEPH. 59 

a. Sometimes when two accents are written upon the same word, fine 
is the alternate of the other; thus, 5:^2 Prov. 1 : 19, may be either J"a2 or 
;y^3 according as the accent remains in its proper position in the ultimate, 
or is thrown back upon the penult in consequence of the next word being 
accented upon its initial syllable. 



Makkeph. 

§43. Makkepli i^y^ joining) is a horizontal stroke by 
which two, three, or even four words may be united. 
^fH-^ns^ -^^nto^n-Di? Gen. 30:31, bS-^b-ir:: Gen. 33:11, 
iS-iT^s-bs-nb^T Gen. 13 : 20, 25 : 5, Ex. 20 : 11, ^J-cs-in^-bi-b;^ 
Ex. 22 : 8, yni25-^:a-b3-b:? Job 41 : 26. It belongs properly 
to the accentual system, words which are closely related 
being often connected in this manner in order to obviate 
the necessity of unduly multiplying Conjunctive accents. 
Thus, the first fifteen words of Ex. 22 : 8 are in this manner 
reduced to eight. Monosjdlabic particles are frequently, and 
some almost constantly, linked with the succeeding or pre- 
ceding word, of which they may be regarded as in a manner 
appendages ; thus, bi? , b^ , ns? , bb , b« , ^s , Da , xp , etc. Exam- 
ples are not wanting, however, of longer words similarly 
united, e. g. D-^"^rntjbT^ Deut. 19:15, "ib^TT^Jsi 1 Kin. 17 : 21, 
nin^-niaiJ Isa. 31:4. This use of Makkeph is not to be con- 
founded with that of the hyphen in modern languages between 
the members of a compound, as self-same, master-hidlder. 
Words united by Makkeph are still as separate as ever in char- 
acter and signification ; but they are pronounced together and 
are accented as though they formed but one word. Hence, 
whatever number of words be thus joined, the last only will 
receive an accent. And, as a further consequence, if a word 
preceding Makkeph properly ends in a long mixed syllable, 
this will, by the loss of the accent, be shortened, ^irt'Tis?, 
v|iy-b3 , r}-"tTbnr,n , or failing this, will commonly receive the 
secouflary accent Methegh, qoi"!™, rkn;'-'j^i«. 



60 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 44 

•a. Tsere remains before Makkeph in I?, ^3, *!?, y? ; it sometimes re- 
mains and is sometimes shortened in D'iJ, "iiV six, ns e.g. Gen. 16:13 
n'"iri';'-cil^ , but ver. 15 iia-D'a. It once remains according to some editions 
in-nx'job 41:26, a word which is three times written ns without 
Makkeph, Ps. 47 : 5, 60 : 2, Prov. 3 : 12. Comp. § 19. 2, a. 

b. Makkeph is occasionally found in the middle of a long word, which 
has been erroneously divided into two, e. g. n^SSTjiS"^ Jer. 46 : 20, and 
perhaps nSp-np?a Isa. 61: 1. Sometimes words are thus divided without 
a Makkeph to unite the sundered parts, e.g. ^^'i'J 1^ Lam. 4: 3. cn-r'n nna 
2 Chron. 34: 6, and probably siin ^innx Hos. 4: 18, ni^Q -isnb Isa. 2 : 20. 
(See Dr. Alexander's Commentary on this passage.) The last two ex- 
amples are plainly intended by the punctuators to be read as separate 
words. This might likewise be done in the preceding examples if they 
were pointed CSi* "^S and oh'^Pia "ina . 



Methegh. 

§44. Methegh (SJn'a bridle), a small pei-pendicular stroke 
under the initial letter of the syllable to which it belongs, 
is a secondary accent denoting a stress of voice inferior to 
the main accent. As this latter always has its place in 
Hebrew either upon the ultimate or the penult, distinctness 
was promoted and monotony relieved, especially in long 
words, by giving prominence to one or more of the antece- 
dent syllables. There is a natural tendency to heighten the 
force of the accent by passing lightly over the immediately 
preceding syllable, this diminished force creating in its turn 
a new stress upon that next beyond it, and so on in alternate 
elevations and depressions to the beginning of the word. 
Agreeably to the principle just stated, Methegh regularly 
stands in polysyllables upon the second syllable before the 
accent, and again upon the fourth if the word have so many, 
e. e:. D-isn , n6i?"i , '«:k-'isii . ah^na , oriiJTinsDia^ , niiiD^pn^^ . 
And so upon two or more words connected by Makkeph, 
which are pronounced as one, e. g. 'irnj^^r ^^i^- 22 : 8, 
Dn^-Qb5-'i3 1 Sam. 21 : 7. 

a. Sometimes, however, particularly when the nature of the syllables 
requires it, §32. 1, Methegh takes the place of the principal accent before 



§45 METHEGH. 61 

Makkeph irrespectiv^e of the position of the accent upon the following 
word, 15— i-^Sttin Num. 21:35. "iiran-TiV^. Num. 21: 33, bia—^o Jer. 34:1, 
d!in-nb-b3i Gen. 30: 32, ni-xibn'l Sam. 21 : 12, '^^-''2 Ex. 19': 5. 

6. It is to be observed that the position of Methegh is determined by 
that of the lone-syllable, not by that of the accentual sign when these are 
not coincident, as frequently happens with prepositives and postpositives, 
e.g. '■'nS-'yri Deut. 4:26, sia'^ni-ii'n Josh. 22:27, where the tone falls on 
the penult, cp^irrj Jer. 26 : 21, where the tone is upon the ultimate. 



§45. The secondary accent is liable to be shifted from 
its normal position for the following reasons, viz. : 

1. If the syllable which should receive it is mixed, it 
may be given in preference to an antecedent simple syllable, 
e.g. f^^^^)^2^!!:J 2 Sam. 22:24, ?j5nnm Job 1:7, nii'nnnn^ 
Ezek. 42 : 5, tJ^sn-bxttj Gen. 43 : 7 ; or if none such precede, 
it may be omitted altogether, e. g. DOiJ'Q!'!} Jer. 33 : 24, 
''?i5?"?|!'n 1 Kin. 21 : 1, ni^^n-bs-nx Deut. 6 : 25. 

2. It is always given to simple syllables when followed 
by a vocal Sh'va, whether simple or compound, or a vowel 
which has arisen from Sh'va, the slight pronunciation proper 
to the Sh'va or its derivative giving new prominence to the 
preceding vowel, "m^l , n^in^. , nio^b, nin;!5ti3 Gen. 30:38, 
'^'T'T^2 ' sometimes to intermediate syllables, § 20. 2, e. g. 
^b^o Isa. 9:17, 10:34, t]^^? Obad. ver. 11, particularly 
after He interrogative or when Daghesh-forte has been 
omitted as after the article, Vav conversive, and the prepo- 
sition 1^, e. g. bir^n , nlirnn , ^!:bn , nin.33 , D^i?^ns^n , nb^b, 
■^nt*;! ; rarely and only as an exception to a mixed syllable 
standing in the first place before the principal accent, e. g 
xizj'in Gen. 1:11, n^rian Ex. 12 : 7, Zech. 14 : 2. 



a. It hence appears how Methegh comes to be of use in distinguishing 
the doubtful vowels, § 19, and to what extent it can be relied upon for this 
end. As it invariably accompanies the vowel of a simple syllable when 
followed by vocal Sh'va, it must always be found with a, I, and u preced- 
ing Sh'va, inasmuch as this will necessarily be vocal. Initial 1 -u, the un 
emphatic conjunction, is an exception, with which it is commonly not 
written, e. g. i^'^PA'^ Gen. 6: 19, Hxbbii Gen. 31 : 4, though it is sometimes, 



62 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 45 

e.g. ^■^^af:^^ Gen. 1 : 18, tiT^^^i Judg. 5:12, The absence of Methegh, 
except in the case just mentioned, is consequently conclusive evidence of 
the shortness of the vow^el. As, however, short v6wels in intermediate 
eyllables, and in a few rare instances even in mixed syllables, may receive 
Methegh, the presence of this sign does not of itself determine the vowel 
to be long; the ultimate decision must in this case depend on other con- 
8iderations. 



3. When by the operation of the preceding rule Me- 
thegh comes to stand in the first place before the accent, 
another Methegh is nevertheless occasionally found in the 
second place, the two thus standing in immediate succession, 
e. g. ronm Gen. 32 : 22, ^^?;:i Gen. 45 : 25 ; and even three 
occur upon successive syllables, e. g. ■^']')2^^W2^ Isa. 22 : 19. 
But commonly where there is more than one Methegh, their 
position relatively to each other is governed by the same 
rules as the position of Methegh generally with relation to 
the principal accent, e. g. ^rp^^TlJib , ^'^"^i^} , '^'^V^,^'} > 

4. Methegh is sometimes written under a letter with 
Sh'va, e. g. i^rnbTJj Job 1 : 11, 2 : 5, isi5n5>^ Job 19 : 6, nj^ws 
Ps. 2 : 3, nisn^s Jer. 49 : 18, "^^^^ Ruth 1 : 11. 

a. A Methegh so situated is called Gaya (s<^>*?' helloxoivg) by Jewish 
grammarians, and, according to Elias Levita, it occurs eighty-four times, 
the number yielded by its name arithmetically reckoned. Methegh upon 
a short vowel before a compound Sh'va was called Ma"rlkh ( Tf "^X]? pro- 
longing), with a short Hhirik it was called Hhlruk (P^i"'n gnashing). 

5. The place of Methegh is frequently supplied by an 
accent chosen agreeably to the laws of consecution, § 39. 
3. b., e. g. a^^J^5^< Isa. 66 : 13, oHvj'^i'iJ? Deut. 12 : 31, 
tans^cx) Zech. 7:14, «3^-b?i Num. 10:23, il:r||r5 Josh. 
22:i2. 



a. The want of consistency or of uniformity, which may be occasion- 
ally observed, in regard to the insertion or omission of Methegh, e. g. 
ninsa Cant. 1 : 7, ninxuJ Cant. 3:1; onuJ Cant. 6 : 5. end Lam. 4:9; 



^46 k'ri and k'thibh. 63 

nid'iy Num. 31:12, na'J? Josh. 4:13, and the discrepancies between 
different mavuiscripts and editions, e. g. •^s^X or nabx Gen. 45 : 28, 
nn53i-!ixb or nn?3T-1xla Ps. 81 : 3, if not arising in the first instance from 
clerical errors, are probably to be attributed to the inferior importance of 
the sign itself, whose place might be presumed to be sufficiently determined 
even if not written. 



K'ri and K'thibh. 

§46. Various notes extracted from the Masora (n'^ioia 
traditioti), a collection of remarks upon the text, are found 
in the margin of the Hebrew Bible, which are explained in 
the glossary at the end of most editions. The most im- 
portant of these are the various readings known as the K'ri 
(■^"IjP read), and K'thibh (^■'r?^ toritten). If in any instance 
traditional usage sanctioned a reading different from that 
which was written in the text or the K'thibh, the punctuators 
did not venture to alter the text itself for the sake of making 
the correction ; they went no further than to connect with 
the letters of the text the vowels of the word to be substi- 
tuted for it in reading or the K'ri, with a reference to the 
margin where the letters of the substitute might be found. 
Thus, with the word '\'^'c^'^h Josh. 6 : 7 is connected the 
marginal note "^"ip *i'aii"'l. The vowels here attached to the 
K'thibh belong not to it but to the unpointed word in the 
margin, which is accordingly "^^i^^!] . The proper vowels for 
the pronunciation of the K'thibh are not written, but must 
be supplied from a knowledge of the form indicated by the 
letters, which in this case is ^"^'ck;^^ . Again, in ver. 9, "^^pn 
in the text refers to 1^ ''5'pri in the margin ; the K'ri is here 
''l^pn , and the K'thibh, whose vowels are left to be deter- 
mined by the reader, ^:^n. Jer. 42:6 has ^?n* where the 
marginal note is "^ip i;n:i5 ; the K'ri is accordingly 'i:nDS? , 
and the K'thibh ^is* . In order to indicate that a given word 
was to be omitted in reading, it was left unpointed, and the 



64 OETHOGRAPHY. § 47 

note ''"ip ifh^ i'^ms , written but not read, placed in the margin, 
e.g. TS^n Ezek. 48:16, X3 2 Kin. 5:18, inT Jer. 51:3. 
If, on the other hand, a word was to be supphed, its vowels 
were inserted in the text and its letters placed in the margin, 
with the note iTiD xbi i"ip , read hut not loritten, e. g. Judg. 
20:13 in the text ^... and in the margin ""in, to be read 
:53 ; so Jer. 31 : 38 D'^xa . In 1 Kin. 21 : 8 the first letter 
of D'^'iBon is left unpointed as superfluous, and in Job 2 : 7 
n?. is explained by the margin to stand for I?"! : so Jer. 18 : 23 
n"'n,.'i for i^n,^) . 

a. The number of these marginal readings differs in different editions. 
Elias Levita states that there are 848. Others have computed them to 
be 1,000 ; others still, 1,200. 

§ 47. Sometimes a different reading from that of the text 
is suggested by the points alone without a marginal note 
being added in explanation, as when a particular word or 
orthography is regularly substituted for another of frequent 
occurrence. These cases are presumed to be so famihar to 
the reader as to require no other index of their existence 
than the presence of the appropriate vowels. Thus, the 
divme name !iini , which the Jews had a superstitious dread 
of pronouncing, was and still is read by them as if it were 
^T^'^, Lord, whose points it accordingly receives, nih';' , unless 
these two names stand in immediate connection, when, to 
avoid repetition, it is read D'^n'!:^ and pointed «Tin;i Gen. 
15:2, Hab. 3:19. The antiquity of this superstition is 
attested by the KvpiG<; of the Septuagint, followed in the 
English as well as in other modern versions by the rendering 
Lord. The true sound of the name never having been 
noted, is now lost ; the only clue that is left being its ety- 
mology and the form which it assumes in composition, 
§ 62. 1, from which the conclusion has been variously drawn 
that it was nin;^, nin;;, or nin;^. The common pronunciation 
Jehovah is manifestly founded upon the error of combining 



§48 k'ri and k'thibh. 65 

the consonants of this word with the vowels of another and 
an entirely different one. There is, however, especially as it 
is uncertain whether Yahve or YaU'va, or either of these, was 
its original sound, no good reason for abandoning the pro- 
nunciation familiar to the Christian world and hallowed by 
the association of constant usage for the sake of adopting 
another which is, or is supposed to be, phonetically more 
exact, any more than we need be guilty of the pedantry of 
preferring Yeshayalm to Isaiah because it approaches more 
nearly to the original pronunciation of the prophet's name. 
Other standing K'ris, unnoted in the margin, are .^{'^^, the 
form of the pronoun of the third person feminine which is 
used throughout the Pentateuch ; this is designed to be read 
i^'^n , though the sound indicated by the letters is in all proba- 
bihty X'ln . So niwb;' read nils': , and D?TD^n;> read d:^^t?^"i? . 

§48. In the absence of definite information respecting 
the origin and sources of these various readings, it is difficult 
to determine with absolute precision the weight to which 
they are respectively entitled. The current opinion of the 
ablest Hebraists, based upon a careful scrutiny of their in- 
ternal character and the relation which ordinarily appears to 
subsist between them, is that while llie K'ri may perhaps, in 
a few cases, correct errors in the K'thibh, and so restore the 
original reading, it is in the great majority of instances an 
explanatory gloss rather than an emendation. With the rare 
exceptions already suggested, the K'thibh is esteemed the 
true reading, the object of the K'ri being to remove ortho- 
graphical anomalies, secure grammatical uniformity, substi- 
tute usual for unusual, prevailing for obsolete words and 
forms, and occasionally to introduce euphemistic expressions. 
"While the K'ri is probably not to be esteemed the original 
reading, therefore, it deserves attention as the grammatical 
or exegetical comment of a steadfast tradition. 



66 orthography. § 49 

Accuracy of the Points. 

§49. 1. All the Masoretic additions to the text designed 
to facilitate its reading have now been considered. The cor- 
rectness of the pronunciation, which they yield, is vouched 
for not only by the esteem in which they are universally 
held by the Jews, but by the scrupulous minuteness of the 
system, its consistency with itself and with the vowel-letters 
of the text, its affinity with and yet independence of the 
vocalization of the kindred languages the Arabic and Syriac, 
and the veneration for the already established text which 
evidently characterized its authors, since they did not venture 
to change the text even in the slightest particular. 

2. The only additional information which has come down 
to us respecting the true sound of Hebrew words, is furnished 
by the mode of writing proper names in the Septuagint 
version, and the few HebrcAV words preserved by ancient 
authors, particularly Origen and Jerome. These have been 
subjected to an elaborate comparison with the Masoretic 
punctuation, and the result has been to establish their sub- 
stantial agreement in the main, with, however, not a few 
remarkable points of divergence. In relation to this subject 
it should be observed, that the Hebrew pronunciation of the 
Seventy is inferred entirely from their mode of spelling 
proper names, not from words in living use in the language. 
The chances of inaccuracy, on the part of the translators, are 
here peculiarly great. Many names were not familiar and 
were of rare occurrence ; and as no system of vowel notation 
then existed, they were left entirely to their independent 
knowledge of the sound of each individual word. These 
words were written by them in a foreign alphabet, whose 
sounds did not coincide precisely with those of the Hebrew, 
and in which the proper equivalents varied somewhat accord- 
ing to their combinations. The true sound was also de- 



§49 ACCURACY OF THE POINTS. 67 

parted from sometimes because the laws of Greek euphony 
forbade its exact reproduction. The neghgence with which 
they are chargeable elsewhere was also probably aggravated 
here, and in fact there are many instances in which they not 
merely deviate from the vowels but transpose or change the 
letters. Leaving out of view, therefore, such incidental dis- 
crepancies as are to be accounted for in the ways now sug- 
gested, a thorough and extended examination of the subject 
reveals, with all the general agreement, a number of regular 
and systematic deviations. 

a. These are thus stated by Ewald, Lehrbuch, p. 1 16. (1.) An e or I de- 
rived from a is written f2, as nnn 0apa, C?^2 BaXaa/A. 'pJ-'SS Ta/Sawv, ^1')^ 
Mapia/A ; and on the other hand, a is sometimes written e, rii33''bf7i< 
0Xt/3e^a, I?!? Keve^. rj Fe^, especially before n, as fr^'p Kope, nni Zape. 
(2.) e is written for i and 6 for u, C:"'n3 XcTratot, "Sn'^j Teevva, V^'T? 
TeSewv, n-:n:iTa Meo-pai^a, rWX^ Oxol,a&, n^.ty O^ta. (3.) for the diph- 
thongal e and their constituents at and au are substituted, "tpj? Katvav, 
is? Na^au. (4.) The vowel letters are softened into their homogeneous 
vowels Si'^p'fl ovLKpa, "lai"^!! oviSafi-qp. (5.) Vocal Sh'va is written as a 
full vowel, commonly a, or if an follow, o, riiX3:£ 2a/3aco^, by;!l?*i PayorryX, 
CS^liS Xepov/3t/x., mo SoSofia ; the final vowel of Segholates is also 
written 6 if o precedes, tj^o MoXox, ""22> yofiop. 

3. The regularity of these deviations seems to be best 
accounted for by the assumption that the pronunciation 
represented in the Septuagint is that which prevailed among 
the Jews in Egypt, which would naturally be less pure than 
that of Palestine represented in the vowel points, and which, 
moreover, betrays in the particulars recited above a strong 
leaning to Aramaean forms and sounds. Accordingly the 
view now commonly entertained is that the vowel notation 
of the Masorites is correct, at least in all essential particulars, 
and that it is properly to be put at the basis of all investiga- 
tions into the phenomena of the language. 



68 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 50 



Orthographic Changes. 

§50. The signs thus far described represent all the 
sounds of the Hebrew language. Its stock of words is 
formed by combining these in various significant ways. The 
laws of such combinations, and especially the mutations to 
which they are subject, or which they occasion, next demand 
attention. When a particular idea has been attached to a 
certain combination of sounds, its diiferent modifications 
may naturally be expressed by slightly varying those sounds. 
This may take place, 

1. By the substitution of one letter for another of like 
character, and for the most part of the same organ, e. g. : 

iT'tt to be, exist, n^n to live ; ^aa to pour forth, K23 the same idea ap- 
plied to words, to prophesy ; pjy to encircle the neck with an ornament, 
pan to strangle, p3!S applied to sounds uttered in strangulation, to groan; 
''^T) to go about as a spy, bD'n to go about as a merchant; 033 to collect, 
D^tsa treasures; ?"'2a a cup, sai3 or 3.'2ip a helmet (of similar shape); 
Tp tender, delicate, pT thin ; 'iisri to make straight, 'Sn to straighten the 
beam of the balance, to weigh ; *i33 Jirsl born, 1132 Jirst ripe, "ipa the first 
portion of the day, the morning ; nbn to suspend, nb'^ applied to a bucket, 
to let down; ^1\ to cut, "iSi? to reap; aiij gold., shs yellow; "i^ata to con- 
ceal, *|S"vy and "SS to hide away as treasures, "ED to cover with boards ; 
yrj to destroy by tearing down. ^P3 to destroy by uprooting ; Piaii to slay, 
nat to sacrifice ; iian to bind, i'Sa to bound ; riia to break up, Jlee, niQ 
to break out, blossom, piQ to break in pieces ; a^p to cut off, asn to hew 
stone, aian to cut wood, ; inS to surround, lu^ to encircle the head with a 
crown; Ti^J to pour out, "03 to pour in libation or in casting metals ; "iHS 
to shine, "ina to be pure; nnn to engrave, lain to plough; "jfia to prove, 
ina to approve, choose ; f^ni^ to drink, its causative npTZin ; "inn to break 
'through, "ipn to investigate ; aS3 to place, its reflexive as^^nti. 

2. By the transposition of letters, e. g. : 

yiQ to deal violently, las to urge ; iSp to cut with the sickle, reap, yip 
to cut with the teeth, bite; i^ih io blow, \as3 breath; 033 to collect, 033 
riches, ri350ia storehouses. 

3. By the addition of a letter : 

Thus, from the letters liS . in which inheres the idea of compression, 
are formed "i~s to bind, "ilS to press together, "lax to heap up, ia^ to be 



§ 51 ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES. 69 

straitened^ 1S3 to guards besiege, ^ss to restrain, i^tn an enclosure; from TJ 
are formed nn to cut, tna /o t7(< off, tsia ^o c?i« Zoose, go away, tta fo s/iear, 
bta fo ■plunder, nita ^ew?z stone; TT'^B ^o unfold, make distinct, tttino fo 
spread out ; cns a vineyard, bi3"i3 a garden. 

^51. Such literal changes as those just recited not only 
serve to express new shades of meaning, but even where the 
meaning remains precisely the same, they may represent 
diversities of other sorts. Thus, the distinction may be, 

1. In point of currency or style : One form of the word 
being in more common and familiar use, the other more rare 
and savoring, perhaps, of the elevated or poetic style, e. g. : 

*iS3 to guard, "1133 poetic ; TlJiia cijpress, ni"i3 once in poetry ; "i50 to 
shut, rarely ""^O ; ir^J'O storm, •T^J'b rare and poetic; TjrD to cover, once 
Tjsio : Tj?'^ to be quenched, once T)?t ; syn to abhor, once SXPi ; bso to be 
foolish, once bos ; il^l? iniquity, once nibs . 

2. Of antiquity : The pronunciation of a word or its 
form may undergo changes in the lapse of time. Of the 
few instances of this sort, which our imperfect data enable 
us to fix upon with some measure of confidence, the follow- 
ing may be taken as specimens, e. g. : 

To laugh in the Pentateuch pHS , in other books (Judg. 16:25 ex- 
cepted) pniy ; to cry out in the Pentateuch prs , only once (Ex. 2 : 23) 
p5T which is the more frequent form in other books ; 3^3 , iiabS a lamb, 
occur in the Pentateuch interchangeably with b33 , niyas , which are the 
only forms found in other books; a sceptre B3a , but in the book of Esther 
a'^anO; Damascus piaan , in Chronicles pbiai'^T ; how 1 Chron. 13:12. 
Dan. 10 ; 17 TpH , in earlier books Tpx . 

3. Of Dialect : The same word may come to be pro- 
nounced differently by those who speak distinct though re- 
lated languages. Thus, the Aramaean dialects, the Chaldee 
and Syriac, in very many words regularly substitute ^5 for the 
Hebrew final n , and the corresponding linguals for the He- 
brew sibilants, S being sometimes still further weakened by 
the loss even of the lingual sound to that of the guttural 7 , 
e.g.: 



70 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 52 

Heb. nstn to wander, Chald. xi^a , Syr. ]Ll ; Heb. arnj gold, Chald. 
nn^ , Syr. Icoi? ; Heb. n:is a rock, Chald. ^rj , Syr. \la4 ; Heb. ttJbw 
fArcc, Chald. n^ri , Syr. h^Z, Arab, e?^' J Heb. y-is /Ae ear/A, Arab. 

G t 

jjOjl , Chald. SJnN!, Syr. ji^j) . Other consonant changes: Heb. "|3 a son^ 
Arab. ^Jf , Chald. ns , Syr. jl) ; Heb. hxi^i to kill, Arab. JosJ Heb. 
ibf)-^, Syr. ^^04013; Heb. NS3 a /Aro«e, Chald. ''D";l3,Syr. jljffjaa, Arab. 
iLS-y Heb. np^lsn a Jield, Chald. i<bp5r! , Syr. \lLal , Eth. ih^A. I . 

4. Of simple euphony : An alternate form of a word 
may be produced to facilitate its pronunciation or make its 
sound more pleasing, e. g. : 

■j^Qsnx , ',i5"ij< purple; ci?b , 'ab to hate; f^^^ij^ , fisui? chamber, 
*,SS,'n3S Achan; ^SSS^isin? , -ias'n'iD!i33 Nebuchadnezzar; JS^, V^i 
DQeg;^^''yo\^, D"'M!iS^X almug or algum trees ; msn^^, nis^na teeth. 

a. Mere varieties of orthography must not be mistaken for consonantal 
changes, e. g. xb occasionally for ib and vice versd, probably Mbsb for 
r.lbDO, and such permutations of gutturals as abound in the manuscripts 
of the Samaritans, who, making no distinction in the sounds of these 
letters, perpetually confounded them in writing, Gesen. Sam. Pent. p. 52. 
A like faulty pronunciation has been attributed to the Galileans, to which 
there is a probable allusion in Matt. 26:73. Buxtorf Lex. Chald. p. 434. 

§ 52. The changes thus far described result in the pro- 
duction of distinct words, and belong to the domain of the 
lexicon rather than of the grammar. The lexicographer re- 
gards such words as cognate, and traces them back to their 
common source ; but, in the view of the grammarian, they 
are totally distinct. The mutations with which the latter 
concerns himself are such as take place in the direct deriva- 
tion and inflection of words. These are altogether euphonic, 
are more restricted in their character, and take place within 
far narrower limits, than those heretofore considered. When 
words are subjected to grammatical changes their sounds 
are brought into new connections, attended, it may be, with 



^ 53 CONSONANT CHANGES. 71 

a difficulty of utterance which demands some measure of 
rehef, or they pass readily and naturally into other sounds, 
which are easier of pronunciation or more agreeable to the 
ear. The mutations thus induced are of three sorts, viz. : 
Consonant Changes, the Conversion of Consonants into 
Vowels, and Vowel Changes. These will require to be con- 
sidered separately. 



Consonant Changes. 

§ 53. The first class of changes embraces those which 
affect the consonants. These mostly arise from the concur- 
rence of two consonants, creating a difficulty in the pronun- 
ciation or yielding a sound displeasing to the ear. This may 
take place either at the beginning or the close of a syllable. 
Syllables in Hebrew may, and often do, begin with two con- 
sonants, §18. 1 ; but the necessity of this is avoided in 
certain cases by the following expedients : 

1. In the beginning of words the weak letter n is some- 
times prefixed with a short vowel, thus creating a new initial 
syllable to which the first consonant may be transferred. 

a. The only instances of this are afforded by the second and seventh 
conjugations of verbs, the Niphal and Hithpael, e. g. 'I3|3n = hh'p^z'n for 
bb;??; b-Jj^rn probably for Vlsjrn §82. 5. 6. In d-,-iN Ezek. 14 : 3 N is 
prefixed instead of n . Prosthesis is more common in the domain of the 
lexicon, where X is always the letter used, e.g. i'i'iT , Si'^'.tx arm; biiin, 
Httnx yesterday. A prefixed N. is even occasionally employed to soften 
the pronunciation without the necessity stated above, e. g. D"'ri33X, c^SJX , 
n'^ibn'iX^, O^fstx^. So in Chaldee B^X blood, Heb. M; '|5X garden, Heb. 
•ja. In Arabic the concurrence of two consonants at the beginning of a 
word is regularly obviated by prefixing I . Comp. Greek X"^^'*' ^X^^"*' 

2. The first of the concurrent consonants, if it has a 
comparatively feeble sound, is sometimes dropped. 



72 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 53 

a. Tlijs occurs regularly in verbs whose first radical is "< or 3, and in 
nouns derived from such verbs, e.g. -5y for SUi^ , ns'n for !^y'^^, b^ia for 
inii, ',n for "in?, ^n Ezek. 2:10 for %^3, bian Ezek.'i:4 for H'^^ln?, and 
perhaps ^VO Am. 8:8 for ^i<^3. 

X is thus dropped in sisni for 13ri;x.,ui for "i^N ; also in a few instances from 
the beginning of the second syllable of words, e. g. ^jlr.^li Ezek. 28:16 
for ^"lasxi^ ; 'c\^ Job 32: 11 for TINX ; D^niion Eccl. 4: 14 for D'^'^.^ioxn ; 
D-'5a'in'2 Chron. 22:5 for Q-^Enxn ; n-ioa Ezek. 20:37 for r-iDNO ; nVsg 
1 Kin. 5 : 25 with Daghesh-forte conservative for nbix^ ; mx Prov. 
8:17 for =nxs; "p'tb Prov. 17:4 for t'tn^; T.nb^ l Sam. "1:17 for 
tjnsitllJ . These examples likewise admit of a different explanation; K 
may give up its consonantal power, losing its sound in that of the pre- 
ceding vowel, agreeably to §57. 2 (2), after which it may readily be 
dropped altogether. 

» is occasionally dropped from the participles of the Pual or fourth 
conjugation, as njsb for nfsbTa ; b in np for n;?b ; ii in nsb Ex, 3:2 for 
f^r".^; cn-'-J^ Ex. 7:22 for'cn"'-jri^ Ex. 7: 11;' and perhaps 3 in nroo 
Gen. 49 : 11, which appears to be for nhlDS . 

6. The rejection of a consonant from the beginning of a syllable, when 
not immediately followed by another consonant, is exceptional ; as IT 
Judg. 9:11 for n^;" ; nnn 2 Sam. 22:41 for "Finj ; nn Ezek. 33:30 for 
nnx; nisian Neh. 3:13 for niadsri; '^nbnnri Judg. 9:9 for •^nb^nnn, and 
perhaps aiia Jer. 42: 10, which seems to be lor Siia^ . 



3. The second consonant is sometimes dropped, if it is a 
letter of feeble sound. 



a. This is regularly the case with M of the article and of verbal pre- 
fixes, and •< as the final radical of verbs, e. g. fi^sb for ri'^anb ; bap'^ for 
bbisn'; ; !i^a for ^"^'ba . 

It occurs besides in a few sporadic examples with these same letters, 
and more rarely still with 5* , i , and S, e. g. if for ^'n\ , "^s Ezek. 2 : 10 for 
Tjs, Dsiai'i for asuin^, 'is^ap'^ and ^nH::p with Daghesh-forte conserva- 
tive for !in:y-Jp^ and sinnBa'p ; ^n^l Lani. 3:53 for ^l^^^l, "ii^n Gen. 
3 : 16 for 'ni'i''"}?^ ; "E^^ Job 35 : 11 for !|5sbs73 , nisn Ex. 26: 24 for D"'S!<Fi, 
bn^ Isa. 13 : 20 for bnx'^ , ^intni 2 Sam. 22 :'40 for ''3'iTNm ; "«3 Isa. 3 : 24 
for ■'•3, "'S? for "ii?. , C^n;; for CSl"^ ; "'a as a particle of entreaty, probably 
for ■'S'a, npirs Am. 8:8 (K'thibh) for Myp«3?; ba the name of a Baby- 
lonish deity for bsa is a foreign contraction. The conjecture that "isa 
Mic. 1 : 10 is for is^a in Accho is ingenious and favoured by the occurrence 
of P53 in Gath in the parallel clause; but it is at variance with the poinie, 
which, upon this hypothesis, should be "iaa. 

b. In rare cases this rejection occurs even after a mixed syllable, 
whose final consonant is thus drawn forward, e. g. firx for nnrx , nan 
Job 29:6 for nx^n, asnrn Ex. 2:4 for ak^ntn and probably pox Ps". 
139 : 8 with Daffhesh-forte conservative for pbox . 



^54 CONSONANT CHANGES. 73 

§ 54. When the concurrence takes place at the close of 
a syllable, whether the second consonant belongs to the same 
syllable with the first as at the end of words, or to a differ- 
ent syllable as in the middle of words, the following changes 
may be produced. 

1. An aspirate following another consonant loses its 
aspiration, § 21 ; or if it be brought into juxtaposition with 
its like so as to form a doubled letter, the aspiration of both 
will be removed, § 23. 2, unless the combination occurs at 
the end of a word, where the reduplication is not expressed, 
§ 25. Thus, n^ for ntiia , aispin for Diannn , )h^b for innnb , 
but y\ from nsn, rriiais 1 Kin. 1 : 15 for nnnfflia or J^f^'^iB^, 
nin^. Ezek. 4 : 3 for t^^nhm , rht-Q Mai. 1 : 14 for minnic^ . 

2. The first of two concurring consonants is in certain 
cases assimilated to the second, the doubling thus occasioned 
being expressed as in the case of letters originally alike by 
Daghesh-forte, except at the end of words, ^25, where 
Daghesh disappears or is only virtually present, being re- 
sumed upon the addition of a fresh vowel or syllable. This 
is most frequently the case with the liquid 3 , rarely with b 
and •! and only in particular words ; so n of the Hithpael 
of verbs before 1 and t: , and in a few instances before sibi- 
lants and other letters, and 1 at the end of a few words 
before n. Thus, )k^. for "jnr , nni? for ?(:p3^ ; n^:' for r^'^)^ 
nb Ezek. 27 : 23 for nibs Am. 6:2; ^f^ for '^b ni^x ; ^ia^'i^^ 
for ^X3^n?, xia's'i for ^<'i?t:n^ ^M^ for ^i^rnn, niaiisn for 
D"bi©nn , liiasn for ^sa?nn , n&sn for nbsriri ; nb for pnb , nnx 
for nnnx . 

a. So perhaps 3 in ne^ according to Gesenius for "^03^ and 0^ for 
6313 . Compare Greek o-uyyev^s for <Tvvyevrj<;, riTVfXjxai for TtTvirfxat, and 
Eng. il-logical, ir-religion, im-mature formed by the negative prefix in. 

3. A few isolated cases occur of the reverse process more 
common in Chaldee and Syriac, by which a doubled letter is 
resolved into two different consonants by the change of the 



74 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 55 

first or the second member of the i-eduphcation to a liquid 
n or 2 , e. g. ^la'i^ia for baDT2 , pi?^^'^ for pisis'i , ni*:?'? Isa. 
23 : 11 for v^i^'a, ''ipp Job 18 : 2 in the judgment of some 
for '^arp 6';26^6% though others make the D a radical, and give 
the word the sense of snares. The conjecture that ^iiar) Ps. 
64 : 7, Lam. 3 : 32 is for ^^P) is unnecessary and unwar- 
ranted. 

4. When n of the Hithpael of verbs would stand before 
a sibilant, it is transposed with o and t5 , and with 2 it is in 
addition changed to t3 . Thus, inno)? for incni2, nisniy:' for 
"laffin:! , nynis:! for i^ton;' , pTJ^: for Pti?t^? . 

a. In MDi^iiittirin Jer. 49 : 3 the transposition does not take place in con- 
eequence of the number of similar letters which would thus be brought 
into proximity. In the cognate languages n is likewise transposed with t 
and changed to i: thus, Chald. Ta^fn for 'i^Trin; so, also, in Syriac and 
Arabic. The only example of a Hebrew verb whose first letter is T ap- 
pearing in this conjugation is sistri Isa. 1:16, where n is assimilated 
agreeably to 2. Compare with these transpositions the frequent Doric 
change of ^ {= So-) into crS, as crvpLaSoi for crvpL^ui. 

§ 55. The occurrence of a consonant at the end of a 
word may, inasmuch as the succeeding word must necessarily 
begin with one, be regarded as an additional case of the con- 
currence of consonants. As the contact is less close, how- 
ever, than when they meet in the same word, it is less fruitful 
of changes than in the cases already considered. 

1. There are three instances in which it has been doubt- 
fully conjectured that a final "J has been assimilated to a fol- 
lowing initial ■»; viz. UWti'} Isa. 35:1 presumed to be for 
•jriifjis;*; Di^^S Num. 3 :49 for Xrn^ Ex. 21 : 30, Ps. 49 : 9 ; 
d5o Gen. 28:12. 



a. Final consonants are in Sanskrit perpetually modified by the initia. 
letter of the following word. But it is by no means clear that this is so in 
Hebrew, even in the examples alleged, as the forms admit of a different 
explanation. See in regard to the first passage, Dr. Alexander's Com 
mentary. 



§56 CONSONANT CHANGES. 76 

2. A few cases occur of the rejection of a letter, chiefly 
) and 13 , from the end of a word. 



a. 1 of the verbal endings 'i^i and 1'^. is almost always dropped, being 
only retained as an archaeic or emphatic form, and chiefly at the end of a 
clause, e. g. 'ps");^ Deut. 8 : 16, but mostly ^'J~!l; 't^'^^l'^ Gen. 32:20, com- 
monly lia'in; T'^?:? Ruth 3:4, commonly ''iustn. So, too, in some 
proper nouns, •|i'naT3 Zech. 12:11, i'n:^ Josh.. 12 :21; il'''^, whose original 
T is shown in the derivative "li'^^ia and is perpetuated in the modern name 
SeilUn. 

b. In like manner 53 is rejected from the dual and plural terminations 
of nouns upon their entering into the close connection of the construct 
state with the following word, "^pTX from C^iTX, "^na from D'^na. 

c. If the feminine endings ri_ and fi^ have, as is probable, a common 
origin, this may be best explained by the assumption that n is in many 
cases rejected from the termination, leaving only the vowel, though it is 
always retained when any addition is made to the word : thus, the con- 
struct state n^^ri, absolute i^ian, but with a suffix in532n ; n^ap 
(comp. nbTX Deut. 32 : 36), "^inBup. It is to be observed here, that thia 
phenomenon does not establish the possibility of an interchange between 
the consonants n and n, because ii in this case represents not A but the 
vowel a. 

§ 56. A few other changes remain to be mentioned which 
are due to special causes. 

1. Nun is often inserted in certain forms of verbal 

suffixes to prevent the hiatus between two vowels, ir.inn?;^ 

Jcr. 5 : 22, or § 53. 3. a. 'is'in?;] Isa. 33 : 21 for ^.nnn?;: , 

^roibiainiit Ex. 15:2 for 'in^xiinx. Comp. Gr. ai/oo-fo? and 

English indefinite article an. 

... • 

2. Vav at the beginning of words is changed to *> , e.g. 

^b': for "l?i , ^"i: for ^bi , Vibp;! for bbjpi . The only exceptions 
are the four words ^) , ^\^ Prov. 21 : 8, ^^n Gen. 11 : 30, 
1)2 2 Sam. 6 : 23 (K'ri), and the prefixes Vav Conjunctive 
and Vav Conversive. 

3. Vav, though capable of being reduplicated, e. g. 'ly^s? 
is in most instances relieved from this necessity by the sub- 
stitution of ''j or by doubling the following letter in its 
stead, e. g. oiipx or uh'^'p^^ for D^l^s . 



76 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 57 

a. In one instance after such a change of 1 to '', a following "^ suffers 
the contrary change to 1 to prevent the triple recurrence of the same 
letter, Ti^jtl^?: Isa. 6:9 for '^^^'nx^. 

4. Yodh before the plural termination D^. is in a few 
cases changed to Si to prevent the conjunction of hke 
sounds, n\s:^bn Hos. 11 : 7 for D^^bn Josh. 10 : 26; D^sina 
Hos. 11 : 8 for a^^ha Gen. 10 : 19 ; D^sn^n from '^l^'^; D^Kna 
(also triss:?) for w^'iyi ; ^«ib3 Jer. 38 : 12 for ^ib3 (or as some 
read, ^T^^) ver. 11. 



a. In like manner l is changed to K before rii in the word PiiSJ for 
nil? from ni3; it is consequently unnecessary to assume, as Gesenius does, 
a singular HNJ which never occurs. 



Change op Consonants to Vowels. 

§ 57. The second class of changes is the conversion of 
consonants into vowels, or the substitution of the latter for 
the former. This occurs, 

1. Occasionally in reduplicated syllables or letters, s5i3 
for nsn? ; nistoit: for niscB-j; byz for b^ba Gen. 11:9; ninba 
2Chron. 35 : 13 from nn^2 Prov. 19 : 24. 

2. Much more frequently with the quiescents. 

(1) A prefixed ) is softened to its homogeneous vowel u 
before other labials or vowelless letters, e. g. riii^, '^y^^^•, the 
softening of an initial "^ to ^ only occurs in "'ic'^i? 1 Chron. 
2 : 13 for "'«:' ver. 1 2, liJfi? 2 Sara. 14 : 19, Mic. 6 : 10 for tJ."? . 

(2) Medial or final quiescents without vowels of their 
own often lose their sound in that of a preceding vowel. 
This is invariably the case with 1 and '' following their homo- 
geneous vowels, e. g. tH^h for ^"n"}!! § 59, niirT^a for nn^n^a, 
unless they are doubled, as ''i;0!''a , ti-is , and occasionally even 



§ 57 CHANGE OF CONSONANTS TO VOWELS. 77 

then, e. g. ^)2^)2 for '''b^^ . Final x always, and medial S fre- 
quently, gives up its consonant sound after any vowel what- 
ever, e. g. in^'a , siia , nsib for ns<ib . 

a. Medial X regularly loses its consonantal power in the future Kal of 
Pe Aleph verbs, e.g. bix^ ; in "ibx preceded by b, thus "lasb ; in cn'^JS 
and certain forms of "(iTN preceded by the prefixes 3^31, thus, cnbxb, 
1n''ii.sb but ni^xb; "'nsb, t^J'tx^, ipxb but Titx^, ^ns^, 'is'^inNb. The 
following examples are of a more individual character, e.g. Mis: for n')X3, 
nbsT 1 Kin. 11;39 for ns^N!! , f|OEGxn Num. 11:4, D^psTxa Jer. 40:'l, 
H'lnxsjXbJ Isa. 14: 23. In a few cases this has led to a change of ortho- 
graphy, the X which is no longer heard being dropped, or another vowel 
letter substituted for it, e. g. I^si"' Ezek. 42:5, and b'^iix Hos. 11 :4 from 
bix, '("iiai-i Job 8:8 lor ylaxn,' din Deut. 32:32 for irxn, and the exam- 
ples cited §53. 2, a. 

b. The consonant H never loses its sound in that of a preceding vowel 
like the rest of the quiescents. The letter n is often used to denote a 
vowel, but if in any word it properly expresses a consonant this is never 
converted into a vowel, or vice versA. The exceptions are apparent not 
real, as in the frequent abbreviation of the ending irrj in proper names to 
<TJ, thus in^pm, n^pfrt. The change here does not consist in the rejec- 
tion of the vowel ^ and the softening of the consonant n, but the syllable 
Irt is dropped, whereupon final Kamets is written by its appropriate vowel 
letter, § 11. 1, a, just as !|iT^3''73 after the rejection of ^in^ becomes •li'^a . 
So in those rare cases in which rt is substituted for the suffix n, e.g. 
nnsb Lev. 13:4 for nnsb. The proper name bxnns Num. 34:28 is de- 
rived not from tTiS but ^13, a root of kindred meaning, of whose exist- 
ence, though otherwise unattested, this word is itself a sufficient voucher. 

(3) Medial i^ often gives its vowel to a preceding vowel- 
less letter and rests in its sound; ^ occasionally does the 
same mth a homogeneous vowel, when preceded by a vowel- 
less prefix. 

a. Thus, X: QiiiJsn for oiiuxn, nxan for nkan; iqaxia Ezek. 25:6 
from axia ver. 15; iOliij Ps. 139: 20 for »x">i)3 . so vk6}1 Jer."l0:5; ''iaisi 
from '(aix"?; OX'712 Neh. 6:8for DX^ia ; xi'n Isa. 51:20, i.sn Deut. 14:5; 
n-'X-jnl Sam. '14 : 33 for D\yjh ; 'niaxa Isa. 10:13 for visa; icrxi 
Zech. 11:5 for l^USXi; this even occurs after mixed syllables, e. g. iiDxba 
for nixba ; y^y^ for VX?^; 1^**"!!^^ for nx^i^b, particularly in proper 
nouns'bxs^ia^ for bx^^ia-; /bxjjnn for bxsJnn.' So, ■':'|inri"'3 Eccles. 2:13 
for Ti-in-^a;' n^b-ii Jer. 25:36 for nBb":^; nnpib Prov. 30:17 for nnjs-^b. 
There is no instance of this with 1. on the contrary, nis.ip5 Cant. 5:2, 12. 

(4) At the end of words 1 and "^ , when without a vowel 
of their own and preceded by a vowelless letter, invariably 



78 



ORTHOGRAPHY. § 58 



quiesce in their homogeneous vowels, 1 in an unaccented m, 
'' in I, which draws the accent upon itself and frequently 
causes the dissolution of a previous syllable and the rejection 
of its vowel, m for ^na , ^.nnia': for inriBJ^ ; ^n") for "^ni , ^ns 
for T}'^ , ^h-^ for '^'Q'l . 

(5) When preceded or accompanied by heterogeneous 
vowels, 1 and i are sometimes dropped, or if the vowel be a, 
they not unfrequently combine with it, forming the diph- 
thongal and e, § 62. 1, e. g. pi^n for p:k;'n, Ti% for "''^ia, n^a 
for ''^a. Dp for n!ip, D-'pn for D^npn, n^ for n^i)?; n^icin for 
avij^n, w'r,; for ©^7? , nitt construct state of njtt, tT'i const, 
of n^i , b^^-^n for b^b;'n , nb.;;^ for ^%': . 

a. Vav rarely remains with a heterogeneous vowel unless accompanied 
by weak leUers, by contrast with which it becomes comparatively strono- 



Vowel Changes. 

§ 58. 1. The third class of changes embraces those which 
take place in the vowels. The primary office of the vowels 
is to aid in pronouncing the consonants, to which conse- 
quently they are quite subordinate, merely occupying, so to 
speak, the interstices between them. Their number and 
variety being greater, however, than is demanded for this 
single purpose, they have besides to a certain extent an in- 
dependent value and meaning of their own in the constitu- 
tion of words. (1) Changes of vowels, while they cannot 
like a difference of consonants create distinct verbal roots, are 
yet fruitful of those minor modifications of which etymology 
takes cognizance, such as the formation of derivatives and 
grammatical inflexions, e. g. bna to he (/reat, b^a greatness, 
bina (;reat; bbp he Hied, bitip to kill, bup kill thou, bbp 
killing, b^ip killed; D^D a horse, JiDio a mare. (2) They 
may indicate differences in the forms of words which have 



^58 VOWEL CHANGES. 79 

arisen in the lapse of time; n?i in the Pentateuch means in- 
differently girl or hoy, in later books (jirl is n"i?D ; sin in the 
Pentateuch lie or she, in other books she is always s^n ; the 
form of the demonstrative nT^n is found only in Genesis, 
T^n in Avriters after the time of jMoses, ii?n in Ezekiel; 
the plural of the demonstrative in the Pentateuch ^i? or n^s , 
elsewhere, with a single exception, njx . The imperfect no- 
tation of the vowels in the original mode of writing by letters 
alone has, however, left us without the means of ascertaining 
to what extent such changes may have taken place. (3) They 
may indicate diversity of dialect, e. g. ^lojp to kill, Chald. ^12(5, 

Syr. M^ , Arab. Jji" , Ethiop. ^I'A: . 

2. The vowel changes with which orthography is con- 
cerned, on the other hand, are purely euphonic, being in 
themselves void of significance, and springing solely from the 
natural preference for what is easier of utterance or more 
agreeable to the ear. Orthographically considered, vowels 
are either mutable or immutable, the latter being unaffected 
by those circumstances which occasion changes in the former. 
A voAvel may be immutable by nature, or made so by posi- 
tion. A short vowel in a mixed syllable before the ac- 
cent is ordinarily immutable by position, being beyond the 
reach of the common causes of mutation, e. g. "i^'i'a , nnsira . 
Long vowels are immutable by nature in certain words or 
classes of words ; but they are only distinguishable as such 
by a knowledge of the etymological forms which require 
them. It may, however, be observed, as a general though 
not an invariable rule, that the vowels of such words and 
forms as are prevailingly written with the vowel letters are 
less liable to mutation than those which are prevailingly 
written without them. Mutable vowels are liable to changes 
both of quantity, from long to short, and the reverse, and 
of quality from pure to mixed {it to o, i to e, a to c) and the 
reverse, these changes being confined, except in rare in- 



80 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 59, 60 

stances, to the cognate forms ; thus, i never passes into u or 
0, nor these into a. Only as c stands in relation to both i 
and (2, it serves to mediate the interval between them, and 
thus accounts for the occasional changes of i to a or the re- 
verse, e. g. '^'^^'^'^ , P>^t:i?n ; ^^ for nsa , ^m ; 0"^ , ub'q'i comp. 
T > '°^T- • 

a. The exceptional change from u or o to e occurs only in the pro- 
nouns, e.g. cnbijp, before suffixes !inb::p ; and in the particle TN , before 
suffixes PX . There are also a few examples of the change of short 
vowels in mixed syllables before the accent, e. g. naanri , construct ra3"i^, 

plural niasn?:. 

§ 59. The mutations of vowels are due to one or other 
of the following causes, viz. : 1. Syllabic changes. 2. The 
influence of consonants. 3. The influence of vowels. 4. The 
accent. 5. The shortening or lengthening of words. As the 
vowel of unaccented mixed syllables is always short, and that 
of simple syllables long, §18. 2, it is evident that a change 
in the character of a syllable will involve a corresponding 
change in its vowel, unless the accent interfere to prevent. 
Accordingly, when for any cause a mixed syflable becomes 
simple, its short vowel will be converted into a long one ; 
and when a simple syUable becomes mixed, the reverse 
change wiU take place, e. g. in , DiSn ; n^]b , P'a^ . In 
the case of the vowels i and u there is frequently an addi- 
tional change of quality, viz., of 2 to e and ii to D, e. g. D^pn 
for D'''i)?r}; ^313 for ]iiD in place of "J^l § 56. 3. 

a. Daghesh-forte is thus resolved by the prolongation of the previous 
vowel in "iiiiiai:?, ^rJi^iip ; d5^Q, ^s^-'Q; "'lii^'l, ''^"'»n ; 0''5-ti53, B-'a'^iia; 
■ipn, -ipiin; u-^ijp^f\'' Eccies. 9-12 for Qitb;3^a §33. 2. a; s'lpan.-i for !i-ipBnr!; 
!Ti-'3 Lam. 1:8, if this is for rrnj see ver. 17; and if the conjecture of 
Gesenius (Thesaurus, p. 483) be correct as to the true reading in 1 Chron. 
23:6, 24:3 Bpbni for np^n;i. 

§ 60. Contiguous consonants may give rise to vowel 
changes by their individual peculiarities, as is the case with 



§ 60 VOWEL CHANGES. 81 

the gutturals, or by tlicir concurrence. The pccuharities of 
the gutturals are fourfold, viz. : 

1. A preference for the vowel Pattahh of the same organ, 
into which, consequently, a preceding or accompanying vowel 
is frequently converted, e. g. nbi; for nV^ ; D^i for d:?^ ; ^i)': 
for f^Mro ; 3?^^ for y^btJ ; ^n^:© from s:i2 . 

a. The instances in which this permutation occurs cannot easily be 
embraced under any general rules. In some cases it was optional; in 
others, usage decides for it or against it without, however, being absolutely 
uniform. The following statements embrace what is of most importance. 
(1) The stability of the vowel often depends upon the weight attached to 
it in the etymological form ; thus, yq^ in the imperative but not in the in- 
finitive for S'to; yTSC-i for "i^^, but riiu not :>-q'd lor vh'::. (2) The 
vowel preceding the guttural is more liable to change than tliat which 
succeeds it, e. g. "^z-q-^ always, but bb-c"; and hi^'^; n:nn but Onn;;; ^p'Sl_ 
but >i"i'cy . (3) An accented vowel is sometimes retained where one un- 
accented would suffer change, e. g. "in]!^ but 'jn^i; -nffi; cnp. (4) O and 
u are less subject to alteration than i and e, e. g. ^?3 for brs ; a which is 
already cognate with the gutturals is mostly retained, though it occasion- 
ally becomes a before n. e. g. cns from HN, "'niJ::^ Job 31 :24 (in most 
copies) from nbno, n'k'; from nn^i . (5) N in many cases prelers the 
diphthongal vowels e and o, thus ^iipN, "'rxirs, ;iS-^^n, •■DX"; but n!i"iD;<;'_; 
K'd;;, b=i<i. (6) "I partakes of this preference for d to a limited extent, 
e.g. "ipj] for npf] or lO'j]; n~i!T from n^-i^ . 

2. The reception of Pattahh furtive, § 17, at the end of a 
word after a long heterogeneous vowel (i. e. any other than 
a), or before a vov/elless final consonant, e. g. ?*D , '^''i-^l, TlK 

a. This is necessary when the vowel preceding a final guttural cannot 
be converted into Pattahh. Sometimes the form with Pattahh and that with 
Pattahh furtive occur interchangeably, e.g. l^.^"i?^. and r\''s'ch , or wit,h, a 
slight distinction, as HiiCX, in pause sn^ds; n^T'O, construct ri2TT2 . In 
a few instances a guttural preceding a final vowelless letter takes simple 
Sh'va instead of Pattahh furtive, e. g. Pinpb 1 Kin. 14 : 3, and in most 
editions Pit73'4 Jer. 13 : 25. As final X is always either quiescent or otiant, 
it never receives Pattahh furtive. The letter "i never takes it unless it be 
in a single instance, and that in a penultimate syllable riT** Ps. 7:6, 
which is probably to be read rji'rdoph ; though it migiit be pronounced 
yiraddoph, which some conceive to be an anomalous form for "t":^ , afler 
the analogy of ~n^|;' Gen. 21:6, the compound Sh'va being lengthened 
into a vowel followed by euphonic Daghesh, as in the related words 
6 



82 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 60 

fnian Isa. 1:6, and trn'H Isa. 53:5, while others adopt the explanation 
of the old Jewish Grammarians, that it is a peculiar combination of the 
Kal t{h-\1 and the Piel Cl^nv 

3. A preference for compound rather than simple Sh'va, 
§10. 3, whether silent or vocal, inasmuch as the gutturals 
are more readily made audible at the beginning than at the 
close of a syllable, and the hiatus accompanying them as- 
sumes more of the complexion of a vowel than is usual with 
stronger consonants. 

a. The gutturals occasionally retain simple Sh'va when silent. This 
is regularly done by a final radical n. n or 3, followed by a servile letter, 
c. (T. nnij, ^y-!']'^, cnrn^, cnrruiri. inns"^^, with ftiw exceptions as 
r^^h.11 '^^"'^- ^-^J '"l"?-^'? ^^f- ''^^' '^^^■' c^3?i;rin' 2 Sam. 21 : 6. Other cases 
have more of a casual or sporadic character, and occur chiefly with the 
stronger gutturals n and n. nrin;; . "Qn:, n;;nv banr, v^n-^rn, r-rrnia 
but mi':^^^, cin/i^ but lijin^, nirn: a possiission, but nbriD from br? a 
brook; more rarely with X and V. c^?.3 Lev. 4: 13, N^;"3 1 Kin. 15: 16, 
C^sa Isa. 11:15, r^'-op_ Deut. 25:7 but' in pause •■•"T^^fJ l.'^a. 28 : 6, "^"inxs 
Ex. 15 : 6; 1 has for the most part .simple Sh'va r'a-i , C"i-i:^, though in 
a few instances it has compound 'isT'.S, 'l'"'?"^?-- 

b. (l) Among the compound Sh'vas the prelt;rence. unless there is some 
reason lor choosing another, is ordinarily given to Hhateph Pattahh. as 
the simplest and most in accordance with the nature of the gutturals, and 
to this an antecedent Hhirik. when unessential to the form, is commonly 
made to correspond, e. g. la?, "ia?^;i for IBS'? . Sometimes, particularly 
with K (.«ee 1. a. 5.) Hhateph Segho'l is taken mli^x . n;!i?2X , n^jx, rax, 
-i5Q.>{, ci-ix. rn"'"'n, T^t;^, n^b, r\''^v Joel 2:5, T)=i'TnN';» Jer. 13:21, which 
not innequenlly becomes Hhateph Pattahh upon the prolongation of the 
word r,-:rx, "i^s Prov. 25:7, irnJN , ''pi'iJ^:, WltriK';' Judg. 10:2, or the 
carryingforward of its accent Ti-iixn, "■n-insnn , •'nii'nnn, "'r.^^qni . 

(2) If, however, « or 6, characteristic of the (brm, precede, this commonly 
determines the Sh'va to be selected, e. g. I^^^-^. for l-^^arn, irr; for "iis^, 
•"^rs lor ■'^^Q; thougli sometimes Hhateph Pattahh is retained and the 
intermediate syllable, §20. 2, resolved into a simple one by prolonging the 
vowels, e. g. riiipn Josh. 7 : 7, n^"H, l^.^'S Isa. 1 : 31. Hhirik may, how- 
ever, remain short, e. g. "^np , rijra, ri'iniy Job 6:22, particularly if a 
Daghesli-forte has been omitted from the guttural, e.g. '"^XJ Jer. 3:8, 
though even in this case the assimilation sometimes ta-kes place, e. g. 
!ian"^. Gen. 30:39 for ^^H"', ^"^"J* Judg. 5:28 for ^nPiX. If a vowel has 
been rejected from the form, the corresponding Hhateph is generally pre- 
ferred, e.g. D'^'iisy fi-om ">ss», C"iunn, ""itn'ipi Ezek. 16:33, "'X^ Gen. 
16 : 13 ; "in^dn l 'kin. 13 : 20 from's^'irn ; Vi-cn^ Gen. 37 : 22 from n^irn. 
There are occasional instances of the same word being variously written 
in thi.s respect, e.g. "^inx Ruth 3:15, 'linx Cant. 2:15; -innxn-^ and 



^Gl VOWEL CHANGES, 83 

nnnxn-^ I.sn. 44:13; 1i^'?«n Job IG : IG (K'ri in Bomo copicfi), lianian Lam. 
1 : -do' -i-iSPi lea. 52 : 14, "i-ixn 1 Sam. 28 : 14. 

c. Belbn; another guttural the compound ShVa is frequently re- 
placed hy the corresponding Kliort vowel, e.g. T\'ii^il} for T|r>xrT, Ti^5n 
for '^r'l'Vri , CD^rxn for CZTiNn ; and occaKionally under X by a long 
vowel belbrc other Iclterw an well a8 gutturaJK. or by a hliort vowel with 
DiighcKh. c. g. ^'j^^ for C-pnx, vnn-ix. C?=x for C^ix, -i'tx for -.rix, 
"tBX (or "OX . This disposition to render the gutturals more audible by ihe 
aid of a vowel is further Bhown by their attracting to themselves the 
vowel of another letter, parricularly in trilileral rnonof-ylbibleK, e. g. f^t 
CuTV-;i (rnt), ran, :6:, cro, ppip 2 Kin. 12:9, ^'xa for txia, -^xa', 
also -li^-il^ Ex. 2:Z() lor ;xnp Ruth 1 : 20, linxn Prov. l:2ii'or 'inxn, 
sinpc.xn'job 20:20 for ^^y=xn, c-;"DXl Zech. 7: 14 for c-^rcxi , andby 
their sometimes causing an antecedent or accompanying vowel to be re- 
tamed where analogy would require itn rejection, c. g. "Xlf'S for "^X'^ia 
from xi-^, ""ii'-^rt., "i^-o . "c-'-;o and "C'"!?, c-^iina from v.na coriip. 
1, a. (Ij, I'lX^i^": Deut. 32: 10; rSria, rb'rn '. 

4. An incapacity for being doubled, whence they never 
receive Daghesh-forte, and the previous syllabic thus becom- 
ing a simple one, its vowel is generally lengthened, § 59, ci to 
a, I to (J, a to b, e. g. )Ki3 for l^?'-? , ]^^^ for yka , tpii;' for 

a. Sometimes an intermediate gyllable, ?20. 2. ib formed, and the vowel 
remains short. (1) This is commonly the case before n. frequently be- 
fore n, IcKs often before 5. rarely belbre X, never before i. e.g. cna, 
"nd, "rrg, zrn, yXJ. (2) it is more likely to occur in the body of a word 
than after a prefix, e. g. T'tr.- Ps. 119: 43 from bn^, but p^n;; Job .38:24 
from p?n . (3) When the guttural comes to stand at the end of the word 
the short vowel is often resumed, e. g. ""iriri Prov. 22 : 24 from ninrn, ".'ra 
p8. 141:8 from fTj^n but "^iTT] Deut. 2:9. There are a very fvLvi in- 
Etances in which Daghesh-forte is found in n , e. g. Ti'n^a rrs Ezek. IG : 4, 
r^i? Prov. 14: 10. T)'D""i:?,^ Prov. 15:1 (in some editions), "^X"^ Cant. 
5:2, see also §24. 6. 

^01. The concurrence of consonants gives rise to the 
following vowel changes, viz, : 

1. When two vowelless letters come together at the be- 
ginning of a syllabic in contravention of the law in ^18, the 
impossible combination is relieved by giving to the first of 
them a short vowel. This, if there be no reason for prefer- 
ring another, will be the briefest of the vowels, Hhirik, e. g. 



84 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 61 

'''in'1 for ^^y^, -ana for 1573 , "^pir} for ^pm. If a vowel has 
been omitted from the word, the con-esponding short vowel 
is frequently employed, e. g. ''i'p'a for "^3^^ from tf'p'a (^^'i); 
iDbia from tj'!:^ ; "'Ipnn from bnn , ^^n^; for ^pn;! from "jH^ . Or 
if one of the consonants be a guttural, the vowel mostly con- 
forms to the compound Sh'va, which it has or might have, 
e. g. TiT-^. for ""l^? , ^pm^^ for ipTn_'] , ^"jrh for ''bn'^ , "ibnb for 
nbrils , !rjb:?3 for ^bs^s . 

a. Vav before a guttural follows the rule just given; before *>, and 
sometimes before !l or n followed by *', it takes Hhirik ; before other 
vowelless letters it gives up its consonant sound and quiesces in its homo- 
geneous vowel Shurek, §57. 2. (1), thus ■in^S] , "^nii , qAni and rij;ri;! , ::i^!|, 
:nn. 

6. In triliteral monosyllables or final syllables with the vowel Pattahh, 
the first letter sometimes receives an accented Seghol, to which the fol- 
lowing Pattahh is then assimilated, e. g. rirs for Cins construct of C]P3, 
nDB^^s for r3bl3T3 , the Seghols being liable to be changed to Pattahfis by 
the presence of a guttural rnccTO for rnsuJ^a . 

c. In cixiJia Gen. 33 : 20 for csXaa the vowelless letters belong to 
different syllables, and the introduction of the new vowel makes it neces- 
sary to lengthen the one before it. 

2. Although tAvo vowelless letters are admissible at the 
end of a word, §18, the harshness of the combination is 
commonly relieved by the insertion of Seghol, e. g. i^"? fo^ 
a"!"? , f^?? for P3^ . If either letter is a guttm^al, Pattahh is 
mostly used instead, e. g. nsi , b?2, 'jri'J . If either letter is 
•^ , its homogeneous vowel Hhirik is used ; if the second letter 
is 1, it will rest in Shurek, §57. 2. (4.), e. g. n^S, i^3, inin, 
but n^i-a . 

a. When the penultimate letter is fi or n, it in a few instances takes 
Seghol, as bnii, ■,n2 , nn^, cn'-j. When the final letter is X, it either 
remains otiant, §16, or requires Seghol, N1U, X"i*;i , K'^tl, f^'^Q ; a penulti- 
mate t< either quiesces in the antecedent vowel or attracts it to itself^ 
§60. 3. c, nst5l, nxb or PSb, ^-J*-!. The alternate mode of facilitating 
the pronunciation of gutturals before a vowelless letter at the end of a 
word by means of Pattahh furtive, has been explained §60. 2. 

3. When the same letter is repeated with or without a 
mutable vowel intervening, there is often a contraction into 



§ 61 VOWEL CHANGES. 85 

one doubled letter, and the vowel is rejected or thrown back 
upon the preceding consonant, e. g. ^2B? for ^s^©'!' , ab;* for 
ano;' (Daghesh-forte disappearing at the end of the word), 
nb for 2nb, ^22^2"^ Job 31 : 15 for ^sssis;' (see 4. below); if 
another consonant innnediately follow the contracted letters, 
a diphthongal vowel '^.. or i may be inserted to render the re- 
duplication more audible and prevent the concurrence of 
three consonants, ""riiiio, ro^^on. 

4. In accented syllables the diphthongal vowels e and o 
are employed before two consonants or a doubled consonant 
in preference to the pure I and li, e. g. ^'^iopi , ronrJn ; D'^p , 
T^ydp; b^Plpn , ™b-jpp , so ■'Son , tpiap, ';f:;^T . This is still the 
case Avhen at the end of a word an auxiliary Seghol or Pattahh 
has been inserted between the letters (according to 2.), e. g. 
•jsr , nso , b?3, np^^'a from P^?'*''? , or the reduplication of the 
doubled letter is no longer heard and the Daghesh-forte does 
not appear, § 25, e. g. 2pn comp. b-'ispn . 

a. The vowel e is in like circumstances often reduced to one of its con- 
Btituenls a, e. g. •'nb6pn from h-^^pT] , ''nbap fi-om bap, nja^n from ~^n, 
nSTb'n, n3~:3tri, ^2Cn, and occasionally to its other constituent ?", e. g. 
Ctn'w^i^rn from irnii^rtn , cfnan-i from tin;. The only example of Shurek 
in a Segholate form is n^lbn Lev. 5 : 21. 

5. In unaccented syllables i and u are prefen'ed to c and 
o before doubled letters, ~t^ , "^ns ; "nn, "inn; napn from 
apn; iD^, ^230;'; m-q comp. bt2p^, -pn, "^pn, though such 
forms as ''Ssn, %;?, Tf^^ , n'n'a likewise occur. 

6. A vowel is occasionally given to a final consonant to 
soften the termination of the word, and make the transition 
easier to the initial consonant of that which follows ; thus, 
^':^y ^)i^; nnba for nSi; on, nisn; bx, n?X; ^J*, n^S; ^eh, 
•'ifih; n-^iir*^, "^n-^a;^)?; n^n, ir.?n; iiass Ex. 15:10; ^^^o?;* 
Ex. 15:5. 

a. These paragogic vowels have established themselves in the cur- 
rent forms of certain words, as n?"*i, nan, ribx , "'i^, , "'nx, "'B. But, 



86 ORTHOGRAPHY. ^ 62 

with these exceptions, they are chiefly found in poetry. The vowels *' , 
and i are mostly attached to words in what is called the construct state, 
H ^ to words in the absolute; and ail of them to the feminine ending n. 
Examples of i : i:a Num. 23 : 18, 24 : 3, 15, in":n several times, 'irs?: Pa. 
114:8. Examples of •<.: "'nnnx Hos. 10 : 11, inpis; Gen. 49 : 11, 133 ibid., 
■'n==5 Gen. 31:39, ^h-jz^ Ps. 110:4, ^zth Ps. 'il4:8, ^rr-; Ps. 123:1, 
•'^■'aiiT? Ps. 113:5, •'^■'siz^a ver. 6, ''^^p,^ vcr. 7, "'i'^lZfifi ver. 8, '^i^'Oia 
ver. 9, ■^rxb^a Isa. 1 :21, '•''7.XN3 Ex. 15:6,' ^^]':! Zech. ll':17, "^pan Lam! 
1 : 1, ■'nT.a ibid., •^ir'ii Deut. 33: 16. It is also attached to the first member 
of the compound in many proper names, e.g. bs'^'iaa, pls'^isba, to certain 
particles, as ^19^3 , "T^b^T, "^STS, and perhaps to such participial forms as 
■'naa-' Jer. 22 : 23. Of n ^ : nni'^N Ex. 15 : 16, n:|nwX Isa. 8 : 23, Job 34 : 13, 
37 : 12, nonn Judg. 14 : 18, nnr^V Ps. 3 : 3, 80 : 3', Jon. 2 : 10, nb-;^ almost 
constantly, nnia Ps. 116: 15, nbni' Num. 34:5, Ps. 124:4, nr^i? Ps. 92:16 
(K'ri), 125 : 3,' Ezek. 28 : 15, Ho's.' 10: 13, nnVi? Job 5: 16, nnnT^ Ps. 44:27, 
63:8, 94: 17, nns:? Job 10 :22, nrirtn Josl" 19:43, Judg. iV: 1, and regu- 
larly in the third person feminine of the preterite of iib verbs. In 
modern Persian i is similarly appended to nouns in close connection with a 
following word, to remove the obstruction of the final consonant and serve 
as a uniting link. 

^ 62. The changes due to the influence of vowels may 
arise from their concurrence or proximity. 

1. Concurring vowels may coalesce; a uniting with a 
forms a, uniting with i or tc it forms the diphthongal e or o, 
e. g. nisirn Neh. 3:13 from niBirxn after the rejection of i5 
by § 53. 2. d ; T\'^% after the softening of "^ to i becomes ti"'? ; 
^nSufp by the rejection of n becomes iS'jjp ; in^ prefixed to 
proper names is from ^rr; for yr\'^. , §57. 2 (4). 

2. One of them may be hardened into its corresponding 
semi-vowel ; « "^ . with i "^ may form ^ "i . , or the first I may 
be changed to i^, which, upon the reduplication of the '' to 
preserve the brevity of the antecedent vowel, § 24. 3, becomes 
•>? ., e. g. ^^n2? with D-^ . becomes D^nn:? or D^^nny . So, V be- 
fore M^ forms n^., and before i, forms i^., e. g. M^i^3^, 
ni^'^n^ ; in like manner ^ is changed before i into uv, form- 
ing i'l. , which, by § 56. 3, becomes i''. , e. g. niib'a , by the 
substitution of tr\ for ti , riibbia . J i followed by ii ^ forms 
Iv, ^rpnbt:;? , rribt?)?; ^n-'S, i^S; rhiir) for rh-qry Josh. 14 : 8. 
U "' .. before f "> . or w ^ is resolved into a?/, which, joined with 
the appropriate semi-vowels, becomes "^ _ and 1'' ,, the virtual 



^ 63 VOWEL CHANGES. 87 

reduplication of the final consonant in the one case preserv- 
ing the short vowel, which is lengthened in the other ; thus 
iD^D with "^ . becomes "iib^D , and with ^n , 116^0 . The same 
resolution of "' .. occurs before final ^, forming -i;" ., and by 
§ Gl. 3 T. -, thus ''^rj^ with ^ becomes tj:^n^2?3 . 

a. Grammarians have disputed whether in such words as C-^ia5, 
ri'sb'O ihe point in "^ is Daghesli-fi)rtc or Mappik, ^2G, and accordingly 
whether they are to be read ■ibhn'i/ifcui, vialkhwjijolh, or ihhnijlm, 
malldiuyoih. If the explanation given above be correct, it is Daghesh- 
forte Conservative. Comp. C^p, V^p_ . 

b. Such forms as ''^'^^. 'i''"'?, c^na from '^*iS are only apparent excep- 
tions to the above rules. The word is properly ^"'Q , J^nd to this the addi- 
tions are made, the auxiliary Flhirik being dropped with tjie cessation of 
the cause from which it originated, §57. 2. (4). In DiN"'S-i^ 2 Ciiron. 17 : 11 
from "'S'^? and C"^ tiie voAvels are kept separate by an interposed N. 

c. In words of nb formation, such as nu:', ihv, W'&J from iiiiis and 
n^, i, n"^ , it might appear as though one vowel were rejected before 
another. But the correct explanation is that "^ is the true final radical, 
and the forms above given are for n^uJs", i"iO», n^-^i:.;? (like C'^is'p) from 
which "> is rejected by §53. 3. In the same way Vib^, T]ii|y, etc., from "^CS 
are for 1"'i^?, ^?*>y^- In such alternate forms as Jtjiq from nn's, the radi- 
cal "^ is retained by preserving the antecedent vowel, which, before 
Daghesh-forte Conservative, becomes Hhirik, §61. 5. 

§ G3. The following euphonic changes are attributable to 
the proximity of vowels, viz. : 

1 . Pattahh before a guttural is often changed to Seghol 
if another a follows, and the same change sometimes occurs 
after a guttural if another a precedes. 

The particular cases are the following : 

a. When (.) stands before a guttural with (^) always before n, e.g. 
jnn for :nn, nn-j::^ Prov. 21:22. c:!:nn, -inrnrn (also when n has 
Hhateph Kamets, e.g. ciinnn , "^nb^nn Judg. 9:9), often before n and S, 
particularly if it receives the secondary accent, e.g. C'vf^v! ^o^" °"'"%ID> 
ninb but r~f^\: 'i^^^'l; '^^^'\!! f?^^^^ ^"9.^ rarely before X and 1, nnft 
Gen'.' U: 10, niaxs Neh. 9: 18, 26 but riin-i^iXD Ezek. 35: 12. 

6. When (_) before a guttural is followed by another consonant with 
(-) or (J ^■^in;;, =ib;^n';; but ^'■^n;', xinp but nsiriJ, Nin;;, once before 
the liquid ^ , e. g. Jj^DN^ Ex.'33:3 ibr ^^=>i>, and once before 3, e.g. 
n::nb for n::nb . ' ' 

c. In tix-ipxS 1 Sam. 28:15 and the combination 1?J tbis a similar 
change takes place after a guttural to prevent the repetition of the vowel 
&; so in niTsn*;! Ps. 20:4, and n:xi n:i< after the liquid 3. 



88 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 64, 65. 

2. Pattahh is sometimes assimilated to a following 
Seghol, or to a preceding Kamets or Tsere. 

a. The assimilation to (..) takes place regularly in what are called 
Segholate forms, in which an auxiliary Seghol has by §61. 2 been intro- 
duced between two voweiless letters, T^b^ forT|^.o, ^■?."?. for 2";'^, y'^'i^. for 
yy^i but n'i'a, CTQ ; only before 1, v/hich can combine with a and not 
with e, a is retained and lengthened to (J by §59, "I'^N, T\.y^. Rarely in 
other cases CD"};^ for 03*1;^, where the change is facilitated by the pre- 
ceding "I. 

h. The assimilation to (^) occurs in a ^ew cases after a guttural with rt 
prefixed, e. g. ci'n for crn, i^n for "inn, ynxn for fiNn. 

c. The assimilation to ( ) occurs in the Kal future of Pe Yodh verbs 
where the alternate forms are SC|^ and yj^"''] . 

§ 04. The foUoiving vowel changes are due to the accent, 
viz. : 

1. If a long vowel in a mixed syllable be deprived of its 
accent, it will be shortened, §18, e.g. "i^T^n, ^n; io;", 
ao^n; DTb;!, Dir^i; nb^;, "nT2>,::. 

a. If a vowel preceding Makkeph is incapable of being shortened, it 
will receive the secondary accent Methegh, agreeably to §43. 

2. The accent prefers to be immediately preceded by a 
simple syllable and a long vowel. Accordingly an antece- 
dent vowelless letter often receives what may be called a pre- 
tonic vowel. This is commonly the simplest of the long 
vowels u, e. g. bb^ , zhi , nn^b , ■j^S'iri^ , occasionally B, e. g. 
b^.": , ni-fa^ , i^nbi ^ i^n^i^n , rarely o, e. g. 1^°i"^i?:' . Such a 
vowel is sometimes inserted, even though a pre-existing 
mixed syllable is thereby destroyed, e. g. in the plurals of 
Segholates and of feminine nouns derived from them, O'^ib'a 
from ^b^, m'ib^ from nib^ . 

§65. The special emphasis, with which the last word of 
a clause is dwelt upon, gives rise to certain vowel changes 
in connection with the pause accents, §86. 2, c. These are 
(1) lengthening short vowels, viz., (.) and not infrequently 
(...) which has arisen from (.) to (J, e. g. "its, "I'CN; ^^^1, 
p\an2; YlH , nS; "52? J "^5^7 and bringing back Kamets 



§ CG VOWEL CHANGES. 89 

Hhatupli shortened from Hholem to its original length fra^n , 
^'^T^ • (2) Restoring vowels which have been dropped 
in the course of inflection, e. g. Ti2^^ , l"in^ ; ^is^ , i-in"! ; 
Ti'nv , ^lb? . (3) Changing simple Sh'va in trilitcral sylla- 
bles and before the suffix ^ to Seghol, e. g. ^^r^s, ^^"'5 ; ""n^, 
^r\2 ; DDTJ3 , DD'^ . (4) Changing compound Sh'va to the cor- 
responding long vowel, e. g. ^?n, i;s5; ^in (i^^n), ^^ri; ^^n, 

a. Pattahh sometimes remains without change, e.g. 15 Ps. 132:12, 
Pi'nS'n 2 Sum. 2:27, iisbsa Jer. 7:10, "innn Prov. 1j0:9, ■'0^3^ Job 34:5, 
: ipo=X Neh. 5:14. Seghol more frequently, Ti^ri, p"!^. , c-];^., Tji^. and 
Tp.'^ . Long vowels are mostly unaltered ; only Tsere is in mixed syllables 
occasionally changed to Pattahh, e.g. !Tnn Isa. 18:5 lor Trn, so '>'^'^J} 
Isa. 42:22, I'sn Gen. 17:14, bm*5 Gen. 21:8, Ti^^;?] Gen. 25:34, which' 
in one word of Segholate formation, is converted to Seghol. e. g. 2?^J!|I, 
SllJV Where the same word has alternate forms, one is sometimes se- 
lected as the ordinary and the other as the pausal form, thus yiin;^, ^sn;]; 
lain;;, C'^n;;; ^I'vj";, :i;;;;'l?'?; "ti^^d, !"'n^2':3 Gen. 43:14; "pin Ec'cl. 
12:11, •.{n-i'n I Sam. 13:21; VJ, WJ Gen. 49:3, racn , na'i;^ Lev. 
26:34, 35; ^^"5?, ^isiis"; , Sometimes, instead of changing the Sh'va be- 
fore ^ to Seghol, its vowel is shifted, thus Vja, "3; "7, T)'?", Tjrx , and in 
Ex. 29: 35 nsrx. The position of the pause accent, so far as it differs 
from that of the ordinary accent, has been explained §35. 2. 

h. Of the pause accents, or those which mark the limits of clauses and 
sections, the first class, viz., Silluk, Athnahh, and Merka with Mahpakh, 
almost always give rise to the vowel changes which have been described; 
the second and third classes. S'crholta. Zakeph Katon, Zakeph Gadhol, 
R'bhi" and Shalsheleth. e.g. >i-n^3l Isa. 13:8, do so frequently; the fourth 
class, Pazer, e.g. 2 Kin, 3:25,'Prov. 30:4, and T'lisha Gh'dliola, e.g. 
Ezek. 20 : 21, but seldom. Pausnl forms are occasionally found with other 
Disjunctives, thus, Tiphhha 'i^bn Deut. 13 : 5, Pashta si^Tadn ibid., Geresh 
Saa Ezek. 40:4, and even with Conjunctives, e.g. "^JX Isa. 49: 18, r;V-i?r!| 
Ezek. 17 : 15, wa 2 Chron. 29 : 31. 

^Q>(S. 1. The shortening and lengthening of words has an 
effect upon their vowels. The shortening may take pL^ce 
(1) At the end of a word by the rejection of a vowel. 

This occurs only with („) or (..) in certain forms of Hib verbs, e. g.'-^n from 
nlijn, 1471 for nn^7l, ^rr^^ 1 Sam. 21 : 14 for nnr^i, Fic|;l for nin'i"^T . In 
the last two examples the short vowel is lengthened upon its receiving the 
accent, comp. §64.1. If the rejected vowel was preceded by two con- 
sonants, these will now stand together at the end of the word, and be lia- 
ble to the changes described §61. 2, e. g. r,"ri for <*iE~n . 



90 ORTHOGRAPHY. § QQ 

(2) In the body of a word by shortening a long vowel in 
a mixed syllable, which must, of course, be the one bearing 
the accent, § 32. 1, or rejecting a long vowel in a simple syl- 
lable before the accent (the pretonic vowel, ^6*4. 2), *ii'^, 

W; ll'i-Q, 1]b)2; ^^p'^ ; HJ^j?^ . 

a. This is in general the only rerluction possible. The vowel of a 
mixed sylhible. if short already, is capable of no further abbreviation; and 
it cannot be rejected, or there would be a concurrence of vowelless con- 
sonants which the language seeks 1o avoid (Tipin Prov. 30:6 is an excep- 
tion). And the vowel of a simple syllable, if short, must have the accent, 
§32. 1, which preserves it from rejection. The changes above recited are 
confined to the last two, or, in case the accent is upon the penult, the last 
three syllables of the word; for the antecedent portions of polysyllables 
are already abbreviated to the utmost. Contractions due to the peculiari- 
ties of certain letters, as the gutturals and quiescents, which have been 
before explained, are not here taken into the account, e.g. ?^*J , ^.'SUJ ; 
nin, ni?3; d""i;i, '^'}'^. 

b. Where the last vowel cannot be shortened, it sometimes experiences 
a change of quality from pure to diphthongal, such as is produced by the 
pressure of two following consonants, §61.4, e.g. bi'in;^, ^t^!!! ; ^"'''^'i'"') 
::r;'in; n-'b'^, rb''; r^c-^. I'ii; co-o, ^s^io. 

2. If a word be lengthened by additions at the end, its 
vowels are liable to changes in consequence. 

(1) Such additions create a tendency to shorten the pre- 
vious part of the word in the manner just described. For 
the normal length of words in Hebrew being dissyllabic, the 
genius of the language is opposed to transcending this limit 
any further than is absolutely necessary. If the addition is 
not of sufficient weight to affect the position of the accent, 
no abbreviation results. But if it is of weight enough to 
remove the accent, an abbreviation follows if it is possible for 
one to be made, e.g. in^, D^^^^, nD-inn^ for ni^-i^ni by 
§61.1. 

(2) They produce changes in an ultimate mixed syllable. 
If the appendage begin with a consonant, the antecedent 
vowel will now be succeeded by two consonants and be liable 
to the changes consequent upon such a position, § 61. 4, e. g. 
npbujpn from b-^rippi; npttj? from D^p; ^P>^)pn from b^PpH; 



§66 VOWEL CHANGES. 91 

''pbtop from ^^J? . If the appendage begin with a vowel, it 
will attach itself to the final consonant, which will in conse- 
quence be drawn away from its own syllable to begin the new 
one. This may occasion the following changes : 

(a) If the preceding vowel is an auxiliary Seghol or 
Pattahh, introduced to facilitate the pronunciation of the 
second of two vowelless consonants, § 61. 2, it Avill be rejected, 
inasmuch as it is no longer required for this purpose, e. g. 
ii)b^ from -fb^ , innp from nno . 

(d) If it be a short vowel, it must either be lengthened 
to adapt it to the simple syllable in which it now stands, or 
rejected on account of the disposition to abbreviate words 
upon their receiving accessions at the end, e. g. f^Stpj? and 
n^iij? from Vojp . The cases are very rare in which a short 
vowel remains unchanged in consequence of its having the 
accent, §18. 2, e. g. r.w^ 1 Kin. 19 : 15 from wp, nb^irn 
Ezek. 8 : ^ from b-Q^n . 

(c) If it be a long vowel, it may be rejected, as ^^91?? 
from bibjp;' , i^t^ from uti, , or retained either imaltered, as 
™^pn from D''pn, ^2^t^ from "jii^^ , or with a change of 
quality from pure to diphthongal or the reverse, njj^n'a from 
pin^ , ^T\T!0'i from aiop , ^s^j?n from D^j?n , n^bbs from ts-'^s . 

TABLE SHOWING THE CHARACTER AND AFFINITIES OF THE VOWELS 
AND THE ORDINARY LIMITS OF EUPHONIC CHANGES. 



QUANTITY 
Long. Short. 



Guttural, . . . 2)ure a 

diplitliongal e 



Palatal, 



Cdi^ 
( pt 



pure I 




C diphthongal 6 
Labial, . • • < 

( pure u 




PART SECOro. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

Roots of Words. 

§ 67. Etymology treats of the various kinds of words, 
their formation and inflections. Three successive stages are 
here to be distinguished. The first is the root or radical 
portion of words. This embraces those fundamental sounds, 
in which the essential idea originally inheres. Roots do 
not enter, in their nude or primitive form, into the current 
use of language, but they constitute the basis upon which all 
actually occurring words, with the exception of the inorganic 
interjections, are constructed. The second stage is the word 
itself in its simple uninflected state ; this is formed, if a prim- 
itive, directly from the root, if a derivative, from a pre-existing 
primitive, by certain changes or additions, which serve to con- 
vert the radical idea into the precise conception intended, 
which is as yet, however, expressed absolutely. The third 
and only remaining stage is the word as it appears in the ac- 
tual utterances of speech, so modified by inflections as to 
suggest the definite qualifications of the idea, such as the 
tense of verbs, the gender and number of nouns, and the de- 
gree of adjectives, or its relations whether of agreement or 
subordination, such as the persons and modes of verbs and 
the cases of nouns. 

§ 68. There are in Hebrew, as in most languages, two 
classes of roots, which may be denominated respectively pro- 



^ 68 ROOTS OF WORDS. 93 

nominal and verbal. Pronominal roots form the basis of such 
words as express the relations of things to the speaker or to 
one another, viz., pronouns and certain prepositions, adverbs, 
and other particles. From verbal roots, which arc by far 
the more numerous, spring words expressive of ideas, viz., 
verbs, nouns, and such particles as are derived from them. 
Verbal roots consist exclusively of consonants, and are almost 
invariably trihteral. The introduction of a vowel or vowels, 
even for the sake of pronouncing them, destroys their abstract 
radical character, and converts them into specific words of 
this or that description. Nevertheless, for reasons of conve- 
nience, the letters of the root are usually pronounced by the 
aid of the vowels belonging to them in the simplest form of 
the corresponding verb, which is mostly the third person sin- 
gular of the preterite, e. g. '"^ip , ?j^"/2 . This must not be 
suffered, however, to lead to the confusion of identifying 
that particular verbal form v/ith the proper radical, nor of 
supposing the verb to be the radical part of speech from 
which nouns in all cases are derived : verbs and nouns are 
rather to be regarded as co-ordinate branches springing from 
a common root. 

a. The few quadrililerals and quinqueliterals which occur arc mostly 
formed from pre-existing triliterals by the addition of a weak letter, or a 
letter similar to one of the original radicals, e. g. ConS to lay waste comp. 
COS; "r^T to burn comp. Cii'T ; nE?"}?? a branch comp. HQ"© ; CDsnb 
thoughts comp. C^QSb ; K'^ilO a sceptre comp. 'cy:i ; "(iNVr tranquil 
comp. '\i<.'^', viins to spread comp. 'CJ'^S ; or by blending two different 
roots, e.g. irsun'^o be fresh composed of -bn and UibtJ ; "^b^s « certain 
one = ■'itibx "li'^a ; ^'fi'^SS a frog from ""£".£ to leap >n'^ (in Arabic) a 
marsh. Some, which are not thus reducible, may perhaps be of foreign 
origin. 

6. Many of the triliteral roots appear to be based upon pre-existing 
biliterals. Thus, the cognates ni5, bn, nj, tin, nj, T^a , have in com- 
mon the two letters U with the associated idea of cutting. §50.3. The 
frequent examples of this description, together with the fact of the exist- 
ence of a few biliterals, e. g. 25< father, n.s brother, CX mother, have 
suggested the thought that the ultimate roots may in all cases have been 
biliterals, and that the triliterals were a secondary formation. Various in- 
genious but unsuccessful attempts have been made to demonstrate this 



94 ETYMOLOGY. § 69 

position by an actual analysis?, and to effect the reduction of all roots to 
two primitive letters. Still more extravagant and fanciful is the endea- 
vour, which has actually been made, to explain the origin of roots from the 
individual letters of which they are composed, and to deduce their mean- 
ings from the names, the shapes, or other peculiarities of those letters. 
The existence of roots and the meanings attached to them must be ac- 
cepted as ultimate facts. Some have arisen, no doubt, from the imitation 
of sounds in nature; but in most cases no satisfactory reason can be given 
why a given combination of sounds has that particular sense, which is in 
fact connected with it. 

^69. The formation of words and their inflection are ac- 
complished partly by internal changes and partly by external 
additions. The internal changes are the insertion of vowels 
and the reduplication of consonants in various significant 
ways, e. g. ^t:;?, bh'p , biop , b'jjb . The external additions are 
significant syllables welded to the root or to the word, either 
at the beginning or the end, e.g. bib]?, s^bbj?, bibjp^, ^:':Kj;nn. 

a. The triliteral and exclusively consonantal character of Semitic 
roots is their most remarkable peculiarity in distinction from those of the 
Indo-European languages which are as prevailingly monosyllabic, the 
vowel being an essential constituent, while the number of consonants is 
variable. The fact of the vowel being an integral part of the root in 
these languages interferes with their employment of internal changes for 
purposes of derivation and inflection, and confines them almost entirely to 
external additions, e. g. voco, vocabam, vocalio, vocabulum, vocilo, etc. 
The composition of words of which such large use is made in the Indo- 
European tongues, e. g. ad-voco, in-voco, etc., is almost unknown in He- 
brew except in the formation of proper names. 

h. Different languages differ greatly in their flexibility, that is to say, 
in the variety of words which may spring from a common root, and the 
number of forms which the same word may assume to express the various 
relations into which it enters. Relations, which in some languages are 
expressed by flection, as the cases of nouns, tenses of verbs, concord 
of adjectives, are in others indicated by additional words, as prepo- 
sitions, auxiliary verbs, etc., or suggested by the order of words in the 
sentence. 

c. Formative syllables, added either at the beginning or the end of 
words for the sake of inflection, are, in the ordinary consciousness of those 
who use the language, completely amalgamated with them, so that their 
Beparate origin and signification is never thought of They are thus to 
be distinguished from those words which, by reason of their dependent 
character, are attached to others as prefixes or suffixes, but yet preserve 
their separate identity as prefixed conjunctions and prepositions and suf- 
fixed pronouns. 



^70, 71 PRONOUNS. 95 

§70. The parts of speecli in Hebrew are either declina- 
ble as pronouns, verbs, and nouns (including adjectives) ; or 
indeclinable, as the article, adverbs, prepositions, conjunc- 
tions, and interjections. As most if not all of the s_yllables 
employed in the formation and inflection of verbs and nouns 
are of pronominal origin, it will be necessary to consider the 
pronouns first. 

a. The classification usual with the Jewish grammarians is into verb» 
(B'^y^'Q actions), nouns (niaa names), and particles (c^'a words). 



Pronouns. 

PERSONAL PEONOirNS. 

§ 71. The Hebrew pronouns are personal, demonstrative, 
relative, and interrogative or indefinite. The personal pro- 
nouns are the following, viz. : 

SINGULAR. P L U K A L. 

1. I "^3:^5, ■'?^ We ^in:s^, ^rn:, ^:s^ 

f, j Thou m. nPN Ye m. fiP« 

I Thou/ nx, ''rib? Ye/. )m, r^:m 

He i?^.n They m. on , nisn 

She N^n They/ in, n-n 

There are, it will be perceived, distinct forms for singular 
and plural in the three persons, and for masculine and fem- 
inine in the second and third. There is no form for the 
neuter, as that gender is not recognized in Hebrew. 

a. (l) The alternate forms of the first per.=;on singular ''=3^* (in pause 
••Sbs with the accent on the penult except Job 33 : 9), and '':n (in pause 
••JX) are used interchangeably and with perhaps equal Irequency. It has 
been observed, however, that wiiile the former is the more common in 
the Pentateuch, it never occurs in the books of Chronicles, and but once 
in Ezeldel, viz., 36:28, a passage borrowed from tlie Pentateuch. The 
usual plural of this person is *:n:x^; iiini occurs but si.x time?, viz.. Gen. 



96 ETYMOLOGY. § 71 

42 : 11, Ex. 16 : 7. 8, Num. 32 : 32, 2 Sam. 17 : 12, Lam. 3 : 42 ; ^5N though 
common in later Hebrew, occurs but once in the Old Testament, viz., Jer. 
42 : 6 K'thibli, where the K'ri substitutes the usual form. 

(2) The second person masc. sing, nnx (in pause occasionally ?iriN Ps. 
2 : 7, 25 : 27, 40 : 18, 70 : 6, but mostly nnx) is in five instances written PiX 
without the final He, which is however restored in the K'ri, viz., 1 Sam. 
24 ; 19, Ps. 6 : 4, Job 1 : 10, Eccles. 7 : 22, Neh. 9 : 6. and in three instances 
PIX without the final vowel Num. 11 : 15, Deut. 5 : 24, Ezek. 28 : 14. The 
feminine Fix is occasionally written TiX Judg. 17:2. 1 Kin. 14:2,2 Kin. 
4 : 16. 23, 8 : 1, Jer. 4 : 30, Ezek. 36 : 13 • the K'ri invariably retrenches the 
superfluous "', though it is probable tJmt the original pronunciation proper 
to this orthography was ''nx. The feminine plural '[PX occurs only Ezek. 
34: 31, where a few manuscripts read "(nx ; the alternate form Mfrx oc- 
curs Gen. 31:6. Ezek. 13 : 11, 34 : 17 ; in Ezek. 13 : 20 most editions have 
nsnx . 

(3) The third person fera. sing. X'^ri occurs but eleven times in the 
books of Moses, viz.. Gen. 14 : 2, 20 : 5, 38 : 25, Lev. 2 : 15 (in some editions), 
11 : 39, 13 : 10. 21, 16 : 31, 21 : 9, Num. 5 : 13, 14. In its stead is found Xin 
a combination of the letters of the masculine with the vowel of the fem- 
inine. The explanation of this is that Xin hu was at that early period of 
common gender and used indifferently for both masculine and feminine. 
As this primitive usage subsequently became obsolete, the word, when 
used for the feminine, was read X'ln hi according to the uniform practice 
of the later books, and the punctuators have suggested this by giving it 
the corresponding vowel, §47. According to Kimchi "fl Ruth 1: 13 and 
nsn 2 Sam. 4 : 6, Jer. 50:5, stand for the masculine plural; this assump- 
tion is unnecessary, however, as in the first passage the feminine may 
have the sense of the neuter '■'■these things,'" and in the last two it is an 
adverb of place, meaning here. 

h. (1) The pronoun "i^bx unites the palatal found in the nominative 
singular of the first person in Indo-European languages, Gr. eyto, Lat. ego, 
Goth, ik, with the nasal of its other parts Gr. /xe, vwi, Lat. me. vos^ Goth. 
mik. The same combination is found in the Coptic and the Phoenician. 
The Arabic and Syriac have retained only the abbreviated form in the 
singular and the prolonged form in the plural. The second person HpiX 
is based upon the lingual n as the Doric tv, Lat. tu, Ger. du^ Eng. Ihou ; 
and the third person X^n upon the guttural n as the Zend ho, Gr. 6, 
Lat. hie, Eng. he. 

(2) Words in such constant and familiar use as the pronouns are sub- 
ject to more or less irregularity in all languages. The original plural 
termination, as will be shown more fully hereafter in the case of verbs 
and nouns, is C^l . In the first person D is omitted to prevent the concur- 
rence of nasals in the same syllable, "^SX , !t3X ; the plural of the prolonged 
Ibrm seems to be best explained by supposing' it to have been originally 
"'SISX , which was in the singular softened to ^2bx by §57. 1, and in the 
plural by a transposition and weakening of the palatal to a guttural (comp. 
Gr. cyw, Sans, ahavi), became ^sn'aX. or by §53.2, isna . The plurals of 
the second and third persons were originally CMnx, Cin, which are still 



^72 PRONOUNS. 97 

preserved in the Arabic, and have left their traces in the inflections of 
verbs, e. s. I'l'^m?"', ■^?"^i^^^r? • The vowel u. however, which in the plu- 
rals of masculine nouns has been converted into I, has in the pronouns 
undergone a still further modification into the diphthongal e cn or e Clnx . 
The distinction of gender is indicated in the plural not by affixing the 
characteristic termination of that gender as in nouns, but by a change of 
the final nasal. An unaccented n ^ is often added by §61. 6. to relieve the 
harshness of the consonantal ending. 

c. In the technical language of the Jewish grammarians pronouns are 
called C'^^SS cognomina ; the first person is "i?"!^ the speaker, the second 
Nsa? present, the third *inp3 hidden or absent. 

§ 72. When the pronoims are used in their separate form 
as distinct words they have the forms already given. When, 
however, they stand in a relation of dependence to verbs, 
nouns, and particles, they are appended to them in the follow- 
ing abbreviated forms, called the pronominal suffixes : 



1. Com. 

„ j Masc. 
^' \ Fern. 

o ( Masc. 
' \ Fern. 



SINGULAR. 




r LU R A L. 


^. ''? 




^3 


^ 




B? 


• n 




1? 


in 


D 


or? 


n n 


1 


10 



In the first person singular "^ . is attached to nouns, and 
•"S to verbs. In the second person the palatal 5 is substituted 
for the lingual M of the separate pronoun. Por a similar 
change in the first person see § 85. a. (i). The modifications 
in the forms of the suffixes, occasioned by the endings of the 
words to which they are attached, will be considered here- 
after, ^§101,220. The third pkual forms DJi, in are used 
with plural nouns ; D , 1 with verbs and singular nouns. 

The suffixes of the second and third persons plural CD , 
•JD , on , in are called grave, the rest are li(j1it. The former 
being mixed syllables, always receive the accent, § 33. 3, and 
tend more strongly to shorten the words to which they are 
attached than the latter. 
7 



98 ETYMOLOGY. § 73, 74 



Demonstrative Pronouns. 
§ 73. 1. The ordinary demonstrative is — 

3fasa. Fern. Common. 

Singular, ^1 f^^T t/iis Plural, ^i? n^i« t/iese. 

The poetic form ^T is sometimes a demonstrative, Ps. 
12:8, Hab. 1:11, but more frequently a relative (like the 
English t/icd), in which case it is used without change for 
both genders and numbers. The feminine is occasionally 
written without the final ri and with a different vowel letter 
nr or it . The plural, coming from a different root, is suffi- 
ciently distinguished without the usual termination ; b&? occurs 
eight times in the books of Moses and once in 1 Chron. 20:8; 
in all other places the consonantal termination is softened by 
an appended n .. . 

2. The singular of this pronoun is in a few instances 
compounded with ^ either without any change of meaning, or, 
as Ewald and Nordheimer follow Jarchi in supposing, in the 
sense of the remote demonstrative that. Thus (with the 
article n prefixed) — 

3Iasc. Fern. Com. 

Sing, this or tJiat nT|n ^T;^n i}T\ 

a. The first form occurs twice in Genesis (24 : 65, 37: 19), the third si^ 
times in the post-Mosaic books as a mascuUne (Judg. 6 : 20, 1 Sam. 14 : 1, 
17:26, 2 Kin. 23:17, Dan. 8:16, Zech. 2:8), and once as a feminine 
(2 Kin. 4:25), the second once in Ezekiel (36 : 35). 

3. The personal pronoun of the third person i?^.n is used 
for the remote demonstrative that. 



Relative Pronoun. 

§ 74. The relative tvho, which is "iiu^! , which may be em- 
ployed as a separate word, or may be shortened to a prefix O 



§75 INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 99 

with Daghesh-forte compensative in the following letter, 
unless it be a guttural and consequently incapable of receiv- 
ing it, §23. 1. In a few instances the prefix t takes the 
vowel (.) followed by Daghesh-forte, Judg. 5 : 7, Cant. 1 : 7, 
Job 19 : 29 ; once it has (J before N Judg. G : 17, and twice 
{.) Eccl. 2 : 22 (in some copies), 3:18. The relative suffers 
no change for gender or number either in its separate or its 
prefixed state. Its objective relation to verbs and particles 
and its possessive relation to nouns are expressed without 
changing the relative itself, or removing it from its position 
at the beginning of its clause by appending the appropriate 
pronominal suffix to the governing word, e. g. iVibts nt'ij: u-/io 
lie sent 1dm, i. e. whom he sent, ii^nt ni^s ivhicli its seed, i. e. 
whose seed. It may also receive an adverbial sense from 
being followed by the pronominal adverb DiU there, e. g. 
ut — niiJN toJiere, niQ© — nr« luJdther, dtb^ — nisii: ichence. 

a. The prefix 'liJ occurs to the exclusion of the full form of the relative 
in the Song of Solomon, and with great frequency in another production 
of Solomon's, Ecclesiastes. There are besides occasional examples of it in 
other books, e. g. Judg. 5: 7, 6: 17, 7: 12, 8 : 26, 2 Kin. 6:11, 1 Chron. 5:20, 
Job 19:29, Ps. 122-124, 129, 133-137, 144, Lam. 2:15, 16. The word 
C5C3 Gen. 6:3 is in several ancient versions and in the common English 
translation rendered as though it were made up of the preposition 3 , the 
relative "O and the particle ^i^ for that also; but the most recent inter- 
preters derive it from the verb 35^ to err, and translate in their erring. 

b. nu.;x or D is also used for the conjunction that. Comp. Lat. quod. 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

§75. 1. The pronouns '^'12 lolto ? or ^^y/^o^yer relating to 
persons, and nia what? ov ivhatever relating to things, are 
employed both as interrogatives and in an indefinite sense. 
They experience no change for gender or number. 

The vowel of r.'a is regulated by the initial sounds of 
the succeeding word. Before a letter capable of receiving 
Daghesh-forte it is pointed n^ and the following letter is 
doubled, e. g. iibTi-n)2 Ex. 3 : 13. Before the stronger gut- 



100 ETYMOLOGY. § 76 

turals n and n it also commonly receives (.), e. g. i^in-rra 
Ps. 39 : 5, ^nsan n^ Gen. 31 : 36. Before the weaker gut- 
turals i? , 2? and "i , it commonly takes (J, e. g. n^5<"™ Zech. 
1 : 9, ^^3? 51^ 2 Kin. 8:13, nn\s:-i n^ Judg. 9 : 48. Before 
n , n , and y with Kamets, and occasionally before other let- 
ters it takes (J, § 63. 1. a, e. g. iS n^n-ma Ex. 32:1, Tstbn-n^ 
Gen. 20 : 9, n^ib?-^"^ ib., bip ivi 1 Sam. 4 : 14, t:Sir^ n^a 
2 Kin. 1 : 7. In a few instances the final vowel letter is 
omitted and the interrogative is joined with the following 
word, e. g. ni^ Ex. 4 : 2, aib^ Isa. 3:15, n^bn^ Mai. 1 : 13, 
nni? Ezek. 8 : 6 K'thibh. 

2. Another interrogative is formed by prefixing the par- 
ticle "^x to the pronoun nr , ri?T , thus ?1T i&? widch? or what? 
1 Kin. 13 : 12,Eccles. 11:6, mb \v5/or ivhat? lohj? Jer. 5:7. 

3. The words ^ibbx if'ba which are always used in com- 
bination, or contracted into one ''ibbs , are in usage equivalent 
to an indefinite or indeterminate pronoun, Eng. a certain one, 
Lat. qiddam, Gr. o helvob ; they are, however, derived not from 
pronominal but verbal roots. 

Verbs. 

THEIK SPECIES. 

§76. 1. Hebrew verbs have seven different forms which 
have been denominated species or conjugations (D''5^5^ huild- 
ings). These represent as many modifications of the verbal 
idea, and are as follows, viz. : 

1. b|3 Kal Simple active. 

2. b^s? Niphal " passive. 

3. b?9 Piel Intensive active. 

4. b:?s Pual " passive. 

5. b^i^sn Hiphil Causative active. 

6. bysn Hophal " passive. 

7. bi^snn Hithpael Reflexive. 



§77 SPECIES OF VERBS. 101 

a. The term conjugations was introduced by Reuchlin, and is very gen- 
erally employed in Hebrew grammars and in those of tlie cognate lan- 
guages. It must be borne in mind, however, tliat Hebrew conjugations 
are totally unlike the conjugations of Latin and Greek. The latter denote 
the various modes of inflection adopted by diflerent roots. The Ibrmer are 
modifications of the same root, which difl'er in meaning while their inflec- 
tions are substantially alike. They correspond rather with voices or with 
derivative verbs, such as frequentatives and causatives, although they not 
infrequently require to be translated by words radically distinct. The 
term species proposed by Schultens, though less commonly adopted, is 
more descriptive. 

2. Kal means li^/if, and denotes that species in which no 
other than the three radical letters appear, and these only in 
then' single power. The other species are called /teav?/ 
(D'^nns), because burdened by the reduplication of the radi- 
cals or the addition of other letters. Their names are de- 
rived from ^i'3 to do, which was the model for inflection, the 
form assumed by this verb in each species serving as its 
designation. Unusual verbal forms are in like manner de- 
noted by the corresponding forms imposed upon its radicals. 

3. Other technical expressions, such as the names of the 
various classes of verbs, are also to be traced to this source. 
A verb whose first radical is a guttural, a Nun, or a Yodh, is 
called a Pe Guttural, Pe Nun (i'e), or Pe Yodh ("'s) verb, 
Pe as the initial of ^?3 becoming the technical designation 
of a first radical generally. So a verb whose second radical 
is Vav is called an Ayin Vav ("b ) ; one whose third radical 
is Pie, a Lamedh He (nb) ; one whose second and third rad- 
icals are alike an Ayin Doubled (i'^), etc. 

§77. The general idea of the several species already 
stated is liable to certain modifications in the variety of cases 
to which it is applied. 

1. The Niphal is commonly the passive of Kal or of the 
simple idea of the verb, 333 to steal, Ni. to he stolen ; ^ins to 
write, Ni. to he written. 

2. Sometimes, like the Greek middle voice which coin- 
cides with the passive in certain of its forms, it has a reflex- 



102 ETYMOLOGY. §78 

ive signification, li?'^ to hide, Ni. to hide ones self ; "^^t? to 
keep, Ni. to keep one s self, ^vXdrrea-dai; DHp Ni. to repent, 
lit. to grieve ones self, fieratiekecrOaL-, or expresses reciprocal 
action, f?^ to counsel, Ni. to take counsel together ; DJi^ Ni. to 
fight, fidxeo-Oai, lit. to devour one another. In some verbs it 
lias both a passive and a reflexive sense, ^i'a Ni. to be sold 
and to sell one's self; nsk'n Ni. to be see7i and to let ones self 
be seen, to ajJjjear. 

3. Sometimes when the Kal is intransitive and does not 
admit of a proper passive, the Niphal is either identical with 
it in signification, y^ K. and Ni. to approach, or retains a 
shade of its original force by representing the state or condi- 
tion not absolutely as in Kal, but as something efiected and 
involving a change from another previous condition, i5S)3 to 
be full, Ni. to be filed, rr^n to be, Ni. to become. 

§» 78. 1. The Piel gives new intensity to the simple idea 
of the verb, by which its meaning is variously modified ac- 
cording to the nature of the case, "^Ti^ to be few, Pi. to be 
very feio ; ?l"'^ to folloiv,V\. to foUoto ardentlg, to j^ursue ; 
^ins to fear. Pi. to fear constantly, to be timid ; ^%ii to ask. 
Pi. to ask repeatedly and earnestly, to beg ; N'i3 to create, 
as God, Pi. to form with pains and labour, as man ; ' iins to 
write. Pi. to write much with the implication that it is to little 
piu'pose, to scribble ; "^51? to bury. Pi. to bury great numbers. 

2. The energy resident in this species displays itself by 
signifying the producing or causing of that which is denoted 
by the simple idea of the verb, thus quickening intransitive 
verbs into transitives, and making such as were transitive 
before to be doubly so. In this, which is the more frequent 
case, it becomes virtually equivalent to a causative, "IDJJ to 
perish, Pi. to make to perish, to destroy ; Ta^ to learn. Pi. to 
teach, i. e. cause to learn. Both these senses are occasionally 
found united in the same verb, S^jp Pi. to be very near and to 
bring near ; rin© Pi. to be very corrujjt and to corrupt or de- 
stroy. 



§79,80 SPECIES OF VERBS. 103 

3. Pual is the passive of Piel, and therefore can only exist 
when the sense of the latter is such that a passive is possible. 

§79. 1. The Hiphil denotes the causing or producing of 
that which is signified by the simple form of the verb, and, 
as in the corresponding case of Piel, intransitive verbs become 
transitive, and such as admitted of one object before are now 
capable of receiving two : 1"^^ to det^cend, Hi. to cause to de- 
scend, bring doion ; i^ia to come. Hi. to bring ; nij"! to see, Hi. 
to show. 

2. In some verbs Hiphil has an intransitive sense, but 
in most of these cases there is either an ellipsis of the object 
or the idea of production and causation can still be obscurely 
traced, aiCj? Hi. to be attentive, prop, to make {one's ear) at- 
tend ; pln'Q Hi. to be sioeef, prop, to cause siveetness ; ^3*9 Hi. 
to be wise, prop, to act wisely, exhibit loisdom ; f ^J? Hi. to be 
brave, prop, to act bravely; IpJ Hi. to grow old, prop, to acquire 
age. In a few instances both senses are found united in the 
same verb, nSs Hi. to cause to bud and to 2Jiit forth buds ; 
tjnsj Hi. to jjroloug and to be long ; ^^V Hi. to enrich and to 
grow rich; Xf^it Hi. to malcefat and to become fat (comp. 
^Vi.^. fatten). 

3. Hophal is the passive of Hiphil. 

a. When Kal has both a transitive and an intransitive sense, Hiphil, 
as the causative of the latter, becomes substantially identical with the 
former, ria: K. to extend or to bend, trans, and intrans., Hi. id. trans. In 
Job 23 : 11, Ps. 125:5, Isa. 30 : 11, where the Hiphil of this verb appears to 
be used intransitively in the sense of txmiing aside, there is an ellipsis of 
its proper object, to bend {the steps). 

§80. 1. The Hithpael is reflexive or reciprocal of the 
idea of the verb, mostly as tliis is expressed in the Piel spe- 
cies (from which it is formed, § 82. 5), the particular shade 
of meaning being modified according to the circumstances 
of the case. (1) It indicates that the subject is Hkewise the 
direct object of the action, t:|^ Pi. to deliver, Ilith. to escape, 
deliver one's self; pT4 Pi. to justify, Hith. to Justify one's self; 



104 ETYMOLOGY. ^ 80 

to£n Pi. io seek, Hith. to disguise ones self, prop, to let ones 
self he sought for ; n"jri Pi. to make sick, Hith. io make one's 
self sick whether in reahty or in the esteem of others, i. e. to 
feign sickness ; osn Plith. to show ones self wise whether in 
reality or in his own conceit. (2) Or that he is the indirect 
object of the action, wliich is for his benefit, or relates en- 
tirely to him, nns Pi. to oj)en, Hith. to open for one's self; 
bn? Hith. to inherit {for one's self) ; 1?n Pi. to make gracious, 
Hith. to implore favour, prop, to make to be gracious to one's 
self (3) Or that the action is mutual between two or more 
parties, i^]? Pi. to hind, Hith. to conspire, prop, to hand to- 
gether ; MJ^"^ to see, Hith. to look upon one another. 

2. This species is sometimes a mere passive like the 
Niphal riiio to forget, Hith. to he forgotten ; "122 Pi. to atone, 
Hith. to he atoned ; ^P? Pi. to prepare, Hith. to he prepared. 
In a few instances the reflexive and the passive senses are 
found in the same verb, i?^ Hith. to sell one's self and to he 
sold. 

a. (1) The affinity between the Piel and Hiphil species is such as in 
very many verbs to render it unnecessary to retain them both, and one or 
the other has been allowed to fall into disuse. Where both exist, they 
are often nearly or quite synonymous, and are used indiscriminately, ia~|5 
Pi. and Hi. to sandify, or differ only in the frequency of their employment, 
nSia Pi. and Hi. (rare) io send, ria Pi. (rare) and Hi. io cause to hear. 
In other cases tiiey are distinguished by adhering to those significations 
of the species in which they depart palpably from one another, nas Pi. 
(intens.) io grow luxuriantly, Hi. (caus.) to make io grow, h6o Pi. (cans.) 
to make foolish, Hi. (intrans.) to act foolishly ; or by developing them from 
different significations of the root, b'b^ Pi. io cook (food), Hi. to ripen 
(fruit); T('n3 Pi. io bless (prop, to kneel in worship), Hi. to cause to kneel 
(as a physical act), cis Pi, to break the bones (Qsi;), Hi. fo rent/er 
strong ; or by restricting them to special applications, "lUI? Pi. to hum in- 
cense {io idols), Hi. to biirn incense (to God);" CiBn Hi. io change. Pi. io 
change (the clothes); MUiS Hi. io strip. Pi. io strip (the slain in battle). 

(2) It is still less common to find both Niphal and Hithpael in the same 
verb. Where this does occur they are sometimes used interchangeably, 
at others a di.^tinction is created or adhered to, T\k^ Ni. and Hith. io be 
poured out; "liii Ni. and Hith. to talk with one another; Tj'^a Ni. io be 
blessed, Hith. io bless one's self; ^^n Ni. io be ploughed, Hith. io keep {one's 
self) quiet; niyp; Ni. to be bound, Hith. io conspire. 

(3) When in particular verbs two species have substantially the same 



Jbrew iJible, OoU appear in some one species oniy. odu in ivvo specius, 
5 in three. 118 in four, 70 in five, 12 in six, and but 7 in the entire num- 
r, viz.: yjba to cleave asunder, n^a to uncover, nHn to he sick, rn^ to 
ow, 1^; to ^ bring forth, Ij^Q to visit, Ciin to be high. The number of 



§81 PERFECT VERBS. 105 

sense, it sometimes happens that parts only of each are in use, one supple- 
menting tlie deficiencies of the other, or that one of the active species, 
losing its proper passive, is supplied by another whose corresponding 
active is wanting. Thus bb;; to be able has a Kal preterite and infinitive ; 
but its future is Hophal (strictly, to be made able, but in usage the equiva- 
lent of Kul) ; ri03 to be pale, cia to draw near, "^3 to be poured out, have 
their futures in the Kal but their preterites in the Niphal; r]6^ to add has 
both a Kal and a Hiphil preterite, which are synonymous, but only a 
Hiphil future. Again, in b'^a to separate and lr':J to destroy, the Kal has 
yielded to the Hiphil (strictly, to cause separation, destruction), but the 
Niphal is retained as its passive ; yn-i to bathe and pt^J to sprinkle, have 
in the active the Kal form and in the passive the Pual. 

(4) All verbs arc found in one or more of these species or conjugations, 
but very few in the whole of them. Of the 1,332 trilileral verbs in the 
Hebrew Bible, 530 appear in some one species only. 360 in two species, 
235 
her, 
knot 

species in which a given verb appears, is sometimes limited by the ne- 
cessity of the case, as when its meaning will not admit of the modifica- 
tions denoted by all the species; or by usage, as when certain species are 
dropped as unnecessary, the ideas which they would convey being ex- 
pressed in another manner; or by the circumstance that in the small vol- 
ume of the Old Testament, examples may not occur of all the species 
which actually were in use. 

6. Instances occur in which the active species, and less frequently the 
passives, derive their meanings not directly from the root, but from some 
noun which has sprung from it. These are called Denominatives. Thus, 
Jins K. to break the neck {y^p); "i^ K. ^o tithe {^cv^ ten); •|i:3 to make 
bricks (i^j?^) ; =?^? Ni. to be possessed of understanding, or, according to 
others, to be devoid of understanding (=3b heart); ',n3 Pi. to act as priest 
(if ■ . . . ^^ .-1- --- 

to ^ .. ..^ ^ . 

Uo. to be' salted (nb'S); in^nn Hith. to make one's self a Jew (^l^'T;); 
n'L*::n Hith. to supply one's self with provision (T:i|). A verbal form may 
occasionally arise even from an adverb, ntjbn? Ni. part, removed far away 
(nxbn), or an interjection, Dn:)] Hi. and he stilled (cn hush!). 



Perfect Verbs. 

§ 81. There is one normal standard for the formation of 
these several species and their further inflection, to which all 
verbs conform unless prevented by the character of their 
radicals. There are no anomalous or irregular deviations 




106 ETYMOLOGY. § 82 

from this standard, sucli as are found in other languages, for 
which no explanation can be given but the fact of their oc- 
currence. AVhatever deviations do occur result from the 
presence of letters in the root which do not admit of certain 
combinations and forms, and compel the adoption of others 
in their stead. Verbs are hence distinguished into perfect 
and imperfect. They are styled perfect when their radical 
letters are capable of entering into all those combinations 
and exhibiting all those forms which conformity with the 
standard requires. They are imperfect when the root con- 
tains a weak letter, §7. 2, or is otherwise so constituted as 
to lead to a departure from the standard inflections. 

§S2. 1. In perfect verbs the Kal is formed by giving 
Pattahh, or more rarely one of its compounds, Tsere or 
Hholem, to the second radical as its essential or characteristic 
vowel, and to the first radical a pretonic Kamets, § 64. 2, 
thus : bi?;? , 133 , f:3j? . 

a. The number of verbs, perfect and imperfect, whose second radical 
has Tsere or Hholem, or as they are technically called middle e and mid- 
dle o, is quite inconsiderable. They are mostly of an intransitive sig- 
nification. 

(1) The Ibllowing have Tsere, viz. : 

)p_l to be old. lis (Isa. 24:20 ^23) /o 6e ■nh io die. 

ysn to delight. heavy. ^23 to fade. 

ssn to hew. "liJs to be right. xia to thirst. 

nna to be clean. 'bib and "Q^h to put on. bbp^ (Isa. 33:9 ''?iy^) to 

^Tzp to be unclean, Nb?a trans. or intrans.(Esth. wither. 

thr^ to be dry. 7 : 5 N^ri trans.) to xiia to hate. 

^tlx io f^^^''^- fi^ or befidl. hhyi to be brought low. 

(2) The following have Tsere in pause, § 65.'3. a, or as a pretonic vowel, 
§ 64. 2, before a suffix, but Pattahh in other cases. Such as only occur in 
pause or with suffi.^es are printed with Tsere. 

sfiX to love. ^"15 to be or become ^"in to cease. 

ct'X to be guilty. great. yisn to be leavened. 

p23 to swell. p2'n to cleave to. ?i3n to he profaned. 

12J to 'prevail. yt'^ to grow fat. "lOn to lack. 



§ 82 PERFECT VERBS. 107 

"isn to blush (distin- C^5 to be strong. J'5'l^ to be. sated. 

guished from isri nb's to come upon, to n^b to rejoice. 

to dig). prosper. n3'i:3 to forget. 

t\isi'^ to be weary. cnj? to be holy. )z'a to dwell. 

^'n'l to possess. -"if? to come near. Caa to be desolate. 

era to be pleasant. -ST to be hungry. rnr to hear. 

Several others are marked with Tsere in the lexicon of Gesenius, in 
which that vowel does not occur. 
(3) The following have Hholem: 

^ii< to shine. h'D'^ to be able. sn (Ps. 18 : 15 2n ) to 

laia to be ashamed. dp;; to snare. shoot. 

Si:i to be good. V^j (see §86. a) io/oic. bSa (Gen.43:14 "inV^d) 

^j"^ to dread. 'pp^ to be small. to be bereaved. 

2. The Niplial is formed by prefixing ? to the letters of 
the root ; thus, ^isps , which by § 61. 1. becomes ^bjps . 

3. The Piel and Pual are formed by doubhng the second 
radical and attaching the appropriate vowels; thus, bcjp, 

4. The Hiphil and Hophal are formed by prefixing n 
with the proper vowels ; thus, ^■'"jjpn , bispn . 

5. The Hithpael is formed by prefixing t\T\ to the con- 
struct infinitive of the Piel ; thus, ^ispriri . If the first radi- 
cal be one of the sibilants D , ttj or to , the m of the prefixed 
syllable will be transposed with it, ^isricn, iji^'^r', 5'!ii?ton. 
If the first radical be 22 , the Ji will be transposed, and in 
addition changed to t: , e. g. PT^i^n . If the first radical be 
one of the Unguals 'T , t: or ri , the n will be assimilated or 
united to it by Daghesh-forte, pS'in , nnion , oririn . 

a. In one instance n3::aiarn Jer. 49:3 n remains before CJ without 
transposition, which would bring three Unguals in close connection, and 
once it is assimilated to Ty, Eccl. 7: 16 ctsit:;^, elsewhere crs'.nc^; n ia 
likewise assimilated to the sibilant T in the only Hithpael form in which 
that letter is the initial of the root ^'^'y) Isa. 1 : 16. In one instance 
CpS'^n^ Judg. 19:22 n remains without assimilation before T. The n 
may either be assimilated or not to the initial 3 of two verbs s::3, NllJS, 
and the initial 3 of two '13, "i£3. It is assimilated to the 3 ol'C33. which 
occurs but twice in the Hithpael, to the 3 of ^XS, which only occurs once, 
and in one instance to 1, viz. caii^ Isa. 33:10 but oa'in^ Dan. 11:36. 



108 ETYMOLOGY. § 83 

b. The seven species may, agreeably to their formation, be reduced to 
three with their derivatives, viz.: 



Active 


1. Kal 


2. Piel 


3. Hiphil 


Passive 




Pual 


Hophal 


Middle 


Niphal 


Hithpael 





(1) The prefixed letters of the Niphal and Hithpael 3 and T\ (with rt 
prosthetic. §53. 1. a) are probably in their origin fragmentary pronouns 
signifying self; whether they are referable to "'35* and tiFiX of the first 
and second persons must be left to conjecture. The idea primarily sug- 
gested is that of performing an action upon one's self; but in the Niphal 
usually, and in the Hilhpael occasionally, the reflexive signification has, 
as in certain tenses of the Greek middle and in the reciprocal verbs of 
some modern languages, given place to the passive. In the Aramsean 
the forms with a prefixed rs have not only quite lost their original char- 
acter as reflexives, but have superseded all other passives. 

(2) The idea of causation in the Hiphil and Hophal, if the author may 
venture to oflfer his own opinion upon this perplexed subject, is not due, 
as in the Indo-European causatives, to the introduction of a syllable 
directly suggesting it. It appears to be primarily another intensive form, 
with which usage has ordinarily connected, as it frequently has with the 
Piel, the notion of productive energy or the quickening of an intransitive 
into a transitive. As in the Piel and its derivatives, the idea of intensity 
is suggested by giving a doubled and consequently more interse pronun- 
ciation to the central radical ; so in the Hiphil, by a like symbolism, the 
power of the root is augmented by the accession of a new initial syl- 
lable, whether the weak letter n is merely for the sake of pronouncing 
the vowel, which seems likely from the corresponding X in Aramaean and 
Arabic, or is itself significant, in which case it must be of pronominal 
origin, related possibly to St^n of the third person, and having a prepo- 
eitional or intensive force. 

(3) The distinction between active and passive in the intensive and 
causative species is made by the vowels alone, and that in a way perfectly 
eimple, and yet as clearly marked as possible. Of the three pure vowels 
t and u oft'er the most striking contrast, and these are severally set in op- 
posite syllables in the forms to be distinguished; i or its cognate e marks 
the second syllable of the actives, li or its cognate o the first syllable of the 
passives, the other syllable receiving in every case the simplest and only 
remaining vowel : thus, h^i:p_r\ , bip — iiip , '^PvJ • For that a primarily 
belonged to the first syllable of both Piel and Hiphil is apparent from its 
retaining its place throughout these species with the exception of the 
preterite, and from its preservation in the cognate languages. 

§83. If '"^i? to Ml be taken as the representative of the 
regular verb, the various species with their significations will 
be as follows, viz. : . i 



§83 PERFECT VERBS. 109 



1. 


Kal 


bbj^ 


to nil. 


2. 


Niphal 


^^p3 


to be killed. 


3. 


Piel 


'4l? 


to kill many or to massacre. 


4. 


Paal 


^^? 


to he massacred. 


5. 


Hipliil 


^'''Pi?r' 


to cause to kill. 


G. 


Hophal 


^"^)?o 


to be caused to kill. 


7. 


Hithpael 


^^l?rir' 


to kill one's self. 



a. It is in each case the tliird person mascuHne singular of the preterite 
which is given above, and the strict signification therefore is lie has killed, 
etc. These being the simplest forms of the various species, however, and 
destitute of any sign of tense or person, are commonly used to represent 
the species ; and in this sense tlie proper equivalent is the infinitive, which 
is the form used for designating verbs in English. 

b. The verb ^o;? is well fitted for a model, and is now generally so 
employed. The consonants, which compose its root, have no peculiarities 
to interfere with its inflection, it has a signification capable of being car- 
ried through all the species, and as it exists likewise in the cognate lan- 
guages, it offers a good basis for their comparison. It occurs, indeed, but 
three times in the Bible, Job 13:15, 24: ]4, Ps. 139:19, and in but one 
species; still the very rarity of its occurrence only restricts it more com- 
pletely to its use as a representative or typical verb. The old Jewish 
model ^yS) §76,2, is objectionable on account of its weak letter 5, and 
on account of the twofold sound of its initial radical S, which, with its 
Daghesh-lene, might prove perplexing to beginners. 

c. (1) The existence of other and less usual species is a needless as- 
sumption. The Poel, Pilel, Pilpel and the like, are not additional species 
but identical in character and signification with those already named. The 
more copious Arabic, with its nicer shades of distinction, has greatly mul- 
tiplied the number of its species or conjugations, incorporating into its 
standard paradigm forms corresponding to some of these which the He- 
brew only occasionally employs. In the latter language, however, they 
are at the utmost alternate forms substituted in place of the ordinary 
ones, and found for the most part in the imperfect verbs, to the nature of 
whose radicals they owe their peculiarities of structure. When, as is the 
case in a very few instances, there is a double form to a particular species 
in the same verb, usage has mostly created an arbitrary distinction be- 
tween them, e.g. Pi. lania to uproot and ti'Jd to take root; Pi. B^p to 
cause to stand, applied to covenants and oaths, to ratify, and O^ip , in a 
physical sense, to raise up; Hi. ti"'5n to cause to rest, to set down, and 
ni3n to leave, to let alone. There is no objection to the employment of 
these names as convenient designations of particular modes of formation, 
provided it is understood that they mean nothing more. 

(2) There are very few instances of what may be called compound 
species; thus^ Niphal of Pual ^ii^^^} Isa. 59:3, Lam. 4:14, to be exceed- 



110 ETYMOLOGY. §84 

ingly defiled, stronger than the simple Niphal liN53 ; Niphal of Hithpael 
*l"i©55 Ezek. 23:48, 1033 Deut. 21:8, : i^W':;? Prov.27:15. 

§84. To eacli of these species belong a preterite and fu- 
ture, two forms of the infinitive, an absokite and a construct, 
a participle, and, except to the Pual and Hophal which as 
pure passives cannot express a command, an imperative. The 
Kal has both an active and a passive participle, one more, con- 
sequently, than the other species. The preterite of each 
species is the form already described, §83. The remaining 
parts are formed in the following manner, viz. : 

1 . The absolute infinitive is formed by changing the last 
vowel in Hiphil and Hophal to Tsere, and in each of the 
other species to Hholem, observing likewise that Hhirik in 
the penult of Piel and Hiphil is to be changed to Pattahh. 
(See Paradigm of the Perfect Verb.) This rule gives to 
Niphal the mfinitive ^'^'i:^ , which form actually occurs, §91. ^. 
If, however, the original Sh'va be suffered to remain after 
the prefixed 5, §82. 2, thus, ^^fp?, a prosthetic H will be re- 
quired in order to its pronunciation, § 53. 1. a, after which 3 
will be assimilated to the following letter, § 54. 2, and a pre- 
tonic Kamets, § 64. 2, added to the p in order to give full 
effect to the reduplication ; thus buj^n , which is the form 
written in the paradigm. 

2. The construct infinitive is formed from the absolute 
in the Kal by rejecting the pretonic Kamets, §82. 1, in 
Niphal by changing the last vowel to Tsere, and in the re- 
maining species by making the last vowel conform to the 
corresponding vowel of the preterite. 

3. The future is formed from the construct infinitive by 
the appropriate personal prefixes ; if the first letter of the 
infinitive be n, it is rejected, § 53. 3, and its vowel given to 
the prefix. 

a. (1) Some verbs take Pattahh in the last syllable of the Kal future 
instead of the Hholem of the construct infinitive. This is particularly the 
case with intransitive verbs. Such as have Tsere in the preterite regu- 



§84 PERFECT VERBS. Ill 

larly take Pattahh in the future; of the list given §82. l.cr. (I) and (2) 
but three =sn, ^33, )h':i take Hholem, and two yen and urw take indif- 
ferently HhoU^m or Pattahh. Of verbs with middle in tlie preterite 
three bT3, p;^ and hb':i take Pattahh in the future; the rest eilher do not 
occur in the future, or have imperfect letters in their root which obscure 
their true ibrmation. 

(2) The following verbs with Pattahh in the preterite have Pattahh 
likewise in the Kal future. Those which do not occur in the Kal preterite, 
or occur only in forms which do not reveal the character of the vowel fol- 
lowing the second radical, are distinguished by an asterisk. Verbs having 
a Pattahh in the future, which is due to imperfect letters in the root, (e. g. 
Pe Yodh, Ayin Guttural, Lamedh Guttural), are not included in this list, 

^^X to mourn. IJJJJ to come near. y:;n to lie down. 

*?lb5< to learn. ^dj (intrans.) to fall Tin to rage ov tremble. 

* y^x to be strong. off. * z6-\ to be wet. 

*C];x to be angry. *T(ri3 to be poured. 33"^ to ride. 

*^5n to become vain. pbo (§86. 6.) foasceJzcZ. *ts'i to spread. 

pvr\ to be strong. )t:/J to smoke. * tp"^ to rot. 

can to be wise. *pt'^ to be removed. nid to lie down. 

T|TUH to be dark. *P'^^ to be righteous. i:b''j to nde. 

*b03 to be foolish. bbj? to be lightly es- *c^':3 to be complete. 

lab to learn. teemed. *'i'?i^ to grow fat. 

pl^a to be sweet. *'^'^p to be attentive. 

(3) The following with Pattahh in the preterite have both Pattahh and 
Hholem in the future. 

153 to deal trencher- thn to be hot. T|l^5 to bite. 

ously. 'in to be gracious. brQ to do. 

"in fut. C, to tear, fut. *d'nn fut. o, to plough, i:\rQ to strip off. 

a, to resolve. fut. a, to be silent, tops to use divination. 

T^t^ (mostly fut. e) iog-o. tr^:: to tear. "1S|5 [\it.o,to cutoff,i'ut. 
Ci'T to curse. 'ik'j to form. a, to be short. 

*d"n to bind. bi'a to trespass. PiStU to rest. 

*\li^n fut. o, to subdue, "I'lJ to fee. Crn to be finished. 
fut. a, to be weak. *'n3 to vow. 

b. Some imperfect verbs, chiefly Pe Yodh, take Tsere in the second 
syllable of the Kal future, e. g. 2U';; , 'n^ . 

4. The imperative has the same form with the construct 
infinitive except in Hiphil, where the last vowel is Tsere as 
in the infinitive absolute. 



113 ETYMOLOGY. §85 

a. Where the Kal future has Pattahh or Tsere the imperative takes 
the same. 

5. The Kal active participle takes the form ^up and the 
passive ^T^:^. The participle of the Niphal lengthens the 
last vowel of the preterite from Pattahh to Kamets ; those 
of the other species are formed by prefixing 'a to the con- 
struct infinitive, rejecting n where this is the initial letter, 
§ 53. 3, and lengthening the last vowel where this is short. 

§85. 1. The preterite and future are inflected through 
three persons, the imperative only in the second person, a 
command presupposing the form of direct address. There 
are also distinct forms for the singular and plural numbers 
and for the masculine and feminine genders. Verbal inflec- 
tions are made by means of pronominal fragments added to 
the end of the preterite and imperative, and for the most part 
prefixed to the future. 

a. The following are the fragments used for this purpose in the various 
parts of the verb : 

Preterite ("li?). 

(1) Singular. 2rd pers. masc. The third person alone has no per- 
sonal ending in any of its forms; as each of the others has such a termi- 
nation, none was needed for the sake of distinction. Nothing more was 
required than to indicate the gender and number. The masculine singu- 
lar is expressed by the simple form of the species with no appended sign 
whatever. 

3 fern. The original feminine termination is n_, which, appended to 
the masculine, would give rib^iTt, a form used before suffixes, §101.1, in 
Lamedh He verbs and occasionally elsewhere, §86.6. Commonly, how- 
ever, in verbs as in nouns and adjectives, the final n is dropped, §55. 2. c, 
and the previous vowel, which thus comes to stand in a simple syllable, is 
lengthened, '"^^^IJJ. 

2 masc. The appended Jn is derived from iiRS . 

2 fern, n from !ris? . 

1 com. ''PI changed from ''S of "libx ; compare the similar relation of 
the suffixes T], D3 to the pronouns npx , Cins §72. The Ethiopic retains 
tlie k unaltered, katalku. 



^85 PERFECT VERBS. 113 

Plural. 3 com. The oricrinal plural termination §71. b. (2) is a nasal 
t3 or "J preceded by the vowel 1 . The full ending )'^ is still found in a 
very iew instances, §S6.b, generally the "J is dropped, §55. 2. a. 

2 masc. ctn from cr.x . 

2fem. '|P1 from "ilTiX . 

1 com. 13 from 13X . 

Future (Tn:^). 

(2) Singular. 3rd pers. vinsc. The prefixed "^ is from Nin ; the 
vowel w, which distinguishes the masculine pronoun, is changed to the 
corresponding semivowel T, and this at the beginning of words becomes '', 
§56.2. 

2 fern, n, the sign of the feminine, is here prefixed. 

2 masc. and fern. The prefixed Fi is from >iPiX, "^Fix, from the latter 
of which is derived the appended "^ . of the feminine. 

1 com. The prefixed i<. is from "'ix . 

Plural. 3 masc. and 2 masc. The same plural termination as in the 
preterite is appended to the corresponding singular forms. 

3 fern, and 2 fern. The feminine plural is, as in the pronouns rtsr: , 
Mjnx , denoted by na appended to the singular, the 2 fem. sing, termina- 
tion ''. being dropped as superfluous. 

1 com. The prefixed 3 is from 1:s. . 

Imperative C'^^?), etc. 

(3) No designation of the person is here necessary as the second is the 
only one in use. Gender and number are indicated by the same termina- 
tions as in the corresponding person of the future. The future forms will, 
in fact, in every case directly yield those of the imperative by rejecting' 
the prefixed tn , the sign of the second person, and restoring the n in 
those cases in which it has been suppressed. 

(4) The Infinitive ("IP'S fojtntain, whence other forms are derived) is 
an abstract verbal noun commonly masculine, but sometimes with a femi- 
nine termination. 

(5) The Participle ('^ii3*'3 intermediate between the preterite and the 
future) shares the inflections of nouns and adjectives. 

2. The inflections of the perfect verb in all the species 
are shown by the paradigm of bb]? upon the next page. 



Paradigm op 






KAL. 


XIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


Pret. 


3??i. 


iei5 


^^P? 


^^P 


^^P 




3/. 


ribt^p 


nbtpp: 


•"•^^P 


nbtpp 




2 m. 


^)^2 


nbtbpp 


nb^p 


nb^p 




2/ 


^)^Pr 


^^^^p3 


ri^^op 


s^ib^p 




1 c. 


^nbtjp 

• ; — 'r 


-nbt^pp 


^nbbp 


■^nbbp 


Plur. 


3 c. 


^btip 

: 'it 


^btppp 


Jibtsp 


•ibtfp 




2 m. 


l^pbi^p 


finbtspp 


£3nbt2p 


Dnb^p 




2/ 


■fef^i? 


l^b-jpp 


l^^^P 


I^t'^P 




1 c. 


^2bi:p 


^:bibp3 


^4"^P 


^:^^P 


Infin. 


absol. 


bit^P 


^^pr* 


btop 


blip 




constr. 


btbp 


-"^pn 


^W 


■(%) 


FUT. 


3 m. 


blip: 


^^pr 


^^p; 


b-^P": 




3/ 


bripn 


'Ppn 


^tapn 


bbpri' 




2?ri. 


btbpn 


^^^pn 


btopn 


btopn 




2/. 


'^^i>^ 


^btppn 


^btopn 


^btfpn 




1 c. 


^'^p^'^ 


^^P^ 


^feP^ 


^^P^ 


Plur. 


3 771. 


^^PP: 


iib^p: 


^^^p' 


^^^P? 




3f. 


nsbtipn 

T : >: ' 


ri2bt:pn 

T : "It • 


5^2^t2pin 


n:b^pn 




2 m. 


6t:pn 


^btppn 


^bppn 


^bt2pn 




2/. 


nDbtipn 


n:bt:pn 

T : •■)t • 


njbtopn 


Mjb^pn 




1 c. 


btipp 


^^P? 


^^P? 


b^pD 


Impek. 


2?ra. 


bbp 


'^pn 


^^P 






2/. 


^btpp 


'"p^m • 


'5^^P 




Plur. 


2 VI. 


^bpp 


^^^pr* 


^b^p 


wanting 




2/ 


njbtip 


n:b^pri . 


nsbtop 

T : "1— 




Part. 


ac^ 


^^P 




^tQp52 






pass. 


b^bp 


^^P? 




btsp?^ 



114 



Perfect Verbs. 



HIPUIL. 



DOPHAL. HITHPAEL. KAL (mid. e). KAL {mid. v). 



T • ': ■ 

rbt:pn 

T ; — ': • 

Di^ibt^pr; 
■jribtipri 
iiDbtbpn 



bt^i^n 

b-^tbpM 



b"^i^: 
b^tppn 

b-pjDn 

^b'ppn 

b'tppi^ 

iib-bp-' 



n:b' 



^b^tppn 

^.^bibpn 

b'tipl 



b^ 

"b'^l^fj 
^b'^pn 
iTiDbDpn 

bi:p?;: 



bi^i^n 
nbtipn 
nbbpn 
nbtipn 

: : — * : t 



nbt:pr,n 



^mbtspn 

• : — ': T 

^bDpn 

: ': T 

D?]bt:pn 
•r)bt:pn 
^Dbiipn 



^bi^Ii^r* 
nbbpnri 

■nbtbpnn 

^ib't^pt^n 



Dnbt^i^rn 
"irib'^j^rri 

■^Dbtbpnn 



bt?i^n (btopnr!) 






bt:prn 



bt^p"^ 

— ':t 
— ': T 

bibpn 
^bt^pn 

bt:p^ 
^bi2p^ 

»^.'bt:|Dn 
^btipn 

n:bDpn 

T : — ': T 



btspn: 
b^pnn 



^b^)2rri 
btspr,!^ 
^btfpn: 

Mjbtopnn 
^btopnn 

nabtopnn 
btapnD 



wantinff 



btbp'?;]. 



btO|2^n 

^btcpnri 
njb^pr.ri 

b'^pn?^ 



T ; IT 

: : — T 
• : — T 

: IT 



T 

lis 









bb^ 

T 

nbsii: 

nbjiT 

T : T 

nbbuj 

: ; T 

^rbb^^ 

• : T 

^biir 

; IT 



biiia 

T 



bl''?: 
b^tn 
bt'ipri 
''bsirn 
biirij^ 
^b?i2J: 
ri^.bsirr 



n:b2iDn 
br^2 



115 



116 ETYMOLOGY. § 86 

a. In order to a better understanding of the preceding paradigm, it 
should be observed that certain changes result from attaching the per- 
sonal inflections to the verb, which are to be explained by the general 
laws of sounds and syllables. 

(1) The prefixes of the future occasion no changes unless they stand 
before H which is rejected, and its vowel given to the prefix, §53. 3, e. g. 
"bhpl for bapn^, or stand before a vov^elless letter when the Sh'va of the 
prefix becomes Hhirik, §61. 1, thus forming a new syllable to which the 
initial radical is attached, e, g. ^bp"^ for '"bp';i. Where K of the first per- 
son singular would receive Hhirik, it takes the diphthongal Seghol in- 
stead, §60. 1. a (5), e. g. btij^N, bqi^X. 

(2) Terminations consisting of a vowel, viz., n^ and "i , of the femi- 
nine singular and 1 of the plural, occasion the rejection of the vowel in 
the ultimate. §66. 2, which is no longer needed, except in theHiphil whose 
long '' . is retained in the preterite and future, and takes the place of ( ) 
in the imperative, e.g. Tih'ji]^^ "r'^i^O but nbiLJ^H . In the Kal impera- 
tive the rejection takes place although it creates a necessity for the forma- 
tion of a new syllable, "^^'^'h', Vi-Jp for •'P'Jp, =l3'^p from b6p, §61.1. 

(3) Terminations consisting of a consonant fi or of a simple syllable 
Fl, •'Fi. 13, iia occasion no change, except the compression of the antece- 
dent vowel, which nov/ stands before two consonants, to (.) in the preterite, 
and from "^ . to („) in the future, l^^i^PH j '^J^^i^'D > §61.4. But verbs 
with middle o retain the Hholem in the Kal preterite, ''P^.^^ . 

(4) Terminations consisting of a mixed syllable tn, in occasion the 
same compression of the vowel of the ultimate, and inasmuch as they 
always receive the accent, §33.3, they likewise cause the rejection from 
the penult of the Kal preterite of the pretonic Kamets. which owes its ex- 
istence to the proximity of the tone syllable, §82. 1, crn^ijp from ^a]?. 



Remarks on the Perfect Verbs. 



§86.(7. Preterite. Verbs with middle Tsere exchange this for Pat- 
tahh upon the accession of a personal affix beginning with a consonant. 
Those with middle Hholem retain this vowel, uidess it be deprived of the 
accent when it is shortened to Kamets Hhatuph, ri"i-''\ '^^"'^^ j "'^^^l') 
ihbs^T, I'ribs'^ . The second vowel, whatever it be, is regularly dropped 
before affixes beginning with a vowel, but here, as elsewhere throughout 
the paradigm, is restored and if need be lengthened on the reception of a, 
pause accent, e.g. ^"^ps, i "^^^n, . !i?b^ . The words ^p"3 Judg. 5:5, 
:!lbT3 Isa. 63:19. 64 : 2%re by Kimchi, Mikhol fol. 5, regarded as Kal 
preterites from i^TJ flowed, in which case the second must be added to the 
list of forms with Daghesh-forte emphatic, §24. c, by Gesenius as Niphal 
preterites from ^bj shook, comp. "^^^S Gen. 11:7, >l"b3 Am. 3:11 from 



^87 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 117 

6. Sing. 3 fern. The old form with n is found constantly in Lamedh 
He verbs, occasionally in Lamedh Aleph, and in two instances besides, 
rtTN Deut. 32 : 36 (with the accent on the penult because of a following 
monosyllable, §35. i.), and r.b.':i Ezek. 46 : 17 from -VJ. The vowel letter 
X is once written in place of n , Nr^sa Ezek. 31 : 5 K'lhibh, § 11. 1. a. 

2 masc. The vowel letter ti is sometimes appended as in the pro- 
noun nnx from which the termination is taken, nriT^S Mai. 2 : 14, ritni:72'j 
Jer. 17:4; so in other .species besides Kal, nriSC33 Gen. 31 : 30, nn:;"^^ 
Job 38 : 12 KHhibh, ■'^n^:^r^ Ps. 73 : 27. In the last example the n of the 
root is united by Daghesh-forte witli the n of the personal affix ; this 
union regularly occurs between roots ending with n and affixes beginning 
with the same letter •'ri^:^: Job 23:17, Pia'rn Ps. 89:45, •'tnarrt Isa. 
16:10, cnsrrt Ex. 5:5, nni Ezek. 23:8, 't}^ Gen. 19:19, •'nnrnTi 
Jer. 49:37. 

2 fern. The full termination ''Pi of "^PX is frequently added in Jere- 
miah and Ezekiel and occasionally elsewhere, "^n^rT Ezek. 16:22, and 
repeatedly in the same chapter, "'n'l'^^ Ruth 3:3; so in other species 
Tl-itn Jer. 3 : 5, Tl-iiab Jer. 13 : 21. ' See also Jer. 4 : 19, 22: 23, 46 ; 11. 

1 com. The vowel letter "^ is, contrary to the ordinary rule, §11. 1. a, 
omitted in four instances in the K'thibh, though it is supplied by the K'ri, 
Pis'n;) Ps. 140 : 13, Job 42 : 2, n-'in 1 Kin. 8 : 48, n-^bi* Ezek. 16 : 59. 

Plur. 3 com. The full ending "I only occurs in "|^3-"7|^ Deut. 8 : 3, 16 
"(II^S Isa. 26: 16, and "(V^p^ Isa. 29: 21 from 'wp^ , the restoration of the 
Hholem before the pause accent causing the rejection of the Kamets, 
which is a pretonic vowel and can only remain in the immediate vicinity 
of the accent; the form is thus sufficiently explained without the neces- 
sity of assuming it to be the future of a verb bip which nowhere else 
occurs. An otiant K, §16. 1, is twice added to this person, as is regularly 
the case in Arabic, N^ii^n Josh. 10:24. X^iflX Isa. 28: 12. The forms of 
similar appearance N^bj Ps. 139 : 20, i^\btl Jer. 10 : 5, are in reality of 
different ciiaracter as the X is in these a radical, whose vowel has been 
shifted to the preceding letter, §57. 2. (3). The occasional omission of the 
vowel letter 1 from the K'thibh, e. g. "f.^X 1 Sam. 13 : 19, ^3p Estii. 9:27, 
nis'J Deut. 21:7, n^ri Josh. ]8:12.''l4. 19 indicates a' difference oF 
reading. The words of the text are in the singular, and require the 
pointing lax etc.. f^is^ etc.; the K'ri has substituted 1^^5<, 13E^ etc. 
for the sake of a more exact concord of the verbs with their subjects, §48. 

2 masc. and fern. There is no example of a verb middle o in the 
second person plural ; the forms in the paradigm are inferred from 
analogy, to indicate which they are enclosed in parentheses. In ninabian 
Am. 4:3, n^ is added to the 2fem. as to the corresponding pronoun. 

§87. Infinitive. The Hholem of the construct is usually written with- 
out 1, "i:3 Isa, 33 : 1, though not invariably, 'P':i, and -pid. 'i'is and 'Jiis, 
and before Makkeph is shortened to Kamets Hhatuph, §64. 1. "cop Ezek. 
21 :26, 28. 34. The Hliqlem of the absolute infinitive is usually though 



118 ETYMOLOGY. § 88 

not invariably written with 1, e.g. Tiaa Isa. 48:8but Ssia Lev. 15:24, 
and is immutable. The construct infinitive has Pattahh in place of Hho- 
lem in siia 1 Kin. l:2let passim and bsi23 Eccles. 12 :4. The feminine 
form of tiie construct infinitive occurs repeatedly in imperfect though it is 
of rare occurrence in perfect verbs, e. g. nf^S'n Deut. 11 : 22, 30 : 20, Josh. 
22:5, ^iN3b, ^^r!,^, ^HT' ^'k^'!^- J^"*- 31;12^ny?:n Ezek. 16:5, nxrij 
Lev. 15 : 32. In Pe Yodh and Lamedh He verbs the feminine is the cus- 
tomary form. 

§88. Future. 3 masc. The Hholem is commonly written without Vav, 
though often with it T\^^'', , -hq"^ and Sins';!, and before Makkeph is 
shortened to Kamets Hhatuph, §64. 1, ~T\^'^'! Isa. 32: 1, the Vav being in 
such cases rejected by the K'ri if found in the K'thibh, e. g.'nirisx Hos. 
8:12; in ''^'^:^^': Josh. 18 : 20 the Hholem remains. The vowel of the last 
syllable is rejected, as is the case throughout the paradigm, upon the recep- 
tion of a vowel affix, § 66. 2, unless retained or restored by the pause accent, 
§65.2, !l23T3';i Prov. 8: 15, ll^^n Jer. 10: 12; twice, however, instead of re- 
jection Hholem is changed to Shurek rjlQ^'; Ex. 18 : 26, ■'^^is^.n Ruth 2:8. 
Alike form appears in the K'thibh, Prov. 4 : 16 lbl\i;3"i. 

3 fern. The sign of the feminine is in two instances added both at the 
beginning and the end of the verb, viz. : nnsiin Deut. 33:16, Tinsisn 
Job 22:21, paragogic fi^ being appended to the former, §97. 1, and a 
pronominal suffix to the latter. A like duplication of the sign of the 
second person feminine occurs in ^^5i^l 1 Sam. 25:34 K'ri, where the 
K'thibh has the fuller ending Txnn . 

2 fern, "i is sometimes added to the long vowel with which this person 
ends ')^p2'7Pi Ruth 2 : 8, VU??,n Ruth 3 : 4, T^Snt'iri 1 Sam. 1 : 14. Occa- 
sionally the feminine ending is omitted and the masculine form used in- 
stead, e. g. "nnrn Isa. 57 : 8. 

1 coin. pBX Ps. 139'- 8, though by some grammarians referred to pDJ, 
is probably for J^''ipi^, from T^D, the liquid b being excluded, and Daghesh- 
forte conservative inserted in the previous letter, §53. 3. 

Plur. 2 masc. and 3 masc. The full plural termination '^ is of more 
frequent occurrence here than in the preterite, the vowel of the second 
radical being either retained or rejected, '(1'^iJp?7 Ruth 2 : 9, 'jn^yn Josh. 
24: 15, ■|!i5'nn;; Ex. 9:29, I^^NIT': Josh. 4:6, iVjpb^, ',!irab7 Ps. 104:28, 
■jiSttf-) 1 Sam.' 2 : 22, Josh. 2 : 8. 'j^n^cri Deut. ] 1* 22, '■j'S^n' Jer. 21:3; so 
in other species, )^h.r\3-^. Job 19:23.' ■(I^S);;': Job 24:24, V'^^'-'f? Gen. 32:20 
and )^'}^lTr\ Ps. 58:2^ 'i''^|5=P 2 Kin.'dTlO, '■,1-J':3sn Mic' 2': 8, :•) 1:1^3 n'^ 
Job 9:6. It is chiefly Ibund at the end of a clause or verse, the pausal 
emphasis delighting in lengthened forms, or before words beginning with 
a weak letter, to separate the final vowel more completely from that of the 
following initial syllable. In the judgment of Nordheimer C^ibb';! Isa. 
35 : 1 preserves this ending in a still older form : Ewald thinks the final "J 
has been assimilated to the initial 53 of the following word, §55. 1; in all 
probability, however, D is here, as it usually is, the 3 plur. suffix, and it is 



§89 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 119 

properly so rendered in the common English version shall be glad for 
them. 

3 fern. In a verv few cases the initial "^ of the masculine form is re- 
tained, the distinction of gender being sufficiently marked by the termina- 
tion n-ili?.-^ Dan. 8:22, nj'^n;] Gen. 30:38, njnTa^ 1 Sam. 6:12; or, on 
the other hand, the termination >l of the mascurme is retained, the gender 
being sufficiently indicated by tlie prefixed Fl , :Wjrn Jer. 49: 11, '-'i'pj^ 
EzeL 37 ; 7; sometimes the gender is neglected entirely and the masculine , 
form used for the feminine, e. g. wbn": Hos. 14 : 1. ^ The assumption that 
the 3 feni. pbir. is used for the 3 fern. sing, in nj^'ni^n Ex. 1 : 10, ns'inn 
Job 17 : 16. njp^nn Isa. 28 : 3, njniirn Isa. 27 : 11. njnS'aJln Judg. 5 : 26, 
is unnecessary ;1'V the first passage rrorto , the subject of the verb, is 
used in a collective sense, wars shall occur; the others are to be similarly 
explained with the exception of the last, where na maybe the suffix with 
Nun epenthetic in place of the more usual form nsnbtTn her haiid — she 
puis it forth. Comp. Obad. vcr. 13. 

2 and 3 fern. The vowel letter n is occasionally in the Pentateuch, 
and more rarely in other books, omitted from the termination n; , particu- 
larly when there are other vowel letters in^the word, ;Pv}=nl Gen. 27 : 1, 
;,xrn Gen. 30:38, ^asni Gen. 33:6, ;Q5jn Ezek. 3:20, ;r^.nn nine 
times in the Pentateuch, three times in Ezekiel, and once in 1 Samuel. 

When the root of the verb ends with T this is united by Daghesh-forte 
with the affix na, §25, nsisuin Ezek. 17:23, nriipn Ezek. 32 : 16, or with- 
out Daghesh, njni-n Ruth'l : is, : n:^sn Isa. 60 : 4, nDS-^n Ps. 71 : 23 in most 
editions. So in the fem. plur. imperative, !^2!^(n Gen. 4 : 23. 

§89. Imperative. Sing. masc. The Hholem of the last syllable, as in 
the future and infinitive construct, is mostly written without 1, e. g.l'pS , 
yet not always, r,sd and "iS^J ; before Makkeph it is shortened to Kamets 
Hhatuph 'T^hVi Judg-, 9 : 14. 'it may perhaps be similarly shortened with- 
out Makkeph in 'iSo' Judg. 19 : 5, comp. ver. 8, § 19. 2. a, or the vowel may 
be Kamets lengthened from Pattahh by the accent, which does occur, 
though rarely, with conjunctives, §65. 3. b. 

Fern. sins, and masc. phir. The vowel of the first syllable is com- 
monly Hhirik, but under the influence of the rejected Hholem it is occa- 
sionally Kamets Hhatuph, §61.1, ^=b^ Judg. 9:10, ^z-^-o Ezek. 32:20 
(but >lb':5^ Ex. 12:21, for the Methegh see §45.2), ^•I^33 Zeph. 3:14, 
^n^p Mic. 1 : 16, and (with t retained in the K'thibh) ^^•'op^ 1 Sam. 28:8, 
Judg. 9 : 12. Upon the restoration of the original vowel by the pause ac- 
cent, the vowel under the first radical is dropped as no longer necessary, 
rdkm Zech. 7 : 9, "tsJ Nah. 2 :9. When the third radical is an aspirate 
it rarely receives Dagesh-lcne in this mood though preceded by Sh'va, 
§22. a. (1); such cases as ^i'qn Isa. 47:2, ^i?DX Jer. 10:17, are excep- 
tional. 

Fem. plur. The final vowel n^ is dropped in '.r^ Gen. 4: 23, §90; 
occasionally n is not written though the vowel remains, jXS^ Ruth. 1 : 9. 



120 ETYMOLOGY. ^ 90 

§90. Participles. Active. The Hliolcin of tlie first syllable is written in- 
dilTerently with or without Vav, i:2 and l';i3, mostly without when addi- 
tions are made to the Avord. In nnr^-a Prov. 25 : 19 Shurek is substituted 
for Hholem, unless, as Evvald suggests, it is a Pual participle with 53 
omitted; or, as others propose, it is to be taken as an abstract noun. The 
Tsere of the second syllable is written without "^ except 'ri^'zp 2 Kin. 8 : 21 ; 
it is shortened to Seghol in cbin Isa. 41 : 7, upon the recession of the ac- 
cent. Tf ^"in Ps. IG: 5 and :]oii Isa. 29: 14, 38 : 5, Eccles. 1 : 18, liave been 
improperly regarded as participles with Hhirik in place of Tsere. The 
former is the Pliph. fut. of the verb Tj'?'^ , which is found in Arabic though 
it occurs only in this place in Hebrew, and means ihou loiU enlarge ; the 
latter is the ordinary Hiphil future of els';, and the construction is ellip- 
tical, I {am he who) will add, see Dr. Alexander's Commentaries. Partici- 
ples are rarely formed from neuter verbs, yet ^'Zi fading, C73a desolafe, 
verbal adjectives of the same form with the preterites middle e and 
being mostly used instead, N^tj full, 'iI^T old, ^^1 afraid. 

Passive. This, in the few cases in which it is in use in intransi- 
tive verbs, has the sense of the active, UJi'b and t^^h wearing, 'siu and 
'!lid dwelling, tn^b^ trusting ; there are occasional instances of the same 
thing in transitive verbs, "i^2T remembering, lW^J holding. The last 
vowel is with few exceptions as cb3 Deut. 32:34, nrr^D, Ci<3 written 
with Vav. 

There are a very few instances in which participles appear to be in- 
flected in the different persons by means of the terminations proper to the 
preterite. This, ah.hough common in Chaldee and Syriac, occurs in He- 
brew only in the following examples : 

2fe7n. sing, fi")^^ Gen. 16 : 11, .Tudg. 13 : 5, 7 ; and with the fuller end- 
ing "^na'iii, *inD5p?ri Jer. 22 : 23, "'fisiia Jer. 51 : 13. The punctuators must 
have regarded these terminations as personal inflections, because the 
simple form of the feminine participle and that which it always has when 
joined with a noun of the third person, is n'lVi Gen. 17:19, and with "> 
paragogic in the K'thibh "^nni^ Ezek. 27 : 3. 

2 masc. plur. cri-'inn'r?3 Ezek. 8 : 16, the Hithpael participle of nffd. 
There is, it is true, an abruptness and difficulty in ihe construction, theij, 
ye were worshipping, which can only be explained upon the assumption 
that after describing these bold transgressors in the third person, Ezekiel 
turns to them and directly addresses them in the second, or that his mean- 
ing is, not only they but ye too (the people) were worshipping in these 
your representatives. But in view of the frequent and sudden changes of 
person found in the prophets, and the unusual forms and bold constructions 
which abound in Ezekiel, almost any explanation seems preferable to an 
unauthorized change of the text, with most modern interpreters, to the 
ordinary plural fi'^iriPjCTa which is contained in a very few manuscripts, 
but not enough to overcome the presumption in favor of the more difficult 
reading; or the supposition of a mongrel word compounded of the two 
roots nn':3 to worship, and nno to corrupt, in order to suggest the idea of 
a corrupt or corrupting service. 



§91 EEMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 121 

3 phtr. t'^S'^^lpiTO ihey are cursing me, Jer. 15:10. Kimchi explains 
this word as a compound of the roots bb;^ to curse, and nbpj to treat as 
vile; Gesenius, as a confusing of two distinct readings, the participle 
•'sjpbj^a and the preterite ''i'l't'^p; and Ewald clianges the text to ■'??^i?i?^, 
though his conjecture is unsustained by a single manuscript, and Nun 
epenthetic never occurs with participles. Tiie suggestion is here offered 
that the letters of the Avord may be regarded as the phiral of the partici- 
ple inflected after the manner of the preterite, with the added suffix, so 
that the proper pointing would be "'S^i'sbiria ; the punctuators, however, have 
Bought here, as not infrequently elsewhere, §48, to establish a more exact 
agreement between the participle and its subject ri'^3 by pointing the 
former as a singular, whereupon the Vav must be looked upon as epen- 
thetic or superfluous, : ":ibb~a as if for t'^sbbiria. In fact, a few manu- 
scripts omit the Vav. while others remark iliat it is superfluous; the 
weight of authority is certainly in favor of retaining it, though the other 
reading may be accepted as an explanatory gloss. 

NIPHAL. 

§91. a. Preterite Sing. 3 masc. Some copies have 3."^i'3 Jer. 50:23 
with Seghol under the prefixed Nun lor yh;: . 

b. Infinitive. The following may be mentioned as examples of the 
shorter form of the absolute V|b33 Gen. 31: 30, chb? Judg. 11 :25, n'PiJ 1 Sam. 
2:27, ^^"1)^3 2 Sam. 1:6; of the longer form given in the paradigm 'p^^ 
Jer. 32 : 4, which once appears with prosthetic N in place of n Ezek. 14 : 3 
Ci'l'^N, §53. 1. a. The construct infinitive usually has Tsere "E^'n Ezek. 
16: 36. but is in one instance Tf^-f^ Ps. 68 : 3, formed as in Kal by rejecting 
the prelonic Kamets from the absolute. There are a few examples of the 
construct form used for the absolute '^j^sn 1 K''i. 20:39, ^'Ct'ti Deut. 
4 : 26. The prosthetic n is commonly retained after prefixed prepositions 
"jfrQ!".^ which are less closely connected with the word than the formative 
prefixes of the future; it is, however, rejected in i^'CJsa Prov. 24:17, 
comp. ci'dsna Dan. 11:34. Tiie Tsere of the last syllable of the con-, 
struct infinitive, as well as of the future and imperative which are formed 
from it, is shortened to Seghol upon losing its accent., "iriCH Job 34 : 22, 
Dn^n Judg. 9: 38, 1=^7 Eccles. 7:26, rarely to Pattahh, =]rn Job 18:4. 
In the Imperative ""?:"i''"! the form witli Seghol is the usual one, that with 
Tsere only occurring in Isa. 7:4. The pretonic Kamets of this species is 
singular in not being liable to rejection on the shifting of the tone, e. g. 
Di-ir'Tn Ezek. 21 : 29, '1^737 Ps. 37 : 9, 

c. Future Sing. 1 com. The prefixed ^i occasionally has Hhirik, 
KSt-it Ezek. 20:36, 1 Sam. 12 : 7, C"i;^x Ezek. 14 ; 3, nn:3x Ex. 14:4,17. 

Vlvr. feni. Tsere rarely remains in the second syllable n:;"ri Ruth 
1:13, being, as in the Piel preterite, commonly changed to Pattahh before 
the concurring consonants, '"iJ^iNn Jer. 24:2, so with a pause accent, 
njaat-n Isa. 13: 16 K'ri, ZechVl4:'2 K'ri, i^JD?.'^?:' '^^- '^^- ^> ^'^^ first, as 
the original form, is, however, placed in the paradigm. 



122 ETYMOLOGY. § 92 

d. Imperative. Evvald regards vij3p3 Isa. 43 r 9, Joel 4:11, fil'bD Jer, 
50 : 5, as imperatives without the usual ri prosthetic ; but this assumption 
is needless, for they can readily be explained as preterites. 

e. Participle. In 1 Sam. 15:9 rtTa?33 co?2^e)?!pii6?e, is in formaNiphal 
participle from the noun T\)Z'q contempt. 

PIEL. 

§92. a. The intensive species is usually formed by doubling the 
second radical; in bb's3 Ezek. 28:23, and the passive form ^b'?Di< the 
third radical is doubled instead, an expedient resorted to repeatedly in 
Ayin Vav verbs and occasionally in Ayin guttural. In "^JtinnfiS Ps. 88 : 17 
both radicals are doubled; the entire second syllable is repeated in "•ifi'nnD 
Ps. 38:11, ^na'i^n Lara. 2: 11, 1:20 a passive ibrm, as shown by the 
Hhateph-Kamets, §82. 5. h (3), and in ^2n-::nN Hos. 4:18, provided this 
is to be read as one word, §43. h; if according to the division in the 
Masoretic text, I2n is a separate word, it is tlie imperative of Ifi^ to give ^ 
though this is always elsewhere pointed !lr:^^ . In Pi'^s^S^ Ps. 45:3, the 
first syllable is repeated, the 6 under the first letter indicating it to be a 
passive form. 

b. Intensity may likewise be denoted without a reduplication by insert- 
ing the long vowel Hholem in the first syllable of the root. This is often 
done in Ayin doubled verbs, but only in the following instances in others, 
pret. "^n^H^ 1 Sam. 21:3, '.rno Isa. 40 : 24. >li'ij Ps. 77: 18, iniid Isa. 
10:]3/«/. "irb';' Hos. 13:3. inf. abs. ish and i-iH Isa. 59: 13. inf. const, 
ciodia Am. 5:11, joar^ ""iasiaTa Job 9:15, ^iV'ih-)^ Ps. 101:5 K'thibh. 
These are called Poel forms by many grammarians, and those in the pre- 
ceding paragraph Pilel, Pulal, Pealal, etc. They are in reality, however, 
only modified forms of the Piel, whose signification they share. 

c. Preterite Sing. 3 masc. The original Pattahh of the first syllable 
§82. 5. b (3) is preserved in ■'i^'J Gen. 41 : 51. The second syllable has 
Seghol in "4'=! (in pause ^r^), nB3, 033 (twice GS3), Pattahh in 13N. b'na 
(iviJ in pause), p-^n, 533. TlJ'np, t^^lJ (in pause J'l^^.^ Isa. 19: 21), and before 
Makke'ph in "^53b , "L2^a (: '^\^ in pause) ; a appears likewise in the pausal 
form •^^3p5 Mic. 1 : 7. The Tsere is always retained in the infinitive con- 
struct and future, and with the exception of 3^3 Ps. 55: 10, in the impera- 
tive; though throughout the species it is shortened to Seghol upon losing 
the accent, T^^^p_ Deut. 30 : 3, -t':\p_ Ex. 13 : 2, 'C^'C'l Deut. 7: 10. 

d. Infinitive. The primitive form of the. infinitive absolute is of rare 
occurrence, e. g. ^S^ Ps. 118: 18, i(ip_ 1 Kin. 19: 10, NsS Ex. 21: 19, Tjiia 
Josh. 24: 10. Most commonly it has Tsere in the second syllable like the 
infinitive construct, 12N Jer. 12: 17, libb Jer. 32:33, tt^^ Jer. 39:18, ykp 
Mic. 2 : 12, oy^lJ Ex. 21 : 36; and in one instance it has Hhirik in the first 
syllable like the preterite yk^ 2 Sam. 12 : 14. There is no need of assum- 
ing a similar form for the infinitive construct in yhn Lev. 14: 43, which 
can readily be explained as a preterite. Tsere of the construct is short- 
ened to Seghol before Makkeph, —13^ Isa. 59: 13, or on the recession of the 



^93 



REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 123 



accent, pns Gen. 39: 14, 17, and in one instance besides, cn^ Judg. 5:8. 
There are a few examples of the construct infinitive with a ieniininc ter- 
mination, nns^ Lev. 26:18, trnat Ps. 147:1, Dz^d Isa. 6:13, rjnp'na 
Ezelt. 16:52.' 

e. Future Sing. 1 com. K is commonly prefixed with Hhateph-Pat- 
tahh; it has, however, the diphthongal Hhateph-Scgliol in HnTX Lev. 
26: 33, §60. 3. 6, and draws to itself the full vowel which has hence arisen 
to a preceding 1, in Bn?^DNl Zech. 7: 14 for Dn^DX" , §60. 3. c. 

Plur. 2 and 3 fern. Tsere under the second radical is eometime.s 
changed to Pattahh, though not with the same frequency as in the Niphal, 
njtti-inn Isa. 13: 18, but i^3'^2'^!^ Job 27: 4, and in pause Prov. 24 : 2. 

PTTAL. 

§93. a. Of the vowels proper to the first syllable of the passive, 
§82. 5. b (3). Pual ordinarily has u, which is preferred before a doubled 
consonant t.h'ui , §61. 5, and Hophal 6 before concurrent consonants li^sn. 
This distinction is not steadfastly adhered to. however, and Pual occasion- 
ally appears with Kamets Hhatuph, r'ns Ezek. 16:4, rrina Nah. 3:7, 
i&-3 Ps. 72:20, ^&3 Ps. 80:11, Prov. 24: 31, ri-irin-; Ps. 94 : 20,' c^xri passzm. 
This seems to furnish the best explanation of the disputed words ^ina'^ri or 
ilhann Ps. 62:4, i:6ba Ps. 101:5 K'ri, ^npDxri Job 20:26. Geseniu's're- 
gards these as Piel forms with (.) lengthened to (^) on the omission of 
Dagheshforte, §59. a; but the absence of Methegh, which Gesenius in- 
serts without authority, shows the vowel to be not a. Others think that 
^nb^Sfi is the Kal future for ^nbrxn, the vowel being attracted to the 
guttural from the previous letter, §60. 3. c. There is no difficulty, however, 
in regarding them all as Pual forms, and translating severally viay you be. 
slain, armed with the tongue (of a slanderer), shall be made to consume 
him. In Ps. 62: 4 the reading of Ben Naphtali inS'^n is probably to be 
preferred to that of Ben Asher, which is found in the common text; the 
former is a Piel and has an active sense: (how long) icill ye slay or mur- 
der? See Alexander and Delitzsch, iti loc. 

b. The vowel u of the first syllable is occasionally written with Vav, 
nht Ezek. 16:34, '.^h'^^n Ps. 78:63, ^^^i Judg. 18:29, 13:8, Job 5:7, 
^Jixa Ezek. 27 : 19, but mostly without it. 

c. Preterite Sing. 3 masc. An instance of paragogic n_ appended to 
the preterite is found in ^hh^ Ezek. 31: 15. 

d. Infinitive. The absolute form occurs in -t^ Gen. 40: 15; there is 
no example of the construct. 

e. Participle. As '20^, T)i^"'?'3 , ^i^ip':; in a few instances the initial 
a is omitted, n;?^ 2 Kin.' 2: 10 for n;3^T3, •Tj;^'^ (with Daghesh-forte 
euphonic) Ezek! '21: 15, 16, d-'liJI^!!'! Eccles. 9:l2 for D'^ir;?;;^ , §59. a. 
Some of the forms in which this has been alleged may however be better 
explained as preterites. 



124 ETYMOLOGY. § 94 



§94. a. Preterite. The first vowel is usually Hhirik but occasionally 
Seghol, e.g. c^iiiabrr! l Sam. 25:7, particularly in Pe guttural and a few 
Lamedli He verbs. Once X is prefixed instead of n, J'^ribNJN Isa. 63:3; 
in Isa. 19: 6 ^n'^iT.Ntti is not a double Hipliil with both X and n prefixed, 
but is a denominative from n:TX, a derivative of H:t, which does not 
indeed occur in its simple form but is justified by the analogy of 3J3X from 
at3 . n takes the place of n in Tibii-iri Hos. 11:3; so likewise the future 
rrnnnn Jer. 12:5, and participle ■"'tinP'? J^r. 22: 15, though the corres- 
ponding preterite is 'T^Dvl Neh. 3:20. 

Sing. 3 masc. The I of the second syllable is almost always written 
with Yodh, rarely without it, e. g. ^'^sn 1 Sam. 12 : 24, but in every other 
place h-'T^ri . So in the participle cBiig Job 11 : 3 but tD-'ps^ Judg. 18 : 7. 

6. Infinitive. Absolute. The Tsere of the second syllable which be- 
fore Makkeph is shortened to Seghol "i?n Prov. 24 : 23, 28: 21, is mostly 
written without "i, thus Wsn, nii:n, tiibn, bc^n, 'Ion, cnpn, rsrn, 
ri^cn, though sometimes with it'Tiiirn' Am. 9:8 but 'la'rn Isa. 14:23, 
b-isbn and i^St'n, twice Ci"'3Cn , nine times DSCn, "i"'a|?n, 'T'r?!^ . Hhirik 
in this syllable is rare and exceptional, ^''Qi^S"! Ezek. 21 : 31, "'"'i^.v! Josh. 
7:7. X is prefixed instead of n in c*3t;N Jer. 25 : 3 and r|'!)2N Gen. 41 : 43, 
provided the latter is a Hebrew and not a Coptic word. 

Construct. The second vowel is commonly Hhirik written with ''j 
tt5'''n|5n, Tp^iir""! rarely and as an exception without '', "liil'S Isa. 23:11, 
or with Tsere tn:n Deut. 32:8, ^wh Deut. 26:12, Neh. 10:39, l^bb 
Dan. 11:35. In a few instances the first vowel is Hhirik as in the 
preterite !^■!^^^:^ Deut. 7:24. 28:48, Josh. 11:14, 1 Kin. 15:29, T"ik"il-t 
Jer. 50: 34,'n3i-i'7n Jer. 51:33, n'iipn Lev. 14:43. The initial n 'is 
mostly retained after prefixed prepositions, though it is sometimes rejected, 
as Tr±'oh Am. 8 : 4 but rriairn^ Ps. 8:3, ladb once but I'^^cnb fifteen 
times. 

c. Future Plur. In a very few instances Hhirik is rejected upon the 
addition of the masculine plural termination ^pa"]!'! 1 Sam. 14:22, 31:2, 
1^'^'7*l Jer. 9:2. There is no example of this without the presence of 
Vav conversive unless it be 'li^nn Job 19 : 3, which may be re-garded 
as Kal. 

d. Imperative Sing viasc. The second syllable usually has Tsere 
without Yodh ap'i'n , Ti^'rH, and before Makkeph, Seghol ""1=0^! Job 
22:21, -lan 1 Sam. 23:11, "'Jan Isa. 64:8. There are a very few ex- 
amples with Hhirik in pause, *. ?"'Sin Ps. 94: 1, to which some would add 
ifsin Isa. 43:8, but see Alexander, niiin Prov. 19:25, X'^i^J Jer. 17: 18. 

e. Participle. In N'Jt'ia Ps. 135:7, Tsere is taken in place of Hhirik 
upon the recession of the accent; *r,p^ Isa. 53: 3 is not a participle but a 
noun, Alexander in loc. lihirik is, in a few exceptional cases occurring in 



§95, 96 REMARKS ON THE PERFECT VERBS. 125 

the later books, rejected in tlie plural, CiibnTg Zech. 3:7 for d''3il:nia, 
O'^abnia Jer. 29:8, Dinn;a 2 Chron. 28:23, n^-nrina 1 Chrbn. 15:24 K'ri,' 
2 Cliron. 7: 6 K'ri. Comp. Chald. 'pibnig Dan. 'S: 25. 



H O P H A L . 



§95. a. The first vowel, though mostly Kamets Hhatuph T\?P^ ■, ^^brn, 
fnrbuJn. is occasionally Kibbuts, both vowels even appearing in the same 




h. Preterite. In "'Pi^inn am. I obliged (o leave? Judg. 9:9, 11. 13, 
the characteristic f^ is rejected after n interrogative. 

c. Infinitive. The absolute has Tsere in the second syllable, ^nn.l 
Ezek. 16 : 4, ikn Josh. 9 : 24. The construct has Pattahh, no^n Ezr. 3:1L 

d. Imperative. This mood occurs twice, til^san Ezek. 32 : 19, ISEtl 
Jer. 49 : 8. 

e. Participle. In nijJSprt^ Ezek. 46:22 n remains after the pre- 
formative a . 

hithpael. 

§96. a. Preterite. In two instances nx is prefixed instead of Tfi, 
viz., linrnx 2 Chron. 20 : 35, fribirv:3i< Ps. 76 : 6. In the verb ijrs Daghesh- 
forte is omitted in the second radical and the previous vowel lengthened, 
§59. a. sin-Qrn, ^npsn-^ Judg. 20: 15, 17, "ij^^sn^ Judg. 21 : 9, in addition 
to which the vowel of the prefixed syllable is 6 in ^nporfi Num. 1:47, 
2 : 33, 26: 62, 1 Kin. 20 : 27. In three verbs upon the assimilation of n to 
the first radical, the prefix takes u, §61. 5, "^;^";!!7 (the accentuation is 
unusual) Isa. 34:6, ns^:it7 Deut. 24 : 4 (but in the future always Nr:a7 
Lev. 21 : 1 and repeatedly elsewhere), D23ri (^uif. const.) Lev. 13: 55. 56. 
These are sometimes called Hothpaal and regarded as passives of Hith- 
pael. Where both forms exist in the same verb, however, as in "lira and 
ttisii , there appears to be no distinction in their meaning ; they seem 
rather to have arisen from a disposition to give to the Hithpael, where it 
has a passive signification, §80. 2, the vowels of a proper passive species, 
§82. 5. b (3). In vi:s>5rn Jer. 25: 16, ^r^sni Jer. 46:8 (elsewhere I'i'^^n?), 
and ! 7^<i'a Isa. 52 : 5, O prolonged from «, on account of the absence of 
Daghesh-forte, is for a like reason given to the first radical. 

6. The last vowel of the preterite, infinitive construct, future, impera- 
tive and participle, is Tsere written without Yodh, ~snnn , P^^n^ , 
ahn"}, ^■li^nn inf. const.., liarn imper., n2?n^ , wiiich before Makkeph 
is shortened" to Seghol, -C':j.;^rn Isa. 30 : 29,' "Ti^nt^n Gen. 6:9, 'C^Sn-^ 
Job 6 : 16. Frequently, however, Pattahh is used, or, with a pause accent, 
Kamets, fiapsnrj pret., p^nnn prel. and impcr. (but i7>f. const, and part. 



126 ETYMOLOGY. § 97' 

with e, fut. a and e), ^ir^,i?nri , feBi^n";, :^!nQnri, pvj^ra, i^,^i?n?, si^l^n?, 
: iiisbn-: , ! 'i^s^eni , : ic;|an7 Ezek. 27 : oO" : ''liJ^snn Mic. 1 : 10 K'ri, : fxsa 
Isa. 52 :5. Pattahh is also sometimes found in the feminine phiral of the 
future, fisr^nnsn Zech. 6:7but nj^cn^^ri Lam. 4:1, where some copies 
have njaeniljpi. Hhirili occurs instead of Pattahh in the preterites, 
inb'nsrnV, "•'niii'ni^rri'i Ezeli. 38 : 23, cniii^]?rni Lev. 11 : 44, 20 : 7, each of 
which has Vav conversive, throwing the accent more strongly on the final 
syllable. 

c. There is no example of the infinitive absolute. 



Paragogic and Apocopated Future and Imperative. 

§ 97. The paucity of moods in Hebrew is partially com- 
pensated by modifications of the future, known as the para- 
gogic and apocopated futures. 

1. The paragogic or cohortative is formed from the ordi- 
nary future by appending the termination n^ to the first person 
singular or plural, and in a very few instances to the third 
person singular, thus converting it from a simple declaration 
of futurity to an expression of desire or determination, 
n^t5i< / shall keep, '"0'9^^ I '^^itt surely Iceej) or let me Jceep, 
Ps. 39 : 2 ; ri)^ri33 let us break, i^^^^ttJ? let us cast aioay, Ps. 
2:3; rm;i let Urn hasten, Isa. 5:19. 

a. The third person of the paragogic future occurs besides the example 
just given, in nxisn let it come Isa. 5: 19, iisyp) he it dark (by some ex- 
plained as a noun, darkness) Job 11 : 17, n^ia"}'^ may he accept (as fat), or, 
according to Kimchi, may he reduce to ashes, Ps. 20 : 4, '^pn Prov. 1 : 20, 
8 : 3. and after Vav conversive nsjrn] Ezek. 23: 20, and ver. 16 K'ri. It 
has also been suspected in nn"ipi Lev. 21 : 5 K'thibh. 

6. Instead of n ^ , n.. is appended in ni'ipN'; 1 Sam. 28:15, nim-j 
Ps. 20 : 4, §63. 1. c; so in the imperative ns-l'n or fi'syi Prov. 24 : 14. 

2. The apocopated or jussive future is an abbreviation of 
the second or third persons singular and expresses a wish or 
command, or with a negative, dissuasion or prohibition. In 
the perfect verb it has a separate fonn only in the Hiphil 
species, the "* . of the ultimate being changed to (..), or before 
Makkeph to (..), p'^k'll he will cause to cleave, pa'^!? ma?/ he or 
let him cause to cleave ; b'^st'n tliou wilt understand, b?i2?P) 



^ 98 PARAGOGIC FUTURE, ETC. 127 

tUou mayest understand or understand thou, Dan. 9 : 25, 
-tsbffiPi-bs may it not or let it not rule^ Ps. 119 : 133. In 
some classes of imperfect verbs, as in the Ayin-Vav and par- 
ticularly the Lamedh-He, it is used in other species still. 

a. The only instances of the abbreviated future occurring in the first 
person are pinx Isa. 42:6 and Nia Isa. 41:23 K'lliibli, wlicre the K'ri 
has nxn?. 

h. The paragogic and apocopated futures may be regarded as mutually 
supplementary, and as forming together sometliing like a complete Opta- 
tive or Subjunctive mood. The apocopated future has, it is true, no sep- 
arate form for the second fern. sing, or the second and third pers. phir., in 
which the verb has terminal inflections, but it may be regarded as coin- 
ciding in these Avith the ordinary future, except that it never has the 
final "i . So in those species in which it is indistinguishable from the 
ordinary future, it may yet be regarded as included under it. Neither the 
apocopated nor the paragogic futures occur in the strictly passive species, 
viz., the Puiil and Hophal, self-determination and command both implying 
that the subject is the originator of the action. The more flexible Arabic 
has three varieties of the future in addition to the ordinary one. to express 
as many modifications or moods. 

c. The apocopated future derives its name from the apocopation of the 
final letter by which it is characterized in n'b verbs; the brevity of its 
form is adapted to the energy and rapid utterance of a command. On 
the other hand, the speaker dwells upon the word expressive of his own 
desire or determination, thus giving rise to the prolonged form of the 
paragogic future. The appended n^ may perhaps be identical with a like 
termination added to nouns to indicate motion or direction, denoting as it 
does the direction of the speaker's will or wishes towards that which the 
verb expresses. 

§98. 1. Paragogic n^ is sometimes appended to the 
masculine singular of the imperative, softening the command 
into an earnest entreaty or expression of strong desire, 5''Q'ic 
/lear (thou), n^'a© ok, hear! or pray, hear! si'ipn listen, 
nn^L^pn pray, listen! The addition of this vowel to the im- 
perative and to the future causes, as in the regular inflections 
of the paradigm, § 85. 2. a. (2), the rejection of the vowel of 
the ultimate syllable, except in the Hiphil where ^. remains 
in the future and is restored in the imperative. In the Kal 
imperative this rejection occasions the concurrence of two 
vowelless consonants, the first of which must accordingly 
take a short voAvel, § 61. 1 ; if the rejected vowel was Hho- 



128 ETYMOLOGY. §99 

lem this will be Kamets-Hhatuph, otherwise it will be the 
briefest of the vowels, Hhirik, nf?, nit:? Jer. 49 : 11 ; n5T, 
nJDT 2 Chron. 6 : 42, niT» , nn^ffi Gen. 39 : 7. 12. 

a. In a kvf instances the vowel-letter remains in the K'tiiibh thouch 




indicate, however, the retention of the lull vowel but only of an audible 
remnant of it, § 13. a, which is likewise attested by the occasional appear- 
ance of Hhateph Kamets, "ni^Tri* 1 Kin. 19:20, nj^.i^'x; Dan. 8: 13 (in 
some copies) or Hhateph Pattahh riHp.CNT Ezr. 8:26, Jer. 32:9, and by 
the fact that the resulting Sh'va, even when simple, is always vocal, 
§22. a (I). Occasionally Kamets-Hhatuph is found in the paragogic im- 
perative when the vowel of the ordinary imperative is Pattahh ; thus, 
nnp Lev. 9:7, ni-ij^ Ps. 69: 19, and on the contrary, nn2T3 Gen. 25: 31, 
ful. 'ri-qi Ex. 21 : 7, nnas (with Daghesh separative) Ps.'l41 : 3. 

2. As the imperative is itself a shortened form there is 
little room for further abbreviation ; it sometimes, however, 
suffers apocopation of the final n^ of the feminine plural, 
VM. Gen. 4:23 for n::?)3T^, §G1. 2, Vsnp Ex. 2:20 for 
Jnpxnjp , § 60. 3. c, and in Lamedh He verbs of final n .. of the 
masculine singular, "^n 2 Kin. 6:18 for Sisn Ezek. 6:11, 
ba Ps. 119 : 18 for r.?5; ;qnn Deut. 9 : 14 for nsnn Judg. 
11 : 37, but without any evident change of meaning. 



Vav Conversive. 

§99. 1. The primary tenses are supplemented by two 
others, formed in a peculiar manner by what is called Vav 
Conversive (^j^sn l^). This prefix has the remarkable effect, 
from which its name is derived, of .converting the ordinary 
future into a preterite and the ordinary preterite into a future. 
The folloAving appear to be the reasons of this singular phe- 
nomenon. Past and future are relative and depend for their 
signification in any given case upon the point of time from 
which they are reckoned. This may be the moment of speak- 
ing, when all anterior to that moment will be past, and all 



^99 VAV CONVERSIVE. 129 

posterior to it future. Or by some conventional method 
understood between the speaker and his hearers., an ideal 
present may be fixed distinct from the real present and tlie 
measurements of past and future made from the former. 
Now Vav Conversive placed before a future indicates that its 
tense is to be reckoned not from the actual present but from 
the time denoted by some previous word, whether verb, 
noun, or adverb. And when the stand'point is thus taken 
in the past, events may be described as future with reference 
to it, though they have actually taken place at the time of 
narration. Vav is properly the copula and ; when this is 
prefixed to the future for the purpose already designated, it 
is followed by Pattahh and Daghesh-forte, which give to it the 
force of and then or and so, indicating that wdiat follows is 
the sequel of what precedes. Consequently a narration be- 
gun in the preterite may be continued in the future with Vav 
Conversive, the opening words fixing the initial point from 
which all that come after proceed in regular succession ; and 
the future so employed is converted into what may be called 
a continuativc preterite. Thus, in the account of the crea- 
tion in Gen. 1, the original condition of things is described 
in the preterite, ver. 2, the earth was •^t'?v! without form and 
void. The subsequent scene is then surveyed from this point. 
The next statement is accordingly made by a future with Vav 
Conversive, ver. 3, "i'2S<'^l and God said, in its primitive im- 
port, and then God sai/s or loitl say, his speaking being future 
to the state of things previously described. This fixes a new 
stand-point from which the next step in the process is a fresh 
advance ; it is hence followed by another future with Vav 
Conversive, ver. 4, i?7':i and he saw ; and so on, ^t?^i and 
he divided, ver. 5, 5?'^jP^!! and he called, etc. 

a. The, iialuro of this prefix would he more precisely expressed perhaps 

by callinfl^ it Vav Consecutive, as Ewald and otJiers propose. But as Vav 

Conversive is the name in common use, and as this sulFiciently characterizes 

its most striiiiiig cfTect, it is here retained. There have been various con- 

9 



130 ETYMOLOGY. § 99 

jectures respecting its origin. In the judgment of some 5 is an abbrevia- 
tion of tiie verb n^n was, hence "CX'T he uas or it was (so that) he will 
say i. e. he was about to say or icas saying, which is then likened to the 
Arabic combination of the preterite of the substantive verb with the 
future tense to express past action; but "i evidently has tlie sense of the 
conjunction and, ~'?X'T does not mean he said, but arid he said. Others 
regard it as an abbreviation of n"ni and he was ; Evvald of "S^ and then. 
Rodiger thinks that the vowel has no inherent significance, but is attached 
to the conjunction on account of the emphasis of its peculiar use. Perhaps 
the best suggestion is that of Schultens, Instit. p. 421, that "'^X'l maybe for 
"ittX-Tin, by § 53. 3 ; fl prefixed to a noun is the definite article, and points 
it out as one previously known ; its use in this particular case is to define 
the time of the action of the verb before which it stands by pointing it out as 
known from what preceded. The vowel of this prefix is upon this hypothesis 
analogous both in its origin and its effects to the augment e in Greek, or a 
in Sanskrit, by which a preterite is formed from a present or a future, 
TUTTTU), eruTTTor; Tvij/tj}, eVui/za, and which is traced by Bopp to a pronominal 
root having a demonstrative sense, Vergleichende Grammatik pp. 786 ff. 
The fact that the Samaritan Pentateuch sometimes substitutes n for 1 
conversive might seem to lend confirmation to this theory of its derivation. 
But as n stands with equal frequency for 1 copulative, and 1 for the arti- 
cle n, it is probable that these commutations are to be classed with the 
other numerous inaccuracies of this edition. 

2. This employment of Vav Conversive to alter the mean- 
ing of the tenses by transporting the mind of the hearer or 
reader to an ideal present in the past or future is one of the 
most remarkable idioms of the Hebrew language, and one 
which may appear to be extremely arbitrary, as it certainly 
is in some of its applications, at least, quite difficult of con- 
ception and foreign to our habits of thought. It neverthe- 
less imparts a beauty and a vividness to Hebrew description 
which are altogether peculiar and which are incapable of 
being adequately transferred to any other language. The 
narrator lives in the midst of that which he records, and 
watches its progress step by step telling what he sees. This 
peculiarity of the Hebrew tenses may perhaps be illustrated 
by an analogous though far more restricted usage in English, 
by which certain tenses may be transferred to another sphere 
than that which they describe if measured from the time of 
narration, without any confusion or liability to mistake re- 
sulting from it. Thus, the present may be used of past 



§99 VAV CONVERSIVE. 131 

events, as, Then the devil tal^eth him up into an exceeding 
high mountain and sheiveth him, etc. Or the present and the 
perfect may be used of what is still future, as, Whpn thou 
art converted strengthen thy brethren ; When he is come he 
will reprove the world of sin. 

3, Vav Conversivc, it has already been stated, is prefixed 
to the future with Pattahh and Daghesh-forte in the follow- 
ing letter, T^jp'^^ "3''?^^, Tf^. If the first letter of the 
future be Yodh with Sh'va, Daghesh is commonly omitted, 
§ 25, but rarely if it be 2 , and never if it be n , since its re- 
moval in this case would cliange the sound of the letter by re- 
storing its asph'ation, "^T:^. , ^so;^^ but wr^j , "iscn . Before 
S5 of the first person singular, which caimot receive Daghesh, 
§23.1, Pattahh is lengthened to Kamets, § GO. 4, ?l!?ST, 
'^k'l^^ . In the liiphil ■> . is, with few exceptions, e. g. ^tjnjin 
Ps. 105 : 28, compressed to (..) as in the apocopated future, 
^t'j?!] , ^'!i^'r'5 , and before jMakkeph it is shortened to (..) 
""^Hl • Ii^ the first person singular, however, "" . remains in 
the Hiphil, and a paragogic n ^ is not infrequently appended 
in all the species, e. g. V^"!^.^^ , ^"?^'^3 or !"'?"'?t^N,'; ; 'T'SNi or 
"iiisi : "i^-airsi • nt2bi3Si ; ni'^Ni or rna'is^ • paraorodc n 

• - IT -» • : - IT J T : IT • rr -^ ■■ - -.it t ; - -mt -» 1 O O t 

also occurs though more rarely in the first pers. plur, niabns'i 
Gen. 41 : 11, nia-isi , nirpnsi Ezr. 8 : 23, M2?cn ver. 31. 

a. The tendency to abbreviation produced by Vav Conversive is much 
more apparent in some classes of imperfect verbs. Thus, final M„is re- 
jected from T\h verbs as in the apocopated future n?'0 . ^??] , "^^i?, ';>?!; 
the accent is drawn back from a mixed ultimate to a simple penult in tiie 
Kal and Hiphil of Ayin doubled verbs and of those which have a quiescent 
for their first or second radical, in consequence of wliich tiie vowel of the 
last syllable, if long, is shortened, §64. 1, -b';, ro^l; i;!:xi, brx'i; ziii, 
2'r^l; -■'wi"', --■'']; C^ip;;, Cpj^i; C^p;, Cp^l. Tiie same drawing back 
of the accent and shortening of the ultimate syllable occurs in tjie Piel 
of the following verbs, whose middle radical is 1, "'^3^1, '^'?!??j • '^"J'^'?! 
but not in Cj^n^] j so in llii?^ Hab. 3: 6, and the Hithpael nrsriW Dan. 
2:1. It occurs also in the Niphal of a few verbs, which form the ex- 
ception, however, not the rule, r.si"], C"^'!'^, "^-f!!! or r;D^<,:? , creni 
but -n^'i, 1:^"], Ti^^a^], •"ip"];, "St"*;), etc. The first person singular 
is mostly exempted I'rom shortening or change of accent, '=J5^, -^!5<^ ; 



132 ETYMOLOGY. § 100 

csipXI or Cp^iJ , l3''h'^,J ) though it sometimes suffers apocopation in ii'h verbs 
xnNl , ''n?!!'^ • The prolonged plural ending )'^ is very rarely used after Vav 
Conversive ; it does, however, occur, e. g. ")*i2"ip!7i] Deut. 1 : 22, ')1'T??riT 
Deut. 4: 11, "i^iin,!] Judg. 11 ;1S. 

b. In a very few instances Vav Conversive takes Pattahh before X, its 
vowel being conformed to the compound Sh'va, which follows, e. g. T25'|iJX|i 
Judg. 6 : 9, iinnnbsi 2 Sam. 1 : 10, "srNT. Ezek. 16 : 10 but riS3j?^l ver. 8, 
!^^n7.N.,l Jo^ 30':'26, !^4^'^.s;L Ps. 73: 16." 

§100. 1. Vav Conversive prefixed to the preterite makes 
of it a continuative future or imperative, by connecting with 
it the idea of futurity or command expressed in a preceding 
verb. It is properly the conjunction ) and, whose pointing it 
takes, its pecuhar force being derived from its connecting 
power. Accordingly, in speaking of coming events, the 
stand-point is first fixed in the future by the opening words, 
and the description is then continued by the preterite with 
Vav Conversive. Thus, in Samuel's recital, 1 Sam. 10:1-8, 
of what was to happen to Saul, he first refers the whole to 
the future by the word, ver. 2, ^jnDba upon thy depart- 
ing, and then proceeds with preterites with Vav prefixed, 
Jnsi^n tliou slialtfind, ^'^}^^_ and they shall my, ver. 3, JJSbni 
and thou shall pass on, etc. etc. In like manner injunctions 
begun in the imperative are continued in the preterite with 
Vav Conversive. Thus the Lord directed Elijah, 1 Kin. 17:3 
?f!? (imper,)yo, C""??^ (pret.) and turn, j^nPiODi (pret.) and hide, 
n'Jn'i (pret.) and it shall be. 

2. This prefix commonly has the eff'ect of removing the 
accent to the ultimate in those forms in which it ordinarily 
stands upon the penult ; and if the penult be a long mixed 
syllable, as in the Kal preterite of verbs with Hholem, it will 
in consequence be shortened, nbi;' , ^^^T} • 

a. The shifting of the accent, which served in some measure to indicate 
to the ear the alteration in the sense, takes place chiefly in the following 
cases, viz. : 

(1) It occurs with great regularity in the first and second persons sin- 
gular of every species, P^Bn ihoii, hasl gone, t^^bni and thou shall go, 
inabn^ aiul I will go, so p-i3ii. inhdni, "'nsVnr''^'!' ) though ''ri^2;ri|i_ 
Zeph. 1 : 17, except in n"^ and n'b verbs, where the accent usually re- 



^101 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 133 

mains in its original position althongh the usage is not uniform, "^niis!! 
Lev. 26 : 9, "Tisi!! 1 Kin. 18 : 12. n''2-ini 1 Cliron. 4 : 10, '^n-'inFidni 1 Sam. 
15 : 30, •in-'2n;i 'isa. 8 : 17 but n-^EXl Lev. 24 : 5, nX2!l Gen. 6 :'l8, '"^n^anni 
■'n-^-nEni Lev. 26:9, rxrni Ex. 2(3': 33. In the first person plural of all 
verbs the accent generally remains upon the penult, iJniti Ex. 8 : 23, 
nwbnv iisnpbi Gen. 34; 17. 

(2) It occurs, thougli less constantly, in the third feminine singular 
and third plural of the Iliphil of perfect verbs, and of the various species 
of Ayin-Vav and Ayin-doubled verbs, n^i'nann Ex. 26:33, nx'^rriT Lev. 
15:29, nn;i Isa. 11:2, ^'ip_i, Ji^ini Hab.' 1:8 'but ^i^-Bcni Ezek. 43:24, 



Verbs with Suffixes. 

§101. Pronouns are frequently suffixed to the verbs of 
which they are the object. The forms of the suffixes have 
akeady been given § 72. It only remains to consider the 
changes resulting from their combination with the various 
parts of the verb. 

1. The personal terminations of the verbs undergo the 
following changes : 

JPreterile. 

Sing. Sfe?/L The old ending n. , §85. « (1), takes the 
place of n ^ . 

2 7nasc. J? sometimes shortens its final vowel be- 
fore the suffix "'p of the first person. 

2 fern. The old ending "^n , § 86. a, instead of ri . 
Plur. 2 masc. ^r\ from the old pronominal ending D^n , 
§ 71. <5 (2), takes the place of an . The fem- 
inine of this person does not occur with 
suffixes. 

Future. 

Plur. 2 and ^ /em. The distinctive feminine termina- 
tion is dropped, and that of the mascuhne 
assumed, ^Vjj^n for n:bi:pn . 



134 ETYMOLOGY. §101 

a. In several of these cases it would be more correct to say that it is 
the uncompounded state of the verb in which the change has taken place, 
and that before suffixes the original form has been preserved, the added 
syllable having as it were protected it from mutation. 

2. Changes in the suffixes : The suffixes are joined 
directly to those verbal forms which end in a vowel ; those 
forms which end in a consonant insert before the suffixes of 
the second pers. plur, D5 , "J? , and the second masc. sing. ^ , a 
vocal Sh'va, and before the remaining suffixes a full vowel, 
which in the preterite is mostly a and in the future and im- 
perative mostly e. 

The 3 fem. sing, preterite inserts a before the suffixes of 
the third pers. plural, and c before the second fem. singular ; 
when it stands before the third sing, suffixes ^n , n , there is 
frequently an elision of n , requiring Daghesh-forte conserva- 
tive in the verbal ending m to preserve the quantity of the 
previous short vowel, in^'Ojp for ^"ri^^jp , nprjjp for O^^^P > 
see §57.3. b. 

When the third masc. sing, suffix ^n is preceded by (J, 
the n may be elided and the vowels coalesce into i , i^up for 
^nSi:j5 ; when it is preceded by '' . , Shurek may be hardened 
to its corresponding semi-vowel 1 , 1"'ri^t:p for ^n^nb'jjp §62. 1. 

When the third fem. suffix n is preceded by (J, final 
Kamets is omitted to prevent the recurrence of the same 
sound, f^i^'op for n^'Jp. 

When ^n , n of the third pers. singular are preceded by 
(..), the vowel of union for the future, a 3 , called Nun Epen- 
thetic, is sometimes inserted, particularly in emphatic and 
pausal forms, to prevent the hiatus between the two vowels, 
(..) being at the same time shortened to (.,) -, H is then com- 
monly elided and a euphonic Daghesh-forte inserted in the 
Nun, ^3^^)P? for ^npi3jp;> . The same shortening of the (J and 
insertion of Daghesh may occur in the first person singular 
and plural and the second masculine singular ; this, like the 
preceding, takes place chiefly at the end of clauses. 



§101 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 135 

a. The Nun Epenthetic of the future and the Preterite vowel of 
union a, which is abbreviated to Sli'va before T] , C3 , "jS, may be relics 
of old forms of the verb still represented in the Arabic, where the 
Preterite ends in a, and one mode of the i\iture has an appended Nun. 
Daghesh-forte in the suffixes of the first and second persons may be ex- 
plained, as is usually done, by assuming the insertion and assimilation of 
Nun Epenthetic, ~(^l^i?? ^bi" r,:^::^'^ ; or it may be Daghesh-forte emphatic, 
§24.6, and tiie few cases in which Nun appears in these persons may be 
accounted for by the resolution of Daghesli, §54. 3, instead of the Daghesh 
having arisen from the assimilation of Nun, so that rj3b::p^ may be for 
^•?^P"? instead of the reverse. 

b. The suffixes, since they do not in strictness form a part of the word 
with which they are connected, are more loosely attached to it than the 
pronominal fragments which make up the inflections; hence vowels of 
union are employed with the former which serve to separate as well as 
to unite. Hence too the vocal Sh'va, inserted before the suffixes of the 
second person, does not so completely draw the final consonant of the verb 
to the appended syllable as to detach it from that to which it formerly be- 
longed ; this latter becomes, therefore, not a simple but an intermediate 
syllable, §20. 2. A like distinction exists between prefixed prepositions, 
etc., and the personal prefixes of the future. The latter form part and 
parcel of the word, while the former preserve a measure of their original 
separateness. Hence when they form a new initial syllable by the aid of 
the first consonant of the word, this is properly a mixed syllable after a 
personal prefix but intermediate after a preposition, ^iriD"^ but 2in33, 
§22. a. Hence, too, a liability to contraction in one case which does not 
exist in the other, bi^p^-^ but bispnh. Vq-; but Vd23. 

3. Changes in the body of the verb : 

Except in the Kal preterite those forms which have per- 
sonal terminations experience no further change from the 
addition of suffixes ; those which are without such termina- 
tions reject the vowel of the last syllable before suffixes re- 
quiring a vowel of union and shorten it before the remainder, 
'iSipjp:', ^:^r^'i^\ b'-j^^, "^^r^IP^ '^rV'I?^; but \ of the Hiphil 
species is almost always preserved, '^?^'^t:p!7 , ''??"'P)?- • 

In the Kal imperative and infinitive the rejection of the 
vowel occasions the concurrence of two voweUess letters at 
the beginning of the word, which impossible combination is 
obviated by the insertion of Hhirik to form a new syllable ; 
or, if the rejected vowel was Hholem, by the insertion of 
Kamets Hhatuph. 



136 ETYMOLOGY. §102 

In the Kal preterite, where both vowels are liable to mu- 
tation, a distinction is made by rejecting the first before suf- 
fixes and the second before personal inflections where this is 
possible, e. g. ^t?]?, nrj]^, ^3i:]5 but f^^'Oi? ^ i's'^jp . Accordingly 
upon the reception of a suffix the vowel of the second rad- 
ical, whether it be «, e, or o, must be restored, and if need 
be lengthened, whenever, in the course of regular inflec- 
tion, it has been dropped, and the vowel of the first rad- 
ical, wherever it remains in the regular inflection, must be 
rejected. 

a. Final mixed syllables, as shown in 2 6, ordinarily become interme- 
diate upon appending ca, 'S , ?j, and consequently take a short vowel 
notwithstanding the following vocal Sh'va. This is invariably the case 
before D3 and '|3 , unless the word to which they are attached has a long 
immutable vowel in the ultimate which is of course incapable of being 
shortened; it is also usually the case before V], the principal exception, so 
far as verbal forms are concerned, being the a and e of the Kal preterite, 
a of the Kal future, and i of the Hiphil, >;]3n3 , i]bra , Tj^rix , ?]^,5iaN , 
i]5ji3s< , rja-iart^ but Tinaapi , i]sap , ^,n^x . 

§102. 1. The first and second persons of the verb do 
not receive suffixes of the same person with themselves, for 
when the subject is at the same time the object of the action 
the Hithpael species is employed or a reciprocal pronoun is 
formed from the noun tJSs soul, self, as "^isB? myself. Suffixes 
of the third person may, however, be attached to the third 
person of verbs, provided the subject and object be distinct. 

a. There is a single example of a verb in the first person with a suffix 
of the first person, hut in this case the pronoun expresses the indirect 
object of the verb, "'Sn^b?. I have made for me, Ezek. 29 : 3. 

2. Neuter verbs and passive species, whose signification 
does not admit of a direct object, may yet receive suffixes 
expressive of indirect relations, such as would be denoted 
by the dative or ablative in occidental, languages, "'pri'a:? i/e 
fasted for me Zech. 7:5, '^?t?3r\ thou shalt be forgotten hy me. 
Isa. 44 : 21. 



§103 VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 137 

3. The infinitive may be viewed as a noun, in which case 
its suffix is to be regarded as a possessive, and represents the 
subject of the action ; or it may be viewed as a verb when 
its suffix represents the object, e. g. "i^ipjp my killing, i. e. that 
which I perform, ''p^uj? killing vie. The participle may also 
receive the suffix either of a verb or a noun, the pronoun in 
either case denoting the object, "^sxh seeini/ me Isa. 47 : 10, 
*'i?5p hating 7ne, Ht. my haters, Ps. 35 : 19. 

a. The infinitive with a verbal suffix represents the subject in i:i:!ilU3 
at my returning, Ezek. 47 : 7. 

§ 103. The paradigm upon the next page exhibits certain 
portions of the regular verb ^"0)5 Avith all the suffixes. 

a. The parts ol' the verb selected are sufficient representatives of all 
the rest, and by the aid of the rules already given will enable the student 
to determine any other required form for himself. Tlie third person sin- 
gular of the Hiphil preterite, which undergoes no change in the body of 
the verb, will answer mutatis mutandis for all the forms in that species 
ending with the final radical. The third singular of the Piel preterite, 
which suffers a change in its last syllable only, will in like manner answer 
for all the forms in that species ending with the final radical. The Kal 
preterite is given in all the persons, both on account of the peculiarity 
of that tense, which suffers changes in both its vowels, and in order to 
exhibit the changes in the personal terminations Avhich apply equally to 
the preterites of the other species. The Kal infinitive and imperative 
are peculiar in forming a new initial syllable which echoes the rejected 
vowel. The third person singular of the Kal future affords a type of all 
the forms in that tense which end with the final radical ; and the third 
plural of the same tense is a type of all the future forms in this and in 
the other species which have personal terminations appended. The par- 
ticiples undergo the same changes in receiving suffixes with nouns of like 
formation, and are therefore not included in this table. 



Paradigm of the Perfect 



Singular. 
1 com.. 2 masc. 2 fern, 8 masG. 2>fem. 



Kal Preterite. 

smG. 3 masc. ^D^Dp ^bt3p "q^tsp ^H^t^p ) r^Btip 

zfem. ^rriS^j^ '^r^^?!? "^r^^^P ^^r>'?^p) nPiBt^p 

2 masc. "pnbtip ) ^nnbt:p ) ninbtip 

^:nbt:p [ inbt^p ) 

2 fern. ^D^nbt^p ^n^nbtip ) r;"ribt:p 

icom. ^'r^bt^p i^'^nb^p vnbt:p trtbq^ 

plue. 3 com. ^:6^p ^5iyj|5 "qibt^p in^bt^p n^bt^p 

2 «2a.sc. ^a^nbDp ^mnbt:p n^nbtsp 

icom. '^^ib^i? ^^ibt:p ^n^ibtip v^2bt:p 



Infinitive. "Btip ) ^btlp "qbop ibtpp ??ibt!p 



Future. 

Sing. 3 onasc. ^^^^^^ ) ^btip^' ) ^W. ^^!?^P? ) "T^iV^^ 



Plue. 3 masc. ^i^bpp: ^^^Spp: t]^btpp^ V>^b'L2p:' ^^^V^ 



Imperative. 

Sing. 2 masc. ^jStOp 






^nbtip 


J7.?PP 




PiEL Preterite. 
Sing. 3 masc. '"vbtpp 


^m^ 


^'^^p 


ibtfp 


^^tpp 


HiPHiL Preterite. 
Sing. 3 masc. '^DD'^tppJl 


^V?pn 


^^^^pri 


ib^tppn 


Mb-tppri 



138 



Verbs wite 


[ Suffixes. 












Plural. 






1 COVl. 


2 masc. 


'ifem. 


3 i?wasc. 


3/m. 


si3bt:p 

T r': 


DiblDJ^ 


|5.f^)? 


Dbt:p 

T tI; 


I?^l? 


ii3nbt2p 

: " t'; 


D^ribtsp 


I^^^Sl? 


Dnbt2p 

— T t': 


"P^^I? 


.iisnbtip 






dnbtDp 


i^r^i? 


iirfnb^p 






D^nbi^p 


V^r^i? 




ds'nb-Dp 


■i5^ribt;:p 


Q*nbt:p 


"ribt:p 


^5^bt5p 


Qi^bt2p 


l^^^Sl? 


Dibt:p 


t^\>. 


Ji5^ribt:p 






D^nbt:p 


i^^r^i? 




Qi^sbi^P 


l^^^btip 


D^;bt:p 


l^s^^p 



!i5bt:p 



Dibt2p isbti'p 



IDbt::p 



ibtip 



^:bt:p^) G3bt2j^: "?^^i?? c:5PP? l?^p? 



^s^btip'^ D^^btip^ 'p-b^p^ D^bt:p^ I^Stsp'^ 



ii3bt:p 






Dbt:p 

•• : It 










Eiib-^p 


15^?P 


C3^^l? 


I'^^P 


^Db-tpn 


DDb^tDpM 


-,Db"t2pri 


Db^tppn 


jv ap»j 



139 



140 etymology. § 104 

Remarks on the Perfect Verbs with Suffixes. 



PEETEE ITE. 



§104. a. There are two examples of (_) as the union vowel of the 
preterite. ''S^S^ Isa. 8 : 11, T(^X"J Judg. 4:20. Daghesh-forte euphonic is 
Bomelimes inserted in the suffix ol' the first pers. sing., "'I'jS^ Ps. 113:18, 
^■tiX> Gen. 30 : 6. 

6. The suffix of the second masc. sing, is occasionally "^ in pause : ""JX^Q 
Isa. 55 : 5, so with the infinitive. T|nrTi"n Deut. 28 : 24. 45 : and a similar 
form with the future may perhaps be indicated by the K'thibh in Hos. 4:6 
■^NCN-^s. §11. l.a. where the K'ri has 'qsxrx . With N? and rib verba 
tfiis form of the suffix is of frequent occurrence. ! Ti^J^ Isa. 30: 19. Jer. 23:37, 
TjXnan Ezek. 28 : 15. In a few instances the final a is represented by the 
vowel letter n, and the suffix is written "2. n:"^^?.|^ 1 Kin. 18:44, 
nsns:n Prov. 2: 11, n='=-=? Ps. 145: 10, n=^:?^;i Jer. V :'"27. 

c. The suffix of the second fern. sing, is commonly ~^, T\^^P Isa. 54:6. 
T)*x.Q Isa. 60 : 9, except after the third fem. sing, of the verb, when it is 
^|.., Tjrrnx Ruth 4: 15. ""ti""'"'^ Isa. 47 : 10; sometimes, especially in the 
later Psalms, it has the form "'s corresponding to the pronoun TlS^ , 
^=t'=lX Ps. 137 : 6, ""nTwrsri Ps. 103 : 4. 

d. The suffix of the third masc. sing, is written with the vowel letter ft 

■I -I n 

instead of 1 in ^"na Ex. 32 : 25, n2;^ A'um. 28:8, and in some copies -Tpssj 
1 Sam. 1 : 9. where it would be feminine; this form is more frequently ap- 
pended to nouns than to verbs. 

€. In a few instances the n of the third fem. suffix is not pointed with 
jMappik, and consequently represents a vowel instead of a consonant, 
ri~.r'j (with the accent on the penult because followed by an accented 
eyllable) Am. 1 : 11, so with the infinitive, t^nojr; Ex. 9: 18, rtr^rn Jer. 
44: 19, and the future, .Tnsnr!] Ex. 2: 3. 

J". The suffix of the third masc. plur. receives a paragogic i once in prose, 
•irnrns Ex. 23:31, and repeatedly in poetry, isxbrn, i~'i;i"}in Ex. 15:9; 
once ^ is appended, '"a'CZ^ Ex. 15:5; on is used but once as a verbal 
suffix, cn-iKEN Deut. 32 : 26. 

g. The suffix of the third fem. plur. "j is seldom used, '■pns'ji Isa. 48 : 7, 
'(rTi^ Hab. 2:17; more frequently the masculine c is substituted for it, 
C?,ir,0 Gen. 26 : 15, 18. nv^n:-;;^ Ex. 2: 17, cnpx;|;_' 1 Sam. 6 : 10. so Num. 
17 : 3, 4, Josh. 4 : 8, 2 Kin. is': is, Hos. 2 : 14, Provfe : 21 ; 'n is never used 
with verbs. When attached to infinitives a paragogic M^ is sometimes 
added to "j, '"i^xia Ruth 1 : 19, njn'ib Job 39-: 2. 

h. Verbs, which have Tsere for the second vowel in the Kal preterite, re- 
tain it before suffixes, '^rvl^- Deut. 7 : 13, nrnb Lev. 16:4, ".vrij Deut. 
24: 3, "n'x^": Job 37:24. The only example of a suffix appended to a 
preterite wiiose second vowel is Hhoiem, is T'n^s'i Ps. 13: 5 from "'nbi*', 



§105 PERFECT VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. 141 

the Hholcm being shortened to Kamets Hhafuph by the shifting of the 
accent. Tsere oC the Piel species is mostly shortened to Scghol before 
?|, CD, "|3 , TiSSp Deut. 30:3, '?j^2p';' ver. 4, but occasionally to Hhirik, 
cilJSNX (the Methegh in most editions is explained by §45. 2) Job 16 -..5. 
^iTaoinx Isa. 25:1, C-s'i'ni^TS Ex. 31 : 13, ci'jns Isa. 1:15. Hhirik of the 
Hipliil species is retained belbre all suffixes witli very few exceptions, 
!l3-i;rri l Sam. 17:25, Ps. 65: 10; in Tfil": Deut. 32:7. the verb has the 
form of the apocopated future. 

t. The third fem. preterite sometimes takes the third masc. sing, suffix in 
its full form, wn^rs Prov. 31 : 12, >in~B2N^ Ezek. 15 : 5, so in pause : wnans 
1 Sam. 18:28, i"in,^=i<, Gen. 37:20,' : >inr=JSO Isa. 59:16, and sometimes 
contracted by the exclusion of n , IpH^:, 1 Sam. 1:24. wib';' Ruth 4 : 15, 
!inz:5 Job 2] : 18. Tlie third fem. suffix is always contracted, nninx Jer. 
49:24, nnibbn Isa. 34 : 17, nn6?3 1 Sam. 1 : 0. The suffix of 'the third 
masc. plural is D_, not D^, with this person of the verb, the accent 
falling on the penult, CJ^ija Gen. 31 : 32, crxiip Ex. 18 : 8, Cn^^D Ps. 
119:129, cnsnb Isa. 47:14. In the intermediate syllable before^ TJ the 
vowel is usually short in this person, ^n'^^? Jer. 22:26, ^ir^r'!^ Ezek. 
28: 18, though it is sometimes long. Vjnban Cant. 8 :5, as it regularly is in 
pause : ^pT^" ibid.; so before "'S and ^i: of the first person, ■'arbzit Ps. 
69 : 10, ! ^inxriia Num. 20 : 14. 

j. The second masc. sing, preterite usually takes Pattahh before *'? ex- 
cept in pause, "'Sr.il^n Ps. 139: 1, "^innn Job 7:14, "^^r:!?. Ps. 22:2. It 
takes the third masc. sing, suffix either in its full form. :!inri"i23 Ezek. 
43:20, or contracted, insox 2 Kin. 5:6. inrb Hab. 1:12, 'ir2p_ (accent 
thrown back by §35. 1) Num. 23:27, irtjrn^ Ps. 89: 44. 

A:. The second fem. sing, preterite assumes (.), commonly without Yodh, 
§11. 1. a, before suffixes, and is accordingly indistinguishable from the first 
person except by the suffix which it receives, § 102. 1, or by the connection 
in which it is found, "'IRI^? Jer. 15:10, ■':n~S^ Cant. 4:9, "'?r"'5?"] 1 Sam. 
J9: 17, 'inn-'da Ex. 2: 10; once it takes (J, ^iin"}'!!'!'" Josh. 2: 18, and in a 
few instances the masculine form is adopted in its stead, : >i:ri?3dn Josh. 
2: 17, 20, Cant. 5:9, !i:nnb'; Jer. 2:27 K'ri, inxrn^ 2 Sam. uVlO.' 

/. The plural endings of the verb may be written fully >1 or defectively 
(.), thus, in the third person. •'I'li::© Ps. 18:6, ''Z'i'Z'q Hos. 12:1; the 
second ^:'r.^'4 Zech. 7 : 5, 'Jnibrn Num. 20: 5, 21 : 5 ; and the first ^n'fa-yn, 
1 Chron. 13:3. 



FtTTTTEE. 



§105. a. The union vowel a is sometimes attached to the future, thus ''3., 
•"Si^sin Gen. 19:19, '':4nN;:. Gen. 29:32, "'ris-i': Ex. 33:20, Num. 22:33, 
•'sf^n-:^ Isa. 56:3. ""SSabV Job 9:18; ^13^. ^^X^l Isa. 63:16; 1 (for in J, 
•iannVHos. 8:3, inrbn Ps. 35 : 8, ■is;?n'i Eccles.4: 12. iirn l Sam. 21:14, 
60 in the K'thibh, l' Sam. 18: 1 isnx-'l, where the K'ri lias winx^i; tn^ 
(for fij. nn-'Z^l Gen. 37:33, J^inpi 2 Chron. 20:7, nb'^CC: Isa. 26:5; 
n , Dcabi Ex.'29:30, Bttib-" Deut. 7:15, cn''3 Num. 21:30, ci"'3 Ps. 



142 ETYMOLOGY. §106 

74: S, cHnax^ Vs. 118:10; 1^, irdr Ex. 2:17. In 1 Kin. 2:24 the K'ri 
has •':s-'irii, while the K'thibh has the vowel letter ^ representing the 
ordinary e, '^i''■2''\D^^ . 

b. The suffixes with Daghesh inserted occur chiefly in pause; thus i?.., 
^Snn-i Jer. 50 : 44 ; ^3 . , "^-'i-i^n Gen. 27 : 19, ! ^?ny nn Job 7 : 14, 9 : 34 ; JlS .. 
(1st pkir.), ^Sp': Job 31:15;' r,, :;q^3;5S: Isa. 43': 5, r^y^-^ Isa, 44:2^ 
! -,;iix Ps. 30:'l3; ^3.. (3 masc. sing.),''!i'3n|rsn, : !i3:n:;n"jo'b'7: 18, siSn^iS": 
Job' 41: 2 K'ri, ^tk^-Q-} Hos. 12:5; ns.., n'3'^iryn Ps.'eS: 10, or without 
Daghesh, n:nb'cri Judg. 5 : 26, Obad. ver. 13 ;' the unemphalic form of the 
suffix and that with Daghesh occur in conjunction, inb'"'S;:3i nfii"'Ddi Isa, 
26: 5. There are a very few examples, ibund only in poetry, of 3 inserted 
between the verb and the suffix without further cliange, '^3;'i33';i Ps. 50 : 23, 
•~\^'i^^^. Jer. 22:24, irin3r;i Jer. 5:22, :^n?2'?='? Ps. 72 : IsV^inpS"' Deut. 
32': io,' ! w:a53SN^ Ex.'i'5:2. 

c. The plural ending 'i^ is in a few instances found before suffixes, chiefly 
in pause, i;3Nnp'i, iri^pid-i , iirrs^TC-i Prov. 1:28, :?|:^n3r';i Ps. 63:4, 
SJiiN'vai Ps. 9i:i2, r|:iirnii;i Isa.' (j6:'7, 10, '.^ins-i^:-' Jer. '5:22, inisix::?:'' 
Jer. 2:24; twice it has the union vowel a, i32^xsin Job 19:2, i3T33"i 
Prov. 5 : 22. • - = - = s = : • 

d. When the second vowel of the Kal future is o, it is rejected before 
suffixes requiring a union vowel, compound Sh'va being occasionally sub- 
stituted for it in the place of simple, C!"i&.X Hos. 10:10. ^iE'ji.v;] Num. 
35:20, insnsN Isa. 27:3, :^i^js'^, Isa. 62 : 2" ?i5-in'; EzeU. 35:"6,'ns5P3X 
Jer. 31 : 33 ; once the vowel remains, but is changed to Shurek, iCi^CvlJpi 
Prov. 14: 3 ; a, on the other hand, is retained as a pretonic vowel, §64. 2, 
•'Siyab'i Job 29:14, t=ii2^7 Ex. 29:30, ri3^;3bx Cant. 5:3, ''sfesiiri Gen. 
19:19. Hholem is shortened before ?i, CD, '3, though the vowel letter 
1 is occasionally written in the K'thibh, ^"^"isiij; Jer. 1 : 5. 

e. The following are examples of feminine plurals with suffixes: 2 fern, 
phtr. ""rNnn Cant. 1: 6, 3 fern. plur. "siajnn Job 19: 15, "nDin Jer. 2: 19. 
The masculine form is sometimes substituted for the feminine, •^^'^^'^?7 ,* 
'T^^V! : Cant. 6:9. 

INFINITIVE AND IMPEEATIVE. 

§106 a. Kal Injlmtive. Before ?; , C3 , '3, Hholem is shortened to Ka- 
mets Hhatuph, Vj^DS;^ Gen. 2: 17, i]")^?; (Methegh by §45. 2) Obad. ver. 
11, I2=b3N^ Gen. 3:5, CD-iT^N Mai. 1:7. Pattahh remains in the single 
example, C333n. Isa. 30 : 18 ; sometimes the vowel of the second radical 
is rejected before these as it is before the other suffixes, and a short 
vowel given to the first radical, commonly Kamets Hhatuph, ^|'^3^ Deut. 
29:11, ?i".^T:3 2 Kin. 22:19, Cs'iS^ Deut. 27:4, once Kibbuts', ' DDniSp 
Lev. 23: 22, sometimes Hhirik, ri^sd Gen. 19: 33. 35 but "iisuj Ruth 3:'4^ 
irjb Zech. 3:1, i^ss 2 Sam. I:i0, innQ Neh. 8:5, and occasionally 
Pattahh, ?i?.pT! Ezek. 25 : 6. In the feminine form of the infinitive, as in 
nouns, the old feminine ending n is substituted for ti, inr52D Isa. 30:19, 
'inS'qn Hos. 7 : 4. The Niphal infinitive retains its pretonic Kamets before 
suffixes, ci-is-rn Ezek. 21 : 29. 



§ 107 IMPERFECT VERBS. 143 

b. Kal Imperative. The first radical commonly receives Kamets Hhatuph 
upon tlie rejection of Hholem, ''3"i2T, '^'y^'P^ ^^'^- 15" 15, but occasionally it 
takes Hhirik, IT^.S? (with Daghesh-lbrte euphonic) Prov. 4: 13. 



Imperfect Verbs. 

§107. Imperfect verbs depart more or less from the 
standard already given, as the nature of theii" radicals may 
require. They are of three classes, viz. : 

I. Guttural verbs, or those which have a guttural letter 
in the root. 

II. Contracted verbs, two of whose radicals are in cer- 
tain cases contracted into one. 

III. Quiescent verbs, or those v/hicli have a quiescent or 
vowel letter in the root. 

These classes may again be subdivided according to the 
particular radical affected. Thus there are three kinds of 
guttural verbs : 

1. Pe guttural verbs, or those v/hose first radical is a 
guttural. 

2. Ayin guttural verbs, or those whose second radical is 
a guttural. 

3. Lamedh guttural verbs, or those whose third radical 
is a guttural. 

There are two kinds of contracted verbs : 

1. Pe Nun verbs, or those whose first radical is Nun, 
and is hable to be contracted by assimilation with the second. 

2. Ayin doubled verbs, or those whose second and third 
radicals are alike, and are hable to be contracted into one. 

There are four kinds of quiescent verbs : 

1. Pe Yodh verbs, or those whose first radical is Yodh. 



144 ETYMOLOGY. §108,109 

2. Ay in Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs, or those whose 
second radical is Vav or Yodh. 

3. Lamedh Aleph verbs, or those whose third radical is 
Aleph. 

4. Lamedh He verbs, or those in which He takes the 
place of the third radical. 

The guttural differ from the perfect verbs in the vowels 
only ; the first division of the contracted verbs differ only in 
the consonants ; the quiescent and the second division of the 
contracted verbs differ from the perfect verbs in both vowels 
and consonants. 

a. The third class of imperfect verbs may either be regarded as hav- 
ing a quiescent letter in the root, which in certain forms is changed into 
a vowel, or as having a vowel in the root, which in certain forms is 
changed into a quiescent letter. As the settlement of this question is 
purely a matter of theory, the usual name of quiescent verbs has been 
retained as sufficiently descriptive. 

b. The origin of these various technical names for the different kinds 
of imperfect verbs is explained §76. 3. 

Pe Guttural Verbs. 

§108. Gutturals have the four following peculiarities, 
§60, viz. : 

1. They often cause a preceding or accompanying vowel 
to be converted into Pattahh. 

2. They receive Pattahh furtive at the end of a word 
after a long heterogeneous vowel or before a vowelless final 
consonant. 

3. They take compound in preference to simple Sh'va. 

4. They are incapable of being doubled, and conse- 
quently do not receive Daghesh-forte. 

§109. Pe guttural verbs are affected by these peculiari- 
ties as follows, viz. : 



§ 109 PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 145 

1. The Hhirik of the preformatives is changed to Pat- 
tahh before the guttural in the Kal future, if the second 
vowel be Hholem, "iw;^ for l^iy;' ; but if the second radical 
has Pattahh this change does not occur, because it would 
occasion a repetition of the same vowel in successive sylla- 
bles, §63. 1. 5. In the Kal future a, therefore, in the Niphal 
preterite and participle, where the vowel of the second sylla- 
ble is likewise a, and in the Hiphil preterite, where t is 
characteristic and therefore less subject to change, Hhirik is 
compounded with Pattahh, or, in other words, is changed to 
the diphthongal Seghol, prn;; , "!)2?)D , T^'b^r. . Seghol accom- 
panying ^ of the first person singular of the Kal future, 
§60. 1. a (f)), and Kamets Hhatuph, characteristic of the 
Hophal species, suffer no change. The same is true of 
Hholem in the first syllable of the Kal participle, Hhirik of 
the Piel preterite, and Kibbuts of the Pual species, for the 
double reason that these vowels are characteristic of those 
forms, and that their position after the guttural renders them 
less liable to mutation, § 60. 1. a (2) ; the second reason ap- 
plies likewise to the Hhirik of the feminine singular and 
masculine plural of the Kal imperative, which, as the briefest 
of the short vowels, is besides best adapted to the quick ut- 
terance of a command, ''i^y , Ti'nv . 

2. As the guttural does not stand at the end of the word, 
there is no occasion for applying the rule respecting Pattahh 
furtive ; this consequently does not appear except in '^n?' , 
apocopated future of rrin , and in one other doubtful exam- 
ple, §114. 

3. Wherever the first radical should receive simple Sh'va 
the guttm'al takes compound Sh'va instead ; this, if there be 
no reason for preferring another, and especially if it be pre- 
ceded by the vowel Pattahh, will be Hhateph Pattahh, whose 
sound is most consonant with that of the gutturals ; this is 
the case in the Kal second plural preterite, construct infini- 
tive, future and imperative with Hliolem, and in the Hiphil, 

10 



146 ETYMOLOGY. §110 

infinitives, future, imperative, and participle, Di^'7^5^ , ^^;! . 
If, however, tlie guttural be preceded by another vowel than 
Pattahh the compound Sh'va will generally be conformed to 
it ; thus, after Seghol it becomes Hhateph Seghol as in the 
Kal future and imperative u, the Niphal preterite and par- 
ticiple, and the Hiphil preterite, V'lT}^^, 'T'^^Oj ^^^^ ^^^^^ 
Kamets Hhatuph it becomes Hhateph Kamets as in the 
Hophal species, 'i^l-^. If this compound Sh'va in the 
com"se of inflection comes to be followed by a vowelless 
letter, it is changed to the corresponding short vowel, §01.1, 
thus, (J becomes (.) in the second feminine singular and the 
second and third masculine plural of the Kal future ; (.J be- 
comes (..) in the third feminine singular and the third plural 
of the Niphal preterite; and {^) becomes (J in the corres- 
ponding persons of the preterite and future Hophal, '''7'9??!}, 

a. The simple Sh'va following a short vowel thus formed, remains 
vocal as in the corresponding forms of the perfect verb, the new syllable 
being not mixed but intermediate, and hence a succeeding nspirate will 
retain its aspiration, thus ^^^?,^ yaaiii'dhu. not I'^si''^ yaamdu, §22. a. 
In like manner the Kal imperative has •''75?3>, !l-i»S5 not ''^^S, 'I'^^'^S, show- 
ing that even in the perlect verb "'r^p?, ^Cp'^.P. were pronounced kil'll. 
kilUu, not killl, kitlu. .. t 

4. The reduplication of the first radical being impossible 
in the infinitive, future and imperative Niphal, the preceding 
vowel, wdiich now stands in a simple syllable, is lengthened 
in consequence from Hhirik to Tsere, § 60. 4, "iwr^ for ^i:yn. 
§110. 1. The verb ""^V to stand, whose inflections are shown 
in the following paradigm, may serve as a representative of 
Pe guttural verbs. The Piel, Pual, and Hithpael are omit- 
ted, as they present no deviation from the regular verbs. 
The Niphal of "Tiys is not in use, but is here formed from 
analogy for the sake of giving completeness to the paradigm. 





Paradigm of 


Pe Guttural Verbs. 


1 






KAL. 


NIPIIAL. 


IHPIIIL. 


IIOPHAL. 


Pjret 


3 m. 


'r>2V 

— T 


^i2T. 


i^/bs^n 


'-^*iT 




3/. 


rn'2::> 

T : IT 


rrr2^2 


n7"b^;v} 


r;i3"n 




2 m. 


m)2y 

T : — r 


nn:j3>D 


ni/jyii 


rrrcyn 

T : — t; IT 




2/ 


m:^:? 


rn-b^D 


m-byn 


riTbrn 




Ic. 


^mhv 


^nTb3>2 


'm2vn 


^ni:::yn 


PIUT. 


3 c. 


: IT 


^T^"D 


r]^i2'jti 


^M/^yn 




2 w. 


Drii:23> 


DnT:::?D 


Dn"53>'n 


Drn-;::'n 




2/ 


1^7'^? 


1^7'® 


■s^^'-i^vi 


"(n-^^rn 




Ic. 


r^-i/bij? 


^"■■=?? 


^j7"^?v 


: — ': IT 


Infix 


. yl&soZ. 


-i^b 


T 1" 


1)2yTi 


-/b^M 




Consir. 


n'l:? 




^rtyr] 


n:b^'n 

— -i: IT 


FUT. 


3 m. 


^^?r. 


1)2T 


l^tT 


— t:it 




3/ 


n!a:'n 


ib^'n 


Tbz^n 


i/b3?n 

— t; it 




2 TO. 


ia:'n 


•■ T 1" 


T/j5n 


ii2:^r\ 

— t: it 




2/ 


^T^jj'n 


^T^!?n 


^T'QVr] 


''7"9?n 




Ic. 


I'layj^ 


t!:>'x 


T)2>^ 


— t: it 


Plur. 


3 m 


^^5:3?-' 


r\->2V^ 


TrcT 


ru2T 

: TIT 




3/. 


T : -: r 


n3Tb:'"n 


T : ■• —. 1- 


nj77:jn 




2 TO. 


^^:jyn 


^t:2:yi 


r-r'2sr\ 


T'2yr\ 

: T IT 




2/. 


T ; -: 1- 


r : •• T !•• 


Hj""b?n 


n:":b^;n 




1 c. 


^^??. 


•• Tl" 


■7"';?? 


Tb^'5 

— t: it 


LVTER. 


2 TO. 


^■■a? 




Tbyn 






2/ 


^T^:? 


• : IT •• 


^T/b?ir; 


wanting 


riur. 


2 TO. 


^"i^? 


in!a:?n 


^"i^'-r^D 






2/ 


r ; -: 


n5i7b:?n 

T : •• T 1" 


•^57"^^10 




Part. 


^c«. 


Tb5 




^^'b?'^ 






Paws. 


T 


T V.IV 




1/2^ '2 

T t: it 



147 



148 ETYMOLOGY. ^111 

2. The Kal imperative and future of those verbs which 
have Pattahh in the second syllable may be represented by 
PIT} to he stroll (/. 

Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

masc. fern. ■ masc. fern. 

pit] 'PJv ^p'^ ■ "jj^iri 

Future. 

3 masc. Sfem. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing. pvr^_ pTTT] pinn ^j^tnn piris^. 
pltte. ^pTn^. njpTrin ^ptnn ^i^pvrT] pm 

3. Certain verbs, whose first radical is i? , receive Hholem 
in the first syllable of the Kal future after the following, 
which is distinctively called the Pe Alepli (i5S) mode. 

Puture of Pe Aleph Verbs. 

3 masc. Sfem. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing. biu^"^ bi^^n bbm ^bss^n bbi^ 
pltje. 65k^ rabbin ^S'DikT] nibi^^n bb^D 

: I T : - : I t: - 

Pive verbs uniformly adopt this mode of inflection, viz. : 
^nx to perish, MiiJ to he imlling, bis to eat, 'Tai? to say, tnss 
to hake ; a few others indifferently follow this or the ordinary 
Pe guttural mode, sn« to love, Tnsj to take hold, tp.^ to 
(gather. 

Remarks on Pe Guttural Verbs. 

§ in. L The preformative of the Kal future a has (.) in one instance, 
ibni Ezek. 23 : 5. That of the Kal future o has (..) in Ti^in; Prov. 10:3, 
CjUn;; Ps. 29:9. Three verbs with future o, D^n, Dnn , lin have Pat- 



§111 REMARKS ON PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 149 

tahh in the first syllable when the Hholem appears, but Seghol in those 
forms in which the Hholem is dropped. Oinn.^_ Job 12 : 14, 'iO'iti'^^ 2 Kin. 
3:25 but iionn;] Ex. 19:21, 24; so vvitli suffixes, "'?^^n;; Ps! 141:5, 
J^Din;; Isa. 22Vi'9, •ini'ari?. Isa. 53 : 2. ieh has ^i-isn'^ but i'"iEn;;. 

2. a. If the first radical be X, which has a strong preference for the 
diphthongal vowels, §60. 1. a (5), the preformative takes Seghol in most 
verbs in the Kal future, whether a or 0, pi^^,, tl05<,!l) "'-'^'Ji '"^??'j} ^s well 
as ^'O-?,;:, Cl?x;^, ^i^?n, ^i?^!:^ ; in a few with future a, §110. 3, it takes the 
other compound vowel Hholem when to complete the diphthongal charac- 
ter of the word the (.) of the second syllable usually becomes ( ) in pause, 
and in a few instances without a pause accent, 13X^, '^J.^"' ) ''"'7.^"') 'H]'*'^) 
and in two verbs it becomes (..) after Vav conversive, "i^.i<'] , 'HX'T . 

6. As K is always quiescent after Hholem in this latter form of the 
future, §57. 2. (2) a, Pe Aleph verbs might be classed among quiescent 
verbs, and this is in fact done by some grammarians. But as N has the 
double character of a guttural and a quiescent in different forms sprung 
from the same root, and as its quiescence is confined almost entirely to a 
single tense of a single species, it seems better to avoid sundering what 
really belongs together, by considering the Pe Aleph as a variety of the 
Pe guttural verbs. In a few instances S gives up its consonantal charac- 
ter after (..) which is then lengthened to (J, nnstn Mic. 4 : 8. When 
thus quiescent after either Tsere or Hholem, X is always omitted in the 
first person singular after the preformative it, "inx Gen. 32:5 for "^n-*^, 
snx Prov. 8: 17 for -f^^x, bi'H Gen. 24:33 for ^ixx, and occasionally 
in other persons, i^Tn'^Jer. 2 : 36 for ''^TNn ; so 6<n;; Deut. 33 : 21, i<itn 
Prov. 1:10, qibn Ps.'"l04:29, >in:s"n 2 Sam. 19:14, THPi] 2 Sam. 20:9, 
iins'tnl 1 Sam, 28 : 24 ; in a few instances the vowel letter 1 is substituted 
for'it, fiPDi;' Ezek. 42 : 5 for ^i^^x;', "liix Neh. 2 : 7, Ps. 42: 10. 

c. A like quiescence or omission of N occurs in ^SX*i Num. 11:25 Hi. 
fut. for bix^?, Y^^ ^^^'^'- 21 : 33 Hi. inf. for ^^=Nn ,' -pix Job 32: 11 Hi. 
fut. for •('^iwX;i , -pta Prov. 17:4 Hi. part, for '("'ix^', §53. 2. a, ^ihh-q Job 
35: 11 Pi. part, for >i30^xri , §53. 3, ''n'rn 2 Sam. 22: 40 Pi. fut. for "^i'b'XP, 
n*!';:; 1 Sam. 15 : 5 Hi. i'ut! for nnx^^l , ti^rn Isa. 21 : 14 Hi. pret. for ^"^rNri, 
bf22 Isa. 13 : 20 Pi. iut. for brtx-^ , and after prefixes niix^ for ^Toxb , the 
Kal infinitive of "ihii with the preposition b, ^i^SJO Ezek. 28: 16 Pi. fut. 
with Vav conversive for 'rjiaNNl . ^^'JH^ Zech. 11 : 5 Hi. fut, with Vav 
conjunctive for "4"^'''*'?) c^^on Eccles. 4:14 Kal pass. part, with the 
article for c-'nioxn.' 

■; IT 

d. The diphthongal Hholem is further assumed by Pe Aleph roots 
once in the Niphal preterite, fiinxp Num. 32 : 30 for ^THNS , and five times 
in the Hiphil future, t^'^'^iii Jer. 46 : 8 for rTi'^2X>^ , b-'ii'x Hos. 11:4 for 
biixx. nn^l.s; Neh. 13:^3 for ?Tn'i:£i<.5< , bx'W Sam. 14:24 abbreviated 
from '."i^i<*T for n^N:*!! , "ini'T 2 Sam. 20": 5 K'ri for 'in>i^i . 

e. 5t draws the vowel to itself from the preformative in inn^Nn Prov. 
1 : 22 Kal fut. for >innxn in pause ^:i^?<n Zech. 8 : 17, Ps. I : 3, §6D. 3. c. 
Some so explain ^-^Vxn Job 20 : 26^' rrganling it as a Kal future for 



150 ETYMOLOGY. §112 

!lti!^3SF\ with the vowel attracted to the X from the preformative ; it is 
simpler, however, to regard it as a Pual future with Kamets Hhatuph in- 
stead of Kibbuts, as C'nsja Nah. 2 : 4, ^'':^'r^1 Ps. 94 : 20. 

3. a. Kamets Hhatuph for the most part remains in the Kal infinitive 
and imperative with suffixes, as "^"25, T)ii3 , ''"i^S , being rarely changed 
to Pattahh, as in in^nn Prov. 20: 16,' or Seghol,' 'as "HSOJl Num. 11 : 16, 
1^^'!'? Job 33 : 5. In the inflected imperative Seghol occurs once instead 
of Hhiriif, ""^Sbn Isa. 47: 2, and Kamets Hhatuph twice in compensation 
for the omitted Hholem, "^Tby Zeph. 3 : 14 but ^libsJ Ps. 68 : 5, ^linn Jer. 
2 : 12 but ^i"in Jer. 50 : 27, though the o sound is once retained in the 
compound Sh'va of a pausal form, "'^^n Isa. 44:27, Ewald explains 
Dnasm Ex. 20 : 5, 23 : 24, Deut. 5 : 9, and^onas-'J Deut. 13 : 3 as Kal futures, 
the excluded Hholem giving character to the preceding vowels; the forms, 
however, are properly Hophal futures, and there is no renson why the 
words may not be translated accordingly be induced to serve. In a few Kal 
infinitives with a feminine termination n has (. ), n^^n Ezek. 16:5, 
"irisTsn Hos. 7:4. 

6. In a very kw instances Pattahh is found in the first syllable of the 
Niphal and of the Hiphil preterite, y^t',^ Ps. 89 : 8, cn^nn Judg. 8 : 19. 

§112. 1. The guttural invariably receives compound Sh'va in place of 
simple, where this is vocal in the perfect verb ; and as in these cases it 
stands at the beginning of the word, it is more at liberty to follow its na- 
tive prelerences, and therefore usually takes (..). In cni'^."! 2 plur. pret., 
riiirt inf, n^ii imper. of trrn , the initial n has ( .) under the influence of 
the following "^ ; N receives (..) in the second plural of the Kal preterite, 
and in the feminine and plural of the passive participle, Cn"]::x., cnbsx, 
D'^biax , but commonly (.) in the imperative and infinitive, §60. 3. 6, bbx 
imper., iisx and Vz^. inf, thx and ths^ inf, yix imper., lax inf and 
imper. (but "^72Nri Job 34: IS with i"}. interrogative), pbx , :]bs (with n^ 
paragogic nsON), and in a very few instances the long vowel (..). §60. 3, c, 
51SX Ex. 16: 23 for >IEN, si^nx Isa. 21 : 12. 

2. Where the first radical in perfect verbs stands after a short vowel 
and completes its syllable, the guttural does the same, but mostly admits 
an echo of the preceding vowel after it, inclining it likewise to begin the 
syllable which follows. In the intermediate syllable thus formed, §20. 2, 
the vowel remains short, only being modified agreeably to the rules 
already given by the proximity of the guttural, which itself receives the 
corresponding Hhateph. The succession is, therefore, usually (..,.), (,, ,..) or 
(,. ). In a very few instances this correspondence is neglected; thus, in 
Tj^nn 3 fern. fut. of Tj^n to go (comp. pn^|;i from pns to laugh) the Hhirik 
of the preformative remains and the guttural takes Hhateph Pattahh ; in 
^'i^-.\l (once, viz., Hab. 1 : 15 for t^^^!") and tiBy/n Hiphil and Hophal 
preterites of n^:^ to go tip, and Pi"ii?f7. (once,' viz.. Josh. 7:7 for tn"i2rri) 
Hi. pret. of "lis to pass over, the guttural is entirely transferred to the 
second syllable, and the preceding vowel is lengthened. The forms f^i"?]^ , 
n^n";! , Bni'inv n^na from n';;n to be, and n^n;^ from n^n to liveware pecu- 
liar in having simple vocal Sh'va. 



§112 REMARKS ON TE GUTTURAL VERBS. 151 

3. Where (J or (._ _..) are proper to the form these are frequently- 
changed to (..) or (..__) upon the prolongation of the word or the removal 
of its accent forward. Thus, in the Kal future, tpii'^^ 2 Kin. 5 : .3, ^iedk^ 
Ex. 4 : 29. "^^EOn; Ps. 27 : 10. ''DDiin Josh. 2 : 18 ; li^'x;: Isa. 59: 5, "^i-^Wn 
Judg. 16:13; the Niphal, c^?5 i Kin. 10:3, nab?3* Nah. 3:11, o-sVJ'S 
Ps. 26:4; and especially in the Hiphil preterite with Vav conversive, 



17:4; -fTSn Ueut. 1 : 4o, nsiNnn Ex. lo:26, "^PiPinri'i Jer. 49:37; after 
Vav conjunctive, however, the vowels remain unchanged, "PipTnn') 1 Sam. 

17:35, "^n^'-inni Ps. 50:21. The change from ( ) to (.^j' 'after Vav 

conversive occurs once in the third person of the Hijihil preterite, "pTXinT 
Ps. 77 : 2, but is not usual, e. g. r\''yt,\}.) ■ ■ . 'i'l''':::^]! Lev. 27 : 8. TJiere 
is one instance of (...) instead of(.. .)in the HipJiil infinitive, ■'p'^Tnn 
Jer. 31:32. 

4. A vowel which has arisen from Sh'va in consequence of the rejec- 
tion of the vowel of a following consonant, will be dropped in guttural -as 
in perfect verbs upon the latter vowel being restored by a pause accent, 

5. Sometimes the silent Sh'va of the perfect verb is retained by the 
guttural instead of being, replaced by a compound Sh'va or a subsidiary 
vowel which has arisen from it. This is most frecpient in the Kal future, 
though it occurs likewise in the Kal infinitive ailer inseparable preposi- 
tions, in the Niphal preterite and participle, in the Hiphil species, and 
also though rarely in the Hophal. There are examples of it with all the 
gutturals, though these are most numerous in the case of n, which is the 
strongest of that class of letters. In the majority of roots and forms there 
is a fixed or at least a prevailing usage in iavour either of the simple or 
of the compound Sh'va; in some, however, the use of one or the other ap- 
pears to be discretionary. 

a. The following verbs always take simple Sh'va under the first radical 
in the species, whose initial letters are annexed to the root, viz. : 

CTS< Hi. to be red. iin K. Hi. to be vain. "isn K. to gird. 

"rts Ni. Hi. to be illus- nin K. Hi, to meditate, bnn K. (not Ho.) to 

trioiis. Cl'jrt K. to thrust. cease. 

cix Hi. to close. I'ln K. Ni. to honour. I'^n K. to cut. 

*-6jf. Is., to shut. n;n K. Ni. <o &e. ^^^^ K- ("^^ Hi.) to 

Cl^X K. to learn. *'^^^ K.toivjure.wound. live. 

12X K, to gird on. a'zn Ni.Hi.Ho. to hide. Cqn K. Hi. to be wise. 

D'lJij K. Ni. (not Hi.) x:in K. to beat of . *-^'^ri K, meaning doubt- 

to be guilty. "i2n Hi. to join together. Hal, 

* oTTaJ MySjxevov. 



152 ETYMOLOGY. ^112 

•nan K. Ni. to desire. "^Sfi K. to dig. MnS K. to jput on as an 

isn K. to spare. "lEH K. Hi. to blush. ornament. 

fean K, Ni. to do vio- tosn K. Ni to search. ?i"i:^ Hi.to gather much. 

lence to. 2^n K. (notHi.)<o^eip. "in^ N'l. to be wanting, 
yhn K. fo 6e leavened, f'p'v K. Ni. ^o investi- "lis K. Ni. /o trouble. 
■in?i K. to ferment. gate. bs^ Hi. fo ie presump- 

Tjin K. /o dedicate. * i'nn K. ^ tremble. tiioiis. 

hen K. ^0 devour. Mnn K. ^o ZaA:e j^p. rf;y K. Ni. to pervert. 

DGn K. /o muzzle. Tj^n Ni. /o 6e destined, "ibs K. Hi. ^o tithe. 

lin K. Hi. ifo lack. bnn Ho.^o6esioaf/rf/e(/. *Drr Ni. /o be burnt up. 

nsn Ni. to cover. Drn K. Ni. Hi. to seal, prs' K. Hi. to be re- 
Tsn K. Ni. to be panic- t\T\T\ K. to seize. moved. 

struck. "hn }^. to break through. '\T'_'J K. Ni. Hi. to en- 

y'sn K. to delight. 'zyJ K. to love, dote. treat. 

b. The following are used with both simple and compound Sh'va, either 
in the same form or in different forms, viz. : 

10X to bind. non to trust. nay to wear. 

TjSti to turn. TjiyfJ to withhold. ^iy$ to encircle. 
isn to take in pledge. Cl^^n to uncover. ' C?3' to conceal. 

t5an to bind. ^iiJn to think. *i:|S to shut 7tp, restrain. 

pTn to be strong. M^'" ^^ ^^ fZar/c "j?^ to supplant. 

nbn ^0 6e sick. "i2a io poss o(;er. yiys^ to smoke. 

pBn io divide. "^yJ to help. "ic^ to be rich. 

c. The following have simple Sh'va only in the passages or parts al- 
leged, but elsewhere always compound Sh'va, viz. : 

rns 2 Chr. 19 : 2, Pr. 15 : 9, fo love, "i-nn Ezek. 26 : 18, to tremble. 

*its Ps. 65 : 7, to gird. irrn Hi. part, to be silent. 

ClDX Ps. 47 : 10. to gather. rrn Jer. 49 : 37, to be dismayed, 

r^n Ps. 109 : 23, to go. 'liry Eccl. 5:8, to serve. 
C^n Job 39 : 4, Jer. 29 :S, to dream. 1^'J Jer. 15 : 17, Ps. 149:5, and 

Cj^n Job 20 : 24, to change, pierce. y^^' Ps. 5 : 12, to eondt. 

All other Pe guttural verbs, if they occur m forms requiring a Sh'va 
under the first radical, have invariably comijound Sh'va. 

The use or disuse of simple Sh'va is so uniform and pervading in cer- 
tain verbs, that it must in all probability be traced to the fixed usage of 
actual speech. This need not be so in all cases, however, as in other and 
less common words its occurrence or non-occurrence may be fortuitous; 
additional examples might have been pointed differently. 

* offtts \ey6fMevov. f Except Ps. 44 : 22. 



§113-110 AYIN GUTTURAL VERBS. 153 

§113. 1. The Hhirik of the prefix is in the Niphal future, imperative 
and participle, almost invariably lengthened to Tsere upon the omission 
of Daghesh-forte in the first radical, "lOn;., -\ki<^_ Isa. 23 : 18, '^^h^ (the re- 
trocession of the accent by §35.1) Isa. 28:27, p\ni Job 38:24, y^nz 
Num. 32 : 17, P^n^l ^ Sam. 17 : 23, which is in one instance expressed by 
the vowel letter "^ , Miv!^''^f!l Ex. 25 : 31. The only exception is 5];i!is (two 
accents explained by §42. a) Ezek. 26: 15 for SptinS , where tiie vowel 
remains short as in an intermediate syllable, only being changed to 
Seghol before the guttural as in the Niphal and Hiphil preterites. Ac- 
cording to some copies, which differ in this from the received text, the 
vowel likewise remains sliort in n^^'X Job 19:7, inib::"!^ Ezek. 43:18, 
^i?J^^^.1 iChron. 24:3, Cj-Jra Lam.Vr^ll. 

2. The initial n of the Hiphil infinitive is, as in perfect verbs, rarely 
rejected after prefixed prepositions, as ppnb Jer, 37: 12 for ppnnb , X'^t^nb 
Eccles. 5:5, n-'^yb 2 Sam. 19:19, -iurb Deut. 26:12, -.tra Neh. 10:39^ 
lifi'b 2 Sam. 18 : 3 K'thibh; and still more rarely that of the Niphal infin- 
itive, Cia>a Lam. 2:11 for Clii^'i^a, Snna Ezek. 26 : 15. 

§114. The letter "i resembles the other gutturals in not admitting 
Daghesh-forte, and in requiring the previous vowel to be lengthened in- 
stead, t,'y^^'] Jon, 1:5, 133|^^;! Ps. 106:25. In other cases, however, it 
causes no change in an antecedent Hhirik, ti'n^^ Deut. 19 : 6, T^"'^ 2 Sam. 
T : 10, ri32"ii7 Ps. 66:12, except in certain forms of the verb nxn to see, 
viz.. if^^T Kal future with Vav conversive, shortened from MN"i'^ , •"i5<"ifi 
which alternates with nx^n as Hiphil preterite, and once with Vav con- 
versive preterite. Ti'^Xirt ' Nah. 3:5. It is in two instances preceded by 
Hhirik in the Hiphil infinitive, 5"k"in, Ppn Jer. 50:34. In the Hophal 
species the participles Ci'^ip Isa. 14 : 6, rsa'na Lev. 6: 14 take Kibbuts in 
the first syllable, but i^X"^ . H'"^ have the ordinary Kamets Hhatuph. 
Resh always retains the simple Sh'va of perfect verbs whether silent or 
vocal, tp"} Gen. 44 : 4, "'J^S'i") Ps. 129 ; 86, except in one instance, vi^'i]] 
Ps. 7 : 6, where it appears to receive Pattahh furtive contrary to the ordi- 
nary rule which restricts it to the end of the word, §60. 2. a. 

§115. The verb h'Oii reduplicates its last instead of its second radical 
in the Pual, b^i:s ; "iTin reduplicates its last syllable, sinTsn?:!! Lam. 2 : 11, 
§92. a. ''fibs'in Hos. 11:3 has the appearance of a Hiphil preterite with 
t\ prefixed instead of ii. 

bnn is a secondary root, based upon the Hiphil of b^n. See V^ verbs. 
For the peculiar forms of r;D5< and T^!"^ see the "2 verbs, CjD]; and Tjr ij • 



Ayin Guttural Verbs. 

^110. Ayin guttural verbs, or those wliicli have a gut- 
tural for their second radical, are affected by the peculiarities 
of these letters, § 108, in the following manner, viz. : 



154 ETYMOLOGY. ^117 

1. The influence of the guttural upon a following vowel 
being comparatively slight, this latter is only converted into 
Pattahh in the future and imperative Kal, and the feminine 
plural of the future and imperative Niphal, Piel, and Hith- 
pael, where the like change sometimes occurs even without 
the presence of a guttural, bi?-)? for bs;^^ ; robsisn for robissn . 

2. No forms occur which could give rise to Pattahh 
furtive. 

3. When the second radical should receive simple Sh'va, 
it takes Hhateph Pattahh instead as the compound Sh'va 
best suited to its nature ; and to this the new vowel, formed 
from Sh'va in the feminine singular and masculine plural of 
the Kal imperative, is assimilated, ''?i55 for ''3si;a . 

4. Daghesh-forte is always omitted from the second radi- 
cal in Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, in which case the preceding 
vowel may either remain short as in an intermediate syllable, 
or Hhirik may be lengthened to Tsere, Pattahh to Kamets, 
and Kibbuts to Hholem, § CO. 4, ^ns , bh . 

§117. Tlie inflections of Ayin guttural verbs may be 
shown by the example of b5?5 , which in some species means 
to redeem, and in others to pollute. The Hiphil and Hophal 
are omitted, as the former agrees precisely with that of per- 
fect verbs, and the latter diff'ers only in the substitution of 
compound for simple Sh'va in a manner sufficiently illus- 
trated by the foregoing species. 

a. The Pual infinitive is omitted from tiie paradigm as it is of rare 
occurrence, and there is no example of it in this class of verbs. As the 
absolute infinitive Piel mostly gives up its distinctive form and adopts that 
of the construct, §92. d, it is printed with Tsere in this and the following 
paradigms. 





Paradigm 


OF Ayin 


Guttural Verbs 






KAL. 


NIPIIAL. 


riEL. 


PUAL. 


IIITIIPAEL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


bsr* 

"" T 


b^i^f? 


b^3 


bj^b 


bj<r;r- 


3/ 


nb.s5 


f^bj^f? 


•^b.N^a 


T -; 1 


Mbu^r«r.M 


2 TO, 


^^^? 


^b^'*? 


nbw^r. 


nb5<b 


nb^r»rr; 

T : — r : • 


2/ 


Ipb^? 


^^^f? 


^bsk^ 


nb^^a 


rbi^snM 


Ic. 


^ribi<^ 


'^^^f? 


'i^^bxr, 


^nbi^ii 


Tb&^ariri 


PZwr. 3 c. 


~;iT 


^b5^;o 


^by55 


^bjssr, 


•ib^ann 


2 TO. 


nnbv^ri 


sJ;?bvS:o 


Dr}b^,5 


Dr:j5<b 


Dnb!J5rtrn 


2/ 


l^^^^f 


l^f^"'? 


1JD^^^,5 


■j^bi^ri 


■nb.^r.nn 


1 c. 


^Jb^53 


^2b^?;o 


^^b^^) 


^w^^^'n 


^-.bs^arr; 


Infin. ^&so^ 


bik^ 


biisn 


b>53 

•• r 






Consty 


bi^s 


b^r.n 

•• T • 


bk^ 




bJi^i'i?^ 


FUT. 3 TO. 


bJ?5:c 


*■ T • 


bkT 

" T ; 


bi<r 


bkan^ 


3/ 


b;k:»n 




bkjr\ 


bi^bn 


bkann 


2 «j. 


b^^ri 


b.<5sn 

•* T • 


b^5:<n 


bvS3i;i 


bkr.r.r. 


2/ 


^?^^'^ 


"bis:r.ri 


^b^.-^ 


-^bxr^ri 


^b.^ann 


Ic. 


b^^;»^? 


•■ T V 




b^b^ 


bJi^r.r.^ 


PZur. 3 TO. 


^b.s;c 


^bsr 


^bis;:r 


^by?;»' 


^bNian;^ 


3/. 


nDbs^^n 


nDbiksn 


T ; — T ; 


nwb.s^n 


Hjb^ann 


2 TO. 


^b.sr^n 


^byisn 


^b.s3ri 


^bs:.ri 


^b>5arri 


2/ 


nDbv^jFl 


n;b^5r>n 

T ; — T • 


nJb^5:rl 


riwbj^^ri 


Hjbjisnn 


Ic. 


^^f? 


b.^ro 


bskro 

••r: 


bk:o 


bJ^i'fi? 


ImPEE. 2 TO. 


bk-^ 


bk-^n 

" T • 


bx5 




b^^arin 

•• T ; • 


2/ 


^^ 


'??5n 


^b^^' 


wanting 


^b^.yrrj 


P?Mr. 2 TO. 


^bN!5 


^bxsri 


^b!S!3 




^b.^ann 


2/. 


•^jb^^ 


rijbi^sn 

T : — T • 


n^b^a 

T : — T 




Mjbsrinri 

T : — r ; • 


Part. ^c«. 


b^^ 




bj!<"J 




bkan-j 


Pass. 


T 


b.<5:o 

T ; • 




bsro 

r : 





155 



156 etymology. & 118, 119 

Remarks on Ayin Guttural Verbs. 

§118. 1. If the second radical is i, the Kal future and imperative 




pieces. 
to he silent has fut. a. 

2. With any other guttural for the second radical the Kal future and 
imperative have Pattahh ; only cfi; to roar, and cnn to love, have Hho- 
lem ; o?T to curse, hb'o to trespass, and bvB to do, have either Pattahh 
or Hiiolem ; the future of inx to grasp, is i'n^^ ^^ 'T]**'^ • 

3. Pattahh in the ultimate is as in perfect verbs commonly prolonged 
to Kamets before suffixes, where Hholem would be rejected, rj^ni< Prov. 
4:6, nrjnd^ 2 Kin. 10:14, oj^nm 2 Sam. 22:43, •'Sii^NTU lsa."45:ll, 
'«3ins:j Ge'n.'29:32. 

4. The feminine plurals of the Niphal and Piel futures have Pattahh 
with the second radical whether this be i or another guttural, i^J^natn 
Ezek.7 : 27, njsnian Prov. 6 : 27, nD:nnn Ezek. 16 : 6, : fiJSNjFi Hos. 4 : 13, 
but Tsere occasionally in pause, njnnTan Jer. 9 : 17. 

§119. 1. With these exceptions the vowel accompanying the guttural 
is the same as in the perfect verb; thus the Kal preterite mid. e ! 2nj« 
Gen. 27 : 9, tj^nx Deut. 15 : 16; infinitive pn 1 Sam. 7 : 8, sho Jer. 15:3, 
with Makkepiir "n";3 1 Kin. 5:20; Nipharinfinitive, nn^n Ex. 17:10, 
with suffixes, 'f^JS^H 2 Chron. 16: 7, 8, with prefixed 3, nnb: Judg. 11 :25, 
bxiyj 1 Sam. 20 : 6, 28, and once anomalously with prefixed X , ^"ivN Ezek. 
14: 3 (a like substitution of X for n occurring once in the Hiphil preterite, 
: "inbKSX Isa. 63 : 3) ; future nnib'^ Ex. 14 : 14, with Vav conversive, 
jOsa^l'job 7:5, bn;5'f1 Ex. 32 :l', pi:j*i Judg. 6:34, inxtni Ex. 9:15, 
vn^ni Num. 22 : 25, or with the accent on the penult, cn^^i Ex. 17 : 8, 
nycriT Gen. 41:8; imperative, Dn^n 1 Sam. 18:17, or with the accent 
thrown back, inQn Gen. 13:9; Hiphil infinitive, ttJxnn 1 Sam. 27:12, 
pn-in Gen. 21:16, n^nri Deut. 7:2, apocopated future, t;i;-i^ 1 Sam. 
2 : 10, ^.^p:: 1 Kin. 8 : 1 (in the parallel passage, 2 Chron. 5 : 2, i'-'iip:), 
nnaJn Deiit. 9 : 26, nns'^ Ps. 12 : 4, with Vav conversive, Dy^:^ 1 Kin. 22 : 54, 
nnsNi Zech. 11:8; imperative, nnpn Ex. 28 : 1, with Maklieph, '^ri-jn Ps. 
81 : 11, "P?!^! 2 Sara. 20 : 4, "bnpn Deut. 4 : 10, with a pause accent the 
last vowelsometimes becomes Pattahh, pn-in Job 13 : 21, : Ti'^r! Ps.69:24, 
though not always, hripf] Lev. 8 : 3. Hophal infinitive, a"!"" 2 Kin. 3: 23. 
Tsere is commonly retained in the last syllable of the Piel and Hithpael, 
which upon the retrocession or loss of the accent is shortened to Seghol, 




form for Tjnnynio, §01. 5)1 Sam. 16: 15 but CDTsnnb Isa. 30: 18, cannuJ 



^120,121 REMARKS ON AYIN GUTTURAL VERBS. 157 

Ezek. 5 : 16; in a few instances, however, as in the perfect verb, Pattahh 
is taken instead, thus in the preterite, anb Mai. 3: 19, cni Ps. 103: 13, 
pnn Isa. 6 : 12, Uinx Deut. 20 : 7, TQTi Gen. 24 : 1 (Tp? rarely occurs ex- 
cept in pause), UinD Isa. 25:11, and more rarely still in the imperative, 
nnf? Ezek. 37 : 17, and future ^l^r^-! Prov. 14: 10, i=^5^n7, ibssn") Dan. 1 : 8. 

2. bxd, which has Kamets in pause, bsC, 'ibx'J, but most commonly 
Tsere before suffixes, ^|bi5;Uj , ^3!iPNd, exhihits tiie peculiar forms, cnbyia 
1 Sam. 12:13, tvnbNii' l' Sam. l': 20, ^n-^nbxq Judg. 13:6, ^n-'rbN'in 
1 Sam. 1 : 28. 

3. Kamets Hhatuph sometimes remains before the guttural in the Kal 
imperative and infinitive with suffixes or appended n , B^nx Hos. 9:10, 
ri^NJ Ruth 3: 13, c6x-Q Am. 2:4, nioN^ (by §61. 1) IsaVyO: 12, C=2';5 
Deut. 20 : 2 (the altermtte form being cz^^'O Josh. 22 : 16), nin^ Ex. 30 :' 18, 
nj^nii Ezek. 8:6. and sometimes is changed to Pattahh, T\p.?.}. Isa. 57 : 13, 
Df?^73 Ezek. 20:27, trjtia Hos. 5:2, n^n^ Deut. 10:15, nix^ Jer. 31 : 12, 
or with simple Sh'va under the guttural, Ti^rw:^ Ps. 68:8, i2"T 2 Chron. 
26:19. In nirj Num. 23:7, Kamets Hhatuph is lengthened to Hholem 
in the simple syllable. Once the paragogic imperative takes the form 
nbxo Isa. 7: 11, comp. i^rib'p, ^^^'C^. Dan. 9 : 19, nxsn Ps. 41 : 5. 

4. Hhirik of the inflected Kal imperative is retained before "i, 'in'iS 
Josh. 9:6, and once before n, >l'iriT!J Job 6: 22; when the first radical is X 
it becomes Seghol, ^il^x Ps. 31 : 24, "^TPiN Cant. 2: 15 ; in other cases it 
is changed to Pattahh, ""^iryt_ Isa. 14: 31, :iprT_ Judg. 10: 14. 

§ 120. 1. The compound Sh'va after Kamets Hhatuph is (^.), after 
Seghol ( .), in other cases (..), as is sufficiently shown by the examples 
already adduced. Exceptions are rare, "'inJ* Ruth 3: 15, '''7n'rn Ezek. 
16: 33. lM;^^!n'? i/tha'rehu Isa. 44: 13. 

2. The letter before the guttural receives compound Sh'va in pn^l^ 
Gen. 21:6; in "iNiri.sa Ezek. 9:8, this leads to the prolongation of the 
preceding vowel and its expression by the vowel letter N, § 11. 1. a. This 
latter form, though without an exact parallel, is thus susceptible of ready 
explanation, and there is no need of resorting to the hypothesis of an error 
in the text or a confusion of two distinct readings, "i!Sw"3 and "Ni^N. 

3. Resh commonly receives simple Sh'va, though it has compound in 
some forms of Ti^a, e.g. I3"^api Num. 6 : 23, ia^a Gen. 27:27. 

§121. 1. Upon the omission of Daghesh-forte from the second radical 
the previous vowel is always lengthened before ^, almost always before 
N, and prevailingly before V, but rarely before rt or H. The previous 
vowel remains short in Piya to terrify, 0^3 to provoke, '^V"^ to he few, "i53 
to shake, and pi'S to cry. It is sometimes lengthened, though not always, 
in "1X3 to make plain, tlXJ to commit adultery, "j^x; to despise, "iX; tn re- 
ject, bxu to ask; i?a to consume, *i?b to sweep away by a tempest, 32.*n to 
abhor ; bna to affright, Jirta to be dim, bnj to lead. It is also lengthened 
in nnp to be dull, which only occurs Eccl. 10 : 10. The only instances of 



158 ETYMOLOGY. §122,123 

the prolongation of the vowel before n are tnb Pi. inf. Judg. 5: 8, 'na Pu. 
pret. Ezek. 21:18, sinn Pu. pret. Ps.36: 13, iniiH'inn Job 9: 30, the first two 
of which may, however, be regarded as nouns. Daghesh-fbrte is retained 
and the vowel consequently remains short in n'ns Ezek. 16:4, JiiKi Job 
33:21, unless the point in the latter example is to be regarded as Mappik, §26. 

2. When not lengthened, Hhirik of the Piel preterite commonly re- 
mains unaltered before the guttural, sinns .Tob 15:18, ^nnili Jer. 12:10, 
though it is in two instances changed to 'Seghol, ^Tri5< Judg, 5: 28, •'rnin'' 
Ps. 51:7. 

3. When under the influence of a pause accent the gultural receives 
Kamets, a preceding Pattahh is converted to Seghol, §63. 1. a, ipirriin 
Ezek. 5: 13, cn;n^ Num. 23: 19, !!nni:n Num. 8:7. 

§122. 1. '|5yp and l???.^ are Piel forms with the third radical redupli- 
cated in place of the second ; "n^iriP doubles the second syllable ; and l^fiX 
lart Hos. 4 : 18, is by the ablest Hebraists regarded as one word, the last 
two radicals being reduplicated together with the personal ending, §92. a. 

2. ty:i and ^?D have two forms of the Piel, ^na and t"^'^ , ^io and 
lib, §92.' 6.; and UJsa two forms of the Hithpael, >ii:;?4'!7':, lirr^Jn^ Jer. 
40:7,8; ! y^bp Isa. 52:5, follows the analogy of the latter; yxS^ Eccl. 
12 : 5, is sometimes derived from ^'X3 to despise, as if it were for y^i^^"^, ; 
such a form would however be unexampled. The vowels show it to be 
the Hiphil future of y^'i or rather ^^^3 to flourish or blossom, the N being 
inserted as a vowel letter, §11. 1. a. ^bN53 Isa. 59:3, Lam. 4: 14 is a 
Niphal formed upon the basis of a Pual, §83. c. (2). uil'f-i'n Ezra 10: 16 
is an anomalous infinitive from Ui'^T , which some regard as Kal, others 
as Piel. 



Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 

§123. Lamedh guttural verbs, or tliose which have a 
guttural for their third radical, are affected by the peculiari- 
ties of these letters, § 108, in the following manner, viz. : 

1 . The vowel preceding the third radical becomes Pat- 
tahh in the future and imperative Kal, and in the feminine 
plurals of the future and imperative Piel, Pliphil, and Hith- 
pael, n^TCV 

2. Tsere preceding the third radical, as in the Piel and 
Hithpael and in some forms of the other species, may either 
be changed to Pattahh or retained ; in the latter case the 
guttural takes Pattahh-furtive, §17, after the long heteroge- 
neous vowel, e. g. M'iiiJ^ or J^^^?!' . 



§124 LAMEDH GUTTURAL VERBS. 159 

3. Hhirik of the Hiphil species, Illiolem of tlic Kal and 
Niplial infinitives, and Shurek of the Kal passive participle, 
suffer no change before the final guttural, which receives a 
Pattahh-furtive, n^^irn , n"':© . 

4. The guttural retains the simple Sh'va of the perfect 
verb before all afformatives beginning with a consonant, 
though compound Sh'va is substituted for it before suffixes, 
which are less closely attached to the verb, nnS-iy ^ ^inbio . 

5. When, however, a personal afformative consists of a 
single vowelless letter, as in the second feminine singular of 
the preterite, the guttural receives a Pattahh-furtive to aid in 
its pronunciation without sundering it from the affixed ter- 
mination, PinSi^ . 

a. Some grammarians regard this as a Pattahh inserted between the 
guttural and tiie final vowelless consonant by §61. 2, and accordingly pro- 
nounce PinBo shulahhnt instead of shdhiffihl. But as these verbs do 
not sufler even a compound Sh'va to be inserted before the affixed per- 
Eonal termination, it is scarcely probable that a full vowel would be ad- 
mitted. And the Daghesh-lene in the final Tav and the Sh'va under it 
show that the preceding vowel sign is not Pattahh but Pattahh-furtive, 
§ 17. a. 

6. There is no occasion in these verbs for the application 
of the rule requiring the omission of Daghesh-forte from the 
gutturals. 

§124. The inflections of Lamedh guttural verbs may be 
represented by nr,a to send. The Pual and liophal, which 
agree with perfect verbs except in the Pattahh-furtive of the 
second feminine preterite and of the absolute infinitive, are 
omitted from the paradigm. The Hithpael of this verb does 
not occur, but is here formed from analogy, the initial sib- 
ilant being transposed with n of the prefix, according to 
§82.5. 

a. Instead of the Niphal infinitive absolute with prefixed n, which 
does not happen to occur in any verb of this class, the allernale for.nn with 
prefixed 3, §91. 6, is given in the paradigm, n'^ir? being in actual use. 



Paradigm 


OF Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


HipniL. 


niTnPAEL. 


Peet, 3 m. 


nb-d 


nbu:2 


r^t 


rrbOT 


nbr-uin 


3/. 


T : IT 


T : : • 




nrpb'iiin 

T • : • 


H^nbn'irn 


2 m. 


nnbd 


nnb'jJD 

T : - : • 




r.Mb'jin 


nn'!3na:Ti 


2/ 


nn3u3 


nnbirp 


nnbd 


rinb'irn 


i^M>n"d»i 


\c. 


■^nnb^ 


^FinS^rs 


''riMi^iT 


^nrib'^rn 


Tinb'nirn 


Plur. 3 c. 


: IT 


^.nb-^D 


^ihbu3 


^"^b^IJn 


^nbn-iTn 


2 m. 


DnnVij 


Dnnb'^rp 


Drmbii: 


Qnrib-i^n 


Drinbri'^rn 


2/ 


■p"bu;' 


"(^"b"^? 


li?"V^ 


■jrinb^in 


"jriMbnirn 


Ic. 




^:ribt2pp 


^2-5^ 


^Dnb-^n 


^:nbm'r; 




T 

n5^ 


" T . 




nb'ijn 




inbnu3'ri 


FcjT. 3 m. 


nbia^ 


nbi^^ 


nbiT^ 


n^bnj''' 


niniij-' 


3/ 


nS'isn 


nbTSn 


n^ujn 


n^b'u^n 


n^r.irn 


2 m. 


np'jp'n 


n5isn 


ri3Tj5n 


n^b'^rn 


nten 


2/ 


^nbujn 


"fibiiiin 


^iibirin 


^n^bujn 


^nbn^'n 


1<J. 


nbiri^ 


nbt^u^ 


n^i^^ 


^'b"^« 


r"ibn^j^5 


PZwr. 3 m. 


^nbip: 


^rbt^ 


^nV^'!' 


^-^b'lJ: 


iinbnii:^ 


3/ 


renbtn 


n^ribisn 


nsri'iujn 


n:nb";i:'n 


M*n5n"djn 


2 w. 


^nb^n 


^nbian 


i-h-m 


^n^b^n 


^nbnirn 


2/ 


nirib^rn 


r;:ribisn 


n^M^ir'n 


M^nBirn 


n^nbntin 


1 c. 


T6m 


- T • 


nVjpp 


ri^Sirp 


nlri'^p 


ImPEE. 2 OT. 


nb'ij 


nbi^n 


nb'id 


rib"j:n 


nbri'iDn 


2/ 


^nbu: 


•^nbirri 


"^rhm 


T^'^'ii^^r] 


^nbnirn 


PZwr. 2 m. 


iihbuj 


^nb^n 


^nb'iD 


^M^birn 


^fibri'irn 


2/ 


T : - : 


T : - T • 


T : 


T : " : - 


nDribnirn 


Part. ^ci. 


nb'ir 




rSwa 


ri^b'u:-:) 


nbniiJTj 


Pass. 


mbir 


T : • 









160 



§125,126 REMARKS ON LAMEDH GUTTURAL VERBS. IGi 



Remarks on Lamedh Guttural Verbs. 

§ 125. 1. The Kal llituro ami imperative liave Pattahli without exception ; 
in one instance the K'thibh inserts l, mbox Jer. 5 : 7, where the K'ri is 
■nbos . The vowel a is retained be(()re suffixes, remaining short in nria 
Am. 9:1, but usually lengthened to Kamets, !n!iy|:53';' 2 Chron. 21:17, 
i;sr"^ Gen. 23:11. In the paragogic imperative a may be retained, 
nnb'p , t^vh-:^ Dan. 9: 19, or rejected, and Hhirik given to the first radical, 
-nVriy Job'32 : 10, nnbtJ Gen. 43 : S. Hliirik appears in rrnari Gen. 25 : 31, 
but verbs whose last radical is "1 commonly take Kamets Hiiatuph like 
perfect verbs both before paragogic n^, and suffixes, "ITirid 1 Chron. 
29 : 18, nndl? Prov. 3:3. 

2. The Kal infinitive construct mostly has 0, S'bz? Jon. 2:1, : "i?^ 
Num. 17:28, "lya Isa. 54:9, rarely a, n^d Isa. 58:9, rir> Num. 20: 3, 
?]nd^3 1 Sam. 15: 1. With a feminine ending, the first syllable takes 
Kamets Hhatuph. S^i^^a Zeph. 3:11; so sometimes before suffixes, innj 
2 Sam. 15 : 12, "i'^'d iVeh. 1 : 4, Crrra Josh. 6 : 5, but more commonly 
Hhirik. tj'pa Ara.'l': 13, 1^53 Num.' 35: 19, inra Neh. 8:5, rarely Pat- 
tahh, T|?^pV Ezek. 25:6. 

3. Most verbs with final "1 haveHholem in the Kal future and impera- 
tive. But such as have middle e in the preterite take Pattahh, §82. 1. a; 
and in addition the following, viz. : "^^ to shut, "irs to say, n'ln to honour, 
*Tjn to grow pale, "irij to shake, "lUJi' to be rich, ^tH^ to entreat, ^'OQ to slip 
away, ISQ to press, "^zO to drink or he drunken. The following have 
Pattahh or Hholem, "ITS to decree, "i"]? to vow, "i^i5 fut. 0, to reuj'), fut. a, 
to be short. 

§ 126. 1. Tsere is almost always changed to Pattahh before the guttural 
in the preterite, infinitive construct, future and imperative; but it is re- 
tained and Pattahh-furtive given to the guttural in pause, and in the in- 
finitive absolute and participle which partake of the character of nouns 
and prefer lengthened forms. Thus, Niphal : infin. constr., S'^^V^Ti Esth. 
2 : 8, nrsn Isa. 51 : 14, future, r>-:-&^^ Ps. 9:19, ; ?i?n';i Job 17 : 3, impera- 
tive, even in pause, ^I:^{f^. Picl: preterite, n^a Lev. 14:8, ^'^a 2 Chron. 
34:4, infin. constr., y'iaHab. 1 : 13, sba Lam. 2 : 8, future, n^E^ .lob 16: 13, 
iSl^rn 2 Kin. 8: 12, 'p"^}?} Deut. 7 : 5," imperative, n^c3 Ex. 4:23. Hiphil : 
apocopated future, ni:2'^ 2 Kin. 18:30, fut. with Vav conversive, y?^!'] 
Judg. 4:23, fern, plur..' n:"?n Ps. 119:171, imperative, rein Ps. S6:'a 
and even in pause, n^'^n 1 Kin. 22 : 12. Hithpael: S'^ir^H Prov. 17:14, 
•^^ir"? Dan. 11:40, nipi'i'n Ps. 106:47; this species sometimes has 
Kamets in its pausal forms,' ^"ip^snii Josh. 9:13, :"^?rn Ps. 107 : 27. On 
the other hand, the absolute infinitives: Piel. n^d Deut. 22:7. Hiphil, 
wian Isa. 7:11, Hophal, n^tS^n Ezek. 16:4. Participles: Kal. ni;3 Deut. 
28: 52, but occasionally in the construct state with Pattahh, rtii! Ps. 94: 9, 
ran Isa. 51:15, ypn Isa. 42:5, rb'j Lev. 11:7, Piel, tjiiT^ 1 Kin. 3:3, 
Hithpael, yaFi\ri3 1 Sam. 21 : 15. Tsere is retained before suffixes of the 
second person instead of being either changed to Pattahh or as in perfect 
11 



162 ETYMOLOGY. §127,128 

verbs shortened to Seghol, Pi. inf. const. i^OiitJ Deut 15 : 18, fut. Vjn^'ix 
Gen. 31 : ^7. There is one instance of Pattahh in the Hiphil inf const., 
nsin Job 6 : 26. 

2. In verbs with final "i Pattahh takes tlie place of Tsere for the most 
part in the Piel preterite (in pause Tsere), and frequently in the Hithpael 
(in pause Kamets) ; but Tsere (in pause Tsere or Pattahh. §65. a) is com- 
monly retained elsewhere, "i2ir Ps. 76:4, :"i2Td Ex. 9 : 25, ""^"rri Prov. 
25 : 6, "'j;"<~n Ps. 93: 1, ^bw^^. Gen. 22 : 14, "ibjj:; Gen. 10 : 19, ; -ijjsrn Zeph. 
2 : 4. Two verbs have Seghol in the Piel preterite, 'ni'n (in pause, "iS'n) 
and "1E3. 

§ 127. 1. The guttural almost always has Pattahh-furtive in the second 
fem. eing. of the preterite, nr^\:: Ruth 2:8, !P?=b Ezek. 16:28, T\y'iri 
Esth. 4 : 14. nn^'sn Ezek. 16 : 4, scarcely ever simple Sh'va, f}n;^b 1 Kin. 
14:3, rinaO Jer. 13: 5, and never Patlahh (which might arise from the 
concurrence of consonants at the end of a word, §61.2), unless in rr.jbb 
Gen. 30: 5, and snriDb Gen. 20: 16, the former of which admits of ready 
explanation as a construct infinitive, and the latter may be a Niphal par- 
ticiple in the feminine singular, whether it be understood as in the common 
English version "s/ie uus reproved.^' or it is adjudged {\. e. justly due 
as a compensation) to thee ; the latest authorities, however, prefer to 
render it Uiou art judged, i. e. justice is done thee by this indemnification. 
Pattahh is once inserted before the abbreviated termination of the feminine 
plural imperative, '{sjyo Gen. 4 : 23 for njsrd . 

• 

2. The guttural takes compound instead of simple Sh'va before suf- 
fixes, not only when it stands at the end of the verb, ^t^^ Num. 24: 11, 
'r^S'Sb'^ Prov. 25: 17, but also in the first plural of the preterite, r,!!:n|5^ 
Ps.'^44 : IS (^:ni'j ver. 21), C!i3?i7 Isa. 59: 12, *in!i:yr2 Ps. 35: 25, wi^^i^iri 
2 Sam. 21:6, h^r'r^':; P.s. 132:6; i retains simple Sh'va before all per- 
sonal terminations and suffixes, nn:^X Judg.4:20, ci-i^H Mai. 1:7, t:2'?35 
Josh. 4:23. 

3. In a few exceptional cases tbe letter before the guttural receives 
compound Sh'va, ni'bss Isa. 27:4, "t^ni^b Gen. 2:23. 

§128. The Hipbil infinitive construct once has the feminine ending n^l, 
wirrrn Ezek. 24:26; ns'najpi Ezek. 16:50 for n;n2:pi perhiips owes 
its anomalous form to its being assimilated in termination to the following 
word, which is a Lamedh He verb. In ^p'^1 Am. S : 8 K'thibh for ni'pcs 
the guttural ^ is elided, §53. 3. 



Pe Nun (fs) Verbs. 

§129. Nun, as the first radical of verbs, lias two penu- 
liarities, viz. : 

1. At the end of a syllable it is assimilated to the fol- 



§130 PE NUN VERBS. 163 

lowing consonant, the two letters being written as one, and 
the doubling indicated by Daghesh-forte. This occurs in the 
Kal future, Niphal preterite and participle, and in the Hiphil 
and Ilophal species throughout ; thus, liJ-iS'^ becomes tii^"^ , 
written ^'k'! , so tJb for t5D? , mn for to'^k-^. In the 
Hophal, Kamets lihatuph becomes Kibbuts before the 
doubled letter, §61. 5, TiJ.^n for tJ5:n. 

2. In the Kal imperative with Pattahh it is frequently 
dropped, its sound being easily lost from the beginning of a 
syllable when it; is without a vowel, TZ;^ for ©53, §53.2. A 
like rejection occurs in the Kal infinitive construct of a few 
verbs, the abbreviation being in this case compensated by 
adding the feminine termination n ; thus, tri^^ for T^'^k (by 
§ 63. 2. «), the primary form being TlJi? . 

a. In the Indo-European languages likewise, n is frequently conformed 
lo or affected by a ibllowing consonant, and in certain circumstances it is 
liable to rejection, e. g. cyypatjbo), ifxjSdXXw, crucrTpe^M. 

• § 130. 1. The inflections of Pe Nun verbs maybe repre- 
sented by tjip to approach. In the Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, 
they do not differ from perfect verbs. The last column of 
the paradigm is occupied by the Kal species of "jr? to (jive, 
which is peculiar in assimilating its last as well as its first 
radical, and in having Tsere in the future. 

a. The Kal of D53 is used only in the infinitive, future, and imperative, 
the preterite and participle being supplied by the Niphal, which has sub- 
stantially the same sense: the missing parts are in the paradigm supplied 
from analogy. 

6. The future of '(W has Pattahh in one instance before Makkeph, 
"(W Judg. 16 : 5. 



Paradigm of Pe Nun Verbs. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


IllPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


. KAL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


Di3 

— T 


id' 53 


t^in 


ojiiri 


1^3 


of. 


T ; IT 


T ; • 


T • • 


najsn 


nina 

T : IT 


2 m. 


T ; — T 


r : — • 


ribsr; 


n^D'sr; 


nnj 


2/ 


n-^rro 


nip 55 


nuJiiH 


PuJSm 


nf^5 

; — r 


Ic. 


^nuJru 


^n"^'|3 


-nibsn 


^nu:'in 


■^nih^ 


Flur. 3 c. 


: IT 


^b"5? 


^'iT'^sri 


vio'sn 


^in: 


2 m. 


mt:ci 


Dfl'i'^D 


Dntr,n 


DPI id' "in 


nnriD 


2/ 


]T\'oy: 


"|P)"^1»5 


■,ri"or;n 


■t;)"^'3n 


1^^? 


1 c. 


; — r 


^j"d5? 


^I'l^iri 


^r^'^n 


— T 


Infix. Absol. 


Hiiro 

T 


u3 TtiM 


■Sr;!! 




linD 


Constr. 


^"^1 


■•T • 


vj^t^ri 




rn 


FuT. 3 m. 


t.r 




iD^rp 


— ••. 


1^: 


3/ 


issn 




•uj-^Bn 


iTsn 


]ti^ 


2 W2, 


issri 


u;':>sn 


. 1 


'izjsri 


1^^ 


2/ 


^'^sn 


^bron 


^'uj^hr\ 


^'^■sn 


^5r.n 


1 c. 


■i2J3« 


••T V 


•0^-^^ 


^b>^ 


1^^ 


PZz^r. 3 m. 


^iiiB-: 


ii'^.-r 


r^^^l 


^^T \ 


•on^ 


of. 


nsup^n 


in""kp"<sri 


MjiT'sn 


. 1 


(5^2PiJ^) 


2 ??i. 


^"ijr^n 


^"a::*2n 


^^^m 


^•b"3n 


.^snn 


2/ 


Mjpiiri 


T : -T • 


HJptjn 


ujpBri 


(n^nn) 


1 c. 


■^'5? 


••T • 


12'' 10 


u35D 


in^ 


Impee. 2 m. 


'irh 


HJr^sn 


■^"5u 




■^ 


2/ 


"■^'3 


^ir'r^sn 


^^"sn 


wanting 


^i^ 


PZijr. 2 7?i. 


^iu'r. 


; IT • 


^'d^itj 




^Dn 


2/ 


T : — 


T ; "T • 


rij^'sn 




(-?'^) 
1^'^ 


Paet. Act. 


'd:^ 




■u:'^37j 




Pass. 


T 


T • 




T •-, 


1^^; 



164 



§131,132 REMARKS ON PE NUN VERBS. 165 



Remarks on Pe Nun Verbs. 

§ 131. 1. If the second radical be a guttural or a vowel letter, Nun be- 
comes strong by contrast and is not liable to rejection or assimilation, 
Vri? Num. 34:18, sns 2 Kin. 4:24, ''insin Gen. 24:48, sinisx Ex. 15:2. 
It i.s, however, always assimilated in en: the Niphal preterite ol" cns to 
repent, and occasionally in rnj 1o descend, e. g. nn;^ Jer. 21 : 13, nnri 
Prov. 17: 10, wnp. Ps. 38: 3 but rn:n ibid-.nnjn Joel 4 : 11. 

2. Before other consonants the rule for assimilation is observed with 
rare exceptions, viz. : : ^liii-nrn Isa. 58 : 3, r,^2!n Ps. (iS : 3, ^■it:?7 Jer. 3 : 5, 




20:31. 



3. Nun is commonly rejected from the K;il imperative with a, t'J 
2 Sam. 1 : 15 (once before Makkeph, "Ui^ Gen. I'J: 9, in plural sibs 1 Kin. 
18 : 30 and VJa Josh. 3 : 9), -hw Ex. 3 : 5, S5 Job 1: 11, ^i'D Deu't. 2: 24, 
""ns Ezek. 37:9, """i^t'ii Gen. 27 : 26, though it is occasionally retained, 
siSBJ 2 Kin. 19:29, Nii": Ps. 10 : 12, or by a variant orthography, nc? Ps. 
4 : 7 but always elsewhere Nb . In imperatives with o, and in Lamedh He 
verbs which have e in the imperative, Nun is invariably retained, dibs 
Prov. 17: 14, "lis? Ps. 24:14, cp? Num. 31:2, |'n? Ps. 58:7, nip3 Gen. 
30:27, naa Ex. 8: 1. 

4. The rejection of Nun from the Ival construct infinitive occurs in but 
few verbs; viz.: rcs (with sulFix, iriwj) from V^:, r.ns from riDJ , nsa 
(twice) and vi} from rj] , TVh (once) and ri? from "'J: , xaj has nx'l) 
(by §60. 3. c), with the preposition ?, r.sib by §57. 2. (3), once na 
(§53. 3) Job 41:17, once without the feminine ending, xvi Ps. 89: 10, and 
twice S^b'3 : "i^j has commonly nn (for n:ri). with suffixes Tiri, but "h: 
Num. 20 :'21, and -)r3 Gen. 38 : 9. ' 

5. The absolute infinitive Niphal appears in the three forms )htri Jer. 
32 : 4, r,^:n Ps. 68 : 3, and r,ib Judg. 20 : 39. 

6. The n of the prefix in the Hithpael species is in a few instances 
assimilated to the first radical, §82. 5. r/,, "ri'onsn Ezek. 5:13, "^nxsin 
Ezek. 37: 10, Jer. 23: 13, H'iiT} Num. 21 : 7, Dan.'^ll: 14, t^NS^ Isa. 52:5. 

§132. 1. The last radical of 'riJ is assimilated in the Niphal as well as 
in the Kal species, Drns Lev. 26:25. The final Nun of other verbs re- 
mains without assimilation, ^'-h^ , Pi:z;c, nt^:3. In 2 Sam. 22:41 nnn is 
for f^Pro which is found in the parallel passage Ps. 18:41. 'Fin 1 Kin. 
6:19,17:14 K'thibh, is probably, as explained by Ewald, the Kal con- 
struct infinitive without the feminine ending (in) prolonged by reduplica- 
tion, which is the case with some other short words, e. g. I'^U from "a. 
"^"D^TZ for •'a ; others regard it as the infinitive nn with the 3 fern. plur. suffix 
or with • paragogic ; Gescnius takes it to be. as always elsewhere, the 



166 ETYMOLOGY. §133,134. 

2 masc. sing, of the Kal future. nJPi Ps. 8:2, is the Kal infin., comp. 
•Tin Gen. 46 : 3, not the 3 fem. sing. pret. for nsns (Nordheimer), nor the 
imperative with paragogic n^, as nin is always to be explained elsewhere. 

2. The peculiarities of Pe Nun verbs are shared by nj^^ to take, whose 
first radical is assimilated or rejected in the same manner as 3, Kal inf 
const, nnp (with prep. i>, J^Hirb, to be distinguished fi-om PHj^b 2 fem. 
eing. pret.), once THp (by §6U. 3. c) 2 Kin. 12:9, with suffixes •^Pn;?, 
fut. n^":, imper. np, -^nps rarely n^b, "^ripb , Hoph. fut. n;?"; , but Niph. 
pret. ni^bj. In Hos. 11:3 cnp3 is the masculine infinitive with the suffix 
for Bnnp ; the same form occurs without a suffix, np? Ezek. 17: 5, or this 
may be explained with Gesenius as a preterite for n|r|b . 

3. In Isa. 64: 5 bsfl has the form of a Hiphil future from ^b'a, but the 
sense shows it to be from b23 for biJl , Daghesh-forte being omitted and 
the previous vowel lengthened in consequence, §59. a. 



Ayin Doubled {W) Verbs. 

§138. The imperfect verbs, thus far considered, differ 
from the perfect verbs either in the vowels alone or in the 
consonants alone ; those which follow, difPer in both vowels 
and consonants, §107, and consequently depart much more 
seriously from the standard paradigm. The widest diver- 
gence of all is found in the Ayin doubled and Ayin Vav 
verbs, in both of which the root gives up its dissyllabic 
character and is converted into a monosyllable ; a common 
feature, which gives rise to many striking resemblances and 
even to an occasional interchan2;e of forms. 

§134. 1. In explaining the inflections peculiar to Ayin 
doubled verbs, it will be most convenient to separate the in- 
tensive species Piel and Pual with their derivative the Hith- 
pael from the other four. That which gives rise to all their 
peculiar forms in the Kal, Niphal, Hiphil, and Tlophal 
species, is the disposition to avoid the repetition of the same 
sound by uniting the two similar radicals and giving the in- 
tervening vowel to the previous letter, thus, no for S39> 
DO for nnD§61.3. 

2. In the Kal species this contraction is optional in the 
preterite ; it is rare in the infinitive absolute though usual in 



§135 AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 1G7 

the construct, and it never occurs in tlie participles. With 
these exceptions, it is universal in the species already named. 
§135. This contraction produces certain changes both in 
the vowel, which is thrown back, and in that of the preced- 
ing syllable. 

1. When the first radical has a vowel (pretonic Kamets, 
§ 82. 1), as in the Kal preterite and infinitive absolute, and 
in the Niphal infinitive, future and imperative, this is simply 
displaced by the vowel thrown back from the second radical, 
thus 320 , n6 , niio , so ; nii^n , nion ; nnsn , n6n . 

2. When the first radical ends- a mixed syllable as in the 
Kal future, the Niphal preterite, and throughout the Hiphil 
and Hophal, this will be converted into a simple syllable by 
the shifting of the vowel from the second radical to the first, 
whence arise the followiuGf mutations : 

In the Kal future SM97 becomes 26;^ with / in a simple 
syllable, contrary to §18.2. This may, however, be con- 
verted into a mixed syllable by means of Daghesh-forte, and 
the short vowel be retained, thus ^^'! ; or the syllable may 
remain simple and the vowel be lengthened from Hhirik to 
Tsere, §59, thus, in verbs fut. a, "^"i"! for 'T^'o'^ ; or as the 
Hhirik of this tense is not an original vowel but has arisen 
from Sh'va, § 8 5. 2. « (1), it may be neglected and a, the simplest 
of the long vowels, given to the preformative, which is the 
most common expedient, thus mo^ . The three possible 
forms of this tense are consequently 20;; , yo"^ and "ca^ . 

In the Niphal preterite sacs becomes by contraction 365 . 
In a few verbs beginning with n the short voAvel is retained 
in an intermediate syllable, thus "lil? for Tin: ; in other cases 
Hhirik is lengthened to Tsere, "jn? for lifiD , or as the Hhirik 
is not essential to the form but has arisen from Sh'va, 
§ 82. 2, it is more frequently neglected, and Kamets, the 
simplest of the long vowels, substituted in its place, thus 3D3 . 
The forms of this tense are, therefore, 2D3 , "jJiD , nnp . 

In the Hiphil and Hophal species the vowels of the pre- 



168 ETYMOLOGY. ^ 136 

fixed n are characteristic and essential. They must, there- 
fore, either be retained by inserting Daghesh-forte in the first 
radical, or be simply lengthened ; no other vowel can be sub- 
stituted for them, non for n-^ion , ss^ or np;' for n^^io^ , non 
(Kibbuts before the doubled letter by §G1. 5) or no^n for 
aion. 

3. The vowel, which is thrown back from the second radi- 
cal to the first, stands no longer before a single consonant, but 
before one which, though single in appearance, is in reality 
equivalent to two. It is consequently subjected to the com- 
pression which afiects vow^els so situated, §61. 4. Thus, in 
the Niphal future and imperative Tsere is compressed to 
Pattahh, ais:^ , :£'} ; ndsn , nsn (comp. bisp , nbcip ) though it 
remains in the infinitive which, partaking of the character of 
a noun, prefers longer forms. So in the Hiphil long Hhirik 
is compressed to Tsere, a^icrs ^s^i (comp. b^tbjp;!, npbtijpn). 

§136. Although the letter, into which the second and 
third radicals have been contracted, represents two con- 
sonants, the doubling cannot be made to appear at the end 
of the word. But 

1 . When in the course of inflection a vowel is added, the 
letter receives Daghesh-forte, and the preceding vowel, even 
where it would be dropped in perfect verbs, is retained to 
make the doubling possible, and hence preserves its accent, 
§33.1, nap, ^ao;'. 

2. Upon the addition of a personal ending which begins 
with a consonant, the utterance of the doubled letter is aided 
by inserting one of the diphthongal vowels, o (i) in the 
preterite, and e ( ''..) in the future. By the dissyllabic append- 
age thus formed the accent is carried forward, §32, and 
the previous part of the word is shortened in consequence 
as much as possible, apn , t^rdm ; ao;' , np^Dpi . 

3. When by the operation of the rules already given, 
§135. 2, the first radical has been doubled, the reduplica- 
tion of the last radical is frequently omitted in order to 



§137,138 AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 1G9 

relieve the word of too many doubled letters. In this case 
the retention of the vowel before the last radical, contrary to 
the analogy of perfect verbs, and the insertion of a vowel 
after it, are alike unnecessary, and the accent takes its accus- 
tomed position, ^D'!' , rcssn . 

§137. The Piel, Pual, and Ilithpael sometimes preserve 
the regular form, as b^n , b|n , b'innn . The triple repetition 
of the same letter thus caused is in a few instances avoided, 
however, by reduplicating the contracted root Avith appro- 
priate vowels, as 1\h'20 , 'ji^'^prin . Or more commonly, the 
reduplication is given up and the idea of intensity conveyed 
by the simple prolongation of the root, tlic long vowel 
Hholem being inserted after the first radical for this purpose, 
as sdiD , bSiinn . 

§ 138. In the following paradigm the inflections of Ayin 
doubled verbs are shown by the example of 3?D to surround. 
The Pual is omitted, as this species almost invariably follows 
the inflections of the perfect verb; certain persons of the 
Hophal, of which there is no example, are likewise omitted. 
An instance of Piel, with the radical syllable reduplicated, is 
given in tjosp to excite. 

a. The Hithpael of r::0 does not actually occur ; but it is in the para- 
digm formed from analogy, the initial sibilant being transposed with the n 
of the prefix, agreeably to §82. 5. 

h. In his Manual Lexicon, Gesenius gives to TiOtP t'^e meaning to 
arm, but the best authorities prefer the definition subsequently introduced 
by him into his Thesaurus, to excite. 









Paradigm 


OF Ayin 




KAL. 




NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


Peet. 3 TO. 


niD 

— T 


1 


nbs 

— T 


nnio 


of. 


nnno 

T ; IT 


nnb 

T — 


nncD 

T — r 


nnnio 

T : 1 


2 TO. 


(^???) 


T — 


nines 

T — : 


nnnio 


2/ 


(^???) 


nino 


ninoD 


ri^nio 


Ic. 


'J^?^? 


^nino 


"inincp 


^nnnio 


PZwr. 3 c. 


^ino 


^nb 


^nb3 

— T 


^nnio 

: 1 


2 «i. 


(Dmnc) 


Dnino 


nninoD 


Dnnnio 


2/ 


{'km 


■jfiinD 


■ninos 


"i^^^'ip 


1 c. 


iijnno 

; — T 


^;ino 


^wincp 


^snnio 


Infik. Absol. 


T 


no 


nibn 


nnio 


Constr. 


.1 


.1 
no 


^bri 


nniO' 


FUT. 3 TO. 


T 


nb'^. 


nb^ 


nnio"; 


3/. 


nin 

T 


nbn 


nbn 


nnicn 


2 TO. 


ncn 

T 


nbn 


nbn 


nnion 


2/. 


T 


^non 


^nbn 


^nnicn 


1 c. 


nb5< 

T 


nb^ 


^bi$ 


^^'icyj 


PZur. 3 TO. 


T 


^no'; 


iinb: 


^nnio^ 

• ■ • 


3/ 


Hj'icn 


riDnbn 

T ; * 


nsnbn 


nrnnicn 

T : ■• : 


2 TO. 


iiinbr, 


iinon 


^nbn 


^nnicn 


2/ 


nj^icn 


ninbn 

T ; 


njnbn 


Jijnnicn 


1 c. 


n'DD 

T 


nb? 


nb? 


^;iib3 


Imper, 2 TO. 


no 




nbr; 


nnio 


2/ 


^nb 




^nbr; 


^nnio 

• : i 


Plur. 2 TO. 


^nb 




^nbr; 


sinnio 


2/ 


T V \ 




ranbn 

T : — • 


nsnnio 

T ; •• 


Paht. Act. 


nib 






nnio^'j 


Pass. 


n^iiD 

r 




nbu 

TT 





170 



Doubled Verbs. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


PIEL. 


=icn 


ncTi 


-i^'^v^t 


tjcrp 


nncn 


T — 


ninincn 

T : 1 : • 


. 1 

T ; ; • 


tniiiDn 




nniircn 


^'???P 


ninctj 




nnnincn 


n::€5c 


^minon 




^riDnincn 


TP?r? 


^^cr^ 


iQD^n 


: 1 : • 


^icsp 


Dhiscn 




Dnnnincn 


Dnsc^D 


i^i^^a 




",nnnir,sr; 


"i^-??? 


^3^::icq 




^^niircri 




-tn 






rippD 


-en 




niincn 


^C^D 


-^: 


SC^"* 


^^'iJ^?: 


^^t'?: 


^cn 


no^n 


niipicn 


tjcDcn 


ncn 


nc^n 


niincn 


tjc^cn 


^^cn 


^iD^n 


• : 1 : • 


^^v??ri 


^m 


nc^ix 


^^■iJ^c^ 


=1???^ 


"i^t: 


Sl^Dil^ 


^i^inc"' 


^3C^C^ 


j^r^^n 




riDnninDn 


nr-c^'cn 


^ncn 


^no^n 


iiinip.cn 


'^ip^cri 


^r^^i^ 




nDniincn 

T : •• : • 


n'SCSCn 


^0? 


n&^!3 


nninp? 


TjC.Cp 


::6n 




niiirDn 


^CDp 




■wanting 


^nnincn 

• : 1 : • 

^inircn 




^r^^a 




nsnnincn 

T ; *• ; • 


^?t^t5 


^m 


T 


nnir.p"J 





171 



172 ETYMOLOGY. §139,140 



Remarks on Ayin Doubled Verbs. 

§ 139. 1. The uncontracted and the contracted forms of the Kal preter- 
ite are used with perhaps equal frequency in the third person; the ibrmer 
is rare in the first person, ^'n'oh Zech. 8 : 14. 15, wb Deut. 2 : 35, and 
there are no examples of it in' the second; sis'A Gen. 49:23 and lan Job 
24 : 24 are preterites with Hliolem, §82. 1. In Ps. 118:11, "'S^nno-D? ^:=120 
the uncontracted is added to the contracted form for the sake of greater 
emphasis. Compound Sh'va is sometimes used with these verbs instead 
of simple to make its vocal character more distinct, §16. 1. b, ^p'sw Gen. 
29 : 3, 8, sib'brj Ex. 15 : 10, Vi^^^n Isa. C4: 10, ■'?:s Gen. 9 : 14, ^3=p5n Num. 
23:25. 

2. The following are examples of the contracted infinitive absolute, 
Sp Num. 23:25, b-3 Ruth 2:16, nie Isa. 24:19, ni;S (with a para- 
gogic termination) ibid.; of tlie uncontracted, pi"'*, 'p:.;' . "i^"", ^^'^^ j 
nifs, nins, ni'iir; of the infinitive construct, I'ta and IS, spo and rb, 
OdV, ^^'^, 13, t^f^; once with u as in Ayin Vav verbs, -ma Eocles. 9: 1, 
and occasionally with a, "Ti Isa. 45 : 1, T^a Jer. 5 : 26, cnn (with 3 plur. 
suf ) Eccl. 3 : 18, ni:3n^ Isa. 30 : 18 (njDn Ps.^ 102 : 14); canb Isa. 17 : 14, 
though sometimes explained as the noun cn^ with the suffix their bread, 
is the infinitive of obn to grow rearm; DSira Gen. 6 : 3 Eng. ver. for that 
also, as if compounded of the prep. 3, the abbreviated relative and Ca, is 
by the latest authorities regarded as the infinitive of J^a in their erring; 
isn Job 29: 3 has Hhirik before the suffix. The feminine termination ni 
is appended to the following infinitives, niin Ps. 77 : 10, Job 19: 17, nia^ 
Ezek. 36 : 3, ■'raT Ps. 17 : 3. The imperative, which is always contracted, 
has mostly Hholem, ro, ni^ and c'i but sometimes Pattahh, hi Ps. 119:22 
(elsewhere P5), nb Ps. 80:16. Fiirst regards rn as a contracted par- 
ticiple from nnn , analagous to the Ayin Vav form cj? . 

3. The following uncontracted forms occur in the Kal future, 'iri^ ^^' 
5:15, li^: and i^T\ from "in; ; in the Niphal, 22^"^ Job 11:12; Hiphil, 
DBBn Mic. 6:13, n-^icia Ezek. 3: 15, "'riPinni Jer. 49:37, and constantly 
in ')3n and hi'^ ; Hophal, Tn^ Job 20 : 8 from inj . In a few instances 
the repetition of the same letter is avoided by the substitution of it for 
the second radical, Jibxa"^ = ^DDTS^ Ps. 58:8 and perhaps also Job 7:5, 
VX'aiQ = T''nai3 Ezek. 28:24, Lev. 13:51, 52, ■]iCX':J = r|:ooij Jer. 30: 16 
K'thibh. Comp. in Syriac v_c|? part, of wc? . According to the Rabbins 
:ixT3=:1tt5i Isa. 18 : 2, but see Alexander in loc. 

: iT : IT ' 

§140. 1. Examples of different forms of the Kal future: (1) With 
Daghesh-forte in the first radical, c^?, Tiiii-, rs:, "ip":, nii"'^, cn^ ; or 
vi^ith a as the second vowel, ^537 , ^a';', : wnr (2) With Tsere under the 
personal prefix, on;;, nn;:, na;^, r^^-^, ^jf^n, ^lah;:, e being once written 
by means of the vowel letter "^ . crj-^x . (3) With Kamets under the 
personal prefix, fn^, nb^, iV'^ , nii^ , pn;«, rn;", n6;; this occurs once 
with fut. a, ini Prov. 27: 17. With Vav Conversive the accent is drawn 



§ 140 REMARKS ON AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 173 

back to the simple penult syllable in this form of the future, and Hholem 
is consequently shortened, §64. 1, 75^], 153 jl, u'n] , C^t^ "t'^t^ There 
are a (cw examples of u in the future as in Ayin Vav verbs, ^^^'^^^ Prov. 
29:6, yf^'-il Isa. 42:4, Eccles. 12:6, Ctnn Ezek. 24:11 and perhaps n:^ 
Gen. 4'J : 19, Hab. 3 : 16, lio; Ps. 91 : 6.'though Gescnius assumes the ex- 
istence of "Tia and 'IVJ as distinct roofs from I^J and Tia . 

2. The Niphal preterite and participle: (l) With Hhirik under the 
prefixed 3, ninj? Job 20 : 2S, bri: , ins, nn:. (2) With Tsere under the 
prefix, ■'njns Jer. 22:23, n^nsa Mai. 3:9,- C^onj Isa. 57:5. (3) With 
Kamets under the prefix, -03, ^I^J , "inj, lis ; sometimes the repetition 
of like vowels in successive syllables is avoided by exchanging a of the 
last syllable for Tsere, bf:; and bp3, oij and 0^3, nsop Ezek. 26:2, 
or for Hholem as in Ayin Vav verbs, si'hD, "J^'lJ Eccl. 12:6, 1723 Am. 
3:11, Wis Nah. 1 : 12, ^^53 Isa. 34 : 4. ' ' 

3. The Niphal future preserves the Tsere of perfect verbs in one ex- 
ample, bnn Lev. 21:9, but mostly compresses it to Pattahh. b^"^. V>"[!7, ns^, 
'^'Bl , 7\B1 . 0537, HTa-^, ?(?!!<:; like the preterite it sometimes has Hholem, 
tian Isa. 24 : 3, p'ian ibid. If the first radical is a guttural and incapable 
of receiving Daghesh, the preceding Hhirik is lengthened to Tsere, "in;;, 
bnx , cn;^ , yi^.T} , iian-^ . The Kal and Niphal futures, it will be perceived, 
coincide in some of their forms ; and as the signification of these species 
is not always clearly distinguishable in intransitive verbs, it is often a 
matter of doubt or of indifference to which a given form should be referred. 
Thus, b'H'^, Tj53?, rni'7 are in the Niphal according to Gesenius, Avhile 
Ewald makes them to be Kal, and Fiirst the first two Niphal and the 
third Kal. 

4. The Niphal infinitive absolute : nsn Isa. 24 : .*?, pi2n ibid., or with 
Tsere in the last syllable, Dsn 2 Sam. 17: 10. The infinitive construct: 
oin Ps. 6S : 3, hhri Ezek. 20 ; 9, and once with Pattahh belbre a saffi.x, 
■i^nn Lev. 21:4. The imperative: ■^'^zr} Isa. 52:11, !l53nn Num. 17:10. 

5. In the Hiphil preterite the vowel of the last syllable is compressed 
to Tsere, -On , "^Sfi (in pause "isn , so ; ^iS'^n , ! ^larr.), or even to Pat- 
tahh, 'p'^ri , hpjn , niri , -li^! i T\h^\ "nn , nii-n , sisqn , iison . Both infini- 
tives have Tsere, thus the absolute : pnn , -.Tgn , PEn , nsn , i;nn ; the 
construct: "rgn, TiOfi , ^tr\ ('T'sn Zech. 11:10), ^±r\ , bpn, cpn. in 
pause i-'^f^, Pl\i- with a final guttural, S^fi, ?"in. The imperative: 
2Gn , -icn , bpn , bnn , l"rn ; !iarn Job 21 : 5 is a Hiphil and not a Hophal 
form as stated by Gesenius, the first vowel being Kamets and not Kamets 
Hhatuph. Futures with a short vowel before Daghesh-forte in the first 
radical: ro'^, Bn^ , nrn, ^ins^; with a long vowel, 'i;;', "i'^ , ^t"^,, ^nij 
or bn;:, bn^, 2Jnn and ?n'i, T(Ori , "j'Xi; (e expressed by the vowel letter 
K, §11. 1. a) Eccles. 12:5. When in this latter class of futures the 
accent is removed from the ultimate, whether by Vav Coriversive or any 
other cause, Tsere is shortened to Seghol, ^5^1, P"}.'' , "'2;!'-_ "'^;!J , '^\9.^i 
Vnpi, and in one instance to Hhirik, ^IP] Judg. 9:53(7"!?^ would be 
from y^in) before a guttural it becomes Pattahh, vyj, in'^, "i:JV Par- 
ticiples: roo, ^h^, briig, bs^a Ezek. 31:3, Si's Prov. 17:4. In a very 



174 ETYMOLOGY. § 141 

few instances the Hhirik of the perfect paradigm is retained in the last 
syllable of this species as in Ayin Vav verbs. Tpp'S Jodg. 3 : 21, C'^^ Jer. 
49 : 20, n-^t;?] Num. 21 : 30. 

6. Hophal preterites: hmn. frimn , liart ; futures: ^i^'' , "iw^^"*, p^j^'>, 
■jH'', -len, 'it'l"', -fel"^, r?;", Ti^'?; participles: TE^B , ^:a or" in some 
copies "I2'2 2 Sam. 23 : 6 ; infinitive with suffix, n^irn Lev. 26 : 34, with 
prep., inH.;;n3 ver. 43. 

§141. 1. Upon the addition of a vowel affix and the consequent inser- 
tion of Daghesh-forte in the last radical, the preceding vowel and the 
position of the accent continue unchanged, ^sj, ^"h^, Hai'j (distinguished 
from the fern. part, nar:), ^^n;" ; if the last radical does not admit 
Daghesh-forte a preceding Pattahh sometimes remains short before n, 
but it is lengthened to Kameis before other gutturals, frnis, sirnl (idO. 2), 
lian, nniB and nniU. When tlie first radical is doubled, Daghesh is 
omitted from the last in the Kal Cut. o, ^i'^'}, ^'^I?'?, ^^F}?, and occasionally 
elsewhere ^ns^ Hi. fut. I^an Ho. pret. Other cases are exceptional, 
whether of the shifting of the accent, ^la'n Ps. 3:2. »2-i Ps. 55:22, flS;5 
Jer. 4 : 13, and consequent shortening of the vowel, ">•"» Jer. 7 : 29 lor ■'■f'a, 
•^n, !in for "i2'-i, ^i'n, ^^ya Jer. 49:28 (with the letter repeated instead 
of being simply doubled by Daghesh, so likewise in C'^'^d7 Jer. 5 : 6, ''3::n 
Ps. 9: 14). for ^"nb; the omission of Daghesh, njaj 1 Sam. 14:36, njrn 
Prov. 7: 13, idr; Cant. 6: 11,7: 13. ! ^ipn^ Job 19:23, -nr;5 Num. 22:'il, 
17 (Kal imper. with n^ parag. for "naps shortened by Makkeph from "2p, 
so "n-ns ora Num. 23:7), or in addition, the rejection of the vowel, ^^]^ 
K. futV'Gcn. 11:6 for >iar, nraj Gen. 11 : 7 K. fut. for nVaj. n^:3 Isa^. 
19:3 Ni. pret. for n^saj or niJa;, naps Ezek. 41:7 Ni. fut. for napa ; 
lS;3 Judg. 5:5 according to Gesenius ibr ^ikt: Ni. pret. of ^b: to shake, 
according to others K. pret. of bt: lo Jlcnv; ^i?,P] Ezek. 36:3 for ^^i't^"} 
(Ewald) from hbv to enter, or for ^bvrr\ Ni. fut. of n'is to go up, siiqs 
Ezek. 7 : 24 Ni. pret. for >i^n: , "^ins Cant. 1 :6 Ni. pret. for "^"n?. Once 
instead of doubling the last radical "^ is inserted, ^''"t'fi Prov. 26 : 7 for lii'n, 
comp. O^!! Ezr. 10 : 16 for UJW , 

2. Upon the insertion of a vowel before affixes beginning Avith a con- 
sonant, the accent is shifted and the previous part of the word shortened 
if possible; thus, with in the preterite, ri^p , "'^"'^^^ (Kameis before 1 
which cannot be doubled), cniSi: , mta ,''"'rip3 . crp-q: , nip-in^ , "'nn^q 
(the vowel remaining long before "i)) rrinn (Paltahh instead of compound 
Sh'va on account of the following guttural. §60. 3. c), ■'P'Snn , once with 
u, vA::^ Mic. 2:4; with e in the Oiture, npaon , nr|:in , nr|nn . If the 
first radical he doubled, Daghesh is omitted from the last, and the cus- 
tomary vowel is in consequence not inserted, nsp^an , njbjjn ; other cases 
are rare and exceptional, nnicn , Fi^na , Tiin:, cpibrs, ^ijrn which is 
first plur. pret. for ^iJian not third plur. for ^sn (Ewald), §54.3; "'ni'S^) 
Deut. 32:41, "^nixin Isa, 44:16, "'ni^ Ps. 116:6, have the accent upon 
the ultimate instead of the penult. 

3. Before suffixes the accent is always shifted, and if possible the 
vowels shortened, "'sao':, >inao-} from ao;;, ^atb-j, fj^!?"^^ from ^Siy;, si3:^in 



§141 



REMARKS ON AYIN DOUBLED VERBS. 



175 



from Gnn, tinEn from ^5n ; in i^sn'i Gen. 43:29, Isa. 30 : 19, from in;;, 
cbisn Lev. 2tj: 15 from "isn, the original vowels have been not only ab- 
breviated but rejected, and the requisite short vowel given to the first of the 
concurring consonants, §61. 1. In a very few instances a form resembling 
that of Ayin Vav verbs is assumed, Daghesh being omitted from the last 
radical and the preceding vowel lengthened in consequence, "ip^n Prov. 
S:29 lor ii^n ver. 27, ^^'■nn, Isa. 33: 1 for T^anri , sin-'riTodrt Ezek. 14:8 
for sin-'niB'i-n , n^^i-tn Laiii. 1 : 8 for n^S-'n Hi. pret. of b^j, ■nT)'; Hab. 
2 : 17 for ■(nri"; Hi, fut. of nnn with 3 fern. plur. suf , cpns^ 2 Sam. 22 : 43 
in a few editions for cpJTX . Nun is once inserted before the suffix in place 
of doubling the radical, -133;^ Num. 23: 13 lor "iai^ . 

§ 141. 1. Of the verbs which occur in Picl, Pual, or Hithpael, the fol- 
lowing adopt the forms of perfect verbs, viz. : 



nns to curse. 
173 lo plunder. 
"ina lo purifi/. 
T:;\a.J to grope. 
"JTT to Tf^ine. 
Drn to u-arm. 
■j'^n to divide. 
nnn to he broken. 
"bh'Ji to cover. 



33^ to cry. *3|? to make a nest. 

pfis to smite, break. Y^Pr '^ '^"^ "ff- 

33b to take awaij the 33^ to be many, 

heart. Tft'\ to be tender. 

pi^b to lick. "iT^ io harroxo. 

"C'd-o to feel, to grope. "Tib to ride. 

lis to leap. *:b to sharpen. 

bbo to judge, to inter- crn to he perfect, 
cede. 



2. The following, which are mostly suggestive of a short, quick, re- 
peated motion, reduplicate the radical syllable, viz. : 

yyd to sport, delight. 



"nn to burn. 
"TnS to dance. 
ntib to be mad. 



nnia to linger. 
TjwO to excite. 
C]sa to chirp. 



ppiy to run. 
i'rFi lo mock. 



3. The following insert Hholem after the first radical, viz. : 



*i:x to complain. 
Vb3 to mix. 
pp3 to empty. 
Its to cut. 
•^"ii to sxoeep away. 
ct-n to he still. 
prn to break loose 



in: to fly. S.'y"i to break. 

003 lo lift up. nh'j to sink. 

C]£0 lo occupy the thres- bbd lo spoil. 

hold. nijt' lo be desolate or 

nnS to bind.. amazed. 

00^5 to cut off. t]Stn to beat. 
^C|5 lo gather. 



4. The following employ two forms, commonly in different senses, viz.: 

b:;b.^ and h'iii, to roll. )iri to make gracious, '|5in lo be 

bbn to praise, bbin to make mad. gracious. 

biH toprofarie, b^in to wound. h'§-q to speak, bb'ia to mow. 



176 ETYMOLOGY. § 142, 143 

230 to change, ^iiO to surround. h'^p^ to curse, ^I^^P to whet, 

"{h to gather clouds, •jb'iJ' to prac- ykl and I'i'ii to crush. 

Use sorcery. Tn'r and T^^ to treat with vio- 
■I'niQ to burst, ''•^'^B to shaketo pieces. lence. 

5. The following use different forms in different, species, viz. : 

ppn Pi. to decree, Pu. ppn . "^ Pi. to shout, Hith. liinrti.* 

1^73 Pi. io measure, Hith. T^^rin . irB-i Pi. ^o break, Pa. ^'i^n . 

-inB Pi. /ornate 6i«er, Hith. i7D-i72r>n. '|2U: Pi. to inculcate, Hith. "|iini:3n 

biibo Pi. /o e.ra/;, Hith. i'^'inpn . to pierce. 
iBi3> Pi. to maltreat, Hith. ^.f:?nn 
and ^^irnn . 

6. Tlie following examples exhibit the effect of gutturals upon redu- 
plicated forms: Preterite, Sl!u?.iiJ Isa. 11:8; Infinitive, ""Hin^ Prov. 
26:21, tnbn^rn Ex. 12 : 39 ; Future, riy^nm Ps. 119:47, sii'iy^a"; Ps. 
94:19; Imperative, duirrnirn Isa. 29:9; jparticiple, ?F]^!n'3 Gen. 27 ': 12, 
n^n^n?3 Prov. 26 : 18. ' ' ' 

§ 142. 1. The Pual species adheres to the analogy of perfect verbs 
with the exception of the preterites, 'I'lia Nah. 3: 17. bbis Lam. 1 : 12, the 
future ! ^"'2J2.;^t^ Isa. 66 : 12, and the participles, t^^^'if'3 Isa. 9 : 4, hfnxi 
Isa. 53 : 5. ' ' ' 

2. : !li^>": Isa. 15 : 5 is for : 1^2'.^?'? Pi. fut. of "rys , § 57. 1. nsriFi 2 Sam. 
22 : 7 is contracted for "i^ann Ps. 18 : 27, probably with the view of as- 
similating it in form to the preceding inisr.tn; in regard to ;bQrin in the 
same verse, Nordheimer adopts the explanation of Alting that it is a simi- 
lar contraction of the Hithpael of bSa thoii ttilt show thyself a judge, hut as 
it answers to l^nonn Ps. 18:27, the best authorities are almost unanimous 
in supposing a transposition of the second radical with the first and its 
union with n of the prefix. 

3. brn and Vin. The prefixed n remains in the Hiphil future of Vbn, 
e. g. 'rin"? 1 ^^bvj? ; ^^C'rjfi and in the derivative nouns C^Ainni, ni^nrr^a , 
whence these forms are in the lexicons referred to the secondary root bnH . 



Pe Yodh Ci'd) Verbs. 

§ 143. In quiescent verbs one of the original radicals is 
l!^ , 1 or "^ , wliicli in certain forms is converted into or ex- 
changed for a vowel. As N preserves its consonantal charac- 
ter when occupying the second place in the root, and also 

* 13.'i"'?'3 Ps. 78:65 is not from ')^"i (Gesenius) but from )11, see 
Alexander in loc. 



§144 PE YODH VERBS. 177 

(with the exception of the Pe Aleph future, §110. 3, and a 
few occasional forms, §111. 2) when it stands in the first 
place, verbs having this letter as a first or second radical be- 
long to the guttural class ; those only in which it is the third 
radical (Lamedh Aleph) are properly reckoned quiescent. On 
the other hand, if the first, second, or third radical be either 
Yodh or Vav, the verb is classed as quiescent. All verbs 
into which either 1 or "^ enter as a first radical are promiscu- 
ously called Pe Yodh, as the modes of inflection arising from 
these two letters have been blended, and Yodh in either case 
appears in the Kal preterite from which roots are ordinarily 
named, § 83. «. In the second radical the Vav forms (Ayin 
Vav) preponderate greatly over those with Yodh (Ayin 
Yodh). In the third radical the Yodh forms have almost 
entirely superseded those with Vav, though the current de- 
nomination of the verbs is derived from neither of these 
letters but from He (Lamedh He), which is used to express 
the final vowel of the root in the Kal preterite after the 
proper radical has been rejected. 

a. Verbs whose third radical is tlie consonant ri belong to the guttural 
class, e. g. Piia, P^Pi, and are quite dietinct from the quiescent verbs ri^ 
in which ii always represents a vowel, e. g. t^'^ , f^;? • 

§ 144. 1. In Pe Yodh verbs the first radical is mostly 
Yodh at the beginning, § 5G. 2, and Vav at the close of a 
syllable. It is accordingly Yodh in the Kal, Piel, and Pual 
species, and commonly in the Hithpael, iic^, n"'?!', i'l^, 
niTipnn . It is Vav in the Niphal and commonly in the 
Hiphil and Hophal species, niris , i^isin , air^n . 

2. In the Kal future, if Yodh be retained, it will quiesce 
in and prolong the previous Hhirik, and the second radical 
will take Pattahh, e. g. IDT^ ; if the first radical be rejected 
the previous Hhirik is commonly lengthened to Tserc, ^l?.'' , 
the Pattahh of the second syllable being sometimes changed 
to Tsere to correspond with it, § 63. 2. c, e. g. ac.'^ ; in a few 
instances Plhirik is preserved by giving Daghesh-forte to the 
12 



178 ETYMOLOGY. § 145, 146 

second radical as in Pe Nun verbs, the following vowel being 
either Pattahh or Hholem, n^!' , p^!' . 

3. Those verbs which reject Yodh in the Kal future, re- 
ject it likewise in the imperative and infinitive construct, 
where it would be accompanied by Sh'va at the beginning 
of a syllable, § 53. 2. a, the infinitive being prolonged as in 
Pe Nun verbs by the feminine termination, li? , ri^i^; . 

§145. 1. In the Niphal preterite and participle Vav 
quiesces in its homogeneous vowel Hholem, nirJis , niris ; in 
the infinitive, future, and imperative, Avhere it is doubled by 
Daghesh-forte, it retains its consonantal character, si?;n, 

2. In the Hiphil Vav quiesces in Hholem, niiiiin, i^ihy^ ; 
a few verbs have Yodh quiescing in Tsere, n-i-jin , ni'Ji."^ ; 
more rarely still, the first radical is dropped and the preced- 
ing short vowel is preseiTed, as in Pe Nun verbs, by doubling 
the second radical, TP^n , Tkr^ . 

3. In the Hophal Vav quiesces in Shurek, nis^n, rij^^; 
occasionally the short vowel is preserved and Daghesh-forte 
inserted in the second radical, i^i^ . 

a. The Hholem or Tsere of the Hiphil arises from the combination of 
a, the primary vowel of the first sylhible in this species, §82. 5. 6. (3), 
^th u or i, into which the letters 1 and i are readily softened, §57. 2. (5). 
The Hholem of the Niphal is to be similarly explained : the Hhirik of 
this species, which has arisen from Sh'va and cannot combine Avith Vav, 
is exchanged for the simplest of the vowels a (comp. sbj . cip;), and the 
union of this with 1 forms o. The Hophal retains the passive vowel u, 
which is occasionally found in perfect verbs, §95. a. 

§14G. The inflections of Pe Yodh verbs may be repre- 
sented by those of ii?;" fo sit or dicelL The Piel, Pual, 
and Hithpael are omitted from the paradigm, as they do not 
diff'er from perfect verbs. The alternate form of the Eal 
future is shown by the example of tb.'^ to be dry. 





Paradigm of Pe Yodh 


Verbs. 






KAL. 


NIPIIAL. 


HIPHIL. 


nOPHAL. 


KAL. 


Peet, 3 m. 


n-jj-' 


mriD 


n^tiin 


nir^in 


"T 


3/ 


r : IT 


T : 1 


r • 


T : 1 


T : IT 


2 m. 


T : — r 


T : — 


nn-oJin 


riiiT^n j 


T : — T 


2/. 


nn-b'" 


ni-^iD 


n2"a:in 


nnir^n ; 


: : — r 


1 c. 


^nniij^ 


"nz'iiD 


"Fiiiiijir; 


^rin-i;-in 


-ri'^n; 


Flur. 3 c. 


: IT 


^n-uJiD 


^n^iDin 




: IT 


2 7?2. 


dnn-oi': 


Dri^TiJi] 


Dpntjin 


nnnir^n 


Di^"^?' 


2/ 


I^T^: 


ira'^^i'? 


•,nnii;in 


)■••:- 1 


W^5: 


Ic. 


: — r 


^:n-i;iD 


^cniiiin 


^•nir^n 


^-■^5^ 


InFIN. J.&5CIZ. 


nvi;^ 




-irin 




T 


Constr. 


5^5^' 


•T ' 


n^Ein 


n-ji^n 1 


•cn;^ 


FuT. 3 ??i. 


n-ij^ 


niij^^ 


n^iBv 


n'i:v 


iijn^^ 


3/. 


nu:n 


•T • 


r-^in 


nu:^,n 


^n^n 


2 w. 


-^s^ 




n^-^iP 


mr^n 


irn^pi 


2/ 


^niiin 


^nuj-n 


^n-^i^in 


• : 1 




Ic. 


^"i??!^ 


"T • 


n^ici^^ 


nuj^i^ 


u:n\s; 


Plur. 3 wi. 


: I" 


:iT • 


"^T-uTP 






3/ 


nsizn 


T ; "T • 


T ; ■• 


ri^n-ij^n 


nrirn^n 


2WZ. 






^n^iT'in 


■• 1 


^ujn-n 


2/ 


n^n-iijn 


nsn-jj-in 


T : •* 


n^nir^n 


nrirn-n 


Ic. 


n-i:3 


nizjj? 


n^-ijiD 


SlD'^D 


■i'n^? 


Imper. 2 m. 


^"45 


mr^n 


n^in 




^i' 


2/ 
PZwr. 2 TO. 








wanting 




2/. 










"r"^^: 


Paet. ^ci. 


nizj"^ 




n^ibtj 




tn'"' 


PCMS. 


T 


r 




T 


r 



179 



180 ETYMOLOGY. § 147 



Remarks on Pe Yodh Verbs. 

§147. 1. The following verbs retain Yodh in the Kal future, viz. : 

ci'' lo he dry. Tjo); to he poured. N'n^ to fear. 

"J"! to toil. "iV^ to appoint. frj^ to cast. 

ln^ to delay. C]^;^ to he weary. CJn^ to possess. 

nj* to oppress. ys"^ to counsel. cb^ to put. 

pl"^ to suck. riS^ to he beautiful. ")113^ to sleep. 

The concurrence of Yodhs in the third person of tlie future is some- 
times prevented by omitting the quiescent br;^. ^J<~i^, ^3t:3|^, the long 
vowel receiving Methegh before vocal Sli'va, and thus distinguishing the 
last two words from the Lamedh He forms, ^Xi';' irom ntn and lic^ from 
njia, §45.2. 

2. The following have Tsere under the preformative; those in which 
the second vowel is liiiewise Tsere are distinguished by an asterisk : 

ST"^ to knoiD. * 1^'^ to hear. yjb^ to be dislocated. 

1n^ to'be joined. * xk"; to go out. * "^^^ to go down. 

Dn^ to conceive. "i:i; to be straitened. * ib^ to sit. dwell. 

The second syllable has Pattahh in 'inn Jer. 13: 17, Lam. 3:48, and 
in the feminine plurals, nj'iBn, riDnnri; njsrsiri has Seghol after the 
analogy of Lamedh Aleph verbs; nasiyTi (with the vowel-letter "• for e) 
occurs only in the K'thibh, Ezek. 35 : 9, and of course has not its proper 
vowels. In ! "^^'^ Ps. 138 ;6 the radical Yodh remains and has attracted 
to itself the Tsere of the preformative. Comp. § 60. 3. c. 

3. The following insert Daghesh-forte in the second radical, viz.: "ife'^ 
to chastise, instruct^ rzJ^ to burn. In iinnpi Isa. 44 : 8 short Hhirik re- 
mains before a letter with Sh'va ; '^3^'^7 Jot) 16 : 11 is explained by some 
as a Kal future, by others as a Piel preterite. 

4. The following have more than one form : "Z'q"^ to be good fut. -13'^'^ , 
once ''i'J'^n Nah. 3:8; pk;| to pour pi";!, once p:i'"i 1 Kin. 22:35; ^i; 
to form, -127 and i:a''h ; ip'i to burn, lp7 Isa. 10 : 16, and ip^in Deut. 
32:22; V'Pr ^^ awake, "j^p"''? once "j'p^ 1 Kin. 3:15; "ip^ to be precious, 
ip'i^ ^"d "p|] , or with a vowel letter for e, "p'^i; ; cd^ to he desolate, cuin 
once i^:^ly■'^ Ezek. 6:6; nia'; to be righl.'^b'^l, once nnTT'; (3 fem.plur., 
§88) 1 Sani. 6 : 12. Some copies have ^"a"] Isa. 40 : 30 for iin^ , 



5. In futures having Tsere under the preformative, the accent is shifted 
to the penult after Vav Conversive in the persons liable to such a change, 
viz. : 3 sing., 2 masc. sing., and 1 plur., Tsere in the ultimate being in con- 
sequence shortened to Seghol, i"]*^, ^^nT, I'lS^ . Pattahh in the ultimate 
becomes Seghol in "'^^j, "i^*'^' (with a postpositive accent) Gen. 2:7, 19, 
n-w;-^] Gen. 50:26; but -'o'^'::) , ^T'l , V-!'''??) Y^'^^^i *^"^y °^^^ before a 



§148-150 REMARKS ON PE YODII VERBS. 181 

monosyllable, §35. 1, Vi^-TH Gen. 9:24. Tlie accent remains on the ulti- 
mate in the Lamedh Aleph form n:j*] , unless the following word beorins 
with an accented syllable, e. g. N^n Gen. 4 : 16, 8 : 18. The pause re- 
stores the accent in all these cases to its original position. ! -w'] Ruth 
4: 1, :rnm Ps. 139: 1, i-'i Ps. IS: 10, §35. 2. 

§148. 1. Kal construct infinitives with Yodh : ir^"^ and with a AMTiinine 
ending n'::p';', rbb^ , 'ib'^ with suf. *'"iO^, once with prep, lio^'b 2 Chron. 
31 : 7, Daghesh conservative after «, §14. a; >^^f1'?, §87, once K"i'] Josh. 
22: 25 and with prep. Klb 1 Sam. 18:29 from itn^i; rin^ once i<i'i';' 2 Chron. 
26: 15 from r\^1 , -jii::. 

2. Infinitives without Yodh : n^'n (with suf. "'m'n), nr"n Ex. 2 : 4, and 
without the feminine termination i"n , n"iy (withsul! "^nnb) andnnb, once 
ry ] Sam. 4:19, §54. 2, nxk (with suf! \^x'.i), ni^k, nnn (with suf. 
•'n't-)) once rrnn Gen. 46:3, nqn (with suf. riri':3-i),'na"i3' (r.2d , with 
suf. ''PI20 once Tiau Ps. 23:6). Yodh is perhaps dropped from the ab- 
solute infinitive -iib Jer. 42: 10, which is usually explained to be for liL"''; 
it may, however, be derived from the Ayin Vav verb IVJ . 

3. Imperatives with Yodh: sin"^, Kn-; , nAv Without Yodh: 1"! (with 
n parag. nsfn Prov. 24: 14), zri (with n par'ag. nrri; for ^lin Hos. 4:18, 
see §92. a), ki (nxk, fern. plur. nrx:: Cant. 3:Vl), -b (-r>^ , nid). 
With both forms: pS and pis'; (^pS'^), in (nnn), twice 1A7 Judg. 5:13,'an 
CJ-i and ncAi . 

AT T T : 

§149, 1. The Niphal of ni'^ has u instead of 0, ^hi Zeph. 3 : IS, ttmi 
Lam. 1:4; ^lA^^ip 1 Chron. 3V5, 20 : 8 has m followed by Daghesh. r:^, 
which according to Gesenius is from r::;?^ , has i; Ewald assumes the root 
to be rins, and refers to it likewise the Kal future and the Hiphil ascribed 
to Pik;;, §147.3. and §150.4. In that case the Daghesh in sina-; Isa. 33:12, 
Jer. 51 : 58, will not require the explanation suggested in §24. c, but the 
K'thibh n^n-'ain 2 Sam. 14:30 will be unexplained, irp-is Ps. 9:17 is 
not the Niphal preterite or participle of Uipl", but the Kal participle of Cp3. 

2. Yodh appears in the Niphal future of two verbs in.=tead of Vav, 
^n.tT3 Gen. 8 : 12, 1 Sam. 13:8 K'ri, 1-1^*7 Ex. 19 : 13. In the first person 
singular X always has Hhirik, ynjs, 1^-ix, "'C|iN, ^h.^^, ^.^.l^, '^'T:'^^- 

§ 150. 1. In the Hiphil the following verbs have Yodh preceded by 
Tsere, viz. : "i:;^ to be good, Vb^ io houl, '|i^ to go to the right, "'a'j to 
change, p:'; to suck. Yodh is likewise found in "'ri'^'^n Judg. 16:26 
K'thibh, and in the following instances in which the prefix has Pattahh as 
in perfect verbs, n'n'^O":^* Hos. 7 : 12, 'l-i'i:':: Prov. 4 : 25, iir-^n Ps. 5:9 
K'ri (K'thibh ndin), "Ni":" Gen. 8:17 K'ri (K'thibh ^'l^r^), n^r'?^^ 
1 Chron. 12 : 2. ' 

2. In n-i-J!)? Job 24 : 21 (elsewhere n""!?-!;^) and h'^'^l' (once ^Y^^'^. Mic 
1 : 8), the radical Yodh attracts to itself the vowel of the preformative, 
comp. § 147. 2. He remains after the preformative in ^b''?'"'vl'? Isa. 52 : 5, 
nnin-n Neh. 11:17, Ps. 28:7, ?^cin^ 1 Sam. 17:47, Ps. 116:6. Both 
Yodh and Vav. quiescing in their appropriate vowels, are liable to omis- 
sion, "(•'^n, 'p"':fi, "f^H, vr-^rh, and once the vowel Tsere is dropped 
before a suffix, Wp-'in Ex. 2 : 9 for ^inp-^rn . 



183 ETYMOLOGY. §150,151 

3. Vav conversive draws the accent back to the penultimate Tsere or 
Hholem of the Hiphil future in the persons liable to be affected by it, 
§147.5, and shortens the final vowel, -i^''.^;! , pr?)!!) ^^'i*!! , 2isn, 5SP11 ; 
but with a pause accent ! "irhl Ruth 2 : 14. 

4. The following verbs insert Daghesh in the second radical in the 
Hiphil, viz. : S^^ to set, place, ^"2."^ to spread, pk'j to four, except : np:si3a 
2 Kin. 4 : 5 K'ri (K'thibh np^'^'^)) ^k"", to burn, except nin^Sin 2 Sara. 
14 : 30 K'thibh. 

5. In the Hophal a few examples occur of u followed by Daghesh, ja;* 
Ex. 10:24, yk^ Isa. 14: 11, Esth. 4:3, ib^i^ Isa. 28:16, pk?? Job 11 : 15; 
and a few of Hholem, Snin Lev. 4 :23, 28, N^.i"i Prov. 11 : 25' for rrii"' from 
n^V The construct infinitive: "vy^n Ezr. 3: 11, and with the feminine 
termination n-iy-in Ezek. 16:4, nn|n Gen. 40:20, Ezek. 16:5. 

§ 150. 1. In the Kal preterite Yodh is once dropped. In Judg. 19 : 11 for 
^n^ . Hhirik occurs with the second radical of l^'j and "oy^ in the first 
and second persons singular with suffixes, and in the second person plural, 
which is perhaps due to the assimilating power of the antecedent Yodh, 

e. g. ■'?nnb7, nnir-i'i, Dnirn';!. 

2. In the Piel future the prefix Yodh of the third person is contracted 
with the radical after Vav conversive, Iniiis-'T Nah. 1:4 for ^naa;;'^^, na^l 
Lam. 3:33, ^^^i Lam. 3:53, cn^^l 2 Chron. 32:30 K'ri "(K'thibh 

nniijiii). 

3. Three verbs have Vav in the Hithpael, H^'riH! ^^'^.^riHi '^2'^?^; ^ 
is assimilated to the following 1 and contracted with it in >i'i&!!3 Ezek. 
23 : 48 for ^iS]n3 a peculiar Niphal formed on the basis of a Hithpael, 
§83. c. (2). In 'aknti Ex. 2:4 for rk^nn Yodh is rejected and its vowel 
given to the preceding letter, §53. 3. b. 

§151. 1. Tir-^ and ~bv t)^r. to go in the Hiphil and for the most part in 
the infinitive construct, future and imperative Kal follows the analogy of Pe 
Yodh verbs, as though the root were T(r^ . Thus. Kal inf. const. T.d^ (nsb , 
with suf. "^bph^ rarely Tj'^n. ; fut. T\^'^. (once with the vowel letter "^ fore, 
tnbb'^X Mic. 1 : 8, fem. pi. nssbn), occasionally in poetry Ti'bn;; (3 fem. sing. 
Mr^":^); imper. T|b (with ii ^ parag. i^bb , or without the vowel letter ?|b , 
fem. pi. njsB and ^"B) once ^sbn Jer. 51:50. Hiphil: 'T\''^'^^ once in 
the imper. '^^'^^''n Ex. 2:9, and once in the participle oibbria Zech. 3:7 
for nii-']:n^, §94. e. 

2. r]D5J to gather and ^,0^ to add are liable 1o be confounded in certain 
forms. In the Hiphil future of Tib^, is twice represented by the vowel 
letter N, riOS'i 1 Sam. 18:29, ■,!ispi<n Ex. 5:7; Tibs drops its N in the 
Kal future, when it follows the Pe Aleph inflection, §110. 3. which it does 
only in the following instances, tip^N 2 Sam. 6 : 1, Clpn Ps.l04:29, T\hr:y!ii 
Mic. 4: 0, ?^3DX 1 Sam. 15:6, where the Hhirik, being abbreviated from 
Tsere, is short, notwithstanding the Methegh in the intermediate syllable, 
§45. 2, a. The apoc. Hiph. fut. of rb^ when joined with the negative 
particle iiN is accented on the penult, wip'in'bx Deut. 3 :26, and in one in- 
stance the vowel of the ultimate is dropped entirely, Spipi'^x Prov. 30:6. 



§152,153 AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODII VERBS. 183 

3. n"^r.i3':Jin Zech. 10 : 6 is probably, as explained by Gesenius and 
Hengstcnberg, for n"'ri3din from zb"^ to dwell, tliough Ewald derives it 
from S^ilJ to return, as if for n'^ni^irn , and Kimchi supposes it to be a 
combination of both words suggesting the sense of both, in which he. is 
followed by the English translators. I will bring them again to place them. 

d"'Nin Isa. 30: 5 ''is regarded by Gesenius as an incorrect orthography 
for d'^iin-j but Maurer and Knohel read it d"'Sarj and assume a root dxa 
synonymous with i:J""'a ". Alexander in loo. 

rpnin Ps. 16:5, see §90. 



Ayin Vav (iy) AND Ayin Yodh {""b) Verbs. 

§152. Yodli and Vav, as the second radical of verbs, 
have the following peculiarities, viz : 

1. They may be converted into their homogeneous 
vowels i and u. 

2. They may be rejected when accompanied by a hetero- 
geneous vowel, which is characteristic of the form. Yodh 
forms arc confined to the Kal of a few verbs ; in the other 
species Vav forms are universal. 

a. Yodh is never found as a quiescent middle radical in any species 
but Kal: it enters as a consonant into the Piel of two verbs, and the Hith- 
pael of IwO; § 101. 1, the Niphal of ii^rj to be, and the Hiphil of n'jn to live. 

§153. 1. In the Kal preterite and active participle and 
in the Hiphil and Hophal species, the quiescent is rejected 
and its vowel given to the preceding radical. Thus, 

Kal preterite : D^ for Qij5 where a, which arises from 
blending a, with the pretonic Kamets, §62. 1, is in partial 
compensation for the contraction, th for t^yq , tia for 11J"Q , 
I'n for '2.\'^ . For an exceptional formation, see § 158. 1. 

Active participle : D]? for DJ|5 , r,?2 for niti , t?3 for ©^ , 
27 for n^n , the ordinary participial form being superseded 
by that of another verbal derivative, as is the case in some 
perfect verbs of a neuter signification, § 90. 



184 ETYMOLOGY. §154 

Hiphil and Hophal : D^pn for D-'ij^n, ny-; for n-'i]?::, 
DJ5^n for D^If!^, the short vowel of the prefix being pro- 
longed in a simple syllable, § 59. 

2. In the Kal construct infinitive, future, imperative and 
passive participle, the quiescent is softened into its homo- 
geneous vowel, D'lp , l"'^ ; in the future the preformative 
commonly takes the simplest of the long vowels a-, ^^p'^ y 
yn'^, comp. nb"'. 

3. In the Kal absolute infinitive and in the Niphal 
species a 'similar softening of 1 occurs, which, with the 
accompanying or preceding a, forms o, ^ 57. 2. (5), Dip (kom= 
kaum) for Di"ip j Dip3 for aip? , the prefix usually taking the 
simplest of the long vowels a ; Dip? for D'lp? . 

4. In the first and second persons of the Niphal and 
Hiphil preterites o (i) is insei-ted before the afiixed termina- 
tion in order to preserve the long vowel of the root from the 
compression incident to standing before two consonants, 
§61.4; in the feminine plurals of the Kal future c (^..) is 
sometimes inserted for a similar reason, this prolongation of 
the word being attended by a shifting of the accent and a 
consequent rejection of the pretonic vowel of the first sylla- 
ble, DninipD, nro'^pn, r.r^ipn. In the Niphal preterite, 
Avhen the inserted i receives the accent, the preceding i is for 
euphony changed to i , e. g. inii2^p3 . 

5. In the Kal and Hiphil species the apocopated future 
takes the diphthongal vowels o and 8 in distinction from the 
ordinary future, which has the pure vowels u and i, §65.2.^, 
thus nib? , niij? . With Vav Conversive the accent is drawn 
back to the simple penult, and the vowel of the last syllable 
is shortened, m»H , mr?? . 

§154. 1. In the Piel, Pual, and ' Hithpael, the form of 
perfect verbs is rarely adopted, the second radical appearing 
as 1 , e. g. I!!?, or as "i , e. g. D?p . 

2. Commonly the third radical is reduplicated instead 



§155 AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODII VERBS. 185 

of the second, which then quiesces in Ilholem, Pi. C^V, 
Pu. D^ip , Hith. Di?vnn . 

a. In the Pual o is the passive vowel here adopted in preference to u: 
in the Piel and Hithpael it arises from the combination of ?«, to which 1 is 
softened, with the antecedent «, C^ip for c?2ip. §82. 5. b (3). 

3. Sometimes the quiescent letter is omitted from the 
root, and the resulting biliteral is reduplicated, Pi. ^?'?3, 
Pu. b3b3 . 

a. The two forms of the intensive species, wliich depart from the regu 
lar paradigm, precisely resemble in appearance those of Ayin doubled 
verbs, though constructed upon a diflferent principle, as already explained. 

§155. The inflections of Ayin Vav verbs are shown in 
those of D^P to stand or rise, in the following paradigm ; the 
divergent forms of Ayin Yodli verbs in the Kal species are 
exhibited by y^^ to contend. 

a. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs are named not from the Kal 
preterite, in which the quiescent is rejected, but from the construct infini- 
tive, the simplest form in which all the radicals appear. 

h. No Hophal forms occur in those persons in which the inflective ter- 
minations begin with a consonant. The same is true of the Ayin Yodh 
imperative. 







Paradigm of 


Ayin Vav 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


«=)? 


Dip; 


D7bip 


D7bip 


3/. 


^';p. 


^m 


f'2'2\) 


n7b7::ip 


2 wi. 


^"rP 


rii/bp: 


TO/bip 


n-fbip 


2/. 


n^fe 


ni:;:pD 


sp'fiip 


n-fiip 


Ic. 


^f^-rfe 


"ri:::pD 


'5?"?bip 


'ri'fbip 


Plur. 8 c. 


^-1? 


^■jipD 


ii7b7ji):j) 


, •■^?F? 


2 TO. 


t^n'ri^ 


Dni'^ip5 


Dn-^'^ip 


Dri-^7^ij^ 


2/ 


)^*Tl2 


■,hi-:ipD 


i^'r^^'I? 


V??^ 


Ic. 


^■■:^ 


^:i:bp2 


^j-fbip 


^"fbip 


Infix. -45so?. 


Dip 


Dipn 






Constr. 


Q^p 


Dipn 


D7bip 




FUT. 3 TO. 


dp: 


Dip^ 


Ci^jip^ 


D7bip^ 


3/ 


D^pn 


Dipn 


D-bipn 


D7bipn 


2 m 


D^pn 


Dipn 


D-jipn 


D7bipn 


2/ 


• > T 


^aipn 


rb53ipn 


^:b72ipn 

■ '» ' 1 • 


Ic. 


D^pJJ 


Dip^ 


D-bipyj 


D^bipJi? 


PZi/r. 3 m. 


^•-^p: 


^7;:ip^ 


^7b7ji|:5^ 


•i-J7jip^ 

: '1 : 


of. 


r;:rbpn 

T V ' : 


nrjipn 


nr^^bipn 

T : ■• > : 


rir;!7bipn 


2 TO. 


^•r,pn 


^•rlpn 


^■b-^ipn 


^■jiaipn 


2/ 


nr:bpn 


M:#n 


n"-:7bipn 


M"fbipn 


Ic. 


D^p? 


Dip? 


ci'bipD 


D7bipD 


ImPER. 2 TO. 


Dp 


Dipn 


Dbip 




2/. 


'¥^P 


^j^ipn 


■ ^7b:aip 


wanting 


PZ?/r. 2 TO. 


il^i^ip 


si/jipri 


^'b'^ip 




2/ 


nr^p 


nr^^ipri 


• "^T'^tV 




Part. Act. 


^^ 




D7bip7^ 




Pass. 


Dp 


Dip; 




D7bipa 



186 



AND Ayin Yodh Verbs. 



niPHiL. 


HOPHAL. 


IIITHPAEL. 


KAI.. 




t3"pn 


Dpin 


D-hipnn 


T 




^rpn 


n-bp^n 


ri/b^jlp^- 


T T 




nrj-pn 


(n-9Pin) 


n-f^iprn 


m^ 


T • 


nrj^pri 


(^tP^") 


rrfbiprn 


nnn 




^riTj^pn 


(^mp^M) 


T-f^iprin ■ 


^nn^ 


^1'^"? 


^"-'pri 


^•jp^ri 


Tjt:"ipnri 


T 


^U^S 


Dhrj^gri 


(Dn^p^n) 


nn-fjipnri 


t3Pinn 




in^-^T^q 


(#tP-v) 


■pip^iprn 


1^^- 




^2^\:ti 


(^:^p^n) 


^rfbipnr; 


^::;n 




sp- 






nin 


1 

nn 


D"PO 




Q^iipnn 


nn 




t^T; 


Qpr 


t2"^Tr>: 


• r 




D-pn 


Dp^n 


D-biprn 


• T 




D^pn 


Dp^n 


D'bipnn 


n^nn 




^/j^pn 


'■?P^^ 


rb'^iprn 


"n'^nn 




^^m 


Dp^>5 


I2"i?'ipr>? 


• T 




^-p^ 


^•-P^: 


Tr^ipn- 


iG^n^ 




^^^p^ 


(ri:52p^n) 


nrrbiprin 


r;:nnn 




rrpn 


^:ap^n 


v^-^ipr^n 


^n^nn 




M^-;pn 


(nr^p^p.) 


M^wbiprn 

T : •• ' : • 


nrnnn 

T : •• T 




Q-p? 


Dp^D 


D/bipn^ 


• T 




i=pf7 




D"bipnri 


z.'°i 




^•^pn 


■vr anting 


rb53ipr,n • 

• : 'l : • 


^n-i 




^'^'PO 




T:!"^ipsnri 


^n^n 




^"rPO 




nrj^ipriri 


(-P?"^) 




^v:^ 


np^/j 


ci/bipri^^ 


T 





187 



188 ETYMOLOGY. §156,157 



Remarks on Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh Verbs. 

§ 156. 1. Medial Yodh and Vav remain without quiescence or rejection 
in a few verbs, whose root contains another feeble consonant by contrast 
with which these letters acquire new strength. This is always the case 
in Lamedh He verbs, e. g. n^n, ni3 ; so lilfcvvise in the following guttural 
verbs and forms, ri;a to expire, :>i~jn"] Isa. 29:22, : >in;s"> Isa. 42:11, 
n'-^X to be an enemy, 'j^.is 1 Sam. 18:9 K'ri (K'thibh 7.1'), ns";;^' Jer. 
4: 31, which are confined to the Kal species, and in Hin to he airy or re- 
freshing, which is besides Ibund in the Pual participle. 

2. The Kal preterite has Pattahh in two instances as in Ayin Vav 
verbs, 12 Zech. 4 : 10, Itj Isa. 44 : 18 but n-j Lev. 14 : 42. It has Tsere 
in na to die, 1.3 Isa. 17 : 11 but ^n'j .Jer. 50 : 3, and Hholem in "iix to shine, 
\ai3 to he ashamed , -itJ to he good, §82. 1. a, and in ^S2 Jer. 27: 18, else- 
where >ix!n, J|iT Isa. 1:6, Ps. 58:4, elsewhere 11T. Hhirik once occurs 
instead of Pattahh in the second person plural, crira Mai. 3:20. The 
following participles have Tsere, D-^ib , ^b , '{h , ni , nr ; the following 
have Hbolem, c"^Di2, n-^bia , L-^-bip 2 Kin. 16:7 (comp. cniTl'-.p Ex. 32:25 
in the Samaritan copy), elsewhere n"'rp . 

3. The vowel letter X is written for a, § 11. 1. a, once in the preterite, 
CS^ Hos. 10 : U, and occasionally in the participle, oxb Judg. 4:21, 
ni'QX'i Prov. 24:7, uxn 2 Sam. 12:1, 4, Prov. 10:4, 13:23, n-'-JXd 
despising Ezek. 16 : 57, 28 : 24, 26, to be distinguished from n"^i:d rowing 
Ezek. 27:8, 26. The consonant N is onne introduced in place of the 
omitted 1, t^^^,^ Zech. 14: 10 for f^^'^ ; the ancient versions favour tlie 
assumption, that ■'"iNS Ps. 22:17 is in like manner for n-^^-^ piercing, 
though the most recent and ablest expositors take it to be a preposition 
and noun like the lion. Alexander in loc. 

4. The accent regularly remains upon the radical syllable before 
affixes consisting of a vowel or a simple syllable, though witii occasional 
exceptions, e. g. nx|^ Lev. 18 : 28, Jiin Gen. 26 : 22, siiib Gen. 40 : 15, iinn 
Num. 13 : 32. In a few instances it is shifted by Vav conversive preterite, 
§100.2. tiibn Obad. ver. 16, sisDi Am. 3 : 15, nnsi Isa. 1 1 : 2, !in:i Isa.7:19 
but >lX2f| ibid., ns2>l Zech. 5 : 4, n:^'] ibid., where the feminine ending is 
fi.. instead of n ^; so in the passive participle, irnlT Isa. 59 : 5 for nn^iT . 

§157. 1. Hholem is in a few instances found instead of Shurek in the 
construct infinitive, xii , Dii Judg.3:25, uiia, ni: and rai, y-ii Isa.7:2, 
elsewhere 5^3, Tis Isa. 30: 2. which is not from ih. n'cj Josh. 2: 16, else- 
where svia, and with suf. crii Ezek. 10: 17, *iTiJ Ps. 71 : 6, which is not 
the participle from nn (Gesenius), Tl^ my breaking forth, i. e. tlie cause 
of it Ps. 22: 10, sec Alexander in loc; Gesenius explains this form as a 
participle, but is obliged in consequence to assume a transitive sense 
which nowhere else belongs to the verb. 

2. The following imperatives have Hholem, "^nix Isa. 60: 1, X2 , iria, 



§15S AYIN VAV AND AYIN YODH VERBS. 189 

"ina Mic. 4:10, "^di^ Mic. 4:13. Wilh puragogic M, ni^tp or HB^p, 
naia or n^ilO. Examples of the feminine plural, ri^-cp ^ "Jr^'- 

3. The following futures have Hholem. N'ii'^, liT^ Gen. 6 : 3, elsewhere 
1">'7^, Sioj Ps. 80:19, Din;| and D^n;i , ^ii;^ where the Hhirik of the per- 
fect paradigm is lengthened to Tsere under the preformative. Examples 
of the feminine plural: nrxhn and '"iJxHn , nrbiriPi, nrkirn and Zech. 
1:17 n::i!isn (in some editions without Daghesh), na^'i^urn and ri:::cn, 
nj^xn, nrrff^ri Ezelc. 13: 19. The accent is shifted and Kamets rejected 
from the preformative upon the addition of a sutBx or paragogic. Nun, the 
latter of which is particularly frequent in this class of verhs both in the 
Kal and Hiphil future. '^3?''-?' ''(^Yx^-j •"J"?.^''^) c^ro"', "^Tilp"^ , V^^^!\i, 
ni5"n Ezek. 4: 12, with Daghesh euphonic in the a which is omitted in 
some copies. Apocopated future: r^V S'^IJ^ and "^^^ , I3n, 'fp^^ ^'r^j 
Dp'J with the accent thrown back to the penult Ci?'^ . Future with Vav 
conversive: n^sfl (in pause nt^i), zt^i (-i^^T), ^'S*] . ^P,J:1^ TP,b ^ ^"^^'1! 
the last vowel is changed to Pattahh before a final guttural, ^"3^1, n:^T, 
and sometimes before "i or after an initial guttural "i"^l but "i5^\ ^i^l'^l he 
was weary, ri^'^1 hejiew, onri] ; the vowel of the preibrmative is likewise 
changed to Pattahh in uinri" Job 31 : 5, '^v■l^ I Sam. 14: 32, a>r)i 1 Sam. 
15 : 19 but 'C'Al 1 Sam. 25 : 14. 

§158. 1. The verbs which exhibit peculiar Ayin Yodh forms in Kal, 
with unimportant exceptions, either do not occur in the Hiphil or retain 
the same signification in both these species. This has led some gram- 
marians to entertain the opinion that these are not Kal but abbreviated 
Hiphil forms, while others suppose that the Hiphil in these verbs is a 
secondary formation, and has arisen from the Kal future having the form 
of the Hiphil. Only three examples occur of quiescent Yodh in the Kal 
preterite, rii-^n Job 33 : 13 (n:-n Lam. 3:58). ^rrs Dan. 9:2 (nn:3 Ps. 
139:2) \i^y^^ Jer. 16 : 16. ' ' 

2. The following verbs liave "^ in the Kal future and imperative, ""^a 
to understand, ty^i (once ''tii Mic. 4: 10) to break forth, ^"5 (once biji 
Prov. 23 : 24 K'thibh) to exidt, "p^ (once ll^-; Gen. 6 : 3) to judge, 'p^ to 
lodge, -""^ to contend, ri">a to muse, CO (once c^il'^ Ex. 4:11) to put, 
b"<b (once C!i&b7 Isa. 35: 1) to rejoice, "i-iiy (once lib^ Job 33 : 27) to sing, 
TT^'b to place ; h'n or b'ln to txcist, writhe, has both Yodh and Vav. To 
these are to be added IT' 3 Jer. 4 : 3, Hos. 10: 12, nb^n Ps. 71 : 12 K'thibh, 
K'ri nc^n as always elsewhere; y^^"^ to tirge, y"^^ to flourish, T''^^ to 
wander, are in the Hiphil according to Gesenius : but as the corresponding 
preterites are not Hiphil but Kal, and there are no other forms of the Kal 
future, they might with equal propriety be regarded as Kal futures of 
Ayin Yodh roots ; the second of them is so regarded by Ewald. Apoco- 
pated futures: '{21. bi;^ and h^, 2^_-^, cc;; , nt;'. l^n and :-|^n. With 
Vav conversive : h'yh , "f^.^i , Cbjl , '=ri] , bnni , n;nn , "iu;ni . With para- 
gogic Nun and suflixes : "p'i"^?"!, "r^''"n. ca-^'^??. Feminine plural: n:?:ri. 

3. The infinitives show a stronger disposition to adopt Vav forms. 
Yodh is only retained in the following absolute infinitives: ')"'3 Prov. 23: 1, 
n-i.A and na, b-^\ Prov. 23:24 K'ri (bia K'thibh), z.'^i Jer. 50:34, else- 



190 ETYMOLOGY. §159,160 

where sH. Construct infinitives: 'p-n. 'i"'j? Gen. 24:23, elsewhere 'ly, 
a-'S once mi Judg. 21 : 22 K'thibh, n-'ib and nra, Q'^ib Job 20: 4, 2 Sam. 
14:7 K'ri, elsewhere C^iy, l-'O 1 Sam. 18:6 K'ri (K'thibh irji), ni-ij, 
also with suf. ii:"'"7 Deut. 25:4, elsewhere "Cn . In the difficult verse 
Hos. 7:4 '■'S^ has been variously explained, as the Kal infinitive pre- 
ceded by the preposition '|^ or as the Hiphil participle. Tlie only certain 
instance of a Kal passive participle of Ayin Yodh verbs is r\hro 2 Sam. 
13: 32 K'ri (K'thibh n^-ib) ; some explain Cilb Num.24: 21, Obad. ver.4, 
as a passive participle, others as an infinitive. 

4. Ayin Yodh verbs adopt the Vav forms in all the derivative species, 
e.g. •'^1:23, -jiij, ^"P.^i:!^, "i^iarn, nt^i-' ; T^n cooked, \.e. pottage, is the 
only instance of a Niphal participle with Yodh. 

§159. 1. Examples of the Niphal preterite: 5i^: , ^i-ioj , yiDj , "i-ixi; 
the accidental Hhirik of the perfect paradigm is preserved in bis? by 
means of Daghesh-forte in the first radical ; in lir? it is lengthened to 
Tsere before the guttural; in J "ir: Jer. 48: 11 the radical 1 is rejected, 
which gives it the appearance of an Ayin doubled verb. Inflected forms : 
n3i33 (part. fem. n;i32), ^z'ii , lai; , ^loirj , ^Va3 , "^nisiDJ , ir^iSD , t:!gi:iiE3 , 

2. Infinitive absolute: bisn . Construct: i>isn, niijri , with n re- 
jected after the preposition "nxb Job 33: 30, §91. bj once it has Shurek, 
^r^-nn Isa. 25: 10. Imperative, *,iin. ^iban . 

3. Future: "lii:, 'Liia?. hi^^ , 'p^ Ps. 72 : 17 K'ri (K'thibh 'pD^), ^ii^": , 
?iS7, "■iN;:, wis!::, -lis;;. Participle: ■p'zj , ti"^2 , o-^isi's? , c\^iD3 , n^Das , 
n"<yisi3 . 

§ 160. 1. The short vowel of the perfect paradigm is in a few instances 
preserved in the Hiphil by doubling the first radical, thus ti'iiH and fl'^irt, 
n'^en and n-'cn , b-^-Ti-i , f^;; , 'p^l , and 'f !:■; , n-'n'; and •nn?:; 2 Sam. 
22 : 33. 

2. Hiphil preterite inflected: nj^-'kn, ^3i4r}, l:?"^-^" and iirin, with 
syllabic affixes : nirsn , rillli'^sri , ni^-'"iri and n^'f^ . ^t^*'';}?!': and 
tri'-in, nnh"'!;;!!, ini2"'£fi.l . or when the first radical is a guttural, 
inii"'3.'n, n^-'rn and i^r}^?!!? oi" without the inserted Hholem, PSiti, 
''rin^n 'and ■'nir."'3n , ^rin and >i3ir=n , cinxrn^ and cnx-'ip^ , "^nrn and 
cn^n, §61.4. a. With suffixes, "iran, t^'^'^a^; ^^''''^Cl) "'-'r''''^^':) "i^^i?.^. • 

3. Hiphil future inflected: '^^'''=:1 , Vd^rn, feminine plural i^jsfcn , 
nSTS'ipn , ns^'^rin . With Nun paragogic and suffixes: ■,!Hi:i5;'^ , cn"'?D'j . 
Apocopated ' future : yi?.'; , ^b^ , JjS"; , nn'n . With Vav conversive : 
n:Q'1, n3'ni, 0)5^11, irKi and ^'''"^^, if the last radical be a guttural, S'l^l , 
ns*], r."i^T, or X, ^ih^i; once ii'Z^l and once i^'^k'^l; upon the reception 
of a suffix the vowel is restored to its original length, c^i'd"^] , 1t^S"'3']] . 



iphil infinitive absolute: iiiin, P^in, cf?n once C^li^ri Jer. 44:25; 
t, b^in , n^in, aii;n,Dipn, with suffix ''^"''in., ^yoi^, t2?'2'^'ir7, , 



4. Hii 

construct, 

cis'isn and once with a feminine termination nosrt Isa. 30 : 28. 



§161,102 LAMEDH ALEPH VERBS. 19] 

5. In a few instances ii is found in the Hophal before Daghesh-forte or 
Sh'va, iin'^sn Zccii. 5:11, r\va Ezek. 41:9, 11 but r\\y\ Lam. 5:5, and 
in some editions Ci;?n 2 Sam. 23:1, tba;^ Job 41:1, ^hx.yy 2 Sam. 21:9 
thoufjli others read cpn ; b^"^, ir^n. 

§161. 1. The following verbs, which are only found in one or more of 
the three reduplicated species, double the middle radical either as Vav or 
as Yodh, viz. : 3;;n to render liable. h'^V to do wickedly. ~in:> to blind, n^i? 
topert-erl, 's'r:: to cry for help, ^zy/^^n Josh. 9:12, liJJ^S") Josh. 9:4; so 
also C^p fut. C^p';i and crip^, n^jy fut. ^yj^ , which have quiescent Vav 
in other species, and n^in , which has consonantal Vav likewise in the Kal. 

2. The following omit the quiescent in the Piel and double the result- 
ing biliterai, bsbs (o suslain, n-'nxijN:: Isa. 14:23. r\h-Jb--^-o Isa. 22:17 
?]^4:H'^^ Hab. 2:7, '^sisiJE'^ Job IG: 12 but y^S"^ Jer. 23': 29,' -ip-ip Num. 
24:"l7 and ip"^p^ Isa.'22:'5, "'Spscri Isa. ]7:l'l; '.^'Vi": Isa. 1.515 is for 
5 '["'i;!"'?'? 5 §57. i; ^i'^'-ll Job 39: 3 is perhaps for ^^".br^ 'from brr, comp. 
pax Ps. 139:8 for Pt9>5, §SS, though Gesenius conjectures that it is an 
erroneous reading for ^'"^y^ from I'^iii . The only Hithpael formed by a 
like reduplication is ^nbnrn Esth. 4:4, elsewhere bSinrn . 

3. Other verbs double the third radical in the Piel and Hitlipael. Ex- 
amples of the feminine plural : nnni::n, nrbipn, :n:;5-i"cpn, n:i;i:irnpi, 
Hholem is changed to ii before the doubled letter in the contracted form. 
!lSSi3^n Job 31 : 15 for^ ^'}V'=;1'} , §61. 3. Fiirst explains !i:?-^n:. Isa. 61 : G as 
in like manner for ^irr^T:!:}] , while Gesenius makes it a Kal future, used in 
this single instance in a transitive sense. cbDiria Am. 5 : 11 is probably a 
variant orthography for DsCOia , § 92. b. 

4. The following are the only examples of the Pual in Ayin Vav verbs, 
viz.: With 1 doubled, wrri Eccles. 1: 15, O'^njn^: Jer. 22: 14. Redupli- 
cated biliterai, ^"'^bs 1 Kin. 20:27. The third radical redujilicated, b^in 
to be born, :>i::i3 Ezek. 28 : 13, Ps. 37 : 23, rijrbl^n Ps. 75: II and cbi',:? 
Neh. 9:5. fA"} Isa. 16: 10, iSSii'? Job 26: ll', nsiido Ezek. 38 : 8. ' 

5. nsTiiliisn Jer. 25 : 34 is an anomalous preterite from "j^lQ to scatter, 
with n prefixed and inflected after the analogy of Niphal j some copies 
have the noun cs^nmiEn your dispersions. 

In ''nst^ri'i Ezek. 36: 11 for "103:13^11 from Sit:, Tsere is retained under 
the prefix as though the word were from the related Pe Yodh verb -i?^, 
e. g. "in^'J"'n'i . On the other hand, in 'inp-'sni Ex. 2: 9 from pi;, Tsere 
is rejected as though it were from an Ayin Vav verb. 



Lamedh Aleph (i?b) Verbs. 

§162. 1. Aleph, as the third radical of verbs, retains its 
consonantal character only when it stands at the beginning 
of a syllable, nx:^^ , q^-^i^n . 



192 ETYMOLOGY. § 163 

2. At the end of tlie word it invariably quiesces in the 
preceding vowel, §57.2. (2), i^'i-q , m^ , ^^irin . If this 
vowel be Pattahh, as in the Kal and Niphal preterites and 
in the Pual and Hophal species, it is in the simple syllable 
lengthened into Kamets, § 59, i^ip for if^i'g , «:?^3 for «i72p ; 
so likewise in the Kal future and imperative, where ^ as 
a guttural requires a, ^^^'^ for i^TQ"} , i^k-q for «2^ . A like 
prolongation of Pattahh to Kamets occurs before medial t? 
in the first and second persons of the Kal preterite, '^^'^'q , 

3. With the single exception just stated, medial « quiesces 
in the diphthongal vowel e before syllabic affixes ; thus, in the 
first and second persons of the preterites of the derivative 
species in Tsere, ^^i^^ , ''riK:k')2n , in the feminine plurals of 
all the futures and imperatives in Seghol, n:K2">2ri , n:j{:£ti . 

a. This e may arise from the diphthongal preferences ofS, §60. l.a{5), 
or it may be borrowed irom the corresponding forms of nb verbs, between 
which and !sb verbs there is a close affinity and a strong tendency to 
mutual assimilation. In Chaldee and Syriac no distinction is made be- 
tween them. 

§163. This class of verbs is represented in the follow- 
ing paradigm by t?i^ io find ; the Piel and Hithpael, though 
wanting in this verb, are supplied from analogy. The Pual 
and Hophal are omitted because they are of rare occurrence, 
and they present no peculiarities but such as are common to 
the other species. 

a. In their ordinary inflection Laraedh Aleph verbs differ from the 
perfect paradigm in the vowels only. 



Paradigm of Lamedh Alepii Verbs. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


iiipniL. 


IIITnPAEL. 


Pket. 3 TO. 


T T 


T ; • 


Nrj 


^■r^n 


kl-m. 


3/ 


T : IT 




r;.s:i^ 


T • : • 


r-ikTcm 


2 TO. 


T T r 


T •• : • 


T\^k2 

T •• • 


T •• : • 


t\'^k-2tr[ 


2/ 


T r 


r^d';3 


nj^kt: 


ni^kisn 


T\'^k:2m 


1 c. 


• T T 


^n^5r^2 


'r>^^"^ 


^nj^r^ri 


^mk'2t\n 


Plur. 3 c. 


: IT 


^^'9? 


^i5!i53 


^5^^k53ri 


'\k%i2pr\ 


2 TO. 


arixr^ 


dnj^r^D 


nnj^ss'^ 


Qni^r^ri 


Xlt\;^T2t\T] 


2/ 


■jtiNr^ 


'inj5r^3 


1^^^^ 


■]ni^r;n 


")n:^s-^rr! 


1 c. 


r T 


^DJ^r^3 


^'^5k-^ 


^:i^r^ri 


rA^i:2T\r\ 


iNFIIf. ^&S0Z 


. Jt^ii-^ 


i^':^:^? 


5^r^ 


j^-^^n 




Co?is^r 


^±2 


•• T • 


t^rj 


u^i-r^n 


ksriTp 


FUT. 3 TO. 


T ; • 




^kT.. 


^'^'9' 


«^=r?? 


3/. 


T : • 


i^is^n 


m'2T\ 


j^^r^ri 


5^i£"^rri 


2 TO. 


T : • 


•■ T • 


^r^n 


^■^i^n 


!^k-2np 


2/ 


^Kl'27\ 


"^^^^ 


■^b^^-^n 


\si*i^-^r[i 


\^^tT\ 


1 c. 


T : V 


• • T V 


^^4'^^ 


t5"r^^ 


^%:2m 


PZ!/r. 8 TO. 


^^^r;!;^ 


^kriT 


^k^'T 


^^rr^: 


^^•S":ri: 


3/ 


nti^ik'an 


nrj^r^^n 


nii^^^n 


nr^d'^n 


ri5.^|:a^n 


2 TO. 


^i^:i°;n 


^i^::^n 


ii;>^!£-^s^ 


iL^"r;n 


^kr^nn 


2/ 


H2«r^n 


T V T • 


n^i^sj-^n 


np^^r^n 


nrw^r^nn 


Ic. 


T : • 


•• T • 


^4"^? 


^^r^D 


^k-;n5 


ImPER. 2 TO. 


Kr2 


t^:k^ri 


^'k)2 


t^r^n 


!^i|"^nri 


2/ 


^kr2 


\s;:^'/3r; 


^ki-2 


\^^istfj 


\s;r:nr7 


PZiir. 2 m. 


^ki'2 


; IT • 


^'k%'2 


^.s^r^jj 


!i>5:;";nri 


2/ 


mD^-J 


T V T • 


^^^'2 


MjiJ^'^Jj 


T ■.■—:• 


Part. Act. 


^ip 




^%:?^ 


^^%'2'2 


^5^=r?"-? 


Pass. 


^ri'2 


^^i!p5 









19^ 



194 ETYMOLOGY. §164,165 



Remarks on Lamedh Aleph Verbs. 

§164. 1. Verbs having Tsere as their second vowel, §S2. 1. a, retain it 
in the first and second persons of the Kal preterite, rN^"!, rsra , ipxpb. 

2. Quiescent N is occasionally omitted from the body of ihe word, 
e.g. Kal pret. ^r}-kl Job 1:21 for T^ii ^ iptio Num. 11:11. "^rrs Judg. 
4: 19. •'n?^ Job 32: IS, !i:2 1 Sam. 25:s'for r.^'z: fut. nrosn and nsxTaFI ; 
rk"! Deut. 28:57 part. fem. sing, for nxii^ ; *in»a73 Job 4i:17 for "inx'^a 
const, inf with prep, and suf. from S<\1"3 . Niph. pret. cr^n: Josh. 2:16, 
ci^ri:3 Lev. 11:43. Oliant K, §16. 1, may in like manner be dropped 
from the end of the word after quiescent Vav or Yodh, e. g. ""i^n Gen. 
20:6 for ^i'iw^^, l::^l l Kin. 12:12 for Nii*;;, ^isnn 2 Kin. 13: 6,''''i2nri 
Jer. 32:35, "'D^ Ps.'l41:5, "ic": Ps. 55:16, -'isj 1 Kin. 21:29, Mic. 1 : 15, 
''213 2 Sam. 5:2, and in three other passages; ''hn Ruth 3:15 is Hiph. 
Imper. fem. for "'X'^rH) §62.2. 

3. The vowel following t< is in a few instances given to a preceding 
vowelless consonant, and the X becomes otiant or quiescent, §57. 2 (3), 
K^iCJ Ps. 139:20 for >ixb3, j^^rci"; Jer. 10:5 for ^^ct": , ix^": imp. for ^ti-j";, 
K^'i Eccles. 10:5 Kal part. fem. for ^ki:^ , C^'^n 1 Sam. 14:33 for 
CX-jH, cx'iiS Neh. 6:8 Kal part, with suf for CX^ia, iiXQ"^? Ezelc. 47:8 
for ^5<3'73; and, on the contrary, quiescent K attracts to itself the vowel 
of the preceding consonant in "Nip Ex. 2:20 Kal imp. for f^jxip and 
ns'^N-J Cant. 3:11 for n:xk from'xiv 

4. Final tt resumes its consonantal character upon the addition of 
suffixes ixbJ. receiving (_ ) before T], CD and *3. in consequence of which 
a previous Tsere or Sh'va is converted into Pattahh, §60. 1, "|X',Jj"3 . ^x,rvD, 
VjXi2 , T|Xn2n, ^^Xfjia Pi. inf., S=X,5?'J, crx:ib Kal inf. for Crx/^-a, §G1. I.e. 

5. Kamets in the ultimate is mostly retained before suffixes and para- 
gogic n, VjX^ri, nxsi Ps. 41:5, '"ixipxi 1 Sam. 28: 15, but nx2q3 Isa. 
56:12. Tsere is rejected f^N:iX Neh. 2:13, 2 Chron. 1:10, or retained 
only in pause t nxs Judg. 9:29. 

§165. 1. He is, in a few instances, substituted for X, rici Ps. 60:4 for 
t^C-i, nl-nri Jer. 19:11 for X2"Jii, nos Ps. 4 : 7 for Nil"? , §3. \. a, n:sr;3 Jer. 
49:'l0 for'N2ri3, ninn 1 Kin.' 22:25, 2 Kin. 7:12 I'br xinn nri2;i Job 
8:21 for xf^av' 

2. Sometimes x remains, but the vowels are those of n'b forms, "''^xbs 
Ps. 119:101 for Tx^3, xih Eccl. 8: 12, 9: IS, Isa. 03:20 for X'jn, xis 

1 Sam. 22:2, Isa. 24:^2, xii^a Eccl. 7:26, i<%i. 1 Kin. 9:11, Am. 4:2 Pi. 
pret. for X'!a3, KS-n Ps. 143:3 for XS-n , X^o' Jer. 51:34 for xf^, "'PXB'n 

2 Kin. 2:21 for T'^QI , >i:x5"; Jer. 51:9 for >13XQ1, "XHS^ Job 39:21 for 
-XB?7, xHsri Deut. 28:59 Hiph. pret. for X-'Vsn , xiit^'Ps. 135:7 Hiph. 
part, const, for X"'i'i"3 from xi^; ; to which may be added tiJ^ix'^Pi Ezek. 
23 :49. nrx^'/sn Jer. 50 : 20, with *> inserted as in fib verbs. 



^ 166-168 LAMEDH HE VERBS. 195 

3. Sometimes the rtb form is adopted both in consonants and vowels, 
!l"i^ Ezek. 28:16 for ^x!3^,_^^3 1 Sam. 6:10, ^p: Ezek. 39:26, •'Jnbs 

1 Sam. 25: 33 for ■'in^sbs", VriU Ruth 2:9 for nsi^ , r^^z^ Gen. 23:6 for 
N^37, nrsnn Job 5: 18 for n:xcnn comp. Jer. 8:11, 51:9,2 Kin. 2:22, 
•iJir: Ps.^32:*l for aW: , n-'aj'jer'. 26 : 9 for rX23 , n-'brn 1 Sam. 10:6, 
nii::rn l Sam. 10:13, rjV^Tsn 2 Sam. 3:8, n/2:s'lsa.'29 : 7 for f7\N:i:; 
nipTS Ezek. 8 : 3 is by some interpreters thought to be for X"':.P^ prurolc- 
ing to jealousy, and by others exphiined in the sense of the n"'> verb selling 
(Israel to their foes). 

§166. 1. Tlie 3 fem. preterite has the old ending n^, §86. b, in nxin 
Ex. 5: 16 lor n5<-jn, nx-ir? Deut. 31 :29. Isa. 7: 14, Jer. 44:23, nxnn Gen' 
33:11 Hoph. from xia' nx"^S3 Ps. 118:23 (rx^S? Deut. 30: ll' is the 
feminine participle), to whicli the customary ending ti^ is further added 
in nr.sbsj 2 Sam. 1 : 26. nnxann Josh. 6 : 17 lor nN-^iinn . 

2. A feminine termination '^,, ri, or as in tip verbs m', is occasionally 
added to the construct infinitive, e. g. Kal, nxri-J , njj-i';!, r^iirq , rs-ip from 
xnp /o 'mee^, distinsriiisiied from Xip and mxip Judg. 8:1 from N'^p to 
call, T\^o-q and n^sp^ never xia, nxib Prov. 8:13, with suf. ihxijn 
Ezek. 33:12. Niphal, inNSSn Zech. 13:4. Piel, niKis'a and ^«|^5 j 
Snjirp 2 Sam. 21 : 2; nixUi^ Ezek. 17 : 9 is a Kal inf. const, formed as in 
Chaldee by prefixing a . 

3. There are two examples of the Niphal infinitive absolute. ii"ip3 

2 Sam. 1 : 6 and 5<i;53n Ex. 22 : 3: the analogy of the former has been re- 
tained in the paradigm for the sake of distinction from the construct. Piel 
infinitive absolute: Nsp, iJtST , K"}3. Hiphil inf. abs. : ^^.^sn , ^s^r^5 • 

4. The Hiphil future with Vav conversive commonly has Tsere in the 
ultimate, though Hhirik also occurs N^pW , Np;^1 , Nianiil , ^<2^W , xki'l 
and i<2?i*i, NS^l, once S-idjI Ezek. 40 : 3, and once X^i^] Neh.'S:2. 

5. Kamets sometimes occurs in the ultimate of the Hithpael future, 
il\aDrii Num. 23:24 but s'-iapn Ezek. 29: 15, so 5<'jnn7, xii-07, i<^9nn, 
;")iNbTan7; more rarely in the preterite, nxaan, 

§167. 1. The following are the only Pual forms which occur. Pret. : 

51X31 , >iX3n , xnp . Fut. : ssi"^ . Part. : S5S"i^ , •ixs^'a , D"'5<|?'3 , ckroia , 
nixsip'O , \vith suf. '^xn'psTs . ' 

2. The following are the only Hophal forms: Pret. sixanrj, nxi^iin, 
N3in, iixin, nnsrn, sisnin. Fut.: xn^i"', ^xiii-". Part.: nhn-o, nss^a . 

3. For the anomalous forms, nnxiin Deut. 33: 16, ^nxi^n Job 22: 21. 
rxin 1 Sam. 25 : 34 (K'thibh Tisan), see §88 (sing. 3 fern.) ' 



Lamedh He (nb) Verbs. 

§ 168. In these verbs the third radical, which is Yodh or 
Vav, does not appear at the end of the word except in the 



196 ETYMOLOGY. ^169 

Kal passive participle, e. g. "'iba ; in all other cases it is re- 
jected or softened, the resulting vowel termination being 
usually expressed by the letter n , §11. 1. «. 

In the various preterites n stands for the vowel a, and 
is hence pointed n^ . 

In the futures and participles it stands for c, and is 
pointed !^.. . 

In the imperatives it stands for e, and is pointed n .. . 

In the absolute infinitives it stands for o or e ; in the 
Kal it is pointed ri , in the Hiphil and Hophal n .. , in the 
Niphal and Piel n' or Ji.. . There are no examples in Pual 
and Hithpael. 

The construct infinitives have the feminine ending ni . 

a. In this class of verbs the Yodh forms have almost entirely super- 
.seded those with Vav, The latter are confined to the construct infinitive 
where m', occurring in all the species, is best explained by assuming 1 to 
be radical (comp, n jxn Ezek. 28 : 17 as an alternate of riix-i) and to a few 
other sporadic cases, viz. : a single Kal preterite, "'P'lbd Job 3 : 25, the 
reduplicated forms of three verbs, tilNS , ^nnoii, njnndn, and the pecu- 
liar form, ".'^"^S Isa, 16:9. 

h. In the Kal preterite, Yodh is rejected after the heterogeneous 
vowel Pattahh, §57. 2. (5), which is then prolonged to Kamets in the sim- 
ple syllable, ~ba for "1^5. As Pattahh is likewise the regular vowel of the 
ultimate in the preterites of Niphal and Hophal, and occasionally appears 
in Piel, § 92. c, and Hithpael, § 96. 6, the final Kamets of these species may 
be similarly explained. The ending, thus made uniform in the other 
species, passed over likewise into the Hiphil preterite, which it did the 
more readily since a belongs at least to some of its persons in the perfect 
verb. Yodh is in like manner rejected after the heterogeneous Hholem 
of certain infinitives, while it leaves the homogeneous Tsere of others un- 
modified. 

c. The futures, imperatives, and participles of certain of the species 
have e as the normal vowel of their ultimate; in this Yodh can quiesce, 
leaving it unchanged. Those of the other species (except the Hiphil, 
which is once more attracted into conformity with the rest) have or may 
have a in the ultimate ; this, c-ombined with the i latent in "^ . will again 
form e.. In the future this becomes e (..) in distinction from the ending e (..) 
of the more energetic imperative; and the absolute is distinguished from 
the construct state of the participle in the same way. 

§1G9. 1. Before personal endings beginning with a 
vowel the last radical is occasionally retained as "^ , particu- 



§170 LAMEDH HE VERBS. 197 

larly in prolonged or pausal forms, n^^Dn , ^"^cn , ; 'ji'^Dn^ ; it 
is, however, commonly rejected and its vowel given to the 
antecedent consonant, "^^ for ^''>^5 , ^^.^n for ''^^?n ; in like 
manner the preterite 3 fera., which in these verbs retains the 
primary characteristic M , , § 86. (5, M^a for fTJ^^^ , to which is 
fnrther appended the softened ending n ^ , thus nnb.n , in 
pause ririba . 

a. The n^ of the 3 fern. pret. is frequently explained as a second fem- 
inine ending added after the first had lost its significance in the popular 
consciousness. It might, perhaps with equal propriety, be regarded as 
paragogically appended. §G1. G, comp. such nouns as nri'Vr';', Hnb'';? , 
nnr'^X, in order to produce a softer termination and one more conformed 
to that which obtains in the generality of verbs. Nordheimer's explanation 
of the n as hardened from n . f^Pba for t^f^r'-Ji labours under the double 
difficulty that there is neither proof nor probability for the assumption that 
the consonant n could be exchanged for n , and that fi in the preterite of 
these verbs is not a radical nor even a consonant, but simply the represen- 
tative of the vowel a. 

2. Before personal endings beginning with a consonant 
the third radical "^ remains but is softened to a vowel, so 
that in the Kal preterite it quiesces in Hhirik, in the Pual 
and Hophal preterites in Tsere, in the Niphal, Piel, Iliphil, 
and Hithpael preterites in either Hhirik or Tsere, and in the 
futures and imperatives of all the species in Seghol, t)"^?^ , 

3. Forms not augmented by personal endings lose their 
final vowel before sufRxes, e. g. ^?^a , ^b^^ from n'ia , '^b^si, 
from >i^i^\ ^b.w from np^n. The preterite 3 fern, takes its 
simple form, e. g. ^nnS^ or 'inba , and in pause ^riba . 

§170. The Lamedh He verbs will be represented by 
fi^5 to u?icover, reveal^ which is used in all the species. 







Paradigm 


OF Lamedh 




KAL. 


NIPnAL, 


PIEL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


T T 


r;b':o 

T : • 


T • 


3/. 


•^^^5 


nribro 

T : : • 


T : • 


2 m. 


^■^'i^ 


m^b'ro 

T •■ ; • 


T • • 


2/ 


• T 


r^^b":*? 


n^b5 


\c. 


• • T 


^ri^b'jp 


^m-'ba 


Plur. 3 <5. 


T 


^b:? 


\ba 


2 TO. 


I3in"br, 


C!f}'b:o 


Di^'^3 


2/. 


•jin-bri 


■jh^bro 


■jh^ba 


Ic. 


• T 


^3'!?^*? 


^rb'a 


Infix. ^45soZ, 


n'Ba 

T 


Mb';o 


n'ba 


Constr. 


nib':» 


nibsn 

T • 


niba 


FuT. 3 m. 


nb'r 


nb'-t'^ 

V T • 


"^: 


3/ 


nbrin 


•^.b^tH 




2 TO. 


nb:ri 


nb'sri 

V T • 


^^l^ 


2/ 


^br^ri 


^br.n 

• T • 


^b'an 


Ic. 


nbji^ 


nb'ri^ 


Mb3i5 


Plur. 3 TO. 


^ 


T • 


^'br 


3/ 


nrb3n 


nrb'r^n 

T V r • 


^r.r^^ 


2 TO. 


'^hn 


T • 


^ban 


2/ 


TV:' 


j-;5^b':.n 

T V T • 


|-;rb':.n 

TV-; 


Ic. 


nb:o 


^?l? 


^•fe? 


ImPEE. 2 TO. 


nba 


MJiitl 


nba 


2/ 


^?B 


• T • 


''b'a 


PZwr. 2 TO. 


^s 


sibr.r; 


^ba 


2/ 


nrba 

T V : 


• ^r.)'^n 


r;rb'a 


Paet. ^cf. 


nba 




m53"J 


Pass. 


^63 


•^.^f? 





198 



He Verbs. 








PUAL. 


nipniL. 


nOPHAL. 


IIITIIPAEL. 


nV? 




^ : T 




nhia 


nnbrn 


nhbr^n 


T : — : • 


^'%. 


T ■ ; • 


n^b:n 

r •• ; r 


\^^'?'5^r! 


n-a 


n^b'^n 


n^b':n 


n^V:>r,n 


T'& 


^n^H:- 


^n^b':- 


^n^^r.rn 


,% 


^-;~ 


fe 


^br,w-; 


onia 


Dn^b:«M 


Dn^b.-n 


Dh^br»rn 


i»?'i? 


1^'^V" 


■jFi"b;^ri 


",n^b5riri 


^rVa 


^"b'rn 


... ^ 


^rbr»rri 


(rfe) 




n^^r^n 


(m%m) 


niVii 


r'&ij 


(nib';,n) 


ni^^^rri 


nfe 


nb'rr 


nb> 

V ; T 


nVusn'^ 


rm 


r;b'."n 


nb':»n 


nb'r,rn 


"??i? 


J^S*^ 


rib^n 

V ; r 


nbr,nn 


"??!? 


^pjtn 


^b':*n 


^%T\r\ 


"!?'? 


nb'3^ 


nb'.-x 


r:b'r.r^ 


^% 


6:c 


^b.v 


^^5n^ 


ra% 


n:^b'3n 


nrb';>n 


nrb':>nn 


.Vaip 


tibr^n 


^i-n 


^Vr>r,n 


nrbn 


•^rS'^ 


nrb'jn 

T V : T 


i-i:;"V-iSin 


n& 


"S*^ 


nbro 


?^.)'50? 




ri-'^ri 




nb'unn 


wanting 


-b':n 


wanting 


^?5t:,r: 




^B:n 




^'siiri 




^T^iTl 




!^r)'5r»7 




riS:c2 




nVsn^j 


nVj'j 




nb';*:9 





199 



200 ETYMOLOGY. §171,172 

BHOETENED FUTTJEE AND IMPERATIVE. 

§ 171. 1. The final vowel n .. is rejected from tlie futures 
when apocopated or when preceded by Vav conversive. The 
concurrence of final consonants thence resultmg in the Kal 
and Hiphil is commonly relieved by inserting an miaccented 
Seghol between them, §61. 2, to which the preceding Pat- 
tahh is assimilated in the Hiphil, § C3. 2. a, the Hhirik of 
the Kal either remaining unchanged or being lengthened to 
Tsere in the simple syllable. 





EAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


HIPHIL. 


HITHPAEL. 


Future. 


n?^? 


s^'^r 


r.i:\:' 


5"'^?!' 


^'^^n^i 


Apoc. Fut. 


"■k^ or hf,_ 


^? 


^ 


^^:! 


ban"! 


Vav. Conv. 


b^^i or \>':M 


b^l 


"^yi-i 


"^^ 


bisn^i 



2. The final vowel n.. is sometimes rejected from the im- 
perative in the Piel, Hiphil, and Hithpael species, e. g. Pi. ^33 
for n.|a , Hiph. b^n for nb.in , Hith. b^nn for M.?5nn. 



Remarks on Lamedii He Veebs. 

§172. 1. Kal preterite : The third person feminine rarely occurs with 
the simple endinf? n^ , ncs Lev. 25 : 21, rr'n 2 Kin. 9 : 37 K'thibh ; so in 
the Hiphil, rjxbn Ezek.' 24 : 12, n^-in Lev. 26 : 3i, and Hophal, nyjrr 
Jer. 13:19. Yodh is occasionally retained before asyllabic affixes, tiion 
Ps. 57 :2, the only instance in which the feminine has the ending usual in 
other verbs, ^icn Dent. 32 : 37, ^"^i: Ps. 73 : 2 K'ri ; so in the imperative, 
^''m, t|''i"2 Isa. 21:12; future, I'l^S:'? , I'l'^^^':, V'^'Jij,^, "i'l'"'9n,!l ; "^''^^"7, 
•,!i"^rn;;, ji'^i'^n, l^^*^';', 'i':^"', ^"'^'^'?, =i"^nx;^ , Niphal'preterite',' si-'-J: , P'iel 
future, "|i^53']ri, sia^ba^, Hiphil future, *,Visn', imperative, ^T'nn for 1"'t;xn . 

2. Infinitive: Vav is sometimes written for the final vowel of the infini- 
tive absolute instead of n, "iia, iyri, iiin, "inri, in^, iiu^, i:)ri, 'ix'^, ina, 
and in a few instances the feminine termination is added, nibx , riixn, 
nini^. There are also examples of the omission of this termination from 
the construct infinitive, n'j?_ and fw? , n3p,'nNn, inui ; once it has the 
form nis^n Ezek. 28 : 17. ' 

3. Future : There are a very ^'i.w examples of Tsere as the last vowel 
of the future, nx-in Dan. 1:13, nii;?^n Josh. 7:9, nij'SI Josh. 9:24, 
"THPi Jer. 17: 17; so in the Piel, n^.;ri Lev. IS : 7 tf. ; and, on the other 



§173 REMARKS ON LAMEDH HE VERBS. 201 

hand, there is one instance of an imperative ending in Seghol, viz., the 
Piel, n?n Judg. 9:29. The radical ^ remains and rests in Hhirilt in 
•'iiTni (s'fem.) Jer. 3:6, in the Hiphil, ^ni2V\ (2 masc.) Jer. IS : 23, and in 
the Kal imperative, "^sn (2 masc.) Isa. 26:20. Yodh appears once as a 
consonant before a sullix, "'S^.i^i?!*^ Job 3: 25, and once before n paragogic, 
n^'^rix Ps. 77:4, vvliirh is very rare in tiiese verbs, but perhaps displaces 
the final vowel in ni'UX Ps. 119 : 117, and the Hitlipael, ns'n'^-D Isa.41 :23. 
In a few instances "> is restored as a quiescent before suffixes. '3'!^n'^ Hos. 
6:2, •'i-'in 1 Kin. 20:35, i^''??'? Ps. 140:10K'ri, cn\N;5N Deut. 32 : 26. 
Examples of the feminine plurd: nrisn , njl^TH , j"'t'-~ P!] , "r^ ?-?- > 
nr:yn and nsh'n , 

4. The future of a few verbs when apocopated or preceded by Vav con- 
versive simply drops its last vowel, either retaining Hhirik under the per- 
sonal prefix or lensthening it to Tsere, tno'^i , 2V^^^ , r;n'i. 'n-i'''i , ab'i , 
fld^T ; so in the Pe Nun forms, t'l and T'^i , i:^ , and Pe Yodh t^'^'], with 
Pattahh-furtive under the first radical of the Pe guttural, 'nn'), § 17. , or 
the vowel of the personal prefix changed to Pattahh, §60. 1, T)ii^^, xn'^1 
but S*i^ , Ni.ib!! ■ Most commonly Segiiol is inserted between the concur- 
ring consonants, n'fl, "ja'"^, h:\^_, -ii'_n, hz/\ and Vrn, yrfi, "iS^i and 'tv\'}, 
qav "ip.^T, -.;?^i , ibp?^T, n-i'^ and ^I'^P] ,'ri-i'^T, y-n.'., Nn*], xbni, h^j\ or 
Pattahh if one of the consonants is a guttural, §61. 2; thus, in Ayin gut- 
tural verbs, y^^), i^^hl' '-""y?. , "^^, in Pe' guttural •,n'i from nin'i , 
§60. 1. a. (3), "in*;! from JT^n^, or with the additional change of tlie vowel 
of the prefix to Pattahh, "inni , tnn from nrrin , -j^n^: il-om n^n;] , 'irw , 
::iS'|i] Isa. 59: 17 (in 1 Sam. 15:19, 14:32 K'n, this same form'' is fVom 
I3>lS or '^•'b, §157. 3), h'J^^ , 'y^_-j, to^'^V The rejection of the final vowel 
takes place frequently even in the first person singular, which in other 
verbs is commonly exempt fi-om shortening, §99. 3. a, 1£X7, S';ni and 
UNI.XV Fi':3k\ m^4, ^rxl, "i-'xi . '■avk^ and nibyxi. In a few instances 

••• : •-■it " : ; •■ T ' -^T ' r' ' T ■ - -r vv: ivr 

the final vowel is retained in other persons after Vav conversive, e. g. 
niy?^1 1 Kin. 16 : 25, nb;^] 2 Kin. 1 : 10, n:::'] Josh. 19 : 50. r.tZV}';. 1 Sam. 
1:^ "^t;,!!) 1 Kin. 16:17, nx'^'^i 1 Sam. 17:42. rr^r'^l 2 Kin. 6: 23, "icn 
Deut. 32 : IS is fut. apoc. of ri;u3 as ■'ri,1 or "^n-^ of n^n . 

5. The passive participle drops the final "^ in >1DS Job 15:22 for "^12^, 
^'■a^ Job 41:25 for •'^lirr, and fern. plur. n-,TJ3 Isa.' 3:16 K'thibh (K'ri 
ni^D?), nnbs l Sam. 25': IS K'thibh. 

§173. 1. In the Niphal preterite Yodh may quiesce in either T.^ere or 
Hhirik, though the former is more frequent, n^f^D and "^ri^fs: , ri">5J3 and 

sia""^;?, cn::-j3 and ^s-ibq;:, "^n-^psj and li'^^??- 

2. Examples of the infinitive absolute: -i??? , f^Ja^J , !^f^:n . Construct: 
ni^jn and ni?:.5, nibn, nixnn and nj<nri; with suffixes, irsrn, ihirrn, 
once as though it were a plural noun, cb''rinjrt Ezelc. 6 : S, so the Kal 
infin., Tpr-irla Ezek. 16: 31, once with a preposition, n:?'5 Ex. 10:3. 

3. Future apocopated and with Vav conversive: ii-yn, "ssni, nsx" , 
ynn, crn, X'i;'i, "f?*?, and in one verb with Pattahli before n, r,'a'>^ 
Gen. 7 : 23, Ps. 109 : 13, though some editions omit the Daghesh-forte in the 
former passage, thus making it a Kal future. 



202 ETYMOLOGY. §174,175 

§174. 1. Piel: Two verbs, ns; lo he hecoviing and tina /o draw (the 
bow), having a guttural for their second radical, double the third instead, 
which in the reduplication appears as Vav, though the general law is ad- 
hered to requiring its rejection from the end of the word and tiie substitu- 
tion of the vowel lelter n. The only forms which occur are, of the 
former, the preterite njxs Ps. 93:5, si'.sj Cant. 1:10, Isa. 52:7, and of 
the latter the participle plur. constr. ''in^'a Gen. 21 : 16. There are 
three examples of Hholem inserted after the first radical, §92. b, "^roicj 
Isa. 10: 13 from !^b':i , the b being an orthographic equivalent for 0, 
§3. 1. a, and in the infinitive, iriH, inh Isa. 59: 13. 

2. In the first person singular of the Piel preterite ^ sometimes quiesces 
in Tsere ; in all the other persons, however, and even in the first singu- 
lar, when a suffix is added, it invariably quiesces in Hhirik, •'ri''^a and 

Ti'^^a, •'riiiip, once ""^^'^p, "'»"?"'^3 and "'T.^s , rpn"'^? , n-'ni^D. 

3. Infinitive absolute: ri^;^ and mp_, n^3 , njs? , nb, i^h, iVn . The 
construct always ends in ni with the exception of nlbg also rVss , and 
^bn Hos. 6:9. 

4. Future: in "'^Tl^?. Isa. 16:9 from ti""!, the second radical is doubled 
as "^^ §153. 1, and the third appears as 1, §56. 3. a; i^bax^ Ex. 33: 3 is 
for ?)^3X., §63.1.6. With Vav conversive : bi-'i , bi:']l, tjb'^l, ik'^l, 
^p!?!! • "'kr'3 ' f^o in the first person singular, ^2N'J , li^.p ; once Pattahh is 
lengthened to Kamets, in';'] 1 Sam. 21: 14; so in pause, tbjn Prov. 25: 9. 

5. The imperative has Seghol in a single instance, nan .ludg. 9:29 
and sometimes drops its final vowel bj , bn, 'j'a , D3 , i:: and nia . 

6. Pual infinitive construct with suffix: in'SS Ps. 132:1. 

§175. 1. Hiphil preterite: The prefixed n has occasionally Seghol, 
n^sn and nb'^n, ribn, n^sn, nx'^n, Ti-iip.-N-iri. Yodh may quiesce in 
Hhirik or Tsere, r^Sjin, ■'n"'5;n , ri-iiin, •'n"'i:n . Yodh once remains as 
a quiescent in the 3 masc. sing., "'bnn Isa. 53: 10, and once in the 3 masc. 
plur., T'O^n Josh. 14:8 for rDi3n,"'§'62. 2. 

2. The infinitive absolute has Kamets in t^2i\3 by way of distinction 
from i^Sjiti and ns'in Jer. 42:2, which are always used adverbially. 
Construct: The prefixed ti has Hhirik in one instance, rii:ipn Lev. 
14:43; nvrnb 2 Kin. 19:25 K'lhibh is for nixt^nb . 

3. The future, when apocopated or preceded by Vav conversive. some- 
times simply rejects its final vowel, ^^\ , ^''!'!, ^ii-, p'-!!!! "'"''! f™"! 
•^■^75 '*!'] fi'oni i^J?! ^!5 fro^i "^^Jj ~\h i'rom ni:; commonly, however, 
Seghol is inserted between the concurring consonants, hip} from i^^N, 
§111,2. a, h^'-':':, 'p^, Onni, "irn], -.£|:i, an^i. C]-ir:, or Pattahh if one 
of the consonants is a guttural, in^l , m:n, ir»i , yn^i . Occasionally the 
final vowel remains, nBr.^! i Kin. 16:17. 18:42, n?"?^^] Ezek. 23:19; 
once the radical "^ appears quiescing in Hhirik, Tjrri (2 masc. apoc. for 
nrn) Jer. 18:23. The retention or rejection of the vowel is optional in 
the first person singular, ninx;!^ , J^i^^'NT , ri?5<,; and r\h) from n=3, hy.k'}, 
I3X from nbz. 



^176,177 REMARKS ON LAMEDII HE VERBS. 203 

4. The imperative is sometimes abbreviated, nain and "~n , nc"iri 
and rjin, iiyn for <^^?,\1, ~k'^ and 'cr\, nsn and ?(?] ; rcn (iiccent on 
the ultimate) Ps. 39:14 is for n^;u.;n, tlie same word Isa. (3 : <J is from 
SJSia, § 140. 5. 

5. Hophal infinitive absolute: trnsn Lev. 19:20. 

§176. 1. Hithpael: One verb i^n'sU reduplicates its third radical, which 
appears as 1, ninnujn lo ^corship. I'ut. nintn":;'^, with Vav conv. irpr'si 
for ^innc^], §61. 2, plur. vnn'ii;'^], infin. rV:r!i''^n) find once with suf. 
in^inntlin 2 Kin. 5:18, the accent being thrown back by a following 
monosyllable. For the inflected participle, cniinnil''2 Ezelc. 8:1G, see 
§90, page 120. 

2. In the preterite "^ mostly qniesccs in Tsere in the first per.con singu- 
lar, and in Hhirik in the other persons, ■'p^nxrn, "^niTriniin, ni-rinirn, 
cn-'inncn, n^fynn, n-^Qinn, r-insm, rr^rmrn. 

3. The future apocopated and with Vav convcrsive: 'Jr'? j t?^'! i 
^nnn, ^S'ri'^,, l"";]riri, J'n^'n, or with Kanicts in the accented syllable, 
''^P'^i "ijr'P}) so always in pause, 'H^*!; JOS^f}^ Gen. 24:65. 

4. The shortened imperative: "ijrn, ^^"H. 

§ 177. 1. n"n to be, Cut. ^Z'H'^. i Hhirik being retained before the guttural 
under the influence of the following Yodh, whence the Sh'va. though 
vocal, remains simple; so in the inf const, with prep, ri'i-'ria. ri-^rV riTix;, 
though without a prefix it is m'Ti , once n"r) Ezek. 21:15. The apoco- 
pated future "^n^ (in pause "^H"') and with Vav conversive ■n?''i is lor 
■^ifT' , the vowel of the prefix returning to the Sh'va from which it arose, 
§85. 2. a (1). page 116, when the quiescence of the middle radical gives a 
vowel to the first. The same thing occurs in the jieculiar form of the 
future KW7 Eccl. 11:3, where the second rndical appears as 1, which it 
sometimes does in the imperative, n;^n and nirt Gen. 27 : 29 or N"n Job 
37:6, and in the participle n'in Neh. 6;6, Eccl. 2:22, fern, rr^iri Ex.' 9: 3. 

2. ti'Ti to live. The root "^in is usually inflected as a Lnmedh He 
verb pret. !T;n , fut. •liin'i , apoc. "^n"^ , with Vav conversive "'n'^^, tliough 
in the preterite 3 masc. it occasionally takes an Ayin doubled form, "n, 
e. g. Gen. 3: 22, 5:5, and once in the 3 fem. an Ayin Yodh form : !~>';'n Ex. 
1: 16, or it may be explained as an Ayin doubled form with Daghe.'^h-forte 
omitted, §25. 

3. In a few instances N is substituted for the third radical in Lamedh 
He verbs, ^rxin Ezek. 43:27, Nns Isa. 21:12. Nil-J .Tcr. 23:39, Nin^ 
2 Chron. 26: is, Nrn Prov. 1 : 10 from'nrx , NP'^t Deut. 33:21 from n'rii, 
i^l^UV 2 Chron. 16:12, Nsp'i Lam. 4:1, afc 2 Kin. 25:29, Nri"; Eccl. 
8: 1,' c>lX5n 2 Sam. 21 : 12 K'ri for Clin, n-xiVn Hos. 11:7. Deut. 28: 66 
for Ci'inbnj §56. 4, n-'xnisn, ^.^■^>] 2 Sam. 11:21 from n^'^j the vowels 
are those of Lamedh Aleph verbs in !i:r5$ .Ter. 3 : 22 for ^irrx , n^rn 1 Kin. 
17 : 14 for n^szn, r\npi Dan. 10 : 14 for n^p": ; and the full Lamedh Aleph 
form is adopted in 6<"''^S^ Hos. 13: 15 for ^'"[^l- 



204 ETYMOLOGY. § 178,, 179 

Doubly Imperfect Verbs. 

§ 178. Verbs which have two weak letters in the root, or 
which are so constituted as to belong to two different classes 
of imperfect verbs, commonly exhibit the pecidiarities of 
both, unless they interfere with or limit one another. Thus, 
a verb which is both «'b and nb wiU follow the analogy of 
both paradigms, the former in its initial and the latter in its 
second syllable. But in verbs which are both lb and nb 
the 1 is invariably treated as a perfect consonant, and the Jib 
peculiarities alone preserved. All such cases have been re- 
marked upon individually under the several classes of verbs 
to which they respectively belong. 



Defective Verbs. 

^179. 1. It has been seen in repeated instances in the 
foregoing pages that verbs belonging to one class of imper- 
fect verbs may occasionally adopt forms from another and 
closely related class. Thus a Nb verb may appear with a 
H'b form, or an "('v verb with an 5?S' form or vice versa. The 
occurrence of an individual example, or of a few examples 
of such divergent forms, may be explained in the manner 
just suggested without the assumption of an additional verb 
as their source. Sometimes, however, the number of diver- 
gent forms is so considerable, or the divergence itself so wide, 
that it is simpler to assume two co-existent roots of the same 
signification, and differing only in the weak letter which they 
contain, than to refer all to a single root. 

a. Thus. Nbs means io sJud vp or restrain, and fnHs fo be finished: 
yet a few 'r\b forms occur in the sense not of the latter but of the Ibrnier 
verb. They are accordingly held to be from ^<^^ , but assimilated in inflec- 
tion to the lib paradigm. On the other hand, ^^J^ means to call, and 
nn;? to meet; but so many iib forms are found with this latter significa- 
tion that it seems necessary to assume a second root N'lp iiaving that 



§180 QUADRILITEllAL VERBS. 205 

meaning. The verb to run is ordinarily yiin ; but xSkn Ezek. 1: 14 is too 
remote from an 15 form to be referred to that root ; hence it is traced to 
another verb N^T of the same sense. No clear line of distinction can be 
drawn between the cases in whicli divergent forms are to be traced to a 
single root, and those in which the assumption of a second is admissible or 
necessary. This must be decided in detail, and the best authorities not 
inli-cqiiently dilfer in their judgment of particular examples. 

2. Where two verbs exist wliicli arc thus radically con- 
nected and identical in signification, it not infrequently hap- 
pens that they are defective or mutually supplementary, that 
is to say, that one of them is in usage restricted to certain 
parts or species, the remainder being supplied by the other. 

a. The following are examples of defective verbs : -iu to be good, used 
in the Kal species only in the preterite, the corresponding future is from 
::b^ ; "5^ Kal pret. to fear, the fut. and imper. from "i1 J ; p^l Kal pret. 
and inf. to spit^ fut. from |rjr"i ; ysj Kal pret. and inf. to break or disperse, 
fut. and imp. from y^Q; yf:?3 Kal pret. to be alienated, fut. from 3.'^^ ; JTnb 
K. pret. to be a prince, fut. from "^ib ; "in Kal pret. and inf to be many, 
fut. from T\'Z1 which is used throughout the species ; cn^ Kal fut. to be hot, 
pret. and inf Irom can , which is also used in the future ; y'-i"^ ^o counsel, 
borrows its Kal imper. from "j'^r ; "j^sip Kal fut. to awake, pret. from the 
Hiphil of "j^i^^, which is also used in inf imper. and fut.; S:o to place, the 
reflexive is expressed by -^rr-l from ::::|'; ; •'^n'>^' to drink, the causative 
is •'^I^wil froffi ^I^^j C'^::'in from 'C'z^ is used as the causative of din to 
be ashamed; as well as 'J'^Sin ; "^n to go, derives many of its forms from 
Ti^"^ ; l^l to give, is only used in the Kal imperative, it is eupplemented 
by ")ri3 of totally distinct radicals. 



QUADRILTTERAL VeRBS. 

§180. Quadriliteral verbs are either primitives formed 
from quadriliteral roots, whose origin is explained, § 68. a, 
or denominatives, the formative letter of the noun or adjective 
being admitted into the stem along v.'ith the three original 
radicals. The former class adopt the vowels and inflections 
of the Piel and Pual species, while the latter follow the 
Hiphil 

a. The only examples of quadriliteral verbs arc the following, viz. : Piel 
pret. tBna he spread, Job 26 : 9, where the original Pattahh of the initial 
syllable of the Piel, §82. 5. 6 (3), is preserved; fut. with suf f^S^O'^?'? he 



206 ETYMOLOGY. § 181 

shall waste it, Ps. 80 : 14. Pual pret. «JDM'n it freshened, Job 33 : 25, the 
Methegh and the Hhateph Pattahh being used to indicate that the Sh'va 
is vocal, and that the form is equivalent to ^E^"i ; part. CBGn^ scaled off 
or resembling' scales. Ex. 16: 14, ^2"^=^ clothed, 1 Chron. 15:27. Hiphil 
pret. JiniJTxn thei/ stank. Isa. 19: 6 lor WDTsn as 'inp^S for ^'irra, de- 
rived from n;"S putrescent, which is simpler than to mal<e it with Gesenius 
a doubh; or anomalous Hiphil from ni^ § 94. a, comp. Alexander in loc. ; 
fut. nb-'X^bN /will turn to the left, Gen. 13:9; ^ib-'XTSirn Isa. 30 : 21, part. 
ti"'!;X'2^"5 1 Chron. 12: 2 from Vx^b the left hand, elsewhere reduced to a 
triliteral by the rejection ofx, ^"'E'Cnb 2 Sam. 14:19, •'Vrt'n Ezek. 
21 :2l. To these may be added the form, which occurs several times in 
the K'thibh 0"'->3:jn7a 1 Chron. 15:24, etc., and Di-.i^nxj 2 Chron. 5 : 12, 
for which the K'ri substitutes D^n^nia or cinsn^a. As it is a denomina- 
tive from n^sbin a trumpet, it has been suspected that the form first men- 
tioned should be pointed □"'"iis^n^ ; the other, if a genuine reading, is 
probably to be read D^nn^nia . 

Nouns. 

THEIR FOEMATION. 

§181. Nouns, embracing adjectives and participles as 
well as substantives, may be primitive, i. e. formed directly 
from their ultimate roots, or derivative, i. e. formed from pre- 
existing words. Those which are derived from verbs are 
called verbals; those which are derived from nouns are 
called denominatives. The vast multiplicity of objects to 
which names were to be applied and the diversity of aspects 
under which they are capable of being contemplated, have led 
to a variety in the constitution of nouns greatly exceeding 
that of verbs, and also to considerable laxity in the significa- 
tions attached to individual forms. But whatever complexity 
may beset the details of this subject, its main outlines are 
sufficiently plain. All nouns are, in respect to their forma- 
tion, reducible to certain leading types or classes of forms, 
each having a primary and proper import of its own. The 
derivation of nouns, as of the verbal species, from their 
respective roots and themes calls into requisition all the expe- 
dients, whether of internal or external changes, known to the 
language, § 69. Hence arise four classes of nouns according 
as they are formed by internal changes, viz. : 



§182,183 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 207 

1. The introduction of one or more vowels. 

2. The redupUcation of one or more of the letters of the 
root. Or by external changes, viz. : 

3. The prefixing of vowels or consonants at the begin- 
ning of the root. 

4. The affixing of vowels or consonants at the end. 

a. The mass of nouns are to be regarded as primitives and not as de- 
rived from their cognate verbs. Many roots are represented by nouns 
alone, witliout any verbs from which they could have sprung, e. g. 3X 
falher. "j'lX earth. And where verbs of kindred meaning do exist, it is 
probable that they are not the source or theme of the nouns, but that 
both spring alike directly from their common root, as T\?'0 to reign, and 
T\?.'>r. lo'jtg from the root ~ba . Since, however, these roots or elemental 
themes are destitute of vowels, and consequently are incapable of being 
pronounced in their primitive or abstract state, it is customary and con- 
venient in referring to them to name the verb which though a derivative 
form has the advantage of simplicity and regularity of structure, and is 
often the best representative of the radical significalioa. Accordingly, 
"n^.^ /fn?g- may be said to be derived from the root ~^^ to reign, that is, it 
is derived from the root "ba of which that verbal form is the conven- 
tional designation, §G8. 

b. Infinitives, participles, nouns which follow the forms of the secondary 
or derived species, §1S7. 2. a, and some others, are evidently verbals. 
Most nouns of the fourth class, as well as some others, are denominatives. 

Class I. — jVouns formed hy the insertion ofvoicels. 

^182. The first class of nouns, or those which are 
formed by means of vowels given to the root, embraces three 
distinct forms, viz. : 

1. Monosyllables, or those in whicb the trOiteral root 
receives but one vowel. 

2. Dissyllables, in which the second is the principal 
vowel and the first a pretonic Kamets or Tsere. 

3. Dissyllables, in which the first is the principal vowel 
and the second a mutable Kamets or Tsere. 

1. Triliteral Monosyllahles. 

§183. The formative vowel may be given either to the 
second radical bi:]? , b^iD]p , bib;? , bib]? , or to the first, b'jp , 



208 ETYMOLOGY. §184 

bi2p_ , bpp; ill the latter case an unaccented Segliol is com- 
monly interposed between the concurring consonants, §61.2, 
to which a preceding Pattahli is assimilated, §63. 2. a, buj?, 
brip , bi:p . Forms thus augmented by the introduction of 
an auxiliary vowel are termed Segholates. 

a. In this and the following sections ^^p is used as a representative 
root in order more conveniently to indicate to the eye the formation of the 
different cU\sses of nouns. No root couhl be selected which would afford 
examples in actual use of the entire series of derivative forms ; bap has 
but one derivative bc)p slaughter, and this only occurs in Obad, ver. 9. 

b. As i, 6. and u rarely or never occur in mixed accented syllables, § 19, 
they are excluded from monosyllabic nouns. Every other vowel is, how- 
ever, found with the second radical, thus a, 'S'JjO a lillle prop, paucitij, 
TlJi'n honey, "^ij man; a, b^X strength, -n3 xoriting, IXIIJ residue; c, DDiy 
shoulder, n:D hush; e, b^"! howling, :N3 grief, zk] a wolf; especially 2, 
6, and M, which occur with greater frequency than any others. When the 
first radical receives the vowel, I and u are likewise excluded, inasmuch as 
they rarely or never stand before concurrent consonants, §61.4. Few of 
these nouns remain without the auxiliary Seghol K'^3 a valley, XV^ 
vanity, N'jn sin, 'n";iD spikenard, ocp truth. Karaets is only found before 
Vav, §63. 2. a, niib, and in pause, §65, 'i^x, 0^3. 

c. When the second radical receives the vowel, there is a concurrence 
of consonants at the beginning of the word, which is sometimes relieved 
by prefixing X, §53. 1. a, with a short vowel, mostly c, §60. 1. a (5), but 
occasionally rt, ^%:s.^^ finger for yi:S , 23'rN lattice, I233X belt, ?in]5< and 
^int arm, bibnx and hVQT\ yesterday. 

§184. These nouns, standing at the first remove from 
the root, express as nearly as possible its simple idea 
either abstractly, e. g. b^bs emptiness, bibt^ hereavement, T^b 
strength, y}% righteousness, *^fi help, ^"ji greatness, or as it 
is realized in some person or object which may be regarded 
as its embodiment or representative, ^"'35 lord from *135 to he 
mighty, Wisy:, man from ty^ to he sick, b^ia houndarg, tfOD 
lihation ^yo]). pouring out, p^? valleg prop, depth, ^^n vine- 
gar prop, sourness. 

a. That the position of the formative vowel before or after the second 
radical does not materially affect the character of the form, appears from 
the following considerations: (1.) The sameness of signification already 
exhibited, and which may be verified in detail. (2.)^ The occasional ap- 
pearance of the same word in both forms, e. g. 1=15 and ".:?.^ wan, 'J'q\ 



^185 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 209 

and rb? plant, K^.?. fin^ ^'^r'^ prison, 'na and ."(ina thumb, nsa and nnSaa 
bn'ghina^s. (3.) Tlio concurrence of both forms in the Kal constrnct infi- 
nitive ^tip and nt>uii?, §S7, "^^'^p^ anc] cib-^p • (4.) The fact that Segho- 
lates may arise alilie from bip and ^^p , §61.1.6. (5.) The cognate 
languao'cs ; nionosyUables in Arabic, whose vowel precedes the .second radi- 
cal, answer to tiioso whose vowel succeeds the same radical in Aramsan, 
and botli to tlie Hebrew Segholates, e. g. ^3S servant, Aram, la?., Arab. 

0^ 

b. The presence of imperfect letters in tlie root may occasion tlic fol- 
lowing modifications: 

ti's roots. Alepli, as a first radical, sometimes receives a long vowel (_) 
instead of Sh'va (J, §60. 3. c, -(I^N fidelily for 'j^irx , niTX girdle lor niTN . 

"S Guttural and ^ Guttural. If the third radical be a guttural, Pat- 
tahh is substituted for the auxiliary Seghol, §61. 2, n^a confidence, yruJ 
hearing, naa height ; if the second radical be a guttural, the preceding 
vowel if Hliolem remains unchanged, otherwise it also commonly becomes 
Pattahh lyi young man, "i?3 youth, *inb _/J,'ar but bnx tent, nnb bread. 

''3 and "i's roots. A vowelless "^ or 3 is in a few instances rejected 
from the beginning of a word, §53. 2. a, ^ia produce for i^^a"', ^io famil- 
iarity for Tib'^, ii'^b elevation for N"'03, "n lamentation ^ot "^n: , particu- 
larly in feminines and secondary derivatives; thus, HTin , tr^? , n:i5, niiJn 
drop an initial Yodh, and nap , "'^■'3 an initial Nun. Nun may also ex- 
perience assimilation wiien it is a second radical, Tji? anger for wirx, Di3 
cup for p:a . 

IS and '^'J roots. In Segholates 1 is preceded by Kamets h'.y! (accord- 
ing to Kimchi bl^ in Ezek. 28 : 18) wickedness, TdT} midst, unless the last 
radical is a guttural, nil space; "^ is preceded by Pattahh and followed 
byHhirilc, b^b night, '1^ eye. These letters frequently give up their con- 
sonantal character and become quiescent, §57. 2. Vav is rejected in a few 
words as "^3 brand for ''"3, ""N island for •'^'S , i"i watering for i)-} , §53. 3. 

n"b roots. In a very few instances the proper final radical is rejected, 
as it is in verbs, and the final vowel written n, as n:p btish, ri=a weep- 
i'lg'y "^Hn thought. When "^ appears as the radical, it prefers the form 
•^aa weeping, ''■^Q fruit, '^3 vessel; T retains its consonantal character in 
inp winter, ibb quail, or it may be changed to its cognate vowel ft, 
which combines with the preceding a to form o, §62. 1, V"^ (for dhjau) 
ink, iXFi antelope. In Segholates 1 quiesces in Shurek, §57. 2. (1), Wb 
sicimniing for iniy, wa emptiness ; the lexicon of Gesenius contains the 
forms lija garment, l^p end, iVd security, but these words only occur in 
the plural or v/ith suffixes, and the absolute singular is quite as likely to 
have been n^a, r.ip , ubii. 

2. !77i(j 732c:/?i voted in the ultimate. 

§185. 1. The second form of tins class is a dissyllabic 
with one of the long vowels in the second which is its prin- 
14 



210 ETYMOLOGY. §185 

cipal syllable, and in the first a pretonic Kamets, for wbicli 
Tsere is occasionally substituted when the second vowel is 
Kamets, thus ^bj? or bi:|? , bbp , b^bjp , bibjp , brjjp . 

2. These are properly adjectives, and have for the most 
part an intransitive signification when the vowel of the 
ultimate is a., t, or o, and a passive signification when it is 
I or a, i^"^ and flip small, W^fat, tJ^n: made of brass, l^na 
chosen. Those with a and I in the ultimate are, however, 
prevailingly and the others occasionally used as substantives, 
and designate objects distinguished by the quality Avhich 
they primarily denote, P'^^' herbs prop, green, lii?? stronc/ 
drink prop, intoxicating, "i^3 leopard prop, spotted, 5]''i^ and 
vl^3| turban prop, loound around, "liis glory, that ichich is 
glorious. 

a. The intransitive adjectives supply the place of Kal active partici- 
ples to neuter verbs, §90, and in ":' verbs they have superseded the regu- 
lar formation, §153. 1, cj^ for C"!i5. Kal passive participles are verbals 
with u. This formation with I in the ultimate is adopted in several names 
of seasons. 3"':^^{ Abib, the time of ears of corn, Cl'^px ingathering prop. 
the beimr gathered, '\^'^'^ vintage, "c'lzt pruning-iime, C^Sri ploughing- 
iinie, "i'^s;3 harvest. 

b. Adjectives with o commonly express permanent qualities, those 
with e variable ones, bil.^ great, ina growing great ; pjn strong, ptn be- 
coming strong ; 2i"ij^ 7«ear. Z^p^ approaching ; p'in'^ remote, prn receding. 
Hence the former are used of those physical and moral conditions which 
are fixed and constant, suck as fiirure, colour, character, etc., TpX lojig, 
VliS round, pis deep, n'da high; cnx ?■«/, l""i3 spotted, "^p^ speckled, pin J 
green, "^pv striped, "inis ichite, p"^^ bay, "in'JJ black; pin^ sweet, liha 
pure, lyinrj hohj. And tiie latter are employed of shifting and evanescent 
states of body and of mind, KC^ thirsty, "in hnvgry, s;rb sated, tfb'^ 
weary, brx grieving, yzT\ desiring, ^'~^ti fearing, tbv exidting. 

c. The active signification asserted for the form ^i^j^ in a few instances 
cannot be certainly established; "i^'ip^ or "C'p"^^ fowler, is intransitive in 
Hebrew conception as is shown by the construction of the corresponding 
vcrl), comp. Lat. aucupari, aucupatus. Other alleged cases are probably 
not nouns but absolute infinitives of Kal, '|in3 Jer. G : 27 may as well be 
rendered / have set thee to try as for a trier (oi' metals) ; I'lrn Isa. 1 : 17 is 
not oppressor nor oppressed but wrong-doing, to a^uitlv, see Alexander in 
loc. ; and even piCS Jer. 22 : 3 may in like manner be oppression instead 
of oppressor. 

(/. n b roots are restricted to forms with v'. in wliich the radical ^ 
quiesccs, 'yj fresh, '^:^ afflicted,'^p': or 5<"'p3 with otiant K, §16. l,;;ure, 



^186 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 211 

or wilh a which combines with it to form e, n.. , "^^'ilJ and tTib^e?r7, n£i 
fair, nxs high; in u few nouns tliis final vowel is dropped, :,'^ Jish for 
fiin, 1P1 mark for n'ln, ys tree for nkj>, "2 .so?i for ri:3 , nb nioulh lor n'-^Q, 
unless, indeed, these and the like are to be regarded as primitive hilit- 
erals. Vav, as a final radical, may be preceded by a. i:^ meek, or e, i^d 
secure. 

3. 77ie main vowel in tlie penult. 

^18G. 1. The tliircl form of this class is a dissyllable 
having an immutable vowel, mostly Ilholem, though occa- 
sionally Shurek or Tsere in the first, which is its principal 
syllable, and a mutable Kamets or Tsere in the second, thus 
b-jip, bbip, bb^p, b'j^p, bb-^p. 

2. These indicate the agent, and arc either active par- 
ticiples, btjip killing, or substantives, Dnin si(/net-riii(j prop. 
sealer, s'^lix enemy, one practising liostility, ^b^iti fox prop. 
digger, 5ip''5 hammer prop. 2^ou7ider, b?"'n morningsiar prop. 
shining one. 

a. A number of nouns, indicative of occupation, follow the participial 
form, which thus serves to express permanent and professional activity, 
"i]?i3 herdsman., hzn sailor Tprop. rope-handler, d"]in ploughman, "sci"' potter 
prop, former. 0213 fuller, 'f\'2 priest, C~\3 vine-dresser, "inio merchant, 
"isio scribe, bD"i"i trafficker, n^;"i shepherd, Xs'"i physician, nj?~i dealer in 
unguents, cfy^ embroiderer, ^r'iJ icatchman, ^^''t^ porter j)rop. gate-keeper, 
l3E'd judge. 

b. In a very few instances ic in the first syllable is shortened and fol- 
lowed by Daghesh-forte conservative, 2^^:? and 251' pipe, y'n^i pit. 

c. "V roots. The contraction of yj and the quiescence of li' roots, by 
reducing them to biliteral monosyllables, obliterates to a considerable ex- 
tent the distinctions which have been described and which are possible 
only in triliterals. The contracted forms which arise from S.'3J roots are 
2D, 20, 20, 20, § 183. &. Ol these 20 = 220 belongs to the monosylla- 
bic formation, and is chiefly used of abstracts, "i2 purity, 2'"i nndtitude, CPl 
integrity, bi? yoke ; and 20 = 220 to the first species of dissyllables, em- 
bracing adjectives and concrete nouns. Cn perfect, jT\ feast ; wiiile 20 
and 2D may arise indifferently from either, p^ rottenness is an abstract 
noun for pp^ , but T)^ tender is an adjective for "3"^, Kamets being com- 
pressed to Pattahh before the doubled letter, comp. §135. 3; 2b heart is 
for the dissyllable 22b, but ")n yaro^tr for the monosyllable ."ri . 

lr and "^S roots. Nouns from quiescent l":? and "*'? roots may be 
divided into three pairs of forms, C^ , 2'i ; cip , 2'''n ; t^p , 2^n . Of these 
the last pair (with the exception of Kal passive participles) belong to the 
primitive monosyllabic formation, 2"''n strife, zrj goodness, the first pair 



212 ETYMOLOGY. § 187 

to the first species of dissyllables, ^'S poor, 11 proud, hk God prop, the 
mighty one, and the second pair may belong to either, Ui'^n = ffi"^"] j^overty, 
p-in = pn ei)7-ptij, "jix =.''0X strength, SVJ = ifj g-oocZ. 



Class II. — Nouns with reduplicated radicals. 

§187. 1. The simple form proper to adjectives is ex- 
plained §185; it may be converted into an intensive by- 
doubling the middle radical, retaining the long vowel of the 
second syllable and giving a short i or a to the first. This 
reduplicated or intensive form denotes what is characteristic, 
habitual, or possessed in a high degree. Adjectives of this 
nature are sometimes used as descriptive epithets of persons 
or things distinguished by the quality, which they denote^ 
t^Ti veri/ loeali, J^^3 seein<^ prop, (having eyes) luide ojpen, 
yh;! rif/hteousy "liia mighty man, "J^an full of grace, a^^'^ 
merciful. 

a. As a general though not an invariable rule, the first syllable has 
Pattahh when a pure vowel a. I, or u stands in the ultimate, but Hhirik 
wlien the ultimate lias one of the diphtliongal vowels e or 0. Several 
nouns with a in the second syllable are descriptive of occupations or 
modes of life, comp. §186. 2. a, "13X husbandman, I'fl fisherman, 'il"^ judge, 
V'-tn (=:t,'Tin) workman, T\k'J cook, ri^ig seaman (from vh-q sail), bzo 
bearer of burdens, 1^2 hunter, ndp^ bowman., rirri thief not a mere equiva- 
lent to ::Dia one who steals, but one who steals habitually, who makes steal- 
ing his occupation. 

b. Since the idea of intensity easily passes into that of excess, the 
form hbji is applied to deformities and defects, physical or moral, c^X 
dumb, '|2a hump-backed, d'^.n (=->:;4in) deaf n|iy blind, tjc^ lame, nnp 
bald, '.ap^ perverse. 

c. In a few instances instead of doubling the second radical, the pre- 
vious Hhirik is prolonged, §59. a, Tiiap and T:3i72ip nettle prop, badly 
pricking, "i'ii3"'p smoke, -nn"''J the Nile prop, very black. P'ii"'^ prison. 
nin'^3 spark, li'i">3 battle, "fii:''? spark. 

d. The following double the third radical in place of the second, '^'^'^a 
brood, "iii'n green, "JN.a quiet, nvsj comely from njt3, the last radical 
appearing as T , § 169, ^y^i<. feeble, where the long vowel Tsere is in- 
serted to prevent the concurrence of consonants. 

e. VS and more rarely lis roots reduplicate the biliteral formed by their 
contraction, bjbs and b^br. wheel prop, roller, rnnn frighfid. "i"^7"il girt, 
ipTp crown of the head prop, dividing (the hair) ; so lem. nbrjbn .-severe pain, 
T^'i'jh:^ casting down, ribkba .tknll, and plur. m'^obiD baskets, C'yi^ turning 



§ 188 PORMATION OF NOUNS. 213 

upside doicn from nis = 1]^, nixb^ib (sing, "'^'h) loops ami cK^b (sing, 
probably nSib = \3'b) winding slairs from nib = lib ; a root b^b is need- 
lessly ussuinetl by Gesenius. Sometimes the harsh concurrence of con- 
sonants is prevented hy tlie insertion oi" a long vowel, b^bs (const, biibs) 
cymbal prop, tinkling, "i^"?? ^ii<i "'?'i^?. stark naked, totally destitute, bjrbp 
despicable, or llie softening of the former ol'the two consonants to a vowel, 
§57.1, -='l3 star for -2::3, nisijia bands worn on the forehead for 
pn'siJSa , '|ib|?"^p (with the ending '|i added) ignominy for '(ibirbp, bra 
Babylon for biba, or its assimilation to the succeeding consonant, "i23 
something circular, a circuit for "i2'^3. Tlic second member of the redu- 
plication suffers contraction or change in ndna chain for fTnan^ and 
^blp.jloor for 11^115. 

2. Abstracts are formed witli a doubled middle radical 
by giving u to the second syllable and i to the first, psn 
folduifj the hands, D^Sii: reiribution, fipin abomination, and 
in the plm^al C^S? atonement, D''lip2 commandments, D'^fii^to 
divorce. 

a. These may be regarded as verbals formed from the Piel. A like 
formation is in a few instances based upon other species, e. g. Hiphil "Wn 
melting i}om Tir? , riiEH cessation from the "^3 root 5^2, Niphal cbiinss 
wrestlings: C"'r^n3 when derived from the Niphal mean.s repentings, when 
from the Piel consolatio)is. 

c. y'i" roots reduplicate the biliteral to which they are contracted, '^n'^n 
hiflammation^ C^y^yd delight. 

c. A few roots, which are either "t' or V guttural, or have a liquid for 
their third letter, double the last radical with ii in the firuil syllable, 
■j'^ir;: thorn-hedge, "i!l~iNQ ( = -,!1in3) ruddy glow, C'l'S'nxin upright cobtmns 
designed for way-marlcs, nnsn?d horror, n"'E!iEX3 adulteries, C'rpra ridges, 
also with or i in the last syllable, r;""'? acquiescence, bbrt3 pasture, 
"ii'nJO shower, "i'^'i'33 obscuration, "i"'"is^ (K'thibh -nisd) tapestry, b"'b'=ri 
whence "^b'bzn dark. The concurrence of consonants is relieved in b^li^aty 
(in some editions) snail by Daghesh-forte separative. 

§188. A few words reduplicate the two last radicals. 
These may express intensity in general, nip-nj^s complete 
openinfj, n^B-ns^ very heautifid, or more particularly repeti- 
tion, ^spsri ticisted prop, turning arjain and again, '\>^'^y^, 
slippery, -p^p? crooJced, ^'rht^ti perverse, JjcsDi? mixed multi- 
tude prop, gathered here and there, nins-i^n spots or stripes, 
ninsntn moles prop, incessant diggers. As energy is con- 
sumed by repeated acts or exhibitions and so gradually 



214 ETYMOLOGY. ^189,190 

weakened, this form becomes a diminutive when appUed to 
adjectives of colom', ni'a'^Sii! reddish^ P'^I?'^!' greenish, "innnw 
hlacldsh. 

a. The first of two concurring consonants is softened to a vowel in 
nn-Ji:n trumpet for nnannin, and probably ^IXT?. Lev. 16:8 for ^j^!?. . 

h. •'"s roots drop their initial radical, Qihrj^ri gifts from -H^, Cii<SNS 
offspring, issue from KS^ . 

Class III. — Nouns formed ly prefixes. 

^189. The third class of nouns is formed by prefixing 
either a vowel or a consonant to the root. In the following 
instances the vowel a is prefixed with Ci in the ultimate to 
form adjectives of an intensive signification, STSN utterly de- 
ceitful., "17D5? violent, 'jri'^i? (^-jn^i?) 2^eremiial, nJTS (only 
represented by a derivative, § 94. a) very foul, fetid, "J^tcx 
exceedingly gross or thick (applied to darkness, Isa. 59 : 10), 
or verbal nouns borrowing their meaning from the Hiphil 
species, rin3T5? memorial, 5"''3'75? declaration. 

a. This form corresponds with JJcil <h« Arabic comparative or super- 
lative. Its adoption for Hiphil derivatives corroborates the suggestion, 
§82. 5. b (2). respecting the formation of the Hiphil species and the origin 
of its causal idea. 

6. The letter S is merely the bearer of the initial vowel and has no 
significance of its own in these forms; n is substituted for it in ^^"T^ 
(^=:bhlii) palace, temple prop, very capacious from Vz"^^ in the- sense of its 
cognate b^is to contain. So. likewise, in a few verbals with feminine ter- 
minations, rsii'TOdn Ezek. 24 : 26 causing to hear used for the Hiph. infin., 
§128, nBan ddicerance from b^J, •^H;'"?, grant of rest (=nn^:n) Jrom 
n^i . ' 

c. The sliort vowel prefixed with X to monosyllables of the first 
species, as explained § 183. c. has no effect upon the meaning, and does not 
properly enter into the constitution of the Ibrm. 

§190. The consonants prefixed in the formation of nouns 
are "a , n , and "^ . They are sometimes prefixed without a 
vowel, the stem letters constituting a dissyUable of them- 
selves, bDj?Ta , niic-a , bVnn , nTi?sn ; more commonly they 
receive a or t followed by a long vowel in the ultimate, e. g. 



§191 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 215 

a. Patfahh commonly stands before e, z, aiitl u, and Hhirik before d and 
0, unless the first radiciil is a guttural or an assimilated Nun.wiien Pattahh 
is again preierred, hzii'O food, "l^'O jjlanliiig, niiyo sdio, D^nn a species 
of bird, n'b'n;! a kind of gem. Seghol is occasionally employed before a 
guttural or liquid followed by a. §63. 1. b, ^J^n'O deptk, 2S"i^ chariot, 
wrjph'o pair (f tongs. Tliese rules arc not invariable, however, as will 
appear from such forms as nsTia, lio^ , "isp^ , 'Oiph/q , ^ip^o^o . A few 
words have d \n tiie ultimate, rVn^ harp, p:n^ slrangling. The inser- 
tion of Daghesh-lbrtc separative in the first radical is exceptional; '^'J'P'O 
Ex. 15: 17. c^nHa^ Job 9: IS, ninaa^ Joel 1 : 17. 

b. *^'s roots. The first radical appears as "^ resting in Hhirik or Tsere, 
"li"!:;''^ and "i"^^"'^ recti/nde, UJiT'ri new wine, 'i'9"'']i south, or as l resting 
in Hholem or Shurek, ^i-;Ta appointed time, ^D1"3 correction, Z'JJi'n sojonrner, 
nsin sorrow. In a few instances it is rejected, Viin world, or assimilated 
to the following radical, V'2'q bed, yn-q knowledge. 

•■!!? and ""b roots. The root is reduced to a monosyllabic biliteral by 
the quiescence or rejection of the second radical, the prefi.K receiving 
Sh'va. ik"3 citadel, crra sound place, cinn ocean, C^p7 living thing, or 
more commonly a prctonic Kamets or Tsere, iiX'3 luminary, 'p"^ , "I'^l'? 
and "|7^ strife, Vi'TS race, -"i^^ adversary. Tlie feminine form is almost 
always adopted after n , n^vrn salvation, n^l-.n oblation. 

y's roots. The root is mostly contracted to a biliteral and the vowel 
compressed to a. <l,e or o, §61. 4, the prefix sometimes receiving Sh'va 
which gives rise to a Segholate form, §61. 1. b, Ozb tribute for 03^, ixiTa 
bitterness lor ~th^ , i^in defilement iur ^:?r!, ""l^a /ear for T^^, '("in mast 
for ")"iri ; more frequently it receives a pretoiiic Kamets or Tsere, "O^ 
covering, '^^2 shield, "[^"^ fortress, "li^ anguish. In P^'0 running, the 
short vowel of the perfect root is preserved by means of Daghesh-forte in 
the first radical, n is almost always IbHowed by the feminine ending, 
nbnn folly, n^rn beginning, n^;-::! prayer. 

n'b roots. The ultimate has n , n]"ii3 disease, ri".'^'3 pasture, which 
is apocopated in a few words, hv'o lifting up, hyis higher part, "la and 
'\"1 o?j «(.To?n/f f)/! and always disappears before the feminine ending n^, 
§62. 2. c, !^"3".^ ascent, Ml^*a commandment, ■^"Kn /io;;*?, "^NtT) weariness. 
Before the feminine termination n tlie final radical appears as quiescent 
■^ or 1, n''2"ir) interest, Mrfn whoredom, nsnn encamping, i)''::'^^ pasture. 
Yodh is retained as a consonant al'ter >2, c:">7pn^ diseases. 

§191. The letter "a is a fragment of the pronoun "^12 
who or nia icUat. Nouns, to which it is prefixed, denote 

1. 'i^hc agent icho does what is indicated by the root, as 
the participles, §84. 5, formed by an initial •» , and a few 
substantives, ^'^iwi didactic psalm prop, instructor, bEl? 
(from b?:) c//»^prop. ichat falls off. 

2. The instrument b?/ ichicU it is done, npB^ hey from 



216 ETYMOLOGY. §192 

nna to ojjen, 1^^^ (^oad from li?^ to learn^ '\^'k*a saw from 
nib: to scav. 

3. The place or time in icJiich it is done, riir'a altar 
from TC-I to sacrifice, fTp. lair, l?'?^ brick-kiln, ^^'^'n period 
of resideiice. 

4. The action or the quality ichich is expressed by the 
root, nit:T2 slaughter, 'ISC'd qnourning, rn'^T? sichness, ri^ictt 
error, '^'li"'^ straigldness. Verbals of this natm^e sometimes 
approximate the infinitive in signification and construction, 
as rasri^ overtuminf/, tr\m'/^ Ezek. 17:9, §166.2. In 
Chaldee the infinitive regularly takes tbis form, e. g. >'E?IP''? 
to kill. 

5. The object upon 2uJiich the action is directed or the 
subject in lohich the quality inheres, bi5?'52 food from %^ to 
eat, "^i^T^ psalm from "n^T /o 5/;/y, Jiipb^ /^oo/y from njbb ^ 
^^y?:^, Q^-OiD-Q/r^;/ tkinf/s from "j^® /o ^(?/^f, 'rj'm that lohich 
is small, P07''9 l^^(^l lohich is remote. 

a. These different significations blend into one another in such a man- 
ner that it is not always easy to distinguish the precise shade of meaning 
originally attached to a word: and not infrequently more than one of (iiese 
senses co-exist in the same word. Thus, "ix^ luminary, may suggest the 
idea of agency, dispenser of light, or of place, reservoir of light ; rssxia 
knife, may be so called as an agpnt. a devourer, or as an instrument, used in 
eating; 'O'^'P.^ means both n hohj thing and a hobj place ; ""2^^ sale and 
something sold or for sale ; fioh^'O i^oyal aufhoriti/ and kingdom; s:£i:3 the 
act, place, and time of going forth -avA that ichich goes forth ; Z'ci'd the place 
and time of sitting or dwelling as Avell as theij who sit or dwell. 

§192. Nouns formed by prefixing "^ or ri denote persons 
or things to which the idea of the root is attached. 

1 . "I is identical in origin with the prefix of the 3 masc. 
future in verbs, and is largely used in the formation of names 
of persons, pn^s^ Isaac, npis;' Jephiha, but rarely in forming 
appellatives, "^yi adversary prop, contender, "i^D^ apostate 
prop, departer, ts^pb^ hag ]n*op. gatherer, D-p^ living thing 
prop, that {lohich) stands, '^^^'! fresh oil prop, that iiohich) 
shines. 



§193 FORMATION OF NOUNS. 217 

2. ti , probably the same with tlie prefix of the 3 fem. 
future of verbs, whicli is here used in a neuter sense, is em- 
ployed in the formation of a few concrete nouns, "in'ip oah 
prop, ihat {ichich) endures, V)^'^ cloak prop, ihat {w/iic/t) 
wrajjs vj), "i^sn furnace prop. iJuit {luhicli) burns, n^sn apple 
prop, ihat {which) exliales fragrance. But it more frequently 
appears in abstract terms like the feminine ending in other 
forms, l^in tmderstandwfj, "i^i'an hiitcrness, .^'2?P5 delight. 
It is very rarely found in designations of persons, and only 
when they occupy a relation of dependence and subordina- 
tion, and may consequently be viewed as things, T^^a^i? 
learner, nt3ir\ one dwelling on another's lands, tenant, vassal. 

a. The gri'eat majority of nouns Avilh n prefixed have likewise a 
feminine ending, nb'n'in deep sleep, nr>idn salvation, rrixsn beauty, 
^^"^'"01^ fraud. 

Class IV. — Xouns formed hij affixes. 

§198. The nouns formed by means of an affixed letter 
or vowel are chiefly denominatives. The consonant '] ap- 
pended by means of the vowel o, or less frequently a, forms 

1. Adjectives, fm^^, last from "inN after, Td^'-\frst from 
it^^ head, "jib^n middle from tj^ri midst, ^nffin: brazen from 
mrfi: brass. A very few are formed directly from the root, 
■;i^:i5< poor, 'ji''^^:? most high, l^^s? ividowed. 

2. x\bstract substantives, the most common form of 
which is liHtpi? , e. g. "('^ra. blindness, 's'Tim confidence, l^n^^ 
pain, T'P'?,- paleness, though various other forms likewise 
occur, e. g. I'i'^^s? and I'Hins? destruction, ^iins dominion, Ti"ii23 
success, '\^')'\> offering. 

a. In a few words the termination li has been thought to be intensive, 
ri2d sabbath, Vnsd a ^reat sabbath, ^T proud, •,i"i-'.'! e.Tceediuglij froud, 
and once diminutive ^■'X man, "iliys little man, i. c. the pupil of the eye, 
eo called from the image reflected in it. Tlie word l^i^'cl^ Jeshurun from 
lir^ upright, is by some explained as a diminutive or term of endearment, 
while others think that the termination •,1 has no further meaning than 
to make of the word a proper name, comp. "(V>:T . See Alexander on 
Isaiah 44 : 2. 



218 ETYMOLOGY. §194,195 

b. ) is occasionally affixed with the vowel e, 'ji'^a a.ve, )~iQ'Ji nail. 

c. A few words are formed by appendinsr n, e. g. Cii""i3 and ")"i"is ran.' 
som, D^p ladder from b^O to lift up, ntbin sacred scribe from a-in stylus, 
Dinn soiUh from -inn ?o s/<we; or b, e.g. ^Tsn? garden from cn^ vi^g- 
7/arrf, bi?;:a calyx or cup of a flower from y'lis <:??/>, ^b-ifs ankle \\-om D-i|? 
_/om/, 'a":n /otvfs/! ii'om 5"nn indicative of tremulous motion, ^?"JV. ^/a'c/c 
darkness ti-om r)"''n:^ f/o2(c/, bna ?/'o?i probably from tna /o pierce. 

§194. The vowel ■< . forms adjectives indicating relation 
or derivation. 

1. It is added to proper names to denote nationality or 
family descent, ''^^S' Hebrew, "'C^n*' Jebusite, '^JHiT'bs PJiiltstme, 
'lianji! Aramean, "^12^^ Egyptian, ■'?>?"i^'? Israelitish, an Israel- 
ite, ''i?'^ Banite, '^nn^p Kohathite, ^itJ-ia Gershonite. 

2. It is also added to other substantives, "'riS^ northerner, 
^•^2) foreigner, "^n^ villager, "i?.)"] footman, ""PSi timely, ^"b'^33 
«V2w^r from the plural Q"^33 ; to a few adjectives, '^'^TDN and 
n'TDi? violent, "^5*5? and ^''^^^ foolish, and even to prepositions, 
^hnn /oz^e^if from nnn , '^bt}bfro?it from '^3sH^ » §^2. 2. 

a. The feminine ending fi ^ is dropped before this ending, "'"i^"? Jew 
from nnini, •'r"'"i2 IJeiiile from ni-ina, or the old ending n^ takes its 
place, "T'Z'S^AIaachalhilei'i-Qm n^r ?3 , or 5 is inserted between the vowels, 
"'ibd Shelanile li-om nbd. Final "> _ combines with the appended "i. into 
2, §62. 2, "^^b Levile and Ler/. livj Sliunite and Shuni. 

b. In a very few instances "i. takes the place of "^ . , e.g. "^"^"in uVn'/e 
stuffs, •'HJli basket, ^p"b /oo/;, and perhaps ■'ii^n , in a collective sense 
windows, "'STcn uncovered, "'^"'3 which Gesenius derives from ^33 and 
takes to mean cunning ; if however, it is derived from n^S , §187. 1. c, 
and means spendthrift, the final Yodh will be a radical. 



MULTILITERALS. 

§195. 1. Quadriliteral nomis are for the most part 
evenly divided into two syllables, S^jp? scorjnon, "iST.l treas- 
urer, ti2'\T\ sickle, Tx^} barren. Sometimes the second rad- 
ical receives a vowel, that of the first radical being either 
rejected, pT?''?'^ damask, bizin frost, 'Vt^'^ vine blossovi, or pre- 
served by the insertion of Daghesh-forte, TiJ"'bbn fint, t^'h'zv 



§19G GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 219 

spider, ^^fs and ts'h'^'Q concuhine. Occasionally the third 
radical has Daghesh-forte, ^llw^ bat, '^'^hzDj/i. 

2. Words of five or more letters are of rare occurrence 
and appear to be chiefly of foreign origin, I's^nx purjjie, ?'^'?S2 
froj/, TDu!?-^ clof/i, p^ni^ni? muie, 1S'}^T^n55 satrap. 

3. Compound words are few and of doubtful character, 
n;i'i3b:2 sUadoio of death, nyb^sj'o anytlunf/ prop, tvliat and what, 
rraiba noihivg prop, no ivhat, b?!r2 ivorthlcssness prop, no 
profit, n'jbsN'a darkness of Jehovah, n'jnnnbTiJ flame of Jeho- 
vah, except in proper names, p'ii"'^25T3 Melchizedch, hivg of 
righteousness, ^"H?^ Obadiah, serving Jehovah, B^p^'in"' «^<^" 
hoialduiy Jehovah shall establish. 



Gender and Number. 

§19G. There arc in Hebrew, as in the other Semitic 
languages, but two genders, the masculine ("i?y) and the 
feminine (!^ip|i). The masculine, as the primary form, has 
no characteristic termination ; the feminine ends in n^ or n , 
e. g. bijp masc, "^f^^ or nbup fevi. 

a. The only trace of the neuter in Hebrew is in the interrogative, ~:a 
■what being used of lliinors as "'^ who of persons. The function assijrned 
to the neater in other languages is divided between the masculine and the 
feminine, being principally committed to the latter. 

b. The original feminine ending in nouns as in verbs, §85. 1. a (1), ap- 
pears to have been r, which was either attached directly to the word, 
pb-;'p which, by §61. 2. becomes ribij'p, or added by means of the vowel a. 
nb::'p or ri^::p, which by the rejection of the consonant from the end of 
the word, §55. 2. c, becomes n^::'p. The termination n. or n^ is still 
found in a very few words, rp-is emerald, rxp pflicnn, rrS'J company 
2 Kin. 9: 17, n-^rio morrow, ni^a porlion, rkp_ end. n="^^ Jo.?h._i:>: i::i, and 
the poetic forms, rn^l song, riSna. inheritance, nn;^ ^ help, r-^b fruitful, 
nic sleep. Two other words, n^n Ps. 74: 19 and rs-'SJ Ps. 61 : 1, have 
been cited as additional examples, but these are in the construct state, 
which always preserves the original n final; it is likewise always re- 
tained before suffixes and paragogic letters, §61. 6. a, T^ni'Vl'^, iiryild^, 

c. The feminine ending n receives the accent and is thus readily dis- 



220 ETYMOLOGY. §197 

tinguished from the unaccented paragogic n^ . In a few instances gram- 
marians liave suspected that forms may perhaps be feminine, though 
the punctuators have decided otherwise by placing tlie accent on the 
penult, e.g. iT^?2 burning Hos. 7 : 4, nbiBj, Galilee 2 Kin. 15:20, n'ibp 
destruction Ezek. 7 : 25, n^^nT vulture Deut. 14 : 17, nbbli' low EzeU. 
21 : 31. 

d. The vowel letter N, which is the usual sign of the feminine in 
Chaldee and Syriac. takes the place of rt in SC'ti threshing Jer. 50 : 11, 
xjn terror Isa. I'J: 17, xrn irraZ/t Dan. 1 1 : 44, ^'jqb lioness Ezek. 19:2, 
Nnao mrtr/t" Lam. 3:12, X^53 Z;(7/er Rutli 1 : 2o', kn-.;^ boldness Ezek. 
27:31, N:d s/eep Ps. 127:2. No such form is found in the Pentateuch 
unless it be N'^7 loathing Num. 1 1 : 20, where, however, as Ewald sug- 
gests, M may be a radical since it is easy to assume a root xnj cognate to 
"i^T . The feminine ending in pronouns of the second and third persons, and 
in verbal futures is I "^ •, an intermediate form in e appears in nn^n Isa. 
59 :5 and irib;] the numeral ten^ or rather ?eeu, as it ordy occurs in num- 
bers compounded with the units. For like unusual forms in verbs see 
§86. 6. and § 156.4. 

e. The sign of the feminine in the Indo-European languages is a final 
vowel, correisponding to the vowel-ending in Hebrew; the Latin has a. the 
Greek a or r;, the Sanskrit t. And inasmuch as the feminine in Hebrew 
covers, in part at least, the territory of the neuter, its consonantal ending 
T\ may be compared with t, the sign of the neuter in certain Sanskrit pro- 
nouns, represented by d in Latin, id, illnd, istud, quid; in English it, 
what, that. This distinctive neuter sign has, however, been largely super- 
seded in Indo-European tongues by in or v, which is properly the sign of 
the accusative, 6o?zM37i, KaXov, the passivity of the personal object being 
allied to the lifeless non-personality of the neuter, Bopp Vergleich. 
Gramm. §152. In curious coincidence wiili this, the Hebrew sign of the 
definite object is nx prefixed to nouns; and its principal consonant is 
affixed to form the inferior gender, the neuter being comprehended in the 
feminine. 

§197. It is obvious that this transfer to all existing 
things, and even to abstract ideas, of the distinction of sex 
found in living beings, must often be purely arbitrary. For 
although some things have marked characteristics or associa- 
tions in virtue of which they might readily be classed with 
a particular sex, a far greater number hold an indeterminate 
position, and might with quite as much or quite as little 
reason be assigned to either. It hence happens that there is 
no general rule other than usage for the gender of Hebrew 
words, and that there is a great want of uniformity in usage 
itself. 



^197 



GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 



221 



a. The following names of females are without the proper distinctive 
feminine termination : 

nx mother. '|irix she-ass. iJ;s^"'3 concubine. ^o queen. . 

So the names of double members of the body, whether of men or ani- 
mals, which are feminine witli rare exceptions : 



•jis ear. 
S'2SX jinger. 
•jniii thumb. 
T(";2 knee. 



yiiT arm. 
^^ hand. 

r^y^ thigh. 

?|3 3 wing. 



CjS ■palm. 
C]n3 shoulder. 
'l?? eye. 
t^-1 side. 



")?.h! horn. 
^Sn foot. 
")U tooth. 
pi a leg. 



The foIlowinjT nouns are also feminine : 



nx brazier. 
"Tw"N footstep. 
ixa xcell. 
',133 belly. 
S"in sword. 



0i3 a^p. ui-liiy f?rea/! Bear. inia //V/j^ 

-133 circuit. bir fozfc/;. "'^"4 siV/e. 

iHjb brightness, rt;^ workmanship. Ki3"i myriad, 
"b'/i shoe. riQ morsel. b^ri world. 

"^'^'J city. 

b. The following nouns are of doubtful gender, being sometimes con- 
strued as masculine and sometimes as feminine. Those which are com- 
monly masculine are distinguished thus (*) ; those which are commonly 
feminine are distinguisiied tlius (j). 

T("!t way. * ""-J?^ fortress. 

*l:D"'n temple. * nSTTi a?/or. 

* 'ji'iin multitude, f^in.'^ camp. 
"l^J beard. * HL^^ rocZ. 

•jibn window. * ^^p^ place. 
-ikn court. f^v!'"'? brass, 

hzi"^ jubilee. ^ "Cti soid. 

"^b^ P^o- t T^rP flour. 

* ni33 glory. 35 cloud. 
13 pat"/. * n? people. 



f •j3N stole. 

* nis //V/iL 
rik s/^-n. 

•,ins arA'. 

t y-X eaW/i. 
t uis 7?re. 

* T^'z garment. 

* rr^s house. 
"in 5 u'a//. 
X'^.5 valley. 

*|5 garden. 
t "53 r/«e. 



* U"}3 vineyard. 
* 3^ heart. 
cnb bread. 



S":? evening. 



t ors /j/n<? {repe- 
tition). 

',is:i iio/-//j. 

Top Zjow. 
t n^n spirit. 
t 3n-i s/ree^. 

* Dn"n womb. 

* cri juniper. 
biNd Ae//. 

* DjiiJ sceptre. 
n2d sabbath. 



t nr time {dura- cinn ocean, 
tion). * "I'S'^n south. 
'• D'^ia yace. * "i?S!) razor. 



* "("la threshing- f "(ii:33 tongue. 

floor. * ^X;^ /ooJ. 
t ri^j'i cZoor. 

Gesenius ascribes only one gender to a few of these words, but 33 is 
once fern. Prov. 12:25; so bbx.-n fem. Hub. 1:16, ->S373 fem. Hab. 1:10, 
n3Tia fem. Ezek. 43 : 13, n:!J:3J 'masc. Ezek. 24 : 10. The list might be re- 



222 ETYMOLOGY. §198 

duced by referring the vacillation in gender, wherever it is possible, to the 
eyntax rather than the noun. Verbs, adjectives, and pronouns, which be- 
long to feminine nouns may in certain cases, as will be sliown hereafter, be 
put in the masculine as the more indefinitfi and primary ibrm. While, on 
the other hand, those which belong to masculine names of inanimate ob- 
jects are sometimes put in the feminine as a substitute for the neuter. 

c. Some species of animals exhibit a distinct name for each sex, the 
feminine being ibrmed from the masculine by the appropriate termination, 
1Q bulluck, nns heifer, ^:? calf, fcm. n^^:^, urs Iamb, lem. t^ii^^s. or 
being represented by a word of different radicals, "li'an ass. fcm. "pPJ*. 
When tills is not the case, the name of the species may be construed in 
either gender according to the sex of the individual spoken of, as bra 
camel, ^^33 caltle, lis:: bird, or it may have a fixed gender of its own 
irrespective of the sex of the individual; thus, 3P3 dog, rXT wolf, "ii'i3 ox, 
are masculine, ri2;"iS hare, nji"' dove, bnn sheep, are feminine. 

d. The names of nations, rivers, and mountains are commonly mascu- 
line, those of countries and cities feminine. Accordingly, such words as 
ni-i:?. Edom, SXi^ Moab, nntin-i Judah, Cin^^D Egypt, a-^ribs Chaldees, 
are construed in the masculine when the people is meant, and in the fem- 
inine when the country is meant. 

§198. The feminine ending is frequently employed in 
the formation of abstract nomis, and is sometimes extended 
to the formation of official designations (comp. /as Honour, 
his Excellency, his Reverence), nns governor, riis colleague, 
i^^bp preacher, and of collectives (comp. humanity for man- 
hind), '^ afsh, T'hj'^fish, 15^ a cloud, nbs? clouds, f? a tree, 
Tkv timber, lUi^ a traveller, nnni? caravan, ol^Vsi Zeph. 3:19 
the halting, nt^ibs the escaped. 

a. (1) Tiie feminine ending added to Segholates gives new prominence 
to the originally abstract ciiaracter ol" this formation, "d'l and f^^■^y'^ 
wickedness, distinguished by Ewald as to uSlkov and aSuda, ne~n shame, 
fC^'JiV slothfidness. 

[2) So to monosyllables whose second radical receives the vowel, ^'\^'^^ 
righteousness, wliich is more abstract and at the same time used more ex- 
clusively in a moral sense than the Segholate, P"]^ rightness, ~^3N dark- 
«ess, equivalent to Ijsn, nrhD (^ ti^i) brightness, ~rT::7 (=:yxa2) salva- 
tion. Or nouns of this description might be supposed to have sprung from 
the adjectives belonging to the second form of Class I., tlie pretonic vowel 
fallino: away upon tlie addition of the feminine endinsii '2i* dark, nbsx 
the dark, to crKOTe.ivov, n>TO7 the being saved from ri^u;^, ii?"'5Q _;»s/?ce 
from b^ba judge. The following nouns, descriptive of the station or func- 
tions of a particular class, ftllovv this form, "b^ king, M^nba kingly office 
or sway, N"'33 prophet, nx>l33 prophecy. ■|^^ priest, nsns priesthood or 
priestly duty, bsi merchant, ^331 traffic. 



^198 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 223 

(3) The feminine ending occasionally gives an abstract signification to 
reduplicated ibrnis, IW blind, n"lh>' blindness, nsa hacivg a bald fore- 
head, nnaa baldness in front, N::n sinner, rx::n and nNijn sin, f^n's? 
terror, no^p scoffing, f^^^b^ anguish, or to those which have a prefixed 
letter a, nisnig overthrow, nbrris dominion, nr^inr) confusion, or particu- 
larly n, nyrJn salvation, rrni-n testimony, Si^-n hope, ^''^\t\ ueariness. 

(1) It is likewise added to forms in "'., .Tjb'^^S judgment, •n-'Vbs' work- 
ing, n°>bxn beginning, n"'"ins. eiuZ, ri'^'^.N'J remnant, the termination rsi 
being often found in place ofni., niujsn 2 Chron. 26:21 K'ri, nidsn 
K'thibh. disease prop, freedom from duty, "'l^'Sn y/'ee. Mbbzri redness, 
'''^'^zn red, nn">n72 bitterness, *'A"'"^^ 6i7/e/', rinrs heaviness, r^irbx 
uvWoio/tooc/, and occasionally n^ , ni'^a^n ivisdoin, T^^:■\^T^ folly, though the 
latter may perhaps be a plural as it is explained by Gescnius. Ewald 
suggests a connection between the final i of the relative adjective, which 
thus passes into ^ and even to i in this abstract formation, and the old 
construct ending "*. and i. The further suggestion is here offered that 
both may not improbably be derived from the pronoun N^in, which was 
originally of common gender, §71. « (3). Thus, ")'";]S<"iri'^n Gen. 1:24 
beast of earth is equivalent to y"}J< K^in r^^n beast viz. that of earth, and 
p1^-i~b?3 (which maybe lor *l3b^ as the plural ending C-i. for C^i, § 199. e), 
is equivalent to p'llJ Xin 7y>p^. king viz. that of righteousness. The ap- 
pended pronominal vowel thus became indicative of the genitive relation; 
and its employment in adjectives, involving this relation, is but an exten- 
sion of this same use, ■'i'K'ib';' of or belonging to Israel, Israelitish. The 
further addition of the feminine ending in its abstract sense, has mostly 
preserved the vowel from that attenuation to I which it has experienced at 
the end of tlie word, comj). §101. 1. a. riD'sbs widowhood prop, the slate 
of a widoio "i^bx , m'"a3n wisdom prop, the quality belonging to the wis€ 
asn. The rare instances in which tlie termination HI is superimposed 
upon "^^ viz.: n^''"iT3X , rni't:^ip, may belong to a time when the origin 
of the ending was no longer retained in the popular consciousness. The 
termination n"*, or M in abstracts derived from T^b roots is of a different 
origin from that just explained and must not be confounded with it; "'^ or -1 
is there the final radical softened to a vowel, §163, as rri'd or n^::0 cap- 
tivity from nz'J to lead captive. 

b. In Arabic, nouns of unity, or those which designate an individual, 
are often formed by appending the feminine termination to masculines 
which have a generic or collective signification. This has been thought 
to be the case in a {"ew words in Hebrew, "^^iifeet, n^:x ship, "iSV hair, 

Mnr"JJ a hair, y^ swarm, ir^i-'^ a bee. 

c. Some names of inanimate objects are formed from those of aru- 
mated being.? or parts of living bodies, which they were conceived to 
resemble, by means of the feminine ending, taken in a neuter sense, ck 
mother, Max -metropolis, Ti^'y^ thigh, n3"i^ hinder part, extremity, t'S palm 
of the hand, SiDS palm-branch, n^M forehead, nn::^ greave, ~E mouth, 
n"D edge. 



224 ETYMOLOGY. § 199 

§199. There are three numbers in Hebrew, the singular 

Ci^ri;^ liirb), dual (D^sis pi-b), and plural (D^an I'^iijb). The 
plural of masculine nouns is formed by adding Q"^. , or de- 
fectively written D . , to the singular, Di6 horse, D'^p^.o horses, 
p'l'^is righteous {jnaii), ts'^pv:? or Dp"''n? righteous {men). The 
plural of feminine nouns is formed by the addition of rii , 
also written n', the feminine ending of the singular, if it 
has one, being dropped as superfluous, since the plural ter- 
mination of itself distinguishes the gender, ois cu/p, riob 
ciq:is, nb^r:2 virgin, riiS^nsi and ti'b^na virgins, r.i?tbn sin, 
nii«!2n sins; in two instances the vowTl-letter « takes the 
place of 1 , §11. 1. a, ni^nb Ezek. 31 : 8, nsjia Ezek. 47 : 11. 

a. The masculine plural sometimes has 'i"'. instead of D"> , e.g. 'jib'^ 
oftener than ni^53 in the book of Job, 'r=^^ P^ov. 31 : 3, ^{''sT) 2 Kin. 11 : 13, 
'p^y Mic. 3:12, "pi^i^ Lam. 1:4, 'pbn' Ezek. 4:9, 'p'?? l^a'i- 12:13. 
This ending, which is the common one in Chaldee, is chiefly found in 
poetry or in the later books of the Bible. 

b. Some grammarians have contended for the existence of a few plurals 
in "^ without the final D, but the instances alleged are capable of another 
and more satisfactory explanation. Thus, "'■^3 2 Kin. 11:4, ■'ri"i3 , ""nba 
2 Sam. 8: 18, "^b-bd 2 Sam. 23:8, and ^::n 1 Sam. 20 : 38 K'lhibh (K'ri 
n"iin), are singulars used collectively; "'52? 2 Sam. 22:44, Ps. 144:2, 
Lam. 3 ; 14. and "^3152^ Cant. 8 : 2, are in the singular with the suffix of the 
first person; '^i'O Ps. 45 : 9 is not for fsa stringed insiruments, hut is the 
poetic form of the preposition '(ofrom; ""'i^^ Ps. 22: 17 is not ibr n"^"i3 
piercing, but is the noun "^"71!:. with the preposition 3 like the lion, §156. 3. 

c. There are also a few words which have been regarded as plurals in 
'' . But "^jH Zech. 14 : 5 and "''^b Judg. 5: 15, are plurals witii tiie suffix 
of the first person. In : "^lin 2 Chron. 33 : 19. which is probably a proper 
name, and "^ia Am. 7: 1, Nah. 3: 17, which is a singular used collectively, 
final 1 is a radical as in "^nr = r\i}:3 . :''^'in Isa. 19 : 9 is a singular with 
the formative ending \ , §194.6; "^bi^n j'cr. 22: 14 and "'E'Cn Isa. 20 : 4, 
might be explained in the same way, though Ewald prefers to regard the 
former as an abbreviated dual lor C^iibn double (i. e. large and shoxcy) 
ipindmos, and the latter as a construct plural for "'STiTn , the diphthongal e 
being resolved into aij, comp. §57. 2 (5). "'n';) Ezek. 13: 18 is probably a 
dual for 0'^'"', though it might be for the unabridged singular ir^V which, 
however, never occurs. The divine name '^'^^'d il/mz^-Zi/?/ is best explained 
as a singular; the name ""px. Lord is a plural of excellence, §201.2, 
with the suffix of the first person, the original signification being mij 
Lord. 

d. In a {"ew words the sign of the feminine singular is retained before 
the plural termination, as thougii it were one of the radicals, instead of 



^200 



GENDER AND NUMBER OP NOUNS. 



225 



being dropped agreeably to the ordinary rule, rb'n door pi. ninb'n. So, 
riDS pillow, riwfr bow. rjD'iJ trough, ir^sri .-^pear, rA2Tzbi< widowhood, n^in'^na 
divorce, n^iin whoredom, ns'O ///) pi. ninsb. To tliese must be added 
rr^nd, provided it be derived Iroin i".n^ in tlic sense oC pif. ; it may, how- 
ever, sigiiiiy (/e.?/Avcc/70», from the root rinO, vviien the final n will be a 
radical. See Alexander on Psalm 107 : 20. 

e. The original ending of the plural in nouns, verbs, and pronouns, 
seems to have been ni, §71.6. (2). In verbs the vowel has been pre- 
served, but the final nasal has been changed or lost, "I'l^^P^ or ^^lip'?, 
§85. 1. a. (1). In masculine nouns and pronouns the final nasal has been 
retained, but the vowel has been attenuated to 2 ore, D^p^O, cn, cnx : 
the Arabic has una for the nominative and zna for tlic oblique case. If 
we suppose n, the sign of the feminine, to be added to D1, the sign of the 
plural, the vowel will regularly be changed to i before the two con- 
sonants, §61.4; then if the nasal be rejected before the final consonant, 
agreeably to the analogy of r2 for Fi:3 and Ciis for p2"i3. the resulting 
form will be rii, the actual ending of the feminine plural. If the sign of 
the plural, like all the other inflective letters and syllables, is of pronom- 
inal origin, this D, which is joined to words by the connecting vowel 1, 
may perhaps be related to Htd taken indefinitely in the quantitative or 
numerical sense of qitot or aliquot, comp. Zech. 7:3; and the adverbial or 
adjective ending a^ or n" may in like niarmer be referred to the same in 
its qualitative sense, comp. Ps. 8 : 5, so that n}5">'n vaciie, would strictly be 
qud vacuus. The pronoun seems in fact to be preserved without abbrevia- 
tion in the Syriac {.iala.*) = D'ci"^ interdin. 

§ 200. The gender of adjectives and participles ia care- 
fully discriminated, both in the singular and in the plural, by 
means of the appropriate terminations. But the same want 
of precision or uniformity which has been remarked in the 
singular, §197, characterizes liliewise the use of the plural 
terminations of substantives. Some masculine substantives 
take ni in the plural, some feminines take D^. , and some 
of each gender take indifferently D"' . or m" . 

a. The following masculine nouns form their plural by adding m' : 
those which are distinguished by an asterisk are sometimes construed as. 
feminine. 



-« father. 
•|55< bowl. 
-"ik familiar 
spirit. 
">six treasure. 
* nix sign. 
15 



* nnlx path. 
"i:-"^X palace. 
Vsrx cluster. 
nii pit. 
a 5 roof. 
bn-;a lot. 



* ')";i\ threshing- 
floor. 
'i^"i'n goad. 

i:t tail. 

I'"!! street. 

r;7n breast. 



'I'T'Tn vision 
Ci?n dreavi. 
•jiit'n invention. 
n2l3 hand breadth. 
NE3 throne. 
n^'i tablet. 



226 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§200 



i-^y night. 

*n2T^ allar. 

*ili^ rain, 

"liby?? lilhe. 

* 'is'O summil. 

* cipo j^lace. 



1X3 hoUle. 
"13 /amp. 
"lis 67rm. 
"IDS fZ;<s/. 
2bS /ier6. 
i"]© leader. 
* Ki^j /josi:. 



in::: tube. 

"lins bundle. 
bip voice. 
*"'p wa/Z. 
S"ip tear. 
*jini street. 



pin"! chain. 
•jnbd /aWe. 

C1U name. 
"lEi'zJ trumpet. 

niu pillar. 
ninn c/ee-/). 



6. The folIowinfT feminine nouns form their plural by adding Ci : those 
marked thus (f) are sometimes mascuh'ne : 

t "i^S s/ojze. t T^}/}. way. f '^^s s/je/L 



n^X terebinth. r/n /aif. 

pMiissN widowhood. !Tni?:l branch. 



nt"X woman. 

n^:^ Jig- cake. 
iTnizn if/?. 



n^:T whoredom.. 
t"it|n wJieal. 
n^'wrn darkness. 
n;ii Joi-e. 
f 13 pitcher. 



nbb 6ru7t. 

n^a u-orcZ. 
nST23 an^. 

nxp measure. 
iy she- goal. 

-\'^''j city. 
U5% concubine. 



TQ morsel. 

Vni sheep. 
n^.i-'b barley. 
rbh'j ear of corn. 

niili acacia. 



Also C">k"^3 fg'g'-? wliich is not found in the singular. 

c. The following nouns form their plural by adding either t3''_ or ni: 



MASCULINE NOUNS. 



dH'^X porch. 
•"■ix //oyz. 
^i'n generation. 
Vizh sacrijice. 
'|i-i~T memorial. 
Cii^ (/ay. 
■^^ - fir est. 
"ii'3 laver. 
^ii3 /iarp. 



-bb heart. 
"lis^ //^/i/. 
b^50 ^oiiJer. 
iQio foundation. 

"iDi^ /(0?2C/. 

riii^ sm^. 
p^T^a fiottZ. 
-ix3T3 pain. 
nro^ «a?7. 



"i^rTa delicacy. 
'C,'2.'0 fountain. 
'Z'^"j'q bed. 
■j3':i?3 dwelling. 
"iti3 river. 
?ib basin. 
I"!? iniquity. 
^py Aee/. 



'j'"^.S breach. 
is^s liec/c. 

^T-p grave. 

n:i? /eec/. 
n^"ip a.re. 

nib /eZa'. 
"!ii'j 7{,-ee/f. 
5MJ"n deliffhl. 



FEMININE NOUNS. 



ni'^X terror. rri'i'dx grape- cake. bs"3 s/ioe. 1 
nrbx s/iea/. '^t'^!^: Astarle, *^''^'}'<.. heap. 
nJax people. ri'^in spear. 

NOUNS CONSTKUED IN EITHER GENDEE. 

cynx , n'^nx a/oes. 'lisn window. i~ii3"2 -rof/. 

1:2 garment. lin co/^r;. Tiisi soi/Z. 

a^ ?'/m, "(23 circle, "i''D thorn. 

bi"^n temple. lif^^ fortress. "zi cloud. 

siiT arm. "^.-iri^ ca?np. ^-?. cord 



'0";Q ZiOO/^ 

n:d ?/ear. 



rr time. 
crb /oo^ 



§ 201 GENDER AND NUMBER, OF NOUNS. 227 

d. The two forms of the plural, though mostly synonymous, occnsion- 
allv (lider in sense as in Latin loci, and loca. Thus 0"'-i33 is used of 
round masses of money, talents, Sni-xs of bread, round loaces ; ciniq 
thorns, nin"'D hooks; D'21^3 heels, r\ii';:v foot-prinls ; W'b'J^ footsteps of 
men, ni::rD/ee^ of articles of furniture. Comp. §193. c. Sometimes they 
dKFer in usajre or frequency of employment: thus nii^ (^(HJ'^'; ^"^^^ years, 
are poetical and rare, the customary forms being cr^ , n"i:d. 

e. Nouns mostly preserve their proper gender in the plural irrespective 
of the termination which they adopt; though there are occasional excep- 
tions, in which icminine nouns in D"^. are construed as masculines, e. g. 
D-^iaj ■women Gen. 7: 13, c^^^ wo7^ds Job 4:4, o-'B?:3 onts Prov. 30:25, 
and masculine nouns in Hi arc construed as feminines, c. g. m'D3r?3 dwell- 
ings Ps. 84 : 2. 

f. In explanation of the apparently promiscuous or capricious use of the 
masculine and feminine endings, it n)ay be remarked that the termination 
D"^, ia strictness simply indicates the plural number, and is indeterminate 
as to gender, § 199. e, though the existence of a distinct form for the fem- 
inine left it to be appropriated by the masculine. The occurrence of n"« in 
feminine nouns, and even iu the names of females, as ni'CJ women, C'-T? 
s/<f-g-0(/L^, may therefore, like the absence of the distinctive feminine ending 
fi-om the singular, be esteemed a mere neglect to distinguish the gender by 
the outward form. The occurrence of the Itiniinine ending in a masculine 
noun, whether singular or plural, is less easily accounted for. Such words 
may perhaps, at one period of tlie language, have been regarded as fem- 
inine, the subsequent change of conception, by which they are construed 
as masculine, tailing to obliterate their original form. Such a change is 
readily supposable in words, which there is no natural or evident reason 
for assigning to one sex rather than the other; but not in T\'^Zi< fathers, 
which can never have been a feminine. One might be tempted in this 
case to suspect that T\i was not the sign of the plural, comp. rinx sister, 
niin mol/ier-in-law, but that ^ belonged to tlie radical portion of the 
word, and that n was appended to fi)rm a collective,/a//ier/ioof/, §193, 
which has in usage taken the place of the proper plural. More probably, 
however, the idea of olHcial dignity, which was so prominently attached 
to the paternal relation in patriarchal times, is the secret of the feminine 
form which -k assumes in the plural, comp. niS'^D leaders, rVn'p preacher, 
while iis construction as a masculine springs so directly out ot its significa- 
tion as to remain unaffected. And this suggests the idea that the like may 
have happened to names of inanimate objects. They may receive the 
feminine ending in its neuter sense to designate them as things, § 193. c, 
while at the same time they are so conceived that the masculine construc- 
tion is maintained. 

§201. 1. Some substantives are, by their signification or 
by usage, limited to tlie singular, such as material nouns 
taken in a universal or indefinite sense, ^i<Jire, 2r\] ^oid, 
rvb^ii^ (jround; collectives, PfJ children, ^^bfoiul, '^y. birds of 



228 ETYMOLOGY. § 202 

prey, 'ij^S large cattle (noun of unity "liiy an ox), "jsi s7naU 
cattle (noun of unity nib a sheej? or goaf) ; many abstracts, 
2^1?!! salvation, tri-)? blindness. On the other hand some are 
found only in the plural, such as nouns, whose singular, if it 
ever existed, is obsolete, D^^'b loater, n'^ps face oy faces, Q^'bis 
heaven, TT'b'a boiuels, Q'^n^ men, ni•ij^n_^ adjacent to the head, 
and abstracts, which have a plural form, D'^'irj life, ^''^T^'^. 
love, 'CT'iiiry mercy, riS^^nri government. 

a. The intimate connection between a collective and an abstract is 
shown by the use of the feminine singular to express both, §198. In like 
manner the plural, whose office it is to gather separate units into one ex- 
pression, is used to denote in its totality or abstract form that common 
quality which pervades them all and renders such a summation possible, 
comp. TO. 8tKata rights to. aStKa wrong. Some abstracts adopt indifferently 
the feminine or the plural form, fi:l^S and nir^i^x fidelily, ^^N? and 
C^^iss redemption, n^n and Qi'n life, «^=^:n and U'^b'qn darkness] rik\'q 
and tJiNiia setting of gems. 

b. The form D'^p!i:3]ri is adopted by certain words which denote periods 
of human life, nin^irs childhood, cr^ibr youth. D"'*in3 adolescence, D"'Bw3 
virginity, nib^lbs period of espousals, C"';pf old age. 

c. Abstracts, which are properly singular, are sometimes used in the 
plural to denote a higli degree of the quality which they represent, or re- 
peated exhibitions and embodiments of it, n'^^^a might, ni~i!!:5 deeds of 
might. 

2. There are a few examples of the employment of the 
plural form when a single individual is spoken of, to suggest 
the idea of exaltation or greatness. It is thus intimated that 
the individual embraces a plurality, or contains within itself 
what is elsewhere divided amongst many. Such plurals of 
majesty are Cnba? God the supreme object of worship, "^ns 
Supreme Lord prop, my Lord, § 199. c, and some other terms 
referring to the divine bsing, T^T^ Eccles, 12 : 1, cnina 
Eccles. 5 : 7, vM^J Isa. 54 : 5, Q^ipin)? Hos. 12 : 1; also, ni'is? 
(rarely with a plural sense) lord, D^^;^'3 (when followed by a 
singular suffix) master, !ni^n3 Behemoth, great beast, and 
possibly D'^s'nn Teraphim, which seems to be used of a single 
image, 1 Sam. 19 : 13, 10. 

^202. The dual is formed by adding D'?. to the singular 



§203 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 229 

of both genders, tn as the sign of the femmine remaining 
unchanged, and r.^ reverting to its original form in^, ^VJG.d, 
^i //and du. n:n'; , nb-H door dn. u:hb'^ , rk^ lip du. wht^ . 

a. The dual ending in Hebrew, as in tlie Indo-European languages, 
Bopp Vorgleich. Gramin. §206. is a modified and strengthened ibrm of the 
pUiruI ending. The Arabic goes beyond the Hebrew in extending the 
dual to verbs and pronouns. The Chaldee and Syriac scarcely retain a 
trace of it except in the numeral two and its compounds. 

§203. The dual in Hebrew expresses not merely two, but 
a couple or a pair. Hence it is not employed with the same 
latitude as in Greek of any two objects of the same kind, 
but only of two Avhich belong together and complete each 
other. It is hence restricted to 

1. Double organs of men or animals, D'?5TS cars, D'^EK 
nostrils, D'??'^|? /loms, D???? 'iJoings. 

2. Objects of art which are made double or which con- 
sist of two corresponding parts, '^'^^'^}. pair of shoes^ D^STi^b 
pair of scales, W^T\'^^'Q pair of to77(/s, ^y^'^foldiiif^ doors. 

3. Objects which are conceived of as constituting to- 
gether a complete whole, particularly measures of time or 
quantity, W^'n'y^ period of tico days, hidimm, D"??3t23 two loeelcs, 
foriirifjlit, D'njiZJ two years, hienniiim, D^fis^D two measures, 
D'Sss two talents, D:?^^ Prov. 28 : G, 18 double way (comp. 
in English double dealiny), Q"''^".? pair of rivers, i. e. the 
Tigris and Euphrates viewed in combination. 

4. The numerals Xi^^^^ two, D^^ss double, D>Hn^ two hun- 
dred, D':?'?^? two thousand, D'^nisi'n two myriads, D'i'ni^'nuJ seven- 
fold, D^i?^? of two sorts. 

5. A few abstracts, in which it expresses intensity, D''i?^?y 
double-slothful ness, ^"XTT^ double-rebellion, 0?^^^ double-lijj^dy 
i. e. noon, D'hrtTn double-wickedness. 

a. Names of objects occurring in pairs take the dual form even when a 
hiphcr number than two is spoken of. D-;?\rn '::5i:3 1 Sam. 2:13 ihe three 
teeth, 072:3 i-bns Ezek. l:6/o2tr wings, ^[Drs UJn Isa. G : 2 six wings, 



230 ETYMOLOGY. § 204, 205 

D'^rS nyn'j Zech. 3:9 seven eyes, Ci''3"i3-b3i D'''^''n-'!53 all the hands and 
all knees Ezek. 7 : 17. Several names of double organs of the human or 
animal body have a plural form likewise, which is used of artificial imita- 
tions or of inanimate objects, to which these names are applied by a figure 
of speech, §193. c, Cii^fD horns, niinp? horns of the altar, D"'E33 wings, 
m'srs exlremilies, 0"^En3 shoulders, rilDPS shoidder-pieces of a garment, 
ci"':' eyes, riirs fountains, C'psn feet, c^J") times prop, beats of the 
foot. In a few instances this distinction is neglected, D'^rsiIJ and nir.STU 
tips, D^n^ and ni'i'^ sides, n"'r3-i';i extremities. 

b. The dual ending is in a very few words superadded to that of 
the plural, niiin walls of a city, n"'nian double walls, niniib boards, 
cnnb double boarding of a ship, DT^hna name of a town in Judah, Josh. 
15:36. 

c. The words n^ia water and O^ad heaven have the appearance of 
dual forms, and might possibly be so explained by the conception of the 
clement of water a.^ existing in two localities, viz. under and above the 
firmament. Gen. 1 : 7, and heaven as consisting of two hemispheres. They 
are. however, commonly regarded as plurals, and compared Avith such 
plural forms in Chaldee as T^'?^ Dan. 5:9 from the singular i^}''^. In 
n'l'^Tr^n^ Jerusalem, or as it is commonly written without the Yodh tibi^n'^, 
the final Mem is not a dual ending but a radical, and the pronunciation is 
simply prolonged from cbrin"^, comp. Gen. 14:18, Ps. 76 : 3, though in 
this assimilation to a dual form some have suspected an allusion to the 
current division into the upper and the lower city. 

§ 204. It remains to consider the changes in tlie nouns 
themselves, which result from attaching to them the various 
endings for gender and number that have now been recited. 
These depend upon the structure of the nouns, that is to say, 
upon the character of their letters and syllables, and arc gov- 
erned by the laws of Ilebrew orthography already unfolded. 
These endings may be divided into two classes, viz. : 

1. The feminine ri, which, consisting of a single con- 
sonant, causes no removal of the accent and produces changes 
in the ultimate only. 

2. The feminine n^ , the plural D"^. and ni, and the 
dual D\ , which remove the accent to their own initial 
vowel, and may occasion changes in both the ultimate and 
the penult. 

§205. Nouns which terminate in a vowel undergo no 
change on receiving; the feminine characteristic ri , "^nsiTa 



^ 206 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 231 

Moahite, tr^y^s^rq 3Ioabitess, ^T^i^ fmdiv(j feni. nssb,. NKn 
sinner, vsbn sin, §198. iNouiis which terminate in a con- 
sonant cx[)crience a, compression of their final syllable, which, 
upon the addition of ri , ends in two consonants instead of 
one, \Q)C). 2, and an auxiliary Seghol is introduced to relieve 
the harshness of the combination, §01. 2. In consequence 
of this tlic vowel of the ultimate is changed from ^7 or a to 
c, §G3. 2. a, from c or / to c, or in a few words to B, and 
from u or u to o, §G1. 4. n3ir: broken fem. trht} , nwx 
reddish fern. nic^72'j« , tj?n (joivf/ fem. f^s^h, t53 master, 
trh'^ mistress, tJt-O f'^'" ^m. niT'bn , iD'^k man, r'^y icoman, 
§214. 1. (^, fisp scattered fem. nsisp , nlL^np and TOHS ^^55. 
When tlie fmal consonant is a guttural, there is the usual 
substitution of Pattahli for Seghol, ?^t:J hearinrj fem. f^?^"^, 
TV^ touclihifj fern. r^55^ . 

a. In many crises th,p, feminine is formed indifferently by ri or by n^ ; 
in others usiiixe inclines in favor of one or of the other ending, though no 
absolute rule can be given upon the subject. It may be said, however, 
that adjectives in "'. almost always receive n; active participles, except 
those of ^•"" , "'" and rib verbs, oftener take Sn than n^ ; n is also found, 
though less frequently, with the passive participles except that of Kal, 
from which it is excluded. 

6. A final ") , T or n is sometimes apsimilated to the feminine charac- 
teristic n and contracted with it. §54, n? for r:3 duugliter, rn"? for 
ri3inr gift, r.-izii for r:rs tmlh. nhx for r-ns one, nnr^D ] Kin. 1 : 15 
for r;r~!-::^ minislering, rthc-o Mai. 1 : 14 for rnnrri convpl, riq^ for 
nnsn^ -pan. The changes of the ultimate vowel are due to its compres- 
sion belbre concurring consonants. 

c. The vowel u remains in n^^lbri Lev. 5: 21 deposit, and the proper 
name nrn:n Tanliiunelli. From nx brother., CT^ father-in-law are formed 
ninx sister, rion motker-in-Uno, the radical 1, which has been dropped 
from the masculine, retaining its place before the sign of the feminine, 
comp. §101. 1. a; rx^E3 difficult Deut. 30: 11 is for nrt^E? from K^23. 

§206. The changes which result from appending the 
feminine termination n^ , the plural terminations Q'^. and tii, 
and the dual teriuination D^. , are of three sorts, viz. : 

1. Those which take place in the ultimate, when it is a 
mixed syllable. 



232 ' ETYMOLOGY. ^207 

2. Those wliicli take place in the ultimate, when it is a 
simple s;y liable. 

3. Those which take place in the penult. ' 

§207. When the ultimate is a mixed syllable bearing 
the accent, it is affected as follows, viz. : 

1 . Tsere remains unchanged, if the word is a monosylla- 
ble or the preceding vowel is Kamets, otherwise it is rejected; 
other vov/els suffer no change, t'h dead fern. T'h'Q, pi. D'^iTi^; 
if:!"; thifjh da. ^ITTl , D^"^ comjjiete fem. r.^sbiu, pi. n^iabi^, 
f. pi. ntbbiy ; i\% <jow(/ fem. nsbh , pi. Q-^ibh , f. pi. nisVn . 

a. The rejection of Tsere is due to the tendency to abbreviate words 
which are increased by additions at the end, §G6. 1. It is only retained 
as a pretonic vowel, §64. 2, wlien the word is otherwise sufficiently abbre- 
viated, or its rejection would shorten the word unduly. Tsere is retained 
contrary to the rule by cli'^i:), E"'i;2n children of (he third and fourth 
generalions, by a few exceptional forms, e.g. n^S3 Jer. 3 : 8, 11, nb3da 
Ex. 23; 26, r\^'^) Cant. 1:6, n^'^i^ Isa. 54:1. and frequently with the 
pause accents, '§65, e.g. ^nnbi^ Isa. 21:3, friiio Lam. 1 : 16, :ni?3?3i;a 
Isa. 49:8, or^'^S Ex. 28:40, ^•'n»;o Gen. 19 : 11, 2 Kin. 6 : IS (once with 
Tiphhha). : c'-'sfeo?^ Isa. 2 : 20, C^'O^-^s Eccles. 2 : 5. rin^ciia Isa. 2:4. It 
also appears in several feminine substantives, both singular and j)lural. e. g. 
nboriTa overllirow, nii:;"!^ counsels. nbriFi abomination, f^:^;^"'? staff. f^ET??^ 
witch. On the other hand, the following feminines reject it though pre- 
ceded by Kamets, hv^ wild-goat. fem. <"i^?." , "i?!|' ostrich, fem. tijr ^ , T^^ 
thigh, fem. ■°1S"^V It is also dropped from the plural of the monosyllable 
"(2 507?., and its place supplied by a pretonic Kamets, D"i:3 sons, ri;^ daugh- 
ters, the singular of the feminine being ra lor ri:i, §205.6; so a^ja 
fork^\. T^r^'vz. 

b. Kamets in the ultimate is retained as a pretonic. vowel, '^p nhite, 
fem. ni::?, pi. n-^^zb, f. pi. nb';?; '^^'^•q fortress, pi. Q^-.:^r'o and ni-ix^ia, 
only disappearing in a few e:;ceptional cases, "ir'O hair. j'um. fr^r'tU. ''ba 
quail,\i\. ciVrb, 'C'^M pasture, \A. L^'B'n.V^ once nic-i5T3. mn2~?3 and rii"^2i'?5 
fords, 123 talent du. C^i23 but in pause D":i23 , "nj river du. ^yyr^,^_ . The 
Kb participles, ^k':i'prophesTjingY>\- D"'fJ23, xrq3 polluted lA. Cii^::: , xi'i? 
found pi. IS'^NI?^? adopt the vowels of n"b forms, § 165. 2 ; but with the 
pause accents Kamets returns, Ci''K23 Ezck. 13:2, : d-'N^t:: Ezr. 8:25. 
The foreign word "i2~iS suburbs forms its plural irregularly C">"i1"iQ. 

c. Hholem and Hhirik commonly suflTer no. change; but in a few words 
Shurek takes the place of the former, and in one Tsere is substituted for 
the latter, §66.2(3), "iiii'3 terror pi. ^"^y^yq, T^vr: habitation pi. f^i^is-a , 
pinis siceeliem. nj^wa pi. Cp^i.-i^^ , pii distress i'em. njr^l^, ',i>o lodging 
fem.'nitib'O, Xi'^^-qjlight fem. nbl3?3. niliTS res^ fem. nm:'^ , '•\i'iq fortifica- 
tion fem. nn«T2, pay deep fem. ^{^"^3 Prov. 23:27 and t-^y^''..'. P'^^'') 



§207 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 233 

chain pi. nipWn 1 Kin. 6: 21 K'ri; a-^^Q escaped pi. t)ibi^3 or Ci"'K^!3 
fem. nb^bs or nibs. 

(Z. Hholem is dropped from the plural of "■lib^S bird pi. n^iQ-.j . as well 
as from the plural of nouns having the feminine characteristic n iti the 
singular; thus ^ibibt^ skull, by the substitution of the i)lural ending 
ni lor ri. , §199, becomes ri?j.ba , nj^'sn.^ course, pi. ripbn^ , or with 
Hhateph-Kamets under a doubled letter, §16. 3.6, r:n3 cuat pi, rilns, 
n^2d ear of corn, pi. C'>b3"J ; in two instances a pre tonic Kamets is inserted, 
nnka drought t[>\. niiaa, nnri'iy yl.y/ar/e-pl. ni-'inc?. 

e. Seghol in nouns with the feminine characteristic n aflixed mostly fill- 
lows the law of the vowel from which it has sprung, §21)5; if it has been 
derived from Tsere it is rejected, if from any other vowel it is still in some 
instances rejected, though more commonly it reverts to its original form 
and is retained, J^p^i'' sucker (from pii^) })I. nipp'"', nnjx epistle (from 
IJX) pi. niniix, n^.i.N^^ knife (from bss;^) pi. ribr^'j, n^'ririns reddish 
(from D-n-anxJ pi. m:s'n'3'i>?^, np;-'^3 nurse (from p'^rtJ) j)l. mpr^, nbp->Ui? 
scale pi. n^e^pbp and nirpbp . Pattahh, which has arisen from a Seghol 
so situated under the influence of a guttural, follows the same rule. n~2:3 
rin^-pl. nira:: , n?.j3 (irom y^:i) touching i)\. ri";3. 

f. A few nouns with quiescents in the ultimate present apparent ex- 
ceptions, which are, however, readily explained by the contractions which 
they have undergone. Thus nin for I"'^n, §57.2(5). thorn, has its 
plural cnin or c-'n;n ; ci-! (n;i;) dai/, pi. c^i;; (n^^'',"!) ; Ti"i^ ('O"?^) s'rife, 
pi. Ciiin-2; -ircj (irj) o.r, pi. C-'^vJ; 1-Tn for V-r or'n.'.'n, § 186. 2.' c, /w/, pi. 
cnw or n^^i'n, § 20S. 3; pnib (p;,i^ or p^ra) slrtPt, pl.'c-pid; -i^i; {yb or 
"•?.?) c//?/. pi. once n-'V?'. .Tudg. 10:4 usually contracted to :2^yJ ; dtin 
(u:n'"i) head, pi. Cilrxn (c-^irN-i). So nxo measure becomes in the dual 
D'I'nxo lor C'l'rNp and tiN'O o»'3 hundred, du. C^PNO for C'l'TN': ; nbsba 
(naxb^a , §57. 2 (3) ), work, probably had in the absolute plural niDSbig , 
whence the construct is iri^Nb^ . 

2. The final consonant sometimes receives Dadiesh-forte 
before the added termination, causing the preceding Aowel 
to be sliortened from a to t7, from 8 or J, to /, and from or 
u to u, §G1. 5. Tliis takes place regularly in nouns -which 
are derived from contracted TJ roots, Dn peifect fem. nisn , 
a';" sea pi. n^^l; l^ti (from 135) s/iieM, pi. W'h'g and m'srw^, 
fem. m2 j^ ; pn statute pi. Q^pn , fem. nj?n , pi. rrpn , or in 
whose final letter two consonants have coalesced, ?|J> for ^^1:15 
du. D^£N ?iose ; ti? for n'J she-goat pi. "CT'S'J ; n? for n^i? time 
pi. W'T^'J and nin:? ; tJiJ? for irini maj/, tii^"K woman, and it 
not infrequently occurs in other cases. 

a. Nouns with Pattahh in the ultimate Avith few exceptions double their 
final letter, being either contracted forms, \h weak pi. C?- fem. n^n pi. 



234 ETYMOLOGY. § 207 

Pi^'n, or receiving Daghesli-forte conservative in order to preserve the 
short vowel. CJX pool pi. c'la^x ; so 'jEix wheel. D^n myiile. ::v^few, ~nrn 
frighlful. P"^P"!7 greenish. "^IN^ desire. Before gutturnis Fattahh may 
be retained in an intermediate syllable, rib fresh pi. n"'nb, or lengthened 
to Kamets, §60.4. "I'J prince pi. □"'"Jib I'em. nnb ; so nirsiJN fingers, 
ni-'S-iN four, cirms helmets. n-i^STa slrails and D-^xn^in baskets, r^vbb /oops, 
which do not occur in the singular, but are commonly referred to "'"^W, 
''^ib, §194. b, •< being changed to S as in §208. 3. dj also li' breast, 
which omits Daghesh du. ^'!^'^. Pattahh is in the fnllowing examples 
changed to Hliirik before the doubled letter, §58. 2, T2 prey feiu. n.js, nn 
year lem. ~nn, r^ u-ine-press pi. rinii , no garment pi. C"Vo and C^-no , 
Da tribute, "b basin, T^h vioisel. ^"S. side, bjbj v-Jieel, ri'icbo baskets, 
D"'iD:p palm- branches, ^"lio threshing-sledge pi. n'^5")ia or by the resolu- 
tion of Daghesh-forte, §59. a. C"';"'";ii^ . It is rejected from 'li";"4 cymbal 
pi. D"'!::^^^;, -,7 sor^ pi. D'^rT , n"''na";.a berries, probably from "ii"i5 and 0"'5n^ 
men, from the obsolete singular, ra . The plural of cs people is nix:3 
and in a very few instances with the doubled letter repeated, c'fcr? ; so 
"^h mountain pi. C-inn and C^nnri Deut. 8:9. bk shadow pi. ^^""4 , pPl 
statute pi. C'^p?" . and twice in the construct, ""^I^rrn Judg. 5 : 15, Isa. 10: 1, 
which implies the absolute form CpJlJri . 

6. The final letter is doubled after Kamets in the following words he- 
eides those from V3 root.'?, cBlx porch pi. C"^5sbN ; so 'ir^X hire, brs camel, 
'{Q] time, ~t'n73 darkness, pn"i^ distance, "Wj? small, '\\t.'^ green, "b?";^ 
quiet, "|iui'j lily, "jEb coney, to which should perhaps be added -^p" Deut. 
8: 15 scorpion, though as it has a pause accent in this place which is the 
only one where it is found with Kamets, its proper form may perhaps have 
been -"^py , §05. The Nipiial participle "li^a honored has in the plural 
both C'^'iSDJ and C'nss] . Several other words, which only occur in the 
plural, are in the lexicons referred to singulars with Kamets in the ulti- 
mate ; but the vowel may, with equal if not greater probability, be sup- 
posed to have been Pattahh. Kamets is shortened to Pattahh bclbre n, 
which does not admit Daghesh-forte, in the plurals ofnx brother pi. cnx, 
rih hook, hd:;^ confulence, §G0. 4. a. 

c. The following nouns with Hholcm ia the ultimate full under this 
rule, in addition to those derived from 'SV roots, '(b^Jpea/c pi. crp^a, Cbnn 
sacred, scribe, -^"iH band, ci<b nation, c'T'>; naked, and several adjectives 
of the form bb|5. which are mostly written without the vowel-letter 1, 
§14. 3, e.g. C"7N red fern. n^b^N , tD-'^ans , c^'x terrible, rp:^ long, etc. j 
nb':JN dunghill takes the form mnccx in the plural. 

d. There are only two examples of doubling when the vowel of the 
ultimate is Shurek, C^TT?. Prov. 24:31 nettles or brambles from '1"in, 
ni*.x-i Esth. 2 : 9 from "'ixn Kal pass, part of njjn . 

e. 'CJ"'X (C3X) mo7Z is not contracted in the plural Q''b:x men; in the 
feminine, for the sake of distinction, the initial weak letter is dropped, Cd3 
women, which is used as the plural of MTi'X woman; D"'a"'X men and ncst 
women are rare and poetic, rix j^loughshare has either cipx or CriX in 
the plural. 



§208 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 235 

§208. 1. Segholate nouns, or those which have an unac- 
cented vowel in the ultimate, drop it when any addition is 
made to them, ^66. 2. (1). As this vowel arose from tlio 
concurrence of vowelless consonants at the end of the Avord, 
the necessity for its presence ceases v/hen that condition no 
longer exists. Segholates thus revert to their original form 
of a monosyllable ending in concurrent consonants, §183. 

2. Monosyllables of this description receive the feminine 
ending with no further change than the shortening due to the 
removal of the accent, in consequence of which u becomes 6 
or more rarely ii, e becomes ^ or more rarely c ; a may be 
restored to a from which it has commonly arisen, §183, or 
like B it may become i or c, QSb (P''-P) streiifjih fern. •"'''32S', 
tJ£n ((Ssn) fem. r\vm freedom, "rck {"rck) saijing fern, rho^ 
and nntiN , ?fbb ( ?jb^ ) linf/ nsb^a ciacen, nnb slaufjUtcr fem. 
nnn-j . 

a. Nouns having either of the forms f^^^i?, ""''^p., t^^^P; ^?-rp) 
nbap, are consequently to be regarded as sprung Irom monosyllables with 
the vowel given to the first radical. 

3. Before the plural terminations a pretonic Kamets is 
inserted, and the original vowel of the monosyllabic falls 
away, tf^'a ( ^'p'i? ) ]dii(j pi. tD'^i'^'Ja , nirb^ queen pi. riSibtp , ^^s 
(n^k) sayincj pi. 13^1^^!! , nn^« id. pi. riii7?« , b?3 (bs'S) ivork, 
pi. n^b'^3 , K-jn sin pi. tD"kt:n . 

a. Pretonic Kamets is not admitted by the numerals f'-iby tici'vh) 
from "b^! 'ejz, C'^rno seventy from 'Jzti^ seven, di'irn vinpli/ from rcn 
nine. The words c''D::3 pislachio-nuls. nijnn ebonij. D"b'.x^ Job 40:21,22, 
crnn viercies, a'^^pd and ni^pd st/camores, which do not occur in the 
singular, have been regarded as examples of a like omission. But there 
need be no assumption of irregularity if the first is taken with Fiirst fi-om 
nDi:3 , the second with Gesenius fi'om ''r"'^ , r^nd the others are exflnined 
after a like analogy. Q,uadrilitcral Segholates also receive pretonic. Ka- 
mets in the plural '(IS'33 pi. n^?r33 merchants, unless the new letter creates 
an additional syllable, in which case the introduction of Karnets would 
prolong the word too much, d^b'o concubine pi. D"'v:."bs , ""iQS nail c";~iQS . 

6. The superior tenacity of Hholem, §60. I. a (4). is shown by the occa- 
sional retention of o, not only as a compound Sh'va under guttural.?, nnx 
ifOT/ pi. ninns , so d'lri month, u;"in thicket, "iry sheaf , ^^'J f mm ; but as 



236 ETYMOLOGY. § 209 

Kainets-Hhatuph in d'np holiness pi. o-'On;? and ^'^^"1'^^, ^"^p mot pi. 
a-i'b^ia, § 19.2, or as a long vowel in hrvk tentpl D-'V'Tj!) "h'"* ^^"11- P'- "^"J^; 
§60. 3. c, or shifted to the following letter so as to taUe the place of the 
pretonio Kamels in ''ril thumb pi. r.iiin2 , n:3 brightness pi. ninis , 
§18i. a. Comp. bcQ (b^^) graven image ])\. Cp^DQ. In otiiernouns it is 
rejected. "i^S morning p\. cnf^a ; so 'y* tkreshing-Jioor, 1S3 cypress, y^p 
hand/ull, n'c'i spear, cnH juniper, hl'b hollow of the hand. 

c. Middle Viiv qiiiesces in the plural of the following nouns: r'^ death 
pi. crrni , nHi::? iniquity pi. ribir. Gesenius regards C^li.^ Prov. 11:7, 
Hos. 9 : 4, as tiie plural of IJX, while others derive it from V*^) translating 
it riches in the former passage and sorrow in the latter, the primary idea 
out of which both senses spring being that of toil. Middle Yodh quiesces 
in the plural of b'^K ram pi. c-'B-'X . n-': olice pi. n"'n-'1 . b"i^ night pi. n'ii-'b , 
but not in b";in strength pi. n-^b'^n , Y.k fiuniain\)\. nir^ , -i-iy ass-colt pi. 
QiVy, r^n g-oai pi. cb;;!?}. The plural of N^a ra//e?/ is ri^'Nii by trans- 
position from the regular form n"iX"':i which is twice found in the K'thibh 
2 Kin. 2: 16, Ezek. 6:3; n^i house has as its plural c^ra, whether this 
be explained as for t3'^n;3 from n:2 to build or for D'nna from r^ia to 
lodge. Middle Yodh always quiesces before the feminine and dual endings, 
T^k provision Cem. ri^"":?, 'i^i' eye da. ^"^'v^,- 

d. Monosyllables in '^. from hb roots belong properly to this forma- 
tion, §57. 2 (4) and §184. '), and follow the rules given above both in the 
feminine "^Hn ("['bn) necklace fern. H^bn, and the plural ""nx ("l''^^) lion 
pi. Di^'iX and nl^nx , i-jsi /c/c/ pi. C^na, or with the change of "^ to N, 
§56. 4, which also occurs in verbs, §177.3, *'bn. necklace pi. fsbn, "^ra 
simple pi. Cii'^na, D'^ra and D''X~Q, ''b.'S. gazelle pi. 0*^^]=:? , Q-iKra and 
nii<::s ; in like manner n"'i<S3 branches, C^f^b lions arc referred to "^2^ 
and ""ib though these singulars do not occur; ""bs ('^bs) utensil does not 
receive Kamcts in the plural n"'b3. 

4. The dual sometimes takes a pretonic Ivamets like the 
plural, but more frequently follows the feminine in not re- 
quiring its insertion, t-bi (nb^) door du. D^nbn , tq^^ i^y^) 
loaij du. c^in^, xk (:i7P) ^^orii du. a:'?'!]? and D^np, ^nb 
cheeh du. D^^nb, xk {T^) '^"^^^ ^u. D^?n3, so Q^iriT^, Q:'%, 

• - : - » • - t: 'T 

§ 209. When the ultimate is a simple syllable, the follow- 
ing cases occur, viz : 

1. Final n.. is rejected before the feminine and plural 
endings, rs^ beautiful fern. Tk') f, pi. nis^" , nfcs^'a work pi. 
Dito'52; so nsTO c^?;/;? du. ts''.:™ . 

a. The last radical in Avords of this description is properly •< , which is 
rejected after a vowellcss letter, §62. 2. c, so that ns^ is lor n^S"' and 



§ 209 GENDER AND NUMBER OP NOUNS. 237 

Cii;?/? n)r C^^yi'^. In a very few instances llie radical "^ rcmnins. e.g. 
rt'"^:2i;' Cant. 1:7 Vrom nis» {'''qV) n^n^is Isa. 25:Grroni nn-s-a (-fiTSTa) 
and is even strengtliencd by L)agiiesli-(brf.e, §207.2, f^;-'2 Lanv. 1 : 10 
from nbia, r,^-^b and rr^b, §196.6. lem. of ir^Q, rri'nn Ho.s. 14: 1, else- 
where rnnn, ns moulh, edge pi. D'^c , ni'^D and rii'D , or changed to X, 
§56.4, "ba (^^h'j) young lamb CSt^l? (c'^bi:;), so that it is not necessary 
to assume a sinsrular "h'^ wliich no where occurs, ndbn Ps. 10:8 D^^NDbn 
ver. 10. See Alexander in loc. 

2. Final "'. may combine with the feminine and pkiral 
endings, so as to form n^ . , Q"'^ . , 2n""i^ . , or it may in the 
mascuhne plural be contracted to D"^. , §G2. 2, ''in^ Ilehreio 
pi. D'^nns' and D"'h^S' fern, n'^*?^:? f. pL T\WTJ ; -k shij) pi. 
c^s and a^^:2, ''rsn/re^ pi. n->iiJ£n, ''pa j!?z^re pi. Q'^^ps. So 
nouns in fi"'. upon the exchange of the feminine singular for 
the plural termination tr^'^yi^^J Ammonitcss pi. ni^'Si'Ey, rr^rin 
Ilittitcss n^'pn. 

a. In D"^X"'::'i>' 2 Chron. 17: 11 Arabians from '':?"i:;j an X is interposed, 
elsewhere D"'-"'? ; rii'b'i branches, rii'M corners and ri'iSStJ bowls, which 
do not occur in the t^ingular, are assumed to be from rT'bi , T\''^t and 

b. A few monosyllables in ''. form their feminines in this manner, 
though in the masculine plural they follow the rule before given, §20S. 3. (/, 
"ina kid fern, i^-'l"]'; , ""Z^ lion, K^^b lioness, § 196. d, ''b.'S gazelle fcm. n^ns 
(rr^ra and ti^^^ are used as proper names), "^r'dl drinking fcm. l^lJ'^'t3 . 

3. There are few examples of final ^ or i with added 
endings. The following are the forms wdiich they assume 
^pin drink pi. D^ipTlJ , n^ib^ hingdom pi. ni^Db^ , ^S 02. 2 
n^n? icsthnomj pi. 5ni-i^, nin« ^/^Y^r pi. inins^ and rii'-^ns* for 
nihris? , isn and Niiin myriad pi. trin") , t^^sn^ and nikhn 
the dual D"nn"i inserts the sisrn of the feminine. 

o 

a. ni'jn. or ni^pn Jer. 37 : 16 cells is referred to the assumed singular 
win; mrjj Ifc-a. 3:16 K'thibh and mri-r 1 Sam. 25:18 K'thibh are 
formed from 1133 , Vc;^ abbreviated Kal passive participles, § 172. 5, but in 
the absence of the appropriate vowel points their precise pronunciation 
cannot be determined. 

b. Nouns ending in a quiescent radical ^4 may be regarded as termina- 
ting in a consonant, since this letter resumes its consonantal power upon 
an addition being made to the word. Comp. §162. KiJ"?? found fem. 
nxs^s , tf;iD wild ass pi. ts'^^J'^Q . 



238 ETYMOLOGY. ^210 

§210. The changes, which occur m the penult, arise 
from the disposition to shorten the former part of a word, 
when its accent has been carried forward by accessions at the 
end, §GG. 1. Tliey consist in the rejection of Kamets or 
Tsere, b*n.n (jreat fem. npil^ pi Qi^i-.l f. pL n^.Si'ra, -iz^ 
word pi. Q^'in^ , fn^T memorial pi. nii'iST , Ci'ss wiiir/ du. 
D^sps, "^i-^-dy^ restoring pi. B^n"'"£J^ fem. ^i^t*^, "i^'o distress 
p]. u^'h'm , lib Levite pi. □"'^''^.b , except from nouns in n . in 
which the place of the accent is not changed by the addition 
of the terminations for gender and number, §209. 1, MB^ 
hcautifid fem. Tk") pi. tth'i , vrp^ field pi. lr,iiii5, tri^ Ji,ard 
pi. D^ii'ip, ni:^ pi. C'^i/'a and nii?^ ^o?6-c/5, ni; smitten pi. 
D"^?,? . Other penultimate vowels are mostly exempt from 
change. 

a. Kamets, wliich has arisen from Pattalih in consequence of the suc- 
ceeding letter not being able to receive Dagliesh-lorte, as the form properly 
requires, is incapable of rejection. Such u Kamets is accordingly retained 
without change belbrc "i, e. g. '.^"^n for i^'^n, § 187. 1, workman pi. D"<d'nn, 
Eo u3n3 Jiorseman, T^''":'^ fogilii'a, D''"iO (const. Xi'^'^p) euniicli, Y''^'^, terri- 
ble, ■)'''';9 i-iulent, y^">n diligent, or BJiortened to Pattahh belbre n, 
§60. 1. a (4), "i^ina young man pi. fi'^'^Jinja. Kamets is also retained in 
certain W and Jiis derivatives as a sort of compensation for the reduction 
of ihc root by contraction or quiescence, e. g. *5^ shield pi. C'^iS'O and 
nib^a , vrJ-o fortress pi. D"^-T"a , rr^b^ branch pi. r.i'n^sT , ni^T corner pi. ni'iT , 
Other instances of its retention are rare and exceptional, ^133 treacherous 
fem. nni:3, V^zd (const. V:yq) week ii\. c-rrd and nii'-a but du. c^rnd , 
lli'^bd icarrior pi. C''b"'bp . 

Z>. When Kamets following a doubled letter is rejected, and Daghcsh- 
fbrtfi is omitted in consequence, §25, the antepenultimate vowel is in a lew 
instances changed f-om Hhirilc to Seghol, §61. 5. '|'i"'-|n rmou pi. ni3i"'Tn, 
'(i-ilB:? a tenth yA. niinbr;, but ",iA:?5'f memorial pi. nii'-.-T . 

c. T?cre is not rejected if it has arisen from Hhirik before a guttural 
in a f)rm which properly requires Daghesh-forte, UJnn for ^1}n, § 187. 1. b, 
deaf [A. G'i:;"^n , or if it is commonly represented by "', §14..'^, 515"3 or 
C|b"'3, §186, //ammer pi. ri'is^"'3. or a radical "> quiesces in it, 'P'^S or "nx 
(from "r^, ^IS9) perennial pi. C'>:ri"^x or oi;rx, b^^'^ temple pi. c-^^3in 
and nipr^n, □■^nd-'^o iwd tr'^:'C'0 rectitude, t:''?"i"'7. (from 'i^l or i'')) proud. 
Other cases are rare and exceptional, e. g. C'^bbrx Neh. 3 : oi feeble. 

d. Hholcm is almost invariably retained in the penult, yet it yields to 
the strong tendency to abbreviation in the following trisyllables : rr^niti^:;** 
Ashdoditess pi. nrn^dx Neh. 13 : 23 K'ri (K'thibh m^'illBS). r^iia? Ain- 
monitess pi. ni'jss'id. (K'thibh nT'snay, 1 Kin. 11: 1 ni'3i533.'), -n"^a 



§211 GENDER AND NUMBER OF NOUNS. 239 

Sidonian C pi. ri*'?'7^ where long Hhirik becomes Tserc before concurrent 
consonants, §61. 4. 

e. When the penult is a mixed syllable containing a short vowel, it is 
ordinarily not subject to change, §58.2. The tendency to the greatest 
possible abbreviation is betrayed, however, in a lew examples by the re- 
duction of the diphthongal Seghol to Pattahh, comp. §00.3.6, i>3'l'X 
duster pi. niib'Jx Cant. 7 : 8. rsitJ chariot fem. riisip. pi. niizr-i^o , T^i?. 
distance pi. □■'i?nn?3 and D-'pn-na, or of. Pattahh to the hriefept of the 
short vowels Hhirilc, comp. §207. 2. a. "s:;^! fury pi. nisrby , 5^it3/o77c 
pi. niibt-a, §190. a, nn^u dish pi. riinb^. by the resolution of Daghcsh- 
forte for riin^, §59. a; -ri.x ibr ^nx ollter has in the pkiral c'1n^:^! , ninnj*. 
as if from "inx , rbnj coal has pi. c^n^ by §G3. 1. 

§211. In forming the plural of nouns, ^vliicli have a 
feminine endins; in the sina;ular, the latter must first be 
omitted before the rules already given are applied. Thus, 
nrib'G'ja hlngdom by the omission of the feminine ending be- 
comes ^^^9^ , hence, by § 207. l,its plural is rfzhri-a ; so nib)? 
^Z(!^<?/? becomes ^bb, and by §208.3. its plural is ^iib^; 
rin^x epistle becomes "^iis, and by §207.1. its plural is 
rii^iis? . As precisely the same changes result from append- 
ing the feminine t\^ and the plural endings, except in the 
single case of Segholate nouns or monosyllables terminating 
in concurrent consonants, §208, nouns in n^ become plural 
with no further change than that of their termination ; only 
in the exceptional case referred to a pretonic Kamets must 
be inserted. Nouns in n, after omitting the feminine end- 
ing, are liable to the rejection or modification of the vowel 
of the ultimate in forming the plural, as explained § 207. 1. d. 
and e. On the other hand, as the dual endino; is not substi- 
tuted for that of the feminine singular, but added to it, no 
such omission is necessary in applying the rules for the 
formation of the dual, it being simply necessary to observe 
that the old ending n^ takes the place of n^ , §202. Thus 
niia (n:^^) qjear, by §210, becomes in the dual □'[ririr, tm 
door, by § 208. 4, du. D^nb"^ , nffihs brass du. ai'nrn? . 

a. In the following examples a radical, which has been rejected from 
the singular, is restored in the plural, riTsx (for f^^^w5) maid-servaiit pi. 



240 ETYMOLOGY. § 212-214 

Pinicx, r:^ (for ri';r^ from ni^s) pGrlion pi. T\i^2'0 and nixjia , comp. 
§208. 3. f/, nkp (for ni:^^ from nkf?) pi. ri'l'^p; in like manner nV;3 col- 
leagues is renewed to the assumed singular n33. nns (nipjs) governor 
has in the plural both niinp (const. niiriQ) and nins . 



The Construct State. 

§212. When one noun stands in a relation of depend- 
ence on another, the second or specifying noun is, in occi- 
dental languages, put in the genitive case ; in Hebrew, on the 
other hand, the second noun undergoes no change, but the 
first is put into what is commonly called the construct state 
(^TOD or 1\^'o^ sii/jjjoried). A noun which is not so related 
to a following one is said to be in the absolute state (tn^D'i'a 
cut off). Thus, "li'^ zuord is in the absolute state ; but in the 
expression -l j^n ni'^ verhum regis, the loord of the Icwr/, n^'i 
is in the construct state. By the juxtaposition of the two 
nouns a sort of compound expression is formed, and the 
speaker hastens forward from the first noun to the second, 
which is necessary to complete the idea. Hence results the 
abbreviation, which characterizes the construct state. 

a. The term absolute slate was introduced by Reuchlin; he called the 
construct the slate of regimen. 

§213. The changes, which take place in the formation 
of the construct, affect 

1. The endings for gender and number. 

2. The final syllable of nouns, which are without these 
endings. 

3. The syllable preceding the accent. 

§214. The following changes occur in the endings for 
gender and number, viz. : 

1. The feminine ending n^ is changed to sn_ , r.ns© 
handmaid const. finpT»; the ending t\ remains unchanged, 
n^ratJa observance const. n"ii3t[Jl2 . 



§215 THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF NOUNS. 241 

a. The explanation of this appears to be that the construct state re- 
tains the old consonantal ending n_ , the close connection with the follow- 
ing noun preserving it as if in the centre of a compound word, §55, 2. c; 
whereas in the isolation of the absohite state, the end of the word is more 
liable to attrition and the consonant fails away. 

b. Some nouns in n^ preceded by Kamets adopt a Segholate form in 
the construct, tiDh'O^ kingdom const. nDbriTO instead of nsbo^a, §61. 1. 6, 
n^irra dominion const, nbirrp, nisbTO u-o/7c const, nrxb^ , rins-ia chariot 
const'. ri23-i7a, nn::5 croum const. Tn\^V^ ninb^a»/e const, nsnb, ir^iu? 
ten const. m\by , or with the Sejrhols changed to Pattahhs under the influ- 
ence of a guttural, iinsrTaya/u?/// const, nnscia, f.'S'Z']^ four const. r^?3*!<; 
BO X^hz^^ Jig-cake const. nb2^; nax woman, though it occurs in the abso- 
lute, Deut. 21 : 11, 1 Sam. 28 : 7, Ps. 53: 9, is mostly used as the construct 
of mrx . On the other hand, ran bottle has in the construct riTsn Gen. 
21 ; 14 (the accent thrown back by §35. 1) as if from i^^H. 

2. The ending D"^. of tbe masculine plural and D^. of the 
dual are alike changed to ''. , W^'k^ nations const. "M^. , D??'!!)? 
/ior?is const. ''3'i|? ; rii of the feminine plural suffers no change 
riilip voices const, sni^p . 

a. The compression of 2 to e regularly takes place upon its being fol- 
lowed by concurrent consonants, §61. 4. This is here suggested as the 
explanation of the change of vowel in the plural. It results from the 
close connection of the construct state, which as it were, unites the two 
words into one compound term; thus, DTia houses joined to niTJ hewn 
stone would become riT3n"Pi3, and by the dropping of the nasal, accord- 
ing to §55. 2.6, rr^TJ "^na houses of hewn stone. Comp. §199. e. In the 
dual the final nasal is likewise rejected, and ay combines to form the diph- 
thongal e, ^bl. 2 (5). 

b. In a very few instances the vowel ending of the masculine plural 
construct is added to feminine nouns ''n'J3 (the accent invariably thrown 
back by §35. 1), commonly in the K'thibh Tiiaa const, of riiiba high- 
places, •^niyx'nia l Sam. 26:12; this takes place regularly before suf- 
fi.xes, §220.2." 

§215. 1. In a mixed final syllable Kamets is commonly 
shortened to Pattahh : so is Tsere when preceded by Kamets ; 
other vowels remain without change, 1^' /mncl const. TJl , 
n-Iritt seai const. si?i)3, ns^s nec/c const. ^5?^?, fpT old const 
IPl , 2? /leart const, n? , niaa mighty man const, ^liaa . 

a. Kamets remains in the construct of ob^is porch, 3r3 writing, 'ri^ 
gift, ~y cloud (once const. 35 Ex. 19:9). Cjns decree and c^ sea, e. g. 
'^^^n"'=,T •■'ea of salt, except in the phrase Ti^O c^ sea of weed, i. e. Red 
Sea; 3^n 7/i(7/t becomes 3^n, and '|3b white "sb Gen. 49 : 12 in the con- 
struct. 

16 



242 ETYMOLOGY. § 215 

6. Tsere remains in ^"cn Jive const, t'irt , "ji^ mire const, 'j|i'^, HD^ 
breathing const. T]hp_ , tij^S heel const. -^?. , in the ^"S derivative "(io 
shield const, "ii^ and in ^ix found in several proper names. It is occa- 
sionally shortened to Seghol before MaUkeph in ^2X mourning const. 
"b:x , ri; time const. T)V, "ny and "ny, ca ?za??ie const, n'd. "ca and "ctJ: 
■ja so?i, which in the absolute retains Tsere before MakUeph, Gen. 30: 19, 
Ezek. 18: 10, has in the construct *)3 , "a or "2. Tsere is shortened to 
Pattahh in a few cases not embraced in the rule, viz.: 'j^_ nesl const, ""ifs, 
b;?^ T-od const, hjs^ and hp_^ , nik Deut. 32:28 perishing const, of "jflX, 
the Kal participles of Lamedh guttural verbs, §126. 1, and the following 
nouns with prefixed ^ in several of which a preceding Pattahh is likewise 
chariged to Hhirik, §190. a, "ib".^ tithe const, "li"'? , ^SC^ mourning const. 
nsp^, nri2^ keij const. tiFiS^g and nrsri, yzi-o lair const. ■73-73, npa 
clamour const, nn'2 , "^ai^"^ matrix const, "lad^ , rindia corruption const, 
nnura, na:ri a//ar' const. liaTa. 

c. Hholem is shortened to Karaets-Hhatuph before Makkeph in the 
construct of monosyllables from V^ roots, pn statute const, pn and "pn , 
rarely in other words "b'la Prov. 19 : 19, Ps. 145 : 8, Nah. 1 : 3 (in the last 
two passages the K'thibh'has bnj), "nno Job 17 : 10, Prov. 22 : 11, "l^Jp 
Ex. 30 : 23, "Dbir Ex. 21 : 11 ; this becomes Pattahh before the guttural 'in 
"i^aa for tnaa construct of tnaa high, ba Iwl construct of b'a all occurs 
twice, viz. : Ps. 35 : 10, Prov. 19 : 7, without a Makkeph following, § 19. 2, a; 
it must not be confounded with ba kal Isa. 40 : 12 he comprehended pret. 
ofb!ia. 

(/. The termination \ becomes 1., in the construct, §57.2(5), "^n 
enough const. *i^ , *n ///e const, "^n . 

e. Three monosyllabic nouns form the construct by adding a vowel, ax 
father const, ax Gen. 17 ; 4, 5, elsewhere "^ax, nx brother const "^hii, 2?^ 
friend const, nyn 2 Sam. 15 : 37, 1 Kin. 4 : 5. or nin 2 Sam. IG : 16. Prov. 
27 : ]0 K'thibh. These may be relics of the archaic form of the construct, 
§218, or the monosyllables may be abridged from tib roots, §185. 2. c. 

2. In a simple final syllable n.. is changed to n.. , rih 
sheep const, nil) , rhn shepherd const, ni^'i , t^'^^ field const. 
J^T'E' ; other vowels remain unchanged. 

a. This is an exception to the general law of shortening, which obtains 
in the construct. It has, perhaps, arisen from the increased emphasis 
thrown upon the end of the word, as the voice hastens forward to that 
which is to follow. In like manner the brief and energetic imperative 
ends in Tsere in Kb verbs, while the future has Seghol, § 168. c. An 
analoizous fact is found in the Sanskrit vocative. The language of address 
calls for a quick and emphatic utterance ; and this end is sometimes at- 
tained by shortening the final vowel, and sometimes by the directly oppo- 
site method of lengthening it. Bopp Vergleich. Gramm. §205. 

6. MQ mouth has ""Q in the construct. 

c. Nouns ending in quiescent X preserve their final vowel unchanged 
in the construct, X'n'j; fearing const. i<'n7 , xas host const. Nas . 



^216 THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF NOUNS. 243 

§21G. 1. Kamets and Tsere are commonly rejected from 
the syllable preceding the accent, Dip'a jy/^ce const, dip^ , 
t\2t ijear const, rsiu , D^bi^" i/ears const, ''i©, hinitii!; ^r(?«5- 
«(jre5 const, riiisix , W^^"^ hands const, "'l^, '2'2)> heart const. 
aib , n'^n z^-^f^/^ const, riian . 

a. Kamets preceding the accented syllable is retained (1) when it has 
arisen from Pattahh before a guttural in consequence of the omission of 
Daghesh-forte, ili^n (for l^'^n) workman const, ^b^^, 'U'^Q (^^?) horse- 
man const. T^^Q, raiQ (na'^E) vail const. risiQ, tri^ (f^"?^) distress const. 
rinii ; (2) in words from IS and "^'J roots, D'^ns (from "i"*:;') cities const, ''t^, 
Cxa (from Nia) coming const. ''N3; (3) under a prefixed to "S'J roots, 
TjCO (from T)3D) covering const, "p^, *|i^ (from 'i??) shield const, 'i?^, 
Ti^'TO (from \yj) fortress const. lii"53; (4) in rib derivatives of the form 
n^Vr« (irom nb:>) e.r//e const, ri^iba, r^jn meditation const. n^iSln. (5) in the 
construct dual and plural of triliteral monosyllables or Segholates from 
Nb and r!'b roots, ti^linb (from Tib) cheeks const. ''^nh , Di^na (from "^na) 
/fj'cZs const, ■'■^'i.^ , Cin:::! (from ^"^u) sins const. ''Ni-n ; (6) in the follow- 
ing nouns in most of which it stands immediately before or after a guttural, 
§60. 3, c, nbx curse, T^^V'O cave, i^^^^^i conduit, and the plurals, "'X'll'n, 
•>ia-in, i:3-.i3 Y,ev. ViSSj'-'N^X^, "lif^i^iiV, ''ii;J'^i^, ^b'^-q, '^'nM 2 Kin. 12:8, 
•'nb'iD Ezek.'27:9, •'■]22g Job'34:25^ ''>?";p?^ '■''i!=?/Eccles. 9: 1, "'Si^lPi . 

b. Tsere is retained in words in which it is commonly represented by 
the vowel-letter "', or has "^ quiescing in it. bbTi temple const, bs'^n, and 
in addition in the following, D^iix crib const. D^3S , so "liis girdle, *|>li3X 
thread, "^zi foreign land const. — ^^=3, 't^'^-'^, loss const, nn^x , so t^-SX Isa. 
58:10 darkness, ninS pool, nn:a Ex. 22:2 theft, n£r>^ plague^ iiz^ri-q 
ooerthrow,ri'^q'^ Gen. 49 : 5 swore/, nis'? molten-image, ■T^"]'? Job 16:13 
gall, n73-i?. heap, nxa excrement, t^z^T\ fig-tree, ^i'^'^n deep sleep. /andi the 
plurals "'P^X inonrning from D"''b3X (b3S), so "'ssn desiring, "^id^ sleep- 
ing, "'H'^b and "■'ni3b rejoicing, "^nad forgetlirg, ""^XT wolves fi-om t^issf 
(~NT) ; L'^ra") weary becomes "'i*'?'^ in the construct, and B"^Bbs escaped 

f. Hholem is rejected from the syllable before the accent in m3^*ix 
const, pi. of "(io'^X palace, rib'sdx and ri'bsbx const, pi. of Vs'CX cluster, 
•^rixn Cant, 4:5 and i%:Nn Cant. 7:4 twins, inra from ni?23 /i/g-A- 
places. see §214. 2. 6; it is changed to u in "'i^^^ from D'^sbwa treasures, 
com p. §88. 

d. Medial Vav and Yodh. though they may retain their consonantal 
power in the absolute, quiesce in Hholem and Tsere in the construct, Ti!]n 
midst const. Tpn, ^liibp cups const, niap, 'n'^^ house const, n'^2. t^is^s 
fountains const. nir3>, X']'? valley const. X"'i, pi. fn'^'xa , §208. 3. c, const. 
nix'^a Ezek. 35 : 8. Exceptions are rare, Vl^ (according to Kimchi bir) 
Ezek. 28 : 18 iniquity, •'3?T^ Prov. 19 : 13 contentions "iX^S neck const. 
nxvj and •'nxis . ' 

e. A few nouns of the forms bi:p, hbp , i :p have bap or ^'Sp in the 
construct instead of ?Kp, §61. 1. 6, "i^a wall const. "I'la, bia robbery const. 



• 244 ETYMOLOGY. §216 

''J?! m'!It ^^"'^^ const. T|'^7., ^23 heavy const, lis and ^133, tinS shoulder 
const. Cini), ")^5 smoke const. "jC?. and "ji^^s;, ^^^ si'cZe const, 'sh^ and S^S; 
Tp.X long- is only found in the construct, the corresponding absolute was 
probably Tjl^N ; Sais helmet simply shifts its accent in the construct, raiD . 
On the other hand, while most Segholate nouns sufier no change in the 
construct, a few adopt the form ^^i?, "i^n chamber const, "i^n, V\1 seed 
const, once ~y~!} Num. 11:7 elsewhere S-'^T , S"IJ3 plant const. V'4'^, . "i.5'iJ 
foetus const. 151^ , yz'd seven const. "2'j , yiin nine const. i'Cri ; in like 
manner bstn vanity const. b::n. . 

2. When this rejection occasions an inadmissible concur- 
rence of vowelless consonants at the beginning of a syllable, 
§61. 1, it is remedied by inserting a short vowel between 
them, commonly Hhirik, unless it is modified by the presence 
of gutturals, bibs tinUinfj const, bisb:? for biba , D'1■^n'^ loords 
const. '''i)3'? for '''i^'i , n^^^ rif/hteousness const, fip'i^ , pi. 
nip'is const, nipns, ri-bna ^(?^^5^f const, f^'ar^s, t3^^?Ll ^oise 
const. '^i?sn . In the construct plural and dual of Segholates, 
however, the vowel is frequently regulated by the character- 
istic vowel of the singular which has been dropped, comp. 
§208.2, D^ibia from ffq (^b-b) kinf/s const, ''ib^a, D-'pni^ 
(t:S'iJ) tribes const, ""h^^^ , niina (-jn^) tlireslimg-jloors const. 
nii'ia, nie'in (nsnn) Q-eproaches const, riis^n, o^nb^ (mb'i 
or nb'q ) folding doors const, ''^^b'^ ^ yet not invariably 0"'?^© 
(byirj) ha7idfuls comi. ''b^Tp^ tip^ ^ro2/y/^ (pi. trinj?^) const. 
ninptj. 

a. When in the construct plural the introduction of a new vowel is 
demanded by the concurrence of consonants, the syllable so formed is an 
intermediate one, so that the following Sh'va is vocal, and the next letter, 
if an aspirate, does not receive Daghesh-lene. thus, ^i^^"], ''r^^, f^l^^"!?, 
niann not ^"^ytl, "'?^'? , r'inb'n, m'3"in, §22. a. 3. Exceptions are infre- 
quent' as n^il'N Deut. 3: 17, incn Lam. 3 : 22 but "i^on Ps. S9: 2, niD-.n 
Ps. 69:10, •'D-:^ Ezek. 17:9, ''bp3 Gen. 42:25, 33', "'303 Lev. 23:18, 
-'•nrs Isa. 5 : lb, n'Piil'l? Neh. 4 : 7, •'e'C'i Cant.'S : 6 but -''2-o:n Ps. 76 : 4. In 
a few instances Daghesh-forte separative is inserted to indicate more dis- 
tinctly the vocal nature of the Sh'va, §24.5, "^p^^n Isa. 57:6, '''Zt'J Lev. 
25:5, •'iay Isa. 58:3, ''i;?^ Gen. 49:17, np;?^ 'Ps. 89: 52, nii'^isJ Prov. 
27 : 25, or compound Sh'va is taken instead of simple for the same reason, 
nir.pd Gen. 30:38. The presence or absence of Daghesh-lene in the 
dual construct depends upon the form of the absolute, thus ''nsb from 
D"rsb lips but "'513 from;, Ci';3"i3 knees. When the concurring con- 
sonants belong to difierent syllables a new vowel is not needed between 



§>217 THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF NOUNS. 245 

them; one is sometimes inserted, however, after a guttural, ''i'^?^, 
niiisia but nii'rno. In the opinion of Ewald ■'ttJIi?'? Ezek. 7:24 is for 
•'ili^ipii from D-'rVirri, and ni":ir?^ Ex. 26:23, 36:' 28 for ni!'iip:a ; they 
may be better explained, however, as Piel and Pual participles. 

b. The second syllable before the accent rarely undergoes any change. 
In a very few instances Seghoi becomes Hhirik or Pattahh, the pure 
vowels being reckoned shorter than the diphthongal, comp. §210. e. 
iiiiaiTa chariot const. tnSS'ia. The changes in f^ilff^Jlanie const, rshb 
pi. rii^nb const, ninnb , cib'ra coals const. "'Ipna are due to the influence 
of the proximate vowels, §63. 1; those in *(i"'v" vision const, 'j'i"^!'! , P'5P13 
coals const. n3»"i3 are consequent upon the dropping of Daghesh-forte, 
§61. 5; that in nibnx (from ^DX) ienls const. '']?^,^ arises from the con- 
version of a simple into an intermediate syllable, §59. 

^217. The following table of the declension of nouns 
will sufficiently exemplify the rules which have been given. 

a. The left-hand page is occupied by masculine nouns and the right- 
hand by feminine, the latter being, with few exceptions, derived from the 
former, or preserving, as in yy fis? , "lin nnin an outward correspondence 
though the roots are different. There is thus shown the formation of the 
feminine from the masculine, as well as that of the plural from the singu- 
lar and the construct from the absolute of both numbers and genders. A 
few examples are added of the formation of the dual and of the inflections 
of adjectives and participles. The Piel and Hithpael participles follow 
the analogy of the Kal ; the Niphal is followed by the Pual, Hophal, and 
Hiphil. the last of which has in the sing. fera. nb^apia or rhb'^'q and in 
the plural niBiapsa, ni^-'ai^a. 



Declension 






SiNGULAE. 




Plueal. 




Absol. 




Constr. 




Absol. 


Constr. 


Garden. 


]^ 




15 




trii 


^ii 


Fish. 


T 




^i 




• T 


'i? 


Guard. 


T ; ' 




^7bir5a . 


D^'nCT72 


^•^7^1^53 


Vengeance. 


^fe 




Djbp 




«=^'^l?? 


^7bpp 


Cloud. 


)?? 




n? 




•T ~: 


^Dpy 


Heart. 


nib 

T" 




^5^ 




D^nnb 

• T : 


^inb 


Flower. 


V?- 




f^ 




Q^SIP 


'^.3 


Tree. 


Y? 




r^ 




n^is:^ 


'2^?; 


"Wall 


lia 

" T 


n^r. 


or 1*3 




Ci'^it!? 


'3 


Suckling. 


pbr 




PP.'i^ 




D^pDi^ 


'fep'i: 


luterpreter. 


T"?'^ 




•f^7J 




D^rb5: 


'i^'^'-? 


Statute. 


pn 




pH 




Q^pn 


^prt 


Turtle-dove 


. ^in 




lin 




onh 


^np 


Memorial. 


linst 




"pnST 




d-^bhijT 


'?."'^?r 


King. 






^^^ 




• T ; 


'^^^5 


Hiding-place. ^/HC 




'^inQ 




• T : 


":^P 


Strength. 


n±v 




t)?"i' 




• T t: 




Death. 


^2 

V T 




ni^b 




D^lni7j 


^ni7a 


Hebrew. 


^nny 




^nn5' C3'^tiS5 or d^ni:? 


'^.??? 


Appearance 


• ^^y^ 




»^^"?"i? 




rri^'rq 


'^7i? 




SiXGULAK. 


Dual. 




Plueal. 




Also I. ( 


Oonstr. 


yl&SO?. 


Constr. 


Absol. 


Constr. 


Palm. 


-k 


fi§ 


ni:55 


'S3 


ni£5 


nis3 


Hand. 


1' 

T 


1^ 


• — T 


■ ^"Jir 


T 


r.ii;' 


Wing. 


h;? 


fii? 


D^Sp!) 


'?r5 


nis:3 

T ; 


nisjS 


Tooth. 


1^ 


i^' 


D-^STIJ 


^275 






Foot. 


hS 


i;,-! 


D^brn 


^ 


n^b:n 

• T : 




Ear. 


IF 


T!^ 


^".i]^ 


^p.TJJ 






Eye. 


f- 


"?* 


^".T^. 


'r? 


T -: 


nir? 


Lip. 


T T 


rs'iiJ 


D^nsb 


^r)?'^ 


nifis'izj 


Mns\r 



24G 



OF Nouns. 












SiNOULAE. 


Plueal. 1 




AJ)Sol. 


Constr. 


Aisol. 


Constr. 


Garden. 


n23 

T — 


r.35 


nii'S 


nih 


Fish (collective 


.) tiji 


n^-i 


T 


ni:fl 


Observance. 


Trjr^'2 Trf,yz'2 




niT^Ti::^ 


Vengeance. 


r It : 


5^'=)f? 


i^.'^^ip? 


ni-!;:pp 


Cloud (collective.) »1j*Z^ 


nj::?' 


T -: 


ni::^ 


Sin. 


T — 


nj^ibn 


T — 


mj^tsn 


Flower. 


nk? 


n^p 


nikp 


ni^p 


Counsel. 


T " 


^^? 


nii:? 


tr^ii 


Wall. 


n^^a 


i^^^^' 


nintia 


nin" 


Sucker. 


^VtT^'' 


^P P."^^ 


nipsi; 


nipp^ 


Poem. 


T • : 


n^^b'.: 


in'ii^b:^ 


niii^bg 


Statute. 


^l?^! 


rijjn 


riipii 


riipri 


Law. 


nnin 


nnin 


ninin 


mi^in 


Skull. 


ribsbs 


^baba 


nibsbs 


nibaba 


Queen. 


nib:^ 

T : — 


5^4^"^ 


T : 


riiib/j 


Hiding-place. 


T : • 


nnnp 


T : 


sninrp 


Strength. 




— : T 


T t: 


: r 


Kingdom. 


T^bh'2 


S^^ib"^ 


mi^sb'^ 


ni^^sb^j 


Hebrew-woman, JTl'^nll^' 


n^nn:^ 


ni^nns' 


ni^^in:^ 


Vision. 


T : — 


r\k'r,2 


rii^"!'^ 


nij^n-^ 




Adjectives and Paetioiples. 






Singular. 




Plttral. 




Masc. Fein. 




Ifasc. 


Fern. 


Many. 


'^ nrin 




D^nn 


niin 


Small. 


1^1? ^^^^1? 




n^itip 


ni3t:p 


Heavy. 


^i3 nins 

•• T T •• ; 




ni"75? 


niin!) 


Great. 


biia rib'iia 

T T : 




D^b'iiri 


nibi-ia 


Deep. 


m -i?t? 




t3*p"r?; 


nip!a3> 


Kal act. part. 


bt:p nb'ipi!) 


or flbtjp 


D"bbp 


Dibtpj:? 


Kal pass. part. 


b^t:p nb'itjp 




n-'b'rjp 


nib^t:p 


Niplial part. 


bcbpD nbi:p3 


or r^bt:pp 


I3"bbpp 


^'i-^i?.^ 



247 



248 ETYMOLOGY. §218,219 



Paragogic Vowels. 

§218. The termination ■>. or i is sometimes added to 
nouns in the construct singular, §61, C, "'33 Gen. 49 : 11 for 
15, •'nsbia Isa. 1 : 21 for rs?bti, ^^^'^ Lam. 1 : 1 for nan, 
iS'^BTC^ Ps. 113 :G for b-^STTia, in^n Gen. 1:24 for n^n. 
This occurs chiefly in poetry and is regarded as an archaism. 
These vowels for the most part receive the accent, and com- 
monly occasion the rejection of Pattahh or Tsere from the 
ultimate. 

a. Examples of this antique formation of the construct are likewise 
preserved in proper names, as p'lk—'Sb^ Melchizedek, nVuisina Methuselah. 
Respecting the origin of these vowel endings, see § 198. a (4). 

§219. 1. The unaccented vowel ti^ added to nouns in- 
dicates motion or direction towards a place, njiss northvard, 
ns;^? soitthoard, np'^is heavenward, <°in/an to the house, 
olKovde, rnnn to the mountain, whence it is called He directive 
or He local. The subsidiary vowel of Segholates is rejected 
before this ending, §CG. 2 (1), but other vowels are mostly 
unaffected, nsnh' from l^K , ni^ns? from f ns? , nninnp from nn^tj , 
nnsnia 1 Kin. 19 -. 15 from the construct state Wia. 

a. He directive is appended to the adverb lab there, f^BiiJ thither, and 
to the adjective ^"'pn profane in the pecuh'ar phrase f^^"'r^ ad profanum 
i.e. be it far from, etc. It is rarely used to indicate relations of time, 
na^ii ni»^T3 1 Sam. 1 : 3 from days to days i. e. yearly, nnoibd Ez:el<. 
21 : 19 for the third time, nns now prop, at (this) time. For the sake of 
greater force and definiteness a preposition denoting direction is some- 
times prefixed to words, which receive this ending, so that the latter 
becomes in a measure superfluous, ri^^'^ib upwards, ^'^'Cl) downwards, 
nnniiab 2 Chron. 31 : 14 to the east, nblKC^ Ps. 9 : 18 fo Sheol, comp. aTro 
fiaKpo^ev. 

b. The ending ii^ rarely receives the accent nn^lM Deut. 4:41; in 
n"ix ns'ia it receives in some editions an alternate accent, §42. a, in 
others the secondary accent Methegh, §33. 1. a. In rrnr! Gen. 14: 10 and 
riD^S a is changed toe before this ending. §63. 1, in njnn Ezek. 25: 13, 
nnj 1 Sam. 21:2 the vowel of' the ending is itself changed to e. 

c. He directive is probabjiy to be traced to the same origin with 
the definite article Si, whose demonstrative force it shares. The syl- 



§220 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 249 

lable rt is prefixed to a noun to single out a particular thing from all 
otliers of lilvc land as the object of attention. Appended to a word ita 
weak guttural would be rejected and its vowel prolonged to ti^ , §53.3; 
and in this form it is added to nouns to point out the object or direction of 
motion, and to verbs to indicate tic object of desire, §97. 1. In Chaldee 
tliis appended vowel forms what i? called the emphatic state, and has the 
sense of the definite article, T\^h king, nsbTO or Nsb^ the king. 

2. Paragogic n^ is sometimes appended to nouns, par- 
ticularly in poetry, for tlie purpose of softening the termina- 
tion without affecting the sense, §G1. G. 



Nouns with Suffixes. 

§ 220. The pronominal suffixes, whose forms are given 
§72, are appended to nouns in the sense of possessive pro- 
nouns, ""i) hand, ""i^ my hand, etc. They suffer, in conse- 
quence, the following changes, viz : 

1 . Of the suffixes, which begin with a consonant, '^ , D3 , 
p of the second person are connected with nouns in the sin- 
gular by a vocal Sh'va, ^3 of the first person plural and ^ 
of the second fern, singular by Tsere, and ^n , n , D , "j of 
the third person by Kamets ; ^n^ is invariably contracted to 
i, rarely written n", §62. 1, and r^, to r^, , §101.2. 

a. There is one example of a noun in the construct before the full form 
of the pronoun, X"'h '•'•c^^ her days Nah. 2: 9. 

b. First person: ^3 is in a few instances preceded by Kamets, ^iriiHb 
Ruth 3:2, !l3C-ip Job 22:20. 

Second person. The final vowel of ?] is occasionally expressed by the 
vowel letter n, nan^ Ex. 13 : 16, ^=^'^'3 Jer. 29:25. In pause the Sh'va 
before :; becomes Seghol, §65, '<^'^hi Gen. 33:5, •.n=S3 Ps. 139:5, or 
Kamets may be inserted as a connecting vowel, particularly after nouns 
in n^ , whereupon the final Kamets is dropped to prevent the recurrence 
of like sounds, T(5n Ps. 53:6. In the feminine the connecting vowel e 
is rarely written""', Tfr^'-!^ Ezek. 5: 12; ■"., which belongs to the full 
form of the pronoun, §71. a (2), is sometimes added lo the suffix, "^^r^n 
Jer. 11:15, "'DD'ina Ps. 1 16 : 19, "'S'^irs 2 Kin. 4 : 7 K'thibh, where the K'ri 
has Tj";^: . Sometimes the distinction of gender is neglected in the plural 
and CD is used in place of the feminine '; , B=."'"i<. Gen. 31:9, 2D3TX, 
cbTli'pa Jer. 9: 19; n^ is sometimes added to the feminine suffix as to the 
full pronoun, njira^ Ezek. 23:49. 



250 ETYMOLO'SY. § 220 

i 

I 

Third -person. The connecting vowel before lln and Ji is occasionally 
e, irib-^rb Gen. 1:12, Wirsb-^Q Judg. 9:'B4, sin'jb Nah. l': 13, sinniLs Job 
25:3, so ins") from ^n and ini?"]^ from vjyq and frequently with nouns in 
n. , ^Tik-y-q and i^i-iTi from nxn^, sin-^it from nnb, ininia, Jink,?; e does 
not occur before the plural D unless it is represented by the vowel-letter 
•' in DTinsT^ 2 Chron. 34 : 5 K'thibh, where the K'ri has cninaiia ; it is 
once found in the fern, plural nja'np Gen. 41:21. The form n' in the 
masc. sing, is commonly reckoned an archaism, i^'^f^J* Gen. 12:8, M'"iiTa 
Ps. 42:9, nSs Jer. 2:21, so several times in the K'thibh nT'3?, nmo Gen. 
49:11, nnxisn Ex. 22:4, nrxiOD Ex. 22:26, nsOJ Lev. 23:13, nirbuJ 
2 Kin. 9:25, nnsizn Ezek. 48: 18, where the K'ri in each instance sub- 
stitutes i. In a few instances the consonant is rejected from the femi- 
nine, n being retained simply as a vowel-letter; v/here this occurs it is 
commonly indicated in modern editions of the Bible by Raphe. fi"i^""iy Lev. 
13:4, hJJwn Num. 15:28, or by a Masoretic note in the margin, fiiirx 
Isa. 23:17, 18 for Pi::nN; once K is substituted for n, n^s Ezek. 3'6:'5'. 
The longer forms of the plural suffixes en , "jti are rarely affixed to nouns 
in the singular, 'sT\r\zh Gen. 21:28, 'nabia Ezek. 13:17, '(nr^iruj Ezek. 
16:53, or with the connecting vowel Kamets, cribs 2 Sam. 23:6, or with 
n^ appended, f^J^fs 1 Kin. 7:37, njniin Ezek. 16:53. The vowel n^ is 
also sometimes added to the briefer form of the fern, plural, '^J';'^^ Gen. 
21:29, n:^3 Gen. 42:36. The distinction of gender is sometimes ne- 
glected in the plural, n or Cin being used for the feminine, C33 Cant. 
4:2, 6:6 for ',^'3, ^hPT, Jot* 1 : 14 for 'h^^Tr 

c. The nouns ~x father^ Hj< brother, HB moulh take the ending'', be- 
fore suffixes, as they do likewise in the construct state, ?|"^^S , C3"':s ; ''. of 
the first person coalesces with this vowel, ""SX, TiX, "'Q and in of the 
third person, commonly becomes 1 §62.2, I'^^SX, 1''n'J) ^^h more frequent 
than ^in-^isx, ^n-^riN, iin^s . In ^I'a Zeph. 2:9 the vowel-letter "^ of the 
first person suffix is dropped after the final "^ of the noun. 

2. The masculine plural termination D"". and the dual 
D?. are changed to ''.. before suffixes as in the construct state ; 
the same vowel is likewise inserted as a connective between 
suffixes and feminine plural nouns, §214. 2. ^. This ''^ re- 
mains unchanged before the plural suffixes ; but before Tj the 
second masc. singular and H third fem. singular it becomes 
''.. , and before the remaining suffixes the diphthongal vowel 
is resolved into '^. , which combined with *». the first singular 
forms ''. , with 1\ the second feminine ^?. , and with ^n the 
third masculine T'^ , §62, 2. 

a. In a very few instances suffixes are appended to feminine plurals 
without the vowel \ or its modifications, "ipinn 2 Kin. 6:8 for ""rJnp , 
"^rhv Ps. 132: 12 for "^nny, T]n'3T9 Deuf. 28:59 for 'T'n'3'9 , T|b'i''r]'« Ezek. 



^ 321 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 251 

16 : 52 for Tj'inrris , sninst and dn-ipiix^ , crrnx Ps. 74 : 4, dnxbn , tinia'in , 
cnnaT^ , orhs^. On the otlier hand, suffixes proper to plural nouns are 
occasionally appended to feminine nouns in the lingular, perhaps to indi- 
cate that they are used in a plural or collective sense, ITiCTirt Lev. 5: 24, 
T^in^nn Ps. 9:15, ^''nssb Ezek. 35:11, TC^^^'i Isa. 47:13.' 

b. The vowel-letter "^ is not infrequently omitted after plural and dual 
nouns, rpnn Ex. 33:13 for ?l"^=>"i"7 , oin^ Ps. 134:2 for ni-'n^, "ini^ Ex. 
32:19 K'Vhibh (K'ri I'^'i^'a), "n^i' 1 Sam. 18:22 K'thibli (K'ri 'i'^^'^^v), 
cn::ia Gen. 10:5 for nn"^']"'?, iri^^r) Gen. 4:4 for ■|n"^3^n . 

c. Second person. The vowel "^^ remains unchanged before the fern, 
sing, "n in T\^y^.^ Eccl. 10; 17 and with n appended : nnrx^^ Nah. 2: 14. 
Sometimes, as in the full pronoun, *'. is appended to the fern. sing. sufRx 
and n^ to the plural, t'^i^s^ibnh Ps. 103:3, :"in':*n ver. 4, njiininDS 
Ezek. ^3: 20. 

Third person. The uncontracted form of the masc. sing, irr^ occurs 
in !in"ini3j Nah. 2:4 for I'^'^'iaa , sin-^n^ Hab. 3:10, in-'r? Job 24:23; 
ehu = aihu by transposition of the vowels becomes auhi = aki "^ini which 
is found once "^nibTOjiO Ps. 116: 12, and is the ordinary form of this suffix 
in Chaldee. The final a of the fem. sing, is once represented by S, 
t<ri"f5"'riX Ezek. 41:15. In a few instances n^ is appended to the plural 
of either gender, n^ani^X Ezek. 40:16, riJn'^n'fia Ezek. 1:11, and i to 
the abbreviated masc. D, i^-in^X Deut. 32 :'37, i^'^nat ver. 38, i^-'SS Job 
27:23. ia^SQ Ps. 11:7. 

3. The suffixes thus modified are as follows, viz. : 



appended to 


SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 






Ic. 2 m. 2/ 3 m. 8/ 


Ic. 


2v\ 2/. 3 TO. 


3/. 


Sing. Nonns 


'. ^, \. i K 


^3.. 


^5: 15: ^r 




Dual and 
Plur. Nouns 


■ -. T... T- 1\ or,. 


^''\. 


D5\. ")5\. Sm\. 


|-'.. 



^221. Certain changes likewise take place in nouns re- 
ceiving suffixes, which arise from th disposition to shorten 
words, which are increased at thee d, §66.1. These are 
as follows, viz. : 

1. The grave suffixes, §72, D?, )^, on, )T} shorten the 
nouns, to which they are attached, to the greatest possible 
extent. Before them, therefore, nouns of both genders and 
all numbers take the form of the construct, ai^ /leai-f, oi^^^ 
^oiir heart, "jnanb their hearts; ^s^ Up du. Dnirsto pi. 
Dri'^ninBTp their lips. 

a. Cn 6Zoo(i becomes Ds^'n and ^^ hand Cia'i^. 



252 ETYMOLOGY. § 221 

2. feminine nouns, both singular and plural, take the 
construct form before the light suffixes likewise, with the ex- 
ception that in the singular the ending ri. becomes ^^ in 
consequence of the change from a mixed to a simple syllable, 
§ 59, HETT lijj, ihsir Ms lijj, Dnsb t/teir lij), ^^Hnsu) % lips, 
1^nir£to Ms lijjs. 

a. If the construct has a Scgholate form it will experience the change 
indicated in 5, n!id73^. const, nbc:^'? suf. itnbcr73 . If two consonants 
have coalesced in tlie final letter, it will receive Daghesh-forte agreeably 
to 6, ina from n?, "irrox from nrs, *. Tjnsa^ l Sam. 1G:15 from the fern, 
of nija^ , § 205. 6. 

b. In a few exceptional instances the absolute form is preserved before 
suffixes, •'nbsa Isa. 26:19 from nifns but ^n^^?, ln^=''; "^r^^ Cant. 2:10 
from ns"; const, rs';' ; so ''nbx , I'^nnna , 'i"'nnn-i , Dbinbnu but const. 
rinu, comp. dn"'!;^ const, "^b-o. 

3. Masculine nouns, both singular and plural, on receiv- 
ing light suffixes take the form which they assume before the 
absolute plural termination, si^ /learf, ''i^b wy Mart, ^^^^ 
thy Mart, ^2*'?^'p our Marts. 

a. Tsere in the ultimate is shortened to Hhirik or Seghol before ^, 
CD, -,3, e. g. T^:3, D3C':|]?:3, D:b|373 , or with a guttural to Pattahh, '^^nx, 
cbbxa, though wilii occasional exceptions, 'f^^,*3S Isa. 22:21, ^jn^ij 
1 Sam, 21:3, i]X.53 from XE3. Before other suffixes it is rejected from 
some monosyllables, which retain it in the plural, "icUJ from D'^ plur. 
nia^, 133 from ',2 plur. D-'ia but ""^a , ?ii3, "h"},^ ^?^'n. 

4. Dual nouns retain before light suffixes the form which 
they have before the absolute dual termination, 'V\ysq my lips, 
OTsto our lijjs, ""bTij my ears, 'i3''?TX our cars; D^'in)? and 
^i^.'^'^ Mr?2s, T'b'ij? and '°\'^\'^'^ Ids Mrns. 

5. Segholate nouns in the dual and plural follow the 
preceding rules, but in the singular they assume before all 
suffixes, whether light or grave, their original monosyllabic 
form as before the feminine ending n^ , ^208, ^^"a Jciny, 
'^^b'n my Mny, DS^'p'a your hivg ; "jTS ear, "'itsj my car; in 
like manner IH)??.'!'^ sucker, isnif?"!^ Ms sucher. 

a. When the first radical has Hholem in the absolute, Hhafeph-Kamets 
or Kamets-Hhatuph is sometimes given to the second radical before suf- 



§222 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 253 



xcs, l^3.'Q and i'it^B from hvJD, 'fis::,;? Hos. 13:14, witli Daghesh-forte 
^parativ'e! ilssp Ezek 26:9. ^hp 'I'Kin. 12:10, i'iao Isa. 9:3, iiao 
er. 4:7; n52 g^ar»ienMias ■''7?3, "iiSS instead of "''^53, ^^^^. 



fixt 
sef 
Jer 

6. Middle Yodli and Vav mostly quiesce in e and before suffixes, '^i'^S 
from 'i^k eye, "^nia Irom nio death; but nn"^^ Gen. 49:11 from "i"^? 
young ass, in^a Isa. 10: 17 from nyiJ ^/toni, "ils^? Ezek. 18:26, 33: 13 from 
bis iniquity. 

c. Triliteral monosyllables sometimes shift their vowel from the second 
radical to the first, tiius assuming the same form with Segholates, comp. 
§1S4. a. "^bn^ from u:i^ , "^h^-q from C=':J. but iilins from ^."^3 ; T^^bs from 
■'r'3 ; ■'h''° ) T''^ 5 '=??"'?; '^'i"'^ but tni'nQ from '^'nD ; i'^ao , ^?^^ but 
oi/n'J li-om "^zii. By a like transposition n=33S Ezek. 36:8 is for ciS3S 
from Jibs. 

d. The noun "ili^X blessedness, which only occurs in the plural con- 
struct and with suffixes, preserves before all suffixes the construct form, 
tiindx , ii^-rx not ni-i'rx , T'-'idx . 

6. Nouns in whose final letter two consonants liave 
coalesced, or wliicli double their final letter in the plural, 
§207. 2, receive Daghesh-forte likewise before suffixes, the 
vowel of the ultimate being modified accordingly, ''•T^ and 
^h from T37 (root Tb), D^pa from nn (P:a), J^i:n« from 
•jinx (pi, D"'33nN). 

a. 3!'^X lattice, b^"n3 garden, -r^C^ refuge, which do not occur in the 
plural, take Daghesh-forte before suffixes; ri2i^ has in the plural tiinsttj 
but before suffixes inaui , Dbnad; ",3 (root 'is) base has ''13, i:3 . 

6. In a very few instances a final liquid is repeated instead of being 
doubled by Daghesh, comp. §207. 2. a, "^-nn Jer. 17:3. "^^-ri Ps. 30:8, 
D-inn Gen. 14: 6 from nri; ibbs Job 40: 22 'and "^^ from hk'; Ti'i^llJ Ezek. 
16:4 and ""i"^^ Cant. 7:3. Once Dnghesh-forte is resolved by the in- 
sertion of 3, n"'.3Ty:a Isa. 23: 11 for f^'"^:!^"^, §54. 3. 

7. Nouns ending in n.. drop this vowel before suffixes 
as before the plural terminations, §209.1, Trm jield ''ito, 
T^yi , fi^ia ; nbjpp cattle ^^^^ . 

a. The vowel e commonly remains as a connecting vowel before suP' 
fixes of the third person singular, §220. 1. h ; and in a few instances the 
radical "^ is restored, giving to singular nouns the appearance of being 
plural, n*>ii;:» Isa. 22:11, n^^nBi: Hos. 2 : 16, cri^^is Isa. 42:5, nib sAee;j 
becomes i'^b or 'in^b. 

§222. The following examples of nouns with suffixes 
wiU sufficiently illustrate the preceding rules : 





Paradigm or 


N 


OUNS WITH 


Suffixes. 












SiNGULAE. 












heart Ishb 

r •• 


kirij 


^ ^= 


queen {iSb'^ 


hand 1^ 

T 




Gomt. 


nnb 




n^l 




nsb:a 




-J. 


Sing 


1 c. my ' 




u 


"S^"^ 


(1 


'^?r'^ 


a 


• r 




2 m. thy ' 


' ?|nnb 


u 


^?b^ 


11 


^r^2b^ 


u 


^: 




2/. thy ' 


' ^ 


u 


^#5 


u 


^r)#^ 


a 


'a: 




3 m. his ' 


r ; 


u 


iib^j 


u 


ihsb:j 


u 


It 




3/. her ' 


T T : 


u 


T ; — 


u 


r T : — 


u 


Tr 


Plur 


. 1 c. our ' 


•' T ; 


a 


^:?^"5 


u 


r^nsb:^ 


(( 


^3^"^ 




2 m. your ' 


■ D3==b 


u 


eisb:^ 


u 


s^^5^'5 


u 


13?T 




2/. your ' 


• l?==i 


a 


psb-:3 


a 


-|Srob:a 


u 


1?/: 




3 m. their ' 


' Dn:2b 

T T ; 


u 


Dib::i 

T : — 


u 


Qhsb:^ 

T T : — 


u 


TT 




3/. their ' 


' li?^ 


P] 


LITE A L. 


(( 


"ihsbT^ 

1 r T : - 


D 


Irr 
UAL. 




hea 


rts u^h^b 

• T : 


kings D^5b7J 


queens m^b/J 


hands W;"!^ 




CoTWf. 


^inb 




'?^^ 




nibb:^ 




'"^r 


Sing 


1 c. my ' 


' "i?^ 


li 


— r ; 


a 


"^nisb/j 


a 


— T 




2 m. thy ' 


' T^?^ 


u 


l1^^ 


u 


^^hisb^j 


u 


Tl: 




2/. thy ' 


' T5^^ 


u 


Tj^bbx3 


a 


•q^nis^^ 


u 


TX^ 




3 m. his ' 


T T : 


u 


T r : 


u 


rnrb-:i 

T : — 


u 


TT 




3/. her ' 


' O'^T? 


u 


M'5b:j 

T V T : 


u 


n^niijb:^ 


u 


T VT 


Plur 


. 1 c. our ' 




(C 


" T ; 


a 


^rnibb-^ 


u 






2 m. your ' 


' tDb-nnb 


1( 


s5"3b^ ' 


u 


Db^nibb'^ 


a 


ss'j;' 




2/. your ' 


' l^'^T^ 


u 


1^'5^"^ 


u 


"(S'^nisba 


u 


]T^^ 




3 m. their ' 


' Q^^^^ 


u 


nn^^b/j - 


u 


Dn^nisb/^ 


u 


^'^^T 




3/. their ' 


' 17^?^ 


u 


17^5^^ 


u 


-,ri^ni^b7j 


u 


WT 



254 



§223 



NUMERALS. 



255 



Numerals. 

§223. 1. The Hebrew numerals (^sDisn ni^t») are of 
two kinds, cardinals and ordinals. The cardinals from one 
to ten are as follows, viz. : 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 




Alsol. 


Constr 


AhsoL 


Constr. 


One 


T V 


ih^ 


th^ 


Vim 


Two 


n^/yj: 


^?.^ 


D;ri'ij 


-n-^ 


Three 


T ; 


nigH'^J 


r 


tb"^ 


Four 


T r ; — 


n^i-^^ 


^t"^^? 


yi-^t^ 


Five 


T • -: 


Ti'^tn 


•• T 


^'i?'j 


Sis 


T • 


Ti'O^ 


iriD 


dir 


Seven 


T ; • 


t\bz-6 


3''5'J 


•jtrji 


Eight 


r;ib\!j 


n:b"^ 


nib"^ 


rSm 


Nine 




T.b'uiPi 


Tain 


riijn 


Ten 


T T -: 


^7??? 


^'^? 


ibi? 



a. ^nx is for ':n.^. §63. I. a ; the Seghol returns to Pattahh from 
which it has arisen, upon the shortening of the following Kamets in the 
construct and in the feminine, rnx for nnnx, (^54. 2, hut in pause nnx; 
nns occurs in the absolute in Gen. 48: 22. 2 Sam. 17:22, Isa. 27:'"]2, 
Ezek. 33 : 30, Zech. 11 : 7, and once in Ezelc. 33 : 30. The pkiral Q'^'inx 
is also in use in the sense of one, Gen. 11:1, Ezek. 37 : 17, or some. Gen. 
27 : 44, 29 : 20. Comp. Span. unos. 

Cirn:; is for d'^nia; for the Daghesh in n sec §22. Z>y this is once 
omitted after Daghesli-forte, "^rii-'^a Judg. 16 : 28. 

A dual form is given to some of the units to denote repetition, C'^ri"a"i5< 
fourfold, C^nrSD seveifold. 

nysir occurs once witli a paragogic syllable, f^ij'^d Job 42: 13, and 
once with a suffix in the form cmnd 2 Sam. 21 : 9 K'ri. 

2. In all the Semitic languages the cardinals from three 
to ten are in form of the singular number, and have a femi- 
nine termination when joined to masculine nouns, but omit 
it when joined to feminine nouns. The explanation of this 



256 ETYMOLOGY. § 224, 225 

curious plienomenon appears to be that they are properly col- 
lective nouns like triad, decad, and as such of the feminine 
gender. With masculine nouns they appear in their primary 
form, with feminine nouns, for the sake of distinction, they 
undergo a change of termination. 

a. An analogous anomaly meets ns in this same class of words in Indo- 
European tongues. The Sanskrit cardinals from^^re to to?, though they 
aoree in case with the nouns to which they belong, are in form of the 
neuter o-ender and in the nominative, accusative and vocative tliey are of 
the singular number. In Greek and Latin they are not declined. 

§224. ^h.Q Q.^x(]ii\d[^ i]:cim eleven io nineteen are formed 
by combining "ifc^ or tHw modifications of the numeral 
ten with the several units, those which end in n^ preserving 
the absolute form and the remainder the construct. Thus, 







Masculine. 




^ 


T r 


nn« 


EIgvgii 


\ 


T T 


^ra? 


m 1 


\ 


T T 


Q-^bii: 


Twelve 


~ 


*-T^V 


^?.'^' 


Thirteen 




r r 


T : 


Fourteen 




T r 


n^-nn^ 


Fifteen 




T T 


T • -: 


Sixteen 




T r 


T • 


Seventeen 




T r 


n^'rjj 


Eighteen 




T T 


T : 


Nineteen 






ni'trn 



F E BI I N I N E . 


•^i^*^? 


TT^^ 


l-n^v 


''^^'? 


rnw 


a-n-i)' 


rnw 


^fe"^ 


Tnw 


t% 


nntr^ 


^'^"^^ 


fSw 


TTrn 


^H^^. 


■irii: 


r^^w 


:^yd 


J^^'"^? 


nbb^ 


rnw 


yirn 



a. The origin of "^P)'-^? , the alternate of Inx in the number eleven^ is 
obscure. R. Jona thinks it to be an abbreviation for "iil'3 •'nui li' next to 
twelve. Comp. Lat. vndeviginti, nineteen. Kimchi derives it from T\t'$ 
to think, ten being reckoned upon the fingers, and eleven the first number 
which is mentally conceived beyond. 

-,bs wrin fifteen occurs Judg. 8 : 10, 2 Sam. 19 : 18, and -las wa'a 
eighteen Judg. 20 : 25. 

§225. 1. The tens are formed by adding the masculine 



§226,227 NUMERALS. 257 

plural termination to the units, D'^nto? twenty being, however, 
derived not from two but from ten "ii»? . 



Twenty- 


Q^Siriy 


Sixty 


D"^"©!!} 


Thirty 


D^'irb;p 


Seventy 


Q-yni^ 


Forty 


D^:bn'pN 


Eighty 


Q-' 5531:0 


Fifty 


Q'tJ^n 


Ninety 


D^i?-a:n 



a. These numbers have no distinct form for the feminine, and are used 
indifierently with nouns of either gender, nn'tos Ex. 18 : 21, 25, Deut. 1: 15 
means not twenty but tens. 

2. The units are added to the tens by means of the con- 
junction ) and ; the order of precedence is not invariable, 
though it has been remarked that the earUest writers of the 
Old Testament commonly place the units first, e. g. D'^IBT^ 
n"'i2JizJn two and sixty Gen. 5 : 18, while the latest writers as 
commonly place the tens first, D!^?'i^^ D'^'ip sixty and two 
Dan. 9:25. 

\ 226. Numerals of a higher grade are n&j^a one himdred, 
v]^^ one thousand, ninn , iiin or «iii'n ten thousand. These 
are duplicated by affixing the dual termination D^^J^i?''? two 
hundred, D^sbs two thousand, D^'fiisn or ni3"i ''Piy twenty 
thousand. Higher multiples are formed by prefixing the 
appropriate units trk)2 lij^d three hundred, D'^sbib? msb© 
three thousand, ms^zin tjizj sixty thousand, D'^s^^ v]^N one 
million. 

§227. 1. The ordinals are formed by adding ''. to the 
corresponding cardinals, the same vowel being likewise in- 
serted in several instances before the final consonant ; 'jics'i 
first is derived from T^'2J5n head. 



First 


■jtij^n 




Sixth 


•^"^IB 


Second 


^3 4? 




Seventh 


^Tr^ 


Third 


^iD^bip 




Eighth 


^T'?^ 


Fourth 


"r^*? 




Ninth 


^'Tt7\ 


Fifth 


^TT-^/jn 


or ^^isn 


Tenth 


"^VUJ? 



17 



258 ETYMOLOGY. § 228, 229 

The feminine commonly ends in XT' . , occasionally in ti^ . . 

a. There are two examples of the orthography *)ia^xn Josh. 21:10, 
Job 15 : 7, and one of ')iO''"i Job 8 : 8, in all of which the K'ri restores the 
customary form. 

2. There are no distinct forms for ordinals above ten, 
the cardinal numbers being used instead. 

3. Fractional numbers are expressed by the feminine 
ordinals, riiiD"'bia 09ie third, tT'2f"'^n one fourth, etc., and by 
the following additional terms, ysn one half, yi^ and ynn one 
quarter^ "tdh one fifth, 'ji'if 3? one tenth. 

Prefixed Particles. 

§228. The remaining parts of speech are indeclinable, 
and may be comprehended under the general name of par- 
ticles. These may be divided into 

1. Prefixed particles, which are only found in combina- 
tion with a following word, viz. the article, He interrogative, 
the inseparable prepositions, and Vav conjunctive. 

2. Those particles, which are written as separate words, 
and which comprise the great majority of adverbs, preposi- 
tions, conjunctions, and interjections. 

a. No word in Hebrew has less than two letters; all particles of one 
letter are consequently prefixes. There is one example of tv/o prefixes 
combined constituting a word bn Deut. 32: 6, though editions vary. 

The Article. 

P29. 1. The Definite Article (n^-'^^n Nn) consists of 
n with Pattahh followed by Daghesh-forte in the first letter 
of the word to which it is prefixed, tj^^b a Icinr/, ^^'i^n the 
king. 

a. As the Arabic article J( is in certain cases ftillowed by a like 
doubling of the initial letter', some have imagined that the original form of 



§229 THE ARTICLE. 259 

the Hebrew article was in and that the Daghesh-forte has arisen from 
the assimilation of b and its contraction with tlie succeeding letter. Since, 
Iiovvever, there is no trace of such a ibrm, it seems better to acquiesce in 
the old opinion, wliich has in its favour the analogy of other languages, 
that the article n is related to the personal pronoun NW, whose principal 
consonant it retains, and that the following Daghesh is conservative, §24.3; 
comp. the demonstrative particle Nn and sn behold! In ST'in Jer. 29:23 
K'thibh (if read y'l'^in) the article may perhaps be found in an unabridged 
form ; the K'ri has ?^"i'n . The Arabic article is supposed to be found in 
the proper name nninbx Gen. 10: 26, li'^ijix hail, the equivalent of ti'^'Z'l, 
and possibly in n^ipbs'Prov. 30:. '?1. 

b. There is, properly speaking, no indefinite article in Hebrew, al- 
though the numeral Tlix one is so employed in a few instances, as if^aj 
nnx a prophet 1 Kin. 2o':'l3. 

2. If the first letter of the word have Sh'va, Daghesh- 
forte may be omitted except from the aspirates, §25, ">ii"n, 

^'yqr\ but nbnan, nDnsn. 

3. Before gutturals, which cannot receive Daghesh-forte, 
§00. 4, Pattahh is lengthened to Kamets ; the short vowel 
Pattahh is, however, commonly retained before Ji and n , and 
sometimes before V , the syllable being converted into an inter- 
mediate, §20. 2. a, instead of a simple one, ^T}^r} , "^-^O , t2!^?0 
Gen. 15:11, v'-qy^ but n^^nn, i?^hn, -j^yn Jer. 12 : 9. 

o. The article very rarely has Kamets before n, Tin Gen. 6:19, 
C^jann Isa. 17 : 8 ; in a very few instances initial N quiesces in the vowel 

of the article, TjOSOxn Num. 11:4. 

4. Before n with Kamets or Hhateph-Kamets, Pattahh 
is changed to Seghol : before n or V with Kamets, it is 
likewise changed to Seghol if it stands in the second syllable 
before the accent, and consequently receives the secondary 
accent Methegh, .w, Dinn, D^i:3nnn, D-inrin, D-inyn. 

a. This change very rarely occurs before X, ^^ixn Mic. 2:7. When 
n is followed by Kamets-Hhatuph. Pattahh remains nirnn. 

6. The article does not usually affect the vowels of the word before 
which it stands; in "ifi inounlntn and C$ people, however, Pattahh is 
changed to Kamets to correspond with the vowicl of the article ""nf^, crn, 
63 I'-iJ; earth but 7"l!*n . The plurals of bn'x fe7it and cnp holiness with- 
out the article are D-BrtX Gen. 25:27, D"'liJ'i|^ Ex. 29 : 37, hut with the 
article t:->Bnx2 (for C■'^^^{^3) Judg. 8:11, n-'O-Jpn Ex. 26 : 33, §208. 3 6 : 



260 ETYMOLOGY. § 230, 231 

nxi? pe/tcan Isa. 34: 11, Zeph. 2 : 14. is pointed nxjsn Lev.ll:18, Deut 
14 : 17 upon receiving tiie article. 

5. When preceded by the inseparable prepositions the 
letter n of the article is mostly rejected, and its vowel given 
to the preposition, §53. 3, n'!hm for D^'Q'iSna, see §231. 5. 



He Interrogative. 

^230. 1. The letter n (nb'ijii^n ^5^) may also be pre- 
fixed to words to indicate an interrogation ; it is then pointed 
with Hhateph-Pattahh, 1\)?2r\ shall we (jo ? s?^rTi?bn is he not ? 

2. Before a vowelless letter this becomes Pattahh, § Gl. 1, 
nbiTDH Gen. 34 : 31, ^^Td^rs Job 18 : 4, ^nsn Jer. 8 : 22. 

a. Tlie new syllable thus formed is an intermediate one, §23, and the 
succeeding Sh'va remains vocal, as is c^hovvn by the absence of Daghesh- 
lene in such forms as cm'n^n Gen. 29:5. In order to render this still 
more evident recourse is frequently had to Daghesh-fbrte separative, 
§24.5, 'ifen Gen. 17:17, nri^r;22n IS :21, Methegh, §45.2, born Judg. 
9 : 2, nVdrn Job 38: 35, or compound Sh'va, § 16. 3. h, nb-isn Gen! 27: 38. 

h. He interrogative has Pattahh and Daghesh-forte in one instance 
before a letter with a vowel of its own, 3I5■l';'t^ Lev. 10: 19. 

3. Before gutturals it likewise usually becomes Pattahh, 
?FVi5n Ex. 2 : 7, ni^^^n 2 Kin. 6 : 22, "T^b-^nn Jer. 2:11, nyn 
Hag. 1:4. 

a. There are a few examples of He interrogative with Kamets be- 
fore X, orxn Judg. 6:31, "^n-naxn Judg. 12:5. ir-'sn Neh. 6:11. 

4. Before gutturals with Kamets it is changed to Seghol, 
-ia«n Ezek. 28 : 9, rhy\r\ Joel 1 : 2, D=nn Eccles. 2:19. 



Inseparable Prepositions. 

§ 231. 1. The prc(positions 3 in, 3 according to, ^ tOy are 
regularly prefixed with Sh'va, tT'ti?S5'i3 in the beginning y ^33 
according to all, Drnnj^b to Abraham. 



§ 232 INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS. 261 

2. Before vowelless letters this Sli'va is changed to 
Hhirilc, Tp."}^ for ?^^?73 , biij^b for bc^b , nhns for nn^s . 

3. Before gutturals with compound Sh'va it is changed 
to the corresponding short vowel, '''iss , biiKb , "^nna . 

a. Initial X qiiicsces in the following words after the inseparable pre- 
positions. §57. 2. (2) a, "pTX masler when connected with singular suffixes, 
''inx Lord. D'^ti'^x God, and also in ihe inf. const. "it>t to say after b. 
•'inxa, I'pxs, n^in.xb. ^nxb, n-'n'bxa for n-'ri'bsa the Segliol lengthened 
to Tsere in the simple syllable, in'^xb but niPX^, "irisb but "iBNfl, "i^N3. 
Before the divine name m.T^ the inseparable prepositions are pointed as 
they would be before "^shs. or C^n'bx, whose vowels it receives. §47, mJT'b 
Gen. 4 : 3, n^ir^b Ps. 6S : 21. '" 

b. In a very few instances X with Pattahh and "^ with Hhirilc give up 
their vov^^el to the preposition and become quiescent, "^"'2X3 Isa. 10: 13 for 

ni2.s3, ',inn'i3 Eccles. 2: 13 for •|'i"^n":3. 

4. Before monosyllables and before dissyllables, accented 
upon the penult, these prepositions frequently receive a pre- 
tonic Kamets, § 04. 2, n^«3 , r.s^b , mbb . 

a. This regularly occurs with the Kal construct infinitive of fs , *'S , "?» 
•T^ and "^'s verbs when preceded by b, e. g. nirib, nrb, nnnb. drh ^ S'^'^i^ ; 
also with different forms of the demonstrative HT and with personal suf- 
fixes; and with monosyllabic or Segholate nouns when accompanied by 
disjunctive and especially pause accents. Beibre the pronoun ni what 
they are commonly pointed ^533, nas, msb' or followed by a guttural, 
nab. 

5. Before the article its Si is rejected and the vowel 
given to the preposition, nins for "li^^is , f "^^^ for n^s^^ > 
D^iina for o'lnnna . 

a. n not infrequently remains after 3, Bi'liS Gen. 39: 11. more rarely 
afler the other prepositions, cynb 2 Chron. 10 : 7. The initial n of the 
Hiphil and Niphal infinitives is occasionally rejected in like manner, 
TT^aii-b Am. 8 : 4 for n-^acnb, "iBcsa Prov. 24 : 17 ibr i'icsna, 

§232. The preposition yc^from, though used in its sep- 
arate form, may also be abbreviated to a prefix by the assim- 
ilation and contraction of its final Nun with the initial letter 
of the following word, which accordingly receives Daghesh- 
forte, ^■i'^^ for l^'fi yQ . Before n Hhirik is commonly re- 



262 ETYMOLOGY. § 233, 234 

tained in an intermediate syllable, but before other gutturals 
it is lengthened to Tsere, X^n-q for y^h ya , y'\i^'n , J^l^n^ , D?^ . 

a. "{0 is sometimes poetically lengthened to ''1^, and once has the 
form oi' a construct plural, ''S^ Isa. 30 : 11. 

§ 233. These prepositions are combined with the pro- 
nominal suffixes in the following manner : 

Singular. 

3/. ni nb' ni'js tisis/j 

" T T T r TV* 

Pliteal. 

T T r V • 

2m. Din nib n53,DDta divj 

V T V T V T ' V : V • 

s«i. Di,n;in i:bb,dhb DTO.Dhto Dns^j.Dti'j 

3/. -jrin, "jnn "jnb — -^'q 

a. The syllable irj inserted between 5 and the suffixes, and which is 
in poetry sometimes added to D, 3 and b without suffixes to convert them 
into independent words, i^3 , ittS, i^b , is commonly thought to be re- 
lated in its origin to the pronoun irn what, so that "'li^S would in strict- 
ness denote like what I mn, i. e. like me. The preposition *,^, with the 
exception of some poetical forms, reduplicates itself bed're the light suF- 
fixes, ""SSis = •'?'3?^ . Comp. a similar reduplication of a short word, •>a"'a 
or "^h construct of D^a water. 

Vav Conjunctive. 

§ 234. The conjunction and is expressed by 1 prefixed 
with Sh va, tjcn"! , yy^^^} . Before one of the labials 2 , tt , 
B, § 57. 2 (1), or before a vowelless letter Vav quiesces in 



§235 SEPARATE PARTICLES. 263 

Sliurek, "j^i^, ?Fr^^, n^?^^, ^'^t^r?'?^. Before a vowelless 
Yodli it receives Hliirik, in which the Yodh quiesces, cniprD , 
'^n'^'} . Before a guttural with compound Sh'va it receives the 
corresponding short vowel, ''bi^i , TiTi^n , ^^'n^ . Before mono- 
syllables and dissyllables accented on the penult it frequently 
receives a pretonic Kamets, ^nhi , nb^bii , ^'^^ . 

a. After Vav with Shureic, compound Sli'va is sometimes eubsti- 
tuted for simple Sh'va in order to indicate more distinctly its vocal 
character, snn Gen. 2:12, "''ir'pnr^? Ezek. 26:21, nnyoji 1 Kin. 13:7, 
•'pjSJ Jer. 22:20. 

b. Vav receives Hhirik before He followed by Yodh in the forms 
firiiTin, l^riT, cr"'';'ni, I'^ni 2 plur. preterite and imperative of the verba 
H'n to be and rr^n iu live; before the 2 masc, sing, imperative of the 
Eame verbs it has Seghol, f^!)^,!), >^2^2- ^°'' '""-O,.}) '^'-"«- 

c. K quiesces after Vav conjunctive as after the inseparable preposi- 
tions, §231. 3. a. in "|T1X master when connected with singular suffixes, 
•^inx Lord and C^ri'^s God, ''inx] , ''Dnx] , ''h^xi , ""'Jl'^-^l the Seghol 
being lengthened to Tsere in the simple syllable. Hence also fijin^j 
when mn"' has the vowels of "^nN . A very few instances occur in which 
^t with Pattahh and "' with Hhirik give up their vowel to Vav conjunctive 
and become quiescent, "ilU^'Ni Zech. 11:5 for "layxi, ny^-^T Jer. 25 : 36 
for nb?-''!. 



Separate Particles. 

ADVERBS. 

§ 235. 1. A few adverbs of negation, place and time, are 
commonly classed as primitive, although they are probably 
related to pronominal roots, as b^? and ii'5 not, DW t/iere, 
TX t/ie?i. 

a. It is natural to suspect that the pronominal root h, which gave rise 
to the near demonstrative bx , HiX these and to the prepositions indicative 
of nearness or approach, b to, bx unto, and which has a remote demon- 
strative force in fii<^''7 ijonder. beyond, may also be the basis of X3 and bx 
the idea of remoteness taken absolutely forming a negation. The same 
idea, in a less absolute sense, may be traced in .the conditional conjunction 
1^ if. The pronoun HT, of which probably^ J is originally only a modi- 
fication (comp. the relative use of siT, §73. 1), is plainly connected with TK 
at that time and CO in that place. 



264 ETYMOLOGY. § 236 

2. Derivative adverbs are formed 

(1.) By affixing the terminations D, or D*, D?''2Si and 
D312K tridij from "J^i? i'/'«if//, Dsn gratuitously from ipt grace ^ 
Oai"" ^y ^«j/ from Di''' ^«:y, DJ^'^'n in vain from P'''b em^jti/, Disna 
suddenly from yns mome^it, Dicbis ^/^^ ^«y before yesterday 
from tJSiO ///re<?. 

(2.) By abbreviation, as tjs surely, only from ptj. 

(3.) By composition, as "sy^a ivhy ? from "Syr sra gf^^zW 
edoctuSy t'6'J^'^'n from above from 'J'a , > and fi'^S?^ . 

3. Besides those adverbs, Avhich are such originally and 
properly, other parts of speech are sometimes used as ad- 
verbs. Thus 

(1.) Nouns, '^'!^^ miylitily, exceedinyly prop. miyJd, H'^no 
around prop, circuit, "T^V again prop, repetition, CSX no more 
prop, cessation; with a preposition, 1^5)23 exceedingly, ^nb 
<x^«r/ prop. ^0 separation, or a suffix l^n;^ together prop, 2?« 2^5 
K^zzow. Compare the adverbial accusative and adverbial 
phrases of Greek and other languages. 

(2.) Absolute infinitives, which are really verbal nouns, 
nt2in loell prop, rectefaciendo, nann much, "iJj''Q quickly. 

(3.) Adjectives, particularly in the feminine, which is 
used as a neuter, 3ii3 toell, nitj&in at first, tr^'^.V. the second 
time, riin and nin onuch, n^i^n^^ in Jewish i. e. Hebrew, tniy^, 
in Aramceic, ni^bsp wonderfully. 

(4.) Pronouns, MT /^<?r(?, now prop, i'/^/s 2jlace, this time, 
nsn //z7/^(?r prop, /o these places, with a preposition t\2 thus 
prop, according to it, 15 50 perhaps for "jns according to these 
things, though others explain it as an adverbial use of the 
participle 1? right, true, Ms here probably for is in this 
(place). 

§236. A few adveifps are capable of receiving pronom- 
inal suffixes, as in or nir^ behold, lis? yet, *'i? luhere, to which 
mav be added 'J';?!? there is not prop, non-existence and tj;;' 



§237 PREPOSITIONS. 265 

there is prop, existence. As the idea of action or of exis- 
tence is suggested by them, they take the verbal suffixes, 
frequently with 3 epenthetic. Thus 

1. niin. First person *'b:n, ''rin and ^3irt; ^i:n, ^ssri 
and ^;jn , Second person masc. Vjsn once HDsn ; oirn , fern. 
'^X'^. Third person iin and ^niri; Dsn. 

2. Ti:?. jP/fA'if person ^if^V and ''ii^; once with plitr. 
iriiS' Lam. 4:17 K'ri. Second person masc. 'n'liy fem. tfiis?. 
Third person masc. ^s^iy , DT> fem. •^sV's!' . 

3. ''i?. Second person ns^x . Third person "r^)^ , C^i? . 

4. 1':'^' . First person ''ib^x . Second person masc. Tiri;? , 
Dips*, fem. ^rs*. Third p)erson masc. ^3pi? , Drx and 
i^a-^b^: fem. rop&i . 

5. TlJ."^ . Second person ^i^;-}^ , DiT^.;i and "d-ytT) . 77«W 
person i2i3^ . 

Prepositions. 

§237. 1. The simple prepositions in most common use, 
besides the inseparable prefixes, §231, are chiefly ^n^? 
behind, after, "^sj to, tmto, birx beside, ris? luith^ X'^ betioeen, 
"bh^. without, ^ya through, tbi^ except, "sVl on account of, 
bi^ or ''^^ over against, l.^b in presence of, vd} in front of, 
before, ^? tmto, b? upon, Q^ ivith, riJin under. Most of these 
appear to have been originally nouns ; and some of them are 
still used both as nouns and as prepositions. 

2. Other prepositions are compound, and consist of 
(1.) Two prepositions, as '^Syi'^^y^ from after, t'kyi and ay's 

from toith, ^Tizfrom upon, tT^vp:^ from under, yd^fwn, '^^5^ 

and iDb'b before^ b^"a-bN toward. 

(2.) A preposition and a noun ib and lib-a besides 

from "73 separation, "^isb before and "'?s^, ''?.sb^/;-o;« ^^ore 

from cis/^c^, b^.)a and n^isia/or the sake of, "7^n fy prop. 



266 ETYMOLOGY. ^ 238, 239 

hy the hand of , "i^r^i? beyond, b '\:iV'n/rom beyond, ni2yb in 
conjunction loiih, 1?^b and ilp:?'^? on account of, ^23, ""sb 
and ''i?"^? accordiny to prop. 6t^ //^^ mouth of. 

(3.) A preposition and an infinitive, MNnpb toward prop. 

(4.) A preposition and an adverb, '''j?'?^ and *'"?^^'a 
without from ^3 wo^ 1? 2/72/0, b r.sbn^ beyond, "^^"^ loithout. 

§238. 1. The prepositions take suffixes in the same 
manner as singular nouns, e. g. ''bax beside me, ''nbiT , "^^ro , 
''B^, except "iHi? after, "bx to, *!? 2(f;z^fo, b? ?/^07? and rnn 
under, which before suffixes assume the form of nouns in the 
mascuhne plural, c. g. ''"inN , ?]''^ns , T^nN ; y% between 
adopts sometimes a singular, sometimes a masculine plural, 
and sometimes a feminine plural form, e. g. ''3"'3 , ira and 
I'lpa, ^rrg and ^rni>n. 

a. The plural form '''^n.x occurs without sufiixes more frequently than 
"^n^ > '^'^ 1 "''H?- 5 ''^^ 'i-'so occur in poetry. 

b. rnn in a very few instances takes a verbal suffix, ''r^?'!'^ 2 Sara. 
22:37, 40,48; with the 3 masc. plur. suffix it is cr.na oftener than 
nn-'nnn . 

2. The preposition tii? tvith is to be distinguished from 
nx the sign of the definite object, which is prefixed to a pro- 
noun or definite noun, to indicate that it is the object of an 
active verb. With pronominal suffixes the ri of the prepo- 
sition is doubled and its vowel shortened to Hhirik, thus 
•'PIS? , ifjps , oir^i? ; the sign of the accusative becomes nis^ 
before suffixes or before grave suffixes commonly fii^ , thus, 
^ni5 , 'HPi? , D?ri5? rarely DSfpis? , nni^ rarely nnnis? and 

a. Sometimes, particularly in the books of Kings, Jeremiah, and Eze- 
kiel; the preposition takes the form ''nix , ?]nis< . 



-, Conjunctions. 

§239. 1. In addition to the prefixed copulative ) , §234, 
the following are the simple conjunctions in most common 



§240 INTERJECTIONS. 267 

use, ii? or, 5)^? also, Bi? and 1^ if, Ti^s? and ""S that, hecause» 
19 lest. 

2. Compound conjunctions are formed by combining 

(1.) Two conjunctions DS '^2 but, "'3 S|i? how much more 
prop, also that. 

(2.) The conjunction ""S or *iTrN with a preposition, as 
iT?i«? «5, niri? 1?^^ 2;2 order that, nri? ■}:?: and ni>* njpy <5e- 
cause, "^3 ^1? 2^;?/z7, ''3 f^nn because. 

(3.) An adverb with a preposition or conjunction, D'lt?^ 
iefore, p) or 'jS'b? therefore, ''r^^ z^^^/ess from ^b z/' sb oiot. 



Interjections. 

§ 240. The Hebrew interjections, like those of other lan- 
guages, are of two sorts, viz. : 

1. Natural sounds expressive of various emotions, as 
ns, nn, nnx ah! oh! mr^aha! ^'yr^ho! woe!^i^, ^T^^, 
liii?, "li? woe! ^'i)^ alas! en hush! 

2. Words originally belonging to other parts of speech, 
which by frequent use were converted into interjections, 
nsn come! prop, ffive, nib come! prop, (/o, fisn behold! 
prop, a demonstrative adverb, nbiSn far be it ! ""S ^^rai/ ! 
from ''ba entreaty, ^\ now ! I])ray thee ! 



PAET THIRD. 

SYNTAX. 

§241. 1. Syntax treats of sentences or of the manner 
in which words are employed in the utterance of thought. 
Its office, therefore, is to exhibit the several functions of the 
different parts of speech in the mechanism of the sentence, 
the relations which they sustain to each other, and how those 
relations are outwardly expressed. 

2. Every sentence must embrace first a subject or the 
thing spoken of, and secondly, a predicate or that which is 
said about it. Upon these two simple elements is built the 
entire structm^e of human speech. 

The Subject. 

§ 242. The subject of every sentence must be either a 
noun, as D''6"^i5 ^')^ God created Gen. 1 : 1, or a pronoun, 
as ''i^ ©iij? /(am) holy Lev. 11 : 44. This includes infini- 
tives, which are verbal nouns, ni'j'sb p'^'i^b ©ib;^ to punish 
the just is not (jood Prov. 17 : 26, and adjectives and partici- 
ples when used substantively, sisu s?in^"«b an unclean (per- 
son) shall not enter 2 Chron. 23 : 19, S^i^bbn;' n^n^n.iib the 
dead shall not praise the Lord Ps. 115 : 17. 

a. The subject ofa sentenco may he a noun preceded by the preposition 
liQ in a partitive sense, tDyrrg^ ?ix::; there we?it out (some) of the people 
Ex. 16:27, or by the partic)., of comparison 3, nx";? r^is (something) 
like a plague has appeared Lev. 14 ; 35. 



§ 243 THE SUBJECT. 2C9 

b. When the subject is an infinitive, it is mostly, as in English, pre- 
ceded by the preposition b to, niiinb sia (it is) good to give thanks Ps, 
92:2, unless it is in the construct before a following noun rii'^n riii'sib 
i'ni^b cnxn viaii's being alone (is) not good Gen. 2: 18. 

c. The subject is very rarely an adverb, Bi'n"")^ ^£3 J^a^fi many 
(prop, much) of the people have fallen 2 Sam. 1:4. 

§ 243. The subject may be omitted in the following cases, 
viz. : 

1. Wlien it is sufficiently plain from the connection, 
^i22? liyn is there yet loith thee (a corpse) ? Am. G : 10, or is 
obvious in itself, nib'j in« (his mother) hare him 1 Kin. 1 : G. 
The personal pronouns are for this reason rarely used before 
verbal forms, which of themselves indicate the person, "^vrfasi. 
I said, J^'^'^S thoic saidsf, unless wdth the view of expressing 
emphasis or opposition, Tjq\> ^-HDNI ^bspi ^ii;n3 ntin they are 
brought down and fallen, hut loe are risen Ps. 20 : 9. 

2. When it is indefinite ; thus, if an action is spoken of 
and it is not known or is not stated by whom it is performed. 
The third person plural may be so employed, b^iii^b 'Hl'^^ and 
they told Saul 1 Sam. 18 : 20, or third person singular, comp. 
the French on and German man, bis ira'^_ ^h'^ one called its 
name Bahel i. e. its name was called Bahcl, or the second 
person singular, particularly in laws or in proverbs, the lan- 
guage of direct address being employed while every one who 
hears is intended, bos ?jb-n'i£i?n-i5b thou shalt not make imto 
thee a graven image Ex. 20 : 4, Ti|b nD^iab n^'>3n apfjly thine 
heart unto instruction Prov. 23 :12. 

a. Sometimes the word Tli'X man is used as an indefinite subject, 
*1i'i "ins^a '^"'xn "itsx nb a man said th2(s, when he went, etc. 1 Sam. 9: 9, 
and sometimes the participle of the following verb, ?^">2in I'^'^T and the 
hearer shall hear 2 Sam. 17 : 9, C''{i:";ih !li;nn ploughers ploughed Ps. 129:3. 

6. The third person plural indefinite seems to be used sometimes with- 
out any thought of the real agency concerned in the action spoken of, and 
where the English would require a passive construction, "'j'"'!"^ ^'525 nii^b 
wearisome nights are appointed to me lit. theij have appointed Job 7 ; 3. 

* 151 is an abbreviation for *ihiy\ et completio, and so forth, §9. 1. 



270 SYNTAX. ^ 244, 245 

3. When the construction is impersonal; in this case 
the third person singular mascuUne is the form commonly 
adopted, 'T"'?''3?3 5'"i!?''i? let it not he f/rievous in thj si(jlit Gen. 
21:12, bn^n ts then it loas begun i.e. men began, though 
the feminine is also employed on account of its special affinity 
with the neuter, ^^J'^to'^b "ii^ni aiid Israel was distressed lit. it 
was strait to Israel Judg. 10:9. 

§244. 1. The subject maybe extended by connecting two 
or more nouns or pronouns and thus forming what is called 
a compound subject, n«32-bDi ynsni D:^^irn ^h'!^ and the 
heavens and the earth and all their host ic ere finished Gen. 
2:1, nbba nyini ^z:^^ and I and the lad will go Gen. 22:5. 

2. Or it may be extended by adding to the noun an 
article, adjective, demonstrative pronoun, pronominal suffix, 
or another noun with which it may be either in apposition 
or in construction. When thus united with other qualifying 
words the noun alone is called the grammatical subject, the 
noun, together with its adjuncts, is called the logical subject. 



The Article. 

§ 245. The definite article is used in Hebrew as in other 
languages to particularize the object spoken of, and distin- 
guish it from all others. It is accordingly prefixed in the 
following cases, viz. : 

1. When the thing referred to is one which has been 
mentioned before, and God said. Let there be T^y\ a firma- 
ment, etc., and God made ?''j?'^0 the firmament Gen. 1 : G, 7. 

2. When it is defined by accompanying words, as a rela- 
tive clause, l^T iT^n ^ '^t»^5 wr\ inirs? blessed is the man 
who has not icalked, etc., Ps. 1:1, an adjective, Hsn "lisizn 
the greater light, "i'lbj^n nisian the lesser light Gen. 1 : 10, or 
a demonstrative pronoun, "^n a mountain, n-Tn nnn this moun.' 
tain, ^'T\r\ *irin that mountain, or by being directly ad- 



^245 THE ARTICLE. 271 

dressed, ^^^n king 1 Sam. 17:55, D':'a'iSn heavens, 
l^nkn earth Deut. 32 : 1. 

3. AVlien it is obviously suggested by the circumstances, 
or may be presumed to be well known : she emptied her 
pitcher into rijpiijn the trough Gen 24 : 20, viz., tlic one which 
must have been by a well used for watering cattle ; Ahime- 
lech looked through "ji^^nn the loindoio Gen. 26 :8, i. e. of the 
house in which it is taken for granted that he was ; let us go 
to nsin the (well-known) seer 1 Sam. 9 : 9. 

a. The article is accordingly used as in Greeic and in some modern lan- 
giiages in place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun : she took '^C"''^'!^ fhe 
veil Gen. 24: Go, i.e. the one which she had, or. according to the English 
idiom, her veil; David took "lissn the harp i. e. his harp 1 Sam. 16 : 23, so 
the LXX. eXa/ijSave AavtS t^v KLvvpav. 

b. With words denoting time it expresses the present as that wlilch 
would most readily occur to the mind, ci'n Ihe day i. e. that which is now 
passing, to-daij Gen. 4:14, i^bl^ri ihe night i. e. to-nighl Gen. 30: 15, niirn 
the year i. c. this year Jer. 28 : 16, crbn the time i. e. this time Gen. 29 : 35, 
unless another idea is more naturally suggested by the context, Ci'n "^ly^ 
and it came to pass an the day i. e. at the period before spoken of at that 
time 1 Sam. 1 :4, Job 1 : 6. 

4. When it is distina;uished above all others of like kind 
or is tlie only ono of its class, ri^sn the house viz. of God, the 
temple Mic. 3 : 12, "jinxn the Lord Isa. 1 : 24, D^n'bsn the 
(true) God, ^'!^^r\ the heavens, V"^Nn the earth Gen. 1 : 1, 
-td^ the Sim Gen. 15:12. 

5. When it is an appellative noun used in a generic or 
universal sense, i"inn the sioord devoureth one as zcell as 
another 2 Sam. 11:25; theg shall mount zip loiih icings 
Q^niTfS as the eagles Isa. 40 : 31, and sometimes when it is a 
material or abstract noun, in which case the English idiom does 
not admit the article, lohere there is iTfu) gold Gen. 2:11 
LXX. TO 'xpvaiov; thg luine mixed D''^3 ivith loater Isa. 1 : 22, 
where shall T^^ZiTSTs luisdom be found? Job 28 : 12 LXX. ■?; Se 
<ro<^la kt\; theg smote the men D'^'^D?®? '^Hh blindness Gen. 
19:11. 



272 SYNTAX. § 246 

a. The article is thus used with adjectives to denote the class, which 
they describe, God shall judge yt'^t^'^'^^. P"^^^^"^^. the ri gUeoiis and the 
wicked Eccl. 3:17; the proverb of '^i'oipj^ the ancients 1 Sam. 24:14; 
and with Gentile nouns, which are properly adjectives, §194. 1, "'"J'^Nn the 
Amorile, ''i^ssn the Caiiaanite, Gen. 15:21. 

b. Tlic Hebrew infinitive does not receive the article; ri'J"^, which is 
the only exception, see Gen. 2:9 and elsewhere, may be regarded as a 
noun. In a very few instances the article is prefixed to finite tenses of the 
verb with the force of a relative pronoun, NHsblin who went Josh. 10:24, 
tibii'sn that shall be born Judg. 13: 8, di^pnn which he sanctified 1 Chron. 
26:28, 1i<i?^?n ri^ho are present 1 Chron. 29:17, '("'="3 into (the place) 
which he prepared 2 Chron. 1:4; so also 2 Chron. 29:36, Ezr. 8:25, 
10 : 14, 1 7, Isa. 56 : 3, Jer. 5 : 13, Dan. 8:1. It is once prefixed to a prepo- 
sition, f7"'rVv! ■'P^'"' (was) vpon it 1 Sam. 9:24. 

c. In the uses of the article, as stated above, Nos. 4 and 5 are really 
varieties of No. 3, since the prominent member of a class is the best known 
and most readily suggested, and when a word is used generically it 
designates a definite and well-known class of objects which is to be distin- 
guished from every other class. 

d. The Hebrew article is sometimes found where the English requires 
the indefinite article or none at all ; but it must not on that account be sup- 
posed that it ever loses its proper force or becomes equivalent to an in- 
definite article. The difference of idiom is due to a difference in the mode 
of conception. Thus, in comparisons the Hebrew commonly conceived of 
the whole class of objects of which he spoke, while we mostly think of 
one or more individuals belonging to the class, ",153 as (the) a nest, Isa. 
10:14, -IE33 as (the) a scroll Isa. 34:4, like rending "ix^n (the) a kid 
Judg. 14: 6, as u''^h':\rt (the) bees do Deut. 1 : 44, Qijirs as (the) scarlet, 
aV.i?3 as (the) snow, "^ins as (the) crimson, "15?4? as (the) %cool Isa. 1 : 18. 
Cases also not infrequently occur in which the article may either be in- 
serted or omitted with equal propriety and without any material change 
of sense, according as the noun is to the mind of the speaker definite or 
indefinite. In speaking of the invasion of his father's flocks, David says, 
insn the lion and Sinn the bear came 1 Sam. 17 : 34, because he thinks 
of these as the enemies to be expected under the circumstances ; had he 
thought of them indefinitely as beasts of prey he would have said, without 
the article, a lion and a bear. It is said, Gen. 13 : 2, that Abram was very 
rich snjn!) 1^033 tiipaa in (the) cattle, in (the) silver, and in (the) gold, 
since these are viewed as definite and well-known species of property; 
hvii in G<in.2\:oo he halh given him snjT r|t?3l nj^si )^i focks and herds 
and silver and gold, these are viewed indefinitely in Hebrew as in English. 

§ 246. Nouns are definite without the article in the fol- 
lowing cases, viz. : . 

1. Proper nouns, which are definite by signification, 
on'ins Abraham, "j^bs Canaan, pSiDin;' Jerusalem. 



^24G THE ARTICLE. 273 

a. Proper names, originally applied in an appellative sense, sometimes 
retain the definite article, ^?2n the lord, Baal, 'iV^'D ^/'^ adcersari/, Satan, 
"ihin the river, the Euphrates, "'H'^^'n l/>e descending (stream), the Jor- 
dan, 'pin^H the while (mountain). Lebanon, bh^^'Ztj the garden, Carmel, 
"lissn the circitit of the Jordan, •^Q^53!^ the icatch-tower, Mizpah, 0'|!5JvJ 
and cnx the (first) man, Adam, n-'r.'sxn and cn'lsx the (true) God. In 
niirSE- 'czxb^ •'•in the half tribe of Manasseh Dent. 3: 13 and often else- 
where, the article malvcs more prominent the.definiteness of the entire ex- 
pression: it also occurs without the article, c. g. Num. 32:33. 

2. Nouns with suffixes, whicli are rendered definite by 
the appended pronoun, iriij our father, i^tD Ms name, but 
in Greek 6 'n-aryjp i)ixu>v, to ovofxa avTov. 

a. There are a few instances in which, for special reasons, the article 
is prefixed to nouns having suffixes. It is emphatic in "i^^nn the (other) 
half of them Josh. 8:33, opposed to a preceding i'^^n one lialf of them ; so 
in nninss Isa. 24:2. In ^3';i?n nfe^^ the worth of thy estimation Lev. 
27 : 23, it serves to indicate more clearly the definiteness of the entire ex- 
pression ; so "'^nxi^ T|''r3 in the midst of my tent Josh. 7 : 21, i^tj'^n Tpna 
in the midst of its fold Mic. 2 : 12, ii"'niinf7~b3 the whole of the women with 
child 2 Kin. 15 : 16; in fin;?.^b Prov. 1G:4 it distinguishes the noun i^.??.^ 
from the prepoi;ition "j?^^. 

6. A suffix which is the direct object of a participle does not supersede 
the necessity of the article, WBHri the (one) smiling him Isa. 9 : 12, 
'n^??^ ilie (one) bringing thee up Ps. SI : 11, •'S'^iay^n the (one) crowning 
r/tee'Ps. 103:4. 

3. Nouns in the construct state before a definite noun, 
whether this has the article Q'^aisn "'isis t/ie stars of heaven 
Gen. 26 : 4, n^bnipn ^%^ the feet of the priests Josh. 3 : 13, 
is a proper name, ^^nia'^ ^'q^t the tribes of Israel Ex. 24 : 4, 
rnh^ ni"! the word of Jehovah Gen. 15:1, has a pronominal 
suffix, 'H"'^'?^ ''"il^^a the first fruits of thy labours, ^"^i^"^"'?? the 
wives of his sons Gen. 7 : 13, or is itself definite by construc- 
tion, nSsDTGn rr^ th-rq the cave of the field of Machpelah 
Gen. 23 : 19, nih^i-nina X^% ^/^^ f^rh of the covenant of Je- 
hovah Josh. 3:3. 

a. Nonns in the construct are occasionally found with the article, 
nVi) nbrsn to the tent of Sarah Gen. 24 : 67, bx-n-^a ^NH the God of^ 
Bethel Gen.' 31 : 13, J-ixn nn-^n the pin of the web Judg. 16: 14. ririnn ^^3 
D^-isr; all the abominations of the nations 1 Kin. 14 : 24, C"n^sn-d\x i2]3rj 
the grave of the man of God 2 Kin. 23 : 17, y-ixn ni3t?:an-i:2 all the king- 
18 



274 SYNTAX. §247 248 

doms of the earth Jer. 25 : 26. •^jp^zn *iSsrt the bill of the purchase, Jer. 
32:12, nrnb -(Ssn Jer. 48:32; see JosJi. 3:11, 8:11, 1 Cliroii. 15:27, 
2 Chron. 8 : 16. 15 : 8, Ezr. 8 : 29, Isa: 36 : 8, Ezek. 45 : 10, 47 : 15, Zeph. 
3:19, Zech. 4:7, Ps. 123:4; also 1 Sam. 26 : 22 K'thibh, 2 Kin. 7:13 
K'lliibli, where the K'ri omits ihc article. 

b. Gentile noon?, derived from a compound proper name, frcqnently re- 
ceive the article before the second member of the compound, ''?''^')n~",3 
the BH7jamile JluIit. 3:15, laT^irn-n-'B the Bellisheniile 1 Sam. 0:14, 
•>rri^n n-a the Bethlehemile 1 Sam. 16:18, ■'~.T"n ^iN ilie Ahieznle 
Judij. 6:11, though this last word also appears in the abbreviated form 
*'1??'''^'7 Num. 26 : 30. 

§ 247- The article is frequently omitted in the brief and 
emphatic language of poetry, where it would be required in 
prose, f"iL'?-^Dbia kint/s of (the) earth Ps. 2 : 2, t-dib ^isb in 
the presence of (the) sun Ps. 72:17, ^j>3 ^ntj I'air? "ibij (the) 
watchman says, (the) morning comes Isa. 21:12; to (jive 
S3^n •(j"p'i both sanctuary and host to be trampledJ)diW. 8 : 13. 

a. Occasional instances occur of its beinfj dropped from familiar or fre- 
quently repeated expressions in prose, ri:a rii'^nx *is to ijear^s end Dent. 
11: 12, "irro ^r!>53 in (the) tubemade of (the) congregation Ex. 27:21 
(comp. English in cJiurch), HZ^ ib (the) captain of (the) hast 1 Kin. 
16:16, ~^'b ^X'^b king Lemuel Prov. 31:1; also in geographical and 
architectural details, such technical terms as bl2:.il and (the) border iosh. 
13 : 23, 2nnn and (the) breadth 2 Chron. 3 : 3. 

b. When two definite nouns are connected hy and the article is oom- 
monly repeated ; it tnay, however, particularly in poetry, stand only belbre 
the first and be understood witii the second, icoe imlo Cjrirnn ihe (persons) 
decreeing nnrightenus decrees C^rir'tii and writing, etc. Isa. 10:1, b2:n 
^is:" O ])salteri/ and. harp Ps. 57 : 9. Still more rarely a pronominal sutfix 
may be attaclied to the first only of two words to which it belongs. ''•"3 
rrn^sn my strength and song Ex. 15:2. 

§ 248. There is no indefinite article in Hebrew ; indefinite 
nouns are sufficiently characterized as such by the absence 
of the article. Thus, "in? a river Gen. 2:10, Q-'icns-Da aDn-oa 
both chariots and h.orsemen Gen. 50:9, tb"l abn milk and 
honey Ex. 3 : 8, D'^'i^^ b^27 an infant of days Isa. G5 : 20. 

a. The numeral nfix one is occasionally employed in tlic sense of an 
indefinite article, "nx to a basket Ex. 29:3, inx C"X a man .Tudg. 13:2. 
or in the construct before a plural noun, nibsrri nnx one (f the foolish 
women i. c. a foolish woman Job 2 : 10. 



§249 ADJECTIVES AND DEMONSTRATIVES. 275 



Adjectives and Demonstratives. 

^249. 1. Adjectives and participles, qualifying a noun, 
are commonly placed after it and agree with it not only in 
gender and number but in definiteness, that is to say, if the 
noun is indefinite they remain without the article, but if the 
noun is made definite, whether by the article or in any of the 
ways specified in § 240, they receive the article, ubn )i a 
wise son Prov. 10:11, N^"' inii a hridefjroom (joiiig out Ps. 
19 : 6, nii^n fnsn the good land T>Q\xt 1 :35, D^iinn ^■^'bni 
thj manifold mercies Neh, 9:19. If more than one adjec- 
tive accompany a definite noun, the article is repeated before 
each of them, Knisni 'issan Di'n ike (glorious and fearful 
name Deut. 2S : 58. 

a. The adjective t;"'3'i many is in a few instances, for the sake of 
greater emphasis, prefixed to the noun which it qualifies, C"':3 can many 
sons I Ciiron. 2S : 5, D''n3J niiin viany times Neh. 9 : 28. so Ps. 32 : 10, S9 : 51, 
Jer. IG: IG. Other instances are rare. I'lii-!?"? "^I ^*">* strange work, M^'3^3 
•innhv. his strange task Isa. 28:21, "'■13^ P"'T-? '"2/ righteous servant Isa,. 
53: 11, nninx nni:3 her treacherous sister Jer. 3 : 7, 10. 

/;. Some exceptional cases occur, in which an adjective qualifying a 
definite noun does not receive the article, •"'lUT'^- ^^J?*^ ^^''? '^^^ cart 
2 Sam. G:3, n^-i=! '(Sr-n the strange vine Jer. 2:21, Ezek. 39:27, Dan. 
8:13, 11:31, or when tiic noun is made definite by a suffix, "inx csTiJj 
your other brother Gen. 43: 14, ^nx b~3n the one lamb Num. 28:4. Ezelc. 
34 : 12, Hag. 1 : 4. In nH cra^ an coil report respecting them Gen. 37 : 2, 
the suffix denotes the object and the noun is really indefinite. Comp. 
§24G. 2.6. 

f. 0:i the other hand, the article is sometimes dropped from the noun, 
but retained before the adjective, nbiTj.n i^n tlip, great court 1 Kin. 7: 12, 
^"'b;-n r-iwS the rich man 2 Sani. 12:4, bi^r-n nii the great well 1 Sam. 
19: 22, Neil. 9: 35, Ps. 104: 18, Jer. 27:3, 32*: 14. 40:3 K'thibh, EzeL 9:2, 
Zecli. 4:7; so with the ordinal numbers, "'^"^'rt ci'^ the sixth day Gen. 
1:31, 2:3, Ex. 20:10, Deut. 5 : 14, Judg. Q>:2b, Jer. 38: 14. 

2. Demonstrative pronouns follow the same rule of posi- 
tion and agreement, only the nouns Avhich they qualify are 
invariably definite, §245. 2, n-in Di'^n this day Gen. 7 : 13, 
n^>?n D^-innn ikese tUnrjs Gen. 15:1, niann o^ii^i^n those 
men Num. 9:7. If both an adjective and a demonstrative 



276 SYNTAX. §250 

qualify the same noun, tlie demonstrative is placed last, ft'^D 
min rqicon Deut. 9 : 6, m^.^h rssn niibn u^kit'n these (^ood 
years that (are) coming Gen. 41 : 35. 

a. The demonstrative n't occasionally stands emphatically before its 
noun, nco i"iT ;/i/s Moses Ex. 32:1, where it is probably contemptuous 
like the Latin iste, *i;i:r,b iiT /Aj',9 oz/r bread Josh. 9: 12, Judg. 5:5, 1 Sam. 
17:55, 50, ci'n nr this'people Isa. 23: 13, Hab. 1 : 11. The demonstrative 
both Ibllows the noun and is repeated after the adjective in nibsn o'^iafl 
ri|xn ni-.xiiiH these nations these that remain Josh. 23 : 7. 12. 

b. The article is sometimes omitted from the demonstrative, ^t "ni^nn 
this generation Ps. 12:8, X^n nb-^2 ?n Mai «?>/i/ Gen. 19:33, 30:16, 
32:23, 1 Sam. 19:10, particularly if the noun is made definite by means 
of a suffix, rXT ■'ri^sd this my oath Gen. 24:8, T\\k "^rhN these my signs 
Ex. 10:1, 11:8, Dent. 11:18, Josh. 2:14, 20, Judg. 6:14, 1 Kin. 22:23, 
2Chron. 18:22, 24:18, Jer. 31:21. 

c. The article is still more rarely dropped from the noun, ti-rn tir'n tisa 
this small quantity of honey 1 Sam. 14: 29, ri^n •'rnsx U'^x that Ephrathile 
17; 12, HT •'hn this sicJcness 2 Kin. 1 : 2, 8 : 8. 



Numerals. 

Cardinal Numbers. 

§250. 1. The numeral ins? one is treated like other ad- 
jectives, and follows the rules of position and agreement 
already given, in« Dip's one j^lcice Gen. 1 : 9, snnsn nj'in^n 
the one curtain Ex. 26 : 2. 

a. In a very few instances the noun is in the construct before the nu- 
meral oHff, "inx 'S^t-q one law Lev. 24 : 22, "inx "linj?^ a chest 2 Kin. 12: 10, 
^"Q^ ^h^ one governor Isa. 36 : 9, comp. §254. 6. b. 

2. The other cardinal numbers are joined to nouns as 
follows, viz. : 

(1.) They commonly stand before the noun to which 
they belong and in the absolute state, D"'P^''9 •^?^7^ four 
kings Gen. 14 : 9, ^^b D-^i'iiJ sixty cities Deut. 3 : 4, rka 
D'^pl'sa a hundred cakes of raisins 2 Sam. 16 : 1, D'^sbx msi? 
QiizJis six thousand horsemen 1 Sam. 13 : 5. 

(2.) Such as have a distinct form for the construct (viz. 



§ 251 NUMERALS. 277 

2-10, ^ivTO hundred, '^B'pi? thousands) may also stand before 
the noun in the construct state, Q'^in "^bia two sons prop, two 
of sons Gen. 10 : 25, Q^'b;' rosns yb«r f/^y^ Judg. 11 : 40, 
D'^b'^Ss^ riv^ « hundred sockets Ex. 38 : 27, c'^TSii ^fibs? mrSiij 
/y^rec' thousand camels Job 1 : 3. 

a. The liiimbers ^ifo. three, four^ and seren, occur with the .<?u(Tixes of 
pronouns wliich are in aj)position with them. ^iJr.ix 'r;q ve. bulk of us 
1 Sam. 20 : 42. VT'?^ ^^^^i^ ^^^ "'' ^'^'''' ^f'heni 1 Sam. 25 : 43. cindbu ije 
three, Dnrbd ?/ie?/ Ihree Num. 12:4, cm;a'^X they four Dan. 1 : 17. *t:n'>30 
they seven 2 Sam. 21:9 K'ri. The following numerals occur with pro- 
nominal suffixes having a possessive sense, rp'uaisn iJnj Jifly, I'^uJisn his 
ffitj2 Kin. 1: 10, cfi-'irrn^ their fflies ver. 14, •'bbx vnj ihonsmid Judg. 
6:15, cb^sbx Tjour thousands 1 Sam. 10:19, I'^nhsn his ten thousands 
1 Sam. IS:?" 

(3.) Less frequently the numerals stand after the noun 
in the absolute state, y^i^ tr\^V^_ seven steps Ezek. 40 : 22, 
tri^v r^r\'& tioenty she-asses Gen. 32:16, ?i^^-nN)a 0-^23 a 
hundred thousand talents 1 Chron. 22 : 14. 

§251. 1. The units (including ten), whether they stand 
singly or are compounded with other numbers, agree with 
their nouns in gender, n-inb^ ir'iia three leaves Jer. 30 : 23, 
'inn ^^3 nizjbiij three baskets of bread Gen. 40 : 16, wnns 
C'ibns 'ib'J fourteen lambs Num. 29 : 15 ; the other numerals 
observe no distinction of gender. 

a. When the unils qualify nixtJ hundreds or t;*'E^X thousands, their 
gender is determined by that of these words respectively. In T^jn""^!!': niriid 
the three wives of his sons Gen. 7 : 13, the masculine adjective is probably 
to be explained by the fact that the noun, though in reality feminine, has 
a masculine termination. 

2. Nouns accompanied by the units (2-10) are almost 
invariably plural, while those wliich are preceded by the tens 
(20-90) or numbers compounded with them (21, etc.), are 
commonly put in the singular, nb^b D'^yans';! Di^ W'V^'))^ forty 
days and forty niyhts Gen. 7 : 4, nbiD D'^febc^ yanx/o^^r and 
thirty years Gen. 11 : 16, n^bis yniiJn nbia D^nicy twenty years 
and seven years Gen. 23:1. 



278 SYNTAX. § 251 

a. This phenomenon is probably to be accounted for upon a principle 
analogous to that by which the anomalous terminations for gender in the 
numerals has been explained, §223. 2. When the numeral has itself a 
plural form, as it has in the tens, the plurality of the entire expression is 
sufficiently indicated without giving a plural ending to the noun likewise. 
But with the units which have a singular termination, the noun must take 
a plural form. It may be observed, however, that this peculiarity chiefly 
affects a certain class of nouns, viz. those which are most frequently 
numbered, and in which, consequently, the tendency to abbreviate the 
expression by retrenching the plural ending is most strongly manifested. 
These are such as li'^s man, and various measures of time, space, weight, 
etc., e. g. ni'^ year, m"i day, nax cubit, bprb shekel. These nouns are 
also found, though less constantly, in the singular with hundreds and 
thousands, ni'^ niKia rcri nine hundred years Gen. 5:5. niax rjbx a 
thousand cubits Num. 35:4, and with the numbers from 11 to 19, TO^n 
bj^b "iib:y fifteen shekels Lev. 27: 7. Comp. in German hundert Fuss lang, 
funfzig Pfuud schwer, and in English twenty head of cattle, a ten foot 
pole. 

b. The numbers from 2 to 10 are very rarely found with singular nouns, 
tiivj rtztv eight years 2 Kin. 22: 1, niax uibd three cubits 25: 17 K'thibh 
where the K'ri has niJSX . The tens are occasionally followed by the 
plural ci"")^. ccb-j thirty companions Judg. 14:11, b^n-ra ciiTDlIJ 
eighty sons of valour 2 Chron. 26:17, cnb^ -^'yd^ U'^i:2'\i< forty-tivo chil- 
dren 2 Kin. 2:24. When the noun precedes the numeral it is always put 
in the plural. 

c. In enumerations of familiar objects the noun is sometimes omitted, 
when the meaning is sufficiently plain from the connection, snj n*i"ir? ten 
(shekels) ff gold Gen. 24:22, qOS nix^ dbcj three hundred (shekels) of 
silver Gen. 45:22, cnB-'n'a iico (loaves) of bread 1 Sara. 10:4, Q-^-^riij-uitJ 
six (epliahs) of barley Ruth 3: 15. In measurements, the word nas cubit 
is occasionally preceded by the preposition 2, thus n^N3 yz~}i< four by 
the cubit i. e. four cubits. 

3. Compound numbers may either proceed from the 
higher to the lower denomination, n:?3ni5i Dii^n D"ris^ T\bk 
a ihoitsand tioo hundred fifty and four Neh. 7 : 34, or the re- 
verse, nbi^ nsiai n"'isbiL"^ ynia seven and thirti/ and a hundred 
years Ex. G : IG. The noun sometimes stands at the begin- 
ning or end of the entire series as in preceding examples, 
and sometimes it is repeated after each numeral, npi^ nk'o 
D12T0 s^niiji T\y!2 u^y^T^ a hundred years and tiventy years a?id 
seven years Gen. 23 : 1. 

4. Numeral adjectives may receive the article when they 
represent an absolute number, or the noun is not expressed ; 



§ 252 ORDINAL NUMBERS, ETC. 279 

but when tliey are joined to a definite noun the latter alone 
receives the article, n'??Tfn {the) two are better than ^sn 
{the) one Eccles. 4 : 9, Q^^ansn the fort ij Gen. 18 : 29, D^tran 
Dp^^i^n thefiftij righteous ver. 28, T'l^i^ "^snTU his tivo daugh- 
ters 19 : 30, Di^n D^i?n-is* the fort ij days Deut. 9 : 25. 

a. Wlicn compound numbers 11, 12, ctn., receive the article, it maybe 
given to tlie first member of the compound, "riy C^r'n thelwdce 1 Chron. 
25:19.27:15, 1 Kin. 6:38, or to the second, UJ-'S "iil"'n C-'iq the txcelve 
we??. Josh. 4:4, 1 ICin. 19: 19. In tlie example just cited the article is given 
to the numeral instead of to the noun, but in "iib^'~C':d ■'f^an ihe twelve 
oxen 1 Kin. 7:44, the general rule is observed. In cn"a"^X n^xn O'lnb'^in 
these four children Dan. 1: 17, the numeral following a definite noun re- 
ceives a pronominal suffix relerring to it. 



Ordinal Numbers^ etc. 

^252. 1. The ordinal numbers follow the general law 
of adjectives in position and agreement with the substantive, 
to which they belong, "^ii? ill a second son Gen. 30 :7, nbiBa 
n^TT-ib'tin in the third year 1 Kin. 18 : 1. 

2. The lack of ordinals above ten is supplied by using 
the cardinals instead, which are then commonly preceded by 
the noun in the construct state, ^^iri cn^? nstD the twenty- 
seventh year 1 Kin. 16:10, although this order is not always 
observed, Tht nnia^-tjbiy thirteenth year Gen. 14 : 4. 

a. A fuller firm of expression is sometimes employed, e. g. ^3133 

I. I.. I.^., 1.7 »-»-;. 

T'VC n:'!2'::i d"''::3J in the thhiy-eighth year prop, in the year of thirty-eight 
years I Kin. 16:29, 2 Kin. 15: 1. 

h. In dates the cardinals are used for the day of the month and some- 
times for the year, even though the number is below ten; the words day 
and month are also frequently omitted, rri rr:3 the seventh year 2 Kin. 
12:1. "'rrnn bnn^ rirsnx the fourth (day) of the nintfimontkZech. 7: 1^ 
'^i'^'Z'^2 in the seventh (month) ver. 5. 

3. AVhen the ordinals are used to express fractional parts, 
§ 227. 3, they stand before the noun, ynr\ n^icb© the third 
of a hin Num. 15:6. 

4. Distributive numbers are formed by repeating the car- 
dinals, w^rd d:^?!^ two by two Gen. 7 : 9, nyn© n:biTD by 



280 SYNTAX. § 253 

sevens ver. 2. The numeral adverbs once, twice, etc., are ex- 
pressed by the feminine of the cardinals, fiHi? once^ D^hiS 
twice 2 Kin. G : 10, Ps. 62 :12, or by means of the noun 
D?S stroke or beat, a^^?5 fioice Gen. 27 : 3G, D"*i2ys "ite^ 
^e?2 times Job 19:3 or C^^'p stej)s, ^''%'} T2J^'i? i'//r<?(? /me* 
Ex. 23 : 14. 

a. This use of tlieee nouns has arisen from the method of counting by 
beats or taps with the hand or foot. 



Apposition. 

^253. When one noun serves to define or to describe 
another it may be put in apposition with it. This construc- 
tion, of which a more extended use is made in Hebrew than 
in occidental languages, may be employed in the following 
cases, viz. : 

1. When both nouns denote the same person or thing, 
ni7 tjb-isn 2 Sam. 6 : 16, or less commonly, tibisn ii-^ 13 :39 
hint/ David, '^'j'jbs? ni^i? a icomcm (who was) a widow 

1 Kin. 7 : 14. 

2. When the second specifies the first by stating the 
material of which it consists, its quantity, character or the 
like, fiiynsn '^ibsr. the oxen the brass i. e. the brazen oxen 

2 Kin. 16:17, ^J^ n'^5?9 ^^5© three measures (consisting of) 
meal Gen. 18:6, ^7~\ D''fii5"3!'nto seven years (of) famine 
2 Sam. 24 : 13, D'''a;' Q^'i^n-^ t^t^t three iceeks (of) dap Dan. 
10:3, "iSD^ Q'^'p;' days (which are) a number, i. e. such as can 
be readily numbered, a few Num. 9 : 20, nbx n^'SrK words 
(which are) truth Prov. 22 : 21. 

a. In this latter case the closer connection of the construct state 
might, witli equal propriety, be employed, §254. 4, etc. The following 
examples will show with what latitude the rule of apposition is occasion- 
ally applied, yv]^ C^a water (which is) cffiiclron i. e. identified with it or 
characterized by it 1 Kin. 22:27, nb'rnn -(yi wine (which is) intoxication 
i. 6. produces it Ps. 60:5, "'S") ^^^3 pasture-cattle i. e. those whose charac- 
teristic it is that they have been in the pastures 1 Kin. 5; 3; bearing 



§254 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES. 281 

n'^^ari 'i'nxtn the ark viz. the covenant, which was the thing of chief con- 
sequence about the aric Josh. 3: 14, a hundred thousand i?:^ C'r''^? 2 Kin. 
3:4, which is by some understood to mean wool-bearing rams i. e. cjiarac- 
terized by tlie production of wool ; according to others, the first word de- 
notes the quantity and the second the material, rams (of) wool i. e. as 
much as rams luive,/eeces. 

h. Proper nouns, which have no construct state, may be followed by 
qualifying nouns in a loose sort of apposition, fining onB iT'a Bethlehem 
(in) Jiidah 1 Sam. 17:12, compare in English, Princeton. New Jersey; 
Ciinna D"ix "lirQ Pelhor {\n) Mesopotamia Deut. 23:5, C-'rUibs-rr* Gath 
(of) the Philistines Am. C:2; the destined possessor of vnj house is p^'52'l 
lTy"'bx Damascus (in tlic person of its citizen) Eliezer Gen. 15:2, CTiPJt 
niNnrj God (of) Hosts Ps. 80:5, 8, 15, 20; when c^niix is regarded as an 
appellative noun instead of a proper name, this divine title becomes 
nisns \n'bx Ps. 89 : 9. 



The Construct State and Suffixes. 

§254. When one noun is limited or restricted m its 
meaning by another, the first is put in the construct state ; 
if the hmiting word be a personal pronoun it is suffixed to 
the noun. The relation thus expressed corresponds, for the 
most part, to the occidental genitive or to that denoted in 
English by the preposition of. The primary notion of the 
grammatical form is simply the juxtaposition of two nouns, 
or the union of a noun and a pronoun, to represent the sub- 
ordination of one to the other in the expression of a single 
idea, § 212. The particular relation, which it suggests, is 
consequently dependent on the meanings of the words them- 
selves, and is in each case that which is most naturally sug- 
gested by their combination. Thus, the second noun or the 
pronominal suffix may denote 

1. T\\G ^jossessor of that which is represented by the pre- 
ceding noun, nih^ b^in f/w temjjle of Jehovah 1 Sam. 1 : 9, 
'Qmzn their substance Gen. 12:5. This embraces the various 
degrees of relationship, Dn"i35?-)3 son of Abraham Gen. 
25 ; 12, 'qniri? thy wife Gen. 12 : 5. 

2. The xohole, of which the preceding word denotes a part, 



282 SYNTAX. §254 

?li2y •'b'-^ni? ihe poor of thj people Ex. 23 : 11, ynx-i'nsM (he 
honourable of the earth Isa. 23 : 9. 

o. The construct relation, when thus employed, indicates tliat the part 
singled out from the whole possesses the quality referred to in an eminent 
degree. The first word is sometimes an abstract noun. I^f^s riip ihe 
height of his cedars i.e. his highest cedars 2 Kin. 19:23. Here too be- 
long the superlative expressions. D"'li?'75 ll^ip holy of holies. D"''i"'t"n T'la 
ihe song (if songs, D">n::?. T^v servant of servants, one that is a servant by 
way of eminence when compared with all others. 

3. An individual of the class denoted by the preceding 
noun, thus serving the purpose of a more exact desl(j)iation^ 
"oiVt^. V'ji* the land of Erjypt Gen. 41 : 19, nSs-ins the river 
(of) Euphrates Gen. 15:18, D-'tn^* ^i? cedar trees, 2 Chron. 
2 : 7, nps;,-] n?Sin loorm (of) Jacob Isa. 41 : 14, D-^nnn -^im 
men (who are) merchants 1 Kin. 10:15. 

4. The material of which the preceding noun is com- 
posed, SnT on a ring of (jold Gen. 24 : 22, fr^bs vessel of 
wood Lev. 11 : 32, D^-TS^n T^y the flock of floats Cant. 4:1. 

5. The measure of its extent, value, duration, etc., ^^0"? 
01)2^ T£it a purney of three days Jon. 3 : 3, "i?? bj^iTip the 
loeiyht of a talent 1 Chron. 20 : 2, ^SO'? ^^''3 W(?;2 o/* number 
i. e. readily numbered, few. Gen. 34 : 30, tfo n-inss^ <2 joo5- 
session of perpetuity Gen. 17:8. 

G. An attribute, by which it is characterized, ^'?n nias 
miyhty man of valour Judg. 11 : 1, ""IS) fi? tree of fruit Gen. 
1:11, "ji^jn i^'^i valley of vision i. c. distinguished as the one 
where visions are received Isa. 22:1, ^"iriv! 1^^^ the flock of 
slauyhter i. e. which is to be slaughtered Zech. 11 : 4. 

a. It will be observed that the Hebrew uses nouns to express many of 
the ideas lor which adjectives are employed in other languages; thus, in 
the examples under Nos.4, 5, and Q^vesselofwood for wooden vessel, posses- 
sion of perpetuity for perpetual possession, mighty man of valour for valiant 
mighty man,fock of slaughter lor grex macta.nda. This both arises from 
and explains the comparative paucity of adjectives in Hebrew: though 
even where corresponding adjectives exist the other construction is fre- 
quently preferred, ^'"Ip "^^''a garments of holiness Ex. 2S : 2. p^i'inat 
sacrifices of righteousness, ^i"il? holy and P"^"^? righteous being used with 



§254 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES. 283 

less latitude and with a stricter regard to the ethical idea which they in- 
volve. Attributives are frequently Ibrnicd hy prefixing such words as 
UJ'^X TOa»; bra lord^ '3 son, r3 dmighler, to abstract nouns or other sub- 
etantives, thus, "txri i:J"'X a man of form i.e. comply I Sam. It3:l8, C'X 
C'^^ wan of words i. e. eloquent Ex. -I : 10. Pin'brri bra the possessor of 
dreams i. e. dreamer Gen. 37 : 19, wh^ riia'J"",^ son of eight days i.e. eight 
days old Gen. 17:12, r^TS'^ia son of death \. e. deserving to die 1 Sam. 
20 :.'?1, br^ba—'ja sons ofworlhlessness i. e. wicked. Deut. 13 : 14, c^rrn-ra 
n:iu daughter of ninety years i. e. ninety years old Gen. 17 : 17. 

b. Occasionally in poetry an adjective instead of agreeing with its sub- 
stantive is treated as though it were an abstract noun, "(ij^sn i'^3 vessels 
of small (capacity) Isa. 22 : 24, nBts '''a waters of fulness Ps. 73 : Id, n^^a-ba 
biliip; perhaps e eery house of great (size), though olhers render ecery great 
(man's) house .Ter. 52:13. So sometimes an adverb, ::5"a "r'2 fno men 
Deut. 26:5, T'in rSi? continual burnt- offering Num. 28: b, c|n -x.;i blood 
(shed) causelessly 1 Kin. 2:31, cii^ """i^ enemies in the day time Ezek. 
30: 16, cini "i^N dumb stone Hab. 2: 19, or adverbial phrnse. -""^p^ ''•!!'^5^ 
a Got/ «/o-/t at hand, pn^'?: "iribw:* a God afar ojf ier. 23 : 23. 

7. The source from which the precedmg noun is derived, 
nnn;' nnin //^£? /«?y of Jehovah Ex. 13 : 9, niria nsD ihe book 
of Moses 2 Chron. 25 : 4, r.inx n^in sick from love Cant. 2 : 5. 

8. The subject by which an action is performed, or in 
which an attribute inheres, frj.rr;' nins? ihe love of God i. e. 
exercised by him 1 Kin. 10:9, nii'b© m'CDn the loisdom of 
Solovion 1 Kin. 5 :10. 

9. The object, upon which an action is directed, ri?"!'' 
n-'n'bx the fear of God Gen. 20 : 11, Di^n nbii-iaTa the rule of 
the day Gen. 1 : IG. 

a. After nouns, which express or imply action, the following noun or 
suffix denotes the subject or the object as the sense or tlie connection mny 
demand. nyn7 rx;p the zeal of Jehomih, wUich he feels Isa. 37:32, ci-rN:p 
zeal of the people, which is felt for tliem Isa. 26 : 11 ; nno rjrrT the cry 
against Sodom Gen. 18:20, b'n-npr.T, the cry of the poor Prov. 21:13; 
iO'cn his wrong i. c. done by him Ps. 7: 17, ""pT^n my wrong i. e. done to 
me Gen. 16; 5; o'^'Ti^'n the way of the sea i.e. leading to it 1 Kin. 18:43, 
CSa"!"^ Tj'^'n the way of Jeroboam i. c. in which he walked 1 Kin. 16:26. 

b. Active participles are frequently put in the construct state before 
their object, 'i'sp^ ra'^a'a restoring the soul Ps. 19:8. T^'CV "ar^S loving thy 
«amePs. 5:12, i<d "'Sa entering the gale Gen. 23:10. So even before 
an infinitive which they govern, Dip "'^"'aia'J being early to rise Ps. 127:2. 
Passive participles may be in the construct before the subject of the ac- 
tion, cnbx nat! smitten of God Isa. 53 : 4, nti< 1ib^ bom of a voman 



284 SYNTAX. §255 

Job 14:1, or before the secondary object, if the verb is capable in the 
active of liaving a double object, piU-ITian. girded with sackcloth Joel 1 : 8, 
di^sn tnzh clothed with linen Ezek. 9:11. When a noun follows the in- 
finitive it may be in construction with it as its subject, "T\^.^ ^"^P.^ on the 
/fiHo-'s reading 2 Kin. 5 : 7, ■ib"'~'in his driving out Num. 32 : 21. or be gov- 
erned by it as its object, bx!i?2li;-|S"ip to call Samuel 1 Sam. 3:8, cib''-}in 
to drice them out Deut. 7 : 17. 

10. The respect in wliicli a preceding attribute holds, so 
that it answers the purpose of specification, D';n£il)-N'!2u3 un- 
clean as to lips Isa. G : 5, sl?"^ffi)5 liard hearted Ezek. 3 : 7, 
n'''^^2 i3?i)? rent as to (garments, 2 Sam. 13 : 31. 

a. This answers to what is known as the Greek accusative, TroSas ojkv's; 
the English has in certain cases adopted the Hebrew idiom, so that we 
can say swift of foot, blind of an eye, etc. 

§255. 1. When the relation between two nouns is ex- 
pressed by an intervening preposition, the first commonly 
remains in the absolute state : it may, however, particularly 
in poetry, be put in the construct, ?2f5^ "^T} mountains in 
Gilboa 2 Sam. 1 : 21, D3b^ ''^''2^ prophets out of their oion 
heart Ezek. 13:2, ^4 ''"^? according to the ahilitij in tis 
Neh. 5 : 8. 

2. A noun is sometimes put in the construct before a 
succeeding clause with which it is closely connected : thus, 
before a relative clause, "li^iS! nijba the jjlace ivhere, etc., Gen. 
39 : 20, "^iiJi? "^Y'^Vfor the reason that Deut. 22 : 24, par- 
ticularly when the relative is itself omitted, rib',un-n;i3 b?/ the 
hand of (him whom) thou 2vilt send Ex. 4:13, nih^-na'i n'inn 
the beginning of (what) Jehovah spake Hos. 1 : 2, or before 
the conjunction "i and, '^T^) f^'??'7 wisdom and knowledge Isa. 
33 : G, V^^ »'3l JT^?^ drimhen and not loith loine Isa. 51 : 21. 

3. Three, four, or even five nouns are sometimes joined 
together in the relation of the construct state, DnhN-n"'5 ^'ts^n 
the heads of the houses of their fathers Ex. G : 14, '^rint? nsop 
^^"?^'?"''r^ the number of the tribes of the children of Israel 
Josh. 4:5, n^iiJs-^b^ snb b'jri'is the fruit of the greatness 
of heart of the Icing of Assyria Isa. 10 : 12. 



^ 256 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND SUFFIXES. 285 

a. In a very few instances, only occurritig in poetry, two words of like 
meaning are united in the construct belbre the same noun, db^ •'bn_3 ■>nn3 
ricers, brooks of honeij Job 20 : 17, nrir "irin "'iraip Vh. 78 : 9, if rendered 
as it is by some armed with, shoolUig the bow, though ""P'A}} ">'^y ''e in con- 
structioii not with nc;^^ but with "^ri-i armed ones of those who shoot the 
bow, armed bowmen. 'See Alexander in lac. 

^25G. When two words are in the construct relation 
they must stand in immediate conjunction, and no other 
word can be suffered to come between them as it would ob- 
scure the sense. Hence an adjective, participle or demon- 
strative, qualifying a noun in the construct state, cannot 
stand immediately after it, but nmst be placed after the gov- 
erned noun, ^'^'1^T\ nnh'' nibj/'a f/ie great icork of Jehovah 
Judg. 2 : 7, !".pi^3 nnt nrj? a great crown of gold Esth. 
8:15. So an article or suffix, belonging to a noun in the 
construct, must be attached not to it but to the governed 
noun, b'l'nn 17135 the mighty men of valour Josh. 1 : 14, ''l?''^s 
inr.T his idols of gold Isa. 2 : 20, ''i?7ip "dt my name of holi- 
ness i. e. my holy name Lev. 20 : 3. 

a. When the governing and the governed noun are of the same gender 
and number it may be doubtlul to which of them the following adjective 
is to be referred, thus \>r\'^. rS7. •'fix Gen. 10:21 may cither mean i/ie 
elder brother of Japheth or the brother of Japheih the elder. 

b. In a very few instances, only occurring in poetry, a noun with a suf- 
fix stands in the construct belbre a following word, nrrc^ ri-^rnhs-^.a Ihy 
chariots of sali'ationUiih. 3:8, liJ-ipq^ mi/ refuge of strength Ps. 71 : 7, 
nST -2-in thi/ nay cf lewdness Ezel<. IG : 27, though these are rather to be 
regarded as instances of apposition in the wide sense. §253. 2, Nouns in 
the construct occasionally receive the article, §246. 3. a. 

c. In the following passages a brief word intervenes between Vs, 
which, though properly a noun signifying totality, is in usage equivalent 
to a pronominal adjective all, every, and the noun which it governs, 
•ps t<'>bn-b3 take away all iniquity Hos. 14 : 3, so 2 Sam. 1 : 9, Job 27 : 3, 
and perhaps Isa. 38 : 16; but see Alexander in loc. Like the Greek Tras, 
when followed by a definite noun bs means the whole or all, crn-bs all 
the people, fnsin-bs the whole earth, when followed by an indefinite noun 
every, n'^i"':3 erery house ; though here as elsewhere the poets may omit 
the article, which would be necessary in prose, t'X-rbs the whole head 
Isa. 1:5. Connected with a negative adverb it forms a universal nega- 
tion no, or if the words be rendered separately our idiom requires us to 
translate ^3 by any, nii:3."i-Kb nbxba-bs no work shall be done Ex. 12:16, 



28G SYNTAX. § 257, 258 

tinn-'rs 'px ihere is no new Ihwg Eccl. 1 : 9. ni'ix-^S bbl'^ xb neilhcr can 
any god 2 Chron. 32 : 15. Conip. ou 8u<ata)^r;crcTa6 irucra adp^ Roiii. 3: 20. 
d. He para(ro<^ic may be attached to u noun in iho rotistruct state, 
tJTSiy nrnt^ luw-ard Ihe risvig cf the. sun Deut. 4 : '11, Gen. 21 : G7. 

§257. The preposition b /o, hdoiifjiiifj to, with or with- 
out a preceding relative pronoun, may be substituted for the 
construct relation in its possessive sense, n'^ixb iTr« ^i5:i:n 
her father s sheep prop, the sheep lohieh belonged to her father 
Gen. 29 : 9, coinp. nn^ns^ -jsii Gen. 37 : 12, 3?^"^'?^^ n;'3n the 
house of Elisha 2 Kin. 5 : 9, comp. Latin pater mihi. This 
is particularly the case 

1. AVhen the first noun is omitted ^"^"h (a psalm) of 
David Ps. 11:1, t]?b'^nNb ii:)2N Amnon (son) of Ahlnoam 
2 Sara. 3 : 2. 

2. When the first noun is indefinite and the second 
definite, ^iy':^ li a son of Jesse 1 Sam. 10:18 C^Ta"]? 2 Sam. 
20 : 1 is the son of Jesse, § 240. 3), D-'HaDn nib n^:^ ^ servant 
of the captain of the (juard Gen. 41 : 12. 

a. Hence the frequent use of \ {Lamedh aitctoris) in the titlc.^ of the 
Psalms and other compositions "iTib "nrTia a psalm of Dauid i. e. belong- 
ing to him as its author, p^P^rb n^En aj'rayer of Habuklaik. 

3. When the first noun is accompanied by a numeral 
adjective, especially in dates, ii^nnb aii ^W'TW-cn thefftcenth 
day of the month 1 Kin. 12 : 32, n?^b tr^ip^^nn nbft^a hi the 
ffth year of the Icing 1 Kin. 14 : 25, i^Dsb t% nica in the 
third year of Asa 1 Kin. 15 : 33. 

4. When several genitives are connected together, nso 
nT.n;» "^sbrib D'^'b^^n inn'i the hook of the Chronicles of ihe kings 
of Judah I Kin. 15:23. 

The Predicate. 

§258. 1. The predicate of a sentence, if a substantive, 
adjective, or pronoun, may be connected with its subject 
without an intervening copula, their mutual relation being 



§259 THE PREDICATE. 287 

sufficiently suggested by simply placing them together, 
D""(Sn n-rin"r:-:D all her paths (are) jjeace Prov. 3:17, -'ib 
fyn the tree (was) good Gen. 3 : G, Xf^ "I ^/"-s- (is) ///<? way 
Isa. 30:21. 

2. Or the pronoun J^-n of the third person may be used 
as a copula, rns N-n "T-^F^ ""Tf*^ t^'-'^ fourth river if Eu- 
phrates prop, it (is) Euphrates Gen. 2:14, r.'^J? Tstzrrr^'q 
what are these ? Zech. 4 : 5, "'Sbio i?"ri-nrs thou art viy khig 
Ps. 44 : 5, nn c^-bbij njN^n D-^pxn ^'Z^^?,?^ ^,^^72 are peaceable 
Gen. 34:21. 

3. Or the verb rnn to he may be employed for a like 
purpose, particularly if the idea of past or future time is in- 
volved, "nn rir'n f^SJn the earth was desolate Gen. 1 : 2, 
T'h'f) '^7 "'I?t'^ l^'-^ oxen were ploughinrj Job 1:14. 

a. Verbs which denote some modification of being are sometimes em- 
ployed in tlie Biime w.iy; thus, his eyts rina "bnn hc^an (to be) dint 
1 Sam. 3:2; "'bnxn tJ'X rb' bnv arvL Noah be<Tun (to be) a husbandmnn 
Gen. 0:JiO; ny- Tjr'rns uhen Ihou ceasest spoiling- W.i. 33: 1. //<e /mi'r 
■jib ~2n h'ls turned white Lev. 13 : 3 ; so to be called, to be esteemed, etc, 

b. Sim;)I(; existence or non-exislence is predicated by means of the 
particles 'C"^ and "X. the latter of which retains its absolute form when 
Ibllowinir the noun, but Likes the con.struct form I'X wivn it precedes the 
noun either immediately or separated from it by intervening words, Vxa c^ 
there is a kinsman Ruth 3 : 12, *,"'X c^x there was not a man Gen. 2 : 5, 
t|^i '(••». Iliere was no king- in Israel Judg. 21 : 2-5. Thepc particles may 
also be u.sed as copuhis with the personal pronouns, when the predicate is 
a participle, n^r^ f;:"X thou art not letlins- go Ex. 8 : 17. r-ii'i-a T^C"* thou 
art saving Judg. G : 3G. 

^259. 1. A noun in the predicate may receive the same 
adjuncts as in the subject, ^ 244. 

2. Adjectives and demonstrative pronouns in the predi- 
cate agree with the nouns to which they relate in gender and 
number, but differ from qualifying adjectives and demonstra- 
tives, ^ 249, in standing before the noun and in not receiv- 
ing the article, though the noun be definite, T^-n Z'-j the 
word is (jood Deut. 1 : 14, "'"'^nn O'in his mercies are great 
1 Chron. 21 : 13, nrcrn n^^bin ri2S these are the (jenerO' 
tions of the heavens Gen. 2 : 4. 



288 SYNTAX. ^ 260 

a. A predicate adjective may also, though less frequently, stand after 
the noun, rih"* mr-n the damsel was fair 1 Kin. 1:4, Kinn rixn shiii 
2la and the gold of (hat land is good Gen. 2 ; 12. 

b. If the sense require the predicate to be made definite, it Avill receive 
the article, "i^naii is mi/ mouth is the (one) speaking Gen. 45: 12. 



Comparison of Adjectives. 

§ 2G0. 1. Adjectives have no distinct form for tlie com- 
parative or superlative. Comparison is expressed by means 
of the preposition )'nfrom placed after the adjective, nnrj 
D'i:"'?s^ T^^^T} tcisdom is better than rubies prop, is good from 
rubies, differs from them and by implication is superior to 
them in point of goodness, Prov. 8:11; ''lis)? nnj? p'^'^2 
thou art more ricjUteous than /, 1 Sam. 24 : 17. 

2. The superlative degree may be expressed 

(1.) By adding >b all to the comparative particle "jia, 
D'^)?"'':a-b3^ bina great from all the sons of the cast i. e. the 
greatest of all, etc., Job 1:3. 

(2.) By an emphatic use of the positive, so as to imply 
the possession of the attribute in an eminent degree, T^ia "jiijp 
the least of his sons prop, the little (one) 2 Chron. 21 : 17, 
Qifoa r^h-^T] fairest amoiig women Cant. 1 : 8, "jcij^n the 
least, bin -in the greatest 1 Chron. 12:14, ahi-J the best of 
them Mic. 7:4. 

a. When the predicate is a verb instead of an adjective, comparison 
may be expressed in the same manner, ^TZ'O b'naN / will he greater than 
thou Y>yop. great from thee Gen. 4 1 : 40, nnxn-bs^j DSn-;! and he -was the 
wisest cf all men 1 Kin. 5:11. In a few passages, chiefly occurring in the 
book of Ecclesiastes, comparison is made by means of the adverb "iHT^ 
more, "ir"^ TX ''SS Ti'^sn I was then more icise Eccl. 2 : 15. 

b. The construction with '"O may also be used to denote excess, blii 
NiiL"i?3 •'jiy mij iniquity is too great to be forgiven prop, greater than (it is 
possible) to forgive Gen. 4: 13, V(53a 'Sto too little for thee Job 15: 11. 

c. A comparative sense is commonly ascribed to 1^ in the following 
passages, in which an adjective, suggested by the context, must be supplied, 
T^zA'0^•q "id^ the upright (is sharper) than a thorn-hedge Mic. 7 : 4, DSXg 
less than nothing Isa. 40 : 17, 41 :24, Ps. 62:10, Isa. 10: 10, Job 11 : 17; in 
some of these cases, however, ')^ may have the sense o{ from or of and 
denote that from which any thing is derived or of which it forms a part. 



§261,262 the primary tenses. 289 

Verbs. 

§261. 1. The doctrine of the Hebrew tenses rests upon 
a conception of time radically different from that which pre- 
vails in onr own and in other Indo-European languages. 
Time is conceived of, not as distributed into three portions, 
viz. : past, present, and future, but as consisting of the past 
and futm-e only. The present is, in this view, an inappreciable 
moment, without extension or cognizable existence, the mere 
point of contact between two boundless periods of duration, 
or the instant of transition from one to the other, and, as 
such, not entitled to be represented by a distinct verbal form. 
Every action or state of being is accordingly viewed as be- 
longing to the past or to the future ; and such as do not 
belong exclusively to one, may be referred indifferently to 
either. 

2. Within these two grand divisions of time no account 
is made of those minuter distinctions, in the expression of 
which we are accustomed to employ such a variety of tenses, 
nor of those modal diflPerences which are with us indicated 
by the indicative, subjunctive, and potential, except to that 
limited extent to which these may be regarded as covered by 
the paragogic and apocopated futures, §264. Whatever is, 
or is conceived of as past, must be put in the preterite ; the 
future is used for all that is, or is conceived of as future, 
while all subordinate modifications or shades of meaning 
are either suggested by accompanying particles, or, without 
being precisely indicated, are left to be inferred from the 
connection. 

The Primary Tenses. 

§ 262, The preterite is accordingly used of 
1. The past, whether our idiom would require the abso- 
19 



290 SYNTAX. §262 

lute past tense, i. e. the liistorical imperfect, in the beginning 
God ^573 created, etc., Gen, 1 : 1, God nfes tempted Abraham 
Gen. 22:1; or one of the relative tenses, viz. the past viewed 
in relation to the present, i. e. the perfect, lahat is this that 
tr^ti^ thou hast done Gen. 3:13, thee '^T^^'k'} have I seen right' 
eons Gen. 7:1; the past in relation to another past, i. e. the 
pluperfect, God ended his loorh tohich <nib:^ he had made Gen. 
2:2; a7id they did so as the Lord Si -is had commanded Ex. 
7:10; or the past in relation to a future, i. e. the future 
perfect, ivhen the Lord f nn shall have loashed away, etc., Isa. 
4 : 4, until the time that she tvhich travaileih "^"i}^, shall have 
brought forth Mic. 5:2; or a conditional mood, except the 
Lord of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant ^2"''?^J we 
should have been as Sodom Isa. 1:9,/ icould there were a 
siDord in mine hand, for now ^"'^i^tlO L tcould have Jailed thee 
Num. 22 : 29 ; or an optative, denoting something which was 
to have been desired but which nevertheless did not occur, 
rs\i2-^b that we had died Num. 14:2, ^tJDH ^b that they 
had been wise that they (fut.) would consider this Deut. 
32 : 29, or a subjunctive (the Jordan was dried up), that 
Dnsn^ ye might fear the Lord, at that time and thencefor- 
^N^x^ forever Josh. 4 : 24. 

a. In all these cases the verbal form merely expresses in the general 
that the action belongs to the past, but whether this is to be taken abso- 
lutely, relatively, or conditionally, must be learned from the circumstances 
of the case or from accompanying words. The proper English imperfect 
is expressed in Hebrew not by the preterite but by the participle, nc"' K^ni 
and he (was) silling Gen. 18: 1, §266. 3. 

b. In promises, contracts, etc., the preterite is sometimes employed, 
where we might have expected the future, because the inward act or pur- 
pose is intended rather than its outward execution, 2mlo thy seed Tina / 
have given Ihis land Gen. 15 : 18, the grant was made though they were 
not yet put in possession; accordingly, when the latter idea is prominent, 
the ibture is used of the same transaction, unlo thy seed "jriJ* / %cill give 
this land Gen. 12: 7, 26 : 3. Comp. Gen. 4 : 14, 23: 11, 13. 

2. The present, regarded as the continuation or natural 
sequence of a pre-existing action or condition. Anything 



§262 THE PRIMARY TENSES. 291 

begun in the past and continued in tlie present may be con- 
sidered to belong to the past and accordingly spoken of in 
the preterite, ^ive me a little water for T'''?? / «wi thirsty 
Judg. 4:19 prop. 1 have been thirsty and (it is implied) I 
am so still ; tlie earth "^^^ is fall of violence prop, has been 
and still '\%fall Gen. G : 13 ; now ^"PjSyi I know that Jehovah 
is the (jreatest of all the (jods Ex. 18:11, prop. I have known, 
the knowledge being in fact contemporaneous with the in- 
formation upon which it was based. Comp. in Latin novi, 
meminiy odi. 

a. It is comparatively a matter of indifference whether the preterite 
or the future be used to designate the present. That wliich now exists 
may cither be regarded as continued from the past or as perpetuated in the 
future ; and as it is contemplated under one or the other of these aspects, 
wili the tense be determined accordingly. Thus, the question whence come 
ye is in Gen. 42:7 Cpxa )ii<'q whence have ye come, but in Josh. 9:8 
!ixapi '("'N^ 7chence are ye coming or will ye come ; because, in the former 
instance, the past action of coming is uppermost in the mind of the speaker, 
and in the latter this action is regarded as having not yet ceased. 

3. Permanent facts or general truths ; these, though true 
for all time, are gathered from experience and observation, 
and hence may be appropriately referred to the past, an ox 
'S'y^ knoweth his owner Isa. 1 : 3, oxen always have done so 
and it is implied that they always will ; the Lord Dn"? pitieth 
them that fear him Ps. 103 : 13. 

a. The future is used in this case with the same frequency and pro- 
priety as the preterite, An ox will know his owner expresses the same 
general truth as an ox has known his owner ; only in the former case at- 
tention is chiefly drawn to its future, and in the latter to its past realiza- 
tions, §263. 3. 

4. The future, when viewed as past; the prophets, in 
their inspired descriptions of events which had not yet come 
to pass, often transport themselves to the time when they 
shall have been accomplished : and, surveying the future from 
this ideal point of view, they give to their predictions the 
form of a recital of what has already taken place, Babylon 



292 SYNTAX. § 263 

tibss has fallen Isa. 21 : 9, he N'ibp hath home our griefs Isa. 
53 : 4, /or / ''riBt'O '^^^^■<? ^^^<5;^<? iiV<;z^ ^c/r*? Jer. 49 : 10. 

a. The counterpart of this prophetic preterite is the use of the 
future in vivid descriptions of the past, in which the writer appears, in 
imagination, to live over again what has already taken place, §263. 5. 

§ 263. The future is used in speaking of 

1 . The future, whether absolutely, ?it'^'^ / ivill make of 
thee a great nation Gen. 12:2, or relatively to something in 
the past, he took his eldest soil icho ^'^'^^. ?cas to reign 2 Kin. 
3 : 27, Elisha loas fallen sick of his sickness lohereof ti'^^ he 
teas to die 2 Kin. 13:14; or conditionally, (would that I 
had died) for I tuould have lain down (pret.) and 'tsipujj!? 
loould he at rest Job 3:13; hut (if it were my case) / t^y^. 
toould seek unto God Job 5:8; or optatively in the various 
grades of desire, determination, permission, or command, so 
^"l^si"^ may all thine enemies perish Judg. 5 : 31 ; that my 
grief ^p'lE'';' anight he iceighcd Job 6:2; all that thou com- 
mandest us nib?i vce will do Josh. 1 : 16; deeds that "Iby''. 
ought not to he done Gen. 20:9; of the fruit of the trees of 
the garden b5s?3 loe may eat Gen. 3 : 2, ^^SNn b^S ye shall not 
eat ver, 3, mine ordinances "^^Tfdvs ye shall keep Lev. 18 :4 ; 
or subjunctively, especially after conjunctions signifying that, 
in order that, lest, etc., (bring the venison) ^^'^^ri 1?'?^ in 
order that my soul may bless thee Gen. 27 : 25, against thee 
have I sinned that pt^^ thou mightest he justified Y%. 51 :6. 

a. When employed in rcquesfs, the future is frequently accompanied 
by the particle N3 , thus, N3 ■a']';' lei thy. servant speak, J pray thee Gen. 
44: 18, N3 — 153^'^ let the iinckedness of the icicked cease, I pray Ps. 7: 10. 

h. The future is idiomatically used with n"nM and CiliS not yet, before, 
whether the period referred to is past or future, the time denoted hy the 
particle being antecedent to the action of the verb. Thus, referring to the 
past, / ate of all Ninn Cl^a before thou earnest Gen. 27: 33, the lamp of 
God ^%Pi1 ciij had not yet gone aid 1 Sam. 3:4; to the future, that my 
sold may bless thee r^iis cyjs before I die Gen. 27:4, ^^'^p'? tsvj before 
they call, I xi-ill ansvpv Isa. 65: 24. There are three examples of the use 
of the preterite with these particles, the reference being to past time, 
1 Sam. 3 : 7, Ps. 90 : 2, Prov. 8 : 25. 



§ 2G3 THE riUMARY TENSES. 293 

2. The present, when it is conceived of as extending 
into the future, comfort my people "li?^"! saith your God Isa. 
40 : 1, the divine utterance though begun is not yet finished; 
ly'in iiSn do ye not hiow? ver. 21, are you ignorant, and 
is this ignorance to continue? lohj ''^sn weepest thou? 
1 Sam. 1 : 8. 

3. General truths or permanent facts, when the attention 
is directed to their vahdity for all time to come, riyJdeousness 
D'biin exaltetU a nation Prov. 14 : 34, it does so now and 
always will ; a son 12D^ hououreth his father ]\Ial, 1 : G. 

4. Constant or habitual acts or states viewed as con- 
tinuing for an indefinite period from the time spoken of, 
even though they may have ceased at the time of speaking, 
and so belong entirely to the past, a mist m^?^ used to yo up 
from the earth Gen. 2 : G, i. e. not only at the moment of time 
previously referred to but from that onward ; thus Job nib?|i 
did continually Job 1:5; the dauyhters of Israel nSDpri ivere 
in the habit of yoiny from time to time Judg. 11 : 40 ; so Gen. 
29 : 2, Ex. 13 : 22, Num. 11 : 5, 1 Sam. 2 : 19. 

5. The past, when the speaker or writer assumes an ideal 
point of vision prior to its occurrence, and so regards it as 
future. Thus, a historian in animated description, as we 
might use the present, ni^^"n"ii2J^ li^ then sinys Moses Ex. 
15:1, BalaJc "^^n:^ brinys me from Aram Num. 23 : 7 ; or a 
poet, who lives in the midst of that of wdiich he sings, "is?"' 
ii ib^y; Qi'^ let the day perish on tchich I am to be born Job 
3 : 3, where the speaker, by a bold figure, places himself be- 
fore his birth, and prays that the day which was to give him 
existence might be annihilated, so that he might be saved 
from the misery of living ; n'-bi? Qn^'?2 5.*;3 n^b ichy may I 
not die from the icomb ? vcr. 11, where his position is shifted 
to the time immediately after his birth ; i~iirt:b vd"!- T^'y^ he 
makes knoicn his loays unto Moses Ps. 103 : 7. 

a. The intermincrling of difTerent tenses in relation to the same sub- 
ject, whirii is so frequent in poetry, foreign as it may be to our modes of 



294 SYNTAX. §264,265 

thought, does not justify the conclusion that they are used promiscuously 
or without regard to their distinctive signification. Tiius the preterite 
and the future are frequently combined in order to give greater emphasis 
and compass to the statement made, by asserting it at once of both the 
grand divisions of time, the wicked who •^D^i'^ia have wasted me, 7)iy deadly 
enemies 1S"i;5^ will surround vie 'Ps. 17: 9, Jire "^^^J* devoured before them, 
and after them aflame un^n shall consume Joel 2:3. Or the writer may 
place himself in the midst of an event, and regard part as having already 
taken place and part as yet to be performed; thus, in Ex. 15:14, 15. the 
nations ^V'O'^ have heard "y^^VT! ihey will be afraid; pangs thn have 
seized upon the inhabitants of Philistia ; then the dukes of Edom ^^f^.s? 
were troubled, the mighty men of Moab trembling ii2Tn.xi' shall seize them, 
all the inhabitants of Canaan 15^3 have melted. Or a verb may be put in 
the future to show that the action which it denotes, though in reality past, 
is subsequent to, or a consequence of^ a preceding preterite, they were both 
naked fidban"^ n'^i and were not ashamed Gen. 2: 25. Deut. 2: 12. 

§ 264. The apocopated and paragogic forms of the future 
are mostly used in their respective persons, § 97, to express 
its optative, conditional, or subjunctive senses, §263. 1. The 
negative imperative is made by prefixing ^£? not to the apoco- 
pated future, 'n:?^n-5« harm not Ps. 105 : 15 ; ^2?nn )B would 
mean you shall not harm. 

a. These modified forms of the future, although they give a more dis- 
tinct expression to the modal senses just indicated, are not essential to that 
end, since the same shades of meaning may be and often are suggested 
by the simple future. Instances are more rare, and only found in poetry, 
in which the apocopated or paragogic forms are used, when simple futurity 
is intended, Job 13 : 27, 24 : 25. 



The Secondary Tenses. 

§265. The secondary tenses agree in signification with 
their respective primaries. The future with Vav conversive, 
forming a secondary preterite, § 99. 1, has the same variety of 
senses with the primary or proper preterite, and is in fact a 
simple substitute for it. In like manner, the secondary 
future or the preterite with Vav conversive, §100. 1, is a 
substitute for the primary future. A narrative or a para- 
graph, which begins with one of the primary tenses, is 
mostly continued by means of the corresponding secondary 



§265 THE SECONDARY TENSES. 295 

tense, provided the verb stands at the beginning of its clause, 
so that it can be attached to the conjunction, which is an 
essential part of the secondary formation. If, for any reason, 
this order of the words is interrupted or prevented, the 
primary tense must again be used. Thus, Gen. 22 : 1, God 
nB3 tempted Abraham ^'aii^li and said . . . '^^s^l and lie said . . . 
ver. 3, D?T^'!'l ajid he rose up eaiiij .'. . tJinii^l and saddled . . . 
Mpt'l a?id tool- . . . ^^^'^'] and clave . . . Dj^^i and rose up ^>i;i 
and went unto the pilcice iS'Ta&j'it'i^ of lohich God had told 
him. Gen. 17:5, thf/ name i5'ij5'>"^b shall not be called Abram 
r\|>n'i ajid it shall he . . . ver. G, ''innsn^ and I ivill make thee 
fruiifd . . . 'T^Pinp^ and I voill make nations of thee D'^P^''?^ 
'isi'^ ?!'?''? (i^id kings shall come out of thee. 

a. The future with Vav conversive describes an act subsequent to or 
contemporary with the time denoted by the words with which it is con- 
nected. It can, thereibre, only relate to the past when it is preceded by 
a preterite witli a past signification, or by some other word or phrase which 
refers to past time, in the year of king UzziaWs death ■^NiN'i {and) I saw 
Isa. 6:1. But if it be preceded by a future tense, it has a future significa- 
tion, pnb^ he shall deride every stronghold i3^*!i and shall heap iip earth 
finsb*!^ and take ii Hab. 1 : 10, loho nii;?^;i shall do evil . . . I'i?,*] "^.L^ and 
shall go and sen-e other gods Deut. 17:2, 3; unless a pause intervenes in 
which a preterite is to be supplied, as in Hab. 2: 1, 2, / ivill watch to see 
what he will say to ine . . . n^jH^ ■^!i:y|!li and (after I had thus watched) the 
Lord answered vie. The future with Vav conversive occurs in a preterite 
sense at the beginning of certain books, because they were regarded by 
their authors as supplements or continuations of preceding histories, '^ln'^1 
And it came to pass Josh. 1:1, Judg. 1 : 1, 1 Sam. 1 : 1. etc., etc. 

6. The preterite with Vav has a future signification only after a future 
tense or an expression suggestive of futurity, e. g. in thy distress Tj^iNSasi 
when there shall come vpon thee all these things Deut. 4:30; or as the 
initial word of a prophecy, which is regarded as linked with other dis- 
closures of the future previously made, n^ni and it shall come to pass 
Isa. 2:2. After an imperative it commonly has an imperative sense, this 
being one of the significations of the future, §263. 1, go unto Pharaoh 
riirxT and say to him prop, and thou shall say Ex. 7:26. When a 
preterite precedes, the Vav is not conversive. thy servant was keeping his 
father''s sheep Nil and there came . . . Nibs'! and took . . . T'N^"!' ajid I went 
owf ...rnsni and smote him, etc., 1 Sam! 17:34, 35, unless it involves a 
reference to what is to take place hereafter, / have blessed him (the 
blessing is of course prospective), ''n"''isnn and I will make him fruitful, 
•'n"'a'ir7l and I will viidtiply him Gen. 17:20. 



296 SYNTAX. §266 

Participles. 

§ 266. The participles being properly verbal nouns, do 
not in strictness involve any definite notion of time, and the 
connection must decide whether they are to be referred to 
the past, present, or future, thus bsb means falUng Num. 
24 : ^JaJlen Judg. 4 : 22, or ahout to fall Jer. 37 : 14. Their 
principal uses are the following, viz. : 

1 . They express what is permanent or habitual, § 1 86. 2 . 6t, 
(the Lord) sriii^ lovetli rit/hteousness and justice Ps. 33 : 5, <2 
(generation ^^n (joetU, and a (generation i53 cometh, cind the 
earth ^^pp ahidethfor ever Eccles. 1 : 4. Passive participles 
so used suggest not only a constant experience of what is 
denoted by the verb, but in addition a permanent quality as 
the ground of it, N'iis not only feared but worthy to he 
feared, ^"i^ wortluj to he praised, 'lian; desirable . 

2. When a particular time is intended the active partici- 
ples niost commonly relate to the present or to the proximate 
future, and passive participles to the past, ^ia<'°i ririXTtTa what 
seest thou? Jer. 1:11, i5"'n'a ^T.r\ behold, I am about to bring 
the flood Gen. 6:17, "j^lb (jivivg ')°rip given, 3"'iD'a restoring 
iimyz restored. 

a. The active participles of neuter verbs, which have no passive forms, 
are used in both a past and a present sense, Tcq dying and dear/, h'Z} fall- 
ing and fallen ; this is less frequently tlie case with active verbs, i<7jo then 
is he "TiiS'iiin that hath hunted venison Gen. 27:33; these are the gods 
ni353n that smote Egypt 1 Sam. 4:8. Participles of passive form but 
active sense are ordinarily used of the present or proximate future, onbs 
fghting. 

3. In narrations and predictions the time of the partici- 
ples is reckoned not from the moment of speaking, but from 
the period spoken of, the two angels came . . . 3©i tDi'ii and 
Lot (was) sitting in the gate of Sodom Gen. 19:1; he spake 
to his sons-in-law 'I'^i^si injp'b ivho (were) to marrg his daugh- 
ters ver. 14 : he came to Shiloh . . . t3^i?"iP l^t''?^ loith his clothes 



§267 INFINITIVE. 297 

rent! Sam. 4:12; thou shalt meet a comiKinij of prophets 
D'''7T cominfj doion 1 Sara. 10:5; they shall declare his 
rifjlLteoitsness unto a ^^eople "l^ia (who shall then be) horii Ps. 
22:32, 102:19, Jiidg. 13:8. 

a. The period to ivliicli ;i participle is to be referred is sometimes de- 
termined by connecting^ witii it the past or future tense of tlie substantive 
verb, Muses ilin n''^ri was keeping the jiocJi of Jethro Ex. 3:1, Ids throne 
',133 n?.-!? shall he established for ever 1 Chron. 17:4. 



Infinitive. 

§ 267. The infinitive is an abstract verbal noun, and, like 
the participles, partakes of the character both of a noun and 
a verb. As a noun it may be the subject of a proposition, 
§ 242, or it may be governed by a verb, noun, or preposition; 
it may also be put in the construct state before a noun de- 
noting either its subject or its object. 

a. The Infinitive as a subject: :iX3i rajl irk'yi ^n3i n'xs (there is) 
cursing and lying and killing and stealing and conimilling adtdierij Hos. 
4:2, I3ST^.^ niib? to do justice (is) ajoij to the righteous Prov. 21 : 15. 

6. The construct infinitive is used after verbs, nouns, and prepositions, 
and when governed by a verb or noun it is usually tliough not invariably 
preceded as in English by the preposition h to, i2 cniinb bz'^a. 1 shall be 
able to fight icith him Num. 22:11, wib ni.;! n^Hb ri a time to be born 
and a time to die Eccl. 3:2; h is seldom omitted in prose but ollen in 
poetry, / know not (how) &i3T rsi to go aid and to come in 1 Kin. 3:7, 
c^sn miro thou hast refused to be ashamed Jer. 3:3, Tip"i ryn li£0 rv a 
time to mourn and, a time to dance Eccles. 3 : 4, "I'^iS' n''^rrv readij to rouse 
leviathan Job 3:8. Various prepositions may precede the infinitive, as h 
to, 2 ?■??, 3 like, at, '"0 from, n? until, hv upon, Y^''^^^ '"'^ oider to, '{i1 be- 
cause of "ipsb before, etc. 

c. The absolute infinitive is rarely governed by a verb, -w'^H ^"i^^ 
learn to do well, ^'''^^n ^iniirx redress wrong Isa. 1 : 17, until he knoics 
01X13 to refuse the evil, ^in^^i and to choose the good, 7 : 15, I'^^'^'l-? ^2S"X:^'i 
TjlHin and they woidd not walk in his ways, 42:2i, thou wilt make 7ts off- 
scouring Dix^l and refuse Lam. 3:45. 

d. The infinitive in the construct before its subject, cx-iaina in their 
being created '\. e. when 1 hey were created; in the day n^n'bx n^h"^ rir?. 
of the Lord God's making earth and heaven Gen. 2:4; there was no water 
csn r<T\th for the drinking <fthe people Ex. 17: 1 ; '■TC.'-'] «""' "'!/ dwelling 



298 SYNTAX. § 268, 269 

(shall be) i. e. I shall dwell Ps. 23: G. Before its object, SJto-n-ijQ nkb the 
accepting of the ■person of the wicked Prov. 18:5, tntiiSTtn to yield its 
strength Gen. 4: 12. 

§ 268. The absolute infinitive, expressing as it does the 
abstract idea of the verb irrespective of tense, number, or 
person, may be used instead of any of the finite forms of the 
verb, when the sense is duly qualified by the context. Thus, 
it may take the place of 

1 . The preterite or the future, when one of those tenses 
immediately precedes, ^3!'j5!n^i and iliey hleiu the trumpets 
pSST and brake the pitchers ^lo"^. (there was) a hrealdnf/ of 
the pitchers Judg. 7:19; all this ''3^-n.\* lih:i ^xrk^ I have 
seen and applied my heart Eccl. 8 : 9 j ^2jp;' they shall buy 
fields for money ^iriDl and torite the papers Dirili'i and seal 
(them) ^^yn and take ivitnesses Jer. 32 : 44. 

a. This rarely occurs when no verb precedes in the same sentence, 
'lio'i i^d-D3J sHn (shall) the faidl-finder contend vjilh the Almighty Job 
40 : 2, -iBt tiiin ni'nn the living creatures ran and returned Ezek. 1 : 14, 
•lix. nio /prcEJsecZ Eccl. 4:2. 

2. The imperative, when it stands at the beginning of 
a sentence, ^ibj" remember the sabbath-day prop, (let there 
be) a remembering Ex. 20 : 8, jnns'i') ^".Sn yo and say 
2 Sam. 24:12. 

§269. The dependence of one verb upon another is 
most distinctly expressed by putting the second verb in the 
infinitive. The second verb may, however, be in form co- 
ordinated with the first by being put in the same or an 
equivalent tense with or without a copulative, the true rela- 
tion between the verbs being left to be inferred from their 
obvious signification, ^^n b''«in he luas loilling, walked i. e. 
he teas williny to loalk or walked loillinyly Hos. 5:11, 
nnnj? "rb fi'^bis i5b / will no more- add to pity i. e. will not 
ayain pity Hos. 1 : 6, ^l?n a^3l^)a beiny early to go or going 
early Hos. 6 : 4, hoio "Ti^^"^!? ^^^^ shall I endure and see i. e. 
endure to see Esth. 8 : 6. 



^ 270 OBJECT OF VERBS. 299 

a. This co-ordination most frequently occurs wlien the second verb ex- 
presses tlie principal idea and the first simply qualifies it, so that tlie latter 
miwht be rendered by an adverb. Though even in this case the second 
verb is often put in the infinitive, ti^d rjO'^i Gen. 8: 10 and he added io 
send or nyd*] rjO'^] 1 Sam. 19: 21 and he added and sent for he sent again. 

b. In the following instances the verbs thus co-ordinated have difi'erent 
subjects, 'i2'n33 bz^a I shall be able, ice shall smile him i. e. I shall with 
your aid be able to smite him, Num. 22 :C. r(^-!1X"ip7 iS'^pin N^i ihou shall 
not add they shall call thee i. e. thou shalt no more be called by them, Isa, 
47: 1, 5 ; or are in different tenses, n:3i<^ ''t)'^.!'; ^^ Umow not (how) f shall 
fatter i. e. how to flatter, Job 32: 22'; O that WXSTaxn inrn; / knew and 
might Jind him i. e. how to find him, Job 23 : 3. 



Object op Verbs. 

§ 270. The object of a transitive verb ordinarily stands 
after both the verb and its subject, and if it is an indefinite 
noun is distinguished simply by its position or by its rela- 
tion to the verb as determined by its meaning ; if a definite 
noun, or a demonstrative, relative, or interrogative pronoun, 
it may, at the pleasure of the writer, be further distinguished 
by prefixing to it r.&? the sign of the definite object ; if a 
personal pronoun, it is suffixed either to in^? or to the govern- 
ing verb. 

a. Considerable liberty is allowed in respect to the position of words, 
particularly in poetry ; although, according to the natural order in Hebrew, 
the verb stands first, its subject next, and its object last, nx D'^n'bs sna 
n'^i^an God created the heavens Gen. 1 : 1, this is liable to any alteration 
tliat emphasis may require: the subject may precede the verb, and the ob- 
ject may stand between them or before them both. 

b. A noun, which is the direct object of a verb, may receive PN, 
whether it is definite by signification, as a proper noun, God templed 
cn"i3X"ni< Abraham Gen. 22:1, or is made so by the article, God saw 
m'xn-nx the light Gen. 1 : 4, a pronominal suffix, take, noiv, "^nsiaTX my 
blessing Gen. 33:11, or construction with a definite noun, Jacob called 
nipan C\lJ~ni< the name of the place Gen. 35:15. The particle PX is not 
essential in any of these cases and is often omitted, particularly in poetry. 
If several definite nouns are connected together as the object of a verb, 
or if a verb has more than one definite object, rs may be repeated before 
each of them, / have given nX-Tfl -jr-ixn-rx. this ZawZ .. . "li/pn-ps the 
Kenile ''■ispn-nxi and the Kenizzite, etc., etc., Gen. 15 : 18-21 ; they stripped 
qbi^-nx Joseph ihsFis-j-ii* of his coat C^Esn n:ns"nx the full-length coat 



300 SYNTAX. §271 

Gen. 37 : 23; or it may stand before a part of tliem only. Dout. 12 : G, or it 
may be omitted altogetlier, Deut. 11:14. In a very lew instances the 
article is dropped after nx, which of itself Indicates the defiiiiteness of tlie 
noun, he reared up for himself 'nzk'q'riiA the pillar 2 Sam. IS: IS; and 
carver sij^eiigihened C^nbiTiX gilder Isa. 41:7, where the omist^ioa of the 
article is poetic. §247. 

c. Pronouns with T.X ; iliT^X this ye shall eat Lev. 11:9; put t^JTi* 
this (fellow) in the prison 1 Kin. 22:27; "i'i:J^. ^^x whom they have cast 
into the prison Jer. 38:9; he knexo n'ib^~idN nx what his ijoungest son 
had done to him Gen. 9:24; t}^^r\ ''^"nx whom hast thou reproached! 
Isa. 37:23; it does not occur before the neuter na . It is also extended 
sometimes to the following words, which partake to a certain degree of the 
pronominal character, ^3 all, every, Gen. 1:29, d^^X any one, each Ex. 
21:28, 'inx one 1 Sam. 9:3. With personal pronouns, Ci^nx Tj'^r'^? Gen. 
32:1, or ni:in''1 Gen. 4S: 20 and he blessed them. 

> •• -: IT : - 

§271. Many verbs, wliicli are not properly transitive, arc 
nevertheless capable of a transitive construction ; thus 

1. Verbs signifying plenty or want : Q^it'r^n nSi3 n^'^n f/ie 
house was full (of) men Judg. 16 : 27, D^^-'i? ni'ib ^nirit) I am 
sated (with) humt-ojjcrhigs of rams Isa. 1:11, ^b TJ-pr) we 
lacked evenj tUng Jer. 44 : 18. Here belongs that peculiar 
Hebrew idiom, which expresses abundance by such phrases 
as the following : ike hills i^n n^sSn shall run (with) milk 
Joel 4: 18, mine eijc n'^'i? Trrr^ runneth doion (with) tcater 
Lam. 1:16; cijlTlJ/Sp i'is r.Sy it had all come up (with) thorns 
i. e. was overgrown with them, Prov. 24 : 31. 

2. Verbs signifying motion may have for their object the 
place which it immediately concerns, whether it be directed 
upon it, to it, or from it, "^a^^n-bs ri? tjbsi and loe icent 
(through) all the icilderness Deut. 1:19, and figuratively, 
Piip'i^ ?)bn ivalhing (in) righteousness Isa. 33:15, "rbj) "^i^^T^. 
and they came into the citi/ Josh. 6:19, n^bn-ns? ^skl^;; thcg 
went out (of) the citij Gen. 44 : 4. 

3. Intransitive verbs may, as in other languages, govern 
their connate noun, ni^n ^T\'diT\ 1 have dreamed a dream 
Gen. 37:9; '^sp'a nia'^ISp^'i and they lamented there a lamen- 
tation Gen. 50 : 10 ; ^^^nri "'^^n ye loill he vain a vanity i. e. 
utterly vain Job 27 : 12 ; or even one from a difFercnt root if 



§273 OBJECT or verbs. 301 

it bo related or analogous in signification, ^t^^^ip in^-h.) nw 
I have been zealous a p-eat fiiri/ Zedx. 8:2, n;:i:n "j-^^i? / 
shall sleep death i. c. the sleep of death, Ps. 13 : 4. 

4. Any verb may take as its object a noun which defines 
the extent of its application, vb'j,"i-rs T^T} he ivas diseased in 
Us feet 1 Kin. 15 : 23 ; onlij b"hr.x t?C2n in Hie ihronc icill I 
he fjreater ihaii thou Gen. 44 : 40 ; Xf) ^"^^i^n i/e jjerish as to 
the icay i. e. lose the loajj Ps. 2:12. 

a. By an impersonal construction of passive verbs tlicir snl)jcct is some- 
times converted into the object, wliicii in fact it logically is, y-iNtn-nx 'rn^ 
dandum est terram, let Ike land be given Num. 32:5, '^"^S'n-nx i^I^^nb 1^*1 
lil'y and it was told to liebekah (i. c. some one told her) ilie words of Esati 
Gen. 27:42, so Gen. 17:5, Ex, 10 :S. Lev. 10: IS, 2 Sam. 21 : 11, etc. This 
construction ic? sometimes extended to neuter verbs in familiar phrases, 
which have become associated with an active idea, "rnn-nx tji^'ra f\1 ^X 
let not be evil in thine eyes (i.e. do not regard as evil) the thing 2 Sam. 
11 : 25, 1 Sam. 20 : 13, Josh. 22 : 17, Neh. 9 : 32. In 2 Kin. 18 : 30 n-'rn-rit "(nsn 
the cili/ shall be given, the verb agrees with ^"'3? notwithstanding its re- 
ception of the sign of the object: rx is omitted in the parallel passage. 
Isa. 36 : 15. 

b. A noun, about which a statement is to be made, sometimes stands 
absolutely and is preceded by the sign of the object, htz ^T"i3r!"!^'$ as for 
the iron, it fell 2 Kin. 6:5; b-^n •^trx n^x-PSTiX as for all these (they 
were) men of valour Jadg. 20: 4i; "'nipn-n« as for my statutes they did 
not walk in them Ezek. 20 : 16. Some regard ns as the sign of the object 
in such passages as -i^n-PiO i-^xn tih 1 Sam. 17:31, and refer to the fact 
that the Arabic conjunction is followed by the accusative when it is need 
in the sense of together with; more probably, however, TN is the preposi- 
tion icilh, §238.2, and the passage is to be rendered the lion came and (that 
too) with the bear, so Num. 3:26, 1 Sam. 26: 16. 1 Kin. 11:25. etc. 

§272. 1. When a noun or pronoun is regarded as the 
indirect object of a verb, the relation is indicated by means 
of the appropriate preposition. 

2. Many verbs vary their construction 'without any ma- 
terial difference of meaning according to the form of the con- 
ception in the mind of the speaker or writer, being foUowed 
by one preposition or by another or by none at all, as he views 
the relation as du'cct or indirect, and if the latter, under one 
aspect or another : thus, the?/ tcent out from the citij may be 
expressed by the direct relation, "i^i^n-r^ 'iNi";; Gen. 44 : 4, 



302 SYNTAX. §273 

or by the indirect, ^''^'rr)i2 ^Ni^,'; Josli. 8 : 22 ; Qnbs tof^ht is 
followed by D2? wit/t Josh. 10:29, by a in (na in earn) 
ver. 31, by b? against ver. 38, by sn^ Judg. 12:4. 

a. A number of verbs are indifferently construed with a direct object or 
with b to. in reference to, thus. sfjN to love any one and to have love to 
any one, NDi /o cure and fo ^perform a cure for any one, ^^''din to save and 
fo grani salvation to any one, rind to destroy and Zo 6r«zg- destruction to 
any one. 

6. As the object of an action may, in certain cases, be regarded as the 
instrument with which it is performed, some transitive verbs also admit a 
construction with 2 with, thus ISICJ ^i'pri blow the trumpet Hos. 5 : 8, 
*iE)it"3 ypn'ii] a.nd he blew loilh the trumpet Judg. 3 : 27 ; G'^'^^f^ i!;^Q to 
spread forth the hands Ps. 143:6, but followed by 5 to spread forth with 
the hands Lam. 1 : 17. 

3. By a condensed style of expression {construdio praeg- 
nans) prepositions are sometimes connected with verbs, to 
whose meaning they are not strictly conformed ; thus, motion 
may be suggested by the preposition though the verb of it- 
self implies no such idea, '^'y^ Pi'pin tltou hast profaned to 
the (/round i. e. profaned by casting to the ground, Ps. 89 : 40, 
i^.n^n-b^ ijji^ ^ins iheij trembled one unto another i. e. one 
turned tremblingly to another, Jer. 36 : 16, ''Sn^?? S'^^i'^ i'?]?'? 
thou hast answered (by saving) me from the horns of the uni' 
corns Ps. 22 : 22. 

§ 273. Some verbs have more than one object, viz. : 

1. The causatives of transitive verbs: tj^si^™ inbs^nn 
DntoSTiS and I loill make thy oppressors eat their own flesli 
Isa. 49:26; n^&?~b5"ns« "^^y) ^ he would 7iot have caused us 
to see all these things Judg. 13 : 23 ; b&$nto:i-n^ n|Sn2^ he shall 
cause Israel to inherit it Deut. 1 : 38. 

2. Verbs whose action may be regarded under different 
aspects as terminating upon different objects, or which, under 
the rules already given, may take a direct object of more 
than one kind, all irib5 n-)^ nii^j?? zvhich God commanded him 
Gen. 6 : 22 ; D-'j^nn-bs n^ bsnis": ^s-nx nninb to teach the chil- 
dren of Israel all the statutes Lev. 10:11; ''n^55-bs-nN tr^ir\ 
'Tib thou hast smitten all my enemies on the cheek Ps. 3:8; 



§273 OBJECT OF VERBS. 303 

tJ'ip oi'i'inxio lift up your hands to the sanctuary Ps. 134 : 2 ; 
Mtt^rra oiarii and he shall discomjit them a discomfiture 
Deut. 7 : 23. 

3. The instrument of an action, tlie material used in its 
performance, its design, or its result, is often regarded as its 
secondary or remote object, "Jls^ ini? ^issn'^l and they over- 
whelmed him with stones Lev. 24 : 23 ; t2Dn« csnb? rinr^ni and 
thou shall yird them with a belt Ex. 29:9; thy seed T\]7\"MD)^^ 
iTa'i^rrnN with which thou shall sow the ground Isa, 30 : 23 ; 
ns:? D^sjrrnsj ^%^^^ and he formed the man of dust Gen. 2:7; 
^vrbt ifcx /or which I have sent it Isa. 55:11; nin^^ 
nST^ Disniin-ni? and he built the stones into an altar 1 Kin. 
18:32. 

a. The person affected by an action, ofv/hich he is not the immediate 
object, is occasionally regarded as its remote object, though not so fre- 
quently as in English, "^SPin; 35?:^! "j^"}^. than hast given me the land of the 
south Judg. 1:15, comp. in the same verse, ''b nnna'l; Vjibrs nrn theij did 
thee evil. Gen. 50: 17, comp. nyn onb !i>m Isa. o": 9 ; nby-o'ribi-rN ^i-isb'^l 
IIJ'^N ri"5x and they hired of the king of Maacah a thousand men 1 Sam. 10:6. 
The same thing occurs in a few instances after intransitive verbs, ''ib'ia 
he grew up to me as to a father Job 31 : 18; "'SPT'S^ did ye fast unto me 
Zech. 7:5. 

4. Some verbs may govern the subject and predicate of 
a subordinate clause, bos 'st^ ti?ib to know wickedness (to 
h€) folly Eccl. 7 : 25, the latter, if it be an adjective or par- 
ticiple, will remain without the article, § 259. 2, D^^nsj^ T^'?'? 
"'lisr.'a I have heard Ephraim bemoaning himself i ox. 31 : 18, 
p^"^:^ iri^yi'-i '^tiifs thee have I seen righteous Gen. 7:1. 

5. If an active verb is capable of governing a double 
object, its passive may govern the more remote of them, 

DDnb-iS' iTirn nx DPb'csi and ye shall be circumcised in the flesh 
of your foreskin Gen. 17:11, D.ni5 fnijn i5l?'/SP^ and the land 
was filled icith them Ex. 1 : 7, iripris ?^np rent as to his coat 
i.e. with his coat rent 2 Sam. 15:32, r.fcp rroiD sent (or 
charged) with a painful message 1 Kin. 14 : 6. 



304 SYNTAX. § 274 



Adverbial Expressions. 

§ 274. Tiie predicate of a proposition may be further 
qualified 

1 . By adverbs, which commonly stand after the words to 
which they refer, la570 ni'j-nin'i and behold (it was) very good 
Gen. 1 : 31 ; ninn tb^^^ and he tvas greatli/ jjrovoked ^d\. 
3 : 33 ; I am "ib^'/a f^^y\ iinsis thij exceed wg great reiuard 
prop, thg reward very much Gen. 15:1. 

a. Adjectives belonging to the subject may of course be qualified in 
the same manner as though they were found in the predicate. 

2. By nouns used absolutely to express the relations of 
time, place, measure, number, or manner. 

a. Thus, time when: B'^'^nil'i "if^'-J "y evening mid morning and noon 
will I pray Ps. 55:18; larri/ here 1^5"?^^ to-night Num. 22:8; Gideon 
came rriTadNri \j35<n at the beginning of the watch. Time how long: and, 
he shall shut up the house D'^i^ riyad seve?i days 'Lev. 14:38; the land 
rested fiiti U'^iiiyd eighty years Judg. 3:30. 

b. The place where: the absolute use of nouns in this sense is confined 
almost entirely to the familiar words, nrs at the door of Gun. 18: 1. Judg. 
9:35, rria at the house of Gen. 38:11, Num. 30:11, and a ^aw proper 
names, cnb rr^i at Bethlehem 2 Sam. 2:32. ^KTi-^a at Bethel Hos. 12:4. 

J VAT •• ... 

c. Measures of space: in'ia nis:< t^i^n three cubits high Ezek. 41:22; 
he went oh^ Tp.'H « duifs journey 1 Kin. 19:4. 

d. Number: Ci"''2S'Q i'2D siu return seven times 1 Kin. 18:43; he of- 
fered sacrifices ^i"^ "h'^.^. according to the number of them all Job 1 : 5. 

e. Manner, answering to the Greek adverbial accusative : ye shall 
dwell H:o3 in security Deut. 12 : 10 ; ?/e shall not go nai"i I'fUly Mie. 2:3; 
the tribes xcent up ^■»rfc^_ ^'l'^?. according to a laiv of Israel Ps. 122 : 4 ; 
thou shall not go there ^'■'O'O T\k'^'i for fear of briers Isa. 7:25; to serve 
him "inx did with one consent prop, shoidder Zeph. 3 : 9. 

3. By nouns preceded by a preposition forming a qualify- 
ing phrase. 

a. For the meanings and usage of the several prepositions see the 
lexicon. 



§275 NEGLECT OF AGREEMENT. 305 



Neglect of Agreement. 

§ 275. The general rule that verbs, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns agree in gender and number with the noun to which 
they respectively relate, is subject to some remarkable excep- 
tions ; the principal of which are the following, viz. : 

1. When the predicate adjective or verb precedes the 
noun it often prefers a primary to a secondary form, that is 
to say, the masculine may be used instead of the feminine 
and the singular instead of the plural. The reason of this is 
that the attention is not so particularly drawn to the acci- 
dents of gender and number in the subject until it is uttered, 
and consequently the predicate is not required to conform so 
precisely to it. 

a. Thus, the mascuHne for the feminine: 'J^'^N-'^ tP!!< tt't"5"t<^ the land 
could 7iot bear them Gen. 13 : 6, fii'lb"^ Dii'ia"!^ pin'n salvation is far from 
the wicked Ps. 119: 155, nihxuj sinin tremble ye careless women Isa. 32: 11. 
The singular for the plural: '^"'"l^T i<3'J let thy words come to pass Judg. 
13: 12, rp-jstia ^b'^ upright are thy judgments Ps. 119: 137, nip.iso nbiisx 
her wounds are incurable, or the singular maybe understood distributively, 
each of her wounds is incurable Mic. 1 : 9. The masculine singular for the 
feminine plural : nisbs ^is"^ t<b reproaches cease not Mic. 2 : 6, "ihs^^'ns 
ninn until calamities be overpast Ps. 57:2, D^ba 'i^"'^n'!',l <^'^^ there were to 
him wives 1 Kin. 11:3. 

6. When the predicate consists of several verbs or adjectives, one of 
which precedes and the rest follow the noun, the latter must agree with it, 
while the first may be put in its primary form, n"ii<^ ''117 let there be 
lights . . . nnxb nnn and let them -be for signs Gen. 1 : 14, "lox' D'^iyjN ''h^l 
B">N^a !iiri and there were men who were defied Num. 9:6. In 1 Kin. 
10 : 12 two verbs are put in the masc. sing, with a plural subject. 

c. The predicate, even when it follows the subject, occasionally departs 
from it in gender or number, retaining its primary form ; this takes place 
with passive or neuter verbs of familiar occurrence, and which are proba- 
bly used impersonally as the same verbs are elsewhere, §271.4. a, the sons 
of Jacob "i^'l^"? I'iJX. whom (his wives) had born to him prop, there had 
been born to him Gen. 35:26, comp. Gen. 4: 18, 46:22, 27, •''^ n\n rri'S-'sa 
there was to me (i. e. I had) house-born servants Eccles. 2:7, comp. Gen. 
47:24, Ex. 12:49, 2S: 7. Num. 9:14, 15:29, Deut. 18:2, 1 Chron. 24:2S, 
2 Chron. 17: 13, n^n nbb^ it was dark prop, darkness Gen. 15: 17. The 
disposition to recur to their primary form discovers itself in a very few 
instances in qualifying adjectives when separated from the noun to which 
20 



306 SYNTAX. §275 

they belong,^ pjni ii^iia n*in a great mid strong wind 1 Kin, 19:11; in 
Ps. 63:2, qy^T n^:!l-yn5<2 quoted by Nordheimer as an additional exam- 
ple tlie second adjective may agree not witli y}JA but with the pre- 
ceding noun, iniua for thee longs my Jlesh, in a dry land, a7id weary, 
Alex, in loc. 

2. Collective nouns may have verbs, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns agreeing with them in the plural, ^^3?_^T n^n r\r}W 
and the people hasted and passed over Josh. 4:10, niinb? "jiis 
lost sheep Jer. 50:6, Q^fcljp ab njyn-bs all the congregation, 
all of them are holy Num. 16:3. 

a. When a predicate consists of more than one verb or adjective, the 
first sometimes agrees with it formally in the singular and the rest 
logically in the plural, n^ip-n5< sisn'l n^rn^^S Nian;; and all the congre- 
gation lifted up and uttered their voice Num. 14:1; ^i'^'iJ*] csn "jis^l 
and the people believed and they heard Ex. 4:31. 

b. The noun y^^ii land, earth, which is properly a feminine singular, 
may, when it is put for its inhabitants, be construed with the masculine 
plural, 2 Sam. 15:23, Ps. 66:4. Names of nations borrowed from those 
of their progenitors, as Israel, Edom, Amalelc. may be strictly construed in 
the masculine singular, Ex. 17 : 11. Am. 1 : 11, or as a collective in the mas- 
cuhne plural, Hos. 8:2, Ob. ver. 6, 2 Sam. 10: 17, or again in the feminine 
singular, wiiether this arises from a prominent reference to the land or 
from the frequent personification of a people as a maiden, 2 Sam. 10: 11, 
Jer. 13:19, 49:17; so O? people in the following examples, T^izV nxan 
thy people has done wrong Ex. 5: 16, rinui"" ci'n the people dwelling Judg. 
18:7. Different constructions may be united in the same passage, Jer. 
48:15, Hos. 14:1. 

3. Nouns, which are plural in form but singular in sig- 
nification, commonly have verbs, adjectives, and pronouns 
agreeing with them in the singular, n^n'bK s-ia God created 
Gen. 1:1, n^^'' i^b'^a its oivner shall he put to death Ex. 
21:29, mrj5 tr^'z'^^, a hard master 1^2^. 19:4, ^:^'jy\'S} ©'nnrin 
thy youth is renewed Ps. 103 : 5. 

a. When the word Cjippx refers to false deities, the sense is plural 
and it is construed accordingly, ?]"^n'i'?? '^'r'.h these are thy gods Ex. S2 : 4, 8, 
B''ni'>5 "JliU^I^'n's so VI ay the gods do 1 Kin. 19:2; but where it refers to 
the true God. it is with few exceptions construed in the singular. Yet 
see Gen. 20:13, 35:7, Ex. 22:8, Josh. 24:19, 1 Sam. 17:'26, 2 Sam. 
7:23. The exceptional construction in these and similar passages may 
have arisen from the attention being directed to the Supreme Being in 
general, and to the fulness or variety of his maniiestations without spe- 



§276 NEGLECT OF AGREEMENT. 307 

cific reference to the divine unity, and may, besides, involve an allusion to 
the personal distinction in the Godiiead. See Alexander on Ps. 11:7 and 
58 : 12. 

4. Plural names of inanimate or irrational objects of 
either gender are occasionally joined with the feminine singu- 
lar, Tj^bV: ain?r\ rnw niiana tAe beasts of the field pant for 
thee Joel 1 : 20, n^niSD TptT\ its foods wash aicay Job 
14:19, nrimi? '0^%^ pan(/s have tal-en her Jer. 49:24, 
rtsnn n"'3n toild beasts, their lair Isa. 35 : 7. 

a. In objects devoid of personality the individual is of small account, 
and may be easily sunk in the mass. A phtralis inhumaims may conse- 
quently be regarded as equivalent to a collective, the proper form of which 
is the feminine singular, §198, and words belonging to it may be dealt 
with accordingly. The same principle prevails in the construction of neu- 
ter plurals in Greek, ra tfia. rpix^i. 

5. Masculine verbs, adjectives, and pronouns are some- 
times used when females are spoken of from a neglect to note 
the gender, if no stress is laid upon it, v^'^^'^n^;! ajid they (queens 
and concubines) praised her Cant. G : 9 ; the Lord deal kindly 
D3^^ with you (Ruth and Orpah) as oh^iJ??^ ye have dealt 
Ruth 1:8; T'? my dead (Sarah) Gen. 23 :4 ; l^ni^ ''pk thou 
art destroyed Jer. 4:30; this last passage may, however, be 
rendered thou, it is destroyed, what loilt thou do ? 

6. Singular predicates and pronouns are sometimes em- 
ployed in a distributive sense of plural subjects, ^^Sn 'm''?")^''? 
they that bless thee shall each be blessed Num. 24 : 9 ; ypf:n;a 
t\iT\'^ nib they loho 2^'rofane it shall every one be put to death 
Ex. 31 : 14 ; 13^3^ ^1^6:' D-'P^a njpn^ they take away the riyht- 
eousness of the righteous from, each of them Isa. 5 : 23. 

§276. 1. When the subject consists of two or more 
words connected by the conjunction and, the predicate, if it 
precedes its subject, may be put in the masculine singular as 
its primary form, bipi niin DTO iJ^^^l and from them shall 
proceed thanksyiviny and a voice Jer. 30 : 19, or it may be 
put in the plural, referring to them all, "jnnxi nir^a Ti?;::^ 



308 SYNTAX. § 277-279 

and Moses and Aaron did so Ex. 7 : 20, or it may agree with 
the nearest word, 'J^nx'i tpya iS'inT and Miriam and Aaron 
spahe Num. 12 : 1 ; T^!^^?. ^^^^ ^^1r ^ ^^^^^^ and thj fathers 
have 7iot hioion Deut. 13 : 7. 

2. If the predicate follows a compound subject it is 
commonly put in the plural, though it may agree with the 
principal word to which the others are subordinate, ''ri"^.-.'!! ''^^ 
OiiiJ / luith my maidens will fast prop, and my maidens Est. 
4:16, i53 sxiil ll*! 'I'ln? the servants of David and Joab 
came 2 Sam. 3 : 22. 

3. If a predicate refers equally to two words of diiferent 
genders, it will be put in the masculine in preference to the 
feminine, cij^f ^yTl ^D"?-?^ Abraham and Sarah loere old 
Gen. 18 :11 ; if they are of different persons, the predicate 
will be put in the second in preference to the third, and in 
the first in preference to either of the others, ""ba li^ji'^l ''3S 
njn? I a?id Jonathan my son will he 1 Sam. 14:40, nrii^ 
DFiia'il Tjirii? finiJi thou and Aaron thy brother and ye shall 
s^eak Num. 20 : 8. 

§277. If two or more nouns are united in the construct 
state the predicate ordinarily agrees with the first as the lead- 
ing word in such combinations : it may, however, agree with 
the second, if that is the more important, or the predicate 
might with propriety be referred directly to it, 'J'lHnsn n^^io 
bb'ris? the fields of Heshbon languish Isa. 16:8, niirs? D^ ^^^^? 
n*'ii"'3S is found the blood of the souls of the poor Jer. 2 : 34. 

a. The predicate agrees generally though not invariably with the 
second noun when the first is Vs, or an abstract expressing a quality of 
that which follows, na-iTQ^-bs i'^r\^^_ and all the days of Seth were Gen. 
5:8, D-ifc^n-bD ^iS^PlT a7id all the women went out Ex. lo : 20, T'ii^^i^ "i"?'? 
sisai: the choice of his captains were drowned ver. 4. 

§ 278. Nouns in the dual have verbs, adjectives, and 
pronouns, agreeing with them in the plural, snis"] fiij^ ''r? 
the eyes of Leah loere tender Gen. 29: 17. 

§ 279. The abrupt changes of the person from the third 



§280 REPETITION OF WORDS. 309 

to the first or second, and vice versa, which arc especially 
frequent with the prophets and psalmists, Isa. 1 -. 29, Ps. 
81 : 17, are due to the boldness and vividness of their con- 
ceptions, in virtue of which they often pass in the course of 
the same sentence from speaking of God to speaking in his 
name, and from describing men to directly addressing them. 

a. The occasional combination of the pronoun of the first person with 
a verb in the third is to be explained by an ellipsis, 'irz'] ■'lin behold /(am 
he who) has laid Isa. 2S : 16, qoi"' ''bjn behold I (am he who) icill add 
29:14,38:5. 

Repetition of Words. 

§ 280. The repetition of nouns may denote 

1. Distribution, nbio niia year hy year Deut. 14 : 22, 
"1^33 1)533 in the morniny, in the morniny i. e. every morning 
2 Sam. 13:4, t23'(|b nnj^-iij^s ini«-©^^? one man for each tribe 
Josh. 3:12; so with numeral adjectives, § 252. 4, ny3ffi nb3TJ? 
hy sevens Gen. 7 : 2, and adverbs, "dsni 'cbyi little hy little 
Ex. 23 : 30. 

2. Plurality, 1^1"1T generation and generation i. e. many 
generations Deut. 32 : 7, ^j?> i^ ij?^ ^i? 1?^ ^? 1?^ 1? pre- 
cejjt upon precejpt, precept upon precept, line upon line, line 
upon line Isa. 28:10, 13, f^'ii^^ ^"^^^^^ pits on pits Gen. 
14:10; or with the implication of diversity, "jsxi lax a 
tceight and a loeight i. e. toeights of two sorts Deut. 25 : 13, 
s!?) 3^ a double heart Ps. 12 : 3. 

3. Emphasis or intensity, 'p'''}^ P^i^ justice, justice i. e. 
nothing but justice Deut. 16:20, pb!^ 'pw exceeding deep 
Eccl. 7 : 24 ; so with adverbs, 155^ 'li^'a mightily, mightily 
Gen. 7:19, and even a conjunction, l^tl^l "J?"!! because even 
because, 

a. Sometimes the second word is put in a different gender from the 
first, n!S\2;B!i -(yBa all kinds of support Isa. 3:1, comp. Jer. 48 : 19, or a 
different number, cn'^iipn linn a heap, two heaps Judg. 15:16. n-hia 
ni-^iri Eccl. 2:8. Or a cognate word may be employed, nHll"72!l niaiU 
waste and desolate Ezek. 6: 14, ')in3^3 nid Lev, 23:3. 



310 SYNTAX. §281,282 

6. Instances occur of triple repetition, T^Jilj? ttJI^j? ttJin;? holy, holyjwly, 
Isa. 6 : 3, y^H y"]X y^ii O earlh, earth, earth] Jer. 22 : 29' Jer. 7 : 4, Ezelt! 
21 : 32, Ex. 25 : 35.' 

§281. A separate pronoun may be added to a pro- 
nominal suffix for the sake of emphasis, "^ax ^n^'a my dying, 
mine 2 Sam. 19 : 1, ^^"li"" nris? theey thee shall they praise 
Gen. 49:8, or to a noun to which it refers, ^{^n"na ntjb to 
Seth, to him also Gen. 4:26. 

§ 282. In verbs the absolute infinitive is joined with the 
finite forms to add emphasis or intensity to the idea, Ti'^^^sn 
•j'bTsn shalt thou actually reign over us? Gen. 37 : 8, fr^^n tiiia 
thou shalt surely die Gen. 2:17. This combination some- 
times expresses continuance or repetition, particularly when 
two infinitives are connected together and both follow the 
finite verb, ^iii^i xiis;' i?i?T and it went out going out and re- 
turning i. e. it kept going to and fro Gen. 8 : 7, '^^'^^ ^'^n ^ibn 
they ivent on lowing as they went 1 Sam. 6:12, D^'^bs? '^ii'lif!l 
"fill DST^n and I spake to you rising up early and speaking 
Jer. 7 : 13. 

a. The infinitive is mostly of the same species with the finite verb to 
which it is added, although this is not always the case. Thus, the Kal, 
on account of its greater simplicity of form, may be joined with a deriva- 
tive species, e.g. Niphal bjrB^ bipD Ex. 19:13, Piel Tji^a "r"^! Josh. 
24:10, Pual qnb qna Gen. '37 : 33^, Hiphil cns:; pns 1 'Sam.' '"23: 22, 
Hophal Ti-ar^ nia Ex.'lD: 12. Hithpael naairrn aia Isa. 24: 19; or one 
derivative species with another of like signification, nn'^sa t<3 '^'ilr'7 Lev. 
19 : 20. ribrjn xi bnnri Ezek. 16 : 4. Occasionally the infinitive is bor- 
rowed Irom a cognate verb, t|qx tjbx Zeph. 1 : 2 (tlDX and PJIO), Uiinx 
Wl^.^n;' Isa. 28:28 (™ and dsi-ri).' ^ ■ 

b. The construct infinitive is very rarely used in such combinations in- 
stead of the absolute, 13^in h'iin Neh. 1 : 7, n-^nx-nrq Ps. 50 : 21 ; once 
it is added in a varied form to a preceding construct infinitive, n^riis 
rriBjS 2 Sam. 6: 20. The finite verb is repeated, "^ii^": n*^!!:; 2 Sam. 15:8 
K'thibh. A verbal noun takes the place of the infinitive, lisn M^"!? 
Hab. 3:9. 

c. When two verbs are connected together to express continuous ac- 
tion, a participle is sometimes substituted for the absolute infinitive in the 
case of one or both. rihiziH n|i> . . . nb'i? li-n 2 Sam. 15 : 30, nihl r^^n Tsph 
Jer. 41:6; an adjective may even take the place of the second, "^i^n ~^^? 
bn;') Gen. 26:13, tibp^^ -^^iri , . . r^sm Judg. 4:24; the finite verb ' is 



^283,284 INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 311 

omitted in ^"i'lS; "pH ''?'^1'3 Est. 9 : 4, the substantive verb takes its place, 
lion') rpn !i-n Gen. 8:5," b-ir.i ri^n ^ebin': ■'n':] 2 Chron. 17: 12. The 
second verb may also be put in one ol'tlie finite tenses, ^i'pril 7\'ii^ '^'^ibh 
Josh. 6: 1^. ^^p."!"! "ll'i'«7 ... Ti^P 2 Sam. 16: 13, and in fact other construc- 
tions, bejTun witli a participle or infinitive, are not infrequently continued 
in the preterite or future, Job 12 ;21. 



Interrogative Sentences. 

§283. 1. A direct question is indicated by the interroga- 
tive particle n , ''p'pf]n «^«^^ ^^ioic (jo ? Gen. 24 : 58, rinnn 
12N D'^n'bx am I in the ])lace of God? Gen. 50 -. 19 ; an in- 
direct question by •^ or D« if, to know Q-QriJ? °?^'"n whether 
you love Deut. \2> -A, inquire ri^n«-n« ivhether I shall re- 
cover prop, if I shall 2 Kin. 1 : 2. 

o. The particle rt is in Job 4 : 2 separated from the proper interroga- 
tive clause. 

2. In a disjunctive question the first member is commonly 
introduced by TS_ and the second by Di5 or D&J'i , T;:a nsnsn 
i^S-DK sin is this thy soiUs coat or not? Gen. 37 : 32 ; ^"^ryVs 
is it any pleasure to the Almiyhty that thou art righteous 
S^SS'DXI or is it gain to him, etc.. Job 22 :3. 

a. The second member is more rarely introduced by ix or, uho Imow- 
elh Vyo ik n-'ri'; cipnri whether he shall be a wise man or afoul Eccl. 2 : 19, 
or by n repeated nsnn x^n pjns^ whether theij be strong or weak Num. 
13:18, i^^n ^ijb DnX'Jp ^iJ^'n^bn have ye called us to impoverish us or not? 
Judor. 14 : 15. The construction of the second clause is interrupted and re- 
sumed again in Gen. 17 : 17. 

b. If a question stand in a disjunctive relation to something previously 
expressed or implied, it may begin with CX, "i^^n "ir"n3"nx cisEH your 
perversion ! or is the potter to be reckoned as the clay? Isa. 29 : 16, rka CK 
■>3li>. or is this thing from my lord ? 1 Kin. 1 : 27. 

§ 284. A question may also be asked by means of the 
interrogative pronouns or interrogative adverbs. Or it may, 
without any particle of interrogation, be indicated simply by 
the tone of voice in which it is uttered, ^^i3 D"btj thy coming 
is peaceful? 1 Sam. 16:4. 



312 SYNTAX. §285 



E-ELATivE Pronoun. 

§285. 1. From simple we pass to compound sentences. 
These are made up of distinct clauses united for the most 
part by the relative pronoun or by conjunctions. As the rela- 
tive invariably occupies the first place in its own clause, and 
as the Hebrew admits of no inflections to represent case, 
some special device was necessary to indicate its relation to 
the following words. Accordingly, when the relative Ti^iJ^ is 
governed by a verb, noun, or preposition, this is shown by 
appending an appropriate pronominal suffix to the governing 
word, inbtD iibx loliom lie has sent 2 Kin. 19 :4 ; the ground 
n-i-ns nffi« ivhich he has cursed Gen. 5 : 29 ; ii?^T ^iys« tohose 
seed Gen. 1:11; houses of clay Diio;! ^s^^a ^^jx whose foun- 
dation is in the dust Job 4:19; the jplace T"^'^ . . . "ii?J!5 tipon 
which Ex. 3:5; tUou ^''jnnns nirx whom I have chosen Isa. 
41:8. 

a. When the relative is the object of a verb the suffix is frequently 
omitted, the sense being sufficiently plain without it, Tnx'ia'llitJN whom 
J have created Gen. 6 : 7. 

2. When the relative ncs* is preceded by n&? the sign 
of the definite object, or by a preposition, these pertain not 
to the relative but to its antecedent, which is in this case 
embraced with it as in the English compound relative 
what = that tohich, "irii^'b:? TiJi^Ti:^ Xi'j^ and he commanded 
him who loas over his house Gen. 44 : 1 ; to make thee under- 
stand nnjp:>-i©s^ m what shall befall Dan. 10 : 14. 

a. The only exception is ^rx^ ty with whom Gen. 31:32. Gesenius 
finds another in ^iuNS Isa. 47 : 12, but see Alexander in loc. 

3. The relative is frequently omitted, not only as in 
English, when it is the object of its clause, 'lis^ )nrii?s i?ito 
the pit (which) they have made Ps. 9:16, but also when it is 
the subject, and he forsook God ^niby (who) made him Deut. 
32:15, and even when it vi^ould stand for the compound 



§286,287 CONJUNCTIONS. 313 

relative and include its antecedent, nbTan-n;i:3 hy the hand of 
(him whom) thou wilt send Ex. 4:13, (so doth) ^s^n bi«TD 
the grave (those who) have sinned Job 24 : 19. 

§ 286. The demonstrative Jit or ^T is frequently used in 
poetry with the force of a relative, and it then, like the 
English that, suffers no change for gender or number, nipp 
P>7'?r ^I i^i'^ place that thou hast founded Ps. 104 : 8, Tx^Vti 
^Tsn ^T devices, which they have contrived Ps. 10 : 2. 



Conjunctions. 

§ 287. The Hebrew sedulously avoids all involution of 
sentences. Consequently, instead of linking its clauses to- 
gether into a complex whole by conjunctions of various 
power expressing their precise relation of dependence and 
subordination, it prefers, where this is possible, to connect 
them by means of the simple conjunction "i and, leaving the 
exact nature of the connection intended to be inferred from 
the meanings of the clauses themselves. 

1. The conjunction i may accordingly be employed not 
only where we would use and, but before an adversative 
clause, of every tree thou may est eat f?''?^ l>ut of the tree of 
the Imoioledye, etc., Gen. 2:16, 17, or one expressing a rea- 
son, yive us help from trouble ^i^') for vain is the help of 
mail Ps. 60 : 13, an inference, I have no pileasure in the death 
of him that dieth ^^''izJn'i loherefore turn Ezek. 18 : 32, design, 
^'tii ?i^? nj^T do this and live i. e. in order that you may live. 
Gen. 42 : 18, a comparison, Quan is bor7i unto trouble V^!) ^\y^ 
and (i. e. as) the sparks fy upward Job 5 : 7, or a co-existing 
act or condition, Noah was six hundred years old b^^iani and 
(i. e. when) the flood loas upon the earth Gen. 7 : 6. 

2. It serves to introduce the apodosis or second member 



314 SYNTAX. §287 

of a conditional sentence, if God toill be with me and keep me 
r\y!r^ n^ni then shall Jehovah be my God Gen. 28 : 20, 21. 

3. It may also connect a statement of time or a noun 
placed absolutely, with the clause to which it relates, Di'^a 
l-ipj^-ns nnnns? sib^i ''is'^^^n on the third day Abraham lifted 
up his eyes Gen. 22 : 4 ; '^''^T] D'J^I ^^'^^^ thy hope, (is it not) 
the integrity of thy ways ? Job 4:6. Both these uses, 
which are wholly foreign from our idiom, are combined in 
2 Sam. 15 : 34, thy father s servant "^35^^. I have been so hith- 
erto, but noio ^\^y I will be thy servant. 

a. For the meanings and usage of other conjunctions see the lexicon. 



GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

GENESIS, CHAPTER L 



VERSE 1. 



ri'it'Sna composed of the inseparable preposition 3, 
^231.1, with Daghesh-lene, §21.1, and the feminine de- 
rivative noun ™i?'i, §198. «. (4), without the article, 
§248, comp. kv apxd John 1:1, Ger. anfangs, Eng. at first; 
position of the accent, § 32. 1. 

sn3, i?b verb, § 162. 2, the preterite denoting past time 
absolutely, §262. 1, lack of formal agreement with its sub- 
ject, § 275. 3, order of words, § 270. «, position of accent, 
§32.2. 

n''n"biJ: a monosyllabic noun of class L, §183, plural, 
§199, of majesty, §201. 2, without the article, §246. 1. 

n^ sign of the definite object, § 270. 

D':m"n the article, §229.1, §245.4, and noun of the 
second form of class I., §185. 2. </, only used in the plural, 
§201.1, §203. 5. c. 

ns?"} the conjunction 1 , § 234, and t^i? . 

: V'^is^rj the article, § 229. 3, and Segholate noun of class I., 
§ 183 ; Seghol changed to Kamets by, § 229. 4. h, or § 05 (1). 

This verse is divided by the accents into two clauses, 
§ 36. 1 ; Athnahh is preceded by Munahh and Tiphhha, 
§38. 2 ; Silluk by Merka and Tiphhha, and Tiphhha again 
by Merka, §38. 1. 



316 GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

VERSE 2. 

nin;'n, nb verb r.jn, §1G9. 1, with Metliegli, ^45.2, 
Kamets distinguished from Kamets-Hhatuph, ^19. 2. 

^nid, ^nn Segholate nouns of class I. from inb roots, 
^184.3, abstracts used instead of adjectives, §254. 6. «, 
assonance or paronomasia. Double accent, §30. 1. 

"i^s-b? Makkeph, §43, nis noun of class L, form 2, 
§185. 1.d, only used in the plural, §201. 1, §209. 1 ; here 
in the construct state, §214. 2, § 216. 1, with its possessive 
sense, §254. 1. 

Dinri noun of class III from iy root §190.^, article omitted 
as if from a proper noun, § 246. 1, or by a kind of poetic 
brevity, §247, the face of ocean. 

nsnntj Piel participle of the Ayin Guttural verb vinn , 
§116.4, §121. 1, feminine, §205, as the predicate without 
the article, § 259. 2, although its subject is definite, § 246. 3; 
the participle expresses continuous action, §266. 1, belong- 
ing to the period before spoken of, § 266. 3. 

td'^'Dtj noun used only in the plural, §201.1, §203. 5.<?; 
vowel changed by the pause accent, §65. 1. 

This verse consists of two clauses, § 36. 1 ; the clause of 
Athnahh is subdivided by Zakeph Katon and R'bhia, § 36. 2 ; 
Zakeph Katon is preceded by Pashta, and Pashta by Merka, 
§38.4, Athnahh by Munahh and Tiphhha, §38.2. The 
clause of Silluk is subdivided by Zakeph Katon ; this is 
preceded by Munahh, § 38. 4, and Silluk by Merka and 
Tiphhha, §38.1. 

VERSE 3. 

^^p^;y Kal future of Pe Aleph verb "i^X , §110. 3, with 
Vav Conversive, §99. 1, §265, which removes the accent to 
the penult and changes the vowel of the ultimate, §99. 3. a, 
§111.2.^. 



GENESIS, CHAPTER I. 317 

^n;^ apocopated future of nb verb n'^n , §171.1, § 177. 1, 
with a jussive sense, §204. 

""Ti^i future with Vav Conversive ; Daghesh-forte omitted, 
§99. S^Methegh, §45.2. 

VERSE 4. • 

Si'^^':;} Kal futui'e of s^'' verb nijn with Vav Conversive, 
§17L1, §172.4. 

si'J the predicate adjective without the article, §259. 2. 

^^^i?"! Hiphil future of bia with Vav Conversive, § 99. 3. 

1*^51 Vav Conjunctive, § 234, with the preposition V? > 
§237.1. 

VERSE 5. 

K^i^^l from the ^b verb H'^^ , §162.2. 

. D^O'^x P'sik, §38. l.«. 

■liNb preposition b with the vowel of the article, § 231. 5. 

Di'' noun, whose pliu-al is C^^, §207. 1./. 

J^n]? the preterite, used rather than the future with Vav 
Conversive, because the verb does not begin the clause, 
§265, the accent removed to the penult, § 35. 1. 

nb^'b paragogic n^ , §61. 0, §219. 2, with the noun b^^b, 
a Segholate of class I. from an "^'"J root, §184. d, having a 
pause accent, § 65. 1. 

nnx numeral, §223.1, agreement and position, §250.1. 

VERSE 6. 

?^|5n noun of class I. form 2, §185. 1. 

?jina preposition 1, §231. 1, with the construct of 1\)T\, 
§216. 1. c?, in a partitive sense, §254. 2. 



318 GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

bi^n*)? Hiphil participle of bia , § 84. 5, denoting con- 
tinuous action, §266. 1, and referred by the tense of the ac- 
companying substantive verb to the future, § 266. 3. «. 

VERSE 7. 

to^^l'i s guttural and 'rh verb tvb'S with Vav Conversive, 
§109.3, §171. 1, §172.4. 

nnri'a composed of the prepositions "j^ and tT^, 
§237.2(1). 

^S"!? composed of the prepositions 1^ and ^? . 

VERSE 8. 

D;ittT^ with pause accent, §65 (1). \ 

n]5h, lyi class I. Segholates, §183. 

J ■'ST? ordinal number, §227. 1, agreement with noun and 
position, §252. 1. 

VERSE 9. 

^i;?:' Niphal future of rb verb nijp, §169.1, with an 
imperative sense, §263. 1. 

Dii?tt noun of class III. from an "^3^ root, §190. b. 

^^^7^ Niphal future of n^n , § 109. 4, § 168. 

VERSE 10. 

n;])?'nbi conjunction 1, §234, preposition ^ , §231. 1, and 
noun of class III. from Jib root, §190. b, in the construct 
state, §215. 2, followed by the material of which it consists, 
§254.4. 

D''^!' plural, §207. 2, of D^, a noun of class I. from an 
i'y root, §186. 2. c. 



GENESIS, CHAPTER I. 319 

VERSE 11. 

Xffi'ir) apocopated Hiphil future of mm, §97.2, §264, 
governing its cognate noun ^512"^, §271.3. Methegh by 
§45. 2. 

?''^T'a the participle expresses what is constant and habit- 
ual, §266. 1. 

V^ collective noun, §201.1, probably abridged from a 
•lb root, class I. form 2, §185.2. d, in the construct, § 215. 1, 
with the following word, which denotes its quahty, §254. 6. 

■'HS noun from ^^^ root class I. form 1, § 184. 6. 

Tvm Kal participle of in^ verb, §168; the accent is not 
Y'thibh but Mahpakh, as is shown by its standing before 
Pashta in the subdivision of Zakeph Katon, §30. 2, §38. 4, 
shifted to the penult by, §35. 1, followed by Daghesh-forte 
conjunctive in the first letter of the next word, § 24. a. 

irpb preposition b , §231. 1, noun 'j'^'a from an *'':? root 
class I, §186. 2.(5, and pronominal suffix, §220. 1. 

in-isJ^iT niiJs oblique case of the relative pronoun, §74, 
§285. 1 ; the preposition i with a pronominal suffix, §233. 

VERSE 12. 

N^iini Hiphil future of ^s and ^'b verb, §144. 1, §162, 
with Vav Conversive, the accent remaining on the ultimate, 
§147.5, §166.4. 

'inr'ab suffix of third person, §220. 1. d, singular in dis- 
tributive sense referring to the preceding collective, §275. 6. 

VERSE 13. 

i^M ordinal number, §227. 1, §252. 1. 



320 GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS 

VERSE 14. 

^T}'^ lack of agreement with subject, §275. 1. 

ni^'a masculine noun in the plural, § 200. c, class III. 
from an lb root, §190. ^. 

bi^nnb the construct form of the infinitive used with pre- 
positions, § 267. (5. 

^^n'l preterite with Vav Conversive, §100.1, §265, in 
the plural because following the noun, § 275. 1. ^. 

VERSE 15. 

n^srib Hiphil infinitive construct of 12? verb, §153. 1. 

VERSE 16. 

•'^ii^ cardinal number, §223. 1, joined with noun, 
§ 250. 2 (2), without the article, § 251. 4. 

D'lbnsn qualifying adjective with the article after the 
noun, §249.1. 

•jbi^n . . . S^sn class I. form 2, §185. 1, emphatic use of 
the positive degree, §260. 2 (2). 

fi^^)'?^ noun of class III., §190, in the construct state, 
§214. 1. d, the following noun denoting the object, §254. 9. 
:n''nDi2n noun of class 11. from an y'b root, §187. 1.^. 

VERSE 17. 

in^l from 5d verb )bh §129.1. 
nrifi5 sign of the definite object with a pronominal suffix, 
§238^2. 

VERSE 18. 

bi"73ribi . . . Sie^bn construct infinitive with the preposi- 
tion, §267.3; Metheghwith ^, §45. 2.«. 



GENESIS CHAPTER I. 321 

VERSE 20. 

tjaiy;' Piel future of lV verb, §154. 2. 

VERSE 21. 

Di^snn plural of lin, §199; the Hhirik of the ultimate 
is long, §19. 1. 

nto^in Kal feminine participle, §205, with the article, 
§249.1. 

"ITW!!? the object of the verb ^sntj though without the ap- 
propriate pronominal suffix, §285. l.*^. 

nnS'i'ab plural noun with plural suffix, §220. 2. <5. 

VERSE 22. 

n'^5?5 Piel future of ^ Guttural verb, §116.4, §121. 1, 
with Vav conversive, §99. 3. «, no Daghesh-lene in ^ since 
the preceding Sh'va is vocal, §25. 

nbxb the preposition with Tsere, ^2^1. 'S. a, so as to say 
i. e. in saying. 

!!nn, ^nsp Kal imperatives of ran, nns, §169.1. 

S"!,"? Kal apocopated future, §171.1, Hhirik short though 
accented, §19. 1. 

VERSE 24. 

-in^ni construct of n^n, §214.1, with i paragogic, 
§218. Methegh, §45. 2, Daghesh-forte omitted, §25. 

VERSE 26, 

nw% Kal future of rita, §109.1, §168, in the plural 
number, §275.3. a. 

^sttbaa preposition, §231.1, Segholate noun, class I., 
§183, and pronominal suffix, §221.5. 
21 



322 GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS. 

'in'i^l from m, ^169.1. 

sn;^'in preposition, ^231.2, construct of the collective 
noun nsT, ^198, §214.1, §216.1; no Daghesh-lene in 5, 
§22. « (5). 

VERSE 27. 

nspp nDT predicates, §273.4, and consequently in- 
definite. 

: anfi5 pronoun, referring to both genders put in the mas- 
culine, § 276. 3. 

VERSE 28. 

fiTOns'i conjunction i, §234, imperative Kal of tjis, 
§84.4, and pronominal suffix, §101. Kibbuts is long, 
§19.1. 

VERSE 29. 

•"Fitip from "jrip, §130.1, preterite in the sense of the 
present, §262. 1. ^. 

n^n;;> singular, referring formally to the nearest collective 
subject, §276. 1, or taken distributively, §275. 6. 

VERSE 30. 

pn^bs-nx, n2§ before bs without the article, §270.c. 

VERSE 31. 

^^12 position of adverb, §274. 1. 

:*^ffi'©n Di)' article omitted before the noun, §249. 1. c. 



II^DEX I. 

SUBJECTS TREATED FULLY OR INCIDENTALLY. 



The numbers in this and the following Indexes refer to the Sections of the Grammar. 



Abbreviations 9. 1. 

Absolute infinitive. See Infinitive abso- 
lute. 
Abstract nouns, feminine 198, plural 201. 

1. «, c. 

Accents 28, use in cantillation 28. 6, forms 
and classes 29, meaning of names 29. b, 
like forms distinguished 30, position of 
32-35, aid in distinguishing words 34, 
change of position 35, effect of Vav 
conversive S3. 4, 99. 3, 100. 2, in place 
of Methegh 39. 3. 6, 45. 5, give sta- 
bility to vowels 60. 1. a, vowel changes 
produced by 64. 

Accents, consecution of in prose 36-39, 
poetic 31, consecution of 40-42. 

Accents pause 37. 2. a, position of 35. 2. 

Accentuation double 39. 4. a, 42. a. 

Addition of letters 50. 3. 

Adjectives in place of participles of neuter 
verbs 90, 185. 1. a, formation of 185. 2, 
expressing permanent or variable quali- 
ties 185. 2. a, intensity 187. 1, 189, 
defects 187. 1. 6, diminutives of color 
188, declension of 217, qualifying nouns 
249. 1, qualifying nouns in the con- 
struct 256, predicate 259. 2, compari- 
son of 260, emphatic use with verbs 
282. c. 

Adjectives numeral 223-227, 250-252. 

Adverbial idea expressed by a verb 269. a. 

Adverbial expressions 274. 

Adverbs 235, with suffixes 236, as the sub- 
ject 242. c, numeral 252. 4, position of 
274. 

Affixes 33. 

Agreement neglected 275-279. 

Aleph, sound of 3. 4, used as a vowel-letter 
11. 1, in a few verbal forms 120. 2, 122. 

2, 156. 3, once in 3 f. s. suffix 220. 2. 
6, otiant 16. 1, with Mappik 26, with 
Daghesh forte (?) 121. 1, substituted for 



He in Chaldee 51. 3, in Niphal infini- 
tive 91. 6, in Hiphil 94. «, b, in Hith- 
pael 96. a, in feminine ending of verbs 
86. 6, and nouns 196. e?, for Vav in fem. 
plur. of nouns 199, prosthesis of 53. 1. 
a, 183. c, omitted 53. 2, 3, 57. 2 (2) a, 
111. 2. 6, c, 151. 2, 164. 2, quiescent 
57. 2, after prefixed prepositions 231. 3. 
o, 6, after Vav Conjunctive 234. c, pre- 
fers diphthongal vowels 60. 1. a, 110. 3, 
111. 2, previous vowel rarely short if 
Diighesh forte omitted CO. 4. a, 121. 1, 
229. 3, added to 3 pi. preterite 86 b, 
prefixed in the formation of nouns 189. 

Alphabet 2, order of 6, Lepsius' theory 
6. a. 

Animals, names of 197. c. 

Apocopated future 97. 2, 264, not in pas- 
sive species 97. 2. 6, in Ayin Guttural 
verbs 119. 1, Lamedh Guttural 126. 1, 
Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh 153. 5, 157. 
3, 158. 2, 160. 3, Lamedh He 171. 1, 
172. 4, 173. 3, 174. 4, 175. 3, 176. 3. 

Apocopated imperative 98. 2, 171. 1. 

Apposition of nouns 253. 

Arabic letters 3. 1. a, currently read with- 
out vowels 10. a, syllables IS. 2. c, 
Teshdid 23. 3. 6, accent 33. 4. a, Elif 
prosthetic 53. 1. a, conjugations 83. c 
(1), comparative or superlative 189. a, 
nouns of unity 198. b, pJural ending 
199. c, dual 202, article 229. 1. a, con- 
junction with the accusative 271. 4. b. 

Article definite 229, use of 245, with 
verbs, etc. 245. 5. 6, with proper nouns 
246. 1. a, before nouns with suffixes 
246. 2. a, before nouns in the construct 
246. 3. a, when omitted 247, 249. 1. b, 
c, 249. 2. 6, c. 

Article indefinite 229. 1. 6, 248. a. 

Aspirates 3. 1, 7. 2, receive Daghesh lene 
21, their original sound 21. 6, aff^^cted 



324 



INDEX I. 



by concurrence of consonants or doub- 
ling 54. 1. 

Athnahh divides verse 36. 1, train of 38. 2. 

Augment, Greek and Sanslvrit 99. 1. a. 

Ayin, sound of 3. 4, Chaldee substitutes 
'for Tsadlie 51. 3, elided 53. 3. a, 128, 
previous vowel sometimes short when 
Daghesh omitted 60. 4. a. 

Ayin doubled verbs, origin of term Y6. 3, 
their peculiarities 133-1 37, paradigm 
138, remarks 139-142. 

Ayin Guttural verbs 116, paradigm 117, 
remarks 118-122. 

Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs, origin of 
term 76. 3, their peculiarities 152-154, 
paradigm 155, remarks 156-161. 

Biliteral roots 68. b. 

Bohemian accent 33. 4. a. 

Cardinal numbers 223-266, with dual end- 
ing 223. 1. rt, position and agreement 

250, 251, with suffixes 250. 2 (2) a, 

251. 4. a, with the article 251. 4. 
Chaldee syllables 18. 2. c, words modified 

from Hebrew 51. 3, dual 202. 

Changes of person 279. 

Cities names of, feminine 197. d. 

Collectives with feminine ending 198, con- 
strued with the plural 275. 2. 

Commutation of letters 50. 1, Aleph for 
He 86. b, 91. b, 94. o, 96. «, 196. d, He 
for Aleph 189. 6, Aleph for Yodh 56. 
4, or Vav 56. 4. a, 199, Vav for Aleph 
57. 2 (2) a. 111. 2. 6, d, Yodh for Vav 
56. 2, Teth for Tav 54. 4, 82. 5. 

Comparison, how expressed 260. 

Compound numbers 224, 225. 2, with 
nouns 251. 3, with the article 251. 4. a. 

Compound predicate 275. 1. 6, 275. 2. a. 

Compound sentences 285. 1. 

Compound species 83. c (2). 

Compound subject 244. 1, 276. 

Conjugations 76. 1. 

Conjunctions 239, 287. 

Consecution of accents in prose 36-39, in 
poetry, 40-42. 

Consonant changes, 53-56. 

Consonants changed to vowels 57, vowel 
changes occasioned by contiguous con- 
sonants 60, by concurrent consonants, 
61. 

Construct infinitive. Sec Infinitive con- 
struct. 

Construct state of nouns 212-216, rela- 
tions denoted by 254, resolved by pre- 
position Lamedh 257. 

Constructio praegnans 272. 3. 

Contraction of two similar letters 61. 8, 
134. 1. 

Contracted verbs 107. 

Copula 258. 2, 3. 

Countries names of, feminine 197. d. 

Daghesh meaning of word 21. 2. a. 



Daghesh-forte 23, distinguished from Da- 
ghesh-lene 23. 2, from Shurek 23. 3, 
different kinds of 24, conjunctive, in- 
stances of 24. a, 75. 1, separative 24. 6, 
190. a, 216. 2. «, 221. 5. a, 230. 2. a, 
emphatic 24. c, 86. a, 149. 1, omission 
of 25, resolved by the insertion of a 
liquid 54. 3, 221. 6. b, or Yodh 141. 1, 
or by prolonging the previous vowel, 
59. «, never in gutturals CO. 4, 108, 
rarely in Eesh 23. 1, 60. 4. a, omitted 
from Hithpael 96. a, in suffixes of verbs 
104. a, 105. b. 

Daghesh lene 21, 22, omitted from Kal 
imperative 89 (f. s. and m. pi.), from 
guttural forms 109. 3. a, from construct 
plural of nouns 216. 2. a, after prefixes 
101. 2. b. 

Daleth assimilated to the feminine ending 
Tav 54. 2, 148. 2, 205. b. 

Day of the month 252. 2. b. 

Declension of nouns, adjectives and parti- 
ciples 217. 

Demonstrative pronouns 73, qualifying 
nouns 249. 2, qualifying nouns in the 
construct 256, predicate 259. 2, used for 
relative 286. 

Dental letters 7. 1. 

Dialects, cfiect upon words 61. 3. 

Diphthongal vowels 15. 

Distributive numbers 252. 4. 

Distributive sense expressed by repetition 
252. 4, 280. 1. 

Division erroneous, of words 43. b. 

Divisions of Grammar 1. 

Dual, ending of 202, signification of 203, 
superadded to the plural 203. 5. 6, 
nouns with suffixes 221. 4, joined with 
the plural 278. 

Emphasis expressed by repetition 280-282. 

English accent 33. 4. a. 

Excess, how denoted 2G0. 2 (2) b. 

Feminine endings 196, how related 55. 2. 
c, 196. 6, compared with Indo-European 
endings 196. e, used to form abstracts, 
collectives, official designations 198, and 
nouns of unity 198. 6, appended to in- 
finitive. See Infinitive construct. 

Feminine nouns without fcm. ending in 
the singular 197. «, with masc. ending 
in plural 200. 6, with two plural forms 
20b. c, with suffixes 221. 2. 

Feminine sign of, duplicated 88 (3 f.), 167. 
3, 169. 1. a (?), neglected 88 (2 f. s, 
8 f. pi.), 197. a. 

Final forms of letters 4, in middle of 
words 4. a. 

Flexibility various, of different languages 
69. b. 

Formative syllables differ from prefixes 
and suffixes 33, 69. c, 101. 2. 6, 123. 4. 

Fractional numbers 227. 3, 262. 8. 



INDEX I. 



325 



Future, formation of 84. 3, its personal 
endings and prefixes 85. 1. a (2) with 
suffixes 105, uses of 263, sliortcned 
form. See Apocopated future. 

Galilean pronunciation 51. 4. a. 

Grammar, function and divisions of 1. 

Grammatical subject 244. 2. 

Grave suffi-xes 72, 221. 1. 

Greek alphabet 5. «, 0. 6, V. 2. a, accent 
33. 4. a, augment 99. 1. a, feminine 
and neuter 196. c, numerals 223. 2. «, 
construction of neuter plurals 275. 4. a. 

Guttural letters 7. 1, their peculiarities 60, 
108, attract or preserve vowels 60. 3. c. 

Guttural verbs 107. 

He and Ilheth 3. 3. 

He as a vowel letter 11. 1, 57. 2(2)6, 
with Mappik 26, prosthesis of 53. 1. a, 
rejection of 53. 2, 3, 85. 2. a (1), 95. 6, 
211. a, 229. 5, 231. 5, preceding vowel 
often short when Daghesh omitted 60. 

4. rt, 121. 1, 229. 3, added to 2 m. s. 
and 2 f pi. preterite 86. 6, to 2 m. s. 
suffix 104. 6, 220. 1. 6, to 2 f. s. suffix 
220. 2. c, to 2 and 3 f pi. suffix 104. q, 
220. 1. 6, 220. 2. c, for 3. m. s. suffix 
104. d, 220. 1. 6, omitted from f pi. 
future 88 and imperative 89, omitted 
after prefixes 85. 2. a (1), 91. 6, 94. 6, 
95. 6, 113. 2, 229. 5, retained in excep- 
tional cases 95. e, 142. 3, 150. 2, 231. 

5. a, for Alcph 165. 1, prefixed in the 
formation of nouns 189. b. 

He directive 219. 1. 

He interrogative 230. 

He paragogic, effect on accent 33. 1, with 
Methegh 33. 1. a, examples of 61. 6. a, 
219. 2, distinguished from feminine 
ending 196. c, added to preterite 93. c, 
to future. See Paragogic future. 

Hhateph Seghol in 1 Sing, future Piel 92. e. 

Uheth, preceding vowel mostly short, when 
Daghesh omitted 60. 4. a, 121. 1, 
229. 3. 

Hhirik, quantity of 14, 19. 1, between 
concurring consonants 61. 1, 85. 2. a, 
216. 2, 231. 2, 234, in Segholates 61. 2, 
184. 6, never in the ultimate of Kal ac- 
tive participles 90, in 1 sing. Niphal fu- 
ture 91. c, 149. 2, in Piel before suffixes 
104. /t, in penult of Piel infinitive 92. d, 
in Hiphil infinitive 94. 6, rejected from 
Hiphil future 94. c, and participle 94. e, 
in the inflected preterite of Kal, Hiphil 
119. 2, and Hithpael 96. 6, retained in 
Hiphil before suffixes 104. h, in the ul- 
timate of nouns 207. 1. c, 209. 2. 

Hholem, stability of 60. 1. a (4), in in- 
flected verbs Ayin doubled 61. 3, 136. 
2, 141. 2, and Ayin Vav and Ayin 
Yodh 153. 4, 159. i, 160. 2, shortened 
to Kamets Hbatuph in Kal infinitive 



construct 87, future 88, and imperative 
89, once retained in Kal future before 
Makkeph 88, in intensive species 92. 6, 
rejected from Kal future before suffixes 
105. d, in the ultimate of nouns 2(»7. 1. 
f, d, 207. 2. c, 215. 1. c, 2U9. 2, in the 
penult 210. f/, 216. 1. c. 

Hiphil, signification of 79, relation to Piel 
80. 2. a (1), formation of 82. 4, origin 
of prefixed He 82. 5. b (2), nouns de- 
rived from 187. 2. a, 189. 

Hithpael, signification of 80, relation to Ni- 
phal 80. 2. a (2), formation of 82. 5, 
origin of prefixed syllable 82. 5. 6(1), 
verbs having two forms of 122. 2. 141. 

Hophal, signification of 79. 3, formation 
of 82. 4, origin of prefixed He 82. 5. b 
(2), no imperative 84, except in two in- 
stances 95. (Z, in Ayin doubled verbs 
140. 6, in Pe Yodh verbs 150. 5, in 
Ayin Vav verbs 160. 5, in Lamedh 
Aleph verbs 167. 2, in Lamedh He 
verbs 175. 5. 

Imperative, formation of 84. 4, its per- 
sonal endings 85. 1. a (3), Kal with suf- 
fixes 101, 3. 106. 6, paragogic 98. 1, 
111. 3. a, 125. 1, 132. 1, 148. 3, 157. 2, 
apocopated 98. 2, 171. 2, twice in Ho- 
phal 95. d. 

Imperfect verbs classified 107. 

Impersonal subject 243. 3, construction of 
passive and neuter verbs 271. 4. a, 275. 
1. c. 

Inanimate objects, names of 198. c, in plu- 
ral 203. 5. a, plural with feminine sin- 
gular 275. 4. 

Indefinite subject 243. 2, article 229. 1. 6, 
248. a 

Indo-European roots 69, a, pronouns 71. 
6, feminine and neuter 196. <;, dual 202. 
a, numerals 223. 2. a, conception of 
time 261. 

Infinitive, a verbal noun 267, as the sub- 
ject 242. 6, 267. «, does not admit the 
article 245. 5. 6, with prepositions 242. 
6, 267. 6, governed by verbs or nouns 

267. 6, c, construction changed to pret- 
erite or future 282. c. 

Infinitive absolute, formation of 84. 1, 
with feminine ending 160. 4, for pret- 
erite or future 268. 1, for imperative 

268. 2, emphatic use of 282. 
Infinitive construct, formation of 84. 2, in 

Kal usually without Vav 87, with femi- 
nine ending in perfect verbs 87, in Pe 
Guttural 111. 3. a, in Ayin Guttural 
119. 3, in Lamedh Guttural 125. 2, in 
Pe Nun 131. 4, in Avin doubled 139. 2, 
in Pe Yodh 148, in "Piel 92. (/, in Ho- 
phal 150. 5, in Hiphil 128, in Lamedh 
Aleph verbs 166. 2, in Lamedh He 168, 
v;ith suffixes 101. 3, 106. a, following 



326 



INDEX I. 



noun or sufBx denote subject or object 
102. 3, 254. 9. b, emphatic use of 282. b. 

Inseparable prepositions 231-233. 

Intensity expressed by repetition 280. 3, 
282. 

Interjections 240. 

Interrogative and indefinite pronouns 75, 
trace of neuter in 196. a. 

Interrogative sentences 283, 284. 

Intransitive verbs construed transitively 
271. 

Irrational objects, plural, with feminine 
singular 275. 4. 

Jews modern, use Rabbinical letter 2, 
their pronunciation of Ayin 3. 4, use 
abbreviations 9. 1. 

Kal, meaning of term 76. 2, formation in 
perfect verbs 82. 1, remarks upon 86-90. 

Kamets and Kamets-IIhatuph distinguished 
19. 2. 

Kamets in the ultimate of nouns 207. 1. b, 
207. 2. 6, 215. 1, in the penult 210, 
216. 1. 

Kamets-Hhatuph in Kal infin. constr. be- 
fore Makkeph 87, before suffixes 106, 
in future 88, in imperative 89, 106, in 
passive species 82. 6. b (3), 93. a, 95. a. 

Kaph and Koph 3. 2. 

Kaph initial rejected 53. 2. a, assimilation 
of 54. 2. a. 

Karne Phara 38. 10. 

Kibbuts, quantity of 19. 1, in passive spe- 
cies 82. 5. b (3), 93. o, 95. a, in Hith- 
pael 96. a. 

K'ri and K'thibh 46-48, number of 46. a. 

Kushoi 21. 2. a. 

Labial letters 7. 1. 

Lamedh initial rejected 53. 2. a, 132. 2, 
medial rejected 53. 3. 6, 88 (1 c), assim- 
ilated to following consonant 54. 2, 132. 
2, appended in formation of nouns 193. 
2. c. 

Lamedh Aleph verbs 162, paradigm 163, 

remarks 164-167. 
Lamedh Guttural verbs 123, paradigm 124, 

remarks 125-128. 
Lamedh He verbs, origin of term 76. 3, 
their peculiarities 168, 169, paradigm 

170, shortened future and imperative 

171, remarks 172-177. 

Latin alphabet 6. b, 7. 2. a, accent 33. 4. n, 
feminine and neuter 196. 2, numerals 
223. 2. a. 

Lazian accent 33. 4. a. 

Letters, sounds of 3, double forms of 4, 
of unusual size or position 4. a, names 
of 5, order of 6, classification of 7, nu- 
merical use of 9. 2, commutation of 50. 
1, transposition of 50. 2, addition of 
50. 3. 

Lettish accent 33. 4. a. 

Light suffixes 72, 221. 2-4. 



Linguals 7. 1, substituted for sibilants in 

Chaldee 51. 3. 
Liquids 7. 2. 
Logical subject, 244. 2. 
Makkeph 43. 
Manner 274. 2. e. 
Mappik 26, omitted from 3 f. s. suffix 104. 

e, 220. 1. 6. 
Masculine for feminine, suffixes 104 g, 
220. 1. b, future 88 (3 f. pi.), 105. e, 
predicate and pronouns 275. 1. a, 275. 5. 
Masculine nouns with suffixes 221. 3, with 
fem. ending in plural 200. a, with two 
endings in plural 200. c. 
Matres lectionis 11. 1. 
Measure 274. 2. e. 
Medial letters for finals 4. a. 
Medium strength, letters of 7. 2. 
Mem dropped from Pual participle 53. 2. a, 
93. e, final rejected 55. 2, 214. 2, ap- 
pended to 3 m. pi. future (?) 88, pre- 
fixed in formation of nouns 193. 2. c, 
omitted from plural ending (?) 199. 6. 
Methegh 44, 45, aid in distinguishing 
doubtful vowels 19, 45. 2. a, with He 
paragogic 33. 1. a, in place of an accent 
shifted in position 35. 1, or removed by 
Makkeph 43, 44. a, 64. 1. a, after He 
interrogative 230. 2. a, its place sup- 
plied by an accent 39. 3. b, 45. 5. 
Modern Hebrew read without vowel points 

10. a. 
Monosyllabic nouns 183. 
Mountains, names of, masculine 197. d. 
Multiliteral nouns 195. 
Mutes 7. 2, a p-mute missing (?) 7. 2. a. 
Names of letters 5, their antiquity 5. a, 

their origin and signification 5. b. 
Nations, names of 197. d, 275. 2. 6. 
Neuter gender, trace of 196. a. 
Neuter verbs rarely have participles 90, 

with suffixes 102." 2. 
Niphal, signification of 77, relation to 
Hithpael 80. 2. a (2), its formation 82. 
2, origin of the prefixed Nun 82. 5. b 
(1), participle from a noun 91. c, from 
an adverb 80. 2. b, nouns derived from 
187. 2. a. 
Nouns, formation of 181, Class 1 182-186, 
Class 11 187, 188, Class IH 189-192, 
Class IV 193, 194, multiliterals 195, 
frorh imperfect roots 184. b, 185. 2. d, 
186. 2. c, 187. 1. d, e, 187. 2. b, c, 190. 
b, plural from quiescent roots 207. l-f, 
208. 3. c, with suffixes 221. 5. a. 
Nouns, gender and number of 196-211, 
construct state of 212-216, declension 
of 217, with suffixes 220, 221, para- 
digm 222. 
Nouns, feminine, without fem. ending 197. 
a, with masc. ending in plural 200. b, 
masculine with fem. ending in plural 



INDEX I. 



327 



200. a, with either ending 200. c, of 
doubtful gender 197. b, 200. c, having 
but one number 201. 1, definite without 
the article 246, used for adjectives 254. 
6. a, in construct before adjectives 250. 
1. a, 254. 6. 6, in construct before pre- 
positions 255. 1, in construct before a 
clause 255. 2, placed absolutely 271. 4. 
6, 274. 2, repetition of 280. 

Nouns, primitive 181. a, derivative 181. b, 
of unity 198 6. 

Number, relations of 274. 2. d. 

Numeral adjectives 223-227, 250-252, ad- 
verbs 252. 4. 

Numerical use of letters 9. 2. 

Nun, rejected 53. 2. a, b, 55. 2, from 
verbs 129. 2, 131. 3, 4, from nouns 184. 
6, 194. 2. b, assimilated to a following 
consonant 54. 2, in verbs 129. 1, 131. 2, 
132. 1, in nouns 184. 6, 190. a, 205. 6, 
to initial Mem (?) 55. 1, 88 (m. pi.), 
inserted in lieu of reduplication 54. 3, 
221. 6. b, epenthetic 56. 1, 101. 2, 105. 
6, added to 3 pi. preterite 86. 6, to fu- 
ture 88 (2 f. s., m. pi.), before suffixes 
105. c, in Niphal absolute infinitive 91. 6, 
131. 5, 166. 3, 173, 2, in Niphal impera- 
tive (?) 91. f/, appended in formation of 
nouns 193, in masc. plur. ending 199. a. 

Object, definite, sign of 238. 2, 270, of 
transitive verbs 270, of intransitive verbs 
271, indirect 272, multiple 273. 

Occupations 186. 2. «, 187. 1. a. 

Office, names of 198. a (2). 

Official designations 198. 

Ordinal numbers 227, 252. 

Orthographic symbols 1-49, changes 50- 
66. 

Orthography, various 11. 1. 6, 51. 4. a. 

Palatal letters 7. 1. 

Paradigm, see Verbs paradigms of, and 
Nouns. 

Paragogic, future 97. 1, 264, not in passive 
species 97. 2. 6, in Lamedh He verbs 
172. 3, imperative 98, 1. 

Paragogic letters, effect on accent 33. 1, 
instances of 61. 6. a, 218, 219. 

Participles, formation of 84. 5, of neuter 
verbs 90, with personal inflections 90, 
declined 217, qualif3'ing nouns 249. 1, 
qualifying nouns in the construct 256, 
in the construct before nouns and in- 
finitives 254. 9. 6, signification of 266, 
emphatic use of 282. c, construction 
changed to preterite or future 282. c. 

Particles prefixed 228-234, separate 235- 
240. 

Parts of speech 70. 

Passive species with suffixes 102. 2, of 

doubly transitive verbs 273. 5. 
Pattahh preferred by gutturals 60, 1, 108, 
changed to Seghol 63. 1 , assimilated to 



Seghol 61. 1. 6, 63. 2, to Kameta or 
Tsere 63. 2, in Segholatcs 61. 2, with 
pause accents 65, in Kal constr. infin. 
87, inf. pi. future Niphal 91. c, and Piel 
92. e, in preterite and imperative Piel 
92. c, in liithpael 96. b, in the ultimate 
of nouns 207. 2. a. 

Pattahh furtive 17, 60. 2, 109. 2, 114 (?), 
123. 

Pausal forms with inferior accents 65. b. 

Pause accents 37. 2. «r, position of 35. 2, 
occasion vowel changes 65, with the 
preterite 86. a, with the future 88, with 
the imperative 89 (f. s. and m. pi.), with 
2 m. s. suffix 104. 6, 220. 1. 6, with Pe 
Guttural verbs 112. 4, with Ayin Guttu- 
ral 119. 1, 121. 3, with Lamedh Guttu- 
ral 126. 1. 

Pazer, clause divided by 3G. 2, train of 
38. 7. 

Pe Aleph verbs 110. 3. 

Pe Guttural verbs, origin of term, 76. 3, 
their peculiarities 108, 109, paradigm 
110, remarks 111-115. 

Pe Nun verbs, origin of term 76. 3, their 
peculiarities 129, paradigm 130, re- 
marks 131, 132. 

Perfect verbs 81-85, paradigm of 85. 2, 
remarks 86-96, with suffixes 101, 102, 
paradigm 103, remarks 104-106. 

Periods of human life 201. 1. b. 

Persian construct state 61. 6. «. 

Personal endings and prefixes of verbs 85. 

1. «, before suffixes 101. 1, more closely 
attached than suffixes or prefixed prepo- 
sitions 101. 2. b. 

Personal pronouns 71, not expi-essed in 
the subject 243. 1. 

Pe Yodh verbs, origin of term 76. 3, pe- 
culiarities 143-145, paradigm 146, re- 
marks 147-151. 

Piel, signification of 78, relation to Hiphil 
80. 2. a (1), formation of 82. 3, with the 
active vowels 82. 5. b (3), unusual forms 
of 92. a, 6, verbs with two forms of 122. 

2, 141. 4, nouns derived from 187. 2. a. 
Pilel, Pilpel, Poel not distinct species from 

Piel 83. c(l). 

Place where 274. 2. b. 

Plural endings 199. 

Plural for singular in verbs (?) 88 (3 f. pi.), 
of majesty 201. 2, 275. 3. 

Pluralis inhumanus 275. 4. a. 

Plurality expressed by repetition 280. 2. 

Points extraordinary 4. a. 

Points Masoretic 10, accuracy of 49. 

Polish accent 33. 4. a. 

Predicate 258, compound 275. 1. 6, 275. 
2. a, agreement with nouns in the con- 
struct relation 277. 

Prefixed particles 228-234, two constitut- 
ing a word 228. 2. a. 



328 



INDEX I. 



Prepositions inseparable 231-233, separate 
237, with suffixes 238. 

Preterite, personal endings of 85. 1. a (1), 
with suffixes 101. 1, 104, Kal before 
suffixes 101. 3, uses of 262. 

Pretonic vowels 64. 2, iu Kal preterite 
82. 1, not rejected from Niphal 91. b, 
106. a. 

Primary preferred to a secondary form 
275. 1. 

Pronominal roots 68, the basis of adverbs, 
prepositions and conjunctions 235. 1. a. 

Pronominal suffixes 72. See Suffixes. 

Pronouns, personal 71, 243. 1, repetition 
of 281, demonstrative 73, 249. 2, 256, 
259. 2, relative 74, 285, interrogative 
and indefinite 75, 196. a, 284. 

Proper nouns with the article 246. 1. a, in 
loose apposition 253. 2. b. 

Pual, signification of 78. 3, formation of 
82. 3, with the passive vowels 82. 5. 
b (3), no imperative 84, in perfect verbs 
93, Ayin Guttural verbs 121. 1, Ayin 
doubled verbs 142. 1, Ayin Vav verbs 
161. 4, Lamedh Aleph verbs 167. 1, 
Lamedh He verbs 174. 6. 

Pure vowels 15. 

Quadriliteral roots 68. a, verbs 180, nouns 
195. 1, Segholates plural of 208. 3. a. 

Question, direct and indirect 283. 1, dis- 
junctive 283. 2. 

Quiescent letters 11. 1, their two uses dis- 
tinguished 13, softened to vowels 57. 2. 

Quiescent verbs 107, 143. 

Quinqueliteral roots 68. a, nouns 195. 2. 

Radical letters 7. 3. 

Raphe 27. 

R'bhi*, clause divided by 36. 2, train of 
38. 6. 

Reduplication of second radical in verbs 
82. 3, in nouns 187, of third radical in 
verbs 92. a, 115, 122. 1, 154. 2, 161. 3, 
174. 1, 176. 1, in nouns 187. 1. d, 187. 
2. c, of two radicals in verbs 92. a, 115, 
122. 1, 137, 141. 2, 154. 3, 161. 2, in 
nouns 187. 1. e, 187. 2. b, 188, of a 
short word 132. 1, 233. a. 

Relative pronoun 74, 285. 

Repetition of nouns 280, pronouns 281, 
verbs 282. 

Resh, sound of 3. 3, assimilated to a fol- 
lowing consonant 54. 2, inserted in lieu 
of reduplication 54. 3, preference for 
Pattahh 60. 1. a, with Pattahh furtive (?) 
60. 2. rt, 114, with simple or compound 
Sh'va 60. 3. a, 120. 3, with Daghesh- 
forte 23. 1, 60. 4. a, previous vowel 
lengthened on the omission of Daghcsh, 
60. 4. a, as the first radical of verbs 114, 
as the second radical 118. 1, 120. 3, as 
the third radical 125. 3, 126. 2, 127. 2. 

Rivers, names of, masculine 197. d. 



Roots of words 67, 68. 

Rukhokh 21. 2. a. 

Samaritan Pentateuch, its negligent or- 
thography, 51. 4. «, 99. 1. a, and va- 
riant forms 156. 2. 

Samekh, Shin and Sin 3. 1, 3. 1. a. 

Sanskrit laws of euphony 21. 2. b, 55. 1. a, 
accent 33. 4. a, augment 99. 1. a, femi- 
nine and neuter 196. e, numerals 223. 
2. a. 

Scriptio plena, defectiva 14. 

Seasons, names of 185. 2. a. 

Seghol inserted between concurring con- 
sonants 61. 2, 171. 1, in Avin doubled 
verbs 61. 3, 136. 2, 141. "2, in Ayin 
Vav verbs 153. 4, 157. 3, 160. 3, final 
rejected 66. 1 (1), 171. 1, with pause 
accents 65, in Kal active participle 90, 
in Niphal 91. a, b, in Piel 92. <•, d, 126. 

2, before suffixes 104. h, in Hiphil 94. 
a, b, in Hithpael 96. 6, in the ultimate 
of nouns 208, 209. 1, 215. 2, in the 
penult of feminine nouns 207. 1. e. 

Segholate forms from triliteral monosylla- 
bles or final syllables 61. 1. b, 183, 184. 
«, in feminine 205, construct 214. 1. b. 

Segholate nouns 183, signification of 184, 
their feminine 208. 2, plural 208. 3, 
dual 208. 4, construct 216. 2, with He 
paragogic 219. 1, with suffixes 221. 5. 

Segholta, verse divided by 36. 1, train of 
38. 3. 

Sentence, elements of 241. 2, subject of 
242, predicate of 258. 1. 

Separate particles 235-240. 

Septuagint, equivalents for Ayin 3. 4, 
mode of writing Hebrew words 49. 2, 8. 

Servile letters 7. 3, anagrams of 7. 3. a. 

Shalsheleth, when used 38. 9. 

Shin, Sin, and Samekh 3. 1, 3. 1. a. 

Shurek, quantity of 14. 19. 1, in the ulti- 
mate of Segholates 61. 2, in the penult 
of Segholates 61. 4. a, 205. c, in Kal 
future of perfect verbs 88, before suffix- 
es 105. <■/, in Kal active participle 90, in 
the ultimate of nouns 207. 2. d, 209. 3. 

Sh'va 16, silent and vocal 16. 2, 20. 1, 
simple and compound 16. 3. 

Sh'va compound, with gutturals 16. 3, 60. 

3, 108, with Resh 60. 3. a, 120. 3, with 
strong letters 16. 3. b, before gutturals 
120.' 2, 127. 3, in construct plural of 
nouns 216. 2. a, after He interrogative 
230. 2. a, after Vav Conjunctive 234. a, 
which is selected 60. 3. b, 109. 3, 112, 
changed to a short vowel 60. 3. c, with 
pause accent to a long vowel 65. 

Sh'va simple with gutturals 60. 3. a, in 
Pe Guttural verbs 112. 2, 5, in Lamedh 
► Guttural verbs 123. 4, 127. 1, changed 
to Seghol by pause accent 65. 

Sibilants 7. 2. 



INDEX I. 



329 



Silluk, position of 36. 1, train of 38. 1. 
Singular predicate or pronoun with plural 

subject 275. 1. a, 275. 6. 
Sounds of the letters 3. 
Species of verbs 76-80, mutually supple- 
mentary 80. 2. a (3), what number in 
use in different verbs 80. 2. a (4), forma- 
tion of 82, with double forms in distinct 
SL'uses 83. c (1), 122. 2, 141. 4, com- 
pound 83. c (2). 
Strong letters 7. 2. 

Subject 242, omitted 243, indefinite 243. 
2, impersonal 243. 3, compound 244. 1, 
276, grammatical and logical 244. 2. 
Suffixes, pronominal 72, of verbs 101. 2, 
of nouns 220. 3, relation denoted by 
254, more loosely attached than affixes 
101. 2. 6, with neuter verbs and passive 
species 102. 2, with infinitives and parti- 
ciples 102. 3, with cardinal numbers 223. 
1. a, 250. 2 (2) a, omitted 247. b, with 
nouns in the construct 256. 
Superlative degree 260. 
Syllables 18, intermediate 20. 2, mutations 

in, a source of vowel changes 59. 
Syriac currently read without vowels 10. 
a, aspirates 21. a, doubling of letters 
23. 3. b, words modified from Hebrew 
51. 3, dual 20. 2. 
Systema morarum IS. b. 
Tav and Teth 3. 2. 

Tav unites v;ith Tav of personal affixes 
86. 6 (2 m.), or feminine ending 54. 1, 
205. 6, prefixed in anomalous verbal 
forms 94. a, 115, 161. 5, in the forma- 
tion of nouns 190, 192. 2, in Hithpael 
assimilated 54. 2, 54. 4. a, 82. 5, 131. 6, 
transposed 54. 4, 82. 5. 
Tav of feminine ending rejected 55. 2. o, 
196. b, origin of 196. e, added to verbs 
86. b, 166. 1, 169. 1, 172. 1, in nouns 
196. 6, 205. 
Tenses, primary 84, 262-264, secondary 
99, 265, past and future not promiscu- 
ously used 263. 5. a. 
Time, conception of 261. 
Time, when and how long 274. 2. a. 
T'lisha Gh'dhola, clause divided by 36. 2, 

train of 38. 8. 
Transitive construction of intransitive 

verbs 271. 
Transposition of letters 50. 2, 54. 4, 82. 5. 
Tsere rejected from the ultimate of verbs 
66. 1 (1), 171. 2, in Kal preterite 86. a, 
164. 1, in fem. plur. future Niphal 91. c, 
and Piel 92. e, in Piel inf. abs. 92. d, in 
Hiphil 94. 6, c, in Hophal inf. abs. 95. c, 
with Aleph in place of Sh'va 60. 3. c, 
92. e, 112. 1, 184. b, as union vowel 
with the preterite 104. «, in the ulti- 
mate of verbs before suffixes 104. A, 
of Lamedh Guttural verbs 126. 1, of 



Lamedh Aleph verbs 164. C, in the ulti- 
mate of nouns 207, 215. 1, in the penult 
of nouns 210, 216. 1. 
Vav rejected after vowelless consonants 
53. 3. a, 184. b, initial clianged to Yodh 
56. 2, 144. 1, rarely reduplicated 56. 3, 
in verbs 154. 1, 161. 1, or nouns 187. 

2. c, softened or rejected 57. 2, 152, 
184. b, 186. 2. c, 190.6, 207. 1./, 208. 

3. c, 211. fl, 216. 1. d, prccedinga vow- 
elless consonant 61. I. a, 234, paragogic 
61. 6. a, 218, omitted from 3. pi. pre- 
terite 86. 6, iu Kal iufiuitive 87, in Kal 
future 88, in Kal imperative 89, in Kal 
passive participle 90, in Pual 93. 6, 
added to 3. m. pi. suffix 104. /. 

Vav in K'thibh, where K'ri has Kamets- 
Hhatuph 13. «, 8S, 105. d, 215. 1. c, 
Pattahh 125. 1, or Hhateph-Kamets 13. 
a, 214. 2. 6, 89 (f. s.). 

Vav Conjunctive 234, 287. 

Vav Conversivo of the future S3. 4, 99, 
with Ay in Guttural verbs 119. 1, Lamedh 
Guttural 126. 1, Ayin doubled 140. 1. 5, 
Pe Yodh 147. 5, 150. 3, 150. 2 (p. 182), 
Ayin Vav and Avin Yodh 153. 5, 157. 

3, 158. 2, 160. 3,"Lamedh Aleph 166.4, 
Lamedh He 171. 1, 172. 4, 173. ,3, 174. 

4, 175. 3, 176. 3, time denoted by 265. a. 
Vav Conversive of the preterite 33. 4, 99, 

with Pe Guttural verbs 112. 3, time de- 
noted by 265. b. 

Verbs, their species 76-80, occurring in 
all the species 80. 2. a (4), denomina- 
tives 80. 2. b, perfect 81-100, with suffix- 
es 101-106, imperfect 107-177, doubly 
imperfect 178, defective 179, quadrihte- 
ral 180, syntax of 261-269, coordinated 
269, object of 270-272, with more than 
one object 273, passive, object of 273. 5, 
repetition of 282. 

Verbs, paradigms of, perfect 85. 2, with 
suffixes 103, Pe Guttural 110, Ayin Gut- 
tural 117, Lamedh Guttural 124, Pe 
Nun 130, Ayin doubled 138, Pe Yodh 
146, Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh 155, 
Lamedh Aleph 163, Lamedh He 170. 

Verbs, personal endings and prefixes of 

85. 1. a, 85. 2. «, suffixes of 101-106. 
Verbs, middle e and o 82. 1. a, have Pat- 
tahh in Kal future 84. 3. a (I), inflected 

86. rt, before suffixes 104. //.. 

Verbs with Pattahh in Kal future 84. 3. a, 
111. 1, 116. 1, 123. 1, 140. 1, 144. 2, 
with Tsere in Kal future 84. 3. b, 130, 
144. 2, 147, 172. 3. 

Vowel changes 58-66, significant 58. 1, 
euphonic 58. 2, causes of 59, due to 
mutations of syllables 59, to contiguous 
gutturals 60, to concurrent consonants 
61, to concurring vowels 63, to the ac- 
cent 64, to pause accents 65, to the 



330 



INDEX I. 



shortening or lengthening of words 66, 
of short vowels in mixed penult 58. 2, 
210. e, 216. 2. b. 

Vowel letters 7. 2, use of 11. 1, distin- 
guished from their consonantal use 13. 

Vowels 10-17, Masoretic signs for 12, 
different modes of dividing them 12. a, 
meanings of their names 12. 6, mutual 
relations of their notation by letters and 
by points 13, 14, mutable and immuta- 
ble 14, 58. 2, pure and diphthongal 15, 
ambiguity of certain signs 19, 20, o and 
M more stable than i and e 60. 1. a, in- 
serted between concurrent consonants 
61. 1, 2, e and o preferred before con- 
current consonants 61. 4, ? and it before 
doubled letters 61. 5, paragogic 61. 6, 
218, 219, concurring 62, proximity of, 
a source of changes 63, pretonic 64. 2, 
rejected or shortened 66. 1, 2, of union 
before suffixes 101. 2, twice e with pre- 
terite 104. a, sometimes a with future 
105. a, final of verbs before suffixes 
104. k, I, vowel a retained in ultimate 
before suffixes 105. d, 118. 3, 164. 5. 

Weak letters 7. 2, elTect of upon syllables 
18, 2. c. 



Words not divided in writing 8, ambiguity 
when unpointed 10. a, sources of cliange 
in 51, three stages in the formation of 67, 
changes in formation and inflection 69. 

Written symbols of two sorts 2. 

Yodh as a vowel letter 11. 1, in Kal active 
participle 90, in Niphal future 113. 1, 
before suffix 105. a, 220. 1. 6, initial re- 
jected 53. 2. «, b, 144. 3, 148, 150. 1, 
184. b, 188. b, medial rejected 53. 3. 
a, b, 150. 3, 168, 169, softened or re- 
jected 57. 2, 152, 184. b, 186. 2. c, 
190. b, 207. 1./, 208. 3. c, 211. a, 
216. 1. d, changed to Aleph 56. 4, para- 
gogic 61. 6. «, 218, added to 2 f. s. pre- 
terite 86. b, to 2 f. s. suffix 104. c, 220. 
1. b, 220. 2. c, omitted fiom 1 sing. 
preterite 86. 6, from Hiphil 94, in 
Lamedh He verbs 169, 172. 1, prefixed 
in formation of nouns 190, 192. 1, ap- 
pended in formation of nouns 194, 
quiescent after prefixed prepositions 
231. 3. b, after Vav Conjunctive 234. c. 

Zakeph Gadhol, clause divided by 36. 2, 
when used 38. 5. 

Zakeph Katon, clause divided by 36. 2, 
train of 38. 4. 



IFDEX II. 



TEXTS OF SCRIPTUPtE EXPLAINED OR REFERRED TO. 



GENESIS. 


4 : 17 ... § 35. 1 


12: 12. ..§243.3 


19 : 33 ... § 249. 2. 6 




18 . . . 275. 1. c 


20 ... 43 


33, 35 . . . 106. a 


1: l...§2t. 1, 36. 1, 


23. ..88(f. pi.), 89 


13 : 2 . . . 245. 5. d 


35 . . . 38. 1. a 


242, 245. 4, 262. 


(f. pi.), 93. 2, 


4 ... 4. a 


20 : 5 ... 71. a (3) 


1, 270. o, 275. 3 


127. 1 


6... 275. \.a 


C . . . 164. 2 


2...21. 1, 258. 3 


26 . . . 281 


9 . . . 119. 1, 180. a 


9... 22. b, lb. 1, 


4... 270. 6 


5: 5... 177. 2, 251. 


14 : 2 ... 71. a (3) 


263.1 


6 ... 31. 1 


2. o 


4 . . . 252. 2 


11 ... 254. 9 


6, 7 . . . 245. 1 


8 . . . 277. a 


6 . . . 221. 6. b 


13 . . . 275. 3. a 


7... 36. 1,203. 5. c 


11... 38. 1. a 


8 . . . 203. 5. c 


18 . . . 127. 1 


9 . . . 250. 1 


18 . . . 225. 2 


9 . . . 250. 2 (1) 


21: 6...60.2.a,120.2 


11 . . . 45. 2, 254. 6, 


29 . . . 39. 4. a, 2S5. 1 


10 . . . 63. 1. a, 219. 


8 ... 65. a 


285. 1 


6 : 3 ... 74. n, 139. 2, 


1. 6, 280. 2 


14... 214. 1. b 


12 . . . 220. 1. b 


157. 3, 158. 2 


19 ... 10. a 


16... 119. 1, 174.1 


14 . . . 275. 1. b 


7 . . . 285. 1. a 


15 : 1 . . . 246. 3, 249. 2, 


17 . . . 39. 3. b 


16 . . . 245. 2, 254. 9 


9 ... 96. 6 


274. 1 


28, 29 . . . 220, 1. 6 


18 . . . 45. 2. a 


13 . . . 262. 2 


2 ... 47, 253. 2. 6 


22 : 1 . . . 262. 1, 265, 


22 . . . 3S. 1. a 


17 . . . 266. 2 


8 . . . 262. 1. b 


270. b 


24...19S. a(4), 218 


18... 100. 2. ail) 


11 . . . 229. 3 


3 ... 265 


24, 23 . . . 38. 1. a 


19 . . . 45. 2. a, 229. 


12 . . . 245. 4 


4 . . . 2S7. 3 


29 . . . 270. c 


3. a 


17 . . . 275. 1. c 


5 ... 244. 1 


31...249.1.c,274. 1 


22 . . . 273. 2 


18 . . . 254. 3 


8 ... 44 


2 : 1 ... 244. 1 


7 : 1 . . . 262. 1, 273. 4 


18-21 . . . 270. b 


14 . . . 126. 2 


2 . . . 262. 1 


2 . . . 252. 4, 280. 1 


22 . . . 245. 5. a 


23 : 1 . . . 251. 2, 3 


3 . . . 249. 1. c 


4 . . . 251. 2 


16 : 5 ... 4. a, 254. 9. a 


4 . . . 275. 5 


4... 4. «, 259. 2. 


6 . . . 287. 1 


11... 90 (2 f. s.) 


6 . . . 165. 3 


267. d 


9 . . . 252. 4 


13, 15 ... 43. a 


10 . . . 254. 9. b 


5 . . . 258. 3. 6 


13 . . . 200. e, 246. 3, 


30 . . . 60. 3. 6 (2) 


11 . . . 125. 1 


6 . . . 263. 4 


249. 2, 251. 1. a 


17 : 4 ... 65. n 


11, 13... 262. 1.6 


7 . . . 147. 5, 273. 3 


19 . . . 280. 3 


4, 5 . . . 215. 1. e 


16 . . . 36. 1 


9... 245. 5. 6 


23 . . . 173. 3 


5 ... 271 . 4. a 


19 . . . 246. 3 


10 . . . 248 


8 : 5 . . . 282. c 


5, 6 ... 265 


24: 1...119. 1 


11 . . . 245. 5 


7 ... 282 


8 ... 30. 2, 254. 5 


8 . . . 249. 2. 6 


12 . . . 16. 3. 6, 234. 


10 . . . 269. a 


11 . . . 273. 5 


14 ... 39. 4 


a, 259. 2. a 


12 . . . 149. 2 


12 . . . 254. 6. a 


15... 39. 3. a 


14 . . . 258. 2 


17 . . . 150. 1 


17 . . . 24. 6, 230. 2. 


20 . . . 245. 3 


16, 17 . . . 287. 1 


18 . . . 147. 5 


n, 254. 6. c, 283. 


22... 251. 2.C, 254. 


17 . . . 103. a, 282 


9 : 14 . . . 139. 1 


2. a 


4 


18 . . . 242. b 


20 . . . 258. 3. a 


19. ..90(f. s.) 


23... 158. 3 


19 . . . 147. 5 


24 . . . 147. 5, 270. c 


20 . . . 265. 6 


SO ... 36. 1 


23 . . . 16. 3. 6, 24. 


10 : 5 . . . 220. 2. b 


18 : 1 . . . 262. 1. a, 274. 


33 . . . 111. 2. b 


a, 127. 3 


19 . . . 56. 4, 126. 2 


2. b 


35 . . . 245. 5. d 


25 . . . 263. 5. a 


21 . . . 256. a 


6... 25.3. 2 


42 . . . 21. 1 


3 : 2, 3 . . . 263. 1 


25 . . . 250. 2 (2) 


11 . . . 276. 3 


42, 48, 65 ... 39. 4 


6 . . . 106. a 


26... 229. 1. a 


20 . . . 254. 9. a 


48 . . . 131. 1 


6 . . . 258. 1 


11 : 1 . . . 223. 1. a 


21 ... 24. 6, 39. 3. b, 


58 . . . 283. 1 


IS . . . 262. 1 


6, 7 . . . 141. 1 


230. 2. a 


65 . . . 73. 2. a, 176. 


15 ... 30. 2 


7 ... 86. a 


28, 29 . . . 251. 4 


3, 245. 3. a 


16 . . . 53. 3. a 


9 ... 57. 1 


19 : 1, 4 . . . 266. 3 


67 . . . 246. 3. a, 25a 


22...21. 1, 177. 2 


16 . . . 251. 2 


9 . . . 131. 3 


d 


4: 3...231. 3. a 


30 ... 56. 2 


11... 207.1. a, 245. 


25: 5... 43 


4... 220. 2. b 


31 . . . 22. b 


5 


8 ... 38. 1. a 


12 . . . 267. d 


12 : 2 . . . 263. 1 


12 . . . 38. 1. a 


12 . . . 254. 1 


13 . . . 280. 2 (2) b 


4 ... 10. a 


14 ... 24. a 


27 . . . 229. 4. b 


14 . . . 245. 3. b, 262. 


5 . . . 254. 1 bis 


19 ... 86. b (2ra.), 


31 . . . 98. 1. a, 125. 1 


1. 6 


7 . . . 262. 1. b 


105. n, 105. d 


34 ... 65. a 


16 . . . 147. 5 


8 ... 19. 1, 220. 1. 6 


SO . . . 251. 4 


26: 3...262. 1. 6 



332 



26 


4....5 30. 2, 246. 3 




6 36. 1 




8.... 245. 3 




13.... 282. c 




15, 18.... 104. g- 




22 156. 4 




28.... 36. 1 




29.... 60. 3. a 


27 


1 88 (f. pi.) 




4.... 263. 1.6 




9.... 119. 1 




12.... 141. 6 




16.... 36. 2 




19.... 105. b 




23.... 270. 6 




25.... 203. 1 




26.... 131. 3 




27.... 120. 3 




29.... 177. 1 




S3 263.1. 6,266. 




2. a 




36.... 252. 4 




38.... 16. 3. 6,230. 




2. a 




42.... 271. 4. a 




44.... 223. 1. a 


28 


2, 5, 6, 7.... 33.1. a 




9.... 39. 4 




12.... 55. 1 




20, 21.... 287. 2 


29 


2.... 263. 4 




3....139. 1 




6.... 22. a, 230. 2. a 




6.... 34 




8.... 139. 1 




9.... 34, 257 




10.... 10. a 




17.... 278 




20.... 223. 1. a 




23.... 10. a 




32.... 105. a, 118.3 




36.... 245. 3. 6 


80 


1....34 




5.... 127. 1 




6 104. a 




7. ...252. 1 




15.... 245. 3. 6 




16.... 249. 2. b 




19.... 215. 1. b 




27.... 131. 3 




31.... 43 




32.... 44. a 




S3.... 24. a 




SS....45. 2, 88 (f. 




pl.)bi?, 216. 2. a 




39.... 60. 3. 6(2) 


31 


4.... 45. 2. a 




6.. ..71. a (2) 




9.... 220. 1. 6 




13.... 19. 2. a, 246. 




3. a 




27.... 126. 1 




SO.... 86. 6 (2in.), 




91. 6 




32.... 104. i, 2S5. 




2. a 




S6....75. 1 




39.... 61. 6. a 


82 


1....270. c 




5.... 111. 2. 6 




16.... 250. 2(3) 




20.... 61. 1. c, 88 




(pi.), 55. 2. a 




22.... 45. 3 




23.... 249. 2. 6 


33 


. 6....220. 1. 6 




6....88(f. pi.) 




11.... 43, 166. 1, 




270. 6 


Si 


: 17....100. 2. a(l) 




21.... 258. 2 







INDEX II. 








34 


SO. 


...§254.5 


49 


19... 


.§ 140. 1 


15: 


2....§ 56. 1, 105. 




31. 


...230. 2 




23... 


.139. 1 




6, 131. 1, 247. 6 


35 


7. 


...275. 3. a 


50 


9... 


.248 




4.... 277. a 




15. 


...270. 6 




10... 


.271. 3 




5.... 61. 6,104./ 




IS. 


...34 




17... 


.273. 3. a 




6.... 60. 3. a, 61. 




22. 


...39. 4. a 




19... 


.283. 1 




a. a 




26. 


...275. 1. c 




23... 


.22. a 




9.... 104./ 




29. 


...22. b 




26... 


.147. 5 




10....11. 1.6,61.6, 


37 


2. 
8. 


. . .249. 1. 6 
...282 










139.1 
11, 13.... 22. 6 




9. 


...271.3 




EXODUS. 




14, 16....2G3. 5. a 




12. 


. . .257 










16.... 22. 6,61. 6. a 




14. 


...10. a 


1 


1.. 


.§21.1 




17.... 24. 6,190. a 




19. 


...73. 2. a, 254. 




7. . 


.273. 5 




20 277. a 






6. u 




10.. 


.88 (3f. pi.) 




21.... 22. 6 




20. 


...104. I 




16... 


.177. 2 




26.... 112. 3 




22. 


. . .60. 3. 6 (2) 


2 


3.. 


.24. 6, 104. e 


16 


5.... 38. 1. a 




32. 


...24. 6,283. 2 




4... 


.53. 3. b, 148. 




7, 8.... 71. a(l) 




S3. 


...105. a, 282. a 




2) 


150. 3 (p. 182) 




14.... 180. a 


SS 


9. 


...131.4 




7... 


.230. 3 




15.... 39. 3. 6 




11. 


...274. 2. 6 




9.. 


.150.2,151.1; 




23.... 38. 1.0,112.1 




25. 


...71. «(3) 




161. 5 




27.... 242. a 


39 


4. 


...119. 1 




10... 


.104. k 


17 


1....237. rf 




7, 


12.... 98, 1 




17.. 


.104. g, 105. a 




8, 10.... 119. 1 




11. 


...231. 5. a 




20.. 


.00. 3. c, 98. 2, 




11....275. 2. 6 




12. 


...22. 6 




164. 3 


18 


8.... 104. i 




14. 


...119. 1 




23... 


.51.2 




10.... 215. 1. b 




14, 


17....92. d 


3 


1.. 


.266. 3. a 




11.... 262. 2 




20. 


...255. 2 




2.. 


.53. 2. a 




21, 25.... 225. 1. a 


40 


15. 


...93. d, 166. 4 




4.. 


.39. 1. a 




26.... 88 




10. 


...251. 1 




5.. 


.131. 3, 285. 1 


19 


5.... 44. a 




20. 


...150.5 




8.. 


.248 




9.... 215. 1. a 


41 


8. 


...119. 1 




13.. 


.75.1 




12.... 282. a 




11. 


...99.3 


4 


2.. 


.24. a, 75. 1 




13.... 149. 2, 282. o 




12. 


...257. 2 




10.. 


.254. 6. a 




21, 24.... 111. 1 




19. 


...254.3 




11.. 


.158. 2 


20 


2-17.... 39. 4. a 




21. 


...220.1. 6 




13.. 


.255. 2, 285. 3 




4.... 27, 243. 2 




33. 


...35.2 




23.. 


.120. 1 




5. ...111. 3. a 




35. 


...249. 2 




29.. 


.112. 3 




8.... 268. 2 




40. 


. . .260. 2 (2) a 




31.. 


.275. 2. a 




10 249. 1. c 




43. 


. . .94. 6 


5 


5.. 


.86. 6 (2m.) 




11.. ..43 




51. 


...92. c 




7.. 


.151. 2 




13.... 27 


42 


7. 


...262. 2. a 




8.. 


.39. 1. a 


21 


7....98. 1. a 




11. 


...71. a (1) 




16.. 


.166. 1, 273. 




9.... 275. 3 




13. 


...38. 1. a 




2. 


6 




11.... 215. 1. c 




18. 


...287. 1 


G 


14.. 


.255. 3 




19.... 92. d 




21. 


...39. 4 




16.. 


.251. 3 




22.... 19. 2. a, 39. 




25, 


35.... 216. 2. a 




29.. 


.10. a 




3. b 




36. 


...220. 1. 6 


7 


10.. 


.262. 1 




28.... 270. c 


43 


7. 


...45.1 




11.. 


.53. 2. a 




30.... 55. 1 




8. 


...125. 1 




20.. 


.276. 1 




35.... 19. 2. a, 39. 




14. 


...65. a, 82. 1. a 




22.. 


.53. 2. a 




3. 6 






(3), 249. 1. 6 




26!! 


.265. 6 




30. ...92. d 




26. 


...26 


8 


1.. 


.131. 3 


22 


2....216. 1. 6 




29. 


...141.3 




17.. 


.258. 3. 6 




3.... 166. 3 


44 


1. 


...285. 2 




23.. 


.100. 2. a (1) 




4.... 220. 1. b 




4. 


...114, 271. 2, 


9 


3.. 


.10. o, 177. 1 




8....43, 275. 3. a 






272.2 




15.. 


.119. 1 




26.... 220. 1. 6 




17. 


. . .30. 2 




18.. 


.27, 104. e 


23 


11.... 254. 2 




18. 


...263. 1. a 




25.. 


.120. 2 




14.... 252. 4 




40. 


...271.4 




29.. 


.88 (pi.) 




20.... 207. 1. a 


45 


22. 


...251.2. c 


10 


1.. 


.249. 2. 6 




SO.... 280. 1 




25. 


...45. 3 




3.. 


.173. 2 




31.... 104./ 




28. 


. . .45. 5. a 




8.. 


.271. 4. a 


24 


4. ...240. 3 


40 


2. 


...38. l.a 




24.. 


.150. 5 


25 


31.... 11. 1.6, 113.1 




3. 


...148. 2 


11 


8.. 


.249. 2. 6 




C5....2S0. 3. 6 




22 


27.... 275. 1. c 


12 


7.. 


.45. 2 


20 


2.... 250. I 




28'. 


...22. b 




16.. 


.256. c 




23....216. 2. a 


47 


24. 


...275. 1. c 




21.. 


.69 (f. 6. & 




24. ...53. 3. a 


48 


20 


...270. c 




n 


. Pl.) 




S3.... 100. 2. rt(l), 




22. 


...223. 1. a 




S9.. 


.141. 6 




ICO. 2. a (2), 


49 


3. 


. . .65. a 




49.. 


.275. 1. c 




229. 4. 6 




5. 


. . .216. 1. 6 


13 


1.. 


.24. a 


27 


21.... 247. a 




8 


...281 




2.. 


.92. c 


28 


1....119. 1 




10. 


...24.6 




9.. 


.2.54. 7 




2.... 254. 6. a 




11. 


...53. 2. fl, 61. 6. 




16.. 


.220. 1. 6 




7....275. 1. c 






o, 218, 220. 1. 6, 




22.. 


.263. 4 




40 207. 1. a 






221. 5. 6 


14 


4.. 


.22. 6, 91. c 


29 


3.... 248. o 




12. 


. . .215. 1. a, 259. 




14.. 


.119. 1 




9.... 273. 3 






2. 6 




17.. 


.22. 6, 91. c 




20.... 38. 4. a 




17 


...216.2. a 


15 


1.. 


.22. 6, 263. 5 




SO 105. a 



*> 


INDEX II. 




333 


29: 35.... §65. o 


23: 17. ...§26 


22: 33.... §105. a 


7: 2... 


.§ 119. 1 


37.... 229. 4. b 


18....216. 2. a 


37. ...141. 1 


5... 


.120. 1 


30: 18. ...109. 3 


22.... 106. n 


23: 7. ...19. 2, 119.3, 


10... 


.92. c 


23.... 215. 1. c 


SO.... 112. 3 


141. 1, 263. 5 


13... 


.104. h 


34.... 38. 1. a 


39.... 22. a 


13. ...141. 3 


15... 


.105. a 


31: 13.... 104. k 


24: 5 100. 2. a (1) 


18.... 61. 6. o 


17... 


.254. 9. b 


14.... 275. 


22.... 250. 1. a 


19.. ..121. 3 


23... 


.273. 2 


S2: 1....76. 1, 119. 1, 


23.... 273. 3 


24.... 100. 5 


24... 


.94. h, 112. 3 


249. 2. a 


25: 5....210. 2. a 


25.... 139. 1,2 


8: 3... 


.86. b (3 pi.) 


4, 8.... 275. 3. a 


21.... 172. 1 


27.... 104. 7 


9... 


.207. 2. a 


19.... 220. 2. h 


40 39. 3. b 


24: 3....61. 6. a 


10... 


.55. 2. a. 86. 


25 104. (/, 156. 2 


26: 9.... 100. 2. a (1) 


4 206 


b (3 pi.) 


33: 3....U3. 1.6,174.4 


bis. 


7.... 19.2.4,131.6 


9: 3... 


.112. 3 


13.... 220. 2. b 


15.... 141. 3 


9.... 275. 6 


0... 


.38.4.0,249.2 


20 105. a 


18.... 92. d 


11.... 127. 2 


14... 


.98. 2 


24.... 111. 3. a 


25.... 132. 1 


15.... 61. 6. a 


25.. 


.251. 4 


36: 3 38. 1. a 


33.... 92. e 


17....1G1. 2 


26... 


.119. 1 


28.... 210. 2. a 


34.... 172. 1 


21. ...158. 3 


10: 15... 


.119. 3 


38: 27.... 250. 2(2) 


34, 35 05. a 


22.... 35. 1 


17... 


.30. 2 


S9: 30.... 105. d 


34, 43.... 140. 6 


25: 13.... 24. a 


11: 12... 


.247. a 


40: 3.... 106. 4 


27: 7....251. 2. a 


26: 30.... 246. 3. b 


14... 


.270. b 




8. ...112. 3 


62 96. a 


18... 


.249. 2. b 




23.... 246. 2. a 


28: 4....249. 1. 6 


22... 


.87. 88 (pi.) 


LEVITICUS. 




, 6.... 254. 6. b 


12: 6... 


.270. b 






8....104. (/ 


10... 


.274. 2. e 


2: 15. ...§71. a (3) 


NUMBERS. 


26.... 39. 3. b 


31... 


.45. 5 


4: 13. ...60. 3. a 




29: 15.... 251. 1 


13: S... 


.111. 3. a 


23, 28.... 150. 5 


1: \O...AlZ.b 


30: 11. ...274. 2. b 


4... 


.283. 1 


5: 21.... 61. 4. a, 


47. ...96. a 


31: 2.... 131. 3 


5... 


.65. b 


205. f 


2: 33 96. a 


12.... 45. b.a 


7.. . 


.276. 1 


22.... 119. 1 


3: 26.... 271. 4. b 


32: 5....271. 4. a 


14... 


.254. 6. a 


24.... 220. 2. a 


49.... 55. 1 


7.. ..113.1 


14: 6.. 


.bl. 2 (3) o 


6: 14.... 114 


4: 23.... 22. a 


21.... 254. 9. b 


7... 


.196. c 


15.... 95. a 


5: 13, 14.... 71. a (3) 


33 71. a (1), 246. 


17... 


.229. 4. 6 


7: 38.... 216. 1. a 


22.... 131. 2 


\.a 


22... 


.280. 1 


8: 3....119. 1 


6: 23 120. 3 


42.... 27 


15: 16.. 


.119. 1 


9: 7....98. 1. a 


8: 7.... 121. 3 


33: SO.... 111. 2. d 


18... 


.126. 1 


10: 4....39. 4. a 


24.... 22. a 


34; 5.... 61. 6. a 


16: 1.. 


.22. b 


11.... 273. 2 


9: 6....275. 1. 6 


6, 7, 9.... 24. a 


3... 


.30. 2 


12.... 39. 3. 6 


7.... 249. 2 


18. ...131. 1 


20... 


.280. 3 


18.... 271. 4. a 


14.... 275. 1. c 


28.... 57. 2(2)6 


17: 2,3 


....205. a 


19.... 230. 2. b 


20.... 253. 2 


35: 4....251. 2. a 


18: 2,. 


.275. 1. c 


11: 7....126. 1 


10: 23 45. 6 


19. ...125. 2 


19: C. 


.114 


9.... 270. c 


29.... 21. 1 


20....105. rf 


15.. 


.43 


18.... 229. 4. 6 


35.... 4. a 




20: 2.. 


.19. 2, 119. 3 


32.... 38.1.0,254.4 


11: 4.... 57. 2 (2) a, 




7.. 


.119. 1 


39.... 71. a (3) 


229. 3. a 


DEUTERONOMY. 


21: 7.. 


.13. 6, 86. 5 


42.... 4. a 


P....2G3. 4 




(3 


pi.) 


43.... 164. 2 


11.... 164. 2 


1: 2....§38.1.a 


8.. 


.83. c. (2) 


44.... 96. h, 242 


15.... 71. c(2) 


14.... 259. 2 


11.. 


.214. 1. b 


13: 3....258. 3. a 


16. ...111. 3. a 


15.... 225. 1. a 


22: 7.. 


.126. 1 


4.... 27, 57. 2 (2) 


20.... 196. d 


19. ...271. 2 


24.. 


.255. 2 


6, 220. 1. b 


25.... 111. 2. c 


22.... 99. 3. a 


23: 5.. 


.253. 2. 6 


10, 21.... 71. «(3) 


12: 1....270. 1 


28.... 38. 1. a 


11... 


.24. Z> 


51, 52.... 139. 3 


4....250. 2(2)a 


£5.... 38. 1.0,249.1 


24: 3.. 


.104. h 


55, 56.... 96. a 


13: 18.... 283. 2. a 


38.... 273. 1 


4.. 


.96. a 


14: 8....126. 1 


32.... 156. 4 


44.... 245. 5. d 


25: 4... 


.158. 3 


13.... 175. 2 


14: 1 275. 2. a 


45.... 112. 3 


7... 


.60. 3. a 


35.... 242. a 


2.... 202. 1 


2: 9....60. 4. a 


13... 


.2S0. 2 


38. . . .274. 2. a 


15: 6.... 2.52. 3 


12.... 203. 5. a 


26: 2... 


.39.4 


42.... 156. 2 


21.... .39. 3. b 


24.... 131. 3 


5... 


.254. 6, 6 


43.... 92. d, 94. b 


28....27, 21i0. 1. b 


35.... 139. 1 


12... 


.94. b, 113. 2 


15: 24.... 87 


29.... 275. 1. c 


3: 4.... 250. 2(1) 


27: 4... 


.106. a 


29 100. 2. ail) 


16: 3.... 275. 2 


13.... 246. 1. a 


7... 


.24. a 


32.... 87 


17: 3,4....104. g- 


17.... 216. 2. a 


28: 24... 


.104. b 


16: 4....104. /i 


10.... 140. 4 


26.... 21. 1,151. 2 


45... 


.104. b 


8....11.1. a,188.a 


28.... 125. 2 


4: 10.... 119. 1 


48... 


.94. b 


31.... 71. a (3; 


20: 3.... 125. 2 


11. ...99. 3. a 


52... 


.126. 1 


18: 4....263. 1 


5.... 104. I 


26.... 44. &, 91. 6 


57... 


.164. 2 


7 ft-.... 172. 3 


8.... 276. 3 


30.... 26.5. b 


58... 


.249. 1 


28 156. 4 


14.... 104. i 


33 35. 1 


59... 


.165. 2, 220. 


19: 20.... 175. 5, 2S2. a 


21.... 131. 4 


41.... 219. 1. &, 


2. 


a 


20: 3.... 256 


21: 5....104. Z 


256. d 


66... 


.177. 3 


7.... 96. ft 


30.... 105. n,140. 5 


5: 6-21....39. 4. a 


29: 11... 


.106. a 


21: 1....96. o 


33, 35.... 44. a 


8. ...27 


30: 3... 


.92. c 


4.... 140. 4 


22: 6.... 269. 6 


9. ...111. 3. a 


3,4 


. . .104. h 


5.... 97. 1. a 


8....274. 2. a 


14.... 249. 1. c 


11... 


.106.1,205.0 


9.... 71. a (3), 


11.... 19. 2, 141.1, 


17. ...27 


20... 


.39. 4, 87 


140. 3 


267. b 


24.... 71. a (2) 


31: 28... 


.22. b 


23: 3....280. 3. a 


25.... 119. 1 


6: 4... .4. a 


29... 


.166. 1 


13....220. 1. 6 


29.... 262.1 


25.... 45. 1 


32: 1... 


.245.2 



bl34 


INDEX II. 




32: 6....§228. 2. a 


12: 21. ...§55. 2. a 


9: 11....5 53. 2. 6, 


2: 8....§88,88(2f.), 


7.... 104. /(, 280. 2 


13: 13.... 196. b 


95. b 


127.1 


8....11. 1. 6,94.6 


23.... 247. a 


12.... 89 (f. s. & 


9.... 88 (pi), 165. 


10 G3. c, 105. & 


14: 8.... 62. 2, 175. 1 


rn. pi.) 


3 


13.... 13. a 


15; 36.... 203. 5. b 


13.... 95. 6 


14.... 150. 3 


15.... 285. 3 


38.... 22. a 


14.... 89 


16.... 139. 2 


18.... 172. 4 


66.... 22. a 


24.... 220. 1. b 


3: 3.... 86. 6(2f.) 


21.... 111. 2. b 


17: 1....30. 2 


25.... 174. 5 


4....16. 1,55. 2. a, 


22....U7. 4 


18: 12, 14.... 80. b (3 


29.... 164. 5,172.3 


88 (2 f.), 106. a 


26.... 104. /•, 172. 3 


pi.) 


35.... 274. 2. b 


12.... 258. 3. 6 


28....215.i. & 


20 88 


38.... 91. 6 


13.... 119. 3 


29.... 252. 1 


19: 43.... 61. 6. a 


48....75. 1 


15.... 60. 3. h (2), 


32.... 24. b, 57. 2 


50.... 172. 4 


53.... 140. 5 


120. I, 164. 2, 


(2) a 


51.... 39. 1. a 


10 : 2. . . .60. 3. 6 (1) 


251. 2. c 


34 90 (pass.) 


21: 10....227. 1. a 


4.... 207. 1./ 


20.... 220. 1. b 


36 35. 1, 86. 6 


22: 6.... 87 


9.... 243. 3 


4: 1....147. 5 


37.... 172. 1 


12.... 45. 5 


14.... 119. 4 


15.... 104. c, t 


37,38 220. 2. c 


16.... 119. 3 


11: 1....254. 6 




41.... 141. 2 


17....271.4. a 


18 99. 3. a 




33: 16.... 61. 6. a, 88 


25.... 148. 1 


25.... 91. 6,119. 1 


1 SAMUEL. 


(3 f), 167. 3 


21.. ..U. b 


37.... 98. 2 




21.... 177. 3 


23: 7, 12.... 249. 2. a 


40.... 250. 2 (2), 


1: 1....5 265. a 




24: 10.... 92. (/, 282. a 


233. 4 


3.... 219. 1. a 




15. ...88 (pi.) 


12: 4.... 272. 2 


4.... 245. 3. 6 


JOSHUA. 


19.... 275. 3. a 


5.... 230. 3. a 


6.... 24. 6,104. i 






0....3. 1. a 


S....2G3. 2 


1: !....§ 265. a 




13: 2.... 248. a 


9.... 104. d, 172. 4, 


8.... 36. 2 


JUDGES. 


3.... 16. 1 


254. 1 


14.... 256 




5, 7.... 90 (2f. 8.) 


14.... 88 (2 f.) 


16.... 203. 1 


1: 1....5 265. rt 


C....119. 2 


17.... 53. 2. a 


2: 8.... 88 (pi.) 


15.... 273. 3. a 


8.... 93. 6, 245. 5. 


20.... 119. 2 


14 249. 2. b 


2; 7. ...256 


6, 266. 3 


24.... 104. i 


16.... 157. 1, 164.2 


3: 15.... 246. 3. b 


12.... 275. 1. a 


28.... 119. 2 


17, 18, 20.... 104. k 


24.... 140. 5 


23.... 273. 1 


2: 5....24. c 


18.... 112. 3 


25.... 157. 1 


14: 1....61. 6. a 


10.... 119. 1 


20.... 249. 2. b 


27.... 272. 2. 6 


6.... 245 5. d 


13.... 203. 5. a 


3: 3. ...246. 3 


30 274. 2. a 


11.... 251. 2. 6 


22.... 88 (pi.) 


9.... 131. 3 


4: 19.... 164. 2, 262. 2 


15.... 283. 2. a 


27.... 91. 6 


11.... 246. 3. a 


20.... 104. a, 127. 2 


18.... 61. 6. a 


3: 2....258. 3. a 


12.... 280. 1 


21.... 11.1. a, 156. 3 


15: 16.... 280. 3. a 


4.... 263. 1. 6 . 


13.... 246. 3 


22.... 266 


16: 5....130. 1. 6 


7....2G3. 1. 6 


14.... 25:5. 2. 


23.... 120. 1 


13.... 112. 3 


8.... 254. 9. b 


4: 4....251. 4. a 


24.... 282. c 


14.... 240. 3. a 


19.... 203 4 


5.... 255. 3 


5: 5.... 86. a, 141. 1, 


16.... 27 


4: 8....266. 2. a 


6.... 88 (pi.) 


249. 2. 


25... .51. 2 


12....26G. 3 


8....104. ^ 


7....24. f,74,74. a 


26.... 150. 1 


14.... 75. 1 


10.... 275. 2 


8....92. rf, 121. 1 


27.... 271.1 


19.... 148. 2 


13 45. 5. a 


12.... 45. 2. a 


28....22. 6,27, 223. 


6: 10....104. ^, 165. 3 


23.... 127. 2 


13.... 148. 3 


1. a 


12.... 88 (3f. pi.), 


24.... 262. 1 


15.... 199. c, 207. 


17: 2....71. a. 2 


147. 4, 282 


6: 5.... 125. 2 


2. a 


IS: 7.... 94. a, 275. 


14....24n. 3. 6 


7.... 46 


2G....88 (3 f. p].). 


2. 6 


15.... 119. 1 


13 282. c 


105. b 


29.... 93. 6 


7: 8. ...119.1 


17.... 166. 1 


28.... 60. 3. b (2), 


SO.... 4. a 


8: 19.... 24. a 


7: 7.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


121. 2 


19: 5.... 19. 2. a, 89 


9: 3....270. c 


94. b, 112. 2 


31.... 263. 1 


11.... 150. 1(2) 


9....243.2. a, 


9.... 172. 3 


6: 9.... 99. 3. b 


22.... 82. 5. a 


245. 3 


21.... 246. 2. a 


11.... 246. 3. 6 


20: 13.... 46 


24.... 245. 5. b 


8: 11.... 246. 3. a 


14.... 249. 2. b 


15, 17.... 96. a 


10: 1-8.... 100. 1 


19.... 271. 2 


15.... 250. 2 (2) a 


25.... 224. a 


4.... 251. 2. c 


22.... 272. 2 


17.... 74, 74. a 


31.... 131. 2 


5....2G6. 3 


24.... 22. b 


20.... 73. 2. a 


32.... 24. 6 


6.... 165. 3, 273. 


33 246. 2. a 


25.... 249. 1. c 


S9....131. 5 


3. « 


9: 4....101. 1 


31 230. 3. a 


43.... 24. 6 


13....1G5. 3 


6. ...119. 4 


34.... 119. 1 


44.... 271. 4. b 


19.... 250. 2(2)o 


8.... 262. 2. a 


SO.... 258. 3. b 


21: 9....f6. a 


24 24. 6 


12.... 161. 1, 249. 


7: 6.... 22. a 


21.... 39. 3. 6 


12: S....3S. 1. 


2.0 


12.... 74. a 


22.... 158. 3 


7.... 91. c 


13.... 126. 1 


19.... 268. 1 


25. ...258. 3. 6 


13.... 119. 2 


24.... 95. c, 172.3 


8: 1....166. 2 




24.... 94. a 


10: 11.... 38. 4. a, 39. 


2.... 25 




13: 5.... 250. 2(1) 


1. 


10 224. a 


RUTH. 


8.... 149. 2 


20.... 22. 6 


11.... 229. 4. b 




19.... 86. 6 (3 pi.) 


24.... 86. 6(3 pL), 


19.... 111. 3. b 


1: 8.... §275. 5 


21.... 19. 2. 6, 65. 


245. 5. 6 


26.... 74. a 


9....89(f. pi.) 


14: 1....73. 2. a 


26.... 56. 4 


9: 2....230. 2. a 


11.... 45. 4 


22.... 94. c 


29 272. 2 


8.... 98. 1. a 


13.... 25, 71. a (3), 


24.... 111. 2. d 


30.... 21. 1 


9....53. 2.6,63.1. 


88 (f. pi.), 91. c 


29 249. 2. c 


31,38.... 272. 2 


a, 95. 6 


19.... 104. ^ 


32.... 157. 3,172.4 


11: 8....21. 1 


10.... 89 (f. B. & 


20 60. 3. c, 196. 


S3.... 57. 2 (3) 0, 


14.... 94. 6 


m. pi.) 


d 


164.3 



INDEX II. 



335 



14: 36....5141. 1 


1 28. 24.... §111. 2.6 


21:11.. 


.§271. 4. a 


I 1G:26....§254. 9. o 


40.... 270. 3 


30: 1....14. a 


12.. 


.177. 3 


29 252. 2. o 


16: 1....125. 2 


31: 2....94. c 


22: 7.. 


.142. 2 


17: 3....100. 1 


5. ...111. 2. c 




24.. 


.45. 1 


14. ...177. 3 


6.... 151. 2 




33.. 


.160. 1 


21. ...43 


9.... 91. K 


2 SAMUEL. 


87,40....238. 1. 6 


18: 1....252. 1 


19.... 107. 3, 172.4 




40.. 


.53. 3. re. 111. 


12 100. 2. red) 


30 100.2. a(l) 


1: 4.... §242. c 


2 


c 


13.... 104. t: 


16 : 4.... 284 


6.... 91. 6,166.3 


41.." 


.53. 2. 6, 132. 


SO.... 131. 3 


12 214. 2. b 


9 256. c 


1 




32.... 273. 3 


15.... 221. 2. a 


10.... 99. 3. 6, 106. a 


43.. 


.118. 3, 141. 3 


42.... 175. 3 


18....246. 3.^,254. 


15.... 131. 3 


44.. 


.199. 6 


43.... 254. 9. re, 


G. a, 257, 2 


21.... 255. 1 


48.. 


.238. 1. 6 


274. 2 d 


23.... 245. 3. a 


26.... 166. 1 


23: 1.. 


.160. 5 


44.... 104. 6 


17 : 12.... 249. 2. c, 253. 


2: 19.... 13. 6 


C.. 


.33. 3, 140. C, 


19: 2....275. 3. a 


2. b 


27.... 65. a 


2' 


1.6 


4.... 274. 2. c 


25 24. b, 104, h 


32.... 274. 2. b 


s.r 


.199. 6 


7....S8. 1. a 


20 73. 2. a, 275, 


3: 2. ...257. 1 


27. . 


.24. 6 


10.... 92. d 


Z.a 


8.... 165. 3 


24:12.. 


.268. 2 


11.... 275. 1. c 


34....245. 5. rf,2G5. 


22.... 276. 2 


13.. 


.253. 2 


15.... 66. 2(2)6, 


b, 271. 4. b 


4 ; 6 71. re (3) 






219. 1 


35.... 14. a, 112.3, 


5: 2.... 164. 2 






19.... 251. 4. a 


265. b 


G: 1....151.2 


1 KINGS. 


20.... 98. 1. a 


42.... 172. 4 


3.... 249. 1. b 






20: 9.... 39. 4 


47.... 150. 2 


5.... 16. 3. 6 


1: 6.. 


.§243.1 


13....229. 1. 6 


65 245. 2, 249. 


13.... 282. c 


14.. 


.259. 2. a 


27.... 96. re. 161.4 


2. a 


16.... 253. 1 


15.. 


.54. 1, 205. 6 


35.... 172. 3 


56....249. 2. o 


20.... 282. 6 


21.. 


.87 


S9....91. 6 


IS: 1 105. a 


23.... 56. 2 


27.. 


.283. 2. 6 


21 : 1....45. 1 


6. ...158. 3 


7: 10.... 114 


2:24.. 


.105. a 


8. ...46 


7. ...250. 2 (2) a 


8: 18.... 199. 6 


31.. 


.254. 6. 6 


29.... 164. 2 


9.... 156. 1 


10: 3.... 253. 2 


3: 3.. 


.126. 1 


22 : 12.... 126. 1 


17.... 119. 1 


11, 17.... 275. 2. 6 


7.. 


.267. 6 


23.... 249. 2.6 


20.... 243. 2 


11: 1....11. 1. 6 


15.. 


.147. 4 


25.... 165. 1 


22.... 220. 2.6 


24.... 177. 3 


4: 5.. 


.150. 4, 215. 


27....253. 2. a, 


28. ...104. i 


25.... 245. 5, 271. 


1. 


e 


270. c 


29.... 148. 1, 151.2 


4. a 


5: 3... 


.253. 2. a 


35.... 147. 4 


19: 10.... 249. 2. b 


12: 1,4.... 156. 3 


10.. 


.264. 8 


54.... 119. 1 


13, 10.... 201. 2 


4....249. 1. c 


11.. 


.260. 2 (2) a 




17.. ..104. k 


14.... 92. (/ 


20.. 


.119. 1 




21 2fi9. a 


13: 4.... 280. 1 


£5.. 


.53. 2. a 


2 KINGS. 


22.... 249. 1. c 


31.... 254. 10 


C: 16.. 


.10. a 




20: « 119. 1 


32.... 158. 3 


19.. 


.132. 1 


1: 2....§249. 2. c, 


13.... 271. 4. a 


39.... 253. 1 


21.. 


.207. 1. c 


2S3. 1 


21.... .39. 4 


14: 2, 3. ...16. 1 


38... 


.251. 4. a 


6.... 36. 2,39.4 


28. ...119. 1 


7....38.4.a,158.G 


7:12.. 


.249. 1. c 


7.... 75. 1 


31.... 254. G. o 


10.... 104. k 


14.. 


.132. 1, 253. 1 


10.... 172. 4 


38.... 199. 6 


19.... 57. 2(1), 


37.. 


.220. 1. 6 


10, 14.... 250. 2 


42.... 250. 2 (2) a 


180. a 


44.. 


.251. 4. a 


(2) a 


21: 2.... 219. 1./) 


CO.... 149. 1, 150. 4 


8: 1... 


.119. 1 


16.... £9. 4 


3....92. 6,221.3.a 


15: 8.... 282. 6 


48.. 


.86. 6 (1 c.) 


2: 1....16. 3. 6 


7.. ..44 


12.... 125. 2 


9:11... 


.165. 2 


10.... 93. c 


12.... 44. n 


23.... 275. 2. 6 


10: 3... 


.112. 3 


11.... 16. 3. 6 


14.... G6. 1(1), 105. 


30.... 282. c 


9.. 


.254. 8 


16.... 208. 3. c 


a, 174. 4 


32.... 273. 6 


12... 


.275. 1. 6 


21.... 165. 2 


15.... 126. 1 


34.... 287. 3 


15.. 


.254. 3 


22.... 165. 3 


22: 2.... 165. 2 


37.... 215. 1. c 


11: 1... 


.210. d 


24.... 261. 2. b 


23: 11.... 94. d 


10: 1.... 250. 2(1) 


3. . 


.275. 1. a 


3: 4.... 253. 2. a 


22.... 282. a 


16.... 215. 1. 6 


13... 


.16. 1 


23.... 119. 1 


24: 14.... 245. 5. a 


17: 9.... 243. 2. a 


22.. 


.24. re 


25....65. 6,111. 1 


17....2G0. 1 


10.... 140. 4 


25... 


.271. 4. 6 


27.... 263. 1 


19.... 71. a (2) 


12.... 71. red) 


39.. 


.57. 2 (2) a 


4: 7....220. 1. 6 


25: 7.... 94. a 


22.... 223. 1. a 


12:10... 


.221. 5. a 


16, 23.... 71. a. 2 


8....IG4. 2 


23.... 113. 1, 275. 


12... 


.164. 2 


24.... 131. 1 


14.... 157. 3 


3. re 


32... 


.257. 3 


25.... 73. 2. o 


18.... 172. 5, 209. 


18: 3. ...113. 2 


13: 7... 


.234. a 


32.... 95. a 


3. re 


18.... 270. 6 


12... 


.75. 2 


5: 1....S9. 1. o 


S3.... 165. 3 


10: 1....281 


20... 


.60. 3. b (2) 


3.... 112. 3 


34....88(3f.), 167. 


14.... 111. 2. 6 


14: 2... 


.71. re (2) 


fi....l04.^" 


3 


18.... 224. re 


3... 


.60. 2. re, 127.1 


7.... 254. 9. 6 


43.... 2.50. 2 (2) a 


19.... 113. 2 


6... 


.273. 5 


9.... 257 


26:16....271. 4. 6 


20: 1....257. 2 


24... 


.246. 3. a 


18....46, 176. 1 


22....24G. 3. a 


4.... 119. 1 


25... 


.257. 3 


C: 5. ...271. 4.6 


27: 12.... 119. 1 


5. ...111. 2. d 


15: 16... 


.60. 3. a 


8. ...220. 2. a 


28: 7.... 214. 1. b 


9.... 111. 2.6 


23... 


.271. 4 


10.... 252. 4 


8 89 (f. B. &m. 


21.... 95. re 


29... 


.94. 6 


11.... 74. a 


pi.) 


21: 2.... 166. 2. 


33... 


.257. 3, 4 


18.... 98. 2,207. 


10.... 24 b 


C....60. 3. re, 127. 


16:10... 


.2,52. 2 


1. re 


14.... 60. 3. i(2) 


2 


16... 


.247. a 


19.... 88 (pi.) 


15.... 63. 1. r, 97. 


9....160. 5, 223.1. 


17... 


.172. 4, 175. 3 


22....2C0. 3 


1. h, 164. 5 


a, 250. 2 (2) a 


25... 


.172. 4 


23.... 172. 4 



336 



INDEX II. 



6:32... 


.§24. h 


3: 3. ...§247. a 


6:11....§233. a 


9:18... 


.§24.6,105.0, 


7:12.. 


.165. 1 


5 : 2.... 119. 1 


7 : 34.... 251. 3 


190. a. 


13.. 


.246. 3. a 


12.... 180. a 


8: 2 106.4 


SO... 


.121. 1 


8: 1... 


.71. a (2) 


6 : 42. . . .98. 1 


5 106. a, 125. 2 


34... 


.105. 6 


8.. 


.249. 2. c 


7 : 6.... 94. e 


9: 5.... 161. 4 


10:12... 


.19. 2 


12.. 


.126. 1 


8:16....246. 3. a 


6 71. a (2) 


22 . . . 


.61. 6.0 


13.. 


.75. 1 


18.... 13. a 


IS 63. 1. a 


11: "3.".'.' 


.94. a 


21.. 


.11. 1. 6,90 


10: 7....231. 5. a 


19.... 249. 1 


12... 


.139. 3 


9:17.. 


.190. b 


10.... 19. 2 


26 03. 1. a 


15... 


.150. 5 


25.. 


.220. 1. b 


15 : 8.... 246. 3. a 


28 249. 1. a 


17... 


.97. 1. a, 250. 


37.. 


.172. 1 


10: 7. 8.... 119. 1 


32.... 271. 4. re 


2 


(2)c 


10:14.. 


.118. 3 


12.... 177. 3 


35.... 249. 1. c 


12:14... 


.111. 1 


30.. 


.39.4 


17 : 11.... 62. 2. b, 209. 


10: 39.... 94. b, 113. 2 


21... 


.282. c 


11: 4.. 


.199. b 


2.d 


11: 17.... 150. 2 


13: 9... 


.24. c 


13.. 


.199. a 


12.... 282. c 


12: 44.... 39. 3. 6 


15... 


.83.6 


12: 1.. 


.252. 2. 6 


13.... 275. 1. c 


13: 13.... 111. 2. d 


21... 


.119. 1 


8.. 


.216. 1. a 


18: 22.... 249. 2. b 


16....11. 1. a 


27... 


.264. a 


9.. 


.63. 3. c, 132. 2 


23.... 38. 4. a 


23.... 210. d 


14: 1... 


.254. 9. 6 


10.. 


.250. 1. a 


19: 2.... 112. 5. c 




19... 


.112. 3, 275. 4 


13: 6.. 


.164. 2 


20: 7....105. « 




15: 7... 


.227. 1. a 


14.. 


.203. 1 


35 96. a 


ESTHER. 


11... 


.260. 2 (2) 6 


15: 1.. 


.252. 2. a 


21 : 17.... 125. 1, 2G0. 


18... 


.121. 2 


10.. 
16.. 


.19. 2 
.246. 2. a 


2(2) 
22: 5.... 53. 2. re 


2: 8. ...§126.1 

9.... 207. 2.d 
4: 3.... 150. 5 
4.... 101. 2 

14.... 127. 1 

10.... 276. 2 
7 : 5.... 82. 1. a(l) 
S: 6 269 

15.... 256 
9: 4.... 282. c 

27.... 86. 6 (3 pi.) 


22. 
16: 5.'.'.' 


.172. 5 
.104. h 


15: 7.. 


.156. 2 


11.... 39. 1. re 


11.. 


.147. 3 


17.. 


.253. 2 


23: 19.... 242 


12.. 


.161. 2 


17:13.. 


.39. 4. a 


24 : 18.... 249. 2. b 


13.. 


.126. 1, 216. 


36.. 


.39. 4 


25 : 4.... 254. 7 


1. 


6 


18:23.. 


.119. 1 


25: 15.... 148. 1, 177.0 


16.. 


.60. 3. 6 (2) 


30.. 


.126. 1, 271. 


17.... 251. 2.6 


19.. 


.19. 2 


4. 


a 


19.... 119. 3 


17: 2.. 


.24.6 


19: 4.. 


.285. 1 


21.... 198. a. 4 


3.. 


.126. 1 


23.. 
25.. 


.254. 2. a 
.175. 2 


28 : 23.... 94. c 
29: 31. ...65. b 


10.. 
16.. 


.215. 1. c 
.88 (3 f. pi.) 


29.. 


.1.31. 3 


36.... 24.5. 5. 6 




18: 2.. 


.54. 3 


22:19.. 


.106. a 


31: 7.... 148. 1 




4.. 


.91. 6, 230. 2 


23: 1.. 


.251. 2. 6 


14.... 219. 1. a 


JOB. 


19: 2.. 


.105. c 


17.. 


.73. 2. o, 245. 


32: 15.... 256. c 




3.. 


.94. c, 252. 4 


3. 


a 


30.... 150. 2 (p. 


1: 3.... §250. 2 (2), 


7.. 


.113. 1 


25:17.. 


.251. 2. 6 


1S2) 


260. 2. (1) 


15.. 


.105. e 


29.. 


.177. 3 


33: 19.... 199. c 


5.... 203. 4, 274. 


16.. 


.45.4 






34: 4.... 126. 1 


2. d 


17.. 


.139. 2 






5.... 220. 1.6 


6.... 245. 3. 6 


23.. 


.88 (pi.), 141. 


1 CHRONICLES. 


C....43. b 


7.... 45. 1 


1 








35 : 13.... 57. 1 


10.... 71. re (2) 


29.. 


.74, 74. a 


2 :13.. 


.§57.2(1) 




11.... 45. 4,131.3 


20: 4.. 


.158. 3 


16.. 
3: 5.. 


.1.3. b 
.149. 1 


EZRA. 


14.... 220. 1.6,258. 
3 


8.. 
17.. 


.139. 3 
.255. 3. a. 


4:10.. 
5:20.. 


.100. 2. a (1) 
.74. a 


3: 11.... §95. c, 150. 5 
7 : 25.... 39. 4 
8: 18.... 26 

23.... 99. 3 

25.... 98. 1. a, 207. 
1. b, 245. 5. 6 

26.... 98. 1. a 

29.... 246. 3. a 

31. ...99. 3 
10: 14.... 245. .5. h 

16.... 122. 2, 141. 1 

17.... 245. 5.6 


21.... 104. 2 
2: 3.... 30. 1. a 


24.. 
26.. 


.112. 5. c 
.60. 3. f, 93. a. 


12: 1.. 


.14. a 


5.... 45. 4 


111. 2. e ■ 


2.. 


.150. 1, 180. a 


7.... 46 


28.. 


.140. 2 


14.. 

20.. 


.260. 2 (2) 
.14. a 


10.... 248. a 
3: 3 263. 5 


21: 5.. 
13.. 


.140. 5 
.24. c 


13: 3.. 


.104. ^ 


8.... 267. b 


18.. 


. .104. I 


12.. 
15 : 24. . 


.51. 2 

.94. e, 180. re 


11.... 263. 5 
13.... 263. 1 


24.. 
22: 3.. 


..88 (pi.) 

.283. 2 


27.. 


.180. a, 246. 


25.... 108. re, 172. 3 


20.. 


.220. 1. 6 


3 


a 


4: 2.... 28:3. 1. a 


21.. 


.88(3.f.), 94 


17: 4.. 


.266. 3. a 


4 200. c 


d 


, 167. 3 


20: 2.. 


.254. 5 


6.... 287. 3 


23: 3.. 


.269. 6 


8.. 


.73. a, 149. 1 




19.... 285. 1 


9.. 


..34 


21:13.. 


.259. 2 


KEHEMIAH. 


5: 7.... 93. 6, 287. 1 


11.. 


..79. 3. a 


22:14.. 


.250. 2 (3) 




8.... 263. 1 


17.. 


..86 6 (2 m.) 


23: 6.. 


.59. a 


1: 4.... §125. 2 


16....61. 6. a 


24:14.. 


..83. 6 


24: 3.. 


.59. n, 113. 1 


7.... 282. b 


18.... 165. 3 


19.. 


. .285. 3 


28.. 


.275. 1. c 


2: 4. ...111. 2. e 


6: 2.... 263. 1 


21.. 


.150. 2 


25:19.. 


.251. 4. a 


7. ...111. 2. 6 


16.. ..96. b 


24.. 


.139. 1 


26:28.. 


.245. 5. b 


12.... 39. 4 


22.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


25.. 


..264. a 


27:15.. 


.251. 4. a 


13.... 4. re, 164. 5 


119. 4 


33.. 


. .220. 2. c 


28: 1.. 


.36.1 


3: 13.... 53. 2. 6,62.1 


26.... 126. 1 


25: 3.. 


..220. 1. b 


5.. 


.249. 1. a 


20.... 94. a 


7: 3.... 243. 2. h 


26: 9.. 


..180. a 


29:17.. 


.245. 5. b 


33.... 274. 1 


5....119. 1, 139. 3 


11.. 


..161. 4 


18.. 


.125. 1 


34.... 210. r 


14....104. /, 105. 6 


27: 3.. 


..256. c 






4: 7. ...216. 2. a 


18.... 105. 6 


4.. 


..92. e 






5: 8. ...255.1 


8: 8. ...57. 2 (2) a, 


12.. 


..271.8 


2 CHRONICLES. 


14.... 65. re 


227. 1. re 


33.. 


. .220. 2. c 






16. ...112. 3 


21. ...165. 1 


28:12.. 


.245. 5 


1: 4.. 


.§245. 5. 6 


6: 6.... 177. 1 


9: 2.... 22. h 


29: 3.. 


.139. 2 


10.. 


.164. A 


8.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


6.... 88 (pi.) 


6.. 


. .53. 3. 6 


2: 7.. 


.14. a, 254. 3 


164. 3. 


1 15.... 92. 6 


14.. 


. .105. d 













INDEX 


II. 




29 


21... 


.524. c 1 


9: 


17... 


.§149.1 


45: 


3... 


.592. a 


80 


8... 


.24. b 




18... 


.219. 1. a 




9... 


.199. b 




26.. 


.99. 3. b 




19... 


.126. 1 




10... 


.14. a, 24. 6 


31 


5.. 


.157. 3 


10: 


2... 


.31. a, 286 


47: 


6... 


.43. a 




15.. 


.01. 3, 105. b. 




5... 


.31. b 




10... 


.112. 5. c 




161. 3. ■ 1 




8, 10.... 209. 1. a 1 


49: 


9... 


.55. 1 




18.. 


.273. 3. a 




12... 


.131. 3 


50: 


21... 


.112. 3, 282. 6 




22.. 


.27 




13, 14.... 31. & 1 




23... 


.105. 6 




24.. 


.GO. 1. a 


11: 


1... 


.257. 1 


51: 


6... 


.263. 1 


82 


2... 


.269. 6 




7... 


.220. 2. c, 275. 




7... 


.121. 2 




10.. 


.125. 1 




3. 


a 


53 


6... 


.220. 1. 6 




11.. 


.53. 2. a, 111. 


12: 


3... 


.280. 2 


55 


10... 


.92. c 




2. 


c 




4... 


.119. 1 




16.. 


.164. 2 




IS.. 


.104. 2 




8... 


.73. 1,249. 2. & 




18.. 


.274. 2. a 


S3 


5... 


.111. 3. a 


13: 


4... 


.271. 3 




19, 22... -.19. 2. a 




9.. 


.71. a (1) 




5... 


.104. h 




22.. 


.141. 1 




13.. 


.158. 1 


16- 


5... 


.19. 2. a, 90, 


67 


2.. 


.172. 1, 275. 




21.. 


.26, 121. 1 




151. 3 




1. 


a 




25.. 


.180. a 


17 


3... 


.139. 2 




9.. 


.247. 6 




27.. 


.158. 2 




9... 


.263. 5. a 


58 


2.. 


.88 (pi.) 




30.. 


.159. 2 


18 


6... 


.104. I 




4.'. 


.156. 2 


34 


5... 


.65. a 




10.. 


.147. 5 




7.. 


.131. 3 




13.. 


.61. 6. a 




15.. 


.82. 1. a (3) 




8.. 


.139. 3 




18.. 


.112. 1 




21... 


.21. 1 




9.. 


.24. 6, 214. 




22.. 


.91. b 




27.. 


.142. 2 




1 


6 




25.. 


.216. 1. a 




41.. 


.132. 1 




12.. 


.275. 3. a 


35 


11.. 


.53. 3. a, 111. 


19 


6... 


.249. 1 


GO 


2.. 


.43. a 




2 


c 




8.. 


.254. 9. b 




I'.'. 


.165. 1 


37 


6.. 


.177. 1 




14.. 


.11. 1. b 




5.. 


.253. 2. a 




12.. 


.61. 6. a 


20 


4... 


.63. 1. c, 97. 




13.. 


.287. 1 




24.. 


.104. U 




1. 


a,b 


CI 


1.. 


.196. 6 


38 


1.. 


.4. a 




9.. 


.243. 1 


C2 


4.. 


.93. a. bis 




12.. 


.86. &(2m.) 


22 


2... 


.104. j 




10.. 


.260. 2 (2) c 




24.. 


.60.4.0,113.1 




9.. 


.42 




12.. 


.252. 4 




35.. 


.230. 2. a 




10.. 


.157. 1 


63 


2.. 


.275. 1. c 


39 


2.. 


.104.^ 




17.. 


.156. 3. 199. b 




4.. 


.105. c 




3.. 


.161. 2 




22.. 


.272. 3 




8.. 


.61. 6. a 




4.. 


.112. 5. c 




32.. 


.266. 3 


64 


7.. 


.54.3 




24.. 


.165. 2 


23 


6.. 


.148. 2, 267. d 


65 


7.. 


.112. 5. c 


40 


2.. 


.268. 1. a 


24 


14.. 


.131. 3 




10.. 


.104. A, 105. 6 




21, 22.... 208. 3. a 


25 




.6, 7. 2. a 


6C 


4.. 


.275. 2. 6 




22.. 


.221. 6. b 




27.! 


.71. a. 2 




12.. 


.114 


41 


1.. 


.160. 5 


26 


2.. 


.98. 1. a 


63 


3.. 


.91. 6, 131. 2, 




2.. 


.105. b 




4.. 


.112. 3 




5 


140. 4 




17.. 


.131. 4, 164. 2 


27 


10.. 


.112. 3 




5.. 


.111. 3. a 




25.. 


.172. 5 




13.. 


.4. a 




8.. 


.119. 3 




26.. 


.43, 43. a 


28 


7.. 


.150. 2 




18.. 


.21.1 


42 


2.. 


.86. & (1 c.) 


29 


9.. 


.111. 1 




21.. 


. .231. 3. a 




13.. 


.223. 1. a 


30 


4.. 


.13. a 


69 


10.. 


.22. a, 104. J, 










8.. 


.221. C. b 




216. 2. a 










13.. 


.105. b 




19.. 


.98. 1. a 




PSALMS. 


31 


10.. 


.31. a 




24.. 


..119. 1 










14.. 


.31. 6 


70 


C.. 


.71. a. 2 


1 


• 1.. 


.§245.2 




24.. 


.119. 4 


71 


C.. 


.157. 1 


2 


: 2.. 


.247 


32 


1.. 


.165. 3 




7.. 


.256. 6 




3.. 


..45. 4,97.1 




10.. 


.249. 1. a 




12.. 


..158. 2 




7.. 


..71. a (2) 


33 


5.. 


.266. 1 




23.. 


..88. (f. pi.) 




12.. 


..35. 1,271.4 


34 




.6, 7. 2. a 


72 


15.. 


.105. 6 


3 


: 2.. 


..141.1 


35 


s!! 


.105. a 




17.. 


. .159. 3, 247 




3.. 


..61. 6. a 




10.. 


..19. 2. «, 22. 




20.. 


..93. a 




8.. 


..273. 2 




b 


215. 1. c 


73 


2.. 


..172.1 


4 


. 3.. 


..111. 2. e 




19.. 


..102. 3 




10.. 


..254. 6. 6 




7.. 


..3.1. a, 131. 3, 




25.. 


..127. 2 




16.. 


..99. 3. 6 




165. 1 


36 


.13.. 


..121.1 




27.. 


..86. 6 (2 m.) 


6 


: 9.. 


. .31. b, 150. 1 


37 




..6 


74 


■ 4.. 


.220. 2. « 




11.. 


..42 




9.. 


..91. b 




5.. 


. .19. 2. a 




12.. 


. .112. 5. c, 254. 




15.. 


. .24. b 




8.. 


..105. a 




9 


b 




23.. 


. .161. 4 




10.. 


..119. 1 




13.. 


..31. 5 


38 


■ 3.. 


. .131. 1 




17.. 


..11. 1. 6 


6 


: 3.. 


..42 




11.. 


. .92. a 




19.. 


..196. 6 




4.. 


..71. a. 2 




21.. 


..19.2. a 


75 


:11.. 


..161.4 


7 


: 6.. 


. .31.6,60.2.0, 


39 


: 2.. 


. .97. 1 


76 


: 3.. 


..203. 5. c 




114 




5!'. 


..75.1 




4.. 


. .22. (7, 126. 2, 




10.. 


..263. 1. a 




14.. 


..35. 2,175. 4 




216. 2. a 




17.. 


. .254. 9. a 


40 


:18.. 


..71. a (2) 




6.. 


..98. a 


8 


: 2.. 


. .132. 1 


41 


: 5.. 


..119. 3, 164. 5 


77 


: 2. . 


. .112. 3 




3.. 


. .94. 6 


42 


; 9.. 


. .220. 1. b 




4'.'. 


..172.3 




5.. 


..199. e 




10.. 


..111.2.6 




10.. 


..139. 2 


9 


:14.. 


..141.1 


44 


: 5.. 


..258.2 




18.. 


. .92. b 




15.. 


..220. 2. a 




18, 21.... 127. 2 




20.. 


..24. 6 




16.. 


. .285. 3 


22 


27.. 


. .61. 6. 


I78 


; 9.. 


..265. 3. a 



337 



78: 


63... 


.§93. 6 




65... 


.141. 5* 


80 


3... 


.61. 6. a 




5, 8 


...253. 2. b 




6... 


.112. 3 




11... 


.93. a 




14... 


.4. 0, 180. a 




15... 


.253. 2. 6 




10... 


.4. a, 129. 2 




19... 


.157. 3 




20... 


.253. 2. 6 


81 


3... 


.45. 5. a 




11... 


.119. 1, 246. 




2 


6 




17..'. 


.279 


84- 


2... 


.200. c 


86 


2.. . 


.19. 2, 126. 1 


88 


17... 


.24. 6, 92. a 


89 


2... 


.216. 2. a 




8... 


.111. 3. b 




9... 


.253. 2. 6 




10... 


.131. 4 




40... 


.272. 3 




44... 


•104. j! 




45... 


.24. 6, 86. 6 




(2 


m.) 




51... 


.249. 1. a 




52... 


.24. 6, 210. 




*2. 


a 


90 


2.. 


.263. 1. 6 




10... 


.22. a 


91 


6... 


.140. 1 




12... 


.105. c 


92 


2.. 


.242. 6 




10.. 


.61. 6. a 


93 


1... 


.126. 2 




5.. 


.174. 1 


94 


1.. 


.94. d 




9.. 


.126. 1 




17.. 


.61. 6. a 




19.. 


.141. 6 




20.. 


.93. a, 111. 




2. 


e 


101 


5.. 


.92. 6, 93. a 


102 


5... 


.14. a 




14.. 


.129. 2 




19.. 


.266. 3 


103 


3,4 


....220. 2. c 




4.. 


.104. c, 246. 




2 


6 




5.. 


.275. 3 




7.. 


.263. 5 




13.. 


.119.1,262.3 


104 


: 8.. 


.286 




18.. 


.219. 1. c 




26.. 


.119. 1 




28.. 


.88 (pi.) 




29.. 


.111. 2. 6, 




151. 2 


105 


.15.. 


.204 




28.. 


.99.3 


106 


25.. 


.114 




47.. 


.126. 1 


107 


20.. 


.199. d 




27.. 


.126. 1 


109 


13.. 


.173. 3 




23.. 


.112. 5. c 


110 


: 4.. 


.61. 6. 


111 




.6 


112 




.6 


113 


5-9 


. . .61. 6. a 




6.. 


.218 


114 


8.. 


.61. 6. a 


115 


17.. 


.242 


116 


6.. 


.141.2,150.8 




12.. 


.220. 2. c 




15.. 


.61. 6. a 




19.. 


.2C0. 1. b 


118 


10.. 


.105. a 




11.. 


.1.39. 1 




18.. 


.92. d, 104. a 



338 



INDEX II. 



118: 23.... §166.1 


6:11.. 


.§11.1. a 


30:25....§200. e 


6: 3....§105.d 


119: ....6 


21.. 


.104. g 


31.... 229. 1. a 


9.... 104. A 


18.... 98. 2 


27.. 


.118. 4 


31: 3....199. 


12.... 57. 2 (3) a 


22.... 139. 2 


7:13.. 


.141. 1 


10-31.... 6 


6: 5....45. 6. a 


43.... 60. 4. a 


14.. 


.53. 2. a 


12.... 104. ; 


6.... 220. 1. 6 


47.... 141. 6 


8: 3.. 


.31. a, 97. 1. a 


31.... 247. a 


9....105. e, 275.8 


71.... 126. 1 


11.. 


.260. 1 




11.... 141. 1 


101 .. . .165. 2 


13.. 


.166. 2 




7: 3.... 221. 6. 6 


117.... 172. 3 


15.. 


.88 


ECCLESIASTES. 


4.... 216. 1. c 


129.... 104. i 


17.. 


.53. 2. a, 111. 




8.... 210. e 


133.... 97. 2 


2. 


b 


1: 4.. ..5266. 1 


13.... 141. 1 


137.... 275. 1. a 


25.. 


.263. 1. b 


9.... 256. c 


8: 2.... 199. 6 


139.... 24. b 


27, 29.... 141. 3 


15.... 161. 4 


5.... 104. i 


155.... 275. 1. a 


10: 3.. 


.111. 1 


17.... 3. 1. a 


6.... 22. a, 216. 2. a 


122-124: ....74. a 


4.. 


.11.1.0,156.3 


18.... 90 




122: 4....274. 2. 6 


11.. 


.249. 1 


2: 6....207. 1. a 




123: 1....61. 6. a 


11: 7.. 


.208. 3. c 


7.... 275. 1. c 


ISAIAH. 


4.... 246. 3. a 


25.. 


.150. 5 


8.... 280. 3. a 




124: 4....61. 6. a 


12:25.. 


.197. 6 


13.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


1: 3.... §262. 3 


125: 3 61. 6. a 


13:23.. 


.156. 3 


231. 3. 6 


5.... 256. c 


5.... 79. 3. a 


14: 3.. 


.105. d 


15.... 260. 2 (2) a 


6 60.2.0,156.2 


127: 2.... 196. d, 254. 


10.. 


.60.4.0,119.1 


19.... 230. 4, 283. 


9.... 262. 1 


9. b 


34.. 


.263. 3 


2. a 


11.... 271.1 


129: ....74. a 


15: 1.. 


.24. a, 60. 4. a 


22....74, 177. 1 


16....104. A, 119. 1 


3.... 243. 2. a 


9.. 


.112. 5. c 


3: 2, 4.... 267. 6 


16.... 54. 4. a, 82. 


86.... 114 


16: 4.. 


.246. 2. a 


17....245. 5. a 


6. a 


132: 1....174. 6 


17: 4.. 


.111. 2. c, 140. 


IS.... 74, 139. 2 


17.... 185. 2. c, 


6.... 127. 2 


6 




4: 2. ...268. 1. a 


267. c 


12.... 65. a, 220. 


10.. 


.131. 1 


9.... 251. 4 


18.... 245. 5. d 


2. a 


14.. 


.126.1,131.3 


12.... 105. 


21.... 33. 1,61. 6.0, 


133: 1....24. a 


26.. 


.242 


14....53. 2. a. 111. 


218 


134-137.... 74. a 


18: 5... 


.267 d 


2. c 


22.... 245. 5 


134: 2.... 220. 2. &, 


19: 7... 


.19. 2. o, 215. 


5: 5.... 113. 2 


24.... 245. 4 


273. 2 


1. 


c 


7.... 38. 1.0,201.2 


29.... 279 


135: 7.... 94. 6,165.2 


13... 


.216. 1. d 


8.... 112. 5. c 


S1....60. 3. 6(2) 


137: 6....104. c 


19... 


.215. 1. c 


7: 16.... 82. 5. 


2: 2.... 265. 6 


138: 6.... 147. 2 


24.. 


.51. 1 


22.... 71. a (2) 


4.... 207. 1. a 


139: 1.... 104. j, 147. 5 


25.. 


.94. d 


24.... 280. 3 


20.... 43. 6, 207. L 


2.... 158. 1 


20:16... 


.111. 3. a 


25.... 273. 4 


a, 256 


6....220. 1. b 


21: 8... 


.56. 2 


26.... 91. 6,165.2 


3: 1....280. 3. rt 


8.... 53. 3. b, 88 


13... 


.254. 9. a 


8: 1....177. 3 


9.... 273. 3. a 


(1. c), 161. 2 


15.. 


.267. u 


9.... 268. 1 


15.... 24. a, 75. 1 


19.... 83. b 


22... 


.63. 1. a 


12.... 165. 2 


16.... 172.5,209.3.0 


20.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


22: 11... 


.215. 1. c 


9: 1....139. 2, 216. 


24.... 53. 3. a 


83. b (3 pi.), 


21... 


.253. 2 


1. a 


4: 4.... 262. 1 


164.3 


24... 


.60. 4. a 


12.... 59. o, 93. e 


5: 10.... 22. a, 216. 2.0 


140: 10.... 172. 3 


23: 1... 


.158. 3 


18.... 165. 2 


19....97. 1.97.1.0 


13.... 86. 6(1 c.) 


12... 


.243. 2 


10: 5. ...164. 3 


20.... 10. a 


141: 3....24.ft,9S. l.a 


24.. 


.158. 2, 3 


10.... 121. 2 


23.... 275. 6 


5. ...111.1,164.2 


27... 


.207. 1. c 


17....220. 2. c 


28.... 24. 6 


8. ...60. 4. a 


24: 2... 


.92. e 


11: 3....177. 1 


6: 1....265. a 


143: 3.... 165. 2 


7... 


.156. 3 


6.... 75. 2 


2.... 203. 5.0 


6.... 272. 2. 6 


14... 


.97.1.6,148.3 


12: 1....201. 2 


5.... 254. 10 


144: ....74 a 


17... 


.91 6, 231. 5. a 


4. ...87 


9....56.3.a,175.4 


2.... 199. b 


23... 


.94. b 


5.... 11. 1. a, 122. 


12. ...119. 1 


145: ....6 


31... 


.9:3. a, 207. 2. 


2, 140. 5 


13....92. d 


8....215. 1. c 


d 


271. 1 


6.... 140. 1,2 


7: 2. ...157. 1 


10.... 104. b 


25: 6... 


.126. 2 


11.... 19. 2. 6, 65. a 


4.... 91. 6 


147: 1....92. rf 


7... 


.60. 3. 6 (1) 




11.... 119. 3, 126.1 


149: 5....112. 5. c 


9... 


.174.4 




14.... 166. 1 




11... 


.10. a 


SONG OF SOLOMON. 


15... 267. c 




17... 


.127. 2 




19.. ..156. 4 


PROVERBS. 


19... 


.90 


1: 6.... §105. e, 141. 


25.... 274. 2.6 




26: 7... 


.141. 1 


1, 207. 1. 


8: 2.... 22. 6 


1: 10.... §111. 2. b, 


18.. 


.141. 6 


7.... 45. 5. a, 74, 


11.... 104. a 


177.3 


21... 


.141. 6 


209. 1. a 


17.... 100. 2. a(l) 


20.... 97. 1. a 


27:10... 


.215. 1. c 


8.... 24. 6, 260. 2(2) 


23.... 61. 6. a 


22.... 31. &, 60.3. 


15.. 


.83. c (2) 


10.... 174. 1 


9: 3.... 24. 6, 221. 5.0 


f. 111. 2. e 


17.. 


.140. 1 


2: 5.... 254. 7 


4.... 142. 1 


28.... 105. c 


25.. 


.24.6,216.2.0 


10.... 221. 2. 6 


6.... 4. n 


2: 11. ...104. 6 


28: 6. 18.... 203. 3. 


15.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


12.... 246. 2. 6 


3: 3....125. 1 


21... 


.94.6 


119.4 


IT.... 45. 2 


12.... 43. a 


29: 6... 


.140. 1 


3: 1....45. 5. a 


10: 1....207. 2. a, 


17.... 258. 1 


30: 4.. 


.65. 6 


11.... 148. 3, 164.3 


247. 6 


4: 6. ...118. 3 


6.. 


.22.6,66.1(2) 


4: 1....254. 4 


9.... 22. 6 


13.... 24. 6,106.6 


a 


151. 2 


2.... 220. 1. 6 


10.... 260. 2(2)c 


16.... 88 


8.. 


.11. 1. a 


5.... 216. 1. c 


]2....?.'i5. 3 


25.... 150. 1 


9.. 


.65. a 


9.... 104. k 


13.... 11. 1. 6,57.2 


6: 22.... 105. c 


17.. 


.14. fl, 24. 6, 


5: 2.... 57. 2 (3) a, 


(31 n, 92. 6, 174. 


6: 3.... 49 


67. 2 (3) a 


60. 4. a 


1, 231. 3. b 



INDEX II. 



339 



10:14 

16 
17 
27 
34 
11: 2 



15 
13: 8 
16 
18 
20 

14: C 
11 
19 

23 

31 

15: 5. 

16: 8, 

9. 

10, 

17: 8 



18 



19 



17 
21 
20: 4 
21: 3 
9 
12 



22 



23: 



24 



3 

19 

20 

25: 1 



26 



27 



....5245. 5. d 
....147.4 
....221. 5.5 
....C4 6 
....19. 1,45. 2 
...100. 2. a (2), 
156.4 
. . . .141. 6 
....60. 3. a 
....65. 6 
....91. c 
....92. e 
....53. 3. a. 111. 
2. c 

....114 
....150.6 
. . . .95. a 
....57. 2 (2) a, 
94. b, 161. 2 
,...119.4 
...142. 2, 161. 2 
...277 

....168. a, 174.4 
...86. b (2m.), 
161.4 

...229. 3. a 
....156. 2, 161.2 
....139. 2 
...1G9. 3 
....98. 1. a 
....65.0 
...141. 1 
...275.3 
...24. c, 94. a, 
ISO. a 
, . . .199. c 
....11.1. a, 106. d 
....92. c 
. . .199. c 
...207. 1. a 
...262. 4 
...112.1,172.1, 
177. 3, 247 
...111. 2. c 
...254. 6 
...161.2 
...25 

. . .221. 7. a 
...161.2 
...45.3,111. 1 
...221.3. a 
. . .254. 6. 6 
. . .254. 2 
...54. 3, 94. 5, 
221. 6. b 
. . .249. 2. (I 
18.... 220. 1. h 
...113. 1 
...165. 2, 246. 
2. a 

. . .140. 3, 4 
...1S9. 2,282. a 
...82. 1. a(l) 
...104. h 
...209. 1. a 
...159. 2 
...119. 1 
...105. «, 6 
...254. 9. a 
...86. /<(Opl.) 
...221.2. 6 
. . .172. 3 
...105. d 
...127.3 
...24. a 
...88 (3 f. pi.) 
...223. 1. a 
...88 (3 f. pi.), 
91. r 
...60.3. o 



28 



41: 



42: 



44: 



10.. 


..§280.2 


12.. 


..86. A (3 pi.) 


13.. 


. .280. 2 


16.. 


..150, 5,279. a 


21.. 


. .249. 1. a 


27.. 


..113. 1 


28.. 


. .282. a 


1.. 


..131.2 


7.. 


..165. 3 


9.. 


..141.6 


14.. 


. .90, 279. a 


16.. 


. .283. 2. b 


21.. 


..86. 6 (3 pi.) 


22.. 


.156. 1 


2.. 


.157. 1 


5.. 


.157. 3 


11.. 


.79. 3. a, 232 a 


12.. 


.19. 2, 119. 3 


18.. 


.106.0,119.1, 


139. 2 


19.. 


.104. 6, 106. o. 


141. 3 


21.. 


.180. a, 258. 1 


23.. 


.273. 3 


28.. 


.160. 4 


29.. 


.96. b 


4.. 


.22. a, 43 


1.. 


.88 


11.. 


.275. 1. a 


1.. 


.24. b, 87, 131. 


2 


141. 3, 258. 3. a 


C. 


.255. 2 


7.. 


.24. o 


9.. 


.82. 1. a(l) 


10.. 


.S2. .5. a 


12.. 


.24. r, 140. 1 


15.. 


.271. 2 


21.. 


..56. 1 


4.. 


.140. 2, 245. 


5 


d 


6.. 


.96. a 


11.. 


.21.1,229.4.^. 


17.. 


.104. i 


1... 


.55. 1,88 (pi.), 


158. 2 


7.. 


.275. 4 


8.. 


.35.1,240.3.0 


9.. 


.250. 1. a 


15.. 


.271. 4. o 


23... 


.270. c 


32.. 


.254. 9. a 


5.. 


.90, 279. a 


14.. 


.19. 2 


16.. 


.250. c 


1.. 


.263. 2 


7.. 


.22. A, 35. 1 


12.. 


.215. 1. 


17.. 


.260. 2 (2) c 


21.. 


.263. 2 


24.. 


.92. 6 


30.. 


.147. 4 


31.. 


.245.5 


7... 


.90, 270. b 


8.. 


.285. 1 


14.. 


.254. 3 


23.. 


.97.2.0,172.3 


24.. 


.260. 2 (2) c 


4... 


.140. 1 


5.. 


.126. 1, 221. 


7. 


b 


6.. 


.97. 2. a 


11.. 


.156. 1 


22.. 


.65. a 


24.. 


.261. 


5... 


.105. 6 


8... 


.94. d 


9.. 


.91. d 


23.. 


.112. 3 


2... 


.105. b, 193. 


2. 


& 



>44 



47 



48 



51 



57: 



58: 



59 



60 



63: 



64 



; 8....§14T, 3 
13.... 19. 2,60.3.6 

(2), 120. 1 
16.... 141. 2 
17.... 13. a 
18.... 156. 2 
21.... 102. 2 
27. ...111. 3. a 

1....139. 2 
11.... 118. 3 

1....209. b 

2....88(f. 8. &m. 
pi.). 111. 3. a 

5. ...269. b 
10.... 102. 3, 104. c 
12.... 285. 2. a 
13.... 220. 2. a 
14.... 104. i 

7....104. ^ 

8. ...87 
11.... 39. 1. a 

8. ...207. 1. a 
18. ...65. 6 
26.... 112. 3, 273. 1 
14.... 126. 1 
15. ...126. 1 
20.... 57. 2 (3) a 
21.... 255. 2 

5 96. a, b, 122. 

2, 131. 6, 150. 2 

7....174. 1 
11.... 140. 4 
14.... 60. 3. 6(2) 

2.. ..111.1 

3.... 94. e 

4.... 254. 9. 6,262.4 

5. ...60.2. o, 142.1 
10.... 175. 1 
11....249. 1. a 

1....207. 1. a 

5.... 201. 2 

6.... 104. c 

9. ...125. 2 
12.... 22. 6 

5.... 104. b 
11.... 273. 3 

3 105. a, 245. 

5.6 
12.... 164. 5 

5.... 140. 2 

6.... 24. 6 

8....88(2f.) 
13.... 119. 3 

3.... 24. 6, 131. 2 
216. 2. o 

9.... 125. 2 
10.... 216. 1. 6 

3.... 83. c. (2), 
122. 2 

5.... 112. 3, 156.4, 
196. d 
10....1S9 
12. ...127. 2' 
13.... 92. 6,</, 174.1 
16.... 104. i 
17.... 172. 4 

1....157. 2 

4....88(f. pi.) 

7.... 105. c 

9.... 104. c 
10.... 105. c 

1....43. 6 

2.... 105. d 

3.... 16. 1 

3.. . . .94. o, 119. 1 

16 105. a 

19 86. a 

2 86. a 

6.... 132. 3 

0....161. 3 



w 


: 8... .§94. d 




10.... 139. 1 


65 


: 20.... 165. 2, 248 




24 263. 1, 6 


66 


:12....142. 1 




13.... 45. 5 




20.... 39. 1. a 




JEREMIAH. 


1 


: 5....5105. d 




11.... 266. 2 


2 


:ll....ll. 1.6,230.3 




12....111. 3. a 




19.... 105. e 




21....220. 1.6,249. 




1.6 




24.... 105. c 




27....104. >t 




34.... 277 




36. ...111. 2. 6 


3 


: 3.... 267. 6 




5.... 86. 6 (2 f.), 




131. 2 




6.... 172. 3 




7.... 249. 1. a 




8.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 




207. 1. o 




10.... 249. 1. a 




11....207. 1. a 




22.... 177. 3 


4 


• 3. ...158. 2 




7.... 24. 6, 221. 5. a 




13. ...141. 1 




19.... 86. 6(2f.) 




30... 71. a (2), 




275. 5 




31.... 156. 1 


5 


6.... 141. 1 




7.... 75. 2,125.1 




13.... 245. 5. 6 




22....56. l,105.5,c 




26.... 139. 2 


6 


27. ...185. 2. c 


7 


4.... 280. 3.6 




10.... 65. a 




13.... 282 




27.... 104. 6 




29. ...141. 1 


8 


11.... 105. 3 




22.... 230. 2 


9 


2.... 94. c 




17.... lis. 4 




19.... 220. 1. 6 


10 


5.... 57.2(3)0,86. 




6(3pl.), 164. 3 




12.... 88 




17 89(f. 8. &.in. 




pl.) 


11 


15.... 220. 1.6 


12 


5.... 94. a 




9....2C9. 3 




10.... 121. 2 




17. ...92. d 


13 


5.... 127. 1 




7. ...147. 2 




13.... 36. 1 




19.... 172. 1, 275. 




2. 6 




21.... 60. 3. b (1>, 




86. 6 (2 f.) 




25.... 60. 2. a 


15 


3.... 119. 1 




10....93(pl.), 104. 




15. t.. 106. 6 




17.... 112. 5. c 


16; 


16.... 158. ],24!>. 




1. o 



340 




INDEX II. 




17: 3. 


..§221. 6. b 


44 : 18.... §271. 1 


4 : 14.... § S3, c. 2, 122. 


17: 15.. ..§65. 6 


4. 


..86. b (2 m.), 


19.... 104. e 


2 


23....88(f. pi.) 


112. 3 


23.... 166. 1 


17.... 236. 2 


18: 26.... 221. 5.6 


17. 


..172. 3 


25 160. 4 


5: 5. ...160. 5 


32.... 287. 1 


18. 


..94. d 


46: 7, 8.... 122. 2 




19: 2....196. d 


18 : 23. 


..46. 172. 3, 


8....96.o,111.2.d 




20: 9.... 140. 4 


175. 3 


11.... 86. 6(2. f.) 


EZEKIEL. 


16....271. 4. 6 


19:11. 


..165. 1 


20.... 43. 6 




21.... 65. 6 


20 : 9. 


..22. b 


48: 11.... 159. 1 


1: 4.... §53. 2. a 


27.... 119. 3 


21: 3. 


..88 (pi.) 


19.... 280. 3. a 


6.... 203. 5. a 


£6.... 91. c 


4. 


. .39. 4 


32.... 246. 3. a 


11.... 220. 2. c 


37.... 63. 2. a 


13. 


..131. 1 


49: 3.... 54. 4. a, 82. 


14....179. 1. a,268. 


21:15....24cs 177. 1 


22: 3. 


. .185. 2. c 


5. a 


1. a 


15, 16.... 93. e 


6. 


..13. b 


8.... 95. d 


2:10 53.2.0,53.3.(2 


18.... 121. 1 


14. 


..161. 4, 193. c 


10.... 165. 1, 262. 4 


3: 7.... 254. 10 


19.... 219. 1. a 


15. 


..94. a 


11.... 88 (3 f. pi.), 


15. ...139. 3 


21.... 180. a 


20. 


. .234. a 


98. 1 


20....S8(f. pi.) 


26, 28.... 87 


23. 


..61. 6. a, 85. 


15, 17.... 275. 2. 6 


4: 3. ...54.1 


29.... 91. 6, 106. a 


& (2 f.) 90 (2 I. 


18.... 45. 4 


9.... 199. a 


31.... 94. 6, 196. c 




i.), 140. 2 


20 140. 5 


12.... 157. 3 


S2....280. 3. 6 


24. 


..105. b 


24.... 104. !, 275. 4 


5 : 12.... 220. 1. b 


33.... 111. 2. c 


26. 


..104. t" 


28.... 141. 1 


13.... 121. 3, 131. 6 


34.. ..87 


29. 


..280. 3. & 


37.... 86. 6(2 in.), 


16.... 119. 1 


22: 20.... 131. 2 


23 :13. 


..131. 6 


112. 3, 5. c, 139. 3 


6: 3 208. 3. c 


23: 5.... 111. 1 


23. 


. .254. 6. b 


50: 3.... 158. 2 


6. ...147. 4 


16. 20.... 97. 1. a 


29. 


..161. 2 


5.... 71. a (3), 


8.... 173. 2 


19.... 175. 3 


37. 


..104. b 


91. d 


9.... 24. c 


42....21. 1 


39. 


..177.3 


6 275. 2 


11.... 93. 2 


48....S3. c(2),16a 


24: 2. 


..91. c 


11.... 196. d 


14.... 280. 3. a 


3 (p. 182) 


25: 3. 


. .94. b 


20.... 165. 2 


16.... 118. 4 


49.... 165. 2, 220. 


16. 


..96. a 


23.... 91. a 


7 : 17.... 203. 5. a 


1. 6 


26. 


..246.3. a 


27... .111. 3. a 


24.... 141. 1, 216. 


24: 10.... 197. b 


34. 


..161.5 


34.... 94. 6, 114, 


2. a 


11.... 140. 1 


36. 


..57. 2 (3) a, 


158.3 


25.... 196. c 


12.... 172. 1 


234. c 


44.... 105. b 


27.... 118. 4 


26.... 128, 189. 6 


26: 9. 


..165.3 


51: 3.... 46 


8: 2.... 66. 2 (2) a 


25: 6.... 57. 2 (3) a. 


21. 


..44. b 


9.... 165. 2,3 


3.... 165. 3 


106. o, 125. 2 


27: 3. 


..249. 1. c 


13....90(2f. 6.) 


6.... 75. 1,119. 3 


13.... 219. 1. 6 


18. 


..156. 2 


30.... 24. c 


16.... 90, (2 m. pi.). 


15.... 57. 2 (3) a 


20. 


. .13. a 


33 94. 6 


176. 1 


26: 2.... 140. 2 


28 : 16. 


..245.3. b 


34.... 165. 2 


9: 2.... 249. 1. c 


9.... 19. 2. c, 22L 


29: 8. 


. .94. e, 112. 5. c 


50.... 151. 1 


8.... 120. 2 


5. a 


23. 


. .229. 1. a 


58.... 24. c, 149. 1 


10.... 254. 9. b 


15.... 113. 1,2 


25. 


..220. 1. & 


52: 13.... 254. 6. 6 


10: 17.... 157. 1 


18. ...112. 5. c 


27. 


. .24. b 




13: 2....207. 1. 6, 255. 


21.... 234. a 


SO : 16. 


..139.3 




1 


27: 3.... 90 (2. f. B.) 


19. 


. .276. 1 


LAMENTATIONS. 


8.... 199. c 


8.... 150. 3 


31 : 12. 


..87,119.3 




11.... 71. a (2) 


9....24.c,216.1.o 


18. 


..273.4 


1: ....56 


17.... 220. 1. 6 


12.... 22. a 


21. 


. .249. 2. b 


1: 1.... 33. 1,61. 6. a. 


19.... 157. 3 


15.... 13. o 


32. 


. . .112. 3 


218 


20.... 24. 6, 71. a 


19.... 93. 6 


33. 


..16.3.&,105.d 


4.... 149. 1,199. a 


(2), 220. 2. c 


23.... 54. 2 


38. 


..46 


8.... 141. 3 


14: 3.... 53. 1. a, 91. 


26.... 156. 3 


32: 4. 


. .91. h, 131. 5 


12.... 142. 1 


6, c, 119. 1 


SO.... 96. 6 


9. 


. . .98. 1. a 


16....207. 1.0,209. 


8.... 141. 3 


31....11. l.a,196.d 


12. 


. .246. 3. a 


1. a, 271. 1 


15: 5.... 104. i 


28: 8.... 80. 6 (2 m.) 


14. 


. . .249. 1. c 


17. ...272. 2. 6 


16: 4.... 60. 4. o, 93. 


9.... 230. 4 


33. 


...92. d 


20.... 60. 3. h (2), 


a, 95. c, 121. 1, 
1^6. 1, 127. 1, 


13.... 19. 2. 6. 161.4 


35. 


...164. 2 


92. a 


14. ...71. ft (2) 


37. 


...10. a 


2: ....6 


150. 5, 221. 6. 6, 


15.... 61. 6. 0,104. 6 


44. 


...268.1 


2: 8.... 126. 1 


282. a 


16.... 53. 2. o, 111. 


33: 8. 


...13. a 


11.... 92. a, 113. 1, 


5....87,95. a,lll. 


2. c, 165. 3 


24. 


...45. 1 


2,115 


S. o, 150. 5 


17. ...168 0,172.2 


• 26. 


...11.1.6 


15, 16.... 74. a 


8, 10.... 99. 3. 6 


18....104./, 184.6, 


34: 1. 


. . .44. a 


3: ....6 


22.... 86. 6(2f.) 


216. 1. d 


36 : 16. 


. .272. 3 , 


3: 12.... 196. d 


27.... 256. b 


23.... 92. a 


23. 


...251.1 


14.... 199. 6 


28.... 127. 1 


24.... 139. 3 


37 : 12. 


...113.2 


22.... 54. 3, 216. 


Si.... 173. 2 


24, 26.... 156. 3 


14. 


...266 


2. a 


33.... 60. 3. 6 (2), 


29: 3 102. 1. a 


16. 


...209.3. a 


33....1.'J0.2(p.l82) 


120. 1 


15.... 166. 5 


38: 9. 


...270. c 


42.... 71. a (1) 


34.... 14. o, 19. 6 


IS.... 95. a 


12. 


...56. 4 


45.... 267. c 


36. ...91. 6 


SO: 16.... 254. 6. 6 


14. 


. . .249. 1. c 


48.... 147. 2 


50.... 128 


25.... 112. 3 


39 : 18. 


. . .92. d 


53.... 53. 3. a, 150. 


52 92. rf,220.2.a 


31: 3.... 140. 5 


40: 1. 


...57. 2 (2) a 


2 (p. 182) 


53.... 220. 1. 6 


5.... 11. 1. Q, 86. 6 


3. 


...249. 1. c 


58.... 158. 1 


57.... 156. 3 


8....11. 1. a, 199 


41: 6. 


...282. c 


4: ....6 


59.... 86. 6(lc.) 


15.... 915. c 


42: 2. 


...175. 2 


4: 1.... 96. 6, 177. 3 


17: 5.... 132. 2 


32 :16....88(f. pi.) 


6. 


. . .46, 71. a (1) 


3.... 43. 6 


9....166. 2, 191.4, 


18.. ..11. 1. 6 


10. 


...53.2.6,148.2 


9.... 39.3.6,45.5.0 


216. 2. a 


19.... 95. a, d 





INDE 


X II. 


341 


32; 20.. ..§89 (f. 8. & 


10:14....§177. 3,285. 2 


AMOS. 


2: 9....§89(f. F. & 


in. pi.) 


17... .51. 2 




in. pi.) 220. 1. a 


32 95. a 


11: 6. ...11. 1. 6 


l:ll....§104.e,275. 


14 220. 2. c 


33:12....1G6. 2 


12.... 19. 2. a 


2. b 


3: 6 114 


13.... 221. 5. & 


14.... 131. 


13 ... . 125. 2 


7 93. a 


30.... 03. 2. 6, 223. 


30. ...11. 1. b 


2 : 4 119. 3 


8 147.4 


1. a 1)18 


31.... 249. 1. b 


3 : 11 86. a, 140. 2 


11 ... . 112. 3 


S4:12....249. 1. 6 


34.... 91. 6 


15 156. 4 


17 24. b, 142. 


17.... 71. a (2) 


35.... 94. b 


4 : 2 . . . . 165. 2 


1, 199. c 


31. ...71. a(2) 


36.... 82. 5. a 


3 86. t(2pl.) 




S5: 6 105. rf 


40.... 126. 1 


6 : n .... 92. 6, 161. 3 




8.... 216. l.d 


44.... 196. d 


15 139.3 




9.... 147. 2 


12: 13.... 199. a 


21, 25 ... . 24. h 


IIABAKKUK. 


11.... 220. 2. a 




6 : 2 64. 2, £53. 




12.... 63. 1. a 




2.6 


1 : 8 § 100. 2. a 


36: 3.... 139. 2, 141.1 


HOSEA. 


10 243. 1 


(2) Ills 


6.... 220. 1. /) 




7 : 1 199. c 


10 197.6,265.0 


8 221. 5. c 


1: 2.... §255. 2 


8 : 4 .... 94. b, 231. 


11 73. 1, 249. 


11.... 161. 5 


6 269 


6. a 


2. a 


13.... 71. a (2) 


2: 14.... 104. ^ 


8 .... 53. 2. a, 63. 


12....]04.i 


28... .71. a(l) 


16.... 221. 7. a 


3. a, 128 


13 126. 1 


35.... 73. 2. a 


3: 2.... 24. b 


9 : 1 . . . . 125. 1 


15 112. 2 


37: 7....88 (2f.pl.) 


4: 2.... 267. a 


8 .... 94. 6 


16.... 197. 6 


9.... 131. 3 


6.... 11. 1. a, 104. 




2: 1,2 265. o 


10.... 131. 6 


b 




7 . . . . 161. 2 


17.... 119. 1, 223. 


13.... 118. 4 


OBADIAH. 


17 104.fi-, 141. 3 


1. a 


18.... 43. h, 92. a, 




19 ... . 254. 6. b 


88: 8.... 161. 4 


122. 1, 148. 3 


vcr. 4 §158.3 


G : 6 .... 99. 3. a 


23.... 96. 6 


5: 2.... 119. 3 


9 183. o 


8 256. b 


39: 26.... 165. 3 


8.... 272. 2. 6 


11 45. 2, 106. a 

13 105. b 


9 282. b 


27.... 249. 1. b 


11.... 269 


10 220. 2. e 


40: 4.... 65. b 


6: 2.... 172. 3 


16 156. 4 


16 ... . 140. 1 


16.... 220. 2. c 


4....2G9 




19 .... 47 


22.... 250. 2(3) 


9.... 174. 3 






43.... 19. 2. 6 


7: 4....106. o, lll.C. 


JONAH. 




41: 7....141. 1 


a, 158. 3 






9, 11.... 160. 5 


6.... 22. a 


1; 5.... §114 


ZEPHANIAH. 


15.... 220. 2. c 


12.... 150. 1 


2 : 1 . . . . 125. 2 




22....274. 2. c 


8: 2.... 60. 3. a, 275. 


10 61. 6. o 


1 : 2 .... § 282. a 


25.... 19. 2. a 


2. b 


3 : 3 254. 5 


17 ... . 100. 2. a (1) 


42: 5.... 45. 1, 57.2 


3.... 105. a 


4 : 11 .... 22. ft 


2: 4 126.2 


(2) a. 111. 2. 6 


6.... 275. 2. b 




9 220. 1. 


43: 13.... 197. 6 


12.... 88 




14 229. 4. 6 


18. ...113. 1 


9: 2....119. 1 


MICAH. 


15 39. 4. o 


20.... 104.^ 


4 208. 3. <5 




3 : 9 274. 2. e 


24.... 100. 2. a (2) 


10.... 119. 3 


1: 7....§92. <3 


11 ... . 125. 2 


27.... 177. 3 


10: 10.... 105. d 


9 275. 1. a 


14.... 89 (f. B. & 


45: 16.... 246. 3. a 


11.... 61. 6. a 


10 53.3. a,96.& 


m. pi.), 111. 3. a 


46: 17.... 86. b 


12.... 158. 2 


15.... 164. 2 


18 ... . 149. 1 


22.... 95. e 


13.... 61. 6. a 


16 89 (f. B. & 


19....198,246.3.a 


47: 7.... 102. 3. a 


14.... 11. 1. a, 156. 


m. pi.) 




8.... 164. 3 


3 


2 : 3 274. 2. 6 




11....11. 1. (7,199 


11: 3.... 94. a, 115, 


4 . . . . 141. 2 




15.... 246. 3. a 


132. 2 


6 275. 1. a 


HAGGAL 


48: 10.... 39. 4. a 


4.... 57. 2 (2) a, 


7 . . . . 229. 4. a 




16.... 46 


111. 2. d 


8 88 (pi.) 


1: 4.... §230.3,249. 


18.... 220. 1. 6 


7.... 177. 3 


12.... 92. d, 246. 


1. b 




7, 8. ...56. 4 


2. a 






12: 1....104. /, 201. 2 


3 : 12 199. a, 245.4 






4.... 274. 2. b 


4: 6 151. 2 


ZECIIARIAH. 


DANIEL. 


5.... 105. b 


8 111. 2. & 






13: 3.... 92. b 


10 158. 2 


1: 9.... §75. 1 


1: 8. ...§119.1 


14.... 19 2, 221. 5. 


10, 13 ... . 157. 2 


17 ... . 157. 3 


13.... 172. 3 


a, 275. 2. b 


5 : 2 . . . . 262. 1 


2 : 8 73. 2. a 


17.... 250. 2 (2) a, 


15. ...177. 3 


6 : 10 57. 2 (1) 


3 : 1 106. a 


251. 4. a 


14: 1....88(3. f. pi.). 


13 139. 3 


7 94. e, 151. 1 


2: 1.... 99. 3.0,119.1 


209. 1. a 


7 : 4 260. 2 (2), 


9 . . .. 203. 5. a 


3: 3.... 22. b 


3.... 256 c 


260. 2 (2) c 


4 : 5 258. 2 


25.... 94. e 




10 .... 35. 2 


7 . . . . 246. 3. o, 


5: 9. ...203. 5. c 






249. 1. c 


11.... 22. 6 


JOEL. 




10 156. 2 


8: 1....245. 0. b 




NAHUM. 


12 24. 6 


11. ...95. a 


1: 2. ...§230. 4 




5: 4 1.56.4 


13.... 98. 1. a, 247, 


8 254. 9. b 


1 : 3 .... § 13. a, 215. 


11 160. 5 


249. 1. b 


17 24. b, 190. a 


1. c 


6 : 7 96. 6 


16....73. 2. a 


20. . . .275. 4 


4 150. 2 (p. 


7 : 1 . . . . 252. 2. b 


22....88(3. f. pi.) 


2 : 5 60. 3. b (1) 


182) 


3 199. e 


9: 2.... 1.18. 1 


3 : 3 263. 5. a 


12 140. 2 


5 . . . . 102. 2, 104. 


19.... 119. 3, 125.1 


4 : 11 91. d, 131. 1 


13 220. 1. 6 


i, 252. 2. 6, 273. 


25....97. 2,225. 2 


18. . . .271. 1 


2: 4 220.2. c 


a.a 



342 



INDEX II. 



7 


9....§89(f. 8. 




m. pi.) 




14..,. 45. 5, 60 




3. c, 92. e 


8 


2 271. 3 




14, 15 ... . 139. 1 




17 111. 2. e 


9 


6 35. 2 


10 


6 151. 3 


11 


4 254. 6 



11: 5 §57. 2 (3) a, 

111. 2. c, 234. c 

1 223. 1. a 

8 . . . . 119. 1 
10.... 140. 5 
17 61. 6. a 

12 : 11 55. 2. a 

13 : 4 166. 2 

14 : 2 45. 2, 91. c 

5 199. o 

10 ... . 156. 3 



MALACHI. 

1 : 6 § 263. 3 

7 106. a, 127. 

2 

11 95. a 

13 24. o, 75. 1 

14 54. 1, 205. 

b 

2 : 14 86. 5 (2 m.) 

3: 9,... 140. 2 



3: 19.... 5119.1 
20 156.2 



MATTHEW. 
26 : 73 .... § 51. 4. a 

ROMANS. 
3 : 20 .... § 256. o 



II^DEX III 

HEBREW WORDS ADDUCED OR REMARKED UPON. 



"Words preceded by Yav Conjunctive or Vav Conversive will be found in 
their proper place irrespective of these prefixes. A few abbreviations are 
employed, which are mostly of such a nature as to explain themselves as v. 
verb, n. noun, pron. pronoun, adj. adjective, adv. adverb, int. interjection, 
inf. infinitive, imp. imperative, pret. preterite. The numbers refer to the 
sections of the Grammar. 



DSSILSX 104. k 

nS 68. 5, 200. a, 215. 

1. e, 220. 1. c 
nni? 78. 2, 110. 3 

nai* 215. 1. b 

laS 92. d 

nai5 92. c 
n'ini? 216. 1. b 
•ji^aijl 193. 2 

T]'iaK;i 53. 2. a, 111. 

2. c 

•JinS? 22. a, 193. 2 

on^nsj 112. 1 
nax 110. 3 

XinS 86. b (3 pi.) 

•^inx 240. 1 

O^ns 60. 3. c, 216. 1.6 
D-'DiaS 112. 1 



Dn'^nias 220. 2. a 
oninx 220. 2. a 
D'^nroni? 53. 1. a 

•laX (Ki3) 164. 2 
•^ns 61. 6. a 
a"inij 185. 2. a 

n^^nk 111. 2. (f 
•inT^n in^ 246. 3. b 

•jiiaX 193. 1 
D3''ni? 220. 1. b 
baS 84. 3. a (2) 
bai? 185. 2. 6, 215. 1. 6 
bni5 (pr. n.) 215. 1. 6 

''bax 216. 1. 6 

•jax 197. b, 200. 6 

•ja^ 183. 6 

t:?ax 183. c 

D">t25aS 207. 1. a 



^iPiaX 221. 3. a 

tjnax 94. 6 

: ■'nbs.ns 94. a, 119. 1 

^5X1 99. 3 

TaS^ 99. 3 

dji? 207. 2. a 

•jaS 200. a 

D''S?i5 53. l.a 

tJnji!:^ 99. 3. b 

ITI^S 207. 1. e, 211 

na'isi 99. 3 
rna'liJsi 99. s 

Di'TS60.3.6(l),197,i 
fm 231. 3. a 
D^T^X 11. 1. 
D'lX 112. 5. a 
OnSJ 185. 2. J, 207. 2. « 
D'lttiN 188 



344 



INDEX III. 



ntol3'l« 207. 1. e 

r>^'^'a'J:^ 205 
nians 201. 1 
''12'l« 60. 3. b (1) 
\3nN 199. c, 201. 2, 

231. 3. a 
rhi^^ 234. c 
"'ihiil 234. c 

na •'5'is 21. 1 
D-^aii? 201. 2 

DplS , DJ?'755 141. 3 
TIN 112. 5. a 
D'^abn'IS 53. 1. a 

Dn^i5 11. 1. ^ 
©n-ii? 91. c 

®n'nS53.1.a,91.J,119.1 
nnS 82. 1. a (2), 110. 
3, 112. 5. c 

: anx 119. 1 
ans 53. 2. a, 111. 2.5 
nanx 87, 119. 3 
nanx iis. 3 

T V T v: 

^an;^ 119. 4 

'lan ^ar|i5 43. b, 92. «, 

122. 1 
aiariij! 201. 1 
?]arii? 101. 3. a, 104. /i, 

119. 1 

Daarii^ 221. 3. o 
nariij 119. 3 
vinans^ 104. i 
''nanii 61. 6. a 
•fnansj! 104. c 
nns 240. 1 



''ns) 99. 3. a 

bn^ 61. 2. a, 184. b, 
208. 3. 6 

n'bns 220. 1. b 

t: t 

nibriij! 200. c 
■^bnij 216. 2. 6 
D"ibrii5 60. 3. c 
nibrii? 200, c 
nwij 172. 3 

iX 239. 1, 283. 2. a 

aii5 200. a 

5^iX 105. & 
^J'l^^S? 149. 2 
"li^ 240. 1 

a.':is5 186. 2 

!5"<1S 194. 2 
^bi^lX 194. 2 

b^aix 57. 2 (2) a, 111. 

2. d 
i^^.Hi 149. 2 
0^165 207. 2. 5, 215. 

1. a 

n-ais? 111. 2. & 

•JIX 63. 2. a 
■jiS 186. 2. c 
ni'iSIN 13. a 

n'i:is 208. 3. c 
no-^.i!: 149. 2 

ly^^iJ 56. 3 
fSiK 207. 2. a 
■^aij)} 200. a, 216. 1 

rm's 111. 2. c? ■ 

■lis (v.) 82. 1. c. (3), 
156. 2 



ni« (n.) 197. 5 

^nnis 220. 1. 6 
ini^ 157. 2 

©n^^Sl 149. 2 
?TS^^i5 149. 2 
nisi 197. b, 200. o 

nnj'.y! 140. 2 

Dnhi55 220. 2. a 

TiJ 235. 1 

niTi? 60. 3. c, 184. 6, 

216. 1. b 
•J'^TN 53. 2. a, 111. 2. ? 
nnSTi? 189 
''Dn3Ti< 104. c 

nbtsj 86. 6 
^•^ nbTS 35. 1 

T - : jT 

■JTS 197. a, 217,221.5 
npTi? 189 
''ITS 221. 4 
D^5T« 203. 1 
^riTiJ 221. 4 
DaiT« 220. 1. 6 
n''|5TJ^, 53. 1. a 
"ITS 112. 5. c 
nnTN 60. 3. b (1), 

92. e 
?inTX 53. 1. a, 183. c 
ns (n.) 68. b, 197. a, 

207. 2. b, 215. 1. e, 

220. 1. r 
nsj (int.) 240. 1 
^m 223. 1, 248. a, 

250. 1. 
D'l^ns 223. 1. a 



INDEX III. 



345 



T\)m 189 
T^nX 90 pass. 
ninX 205. c, 209. 3 

rnx 34, no. 3, iis. 2 
m^ 34, 172. 4 
mx, ms5 112. 1 

^'m 60. 3. i(2), 119. 4 
imi? 60. 3. b (2). 120. 1 
pTTIS 97. 2. a 

nnrns* 104. « 

T - T ■: 

•»riii: 61. 6. a 

jyniini? 220. 2. a 

D'^rii? 60. 1. a 

bni? 140. 3 

nnj? 237. 1, 238. 1 

-ins? 210. e 

-ins? 60. 4, 111. 2. 6 

^nmeo. 3. i(2), 121. 2 
•ji-inx 193. 1 

•'nnS? 238. 1. a 

ninnx i98. a (4) 
nniansi 99. 3. b 
•jB^i^irns? 195. 2 
•jnnpni? 195. 2 

nns 54. 2, 205. &, 223. 

1. a 
nnx 223. 1. a 

AT ■•• 

13K 175. 3 
■J^t35? 216. 1. 6 
Dt3X 112. 5. a 

- T 

n^S 112. 5. a, 125. 3 
■"K 61. 6, 236 
*»X (n.) 184. 6 
•'K (int.) 240. 1 



S^i5 156. 1 

- T 

n^S? 61. 6 

f^^^|-^^ 99. 3. b 
r.| ■'J;? 75. 2 
tfi? 51. 2 
b^^i? 208. 3. c 
b^iS 183.. 6 
mb;"!^ CO. 3. b (1) 
nXTb 1J»5 75. 2 

nbib"«s? 150. 2 
robi&} 151. 1 

t3bi&5 200. c 
Q'-^iJ 207. 2. c 

n^^i? 200. c 

nWi? 61. 6. a 
'J^'i? 236, 258. 3. b 
DTp^&i 150. 1 
IIJ"'^ 207. 2, 243. 2. a 
■jiTlJ^i? 193. 2. a 
iffi^i? 57. 2 (1) 

nnis5 11. 1.6 
nnis 140. 1 
■j™ 189, 210. c 

■J!!? (adv.) 235. 2 (2) 
5ji«n (v.) 175. 3 

n^nsx 91. c 

nssi 175. 3 
Sr^i? 189 
nTDi? 189 
"^npN 194. 2 
n^'^nTDi? 198. a (4) 

nnsNi 119. 1 

bDS 110. 3 

bbx, bbs 112. 1 



b?«;i (nb) 174. 4 

bDJi 111. 2. 6 
bDi51 99. 3. a 

?Tbpi{ 104. J 

?]b3ti: (rib) C3. 1. b, 

174. 4 
^bD55 106. a 
CDbos^ 106. a 

^nnbsi? 104. i 
^nnbDN 104. i 

^nbDJ? 65. a 
?inbDS? 104. i 
DI^bD5< 112. 1 
''SnbDSJ 104. e 
nSDNI 99. 3. b 
•I5?5<:i 99. 3. Z) 
tl?^ 140. 3 
nSX 187. 1. a 

nn25? 24. & 
nsN 140. 1 
nsnpa^ 16. 3. b, 105. d 

-niP3X 88 

bS5 235. 1, 264 

bi? (pron.) 58. 1, 73. 1 

bii (n.) 186. 2. c 

"b:« 237. 1, 238. 1 

t-^^^bif: 229. 1. a 

D'^'S^abi? 14. a, 51. 4 

nbx 216. 1. ffl 

nb« 200. 6 

nbb5 58. 1, 61. 6, 73. 1 

in'bs;) 234. c 
d^nbs? 11. 1. b 

Qin'bs? 201. 2, 231. 3. a 



346 



INDEX III. 



ia''n'bs 220. 2. c 

^S-irfbiJI 234. c 

nibs? 11. 1. 6 
nibs (v.) 172. 2 

''bS 238. 1. a 

niari'ibs 220. 2. c 

b">bl5 184 
?jb5?) 99. 3 

nDbs nobss 45. 6. « 

•ibbi? 20. 2, 240. 1 

nbs|i 187. 1. 6 
D'laiabs 51. 4 
nBbi5 200. c 

n^iiabi? 229. 1. a 

b^ia-bi5 237. 2 (1) 

■J^bj? 193. 1 
mSiabs 198. a (4), 
199. c?, 200. h 

na?-bs 237. 2 (2) 

SlbS 84. 3, a (2), 112. 
5. a 

5lb» 226 

•'Sb^ 250. 2 (2) a 
DD'^sbiJ 250. 2. (2) a 
D^iSbi? 203. 4, 226 
n^pbS 229. 1. a 
iribs 221. 2. 6 
Di? 68. h, 197. a 
DS? 239. 1, 283 
^SD5?^aJ« 11. \.a 
?;i<DXpS? 104. b 
r\m 53. 3. 6, 211. a 
nri55 198. c 
Tm». 200. c 



•j^'ai^ 184. 6 

np^'as? 60. 3. b (1), 

201. 1. a 
Q^pTQS 201. 1. a 
Db'i'ayf 105. a 

nt:b^N;\ 99. 3 
bb^^? 187. 1. d 

bbiaX 92. a, 115 
•^pS bbl3« 42 
D^bb^i5 210. c 

n:^s 235. 2 (1) 

DSttX 235. 2 (1) 
fttS 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 
V^Oi? 112. 1 
n^J$ 110. 3, 125. 3 

ya^ 65 

n)3i? 86. b (3 pi.) 
ni3« 208. 3 
"lbi!!60. 3.6(1), 112. 1 
-n^i? 60 3. 6 (1) 

nn^x 208. 3 

Tj-l^aJS; 60. 3. b (1) 
DD'niSi? 106. a, 127. 2 

T!rm^ 127. 2 
rin^ijn 33. 4 

^tJTOi? 157. 3 
n)9^ 60 3. 5 (1), 205. b 
toi? 60. 3. 6 (1), 221. 
2. a 

^nnnbi?! 99. 3. b 

'?i.)TOS 101. 3. a 

npsi npN 63. 1. c 

^5S 71. a (1) 
^3X 46 



^niis 131. 1 

TSiSN 184 
i:N 197. b 

^;i5 71 

13s 65, 71. a (1) 
•^iX 65. b 

• JT 

n^2« 198. b 

■«d:« 71 

15^ 141. 3 (p. 175) 

51? S5 84. 3. a (2) 
pbi? 112. 1 
p2i5 50. 1 
D'lTrpi? 207. 2. e 
?1^DN 185. 2. a 
-mbOl^ 125. 1 
tan^DNI 60. 3. c, 92. e 
t\t^ 110. 3, 112. 5. c, 

115, 151. 2 
qbS 112. 1 
nSCS 111. 3. a, 112. 1 

nspb? 151. 2 

ISDN 89 (f. s.) 
T;BPS 151. 2 
5lDBpS 188 

ippciii 104. y 

p&K 53. 3. b, 88 (1 c.) 
np« 112. 5. 6 
^DX 60. 3. c 
'l&S 60. 3. c 
inC« 61. 6. a 
D"15S5 105. c? 

*^?^^ "i^?^) 160. 3 

bySI 172. 4, 175. 3 
•J^i?) 172. 4 



INDEX III. 



347 



na^^ 113. 1 

nsyST 57. 2 (2) a 
TD?i?n 172. 4 

ntoyxi 172. 4 

^WyC\ 57. 2 (3) cf, 
111. 2. f, 234. c 
qS5 (n.) 184. 6, 207. 2 
CIS (conj.) 239. 1 
OniSSS 104. f., 172.3 
nSS 112. 5. a 
n25J 110. 3 
13DS? 112. 1 
D^DJ? 203. 1 

ri'issn 100. 2. a (1) 

"O qX 239. 2 (1) 
nbSX 198. a (2), 216. 

1.6 
•jSS^n 172. 4 
DSS 235. 3 (1) 
WtoS 127. 3 
DBSn 173. 3 
nS2« 164. 5 
yaSi? 183. c, 197. a 
ni:>32S 207. 2. a 
12S5) 174. 4 
?i"n^!!5 105. d 

bars 237. 1 

-12S 50. 3 
Tjn^S 101. 3. a 

nnss 105. J 

^SapSt 105. 6 
O^pS) 99. 3. a 
D)aip55 56. 3 

n^ps) 99. 3. a 



D?pi« 56. 3 
Dj5Sn 99. 3. a 
nsnpNI 63. 1. r, 97. 1. 

h, 164. 5 
SnSI 99. 3. a, 172. 4 

nsis;) 172. 4 

D>SnS 24. a 

nansi 175. 3 

Dans 22. a 

wans 207. 2. a, 214. 

1. 6, 223. 1 
D'^yanS 225. 1 

d'-p^ans 223. 1 

Dn^anS 250. 2 (2) a 

•j^ans 51. 4 

"JWS 51. 4, 195, 2 

-nns 141. 1 . 
''b-nns 19. 2 

n;("lS 208. 3. 6 
Drains 82. 5. a 
Tl^a'aiis 104. h 

■ji-IS 197. 6 

nils 139. 2 
•'tiins'i 141. 2 

nnS 197. J, 200. a, 
208, 3. h 

nns 198 
nnns 193 
iinhn's 60. 3. c 

■^ns 200, c. 208. 3, d 
T'^'y^.. 56. 3. a, 168, o, 
174. 4 

tjns 79. 2, 118. 1 

^nS 185. 2.6,207. 2. c 



^nS 216. 1. e 

•jiians 200, a 

■iBnS 194, 1 

rriians 235, 3 (3) 

?in31373hS 56, 1, 105. 6 

Jniarins 216. 1. c 
naans 197. c 

yns 51. 3, 63. 2. a, 

197. 6 
)^ns 65 
nSnS 61. 6, «, 219. 1 

fTca nsns 22. h 
■jyaa n^ns 22. 6 
nns 141. 1 (p, 175) 

T»nS 119, 1 
nbiSlstoS 180. a 
tJS 197, h, 201. 1 
T»S 57, 2 (1) 
llbSTSS 101. 3. a 
airST 99. 3. a 
JT^nin^S 210. </ 

rrm^s 21 6, 2, « 

ntDS 200. 6, <-, 207. 2 
niTiJS 197. a 
DpriTDS 118, 3 

mcittJs 200 c 
D^am 94. 5 

baiBS 200. a, 210. e 

nibacs 216. 1. c 

nib3T»S 216, 1, c 
nbl?S 60. 2, a 
5 n^T?^ 60, 2, a 

?inbrs 126. 1 
•iibirs*\ 99. 3 

' • : - T 



348 



INDEX III. 



nD'^btsa?;! 99. 3 

DtiJ 82. 1. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

TOlBNI 99. 3 

]'nm 189 

WlQffiSJI 98. 1. a 

Tvyam 97. 1 

a:t^ 183. c, 221. 6. a 

nypN 172. 3 

tSSffiS 91. c 
nJST»fi{ 207. 2. c 
njpm 98. 1. a 
nj?T»J?) 175. 3 
ntaipllJN 98. 1. a 
nblp©xn 98. 1. a 

nbpica?n 98. 1. a 

ITDiiS 74, 285 
ITCX (conj.) 239. 1 
nniD^ 200. c 
'T'TiJJS 221. 5. (^ 
•J'^nffiK 220. 2. c 
!?]''nTaX 221. 5. d 
t^m 205, 214. 1. b 

niys?) 172. 4 
^bbirnax 96. « 
yT»?r\irj$ i4i. 6 

nx (n.) 207. 2. e 
tli?, ni? 58. 2. a, 238. 

2, 270 
-nX 43. a 
nX 43. a 
n« (prep.) 237. 1, 

238. 2 

-ni« 61. 5 



rii?, ris? 71, a (2) 

Pi? 71. a (2) 
SnX 177. 3 

nni? 11. 1. a 

nni? 71 

nn^, nn^ 71. a (2) 

•jinN 197. a, c 
13nn^ 96, a 
■"Pi? 71. a (2) 

"•ni?! 61. 5 

^^nx 112. 1, 172. 1 

j^n^pinx 220. 2. c 

•jnk 65. a 
nsnk 65, a 

T AT 

bWJS 53. 1. a, 183. c 

•jrii? 210. c 

W, 1^2!? 71, a (2) 

npriK, nipi? 71. a (2) 

^2riX 177, 3 
■jpini? 207. 2. 6 
nsinx 220, 1, ^>, 221. 6 

JSJ^nX 105, 6 

a 231, 1, 233, 267, b, 

272. 2, J 
«S1 157. 2 
n^3 34 
nx^ 34 

nxn^ 156, 4 

D^bn^fa 229, 4. b 
1X3 156. 2 
1X3 (pret.) 156. 2 
1i«il 156. 4 
Dij?TX3 57. 2 (2) a 



''X3 216. 1. a. 
DDSC^S 22. a 
"li?2 121. 1 
n«3 60. 3, f, 197, a 
m'2 60. 3, c 

ri«ai, nxni i6. i 
irii^ai, ns3i loo. 2. 
«(i) ^ ' 

baa 57. 1, 187. 1. e 

"^b^a 237. 2 (4) 

1?a 84, 3, a (3) 

•i^a 90 

l^a 22, «, 197. b, 200. c, 
221. 5. a 

'iba 87 
rr^^a 207, 1, a 

npl'7?a 86. b (2 m,) 

'li^a 87, 210. a 

bbSa 237. 2 (2) 

nana 61. 1 
bna 80, 2. a (3) 
nxnana 4. « 

ma 57, 2 (4), 184, b 

ni-^na 177, 1 
•{•^pria 245. 5, 6 

DblBSna 91. b 

T : IT • : 

bna 121, 1 
n^ria 21 6, 2 
nwa 201, 2 

•jna 61, 2, a, 184, a, 

197. o, 208. 3. b 
Snna 113. 1, 2 

nistr.a 140. e 
xia 79. 1, 157. 1 





INDEX III. 


54.y 


nssia 104. g 


n!3a 184. b 


ib^Sa 91. 6, 231. 5. a 


*m 90 


npa 126. 1 


ainpa 22. a, 101. 2. 6 


DST'a 57. 2 (3) a, 


■}inDa 193. 2 


ba 53. 3. a 


164. 3 


'Ji:a 197. a 


nn^a 19 8. a (3) 


n^pia 209. 1. a 


B^p'Ja 208. 3. a 


i2>5i!:a 56. 4 


bl3 53. 2. a, 184. b 


D'lt:a 239. 2 (3), 263. 


n^XTBtpba 18. 2. c 


n-ipia 156. 2 


1.6 


rro'^ba 195. 3 


-l]?i3 186. 2. a 


•la (for "i^ja) 53. 3. a, 


b^i'ba 195. 3 


n^ 139. 2 


240. 2 


bba 141. 3 (p. 175) 


nia 200. « 


Ta 237. 2.(2) 


yba, ?ba 126. 1 


Tl'i^nia 201. 2 


VS 16. 2. a 


•i^^ba 237. 2 (4) 


tJia 82. 1. a (3), 156. 


JTlin'^a 57. 2 (2) 


^n^D3?ia 127. 2 


2, 157. 1, 2. 


•J^a 158. 2, 3 


ipba 61. 6. a, 237. 1 


n">TDia 156. 2 


^•14 237. 1, 238. 1 


^«^a 235. 3 (1) 


DDQiria 92. 5, 161. 3 


Tl'^S-'ai 4. a 


msa 231. 4. a 


Ta (n.) 207. 2. a 


'irib-'a 158. 1 


itja 233. a 

s 


73 (from T^) 156. 2 


ap?^a 16. 2. a 


in^'aa 13. a, 214. 2. 6 


n 139. 2 


D^^^a 200. b 


^?i3a 45. 4 


tlSra 139. 3 

! IT 


T^ininj^'^a 14. a, 24. 6 


ns?^a 45. 3 


Wa 141. 2 


n;ia ei. 2, 63. 2. «, 


nibnp)2a 16. 2. a 


Tta 141. 1 (p. 175) 


197. 5, 208. 3. c 


^nm 19. 2, 216. 1. c 


'ISTTSI 139. 1 


rr^a 57. 2 (5), 62. 1, 


"ja 51. 3, 185. 2. cZ, 215. 


•jina 185. 2. c 


216. 1. d 


1. h 


-iina 210. a 

T 


I'anjri-nia 246. 3. b 


''S^lDt'n-'ja 246. 3. b 


a^n^na 6o. 3. c 


■"TSia'i'n-n^a 246. 3. b 


n^i^ n:a 35. 1 


mtsna 27 

T : V : 


?]n^a 65 


!lDa (from Xia) 164. 2 


nTO 185. 2 


na 65. a 


?,3a 34 

T 


•jna 50. 1 


noa 184. 6 


^53 34 


•jna 121. 1 


iba 172. 2 


is a (suf.) 221. 3. a 


nna 5o. i 


iDa (for isra?) 53. 


isa (parag.) 61. 6. a 


nn">na nna 43. 6 


'3. a 


ni:a 207. 1. a. 


•^nna 19. 2 


nisa 50. 1 


^:'niDa (v.) 173. 2 


D^inna 201. 1. b 


n^sa 50. 1 


DD''ni:a 220. 1. 6 


nrja ^o.pass. 


^Da 184. b 


"'Sa 61. 6. a, 218 



350 



INDEX III. 



t3'^?a 207. 1. a 
ri^5:a 86. 6 (1 c.) 
TjSa 221. 3. a 
?b;a 4. a 
bbD3 22. a, 101. 2. 6 

nri:a 132. 1, 15s. 1 

nSSJCOa 24. a 

fT^^S3, nnyoa le. 3. 6 

"l^nSS 237. 2 (2) 
nya 237. 1 

tlpya, ^t:^3 113. 1. 2 

W3 172. 1 

d;'^3 go. 3. a 
D'-bi^a 201. 2 

^?3 121. 1 
nn^'-l 196. c 

*-mi^ 113. 2 

i«TBya 60, 3. a 

n?a 121. 1 
mk2 199 
ins2n 11. 1. a 

TSa 185. 2. a 
ySh 42. a 
D?23 125. 1 
paa 82. 1, a (2) 

nnka 207. 1. a 

ypa 80. 2. a (4) 
D^P^ 125. 2 
pp3 141. 3 (p. 175) 
npa 197. c, 201. 1 
npn 50. 1, 208. 3. 6 
"13186. 2. c 

S'la 78. 1 
i?na 166. 3 



'T^'yi 164. 4 

"ina 185. 2. h 
^ina 92. c^ 
tJina 51. 1 
riins 51. 1 
bn.a 193. 2. c 
rrns 50. 1 
n^ns 210. a 

'':?"ina 194. 2. a 
^■^3 80. 2. a (1), 80, 
2. a (2), 120. 3 

?fn3, ^nn 119. 1 

SlDna 16. 2. a 

rjDna 216. 1. 6 
istia 60. 3. a, 120. 3 

•^5^3 22. a, 216. 2. a 
Dn^D'13 22. a 
n^'S'nS 208. 4 
D'la 139. 2 

ripnn 19. 2. 6, i96. 6 
nna i4i. 1 (p. 175) 
Dam 74. «, 139. 2 
ipnnijs 102. 3. a 

bffiS 80. 2. a (1) 

riDiam 220. 1. h 
ninpm 45. 2 
na 205. 6 

iPS 221. 2. a 

"'pDins 220. 1. h 
D^b^ns 201. 1. h 
"^m 58. 2 

0''P3 208. 3. c 
DDnS 221. 6 



nsa nka 22. 6 
nsa 185. 2. (? 
D'^b^iiii 201. 1. a 
ni-i^a 208. 3. c 
bs?a 117 
bxa 116. 4 
n^sa 201. 1. a 
ijbsa 119. 3 

DDbi«a 221. 3. a 
35 200. c 
M3a 143. a 
-r^35 215. 1. c 

r^ha 185. 2. 6 

^33 184. h 
Sn3a 11. La 

iinsa 86. h 
nnsa 125. 2 
nnpa 60. 3. a 
D''ni3a 201. 2 

b?l3a 184 

ni-\i3a 201. 1. c 
nnsa i98. a (3) 

T^l 50. 1 

ni3a 187. 1, 215. 1 
^n"ini3a 220. 2. c 

•'Sa 199. c 
T3a 184 

b3a 50. 1 

- T 

nb3a 11. 1. 6 

•jSa 187. 1. h 

psa 207. 2. c 

D'i333a 187. 2. c 

bbsa 193. 2. c 

nsa 82. 1. a (2) 



INDEX III. 



351 



naa iso. h, i84. a 
nna i84. « 
bii'^nna oi. g. a 
nn^ii 205 

aa 200. a 

nna 141. 3 (p. 1V5) 

bina 58. 1, 185. 2. 6, 

210, 217 
-bTia 215. 1. c 

nb-bi^Di^ 10. a 

ina 208. 3. d 

n^'ia 200. 2. b 
i^iina 210. 1. rt 

b^a 82. \.a (2) 

b-ia (v.) 58. 1 

b'^a (adj.) 185. 2. 6 

bna 58. 1, 184 

-bna 215. 1. c 

b'^a, b-a 92. c 

y^a 12G. 1 
- «• • 

-I'la 197. h, 216. 1. c, 
217 

n'l'^a 217 
rnn'ja 221. 2. 6 
D'^rih'ia 203. 5. 6 

T^a 50. 3, 68. b 
iTia 157. 1 
ina 221. 3. a 
•lia 220. 1. c 
DH^ia 220. 2 6 

npnw'^a 220. 2. c 
t^na 221. 3. a 
bna 158. 3 
bbia 141. 4 



■jT^ia 186. 2. 6 

yna 125. 2, 156. 1 

n^a (v.) 179. 2. a 

bnia 200. a 
ta 139. 2 
nap 195. 1 
nta 68. 6 

m 50. 3, 68. b 

tra 139. 2 
''h 141. 1 
triTa 50. 3 

bra 50. 3, 68. b 

bra 216. 1. e 



nba 57. 2 (5), 80. 2. a 

(4), 143. a, 170 
n^ba 216. \.a 

nba 126. 1 
nb^'ba 196. c 
D'^b'iba 16. 2. a 
''n-'ba, ^n-«bii 174. 2 
'ibba 139. 1 
iittba 195. 1 
nnba 61. 6 

bwa 197. c, 207. 2. 6 

TjbTaa 101. 3. a 
!innb)2a 104. i 



nta 50. 1, 3, 68. b, 84. ^nbp^ 104. i 

3. a (3), 125. 3 ia 197. h, 217 

na 158. 3 asa 77. i 

•]ina 4. a asa i87. i. a 

^na 157. 1 asa 93. d 

•^na 157. 2, 158. 2 na:a 216. 1. 6 

n^bna 216. 2. 6 ^n^^a 104. i 

rbm 200. &, 210. e ''pasa 65. « 

Nt'a 183. &, 197. 5, "inasa 61. 6. « 

208. 3. c onapa 104. i 

i^'^a 216. 1. cf nsa 217 

n^a 158. 2, 3 pa 139. 2 

b^a 158. 2, 3 D'^Tpa 50. 1 

ba (nb) 98. 2, 174. 5 3?a 131. 3 

ba, ba (y'b) 139. 2 i3>a 172. 2 

baba 187. 1. e, 207. 2. a "ll^a 125. 2 

baba 187. 1. c n?a 131. 4 

baba 141. 4 isa i97. 6. 200. b 

nbaba i87. 1. c, 207. -la-ia 207. 2. « 

1. rf, 217 ra 50. 3, 68. 6 

nba 11. 1. a ina 193. 2. 6 



352 



INDEX III. 



pa 197. &, 200. a, 208. 

3. b 
TOnh 219. 1 

nisna 21 6. 2 

*Yl.n 141. 3 (p. 175) 
*'3Tpna 194. 1 

toffina 104./. 
ca, -m 131. 3 
!iiEJa, rnca 131. 3 
?n»a 65. b 

torn 141. 1 (p. 175) 

m»fi 131. 4 
iCTsa 131. 4 

na 207. 2. a 

nnx'^ 87, 119. 3 

T -: - ' 

SX'l 11. 1. a 
SX'l 51. 4 

n-iim 198. b, 200. 6 
rhy^ 200. i, 214. 1. 6 

pn^l 82. 1. a (2) 
Hj^n^ 87 

na^i 10. a 
-in^ 210 

W 80. 2. a (2) 

-■ la'l 92. c? 

W, W 92. c, 126.2 

^nS^ 65 

i"!!^ 61. 1, 216. 2 

n'lai 65. a 

rinilll 100. 2. a (1) 

in-lS^ 86. 6 (2 f.) 

''ri'in'7 61. 6. a 

tJn'n 183. b 



'^WTl 221. 5. c 
W 185. 2. c/, 198, 
nS'^ 198, 217 
nS*!^ 219. 1. 6 
"^^ 207. 1./. 
^ifi'^n 216. 1. a 

rr^in 56. 4, 207. 

'I'l^'l 194. 2. 6 
S":!^ 51. 4 
Tl^l 11. 1. 6 
Din 139. 2 
"li-^ 200. c 

?i3*'inini^ 44. b 
t3^'n 158. 3 
^tri 157. 2 
^n=^ 121. 1 

■'^ 215. 1. c? 

^^'^ 187. 1. a 
D^:\i'^ 158. 1 

< 

i'^'^ 184. 6 
X^^ 158. 2, 3 
•^^ 187. 1. a 

im 158. 3 

i55'l 165. 2 
^i{2'^ 167. 1 
biT 207. 2. a 
nb^ 50. 1 

''Snib'^ 141. 2 
^"^b^ 141. 1 

l^b'^ 19. 2. 6 
ni^b-t 209. 2. a 
t^'h'^ 210. a 
nb'^ 197. i, 199. c/, 

ninbi 21 6. 2. a 



1r^b'^ 216. 2 

217 D;0b'7 203. 2, 208. 4 

Un 139. 2 

'1^^ 57. 2 (4) 

CS^'^ 58. 2, 221. 1. a 

cm 141. 3 (p. 175) 
2. a pte'/Q'l 51. 2 

pT^m 195. 1 

^^"=1 194. 1 

''^5'^ 104. a 

yi 148. 3 

?'^ 148. 2 

ny'^ 53. 2. a, 148. 2 

n?^,n3?^97. 1.6, 148.3 

12?'7 16. 2. a 

iBi?n^"^ 45. 4 

^?^ 50. 1 

n?'^ 148. 2 

''P^'n 148. 2 

^nn'n 19.2.6, 65. a, 200. o 

niShni 19. 2. 6, 65. a 

: IT ' 

Ui'Tl 193. 2. c 
ffii^n'^ 122. 2, 141. 1 
^'I'l 197. 6, 200. b 

^'?3' ^"^^ 65. a 
D^D*T^ 203. 3, 208. 4 
TjSn^ 220. 2. 6 
pTC^'l'l 51. 2, 54. 3 
'inSffi'l'^ 104. I 
mm 196. c? 
XID'I 18. 2. c 
)t'^ (v.) 82. 1. a (2) 
211 )m (adj.) 185. 2 
m 200. 6 



INDEX III. 



353 



.n, n, n 229, 245 
n, n, n 230, 283 
n'lasn 112. 3 
n^njsnT 112. 3 
innnsn eo. 3. 6 (1) 
in'^nNni go. 3. b (1) 

D^Sn 246. 1. a 
•ibnxn 246. 2. a 
rT^.n 80. 2. 6, 112. 3 

■jiTsnn 112. 3 
nsTsn 88 (pi. f.) 

in-iDTSn 94. a, 180. a 
WtSn-l 112. 3 

nsn 240. 1 
Q3^ni?r» 60. 3. c 

•'WXn 246. 3. 6 
©'isn 230. 3. a 

•'nbDxni 112. 3 

DJ?^3i?'D 112. 3 

nir;"b»n 246. 1. a 
?jbsn 60. 3. c 

"ITOXn 229. 4. a 

nb«n 112. 1 
ri?sn 126. 1 

ClDSDSn 57. 2 (2) o, 
229. 3. a 

innssn 230. 3. a 

yni?!! 63. 2. 6, 229. 4. 6 
Dnxn 230. 3. a 

an 148. 3 
©''Kan 151. 3 
ttj^an 119. 1 
nsan i66. i, ig7. 2 

T\'&'iry\ 100. 2. a (1) 
23 



nribjan i67. 2 
inN*an 104. k 
Dni?an leo. 2 
nb^-^ani 100. 2. « (2) 
b^an 94. b 
nan i48. 3, 240. 2 
D'^anan 188. 6 
nan 148. 3 
Tian 140. 4 
pian 140. 4 
-toan 94. d 

■lan (from Sia) 164. 2 

ti'^an (imp.) 94. d 
nii/ani 100. 2. a (2) 
oni^'ian 160. 2 
ffi*ian 179. 2. a 
itj^ah 150. 2 
niia-^an leo. 2 
nn*>an 219. 1 
ban 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. a 

ban 216. 1. e 
nnban 111. 3. « 
ntan 173. 2 

b?an 246. 1. a 

nan i4o. 5 
?fsnan 104. b 
'r^iisnan i64. 4 
nnan i4o. 4, i4i. 1 
na-nan le. 3.6, 230.2. « 
cpan 45. 2 
n'^asn 126. 1 
-^5n 94. d 
iyr\ 95. c 



b'v^n 94. a 
n.;n 112. 5. a 

n^n 18. 2, c, 184. 6 

iin 172. 2 
i:\h 92. 6, 174. 1, 3 
nnr^n 216. 1. a 
nbsn, nb.^n 175. 1 
niban 173. 2 
n^b;in 175. 1. 
^Tpbyr\ 175. 1 
nbsn 172. 1 
Tp_yr) 127. 1 
pa'^n 82. 5 
ina'jn 240. 2. a 
©^"nn 159. 2 
nDia'in 141. 3 

D'ln 207. 2. a 

ty$y\r\ 245. 5. 6 
vl^n 112. 5. a 
p'ln 140. 5 

p'ln (pret.) 140. 5 
pnn (inf.) 140. 5 

rripin 141. 2 

Tin 112. 5. a, 125. 3 

na"in7n (inf.) 94. 6 

npffi'in 96. a- 
Wn 240. 1 

s^abnn 245. 5. 6 

^■''^pr^n 245. 5. b 

nnn 63. 2. ft, 229. 4. b 

T T ' 

nnnn 219. 1 
n'lninnn 246. 2. « 
D^nnn 63. 1. «. 229. 4 
xin 177. 1 



354 



INDEX III. 



Sin 47, 71. a (3) 
«^n 58. 1, 71, 73. 3, 

258. 2 
Sin 30. 2 

snin 167. 2 
isnin 167. 2 

t3">nin 179. 2. a 
D''31'in 13. a, 208, 3. a 

y^in 150. 5 

nin 57.2 (5) a, 177. 1 

nin 177. 1 
mmn 140. 6 
bn^n 140. G 
■»in 240. 1 

y^^in 229. 1. a 
T\fT\ 177. 1 
HDin (inf.) 126. 1 
nipin (imp.) 94. d 

n'i>in 150. 5 
tfbin 151. 1 
bbin 141. 4 
ib?in 93. 6 

nibbin 198. a (4) 

Dbin 90 
nsm 160. 5 

IDin 95. c, 150. 5 
niDin 27, 104. e 
!?iSin (imp.) 94. d 
S2in 150. 1 

ni52in 16'/. 2 
nxsin 16. 1 

S-'^in (imp. ?) 94. c^ 

n-'n'i^nn 149. i, 150. 4 
p2in 57. 2. (5) 



Dj^in 153. 1 
DlD?j?in60. 3.a, 127. 2 

^^in 57. 2. (2) 
iDmnin 104. A; 

STWin 66. 1 (2) 6 

a^nimpin 151. 3 
n^tjin 57. 2 (5) 

^2'^t'ir\ 61. 6. a 

SJtSin 126. 1 
m»in 150. 1 
Qinn-Tn 24. i 
bvn 160. 1 
nibi-n 141. 3 

13-Tn 54. 2, 4. a, 82. 5. a 
DDnD^n 91. 6, 106. a 

n^stn 175. 1 
-p:?Tn 119. 1 
D^^niiMn 173. 2 
lijsnn 167. 2 
nns^ann 166. 1 
nnnn les. 1 
r^rin 63. 1. «, 229. 4 
''J?^"?'^0 53- 2. ^ 63. 

1. a, 95. 6 

ciij'innes. 1.05,229.4 

''P^nO (inf.) 112. 3 

ippTnn 112. 3 
iripfnni 112. 3 
'^r=)pT5^J^^ 112. 3 
''pnn 164. 2 
''pnn 164. 2 

'^riT} 229. 3. a 

nn'^nn 111. 3. 6 

DDnn 63. 1. a, 229. 4 



nisDrin 229. 4. a 
bnn 140. 5 
bnn 140. 4 
ibnn i4o. 4 
ibnn 175. 1 
■^hbnn 141. 2 
D'^prinn 229. 3. a 
iir^nn 246. 2. a 
nnnn 119. 1 
Dnnn 119. 1 
^r^^")^^' 60. 3. i (1) 
'^j^'o'^nr?'} 60, 3. 6 (1) 
iinennn';', 112. 3 
bpnn 95. c 
nhnn i4i. 2 
innnni 86. b (2 m.), 

112. 3, 139. 3 

tjn 175. 4 
inhpni 161. 5 
nm 175. 4 
nnisn 82. 5 
iTOn 63. 1. a, 121. 3 
njDn 159. 2 
*iwbii:n 160. 2 
in-^rpn 175. 1 
nxia^n 96. «, 166. 5 

■^n 53. 2. a, 184. b 

N^n 71. rt (3) 

DP\3?'rn 230. 2. a 

n-in 11. I. a 

n^^n5o. 1, 77. 3, 112. 5. 

a, 152. 2. a, 156. 1, 
177. 1, 258. 2 
n^n 86. b (3 pi.) 



INDEX III. 



355 



n-^n (imp.) 112.1,177.1 

n":n (iaf.) iV7. 1 

n:?nT 61. 1. a, 234. b 
^''rn 61. 1. a, 234. b 
Vn^) 46 
\i^VT\ 245. 5. 6 
UVn 245. 3. b 

ni-in 112. 1, 177. 1 

aU^n 235. 3 (2) 

ai'j^n 145. 2 

aai^n 230. 2. 6 

n'''?ni, ni;ini ic. i 

Dvl"':'^ 60, 3. 6 (1), 

112. 1 
ISrp'^T}) 112. 2, 234. 6 

•j-^n 51. 2 

bD-in 189. 5, 107. b, 
200. c, 210. c, 216. 
1. 6 

''3''b"'n 151. 1 
b^b^n 57. 2 (5) 
bb-in 186. 2 
ni^a^n ii. i. 6 

'»312JQ-^n 150. 1 

S2;'n 150. 1 
nV^Tn 65. 6 

l^n^n 246. 1. a 

■nr^'n 150. 1 
n-in 172. 1 

nn^Tl 246. 3. a 
Ijn 98. 2, 175. 4 
n3Dn 94. b 
Oasn 96. a 

nsn 175. 4 



■jisn 159. 2 
b-^pn ("(y) 160. 4 
b^Dn (rDs:n) in. 2. c 

iD^DH 160. 2 

^rpn 160. 2 

^DiS'^pn 160. 2 

nis^pn 160. 2 

nSpn 246. 1. a 
^^bpn 95. a 
D^:^bpn 94. a 
^3pn 160. 2 
nn)53)i?3n 24. 5, 230. 

2. a 
npn 112. 5. a 

-n2n 94. 6 

banpn 246. 1. a 

nshpn 24. b 
nijbr. 172. 1, 175. 1 

inbn 24, 6, 230. 2. a 

■jiznbn 246. i. « 
©abn 94. 6 
n'l^n 150. 5 

'\^r\ 139. 2 

nrxibn 44. a 

Tbn 58, 1, 73. 2 

nrbn 58. i, 73. 2 
nrbn 58. 1, 73. 2 
onbn 119. 1 
onbn 91. 6 
^pbn 150. 2 
nb-i^bn 245. 3. 6 
•ibn 84. 3. a (3), 112. 

5.C, 115, 151. 1,179. 
2. a 



tj'bn 151. 1 
'iDbn 151. 1 

S5^Dbn 86. 6 (3 pi.) 

'r.±r}) 100. 2. a (1) 

riDbnn 100. 2. « (1) 

nsbh 205 

bbn 137, 141. 4 

bbn 137 

^bbn 20. 2, 45. 2 

mbbn 139. 1 

nbn 111. 1 

ten 4. a 

Dn, riTsn 61. 6 

•jta 197. b 
bilSn 159. 2. bis 

•^hrnT] 159. 2 
n'li^niifln 177. 3 
'j'^'cn 150, 2 
rr^Tan leo. 4 
n'^n'^rni 14. a 
Tiri-'^n 160. 2 
^rorn 246. 2. 6 

^D^n 140. 6, 141. 1 

nbrn 126. 1 
nb-an so. 2. 6 
nnb^n 127. 1 
•jb^n 95. a 

niDb^STSn 246. 3. a 
™i£n 246. 1. a 
O^n 140. 4 

nsisn 140. 5 
rprn 62. 2, 175. 1 

\l^_f2T\ 119. 1 
ip-ltD?)::! 104, c, 246.2.5 



356 



INDEX III. 



?|b:?12n 246. 2. b 
i?2TQn 16G. 8 
?ini213n 165. 3 
nSSTSn 246. 1. a 

n^an uo. 5 

"!^n 140. 5 

Dnin^n 24. b 
biiiSan 45. 2, 230. 2 
bia^n 94. 6 
n^an leo. 4 
iinttn, inisn leo. 5 
•'nrn leo. 2 
nn"an leo. 2 

■jn (pron.) 11. a (3) 
*}n (adv.) 236 
1S3sn 54. 2 

ini^asn i66. 2 
''ri«33n 131. 6 

q^Sn 91. 5, 131. 5 
nsn 236, 240. 2 
nsn (pron.) 71. a (3) 

nan (adv.) 235. 3 (4) 

'^^r\'2T\ 131. 1 
"insn 246. 1. a 

nnsn i89. b 

T T -: 

bn^n 94. 6 

intinsn 63. 1. a, 121. 

3, 131. 6 

nnsn 131. 1 

•innsn 160. 2 

n-^in, n^sn 83. c (1), 

160. 1 

nnisn 160. 5 
inin^rn leo. 2 



DDS^pn 160. 4 

^p'^an 150. 2 

^SS^sn 245. 5. b 

nssn 160. 4 
r\S2n 160. 2 
^:2in 141. 1 
npsn 173. 2 
jj-'nin 131. 2 
■jhsn 91. 6, 131. 5 
iptj^sn 131. 2 

on 240. 1 

npn 140. 5 

nDn61.4, 135.3, 140.5 
13Dn 61. 4. a, 140. 5 

■laDn 61. 4 
nhpn 61. 5, 136. 2 
ninion (ain^o^n) 53. 

2. a, 111. 2. c 

nn^pn 160. 2 
^n''pn 160. 4 
nipn, n^pn 160. 1 
•jpn 140. 5 
•json 94. b 
"ISDn 94. cZ 
baripn 32. 5 
bbinpn i4i. 5 
nn&n 91. 6 
nnn^n 63. 3. 6 (2) 
Tl'in'inrn 11 2. '3 
TP>'7??f:i) 112. 3 

T3?n (inf. abs.) 94. b 

r\na?n 112. 2 
nn^yn 160. 2 

T •• - 

nT3)n 141. 1 



riT^n 160.2 
•imiyn 60. 3. c 
'inni^yn 44. 6 
w!'?^, 'C2W 229. 3 
tnwn 160. 2 
byn (v.) 175. 4 
^)^.^, '^f?ri 112. 2 

nb2>h 60.3. b{2), 112.2 
nbl^n 63. 1. a 

n'^byn 245. 5. 6 
^:n^byn 104. z 
in'byn 173. 2 
B:?n 63. 2. ft, 229. 4. b 
'T''!23>n 60. 3. b (2) 
T'a?n 94. 6 
iT'ai^'nn 112. 3 
nns^n 104. e 
ij'i'iynT 112. 3 
m^sn 229. 4 

!r]3'7?n 246. 2. a 

in ton 173. 2 ■ 
inton 113. 1 
nyn 18. 2. c 
nir^sn i87. 2. a 
n'lsn 175. 1 
n'nsn 175. 4 
nan i4o. 5 
nsn 80. 2. b 
^niiz^pni 160. 2 

TSn 140. 5 

•jsn 112. 5. 6 

''pBh 61. 6 
?jBDBn 188 
Sb£n 166. 3 



INDEX III. 



357 



Kbsn 1G5. 2 

'iSSn 95. d 
D?Br; 245. .3. h 
'7]?5n (inf. abs.) 91. h 
TpSn 93. a, 95. a 

nen 229. 4. h 
nsn 140. 5 

n&n 65. a, 140. 5 
•iBn 140. 5 

nnsn 119. 1 
iri'^nsrin 100. 2. a (1) 

DDnsn 141. 3 
D'lSn 141. 3 

nnnsn hi. 2 
nnsn 126. 1 

'^'^y^%T\ 82. 5 
^^I2Sn 80. 2. 6 

iia'il^mn 161. 1 
'in^'jsn 161. 1 
a^sn 145. 2 
n^'^^n 160. 2 
nb^n 189. 6 
n3:rn 126. 1 

nn^Sn 86. h (2 m.) 

irsirn 24. 6 

nsn 140. 5 

"isn 140. 5 

••ri'-iirni 100. 2. a (1), 

141. 2 
Dijljjn 229. 4. 6 

•in'Kpn 160. 2 
©inpn 94. h 
t3"ipn 94. 5 

D^C^pn 229. 4. 6 



^nipn 119. 1 
-bnpn 119. 1 
"iiupn 94. 6 

D^pn 160. 4 

n^pn 160. 4 

D^pn 57. 2 (5), 59, 

153. 1 

nii3''pn 66. 2 (2) c 
bpn 140. 5 
bpn 140. 5 

Dpn 160. 4 

Dpn, Dpn 160. 5 

'^Vi:i^T\_ 66. 2 (2) c 

inbpn 104. y 
nispn 94. 6, 175. 2 
anpn 119. 1 
na-'Cpn 98. 1 
nn 207. 2. a 
ns-in, nsi'in 114, 

175. 1 

niinn 173. 2 
nisnn 173. 2 
Ti''^?'?!:!^ 114 
^■^n'^Nin 175. 

Dn^Xnn 24. h 

ann, nann 175. 4 
nann 175. 2 
nann, nann 175. 2, 

235. 3 (2) 

ri^anni 100. 2. « (i) 
ifi^ann"! 100. 2. « (1) 

rS"^?! (inf.) 94. 5, 114 
TTT". (inf) 114 

nnsi^-nn 24. 6 



nnn 63. 1. a, 219. 1. h 

inn 172. 2 
inn 92. 6, 174. 1, 3 
^jiin 53. 3. a 
-annn 119. 1 

V^n^^ PD'^^' 119. 1 
•inn 199. c 
ni'^nn 209. 1. a 
D'^nn 59 

• T 

nixj^nn leo. 2 
''tt'^nn 160. 4 

DD^"'nn 160. 4 

^SJ'inn 160. 2 
nni^^nn leo. 2 
ri-^nni le. 1 
?fnn 140. 5 
nasnn lu 
^nnn i4o. 4 
D^rinn (D-'Tsnsn) 53 

2. a 

nbnn 160. 2 
cnn ill. 1 
SJ^O, ?;;)f7 140. 5 
ynn 140. 5 
^3?nn 160. 2 
n^y-nn 24. 6 
Dni>nn 160. 2 

^l^n 66. 1 (1), 98. 2, 
175. 4 

nsnn 175. 4 
ncnn 165. 1 
mnn 172. 1 
•innn 221. 6. 6 
•'"inn 221. 6. 6 



358 



INDEX III. 



ninnn 207. 2. a 
D"nnn 221. 6. b 

^tpTSn 246. 1. a 

b2ian, ^''ston 94. b 
•>b'')aipn 180. a 
annipn 82. 5 

ST^n 166. 3 

^ininbxcn 119. 2 
:mrn 65. a 
n»n 160. 4 
nanyai^n 104. k 

•'PflTOn 86. b (2. m.) 

•»rihipnn 100. 2. a (1) 
ninntjm 10. a 
men 140. 5 
n'lTjjr; 160. 4 
"is^Tsn 60. 3. i (2) 

il'^TCn 60. 3. 6 (2) 
inin"<TDni 33. 4 
^y^tri^ 101. 3. a 
Dnhiffin 160. 2 
nsTjJn 94. 6 
asTiJn 95. a 
nnsirn 95. «, (? 
D3T»n, a"'3T»n 94, b 

a-ibW 80. 2. 6 

^•»bffin 94. 6 

^3''b©nT 100. 2. a (2) 
•ybcn (inf.) 94. b 
^fbicn (imp.) 94. d 
?jbT»n 95. a 
PpbCJn 95. a 

npPDbcn 86. 6 (2 pi.) 
rttabcn 95. a 



^"Citt] 94. b 
TQttT) (inf. abs.) 91. b 
^y2tn (inf.) 94. b 
•T-^ffin 104. 6 

'at : n • 

nairn i4o. 6 

T - T 

^l^ffin 140. 5 

niaffin i4o. 5 
^n-ini^ien i4i. 3 

Ul2ttr\ 139. 3 
27^T|n 126. 1 
n^3>^Tj3n 128, 189. 6 

By yiatjri 35. 1 
n^ffin 64. 1, 91. 6 

npT^n 245. 3. b 

*-\m D'lStSn 251. 4. a 

rirn (y'b) ho. 5 
5?ffin (rfe) 35. 2, 175. 4 
nisT^n (nisTS5?n) 53. 

2. 6, 62. 1 

b-iSian (inf. abs.) 94. b 

ijsirn 91. fi 

njpTSn 50. 1, 1V9. 2. a 
ttptin 94. (^ 

nanirn 126. 1 
■jsintn 141. 5 
nnnntjn 168. a 
n^^rintfn i76. 2 
•^n^innnTrn i76. 1 

T^'^l^tii^i^^n 1V6.-2 
T'^ll'^nT^ni 100. 2. a (1) 
D^TiririTsn 176. 2 
ninriTcn i76. 1 
tr^irnrn i76. 2 
^ttjynrn 141. 6 



•jBintJn 82. 5 
"'n-'.'nsnn i76. 2 
n-rsnn 126. 2 
■jDiarn 15 8. 4 
^2?l5snn 126. 1 

I/.T - : • 

irib'^sm 96. 6 
n>5rin 126. 1 
^Ti;3?ann 96. a 
"lann 17 6. 4 
rj'i'isnn i76. 2 
tfbnrin 96. 6 
''?I^r?^r' 96. b 
iriDbnnn"^ 100. 2.0(1) 
bbrifin 137 

minn iso. 3 (p, I82) 
2?'n:i,nn 150. 3 (p, 182) 

^inn 187. 2. a 

TOinn 150. 3 (p, 182) 
nh?inn 246. 3. a 
:Tnr; 65. a 
bbinnn 161. 2 
pmnn 96. & 
bnnn 17 6. 4 
"in^nn so. 2. 6 
Wn 111. 2. c, 172. 1 

^ton^nn eo. 3. a 
^wn 141. 3 

iSI^r.n 50. 1, 179. 2. a 
*'\2'2T\r\ 96. 6 

bnn 115 
D'^brin 142. 3 
nnn 140. 5 
^'ibnn 141. 5 
nT3r«ann 141. 6 



INDEX III. 



359 



si^flinn 140. 5 
rnann 82. 5 
"ii2nT2nn ui. 5 
ni32nn ig5. 3. 
n''s:nn igs. 3 
bbiynn i4l 5 
b^^nn 141. 5 
nisynn i7g. 2 
snynn no. i 
ptj^snn 9G. 6 
'^njpsnn 59. a, oe. « 
'^njjsnn 96. a 
tjnpnn 90. 6 
-cj^pnn 9G. b 
^TO^pnn 9G. 6 
■"nrnprini 90. h 
nnmpnn ei. 4. a, 

96. 6 

bi?^)?^r» 137 

n^l^nn 96. 6 

•jsi-inn 141. 5 
■'n^nnnn 121. 1 
ri^snnn no. 2 
n:i:'ji©nn 54. 4. «, 
82. 5. a 

nViTnn 45. 2, 230. 2. 
nnn ui. 3 (p. 175) 

•} 100. 1, 234, 287 

•n 99. 1 

in 56. 2 

"in 56. 2 
n^;! 56. 2 

1^1 56. 2 



nXT 183. b, 197. c 
''aST 216. 1. 6 
nST 11. 1. a 
mT 39. 4. a 

nnt 50. 1 
nnr 200. c 
innr 125. 2 
iiQinnT 220. 2. c 
^;nnn 100. 2. « (1) 

l^bnt 193. 2. a 

"IT 18G. 2. c 

HT 73. 1, 235. 3 (4), 

249. 2. a 
r»f 39. 4. a 
r.T, IT 11, 1. b 

nr, '\i 73. 1 

nnr so. i, 51. 3, 201. 1 

n'nn 16. 3. 6, ei. i.a, 

234. a 

^T 73. 1 
IT 53. 3. a 

rib^^ ^T 22. b 

rri'i'lT 209. 2. a 
rii^T 210. a 
nb^T 237. 1 
a ^th^l 01. 6. a 
ns^T 14. a, 93. & 
nn^.T 156. 4, 196. c? 
•jiTT 193. 2. a 
D^:iTT 210. c 
n^^T 208. 3. c 
^3T 141. 1 
niDT 90. pass. 
mDT 98. 1 



•jinDT 25 

"jinST 200. c, 210, 210. 
b, 217 

^:npT lOG. 6 

innDT 86. 6 (2 f.) 
5l?bT €8. a 
nS^bT 210. e 

rrfnii 200. 6 

'T^rT 185. 2. a 
iniS'^T 139. I 
•JIST 207. 2. 6 
rn'ET 92. c? 
tTTil 196. 6 

•^riiaT 139. 2 
riDDn^T 220. 1. 6 

•JT 207. 2. a 

a:T 200. a 

ni3T 200. 6 

tJ?T 51. 1 

D^T 84. 3. a (3), 118.2 

nW 119. 3 

iS^T 119. 3 

p?T 51. 1 

pis^T 119. 1 

?lp?T 60. 1. a, 119. 4 

^pl^T 119. 4 

•Jp2>T 119. 3 

•jpT 197. b 

•jpT (v.) 79. 2, 82. 1. a 

0) 
•jpT (adj.) 90, 215. 1 

QippT 201. 1. i 

ppT 141. 1 (p. 175) 

S"IT 19G. d 



360 



INDEX III. 



rfi, ^nr i56. 2 

jilT 183. c, 197. a, 
200. c 

ninr i87. 1. e 

l^n'T 92. b 

T\7 60. 3. c, 216. 1. e 

yiT 216. 1. e 

pnr 80. 2. a (3) 

Snn 112. 5. a 

^ixan 167. 1 

m^an, n'lin 60. 2. a 

mn 112. 5. a 

•'nn 172. 3 

ban 50. 1, 112. 5. b 

bnh 186. 2. a 

•'bnn 61. 1 
?inbaT7 104. i 
pan 187. 2 
nan 112. 5. a 
ninanan iss 
©an 84. 3. a (3), 112. 

5. b 
yn 186. 2. c 
sr^n 11. 1. a 
msn 196. <; 
"i^n 112. 5. a 

nn 53. 2. 6, 223. 1. a 
!IW;\ 100. 2. a (2) 
bnn 82. 1. a (2), 112. 

5. a 
^yr\ 24. c 
"Vin 216. 1. e 
tlh 208. 3. 6 



D^TSnn 60. 3. b (2) 

nrin 199. c 
nin 207. 1./ 
ns^n 14. a 
b^n 158. 2 
bbin 161. 4 
bbin 141. 4 
|3in 141. 4 
7^n 200. a 

ipin 59. a, 141. 3 
"ip^n 14, a 
nnn 125. 3 

■inin 194. 2. b 
:°'nin 199. c 

T2J"}in 186. 2. a 

main i58. 2 
onin 186. 2 
nrn 200. a 
•jrjn 200. a, 210. b, 

216. 2. 6 
pTn 84. 3. a (2), 110. 

2, 112. 5. 6 
pm 185. 2. 6 
ptn 185. 2. 6 
p?n 92. c 

^pm 61. 1 

^S^l^PT", f^rPT" 57. 2 
(2)5 

nn 207. 2. 5 

Nt:n 183. b, 208. 3 
i^m 165. 2 
TOpn 220. 1. 6 
nX^n 198. a (3) 
i^ttn 60. 3.C, 216. 1. 



D'^Xpn 57. 2 (3) cf, 
164. 3 

nsm 166. 1 

m^n 198. a (3), 205, 

217 
nxton 57. 2 (3) a 

ini^bn 166. 2 
Dr.xbn 220. 2. ff 

apn 50. 1, 112. 5. a 

n^n 200. b 
im 164. 2 

•j^isn 199. a 
^n (v.) 177. 2 
^n (n.) 215. 1. d 

a.'^n 161. 1 

n^n 50. 1, 112. 5. a, 
152. 2. a, 177. 2 . 

tn^in 177. 2 
n'^m 234. & 
n;^n 201. 1. « 

W^l 234. b 
J^D'i^n 220. 2. c 
C^^n 201. 1, 201. 1. a 
Dn'i^'m 234. b 

bin 158. 2 

b^n 208. 3. c 

nis^n 158. 2 
n^n 196. b 
in^n 61. 6, 218 

""Sn 174. 3 
?l3'>?n 172. 3 

in-isni 100. 2. a (1) 
ibibpn 187. 2. c 
a n^bban i98. a (4) 



INDEX III. 



361 



tan 80. 1, 84. 3. a (2), 

112. 5. a 
nil2pn 198. a. 4 
•'ttDn 216. 2 

bn 174. 5 
abn 215. 1. a 
•jnnbn 220. 2. 6 
nbrt 80. 2. a (4), 112. 

5. 6 

n5n 80. 1 
Dibn 200. a 
"jibn 197. 5, 200. c 

ibl^n 194, 2. 6, 199. c 

nbnbn i87. 1. e, i98. 

a (3) 

ttbn 112. 5. a 

•"bn 208. 3. d 

ibh 65 

nb^bn 219. 1. a, 240. 2 
D'^SDbn 209. 1. a 
riDbn 209. 1. a 

bbn 141. 4 

Dbn 112. 5. c 

©■"ttbri 195. 1 

5lbn 80. 2. a (1), 112. 

5. c 
T^n 92. d 
pbn 112. 5. 6 
njjbn 51. 3 

"'pbri 24. h, 216. 2. a 

p^i?bn 188 
nni5bn io4. i 

tjbn 84. 3. a (3) 

tjbn 187. 1 



Kttn 196. d 

T " 

^■an 111. 1, 112. 5. a 

nisn (nx^n) 53. 3. 6 

n^n 184. b, 216. 1 

yiun 185. 2. c 
niarj 197. c 

nW 205. c 

iniian i4i. 2 

iTC">)2n 59. a, 227. 1 
b)2n 112. 5. a 
nb^n 87, 111. 3. a 
Um 84. 3. a (3), 141. 

1 (p. 175), 179. 2. a 
tiian 112. 5. a 
7^n 82. 1. a (2), 112. 

5. a 

•j^m 184 

imipn 106. ff, 111. 3, a 

I'an 112. 5. a 

r\)2^m, ^"Tanian eo. 

3. b (2) 

!n^"l12n 92. a, 115 
T2)2n 46 

t!12T\ 205, 215. 1. b 
t'Qh 227. 3 

nis^n 223. 1 

^Wizn 59. a, 227. 1 

nn^'tt^'an 250. 2 (2) a 

lilB^n 250. 2 (2) 0, 
^'^i>12n 250. 2 (2) a 
D^^ian 225. 1 

vriTB'an 220. 2. a 
nioy mij^n 224. a 
nan 214. 1. b 



D^'lnbh 203. 5. b 
)ri 186. 2. c 

■jtn 139. 2 

"j^sn 187. 1 

nisn 139. 2 

ni^s^, nvin 209. 3. a 

n^pn 199. rf, 200. c 

i\:n 112. 5. a 

?ijn 220. 1. 6 

'at 

Oin 235. 2 (1) 

biasn 195. 1 

]:n 80. 1, 84. 8. a (3) 
•Jin 141. 4 

j^;:ri 139. 2 
'ipin 61. 5 

t]D::n 106. «, 139. 2 
^i52n 141. 1 
!:i.:n 82. 1. « (2) 
p?n 50. 1 

"''jCn, ^ncn 216. 2. a 

ncn 112. 5. b 
rrtn, vtrj i69. 1, 

172. 1 

ben 112. 5. a 
ncn 112. 5. a 

ncn 82. 1. a (2), 112. 
5. a 

nsn 112. 5. a 

TSn 112. 5. a 

fSn (v.)82. l.a(l), 84. 

3. a (1), 112. 5. a 
fSn (adj.) 185. 2. 6 

m^en 86. « 

iSSn 216. 1. 6 



362 



INDEX III. 



nsn 82. 1 a (2), 112. rori 112. 5. a btttjn 53. 2. a 

5. a bhnn 193. 2. c •"•^^i^n 66. 2 (2) 6 

nsn 82. 1. a (2), 112. -^n 112. 5. c, 118. 1 nn 139. 2, 207. 2. a 

K ^ ^'K'n IOC r. r bi_>_ . 



5. a 

ninsiBn iss 
tosn 112. 5. a 
iasti 80. 1 

niTSSn 198. a (4) 
•iffiSn 209. 2 

niirsn 198. « (4) 



nrin 112. 5. « 
nnrini87. i.e, 207.2.0 
n^nn 209. 2 
?jnri 112. 5. a 



"inn 185. 2. 6 
b^"in 207. 2. <? 
•j'-^in 210. a 
-in-in 187. 2. 6 

Dbnn 193. 2. c, 207. 2. c bm 112. 5. a 

TiJ''nn 185. 2. a Dnn 112. 5. a 

iij^^.n 195. 1 rinn 112. 5. « 

nsn 50. 1, 82. 1. a (1), nonn ei. 6. a im 50. 1, 112. 5. « 

84. 3. a (1), 112. 5. a q^tl 118. 1 rm 112. 5. c, 141. 1 

"i^rn 199. h nisnn 22. «, 216. 2, 2. a (p. 175) 

''isn 65, 227. 3 ^nn 118. 1 ''snnn io4.y 
7?ri 141. 1 (p. 175) 'yiy\ 207. 2. c 

nnaan iss. a nnn i4i. 2 (p. 175) niris?t:«p 57 

"l?n 50. 3, 197. 5, 200. c TZJnn 187. 1. a, 210. a, 161. 2 

pn 207. 2, 207. 2. a, 215. 216. 1. a n3p 50. 1 



a (2), 



irnn 50. 1, 80. 2. a (2), nst: 187. 1. a 
84. 3. a (3), 118. 1 n:?3t: 207. 1. c 
tJnn 187. 1. i, 210. c "lint! 185. 2. h 

''ffinn 216. 1. a -nnp 215. 1. c 

^^"^^ ^0. 1 ^rit3 50. 1, 82. 1. a (l) 

■i&^ten 194. 2. 6, 199. c n^t: 1S6. 2. e 

^icri 112. 5. 6 nit2 (v.) 82. 1. « (3), 

•ippn 20. 2, 207. 2. a ^jton 112. 5. 6 156. 2, 179. 2. a 

-Ipn 50. 1, 112. 5. a ''^iBn89(f. s.),111.3.anit! (adj.) 186. 2. c, 
3T?n 112. 5. 6 235. 3 (3) 

•jiaf n 200. a , nistpiu 57. 1, i87. i. e 
man 112. 5. c np, hd i56. 2 



1. c, 217 

■pn 61. 5 
npn 217 
ipn 59. a 
"•pn 61. 5 
'p^r\ 141. 5 
ppn 141. 5 



••snnpn 104. y 

1*117 118. 1 
n'ln 197. a 



^n-in, ^nnn m. 3. a i\im 84. 3. a (2), 112. n-'sbp 209. 1. « 



nin'in 216. 2. « 
Dninnn 220. 2. a 

•'CT 111. 3. a 



S- ^ !"'r^^P 187. 1. g 

nsiijn 200. h, 201. 1. a bbp i4i. 1 (p. 175) 
n-'pejn 201. 1. « «^u 82. 1. a (1) 



INDEX III. 



363 



nS^*J 87, 106. 2 
DSSB'J 104. 4 
nXTSa 164. I 
"Jtt-J 50. 1, 77. 2 
n?D 131. 4 

qp 201. 1 
:]ist: 139. 2 

nStD 200. a 
1"\D 185. 2. d 
DTJ 263. 1. 6 



'iBpN^ 112. 3 
''DSCS^ 112. 3 

"ibx^ QinpN;) 60. 1. a 

mnpXlJT 104. rj 
b2«^1 111. 2. 6 

nsjj:;! ii3. i 
nb?'^ 159. 3 
^Vnij;! 112. 3 

n^-lTSi?^ 105. e 
nx^n 61. 2. «, 172. 4 



qnD 84. 3. a (3), 118. 1 ^PS;? 159. 3 

iSnU 216. 2. a n'^nj!5;: 172. 1 

"'3.':n«;:i 172. 3 

nnbi\ nns?"" 111. 2. a ik^"^ 60. 1. a 

laj?;" 16. 2. a i^n*^! 10. a 

WS')'! 105. a Sn^il 160. 3, 166. 4 

•>3nns;) 105. a, iis. 3 sn;* i4i. 1 (p. 175) 

tn^^, ms'^i 111. 2. a •'sb^'^nt' 105. « 

^imrnsi 60. 3. 6 (1) b^in^n 66. 1 (2) b 

?J1TnS"> 60. 3 b (1) in;>T 164. 2 

pi?;' 158. 2 S?in7 157. 3 

bDiii 57. 2 (2) fl, 60. 1. a ^nipin^ i58. 4 

bDi5^n 99. 3. a ip^,n^ 194. 1 

blS^T 111. 2. fZ, 175. 3 m2^ 157. 3 

y^s;) 111. 2. a 



TbS^ "1)255:^ 126. 2 
"1)3X^5 111. 2. a 

nnias'^T 46 

S5 "nSS'^l 24. a 

q?s;^ 111. 2. a 
p:s^ 111. 2. a 



Tnt*] 172. 4 

i-h;> 141. 1 
nm;' 126. 1 
K-'a'^i, K'^n^'i 160. 3, 

166. 4 

liiia^'n 26 

^n;:n 61. 4, 172. 4 



qbS^ 111. 2. a, 112. 3 psa^ 172. 1 
SIPJJI^T, qoXI^T 99. 3. a 'jn;' 158. 2 

qoi^'^n 151. 2 "ja:" 172. 4 



nsn^n 172. 4 
n^ypn^ 125. 1 
nttjjpn^n 20. 2 
^nh;' 60. 4 
•jnn^T 99. 3. a 
^nana:^^ 60. 3. a 
na^ana^' 104. b 
^roana;" 105. & 

m"; (v.) 82. 1. a (1), 
146, 147. 1 

tJa") 147. 1 
m:" 148. 1 

^niE2^1 150. 2 (p. 182) 

mca;> 148. 1 
na^1 00. 1 
-biar^:" 88 
n^aro 60. 2 

1.)^ 140. 1 

"n^a^ 104. /i 

Ti^t"^. 150. 2 (p. 182) 
bis-' 158. 2 
W 140. 1 

'jib\^;' 158. 2 

^V^j.'J 216. 1. 6 

bs"", bri"" 158. 2 

bS^il CS?) 158. 2 
bS^n (y'b) 140. 5 

bro 172. 4 

bS^I 99. 3. a 

broi 99. 3. a 

bS^I 175. 3 

ba** 140. 3 
nbs;i 57. 2 (5) 

S12S'' 165. 2 



364 



INDEX III. 



btta^l 65. a 
1?? 140. 5 

:sy^ 147. 1 

^3?.'\'', Vai 147. 4 

JIT • ' AT • 

P??? 60. 2 

ni;* (v.) 82. 1. a (3), 

179. 2. a 
-la;" (adj.) 90 
n.)^1 157. 3 

^y} 140. 1 

ffin.VT 99. 3. a 
DITSn^;'! 104. 5^ 
pnii'i 86. a 

T ; T 

T197.a,215.1, 217,222 

«n?^ 172. 4 

p?7^ 97. 2 

^pa^DI 94. c 

"I2l'7;'1 99. 3 

"1^^ 139. 3 

Tin 148. 3 

*»"lDn 53. 3. a, 150. 2 

(p. 182) 
nin:" 139. 3 
7iT 157. 3, 158. 2 
nil^ 203. 5. a 
"'11' 216. 1 
IT 199. c 
^ni'i;» 220. 2. c 

anit?;' 220. 1. 5 

n^'n;' 203. 5. a 
l^T. 157. 3 
K3"i;' 167. 7 
ISS'n:' 54. 2 
rOTi 220. 1. a 



BD^;? 58. 2, 63. 2. a, 

22.1. 1. a 
Up^l"} 220. 2. h 

bn";! 140. 3 

D^;! 140. 1 

•^W 141. 1 

VT, 80. 2. a (4), 147. 

3?1^T 147. 5 

'}^:?7;; 55. 2. a, 86. 6 

(3 pi.) 
'W-V^ 60. 3. a 
?]13?'i;' 60. 3. a 
Ur.V^^ I'll. 2 

n:?'!^ 86. b (1 c.) 
nn:?'i;i 86. 6 (2 m.) 

T^^"} 104. i7 

ony'i;' 60. 3. a 

p*1^1 140. 5 
X^l"^ 46 
13^7^1 94. c 
nsffi'j^'es.l. c, 97.1.a, 
Sn;> 179. 2. a 

nan;^ 60. 3. a 

5]W 111. 1 

^ss^n;? 105. (^ 
i?nn^ 177. 1 
rn^Tn \Qi.d 
nnin^ 150. 2 
'''7in;i 194. 2. a • 

Tr^'^^T^ 235. 3 (3) 

nini 47 
nirrii 234. c 
D^p^in'' 195. 3 
n-ip^in/ 44. b 



?''©in;» 150. 2 
^n;' 57. 2 (4), 177. 1 
^r\2 177. 1 
'^r\^^ 45. 2, 61. 1. a, 

• : I- ' ' 

177. 1 

rr^n"! 11. 1. a 
2 n;:n;' 19. 1, 60. 3. a, 

112. 2, 177. 1 

ni>D3 •<n:ii 22. b 
nb-^bin^ 150. 2 
hrr^ 140. 5 
bn^ (bnfi?^) 53. 3. a, 

111. 2. c 

?j'bn^ 151. 1 
mbbri;> 105. e 

tfbn^ (n.) 190. a 

'ip^bn;: m. 1 
on^'i 140. 1 
nn."? 140. 3 

Dm^T 80. 2. & 
6 OiW 111. 1 

^D-in^ ^cnn;: 111. 1 
TiC^n;^ 111. 1 
bnn^ 142. 3 
^bfin^ 142. 3 

"ISn'' 140. 6 

xni"' 167. 2 
^jia^"' 167. 2 
bnii 197. 6 
iny'iii 92. 6 

p'7^'' 140. 6 

nni^i 111. 2. ^ 

^bsii 57. 2. (2) a, 111, 

2.6 



INDEX III. 



365 



'isV 93. b 

7ir:)>V 207. 1. a 

UV 200. c, d, 207. 1./ 

n'^'nV 203. 3 

D^i"" 235. 2 (1) 

•jl^ 215. 1. b 

n:ii 197. c, 200. 6 

p5i-' 217 

npDii 207. 1. e, 217, 

221. 5 
aS^'i 140. 6 

AT 

rioii 90 
^a'^yii 105. 6 

Dy^"^ 140. 6 
xsiin, K^li'^'l 166. 4 
n2?i-> 186. 2. a 
n^©|p^^ (D-'TD)?-!^) 59. a, 

93. e 
■li^5 175. 3 
S"}i'» 150. 5 
ytOV"] 99. 3. a, 150. 3 
1©^^ 140. 6 
i5iniTaii 105. a 
P^tV 105. a 
I2S©i"' 53. 3. a 

r\tr> 158. 4 
r^ 175. 3 
ri, ri 172. 4 

m"? 140. 3 
TOP 141. 1 

•jr-i 175. 3 
p3?ri 119. 1 
nrn 157. 3 

"IT^I 172. 4 



to'lp 57. 2 (8) a 

unn."' 113. 1 
ri-inn;i 93. a 
tjnn;? eo. 3. a, 65. a 
ttjan"^ 65. a 

AT : V 

ITlJSn^ 60. 3. a 
1^2 (y'i?) 140. 1 

-in;< C^s) 147. 2 
in;! (3>y) 140. 5 
'nn;' 109. 2, 172. 4 

IW^ 235. 3 (1) 

b'nn;) 63. 1. 6 
'ib'in^ ibnn^ 63. 1. 6 

'J^b'in:^ 64. 2, 88 (ra. pi.) 

D^n;>, Din;! 157. 3 
nnim 156. 1 
^T^m;-: 172. 1 
iprn^ 61. 1 
«t:n^ 03. 1. b 

i^m^ll 166. 4 

''ri?^ v^^ i-"!"- 2 

■^n!? 05 
r\^n-} 177. 2 
^ri^n^ 172. 3 
ms'^n;' 97. 1 
•jn^Ti;^ 104. ff, 141. 3 
bn^ bn;! 140. 5 
sbmi 177. 3 
ibn;' 141. 1 
^bn^i (ibn;ii) 24. c 
pbn;i 60. 4. a, 113. 1 
Dpbn;i 59. a 
Qpbn^i 113. 1 

■'Pibfr' 60. 4. a 



Dn;' 147. 2, 179. 2. a 

nn.'? 140. 1 
TCn:^ 00. 3. b (2) 
^"an;! i40. 1 
•j^irn;: 172. 1 
nprn;: 88 (3 f. pi.) 
•ipn^ar!;^ 121. 2 
in^, "jn^i 140. 1 
in^ 61. 2 

"in^l 60. 1. a, 172. 4 

"jn^ 140. 
n;n:; 172. 4 
i:r!^ 60. 1. a 
*ji:n^i 99. 3. a 
T]?n;> 61. 1, 141. 3 
1?n^ 139. 3 
'pyn^^ 113. 1 

•jTCri': 169. 1, 172. 1 

■jDn;! 113. 1 
?in^i 25 

ysn^ , f en;! 65. a ' ' 
nnsn^ ^ncn;? 111. 1 
HOT':, fn:^i 172. 4 
npn^i 141. 1 
nn^ 147. 1 
nn^^ 175. 3 
in:^ 140. 3 
nn;i 172. 4 
nn^n 00. 1. a 
rnr},'-] i72. 4 
cinni 119. 1 
rinri;'i 99. 3. a 
iqiDn;: 111. 1 
tjTcnijT 99. 3 



366 



INDEX III. 



nn.'? (|£) 131. 1 
nn.": (y':?) uo. i 
nnn.':', nnn;? 24. c 

B^T 11 o. 3 
13;: 172. 4 

at:;' iso. i, i79. 2. a 
ib^"*, :bi:T 16O. 5 

i{72D;^54. 2,96. «, 166.5 

j]ht::> , qnipT 65. a 
©ni;* 144. 2 
jy>n"i;i 147. 2 
bn^^i 149. 1 

ni2'«:' 147. 4 
nt3"'^1 147. 5 

at:"i):i 150. 3 

S^U^n 145, 2, 150. 2 

nip;:^ 150. 2 
b^V^ 150. 2 

51''!''! 172. 4 
121^^ 147. 4, 5 
•j^P;! 63. 2. r, 147. 4 
fpi^^, 7"j5^'^n 147. 5 
">]?*''? > T''!? 147. 4 
Cn''«5 147. 5 
Dian^T 147. 5 

^ITTK'':' 150. 1 

•jiai^l 147. 5 

nffi->:' 147. 4 

D^IE^?^ 150. 2 (p. 182) 

^Dl 175. 3 

''2:733;' 105. 6 

•jis;' 159. 3 

n;»513:' 13. a 

'^S31D^61.3,105.&,161.3 



©no;' 119. 1 

^^D;" 160. 3 
n^i^l'l 105. a 

r.y^^ 105. a 

bb;" 80. 2. « (3), 82. 1 

«(3) 

^3? 172. 4 
bs^il 174. 4 
Tup"! 165. 3 
^bb;i 86. a 
l^'^bD;' 172. I 

ribbi 148. 1 

nbrn 86, a, 100. 2 

"inba;! 86. « 

I'lnbD;! 86. rt, 104. h 
ySD^T 126. 1 

C3;in 174, 4 

^tt^DD;'61. 6, 104./, 

172. 1 
WDD-i 172. 3 
DI^DI'I 119. 1 

nnD^i 172. 4 

nrap^D'' 180. a 

rr^D^ 119. 1 
]^nn3;' 91. 6 
ibnirr 88 

ns^' 140. 6 

nnD"*, nins;' 88, 101, 

2. 6 

nns'in 99. 3. a 

■J^nns;" 88 (m. pi.) 
'inS^ 140. 5, 141. 1 

aab^ 139. 3 

DTTSbi 105. a 



^^m)'^ 105. (^ 

"lb;" 56. 2, 80. 2. a (4), 

147. 2 
•j^'lb::! 64. 2 

trnb^ 22. a ■ 

^'l)'} 216. 2. a 
n'lV"' 90 (2 f.) 
^Pl'lb"! 104. ^ 

'irmb;' 104. k 
'^an^b;' 104. ^, iso. 1 

(p. 182) 

isib^" 159. 3 
cnb;' 119. 1 

Onb^l 99. 3. a, 119. 1 

fb;? 160. 1 
?^?» r^:: 160. 1 

^b'!' 151. 1 

•jb^'l 65. rt 

'iDb;' 91. ft 

'isbi'l 99. 3. a 
tnsb;! 105. c 

bb; 139. 3, 150. 1 

bb;' 183. b 

rabbin 57.2(3) a, 234. e 
fb^T 158. 2 
t2npb^ 192. 1 
irL2pb;» 88. (m. pi.) 
D;" 207. 2, 215. 1. a 
CX'Ei'1 119. 1 
^S^'B'^ 139. 3 

lia^'T 140. 1 

^^:> 140. 3 
ITittil 99. 3. a 



INDEX III. 



367 



t:il2'? 159. 3 
bi-B'^ 159. 3 
Ti'B'^ 60. 1. a 

n^t'1 173. 3 

fc5^n '^12'} 220. 1. a 
D'^'a^ 53. 3. a 
TVn'^'Q'} 219. 1. a 
•j^'a;' 197. b, 199. a 
IW'^ri'^ 160. 3 

on^'p;' 160. 3 

tJ'S;' 140. 3 
bl2^1 157. 3 

bi?:' 140. 1 

n?)?;' 165. 1 

?J■b^^ -?jb-/c:> 88 

^jbTS^I 99. 3. a 
^D*bT3;i 83 

yn"; 150. 1 

D'D:' 140. 3 
bV-Q"} 60. 1. a 
y^'^l 172. 4 

tinsi^To;' GO. 3. c 
nsm^"' 105. c 

T^ii^TC:' 164. 5 
13^2)2;' 105. 6 
•>:25S2T2': 105. c 
-112;' 150. 1 
n^:: 105. 2, 140. 1 
C^^ 140. 5 

rb^ 157. 3 
riia^T 65, 157. 3 
r'a^i 157. 3 
ntt^n 160. 3 

7«3-> 11. 1. a 



fij;^ 57. 2 (3) a ( ? ), 

122. 2, 140. 5 
5)53^1 99. 3. a 
HDi 147. 1 

■XT 

n^a;" eo. 2 
p^i 159. 3 
^13^ 159. 3 
n:^T 157. 3 
nri 160. 3 
nit:3^ 131. 2 

''2;' 164. 2 
•jiji 159. 3 

iins^rn 160,. 3 

yD^T 157. 3 

!:i:^'i 160. 3 

p?;! 147. 1, 150. 1 
-3^3;' 131. 2 
S^SP?"^ 131. 2 

m'23;' 131. 2 

S^to3;< 57. 2 (3) a, 86 
(3 pi.), 164. 3 

nb;! 61. 3, 64. 2, 135. 
140. 1 

nO^I 64. 1, 99. 3. a 

SS^l 140. 5 

nb;' 135. 2, 140. 1 
^sb;* 136. 1 

^aS^' 61. 3 

inao;' 141. 3 

"^DaD^ 61. 5, 141. 3 
ib-mao:' 13. a 
^b^ 148. 1 
*»^D^ 148. 1 
n^D^ (n.) 192. 1 



tjo;! 147. 1 
^^r 140. 5 
?JD:> 140. 6 
D^DD^ 157. 3 

ns/b:* 92. i t 

?10;> 80. 2. a (3), 151. 2 
• ClC'iT 151. 2 
ISD^in 99. 3 
-1D;> 147. 3 
n©:: 92. (^ 
"ID^I GO. 1. a 

nno:' 92. d 
•'sn©;! 104. a 

■'SnS': 104. a 

^nnn?^ 50. 1, 105. 6 
irenn?: 105. c 

^3'^n?: 56. 1 
'IS'^ 56. 2, 147. 1 
W^i 161. 1 

b ni:?:: 159. 3 
i3n-y;> 105. 6 

2, Ti?^ 140. 1 

-nr?^ 64. 1 

^■)T3>^ 105. b 

W'^'} c'y) 157. 3 
t3?^^ (ri'b) 172. 4 

t:3?^1 157. 3 

b?^!!, "bs/;;'^ (k.) 172.4 
^?!'l,J^^?!'j(Hi.)l75.3 
Th:?2 207. 1. a 
^b:p^^ 45. 3 
iyby;i 161. 2 

"lb?: 60. 3. b (1) 
nwr 60. 3. b (2) 



368 



INDEX III. 



^^^?^ 109. 3. a 

'^'qT. 112. 4 

np^b?^ 88 (2 f. pi.) 
•J?^ 190. h, 237. 1, 

267. h 
">T?ii! v.': 239. 2. (2) 
1??3, ™??!^ 1^2. 4 
n3?^ 207. 1. a 

Tq^'^T. 104. 6 
XT^p'^ 142. 2, 161. 2 
q?;« (v.) 82. 1. a (2), 

147. 1 
V\T, (adj.) 185. 2. 6 
ri?^1 157. 3 
qy^l 157. 3 
f?;' 77. 2, 147. 1, 179. 

2. a 
riDnS?:? 104. 6 

nips?'' 11. 1. 6 
n?^ 200. c 
to?:^!!, nic^^i 172. 4 
^3"nTsy^ 104. A 

ns^ 147. 1 
nBM85.2.c?, 209. 1,210 

n^^s-nB;) 43. 6, i88 
nB;i (v.) 160. 3 

nB;> (adj.) 215. 1. h 

ri'iS^B^' 92. a 
bs^ 101. 2. J 

nbs;' 126. 1 

'JS^'I 172. 4 
T?>r 160. 3 
''52S2S:' IGl. 2 
7Sb^ 161. 2 



n&;;», ns^n i40. 5 
nB;;5 i75. 3 

^'^IB;' 177. 3 
t:T»B': 65. a 
^t2teB^ 65. a 
PB;: 175. 3 
r\B^1 172. 4 

nns^i 192. 1 

''riB^ 221. 2. 6 

iis;! 147. 2 

XS^n 147. 5 
Xl^'"! 164. 3 
riMS'i 164. 2 
riS^ 150. 4 
S^;' 145. 3, 150. 5 

nns;! 192. 1 

W 66. 1 (1), 174. 4 

nni2;> i56. i 

D'iS^T 157. 3 

pna^i 192. 1 

pn?^ 120. 2 
?^2J^ 145. 2 
y"'S;> 158. 2 

2?:?;;' iso. 4 
s^a;* 150. 5 

:iS^ 172. 4 
n^^^l 25 
p^;i 150. 4 

pa;' 148. 3 

pk;:> 144. 2, 147. 4 
pS:^5 147. 4 

tipa;) 148. 3 

12^ 50. 3, 84. 3. a (3), 
147. 2 



-12^ (S^'b) 140. 5 

n2;> 140. 1 

nSj^l 147. 5 
^'^'^ 147. 4 
^nnSS'^ 105. 6 
m"! 147. 3, 150. 4 
Ti'l^ 144. 2 
W2i;' 24. c, 149. 1 
im;" 164. 2 
iip^'l 166. 4 
'isnp"^ 105. d 
'pap:'^ 99. 3 

?i2ap;i 104. A 

nnjJ^T 99. 3. a 
^P."? 144. 2, 147. 4 
^p:" 140. 1 
11p^ 141. 1 
Dl^'lp:' 22. a 

b5^p^ b^np!" 119. 1 
bnp^i 119. 1 
rinp;' 24. 6 

D^p;! 190. b, 192. 1 
Q^p;" 153. 2 

■j^iaip;' 157. 3 
D)2ip;i 161. 1 

tJlp^^ , HJIp^i 185. 2. c 
np^ 54. 2, 132. 2 
np^ 132. 2 
bbp;« 51. 3 

n^p^i 153. 1 
D.^p;' 161. 1 

bp!? 64. 2 

Dp;", Dp5» 157.3 

Dp^n 99. 3. a, 157. 3 



INDEX III. 



369 



Dj^^l 99. 3. a, 160. 3 
•)]5t'T 172. 4 
3?)5^ 147. 2, 179. 2. a 
Y'P^ 179. 2. a 

V)?;*^ 157. 3 

7;?? 147. 4 
IISSI?:* 88 (m. pi.) 
•jmp? 64. 2, 88 (m. pi.) 
"II?."? 147. 4 

njj^n 172. 4 
■i;?^^ 173. 3 
•'MKn]?') 105. c 
nn^?-' 177. 3 
nnnp"> 97. 1. a 

?Tnp7 24. 6 

top'; 82. 1. « (3) 

TIJJ?^^ 172. 4 
ST?]??!? 99. 3 
•\Wp'} 86. 6 (3 pi.) 

bsrip^ 22. a 

Kn;" 148. 3 
K"-^.:' 148. 1 

Sn^(v.)82.1.a(l),147.1 
«n;> (adj.) 215. 2. c 
Sn::"] (k.) 60. 1. a, 61. 

2. a, 114, 172. 4 
SVn (Hi.) 175. 3 
i?n:? 61. 2. a, 172. 4 
«n:^n 173. 3 
nsn:" 87, 148. 1, 166. 2 

n«n;i 114 
nsn^5 172. 4 
i>-ns-\i 19. 1 
^xn-" 164. 3 



^Kn^ 10. 1, 147. 1 

isin-i 19, 1, 147. 1 
^sn^i 177. 3 

^msn^ 104. h 

'»:i?n;' 105. a 

nX"!'' 164. 1 

T " r 

mi 158. 2 

•* T 

y}^^. (=i"^i^?^) 111. 2. 

y^'J 61. 2, 172. 4 
nn^ 63. 2. a 

y^']^ 175. 3 
'j^'an:' 172. 1 

'i:;in::n 114 
nn;' i48. 3 
'n'^:) 175. 3 
'in^ 79. 1, 147. 2 
^n^i 140. 5 
'^t'^:^n 172. 4 
nn^i 147. 5 
D^n^i 114 

?1=1V 114 

s:]^n:' 60. 2. a, 114 

is^n;i 105. a 

^B'ln^ 105. </ 
^rn^') 86. 5 (2 f.) 
tT}'^ 147. 1 

nn;" i48. 3 

Si-i;» 148. 1, 177. 3 
)'^^^'! 172. 1 

U'^•^'} 19. 2. a 
1in;< 140. 1 

^BBi-l*- 161. 4 
V^'i;' (3?>) 140. 1 



pi"i;i 185. 2. 6 

n''btt3^n\ Dbtnni 47, 

203. 5. c 

rrn^ i48. 1 

"■^r' ^"D?^ 160. 3 

'i?!?'!^' 147. 3 
rnCD-i;* 88. (3. f. pi.) 
c S'^'1^ (n.) 190. 6, 192. 1 
n'^n^ (v.) 153. 2 
T"T' 158. 2 

• T 

?fn;i 197. a, 216. 1. c 

tfi;: 140. 1 

ro^i 198. c, 207. 1. a 
D^nD^^ 22. o, 203. 6. a 
^'BX 140. 3 
?'-l^ 140. 1 
?"!?? 140. 5 
yn^l (yy) 140. 5 

y-n^i (^'i?) 160. 3 

rV (y'b) 34 

yn^ (nb) 34, 172. 4 

D?"!: 119. 1 

yy'-i;" 161. 4 

tl'l!'^ 172. 4 

ptl^ 179. 2. a 

P'n;' 185. 2 

p""l^ 140. 1 

•jipni^ 193. 2 

p'lpn^ 188, 207. 2. a 

©n;" 82. 1. a (2), 147. 1 

mrn"" i48. 3 
nnisn^ 150. 1 (p. 182) 

Drnan^ 61. 4. a, 150. 1 
(p. 182) 



370 



INDEX III. 



?J3^STB:' 105. c 
"jTiyaiZJi 83 (m. pi.) 

?;yaiijT 127. 2 

'^D?3'©: 105. a 

UW"; 158. 2 

tap: 172. 4 

O^'^to:' 105. a, 158. 2 

DiC;i 147. 1 

Di»; 158. 2 

Dtopi G4. 1, 158. 2 

•'bsn'is"' 194. 1 

D^iClIJ;' 55. 1,88 (ra.pl.), 

158. 2 
-IDTO'^T 47 
-l^n'T: 54. 4 
©: 236, 258. 3. b 
^^bsiin 83 (m. pi.) 
nir^ 146, 147. 2 
nizj;^ 66. 1 (2) b, 153. 5, 

157. 3 
-mS;" 157. 3 
2tD^'] 153. 5, 157. 3 
a©^T 157. 3 

3'ir;',m2;'i 153.5,160.3 

m?: 63. 2. c, 84. 3. b, 
144. 2 

:mc?i 147. 5 
at?:] 09. 3. a 

3U3^:, 172. 4 

?|r,n2^2J7 105. c 

••nip'' 61. 6. a 

riTr^T 33. 4 

•'PTC-' 01. 6. a(?), 90 
(2 f.) 



''tia©'! 90 (2 f.) 
C-iniD^ 141. 1 
^^T2J; 140. 1 

niaiffi? 82. 5. a 

•ji©: 148. 1 

nny^uj;' ei. 6. a 
''psnr;' 157. 3 
riiD;» 140. 1 
n©: 140. 3 
nr^nffi;' 11 8. 3 
ipnnir;' 105. c 

■il^: 164. 2 

on'^Tr:: 160. 3 
n-'ts: 140. 5 

'jnSt":' 88. (m. pi.) 
HDT^: 126. 1 
bffi.: 172. 4 
Tj^bir^ 141. 3 
V)\D'J 172. 1 
-Dbir: 92. c 
D©:' 140. 1 
2>^ir;' 00. La 
bi{?)3ffi:' 57. 2 (8) a 
•jir: 147. 1 
N\3"iJ: 177. 3 
i?:T^1 177. 3 
^Sffi:" 19. 1, 147. 1 
^3123: 19. 1, 147. 1 

iaie^;} 105. a 

*^3i2J7 216. 1. b 

^P^, 2?©: 65. a,- 201. 

yiSi^n 172. 4 

wyi?;' 141. 6 

r.STlJ'' 19. 2. 6 



rjnsTS':' 88 

nb^S®: 105. a 
nsb-'STJ?: 105. 6 
?fSl^:i 99. 3. a 
pTC^I 10. a 
j5Tji:i 175. 3 
^npT^^I 4. a 
nte^ 158. 2 
'J'lnr^ 193. 2. a 
n:'!!^':' 88 (3 f. pi.), 
147. 4 

nnt;^^ 99. 3. «, 119. 1 
•jiin'!©: 105. c 

tTiJJ;' 66. 1 (2) b, 158. 2 
nr::, 66. 1 (1), 172. 4 
B^ir.lC: 82. 5. a. 
"nPTr::j57. 2(4), 176. 1 
n^rtPiTfl 176. 1 

•jTiiptJ;' 172. 1 
n^nr"' 54. 4 
tin: 111. 2. 6 

«n:: 177. 3 

i^n'^: 176. 3 
^nnsjEn'' CO. 3. 6 (2) 
^'i"0¥.C^ 19. 2, 60. 3. 6 

(2), 120. 1 
'i?5n:', :bs2n: 119. 1 

b"^5n: 90. b 

bsn^n 176. 3 
2i|n;< 96. 6 
1 '^lOSn: 96. fl, 122. 2 

^Oiin"> 96. a, 122. 2 
nn^ 197. 6 

n'^nnn'' 221. 2. 6 



INDEX III. 



371 



in^'T 66. 1 (1), Hi. 4 

sisnn;^ i66. 5 
bnn'^1 176. 3 
n^n;* i6o. i 

DSn^l 176. 3 

msbn': 96. b 

on: 140. 5 

riir\'} 140. 1 
top;' 141. 1 
man;^ i40. i 
j'j^sb^n;' 166. 5 
1123 cn^ 96. 6 
fn^ 54. 2, 84. 3. 6 

msn;' 126. 1 
DTOni 121. 3 
stern;' I66. 5 
yn^n 175. 3 
by 7^"^ 176. 3 
-Qb:7n;' 96. 6 
nn^n;' 119. 1 

5"jn2^3ni88.(m.pl.),96.6 

:i2Jb3n;' 96. b 

npsn"! 96. a 

i®3j;?n;' 96. 6 
D3;5n-» 96. 6 
j^ipn": 126. 1 
is;5n;' 105. a 
"^i!*!"^ (I'i') 160. 1 

D^inni 82. 5. a 

3 231. 1, 242. a, 267. b 
a>?3 183. 6 

T3S3 57. 2 (3) a, 231. 
3. 6 



ns53 0«;'?) 53. 2. a 
inXS 156. 3, 199. b 
ITIJSS 239. 2 (2) 
TO (v.) 82. 1. a (1), 

85. 2 
TO(acij.)216. 1. e, 217 
nTO 198. a (4) 
nins 185. 2, 197. b 

Bins 87 

C23 82. 5. a 
C33, C'SIS 92. c 
ton3,n'il3n3 51.2, 197. c 

©ns 87 

nn"\253 246. 2. a 
^3 197. b, 200. 6 
nb 235. 3 (4) 

nns 121. 1 

Di^^TO 231. 5. a 
•jnb 186. 2. o 
•jnD 80. 2. 6 
nsTO 198. a (2) 
Cni3 186. 2. a 
S^nis 50. 1, 216. 1. c 
O'lynis 207. 2. a 

niD 11. 1. 6 

DDiS 57. 1, 187. 1. e 
1^3 82. 5. a 

•jais 59 
n:5i3 161. 4 

OiS 184. b, 197. a 
nSTS 22. a 

*:n3 116. 4 

1*n3 121. 2 

••rns 119. 1 



13 (n.) 53. 3. o, 184. 6 
3 (conj.) 239. 1 
DS5 •'S 239. 2 (l) 
^^3 187. 1. c 
-lT3 187. 1. c 
Di"^3 16. 2. a 
"li'^S 200. c 
''b^S 184. J, 194. 2.6 
?|bi3 186. 2, 210. c 
trZV ^'3 43. 6 
linrps 57. 2 (3) a, 

231. 3. b 
n33 187. 1. f, 197. a, 

200. r, ^/, 207. 1. 6 
Dl't't^ 203. 3 
bS /u:;Z 215. 1. c 
bs Ml9. 2. a, 215. l.e 
bs 277. a 
i?b3 179. 1. a 
«b3 184. a 
iJbS 220. 1. b 
D^sbS 203. 4 
•^nsbs 105. 2 
Sbs 197. c 
nbs 179. 1. a 
nbS 174. 3 bis. 
Dribs 33. 3, 220. 1. b 

npnbs 220. i. 6 

^b3 165. 3 
lbs 93. a 
ibS 220. 1. b 

nib^bs 201. 1. 6 
nib? 174. 3 

•'bs 61. 2, 184. 6 



372 



INDEX III. 



K'^bs 184. a 
?i;ib3 221. 5. c 
D'^b? 208. 3. d 

iri-ibs, ^n">>3 174. 2 

J^iri'ibs 174. 2 

D'^rii?? 174. 2 

bsbs 154. 3, 161. 2 

^bsbs 161. 4 

D>2 220. 1. h 

ri3>3 220. 1. 6 

•'Srib? 165. 3 

n^3 231. 4. a 

nD2TO3 45. 4 

i)a3 233. a 

CaS 90 (pass.) 

n^"!^3 187. 2. <J 

•}5 (n.) 221. 6. a 

^3 (adv.) 43. a, 235. 3 (4) 

n33 139. 2 

n|5i 4. a 

nsS 54. 2 
ni23 200. c 
nips 211. a 
^ini'bsS 24. 6, 13].. 2 
053 50. 1, 2 
■{ySS 208. 3. a 
q23 197. o, 210, 217 
niBpS 203. 5. a 

n:'s:3 203. 1 

bb53 22. a 

nins3 45. 2 

n53 198 

«S3 51. 3, 200. a 

?i5?D3 221. 3. a 



1D3 93. a 

T 

nnjilDD 220. 1. b 
bD3 51. 1, 84. 3. a (2) 
ittD3 61. 
n^©3 200. 6 
vlD3 80. 2. a (3) 
*'2p3 216. 2. a 
DOS 199. (? 

n3D"'ninp3 24. h, 220. 

2. c 
oys 121. 1 

nnp2?3 104. i 
tl? 197. a, 217 
nS5 198. c 
•'SS 237. 2 (2) 

i^-iss 220. 2. c 

:nD93 220. 1. b 

nt-bSS 203. 4 

"IBS 82. 5. a 

"iBb 208. 3. 6 

"1S3 80. 2, 92. c, 126. 2 

D^nSS 187. 2 

nnri"i33 io4.> 

•ins 199. 6 

mni"i3 199. (/ 

0^3 50. 3, 197. b 
D"13 183. b 
'Crb 186. 2. a 

bians 50. 3, 193.' 2. r, 

221. 6. a 
Dp"l3 68. a 
nnS 141. 2 (p. 175) 

iicns 221. 5. c 
-nn3 119. 1 



rrns 60. 4. 0., 61. 5 

93. a, 121. 1 

^n"i3 119. 4 

^t^n^ ]99. b 

sto3, nsirs 51. 2 

D'l'viiJS 197. (^ 
"n»3 82. 1. a (1) 

•jimcs 193. 2 

anS 183. 6, 215. 1. a 

ans 77. 1, 78. 1 
riin3 139. 2 

T 

nbns 216. 2. 6 
r:ri3 207. 1. d 

vins 197. a, 216. 1. e 
rir}3 61. 1. b 

nisns 203. 5. a 
ins 60. 1 

nn3 141. 1 (p. 175) 

b 231. 1, 233, 242. 6, 

267. ft, 272. 2. a 
«b 11. \. a,b T: 
iib 51. 4. a, 235. 1 

V^^% ^lh^^., ^S'lS'isb 

57. 2 (2) a 

\nKb, ^Diiib, I'li'rsb 

57. 2 (2) a 

Q'lia^Sb 14. a 
lixb 159. 2 
t2Sb 11. 1. a 
CJSb 156. 3 
n^&{b?l 39. 4. a 

in'bijb, D^n'biib 57. 2 

(2) a 



INDEX III. 



373 



nnnb, nnnb 63. i. a, 

214. 1. 6, 216. 2. b 

rnnb 141. 2 (p. 175) 

torb 119. 1 

ni^nb 112. 2, i77. 1 

D^nb 231. 5. a 

ipsnb 91. 6 
bi'atonb iso. a 



nibsib 57. 2. (2) a 

DKb 207. 2. c 

nbsb 57. 2 (2) a, 111 

2. r, 231. 3. a 

nsnn iib 27 

ab 61. 3, 186. 2. c, 

197. i, 215. 1 
Oifinb 208. 3. c? 
33b 141. 1 (p. 175) 

sab 61. 3, 200. c, 216. ST^aTanb 94. b 

1, 217, 221. 1, 3, 222 TpTCnb 94. b 

anbl 61. 1. a lb 11. 1. 6 

•^rnnab 104. ^ nb 51. 4. « 

"lab 235. 3 (1), 237. '^b 239. 1 

2 (2) n^b 200. a 

^rriab 220. 1. 6 ''ib 194. 2. «, 210 

np'^nb 220. 1. b ijb'ib 4. a 

C'inb 90 (pass.) nisbib, see r.kbb 

S'^nb 196. (Z, 209. 2. 6 •'b^b 194. 2. 6 

5'bnb 125. 2 ib^b 239. 2 (3) 

pb 80. 2. 5 n^b^b 187. 1. e 
•jnb 207. 1. b, 215. 1. a l^b 158. 3 

n:ib 200. b nb 207. 2. a 

y^2, n!>nb 35. 1 i5''pnb 113. 2 

cab, Tijnb 82. 1. a (1) n;*::nb 208. 4 

tJn'b 90 (pass.) "ii^nb 21 6. 1. a 

D'iSnb 104. /i ""brib 61. 1 
nab (ranb) 53. 2. a pibnb 113. 2 



y'^ab 125. 2 

miJ^b 231. 4. a 

V V T 

rVlb 148. 2 

rrib 148. 2 
•^nnb 148. 2 
n3r\';jb 104. <? 



anb 77. 2 

Onb 92. d, 121. 1 
Onb 60. 1. a, 61. 2. a, 

184. b, 197. 6 
Dttflb 139. 2 
nSDnb 63. 1. b 



nsnb 61. 1 
niiD nbnb 43. b 
-nn'inb ui. 6 
nirnb 175. 2 

D'^rhb 203. 5. b 

cn'^t:b 53. 2. a 
nin"^b, r.ir^b 231. 3. a 

b;>b 184. b, 200.0, 208. 
3. c 

nb;*b 61. 6 

'J'lb 158. 2, 3 

nbib 148. 1 

-nri|5^b 14. a, 24. 6 

57. 2 (.3) a 
?lb 65. a 

tfb, ?]b 151. 1 
nab 151. 1, 240. 2 
-biab 13. a 

•jDb 239. 2 (3) 

nsDb, ^iDb 151. 1 
nab 61. 2, 151. 1 
nab 151. 1 
ninab 22. a 
ippb 151. 1 

nfi5bbl87. l.e, 207. 2. a 

•jabb 94. b 

1«b 78. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 
"l^b 92. ^ 

-^lab 92. c 
"^nnisb 80. b (2 f.) 
mab, n^b 231. 4. a 

ittb 233. rt 
nn^TTSb 219. 1. a 

nrsiab 219. 1. a 



374 



INDEX III. 



TlS'^ttb 220. 1. b 
ynb 237. 2 (1) 

na:^^ 45. 2 

nby^b 219. 1. a 
l^rb 237. 2 (2), 267. 6 
mrX "JW 239. 2 (2) 
^r!:?^b 246. 2. a 

rQnpb 4. a 

nSSb 237. 2 (1) 

nsb) 156. 4 

D^?b 156. 2 
HDbb 237. 2 (1) 

bD;b 131. 2 
bbpb 22. a 
T3yb 11.3. 2 

n:?bn 156, 4 
obiyb 16. 2. a 
nispb 237. 2 (2) 
rii;yb 173. 2 
nto^b 94. ft, 113. 2 
nhsb 22. rt 

•»£b 237. 2 (2) 

•>:sb 194. 2 

•'SSb 237. 2 (2), 267. b 
fb 156. 2 

snrib, iihsb 22. a 
pnsb 119. 1 

n^^, ''r'l?*? 132. 2 
npb 132. 2 

n;5b (n]5b^) 53. 2. «, 

93. e 

nnpb 16. 3. b, 127. 3 

l^np^l 100. 2. a (1) 
nnpb 60. 2. a, 127. 1 



nnpb 64.2,127.1,132.2 
ppb 141. 1 (p. 175) 
n«npb 57. 2 (3) a, 237. 
2(3) 

s'nb 148. 1 
nnb 231. 4. a 
n^-lb 231. 4. o 

DDiannb 119. 1 
n^nb 231. 4. a 
rxTsb 131. 4 
pnirb 119. 1 

nbiSTDb 219. 1. a 
n-'atb 94. 6, 231. 5. a 
^icb 197. 6 

nsirb 51. 4 
J^^TDb, nbffib 60. 2. a 
"i^cb 94. 6 
nb 54. 2, 148. 2 
nnb 231. 4. o 
Tib nnb 35. 1 

^, '52 see ya 

^S^ 235. 3 (1) 

Dv^J^ 93. a 

nxjia 207. 1./, 226 

brxia 93. 6 

"i^ST? 207. 2. a 
n^^Xa 195. 3 
"to 190. 6, 191. 5. a, 

200. c 
DI'rTSb 203. 2 

''nns'a 237. 2 (1) 
bss^a 190. c, 191. 5, 

197. 6 



nbDS;i3 191. 5. o, 207. 

1. c 
■jN'/a 60. 4 

DDCSID 19. 2, 119. 3 
DCST2 119. 3 
TirCStt 33. 2 

crcsi^a 33. 2 
n^bss^ 195. 3 

nStt 237. 2 (1) 
D^'nSia 203. 4, 226 
n-Jlp 207. 2. i 

rinu;a^ 63. 1. a 

^n'J3T3 60. 1. a 
•in^ 164. 2 

"ij^baip 237. 2 (4) 
:Tinyma 119. 1, 221. 

2. a 

T^an^ 25 

ISntt 197. i, 200. f, 

207. 1. b 
T'^31^ 61. 6 
'JI'^ITttt, "i"?''? 55. 2. a 
b"5tt 200. c 

nbbiritt 142. 1 

Ti:^ 207. 1. c 
•jJlp 190. b, £07. 2, 210. 
a, 215. 1. 6, 216. 1.0 

nys^ 205 
nsa)a 216. 1. 6 
irn;;ti £07. 1. 6 
r3)3 61. 5 

1^ 207. 2. o 

pS'T"'? 9-5. o 
nn3^ 219. 1 



INDEX III. 



375 



rnan^a g6. 2 (2) h, 

219. 1 
T^^ 141. 5 

^yq 184. b 

nilT? 190. 6, 191. 4 
•jin^ 190. 6, 207. 1./ 
'Smi^ 235. 2 (3) 

■j^np 190. & 

•^ri^ 216. 1. <? 
KSnia 167. 1 

■jnia 190. h 

'Sya 190. 6 

i:n^nb 220. 1. 6 

TO, TO, TO 75. 1, 

196. a 
nTO 141. 2 (p. 175) 
n^^n^ 198. a (3) 

ni-»TO 177. 1 

b nxbTO 237. 2 (4) 
D^pbTO 94. f, 151. 1 
DTO 75. 1 

rpw nia 63. 1. a 

nDSTO 191. 4, 198. a 
(3), 207. 1. a, 216. 
1. b 

nmpTO 95. c 

ITO 60. 4. cr, 235. 3 (2) 
ni^HTO 1 12. 3 
atjiB 197. cf 

n'^axiia 205 
«n^iU 167. 2 
nya 157. 1 

bTO, bitt 237. 1 

bbiia 141. 4 



iffra 200. c 

nO^'Q 150. 5 
nD"TD 190. 6 

noiia 200. c 

^yi^ 190. 6 

trvrti 90 
niayiia 207. 1. a 

TS^'D 140. 6 

Nr;T3 191. 5. a 

N2ia C'D) 94. f, 165. 2 

vs.'ira (sb) 165. 2 

•^NSiia GO. 3. f, 216. 1. a 
nSSn^ 167. 2 
:n]5SiT2 150. 4 
STitt 207. 2. a 

D^ani^, n\'\^"i*i'a 59. a 

^ty\12 216. 1. a 

maia 191. 3, 5. o, 200. 

c, 215. 1 
iniffiilD 61. 6. a 
t\rtZ 61. 2, 183. h, 208. 

3. c, 217 

ni73 57. 2 (5) 

nni^ 61. 6. a 

initt 221. 5. a 

naVp 60. 2. a, 190. o, 
191. 3,197. 6, 200. a, 
215. 1. b 

rxivq 126. 1 
D^ninaria 220. 1. 6 
DrinaTia 220. 2. a 
njTa 24. a, 75. 1 

'j'^Ttt 53. 2. «, 111. 2. c 
ibra 207. 1. a, 210. e 



niiapa i9i. 5 

niTOT^ 207. 1. a 

T5y^*"^ 161. 2 

nri"iTi2 219. 1.5 
P'nT'a 200. c 

?;NTO 164. 4 

nsn^ 54. 1, 205. b 
bbinp 142. 1 
bn)2 140. 5 
n'<^bn)a loo. b 

D'l'abTO 94. e 
^'P-n^ 207. 1. </ 
nbn'/2 190. a 
njTO 197. 6, 200. c, 
209. 1 

^n:TO 220. 1. 6 
p:n^ 190. rt 

CSDTO ISO. a 

tT'^yi'ma iso. a 
D'^n^n'o 94. e 
n^nnsTO iso. a 

"IpTO 190. o 

ri^TO 19. 2. ft, 196. 6 

riimrriTo, nirnrn^ eo. 

3. a, 216. 2. a 
ptCTO 207. 2. b 

nat:)2 191. 4 
r.D^ 197. ft, 200. c 
int:b 220. 1. ft 
*inni2^, iincjia 24. 6 
•"liriT?^ 108. a, 174. 1 
nisb'J^ 167. 1 

Tjbub'JI^ 161. 2 

nsTSU^a 167. 1 



370 INDEX III. 

la^Ip-O 210. 1. c «V^ 82. 1. a (1) ^b^ C3. 2. a, 217. 22L 

ytna 190. a i^bia (v.) V7. a, 82. i. 5, 222 

•i^Ta CO. 3. c, 21G. 1. a a (1) T^^ Co. a 

11313 200. a i<V/3 (arij.) 90 ^ ^??"f?'? 44. a 

«n^'/a 100. r7, K^ia icc. 2 rdva 11. 1. « 

""T? 7.5. ], 10c. a «^a 165. 2 niVo 211, 217, 222 

n'l^tt 220. 2. 4 nxbia 201. 1. « "jcsn-^jV^ 44, a 

"^•71-, "O ]:;. a mxb'/a ICG. 2 ",2513 11. 1. a 

nn;«3->ia, roip 57. 2 ns^^ icc. 2 isbia cc. 2 (2) o 

(2) 6 Ci^V/a 201. 1. a 'bbp 61. 1 

D^n 201. 1, 203. 5. c rcniya .07. 2 (3)g, 214, r^-f'? 22. </, 209. 3, 217 

'iia'rq r,7. 2 (2) 1. b f'"'-f^ 64. 2 

tr3''r--g ].:o. 1 d^^j^Vo 11. 1. i "ob^ 11. 1. a 

mp^r'/C J 1. ]. a irczi^ya 220. 2. c "V/a ci. 1, 216. 2, 2. a 

n^ra ci. 4, 207. 1. e ri<5ia icc. 2 ''D'pi? S9 (f. s.) 

n^^Tp 4. a T'i'^'? 33. 1, 01. C. a, f'i'"3f'2 C2. 2 

np2"/2 1.00. 4 218 C'^Dblfl G4. 2 

"lio^xj 190. h nnbT2 237. 2 (2) V?^^ i-J9- « 

•»301>^ 57. 2 (2) ina^ 220. 1. b py2-^2)lQ 61. 6. a, 195. 

ntf^T? 190. fj,101. 4 I'^b'Q 191. 3 3, 218. a 

D'HTT^^ 210. c nV<3 200. 6, e DD>T3 75. 1 

nisrO 200. c ^ip 1C.5. 3 ->^ 141. 4 

biSB 2C0. 2 (1) roiblQ 198. a (2) "*^r^ 191. 2 

wh^ri, u^ya 94. « ^31^)3 98. 1. a ^^^)'^ 235. 2 (3) 

nbba 53. 2. a -jiro 207. 1. c ":s373 53. 3. </, 111. 2. e 

0373 190. h •':'D^bl2 92. b ''s^^ 237. 2 (2) 

1373 77. 2, 80. 2 n>73 187. 1. a Hipbtt 191. 5 

baiDia 54. .3, 180. a injTQ 21C. 1. a ^"'p^^ 190. a 

rPlDTS 21C. 1. /> 13^73 92. ri n":rip':^ 190. a, 203. 2 

rn373 98. 1. a, 125. 1 -J^73, :t:373 80. 1, 92.C "'ICfT? 9-3. a 

"^•^yn 210. 1. a D-»V/p, "J^jp 199. a T'bp 164. ^ 

cboDTo 9.x a yibis 217 n-i^pbtt 51. 4 

r®©3)3 207. 1. a nS-ib'/S 217 1"S5T2^ 139. 3 

?in3a 220. 2. a -!ybu 89 Tii-wTST? 24. b, 190. a 



INDEX III. 377 

tfH T U^ 200. 1. a ^"TO 140. 5 ra?U 196. 6 

TSDW 191. o. 'i W^ 1^- *' 21^- 1- * T??'? 194- ^ a 

IT XV gO 167. 1 ""ir^T? ^1^- 1- * '?'? l^*^- '^ 

rcrCB 191. 5. a, 211, i;C-2 190. a 572 84. 3. a (.'j), 118. 2 

214. 1. 4 Tt^ '^•>- « ^79 ^37. 2 (1) 

Tzrirc 01, 1. 6 ntara so. 2 ^513 igo. h 

^\WU,ip . Ao. 3 Sr«5Cp 167. 1 '*^7Q 190. 6 

•TO2 190. h . 'nam 200. c c^ 119. .3 

U'/ ' ^JJ 24. *, 190. a CCT3 1-39. 2 ZT? 237. 2 (1) 

'Sivna 93, « "Tiv^a i90. a, 191. 4, ■;;r lOO. // 

rteSO 198. a (.3), 214. 21-5. 1. 6 HT!''f<0 CO. 4. « 

1. 6, 221. 2. a rnCD .53. 2. a rHTO 216. 1. a 

yn 174. .5 "ircT? 94. e r-':":?^ 216. 2. a 

70 232, 233, 242. a, 260. "iPPCQ .54. 4 "^-JJ'i 216. 2. o 

1, 267. b T537? 216. 1. « TTTU 60. .3. c 

a? 4- « trnsTs, frrsTa 207. r.«:?o 209. 1 

f»3p 96. a, J, 122. 2, 1. ^^ ife?? 200. «r, 21.5. 1 

131. 6 5 irr? 2ri7. 2 (2) -f« 191. 1 

TO, -ra 140. 6 T7<? ^''>^' « "^f? 237. 2 (2) 

rrro 207. 1. e nyc 210 orn^CB 9.5. a 

era 207. 1. c r'TD 190. ft, 210. a, 216. ■«» 140. 5 

^T^TJO 24. 6 1. <x HTET? 191. 2, 215. 1. b 

rtm 160. .5 77a 207. 1. e V^?^ 221. 7. a 

•»SP 61. 6. a, 199. 6, r^ 161. 4 70 156. 2 

2.32- a THTT'^ -54. 3, 221. 6. t K2T3 11, 1. i 

■TO 232. a CrpT? 94. « K20 .57. 2 f2), 163 

?pT!2 127. 2 I3T3 60. 3. <•, 183. t, "S2'a 61. 1. r, 164. 4 

IT'^ra 209. 2. a 207. 2. a ."jStTU 89 (f. pL) 

nftB 4. a -JTQ 78. 1, 121. 1 rWT3 .57. 2 (2), 205 

rra i96. «, 211. a ctpsb 221. 2. t ~J?Ts iw. » 

TTO 19. 2. a ZTTa 201. 1 :'X«SC 104. i 

Ce .54. 2. a, 207. 2. a yT^ 200. <r ^-2a 220. 2. a 

SC3 140. 5 "irTa 6i. o. r;! tts i&o. ft, 200. a 

rca .54. 2. a T7P 158. 3 rrsa 190. ft 



378 



INDEX III. 



lis'a 207. 1. c 
rrim los. c 

b2T3 140. 5 
Tri2 190. b 
'^VTil 191. 5 
p^T3 150. 5 

•yrq i90. 6, 210 

■^"12^ 194. 1 
W^^TO 197. cZ 
D'^nsp 207. 2. a 
"•n^ 164. 2 
p)2 186. 2. c 
©•ip)? 191. 5. a 
tJnplS 24. ft, 190. a 
''©•IP^ 216. 2. a 
DDmp^ 104. /i, 221. 

3. a 
Dip^ 197. ft, 200. a, 

216. 1 
bippia 217. a 
-lippp 95. a 
'')3''P>3 61. Q. a 
bpT2 200. o, 215. 1. h 
DDbp^ 221. 3. a 
•<:ibbpi9 90 (3 pi.) 
nSp^ 165. 3 

n:p^ 221. 7 

iMlpT? 90 (2 f.) 
nySplS 216. 2. a 

ia5np^ 167. 1 

''S'ipp 216. 1. a 

nnpi2 24. 6 
n^p'a 95. a 
np-ipT2 161. 2 



i«n^ 196. d 
nx-|72 217 

ns-i^ 217 
nsni? 220. 1. 6 
^ns-i)? 220. 1. 6 
niiSS'n^ 201. 1 
•inizjj^ni? 214. 2. 6 

ysn^ 80. 2. b 
72^12 191. 3, 215. 1. 

T\Tiyq 22. a 

DD^";!^ 119. 3 

^rr^ii 114 
nn-b 34, 141. 1 
rhz 34 
rn^ 61. 5 

iT/G 172. 2 

n-'mn^ 161. 4 
DTsiTa 161. 4 

'^r\*l2 190. 6 

nn'a 215. 1. b 
'prnrq 191. 5, 207. 2. 

210. c 
n'jnb 24. f, 93. e 
T>r\''yq 198. a (4) 
1\'fi2 190. & 

nsn^ 190. a 
nasn-a 58. 2. o, 210. 

214. 1. b, 216. 2. 6 

nns"i)3 114 

J^n-a 140. 5 

nyn^ 190. 6 
^.n:?*!^ 220. 1. 6 
tr^vy^ 190. b 
nnia 141. 5 



r.™ 216. 1. h 

nn^a 60. 4. a 
D^^nnia 203. 5 
nisiST? 16G. 2, 191. 4 
n5ir^ 221. 6. a 

niT2J)2 190. a, 191. 2 
b-i^tp'O 191. 1 
D'^b^ii^ir^ 180. a 

b irmti 164. 2 
rns^r^ 3. i, « 

nSt'T? 215. 1. 6 

nfiT^ 191. 4 
nnniif^ 161. 4 

TiniTTa (inf.) 125. 2 
riHir^ 215. 1. h 
rriTE'a 54. 1, 205. b 
niffi73 210 

^,n^n^T£i2 104. ^' 

2|C73 200. c 

3311"^ 95. a 
b, ^31?^, ^DID^ 89 (in. pi.) 

nb2t^ 207. 1. a 

Jirp^^ 27. 

IITTia 200. f, e 

^32Tr^ 66. 2 (2) c 

■jbt?^ 95. a 
e, n'''53TS^ 139. 3 

n^SlSffi'O 191, 5 

DPy'air'a 60. 3. a ■ 

n^TT-Q 217 

tinT2pTa 214. 1, 217 

niyii^ 207. 1. a 

nnBB^ 214. 1. b 

nnsTC^ 61. 1. b 



INDEX III. 



379 



"ipnstTs 60. 3. a D:«:n^ 208. 4 

''I2STIJ13 92. 6 55^r''<? 141. 6 

•>b^DTDTa 61. 6. a, 218 'pTTQ 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 

pffi^ 190. b T?'i^nT3 141. 5* 

"IjJTZJT? 80. 2. 6, 93. c Mn^ 54. 2, 205./ 

qipiTT? 190. a 

CITDT? 210. c SD 40 

mtCT3 54. 1, 205. b i«3 240. 2, 263. 1. a 

tJC^ 141. 1 (p. 175) ni53 200. a 

?ant^ 126. 1 "ii^ii: eo. 3. a, 61. e. a 

Dn"*innC)2 90 (2 m.), ni853 I68. a, 174. 1 

170. 1 nisa 57. 2 (2) a, 187. 
•<rnB73 22. b, 223. 1. a 1. d 

O'lrnrp 22. 6 iisp i74. 1 

n)2 57. 2 (5), 82. 1. a -n"S3 159. 1 
(1), 153. 1, 156. 2 bis niX3 50. 4 



n'n 54. 1 

D^ps^rna 82. 5. a 
nn-b 34 ^ 
nriTs 34 

nriT? 86. 6 (2 m.) 



^Tri5!3 111. 2. c^ 
CX3 90 (pass.) 
?iS3 121. 1 
r.S5i;3 00. 3. b (2) 
D"'S'1S5«3 187. 2. c 



pima 185. 2. 6, 207. 1. c "J^Xp 82. 5. o, 121. 1 

np^n^a 66. 2 (2) c yi?3 60. 4. a, 92. d 

r\bmn2 21 8. a 1^12^3 63. 1. a 

rnnnia 94. a T^i^sj 63. 1. a 

nnrp 237. 2 (1) n6?3 121. 1 

^^•7^ 201. 1, 207. 2. a D"'"1N3 140. 2 
132r73 96. b "li?T5fii3 120. 2 

nsbn^ 24. cr, 75. 1 tins 50. 1, 82. 5. a 



^^li'i^'^ 141. 6 

:?bntt 80. 2. 6 
niy^np 51. 4 

Dnp 190. 6 
iriT? 215. 1. a 



saa 207. 1. b 
nnb 219. 1. 6 

^bn33"l 65. 6 
nS^nS 198. a (2) 
-l2rS3'^D^n3 51. 4 



njixn^D^ns 51. 4 

■jisp 158. 4 

nns 141. 1 

?,-h3 140. 2 
res? 165. 3 
^3h3 159. 1 
D-'Ma 159. 3 
b33 82. 1. a (1), 84. 3. 
«(1) 

basn 132. 3 

'23 90 

nba; (y'b) ui. i 

y-^i !:23 35. 1 

inbnp 221. 2. 6 

"^ntSS 221. 2. 6 
y\rh2^ 221. 2. 6 

\-ii:D: 158. 4 
:?n3 50. 1 

np33 141. 1 

ntpnsn 99. 3 
nn3 140. 2 

^bsiS 83. c (2), 122. 2 

n3!i3 219. 1 

^53 237. 1 

"l^Z^ 99. 3 

:?"?? 91. a 

W3 184. a, 197. a, 208. 

3. b 
rm^ 184. a, 198. a. 2 
r-TliS 140. 2 

qias 131. 5 

n3-«5: 196. b 
n'-:-3 91. 6, 173. 2 
^>i3 140. 2 



380 INDEX III. 

nirro 173. 2 5^3, ?i3 i57. i ^:n2 53. 2. a, 71. a (1) 

nrbJD 173. 1 cpiD 149. 1 irfrns i40. 2, 141. 2 

n^bsD 173. 1 nnois 13. 6 nnp 140. 2 

yhp 131. 4 ^^T3 158. 4 *in: 135. 2, 140. 2 

?;^;?ro eo. 3. a V73 82. 1. a (3), 84. 3. inn? 141. 1 

nyab 207. 1. e a (1) ntn3 197. 6, 205, 211 

nina? 140. 2 ibrs 86. o, 141. 1 IJ?'^'^? i93. 1 

tbS3 80. 2. a (3), 84. iVT3 86. a nnp 131. 1 

3. a (2), 130. 1 nb 60. 2 rn? (y?) 140. 2 

*13 (v.) 156. 2 sans 63. 1. 6 ?-n3 (fs) 131. 1 

*Tj3 84. 3. a (3), 141. 3 T)^2m 63. 1. & Hipj 79. 3. a 

(p. 175) rcnz 165. 1 r.i:3 131. 3 

'i'i3 156. 2 cnan? i64. 2 riv.i33 172. 5, 209. 3. a 

©i"I3 57. 2 (5) nmi 100. 2.a(2),156.4 ffiit}3 131. 3 

nbns 173. 2 ins"! ise. 4 ?rj3 172. 1 

'TIS 84. 3. a (3), 125. 3 D^TS^.n? 187. 2. a '1''123 172. 1 

an? 131. 1 TT'^np i85. 2 i?):::? 207. 1. b 

n^^ns 112. 2 rnr^.ns 205 is-itti:? 173. 1 

bns 121. 1 ^n3 80. 1 utya'c: i64. 2, 173. 1 

nsbro 80. 2. 6 -n? 60. 3. « y[:3 eo. 3. c, i84. a 

bV.3 187. 2. c bnS 131. 1 TJii 131. 4 

oris 118. 2 bn3 140. 2 ri3.3 184. a, 216. 1. e 

?JSn3 60. 3. a nbn3 60. 3. a, 61. 0. a rJ3 126. 1 

ins 200. c, 207. 1. 6 r.bri3 60. 3. a irJS 131. 3 

D^nn? 203. 3, 'ibri? 141. 1 nt:3 si. i 

ni:ii3 149. 1 ri^rni^' 99. 3 nn-jb 207. 1. a 

•^^ 149. 1 V^n? 113. 1 13 53. 3. a 

^^13 142. 1 nbn3 196. b rn^^ 59. « 

ni3 156. 1 ribn; ui. 2 nn^: i87. 2. c 

ni3, ni3 157. 1 ons 77. 2 or? 105. a 

DTOiS 221. 7. a Dn? 60. 4. a, 131. 1 pS'^S 187. 1. c 

'i^bis 149. 1 ^nnians iii, i its 15 8. 2 

lis:;? 83. c (2), 150. 3 O^'Cn? 140. 2 DT3 105. a 

(p. 182) "jn? 135. 2 1S33 24. b 



INDEX III. 



381 



*13D3 207. 2. 6 
nD3 210 
•jiD3 159. 3 
n3iD3 159. 1 
niiDD 159. 1 

T 

nsb 237. 1 
jnnDb 127. 1 

DD3 50, 2 
5|bp3 91. 6 
nPBDD? 86. h (2 m.) 
-IB33 83. c (2) 
nS5 216. 1. b 
•'•IDS 194. 2 
aab? 80. 2. 6 
^lb3 91. d 
Tibs 159. 3 
DhbS 91. i, 119. 1 
npbs 132. 2 
nTntl3 91. e 

"^lyi 159, 1 

M 159. 1 
^t)i^3 159. 1 
bTO3 159. 1 
D^bilQ3 159, 3 
nb^3 200. 6, c 

^Vias 159, 1 

Dnb^3 141, 2 
0^3, D^3 140. 2 
S2123 207. 1. 6, 209. 
3. h 

•inssii? 60. 1. a 

Drip)23 141. 2 

:-i)33 (n'i?) 159. 1 

1133 185. 2 



n]5P33 45. 4, 97. 1 
03 174. 5 
nW 135. 2, 140. 2 
nsaCS 164. 5 

nnc3 141. 1 
nacs 140. 2 

nD3 3. 1. «, 131. 3, 

165. 1 
.^iD3 (K. fut.) 157. 3 
:^i03 (Ni.) 159. 1 
DW3 159. 3 
"inr^lDS 11. \. a 
1^^103 66. 2 (2) c, 

159. 1 
?yD5 50. 1 
^03 184 
ro03 220. 1. 6 
1303 216. 2. a 
003 141. 3 (p. 175) 

rmv] 99. 3 

nSDSl 99. 3 
DW3 111, 3. a 

ni:?3 159. 1 
Xn'W': 62. 2 
Din^y? 201. 1. b 

b2?3 197. a, 200. c 
Cbsys 203. 2, 208. 4 
Db^5 60. 3. a, 112. 3 

n)3b?3. Diiab3)3 112. 

D3?3 82. 1. a (2) 
n")2?3 32. 3. a 
7^253 187. 2. c 
"1?3 121, 1 
"l?3 58. 1, 184. 6 



n?3 184. b 
nny3 58. 1 
yn?3 111. 3. b 
ntol 172. 3 

inb-s3 159. 1 

7i£3 159. 1 

anis:iD3 159. 1 
n^:2is3 159. 3 

nixbSS 235. 3 (3) 
nS?bS3 166. 1 
nsbB3 106. 1, 205. c 

nnsb£3 160. 1 

ibE3 106. a 

^3"^bD3 173. 1 

in-<bB3 173. 1 

bbB3 92. a 

1S35 61. 4 

fSp 179. 2. a 

T2JS3 50. 2, 102. 1, 197. ft, 

200. c 
D^b^nSS 187. 2. a 
v.? 217 
123 50. 1, 179. 2. a 

n23 217 
rranssi 99. 3 
nss 61. 2 

p'nm? 54. 4, 96. b 
i:b23 65. a 
3 ir\tt£5 86. J (2 m.) 
"123 50. 3, 51. 1 
^23 131. 3 
nn23 24. ft, 98. 1. a 
nn23 24. ft, 106. ft 
Dnn23 104. i 



382 



INDEX III. 



mS 149. 1 

rinjpp 131. 3 

1SS3j53 91. d 
"ipD 185. 2. b 
n;?2 174. 3 
^lOipS 24. c 

b-Jipa 217 
oribp: 159. 1 

"ipD, m'^p} 185. 2. c?, 

209. 2 
n^p3 173. 1 
iri^|?3 173. 1 
bp3, bp2 140. 2 
•irTppp 141. 2 
Dps 217 
Dpp 131. 3 
n^p3 217 
5?p3 179. 2. a 
fcShpD 91. 6, 166. 3 
n? 43. o, 200. a 
iJID 97. 2. a 
■773 183. b 
nnsi 99. 3, 147. 5 

^ssn: 164. 3 

pS 140. 2 
M©3 82. 5. a 
Sto3 131. 3 
i«iB3 131. 4 
i5i|3 (Pi.) 165. 2 
iStoS 164. 4 
?ISto3 164. 4 
^iC3 165. 3 

Kim 57. 2 (3) ff, 86. 

(3 pi.), 164. 3 



••iteS 165. 3 
NtJp 177. 3 
S5ttJ3 165. 2 
bfi^TSS 119. 1 
S©31 150. 3 

nnsTUp 205 

WT2J3 141. 2 
iD^^TTS 220. 1. 6 
D'^TlJp 207. 2. c 
D'''IB31 140. 5 
•fT?3 84. 3. a (3) 
r.|Tr2 51. 4 
birS 84. 3. a (2) 
ri"bTj33 124. a 

rg-'bt^ 97. 1 
nmb 141. 1 

ni3'£3 141. 1 
131103 92. c 
vlTTp 50. 2 
r.pli;3 53. 3. a, 128 

nn©3 24. c 

niniSp 83. c (2) 
TOr\T»3 172. 3 

1in3 11. 1. 6 

D3in3 11. 1. 6 
•fDS 50. 1, 80. 2. a 

84. 3. a (2) 
"jnp 130. 1, 132. 1 

fns, "ins 131. 4 • 

""jriS 130. 1. 6 

^:ri3 24. c 
Di:n3 11. 1. 6 

6 ?i3n3 101. 3. a 
f n3 50. 1 



7r,3 131. 3 
'imijjns 24. 6 

nns 125. 3 
©r3 50. 1 

DI^P3 132. 1 

riijp 200. b, 207. 1./ 

n;'ns?D 203. 3 

ab, 2hD 134. 1, 139.2 

329 138 

330 141. 4 . 
"'3^330, ''ISrO 104. ?, 

139. 1 
•>3^30 139. 1 
ini3D 61. 3 
3'>3D 11. 1. & 
3">3D 235. 3 (1) 
3''3b 90 
-^30 19. 2. a 
i33D 24. b, 221. 5. a 
•1339 19. 1, 45. 2 
^30 187. 1. a 
i53C 24. b, 221. 5. a 
ribSD 3. 1. a 
nSD 51. 1 
(3), TnriD 187. 2. c 
33'iO 137, 141. 4 
TO 184. 6 
•nnio 186. 2. a 
0^,0 58. 1 
nOlO 58. 1 
*'CTO 62. 2 
•'9^0 66. 1 (2) b 
TD^O 62. 2 



INDEX III. 



383 



n&i0186. 2. a 

n^O 3. 1, a 

nhiD 53. 2. a, 220. 1. 6 

nhp 119. 1 
nnnnp 92. a, 122. 1 

n-^p 197. b, 200. c, (^ 
?JpD51. 1,1-11. 2 (p. 175) 
bpD 3. 1. a, 51. 1, 80. 

2. a (1) 
?fPDP 138 
"Ipp 3. 1. a, 51. 1 
nnbp 125. 1 

bobo 141. 5 

nibpbpi87. l.c,207.2.a 
pbD 84. 3. a (2) 
0^9 55. 1, 193. 2. c 

nbb 197. b 
yi'gp 195. 1 
nnnsTap 104. i 

r>:0 183. ^>, 184, b 
D"'ni:p 207. 1. a 
D^spsp 207. 2. a 
T2;0 195. 1 
1'JD 19. 2. a, 89 
n^ypn 234. a 
lyo 131. 3 
"lyp, nj?b 122. 2 

nnyp 51. 1 

qp 200. f, 207. 2. a 

TiSp 3. 1. a 

^EDT 15G. 4 

•jSD 50. 1 

qSD 141. 3 (p. 175) 

ISO 61. 4 



Di'nO 210. a 

ipino, ip'^np GO. 3. c 
riBi^np 68. a 
nno 184. & 

D^'aP.p 104. ff 

nnp 217 
rvinp 217 

i-inp 66. 2 (2) a 

n:? 197. &, 200. c, 215. 

1. a 
n:^ {obh?) 10. 2. a 
W 112. 5. c 

in5? 65 

rnn:> 111. 3. a 

T : T 

1^32^ 220. 2. b 
^12V 65 
iWn 61. 1. a 
1 jn? 216. 1. a 
'■^'12'J 61. 1 
V.^^W 195. 3 
:T]W 220. 1. 6 
T^IV 22. a 

nn:^ 112. 5. b 

*'W194. 1,209.2,217 

n^nn^ 62. 2 
ni^-135' 62. 2 
n^^nsy, n-'in^ 02. 2 
ninns^ 217 

^'^TJ 106. a 

DDTO 106. a, 127. 2 

ra? 200. c 

3?:^ 112. 5. a 

nay 186. 2. 6 



bj:? 185. 2. 6 

'?? 197. c 

nbs^ 197. c 

'1?237. 1,238. 1,267.6 
*iy 65. a 

^2? 43. « 

nn:^ 112. 5. a 

TTiV 184. 6 
T\My! 209. 3 
'''1? 238. 1. a 
^2 ^? 239. 2 (2) 

q"i:? 112. 5. a 

W 112. 5. a 
T''^? 220. 2. a 
n.1^2? 186. 2. b 
"li:? 235. 3 (1), 236 

'irj 161. 1 

liy (v.) 157. 1 

'j::'!:? 156. 1 

bny, b:i? 184. 6, 216. 

l.d 

b'^V 161. 1 

nb^J? 51. 1, 208. 3. c 

•ib-i? 221. 5. b 
bb"':? 142. 1 
bb'^:? 141. 5 
'i^n Dbi2? 63. 1. c 
nnb^,? 61. 6. a 

pS' 156. 1 
p:^ 200. c 

■jsiy 141. 4 

a^r^iy 187. 1. e 
P,iy 201. 1 



384 



INDEX III. 



p:? 179. 2. a 

niy 200. « 

W (v.) 57. 2 (5) a, 

161. 1 
-l?2? (adj.) 187. 1. b 
•jinks' 193. 2 
nn^y 198. a (3), 201. 1 

tv\y 161. 1 

ry, Ti3^ 65. a 
T? 200. b, 207. 2 
bTST? 11. 1. a, 168. a 
nST!^ 98. 1 
1J':2i2T:? 22. a 
""QTi^ 61. 6, a 
^ayy 111. 3. a 
■«3r\lT? 104. ;■ 
nty 60. 3. b (1), 184 
■"•T^, ^-y 221. 6 
^^'^ 61. 5 

"iry 112. 5. i 

"IT? 184 

mr? 196. 6 

nnnr? 6i. e.a 

T\'jy 112. 5. 6 
nvji; 209. 1. a 
qbl35 195. 1 

n->b>t:?[ 207. 1. a 

Tl23? 50. 1, 112. 5. b 

- T ' 

nTJ3> 214. 1. 6 
1? 53. 3. a 

ts":? 201. 1 

T"!^ 199. a 

i:'? 184. 6, 197. a, 208 
3. c bis, 217 



niD^? 203. 5. a 

niS'i? 216. 1. d 

i?^? 221. 5. b 

in^Siy 220. 2. c 

nBi^ 156. 1 

n**? 208. 3. c 

T? 197. o, 200. b, 207. 

1./ 

ni^2?220. 1. b, 221. 5.6 
n'T'2? 207. 2. c 
C":? 197. a 
tj^ai? 195. 1 

p:^, nD!? 51. 4 

W 112. 5. a 

b?237. 1, 238. 1, 267.6 

bi? 186. 2. c 

n;',b? 51. 1 

a"ipib? 201. 1,- b 

Tby 112. 5. c 

ri? 185. 2. 6 

^Tby 111. 3. a 

^l)^ 89 (f. s.), 111. 3. fl 

■"b? 238. 1. a 

lb? 3. 4 

limbs' 193. 1 

n^'b^b? 198. a (4) 

"irb? 239. 2 (3) 

Db:? 112. 5. b 

n;?rb? 237. 2 (2) 
nsb^ 93. c 

''S-b:? 237. 2 (2) . 

fb:? 112. 5. c 
nnbb 61. 6. a 

D? 197. &, 207. 2. a 



D3? 237. 1 
"712^ 110. 1 
^b? 60. 3. b (1) 
^^b? 65, 89 (m. pi.) 
^"i^? 60. 1. a 
'^^'nV 111. 3. a 
rr}12V. 45. 2, 106. a 

n-ipiT:? 209. 2, 210. <; 

■^^^ 199. b 

^12V_ 214. 2 

?J^? 65. a 

P^'t? 3. 4 

D^'52^? 207. 2. a. 

pr:? 185. 2.6, 207. 1. c, 

217 
ptt? 184 
n"!?:? 208. 3. b 

nnb? 3. 4 

^2iV 24. 6, 216. 2. o 
r.2? 174. 3 
r.V 185. 2. (Z 
rir.V 60. 3. 6 (1) 

ini::? i74. 6 
*'::? 185. 2. (Z 

11\}V 104. 6 
"j;? 198, 217 
II? 141. 4 

n;:5[ 19 8, 21 7 
•'::? 139. 1 

DDS:? 221. 6. c 

piy 50. 1 

•'nha? 24. 6 
Dnio? 141. 2 

D'^iiS:? 208. 3. c? 



INDEX III. 



385 



bS^ 112. 5. a 

ns:^ 200. a 

"iB'y 208. 3. b 
O'lnSS^ 60. 3. h (2) 
ninB3^ 61. 6. a 



nian:?, nian^ 45. s. a nntos^ 214. 1. h, 223. 1 
•inn:? 22. a nnto? i96. rf, 224 

D^ii!''n'1? 62. 2. 6, 209. 'jinteS' 210. 6, 227. 3 



li. a 
D'^an? 208. 4 
T^y 43. a, 185. 2 c?, 198, ty^"l5[ 60. 3. 6 (1) 

2lY 'l^i"!? 187. 1. e 

■jia^:? 193. 2 •''n? 216. 1. a 

DD^aS? 24. 6, 216. 2. a p"\:? 210. a 

n^y 184. h c's), 217 na-\? iii. s. « 

nsy 198 

D^'lBbS? 203. 5 

02^ 80. 2. a (1), 82. 1. 51^^ 80. 2. 6 

a (2) bsnSj 193. 2. c 

D2? 197. 6, 200. c to"!? 197. a 

DS3> 217 
Ts^'l'S 217 
nS^ 50. 3, 112. 5. b 
DD'^n'"lJl? 24. b 
^y^'na? 220. 2. a 

ap:? 112. 5. 6 

apy 200. c, (f, 215. 1. b ^m (part.) 172. 5 

n©i?, a^3? 239. 2 (2) itoy 172. 2 
nia|?y 24. 6, 216. 2. a ito? 172. 2 
Tj^niaj^s? 24. 6 itoy 62. 2. c 

la;^? 24. &, 216. 2. a niTC:? 172. 5, 209. 3. a 

npy 185. 2. b rr^'ty 221. 7. « 

bjPbp? 188 tf^ir:? 201. 2 

an]?? 195. 1, 207. 2. 6 1^1?? 227. 1 
tJ]::? 112. 5. a t}^m 86. 6 (1 c.) 

t'^^P 187. 1. 6 ^^^^W 102. 1. a 

13? 156. 2 'nC? 62. 2. c 

any 118. 1 nto3? 224 



D^'nto? 208. 3. a, 225. 1 
nhto? 225. 1. a 

nto:^ 172. 1 

pic:? 185. 2. c 

)m 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. 6 
l^y 216. 1. e 



y\9 197. 6 



TOn? 200. c, 216. 1. b '^y'n'i^W^^ 17. 2 ] 
W? 187. 1. e rncy 79. 2, 112. 5. b, 

125. 3 
m»? 197. a 
^rwy 224. a 

ato3? 200. a t-rpw^_ 207. 1. d 

niatej? 24. 6, 21 6. 2. a n? 43. «, 197. b, 200. c, 

nte? 172. 2 207. 2, 215. 1. 6 

nicy 62. 2. c nnj? so. 2 

bxnto?, b^5-nto5: i3. 6 nr\? 219. 1. a 

itoy (pret.) 62. 2. c ''PS? 194. 2 

nny 112. 5, a 

pny 84. 3. a (2), 112. 

5. a 
"iny 112. 5, a, 125. 3 

«B 11. 1. b 

*1^'lSa 189. 2. c 

T 

•jnijia 104. c 

q^^i^^ 104. 6 
iy^B 125. 2 

bsnna 57. 2 (2) b 
nisn^B 13. ^i 

ni?y 80. 2. 6, 112. 5. a UT^^t 55. 1, 193. 2. c 



386 



INDEX III. 



fins 193. 2. c 
D'lX nns 33. 1. a, 219. 
1. h 

ns 11. 1. b 

ns 185. 2. (/, 209. 1. a, 

215. 2. 6, 220. 1. c 
nb 235. 3 (4) 
IS 11. 1. h 
pS 179. 2. a 
"lis 139. 1 

nnis 141. 4 

tTS 141. 1 (p. 175) 

ins 78. 1 

^nS 184. h 

nna i98, 211. a 
inss 131. 3 
nns 131. 4 

"1123 125. 3 
"'B 61. 6. a 
n^S 198. c 
in*'? , V3 62. 2 
T2Jib^3 59. «, 195. 1, 
197. a, 200. h 

imr^bis 220. 1. 6 
iibs 18. 2. c 

;\^2 92. c 

r^bs 92. c 

T2.)bS 59. a, 195. 1, 
197. a, 200. h, 208. 
3. a 

D^pba 66. 2 (2) c 
tS-ibs 207. 1. c 
ntpibs 198 

"i^-'ba 216. 1. 6 



rib'ibS 198. a (2) 
n^^bibs 198. a (4) 

bbs 141. 1 (p. 175) 

"ipisbS 68. a, 75. 3 

^:bbx 'ip'bs 75. 3 
iniDbs 194. 1 

''nbs 199. 6 

•jS 239. 1 

n23 143. a 

:^33 39. 4. a 

n^33 197. &, 201. 1 

i^^DD 220. 2. c 

''tt*'23 194. 2 

''n^SS^ 100. 2. a (1) 

n©3 187. 1. & 

bD3 208. 3. b 

b?3 76. 2, 83. &, 84. 3. 

a (3), 118. 2 
b:?3 60. 1. a, 61. 2, 4, 

208. 3 
ib?3 60. 3. b (2), 221. 

5. a 
ibys 221. 5. a 
•ibyB 60. 3. b (2) 
^by3 61. 1 
DDbysi 19. 2 
a:?3 60. 1, 63. 2. o, 

197. 5, 200. c, d 
"123 50. 2, 125.' 3 
^p3 80. 2. a (4) 
"Ip3 89 
^"i;:3 86. a 
''S'ljpS) 106. 6 
D''"I^p3 187. 2 



nj?3 187. 1 

nip-njjsp 43. 6, 188 

-13 197. c 

i?n3 18. 2. c, 61. 2. a, 
209. 3. b 

nxnsii. 1. a 

ni?13 199 

nans 207. 1. b 

D^OnnS 207. 1. a 
nn3 197. c 
D'^nnnS 207. 1. b 

■jins 193. 2 

"inS) 194. 2 
nns 50. 1, 79. 2 
nri"lB 187. 1. d 
1"I3 57. 2 (4), 184. b, 

221. 5. c 
Sl^nb 62. 2. r, 209. 1. a 
^^^'B 62. 2. 6 
pn3 210. a 
riDIB 216. 1. a 
SlOnS 200. c 
ynS 200. a 
nyns 11. 1. a 
niJ'lB 104. d 
"13^3 141. 4 
l^nS 50. 2 
f nS 200. c 
pnS 50. 1 

©■13 210. a, 216. 1. a 
©nS 50. 3 
tJn3 119. 1 

TTBn3 50. 3, 68. «, 180. a 
DDtplB 104. h, 119. 1 



INDEX III. 



387 



tT\b 196. b, 209. 1. a 
WD1 100. 2. a (2) 
t2irs 80. 2. a (1), 84. 
3. « (3) 

nniija 200. b 

DH'rs 156. 1 

nS 197. a, 200. &, 207. 

2. a 
D«n9 235. 2 (1) 
CanS) 215. 1. a 

tiins 139. 2 

np3 80. 1 

inns) 106. «, 125. 2 
^"ls 208. 3. (? 
Vnbna 188 

NS 148. 3 

nxa (n.) 216. 1. b 

:ns3r (v.) i48. 3, i64. 5 

nrX2 148. 3, 164. 3 
Q^'SX^ 208. 3. a 
■jSbJ 201. 1 
1N2S:2 216. 1. a 
D-^SSSa 188. a 

nsa 148. 2 

insa 148. 2 

?;n552r 30. 2 

Sn2 200. a, 215. 2. d 

D'^sair 56. 4 
D'^siaa 56. 4 

•ins 208. 3. c? 
n^32 209. 2. 6 

n^na 165. 3 

^S 207. 2. a 



p'''^? 187. 1 
p'lS 84. 3. a (2) 
p'lS 184, 198. a (2) 
p'lS 65. a 

p-na 80. 1 

np'ia 198. a (2), 216. 
''P^P!^? 65. a 

tynp-ia 92. c? 
nha 50. 1 

ins 197. a 

n:>'ina: 19. 2, 203. 5, 

208. 4 
12 174. 5 
"li{12 11. 1. a 
"IK^a 200. c, 215. 1, 

216. 1. d 
ma 174. 5 

nia 57. 2 (2) 
Ti^ia 11. 1. a 
D-'n-iia, orriia 11. 1. 
pia 207. 1. c 
nia (v.) 50. 3 

"lia (n.) 51. 3 

pna 51. 2 
pna 92. d 
nna 50. 1 
nna iss. 2. 6 

■la 209. 2 
Ta 208. 3. c 
Ta 187. 1. a 
''3h'<2 210. d 

pra 187. 1. c 
^bp"^a 14. a 

ba 207. 2. a 



nba 82. 1. a (2) 

ninba 57. 1 
nnba 57. 1, 210. e 
ibba 139. 1 
ibba 20. 2, 221. 6. b 
2 d^bba 209. 2. a 
ni-Dba 195. 3 

yba 197. a, 200. c, 216. 
1. e 

TOba 198 

baba i87. 1. e, 207. 2. 

ff, 216. 2 

D'^baba 16. 3. 5 

am (v.) 82. 1. a (1) 
iilsa (adj.) 185. 2. & 
"^^tta 22. ff, 216. 2. a 

n^a 80. 2. a (1) 
npa 165. 3 
in^aa i64. 2 
a ipri^a 102. 2, 104. ; 

*i2Wl2a 24. b, 92. a 

"'snnTQa 24. b 
!q^;a, q^pa i85. 2 
"Ipsa 200. a 

^'^^'^^ 119. 3 

p?a 51. 2, 121. 1 

ISa (part.) 172. 5 
•jisa 197. 6 

npisa 219. 1 
''aisa 194. 2 

nisa 197. c, 200. a, 
207. 1. d 

■jsa 50. 1 
nasa 132. 1 



388 



INDEX III. 



qS2 141. 2 (p. 175) 

^TOS 68. a, 195. 2 

■jnbS 193. 2. 6, 208. 3. a 

p2? 148. 3 

l^p^ 86. b (3 pi.) 

n]52 148. 2 

nnS 216. 1. a 

T T 

nsins 98. 1. a 
ni-12 200. a 
TO 50. 3, 141. 3 
(p. 175) 

n^j? 156. 4 
Di«p 11. 1. a 
nSp 156. 3 
nxp 196. 6 
ap 139. 2 

nnp 184. i 
"nnp 19. 2, 141. 1 
nip 104. <? 
bap 86. b (3 pi.) 
i>ap, i>np 19. 2. c, 

221. 6. a 
D^bap 19. 2 

i:ap 141. 3 
yap 92. d 
nsip 92. c 

?]2ap 92. c, 101. 3. a, 
104. h 

nap 78. 1 
nap 200. c 
inap 104. j 
tJinp 185. 2. 6 
o'ltiiip 201. 2 



Onp. 65. ft 

npnp 187. 1. e 

tJnp 80. 2. a (1), 82. 1 

a (2) 
TJJnj? 208. 3. 6 
-©"Ip 92. c 
TC-np 92. c 
D''1pnp 19. 2 

nnp 121. 1 
nbnp 191. d 
innp 194. 1 
yaip 50. 1 
©nnp 11. 1. J 
f^'^p, !n?P 1^4. 3 
tni^ip, ini.'ip 174. 2 
bip 200. a 

nip 153. 2, 155 

na^p, n^ip 157. 2 
i^^p 34 
''^^p 34 
ni^ip 156. 2 

D^ip 83. c (1) 
nn^t)tlip 198. a (4) 
pp 179. 2. a 
nisilp 57. 2 (3) a 

^nhnp 21. 1 
np 132. 2 

np 53. 2, a, 132. 2 

Tip 132. 2 

Onp 132. 2 

-nnp 60. 3. c, 132. 2 

nnp 132. 2 

■iprip 132. 2 

Tjatap 19. 2, 221. 5. a 



bwp 217 

bl3p 51. 3, 83, 83. &, 

85. 2, 103 
bt2p 183. a 
bpp 217 
•jtJp 185. 2, 207. 2. b, 

217 
■jbp (adj.) 185. 2 
•Jbp (v.) 82. 1. a (3), 

84. 3. a (1) 
"^Stpp 19. 2, 221. 5. a 
nup 80. 2. a (1) 
niD'«p 187. 1. c 
n^P 83. c (1), 154. 1, 

161. 1 
tJiiaip 59. a, 187. 1. c 
^12^^P 220. 1. 6 
■jibp-'p 187. 1. e 
Tp 200. a 
"^P 141. 1 

^!?p;i 100. 2. a (2) 
nibp 214. 2 
nibp 141. 2 

bbp 84. 3. a (2) 
bbp 141. 4 

nbbp 20. 2 

ncbp 198. a (3) 

bpbp 141. 4 
bp'bp 187. 1. g 

Dp 57. 2 (5), 153. 1, 

185. 2. a 
tJinp 59. a, 187. 1. c 
n^'^p 156. 2 
b^p, b^p 82. 1. a (1) 



INDEX III. 



389 



24. c 
r\vqp 61. 4, 66. 2 (2), 

157. 2 
'^'Op 208. 3. 6 

n^i? 59 

•Jl? 215. 1. b 

^53]? 92. d, 166. 3 

inSSp 166. 2 

ns^ 200. c 

nsj? 172. 2 
i3)3 172. 2 
-J^3p 215. 1. c 
•jSj^ 141. 1 (p. 175) 
|3p 80. 2. 6 
••Spp? 54. 3 
•"laiDIp 89 (f. s.) 
DDj? 84. 3. a (3) 

"°9)? 87 

DD)? 141. 3 (p. 175) 

n'lSjp 196. c 

nsjp 50. 1 

nSp 18. 2. c 

'^m'^ 220. 1. 6 

12)5 184. b 

T2p 185. 2. a 

ni? 141. 1 (p. 175) 

nSj? 50. 1, 2, 84. 3. a 

(3), 125. 3 
D3n2j5 106. a 
nS]? 196. 6, 211. a 
Xnj? 179. 1. a 
S^'njp 166. 2 
^t^p 167. 1 
niiinp 166. 2 



•yx'ip 104. c 
nb;'b x"i)P 35. 1 

•jXnp 60. 3. c, 98. 2, 
164. 3 

n^?n)5 166. 1 
nsni? 166. 2 

nnp 77. 3, 78. 2, 82. 

1. a (2), 118. 1 
S"!)? (imp.) 119. 1 
Snp 185. 2. b 

nnp 200. a 

-nn]? 19. 2. a 

nnnp 98. i. a 

liinp 39. 4. a 
DDinjp 19. 2, 119. 3 
■ja-|]2 19. 2. 5, 193. 2 
^32n]? 216. 1. a 
D^nj? 200. c 
TTnp 179. 1. a 
lil]5 185. 2. b 

nnp 187. 1. 6 
xnnp 11. 1. a 
Nnnp 196. d 

Tinp 89 (f. s.) 

onp 118. 1 

I'^P 197. a 

niS'np 203. 5. a 

"i.^np 214. 2 

•1\2'?)?, 1''5'?)5 221. 4 

D??"?)?, O^D-ljp 203. 1, 

.208. 4 
bbnp 193. 2. c 

ynp 50. 2 

2?j?np 187. 1. e 



^T}V- 161. 2 
ntoptep 207. 1. e 
mCp 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) 

n©p 210 

riiCp 216. 1. d 
tJtp 61. 4, 183. 6 
"ITTp 80. 2. a (2) 

niEp 80. 1 
onirp 125. 1 

tJ©p 141. 3 (p. 175) 
ni5p 197. 5, 199. c? 
m^P 187. 1. a 

cnimrp 24. b 
nincp 216. 2. a 

nxn 77. 2, 79. 1, 80. 1, 

114 

nsn 172. 2 

is"! 172. 2 
l&n 26, 121. 1 
•^la^K-l 57. 2 (3) a 

n^Kn 172. 2 
riisn 172. 2 

T 

''sn 60. 3. b (2) 
mi'^sn 207. 2. d 

i;\lt^Vtr\ 227. 1. a 
TOSn 156. 3 

nittsn 11. 1. o 
nittsn 156. 3 
''ssn 102. 3 

t)S51 11. 1. a bis 

trxn 156. 3 

OKI 61. 2. a, 207. 1./ 
pUJSI 11. I. b 



390 



INDEX III. 



p'CXn 193. 1, 227. 1 
n?iT»«'1 235. 3 (3) 

rr'm'^ 57. 2 (3) a 

tT'lCKn 198. a (4) 

nn c^y) 153. 1 

nn, 11(3?'^) 82. 1. a(3) 
Sn 217 

nn C^y) i58. 3 

ni (n.) 186. 2. c 

nnn i4i. 1 (p. 175), 

179. 2. a 

whnn 250. 2 (2) a 
nnn 179. 2. a 
nan 235. 3 (3) 
ran 172. 3, 174. 5 
nnn C^'b) ise. 4 
^in 141. 1 

'Q'l 139. 1 

ian, «i3n 197. a, 209. 

3, 226 
minn 60. 3. a 
D^inian 203. 4, 226 
D'^an 249. 1. a 
lyinn 227. 1 

rr^yinn 227. 3 
yan, yah 227. 3 
D^yan 207. 1. a 
yan 84. 3. a (2) 
r\an 158. 1 
nan 235. 3 (3) 
"•rianss. 1, 61. e.a, 218 

Wn 84. 3. a (2) 

b^n 50. 1 

b^n 197. a, 217 



''b;\n 194. 2 

d'^b.^n 203. 6. a 

y^n 126. 1 

^!! (T^;') 53. 2. &, 150. 
1 (p. 182) 

"in (yy) 139. 2 
•in, nnn i48. 3 
nnn (inf.) us. 2 
qnn 78. 1 
Sinn 114 
ip^snn 114 

''&'jn 19. 2. a 

nnn i48. 2 
"in^iin 148. 2 
cann 22. a 
ann iss. 3 

nin 67. 2 (5) a, 156. 1 

mn 184. 6 
mn 197. b 
m 161. 1 
bain 186. 2. a 
D^n 80. 2. a (4) 
D^in 157. 1 

•J^in 179. 1. a 

y2?in 141. 4 

ffiin 57. 2 (2) a 

ann, ainn 197. b, 2oo.a 

n^nn i87. 1 

pinn 185. 2. J 

bnn 197. c, 200. 6 

onn 118. 2 

onn 119. 1 

nnn 61. 2. a, 197. b 

n-ann i96. c 



D'lttnn 201. 1, 208. 3. a 

yri'^ 80. 2. a (3) 
nsnn 119. 3 
pnn 185. 2. b 
pnn 119. 1 
npnn 119. 3 
at:n 84. 3. a (2) 

tJSrjn 68. a, 180. a 

'in 184. b 

ain (v.) 153. 2, 155, 

158. 2, 3 
a^^n (n.) 186. 2. c 

nia^n i58. 1 

T " 

p'^^ 186. 2. c 

Dp^n 235. 2 (1) 

©in 186. 2. c 

•jiTS^n 57.2 (2) a, 227. 

1. a 
^n 50. 1, 186. 2. c 

aan 84. 3. a (2) 
^an 141. 1 
tjan 141. 1 (p. 175) 
ban 50. 1 
nban 198. a (2) 

^^h 139. 1 

^;^iT\ 199. b 

n^h 208. 3. b 

•ipniian 104. k 
^sn, ^h 141. 1 

■jSn 139. 3 
Til 141. 6 
yn 60. 2, 215. 1. e 

ayn (v.) 82. 1. a (2) 
ayn (adj.) i85. 2. 6 



INDEX III. 



391 



TO'-I 139. 2 

n^l 186. 2. cr, 215. c 

Tl5?n 220. 1. h 

Vni 141. 1 

'':?n 221. 3. a 

^?'n 221. 3. a 

b?n lu 

^S^n 122. 1 

■jS^n 187. \.d, 207. 2.5 

y?n 141. 3 (p. 175) 
•'pn^n 220. 1. b 

SST 186. 2. a 
Vi'Sr\ 92. rf, 166. 3 

nssn 164. 5 

!l3«Sn 165. 2 

*'ins3n 165. 2 

1B"1 84. 3. a (2) 

nan 165. 1 
•'tiiisn 177. 3 

Sisn 179. I. a 
•jian 199. a 
fSn 141. 4 
pn 50. 1 
np^ 84. 3. a (2) 
npl 186. 2. a 
Opn 186. 2. a 

ypn 126. 1 

?;5]5'n 106. a, 125. 2 
ppn 179. 2. a 
«n (f'S) 186. 2. c 
©n, tjn Ci'd) 148. 3 
yon 198. a 
won 198. a (1) * 

o'^nyon 203. 5 



^&T»n, *iBffln 22. a, 216. 

2. « 
©ten 141. 5 
tJTSn 141. 5 

men (v.) 148. 2 

men (n.) 184. h 

nnon i48. 2 

pinn 200. a, 207. 1. c 

Orih 197. 6, 208. 3. b 

Nto 131. 3 

INto, ^Xto 16. 2. o, 45. 
5. a 

ni^is 3. 1. a 

nj!5to 16. 2. a, 61. 2. a, 

131. 4 
nSO 61. 2. a 
ynte 82. 1. a (2) 

ynto 185. 2. i 
:rnynb 127. 1 
nno 3. 1. a 
nnto 141. 1 (p. 175) 
nnto 185. 2. f?, 200. c, 

210, 215. 2, 221. 7 

^nnto 220. 1. b 
'^nto 185. 2. (^ 

no 201. 1, 215. 2 

•^nno 19. 2 

XiO 131. 4 

n^O 158. 3 

Ur^ 158. 3 

rtl2^0 158. 3 

n^iU 3. 1. a, 179. 2. a 

into 184. 6 



pnO 51. 2 

DUO, fJO 51. 4 

i:t20 106. a 

X^O 184. b 

in-^O 221. 7. a 

i-^O 221. 7. a 

n'^P 158. 2, 3 

D^p 158. 2, 3 bis 

ni2^0 158. 3 

0^0 158. 2 

•JDp 51. 1 

bpp 3. 1. o, 79. 2 

nibDp 3. 1. «, 51. 4. a 

nDO 3. 1. a 

ibO 184. i, 207. 1. b 

ViytD 156. 4 

n^p 82. 1. a (2) 

''n^p, "^rmi^ 21 6. 1. 6 

tep 104.;" 
i?.?p 82. 1. a (1) 
nXSp 87, 166. 2 

nxsp 104. h 

''XSO 102. 3 
?iX;0 60. 1, 164. 4 

nsbp 166. 2 

•inSSp 164. 1 

^■'nsip 220. 2. a 
n?p 3. 1. c, 121. 1 
n:?p 207. 1. b 
nnyp 51. 1 
nn?p 198. 6 
nnirp 200. b 
nnippi 27, 57. 2 (2) h, 

220. 1. b 



392 



INDEX III. 



nSto 3. 1. a, 199. d, 

217, 221. 2. 4 
•jsr 50. 1 
inSto 216. 2. a 

nn^ninsto 221. 1 
Dninsto 221. 1 

"IT? 207. 2. a 
nnto 179. 2. a 
•into 199. c 
D"'S?nto 68. a 

nns-^.to 104. i 
pnio 185. 2. 5 
nnio 141. 1 (p. 175) 

•^rinto 61. 6. a 

nto 131. 4 

Dhto 90 (^ass.) 
© 53. 2. «, 74 

nnsissTij 45. 5. a 
bisia 197. 6 

I2S0 57. 2 (3) a 
^Vmi 156. 3 
T]t:ST» 57. 2 (3) a 
5XTD 78. 1, 121. 1 
5S©, ^bij© 119. 2 

nbs» 119. 3 

WbXTS 119. 2 
"'p'lbxiD 118. 3 
?ibSO 119. 2 
•ybx© 104. a 
IT^bi?© 119. 2 

Dnb«'^ 119. 2 

ISSC 122. 1 

1?i«» 187. l.c?, 207.2. 



TDiiC 139. 3 
"lijttj 183. 6 
ri^n«© 198. a (4) 
m» 53. 2. a, 144. 3, 

148. 3 
-m», HD© 148. 3 

niiJ 157. 1 

laiO 11. 1. a 

^n© 34 
'in© 34 

in^ 39. 4. a 
?^m» 200. r, 210. a 
nilB 198. G (4) 

•jrin^n© 220. 1. h 

mffi 51. 2, 197. 6 
lUnia 216. 2 
•^n© 221. 5. c 

•':?"'a© 227. 1 

tr^niD 198. a (4) 

b^bnt? 24. h 
''bac 24. 6 



15©, naiB 126. 2 

nn© 84. 3. a (3), 86. 6 

nm» 148. 2 

mil: 144. 3, 148. 2 
na© 197. 6, 221. 6. a 
"jinai? 193. 2. a 

•"paiD, 'irino us. 2 

bSTIJ 197. a 
nSiO 216. 1. e 
mo 207. 2. a 
'I'ltJ 139. 2 
•Tl© 141. 4 
rn'l© 93. a 

'^^yt 141. 1 

"lil© 139. 2 
'''11? 199. c. 

oniD 45. 5. a 

S«1T» 61. 2. a 

a^TiJ 157. 1 

Diir (ni©;'?) 63. 2. 6, 

148. 2 

c 



nbai? 3. 1. a, 200. &, '^inani© 104. 

207. 1. d ni^TS, nn^T2Ji57. 2 

nsaiij 157. 2 mi© 11. 1. a 

yn© 216. 1. e ^'jiO 141. 4 

nyiT? 223. 1 n^^itJ 207. 1. a 

n''3?3T» 208. 3. a, 225. 1 T'^'aiTC 199. a 
D'^yn© 203. 3 ''21© 194. 2. a 

nS^n© 223. 1. a y?© 161. 1 

DS'^maT? 221. 2. 6 b:^',© ise. 2 

D''Wnt!J203.4,223.1.a ^Vyt 186. 2. a 

anyni? 223. 1. a, 250. ttsitj^ise. 2. a 

2 (2) a nSitJ 200. « 

6 "la© 3. 1. a pitj 207. 1. / 



INDEX III. 



393 



pitij 197. a 

n^ttj 3. 1. a 

"liO (v.) 158. 3 

ni« (n.) 197. 0, 201. 1, 

207. 1./. 
itlilJiTO 92. h, 174. 1 
"JffiiTO 207. 2. h 
r\r\t CO. 3. i (2), 119. 4 

r\X)t 141. 1 

im» GO. 4. a, 141. 1 

rmt 119. 3 
ninffi 199. d 

nnT» 185. 2. h 

nn-iniij i88 
nmij 78. 2 
inno 121. 2 
Dsnn© 119. 1 

naip 200. h 
D'^'PID 156. 3 

nhi© 187. 1. c 

^T^t , "^D'bi© 55. 2. a 
Tt? 158. 2, 3 
n'T© 220. l.b 
tr^O 158. 2, 3 

ini© 221. 5. 6 

n© 139. 2 

a?T» 84. 3. a (2) 

nbtD 87 

aDO 87 

nnDo 98. 1 

Pins© 106. a 
i3D« 106. a 
biDO 184 
■jlStD 90 (j9a5S.) 



■jiDIC 87 

n?» 80. 2, 82. 1. a (2) 

•^HD© 216. 1. b 

^DriDO 127. 2 

?;^3nDTlJ 127. 2 

nriD© GO. 2. a, 127. 1 

bD» 3. 1. a 

bb© 82. 1. a (3), 84. 3. 

a (1), 85. 2 
:inbDffiG5.a, 82. l.a(3) 
^rhbtO 65. a 
DD© 183. b 
DD© 65 
^^D© 221. 5. c 
•}?» 82. 1. a (2), 84. 3. 

«(1) 
)bXO 87 
|Dt3 90 (iJas5.) 
•ipDilJ 61. 6. a 
P3D© 132. 1 

ip:Dii) 90 (2 f.) 

"ID© 3. 1. a, 125. 3 
1DT» 185. 2 
"btD 131. 3 
Via 139. 2 
•Jpsb© 68. a 

n-^nnnb© 195. 3 

ibis 185. 2. d 
"hw 184. 6 
M3 nbl^ 21. 1 

n^mbp 187. 2 

Blb^j 187. 2 

"iplb© 168. a 

nbO 80. 2. a (1), 124 



nb« 60. 1 
nb« 125. 2 
nb© 126. 1 
nbis 126. 1 
nnbizj 125. 1 

221. 3. a 
126. 1 
•jnb© 200. a 

srnbiij 45. 4 

nnblD 123. 5. a 
tDblO 84. 3. a (2) 
"•b© 54. 2 
©''bia 210. a 
iffiib© 199. i 
itjibo 227. 1 

rr^TBib© 227. 3 
nnc^bp 219. 1. o 

PDb© 92. d 

bbffi 141. 3 (p. 175) 

DblS 84. 3. a (2) 

Dbtj 92. d 

DblD 92. c 

U\t 93. a 

llDbiT 92. c 

^r)V. 194. 2. a 

-ICb© 215. l.c 

ffib© 51. 3 

rnobTU 220. 1. 6 

nirb© 223. 1 

DiirblD 225. 1 
D-'Cbtp 207. 1. a 
Dtob© 235. 2 (1) 

^inirbTS 220. i. b 

UDrXC)XD 250. 2 (2) a 



394 



INDEX III. 



B» 235. 1 127. 1 

DT? 43. a, 200. a, 215. ri^;?'J3T» 127. 2 



UrWbt 250. 2 (2) a d3:?13T» 125. 2 ^K^t"^., ' W© 60. 3. a 

53. 2. a "j?!?© 89 (f. pi.), 98. 2, ^^n?T2? 3. 1. a 

nn^nj^o i87. 2. c 

T -: - 

yi»?l»60. 3. 6(2), 141. 6 

n^2?iryjj 187. 2. 6 
. ^ .. _ 

^iBffi 89 

nriBO 214. 1 

^USTD 89 (m. pi.) 

^BT» 80. 2. a (2) 

tfSffl 89 

nDStil3. 6, 86. 6 (3 pi.) 

riDSTS 22. a 

bST» 82. 1. a (1) 

bs© 87 

nbsTD 196. c 
•jBTO 207. 2. b 
n3?B© 196. & 



1. 6 

'IttTD 80. 2. « (3) 
myO 219. 1. a 
il3T» 221. 3. a 

ni^ais 64. 2 

m'TG© 139. 2 

nni:^T)3 86. 6 (2 m.) 

113D? 66. 2 (2) c 



^23?^T» 125. 1 

pyisTa 127. 1 

n^ttio 205 
in:?)2ffi 106. a 

112© 77. 2 
"TaiO 186. 2. a 

-nntt© 125. 1 
nn^TD 19. 2 

TVrQ'Sd 104. e 



D'lttW 10. a 

D^'aiS 201. 1, 203. 5. c ©"aiS 197. S 

n^a'i'aTB 219. 1 )V. 19'^. «, 217 

iS'i'aTp 227. 1 Si?© 196. d 

ffiSTO 82. 1. a (2), 84. 3. iiS^ 177. 3 

a (1), 141. 3 (p. 175) n:;^ 200.c,d, 211,216.1 "i^ns® 187. 2. c 

Qiaijj 90 inisTD i4i. 2 ninsTp 203. 5. a 

XQV 79. 2, 84. 3. a (2) ""pffi 227. 1 Dl^lnBTJ? 203. 5. a 

nibia 223. 1 D^2TS 203. 4, 223. 1 npC^ 131. 3 

D'^ibtp 225. 1 "iWn D"^.?© 251. 4. « ?ipTB 209. 3 

nisy nibHJ 224. a ^rSlS 250. 2 (2) a -jriipp 187. 2 

5>)2t0 80. 2. a (1), 82. 1. n^D© 235. 3 (3) 



a (2) 
yiSTS 60. 1. a 
ShW 65. 6 
2?13TiJ 184, 6 
?^T1J 60. 1. a 
yiSia 60. 1 

n:?)3TS 125. 1 

TOUO 98. 1, 125. 1 
''5'laW 125. 2 
t]3>TaTS 106. a 



•J?© 141. 1 (p. 175) 
I?© 141. 5 
n3© 196. 5 

D^^nStD 203. 3 
yOTlJ 126. 1 
TDp?tD 195. 2 
byiO 208. 3. b 
''bS^TB 216. 2 



D'^^pti, nittpTC 208. 3. a 
ppir 141. 2 (p. 175) 
npiO 199. c? 
ninptj 216. 2, 216. 2. a 

"i^S'-nTD 60. 4. a 

t:'inno 22. o, 51. 2, 68. a 

tl-n© 60. 4. «, 221. 6. 6 

?jn"n» 221. 6. 6 

ffilTIJ 208. 3. b 



5??© 141. 2 (p. 175) ffintJ, ©i.TlJ 83. c (l), 
n?tD 197. b 92. 6, 122. 2 



INDEX III. 



395 



nie-i© 187. 1. € 

QlTJJn© 19. 2 

ISO 43. a 

niS© 223. 1 

iffiO 227. 1 

aiffi© 225. 1 

m» 200. a 

nm» 50. 1, 179. 2. a 

T r ' 

in;» 172. 2 
intj, nine i72. 2 

T ' T 

™ 209. 2. 6 
IVtytt 209. 2. 6 

'}n''rn» 250. 2 (2) a 

D':nO 22. 6, 223. 1. a 

axn 51. 1 
baxn 111. 2. a 
Xf\ ^inxn) 35. 1 
•j^nasjh G4. 2 
ni^sn 111, 2. a 
innxneo. 3.C, 111. 2. c 

■iSn 57. 2 (3) a, 184. i 

i^ixn 216. 1, c 
Tn«r\ 111. 2. a 
inbDsn 60. 3. c (?), 

93. a, 111. 2. e 

rebDsn 91. c 
ribsn 111. 2. a 

•'T2Sn 216. 1. c 

:n2^.sn 88 (f. pi.) 

•jn^sh 88 (m. pi.) 

npxn 200. 6, 216. 1. h 

'j'lSCXh 151. 2 
iSDXn 112. 3 



^'>yi.T\ 112. 3 

iniitp, insn 60. 3. 6 (2) 
npns^n 157. 3 
n^mn 190 
nr.sri 111. 2. J 
snn 111. 2. 6, 177. 3 
nrxhn 157. 3 
;;s5nr> 88 (f. pi.) 
n:i?2n 157. 3 
"iniinri 88 (3 f.), i67. 3 
riDbnan 11 8. 4 
nxinn 97. 1. « 
nnxinn 220. 1. h 
nna5i3n88(3f.), 167. 3 
^n5?iar\88(3f.), 167. 3 
Tian 140. 3 
■}^nr\ 192. 2 
pinn 140. 3 
^2.:rinn 105. b 
TOnn 88 (3 f. pi.) 
^S'lnn 26 
iTa-inn 160. 3 
nsnnn 172. 4 
nrsnri 172. 3 

bnPl 190. h, 197. a 

bnri 190. b 
b^nn 190 
■jan;] i58. 2 
•jTi^nn 172. 1 
npyan 126. 1 
•'sn^an 105. 6 
:yj?ai;\ 126. 1 

•J^IDjjan 88 (m. pi.) 
•»TlJpani 234. a 



^D'lari 120. 3 

^^T^^T\ 105. & 

n3^na:,n^ 128 
b'^.^m 99. 3 
•jiy^^n 126. 1 
mni 158. 2 

I^Y^ 172. 1 

'.bn 174. 4 

b5n 66. 1 (1), 173. 3 

nb^iyi 172. 3 
nbani 173. 3 
nsb^n 158. 2 
•'riib^.nn 220. 2. c 

^jt'Sni 88 (f. pi.) 

•j^pann 88 (2 f.) 
ippa'in 105. «, d 
na'ini 99. 3 
■jiwn 55. 2. ff, 88 

(m. pi.) 
■jr.a'in 88 (m. pi.) 

nsna'jn 92. e 
"T^n 139. 3 
wn 192. 2 

•'13^X3']?^ 105. c 

n;b"in 172. 3 
p'B'in 172. 1 
jynnn 147. 5 
i^ffi'in 45. 2 
inn 61. 2 
^nin 30. 1 
Dinr;i 190. b, 197. 6, 

200. a 
n'^nn 172. 3 
p^nn 88 (f. pi.) 



396 I5DEX III. 



11.1. a "lyPl 53. ?-«, 111. 2, c TfCT^. 113. 1 

rnsnp 94. « r-V-rr 201. 1 r*T 

bnr 140. 5 ^^r?? ^■^-'- '^- <» z'T s'.:. ■.. c 

T777y^ IdO. ft TJjP 172-4 rilZTr 147. 2 

spnri 19. 1, 60. .^ 6 (2), Tip? 111. 2. 6 fp?^ 14'- * 

112. 2, 151. 1 nrnr 172. 4 ^H??*? i^'Ji- 3- « 

;pr>n? 220. 2. a Tap ic. 2. « s?Pt 172. 4 

•«TFP 172. 4 TTV^ 1-5^. 2 TVr^ ^* (^ F^) 

rcsTsn 118. 4 '5T7m i.5e. 2 Tnsn 119. 1 

j i' Uig} 172. 3 ^ 140. 3 fen 172. 4 

53mn 24. <, 142. 3 ri?r:p 190- b rtep 177. a 

-»s r-; «s- 

•351 185. 2. <f t'^'^ y' ^TT P 220. 2. « TSP .50. 1 

ITT! .57. 2 (.^.j a ^'V^ 1*1- 2 HCSP .54. 2 

rem 190. ft crnr 190. a ^T^^ i^- 2 

fJPl 63. 2. «, 184. ft 1 ' >VV/ ^ 1*^*- * i-^^-P 88 (2 £) 

^ 216. 1. </ r - ' > ! P 190. ft i6p: 172. 4 

rcnrin 220. 1. ft T^ 2^0. 2. o rw^p 190. ft, i98. a (3) 

SpT3TB 105. e tTTTi 60. 1. «, 157. 3 C'»*^p 177. 3 

^pWn 90, 151. 3 717P 173. 3 "I^ 147. 5 

^mn 22. ft, 15L 2 CTSP^ 157. .? T?^ 1*'- 2 

tjDip. 151. 2 "iir-r ;0v. « r'^r .50. 1 

rCTTi 207. L a rrr 2.;7, 1, 23%. 1 mTTP .56. 4, 177. 3 

TT» 217 rnp r^) 131. 1 7T?'|ri 119. 1 

rr^'P 217 "Tc^^ 194. 2 "n^l? 10-5. a 

•hrr-^-'p 104./ Eiirprt^ 238. 1. ft 's^ 6.5. ft 

ir-r : ?o. ft, 192. 2 "^ rnp 239. 2 (2) '"=2^ 6L 4. a, 15L 1 

'ITT ::' : -3 iiirriP 2.^* 1. ft -• iid^iA ss 

r-'.- . : ; "^J^nr 23%. 1. ft TCT 192. 2 

JTWn 88 (£ pL) •»2S^ 147. 4 -|5P, ^^ 158. 2 

rCTOT 6L 4- a 'pyw 193. 1 CH 166. 2. «r, 207. 2 

•^ IIL 2. b 7?rP 190. ft, 197. ft 3? (r.) 1.39. 2 

VPSm 190. ft, 199. <i? p:*r^ 150. 3 OR (n,) 186. 2. « 

•?mi (3 £) 172. 3 r-TTTJ IL 1. ft SfflR 143. a 



INDEX III. 



397 



nj"inrn lis. 4 
isa^ttPi IGl. 3 
nr'j^ttn i57. a 

bil2n 183. c 
■jVlTOn 157. 3 

nsn-cn i.^v. 3 
rron i75. 3 

■'nHP (2 iil) 172.3,17.5.3 
D'^TSn 53. 3. a 

insbrn io4./ 
?0'^bT:ni 09. 3 

Dttn 84. 3. a (3), 141. 

1 (p. 175) 
^ycr\ 54. .3, 141. 2 

nr:rn ci. 6. a 

Cttm 175. 3 

bi?rn 60. 1. a 
nrstSYsn ig5. 2 
3«rcn CO. 1. a 
n:;5rn i4i. 2 

•ron 175. 3 

nisn 140. 5 
man in. 2. 6 
Tn-an 192. 2 
D^?."n:ri i87. 2. c 
tjrn 157. 3 

•JP 53. 2. a 

:n:c»:r^ lis. 4 
twain 131. 2 

Tin 157. 3 

qi:n i3i. 2 

rCI^ 132. 1 
TSn 192. 2 

rnnT 00. 1. o 
ncn:n 205. c 



rn;n 131. 1 "i:?n 197. 6 

^np'':pn 150. 2, loi. 5 nrn 00. 4. o 



nrnn 174. 4 

TDPn 173. 3 

ntc7n 172. 3 
•n^'ntcyn 27 

■pTC?n 55. 2. «, 88. 2. / 

nrcrn 105. 6 



nsnzrn lOi. b 
K©:n 131. G 
•^icsn 102. 2 
n:^2Dr;) ci. 3, i36. 2, 

141. 2 

?ypn 140. 5 

qcp 111. 2. 4, 151. 2 rnxcn 102. 2. a 
n?p 51. 1, 121. 1 "Hcpn 111, 2, 6 
n?P CO. 4. a 

•Jl^hrP 88 (m. pL) 

DWP 19. 2, 111. 3. a ^[I'^^'Zr ]rj'J. 3 

•"iiD^p 88 n:2^.Ern, ni2^£Pi57. 3 

2a^P1 ill. 1 rtCP 190. 6 

rqyjr.^ 97. i. « "jspt 172. 4 

n:57P 25, 88 (f. pi.), 91. c rCPn 1 50. 3 

n:J?p, ri2a:?p i57. 3 cycpi 99. 3. «, 119. l 



mEP 192. 2 

csv.'-'rlEP IGl. 5 



n?PT 172. 4 
nyp 51. 3 

"^JP 108. a (3; 
Trri HO. 1 

irrp 91. /> 
it:7p CO. 4 

i:7P1 (*'r) 157. 3 
nbyp 21c. La 

^5?P1 140. 5 

nrbypT 172. 3 
rb:?p 60, 3, c 
l^^rcTr^ 09. 3. a 
:"7P 192. 2, 200, c 
rz':7T>, nsrrp 172. 

rjr 141. 2 rp. 175) 

nc7P 97, 1, a 
:"9rp 12c. 2 



rcP 141. 3 (p. 175) 

rsnj^sn 105. b 
ncp J 40. 5 
'}-t:rEP 88 (ifL pi) 
-:X2P 147. 2 
n:":-:-2p ici. 3 
n"^2P 14 J. 2 
n:bi2P 141. 2 

■22;jP ]39. J 
rr-pr. 190. 6, 198. « (3; 
r::7P88(f.pl.), 161.3 
r.rr^n 1 co. 3 

^P 140. J 
•J^P 50. 1 
•J^P 46 
7PP 157. f j/ 

sr;:r] i co. 4 



398 



INDEX III. 



njsnj^n 88 (3 f. pi.) 
!Qnpn 88 (3 f. pi.) 
•jinnpnT 99. 3. a 

tJj5ni 174. 4 

•■iRpn 95. a 
snn 35. 2 
i^nnn 172. 4 
ni?nn 172. 3 

''3i5nr\ 105. e 

anni 172. 4 
nsnn'i 175. 3 
niann 190. 6 
■'n'pa-in 94. a, 115 
"inn 147. 2 

n^^nn 1 92. 2.a, 216.1.6 
np™ 88 (3f.pl.), 147. 2 
'in-in 147. 3 

inn 156. 4 
n^Tin 190. b 
ns^iaiin lei. 4 
p-in 140. 3 
nsTSDnn 92. e 

n">^-in 192. 2. a 

n:D^nri88(3f.pi.),9i.c 
■jnh 190. 6 
nnr> 97. 1. a 
npinn 88 (f. pi.) 
y'^n (v.) 140. 5 
5i"!ir) 175. 3 
D'^snn 201. 2 
n:isnn i65. 3 

T^nPT 140. 5 

}^npii 172. 4 
^nann, ^nann 93. a 
n2^si2?n 165. 2 



npxten 164. 2 
•^s.^te.Aton 161. 2 
n^a^irn 61. 4. a, 205. c 
bsian 97. 2 

^ib^SJ^ton 180. a 

npten 164. 2 
npnirn 157. 3 
nDmiJn ei. 4, 160. 3 

n3-\3TSn 88 (3 f. pi.) 

nnrari, nacn 65. « 
npniffin 157. 3 
D^iffiri 54. 2 

W^TlJn 190.6,192. 2. a, 

198. a (3) 
•'^ncri60.3.6(2),120.1 

nncn 119. 1 
iT»n 172. 4 

• AS 

*i:?^Tsn 227. 1 
nDnD'i^r, 91. c 
npTcn 88. (f. pi.) 
n:nb©n 88 (3 f. pi.), 

105. b 

-ubtJn 97. 2 
'ipbpn 95. a 
nton 147. 4 
Dn^)2TJ?n 105. <? 

T\)2tr\ Go. b 
'\^'\'Q^r\ 88 (m. pi.) 
2?i?n 216. 1. e 
yen 60. 3. c 

nyon 223. 1 

U'^StDPi 208. 3. a, 225. 1 

: ^yiry^n 142. 1 

ncni 158. 2 

n:Bni2Jn 11 8. 4 



psncn 88 (2 f.) 
ynon i76. 3 
nsDSpiirn, njpspicn 

96. b 

nn 131. 4 
-nn 61. 5 
:2?b3nri 126. 1 
nnnn 142. 2 

nsnn 60. 4. a, 176. 3 

nnn (nnn:) 53. 2. 6, 

132. 1 

n-;nnri 126. 2 
nrpbrinn 96. 6 
bnbnrp 16I. 2 
int-in 176. 3 
•T^nnn 94. a 
^nn 61. 5, 131. 4 
tcsnnT 176. 3 
Dnn 140. 1 
n:wi)2nn 16I. 3 
:D^pn 142. 2 
■jnn 132. 1 
n:r\r\i 105. a 
sisrnn 166. 5 
2?nn 172. 4 
tbsnn 142. 2 
iibsnn 166. 5 

a^-EnPT 99. 3. a, 119. 1 

jbnsnn 96. b 

asnn 53. 3. b, 150. 3 

(p. 182) 

isnn 25 
nnini iso. 3 
i^nnn 60. 4. a, iie. 3 
nstjQiffinn 161. 3 



i:n"dex it. 

HEBREW GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 



ni^nis 2 

abDi TW12 "jn^x 7. 3 

rva^ 31 

amD rvnbiD iix 7. 3. a 

ns3 n?a 21. 1 

i:ir3 85. 1. a 

Q-^s^ia 76. 1 

VS^S^ 45. 4. a 

prn ©:»'! 23. i 
bp ;c5»n 21. 1 
ny-'n'n xn 229. 1 
nbscn Sin 230. 1 
"TinrTssn 7. 3 

niaiai 9. 1, 243. 2. a* 

^'sn IT 99. 1 

-IDT 196 
VfuU 16. 3. a 

'pr\^n 45. 4. a 

Dya 28 
XnTJ 29. 6 

n-^ias 76. 2 

D'''^133 71. c 



•ji^n as? b^niiJD 7. 3. 
a-^riD 46 

^nj? bibn a-ins 46 
rnansb 29. 6 

'lim pTtJb 199 

D''an liTZJb 199 

D:"?© liUJb 199 

^ins^ 45. 4. a 
na^i^ 71. c 
rriDT^ 212 
D-ib^ 70. a 

D-'Db^ 28 

bi?b^ 32 
ynbp 32 
nnic^ 10. 46 

p-^ST? 26 
"lip^ 85. 1. a 

vlpia 43 

irbs5 ana msia 7. 

3. a 

snia 44 
nir;*? 28. 6 
ns 16. 2 



a S«S^p 71. c 
•J)2C3 212 
'nPCD 71. c 
yp 16, 2 

nap; 196 
Q'^'7-p3 2 

pXS qiO 36. 1 
tj^ittD 212 
n^TO 28 
W 85. 1 a 
Tn:? 85. 1. a 
D^b:?S 70. a 
im 85. 1. a 
i"ip 46 

a-ina s«bi '^'^p 46 
nsn 27 

^anD^a i^n bmta 7. 3. a 
siair, S51TD 16. 1 
n:an is; ^'aib© 7. 3. a 

nil20 70. a 

nscian niy© 223. 1 
nra irasibtto 7. 3. a 
ni37^:n 12 



Names of the letters § 2, their signification § 5. 5 
Names of the vowels ^ 12, their signification 8 12. 6 
Names of the accents § 29, their signification § 29. 6 
Names of the verbal species §76. 1, 2. 
Designations of imperfect verbs § 76. 3. 



POSTSCEIPT 



The folded leaf which follows contains a general view of 
the inflections of the various kinds of verbs, perfect and im- 
perfect, the rules for the changes to which nouns are liable, 
the personal pronouns in their separate and suffixed forms, 
and the different vowels assumed by the inseparable prefixes 
and the interrogative nia . It is designed to be taken out 
of the book and mounted upon pasteboard. The student 
will thus have the most material parts of the grammar brought 
together and exhibited to his eye upon a single page. 

Two sections of the grammar have been inadvertently 
numbered 141 and two 150. To prevent embarrassment 
from this cause in the use of the indexes, the page is almost 
always added when the second of the duplicate sections is 
intended. 



DATE DUE 










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GAYLORD 






PRINTED IN U.S.A.