Skip to main content

Full text of "A grammar of the Hindustani language, in the Oriental and Roman character, with numerous copper-plate illustrations of the Persian and Devanagari systems of alphabetic writing. To which is added, a copious selection of easy extracts for reading, in the Persi-Arabic & Devanagari characters, forming a complete introduction to the Bagh-o-bahar; together with a vocabulary, and explanatory notes"

See other formats




>',S IN INDIA.) 

Hindustani Grammar, 

i Characters, Reading 

The Bagh-o-Bahar, 

; ce 12s. 6d. 

The Tota-Kahani; 


The Ikhwanii s Safa ; 

-s. 6d. 

The Baital Paehisi; 


i entail renmanship; 


( . \sian 


Hindustani Manual, 

s for Translation, Dialogues, and 

The Bagh-o-Uahar ; 

:n, of 
Price 5s. 

i;;ti;lHKJaliar, Translated into English. Price 8s. 

A Dictionary; Hindustani-English and English- 
Hindustani. Price 30s. 

ler Hindustani-English Dictionary. 12s. 

Grammar of the Persian Language. 

Dictionary (Persian, Arabic, and 
Grammar of the Bengali Lan 

Bengali Reader. 

Dictionary, Bengali and Sanscrit, 

How to Speak Hindustani ; 


Sanscrit Jlanual ; 

18mo., boii' 

In prt'i 

Grammar of the Arabic Language. 


x: A\ 



"tr , Wukinj serif* * 



































London. 20M July, 1866. 


THE following work has been compiled with a view to 
enable every one proceeding to India to acquire a fair know- 
ledge of the most useful and most extensively spoken language 
of that country. Of late years, a new sera may be said to 
have commenced with regard to the study of the Hindustani 
language ; it being now imperative on every junior officer 
in the Company's service to pass an examination in that 
language before he can be deemed qualified to command a 
troop, or to hold any staff appointment. Such being the case, 
it is desirable that every facility should be afforded to young 
men destined for India to acquire at least an elementary 
knowledge of Hindustani in this country, so as to be able to 
prosecute the study during the voyage. 

A large impression of this work having been exhausted, 
I have availed myself of the opportunity, in this new 
Edition, of adopting such improvements as have been naturally 
suggested by several years' experience in teaching. The plan 
and arrangement of the work remain the same as before ; and 
so do the numbers of the sections and the paragraphs. The 
first section treats very fully of the Persi-Arabic alphabet, 
and of the elementary sounds of the language. In this section 
I have been enabled to introduce several improvements, and, 
if I mistake not, the subject is now so simplified that a 
learner of ordinary capacity will have no difficulty in making 
some progress in this elementary part, even if he should not 
have the aid of a teacher. The next three sections treat of 
the parts of speech, to the defining and explaining of which 
I have strictly confined myself. I have carefully avoided 
mixing up the syntax of the language with that part of the 
work which is and ought to be purely etymological. The 


mode of confounding the syntax with the etymology, which 
prevails in most grammars, I have always looked upon as 
highly preposterous. It is utterly absurd to embarrass the 
student with a rule of syntax, at a stage of his progress where 
he probably does not know a dozen words of the language. 

In the first four sections (up to p. 91), I have generally 
accompanied every Hindustani word and phrase with the 
pronunciation in Roman characters, in order that the learner 
might not be delayed too long in acquiring the essential 
rudiments of the grammar, and also to guard against his 
contracting a vicious mode of pronunciation. "When he has 
made himself acquainted with what is technically called the 
accidence that is, the declension of the nouns and pronouns, 
and the conjugation of the verbs he may, after a few verbal 
instructions respecting the arrangement of words, proceed to 
read and translate a few pages of the Selections, by the aid 
of the Vocabulary. This done, he may read over the Grammar 
carefully from the beginning ; for, in fact, the Grammar and 
Selections mutually assist each other. 

Section V. (from p. 92 to 135) treats of the Syntax of the 
language. This is a portion of the work, in which, if I do 
not greatly mistake, I have made many improvements. I 
have been particularly careful in explaining those peculiarities 
of the language in the use of which I have observed learners 
most apt to err, when trying to translate English into Hindu- 
stani. I have also, in several instances, ventured to differ 
from all my predecessors on certain important points, which 
of course I have justified by an appeal to the language itself. 

In the sixth and last section, I have given a concise account 
of the Devanagari alphabet, together with the mode of trans- 
ferring the same into the corresponding Persian character, 
and vice versa. To this I have added an explanation of the 
various plates accompanying the work, together with a brief 
account of the Musalman and Hindu calendars. The perusal 
of the plates will initiate the student into the mysteries of the 
manuscript character, which is much used in India, both in 


lithographed and printed works, to say nothing of numerous 
productions which still remain in manuscript. When the 
learner is well grounded in the NasJchi, or printed character, 
he should, as an exercise, endeavour to write out the same 
in the Ta'lik, or written character. When he has attained 
some facility in writing the latter, he will find it a very 
profitable exercise to transcribe the various phrases, etc., in 
my Hindustani Manual, from the Roman character into the 
TaUik, and at the same time commit them to memory, as 
directed in the preface to that small work. 

An elementary grammar of a language is incomplete without 
a certain portion of easy extracts, accompanied by a suitable 
vocabulary, and occasional notes explanatory of any obscure or 
idiomatic phrases that may occur in the text. This is the mor 
essential in a grammar of the Hindustani, or of any other Asiatic 
language, because the characters and words, being totally diffe- 
rent from our own, it is necessary, though it may sound strange, 
to learn the language to a certain extent, before the grammar 
can be perused to any advantage. As to the use of translation? 
and other fallacious aids, such as giving the English of each 
word as it occurs at the bottom of the page or elsewhere, it is a 
method deservedly scouted by all good teachers. On the other 
hand, to put a large dictionary in the hands of a beginner is 
equally useless ; it is asking of him to perform a difficult work, 
with an instrument so unwieldy as to be beyond his strength. 
In order, therefore, to render this work as complete as possible, I 
have appended to the Grammar a selection of easy compositions for 
reading, commencing with short and simple sentences. All the 
words occurring in the extracts will be found in the Vocabulary, 
at the end of which I have added a few notes explanatory of 
difficult passages or peculiarities of the language, with references 
to the page and paragraph of the Grammar where further 
information may be obtained. 

In the extracts from the ' Khirad Afroz,' a work which is 
considered to be the easiest and most graceful specimen of the 
Urdu dialect, I have left off the use of the jazm , except in 

viii PREFACE. 

very rare instances, in order that the student may gradually 
learn to read without it. In like manner the vtrdma~ is omitted 
in the last five or six stories of the Hindi extracts. I have been 
careful, throughout, to give the essential short vowels, convinced 
that without them the most attentive learner will be apt to com- 
mit mistakes in pronunciation. I have also adopted a rigid 
system of punctuation, the same as I should have done in the 
editing of a Latin Classic. There may be a few individuals so 
thoroughly wedded to what is foolish or defective, merely 
because it is old, as to feel shocked at this innovation. They 
will complacently ask, What is the use of punctuation, when the 
natives have none in their manuscripts ? I answer The use is, 
simply to facilitate, for beginners, the acquisition of a knowledge 
of the language. When that is once attained, they will find no 
difficulty in reading native works, though utterly void, not only 
of punctuation but of vowel-points and other diacritical marks. 
The use of stops is merely a question of time ; four hundred 
years ago we had no such things for our books in Europe, and 
the excellent monks who had the management of these matters 
went on comfortably enough without them. But, after all, it 
was found that stops were an improvement; and so they are 
admitted to be even in the East. Almost all the books printed 
in India since the beginning of the present century have 
punctuation; and those who would make beginners attempt 
to translate from a strange language, in a strange character, 
without the least clue to the beginning or end of the sentences, 
seem to have a marvellous love for the absurd. All Oriental as 
well as European books ought to have stops ; the omission is a 
sure indication either of extreme idleness or culpable apathy 
on the part of the editor. 

In conclusion, I may safely say that I have spared no pains 
to render this edition worthy of the extensive patronage which 
the work has hitherto attained. 


Jult/j 1856. 




1. THE Hindustani language may be printed and 
written in two distinct alphabets, totally different from 
each other, viz., the Persi- Arabic, and the Devanagari. 
We shall at present confine ourselves to the former, and 
devote a section to the latter towards the end of the 
volume. The Persi- Arabic alphabet consists of thirty-two 
letters, to which three more are added to express sounds 
peculiar to the Hindustani. These letters, then, thirty - 
five in number, are written and read from right to left ; 
and, consequently, Hindustani books and manuscripts 
begin at what we should call the end of the volume. 
Several of the letters assume different shapes, according 
to their position in the formation of a word, or of a 
combined group ; as may be seen in the following table, 
column Y. Thus, in a combination of three or more 
letters, the first of the group, on the right-hand side, 
will have the form marked Initial ; the letter or letters 
between the first and last will have the form marked 
Medial; and the last, on the left, will have the Final 
form. Observe, also, that in this table, column I. con- 
tains the names of the letters in the Persian character ; 


II. the same in Eoman characters ; III. the detached 
form of the letters, which should be learned first ; and 
IV. the corresponding English letters. 


i. n. 





Combined Form. 









i { o" 

















S. J 





















/ J 










s: n 











































o ^ 



































































i. n. 






Combined Form. 



























c ^ 

























































, etc. 























































f 3 



























s j 



















"V V 











/: j 





The alphabet here described is used, more or less 
modified, by all those nations who have adopted the 
religion of Muhammad ; viz., along the north and east 
of Africa, in Turkey, Arabia, and Persia, and by the 
Musalman portion of the people of India and Malacca. 

In pronouncing the names of the letters (column II.) let it be 
remembered that the vowels are to be uniformly sounded as follows : 
The unmarked a is always short, as a in woman, adrift, etc. ; d is 
always long, as a in war or art ; i is short, as in pin ; i is long, as in 
police ; u is short, as u in bull, pull, etc. ; u is the same sound 
lengthened, and pronounced as u in rule, etc. ; e is sounded as ea in 
bear ; o is always long, as in no ; ai is pronounced as ai in aisle ; and 
au is sounded as in German and Italian, or very nearly like our ou in 
sound, or ow in cow. 

2. Perhaps the best mode of learning the alphabet is, 
First, to write out several times the detached or full 
forms of the letters in column III. Secondly, to observe 
what changes (if any) these undergo, when combined in 
the formation of words, as exhibited in column Y. 
Lastly, to endeavour to transfer, into their corresponding 
English letters, the words given as exemplifications in 

column VI. 

a. It may be here observed that the letters i J J J \ jf \ j and 

j do not alter in shape, whether initial, medial, or final. Another 
peculiarity which they have is, that they never unite with the letter 
following, to the left ; hence, when the last letter of a word is pre- 
ceded by any one of these, it must have the detached form, column 
III. The letters 1? and ^s, in like manner, do not alter, though they 
always unite with the letter following on the left hand. 

3. In the foregoing table, most of the characters are 
sufficiently represented by the corresponding English 
letters : it will therefore be necessary to notice only those 
whose sounds differ more or less from our own. 


CU The sound of this letter is softer and more dental than that of 
the English t ; it corresponds with the t of the Gaelic dialects, or that 
of the Italian in the word sotto. It represents the Sanskrit <f . 

(JL> This letter represents the Sanskrit "Z ; its sound is much 
nearer that of the English t than the preceding. In pronouncing it, 
the tongue should he well turned up towards the roof of the mouth, 
as in the words tip, top. 

<*L> is sounded by the Arabs like our th hard, in the words thick, 
thin ; but by the Persians and Indians it is pronounced like our in 
the words sick, sin. 

This letter has uniformly the sound of our ch in the word 

is a very strong aspirate, somewhat like our h in the word haul, 
but uttered by compressing the lower muscles of the throat. 

+ has a sound like the ch in the word loch, as pronounced by the 
Scotch and Irish, or the final ch in the German words schach and luch. 
This letter will be represented in Roman characters by Jch, with a 
stroke underneath ( Teh ). 

J is much softer and more dental than the English d ; it represents 
the Sanskrit ^, and corresponds with the d of the Celtic dialects, and 
that of the Italian and Spanish. 


J This letter represents the Sanskrit ^5", and is very nearly the 
same as our own d. The tongue, in pronouncing it, should be well 
turned up towards the roof of the mouth. 

J is properly sounded (by the Arabs) like our th soft, in the words 
thy and thine; but in Persian and Hindustani it is generally pro- 
nounced like our z in zeal. 

j is always sounded very distinctly, as the French and Germans 
pronounce it. 

J This letter is sounded liko the preceding, only the tip of the 
tongue must be turned up towards the roof of the mouth. It is very 


much akin to J, with which it often interchanges ; or, more strictly 
speaking, in the Devanagari the same letter serves for both ; as will 
be seen in the section on the Devanagari alphabet. 

J is pronounced like the j of the French, in the word jour, or our 
B in the word azure. It is of rare occurrence. 


..a In Arabic this letter has a stronger or more hissing sound than 
our *. In Hindustani, however, there is little or no distinction between 
it and (jw, which is like our own s. 

^o is pronounced by the Arabs like a hard d or dh ; but in 
Hindustani it is sounded like 2. 

\s and 1? These letters are sounded in Hindiistanf like C-> and J, or 
very nearly so. The anomalous letter c will be noticed hereafter. 

C has a sound somewhat like g in the German word sagen. About 
the banks of the Tweed, the natives sound what they fancy to be the 
letter r, very like the Eastern i. . This sound will be represented in 
English letters by gh, with a stroke underneath (gh ). 

jj bears some resemblance to our c hard, in the words calm, cup ; 
with this difference, that the jj is uttered from the lower muscles of 
the throat. 

t^f is sounded like our g hard, in give, go ; never like our g in 
gem, gentle. 

^ at the beginning of a word or syllable is sounded like our n in 
the word now ; at the end of a word, when preceded by a long vowel, 
it generally has a nasal sound, like the French n, in such words as mon 
and son, where the sound of the n is scarcely heard, its effect being to 
make the preceding vowel come through the nose. The same sound 
may also occur in the middle of a word, as in the French sans. In 
the Roman character, the nasal sound of ^ will be indicated by n, 
with a dot over it ( n ). 

A is an aspirate, like our h in hand, heart ; but at the end of a 
word, if preceded by the short vowel a (Fatha 4), the s has no 

sensible sound, as in <SJ\J ddna, a grain; in which case it is called 

.'^. * i ( 

jjixs* oU> Me-mukhtafi, i.e., the obscure or imperceptible h.' As this 

final h, then, is not sounded in such cases, we shall omit it entirely in 
the Roman character whenever we have occasion to write such words 
as <0lj ddna, etc. 

a. At the end of words derived from Arabic roots, the final s is 
sometimes marked with two dots thus, i ; and, in such cases, sounded 
like the letter CJ t. The Persians generally convert the i' into CU ; 
but sometimes they leave it unaltered, and frequently they omit the 


two dots, in which case the letter is sounded according to the general 
rule. Lastly, the Hindustani usually receives such words in whatever 
form they may happen to he used in Persian. 

b. The letter JJ> or 3 is frequently employed as a mere aspirate in 

combination with the letters < < <^J <JLs 3 *\ cl/ 

* XL ti_ -' 

and (^S; as in the words \$), pha ; \$j, tha, etc. In such cases the 

learner must be careful not to sound the ph and th as in English ; the 
h is to be sounded separately, immediately after its preceding letter, 
as in the compound words up-hill, hot-house. In most printed books 
the rouud form of the h (& and $) is employed to denote the aspirate 
of the preceding letter, otherwise the form ^ is used ; but this rule 
does not apply to manuscripts, particularly those written before the 
days of Dr. Gilchrist, under whose auspices the distinction was first 

o. Much might have been said in describing the sounds of several 
of the letters ; but we question whether the learner would be greatly 
benefited by a more detailed description. It is difficult, if not impos- 
sible, to give in writing a correct idea of the mere sound of a letter, 
unless we have one that corresponds with it in our own language. 
When this is not the case, we can only have recourse to such languages 
as happen to possess the requisite sound. It is possible, however, that 
the student may be as ignorant of these languages as of Hindustani. 
It clearly follows, then, as a general rule, that the correct sounds of 
such letters as differ from our own must be learned by the ear we 
may say, by a good ear ; and, consequently, a long description is need- 
less. This remark applies in particular to the letters C^ f. J ^ 
ijz jj and the nasal ^. 


4. In Hindustani, as in many of the Oriental lan- 
guages, the primitive vowels are three in number. They 
are represented by three small marks or symbols, two of 
which are placed above and one beneath the letter after 
which they are sounded, as in the following syllables, 
o da. j di. and j du ; or It sar, -. sir, and -. sur. 

^ ^ ^ s 


a. The first is called ^^ /aAa (by the Persians^ zabar), and ia 
written thus, over the consonant to which it belongs. Its sound 
is that of a short a, such as we have it in the word calamus, which is 
of Eastern origin, and of which the first two syllables or root, calam or 
Jcalam, are thus written, *Jji. In such Oriental words as we may 
have occasion to write in Roman characters, the a, unmarked, is under- 
stood always to represent the vowel fatha, and to have no other sound 
than that of a in calamus or calendar. 

X O * 

I. The second is called by the Arabs kasra *, (by the Persians 
j\ zer), and is thus written under the consonant to which it 
belongs. Its sound is that of our short i in the word sip and fin, 
which in Hindustani would be written c_^~s and .. J. The unmarked 

x> *> 

, therefore, in the course of this work, is understood to have the sound 
of * in sip and fin, in all Oriental words written in the Roman 


* < f 
e. The third is called by the Arabs zamma (or dhamma) &**> (by 

the Persians, \JL+* pesh,] which is thus written over its consonant. 
Its sound is like that of our short u in the words pull and push, which 

9 9 

in Hindustani would be written Jj and (jUj : we have also its true 
sound in the English words foot and hood, which would be written 

f X 

iJL-si and JJb. We shall accordingly, in the following passages, repre- 
sent the zamma by the unmarked u, which in all Oriental words in the 
Roman character, is understood to have the sound of u in pull and 
push ; but never that of our u in such words as use and perfume, or 
such as M in sun and fun. 


5. At the beginning of a word or syllable, the letter 
\, like any other consonant, depends for its sound on 
the accompanying vowel; of itself, it is a very weak 
aspirate, like our h in the words herb, honour, and 
hour. It is still more closely identified with the spiritus 
Unis of the Greek, in such words as OTTO, en-l, opdp6<j, 
where the mark [ ' ] represents the alif, and the a, e, and o 


the accompanying vowel. In fact, when we utter the 
syllables ab, ib, and ub, there is a slight movement of 
the muscles of the throat at the commencement of 
utterance ; and that movement the Oriental grammarians 
consider to be the ^jsf* makhraj, or l place of utter- 

fc- x j 

ance' of the consonant 1, as in \ a', \ i; and \ u\ just 
the same as the lips form the makhraj of #, in the 
syllables cl ba, u_> #/, and <_> bu. Finally, the 1 may 
be considered as the spiritus lenis, or weak aspirate of 
the consonant a. 

a. The consonant c has the same relation to the strong aspirate _ 
that \ has to a ; that is, the s , like the \, is a spiritus lenis or weak 
aspirate; but the malhraj, or 'place of utterance' of c, is in the lower 
muscles oMhe throat. Hence the sound of the letter c , like that of the 
letter \, depends on the accompanying vowel ; as u.--^ 'ab, i^z'ib, 
i -N 'ub, which in the mouth of an Arab, are very different sounds from 

* x 9 

c_4 ab, L.J\ ib, and <-_>j ub. At the same time, it is impossible to 
explain in writing the true sound of this letter; as it is not to be 
found in any European language, so far as we know. The student 
who has not the advantage of a competent teacher may treat the c 
as he does the \ until he has the opportunity of learning its true 
sound by the ear. In representing Oriental words in the Roman 
character, the place of the c will be indicated by an apostrophe, 
thus, J-ls 'asal. 

b. Of the consonants j and _ very little description is necessary. 
The letter j has generally the sound of our to in we, went ; but occa- 
sionally in words from the Sanskrit it has the sound of our v, which 
must be determined by practice. The sound of the consonant ^ is 
our own y in you, yet, or the Germany injener. 

c. It appears, then, that the thirty-five letters constituting the 
Hindustani alphabet are all to be considered as consonants, each of which 

maybe uttered with any of the three primitive vowels, as \ a, \ i, and \ ; 
* . * ' 

<>, la, t_j li, and <-_>, bu, etc. : hence the elementary sounds of the 

language amount to one hundred and five in number, each consonant 
forming three distinct syllables. 



6. When a consonant is accompanied by one of the 

- xx f 

three primitive vowels, it is said to be cl^si* mutaharrik, 
that is, ' moving or moveable,' by that vowel. Oriental 
grammarians consider a syllable as a step or move in the 
formation of a word or sentence. When, in the middle 
or at the end of a word, a consonant is not accompanied by 
a vowel, it is said to be ^L sdJcin, 'resting or inert,' and 
then it is marked with the symbol - or - called *\>- jazm, 
which signifies 'amputation or cutting short.' Thus 
in the word *jj^ mardum, the mim is moveable bjfatha; 
the re is inert f having no vowel ; the dal is moveable by 
samma ; and, finally, the mim is inert. As a general rule, 
the last letter of a word is inert, and in that case the mark 
jazm - is unnecessary. 

7. When a letter is doubled, the mark , called 
tashdid, is placed over it. Thus, in the word c^jJi 
shid-dat, where the first syllable ends with j (d) and the 
next begins with j (d), instead of the usual mode 
cujjJi the two dais are thrown into one, and the mark 
tashd'id indicates this coalition. The student must 
be careful to utter each of the letters thus doubled, dis- 
tinctly the first letter ends the preceding syllable, and 
the second begins the following; they must not be 
slurred over as we do it, in such words as mummy, 
summer. The meaning of the term tashdid, is, 'strengthen- 
ing or corroboration.' 

1 The term inert is here employed for want of a better. In most Arabic, Persian, 
nnd Hindustani Grammars, a letter not followed by a vowel is called quiescent, which 
is objectionable, as it is apt to mislead the beginner, the term quiescent being already 
applied in the English Grammar in the sense of not sounded. For instance, the 
letter g is quiescent in the word phlegm ; we cannot, however, say that m is quiescent 
in the same word, though we may say that it is inert. The student will be pleased 
to bear in mind, then, that a letter is said to be inert when it is not followed by a 



8. The letters 1 j and ,_? when inert, serve to prolong 
the preceding vowel, as follows. When \ inert is pre- 
ceded by a letter moveable by fatha, the fatha and alif 
together form a long sound like our a in war, or au in 

Ox- O s 

Aaw/, which in Hindustani might be written J\^ and JW. 
Now it so happens that the 1 zwertf is always preceded by 
fatha : hence, as a general and practical rule, alif not 
beginning a word or syllable forms a sound like our a in 
war, or aw in haul. In the Eoman character, the sound 
of long \ will be represented by a, whilst the unmarked 
a is always understood to represent the short primitive 
vowel fatha. 

9. When the letter s inert is preceded by a consonant 
moveable by the vowel samma, the samma and j together 
form a sound like our oo in tool ; which in Hindustani 


might be written JjS, or, which is the same thing, like 
our u in rule, which might be written J^j. The same 
combination forms also another sound, like our o in mole, 
which would in the same manner be written jj^i, or, 
perhaps still nearer, like our oa in coat, which might be 
written c& In the Arabic language, the latter sound 
of j viz. that of o in mole, is unknown ; hence Arabian 
grammarians call it Majhid, or 'Ajami, i.e. the Unknown 
or Persian } ; whereas the former sound, that of u in 
-ule, is called Ma'ruf, the Known or Familiar ^ . If the 


letter j be preceded by a consonant moveable by fatha, 
the fatha and j united will form a diphthong, nearly like 
our ou in sound, or ow in town, but more exactly like the 
au in the German word Jcaum, which in Hindustani 
might be written Sjs. In the following pages the 
McCruf sound will be represented by u ; the Majhul by o, 
and the diphthong by au. If the j be preceded by the 
vowel Jcasra, no union takes place, and the ^ preserves 
its natural sound as a consonant, as in the word \j~> 

b. When the letter ^ in words purely Persian is preceded by ~ 
(moveable by fatha), and followed by \ ; the sound of j is scarcely 
perceptible ; as in the word s\^. pronounced khdh, not khawdh. When 
we have occasion to write any such words in the Eoman character the 
w will be written with a dot under; thus, *\ 

10. When the letter ^ inert is preceded by a con- 
sonant moveable by torn, the Jcasra and the ^ unite, 
and form a long vowel like our ce in feel, which in 
Hindustani might be written jli ; or, which is the same 
thing, like our t in machine, which might be written 
,.***. The same combination may also form a sound 
like our ea in bear, which would be written ^ or like 
the French e in the words pre, donne, but longer ; or the 
German e followed by h in the words sehr, gelehrt. In the 
Arabic language, the latter sound of ^ is unknown : 
hence, when the ^ forms the sound of ea in bear, etc., 
it is called Yde Majhul, or Yae 'Ajami, that is, the 
Unknown or Persian ^ ; whilst the former sound- 
that of ee in feel, or * in machine is called Yae Ma'ruf, 
the Known or Familiar ^. When the letter ^ inert is 
preceded by a consonant, moveable by fatha, the fatha 
and the ^ unite, and form a diphthong, like ai in the 


German word Kaiser, which in Arabic, Persian, and 
Hindustani, is written This sound is really that 
of our own i in wise, size, which we are pleased to call a 
vowel, but which, in reality, is a genuine diphthong. 
When the letter ^ is preceded by zamma, no union takes 
place, and the ^ retains its usual sound as a consonant, 

lS x 9 

as in the word j~* muyassar. Lastly, if the letter ^ 
be followed by a vowel, the above rules do not hold ; and 
the ^ is to be sounded as a consonant, as in the words U \J 
layan, and ^bj ziyan, not bai-an and zi-an, to represent 
which latter sounds the mark hamza (No. 15) would be 
requisite. A similar rule applies to the j . 

a. It must be observed, that there are very few Hindustani works, 
printed or manuscript, in which all the vowels are marked as we 
have just described ; the primitive short vowels being almost always 
omitted, as well as the marks -i- jazm and _=_ tashdid. This omission 
occasions no serious inconvenience to the natives, or to those who 
know the language. To the young beginner, however, in this 
country, it is essential to commence with books having the vowels 
carefully marked ; otherwise he will contract a vicious mode of 
pronunciation, which he will find it difficult afterwards to unlearn. 
At the same time, it is no easy matter in printing to insert all tlft 
vowel-marks, etc. in a proper and accurate manner. In the present 
work, a medium will be observed, which, without over-crowding the 
text with symbols, will suffice to enable the learner to read without 
any error, provided he will attend to the following rules. 

11. The short vowel fatha is of more frequent 
occurrence than the other two ; hence it is omitted in 
the printing ; and the learner is to supply it for every 
consonant except the last, provided he see no other vowel, 
nor the mark jazm, nor the $ (butterfly] form of the letter 
lie (par. 3, b) accompanying any of the consonants 


a. The letter j at the beginning of a word or syllable ia a con- 
sonant, and generally sounded like our w, as in the words (JMJ icis, 
^b) watan. When j follows a consonant, that has no vowel-mark or 
jazm accompanying it, the j has the sound of o long, as In the words 
)~ so, ko. When the consonant preceding the j has the mark 
zamma -2- over it, the^ has the sound of u in rule, or oo in. fool, as in 
the words su or soo, and f &u or Tcoo \ and if the preceding con- 
son ant has the vowel mark fatty -- over it, thej forms the diphthong 
au> as js sau or sow, kau or cow. 

I. The letter ^ at the beginning of a word or syllable is a con- 
sonant like our letter y, as in ^.j yih, jl> ydd. When the letter ,_$ is 
medial or final, if the consonant preceding it has no vowel-mark or 
jazm, the <^$ is sounded like ea in bear, or ai in fail, as in the worda 
j+i ber, and -~j ser. If the consonant preceding the ^ has the mark 
Tcasra under it, the ^ has the sound of * in machine, or ee in feel, 
asj-j Mr or beer, and^--j sir or seer ; and if the preceding consonant 
has the mark fafha ^- over it, the ^ forms the diphthong ai as ,-j 
bair or byre, and ,- sair or sire. 

c. There are a few instances in which the letters j and ,_ unite 
with the preceding consonant, as in the words ^*\j~> swdmk, and Li 
Jcyd; but such combinations being of comparatively rare occurrence, 
they may safely be left to the student's own practice. Lastly, in a 
U&w Arabic words the final ^ occurs with an \ alif written over it, in 
which case the \ only is sounded, as in the words J^JLc uJcba; jUUj 

12. "We shall now at one view exhibit the practical 
application of the principles treated of in the preceding 
paragraphs. The vowels in Hindustani, as the student 
may have ere now perceived, are ten in number, the 
manner of representing which may be seen in the fol- 
lowing ten words. The upper line (1) contains ten 
English words in common use, in each of which occurs 
the corresponding sound of the Hindustani word beneath. 
The lower line (3) shews the mode in which the Oriental 


vowels will be uniformly represented in Eoman cha- 
racters in the course of this work. 
1. fun fin foot fall foal fool fowl fail feel file 

2 u* ui ^- J^ Jy Jy Jy ^ -y JJ 

3. fan Jin fut fdl fol fill faul fel fd fail 

13. We have now, we trust, fully explained how the 
vowels are to be represented when they follow an audible 
consonant, such as the letter _J / in the foregoing list of 
words. In order to represent the vowels as initial or 
commencing a word, it will at once occur to the student 
that we have merely to annihilate or withdraw the letter 
t_j from the above words, leaving everything else as it 
stands, and the object is effected. This is precisely 
what we do in reality, though not in appearance. The 
Arabian grammarians have taken into their heads a most 
subtle crotchet on this point, which is, that no word or 
syllable can begin with a vowel. Therefore, to represent 
what we call an initial vowel, that is, a vowel com- 
mencing a word or syllable, they employ the letter 
\ alif as a fulcrum for the vowel. "We have already 
stated (No. 5) that they consider the \ as a very weak 
aspirate or spiritus lenis ; hence its presence supports the 
theory, at least to the eye, if not to the ear. In order, 
then, to exhibit the vowels in the preceding paragraph 
as initial, we must, after taking away the letter u_j 
substitute \ in its place, which \ being nothing, or very 
nearly so, the process amounts in reality to the with- 
drawal of the letter uJ /, and the substitution of what 
may be considered as mere nothing, thus 
1. tin in tidt all 61 661 owl ail eel aisle 

2- J U I ^ J" iW J/ J/ Jdl Jil jJ 
3. an tn ut dl ol / aul el kl nil 


Instead of writing two alifs at the beginning of a 
word, as in JM dl, it is usual (except in Dictionaries) to 
write one alif with the other curved over it ; thus JT. 
This symbol is called *L. madda, l extension,' and 
denotes that the alif is sounded long, like our a in water. 
M. de Sacy (v. Grammaire Arabe, p. 72) considers the 
mark madda to be nothing else than a * mm, the 
initial of the word madda; but our business is simply 
with its practical use, and the reader if he pleases may 
view it as a contraction of our letter m, meaning ' Make 
it long.' 

14. If, instead of \ in the above series, we substitute 
the letter c, we shall have virtually the same sounds, 
only that they must be uttered from the lower muscles 
of the throat, thus 

^ ^ C^ JU Jjc Jyi J_jc J- ^ Jj. 
'an 'in 'ut 'dl W 'ul 'aul 'el 'ii 'ail 

a. It appears, then, that when in Hindustani, a word or syllable 
begins with what we consider to be a vowel, such word or syllable 
must have the letter \ or c to start with. Throughout this work, 
when we have occasion to write such words in the Koman character, 

the corresponding place of the c will be indicated by an apostrophe or 


spiritus lenis; thus, J-u^t 'dsal, JoVc 'dlid, J^o la'd, to distinguish 

the same from J-o! asal, Jjl dlid, JJ lad, or jb Md. In other 

respects the reader may view the \ and c in any of the three following 
lights. 1 st. He may consider them of the same value as the spiritus 
lenis ( ' ) in such Greek words as av, ev, etc. 2ndly. He may con- 
sider them as equivalent to the letter h in the English words hour, 
herb, honour, etc. Lastly. He may consider them as mere blocks, 
whereupon to place the vowels requisite to the formation of the 
syllable. Practically speaking, then, \ and c when initial, and the 
j and (_$ when not initial, require the beginner's strictest attention, 
as they all contribute in such cases to the formation of several sounds. 


15. We have stated that, according to the notions of 
the Arabian grammarians, no syllable can begin with a 
vowel. In practice, however, nothing is more common, 
at least according to our ideas of such matters, than to 
meet with one syllable ending with a vowel, and the 
next beginning with one also. When this happens in 
Persian and Hindustani, the mark -t. called hamza is in- 
serted between the two vowels a little above the body of 
the word, as in the words ^jU- jd,uh, ,_$'U pd,e', and 
sometimes there is a vacant space left for the hamza, like 
the initial or medial form of the ye without the dots 
below, thus [j] or [-] as in the words *jJU fd,ida ; ^J^ 
Jclji-e. The hamza, then, is merely a substitute employed 
in the middle of words for the letter \, to serve as a com- 
mencement (or as the Orientals will have it, consonant) 
to the latter of two consecutive vowels. Practically 
speaking, it may be considered as our hyphen which 
serves to separate two vowels, as in the words co-ordinate, 
re-iterate. It serves another practical purpose in Persian, 
in the formation of the genitive case, when the governing 
word ends with the imperceptible a h, or with the letter 
tj as in the words > JLJ\^ yjgj dida-i-ddnish, 'the eye of 
intelligence,' where the hamza alone has the sound of the 
short i or e. 

a. The sound of the mark hamza, according to the Arabian gram- 
marians, differs in some degree from the letter 1, being somewhat akin 
to the letter c, which its shape would seem to warrant; but in 
Hindustani this distinction is overlooked. We have here confined 
ourselves solely to the practical use of this symbol as applied in Persian 
and Hindustani; for further information on the subject, the reader 
may consult De Sacy's Arabic Grammar. 

16. Before we conclude the discussion of the alphabet, 



it may be proper to inform the student that the eight 
letters c*j - ^ ^ 1 1 c and j are peculiar to the Arabic ; 
hence, as a general rule, a word containing any one of 
these letters may be considered as borrowed from the 
Arabic. "Words containing any of the letters + j j or ^ 
maybe Persian or Arabic, but are not of Indian origin. The 
few words which contain the letter J are purely Persian. 
Words containing any of the letters <_> - or <*/ may be 
Persian or Indian, but not Arabic. Lastly, words con- 
taining any of the four-dotted letters el? $ J are purely 
Indian. The rest of the letters are common to the Arabic, 
Persian, and Hindustani languages. 

17. As words and phrases from the Arabic language 
enter very freely into the Hindustani,. we cannot well 
omit the following remarks. Arabic nouns have fre- 
quently the definite article J! 'the' of the language pre- 
fixed to them ; and if the noun happens to begin with 
any of the thirteen letters c^cujjjj^jw^yo ^o^^o 
or ^ , the J of the article assumes the sound of the initial 

letter of the noun, which is then marked with tashdid ; 

thuSj^Jl the light,' pronounced an-nur,not al-nur. But 

in these instances, though the J has lost its sound, it 
must always be written in its own form. Of course, 
when the noun begins with the J, the J of the article 

^ o^ 

coincides with it in like manner, as in the words LLJ! 
al-lailat, ' the night ;' and in this case the J of the article 

is sometimes omitted, and the initial lam of the noun 


marked with tashdid, thus, <LL! \ al-lailat. 

a. The thirteen letters (cl^ etc.) above mentioned, together with 
the letter J, are, hy the Arabian grammarians, called solar or sunny 
letters, because the word ^^^ shams, 'the sun,' happens to begin 
with one of them. The other letters of the Arabic alphabet are called 


lunar, because, wo presume, the word^Ji kamar, the moon,' begins 
with one of the number, or simply because they ore not solar. Of 
course, the captious critio might find a thousand equally valid reasons 
for calling them by any other term, such as gold and silver, black and 
blue, etc. ; but we merely state the fact as we find it. 

18. In general, the Arabic nouns of the above descrip- 
tion, when introduced into the Persian and Hindustani 
languages, are in a state of construction with another 
substantive or preposition which precedes them ; like 
the Latin terms jus gentium, vis inertice, ex officio, 
etc. In such cases, the last letter of the first or govern- 
ing word, if a substantive, is moveable by the vowel 
zamma, which serves for the enunciation of the \ of the 
article prefixed to the second word ; and, at the same 
time, the \ is marked with the symbol .=, called <d^j 
wasla, which denotes ' union ;' as in the words ^j^yd \ ^~\ 
Amir -ul- muminin, i Commander of the Faithful ; ' 
<djjJ I JL5J Ikbal-ud-daula, 'The dignity of the state.' 

a. Arabic nouns sometimes occur having their final letters marked 
with the symbol called tanwin, which signifies the using of the letter 
jj. The tanwin, which in Arabic grammars serves to mark the 
inflexions of a noun, is formed by doubling the vowel-point of the 
last letter, which indicates at once its presence and its sound ; thus, 
<-7->b bdbun, c_. ?b bdbin, bb bdban. The last form requires the letter 
\, which does not, however, prolong the sound of the final syllable. 

The \ is not required when the noun ends with a hamza, or with the 

*<* " *-"} 

letter if, as*^ij shai-an, <u>- hikmatan; or when the word ends in 

i^S ye, surmounted by \ [ J^ ] (in which case the \ only is pronounced), 
J^Jjfc hudan. In Hindustani the occurrence of such words is not 
common, being limited^ to a few adverbial expressions, such as \*z3 
kasdan, 'purposely,' UUJ! ittifdkan, 'by chance.' In the Roman 
character the letter n, with a stroke underneath [n], will be used for 
the nunation.' 

19. "Wo may hero mention, that the twenty-eight 


letters of the Arabic language are also used (chiefly in 
recording the tarikhj or date of historical events, etc.), 
for the purpose of numerical computation. The numerical 
order of the letters differs from that given in pages 2 and 
3, being, in fact, the identical arrangement of the Hebrew 
alphabet, so far as the latter extends, viz., to the letter 
c^j 400. The following is the order of the numerical 
alphabet with the corresponding number placed above 
each letter; the whole being grouped into eight un- 
meaning words, to serve as a l Memoria technical 

oooo oooo o 

rNcaoo r~ 55 25 <v If if *ji ca oo t~ 9 fill r-i o co t^ccia * co <M -H 

k-^ .Xir i^^iJ uaLx~3 ,w*_L} 15"*" j 9-k l ^ = ^. \ 

where \ denotes one, e_> two, _ three, j four : etc. 

a. In reckoning by the preceding system, the seven letters 
peculiarly Persian or Indian, viz. <_> cJL? -. 5jf J, and i^J", have 
the same value as their cognate Arabic letters of which they are 
modifications, that is, of <--> <-ZJ J j j, and (^S, respectively. 
The mode of recording any event is, to form a brief sentence, such 
that the numerical values of all the letters, when added together, 
amount to the year (of the Hijra) in which the event took place. 
Thus, the death of Ahli of Shfraz, who may be considered as the 
last of the classic poets of Persia, happened in A.H. 942 (A.D. 1535). 
This date is recorded in the sentence ^^\ Jjj l^j^i sl^jU 
'Ahli was the king of poets;' where the sum of all the letters be, 
alif, ddl, etc., when added together, will be found to amount to 942. 
The following date, on the death of the renowned Haidar 'Ah' of 
Maisur (A.H. 1196), is equally elegant, and much more appropriate: 
L^-vj j cl^l^Sllj jo ^~ ' The spirit of Balaghat is gone.' 

1. Sometimes the title of a book is so cunningly contrived as to 
express the date of its completion. Thus, several letters written on 
various occasions by Abu-1-Fazl, suruamed 'Allami, when secretary to 
the Emperor Akbar, were afterwards collected in one volume by 
'Abdu-s-samad, the secretary's nephew, and the work was entitled 


S muUtabdt-i 'alldml, 'The letters of 'AMmf,' which 
at the same time gives the date of publication, A.H. 1015. We may 
also mention that the best prose work in Hindustani the j^i j cb 
' Bagh o Bahar,' by Mir Amman, of Delhi, was so called merely because 
the name includes the date ; the discovery of which we leave as an 
exercise to the student. 

c. It is needless to add that the marks for the short vowels count 
as nothing ; also a letter marked with tasJtdid, though double, is to be 
reckoned but once only, as in the word 'alldml, where the lam though 
double counts only 30. The Latin writers of the middle ages some- 
times amused themselves by making verses of a similar kind, although 
they had only seven numerical letters to work with, viz., i, v, x, L, c, 
D, and M. This they called carmen eteostichon or chronostichon, out of 
which the following effusion on the Restoration of Charles II., 1660, 
will serve as a specimen : 

Cedant anna ole, pax regna serenat et agros. 
Here the numerical letters are c D M L x =1660. 

d. In Arabia, Persia and India, the art of printing has been, till 
recently, very little used ; hence their books, as was once the case in 
Europe, are written in a variety of different hands. Of these, the 


most common are, 1st, the Naskhi ^js***-', of which the type employed 
in this work is a very good imitation. Most Arabic Manuscripts, and 
particularly those of the Kur'an, are in this hand; and from its com- 
pact form, it is generally used in Europe for printing books in the 
Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hindustani languages. 2ndly. The 


Ta'lik JH4*J'> a beautiful hand, used chiefly by the Persians and 
Indians in disseminating copies of their more-esteemed authors. In 
India, the Ta'lik has been extensively employed for printing, both 
Persian and Hindustani works ; and within the last twenty years, a 
few Persian books, in the same hand, have issued from the Pasha of 

o * 

Egypt's press at Bulak. 3rdly. The Shikasta dr.^.C^i , or broken' 
hand, which is used in correspondence. It is quite irregular, and 
unadapted for printing; but not inelegant in appearance, when 
properly written. 




20. Oriental grammarians, both Hindu and Musal- 
man, reckon only three parts of speech, viz. the noun 
or name (*^\ ism), the verb (j*s ^V), and the particle 
(i_J^- harf). Under the term noun, they include sub- 
stantives, adjectives, pronouns, infinitives of verbs, and 
participles. This verb agrees with our part of speech so 
named ; and under the general term of ( particle ' are com- 
prised adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and inter- 
jections. The student will find it necessary to bear this 
in mind when he comes to read or converse with native 
teachers ; in the meanwhile we shall here treat of the 
parts of speech according to the classification observed 
in the best Latin and English grammars, with which the 
reader is supposed to be familiar. 


2 1 . The Hindustani and all the other languages of 
India, so far as we know have no word corresponding 
exactly with our articles the, , or an; these being 
really inherent in the noun, as in Latin and Sanskrit. 
Hence, as a general rule, the context alone can deter- 
mine whether, for example, the expression 12-j l U-^ 
raja Jca beta, l regis filius,' signifies l a son of a king,' 
' the son of a king,' ( a son of the king,' or 'the son of the 


king.' When, however, great precision is required, we 
often meet with the demonstrative pronouns ^j yih, 
c this,' and aj wuh } 'that,' together with their plurals, 
employed in the same sense as our definite article. Our 
indefinite article is expressed in many instances by the 
numeral LlX>l ek, l one ; ' or by the indefinite pronoun 
^^ Jcofa ' some,' ' a certain one '; as^-*> ul>\ jj\ 
ek mard aur e/c sher, ' a man and a tiger '; 
ko,i shakhs ' some person '; but of this we shall treat 
more fully in the Syntax. 


22. Substantives in Hindustani have two genders 
only, the masculine and the feminine ; two numbers, the 
singular and plural; and eight cases (as in Sanskrit), 
viz. nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, 
locative, instrumental or agent, and vocative. The 
ablative, locative, and instrumental, correspond with the 
Latin ablative. It has been deemed proper here to 
retain the Sanskrit classification of the cases, in accord- 
ance with the grammars of the Marathi, Bengali, and 
other cognate Indian dialects. 

23. Gender. To the mere Hindustani reader, it is 
dinicult, if not impossible, to lay down any rules by 
which the gender of a lifeless noun, or the name of a 
thing without sex, may be at once ascertained. With 
regard to substantives that have a sexual distinction, 
the matter is easy enough, and is pithily expressed 
in the two first lines of our old school acquaintance, 

1. Quse maribus solum tribuuntur, mascula sun to. 

2. Esto fcmincum, quod fcmina sola rcposcit. 


This means, in plain English, that ' All animate 
beings of the male kind, and all names applicable to 
males only, are masculine. Females, and all names 
applicable to females only, are feminine.' 

a. To the foregoing general rules, there is one (and perhaps but 
one) exception. The word <d--J Jcabkla, which literally means 
tribe or family, also denotes a wife, and is used, even in this last 
sense, as a masculine noun. Thus in the Bagh o Bahar,' p. 27, we 
have the expression UJ -$i'Ls . c^-.-s'* * -^~j & y ^W 9 habile 
Ico la salab mukabbat Tee sdth liyd, ' Out of affection I brought my 
wife with me,' where kabila is inflected like a masculine noun. 
This, however, is merely an Oriental mode of expression, it being 
usual with the people to employ the terms ' house ' or ' family,' when 
alluding to their wives. Our neighbours, the Germans, without any 
such excuse, have been pleased to decide that the word weib, ' wife,' 
should be of the neuter gender. 

24. With regard to nouns denoting inanimate objects, 
the practical rule is, that those ending in ^- 2, c^> #, 
and ^p shj are generally feminine. Those ending in 
any other letter j are, for the most part, masculine ; 
but as the exceptions are numerous, the student must 
trust greatly to practice ; and when, in speaking, he 
has any doubts respecting the gender of a word, it is 
preferable to use the masculine. 

a. It is said that there is no general rule without an exception, 
and some have even gone so far as to assert that the exception 
absolutely proves the rule. If this latter maxim were sound, nothing 
could be better established than the general rule above stated re- 
specting the gender of inanimate nouns. "We have given it, in 
substance, as laid down by Dr. Gilchrist, succeeding grammarians 
having added nothing thereto, (if we except the Rev. Mr. Yates, who 
in his Grammar has appended, as an amendment, a list of some twelve 
or fifteen hundred exceptions.) This we have always looked upon 
as a mere waste of paper, believing as we do that no memory can 


possibly retain such a dry mass of unconnected words. The fact is, that 
the rule or rather the labyrinth, may be considerably restricted by the 
application of a few general principles which we shall here state. 

Principle 1st. Most words purely Sanskrit, which of course abound 
in Hindustanf, and more particularly in Hindf works, such as the 
' Prem Sagar,' etc., retain the gender which they may have had in the 
mother-tongue. Thus, words which in Sanskrit are masculine or 
neuter, are masculine in Hindf; and those which in Sanskrit are 
feminine, are feminine in Hindi. This rule absolutely does away with 
several exceptions which follow one of the favourite maxims of pre- 
ceding grammarians, viz., ' that names of lifeless things ending in 
^ i, are feminine,' butpdni, 'water,' moti, 'a pearl,' gh'i, 'clarified 
butter' (and they might have added many more, such as man'i, a gem,' 
etc.), are masculine : and why ? because they are either masculine or 
neuter in Sanskrit. It is but fair to state, however, that this principle 
does not in every instance apply to such words of Sanskrit origin as 
have been greatly mutilated or corrupted in the vulgar tongue. 

In the French and Italian languages which, like the Hindustanf, 
have only two genders, it will be found that a similar principle pre- 
vails with regard to words from the Latin. The classical scholar will 
find this hint to be of great service in acquiring a knowledge of the 
genders of such French words as end in e mute, the most trouble- 
some part of that troublesome subject. 

Principle 2nd. Arabic nouns derived from verbal roots by the 
addition of the servile d> t, are feminine, such as khilkat, ' creation, 
people,' etc., fromkhalaka, 'he created.' These in Hindustanf are very 
numerous, and it is to such only that the general rule respecting nouns 
in C^> t, rigidly applies. Arabic roots ending in e^> t, are not 
necessarily feminine ; neither are words ending in tU t derived from 
Persian and Sanskrit, those of the latter class being regulated by 
Principle 1st. Arabic nouns of the form d+xti are feminine, 
probably from the attraction of the i in the second syllable ; the letter 
i being upon the whole the characteristic feminine termination of the 
Hindustani language. To this general principle the exceptions are 

O . 

very few, among which we must reckon ^-^^> sJiarlat, sherbet,' and 
ta'tciz, 'an amulet,' which are masculine. 



Principle 3rd. Persian nouns derived from verbal roots by the 
addition of the termination (JL- ish, are feminine. These are not 
few in Hindustanf, and it is to such only that the rule strictly 
applies. Nouns from the Persian, or from the Arabic through the 
Persian, ending in the weak or imperceptible X h, such as ^\J ndma, 
' a letter,' <ulij IciFa, ' a fortress,' are generally masculine. This again 
may be accounted for by the affinity of the final a to the long a, which 
is a general masculine termination in Hindustanf. 

Principle 4th. Pure Indian words, that is, such as are not 
traceable to the Arabic, Persian, or Sanskrit, are generally masculine 
if they terminate in \ d. Arabic roots ending in \ A, are for the 
most part feminine ; nouns purely Sanskrit ending in \ d, are regu- 
lated by Principle 1st, but we may add, that the long d being a 
feminine termination in that language, such words are generally 
feminine in Hindustanf. "Words purely Persian when introduced into 
Hindustanf, with the exception of those ending in (JL- ish and a 
already mentioned, are not reducible to any rule ; the Persian 
language having no gender of its own in the grammatical sense of 
the term. 

Principle 5th, Compound words, in which the first member 
merely qualifies or defines the last, follow the gender of the last 
member, as slf>l-) shiMr-gdh, ' hunting-ground,' which is feminine ; 
the word gd h being feminine, and the first word shikar qualifying it 
like an adjective. 

I. It must be confessed, in conclusion, that, even after the appli- 
cation of the foregoing principles, there must still remain a con- 
siderable number of words reducible to no sort of rule. This is th*e 
inevitable fate of all such languages as have only two genders. 
Another natural consequence is, that many words occur sometimes 
masculine and sometimes feminine, depending on the caprice or 
indifference of the writer or speaker. We have also good grounds 
to believe that a word which is used in the masculine in one district 
may bo feminine in another, as wo know from experience to be the 
case in Gaelic, which, like the Hindustanf, has only two genders. 

25. Number and Case. The mode in which the plural 
number is formed from the singular, will be best learned 



by inspection from the examples which we hero subjoin. 
The language has virtually but one declension, and the 
various oblique cases, singular and plural, are regularly 
formed by the addition of certain particles or post- 
positions, etc., to the nominative singular. All the sub- 
stantives of the language may be very conveniently 
reduced to three classes, as follows : 

Class I. Including all substantives of the feminine gender. 









'Genitive ,< 








, Agent 


rdt-M, -fo, -M, 
rdt, j 
rdt-ko, j 

rat-men, -par, 
S\ airdt, 



rdtoh kd, -lie, -M, 
( jtJ\) rdteh, 

the night 
of the night 
to the night 

the night 

from the night 

in, on, the night 

by the night 

night ! 

the nights 
of the nights 
to the nights 

the nights 


U?\J r dt n -%> J 

LJ^ UJ*\J r< *ton-M, from the nights 

ji- --.^ &j>}j rdtoh-men, -par, in, on, the nights 

iJ ,^yb rdtoh-ne, by the nights 

y b t^t * rdto, nights ! 

Feminine nouns ending in .* i, add ^\- an in the nominative 

1* ^*^ / 1* 

plural ; thus j-'jj rot'i, bread,' a loaf,' nom. plur. .j^Jj j rotiydh. 
In the oblique cases plural, they add {.jy oh as above. 

In like manner a few words in j_ i, add ^\ uh, as ^^ joru, 
a wife,' nom. plnr.jbrMMfN orjoru,dh. 

a. Wo may now take a brief view of the formation of the coses. 



It will be seen that in the singular, the oblique cases are formed 
directly from the nominative, which remains unchanged, by the addi- 
tion of the various post-positions. The genitive case has three forms 
of the post-position, all of them, however, having the same significa- 
tion, the choice to be determined by a very simple rule which belongs 
to the Syntax. The accusative is either like the nominative or like 
the dative ; the choice, in many instances, depending on circumstances 
which will be mentioned hereafter. The nominative plural adds en to 
to the singular (dh if the singular be in ). The oblique cases plural 
in the first place add oh to the singular, and to that they affix the 
various post-positions ; it will be observed that the accusative plural is 
either like the nominative or dative plural. The vocative plural is 
always formed by dropping the final h of the oblique cases. Let it 
also be remembered that the final r^ added in the formation of the 
cases of the plural number is always nasal. Vide letter ^ page 6. 
Class II. Including all Masculine Nouns, with the exception of such 
as end in \ d (purely Indian), ,;.^ an, and a h. 

o ~ 

Example, tt mard, man.' 



iX* mard, man. 

S ** 

S JT* mard-M, etc., of 

/ o 

^i iX* mard-ko, to man. 


L>- mard, } 

<f J 7 maU ' 

S J-^ mard-ko, ) 


j-j J^ mard-se, from 

mard-men, -par, 
in, on, man. 

mard-ne, byman. 



L - y v - c^ 
Ag. iJ 

V N 

v . o 

This class, throughout the singular, is exactly like class L, and 
in the plural the only difference consists in the absence of any 
termination added to the nominative, and consequently to the first 
form of the accusative, which is the same. 





^ mard, men. 

mardon-M, etc., 
of men. 

mardon-Jco, to 



wardon-se, from 

. . 

-par, in, on, men. 

mardon-ne, by 

\ # 
n-Jco, j S 



All the other cases in the plural are formed precisely as before. 
It must be admitted that the want of a distinct termination to dis- 
tinguish the nominative plural from the singular, however, in Class 
II. is a defect in the language. This, however, seldom occasions any 
ambiguity, the sense being quite obvious from the context. The 
German is liable to a similar charge, and sometimes even the English, 
in the use of such words as ' deer,' ' sheep,' ' swine,' and a few others. 

Class III. Including Masculine Nouns purely Indian ending in 1 d, 
a few ending in ^\ an, and several words, chiefly from the 
Persian, ending in the imperceptible s or short a. 


kuttd, ' a dog.' 


VJ . 



Ab. C5 - 

Loc -y y - ,j~ 
Ag. J 



li w^a, a dog. 

^ kutte-kd, etc., 
of a dog. 

kutte-ko, to a 

li Jfcwtfef, ) 
->> | a dog 

z kutte-ko, ) 

w ^ 

i^ kutte-se, from a 

kutte-men, -par, 
in, on, a dog. 

kutte-ne, by a 

<M ufe, dog ! 






|i kutton-kd, etc., 
of dogs. 

p^ kutton-ko, 

p^ Aw^, 
; .<$ kutton-ko, 


-.f& kutton-se, from 

^ kutton-men, -par, 
in, on, dogs. 

^ kutton - ne, by 

i_f \ at kutto, dogs ! 

a. In like manner may be declined many words ending in s, as 
ij banda, 'a slave,' gen. bande-kd, etc., nom. plur. band*, 'sla. 
gen. bandon-kd, etc. Nouns in <f are not very numerous, and as the 
final n is very little, if at all, sounded; it is often omitted in writing ; 
thus ^l^J baniydn or LiJ baniyd, ' a trader,' gen. baniyett-kd or laniyt- 
kd, which last is the more common. In the ordinal numbers, such as 
^ u~!i3 daswdh, ' the tenth,' etc., the nasal n generally remains in the 
inflection, as ,:y*-J^ daswen-kd, etc., ' of the tenth.' In the oblique 


kutte, dogs. 


cases plural, the ^ -an, is changed into ^ on. "With regard to this 
third class of words, we have one remark to add ; which is, that the 
vocative singular is x often to be met with uninflected, like the 
nominative as 12-j ^j\ ai letd for ,<5-J <_^ , son ! ' 

b. The peculiarity of Class III." is, that the terminations 1 d and 
if a, of the nominative singular, are entirely displaced in the oblique 
cases singular and nominative plural by ^ e, and in the oblique cases 
plural by ^ on. This change or displacement of termination is called 
' inflection,' and it is limited to masculine nouns only with the above 
terminations ; for feminines ending in \ ^ or s, are never inflected, 
nor are all masculines ending in the same, subject to it. A consider- 
able number of masculine nouns ending in \ d, purely Arabic, Persian, 
or Sanskrit, are not inflected, and consequently belong to Class II. 
On the other hand, masculine nouns purely Indian, such for example 
as the infinitives and participles of verbs used substantively or adjec- 
tively, are uniformly subject to inflection. In like manner, several 
masculine nouns ending in the imperceptible is are not subject to 
inflection, and as these are not reducible to any rule, the student must 
be guided by practice. 

c. Masculines in a from the Persian often change the x into I in 
Hindustani; thus <k>-j4 darja, 'grade/ 'rank,' becomes ^>-j<^ darjd; 
so ij^ maza, 'taste,' becomes U* mazd. All such words are subject 
to inflection, for by this change they become as it were ' Indianized.' 
The final * is not inflected if in a state of construction (agreeably to 
the rules of Persian grammar) with another word, as ^-^ ^HJ& * ^^ 
dida-i hash men, ' in the eye of prudence ; ' ^* fc^lj ^j zabdn-i 
relchta men, ' in the Eekhta or mixed dialect.' 

26. General rules for the Declension of Nouns. 
1. In classes I. and II. the nominative singular remains 
unaltered throughout, the plural terminations being 
superadded. 2. In class III. the nominative singular 
is changed or inflected into ^ e, for the oblique singular 
and nominative plural, and the terminations of the 
oblique cases plural are substituted for, not added to, the 
termination of the singular. 3. All plurals end in 


^ on in the oblique cases, that is, whenever a post- 
position is added or understood. 4. The vocative plural 
always ends inj 0, having dropped the final ^ n of the 
oblique. 5. Words of the first and second classes, con- 
sisting of two short syllables, the last of which being 
fatha, drop the fatha on receiving a plural termination ; 
thus ^Jjb taraf, 'aside,' nom. plur. ^j^b tarfen, gen. 
l ^jfi tarfoh-k'a, etc., not tarafeh^ etc. 

a. A few words are subject to slight deviations from the strict 
rule, among which we may mention the following. 1. "Words ending 
J nw t preceded by a long vowel, as ylj ndnw, 'a name,' yl> pdnw, 
'the foot,' and jjlS gdnw, ' a village ;' reject the j nw, and substitute 
the mark hamza on receiving a plural termination : thus, l (-jj*^ pd,on 
ltd, etc. 'of the feet.' 2. The word ^li" gd,e, 'a cow,' makes in 
the nominative plural ^\S ffd,en, and in the oblique plural ^^ gd,on, 
thus resembling the oblique plural of y\ gdnw, 'a village.' 3. A 
few feminine diminutives in U- iyd, like randiyd, chiriyd, etc. form 
the nominative plural by merely adding a nasal , as .jV.J^" ^*'ny<7> 
which is evidently a contraction for chinyd,en, the regular form. 
4. Masculines of the third class ending in <0 ya, may follow the 
general rule, or change the ^ y into a hamza before the inflection ; 
thus <iuLj sdya, ' a shade (of a tree),' gen. l ,f)\~* sdye-Tcd, or l ,_*Lj 
sd,e-M. 5. The word &^jj rlipiya, 'a rupee,' has generally .j 
,e, for the nominative plural. 

27. Post-position. In this work, to avoid confusion, 
we apply the term post-position only to those insepar- 
able particles or terminations which invariably follow 
the nouns to which they belong. They may be united 
with their substantives so as to appear like the case 
terminations in Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, or they may 
be written separately, as we have given them in the 
examples for declension. The most useful and important 
of them are the following, viz. : l d, ^ ke, J^ A-{, 


1 of,' the sign of the genitive case ; Jco c to,' the sign 
of the dative, and sometimes of the accusative or objective 
case; ^ se 'from,' or 'with,' (also ^^ son, ^ sen, ^j^, 
siti, are occasionally met with), the sign of the ablative 
and instrumental ; ^ par (sometimes in poetry <o pa), 
'upon,' 'on,' 'at,' ^9 men, 'in,' 'into,' ul& tdk, tl53j 
talak, vgjJJ lag, ' up to,' ' as far as,' ' till,' one of the signs 
of the locative case; and, lastly, J ne, 'by,' the sign 
of the agent. 

a. The post-positions require the words to which they are affixed 
to be in the inflected form, if they belong to Class III. ; and they 
are generally united with the oblique form in ^^ on of all plurals. 
On the other hand, an inflected form in the singular can only occur 
in combination with a post-position, expressed or understood; and 
the same rule applies to all lond fide oblique forms in ^ on of the 
plural. There are a few expressions in which the oblique form in 
^ on is used for the nominative plural ; and when a numeral 
precedes, the nominative form may be used for the oblique, as will 
be noticed more fully in the Syntax. 


28. Adjectives in Hindustani generally precede 
their substantives, and with the exception of those 
which are purely Indian words and ending in \ a, together 
with a few from the Persian ending in a or short a, they 
are, as in English, indeclinable. Words purely Indian, 
ending in \ a, change the final \ a into ^ <?, when they 
qualify or agree with a masculine noun in any case 
except the nominative singular (or the first form of the 
accusative, which is the same) ; and the \ a is changed 
into ,_- i with feminine nouns. Thus, the adjective 
c-jyL khubj l good,' l fair,' is the same before nouns of 
either gender or number in all cases, as khiib janwar, ' a 


fine animal ;' khub larki, ' a fair girl '; kkub randiydn, 
1 fine women,' khub ffhore, l beautiful horses.' Again the 
adjective Htf kdld, 'black,' is used in that form only 
before masculine nouns, in the nominative or the first 
form of the accusative singular ; it will become Jl 
kale, before masculine nouns in the oblique cases singular 
and throughout the plural, as Mid mard, l a black man,' 
kale mard-kd, l of a black man,' kale mard, l black men,' 
kale mardoh-se, ' from black men.' Lastly, before femi- 
nine nouns, kdld becomes ^K kali for both numbers 
and in all cases, as kali rat, '"the dark night,' kali rdt-se, 
1 from the dark night,' kali rdton-kd, l of the dark nights,' 

a. Hence it appears, as a general rule: 1. That adjectives, 
before feminine nouns, have no variation on account of case or number. 
2. That adjectives terminating like nouns of the first and second classes 
are indeclinable ; and lastly, that adjectives, terminating like nouns of 
the third class, are subject to a slight inflection like the oblique 
singular of the substantives of that class. 

i. The cardinal numbers, ek, 'one,' do, two,' etc., are all inde- 
clinable when used adjectively. The ordinals above pdnchwdn, ' the 
fifth,' inclusive, follow the general rule, that is, pdnchwdn is inflected 
into pdnchwen before the oblique cases of masculines, and it becomes 
pdnchwin before feminine nouns. 

c. Adjectives ending in s or short a, which are principally 
borrowed from the Persian; are, for the most part, indeclinable. 
There are some, however, which are inflected into ^j 9 for the 
masculine, and ,__ { for the feminine, like those ending in \ d; 

o. ( . 

among these may be reckoned *Ju]i rdnda, rejected,' JJL sdda, 

t ' "^X Vi 

plain,' *&*. 'umda, exalted,' *i\ii ganda, fetid,' JJJU mdnda, 

.V' t <*O f 

tired,' jrjj^ri- Mmrinda, gluttonous,' iJo-^i sharminda, ashamed, 
<*i.~*> lamina, ' mean,' Xj^&J. lecMra, ' helpless,' j^lAj ndkdra, 
' useless,' fJ0fcA) nddida, ' unseen, 1 so\j,*\.s*. hardm-zdda, ' base-born, 



<*JL cl^sj yak-sdlah, 'annual,' 'one year old,' iSL jJ do sdlah. 
' biennial,' and perhaps a few more. 

d. The majority of adjectives purely Indian, together with all 
present and past participles of verbs, end in I d (subject to inflection) 
for the masculine, and <_ i for the feminine. All adjectives in I d, 
purely Persian or Arabic, are indeclinable, with perhaps the sole 
exception of \&>- judd, 'separate,' 'distinct,' and a few that may 
have become naturalized in Hindustani by changing the final a of the 
Persian into I d, like Uli fuldnd, ' such a one,' or ' so and so.' 

29. Degress of Comparison. The adjectives in 
Hindustani have no regular degrees of comparison, and 
the manner in which this defect is supplied will be fully 
explained in the Syntax. Suffice it here to say that 
when two objects are compared, that with which the 
comparison is made is put in the ablative case, like 
the Latin. Thus, for example, 'this house is high,' 
^Jb jcL j n j yih ghar inland hai] 'this house is" higher 
thau the tree,' ^ JcL ^ c^J^J j -^ yih ghar 
darakht-se Inland hai, literally 'this house (compared) 
with the tree is high.' The superlative degree is merely 
an extreme comparison formed by reference to the word 
c_^o sabj 'all,' as ^ oij ^ L-^-J^^-^ yih ghar sab-se 
Inland hai, ' this house (compared) with all is high,' or 
' this is the highest house of all.' 

Personal Pronouns. 

30. The pronouns differ more or less from the sub- 
stantantives in their mode of inflection. Those of the 
first and second persons form the genitive in \j ra, ^ 
re, and ^ n, instead of l #, etc. They have a distinct 



dative and accusative form in ^ e (singular), and ^ eh 
(plural), besides that made by the sign ko. They also 
form the oblique in a manner peculiar to themselves, and 
admit generally of the elision of the termination ^ on, 
in the oblique plural. They have the dative and accu- 
sative cases in both numbers the same ; and lastly, the 
cases of the agent are never inflected in the singular, 
these being always main-ne and tu-ne or taih-ne ; never 
mujh-ne, or tujh-ne. 

The first personal pronoun is thus declined : 
l \ main, *!.' 




{.*+* main, I. 

j-* ^-x merd,mere \ my, 
u?^ wzerl, f. ) of me 

*Jb Afl, We. 

t^L^Jb KL+Jfe hamdrd,hamdre \ t - 
t/^Ujb hamdri, f. ) 

D. &( 
Ac. L 

(^^^ MM/A*, 1 me> ^ 
^ ^s'* mujh-ko, ) to me. 

j-^Jb hamen, \ 

S -L 1 1 U8 ^ 

b *Ji ham-ko, } 

s'\ . . I to US. 

i\j)*> hamon-KO, ) 


-j ^jsf* mujh-se, from me. 

^ i } from us. 

-<-. . ^JJ hamon se, ) 

** iltf' 

^sr* mujTi-men, in me. 

l \f^* *^ ham-men, } 
' . . . > in us. 
c^* c!^*^ " amon men , ) 

Ag. , 

.X . 

J ^w^* main-ne, by me. 

(3 *& Jiam-ne, \ 
; " ' , . } by us. 
o Mj***" hamon ne, ) 

In this example we have three forms essentially 
distinct from each other, viz., the nominative, genitive, 
and oblique modification in the singular, as ^^ main, 
\j~* mera, ^sf mujh; and in the plural *a> fiam, \Jiib 
hamdrdj and *j& ham or ^^ hamon. From the oblique 
modifications, ^* miy'h, and *js 7wr/ or ^st> hamoh, the 



other oblique cases are formed by adding the requisite 
post-positions, except that the case denoting the agent 
is in the singular J ^* main ne. 

The second personal pronoun y tit or ( j+j tain is declined in a 
similar manner. 






X' &> 

or 4j tii or torn, Thou. 

>j turn, You. 

G. c 

.J ^ &r<f, etc., thy. 

t>- (j?;- vv*^ tumhdrd, etc., 



i <&r^ tufhe, ) fa tv,pp 

t^VS / f I/O IJltJCj 

jj-^J tumhen, to you. 
^ ' 

Ac. (^ 

^ ^rsT 1 tujh-ko, ) or thee. 

^^J^i *j' tum-ko, or tumhon- 

Jco, you. 

A. ^ 

c ^sr tufh-se, from thee. 

^^^J J-MS AJ tum-se, or tumhon 

, ,~> se, from you. 

* Sr >> 

L. ^ 

/ ^sT tujh men, in thee. 

^j^J ^;^ *j turn-men, or tfwm- 

.j-< hon-men, in you. 


iJ jj ^tt-we, by thee. 

ojg'+iT <3 (J ^MW-W^, or tumhon- 

9. + 1 

tj w<9, by you. 


i_j! a* M, thou ! 

>J i_f 1 ai ^M}, ye ! 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

31. In Hindustani the demonstrative pronouns, 
c this, ' that,' ' these,' and ' those,' at the same time 
supply the place of our third person ' he,' l she,' ' it,' 
and ' they.' They are the same for both genders, and 
the context alone determines how they are to be rendered 
into English. The word -^ yih, l this,' c he,' ' she,' or 
' it,' is used when reference is made to a person or object 
that is near ; and sj with, ' that,' * he,' ' she,' or ' it,' 
when we refer to that which is more remote. The 



proximate demonstrative ^ yth, ' he/ ' she/ * it/ ' this/ 
is declined as follows : - 

N. ^J ytfi, this, he, etc. 

uJ w-JW, -&, -M, of 

this, him, efo. 
D. ^>\ (JM\ it-Jto or i*e, to 

this, to him, 

Ac. j (jw/ -^ y$, w-o, w, this, 
^>\ him, efc. 

Ab. ^j-s (JM\ w-se, from this, 

him, etc. 
L. .:* (jw! is-men, in this, or 


in him, etc. 

A-g. <j (jwt ia-ne, by this, or 
by him, etc. 


^, these, they. 

these, of them. 

'} inhoitko, to these, 
y li^ Jorto them. 

Jr U 

these, them. 

.--j ^1 m-e, from these, 

from them. 
^xi y\ in men, in these, 

in them. 
J .J tw-, by these, 

" s 

by them. 

In this example we see that the nominative yih is 
changed into w for the oblique cases singular, and the 
nominative plural ye becomes in for the oblique plural, 
just as in the English i he' becomes * him/ and ' they 7 
' them.' In the oblique cases plural, it may be men- 
tioned that besides the form J in, we sometimes meet 
with 4>\ ink and ^a\ inhon, though not so commonly. 
The dative singular has two forms, one by adding ko, 
like the substantives, and another by adding ^ e, as 
is-ko or is-e ; in the plural we have in-ko and in-heh. 
The accusative is generally like the dative, but often 
the same as the nominative, as in the declension of 

32. The demonstrative *j, 'that/ 'he/ 'she, 'it' 
the interrogative ^f kauri, ' who ? ' ' what ?' the relative 



f>- jo, c he who,' ' she who,' etc., and the correlative j~> 
so, l that same,' are precisely similar in termination to ^ 
in the foregoing example ; hence it will suffice to give 
the nominatives, and one or two oblique cases of each, 
thus : 

Remote Demonstrative. 


N. aj wuh, he, she, it, 

or that. 

S\ we, they, those. 


1 1 UM\ its-Jed, etc. 

l^ .j*^^ l^ ^ un-Jed,Gsunnon-Ted. 

t f 

9 9 

D -u 

~>\ (JM\ us-Teo, or use. 

^\^ J\ un-Teo, or unhen. 

Interrogative (applied to persons or individuals). 


jjij Jeaun, who, which. 

U^ ^fln, who, which. 


Is ij* kis-Ted, etc. 

l f\\)^ ^ ^ Tein-Ted, or Jeinhoh- 


Ted, etc. 

Interrogative (applied to matter or quantity). 



L kyd, what. 

Same as the singular. 


^J&\^ JedJie-Ted, etc. 


>- /o or ^^T" jawn, He 
who, she who, 
that which. 

jis-M, etc. 

!" jis-Jco, etc. 


5- /o orjaun, They who, 
those who, or 






* Sometimes l (jwj ?w A<f , etc. ; and in the plur. l ^J 
twn-, trtA-, or winhon-, Jed, etc. 

jjj- jin-Teo, or jinhen. 

so or ,jy faww, That same. 
J tis-fed t etc. 

so or jj^j #MW, These same. 
^ tin-Ted or tinhon-Tcd, 



33. The genitives singular and plural of the personal 
and demonstrative pronouns are used adjectively as pos- 
sessives, like the meus, tuns, noster, vester, etc., of the 
Latin, and in construction they follow the rule given 
respecting adjectives in I a. There is, however, in addi- 
tion to these, another possessive of frequent occurrence, 
viz. 1^1 apna, ^J apne, ^\ apm, 'own,' or l belonging 
to self; which, under certain circumstances, supplies the 
place of any of the rest, as will be fully explained in 
the Syntax. The word c_?T ap, ' self/ is used with or 
without the personal pronouns ; thus, c->T ^^ main ap, 
'I myself,' which meaning may be conveyed by em- 
ploying c-jT ap alone. But the most frequent use of 
cJT dp is as a substitute for the second person, to express 
respect, when it may be translated, 'you,' 'sir,' 'your 
honour,' l your worship,' etc. When used in this sense, 
cJT dp is declined like a word of the second class of 
substantives under the singular form, thus : 

K". <>T dp, your honour. 

G. ^- ./- \ c_>T dp-kd, -h, -&, of your honour. 

D. & Ac. j c M dp-ko, to your honour, your honour. 

A. u-> t->l dp-se, from your honour. 

L. l j^t c >1 dp-men, in your honour. 

Agt. ti <_j| dp-ne, by your honour. 

When the word <_! dp denotes ' self,' it is declined 
as follows : 

N. cJT dp, self, myself, to. 

o o. . o. 

G. ,<ij \ ^\ uj \ apnd, apne, apnk, own, of self, etc. 


( ^ <_ 
D. &A. i r SP f * 

JJ--J . 


<__>7 dp-Tco or apne-Tco, 
* r ' 



to-self, self. 

The phrase { \^ <j*jT dpas-meh denotes ' among our- 
selves,' 'yourselves,' or l themselves,' according to the 
nominative of the sentence. 


34. Under this head we class all those words which 
have more or less of a pronominal signification. The 
following are of frequent occurrence : cl>\ ek, ' one j 
\j~>j dusrdj 'another ;' yjj dono, or ^^ donoh, 'both ;' jj\ 
aur, ' other (more) ;' j ghair, ' other, (different) ;' ^> 
la'zCj ' certain ;' c^j lahut, ' many,' ' much ;' ^^i sab, 
' all,' ' every ;' y> har, ' each ;' ti^l fuldna or l5li fulana, 
' a certain one ;' ^J Tco\ ' any one,' ' some one ;' ^ 
kuchh, ' any thing,' ' something ;' ^ kaji and jJo- chand, 
1 some,' ' several,' ' many ;' lx^ kitna or li kittdj ' how 
many ?' \sfjti*q or \MJ- ,;V^, ' as many ;' L/1 zVw or U< 
%, ' so many.' They are all regular in their inflec- 
tions, with the exception of ^J^f Jco^ 'any,' and 
kuchh, ' some,' which are thus declined : 




:o,i, Any one, some 

'tSt^/CUf CIC. 


ka,l, some, 
li-M, etc. 


sr> Tcuchh, Any thing, 

kisu-M, etc. 

s AwcAA, any, some, 

Itinb-Tcd, etc. 

* We have given the oblique forms of the plural kinl and kinu on the authority 
of Mr. Yates ; at the same time we must confess that we never met with either of 
them in the course of our reading. 


a. The -word Zo,i, unaccompanied by a substantive, is generally 
understood to signify a person or persons, as ko,i hat? 'is there any 
one ? ' (vulgarly qui hy] ; and in similar circumstances kuchh refers to 
things in general, as kuchh nahin, 'there is nothing,' 'no matter.' 
When used adjectively, ko,i and kuchh may be applied to persons or 
things indifferently, particularly so in the oblique cases. 

b. The following is a useful list of compound adjective pronouns ; 
and as almost all of them have already been noticed in their simple 
forms, it has been deemed superfluous to add the pronunciation in 
Roman characters. They are for the most part of the indefinite kind, 
and follow the inflections of the simple forms of which they are com- 
posed; thus ek ko,i, 'some*one,' ek kisi-kd, etc., 'of some one.' If 
both members be subject to inflection in the simple forms, the same 
is observed in the compound, as jo-ko,k, whosoever,' jis-kisi-kd, etc., 
'of whomsoever,' so jo-kuchh, 'whatsoever,' jis-kwu-kd, etc., 'of 

The compound adjective pronouns of the indefinite kind are 

X X O f 

j^ or <^-vJ lr^> 'another,' ^^ tl^> 'someone,' 


or -fs \^>j>^, ' some other,' tlXJ <0 uX>l, ' one or 

X S, X 

other,' ^jjj\t ' some one else,' ^sr jj\ t ' something else,' L r 

" ' ' 

'the rest,' \J><f .<^*j or jj\ ,5-3*;, 'some others,' uUo! 

ft ' < 

'many a one,' .fsr cs-^J, 'much,'jj\ ^-^J> 'many more,' .*$ 

' '< < 

or .-Jj^jfc, ' everyone,' ^s? c_^- or ^sfjb, 'every thing,' L!Jol 

C^Ji Jb or yu j&, 'every one,' <JJol ,5-^ ' whichever,' jj\ 

'I ' " " t 
'some other,' \1 fr 'whoever,' ^s^ f*-, ' whatever,' ,<-J^ <0 

* 9 ' > ^' 

' some one or other,' (L^\ .fir or .fs ^s?, ' somewhat,' jj 

<" c' *< 

some more,' ^sr <0 ^s?, 'something or other. The use and 

application of all the pronouns will be fully explained under that 
head in the Syntax. 



35. All verbs in Hindustani are conjugated in ex- 
actly the same manner. So far as terminations are 
concerned, there is not a single irregular verb in the 
language. There is, strictly speaking, but one simple 
tense (the aorist), which is characterized by distinct per- 
sonal endings ; the other tenses being formed by means 
of the present and past participles, together with the 
auxiliary ' to be.' The infinitive or verbal noun, which 
always ends in U nd (subject to inflection), is the form in 
which verbs are given in Dictionaries ; hence it will be 
of more practical utility to consider this as the source 
from which all the other parts spring. 

36. From the infinitive are formed, by very simple 
and invariable rules, the three principal parts of the 
verb, which are the following : 1. The second person 
singular of the imperative or root, by rejecting the final 
U nd; as from U^j bofaa, 'to speak,' comes Jy bol, 'speak 
thou.' 2. The present participle, which is always formed 
by changing the final 1) nd of the infinitive into \j ta^ as 
U)^ lolnd, l to speak,' W^j boltd, ' speaking.' 3. The past 
participle is formed by leaving out the ^ n of the infini- 
tive, as Ujj bolndj 'to speak,' ^ bold, 'spoken.' If, 
however, the \3 nd of the infinitive be preceded by the 
long vowels \ d or ^ 0, the past participle is formed by 
changing the ^ n into ^ y, in order to avoid a disagree- 
able hiatus ; thus from t$ land, ' to bring,' comes W lay a, 
(not H Id-d) 'brought;' so Ujj rond, ' to weep,' makes 



V.^j r y ' m the P as ^ participle. These three parts being 
thus ascertained, it will be very easy to form all the 
various tenses, etc., as in the examples which we are 
about to subjoin. 

37. As a preliminary step to the conjugation of all 
verbs, it will be necessary to learn carefully the following 
fragments of the auxiliary verb l to be,' which frequently 
occur in the language, not only in the formation of 
tenses, but in the mere assertion of simple existence. 

Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

ma * n 

am - 

tin. hai, thou art. 

J& ham hain, we are. 
A j turn ho, you are. 

MJb ^ we hain, they are. 

*& ham the, we were. 
J w turn the, you were. 
j we the, they were. 

( Jb Sj wuh hai, he, she, it is. 

Past Tense. 

\g ^^ main thd, I was. 
\g tu thd, thou wast. 
Uj x ) wuh thd, he or it was. 

a. The first of these tenses is a curiosity in its way, as it is the 
only present tense in the language characterized by different termi- 
nations, and independent of gender. Instead of the form .Jz> hat, in 
the second and third persons singular, ULfc haiyd is frequently met 

^o s " , ^ 

with in verse ; and in the plural, xi-Ji hainge for :^> hain in the 
first and third persons. In the past tense, l$j thd of the singular 
becomes ^i thi when the nominative is feminine, and in the plural 
^^j thin. We may here remark that throughout the conjugation of 
all verbs, when the singular terminates in d (masculine), the plural 
becomes e; and if tho nominative be feminine, the d becomes i for 
the singular, and in (contracted for fydn) for the plural. If several 
feminine terminations in the plural follow in succession, the fci is 
added only to tho last, but even here there are exceptions. 



38. We shall now proceed to the conjugation of an 
intransitive or neuter verb, and with a view to assist the 
memory, we shall arrange the tenses in the order of their 
formation from the three principal parts already explained. 
The tenses, as will be seen, are nine in number three 
tenses being formed from each of the three principal 
parts. A few additional tenses of comparatively rare 
occurrence will be detailed hereafter. 


Infinitive, U^j lolna, To speak. 
^ ( Imperative and root J v lol, speak (thou). 

c_i -j; I c> * 


a { Present participle u) *. loHd, speaking. 

P- f 

V Past participle ji lold, spoke or spoken. 


English *I may speak,' etc. 

9 S 

^ \.+ main loliin. 
'j tu lole. 
y wuh lole. 

English ' I shall or will speak,' etc. 


main lolbngd. .^xxJjj +& ham lolenge. 

a " ^\ ?. 

\ y tu lolegd. L5^7^ (*"* ^ um ^ologe. 

< ^o ' ' 

i Xj wuh lolegd. ^xxJ j ^ we lolenge. 

fem. lolungk, etc. fem. lokhgin, etc. 


English ' Let me speak, speak thou,' etc. 
main lolun. 
tii. 161 
wuh lole 

j^jj *&> ham lolen. 

' p 

fy *J turn lok. 

jj >JJ) ham loleh. 

* o 

Jjj AJ* turn lolo. 
$ we lokn. 




English (as a present tense) ' I speak, thou speakest,' etc. ; 
(conditional) ' If I spoke, had I spoken,' etc. ; (habitual) ' I used 
to speak.' 

o o 

H^ litf"* ma * n loltd. 

li! J y tf& 0#d. 

UjJ Jj 7ttA Jyftd. 


English *I speak or am speaking,' 0fo. 

mam io^d Aura. 

^u loltd hai. 

^ Vo'" t 

tiuA io^d Aa. ,:*A ^J*J i_ u>0 io^fl Aaiw. 

J U& ^a; io^. 
^J^j w turn lolte. 
jj V ,_$j we lolte. 

English ' I was speaking, thou wast,' etc. 

i loltd thd. 

* , 
UJ \Sl|Jt r ^ 



English ' I spoke, thou spokest,' etc. 

',in lold. iftf (^ ham lole. 

lold. jjjj *J turn lole. 

lold. Jjj ^ we lole. 

English ' I have spoken, thou hast,' etc. 

main lold h&n. ^j+z ^ly +&> ham lole hain. 

'J tu lold hai. y& ^^j *J turn lole ho. 

? - ~ - 

wuh lold hai. 




English ' I had spoken, thou hadst spoken,' etc. 
k> : ~ main bold thd. 

_^jj *A ham bole the. 

i j 
jj tu bold thd. .^J ^SjJ +3 turn bole the. 

teuh bold thd. . ^ , jjj ^ we bole the. 

Respectful Imperative or Precative. 

f. t 

boliye or ^^ boliyo, You, he, etc., be pleased to speak.' 
boliyegd, ' You, he, *&., will have the goodness to speak.' 
Infinitive (used as a gerund or verbal noun). 

o o 

Nom. Ujj fo?d, 'Speaking:' gen. l ,5^ bolne-kd, etc., 'Of 
speaking,' 0&., like substantives of the third class. 
Noun of Agency. 

C fc 

^J L5^ bolne-wdld, and sometimes l^U ,^Jy bolne-hdrd, 'A 
speaker,' one who is capable of speaking.' 

Participles, used a&jectively. 

Pres. U 




fern, bolti or 

!Ji> Sjj bold hu,d, 
o?i or boli hu,i. 



bolte or 
hu,e, fern. 

bole or t_?y& 
fern. foZm or 

in or io?<i 


Conjunctive (indeclinable). J^jj Jo? 

ottar, (<^/ JjJ ^^ Jcar-ke, or ^i^ J^j io? Icarkar, ' having 

Adverbial participle (indeclinable). ^ ^jAji bolte-hi, 'On 
speaking, or on (the instant of) speaking.' 

a. "We may here briefly notice how the various portions of the 
verb are formed. The aorist, it will be seen, is the only part worthy 
of the name of tense, and it proceeds directly from the root by adding 
the terminations iin, e, e, for the singular, and en, o, en, for the 


plural. Tho future ia formed directly from the aorist by adding gn 
to the singular and ge to the plural for masculines, or by adding gi 
and giydn (generally contracted into gin) when the nominative to the 
verb is feminine. The imperative differs from the aorist merely in 
the second person singular, by using the bare root without the 
addition of the termination e. Hence, the future and imperative are 
mere modifications of the aorist, which we have placed first, as the 
tense par excellence. It is needless to offer any remark on the tenses 
formed from the present participle, as the reader will easily learn 
them by inspection. The three tenses from the past participle are 
equally simple in all neuter or intransitive verbs; but in transitive 
verbs they are subject to a peculiarity of construction, which will be 
noticed further on. The proper use and application of the various 
tenses and other parts of the verb will be fully treated of in the 

I. As the aorisfc holds the most prominent rank in the Hin- 
dustani verb, it will be proper to notice in this place a few euphonic 
peculiarities to which it is subject. 1. When the root ends in d, the 
letter w is optionally inserted in the aorist between the root and those 
terminations that begin with e; thus \i\ land, 'to bring,' root}! Id, 
Aorist, sfl lawk or ^*l ld,e. 2. "When the aorist ends in o, the 
letter to is optionally inserted, or the general rule may be observed, 
or the initial vowels of the termination may all vanish, as will be seen 
in the verb Jiond, which wo are about to subjoin. Lastly, when the 
root ends in e, the letter w may be inserted between the root and 
those terminations which begin with e, or the to being omitted, the 
final e of the root is absorbed in the terminations throughout. Thus 
bjj dend, to give,' root (_J de, Aorist, deun, detoe, dewe ; dewen 
de,o, dewen ; or, contracted, dun, de, de ; den, do, den. It is needless 
to add that the future and imperative of all such verbs are subject to 
the same modification. With regard to the respectful form of the 
imperative and future, we see at once that it comes from the root 
by adding iye, kyo, or kyegd ; if, however, the root happens to end in 
the long vowels { or it, the letter j is inserted between the root and 
the termination. Thus U-J pind, ' to drink/ root, pi, respectful form, 
n& ptyiycga. ' 


39. We now come to the verb Ujjj> hond, l to be, or 
become,' which, being of frequent occurrence, is worthy 
of the reader's attention. It is perfectly regular in the 
formation of all its tenses, etc., and conjugated precisely 
like bolndj already given. The past participle changes 
the o of the root into u } instead of retaining the o and 
inserting the euphonic y (No. 36), thus \^> hu } a, 'been or 
become,' not l>y> hoy a; so the respectful imperative is 
hujiye, etc. ; but these slight peculiarities do not in the 
least affect the regularity of its conjugation, as will be 
seen in the paradigm. 

Infinitive, l3y& hond, l To be, or become.' 

Root^fc ho, present participle \jj& hotd, past participle IJjb hu,d. 

'I may, or shall be, or become.' 

* " T > ' I ' 

^y&- ;jiy& #* MUM ho,un, or hon. 
>- .$>& t-^jy 6 t^ ^ howe, ho,e or Jur. 

e, ho,e, or ho. 

n, ho, en, or hon. 
*j turn ho,o or ho. 
*-$} we howen, ho,en, or hon. 

'I shall or will be, or become.' 


main ho,itngd, or hungd. 
^ howegd, ho,egd, or 
howegd, ho,egd, or 

howenge, ho,eiige, or 
ho,oge, or A<#0. 
howenge, ho,enge, or 




'Let mo be, be thou,' etc. 

in ho-un, or hon, 

j> tii. ho. 

hotce, ho,c, or ho. 

howen, ho-en, or hon. 
A- j JS *J turn ho,o, or Ao. 
&- .jj jJb (_<r W6 howen, ho,en, or Aow. 

'I am, I might be, I used to be, or become.' 

*& Asm 

j <ti \hotd. 

? wuh 

jjyi / *J ^MW ^ Aofe. 


'I am, or I become,' etc. 


^..^ mam Aoa AA. 
J tit hotd hai. 

'I was becoming,' etc. 



hote hain. 

Jb Aam 

w <;/ > Ao<<? the. 

'I became,' *fc. 






'I have become,' etc. 

main hu,d hun. 
j tu hu,d hat. 
j wuh hu,d hai. 

'I had become,' etc. 

X . 



*&> ham hu,e hain. 

a . 
*> turn hu,e ho. 

(^ we hu,e hain. 


hu,d tU. 

*Jb ham 
*J' turn 

hu,e the. 

Respectful Imperative, etc. 
^-tSf-jb hujiye, X~T)& hfy'iyo, or lCL>-y& hujiyegd, ' be pleased to be, 

or to become.' 

Infinitive, or Ferial Noun. 

lj <*& bond, ' being,' hone-led, etc., ' of being.' 

Noun of Agency or Condition. 
]\yjj& honewdld, ' that which is, or becomes.' 


Pres. \Jys) hotd, or V^Jfc ljyi Ao^a Ai,a, ' being, becoming.' 
Past. VLa> hu,d, ' been, or become.' 

Conjunctive Participle. 
ij& J>^> ^> ho, holcar, hoTce, etc., ' having been, or become.' 

Adverlial Participle. 
^Jb (Jji) hote-ht, on being, or becoming.' 

a. "We may here observe that the aorist, future, and indefinite of 
lj & hond, ' to be,' are sometimes used as auxiliaries with the present 
and past participles of other verbs, so as to give us three additional 
tenses. These, from their nature, are not of very frequent occurrence, 
and some forms of them we confess we have never met with in any 
work, printed or manuscript, except in grammars. They are, how- 
ever, considered as distinct parts of the verb by native grammarians, 



therefore it is but right that they should find a place here. "We 
therefore subjoin them, together with their native appellations, re- 
serving the account of their use and application till we come to the 

1 . Hdl-i mutashakkl, literally, ' present dubious.' 

English ' I may or shall be speaking.' 

main boltd ho,&n or ho t bhgd. 

> M boltd howe or howegd. 


, i , or howehye. 

* ^ 

t um bolts ho,o or ho, ay 0. 

i or howenge. 

2. J/ds& mutashalcki or Mashkuk, ' past dubious.' 
English ' I may or shall have spoken.' 

jJ J^ main bold ho, inn or houngd. 

or howegd. 

j a^ wuh bold howe or howegd. 
i +& ham bole howen or howenge. 
j -j turn bole ho,o or ho,oge. 
i_j we bole howen or howenge. 

3. Mdzi shartiya or md~i mutamanni. 

Past Conditional. 
English ' Had I been speaking,' or ' had I spoken.' 


ii tin 

Sj WUh 

*fe ham 
*J turn 

boltd hot 6, or bold hotd. 

bolte hot*, or lole hole. 


I. Of these three tenses, the first is of rare occurrence ; the 
second is more common, and the future form of the auxiliary is 
more usual than the aorist in both tenses. The third tense, or past 
conditional, is of very rare occurrence under the above form, its place 
being generally supplied by the simpler form W^j l \^ main loltd, 
the first of the tenses from the present participle, which on account 
of its various significations we have given under the appellation of 
the Indefinite Tense. In the Father of Hindustani Grammars/ that 
of Dr. Gilchrist, 4to. Calcutta, 1796, and also in two native treatises 
in our possession, the various forms main loltd' main loltd hotd,' 
main loltd hii,d hotd,' and main bold hotd,' are all included under 
the appellation of mdzi sharti, or mdzi mutamanni, that is, 'Past 
Conditional.' It is true, the form ' main loltd 1 has occasionally a 
present signification, but to call it a present tense, as is done in some 
of our grammars, is leading the student into a gross error, as we shall 
shew hereafter. 

40. "We shall now give an example of a transitive 
verb, which, as we have already hinted, is liable to a 
peculiarity in those tenses which are formed from the 
past participle. The full explanation of this anomaly 
belongs to the Syntax. Suffice it here to say that the 
construction resembles to a certain extent the passive 
voice of the corresponding tenses in Latin. Thus for 
example, the sentence, ' He has written one letter,' may 
in Latin, and in most European tongues, be expressed in 
two different ways, by which the assertion amounts to 
exactly the same thing, viz., ' Hie unam epistolam scripsitj 
or < Ab illo una epistola scripta esf Now these two 
modes of expression convey the same idea to the mind, 
but in Hindustani the latter form only is allowed ; thus 
f us-ne ek chitJii UJcJii hai } ' literally, l by him one letter 
has been written.' Hence, in Hindustani those tenses 
of a transitive verb which are formed from the past 


participle, will have their nominative cases changed into 
that form of the ablative expressive of the agent. What 
ought to be the accusative of the sentence will become 
the real nominative, with which the verb agrees accord- 
ingly, except in some instances when it is requisite that 
the accusative should have the particle ko affixed, in 
which case the verb is used in its simplest form of the 
masculine singular, as we have given it below. 

a. It is needless to say that in all verbs the tenses from the root 
and present participle are formed after the same manner, and the 
peculiarity above alluded to is limited to transitive verbs only, and 
to only four tenses of these, which it is particularly to be wished 
that the student should well remember. In the following verb, 
UiL* mdrnd, to beat or strike,' we have given all the tenses in 
ordinary use, together with their various oriental appellations, as 
given ia a treatise on Hindustani Grammar, compiled by a munshi in 
the service of Mr. Chicheley Plowden. It is a folio volume, written 
in Hindustanf, but without author's name, date, or title. 

Infinitive (masdar) bjU mdrnd, l To beat.' 
;L mar, 'beat thou; Ijjl* mdrtd, 'beating'; \j\* mdrd, 'beaten.' 


Aorist (muzdri"). 


I may beat. 
j' thou mayst beat. 
Sj he may beat. 


Future (mustaHil}. 

^U* ^,-^i I shall or will beat. 
>jjU y thou shalt or will 

he shall or will beat. 

+&> we may beat. 

j>j you may beat. 

i_?j they may beat. 

*& we shall or will beat. 


i *j you shall or will 

(jj they shall or will 


Imperative (amr}. 

.;,. l ,'.*< let me beat. 
u^ u* , 

jl* jj beat thou. 
\* * let him beat. 


:*> jU *to let us beat. 

-> p , 

jjt* *J beat ye or you. 
<-^ ^ e ^ them beat. 


Respectful form Mdriye, mdriyo, or mdriyegd. 


Indefinite, or Past Conditional fmdzi sharti or mdzi mutamannij. 

'- * ^i 

I beat, etc. <3;b f& we beat. 


thou beatest. S^^ (*^ ve ^ ea ^ - 

he beats. sA^ -0 ^ e ^ ^ ea ^ 

Present (Ml}. 
I am beating. 

j thou art beating. 


^ he is beating. 

Imperfect (istimrdrk}. 

x t*ts 

I was beating. ^^j <^J** *& we were 

^ y thou wast beating. ^^j <J>j\<* *J you were 

_p O| 

^ ^ he was beating. .^j tj^t* ,_j they were beating. 

Present Dubious fJidl i mutasnaJcJciJ . 
English ' I may, shall, or will be beating.' 

*3' you are bfeating. 



Peculiarity. All the nominatives assume the case of the agent, 
characterised by the post-position <J ne, the verb agrees with the 
object of the sentence in gender and number, or is used impersonally 
in the masculine singular form. 



Past Absolute (mdzi mutlak}. 

English ' I beat or did beat,' etc. Literally, ' It is or was beaten by 
me, thee, him, us, you, or them.' 





*Jb ham ne 

<J >J 
* 1 f 

un ne 


<J J tit ne 

" J 

iJ (jw! tw we 

Perfect or Pastf Proximate (mdzi TwrVb\ 

English ' I have beaten.' Literally, ' It has been, (is) beaten, by me, 
thee, him,' etc. 

tj, Mine 

, M\ m ne 


un ne 


Pluperfect, or Past Remote (mdzi la'id}. 

English 'l had beaten.' Literally, 'it was beaten by me, thee, 

him,' etc. 

X ^ 

* main ne 



<3 *Jb ham ne 
. ? 


J tii ne 




". *\ 


\ us ne 

c (>' un ne 

Past Dubious (mdzi mashlculi). 

English 'l shall have beaten,' i.e. 'it shall have been beaten by 

me, thee,' etc. 

(j, ,JJ) ham ne 

hog a. 

(J *J turn ne 

\ > 

cJ ^ vnne 



main ne 
J ta ne 
u\ us ne 
All the other parts formed as in the verb bolnd. 

41. We have now, we trust, thoroughly explained 
the mode of conjugating a Hindustani verb. There is 
no such thing as an irregular verb in the language ; and 
six words only are slightly anomalous in the formation 
of the past participle, which last being known, the 




L^ gayd 
L kiyd 







various tenses unerringly follow according to rule. We 
here subjoin the words to which we allude, together 
with their past participles. 


\j\s>- jdnd, To go 

i **/ 

Up karnd, to do 

\js marnd, to die 
hond, to be 
dend, to give 
lend, to take 




\fi>> tiii r r * 

\jSts hu,a <*}& hu,i t_cJ2> h-u.,6 L \ j tfi hit, in 

bj diyd ^J di ,yu^ di,e ,vJ din 
L3 liyd J li ^ li,e .: J Zi 

a. Of these, yaw4 and marnd are neuter or intransitive, and con- 
jugated like lolnd. The conjugation of hond we have already given 
in full, and that of karnd, dend, and lend, is like mdrnd, ' to beat.' 
It would be utterly ridiculous, then, to call any of these an irregular 
verb ; for, at the very utmost, the deviation from the general rule is 
not so great as in the Latin verbs, do, dedi, datum ; or cerno, crevi, etc., 
which no grammarian would on that account consider as irregular. 

b. The peculiarities in the past participles of hond, dend, 1 and 
lend, are merely on the score of euphony. The verb jdnd takes its 
infinitive and present participle evidently from the Sanskrit root ^JT 
yd, the y being convertible into /, as is well known, in the modern 
tongues of Sanskrit origin. Again, the past participle gayd, seems to 
have arisen from the root f^> which also denotes ' to go.' In the 
case of karnd, 'to do, make,' it springs naturally enough from the 
modified form kar, of the root ?i kri, and at the same time there 
would appear to have been another infinitive, kind, directly from the 
Sanskrit root, by changing the ri into i, ; hence the respectful impe- 
rative of this verb has two forms, kariye and kijiye, while the past 
participle kiyd comes from kind, the same as piyd from p'ind, to 

The yerb dend makes dy'iye, ete., and lend, lijiye, etc., in the respectful imperative. 



drink.' Lastly, marnd, mar, is from the modified form of fj mri ; at 
the same time the form mitnd, whence m{i,d, may have been in use ; for 
we know that in the Prakrit, which is a connecting link between tho 
Sanskrit and the present spoken tongues of Northern India, the 
Sanskrit vowel ri began to be generally discarded, and frequently 
changed into , and the Prakrit participle is mudo, for the Sanskrit 
mrito; just as from the Sanskrit verbal noun prichhana, we have 
the Hindustani puchhnd, ' to ask,' through the Prakrit puchhana. 

42. Passive Voice. In Hindustani the use of the 
passive voice is not nearly so general as it is in English 
and other European languages. It is regularly formed 
by employing the past (or passive) participle of an active 
or transitive verb along with the neuter verb liU- jdnd, 
1 to go,' or ' to be.' The participle thus employed is 
subject to the same inflection or variations as an adjective 
purely Indian (v. page 33), ending in 1 d. Of the verb 
jdnd itself, we have just shown that its past participle is 
gayd, which of course will run through all the tenses of 
the past participle, as will be seen in the following 

mar d jdnd, 'To be beaten.' 
j- |jl* tndrdjd, be thou beaten.' 
\j\* mdrdjdtd, ' being beaten.' 
L" IjU mdrd gayd, ' beaten.' 

Infinitive, UU- 
Present Participle, 
Past Participle, 


L -j^ I may be beaten. 


i ii 


he may 





you may bo 

they may be 







t I shall or will 
be beaten. 

1 i ?. 
> \j\st 4J' thou shalt or 

wilt be beaten. 
> \j\* *j he shall or will 

be beaten. 

let me 


be thou beaten. 

let him be 



r^U *J& we shall or 
will be beaten. 

will be beaten. 

$j they shall or 
will be beaten. 

*& let us be 

*j be ye beaten, 




if I be, or had 
been, beaten. 

if thou be, or 
hadst been, beaten. 

i J*\ if he be, or had 
been, beaten. 


tjls>- L/ 


I am being 

J& \j\&- \j\s J thou art being 

Jb \j\s>- \j\st tj he is being 

if we be, or 
had been, beaten. 

if you be, or 
had been, beaten. 

j*\ if they be, or 
had been, beaten. 

we are be- 
ing beaten. 

you are be- 
ing beaten. 

they are be- 
ing beaten. 



Singular. Plural. 

v toW- lit* ,:*** I was beaten or 
being beaten. 

thou wast 
^ v 

J ljU>- \ 1 1* * he was beaten. 

we were 

you were 

they were 


Us \ 


I was beaten. 
thou was beaten. 
he was beaten. 

-AJ c 

15-" c 


LS \[ 



I have been 

thou hast been 

he has been 




^^ I had been 

J US' 

^j' UT U 

we were beaten. 
y u were beaten. 
they were beaten. 

+& we have been 

*j' you have 
been beaten. 

i_fj they have 
been beaten. 

,J5> we had been 

t *j you ha 

,_j they had been 


thou hadst been 

he had been 

a. Muhammad Ibrahim Munshi, the author of an excellent Hin- 
dustani grammar entitled ' Tuhfae Elphinstone, 1 printed at Bombay, 
1823, would seem to conclude that the Hindustani has no passive 
voice at all. He says, p. 44, "Dr. Gilchrist and Mr. Shakspear are 
of opinion that there is a passive voice in Hindustani, formed by com- 
pounding the past participle of active verbs with the verb \j\s>~ ; but 


the primitive signification of this verb (' to go') seems so irreconcileable 
with the simple state of 'being,' as to render it improbable that it could 
ever be used in the same manner as the substantive verbs of other 
languages." Now, the fact is, that the worthy Munshi is carried too 
far, principally from a strong propensity to have a slap at his brother 
grammarians, Messrs. Gilchrist and Shakespear, whom he hits hard on 
every reasonable occasion ; and, in addition to this, the passive voice 
in his native language is of rare occurrence. But there is undoubtedly 
such a thing as a regular passive voice occasionally to be met with, and it 
is formed with the verb U l>- jdnd, ' to go,' as an auxiliary. Nor is the 
connection of jdnd, to go,' with the passive voice so \eryirreconcileable 
as the Munshi imagines. In Gaelic, the very same verb, viz., ' to go,' 
is used to form the passive voice, though in a different manner, the 
verbal noun denoting the action being used as a nominative to the 
verb 'to go;' thus the phrase, he was beaten," is in Gaelic literally 
" the beating of him went," i. e., took place,' which is not very- 
remote from the Hindustani expression. Again, in Latin, the phrase, 
I know that letters will be written," is expressed by Scio literas 
scrip turn iri," in which the verb to go,' enters as an auxiliary : to 
say nothing of the verb veneo (yen 4. eo\ to be sold.' 

I. "We have seen in the conjugation of mdrnd, ' to beat,' that those 
tenses which spring from the past participle, have a construction similar 
to the Latin passive voice. This construction is always used when the 

agent is known and expressed ; as ^& \j\s .* ^-^ tJ i^W C/*^ 
MS sipdhi-ne ek mard mdrd Jiai, ' that soldier has beaten a man,' or 
(more literally) ' by that soldier a man has been beaten.' Again, if the 
agent is unknown or the assertion merely made in general terms, the 
regular form of the passive is used ; as, ek mard mdrd gayd, ' a man 
has been beaten,' and even this might be more idiomatically expressed 
by saying ek mard-ne mar lchd,( hai, a man has suffered a beating.' 

c. One cogent reason why the passive voice does not frequently 
occur in Hindustani is, that the language abounds with primitive 
simple verbs of a passive or neuter signification which are rendered 
active by certain modifications which we are about to state. Thus 

o * 

\Mfffjtind signifies to burn,' or take fire,' in a neuter sense; and 
becomes an active or transitive verb by inserting the vowel \ d, between 


the root and the termination U nd of the infinitive as, Uls- jaldnd, 'to 

kindle or set on fire;' and this becomes causal or doubly transitive 

by assuming the form \J\^&- jalwdnd, 'to cause to be set on fire,' as 
will be more amply detailed in the next paragraph. 


43. In Hindustani a primitive verb, if neuter, is ren- 
dered active, as we have just hinted, by certain modifica- 
tions of, or additions to, its root. In like manner, an 
active verb may, by a process somewhat similar, be 
rendered causal or doubly transitive. The principal 
modes in which this may be effected are comprised under 
the following 


1 . By inserting the long vowel \ d between the o root and the I) nd 
of the infinitive of the primitive verb ; thus, from bX> paJcnd, a neuter 
verb, ' to grow ripe,' ' to be got ready ' (as food), becomes lj lj pdkdnd 
(active), ' to ripen, or make ready,' ' to cook.' Again, this active verb 
may be rendered causal or doubly transitive by inserting the letter to 
between the root and the modified termination \j\ and; thus, from 
Ulxj pakdnd, 'to make ready,' inserting the letter j w, we get the 
causal form \J\jj palcwdnd, to cause (another) to make (any thing) 
ready.' To show the use of the three forms of the verb, we will add 
a few plain examples. 1. ^fc l^J \J\ khdnd paktd hat, 'the dinner 
is getting ready, cooking, or being cooked.' 2. ( JJ> b'Uo \j\ ^>-^U 
bdwarchi khdnd pakdtd hai, 'the cook is (himself) cooking the 


dinner or food;' 3. .JS li'l^xj ul^i j^jjU^-* mihmdnddr Jchdnd 
pakwdtd hai, ' the host is causing dinner to be cooked.' These examples 
show the copiousness of the Hindustani verb as compared with the 
English. For whereas we are obliged to employ the same verb both 
as neuter and active, like the word cooking ' in the first and second 
examples, o the Hindustani has a distinct expression for each. And the 
form \j\jL) pakic and in the last example is much more neat and concise 


than the English 'is having,' 'is getting,' or 'is causing' the dinner 
(to be) ' cooked.' In like manner, the neuter Uj- jdlnd, ' to burn,' 
jaldnd, 'to kindle,' &ndijalwdnd, ' to cause to be kindled ;' for example, 
lattijalti hai, 'the candle burns;' a man will say to his servant, latti- 
fa> jaldo, ' light the candle (yourself),' but he may say to his munshf, 
latti-lto jalwdo, 'cause the candle to be lit (by others).' 

2. "When the root of the primitive verb is a monosyllable with any 
of the long vowels \ d, j o or it, and $ e or I, the latter are shortened 
in the active and causal forms, that is, the \ of the root is displaced 
by fatha, the j by zamma, and the ^ by Tcasra ; as, \^\s^- jdgnd, ' to 
be awake,' \j\&~ jagdnd, 'to awaken,' or 'rouse up,' \j\&>- jagwdnd, 

c- ' 

' to cause to be roused up ;' Ul J lolnd, to speak,' l)iL luldnd, ' to 

o o r 

call,' U1L> lulwdnd, 'to cause to be called, to send for;' so U3*i> 

-* ' 9 <~? '** 

Ihidnd, 'to forget,' l)^bj Ihuldnd, 'to mislead,' \i\jty bhulwdnd, 'to 
cause to be misled;' ULJ letnd, 'to lie down,' l)l:U litdnd, 'to lay 

o " " o. 

down,' 1)^5.5 litwdnd, 'to cause to be laid down;' 1^-^J IMgnd, 'to 
be wet,' UIX^J Ihigdnd, 'to wet, Viiy^j Ihigwdnd, 'to cause to be 
made wet.' "When the vowel-sound of the root consists of the strong 
diphthongs j - au, and ^ ^. ot, these undergo no change, and con- 
sequently such words fall under Eule 1 ; as, \Jjj4 daurnd, ' to run,' 
\J\JjJ daurdnd ; ^j-^pairnd, to swim,' UU-J pair and. The verb 

laiihnd, 'to sit,' makes Ul^Ib liihdnd or lil$S-J baithdnd, also 

lithldnd, etc. F^e No. 4, below. 

3. A numerous class of neuter verbs, having a short vowel in the 
last syllable of the root, form the active by changing the short vowel 
into its corresponding long ; that is, fatha becomes 1 d ; as zamma 


becomes j o l (or A), and kasra becomes ,_ e (or i) : as, lib palnd, ' to 
1 The forms and o are by for the most common ; the f and comparatively rare. 


thrive, or bo nourished,' Ulb pdlnd, 'to nourish;' UJp khulnd, 'to 

o * 

open (of itself'), \^tf kholnd, 'to open (any thing).' These form 


their causals regularly, according to Rule 1 ; as, \j\p Jthulwdnd, 'to 
cause (another) to open (any thing).' 

4. A few verbs add U^ Idnd to the root, modified as in Rule 2 ; 
thus, l^L~a slkhnd, 'to learn/ UUCj sikMnd, and UOLj sikhldnd, 
'to teach;' lil^ Tchdnd, 'to eat,' \J^ khildnd, 'to feed;' U^-j owd, 
' to sleep,' UiLs suldnd, ' to lull (asleep) ;' L^iLj laithnd, ' to sit,' ' to 
be placed,' has a variety of forms, viz., lit hand, laithdnd, bithldnd, 
and laithldnd ; also laithdlnd and laithdrnd, ' to cause to sit,' ' to set,' 
or cause to be seated.' 

5. The following are formed in a way peculiar to themselves : 

I fc O 

\ij liknd, ' to be sold,' L=U lecTind, ' to sell ;' La^ rahnd, ' to stay,' 
Vi^j rakhnd, 'to keep, or place;' U5J tbtnd, 'to burst,' 'to be 

o o ^ 

broken,' UfJ tformf, 'to break;' U2$f- chhutnd, to cease,' 'to go off 

o o 

(as a musket, etc.), kj[j$f- cMorntf, ' to let off,' ' to let go ;' LS^J 
phatnd, ' to be rent,' lijfW pharna, ' to rend,' L5 ^> phbtnd, ' to crack, 

o -^ v * * 

or split,' ^JjfJ j?Aorrf, ' to burst open ' (actively). 

6. Verbs are formed from substantives or adjectives by adding 
\J^ dnd or li nd; as from ^b pdni, 'water,' ULiJ paniydnd, 'to 
irrigate;' so from |?^, 'wide,' chaurdnd, to widen.' A few in- 
finitives spring, as Hindustani verbs, regularly from Arabic and 
Persian roots, by merely adding U nd t If the primitive word be a 
monosyllable ending with two consonants, a fatha is inserted between 
the latter, on adding the \j nd ; as from (j*y tars, ' fear, pity,' comes 
L-y faras-nd, ' to fear ;' so from \} larz, ' trembling,' U^J laraz-nd ; 
and from (J^+ss? lahs, ' argument,' lahas-nd, ' to dispute,' etc. 

General Rule. Primitive words consisting of two 
short syllables, the last of which is formed by the vowel 
fatha, on the accession of an additional syllable beginning 


with a vowel, whether for the purpose of declension, con- 
jugation, or derivation, reject the fatha of the second 
syllable. Conversely, primitive words ending in two 
consecutive consonants, on adding a verbal termination 
beginning with a consonant, generally insert a fatha 
between the two consonants, as we have just seen in 
Eule 6. 


44. The Hindustani is peculiarly rich in compound 
verbs, though it must be admitted that our grammarians 
have needlessly enlarged the number. We shall, how- 
ever, enumerate them all in the following list, and, at 
the same time, point out those which have no title to 
the appellation. Compound verbs are formed in various 
ways, as follows : 


1. INTENSIVES, so called from being more energetic in signification 


than the simple verb. Ex. U15 jU mdr-ddlnd, ' to kill outright,' 


from \Jj\s mdrnd, 'to strike/ and UJiJ ddlnd, 'to throw down;' 
jj raJch-dend, ' to set down,' from \^j rakhnd, ' to place,' and 
dend, ' to give ; \J\s>- ( Ichd-jdnd, ' to eat up,' from \j\ Ichdnd, 
'to eat,' and l)U- jdnd, 'to go,' etc. The main peculiarity of an 
intensive verb is, that the second member of it has, practically 
speaking, laid aside its own primary signification, while at the same 
time the sense of the first member is rendered more emphatic, as in 
our own verbs ' to run off,' ' to march on,' ' to rush away,' etc. ; thus, 
wuJi hdthi par se gir-pard, he fell down from off (or, as the Hin- 
dustani has it, more logically, from upon} the elephant.' 

o o 

2. POTENTIALS, formed with L~a saTcnd, ' to be able ;' as U^-j J^j 
bol-saknd, ' to be able to speak,' l^Ls U- jd-saknd, ' to be able to go,' 


etc. The using the root of a verb in composition with aal-nd in all its 
tenses may bo viewed as the potential mood of such verb ; thus, main 
lol-saktd hhn, I am able to speak,' or ' I can speak;' so main lol-saJcd, 

*I could speak.' 

3. COMPLETIVES, formed with L>- chuknd, ' 'to have done;' as 


U>- \ khd-chuknd, 'to have done eating,' l^>- ^3 likh-chuknd, 

' to have finished writing.' The root of a verb with the future of 
chuknd, is considered, very properly, as the future perfect of such 
root; thus, jab main likh-chukungd, when I shall have done writing,' 
that is, ' when I shall have written,' postquam scripsero.' So, agar 
main likh-chukun, ' if I may have written, or have done writing,' ' si 



1. CONTHTUATIVES, as l)W- liC baktd jdnd, or LJ^> \zj laktdrahnd, 
to continue chatting.' This is not a legitimate compound verb ; it is 
merely a sentence, the present participle always agreeing with the 
nominative in gender and number, as, wuh mar A baktdjdtd hai, 'that 
man goes on chatting ;' we mard takte j'dte hain, these men go on 
chatting ;' wuh randi lalctkjdti hat, ' that woman goes on chatting.' 

2. STATISTICALS, \J\ -y^ ffdte dnd, 'to come singing,' or 'in 
singing ;' ^j^ \^)J ro ^ e d aur . n t ' to run crying.' Here the present 
participle always remains in the inflected state, like a substantive of 
the third class, having the post-position men, in,' understood, hence 
this is no compound verb properly speaking. 


1. FiiEQTnRNTATivES : \j \j\* mdrd-Jcarnd, 'to make a practice 
of beating;' l/ bU>- jdyd-Jcdrnd, 'to mako a practice of going.' 

2. DESIDEEATIVES, as ^l>- ^ bold-chdhnd, ' to wish, or to be 
about, or like to speak.' 



o j I o^ 

From substantives, as from -*=r jam\ collection,' U^i 



< i 

jam* karnd, to collect, or bring together,' and uy& j-^- jam' hand, 

' to be collected, or come together ;' also from <d^c ghpta, ' a plunge,' 
\JjL <&ki gho'a mdrnd, 'to dive,' Ul; <ii?i &> khdnd, 'to be 
dipped.' From adjectives, as from ^Jj$>- chhotd, ' small,' IjJ^ \3ji^~ 
chhotd karnd, 'to diminish;' M dZa, 'black,' ljj ^ d&z karnd, 
'to blacken,' such forms of expression, however, are scarcely to be 
considered as compound verbs. 

a. There is a very doubtful kind of compound called a reiterative 
Verb, said to be formed by using together two verbs, regularly con- 

o c 

jugated, etc., as Ul>- UJ^ lolnd chdlnd, 'to converse;' but the use of 
these is generally confined to tenses of the present participle, or the 
conjunctive participle ; and they are not regularly conjugated, for the 
auxiliary is added to the last only, as we lolte chalte hain, not lolte hain 
chalte hain, ' they converse (chit-chat) together ;' so lol-chdl-kar, not 
lol-Jtar cTidl-Tcar, having conversed.' Those which are called Inceptives, 
Permissives, Acquisitives, etc., given in most grammars, are not pro- 
perly compound verbs, since they consist regularly of two verbs, the 
one governed by the other, in the inflected form of the Infinitive, 


according to a special rule of Syntax ; as, U3 ^Aj] Hj wuh lolne laga, 
'he began to say;' Ji l^jJ (JU>~ Xj wuh jane detd hat, 'he gives 
(permission) to go;' ( J& Ij'b tj^>- aj wuh jane pata hai,' he gets 
(permission) to go ; ' all of which expressions are mere sentences, and 
not compound verbs. 

1. Hence the compound verbs in the Hindustani language are 
really five in number, viz. : the Intensive, Potential, Completive, 
Frequentative and Desiderative. In these, the first part of the 
compound remains unchanged throughout, while the second part is 
always conjugated in the usual way. But among such of the nominals 
as are formed of an adjective with a verb, the adjective will agree in 
gender with the object of the verb, unless the concord be cut off by 
ko. Thus : ^>j4> <-Sj^ ffdri khari kar, or J> \j <-/j^ ffdri- 
ko khard kar, 'stop "the carriage.' In the latter case only 'can the 
verb UJ \^ khard-karnd be regarded as belonging to the class of 





45. THE adverbs in Hindustani, like the substantives, 
adjectives, and verbs, are to be acquired mainly by 
practice. Hence it would be a mere waste of space to 
swell our volume with a dry detached list of such words, 
which in all probability no learner would ever peruse. 
We shall therefore notice only those which have any 
peculiarity in their character or formation. As a general 
rule, most adjectives may be used adverbially when 
requisite, as is the case in German, and often in English. 
A series of pure Hindustani adverbs of frequent use is 
derived from five of the pronouns, bearing to each other 
a similar relation, as will be seen in the following table. 
Dr. Gilchrist's old pupils will no doubt recollect with 
what pains the learned Doctor used to impress upon 
them the necessity of learning this ' quintuple series,' 
or, as he called it, l The philological harp.' 

a. Adjectives and adjective pronouns, when used adverbially, 
remain uninflected in the simplest form, viz., that of the nominative 
singular masculine ; as, .JS I^p3 ^>-^ ^-^^ *J wu ^ buhut achchhd 
likhtd hai, ' he writes very well.' " This is exactly the rule in German, 
' er schreibt sehr gut.' In the following series, accordingly, numbers 
5, 6, and 7, are merely the adjective or indefinite pronouns, formerly 
enumerated, employed as adverbs. 






B 3 



- 3 

P w 

i p , 
^ T N 

I S 
a a 




Oj'I^Vv* 3 X > ^ 

3 \ -3 J 







;^Jr : 



^ .03 

c * 

5 - 



6 S 

3 J '^ ^ 


o. From the first class wo have other adverbs rendered more 
emphatic by the addition of ^^fc hi, etc. Thus: -*#! abhl, 'just 
now,' ie$ kabhi, ji*& Icabhit, or L5 &.& Jtadhk, ' ever,' etc. From the 
second class, by changing ^\ dn into 'p in ; thus, ,j-^J yahin, ex- 
actly here,' ^N-^ JcaMh, 'whereabouts, somewhere,' etc. From the 
fourth, by adding t >JJ> hin ; ,N*&5y. yitnhin, 'in this very way,' 
t r^$J j jj w&nhin, ' thereupon, at that very time, exactly, the same as 
before,' etc. 

b. From among these may also be formed, by means of post- 
positions, etc., a number of useful compounds ; as i^xJ <_^ al-tak, or 
ab-talak, ' till now ;' ul^o t_ ~ hob-tab, ' till when,' etc. ; 
kabhi kabhi, ' sometimes ; ' i^fc^ & 1^ &<*bM na Italhi, 


'some time or other;' J/^ ^rT jahdn tahdn' 'here and there;' 

.j-^ (j^cT jahdn kdhin, 'wherever;' j?jj\ aurkahin, 'somewhere 

*"*" * ^* 

else ;' 5*^' <-^T J a ^ fatbM, ' whenever ;' js> ^y& Jcyuh Jcar, ' how ?' 

c. A'few adverbs of time have a twofold signification, i.e. past or 
future, according to circumstances ; thus, jj Jcal, ' to-morrow, or 

O . f 

yesterday ;' ^^-^ parson, the day after to-morrow, or the day before 
yesterday ;' J^-*/' tarson, ' the third day from this, past, or to come ;' 
IOJ-M narson, the fourth day from this.' The time is restricted to 
past or future by the tenses of the verb and by the context of the 
sentences in which such words are found. 

d. Many adverbs occur from the Arabic and Persian languages ; as 
\j\ai kazdrd (or .l^LaJj Aazdkdr), 'by chance,' from LaJj kazd, 'fate,' 

etc., and \j rd, the sign of the objective case; ^^^ chiguna, 'how;' 
(_^b bdre, 'once, at last;' b^b Idrhd (pi.), 'often (times);' 0^\-1 
sJidyad, ' perhaps (Hindustani jb y jJb ho to Jio, it may be) ;' t\j- 
a\f>~ <U khwdh na khwdh, ' volens-nolens, positively, at all events ;' 
tj*c. j wa ghaira, ' et-cetera,' etc. ; L& faJcat, ' merely, finis.' 

e. Adverbs purely Arabic occur chiefly as follows: 1. Simply a 


noun with the article ; thus, <UofiJ! alkissa (literally, ' the story ') ; and 


UOjiu] algharaz (literally, 'the end, purport,' etc.), 'in short;' JlsM 

alhdl (the present), 'at this time;' &LJ1 albatta, 'certainly;' etc. 


2. The Arabic noun in the accusative case, marked with the termina- 

tion \- an (p. 20); thus, \J\AJ\ ittifdkan, 'by chance,' (from JjU51 
ittifdk, 'fortune, accident,' etc."] ; M\ aslan (or L1 a&la), 'by no 

means;' &L* mislan, 'for example,' (from J3l misl, 'parable, 

' * "> ' t ' 

similitude ' ) ; LJJ-O>. khucbsan, ' especially,' etc. Lastly, a noun 

with a proposition ; as, Jxallj U-l-fil, 'in fact;' Jls) 1 ^j fi-l-hdl, 

^ O *** ** *" 

(in the present), jj& 1 ^J fi-l-faw (in the heat), all signifying 

.. -^ ^o 

' instantly, immediately ; ' L^-A-JLsr I ^ Ji-l-hakikat (in truth), 
' really ; ' ,<> ya'wz, ' that is to say, to wit, viz.' 

/. Many adverbial expressions occur consisting of a pronoun and 
substantive governed by a simple postposition understood, as, Jo (JM\ 
is tarah, 'in this manner ;' Jb (jj Icis tar ah, ' how ? ' etc. ; ,5^^ (j*^, 
kis waste, ' why ? ' i.e. ' for what reason ? ' and so on, with many other 
words of which the adverbial use is indicated by the inflection of the 
accompanying pronoun. 

g. The pluperfect participle may also very often be elegantly 

* O O f y O 

applied adverbially ; as, ^*uiji> hanskar, laughingly,' jL~j~a soch- 
kor, deliberately,' from LJlJjb hansnd, ' to laugh,' lx>--o sochnd, ' to 

.^.,00.^ < V 

think,' v^S ^is^cj& (J (JM\ us-ne hanskar kahd, he laughingly (or 
having laughed) said.' 


46. The prepositions in Hindustani are mere sub- 
stantives in the locative case, having a postposition 
understood and sometimes expressed. Most of them 
are expressive of situation with regard to place, and 
thence figuratively applied to time, and even to abstract 
ideas. Hence as substantives, they all govern the geni- 
tive case, those of them which are masculine (forming 
the majority) require the word which they govern to 
have the postposition ^ ke after it ; as, ^\ ^ ^ mard- 
Jce age, l before the man,' literally, ' in front of the man ' ; 
while those that are feminine require the word they 
govern to have ^ hi\ as, <_J^> ^ sr* sJtahr-kl tarqf, 



' towards the city,' literally, ' in the direction of the 
city.' It is optional to put the preposition before or 
after the noun which it governs ; thus in the foregoing 
example we might have said age mard-ke, or mard-ke age, 
with equal propriety. 

The following is an alphabetical list of masculine prepositions 
requiring the nouns which they govern to have the genitive with ke, 
for reasons explained in the beginning of the Syntax. 

<?\ dge, before, in front. 

^* c 

jjJi andar, within, inside. 
jj\ {ipar, above, on the top. 
j bd'is, by reason of. 

Jbb bdhar, or bdhir, without 
(not within.) 

r'\f7 ba-Jd,e, instead. 
J Ja badle,oT J Jj iatfo/, instead. 
i^.Jj bidiin, without, except. 
bardbar, equal to, oppo- 
site to. 

bard,e, for, on account of. 
ba'd, after (as to time). 
baghair, without, except. 
^ bin, Uj bind, without. 
-,0 JicA, in or among. 

j\j par, over (other side), 
(jwb ^?d, by, near. 

plchhe, behind, in the 


J tale, under, beneath. 
ta,ln, to, up to. 
khdrij, without, outside. 

dar-miydn, in the midst, 
between, among. 

tdth, with (in company). 
sdmhne, before, in front. 
sabab, by reason of. 
siwd or sited, e, except. 
'iwaz, instead, for. 
Jljj kabl, before, (time). 
i_--o S Zrarii, near. 

( -u^ iawu, near, with. 

J^i ^trrf, round, around. 

Jk) %, for, on account of. 

t^t* tnJr, through (in conse- 
quence of). 

^Uo* mutdbik, conformable to. 
mudfik, according to. 

miijibf or u-^oj-^j ba- 
mitjib, by means of. 

-, near. 

, under, beneath. 
waste, for, on account of. 

Ad^, in the power of, 
by means of. 



The following prepositions being feminine, require the words they 
govern to have the genitive with lei. 

labat, respecting, con- 

la-daulat, by means of. 

la-madad, by aid of. 
jinat, on account of. 

Jthatir, for the sake of. 

tarah, after the manner 
of, like. 

taraf, towards. 
ma'rifat, by, or through. 
nisbat, relative to. 

Some of the feminine prepositions, when they come before the word 
they govern, require such word to have the genitive in Jce, instead of 
ki. This is a point well worthy of examination, and we reserve the 
investigation of it till we come to the Syntax. 

a. We have applied the term preposition to the above words with 
a view to define their tise and meaning, not their mere situation. In 
most grammars they are absurdly called Compound Post -positions, on 
the same principle, we believe, that lucus, a dark grove,' is said to 
come from lucere, to shine/ or lux, light.' But in sober truth, 
what we have called prepositions here, are neither compounds, nor 
necessarily post-positive ; and we make it a rule never to countenance 
a new term unless it be more explicit than those already established 
and familiar. In Greek, Latin, and Old English, the prepositions 
frequently follow the word which they govern, but this does not in 
the least alter their nature and use. 

b. Besides the above prepositions, the following Arabic and Persian 
prefixes are occasionally employed with words from those languages. 

\\ az, from, by. 

]\ iM, except, besides. 
lj Id, with (possessed of). 
<U or J la (or W), in, by. 
^j be, without (deprived of). 
j) bar, on, in, at. 

t . 

bard,e, for (on account of). 
lj bild, without (sine). 
.J dor, in, within. 

'aid, upon, above. 
ijC. 'an, from. 
Axe 'tnd, near, with. 

, according to, like. 
J la or li, to, for 
_< ma', with 
* min, from. 




47. The conjunctions have no peculiarity about them ; 
we shall therefore add a list of the more useful of them 
in alphabetical order. 

j \\ az las-ki, since, for as 
much as. 

agar,j> gar, if. 
agarchi, although. 
ammd, but, moreover. 
aur, and, also. 

j lalki, but, on the con- 

,$j bhi, also, indeed, 
j par, but, yet. 
pas, thence, therefore. 
to, then, consequently. 
us>- jabtak, until, while. 

s- jo, if, when. 
JU- hdl-dnki, whereas, not- 
\>- khwdh, either, or. 

ki, that, because, than. 
j tdki, that, in order that. 
tyunki, because. 
goyd, as if. 
^o-At, although. 
J lekin, but, however. 
magar, except, unless. 
wh^n-to, otherwise. 
J-j niz, also, likewise. 
j o, J 100, and, but. 
war, for, ^f J tea-gar, and if. 

<CMJ war-na, and if not, 

,Jb ham, also, likewise. 
harchand, although. 
yet, still. 

yd, or, either. 


48. These scarcely deserve the appellation of ' part 
of speech;' we shall therefore content ourselves by 
enumerating a few of common occurrence. 

jJjbLl shdbdsh (i. e. ^b jLi shad bash,) ' happiness or good 
luck to you!' ^yT dfrln 'blessings on you,' i\j s\j wdh tcdh 

'admirable!' t-J^p- U kyd khub ' how excellent !' ^J ^J dhan-i 




dhan ' how fortunate !' .Jj- &\j wdhj'i, ^H> cub L kya bat hat 'what 
an affair !' all express joy, admiration and encouragement, like 'bravo! 
we'll done!' etc. But ^jj cjb lap re (lit., father) 'astonishing! 
dreadful!' ^bb ^'bs h,de h,de, or ^^Jb ^a hai hai, <_$Mj ^\j wd,e 
wd,e, ^bj i_*!j wd,e waild, ' alas, alas ! alackaday ! woe is me !' e^-Jb 
hat, ,<-- 15$*" c ^ c ^> * tush, pshaw, pish, fie fie !' j dur, 
' avaunt !' express sorrow, contempt, and aversion. ^\ ai, j\ o, ' Oh !' 
ijj re or ^jj\ are, ' holla you !' are used in calling attention : the two 
last in a disrespectful way. ,_> re (m.) or ^ ri (f.) agrees in gender 

with the object of address ; as, ^_$j c^j^ launde re, you boy !' u/^'jl 
^j laundi ri, you girl !' 


49. The Hindustani numeral adjectives, l one,' l two,' 
1 three,' etc., up to a hundred, are rather irregular, at least 
in appearance, though it would not be very difficult to 
account for the seeming irregularity on sound etymological 
principles. This, however, would not greatly benefit the 
student, who must, in the meantime, learn them by heart 
as soon as he can. 












<*L>\ ek. 




t*$s>- chha. 





jj do. 




L " ">\ sa^. 




^ tin. 




-jl'l //<. 




j\=*- char. 





3 nau. 





,-s^b pdnch. 


! * 

















I igdrah. 
j Idrah. 
j tirah. 

x> pandrah. 
i~> d7aA. 


j\ unis. 


.J te,is. 

U~~$l pachis. 











,xi Jato. 

~~J paiiit'is. 

l untdlis. 

^-J tetdl'is. 

-Jlii-J paint dl'is. 















(jjl^l ikdwan. 



V \ 


Ji*\ iTthattar. 




^j\i Idwan. 



X Q? 

.x^J bahattar. 





..jjj ttrpun. 




XyJ tihattar. 






(.tj^- cJiauwan. 




JJJfcj^- chauhattar. 





( j+^i pachpan. 




jt~v pachhattar. 



(j*^- chhappan. 



^^^ w 

J^i^ chhihattar. 




^jjtayj sattdwan. 



\j?^ \^\ 

j^f^i sathattar. 




(j^V^ athdwan. 




j^^>\ athhattar. 

, 9 



c 5 ! 



^luJi unsath. 



\JC^ Jf 

.g-oljl undsi. 




-gSL sdth. 




^>\ assi 





,^S*M$1 iksath. 








^L>u Idsafh, 




^ U,d*i. 





f$**sjj tit'sath. 




L^!/' tirdsl 




,^.?..^^- chausath. 




i^jjz*- chaurdsL 




x . 

,^:Lu.v.j painsath. 




^jlsr pachdsi. 



4L,\^. chM,dsath. 




^^-sL^*- cJiM,dsi. 





, g" "....o sutsath. 




. c~zC**A satasi. 




,^<ngj| athsath. 




.^l^j) athdsi. 




^fyj\ unhattar. 








2~t sattar. 




^jy> namcc. 








ur D ^. 






(_$yll ikdnaw&. 



^J Lg.-y- cAA z, dnatce 




c^ylj Idnawt. 



^/L- MldM^. 




(^jj\r> tirdnawe. 




^yl^jl a^Adnatr^. 


, p 






^ylxi nindnawi. 




i_$jj l3 pachanawi. 




y* sou or ^-j <at 





a. Some of these have names slightly differing from the 
preceding, which we here subjoin : 


s gydrah 


jjjUo! tlcdwan. 


K j\ athdrd. 


iji f>- chawpan. 



j\ unnis. 


^Usr pachdwan. 



J\ Ui8, 


, g'iiiivji eksath. 

A 4taim 

!iJ2--^5>-l^5>- chhdchhat 


66 < 

J taintis. 

or ^Lj^f*. chha-sath. 




>- chauntis. 



fi-y i arsath. 

92 < 




jX^j^ tkhattar. 



- c 

"\ unchdlis. 


^xfcy tirhattar. 


j\ tktMb. 


.xto^>- chha-hattar 


*j' taintdlis. 


j/rS' ^'^' 

>- chhatdlis. 

( -^,1* Wsi or 


^K S 





p nauwad. 

>\ tkdnawt or 
H ikdnauwe. 

i\ J tirunauict: 

95 (CjUcu panchdnaice. 




a. The numbers above one hundred proceed somewhat like our own, 


only the conjunction is generally suppressed ; as ^\i j~> clX>J ek sau 
pdnch, 'one hundred (and) five ;' (jwJ j~o jJ do sau das, 'two hundred 
(and) ten,' etc. The present year, 1855, may be expressed as with us, 
( j+i>\ y* -f>T j\j& ul>J ek hazdr dth sau paohpan, or ^j+zf-, j~> *j\\ 
athdrah sau pachpan, that is, ' one thousand eight hundred,' etc., or 
1 eighteen hundred/ etc. 

b. The following are used as collective numbers : 


gandd, a group of four. H^"" sai&rd, a hundred. 

'dhi, a five. -&* ^ H5<fr a th U8and - 

^ 7aM, a hundred thousand. 
kon, a score. 

Jfjjji iaror, one hundred lakhs, 
U^U- cAa7z(i, a forty. w ten m iiii on8 . 

c. The Ordinals proceed as follows : 

^j pahld or pahild, \ \&f?~ c ^ u ^f 4th. 

| 1st. oo 

-j or paihld, j^Lsrb pdnchwdn, 5th. 

rfiisrd, 2nd. j,!2f=w chhatwdn, \ 

[ 6th. 
tisrd, 3rd. l^"^.~- chhathd. ) 

The ' seventh' and upwards are regularly formed from the Cardinals 
by the addition of ,j^ wan. The ordinals are all subject to inflection 
like adjectives in \ d or dn, that is, d becomes e for the oblique mas- 
culine, and i for the feminine. In like manner, dn becomes en and in. 

d. Fractional Numbers. 

chant Ji, 


In the use of the fractional numbers, a few peculiarities occur 


which it will be well to notice ; thus, tjjj paune, when prefixed to a 

number, signifies ' a quarter less* than that number; ^~> sated, 'a 

quarter more ;' .ykjv-j sdrhe, one half more,' etc. To the collective 

numbers for a hundred, a thousand, etc., they are similarly applied ; 
thus, y*> <Jjj jpaune sau = 75 ; j~> \j~> sawd sau = 125. The words 
derh and arhd,l denote multiplication ; as, jhfc a> j derh hazdr = 
1500, i. e. (1000 x 1) ; j\p t/^jft arhd,i hazdr = 2500, or 
(1000 x 2|). 

e. It will be seen then, that altogether the management of the 
numerals, whole and fractional, is no easy matter. The sure plan is 
to commit them carefully to memory up to 100. As a check upon 
this the learner should get the first ten, and the multiples of 10, as 
20, 30, 40, etc. ; then, if he is not quite certain of any number (not an 


unlikely occurrence), for example 35, he may safely say #^\JjJ \j^ 
tis par punch, ' five over thirty.' Lastly, let him get the first twenty 
thoroughly, and then count by scores i^jf Jcori ; thus, 35 is ek kori 
pandrah; but the more scientific mode is, of course, to carry the 
hundred numerals in his head, and be quite independent. 


50. The Hindustani abounds with derivative words 
both of native origin and of foreign importation. Those 
from the Arabic are generally single words modified 
from a triliteral root, according to the grammatical rules 
of that language. From the Persian, on the other hand, 
not only derivative words are freely borrowed, but also 
a multitude of compounds, for the formation of which 
the Persian language has a peculiar aptitude, and to the 
number of which there is no limit. In like manner, 
compositions in the Hindi dialect abound in Sanskrit 
words both derivative and compounded according to the 
genius of that highly-cultivated language. Hence, in 
order to know Hindustani on sound etymological prin- 
ciples, a slight knowledge of Arabic, Persian, and 


Sanskrit is absolutely requisite. To the majority of 
students in this country, however, this is impracticable, 
their time being necessarily occupied in the acquisition 
of those essential branches of knowledge usually taught 
at schools. As a general rule, then, we may take it for 
granted that an acquaintance with the words of the 
Hindustani language, whether native or foreign, primi- 
tive or derivative, must be ultimately acquired by prac- 
tice in reading, with the aid of a vocabulary or dictionary, 
together with exercises in composition. This being the 
case, it will not be necessary for us to enter deeply into 
the subject of derivation or composition; the reader, if 
inclined, may consult Dr. Gilchrist's quarto Grammar, 
edit. 1796, where he will find twenty-nine goodly pages 
devoted to this department. 


51. "We have already seen that the agent of a verb 
is denoted by adding the termination ^ wdld (sometimes 
\j\st, hard) to the inflected form of the infinitive, as bolne- 
wdld or bolne-hdrd, l a speaker.' The same terminations 
added to a substantive denote in general the possessor of 
such substantive, real or temporary ; as ^j ^ ghar-wdld, 
1 the master of the house ;' ^ Jj" bail-wdld, l the owner 
of the bullock ;' or, simply, ' the man with the bullock.' 
A noun of the third class is inflected on the addition of 
y\j wdld, thus, i\j ^^ gadhe-wdla, ' the owner of the 
ass ;' or l the man with the donkey.' Various nouns of 
agency, etc. are also formed by adding the following 
terminations, thus : 

^b to 9 V a garden, u V bdgh-ldn, a gardener. 

jb l$2$3 a jest, j\j^f^j thatthe-ldz, a jester. 



ji to i\j a road, 
j\ J,j <U>- a pipe, 

r&h-bar, a guide. 

hukka-barddr, a pipe-bearer. 

o o o ^r 

j Jxi a horse-shoe, J>'.JL<J na'l-band, a farrier. 




Jjciu a torch, 

j iron, 
Jj bad, 

jj gold, 

ii^ crime, 

j\j Ju^l hope, 

^ij jj door, 

^ Lj army, 


52. These signify the thing by which the action may 
be performed, and are derived from verbal roots by 

( jLj belan, a rolling-pin. 
U^ ramnd, a park. 

masKal-cM, a torch-bearer. 
zamin-ddr, a landholder. 
hfidr, a blacksmith. 
bad-bar, an evil-doer. 
j zar-gar, a goldsmith. 
li^ gundh-gdr, a sinner. 

ummed-wdr, an expectant. 
dar-wdn, a porter. 
pdhi, a soldier. 

.o * 

>f katarnl, a pair of scissors. 
, a broom. 

jj as J-J rolling, 
li ftj playing, 


j j $>- sweeping, 

Others are formed from nouns, by affixing 

J! as i/jfp an hour, J^J^ ffharlydl, an hour-bell 

i O 

the hand, <lGu~!j dastdna, a glove. 

* / ^ 

^ e e y e * + * 7- chashmak, spectacles. 


the hand, te~:J dasta, a handle. 

1 The terminations ddr, bat, and perhaps a few more, require the noun to b 
inflected, if of the third class; as, mazt-dar, tasteful, thutthe-bdz, a jester. 





53. These are formed partly by uniting twq_ nouns 
together, and also by adding certain terminations ; as, 

\J\ a city, 
jf b a garden, 


^ a city, 

a flower, 
;U Ghazf, 

haidar-dbdd, the 
city of Haidar. 

multitude, *!<} a tulip, 

JL or I 

Lt a place, 

Ij^ a horse, 


ij a place, 

-J a grave, 



f-i a place, 

JS a rose, 

&U a place, 

/VjT rest, 

;& city, 

...ji*S Kishn, 

# . 
jj i^$j\ Ghdzi-pur, the city 

of Ghazi. 

j\j <tl^ Idla-zdr, a tulip- 

ghur-sdl, a stable. 

j-jl Tcabr-i&tdn, a bury- 

-s&w, a rose- 

drdm-gdh, a rest- 

Ei$hn-nagar, the 
town of Krishna. 


54 Abstract nouns are formed chiefly from adjec- 
tives, by affixing some termination, of which the follow- 
ing are of common occurrence : 

\ to 

\j .y * little, 

TFx ' 

b, jjj, or bj Ivp- a child, 

(jw - l^x,^ sweet, 

sj\j fresh, 

garma, warm weather. 
kamti, deficiency. 
larak-pan, childhood. 
rnithds, sweetness. 
tdzagt, freshness. 


- / 

to IssTjl high, li)^CJ^ bnchdn, height. 

\j) bad, (J>\s! &wi,l, badness. 

\ bitter, (JU^l fotr^dAaJ, bitterness. 

To Arabic nouns LiJ is generally added to form abstracts; as, 

t ' 

>- hukm, ' a command,' c^-v*jL>- hukumat, ' dominion ;' so p\^*~ 

\ajjdm, ' a barber,' hajjdmat, ' shaving.' A few abstracts are formed 
by a repetition of the word, with a slight alteration in the last, as 
^jy -$Jj^>- jhiith-m&th, 'falsehood.' 


55. The verbal noun denoting the action (in pro- 
gress) is generally expressed by the infinitive. The 
action, in the abstract, is frequently expressed by the 
mere root; as, J^j bol, l speech,' *U~ chdhj l desire, 7 etc. 
Others are formed from the root by adding certain 
terminations j as, 

\ to 

^ ! - 




* speak, l^ 


^ 8OW > if* l^ 

J^ mix, <__. >^L 
.-> drink, ^*iw 
^J know(Pers.)(jij!j 


J>- burn, ^L*- 

\1 ' 1 U ' 

*^ deceive, 'JA^J 
Ls"* prepare, cJLjjLsr 5 

A ^ 

lj call, ci^ib 

^A<f, a saying. 
Jo,d,i, a sowing. 
mil dp, a mixing or union. 
piyds, desire to drink, thirst. 
ddnish, knowledge. 
jalan, a burning. 
Ihuldwd, a deception. 
tajdtcat, preparation. 
khiluj, a feeding. 
luUJiat, a calling. 



56. These are formed from other nouns, by adding 
to them various terminations ; as, 

\ to .JLj a daughter, Lib litiyd, a little daughter. 

.. X , XX 

or t^>- c^& J a cauldron, f^ degcM, a kettle. 

a bedstead, u^o> polangrk, a small bed- 

*-^ V 


a cannon, uly topak, a musket. 

. / 

Ij i^t a man, ijJ^ mardu,d, a little man. 

lib cT*^ a brahman, liLx^Ji^j Irahmanetd, a young 


a deer, I5^)yj> hiranotd, a fawn. 

or J^. jy a peacock, ^j^ moreld, a pea-chicken. 

cb a garden, *^V^^ lagh'icha, a kitchen- 



57. Names of males ending in \ a or * a, of the third 
class, have the corresponding females in ^- 2; as l2-j 
fo#, ' a son ; ' ^jLj ~beti, ' a daughter ;' Jj^f ghord, l a 
horse ;' ^^ ffhorij ' a niare. ' In a similar manner 
names of lifeless objects of the third class have some- 
times a feminine form, generally significant of diminution, 
as 3)jf gold, ( a bullet ;' ^ goti, * a pill.' Substantives 
of the first and second classes form the corresponding 
feminine by adding either ^- z } ^ ni, or U7 in, as 
follows : 

L mulld, a teacher, 1^* inulldnl. 

, a lion, 


mihtar, a sweeper, ip^ mihtardni. 



brdhman, a Brahman, ^jX^Jfci^J brdhmani. 

j^ 3 wndrin, or 
ttf sundr, a goldsmith, 

o. A few are irregular in their formation ; thus, from <^'\# lhd,k, 
'brother/ ( j^ lahin, 'sister;' <-+) leg or ^>- Man, 'lord/ S*J 

legam or *jL>- khdnam, 'lady;' \s>-\j rdjd, king,' ^5-*^ rdni, 

^ i t " ' 

queen;' ^^pv* hdthi, m. an elephant,' ^y>fifc hathni, f. In other 

cases, as t_>lj iop, ' father,' t w<f, ' mother,' the words are totally 

different, as in our own language, and often taken from different 

t ' t 

tongues, as J^* mard, man' (Persian), ^jf- 'aurat, woman' 



58. Adjectives are formed from substantives by the 
addition of certain terminations, most of which will be 
found in the following alphabetical list : their ordinary 
meaning will be obvious from the various examples ; 
thus, by adding 

1 to -^# hunger, ^j$ bhiikhd, hungry. 

a child, JJbsb tifldna, childish. 

strength, JLjbjJ w-awWy strong. 

o o. o 

arms, ocj^L^Ji hathydr-band, armed. 

b lij fidelity, J^^J wafd-ddr, faithful. 

\j ^^J foreign country, U^j wildyat-zd, foreign-bom. 
Lj xj* a mountain, jLuJit^ Jcoh-sdr, mountainous. 


J J the heart, j^^ dil-gir, grieved. 

*i sorrow, ^j-i *& gham-gin, sorrowful. 
behind, ^fi pichJdd, hindermost. 

wcaltii, JCwa)jk> daulat-mand, wealthy. 


\j to two, u j diind, double. 


JJb terror, cl/U J& haul-ndk, terrible, 

view, ^JjJ diddr&, slightly. 

grief, J^f* sog-wdr, grievous. 

i i 

AU name, JT 1 * nam-war, renowned. 

two years, <*JLjjJ do-sdla, biennial. 

j_ ,\j\j a market, <-,'!; ^ tdzdri, of the market. 

o. o 

or )L) u^-Jit> tooth, J^^ dantel, tusked. 

<U> or <)jb to c_ >- wood, t-r^.P~ c ^^ n > wooden. 

/ls fdm and ^jS ^ii are added to words to denote colour ; as, 
A\J (^jJ&j za'fardn-fdm, ' saffron-coloured,' ^ J-*J nkl-giin, ' blue- 
coloured.' Uj^ bond and &J* gosha are added to numerals to 
express the figure of things ; as, \jy>~ chau-kond, ' quadrangular, 
&J* (JuJ* shash-gosha, ' hexagonal,' etc. ,j wash and j\j war are 
added to express likeness; as, ^j ^j bark-wash, 'like lightning,' 
marddna-wdr, ' like a brave man.' 

a. Many adjectives are formed by prefixing certain words; as 
follows : 

^\ to l^jJ seen, ^<^ an-dekhd, unseen. 

b Uj trust, \jj\j bd-wafd, trusty. 

c . 

^j J^M? patience, ^^3.0 be-sabr, impatient. 

*\J /lj a name, (*^^ bad-ndm, infamous. 

j+ -sl>- present, .*o\-j+. ghair-hdzir, absent. 

t-J^>- JAC wisdom, jAcj_Jl>. JcMldf-aU, foolish. 

* o o 4 j 

*S t^^js: fortune, (^-jKr*S Jcam-lalcht, unfortunate. 

*;l&- help, ^^^ Id-chdra, helpless. 


U to i^r^- pleased, ^f>\) nd-khuth, displeased. 

O * 0/0 

*jj> .*. age, j***&> ham-umr, coeval. 

59. In concluding our remarks on the derivation of 
words, we would particularly direct the student's atten- 
tion to the various uses of the termination L5T I. 1. It 
may be added to almost every adjective of the language, 
simple or compound, which then becomes the corres- 
ponding abstract substantive. 2. It may be added to all 
substantives denoting country, city, sect, tribe, physical 
substances, etc., which then become adjectives, signifying 
of or belonging to, or formed from, etc., the primary 
substantive. Lastly. It is used in forming feminines 
from masculines ; and it is the characteristic of the 
feminine gender in all present and past participles, as 
well as in all adjectives purely Indian ending in \ a. 


60. In all works written in the Urdu or mixed 
dialect of Hindustani, a vast number of compound words 
from the Persian may be met with in almost every page. 
These are generally formed by the union of two sub- 
stantives, or of an adjective with a substantive. Many 
of them are given in dictionaries, but as there is no limit 
to their number, the student must not place much re- 
liance on that source. A few weeks' study of Persian 
will make the matter clearer than any body of rules we 
could lay down on the subject ; we shall therefore notice 
here only the more important compounds, referring tho 
student for further information to our Persian Grammar, 
last edition. 



a. A Persian or Arabic substantive with its regimen is of fre- 
quent occurrence in Hindustan/ ; as, C-?L>- <_->! ab-i-haiydt, 'water 
of immortality;' (JJ!J*JL>L> dida,i-ddmsh, 'the eye of discernment ;' 
(.^Jc/jjj rii-e-zamin, 'the face of the earth.' In a similar form a 
Persian substantive with its adjective occasionally occurs; as, j ^~ 
mard-i-nilib, 'a good man;' ^li Jlc ' dlam-i-fdni, 'the perishable 
world.' These, when introduced into Hindustani, are viewed as 
single words, and form their various cases by adding the post-posi- 
tions like nouns of the first or second classes; as, dl-i-haiydt led, 
db-i-haiydt se, etc. 

o. A numerous class of Compound Substantives is formed by the 
mere juxta-position of two nouns ; as, <*jL>- i^Ji^. bdwar-chk- 
l_hdna, 'cook-house, or kitchen,' from .r^jjj cook,' and 6j\- a 
house ;' so, *o/j}j razm-gdh, ' the battle-field,' from *jj ' contest,' 
and al" a place ;' in like manner, $Uj (j^r jahdn-pandh, the 
asylum of the world,' '. e. 'your majesty,' from ^^^ the 
world,' and *ta ' refuge ;' so, <t\J \^j roz-ndma, ' a day-book,' 
<t* Tchirad-ndma, 'the book of wisdom,' etc. In compounds of 

-^ s 

this kind, the two words are generally written separate, though they 
may also be united into one. These are upon the whole like our own 
compounds, book-stall, coffee house, newspaper, etc., of which it is 
customary to write some with a hyphen between, others quite 
separate, and a few united into one word. 

c. There is a class of verbal Nouns, not very numerous, consisting, 
1st. Of two contracted infinitives, connected with the conjunction * ; 
as, Jy-i j u^to guft o shanM, ' conversation,' literally, ' speaking 

o _ 

and hearing ;' c^-Jj j ,x^ 1 dmad o raft or dmad o shud, ' coming and 
going, 'intercourse.' 2ndly. A contracted infinitive, with the cor- 


i * 

responding root ; as f>- j c: ^.->- /watf o y&, searching ;' 

^M/55 o g& t 'conversation.' The conjunction j in such cases is occa- 
sionally omitted ; as, &2> <X I , L^ .to , the same as & j *V*T, etc. 

d. There are a few compounds similar to the preceding, consisting 
of two substantives, sometimes of the same, and sometimes of different 

9 C, o * O 

signification ; as, /y j J^ or jy^ $ jj>+ tnarz o "bitm or man o 
Itishwar, 'an empire' or 'kingdom,' literally, 'boundary and region;' 
so, U& < M db o hated, climate,' literally, water and air;' 

o ( 

UJ j y^j nashv o namd, rearing or bringing up ' (a plant or animal). 
In these, also, the conjunction j may be omitted, as L*J j-u*J, 
jy'j^, etc. 

e. Compounds purely Hindustanf or Hindi are not nearly so 
numerous as those borrowed from the Persian; the following are 
occasionally met with : 1st. A masculine and feminine past participle, 
generally the same verb, though sometimes different; as, ( -^ l^i 
Jcahd-kahi, 'altercation,' -i-j l^ kahd-suni, 'disputation.' 2nd. Two 

nouns of the same, or nearly the same signification; as,j*\&-j*jj 

< i 

servants,' *^ t^Jj a custom or mode,' etc. Such expressions are 

very common in the Bagh o Bahar,' which is the standard work of 
the language. 3rd. Two words having something of alliteration about 
them, or a similarity of rhyme ; as, /lfcJ pj&^ ' hurly-burly,' jjj j^L 
1 uproar, ' j&~ jiL* 'trickery,' etc., all of which we should of course 
vote to be vulgarisms, only that they occur in the very best writers. 
Lastly, the Hindustanf is particularly rich in imitative sounds, such 
as i&~ FT 'j^gling/ 'simmering.' 

/. Arabic phrases, such as we described in p. 19 (No. 18), are 
occasionally met with, such as c-jL-s^ v_, y" , ' the Causer of 
causes,' ' God,' etc. ; but we believe that all such are explained in 

good dictionaries. 




a. A very numerous class of epithets is formed by the union of 
two substantives; as, +j 4$ Idla ruTch, 'having cheeks like the 
tulip ;' ^j*jj ,_^ p&ri-ru,e or par'i-ru, ' having the face of a fairy ;' 
Jj ig/L, sang-dil, 'having a heart like stone;' t__J^L) shaTcar-lab, 
' having lips (sweet) as sugar.' In English we have many instances, 
in the more familiar style, of this kind of compound; as, 'iron- 
hearted,' 'bull-headed,' 'lynx-eyed,' etc. 

b. Another numerous class, similar to the preceding, is formed by 

> f 
prefixing an adjective to a substantive; as, t_^> ^-r^*- khM>-ru,e, 

' having a fair face ;' <^ f \j <^lj pdk-rd,e, ' of pure intention ;' 
J J <^&J tang-dil, ' distressed in -heart.' We make use of many 
such compounds in familiar conversation and newspaper style, such as 
'clear-sighted,' 'long-headed,' 'sharp-witted,' 'hard-hearted,' etc. 

c. Perhaps the most numerous class of the epithets is that com- 
posed of verbal roots, joined to substantives or adjectives ; as,^-^ Jlc 

t ^Vi . t 

'dlam-gir, world-subduing;' J->Ji <fcJ fitna~angez, strife-exciting;' 

LT ^^ jdn-dsd, 'giving rest to the soul;' ^l^-s Jt> dil-sitdn, 
'ravishing the heart;' j L\- suluk-raw, 'moving lightly.' Our 
best English poets frequently indulge in compounds of this class ; thus, 
' the night- tripping fairy,' ' the temple-haunting martlet,' ' the cloud- 
compelling Jove,' etc. 

d. A knowledge of these Persian compounds will be absolutely 
necessary, in order to peruse with any advantage the finest productions 
of the Hindustani language. The poets in general freely use such 
terms; nor are they of less frequent occurrence in the best prose 
works, such as the 'Bagh o Bahar,' the ' Ikhwanu-s-safa,' the * Khirad 


Afroz,' etc., for the thorough understanding of which, a slight know- 
ledge of the Persian is absolutely requisite. In proof of this, we 
could point out many compounds which occur in our own selections 
from the 'Khirad Afroz,' not to he found in any dictionary, the 
meaning at the same time being quite obvious to any one who knows 

Persian. Such, for example, are l^J f&r* marham-bahd, 'medicine- 

p ' 

money ; ' <J^ \j& nafas-kushl, ' mortifying of the passions ; ' 

^\\* 15-97* stifi-mizdj, 'of philosophic disposition,' 

e. We may reckon among the compounds such expressions as 
<__jb I* md-ldp, 'parents,' j^J^ Idr-kapiir, 'Lar and Kapur,' names 
of two brother minstrels who lived at the court of Akbar. It is 
barely possible that this may be an imitation of the Sanskrit compound 
called Dwandwa ; though the probability is in favour of its being an 
idiomatic omission of the conjunction jj\ ' and,' between two such 
words as are usually considered to be associated together. In works 
purely Hindi, translated from the Sanskrit, such as the ' Prem Sagar,' 

. c . 

it is most likely that such phrases as lJyju5>- JcJ nanda-jasodd, 
'Nanda and Jasoda;' *\^J (j~*J> ^risJma-lalardm, 'Krishna and 
Balaram,' are bona-fide Dwandwas ; but it would savour of pedantry to 

apply the term to such homely expressions as ( .j^^ ^Jjjj ' bread and 

i n v 
butter,' or the very un-classtcal beverage commonly called .Ju i^S^J^t 

videlicet, ' brandy and water.' 




61, IN all languages a simple sentence must necessarily 
consist of three parts, expressed or understood : 1st, a 
nominative or subject ; 2nd, a verb ; and 3rd, a predicate 
or attribute ; as, * fire is hot,' * ice is cold. 7 In many 
instances the verb and attribute are included in one 
word ; as, ' the man sleeps,' ' the horse runs,' ' the snow 
falls,' in which case the verb is said to be neuter or 
intransitive. When the verb is expressive of an action, 
and at the same time the sense is incomplete without 
stating the object acted upon, it is called an active or 
transitive verb, as, ' the carpenter made a table,' * the 
masons built a church.' In each of these sentences it is 
evident that something is required beyond the verb to 
complete the sense, for if we merely said t the carpenter 
made,' 'the masons built,' the hearer would instantly 
ask, 'made what?' 'built what?' In Hindustani and 
several'of its kindred dialects, it is of the utmost import- 
ance that the learner should discriminate the active or 
transitive from the neuter or intransitive verb, in order 
that he may adopt that mode of construction peculiar to 
each. In a sentence whose verb is active or transitive, 
we shall designate the three parts as agent, verb, and 
object ; thus, the carpenter is the agent ; made, the verb ; 
and a table, the object. 

a. In the arrangement of the- three parts of a sentence, different 
languages follow rules peculiar to themselves; for instance, in the 


sentence, 'the elephant killed the tiger,' the Latin, Greek, and 
Sanskrit languages have the option of arranging the words in any 
order. The Arabic and the Gaelic put the verb first, then the nomi- 
native, and lastly the object. The English and French follow the 
logical order as we have given it, and the Hindustani and Persian 
have also an arrangement of their own, which we shall now proceed to 
explain, as our first rule of Syntax or construction. 

62. The general rule for the arrangement of the parts 
of a sentence in Hindustani is, first, the nominative or 
agent ; secondly, the predicate or object ; and, last of all, 
the verb; thus, ^J* j? tS/T ag garm hai, 'fire is hot/ 
L5^ 1?^ L5*?^ J^/i P ar hez achchhi dawd hai, ' abstinence is 
good physic,' ^ W $ jU j+L ^ ^U hdthi-ne sher-ko 
mdr-ddld hai, l the elephant has killed the tiger.' 

a. Though the above rule holds in short sentences, such as those 
we have just given, yet it is by no means of stringent application. 
In the first place, poets are freely allowed the proverbial license of 
the genus ; that is, to adopt that arrangement of the words which best 
pleases the ear, or suits the metre. In prose, also, it may sometimes 
be more emphatic to put the object first ; as, b^l \j- ^i ^^j ^\ 
' thou hast stolen those images.' Sometimes the object is, for the sake 
of contrast or emphasis, put last, in the place usually occupied by the 
verb; as follows, JU JjU jj\__jJU ^ lj x.-Jb J-&^- 
' the fool seeks for wealth, and the sage for excellence,' where tndl-ko 
and kamdl-ko arc put last. 

I. The Hindustani makes no difference in the arrangement of a 
sentence, whether it be interrogative or affirmative. In conversation, 
the tone of the voice, or the look, suffices to indicate whether or not a 
question is asked, and in reading it must be inferred from the context ; 
thus, I^)\=T /J'.may signify 'you will go,' or 'will you go?' There 
ore, however, several words which are used only in asking a question, 
.such as those given in the middle -column of p. 68. These, when 
used, come immediately before the verb, as \}\*>- \^ ** ' where 


will you go ?' The word L is sometimes employed at the beginning 

of a sentence to denote interrogation, like the Latin num or an ; as, 


> <3 *J' \~* ' have you not heard this proverb ? ' 


63. The adjective, as in English, generally precedes 
its substantive. If the adjective be capable of inflection, 
that is, if it be a purely Indian word ending in 1 #, the 
following rule holds : The termination \ a is used before 
all masculine nouns in the nominative (or first accusative) 
case singular ; the termination <j$ e is used before mas- 
culine norms in any other case singular, or in the plural 
number; and the termination ^_ i is used before all 
feminine nouns, in any case, singular or plural ; thus, 
^Jh t^ il# nj wuh bhald mard hai, ' he is a good man,' 
^> j^ ^i bhale mard-se, ' from a good man,' ^ ^^ 
bhale mard, l good men,' ^ ^^ J^ bhale mardoh-se, 
'from good men,' ox^c ^& bhali 'aurat, 'a good woman,' 
\i ^j^. ^jlgj bhalt 'auraton-kdj t of good women.' 

a. The same rule applies to such adjectives in ^J\ an and * a, as 
admit of inflection; as, J^ ^^^ 'the tenth man,' 

' of the tenth man,' i^J\j j~>4 'the tenth night;' s 
'the helpless traveller,' jS\u^ <-5J^?. '^ *^ e helpless traveller,' 
J^j t^Wu ' the helpless queen.' 

b. If adjectives, capable of inflection, be separated by means of 
the particle from the noun which they qualify, and united with 
the verb, they undergo no change ; as, * }Il _^x* iJ^ ' blacken 
his face ; ' but in this sentence kald-lcarnd is to be reckoned a com- 
pound verb (p. 66, 5). Adjectives, ending with any letter except 
i , x and ^ , restricted as above, do not undergo any change ; 


'a pure man, ^jf- <-l/b 'a pure woman,' 
cl/b \j ' an unclean thing.' 


<?. As a general rule, adjectives, when followed by their sub- 
stantives, never receive the nasal terminations (dn, en, or on) of 
the plural ; and the same rule applies to such tenses as are 
formed of participles with or without an auxiliary verb, it being 
deemed sufficient to add the nasal n to the last word only; as 
achchhi (not achchhi,dn) Jcitdben, 'good books;' 
j bhale (not lhalon) ddmiyon-ne, 'by good men;' 
uS^" s? we ^^ J^t rahti thin, ' they (females) 
continued going along.' Sometimes, however, the participle takes 

S I O ' I I*/ 

the plural termination; as j*J& ^LJ^j and ^^-Jb ^IJ^S. When 
the adjective comes last (which may happen in verse), it sometimes 
receives the plural termination; as, ^V.J^ uJ0*b *^ eav y (tedious) 
nights.' (Yates's Grammar). 

<?. If an adjective qualify two or more nouns, some of which are 
masculine, and others feminine, the adjective is used in the masculine 
form, and the same rule applies to the participles and future tenses of 
verbs ; as, j-Jb ^*y c_jl> t .J~>\ ' his mother and father are dead ;' 

[^ jQ^.^ \y* i^S^J 15^ 15-^^ ic-^ *^ e sec" 1 ? his son and 
daughter dead, said,' etc. If, however, the substantives be names of 
inanimate things, the adjective generally agrees with that to which it 
stands nearest; thus, ^,-Jb ,rf=-^ L -""V ij^^ J^ cT^ *-C/ 
the clothes, plates, and books are very good.' 


64. We have seen (p. 27, etc.,) that the genitive 
case has three distinct terminations, /*a, ke, and ki, and 
the rule which determines the choice of these is exactly 
similar to that which regulates the termination of the 


adjective ; in fact, all genitives in Hindustani are pos- 
sessive adjectives, subject to inflection, and, like adjectives, 
they are generally placed before the substantive which 
governs them. If the governing word be masculine and 
in the nominative case (or first form of the accusative) 
singular, l Jed is used, as, j l jj^ mard-kd ghar, ' the 
man's house,' or 'the house of the man,' -Jbjblij \s l J^ 
mard-kd kuttd wafdddr hai, l the man's dog is faithful,' 
^,U u-v l^ l ^ mard-kd kuttd mat mdroj l do not 
beat the man's dog.' If the governing word be mascu- 
line, and in an oblique case singular, or in any case 
plural, ^ ke is used, as, ^ jf ^J ^ mard-ke ghar-se, 
1 from tfie man's house,' ^y& ^ j% mard-ke ghar on- 
to, 'to the man's houses.' Lastly, if the governing 
word be feminine, in whatever case or number, ^ Jci is 
used; as, ^JLj ^ ^ mard-ki beti, 'the man's daughter,' 
-.fite ^ * mard-kl kitdben, ' the man's books.' 

U/~' x O^ -/ 

a. Although the general rule is to put the genitive case hefore 
its regimen, yet the reverse is of frequent occurrence, particularly in 
such works as have been translated or imitated from the Persian; 

x O y 

as ^ ^Jj JuJ 'the thraldom of the body,' l Jj* *?l 'the 
worship of thanksgiving.' We may here state that the Persian 

genitive is formed by placing the governing word first, having its last 

<- -x , 
letter marked with the vowel Jcasra; as, (jlulj ** ganj-i ddnish, 

'the treasury of wisdom,' where the short vowel f is the sign of the 
genitive, similar in its use to our particle of in English. Persian words 
ending with a and ^ take * ; and those ending with \ or j take ^ 

, f S- o ( 

for the sign of the genitive; as, IJci- *jco a servant of God,' 

^^ ' ^ f ^ ne sea -' 
:b. The genitive sign is employed idiomatically in such expressions 


IX I S S ;* 

as c-*^ O L-^-J sdb-kd sal, one and all, 1 cu>-^i li i^|> khet-kd 
lihet, ' the whole (field) of the field,' cub ^ cub ldt-kk bdt, ' mere 
talk;' and adjectively to convert a substantive into an attributive; 
thus, te^L l jj^j 0tttf-a takhta, ' a golden plate,' or ' plate of gold ;' 
\fjg>- \& j~> t_fJ ' a boy with a large head.' 

o. In some cases it is idiomatically omitted ; as i_iU b J daryd 


kandre, on the river bank,' for ^^-^ t^ui ./ bjJ daryd-ke 
kandre-men, 'on the bank of the river.' It is also omitted in many 
expressions in which the governing words denote weight or measure ; 
as, Lr-^ij^ j~a LlX>J 'one pound of flesh,' -^r^j V^ * ^ <a 
bfgha of ground,' where the words are used merely in apposition, the 
same as in German. 

d. The genitive is also used to signify possession, value, etc. ; 
as, Igj* UL-J tlXjt ^i aLijjL) pddsJid h-K E \_pds or yahdn 
understood] ek beta thd, the king had a son ;' in like manner, 

/ I .X ^ I 

^ef? ^^Lj cl>ol ^^ ^y--'' WS-KE [^as, etc.] iAi ek beti thi, he 
had also a daughter;' Jy^>- '^ \^!^}J < ^ e * ritpk,e-kd chdnwal, 
' one rupee's (worth of) rice.' 

0. Compounds formed of two common substantives in English 
will in Hindustani be expressed by the genitive case ; as j?* .J* ic^^ 
likhne-ki mez, ' a writing-table ;' ^-^-^j ^ <j\ khdne kd wakt, 
' dinner time ;' and sometimes the genitive sign is used in Hindustani 

o o 

when in English it is inadmissible, as lai! l J& fikr kd lafz, ' the 
word FIXE.' 

/. Instances sometimes occur in which a genitive case is used in 

t ,0,' ' 

consequence of a noun or preposition understood ; such as i~j L <*~ J ' (3 

r Sr - \ 

' hear ye him,' . e. cub ,J~>\ ' his word ;' so in the tale of the 
First Darwesh (' Bagh o Bahar,' p. 34,) we have ^ilf^J ^Ujb C >! 

9 I O I <- 

^j'fcfe ,cJb>- * ( JUjj ( J (where the word ^.-u or ^U^J is understood), 

' between you and mo there has arisen a sincere friendship.' The 



editors of a recent Calcutta edition have made an amendment here, by 
using hamdr'i tumhdri ! 


65. The list of prepositions, page 71, beginning with 
age^ etc., govern the genitive with ^ Jce ; as 
ghar-Jce age, ' before (in front of) tne house ;' 
daryd-Jce par, ' over (on the other side of) 
the river,' etc. The less numerous list, beginning with 
ci-ob Mbat, etc., page 72, govern the genitive with 
^J ki; as, i_J^ ^ ^2* shahr-Jci taraf, 'towards (in the 
direction of) the city.' All the prepositions may be 
optionally put before or after the word which they 
govern, their effect on the substantive, with few ex- 
ceptions, remaining the same. 

a. The prepositions being all substantives in an oblique case 
whose termination is (No. 64, c) idiomatically omitted, it is easy to 
see from what we have just stated why they should govern the 
genitive in Tee or M, but never in M. There is however one pecu- 
liarity attending some of the feminine prepositions which custom 
seems to have established ; though the rationale of it be not at all 
evident. We have excellent authority for saying that the words 

^ I ^ 1 

JJ^*j, .g^jA^J, <*jB, and JkXiU, when they precede the sub- 
stantive, require the genitive in - Jce ; and when they follow, they 
require .J> ki. In the second volume of the ' Khirad Afroz,' p. 277, we 
have . tjJLe JJUJ lamadad 'aid-Ice, by aid of the understanding.' 
In the ' Bagh o Bahar,' * p. 40, we have 

1 Whenever reference is made to the ' B&gh o Bah&r,' it is understood to be the 
edition recently edited by me, at the desire and expense of the Honourable the East- 
India Company. It is not only the cheapest, but in every respect the best work that 
the student can peruse, after he has gone through the Selections appended to this 
Grammar. D. F. 


le-marzi huz&r-ke, 'without consent of her highness the princess;' 
and in page 188 of the same work, wo have j^> <_ ijo uJo! 
ek taraf shahr-ke, ' on one side of the city ;' all of them with ke 
in every edition and copy, printed or manuscript. The wonder 
is, how it escaped the critical amendments of the Calcutta editors 
already alluded to ; but so it has, for even they have here followed 
the established reading. 


b. The preposition Joil* mdnand or mdnind has been amply 
discussed by Dr. Gilchrist in several of his works, but it must be 
confessed that the learned doctor does not in this instance appear as a 
sound and fair critic. He assumes that one of the Munshis used ke 
instead of ki by mistake, and that he had sufficient influence with all 
the other learned natives of the country to make them take his part, 
and sanction the error. This argument is so very ridiculous that refu- 
tation is superfluous. Use is everything in language, and if in Hin- 
dustani custom has ordained that several of the prepositions when they 
precede the word which they govern, require the genitive with ke, 
and when they follow require ki, then it is the duty of the grammarian 
fairly to state the fact. It is quite probable that many instances of 
this mode of construction, in addition to those which we have shown 
above, may yet be detected. 

c. The adverbs ^l^J ' here,' and ^Uj ' there,' govern the genitive 
with ke, like nouns or prepositions. When thus used, they convey 
idiomatically the signification of at, to, or in the house of,' or 'in the 
possession of.' jls- yV^Jj ^J> c_^-U> go to the gentleman's house,' 
which is not unlike the use of the French particle chex. The pre- 
positions (vjl> and uJo Op are used in the same general sense as 
(ujl> Jl-sl 'near or with him,' and more generally 'in his possession,' 
' chez lui* The word uJo O^J denotes idiomatically ' in the opinion of,' 
as d>Jjj ^ jjjJo^Jjis 'in the opinion of the wise;' 'apud 


d. Several of the prepositions, when they follow their substantives, 
may dispense entirely with the genitive signs Tee and JA, thus shewing 
a tendency to become real postpositions; as, ^b ^o^ 'near or 
before the judge.' If the word they govern be a noun of the third 
class, or a pronoun, the inflected form remains the same as if Jce or ki 
had been expressed; as, (jwb ^^P 'near the boy;' Uj yu\ 'with- 
out him or her ; ' and if the word governed be the first or second 
personal pronoun, when the genitive is thus dispensed with, the 
oblique forms mujh and tujh are used ; as, (JM\J 4f^ near me ' 
near thee.' 


66. The use and application of this case is very 
nearly the same as in most European languages. As 
a general rule, an English noun, governed by the pre- 
positions to or for, will be expressed in Hindustani by 
means of the dative case. 

a. The Hindustani dative sometimes corresponds with the Latin 
accusative, expressive of motion to a place ; for instance, ^ ^j~* 
lxJjir- ' I will go home,' ' ibo domum.' In this last sense also, the 
sign ko is often omitted, which brings it still nearer the Latin ; as, 
^ys li'U-^i' ^-^ 'l am going home,' ' eo domum.' The dative 
case is also used to express time when ; as, < ^ ' by day ; ' 
CJ^ 'by night;' ,Li 'at evening.' In such expressions 
the post-position ko is frequently and even elegantly omitted; as, 
^ U-X>J ' one day ; ' and if the word expressive of time be accom- 
panied by an adjective or pronoun subject to inflection, the inflected 
form of the latter remains the same as if Tco had been expressed ; as, 


^ UM\ ' on that day ; ' c^-Jj jj* ' at what time ? ' 



67. The accusative in Hindustani, as in English, is 
generally like the nominative, but when it is desirable to 
render the object of an active verb very definite or 
specific, then the termination Jco (of the dative) is added 
to the object. 

o. We believe this rule to be quite sound as a general principle, 
though by no means of rigid application. Many words are sufficiently 
definite from accompanying circumstances, such as an adjective, a 
genitive case, a pronoun, etc., so as not to require any discriminative 
mark. Others again, though sufficiently definite in themselves, gene- 
rally require the particle Tco ; such are proper names, names of offices, 
professions, etc.; as, yib cl^ol* 'call Manik;' yL j^j- 3 
' call the Sardar.' In these instances, however, the Hindustani 
assimilates with the Greek, which would employ the definite article 
in like cases. 

b. The use of the particle Jto to denote the object of an active verb 
forms one of the niceties of the Hindustani, which can only be arrived 
at by practice. A well-educated native, and many Europeans who 
have studied the language and associated much with natives, will 
without effort supply the particle Jto in its proper place, and nowhere 
else. It follows then that there must be some principle to regulate all 
this, though it may be difficult to lay hold of, or to express within a 
short compass. The rule given by Muhammad Ibrahim of Bombay, 
and wo assuredly know of no better authority, is in substance the same 
as we have just stated. Vide 'Tuhfae Elphinstone,' page 80. 

c. "When a verb governs an accusative and also a dative, both being 
substantives, the first or nominative form of the accusative is generally 
used, as the repetition of Jto in both cases would not only sound ill, but 
in many instances lead to ambiguity ; thus, j J \jj& ^j* ' &i ve the 
horse to the man.' If, however, it be deemed essential to add io to 
the accusative, even this rule must give way; as in the following 


sentence : b J / ^^--J ^J\ ^a^. ^ ^'Ig ^\ J, <j\ ' he 
gave his brother's share to his (brother's) wife.' When the dative is a 
pronoun, the repetition of TiO is easily avoided by using the termination 
e or eh for the latter; as, L J,^ ^t ^y cj ^la 'the 
judge gave up to her the child.' 


68. The ablative denotes the source from which any 
thing proceeds; the locative, as its name imports, denotes 
situation. In their use and application, they generally 
correspond with the Latin ablative. 

a. The ablative sign ^ se signifies 'from' and 'with.' It is 
applied to the instrument with which, but very seldom to the agent by 
whom, any act is done, unless in connection with a neuter verb. Example : 
Ijl* i^^jl-J <*S*~* (J *>isf the executioner smote the prisoner 
with a sword.' In Dr. Gilchrist's Story-Teller (No. 97), we have an 
instance of se denoting the agent, the only one we have ever met with 
in our reading; ^ ^ ^*\ j>Jy& ,^-jjj L^JJ ^ &? <now 
is it that stale bread was eaten by thee ? ' "With a neuter verb se 

may be used to denote the source or origin of the event described ; 

\ 9 ' ' <T i s ' 

as follows, 'yb <-5jr~* jj* 3 ^ -ff^ 15-* -cL> ,<MtS by some poet (or 

through some poet) a fault took place.' 

I. With the verb U^ kahnd, ' to say' or 'tell,' the particle ^-j se 
seems to be used idiomatically, and must often be translated in English 
by ' to ; ' as, .^i l^ -tf"* 9 ^* (j*\ j~+ ' I am saying to him,' or 
' telling him, truth ; ' because the sentence ^jb \z^Z g* (ju\ -^ 
will mean, ' I declare him (or her, or it) to be true,' or ' I call that 
truth ; ' so ^J^ dtfV ^r* ^^ ^*^^ means ' people do not call 

I S 

him a man.' The use of ^ se with u^i therefore is obvious. 

c. The locative sign l \^ men generally denotes in, sometimes to 


or into ; as, J& <j~* j^> ' he is in the city ;' LT ^% ^L *j < he 
is gone to (into) the city.' The locative signs v-^ and j have fre- 
quently the post-position --j joined to them; as, \& j\ Jj ^~s .j-* jt^ 
1 he brought a sword from in the city ;' \y .** jt <-Jj^ 15-^ *J 
1 he fell down from on his horse.' Here the English idiom is ' from 
off ' his horse, which is less logical. 


69. The case of the agent, characterized by the par- 
ticle J ne, is never used except with transitive verbs, 
and when used it is confined to those tenses only which 
are formed of the past participle (No. 40, page 55). The 
verb then agrees with the object in gender and number, 
unless it be deemed requisite to render the object definite 
by the addition of the particle Jco (No. 67), in which 
case the verb remains in the simple form of the third 
person singular masculine. 

a. In further illustration of this very simple rule, we here sub- 

f .' 

join a sufficient number of examples; l^oJ \z <-lX>\ t_i (j*>\ 'he 

saw a dog,' or, literally, ' by him a dog (was) seen ;' likewise, 

.^o J t^j^ ( j^J tj> (j*\ ' he saw three horses,' or, ' by him,' etc. ; 

L5^' J sK^ < -- ^ *4 '^ ' ne saw a fox;' ^4-^ ^J"^ *^~^ S/ U"\ 
'he saw many foxes;' in all which phrases the construction agrees 
precisely with the Latin passive voice. Again, if it be deemed necessary 

or elegant to add Ito to the object, then the verb will be always the 


same, that is, the masculine singular form ; thus, l^o J { 2^ <j, +& 
' we have seen the dog ;' ^o^> &jj} <-^ f* ' ^ ave vou 8een * no 
horses ? ' ^<^ ^j"$ <-i ^/* L/*^ ^r^T ' w ^ en ^ a ^ man ^^ 
the fox;' l^J <f ^-J^^ iJ **> 'we have seen the foxes.' 


The same rule applies to all the tenses into which L&J enters 

.* ' 

(page 55) ; as, ^a l^JJ <^ <J> U* 1 ^ ' ne ^ as seen a dog ;' so, 

^j ^<^^ *-/*} (j^ <3 (j*i ' he had seen three horses.' As this 
is a subject of great importance in the language, we would advise 
the student to repeat each of the above phrases in all the tenses 
given in page 55. 

I. It must be remembered that the case denoting the agent in 
the personal pronouns / and thou, are (J -* main-ne and jj i' 

o ' " 

tk-ne or iJ I \^J tain-ne ; as l^o J ^Lsl iJ j-*< ' I saw him (her or 

it) ;' -i~j il^V t-^ 1 ** *vi S^ y ' ^^^ ^ nou no ^ ^ ear ^ ^ 8 P ro " 

verb ? ' If, however, the pronouns be followed by a qualifying 


word (substantive or adjective), the inflected forms ^sf mujh 

and ^sT tujh are used ; thus, in the ' Bagh o Bahar,' page 20, 


S^i L^J^ d^* c/^ L/ V^ ^ 4 ^ 4?^ ' z P or ( or 
wretched) obtained nourishment under the shelter of my parents.' 

c. The student should endeavour to remember the limited and 
restricted use of this case of the agent. 1st. It is never used before a 
neuter or intransitive verb. 2nd. It is never used before any of the 
tenses formed from the root or from the present participle of any verb 
whatever. 3rd. It is never used before the verb UjJ bolnd, 'to 
speak or say/ nor before W land, to bring,' although they both seem 
according to our notion to be intransitive. olnd appears to difier very 
little from L^ kahnd, which last requires the use of the agent with ne. 
The verb land is a compound of le-dnd, the last member of which is 
neuter or intransitive, and this leads us to a general rule, which is, 
that ' compound verbs, such as Intensives, of which the last member is 
neuter, though really transitive in signification, do not require the 
agent with ne;' thus, ^^-Jb ^g l$ J^ -iU*^ ^ ' those 
travellers have eaten up the dinner.' 

d. When two sentences having the same nominative or agent 
are coupled by the conjunction j* \ aur, ' and,' the first of which 
has a neuter verb, and the following a verb transitive, it is not 


necessary to express the agent with ne in the second sentence, but the 

construction goes on the same as if ne had been expressed ; thus, 

i / ' *~ * < 

\j jij j s'\ jQ cL-^sj- *j wuh jkat pTivr d,i aur (us-ne) Jcahd, she 

quickly returned and said.' 

e. This very peculiar use of the particle ne to denote the agent 
prevails, with slight modifications, throughout an extensive group of 
dialects spoken in Hindustan Proper. It is found in the Marathf, 
the Guzeratf, and the Panjabf, in the West. In the Nepalese it 
assumes the form ^ le; and it may be inferred that it prevails in 
most of the intermediate dialects of Hindi origin, amounting to nearly 
twenty in number. It does not exist in the group of dialects connected 
with the Bengali, nor in those of the Deccan. In the grammars of the 
Marathi language, it is called the Instrumental case, a term inapplicable 
in Hindi, as it never is used with the instrument, but solely with the 
agent. What is called the instrumental case in Sanskrit, is applied 
indifferently to the agent or instrument; but in the modern dialects 
above alluded to, particularly the Hindustani, ne is restricted to the 
agent only. 

/. Our great grammarians have succeeded wonderfully well in 
mystifying the very simple (though singular) use and application of 
this particle ne. Dr. Gilchrist, in the first edition of his grammar, 
seems to have felt greatly embarrassed by it, without exactly knowing 
what to make of it. Those who have merely followed the learned 
doctor, with very few ideas of their own, have contented themselves 
by calling it an expletive, which luminous explanation has stood for 
years in one of the books hitherto read by beginners. Now, the term 
' expletive ' in philology is as convenient, in its way, as that of fh 
humours in the jargon of quack doctors; it solves every difficulty, and 
forms a ready answer to all questions : it may mean anything or 
nothing. To account philosophically for the mode in which this 
particle is applied does not fall within our province ; suffice it merely 
to say, that it is a form of construction very common in Sanskrit. 
With regard, however, to its practical use and application, we trust 
that all difficulty has been removed. The fact is, that the only real 
difficulty likely to arrest the progress of the learner consists, not in 
the use of ne to express the agent, but in that of ko to define the 
object of a transitive verb. 




70. "When a noun is accompanied by a numeral 
adjective, the plural termination on of the oblique cases is 
generally dispensed with. If the noun be of the third 
class, the inflected form in e is generally used. 

a. Thus, \j\* tljst jU- (J i^V** 9 cJ^ *^ aree soldiers beat 
four men.' "We have reason to believe that the addition of the 
termination on would render the substantives more pointed or definite; 
thus, tin sipahiyon-ne would signify the three soldiers (aforesaid).' 
In the grammar prefixed to Dr. Gilchrist's Dictionary (London ed.), 
we have Iff ^l^J ^ <-r>\jJ \j} j- 9 ' a hundred horses were at the 
Nawwab's,' which ought to be translated ' a hundred horse,' i. e. 
'a troop or collective body of one hundred,' whereas, a hundred 
horses,' or ' a hundred boys,' would be ^^ ' j~> and ^p j->- 

I. Collective numbers add on to denote multiplication or repe- 

o o 

lition ; as, &\f*\j> i^Jj^"* ' hundreds of battles ; ' ^-i ^.jj'jb 
' thousands of cities.' Any numeral by adding on becomes more 
emphatic or definite; as, \jOMir ^)*j^ jjj those four persons.' 

Words expressive of time, as year, month, day, etc., add on in the 

^ '/ o 
nominative plural; as, ^jj'^ ^j^j* ' years have passed away.' 

c. In Hindustani the conjunction, etc., is idiomatically omitted in 
such phrases as ^j-J j J ' two (or) three,' ( jj^j fj J ' (from) ten (to) 
twenty.' A doubtful number is expressed by adding uX^ to the 
numeral; as, uX^ (j*J ,<jT 'about ten men;' (j*j* uXJ )~ 
' about a hundred years.' To signify ' fold,' AXs- or L^ is added to 

*** I # 

numerals: as Jc^-jJ two-fold;' uS (jwJ ten-fold.' Distributives 
are formed by doubling the number ; as, j J jJ ' two by two,' or ' two 


apiece.' Thus, suppose we wish to say, ' give these men three 
rupees each/ or ' three rupees apiece,' the Hindustanf will be 

* / o- ' 

^J ^^j ,jry ^ &0fr***t ii^ ' * * nese men ^re6 three rupees 


71. "We have already observed that adjectives in 
Hindustani do not admit of comparison by any regular 
or systematic terminations. The comparative degree is 
indicated by merely putting the standard of comparison 
in the ablative, and the superlative by prefixing to that 
the word sab, l all.' 

a. The comparative and superlative are to be inferred in general 
from the context, as the adjective has only one form, that of the 
positive or simple word, thus <^->^=?- i^4 C^?y <f>- \# *^i ^j 15*^ 
' the miser is better than the liberal man if he (the miser) give an 
answer quickly.' It is obvious that if the standard of comparison 

should include the whole class spoken of, the adjective will express 

t > 

the superlative degree. Ex. ^^ c. jj- jJ ^a ^^ ^jj^ <**-> 

'of all accomplishments two are best' (viz. learning and the art of 

I. To express the comparative degree, the particles j^\ our, and 
* jljj ziydda, ' more,' may also be employed exactly as in French and 
English; as, j-j& S^lr*" * J Vj ^ ^^ <-^$ Jj 'those people 
are worse than dogs.' The adjective is sometimes doubled to express 
the superlative degree; as, l$>-1 1^>-1 'very good;' but the words 
most commonly used and prefixed for this purpose are Ijj 'great, 

very;' ^-^J much;' Jk- 'beyond bounds;' t^-ol^J 'extremely;' 

(. f 
e^sf* 3 very' (generally in a bad or disagreeable sense); and Ui 

most, very,' which last is added. It is to be further observed that 


\ K J, though thus used apparently as an adverb, agrees in gender and 
number with the substantive ; as, ^ l^J t-r*]^ Jj^ *j 'he is a very 
wicked boy ;' and again, ^ ^y ^-r^^r*- <-# *J ' she is a very 
wicked girl.' 

c. The particle L id (se, {), when added to a substantive, con- 
verts such substantive into an adjective denoting similitude; as, 

o .' 

jyl-s- clA>U L: l^ 'a dog-like unclean animal.' When added to 
an adjective, it seems to render the same more intensive, though fre- 
quently it is difficult to find for it an equivalent English expression; as, 
jT J ^yb L \Jjg 'bring a little water ;' ^ ^Ifcj jUf*a> ^ e^-j 
' there were many weapons there.' When the comparison made 
by La alludes to one thing out of many, it governs the genitive case ; 
as in the sentence ^ **us^ L> l ( ^J\ ^ \)\$*> 'y u also have a 
body exactly like theirs ;' <^>jf ^ ^ J^ ' a ^ orm ^ e ^ a ^ ^ a 


72. The personal pronouns, as in Latin, are very 
often merely understood, particularly before such tenses 
of the verb as possess distinct personal terminations ; and 
as a general rule, the pronouns need not be expressed 
when the sense is quite clear without them, except it be 
by way of contrast or emphasis. 

a. When the third personal pronouns become the object of an 
active verb, they are generally used in the second (or dative) form 
of the accusative ; as, jjU ^L! ' beat him ;' yl' ^o j ' call them ;' 
'Ircu , t~>\ ' take this away.' If, however, they are employed as 
aogectives, along with their substantives, they may be used in the 

o r . ? ( 

nominative form : as, y& i^** ^V -vi <** vou ^ ear ^" 8 w r d-' 
With the conjunctive participle, they are elegantly used in the 


nominative form ; as, ^J ' having said this.' Sometimes, though 
rarely, the nominative form may be used when a dative follows ; 
as, ^ J (sr Sj ^j~* ' I will give that to thee.' When the first or 
second personal pronouns are governed by an active verb, the dative 

X . O. ,0 t X i O. / 

form is always used ; as, ^Js> U;U $s?* jj or ^ U^U ^^ff* Sj 

/ 1 of / 

' he is beating me ;' ^yfc H&^ ( jHRfO ^S^" ii'^* ' * see tnee<> 

5. It may be observed that the personal, relative, and interrogative 
pronouns have two distinct terminations for the dative and accusative 
cases, viz. ko or e for the singular, and Jco or en for the plural. Hence, 
when an active verb governs an accusative (second form) and dative at 
the same time, it will be easy to avoid a repetition of the termination 
ko by employing e or en in the one case, and ko in the other ; thus, 
l&jj j*J ( ^>\ ,j~+ 1 will giveitto you ; L t^-j ^1 \^J S^L5"*^ 
' the judge gave up the child to her.' In sentences of this kind, the 
accusative is generally put before the dative, but not always ; thus, 
in the 'Baital Pachfsf,' a very sagacious young lady says to her 
father, ^sT J ^>\ ^efsr* yz> Li U- ^ \^^i j>- \^ ' father, who- 
soever may be acquainted with all the sciences, give me to him,' or 
' bestow me upon him in marriage,' but then, in another part of the 

same work, we have a similar expression differently arranged, as 
/ / 

lx> J isf?^ 15"^ ^ wnere tiie dative is placed first. 

c. When the first and second personal pronouns are accompanied by 
a qualifying word, the genitive of the whole expression is made by 

Jtd, Ice, M, not rd, re, ri, and the pronouns are used in the inflected 


forms mujh and tujh ; as, l j*&i ^s'* ' of me wretched ;' l \J\ J ^sT 

' of thee wise.' This oblique form is also used when the particle sd, 
se, si is added to denote similitude; as, jc*lib L ^sT 'a sensible 
man like thee.' 

d. In Hindustani, as in English, it is customary to address an 


individual generally in the second person plural, the singular being 
used in prayer to a deity, or to express familiarity or contempt ; but 
in the vulgar tongue they go a step further, and the speaker uses the 
plural *Ji> ' we,' when it really refers to no more than himself. This 
abuse has led to the nesessity of adding the word c^S ' people,' to 
denote a genuine plural, as ham log, 'we (people),' turn log, 'you 
(people).' Thus, ^J& LS ^^- ** *I know' (literally 'we know'); 
and if a real plural is meant, then they say ham log j ante hain ; so, 
_jj & c-?l^ ' give me (us) the book.' To testify great respect, 
the third person must also be used in the plural when speaking of 
a king, saint, or any illustrious or respected man in general ; as, 

s O ^ 

lir^k **$ J* ^ ( -^J ke is speaking truth* (literally, they,' etc.}. 
When the plural is thus used for the singular, it is generally un- 
inflected ; but when a still higher degree of respect, or a more decided 
plural is intended, it receives the inflection; as, L^ (J ^^>\ 'they or 
he (his honour, majesty, etc.) said.' 

6. This confusion of numbers may have given rise to the following 
idioms : ^fla ^j\$>v <_;^*^ ' into our and your hands,' that is, 
' into the hands of us two ; ' ^x_Ll>- *3' *A ham turn chalenge, ' we 
and you (i.e. I and thou) will go,' meaning, ' we shall go.' The 
speaker politely assumes precedence to himself; and when two 
different persons thus occur in a sentence, the verb agrees with the 
first person in preference to the second, and with the second in 

** 1 ^ t 

preference to the third ; as, ^Lx> jls>- *J *JJ> we and you will go ; ' 
^ijlsj- <_$j *j ' you and they will go.' 

/. "We here subjoin the rules laid down by Muhammad Ibrahim 
of Bombay respecting the etiquette to be observed in the use of the 
pronouns. " 1. "WTien the speaker and the person whom he addresses 
are of the same rank, each should speak of himself in the singular 
number, and address the other in the second person plural. 2. A 
person of superior rank may speak of himself in the plural number, 
but this is not considered to be polite, nor is it thought correct to 
address even the lowest rank in the singular number. 3. The 
pronouns of the third person may be used in the singular when speak- 


ing of any person in their presence, unless they be of superior rank, 
when they ought to be spoken of in the plural. 4. "When one person 
of rank addresses another of the same or superior rank, or speaks 
of him in his presence, it is most correct to make use of the 
respectful pronoun c->T, or the great man's title, or some respectful 
phrase, as JjjltXs*- 'your honour,' C^*i>. 'honour, highness,' etc., 
and the like, with the third person plural (of the pronouns and 
verbs); and when an inferior addresses a superior, he ought at all 
times to use similar expressions of respect, suitable to the rank of the 
person addressed." "We may further add, that an inferior at the same 
time speaks of himself in the third person singular, under the 
appellation of /JLz 'your servant' or 'slave;' ^$^ ' your devoted ;' 

<*> ( * i O / f S 

' * ' 

your bondsman ;' ( <> ^sis^* your sincere friend,' etc. 

g. "When a person relates the speech of another, he makes use of 
the identical words which the person whose speech is reported is 
supposed to have used. Example, He said he should go next day, 
ljj U- j fa~+ ^ l^ (J, (JM\ (lit. 'he said, I will go to-morrow.') 
So in the sentence, He told me to go home, yU-^T J^ [^ <J, (j*\ 
(lit. 'he said, go home.') This idiomatic use of the pronouns, and conse- 
quently of the persons and tenses of the verb, is well worthy of the 
student's attention. It is perhaps that point in which the Hindustani 
differs most widely from the English, as will be seen in the following 
sentence, which to save room we shall give in the Roman character. 
Kal main-no dp-Ice bete-ko shahr-men dekko, tcuh yaJidn dyd-chdhtd thd 
tum-se milne-ko, par kahd ki gJiord merd mar-gayd, aur hamen ishdra 
kiyd ki dp-se zdhir karnd ki apn'i pdlki mere waste IJiej-dend; fi-l-hdl 
jo tumhdri pdlki maujud na ho, to mukhlis apni pdlki us-ke waste lihej- 
degd. ' I saw your son yesterday in the city, he wished to come here 
to see you, but mentioned that his horse was dead, and desired me to 
tell you to send your palkf for him ; if your palkf be not now at hand, 
I shall despatch mine for him.' From the preceding sentence it will 
appear that considerable attention and experience will be necessary 
before the student can readily ap*ply the pronouns agreeably to the 
rules of grammar, idiom, and etiquette, which last is a point of great 
importance among the Orientals. 



73. When there occurs in the complement of a sen- 
tence a possessive pronoun belonging to the nominative 
or agent, such possessive is expressed in Hindustani by 
LJ>\ apnd (-ne or -ni). 

a. "We may define the complement of a sentence in general, as that 
portion of it which in English follows the verb ; thus, in the sentences, 
'he returned to his house,' 'he was transacting his business,' the 
phrases 'to his house,' and 'his business,' form the complement. 
Again, in each of these, the possessive pronoun his, if it refers solely 
to the nominative he, will be expressed by apnd in Hindustani ; as, 

b| jf jt -ijl *j and l$i' lifji /l liJ\ Sj ; but if the pronoun his 

.. oj" 
refers to another person, then it will be expressed by lx~oi tts-M (-Tee, 

. _ ^ .^' f ( 
-kty; for instance, u! jp ,A~JI 5 he came to his house,' meaning 

not his own house, but the house of some other third person. 

b. When the nominative of a sentence consists of the first or second 
personal pronoun, and its possessive occurs in the complement, the 
matter admits of no hesitation ; as, ' I am going to see my father ; ' 
' we have seen our new house ; ' ' you are destroying your health ; ' in 
all of which apnd would be used for ' my,' ' our,' and ' your,' respec- 
tively. In the use of the third person, however, the English language 
is liable to an ambiguity, for example, the sentence ' he was beating 
his slave' has two meanings; it might be his own slave, or another 
man's. The Hindustani is much more explicit; ' his own slave' would 
be expressed by apne ghuldm-ko, and 'another man's slave' by us-Tie 
ghuldm-lco; hence, as a practical rule, if the possessive in the com- 
plement of a sentence denotes own, it will be expressed in Hindustani 
by apnd (-ne, -ni}. Sometimes, apnd is elegantly repeated, to denote 

t-^ ^ o, o. 

separation or distinction ; as follow^, ^^ j> ^*n ^J\ ^y>^ i_j 
' they both went, each to his own house,' whereas apne ghar would 
merely denote ' their own house,' as common to both. 


e. It is needless to odd, that if a possessive pronoun occurs in tho 
nominative part of a sentence, the use of apnd is inadmissible; as, 
^jCul^- j+* cl^L* ^J\ <__jb \j~* jj\ *~+ ' I and my father will 
go to our own country.' Here main aur merd lap is the nominative 
of the sentence, and apne mulk men is the complement ; in the former, 
the regular possessive merd is used, and in the latter, apnd, according 
to our rule above stated. 

d. When in the first clause of a sentence there occurs the 
conjunctive participle, the possessive in it will be apnd ; as 

**+ 'l, having 

taken my father with me, will go to my own country.' Here, the 
use of apnd is strictly according to rule, for the sentence is equivalent 
to 'I will take my father with me; and I will go to my own 

e. "We occasionally meet with apnd used irregularly instead of 
the other possessives ; as, L^ <^y? Trlr* \^& ^ ' mv own 
disposition even was led astray.' ('Bagh o Bahar,' p. 21.) In 
ordinary discourse, according to Dr. Gilchrist, we may hear 
such expressions as the following, namely, \jj lu*j^ l2-j LJ! f>- 
' if my son had done so.' Lastly, apnd is used substantively in the 
general sense of ' one's people, friends,' etc., like the Latin expression 
' apud suos ;' thus, U <U J^J ^>\ <J tjp^jt V.' U"\i ^ ^)^ *) 
* he came to his own, but his own received him not.' 


74. The demonstratives ^ yih, 'this,' and *J wuk, 
*that,' together with their plurals, are sometimes used 
in the same sense as our definite article ' the.' They are 
applicable to both genders, and agree with their sub- 
stantives in case, and generally in number. 



a. "We have seen it stated in some grammar, 'that a demon- 
strative pronoun in the singular may be used with an Arabic 
plural,' etc., from which the reader is left to infer that it is not 
used with any other plural. Now, the fact is, that yih and wuh 
are frequently used with any plural, and represent the plural even 
without the substantive; as, ^> (j^b ^J> *Uy ^*\# cJ^J^ -vd 
' these two brothers went to the magistrate ; ' and again, 
j..Ji> ,A><^ -^ if> '^hjtr*- &.j & *J 'they by way of alms 
give something/ 1 It would be needless to multiply examples, as they 
may be met with in any author. "We have reason to believe, how- 
ever, that when the singular is thus used, it is either to denote a 
collective group, or in a disrespectful sense ; on a principle analagous 
to that of applying the plural to one person in order to denote respect 
or reverence. 


75. The interrogative ^ haun^ when used by itself, 
generally applies to persons, and L Jcyd to irrational or 
lifeless beings ; bnt if the substantive be expressed, Jcaun 
will agree with it adjectively in case and number, 
whereas the inflection of Icy a is never used adjectively. 

a. For example, in the phrase ^t> ^ 'who is there?' the 
inference is, 'what person?' so, ^Jt> L signifies 'what (thing) is 
it ?' At the same time we may not only say o^ /^ ' what man ? ' 
' to what man ? ' but also \*~ ^^ ' what thing ? ' 

s* O 

' of what thing ?' "We can also say, J-^- L ' what 
thing?' but we cannot say l J-^- Jt,\ to denote 'of what 

1 Here is another instance of a feminine preposition requiring the genitive in ke, 
agreeably to what we stated page 98, . The example is from the ' B&gh o Bahkr/ 
p. 144. It is the reading of half-a-dozen different copies (two of them manuscript), 
as well as of the Calcutta edition, 1836, printed in the Roman character. D. F. 


thing.' The oblique form "k&he is used only as a substantive; as, 
ij^g *> ,5^ '* watch of what (substance, etc.)?' the answer 

" X TT X TT 

to which may be / (J-j 'of gold,' etc. Sometimes Icyd is applied 

" " o 

to a person or thing by way of exclamation ; as, xJ\\*\ \A. L ' what 

o ' * 

a rogue !' t^jb L what an affair !' When y<f is repeated, it seems 

C t 

to convey the idea of 'what various?' as, L-^Jlsr^ L L 'what 
various wonders ?' Sometimes, kyd is used as a conjunction, meaning 

- O o 

'whether,' 'or;' like the Latin 'sive;' as, ^*** ^*-~ ^ ?V ^ 
' whether in the garden or in the field.' 

I. The interrogative is used for the relative in such sentences 
as ^jb ^^ t ^a L}ls- j+s 'l know who it is.' Also adverbs 
derived from the interrogative (vide page 68) are in a similar 
manner substituted for those from the relative; for instance, 
lj*U- c--^ *j & ^y* \zJ\s>- l j^j faff* *I do not know when he 
will go.' 

c. Sometimes a question is used to denote negation or surprise ; 
x - ' o 

as, l^>jT /li \j> <^Sj*j LJ ^flj- ul^ Lj'l 'all the territory which 

thou hast taken will be of no use to thee;' literally, of what use 
will it be to thee?' and again, ^-i> -^ ^l^ l5-j l U-lj ^l^ 
' where is the king's son ? and where this report ?' meaning ' the king's 
son has nothing to do with this report.' 


76. Strictly speaking, the Hindustani does not pos- 
sess a relative pronoun corresponding with our 'who,' 
1 which,' and ' that,' and as this want is a source of much 
perplexity to the learner, we shall endeavour in the 
following paragraphs to explain fully how the place of 
the relative is supplied. 


a. In page 38 we have given the declension of f>- and ^~> 
which from want of a better term we called relative and correlative, 
respectively. The word y>- signifies ' he who/ she who,' or that 
which,' and refers, not to an antecedent, like our relative 'who,' 
but to a noun following, like our words ' whosoever,' ' what- 
soever,' 'whoso.' Hence ^s>- usually begins the sentence, and is 
followed in a second clause by j~ and the use of the two together 
generally forms a substitute for our relative pronouns 'who,' 
' which,' and ' that,' as will be seen by the following examples ; 

^ ~* <^~4? 4 ^"b ** - \j LST^ 4 r> ^j^ fr 

' the king much approved of the horses which you sent,' literally, 

' what horses you sent, the king much approved of the same ; ' 

** ' i s ' ' < 

js> ^ v.,^0 y* _ ^JS> l^S tJ *J js>- that is all true which you 

have said,' literally, 'whatever you have said, that is all true.' In 
like manner, the relative and correlative adverbs usually accompany 
each other ; U- l^ 

the treasure is, there is the snake ; and where there is a flower there 
is a thorn.' 

I. Sometimes, the remote demonstrative may be used instead 
of the correlative, both pronominally and adverbially; as follows, 


i-J v ^ j-i<^ (^-^r ' ne wno ^ as ^ e Pt has the sword ' (he 
who pays best, is best served) ; ^j^ ^*>j ^^ ^"^T ' ^ y u 
shall give, so shall you get.' In the following sentence, the demon- 
strative adverb ^^j is used; whereas in a few sentences before, 
the author uses the correlative ^l^J for the same expression 
(vide Selections in Devanagari, page 8, lines 3 and 10); 

l>jl>- \j\sf- 'where there shall be ninety -nine pitchers of milk, how 
will a single pitcher of water be there discovered ?' "We may here at 


the same time see the negative effect of the question, as the speaker 
means that ' there is no chance of detecting one pitcher full of water 
among ninety-nine of milk.' 

e. The conjunction t frequently accompanies the relative, and 
sometimes occupies its place entirely; as in the phrases, 

O w 

" 15* ^ *^**^\ 'kt ILB 

bring into mind the trouble which has come upon us;' so also, 

> *l && ^t> Sj U!<J 'he is a wise 
man, who, before the commencement, thinks of the end of his work ; ' 

'the man who wrote the letter.' 

Sometimes, the demonstrative is substituted, in imitation of the 

* x ' ' - f 

Persian; thus, l \^Jt> ^ jj^-s u^o ^^JO ^ (JM\ t ^ UlaU 

' there is a temple in which there are several idols of gold.' 

d. In many instances the relative f? corresponds with our 

who,' 'which,' or 'that,' but the student must be careful not to 

consider this as a rule, for it is only the exception; as follows, 

ti^ S^^ Lf^ 3 s !" cT"^ ^ ' ^ e ^ wo l aves which my children 
eat.' Here the word js>- is not put first, because there is another 
word j J already used to define roti ; but suppose the sentence were 
'the bread which I ate was very good,' we should have to say in 
Hindustanf, 'jo roti main-ne khd,l, so (or tcuh) lahut achchhi thl.' 


77. The indefinite ^^ Jco^ l somebody' or ' anybody,' 
when used alone, refers to a person, whereas ^J kuchh, 
Something,' l anything,' refers to matter in general. 
As an adjective, however, Jco^i may agree with any sub- 
stantive, as, ^^T ^'/ 'any or some man/j-d- o*^ 'any 
or some thing.' ^ is seldom applied to persons in 


the nominative, but in the oblique cases; Jcisi or kisu 
seems to be equally applicable to persons or things. 

a. The indefinites Tto,k, and kuchh, as well as the numeral 
elc, ' one,' frequently supply the place of our articles 'a,' 'an,' or 'a 
certain;' as, lib J^ij ^^t rt- ,** Ju^uJlj d. x>J 'a sage 
arrived in a certain city;' \ji jU-J ^--1 tlX^ <^-^j ^5***^ <on a 
certain time a tiger fell sick.' The indefinite article frequently occurs 
more than once at the beginning of a story, and it is a point of good 
taste to use ko,i and ek alternately, as in the preceding examples, so as 
to avoid the clumsy repetition of the same word. The emphatic 
particle ^s-i or ^ hi may be affixed to many of the pronouns; as, 
.Jb L-. )\ my (your, etc.) own self;' .^j this same;' ^&>j 
'that same.' Also in the oblique cases .j-A ,^>\ etc., as in 
ig-'A ,5*"^ ' to this or that self-same person or thing.' Some- 
times ,r-J& is added with the same effect. 


78. As a general rule, the Hindustani verb agrees 
with its nominative in number, person, and gender, 
subject, however, to the following exceptions : 1. To 
mark respect, a singular nominative has a verb in the 
plural ; 2. If the nominative consist of different irrational 
objects in the singular number, they may take a singular 
verb ; 3. If the nominatives be of various genders, the 
verb takes the masculine form, or agrees with that next 
to it ; Lastly. If the verb be transitive, and in any tense 
formed of the past participle, the nominative assumes the 
case of the agent, and the verb follows a special rule 
already illustrated, p. 103, K"o. 69, etc. 

a. We shall here add a few examples in illustration of the 


preceding rule, embracing, as it does, the whole subject of verbal 
concord, which differs in some respects from that of the European 
languages. Thus, ^ U3 *j 'he is writing;' ^ ^^ *J 


' she is dancing ; ' ^Jt> ^jA^ ^ ' they (males') are talking ; ' and 

vj& iV -& 'they (females') are singing.' The following 

' *~ / *v i i 

examples refer to the exceptions: 1. <_y& *Jj Jj I ^iL^J J auJb 

' the king having seen (this), became tearful,' or ' wept ; ' where 
the verb $j& is plural, expressive of respect to 'the king,' 
which is in the singular nominative. In like manner we have 
^J> urr^ *^j ^^Jf- Ai I j*y3 L-^L* 'it is not proper that 
your majesty should submit.' 2. In the following sentences we have 
two nouns in the singular number, coupled by a conjunction, whilst 
the verb is in the singular, agreeing with the nearest noun; as, 

O i* 

^jt> l=^J \jjj)\ J-J ^\ 'the bullock and horse have just now 
arrived;' I US L_^V-J <0 jjj-i \j+* -r^J Jj\ (j&^ (j^T 'my people, 
my wealth, and my kingdom, why are they not all gone (from me) this 
day?' 3. Several nouns of different genders occur in the next two 

sentences, but the verb takes the masculine plural in preference to the 

o' ' 

feminine ; as, ^ ^^J ^J ^ jli ( ^\ ^j~j J\# c-jb U ^,\ 

'her father, mother, and brother, were all three meditating the accom- 
plishment of her marriage ;' ^^a ^\*>- iJ$ $ \L*JJ> ts$\*> 15^^ 
' his elephant, camel, and carriage are being loaded.' 


79. In this department the Hindustani differs very 
little from the English. Actives or transitives naturally 
govern the accusative case, which, as we have shewn, is 
generally like the nominative, and sometimes like the 
dative (vide p. 101, No. 67.) 

a. Causal verbs, verbs of clothing, giving, etc., may be considered 


as governing two accusative cases, or the accusative and the dative ; 
as, j\s>-jj?k 1)1$} } i_5v^ having given the child food, go home;' 
L-^j \J* <^j ^^a\ ' put on him these clothes;' andjJ <LJ j>j uJ^yL:! 
' give him a rupee.' 

1. Some neuter verbs, as UT 'to come,' liL ' to become,' U U* 

. ' o o 

' to suit,' liy 'to fall,' l^sruj 'to arrive,' Ul&> 'to become,' Ltolr*- 

-Xy *v * * 

' to be desirable,' ui^j ' to remain,' L^-y-s ' to appear,' LS 'to unite,' 
LL* 'to meet, to occur,' and UJS> 'to be,', govern the dative case, 

X - O 

and are frequently used impersonally ; as follows, Jfc u I ,**-j ^5^* 
' I feel compassion ;' .Jb ^-wi *** CJ\j (jw! i<^* ' ^ ^ ave some 

doubt in this matter ;' ,V^^- to^J ^ 15"^^*" J^** 2 * ^ ^ s desirable 

" x * 

that we should go there.' "We may here observe that the form ( -vJfel- 

from cMhnd, is frequently used impersonally in the sense of 'it is 
proper,' ' it is fit ;' like the Latin decet,' ' oportet.' "When thus em- 
ployed, governs the dative of the person, and either the past participle 
or the aorist of the accompanying verb, as in the preceding example, 
which might also be expressed ^Atol^- Ulsj- *&> 'we must go.' 
Sometimes, it may be used personally ; as, JLa>l>- L *j which 
may mean 'what is proper for you,' or 'what do you require,' etc. 
"We could in this way say ^jAfcU*- \j\s>- ^jl&j *3 'you must go 
there,' or 'to go there behoveth you.' 

c. Verbs meaning 'to sell,' or implying 'gain,' have ^jlto 'hand,' 

x i i x O - t^f ( 

connected with them; as ^t> v^u ^jlfc .*$ (_?*+> to whom 
have you sold it?' UT .f/lfc ^> e^i^f c^J *l^ Xj 'that busi- 
ness was accomplished with great difficulty ;' in like manner, 

9 9 

\i\ -gjlfc &ss? J^ u. ^\ \~>\ 'he gained a flower as his prize.' In 
such expressions the word -filfc is used in the sense of 'possession.' 

d. Verbs which in English require 'with,' 'from,' or 'by' 
after them, govern the ablative, and those which require 'in,' 


' within,' ' into, ' the locative case ; as in the following sentence : 

^JJA>. _, ' this is better, that by means of his friendship I 
should escape from the hand of my enemies ;' in like manner 
U3 L5 i^j-j l j+* J^^^T &r*j& 15^ *J 'going into his house, he 
began to think within himself.' Verbs of fear and caution require 

' i < 8 f f I < 

the ablative case; as, ^ U;J ^^ *J *j J^V-i perhaps he is afraid 
of you ;' ^ \2Jtj j^jf^ 15-* il^^l/ 11 !^ J-*^ 1 ' ^ e sa g e keeps on 
his guard against reprobates.' 


80. "We have already given the general signification 
of each tense, in the various paradigms of the verb, 
pp. 44 to 59. We shall now, following the same order, 
briefly notice such peculiarities as some of them present. 
The reader will recollect that they are three in number 
the aorist, future, and imperative, of which the aorist 
is the most important, on account of its extensive use 
and application. 

a. The Aorist generally corresponds with the present subjunc- 
tive of the Latin, or what in English grammar goes under the 
name of ' present potential" ; hence the conjunctions i and <t\3 
^! and ]>- 'if,' <^tX^ <a l tnou g n ' CJM <---or 'until,' and 
'lest,' generally require the use of this tense after them; as, 

'if I desire that he should stay till I come, what is it to thee?' 
It further implies possibility or obligation; as in the sentences, 
)J> ^j jJLs ys> ^js^ js?- ^\ ' whatever it may be possible to do 
to-day, that do;' ^_yA *\=z?\j-> *& -^ *& ^ *V*^ ^^*^ <our 

hope is that this business may bo brought to a conclusion;' 




a k^S sends an ambassador to any 
place, it is desirable that he should be the wisest and the most 
eloquent man of his tribe.' "When the power of doing a thing is 
designed to be expressed, the verb u~s 'to be able,' is used in 

all its parts, with the root (or sometimes the inflected infinitive) 

- . 5 j> 

of the principal verb ; as, ^ \zL*> l j+^j \&- ^ or less frequently, 

*" I / M ^ f 

( jt> uL-o .jAyi iJ^" *j he cannot go.' 

b. The aorist is very frequently employed to denote present 
time when general and unrestricted, hence it is used much in 
proverbial expressions, with which the language abounds; as, 
,_ \ff *$j\ Jl* l ,<jl> 'the wealth of the wicked goes for 
nought.' It also expresses time future or past, conditionally; as, 
^j$ (jlxwH^ jib jj i_^ny (J^ 4_^l> .^i 'if the nightingale find 
thy abode, then will the rose-garden be forgotten;' or, 'if the 
nightingale found thy abode, then would the rose-garden be for- 
gotten.' On the subject of this tense, Muhammad Ibrahfm has given 
several sound remarks in his grammar, already alluded to ; p. 59, etc. 
He gives it the name of ' future of the subjunctive or potential mood.' 
We have discarded the term mood altogether, as utterly inapplicable 
to the Hindustani language, and infinitely more perplexing than 
useful. Lastly, the aorist is sometimes accompanied by the present 
auxiliary tense ^Ji>, etc., page 43, the precise effect of which it 
is difficult to determine ; as, ^y> ^ ^^ * I may speak ;' 
.Jb ^f \y*s? 'jasoda is or may be saying.' 

e. The Future presents few peculiarities, save that in respectful 

language it is often employed for the imperative, and occasionally 

/ ' 

for the aorist; as, L5 Cx>J e_>b tlX>J \&s? ./ ^^.^ v- -o-^ 

' have the kindness, Sir, to give me a book ; ' so, likewise, 


am thinking that whatever they say may be from envy.' Our 
Second Future or Future Perfect is formed by the future of 

c, / 

U>- ' to finish,' to the root of the verb ; as, \j>- \ ^** ' I shall 
have eaten,' &-=>- ^ *j 'he will have eaten,' etc. 

d. The Imperative is confined in its application, strictly speaking, to 
the second person, singular and plural. The honorific form addresses 
itself as to a third person by way of respect; as, +St>j \_ 'be 
silent;' Jl ji>4\ 'come hither;' ,*-^v i_jU^ ^jj> pardon me,' or 
'may he pardon me.' It is not considered polite to use the second 
person singular of the imperative to any one, however low his con- 
dition. The adverb u^v is applicable to the imperative mood alone, 

<U is applied to it in common with the other modes, ^^J is never 

i ' t ' < 

used with it; as, y**j# ^-^ or ui-^ ^-J^fJ don't forget;' 

.& UujJ 'don't do so.' The imperative mood is sometimes used 
idiomatically, as in the following expressions : y& y yz> perhaps it 
is,' or ' it may be ; ' JT y JT ' come, if you mean to come.' 


81. Of these, the Indefinite claims most attention. 
The name and signification given to it in most gram- 
mars, is l Present Indefinite Tense. ' The epithet of 
present is misapplied, as the tense generally refers to the 

a. Among the tenses of the present participle, the Indefinite 
holds the same rank that the aorist does in those derived from 
the root. Its most ordinary significations are, first, to denote 
conditional past time, in which case it is generally preceded by 
\ or f>- 'if,' and followed by y 'then;' as in the sentences, 
<U (j^-a&i -$ y \3\ Sj '\ 'if ho had come, then there would 


have been no loss ; ' \zL*> <JJ cub uf^ ^i l j^ f? if I tad 
spoken, he would not have regarded what I said,' or 'if I should 
speak, he would not regard.' So in the ' Bagh o Bahar,' p. 71 : 

v &* 

T 9 (* ( JJ 
<Jl>- If our days were at all lucky, then we should have some- 

where found Hatim, and having seized him, we should have 
carried him to Nauful, then he would have given five hundred 
ashraffs,' etc. The conjunction is frequently omitted in the 
former or latter part of the sentence, and sometimes in both; as, 

* ' O 9 s / 

bjL S-*^*- 1^5"^ y \J\Sf ( j~+ or bjl* < -?^- .~}\ b'ls*- ( ^ \ 
1 had I gone, I should have beaten him soundly j ' in like manner, 
b'U J ^j^>- \jj ^'y* l j^ 'had I been present, the horse should 
not have been allowed to escape.' 

5. In the second place, the indefinite is employed to denote 
continuative past time, or to express an act or event that was 
habitual ; as the reader may observe in the following passage : 

^J^ '"When the gamester used to win 
(Jittd} he used to become (ho-jdta) so careless, that any one 
might take off (ut&r-leta) his clothes; then even it would not be 
(na hotd} known to him.' In like manner, * Bagh o Bahar,' p. 9 : 

- ' All night the doors of the houses used not 
to be fastened, and the shops of the market used to remain open ; the 
travellers used to go along,' etc. 


o. The indefinite is occasionally used for the present by omitting 
the auxiliary; as, \jj* L *j 'what is he doing?' The student must 
be careful, however, not to fancy that this tense corresponds with our 
present indefinite, as some of our grammars inculcate. Its use as a 
present tense is the exception, not the rule. 

d. The Present Tense is used both to express the precise point 
of time when the action takes place, and also to denote a continuous 
or habitual state of action ; hence it corresponds with both our forms 
of the present tense ; as, ^fe bl^-^S *j 'he is (now) going home;' 
but in the sentence .J& lifU- ^S AA-^J!) c^lj *j it must be 
translated, ' he always goes home at night.' The present is frequently 

used for the future, when it is meant that the action will be done 


quickly; as, ^ys> Ij3 Ul^ i\lr>- #** '^ ^^ bringing (shall bring) 

the dinner quickly.' 

e. In vivid descriptions, when the narrator represents a past 
occurrence in the same manner as he or the person of whom he 
speaks originally saw it, and as if it were still apparent to the 
view, the present is frequently used; as in the following passage: 

^jjj) \j\s>- 1>- t^ijio 'When he arrived at the tree, he saw that on 
every branch of it are hanging hundreds of human heads; and 
under it t a beautiful tank full of water, and the stream of it 
is flowing towards the desert.' In such instances the past tense 
may be used, but it is less animated and impressive; as 

^j<^ L^ y LT iJJo jjj ^ u^ci^ j IJM\ jj 

-O ( 

'' "' l^ 1 ne wen ^ near ^ no ^ ree > an ^ what 
does he see but a marble slab teas placed at the bottom of it.' 


/. The Imperfect denotes a past action in progress, and corresponds 
with our own compound tense formed in a similar manner; as, 
l$J \z$ *j 'he was writing.' In most of our English grammars, 
the Indefinite Past Tense, such as 'he wrote,' 'he spoke,' is very 
improperly called the Imperfect. It is needless to state that these 
expressions in Hindustani must be rendered by 1^3 .^>\ and 

<*' ' " 

l^i ^~*\ that is, the simple past, of which we shall say more 

g. The tense called the Present Dubious (page 51) is generally 
employed to denote a future action of uncertain occurrence; as, 
Uoy& or ^jb ISjfb j+* '(perhaps) I may beat,' or 'be beating;' 
so in ' Bagh o Bahar, p. 38 : liyj> \s^ L { ^ 9 ^j>- .^J\ *j ' What 
will he (or may he) saying in his own mind ? ' 


82. The main peculiarity in the use of these is, that 
when the verb is transitive, the nominative must be put 
in the case of the agent, as explained p. 103, etc. 

The Past Tense corresponds with what is improperly called 
the imperfect in most English grammars; as, LS 1- &j 'he went 
away;' 1^3 tj +> 'you wrote;' which expressions, though inde- 
finite as to time, convey the idea of a complete or perfect action ; 
hence the absurdity of calling it the imperfect tense. In addition 
to its common acceptation, it is sometimes used with a present, 
and sometimes with a future meaning ; as in the following : 

y$ y ^> ^j u \s^ ^^* y ^ *i f? ' K 8he " found > 

then my life remains ; if not, it is gone ; ' \j\ j*> b^j ^- ' what he 
BOWS, that he reaps.' "We have already stated that the present is 
sometimes used for the future to denote speed ; the past is employed 
for the same purpose. Thus a man says to his servant, yU .Jb 


bring water,' and the answer will probably be Jjj\ Jd- 1^1 ' I have 
brought it, Sir,' meaning, I will bring it immediately.' It is some- 
times applied in an idiomatical manner, ; as, !y& \^t> ' if it be so, 
why be it so.' 

b. The verb ' to be ' has, in Hindustani, two tenses expressive of 
the past, viz. l$j was,' and \j& 'was' (or 'became'), which 
may often be translated by the same word in English. In many 
cases these appear to be synonymous in their application ; the 
student, however, must pay particular attention to the following 
rule. Iff is used in reference to simple existence at a distant 
time or particular place, while \^t> is applied to time or circum- 
stances less remote, in the sense of ' became : ' as follows : 

f ' 

*** tl^Ou* UM\ 'there was a king in that country;' 
j he was (became) confounded.' In short, 1^3' de- 

notes permanent existence, and \j& that which was, or became 
existing, through circumstances generally stated in, or easily in- 
ferred from the context. 

c. The Perfect answers to the Perfect tense in English, being 

used to denote an action newly past and finished ; as follows, 


( Jt> ^s^y *jty W* ' m y brother nas arrived ;' ^ \A ,Jgj tj ^-^ 
' I have eaten the fruit.' Sometimes it is used with adverbs of time, 
in a manner that cannot literally be rendered in English ; as 
^j& Li ^jl&j j f j~* ' I have gone there yesterday,' for ' I went 
there yesterday.' In this case, the usage of the French *je suis 
alle,' would have come nearer the Hindustani. 

d. The Pluperfect in English will generally be expressed by 
the Pluperfect in Hindustani, representing a thing not only as 
past, but as prior - to some other event ; as in the sentence, 

^ O O/ <*9 

lf lg) Jac&> <J, j~* ^J>\ ^ ^i^i^j ,X-)\ *I had written the 
letter previous to his arrival.' But the converse of this rule 


does not hold, the pluperfect being frequently used in Hindu- 
stani where in English we employ the simple past; thus in Story 
16, a learned Kayath orders his slave to get up during the 
night, and see if it rains. The slave, feeling himself very com- 
fortable where he is, concludes, without getting up, that it does 
rain ; and gives the following ingenious process of reasoning : 
^j ^^CgJ _ Iff iljSj ~>\ <J -* ^j$ ,_5*T ^j ' the cat came 
in, I put my hand upon her, she was wet' (ergo, it rains) ; but the 
literal meaning is, 'the cat had come in, I had put my hand 
upon her, she had got wet.' The general rule is, that when one 
definite past even precedes another past event in point of time, 
the former is expressed in the pluperfect. It may happen that the 
latter of the two events is not expressed, but merely passing in the 
speaker's mind ; as in the above example, where the slave might have 
added, as he no doubt meant, 'thence, I have ascertained that it is 
raining,' which would have completed the chain of reasoning. 

e. The tense called the Past Dubious (p. 51), formed of the 
past participle and the aorist or future of lijA is used to express 
remote probability past or future ; as in the following examples : 

ly& L^ jo^ *j t i\j)& lij W- <0 .%** ' I know not where he may 

' i#* it / * * ? < 

(or will) have gone;' l$y& ub L**> c^J tJ *J' l ^t ^xx> on 

the way, you must have met with much difficulty.' The Past 
Conditional (p. 51.) is of very rare occurrence, and is under- 
stood to express the event in a more remote manner than the 

9 f ^ 

Indefinite (p. 45); thus, IjU- J?\ sj y bjJfe ^j^ 1/^4 S^ c^*-T^ 

'if I had opened the cage, then it would have flown.' A kind of 
expression like the Paulo-post-futurum, is expressed by LfcU- 
' to desire, ' with the past participle of another verb ; as, 
jJb lsJfeA- \j* tj 'he is about to die,' is dying,' or will soon 
die.' There are also other ways of expressing the same idea: 
thus, ^ J^ Xj or Jb 3Nj J/ *j or ^ J>/* j- 



83. The infinitive is used as a substantive to denote 
the state or action of the verb ; it is frequently used for 
the imperative, and occasionally it is employed adjec- 
tively in connection with another substantive. 

a. All Infinitives used as substantives or adjectives are subject to 

^t y {J 

inflection like nouns of the third class ; thus, JJ (^.^-jL* \j\&- ULs\ 

< x ix" i X I Vi < 

his departure is proper;' jJfc { *~^J ifV^. 15^ fvfcul this is 

**i ''"' x " / x ^ ' 
the very time for taking revenge;' u| ^^^ .$> tj or 

Li .Jo-si. ^ ^i^poJ -gi j he has come to see the house.' The 
infinitive is often used as an imperative, and as such it may 
even have the negative mat before it ; as, U Uj ***J Jjys> ' swear 
not at all;' UU- i^~~ ^(bj 'don't go there,' or 'you must not 
go there.' Sometimes it is used with the verb \Jj&>, instead of 
the regular tenses of the verb which it represents ; as follows, 
\Jb \J I .--j u^sL ^y**i ' from what country ure you come ? ' 
instead of j&> 1.5*1 .^ cl5sL* (ju. It is also used with the verb 
' to be,' like the Latin gerund, to denote necessity or obligation ; 
as, lyi> \J\s>- ,!)^j /J' you must go there;' so, likewise, 

die (moriendum est] some day at last, and must give up every thing.' 

5. Sometimes the infinitive, together with its complement (that 
is, the noun which it governs, along with its circumstances), 
may form the subject or predicate of a proposition; as follows, 

to laugh (lit. to display the teeth) in the presence of kings is 
unmannerly.' In the following sentence from the ' Khirad Afroz,' 
both the subject and the predicate are of this description: 

to keep 


children in the society of the vile, is to effect their ruin.' When 
an infinitive thus used has a feminine noun for its complement, 
it generally agrees adjectively with the substantive (like the 
Latin participle in dus] by changing 1) into . J or ;.J ; thus, 

> x " x "' 

^j^L-j ^j+jfj 15-"^ ukj SJT'* J s/ iiff"* ^ nave no ^ * earne d to 

s- . li 9 c-, . ^ o * o , 

speak your language ;' ^ JLu^ ^y^pj .J&JV J ^xAJ it is hard to 
put one's finger on a lancet.' So, in the Bagh o Bahar,' p. 32 : 

? L5f J5/"* ^ L^i? LS**' \JpZr 'ij^ i/^ J '0 Sir, if it was your 
intention thus to act the stranger, then where was the necessity of 
previously tendering your friendship with such ardour?' Here the 
infinitive karni agrees with nd-dshnd,i and dosti in the feminine 


gender ; so, p. 35, ,j-V '-r^*- 15*^ u^*V<* < ;^' ' to give 
trouble to one's guest is not proper.' Sometimes (though 
rarely) the infinitive does not agree with the feminine noun 
which it governs ; as may be seen in the following sentence : 

I ^lr^ I tf I V ** ' t ^ I V y 

jlj^\j ^fc Ujy3 jrjuj ^jljl I ^ u^S u^-o^s'* ^^ \j*" > y (_ V J 
'to toil much for this world is in fact much-ado about nothing.' 
If the infinitive, with the feminine noun which it governs, be 
not the subject or predicate of a sentence, this concord does not 
hold between the infinitive and the word which it governs ; as 

<^>- ' an old man and his wife came to cut wood (sticks), and 
began to gather sticks.' Here the infinitives tornd and chunnd do 
not agree with lakriydn, because they are neither subject nor predicate to 
a sentence. We have been rather diffuse in explaining this peculiarity 
of the infinitive, because the rule respecting it, as given in most 
grammars, is, to say the least of it, unsound. It runs thus : "The 
termination <J is used with certain verbs or with post-positions j 


iV ( n *)> (j^ ( n ^)> or ^-> (niydn), when a feminine noun singular 

^r ' s * 

or plural is the object of the verb ; and [ -J in all other cases ! " We 
have just shewn from the best authority that ne is used when there is 
neither a certain verb ' nor post-position ' in the case, and that ni 
is not necessarily used at all times when a feminine noun is the 
object of the verb.' 

c. The inflected infinitive with kd (h or z) is also used adjec- 
tively in a sense somewhat like the Latin participles in turns; 
as, l \^ ( j l tjjjfc ^j ' this cannot be ; ' l tJU- ( j^ ( j psf ^^-^ *_;! 
' now I do not mean to go to Persia ' (won sum itwrus) ; so, 
l ,Jb ,>^J 'r?'* 'I am not the man to believe, or submit.' 
Lastly, the inflected infinitive is used with Lj when it means 'to 
begin;' with UjJ 'to grant leave;' and with lib 'to get leave;' 
as, U3 i^H^ *j ' he began to say ' ' ^ ^^T (**> ' allow us to go ; ' 
fj^ o^ <J' i^j 'they are allowed to come.' The verb \j'j>- 
to go,' may also govern the inflected infinitive of another verb 
(ko being understood) ; as, ^J ^^L.jS' ^ ' they went to play.' 
The verb U~j ' to be able,' generally governs the root of another 
verb, but it is often used with the inflected infinitive, particularly 
when accompanied by a negative particle ; as, IxJ $L> ,l>- **+ 

O o > W W- 

' I shall be able to move ; ' lp l^Ls <U t ^^- s ' he was not able 
o c Sr v 

to move;' l^Ls l \^ ( j ^yJy ^~" I cannot say.' Lastly, the verb 
hond, denoting obligation, may govern the inflected infinitive; as, 

M < \S /l /' ' 

>J' you must go ; IS^JJ ^ SJ ^4J' you must write.' 


84. The present and past participles, when used par- 
ticipially and not forming a tense, generally add U-& (p. 
46), and agree, like adjectives, with the noun which they 
qualify. In many instances they are used adverbially 


in the masculine inflection, or, more strictly speaking, 
they are verbal nouns in an oblique case. 

a. The following examples will illustrate what we have just 
stated regarding the participles when accompanied by hu,d; 

(J$J / J^/^y ur^- fT &r* & */*/ L5* <is there any 
one in Braj who will stop the departing Gopal ? ' So likewise, 

j^l) JL& ^ j+t c5*y& ^-S*y ' ^ e bones f a dead ti& er 5 ' an ^' 
\X> j |ys> Uoi! ^* c^~.<-jJ (<** ^ oj^> <^-^ i***^ ' k e saw a 
kettledrum suspended in a tree.' Sometimes the past participle ia 

used like a mere adjective; as, 1^3' 6 b ^ ^j <^->J 'there was 
a flowery and fruitful garden ' (not ' flowered and fructified ' ) ; but 
the words phitla and phald here may be real adjectives (not participles) 
derived from pJiul, a flower,' and pJial, fruit,' by adding d, which 

is agreeable to analogy. In expressions like the following, they arc 


used adverbially ; as, ij;.J& ^^ when it was morning ; ' (JU-k /*l^ 
' when it was evening ; ' \J~>j <-$;?* ' while I remain ; ' .<^J J LS^^" 
' at the sight of whom ; ' ( ^s^* s Uj ' without understanding ; ' 

o ' 

ij^JJj iffV.^ a ^ ^ e time of giving.' The present participle is 
doubled, to express the continuation or frequency of the act; as, 
ly& j 4.JJJ> <JLfc /*li ^>LJ!> our work being and being, was not,' 
i.e. ' continuing to be done, was not completed.' 

I. From the present participle is formed the compound verb called 
statistical (p. 65), by using the masculine inflection of the participle 


together with some verb of motion ; as, .^to .J I tJVS *j she 
comes singing.' The present participle in this case is employed 
precisely like the ablative of the Latin gerund. Dr. Gilchrist has 
suggested that ki Jialat men should be considered to be understood : thus, 
wuh gatt M halat men dt'i hai, 'she comes in the state or condition 
of (a person) singing;' but a moment's consideration will shew 


that this theory is more ingenious than sound. For instance, 
^b \j\ (.%-- i^-Jls*- ./) ( J\i'*j ' he comes (in the state of) one 
singing,' is all very well, but, on the other hand, when the nominative 
is feminine, as, ^ ( Ji\ (^j^* c^JU- .^) ^'U *j 'she comes (in 
the state of) one singing,' the expression is absurd ; because she is a 
female, and the one singing is a male ; and we leave the authors of 
the theory to account for the curious fact of her coming tn the state 
of (a male) singing, at that particular juncture. "We believe that in 
these instances the present participle is a verbal noun in the locative 
case, similar to those Sanskrit verbals in ti, etc. (corresponding to 
the tio of the Latin), which denote the abstract action or condition 
of the verb. In fact we could add many instances where the participle 
is clearly used like a mere substantive, as ^ \3j~ 'from sleep,' 
evidently the same as --) tj 

c. From the past participle are formed the compound verbs called 
frequentative and desiderative, by adding karnd and chdhnd respectively 
to the simple masculine form of the participle. The only peculiarity 
about these is, that the verbs \j- 'to die,' and l)ls>- 'to go,' employ 

the regular forms of the participle mard and jdyd, in preference to the 


usual forms mu,d and gay a ; as, wuh mard chdhtd hai, ' he is about to 
die,' or will die,' or wishes to die f so, wuh jdyd Tcartd thd, 
'he was in the habit of going.' The past participle with hu,d in 
the inflected state is sometimes used like the conjunctive participle, or, 
indeed, it may be a compound form of the latter, for ought we can say ; 
thus, ^ l^Lj i_*ys> ^^ ^y^ ur^" ( ^ <a ^&* having 
applied the smoke (by way of penance) is seated ; ' so likewise, 

having put on various coloured garments, were dancing.' Some- 
times the past participle of a neuter verb is used adjectively (that 


is, agreeing with the nominative), along with another verb ; as, 
\j\s>- }L>- ; thus, /-*& <Jib>- iJ- 2 "- <-} 'they go along;' so, 

^ ox was roam i n about.' 

d. The conjunctive participle, by connecting the similar 
numbers of a sentence, saves the use of verbs and conjunctions ; 
it commonly refers to the agent, sometimes to the object of the 
verb ; as, jT ^gj ^LJ c__>l^ t_jU-& J>\s>- jjl&j T ' having gone 
there to-day, and having taken my book, return;' and again, 

^ 9 >> o 

L5* L^V i^W^ irf LS^* L/> c^=r drr* (* L^l <tMa 
regret has come upon me (through) making haste in this business.' 

The student will recollect that this participle has several forms, the 
first of them the same as the root; the second, the same as the 
masculine inflection of the past participle, or the second and third 

persons singular of the aorist; but the context generally suffices to 


prevent any ambiguity. 

e. The masculine inflection of the present participle with the 
addition of the particle ^fc M, forms what may be called the 
adverbial participle. Its signification is very nearly the same as 
that of the conjunctive participle above described; the adverbial 
form conveying perhaps the idea of more speed or precision; as, 
^& is--*" C^b ^J ' (in&nediately) on hearing this statement. 
This participle may be applied in three ways, all of them tending 

to prove what we have stated above, that it is merely a verbal noun. 

' i 
Thus we may say, < Ji> i^- 3 t 'V -vi wnere yih && is the first 

form of the accusative; we may also say, ^Sb ^j^~ <f C^U <jwul 
where is Mt-ko is the second form of the accusative ; lastly, we may 
say, ^^J) .~> . C^b <JM\ ' on the hearing of this statement.' 
Here, we see sunte in the first two expressions scting the part of a 
transitive verb, and in the last that of a substantive. 


85. We have little more now to add on the syntax 
of the Hindustani language, which, we believe, we have 
discussed more fully, and we would fain hope, more 
intelligibly, than has yet been done. The following few 
remarks may be still added, as belonging to no particular 
department of the subject. 

a. Sometimes a verb plural is used without a nominative case, 
some such word as ' they ' or ' people ' being understood ; as in 

" S f I 

the following examples : ^-Jb if* {). thus they say ;' and 

U^ S-L*^* U)j^~t~ > L5~ jV" 1 '" ' men kiH thousands with one 

sword.' In negative sentences, the verb 'to be ' is generally under- 


stood; as, ^j-y (Jjl ^ (jli u^J JI? 'oppression (is) not 
becoming your dignity.' The particle t ki is frequently used after 
verbs of speaking, asking, etc., in the sense of ' thus,' ' as follows,' 
etc. j as, L &J <J ( TJ.~* t \^ iJ (JM\ ' he said he had not done 
it ;' lit. ' he said thus, I have not done it.' This is very like 
the use of the particle on, as it frequently occurs in the Greek 
text of the New Testament. In a sentence consisting of two 
or more clauses, it is not necessary to repeat the auxiliary verb 
in each ; as ^J> )j Jus ^ j^\ _ ( J& ^ ^Ju J.J (_>W^ ' sick- 
ness is the thraldom of the body, and sorrow that of the spirit.' 

I. We may here state in conclusion, that throughout this long 
section on Syntax, it has been our principal aim to illustrate those 
peculiarities in which the Hindustani language differs from our own. 
Such rules and principles as completely accord with those of the 
languages supposed to be familiar to the reader, we have either passed 
over unnoticed, or handled very briefly. It may further be stated 
that there remains a difficult department of the language which must 
be overcome by practice, viz., the use of idiomatical expressions. 
These do not constitute the subject of grammar, and a knowledge of 
them is to be acquired by reading the best authors, and by free 
intercourse with the natives of the country. 




86. This is the character generally used by the 
Hindus. It is read and written from left to right, like 
our own. The alphabet, as used for the Hindustani, 
consists of eleven vowel sounds, and thirty-three con- 
sonants, all arranged as follows : 


ad i i a it rt i ai 6 au 


k kh g gh n eh chh j jh n t 

75 ^ <W <if ^| <T ^J f ^?^R 

th d dh n t th d dh n p ph 

b bh m y r I w,v sh sh s h 

a. To the above letters may be added the symbol *, called 
anuswdra, which represents the nasal n (page 6), and the visarga \ , 
which corresponds with the final weak $ (p. 6) of the Persian 
character. We would at the same time draw the student's attention 
to two compound characters, of which the elements are so disguised 
as to have the semblance of single letters ; viz. rjf ksh, compounded of 
^f and Tjf, sounded like our x in fluxion, or ct in faction ; and "ff /, 
sounded like our gn in bagnio, or the French gn in ligne, champagne, 
etc. The mark | is used in poetry to indicate the first member of a 
sloka or couplet ; and at the end of a sloka it is generally doubled || , 

Towels . 
.Initial .s >,////,//// -i 


< 'llllSMll.l lltS 

1 1 II 

Vf M 

rr rz r, 



COM i' or <vj> j. i: T ri: n .s 

'// '// 



/. ^ /> />/ 



.?&{ J'/^'^' .vA Ji 

JVr C. Wl&axs 

srt xn< sy 


&*nty ftm^* 

.' .- . 


In prose the same marks servo to denote stops. In many books lately 
published in India, in the Devanagarf character, the English stops 
have been very properly and successfully introduced. 

J. In naming the consonants, the short vowel & (the fatha of 
the Persi-Arabic alphabet, p. 8) is inherent in each ; thus ka, Jchti., g&, 
etc. : and in reading, this vowel is to be supplied after every letter 
(except the final letter of a word), provided it be not accompanied by 
any other symbol ; thus, 3f*I3f Mnak, 'gold,' f*n nagar, 'a city.' 
If a word terminates with a compound consonant, the short & may be 
frequently supplied at the end, as in *T^ putra, ' a son.' Whenever 
a consonant in the middle of a word is not to be uttered with the 
short &, the consonant is marked underneath with the symbol (^) 
called virdma or ' rest ' (the same as the jazm of the Persi-Arabic, 
p. 10), as ^t<fTT WjJ 'to speak;' or the In may be combined into 
one compound character, as <Tf ; but in works circulated among the 
natives this nicety is not attended to. 

e. The first of the vowels, ^H &, is never written except it begin 
a word or syllable. "With regard to the remaining vowels, they have 
each two forms : that given above, which may be called their primary 
form, is used only when they begin a word or syllable; but when 
they follow a consonant, they assume a totally different shape, which 

may be called secondary forms ; thus, y a, fN", *^ i, , u, ri, 

v e\ A ~ 

^L e, ai, *V o, *V au, as may be seen in the following ex- 
emplification of them with the letter T ga : thus, 

*T, *TT, pT, *ft, ^J, ^, "2, **> ^ *TT, *TT- 

ga, ff<i> ff>, gi, 9 U > 9^, ffri, ge, gai, go, gau. 
And the same rule applies to the rest of the consonants. 

d. It will be seen that the secondary form of ^, viz, {, ia 

written before its consonant T, though sounded after it ; and 



the student will do well to bear in mind this apparent anomaly. 
The T and *\ take their place after the consonant ; the and ~~ 

** Cv^ A 

are fixed to the letter beneath ; the ^. and ^ above ; and the 
Y and 1 are merely the T surmounted by the !L and ^: The 
vowels 17" and "^ in combination with the letter "^ r, are written 
^ ru, and ^ or "^ Hi; and the vowel d joined to ^f h, is 
written ^ hn. 

87. The strict rule in Devanagari writing is, that 
when two or more consonants come together, without 
the intervention of a vowel, such consonants unite into 
one compound group ; thus, in the word tjrtg matsya, 
1 a fish,' the cf *T and ^ are blended as it were into 
one character. For the formation of the compound 
letters no general rule holds, except that the last of the 
group remains entire, and the rest are more or less con- 
tracted by omitting the perpendicular stroke, and some- 
times by changing their primitive form. 

a. The letter "^, being of frequent occurrence in compounds, 
is subject to two special rules of its own ; 1st. It is written 

over a letter, or group of letters, in the form of a crescent 

(*) when it is to be sounded first, as in the words rl^T tarJca, 


* reasoning,' and m^ pdrshwa, ' a side' ; 2nd. When the T follows 
another letter, or group of letters, it is represented by an oblique 
stroke (>) underneath, aa in "5g^ sutra, 'rule,' and "^P^ chandra, 
the moon.' 

b. In books recently printed at Calcutta, such as the Prem Sdgar, 
the Baitdl Pachisi, the Adventures of Hdtim Td,i, etc., all in the 
Devanagari character, very few compound letters occur ; and as a 
general rule they are very little used in any of the spoken languages 
of India, being chiefly confined to manuscripts and printed works in 


the Sanskrit language. The following, however, occur in our Selec- 
tions, and a perusal of these will suggest the method by which others 
may be formed. Compounds of which the letter ^ forms the first or 
last element, are purposely omitted, that letter, as we have just seen, 
having special rules applicable to itself. 

IcJt U ty gn gb chchh jj U tth 

tn tm ty tw dd ddh dm dy dw nt 

nth nd ndh nn nm ny nh pt pn py 

ps Id bhy U sht shth shn st sth sn 

sm sy ss hm hy 
c. Compounds of three letters are very rare, and when they do 

occur, it will be found that they generally consist of one of the semi- 
vowels ^J <C ^T or f combined with a compound of two letters, 
thus : ^ifj Hwy ^T ntr, ^5f pty, ^Sf sty. As for compounds of four 
letters, they are merely matters of curiosity, as ^W|f Ipsm, Tfgj tsny. 

88. The best dictionaries of the Hindustani language 
are printed in the Persian character ; hence it will be 
necessary for the student to know exactly how he may 
convert the Devanagari letters into the former. This 
he will be able to do efficiently by a reference to the 
following tables: 

I. Initial Vowels. 

^^TTT^ ^^3f^HTJ $ ^h" ^[Y 

^ T \ i\ \ A j \ A <\ A 

II. Consonants. 

i w*S S MN-S *~ ^^~ r *&^^" 

*&} O ^ ^ / t ^^^ .' W .nfclJ i ^^^*"* 

^^fir^T'^^r^'sj ^ ^ 

< -r > # (* <- j u J (jr> ^or^i (jj 
III. Secondary 

tX> Ou X) ^x^ jj 

a. In the preceding table it will be observed that the ten aspirated 
letters of the Devanagarf alphabet are uniformly represented by the 
corresponding unaspirated letter, together with the round or lutterfly 
form of the letter Jb, 3 h ; thus, ^^ #Atfr, ' a house,' .iT; VT^ dkar, 
' a place,' Jt> J. The real A T? of the Devanagari is represented in 
the middle of the word by ^ ; as, 3?![T ' he said,' l^ : if, however, 
the letter preceding the A be J, j, or j, then the form & must be 
used, and the preceding letter marked with the appropriate vowel ; as, 
^1[TT dahdn, ' the mouth,' ^U&^. The cerebral letters <T and \" are 
represented by CJ and J, or c^> and 5. Sometimes the N? and <o 
have the sound of a cerebral r and rh respectively; in which case 
they are generally marked with a dot beneath, thus ^ and "3", and 
and with J or j in the Persian character; as, ^^"T lard, great,' \jj, 
The various nasals of the Devanagari are represented by the Persian 
,.,, which will be found sufficient for all useful purposes. 


b. The letter ^T is sometimes represented by : the letter If 
generally by ^ , sometimes by u* ; and the letter ^ is more 
frequently -g than ^ . The compound ^J is generally represented 


by ^>- or ^ , seldom by <J^ , its proper sound. The compound 

; as, ^TIIT agy& (djna), LT T ; its real 

sound, as already stated, is that of gn in the French words 
champagne, ligne, etc. 

89. It appears, then, that the Devanagari alphabet 
may be represented with tolerable exactness in the 
Persian character ; but the converse does not hold, as 
the Persi- Arabic alphabet has fourteen letters which 
have no exact counterpart in the Devanagari. The 
plan adopted in this case is to represent the letters in 
question with such Nagari letters as approximate them 
in sound, which in some printed books are distinguished 
with a dot underneath ; thus, 

a. In a few printed books, attempts have been made to invent 
distinct letters for the various forms of the Persian and Arabic z, 
which, it will be observed, are all represented by ^f ; but in reality 
the subject is not worth the labour. In the first place, the Hindus, 
who alone use the Devanagarf character, are sparing in the use of 
Persian or Arabic words, to one or other of which the various forms 
of the letter z belong ; and, secondly, such words as they have in the 
course of centuries adopted have become naturalized, or, if the critic 
will have it, corrupted, so as to suit the elements of the Kagari: 


thus, i^tfU*. is written and sounded ^TTfT Mjiri.. In a new 
edition, in the Devanagarf character, of the ' Adventures of Hatim 
Ta,f,' which we have lately received from India, almost all dots and 
double letters are discarded, as a useless incumbrance. 

1. The letter c is generally represented in Nagarf by employing 
the vowel with which it is connected, in the initial form, with a dot 
under it; as, J*j W^f^ ba'd; Ac l^H 'tttn;j* *&% 'umr. This 
method is sufficient for practical use ; but it is by no means satis- 
factory, as may be seen in the monosyllable f^f^'> which in Persian 

and Arabic is sounded la'd (the a uttered from the bottom of the 
throat) ; but, according to the rules of the Devanagarf alphabet, it 

makes b&'&d, unless we use the virdma (s) under the ^f, as ^^ > 


which would amount to something like an absurdity. 

c. "When, in a word, two vowels follow each other, the rule is, to 
write the second vowel in the initial form; for though not at the 
beginning of a word, it is the beginning of a syllable; thus, 
^"^IT hu'd ; 1[T^M ho'o. This is precisely the same in principle as 
the use of the mark hamza (p. 17) in the Persi- Arabic alphabet. 

d. The best mode of learning the Devanagari character is to write 
out several times the whole of the single letters in Plate H. The 
various elements of each letter will be found in Plate I. fronting the 
title page; the small dot accompanying each shews where the pen 
starts from in their formation. When the student has made himself 
tolerably familiar with the letters, he may commence with the first 
story, which is the same as the third story of the Extracts in the 
Persian character. In like manner he will find that the Devanagarf 
Stories, from 2 to 7 inclusive, are old acquaintances. Stories 8, 9, 
and 10 also occur in the other Extracts, but some of the words differ, 
viz., those of Persian or Arabic origin are displaced in the Devanagarf 
fa* words purely Indian and Sanskrit. The rest of the Extracts in 


this character are taken from the scarce and valuable 'Hindustani 
and Hindf Selections,' edited by Tarinf Charan Mitr, head Munshf 
in the College of Fort William, Calcutta, 1827, in two vols. 4to. In 
their style and grammatical construction they offer no peculiarity 
differing from those of our Hindustani Extracts in the Persian 


90. "We briefly alluded, at page 21, to the three most 
prevalent handwritings in use among the Arabs, Per- 
sians, and Musalmans of India. Of these, the Naskhi, 
being like the type used in this country, requires no 
explanation ; and the Shikasta, from its extreme irregu- 
larity, scarcely admits of any. We shall therefore con- 
fine ourselves at present to the description of the Tctlik, 
of which we have given fourteen plates of engraved 
specimens at the end of this work. 

a. Plate I. Division 1st presents all the simple elements of this 
character, the small cross mark shewing the commencement of each. 
The 2nd elementary form, here marked L_> , with one dot subscribed, 
so as to be equivalent to be, may, by a mere change of its dots, become 
<__, cJ clJ (p, t, ). The third form, now a ,- j, becomes in 
the same manner ^. - (ch, kh, h). The 4th makes two letters, 
J j . The 5th, j j J and Jf . The 6th is represented as con- 
sisting of two forms; one an indented, the other a protracted line, may 
in either shape form the sin and shin ( and sA), as the only distinction 
between them is that the sin (s) wants, and the shin (A) has, three 
dots superscribed, whether short or protracted. The 7th form, ^ 
and Jo . The 8th, \> and ]a (t, z). The 9th, c and ^. The 
next letters are <_J Jj cl/ J / ^ j and * . Then follow the 
initial, medial, and final forms of the s ^ $ or he linked together. 


Lastly, the $ * ^ (Id, hamza, and ye\ the latter under two varieties 
of form, the last of which is now conventionally used by the natives 
to denote the yde majhul (p. 13). 

I. Division 2nd exhibits the second elementary form (viz. that of 
<__> c_J Cl> <JU ), and likewise that of ^ and ^j , as they appear 
initially, when combined with each of the others following them. 
Division 3rd shews the (i.e. ~- or j. ), prefixed in the 
same manner to each of the others. Division 4th (PI. II.), the 
(JM /ii . Division 5th, the ^> ^0 . Division 6th, the \s \s . 

Division 7th (PI. III.), the . C . Division 8th, < i and . 

Division 9th, the d/ <^S , and by leaving off the top part we shall 
in most instances have the initial <J . Division 10th (PI. IV.), 
the + . Division llth, the & combined initially with the rest of the 
elementary forms. The tail of the he is given only in hd, hd, hk, hi, 
and hid, but omitted in all the rest, according to the practice of 
Oriental writers. Hence the initial form of this letter is often too apt 
to be mistaken for the mim. The 12th Division contains the combi- 
nation of the characters as arranged in alphabetical notation, noticed 
in p. 20, forming the fanciful words, ' Abjad, hawaz, hutti, kaliman, 
sa'fas, karashat, sakhaz, zazagh,' and the last line may be read thus, 
indicating the name of the chirographer : AHabd ul muznib, al fakir 
'ulaid ulldhi husaini shirin rakam ghaffara zun&bahu. 

c. Plates Y. to XIY. inclusive, consist of a series of words in 
alphabetical order containing combinations of three or more letters. 
The student should endeavour to transcribe these into the Roman 
character, and after some time retranscribe them, as an exercise, into their 
original state. Thus, the first line of Plate Y. forms the combinations 
Ikht, Ihjt, Ihsht, pnj, llkh, and llnd, and so on with regard to the 
rest. Coming now to complete words, we may premise, as a general 


remark, that when these contain of the letters <_> < cU C^ ^ 4^ 
in the middle of a combination, it is usual to give the middle one a 
bold dash upwards, terminating in a sharp point vertically, like the 
n in j~j tnbw (Plate V. lino 8), or like the y in <_ - syb (Plato 
VII. line 1). 

d. Concluding remarks. In manuscripts the short vowels and other 
marks seldom make their appearance ; and even the diacritical dots 
are often either altogether omitted or irregularly placed. It may be 
useful to observe, then, that when from the ambiguous position of a 
dot, it may apply to more letters than one, it should of course be 
assigned rather to the letter, which is not complete without a point, 
than to one which may dispense with it. Thus the third combination 
Plate I. No. 2, should be read bh, and the eighth ns, though the dot 
be over the last letter as if it intended to be a ^jo. But in many 
cases the sense alone can determine the point. Thus the last word of 
No. 2 may be either be or pe ; and the dot over the ninth word of 
No. 3 is so equivocally placed between that and the word above it, 
that it may be read either ^^>- ^jos*. or i fisj-, according as the 
dot is conceived to belong to one or the other, above or below. The 
grand key, however, to the reading of manuscripts, is to know the 
language ; at tho same time many useful hints may be gleaned from 
Ouseley's 'Persian Miscellanies,' 4to. London, 1795; Stewart's 
'Persian Letters,' 4to. London, 1825; and 'Essai de Calligraphic 
Orientale,' in the Appendix to Herbin's ' Developprnents des Prineipes 
de la Langue Arabe,' 4to. Paris, 1803. See also a work entitled 
' Oriental Penmanship ; an Essay for facilitating the Beading and 
"Writing of the Ta'lik Character,' by the author of this Grammar. 
London: Wm. H. Allen & Co. 1849. 


91. The Musalmans reckon by lunar time, their oera 
called the Hijra, commencing from the day on which 
Muhammad departed, or rather retreated, from Mecca to 



Medina; which, according to the best accounts, took 
place on Friday, the 16th of July (18th, new style), 
A.D. 622. Their year consists of 12 lunations, amounting 
to 354 days and 9 hours, very nearly ; and hence their 
New-year's Day will happen every year about eleven 
days earlier than in the preceding year. 

a. To find the Christian year corresponding to that of the Hijra, 
apply the following rule: From the given number of Musalman 
years, deduct three per cent., and to the remainder add the number 
621.54, the sum is the period of the Christian sera at which the given 
current Musalman year ends. For example, we mentioned (p. 20), 
that the death of the poet Ahli happened, A.H. 942 ; from this number 
deduct three per cent, or 28.26, and the remainder is 913.74. To this 
last add 621.54, and the sum = 1535.28, which shows that the 
Musalman year 942 ended in the spring of 1536. This very simple 
rule is founded on the fact that 100 lunar years are very nearly equal 
to 97 solar years, there being only about eight days of difference. A 
more accurate proportion would be 101 lunar to 98 solar years, but 
this would lead to a less convenient rule for practical use. 

b. When great accuracy is required, and when the year, month, 
and day of the Muhammadan sera are given, the precise period of the 
Christian sera may be found very nearly, as follows : Rule. Express 
the Musalman date in years and decimals of a year j multiply by .97 ; 
to the product add 621.54, and the sum will be the period of the 
Christian sera. This rule is exact to within a few days, and if in the 
Musalman date the day of the week be given, as is generally the case, 
the very day is easily determined. 

c. The Muhammadan or lunar months are made to consist of thirty 
and twenty-nine days alternately, but in a period of thirty years, it is 
found necessary to intercalate the last month eleven times so as to be 
reckoned thirty days instead of twenty-nine. The months retain their 
Arabic names in all Muhammadan countries, as follows : 





rabi ul-awwal 
^lii \ _.j^ rabi'us-sdni 

" " X 

a , 

i' ul-akhir 
)j$ \ JU^>- jumdd-al-awwal 30 

-o _, f 

^jliDI t)U.=^ ywmd<?-fl5-sani 

' 29 




\^~s*-\ rajab 




^ULi sha'bdn 



^)^3sj ramazdn 


J^i shawwdl 



.=>--} 1 ^Uj?- jum&d-al-dkhir 

j zi Ica'da 

&s& \ <-S<J zij hw'a 
(_$ J zi Ajya 



rf. "We here subjoin the days of the week ; on the left hand are 
the names in use among the Musalmans of India, next those of the 
Hindus ; and on the right, the Persian names, which last are much 
used in the dates of letters, etc. 






t ^t -^ J 

ji^ji twar. 


jL.jj raJi-idr. 


,-j or j\j*j~* somwdr or j?$r. 

iwj som-bdr. 


^ / 

J^L mangal. 

jLlx_x* mangal-ldr 


^ . * t i 

&Sj budh. 

c o ^ 

jUiiJd budh-bdr. 



c ' . 
(J\j &jt^s>- juma rat. 

O x O 

jLc-AwJb^ brihaspati- 




ijt^>- jum'a. 

jb^Lj tuZra-bdr. 



yrc\.'.<j sanichar. 



V ^ ^ t 



92. The Hindus reckon by solar years, and luni- 
solar months. Their principal sera is that of the Kali- 
Yug, of which the year 4956 expired about the llth 
of April, A.D. 1855, at which period their new year 
generally commences. 

a. The Hindu year is divided into twelve equal portions, which 
may be called solar months ; but all festivals and dates are reckoned, 
not by these simple months, but by the duration of the moon which 
terminates in each. Hence, although the month laisdkh begins de jure 
about the llth of April, it may have commenced de facto from one 
day to twenty-eight days sooner. When two new moons occur during 
one solar month, which happens once in three years, there is an 
intercalary month, and the month so intercalated receives the name 
of the one which preceded it, that is, of the solar month within 
which the two new moons may happen. 

i. Beside the sera of the Kali-Yug, the Hindus in the northern 
half of India reckon from the time of a renowned prince, by name 
Vikramaditya, who lived (or died) about 57 years before the com- 
mencement of our sera. Another common a?ra is that of a prince 
named Salavahana, which commences 78 years after the birth of 
Christ. The former of these aeras is called the Samvat, and the 
latter the Saka sera. Several other seras are in use in certain parts 
of the country, for a full account of which the reader may consult 
a profound work devoted entirely to the subject, entitled 'Kala 
Sankalita,' 4to. Madras, 1825. 



Lu.j April. 

j^jl^j August. 

(jwjJ December. 



-f~sj- May. 

l j~i\ or^^ September. 


^i L January. 


ajLsl June. 

uX'o \ 
X- 1 

c^^i or \ 

| October. 

^ > February. 


or ulijl ) 

CT-^ ) 





V / 

^1 November. 

(^^^ March. 

" V 




, fir 

, f% 





? If ?fr 


fir^tj $ 
f ^t, fir 




, ^JT 



*?t*rt ^5t. 

T?;gr srra 75?? 



Tl", ^V f%^ T *Fff ? If 

; ^TT ?fr, f^T? ^fT ^TT^T ^V ^f ^j fif^TT 
T^ ^ Tt 


f% f^rf ^rrt *J?T ^ra- ^m^ I 

fir T^ firof ^t ^rft 




TT, ?fr 



5f 37T oretft $f 

f ^3TT, 

f it 

, far 

. ft" 



^IT, m^TT. rff 


f%^TTT f T^T 

, rfr If 




fjft ^TT 



TT rfr 


, eft If 

T ^ff 

TT, ^^sTT ftfW f%$ iff 

, If 

j ^V If 

5 f% 





*rr f<*rr. 

T, fft Ir 




<ft TTf T Tiff 


, fir ?; ^ 



Tf'T, ?Tff 

it ^TT 



, fi? 

> fir 



? f% ^V 

%', fir 

i wft ft 


^ Tit %. 


%. ^ fT?T 

ir lit ^ri* 



f%?f ^33 ^rft ^T^ ; ^r^r^r it 







t, fir 
f% fifrr^T % ? rfr^r^T ^^T fif^rr, f% 

fT'ft ^ ^1 rffa 

Tf T^^r WT^ ^ ^t ^f ^TT^T fir 
^T^T T^f firrr^f T WT?TT %, ^n 

IfTffT I ? ft^TT ^T^TT ^ 'HTO T f%WT 

f Tt ^T<re ^f ^r^ ^f^t, fir Hit ^t ! 




3ft fif ^%* 
^T?;. ^^ ft 

! 751 



f^TT, T^ ^ ft ^T^TTTit fl?: I, 

it w*( Tt 

fif^T, ^T ^T^t $ fe^ T3f it? 



SITrfT %. 







if it ; 












, ft 

, ft 




, ft 

, ft v^ 

f , f T ft^t 


^T, fif 

ftf^T, ftf 


I s * 


UUi' J i cj * lJ\t> C^%SJJ> 

^ l> M ) . P 
" ^, * -^ ^? x 

o o 




* * 


x o 

X CO O O O O o 

x c 

\JjJJ> 01^" ^ 


Ls 11 r 


o f 


JU jjl . f JT .,* J 






\ ujy * J 

^ y ^U ^i ^ ^r cy 
LfT > \L>\ b ^ 


b 1 b 

j ^j ci^i.g.r * * .;>- 


ibijb _ 


< jjfc <JL-Aj .-fcl&jb <*L 
J &* J - ^f 

J j * jj 

^ L5 




k.j ,- 



jM L5? l/i 

43 Ciasw * 

Jj i 



u A 

u?i ji - 


\j\ J 

Li Luji Lo 



.^V! .^l> LS-V-^j 



f f 


^ * 

* V.V ^ -Sv ^-^y 6 





~ r^J ^ ^^ ^f 


y, iJ / jV 

V, r * v L* ^ 



-jo A 

V, ^r 


- w Jjj ^ W ^ ^ ^U yj * b 




^ ^S -^ 


^ 5 " * ^ w 


-^ J-L ^ - 1^ 


-|^j- J J-b * V^J Ai & J 

J jb 

J illjb * UT ^f 

jb * \JJ 



* ^ki^j ^ J> }j 

J X 

i - 

IC- j * 

j ^j\ lJ l^ uJ^ji v-j]^ y- JU? 

La - 

Jjy ^^ (jij jy J 

t IT , 

^* J J 4 ^V 


j \L,\ 

s- .L2,/ * If? ^Aj ty ^ LLC! l^ ^U^ ^4 * ^n> JSj 6 


\~ ' ' ' 

* (jyu! jj\ ^jb ^ U-5^ ^- 


J Jj w- 




t s f 



^ M 

* Ib 


- oj LS-" us 

}.^ T (J l>*" U^ L/"" 1 * 

* " * 

' J 


U ^ 


X I * 



-.-lf JO t_; 

V li^o 

* ^ ^ ,* -s. * 




e- -e 



UT" us^ 5 i 1 ^ ur^ 

- <J> -vi -, 

- " 

uJj . cV..4a. * 

J _ 

i-, * 




fc o 

d r 1 ^ *r J^c 


-fr y 

_ lj J 


o o 



JU L= 


- V/" 1 

00 .CO 

O Of O 

lx J 

^ Usr .J 
-L? J 

JS - 

J r iLL ^ 



v.5? c 

^l/ 000 



<-Lj\ JU L L^J ^ i^ns^ ulC 




+j ,j~*- l^j ^ (j^ JU J^ 

JU C_ 


- L5" 1 -vi 


i^-fii J> <&*>* crn^ * * 

b J 

L5 5 


* ^ J ^ / c) 1 ^ 4 


.ljb < _ 


^/^ ** 

* u 

J ujCjJ * ^ys^j U- j;^ tKU tlX>l ^ ^ ^y 

S. O / 

^'-^ ^ L L/ ^/ 

/O O O 





Cl>1 JJJ 

^ L5- 4 




^n (~ iw 

iw <o .J (j^j^ iS* w-J 

* w-J * 


00 O f 




_ A 



of o/ 

sf Jf< ^* si 

*J j 


f t 

*T s - 

" * 

U\ ^ * 

1 * V J LT- 








s 9 

- L^ ^ J/ J/ -ff^ ' 

O^ Ox 

Ij IC\ - l^ J Cla*. * L"T a 



iS <*i lo 

) jlj ^l^ ^ _ l^ ^J c; --ajT (J J 

J .ycuj *b 

' TT X " ' 

_ bb>- tJ t_-^-j - -> J b ^i * vJ 


t^ ^ J> 



b t, 

dp 4 

b j/ 

_ \* J 

j^ ujoi rr 

b b b b 



j _ IT 

/ b b 

A X 

* lyi Aj ^sr j^ b 


' *? 





ti -ff iJ 

bJ J 

L5- 9 " 



n 8 


* W 


* ^ ' 

jj J .it -*;>. - L 
.. | -/ -> 



* J jtl UJb i A^,<_i) L^u^.J 



1 _ 



ijj JU 

- ^ 





O O / 

i> i s/ / 

V v - Ls-f ^ J^ J J 4 y ^ s 

* f O O 

C b 


-^ v/^Ji 

- V 

o c, 

si/ "k^ ^-^^ 



^ J uL^J LLX. 


o y, 

** *? 



~ J* CP / 




r r 

* * 

^ jjJ JJ IjJ y/- 

O O 

I .. i 

WA * 


_ w 

J # 



J # Lf 

Jjl t= 



$ Lf 

jsj- JJ) -Jiijj _ J^ -j u 

b to 

to x b 


<u L*J ! j b js -^1 


if * 

n ^ -* , 


* j^ v^^sUai ^.^r*^ ^sr ! t- 

O / .0 



J> f - 



! *ly 


y ^b c-^r * V o^ 


L5 aj 



- Uly Jb y - 




O / O 







[N.B. The letter m. signifies masculine, f. feminine, a. active, n. neuter. It has not 
been deemed necessary to give the names of the different parts of speech, except when 
a word belongs to more than one division. In the Hindustani words and phrases, 
k. stands for karnd ; h. for hond ; d. for dcnd ; j. for jdnd ; and 1. for lend. The letters 
a, p, g, and A, at the end of each definition, denote respectively the Arabic, Persian, 
Sanskrit, or Indian origin of the word explained.] 


>1 ab, now, presently ; db tak, till 

now ; db-kd, of now, of the present 

time. 8 

_>! db, m. water, lustre, p 
ibtidd, f. beginning, a 

abhdg'i, ill-starred, wicked. 8 
^\ abhi, just now, immediately. 
j+}\ dber > m. time, delay, h 
c->T dp, self, selves ; your honour. 
CJ?fJ\ aputrak, childless. 

Ji>4\jJ\ aparddh, m. fault, trans- 
gression, a 

dpas, our-, your-, orthera-,selves, 
one another; dpas -men, among 
themselves, etc. 

upasthit, arrived, present. 8 
apnd, belonging to self, own. a 

I d pahunchnd, n. to arrive 
at. h [strip off. * 

\jj(i\ utdrnd, a. to cause to descend, 

jj\ uttar, m. an answer; the north, s 
(jjj\ utarnd, n. to descend, to alight. 
\i\sj\ ittifdkan, accidentally, a 
\^i\ itnd, so much, so many. 
.$j I dth, eight. . 

uthdnd, a. to lift or raise up, 
to take away. g 

uthnd, n. to rise up, to be 
abolished, to go away ; uth-jdnd, n. 
to depart, s 

J\ asnde, in the midst, in the 
course of. a 

J>\ asar, m. impression, effect, a 
\ dj, to-day. 8 
CLJj\s^\ ijdzat, f. permission, orders, a 

^T^ <y\ an interjection to call or 
bespeak attention, as: Sir, hark 
you! h 

achchhd, good, excellent, well. 
oT *o-\ Ahmad-dbdd, the capital 
of Gujerat. p 




! ahmak, very foolish, a fool, a 
aJiwdl, m. condition, circum- 
stances, events, a 

*\J^>-\ ikhtird', m. contrivance, in- 
vention, o 

,L^M ikhtiydr, m. choice, power, a 
,- \ dTJiir, last, at last, the end. a 
C^s-T dkhirat, f. futurity, a future 

state, a 

io^>-T dkMn, m. teacher, preceptor, j? 
ta! add, performance; payment; blan- 
dishment, a 

(JM\\ udds, grieved, dejected, s 
C.J jl adab, m. institute ; politeness, 
manners ; plur. adab, ceremonies, 
etc. a 

( f*^\ ddm'i, m. f. a descendant of 
Adam, a human being (man or 
woman), people, a 
IfcJl ddhd, half, * 
-&J\ udhar, thither, h 
idhar, hither, h 

adhik, more, exceeding. s 
adhydnd or adhyd-lend, a. to 
halve. A 

&J\j\ irdda, m. desire, purpose, a 
*\j\ dram, m. comfort, health, re- 
pose, p 

41 j\ artJi, m. substance, purport. 
jj 1 <f rzii, f . wish, desire, want, p 
&jj)\ drurh, mounted, riding. * 
\j\j\ urdnd, a. to dissipate, squander ; 

to cause to fly. s 
\jj\ urnd, n. to fly, to soar up. s 

\\\ dzdd, free, solitary ; a hermit, p 
jj! az-las-ki, inasmuch as. p 
&i)\ dzurdagk, f. affliction; dis- 
pleasure, vexation, p 
\ dzurda, afflicted, vexed, p 

\ s. f. dzmd,ish, trial, p 
j\ azhdaM, m. a dragon, p 
M\ us, that ; is, this ; inflections of 
the pronouns wuli and yih ; is-men, 
during this, in the meantime, h 
M\ as, f. hope, desire, reliance, s 
Lil dsdn, easy; dsdni, facility, p 
-5U-j! asbdb, m. causes ; goods and 
chattels, a 

ustdd, m. a teacher, master, p 

istifsdr, m. searching for in- 
information, inquiry, a 
\j~>\ dsrd, m. refuge, s 
u_jL-;l isrdf, m. prodigality, ruin, a 
_^k-j! is-tarah, in this manner; 
m-tardh, in that manner, h a 
is-liye, on this account, h 
dsmdn, m. the sky, the firma- 
ment, heaven, p 

aswdr, riding, mounted ; aswdri, 
act of riding, s 

iswdste, for this reason ; 
uswdste, for that reason. 

oszs (or ds'is], f. a benedic- 
tion, s 

\J*\ islidra, m. a hint, a signal, a 
ii asJirdr, miscreants, scoundrels, a 
J^ll ashrdf, nobles, grandees ; 
ashrdf-zddi, daughter of a grandee, a 

(3 ) 

ashrafi, f. a gold coin so called. 
The Calcutta ashrafl is worth a 
guinea and a half, a 

dshnd, an acquaintance, lover, 
friend, p 

dshiydna, m. a nest, p 
istabal, m. a stable, a 

asl, f. root, origin, foundation, 
capital, a 

asil, nohlo (as to blood or 
origin), a 

c^Jol ittild'ff. manifesting, declaring ; 
investigation, knowledge, a 

( e)\J&*a\ iztirdb'i, f. vehemence, pas- 
' sionatencss. a 

^Lxct i'tibdr, m. confidence, credit, 
respect ; i'tibdr -k. to believe, or 
confide in. a 

i'timdd, m. reliance, trust, a. 
a 'Id, higher, highest, a 
a'mdl, (plur. of 'amaT) actions, 
conduct, a 

i>lj 1 dfdt, f. calamities, misfortunes, 
evils, a 

L^iT dfat, f. calamity, a 
__>l^j I dftdb, m. the sun, sunshine, p 
<0uj| dftdba, m. an ewer, p 

r ^ w > ^ praise, applause. ^ 
li afsdna, m. talc, story. ^> 
JI afsos, m. sorrow, regret, vexa- 
tion, interj. ah ! alas ! afsos-k. or 
afsos-khund, to lament. ^> 
Jui X"*> . poverty, destitution, a. 
A\ Afldtun, m. Plato, a 

ik&ydk, on a sudden, j? 
Akbar, name of the best and 
greatest of the Mogul emperors, a 

!^ ikatthd, united, together, h 

aksar, most, many, much ; for 
the most part, a 
T dkJid, m. a bag, sack, h 
afald, a. alone, e 

dg, f. fire, <f^-<?. or lagdnd, to 
set on fire ; dg-lagnd, to take fire. 
tjJlTl a^drz, f. the fore part. 
il^T dffdh, acquainted with, aware 

of. p. 

*\ agar, if, when, p 
te>-Js\ agarchi, although, p 
ilbl agld, prior, past, ancient. 
.jTT o^, before, in front, formerly, 

forwards ; in future. 
LiT d^ya, f. an order, command, t 
albatta, certainly, indeed, a 
a^p, small, few ; alp-layask, of 
a tender age. s 

jUbi! iltifdt, f. courtesy, respect, 
notice, a 

LcJ^ iltimds, m. f. beseeching, 
petitioning, a 

ulajhnd, n. to be entangled, to 
quarrel. A 

uljhdnd, a. to entangle. A 
al-kissa, in short, a 
a/a<7, separate, apart. < 

rti, f. habit, familiarity, a 
I dluda, sullied, contaminated, p 
ilhdm, divine inspiration, a 

t'WAi, divine, a 

U\ tmawt, m. a leader in religion, 
a prelate, priest, a 

amdnat, f. trust, deposit, a 
imtihdn, m. proof, trial, 
examination, a 

J^l dmad, f. arrival, coming, p 

\-*\ umard (pi.) nobles, grandees, a 
20< or ummed, f. hope ; wnmed- 
wdr, hopeful, p 

amir, m. a commander, a noble- 
man, a grandee, a lord ; am'ir- 
zdda, son of a grandee ; am'ir- 
zddi, daughter of a grandee, ap 

V~T dmez, (in comp.) mixed with, 
full of. p 

^\ in, (inflection), plur. of yih, this ; 
un, plur. ofwuh, that; (vide Gram.) h 

liT and, n. to come ; s. m. the 
sixteenth part of a rupee. 8 

Xjj\ aniboh, m. a crowd, multitude, 
mob, concourse, p. 

yi..j\ anubhav, m. imagination, idea, s 
^Uax)1 intizdr, waiting, expectation, a 

jjWr! anjdn, strange, unknown ; 

anjdn-h. to act the stranger, s 
j&>\ andar, within, inside,^?; Indar, 
the god of Swarga or the higher 
regions, s 

J\ andhd, blind, dark, 
ul andherd, dark. * 

^-JbOul andheri, f. darkness, s 

<UljJJl andesha, m. thought, sus- 
picion, anxiety, p 

c ,Lj \ wwaw, m. man, a human being, 
mankind, a 

JMJ\ dnsu, m. a tear, s 
i_jLej! insdf, m. equity, justice, a 
/lx)1 in' dm, m. a present, a gift, a 
\U\ inkdr, m. refusal, denial, a 
4&1 awM, f. the eye. s 

il ungal, m. a finger's breadth, s 
w^z, f. a finger, s 

wjxjl angutM, f. a ring worn on 
the finger, s 

angur, m. a grape, p 
JcJ I dnand, m. joy, happiness. . 
-gji and ,^JA)^ ?'wA and inhoh, same as 

^1 ; unh arid unhon, same as MM, 

(q.v.) A 

ij! dwdz, L noise, sound, voice, p 
\J^>-^ aubdsh, dissolute, depraved, a 
jj\ upar, up, upwards, upon, s 
j\ or, f. direction, side, h 
)\ aur, (conj.) and, but; (adj.) more, 
other ; aur kuchh, anything else, h 
^L.^1 ausdn, m. courage, presence of 

mind. h. 

LZJ\JJ\ aukdt (pi. of waH\ times (of 
devotion), a 

unt, m. a camel, h 
^ unchd, high, height, h 
ah, f. a sigh. p. 
l dhdr, m. food, subsistence, s 
7i#, f. a sound, noise. A. 
, m. people, a. 
_$\ ai, 0, Oh. p A 
jbl slyydz, a man's name, a 


*b\ aiyum (pl.ofyatt*),days, seasons, a 
Lujl aisd, such as this, so. A 

ulX)^ *Jt, one ; (art.) a, an, frequently 
joined to its substantive, as ^>*>^ 
ek-din, one day. a. 

, \*&J\ ekbdragi, all at once, p 

Sr^ ' 

i^lftji iwidw, m. faith, belief, religion, 
conscience, o. 

j^JuUo^ imdn-ddr, faithful, honest; 

imdn land, to believe. jt> 
( j\ d,in, m. rule, law. p 

uu idid, father, son, sir. A 
c >b dj9, m. father. A 

C^>b id, f. a word, affair ; bdt kahte 
hi, on the speaking of a word, im- 
mediately ; bdt-cMt, f. conversation, 
chit-chat, h 

jb bad, f. wind. p. 

abijb bddshdh, m. a king; bddshdhi, 
royal, p. 

c^ob Iddi, m. a complainant, speaker, s 

U^b iq/wa', n. to sound, to ring. 
jb iar, m. load; fruit; time; door; 
water, p h 

Sj\j Idrah, twelve, h 

*lff,b Idrgdh, f. a king's court, p 

jb bdz, back ; bdz-dnd, to decline, 
reject; buz-rakhnd, to keep from, 
to prevent; (s.m.) a hawk. p. 

JM ia'zar, m. a mai'ket; bdzdri, one 
vho uttoudd u market, p 

^b idzi, f. play, sport, a game, p 

^j-jb J^srtn, m. a basin, plate, dish, 

goblet, pot, etc. A 
b ia^ft, m. a garden, p 
.^Lcb bdgjibdn, m. a gardener, p 

Jb bdl, m hair. . ear of corn. h. 

wing, p 

^b laid, above, up, high, p 
il^3b Idlak, m. a boy. s 
!b iu/ji, f. sand. 
vjbb bdndti, made of broad cloth, 

woollen. A 

bdib bdntnd, a. to share, to distri- 
bute, to divide; ldht-l. to divide 

and take. 
IxfeJjb bdndhnd, a. to bind, to shut 

up ; to frame. 
jb Idnkd, foppish, impudent. * 

bd-wujud, notwithstanding p a 
jjb bdtcar, m. credit, faith; ldwar-k, 

to believe, j? 

yfcu id/i/'r or bdhar, without, outside. * 
*Jib bdham, together, p 
jLj itidrf, m. quarrel, fight. 
C^MJ bij>at, f. misfortune, calamity. * 
b'cj bafiind, a. to point out, to 

teach. A 

^^j ia^i, f. a candle, lamp. . 
bl^2j Iff hand, a. to cause to sit, to 

seat. A 

-yd /and, a. to perform, 

c.iiry into effect. A 
sT bajdnd, a to sound, to play on 

a uiuau-al instrument, s 


(_W? ba-Jde or ba-jd, in place, in- 
stead of. p 
LS LsT lijl'i, f. lightning, h. 

L^sT bajnd, n. to be sounded, to 
sound. 8. 

li l~=^ bujhdnd, a. to explain ; to extin- 
guish (a candle), h 

^jlsT bichdrd, helpless, wretched, p. 
I) W 1 bachdnd, a. to save, protect. A 
ixssr 1 bachnd. n. to be saved, to 

v ' 

escape, h 

&=*? bachcha, m. an infant, a child, 
the young of any creature, p. 

Ul^sT 1 bichhdnd, a. to spread, s. 

ul <J^=? ba-hdl and, to recover, a. 

^/Licir bakhshish, f. gift, grant, for- 
giveness, p 

uArkr bakhashnd, or bakh_sh-d. or 
bakhshish-k. a. to give, to bestow. j 

^jiac7 bakhshi, m. a general, a com- 
mander in chief, j? 

(^^ bukhl, m. avarice, stinginess, 
parsimony, a 

J-rkr bakjiil,a, a miser, niggard, a 

Ja ia<?, evil, bad ; used in compounds, 
as bad-zdt, a rascal ; bad-kho, ill- 
dia posed ; bad-s{irat, ugly, ill- 
favoured, p 

c^o'^jo lad - bakht, unfortunate, 
wicked, p 

^^Lj Jo bad-suluki, f. ill-usage. ^? a 

^,-Jj badan, m. the body. ^> 

o la-daulat, by favour of. a 
j luddhiwdn, wise, intelligent. 8 

^Jj 5a<?z, f. badness, evil. p. 

b Jj &t#yd, f. science, knowledge. *. 

j Jr, f. bosom ; produce ; (prep.) 
upon. p. 

\ji burd, bad, wicked. A. 

i\ji lor alar, equal, like, level, p 

ij^j^j bardbari, f. equality ; compe- 
tition, p 

\ij> jbj barbdd Jc, or bar-bad d. a. to 
cast upon the wind ; to destroy or 
waste, p s 

) lar-pd k. to excite, p 
lJj britdnt, m. affair, circum- 
stance. 8 

^j> lartan, m. a dish, plate, vessel, 
utensil, h 

jj JBraj, name of a district, h 

^j^-j- bar-khurddr, happy ; a term 
applied to a son (p. 22). p 
) baras, a year. s. 

barsdt, rain, the rainy sea- 
son, s. 

U-o^ barasnd, n. to fall (as rain), to 
shower, s. 

^,j laran, m. colour, complexion. * 

AJ^J barham, offended, confused, 
angry, p 

p}ji biriydn, f. time, h 

\jj bard, large, great, (adv.) very, s 

i_$\'i) bard,i, greatness, s. 

\j \Jyl> burhdnd, a. to increase, to pro- 
mote. 8. 

L&^ barhnd, n. to increase, s, 

U*iJ bas, enough, abundantly, p. 


li^xj bistdr, m. extent, latitude. 
O basti, f. an abode, a village. 
la-sari Kama, a. to pass, to 

spend (one's time), p 

^*>*j lisan-pad, a song in praise 

of Vishnu. * 

J bisurnd, n. to weep, to sob. h 
basdrat, f. sight, vision, a 

lij ba-zdhir, ostensibly, a 
o V, after, afterwards, at the 

end. a 

~*j ba'z, some, certain ones, a 
, c~it> la'ze or ba'zi, some, certain, a 
Jujo i'i<7, remote, far off. a 
Jju laghfil, s. f. the arm-pit, p 
-.xj laghair, ad. without, besides, 

except, a 
Jlib foMd/, m. a grain-merchant, a 

shopkeeper, a 
\j bakrd, m. a he-goat. 
^^j iaytri, f. a goat, a female goat. * 
^l^j bakhdn, m. explanation, a 
i!Jo ia^W, m. a crane, a heron. 
,Jj bil, m. a hole. 
ib ia/a, f. calamity, fl 
U L buldnd, a. to call for, to summon. 

lilldnd, to cry. A 
JJj bulbul, f. a nightingale. ^ 
<f^3j lalki, yea, on the contrary, p 
JuL buland, high, lofty. ^? 
) Jj i///z, f. a cat. * 
J.X*J ba-madad, with the help of, by 

means of. p a 

> ba-martaba, in a degree, con. 
siderably. p a 

L.^P-^J la-mujil, by reason, on 
account of. p a 

^j bin, without, not having. * 
UUj bandnd, a. to make, to form, h 
^u lanaj, m. trade, traffic. 8 
JkiJ iaw(f-Z;.to shut up, to make fust, p h 
( -jcj landagl, f. slavery, service, 

devotion, p 
U^yfcJCJ landhicdnd, a. to cause to be 

fastened. A 

U^j lannd, n. to be made. A 
l)lyj lanwdnd, a. to cause to be 

made. A 
.^o iflwS, pi. sons, children; bani 

Isrd'il, the Israelites, a 
LJJ banyd, m. a shopkeeper, mer- 
o bu or io, f. smell, fragrance, p 

> lojh, m. a load, weight, h 

] buj'h, f. understanding, idea, s 
bujhnd, a. to understand, 
comprehend, a 
ly io/na, to speak, say. A 
j^j iowtf, a. to sow, plant, s 
U la, by, with, in; ba-nisbat, with 

regard to. j 

^j ia/jd, m. price, value, p 
bhdshd, see bhdkhd. s 
j bhdshnd, to speak, say. s 
j bhdkhd, f. language, dialect. A 
J Wd/7, m. good luck; destiny. 


> Ihdgnd, n. to flee, to run away; 
bhdff-j. to ran off. h 
-AJUj bhdnti, m. manner, mode, 
way. h 

l^j bahdna, m. pretence, evasion, 
contrivance. ^> 

,$, m. brother, friend. * 
, much, many, very, s 
i bihtar, good, well, hotter, p 

lahuterd, much. *. 
S# Ihijwdnd, a. to cause to be 
sent, h 

bhar, full ; 'umr-b7iar, during life; 
din-bhar, all day ; bhar-d. a. to pay, 
to fill ; bhar-pdnd, to be satisfied. 
< i bahrd, deaf; bhard, full. A 

bhraman, a walk. * 
bkarnd, a. to fill. A 
j bharosd, m. hope, faith. 8. 

, m. portion, lot. jt>. 
Ihist'i, Ibishti or bihishti, m. a 
water-carrier, jt? 

bakJcdnd, a. to delude, to mis- 
lead, h 

j Wiald, good, worthy; Wfl/a a</z{, 
a gentleman, s 

^j bhald,i, f. kindness, good 
deed, h 

J baham, together, one with 
another, one against another, p 
i> bhukhd, hungry. 8 

bhul, f. forgetfulness. s 
^ bhulnd, n. to forget, to mistake, 
to be deceived. * 

j bhaunknd, n. to bark. 
bh't, even, also. A 
lhaiyd, m. friend, brother. 

bhit, f. a wall. 
bhitar, within, inside. A 
j Ihejnd, a. to send, convey. A 

^, m. a secret, separation, 
secrecy, s 

-^j bher, f. a sheep, an ewe. a 
j^-^j bheri, f. an ewe. 
bj-^j bheriyd, m. a wolf. 
(jiuAJ 3Ai?sA or i^s, m. garb, habit, s 

Ix-^j bhigd, wet, moist (past part, of 
UC#, to be wet). 

3e (also a3e), an interjection of 
reproach, as : sirrah ! you rascal ! h 

ji be, (prep.) without; much used in 
forming negative adjectives, as 
be-adab, unmannerly, and these 
again become substantives by adding 
i, as be-adabi, rudeness, p 
Lj baydn, m. explanation, relation, a 

Lj bydh, m. marriage. 

be-bas, helpless, destitute, p 

bibi, f. a lady; (vulgarly) a 
wife, h 
^w-J bait, f. a couplet, poetry, a 

sl^-j be-tdb, powerless, without 
endurance; be-tdbi, helplessness, p 

J^jtH ( fi be-to 1 alluki, f. freedom from 
worldly ties, immediate communion 
with God. p a 

io beta, m. a son, a child, A 
l^Lj baithdnd, a. to set down, to 
place, h 

iJ buithnd, n. to sit, to be placed. A 
i/, ra. seed ; principle. 

fo-/d, ill-timed, ill-placed, im- 
proper, p 
sX' be-jigar, cowardly; be-jigari, 
cowardliness, want of pluck.' p 

-AJ lick, (prep.) among, between, 
during, h ; the middle, s ; bick- 
bichdw, mediation, intermediate 
means, h 

a,Uiij bechdra, helpless, p 

L^U bechnd, a. to soil, h 
ulujj leshtar, generally, for the most 
part, p 
JL-J beddr, awake, wakeful, p 

^-o Itirbal, name of one of Akbar's 
ministers, h 
-j bis, twenty, h 
.j le-shumdr, incalculable, p. 
> be-kardr, uneasy, restless, ap 

Ajlj begdna, strange, undomestic, 

foreign, p 

>Lj legam, (fem. of lcg\ a lady, p 
J-J iot7, m. a bullock, h 
-j blmdr, sick, a patient. j9 
-J JzwidrJ, f. sickness, jj 
^ icnrfa, crooked; absurd. A 
j byaurd, m. account, history, s 
-J be-wvkuf, foolish, stupid, p a 

ijj\j pdpo&h, f. a slipper. /> 
a7, a mill-stone, h 
pddshdh, m. a king (same as 
IddshdJi). p 

j\j par, m. the opposite bank ; (adr.) 
over, beyond ; />ar <f I, last year. . 
Lj;l> pdrsd, devout, pious, p 
(j*\j pas, near, before, h 
<j,\*~i\i pdsbdnl, f. keeping watch, p 
x\-\J pdkiza, clean, fine, elegant, p 
Jl> pal, m. a shade, shelter. 
( c!b jjatti, f. a sedan-chair common 
in India, h [cept. < 

lib, /?ana, a. to get, find, reach, ac- 
*g\i pdnch, five. *. 
Ijub pdndd, a master; priest. * 
*ib pdiiw, m. leg, foot. 
vjl> j9rfw{, m. water; lustre, s 
bj j?rt<di m. token, indication, h 
lx> pattd, m. a leaf. 
J patthar, m. a stone, a rock. * 
^ jOfl^i, f. a leaf; hemp. * 
&b patakna, a. to dash, to beat. A 
jwW; pachds, fifty. A. 

l^at; pichhdri, f. the rear; the 
hind -quarter of an animal, t 
a^; pichhld, latter, last, modern. 

; pack'u, twenty-five. * 
padar, m. (pidar, A), a father, p 


y par, (conj.) but ; (postp.) on or 

upon, at. A 
j par, m. a wing, p 
\j\j purdnd, old, ancient. 8 
.gjU-Uffj prithwi-ndth, Lord of earth, 

your majesty. 

e^-wJy profit, f. trust, confidence, s 
#J J parda, m. a curtain, a screen. ^? 
jj<jy parde&hl (or pardesi), a 

parisram, m. care, labour, s 
prasanna, pleased, content. 
*Xyjj pra&ansd, f. praise. a 
purush, man, a person. s. 
prakdr, m. mode, manner. s 
j pragat, current, well-known. * 
*Ju y paranda, m. a bird, jp 
^Pjj.y parwarish, f. breeding, nourish- 
ment. ^? 

parhez, m. temperance, conti- 
nence, control of the passions, p 

par'i, f. a fairy, p 
c^o J jprz, f. love, friendship. 
jjliuy pareshdn, scattered, ruined, 

distressed, p 

tJluj j pareshdni, f. destruction, dis- 
tress, p 

\jjj parnd, n. to fall, to happen. A 
parosl, m. a neighbour. * 

parhdnd, a. to teach to read, 
to instruct. . 

js> ! y parhnd, a. to read, to repeat, to 
say, to speak, s 

, hence, therefore, p 
j pasand, f. choice, approbation, p 
JLi pashm, f. wool, fur. p 
*xL> pashu (or posu}, m. an animal, 
beast, s 

>lj pukdrnd, a. to call aloud, to 
bawl, to cry out. h 
j paTcarnd, a. to catch or seize, h 

palchdl, f. a leathern bag for 
carrying water, s 
L> pildnd, a. to give to drink. * 
j pinjrd, m. a cage, s 
JLj pandit, a learned brahman, s 

puchhnd, a. to ask, inquire. * 
ij ^>awr, f. a door, gate, s 
Viy- pnrd, full ; accomplished, s 
:, f. a kind of cake, s 

, m. poppy ; post'i, one who 
intoxicates himself with infusion of 
poppy, p 

/Liy poshak, f. vestments, dress, 
habits, garments, p 
^ pahdr, m. a mountain. A 
'l^j phdrnd, a. to rend, to tear. * 

i) pJiatd, rent, torn (from pJiatnd, 
n. to be rent). 

pahchdnnd, a. to know, to 

> paJiar, a space of about three 
hours, a watch (of the day or 
night), p 

phir, again, back, h 
phirnd, n. to turn back, return, h 


Lf> phal, m. fruit; effect; advantage; 

progeny, s 

^ pahld or pahild, first, before ; 

rather; pa.hU, at first, previous to. A 
phalnd, n. to bear fruit, to be 

produced, a 
\j laci^j pahunchdnd, a. to convey ; 

la-ham pahunchdnd, to get together, 

to store up. A 

l-^\y pahunchnd, n. to arrive. A 
L*uigj phansnd, n. to be caught in a 

noose, to be strangled. A 
LX^J pahannd, a. to put on, to wear. A 
U > phulnd, n. to blossom, to bloom. * 
L^J pahiyd, m. a wheel (of a chariot, 

etc.) A 

j^i pher, back, again. A 
U-.i) phernd or pher-dend, a. to turn, 
. to circulate, to give back. A 
ld-^j phailnd, n. to spread, to be 

divulged. A 
>jLj piydda, m. a pedestrian, an 

attendant on foot ; piydda-pd, on 

foot, as a pedestrian, p 
iLj pydr, m. affection, a 

-r " 

IjLj piydrd, dear, beloved, a 
LJ piydsd, thirsty, a 
y piydla, m. a cup, goblet, p 
wj. ^, m. the belly, stomach, 
womb, a 

/A, f. the back, a 
i^ILj paithnd, n. to rush in, to enter, a 
'^2^ J pichhd, m. pursuit, following. A 
(^rj l^swU p'ichhdn, f. the hinder part. A 

U pichhe, after, in the rear, U 
pursuit of. A 

\jj Ijuj paidd-k., a. to produce, U 
procure ; patdd-h., to be born ; t 
bo found, h p 
&J*j* j+i pir murshid, your highness, 

sire, your worship, p a 
CJl^-j pairdk, m. a swimmer, h 
li ry pairnd, n. to swim. A 
*-J paisd, m. a copper coin, money, 
cash. A 

pisnd, a. to grind, triturate. 
j?^sAa, m. trade, profession, p 
-U.o paighdm, m. a message, j? 
^U-j paimdn, m. a promise, an oath, 
a compact. ^? 

d, a. to drink. 

>lj rfdi, power, endurance, p 
i-jlj dW, m. a subject; (adj.) sub- 
missive, a 
x>to' tdpnd, a. to warm one's self 

before a fire, a 
-Jli' ta,sir, f. impression, a 
(jlj #o2a, fresh, new, green, young; 

fat; happy, p 
_fjlj tdzi, Arab, Arabian, a 
i^lj ^dAntf, a. to look, stare at. a 
\J td-ki, so that, to the end that, p 
J^\J ta,ammul, m. meditation, re- 
flection, purpose, a 

ilj la/t-wn, name of a musi- 
cian, a 


tab, then, at that time, after- 
wards ; tabhi se, from that very 
time, s 

i\-J tabdh, ruined, lost; tabdh-h. to 
be in misery, p 

tijdrat, f. trading, traffic, a 
tujh, inflection of tit, thou. h 
tahsil, f. acquisition, a 
takht, m. a throne, p 
tad, conj. or adv. then. A 

tadb'ir, f. deliberation, counsel; 
management, a 
^jjj tadarv, a pheasant. ^? 
J far, moist; ^~y tar la tar, all 
wet or weltering, p 

j tardshnd, a. to cut or clip, to 
shave, to shape out. p h 
^-jy tarbiyat, f. education, a 
/J r, abandoning, leaving, a 

j tarkasJi, a quiver, p 
j Turk'i, of or belonging to 
Turkomania. p 

^j '< taraphnd, n. to tremble, quiver, h 
*J fo's (inflect, of so), which ; tis- 
par, whereupon, h 
uj tasall'i, f. consolation, soothing, a 
J tishnag't, L thirst, p 
aJ tasdV, f. trouble, privation, a 
tasdik, f. verifying, attesting, a 
J' tasarruf, possession, use. a 
taswir, f. a picture, an image, a 
tazlnk, f. ridicule, sport, a 
ta'ajjub, wondering, astonish- 
ment, a 

c_ii ,*j wVJ/, f. praise, description, a 
ff^JfJ ta'zim, f. reverence, honouring, a 
t^Jjlij tafdwut, m. distance, dis- 
tinction, difference, a 
^.XftJ tafannun, m. recreating, re- 
freshing, o 
LsUj taMzd, m. demanding, xact- 

ing ; urgency, a 
j jJii' talcd'ir, f. predestination, a 
-M^aiij ^afezr, f. fault, crime, blame, a 
^, postp. up to, as far as. h 
taTcalluf, m. ceremony, pomp, a 
o-^''' taklif, f. trouble, annoyance, o 
iil3 taldsh, f. search, seeking, a 

bitter, jp 

talak, up to (same as tak], h 
Ub' talwdr, f. a sword. 
-^-^UJ lj talawwun-mizdj'i, f. fickle- 
" ness of disposition, a 
*j turn, you (tumh and tumhon in the 

inflection). A 

LlLJ tamdsJtd, m. an entertainment, 
show, spectacle, sight; tamdthu'i, 
a spectator, a 

^-j /^jUj tamdsh-lin, a spectator. ^ 
/t*j tamdm, entire, perfect, com- 
plete, a 

tamlurd, m. a kind of drum, a 
tamh'id, f. subterfuge, shift. 
kC' tan-khwdh, f. wages, salary. j 
3 tang, narrow, strait ; tang and, 
to be disquieted, annoyed, p 

^J tany-dast'i, f. distress, 
poverty, p 

jj to or tau, adv. then; tit, pron. 

thou. A 
\?y ford, m. a purse containing 1000 

rupees. A. 
Ufy forna, a. to break, to change (as 

coin) 8 

J>?3jj taufik, f. divine direction, a 
Uy tolnd, a. to weigh. 
^ tonortaun, then, in that manner, h 
Uj tfAa, was (verb auxil.). h 

rfj Man, m. breast, s 
Vlfij thord, little, scarce, seldom, less, 

few. h 
^L^J thaili, f. a purse tied round the 

waist, a bag. h 
JLj tat'ydr, ready, prepared, finished, 

complete, a 

^cjLj taiydrk, f. preparation, p 
^jj^i tilr'i, f. a butterfly. A 
j^j fir, m. the bank of a river. * 
-j' tkr, m. an arrow. ^) 
j-J to, sharp. ^? 
-j' tie, thirty. 8. 
j tisrd (f. t'isri}, the third. * 
( j~j tin, three ; <am, thou ; ten, from. 

tdtt, f. a sort of musical instru- 
ment, h. 

w^, f. the leg, foot, h 
-j tapaknd, n. to drip. A 
cry iJl^o tat-punjiyd, bankrupt. A 

Ulj&3 tatohid, a. to feel, to handle. A 
\j> tukrd, m. a piece, a bit, a morsel. * 
L5p tiitnd, n. to break. A 
jj-tjfy toral-mal, a man's name. A 
f, m. a joke, a jest. A 
?, m. a jester, a buffoon. A 

, f. fun, humour, sport, 
joking. A 

^j thaharnd, n. to stay, to rest, to 
be settled. A [deem. A 

thahrdnd, a. to determine, to 
thassd, m. vanity, ostentation. A 
thandd, cold. A 

, f. place, spot. A 
3, m. a note of hand. A 

jjU (f?iJ, second, equal, a 
<Uij si^-rt, trusty, confidential, a 
$_*j samra, m. fruit ; result, a 
c_?1y sawdb, m. the future reward of 
virtue, a 

U?U- j'drd, m cold, winter. 

d, n. to awake, to be awake. * 
-y/, m. net. 

, m. a garment, robe, vest, j? 
^U?- jdn, f. m. life, soul, spirit , dear, 
beloved ; jdn pahchdn, an intimate 
friend, p 

f, n. to go ; to be ; to pass ; to 
reach; to continue, jdtd-rahnd, to 
vanish, a 

La^L>* jdnchnd, a. to test, to try, 
prove, a 

j^JuU- jdn-ddr, a living being. ^ 

lx)lj>- jdnnd, a. to know, to under- 
stand, to consider. 
ijj*\s>- Jdnwar, m. an animal, a bird, p 

i^Jt>\s>- jdhil, m. a fool; (adj.) barba- 
rous, brutal, a 

t^^s- jab, when, at the time when ; 
jab-na-tab, now and then, s 

L?- juld, young, youthful. 

<J_xi' ^^^^- jabtak or jab-talak, so long 
as, till when, s h 

\zs>- jittd, as much (as), whatever 
much, h 

Ul^sj- jatdnd, a. to point out, to 
teach, s 

Uir>- jitnd, as many (as), how many 
soever, h 

\ Jcj- judd, separate, apart, p 

^j>- Jis, the inflection of the relat. 
jo, who, which, h 

t^-vu*r>- yff, f. a leap. ^ 

jliUb- jafd-kdr, m. a tormentor, op- 
pressor, a p 

\j lp- jagdnd, a. to waken, to rouse 

^X^- jagah, f. place, quarter, room, 
vacancy, stead, h 

jlp- jattdd, rn. an executioner; (adj.) 
cruel, hard-hearted, a 

litious, quick, quickly .p 
tj,- jb>- jaldi, f. quickness, rashness, p 
\^^- jalnd, n. to burn, to be kindled ; 

to get into a passion. 
xb>- jalwa, m. light ; jalwa-gar, 
brilliant, beautiful, a 

jalev, f. retinue, attendance, h 
>- jam', f. a congregation, collec- 
tion ; sum total, number ; jam'- k. or 
-rakhnd or -kar-rakhnd, to collect ; 
-hond, to be collected, a 
,j&- jan, m. person, individual. * 
(j*^s>- jins, f. genus; goods, com- 
modity, a 

,Jxxs>- jangal, m. a forest, a wood. 
Uij>- jannd, a. to bear, to bring forth. 
jpf-jo,(rel. pron.) he who ; jo-ko,'i, who- 
soever ; jo-hichh, whatsoever, h 
f>- jau, m. barley ; j6, if, when ; jit, 
searching, p a 
fu,d, m. a yoke; dice, gambling, s 

\f>- jawdb, m. an answer, a 

T awn, young, a young person; 
jawdn-mardi, valour, p 
o^T jawdni, f. youth or rather that 
period of life to which the Kornans 
applied the termjuientus. p. 
JS>!^>- jawdhir, f. (plur. of .&*=>-), 
gems, jewels ; jawdhir-khdna, & 
jewel-house or treasury, a 
^$j&f>- jauhari, m. a jeweller, a 
Ijjjj- jutd, m. a shoe, a pair of shoes, h 
otik, m. astrology. 5 
iki, an astrologer. 

ijyr j&tl, a slipper, a small shoe. A 
\^jf>- jotnd, to yoke. A 
lijfj- j'ornd, a. to join, clasp. A 
,y>- y<w or yww, when, as ; j'on-h'in, 
orj'aun-hin, the instant when. A 
:>- Jaunpur, name of a city. 
jhdr, m. bushes ; continued rain. A 
jfl^sj- jhdr-jfiur, f. a thicket. A 
j'ahdz, m. a ship, a 

, f. ignorance. 
Jl^r>- jhdlar, f. a fringe ; jhdlar-ddr, 

possessed of a fringe, fringed, 
^l^ jahdn, m. the world ; jahdni, 
of or belonging to the world, man- 
kind, p 
( \^>- jahdn, where, in whatever 

place. A 
ilx ^^r jahdn pan&h, m. refuge of 

the world ; your majesty ! p 
^r\^>- jhdnchh, f. a cymbal, s 
Lj [^>- jhdnknd, a. to peep, to spy. A 
(JL-^sj- yAdtf, quickly. A 

:>- jharnd, n. to ooze, to flow. A 

jharokhd, m. a lattice, a 
window. * 

j'haard, m. wrangling, quar- 
relling. A 

lr^>- jhagarnd, n. to quarrel. A 
b'W^r^ryAam/Artwm^, glittering. A 
\jL**i>- jhamakrd, m. splendour, 

beauty. A 
^p*- yAan, m. a clashing sound of 

metals, etc. A 
$j^>- jhuth, false ; a lie. 

l^5^>- jhitthd, a liar ; false. * 

yj, m. life, soul, mind : (added 
to names, professions, etc., it 
signifies sir, master). 
j'eb, f. a pocket, p 
jltd, alive, living. * 
j'itnd, a. to win (at play), to 
conquer. 8 

find, n. to live, to be alive. 
jaisd, in the manner which, as, 
such as. 8 

cJidbuk, m. a horsewhip, j? 
chdbnd, a. to gnaw. A 
- chdshni, f. taste. ^> 
cAa/, f. way, practice. * 
5 ll- chdldk, active, fleet, p 
jjlr*- chdndnl, L a kind of cloth; 

chdhnd, a. to love, to like, to 
desire, to choose ; chdhiye (in Braj. 
chdhiyatu), it is fit, proper, neces- 
sary, etc. 8 

chabdnd, a. to gnaw. A 
chibilld, stupid, impudent. A 
. chup, 

- cftattir, clever; chaturdj, ex- 

chatkdnd, a. to rend, split. A 
cAt'^Ai, f. a letter, an epistle. A 
iL>- chirdgZt, m. a lamp, a light, p 

silent, speechless. A 


chcvrdgdh, f. a pasture, a 
meadow, p 

U^s- charana, to graze ; churdnd,a. 
to steal ; dnTthen churdnd, to with- 
draw the eyes, s 
LJ&^=- charhnd, n. to ascend, to come 

up. h 

ijlibjp- charhdnd, a. to raise up. h 
b ':>- chinyd, f. a bird. A 
jUj-l^- chirimdr, a bird-catcher, a 

fowler. A 

A-uL- chashm, the eye. JP 
<Uul^>- chashma, m. a spring, a well, 

a fountain, p 

( Jjt^- chugjdi, slandering, back- 
biting, p 

chakit, astonished. * 
chukna, n. to have done, to 
have completed, h (Vide Gram, 
p. 65). 

/.>- chakki, f. a mill, a mill-stone. * 
chilldnd, n. to scream out. h 
chalnd, n. to move, to go, pro- 
ceed, go off, pass (as coin), to be 
discharged (as a gun) ; chald-j. to 
go; chald-dnd, to come, s 
ulC*^ chamalc, f. brilliancy, glitter, 

beauty, h 

^ij>- chamctn, m. a lawn, a meadow, j? 
<fc=crlx>- chundhchi, thus, accordingly.^? 
chintd, f. care, anxiety- 

changul, m. a claw ; cJuingul 
tndrnd, to grasp with the claw, p 
p, f. desire, selfishness. A 

\)*s>- chaupdya, four-footed, a quad- 
ruped. 8 

chauthd, the fourth. 8 
- c^or, m. a thief, a robber. 
i4js- cJiordnd. a. to steal, s 

j V 

^s- <;Aorz, f. theft, robbery, s. 

^s- chub, f. defect, error; cAatt, 
an open place in a city, h 

>- chaukas, expert, alert. 8 
SV>- chaugund, a. fourfold, s 
cJionch, f. beak, bill, s 

chaundol, m. a kind of sedan 
or palkf. * 

chaunri, f. a whisk, a fly- 
flapper, h 

p- cJiuhd, m. a mouse ; chuhe-mdr, a 
kind of hawk which feeds on mice, h 
- chha, six. A 

chhdti, f. the breast; cJthdti se 
lagdnd, to embrace, h 
x- chhipnd, n. to be concealed, 
hidden, absent, h 

chhatri, f. a covering or hood; 
chhatri-ddr, covered, hooded, s 
i^v. chhutdpd, m. smallness. A 
" cTiahchaha, m. warbling. A 
cJiihra, m. the face. ^ 
chhotd, little, small. A 
chhutnd, n. to escape. A 
cMor, m. end, extremity, h 

chhornd, a. to release, leave, 
let go. h 

( 17) 

chhokard, m. a boy, h 
chhed, m. a hole, an opening. 
/a, m. a leopard, s 
'f*&- chlz, f. a thing, p 

chaind, m. a kind of corn. s. 
, millet, h 

- Aa;Y0, m. an usher, a 
*- 7jq/rt, need, want, a 
7m7, m. produce, result, pur- 
port, profit, revenue ; hdsil-i-kaldm, 
in fine, in short; hdsil-h., to be 
obtained; hdsil-k., to obtain, a 
?U- hdzir, a. present, willing ; hd~ir- 
jawdbi, ready wit. a 
hakim, m. a ruler. 
Aa7, m. state, condition, busi- 
ness, affair; present time, a 

hdlat, f. state, condition, a 
habsh'i, m. Abyssinian, Caffre. a 
hujjati, cavilling, arguing the 
point, a 
Jo- hadd, extreme, extremely, a 
hirs, avidity, greediness, a 
- harakat, f. proceeding, con- 
duct, a 
u-i^p- harif, an opponent (in play), 

a rival, an associate, a 
*xs: ' c -vuurv. hasbu-l-hukm, according 
to command, o 

a</, f. envy, malice ; emula- 
tion, ambition, a 

hissa, m. share, lot, portion, 
division, a 

hazr, m. rest, repose, a 

hazrat, your or his majesty, 
your or his excellency, etc. a 

huzur, m. presence, appearance ; 
a regal court ; his majesty, a 

hakk, just, true; the Deity; 
right, justice; lot. hakk-bini, per- 
ception of right, a 
Jj\ii- hikdrat, f. contempt, dis- 
grace, baseness, a 
^viLgj*- hakikat, f. truth, a true 
statement, an account. 
-ol>- hikdyat, f. a histoiy, tale, 
narration, a 

hukm, m. order, decree, a 

hikmat, f. wisdom, know- 
ledge, skill, contrivance, a 
~^+yLs>- hukutnat, f. reign, rule, a 
hakim, m. a sage, a philosopher, 
a physician, a 

halwd,i, m. a confectioner, a 
hawdss, (pi.), senses, a 
\\f>- hawdle-k. to give in charge, to 
consign, a 

haydt, life, a 
Lj*. hairdn, confounded, per- 
plexed, a 

hairat, f. confusion, a 
\aif, (interj.) ah ! alas ! m. 
iniquity, a pity ; haif-k. or -khdnd, 
to sigh, to express one' a sorrow. ( 
<,la, m. artifice, ruse, a 

haiwdn, m. animal, a 


darydft-k., a. to con- 
ceive, understand, h p 
^J das (or dash], ten. a 

^v-oJ dast, m. the hand; dast-lar- 
ddr-h., to forbear, to desist, p 
lftckj&rfj dastar-khwdn, m. the cloth 
on which orientals eat. ^> 

dushman, m. an enemy, j? 
-jJ dushmant, f. enmity. ^? 

/Uwi J dtishndm, f. abuse, a ^J 

U J <2w 'd, f. benediction, prayer, wish, a 

c^jyiJ da'wat, f. entertainment, ban- 
quet, o 

,$j rfwM, m. pain, labour; dukht, 
grieved, afflicted. a 

lilfij dikhdnd and dikhldnd, a. to 
shew, to point out. 

Jj dil, m. heart, mind, soul; dil- 
pasand, pleasing, agreeable, p 

UUj dildnd, a. to cause to give, a 

( e^ J du-latti, f. a kick with tho two 
hind legs, h 

l-jam'-t, f.easeofmind.^ 
Zz/, f. argument, proof, a 
/J dam, m. breath, life, j? 
/J rfww, f. tail, end. p 
^J (?, m. a day, * 
LjJ dunyd, f. the world; people, a 
^J do, a. two. ^? 

lj J <?a?^d, f. medicine ; a remedy, a 
r, m. a door, a gate. * 
m. milk. 

j <fiir, f. distance; distant; dur~ 
andesh, far-sighted, wise ; dur- 
andesM, prudence, foresight. 
jJ daurdnd, a. to cause to run, to 
drive, a 

fjJ daurnd, n. to run. a 
-wsj J <fos#, m. a friend, lover ; dost- 
rakhnd, to hold dear, to love, p 

s^i, f. affection, friendship. ^? 
J d&srd, the second, other, next, a 
osA, m. fault, defect, a 
ditkdn, f. a shop. j 

daulat, f. riches, fortune, em- 
pire; daulat-mand, a. wealthy, a 
J rfiiw, low, vile, abject; di'm- 
himmati, low-mindedness a 

or J^j"* ^ w o or donon, the two, 
both. A 

dharm, m. virtue; dharm-avatdr, 
incarnation or personification of 
virtue ; sire, your majesty, a 
dharnd, a. to place, to lay. a 
dhakkd, m. a push, jolt, h 

rfAaw, m. wealth ; dhan't, 
wealthy, a. 

J dhandhalpand, m. fraud, 
trickery. A 

dhu,dn, m. smoke, a 

dhobi, a washerman ; dJiobin, 
a washerwoman. A 

(?Auw, f. noise, tumult. A 

dhona, a. to wash ; dho-dhdnd, 
to wash thoroughly, a 

(21 ) 

dhydn, m. mind, thought. 
Oli O diydnat, f. con3cience,honesty, 
piety; diydnat-ddr, honest, just, a 
j-j J </aii, f. fate, by chance. s 
yjuJ diddr, viewing, seeing, p 
Jk.;J rfitfo, m. the eye. j? 
j J (for, f. a long time, late, j? 
^j J <fes, m. country, region, s 
L^o J dekhnd, a. to see, experience, s 
LJ O <&a, a. to give, grant. 
iw3 dinar, m. the name of a coin, a 

ducat, a 

jtdkXU) dinddr, faithful, true, p 
jU>J diwdr, f. a wall. 4? 
^^j O diwdn, m. a hall of audience.^? 

b <WrA, f. a tooth. 

^S ddrhi, f. the beard. * 
ddlnd, a. to throw down, to pour 

out, to rush forth ; ddl-d., a. to 

throw away. h. 

8 . :: 

JoU dand, m. retaliation; an oar; a 

stick; ddnd-L, to take revenge. 

i i " 

byj duMnd, a. to cause to sink. A 

X ** 

,-WJ AtiU, f. a dip, dive; A^tt* 
mdrnd, to bathe. 7t. 

j j r7ar, m. fear, s 

i 11 

u iJ darnd, n. to fear, s 

UJ bj5 duriyd-l., to lead by the 

bridle. A 
b IjS 5 dalwdnd, a. to cause to be thrown, 

placed, h 

jj j dklnA, to sink, to be drowned. A 

I :: 

Jjj rfo#, a plain- kind of litter or 
sedan, h 

8 n 

jj <fon<#, f. a proclamation. A 

dhdmpnd, a. to cover up, con- 
ceal, h 

dhdnchd, m. a frame, frame- 
work, h 


r?Aa3, m. mode, manner, h 
^Ao?, m. a drum; dholak, a 
little drum, h 

Jkjyjo dhundhnd, a. to seek, to 
search for. 

^Aer, m. a heap. A 
f(?rrf, m. a dwelling, a tent; 
(adj.) equint-ejjfc. A 
J <?^, m. siatuw; dil-daul, size 
and shape ; del, a clod. A 

J zarrrt, m. an atom, a little ; the 
least bit. a 

3 zikr, m. remembrance; zikr-k., t* 
mention, to praise, a 

<^J\j rdt, f. night. * 
\s~\j rdjd or ^1^ raja, a king. 
J&~K>~\J rdj-mandtr, m. a palace, a 
jtj rdz, m. a secret, a mystery, p 
c^-j'j rdst, right, true ; rdst-go,i t 

speaking truth, veracity, p 
u^iU rukhnd to keep, stop, s 


* .,0- ,j rdm-cAmi, a name frequently 

given to slaves. 8 
e^o>-^ rdliat, f. quiet, ease, o 
s\t rdh, f. road, way. p 
^$\j rd,e, f. sense, opinion, a 
<s~3j rutba, m. rank, dignity, a 
^ij rath, m. f. a chariot (four- 
wheeled). 8 
J,j rat'i, f. a weight of ahout eight 

barley-corns, s 
<z-^~>- , rulthsat, f. leave, discharge, 

^ ~~~* 

rukhsat-h., to depart, a 

rakhnd, m. rent, hole, j? 
rassa, m. a rope. A 

risdnd, n. to he enraged. A 
&~!i rasta, m. a road, way, mode, p 
yij ruswd, exposed, disgraced, p 
J>\j~>j ruswd,i, f. ignominy, dis- 
grace, p 

rassi, f. a string, cord, p 

rashk, m. envy, jealousy p 
?j rizd, f. favour, fl 
^ ra'iyyat, f. subjects, people, a 
_^.^i ( raghbat, f. desire, liking, a 

rafik, m. a friend, ally, a 
JI i ruk'a, m. a letter, note, a 
^j riMb-ddr, m. a stirrup -holder, 
groom, ap 

j rakhnd, a. to place, possess, save ; 
rakh-d., to put down, to place; 
rakh-l., to establish, s 
\jj rakhwdnd, a. to cause to be 
placed, or put. 
j ranj, pain, grief, p 

ranjida, annoyed, vexed, p 
randi, a woman. A 
raw^, m. colour; pleasure, p 
j*&j rang'm, coloured, gaudy, j? 
j Ht, m. face, surface, p 
j .I ru-ba-ru, in the presence of; face 

to face, before, p 
b i r&pd, m. silver. 
<Lo jj rupiya, m. a rupee. * 
ro^z, f. bread, a loaf. 
j ruh, f. soul, spirit, a 
roz, m. a day. p 

jj ros, m. anger; ros-L, to feel 

roshan, clear, illumined. ^? 
roshni, light, brightness, p 
j rowa, n. to weep; m. lamenta- 
tion, grief, a 

rahzani, f. robbery, plunder, p 
rahas, m. witticism. 
ife; nrAwd, n. to stay, be, live, con- 
tinue ; rahne-wdld, an inhabitant, h 
\j&j rahwdr, swift ; (lit., fit for the 
road.) p 

^-Oj ret, f. sand, filings ; rit, custom. A 
riti, f. custom, habit. * 
r'y'hnd, n. to be pleased, satis- 

\j zdda, m. a son, child; (used in 
composition, as shdh-zdda, n king's 
son, a prince.) p 

(28 ) 

^bjl zabdn, f. the tongue, language, 
dialect ; zabdn-i rekhta, the Urdu 
or mixed Hindustani, p 
^i-sJ^j zabar-dasti, f. tyranny, op- 

pression. p 

jj zar, m. gold, wealth, money, p 
( j^*j zamin, ground, a field, p 
cJUj zandni, belonging to -women, p 
j^tj zambur, m. a bee. p 

,SjJj zindagi, 
-. .^ . 
j,JoJuJ zindagdnk J 

jj zang, m. a small bell, p 
j zor, m. force, strength, p 

j zordwar, powerful, strong, j? 
feJ zrt^r, m. venom, p 
bj ziydda, m. addition, additional ; 
(adv.) more; ziydda-k. to increase, o 
b \ ziydn, m. loss, damage, p 

zer, under, beneath, p 
-A*u-J sw^, life, j? 

f . life, existence p 

LJ d (, i), a termination added to 
substantives or adjectives to denote 
similitude or intensiveness. h 
^jijLj sdbik, formerly, a 
^i'Lj Bath, (prep.) with. 
je^j'L) sdthi, m. a companion. 
<it?a, plain, unadorned, p 
sra, all, the whole. * 
o sdrhd, with a half added, s 
az, m. furniture, harness, etc. p 

*Lj <f, f. a mother-in-law. * 
.L) sdk, f. the leg, thigh. 
sdl, m. a year, p 

sdmhne, (prep.) in front of. t 

sd,{ingi, f. a support for the 
pole of a chariot, h 

sdhuMr, m. a great merchant. 
sd,t8 m. a groom, p 

, m. shadow, protection, p 
^-> sab, all, every, the whole. * 
w~j sabab, m. cause, reason, motive ; 
(prep.) on account of. a 

~~ salak, m. a task, lesson, a 
. .> 

subuk, light, not heavy ; subuk- 
bdr, lightly burdened, p 

subhdv, m. nature, disposition. # 

.^ -V** 5 supurd-k. a- to give in 
charge, to consign, p 
r{, a woman. 
sajicdnd, a. to cause to be 
fitted, prepared. * 

sach or Lsr* sachchd, m. truth, 

W^, hard, severe ; very, p 
sakhi, generous, liberal, a 
sarfa, always, * 


Juj sudaul, well-shaped, graceful, h 
.*! sar, head; sar-anjdm, m. livelihood, 
success ; sar-anjdm-h. to succeed, p 
j*> sir, m. the head, the top. 
Ljk^-j sardhnd, a. to praise, extol. A 
ara^, f. a caravansary, house, p 
sarddr, m. chief, ruler. /> 

a. to teach, s. 

sardi, f. coldness, cold wea- 
ther, p 

sar-zamin, f. empire, region, p 
sarkdr, f. court, mansion, p 
surur, f. joy. a 
sazd, f. punishment, p 
sust, lazy, idle, p 
smti, f. laziness, dilatoriness. p 
sa'ddat, f. felicity ; sa'ddat- 
mandi, gratitude, felicity, a 
safar, a journey, voyage, p 
sufed, sufaid, white, p 
, n. to be able, s 
Sikandar, m. Alexander, p 
sikJid (sikshd), a lecture, s 

sukh-pdl, m. a kind of sedan, s 
sikhuk (sikshak), a teacher, 
preacher, s 

A^Ls saldm, salutation; hail! a 
c^~*^Lj saldmat, f. safety, safely, a 
^.liiLj sultan, m. a sovereign ; Ar. 
pi. said tin, sovereigns, a 

suluk, f. behaviour, treatment, a 
salika, m. skill, taste, a 
Sulaimdn, Solomon, a 
samm, m. poison, a 

samdchdr, m. news, tidings. 8 
samdn, like, similar, s 
saint or simt, f. a way, path ; 
point of the compass, a 

samajh, f. comprehension, s 

samajhnd, a. to comprehend, 

smaran, m. remembrance, re- 
collection, h 

A~> samundar, m. the sea, the 
wide ocean, s 

samay, m. time, season, s 
sundnd, a. to cause to hear, a 
c^~~ sampat, f. wealth, s 
L*J JkX-j sandesd, m. a message, s 
sansdr, the world. * 

singauti, f. an ornament of 
gold, etc., on the horn of a bullock. * 

sunnd, a. to hear. 
4~j so, correlat. pron. that very, that 

same ; sou, a hundred, h 
\j~> siwd, except, besides, a 

sawdr, a rider, one mounted or 
riding ; embarked, p 

sawdr'i, f. riding; equipage, j? 
sawdl, m. request, begging, 
petition, a 

*\j~> swdmi, m. master, husband, a 
\y* siwde, same as siwd. a 
*~i soch, thought, s 

~j sochnd, to consider, reflect. 
)j~i saudd, m. a bargain, purchase, p 

sauddgar, m. a merchant, p 
(CfSHiJj-j sauddgari, f. merchandize, 

trade, p 

^5 -j sii-danl, elegant, well-shaped. s 
f\i+* s&rdkh, m. a hole, cavity, p 
~j*~* suraj, m. the sun. s 

Surdds, name of a poet. A 



taumpnd, a. to deliver over, 
consign. Also U-J^~> \(tn//ji>i(i. s 
~> somi, m. gold; stiwu, void, 
empty, s 

sond, n. to sleep, to die. * 
j~i sontd, m. a pestle, h 
tohh'in, in front, h 
sahdrd, m. aid, assistance. * 
safat;, ease, facility, a 
sahoara, a thousand. 
aAi, sure, certain, s 
-s siydsat, f. punishment, a 
siydnd, wise, intelligent. * 
z'yaA, black; unfortunate, p 
sidhd, straight, opposite. * 
sair, f. a walk, perambulation, a 
ser, a certain weight, nearly two 
pounds, h 

saikron, hundred, h. 
sikhnd, a. to learn, s 
senknd, a. to parch, to warm 
one's self, h 

, m. a horn. 

-ili shdkh, a branch ; horn, j? 

shddmdni, f. joy, gladness, ^ 
l shdmat, f. spot, blemish, a 
i shdmil, comprehensive ; ex- 
tending to. a 
ill shdh, m. a king, prince; shdh- 

zdda, a royal son, a prince, p 
(j^-sr^Li shdhjahdn, name of one of 
the Emperors of Delhi 

l thdyad, possibly, probably, 
perhaps, p 

i shabd, m. a voice, sound. 
-^i shabih, f. a picture, likeness, a 
jli^i shitdbi, f. quickness, haste ; 
quickly. j> 

shutur, m. a camel, j? 

shujd'at, f. bravery, a 
shaJchs, m. a person, indivi- 
dual, a 

i shiddat, f. violence, force; 
adversity, affliction, a 
i shardb, f. wine, a 
i> Aar, f. condition, stipulation, 
wager, a 

i sharm, f. bashfulness, modesty, 
shame ; sharm-dnd, n. to feel 
ashamed, p 

sharmandctffl, f. bashful- 
ness, shame, p 
&~+j2t sharmanda or sharminda, 

ashamed, abashed, p 
c j^t shuru\ f. beginning, commence 

ment. a 

j^i sharir, vicious, wicked, a 
^JiLi shafakat, f. kindness, aifec- 
tion. a 
ilx-i shikdr, m. hunting, prey ; 

shikdr-gdh, f. hunting-field. j> 
^lLl Atl-dr$, relating to hunting ; 
m. a fowler, hunter, p 
t shukr, m. thanks, gratitude, a 
l sJiakl, f. shape, figure, a 

shikam, m. the belly; shikam- 
partcar, a pampercr of his belly, p 


Z> skor, m. cry, noise, disturbance, p 
Jfj-i shauk, m. desire, love, a 
,-J^i sJiaukin, desirous; amateur 
fanciers. & 
iX^> sAM, m. honey, p 

shahr, m. a city, p 
!j^-i shahzdda, a prince ; shahzddi, 
a princess, j? 

r, m. a tiger, a lion. /> 
>j~* sherni, f. a tigress, p 
x^-i shirini, f. sweetness ; elo- 
quence. ^> 
~> sh'igra, quickly. 

^.U> sdhib, m. a lord, master; 
companion ; possessed of, as, sahib- 
khana, the master of the house ; 
sdhib-i 'ima^,possessedofchastity.o 
5L> sdf, clean, clear, candid, a 
atf subh, f. morning, dawn, a 
sabr, f. patience, endurance, a 

suhbat, f. society, a 
jLw? sarrdf, m. a hanker, a money- 
changer. a 

, expenditure; sarf-k., to 
spend, a 

sirf, merely, only, a 
8afd,i, purity, heauty. a 
stfat, f. praise, quality, a 
safha, face, surface, a 
saldh, f. counsel, advice, a 

salahan, peaceably, advisably, 
by way of advice, a 

Xrf sanduk, m.f. a box, a trunk, a 
sawdb, m, rectitude, a virtu- 
ous action ; success, a 

siirat, f. form, face, a 
-0 saiydd, a hunter, a 
sa</, f. game, hunting, chase, a 

y zarur or zurur, necessary, ex- 
pedient, a 
i*xJ za'if, frail, bedridden, a 

aLj ziydfat, f. entertainment, a 

^, m. a shelf, a recess, o 
takat, f, power, endurance, a 
/j', fortune; star, fl 
i', m. constitution, nature, a 
i_^--l? ^aJzi, m. a physician, doctor, a 
js tarah, f. manner, mode, a 
jje tarz, m. make, shape, a 

taraf, f. side, direction; ex- 
tremity, a 

tar'ik, f. way, path, a 
tar'ika, m. way, rule of life, a 

A^, m. a basin, p 
*UL ta'dm, m. food, victuals, o 
<U>*1? tu'ma, m. food, bait. 
Ail? tifl't, f. infancy, a 

talab, f. search; demand, sum- 
moning ; pay ; talab-k., to seek for, 
to send for. a 

(am', f. avarice, greediness, a 


j^e taur, m. mode, manner, a 

^jb {Ml, f. a parrot, p 

^j^y tufdn, m. a storm of wind and 

rain, a 

^jB tul, m. length, a 
AL^b tawila, m. a tether, footband; 

tawela, a stable, stall, a 

o zdhir-L, a. to manifest, dis- 
play. a h 

a zalm, an oppressor, a tyrant, a 
JJ0 ztt/n, m. injustice, violence ; zulm- 
guddz, a melter of injustice, a 
crusher of oppression, a 


'o;Yz, weak, helpless, a 
l 'djizi, f. weakness, helpless- 
ness. a 

, wise, a sage, a 
Jlc 'a/rtw, m. the world, universe ; 
'dlam-pandh, the asylum of the 
universe, his majesty, a 
JU 'a^>, a. learned, knowing, a 
O^Li 'ibdrat, f. term, expression, a 
'ajd,ib, m. wonders, curiosi- 
ties. a 

^sr^ 'fl/i, m. wonder, admiration; 
a. wonderful, rare, a 
JS^ 'ajuba, a. wonderful, a strange 
thing, a 

s 'addlat, f. justice, a 
'adatn, non-cxistcncc. a 

M3r, m. excuse, a 
'arz, f. representation ; a peti- 
tion, request, a 

'aziz, precious, eminent, dear; 
(used substantively, like ' mon cher,' 
nay dear friend.') a 

'ishrat, enjoyment, a 
'ishk, m. love, a 
'and, m. a stick, a 
'attar, m. a perfumer, druggist, a 
W'/, f. wisdom, opinion, a 
i-: 'aklmand, a. wise, a 
'7q/, m. cure, remedy, a 
'a^aZ-a(or'7a^<z),m. connection, a 
*jlc 'aldwa, moreover, a 
Ac 'ilm, m. science, knowledge ; 
'ilm-i-nujum, astrology. 

'fl/a, upon, after; 'aid hdz-al 
kiyds, in like manner, a 

'alaihida, distinct, peculiar, a 
'wnda, noble, fine, a 
.*. 'umr, f. age, life, lifetime, a 

'amal, m. action, practice, con- 
duct, a 

'indyat, f. favour, gift, a 

'aicdm-unnds, m. the 
common people. <* 
^.y: 'aurat, f. a woman, a wife ; 
(Arab, plur.) 'aurdt. a 

'iteaz, m. return, substitute, a 
'iyddat, f. visiting the sick. <i 
c 'aiydr, cunning ; a knave. 
c 'awA, m. pleasure, delight, a 

'am, m. the eye, essence, the 
very (thing, etc.). a 


j\z ghdr, m. a pit, cavern, hole, a 

Jiilc ghdfil, careless, negligent, a 

w_^Jlc ghd,ib, missing, a 

Li gharra, impudence, a 

^Jsj- gharaz, f. design, view ; (ad.) 

in short, in fine, a 
-*J -e ghar'ib, poor ; a stranger, o 
b _t ghurabd, the poor; pi. o^ ghar'ib. a 
o^^c ghaznavi, a. residing at 

Ghazna. p 
c^Jjii ghaflat, f. carelessness ; moral 

torpor, a 

uJlc 5&tfa/, m. a covering. ^> 
-*!lLc. ghuldm, m. slave, o 
^ gharn, m. grief, sorrow, fl 
^^s- ghflil), the invisible world, a 
w-, other, different, a 
ghairat, f. jealousy, a 

Jk*U fd,ida, m. profit, gain ; fd,ida- 

mand-h., to benefit, fl 
^li ^a,z^, superior, excelling, a 
jr /rt/>, f. morning, dawn of day ; 

early, a 
ojjJ /rfM?z, devoted, loyal subject or 

slave, a 

^~-\ ^fardghat, f. comfort, leisure, a 
U.J ^r^*^ f ar d>nosh-k. to forget, p A 
ij ; J farzand, in. a .son, boy. ^> 

^V^ fursat, f. opportunity'. 
^j farz-Tc. to grant, assume. 

farmdnd, a. to order, say, 
speak. ^? 

byj farydd, f. complaint, p 
jb-i farydd'i, a. complainant, 
plaintin . ^> 

S, fraud, a trick, p 
fasdd, m. depravity, violence. 
, f. time, season, harvest, a 
s /as/, bounty, munificence, a 
kw /aAoi, merely, only, no more, a 
j+&i fakir, m. a beggar, dervise ; poor, 

indigent, a 

J*i fikr, m. f. thought, reflection, a 
\j^j fuldnd orfuldna, a certain one. a 
fauj, f. army, a multitude, a 


\j*i fauran, quickly, instantly, a 
(J fi, in (used in Ar. phrases, as, 
fi,l-wdki, in truth ; fi,l-faur t in- 
stantly ; jij-halc'ikat, of a verity), a 

jU MM, fit, worthy, a 

^\j kdzi, m. a judge, a 

kdmat, f. bulk, height, si/r. 

jU Hnt', contented, frugal, a 

iJ Jcabza, m. grasp, possession, a 
J^JI Icalul, m. consent ; kabul-k., to 

agree, accept, a 

JcJs /-a^, m. slaughter, killing, a 
jjj ^aff(f, m. stature, size, a 
,.\i /;rt</r, f. worth, price, a 


jj kadam, m. foot, footstep, a 
*- jj kadi/n, ancient, old. a 
j\jS kardr, confirmation, rest, a 
^joji karz, m. a loan ; lean dend, to 

lend, a 
**ujj kasam, f. an oath ; &'?/, kind, 

species, a 

/tttsiir, m. want, fault, a 

^i kissa, m. a story, a 

jj kazd, m. decree, a 

Lij kazzdk, m. a robber; (hence 

oj kazdkdr, by chance. j? 

oJi kaziya, m. a quarrel, a 
aiajj katra, m. a drop, a 
<uJjj kiVa, m. a fort, palace, a 
c^cbJj X;wd 'a, f. contentment, a 
J^jj aw, m. a statement, a word, a 
i^^Ljj kiydmat, f. the general resur- 
rection; calamity, a 
.xJ kaid, f. fetter, imprisonment. 
t, f. price, value, a 

, m. a writer, a 
Itdtnd, a. to cut. 
Aar, m. use, business, service, 
work, deed, p 

^- j& Icdr-choU, embroidered 
cloth, p 

kdrlgar, skilful; a cunning 

kili Mghftz, m. paper, a scrap of 
paper, p 

j& kdfir, m. infidel, a 
Jl kdl, m. time. 
/o Z'(i/, m. business, action, use ; 
desire; kdm and, to be useful, of 
service, a p 

kdmrdni, f. happiness, p 
kdn, m. the ear. 

mpnd,m. to tremble, to shiver. 
kdndhd, m. the shoulder. 
kdnkh, the armpit. A 
; l^ kdnhkubja, the city of Kanoj. * 

kdyath, m. name of a caste of 
Hindus ; a scribe, a copyist. 

kab, when? 
je a{, m. a poet. 

jiS kalhii, ever, some time or other ; 

kabhu-kabhu, occasionally ; ^ 

^-aiAi, same as kabhti. s 
\j* kaprd, m. cloth, clothes. 
vi_V.J kaput, unfilial. s 
lii kuttd, m. a dog. 
_jl^ AtVa'i, f. a book, writing, a 
Uii kitnd, how much ? how many ? a 
kutwdl, an officer of police. 
katori, f. a small metal cup. h 

^sr ^wcAA, any, some, something, a 
little ; kachhu, any, the least. A 
kachchhu'd, m. a tortoise. * 

l~J -$!/ Vd* fcna or kirde mang- 
wdnd, to get on hire, to borrow, h 
^^f XmAn, the god Krishna. * 
\j karnd, a. to do, to place. * 
, angry, wroth, s 


'a, inflection of fomw, who ? 
frequently joined to the following 
word, as kis-tarah, how ? kis-wdste 
or -foy0, why ? A 

L* kisdn, m. a peasant, farmer, h 
Jcasb'i, a prostitute, courtesan, a 
&iswa, a. to draw, cover, h 
or jj* kis'z or AwA, inflection 
of ko,i or toM, some, certain, any. h 
kisht, m. f. a sown field, p 
kishti, f. a boat, ship, p 
J.^ J, to morrow, yesterday. 
/li Tcaldm, m. a word, speech, a 
i^^-Jjili kaldwant, m. a minstrel, 

musician. A 
4saL Aafo/fl, m. the liver ; courage, h 

kam, deficient, less, little, rarely ; 
(used in composition : as kam-bakjit, 
ill-starred; a rascal), p 

kamdl, m. perfection, excel- 
lence; (used adjectively, as: ex- 
treme, the utmost, etc.) a 
UL*i kamdnd, a. to earn one's living. A 
Lo kamard (camera), m. a room, 
chamber. (Port.) 

kam'ma, base, mean fellow, p 
kindra, m. shore, side, limit, p 
kunji, f. a key. 

kund, m. a cistern, basin, a 
kangdl, poor, wretched. A. 
, near, beside. A 

, m. a crow ; ku,d, a well, 
a draw-well, a pit. 



kotdh, short; kotdh-k. to hold 
back, to refrain. ^ 

otdhi, smallness, deficiency.^ 

i kotwdl, m. the chief ofiicer of 

kothri, f. a room. * 

, departure, p 
fc^jZ kucha, m. a lane, a street. ^? 

\j kord, m. a whip, a lash ; h'ird, 

rubbish. A 
Jj!> ^oma?, soft, weak, s 

, who ? which ? what ? A 
, m. a comer, s 
j^ kundi, f. a mortar. A 

U*J .^ kaunsd, what-like ? of what 

sort ? A 
s< koh, a mountain, p 

j* ko,t, any, some one ; (artic.) a 
or an, a certain (person, etc.). s 
ki, that, thus, as follows : (some- 
times a relative, who? which?) p 
kahd, m. bidding, order ; kahd- 
sun'i, f. altercation, s 

i khdl, f. skin, hide, s 
l^i kahdh, where ? whither ? A 

khdnd, a. to eat, suffer ; m. food, 
dinner. * 

J*l^ kahdwat, f. a byword, a 
saying, a 

^ khujldnd, a. to tickle, to rub. & 

kharahd, m. a hare, s 
j^i khard, erect, standing. 7i 
5^ khirki, f. a window. A 

V * ' 


khulnd, n. to be opened, to be 
revealed ; to clear up after rain. 

khildnd, a. to give to eat, to 
feed, s 

khil-khildnd, n. to laugh. A. 
Ichilnd, n. to blow (a flower). A 

aA<i, a. to tell, say, bid, call, 
affirm, s 

i khodnd, a. to dig. A 

kholnd, a. to open, untie, let 
loose. * 

khond, a. to lose, to waste, s 
/, m. a field, s 
, f. husbandry, crop, t 
, m. play, game, sport. 
l:>Lg Ichelnd, n. to play, to sport, s 
^^^ 0Aiw, somewhere, anywhere, 


Ujcu^s khenchnd or Tchainchnd, a. to 
delineate, draw. A 
jo ,$ or ka,e, some, a few. A 

L ^yd, (pro.) what ? how ? why ? 

whether (or not) ; kyd kjiub, how 

glorious ! what fun ! 8 
L kii/d, done, a deed ; (past part, of 

karnd, to do, make.) s 
Lu- ^-at'sd, how ? in what manner ? 

of what sort ? what like ? A 
c^-jL kaifiyat, f. nature, state, con- 
dition, pleasure, a 
^f kyuh, kyaun, why? how? well? 

what ? kyun ki, because ; kyun-kar, 

how ? A 

tj?ir ffdrl, f. a chariot, cart. A 
jJls gdli, f. abuse. * 
Uli ffdnd, a. to sing. 
^2jo gdnth, a knot ; gdnth-kd ptird, 
very rich. A 

I** ' Ml 

y b ^aww, m. a village. * 
^l^ yaM7, f. a cow. p 


i_^i L_^O gap shop, chit-chat, con- 
versation. A 

(J|yjsr gujardti, belonging toGujerat. A 
laj^ gadhd, m. an ass, (metaph.) a 


l> *J^ gudaryd, a shepherd. A 
^JkT^Mzdra, m. passing. j 
U)l > .Jo' guzardnnd, a. to forward. ^> 
Ij^ j^ guzarnd, n. to pass; dar-guzarnd, 
to refrain, to forbear, j? 
ywr, m. a preceptor, s 
J^ ^arrf, f. dust (Scottice, ' stour.') p 
J> gird, (prep.) around, p 
<~>\<2j> girddb, m. a gulph, whirl- 
pool, p 

^J^i gardan, f. the neck, p 
j \zij* giriftdr, captive, p 
\j\j* ffirdnd, a. to cause to fall, to 

throw down. A 
I*^S garm, hot ; garmi, f. heat, hot 

season, p 

\jj* girnd, n. to fall, to drop down. A 
S : j> guroh, m. a troop, a class, p 
Ujf garnd, n. to be buried. * 


Xj^> garb, m. a fortress, palace, h 

f # 
*icoii guftgu, conversation, p 

Ji' gul, m. a rose ; gul-karnd, to ex- 
tinguish, p 

K" gala, m. a flock of sheep, a herd 
of cattle, p. the neck, h 
gulab, m. a rose, p 

'a, m. a flock, p 
^ gal'i, f. a lane. A 
gum, lost, p 

' (jU^T gumdn karnd, a. to imagine, 
fancy, opine, p h 
^ gun, m. skill ; gun'i, skilful, s 
aLf gundh, m. fault, crime, sin. p 
\j\** gunthwdnd, a. to cause to be 

fixed (as a string). 
\y ganwdr, m. a villager, apeasant. A 
2t\j> gawah, a witness; gawdhi, evi- 
dence, testimony, p 

Gopdl, one of the names of 
Krishna. 8 
r ffor, m. the grave, tomb, p 

, m. flesh, p 
, m. a corner, p 
^j* golch, m. a portico. A 
t^j* gol, or ^o&a, round, s 
Uo^ gungd, mute, dumb. A 

^oya, as if, as one would say. p 


it, an ambush. A 
it, m. a landing-place. 
abrdnd, n. to be confused, 
perplexed. A 

_ . ^ 

ghatd-top, m. a canopy, 
covering. A 

, m. house, dwelling, s 
<ti\n ghardtia, m. house, family. * 
"^ ghard, m. a jar, pitcher, s 

ghan, f. an hour ; a watch, s 
gJiisnd, n. to be worn : ghusnd, 
to enter. A 

ghantdli, f. a small bell. * 
ghungru, m. a small bell. 
fiT ghord, m. a horse, s 

a, a. to dissolve, to pound, s 
it, m. clarified butter, s 
\S gayd, gone (past part, of /ami). A 

f//, f. a road. A 
gaind, m. a small bullock. A 
, f. a small chariot. A 
\>*4f gehiin, m. wheat. * 


z, f. a kick. A 
cJL>)J ldt t f. trunk of a tree. A 
jjUiJ Id-sdni, unequalled, unrivalled, a 
-JJ ?o/, m. shame, s 
<~.j\f>-] Id-jawdb, silent, silenced, a 
jWS Id-chdr, helpless, destitute, p. 
^a\s>^ Id-hdsil, useless, without 

result, a 

\J<S$ Iddnd, a. to load, to embark. A 
- J$ Ldr Kapur, two celebrated 

minstrels at the court of Akbar. A 
*ji Idzim, necessary, urgent, a 
^ lakh, one hundred thousand. A 
^ /a/a, m. master, sir. A 
^ Idlach, m. avarice, desire. * 




Idlch'i, covetous, greedy. * 
Li! /and, a. to bring; to breed, pro- 
duce, make. * 

(jjl ld,ik, worthy, befitting, perfect, a 
LSJ' lipatnd, n. to cling, to stick to. h 
U:LJ lapetnd, a. to wrap up. h 
ULCli] latkdnd, a. to suspend. A 
lils lajdnd, n. to be ashamed. 
c^-jsr /q/)Ytf, ashamed. * 
U jJ fodwd, n. to be loaded, to ride. A 
Jo jj foziz, delicate, delicious, a 

lard,l, f. battle, quarrel, war. A 
?ard, m. a boy, child, babe, s 
larnd, n. to fight, to quarrel, s 
jjJ lurhdnd, a. to spill, upset, s 

lurhaknd, n. to be spilt, 
upset. 8 

lasJikar, m. an army, p 
> aD lutf, m. pleasure, enjoyment, a 
la'nat, a curse, o 
^/-rti, m. a surname, a 
Lukmdn, name of a famous 
Eastern fabulist, a 

lukmd, m. a morsel, mouthful, a 
MH, f. wood, a staff, stick, h 
likhnd, a. to write, s 

likhwdnd, a. to cause to be 
written, s 

/U lag dm, bridle, bit. * 
UlCl lay and, a. to attach, to apply. 
LXS ^a, 11. to touch ; to begin ; to 
reach or come up to. 

lagicdnd, a. to cause to be 


lambd, long, tall, s 
langrd, lame, j? A 
>! lutnd, a. to rob, plunder ; 
to roll on the ground. s 
|! lukd, m. spark, flame. 

, m. people. * 
_?*r*J lomr'i, f. a fox. 

laundi, f. a slave. A 
foAii, blood. 
foAd, m. iron. * 

, n. to repose, to lie down, h 
lejdnd, a. to take away, to 
carry off. * 

J lekin, (conj.) but, yet, however, a 
lekhd, m. account, reckoning, s 
lekhak, m. a writer, one who 
is writing, s 

LJ LJ lild-p'ild, blue and yellow; 
(applied to the appearance of the 
eyes of a person enraged). 
uJ lend, to take, accept ; sot ; buy. s 
J liye, for the sake of. A 

l md, f. a mother ; md-bdp, parents, s 
1^>-L* mdjard, m. state, circumstance-, 
incident, a 

* mdr-ddlnd, a. to smite, to kills 
mdrg, m. a road, path. 
ljjt mdrnd, a. to smite, strike. 
^l* wdrtf, by reason of, in conse 

qucnce of. s 
Jl* mdl, m. property, wealth, goods, a 


J l ma,al, end, issue, a 

mdlik, m. master, lord, pos- 
sessor. a [tressed, p 

mdnda, left behind, tired, dis- 
LXj l mdngnd, a. to ask for, to beg. a 
lij L manna, a. to believe, obey, agree 
to. 8 

md,i, f. mother. 

muldrak, good, auspicious; 
mubdrak-bdd'i, congratulation, a 

and Ix* jwotf and matd, f. mind, 

, don't (used with iraperat.) h 
matd', m. goods, property, a 
mitr, a friend, a 

mutasaddi, an accountant, a 
muta'ajjib, astonished, a 
Hathurd, name of a province 
and town near Agra. 

mithds, sweetness, h 
mithd,i, f. sweetness, sweets. A 
M^Ai, f. the fist, a handful, s 
.^l* mittk, f. earth, dust. 

, f. a fable, simile, proverb, a 
majlis, f. an assembly, con- 
vention. a 

machdnd, a. to make, stir up, 
commit, h 

muhdwara, m. idiom, usage, a 
muhtdj, necessitous, needy, a 
* mahram-i rdz, privy to 
secrets, a confidant, a p 

mahrbtn, disappointed, ex- 
cluded. a 


Mahmud, a man's name, a 

mihnat, f. labour, misfor- 
tune, a [ous. a 
mulMaUfa, different, vari- 
maJJtft, hidden, a 

malMisk, f. escape, deliver- 
ance, a 

muddat, f. a space of time, a 
long time, a 

madad, f. aid, help; madad-gdr, 
a helper, auxiliary, a 

mudd'd, m. desire, wish, a 

mudda'i, m. a plaintiff, claim- 
ant, a [grees. a 
^J'^i mardtib, m. (pi.) steps, de- 
^ murdd, f. desire, meaning, infer- 
ence, a 

^ martaba, m. a step, degree, 
dignity, office, time; ek martaba, 
once upon a time, a 

marJiiim, deceased, the late, a 
mard, m. a male, a man, a hero ; 
mardana-wdr, like a man. p 
f* murddr, a dead body, p 
r* murda, dead, a dead body, p 
tnarzt, f. wish, inclination, p 
murgli, m. a fowl, bird. j3 
* marnd, n. to die, to expire ; mar- 
jdnd, to die, expire. 
U>.-^ murawwat, generosity. 

mizdj, m. temperament, disposi- 
tion, a 

musdfir, m. a traveller, a 

mustagjirilt, immersed, ab- 
sorbed, a 

mastul, m. a mast, a 
ffifl*^, f. intoxication, j? 
mas/id, f. a mosque, a 
maskhara, a jester, a 
muskurdnd, n. to smile. A 
Musalmdn, a Muhanimadan, 
a follower of Muhammad, o 

mashk, f. a leathern bag for 
water. ^? 

mashwarat, f. consultation, a 
mash,hur, noted, well-known, a 
^d-Li* musahil, m. a companion, 
friend, aide-de-camp, a 

musauwir, m. a painter, a 
vw*^* musibat, i. calamity, afflic- 
tion. a 

mazb&ti, f. solidity, firm- 

ness. a 
^lix* mutdbiJt (prep.) conformable 

to. a 
<*^a* matlab, m. a question, pur- 

pose, meaning, a 
jJJL* muttati', acquainted, in- 

formed. a 

(jlia^ mutlak, in the least, at all. 
^,Ui. -li^ Muzajfir-khdn, a man's 

name. a. 

a^ mazliim, injured, oppressed j 
mazlum-nawdz, a cherisher of the 
oppressed, ap 
lx* ma'an, together, a 
j.jlt^ mu'df, absolved, forgiven, 
excused ; mudf-karnd, to forgive, a 
ij jut ma'zur, excused, excusable, a 
mil attar, scented, perfumed. <i 

muallim, m a teacher, doctor, n 

ma'liim, known, apparent ; 
md'lum-h. to seem, to appear, a 

miiammd, m. an enigma, an 

u-jc* mctykb, blameable, disre- 
putable, a 

magjiriir, proud, fastidious, a 
maghz, m. brain, p 
muft, free, gratis. ^> 
muflis, poor, wretched, a 

mujlisl, f. poverty, a 
mufid, profitable, useful, a 
muMbil, opposite, a 
maltdm, m. place, occasion, a 
mukarrar, assuredly, a 
makdn, m. a place, dwelling, a 
mukh, m. mouth, s 
makkhi, a fly. A 

magar, but, except. 

muldzim, an attendant, a 

muldkdt, f. meeting, inter- 
view, a 

/jt, m. a country, kingdom ; 
malik, a king; (pi. Ar.) muluk, 
kings, a 

malnd, a. to rub, to tread on, to 
ttnoint. h 

milnd, a. to be found, to meet. 

mumkin, possible, a 
man, m. the mind, soul. ; name 
of a certain weight, a maund. p 
jl^* mandd'i, f. proclamation. 


muntaHialdt, selections, 
extracts, a 

mundd, open, exposed, h 
J SX* manjhol'i, f . a small chariot, h 

W * ^* * 

manish, f. dignity, rank, j? 
manusJi, a person. *. 
mantik, m. logic, a 
mantiki, m. logician, a 
', m. prohibition, a 

*m mangwdnd, a. to cause to be 
brought, h 

munh, m. the mouth, face ; muiih- 
zor, headstrong, obstinate. 8 

mu, a hair, p 

-4 ?;tu,d,dead, (past part, of marna). s 
\y* muwdfik, conformable to. a 
Jy* maut, death, a 

mot'i, m. a pearl. * 
moid, gross, coarse, h 
- v mujib, cause, means, a 
mocki, m. a cobbler; saddler, h 

murh. m. a fool, s 

mausiin or maiisam, m. time, 
season, a 
_^ i/-^* mush-gir, a kind of hawk 

which feeds on mice, p 
t_J j^ mfl^-u/dependingon; maultiif- 

k., to conclude, to stop, a 
J^* wo/, m. price ; mol-lend, to buy. h 
+f+ mom, wax j mom-jdma, cluth 
covered with wax, oil-cloth. 
mom-dil, soft-hearted, jy 
munflhd, m. a footstool. A 

mahdbati, powerful. * 
mahdjan, a rich merchant. 
L^ mahddol, a large sedan. A 
l^ mahdrdj, great king ! sir ! sire! s 
\Q* mahdrat, f. proficiency, skill, a 
muhra, m. the thigh bone, p 
mahngd, dear, high-priced. 

mdhng'i or mahnag't, f. dearth, 

malnna, m. a month. ^> 
miydn, a master, gentleman. ^ 
miydna, m. a palki. ^ 
5r, m. a chief, a leader. ^> 
m'ird, lord, heir. ^? 

m'lr lakhshl, m. the pay- 
master-general, p 
\ ; -^ mirzd, a noble, grandee. ^> 
V*- .wi^2, f. a table, p 

muyassar, a. attained, attain- 
able, a 

+ maild, a. dirty, defiled ; meld, a 
fair ; meld theld, m! a crowd of 
people, s 

mei ' l h> m - rain, rainy season. 


j nd-cMz, worthless, useless, p 
j nd-Hnish, displeased, p 
lj nd-khushi, f. displeasure, p 
nd-ddn, a. ignorant, simple. ^? 
nd-ddn'i. f. ignorance. ^? 
^a, m. a lane, avenue, h 

u ndgaurd, m. a kind of bullock 
(of the country Nagaur). A 

^L^lj nd-gahdn, suddenly, unex- 
pectedly, p 

,J$\J ndldn, complaining, lamenting.^ 

(jiJli ndlish, f. complaint, lamenta- 
tion, p 

ic"^ ndlisM, complaining, a com- 
plainant, p 

J31) ndlk'i, f. a sort of sedan for 
princes, etc. h 

t'JU ndla, m. weeping, lamentation, p 

/Jj ndm, m. name, fame, reputation. 

/ -sr'li nd-mahram, unprivileged, ap- 
plied to such males as are not 
entitled to visit the harem, a 

Jw\j nd-mard, unmanly, a coward, p 

^_ylj nd-mardi, f. unmanliness. p 
4-*^ nd-mumkin, impossible, p a 

lj+iy*\j ndmus, m. f. honour, dignity, 
the female part of a family, a 

jli nun to, m. name. 

\j ndw, f. a ship, p 

id,ib, m. a deputy, a 
nibcdan, m. representation, 
statement, s 

cL-~3 nipat, very, exceedingly, h 

l**^" 1 najum or nuj'um, astrology, (lit., 
stars), a 

^-^sf^naj'ib, noble; naj'ib-zdda, noble- 
born, a gentleman ; naj'ib-zdd'i, 
daughter of a noble, a 

<^~i\ Jo naddmat, f. repentance, con- 
trition, regret, a 
^Ju niddn, at length, at lust. 8 

j nad'i or nadd'i, f. a river, s 
t nirds, hopeless, despair. * 
i nirtild, apart, aside. * 
jjj nir-uitar, without an answer. 
uX^Jp nazd'ik, (prep.) near; used 
idiomatically like the Latin apud, 
as ddnd,on - ke nazdik, apud 
sapientes,' 'in the opinion of the 
wise.' p 

lAj nashd, f. intoxication, a 
jJLiJ U*aj nisfd-nisfi, by halves; 
with karnd, to divide into two 
equal shares, p 

(.z^sAfOJ nasihat, f. advice, admo- 
nition ; nasihat-d. or -A., to counsel, 
instruct, reprove, a 
\j\ku nazdrd, m. sight, looking, a 

iaj nasar, f. sight; nazar-dnd or 

j .. i 

-pahunchnd, to come in sight, a 

ni'mat, f. favour, benefit, 
delight, affluence, ni'mat-kfiwdr, 
a devourer of delights, a man of 
pleasure, a ' bon vivant.' a 
*Ju nafis, precious, delicate, ex- 
quisite, a 

\j -fij nafrin, f. regret, detestation, p 
ilaj nakkdsht, f. painting; nakkdshi- 
ddr, painted, having paintings, a 
j nakd, m. ready money, a 

j naksh, m. painting, picture, 
map, portrait; naksh-i diwdr, a 
painting on a wall, a 
j nakft, m. defect, failure, a 

i nukifdn, m. loss, defect, detri- 
ment, a 

Jjjj nakl, f. a history, tale, a 

uJICi nikdlnd, a. to extract, to take 

out. s 
UKj nikalnd, n. to issue, to result, s 

o nikat, near, before, h 
u nikammd, useless, worthless. 
(JljsUo nigdJibdni, f. watching over, 

protecting, p 

j*j naga?r, m. a city, a town. 
*r* nilajj, shameless. 
jUj namdz, f. prayer, p 
j\~f+j namhddr, apparent, p 
3j JcJ nandold, m. a trough, an earthen 

vessel. * 

U:J nangd, naked, hare. A 
y nau, new, fresh ; nau-jawdn, quite 

young. ^7 

c_>ly nauwdb, a viceroy. A 
u^oy naulat, f. time, occasion, o 
jjj nur, light, a 

.iy naukar, m. servant, attendant, j? 
AJJ ,*y naum-taum, sing-song, stuff. A 
Ljjj y nava-yauland, quite young, s 
<0 wa, no, not. 

j nihdl, a young plant, a shoot, j?. 
pleased, exalted, h 
c^-ul^j nihdyat, f. the extremity; 

(ad.) very, much, excessive, a 
^^j nahin, no, not, nay. 
^-oLj niydbat, f. deputyship. a 

z^, beneath, close under. A 
-J nesh, m. sting (of a bee, etc.) p 

, good, virtuous ; nek-bakjit. 
of good disposition; nelc-andesh'i, 
good intention, p 

e, f. goodness, kindness, p 
j neh, love, affection. 

^ wa or o (conj.), and, but. a p 
\jjZ- LJ J u^}* wdpas- d. or k., a. to 

return, give back, h p 
L_--ss^j wdjib, right, proper, a 
Jjlj wdrid, arrived ; wdrid-h., to 
arrive, a 

waste, (prep.) on account of, 
for the sake of; because, a 
.\j wd,iz, m. a preacher, a 
wdki'k, verily, in truth, a 
wdkif, aware, acquainted, a 
wdld, a termination added to the 
inflected infinitive denotes the 
agent ; added to nouns it denotes 
the owner, wearer, etc. h 

wazir, a minister, counsellor; 
wazir - zdd'i, the daughter of a 
wazkr. a 

u-asila, m. means, a 
wa '2, m. a discourse, sermon, a 
wa-ghaira, et cetera, and so 
forth, a 

toasf, m. praise, encomium, 
virtue, worth, a 

bj watan, m. native country, home, 
abode, a 

:J wi'da, m. a promise, a 
M>a/a, f. performing a promise, 
sincerity, fidelity, a 

wakt, m. time, season, oppor- 
tunity, a 

7m, inflec. plur. of wwA, he, 
she, etc. A 

^jjj wonhin, that instant. A 
trwA, (pro.) he, she, that, it. A 
li>i wahdn, there, thither, yonder. A 
5>j ;aAi or trwAi, (pro.) he himself, 
that very (person or thing) A 

wuhin, immediately A 
tf e, they, those ; pi. of wuh. h 
.' ^ wit I'M, in that manner, so, like 
that, such as that. A. 

AaA, m. the hand, a cubit. 
Aa^Ai, m. an elephant. * 
hat, f. a market. A 
U hdr-mdn, despairing, helpless. 
hdh, yes, even so. A 
Ls hdndl, f. a pot. 
hd,e, alas! Jid,e-Jc. t to groan, 
sigh. A 

hdnknd, to drive away. A 
hitu, m. a friend. 
j.-js hathydr, m. a weapon, offen- 
sive armour. 

hachkold, m. jolt, jolting. A 
Aa(W{, f. a bone. 
, each, every, p 

hard, a. green, fresh, verdant. * 
harek, (pro.) every one. p A 
harchand, how much soever, 
howsoever, although, p 

har-roz (ad.) every day. p 
hargtz, (ad.) ever. 
hiran, m. a stag, a deer, s 
fc hazdr, a thousand, p 
Jb hazl, m. jest, joke, a 

*La hushydr (same as hoshydr), 
careful, p 

L-lJji Jmshydr't, f. wakefulness, 
vigilance. ^? 

iUa c^-JLa> haft-hazdri, a com- 
mander of seven thousand. /> 

haldkat, f. ruin, destruction. /> 
liXfe hildnd, a. to move, set in motion. A 
UJjs> hilnd, n. to move or be moved. A 

halkd, light, not heavy. A 
Aam, we ; plu. of main. t. 

himmat, f. mind, ardour, 
energy, a 

*A Aa#i, a particle denoting to- 
gether,' used in composition, as, 
T +&> ham-joll, a companion, p 

ham-dam, m. a friend, com- 
panion, p 

^^fc ham-rdh'i, m. a companion, 
fellow-traveller, p 
L**4JS> ham-sdya, m. neighbour, 
nighbourhood. jp 

,Ji> ham-'umr, a companion, on? 
of the same age. p 

*i> Jiam-maktdb, class-fellow.^? 
hamesha, always, ever, per- 
petually, p 
jb Hind, India. ^? 
ji> Hindu, a Hindu, one who fol- 
lows the faith of Brahma, p 
l^y Axfc Hindustan, m. India, a p 
hunar, m. art, skill, virtue; 
hunar-mand, skilful, p 
hahsna, n. to smile, a 

hangdma, m. an assembly, 
tumult, assault. ^? 

, f. wind, air. a 
Jw-jdnd, n. to become. A 
y& AosA, m. sense, consciousness, 
perception, p 

hoshydr, intelligent, attentive, 
cautious, p 

Aowd, n. to be, become, grow. 
.-& M, (an emphatic particle) even, 
indeed, very, h 

kin, even, indeed. A 
kin, void of, without, a 
jya, m. mind, sene. A 

b ya, (conj.) or, either. * 
jb yd?, f. memory, recollection, p 
jb ydr, m. a friend, lover, p 
^-jj yal'zw, m. certainty, certain, true.rt 
jjb ydwar, propitious, p 
uJo y^, one, a, an. p 
<UUj yagdna, kindred, single, incom- 
parable, p 

^^ yun or yon, thus, in this man- 
ner, k 

j-^j^j yunlivi, thus, even so. A 
^j yA, this ; he, she, etc. k 

^l^j yandn, here, used with the 
genitive (inflec.) to denote posses- 
sion, etc., as mere yahdn, in my 
possession ; apud me.' h 

l f^l yiki, this same, k 

l ~^ f i yakin, here, in this very place, k 

tf-. y e > they, these. A 





Susti-se ziydn hai. Jaldi-kd phal naddmat hat. 

Idleness-from loss is. Haste-of (the) fruit regret is. 

Kind' at drdm-ki kunj'i hai. Mihnat-se bard,i hai. 

Contentment ease-of (the) key is. Labour-from greatness is. 

Parhez achchi dawd hai. 'Akil-ko ishdra las hai. 
Abstinence good medicine is. (The) wise-to (a) hint enough is. 

KJiudd-kd khauf ddnish-ki asl hai. Gungi zalun bihtar hai 
God-of (the) fear wisdom-of the root is. Mute tongue better is 

jhuthi zdbdn se. 'Ilm-M dfat bhul hai. 

lying tongue than. Knowledge-of (the) calamity forgetfulness is. 

Insdf-se khalk-ko dram hai. 

Justice-from (the) people-to ease is. 

In the same way as the above, let the student endeavour to 
transcribe neatly into the Roman character the first two or three 
pages of the Extracts. Let him be careful to write every letter with 
its appropriate mark; and, in the course of a week or two, let him 
restore the same into the Persian character. This is one of the best 
and speediest methods of making himself familiar with the elements 
of the language. Let me not be misunderstood here, as if I recom- 
mended the bare-faced quack system of the so-called " Harniltonians." 
No, what I recommend is, that "every man should be his own 
Hamiltonian," in which case ho will be the gainer. It is utterly 
absurd to expect that a language can be learned without labour and 
thought on the part of the student. The Hamiltonians would persuade 
us that it can ; but their system is a mere deception, which flatters the 
vanity of the student with a show of progress utterly unreal, and which 
admirably conceals the ignorance and incapacity of the teacher ; heuce 
its popularity. 




THE following few notes and observations are intended to illustrate 
such parts of the Reading Lessons as may appear least obvious to a 
beginner. The figures refer to the particular page and paragraph in 
the Grammar, in which the subject is fully explained. 

JO. In this work, the final nun ^ when it has the nasal 
sound (vide page 6), is marked with an extra dot over it, as in the 
words ^^ main, and ( ^-J tain. This should have been stated in its 
proper place, but the author was not aware at the time those sheets 
were sent to press that the printer had the ^ in his fount. 

Extract 1 . Jaldi-kd phal, ' the fruit of rashness ; ' the genitive 
placed first, 95. 64. It will be observed that these sentences are 
arranged according to the rule, 93. 62, each sentence finishing with the 
verb hai, 'is.' Gu'ng'i zabdn, etc., 'a speechless tongue is better than 
a lying tongue : ' in this sentence there are two clauses ; the verb hai is 
expressed at the end of the first clause, and is consequently unnecessary 
at the end of the second. 135. a. 

Ex. 2. Thord Uidnd, ' little eating ; ' the infinitive used gubstan- 
tively, 129. a. taldb ka/r 'ilm-ko, ' seek for knowledge' : taldb karnd, a 
nominal verb, 65, last line; here the verb, contrary to the general 
usage, comes first. There are in this Extract a few more exceptions to 
the general rule as to arrangement, agreeably to what we have stated. 
93. a. 

Ex. 3. Jalne lagd, ' began to burn' senlcne lagd, l began to warm 
himself,' 131. c. thathol-ne kahd, 'a jester said,' or, 'by a jester was 
said.' -jale, 'burns,' tdpe, 'warms himself,' the aorist for the present, 
122. 1. 

Ex. 4. The sentences in this extract follow the general rule as to 
arrangement, which is, to commence with the nominative or agent, and 
end with the verb, the remainder or complement of the sentence being 
between these. bar-pa, literally, ' on foot' ziydda khardb hain, ' are 
more wicked,' the comparative degree, 71. b. 

NOTES. 43 

Ex. 5. Bahut Mm, 'many uses;' the nominative plural of 
masculine nouns of the second class (29), can be distinguished from 
the singular only by the context, such as a plural verb, etc. bajd,e, 
' in place of,' preposition requiring the genitive in ke, 98. kdm dte 
hath, 'become useful.' bandyd jdtd hat, passive voice of bandnd, 
57, 42. Vide p. 47, note to ' Extracts from the Xra,ish-i Mahal.' 

Ex. 6. Ek unt aur gadhe-se, ' between a camel and an ass.' 
safar dar pesh hu,d, lit. ' a journey came in front,' i.e., ' they both, 
had occasion to travel;' ma'lum hold hai, 'it appears; ' dub-jd,ungd, 
' I shall be drowned,' intens. verb, 64. 

Ex. 7. Jo ddnd, etc. 116. a. be kahe, ' without being told,' 132. 
ddl-rakhtd hai, 'tosses away,' intensive verb; ki jis-ke tcdste, '.on 
whose account,' 117. c. 

Ex. 8. Ek kamine aur bhale ddmi-se, ' between a base man and a 
gentleman.' hote-hi, 'on becoming,' adverbial particip. 134. e. 

Ex. 9. Ek shakhs-ne, etc., ' by a certain person it was asked of 
Plato;' respecting the use of the proposition we, read carefully, 102, 
etc. bahut barsoh, 'many years,' 106. b. kyd kyd 'ajd,ib, 'what 
various wonders,' 114. a. dekhe, 'were seen' (tu-ne, 'by thee,' 
understood). yihi 'ajuba, ' this wonder merely.' 

Ex. 10. Kyd kdm dtd hai, 'what quality is most useful?' ho- 
jdwe, ' should become.' 

Ex. 11. CJtashme-pds 'to (or near) a fountain' (ke understood), 
99. d. charh na sakd, 'he was not able to descend.' utame-se pahle, 
' previous to descending.' dekh na liyd, ' you did not thoroughly look 
at,' intensive verb. 

Ex. 12. Sher-se kahd, 'said to the tiger;' the verbs 'to say or 
speak' and ' to ask,' construed with the ablative, 102. b. agar sher 
mu.awwir hold, ' if a tiger had been the painter,' 81. a. 

Ex. 13. Kuchh sawdl kfyd, ' asked something in charity.' ek bdt 
meri, ' one request of mine.' mat mdng, ' ask not,' the negative 
particle mat, ' don't,' used with the imperat., 123. d. uske sited, 
1 with the exception of that.' 

Ex.14. Ek-ne un-men-se, 'one of them.' jd,iye and baithiye, 
respectful forms of the imperative, 123. d. 

Ex. 15. Apni anguth'i, 'thine own ring,' 112. '-ydd kamd (tujh kn 
understood), the infinitive used imperatively, like the Latin gerund, 
129. a. 

44 NOTES. 

Ex. 16. Billi d,i thi, pluperfect tense, 127. d. biejhd de, 'extin- 
guish,' intensive verb. -par 6. para, etc., 'all the time lying down, he 
continued giving answers.' 

Ex. 17. Agar main bdzi na jitun, ' if I do not win the game.' 
ser bhar gosht, ' an exact pound of flesh ; ' the ser is nearly two English 
pounds. tardsh-le, ' cut off.' us-ne na-mdnd, ' he did not (or would 
not) agree.' Jcdzi-pds (for kdzt-ke pds), ' near the judge.' elt ser-se ek 
rati ziydda, ' a single grain more than one ser. 

Ex. 18. 'Ain kil'e-ke niche, 'close under the very palace.' lutd 
gay a, 'was plundered,' passive voice. khidmat-meh, 'in the presence.' 
'arz ki, ' made representation,' ki, fern, of kiyd, agrees with 'arz, but 
'arz kiyd is also used as a nominal verb. chirdgh, etc., ' under the lamp 
is darkness,' a proverb analogous to our own saying, ' the nearer the 
church, the farther from God.' 

Ex. 19. Anjdn hokar, 'as a stranger.' kyd mujhe, etc., 'do you 
not recognize me ?' kyd, here used as a sign of interrogation, 93. b. 

Ex. 20. Us-ke ; yahdh is here understood ; mar-gay d and bdht-li 
and urd-di, all intensive verbs, 65. 44. 1. 

Ex. 21. Admiyon-ko istabal-menjdne detd, 'he allowed the people 
to go into the stable,' 131. c. -phirtd and kartd, continuative past 
tenses, 124. b. a/pnd kdm kar-liyd, 'gained his own object.' 

Ex. 22. Amde rdh-men, 'in the midst of the way.' chirdgh. 
ghar-kd, etc., ' I did not put out the lamp of the house before I came 
away,' literally, 'I have not come (after) having put out,' etc. d,e ga,e, 
' you have come and gone.' -jutd na ghisd hogd, ' must not your shoes 
have been worn ? ' 

Ex. 23. Is tcakt, 'at present;' ko, understood, 100. a. honge and 
na-tleh, etc., the plural used out of respect, 118. 78. -jo unhoh-ne, etc., 
even should his worship have given the medicine.' bdndM-karegd, 
frequentative verb, 66. III. 1. marnd bar hakk hai, 'death is certain.' 

Ex. 24. Tabdh hokar, 'being in distress.' parhdne, 'to make read,' 
'to teach;' casual form of parhnd, 62. 43. lete lete hi, 'even when 
lying down;' the repetition of the conjunctive participle denotes a 
continuation of the state, or repetition of the action, denoted by the 
verb. be hath pdhw-ke hilde, ' without the moving of his hands and 
feet.' hildyd, the preterite participle, used as a substantive. 

NOTES. 45 

Ex. 25. Sab-ko hawdle ki ' he gave into the charge of each.' 
kdt-ddli, 'cut off;' the intensive of kdtnd. 

Ex. 26. Donoh kdzi-ke pds aa,m, aw insdf chdhd, 104. d. ek ek 
'one to each/ 106, c. larke-ko use supurd kiyd, 101, o. 

Ex.27. Chha roti-se, 'with six loaves;' the termination on 
denoting the plural omitted, 107. 70. wuh ddl-dene-meh ddkhil hoi, 
' that amounts to throwing it away.' 

Ex. 28. 'Arz kiyd, (a nominal verb), ' he represented ; ' 'arz ki is 
also used in the same sense, vide Ex. 19. dar-khwdst karnd, ' to make 
request.' do sawdl be/d (properly do sawdl-i-bejd}, 'two improper 

Ex. 29. Likhni tMn, ' were to be written,' 83. dam khd rahd, an 
idiomatic expression, denoting, ' he remained quite silent,' lit., ' con- 
tinued devouring his breath.' 

Ex. 30. Dekhne-wdle, 'the spectators,' 66. ddsre-ke ahar (ko 
understood), ' to the house of the other.' samjhd, etc., ' he perceived 
that it was not a screen.' -fareb khdyd, ' were deceived,' lit., ' experi- 
enced deception.' 

Ex. 31. Sikhne-kd, etc., 'why then mention the learning of it?' 
itne-men, 'in the meantime.' bar bad ki, 'have cast away,' lit., 'placed 
upon the wind.' 

Ex. 32. Dushndm di thi, pluperfect tense, 127. d. dth dth dne, 
etc., ' you share between you, each eight dnds ; ' observe that sixteen 
dnds make a rupt. 

Ex. 33. Gardan mdrnd, 'to decapitate.' mere ru-la-ru, 'in my 
presence.' marddna-wdr, ' like a man or hero.' terd lard kahja hat, 
' thou hast great courage.' -jawdn-mardi, 'heroism' or 'courage.' 
dar-guzrd, ' he passed over (or passed by) his fault.' 

Ex. 34. Ek lard sakhf, ' a very generous man,' 107. b. 

Ex. 35. Jhabar karnd, the infinitive used as an imperative. 

Ex. 36. Karte hue, vide 131, 84. icdjil-tar, Persian comparative, 
by adding tar to the positive. 

Ex. 37. Bdithd diyd, intensive of baithdnd. bara, in the last line 
means ' greater,' ' more important.' 

Ex. 38. Bard mom-dil, 'very soft-hearted.' 1' miydn-ki, 'of this 
reverend gentleman ; ' plural used out of respect. apnd is her. 
for merd, 113. o. 

46 NOTES. 

Ex. 39. Kiichh gol gol sd, ' something quite round.' 

Ex. 40. Subh hote M, ' immediately it was dawn of day.' kaun si 
jins, ' what sort of commodity.' itm ddnd,i par, ' notwithstanding 
so much wisdom. yihifakat, ' this only and no more. main bdz dyd, 
etc., ' I will have nothing to do with such wisdom ; ' past used for 
the future, 126, a. 

Ex. 41. Jo wuh her mile, 'if that (lost) sheep should be found.' 
khudd-ki rdh-par, ' in charity,' ' pour 1' amour de Dieu.' khudd-ki 
kasam (khdtd hun) ' I swear by God.' 

Ex. 42. Adm'i-ke, etc., ' taller than a man's stature.' khatt 
pahunchne tak, etc., 'by (the time of) the letter's arrival, the (wheat) 
season had expired.' i'tibdr kijdwe, ' can be credited.' 

Ex, 43. Jfahmud of Ghazni died, A.D. 1030. Ayya.% was one of 
his favourite slaves. Mahmud is famous both for his patronage of 
learned men, and for his success as a warrior. He made several in- 
cursions into India, in the last of which, A.D. 1026, he is supposed to 
have carried away in triumph the gates of Somnath, of which we heard 
so much some years ago. Jauhar-kjidne men, ' into the jewel-house or 

Ex. 44. Jude jude makdnoh-men, ' in places quite apart,' or ' each 
in a separate place. saldmat, ' in safety.' 

Ex. 45. Sudaul, ' well-shaped,' ' elegant.' lad kho-wdle-ke, ' of 
the man of a bad disposition.' -jo jaisd, etc., 'whatever sort (of seed) a 
man may sow, the same will he reap.' 

Ex. 46. Kasam khd,i, ' swore an oath.' imdnddr, ' faithful' or 
honest.' rutba,e a' Id, 'very high rank.' is bahdne-se, 'by this 

Ex. 47. Nau-jawdn, ' quite young : ' the same phrase occurs in 
the Devanagari Extracts under the Sanskrit form, nava-yauvand. dor 
kar, ' though late.' 

Ex. 48. Likhd hud, ' written : ' the participle with hud, agreeably 
to 131. likhd hai; here the agent kisi-ne is understood. 

Ex. 49. SaWian, ' by way of advice.' IdtkahteM, 'immediately.' 
us-ke kahne ba-mujib, ' in conformity with what he said.' 

Ex. 50. Diydnat-ddr, ' conscientious.' -jis wakt, ' when,' or ' at 
the time when. hdsil-i-kaldm, ' in short.' 

NOTKS. 47 


(From page To to page fV). 

These Extracts are selected as a specimen of genuine Urdu, the dialect 
spoken by the educated classes of the Musalman population throughout 
India. The style is exceedingly easy and elegant, and presents no 
difficulty to those who have acquired an elementary knowledge of 
Persian. Before the student commences with these, he is requested 
to read with care from page 88 to page 100 of the Grammar, which 
portion treats of Persian compounds, etc. I may here add (what 
I am afraid has been omitted in its proper place in the Grammar) 
viz., that " in phrases from the Persian, the adjective follows the sub- 
stantive, and the substantive is in that case marked with the izdjat, as 
if it governed another substantive in the genitive." Thus mard-i pdrsd, 
'a pious man;' mard-i nek, 'a good man.' The reader will see in 
page 90, b. of the Grammar that when, in a Persian phrase, the 
adjective comes before the substantive, the two together form a com- 
pound epithet, as, tang-dil, ' distressed in heart : ' whereas ' a distressed 
heart' would be written ' dil-i tang. 1 


(Page TV). 

This extract from the ' Ara,ish-i Mahfil' was for the first time cor- 
rectly printed in the first edition of this work. In the Calcutta edition, 
the printers misplaced the letter-press of two pages, so that, while the 
paging appeared perfect, the text made nonsense. Several years ago I 
discovered this when endeavouring to make sense of the passage as it 
has all along stood in Mr. Shakespear's ' Selections,' vol. i. p. 105. 
Mr. S. has endeavoured to cement the matter by throwing in a few 
connecting words of his own, which are certainly no improvement. A 
conscientious critic would have stated the fact of such an amendment, 
so that the original author might not incur blame for the sins of the 
Bengal printers, or of the English editor. I am glad to find that Mr. 
Shakespear in his more recent edition has adopted my amendment 
(without any acknowledgment, however), as preferable to his own. 

The subject of the extract is a description of a kind of chariot 
drawn by bullocks common in the province of Gujerat, more especially 
in the city of Ahmadubad. An account of the same, accompanied by a 
beautiful engraving, will be found in the travels of Albert Mandelslo, 

48 NOTES. 

who visited the spot in the reign of Shah Jahan. The edition of his 
travels to which I allude is the folio, printed at Leyden, 1719, page 74. 
In pages 21 and 22, of the same work there is an engraving of the 
Great Indian Tig-tree, commonly called the Banyan Tree, alluded to 
in our 5th Extract, page f It is the same as that mentioned by Quintus 
Curtius, Lib. ix. cap. i. " Having thus vanquished Porus and crossed 
the river (Acesines), he marched further into the country. There he 
found forests of vast extent, in which were shady trees of prodigious 
height. Most of their branches (or arms) equalled in size the trunks 
of ordinary trees ; for, bending down into the earth, they grew up 
again in the same place, and appeared rather like separate trees, than 
boughs springing from another stem." 

THE first seven anecdotes in the Devanagari character correspond 
respectively with stories 3, 8, 10, 6, 18, 16, and 23, in the 
Persian character. They are the same word for word, and, conse- 
quently, require no further notice here. Nos. 8, 9, and 10, in the 
Devanagari, correspond respectively with Nos. 29, 38, and 39, in the 
Persian character ; with this difference, however, that in the Devanagari 
text, Arabic and Persian words are carefully excluded, and their places 
supplied with words purely Indian : and this exclusion of Arabic and 
Persian words, constitutes the main difference between the dialect of 
the Hindus, commonly called 'Hindi,' or ' Ehwi Bolk' and that 
of the Musalmans, generally called ' Hindustani,' ' Urdu,' or 
' Zabdn-i Rekhta.' The style throughout is exceedingly easy, and 
there is only one peculiarity in the orthography to which it may be 
requisite to draw the student's attention in this place, viz., that in the 
Devanagarf character the letter ^J (y) is sounded like the vowel T (e) 
when following any of the long vowels ^f d, or ^f o: thus 
WT^I ju> e > f^JT^T risd,e, ^ffaSJ ho,e, etc., instead of "SfTTJ e * c - 
I may mention, in conclusion, that in the last seven pages or so of 
these extracts, the symbol called the virdma is purposely discontinued, 
as the j'azm is in the selections from the 'Khirad Afroz.' The student 
should always bear in mind that he must ultimately qualify himself 
to read correctly books and manuscripts utterly void of vowel-points 
and all other orthographical symbols, such as the jazm, the tashdid, the 
virdma, etc. 



IT has been suggested to me that a more detailed explanation of the 
following fourteen engraved plates in the Ta'lik character would be 
very desirable for beginners. I have discussed the subject rather briefly 
in page 143, etc. ; and now, at the risk of a few repetitions, I deem it 
advisable to enter upon it again more fully, by giving a literal transcript 
of each plate in the Eoman character, together with a few additional 
explanatory notes and observations. 



Drv. 1. a, b, j, d, z, r, z, *, sh, z, t, ^, /, k, k, It, I, m, n, w, h, 

hhhs, Id, y, y. 
2. Id, bt, bh, bd, br, bs, bsh, b*, bt, b^, bf, bk, lie, bl, bm, 

In, bw, bs, bhs, bid, by, by. 

3.jd, jt, jh, jd, hr, hr, js, jsh, hz, ht, h^, jf, jk, jk, jl, hm, hn, 
hu>, js, jhs, jld, hy, jy. 

DIVISION 1. The first division of this Plate shows the mere elements 
of the td!l\k alphabet; the small cross mark indicates the spot where 
the pen starts from in the formation of the letter, and a double cross 
denotes an additional formation. The first elementary form on the 
right hand is the alif, which differs very little from the printed 
character. The second form is the letter be (V), which by a mere 
change of its dots may become p, t, /. The third form, now ajim (f), 

becomes, in the same manner, ch, kh, h. The fourth makes two letters, 



d and 2. The fifth, r, z, zh, and r. 'The sixth is represented as con- 
sisting of two forms one an indented, the other a protracted line, and 
either may be used as sin and shin (s and sh\ as the only distinction 
between them is, that the sin (s) wants, and the shin (sh] has, three 
dots superscribed, whether short or protracted. The seventh form, 
sad and zdd. The eighth, t, z. The ninth, 'ain airl yhain. The 
next letters are/, k, Tc, I, m, n, w, and h, which are nearly the same as 
the printed type. Then follow the initial, medial, and final forms of 
the he linked together ; then the Id and hamza ; and lastly, the letter ye 
under two varieties of form, the latter of which is now conventionally 
used by the natives to denote the yd,e majhiil. 

a. The ddl may at first sight appear to resemble the w ; the dis- 
tinction consists in this, that the ddl has an angular top, whereas the 
w has it round. 

b. As the letters 'ain and the imperceptible he have no exact repre- 
sentatives in the Eoman character, they have been allowed to stand in 
the transcript of the plates in their proper form. 

c. The fe and last form of yd are written above the line to show 
the mode they adopt where there are more words than the line will 

d. The bottom of the Mf may be protracted, as in the second 
example, to fill up the line, a liberty frequently taken with letters by 
the Oriental penman. This letter is formed by two sweeps of the pen, 
the first commencing from the top of the vertical line at the angle 
(marked in the plate with a single cross) ; the slanting top is put on 
afterwards. In old NasWi MSS. the slanting top is never used, but 
instead thereof the mark =, is written over the letter. 

e. The yd (y] has two forms in the Plate. The former was appro- 
priated by Dr. Gilchrist for the sound I, the latter for the e (or yd,e 
majhul], a distinction still observed by the natives of India in writing 


DIVISION 2 exhibits the second elementary form, viz., that of b, p, 
t, t, n, and y, as they appear initially, when combined with each of the 
others following them. Here are given all the combinations of the letter 
be, with each of the elementary forms of division first. It will be seen 
that many of the nuktat, or dots, are omitted ; as, for example, those 
necessary to form Is, bt, b^, b/, bm, bn, bh, by, and without them the 
linear portion of the be, in these compounds, has no meaning. It may, 
of course, become b, p, t, s , n, or y, ad libitum, by the addition (above 
or below it) of one, two, or three dots. 

DIVISION 3 shows the initial form of the j, ch, h, and M, prefixed 
to each of the elements in their order. Here a similar irregularity of 
punctuation occurs, but as the form _ constitutes a perfect letter in 
itself, without any dots, it is transcribed into the Eoman character by 
h. It may be observed once for all, that the object of these Plates is 
to exhibit the combinations of all letters of a certain form, independent 
of the adventitious dots which each form may necessarily require. 

Div. 4. sd, at, sj, shd, sr, ss, aha, az, at, a^, sf, 8, *H - , si, am, sn, 

ahw, as, a,hs, aid, sy, sy. 
5. sd, st, sj, sd, sr, as, ssh, sz, at, s^, sf, sk, sk, zl, sm, f, 

zw, a, 25, z/d, sy, ay. 

6. id, it, tj, td, tr, is, tab, tz, tt, U, tf, tk, tk, zl, tm, zn, 
tto, tt, zn, tld, ty, ty. 

DIVISION 4 represents the sin or shin in combination with the rest 
of the letters. It is needless to observe that the letters olif, ddl, re, 
and tcaw, never join to the left consequently they have no distinct 
initial form. 

DIVISIONS 5 and 6 show the sdd and tu,e followed by each of the 
elementary forms. 



Div. 7.^, ^j, c4 ^r, *, fsh, ess, t $, tfc? c/, ^A. ^, J, ^, 

cw, ;, ^, jM t /a, c_y, cy. 
8. /d, A fj, fd, fr, fr, fs, fsh, fa, ft, f t , ff, fk, fk, /, fm, fn, 

fw, fs, fhs, fid, fy, fy. 

9. kd, kt, kj, kd, kr, ks, ksh, kz, kt, k^, kf, kk, kk, kl, km, kn, 
kw, ks, kh*, kid, ly, Icy. 

PLATE III. shows the letters 'ain, fe, and kdf in combination with 
all the rest ; and, with the exception of Id, the initial form of the lam 
is found by omitting the bent top stroke of the letter kdf. 

DIVISION 8. The dots of the fe are again omitted in fd, fd, fr 
(2nd), fs, fz, ft, /_, etc., leaving the letter imperfect. It may become 
Idf, by superscribing two dots. 

DIVISION 9. The formation of the kd (made by two sweeps of the 
pen) commences from where the four lines meet ; the pen stops at the 
top of the alif, made upwards, and then forms the slanting top. Kla 
is made by three strokes of the pen, the alif, made downwards, being 
the second, the slanting top of the kdf the third. 


Div. 10. md, mt, mj, md, mr, ms, msh, mz, mt, m^, mf, mk, mk, 

ml, mm, mn, mw, mh, mhs, mid, my, my. 
11. hd, ht, Jij, hd, Jir, hr, hs, hsh, hz, Jit, h^, hf, hk, hk, hi, 

Jim, Jin, hta, hh, hhhhhs, hid, hy, hy. 
12. aljd, Jiwz, Jdy, klmn, s^fs, krsJit, skhz, zzgh, Id. 

al^bd, almznb, alfkyr, tbyd, allh hsyny sJiyryn rkm glifr znwlh. 

DIVISION 11. The tail of the he is given only in hd, hd, hk, hi, and 
hid, but omitted in all the rest, according to the practice of Oriental 
writers. Hence the initial form of this letter is often toe apt to be 
mistaken for the mim (m\ 


DIVISION 12 contains the combination of the characters as arranged 
in alphabetical notation, noticed in p. 20 of the Grammar, forming the 
fanciful words, ' Abjad, hawai, hutti, kaliman, sa'fas, karatJuit, sakhaz, 
zazagji ; and the last line may be read thus, indicating the name of the 
chirographer : AV abd ul muznib, al fakir 'ubaidu-l-ldhi husaini shirin 
rakm ghflffara &unubahu. 


Consists of words beginning with letters of the be class ; i.e., b, p t t, , in which 
might be included n and y. 

L. 1. Ikht, bhjt, bhsht, pnj, llkh, bind. 

2. b^yd, bstr, pygjrmlr, llghys, bMshsh, bgfcz. 

3. byz, bsyt, by^, bkbk, pink, bkhyl. 

4. blffhtn, by km, bin, byn, bychw, byzt, bnkls, lysJiky. 

5. t jb, tsbyh, tklyd, tlmyz, tksyr, tksyr. 

6. tfyr, tj'ss, tftysh, tkhsys, tkhlys, fait. 

7. tjm, tsnyf, tkhfyf, thkyk, tmsk, t^jyl. 

8. tfzl, tksym, tmkyn, tlkyn, tnbw, thnt, iky, 

PLATE V. Coming now to complete words of more than two con- 
sonants; we may premise, as a general remark, that when these contain 
any of the letters I, p, t, s, n, y, consisting of a horizontal or sloping 
line, with one or more dots, for each letter there should be an incurva- 
tion in the continued running line, and at least two bends for the short 
indented sin or shin. "When several such letters come together, for the 
saxe of distinction it is usual to give the middle one a bold dash 
upwards, terminating in a sharp point vertically. 

L. 1. The n of bind is protracted to fill up the line, according to 
custom. The pink of line 9, bykm of line 4, with a dash on kaf, here 
wanting, are intended for palang, ' a tiger,' and legam, ' a princess,' 
this being a very usual omission, especially where the word cannot be 
mistaken. In some works, indeed, the kdf is never distinguished from 
the gdf, neither is b from p, nor jim from che. 



Contains a list of words commencing with letters of the third form, yiz.y, ch, h or kh 

L. 1. jnt, hshmt, Jikmt, hkykt, kMkt, kJislt. 

2. jlyj, jtd, hmyd, hmd, khld, j%fr, Jikyr, hshr. 

3. kjrniyr, khnjr, khnzr, jlys, his, jhyz, jit. 

4. Hdt, hfz, jmy^, jyf, bhfyf, jlgTc, 1ML 

5. chychk, TJishk, jlyl, jmyl, jnkl, hnzL 

6. jhnm, hlym, hkm hkym, khshm, jbyn, j'stn, 

7. Jisn, khftn, jlw, hzw, chmchx, khlyf*, klkx. 

8. fa*, hknh, khymX, khtnx,jlly, hkyky, khsmy. 


Consisting of words beginning with sin or skin. 

L. 1. s>jl, sib, snj, slh stji sfyd. 

2. stir, slys, sylsh, sifs, skyt, sm^. 

3. skf, syf, slk, slk, sjn/l. 

4. smsm, shm, shkyn, shtc, sfyn*, ssty. 

5. shkst, flif/ct, shi/kh, shhyd, shyr, shmshyr, sJims. 

6. shsh, shkhx, shmyt, shm%j shnyt, sh^f, sTifyk. 

7. sJilk, slikyl, sJikl, shlghm, sJikm, shbnm, shkstn. 

8. shstn, shfw, shknjx, shysha, shkyto, shky, shkftgy. 


Words beginning with sad, zdd, to,e or ta,e. 
L. 1. s%l, slyl, shit, shyh, slh, syd. 

2. smd, sghyr, sfyr, smgh, s^yf, skyk. 

3. smkyk, sykl, smym, sJin, s^w, shyf*, sylby. 

4. fib, tbyb, tby<.t, tykh, tpyd. 

5. h/r, tnz, tshysh, tm^, tbt, tfyf. 

6. tlk, tlyk, ink, tfi, tlyl, tlsm. 

7. thw, tlkchs, tntns, Uns, tlty, tlty. 



Words beginning with ', yhain, ft or kdf. 

L. 1. {jyb, tJlt, ^iimt, yt/j, t hd, ^yd, ^tr. 
2. ^nbr, 88, ^ks, ^sh^sh, ^tsh, *y, *# 

4. {II, ^ml, t lm, t zym 

5. fyyM, fyylt, fsyji, fth, f*d, fjr. 

6. fkr, fls, fysh, fyz, fty^, fyf. 

7. fa fib, fy?l, fyl, f t l 

8. fhm, ftn, ftw, fshfw, ftyls, flsfy. 


Words beginning with kdf, gdf or lum, 

L. 1. ksb, Mb, faht, Tcyfyt, knj, Tclknd, knbz, Jcmtr. 

2. kshnyz, khms, fohf, ksys, ksJit, ktk^, ksyf, ktf. 

3. klk, kink, knk, kmk, khjslik, khl, klym. 

4. kmyn, kfn, kshtn, kftn, kysw, kfchx, knjfs. 

5. ky&x, kirns, klktx, khtx, kshty, kmy, kyty, kyfy. 

6. Ikl, l^nt, Iflj, Ikd, Inkr, Ishkr. 

7. Ims, Ifs, lykhsJi, Ihys, Ight. 

8. lkyt t Im^, Uyf, Iklk, Ink, Ihm. 

9. Ibn, lykn, Ihw, lhy&, IkmX, Ihy, lyly. 


Words beginning with mhn. 
L. 1. msbb, mtlb, mn*f, mktl, mhtsb. 

2. mty'b, mtyl, mslht, mhlt, msJit. 

3. mmlkt, mkjint, msUj mbthj, mth, mykh. 

4. mlkh, mtlkh, mJimd, tnsj'd, m^tkd, m-Jmd. 

5. mnj'md, tnfsd, mst^d, mtfkr, m^Jr, z/r. 

6. mntshr, tnkhtsr, m^skr, mnzr, m^tbr. 

7. m^sfr, m^jr, mnjz, mks, tnjls. 

8. mjls, mnsh, rnkjils, mshkh?, mngfa. 



Words beginning with mim continued. 
L. 1. mnkbz, mhyt, mmtn^, mty^, mjm 

2. me(fh, mllgh, mljhtlf, msnf, mtfk. 

3. mt^lk, mnjnyk, mshk, mlk, mmsk. 

4. mshk, mhml, mfsl, myl, mshtghl. 

5. mkhml, ni^tl, mt^lm, mtTdm, mnjm, mkym. 

6. msthkm, mslm, mtmkn, msmn, mt^yn. 

7. mtzmn, mmkn, mhw, mhkma, mnikx, msh^fh 
3. nistky, mfty, mnshy, mgliny, mkhfy, mtky. 


"Words beginning with niat. 
L. 1. nsb, nsyl), njyl, nshyb, nkb. 

2. n^mt, nsyht, nkht, nyst, nsj. 

3. nbj, nkd, nshr, nyshlcr, nzr. 

4. nlihs, nfys, nfs, nysh, n^sh. 

5. nhh, ngkt, nmtj nf^, nsf, ntjk. 

6. nhnk, nd, nkl, nsym, nylm, nJcyn. 

7. nmTcyn, nhftn, nshstn, nhw, nfkx, 

8. nhfts, nfz, nfshs, nfy, nhy, nysty. 


Words beginning with he and ye. 
L. 1. hmt, hylt, lift, hsht, hnkft. 

2. Jiych, hnd, hjr, hmnfs, hshysh, Jilt. 

3. hmy^, hlf, JiyTc, hshnk, hkhk, hylcl. 

4. hmm, Jiftm, hmsn, Jijw, hlyh, hsty. 

5. yl^l, yfth, y^td, ysyr, yhr. 

6. ylnfs, ytfz, ylm^, ylJc, ylk. 

7. yynl, ysJim, ylcyn, ymyn, ymn. 

8. yksw, ykhcJit, ymnx, yky, ykjhty 

PI. I. 



, - 



I- 1 V 



/ * * * * ** 

* ** 






. Sc. 

*J" j& J?/ 



(f ^ ^ fr t; 
'~j& ^j( 

F^ P 

U L/" 






o cfcT 

* * 




I'l Mil 


. Sc 


J^ 1 & 

LT- * 

, r r 




> * 

J- -- 




Forbes, Duncan 

A grammar of the 
Hindustani language