(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A grammar of the Old Friesic language"
















.-5ME-UNIV 



THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 






.jQF-CAIIFOff.i 



r Cf: D 



'-" v \ - if 

^ M , FZ -z._ 



' 




ARYtf/- 
' 



1 I 



-^ ^ W a 

c* | > S * 




r^- DC 




~ I ft 

^ 5U 




A GEAMMAE 



OLD FEIESIC LANGUAGE. 



A GRAMMAR 



ADLEY H. CUMMINS. A.M. 



" Felix ea #ens pne reliquis Germanise populis, quod antiquus sedos 
lion solum felici Marte tuita est, sed et fines ferro louge lateque protulit, 
et vetus ac iiobile iiomen in hodiernum diem retinuit. " 

HEIXEOCII ANTIQ. GERM., L. i. c. 2, sec. 29. 



WITH READING-BOOK, GLOSSARY, Ere. 



LONDON: 
T II H 15 N E li & CO., L U I) G A T E H I L L. 

1887. 

[All riijhts reserved.} 



*A1 I ANTYNK, HANSON AND CO. 
fcUJMlCKiiJI AND l.UNUUN 



College 
Library 

?F 



TO 

HYDE CLARKE, D.C.L., F.S.S., 

AS A 

TRIBUTE OF RESPECT AND ESTEEM. 



1052754 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN the year 13 B.C. Drusus, the Roman general, afterwards 
surnamed Germanicus, found a tribe of Germans called by 
themselves Fresar, and by the Romans Frisii, dwelling on the 
north-west coast of Germany, between the mouth of the Rhine 
and of the Ems, together with the Batavi, Bracteri, and 
Chauci, and not far removed from their more northern 
brethren, the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. 

We find references made to them by Pliny, Tacitus, and 
Ptolemy, all placing them virtually in the same position. 
They came into collision with Drusus and experienced a ter- 
rible defeat, but in 28 A.D. retaliated upon the Romans, by 
rising in rebellion against them. They were, however, soon 
again brought into subjection, and yet shortly thereafter began 
to expand their borders, absorbing the Chauci, occupying the 
lands to the southward as fast as vacated by the Franks, and 
spreading along the shore of the German Ocean to Jutland, 
where they were known as Strand Frisians. We soon lose 
sight of them as connected with the Roman Empire, and in 
the fifth and sixth centuries the Germanic flood swept away 
all traces of the Imperial dominion over them. 

The Frisians did not as a body accompany the other mem- 
bers of the common Gothic stock to Great Britain, but there 
are scattering evidences to show that many adventurers of 
that tribe did find a home in those western islands, and copious 
references are made to their achievements in the ancient naval 
annals of the islands, as well as in those of the North of 
Europe in general, but especially in the charming Neder- 
landsche Legenden of Van Lennep, one of the most gifted 
poets of Holland. 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

It is said in old Dutch of the redoubtable Hengist him- 
self: 

" Een hiet Engistus, een Vriese, een Sas, 
Die ute Land verdreven was." 

" There was Hengist, a Frisian or a Saxon, 
Who was driven from his land." 

Hengist and Horsa are both Frisian names, whether their 
possessors were myths or not. 

Mr. Halbertsma, that indefatigable explorer of Frisian an- 
tiquities, has said that the inhabitants of the east of England, 
where its Germanic invaders landed, and especially of Kent, 
Sussex, and Hampshire, vividly recalled to him the Frisians 
in speech and general characteristics. There are various spots 
in England where there are traces of the Frisians of ancient 
and modern times ; for example, Halifax, to which many 
excellent weavers, with whom Friesland formerly abounded, 
migrated ; in whose homely verse is the following saying 

" Gooid braide, hotter, and sheese 
Is gooid Halifax and gooid Friese." 

England must have presented many attractions to the 
ancient members of the Low German stock, if it be true, as 
stated in Procopius, iv. 20, that "their souls departed through 
Helder (Hel, hell, Dor, door porta inferorum) to England, 
the nebulous abode of disembodied spirits." The same his- 
torian, De bello Gothico, lib. iv. c. 19, names the Frisians as 
one of the nations that settled Britain : 

""Ayy/Xo/ rs xoii 4>*!<ieovsz xvi} 01 <rr\ njrfw o/j.<av6/J,ot Bi/rrovs;." 

In the seventh and eighth centuries the Frisian dominions 
were the most extensive, and during those centuries they 
came in contact with the Frankish power. In 692 Radbod, 
their chief, was defeated by Pepin de He"ristal. These were 
the Frisii Majores, or West Frisians, and they were compelled 
to embrace Christianity. Poppo, the chief of the East 
Frisians, was defeated in 750 by Charles Martel, who sent to 
them as apostles St. Boniface and Willibrod. The latter 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

became the Bishop of Utrecht, the former of Mayence, then 
upon the death of Willibrod, Bishop of Utrecht. 

In 785 they were finally subdued by Charlemagne, who 
gave to them a code of laws, in Latin termed the Lex Fri- 
sonum. In connection with their laws it may be stated that 
the feudal system was never erected in Friesland. 

For some time after 785 the country was under the control 
of the Franks, and in 843 Frisia was divided into three parts, 
Lewis the German receiving East and Central Frisia, and 
Charles the Bald the West. 

Shortly after its subjection by the Franks, Frisia was over- 
run by the Normans, until A.D. 1024. After their departure 
the country was parcelled out among several petty princes 
and powers, and has so remained until modern times ; but 
among this people there has always existed that intense love 
of liberty which has caused its attribute or epithet of " Free " 
to be its greatest glory, so that after all these centuries the 
alliteration Free Frisians inevitably presents itself to the mind 
of the scholar who thinks of the race ; and not the least of its 
glories is the fact that under the leadership of that majestic 
figure, William the Silent, wherever a blow was struck for 
hearth or home against the overshadowing despotisms of the 
south, there in the forefront of the battle were to be found 
these " wild beggars of the sea," as they were termed by the 
malignity of their foes. 

Old Friesic literature consists almost exclusively of law 
books, each district having its own. There are a few other 
fragments found among the laws the Creation of Man, the 
ten commandments, a legal riddle, the awful signs and 
wonders that shall usher in the day of judgment, a sort of 
scriptural genealogy, and lists of the Eoman emperors, and of 
the bishops who ruled Frisia in early days. 

They have been printed in full by Eichthofen and Hettema in 
various works. Their laws extend from the twelfth century to 
a date late in the fifteenth, and consist of the following : the 
laws of the Eiistringer, those of theBrocmen,the Emsiger Eecht, 
the laws of Fivelgo, Hunsingo, Humsterland, West Lauwers, 
Ostergo, Westergo, Sevenwold, Drenthe, and North Friesland. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

These laws possess the same peculiarities as those common 
to the other ancient Germans. Crimes were punished by 
fines and mulcts, and the guilt of the accused ascertained by 
the ordeal, while innocence was vindicated by the oaths of 
compurgators and by the other devices of a rude age. 

There is also an ecclesiastical code, with numerous pro- 
visions for fasts, regarding priests, other spiritual authorities, 
and the sanctity of churches. 

The language is one of the Low German family, very similar 
to Anglo-Saxon. It is indeed stated that the missionaries 
sent to the Frisians who were Anglo-Saxons immediately 
upon their arrival in those regions commenced active labour 
among the people, preaching and exhorting, and experiencing 
no difficulty in making themselves understood by their 
hearers, such was the close agreement of their respective 
forms of speech. It is peculiar in this, that up to compara- 
tively modern times, it retained its archaic purity, so that 
while other members of the common stock were undergoing 
a change into their middle and modern aspects, it was still 
spoken in uncorrupted form in its primitive home. Thus 
about the time of Chaucer might perhaps be placed its most 
flourishing period. 

Frisia proper, according to Halbertsma, is a district sur- 
rounded by the Zuyder Zee on the north-west and south, 
almost forming a peninsula. Here was the original seat of 
the Frisians, and here is their modern home. Friesland is 
divided at present into the provinces of East and West Fries- 
land, embraced respectively in Hanover and Holland. The 
Country Friesic, North Friesic, Saterlandic, Schiermonni- 
koogian, and Hindelopian have remained until these times as 
spoken dialects. The language is spoken, too, on the islands 
of Fb'hr, Sylt, Amrum, Wangerog, and Heligoland. 

" The Frisian which is spoken on a small area on the north- 
western coast of Germany, between the Scheldt and Jutland, 
and on the islands near the shore, which has been spoken 
there for at least two thousand years, and which possesses 
literary documents as old as the twelfth century, is broken 
up into endless local dialects. I quote from Kohl's ' Travels : ' 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

' The commonest things/ he writes, ' which are named almost 
alike all over Europe receive quite different names in the 
different Frisian islands. Thus in Amrum father is called 
aatj; on the Halligs, baba or babe; in Sylt, foder or vaar ; in 
many districts on the mainland, tdte; in the eastern part of 
Fohr, oti or ohitj. Although these people live within a couple 
of German miles from each other, these words differ more 
than the Italian padre and the English father. Even the 
names of their districts and islands are totally different in 
different dialects. The island of Sylt is called Sol, Sol, and 
Sal.' Each of these dialects, though it might be made out by 
a Frisian scholar, is unintelligible except to the peasants of 
each narrow district in which it prevails. 

" What is therefore generally called the Frisian language, 
and described as such in Frisian grammars, is in reality but 
one out of many dialects, though, no doubt, the most im- 
portant." * 

A volume of poems in Country Friesic was published by 
Gysbert Japicx about 1650, denominated Friesche Mymlerye, 
and one or two minor works and a few unimportant specimens 
of the modern dialects have from time to time been printed, 
especially in grammars and handbooks of the various dialects, 
to illustrate the folk-speech. 

The body of laws which has come down to us from the 
classical period of the speech is naturally looked upon as a 
monument of inestimable worth. This brings us to regard 
a matter which cannot be passed over without a brief remark. 
It might easily be conjectured that the discovery of any more 
old Friesic texts would be warmly and eagerly welcomed by 
philologists and others. In 1872 a work entitled Thet Oera 
Linda Bok, purporting to be written in more ancient Friesic 
than any theretofore known, was published in Holland, for 
another person, by Dr. Ottema a work which has deceived 
some of the most eminent Frisian scholars. Its contents can 
hardly be summed up in brief, for they set history, chronology, 
mythology, and almost conjecture itself at defiance. It pro- 
fesses to give the history of the race for 3000 or 4000 years, 

* Max Miiller, Lectures on the Science of Language, ist Series, p. 59. 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

laying down a system of theology, laws, &c., and may well 
in every sense be termed a " Wonderboek " by the learned 
doctors of Holland. 

It is, upon thorough examination, found to be a hodge- 
podge, a mengelmoes of ancient Friesic, modern Friesic, and 
modern Dutch, and it is not free from great errors in 
grammar just such mistakes, in fact, as its alleged author 
was wont to make in writing his mother-tongue. From all 
the facts adduced by its critics there is no reason to doubt 
that they have conclusively demonstrated it to be the work of 
Cornells Over de Linden (who died a few years ago), Superin- 
tendent of the Royal Dockyard at the Helder, in the Nether- 
lands, who undertook and performed the prodigious task 
the work of many years of writing in uncials, in a dead and 
obsolete language, a lengthy volume for the glorification of 
his own family and of his presumptive race. Thus did this 
singular man to use an inelegant phrase in vogue in Holland 
" take the learned world by the nose and lead it around the 
yard." 

It has been deemed advisable to add to this second edition 
a short Reading Book with glossary, and examples of the 
Modern Friesic dialects, as well as a few extracts from the 
Oera Linda BoJc, which, with the extensive additions and 
improvements, especially in the attempt to illuminate the 
ancient speech by means of the modern dialects, it is hoped 
will confer greatly increased usefulness upon this manual. 

It would not be within the bounds of reason to hope that 
the Grammar should be found entirely free from errors or in- 
accuracies, prepared, as it has been, amidst the distracting 
activities of the life of a practising attorney, far from associa- 
tions congenial to such labour, or adapted to render assistance 
in such a task. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
January 1887. 



GRAMMATICAL HELPS, LEXICONS, TEXTS, AND 
WORKS OF REFERENCE. 



Bendsen, B. Die Nordfriesische Sprache nach der Moringer Mundart. 
8vo. Leiden, 1860. 

Bosworth,J. The Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar. 8vo. London, 
1823. 

Bosworth, J. Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Royal 8vo. London, 1838. 

Bouterwek, K. A. Die vier Evangelien in Alt-Nordhumbrischer 
Sprache, Gutersloh. 8vo. 1857. . 

Braune, W. Gotische Grammatik. 8vo. Halle, 1880. 

Cleasby and Vigfusson. Icelandic-English Dictionary. 4to. Oxford, 

1874. 

Diefenbach, L. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Gothischen Spracbe. 

2 vols. 8vo. Frankfurt-a-M., 1851. 

Doornkaat-Koolman, J. Ten. Worterbuch der Ostfriesischen Sprache. 

3 vols. 8vo. (1879-84). Norden. 

Ehrentraut. Friesisches Arcbiv. 2 vols., 8vo. Oldenburg, 1849-54. 
Epkema, E. Thet Freske Rum. 4to. Workum, 1835. 

EpJcema, E. Woordenboek op de Gedicbten en verdere Geschriften 
van Gijsbert Japicx. 4to. Leeuwaarden, 1824. 

Graff, E. G. Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz. 7 vols. 4to. Berlin. 
1834-46. 

Grein, C. W.M. Sprachschatz der Angelsachsischen Dichter. 2 vols. 
8vo. Cassel und Gottingen, 1864. 



xiv GRAMMATICAL HELPS, ETC. 

Grimm, J. Deutsche Gramniatik. 4 vols. 8vo. Gottingen und 
Berlin, 1831-78. 

Grimm, J. Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. 2 vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 
1880. 

Gunther, C. Die Verba im Altostfriesischen. 8vo. Leipzig, 1880. 

Hahn, K. A. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. 8vo. Frankfurt-a- 
M., 1871. 

Hahn, K. A. Althochdeutsche Grammatik. 8vo. Prag, 1875. 

Halbertsma, J. Lexicon Frisicum, A to Feer. Royal 8vo. Haarlem, 
1872. 

Helfenstein, Dr. Jas. Comparative Grammar of the Teutonic Lan- 
guages. Royal 8vo. London, 1870. 

Hettema, M. and P. B. Posthumous. Onze Reis naar Sagelterland 
(containing a grammar and word-list of that dialect). 8vo. 
Franeker, 1836. 

Hettema, M. Proeve van een Friesch en Nederlandsch Woordenboek. 
8vo. Leeuwaarden, 1832. 

Hettema, M. Jurisprudentia Frisica, een Handschrift uit de vijf tiende 
eeuw. 8vo. Leeuwaarden, 1834. 

Hettema, M. Idioticon Frisicum. Imp. 8vo. Leeuwaarden, 1874. 
Hettema, M. Oude Friesche Wetten. 8vo. Leeuwaarden, 1846. 

Hettema, M. Het Emsiger Landregt van het jaar 1312. 8vo. 
Leeuwaarden, 1830. 

Hewitt, W. T. Frisian Language and Literature, an Historical 
Sketch. 8vo. Ithaca, New York, 1879. 

Heyne, M. Altsachsische Grammatik. Svo. Paderborn, 1873. 

Heyne, M. Altsachsisches Glossar, in his edition of the Hfiliand. 
Svo. Paderborn, 1873. 

Heyne, M. Kleinere Altniederdeutsche Denkmaler. Svo. Pader- 
born, 1867. 

Heyne, M. Kurze Laut und Flexionslehre der Altgermanischen 
Dialecte. Svo. Paderborn, 1874. 



GRAMMATICAL HELPS, ETC. XV 

Hoevfft, J. H. Taalkundige Aanmerkingen op eenige Oud-Friesche 
Spreekwoorden. 8vo. Breda, 1812. 

Japicx, G. Friesche Rijmlerye, ed. Epkema. 4to. Leeuwaarden, 
1821. 

Leo, H. Angelsachsisches Glossar. Royal 8vo. Halle, 1872. 

March, F. A. Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language. 
Royal 8vo. New York, 1875. 

Motley, J. L. The Dutch Republic. 3 vols. 8vo. New York, 1880. 

Miiller, F. Max. Lectures on the Science of Language. 2 vols. 8vo. 
New York, 1875. 

Ottema, Dr. J. 0. Thet Oera Linda B6k, English edition. 8vo. 
London, 1876. 

Outzen, N. Glossarium der Nordfriesischen Sprache. 4to. Kopen- 
hagen, 1837. 

liask, E. Anglo-Saxon Grammar, by B. Thorpe. i2mo. London, 
1865. 

Rask, R. Frisische Sprachlehre aus dem Danischen ubersetzt, von 
Dr. F. J. Buss. I2mo. Freiburg-im-Braunschweig, 1834. 

Bask, R. Friesche Spraakleer mit enige veranderingen uit het 
Deensch vertaald door Mr. M. Hettema. 8vo. Leeuwaarden, 

1832. 

Rask's Icelandic Grammar. 8vo. London, 1869. 

Richthofen, K. F. Friesische Rechtsquellen. 4to. Berlin, 1840. 

Richthofen, K. F. Altfriesiscb.es Worterbuch. 4to. Gottingen, 1840. 

Riegcr, M. Alt-und- Angelsachsisches Lesebuch nebst Altfriesischen 
Stiicken. 8vo. Giessen, 1861. 

Schmeller, J. A. Heliand. 4to. Monachii, &c., 1830-40. 
Sievers, E. Angelsachsische Grammatik. 8vo. Halle, 1882. 
Sturenburg, C. H. Ostfriesisches Worterbuch. 8vo. Aurich, 1862. 
Sweet, H. Anglo-Saxon Reader. i2mo. Oxford, 1876. 

Sytstra, H. S. Klank-schrift en Woorden-leer der Friesche taal. Svo. 
Two parts. 1856-62. 



xvi GRAMMATICAL HELPS, ETC. 

Von Wicht, M. Ostf riesisches Landrecht. 4to. Aurich, 1 738. 
Wackernagel, W. Altdeutsches Worterbuch. 8vo. Basel, 1878. 
Wiarda, T. D. Altf riesisches Worterbuch. 121110. Aurich, 1786. 
Wiarda, T. D. Asega-Buch. 4to. Berlin und Stettin, 1805. 
Wiarda, T. D. Willkuren der Brokmanner. 8vo. Berlin, 1820. 
Williams, M. Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 4to. Oxford, 1872. 

Winkler, J. Algemeen Nederduitsch en Friesch Dialecticon. 2 vols, 
8vo. 'S Gravenhage, 1874. 

Zeuner. Die Sprache des Kentischen Psalters. 8vo. Halle, 1882. 



FRIESIC GRAMMAR. 



PART I. PHONOLOGY. 



THE ALPHABET. 

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, , j, k, I, m, n, o, p, (q), r, s, t, u, v, w, 

\ * 

SOUNDS OF LETTERS. 



1. VOWELS. 



(i.) a like a in lad. 
A a ball. 
e ,, e rest. 
i e they. 
, i ,, hit. 



t like ee in seem. 
o o ,, blot. 
6 o ,, dome. 
M ,, u ,, full. 
u ,, oo ,, tool. 



(2.) There was but little difference between the sounds of 
a and o in such words as man, mon, land, land, wald, wold. 
Regarding the free interchange of these vowels with each 
other see section 3. 

(3.) The same is true of e and at the end of unaccented 
syllables ; we find them indiscriminately used, as in hire, hiri, 
nose, nosi, &c. 

(4.) The vowels rarely had an absolutely determinate sound, 
being subject to innumerable shades and slight variations 
much like the varied shades of colours that are so prevalent, 
to which but seldom can an absolutely distinctive epithet be 
applied ; and, then, again in the senescence of the language the 
sounds assimilated themselves to those of the conquering and 
absorbing dialect of Holland. 

B 



1 8 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

CONSONANTS. 

2. (i.) The consonants are pronounced as in English, with 
the following exceptions : 

(2.) c pronounced always like k. 

(3.) ch like the German ch ; it is the equivalent of the 
Anglo-Saxon hard/i, as in brdchte, A.-S. br6hte. 

(4.) h before all consonants, but w is but a slight aspirate, 
as in hldpa, to leap ; hrof, robbery. Sometimes pronounced 
so indistinctly as to be omitted from words, as ors for hors ; 
and from the same word the r was occasionally dropped, 
making hos, which sounds like the vulgar or backwoods pro- 
nunciation of English horse. 

hw = wh in what. 

(5.) j before a vowel pronounced like English y. 

(6.) k sometimes is pronounced like ch and sh, &c. ; but as 
to this see under gutturals. 

(7.) If and Iv. In these combinations the Frisians were 
inclined to absorb the / or v in the pronunciation, and thus 
wrote indiscriminately dela or delva, to delve ; bihale or bihalva, 
beside ; cf. the Scotch seT for self. 

(8.) s finally assumed the Dutch sound of 2, and sonder was 
pronounced zonder ; syn, zyn, &c. 

(9.) wl, wr. In the combination wl, the w has something 
of the sound of the German w, as in wlite = vlite. Before 
other consonants the w is but slightly, if at all, pronounced ; 
accordingly the manuscripts exhibit wrogia, rogia, wriust, riust, 
wrauld, rauld, &c. 

Other remarks regarding pronunciation will be found 
scattered through the following sections, composing Part I. 
of this work. 

VOWELS. 

Short vowels a, e, i, o, u. 
Long vowels d, e, i, 6, ti. 
Diphthongs iu, ei, au, eu, ou. 

3. (i.) Original a (i.e., that of the parent Old Low German) 
is preserved before m and n, whether single, geminated, or 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 19 

combined with a mute, and also before a single consonant 
with a or u in the following syllable, as in nama, name ; fara, 
traveller ; although this vowel manifests a tendency to change 
to o before nasals, as in man, man ; kamp, Jcomp, fight; but a 
can never change to o where the umlaut occurs. 

(2.) a represents Goth, a and the simple A.-S. ea, as in al, 
all, Goth, alls, A.-S. call; half, half, Goth.-halbs, A.-S. healf. 

(3.) An e for original i in the final syllable gives rise to 
umlaut, as in hangst, gen. hengstes. 

(4.) a frequently becomes e before two consonants, but 
generally remains unchanged before I, x, and geminated mutes, 
as in falla, to fall ; snabba, mouth ; katte, cat ; salt, salt ; walda, 
to rule ; sax, knife ; but before r e appears, as in herd, hard, 
Germ, hart, Icel. har$r : exceptions barn, child ; garda, a 
garden. 

4. (i.) e is derived from three other vowels, viz., a, i, and 
u; from a by umlaut, as in hangst, hengstes; lemithe, laming ; 
and by a simple weakening of the sound before two conso- 
nants, as indicated in section 3. 

(2.) It is derived from i by the power of assimilation 
exercised by an a in the following syllable, as in helpa, to 
help, it being considered that this e was so indistinctly 
enunciated as much to resemble a. It does not change back, 
as in A.-S., O.-S., and O.-H.-G., in the strong conjugation of 
the verb, and we consequently have werpe, werpst, werpth, 
helpe (helptt), helpt. 

(3.) It appears for u after that vowel has been intermedi- 
ately changed into o, as in fel for ful, much; ken, genus 
(O.-H.-G. chunni). 

(4.) In the participles bifelen, breken, broken, &c., the e 
represents the vowel of the infinitive where other verbs have 
o, as in A.-S. gebrocen, and the parallel form in Friesic, bifolen; 
so beren and boren; nimen, O.-S. (bi-}noman, stelen. 

(5.) Its correspondences are first, A.-S. and Icel. e, as in 
setta, to set, A.-S. settan, Icel. setja. Second, the A.-S. 
" fracture " ea (fracture of a), Icel. e, or a changeable to e by 
umlaut bern, child, A.-S. beam, Icel. barn (bernska) ; erm, 



20 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

poor, A.-S. earm, Icel. armr. Third, A.-S. ce, as in gers, A.-S. 
goers, grass; wetir, A.-S. wceter, water. Fourth, A.-S. eo, 
(fracture of e), berch, mountain, A.-S. beorh ; melok, milk, 
A.-S. meoloc. 

EUPHONICALLY INSERTED 6. 

5. When in Gothic a mute is followed by a liquid or a nasal, 
and one of the latter forms a syllable by itself without the 
help of a vowel, as in akrs, fugls, taikns, maijyms, there is 
generally developed in Friesic an intrusive euphonic vowel 
before the consonant : thus in ticker, acre, ager ; fugd, fowl ; 
teken, token, sign. Unlike A.-S., O.-F. presents only e; so 
in winter, Goth, wintrus ; finger, Goth, figgrs ; appel, A.-S. 
ceppl. Metathesis occurs in axle (also axele), shoulder ; nedle, 
nldle, needle. 

6. (i.) * pure is preserved before many combinations begin- 
ning with m and n, and before r with a dental following, 
where A.-S. has eo: binda, to bind; hirte (also herte), A.-S. 
heorte : but u, or its representative o, in the following syllable, 
causes it to yield to e, as in felo, much ; fretho, peace ; selover, 
silver. 

(2.) i is fractured to iu before eld, as in riucht, right, law ; 
fliucht, he flies. Fracture also seems to occur in tziurke, 
church ; wriust, wrist ; and tziust (kiust), a fell, pelt. 

(3.) It appears for a, or its umlaut e, in skil, shaH ; while 
the second person has skalt : in tzilik, kilik, calix ; hiri, army ; 
wirid, pret. part, of wera, to defend ; for u in skila, shall ; 
kining, king ; kin, kin, 0. S. kunni but of these last two 
words the umlaut forms occur; kening and ken; also skela 
for skila. 

(4.) It corresponds to A.-S. i, y (and eo, as has above been 
observed), and Icel. e. 

Mith, with, A.-S. mi%, Icel. meS. 

Nima, to take, ,, niman or nyman, ,, neiua. 

Irthe, earth, ,, eorSe. 

Hirte, heart, ,, heorte. 

Fir, far. ,, feor. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 21 

7. o is generally the representative, the "Triibung" or 
obscuration of u ; before mp, nd, and n it is a mere variation 
of a, as in komp, kamp ; lond, land ; hond, hand ; gong, gang, 
a going, walking ; mon, man. It is equivalent to A.-S. o and 
the o of the other dialects. 

Dolch, wound, A.-S. dolh, Mod. Fries, dolge and dolck. 

Folk, folk, folc. folck. 

8. (i.) u is but seldom preserved; it has given way so ex- 
tensively to the "Triibung" in o. It corresponds to A.-S. u. 

Hundred, A.-S. hundred. 

Tunge, tongue, ,, tunge. 

' (2.) Organic generally before nasal combinations grund, 
ground ; tunge, tongue. 

(3.) u = O.-H.-G. o in thuner, thunder, O.-H.-G. donar ; Jcuma 
(also parallel form Icomd), O.-H.-G. coman, queman ; wuna(a.\s,o 
ivond), to dwell, inhabit, O.-H.-G. wonen. Also to Latin o in 
words from that language, munek, munik, monik, L. monachus ; 
pund, pound, L. pondus. 

(4.) u for a in gunga, to go ; it is very frequently written 
for v and w ; for v, as in erue, heir ; oua, over ; for w, as in 
tud, two; wedue, widow. 



LONG VOWELS. 

9. (i.) d occurs in some cases of contraction, as infd (Germ. 
fangen), to take, seize ; sld (Germ, schlagen), to strike. 

(2.) It appears in the third person plural of the eighth class 
of strong verbs, as in ndmon, from nima, to take. 

(3.) It represents Goth, di and A.-S. d, as in hdm, A.-S. 
ham, Goth, hdims ; dga, to have, Goth, dig an ; but it is 
most frequently found in the place of the Gothic diphthong 
du, which appears in A.-S. as ed. 

E.g., dre, ear; dge, eye; hldpa, to run; gd, a town, region, 
or district (Germ. Gau) ; for Goth, duso, dugo, hldupan, 



22 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

and gduja. Its other equivalents are Icel. au, O.-H.-G. 6, 
as in 

DAd, death, A.-S. dead, Icel. dauSr, O.-H.-G. t6d. 
Had, red, redd, rauftr, rdt. 

Las, loose, leds, laiis, Ids. 

Strain, stream, stream, straumr, Mod. ver. (Strom). 

(4.) It appears in the singular preterit of the eighth class 
of strong verbs, as kds, from kiusa, to choose ; bdd, from biada, 
to command. 

(5.) There is some vacillation between d and e, as in the 
words flAsk, flesh, kldth, vestis, hlddder, ladder in the Hunsin- 
goer Recht flesk, kleth, hledder ; and then, vice versa, gdstlik 
in it foTJestlik in the other. 

10. (i.) e represents O.-S. e instead of O.-H.-G. ei, as in 
bred, broad, O.-S. bred, O.-H.-G. breit. 

(2.) It sometimes represents O.-H.-G. e and A.-S. e instead 
of ie, as bref, ber, prester, for brief, bier, priester. 

(3.) It is equivalent to A.-S. e> as in fet, A.-S. fet ; dema, 
to judge, A.-S., deman ; fera, to go, to lead, A.-S. feran. 

(4.) It also represents A.-S. ce, ce, and Icel. d. 

Her, hair, A.-S. hcer (htr), Icel. hat: 

Dede, deed, deed, ddft. 

, to divide, dcelan. 

any, ., cenig (Kentish, delan, enig). 



(5.) It also represents A.-S. # and Icel. ey. 

Lesa, to loose, A.-S. l$san, Icel. leysa. ' 

Hera, to hear, ., h h$ran, heyra. 

(6.) It occurs, as in A.-S. ed, or its contraction e, as a con- 
densation of Goth. du. 

Ned, need, A.-S. ned, Goth, ndifys. 

D&pa, to dip, ddupjan. 

Skene, pretty, (Germ, schon), skduns. 

(7.) The condensed form e appears also for the Gothic 
diphthong iu, A.-S. eo ; gret, grit, sand, A.-S. great; kne, Goth. 
kniu ; bintta, to rob, deprive, O.-S. biniotan. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 23 

(8.) e represents the contraction of the diphthong ei, as in 
en, one; swepa, to sweep, Icel. sveipa ; leda, to lead, Goth. 
ga-leifran ; het, hot, Goth. * heit. 

(9.) e is employed to indicate the umlaut of 6; dom, judi- 
cium, dema, to judge ; fela, to feel ; wepa, to weep ; greta, to 
greet. 

It is even so employed with respect to $, as in sele, Germ. 
Sdule, pillar ; hede, hide, A.-S. hud, corresponding to the A.-S. 
umlaut of u, which is y. 

(10.) In a few instances this vowel has been retained in pure 
correspondence with Goth, e, as in mel for mdl, time ; wepen, 
weapon, for wdpen ; weron, they were; jevon, they gave. As 
intimated in these instances, the vowel d corresponds generally 
in this and the other old Teutonic dialects to Goth. e. 

This vowel will frequently be found written thus, ee, as I is 
written ii, and $, uu. 

11. (i.) i represents the Gothic diphthong ei, and answers 
to i in the other old Germanic dialects; e.g., Goth, hweila, a 
time, O.-H.-G. hwila, O.-S. hwila, A.-S. hwile, Fries, hwile, 
Saterlandish ivtla, North Fries, wile; Goth, frreis, three, O.-H.-G. 
drl, A.-S. thri, Icel. }>rir, Fries, thria, thrice. 

(2.) Tliis vowel may also take the place of the ei arising 
from eg, as in di, day ; mi, may. 

(3.) It may result from contraction, as in nia, new, Goth. 
niujis ; sia, to sew, Goth, siujan. 

(4.) y, which has in this dialect a proper place only in 
foreign words, is frequently found for I, as well as i, as in 
wyf for w If, wife. 

12. (i.) o equals Gotho, A.-S. 6, and Icel. 6, as in 

D6m, judgment, Goth, doms, A.-S. dom, Icel. d6mr, 
B6k, book, boka, bdc, bok. 

Brother, brother, brfyar, brother, broftir. 

(2.) It answers to Gothic nasal d for an, as in brochte, 
brought, Goth, brdhta, pret. of Iriggan = bringan ; Fries. 



24 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

thogte, Goth. }>dhta for franhta. It takes the place, as in 
A.-S., of Goth, a before a nasal which has dropped out ; as in 
other, other, ander, Goth, anpar ; so A.-S. gos (for gons), goose, 
Goth, hansa; A.-S. softe, adv. softly, O.-H.-G. samfto. 

(3.) So it represents Goth, e before a nasal in some words, 
as in mdna, moon, Goth, mena ; mona}>, month, Goth, mendfis ; 
kdmon, pret. plur. of kuma, to come, Goth, qemun ; ndmon, pret. 
plur. of nima, to take, Goth, nemun. 

13. (i.) u represents Gothic u and iu, and the u of the 
other dialects. Goth, hus, the same in Fries, and the other 
ancient dialects. Goth, fills, foul ; Fries, fill, A.-S. fill ; 
Icel. full. 

(2.) It is a contraction of iu, as in frfiddf=friudelf, lover ; 
kriose, krus, cross ; flucht for fliucht, he flies. 

(3.) It occurs in some other cases of contraction, as in hua, 
to hang, for hangja. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

14. (i.) This dialect is restricted to the single diphthong 
iu, with the weakened forms ia, io. 

Iu appears at the end of words, as in thriu, three ; hiu, she. 
Some words waver between iu and io, as fiur andjior, four; 
diure and diore, dear ; liude and liode, people. 

The Rustringer Recht seems to prefer io, the other laws the 
form iu. 

(2.) There was such a stress upon the pronunciation of this diph- 
thong that in later Friesic, as in Heligoland, the consonant preceding 
fell away by aphseresis, leaving jur for tljAr, dear, j'ied for Ijycht, 
O.-F. liucht,junk instead of diunk, dark, obscure. So in Sagelterland 
d before the same is but slightly heard, as in dju, djop, &c. In Schier- 
nionnikoogyce? = O.-F. liode, which retains the I'm the other modern 
dialects. 

(3.) In the words ja, to confess, and sia, to see, the a must be 
considered as the infinitive ending O.-H.-G. jehan, sehan ; 
in tia, to lead ; flla, to fly, which stand for tiaha, fllaha, the 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 25 

infinitive ending may have fallen away, the naked stem 
diphthong remaining. 



LATER DIPHTHONGS. 

15. (i.) ei is usually an inorganic and later formation ; it 
arises from the contraction of the terminations ag and eg, as 
in wei, way, for weg ; dei, day, gen. deges or deis ; but in the 
plural the g reasserts itself, and wegar, degar, &c., appear. 

(2.) In ein (also written ain), own, it is a contraction of eg 
= egin, and heia = hega, to fence, preserve. 

(3.) For i taking the place of ei, see section 11 (2.) 

(4.) The parallel forms deil for del, dale (O.-S. dal) ; weisa 
for wesa, to be ; beile for bel, boil, occur. 

(5.) ei equals A.-S. ce in eider, either, A.-S. ceghwtiSer, cegd'er. 

(6.) ei = H in O.-S., breid, bride, O.-S. brtid. 

ei ou in O.-H.-G., Jiei, a blow, O.-H.-G. hou (hau). 

(7.) There is another ei which arbitrarily takes the place of 
e, as in O.-H.-G. and O.-S., or Frankish: thus in eifna, to 
level. 

(8.) In Jceisar, emperor; Ida, layman, the ei is identical 
with the same diphthong in 0.-H.-G., from which, in fact, 
these forms are derived. 

It is sometimes written ey, mey = mi, possum. 

(9.) Sometimes ai occurs for ei, as in aider, eider, either; 
ain, ein, own. 

16. au is an inorganic diphthong resulting from the con- 
traction of aw ; naut for ndwet. It also sometimes stands for a, 
as in auwa for diva, to show ; auber for dber, open, manifest. 
Again for al, as saut for salt. 

17. ui stands sometimes for d, as in huisman, tenant. 

18. eu, as in breud, a pulling (her-breud, hair-pulling; nose- 
breud, &c.), from the verb brida, is another inorganic diph- 
thong resulting from the loss of a g in the verbal and nominal 
forms ; thus brtda stands for brigda. 



26 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

19. ae = a, generally, as aegh for dch, bistaen for bisldn (Germ. 
besteken). It also occurs for e, as in haet for keth, has ; aerst 
for erost, first ; waepen for wepin. It but seldom occurs in the 
Riistringer Recht and other old texts. 

20. oe is usually the later and Dutch orthography for u, as 
in bloed, blood ; soen for sunu, son ; hoemanich (quam multi), 
Dutch hoe menigerlei ; doem, judicium (Older Fries, dom), 
Dutch doemen, to judge. 

21. ou is sometimes equivalent to Germ, au : broute = Brau, a 
brewing. It forms a compensation sometimes for a lost I, as 
in goud, gouden, gold, golden ; houda for holda, friend : appears 
for th in ouder for dther. 

22. The Consonants. 

Liquids J, r. 
Nasals m, n. 
Spirants v, w, s, z, j. 
Labials p, b, f. 
Mutes. Dentals t, d, th. 

Gutturals k (c), g, h. 

q kw ; x = ks. 



23. LIQUIDS. 

(i.) I and r. This dialect carefully distinguishes be- 
tween the Gothic simple initial liquids I and r and their 
aspirated compounds hi, hr, wl, and wr (so also with the 
nasal n-hn). HI and hr are sometimes found with the liquid 
and the spirant transposed, as Ih, <fec. 

(2.) These aspirated compounds did not descend to the modern 
dialects. 

(3.) There is an elision of I before certain consonants, as 
there is in the pronunciation in English would, could, 
should (which, by the way, are written phonetically in 
Modern Friesic woe'd, koe'd, scoe'd by apocope woe', Tcoe\ 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 27 

scoe'), as in selik, Goth, swa-leiks, such ; salk, sek ; sullik, sulk, 
silk; hwelik, hwelk, hwek, hok, and hdk. 

(4.) Gemination is rejected at the end of a word, and is 
not found in compound words where the preceding vowel 
is short, as al, all ; al-sd, also. In this it fully agrees with 
A.-S. 

(5.) r answers to ancient Germanic r, as in rtke, kingdom ; 
renna, to run ; brenga, to bring ; wer, man ; Goth, reiki, 
rinnan, briggan, ivair : to original 2 in the middle of a word 
(Goth, z or s), as in mdra, more, Goth, maiza ; dre, ear, Goth. 
duso ; nera, to support, foster, Goth, nasjan (to save). 

(6.) A tendency to indulge in rhotacism (the change of s 
into r) pre-eminently characterises Friesic ; e.g., it appears in 
the nominative plural of substantives, as in degar, days, A.-S. 
dagds ; fiskar, fishes, A.-S. fiscds. Sometimes, however, the 
liquid entirely disappears, as in dega ; the probability, there- 
fore, is that the pronunciation of the r was as indistinct as 
is that of the same letter now in England in such words as 
bar, tar, &c. 

24. There are many evidences of the fact that there has 
been a marked tendency in Friesic, as to a certain extent in 
English, to slur over and indeed neglect the pronunciation of 
both the liquids I and r, though frequently with a vowel 
compensation. 

r is cast away as in A.-S. where not organic, as in md, 
more, Icel. meir; mm, less, Icel. minnr or 



25. r is generally absorbed in the pronunciation of Modern Friesic 
words, as in thdn for thorn, lion for horn, kon for korn, been for lern ; 
beens-bcen, nepos ; so kerne and herne are pronounced kenne, home. 
The same thing occurs in the Westphalian dialect of the Platt- 
Deutsch. So in Norwegian barnsdom is pronounced bansdom, &c. 
Again, in M. F. boarstje, to burst, is pronounced boastjc, while in 
another district there is elision of the sibilant, bart occurring for 
barst. 

26. Metathesis is quite common, as in gers, grass ; hars, 
horse (O.-H.-G. hros) ; fersk, fresh ; barna, to burn (Germ. 



28 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

brennen) ; forst, frost. En for the negative ne occurs joined 
to another word, as ik enfiebbe, I have not. 



NASALS. 

27. (i.) Final n is almost uniformly rejected in infinitives * 
(though it reappears in the gerund), in the termination of the 
subjunctive, in the inflections of the weak declension, and in 
various words; as finda, to find, A.-S., findan ; thene hona, 
(ace. of gallus), instead of honan. The a thus left answers in 
all cases to A.-S. an and on; e.g., ma, A.-S. man, one; thana, 
thence, A.-S. banon; biita, without, A.-S. butan. 

(2.) The Northumbrian dialect of the A.-S. presents examples of 
the rejection of final n as in Friesic, in infinitives; e.g., ge-hdlgia, 
to sanctify ; ge-cuma, to come ; Idcia, to look ; weorthia, to honour ; 
leornia, to learn ; thenka, to think ; htra, to hear ; dria, to honour ; 
gonga, to go ; Jiabba, halda, tenere ; honga, to hang, and many 
others. See the glossary to " Die vier Evangelien in AUnordhum- 
brischer Sprache" von K. W. Bouterwek. 

(3.) The corrosion of centuries has further abbreviated the Frisian 
infinitive in some districts now to simple -i, as in the East Frisian 
words eeri, to honour, O.-F. erja ; gungi, to go, O. -F. gunga ; macki, 
to make, O.-F. makja. Many verbal forms in Heligoland t and 
Wangerdg have, like the English, entirely lost the vowel of the 
infinitive in such words as bed, to bid ; biiiig, to bow ; hidr, to hear ; 
it, to eat ; lied, to lead ; tMnk, to think ; bring, to bring ; sei, to sew ; 
sliap, to sleep ; de.il, to deal with ; bdrg, to hide, A.-S. bergan ; bifel, 
to command, O.-F. bifella; bik, to pick ; bit, to bite ; brik, to break. 

(4.) We find the gemination of n arising from the con- 
traction of two n's, which have come into closer contact by 
the elision of one or more vowels, as in enne for enene, minne 
for minene, thinne, &c. 

* It appears, however, in kirdn and seggert, bistdn, adjurare, dicere ; sian, 
to see ; bringan, to bring ; wesan, to be ; fdn, to take ; ydn, to go ; jdn, to 
give; bi-schfyan, Germ, beschauen, &c. ; similar forms also prevail in M.-F., 
thus : gtan, sjaen, sttan, jaen. 

+ This island was Frisian as early as the eighth century, and received its 
name, Sacred Island, from its being the principal place of worship of Fosite, 
Norse, Forseti(?) According to others, of Odin. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 29 

(5.) In this, as well as in other Old Teutonic dialects, in- 
flectional m has, when occurring in terminations, always been 
changed to n ; n is dropped when occurring in the middle of 
a word before s, th, d, and /, as in Us (Germ. uns), nobis, 
ev-est, hatred (Goth, anst) ; gos, goose, pi. ges, O.-H.-G. gans ; 
other, Goth, anjjar ; toth, pi. teth, Goth, tun pus ; sith, Goth. 
sinjjs; rndth, flf (Germ, mund, Qoth.fimf): exception, winstere, 
left, ath appears for and in the plural terminations of the 
verb. 

SPIRANTS. 

28. (i.) v. and w. v is sometimes written at the beginning and 
in the middle of words for the vowel u e.g.,vrdriva for urdriva, 
to drive out ; vr for ur, over ; vtor, extra ; vndvnga, se liberare. 

(2.) w appears also for u at the beginning and in the middle 
of words, and in some cases wu is rendered by a simple w 
wtward for Htward, outward ; wrsia for ursla, to oversee ; 
wnde for unde, wound ; dwa for dda, to do. Of w for wu 
observe wllen, woollen ; wnnen, won ; and wrdon, become. 

(3.) Of combinations we note wl and wr in wlite, visibilis, 
and wlemmelsa, laesio, which are combined in wliteivlemmelsa, a 
visible wound (i.e., one not covered by clothing) ; wr inwreka, 
ulscisci ; ivrogja, accusare, and others. 

(4 ) 10 occurs with another consonant preceding, in the 
combinations div, hw, Jew, sw, tw, thw ; divdlicheed (Mid. Fr.), 
error ; hivd, who ; kwetha, to say ; swerd, sword ; twd, two ; 
thwinga, to force, compel. 

They are, as a rule, strictly preserved from intermixture 
with the succeeding vowel. 

(5.) Where w occurs in New Friesic it is almost uniformly strongly 
aspirated, sounding like English wh in where. 

(6.) The A.-S. vocalisation (i.e., w after another conso- 
nant and before i is vocalised into u, the being dropped) 
is admitted in the following cases : suster, sister ; Jcuma, to 
come ; and kom, came ; for svister (Riistringer swester) ; kvima, 
kvam. 

(7.) w is sometimes dropped in the middle of a word, as in 



30 THE OLD FPJESIC LANGUAGE. 

sela, A.-S. sdivel, soul, life ; htskthe, family, O.-H.-G. hiwisca ; 
ondsera for ondswera, to swear free ; tolef, idle/la, twelve, 
twelfth, for twilif, twilif (a; staring for swiaring, son-in-law; 
and at the end it is sometimes retained and sometimes falls 
away, in the latter case lengthening the preceding vowel. 
Retained, as in daw, dew ; bldw, blue : falls away, as in gd, a 
district, vicus ; a, a law. The w has developed no diphthong, 
but simply a long vowel in frdwe, woman ; hdwa, to hew ; 
strewa, to strew'; bdwa, to build. 

(8.) The u in such forms as ftuwer, four ; triuwe, faith ; 
hauwen, hewn, is, so to speak, but a diphthongal gemina- 
tion of the w, for fiwer, triwe, hawan a peculiarity also 
observable in O.-H.-G. 

(9.) v replaces the nasal m infdvne for fdmne, fdmne, woman, 
maid : drops out of skrion for striven, written ; jondis for avend, 
evening. 

29- (i.) s and z. Rhotacism of s into r takes place as in 
O.-H.-G. and O.-S. The s is preserved in the present and 
preterit singular of strong verbs; while the preterit plural 
and the participle adopt r, e.g., kiase, kds, keron, keren; wesa, 
was, weron. 

(2.) The softening of sk into sch is a dialectic peculiarity : 
before e and i we find schet, treasure ; schel for skel, shall ; 
scheldech, guilty ; schilling, shilling : before a and u in scliangt, 
present; schule, shelter, hut. 

(3.) The soft sibilant z is found at the beginning of but few 
words, and there mostly appears in later forms in sympathy 
with, and under the influence of, the Dutch, as zeerdwer, pirate, 
viking, Dutch zeeroover ; zwarra, to swear, Dutch 'zweeren. 

For the combinations tz, sz, dsz, dz, &c., see under Gutturals, 
section 36. 

30. Contrary to the custom of some of the other Old-Ger- 
manic dialects, which often supplant j by g, the Old Friesic 
has, in addition to the organic j, employed this consonant in 
the place of g (the j is written i in the manuscripts, and has 
usually been so printed), e.g., jeld, poena, pecunia, for geld ; 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 31 

jeva, to give, &c. The spirant is organic in jer, year ; jung, 
young federja, patruus ; makja, to make ; sparja, to spare ; 
erja, to honour. It is ordinarily vocalised into i where it 
forms part of the root, and is therefore seldom to be met 
with ; e.g., n$a, new ; frt, free. When once vocalised it does 
not reappear in the word hiri, army, has not in the dative 
hirji, but hiri. 

MUTES. 
LABIALS. 

31. (i.) p in general and b and /at the beginning of words 
are organic ; 6, except in the combination mb and in cases of 
gemination, is replaced by v in the middle, and by /at the 
end of words ; e.g., wif, genitive, wives; stef, staff, dative sieve ; 
half, genitive halves ; but / remains in the middle of a word 
where a t sound follows, as in efter, after ; hdfd, head ; jeftha, 
or. The labial aspirate ph is represented by the spirant / 
or v. 

(2.) p is identical in its relations with the same letter in the 
other Old-German dialects. Initial p is practically a foreign 
letter to the Old-Teutonic tongues. 

The gemination f occurs only in foreign words, and pp is 
rare. 

(3.) /renders the A.-S. combination hw in the word fial, wheel, 
A.-S. hweol, Icel. hvel, Swed. and Dan. hjul. This form is analogous 
to the ancient and modern Dutch vriel. There is an obvious and 
natural affinity between the labial and the spirant, which has resulted 
in the interchange in this instance, regardless of its combination with 
the aspirate. 

(4.) A remarkable rendering of Latin p is found inprdgost (prdvest), 
Lat. prcepositus, where a guttural replaces the spirant ; A.-S. prdfast, 
Icel. profastr. AVe also find the same consonant taking the place of 
the labial media in sigun, seven. Cf. also prugja for provja, to prove ; 
also jog for jof, gave ; pagus for pans, pope. This consonant might, 
with a considerable degree of appropriateness, be denominated a gut- 
tural spirant. This applies as well to the guttural under the same 
circumstances in the modern Saterlandish dialect ; e.g., 6gen for oven. 
Observe also O.-F. tonghere for thuner, thunder; sogenja for somnia, 
to collect. So ch occurs for /in stichte (Ger. Stift), church, monastery, 
O.-H.-G. ga-stifte, aedificium. 



32 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

DENTALS. 
t, d, th, 

32. (i.) t is almost uniformly organic; it sometimes drops 
out at the end of a word after ch, as riuch for riucht ; and th 
sometimes loses the aspiration and becomes t, as in nimat for 
nimath ; TdU for klUfi, clothing ; ddt for ddth, death ; and vice 
versd, th frequently occurs for t, as weth for wet, wet ; with for 
wit. This peculiarity is principally characteristic of the Em- 
siger Recht, the aspirate being partial to the end of a word. 
Thus, in the West Lauwers laws of 1276, senth for send, wth 
for Ht, f 6th for Jot. 

(2.) d when initial is organic. The media is liable, as 
in Gothic, to yield to the aspirate when terminational, but 
does not in such words as breid, bride ; Mfd, head ; bed, 
asked; but the aspirate prevails in the terminations of the 
verb, -th and -ath occurring for d and -a(n)d. rd and rth are 
kept distinct, as in gerdel, girdle ; irthe, earth : Id may be 
either organic or take the place of Ith, as holda, to hold, Goth. 
haldan ; bilde, O.-S. bilithi. 

(3.) The gemination dd corresponds to d with an original 
formative -i, as in bed, gen. beddes, Goth, badi; bidda, Goth. 
bidjan; thredda, third, Goth, pridja. 

(4.) The media is sometimes inserted in a word for the sake of 
euphony to give a full and forcible sound much as /3 is found in 
Greek words like ya/jippbs, p.eai)p.ppia., &c., and in the Friesic nember 
for nimmer, never. Thus, in etmelde, pi. of Stmel, a space of time ; 
dey and nacht, jeftha twd etmelde, day and night, or two divisions of 
time. So in from(d) sind, the first synod a judicial day. Then, 
again, it drops out of a word, as jel toijeld, garja for gadurja. 

33. (i.) th. The aspirate is made to answer (written th) to 
both A.-S. and Icel. J> and iS ; it undoubtedly had a softer sound 
in the middle and at the end of words than at the beginning. 

(2.) The aspirate and media occasionally interchange, as 
sdda for sdtha, sod ; steth for sted, place, stead ; keddes, gen. of 
ketha, nuntius. 

(3.) Observe the change of the dental aspirate into the 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 33 

sibilant in strot for A.-S. throte, throat, and tosch for toth, 
tooth; the dental aspirate for the spirant / in midrith for 
midrif. 

34. Tlie pronunciation of the voiceless stopped consonant th has 
been practically lost among all the Continental members of the Ger- 
manic race, but retained among the islanders : e.g., in F6r and 
Amrum we find thaank, thanks ; th&rp, village ; thiif, thief ; thing, 
thing, &c. Wangerogian thwong, thong ; thacke, thatch ; thtim, 
thumb ; thitsel, thistle, pronounced as in English. 

35. The inhabitants of the islands above enumerated dis- 
tinguish between the sharp and soft aspirate. When the true 
pronunciation is being lost among them, they substitute the 
tenuis for the sharp and the media for the soft, and even 
follow up the exceptions that we have in English, as in this, 
that, than, the, thee, then, there, they, thou, thine, though, thus, 
which begin with the soft instead of the sharp aspirate ; there- 
fore there are presented, dizze, dat, dan, de or di, dinne, daere, 
dy, dou, dine, doghs, doz. These dialects, from their insulated 
position, and consequent retention of many Old-Friesic pecu- 
liarities, shed much light upon the ancient phonology. 



GUTTURALS. 

k, g, h. 

36. k is frequently principally in the combinations cl, en, 
cr, sc, and at the end of words represented by c, as in clage 
(Germ. Klage], complaint ; dinna (Germ, klingen], to ring, re- 
sound ; mere, mark ; comp for Tcomp or kamp, pugna. k, and 
not c, is used before e and i, as in kemen, come ; kiasa, to 
choose : the tenuis is but rarely geminated, as in ekker, acre ; 
smek, taste, genitive smekkes ; stok, stokkes, stick. It was pro- 
nounced with so strong an aspiration in a number of words, 
as in ketel, kettle ; kerke, church ; reka, to reach, that they 
were frequently written as detailed in the next section. 

x = ks. 

C 



34 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

37. (i.) Very peculiar is the conversion (alluded to above) 
of a guttural into a palatal, which occurs as follows, and for 
the reason just given. 

Before e or i, at the beginning of a word, k was frequently 
replaced by a palatal sound written thus sz and sth when the 
e or i was followed by a single consonant or a liquid, as in szin 
for kin, chin ; sthereke for kerke, church. 

(2.) At the beginning of a word g was not thus affected. 
gg in the middle of a word is replaced by dz, and k by is, tz, 
tsz ; thus in sidza for sigga, segga, to say, though sometimes 
vocalised, as in leia, to lay, dttsa, to ditch ; the English 
equivalent is an evidence of the same tendency in our own 
language : ditch is the modern pronunciation of A.-S. die. 
This peculiarity is also characteristic of Modern Friesic. 

(3.) After a consonant sz and simple z are written for this 
letter, as brensza, to bring (brenzd) ; ledza, to lay. 

(4.) A simpler mode of rendering the palatal is adopted in 
West Frisian in the employment of a simple z or s. 

(5.) With reference to the pronunciation, we may conclude 
that tz, ts, and sth represented the Anglo-Saxon weak c, or the 
Italian ce, sz the English sh, and dz the g, in such words as 
genius, general, &c. The tennis remains in but few words 
keda, chain ; kerva, to carve ; kersten, Christian ; kempa, 
champion, <fec. 

(6.) The Friesic method of spelling some proper names is 
interesting; for instance, Ritsard, Edzard, Witsard. <fcc., which 
recall the French, Provensal, and Italian orthography, Richard, 
Rizard, Ricciardo, &c. 

38. (i.) g is sometimes (when preceding e or e) rendered 
by the spirant j, as in jeva, to give ; jelda, solvere, jestlika, 
ecclesiasticus. This usurper has assumed even a more prominent 
place in the modern Friesic dialects. 

(2.) When g is preceded by e, and followed by e or * in the 
middle of a word, it is vocalised, and forms with the preceding 
e the diphthong ei; thus rein, rain, from regen ; brein, brain, 
from bregen ; neil, nail, from negel. 

(3.) Occasionally the diphthong thus formed is then con- 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 35 

densed into i, so we find brin in place of brein, nil for mil, &c. 
If any other vowel follows it remains, as in degar, days. 

(4.) The prefixes g-, je-, gi- drop the initial consonant, as 
unge, let him go, ungath, they go, for gunge, gungath ; so jut/i, 
he pours out, from giata (Germ, giessen). 

(5.) At the end of a word, when e precedes it, g may be 
changed to i, as in dei, day ; mei, may ; wei, way. This is also 
a peculiarity of Kentish Anglo-Saxon, to be found in certain 
charters. This letter undoubtedly partook in a great degree 
of the character of a spirant. 

(6.) At the end of a word g can rarely occur in any but the 
combinations ng and gg ; it, therefore, always appears there 
otherwise as ch, as in berch for berg, orloch for orlog, war, con- 
test. Observe, nevertheless, the following exceptions : ienig 
for enich, any; arg, bad (a. 1499); ting, tioeg, testamentary 
evidence, for thiuch. 

(7.) In the same manner this consonant and k are always 
changed into ch before inflectional t, as in machte, might, from 
mega ; sochte from seka, to seek ; fliuclit from fliaga, to fly. 

39. h only occurs at the beginning of words, where its pro- 
nunciation must have been very obscure, for it frequently falls 
away. In the middle it is sometimes dropped and sometimes 
hardened into g ; e.g., sta, to see (Germ, sehen); sldgon, they 
slew, from sla. It inorganically begins erost; thus herest in the 
Huns. Kecht. At the end of a word it appears as ch, cor- 
responding to A.-S. h; lidch, high, A.-S. hedh; and so in the 
middle of a word, like g and k before t ; dochter, daughter, A.-S. 
dohtor ; drochten, dominus, A.-S. dryhten, O.-S. drohtin ; brochte, 
A.-S. brohte. h is inorganic in hdga, to have, and in the con- 
jugational forms we sometimes find it dropped, as dch and 
hdch. The combination hw is common, as in hwa, who ; 
hwerpa, jacere ; hivit, white. Other combinations, hi, hr, hn; 
hldpa, to leap ; hit, protection ; hrene, smell ; hropa, to call ; 
hriekka, neck. 

OMISSION OF CONSONANTS. 

40. Many consonants fall away in the inflections, and we 
find a number of contractions, such as neth for ne heth ; net for 



36 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

ni u'et ; set for se hit ; hok for hwelik, net for ne ioil, sdntich for 
sibuntich, seventy, &c. 

ACCENT. 

41. The accent in Friesic, as in other Indo-European 
tongues, fell upon the root syllable of the word. The lack of 
poetical remains otherwise, however, throws much obscurity 
upon the subject. 

EUPHONIC CHANGES. 
ABLAUT. 

42. Ablaut is a modification of vowels in the root of strong 
verbs to express past time, as finde, I find ; fand, found ; 
drive, dr$f, drive, drove. 

APOCOPE. 

43. Apocope is the cutting off or omission of the last 
syllable or letter of a word; e.g., in " fan there suster' and 
fon there modere ;" " sd skelin aV under na sw$ra;" suster' 
being for sustere, and aV for alle. 

BRECHUNG, OK "FRACTURE." 

44. Brechung, or " fracture," may be defined as the change, 
of one sound into two under a consonantal influence. Thus 
we have riucht for richt, right, law ; kniucht, knight, servant ; 
siucht, sight. It appears, as in the examples, most regularly 
when i precedes the letters cht. It seems also to present 
itself in tziurke (Riist. sthereke), church ; wriusl, wrist ; tziust, 
pelt ; and dyoncker, obscurus. 

In West Friesic e before I is fractured, as in ielder, elder ; 
ielne, ell ; ielkers, alias. 

COMPENSATION. 

45. When a consonant is dropped in a word, the preceding 
vowel is lengthened e.g., Us for uns, fif, Goth, fimf; so if a 
preceding vowel or vowel and consonant be dropped, as 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. ' 37 

frddelf for friudelf; bi-bdd from bi-biada ; krds for kriose ; 
bi-sken instead of bi-skehen ; eien for jehen, pret. part, of ja, to 
confess, admit. 

UMLAUT. 

46. (i.) Umlaut is a change of vowel in the root produced 
by the influence of i (or e for original i) in the following 
syllable. It consists of a partial or complete assimilation of the 
root vowel to that of the following syllable. It changes a to 
e, and 6 to e ; thus, walJ, weldech,. powerful ; hangst, henystes, 
dom, judgment ; dema, to judge. 

(2.) When an ancient i has been lost, its umlaut is termed 
" concealed," as in fot, foot, pi. fet(i) ; man, pi. men(i) ; so 
dom, judicium, dema, to judge (the i =j of a formative -ja, 
intermediately lost) ; her, army, in hertoga, dux, Goth, harjis. 
The only relics of the ancient u umlaut (represented by o) are 
felo, much, many ; selover, silver ; fretlto, peace. 



PAR T II. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

THE NOUN. 

GENDER. 

47. There are three genders masculine, feminine, and 
neuter. ' 

We must frequently look to the analogy of the Icelandic, 
Anglo-Saxon, and German for the gender of a word ; it will, 
however, be found most closely to approximate to the German, 
as in 

Thet riucht, Germ, das Recht, Icel. Rettr-in. 
Thi Mp, der Kauf, kaup-it. 

Thi noma, der Name, nafn-it. 

Thi berg, der Berg, berg-it. 

48. The following are the general rules for gender : 

MASCULINE. 

(i.) a. Names of males and nouns ending in -a (-elsa) or -u ; 
sunu, son ; mona, moon ; lamelsa, laming ; llodelsa, bloody 
wound ; hera, lord ; thtima, thumb. 

6. Nouns ending in -ath : mon-ath, month ; somn-at/i, gather- 
ing ; twedn-ath, thrimen-ath, two-thirds, third ; thing-ath, com- 
plaint, process. 

c. Nouns ending in -Mm: ein-dom, ownership; fri-dom, 
freedom ; kcrsten-ddm, Christendom. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 39 

d. Most nouns ending in -el, -ul, -I : app-el, apple ; gerd-el, 
girdle ; him-ul, heaven ; stap-ul, block ; nei-l, nail ; Jcer-l, churl. 
So where there is metathesis of the -el, as in nid-le, needle ; 
sped-el, spek-le, spittle. 

e. Nouns of agency ending in -ere : bog-ere, bowman ; 
onthing-ere, complainant ; sell-ere, seller. 

/. Nouns ending in -ing : kds-ing, tenant ; ethel-ing, noble- 
man ; ivits-ing, viking. 

g. Words ending in -ma and -m : bedsel-ma, bedstead ; set-ma, 
order ; brek-ma, fine ; dtke-m, son-in-law ; bose-m, bosom ; er-m, 
arm. 

h. Participial themes in -nd : fiand, enemy ; wigand, war- 
rior ; werand, surety ; friund, friend ; doend, evening. 

FEMININE. 

(2.) a. All names of feminine persons, the sun, and nouns 
with any suffix terminating in -e, except -ere, -te, and two or 
three nouns ending in unaccented -e (see under " Neuter ") : 
frowe, woman ; tunge, tongue ; thiuvethe, robbery ; betteringe, 
improvement ; fangnese, prison. 

b. Nouns terminating in -eth: dug-eth (-ed), virtue; meg-eth, 
maid. 

c. Nouns ending in -hed(e), -eJe, Germ, -heit : fri-hed, free- 
dom ; Icersten-ede, Christendom ; falsk-hede, falsehood. 

d. Some nouns ending in -skip(e), Germ, schaft : friund-skip, 
friendship ; del-skip, separation ; but they are pretty evenly 
divided between feminine and neuter. Some are both feminine 
and neuter in different texts, like mond-skip, guardianship, &c. 

NEUTER. 

(3.) . A few nouns ending in an -e, so indistinctly pro- 
nounced as frequently to fall away : rlke, rik, kingdom ; ivede, 
wed, weeds, clothing; mere, news. 

6. Most nouns ending in -en : tek-en } token ; bek-en, beacon. 

c. Nouns ending in -sel, as mdk-sel, make, fashion. 

(/. Collective nouns terminating in -te : bene-te, skeleton, 
bones ; slach-te, race. 

49. Nouns taken from other languages commonlv retain 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



the foreign gender, as tltiu Jcamer, the chamber; thiu krone, 
the crown ; thi engel, the angel. 

50. NOUNS OF DIFFERENT (Two OR MORE) GENDERS. 









M 

o 










t* 

s 




rs 











to 


c 

o 


5 


c 




H 


o 




z 


ho 


M 


S 


a 


ia 






"3 


43 





a 


"3 




3 


5 


ij 


o 




> 







& 


t; 


a 


B 


S 


Alter, altdre, altar 


Neut. 




Masc. 








B6k, book . 


Fern. 


F.' 


N. 








Breke, bretse, ruptura . 






M. & F. 








Del, part 


M. 


M'. 


M. 


M. & N. 






Fial, wheel . 




N. 




M. 


M. &N. 


... 


Fiardunye, fiardeng, ) 
farthing . . j 


F. 


M. 






M. 




He(i)lde, custody. 


N. 




F. 


F. 


N. 




Hille, helle, hell . 


F. 


F! 


F. &N. 




F. 




Hiri, here, army . 


M. 


M. & N. 


M. 




M. 




Jeft(e), jefta, gift . 




N. 




F! 


F. &N. 




Kerne, coming, 




F. 










In on-keme, beginning . 




M. 










In thruch-keme 


M. 


M. 










Kere, privilege 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F! 


M'. 




Merch, marrow . 




N. 


M. & N. 








Merk, boundary, in ) 






M. 




p. 




composition . j 














Mondskip . 






F. &N. 








Rene, running (in in- ) 

rene) | 


M. 


M. 


N. 








Skrift, writing 




F. 




M. 


M. & F. 




Sted, place . 


F! 




M. 








Tdm, progeny 




M. & F: 




M. 




M. 


Werth, worth . 


N. 


M. 


N. 









51. It is interesting to note how the natural has prevailed over the 
artificial gender in the case of the noun wif, which is grammatically 
neuter, and sometimes has the article, &c., agreeing with it in that 
gender, but most frequently in the inflections the rational gender has 
struggled to the surface, and both the definite and indefinite article 
and the proper pronouns agree with or relate to it in the feminine. 



DECLENSION. 

52. There are five cases in Old Friesic, the Nominative, 
Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, and Accusative; and two 
numbers, the Singular and the Plural. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 41 

53. There are two declensions, the Strong and the Weak ; 
i.e., of nouns whose theme ends in a vowel (the strong), and 
those so ending in a consonant (the weak). 

54. It may be interesting to observe that there are even fewer 
remnants of noun intiection.in Modern Friesic than in English. De- 
clension is accomplished by means of prepositions and the nnion of 
two nouns through the possessive pronoun, e.g., den mon, sin h-Az ; 
the man, his house. 

55. The strong, or vowel declension, consists of three 
classes of nouns, viz., those of themes in a, i, and u. 



STRONG DECLENSION. 

Class I Themes in a. 

MASCULINE. 

Ltli, an oath. Theme, Etha-. 
Singular. Plural. 



Nona, eth 

Gen. ethes (is) 

Dat. etha i- -e 

Ace. eth 



etha -r 
etha 

ethum -on -cm 
etha, -r 



FEMININE. 
Sele, soul. Theme, Sela-. 



Nora, sele 
Gen. sele 
Dat. sele 

Ace. sele 



sela 
selena 
selum -on 
sela 



NEUTER. 
Bern, child ; skip, ship. Themes, Berna-, skipa-. 



Nom. bern, skip 

Gen bern -is -es, skip -is -es 

Dat. bern -a -?, skip -a -e 

Ace. bern, skip 



bern (a), skipu -o 

berna, skipa 

bern -um -on, skip -um -on 

bern, skipu -o 



42 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

56. (i.) Like eth decline 6am, tree; bur, villager; del, 
deal; erm, arm; fisk, fish; hap, heap; stef, staff; wei, way; 
degan, man ; finger, finger. 

(2.) Like sele decline -jerde, earth ; nose, nose ; sine, nerve ; 
klage, complaint ; spreke, speech ; ttd, time ; jeve, gift ; lemilhe, 
laming ; kethene, announcement ; rede'ne, speech. 

(3.) Neuters ben, bone; her, hair; hits, house; Idf, loaf; 
muth, mouth ; hdved, head ; rike, kingdom ; word, word ; gers, 
grass; sker, ploughshare. 

57. (i.) The plural forms in -ar (-er) are the more archaic 
and less frequently used. There are some in -an and -en, but 
they are dialectic and mostly later forms, such as the Modern 
"West Friesic presents; i.e., -an, pronounced -en; eth-an and 
ed-en, Hunsingo and West Frisian ; TJpstalbom, riuchter -en. 
Observe also the remarkable form (that of the English plural) 
riuchter-s in the Emsiger Recht. Further plurals in -an and 
-en, deg-an, days (also deg-ori) ; dik-an, ditches ; hdvding-an, 
chiefs ; jeld-en, mulcts West Frisian forms. 

(2.) The genitive in -is prevails in the Rustringer Recht, that 
in -es in the other documents ; the dative in -i is peculiar to the 
Rustringer, that in -e to the Brokmer, and that in -a to the 
Emsiger and Hunsingoer. 

(3.) There are two forms in the nominative and accusative 
plural of neuter nouns ; words consisting of a short syllable 
have, like O.-S. and A.-S., the more ancient form u (Sansk., 
Greek, Latin, and Gothic, a), while those with a long syllable 
reject the termination. 

(4.) With the insertion of -ar or -er the following form their plural : 
kind, pi. kind-cr-a ; (kinda, kinder, Emsiger} ; kldth, vestis, pi. kldth- 
er-a (kldthar, kldtha) ; horn, pi. homar ; bon, ban, decree ; pi. bonnar 
(bonna, bon). 

(5.) A few neuters make the plural end in -c, weakened from -it, as 
Mken-e, beacons. One neuter has in the Rustringer Recht -i ; litlt-i, 
limbs. Sk6ch, shoe, has a remarkable plural, which recalls the O.-E. 
shoon: nom. sk6n (?), gen. skGna Hun. Recht, Itich. 339, 13. 

(6.) In the dative plural the form -on prevails in the 
Rustringer Codex ; the other documents (with the exception 
of the Brokmer, which has -um) lean to -em. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



43 



There is no trace of themes in -ja, except in a few nouns- 
exhibiting e in the nominative singular, as hodere, hat-bearer ; 
Mskthe, family ; and words derived from the Latin even drop 
this e, as alter for altdre ; but i for j vocalised occurs in blti, 
bite, genitive bites; hiri, army, genitive hiris. 

(7.) The masculine and neuter themes in -va (wa) drop the v 
altogether, e.g., se, sea, dative and accusative se ; kni, kne, dative kni, 
kne, accusative kni, kniu (O.-H.-G., kniwi, in composition) ; tr@, tree, 
A.-S. treow. 



58. Class II. Themes in i. 

MASCULINE. 

Liode, people. Theme, liodi-. 
Singular. Plural. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Toth, tooth. 

Nom. toth 
Gen. tothes 
Dat. tothe 
Ace. toth 



liode 
lioda 
liodum 

liode 

Theme, tothi-. 

teth (tothan, Huns.) 

totha 

toth -em -on 

teth 



FEMININE. 
Ned, need. Theme, nedi-. 



Nom. ned 
Gen. nede 
Dat. nede 
Ace. nede 



neda 

neda 

ned -im -um -on -em 

neda 



59. There are but few words of this declension, which 
contains only masculine and feminine nouns : bende, band ; 
dede, deed ; bok, book ; kti, cow ; strete, street ; wrald, world. 
The only masculines are Rtimere (a), pilgrim to Kome ; fot, 



44 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

foot ; toth, tooth ; liode, people. The original i sometimes is 
found in the dative plural, feminine; but the forms of the 
declension in -a have much encroached upon those of that in -i, 
as may be observed from the paradigms. The e of the oblique 
cases has gradually been admitted into the nominative, as in 
dede, deed, therefore presenting no distinction between the 
cases in the singular. Eok and M do not exhibit the umlaut 
as in Anglo-Saxon; except the latter in later Friesic, for 
which the plural Icy occurs once or twice. 



60. Class III. Themes in u. 

MASCULINE. 
(i.) Sunu, son. Theme, sunu-. 

Singular. Plural. 



Nom. ftunu (o) 

Gen. 

Dat. 



suna 
suna 
Ace. sunu 



sunar (a) 
suna 
sunum 
sunar (a) 



NEUTER. 

Fia, pecus, pecunia. Theme, fihu. 
Nom. fia 



Gen. Jias 
Dat. fia 
Ace. fia 



Wantins 



(2.) But few remnants of this declension are found. Add to the 
above frctho, peace ; and perhaps the dative honda of hond, feminine, 
may be cited as a remnant of this declension. 



THE WEAK DECLENSION. 

61. The theme of the weak declension ends in -an. The 
case endings have mostly fallen away, and even the n of the 
theme. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



45 



MASCULINE. 
Theme, honan-, cock. 

Norn, hona hona 

Gen. hona honan -a (-ona) 

Dat. hona honu -m 

Ace. hona hona 



Singular. 
Nom. tunge 
Gen. tunga 
Dat. tunga, 
Ace. tunga 



Nom. dge 
Gen. dga 
Dat. aga 
Ace. age 



Nom. $re 
Gen. <2m 
Dat. dra 
Ace. are 



FEMININE. 

Theme, tungan-, tongue. 



Plural, 
tunga 
tungan -a ' 
tungu -m 
tunga 



NEUTER. 
Theme, dgan-, eye. 



agon 
(dgen -a) 
dgen -um, dgum 
dgon, dgene 



Theme, dran-, ear. 



ara 

dren -a 
dru -m 
dra 



62. The masculine and feminine nouns have all lost the n of the 
theme, but in the neuter we observe in the nominative plural agon the 
ancient form, and the thematic n preserved in the dative dgcnum. 
There are feminine nouns of this declension which have dropped the 
thematic vowel and appear with the termination e, as Icclde, cold ; 
hrdne, smell, &c. 

Some of the documents still exhibit in the plural the case sign n, 
as in fona, banner, accusative plural fancn ; fro we, woman, accusative 
plural /run. 



46 THE OLD FRIES1C LANGUAGE. 

63. (i.) The following nouns belong to this declension: 
Masculine boda, messenger; frdna, judge; greva, earl; hera, 
lord ; knapa, servant ; maga, stomach ; mdtha, mouth of a 
river ; neva, nepos ; noma, name ; omma, spirit ; thtima, thumb ; 
willa, will ; manniska, homo. 

(2.) Feminine fovne, woman ; herte, heart ; lunge, lungs ; 
sunne, sun ; sivarde, skin ; tdne, toe. 

(3.) Neuter dye, eye ; are, ear. 

Other Consonantal Thtmes. 
64. Themes in r, primitive tara, tar. 

MASCULINE. 

Feder* father; brdtker, brother. 
Singular. Plural. 



Kom. feder 
Gen. feder -(s) 
Dat. feder -(e) 
Ace. feder 



federa 
federa 
federum 
federa 



Thus decline the feminine nouns m6der, mother ; swester, sister ; 
and dfahter, daughter. Sometimes, however, they take in the geni- 
tive singular the termination e. Remarkable is the later form feders, 
sometimes occurring in the nominative plural, so similar to English 
fathers. 

65. Themes in nd. 

Participial themes in nd. 

Friund. 



Nona, friund 
Gen. friundes 
Dat. friund -e 
Ace. friund 



friund 
friunda -n -e 
friundum 
friund 



Like friund decline fiand, enemy ; mtinath, m6nd, month ; though 
the later plural nominative lias strong form, mdnatlia -r. Wigand, 
warrior, and werand, auctor, are doubtful. 

* The Old Friesic has the ancient atta (Goth, atta, father), not in the sense 
of father, but rather in that of magistrate. The modern dialects, however, 
have it in the primitive signification ; thus in Amrura, atj, Hindelojiian ate ; 
heit of the Frisians between the Fli and Lauwers. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



47 



66. Themes ending in a guttural or dental. 

Naht, night. 

Nona, naht naht and nahta 

Gen. no/ties *nahta 

Dat. naht -e nahtum 



Ace. naht 

Nom. burch 
Dat. burch 



Burch, castle. 



naht and nahta 



burga 



67. ANOMALOUS. 

Mon, man. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. mon man, man, men 

Gen. monnes monna 

Dat. mon, monne monnum 

Ace. mon mon 

68. Defective Nouns. 

Most abstract nouns, proper names, and nouns of material 
have no plural, as gold, selover, duged, virtue, excellence ; fia, 
pecus, pecunia; rein, rain ; hat, hate; wisdom, wisdom ; hunger, 
hunger; slep, sleep, rest. 

69. Proper Names. 

Proper names are declined in various ways. The native 
names follow the strong declension. Of foreign names, some 
follow their own foreign declension, and others are inde- 
clinable. 

70. Diminutives. 

Diminutives are almost entirely wanting in Old Friesic and 
Anglo-Saxon, though in the latter there are geongling, young- 
ling; rap-inch (rap, rope), string, and four or five others. 

In the West Lauwers laws (Di fyfta doem, Richth. 420, 25) 
occurs a diminutive in -ke iceseken, young orphans. See 
also Epkema's Japickx, p. ii. of the Grammar. 

Diminutives do not exist in the modern West Frisian 
Hindelopian dialect, which is very archaic in many respects, 



48 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

though common in the others, as beanstjes, small beans; banfsje, 
small band ; glas-Jce, little glass ; bdnt-je, path (ban, a road, 
way). 

71. SUMMARY OF THE DECLENSIONS. 

Singular. 
Nom. 

Gen. -es -is -e -a, or same as nominative. 
Dat. -a -e -i, ,, 

Ace. -a-e, 

Plural. 

Nom. -ar -a -e -u -an -en, stem vowel changed, or sanie as 

nominative singular. 
Gen. -a -ena -ane. 
Dat. -um -on -im -em. 
Ace. same as nominative. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

72. There are two declensions of the adjective, the strong 
or indefinite declension, and the weak or definite. The latter 
is the declension of the adjective when preceded by the de- 
monstrative or article, by the possessive pronouns, and by 
the adjective al, or when the adjective is in the comparative 
degree. 

73. THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION. 

G6J, good. 
Singula 
MASC. 
Nom. god 
Gen. godes 
Dat. goda -e 
Ace. god -ene -ne -en 

74. This declension closely agrees with the one of the same 
name in Anglo-Saxon, even to the syncopation of the vowel 
in the terminations ene, ere, era, &c. ; for instance, allra for 
allera, othra for bthera, &c. 



Singular. 


Plural. 




FEM. 


NEUT. 


ALL GENDERS. 




gode 


god 


goda -e 




godere 


godes 


godera 




godere 


goda -e 


goda -e 


-en 


gode 


god 


goda -e 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



75. THE DEFINITE DECLENSION. 



49 



Singular. 


Plural. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


ALL GENDERS. 


Nom. goda 


gode 


gode 


goda 


Gen. goda 


goda 


goda 


gddena 


Dat. goda 


goda 


goda 


godum (-on) 


Ace. goda 


goda 


gode 


goda 



76. Adjectives ending in a consonant with a preceding 
short vowel, double the former in the inflections, as al, all, 
plural, alle ; ful, fulle. 

77. Adjectives ending in e have that vowel syncopated in 
the inflections, as rike, rich, accusative rika ; grene, green, 
dative grene. The e is a trace of the ancient j of the themes 
in ja. 

78. Both participles, the past and present, are declined like 
adjectives of the strong and weak declension. The present 
shows a trace of the ancient formative j before the case signs 
in the termination e of the uninflected cases of the strong 
declension, &sfindande. 



COMPARISON. 

79. Comparison is effected by means of the suffixes -ir and 
-or (weakened -er) for the comparative, and -ost (-ist, -est, and 
-ast modifications) for the superlative. 

80. Adjectives in the comparative are only inflected accord- 
ing to the weak declension, as hack, high; hdgera, higher; 
weldech, powerful, comparative weldegera. The two declensions 
reassert themselves in the superlative : examples of the super- 
lative hdgost, highest ; sibbest, superlative of sib, related. 

81. In view of the limited vocabulary of the Old Friesic, 
and the necessity for the deduction of those adjectives which 

D 



50 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

are by reason of their signification (such, for example, as 
gelden, golden ; hethen, heathen ; jeroch, of age, &c.) incapable 
of comparison, it will not appear strange that we find but few 
compared at all. 

82. A relic of the ancient superlative in -ma may be observed in 
forma, first, medtna, medius, which were, however, afterwards pro- 
vided with an additional superlative suffix, -est, so that formest and 
medemest occur, the original force of the -ma having been forgotten. 
A similar duplication is presented in the ordinals in the Emsiger and 
Hunsingo documents, &c., e.g., thred-ten-de-sta, thirteenth (de-da-ta 
being one superlative termination, and the -sta another) ; fif-tin-de-sta, 
fifteenth ; ach-ten-de-sta, eighteenth ; sogen-ten-de-sta, seventeenth ; 
and fioiuer-tin-do-sta, in the Riistringcr Recht. The only relics of 
the comparative endings, -ra, ta-ra, are to be found in adverbs, prepo- 
sitions, &c. ; and in 6th-er, e/t-er, ov-ir, und-er, &c. 

83. It is easy to decide which of the forms ir or or has 
been weakened into er when that occurs from the umlaut 
caused by the former in the preceding syllable, as in alt, old, 
comparative eldera. 

84. Sometimes nothing but the consonant of the suffix 
remains, as in fir, far, comparative ferra ; hdch, comparative 
hdgra. Again, there is syncopation of the stem, as in hdrra 
for hdgera, best for betest, &c., and omission of the vowel of the 
superlative affix, as in fir-st, middel-st. 



85. IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE COMPARISONS. 



Aster 


dsterst 


(lesscra litikest 


evel werra 




litik jlessa Icist, lerust 


efter (adv.) 


eftrost 


"\minnera, ) minn-'ust- 


cr (adv.) e-rra 


crost 


( minra \ est 


fir ferra 


ferost 


middel midlost 


f/6d betere, betrc 


best 


ni niar nest 


(grdt) mdra 


( mast * 
\ medemest 


nithera nitherest 
stith (adv.) siither suthrost 


inne (adv.) inre 


inrost 


ure urest 


let letera 


( letcst 
\lcst* 


Ht (adv.) iHtere utrost 



* This superlative is combined with end, end, to form an emphatic ex- 
tremut, ultimut; thus, ende-lett, ender-mest. 



THE OLD FPJESIC LANGUAGE. 



COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 

86. The comparison of adverbs is very irregular and limited. 
fir firor first 

forth further, farther 



wel 



mm 

mar, md 
bet 



best 



NUMERALS. 
87. CARDINALS. 

1 en 

2 twene 

3 thre 

4 fiuwer 

5 W 

6 sex 

7 sigun 

8 achta 

9 nigun 
i o tian 

The above are the regular forms ; great laxity, however, prevails 
in the orthography, and we sometimes find a numeral spelled in four 
or five different ways, all, however, easily recognisable, so that it will 
not be necessary to annex a list of variations. 

88. A relic of hund, A.-S. hund, as in liund-seofontig, Jmnd-eahtatig, 
hund-nigontig, is observable in t-niogentich, ninety ; t-achtich, eighty, 
(New Friesic and Dutch, tachtig). 



II 


andlova, elleva 


20 


tivintich 


12 


tivilif 


30 


thritich 


r 3 


(thretine) threttene 


40 


ftuwertich 


14 


jiuwertine 


5 


fiftich 


15 


ft/tine 


60 


sextich 


16 


sextine 


70 


siuguntich 


i7 


siuguntine 


80 


achtantich 


18 


achtatine 


90 


nigontich 


19 


niuguntine 


IOO 


hundred 



89. ORDINALS. 



With the exception 
forma, having another 
superlatives, having the 

First, forma, erosta 
Second, other, or 
Third, thredda 
Fourth, (fiuwerda) 
Fifth, ftfta 
Sixth, sexta 
Seventh, sigunda 



of other, which is a comparative, and 
superlative ending, the ordinals are 
superlative base -ta for a termination. 

Eighth, achtunda 
Ninth, niugunda 
Tenth, tianda, tegotha 
Fifteenth, fiftinda, 
Twentieth, tivintigosta 
Thirtieth, thritigosta 
One-hundredth, hondersta 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



90. DECLENSION OF NUMERALS. 
One. 



MASC. 


FEM. 


Norn, en, dn 


en, dn 


Gen. enes, dnes 


enere 


Dat. ena 


itnere 


Ace. enne, dnne 


ene 



ISTEUT. 
en, dn 



MASC. 
Nora, twene 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. twene 



Tioo. 

FEM. 
twd 
twira 
twdm 
twd 



ena 
en 



NEUT. 
twd 



twd 



(i.) The genitive of en is used adverbially to signify " once." 

(2.) The weak forms of en are ena, everywhere except in 
ace. neut. ene. 

(3.) $n, with the prefix al (the I being geminated before 
the long vowel), serves to form the adverb (as well as adjec- 
tive) allene, alone. Like en decline nen, none. The numeral 
adverb for twice is tivlra. 

(4.) In compounds twd alone occurs ; e.g. twd and tuintech 
merka, two-and-twenty marks ; twd and thritech scillingar, two- 
and-thirty shillings ; twd hundred scillinga, two hundred shil- 
lings. Sometimes inflected, as in bi twdm and thrUick merka, 
bi twdm hundred scillinyum. The conjunction sometimes loses 
its dental media in such collocations ; as in fiuwer antwintege 
merka, twenty-four marks ; en antwintich, one-and-twenty. 

(5.) That the original distinctness with respect to gender in this 
numeral became somewhat impaired is evinced by the fact that twene 
is sometimes found with a feminine noun, and tivd with a masculine. 



91. 

Norn, thre 
Gen. thrira 
Dat. thrium, thrim. 
Ace. thre 



Three. 

thria 
thrtra 

thrium, thrim 
thria 



thriu 
thrira 

thrium, thrim 
thriu 



The numeral adverb for thrice is thria. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 53 

92. OTHER NUMERALS. 



Both. 



Nom. bethe 

Gen. bedera 

Dat. betha, beda,* bedem 

Ace. 



bethe 

bethe 
betha 



betha 



betha 



(i.) The other numerals are of common gender and unin- 
flected, except in isolated cases. 

(2.) There is a distributive form in the Emsiger Becht, tuine (Goth. 
tweihnai), which occurs in the phrase tuisJca tuine kindem, between 
two children of different mothers (Ger. zweierlei Kinder). 

(3.) Other has the inflection of a strong adjective, but has, on 
account of its signification, suffered a transposition of the strong 
nominal ending for the dat. pi. into the sing. ; thus dat. sing, dtheron, 
dthrum. 

(4.) Multiplicatives are formed by the addition of -fald, as 
in en-fald, thri-fald, &c. 

(5.) To supply the wanting numeral adverbs, seth or stund 
is employed ; thus, tian sethen or tian stunda. 

93. There is a peculiar use of sum, attached to numerals, in the 
genitive, in this : that it gives the sense of one's self being the third, 
fourth, fifth, &c., with two, three, or four others, indicating a close 
companionship ; thus, twira-sum, tkrira-sum, two, three of us together. 
This same idiom occurs in A.-S., O.-S., and in Sanskrit, f 

* When standing alone, or after the word to which it refers. 

f As in " praviyatydtmandtritlyo, with himself as the third, or, with him- 
self making the third, i.e., himself and two others. This is a remarkable 
compound, not unusual in Sanskrit. Compare pdntfavdmdtri-shashtah, the 
Pandavas with their mother as the sixth ; i.e., five persons, or six, counting 
their mother (Hid. i. i, Bopp). Again, chhdyddwitiyo Nalah, Nala made 
two by his shadow, umbrageminatus (Nala, Bopp, ch. v. 26). Also, adhite 
chaturo Veddn dkhydna-panchamdn, he reads the four Vedas with the 
Akhyanas as a fifth (Nala, vi. 9). A very similar idiom prevails in Greek, 
dvris being used after the ordinal numbers to show that one person, in con- 
junction with some others, whose number is less by one than the number 
mentioned, has done something ; thus, TT^TTTOS dvrbs, himself with four 
others (Thucydides, I. xlvi). The rpLrov T/jiuTdXcuTOc, two talents and a 
half, and tpSofj-ov TjfMTdXavrov, six talents and a half, of Herodotus (I. 15, 50) 
afford a further illustration of this idiom." Sakuntala, p. 12, ed. Monier 
Williams, 1853. 



54 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

94. PRONOUNS. 

Singular. 



IST PERSON. 


2D PERSON. 


3o PERSON. 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. ik 


thu 


hi, he 


[ hiu, s$ 


hit 


Gen. min 


thin 


(sin) 


hiri 


(sin) 


Dat. mi 


thi 


him 


hiri 


him 


Ace. mi 


tni 


hint -e -a 


hia, sd 


hit 



Plural. 



IST PERSON. 


2n PERSON. 


3o PERSON. 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom. wi 


*', gi 


hia, se 


hia, se 


hia, se 


Gen. faer 


iuwer* 


hira, hiara 


him, hiara 


hira, hiara 


Dat. ils 


iu, io 


him, hiam 


him, hiam 


him, hiam 


Ace. 'As 


iu, io 


hia, se 


hia, se 


hia, se 



95. (i.) This dialect makes use of the demonstrative base 
hi, prim, ki, throughout in the third person, except in the 
masculine and neuter genitive singular, where it employs sin, 
which is the only remnant of the true pronoun of the third 
person existent. We find in the nominative plural the base 
si as well as hi. There is another pronoun of the second 
person side by side with thu, viz., ju, jo, gen. joen; gen. pi. 
joere, joewer. Also one of the third person (Mid.-Fr.)j>V, he, 
an intruder from the Germ, (jener), or possibly a relic of the 
ancient demonstrative jener, Goth, jains. 

(2.) The possessive pronouns are min, thin, sin (from an 
ancient reflexive si, se), hiri (hire), Use, juwe. They have 
strong adjective endings. 

96. (i.) Very necessary to be noted is the contraction 
suffered by the pronoun of the third person, in this : that 
it exhibits a tendency to join itself, in the nominative, 
to the demonstrative, to other forms of itself, and in various 
cases and other words (following them), in a very trun- 
cated shape. Instead, however, of hi the pronominal base 
employed by the Old-High-German is used for the expression 
of the nominative masculine, viz., er transposed thus -re ; so 

* Jemma, in later Friesic ; also used in the nominative and dative. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 55 

we quote sd-re, so he, for sd hi, sd er, mei-re for mei er, may 
he, &c. For hit simply -t or et occurs : e.g., mei't, may it; is't 
for is hit, and skeVt for skel hit, jev-et, if it. For hini or hine, 
-ne is the form employed: e.g., halde'ne for halde hine; hi'ne 
for hi hine ; sd nime hi'ne, so let him take him. For him only 
-m appears : alsd 'm, as to him. Er occurs disjoined some- 
times, as in thet er, that he. We also find jev-e for jef hi, 
and e in some other cases employed for re, and ra for 
hiara. 

Special attention should be paid to these forms, as they are 
printed without any typographical device to distinguish or 
call attention to them (thus haldene), and it may in some cases 
be difficult to recognise them. 

(2.) This prevails to such an extent in Modern Friesic (and not 
alone in connection with pronouns, but generally) that, unprovided 
with a clue, one might readily find many forms undecipherable, e.g., 
kanst'A for kanst du ; hastune hast dti him ; hdwi hdbbe wi ; d6 
slugzene for d6 slug dju him. 

97. The same kind of contraction characterises the de- 
monstrative thi : thus thet-et for thet (conjunction) thet ; thet-i 
for thet thi ; oppa-re stede, on (or at) the place, for oppa there 
stede; umbe-ne for umbe thene ; oppa-ne for oppa thene ; dt-a 
for 'At tha; ivith-es for with thes ; and then, again, we find 
the latter part of the article lopped off, and generalty remark- 
able forms appearing, as wel-eth for wel-thet, &c. Thet appears 
with loss of aspiration in is-tet ; and d replaces the aspirate 
after n, e.g., andere, anda, &c. 

98. That there was formerly a dual in Friesic is apparent 
from its occurrence in modern dialects, in which it has long 
existed in pronouns ; thus, in North Friesic 



FIRST PERSON. 
wdt 
unk 
unk 



SECOND PERSON. 

jdt 

junk 

junk 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



RiSUM AND LINDHOLD (Grimm, Geschichte der d. Spr., 976). 



FIRST PERSON. 
Nom. wat 
Gen. unker 
Dat. unk 
Ace. unk 



SECOND PERSON. 
j'at 

junker 
junk 
junk 



ISLAND OF SYLT (Germaniens Volkerstimmen, I. i). 



FIRST PERSON. 
Nom. wat, we two 
Gen. unk 
Dat. unk 
Ace. unk 



SECOND PERSON. 
at, you two ; jat, they two 
junk jam 

junk jam 

junk jam 



The dual thus retained is a singularly archaic formation 
older even in some respects than the Gothic, which has, for 
instance, no nominative dual second person, but which un- 
doubtedly was jut. 

99. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, 
(i.) FIRST DEMONSTRATIVE. The Definite Article tld. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 




Nom. thi 


thiu * 


thet 


tha 


Gen. thes 


there 


thes 


thera 


Dat. tham, tha 


there 


tham, tha 


thdm, thd 


Ace. thene 


tha 


thet 


tha 


Inst. 




thiu 





Some of the above forms in the texts begin with a d. 

(2.) In the modern dialects of Heligoland and West Frisia there is 
no distinction (as there is not in Danish or Swedish) between the 
masculine and feminine article. 

(3.) The instrumental appears in a few adverbial phrases, 
as in efter thiu, thereafter ; bi-thio, therefore ; til thiu, in order 
that ; with thiu, according as. 

* Theo, thiu, thio, and tl>$ occur for this in A.-S. (especially in Northum- 
brian) in some cases instead of seo. See the glossarial remarks of Sir F. 
Madden to Layamon's Brut, vol. iii. p. 441, and March, Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar, p. 69. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



57 



100. SECOND DEMONSTRATIVE, this. 



s 

MASC. 
Nom. this (dis) 


ingular. 
FEM. 
thius (dius) 


NEUT. 
thit (dit), this 


Gen. thisses 


thisse, disse 


thisses, disses 


Dat. thisse, thessa 
Ace. (tkisne, thesne) 


disse 
thisse 


thisse 
thit, dit 



Plural. 

thisse, thesse 
(thessera) dis- 

ser, desser 
thisse, thesse 
ttdsse, desse 



101. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Singular. 



MASC. 

Nom. hwa, who 
Gen. hwammes 
Dat. hwam 
Ace. hwane, hwene 



NEUT. 
hiuet 

hwammes 
hwam 
hwet 



(r.) The genitive of this pronoun is constructed on the dative form. 
(2.) No interrogative was developed for the feminine. 
(3.) Hweli/c (hwek) is declined like the adjective. 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

102. The particle ther and the demonstrative perform the 
functions of the relative pronoun. Care should be taken 
to discriminate the particle ther from the adverb ther (ibi). 
Both the adverb and the particle are subject to the contrac- 
tion referred to in Sections 96 and 97, loss of aspiration, 
&c., as in thet-ter, Germ, das was, mot-er, &c. Sometimes the 
abbreviated form -re or -ere occurs for the adverb ther, which 
is frequently identical in its use with the English pronominal 
adverb there, employed to introduce propositions ; e.g., sTcelen- 
ere wesa, shall there be f hwet-sd -re, whatever there, &c. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

103. Sum, pi. summe, sumWce, nen, ma * French on ma 
sometimes having, before a word beginning with a vowel, an 
r appended to it, in order to avoid a hiatus, as in hwersd ma-r 

* Ma once has a verb agreeing with it in the plural ; als ma schildich sint, 
which has reference to its really plural signification of people. 



58 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

enne thiaf feth, whoever catches a thief; hweder, uter; hwa-sd, 
neut. hwet-sd, quisque; sd-hwa-sd (sd-hwet-sd), quicunque; se-lik 
= Goth, swa-leiks such ; hwelik, hwek, each ; el-lik (from d-ge- 
lik, O.-H.-G. eo-ga-lth) shortened to -elk, ek, is very frequently 
(in the latter form) appended to a noun, as in aller-ek, alr-ek, 
alra ek; allera-jerd-ik for allera jerda ek ; aller-monn-ik for 
allera monna ek ; aller-lik, unusquisque ; enich, ullus. 

THE VERB. 
Voices. 

104. There are two voices in the Old Friesic, the active 
and the passive. The only representative of the passive is a 
participle. Verbs are conjugated in the passive voice by the 
aid of auxiliaries. 

Moods. 

105. There are three moods, the indicative, the subjunctive, 
and imperative. The infinitive and gerund are nouns, and the 
participles are adjectives. 

Tenses. 

106. There are but two tenses, the present and preterit; 
but the future, perfect, and pluperfect are supplied by the 
assistance of auxiliaries. 

Conjugations. 

107. Verbs are conjugated in two ways, viz., according to 
the strong and weak conjugations. 

Strong verbs are such as express past time by a change of 
the root vowel. 

Weak verbs express past time by composition. The pre- 
terit of weak verbs is that of the verb to do, joined to the 
verbal theme. 

108. AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Wesa, to be. 

INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



1. bem (ben) 

2. (bist) 

3. is 



send 
send 
send 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 
PRETERIT. 



59 



1. was 

2. were 

3. was 



st 



were 
were 
were 



weron 
weron 
weron 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
PRESENT. 



PRETERIT. 



IMPERATIVE. 

I 

INFINITIVE. 

wesa 

PARTICIPLE. 
(e) wesen 

GERUND. 
to wesande. 



were 
were 
were 



ii'esath (wessct) 



109. WERTIIA. 

PRESENT INDICATIVE, Singular werth, plural wcrthat(h\ 
PRETERIT warth, wurdon. 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, werthe. 

PRETERIT wurde. 

IMPERATIVE, Singular werthe. 

,, Plural werthat. 
GERUND, td werdane. 

PARTICIPLE PRESENT, werdand. 

,, PRETERIT, wurthen. 



6o 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

STRONG VERBS. 

110. Verbs of Classes i, 2, 3, and 4 (i and 2) present 
evidence, in the ablaut, of original reduplication, which, how- 
ever, has only been preserved in Gothic. Upon Friesic its 
only impress is its influence exhibited upon the vowel system 
of the verbs. 

For the formation of the present theme, to the root -e = -i, 
which supplanted an earlier -a, is added, thus, find-e. To a 
few -ja is added, as in lidzja, swerja, bidja, bidda, sitta = sitja, 
and in two or three an n is inserted in the root before the 
final consonant: as in sto-n-da, root sta; gu-n-ga, root ga; 
bre-n-ga, root brag ; tha-n-ka or the-n-zja, root thak, dak; thi-n- 
szja, root thuk, duk. 

Strong verbs are ranged in ten classes, which are as 
follows : * 





RADICAL. 


PRESENT. 


PRETERIT 
SING. 


PRETERIT 
PLUR. 


PRETERIT 
PART. 


CLASS i. ) 












Grimm iv., v., vi. \ 


a, 





A 


i, e 


^ 


CLASS 2. 












Grimm L ' 


a 


a 


i, e 


i, 3 


a 


CLASS 3. 
Grimm, ii. ' 


ai (i) 


6 


t, B 


i,e 


e 


CLASS 4(1). 
Grimm iii. \ 


au (u) 


A 


i, io 


t, io 


A, & 


CLASS 4 (2). 


6 (a) 


6,3 


i, io 


i, io 


6, S, 


CLASS 5. 












Grimm viii. 


i 


* 


e 


i 


i 


CLASS 6. 
Grimm ix. 


u 


iu, ia, u 


A 


e 


e 


CLASS 7. 
Grimm vii. 


a 


a, e 


6 


6 


a, e 


CLASS 8. ) 








A A 




Grimm x. \ 


a 


i, e 


a, e 


a, e 


i, e 


CLASS 9. j 












Grimm xi. \ 


a 


i, e 


a, c, e 


A, & 


i, e 


CLASS io. 












Grimm xii. 


a 


i, e 


a 


u 


u 



* Helfenstein's Compar. Gram, of the Teutonic Languages, p. 411 if. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



6l 



111. Verbs to illustrate the classes. 

Class i, sUpa, reda, leta, wepa. 

2, halda, ivalda, banna (bonna). 

3, heta, skStha. 

4 (i), hlApa, steta ; Goth, stautan. 
4 (2), hropa, * fioka. 

5, grtpa, driva, snitha, hniga, stiga. 

6, diupa, kriapa, niata, skiata, sluta, biada, kiasa, liasa, liaka. 

7, fara, skapa, waxa, draqa, slaga. 
8, 

9, j'eva, bira, stela, nima, wesa, breka, spreka. 
10, hilpa, binda,finda, winna, berna, werpa, wertha. 



112. PARADIGMS. 

Finda, to find ; Tciasa, to choose. 

PRES. INFIN. PRET. INDIC. PRET. PLUR. PASS. PART. 
jinda, kiasa. /and, kds. fundon, keron. funden, keren. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 

Ikfinde, Tciase, i find, choose 
Thu findest, kiosest, thou findest, 

choosest 
Hifindeth, kioseth, he finds, chooses 



Plural. 

Wifindath, kiasath, we find, choose 
I findath, kiasath, you find, choose 
Hia findath, kiasath, they find, 
choose 



Fund, kds, I found, chose 
Fundest, kerest 
Fand, kds 



PRETERIT. 

Fundon, keron, we found, chose 
Fundon, keron 
Fundon, keron 



FUTURE. 
I shall find, choose. 



Skil finda, kiasa 
Skalt finda, kiasa 
&kil finda, kiasa 



Hcbbe funden, kcren 
Hast funden, keren 
Hcth funden, keren 



Skil u(n') finda, Jtiasa 
Skilu(n) finda, kiasa 
Skilun finda, kiasa 



PERFECT. 
I have found, chosen. 

Hcbbath funden, keren 
Hebbath funden, kcren 
Hebbath funden, keren 



This verb also lias a weak preterit, hrop-te. 



62 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



PLUPERFECT. 
I had found, chosen. 

Hedonfunden, keren 
Hedonfunden, keren 
Hedonfunden, keren 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. PRETERIT. 



(If) I find, choose. 



Singular. 
Finde, kiase 
Finde, kiase 
Finde, kiase 



Plural. 
Finde, kiase 
Finde, kiase 
Finde, kiase 



Singular. 
Funde, kere 
Funde, kere 
Funde, kere 



(If) I found, chose. 

Plural. 
Funde, kere 
Funde, kere 
Funde, kere 



PERFECT. 
(If) I have found, chosen. 



Singular. 

Hebbefunden, keren 
Hebbefunden, keren 
Hebbefunden, keren 



Plural. 

Hebbefunden, keren 
Hebbefunden, keren 
Hebbefunden, keren 



PLUPERFECT. 
(If) I had found, chosen. 



Singular. 

Hedefunden, keren 
Hedefunden, keren 
Hedefunden, keren 



Plural. 

Hedefunden, keren 
Hedefunden, keren 
Hedefunden, keren 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Find, choose. 



Find, kios (2d person) 



Findath, kiasath 



INFINITIVE. 

To find, choose. 

Finda, kiasa 

PARTICIPLE. 
PRESENT. 
Finding, choosing. 



Findand, kiasand 



PRETERIT. 
Found, chosen. 



Funden, keren 

GERUND. 

To find, choose. 

Tofindande, kiasande. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 
Ik bem (ben) funden, keren, I am 

found, chosen 
Thu (bist) funden, Jceren, thou art 

found, chosen 
Hi is funden, keren, he is found, 



chosen 



Was funden, keren 
Were funden, keren 
Was funden, keren 



Plural. 



Wi send funden, keren 
I send funden, keren 
Hia send funden, keren 



PRETERIT. 
I was found, chosen. 

Weron funden, keren 
WSron funden, keren 
Weron funden, keren 



FUTURE. 
I shall be found, chosen. 



Singular. 

Skil wesa funden, keren 
Skalt wesa funden, keren 
Skil wesa funden, keren 



Plural. 

Skilu(n) wesa funden, Tier en 
Skilu(n) wesa funden, keren 
Skilun wesa funden, keren 



PERFECT. 

I have been found, chosen. 
Bem wurthen funden, keren, &c. | Send wurthen funden, keren, &c. 

PLUPERFECT. 
I had been found, chosen. 
Was wurthen funden, keren, &c. I 



Sc funden, kcrcn 
Se funden, keren 
Sd funden, keren 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
(If) I be found, chosen. 

Sc funden, keren 
S6 funden, keren 
8$ funden, keren 



Were funden, kcrcn 
Were funden, keren 
Were funden, keren 



PRETERIT. 
(If) I were found, chosen. 

Were funden, keren 
Were funden, keren 
Were funden, keren 



64 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Be found, chosen. 
Wese funden, Tceren (ad person) I Wesath funden, keren 

INFINITIVE. 
To be found, chosen. 
Wesa funden, keren 

PARTICIPLE. 
Found, chosen. 
Funden, keren 

113. Contracted forms of wesa with the negative : nis, is not ; nus, 
was not ; nere, were not (subj.) 

114. A future perfect tense may be formed by means of skil 
and hebba ; thus : Ik skil hebba funden, I shall have found. 



115. INTRANSITIVE FORM OF THE VERB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRETERIT. 



Singular. 

Ik bem kemen, I have (am) come 
Thw (hist) kemen, thou hast come 
Hi is kemen, he has come 



Plural. 
Send kemen 
Send kemen 
Send kemen 



PLUPERFECT. 
Was kemen, had come, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRETERIT. 
Ik se kemen, that I have come. 

116. REMARKS ON THE PARADIGMS. 

No dental but t can remain before the st of the second 
person singular: xst becomes xt; th in the third person is 
contracted with a preceding d into t, as in ftnt, halt ; so also 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 65 

with t preceding : with a preceding th into th ; with s or st 
into st; with x to xt. i for e occurs in the second and third 
persons singular : ist and ith. There is quite a manifest 
inclination in the th to lose its aspiration ; sometimes it is 
dropped altogether, as bieda for biadat(h}. 

117. There is but little evidence of the employment of the 
umlaut in the verbal inflections. Rhotacism has been adopted, 
especially in Classes 5 and 6, as kds, plural heron; was, 
weron, &c. 

118. Class 9 may be considered as identical with Class 8, 
because the preterit participle has in both the weakened 
radical e; iu in Class 6 is condensed into $, as in sMta, 
l&ka. 

119. The subjunctive in both present and preterit has 
suffered, apocope of the n, and ends regularly in -e. 

120. The so-called gerund is merely an inflected form of 
the infinitive a verbal noun. 

121. The verb meaning to hang has four stems, hang, honga, hu, 
huang. FA, to take, presents the two stems fanga andfdh. 

122. The following have one or more weak forms, principally in 
the pret. participle : berna, bonna, kerva, riva, sketha, steta, strida. 

123. Verbs like^a, to fly ; sia, to see ; tia, to draw ; lia, to loan ; 
slA, to strike ; fA, to take ; hua, to hang ; bi-fclla, to command, have 
lost an h before the infinitive termination: O.-S. fliohan, gi-seha, 
tiohcm, O.-H.-G. lihan, O.-S. slaJian, fAhan, Goth, hahan, O.-S. bi- 
felhan, 

124. The dental is frequently omitted from the present participle, 
as in drhvcii for driwcml, drcgan, libban, &c. 

125. In such forms as onsittane and lidsane the final vowel is a 
relic of the ancient -ja. The present part, often has this conclusion, 
causing it to appear as -ande. 

E 



66 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



126. PERIPHRASTICAL CONDITIONAL FORM OF 
THE VERB. 

(VERB A PR^ETERITO-PR^ESENTIA.) 

The praeterito-prcesentia are a number of ablaut verbs which 
no longer exhibit a present form, but use the preterit form 
in a present sense, and for the expression of past time take to 
themselves the endings of weak verbs. 



PRES. SING. PEES. PLUR. 


PRET. 


INFIN. 




kan, 


kunnon, 


kunda, 


kunna, 


can. 


thurf, 


thurvon, 




thurva, 


need to. 


dur, thur, 


thuron, 


thorste, 


thura, 


need to. 


skil, 


skilu(n), 


skoldi(e), 


skila, 


shall. 


mei t mi, 


mugu(n), 


machte, 


(mega), 


may. 


dch, 


Agon, 


dchte, 


figa, hdga, 


have to. 


w&t, wit, 






wita, 


know how to. 


(ducht), 






duga, 


able to. 


mdt, 


mdton, 


mdste, 


mdta, 


must 



They are used with the infinitives of verbs as auxiliaries, as 
mei finda, may find ; mot kuma, must come. To form the 
passive, insert between the auxiliary and participle wesa or 
wertha ; thus : Jean wesa funden, can be found. 

127. Bi-jenna, one of the verbs following the analogy of 
the prceterito-prcesentia, has, in addition to the regular preterit, 
also bigunde, bigonste ; the others are iverka, which has a pre- 
terit written by metathesis wrochte ; brenga, brensza, bring, 
brochte ; thanka, thenszja' think, thochte; and wille, wilt, iville, 
plural willath, preterit welde, wolde. 



128. SECOND CONJUGATION. 
WEAK VERES. 

For the formation of the infinitive, -ja, for primitive -aya 
or -6 (sometimes represented by -a) is added to the root. 

Nera, theme ner-ja, to preserve ; seka, to seek ; salvja, to save. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



6 7 



PRETERIT INDICATIVE. 



Singular. 
Nerede, sdchte, salvade 



Plural. 

Neredon, sochton, salvadon 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT, nerand, 
PRETERIT, nerid, 



sekand, 
sdcht, 



salvjand. 
salvad. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PHESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 
Nere, scke, salvje 
Nerist, nerst, sSkist, sekst, salvast 
Nereth, sekth, salvath 



Plural. 

Nerath, sekath, salvjath 
Neratli, sekath, salvjath 
Nerath, sekath, salvjath 



PRETERIT. 



Nerede, nerde, sochte, salvade 
Neredest, sdchtest, salvadest 
Nerede, sochte, salvade 



Neredon, sochton, salvadon 
Neredon, sochton, salvadon 
Neredon, sochton, salvadon 



FUTURE. 



Ik skal ncra, seka, salvja 
Thu skalt nera, seka, salvja 
Hi skil nera, seka, salvja 



Wi sldlu(n} nera, seka, salvja 
I skilu(n) nera, seka, salvja 
Hia skilu(n) nera, seka, salvja 



PERFECT. 



Ik hebbe nerid, socht, salvad 
Thu hast nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hi heth nerid, sdcht, salvad 



Wi hebbath nerid, soeht, salvad 
I hebbath nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hia hebbath nerid, sdcht, salmd 



PLUPERFECT. 



Ik hcde nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hi hede nerid, sdcht, salvad 



Wi hedon nerid, sdcht, salvad 
I hedon nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hia hedon nerid, sdcht, salvad 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Neri (c), seki (e), salvje 
Ncri, scki, salvje 
Neri (e), seki (e), salvje 



Nerede, sochte, salvade 
Nerede, sochte, salvade 
Nerede, sdchte, salvade 



Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salvad 



PRESENT. 

Neri (e), scki (e), salvje 
Ncri (c), scki (c), salrje 
Neri (e), seki (e), salvje 

PRETERIT. 

Nerde, sochte, salvade 
Nerde, sdchte, sah-ade 
Nerde, sdchte, salvade 



PERFECT. 



Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salt-ad 
Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hebbe nerid, sdcht, salvad 



68 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



PLUPERFECT. 



Hede nerid, socht, salvad 
Uede nerid, s6cht, salvad 
Hede nerid, sdcht, salvad 



Hede nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hede nerid, sdcht, salvad 
Hede nerid, sdcht, salvad 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Nere, sece, salva (ad person) | Nerath, secath, salvjath 

INFINITIVE. 
Nera, seka, salvja. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE, nerand, sekand, salvjand. 
PRETERIT ,, nerid, sdcht, salvad 

GERUND, to nerande, sekande, salvjande. 

129. The following are the most important weak verbs : 
Wera, to defend ; era, to plough ; bera, to behoove, to become ; 
lema, to weaken ; nera, to save ; sella, to sell ; setta, to set ; strekka, 
to stretch ; tella, to number ; segga, sedza, to say ; spera, to investi- 
gate ; cupja, to buy ; makja, to make ; halja, to fetch ; nomja, to 
name ; rdvja, to rob ; endgja, to end ; folgja, to follow ; dskja, to 
ask ; klagja, to complain, accuse ; radja, to speak ; skathja, skathigja, 
to damage ; wardja, to ward ; hlaka, to laugh ; gadurja, to gather ; 
spera, to touch, reach ; leda, to lead ; dema, to judge ; fera, to lead, 
bring ; Mta, to compensate ; seka, to seek ; dela, to divide ; sivera, to 
swear ; timbria, to build ; ondwardja, to answer ; reka, to deliver to ; 
h&ra, to hear ; slepa, to sleep ; hebba, to have ; riuchta, to judge ; 
libba, to live ; thanka, to think ; erja, to honour. 

130. REMARKS ON THE WEAK CONJUGATION. 

Two forms of verbs are exhibited, viz., those having a short 
or long radical, as in O.-S. and A.-S. 

The preterit suffix is -de, which is added to the root. 
Short verbs may though they seldom employ it add the 
preterit suffix by means of the connective e (for i from ja). 
The Old Saxon preterit termination -da, connecting vowels i 
and o, appears in Friesic as -de, connecting vowels e and a ; 
O.-S. nerida, skawode ; Fries, nerede, salvade. 

131. Verbs with organic gemination add the suffix without 
connecting vowel, and also quite a number of short verbs 
which, by means of inorganic gemination, have become long, 
as sella selja, setta, tella, segga, &c. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 69 

132. After long roots the stem -e is syncopated, as in dela, 
to distribute, preterit delde. 

133. After/, h, k, p, s (generally), t, and x, d is assimilated 
or becomes surd (-t), so that the suffix appears as -te. The 
mute k becomes ch before t, as in seka, preterit sockte. 

134. Stems having a final Tc or its gemination afford the 
only examples of Riickumlaut : e returns to a, and e to 6, as in 
seka, sochte; thekka, tliachte. 

135. The preterit participle ends in -id and -ed in verbs with 
short radical, and in d or t accordingly as the preterit suffix 
appears as -de or -te: as nera, nerid ; wisa, wisde, wisd; achta, 
achte, acht ; sterva, sterft. 

136. Verbs which in the present tense exhibit a/ are often 
further lengthened to igja, egja, gja : as endja, to end, endigja, 
endgja ; stedja, stedigja, stedgja ; skathja, to injure, skathigja, 
&c. ; and we find that sometimes the first portion, - ig, of 
this suffix is mistaken for part of the root, and consequently 
exhibited in the formation of the preterit : as in nedigja, pre- 
terit nedigade, participle, nedgad. a regularly replaces the 
thematic d of the Goth. : salbdda, Fries, salvade. 

137. Of libba, to live, there is another form, levja or livja; 3d pers. 
sing, levath or livat/i, pret. livade; the pres. plur. is libbath, sulij. 
libbe, pret. lifde. 

138. Variations in the final vowel of the subj. pres. -i, as 
in wiri, lemi ; -a, as in meta, beta, leva, &c. ; -je, as in thenzje, 
ledzje, scenzje; and disappearance of the vowel sometimes 
before -ma, as in urdel-ma. So, generally, the final vowel 
drops out of many other verbal forms. 

ANOMALOUS VERBS (Verbs without Connecting Vowel). 

139. The following verbs are anomalous : ist person 
singular, present tense, due, $<]. deth, doth, plural duath, 



70 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

subjunctive due, preterit indicative dede, plural dedon, preterit 
participle den, dan ; gdth, geith, goes, preterit participle gen ; 
these are the only forms of this root, all the others being 
supplied by gunga, preterit geng, gengon, preterit participle 
cfangen, gengen, gendzen. 

Of the root std (Str. v.) we only me.et with the infinitive and third 
singular, present indicatives^; everywhere else stonda, stdd, stodon, 
preterit participle, stenden, stinsen. 



COMPOSITION. 

140. There is a great abundance of compound words in 
Friesic. 

Nouns frequently appear unchanged in composition : e.g., 
sten-htis, stone-house; the first member of the compound is 
sometimes in the genitive, as sunna-skin, sunshine.* Some 
nouns ending .in e cast that vowel away before the last 
member of the compound : e.g., irth-fal, earth-fall, felling to 
the ground, for irthe-faL 

141. Verbs are freely compounded with adverbs and pre- 
positions : up-stonda, to arise ; of-gunga, to go away ; forth- 
fdra, to fare forth, &c. 

(.) The prefixed preposition or adverb may occasionally, as in (Jer- 
rnan, be separated from the verb whose meaning it modifies, and appear 
later on in the sentence : as in sprec-ma thene redjeva on, if one appeal 
to the judge, &c. And some prefixes have in course of time become 
so thoroughly incorporated with the verb, thai; the perception of their 
original signification has been lost, and the primary sense of the prefix 
is expressed by another, giving rise to apparent tautology. 

142. An adjective is usually compounded with a noun 
without any change, as ful-brother, half-brother, &c. 

143. Some particles change their meaning in composition, 
as for, to, te, and under. 

* In the compound word for Saturday, which answers to German Sonna- 
bend, there is syncopation of the stem in botli members ; thus, Sniond for 
tinina-urend t Snaind, Sniun (parallel forms Sntrcnd, Sntvend). 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 71 

To has the sense of violence involved in it sometimes under 
such circumstances, though it is really not the preposition ; 
it is a prefix signifying separation, destruction originally te. 
Examples : to-driva, to tear apart ; to-dela, separate ; for-stonda 
(Germ, verstehen), to understand ; for-sitta, to lose, neglect ; 
under-stonda, to understand. 

The particle ur corresponds to the German ver : urbarna 
(Germ, verbrennen), to burn up. It is liable to be confounded 
with ur, over. 

144. The first word in a compound, as a rule, serves to 
define and qualify the second ; the latter is generally the 
more important, and gives the gender to the compound. 



145. PREFIXES. 

The following are the prefixes most frequently used : 

( as in a-j'en, against ; a-tiva, in two : in verbs, a-sld, a-stonda, 
a ~' | a-weka. 

o--,'bi-, , bi-halda, to hold, retain ; bi-fella, to command.* 



forth-, 



on-, 
ond-, 



forth-branga, to bring forward ; forth-fara, to proceed. 
ful-branga, to complete. 
in-branga, to bring in ; in-kuma, to come in. 
mis-dede, misdeed : mis-lik, unlike. 
of-snitha, to cut off; of-sld, to strike off. 
on-bijenna, to begin. 
ond-wardja, to answer ; ond-lcte (Germ, antlitz), face. 



onaer-, I under -standa. understand. 

under-, \ ' 

to-, ,, to-bera, ydferrc: to-breka, to rend. 

.. , ('thruch-skina, shine through; thruch -haira, to hew 

tlirudi-, 



umbc-, innbe-kuma, to arrive. 

und-, und-swcra, to swear free. 

un-, ,, un-skeldich, innocent ; un-dom, wrong. 

up-, up-stonda, to arise ; up-riucht, upright. 

ur-,for-, ,, nr-dema, to condemn ; for-derva, to destroy. 

tit-, ,, iU-cfunga, to go out ; ut-driva, to drive out. 

with-(e}ir-,, wither-jeva, to give back ; with-stonda, to withstand. 

* There is much of a middle sense in verbs combined with the prefix 6i- in 
the Germanic languages. In fact, they indicate the same very frequently by 
the addition of the reflexive pronouu, as in English, to bethink one's self, to 
begrime one's self, &c. 



72 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

146. SUFFIXES. 

The following denote personal agents : 

-a, bon-a, murderer ; aseg-a, judge. 

-and, a participial ending, fiand, enemy. 

( drocht-en, a lord. This suffix also indicates things : 

{ tek-en, token ; bek-en, beacon. 
er-e, scrtv-ere, writer, scribe ; prdst-er, priest. 

( htis-ing, paterfamilias ; kin-ing, king ; cthel-ing, noble- 

( man. 

147. (i.) The following denote abstract notions, circum- 
stances, or things : 

-ath, mon-ath, month ; thing-ath, assembly. 

-ddm, fri-dom, freedom; kersten-dtim, Christendom. 

*/> ij I (A.S. -had, Germ, -heit) kcrsten-ede, Christendom ; 

-ede,-hed, ^ fri.Mdl freedom. 

-er, Jing-er, finger. 

-ethe, -the thiuv-ethe, theft ; lemi-the, injury. 
-elsa wlem-elsa, a wound. 

( blend-ing, blinding ; buw-unge, building, dwelling. 

inge, -unge, | (This . g ft participial form)> 

-ma, set-ma, order ; brek-ma, fine. 

-nese, heft-nese, prison ; urdem-nese, condemnation. 

rike, himul-rike, heaven ; kining-rike, kingdom. 

-skip, her-skip, army ; red-skip, advice. 

(2.) -d6m, -skip, -ede, -Md, and -rike were originally independent 
words : -skip, being from the same root as skeppa, to create, form, 
make, had the original signification of shape, condition. Ddm is 
cognate Avith Sanskrit dhdrnan (root dhd, ponere, constituere), dignity, 
heroism, &c. -hed, -ede, is a nonn from the theme hiv-, signifying 
to form, create. Rike occurs separately in the form rik. 



148. (i.) ADJECTIVE ENDINGS. 

-da, -ta, forming the ordinals. 

-e, b6s-e, bad ; diur-e, dear. 

en, stcn-en, of stone ; kerst-en, Christian. 

-er, -ern, suth-er, sdth-ern, southern. 

-fald, thri-fald, threefold. 

-ich, bl6d-ich, bloody ; skcld-ich, guilty. 

-isk, -esk, himid-isk, heavenly ; wrald-esk, worldly. 

-Ids, hits-Ids, houseless, homeless. 

-lik, jfat-lik, ghostly, spiritual ; god-lik, godly. 

-orh hcr-och, obedient. 

-sum, hdr-sum, submissive. 

(2.) -Ids is preserved as an independent word, with the sense of 
loose, freed from, without. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 73 

149. FORMATION OF THE ADVERB. 

(i.) The genitive of a noun is frequently employed as au 
adverb: e.g., nacktes, at night, -e is the ordinary ending to 
convert an adjective into an adverb, as jerne, willingly ; riuchte, 
recte; godlike, in a godly manner; wile, idly. 

(2.) Adverbial expressions are frequently met with; they 
are readily formed, and employed to an indefinite extent. 

(3.) Adverbs of place or direction have endings as follows : 

-a, from a place, hwan-a, Avhence. 

-d, to a place, thar-d, thither. 

r, hwdr, where ; Mr, here. 

e, tit-e, without ; inn-e, within. 

-er, dst-er, eastward ; west-er, westward. 

wirth (A.-S. weard) ; sud-wirth, southwards. 



( 74 ) 



PART III. 

SYNTAX. 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

150. Friesic syntax is much like that of the Anglo-Saxon, 
though it does not so much resemble Latin syntax as the 
Anglo-Saxon does. It leans more to the German model than 
the latter. 

The fundamental principles of all syntax we must suppose 
to be understood, such as, for instance, that nouns in the 
plural require the verb to agree with them in the plural ; that 
an adjective must agree with its noun in gender, number, and 
case, &c. 

151. Adjectives, however, and participles in the predicate 
are uninflected, retaining the form of the nominative singular 
masculine, e.g., tha reJjeva ther tkenne weldech send, the judges 
who then are in power ; hwersd him sine cldthar wet werthat, 
whenever his clothes may be wet upon him. 

152. The proper place for a verb in a sentence or clause is 
at the end; the auxiliary, however, following the principal 
verb : as, sd hiversd en man dad eslein werth, whenever a man 
shall be slain ; hwenne tha wed elast werthat the ther on ebreken 
send, until the penalties be paid that thereto attach. 

This rule, however, is subject to numerous exceptions. 

153. The subject generally precedes the verb, though, 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 75 

for the sake of emphasis, and sometimes, undoubtedly, for 
euphony's sake, it follows the verb: thus, thdfestade Moyses, 
then fasted Moses ; thit riucht skref God selva Use hera, this law 
God Himself, our Lord, enacted. There is no strict necessity 
in Friesic for any precise collocation of the words in a sentence, 
for the inflections are an infallible guide to the sense, as in 
German, Latin, Icelandic, and other highly-inflected languages. 



OF NOUNS. 

154. Nouns of time, in answer to the question " how^long 1 " 
are put in the accusative: thet tilath ma thriu jer, that shall 
be tilled for three years ; jer and d$, for a year and a day. In 
answer to the question " when ? " and where we in English 
say per (per annum, per month, per day, &c.J, the noun is put 
in the genitive : thes selva dis, the same day ; liachtes deis, in 
broad daylight ; thiu moder thiu mey nima fon hire unjerige. 
bern thes jeres fiff scillingar, the mother may take for her minor 
child five shillings per year. 

155. A preposition with the dative is also frequently used 
to answer the question "when?" as, binna xiv jerum, within 
fourteen years ; bi skinandere sunna, in the broad sunlight. 

156. The dative expresses the indirect object, the agent, 
and manner and means. When a noun defines an adjective 
in the comparative, it is placed in the dative : as, ena kni mdr, 
one grade more nearly related ; in defining a superlative it is 
put in the genitive, as, alra nest, the nearest of all. A pre- 
position is most usually found with a dative of manner and 
means, and with a dative of the agent. 

157. The dative expresses the object of interest, advantage 
or disadvantage, for whom or which something is, is done, or 
is to be done, as in hiri twintich merka to bate, for her (shall 
be) a compensation of twenty marks ; sd-hivet-sd hire e-den is, 
whatever be done to (or for) her ; hire en unde den, (if) she be 
wounded (lit. if to her a wounding be done). 



76 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

158. The dative is used in an ablative sense in such ex- 
pressions as end urstelen him sines godes, and his property be 
stolen from him. 

159. The dative may denote that with which something is 
compared : e.g., thi kining is him rike and weldech, the king, in 
comparison with him, is mighty and great. 

160. Nouns expressing the material or quantity of a sub- 
stance, age, &c., are put in the genitive : as, merk seloueris, a 
mark of silver ; en skilling goldes, a shilling of gold. 

161. Partitives govern the genitive : e.g., alsd stor hevena, 
so much of possessions; oiler monna ek, every man; thera 
wedda awet, one of the pledges ; thera othera enich, any of the 
others. 

162. Instead of the construction found in the Anglo-Saxon 
of two datives (somewhat like the Latin double dative), the 
latter governed by to in Friesic there is a genitive, and then 
a dative governed by that preposition : as, to lioda londriuchte, 
as a statute for (of) the people. 

OF ADJECTIVES. 

163. Adjectives signifying worthiness, responsibility, plenty, 
want, guilt, ignorance, &c., govern the noun in the genitive : 
e.g., thera erana wel werth, truly worthy of honour; euiges 
jeldes schieldich, liable to a penalty ; ikes ethes Ids, free of the 
oath ; lives and lethana unweldich, powerless over life and 
limb ; sines londes and sines ethes weldech, master of his land 
and oath ; thes inges plichtich wesa, to have charge of the way. 

164. Some adjectives require the dative, as, ena monna 
fckieldich, liable to a man ; him framd, foreign to him ; jef 
hit him selua lief is, if it be agreeable to himself; hit se enre 
penningskelde lie, let it be like a debt ; Godi Jidrsum, obedient 
unto God ; dat zie da personna kuwl, let that be (made) known 
to the parson. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 77 

165. Such adjectives as govern a dative of indirect object 
in other languages do so in Friesic. 



166. Thd (than in West Lawers laws) and sd are used after com- 
paratives : e.g.,Jiror thd t6 tha Fli, farther than to the Fly ; mgr than 
the thre delan, more than the three parts ; hdgra sd tuelf jerdfota, 
higher than twelve feet. 

167- Superlatives employed as partitives govern the geni- 
tive ; as, alra beste, the best of all. 



OF PRONOUNS. 

168. An inclination of pronouns to contract with other 
words in the sentence has been explained in Sections 96 
and 97. 

169. Partitives govern the genitive : as, hwet iverka, what 
of works. 

170. The pronoun of the second person is very frequently 
omitted with the imperative : as, sei mi, tell me. 

171- The dative of the pronoun exhibits a manifest tendency 
to supplant the accusative a result which has been fully 
attained in English, in him and them. Thus in Friesic him is 
the direct objective of a transitive verb in many cases ; e.g., 
jef hi him urbaernt, if he burn him (i.e., prove him guilty by 
the fire ordeal) ; end ma him da schelta brinckt, and one take 
him to the magistrate ; alsd se him siath, when they see him. 

172. Reflexives are supplied by the personal pronouns with 
self (which, as in Anglo-Saxon, is inflected both after the weak 
and strong declension) ; sometimes without it : as, ik bem self, 
I am myself; sa sikure hine, so let him make himself safe. 
There is a later reflexive, sick, which is an intruder from the 
Dutch zich. 



78 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

OF NUMERALS. 

173- The higher tens and hundreds of the cardinals some- 
times govern the genitive : e.g., thritich merka, thirty (of) 
merks; then, again, they are found agreeing as adjectives 
with the substantives following. 

174. (i.) The halves are expressed as in German and the 
Scandinavian languages, by the use of the ordinal of the 
number next higher than that wished to be expressed, with 
the word half following : e.g., thredda half pund, two and a 
half pounds ; achtunda half shilling, seven and a half shillings. 
The whole numbers have been dropped out. The original 
construction is more easily understood from the following 
Anglo-Saxon example : he waes \d twa gedr and ]>ridde healf, 
he was there two years and the third (year) half, i.e., two and 
a half years. 

(2.) A similar idiom may be found in Greek (see Section 93). Thus, 
rpirov rjfjLird\avToi>, two talents and a half ; ^So/top i]fj.iTd\avTov, six 
talents and a half : so in Sansk. ardka, half, with the ordinal, as in 
ardha tritiya, two and a half ; ardha taturtha, three and a half. 
There is a word in Old-Friesic for two-thirds (twede), used in precisely 
the same way. 

175. Monig, an adjective, may he considered an indefinite numeral, 
and be used in the singular without the indefinite article, as in Anglo- 
Saxon and German. A.-S. rinc manig, many (a) man ; Germ, mancher 
mann ; Fries, hoe manich riucht istcr, how many (a law is) laws are 
there ? 

176. The cardinal en is employed as the indefinite article : 
e.g., en god jeftha en lond, property or a piece of land; en 
btheres monnes wif, another man's wife ; et ena rumfdra, of a 
pilgrim. 

OF VERBS. 

177. Verbs govern the accusative when a direct object is 
expressed. 

178. There is a cognate accusative, and also an accusative of specili- 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 79 

cation, in Friesic, both of which will be found embodied in the follow- 
ing sentence : tha monne sin god twijelde to jeldande, to make (payj 
a double payment to the man (for) his property. 



179. Verbs of influence, principally those of bidding, 
answering, controlling, withstanding, judging, repaying, imi- 
tating or being like to, pleasing, following, serving, coming 
upon, hearkening to, helping, speaking against, giving, for- 
giving, &c., govern the dative. Examples : 

S6 bieda wy weduwen, so we bid widows. 

Thet hi-t him ondwarde tkes selua dis, that he answer to him for it the 

same day. 

Til thiu thet ma tha ergon stiore, that men may control the evil-dis- 
posed. 

Stride ivithstonda, to withstand an attack. 
Hi seel dema tha fiunde also, friunde, he shall mete out justice to 

enemy as to friend. 

Sd skil hi jelda . . . alle lidtlon, so shall he reward all people. 
Hy l$keth een stum minscha, he is like unto a foolish man. 
Thet bihagada tha biskope, that pleased the bishop. 
Ther tha riuchtefolgiat, who follow the right. 
Thatn skaltu thianja, him shalt thou serve. 
Thet him bikume hunger, that hunger come upon him. 
Leyntuler . . . herckia (Jur. Fris. ii. 226), to hearken to a liar. 
Helpa tha erma, to help the poor. 

And hir ivith seke ma, and if one do speak against her. 
Sine kindemjewa, to give to his children. 
Thet retse-ma thaneste bi there f ether sida, that shall be delivered to his 

nearest relation on his father's side. 
Tha tian bodo ther God urjef Moysese, the ten commandments wliicli 

God gave to Moses. 
Hi scanctum (for scancte him) bethe medc and win, he offered him both 

mead and wine. 
Sd werth him edcmad and edclcd thiu hillc, then shall hell be allotted 

and appointed unto him. 
Sd betere hire mithfullere bate, so pay her the full penalty. 



180. Walda, to govern, wield ; ivachtja, to take care for, 
provide against ; plegja, to take care of ; bidda, to request ; 
missa, to miss, want ; baga, to boast of ; bitila, to obtain ; 
bruka, to use (this verb also governs the accusative) ; warja } to 



8o THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

keep, observe ; undgunga, and other verbs signifying to free 

one from anything, govern the genitive : e.g. 

Thd thi kining Kerl and thipdus Leo thesrtimeska rilces wildon, when 

King Charles and Pope Leo ruled the Roman world. 
Sd skel hi thes wachtja, he shall take care as to this. 
Riuchtes plegja, to practise right. 
L'nes onderdes bidd-ic, I request an answer. 
Mangra duget missa, to want many virtues. 
Dis bagaden, of it they boasted. 
Also bruc t/tu thines liivis, so employ thy life. 
Thes fret ha to ivarande, to keep the peace. 
Thes mith niugun skeron untgunga, to free one's self from it with 

nine irons (the ordeal of the red-hot irons). 
So aegh hy dis sexasum on(t) swera, he must with five others swear 

himself free from it. 

181. Ja, to admit, governs both the accusative and genitive : e.g., 
jeth hi then' cdp, if he admit the purchase ; jef hi thes jech, if he 
admit it. 

182. Undriuchta, legally to purge ; helpa, to help ; biravja, to rob, 
bereave ; and bitigja, to complain of, accuse, have an accusative or 
dative of the more direct, and a genitive of the remote, object, as : 

Y habbet mi birdwed mines riuchtes, you have robbed me of my right. 
tid mdt thiu moder hire kind t/tes lives helpa, so may the mother save 

her child's life. 

Hwasa otherem tlies betigath, whoever accuses another of it. 
Sit undriuchte hiu him thes tichta, so shall she free him from the 

charge. 

183. Binima, to take from, takes an accusative of the thing and a 
dative of the person : e.g., hwa-sd othere monne sin quic binimath, when 
one takes another's cattle. 

184. The following verbs, impersonate, &c., likja, to please ; 
thinka (thinsja, tinsa), to seem to ; bersta, deficere, to fail, be 
wanting (though this has also the primary signification of " to 
burst"); and bera, decere, govern their logical subject in the 
dative, as : 

Him thinsje, it may seem to him. 

Likath hit him sd, if he like it. 

Jef him sinrafriunda enich bersta, if any of his friends fail him. 

Alsd stur sd him bereth, so great as becometh him. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 8 1 

185. reka, deficere, has a dative of the logical subject and 
a genitive of the remote object : brecht him thes riuchtes, if he 
have not justice (lit. if there be a failure to him of justice). 

186. Instead of the two accusatives, one of the person and the other 
of the thing, found in Anglo-Saxon after the verb dcsian, to ask, in 
Friesic there is a dative of the person preceded by to, and an accusa- 
tive of the thing : e.g., to hivam-sa ma en lond dskje, from (to) whom- 
soever one shall demand land. 

187. With makja, to make, in addition to the double accusative of 
the person or thing, and of the predicate, there occurs the same con- 
struction as in Anglo-Saxon, viz., of the predicate in the dative pre- 
ceded by to : to bona makja, to make one out (for) a murderer. 

188. The present is, as in Anglo-Saxon, and sometimes in 
Sanskrit and many other languages, continually used for the 
expression of future time : as in sd hwer sd e/i ded eden werth, 
when a deed shall be done ; sd gunch hit ova sin ein erva, so 
shall it enter upon its own inheritance: cf. Sansk. pravesaydmi ; 
I introduce (them), for "I shall introduce them." 



189. THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

I. (i.) The subjunctive is used to express what is indefinite, 
a wish, a doubt or possibility : as, sey mi haet Godes riucht se, 
tell me what is God's law ; hwerso een riuchter onriuchte riucht 
finde, whenever a judge shall find an unjust law. 

(2.) It is used for all the persons of the imperative except 
the second : e.g., sd geie hi mitli fimver hdgeste mercum, then let 
him pay five "best" marks. 

The subjunctive employed in this way will be found all 
through the laws, the formula being, "if one do such-and- 
such a wrong, then let (subjunctive) him pay so much," or, 
"be punished thus and so." 

II. In dependent sentences : 

Deer ma . . . wr seyde and cnich man . . . dat hi sines haudi* 
schicldich ivcrc, where one said to any man that he had forfeited 
his life. 

Islet dc thet ma tha redane with sedze, but if it be so that one oppose 
the testamentary disposition. 

F 



82 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

After verbs : 

(i.) Of bidding, commanding : 

God ebdd thet vn Mlde, God commanded that we should keep. 
(2.) To express purpose : 

Thit is . . . Kynig Kerles jcft, theter allera monna @k ana sina eytut 
gdde bisitte vmberdvad, this is King Charles's gift (or will) that 
every man shall possess his own property unmolested. 

(3.) To express what is fitting : 

And qucthen dat hit bettera wyr dat hy allina driuckte, and said it 

were better that he alone should drowu. 
Thit is riucht thet him sina friond helpe, it is right that his friends 

should help him. 

(4.) In conditional clauses, usually with /<?/.- 

Sd-hwer-sd ma ther fon thcs kininges haluon sochte td ena monne, jef 
hit him ur kome, when one would inquire on behalf of the king if 
he were convicted (lit., if it were proved on him). 

(5.) So in concessive clauses with thdch. 

Sd nimath hia tha lawa, anda thiu suster naiot, tJidch hiu libbende 
s$, so shall they have the inheritance and the sister not, though 
she be living. 

(6.) So, generally, the subjunctive is employed very freely 
in Old Friesic to express a variety of hypothetical, indefinite, 
and uncertain notions. The Laws being the only documents 
that have survived, they very naturally, and continually, put 
a hypothetical case of an infraction thereof, and then indicate 
the penalty. 

PARTICIPLES AND GERUND. 

190. The active participle in -and has sometimes a passive sense 
when used as a noun, as tha drtvanda and tha dreganda, cattle and 
movables (literally things driven and drawn). So also has the gerund, 
as, te wetande mith twdm dMethon, to be proved by two solemn oaths 
( juramcntis probationis). 

191. (i.) The gerund is the dative of the infinitive, which 
latter is a verbal noun. There is a genitive of the gerund, 
nemennes. It remains to be explained why the dental d has 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 83 

crept into the gerund in so many instances. The infinitive in 
Friesic has lost the final n which characterises it in Anglo-Saxon, 
&c. In the formation of the gerund, however, the liquid re- 
asserted itself (sometimes in a geminated form) before the 
termination of the dative, as in to farane, to journey ; to 
sekane, to seek ; to stiftane, cedificare, &c. ; but on account of 
the similarity of the form to that of the present participle, 
and because of the gerund's origin, having been forgotten, 
the form of the participle with the proper case-ending was 
adopted. To this may also be undoubtedly added some 
notion of euphony involved in the selection of the participial 
form. 

(2.) The case-ending is frequently omitted, as in to gongen, to go ; 
to halden, to hold ; to ivesan, to wessen, to be, &c. 

(3.) Interesting in this connection is a peculiarity of the Modern 
Friesic, in adding d to the pret. part., as in deend, done ; siend, seen ; 
Kindelopian, drind, portatus, latus, from draga. 

192. The intensive prefix ge-, so freely used in Anglo- 
Saxon with the preterit and the past participle, occurs in 
Friesic principally in the forms e, i, or ie, and then almost 
exclusively with the participle, as e-fullad, from fultja, con- 
jirmare ; e-felled, solutus ; e-ferin, peregrinatus ; i-den, done; 
ie-bunden, bound. Observe, however, e-bdd, pret. of biada, to 
bid. e is also a privative particle equal to A.-S. a- and Dutch 
ont- ; as e-breka, deficere, deesse ; A.-S. a-brecan, Dutch ont- 
brelcen ; e-fella, e-felle, decoriatus, Dutch ontveld ; e-frethe, sine 

pace; e-lende, exile; e-live, dead, (without life.) 



PREPOSITIONS. 

193. The following govern the accusative alone : 



a, from 

afara, before 

afori, for 

alinga,* allenga, alonj 

fori, for, instead of 



ont, imtil, up to 
ovir, ur, for, against, at 
thruch, through, by means of 
umbe, around, about, concernhu 
,^ withir, against 



* Governs the genitive once. See section 196. 

f Governs the instrumental once. See section 197. 



84 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 

And hit A cole egendzin is, and it (the eye) is gone from its socket 

AFARA thene war/a gunga, to go before the assembly. 

AFORI thera deda allerek en shilling, for every act a shilling. 

ALLENGA thre wirsna, along three wrinkles. 

FORI hint fane $th to swerande, to swear for him. 

ONT middey, until midday. 

OVER thet hef, over the sea. 

UR hine, over him. 

Hwasd inf UR wald and UR willa nome, whoever shall take a woman 
by force and against her will. 

THRUCH thet Itf, through life. 

UMBE thet morth, about the murder. 

Thet nen husmon WITH stnne hcra ne stride, that no tenant fight with 
(against) his lord. 

Tha Frisa thingadon WITHIR thene Kining Kerl, the Friesians con- 
tended against Charlemagne. 

194. The following govern the dative only : 



befta, behind 
bifara, before 
bihalva, except 
binetha, beneath 
binna,* within 
bova, above, over 
e, out of, by, on 
efta, behind 



fon, of, from 
midda, among 
mith, mey, with. 
mong, among 
nei, nd, after, according to 
of, of, from, in 
td, te, to, in, at 
up, upper, over, before 



er, before ut, out of 

et, at, of, to, &c. uta, ute, out of 

fara, before 

EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 

And Ma BEFTA hiam ne lecathfeder ne moder, and they leave not after 

them father or mother. 

BlFARA Walburge dey, before Walpurgis day. 
BlHALVA twdm skillingon, except two shillings. 
BINETHA t gerdle, beneath the girdle. 
BINNA jera and BINNA dey, within a year and a day. 
BoVA alle bergon, above all the mountains. 
E ta sogen holem, out of the seven cavities. 
EFTA tha durun stonda, to stand behind the doors. 

* Governs the genitive once. See section 196. 

f BinHtha was anciently used only in the cities, or in the speech of the 
more refined. The country Frisians employed under. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 85 

^R tha Sunnandei, before Sunday. 

Thet kdpade ik ET Sna rumfara, that I bought of a pilgrim. 

ET holi and ET herna, at a hole and in a corner. 

FARA alle Godis heligon, before all God's holy relics. 

FON ene unddme ur wnnen, convicted of unjust judgment. 

Thi Keysere FON Rume, the Emperor of Rome. 

MIDDA alle Riostringon, among all the Riistringer. 

MITH fiuwer monnon, with four men. 

MONO tha hSre, among the hair. 

NA sine aynes riuchteres wordem, according to his own judge's words 

(decree). 

NEI gdstlika riuchte, according to ecclesiastical law. 
Werth en kind ut Oflonde Idt, if a child be led captive out of the land. 
To londe and TO liodon sinon, to its (the child's) fatherland and people. 
TE londriuchte, for a statute. 
UPPER Mre and upper benke and upper grewe, over bier, bench, and 

grave. 

UPPER sine redjevem, before his judges. 
Ut sine huse, out of his house. 
Hwersd mar enne mon UTA (ut-tha) huse bernt, whoever shall burn a 

man out of his house. 
Thet him thet blod UTA tha snabbe rent, that the blood run out of his 

mouth. 



195. Prepositions governing the dative and accusative : 



A, on, in, to, by; (also governs 

genitive once) 
Ajen, against 
An, on, in, to, by 
Ana, anna, in, to, on, into, by 
And, anda, ande, in, on, to, over 
Buppa, over, above, against 
Buta, outside, without, except 
Efter* after 
En, in 

In, in, to, into 
Inna, in, within, into 
Inur (inor, inover), over, in, beyond 



Jens, jons, jenst, jen, against (also 

Td-jonis). 

On, on, in, against 
Oni (one, on, ane, an), without, 

less 
Op, oppa, opa, uppa, on, upon, 

against 

Ova, upon, over 
Sunder, sonder, without 
To-fara, before 

Tiviska, twischa, between, within 
Under, under 
Uter, utir, utur, without, out of 



EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE. 

A himele and A erthe, in heaven and on earth. 

tid hwer sd ma enne mon A morth sleith, whosoever shall put a man to 
death. 

* Governs the genitive once ; vide section 196. Also the instrumental, 
section 197. 



86 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

AJEN like ddthum, against like deeds. 

AJEN thene dtheren, against the other. 

Lesoka AN tha forhafde, wrinkles on the forehead. 

AN wetir and AN wasa, on water and on turf. 

ANA Saxsona mcrkon, by Saxon marks. 

Enne mon werpa ANA en unlende weter, to cast a man into deep water. 

ANDE sine tike, in his kingdom. 

AND thet lond, to that land. 

Jefhit is BUPPA twAm pondem, if it be over two pounds. 

BUPPA vyf merk, over five merks. 

Blodrisne . . . BUT A clAthon, a bloody wound outside the clothing. 

Nen manniska BUTA God al ena, no man, but God alone. 

EFTER thes monnes ddthe, after the man's death. 

DEFTER sonne sedel, after sunset. 

SA skelen tha deda EN riuchta scrifla stonda, so shall the deeds stand 

recorded in proper writing. 
EN pie and EN plicht, in danger and solicitude. 
IN en stride td ddde slayn, to kill in strife. 
IN den field fAra, to go into the field. 
Sd hwa sd enne mon bernt INNA ena huse, whoever shall burn a man 

in a house. 
Fliucht hi INNA hof 'and INNA Ms, if he fly into a court and into :i 

house. 

INOR us Fresche riuchte, beyond our Friesic law. 
North ur hef jeftha suthcr INUR berch, northward over the sea, or 

southward over the mountain. 
jENS-ter wirde, against the truth. 
JENS dine biscop, against thy bishop. 
ON tha sdgenda mdnathe, on the seventh month. 
ON tha heranfiugta bigunde, began to contend against the lords. 
Fiuwer skillinga ONI thrium panning, four shillings less threepence. 
AN s$ne willa, without his permission. 
Di prester schil OP da hofwal stcen, the priest shall stand on the 

churchyard wall 

Jef een huisman OP ene, ddera claget, if a citizen complain of another. 
OPA tha heligon t6 swerande, to swear upon the holy relics. 
UPPA thet hlenbed, upon a sick-bed. 
OVA tha heligon, upon the relics. 
OUA sin ein erne, upon his own inheritance. 
SUNDER husbreke . . . jeftha SUNDER bronde, without burglary or 

arson. 

SONDER wandel, without change. 
To FARA tha keysere, before the emperor. 
To FARA dat ansicht, before the face. 

TUISCHA da Eemse ende Westfalen, between the Ems and West- 
phalia. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 87 

TwiSK thenefeder and TWISK thene sunu, between father and son. 

UNDER tha neyle, under the nail. 

UNDER riucht, under law. 

UTER stride, without contest. 

UTER stef and 6TER strid, without oath or contest. 

196. Of the use of prepositions with the genitive there is 
little trace; the examples are confined to the following: 
BINNA thes hUses, within the house ; BINNAS gaes, within the 
district ; BIHALVA thes, except this ; EFTER thes, an adverbial 
phrase signifying thereafter ; ALONT des Saterdeis, up to Satur- 
day ; A tuira wegena, twofold ; ONDLENG-es wtes, along the way. 

197. Prepositions governing the instrumental and other 
cases : 

Bi, by (dative and instrumental). 

Efter, after, according to (genitive, dative, accusative, and in- 

strumental). 

Til, to (dative and instrumental). 
With, with, against (accusative and instrumental). 

EXAMPLES. 

Bi asiga ddmc, by command of the j udge. 
Si thio, adv. phrase, therefore. 
Efter dis, thereafter. 
Efter ddthc, after death. 

Efter thes Kinig Kerlesjeft, according to King Charles's Statute. 
Efter thiu, thereafter. 
Til there Wise-re, to the Weser. 
Til thiii, adv. phrase, in order that. 
WITH thene Kining, against the King. 
WITH thiu, adv. phrase, according as. 

198. The Frisians, Saxons, and English are all fond of 
double prepositions ; for example, A.-S. on-gean, Eng. against; 
A.-S. upp-on, Eng. upon ; Fries, to-jenst, in-over, to-fara, up-ur, 
&c. A.-S. with-titan, Eng. without. 



199. CONJUNCTIONS. 



Ac, also, and 
alsa, so, also, as 
and, and 
buta, unless 



hweder, whether 



ndhiveder 
nauder 



neither 



ne, ni, not 
sd, so, as, or 
thd, either, or 
thdch, yet, though 
war a, wera, but 



88 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

200. The conjunction sd, so, is a great favourite, especially 
in the introduction of the apodosis to conditional propositions. 
In this it materially differs from the English and Anglo-Saxon 
custom. 

It is, however, very freely used, and not at all confined to 
that function, introducing many sentences somewhat as an 
expletive, where no conditional clause is previously expressed, 
as in sd hi alra beste muge, the best he can. This will at once 
attract the attention of the reader of the Old Friesic laws. 

201. The following are the principal conjunctions which 
govern the subjunctive : jef, if; thdch, though; thet, that. 



ADVERBS. 

202. The task of enumerating the adverbs must be left to 
the lexicon. 

(i.) Naut, signifying nothing, is frequently employed as an 
adverb. Hand, hand, is also used in an adverbial sense in 
such expressions as, fon alra honda riuchte, of every kind of 
(Germ, allerhand, allerlei) law. 

(2.) Hd is a common interrogative hd monich pund? how 
many pounds ? 

(3.) Two negatives do not neutralise each other, but even 
as many as three occur in one proposition, each one that 
follows strengthening the initial. The rule would seem to 
be to employ as many as possible ; e.g., sd ne mei-re helpa na 
nene monne, so shall it be of use to no one. 

(4.) Ge, as in so many other Germanic tongues, is the affir- 
mative yea or yes. 

(5.) Na and ne are the negatives, the latter with the sub- 
junctive. 

(6.) The negative comes immediately before the verb, and 
this should be borne in mind in view of the frequent blending 
of the accusative of the personal pronoun and the demonstra- 
tive with a preceding word ; for it cannot, as a rule, be the 
negative if it precede a noun or anything but a verb. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 89 

INTERJECTIONS. 

203. In view of the peculiar character of the literary re- 
mains of this language, one should naturally expect to find 
but few interjections preserved. The following occur : ge, 
ha, wach, o, and ela. Ge God ! Me Hercule ! Mon Dieu ! Ud 
spreeck di Koningh Kaerl, " Ha ! ha ! dat land is m$n," and 
hlachede Then spoke King Charles, and said, " Ha ! ha ! the 
land is mine," and laughed. Dae spreek R&dboed, " ! wach ! " 
Then said Radbod, " ! woe ! " 

Ela ! fria Fresena ! Ho ! free Frisians ! Friesic of the 
Middle period presents the following: Wi! au-ach ! the 
leider ! Oho ! 



PART IV. 



PROSODY. 

204. But a limited chapter can be devoted to prosody in 
an Old Friesic grammar, owing to the lack of poetry which 
we have from the time before the language's decay. 

We possess a few brief fragments of songs, &c., written in 
pure Friesic, such, for instance, as the following, exhibiting 
end-rhyme : 

" Hi was minnera 
And hi was betera, 
Hi stifte and sterde 
Triwa and werde ; 
Ande hi setta thera kenegajeft 
Ande allere liuda kest 
And Londriucht, 
And allera londa eccum sin riuc/tt." * 

Another rhymed poem of evidently later date, which is a 
short account of an expedition of the Frisians against the 
Saxons, the taking of Eome by Charlemagne, and the Frei- 
heidsbrjef of the same to the Frisians, begins thus 
" Thit was td there stunde, 

Thd thi kening Kerl riuchta bigunde ; 

Thd was ter ande there Saxinna merik 

Liudingerus, en hdrafele steric; 

Hi welde him alsd waldlike 

Tegathan,^ ther hifon riuchta scolde bihalda 

Tha kenig Kerlis kairska rike ; 

Ac welde hi ma ddan, 

Hi welde tha sterka Fresan vnder sinne tegetha tian." + 

* Rich tb of en, Friesische Rechtsquellen, p. 343. 
t Thagetban. 

J Rechtsq., p. 351, reprinted in Hettema's Proevt van ten Friesch en 
Ifederl. Woordenboek, p. 100, and in Rieger's Lesebuch. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 91 

205. Another reads thus 

" Forth scele wi se halda 
And God seel urse walda, 
Thes redder a (teddera ?) and thes stitha : 
And alle unriuchte thing scele wi formitha." 

" This thought let us henceforth retain, 
That God hath all beneath His reign ; 
He rules the weak, and eke the strong ; 
Oh ! shun we then whate'er is wrong." 

206. Of alliterative poems we quote from the laws (Rechtsq., 

P- 3)- 

Colnaburch hit bi Alda ttdon Cologne was called in olden times 

A grip Anda Alda noma; Agrip by ancient name ; 

Thd Firade us Frison Then was strange to us Frisians 

Thiu Fire menote, The foreign money, 

And iis Swerade And us burdened 

Thd thi sivera panning Then the heavy coin. 

Setton tha selua Set we ourselves 

Sundroge menota, A special money, 

And warth ther with thet And therewith there were 

Twd and sjuguntich punda Two and seventy pounds 

l>eyd and eLagad, Laid and valued, 

Twd and siuguntich skillinga Two and seventy shillings 

Rednathes slekes, Of Rednath's minting 

Jeftha Kaivinges slekes. Or of Kawing's stamp. 

Bednath and Rawing Rednath and Rawing 

A Isd hiton tha Forma So were called the first 

Twene ther to Frislonde Two who in Friesland 

Then Pannig sldgon ; The penny minted ; 

Thriu fund thafrana ; Three pounds to the magistrate ; 

Thet is en and twintich That is one and twenty 

Skillingathruch thes kyningesbon. Shillings by the king's decree. 

207. In the laws of the Riistringer (Friesische Rechtsq., p. 
133, 1. 17 ff.) are to be found these alliterative lines, from a 
register of the kings who established good laws : 
Thessefiuwer Hera These four lords 

Binulpon us Helped us 

~Frison Frthalses Frisians to liberty 

And Fridomes And freedom 

With thetie Kinig Against King Charles 

Ker/, hwande alle Because all 

Frisa er north Herdon Frisians to the north were subject 

Anda grimma Herna To fierce nations. 



92 THE OLD FIUESIC LANGUAGE. 

208. There is a general fondness evinced in various parts 
of the laws for the grace of alliteration ; and it is not a fancied 
grace ; it appears, unconsciously perhaps, to pervade nearly all 
poetical literature, especially English. There is no one who 
employs it, or who perhaps has employed it, with more 
elegance and dexterity than the poet Thomson. 

The following is a remarkable example of it in Friesic prose, 
to which attention is called in the preface (p. vi.) of Leo's 
Angehachsisches Glossar: * 

" Dio forme nd is, hwerso en Kindjong is Finsen ende Fitered north 
nr hef, jeftha suther ur birg, so Mot dio Mdder her kindes erve Setta ende 
Bella, ende her kind L&a end des \Afes bihelpa; dio dther ned is, 
Jeftha Sere diore werdat, end di Heta Honger ur dat landfdrt, ende dot 
kind Honger sterva wil, so Mot dio Moder her kindes erve Setta ende 
Sella, end cdpja hir bern Kit ende ey ende Corn, der ma da kinde des 
lives mede helpe. 

"Dio tredde ned is, als dat kind is al stocknaken jeftha huslds, ende 
dan die tiuestra nevil ende calda winter onkomt, so fdrt oiler monnik 
on Hof ende on Hus ende on Vfarane gaten ende dat wilda dier seket 
din holla Kdm ende der Birga hly, alder hit sin Itf on bihalda met, 
so weinet ende schrit dat onjerige kind ende wist dan sin nakena lia, 
ende sin husldse, ende sin fader der him reda schulde tojenst din 
honger, ende winter nevilkald, dat hi so viepe ende vimme mittafiower 
neilen is onder eke Ende onder da Erda Bisloten ende Bitacht, so m6t 
dio mdder hir kindes erve Setta ende Sella." 

209. It appears, from such few fragments as have reached 
us, as above indicated, that the Old-Friesic poetical character- 
istics are identical with those of the other ancient Teutons. 

They principally consist in : 

(i.) Alliteration, viz., the beginning of several syllables in the same 
or corresponding verse with the same letter. 
(2.) In rhythm or cadence, which is emphasis and remission. 

(3.) The Friesic, like the Anglo-Saxon, is partial to the 
recurrence of consonants, and is inclined to thow the allitera- 
tion on the emphatic word or syllable. 

210. Parallelism is very common in this verse ; in Anglo- 
Saxon, for example, a great number of expressions and 
metaphors, occupying many lines, will be employed in the 

* Although this is the West Lanwers version, it is not its orthography. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 93 

expression of a very simple idea : e.g., Cadmon occupies 
eighteen lines in a poetic paraphrase of the first verse of 
Genesis ; so in the Friesic fragments given in this part traces 
of the same peculiarity are to be observed. 

Thus : 

Thesse fiuwer hera 
Bihulpon As 
Frison frihalses 
And fridomes. 
So also : 

Colnaburch hit by alda tidon Cologne was called in olden times 

Agrip anda alda noma, &c. Agrip by ancient name. 

211. The ancient Germanic bards sometimes added the 
grace of final rhyme to their verse. That Friesic did not 
deviate from the other dialects in this regard will be evident 
from the verse given at Sections 204 and 205. 

212. "Of national popular songs in Frisian there are no 

traces, and yet the scene of Beowulf is partly on 

Frisian soil, and Gudrun includes, mixed with its 

northern elements, many legendary events of Frisian his- 
tory. There were Frisian bards, but their songs were never 
written, and consequently have perished. In the life of St. 
Liudger we find that he met at Hellewird a blind singer, 
Bernulf, who sang of the deeds and conflicts of the ancient 
Frisian kings, and who was greatly beloved by the people. 
These songs could only exist when the country was free from 
foreign influence, and where there was the bond of a national 
spirit and common history." * 

213. Of Middle-Friesic poetry there is a work entitled 
Thet Freske JRiim, a rambling and weak production in rhyme, 
written somewhere about A.D. 1400, and embracing sacred and 
fanciful secular history. There are two other rhymed works 
of this period, though of a little later date, and not in as 
good Friesic as the Riim. They are termed respectively Gesta 
Fresonum and Olde Freesche ChroniJce, and are of a character 
similar to the Freske Riim. 

* Hewett, The Frisian Language, &c., p. 20. 



( 94 ) 



READING LESSONS. 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

Tint riuht skref God selua, use hera, tha thet was thet 
Moyses latte thet Israheliske folk thruch thene rada se, and 
of there wilda wostene, andse komon to tha berge, ther is 
eheten Synay. Tha festade Moyses twia fiuwertich dega and 
nachta ; ther efter jef God him twa stenena tefla, ther hi on 
eskriuin hede tha tian bodo, tha skolde hi lera tha Israheliska 
folke. 

Thet was thet erost bod: 

Thin God thet is thi ena, ther skippere is himulrikes and 
irthrikes, tham skaltu thianja. 

Thet was thet other bod : 

Thu ne skalt thines Godes noma nawet idle untfa; ther 
mithi send ti urb^den alle menetha. 

Thet was thet thredde bod : 
Thu skalt firja thene helega Sunnandt .... 

Thet ioas thetfiarde bod: 

Thu skalt erja thinne feder and thine moder, thet tv theste 
langor libbe. 

Thet was thet fifte bod : 
Thu ne skalt nenne monslaga dva. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 95 

Thet was thet sexte bod: 

Thu ne skalt nen hor tba nen overhor dua, buta mith 
thinere afta wiue skaltu godilike libba. 

Thet was thet sivgunde bod: 

Thu ne skalt nene tliiuvethe dua, and ne skalt nawet jerja 
ova thines ivinkerstena haua, ther thi fon rivchta nawet 
wertha ne mugun. 

Thet u'as thet achtunde bod : 
Thu ne skalt nen onriucht tiuch dua. 

Thet was thet niugunde and thet tiande bod : 

Thu skalt minnja God thinne skippere mith renere hirta and 
thinne ivinkerstena like thi selva. Thesse tua bodo beslutath 
alle tha othera bodo. 

Thet send tha tian bodo ther God urjef Moysese, and hi 
forth lerde tha Israheliska folk (thesse bodo hlldon hia tha 
fmwertich jera thase andere wostene weron) and lethogade hia 
fon monigere nede and lattese an thet lond thet flat fon 
melokon and fon hunige thet was thet helege lond to 
Jherusalem. Alsa lat use hera God alle tha to tha himulrike, 
ther tha riuchte folgjath, and alle tha ther thet riucht jeftha 
enich riucht brekth (hit ne se thet ma hit thruch natha due, 
thruch thet tha natha send marra tha thet riucht), sa bislut 
'hia God andere hille, alsa hi bislat tha Egypta liode anda 
rada s^, thase sine liodon skathja weldon, tha Israheliska 
folke. 

THE SIGNS AND WONDERS BEFORE THE DAY 
OF JUDGMENT. 

Thit send tha fiftine tekna ther er Domes di koma skiluu, 
ther Sancte Jeronimus fand eskrivin an thera Jo than a bokon : 
Thes erosta dis sa stigath alle wetir fiuwertich fethma bova 
alle bergon, and stondath to likere wis and thiu mure ther 
fon stene ewrocht is. Thes otheres dts sa werthathse lik thera 



96 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

selva skipnese therse bifara weron. Thes threddes dis fallathse 
alsa side, thetse nen age bisia ne mi. Thes fiarda dis sa 
somniatse alle fiskar ther send an tha wetirou to semine and 
hropath al to Godi, and tha stifne net nen manniska buta God 
al ena. Thes fifta dis burnath alle wetir fon asta tliere wralde 
to westa there wralde. Thes sexta dis sa send alle bamar and 
alle gerso mith ena blodiga da\ve bifangen. Thes siugunda 
dis sa fallath alle tha timber fon asta there wralde to westa 
there wralde, and werthat al gadur tobreken. Thes achtunda 
dis sa fait thi sten withir thene sten, and tobrekth al semin, 
and tha berga werthath eifnad. Thes niugunda dis sa werth 
alsa grat irthbivinge sa ther fon onbijenne there wralde er 
nen sa den nas. Thes tianda dis werth thiu wrald emenad an 
thera selva skipnese therse was erse use Drochten eskepen 
hede. Thes andlofta dis sa gunth thi manniska with thene 
otherne, and ne mi nen mon otheron ondwardja fon there 
nede and fon tha ongosta, hwande thenne is jahwelik mon 
thes sinnes biravad. Thes twilifta dis sa werth egadurad alle 
thet benete efter there wralde anna ene stidi. Thes threddinda 
dis sa fallath alle tha stera fon tha himule. Thes fiuwertiada 
dis sa stervath alle tha liode and skilun ther efter up stonda 
mith othera clathon. Thes fiftinda dis sa burnt alle thiu 
wrald, fon asta there wralde to westa there wralde al to there 
hille porta. Ther efter werth domes di ; sa cumth use hera 
mith alle sine anglon, and mith alle sine heligon ; sa bevath 
alle thiu wrald alsa thet espene laf, alsase hini siath mith tha 
criose and mith tha spiri and mith tha neylon and mith there 
thornena crona, and mith tha fif wndon, ther hi an tha criose 
tholade fori us and foil al mannesklik slachte. 



CREATION OF MAN. 

God scop thene eresta merieska, thet was Adam, fon achta 
wendem : thet benete fon tha stene, thet fltisk fon tliere erthe, 
thet blod fon tha wetere, tha herta fon tha winde, thene 
togta fon ta wolken, the suet fon tha dawe, tha lokkar fon tha 
gerse, tha agene fon there sunna; and tha blerem on theiie 
helga 6m j and tha scope Eva fon sine ribbe, Adamesh'ana. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 97 



LAWS. 

FROM THE SEVENTEEN PRIVILEGES OF THE FRISIAN 
PEOPLE. CA. 1200. 

Rustringer Text. 

Septima petitio : Tliit is thiu siugunde liodkest, thet alle 
Frisa an fria stole bisitte, and hebbe fria sprSka and fri 
ondwarde ; thet ur jef us thi kinig Kerl, til thiu thet wi Frisa 
suther nigi, and clipskelde urtege, and wrthe tha suthera 
kininge hanzoch and heroch alles riuchtes tinzes, and tegotha 
and huslotha ur guide bi asiga dome and bi lioda londriuchte, 
al with thet wi er north herdon Kedbate tha unfrethmonne, 
al thet Frisona was. 



Undecima Petitio. Hunsingoer. 

Thet is thiu ellefte kest ; frethe alle widem and wesum, 
and alle unjerige bernum, and alle warlasa liudem, palmerum 
and rumfarum, and alle riuchte pilegrimum, and alle kare- 
i'estrum, helgena sende-bodum, bi tian liudmerkum ; and thara 
tuivvalte bote, ther wi and wepen ur esueren hebbe, thruch 
frethe and nethe ; end eu antuiutech scillenga tha frana. 



Decima Petitio. Emsiger. 
(Not before the beginning of the fifteenth century.) 

Thet istiu tiande kest, thet Fresa ne thurven nene herefert 
firer fara tha aster to there Wisere and wester tho Fli, thruch 
thet hia hira loud behelde witha wilda heve and witheue 
hethene here. Tha bed thi keneug Kerl thet hia firer tha 
hereferda fore, aster to Hiddisheckere and wester to Sinct'alum. 
Tha bihelden hit tha liude withene keneng Kerl, thet hia 
firer Jnene herferd fara ne thorste sa aster tho there Wisere 
and wester to tha Fit Thruch thet scelen alle Fresa fon tha 
northliudem fri wesa. 

G 



98 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

FROM THE LAWS OF BROKMER LAND. 
Fon tha Monne Ther Fliuth Inna TsyurTca. 

Jef hir en mon fliuth inna tsyureka, and tha fiund hine ther 
on gelath, al thet hi thenna hire nedwere deth, thet lidse 
gresfelle. Wirgath ma hine ther on, sa geldema hine mith 
fifta halwe jelde, and tha liudem hunder merca, and thet hus 
thera liuda, Nel hi thenna naut of unga, alsa tha fiund fon 
ungath bi helgena monna, and bi redgewena worde, ssi resze 
hi alsa stor, alsa thi ther tha tsyurka bifeth. And hwasare 
enne mon asleyt inn are tsyurika, sa resze hi huuder merca 
tha liudem and sexthech tha helegum ; nellath hia of there 
tsyurka nauvet unga, therre thenne on send, sa unge thi redja, 
ther ur tha tsyurka sueren heth, and kethese of. Nellet hia 
nawet of unga, sa berne hi thet forme beken bi achta mercum 
thes selwa deis ; and ne ungat hia thenna naut of, sa berne alle 
sine sithar tha bekene thes letera deis and sogenje tha liude, 
alrec hira bi achta mercum ; and hoc hira sa tha bekene naut ne 
bernt and sine liude naut ne brench, sa ledema oppa hine alra 
erest, and fiuch hi with tha sithar, sa felle hit a tuira wegena, 

THE TWENTY-FOURTH GENERAL STATUTE. 
Riistringer, Thirteenth Century. 

Thit is thit fiuwer and twintigoste londriucht : sa-hwa-sa 
t& othSron fari nachtes to houi and to huse bi slepandere 
thiade and bi unwissa wakandon, mith enere glandere glede, 
and al thet god barnt ther hi heth an houi and an huse, an 
weron and an wanton ; jef hi ja will, sa skil hi kuma et thera 
fiuwer hernana hwelik mith tian merkon, weddja skilre an 
dom with tha liode, and et there hirthstidi mith sinere hau- 
edlesne, and tha monne sin god twijelde to jeldande, alsa 
hit sina bura jeftha sina umbiburar mith him swera willath. 
Jef hi biseka wili, sa skil hi et thera herna hwek and stride 
with stonda mith fiuwer berskinzia campon, and et there 
hirthstidi mith tha fifta campa, thruch thet thet ma morth 
skil mith morthe kela. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 99 

THE FOURTEENTH STATUTE. 
West Lauwers. 

Dat fiaertienste landriucht is : S6-hwa-s6 anderem faert to 
hou ende to huis mit een op riuchta fana ane lioda werd, ende 
buta frana ban enis domliachtes deis, so-haet-so ma deer inoer 
hofF ende huis deth, dat is tuybeet ; ende alle dat ma deer wr 
deth of deer needver, dat sel vessa al eenferd ende eenbeet. 
Des agen him da lioed ende di frana to helpane, om dat him 
hi haudlase to commen was. 



FOURTEENTH GENERAL STATUTE. 
Emsiger. 

Thet istet fiuwertendeste londriuchte : Sa-hua-sa othere deth 
ene wapeldep jeftha e'ne suertnesueng, jefta en uusceldegne 
bint, jeftha a bonnane fretha unriucht raf deth, jeftha son- 
nendeis blodelsa; sa istera jahuelikes bote fiftena enza; hit 
ne se thette biseke, sa ach hi te riuchtane mit fiuwer with6thu.ni 
and mith ene fiaethe, bi allera Fresana riuclite. 

FROM THE ADDITIONAL EUSTRINGER STATUTES. 

Thet is ac londriucht, thet wi Frisa hagon ene seburch to 
stiftande and to sterande, enne geldene hop, ther umbe al 
Frislond llth ; ther skil on wesa allera jerdik iuin har oron. 
Ther thi salta se betha thes dls antes nachtes to swilith, ther 
skil thi uti'osta anti inrosta thes wiges plichtich wesa, tha 
strete thes wintres and thes sumures mith wegke, and mith 
weine to farande, thet thi wein tha oron meta mugi. Alsa thi 
inrosta to tha dike cumth, sa, htigere alsa gnttene fretho opa 
tha dike alsare oua tha wilasa werpe, and alsare oua tha weida 
stherekhoui ; heth there theune btlta dike alsa felo heles londes 
and grenes turues, thetterne dikstathul mithi halda mugi * ; 
ac nechthere nauwet sa felo buta dike heles londes and 

* The conclusion is wanting. 



100 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

grenes turues, thetterne dik mithi halda mugi, sa hagere binna 
dike thritich fota turues and thritich fethma t6 gerse; thet 
skil wesa alia fennon anda fill er Sante Vites di. Uta skilu 
wi Frisa use lond halda mith thrium tauwon ; mith tha spada 
and mith there bera, and mith there forke : ac skilu wi use 
lond wera mith egge and mith orde, and mith tha bruna 
skelde with thene stapa helm and with thene rada skeld and 
with thet unriuchte herskipi. Aldus skilu wi Frisa halda use 
lond fon oua to uta, jef us God helpa wili and Sante Pederr. 



MIDDLE-FRIESIC PERIOD. 

From the Jus Municipale Frisonum, ii. 63. 

(Latter half of fifteenth century.) 

Dae di koning Kaerle ende di koning Redbad fan Dane- 
merkum in dat land komen, dae bisette eelk zyn burch in 
Fraenekraghae mey e"ne herescelde, end elck seyd, dat land 
weer zyn. Dae wolden se wise lioede jerne s^na, ende dae 
heren wolden hit bistrida; doch wysda ma dir sone also 
langhe, dat ma hit op dae tweer koningen joed hoekra oerem 
oen stilla stalle wrstoed, dat hi dat land winnen hede. Dae 
brochte ma dae heran toe gaera, ende hia stoeden en eetmel 
allomme. Dae leet him di koning Kaerle zyn handschoegh 
oenfalla ; dae rechtan him di koningh Redbad. Dae spreeck 
de koning Kaerle, oho ! (0. text, Ha ! ha ! dat land is myn) 
ende hlackade. Deerom heet zyn burch Hochenzie. Dae 
spreec di koneng Kaerle; dit landt is myn. Hweerom? 
spreek di oera. I sint myn tianstraane werden. O ! wach ! 
spreek Redbad. Aldeerom heet Redbadis burch Wachenzie. 

From the Jurisprudents Frisica, ii. 6 and 8. 

(A manuscript of the fifteenth century, containing mostly 
Roman and Canonical law.) 

Ws Freesck landriucht seyt, dyr ws byfellen is to halden bij 
ws seel ende bij da hage hymelryck ende bij ws Cristeua 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 10 1 

nama ; dat aller mannick an syu ayna gued bysitte, ende oen 
syn heuen, ende oen syn weren, aides hij bytilet habbe ; hit 
ne se dafc me-t hym oeffwynna mey tale ende myt reden ende 
niey riuchta tingade. Hyr op so concorderet aeck dyo arste 
kest. 

Item. Hyr op so seyt aeck dat scrioun riucht : dat me 
nimmen syn besit nyma schil, mer alle lyode ys ma schyldich 
in da besit to beschirmen in syn besittinghe, ont ter tyd^ dat 
ma hym dyo besittinghe offwyn mit riucht. 

Aldus spreekt dij Keyser in syn riucht : hwaso compt in 
alzo grater dorsticheit ende dwalicheit, dat ter een mynscha 
een besittinghe enis tingis fan ora lyodem bynympt, wrwyel- 
delyck myt wyeld, sender oerloff des riuchters, eer hit him dy 
riuchter to der hand deeld haet, so schel dijjen, deer da 
besittinghe dis tinghes nymen haet, weer reka da besittera ; 
ende dij sitter, dyr da wyeld deen'haet, dy foerlyest dat 
heerscip desselue tinges; ende weer-t dat ter een onayna 
besittinghe naem, ende myt riucht uaet oencomma mucht, so 
schill er naet allyne da onryuchta besittinghe weer jaen, mer 
alzo folia, als dat gued wird is, aldeer to : hwant neen minscha 
syn ayn riuchter ende macht wessa mey in neen tyngh. 



From the East Frisian Lantrecht of 1527.* 
Richth., p. 48, note. . 

Dat anderde lantrecht is : Dat de moder mach eres kyndes 
goet nicht verkopen, eder des kindes erue nicht vorwesselen, 
oeck mit der kinder vronde willen ; id sy dan, want de kynder 
to eren yaren komen, so danen koep eder wesselinghe beleueu, 
dat is want de kinder xxv jaren olt sinnen. Des gelyken 
moegen de voermunders vnd testamentars, oeck nicht der 
kinderen goet vorwesselen eder verkopen eder voranderen ; 
is-t datse nicht dat willen beleuen (laten) moegen de kynder 
eer arue antasten viid besitten, waerse dat vinden. 

* Grimm (Gesch. d. deutsche Spr., p. 471) considers that the East Frisians 
are the direct descendants of the ancient Chauci, and are not Frisians at all, 
which the fact of their location, and the improbability of that tribe being 
utterly left without descendants, renders extremely plausible. 



102 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

22nd Statute, MS. ZyL V. 1559. Eichth. p. 74, note. 

Dat xxii lantrecht vormeldet dat de verbeteringe enes 
edelen mans vrouwen in oren guderen, darse van den heerde 
schedet, vnd dat guedt sick vormeret heft by oeren tyden, so 
schalmen oer geuen wan de man doet is 100 pundt. Desge- 
lycken want eyn egen ertiede vrouwe aff den heert schedet 
vnd de guderen verbeteret synnen, so schalmen oer geuen na 
ores mannes doet viii punt, viii schillinghe, viii ense vnd viii 
penninge, na vthwysinge des olden Fireeschen lantrechtes. 



VEESE. 
Thet Freske Rum, A.D. 1400. 

Ik sculde sega, of ic cude, 
Ho di fridom aerst bigude, 
Tha thio werrild erst dede forgaen, 
And thio other dede ingaen, 
Aldus biscriuet Alwyn, 
Thi Master, in tha boke syn ; 
Tha thi flode dede opgaen, 
And dedet alle forslaen. 


Hir Noe sprack ; nu skil icket thi cund dwan 

Hot ic in tha wralda habbe dan, 

And thet scilt riocht forestan. 

Thi Inghel van himel to mi com, 

And mi in sine raed nom, 

And seide mi openbaer, 

Thet thi Himelsche Koning forbolgen waer, 

And alle thio wralde scolde wrgaen, 

Bede wyf ende man, 

And al thatter lyf had untfan ; 

Sonder mi ande thi end wse sonen cone 

And harra frowan scone ; 

And wi scillad in tha arck gan. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



103 



MODERN FRIESIC. 

From Gysbert Japickx, Friesche Rijmlerije. 

(Middle of the seventeenth century.) 

A rustic song supposed to be sung by a peasant on his return from a 
wedding feast. (See Halbertsma's Preface, p. Ixxii., to Boaworth's 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.) 



Swlet, ja swiet is't oer'e miete 

'T bodskienfdar'ejonge lie ; 
Kreftich swiet is't, sizz'ikjiette, 
As it gtet mei alders rie. 
Mar 6ars tiget 'et to'n pleach, 
As ik dan mijn geafeint seach. 



Sweet, yea sweet is it over mea- 
sure, 

The marrying for the young folk ; 
Most sweet is it I say yet 
When it goes with elders' advice. 
But otherwise it tends to a plague, 
As I saw by my village fellow. 



Goune Swobke, lit uws pearje, 
Bea hy her mji mylde stem, 
Ofke, sei se, ho scoe'k it klearje ? 

Wist du rie to heite in mem ? 

Ljeaf, dot nym ik to myn Icest. 
Dear mei wier dy knotefcest. 



Golden Swobke, let us wed (pair), 
He bade her with mild voice. 
Ofke, said she, how should I clear 

it? 
Canst thou right it with father 

and mother ? 

Beloved, I take this to my charge. 
Therewith the knot Avas fast. 



Da dit pear to gear scoe ite, 

In hj'ce hiene nin gewin, 
Heite seach as woe hy bite 

Mem icier stjoersch in leffen sin. 

Ofke, sei se, elkjier ien bern 
Wier ikfdem! ik woe't sojern. 

Ork, myn sdan, wolt du bedye, 

Rin ndet dan allyk ien molV! 
Jeld in rie lit mei dy frye, 

Bern, so geari dyn saken wol ; 
Den soil de himel uwr dyn divdcn 
Lok in mylde seining j'den. 



When this pair would eat to- 
gether, 

And they had no earnings, 
Father (husband) looked as if he'd 

bite, 
Mother (wife) was stem and harsh 

of humour. 

Ofke, said she, each year a child 
Were I a maid ! I wish it so ! 

Ork, my son, would'st thou pros- 
per, 

Run not on all like a mole ! 

Let age and counsel woo with 
thee, 

Child, then thy affairs go well ; 

Then shall Heaven o'er thy doings 

Give luck and mild blessings. 



104 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

PROVERBS, SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 
Hoeufft, Oiide Friesche Spreek- Woorden, passim. 

Aadefoxen binnen quce tofcen Old foxes are hard to take. 

Better ten blyn hynst as ien leech helter Better a blind horse than an 

empty halter. 

Folle wirden fallen nin seek Many words fill no sack. 
Hat cTaade sjonge, pypje dejonge What the old ones sing the young 

ones pipe. 
Krceckjende weijen doerje allerlanghst Creaking waggons last the 

longest. 

Langhfestjen is nin brce sperjen Long fasting saves no bread. 
Hop nin hcering, cerstese int net heste Cry not " herring " till you have 

it in the net. 
Wol beguwn is hast spumi Well begun is quickly spun. 



MODERN COUNTRY FRIESIC. 

STANZAS BY THE COUNTESS OF BLESSINGTON. 

Bosw. Die., Pref., p. Ixxi. 

Hwat bist dou, libben ? What art thou, life ? 

Ien vnrch stribjen A weary strife 

Fen pine, noed in sodrch; Of pain, care, and sorrow ; 

Lange oerenfen smerte, Long hours of grief, 

In nochten ho kodrt ! And joys how brief ! 

Detfordwine de modrns. That vanish (on) the morrow. 

Dead, hvxtt bist dou, Death, what art thou, 

Ta hwaem alien buwgje, To whom all bow, 

Fen de scepterde kening ta de From sceptered king to slave ? 

slaioe ? 

De loetste, bcestefreon, The last, best friend, 

Om uws sodrgen to eingjen, Our cares to end, 

Dyn gebiet is yn't grcef. Thy empire's in the grave. 

Wenneer se alien binne fled When all have fled 

Jouwst dou ien bced, Thou giv'st a bed, 

Wcer wy kalm yn sliepe: Wlierein we calmly sleep : 

De wounen alle hele, Tlie wounds all healed, 

De digerige eagen segele, Tlie dim eyes sealed, 

Dy lang diene wekje in gepje. That long did wake and weep. 



WEST-FEIESIC. 

Colmjon, Beknopte Friesche SpraaTckunst, p. 103. 
LUKE XV. 

1. End der kamen by him alderhande soarte fen tolgarders 
end sunders, um him to heren. 

2. En de farisiewen end de skriftlearden dy gnoarren end 
seiden : disse nimt de sunders oan, end dy it mei hiar. 

3. End hy spriek tsjin hiar disse likenis, sidzende : 

4. Hwet minske is der under jimme, by hunderd skiep 
heth ; end as er ien der fen forliest, dy net de niugen end 
niugentich in'e woestine lit, end der up ut gie't nei't forleme, 
oant er dat finth ? 



HINDELOPIAN. 

Bosworth, Preface, p. Ixxiv., from a Calendar for Seamen. 



Jannarius het xxxi deggen, 
Nyje deggen, nyje winscen, 
Nyje re fan nyje minschen. 
Weer us livven ek su ny, 
Sunden wdrdven lichstfanfry. 



January has xxxi days, 
New days, new wishes, 
New counsel of new men. 
Were our life eke so new, 
We should grow lightly free from 
sins. 



Februarius het xxviii deggen. 
Silers meye winters reste, 
Thus tu blieuicen mutjerm leste. 
Lot men iertske surg mer stdn, 

^Icngwar scoe men better dwdn. 



February has xxviii days. 
Sailors may rest in winter, 
To stay at home must please them. 
If one let earthly sorrow more 

stand, 
Many times we should do better. 



Majus het xxxi deggen. 

As we toinmelje oeuwer 't wetter 

Heuwe't slim en soms hwet better . 

Sits de wrfild ek as de sS, 
Somsfol kurje, somsfol n. 



May has xxxi days. 

As we tumble o'er the water 

We have it bad, and sometimes 

somewhat better : 
So is the world eke as the sea, 
Sometimes full of delight, 
Sometimes full of woe. 



106 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

DIALECT OF SAGELTERLAND. 
FROM THE PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON. 

W inkier, Algemeen Nederduitsch en Friesch Dialecticon, vol. i 
p. 158. 

LUKE XV. 

11. Dar was ins en maenske un di hide tween sune. 

1 2. Un di jungste fen do bee quad to sin babe : babe ! rak mi 
min erfdel. Do dalede di Side mon it him to un raet him wet 
him tokam. 

13. Etter anigen degen pakte di jungste fent sin hele erfskup 
bi'nunder un tog wid wei in en fraemd lond, un dar brogde hi 
al sin jeld un god ume med freten un supen un quod to liwjen. 

14. Do hi nu sin hele fermugen ferneled un sin ganse 
erfskup fertared hide kam dar in det fraemde land en djure 
tid, en grote hungersnod, un hi mosde 6k hunger lide, umdet 
hi nix nen jeld m6r hide um dar broed of wet ors for to 
k&pjen. 

15. Wet skul hi nu dwo? Arbeidje leste him nit, un wel 
wil him &k in sin tjonst nime ? Dach kam hi bi'n bur un dar 
forherede hi sik bi. Di bur sacnte him op sin feld um de 
swine to waerjen. 



NOETH-FRIESIC. MORINGER DIALECT. 

Bendsen, Die Nordfriesische Sprache, p. 455. 

Horrwajl iihsen nordfrdshe Sprajke ai so urdrick as, as de 
Imchtjiishe an auser mb'rr iittbillet Sprajke, so het'r doch 
Uttdriicke an Wijnninge nog, dm ausere sin Tb'gte dbtlick 
mat6dielen, wann' m's mSn t6 briicken an r6gfc aujnt6wijnnen 
forstont. Dat aurs en Tnng, dirr ham oiler t6 Shrdftsprajke 
hawet het, Brak faar s6ck Urde hewe maujt, dirr auwersannlick 
Ijnstande an Begrippe betiekne, as lagt int6sieen. Hai'r en 
iittbrat Shraft-an Baukewasen hajd an faurtset, so wiird'r ock 
ubg Shridd hiillen hewe ma auser iittbillet Sprajke, as md dc 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 107 

danshe, tjiishe, hollaujnshe an ajngelshe, dirr no altemale faale 
urdrickere san. 



TRANSLATION. 

Although our North-Friesic tongue is not so copious as the 
High-German and other more finished languages, yet it has 
expressions and idioms enough to make clear one's thoughts 
to others, if one only knows how properly to employ and avail 
himself of them. As to the rest, that a tongue which has not 
come to be a written form of speech should be lacking in such 
words as indicate abstract ideas and conceptions is naturally 
to be presumed. If it had had and fostered a broad literary 
experience, and been used in books, it would have kept step 
with other polished dialects, like the Danish, German, Dutch, 
and English, which are all more copious. 



THE FRISIAN ISLANDS. 

DIALECT OF FOHR AND AMRUM. 

Johansen, Die Nordfriesische Sprache, p. 193. 

ST. MATTHEW'S GOSPEL, CHAPTER v. 

1. Man diar hi det skool Lidj siigh, ging hi ap iiubh an 
Berragh an siad ham deel, an sin Jiingarn tread hen tu ham. 

2. An hi ded san Mils ap, Hard jo an sad : 

3. Salagh san donnan, diar geissalk aram san : at Hem- 
malrik as herrens. 

4. Salagh san donnan, diar surgi : jo skel treast wurd. 

5. Salagh san a Gilasnan : jo skel a Eardark ha. 

6. Salagh san donnan, diar hongri an tharsti eftar a Girech- 
taghaid : jo skel sat wurd. 

7. Salagh san a Barmhartagan : jo skel Barmhartaghaid 
finj. 

8. Salagh san donnan, diar an rian Hart ha : jo skel God se. 

9. Salagh san a Freeshalkan : jo skel Gods Bearenkin het. 



I08 THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 

10. Salagh san donnan, diar am a Girechtaghaid vdrfullaclit 
wurd : at Hemmalrik as herrens. 

n. Salagh san jam, wan a Minskan jam am man Wai 
spaati an vorfulgi an snaki allarhant laraghs jin jam, wan jo 
det leegh. 

WANGEKOG. 

THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

Ehrentraut, Friesisches Archiv, ii. 57. 

Uz foer in'e hemmel' ! Din niimme mi heilig hilen wer. Din 
rik kiimme. Din wil mi dain wer up irden as in'e hdmmel. 
Uz diggelk broed reik As diilung. Un fargive us uz schil, sa as 
wi uz schilners fargivet. Un fer As nich in't farseiknis, man 
erl&z us fon dait quoed. Den din is daitrik un dju kraft un 
dju herelkeit in ewigkeit. Amen. 

SYLT. 
PRODIGAL SON. 

Winkler, i. 94. 
LUKE XV. 

1 1. En man hed tau driianger. 

12. En de jungst fan jam seid to de faa-Ser : faafter ! do mi 
de diil fan dit gud, diar mi jert. En de faaiSer diilet jam dit 
gud. 

13. En ek lung diar eeiSer saamelt de jungst seen alles to 
hop, en toog fiir wegh aur lon^, en diar braagt hi sin gud to'n 
bnt me fraanzin. 

14. Diar hi nil al sin gud fortiared hed, kam er en jiiiir tid 
aur dit hiile lon-S en hi bigent nuad to lirSen. 

15. En hi ging hen to en borger fan det sallef loniS, en 
fbrhiiurt hbm diar ; en de stjuiirt horn up sin eeker om de 
swiu to jaaten. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 109 

HELIGOLAND. 

PRODIGAL SON. 

Winkler, i. 99. 
LUKE XV. 

1 1. Diar wiar ianmal'n man, de hid tau jongen. 

12. De jongst fan jam said to herrem iar : far ! do mi det 
del fan't god \vat mi tohiart. En da delt de 61 man jam det 
god. 

13. En ni long dar na sammelt de jongst son alles't 6b en 
reist fir over d'lun ; da levved he fergnb'gt en brocht sin god 
hender. 

14. Da he ne sin god hender hid wur alles so jiir un det 
frem lun en da mos he hongere. 

15. Ke ging hen na'n bur, en de sand hem tip sin akker, de 
swin to hodderen. 



SCHIERMONNIKOOG. 

PRODIGAL SON. 

Winkler, i. 458. 

LUKE XV. 

1 1. D'r wier reis'n man, in di hiea twa jonges. 

12. In iean fan har beiden, it \viea de jongste, sei tjin har 
heit : heit ! jeuw mi miin guued dot mi toekomt. In har heit 
deelde har't guued. 

13. In kb'rts d'r nooi dao't er olles bi'neeuwr forgare hiea, 
is er furtgiean nooi'n fraeimd laaun to, in der het er siin guued 
troch brocht in'n kwaaid livven. 

14. In dao't hi't olle gerre fortaors hiea, koom'r huengers- 
neud iin dot laaun in hi kriige gebrok. 

15. Ik dao ging hi nooi dao juued to fan dot laaun in 
friegge har om werk ; in jao juegene him werk in stjuersene 
him nooi har laaun to om har swiine to huueden. 



no 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE OERA LINDA BOK, English Edition, p. 2. 



Okke min svn thissa boka mot 
i mith lif and sele wdrja. 

Se vmbifattath thju skednisse 
fon vs die folk Akfon vsa ethlum. 

Vrteden jer hab ik tham ut-er 
flod hred tolik mith thi and thinra 
moder. Tha hja weron wet wrden ; 
thSr thrvch gvngon hja after nei 
vrdarva. 

Vmbe hja navt to vrlysa hab ik- 
ra vp wrlandisk pampyer wrskre- 
ven. 

Sa hwersa thu se erve, mot thu 
se dk wrskryva. 

Thin barn alsa til thju hja 
nimmerthe wSi navt ne kvma. 

A 

SkrSven to Ljuwert. Nei A Hand 
svnken is that thria thu sond 
fjvwer hvndred and njugon and 
fjvwertigostejer, that is net kersten 
reknong that tvelf hundred sex and 
fiftigoste jer. Hidde tobinomath 
Oera Linda. WAk. 



Okke my son you must pre- 
serve these books with body and 
soul. 

They contain the history of all 
our people, as well as of our fore- 
fathers. 

Last year I saved them in the 
flood, as well as you and your 
mother ; but they got wet, and 
therefore began to perish. 

In order not to lose them I 
copied them on foreign paper. 

In case you inherit them you 
must copy them likewise. 

And your children must do so 
too, so that they may never be 
lost. 

Written at Liuwert, in the three 
thousand four hundred and forty- 
ninth year after Atland was sub- 
merged that is, according to the 
Christian reckoning, the year 1256. 
Hiddo surnamed Over de Linda. 
Watch. 



Ljawa ervndma, vmb vsa Ijawa 
ethlas mile and vmb vsa Ijawa 
fridoms mile, thusdnd wdra sa 
bidd-ik to jo, och Ijawa ne let tha 
Agon enis pApekappe tach nim- 
merthe over thissa skriftane weja. 

Hja sprekath sweta wirda : men 
hja tornath vnmarksdm an alles 
hwatfon vsfryas trefth. 

Vmbe rika prebende to win- 
nande sA helath hja mith tha 
poppa kdninggar, thissa wetath 
that wi hjara grAteste fianda send, 
thrvcJidam wi hjara liuda to 
spreke thvra vr frtdom, rjucht and 
forstne plicht. fhervmbe letath hja 
alles vrdiligja, hwat fon vsa eth- 
lum kvmt and hwat ther jeta rest 
fon vsa alda sSdum. 

Och ! Ijawa, ik hciv by tham et 
hove west. Wil wr-alda-t thjelda 
and willath wi vs navt sterik ne 
mAkja, hja skilun vs algddur 
vrdtligja. 



Beloved successors, for the sake 
of our dear forefathers, and of 
our dear liberty, I entreat you a 
thousand times never let the eye 
of a monk rest on these writings. 

They are very insinuating, but 
they destroy in an underhand 
manner all that relates to us 
Frisians. 

In order to gain rich benefices 
they conspire with foreign kings, 
who know that we are their great 
enemies, because we dare to speak 
to their people of liberty, rights, 
and the duties of princes ; there- 
fore they seek to destroy all that 
we derive from our forefathers, 
and all that is left of our old 
customs. 

Ah ! my beloved ones, I have 
visited their courts : if Wr-Alda 
permits it, and we do not show 
ourselves strong to resist, they 
will altogether exterminate us. 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



Skreven to Ljuwerd, acht hon- 
dred and thrju jer net kersten 
bigrip. 

Liko tobinomath Ovira Linda. 



Written at 
domini 803. 



Liudwert anno 



Liko, surnamed Over de Linda. 



WR-ALDA, p. 141. 



Wr-alda was er alle thinga, 
and nei alle thinga skil er wesa. 

Wr-alda is alsa evg and hi is 
vnendlik, thervmb nis ther naicet 
buta him. 

Thrvch Wr-aldas leva warth tid 
and alle thinga bern, and sin leva 
nimth tid and alle thinga wei. 

Thissa seka moton Ider and bdr 
makad wrda by alle ivisa, sd that 
hja-t an otherabithjuta and biwisa 
muge. 

Is-t sdfdncnnen, sd seith man 
farther; hicat thusvsa ommefang 
treft, alsa send wy en del f on Wr- 
aldas vnendelik wesa, alsa tha 
ommefang fon al eteskepne, thach 
hivat anga vsa ddnte, vsa ainskipa, 
vsa gust and al vsa bithankinga, 
thissa ne hera navt to thet wesa. 

Thit ell a send flljiichtiga thinga 
thatti thrvch Wr-aldas leva for- 
skina, thach ther thrvch sin wished 
sdddne and navt owers navt ne 
forskina. Men thrvchdam sin leva 
stedes forthga, alsa ne mei ther 
nawet vppa sin sted navt bili/u-a, 
thervmbe forwixlath alle eskepne 
thinga fon sted, fon ddnte and 
dkfon thankwisa. 

Thervmbe ne mei irtha selva 
ner eng skepsle ni sedsa, ik ben, 
men ivcl ik was. 



Wr-Alda existed before all 
things, and will endure after all 
things. 

Wr-Alda is also eternal and 
everlasting, therefore nothing ex- 
ists without him. 

From Wr-Alda's life sprang 
time and all living things, and his 
life takes away time and every 
other thing. 

These things must be made 
clear and manifest in every way, so 
that they can be made clear and 
comprehensible to all. 

When Ave have learned so much 
then we say further : in what 
regards our existence we are a 
part of Wr-Alda's everlasting 
being, like the existence of all 
created beings ; but as regard* 
ourform, our qualities, our spirit, 
and all our thoughts, these do not 
belong to the being. 

All these are passing things 
which appear through Wr-Alda's 
life, and which appear through 
his wisdom, and not otherwise ; 
but whereas his life is continually 
progressing, nothing can remain 
stationary, therefore all created 
things change their locality, their 
form, and their thoughts. 

So neither the earth nor any 
other created object can say, I am, 
but rather I was. 



i. Ek fry as mot-a letha jcftha 
fi/anda wera mith aldidkera 
wapne as er forsinna, bikvma and 
Jtandtera mei. 



LAWS, p. 33. 

i. Every Frisian must resist 
the assailants with such weapons 
as he can procure, invent, and use. 



2. Is en boi twilifjer, sa mot-i 
tha sjvgunde del mistcfon sin ler- 
tid vmbe red to werthande mitha 
wajme. 



2. When a boy is twelve years 
old, he must devote one day in 
seven to learning how to use his 
weapons. 



112 



THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. 



8. Annen kSning ne meinavt ni 
longer as thri jer kening bilywa, 
til thju hi navt biklywa ne mei. 

10. 7* thi k$ning thruch thene 
f i/and fallen, sd miigon sina sibba 
ak net there ere thinga. 

12. Thera tham strida mitha 
wdpne an hjara handa nekunnath 
navt forsinna and wis bilywa, 
thSrvmbe ne fochteth nene, kening 
wapne to hantera an tha strid. 

Sin wisdom mot sin wdpen wesa 
and thju Ijafte sinra kdmpona 
mot sin skyld wesa. 



8. No king may be in office 
more than three years, in order 
that the office may not be perma- 
nent. 

10. If the king is killed by the 
enemy, his nearest relative may 
be a candidate to succeed him. 

12. Those who fight with arms 
are not men of counsel ; there- 
fore no king must bear arms. 



His wisdom must be his weapon, 
and the love of his warriors his 
shield. 



Page 21. 



Wr. Aldas gdst mSi man al- 
Una knibuwgjande thank to wya, 
ja thrju warafar hwat jvfon him 
noten have, far hwat jv nith, and 
fara hdpe ther hy jo tet an dnga 
tida. 



To Wr. Alda's spirit only shall 
you bend the knee in gratitude 
thricefold for what you have 
received, for what you do receive, 
and for the hope of aid in time of 
need. 



Page 31. 



Allefrya barn send a elike wysa 
barn, thervmbe moton hja dk elika 
rjuchte hava, alsa blyd vpp-at 
land as vpp-ath &, that is letter, 
and vp ella that Wr. Aldajefth. 

2. Allera mannalik mei-t wif 
sinra kesa freja and ek toghatcr 
mei efter hjra helddrvnk bjada 
ther hju minth. 

6. Ek thorp skil en Mmrik hdva 
nei sina bihofand thene grevaskil 
njvda that afra cksin delbidongth 
and god hald, til thju tha after 
kvmmande nen skdde navt ne lyda 
ne muge. 



All free-born men are equal, 
wherefore they must all have 
equal rights on sea and land, and 
on all that Wr. Alda has given. 

Every man may seek the wife 
of his choice, and every woman 
may bestow her hand on him 
whom she loves. 

Every village shall possess a 
common for the general good, and 
the chief of the village shall take 
care that it is kept in good order, 
so that posterity shall find it un- 
injured. 



NOTE. The indication of vowel quantity in the printed text of the 
O. L. B. is very arbitrary and incorrect. 



GLOSSARY. 

(TO THE OLD FRIESIC BEADING LESSONS.) 



a, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, on, with, 

to, by. 

dc, aeck, ok, conj., also, but. 
acht, card., eight. 
achtunda, ord., eighth. 
/=o/. 

dft, adj., own, legitimus. 
dga, hdga, v. praet. pres., to have to. 
age, n., eye. 
al, adj . , all, every. 
aldeerom, conj., therefore. 
alderto, adv., thereto, iu addition 

thereto. 
aides = al thes. 
algddur, adv., altogether. 
aldus, adv., thus. 
al with thet (conjunctive phrase), 

since, inasmuch as. 
alena, adv., alone. 
aUermontck=attera monna ek. 
allyne, alene, attna, adv., only. 
alomme, alumbe, prep. w. ace., during 

(follows the noun governed). 
alr$c, allera-ek, indef. pr. , each. 
a/sd, als, conj., so, also, as, when. 
alsdre = alsd ther. 
alz6 = alsd. 

an, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, on, to, by. 
ana, anna, prep. w. dat. and ace., 

to, into. 

and, ende, anda, conj. and. 
and, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, on, to. 
anda = an(ha. 
under, see dther. 
andere = anthere. 
andlofta, ord., eleventh. 
ane, oni, prep. w. dat. and ace., 

without. 

angl, enyel, m., angel. 
antasten, Mid. Lat. and Ital. tastare, 

to obtain. 
antes = and thes. 
antuintech=and ttcintich. 



arcke, erlce, f., ark. 

aerst, drst, see Srost. 

arve = erve. 

dsiga, dscga, m., judge. 

asld, str. v., to strike. 

dsta, adv. and n., aster, east. 

ayn, ein, egin, adj., own. 



bam, m., tree. 

ban, n., permission. 

b$de, see bethe. 

beMlde, see bihalda. 

beken, n., beacon fire. 

beleva, biltva, str. v., to remain, to 
be permitted. 

benete, n., coll. n., bones. 

bere, f., bier, barrow. 

berch, m., mount. 

bern, n., child. 

berna, barna, burna, w. v., to burn. 

ber(e)skinse, adj., nudipes, bare- 
footed (lit. bare-shinned), hence 
apertus, open, public. 

beschirmen, biskirma, w. v., to pro- 
tect. 

besit, n. , property. 

besitter, in., possessor. 

besittinghe, f., possession. 

besl&ta, see bisltita. 

bete, f., fine. 

bethe, num., both. 

beva, w. v. , to tremble. 

bi, prep. w. dat. and instr., by. 

bifd, str. v., to cover, to fall to, 
3<1 pen?, s. pres. bifeth, pret. part. 
bifanyen. 

bifara, adv., before. 

bifclla, byfella, str. v., to command, 
enjoin. 

bigdde, w. pret. of bijenna, to begin. 

bthalda, bchalda, str. v., to retain, 
to refuse. 



GLOSSARY. 



bij, Dutch form of bi. 

binda, sir. v. to bind, fetter. 

binna, prep. w. dat., within. 

birdvja, w. v., to rob. 

btre = bi there. 

bisSka, w. v., to deny. 

bisetta, bisitten, w. v., to possess. 

bista, str. v., to behold. 

bisitta, str. v., to dwell. 

biskirma, bischirma, w. v., to protect. 

biskrtva, str. v., to describe. 

bisldta, str. v., to include, shut in. 

bistrtda, w. v., to oppose. 

Itiada, str. v., to bid, command, pret. 

(e) bdd. 

bid, str. v., to Mow. 
blerem bU cr him. 
bldd, n., blood. 

blddelsa, m., bloody wounding. 
blddig, adj., bloody. 
bod, n., commandment. 
bdkj f. and neut., book. 
bonna, str. v., to prescribe by law. 
b6te, f., mulct. 

bova, prep. w. dat., above, over. 
breka, str. v., to break. 
brenya, brensza, branga, w. v., to 

bring, pret. brdchte. 
brti,n, adj., brown. 
btir, in., neighbour. 
burch, f., town, urbs, oppidum. 
burna, see berna. 
buta, prep. w. dat. and ace., without, 

outside. 

b&ta, conj., but. 
by=bt. 

bynima, binima, str. v., to take. 
bysetta, see bisetta. 
bytila, bitila, w. v., to obtain. 



camp, Icamp, komp, m., battle, duel. 

cldih, see kl&th. 

clipskelde, f., debt, tribute, censio, 

ringing gold. 
coma, see koma, kuma. 
con = ken, kin. 
concordera, w. v., to agree. 
criose=kriose, cross. 
Cristen, adj., Christian. 
crdna, see krdna. 
ctide, pret. of kunna. 
cnma, see koma. 
cund kund, adj. known. 



dae, see <M, thi. 

ddn, part, done., 

dan, danen, thenne, adv., then. 

d<2r=/t^r. 

dat = thct. 

daw, rn., dew. 

rfeer, see thSr. 

deerom, conj., therefore. 

dega, see dt. 

dela, w. v., to deliver, hand over. 

der= there. 

dth, pres. sing, of dHa. 

di, see thi. 

di, dei, m. day. 

dijjen, pres. pr., he. 

dik, m., dyke. 

dir= there. 

dfich, thdch, conj., though. 

doet, ddd, ddth, adj., dead (as a 
noun, death). 

d6m, m.,doom, judgment, command. 

ddmliacht, adj., bright, clear. 

dorsticheit, L, audacity. 

drochten, m., lord. 

d&a, w. v., to do, make, perform ; 
pret. dde, part, den, dan. 

dwaen dtia. 

dwalicheit, L, error. 

dy = thi. 

dyo = thiu, used erroneously some- 
times for fern. ace. tha ; e.g., dyo 
besittinghe, for tha b. t &c. 

dyr = ther. 



edel, ethd, adj., noble. 

eder, coiij., or. 

eenbeet, adj., single. 

eenferd, adj., single. 

eetmel, n., half a day of twenty-four 

hours. 
efter, adv. and prep. w. dat. and 

ace., after, through. 
eg, f., sword. 
egddurad, see gddurja. 
tyen, em, adj., own. 
ehSten, see heta. 
eifna, w. v., to level. 
ellefta, andlofta, ord., eleventh. 
elk, eelk, ek, iudef. pr., each. 
em&nad, see mina. 
4n, adj., card, and indef. pr., a, om j , 

alone, only. 
ende, conj., and. 



GLOSSARY. 



enich, adj., any. 

ense, enze, f., ounce, denomination 

of a coin. 

er, hiri, or, poss. pr., their, her. 
er, pers. pr., he. 
er, prep. w. dat., before up to. 
6r, adv., formerly. 
erja, w. v., to honour. 
erost, ord., first. 
ertke, irthe, f., earth. 
tree, arve, n., inheritance. 
ervja, w. v., to inherit (igen ervede 

vrouwe, a wife with independent 

inheritance). 
esMpen, see sfceppa. 
eskrivin, see skrtva. 
espen, adj., aspen. 
e-sueren, see swera. 
et, prep. w. dat., to. 
twrocht, see werka. 



folia, str. v., to fall. 

fan, see foil. 

fana, fona, m., banner, standard 
(mit een opriucht fana, openly). 

fand, seefinda. 

j'dra, str. v., to carry, proceed, go. 

feder, m., father. 

felo (Germ, viel), n., much. 

fella, str. v., to pay, be fined. 

fenne, m., pasture-land. 

ferd, frctho, m., a certain mulct. 

festa, w. v., to fast. 

fethm (fethom, fethem ?), m., fathom. 

fia-$tli, m.. money oath (perhaps one 
sworn upon a coin marked with a 
cross, or one that involved a 
pecuniary liability). 

Jlarda, ord., fourth. 

jiartiensta, Jiuwertensta, ord., four- 
teenth. 

fif, card., five. 

fifta, ord., fifth. 

f 'if tin da, ord., fifteenth. 

fif tine, card., fifteen. 

fill, adj., unencumbered, unappro- 
priated. 

finda, str. v., to find, pret. fand. 

fir, adv., far (comp. ftror, farther). 

firja, w. v., to hallow. 

fisk, m., fish. 

Jiuchta, str. v., to fight. 

Jiund, m., enemy. 



fiuwer, card., four.V 

ftuwertich, card., forty. 

fiuwerttnda, ord., fourteenth. 

flask, n., flesh. 

flat, seefliata. 

flta, str. v., to flee. 

fliata, str. v., to flow. 

fl6d(e), n., flood. 

foerlyosa, forliusa, urliasa, str. v., 
to lose, forfeit. 

folgja, w. v., to follow. 

folk, n., folk, people. 

folia, fullja, fella, str. v., to compen- 
sate. 

fan, fan, prep. w. dat., of, from. 

forbulga, str. v., to be wroth. 

forestdn (Germ, verstehen), str. v., 
to understand. 

for-gunga-gdn, urgunga. str. v., to 
go away. 

fort, prep. w. ace., for. 

fork(e), f., fork, earth fork. 

forma, ord., first. 

forsla, ursld, forslden, str. v., to de- 
stroy. 

forth, adv., then, thereupon. 

fot, m. , foot. 

frdna, m., magistrate, lord. 

Fresa, m., Frisian. 

fretho, frede, m., peace; also a 
mulct. 

frt, adj., free. 

frtdom, in., freedom. 

Frisa, m., Frisian. 



gd, n., vicus, town, district. 

gddur, adv., together. 

gddurja, w. v., to gather. 

<7#a, to hunt. 

gelde, see jelda. 

gelden, ad j . , golden. 

gelyck, r/eltk, adj., like, adv. phrase, 

detgdyken, likewise, 
jrers, gras, n., grass ; xxx fethma to 

(terse, thirty fathoms meadow 

land. 
gersfalle, gersfette, f., a falling to the 

ground ; lidse gersfclle, to lie as 

a thing neglected on the ground 

-to be overlooked. 
gcva, see/era. 
ghaegd. 
gld, glia, w. v., to glow. 



n6 



GLOSSARY. 



gl$d, {.. brand. 

God, m., God. 

god, n., property, goods. 

gddiltke, adv., honourably. 

goet = g6d. 

grdt, adj., great. 

grtne, adj., green. 

gued=g6d. 

gunya, unya, gdn, str. v., to go. 

g unth gungath. 



hack, adj., high. 

hdchere, hdgere = (h)ach er. 

halda, str. v., to hold, keep ; pret. 
pi., hUdon. 

half, adj. and n., half. 

handschoch, m., (Germ, handschuh), 
glove. 

hanzoch, hensich, adj., subject. 

hdrra, hdra = hiara, hira. 

haudlesne, haudlase, kdvedlesne, f., 
capitis redemptio, ransom for a 
forfeited head (life). 

have, heve, f., property, possessions. 

hebba, w. v., to have ; pret. hedc. 

hede, see hebba. 

lief, n., sea. 

h3l, adj., whole, sound, solid. 

helich, m., saint. 

helig, adj., holy ; tha kUligum, for 
pious uses. 

helm, m., helmet. 

helpa, str. v., to help. 

hera, her, m., lord. 

h&ra, w. v., to belong. 

heerd, hirth, m., hearth, home. 

her(e)ferd, hiriferd, f., campaign. 

herescdd, hiriskeld, m., corps, squad- 
ron. 

here, hiri, m. and neut., army, host. 

herne, f., corner ; kuma et thera 
fjuwer hernena hwelik mith tian 
merkon, to come to each of the 
four corners of the house (which 
was robbed) with ten marks ; a 
periphrasis for "the mulct for 
burglary (when confessed) is forty 
marks." 

Mroch, adj., obedient. 

hSrskipi, n., rule, sway, ownership, 
control. 

Jierte, see hirte. 

heta, str. v., to be called, named. 



he'then, adj., heathen. 

hfohthere = heth(ma)tker. 

heve, see have. 

hi, pers. pr., he, neut. hit, dat. him, 
ace. hine, hint, pi. hia, gen. hira. 

hille, f. and n. , hell. 

himelsch, himulisk, adj., heavenly. 

himul, m., heaven. 

'himulrik, n., heaven. 

htr, adv., here. 

htrop, adv., hereto. 

hirte, f., heart. 

hirthstidi, m. and f., hearth. 

hlaka, w. v., to laugh. 

ho, hu, adv., how. 

hdc, hweltk, indef. pr., which. 

Hochenzie, f., "Oho" town. 

hoek=hwek, hwelik. 

hof, n., court, domus, aula. 

hand, f., hand. 

h6p, m. (Engl. hoop), ring, band. 

hdr, n., whoring. 

h6t, hwat, indef. pr., what. 

hrdpa, str. v., to call to, upon. 

hundei; hundred, card., hundred. 

hunig, n., honey. 

htis, n., house ; thet hfls thera liuda, 
let the house be the people's ; i.e., 
escheat to the state. 

hfislotha, m., house-tax. 

hwande, hwant(e), conj., since, be- 
cause, for, adv., when. 

hwadre = hwasd there. 

hwasd, indef. pr., whoever. 

hw&k, hweltk, indef. pr., whoever. 

hweerom, conj., why. 

hymelrych, see himulrik. 

hyrop, see htrop. 



id = hit. 

idle, adv., idly, in vain. 

in, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, to. 

inghel, see angl, engel. 

ingunga, ingdn, str. v., to enter. 

inna, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, into. 

inndre inna there. 

inroste, m., insider. 

inur, inoer, prep. w. dat. and ace., 

at, in, over. 
irthrtk, n., earth. 
irthbivinge, n., earthquake. 
is, see wesa. 
ItraMliik, adj., Israelite. 



GLOSSARY. 



117 



istera=istkera. 

ivinhdr, adj., equally high. 

ivinkerstena, m., fellow-Christian. 



ja, str. v., to confess, admit. 

jithweltk, indef. pr., every, everyone. 

jdr=jer. 

jef, conj., if. 

jeftha, conj., or. 

jeld, n., mulct, icergeld. 

jelda, gelda, str. v., to pay ; sub. 

gelde, jelde. 
jen, demons, pr., he ; dijjen, he who, 

that one. 
jer, n., year. 

jerde, f., rood ; jerd-ik, every rood. 
jerja, w. v., to covet. 
jerne, adv., gladly. 
jeva, str. v., to give. 
jocd, a weak pret. of jeva. 
Jothane, adj., Jewish. 



karfestere, m., one who observes fasts. 
kela, w. v., to expiate (lit. refri- 

gerari). 

kest, f., privilege, right. 
ketha, w. v., to order. 
keysar, m., emperor. 
kinig, kining, m., king. 
kldtk, cldtlt, n., clothing. 
koep, kdp, m., purchase. 
kon, ken, n., kin. 
koning, in., king. 
kriose, krus, n., cross. 
krone, crdne, L, crown. 
kuna, koma, str. v., to come. 
kunna, v. praet. pres., can, to be 

able to, posse, 
kynd, kind, n., child. 



Mf, n., leaf. 

land, lond, n., land. 

ianghe, adv., long. 

If da, w. v., prset. Idtte, to lead, lead 

forth. 

lega, lidsja, w. v., to lie. 
lira, w. v., to teach. 
Uta, str. v., to let. 
leter, adj., later, last. 
lethoga, w. v., to free, save. 
liaga, str. v., to lie ; pres. 3d sing. Itth, 



liane (Have), f., wife. 

libba, w. v., to live. 

Ilk, adj., like. 

like, adv., like, in the same manneras. 

liode, m., plur. n., people. 

liodkest, f., legal right, privilege. 

liodmcrk, f., folk's mark, a coin. 

lok, m., lock of hair. 

lond, land, n., land, country. 

londriucht, n., statute. 

long, lang, adj., long. 

W, W, n., life. 



ma, me, men, indef. pr.,one, French on. 

mack = mi. 

macht, mecht, f., authority. 

manniska, m., man. 

mannesklik, adj., human. 

mar, adj., greater. 

mdstere, m., master. 

me ma. 

melok, f., milk. 

men ma. 

mena, w. v., to bring back. 

meneska, see manniska. 

menith, m., false oath. 

mer, mar, conj., but. 

merk, f., mark. 

met = ma kit. 

meta, w. v., to meet, pass. 

mey mith. 

mt, mei, v. praet. pr. may ; pi., 

mugun. 

minnja, w. v., to love. 
minscka, m., man. 
mith, mithi, prep. w. dat., with. 
m6der, mother, f., mother. 
mon, man, m., man. 
monig, adj., many, many a. 
monslaga, m., murder. 
mortk, n., murder. 
muckt machte. 
mugun, pi. of mt. 
mure, f. , wall. 

myn, mtn, poss. pr., my, mine. 
mynscka, manniska, m., man. 



nd, net, prep. w. dat., after, accunl- 

ing to. 

nacht, f., night. 
naetndwet. 
nama, noma, m., name. 



GLOSSARY. 



nds=ne was. 

ndthe, see nitJie. 

ndwet, naut, adv., not. 

ne, adv., not. 

ne, conj., though, but if ; hit ne se, 

but if it so be. 

nech the're=ni hSth(ma) thtre. 
nid, ndth, f., trouble, necessity, 

misfortune. 

n&dwere, f., self-defence. 
needver, see nUdwere. 
neil, neyl, m., nail. 
nSl=ni wil. 
nSllath = ni wittaih. 
net=ni wSt. 
nSn, adj., no, not any. 
nSlhe, f., kindness. 
neyl, see neil. 
nicht= ndwet. 
niga, hniga, str. v., to incline to, be 

obedient to. 

nima, nema, str. v., to take. 
nimmen, nymmen, indef. pr., nemo, 

no one. 

njugunda, ord., ninth. 
noma, see nama. 
north, adv., north. 
nu, adv., now. 
nyma, see nima. 



oeck=ac. 

oen an, on. 

oencomma, onkuma, str. v., to ac 

quire, obtain. 
oenfalla, str. v., to fall. 
oer = 6th er, also = or = hiri. 
oerlef, orlof, n., permission. 
of, prep. w. dat., of, from. 
of, adv., out. 
of,jef, conj., if. 
ofwinna, str. v. , to take away. 
oho/ interj., oho ! 
olt, old, adj., old. 
om, see um.be. 
f>m, ethma, m., spirit. 
on, prep. w. dat. and ace., in, on, into. 
onayn, unein, adj., improper. 
onbijen, m., beginning. 
fmdwarde, a., answer, response. 
ondwardja, w. v., to answer, make 

full account. 

ongost, angst, n., anguish. 
onriucht, adj., wrong, wrongful. 



ont, prep. w. ace., until. 
openbaer, epenblr, adv., openly. 
opgaen, str. v., to go, come on. 
oppa, opa, prep. w. dat. and ace., 

against, upon. 

opriucht, adj., raised onhigh, waving. 
or = hiri, her. 
ord, m., spear. 
6ron6theron. 

Other, ander, ord., second, other. 
ova, prep. w. dat. and ace., and adv., 

over, upon, with reference to; 

fon ova to dta, from one end to 

the other. 
overhdr, u., adultery. 



palmere, m., pilgrim, palmer. 

penning, panning, m., penny. 

pilegrim, pilugrim, m., pilgrim. 

plichtich, adj., charged with the 
oversight (followed by the geni- 
tive). 

porte, f., gate, portal. 

pund, pundt, n., pound. 



rod, adj., red. 

rod, raed, rid, m., counsel. 

ruf, n., robbery. 

-re = er, pers. pr., he. 

reden(e), f . , legal petition, Us, causa. 

rSdjeva, ridja, m., judge. 

rSne, adj., pure. 

rfaza, rlka, w. v., to pay, deliver to ; 

prset. rdchte. 
rib, n., rib. 

riucht, n., law, system of laws. 
riucht, adj., right, proper. 
riiichta, w. v., to right one's self, 

legally purge. 
riuchter, m., judge. 
r&mfdra, m., pilgrim to Rome. 



sd, conj., so, as, than ; frequently a 
mere expletive. 

sd (s6)hwa-id, neut. sd-hwet-sd,' in- 
def. pr., whosoever, whatsoever. 

salt, adj., salty. 

sand, sankt, m., saint. 

sant, see sanct. 

scheda = skSda. 

schel skil. 



GLOSSARY. 



119 



sckyldich, see skddich. 

sci'J.ad, see skila. 

sciUing, schilling, shitting, m., shil- 
ling. 

$cdhe=skone. 

scdp, see skeppa. 

scrimin, pret. part, otskrtva ; scrioun 
rvtcht, lex scripta. 

nd, a., sea. 

sc, pers. pr., nom. and ace. pi., they, 
thsm (usually enclitic). 

sdbuich, f., dike. 

sega, sedsa, w. v., to say, pret. seide. 

sel = ikel, skil. 

seel, Sle, f., soul. 

self, ielva, selwa, demons, pron. and 
adj., self, ipse, same. 

semm, adv., together. 

sSna, w. v., to placate, appease, 
reconcile. 

sendtboda, m., messenger, nuntius. 

sexta, ord., sixth. 

sexlech, sextich, sexthech, -card., 
sixty. 

seyd, seyt, preterits of sega. 

sta, str. v., to see. 

sick (Germ, sick), reflex, pr., himself, 
herself, itself, &c. 

stde, adv., downwards. 

siyunda, sjuyunda, ord., seventh. 

sin, m., sense. 

sin, syn, poss. pr., his, their. 

sinnen sind. 

sith, m., associate. 

sitter, m., possessor. 

skathja, skathigja, w. v. , to injure. 

skeda, sket/ia, scheda, w. v., to de- 
part, be separated from. 

skeld, m., shield. 

skeldich, schyldich, adj., bound, ne- 
cessitated. 

skeppa, str. v.. to create, pret. sk6p. 

skila, v. prset. pr., shall ; pret. skolde, 
pres. 2d sing, skalt, pi. 1st pers. 
skilu(n), Mid.-Fris. scillad,schellet. 

shilling, m., shilling. 

skipnese, f., form, shape. 

skippcre, m., creator. 

skdne, skene, adj., lovely. 

skrtva, str. v., to write, enact, pret. 
skref. 

slachte, m., race. 

slSpa, w. v., to sleep. 

so, conj., so. 



sogenja, somnia, w. v., to collect, 

gather together. 
somnia, see sogenja. 
sender, sunder, prep. w. dat. and 

ace., without. 

sdne, f., propitiation, atonement. 
Sonnendi, Sunnandei, m., Sunday. 
sonu = sunu. 
spada, m., spade. 
sptri, spere, n., spear. 
spreka, str. v., to speak. 
spreke, L, speech, complaint, loquela. 
sial, m., standing. 
stdp, adj., high. 
stathul,, adj., firm, solid. 
sted, stid, m. and f., place. 
st0n, m., stone, rock. 
stenen, adj., stone, of stone. 
stera, in., star. 
stera, w. v.. to provide for. 
sterva, str. v., to perish. 
stherek/iof, n., churchyard. 
stid, see sted. 

stifne, {., matter, status, conditio. 
stifta, w. v., to construct. 
stiga, str. v., to rise. 
still, adj., still. 
stdl, m., sedes, status, condition : thet 

alle Frisa an frta stdle bisitle, 

quod omnes Frisones in libera sede 

consis/ant. 

stonda, str. v., to stand ; pret. st6<l. 
stdr. n., much. 
strSte, f., street, way, road. 
strld, n., combat. 
suera, swera, str. v., to swear, make 

affirmation. 
suertncsueng, swartaswing, m., a 

capital crime. 
sue*t, see su-tit. 
sumur, m., summer. 
sunnandt, see sonnendi. 
sunne, f., sun. 
sunu, m., son. 

siUher, adv., south, southwards. 
siWicr, suthern, adj., southern. 
sivet, m., sweat, perspiration. 
swilith, see ttiswella. 
sy = sc. 
syn, see sin. 
synnen, Mid.-Fris. for send. 

talc, f., complaint. 
tauir, tow, n., tool. 



I2O 



GLOSSARY. 



tefte, f., table. 

tegdtha, m., tithes. 

tSr=tktr. 

ter= there.. 

tdken, n., sign. 

testamentar, m., executor. 

thd, adv. and conj., then, when, 

than, or. 

thattSr, indef. pr. neut., whatever. 
thenna, thenne, adv., then. 
ther, rel. pr., who, which. 
ikir, adv., there. 
th&rre=ther ilitr. 
thes te, adv. phrase, so much. 
thet, conj., that. 
thette-thet hi. 
tli etterne = thet er thene. 
thi, thiu, thet, dem. pr., the, ace. 

mas. thene. 
thi, see thu. 
thiade, f., people. 
thianja, w. v., to serve. 
thin, poss. pr., thy. 
thing, tins, n., tiling. 
thingath, tingat/i, m., suit, process. 
this, thes, thet, dem. pr., this. 
thiuvethe, f., theft. 
th6 = to tha. 
th6-t6. 

tholja, w. v., to suffer. 
thornen, adj., thorny. 
thrS, card., three. 
thredda, ord. , third. 
threddtnda, ord., thirteenth. 
thrttich, card., thirty. 
thruch, prep. w. ace., through. 
thu, pers. pr., thou, dat. thi. 
thura, v. praes. pr., to have to, 

pret. thorste. 
ti for thi, dat. of thu. 
tian, card., ten. 
tianda, ord., tenth. 
til, prep. w. dat. and instr., to ; til 

thiu, in order that. 
tinyad, see thingath. 
timber, pi. n., buildings. 
tiuch, n., testimony. 
tjenstman, tyenstmane, m., vassal. 
t6, ti, te, prep. w. dat., to. 
tdbreka, str. v., to break in pieces. 
toegaera, adv., together. 
tdgta, thtichta, m., thought, mind. 
tfaemine, adv., together. 
tOswella, str. v., to swell, roll. 



tsyurke, tsierke, Jcerke, f., church. 

tu, see thu. 

tuiwald, adj., twofold, double. 

turf, m., turf. 

tuybeet, twibtte, adv., doubly fined, 

to the extent of a double fine 
twd, card., two, gen. pi. twtra ; a 

twtra, wegena, double. 
ticeer, twene, card., two. 
tice"ne, see tweer. 
tuia, num. adv., twice. 
twijeld, n., double compensation. 
twilifta, ord., twelfth. 
twintich, ord., twenty. 
twintigosta, ord., twentieth. 
tyd, ttdi, f. , time. 



umbe, om, prep. w. ace., around. 

umbibur, m., fellow -citizen, pi. ulte- 
riores vicini. 

und = and. 

undfd, str. v., to receive. 

unfrethmon, ui., belligerent man. 

unga, gunga, str. v., to go. 

unj^rig, adj., minor. 

unriucht, adj., false, wrongful. 

unskeldecJi, adj., innocent. 

untfd, str. v., to take, receive. 

unwis, adj., uncertain. 

up, adv. and prep. w. dat. and ace., 
up, upon. 

ur, prep. w. ace., over, with refer- 
ence to. 

urbiada, str. v., to forbid. 

urjelda, str. v. to pay, subj. urgnlde. 

urjeva, str. v., to give, grant, yield, 
concede. 

urswera, str. v., to swear. 

urtta, str. v., to pay, subj. urt&je. 

us, dat. and ace. pi. pers. pr., us. 

use, poss. pr., our. 

uta, conj., moreover. 

uta, adv., out. 

uthwysiny, utwtsing, m., instruction, 
injunction. 

utroste, m., outsider. 



ran =fon. 

verbeteren (Dutch verbeteren), w. v., 

to increase. 

rerbeteringe, f., rectification. 
verkGpen, urkdjya, w. v., to sell. 



GLOSSARY. 



121 



vessa = wesa, 

vinden =finda, 

voermund, m. (Germ, vormund) 
trustee. 

voranderen, w. v., to alter. 

vormelden, urmeldja, w. v., to en- 
join, announce. 

vormSren, w. v., to increase. 

vorwessden, urvrixlia, w. v., to ex- 
change. 

vronde, friond, m., friend, protector. 

vrouw, frdwe, f., wife. 

wachf interj., alas ! woe ! 

Wachenzie, f., " Woe " town. 

waer, for was. 

waer hwer, adv., where. 

wdka, w. v., to awake. 

wald, f., force, violence, wrong. 

wan, want = hwande. 

wapeldfy, wapulde'pene, f., submer- 
sion. 

warf, werf, m., stronghold, place of 
deposit, assembly. 

worlds, adj., unprotected. 

weddja, w. v., to give satisfaction, 
make atonement for. 

wegk, m., car, vehicle. 

mi, wt, m., way, manner, road ; gen. 
wiges. 

weld,, see wta. 

wein, m., wain, waggon. 

wend, m., substance. 

wSpen, n., weapons, arms. 

freer for was : subjunctive errone- 
ously used for indicative. 

weerrdka, w. v. , to return, give back. 

w$ra, w. v., to defend. 

werd, see word. 

were, f., property, possessions. 

werf, see warf. 

wergja. wirgja, w. v., to strangle. 

weerjdn, witkirjeva,sir. v., to give up 

werka, w. v., to work, make ; pret. 
part, ewrocht. 

ii-dron, see wesa. 

werp, probably for warf. 

werrild, see wrald. 

wertha, str. v. (aux.), to be. 

wesa, str. v. (aux.), to be, pres. 3d sing. 
is, pi. send, pret. s. was, pi. wfron. 

wise, com. gen., orphan. 

wesseling, wixle, n., exchange. 

west, adv. and u., wester, west. 



wetir, m., water. 

weyd, pret. of wta, wtga. 

wi, pers. pr. pi., we. 

wta, wtga, w. v., to hallow. 

wide, widwe, f., widow. 

wif, n., wife, woman. 

wige, see wei. 

wilds, adj., unconsecrated. 

wild, adj., wild. 

willa, w. v., to will, pret. pi. wcl- 
don, wolden. 

willa,m., will, permission, agreement. 

wind, m., wind. 

winna, str. v., to win, gain. 

winter, m., winter. 

wird, werth, adj., worth. 

wird n., provision, injunction, com- 
mand. 

wirgja, see wergia. 

wts, f., manner, wise. 

wts, adj., wise. 

wita, v. prset. pres., to know. 

with, prep. w. ace. and instr., to, 
against. 

witha with ilia. 

withene=with thene. 

wtthe'th, m., solemn oath, in reliquiis 
juramentum. 

withir, prep. w. ace., against. 

withstonda, str. v., to withstand, 
contend. 

wolken, n., clouds, welkin. 

word, n., word, command, permis- 
sion. 

w&stene, f., wilderness. 

wr = ur. 

wrald, f., world. 

wrgunga, wragaen, str. v., to be 
destroyed. 

wrstonda, str. v., to outstand, out- 
stay. 

wrwyddelyk, uricaldelike, adv., vio- 
lently. 

ws = ds, fise. 

wunde, f., wound. 

wy eld wald. 

wyf=utf. 

wysa, wtsa, w. v., to show, indicate. 

ydr, jer, n., year ; t6 crcn ydren 

komen, to come of age. 
ys-is. 

zyn sin. 



INDEX. 



(The references are to the Sections.') 



a, 3- 

-. J 4S- 

-a, 146 ; themes, 55 ; as a subjunctive 
termination, 138 ; gender of nouns 
ending in, 48. 

d, 9- 

abbreviation, of the pronoun, 96, 97 ; 
of various words, 40 ; of nouns in 
composition, 140; of adjectives in 
comparison, 84. 

ablative, dative used as, 158. 

ablaut, defined, 42; verbs, no. 

accent. 41. 

accusative, cognate, 178; syntax, 181, 
182, 183, 186, 187 ; prepositions 
with, 193 ; preposition with accus. 
and dat., 195 ; prepositions with 
accus. and instrumental, 197 ; 
double, 187. 

dch, 126. 

active voice, 104, and see the verbal 
paradigms. 

adjective endings, 148. 

adjectives, 72 ff. ; syntax, 163-167 ; 
declension, 73-75 ; comparison, 79 ; 
few to compare, 81 ; with genitive, 
163 ; with dative, 164, 165 ; with 
the article, 72. 

admit, to, syntax of, 181. 

adverbs, 202 ; comparison of, 86 ; 
numeral, 90 (i and 3) 92 (5) ; for- 
mation of, 149 : with compara- 
tive endings, 82 ; pronominal, 
102 ; negative, 202 ; of place, 

149 (3)- 
adverbial phrases and expressions, 99 

(3), 149- 
ae, 19. 

affirmation, particle of, 202 (4). 
dye, declined, 61. 
agent, forms indicating, 48 (i, e.). 



ai, 15 (9). 

alliteration, 206-209. 

Amrum, dialect of ; th in, 34 ; 
"father" in, 64*. 

-an, plurals in, 57 (i) ; theme of 
weak declension, 61. 

and, 146 ; active participle in, 190. 

Anglo-Saxon, letters compared with 
Friesic : see under the various 
letters in Part I. ; gemination, 23 
(4) ; vocalisation in suster, &c., 28 
(6) ; gender, 47 ; double accusative, 
186. 

anomalous nouns, 67 ; verbs, 139. 

answering, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

apocope, 23 (3), 43, 119. 

apodosis, introduced by sd, 200. 

-ar, plurals in, 57 (i); -ar and -er 
inserted in nouns, 57 (4). 

dre, declined, 61. 

dskja, to ask for, syntax, 186. 

aspiration, loss of, 32 (i) ; in the pro- 
noun, 97; in the verb, 116; iu 
the adverb and particle, 102. 

aspirated liquid compounds, 23 (i). 

assimilation, in verbs, 116. 

ate, 64*. 

-ath, 147 ; gender of nouns ending 
in, 48 (i). 

atj, 64*. 

au, 16. 

auxiliaries, 108, 109, 126 ; arrange- 
ment of in sentences, 152. 

b, 31. 

bdrg, 27 (3). 

barnsdom, 25. 

be-, bi-, 145. 

bed, 27 (3). 

been, 25. 

bera, syntax of, 184. 



INDEX. 



I2 3 



bereave, syntax of, 182. 

bern, declined, 55. 

bSthe, declined, 92. 

bidding, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

bifel, 27 (3). 

bik, 27 (3). 

boarstje, 25. 

boast, to, syntax of, 180. 

Brechung, 44. 

breka, syntax of, 185. 

brik, 27 (3). 

bring, 27 (3). 

Brokmer JBecht, plurals in, 57. 

burch, declined, 66. 

biiug, 27 (3). 

c, 2 (2), 36. 
cardinals, 87. 

ch, 2 (3), 38 ; for/, 31 (4); for g and 
> 38 (7) ; for h, 39. 

coming upon, syntax with verbs of, 
179. 

comparative, 79-86 ; in ordinals, 89 ; 
thd, than, and sd used after, 166. 

comparison, 79 ; irregular and defec- 
tive, 85 ; double, 82 ; of adverbs, 
86. 

compensation, 45. 

complain, of, to, syntax of, 182. 

composition, 140 ff. ; of verbs with 
adverbs and prepositions, 141 ; 
nouns in, 140 ; of adjectives with 
nouns, 142 ; particles changing 
meaning in, 143 ; defining words 
in, 144. 

conjugation, 107; first, or strong, 
no ; remarks on, 116-125 '> second, 
or weak, 128 ; remarks on, 130-138. 

conjunctions, 199 ; with subjunctive, 
201. 

consonants, 22 ff. 

contraction, 9, 13, 15, 27 (4), 74, 84 ; 
of pronouns, 96, 97. 

controlling, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

conversion of a guttural into a pala- 
tal, 37. 

d, 32 (2) ; euphonically inserted, 32 
(4) ; omitted from participle, 124 ; 

added to preterit participle in 

Modern-Friesic, 191 (3). 
d, 149 (3). 
-da, -ta, 148. 
daere, 35. 
dan, 35. 
dat, 35. 
dative, 155-159, 165; supplanting 

accusative, 171 ; syntax, 179, 182- 

184-186 ; prepositions with, 194 ; 

with dative and instrumental, 197. 



declension, 52 ; first, or strong, 55 ; 
remarks on first, 56, 57, 59, 60 (2) ; 
second, or weak, 61 ; remarks on 
second, 62 ; of anomalous nouns, 
67 ; of adjectives, 72-75 ; of parti- 
ciples, 78 ; of numerals, 90-92 ; of 
pronouns, 94 ff. ; definite, 75 ; in- 
definite, 73 ; summary of declen- 
sions, 71. 

deend, 191 (3). 

defective nouns, 68. 

de.il, 27 (3). 

demonstratives, 99, 100. 

dentals, 32. 

dhdman, 147 (2). 

di, 35- 

diminutives, 70. 

dine, 35. 

dinne, 35. 

diphthongs, 14. 

direct object, 177. 

distributive, a, 92 (2). 

dizze, 35. 

djop, 14 (2). 

dju, 14 (2). 

doghs, 35. 

dolge and dolck, 7. 

-ddm, 147; gender of nouns ending 

in, 48. 
dou, 35. 
double superlative, 82 ; accusative, 

187. 
doz, 35. 
drind, 191 (3). 
dual, 98. 
Dutch influence on Friesic, i (4), 29 

(3)- 
dwdlicheed, 28 (4). 

dy, 35- 
dz, 37 (2). 

e, 4 ; euphonically inserted, 5 ; um- 
laut, 46 ; intensive prefix, 192. 

-e, 148 ; gender of nouns ending in, 48 
(2, 3) ; plurals in, 57 (5) ; adverbial 
termination, 149 ; relic of ancient 
-ja, 57 (6), 77. 125. 

e-, privative particle, 192. 

e, 10 ; umlaut of 6, 10 (9). 

-ede, -hed, 48, (2 c.) 

eeri, 27 (3). 

ci, 15 ; -eg vocalised into, 38 (2) ; 
condensed into t, 38 (3). 

-el, gender of nouns' ending in, 48 (i). 

-elsa, 147 ; gender of nouns ending 
in, 48 (i), 

emphasis, arrangement for sake of, 

153- 
emphatic superlative, 85*. 



124 



INDEX. 



Emsiger Recht, t in, 32 (i) ; 82 ; 
plurals, 57; a distributive in, 92 
(2). 

n, declined, 90. 

-en, gender of nouns ending in, 48 
(3) ; plurals in, 57 ; suffix, 146, 
148. 

end, used to form emphatic superla- 
tive, 85*. 

end rhyme, 204, 205. 

-er, -ere, suffix, 146, 147, 149 (3). 

-ere, gender of nouns ending in, 48 (i). 

-er, -em, 148. 

-eth, gender of nouns ending in, 48 

< 2 )- 

$th, declined, 55. 
-ethe, -the, 147. 
etymology, nouns, 47 ; adjectives, 72 ; 

numerals, 87 ; pronouns, 94 ; verbs, 

104. 
eu, 1 8. 
expletive (ad), zoo. 

/, 31 ; rendering Anglo-Saxon com- 
bination hw, 31 (3). 

-fold, 148. 

feder, declined, 64. 

feminine nouns, 48 (2), and see under 
the declensions. 

fia, declined, 60. 

finda, conjugated, 112. 

following, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

For, dialect of, th in, 34. 

foreign proper nouns, 69. 

forgiving, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

forth-, 145. 

Fosite, 27 (3)f. 

Fracture, 44. 

Prankish, ei, 15 (7). 

freeing from, syntax with verbs of, 
180. 

friund, declined, 65. 

ful-, 145. 

future, see verbal paradigms ; present 
used for, 188. 

future perfect, 114. 

g, 37 (2), 38 ; loss of, compensated by 
eu, 18 ; changed to t, 38 (5). 

ge-, intensive prefix, 192. 

gian, 27*. 

gemination, 23 (4), 27 (4) ; diphthon- 
gal, 28 (8). 

gender, rules for, 47, 48, 49, ; pecu- 
liarity of wif, 51 ; nouns of more 
than one, 50. 

genitive, 154, 160-163, 167, 169, 173, 
185 ; prepositions with, 196. 

German, gender, 47 ; syntax, 150. 

gerund, see verbal paradigms, and 



Sections 120, 191 ; case - ending 
omitted, 191 (2). 

Gesta Fresonum, 213. 

giving, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

god, declined, 73, 75. 

Gothic, vowels, see the various let- 
ters ; neuter nouns, 57 (3) ; nasal 
d, 12 (2). 

governing, syntax of verbs of, 180. 

Greek, neuter plurals, 57 (3) ; peculiar 
numeral compounds, 93f. 

gungi, 27 (3). 

gutturals, 36 ; replacing spirant, 31 
(4) ; replacing b, 31 (4) ; arbitrarily 
inserted in pagus, 31 (4) ; in Sater- 
landish, 31 (4) ; converted into a 
palatal, 37. 

^i 2 (4)> 39 > l 8 t from verbal forms, 
123. 

half, with numerals, 174. 

hearkening to, syntax with, 179. 

-hed, -ede, 147 ; gender of nouns end- 
ing in, 48 (2). 

Heligoland, dialect of, diphthong iu 
in, 14 (2) ; infinitive, 27 (3) ; article, 
99(2)- 

helping, syntax with verbs of, 179, 
182. 

herne, 25. 

hi, declined, 94. 

fiidr, 27 (3). 

Hindelopian, 64* ; 70 ; 191 (3). 

hi, hr, 23 (i), 39. 

hn, 39. 

hdn, 25. 

hona, declined, 6r. 

hr, 39. 

hund, relic of, 88. 

Hunsingoer Recht, 57, 82. 

hw, 2 (4), 39. 

hwa, declined, 101. 

t, 6 ; pronoun, 94 ; Brechung, 6 (2) ; 
intensive prefix, 192 ; umlaut, 46 ; 
as subjunctive termination, 138. 

-i, themes in, 58 ; Modern-Friesic in- 
finitives, 27 (3) ; plural in, 57 (5). 

t, ii. 

ia, 14. 

Icelandic, gender, 47 ; vowels, see 
under the various letters. 

-ich, 148. 

ie-, intensive prefix, 192. 

-igja, &c., in weak verbs, 136. 

ik, declined, 94. 

imitating, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

imperative, 170, and see paradigms. 

impersonals, 184. 

in-, 145. 



INDEX. 



125 



indefinite, declension, 73 ; article, 
176 ; numeral, 175 ; pronouns, 
103. 

indicative, strong, 112 ; weak, 128. 

indirect object, 156. 

infinitive, see paradigms ; Modern- 
Friesic, 27 (3). 

inflection, of nouns, strong, 55 S. ; 
weak, 61 ; of adjectives, definite, 
75 ; indefinite, 73 ; of verbs, strong, 
no ; weak, 128 ; in Modern-Friesic, 

54- 
influence, syntax with verbs of, 

179. 
-ing, 146 ; gender of nouns ending in, 

48 (i). 

-inge, -unge, 147. 
inseparable prefixes, 141 (a). 
instrumental, 99 (3) ; prepositions 

with, and with other cases, 197. 
intensive prefix, 192. 
interjections, 203. 
interrogative, pronouns, 101 ; adverbs, 

202 (2). 
io, 14. 

isk, -esk, 148. 
it, 27 (3). 
iu, 14. 

j, 2 (5), 30. 

-ja, themes in, 57 (6) ; in verbs, i to, 

125, 128. 
jaen, 27*. 
jdt, declined, 98. 

-je, as subjunctive termination, 138. 
jemma, personal pronoun, 94*. 
jen, pronoun, 95 (i). 
jied (Helig.), 14 ( 2 ). 
ju, 95 (i). 
junk (Helig.), 14 ( 2 ). 



juued (Schierm.), 14 (2). 

judging, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

k, 2 (6), 36, 37. 

kan, 126. 

-ke, diminutive in, 70. 

Kentish, delan, e"nig, io (4) ; g 

changed to i, 38 (5). 
kerne, 25. 

kiasa, conjugated, 112. 
koe'd, 23 (2). 
kon, 25. 

I, 23 ; ou as compensation for, 21. 
-I, gender of nouns ending in, 48 

(i, d). 
labials, 31. 
-Ids, 148. 
Latin, o, 8 (3) ; neuter plurals, 57 



(3) ; syntax, 150 ; monachus, 8 (3) ; 
pondus, 8 (3) ; p, 31 (4). 

libba, 137. 

lied, 27 (3). 

-Itk, 148. 

likeness, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

Lindhold, dual, 98. 

liode, declined, 58. 

liquids, 23 (i). 

list, of nouns of more than one gen- 
der, 50 ; of strong nouns, 56, 59 ; 
of weak nouns, 63 ; of nouns with 
themes in -r, 64 ; themes in -nd, 
65 ; of indefinite pronouns, 103 ; of 
strong verbal classes, no ; of verbs 
to illustrate the classes, in ; ofprce- 
terito-prcesentia, 126 ; of preposi- 
tions with various cases, 193-197 ; 
of principal conjunctions, 199 ; of 
interjections, 203 ; of adjectives 
irregularly and defectively com- 
pared, 85 ; of weak verbs, 129. 

listening, syntax with verbs of, 179. 

lith, plural in -i, 57 (5). 

logical subject, 184. 

long vowels, 9, ff. 

Iv and If, 2 (7). 

, 27 (5). 

-m, gender of nouns ending in, 48 (i). 

ma, verb agreeing with, in plural, 
103* ; euphonic -r suffixed to, 103*. 

-ma, 147 ; gender of nouns ending in, 
48 (i) ; superlative in, 82. 

macki, 27 (3). 

makja, followed by double accusa- 
tive, &c., 187. 

manner and means, 156. 

masculine, 48 (i) ; nouns, 48 (i), and 
see the declensions. 

material, syntax of, 160. 

mei, mi, 126. 

metathesis, 26, 127. 

Middle-Friesic, 28 (4) ; rhymes, 
213. 

middle sense in certain verbs, 145*. 

mis-, 145. 

miss, to, syntax of, 180. 

Modern-Friesic, 7, 14 (2), 23, 25, 
27 (3), 28 (5), 31 (4), 34, 35, 37 
(2), 38, 54, 57, 64*, 70, 96 (2), 98, 

191 (3). 

mon, declined, 67. 
monig, 175. 
moods, 105. 
m6t, 126. 

multiplicatives, 92 (4). 
mutes, 31. 

n, 27 ff. ; inserted in verbal themes, 



126 



INDEX. 



no; in Northumbrian Anglo- 
Saxon, 27 (2). 

naht, declined, 66. 

nasals, 27. 

-nd, stems in, 65 ; gender of nouns 
ending in, 48 (i). 

nSd, declined, 58. 

negation, particles of, 202 ; ne trans- 
posed, 26. 

nera, conjugated, 128. 

-nese, 147. 

neuter nouns, 48 (3), and see under 
the different declensions. 

North-Friesic, dual, 98. 

Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon, 27 (2). 

Norwegian, 25. 

nouns, 47 ff. ; syntax, 154. 

numbers, 52. 

numerals, 87 ff. ; a distributive nu- 
meral, 92 (2) ; peculiar use of sum 
with, 93 ; indefinite, 175. 

o, 7. 

6, 12. 

object, direct, 177 ; indirect, 156. 

observing, syntax with verbs of, 180. 

obtain, to, syntax of, 180. 

-och, 148. 

oe, 20. 

of-, 145- 

Olde Freesche Chronike, 213. 

Old-High-German, vowels, &c., see 

under the various letters. 
6gen, 31 (4). 

omission of consonants, 40. 
on-, 145. 
ond-, 145. 
onder-, 145. 
Old-Saxon, see tinder the different 

letters. 
ordinals, 89. 
ou, 21. 

Pi 3 1 - 

palatals, conversion of gutturals into, 

37- 

paradigms, of verbs, strong, 112 ; 
weak 128. 

parallelism, 210. 

participles, see under the paradigms, 
also 122, 135 ; active with passive 
sense, 190. 

particles, of interrogation, 202 ; of 
negation, 202 ; meaning lost in com- 
pounds, 141 (a.) ; privative, 192. 

partitives, govern genitive, 161, 167, 
169. 

passive voice, 112. 

periphrastic conditional conjugation, 
126. 



place, adverbs of, 149 (3). 

Platt-Deutsch, 25. 

pleasing, syntax with verbs of, 179, 
184. 

pluperfect, 112, 128. 

popular songs, national, 212. 

possessive pronouns, 95 (2). 

prcepositus, 31 (4). 

prceterito-prcesentia, 126 ; verbs fol- 
lowing analogy of, 127. 

pravesaydmi, 188. 

prefixes, 38 (4), 145. 

prepositions, 193-198 ; with accusa- 
tive, 193 ; with dative, 194 ; with 
dative and ace., 195 ; with geni- 
tive, 196 ; with instrumental, 197 ; 
double, 198. 

pi'esent, indicative and subjunctive, 
112, 128 ; theme, strong verbs, 
112 ; theme, weak verbs, 128 ; used 
for future, 188. 

preterit, see the verbal paradigms. 

privative particle, 192. 

pronouns, 94 ff. ; omitted with im- 
perative, 170 ; possessive, 95 (2) ; 
syntax, 168 ; demonstrative, 99, 
too ; interrogative, 101 ; relative, 
102 ; indefinite, 103 ; contracted, 
96, 97 ; reflexives, 172 ; dual, 
98. 

pronunciation, of r, 23 (6) ; of pala- 
tals, 37 ; of vowels, i ; of con- 
sonants, 2 ; of If and ly, 2 (7) ; wl 
and wr, 2 (9) ; of th, see dentals ; 
of I and r, 24 ; of Modern-Friesic, 
see Modern-Friesic. 

proper names, 37 (6), 69. 

prosody, 204, ff. 

providing against, syntax, 180. 

purging legally, syntax, 182. 

q, 22. 

quantity, syntax of nouns expressing, 
1 60. 

r, 23 ; dropped, 24 ; pronunciation, 

23 (6), 24 ; added to ma, 103. 
-r, 149 (3). 

redundant letters, in verbs, 136. 
reduplication, no. 
reflexives, 172. 
relative pronouns, 102. 
repaying, syntax with verbs of, 179. 
repetition of negatives, 202 (3). 
requesting, syntax, 180. 
rhotacism, 23 (6), 29; in verbs, 117. 
rhyme, 204, 205. 
-rtke, 147. 
Risum, dual. 98. 
rob, syntax of, 182. 



INDEX. 



127 



Ruckumlaut, 134. 

lliistringer Recht, 19, 207 ; plurals 
in, 57 ; superlative, 82. 

*, 2 (8), 29 ; for th, 33 ; a plural end- 
ing in, 64. 

sd, after comparatives, 166 ; exple- 
tive, 200. 

salvja, conjugated, 128. 

Sanskrit, plural of neuter nouns, 57 
(3) i peculiar numeral compounds, 

93- 

Saterlandish, wila, n (i) ; d before 

diphthong, 14 (2) ; gutturals, 31 

(4). 
Schiermonnikoog, dialect of, d before 

diphthong, 14 (2). 
scoed, 23 (3). 

seem to, to, syntax of, 184. 
sei, 27 (3). 

seka, conjugated, 128. 
-sel, gender of nouns ending in, 48 (3). 
sle, declined, 55. 
serving, syntax with verbs of, 179. 
short vowels, 3-8. 
siend, 191 (3). 
sjaen, 27*. 
skil, 126. 
-skip, 147 ; gender of nouns ending 

in, 146. 

skip, declined, 55. 
sliap, 27 (3). 
songs, popular, 212. 
speaking against, syntax with verbs 

of, 179. 
spirants, 28 ff. 
st6an, 27*. 
sth, 37. 
strong, nouns, 55 ; adjectives, 73 ; 

verbs, no. 

subject, place for, 153 ; logical, 184. 
subjunctive, see paradigms ; syntax, 

189 ; with what conjunctions, 189 

(4, 5), 20 1 ; used for imperative, 189. 
suffixes, 146 ; contracted, 84 ; of 

comparatives, 79 ; of superlatives, 

79 ; denoting personal agents, 146 ; 

abstract notions, circumstances, 

and things, 147. 
sum, with numerals, 93. 
-sum, 148. 

summary of the declensions, 71. 
sunu, declined, 60. 
superlative, 79, 82, 84 ; in ordinals, 

89 ; as partitive, 167. 
Sylt, dialect of, dual, 98. 
syncope, 74, 77, 84, 132, 140*. 
syntax, general principles, 150-153 ; 

of accusative, 180-183, I ^6, 187 ; 

of adjectives, 151, 163-167; of 



verbs, 152," 177-192 ; of nouns, 
154-162 ; of pronouns, 168-172 ; 
of numerals, 173-176 ; of preposi- 
tions, 193-198 ; conjunctions, 199- 
202; adverbs, 202; interjections, 
203; of dative, 155-159, 165, 179, 
182-187 > with comparative and 
superlative, 156 ; with genitive, 
154, 160-163, l6 7> l6 9, 173, 180. 
*z, 37- 

t, 32. 

t-, as relic of hund, 88. 

-ta, 148. 

take from, syntax, 183. 

taking care of or far, syntax with 
verbs of, 180. 

-te, gender of nouns ending in, 48 (3). 

tenses, 106. 

th, 33 ; pronunciation, 34 ; for /, 33 
(3)- 

thd or than, after comparatives, 166. 

thacke, 34. 

tltaank, 34. 

thdrp, 34. 

-the, 147. 

themes, -a, 58 ; -i, 58 ; -u, 60 ; -an, 
61 ; --, 64 ; -va, 57 (7) ; -nd, 65 ; 
ending in a guttural or dental, 66 ; 
anomalous, 67. 

thSnk, 27 (3). 

Thet Freske Riim, 213. 

thi, declined, 99. 

thiif, 34. 

thing, 34. 

this, declined, 100. 

tldtsel, 34. 

th6n, 25. 

time, nouns of, 154, 155. 

thruch-, 145. 

thu, declined, 94. 

thum, 34. 

thur, 12,6. 

t/iurf, 126. 

thrS, declined, 91. 

thwong, 34. 

to, in composition, 143. 

t6-, 145- 

tdth, declined, 58. 

Triibung, 7, 8. 

ts, tsz, tz, 37 (2). 

tungc, declined, 61. 

tweue, declined, 90. 

u, 8 ; for v and w, 8 (4) ; ancient 

umlaut, 46 (2). 
-u, gender of nouns ending in, 48 

(r) ; themes in, 60. 
u, 13- 
ui, 17. 



128 



INDEX. 



-ul, gender of norms ending in, 48 (i). 

umbe-, 145. 

Umlaut, rule, 46; in the compara- 
tive, 83; in verbs, 117; Ruckum- 
laut, 134. 

-, 145. 

und-, 145. 

under-, 145. 

up-, 145- 

Upstalbom, plurals, 57. 

ur-, 145. 

using, syntax with verbs of, 180. 

At-, 145- 

v, 28 ; for M, 28 ; replacing nasal, 28 
(9) ; drops out, 28 (9). 

-va, themes in, 57 (7). 

verbs, 104 ff . ; auxiliary, 108, 109 ; 
strong, no; remarks on, 116 ff. ; 
weak, 128 ; remarks on, 130 ff. ; in- 
transitive form, 115; of several 
stems, 121 ; strong with weak 
forms, 122; prceterito - prcesentia, 
126 ; verbs following analogy of, 
127; anomalous (without connect- 
ing vowel), 139 ; governing dative, 
179 ; genitive, 180 ; accusative and 
genitive, 181, 182 ; the subjunc- 
tive, 189 ; voices, 104 ; moods, 105 ; 
tenses, 106 ; adverbs with, 202 (6). 

voices, 104. 

vowels, 3, ff. ; long, 9, ff. 



w, aspirated in Modern-Friesic, 28 
(5) ; used for u, 28 (2) ; for wu, 
28 (2) ; combined with I and r, 2 
(9), 23, 28 (3) ; dropped, 28 (7). 

Wangertig, dialect of, infinitive 
forms, 27 (3) ; th in, 34. 

wdt, declined, 98. 

weak, conjugation, 128 ; verbs, 129 ; 
nouns, 6 1 ; adjectives, 75. 

wertha, 109. 

wesa, conjugated, 108. 

West- Friesic, Brechung,44; (Modern) 
-an and -en in, 57 ; article, 99 (2). 

West Lauwers Laws, t in, 32 ; di- 
minutive in, 70 ; than in, 166. 

Westphalian, 25. 

wet, wit, 126. 

wi, 94. 

wield, syntax of, 180. 

wtla, ii. 

-wirth, 149 (3). 

with- ir, 145. 

withstanding, syntax with verbs of, 
179. 

wl and wr, 2 (9), 23, 28 (3). 

woed, 23 (3). 

X = ks, 22, 36. 

y, ii (4)- 

z, 29 (3)- 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON. 



ERRATA. 



The following misprints and errata have been observed : 

Page 22, line 6 from top, for "ver" read "Ger." 

23, line 6 from bottom of page, for " Gotho" read " Goth. <V' 

29, line 12 from bottom of page, for " hwd" read "hwa." 

30, line 15 from top, for "jondis" read "jond is." 
46, line 6 from top, for "fovnc " read "f6vne." 

51, sec. 87, for "threttene" read " threttene, <tc." 

54, line 5 from bottom, for "and" read "to." 

70, line 3 from bottom, for " Sonna-bend" read " Sonn-Abend." 

78, sec. 175, and pp. 117 and 125, for "monig" read "monich.'' 

85, line 2 from top, for "r&mfara" read " rilmfJra.'' 

85, line 23 from top, for " CTA " read "f?TA." 

89, line 5 from top, for " Sla" read "da." 

92, last line, for " Lanwers " read " Lauwers." 

105, line 7 from top, for "dy" read " hy." 

105, line 9 from top, for "by " read " dy." 

108, line 9 from top, for " he'inmel' " read " hemmel." 

108, line 13 from top, for " daitrik " read "dait rlk." 

109, line 8 from bottom, in " diio't " the circumflex should extend 
over both vowels. 

113, in the Glossary, for " aldcrto " read " aldertd." 

114, col. 2, after "dijjen," for "pres." read " pers." 

The letter "j" has in some cases, as in " sjuguntich," page 91, 
middle of the page, slipped in instead of " i." 

It is to be hoped that no one will take seriously the amusing ety- 
mology of the word " Helder " adduced in the Introduction, p. viii. 

It will be found in some instances that the diacritical marks to 
indicate vowel quantity have dropped off, and in others there has been 
a mere failure to note them. 



A CATALOGUE 

OF 

DICTIONARIES, GRAMMARS, READING-BOOKS, 

AND OTHER IMPORTANT WORKS 

OF THE PRINCIPAL 

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, 

PUBLISHED BY 

TBUBNER & CO., 
57 & 59 LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.G. 



CONTENTS. 



ANGLO-SAXON 


i ICELANDIC .... 


12 


BASQUE .... 


2 ITALIAN .... 


12 


DANO-NORWEGIAN . 


2 LATIN ..... 


13 


DUTCH .... 


2 NORWEGO-DANISH see DANO- 




ENGLISH 


2 NORWEGIAN. 




FRENCH .... 


. 6 


POLISH . 


T 3 


FRISIAN. 


9 PORTUGUESE .... 


H 


GERMAN 


9 ! ROUMANIAN .... 


14 


GOTHIC .... 


1 1 


RUSSIAN .... 


14 


GREEK MODERN . 


1 1 


SPANISH .... 


15 


GREEK ANCIENT . 


12 


SWEDISH .... 


16 


HUNGARIAN . 


12 


TURKISH .... 


16 



ANGLO-SAXON. 

MARCH. A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE ANGLO-SAXON LAN- 

GUAGE ; in which its forms are illustrated by those of the Sanskrit, 
Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse, and Old 
High-German. By FRANCIS A. MARCH, LL.D. Demy 8vo, cloth, 
pp. xi. and 253. 1877. Price IDS. 

MARCH. INTRODUCTION TO ANGLO-SAXON. An Anglo-Saxon Reader. 
With Philological Notes, a Brief Grammar, and a Vocabulary. By 
FRANCIS A. MARCH, LL.D. 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 166. 1870. 
Price 73. 6d. 

RASK. GRAMMAR OF THE ANGLO-SAXON TONGUE, from the Danish 
of Erasmus Rask. By BENJAMIN THORPE. Third Edition, corrected 
and improved, with Plate. Post 8vo, cloth, pp. vi. and 191. 1879. 
Price 53. 6d. 

WRIGHT. ANGLO-SAXON AND OLD ENGLISH VOCABULARIES. By 
THOMAS WRIGHT, M.A., F.S.A., Hon. M.R.S.L. Second Edition, 
Edited and Collated by RICHARD PAUL WULCKER. Two vols. demy 
8vo, pp. xx.-4o8, and iv.~486, cloth. 1884. 28s. Illustrating the 
Condition and. Manners of our Forefathers, as well as the History of 
the forms of Elementary Education, and of the Languages Spoken in 
this Island from the Tenth Century to the Fifteenth. 



A Catalogue of Important Works 



BASQUE. 

VAN EYS. OUTLINES OF BASQUE GRAMMAR. By W. J. VAN EYS. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. and 52. 1883. Price 33. 6d. 

DANO-NORWEGIAN. 

BOJESEN. A GUIDE TO THE DANISH LANGUAGE. Designed for English 
Students. By Mrs. MARIA BOJESEN. I2mo,cl., pp. 250. 1863. Price 5?. 

FOSS. NORWEGIAN GRAMMAR, with Exercises in the Norwegian and 
English Languages, and a List of Irregular Verbs. By FBITHJOF 
Foss. Second Edition, 121110, limp cloth, pp. 49. 1875 Price 2s. 

LARSEN. DANISH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. By L. LARSEN. Crown 
8vo, cloth, pp. 646. 1880. Price ys. 6d. 

*OTT DANO-NORWEGIAN GRAMMAR: A Manual for Students of 
Danish, based on the Ollendorffian System of teaching Languages, 
and adapted for self- instruction. By E. C. OTTE. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xix. and 337. 1884. Price 73. 6d. 
Key to ditto. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 84. Price 33. 

*OTTE. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE DANISH LANGUAGE. By E. 
C. Oirfi. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 66. 1884. Price 2s. 6d. 

ROSING. ENGLISH-DANISH DICTIONARY. By S. ROSING. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. 722. 1883. Price 8s. 6d. 

DUTCH. 

*AHN. CONCISE GRAMMAR OF THE DUTCH LANGUAGE, with Selections 
from the Best Authors in Prose and Poetry. By Dr. F. AHN. Trans- 
lated from the Tenth Original German Edition, and remodelled for the 
use of English Students, by HENRI VAN LAUN. Third Edition, I2mo, 
cloth, pp. vii. and 168. 1877. Price 33. 6d. 

KRAMERS. NEW POCKET DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH-DUTCH AND 
DUTCH-ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Containing also in the First Part 
Pronunciation, and a Vocabulary of Proper Names, Geographical and 
Historical. By J.KRAMERS. i6rno, cl., pp. xiv. & 714. 1876. Price 4$. 

PICARD. A NEW POCKET DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH-DUTCH AND 
DUTCH-ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Remodelled and corrected from the 
Best Authorities. By A. PICARD. Fifth Edition, i6mo, cloth, 
pp. xiv. and 1186. 1877. Price IDS. 

ENGLISH. 

*ANDERSON.-PRACTICAL MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. A Collec- 
tion of Modern Letters of Business, with Notes, Critical and Explana- 
tory, and an Appendix, containing a Dictionary of Commercial 
Technicalities, pro forma Invoices, Account Sales, Bills of Lading, and 
Bills of Exchange ; also an Explanation of the German Chain Rule. 
Twenty-fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. By WILLIAM ANDERSON. 
I2mo, cloth, pp. xxxii. and 279. 1882. Price 53. 

BELL. SOUNDS AND THEIR RELATIONS. A Complete Manual of 
Universal Alphabets, Illustrated by means of Visible Speech ; and 
Exhibiting the Pronunciation of English, in Various Styles, and of 
other Languages and Dialects. By A. MELVILLE BELL, F.E.I.S., Ac. 
Ato, cloth, pp. viii. and 102. 1881. Price, 73. 6d. 

BELL. THE FAULTS OF SPEECH ; a Self-Corrector and Teachers' 
Manual. By A. MELVILLB BELL, F.E.I.S. i8mo, cloth, pp. vi. and 
65. 1880. Price 2s. 6d. 



on Modern European Languages. 



BELL. THE PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION, with Exercises and Notations 
for Pronunciation, Intonation, Emphasis, Gesture, and Emotional 
Expression. By A. MELVILLE BELL, F.E.I.S., &c. Fourth Revised 
and Enlarged Edition. I2mo, cloth, pp. 243. 1878. Price 73. 6d. 

BELL. VISIBLE SPEECH. The Science of Universal Alphabetics; or, 
Self-Interpreting Physiological Letters for the Writing of all Lan- 
guages in One Alphabet. Illustrated by Tables, Diagrams and 
Examples. By A. MELVILLE BELL, F.E.I.S., &c. 4to, half-bound, 
pp. 126. 1867. Price i, 53. 

BELL. ENGLISH VISIBLE SPEECH FOR THE MILLION for Communi- 
eating the Exact Pronunciation ot the Language to Native and 
Foreign Learners, and for Teaching Children and Illiterate Adults to 
Read in a few days. By A. MELVILLE BELL, F.E.I. S., &c. 4to, 
paper, pp. 16. 1867. Price 28. 

EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY. List of Publications on application. 

ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY. List of Publications on application. 

FURNIVALL. EDUCATION IN EARLY ENGLAND. Some Notes used as 
Forewords to a Collection of Treatises on "Manners and Meals in 
Olden Times," for the Early English Text Society. By FREDERICK 
J. FURNIVALL, M.A. 8vo, paper, pp. 4 and Ixxiv. 1867. Price is. 

GALLOWAY. EDUCATION : SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL; or, How the 
Inductive Sciences are Taught, and How they Ought to be Taught. 
By R. GALLOWAY, F.C.S. 8vo, cl., pp. xvi. & 462. 1881. Price IDS. 6d. 

GOULD. GOOD ENGLISH ; or, Popular Errors in Language. By 
EDWARD S. GOULD. New Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. ix. and 
214. 1880. Price 6s. 

HALL. ON ENGLISH ADJECTIVES IN -ABLE, with Special Reference 
to RELIABLE. By FITZEDWARD HALL, C.E., M.A., Hon. D.C.L., 
Oxon. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 238. 1877. Price 73. 6d. 

HALL. MODERN ENGLISH. By FITZEDWARD HALL, M.A., Hon. D.C.L., 
Oxon. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi. and 394. 1873. Price los. 6d. 

HARLEY. THE SIMPLIFICATION OF ENGLISH SPELLING, specially 
adapted to the Rising Generation. An Easy Way of Saving Time in 
Writing, Printing, and Reading. By Dr. GEORGE HARLEY, F.R.S., 
FC.S. 8 vo, cloth, pp. 128. 1877. Price 2s. 6d. 

HYMANS. PUPIL versus TEACHER. Letters from a Teacher to a 
Teacher. i8mo, cloth, pp. 92. 1875. Price 2s. 

INMAN. HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH ALPHABET. A Paper read before 
the Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society. By T. IxMAN, 
M.D. 8vo, paper, pp. 36. 1872. Price Is. 

JENKINS. VEST-POCKET LEXICON. An English Dictionary of all 
except Familiar Words, including the principal Scientific and Technical 
Terms, and Foreign Moneys, Weights and Measures ; omitting what 
everybody knows, and containing what everybody wants to know and 
cannot readily find. By JABEZ JENKINS. 64010, cloth, pp. 563. 
1879. Price is. 6d. 

MANNING. AN INQUIRY INTO THE CHARACTER AND ORIGIN OF THE 
POSSESSIVE AUGMENT in English and in Cognate Dialects. By the 
late JAMES MANNING, Q.A.S., Recorder of Oxford. 8vo, paper, 
pp. iv. and 90. 1864. Price 2s. 

NEWMAN. THE ILIAD OF HOMER, faithfully Translated into Un- 
rhymed English Metre. By F. W. NEWMAN. Royal 8vo, cloth, 
pp. xvi. and 384. 1871. Price los. 6d. 



A Catalogue of Important Works 



PARRY. -A SHORT CHAPTER ON LETTER-CHANGE, with Examples. 
Being chiefly an attempt to reduce in a simple manner the principal 
classical and cognate words to their primitive meanings. By J. 
PARRY, B.A., formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge. 
Fcap. 8vo, pp. 16, wrapper. 1884. Price is. 
PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS. List on application. 
PLINY. THE LETTERS OF PLINY THE YOUNGER. Translated by 
J. D. LEWIS, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Post Svo, cloth, 
pp. vii. and 390. 1879. Price 53. 

PLUMPTRE. KING'S COLLEGE LECTURES ON ELOCUTION; or, The 
Physiology and Culture of Voice and Speech, and the Expression of 
the Emotions by Language, Countenance and Gesture. To which IB 
added a Special Lecture on the Causes and Cure of the Impediments 
of Speech. Being the Substance of the Introductory Course of 
Lectures annually delivered by CHARLES JOHN PLUMPTRE, Lecturer 
on Public Reading and Speaking at King's College, London, in the 
Evening Classes Department. Dedicated by permission to H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales. Fourth and greatly enlarged Illustrated Edition. 
Svo, cloth, pp. xvi. and 494. 1883. Price 153. 

PLUMPTRE.-THE RIGHT MODE OF RESPIRATION, in Regard to Speech, 
Song, and Health. By CHARLES JOHN PLUMPTRE, Author of " King's 
College Lectures on Elocution," of which this forms Lecture VI. 
Demy Svo, pp. iv.-i6, wrapper, is. 

RUNDALL. A SHORT AND EASY WAY TO WRITE ENGLISH AS SPOKEN. 
By J. B. RUNDALL, Certificated Member of the London Shorthand 
Writers' Association. Price 6d. 

SIEVERS. AN OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. By EDUARD SIEVERS, Ph.D., 
Professor of Germanic Philology in the University of Tubingen. 
Translated and Edited by ALBERT S. COOK, Ph.D. (Jena), Professor of 
the English Language and Literature in the University of California. 
Crown Svo, cloth, pp. xvi. and 235. Price 6s. 6d. 

SMITH. THE SCHOOL OF ART DRAWING BOOK. By WALTER SMITH, 
late Head-Master of Leeds School of Art, State Director of Art 
Education, Massachusetts. Perspective Drawing in Two Parts. 
Oblonf Svo, paper. 1874. Price 2s. 6d. each. 

SPRUNER. HISTORICO-GEOGRAPHICAL HAND-ATLAS. By Dr. KARL 
VON SPRUNER. Third Edition. Twenty-seven Coloured Maps 
Oblong cloth. 1872. Price 153. 

TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE TERMS EMPLOYED IN THE 
ARTS AND SCIENCES ; Architecture, Civil, Military, and Naval ; Civil 
Engineering; Mechanics; Machine Making; Shipbuilding and Navi- 
gation ; M etallurgy ; Artillery ; Mathematics ; Physics ; Chemistry ; 
Mineralogy, &c. With a Preface by Dr. K. KAHMARSCH. Second 
Edition. 3 vols. 

Vol. I. German- English-French. Svo, cloth, pp. 646. Price 12s. 
Vol. II. English-German-French. Svo, cloth, pp. 666. Price 12s. 
Vol. III. French-German-Enelish. Svo, cloth, pp. 618, Price 123. 
TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY IN THE ENGLISH AND GERMAN LAN- 
GUAGES. Edited by GUSTAV EGER, Professor of the Polytechnic School 
of Darmstadt, and Sworn Translator of the Grand Ducal Ministerial 
Departments. Technically revised and enlarged by OTTO BHANDKS, 
Chemist. 2 vols., royal Svo, cloth, pp. viii. and 712, and pp. viii. and 
970. 1884. i, 7s. 



on Modern European Languages. 5 



TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. A POCKET DICTIONARY OF TECHNI- 
CAL TEEMS USED IN ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. English-German- 
French, Deutsch-Englisch-Franzosisch, Francais-Allemand- Anglais. 
Abridged from the above. With the addition of Commercial Terms. 
3 vols. sq. I2mo, cloth. Price 128. 

TURNER. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. A Concise History of the Eng- 
lish Language, with a Glossary showing the Derivation and Pronun- 
ciation of the English Words. By ROGER TURNER. In German and 
English on opposite Pages. iSmo, pp. viii.-8o, sewed. 1884. Price 
is. 6d. 

UNGER. SHORT CUT TO READING. The Child's First Book of Lessons. 
Part I. By W. H. UNGER. Seventh Edition. Crown Svo, cloth, 
pp.32. 1878. Price 5d. In folio sheets, pp. 44. Sets A to D, loci, each ; 
set E, Sd. Complete, 43. SEQUEL to Part I. and Part II. Sixth Edition. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 64. 1877. Price 6d. Parts I. and II. in One 
Volume. Third Edition. Demy 8vo, cloth, pp. 76. 1873. Price is. 6d. 

UNGER. CONTINUOUS SUPPLEMENTARY WRITING MODELS, designed 
to impart not only a Good Business Hand, but Correctness in Tran- 
scribing. By W. H. UNGER. New Edition. Oblong Svo, stiff 
covers, pp. 44. Price 61. 

UNGER. THE STUDENTS BLUE BOOK. Being Selections from Official 
Correspondence, Reports, c. ; for Exercises in Reading and Copying 
Manuscripts, Writing, Orthography, Punctuation, Dictation, Precis, 
Indexing, and Digesting, and Tabulating Accounts and Returns, 
Compiled by W. H. UNGER. Folio, paper, pp. 100. 1875. Price 2s. 

UNGER. TWO HUNDRED TESTS IN ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY, or Word 
Dictations. Compiled by W. H. UNGER. Fcap. 8vo, cloth, pp. vi. 
and 2OO. 1877. Price is. 6d. ; interleaved, 2s. 6d. 

UNGER. THE SCRIPT PRIMER. By -which one of the Remaining 
Difficulties of Children is entirely removed in the First Stages, and, as 
a consequence, a considerable saving of time will be effected. In Two 
Parts. By W. H. UNGER. Part I. 121110, cloth, pp. xv. and 44. 
1879. Price 5d. Part II. 121110, cloth, pp. 59. 1879. Price 5d. 

UNGER. PRELIMINARY WORD DICTATIONS ON THE RULES FOR 
SPELLING. By W. H. U.NGER. i8mo, cloth, pp. 44. Price 4d.; 
interleaved, 6d. 

WEDGWOOD. THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRICAL DEMONSTRATION, 
reduced from the Original Conception of Space and Form. By H. 
WEDGWOOD, M.A. I2mo, cloth, pp. 48. 1844. Price 2s. 

WEDGWOOD. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNDERSTANDING. By 
H. WEDGWOOD, M.A. 121110, cloth, pp. 133. 1848. Price 33. 

WEDGWOOD. THE GEOMETRY OF THE THREE FIRST BOOKS OF 
EUCLID. By Direct Proof from Definitions alone. By H. WEDGWOOD, 
M.A. 121110, cloth, pp. 104. 1856. Price 33. 

WEDGWOOD. ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE. By H. WEDGWOOD, 
M.A. I2mo, cloth, pp. 165. 1866. Price 33. 6d. 

WEDGWOOD. A DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. By H. 
WEDGWOOD, M.A. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. With Intro- 
duction on the Origin of Language. Svo, cloth, pp. Ixxii. and 746. 
1878. Price^ I, is. 

WEDGWOOD. CONTESTED ETYMOLOGIES IN THE DICTIONARY OF 
THE REV. W. W. SKE\T. By II. WEDGWOOD. Crown Svo, cloth, 
pp. viii.-!94. 1882. Price 53. 



WHITE. WORDS AND THEIR USES, PAST AND PRESENT. A Study of the 
English Language. By RICHARD GRANT WHITE. Third Edition, Revised 
and Corrected. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. vii. and 467. 1880. Price IDS. 

WHITE. EVERY-DAY ENGLISH. A Sequel to Words and their Uses. 
By RICHARD GRANT WHITE. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xxxi. and 512. 
1880. Price I OS. 

WIEBE. THE PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. A Manual for Self-Instruc- 
tion in Friederich Froebel's -Educational Principles, and a Practical 
Guide to Kinder-Gartners. By EDWARD WIEBE. With Seventy-four 
Plates of Illustrations. 4to, paper, pp. iv.-83- 1869. Price 73. 6d. 

WIEBE. HANDBOOK FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. Containing the 
valuable Plates of the Paradise of Childhood. Prefaced by New and 
Original Notes and Suggestions. Edited by Mrs. A. R. ALDBICH. 
With Seventy-four Plates. 4to, paper, pp. 16. Price 5s. 

WITHERS. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SPELLED AS PRONOUNCED, 
with Enlarged Alphabet of Forty Letters, a Letter for each Distinct 
Element in the Language. By G. WITHERS. 8vo, paper, pp. 77. 
1874. Price is. 

FRENCH. 

*AHN. NEW, PRACTICAL, AND EASY METHOD OF LEARNING THE 
FRENCH LANGUAGE. By Dr. F. AHN. First Course. i2mo, cloth, 
pp. 114. Price is. 6d. Second Course. I2mo, cloth, pp. 170. Price 
is. 6rl. The Two Courses in I vol. 121110, cloth. 1879. Price 33. 

* AHN. NEW, PRACTICAL, AND EASY METHOD OF LEARNING TEE 
FRENCH LANGUAGE. Third Course, containing a French Reader, 
with Notes and Vocabulary. By H. W. EHRLICH. 121110, cloth, 
pp. viii. and 125. 1877. Price is. 6d. 

*AHN. MANUAL OF FRENCH CONVERSATION, for the Use of Schools 
and Travellers. By Dr. F. AUN. 121110, cloth, pp. 200. 18/8. 
Price 2s. 6d. 

*ARAGO. LES ARISTOCRATIES. A Comedy in Verse. By fTIENNE 
ARAGO. Edited, with English Notes and Notice on Etienne Arago, 
by the Rev. P. H. E. BRETTE, B.D., Head-Master of the French 
School, Christ's Hospital, Examiner in the University of London. 
I2ino, cloth, pp. xiii. and 235. 1869. Price 43. 

ASPLET. THE COMPLETE FRENCH COURSE. Part II. Containing all 
the Rules of French Syntax, Irregular Verbs, Adjectives, and Verbs, 
together with Extracts from the Best Authors. By GEORGES C'. 
ASPLET, French Master, Frome. I2mo, cloth, pp. xviii. and 276. 
1880. Price 2s. 6d. 

*AUGIER. DIANE. A Drama in Verse. By EMILE AUGIER. Edited, 
with English Notes and Notice on Augier, by THEODORE KARCHEU. 
LL. B., of the Royal Military Academy and the University of London. 
I2mo, cloth, pp. xiii. and 145. 1867. Price 2s. 6d. 

BARANOWSKI. VADE-MECUM DE LA LANGUE FRANCAISE. Redi^e" 
d'apres les Dictionnaires classiques avec les Exemples de Bonnes 
Locutions que donne l'Acade"mie Fran9aise, on qu'on trouve dans Its 
ouvrages des plus cdlebres auteurs. Par J. J. BARANOWSKI, avec 
1'approbation de M. E. LiTTRtf, S<5nateur, &c. 32mo, cloth, pp. X.-223- 
1879. Price 2s. 6d. ; morocco, 38. 6d.; morocco tuck, 48. 

*BARRIERE AND CAPENDU. LES FAUX BONSHOMMES. A Comedy. By 
THODORK BARRIERE and ERNEST CAPENDU. Edited, with English 
Notes and Notice on Barriere, by Professor Gil. CASSAL, LL.D., of Uni- 
versity College, London. I2mo, cloth, pp. xvi. and 304. 1868. Price 4*. 



on Modern European Languages. 



BELLOWS. TOUS LES VERBES. Conjugations of all the Verbs in the 
French and English Languages. By JOHN BELLOWS. Revised by 
Professor BELJAME, B.A., LL.B., and GEORGE B. STRICKLAND, late 
Assistant French Master, Royal Naval School, London. Also a New 
Table of Equivalent Values of French and English Money, Weights, 
and Measures. 32vno, sewed, pp. 32. 1867. Price is. 

BELLOWS. DICTIONARY FOR THE POCKET. French and English- 
English and French. Both divisions on same page. By JOHN* 
BELLOWS. Masculine and Feminine Words shown by distinguishing 
Types, Conjugations of all the Verbs, Liaison marked in French Part, 
and Hints to Aid Pronunciation, together with Tables and Maps. 
Revised by ALEXANDRE BELJAME, M.A. Second Edition. 32010, 
roan tuck, pp. 608. 1880. Price los. 6d. ; morocco tuck, 123. 6d. 
The New Edition, which is but six ounces in weight, has been 
remodelled, and contains many thousands of additional Words and 
Renderings. Miniature Maps of France, the British Isles, Paris, and 
London, are added to the Geographical Section. 

*BRETTE. FRENCH EXAMINATION PAPERS set at the University 
London from 1839 to 1871. Arranged and edited by the Rev. P. H. 
ERNEST BRETTE, B.D. Crown, 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 278. Price 
33. 6d. ; interleaved, 43. 6d. 

CASSAL. -GLOSSARY OF IDIOMS, GALLICISMS, and other Difficulties 
contained in the Senior Course of the Modern French Reader. With 
Short Notices of the most important French Writers and Historical or 
Literary Characters, and Hints as to the Works to be Read or 
Studied. By CHARLES CASSAL, LL.D. I2mo, cloth, pp. viii. and 104. 
1880. Price 2s. 6d. 

*EHRLICH. FRENCH READER. With Notes and Vocabulary. By H. W. 
EHRLICH. I2mo, lirnp cloth, pp. viii. and 125. 1877. Price is. 6d. 

FRUSTON. ECHO FRANCAIS. A Practical Guide to French Conversa- 
tion. By F. DE LA FRUSTOX. With a Complete Vocabulary. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 120 and 71. 1878. Price 33. 

GREENE. NEW METHOD OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND 
SPEAK THE FRENCH LANGUAGE ; or, First Lessons in French (Intro- 
ductory to Ollendorff's Larger Grammar). By G. W. GREENE, 
Instructor in Modern Languages in Brown University. Third 
Edition, enlarged and rewritten. Fcap. 8vo, cloth, pp. 248. 1872. 
Price 33. 6d. 

MARCHER. QUESTIONNAIRE FRANCAIS. Questions on French Gram- 
mar, Idiomatic Difficulties, and Military Expressions. By THEODORE 
KARCHER, LL.B. Fourth Edition, greatly enlarged. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. viii. and 215. 1879. Price 43. 6d. ; interleaved with 
writing paper, 5*. 6d. 

*LE-BRUN.- MATERIALS FOR TRANSLATING FROM ENGLISH INTO 
FRENCH. Being a Short Essay on Translation, followed by a Gradu- 
ated Selection in Prose and Verse. By L. LE-BuUN. Sixth Edition. 
Revised and corrected by HENRI VAN LAUN. Crown Svo, cloth, 
pp. xii. and 204. 1882. Price 43. 6d. 

*LITTLE FRENCH READER (The). Extracted from " The Modern French 
Reader." Edited by Professor C. CASSAL, LL.B., and Professor T. 
KARCHER, LL.B. With a New System of Conjugating the French 
Verbs, by Professor CASSAL. Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, cloth, 
pp. 112. 1884. Price 2s. 



A Catalogue of Important Works 



MANESCA. THE SERIAL AND ORAL METHOD OF TEACHING LAN- 
GUAGES. Adapted to the French. By L. MANESCA. New Edition, 
carefully revised. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xxviii. and 535. Price 78. 6d. 

*MARMONTEL. BELISAIRE. Par J. F. MARMONTEL. With Introduc- 
tion by the Rev. P. H. E. BRETTE and Professors CASSAL and 
K.AECHER. Nouvelle Edition, I2ino, cloth, pp. xii. and 123. 1867. 
Price as. 6d. 

*MODERN FRENCH READER (The). PROSE. Junior Course. Edited toy 
C. CASSAL, LL.D., and THEODORE KARCHER, LL.B. Seventh Edition. 
Crown Svo, cloth, pp. xiv. and 224. iSSl. Price 2s. 6d. 

*MODERN FRENCH READER (The). PROSE. Senior Course. Edited by 
C. CASSAL, LL.D., and THEODORE KARCHER, LL.B. Third Edition. 
Crown Svo, cl., pp. xi. & 418. 1880. Price 43. With Glossary. Price 6s. 

NOIRIT. A FRENCH COURSE IN TEN LESSONS. By JULES NOIRIT, 
B.A. Lessons I. -IV. Crown Svo, limp cloth, pp. xiv. and 80. 
1870. Price is. 6d. 

NOIRIT. FRENCH GRAMMATICAL QUESTIONS for the Use of Gentle- 
men Preparing for the Army, Civil Service, Oxford Examinations, 
&c., &c. By JULES NOIRIT. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 62. 1870. 
Price is. ; interleaved, Is. 6d. 

NOTLEY. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH, ITALIAN, 
SPANISH, AND PORTUGUESE LANGUAGES. With a Copious Vocabulary. 
By EDWIN A. NOTLEY. Oblong I2ino, cloth, pp. xv. and 396. 1868. 
Price 73. 6d. 

KUGENT'S IMPROVED FRENCH AND ENGLISH AND ENGLISH AND 
FRENCH POCKET DICTIONARY. Par SMITH. 241110, cloth, pp. xxxii. 
and 320, and 488. 1875. Price 33. 

PICK. PRACTICAL METHOD OF ACQUIRING THE FRENCH LAN- 
GUAGE. By Dr. E. PICK. Second Edition. iSmo, cloth, pp. xi.and 
124. 1876. Price is. 6d. 

PONSARD. CHARLOTTE CORD AY. A Tragedy. By F. PONSARD. 
Edited, with English Notes and Notice on Ponsard, by Professor C. 
CASSAL, LL.D. Third Edition. 121110, cloth, pp. xi. and 133. 1871. 
Price 2s. 6d. 

*PONSARD. L'HONNEUR ET L ARGENT. A Comedy. By F. PONSARD. 
Edited, with English Notes and Memoir of Ponsard, by Professor C. 
CASSAL, LL.D. Second Edition. 121110, cloth, pp. xvi. and 171. 
1869. Price 33. 6d. 

ROCHE. FRENCH GRAMMAR for the Use of English Students, adopted 
for the Public Schools by the Imperial Council of Public Instruction. 
By A. ROCHE. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. xii. and 176. 1869. Price 33. 

ROCHE. PROSE AND POETRY. Select Pieces from the Best English 
Authors, for Reading, Composition, and Translation. By A. ROCHE. 
Second Edition. Fcap. Svo, cl., pp. viii. and 226. 1872. Price 2s. 6d. 

EUNDALL. METHODE RAPIDE ET FACILE D'ECRIRE LE FRANCAIS 
OOMME ON LE PARLE. Par J. B. RuNDALL. Price 6d. 

SAND. MOLIERE. A Drama in Prose. By GEORGE SAND. Edited, 
with English Notes and Notice of George Sand, by TH. KAUCHER, 
LL.B. I2ii)0, cloth pp. xx. and 170. 1868. Price 3*. 6d. 



on Modern European Languages. 



* THEATRE FRANCAIS MODERNE . A Selection of Modern French Plays. 
Edited by the Rev. P. H. E. BRETTE, B.D. ; 0. CASSAI-, LL.D.; and 
TH. KARCHER, LL.B. 

First Series, in I vol. crown 8vo, cloth. Price 6=;. Containing 
CHARLOTTE CORDAT. A Tragedy. By F. PONSARD. Edited, 
with English Notes and Notice on Ponsard, by Professor C. 
CASSAL, LL.D. 

DIANE. A Drama in Verse. By EMILE AUGIER. Edited, with 
English Notes and Notice on Augier, by TH. KARCHER, LL.B. 
LE VOYAGE A DIEPPE. A Comedy in Prose. By WAFFLARD and 
FULGENCK. Edited, with English Notes, by the Eev. P. H. E. 
BRKTTE, B.D. 
Second Series, crown 8vo, cloth. Price 6s. Containing 

MOLIERE. A Drama in Prose. By GEORGE SAND. Edited, with 

English Notes and Notice of George Sand, byTn. KARCHEK,LL.B. 

LES ARISTOCRATIES. A Comedy in Verse. By^ETiENNE ARAGO. 

Edited, with English Notes and Notice of Etienne Arago, by 

the Rev. P. H. E. BRETTE, B.D. 

Third Series, crown 8vo, cloth. Price 6s. Containing 
LES FAUX BONSHOMMES. A Comedy. By THEODORE BAREIEBE 
and ERNEST CAPENDU. Edited, with English Notes and 
Notice on Barriere, by Professor C. CASSAL, LL.D. 
L'HONNEUR KT L' ARGENT. A Comedy. By F. PONSARD. Edited, 
with English Notes and Memoir of Ponsard, by Professor C. 
CASSAL, LL.D. 

*VAN LAUN. GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. In Three 
Parts. Parts I. and II. Accidence and Syntax. By H. VAN LAUN. 
Nineteenth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 151 and 120. 1880. 
Price 43. Part III. Exercises. Eighteenth Edition. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. xii. and 285. 1880. Price 33. 6d. 

* WAFFLARD AND FULGENCE. LE VOYAGE A DIEPPE. A Comedy in 
Prose. By MM. WAFFLARD and FULGENCE. Edited, with English 
Notes, by the Rev. P. H. E. BRETTE, B.D. Second Edition, revised, 
with an Index to the Notes. 121110, cloth, pp. 107. 1870. Price 2s. 6d. 
WZLLER. AN IMPROVED DICTIONARY. English and French, and 
French and English, including Technical, Scientific, Legal, Com- 
mercial, Naval, and Military Terms, Vocabularies of Engineering, 
&c., Railway Terms, Steam Navigation, Geographical Names, Ancient 
Mythology, Classical Antiquity, and Christian Names in present use. 
By E. WELLER. Third Edition. Royal 8vo, cloth, pp. 384 and 340. 
1864. Price 73. 6d. 

WENDLING. LE VERBE. A Complete Treatise on French Conjugation. 
By EMILE WENDLING, B.A. Second Thousand. 8vo, cloth, pp. 71. 
1875. Price is. 6d. 

FRISIAN. 

CUMMINS. GRAMMAR OF THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. By A. H. 
CUMMINS, A.M. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 76, cloth. 18^1. Price 33. 6d. 

GERMAN. 

*AHN. PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE, with a 
Grammatical Index and Glossary of all the German Words. By Dr. F. 
AHN. A New Edition, containing numerous Additions, Alterations, 
and Improvements. By DAWSON W. TURNER, D.C. L., and Prof. F. 
L.WEINMANN. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. cxii. and 430. 1878. Price 33. 6d, 



io A Catalogue of Important IVorks 



*AHN. NEW, PRACTICAL, AND EASY METHOD OF LEARNING THE 
GERMAN LANGUAGE. By Dr. F. AHN. First and Second Course, in i 
volume, I2mo, cloth, pp. 86 and 120. 1 880. Price 33. 
KEY to Ditto. 12010, sewed, pp. 40. Price 8d. 

* AHN. -MANUAL OF GERMAN CONVERSATION, or Vade Mecum for Eng- 
LISH TRAVELLERS. By Dr. F. AHN. Second Edition. 12010, cloth, 
pp. x. and 137. 1875. Price is. 6d. 

*APEL. PROSE SPECIMENS FOR TRANSLATION INTO GERMAN, With 
copious Vocabularies. By H. APEL. I2mo, cloth, pp. viii. and 246, 
1862. Price 43. 6d. 

*BENEDIX. DER VETTER. Comedy in Three Acts. By Roderich Benedix. 
With Grammatical and Explanatory Notes by F. WEINMANN, German 
Master at the Royal Institution School, Liverpool, and G. ZIMMERMANN, 
Teacher of Modern Languages. I2ino, cloth, pp. 126. 1863. Price 

28. 6d. 

BOLIA. THE GERMAN CALIGRAPHIST. Copies for German Hand- 
writing. By C. BOLIA. Obi. fcap. 4to, sewed, pp. 6. Price is. 

DUSAR. GRAMMAR OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE ; with Exercises. By 
P. FKIEDRICH DOSAB, First German Master in the Military Depart- 
ment of Cheltenham College. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 
pp. viii. and 207. 1879. Price 45. 6d. 

DUSAR. GRAMMATICAL COURSE OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 
By P. FRIEDRICH DUSAR. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. x. 
and 134. 1877. Price 33. 6d. 

FRIEDRICH. PROGRESSIVE GERMAN READER. With Copious Notes 
to the First Part. By P. FRIEDRICH. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. vii. and 190. 1876. Price 43. 6d. 

*FR(EMBLING. GRADUATED GERMAN READER. Consisting of a Selec- 
tion from the most Popular Writers, arranged progressively ; with a 
complete Vocabulary for the First Part. By FRIEDRICH OTTO 
TROUBLING, Ph.D. Eighth Edition. I2mo, cloth, pp. viii. and 306. 
1879. Price 33. 6d. 

*FRCEMBLING. GRADUATED EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION INTO 
GERMAN. Consisting of Extracts from the best English Authors, 
arranged progressively ; with an Appendix, containing Idiomatic 
Notes. By FRIEDRICH OTTO FRCEMBLING, Ph.D., Principal German 
Master at the City of London School. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. xiv. and 
322. With Notes, pp. 66. 1867. Price 43. 6d. Without Notes, 43. 

LANGE.- GERMAN PROSE WRITING. Comprising English Passages for 
Translation into German. Selected from Examination Papers of the 
University of London, the College of Preceptors, London, and the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, arranged progressively, with 
Notes and Theoretical as well as Practical Treatises on Themes for the 
Writing of Essays. By F. K. W. LANGE, Ph.D., Assistant German 
Master, Royal Academy, Woolwich ; Examiner, Royal College of Pre- 
ceptors, London. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 176, cloth. 1881. Price 48. 

LANGE. GERMANIA. A German Reading-Book, arranged Progressively. 
By FRANZ K. W. LANGK, Ph.D. Part I. Anthology of German 
Prose and Poetry, with Vocabulary and Biographical Notes. 8vo, 
cloth, pp. xvi. and 216. 1881. Price 35. 6d. Part II. Essays on 
German History and Institutions. With Notes. 8vo, cloth, pp. 124. 
Parts I. and II. together. 1881. Price 53. 6J. 



on Modern European Languages. 1 1 

1ANGE. GERMAN GRAMMAR PRACTICE. By F. K. W. LANGE, PH.D. 
&c. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 64, cloth. 1882. Price is. 6d. 

LANGE. COLLOQUIAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. With Special Reference to 
the Anglo-Saxon Element in the English Language. By F. K. W. LANGE, 
Ph.D., &c. Crown 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 380, cloth. 1882. Price 43. 6d. 

PICK. -PRACTICAL METHOD OF ACQUIRING THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 
By Dr. E. PICK. Second Edition. i8mo, cloth, pp. xi. and 80. 
1876. Price is. 6d. 

ROZHRIG. THE SHORTEST ROAD TO GERMAN. Designed for the Use 
of both Teachers and Students. By F. L. O. RCEHRIG. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. vii. and 226. 1874. Price 7s. 6d. 

BUND ALL. KURZE UNO LEICHTE WEISE DEUTSCH ZU SCHREIBEN 
wie man es Spricht. Von J. B. Rundall. Price 6d. 

SOLLING. SELECT PASSAGES FROM THE WORKS OF SHAKESPEARE. 
Translated and Collected. German and English. By G. SOLLING. 
I2mo, cloth, pp. 155. 1866. Price 33. 6d. 

SOLLING. DIUTISKA: An Historical and Critical Survey of the Litera- 
ture of Germany, from the Earliest Period to the Death of Goethe. By 
Gustav Soiling. 8vo, cloth, pp. xviii. and 367. 1863. Price los. 6d. 

WOLFRAM. DEUTSCHES ECHO. The German Echo. A Faithful Mirror 
of German Conversation. By LUDWIG WOLFRAM. With a Vocabulary, 
by HENRY P. SKELTON. Sixth Revised Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 
pp. 128 and 69. 1879. Price 33. 



GOTHIC. 

SKEAT. MOZSO-GOTHIC GLOSSARY, with an Introduction, an Outline 
of Mosso-Gothic Grammar, and a List of Anglo-Saxon and Old and 
Modern English Words etymologically connected with Mceso-Gothic. 
By the Rev. W. W. SKEAT. 8vo, cloth. 1868. Price 93. 



GREEK-MODERN. 

CONTOPOULOS. A LEXICON OF MODERN GREEK -ENGLISH AND 

ENGLISH MODERN GREEK. By N. CONTOPOULOS. Part I. Modern 

Greek-English. Part II. English Modern Greek. In 2 vols. 8vo, 

cloth, pp. 460 and 582. 1877. Price 273. 
CONTOPOULOS. HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH AND GREEK DIALOGUES 

AND CORRESPONDENCE, with a Short Guide to the Antiquities of Athens. 

By N. CONTOPOCLOS. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 238. Price 2s. 6d. 
*GELDART. A GUIDE TO MODERN GREEK. By E. M. GELD ART, M.A. 

Post Svo, cloth, pp. xii. and 274. 1883. Price 73, 6d. KEY, cloth, 

pp. 28, price 23. 6d. 
*GELDART. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF MODERN GREEK. By E. M. 

GELDART, M.A. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 68. 1883. Price 2s. 6d. 

LASCARIDES. A COMPREHENSIVE PHRASEOLOGICAL ENGLISH- 

ANCIENT AND MODERN GREEK LEXICON. Founded upon a Manu- 
script of G. P. LASCARIDES, Esq., and compiled by L. MTRIANTHEUS, 
Ph.D. Two vols., cloth, fcap. 8vo, pp. xii. and 1338. 1883. Price 



12 A Catalogue of Important Works 

SOPHOCLES. -ROMAIC OR MODERN GREEK GRAMMAR. By E. A. SO- 
PHOCLEg. 1 21110, cl., leather back, pp. xxviii. and 196. 1879. Priceios. 6d. 

TIMAYENIS. THE MODERN GREEK. Its Pronunciation and Relations to 
Ancient Greek. With an Appendix on the Rules of Accentuation, &c. 
By T. T. TIMAYENIS. Crown Svo, cl, pp. xii. and 216. 1877. Price 73. 6d. 



GREEK-ANCIENT. 

KENDRICK. GREEK OLLENDORFF. Being a Progressive Exhibition of 
the Principles of the Greek Grammar. Designed for Beginners in 
Greek, and as a Book of Exercises for Academies and Colleges. By 
A. C. KENDRICK. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 371. 1876. Price gs. 

KUHNER. AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE. 
Containing a Series of Greek and English Exercises for Translation, 
with the Requisite Vocabularies, and an Appendix on the Homeric 
Verse and Dialect. By Dr. B. KUHNER. Translated by S. H, 
TAYLOR, LL.D. I2mo, cloth, pp. xii. and 385. Price 73. 6d. 

LASCARIDES. See above. 



HUNGARIAN. 

"SINGER. A SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE, 
By IGNATIUS SINGER, of Buda-Pesth. Crown Svo, pp. vi. and 88, 
cloth. 1882. Price 43. 6d. 



ICELANDIC. 

CLEASBY. ICELANDIC-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Based on the MS. Col- 
lections of the late RiCH.vUD CLEASBY. Enlarged and Completed by 
G. VIGFUSSON. With an Introduction, and a Life of Richard Cleasby, 
by G. WEBBE DASENT, D.C.L. 4to, cloth. 1874. Price 3, 73. 

SKEAT. LIST OF ENGLISH WORDS, the Etymology of which is Illus- 
trated by Comparison with Icelandic. By W. W. SKEAT, M.A. Pre- 
pared as an Appendix to Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary. 4to, paper. 
Price 28. 

VIGFUSSON AND POWELL. ICELANDIC PROSE READER, with Notes,, 
Grammar, and Glossary. By Dr. GUDBRAND VIGFUSSON and F. YOBK 
POWELL, M.A. Fcap. Svo, cloth. 1879. Price los. 6d. 



ITALIAN. 

AHN. NEW, PRACTICAL, AND EASY METHOD OF LEARNING THE 
ITALIAN LANGUAGE. By Dr. F. AHN. First and Second Course. 
Tenth Issue. I2mo, cloth, pp. iv. and 198. 1878. Price 3*. 6d. 

CAMERINI. L'ECO ITALIANO. A Practical Guide to Italian Conversa- 
tion. By EUGENE CAMERINI. With a Complete Vocabulary. Second 
Edition. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. viii., 128, and 98. 1871. Price 43. 6d. 

LAN ARI. COLLECTION OF ITALIAN AND ENGLISH DIALOGUES ON 
GENERAL SUBJECTS. For the Use of those Desirous of Speaking the 
Italian Language Correctly. Preceded by a Brief Treatise on the 
Pronunciation of the same. By A. LAN ARI. 121110, cloth, pp. viii, 
and 199. Price 33. 6s. 

MILLHOUSfi. -MANUAL OF ITALIAN CONVERSATION, for the Use of 
Schools and Travellers. By JOHN MILLHOUSE. New Edition. i8mo r 
cloth, pp. 126. 1879. Price 2s. 



on Modern European Languages. 1 3 

MILLHOUSE. NEW ENGLISH AND ITALIAN PRONOUNCING AND 

EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY. By JOHN MILLHOUSE. Vol.1. English- 
Italian. Vol. II. Italian-English. Sixth Edition. 2 vols. square 
8vo, cloth, pp. 654 and 740. 1887. Price I2s. 

NOTLEY. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH, ITALIAN, 
SPANISH, AND PORTUGUESE LANGUAGES. With a Copious Vocabulary. 
By EDWIN A. NOTLEY. Oblong I2ino, cloth, pp. xv. and 396. 1868. 
Price 73. 6d. 

TOSCANI. ITALIAN CONVERSATIONAL COURSE. A New Method of 
Teaching the Italian Language, both Theoretically and Practically. 
By GIOVANNI TOSCANI, late Professor of the Italian Language and 
Literature in Queen's College, London, &c. Fifth Edition. I2mo, 
cloth, pp. xiv. and 300. 1880. Price 53. 

TOSCANI. ITALIAN READING COURSE. Comprehending Specimens in 
Prose and Poetry of the most distinguished Italian Writers, with 
Biographical Notices, Explanatory Notes, and Rules on Prosody. By 
G. TOSCANI. i2ino, cloth, pp. xii. and 160. With Table of Verbs. 
1875. Price 43. 6d. 

LATIN. 

*IHNE. LATIN GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS, on Ann's System. By 
W. H. IHNE, late Principal of Carlton Terrace School, Liverpool. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. vi. and 184. 1864. Price 33. 

LEWIS. JUVENALIS SATIR-ffi. With a Literal English Prose Transla- 
tion and Notes. By J. D. LEWIS, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. and 230 and 400. 1882. 
Price 1 2s. 

LEWIS. THE LETTERS OF PLINY THE YOUNGER. Translated by 
J. D. LEWIS, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Post Svo, cloth, 
pp. vii. and 390. 1879. Price 55. 

LEWIS AND SHORT. LATIN DICTIONARY. Founded on Andrews' 
Edition of Freund's Latin Dictionary. Revised, Enlarged, and in 
great part Re-written by CHARLTON T. LEWIS, Ph.D., and CHARLES 
SHORT, LL.D. 4to, cloth. 1879. Price i, us. 6d. 

NEWMAN. HIAWATHA. Rendered into Latin. With Abridgment. By 
F.W.NEWMAN. I2mo, sewed, pp. vii. and no. 1862. Price 2s. 6d. 

NEWMAN. TRANSLATIONS OF ENGLISH POETRY INTO LATIN VERSE. 
Designed as Part of a New Method of Instructing in Latin. By F. W. 
NEWMAN. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. xiv. and 202. 1868. Price 6s. 



POLISH. 

BARANOWSKI. SLOWNIK POLSKO-ANGIELSKI OPRACOWANY. Przez 
J. J. BAEANOWSKIEGO, 6 Podsekretarza Panku Polskiego, w Wars- 
zawie. (Polish-English Lexicon. With Gr.immatical Rules in Polish.) 
l6mo, cloth, pp. 403. Price 128. 

BARANOWSKI. ANGLO-POLISH LEXICON. By J. J. BARANOWSKI, 
formerly Under-Secretary to the Bank of Poland, in Warsaw. (With 
Grammatical Rules in English, and a Second Part, containing Dia- 
logues, Bills of Exchange, Receipts, Letters, &c. ; English and Polish 
Proverbs, &c.) l6mo, cloth, pp. vii. 400 and 90. Price I2s. 



14 A Catalogue, of Important Works 



*MORFILL.- SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE POLISH LANGUAGE. By 
W. R. MORFILL, M.A. Crown 8vo, pp. viii.-64, cloth. 1884. Price 
38. 6d. 

PORTUGUESE. 

*ANDERSON AND TUGM AN. MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. Con- 
taining a Collection of Commercial Letters in Portuguese and English, 
with their Translation on opposite pages, for the Use of Business Men 
and of Students in either of the Languages, treating in Modern Style of 
the System of Business in the principal Commercial Cities of the World. 
Accompanied by pro forma Accounts, Sales, Invoices, Bills of Lading, 
Drafts, &c. With an Introduction and Copious Notes. By WILLIAM 
ANDERSON and JAMES E. TCTGMAN. I2mo, cloth, pp. xi. and 193, 

1867. Price 6s. 

*D'ORSEY. PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF PORTUGUESE AND, ENGLISH. 
Exhibiting in a Series of Exercises, in Double Translation, the Idiom- 
atic Structure of both Languages, as now written and spoken. By the 
Rev. ALEXANDER J. D. D'ORSEY, B.D., of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, and Lecturer on Public Reading and Speaking at King's 
College, London. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 302. 

1868. Price 73. 

*D'ORSEY. COLLOQUIAL PORTUGUESE ; or, Words and Phrases of Every- 
day Life. Compiled from Dictation and Conversation. For the Use 
of English Tourists in Portugal, Brazil, Madeira, and the Azores. 
With a Brief Collection of Epistolary Phrases. By the Rev. A. J. D. 
D'ORSEY. Fourth Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 
126. 1886. Price 33. 6d. 

NOTLEY. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH, ITALIAN, 
SPANISH, AND PORTUGUESE LANGUAGES. With a Copious Vocabulary. 
By EDWIN A. NOTLEY. Oblong I2ino, cloth, pp. xv. and 396. 1868. 
Price 7s. 6d. 

ROUMANIAN. 

*TORCEANU. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE ROUMANIAN LANGUAGE. 
ByR. TOECEANU. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. and 72. 1884. L Price 53. 



RUSSIAN. 

FREETH. A CONDENSED RUSSIAN GRAMMAR for the Use of Staff- 
Officers and Others. By F. FREETH, B.A., late Classical Scholar of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo, pp. iv.~75, cloth. 1886. 
Price 33. 6d. 

*RIOLA. HOW TO LEARN RUSSIAN. A Manual for Students of Russian, 
based upon the Ollendorffian System of Teaching Languages, and 
adapted for Self-Instruction. By HENRY RIOLA, Teacher of the 
Russian Language. With a Preface by W. R. S. RALSTON, M.A. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. x. and 567. 1883. Price 12s. 
KEY to Ditto. Crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 126. Price 53. 

* RIOLA. GRADUATED RUSSIAN READER, with a Vocabulary of all the 
Russian Words contained in it. By HENRY RIOLA. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. viii. and 314. 1879. Price los. 6d. 



on Modern European Languages. 1 5 



THOMPSON. DIALOGUES, RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH. Compiled by 
A. R. Thompson, some time Lecturer of the English Language in the 
University of St. Vladimir, Kieff. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. iv. and 132. 
1882. Price 53. 

SPANISH. 

*BUTLER. THE SPANISH TEACHER ANDj COLLOQUIAL PHRASE-BOOK. 

An Easy and Agreeable Method of acquiring a Speaking Knowledge 
of the Spanish Language. By FRANCIS BUTLER. i8mo, half-roan, 
pp. xvi. and 240. 1870. Price 2s. 6d. 

HARTZENBUSCH AND LEMMING. ECO DE MADRID. A Practical 
Guide to Spanish Conversation. By J. E. HARTZENBUSCH and H. 
LEMMING. Third Edition. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. xii., 144, and 84. 
1877. Price 53. 

*CARRENO. METODO PARA APRENDER A LEER, escribir y nablar el 
Ingles segun el sistema de Ollendorff, con un tratado de pronunciacion 
al principio y un Apendice importante al fin, que sirve de comple- 
mento a la obra. Por RAMON PALENZUELA Y JUAN DE LA CARRE^O. 
Nueva Edicion, con una Pronunciacion Figurada segun un Sistema 
Fonografico, por ROBERT GOODACRE. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. iv. and 
496. 1876. Price 73. 6d. 

KEY to Ditto. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. in. Price 43. 

NOTLEY. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH, ITALIAN, 
SPANISH, AND PORTUGUESE LANGUAGES. With a Copious Vocabulary. 
By EDWIN A. NOTLEY. Oblong i2mo, cloth, pp. xv. and 396. 1868. 
Price 73. 6d. 

*SIMONNE. METODO PARA APRENDER A LEER, escribir y hablar el 
Frances, segun el verdadero sistema de Ollendorff; ordenado en lec- 
ciones progresivas, consistiendo de ejercicios orales y escritos ; enrique- 
cido de la pronunciacion figurada como se estila en la conversacion ; y 
de un Apendice abrazando las reglas de la sintdxis, la formacion de los 
verbos regulares, y la conjugacion de los irregulares. Por TEODORO 
SIMONNE, Professor de Lenguas. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 342. 1876. 
Price 6s. 

KEY to Ditto. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. So. Price 33. 6d. 

* VELASQUEZ AND SIMONNE. NEW METHOD OF LEARNING TO READ, 
WEITE, AND SPEAK THE SPANISH LANGUAGE. Adapted to Ollendorff's 
System. By M. VELASQUEZ and J. SIMONNE. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 
558. 1880. Price 6s. 

KEY to Ditto. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 174. Price 43. 

VELASQUEZ. DICTIONARY OF THE SPANISH AND ENGLISH LAN- 
GUAGES. For the Use of Learners and Travellers. By M. VELASQUEZ 
DE LA CADENA. In Two Parts. I. Spanish-English ; II. English- 
Spanish. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. viii. and 846. 1878. Price 73. 6d. 

VELASQUEZ. PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF THE SPANISH AND 
ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Composed from the Dictionaries of the Spanish 
Academy, Terreros, and Salva, and Webster, Worcester, and Walker. 
In Two Parts. I. Spanish-English ; II. English-Spanish. By M. 
VELASQUEZ DE LA CADENA. Roy. 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi., 675, xv., and 
604. iSSo. Price l, 43. 



1 6 A Catalogue of Important Works. 



* VELASQUEZ. NEW SPANISH READER. Passages from the most 
approved authors, in Prose and Verse. Arranged in progressive order, 
with Vocabulary. By M. VELASQUEZ DE LA CADENA. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, pp. 352. 1880. Price 6s. 

'VELASQUEZ. AN EASY INTRODUCTION TO SPANISH CONVERSATION, 

containing all that is necessary to make a rapid progress in it. Par- 
ticularly designed for persons who have little time to study, or are 
their own instructors. By M. VELASQUEZ DE LA CADENA. New 
Edition, revised and enlarged. I2mo, cloth, pp. viii. and 139. 1863. 
Price 2s. 6d. 



SWEDISH. 

OMAN. SVENSK-ENGELSK HAND-ORDBOK. (Swedish-English Dic- 
tionary.) By F. E. OMAN. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. iv. and 470. 1872. 
Price 8s. 

*OTTE. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE SWEDISH LANGUAGE. By E. 
C. OTTE. Crown Svo, pp. xii.-7O, clotb. 1884. Price 2s. 6d. 



TURKISH. 

ARNOLD. SIMPLE TRANSLITERAL GRAMMAR OF THE TURKISH 

LANGUAGE. Compiled from Various Sources. With Dialogues and 
Vocabulary. By EDWIN ARNOLD, M.A., C.S.I., F.E.G.S. i8mo, 
clotb, pp. 80. 1877. Price 2s. 6d. 

HOPKINS. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE TURKISH LANGUAGE. 
With a few Easy Exercises. By F. L. HOPKINS, M.A., Fellow and 
Tutor of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Crown Svo, cloth, pp. 48. 1877. 
Price 33. 6d. 

REDHOUSE. THE TURKISH VADE-MECUM OF OTTOMAN COLLOQUIAL 
LANGUAGE : Containing a Concise Ottoman Grammar ; a Carefully 
Selected Vocabulary, Alphabetically Arranged, in Two Parts, English 
and Turkish, and Turkish and English ; also a Few Familiar Dialogues 
and Naval and Military Terms. The whole in English Characters, the 
Pronunciation being fully indicated. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. 
Third Edition. Fourth Thousand. 32mo, cloth, pp. viii. and 368. 
1882. Price 6s 

*REDHOUSE. A SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE OTTOMAN TURKISH 
LANGUAGE. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. Crown Svo, cloth, 
pp. xii. and 204. 1884, Price IDS. 6d. 

REDHOUSE. A TURKISH AND ENGLISH LEXICON. Showing in Eng- 
lish the Signification of the Turkish Terms. By J. W. RKDHOUSE, 
M.RA.S. Parts I. to III. Imperial Svo, paper covers, pp. 960. 
1884-85. Price 273. 

LONDON : TRUBNER & Co., 57 & 59 LUDGATE HILL. 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
KDINPIJRGH AND LONDON. 

500 7/2/87 C. 







RETURN 







COLLEGE 




University of California 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

305 De Neve Drive - Parking Lot 17 Box 951388 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90095-1388 

Return this material to the library from which it was borrowed. 












1JW 






-k,^- 

n'Hri i n 



1? 






UCLA-College Library 

PF 1423 C91g 




A 001 117495 o 



*~-N 9 ~( ^ Q_s 

Tj y }~ C; M"" 1 "l ES 

< V S ^ Jr^ I ^ 

^-^^K^ ?0 C? r Q> 

'JNV-SOl^ "%a]AIN!l 3\V^ 




^' 



L 1 

J S