(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint"

A GRAMMAR OF 
THE OLD TESTAMENT IN GREEK 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

ILonDon: FETTER LANE, E.C. 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 



M 


i i 

i. 

i i 

££ 
SI 

* K 


mi 


l*l 




Sggffi. 



ffitiinburgrj : 100, PRINCES STREET 

Berlin : A. ASHER AND CO. 

Etipjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

£rt» gorfc: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

Eombau anto Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 



All rights reserved 




GRAMMAR OF 

THE OLD TESTAMENT 
IN GREEK 

ACCORDING TO THE SEPTUAGINT 



BY 
HENRY St JOHN THACKERAY, M.A. 

SOMETIME SCHOLAR OF KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



VOL. I 

INTRODUCTION, ORTHOGRAPHY AND ACCIDENCE 



Cambridge : 

at the University Press 

1909 




lib 

\ b 

Cop 2, 



T 



CambriDge: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



TO MY WIFE 



Tvva'tKa civhpfiav tis fvprjaei ; 

TlfXKiiTfpa hi (CTTIV Xt'#0)l> 7ToXvTf\(OV T) TOMVTt]. 



PREFACE 



THE Grammar, of which the first portion is here 
published, has during the last eight years been the 
occupation of the very limited leisure of a civil servant. 
It owes its origin to the suggestion of Dr Swete, who 
has throughout its preparation been the writer's kindly 
and encouraging epyoSiwrcTr]?. It is due to his good 
offices that this portion now appears in the form of a 
separate volume, and it is needless to add that it is his 
edition of the text, together with the Concordance of 
the late Dr Redpath, which alone has rendered such a 
work possible. 

It may be asked : What need is there for the work ? 
Why write a Grammar of a translation, in parts a 
servile translation, into a Greek which is far removed 
from the Attic standard, of an original which was often 
imperfectly understood ? A sufficient answer might be 
that the work forms part of a larger whole, the Grammar 
of Hellenistic Greek, the claims of which, as bridging 
the gulf between the ancient and the modern tongue 
upon the attention of <f)i\e\\i]ve<i and philologists have 
in recent years begun to receive their due recognition 
from a growing company of scholars. The Septuagint, 
in view both of the period which it covers and the 



viii Preface 

variety of its styles, ranging from the non-literary 
vernacular to the artificial Atticistic, affords the most 
promising ground for the investigation of the peculiarities 
of the Hellenistic or 'common' language. "La Septante 
est le grand monument de la Koivrj," says Psichari. 
But the Septuagint has, moreover, special claims of 
its own. Though of less paramount importance than 
the New Testament, the fact that it was the only form 
in which the older Scriptures were known to many 
generations of Jews and Christians and the deep influence 
which it exercised upon New Testament and Patristic 
writers justify a separate treatment of its language. 
Again, the fact that it is in the main a translation gives 
it a special character and raises the difficult question of 
the extent of Semitic influence upon the written and 
spoken Greek of a bilingual people. 

The period covered by the books of the Septuagint 
was mentioned. This may conveniently be divided into 
three parts, (i) There is every reason to accept the 
very early tradition that the Greek Pentateuch, to which, 
it would seem, at least a partial translation of Joshua 
was soon appended, originated in the third century B.C. 
We are, then, in the Hexateuch taken back to the dawn 
of the Koivij, to a period when certain forms and usages 
were in existence which had already become obsolete in 
New Testament times. Some of these are moribund 
survivals from classical Greek, others are experiments 
of the new language on their trial. (2) As to the 
remaining books, one result which clearly emerges is 
that the order in which they were translated was, 
roughly speaking, that of the Hebrew Canon. We may 
conjecture that the Prophets made their appearance in 



•6o6i iCwnuvf if 
'vasiaHO ( anN5iAV ivaoh 8 1 

1 '[ iS 'H 

UA\OU>[-JpAY pUB 99UBn§lA }UB}SUOD jpq} JOJ SSgjJ 9q} 

jo U3Ui>[JOA\ piiB sjgpB9.i 's.i9oujo gq; j[B o; puB guirqoA 
g}BJBdgs b sb >jjoa\ gq; jo uoqjod siq} jo uoi}Bgqqnd gq} 
o; Supugsuoo in ggng§inpin .ngq; joj ssgjj X;;sj9Aiuj^ 
gq} jo sotpuXg gq; o; s>|UBq; Am ssgjdxg ;snuj j 
'uoisnpuoD uj '9Jia\ Xuj Aq pun 'Siiuoq; s.ij,\r '.ig;sis 
Xui Xq u9AiS U99q sbij g.m}Bii pg.ipin>{ b jo gguBisissy 
•suoi}B}onb jo xgpuj gq; pgjBdg.id osp3 SBq 9q :g§puquiB3 
( 9§9^03 s.gnuBqiB3 }£ jo JBjoipc; 9iui}gujos 'jojXbjl 
H A\ J IM ^ psJ9pti9J U99q SBq dpq ipnui s93U9J9j9a 
SuiAju9a jo }{joay snotJoqBj gq} uj •suoqsgSSns [njgsn 
pgjgjjo puB sjoojd gq; jo y\\nq gq} pBgj A[pin>[ SBq oqA\ 
'}u;2Bn}dgc; gopuquiB^ jgSj^j gq} jo JO}ipg-og '9>jooj^{ 

'3 'V #A9 H 3 M^ ' 9 ^ 9 II°3 UMO ^ m J° MO lI 3 J -igq}oiiB o; 
9np osp3 gjB s^UBq} Xj^[ 'U94;um gq pjnoqs jbiuujb.i{) 
v. A\oq jo ppoiu b dn ppq piiB }ggfqns gq} uo SuuBgq 
g.m}B.ig}i[ 9Aisii9;x9 gq} jo qonui o} gm pggnpoj}in 
SBq 9q suoi}BDiuniuujOD g}BAud qSnojq} puB qddAQ 
)Udiuv}S9jL ai2j\i jo jbu.iuib.iq }UBiquq siq o} v>uyiiioS3joA c [ 
gq} qSnoaqjL •suoipgjjgdun puB s.iojjg Aubuj p9Aoai9J 
puB sg§Bd s}i pgipuug SBq dpq §ui|ihj-j9A9u puB 
snojgugS siq piiB 'gj^ in >jjoa\ 9[oqA\ gq} qSnoaqi pB9J o} 
's9i;np pjojiiiBui siq piuiB 'q§nou9 pooS U99q SBq gjj 
ug}sgipiiBi\[ jo A}is.i9Aiu_q bi.io;di^\ gq} in XSojonqj 

UB9doan^{-OpUI pilB >p9JQ Di;S'lU9[pj^ JO JOSS9JOJJ 

9JVfdA c [ UX 



•go6i 'si.rej l j;uv;fi$ dj ?p 03AQ dj .ins wss'tj £ 

'Suiqpjj -nj '?.:// ?/j.io y }j pun -fnvj 'VfuiJ&Dnj&s .t?p :/i/v/u//tv.if) - 

•i'061 'uojsog '-03 pire uiiiq 

*>[00}g 32.I03Q }g pUB 3.IE3qXuOQ -3 -J 'jUlSvtlf&S 31/ f UtO.lJ ' SltOl)J?pS x 

pooAvu93JQ 'uo:qnoj\[ •]-[ *f JQ JO }UaUJaSBjrtODUa 
puB psunoo an; o; X-bs ubd j UBq; ajoui savo j - ua>iods 
Xp^ajjB aABq j 'aiurqoA siq; jo <( ja}pSaq aquo „ aq; 
'apA\g jq o} ssaupa;qapui Am JO 's^ooq iuojj aiqBiiiB}qo 
}Bq} uBq; pu;>j pajjp puB [Biiosjad ajoui s jo sdub 

-}SISSB 2uiSpa{A\OU>pB JO SUIBUiaJ A"}np }UBSBajd aqx 

'XXT 3l P -^ P91U3S 

-ajdaj sb $o±x?xyi2 ( inwx aqi jo joinpiiBpjapim jadojd 
b joj 3{qBsu3dsipui si a§Bn2uB{ §utai| aq; jo aSpajAvou:^ 
b }Bq; }uauia}"e}s siq jo q}ru; aqj jo gui paDUiAiioa 

3ABq 'p3;UIBnb3B Xpsop 3JOLU 3lU0D9q O} 9d0l{ J qDIl{A\ 

q;iA\ 'qaaj^) luapoui o;u; suoisjnoui }qSqs A^ - dn 
ps U99q pBq saSsd aq; uaqA\ spiiBq Am o}in auiBD a"juo 
s Xbss9 ajq^BJiiupB sjJBqoisj •pg^nsuoo U99q aABq qoiqA\ 
s>[joa\ jo '9Ai}sriBqx9 ;ou '}sq b puaddB j '^joav iiBaua^) 
aqi. jo uoi}Boqqnd aq; 9.iojgq ua}}UM sbay >{ooq Am 

JO }SOlLI p99pui : 0§B JB3A" B .19AO }Snf paJBSddB l[D{qA\ 

jo ;j-ed ;sjy sq} ' n >[Ooq sSinqpji jq jo Xpuspusdspu; 
3}inb >{joav o; ;ssq ;; }qSnoq; 3ABq j \(bav sq; psj 
s^q Xubousq puB 'p3}BJ}sruj ussq 's.fepp ajqBpiOABim 
qSnojq; 'sBq jbuiuibjq apjdujoa pjy aq; aanpojd o; 
uopiquiB Xj\[ •jJbujiljbj*) jBi}JBd }nq aspuoa v Aq papaa 
-ajd suopaaps jo auurqoA apiq XpiiBq XjaA b paanpojd 
aA"Bq sjB^oqos pjojxQ oa\; ajjqAv 'uoipnpo.tiuj s t apA\g jq 
in aSBtiSiiBj aq; no .ia;dBqa a[qBn|BA b jo aSB^UEApn 
aq; pBq sBq (paA\oqB aq abui pjoav aqi ji) u ubub;uiS 
-Bn;dag„ aq; sjBaX ;uaDa.i uj -qDnaiB^uaj aq; o; pa;iuiq 

ix jmfj.ij 



SB.U 'pjO SJBaA A;uaA3S AjJBSU AVOII 'ipSiaiqj^ jo asj;B3j; 
jnpsn sqj^ •s-ibujiubiq ^aunqsaj, a\3^j sq; uj usaiS 
sba\ se sau^sissB pansna ipns q;u\ ;ii3;uoa aq o; p^q 
;uapn;s sq; pire 'Sui;uba\ uaaq X|;uaaaj s;inb ipun snq 
XXT 9l H J° Jbujuibiq ;uapnadapni piiB a;3jduioa y 

b jo uoi;nqu;sip sq; 2uiA\oqs u; aSBssaui .iiaq; 3ABq 
ua;jo saauajajaj jo sauas Suoj aq; uaAg; 'XXT 3l ll J° 
;xs; jbuiSuo aq; jo uoi;an.i;suoa3.i sq; in ai;ua p3n;xa; 
aq; o; aaiAjas jo aq Abui pa;aaj{oa ajaq aanapiAa aq; 
;bij; padoq si ;i pire 'sa;Bp o; sb Bua;ua .iBap atuos 
p.iojjB pun jnjdpq XqBpads aje uAdBd aq; ;Bq; s;naw 
-;jBdap asaq; in si ;i ;Bq; asnaxa in pBajd .(ew j 
•aouappay puB A*qdBJ.ooq;.io °1 P 9 11 II B uaaq s^q 
aa-eds qanm oo; ;Bq; ;qSnoq; aq abuj ;j -uoissiiuo aq; 
poo§ Sui^biu joj ajn;nj aq; in asuB Xbui A;iun;joddo 
ub Xjqissoj 's;miq paquasajd aq; spaaaxa Apnaj[B 
qaii[A\ '>[ooq siq; pajpA\s A*p;Bjapowiiii aABq pjnoM ;i jo 
;uain;Baj; a;B«bapB ub o; qaBOjdd? Any ;bij; ;aafqns 
b ;sba os 'XXT 9l H ao J <s ! '-ibujwbjS jo aauiAOjd SniA*[;no 
lib (( 4 uoi;i2ui.ioj-p.iOy\\ „ ->jjoa\ ;uasajd aq; ui Sinssjin si 
q;§naj ;b pa;Baj; ajaq; pafqns auQ 'suj pazuEqiuiBj aABq 
suopBpossB p»pads ip;qA\ q;iA\ '^d.ifj fiowviszj^ azzj\r 
fo Avmmv.if) siq in ssbj£{ jossajojj a;Bj aq; jo aaiiBpinS 
aq; paA\oqoj jBjauaS in aABq \ ;uaui;i2aj; puB ;u3iu 
-aSuBjjB uj "uopnaaxa s;i in suoipajjadun a*ubui jo 
snopsuoa uib piiB 'pafqns aq; uj ;saja;ui ;ua;sisjad b ubij; 
.iaq;o >[sb; Am joj ;uaindmba jBpads on untp ubd j 



•suiop-uiii^j t 7 
sb ipns SUOISJ3A uo s>|jhui auios ;jaj 3ABq o; osjb suiaas 



dOvfdAJ X 



Sv 

q3iqA\ ;nq 's3sqB3DBj/\[ V 3>[q s§lu;ua\ ssjj ui 'ssjnoa 
jo ';ss§uo.i;s '[ootps Dpsppjy 3l R J° 33U9nyui sq; (;;) 
'suoisjaA [EJ3;q A*[[BDi;uBpsd jo uoipnpojd sq; o; Sinpus; 
'ajn^duDg jo J3;pj sq; joj sdusjsasj Suia\oj§ sq; (1) 
: >[joa\ ib sjb ssauanyui a;isoddo oav; pouad pjiq; aq; 
uj (uoipajjoa siuniqd£ aq; r> - a) 'O'a Ajn;uaa puoaas 
aq; jo pua aq; jo uXd^d aq; jo ajX;s t a;BjauaSap aaoiu 
sq; jo uoipayaa b aas Xblu aA\ pouad puoaas aq; jo 
;nq; in ajiqA\ '(suoipaqoa y^qifj puB dupj aq;) a§B 
DiBiiiaioij X[jBa aq; jo uXd^d aq; Xq pa;iqiqxa pAaj 
jaqSiq aq; suib;;h pouad ;sjlj aq; jo >pai{) aq; ;eq; 
Xbs Av.uj aAv 'Sui>[Bads Xjpboj^ •suiopSui}[ f — z jo 
suoiuod aSjB[ pun saSprtf jo >{{nq aq; -zia 'spqdoaj aq; 
q;iA\ passBja 110UB3 A\ajqap^ aq; qaiqAv 's>{ooq iBauo;siq 
.la;^ aq; jo auios jo slioi;bisutu; aq; uSisse XjqBqojd 
os[B ;sniu aA\ (sn o; UA\op aaioa aA^q qo;qA\ s;xa; sq; 
jo aspe.mp sq; luojj aSpnf Xbui sa\ ji ;sbsj ;b) pousd 
pjiq; 3q; ojl # bjs jno jo A\iri;u33 puooss sq; sb uAvop 
jbj sh sn Xjjbd piuBQ s ( uoi;opoaqx puB sa;sBisapDg; 
>p3-iQ aq; 3>(q s>[ooq s[iqA\ (, o - a Xjn;ii33 ;sjy aq; 
unq; jaqj^a ;ou pouad b o; Suopq o; 'BJig uag jo 
anSojo-ij aq; ui ;uaiua;t3;s pa;onb-;jo aq; SuipiiB;sq;iA\. 
-;ou 'uiaas s>jooq [BqdXjDodn aq; jo ;soui jo uonisod 
-uiod aq; pun (paptqoxa sd^qjad suqnsj) K sSupu^ „ 
aq; jo ;soui jo suoisj3a aqj^ (£) •su.iopSin;s[ £ pun z 
jo suoiuod puB suiopSuiNf 1 jo aauH-iHaddB aq; a\es 
XjqBqojd os[B Xjn;uaa aq; jo aso[D aq; : asop aq; jsjbsu 
(dnoj§ siq; jo suoiuod 3§je[ jo) 3ApA\ l sq; pun pi>pz7{ 
'qniuisjsf jo Sui;sisuoD dnojS sq; ';i jo SuiuuiSaq sq; 
JB3U q^iBsj ''O'Q Xjn;us3 puooss sq; ut sssjp >(S3J^ b 

xi d.w/3A c [ 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION. 

SECT. 

i. Grammar and Textual Criticism . 

2. Grouping of LXX Books .... 

3. The koivI] — the Basis of LXX Greek . 

4. The Semitic Element in LXX Greek . 

5. The Papyri and the Uncial MSS of the LXX 



PAGE 

1 

6 

16 

25 
55 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 



6. The Vowels . . . . . . . . . 71 

7. The Consonants . . . . . . . .100 

8. The Aspirate . . . . . . . . .124 

9. Euphony in combination of Words and Syllables . 129 



ACCIDENCE. 



10. 
11. 

12. 

ij- 
14. 



Declensions of the Noun 
Proper Names 
Adjectives 
The Numerals 
Pronouns 



140 
160 
172 
186 
190 



15. The Verb. General Changes in Conjugation 

16. Augment and Reduplication 



193 
'95 



XIV 



Contents 



SECT. 

17. Verbs in -Q. Terminations . 

18. Verbs in -Q. Tense formation 

19. Verbs in -Q. Present Tense 

20. Verbs in -12. Future Tense 

21. Verbs in -12. First and Second 

Passive) .... 

22. Contract Verbs 

23. Verbs in -MI .... 

24. Table of Noteworthy Verbs 



Index I. Of Subjects 

II. Of Greek words and forms 
III. Of Quotations . 



Aorist (and Future 



PAGE 

209 
218 
224 
228 



233 
241 

244 

258 

291 
300 
310 



PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES QUOTED WITH 
ABBREVIATIONS 

Anz H., Subsidia ad cognoscendum Graecorum sermonem vulgarem 

e Pentateuchi versione Alexandrina repetita (Dissert. Phil. 

Halenses vol. 12), 1894. 
Archiv = Archiv fiir Papyrusforschung, ed. U. Wilcken, Leipzig, 

1901 etc. 
Aristeas (pseudo-), Letter of, in the Appendix to Swete's Introduc- 
tion to the Old Testament in Greek, or in the edition of P. 

Wendland, Leipzig, 1900 : the §§ are those of YVendland which 

appear in Swete, edition 2. 
Blass N.T. = Friedrich Blass, Grammar of New Testament Greek, 

English translation, ed. 2, 1905. 
Brooke A. E. and M c Lean N., The Old Testament in Greek, vol. l 

The Octateuch, part I Genesis, Cambridge, 1906. 
BDB = Brown, Driver and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon 

of the Old Testament, Oxford, 1906. 
CR= Classical Review. 
Cronert = W. Cronert, Memoria Graeca Herculanensis, cum titu- 

lorum Aegypti papyrorum codicum denique testimoniis etc., 

Leipzig, 1903. 
Deissmann BS= G. A. Deissmann, Bible Studies, Engl, trans. 

Edinburgh, 1901. 
Dieterich K., Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen 

Sprache (Bysantinisches Archiv, Heft 1), Leipzig, 1898. 
Dindorf \V., Poetae Scenici Graeci, ed. 7, London, 1S81. 
Driver S. R., A treatise 071 the use of the tenses in Hebrew, ed. 3, 

Oxford, 1892 : Notes on the Hebrew text of the Books of 

Samuel, Oxford, 1890: The book of Daniel in the Cambridge 

Bible, Cambridge, 1900. 



xvi Principal Authorities quoted 

Enc. Bibl.= Encyclopaedia Biblica, ed. Cheyne and Black, London, 

1 899 etc. 
Field F., Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, Oxford, 1875. 
Gregory Prol. — Novum Testamentum Graece, C. Tischendorf, vol. 3 

Prolegomena, scripsit C. R. Gregory, Leipzig, 1894. 
Hastings BD = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings, Edinburgh, 

1898 etc. 
Hatch E. and Red path H. A., A Concordance to the Septnagint 

and the other Greek Versions of the O.T., Oxford, 1S97- 

1906. 
Hatch E., Essays in Biblical Greek, Oxford, 1889. 
Hatzidakis G. N., Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik, 

Leipzig, 1892. 
Herodiani Technici Reliquiae, ed. A. Lentz, Leipzig, 1867. 
Herwerden H. van, Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum, 

Leyden, 1902. 
Indog. Forsch. = Indogermanische Forschungen. 
Jannaris A. N., An historical Greek Gramtnar chiefly of the Attic 

dialect as written and spoken from classical antiquity down to 

the present time, London, 1897. 
J. T. S.=fournal of Theological Studies, (London and) Oxford. 
Kalker F., Quaestiones de elocutione Polybiana etc., Separat-abdruck 

aus " Leipziger Studien zur classischen Philologie," Leipzig, 

N.D. 
Kautzsch E., Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen dcs Alien 

Testaments iibersetzt und herausgegeben, Tubingen, 1900. 
Kennedy H. A. A., Sources of New Testament Greek or the influ- 
ence of the Septnagint on the vocabulary of the New Testament, 

Edinburgh, 1895. 
Kuhner-Blass or K.-Bl. = Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der griechischen 

Sprache von R. Kiihner, erster Teil, Elemental'- und Formen- 

lehre, dritte Auflage in zwei Banden in neuer Bearbeitung, 

besorgt von F. Blass, Hannover, 1890-2. 
Lagarde P. de, Librorum Veteris Testamenti Canonicorum Pars 

prior Graece (a reconstruction of the " Lucianic text" of the 

historical books of the LXX), Gottingen, 1883. 
LS = Liddell and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ed. 7, Oxford, 

1883. 



Principal AutJwrities quoted xvii 

Mayser E., Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aits der Ptolemder- 

zeit etc., Laut- und Wortlehre, Leipzig, 1906. 
McNeile A. H., An Introduction to Ecclesuistes with A r otes and 

Appendices, Cambridge, 1904.. 
Meisterhans = Grammatik der Attischen Inschriften von K. 

Meisterhans, dritte vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage, besorgt 

von E. Schwyzer, Berlin, 1900. 
Moulton Prol. = ]. H. Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament 

Greek, vol. I Prolegomena, 3rd edition, Edinburgh, 1908. 
Moulton-Geden = W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, A Concordance 

to the Greek Testament, Edinburgh, 1899. 
Mozley F. W., The Psalter of the Church, the Septuagint Psalms 

compared with the Hebrew, with various notes, Cambridge, 

1905. 
Nachmanson E., Laute und Formen der Magnetischen Inschriften, 

Uppsala, 1903. 
Oracula Sibyl li?ia, ed. A. Rzach, Vienna, 1891. 
Ottley R. R., The Book of Isaiah according to the Septuagint 

{Codex Alexandrians) translated and edited, 2 vols., Cam- 
bridge, 1904-6. 
Reinhold H., De graecitate Patrum Apostolicorum librorumque 

apocryphorttm Novi Testamenti Quaestiones grammaticae 

(Dissert. Philol. Halenses, vol. XIV, pars 1), Halle, 1898. 
Rutherford (W. G.) NP=The New Phrynichus, being a revised 

text of the Ecloga of the grammarian Phrynichus, London, 

188/. 
Schleusner J. F., Novus Thesaurus philologico-criticus sive Lexicon 

in LXX et reliquos interpretes Graecos ac scriptores apocryphos 

Veteris Testamenti, Leipzig, 1820. 
Schmidt W., De Flavii fosephi elocutione observationes criticae, 

Leipzig, 1893. 
Schmiedel : see W.-S. 
Schweizer /Yv^^Schweizer (now Schwyzer) E., Grammatik der 

Pergamenischen Inschrifte?i, Beitriige zur Laut- und Flcxions- 

lehre der gemeingriechischen Sprache, Berlin, 1898. 
Steindorff G., Koptische Grammatik, Berlin, 1894. 
Sturz F. W., De dialecto Macedonica et Alexandrina liber, Leipzig, 

1808. 



xviii Principal Authorities quoted 

Swete H. B., The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septua- 
gint, ed. 2, Cambridge, 1895-99: Introd. = An Introduction to 
the Old Testament in Greek, ed. 2, Cambridge, 1902. 

Test. xii. Patr. = 7Y2<? Greek Versions of the Testaments of the 
Twelve Patriarchs etc., ed. R. H. Charles, Oxford, 1908. 

Thiersch H. W. J., De Pentatenchi versione Alexandriiia libri 
tres, Erlangen, 1840. 

Thumb A., Asp. = Untersitchungen iiber den Spiritns Asper im 
griechischen, Strassburg, 1 888 : Handbuch = Handbuch der neu- 
griechischen Volkssprache, Grammatik,Texte, Glossar, ib., 1895: 
Hell. = Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus, 
Beitrdge zur Geschichte und Beurteilung der Koivtj, ib., 1901. 

Veitch W., Greek Verbs irregular and defective, Oxford, 1866. 

Wackernagel J., Hellenistica, Gottingen, 1907. 

WH = Westcott B. F. and Hort F. J. A., The New Testament in 
the Original Greek, Cambridge, Text 1890, Introduction and 
Appendix (ed. 2), 1896. 

W.-S. = Winer's Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms, 
Achte Auflage, neubearbcitet von P. W. Schmiedel, 1 Theil, 
Einleitung und Formenlehre, Gottingen, 1894. 

Witkowski S., Epistulae privatae Graecac quae in papyris aetatis 
Lagidarum servant ur, Leipzig, 1906-7. 

ZNTW = Zeitschrift fiir die neutestamentliche IVissenschaft, ed. 
E. Preuschen, Giessen. 

The references to the above and other works are to pages, 
unless otherwise stated. 



COLLECTIONS OF PAPYRI REFERRED TO IN THIS 

VOLUME 

AP = Amherst Papyri, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 1 900-1. 

BM i, ii etc. = Greek Papyri in the British Museum, ed. Kenyon, 

1893- • 
BU = A egyptische Urkunden aus den Koenigl. Museen zu Berlin, 

Griechische Urkunden, ed. Wilcken etc., 1895- • 

CPR=Corp/ts Papyrorum Kaineri, ed. C. Wessely, Vienna, 1895. 

FP = Fayum Totvns and their Papyri, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 1900. 



Collections of Papyri referred to xix 

G = Grenfell, An Alexandrian erotic fragment and other Greek 
Papyri, chiefly Ptolemaic, 1896. 

GH = Grenfell and Hunt, Greek Papyri, Series II, 1897. 

GP=Les Papyrus de Geneve, ed. J. Nicole, 1896- 1900. 

WV=Hibeh Papyri, Part 1, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 1906. 

Leiden Fap.= Papyri Graeci Musei...Lugduni Batavi, ed. Lee- 
mans, 1843-85. 

OP i, ii etc. = Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 1898- . 

Par. = (Paris Papyri) Notices et Extraits des MSS, torn, xviii, ed. 
Brunet de Presle, Paris, 185S. 

PP i, ii = Flinders Petric Papyri, in Proc. Royal Irish Academy, 
Cunningham Memoirs, ed. J. P. Mahaffy, 1891-93. 

Teb.= Tebtutiis Papyri, ed. Grenfell, Hunt and Smyly, 1902. 

TP = (Turin Papyri) Papyri Graeci Regit Taurinensis Musei 
Aegyptii, ed. Peyron, 1826. 

ii/B.C. = 2nd century B.C., ii/A.D. = 2nd century a.d., ii/-iii/A.D. = a 
date falling about the end of ii/A.D. or the beginning of iii/A.D. 



The abbreviations for the books of the O.T. for the most part 
explain themselves. Jd. = Judges, Jdth = Judith. For the signs 
used to denote the different strata in the last three Books of Reigns 
or Kingdoms (K. 0/3, K. /3y, K. yy, K. yS, K. 08) see p. 10: for 
Jer. a, [i and y, Ez. a, and 00, see p. 11 : for Parts 1 and 11 of 
Exodus, Leviticus and Psalms pp. 66 and 68. Job 6 indicates the 
passages in Job which are absent from the Sahidic version and 
are shown by their style to be later interpolations from Theodotion 
into the original partial Greek translation (see p. 4) : other 
passages besides those so indicated may have been interpolated 
from the same source. ¥ tit. denotes the titles of the Psalms : 
some details in their vocabulary afford reason for thinking that 
they did not form part of the original Greek version. a'=Aquila, 
= Theodotion. The text used is that of Dr Swete and, as this 
has by now well-nigh supplanted all others, it seemed needless to 
cumber the pages with the alternative numbers for the verses which 
he quotes in brackets. 



xx Corrigenda and Addenda 



CORRIGENDA AND ADDENDA 

). 10, 12 lines from end. Head "K. a has 151 examples" of the hist, 
pres. : my figures have been checked by Sir John Hawkins. 
11, end of 2nd paragraph. For § 7, 44 read § 7, 46. 

24, line 18. For Dan. ; -ead Dan. 0. 

25, line 18. For "Tobit" read "the B text of Tobit." 
38, line 16. For !"IS read 113. 

50, last line. For bpav read bpav. 

69, line 6. For €vwpeTr(e)ia etc. read evirp^Tr(e)ia, fj.eya\oirpeir. 

79, line 12. For 4, 52 X ;W4S, 52 X. 

80, note 6. For PP 2 mzrf PP ii. 
91, § 6, 32. ^<?r 7rpa(5s rt'flr/ irpavs. 

125, 3 (3) line 1. For tt>ou ;vW ISou. 

170, note 3, line 1. For Jos. xv. 60 raz^Jos. xv. 61. 

172, note 1. For -1a read -La. 

238, line 10. /w- /caT- /-£«</ Kara-. 



p. 13. The severance of 2 Esdras from Chronicles LXX needs a word 
of justification. I believe Sir Henry Howorth to be right in his contention 
that 2 Esdras is the work of Theodotion : as regards Chron. LXX, certain 
Egyptian traits (p. 167 n., cf. J. T. S. VIII. 276 f.) and a rather greater 
freedom of style have made me hesitate in following Sir Henry to the 
natural conclusion that 9 is responsible for this translation also. A strong 
case has recently been made in support of this view, based mainly on the 
numerous transliterations in both portions, in a work to which Sir Henry 
drew my attention (Old Testament and Semitic Studies in memory of 
IV. R. Harper: Apparatus for the Textual Criticism of Chronicles- Ezra- 
Nehemiah: by C. C. Torrey, Chicago, 1908). If these critics are right, it 
is necessary to suppose that 9 for Chron. made use of an earlier version, 
such as was not before him for Ezra-Nehemiah., 

p. 33, lines 1, 2. To the renderings of ""OK* should be added {udos, tha 
beer of Alexandria (Strabo 799), which the Isaiah translator appropriately 
introduces in "the vision of Egypt" (xix. 10). 

p. 70. Ezekiel Part I, Part II: this indicates the main division of the 
Greek book into two parts: for further subdivision of Part II see p. n — . 
The suggestion that the passage in 3 K. viii. 53 which is absent from M.T. 
may be a later gloss must be withdrawn : see on this very interesting 
section Swete Inirod. 247 f. 

p. 138, lines 3, 4. For further exx. of nav see p. 99, n. 2. 

p. 146, § 10, 12. For 3rd decl. ace. in -av see Psichari, Essai stir le 
Grec de la Septan te, 164 ft. 

p. 156, n. 3. But wa.Tpa.pxov Is. xxxvii. 28 and trarpia viii. 21 are, as 
Prof. Burkitt reminds me, probably corruptions of an original iraTaxpa = 
Aram. N"OriS "a (false) god " or "idol," which must he added to the other 
Aramaisms in this book (yetwpas, cUepa). See Field Hex. on viii. 21. 



Ci 



INTRODUCTION. 

§ i. Grammar and Textual Criticism. 

Is it possible to write a grammar of the Septuagint ? That 
is the question which must constantly arise in the mind of one 
who undertakes the task. The doubt arises not because the 
Greek, strange as it often is, is utterly defiant of the laws of 
grammar: the language in which the commonly received text is 
composed has some laws of its own which can be duly tabulated. 
The question rather is, "Where is the true 'Septuagint' text 
to be found?" We possess in the Cambridge Manual Edition 
the text of the Codex Vaticanus with a collation of the other 
principal uncials : in Holmes and Parsons we have a collation 
of the cursives and versions : and now in the Larger Cambridge 
Septuagint we have the first instalment of a thoroughly trust- 
worthy collection of all the available evidence. But we are 
still far from the period when we shall have a text, analogous 
to the New Testament of Westcott and Hort, of which we can 
confidently state that it represents, approximately at least, the 
original work of the translators. Is it, then, premature to 
attempt to write a Grammar, where the text is so doubtful ? 
Must the grammarian wait till the textual critic has completed 
his task? 

It is true that no final grammar of the LXX can be written 
at present. But the grammarian cannot wait for the final 
verdict of textual criticism. Grammar and criticism must 

T. I 



2 Grammar and Text [§ I 

proceed concurrently, and in some ways the former may con- 
tribute towards a solution of the problems which the latter 
has to face. 

The grammarian of the Greek Old Testament has, then, 
this distinct disadvantage as compared with the N.T. gram- 
marian, that he has no Westcott-Hort text for his basis, and is 
compelled to enter into questions of textual criticism. More- 
over the task of recovering the oldest text in the O.T. is, for 
two reasons at least, more complicated than in the N.T. In 
the first place, the oldest MS, containing practically a complete 
text, is the same for both Testaments, namely the Codex 
Vaticanus, but whereas in the one case the date of the MS is 
separated from the dates of the autographs by an interval 
(considerable indeed) of some three centuries, in the case of 
the O.T. the interval, at least for the earliest books, is nearly 
doubled. A yet more serious difficulty consists in the relative 
value of the text of this MS in the Old and in the New 
Testaments. The textual history of either portion of the Greek 
Bible has one crisis and turning-point, from which investigation 
must proceed. It is the point at which "mixture''" of texts 
begins. In the N.T. this point is the "Syrian revision,'' which, 
although no actual record of it exists, must have taken place in 
or about the fourth century a.d. The corresponding crisis in 
the history of the LXX text is Origen's great work, the Hexapla, 
dating from the middle of the third century. This laborious 
work had, as Septuagint students are painfully aware, an effect 
which its compiler never contemplated, and he must be held 
responsible for the subsequent degeneration of the text. His 
practice of inserting in the Septuagint column fragments of 
the other versions, Theodotion's in particular, duly indicated 
by him as insertions by the asterisks which he prefixed, caused 
the multiplication of copies containing the insertions but 
wanting the necessary precautionary signs. This, together with 
the practice of scribes of writing in the margins (from which 



§ i] Grammar and Text 3 

they were in later copies transferred to the text) the alternative 
renderings or transliterations contained in the other columns of 
the Hexapla, is the /ons et origo mali as regards the Septuagint 
text. Now, whereas the Codex Vatican us was written before 
the Syrian revision of the N. T., or at any rate contains a pre- 
Syrian text, it is posterior to the Hexapla, and contains a text 
of the O.T. which, though superior on the whole to that of 
Codex Alexandrinus, is yet not entirely free from Hexaplaric 
interpolations. 

A few instances may be quoted showing the sort of mixture 
with which we have to deal. 

(1) Take the A text of 3 Kingdoms at any of the passages 
where B has no rendering of the Massoretic text e.g. 3 K. ix. 1 5 ff. 
avrr] fj Trpayparia riji: irpovoprjs i]S avi]vcyK(v 6 fiacriXevs 'EaXaipcov 
oiKodnfxfiacu rbv oIkov kv, kcu tov oIkov tov j3aaiXecos <ai o~vv rqv 
MeAco k.t.A. We are at once struck by the occurrence of 
<tvv preceding the accusative, which occurs in vv. 16, 24, 25, 
and is recognised as Aquila's rendering of ]"IX : other striking 
words are found to be either expressly stated to be Aquila's 
renderings in this passage or to be characteristic of his version 
and absent, or practically absent, from the record in the Con- 
cordance of LXX usage (e.g. Ka6o8ovs and aTr^pnaev in verse 
25). Similar interpolations, presumably from Aquila, occur in 
the A text at 3 K. viii. 1, xi. 38 (N.B. kcikovxwco ■' the verb is 
frequent in Aquila, but occurs once only again in LXX viz. 
3 K. ii. 26 where probably the text of both B and A has been 
interpolated), xiii. 26 (N.B. t<w A<?yeiy = ~lftX7), 29 (with venpo- 
fiaiov cf. a Dt. xiv. 8 veKpipalnv), xiv. I — 20, xxii. 47 — 50 : there 
are smaller insertions, apparently from the same source, in the 
A text of 4 K. e.g. xii. 4, xvi. 9 (KvprjvTjvSe), xvii. 14, xxv. 9. 

From these passages we infer that in these two books 
(i) the shorter text of B is the older, (ii) that the passages 
which B omits were either absent from the Hebrew which the 
translators had before them or that the omission was intentional, 
the translation not aiming at completeness, (iii) that A has 
supplied the missing portions from Aquila, as Origen had pro- 
bably previously done in the Hexapla, (iv) that B has remained 
comparatively, though probably not wholly, free from Hexaplaric 
interpolation. 

(2) Or take the book of Job. A careful reading of the 
Greek and Hebrew will reveal the existence of two completely 
different styles, a free paraphrastic rendering in idiomatic 



4 Grammar and Text [§ I 

Greek, with every now and again passages of quite another 
character, containing Hebraisms, transliterations, etymological 

renderings of Divine names (Ikcivos = *"]&, 6 'io-xupds = ?}<)? in 
fact a rendering that aims at completeness and accuracy with- 
out much regard to style. Now we are told that the original 
version was much shorter than the received Hebrew text, and 
that Origen supplied the missing portions from Theodotion : 
and, by good fortune, the Sahidic version has preserved a pre- 
Origenic text, from which the Theodotion passages are absent 1 . 
We are thus enabled to mark off in Dr Swete's text, the 
Theodotion portions. But we cannot even then be quite certain 
that we have got back to the original text. Passages from 
Theodotion may have already, independently of the Hexapla, 
found their way into the Greek text on which the Sahidic 
version was based, or that text may have been affected by 
"mixture" of another kind. Still, a study of the vocabulary of 
the bracketed Theodotion passages will provide a criterion by 
means of which the critic will be better prepared to detect the 
influence of his style elsewhere. It will be noticed that in this 
book the text of B, and of all the uncials, is Hexaplaric. 

(3) Or take the list in Jos. xxi. of the cities with their 
"suburbs" (D^HJO) which were given to the Levites, and note 
how in vv. 2 — 11 and again in vv. 34 — 42 the word for 
"suburbs" is rendered, 17 times in all 2 by (to) 7repi<nr6pia 
(avTrjs), whereas in the intervening verses 13 — 32 it is rendered 
35 times by (ra) dcpapicrpiva (avrf)) 3 . Now Aquila read nepi- 
ariropia in v. 1 5 (vide Field's Hexapla). It appears probable, 
then, that the original text had a shorter list of cities and 
suburbs =ra dcfxopicrpeva (cf. Lev. xxv. 34, Jos. xiv. 4), and 
that Aquila's version has again, as in the A text of 3 K., been 
drawn upon to complete the list 4 . Here again interpolation has 
affected the text of both B and A. 

The elimination of Hexaplaric additions being, thus, the 
first task of the textual criticism of the LXX, a study of the 
style and vocabulary of the three later versions, more especially 

1 A list of the passages omitted in the Sahidic VS is given in Lagarde 
Mitth&ilungen 1884, p. 204. Cf. esp. Hatch Essays in Bibl. Greek 
215 ff. 

2 Also by A in v. 19. 

3 Excluding ttjv (rds) dcpwpicTfjL. in 27, 32, which render another word. 

4 In N. xxxv. 2 — 7 this word "suburbs" is rendered by four separate 
words, viz. irpodcrria, a<popiafia.Ta, ffvvKvpovvra, ofxopa. Variety of rendering 
characterizes the Pentateuch, and it is not necessary to infer Hexaplaric 
influence here. 



§ i] Grammar and Text 5 

of Theodotion, is a necessary preliminary. The study of 
Theodotion's style is the more important for two reasons. 

(1) It was always a popular version, mainly, no doubt, because 
it steered a middle course between the idiomatic Greek, tend- 
ing to paraphrase, of Symmachus, and the pedantic un-Greek 
literalism of Aquila : it combined accuracy with a certain 
amount of style. Theodotion's version of Daniel supplanted 
the older paraphrase in the Christian Bible, and it was to 
Theodotion that Origen usually had recourse to fill the gaps in 
the older version in the Septuagint column of the Hexapla. 

(2) Aquila's version betrays itself by certain well-known 
characteristics, whereas Theodotion fragments are not so 
easily detected. On the other hand we have in his version 
of Daniel (where it deviates from the Chisian text), and in the 
% portions of Job, a considerable body of material from which 
something may be learnt as to his characteristics. A complete 
vocabulary of the portions which can certainly be attributed to 
Theodotion is a desideratum. 

In concluding these few observations on the text, it must be 
added that the present writer has practically confined himself 
to the text of the uncials collated for the Cambridge Manual 
edition. The first instalment of the larger Cambridge LXX 
has been consulted for all passages in Genesis where important 
grammatical points arise, though most of this portion of the 
Grammar was prepared before its appearance. Occasional use 
has also been made of Lagarde's edition of the Lucianic text, 
Field's Hexapla, and the great corpus of cursive evidence col- 
lected in the edition of Holmes and Parsons. A full use of 
the last-named work would not only have delayed the appear- 
ance of this work for perhaps many years, but would also have 
caused it to exceed the limits laid down for it, without (it is 
believed) a proportionate addition to any value which it may 
possess. 



Grouping of LXX Books [§ 2 



§ 2. Grouping of LXX Books. 

We have in the Septuagint a miscellaneous collection of 
Greek writings — some translations, others paraphrases, others 
of which the Greek is the original language — covering a period 
of upwards of three centuries, from the Pentateuch, the trans- 
lation of which, there is no reason to doubt, goes back into the 
first half of the third century B.C., to the academical essay known 
as 4 Maccabees and the latter portion of Baruch, which must 
both be placed towards the close of the first century of our era. 
It is clearly desirable and should not be impossible, consider- 
ing the length of this period, to find some means of classifying 
this motley collection. The first and obvious division is into 
translations and original Greek compositions. But the trans- 
lations, though on a casual perusal they might appear to stand 
all on one level of mediocrity, on closer investigation are found 
to fall into certain distinct categories. 

The object in view, and the method by which we seek to 
attain it, are not unlike the object and the method of the textual 
critic. The object, in this case, is not the grouping of MSS 
according to the character of the text which they contain, but 
the grouping of books or portions of books according to their 
style. The study of individual books from the linguistic point 
of view is followed by the study of groups. It would, of 
course, be unreasonable to expect undeviating uniformity of 
translation of the same Hebrew word in any one translator: 
if, however, it is found that a phrase is consistently rendered 
in one way in one portion of the Greek Bible, and in another 
way elsewhere, and if, as we proceed to extend our investi- 
gations to the renderings of other Hebrew phrases, the same 
divergence between two portions of the LXX is apparent, we 
gain an increasing assurance that we have to deal with two 
distinct groups of books, which are the production of different 
translators and possibly of different epochs. Each group may 



§ 2] Grouping of LXX Books 7 

be the work of several translators, but, if so, they have all 
come under the same influences and belong, as it were, to 
a single school. The method upon which we proceed is 
not so much to trace the history of the meaning of a single 
Greek word through the LXX (though that method also 
may sometimes be fruitful in results) as to trace the render- 
ing of a single Hebrew phrase in the different books. The 
Hebrew index in the final fasciculus of the Concordance of 
Hatch and Redpath facilitates this task. The difficulty is to 
discover Hebrew phrases which occur with sufficient frequency 
throughout the whole Bible to serve as "tests" and yet are not 
such every-day expressions that Greek translators of any class 
or period could not fail to render them in one and the same 
way. Vocabulary affords the easiest criterion to begin with : 
the results which it yields can then be tested by grammatical 
phenomena. 

We proceed to take a few examples. 

(1) In the phrase "the servant of the Lord" (mrp 12]}) as 
applied to Moses the word "servant" is rendered in the fol- 
lowing ways : 

(i) depi'nrwv in the Pentateuch (Ex. iv. 10, xiv. 31, N. xi. 
11, xii. 7, 8, Dt. iii. 24), also in Jos. i. 2, ix. 4, 6: cf. W. x. 16 
(under the influence of Exodus) and 1 Ch. xvi. 40 (the words iv 
^ft/ai M. rov Bepairovros rov dtov are unrepresented in M.T. and 
are probably a gloss). Cf. also 6 depa-n-av pov 'lob/3, Job passim 
(twice with v. 1. ttci'is). 

(ii) oIk4tt)s Dt. xxxiv. 5. 

(iii) ttois 1 constantly in Joshua (12 times) i. 7, etc., (in 
xiv. 7 A has 8ov\os), also in 1 Ch. vi. 49, 2 Ch. i. 3, xxiv. 9, 
2 Es. xi. 7, 8, Bar. ii. 28 (cf. i. 20), Dan. O ix. 1 1. 

(iv) SoiXos 3 K. viii. 53, 56, 4 K. xviii. 12, xxi. 8, 2 Es. 
xix. 14, xx. 29, yp- civ. 26, Mai. iv. 6, Dan. e ix. 11. 

Extending the investigation to the rendering of the phrase 
when used of other servants of God (David, the prophets, etc.), 
we find that the versions fluctuate between (iii) and (iv). (iii) oc- 
curs throughout Isaiah (along with ooOAoy in the later chapters, 

1 Used in the Pentateuch of Caleb, N. xiv. 24. 



8 Grouping of LXX Books [§ 2 

xlii. 19 etc.), in the latter part of Jeremiah (xxvi. 28, xxxiii. 5, 
xlii. 15, li. 4) and in Baruch (5 times). On the other hand the 
first half of Jeremiah (vii. 25, xxv. 4, xxvi. 27, cf. iii. 22) 1 , 
Ezekiel (6 times) and the Minor Prophets (8 times) consistently 
use (iv). 

Turning to the N. T. we find that the word depdncov is 
confined to the O. T. quotation in Hebr. iii. 5 ( = N. xii. 7), nals 
in metaphorical sense of a worshipper of God is limited to the 
O. T. quotation in Mt. xii. 18 ( = Is. xlii. 1) and to the opening 
chapters in Luke's two writings, where it is used of Israel and 
David (Lc. i. 54, 69, Acts iv. 25) and of Christ (Acts iii. 13, 26, 
iv. 27, 30). On the other hand, the constant phrase in the 
mouth of Paul and other N. T. writers when speaking of them- 
selves or of others is SovXos ('lrjo-ov Xpiarrov) : note how the 
writer of the Apocalypse uses 8ovXos of Moses in xv. 3, though 
he has in mind Ex. xiv. 31 (depdnovri). 

We cannot fail to note in the LXX renderings a growing 
tendency to emphasize the distance between God and man. 
Qepdncov "the confidential attendant" is replaced by olKerr/s 2 
(which may include all members of the household and there- 
fore implies close intimacy), then by the more colourless but 
still familiar 7rais-, finally by 8ovXos the "bond-servant" without 
a will of his own. 

(2) The same tendency as in the last instance is observable 
in the renderings of the verb 72V, viz. Xarpeveiv and SovXeveiv 3 . 
The Pentateuch makes the distinction that Xarpeveiv applies to 
the service of God (and the gods, Ex. xx. 5, xxiii. 24, L. xviii. 21, 
Dt. passim) whereas service rendered to man is expressed by 
bovXeieiv (by Xarpeveiv only in Dt. xxviii. 48, see note 2 below). 
Joshua uses Xarpeveiv similarly. Jd. (A and B texts) is incon- 
sistent as regards the word used to express service of God and 
the gods, the A text having Xarpeveiv 9 times, SovXeveiv twice, 
the B text having Xarpeveiv 5 times (up to iii. 7) SovXeveiv 6 
times. On the other hand 1 K. and the majority of the re- 
maining books use SovXeveiv indiscriminately of service rendered 
to God or man, the only other examples of Xarpeveiv occurring 
in 2 K. xv. 8, 4 K. (6 times), 2 Ch. (vii. 19). The grouping here 
is not quite the regular one, Jd. B, 2 K. (last part) and 4 K. 
usually siding with the latest group of LXX books. 

(3) "The Lord (or God) of hosts": niN3¥ OnSx) iTirV 
The renderings of this phrase show a fairly well-marked dis- 

1 Also as a v. 1. in A in xlii. 15, li. 4. 

2 The last few chapters of Dt. seem to occupy a position by themselves 
in the Pentateuch. 

3 Qepaireveiv only in Is. liv. 17. 



§ 2] Grouping of LXX Books 9 

tinction between the LXX books. The phrase, unfortunately, 
is absent from the Pentateuch as well as from Ezekiel, Job, etc. 

(i) There is transliteration, (Kvpios) <rafiaa>d, in 1 K. 
(i. 3, 11, 20, xv. 2, xvii. 45) and in Isaiah passim (about 57 
times) 1 . 

(ii) There is paraphrase, (Kvpios) navroKparcop, in the 
first part of 2 K. (v. 10, vii. 8, 25 B, 26 A, 27), in 3 K. xix. 10, 
14, 1 Ch. xi. 9, xvii. 7, 24 (xxix. 12, M. T. has no equivalent) 
and throughout Jeremiah and the Minor Prophets, Zechariah 
alone having some 60 examples of it. 

(iii) There is translation, (Kvpios) reiv Suixuiecor, throughout 
the Psalms, in 4 K. (iii. 14, xix. 20 [not in M. T.] 31) and 
sporadically elsewhere : (1 K. iv. 4 A), 2 K. vi. 18, 3 K. xvii. 1 
(not in M.T.), xviii. 15, (Am. vi. 14 B), Zeph. ii. 9, Zech. (i. 3 B 
bis), vii. 4 (Jer. xl. 12, om. A*), (iii) is also Theodotion's ren- 
dering (Jer. xxxvi. 17) and from his version the variae lectionis 
in the passages last quoted have doubtless come. Aquila's 
rendering is Kvpios r6>i> (rrparicov : Symmachus has o-Tparicov, 
8wdp,(o)i' and other words. 

The limits of this work preclude further details of this kind. 
Pursuing these researches into vocabulary and grammar, we find 
that, considered from the point of view of style, the translated 
books (excluding the more paraphrastic renderings) fall into 
three main groups. At the head stands the Pentateuch, dis- 
tinguished from the rest by a fairly high level of style (for 
Koivrj Greek), combined with faithfulness to the original, rarely 
degenerating into literalism. At the other extreme stands a 
group, consisting mainly of some of the later historical books 
(Jd. + Ruth [B text], 2 K. xi. 2 — 3 K. ii. n, 3 K. xxii. 1 — 4 K. 
end, 2 Es. : the Psalter has some affinity with it), in which we 
see the beginnings of the tendency towards pedantic literalism, 
which ended in the second century a.d. in the barbarous 
"version" of Aquila. Between these two extremes lie the 
remainder of the books, all falling behind the standard set up 

1 Also in Jos. vi. 17 B (twi> dwapawv AF : M. T. merely miT?), Jer. 
xxvi. 10 AQ (om. crapaud BX), Zech. xiii. 2 BSl" 1 (om. cap. AQ) : cf. 
1 Es. ix. 46 A where it is prefixed to U.avr oKpdro pi. 



io Grouping of LXX Books [§ 2 

by the Pentateuch, but approximating with varying degrees of 
success to that model. 

We find also that diversities of style present themselves 
within a single book. These are not such diversities as can 
readily be accounted for by Hexaplaric influence : they are not 
cases (as in the Greek Job) where the gaps in an original par- 
tial version have been filled by extracts from Theodotion or 
from other sources. The break occurs at a definite point in the 
centre of a book, on either side of which the language has its 
own distinct characteristics. The evidence for this statement 
has been given by the present writer in the case of certain 
books, viz., (a) the books of Kingdoms, (b) Jeremiah and 
Ezekiel in the pages of the Journal of Theological Studies 1 . 
Further research may lead to the discovery of similar pheno- 
mena in other books. 

The books of Kingdoms may be divided as follows : 

(K.o(-i K.), 

Earlier portions j K. 83 ( = 2 K. i. 1 — xi. 1), 

IK. yy ( = 3 K. ii. 12— xxi. 43). 

T . .- iK. By ( = 2 K. xi. 2 — 3 K. ii. 11), 

Later portions Sv I / ~ v •• . v a\ 

r (K. yd ( = 3 K. xxn. i — 4 K. end). 

The portions K. By and K. yS (referred to collectively as K. 88) 
are, it appears, the work of a single hand. They are dis- 
tinguished from the remaining portions by their particles and 
prepositions (e.g. icni ye = D3, kcu fidXa, IjviKa, avff' a>v on, dirdva>- 
dev), by the ( almost complete absence of the historic present 
(K. a has 145- examples, (38 28, yy 47), by the use of eyo> elfu 
followed by a finite verb and by their vocabulary : they have 
much in common with Theodotion. The other portions are 
free from these peculiarities, though they do not rise much 
above K. 88 in point of style : the original version of K. yy, so 
far as it is possible to conjecture what it was like in the un- 
certain state of the text, seems to have been more paraphrastic 
and therefore more idiomatic than the rest. In the case of 
these books we are not without external support for the divisions 
to which we are led by considerations of style, nor is it difficult 
to conjecture why the books were divided as they appear to 
have been. The Lucianic text actually brings the second book 

1 Vol. iv. 245, 398, 578: vol. viii. 262. 



2] Grouping of LXX Books 1 1 




down to 3 K. ii. 1 1 (making the break at the death of David 
and the accession of Solomon, a much more natural point than 
that selected in the M.T.); 2 K. xi. 2 marks the beginning of 
David's downfall, and the Chronicler, like the translator of 
K. /3/3, also cuts short his narrative at this point. It appears 
that the more disastrous portions in the narrative of the 
Monarchy were left on one side when the earlier translators 
of the D^ltrXI DWna did their work. 

The books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel are divided as follows : 

[Jer. a =i. 1 — xxviii. 64 (li. 64 M. T.), 
= xxix. 1— li. 35 (xlv. 5 M.T.), 
= lii. 

= i. 1 — xxvii. 36 and xl. 1 — xlviii. end, 
= xxviii. 1 — xxxix. 29 excluding 
= xxxvi. 24 — 38. 

The two styles in Jeremiah a and /3 are quite unmistakable, 
though, owing to a certain mixture of the two on either side of 
the juncture (in which the hand of a reviser may perhaps be 
traced), the exact point where the second hand begins cannot be 
certainly fixed to a verse : perhaps it should be placed a little 
lower down in chap.xxix. A clear test is afforded in this book by 
the phrase "Thus saith the Lord," which is consistently rendered 
in a by Td8e Xefyei Kvpios (about 60 times, down to xxix. 8), in j3 
by Ovtcos elireu Kvpios (about 70 times from xxx. 1), with a 
solitary example of a mixture of the two renderings at or near 
the juncture, rdde elnev Kvpios xxix. 13 B. Jer. y is probably a 
later appendix to the Greek book : the occurrence of the form 
(pvXuTTciv (Hi. 24 B, 31 A) suggests at least that this chapter has 
an independent history (see § 7, 44-). tf-L. 

Equally unmistakable are the two styles in Ezekiel a and /3. 
The two noticeable features here are (1) the cessation of the 
first style midway through the Book and its resumption after an 
interval of a dozen chapters, (2) the intervention in the second 
style which characterizes these twelve chapters of a passage, 
fifteen verses long (/3/3), marked by yet a third style, closely 
resembling that of Theodotion. The passage in question (con- 
taining the promise of a new heart) has for many centuries 
been one of the lessons for Pentecost, and its use for that 
purpose appears to have been taken over from Judaism. 

The problems awaiting solution in Jer. and Ez. are two, 
(1) Are the two main portions in either book the work of con- 
temporaries and do they indicate a division by agreement of 
the labour of translating a book of considerable length, or was 
the first translation a partial one, subsequently completed ? 
The former suggestion has in its favour the fact that the books 



12 Grouping of LXX Books [§ 2 

appear to have been divided in the first place into two nearly 
equal portions (cf. § 5). (2) Is Ez. /3/3 earlier or later than the 
version of Ez. /3 which encloses it? In other words did the 
translator of Ez. /3 incorporate in his work a version which 
had already been made for lectionary use in the synagogues of 
Alexandria ? Or, on the other hand, has a subsequent ren- 
dering, made for a Christian lectionary, ousted from all our 
MSS the original version, now lost, of these fifteen verses ? 
The first suggestion would throw light on the origines of the 
Greek Bible : the second is, on the whole, more probable. 

It should be added that the style of Ez. a and that of the 
Minor Prophets have much in common and the translators 
probably belong to the same period : Jer. a also has some 
kinship with this group. 

The last sentence raises the question, Can we detect the 
reappearance of any translator in separate books of the LXX? 
Besides the possibility of the first hand in Ezekiel reappearing 
in the Minor Prophets, the strong probability, amounting almost 
to certainty, of identity of hands in the case of the latter part 
of 2 Kingdoms and 4 Kingdoms has already been mentioned. 
Again, the first half of Baruch is, beyond a doubt, the produc- 
tion of the translator of Jeremiah /J 1 . Lastly the hand that has 
produced the partial and paraphrastic rendering of the story of 
the Return from the Exile (Esdras a) may, with confidence, 
be traced in the earlier chapters of the Chisian text of Daniel, 
a book which this paraphrast handled with just the same free- 
dom as he had employed upon Chronicles — Ezra — Nehemiah 2 . 
In both cases it was subsequently found necessary to incor- 
porate in the Greek Bible a more accurate version. 

The following table is an attempt to classify the LXX 
books — translations, paraphrases and original Greek composi- 
tions — into groups from the point of view of style. The 
classification is, of course, a rough one. Isaiah, considered as 
a translation, would certainly not be placed in the first class. 
Class II is a large one, containing books of various styles. 

1 J. T. S. iv. 261 ff. 

2 See article "Esdras i" in Hastings B. D. I. 761 b. 



2] 



Grouping of LXX Books 



13 



Class III includes one production of Aquila and at least one 
book (2 Esdras) which may be the work of Theodotion. The 
question whether Tobit had a Hebrew original is an open one. 



Translations. 

GOOd KOIVT) 

Greek 

Indifferent 
Greek 



Literal orun- 
intelligent 
versions 
(style akin 
to that of 
in many 
books) 



Pentateuch. Joshua (part). 

Isaiah. 

1 Maccabees. 

Jeremiah a (i. — xxviii.). Ezekiel (a and 0) with 

Minor Prophets. 
1 and 2 Chronicles (except the last few chaps. 

of 2 Ch.). 
K(ingdoms) a. K. 00 (2 K. i. 1 — xi. 1). K. yy 

(3 K. ii. i— xxi. 43). 
Psalms. Sirach. Judith. 

Jeremiah (xxix. — li.) with Baruch a (i. 1 — 

iii. 8). 
Judges (B text) with Ruth. K. 0-y with yS 

(2 K. xi. 2 — 3 K. ii. 1 1 : 3 K. xxii. and 4 K.). 
Song of Solomon. Lamentations. 
(Daniel e). (2 Esdras) 1 . (Ecclesiastes) 2 . 



Paraphrases and free renderings. 
Literary 1 Esdras with Daniel O (part). 

Proverbs. 



Esther. Job. 



Free Greek. 

Literary and 
Atticistic 

6. Vernacular 



5 



Wisdom. Ep. Jer. Baruch (iii. 9— end). 
2, 3 and 4 Maccabees. 
Tobit 3 (both B and X texts). 



A few notes are appended on some of the groups and in- 
dividual books in the above list. 

Class I. The Greek Pentateuch should undoubtedly be 
regarded as a unit : the Aristeas story may so far be credited 
that the Law or the greater part of it was translated en bloc, as 
a single undertaking, in the 3rd century B.C. There are ren- 
derings, not found, or rarely found, elsewhere in the LXX, but 
represented in all five books of the Pentateuch (e.g. enava- 

1 Possibly the work of Theodotion (as has been suggested by Sir 
H. Howorth). 

2 The work of Aquila (see McNeile's edition). 

3 Should perhaps be placed under Paraphrases. 



H Grouping of LXX Books [§ 2 

OTpe<pciv = 2)W) or in three or four of them (e.g. 8<iopai [8ed^f(9a] 
»cv/jt6 = ^nx ^n Gen. xliii. 20, xliv. 18, Ex. iv. 10, 13, N. xii. 11 : 
contrast iv ipo\ Kvpie Jd. vi. 13, 15, xiii. 8, 1 K. i. 26, 3 K. iii. 17, 
26 : in Jos. vii. 8 the uncials omit the phrase, Syro-hex. ap. 
Field has ddopai Kvpit ; cf. airoa-Kevr} as the rendering of S|t3 
'little children' in Gen., Ex., N., Dt.). Yet there are not wanting 
indications that even here there are different strata to be de- 
tected in the text of our uncials, notably in Ex. and Dt. The 
vocabulary of the latter part of Ex. presents some contrasts 
with that of the earlier part. In Dt. some new elements in the 
vocabulary begin to make their appearance (e.g. i<K.\r)a-ia as the 
rendering of fnp = o-waya>y>'] in the earlier books), particularly 
in the closing chapters where the abundance of novel features 
may be due to Hexaplaric influence. Joshua, as regards 
phraseology, forms a kind of link between the Pentateuch and 
the later historical books (cf. above p. 7 on Bepdnav, ttois) : we 
may conjecture that the Greek version followed soon after that 
of the Law. 

Class III. Jeremiah /3 contains the most glaring instances 
in the LXX of a translator who was ignorant of the meaning 
of the Hebrew, having recourse to Greek words of similar 
sound : al8e otSe = lT'n "shout" xxxi. (xlviii.) 2,3, xxxii. 16 (xxv. 

30), Keijid8ai= tr-in yp xxxi. (xlviii.) 31, 36, n/jLopiav = nnnon 

xxxviii. (xxxi.) 21, eas a8ov= piK Mfl "ah lord" xli. (xxxiv.) 5 ! 
This translator, moreover, has certain anal; Xeyupeva in vocabu- 
lary which place him in a class quite by himself. 

The link which binds together the remaining members of this 
group (excluding Eccl.) is the resemblance of their style to that 
of Theodotion. Here we are met by a crux with regard to the 
text. This resemblance, which runs through a large portion of 
the later historical books, may be due to one of three causes. 

(1) It may be the result of interpolations from e into an original 
shorter text, affecting our oldest uncials, as in the book of Job. 

(2) The books or portions of books, which are marked by this 
resemblance, may be wholly the work of 6, which has entirely 
replaced the earlier version, if such ever existed. (3) The 
original versions may have been written in a style afterwards 
employed by G. Taking the books of Kingdoms as a criterion, 
we find that the resemblances to Theodotion are confined 
mainly to the latter part of 2 K. and to 4 K. and within these 
limits they appear to extend over the whole narrative and not 
to be restricted to short paragraphs : there is no marked dis- 
tinction between two totally different styles as there is in the 
Book of Job. In the Song and the Last Words of David 
(2 K. xxii. 2 — xxiii. 7) the similarity to the language of e is 
specially marked, and quotations from are for that section 



I 2] Grouping of LXX Books 15 

absent from Field's Hexapla, and it may well be that these 
two songs are taken directly from Q. Elsewhere, however, we 
have readings, differing from those of the LXX, attested as 
Theodotion's, and the fact has to be faced that Josephus was 
acquainted with these portions of the Greek Kingdoms in a 
text resembling that of our oldest uncials. The phenomena 
remind us of quotations from Daniel in the N.T. which agree 
with Theodotion's second century version : critics have in that 
case been forced to the conclusion that there must have been, 
in addition to the loose Alexandrian paraphrase, a third version, 
resembling that of 0, but made before his time and in use in 
Palestine in the first century B.C. In the case of Kingdoms /3§ 
a similar conclusion seems to be suggested, viz. that the bulk of 
this portion of the Greek Bible, if the text of the uncials is at 
all to be relied on, is a late production, falling between 100 B.C. 
and 100 A.D., written at a time when a demand for literal ver- 
sions had arisen and in the style which was afterwards adopted 
by Theodotion. 

Class IV. The most noticeable fact about the books in this 
class is that they all belong to the third division of the Hebrew 
Canon (the Kethubim). The prohibition to alter or add to or 
subtract from Scripture 1 was not felt to be binding in the case 
of writings which had not yet become canonized. To this cause 
is due the appearance of these free renderings of extracts with 
legendary additions at a time when the tendency was all in 
the direction of stricter adherence in translation to the original 
Hebrew. When the third portion of the Hebrew Canon was 
finally closed at the end of the first century of our era, more 
accurate and complete renderings were required. Thus we have 
a free rendering of parts of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah 
grouped round a fable (1 Esdras) and by the same hand a similar 
paraphrase of parts of Daniel, also with legendary additions : 
Esther has been treated after the same fashion. The original 
version of Job omitted large portions of the original. The 
Greek Book of Proverbs includes maxims and illustrations 
derived from extraneous sources, and metrical considerations - 
sometimes outweigh in the translator's mind faithfulness to his 
original. Even the Psalms, the most careful piece of work in 
the Greek collection of "Writings," has an Appendix (f ch.). 
Ben Sira may have specially had in mind some of these para- 
phrases when he wrote in his Prologue that avros 6 vofxos na\ ai 
wpo(f)i]TeiaL kgl tci Xoina rStv fitfiXioiv ov fuicpav e'x« tt\v 8ia(popav 

1 Dt. iv. 2, xii. 32 : cf. Aristeas, § 310 f. (p. 572 Swete Introd.). 

2 The number of fragments of hexameter and iambic verse in this book 
cannot be accidental: possibly the first version or versions were wholly in 
verse. Cf. the hexameter collection of maxims of pseudo-Phocylides. 



1 6 The KOLvr) basis of LXX Greek [§§ 2, 3 

iv eavTols \eyop.eva. Those words need not, of course, imply a 
complete collection of Greek versions of the prophecies and 
"writings" in 133 B.C., and in the case of Proverbs the consensus 
of the MSS as to the orthography of one word 1 suggests a 
date not much earlier than 100 B.C. 

§ 3. The Koivrj — the Basis of Septuagint Greek. 

The Septuagint, considered as a whole, is the most exten- 
sive work which we possess written in the vernacular of the 
Koivq or Hellenistic language, and is therefore of primary im- 
portance for a study of later Greek, and the main function of a 
grammar of LXX Greek is to serve as a contribution to the 
larger subject, the grammar of the Kotvq. That is the conclu- 
sion which, if not wholly new, has been strongly emphasized 
by the large increase in our knowledge of the kolvq brought 
about by the new-found Egyptian papyri. The LXX, being a 
translation, has naturally a Semitic colouring, but the occur- 
rence in the papyri of many phrases which have hitherto 
been regarded as purely "Hebraisms" has compelled us to re- 
consider the extent of that influence. The isolated position 
which "Biblical Greek" has until recently occupied can no 
longer be maintained: "it has," as Dr J. H. Moulton says, "now 
been brought out into the full stream of progress 2 ." The value 
of the LXX as a thesaurus of koivtj Greek has been propor- 
tionately increased. 

The Koivrj SkxAcktos is a term which has been used in differ- 
ent senses. We shall probably not be far wrong in adopting the 
definition of it given by the man who has done more than any 
other to promote a study of it and to point the way to its 
correct appreciation, namely Dr Thumb. He defines it as 
"the sum-total of the development of the Greek of common 
and commercial speech from the time of Alexander the Great 
to the close of ancient history 3 ." The term, thus widely 

1 Ovdeis (not ovdeis) : see § 5. 

2 Pro I. 2. 3 Hell. 7. 



§ 3] The icolvy] basis of LXX Greek 17 

defined, embraces both the vernacular Koivtf and the literary 
Koivrj of Polybius, Josephus and other educated writers, which, 
as Dr Thumb says, should be regarded as an offshoot of the 
vernacular. The translations contained in the LXX belong to 
the vernacular class, but it includes also some specimens of 
the literary koivt] (e.g. Wisdom). 

The Koivrj is the speech which replaced the old dialects of 
the mother-land, when Greece lost her political independence 
but bequeathed her language to the ancient world. The main 
cause of the dissemination of the Greek language and its estab- 
lishment as the recognised language of intercourse was the 
victorious march of Alexander. But the Greek which was thus- 
diffused was not the Attic of Demosthenes. Dialectical differ- 
ences could not maintain their hold in the motley host of which 
Alexander's army was composed. But the fusion of the dialects 
had begun even before then. Aristotle, and still earlier 
Xenophon, are precursors of the Koivrj. The mixture of clans 
during the long marches across Asia under the latter's leader- 
ship had on a small scale much the same effects of breaking 
down the barriers which the mountains of Greece had erected 
between tribe and tribe, and of diffusing an international 
language, as were afterwards produced by Alexander's campaign. 
Commerce had, even before Xenophon's time, brought about a 
certain interchange of the Attic and Ionic dialects. Out of this 
fusion arose the kou't) Sia'Ae/cros, in which the Attic dialect of 
the people which had won its way to the front rank in politics, 
literature and the arts naturally formed the main constituent. 
But the Attic basis of the kolvtj was not the Attic of the Greek 
literary masterpieces. The vulgar language, which had existed 
beside the literary language, but had not gained an entrance 
into it, except in Comedy, now forces its way to the front, and 
makes itself felt in the diction of historians and philosophers. 
Next to Attic in importance as a formative element in the kolvi] 
is Ionic, which provides a large part of its vocabulary and, in 

t. 2 



1 8 The kolvy] basis of LXX Greek [§ 3 

particular, a considerable stock of words hitherto restricted to 
poetry. The other dialects appear to have played but a small 
part in the creation of the cosmopolitan language. 

Now, one important fact to notice about the kolvt] is that it 
appears for at least the first few centuries of its existence to 
have been a language practically without dialects. The old 
dialects lived on for a short time beside the new speech in 
some districts (Ionic on the sea-board of Asia Minor, Doric in 
Rhodes). But they soon had to give way before the levelling 
process which was at work. It seems to be an assured result of 
philological criticism that with a single exception (that of the 
old Laconic, which still held its own in the fastnesses of the 
Peloponnesus, and survives in the modern Zaconic) none of 
the old dialects survived in the competition with the koivtj, and 
that from it all the dialects of modern Greece, with the one 
exception mentioned, are descended. The Koivrj was the re- 
sultant of a process of merging and amalgamation, and was the 
starting-point for a fresh dialectical differentiation. It was, of 
course, not entirely uniform ; there was a period during which 
there was a struggle for the survival of the fittest, and two forms 
were in existence side by side. Some forms, such as ou'#eis, 
were "transitional," having a life of a few centuries only, and 
then passing out of existence. In other cases the competition 
between two forms has continued down to modern times. On 
what grounds, it may be asked, is it held that the kolvtj was a 
language without dialectic differences ? The sources of our 
knowledge of the Koivrj in order of importance are: (1) the 
papyri, (2) the inscriptions, (3) the Hellenistic writers such as 
Polybius, (4) modern Greek. The papyri are, unfortunately, 
with the exception of the Herculaneum collection, limited to 
Egypt, for which district we now have abundant materials, ex- 
tending over a millennium (300 B.C. — 700 a.d.), for a study of 
the language of every-day life as spoken by persons of all ranks 
in the social scale. But the inscriptions extend over the whole 



§ 3] The icoivr] basis of LXX Greek 19 

Greek-speaking world, and through the industry of German 
scholars we are now able to compare the kolvtj as written in 
some of the different districts. The inscriptions give us a 
slightly higher order of Greek than the uneducated vernacular 
found in the letters and other writings, intended for ephemeral 
purposes only, which make up the papyri. But the results 
obtained, speaking generally, from the study of inscriptions and 
Hellenistic writings is that the same principles were at work 
and the same forms employed, at least so far as orthography 
and accidence are concerned 1 , throughout the Greek-speaking 
world during the first three centuries before our era. 

The foregoing remarks might seem to be disproved by the 
fact that two grammarians 2 in the time of Augustus wrote 
treatises, now unfortunately lost, on " the dialect of the 
Alexandrians." But when we find forms like iXr/XvBav cited by 
ancient writers as Alexandrian, which we now know to have 
had a much wider circulation within the Koanj, we have good 
reason to question the accuracy of the titles which Irenaeus 
(Minutius Pacatus) and Demetrius Ixion gave to their works. 
The probability is that they took too limited a view: as 
Dr Thumb says 3 : "they recognised the distinction between 
the colloquial language with which they were familiar and the 
literary dialects which they studied, but overlooked the fact 
that the Alexandrian vernacular was only one branch of a 
great linguistic development, and consequently failed to grasp 
clearly the points of difference between the Alexandrian idiom 
and the rest of the Kotvrj." It is certain that many forms of the 
later language were specially characteristic of Alexandria, and 
some (e.g. such forms as are common to Codices « and A 
but absent from Cod. B) may have been rarely used outside 

1 These are the tests most easily applied : the tests of vocabulary and 
syntax have not yet been worked out. 

2 Swete Introd. 289. 

3 Hellenismus 171. 



20 The KOivr] basis of LXX Greek [§ 3 

Egypt. But we are not in a position to draw a hard and fast 
line between what was specially Alexandrian, or rather Egyptian, 
and what was not. Specifically Egyptian traits are probably to 
be looked for rather in the region of phonetics (in the mixture 
of t and 8, k and y, the omission of intervocalic y, and the 
interchange of certain vowels) than in accidence and syntax 1 . 
With regard to the phrase "the Alexandrian dialect," we must 
further remember the position which Alexandria occupied in 
the Hellenistic world, both as the centre of literary culture and 
(through the constant influx of persons of all nationalities) as 
the principal agent in the consolidation and dissemination of 
the cosmopolitan speech. Such a metropolis might not un- 
naturally give its name to a dialect which was spread over a far 
wider area. 

A question closely connected with that of dialectical differ- 
ences in the kolvij is the question how far it was influenced by 
the native languages of the countries which used it. The ques- 
tion is important, as bearing on the "Hebraisms" of the LXX. 
The foreign influence seems to have been extremely small. In 
the Ptolemaic papyri Mayser 2 finds no more than 23 words 
which are "probably Egyptian": 14 only of these are words 
which are unknown to the older literature. Only a single 
instance of Coptic syntactical influence has been discovered 
in the whole papyrus collection 3 . The contribution of the in- 
digenous languages of Asia to the koivtj vocabulary appears to 
be equally negligible 4 . Latin alone brought a relatively large 
number of words into the common stock: but its influence on 
the grammar was quite slight. The general impression pro- 
duced is that the resistance which Greek offered to the intru- 

1 Thumb op. cit. 133 ff. 

2 Gramm. der Griechischen Papyri 35 — 39. 

3 "Oi'os vtt6 oiVov = "an ass laden with wine" and the like: Thumb, 
op. cit. 124. There are several examples of ovos viro devdpa in BU. 362 
(215 A.D.). 

4 Thumb op. cit. 119. 



§ 3] The teoivr) basis of LXX Greek 21 

sion of foreign elements was much the same in the Hellenistic 
period as in the age of Pericles 1 . The Greek language was at 
all times the giver rather than the receiver 2 , and when it bor- 
rowed it usually clothed its loans in a dress of its own making. 
The kolvt] has often been unduly disparaged by comparison 
with the classical language. It has only in recent years come 
to be considered worthy of serious study, and its investigation 
on scientific lines is yet in its infancy. How much light may be 
thrown on its vocabulary and grammar by a study of modern 
Greek, which is its lineal descendant, has been shown by the 
researches of Thumb and others. The gulf between modern 
Greek and that, e.g., of the N.T. is in some respects not 
much wider than that which separates the latter from Attic. 
The Koiv-q is not estimated at its true worth when regarded 
merely as a debased and decadent Greek. Though it 
abandoned many of the niceties of the older language, it 
has some new laws of its own. It does not represent the 
last stages of the language, but a starting-point for fresh 
development. The resources which it shows in enriching the 
vocabulary are amazing. It evolves distinct meanings out of 
two different spellings of a single word. Simplification, uni- 
formity, lucidity (together with a disregard of literary style 3 ) — 
these may be said to be the dominant characteristics of the 
Koivrj vernacular. Analogy plays an important part in their 
production. "Lucidity," it is true, is not a conspicuous feature 
of many of the translations in the LXX : but that is due to the 
hampering fetters of the original 4 . 

1 Thumbs/, cit. 158. 

2 Witness the long list of Greek words found in Rabbinical writings, 
collected by Krauss Griechische mid Lat. Leknworter in Talmud Midrasch 
utid Targum. 

3 This of course does not apply, without considerable reservation, to 
the literary writers and the Atticists. 

4 Dr Swete speaks of " the success with which syntax is set aside [in the 
Apocalypse] without loss of perspicuity or even of literary power," Apoc. 
p. cxx. 



22 The icoivij basis of LXX Greek [§ 3 

The following are some of the principal features in the 
Koivrj which may be illustrated from the LXX. 

Orthography. Attic tt is replaced by acr, except in a few 
words (eXdrrajv, rjrrcov, Kpeirraiv, with derivatives) in which both 
forms are found, and in Atticistic writings (e.g. 4 Mace). 
Oudels (=ov8-h-eis) is the prevailing form down to about 100 B.C. 
Among the vowel-changes which begin to appear in the Ptole- 
maic period mention may be made of the tendency to weaken 
a to e especially when in proximity with p (Tfa-aepuKovra, ptepos, 
etc.). The shortening of -ki- to -ei- (e.g. Tafietov), though 
strongly attested in the LXX MSS, appears from the papyri 
to be hardly older than the first century A.D. There is a ten- 
dency to drop the aspirate, while in a few cases, partly under 
the influence of false analogy, it is inserted where not required. 
The desire to keep individual words and the elements of words 
distinct appears to account on the one hand for the avoidance 
of elision, especially with proper names (diro Alyinrrov, not 
an' Aly.), on the other for the want of assimilation within words 
(crvvKOTTTeiv, not <Tvyit. etc.). The reverse process, the extension 
of assimilation to two separate words is, however, found in the 
early Ptolemaic papyri (eppeaa, mainly in Cod. A, is almost the 
only LXX instance of this). The increasing tendency to insert 
variable final v and s (e.g. in etrriv, ovras) before consonants as 
well as vowels marks a loss of feeling for rhythm. 

Accidence. The cases of nouns of the first declension in -pa 
are brought into line with other nouns in this declension 
(p.axaipt]s not -pas etc.). The "Attic" second declension is 
obsolescent : vaos replaces rems. In the third declension an 
assimilation to the first is seen in forms like vvktuv (in LXX 
almost confined, however, to NA, and their originality is doubt- 
ful). The most striking example of the casting off of luxuries is 
the disappearance of the dual, which not even the fact that 
analogous forms in the Hebrew had to be rendered could recall 
into life. Other words expressing duality are also on the way 
to extinction. Adjectives formerly taking two terminations are 
used with three : a form like alaxporepos (Gen. xli. 19) is an- 
other instance of analogy at work. The same cause produces 
the declension irav (for 7rdvra, on the model of piyav) — vdaav 
— -adv. n\rjpr]s is commonly used indeclinably. 'Ao-efirjv etc. 
(mainly in XA) are the natural sequel to vvktov etc. AfudSvo 
for 8d>8eKa appears to be due to a preference for placing the 
larger number first as when symbols are used (i/3 f ) : similarly 
8(KaT€o-<Tap(s etc. are preferred to Tecro-apfo-KaidfKa etc. a Os- edv 
begins to oust 6? dv in the last quarter of the first century B.C. 
and remains the predominant form for several centuries: its raison 



3] The /cow*} das is of LXX Greek 23 

tfetre is not clear. In the verb the most salient innovations are 
(1) the transference of -p.i verbs, with certain reservations, to 
the -co class, (2) the formation of new presents, airoKTiwa, 
dTToxv(v)v(o, -Kpvfico, -XifXTrdva), and the like, (3) the tendency of 
the "weak" aorist terminations to supplant the older "strong" 
forms, elna, r/\da, tneaa etc. The same preference for the 1 aor. 
termination is seen in forms like tjXdoarav (which are curiously 
rare in Jd. — 4 K., though frequent in the Hexateuch and other 
parts of the LXX). The intrusion of the 1 aor. termination into 
the 3rd plur. of the impf. (dveftaivav) and perf. (eapanav) was 
apparently a later development and is rarely attested in LXX. 
The syllabic augment is dropped in the pluperfect, and duplicated 
in some verbs compounded with prepositions : the temporal 
augment is also liable to omission (eiAdyjo-a). 

Syntax. In the breach of the rules of concord is seen the 
widest deviation from classical orthodoxy. The evidence which 
the LXX affords for a relaxation of the rigorous requirements 
of Attic Greek in this respect is fully borne out by the con- 
temporary papyri. Instances in LXX of "nominativus pendens" 
and of what may be described as "drifting into the nominative 
(or accusative)" in a long series of dependent words connected 
by Kdi are frequent. The nom. (the name case) is the usual 
case for proper names after kci\uv (Gen. iii. 20 eKaXeaev... to ovopa 
rrjs ywaiKos Zcol] etc.). " Gonstructio ad sensum'' plays a large 
part, e.g. in the extended use of nets, eiccto-ros etc. with a plural 
verb. Af'ycov, Xeyovres are used without construction in phrases 
like dnriyyiX-q Xiyovres, very much like our inverted commas or 
the ori which often introduces direct speech in Hellenistic (and 
Attic) Greek. Neuter plurals may take either a singular or a 
plural verb : this gives scope for some distinctions unknown to 
classical Greek. 

The extended use of the genitive of quality equivalent to an 
adj., is partly but not altogether due to literal translation. (The 
dative, which has disappeared in modern Greek, shows but little 
sign of waning as yet.) As regards comparison of the adj., a 
common substitute for the comparative is the positive followed 
by napd : though the Heb. \D *PH3 is partly answerable for this, 
it is noticeable that the preposition d-n-6 is hardly ever used in 
the Greek, though in the modern language e.g. peyaXvTtpos otto 
has become the normal phrase 1 . The superlative is waning 
(forms in -to-raros are almost confined to two or three literary 
LXX books) and usually has elative sense (esp. piyio-ros, 
TrXelo-Tos). The general Hellenistic rule that the comparative does 
duty for both degrees of comparison is reversed in the case of 

1 Thumb Handbuch der Nengr. Volkssprache 52. 



24 The koivt] basis of LXX Greek [§ 3 

TrpwTos which in LXX, as elsewhere in the kolvtj, stands for 
■n-porepos. As regards pronouns, the otiose insertion of the 
oblique cases of air 6s is shown by the papyri to be a Hellenistic 
feature, though the frequency of the usage in LXX comes from 
the Heb. 'Eavrovs, -<ov, -ois are used of all three persons of 
the plural, supplanting vpas (q/i.) avrovs : a transitional form 
vfiiv eaurois occurs in the Hexateuch. 

The use of intransitive verbs with a causative sense is re- 
markable : verbs in -eveiv and compounds of e« afford most of 
the examples (fiaaiXeveiv "to make king," i^apapraveiv "to cause 
to sin ") : the limitation of the verbs affected indicates that the 
influence of the Heb. hiphil is not the sole cause. The historic 
present tends to be used with verbs of a certain class ; apart 
from \tyei etc. it is specially used of verbs of seeing in the 
Pentateuch, of verbs of motion (coming and going) in the later 
historical books : its absence from K. j38 distinguishes the later 
from the earlier portions of the Kingdom books. A few perfects 
are used as aorists ; eWrjcpa Daiv'gT. iv. 30 b, toxica 3 Mace. v. 
20 : papyri of the second and first centuries B.C. attest the 
aoristic use of both words. The periphrastic conjugation is 
widely extended, but only the strong vernacular of Tobit employs 
such a future as eaopai SiSwai (v. 1 5 B text). The optative 
almost disappears from dependent clauses (its frequency in 
4 Mace, is the most obvious of the Atticisms in that book) : 
besides its primary use to express a wish there are several exx., 
principally in Dt., of its use in comparisons after cos el (cos). 
The infinitive (under the influence of the Heb. ^j) 1 has a very 
wide range : the great extension of the inf. with rov, alternating 
with the anarthrous inf., is a prominent feature : a tendency is 
observable in some portions to reserve the anarthrous inf. of 
purpose to verbs of motion (coming, going, sending). The 
substitution for the inf. of a clause with iva is quite rare : the 
Heb. had no corresponding use. (The use of the conjunctive 
participle is yielding to the coordination of sentences with kcU, 
largely under Heb. influence : it is not clear whether the use 
of the part, for a finite verb in descriptive clauses such as 
Jd. iv. 16 Ka\ BapaK 8icokcov... u and B. was pursuing" is wholly 
" Hebraic") The genitive absolute construction is freely used 
where the noun or pronoun occurs in another case in the same 
sentence. 

The tendency, where a genitive is dependent on another 
noun, to use the article with both or with neither on the 
principle of "correlation" is exemplified outside "Biblical 
Greek," but the consistent omission of the art. in such a phrase, 
even where it forms the subject of the sentence, as in 1 K. (e.g. 

1 To the Heb. is due an enlarged use of the "epexegetic infinitive." 



§§ 3> 4] The koiv/j das is of LXX Greek 25 

iv. 5 f]\dtv kij3o)t6s Kvpiov, cf. v. 1 kcu d\X6cpv\oi <f\a{3ov) appears 
to be wholly due to imitation, the Heb. art. being an impos- 
sibility with nouns in the construct state. 

Under the head of prepositions the chief innovations are 

(1) the partial or total disuse of one of the cases after pre- 
positions which in Classical Greek take more than a single case, 

(2) the supplementing of the old stock of prepositions proper by 
adverbs, adverbial phrases and prepositions : evavriov ivawtov 
etc. (for irpo), eVdvco (for eVt), eiravu>6fv ciTTavcoBev inrfpdvco (for 
VTrep), viroKaTd) (for V7rd), ava picrov (for pera^v), kukXw i7(piKvK\a> 
(for nepi), e'xopevos etc. (for irapa). Modern Greek has several 
similar forms. Possibly it was thought necessary in this way to 
distinguish the old local sense of the prepositions from the 
metaphorical meanings which subsequently became attached to 
them. Among many new details the use of vnep for -n-cpi may 
be noticed. 'Ev and els are on the whole still carefully dis- 
criminated : the use of ev for els after verbs of motion is 
characteristic of the vernacular style of (TobTi) (i. 6, v. 5, vi. 6, ix. 2) 
and of Jd. — 4 K. (= 2) : ultimately els alone survived. Among 
particles mention may here be made of the prominence given to 
such a phrase as dvd' Sv = "because," owing to the Heb. having 
similar conjunctions formed with the relative X*'N : in the latest 
translations this is extended to avd' <$v on, aV#' <ov oaa etc. 

The foregoing is a brief conspectus of some salient features 
of the KOLvrj which appear in the LXX : a more detailed investi- 
gation of these and kindred innovations will be made in the 
body of this work. 

The vocabulary of the LXX would require, if fully 1 dis- 
cussed, a volume to itself. The reader must be referred to 
the useful work done in this department by Kennedy 1 and 
Anz 2 and to the lists of words given in Dr Swete's Introduction*. 

§ 4. The Semitic Element in LXX Greek. 

The extent to which the Greek of the Old and New 
Testaments has been influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic has 
long been a subject of discussion among grammarians and 

1 Sources of A r . T. Greek or The Influence of the LXX on the vocabulary 
of the N.T., Edinburgh, 1895. 

a Stibsidia ad cognoscendum Graecorutn sermonem vulgarem e Pentatcuchi 
versione Alex, repetita, Halle, 1894. 

3 302 ff., 310 ff. 



26 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

theologians. The old controversy between the Hebraist School, 
who discovered Hebraisms in Greek colloquial expressions, and 
the Purists who endeavoured to bring every peculiarity under 
the strict rules of Attic grammar, has given way to a general 
recognition that the basis of the language of the Greek Bible is 
the vernacular employed throughout the whole Greek-speaking 
world since the time of Alexander the Great. The number of 
" Hebraisms " formerly so-called has been reduced by pheno- 
mena in the papyri, the importance of which Deissmann was 
the first to recognise : his investigations, chiefly on the lexical 
side, have been followed up by Dr J. H. Moulton, who has carried 
his papyri researches into grammatical details, with the result 
that anything which has ever been termed a " Hebraism " at 
once arouses his suspicion. It is no doubt possible that further 
discoveries may lead to the detection in non-Jewish writings of 
parallels to other Hebrew modes of expression, and that the 
category of acknowledged " Hebraisms " (for which no parallel 
exists in the vernacular) will be still further depleted. 

But the emphasis which has been laid upon the occurrence 
of certain words and usages in the Egyptian papyri which are 
exactly equivalent to, or bear a fairly close resemblance to, 
phrases in the Greek Bible hitherto regarded as " Hebraic " is 
likely to create a false impression, especially as regards the 
nature of the Semitic element in the LXX. 

What results have actually been gained ? It may be said, 
in the first place, that the papyri and the more scientific study 
of the Koivrj, which has been promoted by their discovery, and 
the recognition of the fact that it was quickly adopted the 
whole world over, that it had little or no dialectic differentiation 
and was proof against the intrusion of foreign elements to any 
considerable extent, have given the death-blow to, or at any rate 
have rendered extremely improbable, the theory once held of 
the existence of a " Jewish-Greek " jargon, in use in the Ghettos 
of Alexandria and other centres where Jews congregated. The 



§ 4] Semitic clement in LXX Greek 27 

Greek 1 papyri have little to tell us about the private life of the 
Jews of Egypt : they hardly figure among the correspondents 
whose letters have come dowrt to us. The marshes of the Delta, 
less favourable than the sands of Upper Egypt, have not pre- 
served for us the every-day writings of inhabitants of Alexandria, 
the chief centre of the Jewish colony and the birthplace of the 
oldest Greek version of the Scriptures. Yet we need have 
little hesitation in assuming that the conditions which applied 
to the Egyptians and Arabs, who wrote good kolvjj Greek with 
little or no admixture of elements derived from their native 
speech, held good of the Jews as well. The " peculiar people " 
were not exempt from the influences at work elsewhere. The 
Greek of the LXX does not give a true picture of the language 
of ordinary intercourse between Jewish residents in the country. 
It is not, of course, denied that they had a certain stock of 
terms, such as a.Kpo(3vo-Tia 2 and the like, which would only be 
intelligible within their own circle : but the extent of Semitic 
influence on the Greek language appears to have been limited 
to a small vocabulary of words expressing peculiarly Semitic 
ideas or institutions. The influence of Semitism on the syntax 
of the Jewish section of the Greek-speaking world was probably 
almost as inappreciable as its syntactical influence on the Koiv-q 
as a whole, an influence which may be rated at zero. 

One of the strongest arguments which may be adduced to 
disprove the existence of "Jewish-Greek" as a separate dia- 
lectical entity is the striking contrast between the unfettered 
original Greek writings of Jewish authorship and the translations 
contained in the Greek Bible. Of primary importance is the 
difference in style noticeable when we pass from the preface of 
the son of Sirach to his version of his grandfather's work — a 
contrast which is analogous to that between Luke's preface 

1 As opposed to the new-found early Aramaic papyri from Assuan. 

2 'AvaOetia 'curse' has been found in 'profane Greek': J. H. Moulton 
Pro/. 46, note 3. 



28 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

and his story of the Infancy. The same contrast is felt on 
passing from the paraphrases (e.g. 1 Esdras) or original writings 
(3 Mace.) of the LXX to the version of e.g. the Pentateuch, 
or from the allegories and expositions of Philo to the LXX 
text which he incorporates in his commentary. The fact that 
"Hebraisms" are practically a nonentity in the Greek translation 
of his Jeivish War which Josephus made from the Aramaic 
original points to the same conclusion. Philo and Josephus 
present us, it is true, with the literary kolvt], but too sharp a 
line of demarcation should not be drawn between that species 
and the vernacular variety, and Jewish-Greek, if it existed, 
could hardly fail to have left some traces even in such literary 
writers as these. The book of Tobit (not e.g. 4 Kingdoms) 
is probably the best representative in the Greek Bible of the 
vernacular as spoken by Jews. 

The Hellenization of Egypt appears to have been rapid and 
to have affected all classes of the community, at least in Lower 
Egypt : towards the South it made less headway. The majority 
of the Jewish residents probably had a greater knowledge of 
the kolvyj Greek than of the original language of their sacred 
writings. It must be remembered, too, that so far as they 
employed a second language, that language was not Hebrew 
but Aramaic. The word used for a " proselyte " in the early 
versions of Exodus and Isaiah 1 (yeiwpas from Aram. K"?*!, 
Heb. - 1 ?.) is significant. The mere fact that a Greek translation 
was called for at all, taken together with the large number of 
transliterations in some of the later historical books, indicates 
a want of familiarity, which increased as time went on, with the 
original Hebrew. The primary purpose which, in all probability, 
the translation was intended to serve was not to enrich the 
library of Ptolemy Philadelphus, nor to extend an acquaintance 
with the Scriptures to the non-Jewish world, but to supply a 
version that would be intelligible to the Greek-speaking Jew 

1 The later books use ira.poi.KOi or 7rpocrrj\vTos. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 29 

when read in the ordinary services of the synagogue. That the 
desired intelligibility was not always successfully attained was 
due to the conflicting claims of a growing reverence for the 
letter of Scripture, which resulted in the production of literal 
versions of ever-increasing baldness. 

Notwithstanding that certain so-called " Hebraisms " have 
been removed from that category or that their claim to the title 
has become open to question, it is impossible to deny the 
existence of a strong Semitic influence in the Greek of the 
LXX. The papyri have merely modified our ideas as to the 
extent and nature of that influence. Dr J. H. Moulton has been 
the first to familiarize us with the view, to which he frequently 
recurs 1 , that the " Hebraism " of Biblical writings consists in 
the over-working of and the special prominence given to certain 
correct, though unidiomatic, modes of speech, because they 
happen to coincide with Hebrew idioms. His happy illustration 
of the overdoing of l8ov in Biblical Greek by the " look you " 
which is always on the lips of the Welshman in Shakespeare's 
Henry V is very telling. This view appears to the present 
writer to be borne out to a great extent by the linguistic pheno- 
mena of the LXX, at least as regards the Pentateuch and 
some other of the earlier versions. The Hebraic character of 
these books consists in the accumulation of a number of just 
tolerable Greek phrases, which nearly correspond to what is 
normal and idiomatic in Hebrew. If we take these phrases 
individually, we can discover isolated parallels to them in the 
papyri, but in no document outside the Bible or writings 
directly dependent upon it do we find them in such profusion. 
The KOLvt] Greek was characterized by a striving after simplifica- 
tion. Greek was on the road to becoming rather an analytical 
than a synthetical language. The tendency was in the direction 
of the more primitive and child-like simplicity of Oriental 
speech. And so it happened that the translators of the 

1 Prol. 10 (., 72 etc. 



30 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

Pentateuch found ready to their hand many phrases and 
modes of speech in the current vernacular which resembled 
the Hebrew phrases which they had to render. These phrases 
they adopted, and by so doing gave them a far wider currency 
and circulation than they had hitherto possessed : the later 
translators took the Greek Pentateuch for their model, and 
from the Greek Bible these " Hebraisms " passed into the 
pages of some N.T. writers (Luke in particular) who made 
a study of the LXX. 

It is, however, only with considerable reservations that we 
can apply the theory of overworked vernacular Greek usages to 
some of the " Hebraisms " of the later LXX books. The 
distinction between the earlier and the later books is a real 
one ; the reason for the change is to be sought, it appears, 
rather in a growing reverence for the letter of the Hebrew than 
in ignorance of Greek. There are well-marked limits to the 
literalism of the Pentateuch translators. Seldom do they 
imitate a Hebrew locution without adapting and accommodating 
it in some way to the spirit of the Greek language, if they fail 
to find an exact equivalent in the vernacular. On the other 
hand, the translators of the Kingdom books (especially of the 
portion /38) were prepared to sacrifice style and to introduce 
a considerable number of phrases, for which parallels never, 
probably, existed in the kolvt], if Greek did not furnish them 
with a close enough parallel to the Hebrew. The demand for 
strict accuracy increased as time went on, and the prohibition 
against any alteration of the words of Scripture 1 was taken 
by the translators as applying to the smallest minutiae in 
the Hebrew, until the tendency towards literalism culminated 
in the Zyw ei/u e^to of Kingdoms ((38) and the iv apxf/ eKTurev 6 
debs crvv tov ovpavbv kcu crvv rrjv yrjv of Aquila. In the later 
period the books whose right to a place in the Canon had not 
yet been finally determined came off best in the matter of 

1 See note i on p. 15. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 3 1 

style, because paraphrase was here possible and the hampering 
necessity of adhering to the original was not felt. Had 
Ecclesiastes been translated before the time of Christ, we 
should no doubt have had a translation very different from 
that which now stands in our Septuagint. The discussion 
which follows of some principal "Hebraisms" of the LXX 
will illustrate the contrast between the earlier and later periods. 

Hebraisms in Vocabulary. 

The influence of Hebrew on the vocabulary of the LXX, 
though considerable, is not so great as might at first sight be 
supposed. Apart from a small group of words expressing 
peculiarly Hebrew ideas or institutions (weights, measures, 
feasts etc.), the instances where the Hebrew word is merely 
transliterated in Greek letters are mainly confined to a single 
group, namely the later historical books (Jd. — 2 Chron., 
2 Esdras). Now this is a group in which we have frequent reason 
to suspect, in the text of our uncials, the influence of Theodotion, 
and at least one book in the group (2 Esdras) has with much 
probability been considered to be entirely his work. We know 
that Theodotion was, whether from ignorance of the Hebrew 
or in some cases from scrupulousness, specially addicted to 
transliteration 1 , and many of the instances in the later historical 
books are probably derived from him. Where there are 
doublets (transliteration appearing side by side with translation) 
the latter is doubtless to be regarded as the original text : the 
former has probably crept in either from the second column of 
the Hexapla (the Heb. transliterated) or from the sixth (Theo- 
dotion). On the other hand, the earlier translators for the 
most part rendered every word in the original, going so far as 
to translate the names of places. Transliteration is rare in the 
Pentateuch, Isaiah, Jeremiah a and the Minor Prophets. It is 

1 See Swete's Introduction 46, with the list in Field's Hexapla I. p. xl f. 



32 



Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 



entirely absent from Ezekiel /3, the Psalter (excepting the titles 
and the word dXX-qXovid), Proverbs, Job (excluding the ® 
portions) and most of " the writings." 

A distinction must be drawn between words which are 
merely transliterated and treated in their Greek form as in- 
declinables, and the smaller class of Hellenized Hebrew 
words. The majority of the latter words had gained an 
entrance into the Greek vocabulary before the time when the 
LXX was written. The transliterations may be divided into 
(a) ideas, institutions etc. peculiar to Judaism, for which Greek 
afforded no exact equivalent, {&) geographical terms, e.g. dpapd, 
dpafiuO, to which may be added cases where an appellative has 
been mistaken for a proper name, (c) words of the meaning of 
which the translators were ignorant, (d) doublets. Hellenized 
Hebrew words mainly come under class (a). The Pentateuch 
instances of transliteration and Hellenized words are mainly 
restricted to this class, which also comprises most of the words 
which are repeatedly used in different parts of the LXX. 

The Pentateuch examples of transliteration are as follows, 
arranged under classes (a), (/>) and (d) : there are no certain 
examples of (c). 

(a) 1 76 pop ( = "IDJ? "an omer")Ex. xvi. 16 etc. : also used in. 
Hos. iii. 2, Ez. xlv. n etc. of the different dry measure inn "an 
homer" (which is rendered in Pent, and Ez. xlv. 13 by /copes),, 
and so apparently in 1 K. xvi. 20 (M.T. Tl»n " an ass "), cf. xxv. 18 
(M. T. nXJD) : in 4 K v. 17 yopos should apparently be read 
(cf. Ex. xxiii. 5), where the corruption -yopop indicates familiarity 
with this transliteration— etv (iv)=pTI, a liquid measure, Ex. 
Lev. N. Ez.— pdv Ex. xvi. 31 ff and pdwa N. Dt. Jos. 2 Es. ¥ 
=)D— oi(pi (ot<£ei) = nD\X, HBK Lev. N. Jd. R. 1 K. Ez., once 
(1 K. xxv. 18) corresponding' to another measure in the M. T., 
nSD— rrdaxa, P1DD, Hex. 4 K. 1 2 Es. Ez. : a different trans- 
literation, (pdo-eK or (pdo-exi occurs in 2 Ch. and Jer. xxxviii. 8 — 

1 axt ( = Heb. -inX Gen. xli. 2 etc.) is an Egyptianism rather than a 
Hebraism : it renders other Hebrew words in Isaiah and Sirach. See: 
Sturz, p. 88, BDB Heb. Lexicon s.v. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 33 

crtKepa, "0K> intoxicating drink, Lev. N. Dt. Jd. Is. (elsewhere j" 
rendered by pidvopa, p46rf) — x f P°v@ P^ ur - X f P ov ^{ e )' lv (rarely Sum. 
-(t(e)lp) LXX passim. 

ib) 'Apapd, dpafiad N. Dt. Jos. etc.— 'Ao-^Scotf (mB>X the 
"slopes" of Pisgah) Dt. Jos. Other exx. of appellatives being 
treated as proper names are Mao-ex Gen. xv. 2, OuXappavs ib. 

xxviii. 19 ( = T17 D*?1N), so Jd. xviii. 29 B OvXapais, top 'lapelv 
Gen. xxxvi. 24, ^Uipa xlviii. 22, Mei<ra>p ("plain") Dt. Jos., 
'EpfKaxoip ("valley of Achor") Jos. vii. 24 etc. 

(d) Of this class Genesis supplies one example in xxii. 13 
(•€i; <pvT<a) o-a/3fK : probably also the word x a ftp a 8u m xxxv. 16, 
xlviii. 7 is a doublet (cf. 4 K. v. 19 de/Spadd). '0^60 in N. xxv. 
15 (e'6vovs"Op.p.o8 = r)'\ftH) may also belong to this class. 

The following transliterations occur in more than one of 
the later books, the words being translated in the Pentateuch 
or elsewhere. 

reSSovp = 1HJ "a troop" 1 K. 1 Ch. (elsewhere rendered 
by Xyorrjpiov, Xjjottjs, povdfavos etc.) — 'E(pov8 e'<pa>8 Jd. I K. 
(Pent, iircopif, 2 K. vi. 14, 1 Ch. xv. 27 otoXt)) — Qepcxpeiv 
dapacpeiv Oepandv (once Hellenized into depaneiav 1 K. xv. 23 B) 
Jd. 1 K. 4 K. 2 Ch. (elsewhere ra ('ISooXa Gen. xxxi. 19 etc., 
Kfvordcpia I K. xix. 13, 16, to. yXvirrd Ez. xxi. 21, 8f)Xot Hos. iii. 
4) — Mavad, paavd, pavdx, pdwa etc. = nri3E> " a present " or 
"sacrifice," 4 K. 2 Ch. 2 Es. Ez. Dan. e (elsewhere constantly 
rendered by 8S>pov or 8v<rla) — Naye'/3 = 2J3 Jos. Ob. Jer. /3 Ez. a 
(elsewhere translated epTjpos, Xfy, pear]pfdpia, votos) — Nepe\ = ?2} 
a " wine-skin ' ; or "jar" (elsewhere dyyelov, demos) — 2a/3ao>0 1 K. 
and Is. (elsewhere todv 8wdp,eo3v or YlavTOKpaTbtp) — SecprjXd (else- 
where 17 7re8u>r), yrj 7T(8ivt], rd rcnreivd). 

It is needless to enumerate other transliterations which, as 
already stated, are very frequent in the later historical books, 
especially in 4 K., 2 Ch. and 2 Es. 

The Hebrew definite article sometimes forms part of the 
transliteration, e.g. d^dx 1 Ch. iv. 21, d/?eS?/peii/ ib. 22 (onmn), 
d.p.ao-zv€i$ xv. 21 (this of course is to be expected where the 
word is a doublet and probably taken from the second column 
of the Hexapla, e.g. 1 K. v. 4 d.p.a4>W). Sometimes the Greek 
article is prefixed to the Hebrew article and noun : Jd. viii. 7 B 

T. -7 



34 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

reus d(3apKT]v€iv, 2 Ch. xxv. 18 toi/ d)(ovx- The Greek article 
occasionally stands in the singular with a plural noun : Jd. x. 
IO B T(p BaaAet/x, Ez. XXvii. 4 tw BeeAei/x, xl. 1 6 B to ^eet'/x 

(contrast 12). 

The following are examples of Hellenized Semitic words 
used in the LXX, i.e. the Greek form of the word is declinable. 
Some of them had been introduced into the Greek language 
before the time of the LXX and are ultimately derived from 
Phoenician. 

'Appa/3coi' -wi/oy = J13"iy, Gen. (already used by Isaeus and 
Aristot., also in Ptolemaic papyri, probably Phoenician). 

Banxovpici neut. pi. = D V TD2 "first-fruits" 2 Es. xxiii. 31 (else- 
where, including 2 Es. xx. 35, rendered irpioroyevripaTa). 

Bcipii, plur. fidpeis fidpewv, from PIT3 "a palace," which as 
well as other words it renders in 2 Ch. 1 and 2 Es. ¥ Lam. 
Dan. and in the later translators. Jerome states "verbum est 
eVi^co/jioi/ Palaestinae," and a Scholiast on Vr cxxi. 7 (where the 
compound irvpyofiapis is used) makes a similar statement (see 
Schleusner s.v.). The Heb. is once transliterated, fitipd 2 Es. 
xvii. 2. (A word @dpis -180s meaning an Egyptian boat is found 
in Hdt. and Aesch., but is probably unconnected with the LXX 
word.) Cf. Sturz 89 f. 

B'iKos = p2p2 "a wine-jar" Jer. xix. 1, 10 (first in Hdt. I. 194 
jStKovs (poiviKqiovs, Ptolemaic pap.). 

Bvaaos, jlvaraivos render )")3, from which they are derived, 
and other words (the adj. in Hdt. and Aesch.). 

Fa(apr]v6s Dan. O0 appears to be formed from the Aram, 
plur. piTJ " soothsayers." 

r(f)io)/3a? = "l2 "a sojourner" or "proselyte" Ex. (ii. 22 ap. 
Philo de conf. ting. 17. 82) xii. 19, Is. xiv. 1 is noticeable as an 
instance of a Hellenized word formed not from the Hebrew but 
from the Aramaic NTI*]!. (The Heb. is elsewhere rendered by 

irdpoiKOS or TTpoa-rjXvroi.) 

Gi/3tf, ace. -/3n/ dat. -/Set, = nan "a chest," Ex. ii. 3, 5, 6 : the 
form 0i/3is- (not dijirj or dijfir)) is that attested by the papyri 
where the word occurs as eariy as iii/B.c. (Mayser 42.) 

1 Kd ) dos = 2p, a dry measure, 4 K. vi. 25. 

Kao-/a = ny , Vp, a spice, ¥ xliv. 8: cf. Ez. xxvii. 17. 

1 DS"13 (rendered Kapiracrivots Est. i. 6) is a loan word from Sanskrit 
karpasa (BDB Lexicon). 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 35 

[The Semitic origin of ki/3cot6s (Aristoph. and earlier writers) 
is doubtful.] 

Kiwdpoopov = p03p "cinnamon" Ex. xxx. 23 etc., of Phoe- 
nician origin as Herodotus tells us, ill. 111. 

Ku/vpa = "il3D "a lyre" 1 — 3 K. 1 — 2 Ch. Sir. 1 M. (elsewhere 

rendered by Kiddpa, 'dpyavov, \j/-aArr/pioi'). 

K6pos="0, a Hebrew measure equivalent to the homer, 
twice in the Pentateuch corresponding to "ion of M. T., in 
3 K. etc. = M. T. "D. 

Kvfuvov = \Ol "cummin" Is. xxviii. 25, 27 (already in classical 
Greek, of Phoenician origin). 

Ai/3ni'os' = rox> "frankincense" (in class. Greek). 

[Mavfivas renders "IJ? 5 -HD (a garment) in Jd. 1 — 2 K. 1 Ch. 
(elsewhere rendered once by ^itwv L. vi. 10, twice by Ipdnov). 
The word occurs in a fragment of Aeschylus, where it is used of 
a Liburnian dress : it is said to be Persian.] 1 

[The Semitic origin of p,dpo-nnros, papcr'nnriov is doubtful.] 

Mi>a = njD a weight (classical Greek, probably introduced 
into the language through the Phoenicians). 

Naj8Aa=?33, ?33, a lute or other stringed instrument, 1 — 3 K. 
1 — 2 Ch. 1 M. (in 1 K. x. 5 B vdfiaX): the Heb. is elsewhere 
rendered by ■v^aXnyptov Is. 2 Es. ¥ Sir., Kiddpa V lxxx. 2, opyavov 
Am. Na/3Xa occurs in a fragment of Sophocles (Dindorf 728) 
and seems to have come from Phoenicia. (The transliteration 
re(3e\ is kept for ?33 = a wine-jar, see above.) 

NapSos = "l""!}. (already in Theophrastus). 

Nn-poi/ = "l£l?., carbonate of soda, used as soap, Jer. ii. 22. 
Herodotus and Attic writers use \irpov in the same sense : 
vlrpov is used exclusively in the papyri and inscriptions from 
iii/B.C. onwards (Mayser 188 f.), and, if the Semitic origin is the 
true one, must have been the original form. 

[lIaXXa/c?'/ = ti'3?3 LXX passim. The word occurs in classical 
Greek from Homer (in the form iraWanis) onwards, and its 
Semitic origin is very doubtful.] 

2d,8j8aTw = n3B> (firQB>) the Sabbath, first found in LXX. 
In the Pentateuch (except Ex. xxxi. 15 A) and in some of the 
other books the plural to o-<i/3/3ara is used both for "the sabbath" 
and " the sabbaths " : the sing, to adfifiaTov appears in 4 K. 
1 — 2 Ch. 2 Es. Is. lxvi. 23 Lam. 1 — 2 M. (and in ^ [it with the 
meaning "week"). Dat. plur. usually o-aftfidrois, in 1 M. ii. 38 
crdfifiao-iv. Derivatives : o-aftfiari^eiv, npoo~dfi(ia.Tov. 

1 ~Mavi&K7)$ Dan. 00 i Es. is another word probably of Persian origin: 
it is taken over from the Greek in the Aramaic ND'JDn in Daniel, where 
other loan-words from the Greek occur (BDB Lexicon s.v. ). 

3—2 



36 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

[Sa/cKos^ptr" LXX passim. Used in classical Greek, and 
probably derived from Phoenicia.] 

^apfivKT) (Dan. 09) = Aram. J03tr (ND?p) a stringed instru- 
ment, translated in the English Bible by "sackbut" (incorrectly, 
as the latter was a wind-instrument). Found already in Aristotle 
and in Polybius ( = a siege-engine). Strabo (471) refers to the 
"barbarous" origin of this and other words for musical instru- 
ments : Driver (Dan.) accepts the Aramaic derivation, others 
consider the word to be "of Syrian or late Egyptian origin" 
(E?ic. Bibl. s.v. Music 10). 

2dn(f)€ipoi = "VSD , lapis lazuli. (Already used by Theophrastus 
and the adj. by Aristotle.) 

Si'kAos (never aiy\os in LXX MSS) = ?$& passim, usually of 
the weight, less often of the coin (the coin in the Hexateuch is 
generally rendered by SiSpaxpov [? Spa^/x// Jos. vii. 21 B], as also 
in 2 Es.). St'yAoy is the form attested in Xen. and the Inscriptions 
(Herwerden Lex. s.v.). 

[Sti/Swi/ renders TIP in Jd. xiv. 12, 13 A, Prov. xxix. 42, but 
the Semitic origin of the Greek word, which is classical, is 
doubtful.] 

2ipcovcoi> (gen. pi.) read by certain MSS (see Field : <noav<oy A) 
in Jd. viii. 26 appears to be a Hellenized form of D'jnr]£> 
(" crescents," nrjviaiccov B). 

SvKcifxivos (avKiip.Lvov Am.) = nOpC' (Aristotle and Theophr.). 

Xava>v = \*'2 "a sacrificial cake," in Jer. vii. 18, li. 19 (in the 
latter passage X* reads x av ft&i>as, Q x av ^ va . s )- 

[Xirwf, which constantly renders 03713, is probably of 
Oriental origin, though the Hebrew is of course not its parent. 
In 2 Es. ii. 69 Kodwi'ol B may be a corruption of Kidav€s — (\n 
the papyri) ^traii-ey.] 



The influence of the Hebrew on the vocabulary of the 
LXX shows itself not only in transliterations and Hellenized 
Hebrew words but also in a tendency observable in books 
other than the Hexateuch to use Greek words of similar 
sound to the Hebrew. The translators in some few cases may 
have been influenced by a popular but doubtful etymology, 
e.g. in rendering D-1D by /xo^os : more often, doubt as to the 
exact meaning of the Hebrew has made them resort to this 
expedient. Some of the instances may be due to later scribes 



4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 



37 



e 

TU) 
.  .*• 

xxiii. 



extracting a meaning out of what were originally transliterations, 
as when teraphim becomes OepaTrciav (i K. xv. 23 B), but the 
most flagrant instances of this confession of ignorance, namely 
those in Jer. (3, appear to go back to the original translator. 
(See on this tendency e.g. Driver on 1 Sam. x. 2, Deissmann 
£S 99, Mozley Psalter of the Church xx.) The following 
examples may be quoted: the list is doubtless capable of 
extension. 

(XfXiScbi') dypoi = y\M Jer. viii. 7 (no doubt a corruption of a 
translit. dyovp, a-rpovdia being a doublet). ( , Aeplvt]v = ~\ : \n) "and 
white" Est. viii. 15 N«) A " L 8e, oi8e = TT»n "a shout" Jer. xxxi. 
(xlviii.) 33, xxxii. 16 (xxv. 30). 'AXaXdCeiv, dXaXaypos, oAo\v£«i/, 
6XoXvyp6s =??J hiph., TV?] passim in the Prophets: both th 
Heb. and the Greek words are onomatopoeic. ("Ecos) Spa (1 
$Xt'«)=(G?»K>n) Dh("W) 2 Es. xvii. 3. 'Apiiovia=\XX) Ez. xxi 
42 (the Heb. may mean "sound" as well as " multitude "). 'A/?*'- 
€Taipns Aavld applied in 2 K. xv. 32 etc. to Hushai the Archite 
the friend of David (in ny~l ^INH) is a curious instance : it 
might be a natural corruption of an earlier 'Apa^ei iraipos 
(cf. xvii. 5), but the rendering 6 npcoros (piXos in 1 Ch. xxvii. 33 
is clearly an adaptation of apx ier "'P 0? and is a witness to the 
early currency of this reading. v A<£eo-is- = p , ?$< a channel or 
stream in 2 K. xxii. 16, Jl i. 20, iii. 18 must be partly due to the 
same cause, similarity of sound, but see Deissmann BS 98 m on 
this use and on v8ap d(pecrea)s = D]Dpi< 'O Ez. xlvii. 3. Bdpftapos 
= "W2 " brutish " Ez. xxi. 31 (36)/ ' (BdiXvypa 4 K. xii. 8 B is 
probably a scribe's improvement upon the translit. ^e'Se/c, which 
A has in this verse and both MSS in the preceding 7/7/.) 
Bd#pos = ~rQ in both parts of Ez. (xxvi. 20, xxxi. 14 etc., but Ez. & 
also employs the usual LXX rendering Xukkos) 1 . Kal ye 
= D| (D3tj in some books of the LXX and in the later versions. 
(?) 'EaxapiTTjs " bread baked on the hearth " renders "12^'N (exact 
meaning doubtful) 2 K. vi. 19: the translators perhaps connected 
it with L' ; N " fire." "Ecu? adov = JHK , in " Ah ! lord " (!) Jer. xli. 
(xxxiv.) 5 : the words are correctly rendered in the first part of 
the book (xxii. 18 o'ipoi Kvpie). (The two exx. following are given 

by Driver.) ed\cur<ra=7 1 bvj?> (a channel) 3 K. xviii. 32, 35, 38. 
'ltpfh = V'~)V (a couch) Am. iii. 12 : Jerome (ap. Field) suggested 

1 "E\ac6o? was the natural rendering of 7 t 'X, which is carefully dis- 
tinguished by the translators from 7?N=Kpios. 



38 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

that lepds is a correction of an original transliteration. Similarity 
of sound partly accounts for i\fo)s 1 = 7vn (elsewhere rendered 

Hqbapeos, fif] yevoiro, pr] fir}) in 2 K. XX. 20, xxiii. 17 = I Ch. xi. 19 
(1 K. xiv. 45 A). Keipddas (" shorn ") = bnrrT'P Kir-heres Jer. 
xxxi. (xlviii.) 31, 36 may have arisen out of a transliteration. 
For xetfiappovs Tu>v KtSpcov = p"Hi? 705 in 2 K. xv. 23 B, 3 K. xv. 13 
see Lightfoot Biblical Essays 172 ft"., on the readings in John 
xviii. 1. KaXveiv (aTroKoiX.) in several books renders &y3. 

Aayxdveiv =12{ "take" 1 K. xiv. 47. Anpnas is the constant 
rendering of "PS?. MeyaXcoy = ™ "from off me" Job xxx. 30 
(not 0). Ma>pos is the habitual and natural rendering of 

D-10, D1KO. 'Op/Li77 = npn "fury"Ez. iii. 14, Dan. Q viii. 6: 

op/xo$' = noin "wall" Ez. xxvii. 11 (cf. dppovla Ez. supra). 
OiW=* ; iX '•in etc. (the Greek interjection appears first in the 
Alexandrian period). Ilayt's (from irf]yvvpi) frequently renders 
AS "a snare" ( v / = to spread), and the resemblance is made 
closer by the spelling Trends. 'H pd^is in 1 K. v. 4 ttXtjv 17 p. 
Aayav vTrikeicpdr] ("IX^'J ]M"1 p"l) is a doublet, 7r\r]v being doubt- 
less the older rendering. 'Pom " a pomegranate orchard " 
represents (Hadad)rimmon in Zech. xii. 11. "IvKofpavrelv 

(-rrjs -Tia) renders jp&y "oppress," "defraud" in ¥ Prov. Job 6 
Eccl, -J~\pV "lie," "deceive" in Lev. xix. 11. Tipa>plav = 
D'l-njpFl "guide-posts" Jer. xxxviii. (xxxi.) 21 (possibly from a 
transliteration Tippwp{e)'iv) : Sftcoi/ ib. is another instance. Tokos 
renders TJfl "oppression " in * liv. 12 RTN ca (kottos BX*) lxxi. 14, 
Jer. ix. 6. ToTrd&ov is suggested by TS "refined gold" in ¥ 
cxviii. 127 (contrast Xidos rlpios Vr xviii. II, xx. 4, Prov. viii. 19). 
Tvp.7rapov constantly renders ^Fl (the word should perhaps be 
included in the previous list as a loan-word). <&cik6s renders "iJS 
"a flask" (also nnsy "a cruse") in 1 and 4 K., but this meaning 
of the Greek word is classical. <&povpai for Purim in Est. ix. 
6 etc. is an illustration of the way in which a Hebrew word was 
twisted to yield an intelligible meaning to Greeks : the form, if 
not original, is at least as old as Josephus {Ant. xi. 6. 13 
rjpe pas... (ppovpaias). XeXmvr) Hos. xii. 11 appears to be suggested 
by the sound of 73 "a heap," as x" os ' s suggested by N*3 ^ in 
Mic. i. 6, Zech. xiv. 4. 

1 "IXecis croi etc. were current phrases in the vernacular, J. H. Moulton, 
Prol. 240. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 39 

Semitic influence shown (1) in new meanings and uses of 
words, (2) in syntax. 

Apart from transliterations and Hellenized words, the 
influence of the Hebrew shows itself in a considerable number 
of new uses of Greek words and in the coining of new phrases 
which correspond literally to the Hebrew. A list of new-coined 
words 1 and of words with a new connotation is given in Dr Swete's 
Introduction p. 307. Here it will merely be necessary to add 
a few remarks on some new uses to which a few common Greek 
words are put. 

Aiowai begins to supplant rtOevai (which still retains its 
hold in some books), owing to the use of the Heb. |D3 in both 
senses. The use is characteristic of the later historical books 
though not confined to them : Dt. xxviii. 1 &<>'>o-w ere. v-n-epavw, 

2 K. XX. 3 eoWei' avTas iv olkw <pv\a.Kr}s, cf. 3 K. VI. 1 8, 4 K. 
XV'i. 17, Is. lx. 17 Sojctw Tors apxoi'Tas aov iv elpyjvrj, Jer. VI. 27 
So/a^uao-T^i' Se'SwKa o-e, Ob. i. 2 etc. (The use of the verb with 
inf. in the sense of "allow," Gen. xxxi. 7, N. xxi. 23, Jd. xv. 1 B 
= A acj>rjKev is classical.) 

The use of dpidpio for "few" in N. ix. 20 rjpepas dptdpea 
("IDDD D* 1 ^), Ez. xii. 16 <w8pas dpidpa* ('D *BOK) is removed from 
the category of " Hebraisms " by a passage like Hdt. vi. 58 iireav 
yap aTToBdvr) j3aai\evs...fte'i...d'pidp.a> tgov nepio'iKdiv dvayMiarovs es 
to nr/Bos Itsvai "a certain number." The translators usually 
prefer to write oAryoi (/3pa^«j, oXiyoords) dptdpco : in Dt. xxxm. 6 
they have either misunderstood or intentionally perverted the 
meaning, eVrco nokvs tv dpidpco. 

The Heb. D^, when used of a year or other period of 
time, is literally rendered by -qpuipat in phrases like dep' (iij) 
rJ/Aepwi' tis ti/JLepas Ex. xiii. 10, Jd. xi. 40, xxi. 19, 1 K. i. 3 etc., 
8vo err) (eVicurros) lyyxepwv Gen. xli. I, 2 K. xiv. 28 (cf. xiii. 23 
8i€T7/pi'8a rjixepwv), Jer. xxxv. 3, Lev. xxv. 29, p?va 77/xepwv Gen. 
xxix. 14, N. xi. 20 f., Jdth iii. 10 (more classical Dt. xxi. 13 

1 npoawiroK-onTTTeiv should be deleted (p. 44), and for avadeparlfriv 
see p. 27 above. 



4-0 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

K\av(T€Tai . . . fjirjrbs ijp.ipas), if3Sop.a<; yfxepwv Dan. © X. 2 f . (Dan. 
omits "days" in 2 and inserts twv in 3), Ovaia twv vp-epiov 
(Heb. = "yearly sacrifice ") 1 K. i. 21, xx. 6. The Heb. phrases 
" year of days " etc. mean either "a year of time " (BDB.) or "a 
full year" (R.V.) etc.: in the latter sense class. Greek writes 

TcXeos ii'LavTO 1 ;, TtAeous e7TTu. /x?/vas etc. 

The use of D , D , = a a year" has been misunderstood and the 
word omitted in N. ix. 22 p.r]v6s rjpepas ( = M. T. "either two 
days or a month or a year," lit. "or days"), cf. the omission of 
'1 D^ 1 K. xxvii. 7 : it is also misunderstood in 2 Ch. xxi. 19 
(Heb. "at the end of two years") where the Gk apparently 
means "when the time of the days amounted to two days." 

Other examples of literalism in time-statements are dva 
fji€(rov twv icnrepii'wv Lev. xxiii. 5 (elsewhere in Pent, expressed 

by (to) Trpos icnrepav, to BeiXirov, oi//e), ojs a7ra£ ko.1 a7ra£ 
(= DJJEQ DI?23 = as time after time) Jd. xvi. 20 B, xx. 30 f., 
1 K. iii. 10, xx. 25 (idiomatically rendered N. xxiv. 1 koto. t6 
etw#os, Jd. xvi. 20 A Ka#ws aei). 

Wipujvr] takes over the meaning of the Heb. Di?^ in some 
formulas of salutation, being used of the health or welfare of a 
single individual, as well as of friendly relations between 
nations. The Heb. phrase for " to greet " is □i i ?i* ,i ? h htiXP " to 
ask someone about peace (welfare)." Hence in the later 
historical books we find phrases like Jd. xviii. 15 B dafjXOov ct? 

tov OLKOv...Ka\ rjp<iiTrjaav avrbv eh elpijvrjv (= A 7^o"7rao'aj'To arrov), 

cf. 1 K. xvii. 22 A, xxv. 5 : we even find €VepwTai'...€is elprjvrjv 
tov Trokefxov 2 K. xi. 7 for " to ask how the war progressed " : 
occasionally the neut. of the definite article is inserted, e'pojrav 
to. eis elprjvr]v 1 K. x. 4, xxx. 21 B, 2 K. viii. 10 = 1 Ch. xviii. io 1 . 
The same group of books uses dp-qvrj (aoi) " peace be to 

thee,"'H eiprjvr] croi; i/ fxprqvr} t<3 avhpi <rov ; k.t.X. 4 K. iv. 26 
"is it well with thee?" (class. x a W € > vytatvcis;) : in 3 K. ii. 13 

1 In the N.T. Luke in xiv. 32, borrowing the LXX phrase, uses it of 
a king negotiating for peace, thus keeping the classical meaning of dp-qv-q. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 41 

the noun takes the place of the adj., elprjvr) -q euroSds <rov ; 
Contrast with the later historical books the more classical 
phrases used in Genesis xliii. 27 ^wt^o-ci/ 8e avrovs ITws c^ere ; 
xxix. 6, xxxvii. 14, xliii. 27 f. iytatVet; etc., and the use of 
do-TraCeo-Oat. in Ex. xviii. 7, Jd. xviii. 15 A. The later books 
(including Tbbit «) further have Tropeveo-Bou (/foSi^eu/, 8evpo) c/'s 
dpyvrjv (Iv dprjvr)) : the Pent, also uses dpi]vrj in a similar way 
but with another preposition, /act elprjvrjs airepxwBat, (rji<ei.v) 
Gen. xv. 15 : elsewhere /3aSi'£eiv vyiaivwv Ex. iv. 18, 2 K. 
xiv. 8. 

'Prj/xa = ")21 - res appears to be a Hebraism, but may have 
been so used in colloquial Greek : a similar use of Adyos has 

classical authority. Exx. : Gen. XV. I fxera 8k to. prj/xara ravra, 
xxil. I etc., Gen. xxxviii. 10 Tvovr/pov 8k i<$>avr/ to prj/xa. . .on 
eTTOirjaev tovto, Dt. li. 7 °vk iTre8erjBr/<; prj/xaros (= ouSevos) etc. 

In the N. T. it is noticeable that the use is, apart from O. T. 
quotations, confined to the more Hebraic portions of Luke's 
writings. Exodus twice uses the adj. /Veto's in a similar way : 
IX. 4 ov TeXevrrjaei awo irai'Twv twi/ tov 'Icrpar/X vlwv pr/Tov 
(= oiiSets), xxii. g Kara irav pr/rbv d8tKr/p.a " in any wrong doing 
whatsoever." The literal translation of m:n by " in the matter 
of," "to the end that " by -n-epl AaAiSs, irepl Xoyov is a peculiarity 
of Aquila, Eccl. iii. 18, vii. 15, viii. 2 : contrast Ex. viii. 12 (8) 
Trepi'=~Q"l ?y and the omission of "Ql ib. xvi. 4 to ttjs rj/xepas 
ei? rj/xepav. 

Y105 is used to render some idiomatic phrases with p, but 
this Hebraism is mainly confined to the literal group : the 
Hexateuch, Isaiah and Chronicles generally avoid it. 

(a) Of age. Heb. says "a son of so many years " for "so 
many years old." Hence Gen. xi. to 2t//a vlos £twv Ikoltoi' (the 
only example in the Hexateuch), cf. Jd. ii. 8 B, 1 K. iv. 15, 
2 K. iv. 4, v. 4, xix. 32, 35, 3 K. xii. 24 a, 24 h, xxii. 42, 4 K. 
passim, 2 Ch. xxvi. 3 BA, ib. (in A text only) xxviii. 1, xxxvi. 
2, 9 (31 examples in all, of which 19 occur in K. (38). 



42 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

On the other hand the simple gen. of age or some other 
paraphrase is frequent in the Hexateuch (Gen. vii. 6, xii. 4 etc. : 
Ex. xxx. 14 iitto tiKfHTafTovs etc. : Ex. xii. 5 etc. eviavaios), and 
Chronicles (1 Ch. ii. 21, 2 Ch. xxi. 5, 20, xxii. 2 etc.) and occurs 
occasionally elsewhere, 2 K. ii. 10, 2 Es. iii. 8, Is. lxv. 20, Jer. hi. 1, 
Dan. v. 31. Haidiov 6kto) rji).(pa>v Gen. xvii. 12 is classical. 

(b) Of characteristics, qualities etc. The sarrie distinction 
in the books holds good. Jd. — 4 K., 2 Es., *, Ez. write e.g. 

vlbs uAAdrpios, vlos d\koyei't]<; (an alien "OJ p), inos oWa//.ecos, 

utos aStKias e.g. 2 K. vii. 10 ( = 1 Ch. xvii. 9 || dSiKia simply), 
mot twv crv/i./xt^€oje "hostages," 4 K. xiv. 14 = 2 Ch. xxv. 24, 
viol 6avaT(i>o-eu)<; or davdrov i K. xxvi. 1 6, 2 K. xii. 5 (cf. * lxxviii. 
11, ci. 21, viol twv TeOavarw/xevwi') ; on the other hand books 
like the Hexateuch and Isaiah omit vlos or employ paraphrase, 
writing aAAoyei^'s, d\X6cf>v\o<; Gen. xvii. 27, Ex. xii. 43 etc., 
Is. lx. 10, lxi. 5 (but mo? aAA. Gen. xvii. 12, Is. lxii. 8), e* 
fiowv etc. =ipn p Ex. xxix. 1 etc. (contrast 1 K. xiv. 32 tUvo. 
fiowv) : further paraphrases occur in e.g. Dt. xxv. 2 a£<os rj 
TrXrjyu)}', Is. V. I iv tottu) ttlovi, xiv. 12 6 Trpwl avareXAwv, XXI. IO 
ol oSviw/xevoi. 

Hebrew is fond of what may be called physiognomical 
expressions, that is to say phrases referring to parts of the 
human body, ear, eye, face, hand, mouth etc. : in particular, 
many prepositions are seldom found without some such 
adjunct. This accounts for a wide use of o^^aX/x.09, Trpoo-wirov, 
aro'/xa, xetp etc., in the LXX : many of the LXX phrases 
are, however, passable, if unidiomatic, Greek expressions : the 
Hebrew has merely given them a wider circulation. A per- 
fectly literal translation is avoided where the vernacular had 
some similar, but not identical, phrase. Thus ivunnov, which 
is unknown to the classical language, but is found in papyri from 
\\j — [J B .c. onwards 1 , is a favourite rendering of 'OS*? and W2. 

1 Deissmann BS 213 : Dr J. H. Moulton adds Teb. 14 (114 B.C.) and 
other examples of adjectival ivw-mos. The word is retained in modern Greek, 



§ 4] Semitic clement in LXX Greek 43 

The following are some of the more striking instances of direct 
imitation of the Hebrew. 

'A7roKaXi'7TT£tj' (aroiyeiv) to ovs (ojtiov) tivos = " to reveal to 

someone" R. iv. 4, 1 K. ix. 15, xx. 2 etc., 2 K. vii. 27, 1 Ch. 
xvii. 25. 

As regards the use of o<{>0a\|i6s in phrases like " to seem 
good " or " to find favour in the eyes (i.e. in the estimation) of 
someone " (^yn) we find the same sort of distinction between 
the groups of books as elsewhere. The classical irapd tlvl 
or other paraphrase is rarely found. As a rule the Pen- 
tateuch with some of the other books render ijijn by ivavriov 
(or the vernacular ivwmov, hravri), while the literal rendering 
iv dcpOaX/xois is reserved for the later historical books 1 . 

Exx. : "To find (give) favour in someone's eyes" is rendered 
by (1) x^P lv *X €lv (fvpicrneLv) irapa tivi in Ex. xxxiii. 12, 16, N. xi. 
15 (cf. Est. li. 15), (2) eiip. (8i86vai) x c *P lv ivavriov (ivdnr.) tivos 
some 24 times in the Pent., Gen. xxx. 27 etc., also in 3 K. xi. 19, 
Est. v. 8, vii. 3, (3) elf). x^P lv (£X*°s) f" ocpdaXpols tivos in 
(Gen. xxxiii. 8 A : all other MSS ivavriov or iv£>ir.) Jd. vi. 17, 
R. ii. 2, 10, 13, 1 K. i. 18, xvi. 22 etc., 2 K. xiv. 22, xv. 25, xvi. 4. 
The phrases "to seem good (evil etc.) in someone's eyes" are 

(1) paraphrased in Gen. xvi. 6 dpeo-rov 3, Jos. ix. 31 apiaK.fi, 

(2) rendered by dpio~K(iv (dp(o~Toi>, aKXrjpov etc.) ivavriov (ivaniov, 
'ivavri) in the Pent, Gen. xvi. 4f., xix. 14 etc., N. xxxvi. 6, Dt. xii. 
8, 25, iv. 25, also in Jd. ii. 1 1, iii. 7, 2 K. x. 3, 1 Ch. xix. 3, (3) by 
dyadov (evdis, 7rovr)p6i>, cvdvveadai etc.) iv dcpdaXpois tivos passim 
in Jd., 1 K., 2 K. (from x. 12), 4 K. and in some of the later books. 
The adhesion of Wisdom (iii. 2, ix. 9) to the last group is 
noticeable. 

Ilpoo-wirov (which is found in Polybius with the meaning 
"person ") is kept in the rendering of D^D NK'J "to accept the 
person " (to favour or be partial to anyone), but the verb is 
usually altered. ®av/jLd£eiv to Trpoaumov is the rendering which 
met with general acceptance (Gen. xix. 21, Dt. x. 17, xxviii. 50, 

Kennedy Sources of N.T. Greek 155. In N.T. its absence from Alt. and 
Mc. is striking: Lc. and Ap. make a large use of it. 
1 And is unexampled in the N.T. 



44 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

4 K. v. 1, Prov. xviii. 5, Job xiii. 10 etc., Is. ix. 15). Another 
verb has been occasionally substituted, 7rpoa8e^(a0ai Gen. xxxii. 
20, aiperi^eiv I K. xxv. 35, i-rraiaxvyeaOaL Job xxxiv. 19. The 
literal version Aap./3aVeu' (to) irpoo-u>Trov occurs only in Lev. xix. 
15 (necessitated by the use of Oavp.d&iv in the same v.), ^ lxxxi. 
2, Job xlii. 8, Lam. iv. 16, Mai. i. 8 f., ii. 9. Later formations, 
unknown to the Alexandrian translators 1 , and first appearing 

in the N.T., are irpoo-(jiiroXrjp.-n-Tilv, -\-r']p.irT7]S, -Krjp.\j/La. It is 

interesting to note the three stages through which the Hebrew 
idiom finds its way into Greek : first the possible but un- 
idiomatic version, then the baldly literal, then the new Greek 
words coined from the literal version. ' Airb 7rpoo-u>Trov, -n-pb 
■n-pocroj-n-ov etc. (where the classical language would use the 
prep, alone) abound. 

Hebraistic uses of <rr6(ia may be illustrated by such phrases 

as i-n-epoiTav to crro/m Tivds Gen. xxiv. 57, irrl tw crrdpaTi aov 
VTra.Kovo-eTai 7ras 6 Aads Gen. xli. 40, iiri crrdpaTos 8vo paprupwj'. . . 

o-njo-cTai ttolv prjfjia Dt. xix. 15. But the prepositional phrases 
»S by, ^33, ^ "according to" are, in the Pentateuch at least, 
usually rendered by a simple prep., Kara c. ace. (Gen. xliii. 7, xlv. 

2 1, N. vi. 21, Dt. xvii. Ii), 7rpds C. ace. (L. XXV. 51 7rpos Tavra) or 

e7ri c. dat. (Dt. xvii. 6). The avoidance of anthropomorphism 
sometimes causes omission or paraphrase of " mouth " where 
God is spoken of: Jos. ix. 20 cVv/pcoT^o-ac, N. iii. 16 etc. Sta 
(f><>nr}<; K.vpLov. 

The uses of \ €l P m prepositional phrases (on the model 
of T3 and kindred phrases) are innumerable : many of these, 
however, may be illustrated from the Hellenistic language. 

'Ep.7rip.7rA.aj'cu (TeXetovv, ir\i]povv) ras ^ctpas Ex. XXV'iii. 37 etc., 

is the literal rendering of the Hebrew for " to consecrate." 
An example of literal reproduction of the Hebrew is 4 K. ix. 24 

€ttAtjo"€i' ti]V X e ^P a *'' T< ? TO £w '• in aVoo-reAAeu' tyjv X € ^P a Ex. ^ x - x 5 

1 UpotrwrroXvuTTTuv should be deleted from the list in Dr Swete's 
Introduction 307. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 45 

and similar phrases the Hebraism lies in the new meaning 
attached to the verb. (The meaning "handiwork" (Jer. x. 9) 
is known to secular Greek : possibly the translators attached 
the same meaning to Xeip 'A/3ecro-aA.wp., the name given to 
the "monument" (t) of Absalom, 2 K. xviii. 18.) 

Under the head of pronouns we notice an increased use of 
drijp (dvOpojiros), due to the influence of the Hebrew GJ^K, 
where classical writers would have written l/cao-Tos, ns or 77-as 

T15, and of phrases like dvOpu>iro% 7rpos tov irk-qaiov (d8e\<f)bv) 

avrov for erepos 7rpos tov trepoi'. Though the imitation of the 
Hebrew is unmistakable, it is difficult to draw the line be- 
tween what may be called " Hebraisms " and what is good 
vernacular or Koiv-q Greek. The use of dvqp for tis can be 
illustrated from Aristophanes. The rarity of phrases like 
cVepos tov erepov (still found in the Pentateuch, Isaiah and 
the early chapters of Ezekiel) is partly due to the tendency in 
the kolvt] to abandon words expressive of duality. But it is 
noticeable that the use of dvqp = eVao-Tos in phrases like 86re 

p.01 dvy]p IvwTtov Jd. viii. 24, Aa/Jw/xei' dvrjp ets 8ok6v jxiav 
4 K. vi. 2, is practically confined to one group of books viz. 
Jd., R., K. fiy (2 K. xiii. 29 B, xx. 1, 3 K. i. 49), K. y8 (3 K. 
xxii. 10, 4 K. iii. 2^ etc.), 2 Es. (cf. Cant. iii. 8, Ez. xviii. 8, 
xxxiii. 26 A, 1 M. ii. 40) : in these books Zkclo-tos, which is 
freely used in other parts of the LXX, is either wholly or 
nearly unrepresented \ Here, then, in view of the avoidance 
of the literal rendering in the majority of the books, we appear 
to be justified in speaking of a Hebraism. With a negative 
avrjp replaces p/^oei? or otiSets : 4 K. X. 19 dvyp p.?) eVtcrKeTr/jTw, 
x. 25, xxiii. 18. 'Ai/77'p is occasionally used of inanimate things: 

1 The distinction between the portions of the Kingdom books should be 
noted. "EK-aa-Tos = t*"X is freely used in K. a (19 times), K. ,S^(s), K. 77(13). 
On the other hand it is absent from K. /3-y (excepting 2 K. xiii. 29 A) and 
occurs twice only in the B text of K. 70 (3 times in A text). 



46 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

Job (probably ©) xli. 8 (of the scales of leviathan). The 

duplication avOpwiros d\0pw7ro<;, dv8pl aVSpt' = "anyone" (Lev. xv. 

2, xvii. 3 etc., Ez. xiv. 4, 7) is analogous to vernacular phrases 

(Moulton Prol. 97). 

The pleonastic demonstrative pronoun appended to a relative 
pronoun or a relative adverb, e.g. a...avrm (=17 TJ'X), ov...€icei 
(=DB> IK'N), is found in all parts of' the LXX and undoubtedly 
owes its frequency to the Hebrew original. But the fact that it 
is found in an original Greek work such as 2 Mace. (xii. 27 iv 
fj..Av avrf]) and a paraphrase such as 1 Esdras (iii. 5, 9, iv. 54, 
63, vi. 32) is sufficient to warrant its presence in the koivtj 1 . In 
modern Greek the relative is expressed by the adverb 7roi> 
followed by the demonstrative in its proper case — a use which 
is strangely analogous to the Hebrew. In the LXX the laws of 
concord are observed : the relative and demonstrative agree in 
gender, number and case, and if the demonstrative is preceded 
by a preposition the relative as a rule takes one as well (e.g. 
Gen. xxiv. 3 /xe#' hv...fxer avrcov : similarly odev eiceldev Gen. x. 
14 etc., not ov (k.). The fact that this phenomenon, which, as 
Dr J. H. Moulton remarks, is made familiar to Englishmen by 
the language of Mrs Gamp, should have grown up independently 
in the two languages is not surprising. 



Under the head of prepositions, Hebrew is responsible for 
the extensive use of a large number of prepositional phrases in 
place of an accusative after a transitive verb. The fact, how- 
ever, that a phrase like cpv\da a eo- -6 'at d-n-6 nvos is found already 
in Xenophon makes us cautious in regarding all these as 
Hebraisms. Several of them probably never found a place in 
the Greek language : the use of the preposition, which was 
allowable with one verb, was extended to others, where the 
Hebrew had an analogous use. Besides the instance men- 
tioned d-n-6 (corresponding to jo) is used after aia-xyvzo-Oai, 

evXa/SetaOai, XarOdvetv, 7rpoae\eii', rpe/xeir, v7repr)<pa.rev€O-0ai, vrrep- 

1 No instance of it seems, however, to have been found in the papyri : 
the example quoted by Kiihner and Blass from Hdt. iv. 44 is rather 
different: Blass quotes wv...tovtuv from Hypereides. It would appear 
that it was not a very common use : in the N.T. it is quite uncommon, the 
Apocalypse alone using it with any frequency (7 times). 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 47 

opav, 4>ofBa.(r6ai. Similarly, eV (3) is used instead of an ac- 
cusative after aiperi^eLV, evSoKeiv, 6iXeiv, (tvvuvoll etc. In the 
same way, we find <£ei8eo-#eu eVi py) nra, i^eXiaOai eVi two. 
(Tob ® xxxvi. 21), awiivai iirl two. (Job © xxxi. 1). The Theo- 
dotion portions of Job supply numerous examples of direct 
imitation of the Hebrew : (rjTeiv 6ttl<h» tivos xxxix. 8, p-exP 1 
(eto<;) vfxw crui'^craj (*lj/) xxxii. 1 2, </>w; e'yyus a7ro 7rpocrwTrov 
(TKOTovi xvii. 12. 

The frequent LXX use of iv of accompanying circumstances 
or instrument, as in St Paul's iv pdl38cp i'X8a>...; (i Cor. iv. 21) 
has been removed from the category of Hebraisms by the 
appearance of iv paxalpr], iv o7rXois 'armed with a sword' etc. in 
a little group of papyri of the end of ii/B.C. (Teb. 41. 4, c. 
1 19 B.C., etc.). 



A test-case for the length to which the translators were 
ready to carry their imitation of the Hebrew is afforded by 
their treatment of "the infinitive absolute" in phrases like 
n-IDn n'lD " thou shalt surely die." (a) A solitary instance 
occurs of an attempt to render the Hebrew construction quite 
literally, Jos. xvii. 13 B efo,\.e#pei)<xcu Se ai/rous ovk i$wXe8pevaav 
(A oXeOpevati). (/>) In a certain number of cases (mainly in 
the Pentateuch) the Hebrew inf. is simply omitted, (<r) The 
practice of our English translators' of employing an adverb, 
particle or other form of paraphrase is occasionally resorted 
to: Gen. xxxii. 12 koAws el ere 7rot^'o-a» (not a doublet), Ex. 

XV. I eV8o£<us SeSd^acrrcu, N. xxii. 1 7 ivTLfxojs Tt/xrycw ere, 4 K. 

v. 1 1 7ravrws e^eAewcrerai, Prov. (in all three cases where the 
Hebrew construction appears 2 ) xxiii. 1 vorrrdis voei, xxiii. 24, 

xxvii. 23: Is. lvi. 3 depopul p.* apa : Job xiii. IO ovOiv r/TTor, 

Gen. xlvi. 4 = Am. ix. 8 eis tc'Aos. 

1 E.g. Is. xxiv. 19, "The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is 
clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly ." The A.V. shows great 
versatility in its renderings. Elsewhere we have "freely eat," " must needs 
be circumcised," " indeed I was stolen away," " in any wise return." 

2 In Prov. xxiv. 22 a (not in M.T.) dexbuevos ede^aro. 



48 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

But as a general rule the rendering takes one of two forms : 
(d) finite verb with dat. of the cognate noun, e.g. fipucrei 4>dy>j 
Gen. ii. 16, (e) finite verb with participle of the same verb or 
a verb of kindred meaning, e.g. Gen. iii. 16 -n-\r]dvvw Tr\r)6vi'<2. 
The total number of occurrences of these two constructions 
is about the same, approximately 200 of each : but there is a 
marked diversity between the groups of books in the preference 
shown for one mode of translation or the other. The Penta- 
teuch prefers the construction of noun and verb, which is used 
more than twice as often as part, and verb. The former 
construction is always used in the Pentateuch where the verb 
is in the passive, e.g. Gen. xvii. 13 irepiTop.rj TrepLTfxrjO^creTaL, xl. 15 

kA.otttj £K/\.a7ri7i', Dt. XXI. 1 4 -Trpaaei ov irpad-jaeraL. Where the 

verb is active or middle either construction may be used : cf. 
Gen. ii. 16 /3pwo-ei <f>dyr) with Lev. vii. 8 (ftayuv <pdyrj, Dt. xxiv. 
13 d-rroSoaei a7ro8a)'o-€is with XV. IO SiSovs Scoo-eis : but, generally 
speaking, the Pentateuch translators prefer (d) wherever there 
is a convenient noun available. Where the participial con- 
struction is used in the Pentateuch, it is often rendered more 
idiomatic by varying the verb (e.g. Gen. xviii. 10 l-rrayao-Tpefpwv 
?/£w, Ex. xxiii. 4 a7roo-rpei//as aVoStoVet?, Lev. xiii. 7 p.€Taj3a\ov(ra 
jU.€Ta.7T€cr>/, xiv. 48 7rapayei'0/x€vos do-e\0rf) Or by using the simple 

and compound verb (as Herodotus uses <pevy<oi> eKfavyetv v. 95, 

e.g. Gen. xliii. 7 ipwrwv eTv-qpuiT., Lev. X. 16 £?/tojv i^€^7]Tr}crey, 

N. xii. 14, xxx. 15). Instances of the bald use of the pres. 
part, and finite form of the same verb are not frequent till we 
come to Deuteronomy, which has nine of them. 

In the later historical books, on the other hand, the par- 
ticipial construction is used almost exclusively. The four 
Kingdom books, apart from a single phrase 1 Oavdrw diro6a.va.Tai 
(6avaTu>o-r]T£ etc.: 1 K. xiv. 39, 44, xxii. 16, 2 K. xii. 14, xiv. 14, 
3 K. ii. 37, 42, iii. 26 f., 4 K. i. 4, 6, 16, viii. 10, xi. 15) and its 

1 Its occurrence in the familiar story of the Fall (Gen. ii. 17, iii. 4) 
probably accounts for its retention. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 49 

opposite toirj t,t]a-y (4 K. viii. 10, 14), have only three examples 
of the verb with cognate noun, all in 2 Kingdoms, viz. i. 6 

TrepLirTiofJiaTL TrepieTreaav, xviii. 3 tpvyj <£uyw/A€V, xix. 42 fipwo-et 

icf)d.yafxev (fipwaiv A). On the other hand in 1 — 4 K. there are 
59 examples of the participial construction'. We note, further, 
that this construction is now used even where the main verb 

is passive, e.g. I K. ii. 27 a.7TOKa\v<p6d<; a.7rc.Ka.\v<f>drjv ) 2 K. vi. 
20 a7TOKaA.irn-T€Tcu a7ro/<aA.u<jt>$€is, XX. 1 8 rjp(j}Tqp.ivo% rj pcoTrjOr/v : 

the participle may stand after the finite verb, as in 2 K. vi. 20 : 
the use of different verbs or of simple and compound verb 
is abandoned (the nearest approach to this being 1 K. xx. 21 
e(7rci> Aeyoov, 3 K. xiii. 32 yivop.zvov earai, 4 K. xiv. 10 twttwv 
£7rara!as). In the remaining books of the LXX the participial 
construction preponderates, except in Isaiah (eight examples 
of noun to three of part.), Ezekiel, Micah and the A texts of 
Joshua (two of noun to one of part.) and of Judges (ten of 
noun to eight of part.). The tense of the part, is present or 
aorist : a future is used in Jd. iv. 9 A Tropf.vcrop.ivr] rropf.vo-op.ai, 
Sir. xxviii. 1 hiao-rqpi^v Siacrr^pio-a, so Aquila in ^ xlix. 21. 

Neither construction appears to occur in the " Greek " (i.e. 
untranslated) books. Instances, however, are found of both 
forms where there is no inf. abs. in the M.T. : most of these 
are probably due to the translators having a different text from 
our Hebrew. In the N.T. there are no examples of the 
participial construction except in O.T. quotations (Blass § 74, 
4). The other construction is employed by Luke in both his 

works (iTn6vp,ia. iTreOvp,., aTretXy a7reiA., TrapayyeXia Trapr/yy., 

a.vaBkp.o,Ti avc#€/x.), as also in Jo. iii. 29 x a P$ X ai 'p el > J a- v * l 7 

7rpoo-€vxv) 7rpoarjv$aTO (ibid. § 38, 3). 

It appears, then, that the Pentateuch translators, in ren- 
dering this Hebrew idiom, had resort to one or other of two 
modes of translation, both of which had some authority in the 

1 For the Pentateuch the statistics are approximately noun and verb 
108, part, and verb 49. 

T. 4 



50 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

classical language, recalling, respectively, the phrases cited by 
Blass and J. H. Moulton, viz. ya/xw ya/xeiv (" in true wedlock "), 
4>vyfj favyew ("with all speed") and the favywv i>«t>tvy€i 
of Herodotus. Their successors confined themselves almost 
entirely to the latter, probably considering the participle a 
nearer approach to the Hebrew infinitive, but refrained from a 
perfectly literal rendering which would have defied the laws of 
Greek syntax. Even the participial construction seemed so 
strange that it found no imitators in the N.T. writers. 

Constructions with eyevero. "When the Hebrew writers 
have occasion in the course of their narrative to insert a clause 
specifying the circumstances under which an action takes 
place, instead of introducing it abruptly, they are in the habit 
of (so to speak) preparing the way for it by the use of the 
formula '0*1 l and it was or came to pass'' " (Driver Hebrew 
Tenses, ed. 3, p. 89). The sentence is usually, though not always, 
resumed by a second 1. This construction is in the majority 
of cases reproduced in the LXX. Of the three forms found 
in the N.T. (almost entirely in Luke's writings), viz. (a) eyeVe-ro 
rjXOe, (b) iyevero kcll rjX.6e, (c) eyevero i\6uv, LXX, with a single 
exception \ uses the first two only. Luke in his Gospel writes 
(a) twice as often as (b) and (b) twice as often as (c) : in Acts 
he abandons the first two altogether in favour of (c). (c), as 
Moulton shows, can be closely paralleled from the papyri 
which use yiVerat a inf., and at a far earlier time yiyveTcu eupeiv 
" it is possible to find " is attested in Theognis 639 (quoted by 
LS). Xenophon, moreover, uses eyevero wore or <Js "it hap- 
pened that." (c) therefore had close analogies in the vernacular 
and literary speech, (a) and (b), on the contrary, appear in 

1 3 K. xi. 43 B ko.1 i-yev-qdrj Cos TJKOvaev lepo(3oau....Ka.Tevd6i>eii' " he came 
straight off" (the Heb. [xii. 2] is different). In 3 K. iv. 7 fxi)i>a. iv ti3 eviavrip 
iyivero £ttI tov eva x o P 7 iy i ^ v tne m f- i s the subject of the verb, cf. 2 Ch. vi. 7. 
In 2 M. iii. 16 (quoted by J. H. Moulton) rju 8e...6pQvra...TiTpuicKe(Tdai., 
21 V eXeetv Se f)v, the verb seems rather the equivalent of 25ei "it was 
impossible not to," than of iyivero: cf. ib. vi. 9 waprjv ovv bpav. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 5 1 

Luke to be borrowed directly from the LXX, and for these 
constructions no illustration has yet been quoted from the 
koivi]. The statistics for the LXX are (if my count is right) as 
follows : passages where the readings vary (there are not many) 
have been included in both columns. 

(a) e'ycVfTo tf\de (b) eyevero nai rj\6t 

(Gen. 34 J 

Pentateuch \ Ex. 12 \ 50 
iL.N.Dt. 4) 

Jos. 7 

Jd. — 4 Kings 26 

1 2 Ch. 11 

1 Es. (A text) 1 

2 Es. 4 11 
Other "Writings" 7 4 




JProphets I 2g I2 
/Min. Is. Jer. Lam. Ez.\ 

Daniel O 2 3 

» © 6 3 

1 Mace. 3 5 



Total 145 269 

The following results are to be noted. (1) The construc- 
tion (b) predominates in the Greek as does its equivalent in 
the Hebrew. (2) But this preponderance is due to the support 
given to it by the later historical books, which generally follow 
the Heb. slavishly. (3) The first two books of the Pentateuch, 
on the other hand, and the prophetical books, prefer (a). A 
closer analysis shows that in Genesis the Heb. has a second 1 
in 30 out of the 34 cases where the Greek uses (a), as well as 
in all the cases of (b). 4 K. on the other hand, which reads 
(a) 12 times, (b) 26 times, only twice omits /cat without warrant 
from the M.T. (v. 7, vi. 30). It appears that while both (a) 
and (b) were experiments of the translators, which must be 
classed as " Hebraisms," the apposition of the two verbs 

1 We may perhaps compare in the papyri KaXQs 7rot7?<reis yp6.\pet.s 
{j€jj.ypeLs) OP ii. 297. 3 (54 a.d.), ib. 299. 3 (late i/A.D ) for the more 
usual ypd\pas. 

4—2 



52 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

without Kai was rather more in the spirit of the later language, 
which preferred to say e.g. " It happened last week I was on a 
journey," rather than "It was a week ago and I was journey- 
ing." At all events the former mode of speech prevails in the 
earlier LXX books and in Luke's Gospel. (4) The free Greek 
books (2 — 4 Mace.) abjure both constructions, and the para- 
phrases make very little use of them. These two classes of 
books, on the other hand, retain the classical o-wifi-q with 
the inf. 1 

In Jd. xii. 5 A we appear to have a fourth construction 

Kai iyevqvr] otl eLTrav airrols ol Stacrecrajcr/xeVoi. . ., though on may 

be intended for "because" (Heb. '3 = " when ") : a similar 
doubt attaches to 2 K. xiv. 26, 4 K. xvii. 7, 2 Ch. v. 11 (Heb. 
*3 = " because"). 

The less frequent rvni (1) with the meaning "it shall come 
to pass " is rendered 3 by ko.1 Zo-tcli, usually without a second 
copula, which is generally absent from the Heb., (2) in fre- 
quentative sense "it came to pass repeatedly" by the imper- 
fect, Gen. xxxviii. 9 eyivero, otolv el<rrjpxeTO..., e^e^cti'. 

Next to eyeVero probably the most frequent Hebraism in 
the LXX is the use of Trpoo-TiOcvai (TrpoaT Lvto-Oai) = ^D'' in 
place of rrdXcv or a similar adverb. Here again the construc- 
tion takes three forms : (a) Trpoo-kBi.ro {rvpoaiOrjKev) Xaftelv (tov 
\aj3€ii'\ (b) Trpoae.6f.TO (TrpoaWrjKev) Kai eXafiev, (c) irpoo-6a.<; 

(TTpoo-6ijx(.vo<i) eXafiev. (c), the only one of the three for which 
approximate classical parallels could be quoted, is limited to 
the following passages: Job xxvii. 1 In 8« 7rpoo-#ei?...eT7r€v (so 

xxix. I, XXXvi. 1), Est. viii. 3 Kai Trpoo-ducra iXaX-qaev, Gen. 
XXV. I Trpoo-uep-evos Se 'A/?paa/A eXafiev yvvaiKa " took another 

wife" (the passage quoted in LS, Soph. Track. 1224 ravr-qv 

1 Also in Gen. xli. 13, xlii. 38. 

2 The Hexateuch sometimes omits the introductory verb : Gen. iv. 14, 
xlvi. 33, Ex. i. 10, iv. 8, xxxiii. 8f., Dt. xviii. 19, Jos. vii. 15. 



§ 4] Semitic element in LXX Greek 53 

irpoo-Qov ywouKa, " take to wife," is not really parallel), xxxviii. 5 
kcu TrpocrOeiaa en Itckcv vtov. (a) and (^) are directly imitated 
from the Hebrew, (a) being far the commoner (109 exx. as 
against 9 of (&)). 

The verb may be either active or middle, the instances of 
the two voices are nearly equal (60 : 58) : npoa-drja-co and Trpocr- 

6rj(ropai (rr po<TTedr)(Topai) alternate, but the mid. aor. Trpo(redepr]v 
preponderates (Trpoa-idrjKa mainly in the later historical books, 
Gen. xviii. 29, Jd. viii. 28 B, xi. 14 B etc., 3 K. xvi. 33, 2 Ch. xxviii. 
22, Dan. O x. 18). 1 K. only uses the mid. (tt poo-d 8 ero with simple 
inf. 12 times) : the Min. Proph. only the act. (irpoadTjaa or 
Trpocrda) c. inf. with rov 9 times). 

There are also a few examples of an absolute use of the 
verb : Job © XX. 9 6(p0aXfj.b<; TrapefSXeif/ev kcu ov Trpoadijcrei, 
(? ©) xxvii. 19, © xxxiv. 32, Sir. xix. 13, xxi. 1. In the N.T. 
Luke again imitates the LXX, having three examples of (a), 
XX. 1 1 f . TrpoaiOeTO Trepapai, Acts xii. 3 TrpocriOtTO crvWafit'iV and 
one of (c), xix. 1 1 irpoaOcU €i7r€j/ TvapajBoXrjv. The use of (a) is 
the only Hebraism which has been detected in Josephus 1 . 

An analogous use of eVicn-pe'^ai' (= lit?) followed by (a) inf. 
or (£) Kai + finite verb is restricted to Theodotion, Aquila and 
portions of the LXX having affinities with the style of those 
translators : in some passages possibly the verb keeps its 
literal meaning: (a) Dt. xxx. 9 i-mo-Tpeij/ei Kvpios...ev(ppav6r}vai, 
2 Es. ix. 14 €7reo-rpei//ajU.ev Siaa-KeSacrai evroXa? crou, xix. 28, 
Eccl. i. 7, V. 14 iirurTp. tov Tropevdrjvai, (p) 2 Ch. xxxiii. 3 liri- 

<TTp€lp€V KCU iOKo86/Xt](T€V, cf. Mai. i. 4, Dan. © ix. 25 €7riCTp £(//■€ I 

K-at otKoSop.^r/o-eTai " shall be built again." Cf. a similar use 
of 1-n-avep^.aSai c. inf. in Job (? ©) vii. 7. 

Elsewhere 21C^ in this sense is rendered by 7raXtf alone 
(Gen. xxvi. 18, xxx. 31 etc.) or with a verb, ndXiv iropeveo-Oai, 
@a8i(eii> etc. 

A few other verbs are similarly used with an articular inf. 
in place of an adverb: ttXtjOvvw 2 K. xiv. 11, 4 K. xxi. 6 

1 W. Schmidt De Flav.Jos. elocutione 516. 



54 Semitic element in LXX Greek [§ 4 

(the punctuation in Swete's text needs alteration), 2 Ch. xxxiii. 6, 
xxxvi. 14, 2 Es. x. 13, ^ lxiv. 10, lxxvii. 38, Am. iv. 4 (once 
with a participle, on the model of XavBdvetv, 1 K. i. 12 
iirXrjOvvc Trpoa-ev^ofxcvr] : contrast the rendering iirl noXv Is. 
Iv. 7): fxeyaXvveiv ^ cxxv. 2, Jl ii. 21 : eOav/xacrTujOrj tov 
(5or)6rj6r}va.i 2 Ch. xxvi. 1 5 B " was marvellously helped": 
Si€KXeVTtro...Tov elo-e\0elv 2 K. xix. 3 "came in stealthily"' 
(contrast Kpvfirj airc'Spas Gen. xxxi. 26) : eo-KAifpwas tov alnj- 
o-ao-Oai 4 K. ii. 10 "hast made thy request a hard one," cf. 
Ex. xiii. 15 icn<\i]pvvev <l>. €^a7roo-Tci\ai ■qp.a.'i (but perhaps the 
meaning is rather "hardened himself [cf. vii. 22 B] against 
sending" than "hardly sent us"): cf. raxyvtiv tov (77-01770-0.1.) 
Gen. xviii. 7 etc. 

The classical language had used verbs like \av6dvetv and 
<p6dv€iv with a participle in a similar way : in the later language 
the participle with (irpo)(pddveiv was replaced by an inf. : the 
constructions given above may be regarded as a sort of ex- 
tension of this use. 

Other examples where the imitation of the Hebrew affects 
the structure of the sentence are the use of a question to 
express a wish, e.g. 2 K. xviii. 33 tis Swtj tov Odvarov p.ov 
dvrl o-ov; (R.V. "Would God I had died for thee"), and — 
more striking — the rendering of *3 in adjurations = "(I say) 
that " by oti, e.g. 1 K. xx. 3 £17 Kvpios «at £77 rj \pvxq o-ov, 6V1 
Kadws el-rev ep.tre7r\r}aTaL (contrast the rendering of »3 by el pjqv y 
a form of adjuration attested by the papyri, in Gen. xxii. 1 7, 
xlii. 16, and its omission ib. xxii. 16). Similarly DN, which in 
adjurations represents an emphatic negative, the imprecatory 
words being left to the imagination, is literally rendered, e.g. 
I K. xix. 6 Zrj Kvpios, €i diroOavelTai. 

Among cases where the usage of the Hebrew and the Greek 
vernacular coincide are the use of 8vo 8vo and the like in 
distributive sense, the use of els as an indefinite article, and the 



§§4> 5] Semitic element in LXX Greek 55 

coordination of sentences with <ai. In other cases, as in the 
frequency of l8ov, the influence of the Hebrew merely brought 
into prominence a word which held a subordinate position in 
the classical language. 

One instance of a flagrant violation of Greek syntax stands 
by itself, namely the use of iyw elfxi followed by a finite verb, 
e.g. Jd. V. 3 B aao/xai iyw elfxi tw Kvpiw, vi. 18 iyw ci/xt 
Kadiaoiiai. This use, however, is limited to a very small 
portion of the LXX, namely Jd. (B text five times, A text once) 
and Ruth (once), the (38 portions of the Kingdom Books 
(n times), and Job ® xxxiii. 31 (and perhaps Ez. xxxvi. 36 A). 
It also occurs in Aquila. The explanation of this strange use 
has been given elsewhere 1 . It is due to a desire to dis- 
criminate in the Greek between the two forms taken by the 
Hebrew pronoun of the first person, *33K and "OX. The 
observation of the fact that "03X is the form usually employed 
to express " I am " led to the adoption of the rule, at a time 
when a demand for pedantically literal translation arose, that 
it must always be rendered by iyw et/u, while iyw alone 
represented "OK. The rule reminds one of Aquila's use of 
<tvv to express nx the prefix to the accusative : the solecism is 
quite unlike the Hebraisms found elsewhere in the LXX, and 
the portions in which it occurs (if they are not entirely the 
work of Theodotion) may be regarded as among the latest 
additions to the Greek Bible. 

§ 5. The Papyri and the Uncial MSS of the LXX. 

It is proposed in this section to consider how far the uncial 
MSS of the LXX, B in particular, can be trusted, in the light 
of the new evidence afforded by the papyri, in some matters 
of orthography and accidence. Have the MSS faithfully pre- 
served the spelling and the forms of the autographs or at 

1 /. T. S. vm. 272 f. 



56 The Papyri and the Uncials [§ 5 

least of an age earlier than that in which they were written, or 
have the scribes in these matters conformed to the practice of 
their own age ? The question has already been raised in the 
case of the N.T. MSS by Dr J. H. Moulton, who points out that 
" there are some suggestive signs that the great uncials, in this 
respect as in others, are not far away from the autographs " 
{Prol. 42). But this conclusion, if established in the case 
of the N.T., does not ipso facto apply to the LXX, where the 
autographs are much earlier, at least three centuries earlier in 
the case of the Pentateuch, than the autographs of the N.T. 
books. 

The present writer, for the purpose of this work, has ana- 
lysed and tabulated the evidence of numerous collections of 
papyri which have been edited by their discoverers or custodians 
in England or on the continent. The ground has already been 
traversed by others, notably by Deissmann and J. H. Moulton : 
but the principal object which those writers had in view was 
the illustration of the N.T., and an independent investigation 
for LXX purposes may not be useless, even if it merely serves 
to corroborate the conclusions of earlier explorers in this field. 
Moreover, fresh materials have accumulated even since the 
appearance of Moulton's Prolegomena : the Hibeh Papyri have 
largely increased the number of documents of the age when 
the Greek Pentateuch came into being 1 . 

These papyri provide us with a collection of dated docu- 
ments of a miscellaneous character, written by persons of all 
ranks in the social scale, educated and uneducated, covering 
a period of more than a millennium 2 . Documents of the 

1 All collections published before 1907 known to the present writer 
have been investigated, except that the later volumes of the huge Berlin 
collection have not been completely examined for the period i/ to iv/A. D. 
The hundreds of documents for that period which have been consulted are, 
however, sufficient to establish certain definite results. The recent (1907) 
volumes of Tebtunis Papyri (Part 11) and British Museum Papyri (Part III) 
have not been used. 

2 HP 84 (a) is dated 301 — 300 B.C. The last will and testament of 



§ 5] The Papyri and the Uncials 57 

Byzantine period are not very numerous, but for LXX purposes 
these may be neglected. Down to the fourth century of our 
era, the date of Codex Vaticanus, we have a nearly continuous 
string of documents exhibiting Greek as it was written and 
spelt by all classes of the community in Egypt during seven 
centuries. There is only one rather unfortunate gap. Papyri 
of i/B.c. and of the early part of i/a.d. are sadly scanty. The 
early part of ii/B.c. is also not very largely represented. On 
the other hand, iii/B.c. is now richly illustrated (by the Hibeh 
and Petrie Papyri, the Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
etc.), as is also the period 133 — 100 B.C. (chiefly by the 
Tebtunis Papyri), and from about 50 a.d. onwards there is 
practically no missing link in the catena of evidence. 

With this large mass of dated evidence covering such an 
extensive epoch in our hands, it ought to be possible to trace 
some clear indications of change and development, no less in 
matters of orthography and grammatical forms, than in formulae 
and modes of address 1 , and to gain thereby some criterion 
whereby to test the trustworthiness in these respects of our 
oldest uncial MSS of the LXX. A few of the clearest instances 
of such development will here be considered together with 
their bearing on the LXX uncials. We begin with an instance 
which has not been noted by Moulton and which affords a 
more certain criterion than the one which he places in the 
forefront of his discussion (Pro/. 42 f.). To Moulton's in- 
stance — the use of o? aV and o? idv — we will revert later. 

Abraham, bishop of Hermonthis (BM i. 77), is a specimen of writing in 
viii/A.D. 

1 E.g. the closing formula in correspondence, which, in the Ptolemaic 
age, according to the status of the person addressed, is tppwao (to an 
inferior or an equal) or evrvxei (to a superior). From i/A.D. Sievruxei 
usually replaces evrvxei. In iii/A.D. we have the more elaborate 4ppw<xdai 
(4pp. fff) etixofiat, still further extended in iv/A.D. by the addition of 
ttoWois xp^poir. 



58 The Papyri and the Uncials [§ 5 

(1) Oii^tt's (/xr)0eis) and ouSeis (/x^Sei's) '. 

The form ovOu? (fxr]6ei<;) is one which we are in a position 
to trace from its cradle to its grave. First found in an inscrip- 
tion of 378 B.C., it is practically the only form in use throughout 
the Greek-speaking world during iii/B.c. and the first half of 
ii/B.c. In 132 B.C. the 8 forms begin again to reassert them- 
selves, and the period from that date to about 100 b.c appears 
to have been one of transition, when the 8 and 6 forms are 
found side by side in the same documents. For i/B.c. we are 
in the dark, but in i/A.D. we find that ovSci's has completely 
regained its ascendancy, and by the end of H/a.d. ovOeis, which 
still lingers on in i/-ii/A.D., mainly in a single phrase fiyOlv 
rjcrcrov, is extinct, never apparently to reappear, at all events not 
within the period covered by the papyri. 

Let us first take the evidence of the Attic inscriptions, as 
given by Schwyzer-Meisterhans (ed. 3, 259). 



From 450 to 378 B.C. 


ovdeis {fxrjd.) 
O 


ov8tls (pi]8-) 
12 


378 „ 3°o „ 
„ 300 „ 60 „ _ 28 
Under the Roman Empire 5 


34 



18 



The latest dates in the first column are two of ii/-iii/A.D. 
The entire absence of ovSa's from the inscriptions for over 
250 years (300—60 B.C.) is most remarkable. 

The evidence of the papyri is in general agreement with 
this, but enables us to trace the use of the two forms rather 
more closely between 300 and 100 B.C. 

(Where there are several instances of a form in the same 
document, the number of examples in that document have not 
been counted : in these cases the figure is followed by 4- : where 
there are several documents which repeatedly use the same 
form, + + has been added.) 

1 Cf. Mayser 180 ff. 



§ 5] The Papyri and the Uncials 59 



from 



iii/B.C. ) 
301 B.C. i 


ovdeis {^r]d.) 
21 + 






ov8ets (pr)8.) 
2 l 


i i/B.C. 

i/B.C. 

i/B.C.-i/A.D. 


5I+ + 

I 3 
I 5 




ce 


Pt 


20++ (all ex- 
one 2 after 132 B.C.) 

4 4 
1 


i/A.D. 

i/-ii/A.D. 

ii/A.D. 

ii/-iii/A.D. 

iii/A.D. 

iii/-iv/A.D. 


3 6 


7 7 (of which 3 
are nrjdev rjaa-ov) 








29+ + 

4+ + 
68+ + 

9 + 

25+ + 
1 


iv/A.D. 











26+ + 



During the period of transition (132 — 100 B.C.), in which 
both forms are largely represented, we have the following 
examples of their occurrence in one and the same document : 
Act. I. col. 1 (131 — 130 B.C.) \xr\Qiv but ohKva, Teb. 72 (114 — 

I 13 B.C.) p?<9eV /x^SeV, Teb. 27 (113 B.C.) firjdtv passim but fir]8eva, 

AP 31 (112 B.C.) iLr)6iv beside ^hiv ov8iva ov8ev6s, BU 998 
(101 — 100 B.C.) pptifv but, more than once, /x^SeVa. It appears 
that retained its hold more tenaciously in the neuter nom. 
and ace. than elsewhere. 

The results which clearly emerge are that at the time when 
the Pentateuch and portions at least of the Prophets and the 
Kethubim were rendered into Greek oiOeis was practically 
universal. OuSei's began to be rehabilitated somewhere about 
the time when the son of Sirach, who could refer 8 to Greek 
versions of "the law... and the prophecies and the rest of the 

1 PP ii. 20, col. 3 ovdtv 252 B.C., ib. 44 Meet's (undated, but apparently 
iii/B.C like the rest of the collection). 

2 BM i. 42 ixiqdiv 172 B.C. 

3 GH 36 ovdev 95 B.C. 

4 BU 1001 n7)Mva 56—55 B.C.: ib. 543 firidev 28 — 27 B.C.: ib. 1060 
/j.tj8^vi 14 B.C. : BM ii. 354 firjdev c. 10 B.C. 

5 BU 1058. 

6 BM ii. 256 (a) 11 — 15 A.D. : ib. 181, 64 A. D. : FP 91, 99 A. D. (the first 
and the third in the same phrase ovdkv evuaKw). 

7 TA-qdeu rjcrffov OP iii. 492, 130 A.D., ib. 495, 181 — 189 A.D. (the latest 
date for 6), ib. 504, ii/A.D.: also ib. 497 ^deis "early ii/A.D.," 504 and 
530, ii/A.D. : BU 638, 143 A.D. 

8 Sir. prol. 



6o 



The Papyri and the Uncials 



C§5 



books," settled in Egypt. On the other hand, at the date 
when Codex Vaticanus was written, ou#€i? was as obsolete as 
to Englishmen of to-day is the spelling "peny," which only 
recently disappeared from our Prayer-book. 

We turn then to the LXX to test the uncials and obtain 
the following statistics. 





(i) -dels in allMSS 


(2) -dels -dels v.ll. 


(3) -dels in all MSS 


ov- 

fltf- 


38 
3 


68 

12 


167 

52 


Total 


4i 


80 


219 



It is obvious that the later spelling largely preponderates, 
and it is fairly certain that it must in many cases have replaced 
an earlier ov8ei<s. Yet, even so, there remain 41 cases where 
this archaism, as it was in the fourth century, has kept its place 
in all the oldest uncials, that is in nearly 12^ per cent, of 
all the passages where the words occur, while in 121 passages 
out of a total of 340 it has left its trace in some of the MSS. 
There is a strong probability that, where the readings vary 
(i.e. in all passages included in column 2), outfei? is the older 
form, as the natural tendency of the scribes was to replace it 
by the spelling with which they were familiar. 

It must further be remembered that some of the Greek 
books (e.g. Ecclesiastes, Daniel 0) were not written till after 
the time of Christ, and in such books ou'Seis was no doubt 
written in the autographs. It is necessary, therefore, to 
examine the LXX evidence in greater detail. We obtain the 
following results. 

(1) Ovdek is to some extent represented, with or without 
a variant ou'Seis, in the majority of the books. 

(2) Three books alone, which use the pronoun more than 



§5] The Papyri and the Uncials 61 

once, contain ouScts in all passages in all the uncials : these are 
Proverbs 1 (17 examples), Ecclesiastes (6), 4 Maccabees (15). 
In each of the following books the pronoun is used once only, 
and the uncials read ouSeis : Judges (xiv. 6), K. /3y (2 K. xii. 3), 
Ezekiel (xliv. 2), Baruch (iv. 12). 

(3) Books where outfa's is found throughout in all MSS are 
3 Kingdoms (iii. 18, xviii. 40, 43) and 2 Chronicles (ix. 20, 
xxxv. 3). 

(4) Books where ov6ci<; has preponderant attestation are 
Genesis, Leviticus, Joshua, 1 Kingdoms, Jeremiah (both parts). 

(5) O^Sets preponderates in most of the other books, 
including Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Isaiah, and Minor 
Prophets ; in all of these, however, ovtfeis finds some attestation. 

From the last sentence it seems fairly clear that the uncials 
cannot be altogether relied on : the Greek Pentateuch certainly 
goes back into iii/B.c, and the Greek Prophetical Books are 
probably not later than ii/B.c, and the autographs must almost 
certainly have contained ovOeis : the three examples in the papyri 
of ouSei's before 132 B.C. prevent us from speaking more positively. 

The books mentioned under (2) above deserve notice as 
regards dates. The Greek Ecclesiastes is probably Aquila's 
work, a second century production, and 4 Maccabees is 
generally regarded as written in i/a.d. 2 The 8 forms are, 
therefore, what we should expect to find in the autographs. 
In the third book, Proverbs, the 8 forms attested throughout 
by BnA doubtless go back to the original translator. This 
suggests a date not earlier than 132 B.C., probably not earlier 
than 100 B.C., as the date when Proverbs was translated. 

The Greek Sirach, we know from the statement in the pro- 
logue, was written in the period of transition (132 — 100 B.C.), 
and we are therefore not surprised to find the uncials uniting in 
support first of the one form, then of the other : the autograph 

1 But xxiv. 21 firjdeT^pij} BX (/uij5. A). 

2 The last part of Baruch also belongs to the close of i/A.D. 



62 The Papyri and the Uncials [§ 5 

probably contained both forms. The same fluctuation holds 
good in Wisdom (ouSci's i. 8 BsA ; ovdtk ii. 4 BkA ; ovSa's 
ii. 5 BkA ; ov^eV iii. 17 BkA etc.); and we are tempted to 
refer that book to the same epoch. 

In the N.T. it is only what we should expect when we find 
that ovOek, which was expiring in i/A d., is limited in WH text 
to seven instances (5 in Luke's writings, 1 each in 1 and 2 
Corinthians). 

(2) Teaa-apaKOvra — Tea-a-epaKovra. 

Dr J. H. Moulton ' has already called attention to the " dis- 
sonance between N.T. uncials and papyri" as regards these 
forms, and his statement applies with greater force to the LXX 
uncials. The substitution of e for the first a in reaaapaKovra 
seems to have come into existence in some parts of the kolvt] 
speech earlier than in others. Schweizer 2 quotes instances of 
reaaepaKovra, TeWepes, etc., as early as iv/— iii/B.c. in Pergamene 
inscriptions, and he regards these forms, which are attested in 
Herodotus, when found in Asiatic territory, as survivals from 
the old Ionic dialect. On the other hand, in Egypt the form 
reo-crepaKovTa hardly appears before i/A.D. and does not become 
common till ii/A.D., from which date it is used concurrently 
with the classical form. Teo-aapaKovra is universal in the 
Ptolemaic papyri. The earliest attested example of the c form 
in Egypt, if it can be trusted, is on an inscription of circa 
50 B.C., ArchiV I. 209, 8e/<aT€0-]crepa. Next comes Tccro-epaKOO-ros 
BM ii. 262, 1 1 a.d., and Tea-a-epaKovra once or twice in i/a.d. : on 
the other hand I have counted 15 examples of TeaaapaKovra in 
papyri of i/a.d. From the beginning of ii/A.D. e becomes more 
common. The e in the second syllable of parts of reWapes is 
much rarer. BU 133, 144-145 a.d., SeKaTeWe[pa] is the earliest 
which I have noted, followed by GP 15 ("Byzantine") Teao-epw. 

1 Prol. 46. Cf. CR xv. 33, xviii. 107 and Mayser 57, 224. 

2 Gramm. d. Perg. Inschr. 163 f. 



5] The Papyri and the Uncials 63 



Yet, though it is clear that the autographs in at least the 
majority of the LXX books must have contained TeacrapaKovra, 
the form which is practically universal 1 in the uncials is 
Tecro-epaKovTa. Here, then, we have an instance where the 
spelling of the uncials has been accommodated to that of a 
later date than the time of writing : the MS spelling may have 
come down from ancestors earlier than iv/A.D., but it is not 
likely to be older than i/a.d. 

(3) Ta/xetov and similar forms. 

Moulton (Pro/. 45) speaks of the coalescence of two suc- 
cessive i sounds as "a universal law of Hellenistic phonology" 
and states that " Tafidov, truv and vyiia are overwhelmingly 
attested by the papyri." Perhaps it was owing to their chief 
interest lying in N.T. study, that neither he nor Deissmann 
{BS 182 f.) has noticed the contrast in this respect between 
papyri dated b.c. and those dated a.d. Mayser's list (92) 
shows that the longer forms Ta/xielov, iyUia, 'A/xfxwvuiov etc. 
were those commonly written in the Ptolemaic age. 

For TOLfj.ieLov — Tafxeiov (or Ta/x. as a street name in Arsinoe) 
the papyri give the following statistics : 





Tapielov 


Ta/xeioi/ (-tov) 


iii/B.C. 


II 2 


O 


ii/B.C. 


I 3 


O 


i/B.C. 


O 


O 


i/A.D. 


O 


4 4 


ii/A.D. 


I 5 


6 (or 8°) 



1 The exceptions are Cod. E in Gen. v. 13, vii. 12 bis, xviii. 28 
(aapcLKovra sic) bis : 2 Es. xv. 15 A, xvii. 67 N, ^ xciv. 10 RT, Cod. V 
four times in 2 — 3 Mace, once (3 M. vi. 38) being joined by A. [Cod. 87 
has the a form in Dan. iii. 47 and one of the correctors of B (usually 
B b ) generally alters the e to a.] Against these examples must be set some 
1 40 instances where TeccrepaKovTa is read by all the uncials. 

2 Add to Mayser's examples HP 31 c. 270 B.C. (six examples), PP i. 
32 (1) 5 iii/B.C 

3 AP 53, 114 B.C. 

4 The earliest is CPR 1, 83—84 A.D. 

5 BU 106, 199 A.D. 

6 Including OP iii. 533, ii/ — iii/A.D., OP iv. 705, 200 — 202 A.D. 



6 4 



The Papyri and the Uncials 



8-5 



In iii/ and iv/A.D. only the shorter form is attested. 

For vyUia. Mayser quotes five exx. from records dated ii/ and 
i/B.c, 99 b.c. being the latest date cited. 'Yyeta appears to 
begin in the papyri early in ii/A.D., e.g. OP iii. 496, 127 a.d., 
ib. 497 "early 2nd cent." lieu/ also makes its appearance in 
the same century 1 . The same distinction between the early 
and later papyri holds good of the analogous forms from proper 
names, ^apa-KtCiov etc. (see Mayser, 92, 57). The longer forms 
are usual down to the early part of i/A.D. : 2apa7ri( € )rov OP 
iv. 736, i/A.D., OP ii. 267, 36 a.d. Zapaireiov makes its appear- 
ance in OP i. no, ii/A.D. Mayser, however, has two examples 
from the end of ii/B.c. of 2oux(€)iwi and cites one of 'Aa-Tapretov 
from Mai (whose accuracy he questions) as early as 158 B.C. 

Turning, now, to the three principal uncial MSS, we find 
the following statistics for the three words referred to above: 







., 







Tafxulnv 


rafxelov 


Tll^UOV 


Total 


B 


I 2 


19 


18 


38 


N 


— 


4 


17 


21 


A 


28 


6 


1 

J 


37 




vyieia 


vyeia 


v-yla 




B 


2 3 


I 


9 


12 


N 


— 


3 


6 


9 


A 


6 




8 


14 




wielv (<ara-) 


Treiv 


TCIV 




B 


33 


12 


 


45 


X 


M 


3 


6 


23 


A 


50 


— 




50 



Only in the third word (as to the spelling of which papyrus 
evidence fails us) is there preponderant evidence in all the MSS 

1 Exx. from ii/A.D. are quoted in CR xv. 37, 434, xviii. in, withjtwo 
exx. of TTtdv from i/A.D. An early ex. of abbreviation {Siacrelv — -aeUw 
i/B.c.) is cited in Moulton's Pro/. 45. 

2 Ez. xxviii. 16. 3 Ez. xlvii. 12, Est. ix. 30. 



§ 5] The Papyri and the Uncials 65 

for the longer form. In the other two words B and « present 
forms which, in the light of the papyri, can hardly be regarded 
as original : in the first case A preserves the form which was 
probably in the autographs, but the general character of the 
A text leaves it doubtful whether this spelling has been handed 
down unaltered from those autographs or whether it is merely 
a literary correction (i.e. that the sequence was Ta/xteiov — 
Ta/xuov — rajxizLov). At all events in the B« text we again have 
grave reason to doubt the antiquity of the MS orthography. 

(4) If, however, we have seen reason in the last two ex- 
amples to question the trustworthiness of the orthography of 
Codex B, there are, on the other hand, cases where the forms in 
use in the uncials carry us back to a period far earlier than the 
dates at which they were written and tell us something of a 
parent MS from which all the uncials, or a certain group of 
them, have descended. The phenomena to which attention 
will here be drawn point to a conclusion of considerable 
interest : they seem to indicate, beyond a doubt, the existence 
at a very early time, if not actually as early as the autographs 
themselves, of a practice of dividing each book, for clerical 
purposes, into tivo nearly equal portions. Probably each book 
was written on two rolls 1 . 

The clue to this discovery, in the case of two (or perhaps 
three) books of the Pentateuch, is afforded by the form which 
the particle takes in the indefinite relative os dv (os idv) and 
kindred phrases, e.g. yviKa dv (fjvUa idv). If the reader will 
be at the pains to go through the examples of os dv (os idv) 
etc. in the Books of Exodus and Leviticus in the Cambridge 
Manual Edition, he will obtain the following results. (The 
forms oVtos dv, ws dv, ews dv, which in these books are invariably 
so written, are excluded from the investigation.) 

1 The subject has been dealt with move fully in an article by the writer 
in/. T.S. ix. 88 ff. 

T. 5 



66 



The Papyri and the Uncials 



r§5 



Exodus. Part I. (i. I — xxiii. 19) 


os av etc. 


bs iav etc. 


Total 


B 


7 exx. 


14 exx. 


21 


A 


11 


10 


21 


F 


7 


8 


15 


Part 11. (xxiii. 20— end) 








B 
A 
F 


19 
17 
16 





19 
18 

17 


Leviticus. Part I. (i. 1 — xv. 33) 








B 
A 


21 

24 


32 

27 


53 
5i 


F 


39 


14 


53 


Part 11. (xvi. 1 — end) 








B 
A 


48 
44 


si 2 


55- 
52 


F 


45 


9) 


54 



The noticeable point is that whereas, in the first half of 
either book, both forms are attested, os idv receiving rather 
the larger support, in the second part os idv entirely disappears 
in Exodus (excepting one passage in AF), while in Leviticus 
it is very sparsely represented. The examples, it should be 
said, are spread over the whole of the two books. The break 
in Exodus comes between xxiii. 16 (<2v idv a-n-eiprj-i BAF) and 

xxiii. 22 (oo"a av IvTzLXtofxai BF (ocra evre'AAo/xai A)...ocra av 

ciVa) BAF), and there can be little doubt that xxiii. 20 
marks the beginning of Part 11. In Leviticus the break comes 
towards the end of chap, xv., probably at the actual close of it, 
though, as BAF have os av in xv. 33, it might be placed 
at xv. 30. 

The evidence indicates that all three MSS are descendants 
of a MS in which Exodus and Leviticus were both divided 



1 xxxiv. 24 TjviKa iav AF (ijviiea av B). 

2 Three examples occur in the last seven verses of the book (xxvii. 28 
BAF, 29 BAF, 32 BAF). Excluding these the numbers are reduced to 
4, 5, 6. Only in these closing verses do BAF unite in reading 8s iav. 



§5] 



TJie Papyri and the Uncials 



6 7 



into two nearly equal parts, which were transcribed by different 
scribes : the scribe of the second half of both books wrote os 
av, the scribe of the first half probably wrote both 09 av and 
os eav. 

In Numbers something of the same kind may be traced in 
AF, which, after the Balaam episode, contain no examples of 
os eav : B* however has this form in both parts (though in 
Part II. it is twice corrected by B ab to 6s av, xxx. 9, xxxiii. 54). 
If the book be divided at the end of chap, xxiv., we obtain the 
following results : 





Part 1. (i. 1 


— xxiv. 25) 


Part 11. (xxv. 1 — end) 




os av etc. 


os eav etc. 


os av etc. 


os eav etc. 


B 


17 


16 


7 


6 


A 


25 


12 


12 





 F 


28 


13 


12 






This change in orthography in these books of the Pentateuch 
does not appear to correspond to a change of translators. The 
evidence of the papyri makes it possible to suppose that the 
two spellings go right back to the autographs, although they 
show clearly that the forms os lav etc., did not become common 
till the end of ii/B.c. My statistics for the use in the papyri 
of the two forms (the materials have grown since Moulton's 
Prolegornetia 1 appeared) are as follows: — 





os av etc. 


09 eav etc. 


iii/B.C. 


43+ + 


(?) 4 2 


ii/B.C. 

i/B.C. 


32 + 
3 


6 3 
6 + 


i/A.D. 


5 + 


39 


ii/A.D. 


13 


79+ + 


iii/A.D. 


5 


13 + 


iv/A.D. 


7 


12+ + 



1 Prol. p. 42 f. Cf. CR xv. 32. 

2 HP 96. 10 and 28 wt ihv iiriXO^L, 259-8 B.C 
hypothetical, occurs in the same context, line 9) : 
245—244 B.C.: PP ii. 39 (g) ? iii/B.C. 

3 None earlier than 133 B.C., the earliest being BM ii. 220 col. 2, 
lines 6 and 8 (reading doubtful), followed by G 18. 27, 



(N.B. eav e-rreXdrji, 
ib. 51. 3 os [e]av, 



132 B.C. 

5—2 



68 The Papyri and the Uncials [§ 5 

lV 0s av was, thus, the usual form in iii/— ii/B.c. down to 
133 B.C., when os edv begins to come to the front, and from 
i/B.c. onwards the latter is always the predominant form : 
the figures in both columns decrease in iii/-iv/A.D., when the 
use of the indefinite relative in any form was going out of use 1 . 

Similar phenomena present themselves in quite another 
part of the LXX, namely in the Psalter. Here again we find 
a distinction as regards orthography between the first and the 
second half of the book. The tests which have been found in 
this book (three) are more numerous than in the Pentateuch : on 
the other hand the only MS affected in all three instances is B : 
T keeps the same orthography throughout, while the evidence 
for nA is not quite conclusive as to their derivation from a 
parent MS which contained the two methods of spelling. The 
break appears to come at the end of * 77, but there are at least 
two Psalms in Part 1. (20 and 76) where the spelling is that 
ordinarily found in Part 11. The three tests are (1) the insertion 
or omission of the temporal augment in ev<ppaiva.v, (2) nouns 
in -eta or -ia, (3) the interchange of at and e. 

(1) The evidence is as follows : 
Part I. 



Part II. 



•*• xv. 9 


T)V(f>p. 


BAU 


ev(pp. 


X \ 


xxix. 2 


)) 


B*ATU 


» 


X 


xxxiv. 15 


)) 


BA 


?? 


X 


xliv. 9 


}) 


BXAT 






lxxii. 21 


)? 


BX* 






[lxxvi. 4 


55 


T 


>) 


BX] 


lxxxviii. 43 


55 


T 


)> 


BXA \ 


Ixxxix. 14 


)J 


T 


)) 


BXA* 


14 


5) 


T 






xci. 5 


)) 


T 


» 


BXA 


xciii. 19 


)) 


A 


?> 


T 


xcvi. 8 


1) 


AT 


»j 


BX 


civ. 38 






>) 


BXAT 


cvi. 30 


)) 


AT 


)5 


X 


cxxi. 1 






5> 


XAT t 



1 In Exodus a further distinction between Part I. and Part II. is seen in 
the use of evavriov in the former, Zvclvtl in the latter. 



§ 5] The Papyri and the Uncials 6g 

(2) Bvvacrria xix. 7 B* lxiv. 7 B*T, lxv. 7 B*K, lxx. 16 B*, 
18 B*X, lxxiii. 13 X* lxxvii. 4 B*T, 26 B*X as against bwatmia 
[xx. 14 B*XAU] lxxix. 3 B, lxxxviii. 14 BA, lxxxix. 10 BXA, 
cii. 22 B, and so B, sometimes joined by A, in cv. 2, 8, cxliv. 6 
(with T), 11, 12, cxlvi. 10, cl. 2. There is a similar change in 
the case of evirpe7r(e)ig, /xeynXo7rpe7r(f )la : chap. xx. in its spelling 
of the last word again goes with Part II. 

(3) Examples of at for e in the 2nd pers. plur. of verbs, in 
-rraidiov ( = 7re8iov) and twice in fiai = fj.e (xlii. 2 B*A, lviii. 2 B*N) 
occur in B in xxiii. 7, 9, xxix. 5, xxx. 25, xxxi. 11 bis, xxxii. I, 2, 
xxxiii. 9, xlii. 2, xlvii. 13, 14 bis, xlviii. 2, lvii. 3, lviii. 2, Ixi. 4, 11, 
lxiv. 12, Ixvii. s, lxxv. 12, lxxvii. 12 (from xxix. 5 to xlviii. 2 B is 
joined by A) — examples of the reverse change in ix. 22 (with A), 
23,24, xiii. 3, xiv. 4 (with A), xliv. 8, liv. 22, lxxi. 7 (with T), 
lxxiv. 6 (with T). After chap, lxxvii. there appear to be no 
examples of this interchange in Cod. B. 

Now, there is nothing to shew that the Greek Psalter is the 
work of more than a single translator : on the contrary the 
whole book is marked by a somewhat peculiar vocabulary. 
Here we have an instance of a division of clerical labour 
merely. But it is just possible that the two spellings go back 
to the autographs. The interchange of € and at begins in the 
papyri in ii/B.c. 1 , when it is distinctly vulgar : it does not 
become common till ii/A.D. At all events the division of the 
Greek Psalter into two parts goes back at least to a MS of 
i/-ii/A.D. 

The close resemblance existing between the cases which 
prove the existence of a practice of dividing the O.T. books into 
two parts, whether for purposes of translation (Jerem. Ezek.) or 
of transcription, is very remarkable. In at least five cases, 
representing all three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, this 
practice has been traced. In each case the division is made 
roughly at the half-way point without strict regard to subject- 
matter : in each case Part I. is slightly longer than Part 11. 
and — what is specially noticeable — the excess of Part 1. over 
Part II. in the Hebrew of the MT is practically a fixed quantity, 

1 The only example B.C. of at for e which I have noted is FP 12. 
c. 103 B.C. Tpaira^iTov (noted by the editors as "an early example"): the 
B.C. examples noted of e for ai are avvyere Par. 50, r6o B.C., opare ib. 
I. 386, ii/B.c. Mayser 107 adds a few more. 



yo The Papyri and the Uncials [§ 5 

namely about one fifteenth of the whole book : that is to say, if 
each of these books were divided into fifteen equal sections, 
Parts I. and II. would be found to comprise about eight and 
seven sections respectively. The following statistics, in which 
the pages are those of an ordinary printed Hebrew Bible, and 
the books are arranged in order of length, will show what is 
meant. 









No. of pages 


Psalms 


Part 
Part 


1. 
11. 


43B 


Jeremiah 


Part 
Part 


1. 

II. 1 


49 I 

43i\ 


Ezekiel 


Part 
Part 


1. 

11. 


44ii 

39 ) 


Exodus 
Leviticus 


Part 
Part 

Part 
Part 


1. 
11. 
1. 
II. 


33li 
27 ) 

83« 



Total. 


Excess of Part I. 
over Part II. 


93$ 


71 


92! 


5i 


83* 


5* 


72J 


4| 


5°J 


3§ 



A final instance may be quoted where B appears to preserve 
a spelling older than itself. In 3 Kingdoms B twice only writes 
ovk I8uv (viii. 53, xvi. 28 c) as against ten examples of ovx iSov. 
The two passages, however, where the aspirate is not inserted 
are absent from the M.T. and are perhaps later glosses. B has 
preserved the differing spellings of the glossator and of the 
earlier text. 

The preceding investigation will serve to show the use to 
which the papyri evidence, when duly tabulated, can be put, 
and how necessary it is, at each step in a work such as this, 
to take account of it. If we sometimes find that all MSS, 
including B, have been influenced by the later spelling, there 
are other instances which carry us back to a date not far 
removed from the autographs, if not to the autographs them- 
selves. 

1 Excluding the last chapter which is a later addition in the Greek : 
cf. p. 11. 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 



§ 6. The Vowels. 

i. Any attempt to determine the spelling adopted in the 
autographs of the LXX, as in those of the N.T., is beset 
with great difficulty, and, in the present state of our know- 
ledge, finality is impossible, notwithstanding the assistance now 
afforded by the papyri. At the time when our oldest uncials 
were written (iv/-vi/ a.d.) and for centuries earlier there was 
no fixed orthography in existence. Changes had taken place 
in pronunciation which gradually made themselves felt in 
writing. In particular the diphthongs had ceased to be pro- 
nounced as such, and scribes now wrote indifferently at or e, 
ei or i, ol or v, having nothing to guide them in their choice 
but any acquaintance which they happened to possess with 
classical models. If we attempt to go behind the spellings 
which we find in the uncials, we are met by two unsolved 
problems, (i) No certain criteria have yet been reached for 
distinguishing dialectical and local differences, if such existed, 
within the Kotv-q. (2) The birthplaces of our uncials are still 
a matter of dispute. 

These gaps in our knowledge are rather less serious to a 
student of the LXX than to the N.T. investigator, because in 
the Greek Old Testament we have no reason to doubt that we 
are concerned with writings which emanate with few, if any, 
exceptions from a single country, namely Egypt : and for that 



72 The Vowels [§ 6, i — 

country the papyri supply us with evidence covering the whole 
period from the time of writing to the dates of the uncials. 

Moreover, the palaeography of Codices N and A (which, 
as Mr W. E. Crum points out, is closely akin to that of many 
of the older Coptic hands), as well as the appearance in these 
two MSS of certain orthographical phenomena — particularly 
as regards the interchange of consonants (§ 7. 2) — which have 
been traced to peculiarities of Egyptian pronunciation, make 
the Egyptian provenance of these two MSS extremely probable. 
On the other hand, the birthplace of B is more doubtful. 
Egypt, Rome, South Italy and Caesarea are rival claimants to 
the honour of producing it : the last-named place is that which 
has recently found most favour. Yet, if Tischendorfs identi- 
fication of one of the hands of n with that of the scribe of B 
may be trusted, the two MSS must apparently have emanated 
from the same country. 

The probability of the Egyptian extraction of A and K 
should, one would suppose, lend their evidence a peculiar 
interest. Yet the generalisation suggested by the available 
data is that B is on the whole nearer to the originals in 
orthography as well as in text. Cod. A contains much that 
we can recognize as characteristic of, if not peculiar to, Egypt, 
sometimes even modes of writing which are characteristic of 
the earlier Ptolemaic age (e.g. i/x ptcrw, iy yaarpt). More often, 
however, it is the case that the spellings found in A and in N 
are shown by the papyri to have come into fashion in Egypt 
only in the Imperial age and may therefore be confidently 
attributed to later copyists. In orthography and grammar, no 
less than in text, A is generally found to occupy a secondary 
position in comparison with B. N is marked by a multitude 
of vulgarisms which have obviously not descended from the 
autographs and deprive this MS of any weight in orthographical 
matters which its apparently Egyptian origin might seem to 
lend to it. 



§ 6, 2] The Voxvels 73 

In addition to the changes in spelling due to altered pro- 
nunciation there are others which have a psychological basis 
(influence of analogy, etc.). The latter are the more im- 
portant, but even the 'itacisms' so-called have their interest 
and may throw light on the history and character of the MSS, 
when tried by the standard of documents, of which the date 
and country are known. 

2. Interchange of vowels. 

A > E. The weakening of a to c 1 frequently takes place 
where the vowel is followed by one of the liquids (p, X), 
especially p. In the first two instances to be mentioned the 
change takes place only under certain conditions. 

We have already examined the forms rla-acpa, Tto-o-cpaKovTa, 
etc. in the light of the papyri and seen reason to doubt their 
existence in the LXX autographs (§ 5, p. 62 f.) : a few words must 
however be added here as to the origin of these widely-attested 
forms. Long before the Hellenistic age Ionic Greek had 
adopted the forms with 6 in the second syllable, Tecro-epcq, re'o-- 

crepa?, riaaepa, Tecro-epwv, reacrepcri, also TeaaepaKoiTa. The LXX 

MSS on the other hand keep the a in TeWapes, Teo-adpwv, 
reaaapai, while commonly writing Te'a-o-epa' 2 , TecrcrepaKovTa. This 
is not a case of Hellenistic Greek directly taking over Ionic 
forms : some other principle must be found to account for 
the discrimination. The masc. ace. in the LXX is either 
reaaapas 2 or reWapcs (= nom.) : the latter is the constant form 
of the ace. in the B text of the Octateuch and occurs spo- 
radically elsewhere in B as well as in A and (twice) in n. — The 
origin of reVcrapcs = ace. 3 is doubtless mainly due to assimi- 

1 Perhaps due to Coptic (Egyptian) influence : Thumb Hell. 138, 177. 
Dieterich UnttTsuch. 11. 

2 Teaaapa in the B text only in Jer. Ez. and Minor Prophets (Jer. xv. 3, 
Ez. i. 6 BA, 8 BA, Zech. i. 18, vi. 1). The same group writes masc. ace. 
reaaapas. 

3 See Moulton Prol. ed. 2 p. 243 f. for the predominance of this form 
in business documents. 



74 The Vowels [§ 6, 2 — 

lation of ace. to nom. plur., of which there are other instances 
(§ 10, 15): but the frequency of this assimilation in the numeral 
appears to be due to the weakening influence of the liquid. 
The nom. conversely appears twice in the B text of 2 Esdras 
(ii. 15, 64) as TcWepas. The rule appears to be that a 
cannot retain its place both before and after p : one of the 
vowels must be weakened to e: in reVo-cpa TeaaepaKovra the 
first a was altered, in reWapes = ace. assimilation to the nom. 
suggested alteration of the second. 

The same influence is seen at work in the papyri in the 
transition from Tapanis (Ptolemaic age) to Sepon-i? (Roman 
age) : Mayser 57 quotes two examples only of lepairielov before 
the Roman age. Sepairis and rea-aepa appear to have come into 
general use together, about i/A.D. Cf. irepa for napd (i/B.c). 
Mayser 56. 

3. In the verb Ka6ap[£,(x> Cod. A in 14 passages 1 has -ep- 
for -ap-, but, with the exception of N. xii. 15 KadeptcrBfj A 
(read iKaOaplcrdr] with BF), only where there is an augment 

Or reduplication : ixaOepLcra, iKaOeptaOrjv, K-e/ca^eptcrpeVo?, but 
always Ka6aptt,u} 2 , KaOapiw, KaOapicracrOe -itraiTes etc. 

B only once has -ep-, 2 Es. vi. 20 fnadepia-drjaav B*A, K never : 
F has it in Lev. viii. 15, Q in Ez. xxiv. 13, V three times in 1 and 
2 Mace, always preceded by an augment. 

In this instance the prefixing of a syllable with e appears to 
produce the change : assimilation of first and third syllables 
and the weakening force of p upon the vowel are jointly re- 
sponsible. The avoidance of the sequence of the vowels 
e- a- a where the second a is preceded or followed by p 
observable in the two examples quoted (rea-crepa, eKaOipio-a) 
is curious 3 . 

4. Connected with the preceding exx. is a group of words 4 , 

1 As against seven with (KaOap. Ke/tadap. 

2 The sub-heading Ka9epU$o) in Moulton-Geden s. v. is therefore mis- 
leading. 

3 Cp. Dieterich op. cit. 8. Dr J. H. Moulton suggests that the verb 
was popularly regarded as a compound of Kara, and {KaO^picra is an example 
of double augment. 

4 Thumb Hell. 75 f. regards the e forms as Ionic and thinks that 



§ 6, 6] The Vowels 75 

in which the ancient grammarians pronounce the forms with 
a to be Attic, those with e Hellenistic : the vowel is in most 
cases followed by a liquid. In a few words containing v 
(/AueA.0?, 7rwAos, tttvzXov) the € form is said to be Attic, the 
a form Hellenistic. LXX prefers the e forms, viz. (for Attic 
fitapos etc.) it has /uepoV and compounds, ^vo-epoV, o-teA(os) 3 
and <rie\i£ew, ij/cXlov 4 (Att. if/dkiov) : also (with Attic according 
to the grammarians) pueAoV, 7r™eA(os) B : similarly i//£*as 7 for 
Attic t^a/cas. On the other hand LXX retains the Attic a in 
KvaOos, va\o<; s , cpidXrj. The MSS are divided as to a-n-cAc/iJos 
(Bk : the Ionic form) and aTre'Aa/^os (AQ) in Na. iii. 17. 

The words a-Ki(a)p6s, x\i(a)p6s, yjsi(a)dos are absent from LXX. 

5. For eveica. > evenei> see § 9, 8. Assimilation of vowels 
produces TrevT€s = 7rdvTes 2 Ch. xiv. 8 A (so Tereypevos Meice86vos 
e8f<povs etc. in Ptolemaic papyri). Analogy of -co verbs accounts 
for forms like edvvero 4 M. ii. 20 A, analogy of the imperfect for 
forms like e'Scoices Ez. xvi. 21 A (so in the papyri). 

6. E > A. The reverse change of e to a is less common : 
two formations in -a'£o> may be mentioned. 'A/xtpid^j takes 
the place of classical d//.<£teVvtt/Ai : the verb occurs four times 
only, in two, Job xxix. 14, xxxi. 19, all the uncials have 77/xc/ua- 
crdixrjv (-tao-a), in 4 K. xvii. 9, Job xl. 5, B keeps the class, 
aor. with e (A, kA having the later form). n<.a£w is used 

Hellenistic Greek arrived at a compromise between these and the Attic 
forms : in modern Greek the a form has prevailed. 

1 So Cod. A always (with /j.iepocpa.yeTt' -<payia -cpovia) in i and 4 M. 
(the only two books which use the word) except in 2 M. vii. 34: K has -e- 
six times, V once. 

2 Lev. xviii. 23, BAF. 

3 1 K. xxi. 13 ret cn'eXa, Is. xl. 15 ws crt'eXos : irpo<j<Tie\L$eiv Lev. xv. 8 
BA (-<na\- F). 

4 So in a papyrus of iii/B.C : otherwise the Ptolemaic papyri have 
Attic forms only, Mayser 16. 

5 Gen. xlv. 18, Job xxi. 24, xxxiii. 24 : but /xvaXovv ty lxv. 15. 

6 Job vii. 19 (tov ttt.), xxx. 10. 

7 Job xxiv. 8, Cant. v. 2. 

8 Job xxviii. 17. 



j6 The Vowels [§ 6, 6 — 

along with the Attic 7n.e£ w "press," but takes on another meaning, 
"seize " (§ 24 s.v.). 

The MSS A and N afford other examples, mainly due to 
assimilation. A has XaKavjj Jd. v. 25, raXapuvi 3 K. xxi. 38, 
dpcoSio? 'heron' ¥ ciii. 17 (^pcoS. T: ipadiot BSR was the usual 
form, but there is early authority for pcodios, and the initial 
vowel may have been an aftergrowth). S has e.g. o-apacpeiv 
Is. vi. 6, rdcrcrapas Jer. xxv. 16, avvTvvui^«r6ai. ib. xxxvi. 8. 

Preference for the first aor. forms accounts for words like 
dvaXdfiaTe Jer. xxvi. 3 A, efiakas etc. (§ 1 7, 2), confusion of aor. 
and fut. inf. for eKcpevfjaadai 2 M. ix. 22 V (=fut. inf.: similar 
confusion in the papyri from ii/B.c, Mayser 385). 

7. A and H. The following exx. of d where ■*) might be 
expected are noticeable. (1) ' AperaXoyia, Sir. xxxvi. 19, "the 
story of thy majesty" (Heb. "pin : scribes have misunderstood 
the word and corrupted it to apai to. \6yia. : the word dpera- 
Aoyos appears first in the koivt], where it means a prater about 
virtue, a court-jester or buffoon). (2) MapvKaa-dat is so written 
(not MP-) m both passages, Lev. xi. 26 = Dt. xiv. 8, /J-rjpv- 
Ktcr^ioi' ov fxapvKaTaL : the subst. is always pnr)pvKt<rp,6^. (So 

(dva)p*apvK.a(rOai, Ep. Barn. IO, but subst. /xr]pvKLap.6<;, dvap.-qpv- 
K770-IS Aristeas 153 f . , 161.) (3) 'Oacppaala (- class, oo-^prycrts) 

is a u7r. Xey. in Hos. xiii. 7 BA (oacpprja-ta Q) coined from the 
late verb oo-<pp<xop.ai for oo-<ppouVojuai. 

Thumb {Hell. 66 f, cf. 61) mentions aperaXdyoy and papvKao-dai 
among the few instances of kolvtj forms which appear to be of 
Doric origin. Another "Doric" koivtj form quoted by Thumb is 
dixaKov : LXX uses only the verb Six 7 ?^ 6 '"- LXX similarly uses 
only Kvvrjyos, 68r]ye'iv -6s, never 68ay. as in some N.T. MSS. 
'Patroroj is the LXX form of apacraio, which is not used (a before 
p tends to be dropped or weakened to e) : it is not an alternative 
for prjcrcru) pi']yvvp.i. 

8. The Hellenistic (Ionic) inf. xpScr&u appears in 2 M. 
vi. 21 A beside Attic xPW@ at ib- iv. 19, xi. 31, Est. viii. 11 
etc.: the Ptolemaic papyri have both forms (Mayser 347). 

The LXX MSS have only the regular forms avaXio-Ktiv, 
dvdXoMTis with a in the second syllable ; in the Ptolemaic 



§6, u] The Vowels 77 

papyri, however, the augment has invaded all parts and 
derivatives of the verb : avr/Xio-neiv, avrfXvTiKos etc. are usual, 
and avrfXapa is almost universal down to ii/A.D., when dvdXcupa 
begins to reassert itself (Mayser 345 f.). The extensive use of 
these forms under the Ptolemies excites suspicion as to the 
trustworthiness of the uncials. 

9. A and O. Bt^Aia^opo? Est. iii. 13, viii. 10 (corrected 
by N c - a - to fiifiXiocf).) is supported by Polyb. iv. 22. 2 and a 
papyrus of 1 1 1 b.c. f3v(3\ta<p6poL<; (Mayser 102, 61) and by the 
similarly-formed /3t/?Ataypa<£os, in which the first half of the 
compound seems to be the neuter plural : but /5i/3A.to^Ki;, 

/3t/3Ato<£uAa'/aov. 

Illiterate scribes confused a and o, much as a and e were 
confused : assimilation and the weak pronunciation of a in the 
neighbourhood of a liquid account for many examples (Mayser 
60 f.). So poXXov (=pdXXov) Is. liv. I X : perotjv (for peragv) 
3 K. xv. 6 A is a curious example, found in the papyri from 

i/A.D. (BM 2 177. 11 = 40 A.D., OP 2 237 col. V. II = l86 A.D., 

AP App. I. Pt. 1. iii. (c) = iv/A.D.), apparently due to false 
etymology (o£vs). Conversely pappa (for fioppd) Jer. vi. iK: cf. 
fipapara (for fipcopaTa) Jl. ii. 23 K. 

10. AI and A. LXX writes kAcu'w, not the old Attic 
*Aaw, and KaLw : for the few exx. in the MSS of kAciw kcwo 
(rare in Ptol. papyri, Mayser, 105) see § 24 s.v. Atct (Epic 
and Ionic) appears in 1 Es. i. 30 B, elsewhere the Attic act', 
and always aeros. 

11. AI and E. Some time before 100 a.d. at ceased to be 
pronounced as a diphthong and was pronounced as e. The 
interchange of at and e, which resulted from the change in 
pronunciation, begins c. 100 a.d. in the Attic inscriptions 1 . 
At about the same date the interchange becomes common in 
the Egyptian papyri, although the beginnings of it may be 
traced back in the vulgar language to the second century B.C. 2 

1 Meisterhans 34. 

2 Mayser 107 cites half a dozen examples of e for at, less than a dozen 
of at for e, from Ptolemaic papyri, mainly illiterate, beginning about 
161 B.C. 



7& The Vowels [§ 6, 11 — 

The change seems to have begun in final -at -e in verbal 
forms. 

The appendices to the Cambridge Manual LXX afford 
innumerable instances of this change, which must, however, 
be mainly attributed to later scribes. Cod. X, in particular, 
abounds in spellings like res rjpfpfs — rals rj^epms in the pro- 
phetical books. B is more free from such spellings especially 
in the historical books, but even this MS has nearly 300 examples 
(mainly of final -at for -e or final -e for -at), which can hardly all 
go back to the autographs. The statistics for B, collected from 
the Appendices to the Cambridge LXX, show a curious rise in 
the frequency of this usage from the Historical Books to the 
Psalms group and from this to the Prophetical group. The 
Pentateuch has 24 examples in all, Joshua to 2 Esdras only 11, 
the Psalms 1 and Wisdom group 63, the Prophets 188. 

A few of the more frequent examples may be noted. 'E^cpvys 
has preponderant support as in NT. (B 6 out of 8 times, 
A 8/10, N 4/6) : dcpv 1810s (-las) is read by A in 2 and 3 Mace, 
but alcpvidios is certainly original in W. xvii. 15. The proximity 
of one of the liquids specially tends to convert at into e (the 
hquid having the same weakening effect as in reo-aapn >Ti<ro-epa) : 
hence frequent examples in B, often supported by XA, of forms 
like i'pere ( = al'perf) eperi((i ( = alp(T.) etc., and of e\eov = <?\aiov. 
It may be noted that among the few Ptolemaic examples of this 
interchange other than in final -ai -e occur avdepalras = avdaiperas, 
eXeov = e\atov (Mayser 107). The reverse change takes place in 
7r ai8 lov 2 = 7rf 8 lov, which is common in B and A. An idiosyncrasy 
of B is a'l8eo-p.a = e'8eaiJLa, 8 out of io times (once in T, ^ liv. 15). 
In the circumstances the context alone can show whether e.g. 
eTepoC — erepos or (ralpos, ececOe = eo-eo-0e or eaeaBai. 

12. AY and EY. The Ptolemaic papyri exhibit only the 
classical forms epeiWw epevva : Ipavvana epavva make their 
appearance in papyri of i/A.D. 3 , and subsequently made way 
again for the older forms. In the LXX uncials the forms are 
about equally divided, and once again the papyri suggest that 
the MSS are not to be relied on as representing the auto- 

1 The examples in the Psalms (31) are limited to the first half, the last 
being Traidiu lxxvii. 12 (see § 5, p. 69). 

2 This form supplies the only examples of at for e in the B text of 
2 — 4 Kingdoms (2 K. xvii. 8, 3 K. xi. 29, xvi. 4). 

3 Mayser 113. The earliest example is dated 22 A.D. 



§ 6, 14] The Vowels 79 

graphs 1 . The theories once held that the form ipavvdu was a 
peculiarity of Jewish or of Alexandrian Greek have to be given 
up : a special association with Egypt is just possible 2 . 

Cf. Ko\oKavei = Ko\aK€va 1 Es. iv. 31 B and neravpov written 
by correctors of B and N in Prov. ix. 18 {irirevpov B*X*A seems 
to have been the older form of the word). The converse, ev for 
av, is seen in evrevda i Es. v. 66 A. 

13. AY — A 3 . No examples in the LXX uncials have been 
noted of the dropping of v in forms like dros ( = avr6s), eparr)v, 
earovs etc., which appear from the papyri to have been in vogue 
in i/A.D. Assimilation accounts for naraya^eiv ( = Karavy.) in 
W. xvii. 5 B and for rpapaTiat ( = rpavp.) in Jer. xxviii. 4JC52 N : 
the influence of evdXnaros probably produced evdpaara ( = ev- 
dpavo-ra) in W. XV. 13 XAC. 

14. E and H. A prominent instance of e replacing rj is 
seen in the preference shown by the Koivrj for the termination 
-e/xa in a group of neuter nouns which in the classical language 
ended in -rjfxa, due apparently to the analogy of cognate words 
in -eo-i? (-ctos) 4 . The same preference for the short radical 
vowel appears in ir6p.a (like 7rdo-is : class. irwp.a), 80/xa, x i V a (class. 
Xtv/jLa), and so apparently Kplpa kAT/xci. Words in -/xa and -cris 
had come to be used with little, if any, difference of meaning 
(e.g. 80/wa, SoVis), and it was natural that they should be formed 
on the same pattern. H is retained in the neuter where the 
cognate feminine nouns have it : where the cognates ended in 
-ao-is 7] is either retained (o-Tacm, -arrjfxa, not -crratia) 5 or 
shortened to e, on the model of the majority of these neuter 

1 The statistics are as follows : e£- 5t- epewau and the substantives 
tpevva i£epevPT)(Tis are included. B has 13 examples of ev to 13 of av: 
A 17 ev, 20 av: X n ev, 14 av. Passages where the -av- forms are 
strongly attested are Dt. xiii. 14 BA, Jd. v. 14 BA, 1 Ch. xix. 3 BXA, 
^ passim, Prov. ii. 4 BXA, Wis. vi. 3 BK, xiii. 7 BX, Est. A 13 BKA, 
Jer. xxvii. 26 BXA. 

2 Thumb ^//. 176 f. 

3 Cf. J. H. Moulton Prol. 47. 

4 Cf. Mayser 65 f., Schweizer Perg. Insck. 47 ff. 

6 'Avdara/xa should perhaps be read in Or. .Sib. 8. 268. 



8o The Vo7vels [§ 6, 14 — 

nouns. New words are formed with the short vowel (LXX 
acpe/xa, Ka.0e/j.a, d</>aipe/i.a). The LXX exx. are as follows : — 



with e 


with e. and rj 


with rj 


evpepa 


e\j/epa -rjpa" 


fr« 


6efxa 


\dvd6epa -rjpa 3 


\pvr)pa 
[{nrdp.vrjpa 1 ' 


sk Be pa 


\crvv8ep,a -rjpa 


in 16 f pa 


fdi'darepa -rjpa 
1 (Stacrre/xa) 4 -rjpa 


(vir68r)p.a 


irapdBepa 


| biddr/pa 


irepidfpa 


j crvcrTepa -rjpa 




rrpoadepa 


\(vTTO(TTepa) -rjpa 




Kardarepa 1 







The two forms dvddepa dvddrjpa appear in different senses, 
the Hellenistic form being used in the translated books for 
a thing devoted to destruction, accursed ( = D"in), whereas the 
more literary books (Jdth, 2 and 3 Mace.) use the classical form 
with the classical meaning, a votive offering given for the 
adornment of a temple. We cannot, however, point to an 
example of the distinction of meanings being made in a single 
book, and dvddr^pa in Deut. (B text) is used to translate Din, 
while av6ep.a is used by Theocritus of a temple offering (Ep. v. 
[xiii] 2). In N.T. Luke possibly observes the distinction (Lc. 
xxi. 5 dva6rjp.aaiv WH with Acts xxiii. 14 dvadepan), but there 
is good authority in the first passage for dvadtp-aaiv 7 . 

15. Connected with the foregoing words is the form 
dvt>7ro8eTos (five times in LXX), the Koarq form of class. 
avv7r6Sr]To<; (once restored by A in Is. xx. 2), on the analogy of 
(o-u'i')8cro5 etc. 

16. Two exx. of Hellenistic shortening of rj in the verb 
are referred to elsewhere (§ 18, 1): (1) in the fut. and aor. 

1 3 M. v. 45. 

2 The former in Genesis (3 times), 4 K. B (twice), Hg. ii. 12, Dan. O 
(once) : the latter in 4 K. iv. 38 A, 39 A, 40 BA, Dan. (once). 

3 'Avd6vp-a Dt. vii. 26 B bis, Jdth. xvi. 19 B, 2 M. ii. 13 V, ix. 16, 
3 M. iii. 17: elsewhere avdde/xa. 

4 Four times in the A text of Ezekiel. 

5 Twice in A text: 1 K. xxiii. 14= 1 Ch. xi. 16. 

6 But V7r6p.vefj.a in a papyrus of iii/B.C, PPj^o. (5)- 

7 See Trench N.T. Synonyms 1st series (v) anci Lightfoot on Gal. i. 8. 
Deissmann has shown that dva.dep.a=" curse " is not confined to " Biblical 
Greek," ZNTW ii. 342. 



§6, 1 8] The Votvels 81 

of a group of verbs with pure Stems, Troveaw i-rroveaa, <popi<ru 

e<j>6peaa etc., (2) in the aorist pass. ippiOrjv (presumably due to 
assimilation, as the long vowel is retained where there is no 
augment, p-qOels etc.). 

"Hwo-rpov (the form used by Aristophanes) becomes ewarpov 
in the kolvtj : so in LXX Dt. xviii. 3, Mai. ii. 3. 

17. The interchange of 77 and e continued, though less 
frequent than that of w and o, till about ii/ or iii/A.D., when 
rj began to be pronounced like 1 (Meisterhans 19). It will be 
noted from the foregoing examples that the short vowel is 
specially frequent in conjunction with A, p., u, p. So A has 
epepd^cov 2 Es. ix. 3 (but in the next v. rjp. with B), Ka>7reAdrai 
Ez. xxvii. 9, aeXevi] Dan. iii. 62. A also has {erelv 1 K. xxiv. 3, 
B 7revTeKOi>Ta N. IV. 3. 

The examples of the converse lengthening of e to tj are few. 
In two adjoining passages in Isaiah another meaning is made 
possible by the use of the long vowel in B : in xxxii. 4 we must 
read npoa-l^n rov a.Kov(iv with XAQ "attend" (B irpoa-^ei) and 
in xxxiii. 6 e/cet with the same MSS (B tjk€l). Uevrrj N. vii. 53 
'B edit ' (Swete's Appendix) occurs also in a papyrus of iii/B.C. 
(Mayser 63) : this and 7revTeKovra above due apparently to 
assimilation of the two numerals. B has peTomriaiav Na. iii. 10 
(confusion of forms in -rjais and -eaia), A zwqa 2 K. ii. 30 (so in 
an illiterate papyrus of ii/B.C, LP pap. C), V yown7]Tias 
2 M. xii. 24. A writes 'lT]pepias in 4 K. xxiv. 18, Sir. xlix. 6 and 
often in Jer., B only once, Jer. xli. 6. For ciXdiTrrjKos etc. 
see § 10, 20. 

18. E and EI. Attic Greek often dropped the 1 in the 
diphthong et before vowels, just as it dropped it in the diphthong 
at (eA.aa act etc.) 1 . Hellenistic Greek almost always wrote 
the diphthong, although Ptolemaic papyri still yield sporadic 
instances of its omission' 2 . 

In the LXX the writing of e for et, in two words where the 
omission of t is specially common in Attic, is practically 
confined to literary books. XWiov for n-Aetov is certain only 
in 4 Mace. (i. 8, ii. 6, ix. 30 n) : it has good authority in 
Mai. iii. 14 BAT (TrA(e)ioi' kQ) and is a v. 1. in L. xxv. 51 A, 

1 Meisterhans 40 ff. 2 lb. 44 : Mayser 67 ff. 

T. 6 



82 The Vowels [§ 6, 18— 

W. xvi. 17 nC, Sir. prol. 6 « : ivXkova. is read by BQ in Am. vi. 2, 
by K in Sir. xxxi. 1 2 : elsewhere the diphthong is universal before 
long and short vowels alike 1 . (Derivatives, 7r\covd.Kt<; nXeoveKTelv 
etc., were always so written.) The writer of 3 Mace, has the 
adverbs reXeov i. 22, and re-Yews vii. 22 A (but reAeitos iii. 26 
AV) : elsewhere LXX has Te'Aeios, TeAeiow etc. 2 The literary 
translator of Job writes <popj3ea for <£op/3eia "a halter" (xl. 20). 
Only in the case of two late derivatives from a'xpeios (which 
itself keeps the diphthong, 2 K. vi. 22, Ep. J. 15) is there strong 
evidence for a more general omission of i 3 , viz., d^peow 
(riXpeutOiqcrav ^ xiii. 3, lii. 4, Jer. xi. 16, axpewo-cu 1 Es. i. 53 B) 
and axpeoT^s Tob. iv. 13 BA bis; axpeiow stands in 4 K. iii. 19, 
Dan. O iv. 11, vi. 20 (1 Es. i. 53 A). 

Aojpfd is universal, and had begun to replace the older 
Scopeui in classical times*. 

19. As regards e and ei before consotiants, LXX always has 
eW, but ek (Attic has etcrw es as well). LXX commonly has 
ei'£K€!' (eVe/ca § 9, 8), while etVcK£v (Ionic and poet.), apart from 
Lam. iii. 44 eheKev -H-poo-eir^s, is curiously confined to the 
phrase ov etveKev " because " (Gen. xviii. 5, xix. 8, xxii. 16, xxxviii. 
26, N. x. 31, xiv. 43, 2 K. xviii. 20 B, Is. lxi. 1 = Lc. iv. ] 8 
quot), which replaces Attic ovvcko.. 

Ov ("weKev for ovvena appears to be due in the first place to 
the avoidance of crasis in the koivt], while attraction of the 
diphthong ov may account for the use of the Ionic diphthongal 
(Iv. (Cronert 114 quotes examples of ov elveKa.) ElveKev is 
unattested in the Ptolemaic papyri, which have only one example 
each of iivena ovvetca rovvena, Mayser 241 f. : in Attic Inscriptions 

1 The Ptolemaic papyri show a great and increasing preponderance of 
the forms with the diphthong, Mayser 69. The Attic rule was ei before a 
long vowel (TrXeioov etc.) : before a short vowel either ei or e, except in the 
neut. which was always TrXeov, Meisterhans 152. 

2 TeXeudrjao/jLevov occurs in a private letter of 103 B.C. (Witkowski, 
Epist. Privatae Graecae, no. 48, line iS). 

3 Xpea = XP € ' a occurs in a papyrus of iii/B.c. (Mayser 68) and on an 
Attic inscription of iv/B.c. (Meist. 40). 

4 Meisterhans 40. 



§ 6, 20] The Vowels 83 

it appears first in Roman times, Meist. 217 : N.T. has three 
examples of it apart from the quotation in Lc. 

20. H and EI. The two examples quoted by WH (ed. 
2 App. 158) of change of 77 to ei call for note also in the LXX. 
Both appear to be due to the approximation in the pronunciation 
of 7] and ei. 

'Aia7mpos for avdir-qpos, " maimed," or more particularly 
''blind," is the reading of the uncials in the only two LXX 
passages, Tob. xiv. 2 s, 2 M. viii. 24 AV (Swete dvairripov<s 
in the latter passage), and has overwhelming authority in the 
two N.T. passages (Lc. xiv. 13, 21) 1 . 

El fjLTjv in asseverations for rj /x>;V occurs in the papyri from 
ii/B.c. and is quite common in i/A.D. 2 In the LXX it is 
abundantly attested 3 , the classical rj [urjv occurring in the 
uncials only in Genesis (xlii. 16 D), Exodus (xxii. 8, 11), and 
Job (xiii. 15 BsC, xxvii. 3 kC). Deissmann was the first 
to point to the papyrus examples of et firjv as exploding the 
old theory of a " Biblical " blending of the classical rj fnjv with 
et /xrj, the literal rendering of the Heb. form of asseveration 
X 1 ? DK. A further argument against that theory might be 
drawn from the fact that d fxrjv renders other Heb. words, 
viz. >2 (in Genesis) and DX, and may be followed by a negative 
(N. xiv. 23 el jxr)v ovk oxpovrat). Still et fxrjv most commonly 
renders x 1 ? nx, and the similarity between it and ei fuj naturally 
caused confusion between the two 4 . The Pentateuch written 

1 Cf. the note of YVH on Heb. xi. 37 eireipdadrjaai', which should 
probably be corrected to i7reipw8T]crav = (Tn]p. 

2 Mayser 78, Deissmann BS 205 ff., Moulton CR xv. 33, 434, xviii. 107, 
Pro/. 46. 1 12 B.C. is the date of the earliest example yet found. On the 
other hand papyri of iii/B.C, e.g. the Revenue papyrus of 258 B.C., have 
V M"- 

3 Gen. xxii. 17, xlii. 16 AF: N. xiv. 23, 28 BF, 35 B ab AF: Jd. xv. 7B: 
2 K. xix. 35 B: Job i. n, ii. 5 BX, xxvii. 3 BA: Jdth i. 12: Is. xiv. 23 
X cb AQ: Bar. ii. 29: Ez. v. 11 B and five times in " Ez. /3," xxxiii. 27, 
xxxiv. 8, xxxv. 6, xxxvi. 5, xxxviii. 19. 

4 So ei /j.7} is read by one or more of the uncials for el fify in N. xiv. 28 (A), 
35 (B) : Job ii. 5 (A): Is. xiv. 23 (BX : no equivalent in Heb.): Ez. v. 11 

6—2 



84 The Vowels [§ 6, 20 — 

in iii/B.c. may, like the papyri of the same date, have con- 
tained r/ ixrjv throughout in the autographs, and the literary 
translator of Job no doubt wrote the classical form : the other 
LXX books all adopted the spelling which was in vogue from 
ii/B.c. 

21. The converse change of « to 77 appears in Jd. v. 13 B, 
Tore KaTtfirj KaTaXr]fXfji.a = KardXeifxiJia (Heb. "then came down 
a remnant ") : similarly in 4 K. xix. 4 B A7fyu.ju.aT0s = Heb. 
" remnant " (A Atyu.yu.aTos), and in 2 M. v. 20 KaTaAry-^eis appears 
to be intended for Ka.TaXei<p6ei<; (V* KaraXi]pcp6r]<; exhibits the 
same change in the final syllable). These examples are ac- 
counted for by the change of ei to 1, which was then altered to 
77 (see below). B^A unite in writing o-r/o-^aTt for o-cio-yuaTi in 
Sir. xxvii. 4 : a papyrus of about the date of the Greek Sirach 
has the word in its usual form 1 . 

For eiprjKa eiprjfiai = fiprjKa rjprjpai, i]pyacrdp.r]v — elpyacrdprjv etc. 
See § 16, 5. 

22. E and I. 'AXeeis, as in N.T., always replaces aAiets 
(Is. xix. 8, Jer. xvi. 16, Ez. xlvii. 10), apparently through dis- 
similation, i.e. from avoidance of the double i sound 2 : the 
change does not take place in a'AieW, Job xl. 26, or the verb 

(Jer. XVI. 16, u.7TO0"TeAA(jL> tous aAeeis...Kai aXievcrovcriv). 

Assimilation (specially frequent in the case of two vowels 
flanking X p. v or p) accounts for the spelling aipiSaXis (for (rep..) 
4 K. vii. 1 A, Is. i. 13 B, Ixvi. 3 X and iripi (for ircpi) Is. lii. 15 S 
(so in papyri of ii/B.C, Mayser 81). The influence of Egypt has 
been traced in the interchange of 1 and e Thumb Hell. 138 
(Coptic had no short z", Steindorff" Kopt. Gra»im. p. 13) : but it 

(AQ), xxxiv. 8 (Q). In 3 K. xxi. 23 el p.rj BA^X 1 ? DX is probably a 
literalism of the original translator. 

1 Teb. 4 1. 22 ffeicr/xaTa=' extortions,' c. 119 B.C. 

2 Blass N.T. § 6, 3 : W. -S. § 5, 20 a. The Ptolemaic papyri always 
have 1 in the second syllable, aXieus, dWws, aXituv and one example of 
dAieis, Mayser 82, 269 f.: the originality of the e form in LXX is therefore 
uncertain. LXX has no examples of the Latin words in which e for t is 
common in the papyri from i/A.D., \e7ea1j' etc. 



§ 6, 24] The Vowels 85 

is to be noted that it is not limited to that country, being found 
in Asia as well (Thumb ib.). 

23. H and I. The change in the pronunciation of t] 
from an open e sound to an i sound fell within the period 
150 — 250 a.d., at least within the district of the Attic In- 
scriptions, in which the mixture of rj and t begins about 150 a.d. ' 
The change may have taken place at a rather earlier date in 
Egypt, but the Ptolemaic papyri show very few indications of 
it. It speaks well for the three principal uncials that examples 
of this interchange of 77 and t are distinctly rare in B and not 
much commoner in tf A : they occur most frequently in two 
late MSS of viii/ or ix/A.n. Y (Isaiah) and V (1 — 4 Mace). 

' AvaTrrjSvei, Prov. xviii. 4 BtfA = dvaTTtSveL is due to an 
incorrect etymological association of the word with TrrjSdoi 
(see LS s.v. 7tlBv(d). 

The following examples of confusion of the vowels may be 
noted as occurring more than once or as occurring in B or as 
affecting the sense. (1) H>I: — 'A-rroppi^ei Lev. xiii. 56 B : 
IXiKia Sir. xxvi. 17 A with 'iXiKias 4 M. viii. 2 A, 'i\iKia>TT]s ib. xi. 14 A: 
KTio-eus (for KT^atca) SK civ. 21 NAR vid : pirlvr) Gen. xxxvii. 25 AE, 
xliii. 11 AF, Jer. viii. 22 A: o-p.lyp.ci Est. ii. 9 A ( = apfjypa BX). 
Here may be added two examples where B, by writing ft for 77, 
imports a new meaning : el/xepovTo W. xvi. 18 (which might be 
intended for 'was charmed': read r)pepnvro), e'lt-ovaw Mic. vii. 12 
(for rj^ovaiv 1S12*)- ( 2 ) I > H. Ov% r)8iav (for ovk I8iav) Jdth, 
v. 18 B, so Prov. v. 19 N (in the next v. A has TJadi = 'laOi), cf. 
vj 8, 3 : avaK.\r]<T€L (for avaitki<r(i) Cant. i. 12 C : e^f^cup^crei/ 
I Es. iv. 44 and 57 A (in act. sense "removed," B ex<*>P l(Tev '■ 
a similar confusion eirixcopio-avros for -pi]<r. in a papyrus of 
ii/B.C, Mayser 84) : iTTip,rjyip>ai 1 Es. viii. 84 B : fj.rjaivop.ei/T] 
Jer. iii. 1 B. 

24. I and EI 2 . It is needless to dwell long on the inter- 
change of these two methods of spelling. For more than a 
century before our era « had ceased to be a diphthong : t 
and et were pronounced alike and scribes had no guide but 

1 Meisterhans 19. 

- See especially Blass N.T. 6 f., Mayser 87 ff. 



86 The Vowels [§ 6, 24— 

classical models to tell them which was the correct method 
of writing. The alteration in pronunciation thus brought it 
about that ei and t could be used indifferently to represent 
long i: the use of et for 1 is an indication of greater illiteracy 
and is more restricted. Some scribes used the old diphthong 
ei for a new purpose, namely, to indicate long i (so generally 
the scribe of B) : others practically dispensed with it or used 
the two spellings indiscriminately. This use of et and t as 
equivalent does not, however, become common in the Egyptian 
papyri till ii/B.c. 1 : those of iii/B.c. for the most part observe 
the classical orthography. The earlier Ptolemaic papyri usually 
write Ttfxaoi, TLjj.rj, xtA.101 etc. (beside the classical ep-etfa, reto-co 
etc.) : it is only towards the end of ii/B.c. that Tapaj, yeiVeo-#ai, 
yeivcocTKeij/, 77/Aetv and v/xelr etc become common. It is thus 
a priori probable that the LXX autographs, at least of the 
earlier books, preserved the correct classical spelling. 

The only rough conclusion that can be drawn with regard 
to the LXX uncials is that the orthography of B in this matter 
is more correct and perhaps goes back to an earlier age than 
that of N and A. In general it may be said that B prefers writing 
long i as et (e.g. fxeiKpos, KXeivrj, y-eta-etv, peiVreu'), and that many 
of these forms are well attested in papyri of ii/B.c. **, on the 
other hand, and (to a less degree) A, prefer 1 as representing 

the sound of long i (e.g. €KivoS, awe'cr-nXa, e/xtva, ^ip, ™X 0S )- 

25. It will be noted that in most of the instances cited the 
i sound is preceded or followed by one of the letters X, fi, v, p : 
and it might be laid down as a general, though not an ex- 
haustive, rule that B writes Xet- pei- vet- pet- while X writes -iX. 
-ip. -iv. -tp. Exceptions to this rule in the case of B are dXlfpetv, 

XiTOupyeti' and forms from Xeiireiv (e'/cXn/z-ei, vireXicpdrjv etc.). 

B is fond of writing 1 for et in the dat. sing, of words in -is, 
e.g. 8d<ri Kpla-L Sui/dpt 2 : on the other hand it almost invariably 
has laxyu for l<r\vt. 

1 In Attic Inscriptions the interchange did not make itself widely felt 
till later, c. 100 B.C., Meisterhans 48. 

2 So iroKi /3ao-i\t in HP no (270 — 255 B.C.), Trapivpeai. Teb. 5 (118 B.C.) 



I 6, 27] The Vowels S7 

As regards ei for 1 B is not impeccable : opeiov is frequently 
attested in this MS 1 ; but forms like d\r]8eiv6s are more 
characteristic of A. ndAei? for nom. nuXis is common in B. 

26. As regards abstract nouns in -em -La the following 
examples of forms in -la are well attested by the uncials : ayvia 
(attested 4/5 : by B*AF in N. vi. 2), anpifila (attested 5/6 : by 
B*A in Dan. 0), dacpaXla (Lev. xxvi. 5 B* Dt. xii. 10 B* all 
uncials in the one example in ¥, ciii. 5 : elsewhere in N, A and 
V), SovXla (well supported throughout : only in three passages 
8ov\eia appears unquestionable, 3 K. xii. 4 BA, 2 Es. vi. 18 BA, 
Jdth. viii. 23 BvSA), epprfvla (Sir.), (varaQLa (Est. and Wis.\ 
ieparla (always attested, by B in Pent., by A in later Hist, books, 
by BNA in Sir., by BQ in Hos.), Xarpla (B* Hex., ANV 1 M.), 
pavrta (Isaiah), perapeXla (BA in the only passage), p,vla (BKA 
in Jer. j3), vrjarla (¥ and Min. Proph.), irai8la (certain in * and 
Is.), TrXrjp.p.e'kia (certainly on MS evidence to be preferred to 
-Xeia), Tropin (attested throughout, except in Jdth. ii. 19, but 
mainly by XA), tropvla (mainly XA, BN in Is. xlvii. 10, BNA 
Jer. iii. 2), Trraxia (always attested, certain in ¥ and Job 0), 
Xrjpia, dxfieXla (always attested, certain in Job, % Jer. /3). 
Inferior support (mainly that of N) is given to forms like 
diraXia j3or]0ia 8vvaa-ria (vo-efiia etc. 

In the Psalter we have evidence that the orthography in this 
case goes back to an earlier date than that of B : the book was 
divided either in the autograph or in an early copy of it into 
two parts after ¥ 77 : the scribe of the earlier portion preferred 
the forms in 4a, the scribe of the latter part wrote -a.a (see 

§ Si P- 6 9)- . . , 

For the omission of the first t in words in -ifiov -uia see j; 5, 

p. 63 ff. 

27. O and E. Assimilation, analogy and the weakening 
of pronunciation in an unaccented syllable produce some 
interchange of these short vowels 2 . 

(1) E>0. The late derivatives from oAeflpos, first used 
apparently in the LXX, where they abound, are there, according 
to the preponderant evidence of the uncials, correctly written 

and frequently in business contracts from i/A.D. onwards in the formula 
/3e/3atc6crw irdur] /3e/3cuio<n. 

1 Possibly to avoid the tribrach. The writing of t as ei is specially 
common in diminutives where it is apparently due to a desire to avoid ~~~. 
BtfiXeLdiov is common in the papyri (I have counted seven examples between 
i/ and iii/A.D.) : so aXvaeidiov, 8aKTv\eL8t.ov etc. 

2 Cf. Meisterhans 22 f., Mayser 94 ff. 



88 The Vowels [§ 6, 27— 

(i£)o\e6peveiv -evp,a -cucm. The spelling i$o\o8p€veiv, which has 
survived in mod. Gk. £o\o6pevw, and is due to assimilation of 
the vowels flanking the liquid 1 , is quite rare in the first 
hands of the principal uncials and cannot be attributed to 
the autographs. 

Out of upwards of 250 examples in the LXX B* has only 
22 instances of -oko6p., A 8, N* 9. The only books where the 

form is well supported are 3 Kings (ii. 4 B, xii. 24 m B, 
xvi. 33 B, xviii. 5 B, xx. 21 B' A, as against seven examples 
where o is unattested) and the first half of ^(B 5, S 1, A 1): 
in Jer. xxxi. 8 i^o\o8p. has the weighty support of BSAQ 2 , 
elsewhere this book has i^oXfdp., though in the simple verb 
the o form is attested in three out of four passages by N or B. 
The later o form is introduced into the Vatican MS with 
indefatigable regularity by one or more of its correctors. The 
subst. oXedpos remains constant in this form. 

The same change appears in another verb in -evay, Karepop. 
fievo-cv, N. xxxii. 13 B (-pep.fi. AF), where it is due apparently 
to the influence of popfios po/x/Je'w : for the causative meaning 
"made to wander," cf. Syntax and contrast Is. xxiii. 16, pe/x- 
fievauv 7roAet9, "wander through." 

The e in the penultimate syllable of Terpa7re8os (Ai#os), "a 
squared (or hewn) stone," is usual in Hellenistic Greek in 
this phrase and in similar adjectives : but TeTpaTroSos is strongly 
supported in Jer. lii. 4 (B*AGT), and is attested in the two other 
LXX passages, 2 Ch. xxxiv. 11 A, 1 M. x. 11 «V 3 . 

(2) O > E. The substitution of c for o in an unaccented 
syllable is strongly attested in two verbal forms : i-rreXdOevTo 

1 Perhaps we may find a parallel in Attic in the two forms 6j3e\6s, 
6/3oX6s. The assimilation takes another form in e^eXeOpevetv Zech. xiii. 2 X, 
Ez. xxv. 13 Q vid , 16 Q* vid . 

2 Here perhaps may be traced the hand of the redactor who combined 
Jer. a and Jer. /3. 

3 The usual Attic adjectives are Terpd-jrovs, e^aTrovs etc. The forms in 
-7re5os (rpt7re5os, etjaireSos, eKard/xireSos etc.) are mainly used of length, as is 
Terpdwedos in Polyb. 8. 4 (6). 4. But the Heb. 2VI1Q (' hewn ') which is 
rendered by rerp. in 2 Ch. xxxiv. 1 1 and the use of Terpdywvos as a 
synonym in 1 M. x. 11 A (so Jos. A.J. xiii. 2. 1) seem to fix the meaning 
of \L6os rerp. 



§6, 29] The Vowels 89 

= i-mXadovTo (Jd. iii. 7 A, Jer. iii. 21 Btf, xviii. 15 BnA, 
xxiii. 27 Bn, xxvii. 6 nA, xxxvii. 14 N, Hos. xiii. 6 B, * lxxvii. 1 1 
B) 1 and 6/jLw/j.eKa 2 = ofxaj/j-oKa, 1 K. xx. 42 B, o/tM/if^a, Ez. vi. 9 A. 
With i-TreXaOevTo (? on the analogy of iriOtvTo) cf. the termi- 
nation -ecrai' which occasionally replaces the more usual -oa-av 

(KdTecfxiyecrav, Jer. X 25 «Q and in papyri eXa.fxfiave.crav de^tXecrav : 

see § 17, 5 and 10). 

28. O and Q. The distinction between the long and 
short vowels, after the formal adoption of w into the Attic 
alphabet at the end of v/b.c, is on the whole strictly observed 
in Attic Inscriptions down to 100 a.d. 3 In Egypt the dis- 
tinction became obliterated at an earlier date, earlier, it would 
seem, than in any other province of the koivij : the papyri of 
iii/B.c, however, are practically free from the mixture, which 
only becomes common in ii/B.c, and is then mainly confined 
to illiterate documents 4 . It is another testimony to the value 
of the principal uncials that the instances in them of confusion 
of o and w are comparatively rare : it is only in late MSS such 
as E (Genesis), T (Prophets), T (Psalms), and V (Mace.) that 
it is frequent. 

29. A few words claim special notice. 

The verb a&pow (a late formation, perhaps coined by the 
translators, from dOwos, tiwrj) in all the 21 passages where it 
occurs in the uncials takes o in the second syllable, dOou- 
Orjo-o/jLOLL, yjdooifxaL etc., apparently owing to the difficulty felt 
in pronouncing the long vowel twice consecutively 5 . 

1 So in Mark viii. 14 B. The regular eweXddovro in 1 K. xii. 9, 
Job xix. 14, xxxix. 15 B, ^ cv. 13, 21, cxviii. 139 and as v. 1. in loc. citt. 

2 So 6fj.6fJ.eKa 6fJ.oofj.eKa in papyri from i/B.c, Mayser 9^ : add 6u.uu.eKa 

OP3 478.44 ( I3 2 A.D.). 

- Meisterhans 24. There are a few examples of mixture as early as 
iii/B.C, but it does not become common till Hadrian's time. 

4 Mayser 97 ff. He reckons seven examples of mixture in iii/B.c. (a 
few more must be added from the Hibeh Papyri) to 140 in ii/B.c. 

5 'Adyos remains unaltered, even where there is a double w (Jer. ii. 34, 



90 The Vowels [§ 6, 29 — 

npoVos should be written in all the (eight) passages 1 , but 
t/mmvos- The former word means " early " in the year (of rain 
and fruit), is opposed to oi/apos, and is apparently derived 
from ir P 6 : the latter means " morning " (as in morning-sacrifice, 
morning-watch), is opposed to ea-ireptv6<;, and derived from 

'2 
TTp(DL . 

' AyaOwavvr), dyiwavvq, /xeyaXworvvri are the forms in use in 
LXX as in N.T. : T alone (in Psalms) consistently writes 
-ocrvv-q: B has peya,W. in Dan. (iv. S3, v - 19). and B *^* 
in Zech. xi. 3. 'Upwa-vvrj (dpxiepwcr.) has also the best autho- 
rity : in Mace, iepoa. is read sporadically by each of the three 
uncials. A occasionally writes (Wooo-w^, treating the at as 
a short vowel (3 K. viii. 32, x. 9, Is. i. 26, xxxii. 17). 

For the short vowel in Tro'pa (Att. Trwpa), Sopa cf. 14 above : 

for ewpoLKa-iopaKa § 24 S.V. opaco. 

30. The remaining examples in Cod. B of the interchange 
of co and o are (unless others have escaped notice) confined, 
apart from two in Exodus, to the books contained in vol. II. of 
the Cambridge LXX. (1) Q > O : lo^o-erai Job 6 xxviii. 17. 
(2) 0> Q : Ka8oypoXoyi]crrjTca Ex. xxi. 9 (Ka6copo\oyi)o-fTai A : so 
ai/co/xoXoy^o-aro) in a papyrus of ii/B.C, Mayser 99), TreTrrcoKcos- 
( = -kos) Ex. xxiii. 5 (cf. to rjo-devrjKas Ez. xxxiv. 4 A and to 
-yeyoi/co? in a papyrus of c. 115 B.C., Teb. 115. 23), dvpea>4>6pos 
1 Ch. xii. 24 (to avoid five short vowels : usually -ocpopos or 
-a(popos), 71-co/jpco 2 Ch. xxvi. 15, dvOapoXoyrjo-is 2 Es. iii. II 
(2<opapd>v B = ~2opopoov A = Samaria ib. iv. 10), avavrjToi* (for 

Est. E 5), but adbu: is read by B in 2 Ch. xxxvi. 5 d, adbwv by X in 

Jer. xix. 4. 

1 In the two where it is used of early figs (Hos. ix. io, Jer. xxiv. 2) A 

has wpuHfjios. , . 

2 The distinction between the uses and forms of wpoifios irpmvos is 
carefully observed in LXX. Tlpwifj-os appears to be a later form due to a 
false etymology, as from irpwi (but see Blass N.T. 22 who, accepting the 
derivation from irpui, compares ttXuji/xos 7rX6t J uos). In Is. lviii. 8 tots 
payncreTai irp6ip.ov to c/.ws aov (in^'3 ' as the dawn ' : Ottley renders the Gk. 
'early in the morning') irprnvov would be nearer the original: the 
translator seems to have meant ' early,"soon ' (cf. rax" dvareXe? which 
follows) and to have dropped the Hebrew simile. 

3 'Eopa 4 M. iv. 24 A. 

4 In Wis. this form improves the metrical balance with the previous 



§ 6, 34] The Vowels 91 

avov.) W. iii. 1 1 B*N (and so A in 4 M. xvi. 7, 9). In Sirach the 
writing of a> for o is more frequent and goes back apparently to 
the autograph or to an early copy : prol. 22 (5ia>Teveiv BNAC, 
p((roTra>pa>i> (for p€(ro7ropa>v) xxxiv. 21 BAC(X) 1 , aKpavos XXXviii. 
28 B, evcodla (for evo8ia) xliii. 26 B and so xx. 9 A, xxxviii. 13 NC 
(evodia is confirmed by the Heb. in two of the passages, by the 
sense in xx. 9 where the Heb. fails), 0a>W£W (agreeing with 
t6£ov) 1. 7 BK. 

31. In view of what has been said as to the correct use in 
general of a> and o in the uncials, their evidence as regards e.g. 
fut. (or pres.) ind. and conj. gains in importance : in the LXX 
at least we shall not expect i'xopev and e'xapev to be confused in 
Cod. B 2 . It is clear, for instance, from the following passages 
that the Pentateuch translators were fond of using a fut. ind. in 
the first clause of a sentence, followed by a deliberative conj. in 
the later clauses: Gen. xxii. 5 8ie\evo-6pe8a...Ka\...dva(rTp<i\lfOdp.ev, 
xllll. 4 Karcif3r]cr6pfda /cat dyopdtra>pev, xliv. 16 Tt dvrepovpev ,..rj tl 
\a\r]acL>pev 1] tl 8iKaiu>6cop.ev ; Ex. viii. 8 e£«7ro(rreXa>...K«( Ovaaxriv. 

32. O and Y. The heterogeneous Attic adjective Trpao? 
-eia -v has been rendered uniform, 7rpaus replacing 7rpaos : the 
substantive is consequently Trpavriq^ not the older -n-paoT^s 
(§ 12, n). 

33. OY and O. Of this interchange (fairly frequent in 
Ptolemaic papyri, Mayser 116 f.) the uncials yield but few 
examples. N has 6k (o^) for ovk (ofy) (no examples quoted by 
Mayser) in Is. xl. 16, Iviii. 10, Jer. xii. 4, xxii. 12, so F in Ex. 
vii. 23: N also has 'idSa Jer. xxxvi. 22. A has vofirjvia Ex. xl. 1, 
SoXet'a (=8ovX.) Ez. xxix. 18, and conversely 8ia(BovXrjs for Sia/3oXf/f 
Sir. li. 2. 

34. OY and Q. A5>vai for 8ovvai (on the analogy of yvcovm) 
Est. ii. 9 B is not attested in the papyri before i/A.D. (FP 109. 4, 
letter early in i/A.D., dva8S>vai AP JJ. 24, 130 A.D., p,eTa8a>vai 
OP 2 123. 11, letter of iii/ or iv/A.D.). 

The uncials always write ovs, not as (as often in Ptolemaic 
papyri on the analogy of the oblique cases, Mayser 5). 

clause, ending with raXaiVwpos, but it can hardly be original: the writer's 
sense of rhythm (cf. Syntax) would be sufficiently satisfied by rakaiwupos — 
av6vr\T0i. 

1 LS cite the same form from Dioscorides. 

2 Contrast Moulton Prol. 35 on the text in Rom. v. 1. 



92 The Vozvels [§ 6, 35 — 

35. OYand Y. The Ptolemaic papyri offer a few examples 
of their interchange 1 . In LXX KoXXovpa, "a roll" or "cake," 
KoWovpis, Ko\\ovpi£eiv are read by B in 2 K. xiii. 6, 8, beside 
KoWvpis, KoXXvpL^Lv, KokXvpiov in the same MS (as always in 
A) in 2 and 3 Kingdoms. The two forms are attested in the 
single N.T. passage (Ap. iii. 18), and elsewhere 2 . 

Two examples of ov for v appear close together in Jer., 
XeTTTovvuvcriv xxxi. 12 B*, Xovp.tv6iJ.fvos (^Xvpaiv.) xxxi. 18 N* vl<1 , 
which may go back to the compiler of the two portions of the 
Greek book. B has i)plo-ov for fjpia-v Is. xliv. 16 (so in a papyrus 
of ii/A.D., Mayser 118). 

An instance of v for ov is apparently to be found in Xv- 
rpcovas 3 4 K. x. 27 BA (for Xovrpwva<;, a euphemism for the 
Heb. ' draught-house ' : cf. latrina = lavatrina). 

We find also vpavov Sir. i. 3 XA, 8vXos ( = 8ovXos) 1 K. xiv. 21 A, 
^ cxxii. 2 T. 

36. 01 > I. X has Xi>xvl=Xi>xvoi Zech. iv. 2 and apparently 
ipiX&vTo ler. xxxvi. 23, Trirjo-arf ib. xlii. 15, A has <$>iviKrjs 
Is. xxiii. 2. (LXX uses crrixos only, not arolxos, for "a row" ; 
and so arix^C eiV ( not trrot^.) "to arrange in a row" Ez. xlii. 3.) 

37. OI > EI. Auctv is the form assumed by Svolv in two 
literary LXX books, 4 M. i. 28 nV (Svolv A), xv. 2, Job xiii. 20 
= ix. 33 A, as also in late Attic Inscriptions (329—229 B.C.) 4 , 
in a literary papyrus of ii/B.c. 5 and in some literary kolvtj writers 
(Polybius, Strabo, Plutarch). The form seems to reflect a 
stage in the change in the pronunciation of ot which was on 
the way to becoming equivalent to v (cf. 41 infra). It is 
almost the only vestige of the dual remaining in the kolvt}. 

1 Mayser nS, cf. Thumb Hell. 193 f. Thumb holds that v in the 
KOipr) was pronounced in at least three different ways (as German it, i, 11). 

2 Blass N.T. § 6, 4 pronounces the -ov- form to be certainly of Latin 
origin. 

3 The form is not quoted in LS. 

4 Meisterhans 157. 

5 Mayser 314, where the literature is quoted. Phrynichus sanctions 
dvelv but'only'as a genitive (Rutherford NP § 185). 



§ 6, 41 ] The Vowels 93 

38. OI and O. The 1 in the diphthong ot is sometimes 
dropped, as it is in at and ei, before a vowel, both in classical 
and in koivt/ Greek 1 , rioeu' for Troidv is the commonest 
example : the only example noted in LXX is irorja-e. (= Troirjaai) 
Jer. xxxix. 35 K. The loss of the t before a consonant is un- 
known in class, and rare in kolvi] Greek 2 : B* has (Was (- oik.) 
Jer. lii. 13, aVoKta (= aVai/a'a) 2 Es. i. ii, ii. i, x. 8, and to^ois 
(= Toi^ots) ib. v. 8. 

39. On the other hand, in the kolvt] an t was sometimes 
inserted between o and another vowel (a or •>;), e.g. fioi-qOeiv, 
6y8oL7]KovTa, or an original t in this position, which was dropped 
in Attic, was retained. Attic Greek wrote 7roa, p6a, x^°V, 1 A ' a 
(or \f/va), a muscle of the loins : but irola (-77), poid (-77), ^Aou? 
appear in the dialects, in late Attic and occasionally in the 
papyri 3 . LXX always has the Attic poa and x Ao V ^ioav 
should be read in Prov. xxvii. 25 (BnC, -n-oiav A), but iroia in 
Mai. iii. 2 (BAr), and probably in Jer. ii. 22 (B*Q*). *o'a 
Lev. iii. 9 and three times in the B text of 2 K. (A if/ota) : 
in * xxxvii. 8 ai i/wu of AT must be the original text (cor- 
rupted to at i/zu^at' and thence to 77 ^XV °f B^*)- 

LXX has no examples of forms like (Sotrjdelv, dydoirjKovra 
(found in Attic Inscriptions and Ptolemaic papyri). 

40. OI and S2. X* has aviyvoi ( = aviyva>) Is. xxxvii. 14, 
eyvois ib. xlviii. 8, eyvoi 1 M. i. 5. For Sols, 8ot=conj. Sws, Sw 
see § 23, 10. 

41. OI and Y. Ot in the Attic Inscriptions is the last 
of the diphthongs to lose its diphthongal character : interchange 
of ot and v is first found in them c. 240 a.d. 4 In Egypt 

1 Meisterhans 57, Mayser 108 f. Tloeiv etc. appears in Attic Inscriptions 
in v/b.C. and is common in iv/B.c. : in the papyri its flourishing period is 
ii/B.c, though the examples of ttol- are even then twice as many as those 
of 7ro-: in i/ and h/a.d. voie'iu is replaced by irvtiv (01 = v). 

2 Ao7r6s for Xoiiros several times in Tebtunis papyri (end of ii/B.c), 
Mayser 109. 

' Meisterhans 58, Mayser 15, no. 4 Meisterhans 58 f. 



94 The Vowels [§ 6, 41 — 

the equalisation of 01 and u begins considerably earlier, in 
illiterate papyri of ii/p..c, but does not become frequent till 
i/a.d. ' It is noteworthy that the earliest instances in the 
papyri are also the only examples which, on the authority of 
the uncials, are deserving of consideration in the LXX. 

(i) B* has forms from avvyeiy (= ai/otyeiv) in 2 Es. xvii. 3, 
^ xxxviii. 10, Na. ii. 7 (with tt) and Jer. xxvii. 25, and these 
forms are fairly common in * (and A) in the Prophetical and 
Wisdom groups : cua'yeir is the earliest example of v for ol 
in the papyri (160 B.C. : so v£ei = oi£ci, 99 B.C.). 

I,vv8oui(Ta> (for -8vda-a>) read by B*A* in ¥ cxl. 4 may be 
original. B* also has av=o-ol 1 Ch. xxix. n ( = 1^ = 0-0/ A : cf. 
Dan. Sus. 50 A : the earliest papyrus example noted by Mayser 
is dated 90 A.D.) and d\vcf>rjs Mic. vii. 11. A and N afford other 
examples : trrv,3^s- Jd. xv. 5 A, tv^ois 3 K. vi. 10 A (so in a bank 
receipt of 112 B.C., Mayser op. cit.), crxvvos A, o-^uv/oi' and 
axvinafxa N, (pvvitj Sir. xxiv. 14 A, (fiwiKovv Is. i. 18 X etc. 

(ii) Of the converse use of 01 for v the only example 
claiming consideration is AoipziWo-^ou for kv/xaiveaOai, which 
has strong support in Proverbs (xviii. 23 B*, xxiii. 8 B*C, 
xxv. 26 B*, xxvii. i3B*sAC: but xviii. 9 \v/jl. B^A) and in 
Sirach (xxviii. 23 B*s) 2 , and is moreover attested in a papyrus 
dated as early as "about 147 or 136 B.C." (G. 17. 15). A 
real or supposed etymological connection between Aot/ao? and 
XvfjL-r] probably accounts for the adoption of this form. 

2ot for (tv is read by BAC in Job xv. 4, by A ib. xxxiv. 17, 
N ib. xxxv. 2, also by A in Jer. xlv. 24, and by X in 1 Ch. xvii. 27, 
Is. xxvii. 8, Zech. ii. 2. B has KXoibavia-drja-ovTai Is. lvii. 20. 
OIttol(t<x) (for vTroiaco) occurs in Job9xxxi. 23 NA and Prov. xviii. 
14 N, and these two MSS yield some other examples of oi = v. 
F has ev8e8oiK€i ( = ev8e8vKei) in Lev. xvi. 23, which appears to 
be the only example in the uncials in the Pentateuch. 

1 Mayser no ff. Dr J. H. Moulton points out to me that in the matter 
of pronunciation the koivt) by no means followed the lead of Attic. 

2 The first hand of N probably wrote this form in Jer. xxxi. 18: 
" Xov/xevo/j.ei'os S* vid " in the Cambridge edition (App.). 



§ 6, 43] The Vozvels 95 

42. Y and I. The change in the pronunciation of v 
to that of i 1 did not become general in the koivij till about 
100 a.d. In two words, however (in addition to some proper 
names), other causes had before this produced interchange 
between the two vowels, even in Attic Inscriptions 2 . These 
words are 17/xicrus and fiifiXLov (/3i/3A.os). Assimilation of the 
unaccented 1 to the following v produced y/ixvavs (-o-w -cru : but 
ry/xi'crcos etc. where there is no v in the 3rd syllable) as early 
as iv/B.c. : in the Ptolemaic papyri this form predominates in 
iii/B.c, in ii-i/B.c. rjjxvav; and tJ/xlo-vs are represented by nearly 
equal numbers. LXX has rjfxvcrv only in Dan. vii. 25 B, 
elsewhere rjixtav : the preference for rj/xvav; in the early Ptole- 
maic age casts some doubt on the trustworthiness of the 
uncials. 

On the other hand LXX has some examples of assimilation of 
the 3rd syllable to the 2nd. 'H/xtcret for pin; has good authority 
at the end of Joshua (xxii. 1 B* 10 A, 11 B*A, 13 A, 21 A) and 
is attested by F in N. xv. 9, 10, Jos. ix. 6. Conversely, rjfuav 
stands for dat. ij/xi'cret in N. xxxii. 33 BAF, xxxiv. 13 F, Dt. 
xxix. 8 A, Dan. ix. 27 BA. B* writes ijfiiaov for rjixiav in 3 K. 
iii. 25, Is. xliv. 16. Cf. § 12, 10. 

43. The same doubt attaches to the constant use of the 
Attic spelling (3i/3\wv, ftifiXos in LXX (fivfikos in 2 Ch. xvii 9 B, 
Dan. ix. 2 B) in view of the predominance in Ptolemaic 
papyri of fivfiXiov, fivfiXos. Attic Greek had at an early time 
assimilated the original v in the first syllable of (3vf3\iov to the 
accented t in the second and /3<.'/3Aos followed suit : there was 
also perhaps a desire to discriminate between the material 
/Su/3A.os and the papyrus-roll formed from it. In the ver- 
nacular in Egypt, from which the word came, this distinction 
(to judge from the papyri) does not seem to have been gene- 
rally made. In Is. xviii. 2 e7n.cn-0A.as fivfiXivas B, "letters 

1 Thumb Hell. 139 ff. conjectures that it originated in Phrygia. 

2 Meisterhans 28 ff., Mayser 100 ff. 



g6 The Vowels [§ 6, 43 — 

written on papyrus," is no doubt the true text (/3i/?A. nAGT), 
as is Bv/3A.iW, Ez. xxvii. 9 B*Q*, the Greek name of Gebal 
being Bu/3A.os (Strabo xvi. 755). 

LXX, with the Ptolemaic papyri, always writes papaiTnriov, 
not fiapavTTLov (Lat. marsiipium), which was an alternative way 
of writing the foreign (? Semitic) word. 

44. MoAtySos is written by the uncials (with variants fx.6- 
At/38os /jl6Xv/3o<;, § 7, 34), the Epic and kolvtj form ' of Attic 
IxokvfiSos. S/AtpiVr/s (-tos A) \i9os is the reading of the uncials 
in Job xli. 6, not o-yLtuptV^?, as cited by LS : assimilation of the 
unaccented vowel accounts for it, if the word is etymologically 
connected with /xvpov. 

LXX has the Attic ciXvko?, the uncials again conflicting with 
the papyri, which write aAi/cos^on the analogy of other adjectives 
in -I/cor) 2 . 

Other examples, mainly in AX, are due to later scribes. 
(i) I > Y. A has yvverai ( = yiveTai) 2 K. xiv. 27, nadvdpvcravTes 
3 M. vii. 20, vSpvpivr] 4 M. xvii. 3: r has avvrpupp-a Is. xxii. 4. 

(ii) Y>I. X has in Is. aivoipiSos xxi. 9, 8aKpwv xxv. 8, 
dpyipiov xlviii. 10, (rivij^d^aav xlix. 18, epiBprjpa lxiii. I, in Zeph. 
SivciTrj i. 14, L7re\i(f)dr]aav iii. 3, in Cant. V. 2 fi6aTpi)(oi. A* 
appears to have written dpxtyi-Xoi for dpxi'^uAoi 1 Es. ii. 7 : C has 
peiTTov for pinrov Job xiv. 4- 

45. Y (EY) and H (E). Uavovpyevw (not class, Travovpyew) 
is the verb in use (1 K. xxiii. 22) and has the corresponding 
noun iravovpyevfxa (used in good sense) : Jdth. xi. 8 B*tt 
(-17/101 AB ab ), Sir. i. 6 B (- W a «AC), xlii. 18 BC (- W a «*A). 

46. The following examples in one or other of the uncials of 
interchange of v (ev) and 77 (e) are due to assimilation of vowels 
and to the later pronunciation (v = i = rj) : 

(i) H > Y : 6v\v Gen. i. 27 D, Lev. xii. 7 A, pvywrcu 3 K. xiii. 
3 A, dvaavpovs Prow viii. 21 B, 7rvA6r ( = 7rr]X6s) Job xli. 21 X, 
noXXv ( = 7roXXtj) Sir. xviii. 32 A. 

1 In the papyri /xoXipos first occurs in i/B.c. : ^oXvfiSivos twice in ii/B.C. 
and /aoXv(35[ in iii/B.c : Mayser 101. 

- Mayser 102: a\iKos passim in iii/B.C, the only example quoted of 
aXvfcos is iii/A.D. 



§ 6, 48] The Vowels 97 

(ii) Y>H (always with assimilation): virohrjT-qv Ex. xxviii. 

27 A, pTjadrjcrT] ( = pvcr6.) 4 K. xix. II A, cprjXrjs ( = cj>vk-) Hg. ii. 2 X, 
yp-rjX'] ( = ^vx']) Is. xxi. 4 X, inroxrjTripas Jer. lii. 19 B. 

(iii) E > Y, Y > E : neXvKvs Jer. xxiii. 29 A : iviirviov Jer. xxiii. 

28 X, TeTpfTTrjp.(VOV (=T€TpV7T.) Hg. 1. 6 X. 

(iv) EY>E (assimilation of vowels flanking A, p., p, ^) : 
SeurepeW Est. iv. 8 X, SteXeVfrai Jer. xiii. I B, eyj/eaaTO I M. xi. 
53 Y, 7rf7rtcrre/xeVa 2 M. iii. 22 V : early Attic inscriptions yield 
a few examples of loss of v in final -evs (Meisterhans 62) as in 
/3acrtXe'<r (=-evs) Jer. xliv. 17 X. 

47. EY and Y. EIptcr/SuTws, owing to its constant use 
= senex, is, by a natural error, written for Trpecr/Jerm/s = legatus in 
several passages 1 : 2 Ch. xxxii. 31 B, 1 M. xiv. 22 nV, xv. 17 «V, 
2 M. xi. 34 AV. 

Omission of e also appears in (?) lepaTvaovaiv Ex. xl. 13 B* 
(second e small, possibly first hand), aTroa-Kvrjv N. xxxi. 9 F, 
KarcKpii^ovTcii Jer. xxvii. 5 A, yiipa ib. xxxi. 1 1 X* vld , anvrj ib. 
xxxv. 3 and 6 X : insertion of e in lax™* Lam. i. 14 X. For AY 
and EY, AY and A see 12, 13 above. 

48. Prothetic Vowel. 

The Attic Iko.vo<; is used to the exclusion of (Ionic and 
poetical) kcivos' 2 , and Attic ex#e's has supplanted (Ionic) x^ € 's 3 - 
On the other hand e#e'A.w disappears, #e'Aoj alone being used. 
Srac/)/?, a-raxvi are written without euphonious a 4 . 'O/xupecrOaL 
" to long for " is read by the uncials in Job iii. 21 (corrected 
by B b to Ifjiecp.) as in 1 Thess. ii. 8, but is unattested elsewhere 5 . 
'OSupecr#ai is used, not the Tragic &vpeo-6cu. 

1 Cf. Philemon 9 irparfivT-qs with Lightfoot's note. He keeps the MS 
reading but renders it "ambassador." "There is reason for thinking that 
in the common dialect wpeafivTrys may have been written indifferently for 
irpeafievrris in St Paul's time." 

2 X* has Keivoiv, a corruption of Kpivcov, in W. xii. 10. 

3 As to the Attic and Ionic forms see Rutherford NP 370 ff. Xdes is 
confined in the uncials to Gen. xxxi. 42 A (after <re), Ex. ii. 14 A (tov 
AiyvwTiov x#f*) and i M. ix. 44 V (cbs x^ es ) : it i- s a ' s0 written in nearly all 
cases by one or both of the correctors of B (usually E b ). 

4 Attic Greeks apparently wrote daracpis but ardxvs : the Ionic dffraxvs 
(Horn. //., Hdt.) reappears in Josephus, A.J. 17. 13. $ = B.J. 2. 7. 3. 

5 Dr J. H. Moulton tells me that the 6 in this word as in dSvpeadcu 
OKiWeiv etc., comes from a derelict preposition ti (seen in wneavos participle 

T. 7 



98 The Vozvcls [§ 6, 48 — 

N affords an example of anaptyxis (the reverse of syncope) in 
<rdpa£ = <rdp{; Zech. ii. 13 (cf. Mayser 155). The same MS writes 
opopoovvres (=-povvrts) I Ch. xii. 40, dvaydovres (= dvdyovres) 
ib. xv. 28. The LXX does not contain examples of prothetic 1 
before a (tVr^Xr; elorparioiTris etc.), which appears to be a 
peculiarity of Asia (Thumb Hell. 144 ff, Schweizer 103). 

49. Contraction and Syncope. 

The KOLvi] generally prefers contracted forms, and introduces 
some contractions unknown to the older language. The Attic 
word for a young bird was vcottos 1 , and this is used by the 
Atticizing writer of 4 M. (xiv. 15), while two other literary 
books, Job and Proverbs 2 , have the almost equally orthodox 
j/eoo-o-o's. The remaining books have the Koivq vernacular 
form vocrcroV. The derivatives all take the kolvtj form : vocrcnd 
(16 times : veoacrid only in N. xxiv. 22 B*), vovctlov, voo-aeveir, 
vocraoTroLziv. 

The LXX, in common with the Ptolemaic papyri, retains 
the Attic contracted form vov/x-qyla in most books (B 26 times, 
A 29, n 4) : ven/xTjiaa (Ionic) does not make its appearance in 
papyri or inscriptions 4 till the Roman epoch, and its originality 
where it occurs in the LXX is therefore extremely doubtful 5 . 

The coalescence of the two 1 sounds in the forms rapelov, 
vyela, ireiv has been discussed elsewhere (§ 5 p. 63 ff), and 
it was shown from the papyri that the shortened forms found 
in the LXX uncials can hardly be attributed to the autographs. 

of d)-Kei/j.ai 'circumambient') which is shortened in the unaugmented 
tenses from the notion that u> contained the temporal augment. The root 
is smer seen in memor. There is therefore no connexion between op., and 
ipeipecrdai. 

1 Rutherford NP 287. 

2 Job v. 7, xxxviii. 41, xxxix. 30, Prov. xxiv. 22 e , 52. 

3 So all the uncials in Dt. (three times), and B in all the dozen other 
passages, while A, more sua, introduces the Attic form (veoacros). H twice 
sides with B, once with A. 

4 Mayser 153 (example of 191 A.D.), Nachmanson 69 (earliest example 
213 A.D.). Lobeck (ap. Rutherford NP 225) " Neo y in7»'(a...perrarum est 
etiam in vulgari Graecitate." 

5 N. xxviii. 11 B, 1 K. xx. 5 BA, 18 A, 4 K. iv. 23 BA, 1 Ch. 
xxiii. 3r BA, 2 Ch. ii. 4A, t lxxx. 4 (all uncials), Ez. xxiii. 34 B. 



§6, 50] The Vowels 99 

The hypothetical particle retains its usual classical form edV 
in LXX as in the papyri 1 . The form av, used by some literary 
writers (Plato, Thuc), is practically confined in LXX to two 
phrases where there is crasis or elision (koV, ouS' av) and to 
a small group of books (Wisdom, Sirach, 4 Mace, Isaiah) 2 . 
The only instance of its use apart from nai or ouSe is Tob. 
xiii. 16 s fxa.K.apio<i eo-ofxat, av y€vn]Tat. 'EdV also frequently 
supplants the indefinite particle av after a relative pronoun etc. 
(os ea'v etc., see § 5, p. 65 ff.). 

The LXX retains the uncontracted forms, usual in Attic 
prose, in lap, areap, eAeeivo's. 

For navovv and ocrrovv oarrd (but oariov -ecov -eois) see § IO, 8 : 
■rvrj-^Siv § io, 21 : dpyvpovs etc. § 12, 2: rjpia-ovs § 12, io: con- 
tracted comparative adjectives in -u>v § 12, 21 : dpyos (depyos 
Prov.) § 12, 2. 

50. LXX uses only the syncopated forms Kap.p,veiv 3 = xara- 
/awetv (Is. vi. 10, xxix. 10, xxxiii. 15, Lam. iii. 45 : B Kap.fi. 
in the first and last of these passages) and o-KopSov 4 — o-KopoSov 
(N. xi. 5). (Ai<popov read by BF corr in Dt. xxii. 9, where AF* 
have 8id<f>opov, which is also read by BAF in the parallel 
passage, Lev. xix. 19, may be taken, not as an example of 
contraction but as an alternative rendering, = " bearing fruit 

twice a year," of CN^D.) 

Other syncopated forms in the uncials are vTrepbe'tv ( = virepi- 
8e7v) I Es. ii. 18 B*, SO vrrfpdes ( = inrepelSes) Zech. i. 12 N*; 
aKOiXTpeBa ( = aKovcr6p.) 2 Es. XX111. 27 ^*, e7ri)(dr]O'0VTai ( = €7Ti- 
Xv8i]<T.) Job xxxvi. 27 X*, e'XaXaev ( = eXiiXijcrev) Is. xxxvii. 22 B*, 



1 Meisterhans 255 (only 6 examples of civ in Attic Inscriptions from 
v/ to iii/B.c): Mayser 152 f. : Moulton Pro/. 43 note 2. 

2 k&v Lev. vii. 6 B, W. iv. 4, ix. 6 (xiv. 4, xv. i2=Kai), Sir. iii. 13 B, 
ix. 13, xiii. 23, xiv. 7, xvi. 11, xxiii. 11, xxx. 38 [but kclI edv ib. xxxvii. 12, 
xxxix. 1 1, xli. 9 Ins], 4 M. ii. 8, 9, x. 18, xviii. 14 [quoting Is. xliii. 2 which 
has Kai fctf], Is. viii. 14 B. 0i5S' av 4 M. v. 30, x. 4, xvi. 11, Is. i. 12. 

3 Condemned by Phrynichus (Rutherford AT 3 426). 

4 So Ptolemaic papyri, Mayser 146 : in Attic Inscriptions from 
ii/A.D., Meisterhans 69. 

7—2 



ioo The Consonants [§ 6, 50 — 

TTorovcrv ( = 7raTov(riv) lb. xlii. 5 ^ *■> Trap86dr) ( = 7raped6drj) 
Jer. xxvii. 2 B*. 

The MSS occasionally write a single a in transliterating 
proper names for the more usual double vowel : 'ApJ>v (= pnx) 
Cod. A in Ex. vi. 26, vii. 8 (so vii. 1 F), N. xii. 10, Sir. xlv. 6, 
Tob. i. 7 : 'Io-a/c Gen. xxvii. 1 A, Ex. ii. 24 B, Sir. xliv. 22 BX, 
Jdth. viii. 26 B, and X in 1 Ch. xvi. 16, ^ civ. 9, 4 M. xiii. 12, 17, 
xvi. 20, 25, xviii. 11. (The distinction between 'Aftpdp. = Q-QX 
and 'A/3ptt«^ = Dn"QX is strictly observed in Genesis.) The 
prophet is always 'Upeplas but a syncopated form 'lepp^ia 

'lepplos is used of others of the name (•"'JP7- '^t^T) i n x Ch. 
and 2 Es. : cf. 'ipova-aKrjp Jer. ii. 28 X. 

§ 7. The Consonants. 

Interchange of consonants. 

1. The consonants in the kolv-tj are subject to fewer wide- 
spread changes than the vowels. The general adoption of o-a 
for Attic tt and such individual phenomena as the temporary 
substitution of ou^et's for ouSei's, the omission of the second y 
in ytyreaOaL and ytyvwcrKeiv, and the insertion of fx in the tenses 
of Aa/x/3aVw (Ar//xi/fOjaai etc.) are features which distinguish the 
Kotvrj as a whole from the classical language. 

2. Phonetic changes, however, produced some new spell- 
ings which have a more limited range in the vernacular : 
consonants belonging to the same class are interchanged, 
gutturals with gutturals, dentals with dentals, etc. An interest 
attaches to some of these, because they appear to be confined 
to certain localities, and they have been attributed to idio- 
syncrasies in the pronunciation of the native languages of the 
countries in which they are found. In particular, the inter- 
change of t and 8 and of k and y is specially characteristic of 
Egypt 1 . The examples of such changes in the LXX uncials 

1 Thumb Hell. 133 ff., with two papers in Indogermanischen Forschnn- 
gen, vi. 123 ff. (J.J. Hess) and viii. 188 ff. (Thumb). It appears probable 
that Egyptians, in the early centuries of our era, could not pronounce 
Greek 7 and 5. The evidence is as follows. (1) Hess shows that in 
demotic papyri of ii/A.D. containing Greek transliterations k is used as the 



§7,5] 



The Consonajits 101 



have, therefore, a certain value in connexion with the question 
of their incunabula, although it is unlikely that many of them 
go back to the autographs. 

3. The gutturals. K>r. The only example of weak- 
ening of k to y in the LXX uncials which can confidently be 
ascribed to the autographs is the form yvacpevs (4 K. xviii. 1 7, 
Is. vii. 3, xxxvi. 2), which replaces the older (and apparently 
original) form Kva</>ci>s in the Koanfj 1 . 

4. In other particulars the evidence of the uncials as re- 
gards interchange of these consonants is not supported by the 
Ptolemaic papyri. 

On the one hand the conversion of e* to e'y before cer- 
tain consonants (e'y §e', eyfidWav etc.) which is common in 
Attic Inscriptions and almost universal in the Egyptian papyri 
down to about ii/ — iii/A.D. 2 , is practically unrepresented in the 
uncials : eyAeKTor in the B text of ¥ civ. 43, cv. 23, and ey yrjs 
Is. xxxix. 3 N, xlix. 12 A, have been noted. "Eicyovos is com- 
monly written : eyyovos occasionally in Codd. A and X 3 . For 
the similar absence of assimilation of ev cf. § 9, 4. Anomalous 
forms with y/c for k are e'yicXe kto'is Jen x. 17 N*, dy<pr] 2 M. 
iv. 13 A. 

5. On the other hand A has examples of y for k, some of 
which may indicate the Egyptian origin of that MS, but they 
are not likely to be older than i/A.D. The commonest example is 
-Seiyvva etc. which occurs nine times in this MS (Dt. i. 2>2> with 
F, Tob. xii. 6, W. xviii. 21, Ep. J. 25, 58, Dan. 9 iii. 44, 
2 M. ix. 8, xv. 10, 3 M. v. 26). A also has yv^v Jd. xv. 8 A 
(cf. dvTiyi>T]fj.ia> CPR 78, 221 — 6 A.D.), olyov I K. V. $,' yapirav 
Prov. xii. 14, hdyvovres Hb. ii. 7. N appears to read diroypv^a 
in W. vi. 22 (see Swete) : D has ywrjyos Gen. x. 9. The inter- 
equivalent of both demotic g and demotic k. Demotic has no sign for d: 
t and 8 correspond to demotic t. (2) In Sahidic the consonants tr and ^., 
along with a few others, are rarely used except in Greek words (Steindorff, 
Koptische Gramm. p. 7). (3) In Greek papyri instances occur of inter- 
change of k and y (not due, as in Attic yva.<pdov, to the influence of a 
neighbouring consonant) and of r and 5. 

1 Mayser 169 f. The initial 7 is found already in an Attic Inscription 
of iv/B.C. (•yvcup&ov) Meisterhans 74. 

2 Mayser 226 f. In ii/A.D. the standing formula in the papyri Kadairep 
iy oLktjs begins to be written Kaddirep eK BIktjs. 

3 Is. (xiv. 29 Ar and five times in X: xxx. 6, xlviii. 19, xlix. 15, lxi. 9, 
Ixv. 23), Prov. xxiii. 18 A, Dt. vii. 13 F vid . The papyri have both forms. 



102 The Consonants [§ 7, 5 — 

change of k and y, in which Thumb traces the influence of 
Egyptian pronunciation {Hell. 134), only comes to the front in 
illiterate papyri of i/A.D. (Mayser 170) 1 . 

6. r > K. The reverse change is represented in A by ktjv 
( = yr) v ) I K. v. 4, fjKOvfievos 3 K. ix. 5 { = i)yovp€vos B : Heb. 
"upon the throne"), Kopyias 1 M. iv. 5. X has Xim (=Xtyei) 
Zech. i. 3, aKoXXiapeBa Is. xxv. 9. B has ^vrpoKnyXos 3 K. 
vii. 24 fer, 29 (A -yavXos correctly from yauXds "a milk-pail"). 
Familiarity with the native country of the founder of Alexandria 
might account for the appearance of Megiddo as yiaKe8a>v 
4 K. xxiii. 30 B, MaiceSSo) ib. ix. 27 A. One instance which 
appears with some frequency, ttukis for -n-ayis "a trap" or "snare," 
is partly due to the fact that it is often used to render the 
Heb. n3 which has the same meaning, though the form occurs 
where other Hebrew words are rendered : B has ira<is twice 
( = ns in both places) Jos. xxiii. 13. Hos. v. 1, X has it 13 times 
viz. Tob. xiv. 10 bis and 11 times in SP 2 : as against these 
15 passages there are 47 where wayis is read by all the uncials. 

7. X > K (KX). Confusion between aspirate and tenuis is 
common in LXX and in the papyri when 6 follows : in the 
uncials alteration of aspirate to tenuis is also met with before 
X, p, v. 

'EK0p6s (found in a papyrus of 118 B.C., Teb. 5, 259) occurs 
sporadically in each of the three main uncials, B (Mic. iv. 10, 
vii. 10), X (Na. iii. 11, 13) and A (Job xxxiv. 26, 2 M. x. 26): 
similarly A has eKOpevaai 2 M. x. 26, X 'dudta-ros 4 M. v. 27. In 
X and A we more frequently meet with the spellings, paralleled 
in post-Ptolemaic papyri, eK^Bpos -ia -aiveiv : so once in B # , 
Bar. iv. 25 (this portion of the book was written in i/A.D.). 
'Etcdes for e'x&f? stands in the A text in 1 K. xiv. 21, xix. 7, 
2 K. iii. 17, Job e xxx. 3. 

MokXos is confined to the B text which has 16 examples of it 
to 19 of po)(\6s : N has dvapoKXevovres 4 M. x. 5. KXi8cov occurs 
in Sir. xxi. 21 A and Is. iii. 20 X. 'Ek paXaxria (for aixp-) and 

1 The earliest examples I have noted are as follows : 

K>y i/A.D. yvpiov BU 975 (45 A.D.), irarpiyiis and evdoyl ( = -/cet) 
BM ii. 154 (68A.D.). 
ii/A.D. ypeaypa BM ii. 191, wpoyirai ( = -xet.Tai) BU 153. 
7>/c i/A.D. bpoXoKu) BU 189 (? 7 — 8 A.D.), nacrTpoKvrpjuo ib. 975 (45 A.D.). 
ii/A.D. ewLcrrpaTriKuv ib. 587, dpxvpiov ib. 416, SiaL^Kpaxpe ( =8Uyp.) 
ib. 662, vrpaKwybs ( = v5pay.) ib. 71, 7]Kopa.Kapev ib. 153, 
' AKpiKovXas BM ii. 189. 

2 Between ^ x. 6 (where X is joined by R) and xc. 3: at the beginning 
and end of the book (St' ix. 16, 30, cxviii. no etc.) X unites with the other 
uncials in reading 7raY/s. 



§ 7, 12] The Consonants 103 

cognate forms occur nine times in N. B has XvKvias Sir. xxvi. 17, 
A koXkov N. xxxi. 22 (Swete ed. 2 App.). 

Kircoj' 1 occurs in B* in Ex. xxviii. 35, xxxvi. 35, in N* in 
Is. iii. 16, 24, xxxvi. 22. 

8. Transposition of the aspirate or repetition in the second 
syllable is seen in KvBpa (lon\c)=x^ T P a l K. ii. 14 B, Sir. xiii. 2 N 
(so KvdpoTTobes Lev. xi. 35 BF) and x^P a N. xi. 8 F, Na. ii. 1 1 N : 
kv6. and x^ T - m Ptolemaic papyri, Mayser 184. (Kidav, \ l ^^ v of 
the papyri are absent from LXX.) 

9. K — X. 'Ek is occasionally written e'x before 6 x $ m 
Attic inscriptions and Ptolemaic papyri 2 . So in the uncials 

(1) f'x^fVfi W. xi. 14 NAC (RV m s 'cast forth in hatred'' un- 
warrantably assumes a word e'x0eo-is=i'xdpa : the papyri show 
i'xOeo-is ?x^ € f xa etc -> Mayser 228), e'xdeo-pos 4 M. v. 14 X, ('x8(s 
(=? K €ff ) Dan. e vi. 8 B*A : (2) ex Xappdv Gen. xxix. 4 A, e'x 
Xfipdppov Lev. xxiii. 40 A. Other examples of irregular x are 
el'xoo-t 3 K. ix. II A, \ixp-o)p.h>ovs W. xi. 18 A (not from Xixpav 
'to lick,' cf. XiKprjOcvres v. 20: but the exact meaning of the 
passage is doubtful), -^exadai' Cant. v. 2 X, xaXXiTrais 4 M. 
xvi. 10 A* vid . 

10. X>r. This change is unrepresented in the Ptolemaic 
papyri : in the LXX it appears, mainly in late MSS, in two 
pairs of words: (1) 8payp.i) in V (2 M. iv. 19, x. 20, xii. 43: 

3 M. iii. 28 : in the last passage A has 8payxp-ds) and 8i8payp.ov 
in F (N. iii. 47: Jos. vii. 21) and once in A (2 Es. xx. 32): 

(2) in X alypaXaros Na. iii. 10, alyp.a\axria Jer. xxv. 19: this MS 
usually has e/c^aXwro? etc. (see above). 

11. The dentals. The interchange of t, 8, 6 is cha- 
racteristic of Egyptian Greek, probably on account of the 
difficulty which natives of the country found in distinguishing 
between the sounds represented by these letters 3 . In the 
circumstances the examples in the LXX uncials are fewer 
than might be expected. 

12. T and A. The only examples noted of interchange 
(common in papyri, mainly illiterate, from ii/B.C.) are (1) Trdvftts 

4 K. xxiv. 16 B*, av8a> = avT(a I Es. iii. 5 B*, Kacrai8(pmv Zech. 
iv. IO X* (so KaviMpiva BU I036, 15, 108 A.D.): (2) BfKardpxovs* 

1 So in an Attic Inscription of iv/B.c. and in papyri, mostly post- 
Ptolemaic : the Ptolemaic documents usually have x ir & v (or the Ionic 
Kiduv), Mayser 41, 184. 

2 Meisterhans 106, Mayser 228. 

3 Thumb Hell. 134. 

4 Due, perhaps, to the analogy of 5e/car6s. 



104 The Consonants [§ /, 12 — 



1 M. iii. 55 K* (so in papyri of iii/B.C, PP ii. 13 (1) and 4 (1) 
and (2), not quoted by Mayser : benddapxas is read by BAF in 
the three Pentateuch passages). 

13. T and e. Uncertainty as to whether the aspirated 
letter should be used or not is specially evident in words 
containing two aspirated letters or one aspirated and one 
tenuis. 'AvcxpdXavros -(pa\di>Tu>p,a is read by the uncials in 
L. xiii. 41 ff.: the papyri of iii B.C. fluctuate between this and 
dva4>d\ai>6os, which is probably the older form (Mayser 177 f.). 
KoXoKwOa has the best authority in Jon. iv. 6, 7, 9, 10: koXo- 
kvvtu is read by A (Q) : ko\okvvttj is the Attic form according 
to Phrynichus (Rutherford NP 498) : similar fluctuation in the 
papyri. 

(i) Further examples of insertion of aspirate. KdXXwdpov 
is certain in L. xxiii. 40 (BAF), and probably (p6j3r]6pov should 
be read in Is. xix. 17 with B* ((po^rpov cett.) as in Luke xxi. 11 
(WH with BD). The following are due to attraction of a second 
aspirated letter : Kado-rrio-dev Zech. vi. 6 B*X*, fiadpdxovs Ex. 
viii. 9 F. Mao-06s for paaros is read by A in Is. xxxii. 12, 
Lam. ii. 20, by Q in Ez. xvi. 4 (the reverse, or for ad, is frequent 
in Ptolemaic papyri, Mayser 179). (ii) Examples of omission. 
The 2nd pers. of the 2 aor. irnperat. pass, has its termination in 
-rt (for -0i), like the 1 aor. imperat. pass.: ivrpdir^n Sir. iv. 25 
B*AC (-t}0i NB b ), xaf"? 1 " 1 Tob - xiii - ! 3 B * A - Assimilation to 
preceding r may account for KciToprwdr) 2 Ch. xxix. 35 B* ivravra 
4 K. ii. 2 A, 2 M. xiii. 6 V. Nex wr « Ls. xxxix. 2 X* (transliteration 
of nriDJ : i'fx w ^« cett.). 

14. A and ®. Under this head come the forms ou#ei?, 
/A^et?, which have already been considered in the Introduction 
(§ 5> P- 5 8 ff-)- They are not peculiar to Egypt: for some 
centuries they enjoyed a wide currency in the kolvt] and then 
disappeared again in the first two centuries of our era. That 
they are not due to mixture of ovre and ovSi is shown by the 
fact that the fern. ovStfxia remains unaltered. Their explana- 
tion lies in a coalescence of 8 with the aspirate of els to form 

15. There is a curious distinction between the late deriva- 
tives from oi30eis, ouSeis. Each form had a progeny of its own. 
These derivatives are apparently unattested outside Biblical 

1 See Meisterhans 104, Mayser 180 ff., Schweizer 112 ff. 



§7. 1 6] The Consonants 105 

and ecclesiastical Greek 1 and are unrepresented in certain 
portions of the LXX, e.g. the Pentateuch, Isaiah and Job 
(excluding ®) 2 . Ovdeis produced (1) i£ov9evew (-rj/xa), while 
owlets produced (2) i£ov§ev6u> (-(D/jLa -wo-is). Two rarer and 
doubtful forms, due to mixture, are (3) i£ov8eveiv, (4) e£ov- 
Oevovv. (1) must have been coined while ovdzU was still in 
vogue, probably in the earlier part of ii/B.c. : it is preferred by 
literary writers, including the translator of Proverbs (though 
he wrote ouSei's) : it is the form used by Luke and Paul in 
N.T. (2) apparently came later, when ouSeis had begun to 
reassert itself: it is the form used in the later LXX books. 
1 Kingdoms uses both (1) and (2), in juxtaposition in viii. 7 B 

ov <re l^ovQevrjKafTLv, aAA' rj i/xe i£ov$€vu>Ka<Tiv. In Sirach (the 

Greek of which was written during the period of transition 
from ou#€is to ovScts) all four forms are attested. 

The evidence for the verbs is as follows : 

(1) 'Egovdfveir 1 K. ii. 30, viii. 7 (7 A), x. 19 B: Prov. i. 7: 
Wis. iii. 11, iv. 18 : Sir. xix. 1, xxxiv. 31 B : Am. vi. 1 : Jer. vi. 14: 
Dan. O iv. 28 : 2 M. i. 27, and occasionally as a v.l. elsewhere. 

(2) 'Egov8fvoi>v Jd. ix. 38 B : 1 K. viii. 7 B, x. 19 A, xv. 9, 23 fa's, 
26 bis, xvi. 1,7:2 K. vi. 16, xii. 10 : 4 K. xix. 21 A : 1 Ch. xv. 29 
2 Ch. xxxvi. 16 B: Jdth xiii. 17: ¥ 18 times: Job xxx. 1 BC 
Eccl. ix. 16 : Cant. viii. 1 BN, 7 B : Sir. xxxiv. 22 NAC, 31 N, xlvii. 7 
Zech. iv. 10: Mai. four times: Dan. xi. 21 : 1 M. iii. 14 NA. 

(3) 'E£ov8ev(h> 4 K. xix. 21 B: Ez. xxi. 10, xxii. 8 BQ : 
Sir. xxxiv. 22 B : Cant. viii. 1 A, 7 A. 

(4) 'E^ovdevovv is read by B in ^ xliii. 6, 1. 19, by A in 
Sir. xxxiv. 31, by X in Jdth xiii. 17. 

16. The labials. II > B. 'A/i./3Acua;/m, d/xfiXaKia. (cf. 

Doric dfji(3XaKelv) s are the forms attested by the uncials in the 
only passages where the words occur, Dan. © vi. 4, 3 M. ii. 19. 

1 Plutarch has €~!;ov8evlfa, and Qovdevlfa is cited by LS from a 
Scholiast on Aristophanes. 

2 These books use other verbs to render DND, i"lT2 e.g. dweideiu, 
a<pi<TTa.vai, inrepidelv, (pavXlpeiv, airavaiveadai, airenre'ii', airowoieicrOat., airap- 
veicrdat etc. 

3 And cf. the fluctuation between 'Afj.Trpa.ida. 'AfippaKia in Attic 
inscriptions of iv/B.c, Meisterhans 77. 



106 The Consonants [§7, 16 — 

B > II. X has nappa (=(3oppa) Jer. i. 14, A tt poir\rjTais 
( = 7rpo(3\rjTfs) 4 M. xiii. 6. 

17. <£ > II. X has o-n-6v8v\os tK(nrov8vXi(eiv in 4 M. x. 8, 
xi. 18 (Ionic and in some kolvt) writers, e.g. Strabo : Cronert 85) : 
A keeps the Attic form with acp, and so all the uncials in 
Lev. v. 8. {2ir6yyos, cnrvpts, which show similar fluctuation, 
are absent from LXX.) 'laxrrjcp in Hellenized form appears in 
the uncials as 'ldicrrjcpos and 'Icocr^Tros : the latter form has 
Ptolemaic support and was invariably used by the historian 
Josephus of himself and of the patriarch. 

18. II — <£. 2kvI\J/ has cases cruvlfpa crK.v'i(pfs in Ex. viii. 16 ff. 
in BA(F) (with variants a-ievines and Kvl<p(s F, crvicpav A), and 
the same forms appear as variants in ¥ civ. 31, W. xix. io, 
where the B text has the more regular o-Kv(e)~i7res, a-Kv(e)'i7ra. 
The two forms go back to iii/B.C. (v7roo-Kvnros, inroaKvKpos, 
Mayser 174). 

In the case of (pdrvrj 1 . (parvovv, (paTvapa (which have pre- 
ponderant authority) individual MSS exhibit a variety of 
spellings with transposition or loss of aspirate, transposition 
of the first two consonants, and substitution of p for v : 
(i) naOvr] Jl. i. 17 X. (2) nddpr] Job vi. 5 X, xxxix. 9 X. (3) e'rci- 
(pvcocTfv 3 K. vii. 40 A. (4) TTffpaTpeopiEva Ez. xli. 15 B, (par- 
pcopciTa Am. viii. 3 B, Zeph. ii. 14 B. (5) TrarpvpaTa Cant. i. 17 X. 

19. B and M. The labial and nasal are occasionally 
interchanged, mainly when flanked by vowels and in the 
neighbourhood of a liquid or another nasal. (1) Alteration of 
/3 to p. is seen in the reading of A e(p' i]pa>v in 2 M. iv. 12, a 
corruption of e'</»//3<oi' which V reads (cf. v. 9 e<pf)(3iav) : also in 
2avapdarrapos I Es. ii. II BA* (= Shesh&izzar), evcrepiav 
(=evaef3fiav) 4 M. xv. 3 X. Assimilation causes poXipos (=p6Xi- 
fios, p6\vj38os) in Jer. vi. 29 B, fioXifiov in Sir. xxii. 14 A 2 . 
(2) The converse change is more frequent 3 . Teppwdos, apparently 
the oldest form for the turpentine tree (in LXX thus only in 
Gen. xiv. 6 E, xliii. 1 1 F), develops into reptpwdos (B 5 out of 
7 times, A 2/7), and thence to repffiwdos read by all the uncials 

1 Thumb {Hell. 71) conjectures that trddfrj is an Ionism taken over by 
the KOiffj. This is the form which has survived in modern Greek waxvl 
( = wadvlov) with Asiatic varieties wadeviv wavdiv wadipiv (ib. 8r). LS suggest 
derivation from \/IIAT (^areo^ai). 

2 LS quote 7rept/3oXtj3uJ<ra( from a Rhodian Inscription. 

3 Attic Inscriptions show fia.pvdp.evoi ( = p.apv.) and fluctuation in 2ep- 
jauXta (Sep/3.), 'AdpcLpvTrjvos (A5pa/3.), Meist. 77. "Pvfi-qv = pvpr)v is the 
only Ptolemaic example cited by Mayser 199. TeppaviKdv is attested in 
Rhodes and Asia Minor, Nachmanson 82. The proximity of p in all these 
examples is noticeable. 



7, 2o] The Consonants 107 



in Isaiah (i. 30, vi. 13), and four times elsewhere (by E, A, NA). 
In the case of a-rlpi, a pigment for the eyelids, and <TTip{p.)'i^eiv, 
the forms with (3 receive slightly better support (cf. Lat. stibium): 
arifiijer. iv. 30 BX (a-ripj] A, are Ipi Q), eo-ri/3i'£bu Ez. xxiii. 40 BAQ, 
but eaTifi.L(raTo 4 K. ix. 30 B* (/3 in AB ab ). 'Ava fSitrov I K. vii. 
12 A, oIkov(Hvt}v Is. xiv. 26 X, fi(\ri (=p.e\r}) 4 M. X. 20 X. 
II is converted to p in poipawes ( = Troip(i>es) Jer. x. 21 A. 

20. The liquids. In the vulgar language from the 
Hellenistic period down to modern Greek (which has e.g. aSep^o's 
rjp6a epTi-tSa) p replaces A, especially before consonants : in- 
stances occur, also, of the reverse change in the kolvt] where 
no consonant follows 1 . Two examples of the interchange 
appear to have become stereotyped: o-iKvrjkaTov "a cucumber- 
bed " (from IXavvw = " plant ") becomes o-iKv-qparov (so in the 
only LXX passages, Is. i. 8, Ep. Jer. 69 with variants with v 
in the first syllable) : conversely Kpifiavo<; (the Attic form 
according to Phrynichus), a small covered cooking-vessel, 
always appears as kAi/Wos in LXX (as previously in Ionic, 
Hdt. 11. 92). The papyri support the LXX in these two 
instances (Mayser 188). In the following passages the inter- 
change affects the meaning. In 1 Mace, the word <pdAay£ 
which should certainly be read in all five passages, in four of 
them has a v. 1. cpd.pa.yt; in one or other of the uncials (vi. 35 A, 
where Swete retains <pdp., 38 V, 45 A, x. 82 n* (V)). In the 
same book (1 M. ix. 42) the reading of N et? to e'Aos tov 
'IopSarow (cf. v. 45) must be preferred to eis to opos of AV : 
the vulgar pronunciation and the influence of opos in vv. 38 
and 40 have produced opoc out of eAoc. In Sir. xxii. 18 
the converse change has occurred : it is the x"-P aK€? (B**) or 
" pales set on a high place " that cannot stand against the 
wind, not the x a 'At/ces (AC), "pebbles" or "rubble." 

The MSS yield the following further examples : (1) A> P : 
olvocppvyd Dt. xxi. 20 B, fiepTi(oi> Is. xvii. 3 N*, dpyrjpd Jer. x. 19 
N*, edpacrev Job xx. 19 A (= edXaaev cett.), x a pftdvr] Sir. xxiv. 15 A 

1 Mr W. E. Crum tells me that in several Sahidic sub-dialects the two 
consonants are confused. 



io8 The Consonants [§ 7, 20 — 

and x a $P'* vr l Ex. xxx. 34 A (for ^aX/Sav/; = !"13 j?n)) 'Ape pa-dp 
Dan. 9 i. 11 and 16 A (= ns^on) : (2) P>A: (paXerpas 
Jer. xxviii. 1 1 B* eantXas Is. xxi. 13 X*, nXipdrav ¥ cxviii. 102 X*, 
KaXxapvs I Es. i. 23 A (=B«03TD), (f)Xovpdv I M. xi. 66 A. 

21. The spirants a- £. Z t which in classical times was 
probably pronounced like zd, in the Hellenistic period had the 
weaker sound of voiced ^ (as in ' those '), as is shown by the 
substitution of f (or o-£) for cr, especially before /3 and p. 1 . X has 
{p-vpva five times (Cant. iii. 6, iv. 6, 14, v. 13, Sir. xxiv. 15) and 
once £o-p.npdybov Sir. xxxv. 6 : elsewhere all the uncials have 
o-pvpva, apdpayoos. The same change appears in the form 
£i(3vvr), "a spear," attested by all the uncials in Is. ii. 4, Jer. vi. 23 
(also Mic. iv. 3 AQ*, where it is a gloss from the Isaiah passage) : 
Judith alone keeps o-ifivvt], i. 15 B*X* (altered to £i/3. in A and 
correctors of B and X) : this foreign word of doubtful extraction 
appears outside the LXX in a variety of forms, avfiivr), (rtyuvrj 
etc., but it is clear that the older form had initial a 2 . 

Attic gvv for a-vv survived after 400 B.C. only as a literary 
affectation and is unrepresented in LXX 3 . X writes aW/xIXas- for 
Ms o-plXat; Na. i. 10. 

22. Insertion of Consonants. A remarkable feature 
of the koivt] (or rather, excepting one instance, of local varieties 
of the Koivrj) is the tendency to insert the nasal /x before a 
labial (/3 or tt), especially when the labial is followed by another 
consonant, usually a : in other words /xif/ replaces if/. 

23. One instance is distinguished from the rest by its 
greater frequency : it also appears to owe its origin, in part 
at least, to another cause. The use of A^/ai/'oju.cu (for At^o/aou) 
together with cognate forms i\.TJp.<p87]i>, (aro^A^/xi/as, (dva)- 
XrjiATrreos etc. became for a considerable period universal. 
The papyri and the later uncials enable us to distinguish three 
periods, (i) In the Ptolemaic age, from iii/ to i/B.c, both the 
classical Xyij/ofxac and the newly-introduced Xijp.il/ojxai were 

1 Meisterhans 88 (Attic examples from 329 B.C.), Mayser 204, 209 : the 
latter's suggestion that <rj" in avaai;r)Tr)aa.s etc. is intended to mark off the 
syllables more clearly will not suit initial <r^ in the above instance. 

2 Sturz de dialecto Macedonica 46 f. 

3 £vvupl5os, written by a seventh century corrector of X in Is. xxi. 9, is 
the only trace. 



§ j, 23] The Consonants 109 

employed, the former slightly preponderating 1 . (2) Under 
the Empire, from i/a.d. until after iv/A.D., A^/a^o/acu and its 
kin are uncontested, having driven the classical forms off the 
field 2 . (3) The reappearance of the latter in the uncials of 
the Byzantine epoch and in the correctors' revisions of the 
older uncials suggests that the /j. forms again went out of use 
between vi/ and viii/A.D. 3 

Now the orthography attested in the three oldest LXX 
uncials is that of the second period, that is to say, the classical 
forms are practically absent. If, as is suggested by the Ptole- 
maic papyri, the autographs contained both \rnx\pofxai and 
Xrjij/ofxat, scribes of the Roman period have produced uni- 
formity by writing the former throughout. 

There are some 450 examples (including the compounds) 
where the /x forms occur in all three of the main uncials or in one 
or two of them. On the other hand, examples of forms like 
\r)\j/ofxcu in the original script of B, X and A do not amount to a 
dozen in all : B has 3, one doubtful (Mic. vi. 16, Is. ii. 4 vicl , Jer. 
xxxi. 7), N has 3, one doubtful (Zech. xi. 7, Is. x. 29 fort , Jer. xli. 3), 
A 5 (Jd. vii. 5 Xtj^u [read Xa\^r/ and contrast M^j] ib.], 1 K. xxv. 
11, Jer. xli. 3, Ez. xlv. 18, Sir. iii. 24 : in 2 M. v. 20 KaraXijcpdels 
is probably a case of itacism = -Xicp&eis)*. The classical forms 
become more frequent in later MSS and corrections of MSS 5 , 
occurring sporadically in C (v/a.D.), T (vii/A.D.) and r (viii/ix/A.D.), 
constantly in Q* (vi/A.O.) in Min. Proph. and Isaiah (in Jer., 
except xxxi. 1,41, and in Ez. they are due to correctors), always 
in Cod. 87 of Daniel (ix/A.D.), and nearly always in V (viii/ix/) 
and B b (probably xiv/a.d.). 

1 Mayser 194 f. 

2 Cronert 66 asserts "nullum reperiri in Berolinensium corpore exemplum 
nasali carens." The huge Berlin collection consists mainly of papyri from 
i/ to iv/A.D.: I have noted one example wanting the nasal, BU 1060. 30 
irpo<75ia.\i]\(f>dtvTos (14 B.C.): J. H. Moulton (CR xv. 34) adds one 
instance of ii/A.D. where the /a has heen afterwards written above the line. 
The only other examples dated A.D. which I have noted are BM ii. 276. 4 
wpo<reiK\rj<p6ai (15 A.D. ), OP iv. 724. 8 f . Xri^ofiai, X^i/^ (1 55 A.D.). "Zvv\-qft5T)v 
FP 21. 7 (134 A.D.) is differentiated by the 5 following the labial. 

3 So Cronert 67, who fixes the date of their disappearance from the 
living language at about the end of viii/A.D. 

4 F (iv/v/A.D.) has none (always \rj/x\f/o^.ai etc.). 

5 Cf. Gregory Prol. 72 for a similar distinction in the MSS of the N.T. 



iio TJie Consonants [§7,24 — 

24. Apart from these forms from Xa/x(3dveiv the LXX 
contains only four instances of words showing insertion of 
p. before \p, all in Cod. A, viz. Xdmpaaiv (for Xdxpacnv) Jd. vii. 7, 
Kafx\pa.Kr}<; "a flask," 3 K xvii. 12, xix. 6 (from kolttto), cf. Lat. 
capsa: elsewhere A unites with B («) in writing naip.), dvTa- 
lALfJuf/LV (— diTOifxenj/a') ty cxviii. 112, dvaKv (x\pai Job X. 15. 

25. The origin of this inserted nasal has not yet been 
finally decided: Thumb {Hell. 136) thinks it unnecessary to 
assume a uniform explanation for all the instances. A-j/xipofxai 
may be a mixture or compromise between Attic Xrjxf/o/jiai and 
Ionic Xdfjuj/o/jiaL 1 (which retained both the a and /*. of the 
present stem) or it may be an independent formation due to 
the same phonetic law which produced the other nasalised 
Koivrj forms. These other forms (av/jul/eXtov etc.) are specially 
characteristic of parts of Asia Minor (Ka//,7ra8o/a'a, IIa/x<jf)/\a- 
yoVcs are attested) and Dieterich (Untersttch. 92 ff.) traces their 
origin to that region. Egypt, however, yields examples other 
than \->j(jnJ/ofji.aL, and Thumb (op. at.) suspects the influence 
of Egyptian pronunciation : the four examples in the preceding 
section which are peculiar to A may be taken as supporting 
the Egyptian origin of that MS. 

It should be added that the older Attic, like the LXX, 
shows fluctuation in the use of the nasal in TrL(fx)wXr)fxi, ttl(ijl)- 
Trpr/ixL, and in some proper names (TXr/(/A)7rdA.e / u.os etc., Meist. 
84). 

26. The combination /xi/^ recurs in another instance, where 
the /, not the m, is the intruder, viz. in the name ^afxif/wv 
( = jK'DC'X which is always so written in Judges (B and A 
texts) 2 . 



1 The Ionic form occurs once in a papyrus of c. 250 B.C. TrapaXd/u.- 
\f/«rdaL (Mayser 195), in the LXX in Job Q xxvii. 21 C a.va\a.n\j/eTai 8- 
avrbv Katicrujv. It is noticeable that the Hellenistic -Xc/j.-rrdvcj for -Xeiirw 
(§ 19, 3) appears to be of Ionic origin (Hippocrates). 

2 Schmiedel (W.-S. 64) compares Lat. sumo sumpsi. 



§ 7) 2 9] The Consonants 1 1 1 

27. As euphony requires the insertion of -k between p. 
and cr, so between p. and p there is a tendency to insert another 
labial, /3 (cf. p.(ar)p.(3pta = fjLto-rjfxepia). Ma/xfipi] (n~OD) is written 
by the uncials in Genesis, Zap/?p(€)i renders both n?DT and "noy : 
in other names there is fluctuation, as between 'A/xfipd/x (-dv) 
and ' ' kp.pdp. (D1DJ?) 1 . 

Ezra (xity) in LXX becomes "Eo-pas ('Eo-pa) in B, "E£pas 
fE£pa) in A, "Eo-8pas ('Eo-opa') in N 2 . Probably the 8 in the 
last form, familiarised by its adoption in our Apocrypha, is 
euphonic, like the /? in Map.f3pi] : but it is conceivable that 
<t8 is used to represent Heb. T 3 with a reminiscence of the 
old pronunciation of £ izd), see 2 1 above. 

X inserts a nasal before 5 in Jl. i. 6 ov8ovres=o8., ¥ cxxxix. 2 
av8iKOV=a8. 

28. Omission of Consonants. Under this head we 
have to deal with the omission of consonants, y in particular, 
(1) between vowels, (2) in other positions, and we are brought 
into contact with some peculiarities of Greek as pronounced 
by Egyptians. 

29. The curious phenomenon of the omission of inter- 
vocalic y suggests that the guttural, in this position at least, 
was pronounced as a spirant, with the sound of y or {g)^. 

1 The nasal and liquid are sometimes separated by a: N. xxvi. 20 B 
— afxapatx ~afj.apavei, 1 Ch. xxvii. 18 A 'A/xapi. 

2 "Ea-Spas in B in the subscriptions to 1 and 2 Esdras, which are therefore 
later than the books themselves : also once in the body of the work, 
1 Es. viii. 19. 

3 Cf. 'Ea5p(e)l BA, 'EffSpeiKdv 1 Ch. ix. 44 B, 'EtrSpt^X BSQ, 'EaSp(a)ri- 
\wv BSA (^NIPT 1 ' Jezreel), in all of which cS corresponds to ?• On the 
other hand in 4 K. xix. 37 it answers to D: 'Eaopdx B = 'Eo0p&x A = MT 
TID3- 

4 As in modern Greek : Thumb Handbuch 1 . Conversely in the papyri 
(Mayser 167 f. ) it is occasionally inserted between vowels, seemingly to 
avoid hiatus: vyi(y)aivui, /c\d(7)uj = /cXatw, apxi{y)epevs etc. In papyri of 
iii/ and ii/B.C. an t is interpolated for the same purpose between the 
vowels o and 77: j3o(i)i)8e'iv, 6y5o(i)7)Koi'Ta (Mayser no). 



112 The Consonants [§ 7, 29- 



In the case of one word, oAi(y)os, the omission of y in writing 
began c. 300 B.C. and spread over a wide area in the Greek- 
speaking world 1 . Apart from this and one or two other words 
the usage was apparently restricted to Egypt 2 . 

The uncials B, K and A always write o'Xiyos, but in two 
derivatives — 6\iyovv (a Hellenistic creation, perhaps coined by 
the translators) 3 and 6Aiyoo-Tos — the y is omitted, four times 
in all, by the original scribe of B: Jd. x. 16 wXlwOyj, 4 K. 
iv. 3 oA.iw'07/s, 2 Es. xix. 32 6\lw6t]T(d ("B* vid "), Is. xli. 14 

O/VlOCTTOS 4 . 

'Ay(e)ioxa 5 (so constantly in the uncials, see § 16, 7 : 
dyrjoxa usually in Hellenistic writers), the perfect of ayw (con- 
demned by Phrynichus, who prescribes rjx a )> * s probably another 
instance of omission of "spirantic" y° ; ayr;yoxa appears in 
Inscriptions. 

30. The omission of intervocalic y in other instances, 
usually between ev, av and a long vowel, appears to be a 
peculiarity of Egypt during the Roman period : it is unknown 
to the Ptolemaic papyri. In the LXX it is almost confined 
to one section of « (Prophets : once in Proverbs), and the 

1 Meisterhans 75 (Attic Inscr. show oXtos oXiapx'o. oXiwpew : also 
<i>iaXei/s = <i>0'.): Mayser 163 f. : Schweizer 108 (who mentions as places, 
other than Egypt, where 6\los is found Boeotia, Arcadia, Tarentum, the 
Tauric Chersonese. Imbros, Pamphylia and the extreme East of the 
Empire). 

- Thumb, Hell. 134 f., distinguishes two groups: (1) the older forms 
attested outside Egypt viz. oXios <I>idXevs (to which should be added Boeot. 
'ui>v=4yd and perhaps 07170x0 pf. of &yw), (2) the ' Egyptian' forms (pevw = 
<pevyu etc. In the latter he traces the native's difficulty in pronouncing y, 
which in other instances produced in Egyptian Greek the alteration of 7 to 
k (see § 7, 2 ff. above). In the earlier group it is curious to note that (adopting 
the LXX form ayioxa.) the lost 7 was in each case preceded by 1. 

3 The verb is confined in LXX to a late group of books. 

4 As against these four passages there are eight and 18 respectively 
where dXiyovv oXtyoffrds are written by all the uncials. Aquila is cited as 
writing ciXiti^Tjo-ai' in Jer. xiv. 2. 

5 The papyri have (as Dr J. H. Moulton informs me) 071770x0. HP 34 
(iii/B.C ), oVydoxa Teb. 19 (ii/B.C.), 07^0x0 Teb. 124 (ii/B.C.) and d7<?wxa 

(ii/— i/B.c). .... 

6 The omission has been otherwise explained as due to dissimilation. 



§ 7, 31] The Consonants 113 

Prophetical portion of that MS or of a parent MS was there- 
fore, presumably, written by an Egyptian scribe. 

The examples are as follows : — 

®eveiv in X occurs in Is. x. 18, xiii. 14, xvi. 3, xxii. 3, xxxi. 9, 
xliii. 14, Jer. xxvii. 28, xxxi. 44, xlv. 19, Jon. i. 3 (cpouv =<pv\_yi\Lv), 
Na. ii. 9 (<f)dvo\Tes sic), Prov. xii. 13 (enfavei). In all cases, except 
Jer. xlv. 19 T7t(f)ev6To>v, the lost y is followed by a long vowel. 
The y is written where a short vowel follows ((pevyere -era> 
Jer. iv. 6, xxvi. 6, xxviii. 6, xxx. 8, xxxi. 6), less frequently before 
a long vowel. B and A have no examples of loss of y in this 
word. 

Kpavr) for Kpavyr) is consistently written by the first hand of X 
in the Prophetical books, 17 times including Jer. xxxii. 22 <avfjs : 
the only exceptions (all in 'Jer. a') are Jer. iv. 19 where the MS 
has Kpaytjv and viii. 19, xviii. 22, xx. 16 where it has the usual 
form. On the other hand Kpavyr] is always written by this MS 
in the historical and literary books (14 examples between 2 Es. 
and Judith). B writes Kpavr] in Is. xxx. 19 (with X) and Ez. xxi. 22. 

Zevrj for £evyrj Is. V. IO X*. 

J E^pev6peva for -epeuy. is written by A in ^ cxliii. 13, and the 
same MS in W. xix. 10 has the aorist e^pfvaaro formed as from 
i^fpevecrdai. (X keeps y in this word, which however is not 
found in the Prophetical portion.) 

CAveeiyvcoo-Kov Job xxxi. 36 A, cf. 32 below.) 

'AvoUl for avoiyei Is. 1. 5 X*. 

Aet for Af'yei Zech. ii. 8 X* (cf. mod. Greek Xe'ei). 

The weak pronunciation of intervocalic y occasionally pro- 
duces its i?isertio7i in the wrong place 1 . X writes \iyovra for 
Xeovres Jer. ii. 15 : hence too the mistaken reading attested by 
BXA in Est. vii. 3 6 \6yos pov for 6 \aos pov (^fty). 

31. While y is the consonant most frequently omitted 
between vowels, there are certain others which are liable to 
omission in a similar position. These are k (x), t, 8, A, o- (p, v). 
Most of the instances occur again in the Prophetical portion 
of Cod. K and doubtless reproduce the Egyptian pronunciation. 
As a contribution to the study of Graeco-Egyptian phonetics 
and as bearing on the history of the uncials, it may be useful 
to collect them here. 



1 Cf. papyri examples in note 4 on p. in. 
T. 



114 The Consonants K7.3 1 — 

Examples of omission of intervocalic consona?its other than y. 

k. X has TTpoDTOToa (= -toko) ¥ cxxxiv. 8. Cf. (? from 
haplology) Siadrjs = 8iadi]K.r]s Zech. ix. 11, 8ios ( = 8iKaios) 2 Es. 
xix. 33. 

X- B has ciTreecrBe (= dir^.) Mai. iii. 7. Cf. the variants 
A^u^at \|/-U(U -^oat in ¥ xxxvii. 8, and e^eav = e^)( €av Dt. xxi. 7 F. 

T. X has aTrocrrae (= dirocrTciTai) Is. xxx. I, (rtor (= crtToy) 
Hg. i. II, nadXonroi ( = Kar.) Zech. xiv. 2, <rwe(X(cr8r)crav (=-ereX.) 
Job i. 5. B has a parallel to the last in dnoeXfo-dfjvai 1 Es. v. 70: 
cf. Is. ii. 13 ptcipow h = fxfred>pcov. A has rovo ( = toi~to) Ex. ix. 5. 

S. X has 7rcu|a (=7raISa) Is. xxvi. 16, ucap xlviii. 2 1, 'lovfj-iq 
( = 'l8ovpala) Jer. xxix. 8. A likewise has 'lovpalas Lam. iv. 21. 
(Conversely, as y is inserted in vyiyaiva etc. of the papyri, so is 
8 in Trpaftec0v = 7rpqea)v Is. xxvi. 6 X.) 

X. X has pe(o-a>=pe\€criv Job ix. 28, 8d\ciacrav Jer. xxviii. 36, 
ftaaiecos xxxiv. 9, cf. fiaaia=@ao-iXea Jon. iii. 6. Similarly A has 

fiaailws^-o-iXecos 2 K. XV. 3 and Kara/3uco = -/3<i\<w Ez. xxix. 5 : 
V has avTirrdovs = -rrdXovs 3 M. i. 5 • B irovrrtipia ( = ttoXvjt.) 

Sir. xxv. 6. 

o\ X has 6 7ro/r;e = -r;orf Is. xii. 5 (cf. iroLrjes= iroirjcrai Jer. vi. 25 
BXA), Kiddpiov = -urov xxiii. 16, Kp'uv = Kpi(riv xlii. 3, TrXr/lov 
( — tt\t](t.) Jer. xxii. 13, oAtycofts ( = -&>o-et?) Hb. iii. 12. B has 
e7riXevea8ai = eirf\fi>(Tf(T6aL i Es. iv. 49 (in the same section which 
has the omission of r noted above) and Kpw=<piaiv Is. i. 17. A 
has 8pav = 8pa(Tv N. xiii. 29, crvvfis=avveats Is. xlvii. 10 (cf. 
avue\eis ¥ xxxi. 9 U). 

p. A has /xteds for piepos 2 M. iv. 19. 

fiandv. X has peyapr/oi'ijuiji ( = -p.fyaXoprjp.) Ob. 12, f (rcppayicr- 
fieov Is. xxix. 1 1. 

32. Of omission of a consonant in another position than 
between vowels there are two examples which were universally 
adopted. The second y in ylyvop.ai, yiytwu-Kw ceased to be 
written after c. 300 B.C. ' : vulgar Attic, as attested by vase 
inscriptions, had led the way 2 . r(e)uo//,ai y(€)uw/cw are all 
but universal in the LXX uncials as in the papyri. The 
classical spelling was revived by some of the Atticists. 

Viyvopai in the leading uncials is confined to the A text of 
1 and 2 Esdras, Job xl. 27 A, and to a unique example in B 
(1 Es. vi. 33). A has it five times in 1 Esdras (from v. 43 

1 Meisterhans 75, Mayser 164 f. The latter compares [g)natus, {g)nosco, 
and assumes an intermediate stage when -yv- was written -w-. 

2 Thumb Hell. 207. 



§7.33] The Consonants 115 

irapayiyv. to viii. 90 rjyvea-dco sic, clearly a corruption of TC to H : 
in i. 30, iv. 16, vi. 33. vii. 3 yiv.) and nine times in 2 Esdras 
(eyiv. only in xv. 18 with yiyv. ib.). It appears that among the 
ancestors of A was a small volume comprising 1 and 2 Esdras, 
written by an Atticizing scribe probably after ii/A.D. 

Yiyvaxriuo appears sporadically as a v.l. of B, X, A in a wider 
circle of books: 1 Ch. xxviii. 9 B: 1 Es. ix. 41 A: Est. iv. 11 A, 
C 5 A, vi. 1 A: Job? xxxi. 36 A (ANEEir. for ANEnr. cf. 30 
above), xxxvi. 5 BX : Tob. v. 14 A, vii. 4 A bis: Jer. xliii. 13 A: 
Dan. 9 i. 4 B : 1 M. v. 14 X. 

33. Other examples of omission by the original scribes 
of the uncials of consonants in positions other than intervocalic 
have their interest in the history of phonetics. They are not 
to be treated as mere blunders. Here, as in the cases of 
omission of intervocalic consonants, K again affords the majority 
of the instances, but there are not a few in the other MSS, and 
we cannot be so confident in all cases as to their " Egyptian " 
origin. The omitted consonants are partly the same as in the 
former case, partly different : omission of p, which does not 
occur between vowels, is specially common here. 

Omission of gutturals. 

y. The y in the nom. of nouns ending in -yg gen. -yyos is 
sometimes dropped, on the analogy, it would seem, of e.g. fidari^ 
-iyos. <J>i<pa£ is written by X in (Zech. xiv. 5 7rapa|), Is. Ivii. 5, 
Jer. vii. 32, by Q in Is. lxv. 10, Xdpvt; by C in Job 8 xxxiv. 3. 
(Conversely p-dariyt; appears in 3 K. xii. 24 r B : 2 Ch. x. 1 1 B, 
14 B: Sir. xxiii. 11 X.) Similar omission before £ (k) is seen 
in e\e'£ei Is. xi. 3 X, dvejjiXeKros Prov. x. 17 B. 

Elsewhere omission takes place in the proximity of p or a 
nasal. In X: o/j[y]^s x Jer. xxvii. 13, icped[y]pas lii. 18, <ara- 
vevv[y]p.ai Is. vi. 5, 8rj[y]p.nra W. xvi. 9, e[y]i>a) Zeph. hi. 5. 
In A: Te\e<riovp[y]ei Prov. xix. 4. 

k. In X: {[icjcrrao-is' Zech. xiv. 13, (\^K](pev^a6ai Est. E 4. 
In B: 8ie[K]/3oA>/ Ez. xlvii. II, eKXe[j<]rot I Ch. vii. 40: cf. tt/jco- 
toto[ko]i' 2 Ex. xi. 5, d[i<a]dapTos Lev. xv. II. In A: (r[ic]vi(pav 
Ex. viii. 18, cf. KaTa[K.a]\inrTov Lev. iv. 8. In F cf. o-u/x/SoAo- 
[ko]ttcov Dt. xxi. 20. 

1 The omitted consonant is inserted in square brackets throughout this 
section. 

2 This and some of the following examples may be merely cases of 
haplology. 

8—2 



1 1 6 The Consonants [§ 7> 33 — 

X- In X : eTe[x]07)<rav I Ch. xiv. 3. In C cf. ^[j^Jo-ou Sir. 
xxx. 39. 

34. Omission of dentals. 

Two words uniformly appear without the dental throughout 
the LXX. "ApKos replaces apKros and the older (Epic) p.6Xi$os 
(or fi6\vj3os Ez. xxvii. 12 BAQ, Zech. v. 7 X) is used to the 
exclusion of /xdXv^So? 1 . 

r is omitted in A'iyvn[T]os in the X text of Jer. xxvi. 17, xlix. 
14, li. 30 and in eo-JYJii' Is. xliii. II, 13 X (elsewhere the a is lost, 
see below). B has Terap[r]ov Ez. v. 12. A has (W[r]i)Aa) Lev. 
xvi. 14, o-Kr;7r[r]poi' Ep. Jer. 13 (cf. 8fv\ri\pa R. i. 4). 

8 disappears after /3 (as in /xoXv/3[8]os) in pdjd[8]ov Zech. viii. 
4 X. Cf. in F Sco[Se]Ka Gen. xliv. 32, e[8e]rai Ex. xii. 45, [8a]- 
pdXeois N. xix. 9: and in D [St]Sco/xi Gen. xlviii. 22. 

8 is dropped after the other aspirated letters x ( K ) <£• X has 
eK[6]Xl\lrco Is. xxix. 2, dneK.a\v(p[8]r] liii. I, avT6x[8]o" Jer. xiv. 8. 
A writes Kare<p[#]e(peTo 2 Ch. xxvii. 2. The omission in the 
case of ex[6]pi>s seems to go back to an early copy of the Greek 
Lamentations: Lam. i. 9 X, ii. 3 B, i. 7 A : A has this spelling 
(expav) also in Mic. ii. 8, F in N. xxxv. 20, Q in Ez. xxxv. 5. 

35. Omission of liquids. 

X. X omits (in proximity of k and /3) : ecrit[\']fipvvas Is. lxiii. 
17, cf. a-K[X]r]poKap8tav Jer. iv. 4, eVe^Aj//^?/ xli. 15, ei[X]icpi> 
4 M. xi. 9: /3i,3[X]t'a> Jer. xxviii. 60, eK^[X]v(axriv Prov. iii. 10. 
A has egrj[X]6es Ex. xxiii. 15, 7roXuo^[X]tas Job xxxix. 7, F has 
d8f[X]<£(u Lev. xxi. 2. 

p. Omission is frequent especially after the dentals t (err) 8 



6 {p8). X has yaa-T 
xviii. 20, xx. 16, tiar 



p]L Is. xl. 11, (e7ri)o-r[p]e'\^ei etc. Jer. ii. 24, 
_p\a>v ib. xxviii. 9, dpor[p]iaBricr€Tai xxxiii. 18, 
€TrapvaT[p]l8((s) Zech. iv. 2 (with A), 12: Ke'<5[p]oi> Is. xxxvii. 24, 
o-(p68[p]a Jer. ii. 10, Zech. ix. 9, Terpd8[p]axpoi' Job xlii. 11: 
av8[p]a)iros Is. vi. 5, e'^6[p]os Jer. xx. 5. Loss of the second p in 
op8[p]os 6p8[p]i£eii> is snared by X with the other uncials : so X 
in Jer. vii. 25, xxv. 4, xxxiii. 5, xxxix. 33, xlii. 14, li. 4, Prov. vii. 
18, xxiii. 35 : B in Ex. ix. 13, Hos. xi. 1 : A in Gen. xix. 2, Ex. 
xxxiv. 4 : C in Sir. iv. 12. X has further ^tK[p]ds Is. xxii. 5, Jer. 
xlix. 8, o-d[p]£ Is. xlix. 26, Kard[p]£et. etc. Jl. ii. 1 J, Zech. vi. 13, 
ix. 10, fi[p]oi>xos Jl. i. 4, Na. iii. 15, (p[p]vaypa Jer. xii. 5, <tko[p]ttIov 
4 M. xi. 10. B has also naT[p \apxov Is. xxxvii. 38, pir\_p]ov Ez. 
xlii. 17, r[p]axeui Sir. vi. 20, dv8[p]es I K. xxix. 2, a(p68[p]a 2 Es. 
xxiii. 8. A (besides eirapv<TTi8es, above) has tpv8[p]a r)pv8[p]o- 

8avapeva Ex. XV. 4, xxxix. 21, ¥ CV. 7, e£ap8[p]os 4 M. ix. 1 3, 
a[p](dypas Ex. xxxviii. 23, N. iv. 14, Jer. Iii. 18. F has plr[p]ai> 
Lev. viii. 9, Q (rr[p]av0ia Jer. viii. 7 and C Karaacp[p]ayi(ei Job 
xxxvii. 7. 

1 Cod. A writes /x6Xt/35os in Ezekiel. 



§7>37] The Consonants 117 

36. Omission of <r occurs most often before t and v. 
X has ya\jr~\Tpl Is. xxvi. 18, e[o-]rti/ Is. xxvii. 9, xxxi. 3, Zech. i. 9, 
(i-ypo)[cr]rt9 Is. xxxvii. 27, clkov^o-^t^v Is. xxx. 30, in[o-]7rti' Is. liv. 
12, 8ie[cr~\Traf}fx4i>ovs lvi. 8, /xo[o-]^oi' lxvi. 3, €kci[(t]tos Jer. xvi. 12, 
xxviii. 6, I'envi^o-jKot ib. xxx. 15, eVifo-Jrdrqj/ xxxvi. 26, ^pr;[(r]ros 
xl. 11. The omission of <x in the verb €K[o-]7rav is shared by X 
with A : eK[(r]Tra(r6rivai Hb. ii. 9 XA, 6K[cr]7r(io-are Zech. xiii. 7 X, so 
(in A) Am. ix. 1 5, ■*■ xxi. 10 (ARU), xxiv. 1 5 and (in R) V cxxviii. 6. 
A has also 7rai8t![<r]»eai Gen. xii. 16, e$6Tri[<r]dei> (Epic) 4 K. xvii. 
21, dTre[cr])(icrdr] 2 Ch. xxvi. 21, f[o-]<ppayio-#?7 Est. viii. IO: [a-jr/yos- 
Ep. Jer. 10 AO has classical authority. B has 7rpocro^^i[o-]/xart 
4 K. xxiii. 13, d7re[o-]x<<7#q 2 Ch. xxvi. 21 (with A). E has 
e'pvTrvui[(r]0i] Gen. xli. 5 : F l[<r]x l 'u ( t> co vos Ex. iv. IO, eTTi[a]Tra<TTpop 
Ex. xxvi. 36, ei>8o[a]dio)v Lev. viii. 16. V has [o-JxOXa I M. v. 51. 

Less frequent is omission of labials (X has 7rapefj.[ft]o\rjs Is. 
xxi. 8, i>7rep[/3]//o-ere Jer. v. 22, <V[n"]e^w Is. xvi. 9) and of 
nasals: v is dropped by X in dvay[v]d>(TTj Jer. xxviii. 61, a-Tpu>p\y\i) 
Job xli. 21, by B in f[v]ardvTos 1 Es. v. 46 (with A), uKa[v]dcu 
Is. v. 6 (with Q), /3po[i/]r^? Is. xxix. 6, Troip\y~\iov Jer. xiii. 17, by 
in Ez. xiii. 20 7Tf[i']raK oaiav. 

37. Single and double consonants. Doubled con- 
sonants in Attic Greek owe their origin to a fulness of pro- 
nunciation given to some of them, particularly to liquids and 
nasals 1 . From the Hellenistic period onwards (in Egypt 
from about 200 B.C.) the tendency has been in the direction 
of simplification, and in modern Greek, with the exception 
of certain districts of Asia and the islands, the single consonant 
has prevailed 2 . This phenomenon, together with the less 
frequent doubling of simple vowels, appears to have arisen 
from a shifting of the dividing-line between the syllables. 
"AAjAos became ajAAo? and so aXo? : reversely the closing of the 
open syllable in e.g. vrj\ao<; produced v^o-|o-o?. In the LXX 
uncials the Attic forms are usual, with some exceptions in 
Cod. N and in the case of pp (p), where there was fluctuation 
even in the Attic period. 

1 In Homer an initial X lengthened a preceding vowel (iroWa XKnTo/xevij 

11. 6. 358). 

2 1 numb Hell. 20 ff. From the diversity of practice in the modern 
dialects he infers the existence of " geminierende und nichtgeminierende 
Koti'Tj-Mundarten." 



Ii8 The Consonants [§7, 38 — 

38. The two following examples do not come under 
the head of simplification. 

KarapaKTr;? is always written with single p in the uncials 
in accordance with the koivij derivation 1 of the word from 
Kar-apatrcretv (not KajappayrjvaL). 

Tevrj/xa (unrecorded in LS ed. 8) is a new Kowrj formation 
from yivop.ai= "produce of the earth," "fruit," and is carefully 
distinguished from yeW^/m, "offspring" (from yevvaw) 2 . 

Tivrjpa (with irpa)ToyevT]fia) is common in LXX, always being 
used of the fruits of the ground except in 1 Mace. (i. 38, iii. 45) 
where it is applied to Jerusalem's offspring. Tewrj/xa appears in 
Jd. i. 10 BA ( = " descendant "), Sir. x. 18 (yei'vrjpaa-iv yvvaiKcov) : 
both books use yevr]pa= ii produce" elsewhere. In three passages 
there are variants, but the difference in the spelling imports a 
different meaning, (a) Gen. xlix. 21 ~Se(pBaXei, a-reXexos avei- 
pevov, €ttl8i8ovs ei> ra> yevr]p,aTi (BZ?F) kc'iWos. The comparison 
to a tree fixes the spelling : yevv^pari of A drops the metaphor. 

(&) Job © xxxix. 4 (of the wild goats) diropprj^avaiv 70 reKva 
avrcou, Tr\r]6vv8rj(T()VTat ev yevrjpari (BX), i.e. "they will multiply 

among the fruits of the field," RV " in the open field " ("Q3) : 
yewrjpari of A gives "13 its more familiar Aramaic meaning 
"son" i.e. "they will abound in offspring." (c) W. xvi. 19. The 
flame that plagued the Egyptians burnt more fiercely tva a&iKav 
yrjs yevi'ipara (BC) Siacpdeipr). The contrast with the "angel's 
food" in the next verse shows that the reference is to the 
destruction of the "herb of the field" and the "tree of the 
field" (Ex. ix. 25) : yewrjpara of XA refers to the Egyptians, who 
themselves were struck by the hail (ibid.). 

39. PP and P. The Attic rule was (to quote Blass) 
that " p, if it passes from the beginning to the middle of a 
word (through inflexion or composition), preserves the stronger 
pronunciation of the initial letter by becoming doubled." But 
exceptions are found in Attic Inscriptions from v/b.c. 3 

In the LXX pp is usual in the simple verbs : p is fairly 
frequent in the compounds. The same distinction is found 
in the Ptolemaic papyri. 

1 Strabo 667 (xiv. 4). 

2 Cf. Deissmarm BS 109 f., 184, Mayser 214. 

3 Meisterhans 95. Cf. Mayser 212/. 



§7,4°] The Consonants 119 

A distinction is also observable between groups of books. 
In general it may be said that, while in certain verbs pp is 
attested throughout, in others it is characteristic of the Pentateuch 
and some literary books, while p appears in the later historical 
books, in Psalms, in Jeremiah and Minor Prophets (in BX) and 
in Theodotion. 

"Appcoa-ros -eiv -la -rjp,a but evpcoaros, as in Attic, are constant in 
LXX. So is (ppeSrjv (five times: Jon. iii. 7 ipiOrj X). 'P«?a> has 
pp in the augmented tenses, but i^epvr]p.ev Is. lxiv. 6 BXAQ, 
e^epv7]crai' I M. ix. 6 AXV (Jpurjcrav ¥ Ixxvii. 20 T). "Eppi]£;a 
eppdyrjv etc. (including compounds) are usual : p in the simple 
verb appears once only in the B text (2 Es. xix. 11), in com- 
position it is strongly supported in Prov. xxvii. 9 Karaprj-ywrai 
BXC and is read by BX in Jl. ii. 13, Na. i. 13, by B in 4 K. viii. 

12, by X in Is. and Jer., by A in 1 K. xxviii. 17, 2 M. iv. 38. 
'Eppi^coKa -era in Sirach : elsewhere (e'Dep/fwcra etc. "Eppt^a 
eppifjLfiai etc. are usual, but ep(e)i\jfa and other forms with p are 
uncontested in Dan. (viii. 7, 12) and (in composition) in 
Job e xxvii. 22 and are strongly supported (usually by BX) in 
Jer. and Minor Prophets : in the compounds p is more common 
than pp. The perf. pass, loses the second medial p in Jer. xiv. 
16 B, Bar. ii. 25 BAQ, while it sometimes takes on an initial p 
(pipippai): Jd. iv. 22 B, xv. 15 B, Tob. i. 17 B (epipp-. A), Jdth. vi. 
13 A (epip.p. B), Jer. xliii. 30 A (epipp. BXQ). 'PvecrOai has pp in 
the augmented tenses in the Pentateuch (Exodus five times : v. 
23 tpva-co AF), but epvaaade Jos. xxii. 3 1 BA : in the subsequent 
books the MSS fluctuate between the two forms. 

'Appafiwv seems to have been the older Hellenized form of 
I my and is so written by all MSS in the three passages of 
Genesis where it occurs (Gen. xxxviii. 17 f., 20) 1 . 

40. Weakening of pp to p in words other than verbs and of 
XX to X is mainly confined to X : C and V have examples of <r 
for era. 

X in the Prophets has ir6pu> and ir6pa>6ev (Is. x. 3, xxii. 3, xxix. 

13, xlvi. 11 : Jer. v. 15, xxxviii. 3), /3optiv for jiopp. Is. xlix. 12 (so 
in a papyrus of i/B.C, the only Ptolemaic example quoted by 
Mayser of this form of simplification), nvpos for ivvppos Zech. i. 8, 
vi. 2 (with A). 

Weakening of XX to X (in papyri from ii/B.c, especially in 
a'X[X]oy and derivatives) occurs in napaXdcrcrov Est. B 5 B*, 

1 So in a papyrus of iii/B.C Papyri of later centuries write apafiwv 
almost as often as dpp- : Mayser 40, J. H. Moulton CR xv. 33 b and 
Pro/. 45, Deissmann BS 183 f. 



120 The Consonants [§ 7, 40- 



biaXdav. W. xix. 1 8 X, piraXda-a. 2 M. vii. 14 V, evuardXaKTOv 3 M. 
v. 13 AV, cf. is€TaX\evofj.evrj W. xvi. 25 A. X has also dyaXiapa 
Is. xvi. IO, li. 3, lxv. 18, dyaXidvdcu xxix. 19, arpayaXia lviii. 6, 
peXcov ( = peXX.) lix. 5, aXa 4 M. iii. I, /3aXai/7"ioi/ Tob. viii. 2 
(elsewhere in LXX. correctly fiaXXavTiov). 

The single p in dneppipai V xxx. 23 B*X*U (so eppeipai in a 
papyrus of iii/B.C, Mayser 214) seems due to the presence of 
another double consonant (elsewhere epippm, above). X* has 
(ipov Jer. v. 22. 

Cod. V writes 8vaepr)s (SvcrfPelv) in 2 and 3 Mace, on the 
analogy of evo-eftjs: so A once in 3 M. iii. 1. V further has 
rapdaovras I M. iii. 5, C KaaiTtpov Sir. xlvii. 18. 

Mutes are dropped in cra^drav Ez. xxii. 26 B*, avyvovs 2 M. 
xiv. 31 A, veoTav 4 M. xiv. 15 A*V*. 

41. There is one instance of doubling of single consonant 
which the LXX contributes to the study of Greek orthography : 
it is unrecorded in the grammars. In all the 21 instances 
where the word occurs the classical 01^01 is written with double 
p. either as olp.fx.ot or 6/j.p.oi (the two forms in conjunction in 
Jer. li. 33, oixp.01 olfxpoi B*) : the class, form is limited (in the 
three leading uncials) to 3 K. xvii. 20 A. 

42. New verbs are coined, on the model of nepawvpn etc., 
in -wo* (§ 19, 2): fiewui (for /3atVw) in the A text, d-n-oKTeww (for 

-KT£LV<li), a.TTOTlVVVW, (pOdvVU), ^VVVU) 1 . 

'Ae'vaof and evaros retain the classical spelling (dewaot in 
2 M. vii. 36 V: ewaros [in the corrector of the same MS] does 
not deserve the recognition as a " LXX " form which Redpath 
and Mayser accord to it). 

B writes 'EXXvpalfta Tob. ii. 10 (elsewhere 'EXv/x.). Later 
MSS afford : 7roXXvv (on the analogy of ttoXXtjv) Job xxix. 18 A, 
dpvXXrjpa dpvXXtjdfirjv Job xvii. 6 C, xxxi. 30 C, davAXov 2 M. iv. 
34 V, eXXarrov xii. 4 V. 

B* has vfjaaos in Ez. xxvi. 18, xxvii. 6: H ftvpaar]? Job xvi. 16, 
yeicro-os Jer. Iii. 22, (vpio-aKoi'Tts Lam. i. 6, rjaadev^aev ii. 8 : 
A eppvo-o-io 3 M. vi. 6: C Trdcra-rjs Sir. xxxvii. 21, kXio-<tov 
( = KXeiaroi>) xlii. 6: Q piao-yovaiv Hos. iv. 2. 

Doubling of k, as in eKt-eXevo-erai Is. ii. 3 X, e<^oicru> Zech. v. 
4 X, in the papyri appears to be not earlier than i/A.D. (ex^ova-iav 
OP ii. 259. 18 of 23 a.d.). MoyyiXdXos, a late reading (QrB ab ) 

1 Cf. irlvvw in the corrector of Q : Is. xxiv. 9, xxix. 8. 



§ 7, 44] The Consonants 121 

in Is. xxxv. 6, is said (Thayer) to be derived not from poyis but 
from the adj. fioyyos, which occurs, as Dr J. H. Moulton tells 
me, in BM iii. p. 241. 16 (iv/A.D.). 

43. Doubling of the aspirate. The incorrect doubling 
of the aspirate where tenuis + aspirate should be written (xx> 
08, <p<f> for k%, t8, ircf>) appears occasionally in the uncials : it 
has good authority in some late books or portions of books. 

(1) (p<p. 2a<p(pd>6 2 K. xvii. 29 BA, Jer. Iii. 19, 2a<f><f>dv 
(2e<p<pdv) 4 K. xxii. 3 ff. BA, ~2a(p<pdd 4 K. xxii. 14 B ( = 2a(pdv A): 
so K€(fxf)a>6eis Prov. vii. 22 A (kctt^). BX). On the other hand 
Scnrcfieiv, 'Ancpeiv, 2an(pad8 are read by B in i Ch. vii. 12, 15, 
Saircpois I M. ii. 5 XV (2«0#ovr A). (2) 66. MadOdv (Me66aviav) 
4 K. xxiv. 17 BA, Ma66a6d, Ma66avid and similar forms frequently 
in 2 Esdras A (and X : B writes Madavia etc.): B has vnoTi66ia 
in Hos. xiv. 1. On the other hand in 1 and 2 Chron. and 1 Es. 
A writes correctly Mardavlas etc. (B Mavdavlas etc.). (3) \X- 
BaK^ovpos is correctly written by BA in 1 Es. ix. 24 and in 
1 Mace. BaKxidrjs is usual : Ba^/S^s 1 only in vii. 8 X, ix. 49 XV, 

BcikxX- xx - * x ( so Bn XX' N. xxxiv. 22 F). 

2a7T^>ftpos is written correctly (not aa(p(p.), but assimilation 
is sometimes produced by dropping the aspirate altogether: 
B has <rdTnr(()ipos in Is. liv. 1 1, Ez. i. 26, Tob. xiii. 16, so F in Ex. 
(xxiv. 10 aa . tt: third letter illegible) xxviii. 18. 

44. 22 and TT. The Hellenistic language as a whole 
adopted the era- of non-Attic dialects and abandoned the 
peculiarly Attic tt. The latter was still employed by literary 
writers, even before the age of the Atticists. But the general 
statement that the koiviJ used a-a requires some modification, 
and there is ground for believing that, in certain words at 
least, tt still survived in the living language 2 . 

1 Baxx'^«5°s is found already in a papyrus of iii/B.C (Mayser 182). 

2 See Thumb Hell. 78 ff. In MSS of the Apostolic Fathers tt is fre- 
quent even in documents ordinarily addicted to vulgarisms, Reinhold 43 f. 
The underlying principle has now been explained by Wackemagel, Ilel- 
lenistica, 1907, pp. 12 — 25. Hellenistic writers retained tt in certain words 
which were taken over directly from Attic and were not current in another 
form in /aupij-speaking countries. Among these words was rjTTcicrdat, shown 
by its termination to be an Attic formation (Ionic eaaovadai) : the tt of the 
verb influenced the form of the adj., iJttwi>, and of its synonym 4\clttwv, 
and to a less degree that of the antithetical Kpe'iTTiav. 



122 The Consonants [§ 7, 44- 



In the LXX the use of tt is practically confined (1) to 
the three words iXdrrwr, tjttwv, kpclttcdv, and derivatives of the 
first two, (2) to the three literary writings 2, 3 and 4 Maccabees, 
which introduce the forms with tt in words other than those 
mentioned. 

45. 'EXdrrcov is used in Ex. Lev. Num. Jdth. Dan. O ii. 39 
and 2 Mace, (also Job xvi. 7 BAC and Sir. xx. 11 A) — 16 times 
in all, against six examples in all of eXda-a-cov, in Genesis (i. 16, 
xxv. 23, xxvii. 6), Proverbs (xiii. n, xxii. 16) and Wis. ix. 5. 
The distinction here is not one between vulgar and literary 
Greek: acr is found in distinctly literary writings. 'EXuttovv is 
the normal form of the classical verb in LXX, though the pass, 
part, appears as eXaaoovpevos in 2 K. iii. 29 and in the latter 
part of Sirach (xxxiv. 27, xxxviii. 24, xli. 2, xlvii. 23 BAC : also 
T]\a<rcra>dr] xlii. 21 XA) 1 . The post-classical verbs eXaTToveiv, 
eXaTTovovv (which appear to be unexampled outside the LXX 2 : 
cf. egovOevem, e^ovSevoo), 15 above) always have tt (excepting 
fXaa-aovovai Pro v. xiv. 34 BXA) : so also do the substantives 

eXurrcopa, eXilTTOHTlS. 

"Httcw occurs 1 1 times (of which six are in 2 Mace), rja-a-aiv 
only twice (Job v. 4: Is. xxiii. 8). "Hrrdo-^at (tjttov) 3 is always 
so written (common in Isaiah, four times elsewhere) and rJTTTjpa 
in the one passage where the word occurs (Is. xxxi. 8). 

The proportion is reversed in the case of Kpeiaacov, which 
occurs without variant in the uncials in 47 instances (mainly in 
Proverbs and Sirach) as against four examples only of tt 
without variant (Prov. iii. 14 Kpelrrov, Sir. xxiii. 27 do., Est. i. 19 
upeiTTovi, Ez. xxxii. 21 KpeiTTav) and seven with variant aa (Jd. 
viii. 2 A: Prov. xxv. 24 BX : W. xv. 17 B: Sir. xix. 24 BSA, xx. 
31 XA: Is. lvi. 5 Br: Ep. Jer. 67 B). 

46. The three literary writings which stand at the end of 
the Septuagint, among other Atticisms, make a freer use of 
Attic tt, but not to the entire exclusion of era. 

2 Mace, has : 

yXioTToropelv vii. 4 V (era A) but yAoxro-a (3 times). 

Outtov iv. 31, v. 21, xiv. 11. 

7TpaTTeiv (dvTi-) (3 times). 

KaTaaCpaTTeiv V. 12 V (-o-(f)d£(iv A). 

TapaTTfiv xv. 19 V (era- A) but (7riTapd(r<T(iv ix. 24 AV. 

1 Contrast eXarrovfievos Sir. xvi. 23, xix. 23, xxv. 1. The distinction 
suggests an early division of the book into two parts (cf. § 5). 

2 The former in an O.T. quotation in 2 Cor. viii. 15. 

3 See note 2, p. 121. 



§ 7, 47] The Consonants 123 

rcLTTdv x. 28 AV but \iirvrcur(reiv ix. 8 V. 

1 77 poardcrcreiv xv. 5 AV. 
(ppvaTreaBai (cppirr.) vii. 34 AV. 
8ui(pv\dTTfiv vi. 6, x. 30 V but -cpvXdaaeiv iii. 22 A, x. 30 A. 

2 Mace, further keeps aa in ptroXXn'o-o-ai', fideXvaaeadai, 
8pdaaeadai, wepiaacos, (eK)7rXr;crcreii>, eirti'dcrcreti'. 

3 Mace, has : 

npoaTciTTtiv v. 37 but -rao-o-fti' V. 3, 40. 

(pvkdaaeiv etc. 

4 Mace, has : 
fi8e\vTTecr8ai v. 7. 

yXovrra X. 1 7, 21 but yXcoaaa X. 1 9, xviii. 21. 

■yXoorroTo/xfU' x. 19 X (a-cr A), xii. 13. 

i/for(r)ds- xiv. 1 5 but \voaaia xiv. 19. 

^ocro-07roieii/ xiv. 1 6. 
Trpdrreiv lil. 20. 
(ppLTTfiv xiv. 9, xvii. 7. 
It further keeps aa in piXiaaa, cpvXdaaeiv. 
Apart from this triplet of books and the triplet of words 
above-mentioned era- is universal in the LXX, except that 
cpvkdTTtiv occurs twice in the last chapter of Jeremiah (probably 
a later appendix to the Greek version) lii. 24 B, 31 A, and twice 
as a variant reading elsewhere: Job xxix. 2 A, W. xvii. 4 AC. 
Sijpepov, aevrXlov (Is. li. 20) have initial cr, not r. 

47. P2 and PP. The use of the later Attic pp is in 
the following words practically restricted to a few literary 
portions of the LXX. 

"Apcrrjv, dpareviKos, dapa-flv, dapavvav (Est. C 23, 4 M. xiii. 
8 Traped.) are the ordinary forms in use. "Apprjv is confined to 
Sir. xxxvi. 26, 4 M. xv. 30, cf. dppevadcos 2 M. x. 35 (a air. Xey.), 
Bappeiv to Prov. i. 21 BXAC, xxix. 29 X (dapcnl BA), Bar. iv. 21 
B (pa AQ), 27 B (do.) (but pa iv. 5, 30), Dan. O vi. 16, 4 M. 
xiii. II, xvii. 4, dappaXeos (-ecus-) to 3 M. i. 4, 23, 4 M. iii. 14, 
xiii. 13. 

In addition to these examples, the adjective irvppds, with 
derivatives nvppuKris Trvppl£fu>, keeps pp throughout the LXX, 
as in the papyri (Mayser 221): rrvpaos was an alternative Attic 
form, used in poetry. The later Attic forms Tr6ppa> rruppcodev 
are used to the exclusion of the older Trpdaat (n- dpao>). 

The contracted form fioppds (pp resulting from pj, Kiihner- 
Blass i. 1. 386) which appears in Attic inscriptions from 
c. 400 B.C., is practically universal in the LXX, as it is in the 
papyri (Mayser 252). The older fiopias appears only in Proverbs 



124 The Aspirate [§ 7, 47 — 

(xxv. 23, xxvii. 16), Sirach (xliii. 17, 20: in 20 B has the Ionic 
(iop(r)s) and Job 6 xxvi. 7. 

On the other hand pvpaun], pvpa-ivdov, x^P ' ^ are written. 

§ 8. The Aspirate. 

1. The practice of dropping the aspirate, which began in 
early times in the Ionic and Aeolic dialects in Asia Minor, 
gradually spread, until, as in modern Greek, it ceased to be 
pronounced altogether 1 . In the Alexandrian age it appears 
to have been still pronounced 2 , but the tendency towards 
deaspiration has set in. 

2. Irregular insertion of the aspirate. On the other 
hand, there is considerable evidence for a counter-tendency in 
the kolvi], namely to insert an aspirate in a certain group of 
words which in Attic had none. The principal words are 
eA-n-ts, trVos, l8eLv and cognate words, 1810?, 10-09. These forms 
are attested too widely to be regarded as due to ignorance 
— to a reaction against the prevailing tendency, causing the 
insertion of the // in the wrong place : they represent a genuine 
alternative pronunciation. Grammarians are divided on the 
question whether these forms are " analogy formations within 
the KULvq," 3 ko.9' Itos, e.g., being formed on the analogy of 
KaO' ripiipav, or whether they go back to the age of the dialects 4 , 
and the aspirate is a substitute for the lost digamma, which 
once was present in all the five words mentioned. The older 
explanation of the aspirate by the lost digamma has the 
support of Blass and Hort and it does not appear why it 
should be given up 5 . Another explanation must be sought for 



1 Thumb, Untersuch. iiber den Spiritns asper 87, puts its final dis- 
appearance at about iv/-v/ A.D. 
" lb. 79. 

3 Thumb Hell. 64. 

4 Schwyzer Perg. Inschriften 1 1 8 ff. 

5 Dr J. H. Moulton (Prol. 44 note) regards it as untenable, but without 
giving reasons. Thumb in his earlier work admits the possibility of this 
explanation in some cases (Sf>ir. Asp. 71 v<f>i56/jievos, 11 eros). 



8, 3] The Aspirate 125 



a recurrent instance like oAiyos, which never had a digamma, 
and in some cases analogy is doubtless responsible. 

3. The LXX examples of these words are as follows : 

(1) eXirCs 1 in (<$>' eXnidi twice in B, Jd. xviii. 27, Hos. ii. 18 (as 
against eight examples of eV (/ier') cXtt., including Jd. xviii. 7 B, 
10 B). 'Afa'KTTigeiv has good authority in Sirach (xxii. 21 BX, 
xxvii. 21 B*AC) : X has it in Est. C 30, Jdth. ix. 11, while 
(A)T have e((>e\7r i£ea> in *■ (li. 9 T, and six times in ■*■ 118 AT) : 
in all there are 1 1 examples of «0- e'(peXni^etv against three of 
air- in- without variant (4 K. xviii. 30: Is. xxix. 19: 2 M. ix. 18). 

(2) 2tos in e(pcTiov Dt. xv. 18 BAF (=eWreioz/) (so the papyri 
have kclB' eros, e(f)' (ttj since 225 B.C. 2 beside kot (eV) er. which 
are more common: LXX has Kara (ko.t V) eros in 2 M. xi. 3, 
the only example of the phrase). The analogy of kq^' eros 
seems to have produced <a6' cvicwrov 3 Dt. xiv. 21 B* (elsewhere 
in LXX kclt eV fier eviawov regularly, 27 examples). 

(3) ?Bov, d<j)i8€iv 4 etc. are exceedingly common in LXX. In 
the B text ovx l8ov is practically universal, occurring no less than 
27 times, as against six examples only of ovk 18<w (Dt. xi. 30 
BAF, xxxii. 34 BF : Jos. xxii. 20 BA : 3 K. viii. 53 B, xvi. 28 c B : 
Is. lxvi. 9, where X has ovx). A unites with B in reading ovx 
l8ov in I K. xxiii. 19, usually in 3 and 4 K., Sir. xviii. 17 
(B*XA) and Zech. iii. 2 (B*XAr). Ov X 18(ov) occurs in 4 K. ii. 
12 A: Dan. 9 x. 7 B* : icddi8e in Dt. xxvi. 15 B, while A and 
the other uncials furnish nine examples of similar forms, e(f)[8oi 
Gen. xxxi. 49 A, e<pi8(ev) * liii. 9 R*T, xci. 12 AT, cxi. 8 XT, 
e(f)i8e'iv 1 M. iii. 59 AXV, 2 M. viii. 2 AV, ?0(e)tSe 2 M. i. 27 A, 
d(j)i8a)v 3 M. vi. 8 A, 4 M. xvii. 23 AX. Even ovx tyopai (which 
Blass calls a "clerical error") has an established position: 
there are nine examples (as against 24 of undisputed ovk. 6't^.) ; 
N xiv. 23 B*: ¥ xlviii. 10 B* 20 B*T, lxxxviii. 49 T, cxiii. 13 T, 
cxxxiv. 16 T : Jdth. vii. 27 A: Jer. v. 12 B*A, xii. 4 B*. With 
these instances may be classed ovx <-8as Zech. iv. 13 X. 

For ovx <-8ov, ovk l8ov in 3 K. see p. 70. 

The almost universal employment of oyx'Aoy in B may 
be partly due to the influence of the form o^i. Oi^' l8ov 
occurs in Acts ii. 7 B, but not apparently in LXX. The origin 
of this rendering of XTTI, nonne, is not clear, as there is no 
equivalent in the Heb. for l8ov. Only in 2 Ch. xxv. 26 do we 
find the combination Q3n xS"! "Behold are they not (written)?," 

1 So in an Attic Inscription as early as 432 B.C. (Meisterhans 86). 

2 Mayser 199 f. Cf. Moulton CR xv. 33, xviii. 106 f. 

3 So tied' ev. (158 B.C.), i<p' ev. in the papyri, Mayser 200, CA' xviii. 107. 

4 'E<pi8elv in a papyrus of iii/B.c. and frequently under the Empire, 
Mayser 201. 



126 The Aspirate [§ 8, 3 — 



contrast xxxvi. 8 D3i1. The present writer would suggest that 
ov X l8ov originated in a doublet. The interrogative abn is only 
an alternative mode of expressing the positive run, and in 
Chron. ron sometimes replaces sbn in the parallel passages 
in Kings. sSil is principally rendered by (1) ovx l8ov, (2) ovk or 
ov X , (3) t'Sou nine times e.g. Dt. iii. 11. It is suggested that at 
least in the earlier books the oldest rendering was in all cases 
l8ov, the translators preferring the positive statement to the 
rhetorical question. Ovx(i) was an alternative rendering, and 
out of the two arose the conflate oyx'^oy- This in time 
became the recognised equivalent for the classical ap ov; The 
textual evidence given in the larger Cambridge LXX in the 
first passage where ovx l8ov appears (Gen. xiii. 9) favours this 
explanation. 

(4) tSios appears in Kaff Idiav 1 2 M. ix. 26 V* (kut A), as 
against three examples of kot 18. all in this book: also in the 
three chief uncials in Jdth. v. 18 (ovx ' l ^^ av **A, ovx ^- B)- 

The itacism in B in the last passage recurs in Prov. v. 19N 
and causes occasional confusion between rj8vs and I'Stoy. In 
Sir. xxii. 1 1 e.g. ijbiov k\o.vo-ov of BX "weep more tenderly" (for 
the dead than for the fool) is doubtless the meaning, though 
'i8iov K\two-ov of AC would yield a tolerable sense "keep a 
special mourning for the dead " (the Heb. is not extant here). 

(5) l'0-os 2 is aspirated in tfyicros Sir. ix. 10 BXC (ec|>'icoc B*), 
xxxiv. 27 BX (the only occurrences in LXX : unaspirated in the 
editions of Polyb. 3. 115. 1) and in ovx lo-a>0r)o-eTai Job 6 xxviii. 
17 B*XA, 19 B*X (the only other example of the verb is 
indeterminate as regards aspirate). 

Another form well-attested elsewhere is €<t>iopK€iv -to: so 
1 Es. i. 46 B: W. xiv. 28 A, 25 C (but enlopKos Zech. v. 3 all 
uncials): due to throwing back the aspirate of SpKos 3 . 

4. 'OXt-yos seems to belong to a later period 4 than the pre- 
ceding cases of aspiration and is not so uniformly attested in 
LXX as in N.T. : with ol x Is. x. 7 XA, Job x. 20 B* 2 M. viii. 
6 V (ovk oX. 2 M. x. 24, xiv. 30), with /ze<9' only in Jdth. xiii. 9 B* 
(as against five examples of per' eV kot oX.). 

There being no digamma here to explain the aspirate, its 
explanation may perhaps be found in the gamma. The word 
often appears in the papyri as 6\ios (§ 7. 29) : the weak spirant 

1 So in Attic Inscriptions from 250 B.C. (Meisterhans 87) and elsewhere 
in the Koivq. 

2 As early as iv/B.C. in the phrase e<p' fori (/cat dfioig.): Thumb Asp. 71, 

Schwyzer 1 19 f. 

3 Or to mixture of icpopKiw tinopKiu (Thumb ib. 72). 

4 In papyri of ii/iii/A.D., CR xv. 33 (add ovx ° x - BM «■ J 9 8 c - l 7° A - D -> 
ib. 411 c. 346 a.d.) but not in those of the Ptolemaic age. 



§ 8, 7] The Aspirate 127 



sound of the y may have been thrown back on to the first 
syllable. For initial y replacing the usual aspirate cf. ttjv 8e 
ytiTT)v (?=1a-T)v) Teb. 61. 233 (118 B.C.): but see p. in, n. 4. 

Kad' efiavTov 2 M. ix. 22 AV is due to analogy (nat)' eavrov). 
a I(T)(v(pos) in ov% io-xypai I Es. iv. 32 B*, 34 AB* vid , ov% tV^vo) 
Is. 1. 2 A and Q, has old authority 1 . 

In transliterated proper names such as 'lovdas (e.g. ou^ 
'loCSa Dan. 6, Sus. 56 BAQ) the aspirate in the second radical in 
the Heb. (mirv) is sometimes thrown back to the first syllable. 

5. Sporadic examples of irregular aspiration follow, mainly 
clerical errors. Ovx dyana Prov. xxii. 14 a A, ov^ dvoiyei Is. liii. 
7 B* bis: nad' eUova Sir. xvii. 3 B*X* (? due to lost digamma or 
to preceding nad' eavrovs), ovx elo-aKovo-opai Jer. vii. 16 B*A, oi<x 
flarrjveyKav Dan. vi. 18 B* : d(f)r]\i\j^a Is. xliv. 22 X* with oi% 
f]\enl/dfj.r)v Dan. 6 x. 3 B, ovx rjnovaav Is. Ixvi. 4 B* (due to oi>x 
vnr]K. id.): clerical errors in X are e'0' ovav Is. xxx. 6, e'0' ovBevds 
4 M. xv. n : e'(£' cSfjuns Ep. Jer. 25 B* is a solitary example in 
LXX of aspiration of this word (cf. Lat. humerus), eV being 
used before it 13 times, once in this Epistle : ovx i>8~ives Jer. xiii. 
21 NA may be a corruption of olyi w8. 

(LXX has only air- i£air- eV- ecrraAjta, not a0ecrraXKa etc. 
[reduplication as in earrjKa, Thumb op. cit. 70] as often in the 

KOIVT).) 

6. Loss of aspirate (psilosis). As the tendency 
towards deaspiration continually increased between the dates 
of the LXX autographs and of the uncials, the evidence of the 
latter is of doubtful value. The most noticeable feature in it 
is the marked preference in Cod. B for unaspirated i (and 
for ev in ei'pur/cco). 

7. One example stands apart from the rest and is well 
attested in the Koiviq, namely the dropping of the aspirate in 
the perfect of larrjfxi. This, however, does not in the LXX 
take place as a rule in the old perf. lan-qua, "I stand," but in 
the new transitive perf. -ia-raKa, " I have set up," with its corre- 
sponding passive -e'ora/xai, the psilosis being perhaps due to 
the analogy of the trans, aorist eo-Trjo-a' 2 . 

1 Meisterhans 87 ('I<rx^Xos). 

2 Or to that of ?<XTa\/ca, Thumb op. cit. 70. Mayser 203 quotes two 
examples of aTricrTTjKa from Ptolemaic papyri, in one of which the verb is 
transitive: the intrans. perf. is elsewhere d<p^aTTjKa. 



128 The Aspirate [§ 8, 7 — 

Kare'oraico has strong support in Jer. i. 10 BXA, vi. 17 BXA, 
1 M. x. 20 XV (but dfeaTcina trans. Jer. xvi. 5 BQ, dcpeo-rrjKa XA: 

1 M. xi. 34 ea-raKafiev is indeterminate). KaTeo-rapevos is written 
by B seven times 1 , once being supported by A, which also has 
this form in Jer. xx. 1 and eTreo-rapevr] ib. v. 27. Psilosis in other 
forms of the perfect and in the present occur sporadically : 
(a) fTTfarara Jdth. x. 6 B, eVecrr^Koos Zech. i. io X, KarecrTrjKeiaav 
3 M. iii. 5 V : (b) eTrio-TTjpfi sic Jer. li. 1 1 A, vtt io-Tarai Prov. xiii. 
8 X, eVtWarat W. vi. 8 B (so in N.T., i Thess. v. 3 BXL). 

8. The following examples occur of unaspirated tenuis : 

(i) Before a{jj). Ovk rjyido-are N. xxvii. 14 B, ovk Tj-yviadrjaav 

2 Ch. xxx. 3 A (cf. dyos ciyos). Ovk. <i\jrta0€ (-(Tin) has good 
support in the Pentateuch: Ex. xix. 13 B, Lev. xi. 8 BA, xii. 4 
BF, N. iv. 15 B (cf. eird-TTToiTo in a Phocian Inscription, Thumb 
Asp. 36 f.). Ovk dpTr(q) L. xix. 13 BAF. Ol>k dp,aprrjir(op.ai) Sir. 
xxiv. 22 B, Eccl. vii. 21 C, perhaps due in both cases to 
the ovk in the balancing clauses : cf. ovk rjpdpnjKev 1 K. xix. 4 B. 
Confusion of avrr] and avrrj is natural : ovk precedes the pronoun 
where avrrj is clearly meant in e.g. 4 K. vi. 19 A bis, Is. xxiii. 7 X, 
Dan. e iv. 27 A. 

(ii) Before e. Ouk (kcov Ex. xxi. 13 BA (on the analogy of 
oku>v : conversely cikovo-ios on an Attic Inscription) : ovk eveKev 
Jos. xxii. 26 BA, 28 BA, Is. xlviii. 10 NAQ : ovk eVot/iao-^crerat 
I K. xx. 31 B: oiik <E\f/r]o-eis Ex. xxiii. 19 B = Dt. xiv. 20 B: ovk 
eapdKa(aiv) Dt. xxi. J B, xxxiii. 9 B: kut eKdo-rrjv ty xli. 11 X 
(so in iii/B.C, Mayser 202, and earlier, Thumb op. cit. 61). "E\kq> 
loses its aspirate in ovk e'l\Kvaev Dt. xxi. 3 B, Sir. xxviii. 19 X 
and in Ep. J. 43 dtr- eV- e\Kvo-6(e7cra) AQ (against four examples 
of e(pe\K- without v.l.). 

(iii) Before //. Ouk has strong support before forms from 
f}o-vxd(€ii> viz. Jer. xxix. 6 BAQ, Prov. vii. 11 BXA (but ped' 
tjo-vxlhs Sir. xxviii. 16) and iJkciv, Jer. v. 12 XQ, xxiii. 17 BX, xxv. 
16 X, Hg. i. 2 AQ, cf. Prov. x. 30 B 2 . The loss of the aspirate 
in l'lpels (2 M. vi. 17 tclvt rjplv elpr]arda>) is common elsewhere : 
Mayser 202 gives an example of iii/B.c. 'AirrjXiwrrjs "east" 
appears to have been an Ionic coinage which was adopted in 
Attic Greek and is the invariable form in LXX and papyri 
(Mayser 203). 

(iv) Before 1. The MSS afford a few examples: ovk (6k) 
havos Is. xl. 16 X bis, ovk iXdaBrjs Lam. iii. 42 AQ, per 'Ittttov 

1 N. iii. 32, xxxi. 48: 2 K. iii. 39: 3 K. ii. 35 h (with A), iv. 7, v. 16: 
2 Ch. xxxiv. 10. On the other hand there are eight examples of KadevT. 
without v.l. 

2 The only examples of undisputed ov\ before rjKeiv are 1 K. xxix. 9: 
Jer. ii. 31. 



§ 9, i ] The A spirate 1 29 

1 Es. ii. 25 A (cf. the old form 'Ukos, Lat. equus), KarnrTdp-eva 
Sir. xliii. 17 B. 

(v) Before o, o>. "Opoios loses its aspirate in Prov. xxvii. 
19 C ovk ofxoia: cf. ovk ofioedvwv 2 M. v. 6 AV. The definite 
art. twice loses its aspirate in the same phrase ovk 6 cp6j3os 
Job iv. 6 BXC, xxxiii. 7 BX, apparently owing to the aspirated 
consonant which follows it : so in Job xxxii. 7 B, Bar. ii. 17 A 
(Mayser 203 gives an example of ii/B.C). Ouk is used before 
(odrjyrjo-ev Ex. xiii. 1 7 B, topaios Sir. xv. 9 X, cos Is. viii. 1 4 X. 

(vi) Before eu, v 1 . Loss of aspirate in evplo-Kco (partly 
perhaps through analogy with compounds of ev) is frequent in 
the B text, which has 12 examples of ovk evpe6r]o-eTcu etc. (nine 
in the historical books between Ex. xii. 19 and 2 K. xvii. 20) to 
57 of ovx: in A the proportion is 4 to 69. Other uncials supply 
half a dozen examples between them. The later papyri from 
ii/A.D. afford parallels (Cronert 146), but there is no certain 
instance in the Ptolemaic age of evpio-Kco or of v, so that B in 
the above examples and in those which follow is unreliable. 

B has some 20 examples of initial v, X 5, A 3, Q 2, C and V 
one each. The commonest examples are ovk i>7rdpx( et ) Job G 
xxxviii. 26 BSA, B in Sir. xx. 16, Tob. iii. 15, vi. 15 (with X), 
Q in Am. v. 5, Ob. 16 and ovk vnike'i.((p8ri) which B writes 
seven times. Ovx, however, largely preponderates with both 
verbs. It is needless to enumerate other examples of ovk 
before compounds of v-n-o, vvrip: Karvcpavels Ex. xxviii. 17 B, 
Karvnepde 3 M. iv. io AV (as in Ionic, Hdt. ii. 5) may be 
mentioned. 

For ovdels, prjdeis and other peculiarities of aspiration in the 
middle of words see § 7. 



§ 9. Euphony in combination of Words and Syllables 2 . 

1. Division of words. The practice of dividing the 
individual words in writing did not become general till long 
after the time of the composition of the LXX. This accounts 
for an occasional coalescence of two words, particularly where 
the first ends and the second begins with one of the weak 

1 The Boeotian dialect was the one exception to the old rule that every 
initial v was aspirated (Thumb Asp. 42). 

2 A comprehensive term embracing Assimilation of consonants, Variable 
final consonant, Elision, Crasis and Hiatus seems wanting, analogous to the 
German Satzphonetik. 



130 Division of words [§9, 1 — 

final letters ? orv (cf. ovtw(s), yu.e'xpi(s), eo-Ti(v) etc.). Instances 
like da-nfjXr]v Ttt(T7rovSas appear already in Attic Inscriptions of 
iv/B.c. 1 and become common in papyri from ii/B.c. onwards 2 . 
The LXX remains practically free from this blending of words, 
the only well-supported example being irpoaTop-a, 2 Es. xii. 13 
BnA. 

Of individual MSS, Cod. X has several examples in the 
Minor Prophets : (Io-kotos Jl. ii. 31, ixrpiXas (coapiXag A) Na. i. 10, 
iirirovaov Hb. iii. 8, u)cr(ppaylda Hg. ii. 23 (cf. ivayefi Ob. 19) : so 
el<TKavbakov I K. xviii. 21 A, f cv. 36 A, dvoi^aropn Sir. xxii. 
22 A, taxnrivdripos xlii. 22 C, coacppayis xlix. 1 1 B*, Trj<T(d«TTiKrjs 
W. xix. 20 A, el<T<payi)v Job xxvii. 14 C. 

2. A rather different kind of blending of words takes 
place where a final k and an initial o- are amalgamated into 
the compound letter £. B has e£a/3a for ck 2a/3a in Is. lx. 6, 
and i$ov (Swete e$ ov) for ck aov (~|D») in Mic. v. 2 : « has 
the same orthography in Na. i. n. n further has i£ for ck 
in Mai. ii. 12 e£ axr) vwp.a.TU)v s . 

3. Assimilation of consonants. In contrast with 
the occasional coalescence of words referred to in the last 
section is the general tendency of the Hellenistic language 
towards greater perspicuity by isolating not merely individual 
words but also the constituent elements of words. Dissimilation, 
rather than assimilation, is the rule. This tendency is ob- 
servable not only in the absence of assimilation in many words 
compounded with lv and crvv, but also in the rarity of elision 
and crasis, and in the formation of compound words in which 
an unelided vowel is retained 4 . 

1 Meisterhans 90 f. (with one exception, only where the second word 
begins with ck cr ate or c(p) : cf. in icr-q\r} = iv cr. etc. from v/b.C 

2 Mayser 216, 191 f., 205 ff. 

3 Cf. e^akafiivos and e£ 2a\a,iuVos (iv/B.c.) Meisterhans 105 f. , and for 
examples in the papyri Mayser 225. 

4 E.g. in LXX ypa/x/xaToeicayuyevs, apxifTaipos, apx^vvouxos (apxevv. 
Dan. 9 i. 9, n, 18 B), apxtitpwovvriv 1 M. xiv. 38 A, fiaKpo^p-epeveiv, 
a\\oedi>r)s, 6p.oe6vqs, fj.ic6v(3pi$ 3 M. vi. 9 A (cf. KaraoiKodaa Jer. xxvi. 19 X). 



§9.4] Assimilation of Consonants 131 

4. This tendency, however, did not at once become uni- 
versal in the Hellenistic period. There is a well-marked 
division in this respect between the earlier papyri (c. 300 — 
150 B.C.) and the later (after 150 B.C.). In the earlier period 
not only is assimilation in compounds usual ', but it is extended 
to two contiguous words. There are numerous examples in 
papyri of iii/B.c. of the assimilation of final v (mainly in mono- 
syllabic words) to (jl before labials, to y before gutturals (to/a 
7rcu8a, ifx. fxrjvi, iy k/jokooYAw 7roA.€t etc.), though the practice 
is going out and the non-assimilated forms predominate 2 . After 
150 B.C. these forms practically disappear, though the assimila- 
tion of k to y in iy Si/oys etc. lingers on as late as iii/A.D. 

Of this class of assimilation the LXX only exhibits two 
recurrent examples, one of which is limited to Cod. A, while 
the other is most widely attested in that MS. 'Ey yao-iyn 3 
is confined to A which has 19 examples of it (once c/c yacrrpi, 
Job xv. 35) to 14 of iv yacrrpi. 'Ep. fxe<rw or i/x/xiao) ("ap- 
parently Alexandrian " WH) occurs some 200 times in A, 
while B has 17 examples (mainly in * and Sir.), and N 3: 
there are also instances of it in the uncials E, F, T (in *), 
C (Sir.), T (Prophets) : the only passages where it is supported 
by all the principal uncials are Lev. xxv. ^^ BAF, Is. vi. 5 
BxAT. 

Apart from these two phrases, the only similar forms noted 
in the uncials are ipj]Tpos (=e'ic p.) Gen. xx. 12 A*, ix^-pos ( = e« 
X-) Ex. xviii. 8 A*, ¥ xxi. 21 U, xxx. 16 U, cnrapxw t&v ^ lxxvii. 
51 R, fppfo-rjpfipivf) Is. xvi. 3 N. Assimilation never takes place, 
as in the papyri, in eV prjvi, « 8e£iav, e* pepovs etc. The papyri 
would lead us to expect more examples of such assimilation, at 
least in the Pentateuch, and it is probable that a larger number 
of them stood in the autographs. Cf. § 7, 4 and 9. 



1 Mayser 233 ff. 

2 lb. 229 ff.: cf. Meisterhans iioff. Contrast the usual opening 
formula of a will of iii/B.C. et'17 |A€(A poi vyiaivovTi k.t.X. with evop^Kovvn piv 
Pol ev et'77 BM ii. 181 (64 A.D.), eirj piv poi vyiaivetv Lp. 29 (295 A.D.). 

3 Found in a papyrus of iii/B.c, Mayser 231. 



132 Assimilation of Consonants [§9.5 — 

5. A few instances occur of irregular assimilation within 
the word: j8oj90V" ( for /Vi 3 -) I ch - xvi - 32 B*, cf. fPo&fyaev 
Jer. xxxviii. 36 X, (rc'nririyyos ( = ad\ir.) Jer. VI. 17 X, aaaei 
( = a\(rei) 4 K. xxi. 7 A, Trappda-iv ( = 7rarp.) Ez. xlvii. 1 4 A, 
fKXt/*/*jj(rei ( = -XtKjLi.) W. v. 23 A, (rvvfila-a-ei (=-fii<ry.) 2 M. xiv. 
16 A. 

6. As regards assimilation of final v in composition (com- 
pounds of er, cnJv etc.), the papyri show that assimilation was 
still the rule in iii/B.c and the first half of ii/B.c, while after 
c. 150 B.C. the growing tendency to isolate the separate 
syllables produces a great increase in the number of un- 
assimilated forms. Before labials assimilation remains longer 
in force than before gutturals. Mayser's table 1 exhibits the 
contrast between these two centuries. 

According to the oldest MSS of the LXX the general rule 
is that iv and <rvv remain unassimilated before the gutturals, 
but are assimilated before the labials. Newly-formed words 
generally retain the constituent parts unassimilated, whereas 
assimilation is usual in old and common words, in which the 
preposition has begun to lose its force. As regards individual 
books, *, Prov. and Dan. © nearly always have the later un- 
assimilated forms. The following list shows the normal practice 
of the uncials with regard to individual words : words in which 
the evidence is indecisive are omitted 2 . 

Unassimilated Assimilated 

Compounds of iv. 
Before gutturals : 

y- (vyaarpifivdof, evypairros. 
ivypdfpeiv. 



1 234' 


, Final v in composition 
before labials 


before 

assim. 
58 
45 


gutturals 


in iii/B.c. 
in ii/B.C. 
2 Cf. 


is assimilated not assim. 
58 times 8 

44 35 
WH 2 App. 156 f. 


not assim. 
14 

5 2 



§9,6] 



Assimilation of Consonants 



133 



k- fVKadtros ivK.a8i£eiv iynakeiv 

ivKakvTTTeiv evKapnos eyKaraXfiTreiv (except in "&) 

evKaraXfififMa -\ip,Trdvct,v eyicXeteiv 

ivK.aT<nrai£eiv ivKav^acrdai eyKparrjs -Kpdreia 

ivKpciTfiv ivupoveiv eynapiov -Ktofiia^eiv. 
evKvXUiv. 

\- ev^pUtv ev^povi^eiv. ey^flv. 

Before labials, on the other hand, there is undisputed autho- 
rity for : 

/3- ep.j3dXXeiv ifjL^areveiv 

ep(3iftd£eiv ipfiiaais 
ep.(3\eTreiv etc. 
efnrai£eiv (and derivatives) 

epTrecpelv -os -ia 



77- (V7rapayive<r6ai (Prov.) 
ivTrepnrareiv (Prov. BXA, 

and elsewhere in one of ip.TTinXdvai ip-nnrpdvai 
the uncials) evrrrjyvvvai ipTTinreiv ipirXarvveLv 
(i K. , ?). tp.irXiK.eiv f'/XTroSi^eti/ 

e'/jLTrnpevecrdai ipnopia 
-iropiov ep.Trpoadev. 
(p- €p.<paiveu> e'p.(pavrji 

ep(pavi£eiv ep(f)oj3os 
ep.(ppdaaeiv ep.(pvadv. 

p.- ep.p.avrjs (ppeXeTTjp.a 

eppeveiv ep.povos (except 
Sir) ep,p,oXvveiv. 
Compounds of avv. 

Before gutturals : 

y- avvypa(pr] avvypdfpeiv. avyyevfjs -yiveia (-via). 

k- avvnaieiv avvKaXeiv 

avv aaraBatveiv avv KarcKpayelv 
(tvvkXciv -icXaapos avvicXeUiv 
avvuXv^eiv crvvKpiveiv. 

X~ o-vyxcw. 

Before labials etc. : 

8- avpQiaais -ttjs (except 

Dan. 0) 
avpBovXos -eveiv. 
it- avvnapaylveadai (¥) avv- avpnas 1 avp.iro8t£eiv 



1 In Eccles. avv wavra etc. should be read as two words, avv being 
Aquila's rendering of FIX : alteration to <jvp.Tvo.vTa was natural and B so 
reads in every passage except the first (i. 14). Of trvvwas for crvpTras the 
only examples are Na. i. 5 XA, ^ ciii. 28 R, cxviii. 91 AR. 



134 Assimilation of Consonants [§ 9, 6- 



-napafieveiv (ty) avvTrapdvai o-vpiropevecrdai (except Dt) 

(TW-rrapio-Tavai (¥) avvTrtpt- a-vp-rroaiov -<ria. 

-(fiepeadai (rvviriveiv crvvTroielv 
(TVVTVOVeiV avvTrpouepTTdv. 
(h- avpfpepeiv <rvp(popd 

crvp(ppd(r(reiv crvp(pvTos. 

ix- crvppaxiiv -ta -os 

o-vvpiayeiv (l and 2 M.) avpperpos (rvppiyvvvai 

(rvvLiiyTjs (Dan. 0) avppiKTos o-vppi^n. 

\- o-vXkapfidveLv <rvX\fy(iv. 

(T- avvo-eio-pos (late word) avo-KOTa£(iv (Tvcro-rjpov 

(TV(TTao-is crvo-Tfpa (-T)pa) 
(TvaTpecpeiv -arpeppa 

-CTTpOCpf]. 

LXX compounds of o-vv followed by p are few : o-wpdnTeiv, 
(rvvpdao-(iv, o-wpep^fadat are attested. 

In compounds with nav- (mainly in 2, 3 and 4 M.) the MSS 
are divided, but want of assimilation (e.g. navKpar^s, TravfiacrCkevs, 
navpfXrjs, iravirovqpoi) is the prevailing rule, many of these 
words being new. On the other hand rrappijo-ia, Trapprjaid^eo-dat 
are always so written. 

7. Variable final consonants. It has been well 
established that the insertion of the so-called "vv €<j>€\kvo-ti.k6v " 
was not, either in Attic times or in the earlier Hellenistic 
period, mainly due to a desire to avoid hiatus. In Attic In- 
scriptions from 500 — 30 B.C. it is inserted more frequently before 
consonants than before vowels 1 . Traces of a growing tendency 
to use the variable final consonant to avoid hiatus may perhaps 
be found in the papyri 2 , "but as far as we know the [modern] 
rule was only formulated in the Byzantine era 3 ." The differ- 
ence between Attic and Hellenistic Greek consists in the 
greatly increased use in the latter of the final v, which in some 
forms has practically become an invariable appendage. 

In the MSS of the LXX, as in the Ptolemaic papyri 4 , the 
insertion of v in Z<tti(v) and in verbal forms in -e(v) is almost 
universal before both consonants and vowels. In other verbal 

1 Meisterhans 114. 3 Blass N.T. 19. 

2 Mayser 245. 4 Mayser 237. 



§ 9) 8] Variable final Consonants 1 3 5 

and in nominal forms in -i(v), however, such as ttoiov<jl(v), 
MaKeSdo-i(v), omission is also allowed: well-attested instances in 
the LXX of its omission are 71-ao-i tovtois 2 Es. xix. 38 BnA, 
Jdth. xiv. 3 Zyepovcn -roi>s...BrtA. EtKocri never takes the 
v e0eA.K- in LXX or in Ptolemaic papyri. As regards the Helle- 
nistic dative of Svo — <Wi(v) — here the LXX MSS do on the 
whole insert or omit the v according as the letter following 
is a vowel or a consonant: Svaiv is always (14 times) used 
before a vowel, 8v<rl is attested without v. 1. before a consonant 
12 times : on the other hand, 8vaiv precedes a consonant with- 
out v. 1. five times (Dt. xvii. 6, Jos. vi. 22 B, 3 K. xxii. 31 B, 
Is. vi. 2 bis), while in four passages <Wi and cWiv appear 
as vll. before a consonant. 

The vernacular language inserted an irrational final v very 
freely (Mayser 197 ff.): so in LXX X has BuXdarev Jer. ii. 10, 
cf. efxev (=€[i.4) Is. xxxvii. 35 X. The latter form, like x (l P av 
vyirjv etc., may be partly due to assimilation to nouns of the 
1st declension (see § 10, 12). 

8. The Attic form ei/c/ca has been largely superseded by 
the Ionic and poet. ^v£k«v (efvoccv, limited in the best MSS 
to ov €heKev, except in Lam. iii. 44). 

"Eveica is not found before 2 K. xii. 21 B : it occurs in all only 
37 times (15 in ¥), including variants, out of 141 examples of 
the preposition. It is probably the original form in 3 K. (2), 
Prov. (1), 2 M. (4): 1 Es., *, Sir., Min. Proph., Ez. and Dan. O 
have both forms, the remaining books evenev only. 

The use of one form or the other is not governed by the 
fact that the following word begins with a vowel or a conso- 
nant (eveKa 6v6fx.aTo<; in 3 K. viii. 41 A) : but in the first half 
of * (to lxviii. 19) the distinction seems to be made that 
ZvtKtv tov is written, but cWkci twv (to avoid the triple v) 1 . 

Etrei', eneiTev are not found. 

1 "EveKa tCov ^r v. 9, viii. 3, xxvi. 11, xlvii. 12 B, lxviii. 19: 'ivtxtv tov 
vi. 5, xxii. 3, xxx. 4, xliii. 27. 



1 36 Variable final Consonants [§ 9, 9 — 

9. The final s of ovtw(s) is likewise inserted on pre- 
ponderant authority of the LXX MSS, as in the papyri, before 
both consonants and vowels. Ovtco is strongly attested only 
in Lev. vi. 37 (BAF before kcu), x. 13 (BAF before yap), 
Dt. xxxii. 6 (BA before Aads), 1 K. xxviii. 2 (BA before vvv), 
Job xxvii. 2 BnC (before pe), Is. xxx. 15 (Bk before Ae'yei). 
Elsewhere ovtlo receives occasional support from single MSS, 
especially «, which uses this form fairly consistently in Est. 
(six out of seven times), 4 M. and the latter part of Isaiah 
(from xlix. 25). 

Me'xpi and a^pi are usually so written, as in Attic, without 
final s, even before a vowel. Me'xpis ov, however, is well 
attested in Est. D 8 (B«A), Jdth. v. 10 (B«), Tob. xi. 1 (BA), 
1 Es. vi. 6 (B), Dan. © xi. 36 (AQ : pe\pi? tov B*) ; pe'xpi ov, 
on the other hand, is read by B*AF in Jos. iv. 23, cf. 
1 Es. i. 54 B*, Jdth. xii. 9 B*A, Tob. v. 7 w (pe'^pi otov), 
and axpi ov in Job xxxii. n by BnC (a^pts ov A). Apart 
from this phrase the (Epic and late) forms a^pt? pe'xP ts are 
confined to Jd. xi. 33 B axP 1 ? 'ApvwV, Job ii. 9 A pe'xP 15 twos. 
"AvTLKpvs...avTov 3 M. v. 16= "opposite" is a late usage : Attic 
uses (Kar)avTiKpv in this sense. 

The poetical k-n-TaKi is written before a consonant in Prov. 
xxiv. 16 Bn and in the B text of 3 K. xviii. 43 f. ter, 4 K. v. 14 
(contrast 10 kirraKis h>) : elsewhere always cirra/as Ifaxis ivi.vTa.KLs 
irocraKis. 

10. Elision. Elision, owing to the prevailing tendency 
to isolate and give a distinct individuality to each word is 
the exception, and is in most books of the LXX confined to 
prepositions (and particles), though even with these the scriptio 
plena is more common. The few rules that are observable 
in the MSS of the N.T. apply also to those of the LXX. 

( 1 ) Proper names in particular are kept distinct and apart : 
before them the prep, is nearly always written in full, e.g. 
I M. X. 4 peTa. 'AAe^dVSpoi; (but per airwf, Ka#' tj/alov in the 



§9, ii] Elision — Crasis 137 

same verse) : exceptions are iir Aiyvirrov Is. xxxvi. 6, kclt 
AlyvirTOV 4 M. IV. 2 2, ko# 'HAioScopov 2 M. iii. 40 A (/cara V). 

(2) Elision of the final vowel of prepositions often takes 
place in combinations of frequent occurrence and before pro- 
nouns, e.g. air ap;^?, aV i\0i<;, kclt ava.-roA.as, oltt ifxov, Lier 
auw, dvT aw'r(ov) 1 , dv6' a>i/. Elsewhere, the scriptio plena of 
the prep, is the rule even where an aspirate follows, e.g. 
N. XV. 20 diro aAto (aAcn'os), W. ix. 17 aVo vij/icttoiv : we find 
even (with pronoun following) iirl <5v N. iv. 49. 

(3) Of particles a'AAa and oiSe occasionally suffer elision, 
but are more commonly written in full, "ha undergoes elision 
in Ex. ix. 14 B lv el8fj<; (iVa A), Jos. iii. 4 B Iv lirio-rqa-Oe 
(tva AF) : contrast Jos. xi. 20 Iva. i$o\e6f>. BAF. 

(4) 4 Maccabees shows a more frequent and bolder use 
of elision. Not only does this book contain such examples 

as 8V dvdyKTjv, oY epywv, Si' evaefietav, KaGf -qXiKLav, kclt ovSeva, 
kolt IvtavTov, kclt ovpavov, KaO' VTrep/3o\rjv, d\)C ovSe, dW uxnrep, 

but it also has o-up./3ouA.er;o-aip.' av, LuxKapiaaiLi dv and similar 
phrases (i. 1, 10, ii. 6, v. 6), tovO' on ii. 9 A (tovto on ^V), 
8' eo-Tiv ib. A, S' dv vii. 17. Another literary book, 2 Mace, has 
tovt e7rtreAeo-ai xiv. 29 V (no doubt the right reading : tov hrvr. 
A) and 7rou -kot ia-TLv xiv. 32. But even the literary and poetical 
books prefer the scriptio plena in combinations not involving a 
prep., e.g. 7rrojp.a driLLOv W. iv. 19, acSpa aVapStov, Prov. X. 1 3 

BA (<\NApAK<\pAioN «) — one of the iambic endings that are 
so frequent in this book. 

n. Crasis, again, is quite rare in LXX, and practically 
confined to some stereotyped combinations with *cai. The only 
frequent example is /cayw which is attested in nearly every 
instance : kcu eyw has good authority only in 2 Ch. xviii. 7 (BA), 
Job xxxiii. 5 f. (BA, BaA), Ez. (xxxiv. 31 BAQ, xxxvi. 28 AQ), 
and in the Minor Prophets. Kdp.e is the reading of the uncials 

1 Jd. xv. 2 A (dvri avr. B), 4 K. x. 35, 1 Ch. i. 44 etc., 1 M. ix. 30. 



138 Crasis [§9, 1 1 — 

in Gen. xxvii. 34, 38, Ex. xii. 32 and 4 M. xi. 3 (so Ka^ov 
ib. v. 10) : Kdfxoi is read by A in Jd. xiv. 16, by B in Job xii. 3. 
Kav for kou idv is doubtless original in 4 M. x. 18, and is 
attested by B elsewhere (Lev. vii. 6, Sir. iii. 13, Is. viii. 14). 
Kat £K6i is usually and koX iKeWev always written plene: KaVet 
is no doubt original in 3 M. vii. 19, is read by BA in R. i. 17, 
and also attested in 3 K. xix. 12 A, Is. xxvii. 10 Q, lvii. 7 «Q. 
Ka/c€ti'(o?) is certain in W. xviii. 1, Is. lvii. 6, 2 M. i. 15, and 
is read by AQ in Dan. ® Sus. 57 (ib. Dan. O kcu «V. and so 

3 K. iii. 21). The literary books 2 and 3 Mace, alone 1 
contain examples of crasis with the definite article : TaVSpo's 
2 M. xiv. 28, 31 V, tovvavTiov 3 M. iii. 22, rdX-rjOes ib. vii. 12 : 

4 MaCC. always writes KaXoKa.ya.Oia (but kciAos koX dya#os as 

in 2 M.) and it affords apparently the only example of crasis 

in compounds of Trpo-, Trpovcpdrrjcrav iv. IO Art (Trpoe(p. V). 

N* has ecTTayadov for e'arai ay. in Prow xiii. 13a: C writes 
rjfxapria in Job xxiv. 20 for rj apapria. 

12. Hiatus and the harsh juxtaposition of consonants at 
the close of one word and the beginning of the next were 
avoided by followers of the rules of Isocrates by the use of 
some alternative forms. Etas and aVa?, 6tl and Sum are the 
chief examples. In the LXX, as in the Ptolemaic papyri 2 , 
the employment of arras appears to be due in most books to 
regard for euphony, whereas Slotl is used indiscriminately after 
vowels and consonants. 

The LXX always writes (els) tov a-n-avra (not iravra) xpovov : 
Dt. xxii. 19, 29: 1 Es. viii. 82: Est. E 24, ix. 28: 1 M. x. 30, 
xi. 36, xv. 8. Only in the following passages do the uncials 
unite in attesting anas after a vowel: 2 K. iii. 25 yvavai anavra, 
I Ch. xvii. IO (Taneivaaa anavras BXA (cf. xvi. 43 BX), 1 Es. viii. 

1 Apart from rovviavrov Ex. xxxiv. 23 A*. The papyri show a fair 
number of examples of crasis with the article, raXXa ravriypacpov etc., but 
scriptio plena is the rule, Mayser 158. 

2 Mayser i6r f. 



1 9, 12] Hiatus 1 39 

63 (after a pause), 2 M. iv. 16 *a0' 6 cnrav AV, 3 M. v. 2 ok/hitm 
anavras : elsewhere there is always a v. 1. was. 

Aioti occurs altogether in 358 instances, of which 201 are 
after a vowel, 157 after a consonant. With the meaning 
" because " (300 examples) the number of examples following a 
vowel and a consonant are about equal : with the meaning 
"that" the word is used with greater regard to euphony, there 
being only 10 examples following a consonant. 

Out of the 358 examples of Stein 250 are found in the Minor 
Prophets (145), Ezekiel a (75) and Jeremiah a (30), a fact which 
illustrates the close connexion existing between these portions 
of the LXX. Jer. ft has only three examples, two of which are 
incorrect readings (xxx. 1 X, xxxi. 44 A, xxxvii. 6): Ez. /3 has 
four (in three of which other readings are preferable). Ez. a 
writes iniyvaKrovTai Sidri eyco Kvpios where Ez. /3 has yvcoaovrat 
on eyco elfii Kvpios. 



ACCIDENCE. 



§ 10. Declensions of the Noun. 

i. Assimilation is here seen at work. There is a tendency 
to obliterate distinctions within each declension and between 
the several declensions. In particular we note some signs of 
the movement in the direction of the absorption of the con- 
sonantal (third) declension in the a and o (first and second) 
declensions. 

2. First declension. Nouns in a pure. The Attic rule 
that nouns ending in a pure (-pa -ta -ea) keep a in the gen. and 
dat. sing, undergoes modification in the koivtj in two classes of 
words, which it will be well to keep distinct: (i) nouns and 
perfect participles in -vta (-via), (2) nouns in -pa. These now 
tend to have gen. and dat. sing, in -77s -y like the majority of 
fern, words in Declension I. Nouns in -eia etc. and in -pa are 
unaffected : aA?7#eias -eM, r/p.epas -pa are written as before. 

The LXX exx. of (1) are KwopuiT/s Ex. viii. 21 B, 24 B, 
TeTe\evTr)KVLy L. xxi. 1 1 B, N. vi. 6 B, €7ri^e/?^Ki't^s 1 K. xxv. 20 B 
(A -Kvcts —-Kvrj<; =-kviy]<s), zaXwKvi-qs Is. XXX. 13 W, £<TTr)KVt7]crTyj\y] 
(= e<rrr]KVL7)<; a-ri'jXiq, §9,1) aAos W. x. 7 «*. Only in the passage 
in 1 K. is the rj form attested by more than one of the uncials: 
elsewhere the MSS have the usual forms, e.g. i£e\r)\v9via<; 
L. xxvii. 21. 

(2) The exx. of the 17 forms with nouns in -pa are also 
quite in a minority, so far, at least, as the only word which occurs 



§ io, 2] First Declension 141 

repeatedly is concerned. Out of 79 exx. of the use of p-d^aipa 
in gen. or dat. sing, in LXX there are only 2 where the 77 forms 
are universally supported and certainly original. These are 
fiaxaipr) Gen. xxvii. 40 ADE (no witness to -pa in the larger 
Cambridge LXX), Ex. xv. 9 B*AF : both passages, it is im- 
portant to note, are poetical — -the blessing pronounced upon 
Esau and the song after the crossing of the Red Sea. The -q 
forms with fxdxaipa occur also in Gen. xlviii. 22 AD (-pa. BF) 
and in a single uncial in the following : in E Gen. xxxiv. 26, 
in B* N. xxi. 24, 2 K. xv. 14, in A Dt. xiii. 15, Jos. xix. 47, 
Bel © 26 and 11 times in the A text of Jeremiah (in both 
parts) 1 . — 2<£i)pa has dat. a-^PO Is. xli. 7, gen. cr<pvpr]<;, Sir. 
xxxviii. 28 (cf. bXoo-cfrvprjTos Sir. 1. 9 with Rutherford A r Dp. 286). 
2 Mace, yields 3 exx.: a-iT€ipr]% viii. 23, xii. 22, TraXaLo-Tpy iv. 14. 

As to the origin of these forms, they cannot be entirely due 
to mere assimilation to oo^tjs -»/ : for why should participles in 
-Kvla have the r) forms, while aXrjdeta retains the a forms ? 

The forms -vlrjs -vlj] owe their existence, no doubt, as Blass 
says 2 , to the non-pronunciation of the 1 in the diphthong vi, 
which produced such spellings as TrapeiXrjcpva, v6s in Attic In- 
scriptions of iv/n.c. and earlier 3 . Though the older spelling 
again revived in the Hellenistic period, the declension -vltjs -vlrj 
maintained its place and is very common in papyri of the early 
Empire. 

As to the forms -prjs -pj] there is a division of opinion. They 
are explained by the majority of critics 4 as due to analogy with 
other nouns in a, e.g. So|a 86£rjs, while others 5 are convinced 
that they are the result of Ionic influence upon the noiv-q. The 
probability is that both influences have been at work, and that 
the -q forms were originally Ionic survivals, specially frequent 
with words having Ionic associations : afterwards analogy came 
into play (the rj forms only became common in the later koivtj) 
and extended their use to all words in -pa 6 . 

1 As against 1 1 exx. of the a forms in the A text of Jer. : the other 
uncials have the a forms throughout the book. 

2 N.T. p. 25. Cf. €Tri(3e(3T]Ki>eis = -kvt}s in i K. loc. cit. A. 
S: Meisterhans 59 f. 

4 'So Blass, J. H. Moulton, Mayser. 

5 So Thumb Hell. 68 ff., Schwyzer Perg. 40 ff., W.-S. 80 f. 

6 Cf. modern Greek iXeurepos fern. eXei/repij. 



142 First Declension [§ 10, 2 — 



(i) This is suggested by the piece of LXX evidence given 
above. It is most remarkable that the two passages in LXX 
where paxalpn is certainly original are poetical sections. The 
Pentateuch translators, according to their usual practice 1 , 
adapted their language to their subject-matter and, writing at a 
time when the papyri show that the a forms were still the rule 
in prose, appear to have consciously selected the 77 form as an 
Ionism and therefore appropriate in these poetical passages. 

(ii) It is further to be observed that the two words which most 
commonly take the 77 forms in the papyri of the early Empire 
have Ionic associations. The use of apovpa for yfj was an old 
Ionism taken over by the Tragedians (Rutherford AT 3 14) : one of 
the uses of a-irelpa was of the mouldings on an Ionic column (LS). 

(iii) The contrast between the LXX and the N.T. is instruc- 
tive and indicates the value of the uncial evidence. Whereas 
we have seen that in the LXX paxaipas -pa are normal and 
there are only 2 undisputed exx. of the 77 forms out of 79, 
in the N.T. paxaipr]<; -pr) are read by WH in all the 8 passages 
where the cases occur : an almost exclusive use of the 77 forms 
is found in the other N.T. words in -pa (WH ed. 2 App. 163). 

(iv) This distinction between O.T. and N.T. is borne out by 
the papyri, which show that it is one of time, not of country (Egypt 
and Palestine). The 77 forms are absent from papyri of iii/B.c. : 
exx. with words in -pa begin at the close of ii/B.C. with dXvprjs 
(118 B.C.), p-axalprjs -prji (i 14 and ii2 B.C.) 2 . On the other hand 
under the early Empire these forms are practically universal 3 . 

3. KopTi 4 (originally Kopprj) was one of tw r o words (with Beprj) 
where Attic prose retained ■»? in the nom. after p. It is not 
surprising to find the word brought into line with others in -pa: 
there is evidence for the form Kopav in all 3 passages in LXX 
where the ace. appears, Dt. xxxii. 10 B*F, * xvi. 8 B*n*, Sir. 

1 Thiersch 61. 

2 Mayser 12 f. 

3 I have noted upwards of 30 exx. of dpovprjs between 67 A.D. (BU 379) 
and vii/A.D. (BU 319), about a dozen of aireip-qs in ii/A.D. alone. Z-rrlpas 
gen. occurs in BM ii. 256 (early i/A.D.). Apart from the last ex. the cases 
of these two words do not seem to occur in the earlier papyri : we should 
expect to find the 77 forms, if, as appears, the words are Ionic in their 
origin : a recrudescence of a dialectical peculiarity at a late stage in the 
language would be unnatural. — The forms -vltjs etc. begin with Kad-quvlrjs 
( = Kad7)Kov<r-qs) in 161 B.C. (BM i. 41. 5): eidvtrjs is common under the 
Empire. 

4 See J. H. Moulton Prol. ed. 2, 244. 



§ io, 7] First Declension 143 

xvii. 22 « {-pw BAC) : the Attic gen. Kopr}<; stands, however, in 
Zech. ii. 8. 

4. In proper names, as previously in Attic Greek, a impure 
replaces 77 in gen. and dat. : "Awa 1 K. i. 2, "A was Tob. i. 20, 
<I>£vvaVa 1 K. i. 2, 4, Souo-aVva? Dan. O Sus. 30, Dan. © Sus. 27 
AQ (-aVv7/s B), 28 B ab AQ (-oVvt?? B*), 63 ACT. 

5. ToXfxrjv as from roXfi-q (not toA/xq) stands in Jdth xvi. 10 A 
(-/xav Bn) : cf. the fluctuation between -rrpvfxva irpv/xvr) etc. in 
Attic poetry. Conversely koXokwOo. (-kwto. AQ) ace. -Oav re- 
places Attic KoXoKvvTrj (Rutherford NP p. 498) in the kolvtj : 
Jon. iv. 7. 

6. The (Doric) gen. plur. \jsvxav occurs as a v. 1. of X* in 
W. ii. 22. 

The rare plural forms of yrj 1 occur in the B text of 4 K. : 
ras yas xviii. 35, rais yais xix. 1 1. Elsewhere the Heb. m V1X is 
rendered by x^>P ai or by th e poetical yaiai (4 K locc. citt. A text, 
2 Es. 4 times, Ez. xxxvi. 24, ^ xlviii. 12) or the plur. is replaced 
by the sg. (e.g. Gen. xli. 54 iv 71-007/ 77) ytj, Jer. xxxv. 8 eVl y^s 
TroXXrjs, Dan. G xi. 42). 

7. The contracted form (3oppa<;, which already in Attic 
Greek was an alternative for /Sope'us 2 , was used almost exclusively 
in the kowtJ. It is the normal form in papyri 3 and LXX : 
ySopeas -eov -eav is confined to the literary version of Proverbs 
(xxv. 23, xxvii. 16 : corrected in later hands of B to (Soppeas), 
Sirach (xliii. 17, 20 : in 20 B has fiopt-q*;) and Job © xxvi. 7. 
Elsewhere gen. fioppa, dat. fioppa, ace. /3oppai>, voc. fioppa 
(Cant. iv. 16). 

X sometimes appends an irrational v to the gen. airo (yfjs) 
(Soppav, en tov [Soppav etc., Is. xlix. 12 (ano /3opav : Mayser 213), 
Jer. iii. 18, xiii. 20, xvi. 15, xxiii. 8, xxv. 9, xxvii. 9, 41, xxix. 2, 

1 LS cite Aristotle for 7a?, Strabo for 7as : 7a? and ywv occur in 
papyri of ii/B.c. (Teb. 6. 31, BU 993. 3, TP 1. 2.) 

2 Meisterhans 100. The change seems to have begun with fioppadev, 
which first appears c. 400 B.C. 

3 Always in the Ptolemaic papyri, Mayser 252, 221. Bope'aj seems to 
have been partially reinstated later: an ex. from i/A.D. is cited by Thumb 
Hell. 65. 



144 Second Declension [§ 10, 7 — 

Zech. vi. 6, cf. Ez. xlvii. 17 Q : while the r is dropped in the 
ace. in Dan. viii. 4 B (Kara dakaaaav <ai fioppa. <al votov) and 
elsewhere in Q. 

For gen. -a or -ov in proper names in -as see § 11, 4 f. 

8. Second declension. The kolvyj, or some portions 
of it 1 , used the uncontracted as well as the Attic contracted 

forms. In the LXX there is a curious distinction in one word. 
The rule as regards bcrrkov oa-rovv in LXX is that the contracted 
forms are used in the nom. and ace, the uncontracted in the 

gen. and dat. : oarovv 60-ra but ocrriov ocrrtwv 6o"Te'ot5. See 

e.g. Gen. ii. 23 Tovro vvv outovv €k t<Sv 6<xt€ujv /jlov, Ez. xxxvii. 1 
oo-reW (-to))' Q), 3 f. ocrra {ter), 5 ocrreois (-tchs Q), 7 and 1 1 
(bis) oo-ra. 

'Oarajj/ Ez. xxxii. 27 breaks the rule : there are also variant 
readings ouria in V 1. 10 TX ca , Lam. iii. 4 BQ, iv. 8 B, oarmv 
Job xxxiii. 19 BX, daro'cs Jer. xx. 9 B. 

On the other hand the contracted forms only of Kaveov are 
used : kolvovv kclvov KaicG plur. Kara (Pent, and Jd. vi. 19 A). 

Xeipdppovs -ovv is still so written : the later x e ^H- a PP 0S ls 
confined in LXX to ^ exxiii. 4 and to vll. in N. xxxiv. 5 (A), 
Jer. xxix. 2 (X*). 

('Apxi)oivox6os, xP v<T0 X° 0S are uncontracted as also in Attic 
Greek : the papyri have the contracted forms as well 2 . 

For vol's' voos, x°vs x°° s etc - see § IO > 3 1 • ^ or contracted 
adjectives § 12, 2. 

9. The so-called Attic second declension for the 
most part disappears from the Kotvrj, words in -w? being trans- 
formed or replaced by new words. Excepting one word (aAws) 
the forms in -ws in LXX are confined to the literary books. 
The old aAw? and the new a\wv -wvos (already attested in 
Aristot.) appear side by side in the LXX, the new form pre- 
vailing 3 . "AAws appears only in the form aAoo which does 

1 Thumb Hell. 63 says they are specially characteristic of the Eastern 
koivt) and regards them as of Ionic origin. 

2 Mayser 258. 

3 The uncials (Camb. Manual LXX) have forms from a\ws without v. 1. 



§ io, u] Second Declension 145 

duty not only for gen. dat. and ace sing, (not aXiov), but also 
for ace. plur., tovs aAw 1 K. xxiii. 1 BA : this form of the ace. 
plur., due to the weak sound of final s, is attested in papyri of 
ii/B.c. and in MSS of Josephus {A.J. vi. 272) 1 . The prepon- 
derance of the forms from aAwr in the LXX is remarkable, as 
the Ptolemaic papyri only yield one example (aXiovwt = a\wvo>v 
118 B.C.) as against numerous examples of the other forms 2 . 
The gender as well as the form is variable, B on the whole 
preferring the masc. and A the fern. 

"Ews appears only in 3 M. v. 46. KaXws " rope " is replaced 
by »caA.os N. iii. 37, iv. 32 (A /<Aa8ous bis), Acw? by Aads 
throughout, and vew's by rao? except in 2 M., which, beside 
vao?, has nom. veto? x. 5, gen. vew iv. 14, ace. vew A (vewv V) 
vi. 2, ix. 16, x. 3, xiii. 2^, xiv. 33. Aayw? is replaced by 
oWuVous (AristOt). 

For adjectives in -as see § 12, 3. 

10. The vocative of Oeos is the unclassical Bee, even in 
the literary books (Jd. xvi. 28 B, xxi. 3 B : 2 K. vii. 25 B : 
Sir. xxiii. 4 : 3 M. vi. 2, 4 M. vi. 27) as in N.T. (Mt. xxvii. 46). 
The class, voc. foog occurs in N. xvi. 22 BA (#ce See F). More 
often, however, the voc. is expressed by 6 0«os (see Syntax). 

1 1 . Gender in Declension II. 

The tendency towards uniformity shows itself in the oc- 
casional transference of some feminine words in Decl. II. into 
the larger class of masculines. 'O afx-rreXos Hb. iii. 17 M, 
6 fidaavos 1 M. ix. 56 N, 6 pa/3Sos Gen. xxx. 37 A, are vagaries 
of a single MS : the classical fem. is kept elsewhere. 'O ^SaVos 
of LXX (Ex. iii. 2 ff . : Dt. xxxiii. 16) appears to be vulgar and 
Hellenistic (Aristoph., Theophr.). 'O A^vo's has the support 

in 13 passages, from ahuiv without v. 1. in 24 : in 6 passages the two 
forms are attested by different MSS. The -ws forms occur in Numbers, 
Ruth, 1—3 K., 1—2 Ch., Hg. ii. 19. 

1 Mayser 2;o, 207. 

2 lb. 287, 258 f. 

T. IO 



146 Third Declension [§ 10, 11 — 

of a group of cursives in Gen. xxx. 38, 41 : the uncials here 
and elsewhere keep the fern. c O \i0o<>, as in N.T., is used in 
all senses, including that of precious stones, where Attic writers 
often used rj. 'O o-Ta/xvos Ex. xvi. 33 is 'Doric 1 .' 'O Xiao's, 
the older Attic gender, is usual in LXX : the ' Doric ' 7} 
(Rutherford NP p. 274) is read by all uncials in Is. viii. 21, 
by B in 3 K. xviii. 2, and by A in Jer. xvii. iS, xxiv. 10, 1 M. 
ix. 24, xiii. 49. 'H (usual in Attic) and 6 rpi'ySos (already in 
Euripides) are both found, sometimes in the same book, the 
former slightly preponderating 2 . The gender of the probably 
Semitic v<xo-w7ros also fluctuates : it is masc. in Lev. xiv. 6, 51 f. 
in B*A, fern. ibid, in F (B ab ) and in 3 K. iv. 29 BA. 

'Avefitftdadr] 77 fidrpaxos Ex. viii. 6 A (6 /3. B) is no doubt due to 
the collective use of the noun as in (classical) j? i7r7ros = ' : cavalry," 
Gen. xiv. 11 etc. 

12. Third declension. 

Accusative sing, in -avfor -a. The assimilation of accusatives 
of the 3rd decl. ending in a vowel to those of the 1st decl. by 
the addition of final v had begun as early as iv/B.c. in the case 
of a few proper names and appellatives in -77s (2wxpaTV7r, 
rpirjp-qv etc.) 3 . The addition of v to accusatives in -a did not 
come till later : it begins in the Egyptian papyri in ii/B.c. 4 and 
does not become common before ii/A.D. It is always a vulgarism, 
and is connected with a wider tendency, specially common in 
Egypt, to append an irrational v to other cases of the noun 
and to other parts of speech 5 . The LXX examples are 

1 The N.T. in the single passage in Hebrews keeps Attic r). 

- '0 is attested in 1 K. vi. 12, 1 Ch. xxvi. 18, ^ xliii. 19, cxviii. 35 K 
(elsewhere i) in this book), Prov. iii. 17 (do.), Jer. xviii. 15 (do.), Jl. ii. 7 A 
and in one or more of the uncials in Is. iii. 12, xxx. 11, xlii. 16, xlix. 9, n, 
lviii. 12. 

3 Jannaris p. 542. His list of LXX exx. of accusatives in -av needs 
checking. 

4 X'ipav in a letter of 160 B.C. and rpiirodav in i/B.c. are the only 
examples in the Ptolemaic age quoted by Mayser 199. 

5 lb. 197 ff. 



§ 10, 14] Third Declension 147 

practically confined in the uncials to the two MSS A and «, 
where they probably represent the Egyptian spelling of a later 
age than the autographs. 

The examples noted in A are Ex. x. ^dxpidav, xiii. 21 vvktciv, 
N. XV. 27 aiyav : R. iv. 1 1 yvvaiKav : in I K. vvktciv dcopanav -^eipav 
yvvainav pepibav : in 2 K. ii. 29, iv. 7 vvktciv, v. 1 8 KoiXddav, xiii. 
10 KoiTwvav : 3 K. i. 45 fiacrtkiav : 4 K. xxii. 3 and 2 Ch. xxxiv. 15 
ypappciTaiav, 2 Ch. xxxiv. 9 Upiav : I Es. iv. 1 9 Trpaypav, viii. 8 
Upiav : ^ xxviii. 7 cp\6yav : Is. vii. 19 payciSav : jdth xiii. 10 
(fidpayyav : Sir. xiii. 6 e\7ri8av : I M. x. I IlTo\cpat8av. In X 
these forms are exceedingly common in the Prophetical books 
(aleovav and x et P av furnish the majority of instances) : cf. the 
pronominal forms in X rlvav Na. iii. 19, ipiv Is. xxxvii. 35. In B, 
on the other hand, the only exx. noted are Is. xxxvi. 2 I3aai\iav, 
xxxvii. 29 p(f)lvav (with X) 1 , Zeph. i. 4 x ei P av - 

Cf. § 12, 5 for adjectives. 

13. Accusative plural. The old termination of the ace. 
plur. of stems in v (ov) — viz. s unpreceded by a (e.g. ras /3ovs) — 
is replaced in Hellenistic Greek by -as, possibly to prevent 
confusion with the nom. sing. So in LXX /3oas always, 
29 times 2 : IxOvas 8 times with IxOvs twice as a v. 1., Ez. xxix. 
4 B (contrast 5), Hb. i. 14 N (vx^) '■ i"-^" 5 x K. vi. 1, 4 A, 
but /aOs vi. 5, 11 (similar variety in the nom.: pves v. 6 but 
/xCs vi. 18): oerepvas 10 times (including L. xiv. 9 B) with v. 1. 
oacpvs in Is. xxxii. 1 1 B* : deppvas L. xiv. 9 A (6<ppv<; B ab F) : 
o-Ta^uas 3 Gen. xli. 7, 24, Jd. xv. 5 A, but crra;yi>s Ex. xxii. 6, 
Dt. xxiii. 24. 

14. The assimilation of the ace. to the nom. plur. in 
words in -evs (on the model of ai and to.? 7ro'Aets) begins in 
Attic Inscriptions as early as c. 300 B.C. 4 The LXX accord- 

1 Cod. B in the central chapters of Isaiah has other instances of 
Egyptian or vulgar spellings not found elsewhere in the MS : KpavTJs xxx. 
19 ( = Kpavyijs, § 7, 30), Trpoffrj^ei. (for -i^u) xxxii. 4, tikci (for e/cet) xxxiii. 6. 

- The only ex. of the ace. pi. in Ptolemaic papyri is in the Attic form 
rks ,8ous (iii/B.c), Mayser 268. Papyri of the Imperial age have /36as : 
OP iv. 729 (137 a.d.),GP 48 (346 a.d.). 

:i Ptolemaic papyri have one ex. of <tt&xvs, none of -vas, Mayser 267. 

4 Meisterhans 141. 

10 — 2 



148 Third Declension [§ 10, 14 —  

ingly has tous /focriAas, yoveis, Upels, i7r7r€is etc. The older 
form /3aa-tXeas occurs in 4 K. vii. 6 bis BA [contrast iii. 10, 13] 
and as a v.l. in 2 Es. xix. 22 B, Jer. xxxii. 12 K, Hos. vii. 3 Q. 
rWe'as 4 M. ii. 10 V may have been written by the Atticizing 
author of that book. 

15. Assimilation of ace. to nom. plur. occurs also in the 
substitution of -es for -as. This seems to have begun with 
the numeral TeWapes and then to have been extended to other 
words. Dr J. H. Moulton has acutely suggested a reason for 
the special tendency to equate the nom. and ace. of TeWapes, 
viz. that this is (excepting efs) " the only early cardinal which 
ever had a separate ace. form 1 ." 

In the papyri 2 riaaapes (ace.) furnishes most of the ex- 
amples. I have counted 49 exx., of which 8 are B.C. and 41 
between i/ and ii/A.D. : from i/A.D. it is more frequent than 
rea-aapas which is still in use. Next comes iravres (9 exx.), then 
participles in -vres : exx. like yvval<es occur sporadically. Two 
exx. are as early as iii/B.c, the first being reWapes HP 90, 15 : 
in the other the -es has been corrected to -as, ttcivt^s tovs ap. 
Mayser 59. 

In the LXX, as in the papyri, the commonest instance is 
TeVo-apes which is normal in B* (Ex. xxv. 11, 25 bis [A semel\ 
34 etc.) and frequent in A 3 . The -es form appears also, but 
far less frequently, in another numeral. As against upwards of 
100 examples of xikia.ha.% (without v.l.) the ace. is written as 
-Ses in 1 Es. i. 7 A, Jdth ii. 5 K, Is. xxxvii. 36 « = |] 1 M. 
vii. 41 A 4 . (MvpiaSas is constant.) 

1 Prol. (ed. 2) 243. A possible contributory cause has been suggested 
elsewhere (§ 6, 2). 

2 Mayser 59, Moulton CK xv. 34, xviii. 108. 

3 The statistics for the uncials are as follows. B has 27 exx. of 
retro-apes to 13 of recrtxapas : A 22 -pes, 26 -pas: X 3 -pes, 2 -pas. The 
evidence of B cannot be quoted in N. xxix. 13 ff. where it writes id , but 
-pes ib. 29 shows how the symbol should be read. The statistics include 
Jos. xxi. 18 ff., where 7r6\ets reVo-apes of BA should perhaps be taken as a 
new sentence (cf. 39) and not in apposition with the preceding accusatives. 

4 Also perhaps in 3 K. viii. 63 B = || 2 Ch. vii. 5 B, 3 K. xii. 2 1 B A = 2 Ch. 
xi. 1 B, 1 Ch. xviii. 12 A, Ez. xlv. 5 bis (AQ, BAQ). But these passages 



§ 10, 1 6] Third Declension 149 

Apart from these two numerals the LXX instances of ace. 
in -es are quite rare : it is noteworthy that two of them occur 
in connexion with TeWapes. 1 Ch. xxv. 5 A ko.1 ISwkcv #eos t<2 
A. viovs Sexa reVo-apes kcu Ovydrepes rp(e)is : 2 Ch. xxiii. 2 B 
vvvriyayev tovs A even-as. . ./cat up^o^res : Zech. i. 20 N eSei£ev p.01 
Krpios reVo-apes Te'^roves'. The B text of 2 Es. xxiii. 15 cl8ov 
iv lovba 7raroi»i'Tas...Kai <f>ipovrt%. ..kcu eViyepiZovTes. ../ecu c/>e'- 
povTes w<ry be merely an instance of " drifting into the nomina- 
tive 2 ,'' but the papyri show that this form of ace. was common 
in participles. 

The converse use of -as for -es in the nom. plur. occurs in 
4 K. xiii. 7 A x^"'Saj, 1 Ch. xii. 36 A xiAiacW, 3 Es. xvi. 9 X ^etpa?. 

16. Relation of the nominative to the cases (inflection with 
or without consonant). The inflection /cepas Ke'pws dat. Kepa 
has disappeared, the cases being formed with t : dat. Kepa-ri 
(Is. v. 1 : Dan. vii. 8), plur. Ke'para KepaVwi'. Kpe'as, on the 
other hand, which is used mainly in the plural, keeps the 
shorter forms Kpea Kpewv*. r^pas in Attic is declined like 
Kepas, y-7'pws yqpa : in LXX the anomalous dat. is replaced by 
y?7pet (Gen. xv. 15 etc., 1 Ch. xxix. 28, ^ xci. 15, Dan. O vi. 1), 
except in Sirach which has y^'pa. (iii. 1 2, viii. 6 nA, xxv. 3) : the 
gen. keeps the classical form yrjpw<; in the literary books 
(W. iv. 9, 2 — 4 Mace.) and Gen. xliv. 20, elsewhere yrjpov; has 
undisputed (Gen. xxxvii. 3, Sir. xlvi. 9) or good authority 
(Gen. xlviii. 10 B: 3 K. xi. 3 B [xiv. 4 A = Aquila], xv. 23 A : 

may be merely instances of "drifting into the nominative" and of the 
tendency to place a numerical statement in a parenthesis. This is clearly 
the case in 3 K. v. 14 B /ecu d7reVrei\ei/ avrovs els tov Xifiavov — 5e/ca xtXidSes 
eV raj fir)vi, dWaaao^voi. In Jd. vii. 3 B etWt ko.1 5vo x'XiaSes is subject, 
not object. 

1 In Dt. ii. 25 B* Tapaxdwovrai kcll wolves (-fas B b AF) e^owTLv, usbtves is 
apparently the subject : cf. Job xxi. 17, Is. xiii. S. 

2 Cf. BM ii. 154. 14 (68 A.D.) p.r]de tovs irap' avrou Kvpievovra[s avruv] 
kolI elaodevovras kcu (^ooevovTas Kal KaravirQi/Tt^. 

:i Ex. xxix. 14 " KpeaTCL F" Swete : the MS, I learn from Mr Brooke, 
has Kepara. Kpearos once in an Attic inscription of iv/u.C. , Meist. 143. 



15° Third Declension [§ 10, 16 — 

* lxx. 9 BR, iS B*kR: Is. xlvi. 4 «*A). Ile'pas, re'pas 
keep t in the cases, as in Attic. 

17. KXets has ace. sing. KAeiSa Jd. iii. 25 BA (and in a 
Hexaplaric insertion in Is. xxii. 22 *c\iSa(v) As) and ace. plur. 
KXeiSas Dan. O Bel 11: the usual Attic forms kAeZv, kAcis do 
not occur'. Xa'pis keeps the classical x^/ 3 "' throughout except 
twice in Zech. (iv. 7, vi. 14) where x«P tTa is used: the latter 
(which has some classical authority : it appears to be Ionic and 
poetical) is absent from the papyri before the Roman period 2 . 
Te'XwTa is the only ace. known to LXX (Attic also used ye'Awy 
in poetry). 

^ According to Moeris nXe'iv x<*P lv y&<»v are Attic, ncXeZSa 
xapira ytXcora Hellenic. 

©epp.ao-rpis -t'Sos has ace. #€ppao-Tp(e)<.s 3 K. vii. 31 BA : 
lb. Vll. 35 B has Tas €7rapi>crTpis, A ras iTrapvcTTpiSas. 

18. Egyptian (Ionic) words in -is are declined like ttoAis : 
/3Spts (§ 4, p. 34) dat. /3apet 3 , plur. /Japeis fidpeoiv fidpew. Glfim 
(ib.) 6l($iv OifieL Ex. ii. 3, 5, 6 (Oetfirjv is probably merely an 
itacism and not from Oifa LS) : (c)7/fa -fiiv, nom. plur. (e)i0(e)is 
Is. xxxiv. n. 

The plural of epis is not used : in ¥ exxxviii. 20 read e'peiy. 
anop&c 1 K. viii. 22 A may be a mere slip for anAp&c or a 
relic of the Epic ANepAC. 

19. Aiwpv£ has gen. -i>x°s etc. in Attic writers, -vyos etc. in 
Hellenistic writers from Polybius onward and throughout the 
Ptolemaic papyri 4 and so in LXX (Ex. vii. 19, viii. 5, Jer. 

1 But they are found in N.T. (Ap.) and the papyri. 

2 Mayser 271 f., Cronert 170 n. 6 : but xaptras once at end of ii/B.c. 
(Mayser). 

3 So in a papyrus of ii/B.c. (Mayser 266). Literary writers (Euripides, 
Plutarch) have the consonantal inflection (3dpi5i fidpidas (Iph. in A. 297). 
Hdt. has j3apLS, fiapiv, (SdpLai (ii. 179). He also writes gen. i(3los, plur. 
i'/Jies, ras i'/3is (ii. 75 f.): LS cite ipidos i/3ea;s from Aelian. 

4 Mayser 18 : the classical forms reappear in the papyri at the end of 
ii/A.D. : the B text in Isaiah is therefore open to suspicion. 



10, 2 1] Third Declension 151 



xxxviii. 9): the classical forms appear in the B text of Isaiah 
(xix. 6, xxvii. 12, xxxiii. 21). 

20. Assimilation of the nominative to the cases appears in 
■q cJSi'v Is. xxxvii. 3 (so N.T.). (The cases only of the class, 
nominatives dim's, pi's are used in LXX: in the papyri forms 
like ogvppiv abound.) Conversely, the consonant or the vowel 
of the nom. is retained in the dative plural : iXecpavaiv 1 M. i. 
1 7 A (-aaiv K*, with metaplasmus eA.€<£ai'i-ois V), vi. 34 A (-aaiv 
nV): x €l P (Jl ' 1 ' l Ch. v. 10 B 1 . It may be a merely orthographical 
matter that the long vowel of the nom. d\wirr]$ is retained in 
the cases in Jd. i. 35 B (--n-rjKes), xv. 4 B (-tt^kus), 3 K. xxi. 
10 B ab (--n-rjiiv), Ez. xiii. 4 A (-n^Kes). Cf. OvyaTrjpos Sir. xxxvi. 
26 « 2 . Assimilation to adX-myi; etc produces pd<TTiy£ 3 K. xii. 
24 r B, Sir. xxiii. n N, /Aacmyfiv 2 Ch. x. it B (§ 7, 33). 

21. Open and contracted forms. As in the case of neuter 
words in -ov in the 2nd declension (8 supra), the Koiv-q preferred 
the (Ionic) uncontracted form of the gen. plur. in certain 3rd 
declension neuters in -os 3 . So LXX always has dpeW and 
XeiXew, and usually T£ix<W (tcix^v 4 K. xxv. 4 A, Is. xxii. 11 B, 
lxii. 6 B, Dan. O iv. 26, 1 M. xvi. 23 sV). But Ztwv, o-Kevuv 
are written, and in the other cases the contracted forms are 
retained : opovs op-q, tci'xous reix?/, x €t ^ ot,s X e ^V> 7ra X 7 7 etc - 

Conversely, the gen. plur. of ir^xf s, in classical Greek -rrrix^v, 
in the Koivr/, through assimilation to neuters in -os, takes on a 
contracted form ir-qx^y- So in the LXX in Judith, Esther and 
Ezekiel a (with occasional v.l. -ewv in the last-named book): on 
the other hand in Genesis, Exodus and Chronicles 4 the classical 
irqx €UiV is retained : elsewhere the MS evidence is uncertain. 

The gen. sing, in LXX is t^cos (Ex. xxv. 9 etc.) corrected 
occasionally in A(F) to the classical 7nfx€W9. 

1 So in "late inscriptions" (LS) : cf. Epic x € <-P ecr < TI - 

2 LXX keeps Ovyarpos etc. (not poet, dvyarepos). 
:J Cf. Mayser 17, 277, Moulton CR xv. 435. 

4 Also (without variant) t K. xvii. 4, Zech. v. 2, Jer. lii. 21 f. (ib. 21 
■Xuv BKQ), Dan. 9 iii. 1 bis ( = -x^")- 



152 Third Declension [§ 10, 22— 

22. Miscellaneous peculiar forms. 

Of to aAas gen. dAa-ros (for o dAs) the only fairly certain 
instance in LXX is Sir. xxxix. 26 dAas A (dAa cett. : as 
nominatives precede and follow A appears to preserve the true 
text): in other passages (L. ii. 13, Jd. ix. 45, 2 Es. vi. 9, Ez. 
xliii. 24 A) aAas may equally well be ace. plur. and is almost 
certainly so in the first of them (a\i, dAa in same verse). In 
the Ptolemaic papyri t6 aAas appears as early as iii/B.c, but 
forms from aAs preponderate 1 : in the N.T. the new form has 
gained the ascendancy. 

The oblique cases of d/A»'os — rare in classical Greek which 
uses apva apj/os etc. instead — in LXX are frequent, though the 
classical forms are still fairly well represented 2 . (In N.T. the 
only forms found are dpvo's [nom.] and apviov.) The new fern, 
form dyiivds (Theocr. v. 3 with v.l. d/xj/tSes) usually renders the 
Heb. fem. n^23 (rDCm) "ewe-lamb." 

Yova for yovara. (3 K. viii. 54 A) may, if not a slip, be com- 
pared with Epic yowa. 

NaCs is on the way to becoming a literary word, ttXoIov 
supplanting it in most books of the LXX. N^as (= Att. vavs) 
occurs in 3 K. xxii. 49 A (a section apparently interpolated 
from Aquila) and the Epic. gen. v??os in Pro v. xxiv. 54 v^os 
7roi<T07ropoixr?7s BnA — naturally as the translator is imitating 
Homer (veto's C, vqm «°- a ) : elsewhere the Attic forms raw, vrji, 
vrjes 3 K. xxii. 49 A, vavai. 

"Opvis, like vavs, makes way for a second declension form — 

1 Mayser 286, Expositor, Feb. 1908, v. 177. 

- In the Pentateuch (or a portion of it) there is a curious differentiation 
in the use of the Hellenistic and the classical forms, based on a slight 
variation in spelling of the Hebrew. L"!13, the ordinary word for "lamb," is 
constantly rendered by the forms from ay.vb% : in some dozen passages the 
radicals are transposed to 2^'?, and in five of these (Gen. xxx. 32, 33, 35, 
L. i. 10, iii. 7) the forms of apva are used, dfivos only once (Gen. xxx. 40), 
elsewhere (L. iv. 35 etc.) irpofiarov. In Ex. xii. 5 D^23 read dftvuv A 
(not apvQv B). 



§ io, 24] Metaplasmus 153 

opveov (opviOiov) — being found only in 3 K. ii. 46 e = iv. 23 
(dpi't(9wv ckXcktwv one of Solomon's delicacies). 

UiXeKvs is shortened to 7re'Au£ in Jer. xxiii. 29 BkQ (Tre- 
\vkvs A), Ez. ix. 2 (so once in Aquila). 

Tl\r]6vs (Epic) replaces Tr\rj$o<; in 3 M. iv. 1 7. 

The contracted form arrjp (for o-redp) is limited to Theodotion 
(Bel 27): the LXX proper has o-reap, (ppeap in common with 
the papyri (Mayser 273) 1 . 

Svyyei'jfs has dat. plur. avyyevevat in I M. X. 89 A 
(-ve'cri[V] N*V) as from cruyyevevV. 

23. Metaplasmus. 

We may group under this general head further instances of 
the mixture of forms and declensions which grammarians sub- 
divide into (a) abundantia, viz. double forms for nonmiaiive 
and other cases, e.g. Xew's, Xaos : (b) heteroclita, viz. a single 
nom. form with diverging forms in the oblique cases, e.g. 6 and 
to 0-kotos : (c) metaplasia, viz. formation of a new nom. out of 
the oblique cases, e.g. r\ w'StV. Mixture of this kind was common 
in the Koiv-q and has already been illustrated in the preceding 
sections: several of the instances which follow have classical 
precedent. 

24. Fluctuation between masculine and neuter in Decl. II. 
To aXdfiao-Tpov (Theocr. N.T.) for class. 6 dA.a/3ao-ros is read 

by A in 4 K. xxi. 13 (B 6 dAa/foo-Tpos). 

The same MS has masc. axypos 3 (tw ax v P 0V ) m 3 K. iv. 21 : 
elsewhere in LXX to axvpov (class.). 

Taio-os (6) "javelin" (an imported word, said to be Iberian) 



1 Theodotion's spelling is supported by (pprjros as from <ppvp in a con- 
temporary papyrus of ii/A.D. : Moulton CR xv. 435 s . 

2 Cf. Mayser 296 (rbv o-iryYei'&t ii/u.C.) and WH (ed. 2) App. 165 : 
Dr Moulton calls my attention to crvyyevfas in Dittenberger Syltoge 258. 20 
(end of iii/B.c, Magnesia). The identity of forms in some of the cases of 
nouns in -77s and -evs (e.g. ace. plur. in -e?s) produced mixture throughout : 
cf. evdvs — evd-fis, § 12, 7. 

3 There is some doubtful authority for it in Comedy (see LS). 



154 Metaplasmus [§ 10, 24 

in Jos. viii. 18 BA has the support of Polybius (xviii. 18. 4, 
Teubner) : F reads to yalo-ov. 

Aeo-/xo's in Attic Greek has plural 8eo-/xot and Sea/xd : the 
neuter, 1 in the kolvtj has passed over to the literary forms, being 
restricted in LXX to 3 M. vi. 27, 4 M. xii. 3 (2 Es. vii. 26 A), 
in N.T. to Luke : commonly in LXX oW/ach (even in the 
proverbial kvwv ZttI Scct/aovs Prov. vii. 22, found elsewhere with 
Seoyxa). (AeV/xT; Ex. xii. 22 has a distinct meaning "bundle": 
a vulgar word found in Comedy and the papyri.) 

To £i>yo'v, apparently the older gender (Lat. jugum), is re- 
placed almost everywhere in LXX (as in N.T. in the only 
determining passages) by 6 £vyo's: with the meaning "balances" 
the neuter remains in L. xix. 36 £vya hUaia, a passage which 
has influenced the text in Ez. xlv. 10 £vyov SUatov AQ (£1-705 
oYkcuos B : the other books use the masc. with this meaning 
also, Hos. xii. 7, Prov. xi. 1, xx. 17). 

As regards 6efxiXio<; (sc. XlOos) and OefxeXiov we cannot speak 
with certainty as to the earlier usage. In the plural 01 OepeXiot 
has good authority in Attic prose, while to Oe/xeXia is poetical : 
on the other hand 6 #£/xe'Aios appears to be vulgar and late : 
the dictum of Moeris that 6e/xe\iov and ^e/xe'Ata are the only 
true Attic forms is questionable 2 . In LXX ra OefxiXia is 
frequent (Dt. xxxii. 22, 2 K. xxii. 8, 16 [=^ xvii. 8, 16], 
^ lxxxi. 5, Prov. viii. 29, Sir. iii. 9 etc., Prophets passim). The 
masc. form is limited to the following: tov ^e/xeAtov 3 K. vi. 2 B 
(=v. 17 A), 4 K. xvi. iS: Oe/JLeXtoi, Oe/jLeXiovs, 2 Ch. xxxi. 7, 
1 Es. vi. 19, 2 Es. iv. 12, v. 16, Job © xxii. 16 : ^ beside the 
neuter plurals locc. citt. has ol OefxeXiot lxxxvi. 1, 6 Oe/xeXtos 
cxxxvi. 7 (v.l. tcuv -wv). (In N.T. Lc. alone has Ta -Ata Acts 
xvi. 26: Paul, Hebrews and Apoc. have the masculine forms.) 

1 Absent from Ptolemaic papyri (Mayser 285). Dr Moulton reminds 
me of the original collective character of these old neuters : so /oca of a 
region, loci of several isolated places. 

2 Kiihner-Blass 1. i. 499, Mayser 289 (Ptolemaic papyri -ov -a). 



io, 24] Metaplasmus 1 5 5 



It looks as if the earlier and later koivi) differed in their 
method of producing uniformity, the former using the neuter 
throughout, the latter the masc. 

To k/WoV is read by A in 3 K. xii. 4 (LS cite Byzantine 
grammarians for plur. kXolo.): elsewhere 6 Kioto's (class.). 
c O Au'xvos has plur. ol Xv^vol on ly (Att. a l so Ta - ^X va )- 
'O i'wtos, 01 l'coTot are the usual forms in LXX 1 , the Attic 
neuter form being confined to Gen. ix. 23 (to. o\'o vwra), Jer. 

ii. 27 (vwra). 

Ot oveipoi W. xviii. 19 replaces Attic neuter plur. ovupara 
or oveipa (Attic sing. 6 oveipos, to oVetpov or to ovap). The word 
itself has joined the ' literary ' vocabulary, kvxnrviov being used 
in the translations. 

( c 0) 0-1'eAos (with Ionic e) replaces Attic to criaXov in Is. 
xl. 15 (neut. o-i€/W A): the neuter plur. occurs in 1 K. xxi. 13 

(ra crUXa). 

'O alros, ra o-'ira of Attic Greek are retained, but the latter 
is restricted to two literary books (Job and Proverbs), the plur. 
in any form being absent elsewhere. 

T6 o-Ta6W (Dan. O Sus. 37) has plur. o-TaStW in the literary 
2 M. (xi. 5 V, xii. 10 etc.) as in Attic Greek, which also uses 
o-T<x8ia. The latter appears to have been usual in the ko^t/ 
vernacular ". 

'O araOp.os has plur. ot o-Ta.Op.ot in all senses 3 . Attic wrote 
o-Ta^/i.os "a halting-place," plur. o-To.Op.ol and -/xa, but o-To.0p.6v 
-p.d of "a weight 4 ." 

To x«M«ppovi' 4 K. xxiii. 6 A is no doubt a slip for to x- 
On the whole a tendency is traceable to replace all anomalous 
neuter plurals by masculine forms. 

1 i K. iv. 18, 3 K. vii. 19, 4 K. xvii. 14, 2 Es. xix. 29 (dveiOovvTa), 
^ [lxv. xi RS c - a ], lxviii. 24, lxxx. 7 [cxxviii. 3 R], Zech. vii. n, Is. 1. 6, 
Ez. i. 18, x. 12. Elsewhere the gender is indeterminate. 

2 Mayser 289, Cronert 175. 

3 N. xxxiii. 1 f., Prov. viii. 34, Is. xxviii. 17. So the papyri, Mayser 263. 

4 K.-Bl. I. i. 500. A has to arad/idv 4 K. xxi. 13 (B ffrddpaov). 



156 Metaplasmus [§ 10, 25 — 

25. Fluctuation between Declensions I. and II. Nouns 
compounded from repx^ have their termination in -ap^os in 
Attic Greek : in the koivyj the form -dpxys (which originated in 
Ionic districts) is usual and gradually ousts the other form. 
The Attic termination maintains its hold longest in compounds 
of numerals and in old official titles : new compounds nearly 
all end in -apx^s 1 . The Attic forms retained in LXX are 

3cKa8a/j^os, eKarovTap^os", tTrapxos, povapxos, TrevTf)K(WTapxos, 

vTrapyp'i (1 Es. vi. 26 B), x<Aiapx°s- On the other hand LXX 
writes the following more newly-coined words with -apx<T> '• 

y€i'eo-iapx?7s, idvdp)(r)S, cAe^ai'Tapx^s, Ku7rpiap^ij? (governor of 
Cyprus 2 M. xii. 2), KW/xap^?;?, pepiSapx^s, TraTpiapx^s 3 , TOirdpx'q'i. 

In the following old words both forms occur : LTnrdpxai 4 2 K. 
i. 6 B, IWapxoi A : t^vAap^o? Dt. xxxi. 28, 1 Es. viii. 58, 92, 
but cpvXdpxvi 2 M. viii. 32. 

The N.T. shows an advance upon the LXX in one word : 
(narovTapxos of LXX appears in N.T. with few exceptions as 
fKarovrapx^s : ^tAi'ap^o? is however still universal. 'EnarovTapx^s 
is also the predominant form in Josephus and 8eKa8dpxvs is 
universal in his Jewish War: ^iX/ap^os- is still the usual form, 
but there is some slight MS evidence even for ^tAi'dp^s 1 \ 

26. The following words show the converse change — 
transition from the first to the second declension. 'Ap.<piTa7ros 
2 K. xvii. 28, Prov. vii. 16 replaces dp^traVr;; (Comedians of 
iv/B.c. ap. LS). "Eve8pov has supplanted the classical eveSpa, 
which occurs only in Jos. viii. 7, 9 (beside eveSpov 6 times in 
the same chap.) and ^ ix. 29, in all three passages with the 
meaning "place of ambush," whereas eveSpov in Joshua (and 

1 Mayser 256 f., where the literature is quoted. Cf. Moulton CK xv. 
34. 434, xviii. 108 for the post- Ptolemaic papyri. It is noticeable that all 
specially Egyptian titles end in -dpxys : ^V^o-PXV s > AiBv&pxys, vo/xapxys 
(so Hdt.). 

2 Excepting 4 K. xi. 10 B, 15 B -a.pxa.is (ib. 9 B b -dpxat). 

- 1 HaT piapxov Is. xxxvii. 38 Q is an incorrect reading for the adj. 
Tra.Tpa.pxov "ancestral" (sc. deov). 

i So in the papyri from iii/B.c. : the B text is therefore right. 
6 W. Schmidt De Jos. doc. 485 ff. 



io, 27] Metaplasmus 157 



usually in LXX) means the ambuscading party. 'Hxo? (6 or 
to, 29 inf.) has entirely replaced Attic rjxv- 

Mav8pdyopos l for p a v Spay op a? has good authority in Gen. 
xxx. 15 (-opovs AZ> cursives : -6pas E) : the older form is kept in 
Cant. vii. 13 -yopai BK (for A see 27 below). 

"Eairepos for iarrepa, a v.l. of A in Jos. v. IO (d(j) eomepov : 
anb [«$'] eWe'pas BF), is poetical. 'Afidtjots Is. xxv. 10 N* vid 
and niiXois 1 M. xiii. 33 V may be clerical errors (the latter 
receives doubtful support from Horn. II. v. 397). 

To fiao-tXaop in addition to its old meaning "palace" (Hdt.) 
takes on that of "crown" (2 K. i. 10, 2 Ch. xxiii. II, W. v. 16) 
and "royal dominion" and so in some late portions of LXX 
becomes identical with 17 fiaaikeia "kingdom" (which is frequent 
elsewhere in LXX): Hexaplaric additions (from Aquila ap- 
parently) in 3 K. iv. 19 A, xiv. 8 A, 4 K. xv. 19 A: 1 Es. iy. 40, 
43: Dan. O iv. 30 c etc. (in vii. 22 = ttjv fiacriXeiav 0): 2 M. ii. 17 
(and perhaps in W. i. 14 ovre a8ov fiao-. eVi yrjs, R.V. "royal 
dominion,'' mg. "a royal house": in 1 Ch. xxviii. 4 yivos should 
be supplied). 

Both forms nXevpd and nXcvpov are classical, and both are 
used in LXX, the former slightly more often than the latter: 
there is diversity of reading in 2 K. xiii. 34, nXevpas B (-pov A), 
Dan. G vii. 5 rpeis ir\evpa\ B=rpia irXevpd A (Dan. O ib. nXevpov), 
4 M. vi. 6 rd wXfvpd AN* (rd rrXevpds sic X ca ) : in Ez. xli. 5f. 
the two forms are found in conjunction. There is also diversity 
of reading in 2 M. vii. 1 vevpais A (-potsV) "cords": both forms 
are classical. 

27. Fluctuation between Declensions I and III. 

To vikos" supplants rj vUi) universally in the later versions 
(dad') and largely in the LXX : the latter is now restricted 
to 'literary' writings (1 Es., Prov., 1—4 M. with 1 Ch. xxix. 
11), but vikos has even invaded books of that type (2 M. x. 
38, 4 M. xvii. 12). 'H hixpa and to Sty 05 (both classical) are 
used interchangeably even in the same context 3 . BXdfSrj 
W. xi. 19 ((3\.dfto<;, also classical, is not found). 

'Ako-V (4 K. xiv. 9 tov ctKava B, rrjv aKara[v] A) supplants in 

1 So in Test. XII. Patr. Is. i. 3, ii. 2, 4. 

2 In a papyrus of 56 B.C. : v'ikt) in ii/ and i/B.c. (Mayser 93). 

3 W. xi. 4 oti/'rys, 8 bitf/ovi : Am. viii. n 8l\^av, 13 Sii/^t. 



158 Metaplasmus [§ 10, 27 — 

this LXX passage and elsewhere in dcr'6' the classical 77 aKavOa 
(still common in LXX) 1 . 

The following variants are of interest. Adeems Is. Lxvi. 11 X 
gen. as from Sdtjis ( = 8dtja) is attested elsewhere 2 . MavSpdyopes 
Cant. vii. 13 A (-at cett.) and cpidXes ib. v. 13 A (-at cett.) 
anticipate modern Greek, which uses these plurals in all words 
of the old 1st declension (/capSier, ddXaaaes etc.). The same MS 
has the datives nvXei, nvXeo-iv in K. yd (3 K. xxii. 10, 4 K. 
vii. 18), as if from a nom. to 7rvXos (cf. 7rvXois 26 supra). 

28. Fluctuation between Declensions II and III. Inter- 
change of nouns in -os masc. (Decl. II) and in -os neut. 
(Decl. Ill) began in classical times. The general tendency in 
KOLvtj Greek is in the direction of the neuter third declension 
forms, as will be seen from the following table : 

Classical Greek. LXX. N.T. 3 



masc. neut. 

6 e'Xeos 6 eX. sporadical- to i'Xeos usually to i'Xeos always 

ly (literary) 4 

6 £rj\os 6 £r]X. usually to £>}A. rarely 5 to and 6 £. 

■6 and to ddfiftos #d/i/3oiEccl.xii. gen. ddpftovs to 6. (Acts iii. io 
5 Cant. iii. 8 gen. -fiovs) 

(W. x. 19 X) 

1 '0 atcavos occurs in Theophrastus and Symmachus. 

2 LS cite " Democrit. ap. Sext. Emp." The form, we may conjecture, 
comes from the later writer. 

3 WH (ed. 2) App. 165. 

4 The literary translator of Prov. uses the masc. only (iii. i6 a , xiv. 22 bis), 
as does the writer of 4 M. in his single use of the word (ix. 4). The 
following sporadic exx. occur: ^ v. 8 rod i\iov crov BA, which might be a 
case of dropping one <x out of two (§ 9, 1), but it is noticeable that 4', which 
has upwards of 100 exx. of the neut., has only one other of the masc, viz. 
Ixxxiii. 12 iXeov, i.e. the masc. is written on tue first appearance of the word 
in either part of the Greek book (p. 68 f.) : Job x. 12 A, Tob. viii. 17 N (ib. 
e'Xeos neut.), W. vi. 6 A, Sir. li. 3 B* : Hos. xii. 6, Mic. vi. 8 B, vii. 20 B : 
Is. Ix. 10 BSQ, lxiii. 7 (ib. to eX), lxiv. 4 : Jer. xlv. 26 B piirTtiv tov ?X., a 
phrase imitated in Dan. 9 ix. 20, Bar. ii. 19, in which the noun="a 
pitiful supplication": Dan. G i. 9, 1 M. iii. 44 A, 2 M. vi. 16, viii. 5, 3 M. 
iv. 4 tov Kotvbv i\. "the general misery." 

s To ? W. v. 17 N: gen. trjXovs Zeph. i. 18 BKA, iii. 8 B*Q, 1 M. 
ii. 58 N, and in interpolations from G in Ez. viii. 3 Q, 5 A. 



io, so] 



Metaplasmus 



159 



Classical Greek. 

6 (and to : Ari- 
stotle irayecn) 
Kayos" frost" 



6 itXovtos 



LXX. 



masc. 
Trciyoi Dan. 







iii. 69 



6 ttXovtos usu- 
ally 



neut. 
to it. Na. iii. 17 
gen. -rvayovs 
BXQ(-ouA): 
Job xxxvii. 
10 ace. rrdyos 

to ttX. Is. xxix. 
2 XAT (6 BQ) 



N.T. 

unused 

(rov Apeiov Tva- 
yov) 



6 and (8 times in 
Paul) TO tt\. 



to craoTos al- to o-k. always 
ways 



6 (and rarely — 

to) o~kotos 

The following isolated exx. occur. 

To yvocpos gen. -ovs Est. A 7 A (yvotpov BX and masc. else- 
where in LXX as in N.T., Heb. xii. 18) : 6 8v6(pos was the class, 
(poetical) form, 6 yvocpos begins with Aristotle. 

To pvTTos Is. iv. 4T (masc. in the other MSS and elsewhere 
in LXX and N.T. : the plur. pvira is Homeric). 

Xipoyc stands for x ei P"s m J er - X1 '- 3 **• 

29. In the following a classical first declension word in -rj 
has passed over first to the second declension and then to the 
third : 



Classical Greek. 



1 1X1 

6 tfx os (from 
[ Aristot.) 



|7j Tapa^r] 
6 Ttipa^os 
(Xen.) 



LXX. 



M. and F. 



VX- 
usually 



N. 



TO TJX. 1 - 

occasionally 



17 r. frequent to t. Job xxiv. 

6r. Jd. xi. 35 B, 17 BXC, Is. 

1 K. v. 9, Est. xxii. 5 X (gen. 

A 7 ~X ovs ) 



N.T. 



6 Heb. xii. 19 

to Lc. xxi. 25 

(fjxovs : WH 
^oO?) 

-7. r. 'Jo.' v. 4 
cS r. twice (Acts) 



30. Examples of the reverse change (gen. -ov for -ovs) are 
confined to readings of single MSS : fidOov Sir. li. 5 B*, Wvov 

1 In Jer. xxviii. 16 ^x os appears to be accusative. It is probable there- 
fore that the gen. tjxovs should be accented t;x 01 ' s > not as the classical ijx ^ 
from r)xu, in ^ ix. 7, xii. 5 ART (vx ov BX), lxxvi. 18, Sir. xlvii. 9. 



160 Proper Names [§ 10, 30— 

Prov. xxviii. 15 A, re/ievov 2 M. i. 15 A (before initial a-), vx^ov 
* ci. 2o«: so rtxov Jer. i. 18 A (as ace. of t€?xos). 

31. Transition from Declension II to Declension III in 
the KOLvrj occurs also in some contracted words in -otjs which 
are now declined like /5ov?. So even in the Atticizing writer of 
4 Mace, vovs has gen. vo6<;\ XoCs " earth " (probably originally 
second declension) 2 similarly has gen. ^oo's Eccl. iii. 20, dat. x<h 
2 K. xvi. 13 B (xoei A) and is therefore indistinguishable from 
X<H's (or xoev?) the liquid measure (third declension in Attic). 

An accus. t6v i/o-epa occurs in L. xxvi. 16 B (iKTepov AF: 
class. 6 LKTepos). The dat. SeVSp^i Dt. xxii. 6 B*A has Attic 
authority (elsewhere in LXX -ov -w). 

Transition from Declension III to II in dat. plur. is illustrated 
by the variants eXecpavTois I M. i. 17 V, raradpois Ez. r. 10 A (but 
Teacrapo-i in same verse) 3 . 

§ n. Proper Names. 

1. In the translated books we find a medley of trans- 
literated (indeclinable) personal names and names which are, 
partly at least, Hellenized and declined. The general distinc- 
tion made is that names which in the Hebrew end in a 
consonant remain unaltered ('ASa^, 'A/3paa/x, AauetS, 'lo-parjX, 
'luaijcp etc.), while those which end in a vowel, especially in ^', 
are in most cases declined like nouns of the first declension, 
the feminines requiring no addition in the nominative, the 
masculines taking on the termination -uis and being declined 
like Ni/a'as. Names ending in other vowels are either Hellenized 
by the addition of s and form a new class of first declension 
names in -as, -rjs, -ovs etc. ('Ian*a?, Mwuo-^s, 'I?;crot's etc.) or 
remain indeclinable (RXeiov). 

1 i. 35. So N.T. voo% vol, ttXoos. Elsewhere LXX has no exx. of gen. 
or dat. of vovs and there are none of irXovs: 3 M. iv. 10 has the Attic 
KardirXq). 2 K.-Bl. I. i. 498. 

3 "Piv6v Job xl. 20 C is not another form of plva. BXA (from pis) but a 
different word, "hide." 



§ n,4] Proper Names 1 6 1 

2. Names declined according to Declension II (in -os)' or 
Declension III (-rjs, -ovs : -u>v, -Qvos etc.) are almost unrepre- 
sented in the translations. Literary writers like Josephus and 
the paraphrastic writer of i Esdras 2 , on the other hand, employ 
these freely, carrying out the Hellenization in all cases ("A/?papo<;, 
Aa/?tS>/s etc.). In N.T. times a few of these Hellenized forms 
have permeated into the popular language (2oA.oyu.wV -fxwvos). 

3. Feminines declined like Declension I are e.g. "Am, 

Ba'AAa 3 , ToOoXla 4 , AeiVa 5 , 'Ektfjepa ('0A.) ,j , Ze'Aepa, Zwadpa or 

2wo-. (Haman's wife Zeresh), Kaa(<r)la Job xlii. 14, Acta, "0A8a, 

OoAa ("OAAa), 'OoAi/3a ("0A.), 'FefitKKa, ^,apov(e)la', 2a'p(p)a, 

2ouo-uVva, XeTToupa. The genitive and dative, wherever attes- 
ted, are in -a;, -a, whether the a of the nom. be pure or impure, 
the only exception being Souo-dVv^s Dan. © Sus. 27 f. B (the 
other uncials -as and so Dan. O Sus. 30 : cf. § 10, 4). 

4. A large number of Hebrew masculine proper names 
end with the Divine name Yahweh in a more or less abbreviated 
form, usually T (also in*" ,_ )- These are in the majority of 
cases Hellenized by the adoption of the old termination -las 
(as in NiKtas), and forms in -(e)las, -alas declined according to 
the first declension abound. The genitive termination of these 
names is commonly -ov, as in Attic and in the Ptolemaic papyri", 

1 'A77CU0S: Nee,cuos 2 Es. ii. 2B seems to be a slip for -t'as. 

2 He shows much ingenuity in dealing with the long lists of names, 
which in the other version (2 Esdras) are baldly reproduced, and even some 
sense of humour, when he renders " Rehum the Chancellor" by 'Pddvfios 6 
(ypacpwv) ra irpocrwiTTToi'Ta (ii. 16, 21), "Slack the Secretary." 

3 1 Ch. vii. 13 A (viol) BaXAa may be indecl. (BaXXd) or gen. as from 
BdMcts. 

4 But tt)i> TodoXia 2 Ch. xxiii. 21 B (-av A). 

5 Trjj/ Aeivd (ien. xxxiv. 26 A (-av D vld E) : ib. xxx. 21 read AetVa not 
Aeiva (Swete), the nom. being usual after verbs of naming. 

6 Indecl. in Gen. xxxvi. 2 AD (-jSaifiav E with O.L.), 18 E. Ib. xxxvi. 4.r, 
1 Ch. i. 52 'EX(e)i/3a/xas may be nom. masc. (-as Swete) or gen. fern. 

7 In 1 K. xxvi. 6 B, 2 — 3 K. and 1 Ch. xviii. 12 BA. But indecl. 
Zapovid (=gen.) 1 K. xxvi. 6 A, 2 K. ii. 13 A, 18 B, and in 1 Ch. passim 
(B text). 

8 Mayser 250 f. 

T. I I 



1 62 Proper Names [§ ll > 4 — 

not the 'Doric' -a : so always (or with a rare v.l.) e.g. 'Avaviou, 

'E^e/a'ou, Za^apiov, 'Hcraiov, 'lepefxtov, 'Ie)(OvCov, Maaa(cr)aiov, 

SeAe/Atou, 2o<^of tov, XcXkiW The use of the gen. in -a appears 
to be vulgar and late. The following examples are certain : 
Meiyaias gen. -a Jd. B text (xvii. 8 ff.), 2 Ch. xxxiv. 20 (-ov 4 K. 
xxii. 12), Nce/Aias -a 2 Es. (but -ov in 1 Es. Sir. 2 M.), Ta>/?(e)ids 
-a Tob. i. 20 m, vii. 7 N, xi. 17 «, 19 BA (-ov i. 20 A, ix. 5 »). 
There is also strong attestation for the gen. Two-eta (throughout 
Jeremiah, i. 2 etc., 4 K. xxiii. 23 B, 2 Ch. xxxv. 16, 19, 26). 
Jeremiah also occasionally has 2«St/«a (i. 3 BnA, xlvi. 1 B, 2 B», 
lii. 1 1 «) in place of the usual -klov : add further Jdth xiv. 6 
'O&ta BA. 

5. Much difficulty, however, presents itself, especially in the 
long lists and genealogies in Chron. and 2 Es., in determining 
whether a form in -ui represents a Doric gen. (therefore -ia) or 
a mere transliteration (therefore -id). These lists exhibit a 
strange mixture of declined names in -ias and indeclinables, 
nom. -id. The practice of the books with regard to nom. and 
ace. (e.g. Nee/itas -av) can alone determine the accent in the case 
of the gen. (Nee/ua). Possibly the lists in the original version 
were omitted or were much shorter, and they have subsequently 
been supplemented from another source in which the names 
were undeclined : we often find two or three declined names at 
the beginning followed by a string of indeclinables. Take for 
instance 2 Es. xviii. 4 (the brackets indicate the possibly later 
additions) : nai eorrj v Eo"pas...Kai ecmjaev e^o/j-eva avrov MarraOias 
ical Sa/zai'as' [icai 'Avavia koi Ovpeia kcu 'EXiceta <al Maaaaaui] en 
8fi-i<i>v avrov, Kill e£ dpiarepuiv Qaftaias koi Meurarfk nai MeXveias 
kiu Za%apUis or vii. I "K<Tf>as vlos Sapaiov vlov Zapelov [ylov 
'E\k(lci k.t.X.]. 

The longer Heb. forms in -in^" are in some names kept in 
the Greek as indeclinables in -(e)iov. Elijah in the historical 
books is 'HA(e)ioi3 : the N.T. form 'HX(f)('as' only in Mai. iv. 4 
and in apocryphal books (Sir., 1 M.). Obadiah appears as 
'A/38«ou or 'opSeiou. 

6. The declension of Hebrew masc. proper names ending 
in a vowel sound other than HJ" follows what Blass (N.T. § 10, 3) 
calls the ' mixed declension? In this the pure stem stands un- 
altered in three cases (G. D. V.), while in the nom. it has s 



§n,6] Proper Names 163 

appended to it, in the ace. v. The nominatives end in -as (-as), 
-17s, -(e)is, -ov<s. 

This declension has nothing exactly answering to it in the 
papyri, where the proper names are usually of the third declen- 
sion (-as -aros: -ijs -r/ros: -ovs -oiiros etc.: Mayser 273 ff.). A 
desire to adhere as closely as possible to the Hebrew names 
and also perhaps to avoid the familiar forms of common life in 
rendering Scripture may account for this new departure. 

(1) In -as (as). 'IcwSas -8av -8a -8a is the constant declen- 
sion for patriarch, tribe and country. Occasionally the name 
remains indeclinable, 'Iov8d being used for nom. and ace. 1 The 
gen. 'lov8ov is confined to 1 and 2 Maccabees, and there to 
Judas Maccabaeus", while 'lov8a is used of the tribe and 
country (ap^oiTes, yrj TouSa etc.). "EcrSpas and 'Iwras similarly 
have ace. -av (-av), other cases -a. Sararas (]W) is found in the 
ace. Saravar Job ii. 3 A, Sir. xxi. 27 (elsewhere 2ai-aV or 8id- 
/3oXos). Other words are found only in the nom., e.g. Eipas 
(Eipas), 'EAiwr-as, fivas. 

(2) In -r;s. Muvcrfjs 3 in LXX is with few exceptions 
declined according to the 'mixed' declension: -ijv, -rj, -f}, voc. rj. 
In the first century a.d., on the other hand, both literary writers 

1 So in its first appearance, where the original Hebrew form seemed 
more appropriate: Gen. xxix. 35 eKaXeaev to ovo/xa avrod 'lovha (=nom., 
cf. iii. 20 eKaXeaev... to 6v....7iwrj). Otherwise rare, except in 2 Ch., 2 Es., 
Jer. (mainly /3), which have 77-as lovda, irdvTa tov 'Ioi>5d etc. fairly 
frequently of the tribe. Once only in a 'Greek' book does'IouSd (? 'IotfSci) 
stand for ace, 2 M. xiv. 13 (N. and A. -as -av in the same chapter). 

2 1 M. iv. 13 (loyAoy A), 19 (do.), v. 61 A, ix. 12 A, 22 AV etc., 
2 M. xii. 21 AV etc. The unusual gen. naturally puzzled the scribes and 
-5a is a constant variant. 

3 This is clearly the older orthography: Mw^s, which is nearer to the 
Heb. HK'b has quite inferior support. Though the Egyptian etymology 

given by Philo {Vit. Mos. I. 4) and Josephus {Ant. II. 9, 6, c. Ap. I. 31), 
viz. /j.wv=v5wp, iaris — awdeis, is now abandoned by Coptic scholars, at least 
it attests the antiquity of the form with v. Whatever the origin of the 
name, there can be little doubt that the diphthong wv is an attempt to 
reproduce the Egyptian pronunciation, being found in the Greek rendering 
of Egyptian proper names and months such as QQvd, 2a/iwys (Mayser 138). 
The v disappeared later : Quivd (QQvt) was written in the earlier Ptolemaic 
age, Quid (Qwr) under the Roman Empire (ib. 185). 

II 2 



1 64 Proper Names [§ 1 1 , 6 — 

(Philo and Josephus) and the vernacular writers of the N.T. 
used the third declension forms for gen. and dat., Moouo-cws, 
Mwutrci, keeping -rjv in the ace. 1 In LXX the gen. Mco(v)o-e'ws 
is confined to a few passages, several occurring in a group of 
books which we have reason to believe are of late date 2 . The 
dat. Mwuo-et is more frequent, but this is really a mere matter 
of orthography : the gen. Mwuo-e'w? appears to have grown (on 
the analogy of /3ao-iA.ea)? -Xet) out of Mwucrei, which originally 
was only another way of spelling Majuo-77 (§ 6, 21). 

Like Mwv(r% are declined H£Tpecprj<; (ITeTe^p^s), Potiphar, 
gen. -rj, dat. -rj, and Mavacrarj^ gen. -77 when used of King 
Manasseh, Judith's husband and other individuals (Tob. xiv. 10, 
1 Es. ix. 33 A) : on the other hand Mavaaarj indecl. is used of 
the tribe 3 and its progenitor. 

(3) In -(e)is. A€u(c)is - ^ Gen. xxxiv. 25 E, xxxv. 23 AE, 

1 Es. ix. 14, ace. -eu'4 M. ii. 19 AnV : elsewhere indecl. Aev(e)t. 
Tw/?€is -ai/ in Cod. tf, 2 Es. xiv. 3 (=Toj/3ias cett.) and in 
Tob. x. 8, xi. 10 (=-fieiT BA), 18, xii. 4: once in B as an in- 
declinable 4 , 1 Es. v. 28. Xa/3p€t5 -clv and Xapp.€is° -civ Jdth 
vi. 15, viii. 10, x. 6. Xaj'ai(e)is -ay N. xxi. 1 BF, 3 BF, 
xxxiii. 40 BAF = '•jySD an inhabitant of Canaan (usually Xava- 
mios, also Xcu'oWt^s 3 K. iv. 32 B and Xarai'(e)i N. xxi. 3 A, 

2 Es. ix. i) 6 . 

(4) In -oSs. 'Ir](Tov<; (Joshua) has, like 'I^crovs (Xpicrrds) 

1 Lc. once even has ace. Muwea (xvi. 29) : elsewhere in N.T. always 
Mww^ -^ws -e? (-rj Acts vii. 44). 

2 In Pent, only Ex. iv. 6 A (BF avrov with Heb.) : Jd. i. 16 B (but -ay) 
iii. 4BA, iv. 11 BA), 3 K. ii. 3 BA, 4 K. xxiii. 25 A, 1 Es. iii. 2 A, Dan. 
9 ix. 11 B (but -a-?} 13): in the literary 1 Esdras v. 48 BA, vii. 6BA, 9BA, 
viii. 3 BA, ix. 39 B: in other apocryphal books Sir. xlvi. 7 BNAC (but 
-crrj 1), Tob. vi. 13 X, vii. 1 1 N, 12 BAX, 13 N : and two or three times as a 
v.l. in late MSS (T, V, T). 

3 Macaco - ?}? Jd. i. 27 A, ^ cvii. 9 ART. 

4 The same section of ( Es. has indecl. ' Avvds, v. 16 B. 

5 Also indecl. Jer. xxvi. 2 ev Xap/xds ( = Carchemish). In Hexateuch 
and 1 Chr. indecl. Xapfxei. 

6 In tov 'Pa/3crapets 4 K. xviii. 1 7 A, Xafiovcrapels Jer. xlvi. 3 the final s 
comes from the Heb. and the words are indeclinable. 



§ ii, 7] Proper Names 165 

in N.T., ace. -ow gen. -ov, but differs from the N.T. name in 
the dative, which throughout Dt. and Jos. is consistently 
written 'Irja-oi 1 , the N.T. form 'Irjaov appearing as an occasional 
variant. In the other books the dat. only occurs in three 
passages and there in the N.T. form 'Irjaov : Ex. xvii. 9 B*AF 
(but B b -0-01), 1 Ch. xxiv. 1 1 BA, 1 Es. v. 65 BA. 'I^o-oi even 
stands in three passages for the genitive; Ex. xvii. 14 B, 2 Es. 
ii. 36 B, xxii. 7 BA. 

In the papyri, on the other hand, as Dr Moulton informs me, 
we find a gen. 'Irja-ovros BM iii. p. 25 (105 A.D.) : cf. OP 816. 

'EXiovs -ovv in Job. Other names are only represented in 
the nom., e.g. 2ci)xp.ovs, 'EXftaovs, Qerjcrovs, 2 K. V. I4ff. &aXXov 
N. xxvi. 5 AF ( = dat.) 8 ( = gen.) is probably correctly accented 
as an indeclinable : the nom. <&aXXovs, however, occurs elsewhere. 

7. Names in -tov, the termination being taken over from 
the Hebrew 2 , are as a rule indeclinable in LXX : 'AapwV, 
2a/i(//cov etc. 

To one of these — the name Solomon — a special interest 
attaches. The process of Hellenization gradually affected 
both the first two vowels and the declension. As in the case 
of Moses, the LXX and the N.T. represent earlier and later 
stages respectively. The steps in the evolution, speaking 
generally, appear to have been in the following chronological 
order: as regards orthography 2aAw/xwv — ^aXofxwv — 2oA.o/u.wV 3 : 

1 On the analogy of datives of feminine names in -w, which in the 
papyri were declined (e.g.) A77/X16 -ovv -ovs -01 (Mayser 268). A more 
frequent type, applicable also to masculine names, was (e.g.) Uarous -ovv 
-ovTos -ovTi (ib. 274 f.). The ace. -ovv, which is common to both types 
and to the Biblical name, facilitated mixture of types in the other cases. 
TtjctoOs ( = gen.) 1 Es. v. 8 A (cf. 2 Ch. xxxi. 15 B) maybe another instance 
of transition to the -to type. 

2 The v is sometimes appended to a final in the Hebrew. 

3 "ZaXwuwv represents most nearly the Heb. ilb?^ of the M.T., except 

for the final v, which is the first step towards Hellenization. The long 
vowel in the middle unaccented syllable could not long maintain its place, 
hence the transitional form ZaXopuIiv arose: lastly, the short vowels flanking 
the liquid were assimilated, as they often are in this position (or with inter- 
vening /x) where a long syllable follows : cf. e!;o\o0peveiv (p. 88), 2oyuo7;Xos 
( = 'Zafj.ovri\) Aristeas § 47. 



1 66 . Proper Names [§ 11, 7 — 

as regards declension (1) indeclinable; (2) -wVra, -wVtos ; 

(3) -wVa, -wVos. 

(1) SaAw/xwV indeclinable is the normal form throughout 
the LXX (including the literary 1 Esdras) 1 . 

(2) 2aAwyu.wv -wi'tcl -oji'tos (like s.evo<jiwv and the Greek 
equivalents of Egyptian names in the papyri, e.g. Tlerex™") 2 
appears in Proverbs (probably translated not earlier than i/B.c.) :; 
i. 1 Btf, xxv. 1 B : also in 3 K. i. 10 A, 4 M. xviii. 16 K. 

The same form of declension with o in the second syllable 
is found in K (Prov. xxv. 1 and subscription, Wis. title and 
subscr.) and in 4 M. loc. cit. A. 

2oAoyu.wvTos occurs in 2 K. viii. 7 BA (in what is clearly a 
Greek gloss: the passage is absent from the M.T.) 4 and as a 
v. 1. of A (C) in the passages from Prov. and Wis. cited. 

(3) The declension 2oA.oyu.wi' -wW -wvos is that found in 
N.T. 5 , Josephus and later writers' 5 . In LXX the nom. 2oAo/xwV 
is read by A in 3 K. ii. 12, 2 Ch. vii. 1, 5 ; by «(A) in Sir. 
xlvii. 13, 23: the cases have even slenderer support, Wis subscr A, 
4 M. xviii. 16 V, with SoAw/awVos Wis subscr B, 2a\o/u.wVa V 
lxxi. lit R. 

8. Names of places and peoples, like those of individuals, 
appear either as indeclinable transliterations or as Hellenized 
and declinable. Here, however, the Hellenized forms largely 
predominate. The translators, for the most part, had a fair 
knowledge of the geography, not only of Egypt, but also of 
other countries, and adopted the current Hellenized forms 7 . 

1 And so in the headings to each of the Psalms of Solomon (the Greek 
dates from the end of i/B.c.) ^clX/jlos tuj ZaKwfuhv (2<x\o /j.ui>). The declined 
form ZoXofxwvros (-fiQvos) appears in the inscription and subscription to the 
whole work. 

2 Mayser 275 f. 

3 See p. 61. 

4 The gloss comes from 2 Ch. xii. 9 (where the usual ZaXw^uiy is written). 
There are two similar glosses from 2 Ch. in the next verse in 2 K. LXX. 

5 Always (WH) except Acts iii. rr, v. 12 2o\o/j.u>vtos. 

6 For Cyprian see C. H. Turner iny. T. S. ix. 86 f. 

7 E.g. Aldio-n-ia. (Cush), 'AvriXlfiavos (Dt. i. 7, iii. 25, xi. 24, Jos. i. 4, 



ii, i o] Proper Names 1 67 



Sometimes we meet with a name in both forms, e.g. 'ESw/a— 
Tdotyxaia, 2v;(€//. — 2iKip.a : cf. <J>uA.icrTt€t/i. — dAAoepuAoi (^tXiariatoi). 

Rarely, apart from the later historical books, do we find 
places of importance like Damascus or Tyre transliterated. T171' 
Aapio-eK 3 K. xi. 14 B (passage not in M.T. or A). 26p (for 
Tvpos) in Jer. a (xxi. 13) and Ez. a (xxvi. 2 etc.): but Tvpos in 
Ez. /3 (xxviii. 2 etc.). S^SapaV, SupeiV 2 Es. iii. 7 B : cf. ib. 
ix. I 6 Moo-epei' = 6 AtyuTrno?. Sopopcoi', Sepepav etc. (for the more 
usual 2ap.ap(e)la) 3 K. xvi. 24, 2 Es. iv. 10, xiv. 2, Is. vii. 9 £/>. 
Xepp-e'A (to and 6) Is. xxix. 17 bis, xxxii. 15^^, xxxiii. 9B (but 
KapprjKos ib. xxxii. 16, xxxiii. 9 NAQ, xxxv. 2 as elsewhere in 
LXX). Cf. to Kexdp 2 K. xviii. 23 (=the Jordan valley, else- 
where rj Trepix&pos tov 'lopddvov as in N.T.). 

9. Many place-names end in -a and are declined like 
feminities of Declension I : e.g. Yatp. -av, -77s, -rj : Sapapeia -av, 

-as, -a : Ila#ovp?7S (<&a9wpr}<;) gen., IIa<9(o)i'pi? dat. (§ IO, 2) = Path- 
ros or Upper Egypt (nom. wanting, but cf. QaOovpa = Pethor, 
N. xxii. 5): Xappci = Haran Ez. xxvii. 23 BQ, Xappas gen. 
Gen. xxix. 4 E (usually indecl. XappdV). 

10. Names of towns as a rule end in -a and are declined 
like neuters of Declension II, with occasional transition (meta- 
plasmus) to Declension I, especially where the nom. ends in 
-(p)pa. The article stands in the fem. (sc. ttoAis). Thus : 

ttjv "Adi8a -dois 1 ttjv Mcdaovpa (or -ovpav), G. -aov- 

{"ApQrjXa) -ois 2 pw 3 , D. -on (or -a) 

tt)v BalBappa N. xxxii. 36 A Botroppa 4 , G. -as 
(-a(p)pai' BF) 

ix. 1: elsewhere Aifiavos), 'loinrrj, KcunradoKia (Caphthor), Kapxyduv 
-Sovioi (Xap/c.,=Tatshish Is. xxiii. 1 etc., Ez. xxvii. 12, xxxviii. 13: else- 
where Gapcr(e)ts), ^leaoirora/xla and ~Zvpia (Aram etc.), 'P65ioi (Dodanim). 
The translators are of course thoroughly familiar with Egyptian geography. 
The identification of "the brook of Egypt" as Rhinocorura (Is. xxvii. 12) 
may be mentioned, and the introduction of tribes living by the Red Sea, 
Troglodytes and Minaeans, into Chronicles LXX, which, with other 
indications of Egyptian colouring, somewhat discredits the theory that the 
version of that book is the work of Theodotion. 

1 1 M. xii. 38 (not 'A5t5a, Swete), xiii. 13 ("ASeiVois N, 'A8Lp.ot.s V). 

2 1 M. ix. 2. 

3 2 M. xi. 5 aweyyiaas Bedaovpwv (not -piiv, Swete) : for the gen. after 
eyyifciv cf. i M. xi. 4, xiii. 23 and for the form 1 M. vi. 49, xiv. 7. 

4 1 M. v. 26 V (et's Bocrtropa Swete as indecl.). Probably it is neut. plur. 



1 68 Proper Names [§ 11, 10 — 

TaCapa Acc. -apa (or -dpav) -u>v 'Pdyrj -at) Ace. plur. -«? Tob. 

-o'f 1 ix. 2 X, 5 X, Dat. -// ib. vi. io BA 

TaKyaXa -a -a>v -ois 2 (PivoKopovpa) -wv Is. xxvii. 12 

Pepapa -a -<ov -ois SapeirTa -oov Ob. 20 

Popoppa -a -as 3 2(/a/xa -a -coi/ -otr 8 

r<iprwa Acc. 4 268opa -a -cov 9 -ois 

'EKpdrava -a -a>v -ois (2ovaa) -ois Est. i. 2 etc. : in the 

Zoyopa (Zoar) Acc. 5 same book Acc. 2oio-av (which 

'Upoa-oXvpn -a -wv -ois (below) might also be indecl. as in 

Meppa 6 Acc. (or -av), G. -as 2 Es. xi. I ev Zovadv) 
('Pdya) 7 -gov -ois, also (as from 

1 1. The following names in -a are indeclinable : BaiT(o)v\ovd 
(Jdth : BanovXia N ii. 21, iv. 6), Aou£a' (Swete Aou£a), Aop-vd 
Ao/3va Ao/3evd etc. = Libnah (but Aofivav, A6p,vav Is. xxxvii. 
8Bw), 'Pa/xa (another transliteration 'App.a06.ijx in 1 K.), 2a/3a 
(/Jao-t'Ato-o-a 2. etc.) 10 , and the mountains 2(e)n'a, <J>ao-ya. 

Names in -y are usually indeclinable, the termination of 
acc. or gen. being sometimes appended : Map.ftprj (but G. xiii. 18 
rrjv 8pvv ttjv Map,fiprjv AE), Nu/eur/ (but acc. -qv Jon. iii. 2 N, 
Zeph. ii. 13 n, gen. -r/s Jon. iii. 6 a), 'Pa/xeo-o-// (but gen. -awv 
N. xxxiii. 3 AB a , -0-175 5 B ab ). 

'Upovo-aXrip. is consistently written in the translations and in 
several of the apocryphal books (1 Esdras, Sirach, Esther, 
Judith, Baruch, and as a rule 1 Mace). The Hellenized form 
'Iepoo-6\vp.a (as from lepos, SoAu/aoi) is limited to 2 — 4 Mace, 
and (beside 'Up.) Tobit and 1 Mace. 

like V6p.oppa. The gen. in Gen. xxxvi. 33, 1 Ch. i. 44. The indeclinable 
form used elsewhere is Bocrdp. 

1 Also indecl. Fa^Tipa 2 K. v. 25 or Pdfep. 

2 Also indecl. 7-775 TaXyaXa 1 K. x. 8 A or TaXyaX. 

3 So always in conjunction with 2od6po>v: Tofioppwv only Gen. xviii. 
20 D, \abs Vop.6pa (-pa) Jer. xxiii. 14 X. 

* 1 M. xv. 23 XV (Tdprwav A). 

5 Probably neut. plur. : also indecl. Zoyop and "Zriywp. 

6 Probably neut. plur. (not Meppd, Swete): Ex. xv. 23 els M<?ppa B 
(ds Meppae AF). Indecl. rfjs Meppdv Bar. iii. 23. 

7 Nom. not found : this is more probable than 'Pdyoi (Redpath). 

8 Also indecl. 2i/x<?M, frequent in Jd. (B text). 

9 I find no instance of gen. Soddprjs cited by Redpath. 

10 But acc. rbv ISd/Sav Gen. xxv. 3 AD (personal name). 



§ II, 14] Proper Names 169 

1 2. Place-names in -wv are declined or indeclinable mainly 
according to their rank and situation on or away from the main 
routes. This accounts for the declension of 'ActkouW -wva etc. 
(on the coast and on or close to a main trade-route), while 
Ekron which lay off the route appears as indeclinable 'AKKapwV. 
Two other names are declined : rj BajSuXwv -wva -d!vos -wvi and 
similarly 1(e)i8wv (voc. -wv Is. xxiii. 4, Ez. xxviii. 22) 3 . The 
gentilic Ma*e8an' is regularly declined ova etc. : MaKcSwv Ma-ye- 
SawV etc. (elsewhere MayeS(S)w) representing Megiddo are 
indeclinable. To the indeclinables belong further 'Atppoiv 
(Ep/xwv. Mount H.), 'AppcuV, 'Apv<ov, Tafiawv (Gibeon) 4 , KeSpoii' 5 
(the brook Kidron), K(e)«rwv (6 of the brook, 77 of the city), 6 

Sapajv, 2(e)twi', Xe/^pwv. 

13. The following towns end in -t's (-18a -180s): TlroXepals 
(i — 3 M. : ace. -aidav I M. x. I A, § IO, 12), ^aarjXis -ib~a I M. 
xv. 23 XV (Baa-iXtibav A). The river Tt'ypty (Tiyprjs Dan. O x. 4) 
has ace. Tlypiv, gen. Tiypi8os (Tob. vi. 2 X). 

Compounds of noXis are declined like the noun : AioanoXu 
(Ez. (3), ILfVTcnro\€<os (W. x. 6), lit pain o\(e)iv (2 M. ix. 2 A : 
riepcrtTr. V), TpinoXiv (2 M. xiv. 1). Similarly Egyptian place- 
names in -is : NifKpis -w -ecos -(e)t, 2ais -tv (Ez. /3), Tans -iv 
-ecos -(?)'• 

14. Names of countries or districts, when not simply trans- 
literated, are expressed by adjectival forms (sc. x^P a )- These 
in the case of countries outside Palestine end in (1) -t's -t'Sos: —  
rj 'EArpcus, Dan. O viii. 2, Tob. ii. 10 ('EAA. B), 1 M. vi. i 6 : 77 

1 In Jos. xv. 1 1 A els 'AKKapuiva the final vowel represents the Heb. H" 
of direction: the name is indeclinable in the same verse (B and A texts). 

2 Ba/SuXixa -6vos Jer. xlvii. 7 K, [Hi. 12 K d ], Ez. xxiii. 17 B. Ace. 
BafivXQvav Jer. xxviii. 9 N (§ 10, 12). Gen. Ba/3u\ws (corruption of -tDeos) 
2 Es. v. 17 B*. 

3 S(e)i56i'a Jer. xxix. 4 B, Ez. xxvii. 8 A. 

4 1 Ch. xxi. 29 iv Ya/iauvi A. 

5 It was natural that it should come to be regarded as gen. plur. of 
xidpos, hence iv rQ xei/oiappy twv Kidpwv, 2 K. xv. 23 BA (the words are 
absent from M.T. and are doubtless a gloss) : ib. rbv xetp.dppoi/i' KeSpwi' B 
(A again writes twv k.). The same Hellenization appears in N.T., John 
xviii. 1 (see Lightfoot Biblical Essays 173 f.). 

6 Read (cf. Josephus A.J. XII. 9. 1) iJKOvcrev on icrrlv 'EXf/xai? iv rrj 



170 Proper Names [§ 11, 14 — 

Kapi? -i'Sa, 1 M. xv. 2$ A (tt/v Kaptav hV): r/ riepo-is (so already 
in Heir..); (2) -(e)ta :—(??') Ba/3iAwiia ( 1 Es. and Dan. O, Is. xi. n, 
xiv. 23, xxxix. 1, Jer. xxviii. 24 A, 2 M. viii. 20, 3 M. vi. 6 A), 
M7 ? 8( € )ta(apocr. books), SeaWia 3 K. xvii. 8; (3) -1107: — rj *\vliKr\. 
The transliterated names of the districts of or on the borders 
of Palestine ('ESw/n, Mwa/3 etc.) begin to be replaced by 
adjectives either in (4) -aia or (5) -(e)ms, forms which appear 
to have come into use c. 200 B.C. 1 ; (4) 'H ra\(€)iXaia, 'iSov^aia 
(beside 'ESw/a), 'IouSaia (beside 717 'W8a); (5) (beside 'A/a/awv, 
TaAaaS etc.) 77 'A/i/iocms (2 M. iv. 26, v. 7), Aupav(e)ms (Ez. a: 
with v.ll. 'Qpav. Awpav.), Aw-(e)ms (= Uz, Job), Baorav(e)iT<s 
(Jos., Ez. a and Minor Proph.), raAaaS(e)iTis (in the same 
group: also Jd. x. 8 A, 1 K. xxxi. n, 2 K. ii. 4, 5, 9, 1 Ch. 
xxvi. 31, 2 Ch. xviii. 2 f , 1 M.), ©aiju.av(€)tTis (= Terhan : Job), 
Mwayi3(e)rrt9 (Is., Jer. xxxi. 33, xxxii. 7), Sa/xap^u-is (1 M.) 2 , 
Xai'a(a)i'(e)tTis (Zech. xi. 7), to which must be added the curious 
Ma/?Sap(e)rTis(MaS/?.) = -n-iD "the desert " (Jos. v. 5, xviii. 12) 3 . 
The cases are -n-iSos -1Y1S1 -Itlv (only once ace. -mSa, Jos. 

xiii. 1 1 B raAaaSetViSa). 

15. Mountains also are expressed adjectivally in two cases : 
to 'Irafivpiov 4 (= Tabor) Hos. v. 1, Jer. xxvi. 18 (elsewhere 

Iltpoidi ttoXls (A iv'Wktipcus, XV ev M/juus): the description of Elymais as 
a city is of course incorrect and accounts for the reading of A. Elsewhere 
in LXX AiXd/x ('EXd/j.) or (in 2 Es. and 1 Es. v. 12 A) "BXafi. 

1 They are absent from the Pentateuch, but perhaps from a feeling of 
the anachronism of using them of the patriarchal age. Isaiah has 'lovBala, 
'ldovfj.aia. The translators of Joshua, Ez. a and Minor Prophets are partial 
to them. The literal School (Jd, K. (38) avoids them. 

2 Elsewhere 2a/*ap(e)ta as in N.T. of district as well as city. 

:i B&AA&preic Jos. xv. 6> is also probably % a corruption of maA- 
BApeiTic. The historian Eupolemus (c. 150 rs.c.) ap. Eus. P. E. ix. 449 
is an early extra- Biblical authority for these forms in -Itls : the extent of 
Solomon's kingdom is described in^a letter of the monarch as tt\v YaXiXalav 
koX 'Zanapdriv /ecu MwcuSiViJ' kolI ' A/xfiapiriv /ecu TaXadiTiv. Aristeas § 107 
refers to rr\v Za/xape?TLv Xeyop.4vT]v. In Polyb. V. 71 tt\v TaXariv appears 
from the context to stand for tt)v TaXaadirii'. Josephus supplies us further 
with TavXavlns (or TavXuv. : Golan), ' Ecre/Sc^Im (2e/3., Heshbon), Tpa- 
Xwi'iris (also in N.T.). 

4 So in Josephus Tb'lra^vpi.ov opos: ' ' ArafivpLov in Polyb. v. 70. 6. The 



§ ii, 1 6] Proper Names 171 

Qafiwp) : (to) opo<; to Kap^-qXtov, 3 K. xviii. 19 f. (contrast 42 
rbv Kdpixrjkov as elsewhere in LXX), 4 K. ii. 25, iv. 25. 

16. Gentilic 7iames — of tribes and inhabitants of towns or 
districts — in Hebrew end in -1 and in LXX are either trans- 
literated (rarely and mainly in the later historical books) 1 or 
(more often) Hellenized, usually with the termination -aios or 
-(e)tT7j9. Thus a Canaanite appears as (1) Xai/av(«)i 2 Es. ix. 1, 

N. xxi. 3 A; (2) XavaveiV N. xxi. I, 3, XXxiii. 40; (3) X.avaviLTi]<i 
3 K. iv. 32 B ; (4) elsewhere always Xavavaios. 

It is difficult to determine what principle governed the choice 
of -mof or -lttjs. Generally speaking, the former denotes a 
member of a tribe or clan ('E/SpaZos, 'Apoppalos etc.), the latter 
the inhabitant of a town (BrjdXeepiryji etc.). But the distinction is 
by no means universal. ra£aios and Teddaios denote inhabitants of 
cities (like 'Adrjvalos, Otj^cuos) : 'Appavirrjs, raXaa8tTi]s, 'lo-paijXirrjs, 
'la-parjXirTjs, Ma>a^irr]s are tribal names. The tendency in the 
later books seems to be to form all new gentilic names in -irqs, 
fern, -Iris (-iv -180s -181), because these terminations corresponded 
most nearly to those of the Hebrew (-1 -Ith). In English this 
termination has been given a still wider range : it is not from 
the LXX that we get e.g. the names Hittite (Xerralos) and 
Amorite. Sometimes we find alternative forms in -aios and 
-(e)trr/f such as MaSnjvaios, Ma8iav(e)iTr)s : one of Job's com- 
forters is called Bd\8a8 6 2avxirrjs in the body of the work (viii. 1 
etc.) but B. o Savxaiwv rvpawos in the proem and conclusion (ii. 
11, xlii. 17 e). In 2 K. xxiii. 25 ff. the interposition of a series 
of names in -(e)iTt]s between others in -aios (contrast 25 'Apco- 
8aios A with 22 'Apco8eiTT)s) points to an interpolated text. 

Other terminations are (1) -10s: 'Afcortos, 'Apd8ios, 'Aacrvptos, 
Svpios, 2i8uvios ; (2) -rjvos : Ya^aprjvos I M. xv. 28 A, 35 A (cf. 
Tao-ftaprjvds 2 Es. i. 8 B) ; (3) -fvs plur. -eir, in the Greek books 
'A\e£;av8pevs and Tapaels, in the translations Kinels (Is. xxiii. 12, 
1 M. viii. 5 : elsewhere Kinoi KltioIoi or transliterated) and 
'Apa£oveis, \\\eip.a(ove7s, 2 Ch. xiv. 15, xxii. I. 

latter was also the name of heights in Rhodes and at Agrigentum, where 
there were temples to Zeus 'Ara/3upios (art. Tabor, Enc. Bibl.), the name 
having been carried westward by Semitic colonists. The origin of the 
Hebrew name and of the prothetic vowel in its Greek dress is uncertain : 
we may perhaps compare Tovpaiuv B 'Irovpa'nov A 1 Ch. v. 19. 

1 Contrast the names of the aboriginal inhabitants of Palestine in 2 Es. 
ix. 1 (ry Xavavel, 6 'Edei, 6 QepeadeL k.t.X.) with the forms in -aios used 
elsewhere. 

2 Cf. 6 "Adopts Gen. xiv. 13. 



172 Declension of [§ 12, 1 — 



§ 12. Adjectives. 

1. Declension. Adjectives in -os, ->? (-a), -ov and -os, -ov. 
On the whole the LXX follows classical precedent in the use of 
two or three terminations for adjectives in -os. The movement 
towards the uniformity of modern Greek, in which every 
adjective has a special feminine form (aSi/o;, rja-vxv etc.), has 
hardly begun. 

Two exx. of compound words with fern, termination occur in 
Numbers: ddcoa N. v. 19BAF, 28 BAF (-aos N*) : dreixio-rais 
xiii. 20 B* (-01s B ab AF, so Prov. xxv. 28). 

The direction in which the language is moving may be 
indicated by the fact that several adjectives which in Attic 
fluctuate between 2 and 3 terminations in LXX are only found 
with 3 : such are e.g. dypios, fttftaws, SIkciios, e\ev6epos, eviavcrios 
(except N. vii. 88 F dpvdfies epiavarioi), pdraios, opotos (except 
Ez. xxxi. 8 A seme/ eXdrai opoioi), oaios. Similarly eroipos always 
has fern, erot/uj except in Jdth ix. 6 BXA. 

Other words in -10s fluctuate as in Attic. Such are alavios 1 , 
dvoaios (-a 3 M. V. 8, but -os W. xii. 4), irapa6akdo-o~Los, irapd- 
Xios, vnoxeipios (-iav Jos. vi. 2 B : else fern, -os, as usually in 
Attic). 

Attic fluctuates also in the declension of words in -Xos -pos 
-pos. Under this head we may note the following (the only 
passages in which the fern, is used): flvyarepa Xoiprjv, 1 K. i. 16 
(the adjectival use "pestilent" is new), (ppoviprj Sir. xxii. 4, 
XpT]crlpT)s Tob. iv. 18. 

On the other hand 17 eprjpos is used to the exclusion of 17 epij/^i? : 
similarly ovpdvios -os. Noticeable also is 4 K. iii. 18 B Kovcpos 
Kal avTTj (novcpT] A) and o-akn (with o-cppayidts) Bel 1 7 bis 
(A once corrects to Attic o-mai). 

2. The contracted adjectives in -oDs are usual in LXX as 
in Attic: dpyvpovs, XP^o-oi;?, o-iSrjpot'?, x a ^-K°£'S> epea Ez. xliv. 17, 
cpoiviKovv Is. i. 18: d-n-Xovs, SlttXovs etc. The following uncon- 

1 Usually 2 term, as also in Attic and N.T. : fem. -ta L. xxv. 34, 
N. xxv. 13, Hb. iii. 6BNQ, Jer. xxxviii. 3 A, xxxix. 40 B, Ez. xxxv. 5 
[9B a ], xxxvii. 26 [contrast xvi. 60], 1 M. ii. 54 NV, 57 A. 



§ 12,4] Adjectives 173 

traded forms occur : in Sir. xp^ " 605 vi. 3° BwAC, xP^°" €0t 
xxvi. 18 Btf (ib. a'pyupas) : so xP^caioi ( = ~ €0t ) 2 Es. viii. 27 A, 
and as a proper name Karaxpvcrea Dt. i. 1 (Kcn-axpvo-os is the 
usual form of this late word): H* has o-iS^pe'as 4 M. ix. 26, 

onSv/paiais ib. 28. 

'A0po'o? (3 M. v. 14 -oous) is the usual Attic form. 

The Epic form x i ^ K( ( l ) os occurs in Job (vi. 12 BXC, xl. 
13BXC, xli. 6 B, 19 BX) and elsewhere: Jd. xvi. 21 B, 1 Es. 
i. 38 BA, Sir. xxviii. 20 B (xdXxeoi NA, ^aA/coZ C). Cf. ai8ijpiu> 
Job xix. 24 X ( = -et'o>). 

Want of contraction in word-formation is seen in the 
poetical depyos used in Prov. xiii. 4, xv. 19, xix. 12 (elsewhere 
Att. dpyos). 

3. The Attic declension in -w? is, as was stated (§ 10, 9), 
disappearing. Of the few adjectives of this class found in LXX 
two are on the way to becoming indeclinables. "IAews alone is 
used with any frequency, and, except for one book, only in the 
nom., in the phrases lAew's pot "God forbid," lAew? yeveo-Bai. etc. : 
in 2 Mace. i'Accos is used also for the ace. — vii. 37 A (iXewv V), 
x. 26 AV* (-wv Swete) — and for the gen., ii. 22 A iAcws yevo- 
fxivov (JXew V) 1 . Similarly eo-xai-oy^'pcos stands for the gen. in 

Sir. xlii. 8 B ccrxaToy^'pws Kpivo/Atrov (-yqpovs K, -yijpu) -p.eru) AC), 

where the text of B is supported by a contemporary papyrus, 
ecrxaToyrypws oVtos TP i. 7. 29 (117B.C.) 2 : the dat, however, 
is regular, io-xaToyypip Sir. xli. 2. 'Y7roxpe'ws appears in 1 K. 
xxii. 2 B (nom.) with dat. viroxpey Is. 1. 1 : the nom. of Kara- 
Xpew W. i. 4 is unattested. 

KddiSpos is read by the uncials in Jer. viii. 6 (LS cite 
Kddldpcos -ottos' from Basil). 

4. lias. There are a number of instances in the LXX 
where irav appears to be used for Trdvra (ace. sing.). A solitary 

1 So dviXe us — nom. plur. neut. in Test. xn. Patr. Gad v. 11 tueiro to. 
■fjirard p.ov dvLKews Kara tov Iio<Tr)<p. 

2 Mayser 294. Perhaps influenced by yrjpas gen. 777/ws. 



174 Declension of [§ 12, 4 — 

example of this use of 7rSi/ in the papyri 1 rescues it from the 
suspicion of being a 'Biblical' usage. Assimilation of the 
masc. to the neuter form of the accusative is not surprising in 
the KOLvrj : the analogy of fxiyav and the preference for accusatives 
in v (such as vvktolv, evyevfjv) might be responsible for the 
vulgarism. 

On the other hand, the context of the first passage in the 
LXX and other considerations throw some doubt on the 
equation 7rav = irdvTa and suggest that in some of the passages 
at least we have to do with a syntactical colloquialism rather 
than a vulgarism of accidence. 

The idiomatic use of the neuter of persons in the common 
LXX phrases Ttdv apaeviKor, irav TrpwroroKOv etc. allows US, 
though with hesitation, to explain irav as a true neuter in the 
following phrases containing an adjective or participle : eVciTa£av 

. . .wcret 8eK0t ^tAiaSas dvSpwv, irav XtTrapoi' kcll tvavra. arSpa 8vvafX€w<; 
Jd. iii. 29 B: ttolv Svvcltov layyi 4 K. XV. 20 BA: 7rav Swarov 
/ecu TroXtjxKTTrjv k.t.X., 2 Ch. xxxii. 2 1 : perhaps also -n-av Trpoa- 
iroptvoficvov, tovtov . . .tvratjov 2 Es. vii. J J BA : irav cvSo^ov 
Is. xxiii. 9 BnAT (of persons): irav TrepiKeipopcevov tol Kara 
TrpoaroiTrov avrov Jer. ix. 26 nAQ with -rrav 7repLKeKapp€vov k.t.X. 

ib. xxxii. 9 BA. 

It is less easy to explain on this principle -n-av followed by 
the accusative of a masc. substantive. Yet, in the earliest 
occurrence of this, the participle and the relative clause 
following show that irav is regarded as a true neuter : 'l8ov 
8e8wKa vp.lv udv \oprov cnr6pip.ov airelpov cnrepp.a 8 eo-riv C7ravo> 
■n-dcr-qs ttjs yrj% Gen. i. 29. (In the next verse the uncials have 
■n-dvTa x°ptov : in ii. 5 E again has irav xopTov, perhaps influenced 
by 7r5v \\wp6v ib.) 

1 Hdv tov towov in a Paris papyrus of 163 B.C. (37. 11: Mayser 199) 
differs from the LXX exx. in the presence of the article. The Paris 
collection was edited half a century ago (1858) and one cannot be quite so 
sure of the accuracy of the editors as in more recent editions. 



§ 12, 5] Adjectives 175 

It seems possible therefore in the remaining passages to 
explain irav as a neuter in apposition with the masc. substantive, 

a Sort of extension of irav apaeviKOv etc. (irav oiKerrjv e.g. = irav 

olkctikov), though it is simpler on the whole to regard it in all 
these passages as = -n-ana. It is to be observed that the article 
is never present and that the meaning is usually "every": the 
recurrence of certain phrases is also noticeable. 

Uav oIk4tt]i>, Ex. xii. 44 B*. 

II«i> bv eav f'liro)... avros ov iropevaerai Jd. vii. 4 B. 

Uav \6yov R. iv. 7 B (tov X. A): so i Ch. xxvii. 1 BA, 1 B, 

2 Ch. xix. 1 1 bis BA. 

Uav av8pa I K. xi. 8 B. 

Uav irovov 1 3 K. viii. 37 B, and so in the parallel 2 Ch. 
vi. 28 BA and Sir. xxxviii. 7 A(C) 2 . 

Uav (Bowov 3 K. xv. 22 BA 3 , Jer. ii. 20 BNQ, Ez. 4 xx. 
28 B a AQ, xxxiv. 6 BQ. 

Uav vlbv 8vvdpeo>s 3 K. xxi. 1 5 B. 

Uav TfKTova 4 K. xxiv. 1 4 BA. 

IIai> oikov "every house," ib. xxv. 9 B. Uav oUov 'io-paijX Ez. 
xxxvi. 10 BAQ, Jdth iv. 15 BA: irav oIkov 'lovSa Jer. xiii. 11 BN. 

Uav 8e vfSpio-Tijv Job xl. 6 BX. 

"Ez. jS" further supplies irav \idov xxviii. 13 BQ, irav (p6(iov 
xxxviii. 21 BA. 

Dan. has irav opia-pbv <a\ a-rdo-iv vi. 15 BA and irav 6(6v 
xi. 2,7 B (iravra AQ and so BAQ in 36). 

Cf. irav av8pa ocriov, irav a-o(pov iv /SouXjy Ps. Sol. ill. IO r, 
viii. 23 r. 

The converse use of iravra for irav appears once in X, 
iravra rfi^oy Is. ii. I 5 (under the influence of the 2 exx. of iravra 
preceding-). 

In Bel 6 2 tt&c B* must be a mere slip for irdvras. For 
irdvres=irdvras see § IO. 15. 

5. Adjectives in -77s and -v%. Examples of the accusative in 

1 IlaJ' crvvdvrr)/j.a, irav irbvov, wauav irpocrevxijv shows the vernacular 
accusative irav — iraaav — irav. 

' Here rbv irovov BX appears from the Heb., which has no 73, to be right. 

3 But navTa (3ovv6v ib. xiv. 23. 

4 This use of irav appears clearly to go back to the translator or an 
early scribe of "Ezekiel ji" (iravra ace. sing, only in xxxvii. 21, xxxix. 20 
in all uncials): Ez. a, on the other hand, writes irdvia &vefj.ov etc. v. 12, 
vi. 13, xiii. 18, xvi. 15, xvii. 21 and we should therefore read iravra fiovvov 
in xx. 28 with B*. 



176 Declension of [§ 12, 5- 



-rjv/or -rj in adjectives in -77s are, like those of vvktolv etc. (§ 10, 12), 
with two exceptions, absent from the B text. We have iyvfjv 
Lev. xiii. 15 B*A a : aaeffiv * ix. 23 A, x. 5 A, Pro v. xxiv. 15 m, 
Job xxxii. 3 A, Sir. xxi. 27 A, Is. v. 23 N [xi. 4« c - a ]: evo-efiyv 
Sir. xiii. 17 Bn: (xovoyevrjv * xxi. 21 AR, xxxiv. 17 N ca AR, 
Bar. iv. 16 A: ttoAutcAtjV Prov. i. 13 K: iiri<pavrjv Jl. ii. 31 «: 
if/vSrjv Zech. viii. 17 n [dvaiSrjv Jer. viii. 5 « c - b l. 

The ace. of vyivf? is iyirj(i>) L. xiii. 15, Tob. xii. 3, not the 
Attic vyia. 

6. nx^prjs. A mass of evidence has recently been collected 
demonstrating beyond a doubt that this adjective was at one 
time treated as an indeclinable 1 . The LXX contributes its 
share, but the evidence is not as a rule so strong as to warrant 
our attributing the form to the autographs : in most cases it is 
certainly due to later scribes. Indeclinable TrA^? is common 
in the papyri from i/a.d. onwards, but only one instance b.c. 
has yet been found 2 . 

We have seen in the case of the Attic declension in -w? 
(3 supra) that forms on the way to extinction become inde- 
clinable before finally disappearing. The old adjectives in -77s 
have disappeared from the modern language 3 , and this might 
account for all adjectives in -17s becoming indeclinable, but 
such is not the case. Why is this adjective alone affected ? 

Nestle has quoted an apt parallel in the indeclinable use of 
German voller in the phrase "eine Arbeit voller Fehler": but it 
is precarious to explain the Greek use by an idiom, however 
similar, in a modern language. The explanation is perhaps 
partly to be found in the tendency to assimilate the vowels 
flanking p or the nasals. At a time when 77, et and e had 
come to be pronounced alike, there would be a tendency 

1 C. H. Turner in/.T.S. i. 120 ff., 561 f.: Blass N.T. 81 : Moulton CA' 
xv - 35» 435. xvni - 109: Cronert 179 : Reinhold 53. 

2 Mapffeiweiov irXrjpvs (~Tr\vpes) Leiden Pap. C. p. 118 col. 2, 14 
(160 B.C.). 

3 Thumb Handbuch 49. 



§ 12, 7] Adjectives 177 

to write 7r\rjpr}<; for TrXfjpes and for irXypets as well as for 
the nominative. Subsequently this form would also replace 

TrXrjpy) and irXrjpow;. 

The LXX instances (only once without v.ll.) are as follows. 
n\rjpr]s = (a) ace. sing. (nXTjpr]): L. ii. 2 B, N. vii. 20 BX*, 
62 BA, xxiv. 13 A. 

(b) nom. and ace. neut. sing. (7rXf/pe y) : Ex. xvi. 33 B, 
4 K. vi. 17 A, Is. xxx. 27 X, * lxxiv. 9 RX ca , Sir. xlii. 16 BX. 

(c) gen. sing. (nX^povs) Gen. xxvii. 27 ms 007m) dypo€ Tr\y]p>]s 
DE cursives (-povs AM cursives) 1 . 

(d) nom. ace. plur. (irXtipeis) Gen. xli. 24 D, N. vii. 86 BF, 
Is. i. 15 r, li. 20 B, Jer. v. 27 XQ, Job xxxix. 2 B, W. v. 22 X, 
xi. 18 X, 3 M. vi. 31 V*. 

(e) neut. plur. (ttXijpt]) N. vii. 13 F, 19 X, 79 B, ^ cxliii. 13 
R Tid , Job xxi. 24 to 8i eyKciTa avrov TrXrjprjs o-riaros BXAC with 
the parallel in Sir. xix. 26 ra 8e evros avrov TrXrjprjs 86\ov B*CX ca 
(A -pas : -pr) X*B b ). 

It will be seen that in the last two passages alone is there 
really strong authority for the indeclinable form and in Job 
nXTiprjs might partly be accounted for by the initial o- of the 
next word (cf. Mark iv. 28 nXtjpijs o-Itov with WH. App.). 
Several examples occur in Numbers, but it should be noted 
that in chap, vii which has 6 exx. of indeclinable ir\., there are 
19 exx. without v.l. in the uncials of the declined forms. 

Conversely, n\rjpr] = 7r\r]pr]s Ez. xliii. 5 B*. The following 
are merely itacisms, which illustrate the tendency referred to 
above: Tr\T)peis = irXriprjs (nom. sing.) 1 Ch. xxix. 28 A, Job 
vii. 4 B, ■*■ xlvii. 11 B: ir\r]pes = 7r\i]pr]s Job xlii. 17 A: 7rA?}p>7 = 
7r\r]pfi 4 K. XX. 3 B. 

7. EvOVjs — eiOvs. In this word we find in the LXX a 
strange mixture of forms : the fem. of the old ev6v<; eiOtia d6v 
is retained, while the masc. and neuter in the singular are 
supplied by the new forms ev8i]<; -es (like dXrjOr^) and in the 
plural we meet with forms as from a nominative evdews (like 
dvSpetos). The whole declension, so far as represented, runs 
as follows : the new forms are in thick type. 

1 And possibly in Is. lxiii. 3 (<!>$ airb ttcittitov Xtjvov) wXrjprjs KaTtnreTra- 
T7j/j.€vi]s BAQ* : irX-qpovs is read by XQ 11 ^ and the Latin Fathers took 7rX. 
as agreeing with \r)vov (see Ottley in loc). It seems however preferable to 
take ir\rjp7]s as nom. beginning a fresh sentence, with ellipse of el/ii. 

T. 12 



178 Declension of [§ 12, 7 — 



Singular 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


svOi^s 1 


i£v8l]S 2 


\evBfa (-rjs) 4 






(tvdeia 3 


\eiev & 


A. 


€V0tj (-TJV)° 


evdelav 


€V0€S 


G. 


ev0ovs 7 


evdeias 





D. 


— 


evdeia 





Plural 








N. 


evdels 


evdeicu 


i vdila. s 


A. 


ei'dels 


fvdelas 


UvGeia* 
((rifta) 


G. 


iiQ(i)lo>v 9 


— 


— 


D. 


ev6i(Ti{v) 


ev8eiais 


— 



We cannot speak of two distinct words and say that the 
old evOvs forms, so far as preserved, are used in the literal 
sense and the new forms in the metaphorical sense of "straight," 
"upright," because the fern, forms -eta etc. are used in both 
senses. The fact is that the masc. and neut. sing. ei6vs and 
evOv together with evdeu><; (now indistinguishable from gen. 
evdeos) had become stereotyped as adverbs and it was felt that 
a new nom. for the adjective was required, and the analogy of 
d\r]8ij<; plur. aX^eis suggested evOijs as the proper singular for 
the old plural evdeU. 

The new forms -17? -tj(v) -ois have not yet been found in the 
papyri, and it is tempting, but would be hazardous, to conjecture 
that they were an invention of the later translators 10 to render 
the Hebrew "IB* 

1 1 K. xxix. 6 etc. Eudvs only as a v.l. of A in ^ xxiv. 8 (met. sense). 
In Ez. xxiii. 40 it is an adverb, incorrectly classified as an adj. in Hatch- 
Redpath. 

2 Sir cxviii. 137 (17 Kpiais), Prov. xxvii. 21a (KapSia). 

3 Jd. xiv. 3 B {ev 6(p9a\fx.ocs fxov of a woman "well-pleasing"), 4 K. x. 15 
and S^ lxxvii. 37 (Kapdla), Prov. xx. 14 etc. (r/ 656s). 

4 YiXidTjs 2 K. xix. 6 A, else evdis passim. 

5 Only in the phrase /car' eiidu 3 K. xxi. 23, 25, Ez. xlvi. 9. 

6 4 K. x. 3 (-rjv A), Jdth x. 16 A, Eccl. vii. 30. 

7 2 K. i. 18 (iiflXLov tov evdoiis (the Book of the Upright or, neuter, of 
Uprightness). 

8 ^ xviii. 9 (-ea B b ), lvii. 1, 2 Es. xix. 13 SA (-ea B), Dan. xi. 17. 

9 ^ ex. 1 eudiwv NAT, cxi. 2 -iwv XT -elwv A, Prov. xi. 3 A and 11 A 
-eiwv (probably Hexaplaric). 

10 They are absent from the Hexateuch (where "1^"' is rendered by 
dpeiTTos, diKcuos and k<x\6s) and not found in N.T. 



§ 12, io] Adjectives 179 

In the plural, analogy again exercised its influence in 
another direction, probably first in the gen. plur., where the 
old distinction between elOeow — evOeiwv — cvfleW could not long 
survive, and the fern, forms suggested masc. and neut. forms 
as from cvfleto?. 

S. The intrusion of -os forms into the neuter plural occurs 
in other adjectives in -v's in LXX : {3ap(e)ia 3 M. vi. 5 V 
{fiapia A, and so Sir. xxix. 28): y\vK(€)Za ty cxviii. 103 ARTtf ca 
(yXvKia «*), Prov. xxvii. 7 «AC (yXvKta B): o£(€)ia Is. v. 28 all 
uncials. (Ba#ea, on the other hand, is undisputed in Dan. O® 
ii. 22.) In N.T. cf. to. ?^io-(e)ta La xix. 8. 

In modern Greek the -os forms have encroached still further 
and monopolized all cases of the plural and the gen. sing. 1 
Codex A has one instance of gen. sing, in -ov viz. fiadeov Sir. 
xxii. 7 (padeos cett.), a variant which, although doubtless not the 
original reading, is interesting in this connexion. 

9. The genitive singular of these adjectives in -vs, though 
it has not yet gone over to the -os class, has, however, in the 
vernacular begun to undergo a slight change, by taking over 
the long w of the adverb : /fopews 3 K. xii. 4 BA (but fiapeos 
2 Ch. x. 4 BA): oWews Dt. xii. 2 AF (-eos B), 2 Es. xviii. 
15 *A a (cos BA*;, Sir. xiv. 18 xA (-eos BC), Hb. iii. 3 wAQ* 

(-€OS B). 

In the literary 4 M. yXvueos is undisputed (viii. 23) and 
Radios is no doubt the true reading in Sir. xxii. 7. 

10. "H|iurus has lost the fern, forms in -eta altogether and 
adopted the kolvtJ contracted gen. sing, yj/xio-ovs (Att. ^yiu'o-eos) 2 . 
A word containing three vowels which came to be pronounced 
alike was specially liable to confusion and many of the peculiar 
LXX forms are due to mere 'itacism' (the equivalence of i and 
21 sounds) : but there are clear indications that rjp.ia-v is be- 

1 See M. Gr. declension of fladus, Thumb Handbuch 47. 
- Mayser 294 f. , Moulton CR xv. 35 a . The papyri show one form not 
found in LXX, neut. pi. r\^iaf]. 

12 — 2 



180 Declension of [§ 12, 10 — 

coming an indeclinable which may stand for all cases: t^uio-us 
indecl. = gen. sing, seems also to deserve recognition. The 
LXX declension is as follows : 

Singular M. F. N. 

N. A. f]fll(TV l 

G. (rov and rrjs' 2 ) rjfiiaovs 

\rjpirrti, 6 
D. (ru and ri/ 7 ) 77/Lu'o-ei ) 

Tjfiicrv s ) 

Plural 

N. (01) i]fii(T(is \ (ra) i}p.i<rv V} 

(01) (rj)fj.i(r(i 9 ) 
A. (tovs and ras 11 ) f]p.iatis 
D. (rols) rjfXL<jecriv 12 ) 

(rols) 17^11'crei 13 ) 

1 1 . The heterogeneous Attic 7rpaos Trpaua -rrpaov has been 
reduced to uniformity by the employment throughout of the 
forms from -vs (as in poetry) : irpavs, Trpavv u , dat. sg. -n-paeca 

1 Also written ^/m<tov 3 K. iii. 25 B*, Is. xliv. 16 B*, and -aei Jos. 
xxii. 1 B*, 10 A, 11 B*A, 13 A, 21 A. 

2 3 K. xvi. 9 rrjs rifjLiaovs rrjs ittttov. 

a Ex. xxvii. 5 B*A 2ws (tou) ij/xicrvs, xxx. 15 A cltto tov TJfiKrvs, xxxviii. 
1 A bis, N. xxxi. 30 B*, 1 Ch. vi. 71 A. 

4 Jos. xxi. 5 A, 1 Ch. xxvi. 32 BA (rmlaovs Swete). 

5 Ex. xxx. 15 B airb tov jj/uucrv, Dan. 9 vii. 25 ews Katpov Kal KaipQv Kai 
ye TJfxiav Kaipov. 

6 Jos. xxi. 6 A. 

7 1 Ch. xxvii. 2i Btj Tjixiaei <pv\rjs. 

8 N. xxxii. 33 BAF ry yfuav 0u\??s, xxxiv. 13 F, Dt. iii. 13 B, xxix. 
8 A, Jos. xii. 6 F, Dan. ix. 27 BA, ib. A. 

9 Jos. ix. 6 F* oi fuo-ei apparently = ot ij/iurv (cf. M. Gr. ' /utrv fiurbs). 
The more idiomatic ot ricav thxhtv of B is no doubt right. 

10 Tob. x. 10 BA? (rb v/x. A* vid ). 

11 Ez. xvi. 51, 1 M. iii. 34, 37. 

12 Jos. xiii. 31. 

13 Jos. xxii." 7 A (=to?s ijiMcni). In the same verse A has toIs ^a"^'" 
(sic) which may represent r. rjulcreaiv or t. T)p.iai ( = 7J/xktv) with v 
icpeKKiKxriKbv. B has ry r)p.iaei in both places. 

14 Ilpaov 2 M. xv. 12 A (irpavv V). 



§ 12, 13] Adjectives 181 

(Dan. O iv. i6)and plur. ^pcms, izpa^.% Trpaeu>v l occur. At the 
same time npavrrfi has superseded TrpaoT7]<; (cf. § 6, 32). 

12. IIoA.us, otherwise regular, has neuter iroXvv in Cod. A 
in a few passages: 4 K. xxi. 16 (al/ia iroXvv), 1 M. iii. 31, 41, 
iv. 23 (with dpyvptov, xpvo-Lov) — the converse of the exchange 
by which irav replaces ndvTa. 

We may note the transition from the -»/s to the -o? class in 
6p.6e6vos 2 M. xv. 31 A (Polyb., Jos.): elsewhere (2 and 3 M.) 
opoeSvrjs dWoedvtjs. The form Trepiacrios for nepiaaos (classified 
as ' Neo-hellenic ' i.e. after 600 A.D. by Jannaris § 1073) is read 
by N in 1 M. ix. 22. 

13. Comparison. 

The use of the degrees of comparison of the adjective in 
the LXX is affected by two influences, which will be further 
considered under the head of Syntax, (i) The fact that the 
Hebrew adjective undergoes no change of form in comparison 
partly accounts for some restriction in the use of both degrees 
in the translations. The positive may be used either for the 
comparative (e.g. dyaOos virep airdv 1 K. ix. 2) or for the 
superlative (e.g. en 6 piKpds, ib. xvi. 11" there remains the 
youngest [of several brothers] ") 2 . (ii) The use of the superlative 
is still further restricted by the tendency of the later language 
to make one of the two degrees, usually the comparative, do 
duty for both (e.g. 6 rewVepos Gen. xlii. 136". = the youngest of 
twelve brothers) 3 . The superlative from about the beginning 
of our era tends to be used solely with elative or intensive 
sense = "very 4 ," while "more" and "most" are both expressed 
by the comparative. 

In the papyri of the early Empire true superlatives are quite 
rare, but superlatives used in elative sense as complimentary 

1 Upaecri Sir. iii. iS N ca . 

2 But this use of 6 fiu/cpos is idiomatic, as Dr Moulton points out, 
occurring frequently in papyrus letters: it has an affectionate tone. 

3 Blass N.T. § n, 3. 

4 As in modern Greek, Thumb Haudbuch 50. 



1 82 Comparison of [§ 12, 13 — 

epithets for governors etc., like Ital. -t'sst'mo, abound : the most 
frequent are ptyurTos, KpdriaTos, XapTrpi'iraros, lepararos. 

14. In LXX superlatives in -tcitos are not so rare as in 
N.T., where Blass finds only two instances, but they occur for 
the most part in the literary books (Wis., 2 — 4 Mace, Prov. r 
Est.) and often in elative sense. 

The following exx. have been noted in the less literary- 
books. Genesis has several true superlatives : cppovipooraros 
(ndi'Tav) iii. I, eVSo^oYaroy (irdvrav) xxxiv. 19, vecoraros xlix. 22 
(for the more usual vfairepos). In Jd. xi. 35 A ipTreirobeaTdTr) (!) 
ical aefxvoTciTr] the text is a curious perversion of ipireivobea-Td- 
rrjicas £pe (see Field's Hex.). 'Y^Ao-rdr^ (koi peydXr/) 3 K. iii. 4 
(elative). 'O piKporaros 2 Ch. xxi. 17 (true superlative: usually 
6 piKpos in this sense, as ib. xxii. 1). 

In the literary books forms in -eararos are common: Wis. 
alone has ddpavea-raros xiii. 19, dXr/deo-Taros vi. 1 7, dmp'iijTaros 
xvii. 19, nreXeo-rttroy iv. 5 A, dcppovea-Taros xv. 14 BA : Prov. has 
e.g. d(ppov€(TTaTos ix. 16, x. 18, xxiv. 25, fTrKpavtcrTara xxv. 14. 
4 M. (and to some extent 2 M.) is fond of using comp. and 
superl. of compound words, e.g. TrepieKTiK^Taros, 7roXvrpoTrd>T(pas 
(-Taros), (piXoTtKv tor epos, dvorjTOTfpov. Job (vi. 1 5. xix. 14) has oi 
eyyvTarol pov, for which the Other books write (ot) eyyiard pov,, 
e.g. ^ xxxvii. 12 : both are classical. 

15. The termination -mrcpos does not occur, unless it is to 
be found in TrXr/o-urepov ( = -air.) 4 M. xii. 3 X : TrXr^a-iorfpov of V* 
shows the tendency to revert to the normal form : nXrjmtcrTepov 
of A has other late attestation and may be right. 

16. The Attic rule as to long or short o before -repos 
-Tcn-os is usually observed. The vowel preceding mute + nasal 
(liquid) is regarded as short, contrary to Attic practice, in 

<pi\oT€Ki'UTepa.L 4 M. XV. 5 AnV* : cf. eAatppwrepos Job vii. 6 
B*K*, ix. 25 B*. Phonetic changes (<n = e, interchange oft, 
I and o, w) account for other irregularities. The latest LXX 
book again affords an example : avSpeiwrepa 4 M. xv. 30 AV* 
(» dvSpiwr.): similarly 7raAaiwTepwv Est. E 7 A (-or. Bk) and 
7raXaiwTaTos 3 times in the colophon at the end of Esther 
written by correctors of « (strict Attic 7raAaiT£pos -cuVa-ros). 
The converse is seen in o-wcroTcpos Gen. xli. 39 E, Kupidrai-os 
4 M. i. 19 A: cf. d.6\eiOTdrr]<s 3 M. v. 49 A. 



§ 12, iy] Adjectives 183 

17. Adjectival comparative and superlative of Adverbs. 
Forms in -repos -tcito? are now augmented by some new 
adjectives — i^wTtpos -raros, eowcpos -toitos 1 — which replace to 
some extent the classical adverbial forms in -repm -to.™. Of 
these latter the only exx. are t^v Batflwpap. ttju dviarepw 3 K. 
x. 23 B and xaTwrara read by « in Tob. iv. 19, xiii. 2, by B 
in * cxxxviii. 15, by A in Job xxxvii. 12. For the comparison 
of the adverb the kolvtj preferred neut. sing, and plur. forms in 
-repov -tolto. : the former occur in LXX, where they are hardly 
distinguishable from the simple adv. or prep. — dvwrepov (= avw) 

L. xi. 21 e^€t (TKiXr) avwrepov twv 7robtoV, 2 Es. Xlll. 28 : Karto- 
repov (= kolto)) Gen. XXXV. 8 AE diriOavev 8c A. /ca-r. Batf^A. : 
co-ojt€/3ov (=€o-w) Ex. xxvi. 33, L. xvi. 2, 12, 15, 1 K. xxiv. 4, 
Is. xxii. 1 1. 

The use of the comp. here may be accounted for by the 
presence of \0 in the Heb. : dvuTepov^WO, kcit. = nnj"ID, 

60-. = rvao. 

Whereas the comparative usually encroaches upon the sphere 
of the superlative, the reverse takes place with irpwTos, which, 
besides being used in superlative or elative sense, begins to 

supplant 7rpoTepos. So e.g. Gen. xli. 20 KaTetpayov at €7n-a /3oe? 
at at(rxpat...Tas 7rpwTas tcls KaXas, Ex. iv. 8 tov <njp.ei.ov tiw 
TrpwTov...Tov o-rjp. toi) cVxaVou {former and latter), xxxiv. I 8vo 
ir\a.Ka<s XiOivas Ka#ws Kat at 7rpu>Tai (cf. 4), Dt. X. I ff., Jd. XX. 
32 B ws to 7Tpwrov (= A kol6w<; Zpirpoo-Oev), Tob. xiv. 5 ^ oikoSo- 
prjcrovcTiv tov oIkov nai oi^ ojs tov 7rpwT0V (= BA ov% otos o 

7rpoT€pos). IIpdTcpos, though not half so frequent as 7rp<oTos, is 
still well represented, mainly by the adverb (to) irpoTtpov and 
by the classical use of the adjective in place of the adverb, as 
in Ex. X. 14 TrpoTcpa avrrj<; ov yeyovev TotavT-q d/cpts Kat p,€Ta 
Ta£>Ta k.t.A. This use of 7rp6Vepos = 7rpo may have assisted in 

1 Apparently first found in LXX : avurepos -tcltos, Kardirepos -raros 
have some classical authority. Cod. A has a similar comparative adj. from 
€vt6s: Est. iv. 11 ttjv avXriv ttjv cvTorc'pav (eawrepav YjH). 



184 Comparison of [§ 12, 17 — 

producing 7rpwros = irp6repo<;. "Eo-xaTos is similarly used both 
for SUperl. and COnip. : Dt. xxiv. 3 yevrjTaL dvSpi irepco Kal ixmti](T7] 
ai'T7]v 6 avrjp 6 ea^aro 1 ;, Jos. X. 14 ovk £yh'€TO rjfiepa Toiavrr] ov$e 
to irpoTepov ov&e to ea^arov 1 : icr-^arov is used as a preposition 
"after" in Dt. XXxi. 27, 29, ecrxo-Tov tov davarov (n^s TeXevrrjs) 
fJLOV, ecr^. twv t]p.€pwv. 

"Yo-T«pos (apart from the adverbial varepov, e(p' vorepa), e'£ 
varipov) occurs once only (1 Ch. xxix. 29), where it is a true 
comparative : vararos ( = superl.) is also represented by a 
solitary instance (3 M. v. 49). 

18. In modern Greek the old forms in -iW -io-tos have 
been ousted by others in -Ttpos -raros (e.g. KaAin-epos, x e P ' TC pos 
for kolWiwv, x«'pwv) 2 . In the LXX we see but the beginnings 
of this transition. Aio-xpoYcpos (for ato-x<W) Gen. xli. 19 may 
be illustrated from a papyrus of iii/B.c. 3 The vulgar ayaflorrepos 4 
is confined to the late B text of Judges (xi. 25, xv. 2: 
A Kpeicrawv bis). 

19. ^ol\v has the comparative of the earlier period of the 
Kotrr' h to^lov, in W. xiii. 9, 1 M. ii. 40 : 2 Mace, alone has 
class. Oolttov (iv. 31, v. 21, xiv. n : used with positive or elative 
sense). 

TaxvTepov, found in papyri of ii/iii/A.D., has not yet made its 
appearance: nor does the LXX afford examples of double 
forms like /xeiforepos. 

20. Many of the classical forms in -uav -io-tos are retained, 
but few are frequent, and the superlatives are mainly confined 
to the literary books and used in elative sense. 

1 Cf. more doubtful cases in R. iii. 10, 2 K. xiii. 15 B (/xeifav i) Kan'ia. 77 
iax- V V TrpuTT), a gloss, possibly of Christian origin), Hg. ii. 9, Dan. 06 
xi. 29. A sentence like (2 M. vii. 41) e<rx&T7) 8e twv viwv y\ p.i\T-qp dTeXevTrjaev 
has of course classical warrant. 

- Thumb Handlmch 51. 

:i Mayser 298. The superl. aurxtaTos occurs as a variant for ex^'cros 
in Est. E. 24 A, 3 M. iii. 27 V. 

* 'Aya.9uiTa.Tos in an undated letter (a.d.), Par. xviii. 3. 



12, 2d] 



Adjectives 



185 



UXeicou is frequent, often 
without comp. force as in 
the common phrases rjpepas 
irXflovs L. xv. 25 etc. ( = 17^. 
noXXds elsewhere) and eVl 
-Xdov ( = eVi ttoXu) ^1.4 etc. 

Mei^ow occurs sporadi- 
cally. 

"Ap(e)ivov only as a v.l. of 
K in Est. E. 2 ( = BA /leifoi/). 

BfXricov is fairly frequent 
(several times in Jer. /3). 



S 



{ 



Kpeiaa-atv is the most fre- 
quent comp. form of dyados. 



'EXdcra-cov is used in Pent. 
(Gen. i. 16 etc., Ex. xvi. 17 f., 
L. xxv. 16, N. xxvi. 54 etc.) 
and the literary books. 



"Hcr<r(ov Is. xxiii. 8 and in 
literary books (usually in the 
phrases ovftev [oix] ?)ttov). 

Xeifjwv 1 K. xvii. 43 B and 
literary. 



nXf to-Tos occurs sporadically 
as a true superl., or in elative 
sense (e.g. Sir. xlv. 9 xP v<TOli 
ko)8o><tu' irXelarois, 1. 18 ev 
irXdarw oiKco R.V. "in the whole 
house" [rfx^ should perhaps be 
read], Is. vii. 22 irXfio-Tov yaXa). 

Me'-yta-ros is literary and 
usually elative as an attribute of 
deos (e.g. 2 M. iii. 36, 3 M. i. 9 V). 

"Apio-Tos literary and elative 
(4 M. vii. 1). 

BeXrio-ros in Pent, and literary 
books (Gen. xlvii. 6, 1 1, Ex. 
xxii. 5 bis : 2 M. xiv. 30, 3 M. 
iii. 26). 

Kpancrros occurs as a true 
superl. in literary books (2, 3 M.) 
and elsewhere: 1 K. xv. 15, ¥ 
xv. 6, xxii. 5, Am. vi. 2. 

'EXu^icrros- also is not con- 
fined to the literary books : as a 
true superl. in Jos. vi. 26 bis 
(opposed to 7rpcoToroKOS-), 1 K. 
ix. 21, 4 K. xviii. 24, Jer. xxix. 21 : 
as elative e.g. eXa^/orca £i'Xo>, "a 
diminutive piece of wood," W. 
xiv. 5. 

["Hkkttos is not used.] 



MaXXov is fairly common. 



Xeipurros literary, used as true 
superl. (Est. B. 5, 2 and 3 M.). 

"Exdicrros literary. 

MdXiara is literary (2 — 4 M.). 
'OXiyooros', apparently a koivij offshoot from ttoXXo<tt6s l (like 
ttoo-tos, eiKovTos), is fairly common in LXX, with the proper 
etymological meaning of "one of few," " attended by a small 
retinue," e.g. Gen. xxxiv. 30 oX. dpi iv dpidpa>, 1 M. iii. 16 
^fjXdfv 'lovSn$-...oXtyoo-ros-, but sometimes hardly distinguishable 
from oXiyos, "few," "inferior." The converse ttoXXoo-tos is 
classical in the sense of "one of many," "(a) very small (frac- 
tion)" or "one of 01 noXXol," "plebeian" : in LXX it occurs twice 
only and then with the opposite meaning of " great," " powerful " 
( = 7roXuf) : 2 K. xxiii. 20 dvfjp avros itoXXoo-tos epyois, Prov. v. 19 
(by conjugal fidelity) ttoXXocttos ear}. 

1 In Soph. Ant. 625 Jebb reads oXiyiaTov xp^ov. 



1 86 Numerals [§ 12, 21 — 

21. As regards the declension of comparatives in -wi-, the 
shorter Attic forms in -w -ov<s of ace. sing, and nom. and ace. 
plur., which show signs of waning in ii/i/B-c. 1 , are still well 
represented in LXX. 

BeAriW, iXdo-o-av, Kpelaacov have the shorter forms only in 
the cases concerned. BeXriovs Prov. xxiv. 40, Job xlii. 15, 
Jer. xxxiii. 13, peXrico ib. xlii. 15 N (the variants show the 
tendency to introduce the longer form : /3fXrta>i> B*, -iov A, 
-iova Q). Tov e'XdfTtra) Gen. i. 1 6, xxvii. 6, ovk iXdrrovs 2 M. 
v. 5, viii. 9, xii. io. T6irov...Kp(iTTo> Is. lvi. 5 (with v.ll. Kpelrrcov 1% 
Kp(e)tWcov KA, Kpia-a-ov Q), neut. plur. Kpeicrcra Prov. viii. 19 B 
(Kpicracov X, Kpiaaov A) and Kpeirrui Ep. J. 67 B (KpiWcoi' A, 
Kpeiaa-ova Q), Kpctaaovs Prov. xxvii. 5. — On the other hand 
rJTTw has the longer forms only: r/rrova Ep. J. 35, proves Job 
xx. 10. — In other words both forms occur. UXeiu>v has nXeiova 
in sing, and plur. (once only the shorter form : 1 Es. iv. 42 -n-Xeico 
tu>v yeypappivcov) : but vXelovs is usual (constant in the phrase 
Tjpepas nXeiovs), though -n-Xfioves -as occur: 2 Ch. xxxii. 7, Jer. 
xliii. 32, Ez. xxix. 15, 2 M. xi. 12 (Dt. xx. 19 A, 1 Ch. iv. 40 A, 
Ep. J. 18 A). Mei£oves -ovas -ova (neut. plur.) only are attested: 
the ace. sing, is p.d£ova in Dan. O xi. 13, ix(f)l(a> in 3 K. xi. 19 A 
(rrjs peifa' 2 B) and probably this stood in 4 M. xv. 9 (pelfav AV, 
pi£ov H*, pi£u) N ca ). Xeipcov has ace. sing. x e ^P ova 3 M. v. 20 
(in 1 K. xvii. 43 OiV^', dXX* rj \ ( ^P a>2 kwos, the nom. must be 
meant): the neut. plur. is ' x^ipova in W. xv. 18, but x^P" 
ib. xvii. 6. 



§ 13. The Numerals. 

1. Avo in LXX, as in the papyri 3 , N.T., and the koiv// 
generally, has gen. 8vo and dative Svo-i(v), on the analogy of 
Tpi<ri(v). The indeclinable use of 8vo for both gen. and dat. 
(as well as ace.) has classical authority: 8v<jl(v) was, however, 
the normal dative from Aristotle onwards. Avo for dat. occurs 
in LXX in the A text of Jos. vi. 22 (AF), xiii. 8, Jd. xv. 13, 
3 K. xxii. 31, and so apparently ib. xvi. 24 BA (iv 8vo TaXavruv 
dpyvpLOv): cf. Sir. xliv. 23 iv (pvkais . . . Se'/ca 8vo. The old dual 

1 Mayser 298 f. : the Atticists gave them a new lease of life. 

2 The -w forms are often used (like -nr\ripr)s, rjfjLi<rv) indeclinably : 
Moulton Pro/. 50. 

3 Mayser 3^ f. (from end of ii/ii.c). 



§ 13, 3] Numerals 187 

is preserved in two literary books in the debased form, found 
in Polybius and the Atticists, S^tv (§ 6, 37): 4 M. i. 28 kV 
(8voiv A), xv. 2, Job ix. 33 A = xiii. 20 A Svetv 8e p.01 xp( e ) l ' a ( or 
XPWV Bs * in tne Iatter P assa g e > meaning apparently " treat " or 
"indulge me in two ways"). 

2. For the usual declension of nom. and ace. of reWapes 
in the LXX uncials viz. : 

N. Tccrtrapes Tecrcrtpa, 
A. Teao-apes Teacrepa, 

see §§ 5, p. 62, 6. 2, 10. 15. The gen. and, as a rule, the dat. 
take the Attic forms (Tto-o-dpwv, TeWapcri(v)). Assimilation of 
syllables, apparently, produces the spelling of the dat. as ripa-ap- 
aiv in the opening chapters of Amos in Cod. A (i. 9, 1 1 , ii. 1 ) : the 
same MS has the metaplastic Teaadpois once in Ez. i. 10 (but 
TeWapcri twice in same v.): the alternative dat. riTpacnv (poetical 
and late prose) 1 occurs once in Jd. ix. 34 B Terpaxriv apneas. 

3. To express numbers between ten and twenty the 
classical language usually placed the smaller number first. So 
always IvSeica, 8w8f«a, the composite forms attesting their 
antiquity: the component parts of the higher numbers were 
linked by Kai (rpeia- KcuSe/ca etc.). But, in certain circumstances, 
viz. where the substantive stood before the numeral, the order 
was reversed, the larger number preceding : the insertion or 
omission of the copula was optional. In the xotvij the second 
method (without copula) prevailed and in modern Greek, for 
numbers above twelve, has become universal. It was natural 
that the order of the symbols (ty' etc.) should ultimately 
determine the order of the words when written in full. But 
cVSe/ca (mod. Gr. Ivt.) SwSckci had taken too deep root to be 
dislodged and have survived to the present day. 

A«K<i8vo was a short-lived attempt to displace the latter, 
which appears to have been much in vogue in the Ptolemaic 
1 Exx. in Cronert 199 note 2. 



1 88 Numerals [§ 13, 3- 



age 1 . In LXX, as against numerous examples of SwSe/ca, S«/<a8uo 
has good authority throughout two books only, viz. 1 Chron. 
(vi. 63 BA, ix. 22 BA, xv. 10 BA, xxv. 9 ff . B : so 2 Ch. xxxiii. 
1 BA, but elsewhere 8a>8.) and Judith (ii. 5, 15, vii. 2): else- 
where it receives good support in 2 Es. ii. 6 BA, 18 BA, Sir. 
xliv. 23 BA and occurs sporadically in B (Ex. xxviii. 21, 
xxxvi. 21: Jos. xviii. 24, xxi. 40: 4 K. i. 18 a: 1 Es. viii. 35, 
54, 63) and, less often, in A. 

For ' the teens ' the LXX uncials attest the two classical 
modes of expression (173(c) io-<«u8eKa, S£KaTp(e)is etc.) in about 
equal proportions, the latter slightly preponderating. 

Occasionally in Genesis, contrary to classical precedent, the 
copula is inserted with the latter order of words: Gen. xiv. 14 
8tna Kat okto) AD, xxxi. 41 8. kol T€a<r., xxxvii. 2 8. koi eirra E, 
xlvi. 22 8. Kill ewia D : so 3 K. vii. 40 A, 1 Ch. xxvi. 9, 2 Ch. xxvi. I. 

A, where it does not use 8«ae'£, always writes e£ <a\ 84<a, as 
distinct words : B, except in N. xxxi. 46, 52, writes eKK<u'§e/ca. 

4. For numbers above ' the teens ' there is no fixed order 
in LXX, but the tendency is to write the larger number first. 
The literary 2 Mace, employs irpos with dative for large numbers 
e.g. V. 21 OKTaKoaia irpbs rots ^lAiot?, V. 24 V fticrp-vpiots irpbs 
tois x 1 ^"? x - 3 1 8icrp.vpLoi 7rpos tois TrevTaKO(TLOL<; etc. (poetical, 
cf. Aesch. P.V. 77 4 T/jtTos...7rpo? 8e« aX-Xaia-iv yovat?, Soph. 
Track. 45). 

5. The ordinals retain their place 2 . The strict Attic forms 
to express 13th — 19th — separate declinable words, TptVos kcu 
Se'/caros etc — have been entirely supplanted by the composite 
words Tpio-KaiScWros etc. (rare in classical Greek, possibly of 
Ionic origin). The former only survive as variants in 2 M. 

xi. ^^ V Tre/XTTTr] koI 8eKa.Tr), Est. IX. 2 I N c ' a ivkp-ivTrpr kou SeKaTT/i' 3 . 

1 Mayser (316) notes only one example of dwdeKa (157 B.C.). On the 
other hand in the ostraca dwdeKa predominates (Moulton Pro/.- 246). Cod. 
Bezae writes only Mko. 5vo or t/3 (ib. 96). 

" All above rerapros have disappeared from the modern language. 

3 The -re of irevre, recalling -tos, perhaps accounts for the tendency in 
this case: cf. 1 Ch. xxiv. 14 7re/x.TrTeKai5eKaTos sic B*. 



13, 7] Numerals 189 



The form TpwrxatSeKaTos, always so written in LXX, for the 
more correct rpcia-K., has, by analogy, produced the still more 
impossible form Teo-o-apto-KcuSeKaTos (2 Ch. xxx. 15 B* b A and 
constantly elsewhere in one or more correctors of B) for tcct- 
crapeo-KcuSeKaTos. The ordinals between 20 and 30, 30 and 40 
etc. are expressed in Attic by two ordinals connected by kcu 
(Seirrepos kcu eiKo<rrd§ etc), except for els kcu (eiKOcrTos) : the 
cardinal is similarly used in this instance in LXX (1 Ch. 

Xxiv. 17 6 €tS KCU €lKO(TTO?, I M. VU. I £TOUS €1'09 KCU 7Tei'Tr]KO(TTOV I 

and so, with irregular order, Jer. lii. 1 (Ikocttov kcu e^os erofs, 
2 Ch. xvi. 13 A), but we also meet with 3 K. xvi. 23 rptaKocrroj 

KCU irpcoTU), I Ch. XXV. 28 CIKOCTTOS 7TpWT09, 2 M. Xiv. 4 7TpWTO) KCU 

€ko.too-to3 kcu 7revTr]KO(jT<2 (where the order is peculiar). In 
these compound ordinals the smaller number usually precedes 
as in Attic, but in the later portions of the LXX, there is a 
marked tendency to reverse this order, and thus to bring 
cardinals (whether expressed by words or symbols) and ordinals 
into line 1 . 

6. To express certain days of the month (the 4th, 20th and 
30th) classical Greek employed, in place of the ordinals, the 
substantives -reTpa?, £ik<xs, rpiaKas. These are retained in the 
LXX proper 2 , but appear to have been unfamiliar to Theodotion 
and his school : Dan. © x. 4 = 2 Es. xix. 1 ev tfp-epa «lKoo-Trj ko.1 

TerdpTT] tov fx-qvos (contrast e.g. 2 M. xi. 2 I Aios KoptvOcov T€Tpa5i 
kgu etKacu). 

Tfrdprri appears also (beside duds) in Dan. O x. 4, 3 M. vi. 38, 
dKovTy is read by B in 2 Ch. vii. 10 (eiVaSt A). 

7. The numeral adverbs continue in use: for e7rraKi (-kis) 

1 E.g. 4 K. xiii. 10 eV £ret Tpia^cocrry koX e^ddfiiji. So regularly in 4 K., 
2 Es., Dan. (x. 4) and Jer. lii. (verses 1 and 31): also Jos. xiv. io, 1 M. 
i. 10, 20 (the dates in the later chapters follow the Attic order), 2 M. i. 10 
and (without copula) xi. 21, 33, 38. 

3 Tpia/cds 2 M. xi. 30, the other two frequently. Terpds in ^ xciii. tit. 
is used of the fourth day of the week, rerp&di cra/3/3dTu>i> (-tov), as in modern 
Greek. 



190 Pronouns [§ 13, 7 — 

see § 9, 9. Aquila and his school employ in place of them 
the plural of /ca^oSo? to render the Heb. D'DVB (lit. strokes, 
beats): from this source in "LXX" come 3 K. ix. 25 A Tpcts 

Ka^dSous, Eccl. vii- 23 b KaBohov% Tro\kd<i (= 7rA.€icrTttKis in the 

doublet 23a): cf. in mod. Greek \*.w. <f>opd, i-pci? pope's. 

§ 14. Pronouns. 

1. Personal. The 3rd pers. is represented by avrov etc., 
including (at least in some books) the nom. (tiros, alroL 

'ATrepi-^ds |x«s els fiddi) Jon. ii. 4 N, if not a mere slip, may be 
compared with ovtc*(s) etc. I have not noted in LXX any exx. 
of the longer modern Greek forms eav etc. : per eaov occurs in 
papyri of ii/A.D. (OP iii. 528, 531, Par. 18). 

2. Reflexives. 'Efxavr^v), o-eavr(ov), iavr(ov) remain in 
use, the last two usually in the longer forms preferred by the 
Koivq : the alternative Attic forms aavrov, avrov, which are 
absent from the N.T. (Blass 35), continue to be written in the 
papyri down to about the end of ii/B.c. 1 , and are sporadically 
represented. in the LXX. 

2aur(o£i) in Pentateuch only in Dt. xxi. 1 1 B (cf. xix. 9 
Trpoc9Hceic&Y Tai B* vid -, -aas cravra Swete) : frequently in the 
Kingdom books, 1 K. xix. 1 1 B, 2 K. ii. 21 B seme/, 3 K. iii. 5 B, 
1 1 BA bis, viii. 53 bis (BA, B), xvii. 13 BA, xx. 7 BA, xxi. 34 BA, 
4 K. iv. 3 B, vi. 7 B, xviii. 21 BA, 23 A, 24 B : Ez. iv. 9 B seme/ 
(c'&ytoo sic), xvi. 52 Q, xxxiii. 9 B, xxxvii. 17 BQ, xxxviii. 7 Q : 
elsewhere ¥ liv. 11 B, Tob. vi. 5 X, Sir. xiv. 11 A, Is. viii. 1 X. 
For avrov etc. we find e.g. 2 Ch. xxi. 8 B e<p' avrovs, 1 M. iii. 
13 A, ^e#' ai/Toii (peT air. HV) : of course in many cases it is 
uncertain whether air. or air. is intended. 

'EavT(oi>) for 1st or 2nd pers. sing, is an illiteracy found 
occasionally as a v.l. : eavTov = e/j.avTov Job xxxii. 6 C, eaurw = 
a-favra Job x. 13 A* fort N ca , Is. xxi. 6X (see Moulton Pro/. 87). 

The corresponding use of the p/ura/ iavrwv, on the other 
hand, is normal in the kolvij. It had already since c. 400 B.C. 
supplanted <r<f><Zv avrwv 2 , and from ii/B.c. in the papyri further 
1 Mayser 305 ff. " Meisterhans 153. 



§ r4> 3] Pronouns 191 



supplants 77/i.wv and v/auji' avTw 1 . So in LXX the 1st pers. 
plur. is always and the 2nd pers. usually kavr(dv). The 
Hexateuch, however, a production of iii/B.c, retains the old 
ifi((av) ou»7-(a>v) together with what appears to be a transitional 
form v|Aiv eavrots: the latter might be merely due to mixture of 
readings, but its frequent attestation and the limitation of this 
form of reflexive to the dat. of the 2nd plur. are against this. 

'Eavr(uv) : (a)=^/i. air. : Gen. xliii. 22, Jos. xxii. 23 (avrols B), 
1 K. xiv. 9 etc. : (b) = vp.. air. Ex. xix. 12 BA, Dt. i. 13 BA, Jos. 
iv. 3 F, ix. 17 BA and frequently in later books. 

'Yficov <ivt£>v Ex. xxxv. 5 and frequently in Dt. in the phrase 
f^apels (ii(f>av ids) e£ vpu>v avrStv (rov rrovrfpov): Dt. Xlll. 5) XVll. 7> 
xix. 19 (-apelre AF), xxi. 9, 21, xxii. 21, 24, xxiv. 7, cf. Jos. vii. 12 
(e£dpr)Te) : the Heb. "P"lpD " from thy midst " if literally rendered 
in a-eavTov would have conveyed another meaning, that of 
exorcism. 

'Yp.lv avTols with variants vp.lv iavrots and eavrols. Ex. xix. 
12 F vp.. eavr., XX. 23 a vp. air. B (eavr. AF), 23 b vp. air. A (vp. 
4. BF), xxx. 32 ov TToirjBrjo-eTai (A 7701770-6x01) vplv eavrols BAF, 
xxx. 27 vp- avr. BF (vp,. e. A): Dt. iv. 16 and 23 vp. e. B (vp. 
air. AF): Jos. iv. 3 dpa vplv avr. AF (ap.a vplv kcli avrols B), 
ix. 17 F vp.. avr. (eavrols BA), xxii. 16 vp. i. B (eavrols A), xxiv. 
15 vp. e. B (vp\. avr. A). [The following are not reflexive: Jos. 
vi. l8 i/pels avroi B (vpels AF) "even you": 2 Ch. xx. 1 5 ra8e 
Xeyei Kvpios vp.lv avrols "to you" Heb. D71N DD 1 ?. DflN forming 
part of the Lord's words.] 

3. Demonstratives. Under Accidence there is little 
to note. Outos and Udvo% are used regularly: oSe is much 
commoner than in N.T., most often in the phrase rahe Aiyei 
Ku'/atos and the like, but also elsewhere, in the Pentateuch with 
correct deictic force idiomatically rendering Heb. n$fi=votd, 
e.g. Gen. 1. 18 o"8e ^/xeTs o-ot otfccVai: but it is going over to the 
literary class and in some books is used incorrectly for ovtos. 
The intensive -t with ovro<i is unrepresented, but wvi occurs in 
literary books (Job, 2 and 4 M., * xvi. n, xliii. 10). 

1 Mayser 303 : the beginnings of this use of iavruv go back to Attic 
(ireek. Polybius never has the old forms but only avrQv avrovs (for rst and 
■2nd pers.) and iavrois (2nd pers.): Kalker 277. Mayser cites no exx. of 
reflex. 1st and 2nd plur. in any form for iii/B.c. 



192 Pronouns [§ 14, 4 — 

4. Relatives. "Os rj o is frequent: oo-ris 171-is o,™ (fem. 
hctic Jer. vi. 8 «) is less so, and the distinction between the 
pronouns is not always rigidly observed. The latter, apart 
from 170-Tivos 2 M. v. 10, and the phrases ecus (^XP L ) ° T0V > * s 
confined to the nom. sing, and plur. and the neut. ace. sing. 
o,n. The shorter forms are found only in the phrases quoted : 
the shorter forms of the interrogative and indefinite pronouns 
(tov, t<3, tov, tw) do not occur. "Oo-n-ep in neut. sing, and plur. 
is literary (5 times in all: in Lev. xxv. 27 read o v-7repex € <- with 
B ab , in Jos. xxiii. 4 €7T6p(p)i<£a with A, in 2 K. vi. 8 v-n-ep ov). 

5. Correlatives. The following occur, notos — toiovtos 
(toios 2 Es. V. 3: toioctSc 2 M. xi. 27, XV. 12) — 0105 — 677-0105 
(lit.) 2 M. xi. 37 and in the 'stage-direction' in Cant. v. 10 K. 
Ildo-os — to(tovto<; (toVu> /xaAAov Sir. xi. 11, xiii. 9) — 00*05. 
II?/A.tK05 Zech. ii. 2 bis, 4 M. xv. 22 — tt]\lkovto<; (lit. : 2 — 4 M.). 
IIora7rd5 only in Dan. O Sus. 54, where it keeps something of 
its original local meaning, -rot. tov ■n-apab'e.io-ov t6ttu>. (Ottoo-os, 
iJXlkos are unrepresented.) 

Toiovtos has neuter in -o (-ov 2 K. xiv. 13 A, 1 Es. i. 19 B) 
as also rrjXiKovTO'i : too-ovtos has neut. in -o in vernacular style 
(N. xv. 5, 1 M. iii. 17), in -ov in the literary books (Est. E. 7, 
11, W. xiii. 9, 2 and 3 M.): both forms are old. 

6. Words indicating duality as distinct from plurality are 
disappearing : ap.4>6Tepoi (not a/Ac/xo) and erepos alone are 
frequent da^^eVepos Prov. xxiv. 21). 'EKcrrepos is correctly 
used for " one of two " in Gen. xl. 5, Tob. s v. 3 (read eKarcpos 
tv), xi. 13 and in the literary books (so iKarepwOev 4 M.), in 
Ez. it appears to take the place of eKao-Tos : elsewhere exao-ros 
supplants it, eKao-Tos itself being replaced in the literal books 
by avOpomos or avrjp (p. 45). Ild-rcpos is supplanted by tis, 
appearing only in Job as an interrogative particle (7rdrepov). 



§ 15, 2] The Verb. General changes 193 

§ 15. The Verb. General Changes in Conjugation. 

1. The verbal system to a large extent remains unaltered, 
but in more than one direction shows signs of the shrinkage-or 
retrenchment and the reduction of what appeared to be super- 
fluous varieties to a uniform pattern which characterize the 
later language as a whole. 

Thus, the old three classes of verbs — barytones in -w, 
contracts, verbs in -/xt — have already gone far on the way to 
being merged into two, since the -fxt verbs have in the active 
in large measure passed over to the -co class, while the beginnings 
of a similar amalgamation of three forms into two may be traced 
in the occasional confusion in the uncials of contract verbs in 
-aw and -€w (§ 22, 1). 

The three voices remain as before, but a tendency to 
eliminate, as in modern Greek, from the middle the only 
tenses which discriminated it from the passive (1st aorist and 
future) may be inferred from the more extended use of the 
aorist passive of deponent verbs (atreKplO-qv, iyemjOrjv etc., 
§21, 6), and perhaps also from the partial substitution of the 
future active for the future middle which Attic writers preferred 
in certain quasi-deponent verbs denoting a physical action or 
an emotion (d^ovo-co, f3\£if/w, Oav/xdcro} etc., § 20, 3). 

2. As regards the moods, the optative, which is defunct in 
the modern language, is still commonly used to express a wish : 
other uses viz. with av in principal sentences (questions etc.) 
to express possibility and in subordinate clauses (conditional, 
final etc.) are rare except in the literary essay known as 
4 Maccabees, which uses it freely 1 . The conjunctive is still 

1 Further instances occur not only in literary versions or writings such 
as Job, Proverbs, i Maccabees and the Epistle of Jeremiah, but also in the 
Pentateuch (especially in comparisons with ws el or simply ihs), Psalms and 
elsewhere. The mood thus appears still to show some signs of life in the 
vernacular of the Ptolemaic age, whereas in N. T. writings it is always an 
index of a cultivated writer. In its primary use it is occasionally, especially 
in late texts, replaced by the conj., e.g. Ex. xxxiii. 13 yvwaTws l5o3 <re, 
Jd. ix. 15 B i^eXdrj wup...Kal Karacpdyri, Job xxxi. 40 A e^e\dri etc. 

T. 13 



194 The Verb. Genera/ changes [§ 15, 2 — 

frequent, but shows signs of shrinkage in the use of the 
indicative (imperfect and fut.) after particles such as lav, orav, 
Xva : in other connexions the mixture of conj. and fut. ind. is 
common, largely owing to changes in pronunciation such as 
the equalization of w and o. The imperative remains but, 
through the influence of the Hebrew, is often replaced in the 
second person by the future indicative. The infinitive (defunct 
in the modern language) is in vigorous life and shows no signs 
of decay, the anarthrous and the now popular articular form of 
it being both widely represented : the modern substitution of a 
clause with IVa (va) can hardly be paralleled from the LXX. 
The inf. and participle of the future are not often met with 
outside literary books. The verbal adjective in forms which 
have become stereotyped as adjectives (alveros "praiseworthy," 
SeKTo's, OekrjTos etc.) is not uncommon 1 : forms in -eov used as 
the main verb in the sentence seem to be limited to the 
Epistle of Jeremiah, which has vopna-Teov 39, 56, kXtjtcov 39, 
■yimcrriov 51, e/cSeKTeov 56: cf. avaXyj/jarTea 2 M. iii. 13. 

3. Turning to the tense system, we find new forms of the 
present evolved out of the perfect (yp-qyopiw etc.) and aorist 
(Kpvfiu)) : the partiality of the language for terminations of the 
present such as -rw (to-Tai/w, Xip.ira.vu} etc.) and its lavish 
creation of new verbs in -a£w and -i£w belong to the depart- 
ment of word-formation. The future drops certain forms now 
regarded as superfluities, and to some extent the limitation 
which Blass 2 finds in the N.T., viz. that one future now 
suffices for each voice, is found also in the LXX : i.e. e£a> is 

used to the exclusion of cr^o-ci), pivqaOrjcropLaL (not p.€p.vijaop.at.), 
crT7](T<j) and arycrofxai (not karrj^oi) : but (pavovfiou (Pent., Prov., 
Wis.) remains beside cpavyaofxai, and the fut. perf. is repre- 
sented in at least one instance (neKpa$op.ai s ). The most salient 

1 Hdura ra dpra vir avrwi> N. iv. 27 ( = 31 tQjv alpo/Mevwv vtt' avrQv) 
is noticeable. Wisdom has a large number of these adjectives, many of 
them new. 

2 N.T. § 14, 1. 3 Cf. KeK\rj<ro/j.ai, § 24. 



§ 1 6, i] The Verb. General changes 195 

alteration, however, in the tense system lies in the terminations 
and in particular in the encroachment of those of the istaorist 
into the sphere of the 2nd aorist. The new termination affected 
in the first place the 3rd pers. plur. where it took one of two 
forms: -ov became either -ocrav or -av. The LXX is perhaps 
the principal witness to the -ocrav forms which are found in 
abundance throughout the whole collection of books with the 
exception of a single late group: their rarity in the N.T. 
suggests that they were an earlier transitional form which 
made way later for -av. The -ocrav forms invaded the imper- 
fect as well as the aorist. The termination -av was eventually 
extended to all the past tenses : its use for -acn. in the perfect 
no doubt goes back in some instances to the LXX autographs, 
its employment in the imperfect, though attested, is probably 
attributable to later copyists. In a few instances an entirely 
new 1 st aor. replaced the old 2nd aor. (^a for 17'yayov etc.). 
In the passive correctly formed but unclassical 1st aorists and 
kindred futures arose, though in one group of words the 
contrary phenomenon appears, the substitution of new 2nd 
aorists passive for 1st aorists, probably out of regard for 
euphony (§ 21, 4). The periphrastic conjugation widens its 
range, partly but not entirely owing to the influence of the 
Hebrew original, the auxiliary verb being now employed with 
the present participle to represent the imperf., future and more 
rarely the present tense : periphrasis in the perfect goes back 
to the earlier language. 

The dual has disappeared from the verb as from all parts 
of speech. 

§ 16. Augment and Reduplication. 

1. Three main features under this head distinguish the 
modern from the classical language, viz. (1) the almost com- 
plete disappearance in the former of the temporal augment, 
(2) the consistently external position of the syllabic augment, 

J 3— 2 



196 Syllabic augment [§ 16, 1 — 

and (3) the disappearance of reduplication. The LXX illus- 
trates the movement towards the first of these changes : the 
second and third had hardly begun in the LXX period, but a 
few premonitory signs of them appear in some of the uncials. 

2. Loss of syllabic augment. The syllabic augment 
e on the whole retained its place in the Koivrj as it has 
also, to a considerable extent, in the modern language. The 
main exception to this in the kolvt} was the pluperfect, the 
only tense which contained both augment and reduplication. 
The kolvt], as Thumb remarks 1 , strove to obliterate the dis- 
tinction between these two, and ultimately reduplication 
disappeared from the language : in the pluperf. the presence 
of both aug. and redupl. was felt to be superfluous, and the 
augment, as the more easily detachable element, was the one 
to disappear. The active forms lost the augment sooner than 
the passive 2 . The internal and therefore less conspicuous 
augment in compounds was also, it seems, more often dropped 
than the initial augment in simple verbs. In the LXX MSS 
omission is frequent in the active, insertion is the rule in the 
passive 3 . 

Pluperf. act. The aug. is consistently retained in one word, 
eneTToideiv : Dt. xxxii. 37, Prov. xxi. 22, Job vi. 13, Zeph. iii. 2 BS, 
Is. xxx. 15, 32 (nciroidei B), Jer. xxvii. 38, xxxi. 7, xlvi. 18 (ne- 
Troideis N), Bar. iii. 17, Ez. xvi. 15 (kotcjt.), Sus. O 35, Dan. 
iii. 95. HinoiQa had come to be regarded as a present, and 

1 Hell. 170 " Die Koivr) strebte ganz allgemein darnach, die Grenzen 
zwischen Reduplikation und Augment zu verwischen, d. h. dieses fur jene 
einzusetzen." Wackernagel suggests that the loss of the aug. in the pluperf. 
may have been due to the influence of the considerable number of verbs in 
which the anlaut of perf. and pluperf. were identical, e.g. eiXijcpa ei\r)(ptti>. 

2 Owing, perhaps, to their rarer and more literary use. Cf. the longer 
survival of the old forms in the passive of verbs in -/xi (§ 23, 1). 

3 In the Ptolemaic papyri the passives always have the augment, the 
actives more often than not, Mayser 333 f. (320 ff.) : in papyri of the Imperial 
age the examples of omission increase. Polybius drops the augment in 
compounds, mainly in the active (only one ex. of omission in the simplex in 
Books I — v, Wackernagel In Jog. Forsch. v. Anz. 1) : Josephus likewise 
usually omits the aug. in the pluperf. act. and inserts it in the passive, 
W. Schmidt 438. 



§ 1 6, 3] Syllabic augment 197 

produced a new aorist ineiroid-qa-a : iirciroLOei would be regarded 
as an imperf. like tridei. Otherwise the augmented forms are 
practically confined to literary books : eyeyoveiv always, Job 
iv. 12, x. 19 A, I M. iv. 27 XV, 2 M. xii. 39, xiii. 17: edeSoiKeiv 
Job iii. 25, xxix. 14 X*A (see below), xxxi. 35 (^8. A): iireirov- 
Oeicrav W. xviii. I. 

The aug. is omitted in /3e/3//Kfi W. xviii. 16, eVi-/3e/3. N. 
xxii. 22 BF: 7rapep-^e^XrjKei(rav Jd. vii. 12 A: ev-8e8i>Keiv L. xvi. 
23 (eWSuKet A), Job xxix. 14 BC (e8<=8oi>c(e)iv XA), Jdth. ix. 1 X 
(efifS. B), X. 3 BX, Est. D. 6 AX ca (eVeSfS. X*): (3e(3pu K ei, neTr^Ket 
I K. xxx. 12 : SeScofceiv 1 2 K. xviii. II, 3 K. x. 13 : ireiroirjK(i<Tav 
Bel © 13 : eTri-TreirTaiKei Est. vii. 8 : Tf^i'r;/cet Jd. xix. 28 A. 

Plaperf. pass. The aug. is always retai?icd in e'ye'y pcnrro 
Dt. ix. 10 (iniypanTo A, with loss of redupl.), 3 K. xx. 9, Ez. 
ii. 10, 1 M. xv. 15, 3 M. iii. 30: also in ineirXripaiTo 2 M. iii. 30 V 
(eVXr/p. A), vi. 5) ix. 7) cf. vi. 4 eTre7rXrjpovro A (neTr\r]pa>TO V) : SO 
o-ui/eKe'xuro 2 M. xiv. 28, ipip.vrfVTO W. XIX. IO. 

Omission occurs in vTropvrjpdTia-ro 1 Es. vi. 22 B (inrep-v. A) 
and in two instances where the pluperf. has lost its force : 
rerAfcrro 2 Es. vii. 12 B (-rat A), KeKoXkrjTo Tob. vi. 1 8 A 
(eKoWi'jdi] BX). 

Loss of syllabic augment in other tenses receives slight 
attestation in LXX : it is confined to words in which the 
syllable which should contain the augment is unaccented (cf. 
in mod. Greek 'lypaxpa but ypanj/afie etc.). 

Per/, anoa-jraa-pivoi Is. xxviii. 9 BX*. Aor. and impf. : ovs 
e^cnrocTTeiXaTe Jer. xli. 16 B*X* {i^inrea-r. cett.), pui^aro ib. 
iii. 8 X*, dvanakvyj/a ib. xxix. ii X*, Trotrjaev Is. xx. 2 X* (read 
TToirjcroi'), €7rirr]8fva-ev Est. E. 12 A, davpdcrdrjaav 4 M. xviii. 3 A* 
(cf. Tvapoipia^ev ib. 1 6 X = eVapot/i. AV). 

3. Form of syllabic augment : t|- for !-. In the 

Koivrj the temporal augment of Wikw was retained, although the 
present was now always written as #e'Aoj. So in LXX (as in 
papyri, N.T. etc.) we invariably find, beside present OeXoi, the 
past tenses r/OeXov, rjOeXrjo-a. The rj-, of which the true origin 
was no longer apparent, seems to have been taken for an 
alternative form of syllabic augment and was commonly 

1 So in papyri from ii/B.c. : the dropping of aug. began early in the 
uncompounded verb. 



198 Temporal augment [§ 16, 3 — 

attached in koivtj Greek to three verbs which had meanings 
akin to those of 6£\w, viz. /3ov\ofxai, Svvafiat, /iiAAw 1 . 

In LXX the aor. e^ovXrjdrjv is retained (except for an 
occasional v.l. : ^/3. Ex. x. 27 B a , 1 K. xxiv. 1 1 B, ¥ xxxix. 9 AB ab , 
lxxvii. 10 X ca , 1 M. vii. 30 A) : the imperfect is in most books 
e(3ov\6i*r]v, but rjfiovX. is strongly supported in Isaiah (i. 29, 
xxx. 9, 15 B*0, lxv. 12 X, lxvi. 4 XQ : against ej8. xxx. 15 B<\SAQ, 
xlii. 24, lxv. 12 BAQ, lxvi. 4 BA) and in 1 Mace. (iv. 6, v. 48, 
xi. 45, 49 j>'j8. K*»VJ xii. 14 [7/3. V], xv. 27 [do.]), and occurs as a 
v.l. in 1 K. viii. 19 B, 1 Ch. xi. 19 K* ^ cxiii. 11 X* Dan. e 
v. 19 quater B. 

In the case of 8vvafxai there is much stronger support for the 
augment ?/-. The aor. always appears as rjdwijdrjv (except for 
two variants with e'8. in A: Dan. 9 ii. 47, 2 M. ii. 6) or 
jBwda-drjv (e'8. twice only in B, 2 Ch. xx. 37, Jer. v. 4, 6 times 
in A) : in the imperf. there is greater fluctuation, but i}8vvdpr)v 
on the whole is preferred. 

The imperf. of /^e'AXa) is used twice only and the two literary 
writers appear to have differed as to the correct form : epeWev 
4 M. xvii. I AXV, but 7/zeXAev W. xviii. 4 BA (?/*. X). 

The analogy of -ijSwdfxrjv further produced wrep^Sum/xoKrav 
* lxiv. 4 B*n*T. 'HSeSotKciv Job xxxi. 35 A shows how this 
form of augment, which has survived in some modern Greek 
dialects (yfapa etc), spread to other verbs. 

4. Loss of temporal augment. The syllabic augment 
which took the invariable form e- was always much less liable 
to omission or alteration than the temporal which affected the 
different initial vowels of verbs in various ways. The changes 
in pronunciation which coincided with the spread of the kolv^, 
particularly the loss of distinction between 6 — rj (eu — rjv), o — w, 
and the pronunciation of the diphthongs as monophthongs 
(ol = v), hastened the extinction of the temporal augment which 
in modern Greek has all but disappeared (olkovo-cl etc.). In the 
LXX, however, as in the Ptolemaic papyri, the temporal 

1 The augment i\- with these verbs does not appear in Attic Inscriptions 
till after 300 B.C. (Meisterhans 169) : there is however a certain amount of 
authority for it in earlier literature (Kiihner-Blass I. ii. § 197). The old 
grammarians differed in their verdicts as to the correct forms. The Ptole- 
maic papyri have 17-, Mayser 330. 



§ 1 6, 4] Temporal augment 199 

augment is for the most part regular, except that it is generally 
dropped in verbs beginning with the diphthong ev: there is also 
some, but less, authority for the loss of augment in verbs with 
anlaut ol-. The omission began, it appears, with these two 
diphthongs : in the case of verbs with a single initial vowel, 
omission is rare except in compounds 1 . 

Verbs beginning with single vowels are in the main augmented 
regularly : d- becomes 77'- etc. The following exceptions may be 
noted. 

In a-: uXkorpiovTo i M. xv. 27 V vid . The equivalence of?) — i 
appears in the spelling of Cod. A : eXX6p,T]v Job vi. 10 (for 17XA.). 

In e-: iXaTTovtitdr] (-i]6t]) 3 K. xvii. 16 BA. e^eyeipoprjv 
V cxviii. 62 AT, i^ytpdr^aav Jer. xxviii. 38 Q* (elsewhere always 
e^y. and 77'y.). aTrfXevdepcddij L. xix. 20 F. (Triar(dpr]i') Job 
xlii. 3 C, Is. xlviii. 8 X, Jer. ii. 8 A (77V- has overwhelming 
authority), (wnvida-drjv (-acrdprjv) is read by B in Jd. vii. 13, 
by A (with other uncials) in the remaining (8) passages where 
the past tenses occur: r\v. is however attested in all these 
passages except Gen. xxxvii. 10. 'Eprjpow omits the augment 
in B in ipnpu>6ri 1 Es. iv. 45 and elsewhere in about a dozen 
instances in other MSS, including the compound with eg-(r}p- 
is usual). 'Eparav always has the augment : iirepatTav omits it 
in 1 Es. vi. 11 BA, Is. xxx. 2 B*Q, 4 times in A (Jos. ix. 20, 
1 K. x. 22, xxviii. 16, 2 K. xi. 7 iiraipmr.) and once in C 
(Eccl. vii. 11). 

In I- : for 18ov see 5 below. 

In o- : B omits the aug. in the following words (mainly com- 
pounds) : oXiyudr) Na. i. 4 B*Q: etjo\68pevev I Ch. xxi. 1 5 B*, 
egoXedpevdrjo-av ¥ lxxxii. 1 1 B*XRT : dvopBudrjaav Ez. xvi. 7 B*AI\ 
Karoprwdrj (sic) 2 Ch. xxix. 35 B*, KaropB. ib. xxxv. 10 B*A, 
16 B* : opoMcra Sir. xxvii. 24 B*X, Spoi&dr] Ez. xxxi. 8 BA : 
(gopoXoyovvro Tob. xii. 22 B : Trapo^vvdrj Hos. viii. 5 B*, Zech. 
x. 3 B*XAQr, napo^vvare Bar. iv. 7 Br: irapopyia-piv-qv Sir. 
iv. 3 BC. Similar instances in the other uncials (X especially), 
6\iyoyf/vxr](T€v 6poi(t>6rjv opyladrjv irapo^vva etc., occur mainly in 
the Prophetical group. "OfaXov as a particle introducing a wish 
never has the augment. 

Diphthongs, al- : the augment is sometimes omitted in 
Kamicr^vvopaL: K.aT(ucrx' JV @h a "!l K (tdcos KaTairrxvvBrjs Jer. ii. 36B*XA, 
cf. K(iTni(Txvr'6r]aeT(u.. .uxnrep Karai(rxvv6ri xxxi. 1 3 BA, similarly 
in X KaTeax( = ai(rx)yi'0n( a ' av ) 'h. vi. 15, x. 14, xxvi. 24, and 

1 As between ibt- (<p-) and &-, fy- (17-) and 17-, the evidence of the 
uncials for and against the writing of the 1 adscript has not been tested. 
We know from the papyri that it was dropped after w from ii/n.c. and after 
17 as early as iii/B.c. 



200 Temporal augment [§ 16, 4 — 

probably Is. liv. 4. Similarly di>Tavaip48r]v ^ cviii. 23 A (cf. 5 
below, at end). 

av- : rjv\lcrdT]v, T]v£;r]dr}i> etc. are regular: Cod. A affords an 
instance showing equivalence of ijv — fi, ei>A(£ero Job xxxi. 32 A. 
The verbs in av- derived from compounds generally take no 
augment: avrdpicrjo-ev Dt. xxxii. 10 BAF, avTopoXrja-a Jos. x. 1 B, 
4 B {rjyr. A bis), 1 M. ix. 24 AX four. V, and so BA in 
2 K. iii. 8, x. 19). 

eb : — evpav, cvprjica, evpedrjv etc. are practically universal as in 
the papyri, Mayser 336 f. : the older Att. r/v- is limited in the B 
text to rjvpia-KOv Ex. XV. 22 (with A), r)vpe6rj((rav) 4 K. xx. 1 3 (do.), 
2 Ch. xix. 3, Dan. 9 vi. 22 and is quite rare in other MSS, 
rjvpl<TK.eTo Gen. v. 24 ADE being the only strongly-supported 
ex. In compounds and words derived from compounds there 
is fluctuation, but the unaugmented forms eidoKTjaa, eiXoyqa-a, 
(Kar)ev6wa, evfypdvdrjv 1 etc. on the whole preponderate, except 
in (TTpoa)evxea-daL, in which {n poa-)ipj^dprjv etc. are usual, -ev^dpqv 
appearing sporadically in B (4 K. vi. 17 etc.), rarely in the other 
uncials. 

01: — the augment stands as a rule, but there are a con- 
siderable number of instances of unaugmented 01 which had 
now come to be pronounced quite otherwise than au (in the 
papyri these begin to appear in ii/B.c, Mayser 337) : e.g. iv fj 
KaToucrjaare L. xviii. 3 B, naTo'imaa xxiii. 43 B, KaroiKijaapev Dt. 
xxix. 16 B, oiKo86pr](r(av) N. xxxii. 34 B* 27 B*, Jos. ix. 3 B, 
TrapoicrTp(i])aev Hos. iv. 16 BAQ, and always oiKTelprjcra 4 K. 
xiii. 23 BA, * lix. 3, cii. 13. The insertion of the aug. in these 
words tended to obscure the etymology (oIkos etc.). 

5. Form of ' temporal ' augment : d- or t|-. The 

Attic augment cl in certain words beginning with a vowel (due 
to an original p, o- etc. in the anlaut : the augment is therefore 
strictly syllabic, If e = ee = €i) is for the most part retained in 
LXX as in the Koivr) generally, but in a few verbs begins to be 
replaced by ??-. 

'Eciw has (Att.) impf. eioov (3rd plur. Jos. xix. 48 a, 2 M. xii. 2 : 
but with loss of aug. and termin. -aav e&trtzv* Jer. xli. 10 BA 
[i'a<Tcip Q*, ecrcoaciv X]), aor. e'lacra (i M. XV. 14, 2 M. x. 20, Job 
xxxi. 34 [taaa A, aaa C]), aor. pass. Id6rj<jav ( = da6.) 3 M. v. 18 V 
(ldo-8. A). 'Eldio-pevrji' 2 M. xiv. 30 V is the usual form (nd. A) : 

1 The LXX Psalter was at an early time written in two volumes : the 
scribe of Part 1 wrote ~nv<t>p-, the scribe of Part 11 evcpp. : cf. p. 68. 

2 Not from thdeiv under which verb (as well as under (av) it appears in 
Hatch-Redpath. With the phrase in Jer. euxrav avrovs els Traldas cf. 
Aristeas § 14 eiaoev ds ttjv olKereiav. 



§ 1 6, 5] Temporal augment 201 

t'lcoda N. xxiv. 1 (lados B*F) etc. "EAko> (e|- e'0-) has (Att.) "Xkov 
-o/atjv, fiXavaa -vg6t]v with v.l. fjXuvo-as 2 Es. xix. 30 A, rjXKvaa 
V cxviii. 131 X*A. 'E£rjp\lr€i> ¥ civ. 30 (the only LXX ex. of 
past tense from eprrw) replaces Attic (f^)fipwva-a. The distinc- 
tion, generally observed in Attic Inscriptions, between augment 
(77-) and reduplication (el-) in the past tenses of epyd£opai is also 
the rule in LXX, the imperf. appearing only as dpya^opr/v Ex. 
xxxvi. 4, W. xiv. 8 {elpy. in correctors of B), and the perf. as 
e'lpyaapai : in the aorist the books diverge, npyacrdprjv being 
certainly the right reading in Job (xxiv. 6 B*X, xxxiv. 32 B*X*A) 
and perhaps in Hos. vii. 1 B* {elpy- B ab AQ), whereas flpyaa-dprjv 
is used in Isaiah (xliv. 12 bis, 15) and Psalms (vii. 14 e£-, 16, 
xxx. 20 e£-, xliii. 2, lxxiii. 12). (Et^oi/, eax ov as usual.) The 
aug. is dropped under the influence of the moods (as in N.T.) 
in dvedi) Jd. viii. 3 B, dcpedrjaav V xxxi. I BAR (-fid. X), but 
retained in TrapeiOrja-av 2 K. iv. 1 BA (no perf. act. attested : 
perf. pass. dv-7rap-fip.m regular). "Iftov 1 (Epic for fi8ov = f'Fi8ov) 
is very frequent in A and X : B usually writes d8oi> but in the 
Pentateuch also 'l8ov e.g. firibfv Ex. ii. 25, 18fv iii. 4 BA, 7 idcov 
i'Sov BA, etc. The LXX pluperf. of eo-r^ica usually appears as 
iarrrjKfiv, which is no doubt nothing but another way of spelling 
the classical fiarr]KfLv (the latter is usual in B in 1 — 4 Kingdoms 
and appears occasionally elsewhere : the correctors of the uncials 
usually restore it for tor.): i<rrr)Keiv (without aug.: Epic) occurs 
as a variant in Zech. i. 8 X* 1 M. xi. 38 AX dvd-, 3 M. iii. 5 V* 
tear-, 4 M. xvi. 15 A. 

There is overwhelming authority in the Ptolemaic papyri 
for the writing of et- for 17- in the perf. act. and pass, of one 
verb not coming under the foregoing category, viz. atpew. These 
tenses constantly appear as -eiprjKa -eip-qp-ai, so that, except by 
the context, they are indistinguishable from the perfect of epw 2 . 
On the other hand 77- (171-) is retained in the imperf. 3 This 
may, as Mayser holds, be a mere case of itacism (cf. for further 
instances § 6, 20), but the constancy of these forms in the case 
of this verb and the distinction between the perf. and the 
imperf. suggest that it is something more than an orthographical 

1 Analogy may have played a part in the Kotvrj use of this form : as 
ei-Kfiv was inf. of flwov, so, perhaps it was thought, idelv must be inf. of Z8ov. 
The Ptolemaic papyri have ddoi> throughout, Mayser 332 note 2. 

2 Mayser 127, 335 : he quotes 19 exx. of -et-, beginning in iii/B.C, one 
only of vpTjKevai. The latest exx. which I have noted are v<puipT)p.evwv (sic) 
OP ii. 282. 22 (30 — 35 A. D. ), avvdteipijfxei'ui' BU 1037. 10 (47 A.D.). 

3 Mayser 123. 



202 Double augment [§ 16, 5 — 

matter : the analogy of ctpyacr/xat rjpya^o/xrjv may very well have 
produced etp^eu beside -^povpnqv. The same forms of the perfect 
(pluperf.) appear sporadically in LXX in B and N and, in view 
of the evidence from the papyri, can lay good claim to 
originality: a^eiprjTai Ex. xxix. 27 B, KaOuprjTo Jd. vi. 28 B, 

KaOeLprjp.ii'a 2 Es. xi. 3 Bi*, d<t>eipr)To Jdth xiv. 15 N, dvuprjp.ivoi<s 
Jer. iv. 31 B, Ka9eip7]p.£vwv ib. xl. 4 N, Ka.6eip-rjp.eva 1 M. iv. 38 N. 

The classical forms are however more frequent in the uncials 
(e.g. 1 K. v. 4, xxi. 6, xxiv. 12, Is. ix. 4, xvi. 2) and are always 
written in A. The impf. is regular, jjpow, ypovprjv 1 K. 
xix. 2 etc. : the aor. pass, is -jjpedrjv with v.ll. dvepiBrj Dan. 
v. 30 B, dcpepedrj I M. ii. II V and with loss of aug. avTavaipedrjv 
^ cviii. 23 A. 

'Hprjvevaa Job iii. 26 A (elp. cett.) is merely itacistic : cf. the 
reading of the same MS dcpeiXavro in Ez. xliv. 10 for dcprjXavro 
of BQ ( = the Heb. "went far"). 

6. Double augment (temporal + syllabic). A certain 
number of verbs beginning with a vowel took in the older 
language a syllabic augment (accounted for by an original fr ) in 
addition to (or in place of) a temporal 1 . In the koivh these old 
anomalous forms had ceased to be intelligible and begin to 
make way for others without the syllabic augment : the latter, 
where retained, sometimes intrudes into the moods and the 
future. Four verbs in the LXX fall under this category 2 . 

(KaT)dYvv(jii keeps the Attic aor. act. Karea^a Zech. i. 21 
(part. KaTa£as 2 K. xxii. 35): the corresponding 1st aor. pass. 
Ka,Tedxdr)v Jer. xxxi. 25 replaces Att. 2nd aor. KaTedyrjv: the 
fut. Kard^w Hb. iii. 12 (and as v.l. elsewhere) is regular (no ex. 
of Kared$(o as in N.T.). 

'Avolyw (original verb ofdyw, then foiyw, K.-Bl. loc. cif.) 
(1) rarely retains the Attic aorist dveuga -wxOrjv, but usually 
still keeps the perf. part. pass. dvewypeVos, (2) sometimes 

1 Kiihner-Blass I. ii. § 198, 5. The temporal augment is explained as 
simply due to the two short syllables eo, ea appearing to the ear as lacking 
something of the sound of an augment : "man eo, ea nicht als augmentiert 
empfand." 

2 No ex. of a past tense from wvioixai occurs in LXX. 'EoXwi', ed\w\a 
as in Attic (Is. and Jer. a). 



i6,6] 



Double augment 



203 



supplements the double classical augment by yet a third 
(external) augment, but (3) normally employs for aorist the 
new forms rjvoi$a rjvol\6rjv. 





Class, double 


New treble 


New single 




augment. 


augment. 


augment. 


Aorist 


dvecotja 


7]vea>t;a 


rjvoL^a passim 




Gen. viii. 6DE, 


Gen. viii. 6 A, 


(including Gen. 




xxi. 19 AD, 


xxx. 22 DE : 


xxix. 31, xliii. 




xxx. 22 A, xli. 


M> lxxvii. 23 


21, xliv. 11) 




56: 2Ch.xxix. 


B*: 3 M. vi. 






3 : ^lxxvii. 23 


18 






B ab XRT 








(So Trpocreco^a 








Gen. xix. 6) 








aveco^ar/v 


rjveu>x&rjv 


T)voly6r)v passim 




Is. xxiv. 18 B 


Gen. vii. 1 1 : 
Sir. xliii. 14: 
Is. xxiv. 18 
NAQr: Dan. 
oe vii. 10 




Perf. act. 


avecoya 

Tob. ii. 10 B 
(in late passive 
sense) 






Perf. pass. 


dv((oyjj.evos 


Tjveaiyfiivos 


rjvoiyjjievos 




N. xix. 15 : Jos. 


3 K. viii. 29 B, 


Is.xlii.2oBXAQ 




viii. 17 : 3 K. 


viii. 52 : 2 Es. 






viii. 29 A : 


xi. 6 X: Is. 






2 Ch. vi. 20, 


xlii. 20 r : 






40, vii. 15 : 


Dan. vi. 






2Es. xi.6BA, 


10 A 






xvi. 5 : ^ v. 








10, xiii. 3 : Ez. 








xxix. 2 1 : Dan. 








e vi. 10 B 






Pluperf. 


avecpKTO 


(8i)rjuea>KTO 




pass. 


Job xxxi. 32 B 


ib. KAC 





204 Double augment [§ 16, 6 — 



The imperfect is only found in the later form fjvoiyov -6pr^v 
3 K. vii. 21, i M. xi. 2 (not Attic di/eVyoi/). 

'Opdw keeps the Attic imperf. ewpwv (iopa 4 M. iv. 24 A : 
the literary essayist no doubt wrote iwpa «V), but in the 
imperf. mid. loses both e and w in the compound Trpoopajp^v 
 xv. 8 (irpouip. B ab ). 'Ewpa/ca (which appears to be the older 
Attic form) 1 is universal in the Pentateuch (excepting iop. Dt. 
xxxiii. 9 B*F), is used in literary books (Dan. O, 1 Es., Est., 
2 M. : once in each) and has preponderant authority in 
Jeremiah — Baruch: in the majority of the books, however, 
kopaKa is strongly supported. The perf. pass, £u>pap.ai (rare in 
class. Greek) is so written in L. xiv. 35 (iop. F) and in the 

participles 7rapea>papeVos 3 K. X. 3, Eccl. xii. 14, VTrepeutp. Na. 

iii. 11: the late B text of Judges (xix. 30) has edparcu. The 
syllabic augment is dropped in the 1st aor. pass, wpdd-qo-av 
Dan. © i. 15 : otherwise this tense, which is not used before 
Aristotle, occurs only in the moods. 

'PMta. The LXX translators, in common with other 
Hellenistic writers, dropped the Attic syllabic augment (Iwo-a, 

euo-Orjv, ewa-d/xrji', eWpai), and wrote 3>o~a (cbr- e£-) Job xiv. 20 etc, 
(air- i£)u>crOr]v, d^wcra/r^v, (air- i£-)wo-fxa.L. The Only book which 

consistently has i- is 4 Kingdoms, where its use is a clear case 
of unintelligent Atticism, because the translator (or scribe), not 
content with e£eo)o-ev xvii. 21 and d-n-eojo-avTo xvii. 20, has 
introduced the augment into the inf. d7rewo-ao-6ai iv. 27 B and 
the fut. a7reajo-op.ai xxi. 1 4 BA, xxiii. 27 B (cf. 9 inf.) 9 . 

For the late double augment in compound verbs see 8 below. 

7. Reduplication. Peculiar forms. Initial p is re- 
duplicated contrary to Attic rule (Ionic has similar forms) in 
pepip.pat Jd. iv. 22 B, xv. 15 B (Ik-), Tob. i. 17 B, Jdth vi. 13 A, 

1 See Veitch s. v. for the claims of eibpaica. — eopaKa. The latter is certain 
in old Comedy and may have always been the vernacular form. 

2 The aug. appears also in e^ucrfi^vov 2 K. xiv. 14 B (this portion of 
1 K. was the work of the translator of 4 K., § 2) beside {£w<t/a. in the 
preceding and i^utaai in the same verse. 'AtreaiadrjvaL Lam. iii. 45 A is a 
further ex. of augmented inf. 



§ 1 6, 7] Reduplication 205 

Jer. xliii. 30 A : elsewhere class. lppi\x.\xa.i (or epL/x/xai, § 7, 39) 1 . 
The list of so-called 'Attic' reduplicated forms is enriched in the 
Koivrj by the addition of dyrjyoxa- (for Att. yx -), also, through non- 
pronunciation of intervocalic y, written ayrjoxa ayei'ox« dyeoxa 2 : 
this is the perf. used in LXX, spelt ayio^a in the uncials (later 
hands correct to dy-qoxa), Gen. xlvi. 32, L. x. 19 B*F (-ayeiox- A), 
1 K. xxi. 15 -ayeio'x. B* (-aytax- A), Tob. xii. 3 B*nA, Sir. 
xxv. 3 B* (-ayetox- «A), 3 M. v. 19 AV* 45 AV* : perf. pass. 
rjy^ai class. Dt. xxxii. 34 etc. 'O/xw^oKa (\I> cxviii. 106 n) is 
becoming obsolete and appears in various degenerate forms : 

djU-ioixeKa/xev I K. XX. 42 B* (w/aw/xok. A), 6fxu>[xex a Ez. vi. 9 A, 

6/u.w/xoxei^ Tob. ix. 3 BA. Mt/Av^o-Tei^ai appears thus with re- 
duplication (on the model of juifu^fuu) Dt. xx. 7, xxii. 23 ff., 
A once (xxii. 23) writing the more regular ifxvrjo-Ttvixeiri used 
by St Luke (no class, instance of the perf.). BefiXdo-TTjKa 
(Joel ii. 22) and Ke/cr^/xat are written, not the alternative class, 
forms without initial consonant. ©cAto has now perf. reOeXrjKa 

* xl. 12 (class. IQiXio 7]de\r)Ka). 

Loss of reduplication or substitution of augment. 

Reduplication, which has disappeared from the modern lan- 
guage, begins to show signs of decay in the koivt], being either 
replaced by the augment (on the model set by earlier Greek 
in the case of initial p or a double letter etc.) or suppressed 
altogether (cf. the pres. fiv-qo-KOfxai § 19, 3). The few LXX 
examples are practically limited to Codex A and doubtless do 
not go back to the autographs. 

Augment vice reduplication : eWSuKfi L. xvi. 23 A (ev8f8vKct 
B -SeSoiKet F), rj\«pa 3 N. iii. 12 A with jXipfiivoi ib. 3 BA (F 

1 Other words with initial p take epp. as in Attic : ddppayica (-clvko. B*, 
-a/caS) Prov. vii. 17 may be mentioned as being apparently the earliest 
instance of a perf. from palv (a: the earlier language avoided these perfects 
in -7/ca. 

2 Mayser 338. , 

3 Ei'\7?0<x of BF (M.T. Tinp?) is obviously right. The reading of A is a 
rather clever conjectural emendation, characteristic of this MS, made by a 
slight transposition of letters, under the influence of ol rjXififj.^ vol v. 3, with- 



206 Augment and reduplication [§ 16, 7 — 

rfXeipp.) (class. dXr]Xi(pa, dXrjXtppai), e7reypcnrT0 Dt. ix. IO A, 
KareftrjKtv 3 K. xx. 1 8 A, dnooXeKas Is. xlix. 20A, eXdXrjKa Ez. iii. 
IO A, Jer. xxviii. 41 X*, even-vpLO-pivov I M. xi. 4 A (ib. ivrreir. 
ANV), eTrXrjpcoro 2 M. iii. 30 A 1 . Suppression of reduplication 2 (as 
in mod. Greek pass. part. e.g. Sepevos): Xoyta-pevov 3 K. x. 21 A. 
Other anomalies of A are papciKpwKOTwv Jd. xviii. 22 (for 
pep.), (p€(fivXafjai I K. xxii. 23 (ire<p. B). Mepaprvpa) 2 Es. xix. 
34 B* is a strange reduplicated aorist (diepaprvpco cett). 

8. Augment and reduplication in composition. 
In verbs which are true compounds of the simp/ex and a 
preposition, the augment and reduplication still, as in Attic, 
occupy the internal position after the preposition (d-rr-^vTrjaa, 
Trpo-e-irope.v6p.r)v s etc.), except — an exception which applies also 
to Attic — where the simple verb had become obsolete or from 
the frequent use of the compound the fact of its composition 
had ceased to be felt, e.g. ixaOtvSov, iKaOiaa. There are as 
yet scarcely any indications of a movement in the direction of 
giving every augment an external position and, so to speak, 
stamping upon the forefront the fact that the tense is a past 
one, as in modern Greek (eKaTaXafia, iTrp6ae£a). "Hvoi^a. 
already referred to (6 sup.) is new, but lacks contemporary 
support from the papyri. 

In verbs derived from cofnpounds (TrapaavvOtTa, decomposita) 
of a preposition the latter was strictly inseparable from the 
remaining constituent, which did not generally exist as a 
simple verb, and an external augment was therefore required. 
Nevertheless, many, indeed the majority of these verbs, 
were, apparently through mistaken etymology, treated as though 

out regard to the Hebrew. A similar instance in this MS of emendation of 

the Greek occurs close by in v. 9, ixbvoi for pol (= v, M.T. y>). 

1 Is KeKAHK£N 4 K. iii. 10 A intended for a correction to ^kXt]K€v} 

2 Examples from the papyri, mainly in compounds, are given by Mayser 

34i- 

3 The only LXX instance of crasis with irpo- is irpov<pa.vq(ja.v 4 M. iv. 10 

AX (npoecp. V), see § 9, 11 for crasis in this book: elsewhere 7rpoe(3aXXoi>, 
Trpoepaxv? - e tc 



§ i6, 8] in composition 207 

they were true compounds and augmented internally 1 . The 
Koivrj, as illustrated by the LXX, adhered to Attic precedent 
and the following e.g. have classical support : 

'Ane8t]iJ.T](Ta (from aTrofypos) Ez. xix. 3 A, d-rveKoyrja-dp-qv 2 M. 
xiii. 26, evijSpevaa, iviOvprjBqv (evTeOvptjpevqs 3 M. i. 25), ivex el P 1 l (Ta i 
enedypqaa, eVfOTarouv I Es. vii. 2, (TreTtjftevaa, eirexeiprjcra, kcittj- 
yop-qaa (without syll. aug.), napevopovv ty cxviii. 51 A {iraprj- 
vopovv RT as from Trap-avopeiv), Trpoedvpqdqv, invunrTevaa. 

'Ei/e-yurfcrw Prov. vi. 3 (2 sg. aor. mid. from eyyvda) may be 
illustrated from the papyri, where the augment takes various 
forms 2 . Other verbs beginning with iv- have fluctuating 
augment as 
T]V€xvpao-a (-a£ov) Job xxii. 6, evexvpaaa Job xxxiv. 3 1 A, Ez. 

xxiv. 3 xviii. 16 

TjvvTrvidcrdrjv (-acrdprjv) ivvTrvidcrdrjv {-acrdp-qv) : 4 Slip, 

qvcoricrdpqv 2 Es. xix. 30 B evatricrdpqv ib. NA, Job xxxu. 

11 A, Jer. xxiii. 18. 

'E£€KA.?;cnao-a (as if there were a simple verb KX-qaid^w) is 
read by B in 1 Ch. xv. 3, 2 Ch. v. 2 etc. and by A, N, V else- 
where, and in view of the fact that in the unaugmented parts 
of the verb (imperat. and part.) we find no trace in LXX of a 
verb i£-€KK\r]<TidCo} with superfluous preposition, it is probable 
that efeKKXr/o-tao-a -dcrOrjv which the uncials read in L. viii. 4 etc. 
are scribal corruptions of e^e/cX^o-iao-a -daO-qv. 

On the other hand with initial augment we have consistently 
iirpovoixeva-a (Kareirpo-: correctly as the verb is formed from 

TrpovofXT], not directly from ro/xeva)) and Tve.TTpovojj.evjxivo% Is. 

xlii. 22 (AF alone have Trpoevo/jitvcra twice, N. xxxi. 9, Dt. 
ii. 35 : SO N c ' a in 1 M. i. 61) — i7rpo(p7]revaa (B -irpoecp-qTeva-a 
only in Sir. xlvi. 20 : A 4 times in 1 K. 3 , cf. 7rpoirecpr]Teva6ai in 
the citation from Origen in Q m s Ez. xxxii. 17) — i-n-apoijXLa^v 
4 M. xviii. 16 (TrapoifjL. n) — eVepiWeuo-a (class.). New verbs 
also tend to external augment : rjuwdiTiqcra (-xa) 2 Es. x. 2, 

IO etc., ^Karao-TaTTjo-av Tob. i. 1 5 B. 

1 See the list in Kiihner-Blass 1. ii. § 204 and Rutherford A T P-p. 79 ft". 

2 Mayser 343. 3 Also irpoety-qrevov 3 K. xxii. 12 A. 



2o8 Augment etc. in composition [§ 16, 8 — 

Verbs derived from compounds in which the first element 
is not a preposition usually in classical Greek take external 
augment 1 : so in LXX e.g. (pKoSo/x-qo-a (or oik., 4 sup.), eTrapprj- 

ataaaTo ^ xciii. I etc. : eSvo-roKr/tra, idvcr(pijp.rjaa, eBvaefaopovv are 

classical, but ev- followed by a short vowel has internal aug., 
evrjpto-Tijaa. always and tvy]yy€\iad[xr]v in the only occurrence 
of the past tense, ^ xxxix. 10: between rji- and ei- in other 
decomposita (eveppaiveiv etc.) there is fluctuation as in the direct 
compounds of ev. 

Verbs compounded of two prepositions tend to take two 
augments (cf. 6 sup.). The older language supplied a few 
standing examples of this e.g. (TTap)-qvu>y\ y )°' a - (always so written 
in LXX except in Jd. xiv. 17 B* Trapev^x-) an< ^ t-n-rjvwpOow 
(LXX has only iiravwpdwOr] 2 M. v. 20 A, i-n-avopO. V*), in 
addition to rjvetxp^v (so 3 M. i. 22 A), Tjveaxop-rjv ( Dut LXX 
dvecrx.ofxrji' [class, poetry] Is. lxiii. 15, lxiv. 12, 4 M. xiii. 27). 
The LXX has not carried much further this practice, which 
became common at a rather later date, and, as it is unrepre- 
sented in the Ptolemaic papyri 2 , the originality of the commonest 
LXX instance a7reKaTeo-rr/(o-cv) is open to question. 

Further instances are nape<aTede{v)To (-eTidepujv) Jer. xlvii. 7, 
xlviii. 10, 2 M. ix. 25 A: napecrvve^k^Or] V xlviii. 13 ATX ca , 
21 AT: eve Trepif7raTr](Tapev Jd. xviii. 9 A: KareSieiXavTO Jl. iii. 2 
N c - a (KaradieCX. cett). 

Reduplication + augment occurs in KeKar^papai 5 N. xxii. 6 
{naiKtiT. or nai tzar. F), xxiv. 9 (do. A), Dt. xxi. 23 AF (KeKarapa- 

1 With internal reduplication epLireTroSeaTdrriKas read by a group of MSS 
in Jd. xi. 35 (cf. the corruption of it in A) is a curious instance. 

2 Mayser 342. In LXX aireKareuT^ aev) appears in Gen. xxiii. 16, 
xl. 21, Ex. iv. 7 B*A, xiv. 27, Jer. xxiii. 8 (Hexaplaric), 1 Es. i. 33 B, 
Bel 39 : on the other hand with single aug. aTroKaTea-rddr) Dan. O iv. 
33, 34b, dvTLKaTiaTr){(xev) Jos. v. 7, Mic. ii. 8 A, iTriavveo-T7}(<Tei>) N. xvi. 19, 
Sir. xiv. r8, TrpoaKaredTrjaav Jd. xiv. 11 A. Similarly with single aug. 
vpoKarekd^eTo passim, etc. 

3 Cf. the external aug. in eKarapaffdix-qv 2 Es. xxiii. 25 B and double 
aug. eireKaTTipdaaTo *$? cli. 6 T : the aor. in LXX is elsewhere the class. 
KaTT]paffdp.7]v. A curious instance illustrating the insufficiency in v/a.D. of 
internal reduplication is eirpocKiK\-qr at Ex. v. 3 F. 



§ I7 ; i] Verbs in -fl. Terminations 209 

fitvos B), Sir. iii. 16 (Kaocar. NC) : the class. KaTr]papai remains 
in 4 K. ix. 34, W. xii. 11 (k€kcit. N). Exx. of double aug. in 
compounds of one preposition only — a half-way house towards 
the modern Greek elimination of the internal aug.— appear in 
late books or late texts only : iirpoar]v^aTo 2 Es. x. 1 B*XA (but 
irpo(rr]v^dfjirjv [-eu|.] xii. 4 and elsewhere in LXX), eSuXvaapev 
2 Es. xi. 7 X*, fftuKpivev Job xxiii. 10 X*, eVapfKaXouv Job xxix. 
25 C, (KardXaptv I M. xii. 30 A, iavvidfTo I M. xv. 27 AV. 

9. Misplaced augment. The augment in vulgar Greek 
occasionally intruded into the moods 1 . The LXX examples are 
limited to « for I (which had now become interchangeable 
sounds) and o> for 6 or ol. "Iva prj ei'fi?; (for 18/7) Is. xxvi. 
10 B*XGT, (IhiTaxrav 4 K. vi. 20 A, Tob. viii. 12 B*A, eifiere 
(imperat.) 4 K. vi. 32 A, e't8(op.ev Cant. vii. 12 X, (inrep)fi8T]s Eccl. 
v. 7 A, Est. C. 9 A, el86vres Est. viii. 15 X. 'flicoSo/xijo-avres' Jos. 
xxii. 16 A, (8i)a)Ko8op.rj<Toopev 2 Es. xii. 17 B*, Is. ix. 10 A, cokoSo- 
povpevr) SP cxxi. 3T: etja>p,o\oyeiadai Tob. xiii. 3 A ( = imperat. 
(tjopokoydcrde) : a>p.6(ravT€s W. xiv. 29 C. 

§ 17. Verbs in -fi. Terminations. 

1. The most marked change under this head is the gradual 
disappearance of the second aorist forms and the 
intrusion of the first aorist forms into their place and 
subsequently into the place of the other past tenses (perfect 
and imperfect) 2 . This extension of the sphere of the first 
aorist takes place in various ways. Primarily it affected the 
terminations only, beginning probably with the termination of 
the 3rd person plural : and here again there was divergence, 
(i) The a of the 1st aor. replaces the o (or e) in the termina- 
tion of the 2nd aor. : £i7ra -av -arw, -qyaya. The termination -av 
is then extended to the 3rd plur. of perfect and imperfect, 
(ii) An alternative was to retain the a of the 1st aorist as well 
as the a in the 3rd plur. of 2nd aor. and impf. : dnooav, 

1 So in the papyri from iii/B.C : dvrjXliTKeiv with avr)\wfj.a etc. is the 
commonest instance : Mayser 345 f. Modern Greek has created a new 
class of verbs in £- containing the old syllabic aug., e.g. £e/3pdfw from 
c£-e/3pao-a. Cf. 6 supra, s. v. i50ew. 

2 See especially the important article byK. Buresch in Rhein. Mus.fiir 
Philologie, Bd. 46, 1891, entitled " re'701'ai' und anderes Vulgargriechisch," 
and Dieterich Untersuch. 234 ff. 

T. 14 



210 Verbs in -H [§ 17, 1 — 

^'yayocrai', i(f>€pocrav. This form seems to have been designed 
to discriminate between the 1st sing, and the 3rd plur. which 
in classical Greek ended alike in -ov in these two tenses 1 . 
More rarely (iii) a new 1st aorist replaced the old 2nd aorist : 
rj$a (yjyayrja-a), § 21, i. The result was much simplification 
and greater uniformity. The otiose 2nd aorist, which conveyed 
precisely the same meaning as the 1st aorist, disappeared, and 
all past tenses tended to be formed after the same pattern. 

2. The beginnings of the first change referred to above — 
the use of forms intermediate between 1st and 2nd 
aor. without the o- of the former — go back in two instances 
to Attic Greek: rjvtyKa (beside rjveyKov), cirra (beside cui-ov) 2 . 
The Kowri naturally took over the a forms in these words. 

In LXX Tjve-yKa has the a forms throughout the indicative 
and participle (except in 2 M. iii. 35 dveveyicaiv A [-as V], vi. 21 
iveynovra A [-avTa V]) and usually in the imperative (exceptions 
dveveyicfTcD 2 K. xxiv. 22 B*, (veynere 2 Es. xviii. 1 5 B* : B also 
has exx. of 2nd sing, -eveyice, which however may be merely an 
itacistic spelling of the mid. -€vey<at which is often attested by 
the other MSS, so L. ix. 2 BA [read -/cat F], N. xvi. 46 [-km AF], 
Jd. vi. 30, xix. 22, 2 K. xiii. 10, Dan. 00 Bel 34 [read -<ai as in 
© 33]). The old inf. iveyne'iv maintained its hold longest, beside 
iviyKUL z which gradually gains ground and in some of the later 
books nearly succeeds in ousting the former (e.g. eWyxai in 
2 Es. iii. 7, viii. 17, xviii. 1, xx. 34 etc., iveyKtiv in this book only 
in viii. 30). The aor. mid. likewise keeps the a forms : but 
cnrevtyKoiTo receives some support in Job iii. 6. 

Similarly ttira -as -a/xev -are -av, imperat. eiVaTe etc., part. 
ei7ray are used almost to the exclusion of the o forms : the inf. is 
generally unelv (eiVai B* in Ez. xxxiii. 8, 13, 14, -elv B ab AQ terY- 

It appears from the papyri that the extension of this type 

1 Herodian (ed. Lentz ii. 237) refers to the Boeotian use of this form 
with certain verbs, and explains it as due to a desire to equate the number 
of syllables in the plural persons (ei.'5o/u.fy, therefore ddovav). 

2 Attic Inscriptions have rivey/cav, part. iveyKas, from iv/B.C (but eveyKeiu, 
-£tw) : elw&TW (and eiVerw) from 350 B.C., enras from 300 B.C. (but eiireif) : 
Meisterhans 183^ 

3 The two forms are used interchangeably in the papyri into i/B.C. , 
Mayser 363. 

* 'Afe(7rai appears already in a papyrus of iii/B.c, Mayser 331. 



§ 17, 2] Terminations 21 1 

of aorists to other verbs did not become common till i/a.d. 
Most second aorists remained unaltered except that, as the 
LXX shows, in the 3rd plur. the forms in -oa-av were frequently 
employed in place of -ov. The MSS of the LXX and the 
N.T. appear to reflect this difference between the Ptolemaic 
period and the beginning of the Christian era. In LXX the 
asigmatic aorists in -a, 3rd plur. -av, apart from a few words, 
are in the main restricted to a single group of books, while the 
majority of the books have 1st sing, -ov, 3rd plur. -oa-av (or -or). 
In the N.T., on the other hand, 3rd plur. -oa-av is rare and 
forms in -a -av are on the increase. 

The commonest LXX exx. of the -a type after the two which 
have classical authority are : 

«l\a (flXdfjirjv) e.g. act. Ka&e~t\av Gen. xliv. 11, 3 K. xix. 14 etc., 
dcpelXav 1 M. vii. 47 A, dcpelXus Job xxxviii. 15 (-es C): mid. (dv- 
d<f>- e£-)ei\ciTo Gen. xxxvii. 21, Ex. ii. 5, xviii. 4, Is. xxxviii. 14 etc. 

1^X60. mainly in imperat. eX8dra> -are. The o forms are, how- 
ever, normal in the ind. (with 3rd plur. fjXdoaav), though a forms 
are attested, even in the Pentateuch, e.g. tjXOafifv N. xiii. 28 B, 
Dt. xxix. 16 B, fjXdaTf Gen. xxvi. 27 etc., rjXdav Gen. xlvii. 18 B. 

^TT€<ra is much commoner than erreo-ov, clearly owing to the 
fact that the old 2nd aorist already contained the a distinctive 
of the 1st aorist. The conversion from strong to weak aorist 
took place without the intervention of a middle stage (as was 
necessary e.g. in evpov — evpa — evprfo-a). Later scribes may of 
course be responsible for the LXX forms : Ex. xxxii. 28, L. ix. 24, 
N. xvi. 22 et passim. 

Apart from the 5 exx. quoted, instances of this type are rare 
and confined to late texts and can in few cases be ascribed to 
the autographs. They are a distinguishing feature of the group 
Jd. (B text)— 4 Kings. gpaXav («'£-) : 3 K. vi. 3, 2 Ch. xxix. 16 A 
(-01/ B). e!8av (loav) Jd. vi. 28 B, xvi. 24 B, xviii. 7 B, 4 K. 
ii. 15 A, vi. 20 A, ^ xxxiv. 21 B (contrast sides 22), Jdth vi. 12 BXA, 

1 M. iii. 17 A, iv. 12 A. evpa: evpafifv Gen. xliv. 8 A, xlvii. 25 A, 

2 Es. iv. 19 BA, * cxxxi. 6 AT: evpas 2 Es. xix. 8 X (-es BA) : 
(dv)evpdfJ.evoi 4 M, iii. 1 3 f. A, AX. d-ire'Oavav R. i. 5 A, 2 K. 
xi. 17 B, 24 B, xiii. 33 B, 4 K. xi. 1 A, Tob. iii. 9 B*A. e'XaPav 
Jd. i. 24 A, 2 K. xxiii. 16 B. sYKaTt'Xurav 4 K. vii. 7 B, 2 Ch. 
xxix. 6 B: eyKareXiTrare Is. i. 4 B (-ekeiirare F -eXetVere AQ;. 
e<j>dvan,«v 2 K. xix. 42 B. «<|>vyav Jd. vii. 21 B, I K. xvii. 51 A, 
xxx. 17 A, 2 K. x. 13 B, 14 BA, xiii. 29 B, 1 M. x. 82 A 
(contrast 83, xvi. 8, 10) : Karecpvya V cxlii. 9 RTX ca (-ov B*X*A). 

14 — 2 



212 Verbs in -O [§ 1 7, 2 — 

«irifycryas Dan. iii. 28 Q. Y«vd[i€vos (common in the papyri 
from 100 a.d.) is written by A in Jeremiah (xiv. 1, xxv. 1, xxxvii. 1, 
xxxix. I, xli. I, 8 = yevefj.evos N, xlii. I, li. i): SO iyfvdprjv Jer. ii. 
31 A, eyevdp.e6a Is. lxiii. 19 K, napayevdfievoi 2 M. xv. 24 V. 

3. The first aorist termination -av begins to replace -ao-i 
in the perfect in (iii/) ii/B.c. 1 , although -acrt preponderates for 
some time longer and seems to have survived till the tense 
became extinct. 

Exx. in LXX : — iaypaKav Dt. xi. 7 B (ioopaiv AF), i'yvooKav 
2 K. xix. 6 A (eyvaxa B), Trapia-rr]Kav Is. v. 29 BX*Q, idXatKav 
Jer. xxviii. 56 X*, ireTroirj<av Ez. viii. 15 A (passage not in B), 
irffpvrevKciv xix. 1 3 BQ, r/ypa'coKai' Dan. O vi. 20, Tri-rrotdav Jdth 
vii. IO BXA, TviirpciKav 2 M. X. 21 AV, Kadea-rrjKav 2 M. xiv. 5 V, 
iKTr(Tr6p8r)K.av 4 M. xviii. 4 K*V (eKTr(Tro\i6pKr]KCiv N ca ). 

4. The extension of 3rd plur. -av to the imperfect is also 
attested in ii/B.c, but is much rarer than its use with the other 
past tenses : the alternative termination -ocrav was preferred 
with this tense. The LXX instances are confined in the 
B text to one in Jd. and three in the early chapters of 2 K. 
(K. (3/3) besides a few variants in An. 

KariXenrav Jo. x. 40 A, dvefiaivav Jd. vi. 3 B, eXapfiavav I K. 
viii. 3 A, Ka.riiiai.vav I K. xxv. 20 A, diijiatvav 2 K. ii. 29 B, 
'icpepav iii. 22 B, rjyav vi. 3 B, dvi\j/vxav xvi. 14 A (-£av B) : N has 
similar forms in f]8e\av Is. xxviii. 12, edlaKav 1 M. xi. 73, Ike- 
yapev 4 M. xiii. 2. 

5. Side by side with the termination -av in the 3rd plur. 
of the old 2nd aorists and the imperfect appears the longer 
termination -oo-av. Though the examples in the papyri are not 
very numerous 2 , the very strong attestation of this form in 
the LXX leaves no doubt as to its antiquity. It seems to have 

1 The earliest exx. cited are from Asia, irapeik-qQav (Lydia) 246 B.C., 
airivraXKav (Lydia) 193 B.C., Dieterich Untersuch. 235 f. In Egypt the 
form does not appear before 162 B.C., e?\ri<pai>, eiridedwKav BM i. 17. 23, 
49 : in iii/fs.c. always tlk-q^txai etc. 

2 Mayser 323. The narrative and historical element in the papyri is 
comparatively small and there is not often occasion in petitions etc. to use 
the 3rd pers. plural of the past tenses. 



§ 17, 5] Terminations 213 

preceded the use of -av in these tenses and to owe its popularity 
if not its origin to a desire to discriminate between the 1st 
pers. sing, and the 3rd pers. plur. This was done by retaining 
the o and appending the 1st aor. termination -crav. 

In the earliest papyri exx. a slightly different ending is used, 
viz. -tarav: tXafj-^dveaav BM i. l8, 31 (l6l B.C.), dcpikeaav ib. 
xli. 15 (same date). The connecting vowel e in this tentative 
form perhaps comes from the 3rd sing. : (Xdfiftave — eXa/x/SaVejo-av 1 . 
A single ex. of this form occurs in LXX : Kare(pdyea-av Jer. x. 
25 X*Q (-01/ BA). 

The form -oaav was transitional and has not, with one excep- 
tion, survived, like the forms in -av, in modern Greek. The 
exception is the imperfect of contract verbs, where the use of 
the -av termination was out of the question. In this tense 
modern Greek has not only retained the 3rd plur. in -ovaav(e) 
but has modelled the rest of the tense upon it : (e)pu>Tovcra 
-ats etc. 

Dieterich Untersuch. 242 f. traces the origin of -oa-av to 
Boeotia 2 . His statement that its use in Egypt is limited to the 
imperfect is incorrect : besides d(piXeaav referred to above 2 exx. 
of -rj\6o<rav occur at the end of ii/B.C. (Mayser 323), apart from 
later exx. : inrjXdoo-av BU 36 (no date), 436 (ii/ or hi/ A.D.). 

These forms in -oa-av are exceedingly frequent in LXX, 

being distributed over all the translations (excepting one 

group) from the Hexateuch to 2 Esdras : the latter book with 

Joshua (B text) supplies the greatest number of instances. 

The exceptional group is 1 — 4 K. : the -oa-av forms are entirely 

absent from 1, 3 and 4 K. (except -qii-dproa-av 3 K. viii. 50 A): 

in 2 K. A again supplies one instance of aorist, i^XOoo-av 

ii. 13, B has £\dfioo~av v. 21, and BA have one ex. of the 

imperfect of a contract verb, ivoovo-av xx. 15. On the other 

hand, as has been seen, it is just in this group that the 

termination -av is specially frequent. 

Exx. 3 (1) Aorist. -r)X0oo-av passim e.g. Ex. i. 1 BAF, Dt. 
i. 24 BAF (it is observable that in the Pentateuch BAF unite in 

1 Both forms had a precedent in the 3rd plur. of the imperf. of verbs in 
-fit : edidocrav, eridecrav. 
3 Cf. note 1 on p. 210. 
3 Cf. with the list in 2 above, p. 211 f. 



214 Verbs in -D, [§ 17, 5 — 

attesting the -oo-av form only in the opening of these two books 
and at the end of Deut. : cvpoaav Dt. xxxi. 17 BAF, rjpdpToo-av 
xxxii. 5 BAF) etc. etc. -Tjydyoaav Jos. vi. 23 B, x. 23, Jer. 
xxxiii. 23 bis B, 1 Es. i. 17 B, 19, Jdth xii. 5 etc. r)pdpToo-av Is. 
xxiv. 6, xlii. 24 etc. (napevjffidXocrav Ex. xvii. I B, jd. xv. 9 A, 
xviii. 12 A, Jer. xliv. 21, 2 Es. xxi. 30 etc. (e)ioWai' Dt. vii. 
19 B* x. 21 B, Is. xxii. 9, ¥ lxxvi. 17, 2 Es. iii. 12, Cant. vi. 
8 passim, dnoo-av R. iv. 1 1 bis B, BA, 2 Es. v. 4 B, xi. 3 B etc. 
KadetKocrav Jos. viii. 29 B, Is. xxii. 10. evpoaav Ex. xiv. 9 B, 
Jos. ii. 22 B, Hos. xii. 4, Jer. ii. 5, xiv. 3, 1 Ch. iv. 41 etc. 
-icrxoaav I Es. vi. 5, 2 Es. xiii. 5 BX. d-rrfBdvoo-av Bar. ii. 25. 
-eXdJoo-av Dt. i. 25 B, Jos. x. 28 B, Jd. i. 6 B, R. i. 4, Zech. i. 6, 
Jer. xxxiii. 8, Ez. xxxii. 24, 2 Es. ix. 2 etc. -eXinoaav Ex. xvi. 
24 B, Dt. xxix. 25 B, Jer. vi. 15. enLoo-av Jer. xxviii. 7, xlii. 14 BX, 
1 Es. iii. 3 B. ecpdyoaav Gen. xviii. 8, Ex. xvi. 35 B, Jos. v. 11 B, 

1 Es. iii. 3 B, vii. 13, 2 Es. xix. 25 etc. -ecfrvyocrav Jos. x. 27 B, 

2 Es. xxiii. 10. 

(2) Imperfect, (a) Uncontracted verbs, rjpocrav Jos. iii. 14 B 
{rjpav AF). rjadocrav Ez. xxii. 9 B*Q (imperfects in -ov -ovv and 
-oemi/ -twai/ are used indiscriminately in this chapter), dnedvrj- 
(TKoaav Tob. vii. 11 AB a (-ov B*). ticXaioo-av Dan. Sus. 33. 
€Kpiv(«rav Ex. xviii. 26 to B, Jer. V. 28. -cXapftdvoanv Jer. v. 26, 
Ez. xxii. 12 bis. eXtyoaav N. xxxii. 5 A (-01/ BF). KareXvocrav 
Jer. V. 7 Q (-oi', -ovTO cett.). vnepiirroo-av 4 M. vi. 25 X. e£- 
aireo-TiWocrav Ez. xxiii. 40 AQ (-or B). ecpatvoaav I M. iv. 50 A. 
-ecpepoaav Ex. xviii. 26 B, Jos. xxiv. 33a B, 1 Ch. xxii. 4 B 
(fCpopaaav A) (contrast i'fapov 2 Ch. i. 17 etc.). evexpioaais 
Tob. ii. 10 X. 

(b) Contracted verbs : -ovo-av (-wa-av). -fi'ooOo-av Ex. xxxm. 
8 B, 2 K. xx. 15 BA. eirrj^ovovcrav N. i. 18 B. e7roXe/xoiJ<rax» Jd. 
xi. 5 A. tjvopovaav Ez. xxii. II. edvptwaav Jer. xi. 12 X, xxxix. 
29 BXA, cf. 2 Ch. xxx. 14 (B writes eOvpiaxriv sic). el6r)voio-av 
Lam. i. 5 BAQ*. edprjvuvo-av I Es. i. 30 B. cpKo8opovo-av (oIk-) 
2 Es. vi. 14 A tUI , xiv. 18 BXA. eSoAtowrai/ *■ v. 10, xiii. 3. ev\o- 
yovo-av ib. lxi. 5 B*X*A. enoiovo-av Job i. 4 B*X* i M. xiv. 36 A. 
iraiTeivova-av Jdth iv. 9 BA. idfapovaav ib. x. IO A. (7rn/j)a>Koi3o-ai> 
Dan. Sus. 28, 1 M. xiv. 34 A. igrp-ovvav 1 M. xvi. 22 A. 
wpikovaav Dan. Sus. 57. Trap(Tr]poio-av Dan. Sus. 12. 
'Ecuo-ai/ Jer. xii. io is the single ex. from a verb in -aw, see 
§ 16, 5. 

6. The termination -aav is further used in LXX, as in 
Hellenistic Greek generally 1 , for the 3rd plur. of the impera- 
tive, to the exclusion of the older forms in -<ov -ovtwv etc. 

1 From 300 B.C. in Attic Inscriptions: Meisterhans 167. 



I/, 8] Termitiations 215 



Exx. : ea-Taxrav Gen. i. 14 etc., yfvT]6r)TQ)aav ib., davaroixrdoxTav 
L. xx. 10 fif. 

7. It appears also in the optative, where -oiaav -aiaav 
replace the older -ouv -ouev (-ctav). 

Exx. : alvecraia-av Gen. xlix. 8, Troirjo-aiaav Dt. i. 44, 3 K. 
xix. 2 A, xxi. 10 A, e\8oicrav Dt. xxxiii. 16 and probably 7, 
iviynaio-av Is. lxvi. 20, evpoiaav Jer. ii. 5 A (read eupocray with 
BXQ), {'iiraia-av (e'lTrourav) V xxxiv. 25 to, tK\(()iTroi(rav ciii. 35, 
eKKoyj/aiaav (-KoXdy^iuaav A) and Karafpdyoia-av Prov. xxiv. 52, 
y\r-q\a(pr](nu(Tav Job v. 14 BX, 6r)pev<Tai(rav xviii. 7 BXC, i'Xdoicrav 
9 and II BXC, oAeVa«rai> II B b X (-craiav B* -ffiai/ A, -cratei/ B a ) 
and xx. 10 BXC, nvpcrevvaMTav xx. IO BC(X), i'SoKrai/ xxi. 20 BXC, 
(pdyourav xxxi. 8 BXC, evpoiaav Sir. xxxiii. (xxxvi.) II, «i-Xoy>;- 
o-ato-ai/ Tob. iii. 1 1 BA. The exceptions to the rule are found in 
4 Maccabees which uses the strict Attic forms (e.g. cpdvoiev, 
bdvouv iv. 23, dfXoiev v. 3, pupocpayijcrauv, avrtkiyoifv viii. 2) and 
Cod. A in Job, which has 'i8ouv in xxi. 20 and forms in -(e)iav 
elsewhere, drjptvo-iav xviii. 7, cnr^auiv xviii. 1 8, dXdauiv xx. IO. 

The 2nd and 3rd sing, of the 1st aor. optat. similarly end 
in -ats -at (for the stricter Attic -etas -etc). 

The writer of 4 Mace, again shows his Atticizing tendency 
in using the older forms of the 3rd sing., e.g. vop.i<ret(v iv. 13, 
iirvrpfyeiev 1 7, avyyvapovrjcrfiev v. 1 3 etc., and perhaps also of 
the 2nd sing., eKKoyeias v. 30 X, r^eta? ib. X ea , K.ciTa<ppovij<Teias 
v. IO V rescr . Job also supplies aTrioo-eiev xviii. 18 BXC, Oifkaaeiev 
(?6) xx. 16 BXC. 

8. 2nd pers. sing, in -es for -as in 1st aor. and perfect. 

These forms are but slenderly attested in LXX (mainly in the 

untrustworthy Cod. A) and in the Ptolemaic papyri and clearly 

did not take root in Egypt. They are interesting however as 

precursors of modern Greek which in the two past tenses 

(impf. and aor.) writes -a -es -e -a/xe -tn -av, i.e. in the conflict 

between the terminations of 1st aor. and 2nd aor. (impf.) the a 

of the 1st aor. has succeeded in ousting the o of the 2nd aorist, 

but the forms in which the 2nd aor. (or impf.) had e have 

remained unaltered 1 . 

1 See Dieterich op. cit. 239. He speaks of the mod. Greek forms 
-es -e -ere as the last remnants of the strong aorist active. But they may 



2I 6 Verbs in -12 [8 iy f 8 

In LXX : dTrecrraXKes Ex. v. 22 A, olSes 2 K. ii. 26 A, ecWer 
Ez. xvi. 21 A, 2 Es. xix. 10 A, itpiXagcs Job xiii. 27 A, dftfues 
Tob. xi. 2 B. So in the plur. vnep^e^Kere 3 M. vi. 24 V. 
("Enpives Job x. 2 A [>«s cett.] and vnepijpes Prov. xxix. 47 N 
[-ripas cett.] may be true imperfects.) 

In papyri: TrapearaXKes PP ii. 20, 4, 15 (252 B.C.) is the only 
early example which I have noted. napeiXrjcpfs occurs in 2 B.C. 

^2 P xv ,; 742) 4 ) ; in , "/ ni /A-D. exx. begin to accumulate, fe'&oKcr, 
oioes, Zypa\jses, e7roir](rcs etc. 

9. In the pluperfect the (3rd) plural has been assimilated 
to the singular, i.e. -eio-av etc. are written, not Attic -eaav etc., 
even in the literary books 1 : e.g. (Ka6)urT^K€i<rav Gen. xviii. 2, 
3 M. ii. 33 etc., «r«roi0e«rav Prov. xxi. 22 etc., iwevovdcurav 
W. xviii. 1 : ySeifxev Gen. xliii. 7 etc., -gBeire Dt. xiii. 13, jfieurav 
Gen. xiii. 23 etc. 

10. -«vto for -ovTo. The 3rd plur. of the 2nd aor. act., as 
we have seen, took over the -av of the 1st aor. In the 2nd 
aor. mid. in -6firjv the o was, in one instance at least, eliminated 
in another way, the 3rd plur. being modelled on the 3rd sing, 
in -€to. \E7reA.a'0«vTo is the predominant form in LXX : Jd. 
iii. 7 A, Jer. hi. 21 B*«, xviii. 15 B*kA, xxiii. 27 B*h, xxvii. 
6 «A, xxxvii 14 «, Hos. xiii. 6 B*, ^ lxxvii. 11 B*. So in 
N.T. Mc. viii. 14 B*. 

'ETreXaSovTo without variant only in 1 K. xii. 9, ¥ cv. 13 21 
cxviii. 139, Job xix. 14 (cf. Job G xxxix. 15). 

11. The habit of appending an irrational final v (or $•) 
has already been referred to (p. 135): further exx. are etvre- 
XdpovTov 3 K. ix. 9 A, cTTopevdrjTav Jer. Ii. 23 N* (for -rat or -re), 
eTri(TTpd(pr)Tfs Jer. iii. 14 N*. 

12. 2nd person sing. mid. (present and future). 
The competition here lay between three rival terminations, -77, 

owe their origin rather to the imperfect, 'i\vzs. The -e of the third sing, 
which was alike for all past tenses affected the preceding person, and the 
2nd sing, again reacted on the 2nd plur. 

1 In the Ttolemaic exx. (end of ii/B.c.) the 3rd plur. is written with 
-■t]<sa,v, which was probably indistinguishable in pronunciation from -et,<xav 
(§ 6, 20) : -eaav was still used by literary writers like Polybius and Josephus 
(Mayser 324). 



ly, 12] Terminations 21 J 



-et and -aai. (i) The older Attic -y, used for all verbs in -o», 
arose by contraction out of a primitive -o-cu (^epccrat = Repeat = 
<f>epr)), which was retained in the -p.i verbs (to-rao-at etc.). 
(ii) Later Attic writers from iv/b.c, when rji « were becoming 
indistinguishable, wrote -et or -rj indifferently. Some of these 
-ci forms (fiovXet, out, oif/ei) were widely adopted in the kolvtj. 
But (iii) the preference of the Koivrj for uniformity led ultimately 
to the reinstatement of the primitive forms in -<rai (on the 
model of the perf. pass, in -fxai -o-ui -rat) and these are universal 
in modern Greek. 

In the conflict between the -g and the -ei forms the LXX 
uncials on the whole support the older ->/ forms for pres. and 
fut. : Cod. B, however, has a considerable number of -« forms. 
It is hardly possible to decide which form is original. 

BouXei is consistently written by B : Ex. iv. 23 (-77 A) viii. 2 
(-3 AF) ix. 2 f (-7, A) x. 3 BA, 7 BA, 3 K. xx. 6 (- n A), Est. iii. 

1 1 BXA. Oiet also is well attested in the few passages where 
this literary word occurs: Est. ix. 12, Job xxxiv. 17 A, xxxvii. 
23 BXA (-17 C), xl. 3 B (-77 X), Dan. O ii. 11 (but oir, Job xxxiv. 

12 BxAC). On the other hand tyy and e'077 largely preponderate 
over the -« forms which are limited to a few passages in the 
B text: 6'\^et Ex. vi. 1, 2 K. iii. 13, Ez. viii. 13, 15, Bar. iv. 25 
(with Q), ?<r« 2 K. v. 2, 23 (napeo-ei), Ez. xxiv. 17, xxxviii. 9: 
elsewhere they are written by a later hand or hands of B in 
place of -rj of B*. 

The use of -ei and -g is a distinguishing mark between the 
two portions of 2 K. which I have called K. /3# and K. /3y (B text). 

«r« 2 K. v. 2, napeo-ei v. 23. £07/ 2 K. xiii. 1 3, xiv. 2, XV. 33, 

xviii. 3, xix. 13, xxii. 27. 
oi\r€i iii. 13. 
fiVeXei'o-fi v. 6. €\cv(TT) xiv. 3. 

The termination -r/ also to some extent supplants -acrai in 
some deponents of the -pi type. 

'ETTia-rtj (poetical and apparently Ionic) for eVt'o-rao-at is well 
supported in several LXX books: Gen. xlvii. 5 BA, N. xx. 
14 BAF, Jos. xiv. 6 BA, Jer. xvii. 16 BX (-airai AQ), Ez. xxxvii. 
3 BA (-ao-m Q), Tob. v. 5 X and apparently Job xxxviii. 4 « 
iniaTjf B (-ntrai A) : enia-Taarai appearing in Dt. (xx. 20, xxviii. ^, 



218 Verbs in -fl [§ 17, 12— 

36), Job (xi. 9 A -ere, xxxii. 22 X*, xxxvii. 16 A, xxxviii. 20 BKAC, 
33 BKA) and Dan. (Sus. 43). 

The only instance where 8vvt) (poetical and late prose) 
appears to be ind. (and not conj.) is Dan. v. 16: elsewhere 
Svvacrcu : 8vvj) should probably be regarded as from dvvopai, 
see § 23, 4. 

The reversion to the primitive 2nd sing, termination in -o-at 
for all middle verbs seems to have begun with certain futures 
formed from the 2nd aor. (iriofiai, tfxiyofiai) and with contract 
verbs. In LXX rriWai has entirely superseded to/ (Dt. xxviii. 
39, R. ii. 9, 3 K. xvii. 4, Jer. xxix. 13 AQ, Ez. iv. 11 etc.) and 
(jxlyecrat is generally written outside the Pentateuch (R. ii. 14, 
Is. Ix. 16, Ez. iv. 9ff. etc., Mic. vi. 14, Sir. vi. 19, 2 M. vii. 7 V). 

$>dyr] however is constant in the Pentateuch (Gen. iii. 14, 17 ff-> 
Ex. xxxiv. 18, L. vii. n, Dt. vii. 16, viii. 9 etc. to xxviii. 53) and 
is found also in 2 K. ix. 7, 4 K. vii. 2 B ($077?$- A) and perhaps 
ib. 19 ov fxr) 4>dyj] (or conj.) and xix. 29 A. 

The LXX proper appears to afford only one certain ex. in 
the case of contract verbs (analogous to oSwao-cu, Kav\da-ai of 
N.T.) viz. KTaa-ai Sir. vi. 7; in Gen. xxxii. 10, where A has 
Uavovo-ai fioi, the impersonal use of the verb elsewhere favours 
the reading of Z>E ikavovrai /xol : A again has Koifxaa-ai in Dt. 
xxxi. 16, where koijj.5. BF is doubtless original : aTre^evovaai. (no 
doubt, with Schmiedel, we should read d-rroicvovcrai = -£evoi) 
occurs in 3 K. xiv. 6 A in a passage interpolated from Aquila. 
The classical termination is kept in ^ li. 3 h'Kavxd. 

13. The first hand of B apparently wrote the poetical form 
of the 1st plur. mid. in Jer. li. 17, iyivo^ada. 

§ 18. Verbs in -!X Tense Formation. 

1. Verbs with pure stem in the kolvtj sometimes retain 
a short vowel in the formation of the tenses. Of contracts 
in -e'o) (Att. fut. -rj<ro)) Trovioi in LXX always has the tenses 
7roveo-w (Is. xix. 10, Sir. xiii. 5) i-rroveaa (1 K. xxiii. 21 etc.): 



1 8, 2] Tense formation 219 



<f>opea> has cpoptaw (Prov. xvi. 23) i(p6pe<ra (Sir. xi. 5) 1 . Srcpc'w, 

on the other hand, keeps the Attic long vowel (e.g. Gen. 
xxx. 2, xlviii. n) except in N. xxiv. 11 B*, Sir. xxviii. 15 B*t*A, 
Est. E. 12 «*, 3 M. v. 32 V (eo-Tepe'^s). Cf. the shortening 
of the vowel in o^eiAcW Tob. vi. 13 B (-ija-ei kA, and so else- 
where in LXX) and in ippeO-qv, which is always so written in 
LXX (Gen. xv. 13, 2 K. v. 6, Jon. iii. 7, Dan. O vii. 23, Dan. 
© Sus. 2 7) 2 : the unaugmented parts of the verb, however, 
keep rj, pr)9ei<; — pr]6rjvai — prjOrjcroixai -. the shortening appears 
therefore in this instance to be due to assimilation of vowels 
flanking p. lloOew (hn-) in the aor. has the long vowel only 
(iTr)eir68r]cra (Att. also -eaa). 

In contracts in -aw a similar shortening takes place in 
Treivao-w, cTraVao-a 3 : Si^a'a) however keeps r) except in Is. xlix. 10 
ov Treivdaovo-w ov8e hnj/daovo-Lv B*K*Q : see § 22, 2. 

2. Formation of passive tenses (1 aor., fut., perf.) 
with or without <r. Attic practice in this matter was not 
uniform and shows many exceptions to the general rule 4 : in 
the Koivrj there is a marked tendency to insert a where it was 
not used in the older language. 

Insertion of a contrary to Attic practice. 'ETrcuveo-Oycropai 
has very strong support, * xxxiii. 3 BtfA, xliii. 9 BkR, lxii. 
12 BnR, lxiii. 11 BwR, Sir. ix. 17 BnA : so liryviadrja-av Eccl. 
viii. 10 C (but IrryveO. BwA as in Attic: this was one of the 
cases where the Attic forms did not conform to the general 
rule). The LXX examples of the older Attic iSwrjOrjv (usually 
written y]8. § 16, 3) and the Ionic i8wd<rdr)v (t/S. : in Attic not 

1 Out of these aorists have come the modern Greek presents irove'cu, 
iftopifa. 

2 Later hands of B twice alter to ipp-qdrjv. 

3 Modern Greek hence forms two new presents ireivdfa, diipafa. 

* Viz. that pure verbs which retain a short vowel in the tense stem 
strengthen this vowel by a, while a long vowel in the stem dispenses with 
it : Kuhner-Blass § 242. In some Attic verbs the a appears in the aorist 
only, but not in the perfect : Rutherford NP 97 ff. has some suggestive 
remarks on the subject. 



220 Verbs in -9. [§ 18, 2 

before Xen.) are about equal, the proportion being 32 : 29. 

'Iacr^crav 3 M. V. 18 A = ddcr6i)aar (from e'a'to) Stands for Attic 

eldbyaar (so V ia#.). Attic yXdOip- (eAavrcu) again broke the 
general rule as to short vowels : LXX has the later form 

(rvreXaaOeiTUJi 2 M. V. 5, with pluperf. tn.'i-/;/\acr-o ib. IV. 26 

(Att. iXijXa/jiai, i)Xi]Xdfj.i]v). %iTe<r^ia6ri is read by A in 2 K. 
xxiv. 21, 25 (-ccr^e^7/v, -a^eOijcrofiaL are the usual forms of these 
late tenses in LXX and elsewhere). 'Ecwo-peYos (av- 81- irepi) is 
universal in LXX and is perhaps Ionic : Inscriptions and the 
testimony of Photius establish e^wfiai as the true Attic form 
(cf. (w/xa) 1 . From Kepdwvpx we find both the usual Attic 
forms KCKpa/jLtvos Dt. xxviii. 66 A (but read Kpepaptn/ B), Ter. 
XXX. IO B*A (read Ke/cappcim'S B ab tfQ), avyKpaOypaL Dan. O 
ii. 43. and the later perfect KeKepaap-at Dan. O Bel ^^ with 
the kindred aorist (o-rOeKepu'o-fop' Dan. O Bel 11, 2 M. xv. 39, 
for which there is some classical authority. 'E/oWo-ftvp' Ez. 
xxiv. 16 AQ*, 27, A and kXclvo-OjJo-o/jlcll * lxxvii. 64 B*nT are 
Koanj forms (B* keeps the Attic icXavQjjs in the first passage : 
«Xav^?;o-o»Tat B corr R in ^ is obviously a correction). KAei'w 
(d-o- Kara- cruy-) now takes o- not only in the aor. iKXeiadyv 

(Att. ii<Xij(r$i]v) with K,\€icr^>;cropat, but also in the perf. Ke/cA€io-p.ai 
(Att. K£K-X);/j.at: KeAcAeipai only in Ez. xlvi. 1 B* [contrast xliv. 1 f.], 
Dan. Sus. 20 and perhaps 1 K. xxiii. 7 A d-jrwccicAtTat, unless 
the perf. of -kAuoj is intended)". From Aovw (Att. XeXovp.au 
iXovOyi') we now have eAovcrtf?/? Ez. xvi. 4 B*AQF and AeAov- 
o-peVai Cant. v. 12 B (-017.1. As), 'Qvdadyi' Tob. iii. S B*A 
(wop.do-$r]<; sB corr ) replaces unj^v Xen. (wvddijv Theocr.): the 
older Attic used the 2nd aor. wrqyoqv. The Attic ircivupap\aL 
1 K. xvii. 39 and i-eipdOyv 1 M. xii. 10 (cf. i. 15 s corr ) from 
ireipdop-ai are used with act. meaning '"try'': i-n-eipdo-Oip- W, xi. 9, 

1 Meisterhans 185, Rutherford A'P 99. 

- But the Ptolemaic papyri which have only K^/cX^t/Ucu cast doubt on 
the authenticity of the uncial evidence: Mayser 376. Josephus writes 
K€K\€i<r^ai, Schmidt 470 f. 



§ 1 8, 2] Tense formation 221 

Dan. O xii. 9 is correctly formed from rreipd£i» and has pass, 
meaning "be tried" or "tempted": the act. meaning therefore 
establishes the readings l-TrupdOr] Sir. xxxi. 10 BA (-da-Orj «), 
7r(e)ipa0laa 4 M. XV. 16 NV (-aaO. A). AiaTreTreTao-p.evos 3 K. 
vi. 33 etc. from -7T6tu£w "spread" may be paralleled in early 
poetry (Oracle ap. Hdt. 1. 62) for Att. TrewrafxaL (Treravvv pu) ; 
iireTaaOrjv (i£- kglt-) and irtTao-Orjo-op-ai are now commonly used 
as the tenses of 7reVa//.cu (class, aor. zirT6p.y)v or ZTrrdp.T)v). 
Secraxj/xai, the Hellenistic form of perf., is usual in LXX : the 
Attic (Teauifxai 1 appears 3 times in B* (1 K. xxiii. 13 cua-, 
2 K. i. 3 Sta-, Jer. li. 14 dva-), once in A (Jd. xxi. 17); the 
Attic iaiSOrji', o-wOrjo-ofxai are retained. 

Ke'^pio-yu-at and xpla-jxa replace Attic K€^pi/xat, XP^ a : 
e'xpio-^v is Attic 2 , and xP L < T @V a ' l Ji(XL Ex. xxx. 32 is correctly 
formed from it. The MSS are divided between o-vveifrtjcrdyiv 
and <rwei]/ij6r)v 3 , Jer. xxii. 19, xxix. 21, xxxi. 33 — both late 
forms : Attic used perf. l\]rqyp.a.i from t/^'xw, and presumably 
*</"7X^ 7 7 v > though found first in Hellenistic Greek, was the 
older aorist. 

Omission of Attic o- is occasionally attested in words with 
long vowel or diphthong in the stem, in which the Attic <r was 
therefore contrary to the general rule: iyvioOr] 2 K. xvii. 19 B, 
yva>6i)(T(Tai Is. lxi. 9 B*: K€\(v8evT€s 4 Al. ix. 11 A (-fvad. N) : 
dpavBijo-erai Is. xlii. 4 B*, cf. dpavpos Na. ii. II N* (dpavapos 
cett.), dpavfxa Jdth xiii. 5 B (elsewhere dpava-pa) : but usually 
iyv(ocrdi)v, yva><r6r}cropcu, edpavadrjv etc. as in Attic. E^caivapivos 
Zech. iii. 2 B* is probably a slip for the usual -ea-naapevos. 

For Attic ia-jHaB-qv (usual in LXX) we find the following 
varieties: €<rfirjdr) Job iv. 10 C, afitvdevTos W. ii. 3 N, ib. afcvo-d. 
A (o-/3eo-<9. B). 

1 Oi waXaiol avev rod cr...ol 5e veibrepoi <r J <ru3<7fj.ai Photius ap. Rutherford 
NP 99. The later form was constantly written by scribes in MSS of Attic 
writings, and even the LXX exx. may not be authentic : Ptolemaic papyri 
keep the Attic form in the few passages where the perf. pass, occurs 
(Mayser 134). 

2 'Expydrj 2 K. i. 21 A (6vpeos 2. ovk exp- ev fhalip) is unparalleled, 
whether intended as from x/"' w ( = ^XP^V) or from xp^ ^ - 1 - 'ExP' "^ 7 ? I s 
clearly right. 

3 Cf. irepitpTj/xa Tob. v. 19. 



222 Verbs in -O [§ 18, 3 — 

3. Verbs with mute stem. Attic verbs in -£w for the 
most part have a dental stem and therefore have future and 
1st aorist in -aw -o-a (a- = ^a- etc.): others have a guttural stem 
and form these tenses with -£w -£a(£ = yo- or kg-). In the kolvtj 
confusion was to be expected : there was a tendency to 
substitute £ for <r, but only in a rather limited group of verbs, 
in many of which there is early authority for the guttural in 
derivative nouns. The majority of the -£w verbs have retained 
the old o- in fut. and 1st aorist to the present day 1 . The LXX 
agrees for the most part with the N.T. 2 

(i) The following have passed over to the guttural class. 
Nvcn-a^co (eVi-) has i/vo-ra£ea Is. v. 27, ^ cxx. 3 f., eVva~rn£a 2 K. 
iv. 6 etc. (evvo-Taaa in Attic Comedy and the Anthology' : but cf. 
the early derivatives w<rTaypds -ncnjs). nai(co (epnaifa) always 
has -Trai^opai -iirai^a -triiraixa -ni-rraiypai (cf. Attic Traiyviov : 
of the Attic forms '4iraia-a ireirama -cucrpai the only trace is the 
v.l. etraio-ev Sir. xlvii. 3 C) : a change was in this case called for 
in order to discriminate between iraifa and iraia, the tenses of 
which in Attic were indistinguishable. 

(ii) The converse substitution of a for £ occurs in the 
following 1st aorists (under the influence of the futures which 
take the " Attic " asigmatic forms aaXTriw, a-vpio), § 20, 1 (i) : the 
fut. is unattested in classical Greek) : to-iihirio-a (Att. fadXnLy^a) : 
tavpura Lam. ii. 1 5 f., Ez. xxvii. 36 (Att. iavpiyt-a: cf. avpiyi;). 

(iii) In the following there is fluctuation in LXX. 

(a) Verbs which in Att. have dental stems, aorist -era. 
'Apirdfa keeps the Att. forms dpiraaw, TJpTraaa, bLrjpnda-d^v 3 M. 
v. 41, 8ir)p7ra<rpevos, but has the new Hellenistic guttural tenses 
(8i)r]pTrdy7]v W. iv. II, Sir. vi. 2, Tob. i. 20 and 8iapTrayr]cropai 
Am. iii. 1 1 etc. (cf. Attic cipna^, apirayi)). Bncrrafo) keeps Att. 
jiao-rdaco in 4 K. xviii. 1 4 and ifZaorcura in 2 K. xxiii. 5 A 
(PXao-Trjo-y B), Job xxi. 3 A (("pare cett.), Dan. e Bel 36: the 
later eftdo-Ta^a 3 occurs in Jd. x-vi. 30 B, R. ii. 16, Sir. vi. 25. 

1 Hatzidakis 134 ft". He gives reasons for rejecting the theory of Doric 
influence, of which there are very few traces in the kolvtj (p. 18). Mayser 
360 ff. gives no examples of the new t, forms from the Ptolemaic papyri, 
but the tenses of the principal verbs affected seem to be unrepresented in 
any form. 

2 Blass N.T. § 16, 2. 

3 In the papyri of the Imperial age this (with efia.<jTd.x8 r 1 v ) is frequent 
and almost the invariable form from ii/A.D. onwards. Of i^acraaa. I have 



§ 1 8, 4] Tense formation 223 

'AiroKvlfa has Att. -Kviaoo, -eicwaa in L. i. 1 5, v. 8, 4 K. vi. 6 B, 
Ez. xvii. 4: A reads aniKvi^v in 4 K. I.e. 

(6) Verbs which in Att. have guttural stems, aor. -£a. 
2,Ti]pi£<a (eVt-: Att. tenses €<TTtjpi£a -i^ufirju -ix8r)v -iypai -lyp-qv). 
The LXX asigmatic fut. arrjpLco (no class, fut. attested) produces 
the aorists ea-rijpiaa passim (ecrn}pi£a only in Dan. O vii. 28 and 
as a v.l. in ^ xxxvii. 3 T, 1. 14 RT, jer. xxi. 10 X ca Q) and 
€(TTr]pi(Tdpi]v : the passive tenses are usually guttural iarrfpi^O^v 
-Lypiu -iyurjv, but the cr occasionally intrudes here too 1 : earrjpiadrjv 
Is. xxxvi. 6 Br, Sir. xxxix. 32 X*, 1 M. ii. 49 X, ear^piapaL 
L. xiii. 55 BA (-ucrai F), 1 K. xxvi. 19, Jdth viii. 24 BX, 1 M. 
ii. 17 X, xiv. 26 X, 4 M. xvii. 5: the late fut. pass, appears as 
-aTrjpi^Srjaoptu in Jd. xvi. 26 B, Sir. xv. 4 B, as a-Trjpiadija-ofiai in 
Sir. I.e. XAC. i>pvdrTeiv (class, fut. -d£opai) has 1st aor. e(ppva£a 
V ii. 1 : in the perf. pass, the uncials diverge, Trecppvaa-pevov 
3 M. ii. 2 A -aypevov V. 

The tenses of the majority of -(a verbs retain their Attic 
forms e.g. (a) rjppoaa, ecrKfvacra, ecrTrouSncra, t^mpiaa, (d) i'cr(pa£a. 

4. Verbs with liquid stem in -aiVw, -atpw in Attic 
have 1 st aorist in -ava -apa where the preceding letter is t or p 
(e.g. i/Aiava, i^rjpava), otherwise generally 2 -rjva -rjpa. The kolvij 
begins to extend the aorists with a to all verbs of this type 3 , 
and in modern Greek they are nearly universal 4 . In LXX we 

have iOep[x.ava, (i£)eKa.6apa (-7]pa Jos. V. 4 A), e/Vev/cava Jl. i. 7, iarj- 
fiava Jd. vii. 21, Jer. iv. 5, vi. 1, Dan. O ii. 15, 23, 45, Est. ii. 22 
(but i<n]ixr)i>a 5 1 Es. ii. 4, iTrearj/xijvu) Job xiv. 17 — literary books), 

vcpava {(TVV-) Ex. xxxvi. IO etc, efpava (excpavai, iiri<pavov etc.) 

passim (but the literary forms dirocpyji'ai Job xxvii. 5, anrifp-qvzv 

ib. xxxii. 2, a.TT€<pr]vaTO 2 M. vi. 23, a7ro0T7i'a/xeVwi' ib. XV. 4). 

noted two exx. only: OP iii. 418 (i/-ii/-A.D.), BU 195 (161 A.D.). To 
judge from Mayser's silence, the verb is not used in the Ptolemaic papyri. 

1 Similarly for the usual form ar-qpiyixa we have ory\puj y.a. 1 M. vi. 
1 8 A, which is also perhaps the true reading in 2 Es. ix. 8 (so Swete : 
<rwTr)pi<rfj.a B*). 

2 But enepdava, eKoiXava etc. are Attic: Kiihner-BIass 1. ii. § 267, 1, 
Rutherford NP 76 ff. 

3 Thus assimilating the aorist to the future stem. It is the converse 
process to the employment of gen. -17s dat. -77 for all 1st decl. nouns in -pa 
(§ 10, 2). 

* Hatzidakis 286 " heute sind iiberall nur die Formen mit a bekannt," hut 
see Thumb Handbuch 87 f. for surviving examples of -771/a. 

5 Similar fluctuation between ecrrj/xava -rjva in the papyri : Mayser 360. 



224 Verbs in -Q [§ 18, 4 — 

In addition to the literary exceptions noted above we have 
epvOrjvas W. xiii. 1 4 and always the Attic aor. mid. i\vp.r)vdpLr)v 
(2 Ch. xvi. 10, ^ lxxix. 14, Am. i. n, Is. lxv. 8 etc.) 1 . 

In the perfect passive of liquid verbs in -atvo> -wa> v before p. 
was usually in Attic altered to o-, probably on the analogy of 
the perfect pass, of verbs in -£u> (ir^ao-^ai like io-Kevao-fxai) 2 : 
the KOLvrj on the other hand preferred the more regular assimila- 
tion of v/x to jxjx. In LXX the Pentateuch translators keep the 
Att. vcpacrp,evo<; (Si- crvv-) Ex. xxviii. 28, xxxvi. 31, L. xix. 19. 
In other verbs p.p. is preferred: ycrxvp-p-o-t- 1 Es. viii. 71, xar- 
Tjo-x^/AeVos ^ lxxiii. 2 1 (Epic) : p.ep.a.Kpvp.p.evo<i ^ lv. tit. (-07X- 
AristOt.): /Ae/xia/x^eVos (Att. -oyi-) N. v. 13 f., 27, W. vii. 25. 
Tob. ii. 9, Hg. ii. 13 BAQ (-ay*- «r), 3 M. vii. 14 A (-07*- V): 
jxeixoXvixixkvos (no early form), 1 Es. viii. 80 A (-07/.- B), Is. lix. 3 
NAQ* (-cr/x- B), lxv. 4 BtfAQ, 2 M. xiv. 3 V (-07A- A): TreTrXrjOvp.- 
/xeVos 1 K. xxv. 10, Lam. i. 1 bis (no early pf. pass, attested). 

The o- in bieairapo-pivovs Is. lvi. 8 A has no raison d'etre : 
elsewhere we have the Att. (8c)fa-7rappevos. 

§ 19. Verbs in -O. Present Tense. 

1. The present meaning regularly attaching to certain 
perfects caused the evolution in the later language 3 of new 
present forms out of the perfect forms. In the LXX we have 

■ypT)-yop€w (with tenses iyp-qyopovv, yp-qyopyaw, iypyjyoptjaa -rjOrjv) 

Jer. v. 6, xxxviii. 28 bis (iyprjyopijau «*), Bar. ii. 9, Lam. i. 14, 

2 Es. xvii. 3 yprjyopovvTuiv WA (iyprjyopovvrwv B), I M. xii. 27, 

Dan. ix. 14 : the perfect iyprjyopa, which it replaces and 
which is absent from N.T., is confined in LXX to Jer. i. 12, 
li. 27. Similarly as from ir€Troi0«« we find limroiO^a-a in Jd. 

1 Is this another instance, as in the verbs in -fu (§ 23, 1), of the old 
forms retaining their place longest in the middle voice ? But \oiixavap.(voi. 
occurs in a papyrus of ii/B.C, Mayser ib. 

2 Kiihner-Blass § 264, 7. 

3 But, as Blass points out, the beginnings go back to an earlier age : 
•ye7uWw (beside -yeyuva) is as old as Homer. 



§ 19, 2] Present Tense 225 

ix. 26 A, Zeph. iii. 2 AQr (ZTre-n-oiOei Btf), Job xxxi. 24 (cf. in 
the later versions e.g. W ix. n TreTroidrjo-ovanv a <r). St^kw 
(TrapaaT^Kta) is not so well attested as in N.T. (Paul uses the 
imperat. frequently), occurring as a variant only in the follow- 
ing passages: Ex. xiv. 13 o-T^Kere A (imperat. = o-t^tc BF), Jd. 

iii. 19 TrapaaTt]KOVTe<; A, xvi. 26 cmyKei B, 3 K. viii. II arrJKeiv B 
(crT?;j'ai A), x. 8 TrapacrTT] Kovres A (-ecrr^Kores B), Zech. iv. 1 4 
7rapa<TT7]KOV(TLV F (cf. N. vii. 2 7rapeo-n;KovT€<; .ttV A [-kotcs BtfF], 

and in the Hexapla Jos. x. 19 arrJKtTe. a 6' imperat.). 'EKt'Kpa-yov 
in Isaiah's vision (Is. vi. 3f., 3 M. v. 23) should perhaps be 
regarded as an imperf. of t KtKpayw rather than, as Veitch takes 
it, a reduplicated 2nd aorist (= Att. eVpayov). 

2. A few instances occur of the formation of new presents 
or the recrudescence of old dialectic presents in -(v)vw. With 
these may be classed sporadic instances of the doubling of 
the v in old forms in -vu>. 'AiroKTewo (for -/crei'vo) = KTevyco ; old 
dialects, but cf. also airoKT(e)LvvvixL in Plato etc.) is a fairly 
frequent variant. Ex. iv. 23 B (-ktcvw AF), Dt. xxxii. 39 B 
(do.), Jos. viii. 24 BAF, 2 K. iv. 12 B* (3 K. xi. 24 A from 
Aquila), 4 K. xvii. 25 BA: Hb. i. 17 BQ, Is. lxvi. 3 BnAQ: 
1 Es. iv. 7 B* * lxxvii. 34 B*mRT (aireKTevcv B ?vid ), c. 8 
B*RT« ca (-cktivov N*, -eVrevov A), Prov. xxi. 25 N ca : Tob. iii. 
8 N bis, vi. 14 f. «, xiv. 11 K, W. xvi. 14 {d-noKTivt n), 3 M. 
vii. 14 A, 4 M. xiii. 14 s* (Dan. © ii. 13). The Hellenistic and 
modern form x*>(v)vo> (for x €0J )> which in N.T. is fairly common 
(cK^wvo/iai), in LXX is confined to a single late passage, 3 K. 

xxii. 35 aTrexyvveTO (cf. 2 K. xiv. 1 4 © ck^wo/xcvov). 'A-itotivvvw 

(Gen. xxxi. 39, ^ lxviii. 5, Sir. xx. 12) for diroTLvw (usual in LXX) 
seems to be a mixture of -tiWw (=-TiVfa>) and -Tivuta'. the v 
appears in the old poetical aVoTivu/xai (-rivv.). 

The form 43e'wa> (for -jialvco = -(3avyo : assisted by the itacistic 
interchange of at and e, as in -pevoo Gen. xli. 3 E, 1 K. ix. 26 A, 
1 M. vii. 40 V, ix. 66 A) is practically confined to portions of 
Cod. A, which has it in Gen. ii. 6, xli. 2, 5, 18 f., N. xxxiii. 51, 

T. 15 



226 Verbs in -O [§ 19, 2 — 

xxxv. 10, Dt. i. 41, iii. 21, iv. 26, xi. 8, 29, 1 K. i. 3, v. 5, 3 K. 
xxii. 6 : in the later books only in Na. ii. 8 (with N), Jer. xxviii. 14, 
xxix. 2 (with X), xxxi. 35 (where the form may go back to the 
compiler of Jer. a and Jer. 0), 1 M. vi. 48 : in other MSS, Gen. 
xix. 28 E, Sir. ix. 13 C. 

<J>8dvv(o is read by AC in W. xvi. 28, Eccl. viii. 14 and by BA 
in Dan. viii. 7. 

3. The following miscellaneous examples occur of the 
evolution of a new present out of the aorist, the substitution 
of -w for -pi. (for which see further § 23), etc. 

Bippwo-Kw, a rare present for which LS quote Babrius, occurs 
in the B text of Samson's riddle Jd. xiv. 14 ri fipiarbv i£rj\0ev 
ck fiifipw<TKovTo<i...; the repetition of the root makes the 
conundrum more pointed. 

BAao-raVo), through the influence of fut. -rjaw and new 

1 aor. ij3Xd<TTr](7a (§ 21, 1), gives place to pXao-Tdw, Eccl. ii. 6 

Spvpbv /3A.acrTcovTa + £v\a i*A, and pXao-rew W. xviii. 2 (3\aa-- 
TOvaiv N* (read fiXaTrrovaiv BA). 

For d\7]0<o {vice d\ea>) see § 24 : for bvvopai § 23, 4 : for eldrjaco, 
('idrjaa as from teiSew § 24 s.v. ol8a. 

'Ev8t8vio-Ku (2 K. i. 24, xiii. 18, Prov. xxix. 39, Sir. 1. 11: 
and as v.l. of A eveStS^'o-Kcro Jdth ix. 1, x. 3) and tKBiSvorKw 
(1 K. xxxi. 8, 2 K. xxiii. 10, 2 Es. xiv. 23, Hos. vii. 1) supplant 
the classical presents -8vw -8vvu>. The new forms appear to be 
introduced to mark the transitive meaning of the verb : Sweiv 
remains with intrans. sense "set" 2 K. ii. 24, 3 K. xxii. 36, 

2 Ch. xviii. 34 A, Eccl. i. 5, "escape," Prov. xi. 8 in Orjpas 

iK$vv€i (Suvct A). 

"Eo-0co or Kcrre'cr^w (class, poetry and late prose) occurs 
frequently beside the Attic prose form iaOio) in certain portions 
of LXX, especially Pentateuch, Prophets and Psalms : on the 
other hand iaOiw is used exclusively in literary books such as 
Job and Dan. O and almost exclusively in the later historical 
group (always in 1 — 4 K. except ecrdwv 1 K. xiv. 30 BA, 
eadovrts 3 K. iv. 20 A). 



§ 19, 3] Present Tense 227 

It is noteworthy that the form without t is preferred in the 
participle eadcov -ovtos etc. which is so written in 37 instances, 
whereas the exx. of this spelling in other parts of the verb 
amount to 9 only (eadere -tcu 6, i'aBj} -Tjre 2, fjadoaav I=Ez. 
xxii. 9 B*Q) ; on the other hand eaOUts, cadiei, ivdieiv are in- 
variable, and the imperf. is always rjadiov except in Ez. loc. cit. 
Note e.g. in Prov. i'adav xiii. 25 beside iadui xxiii. 7, -ieiv xxv. 27, 
in Eccl. eadovres v. 10 beside ia-diovaiv x. 1 6. 

For («Trav)Kj-T<ivw see § 23, 3. 

Kpe|idi> ("Byz." LS) for Kpe/iawv/xi occurs in Job ® xxvi. 7 
Kpe/id&v BkC: Kpe/xiw of A seems to be unparalleled (Kpep.au) 
from Aristotle onwards). 

Kpvpio for KpvirTw, formed from the Hellenistic aorist 
iKpvfirjv, occurs in the simple form (not, as LS, " only found in 
compounds d-n-o- iy- Kpvfiw") in 4 K. xi. 3, Jer. xxxix. 27 « 
(Kpv(3r)<reTaL cett.) and in what appear to be Hexaplaric inter- 
polations in the A text of 1 K. xxiii. 23, 1 Ch. xxi. 20 (= B 

p.e8axa/3eLv). Aquila has diroKpvfieLV. 

Aip.irdvw (Ionic, Hippocrates) is found sporadically in 
composition: KaTa/Xi/x-TraVw 1 Gen. xxxix. 16 (contrast 13 and 15 
AetTTw), 2 K. v. 21, 3 K. xviii. 18 B (with assimilation Kcn-a- 
Xeijilidveiv A, not else attested) : i K \ip.Tr. Zech. xi. 16 : iyKaTaXifiir. 
* cxviii. 53: 8ui\ifnr. Tob. x. 7 B b A (SwXmtovo/ B*). Cf. the 
new form oirrdveo-OaL, § 24 S.V. bpdv. 

Reduplication is dropped in (xvTj<rKO(iai (cited from Anacreon 
by Veitch, who compares v-n-op-vrja-Kova-a Orphic Hymns) : Is. 
lxii. 6 B* 1 M. vi. 1 2 An, xii. 1 1 w. (The present p.ip.vq(TKop.ai 
itself is not used in Attic prose.) For vi^w (vice v<2) see § 24. 

Nitttw (Hellenistic for Attic -vitfo) is the only present form 

used in LXX. For 6irTd£op.ai, 6irTavo|iai see §24 S.V. opdu). 

TikCa-Kw, a rare by-form of TeAew (found in ii/B.c. on the 
Rosetta stone and in the poet Nicander) occurs in the passive 

1 So Thuc. viii. 17 and occasionally in Ptolemaic papyri along with 
KaraXefaru which is much more frequent, especially in wills, Mayser 402. 
See an interesting note of Dr J. H. Moulton on -\Lfj.irdvuj in the Classical 
Quarterly, vol. n. 138 (April, 1908) : further exx. in Anz Subsidia 307 f. 

15—2 



228 Verbs in -O [§ 19, 3 — 

in Dt. xxiii. i7 b apparently = "to be initiated." The latter half 
of the v. is a doublet but probably the older version : 1 7 a reads 
iropvrj, 7ropvevwv for the <X7ra£ \ey6fitva (in LXX) T€A.eo-</>dpos, 
TcAt(J/<d/X€VGS of I7 b . 

§ 20. Verbs in -fi. Future Tense. 

1. Blass remarks (N.T. § 18, 1): "The so-called Attic 
future of verbs in -e'w, -a£co etc. disappears, almost entirely, 
as the name implies, from Hellenistic Greek, and entirely 
from the N.T." The tendency was to bring these anomalous 
forms into line with the other sigmatic futures and so to 
prevent the possibility of confusion between future and present. 
The disappearance of the Attic futures was, however, gradual : 
the kolvt] even employed some ' Attic ' futures from verbs in 
-£w which were unknown to Attic writers : the LXX, supported 
by the Ptolemaic papyri, presents some contrasts to the N.T. 

(i) Futures in -tw from -tf> verbs were the oldest and 
most widespread of these asigmatic forms, being common to 
Attic and Ionic 1 , and they were likewise the last to disappear. 
In LXX the futures in -iu> (-lov/xcli) are practically used through- 
out (d^ai'iw, a<f>opi<i>, iyyiw etc.) as in the Ptolemaic papyri 2 . 

In the N.T. the -icrco forms preponderate, and a distinction 
is observable between the forms used by the writers and those 
which they incorporate in O.T. quotations : there is a tendency 
to keep 3rd plur. -tovcriv rather than -ia-ovaiv with double a 3 . In 
Josephus both forms occur, those in -tern again preponderating 4 . 

Futures in -iV<u in LXX are mainly variants of the (probably 
later) A or X text : in B they occur in late books such as Prov. 
and EccL, and sporadically elsewhere. The following exx. have 
been noted. Aiperiaei Gen. xxx. 20 E : Kov<pi<rovaiv Ex. xviii. 
22 A, I K. vi. 5 A: o-aXnlaeis N. x. 3 B* (-lets cett, 5 fif. -it'ire, 
-loiaiv), Ez. xxxiii. 3 AQ: K.adapicr(a>) N. xxx. 13 B (-tet AF, and 
so 9 BAF), Ez. xliii. 26 A, Mai. iii. 3 BA : opdpla-eis Jd. ix. 33 A: 
7r\ovTL(rei 1 K. xvii. 25 A: (8ia)a-TT)pia-co Jer. iii. 12 Q, xvii. 5 BNA, 

1 K.-Bl. § 227, 4. 2 Mayser 356. 

3 Blass N.T. ib., WH 2 App. 170. 

4 W. Schmidt 447 ff. 



20, I] 



Future Tense 



229 



Sir. xxviii. 1 (where the two forms are combined) Stao-r^piwi/ 
8ia<TTi]pi(Tfi BAC : 8iao-icopTri<T(eis) Ez. v. 2 B, Job xxxvii. 1 1 A, 
Dan. xi. 24 A : yvupiaovo-tv Ez. xliv. 23 Q : Sia^fptcrere Ez. 
xlvii. 21 BA : d(pav i'o-(co) 2 K. xxii. 38 A, Jl. ii. 20 X* ^ cxlv. 9 A : 
o-ufinoSia-ovcriv Zech. xiii. 3 S cb : c9epur(et) Prov. xxii. 8 BSA, Eccl. 
xi. 4 BSAC, Job iv. 8 C : vTrepac-rria-ei Prov. xxiv. 28 A, W. 
v. 16 N*, avvao-niaeiv 3 M. iii. IO V: KaTanovTio-ovariv Eccl. 
x. 12 XA : KopiaeTai Sir. xxix. 6 BN (-teirai A): cpc»m'cra> 2 Es. 
xvii. 65 (-io-a)i/), Bar. i. 12 (-t'077 A), Ep. J. 66 B: \j/(op.l.ao> Dan. O 
iv. 29 and iv. 22 A. 

(ii) Verbs in -di;co in classical Greek take the 'Attic future' 
in a few instances as a by-form beside the future in -do-co. In 
LXX the contracted fut. is common in verbs of this type and 
is extended to verbs with long stem-syllables, apTrd&iv etc., in 
which Attic always employed fut. in -0-w 1 . 



The following exx. of fut. in -co receive some support in 
earlier (Attic or Ionic) Greek. 



avafrifiw 2 Gen. xlvi. 4 DF. 



Ez. xxxix. 2 B. 

Am. viii. 10. 
eVtj3i/3(co) Hos. x. 11, Hb. 
iii. 15 -as B*X* -a ib. 19. 
Ka.Ta{ii.fi5> Ez. xxvi. 20 A. 



avpfiifi5> Ex. iv. 12 F. 

* xxxi. 8 BXAR. 
-fitfidds sic Dt. iv. 9 A*. 
-0 t /35 Is. 3d. 13 B*X*Q* 



di>a/3i/3do-(co) ib. A. 

Ex. iii. 17. 
Is.lviii.i4-(r«i(-o->;N). 
Ez. ib. AQ. 



KaTafiifidaco Ez. ib. BQ, Jer. 
xxviii. 40 X*. 
-daovaiv Dt. xxi. 4, Ez. 
xxviii. 8, xxxii. 18. 
avpj3ifidcr(a>) ib. BA, iv. 1 5, L. 
x. 1 1 -cretj. 
-dcrco ib. U. 
-dans ib. BF. 
-do-ft ib. AN ca Q">K (with 
1 Cor. ii. 16 quot). 



■rrapafii5>vTai 3 Am. vi. IO BQ. 
eKSixdrat 4 L. xix. 18, Dt. xxxii. St(cdo-(co) I K. viii. 20, xii. 7 B. 
43 B (-en-at A), Jdth xi. IO. 



1 Kuhner-Blass § 228. 3 (b). 

3 Attic fiiaaofiat. (but see Veitch). 

4 Att. 5iK&<ru> -dcro/ucu : Ionic -5t/ctD. 



2 Attic -PiQu. 



230 Verbs in -O, [§ 20, I — 

(d7ro)SoKt/io) 1 Jd. vii. 4 A, Jer. Soki/xoo-(co) Jer. ix. 7 X ca , Sir. 
ix. 7, xxxviii. 35, Zech. xiii. xxvii. 5 A. 

9, Sir. xxvii. 5 X* -a, xxxiv. 
26 do. 

The following are unclassical (Att. -da-oo -do-opm). dyopwp.ev 
2 Es. XX. 31. dp-rrq, dpTrdrai, (di)iipTrwvrai L. xix. 1 3 B, Ez. xviii. 7, 
Hos. v. 14, Zeph. ii. 9: class. dp7rua-(<o) L. xix. 13 AF, Jd. xxi. 
21 A. (Kar)epya, -arm, -wvtcu passim 2 : the class, epyduofiai is 
never used. 

(iii) On the other hand the Attic futures of certain verbs 
in -dw -i<a viz. eAw (from eAdw, iXavvoi) /caAto TeAw have been 
replaced 3 by (d7r)eAdcra) (Ex. xxv. n, Ez. xxxiv. 12) KaAeo-w and 
(o-w)TeA.co-w : present and future were thus clearly differentiated. 

In Jer. xiv. 12 oruirfAco N (o-ui/reXeVo) cett.) may be fut. : koXco 
ib. xxxii. 15 (KaXeaa A) xli. 1 7 is probably present. 

For class, fut. x eoj > X € ' s > X € ' (indistinguishable from the 
present) LXX, differentiating the tenses, has (cbro- Ik- Trpoa- 
<rvy-)x*<j>, x*eis, x €e <- etc - > X 6 ' Mai. iii. 3 A is apparently intended 
for the class, fut. 

(iv) "OWvfu (air-) in LXX retains the Attic fut. (d7r)oAu> 
-ov/Aat : 6Ae'o-<o (Epic and late prose) which is normal in N.T. 4 
is confined to Dt. vii. 23 A, Eccl. ix. 18, a gloss in Is. i. 25 
(the clause tovs o"e diruOovvTas d.TToXi(Tu> is absent from MT, 
and Is. elsewhere uses a-n-oXw) and Sir. vi. 3 aVoAeo-ets (but 
aYoAet vi. 4, x. 3, xx. 22). "O/xivfjn similarly has fut. 6fxov/x.at (Ex. 
xxii. 8, Dt. xxxii. 40, Is. xlv. 23, Ixv. 16) not the later Oju-oVw 5 . 

2. To the liquid verbs which retain asigmatic futures 
((d7r)ayyeAdj, (aVo)u-TeAw etc.) there is added a new future, 
formed from the 2nd aor., £\u> iXovfun (dv- d<f>- etc.), which 

1 Ionic : Att. doKi/macrcx). 

2 So in papyri and inscriptions from ii/B.C, Mayser 357 : KaraaKevdv 
appears even earlier, ib. 

3 So in the Ptolemaic papyri: Mayser 357 cites one iii/B.c. instance of 

fut. (TVVTiKodfTLV. 

4 'OXw only in an O.T. quotation (1 Cor. i. 19): but diroKovixai still 
remains. 

5 'O/000-w Prov. xxiv. 32 is aor. conj. 



§ 20, 3] Future Tense 231 

has entirely supplanted the old alpyjaw. A similar new fut., 
formed from the 2nd aor. on the analogy of eViov Trtofxai, is 

(payo/xat. 

The class, i'dofiai, which is absent from N.T., still remains in 
the LXX, mainly in the Pentateuch, but cf>dyofiai is four times 
as frequent : the proportion for the simple verb is about 56 f S. 
(40 in Pent.): 225 (pay. ; the only book where eS. has marked 
preponderance is Exodus (19 eo\, 4 (pay. viz. xii. 8 a , n a , 44, 
xxxiv. 18: contrast Deut. 2 e'S., 53 (pay.). 

At.afxa)(y]creTai Sir. xxxviii. 28 is the only ex. of fut. of 

fid^o/Jiai (Att. fxa)(ovfxaL, Ion. -yaa^cro/x.at -ecro/xai). 

"E£<o is used to the exclusion of axw * (§ J 5> 3)- 

3. The future active begins to supplant the future 
middle which Attic Greek employed with a certain group of 
active verbs with quasi-deponent meaning, expressing for the 
most part a physical action or an emotion 1 . 

ao-o) Is. v. 1, ¥ (4 times). aaofiai Jd. v. 3 BA, Is. xxvi. 1, 

■^ (6 times). 

dicovaa) 3 times only in B text duovarofiai (da-- eV- vir-) is the 
viz. 2 K. xiv. 1 6 [but -o-o/xat normal LXX form, 

xvi. 21 etc.], Is. vi. 9 BNQ 
(perhaps under the in- 
fluence of the N.T. quo- 
tations in Mt. xiii. 14, Acts 
xxviii. 26: elsewhere in 
Is. -aofiai), Jer. li. 16 BX 2 . 

akaXa^a) Is. xli. i X, Jer. xxix. -a£o/xm A in Jer. Ez. locc. citt. 
2, Ez. xxvii. 30. 

afiapTTja-a Sirach (vii. 36, xxiv. -a-ojxai elsewhere in LXX. 
22). 

r d7ravTTj(ra> and -a-opai are both equally repre- 

sented. 

(Tvvavrr](Tu> Ex. v. 3 AF, Is. -cro/mi 9 times, 
xxxiv. 14. 

J)iravTr](T(ii Sir. xv. 2 XA. -(rofiai ib. BC, Dan. O x. 14. 

1 Kiihner-Blass § 323 : Rutherford NP 377 ff. 

2 Also as a variant or in Hexaplaric interpolations in A and X: 3 K. 
viii. 42 A (?from Aquila), Jer. xi. 3 X, Mic. iii. 7 AQ, ^ cxliv. 19 X, Prov. 
xxviii. 17 a X, Job xxxvii. 23 X : in Ez. viii. 18 AQ ov fir) eiaaKovixo} (from 
Theod.) the verb is no doubt conj. 



232 



Verbs in -Q 



[§ 2 °> 3— 



else (Badiovfiai 1 . 



-/3\4^ofiai usually (Dt., i and 3 K., 
2 Ch., Is., Min.) 



ftoi'jo-onai usually. 



-(rofiai elsewhere in LXX. 

-a-ofiai L. xxvi. 32, Job xiii. 10, 
Is. xli. 23, Hi. 15, Jer. iv. 9. 



j3a8ia> Jer. xxx. 3 X*. 

(iiwcru) Prov. vii. 2, Job xxix. 

18, 4 M. vi. 20 (eVt/3.)- 
-^\(\j/a> rarely : L. xxvi. 9, Is. 

vi. 9 (as in the N.T. cita- 
tions : see above on d- 

Kovaco), lxvi. 2, v. 1 2 X*, 

Ez. xxxvi. 9, Zech. i. 16 B*, 

Tob. xi. 8X, Job ex. 4 A. 
-fior](Ta> rarely, usually with 

v.l. : L. xxv. 10, Jos. vi. 10 

B, Is. v. 29 f. BX, xxxiv. 

14 X, xlii. II BXT (-o-o/Liai 

8 times in Is.), Lam. iii. 8, 

I Ch. xvi. 32 A, 1 M. 
iv. 10X. 

-ye\d(ra> Job xxi. 3 B, 4 M. 

v. 28. 
Oavfidaco (Ionic) L. xix. 15 

(-0775- F), Dt. xxviii. 50, 

Job xxi. 5 B (-a-are XA), Is. 

xiv. 16 XAQr (-aovrai B). 

KV^CO f 1 ix. 31. 

olpoi^w 4 M. xii. I 5. 

oAoAu£o) Is. xvi. 7, lxv. 14, 

Am. viii. 3. 
efinai^co Is. xxxiii. 4 BX*Q, 

Job xl. 24 A. 
nveva-o) V cxlvii. 7 (perhaps 

causat. "make to blow"), 

Sir. xliii. 20. 
aiyrj(To> Ex. xiv. 14, Sir. xx. 7. 
aimm')cro) Is. lxv. 6 BXQ 

(-aofiai A), Sir. xx. 7 X. 
(rpf'^w) bpafiat Cant. i. 4 2 - 
(f)8d<ra> (Ionic, Xen.) Eccl. 

xii. I, tt po(pddo-a> 4 K. xix. 

32, Sir. xix. 27, ■*• lviii. 

I I etc. 

With some verbs Attic preferred fut. mid. but also employed 
fut. act. So in LXX (icaTa)Sia>£<u -ofiai are both used (but only 
o:Stw£a>) : similarly ^cra (causatively ^ cxxxvii. 7, cxlii. 1 1 (rfo-us 
/Lie) 4 K. xviii. 32, Prov. ix. 1 1 BX, Am. v.' 6 A, Sir. xxxvii. 26 A 
and (commonly) (rfo-ofxai. The fut. act. only is used in the 

1 The later f3a8tffo/j.ai. -icrw are not found in LXX. 

2 And perhaps 2 K. xviii. 19, 22 (dpap-w Swete). 



else {ifi)Tval^ofiai. 
-aofiai Sir. xliii. 16. 



-aopai Lam. iii. 49. 

else -tro/xai Is. xlii. 14, lxii. 1, 

6 etc. 
else -8pa.fj.ovfj.ai. 
[Attic qj6rjaofj.ai not used.] 



§ 21, i] First and Second A or is t 233 

following verbs (class, prefers mid.): yrjpdaoi (Job xxix. 18), 
ypv£a>, en (live (ra>, cf. dprrda-co I (ii) above. 

Many middle futures remain unaltered e.g. yvmaopai, 8i]£opat, 
ciTrodavovpai, <\avaopai (not -era) as in N.T.), KfKpd^opai (for 
KfKpd^ere Jer. iv. 5 BX read Ketcpd^are AQ : the unreduplicated 
-Kpd^opat is a v.l. in Is. xlii. 2 A, Jer. xxix. 2 X* Jl. iii. i6X ca AQ, 
Hb. i. 1 B*X S : the later <pd^u> is not found), ~Kr/(p)\^opai, padrj- 
aopai, f'icropni, o\j/opai, Trelaopai, pvrjaopai (not the rarer Attic 
pevaopai, nor the later pevcrco), re^opai, rev^opai, (f)ev£opai. 

The converse use of fut. mid. for class, act. occurs in the two 

new futures of x ai P fLV ^ x a P 1 i (T0 P aL an d x a P°^P ai (Att. x at Pl <Ta> : 
see § 24). Cf. h^rnaropai Is. lxv. 1 3 X*A. 

§ 21. Verbs in -Q. First and Second Aorist (and 
Future Passive). 

1. Sigmatic ist aorist for 2nd aorist. As has been 
stated elsewhere (§ 17, 2), the encroachment of the ist aorist 
terminations in -a (-av etc.) into the sphere of the old 2nd 
aorist began in a few instances in Attic Greek : in the kolvtj 
these terminations were rapidly extended to other verbs and in 
modern Greek they are universal in the past tenses. On the 
other hand the instances where the old 2nd aorist was replaced 
in the Koarq by an entirely new ist aorist in -o-a were few, and 
the later language has not advanced much further in this 
direction 1 . The few examples supplied by the N.T. 2 may be 
illustrated from the LXX, some of them, however, only from 
the later books. 

( T H|a) 3 for Ijyayov (the latter passim in LXX) occurs in the 
compound awi^a (mod. Gr. iarvva^a) in Jd. xi. 20 B (-i'iyayev A), 
2 Es. (vii. 28, viii. 15, xvii. 5), 1 M. i. 4 AXV (beside crwrjyayov 
elsewhere in these three books): also in endgai Est. ix. 25 (and 
perhaps eav 6° t-n-d^co Ez. xxii. 13 B: in Spare pr)...iirdi;a> Ex. 
xxxiii. 5 the verb is probably fut. : cf. Jos. ix. 13 opu prj...KaToi.Ke7s) : 
ava^ov I M. ix. 58 V. 

1 Thumb Handbuch 89 " Nur in einigen Fallen hat der sigmatische 
Aorist sich auf Kosten des asigmatischen bereichert." 

- Blass N.T. § 19, 1. 

3 The form seems to have been first used in the compounds: Mayser 369 
cites one Ptolemaic ex. of 112 B.C. 5idi;T}<<rde> : tva... &£w/j.ci> occurs in 
2 B.C., OP 742 (= YVitkowski 94) : exx. accumulate later, Crdnert 232 note 2. 



234 Verbs in -H [§ 21, 1 — 

'H|ActpTT]cra (so mod. Gr. dp.dpTr)o-a) beside fjpapTov, the normal 
LXX form, occurs only in Lam. iii. 42 r)papTr)o-apev, r]crefir)o-a.p.(v 
(contrast the same form of confession with rjfj.apTop.ev in Bar. 
ii. 12, Dan. oe ix. 5), Job xv. 11 C (r)p.dpTT]Kas cett.), Eccl. v. 5 
etjapaprrjo-ai B (in causative sense). 

'EfMcoo-a is used (to the exclusion of the usual Attic ej3la>v): 
W. xii. 23, Sir. xl. 28, Prov. ix. 6 AN ca , 8iaf3iwo-j] Ex. xxi. 21 BF: 
but far commoner is efyo-a (Ionic and late : not Attic). 

'E(3Xdo-TT]cra (usually, if not always, in causative sense) replaces 
the earlier Attic efiXao-rov throughout : Gen. i. 1 1 (3Xao-Tr)o-dTa> r) 
yr) (loTavriv, N. xvii. 8, 2 K. xxiii. 5 B, Is. xlv. 8, Sir. xxiv. 17, 
xxxix. 13: in comp. with «- Is. lv. 10, Job 6 xxxviii. 27. 

"EcW (intrans.)is still commonly retained : e 8v Gen. xxviii. 11, 
Jon. ii. 6, Tob. ii. 4, 7, x. 7 X, 1 M. x. 50, xii. 27, etVe'Su 1 M. 
vi. 46, eiredv Jer. xv. 9, 8vvai Jd. xiv. 1 8 A, conj. 8vjj L. xxii. 7 AF 
(8v B*), 2 K. iii. 35 : intrans. sigmatic 1 aor. 28vo-a in iav... 
KaraSvcroio-iv Am. ix. 3, inrodvo-avTes Jdth vi. 13, asigmatic I aor. 
Svvavros 2 Ch. xviii. 34 B (dvvovros A). ('Eve'cWa, e£48vaa in 
causal sense of clothing, unclothing are classical.) 

The class, dveicpayov is retained in Jos. vi. 4, 5 {-upayivrav 
AF vid ), Ez. ix. 1, xxi. 12, Zech. i. 14, 17, Sir. 1. 16: elsewhere (in 
the later historical books) dv€Kpa£a Jd. vii. 20, 1 K. iv. 5, 3 K. 
xii. 24 t B, xxii. 32, 1 M. ii. 27, 3 M. vi. 17, so UpaJcja. Jd. i. 14, 
2 K. xix. 4, Jer. xxii. 20 B, Tob. vi. 3 X, but the 1 aor. of the 
simple verb commonly takes the reduplicated form eniKpa^a 
ftassitn. 

"EXnrov is practically universal in the LXX, as it actually is 
in the Ptolemaic papyri 1 : <(X«i\|/a does not seem to have come 
into general use till the Christian era 2 and in LXX is limited to 
the B text of Judges (ix. 9, II, 13, dTro\efyao-a = d(pelcra A) and 
to 1 Ch. xxviii. 9 B iav KaraXfi^s (-Xfyeis A). The constant 
substitution in A of the imperf. -eXenrov, -eXenr 6p.rjv for -eXnrov, 
-eXnr6p.r)v of B may be taken as an indication that the 2nd aorist 
form had ceased to be familiar at the time when Cod. A or a 
parent MS was written. 

' AinsSpacra is confined to two passages in Cod. X : Jdth xi. 3 
(a7re8pas BA), Tob. i. 1 9 (elsewhere the classical forms dniSpas, 

-edpa, -eSpaaav, dnobpaOi, hiabpds). 

"E(p6ao-a (Attic) is the only aorist of cpddva> used in LXX, not 
the alternative Attic 2 aor. cfpdrjv. 

1 Mayser 364. 

2 Papyri exx. of KartXeiipa. from i/A.D. onwards are given in Deissmann 
BS 190, Cronert 234 note 6 (earliest date cited 40A.D.): cf. Dieterich 
Untersuck. 238. Josephus keeps KartXnrov : Schmidt 458 attributes an 
occasional -4\ei\pa in the MSS to copyists. From the same source has 
probably come wape\ei\pa.p.ei> in Polyb. xii. 15. 12. 



§ 2i, 4] First and Second A ovist 235 

Evpov, not fvpr/aa, in LXX. For eireaa see § 1 7, 2 : for 
i'Baxra, i'drjaa in Cod. A § 23, IO. 

2. Sigmatic for unsigmatic 1st aorist. New 1st 
aorists in -o-a replace in some instances an older unsigmatic 
1 st aor. The new iyd/x-rja-a occurs without variant in Est. F. 3, 
in conjunction with Att. eyrjfjui in 2 M. xiv. 25 (TraptKaXeaev 
avTov yr}iAaL...iyd[xr]<Tei'), while in 4 M. xvi. 9 both forms are 

attested (ya/x^'crai'Tes A, yyj/xavT€<; «V). Similarly (ar)ei\r](Ta 4 K. 
ii. 8, Ez. ii. IO (Att. etAa, as from eiAw, Epic e'A.cra). KaTeve/^- 
crdfArfv ty lxxix. 14 replaces Att. -i.vzip.dp.rjV (but Sie'vei/m Dt. 

xxix. 26) as vf.ixrjcrop.ai Jer. xxvii. 19 etc. replaces vep.ovp.ai. A 
1st aor. wo-a (Ionic, Hdt. 1. 157 dvolo-at) for ^Veyxa appears in 
Bar. i. 10 dvoicran. The desire for uniformity produces the 
new 1st aor. Kareo-KOTrrjo-a (class. -eaKeij/d[X7]}' as elsewhere in 
LXX) : 2 K. x. 3 (with Karao-Keif/ao-Oat in same v.) = 1 Ch. xix. 3, 
I M. V. 38 A (-o-KO-rrevo-ai «V). 

'AviOaXov (also in N.T.) ^ xxvii. 7, W. iv. 4, Sir. xlvi. 12, 
xlix. 10, Hos. viii. 9 is an example of the reverse rare phe- 
nomenon of a new 2nd aorist appearing in the later language 
(but there is no certain early instance of any aorist from this 
verb : dvedrjka is late). 

3. 2nd aor. pass, for 2nd aor. act. In ippvrjv (LXX 
with class. Greek) we have an early instance of the preference 
in the case of a v stem for the passive aorist in -r\v with active 
meaning. The nowr) extended this to other u verbs or perhaps 
revived old dialectic passive forms. So (for Att. e<pw) 
dv€(pvrj(o-av) i K. v. 6, Dan. O vii. 8, viii. 9, Trpoo-cpvivTos ib. 
vii. 20. LXX however retains eSw (1 supra) and has no 
instance of iSvrjv (as in N.T. Jude 4, with the early ex. of 
SidcSuT/rai in Hippocrates). 

Cf. class, exdprjv and the preference for passive aorists in 
deponent verbs (6 infra). 

4. 1st and 2nd aorist (and future) passive. The 



236 Verbs in -fl [§ 21, 4 

1 st aor. pass., like the 1st aor. act, held its own and extended 
its range in the koivq, and has survived with altered termina- 
tion in the modern language (&id-qKa). In a certain number 
of words, however, the 1st aor. pass, in -Qr\ V was replaced 
by the 2nd aor. pass, in -t]v. The somewhat surprising 
phenomenon of the introduction of new passive forms of the 
strong aorist— a tense which in the active was losing some of 
its ground— is largely due, no doubt, to the increasing prefer- 
ence in the later language for smooth and easy pronunciation, 
such as was afforded by the single consonant in the termination 
of the 2nd aor. pass., and the avoidance of the harsh juxta- 
position of consonants, especially of two aspirated letters {\0, 
<f>8), which occurred in most of the discarded passive 1st aorists. 
In the early vernacular and in poetry there are instances of e.g. 
ixpv<t>r]i> (for €Kpv(fi$r]v) : the koivyj sometimes went further and 
dropped the remaining aspirated letter, writing ixpvfirjv, and 
generally preferred a medial to an aspirated letter as the final 
sound of the stem 1 . 

-Tjyy&Tjv 2 (for -rjyye\3r]v) is Universal in LXX : av- aTr-Tjyy. 
passim, 81- Ex. ix. 16, 2 M. i. 33 : fut. av- an- 81- ayyeXr'jo-opai 
¥ xxi. 31, lviii. 13, 2 Es. xvi. 7. 

r\voiyi)v, fut. dvoiyrjaofxai, are limited to 2 Esd. (xxiii. 19, 
xyii. 3): elsewhere in LXX the 1st aor. pass, with x& is retained 
either in the classical form dvea>xdr)v {t\v. § 16, 6) or more often 
in the new form tjvolxdrjv with fut. pass, dvoix&ria-opai Is. xxxv. 5, 
lx. 11, Ez. xliv. 2, xlvi. 1. 

ify>ird-yT)v (81-) W. iv. 11, Sir. vi. 2, Tob. i. 20, with fut. Siap- 
Trayrja-opai Sir. xxxvi. 30, Am. iii. 11, Zech. xiv. 2, Dan. e ii. 5, 
iii. 96 A : but the class. 8i-(a-w-)r]pndcrdr]v is kept by some literary 
writers, Prov. vi. 25 BX, 3 M. v. 41, 4 M. v. 4. 

Fut. €\i-yT]o-op.ai Is. xxxiv. 4: the class, aor. is kept in Job 
xviii. 8 (lit.) i\i X 0e[r } («*■ A). 

The class. eKavdrjv, Kavdija-opai, in which there was as yet 3 
perhaps no clashing of aspirate sounds, are usual in LXX: 
€KdT]v (Epic, Ionic and late writers) appears in Jd. xv. 5 B, 2 K. 

1 Blass N.T. § 19, 3. 

2 A doubtful ex. occurs in Eur. /. T. 932, "the only instance in classic 
Greek" according to Veitch. 

3 Later they came to be pronounced like exacpd-qv, Ka<p6rjcrofiai. 



§ 21, 4] A oris t and Future Passive 237 

xxiv. I (tKKCirjvai), Dan. O iii. 19^/^(6 ib. ex Kajj), 94 (KaTeKarjcrav), 

and the fut. (7k- K(na-)Kar]o-opai in (Is. xlvii. 14 AQ*: -<av6. BX) 
Sir. xxviii. 12, 22 f., xl. 30, Tob. xiv. 4 BA (/<au#. X). 

«KpvpT]v, KpvfirjaoiJLai 1 (with compounds) are used throughout, 
to the exclusion of the classical but ill-sounding cKpycpdriv, 
Kpv(p8i)<rofjiar. cf. the new present Kpuj3o>, § 19, 3. 

SiaXe-yTJvcu i Es. viii. 45 B has classical authority : A reads 
8iaXex&'i , ' aL an d SO in 2 M. xi. 20, Est. i. 18 Xe^frVra BX, 8ta- 
XexB^aopai Sir. xiv. 20 BXC (-8ex&. A). 

In KaTeXiu-qo-av 2 Es. xi. 2 B* vld the reading is supported by 
the fact that this book has in another instance quoted above 
(rjvoiyrjv) been found the solitary LXX witness to these late 2nd 
aor. forms : the other MSS have -e\(e)i<p8r]o-av, the classical form 
of aorist which with -\ei(p8rjo-op.ai is used elsewhere in LXX. 

Fut. pass. vi<J>iio-o|icu L. xv. 12 comes under the same head: 
the older aor. pass, of vi(a> (vittto)) was ivicpd-qv (Hippocr.), no 
class, use of fut. pass, is attested. 

The Pentateuch uses the 1 aor. pass. Karevvxdrjv (a late 
compound : no passive tenses are attested in class. Greek of the 
simple verb) Gen. xxvii. 38 E, xxxiv. 7, L. x. 3 : the later books 
employ Karevvyqv 3 K. xx. 27, 29, ^ iv. 5, xxix. 13, xxxiv. 15, 
Sir. xiv. I, xlvii. 20, Dan. x. 16 B ab AQ, K.aTawyi)o-op.ai Sir. 
xii. 12, xx. 21. 

(KaT-)o)pv-yT|v 2 Jos. xxiv. 33 a B (class, -vx^ &■)■> J er - xxxii. 19 
{-v^uxriv A), Am. ix. 2 AQ {-Kpvfiwaiv B), ^ xciii. 13. 

kireo-KeTrr]v (<rvv-) (unclass.) is frequent and fut. e7rianeTT}]crop.ai 
occurs in 1 K. xx. 18 bis: the earlier 1st aor. (ea-Kecpdrjv Hippocr.) 
is confined to 1 Es. ii. 21 o n a> s...t tv «t <e(pd7] "that search may be 
made" (contrast vi. 21 emo-Kcn-riTco), the cognate fut. to Jer. iii. 
16 BAQ (tTri<TKe(f)7]cr. X*): cf. § 24 S.V. aKoireo). 

iTtryTjv (en- 2 M. xv. 20, eV- Ez. xxiv. 18, 1 Es. vi. 19 etc., 
irpou- aw- vtt-) is usual, with fut. v7roTay7jo-op.cn (^ lxi. 1, W. 
viii. 14, Dan. O vii. 27, xi. 37): the class. 1 aor. pass, is confined 
to the participle in two literary books which also use the 2 aor. : 
orav err LTayj) . . .crvvTeXovcri to Tax@tv ...to avvTaxdiv Ep. J. 61 f., to 
tt poo-Tax&ivTa Est. i. Ij- 

Where in classical Greek a verb possessed both 1 and 2 aor. 
pass., the former, if it contained two aspirated letters, disappears 
in LXX : so always ip{p)i(f)r]v (some classical authority), picprjo-opai 
(post-class.), -eo-Tpd(pr]v,-crTpa(prjo-op.cii,tO the exclusion o{epicp0T]v z , 
f'o-Tpicp0T]v etc. 

1 An instance in Eur. Suppl. 543 : the strong aor. in the form iKpv<pr)v 
is found in classical poetry. 

- The was dropped in the earlier vulgar language : KaTopvx.iryop.ea6a 
ttov yyjs; Aristoph. Av. 394. 

3 pi<t>9ic W. xviii. 18 A is clearly a corruption or correction of an 
original pi4>eic. 



238 Verbs in -Q [§ 21, 5 — 

5. On the other hand the general tendency was to intro- 
duce new first aorists passive 1 and analogous futures. 
'ETe^drjv (with T^Orja-ofxaC) Gen. xxiv. 15, 1. 23 etc. and a7T£- 
KTavOrjv 1 M. ii. 9 were in Attic expressed by different words 

(eyeid/x^v, dirWavov). 'EkXlOtji' (poet.) ^ ci. 12, Sir. XV. 4 

(kXio-Ot) «) and KXtOrja-ofxai ^ ciii. 5 BT replace the usual Att. 
2nd aor. €k\lvy)v and fcA.1v770-oju.a1. Other new or un-Attic forms 
are IfSpwO-qv (Ionic : not iqSeo-Orjv) — f3pM0rj(ro/Aa.L: iax^Orjv (Ionic: 
aw- Gen. viii. 2, 2 K. xxiv. 21 [-ecrOrj A], 25 [do.] etc., kclt- 
Tob. X. 2 K, 3 M. V. 12 [Ka.Tr)<Tx*@V A]) — <TX. i @V <T0 l uiaL (kot^.R. 
i. 13, o-ucr- Job © xxxvi. 8) : in passive sense confined to 
three books lp(p)vcr6-qv (4 K. xxiii. 18 B,* lix. 7, lxviii. 15 etc., 
1 M. ii. 60, xii. 15) — pvo-Orjcroixai (4 K. xix. n [in the parallel 
Is. xxxvii. 11 feat ah pvaOyar]; of B is a Hexaplaric addition], 
^ xvii. 30). Other exx. are given in the Table of Verbs (§ 24): 
a special class of these new forms is dealt with in the 
following paragraphs. 

6. Aorist (and future) passive for aorist (and 
future) middle in Deponent Verbs. Already in classical 
Greek many deponent verbs, particularly those expressive of 
emotion, took an aorist passive in -Qr\v in place of the aorist 
middle which from their reflexive or transitive meaning might 
be expected 2 : the majority, however, of these verbs retained 
the future middle. This employment of the passive was a first 
step in the direction of the elimination of the special forms of 
the middle voice (as in modern Greek) and the use was quickly 
extended in the Koivq to other verbs : uniformity was also 
introduced by the substitution of passive for the old middle 
futures. Two instances of these new passive aorists stand out 
from the rest by their great frequency. 

'E-y€VT|6i]v (with compounds: Ionic, Doric and Hellenistic) 



1 Except irixd 1 )" a U the instances quoted have only one aspirated 
letter. 

2 See the list in Kiihner-Blass § 324. 



§ 2i, 6] A or is t and Future Passive 239 

is used interchangeably with the Attic iyeidfxrjv throughout the 
LXX as in the Ptolemaic papyri 1 . 

The two forms often occur in the same context and it is 
hazardous to draw distinctions. But, on the whole, there appears 
to be a tendency to write eyevyjBrjv with a predicate and with 
the more substantive meaning "came," "became," "amounted 
to," "arose" (e.g. eyevrjdr] pf/fxa Kvpiov rrpos 'Aflpap, Gen. XV. I, to 
trpat eyevrjdr] Ex. x. 1 3), whereas the introductory formula "and 
it came to pass" in certain books at least (Pentateuch, 1 and 
2 Ch.) is more often ko\ eyevero : in the Kingdom books this 
distinction disappears. — Ez. a writes e'yevoprjv throughout (except 
eyevTjdrjv xix. 2, xxvi. I BQ : also xxvi. 17 AO, an interpolation 
from G) whereas Ez. /3 uses eyevrjdrjv frequently. — In the moods 
the old forms preponderate (but conj. yevqBoiaiv Dt. xxiii. 8, inf. 
yevrjdrjvat Ex. ix. 28, Jdth xi. 22, xii. 13, part, rarely yevrjOels e.g. 
Ex. xix. 16 : optat. only yevoip-rjv etc.) except that in the imperat. 
yevqdrjTca is as frequent as yeveadco and is preferred in the Pent., 
e.g. yevrjdrJTCo (pais- nai eyevero Cpcos Gen. i. 3. — The perf. yeyevrjpai, 
rare in Attic, is also uncommon in LXX, yiyova being usual 
(§ 24). — The Att. fut. yevrjo-opai is kept: Gen. xvii. 17 bis, Eccl. 
i. 9, II (yevT]6rjo: A), ii. 18 AC (ycvofj.. cett.). 

"A-n-eKpiGiiv "answered," theusual Hellenistic form, is employed 
throughout the LXX 2 : the classical direKpivdfxrjv in the few 
passages where it occurs seems to be chosen as suitable for 
solemn or poetical language : Ex. xix. 19 (God is the Speaker : 

contrast 8 direKpiOr] Se 7ras 6 A.aos), Jd. V. 29 A avTaireKpivavTo, 

dire.KpLva.To (in Deborah's song), 3 K. ii. 1 (David's solemn last 
charge to Solomon), 1 Ch. x. 13 (not in M.T. : probably a 
later gloss), aVo'/cpivou Job xl. 2 B (God speaks: diroKpiOrjTL kA: 
dweKpiOrj Ku'pios xxxix. 31 is from ®), Ez. ix. 11 (the speaker is 
an emissary from God). The fut. is a7roKpt6r;crop.ai. 

Similarly vneKpidrjv "dissemble," "impersonate," -Kpidrjs Sir. 

i. 29, -Kpt0eis 2 M. V. 25, -K.pidr)vai vi. 21 V {viroKplvai A) 24 

beside -Kpivao-dai (lit.) 4 M. vi. 17: SieKpldrjv and buiK.pi.6rio-op.ai 
"reason" or "plead" (Ez. a and Joel), and Kpidrjaop.ai in same 
sense Job xiii. 19, Jer. ii. 9. 

1 Mayser 379, 362. 

- It is the only form found in the Ptolemaic papyri, but the instances 
are few (Mayser 379). ' AireKpivd/xr]v continues into iv/B.c. in Attic inscrip- 
tions (Meist. 194). 



240 Verbs in -H [§ 21, 6 — 

Examples where verbs expressing emotion now take on these 
new forms for the first time are : 

r\(r&r\Qr\v : uladrjdrj Job xl. 18 but class. -i)o-66pj]v Job xxiii. 5 
BX (f<rdi)Tai A). (aladoifirjv), Ep. J 40 (aladt- 

Iadai), 4 M. viii. 4. 
for class. a.erfycro/xai. 

£6au(3ij8i]v * 1 M. vi. 8, Dan. Causal dapftelv, deponent -eio-Oai 

© viii. 17, 18 A. are unclass. 

(1£T€H€\ii9t|v (Polyb.) 1 K. xv. Class. Gk uses pres. and impf. 

35 etc., fut. -ridrjo-ofxai V cix. only of the personal verb. 

4 etc. : so perf. -fj.ffieXrjfj.ai 

1 M. xi. 10. 

'Hye p0T)v (also Attic) is used to the exclusion of rjyp6p.rfv, 
together with the new fut. iyepBrfa-opai. 

On the other hand we have only middle aorists in the 
following cases: rjyaWiaaup.T)v (with fut. -daop.ai: N.T. has also 
yyaXkui((r)8ri v), dTreXoyrjo-dprfv 2 M. xiii. 26 (-rjcropat Jer. xii. I : 
N.T. has besides -ridy), T]pvrf<jdprfv Gen. xviii. 15, 4 M. viii. 7 
(Attic preferred ijpvijdrjv : fut. as in Att. (aTr)apvnaopai Is. xxxi. 7, 

4 M. X. 15), efxaxfo-afxrfv (not ipaxioSrfV as in Plut). 

In the following both aor. mid. (rare in class. Greek) and aor. 
pass, are represented in LXX : rj^iuaro Jdth ix. 3 (else fjdeadtfv 
I, 2 and 4 M.), dieXegavro Jd. viii. I B (but diaXex^vai I Es. 
viii. 45 A [-Xeyi]vai B], 2 M. xi. 20 : fut. -Xexdrjcrofiat Sir. xiv. 20 is 
classical beside -Xeijopai). 

7. A new future passive makes its appearance beside 
the old classical aorist passive in the following deponent verbs. 
A.l<TxvvOri<TOfxai Is. i. 29 etc. (the class, fut. of the simple verb 

usually -ovfJLOU, but liraLQ-xwOrjaofxaL) : 8er]8rjaoixai 3 K. viii. ^^ etc. 
(class. hrnaofJLai not in LXX): Iv0vfi7]6rja-op.ai W. ix. 13, Sir. 
xvi. 20 (but class. irOv/xyjoreTai Sir. xvii. 31 B*C : -t]6t]<t. N*AB a ): 
KOLjxrfOrjcrofxaL passim (no early attestation for fut. pass, or mid.): 

■n-XaviiOrfO-ofxai Is. xvii. 1 1 (class. 7r\avrjcroixa,i) : cpof3i]6r]<JOfxaL 

(doubtful class, authority) is used throughout LXX (except 

1 "Rdavfiacrdriv, davpaadrjaofxai in LXX are used passively only (class. ), 
not as deponents, as in the Apocalypse. Est. C. 2 r ^drjKeu ras x e ^P a ^ o-vt&v, 
€^apai...d<paulaai...Kal dvdi^ai...Kai davpaadrjvat fSaaChea adpKivov ds alQva 
is a possible exception: R.V. translates as passive. 



§ 22, i] Contract Verbs 241 

4 M. viii. 1 9 ov <po/3r]o-6fxe6a A : -r\Qn]<r. « : A is probably right 
considering the writer's Attic proclivities). Ev\a.f3r)0rjo-op.ai, 
ev^pavd-ijaofjiaL, opyiaOyaofjiai, for which there is some classical 
authority, are used to the exclusion of ev\a/37]o-op.ai, €v(ppavovp.ai, 
opyiovfiai. 

The old middle futures are kept in e.g. Bwrjcropm, Tropevaofxai : 
Cod. A supplies instances of the later forms, dwrjOijo-opai 1 1 K. 
xvii. 33, Jer. v. 22, Ez. vii. 19, 7ropevdrj(ropai 3 K. xiv. 2 (inter- 
polation from Aquila), so R. ii. 9 BA (beside Tropevcrr) in same v.). 
Further middle futures retained are ftovXrjcropai Job xxxix. 9, 
{■mpe\i](TOfjLai Sir. xxxiii. 13'', netpdaopai 2 M. bis. 

§ 22. Contract Verbs. 

1. Confusion of forms in -dw -«o. In modern Greek 
the three old types of contract verbs have practically 2 been 
reduced to one, viz. a combination of those in -aw and -em, in 
which the forms of the -aw class in a (a) have been retained, 
while the c3 of the 1st and 3rd plur. has been replaced by ov 
from the -«o class : pwTw -as -a -ovp.e -are -ovv. The merging 
of -aw -«o into a single class found a starting-point in the forms 
which were common to the two classes (ti/at/'o-w <£iA?/'o-w). 

In the LXX the old classes are in the main correctly dis- 
tinguished, but in the Maccabees portion of Codd. An and 
elsewhere (rarely in B) we see the beginnings of the process 3 
in the confusion of w and ov in the imperf., present and 
participle. 

In the following instances -da verbs take on forms from those 
in -e'<D (ov for co). Imperf. (3rd plur.) : e'nrip6)T<>vi> 2 M. vii. 7 A (-wv 
V), -qpevvovv I M. ix. 26 N (-coi' AV), crvvrjVTov I M. xi. 2 X (-cov 
AV) : (1st sing.) irpoaeboKow ^ cxviii. 166 AR {-<ov NT). Pres. : 
ripovcrcv Is. xxix. 13N* Bvpioixriv ib. Ixv. 3 X. Part. : KaTafiooiv- 
tchv 2 M. viii. 3 A (-uvtcov V), cria>novvTu>v 4 M. x. 1 8 A (-avrcov X). 

1 Cod. A also supplies the only ex. of aor. mid. idw-qtrainqv (poetical) in 
1 M. ix. 9 8vptj(Xio/j.eda (dvvwp.eda XV). For the usual aor. ■fjSvvfiOTjj' -aad-qv 
see §§ 18, 2, 16, 3. 

2 The type warQ -€is is rare : the -6w class has disappeared and made 
way for new forms in -tl>i>u) : Thumb Handbitch 1 12 ff. 

3 The instances multiply in Patristic writings : Reinhold 85 f. 

T. 16 



242 Contract Verbs [§ 22, 1 — 

In the following readings -ia> verbs go over to the -aa> class 
(<o for ov). Imperf. : e8vo-(p6p(Dv 2 M. xiii. 25 A (-opV), i6(d>pa>v 
Jdth x. 10 X (-ovv B, -ovaav A), efiiacov Mai. ii. 1 3 X* (-01* cett.), 
rjyvouv W. vii. 12 X e - avid . Pres. : tttowvtcii Jer. xxvi. 5 B*xA 
(-oCi'rai Q), TtaToxTiv Is. XXV. IO A. Part. : {to epyov...rjv) dpyaiv 
2 Es. iv. 24 BA, cf. Xakovra Zech. i. 19 X* {=XaXS>vra for -oOi/ra). 
Conj. : tva ^...entiKa 2 M. vi. 15 A (-3 V). 

'EAcav has almost entirely supplanted the older eXeeiv : the 
tenses most commonly used (ijXe-qo-a kXerjo-ia) are of course 
derivable from either. 

So with preponderant authority (B ab and occasionally A 
reading the -ia> form) eXea Tob. xiii. 2 B*XA, ¥ xxxvi. 26, cxiv. 
5 X (-ei AT), Prov. xiv. 31, xxi. 26, Sir. xviii. 14: eXeeoo-tv Prov. 
xiii. 9 a BX {-ovo-I A) : eXeavn Prov. xxviii. 8 B* {-own B ab XA) : 
(Xemvres 4 M. vi. 12, e'Xe'a (impt.) ib. ix. 3. The older -e'a> forms 
are retained in two literary books only : eXeels W. xi. 23, cXeelv 
2 M. iii. 21. 

2. Verbs in -dw. Zaw (C^w) 1 keeps Attic rj and xpaoyum 
has Att. inf. xPW^ aL (Est. viii. n &>, E. 19, ix. 13, W. xiii. 18, 
2 M. iv. 19, xi. 31), xpckr#a.i (Ionic and late) 2 only in 2 M. 
vi. 21 A (xpwaaOaL V). But the remaining "-ly'w verbs," as 
Dr J. H. Moulton terms them 3 , are in the kolvtj brought into 
uniformity with other -aw verbs. So in LXX Sii^a Is. xxix. 8 
(ind.), Prov. xxv. 21 (conj.): newa Prov. xxv. 21 (conj.), €7mVas 
Dt. xxv. 18. 

In the last-named verb the a further encroaches into the fut. 
and 1st aor. (§ 18, 1), ireivdo-a) eirelvaaa always in LXX: 
similarly d^do-ovo-iv 4 Is. xlix. 10 BX*Q* (elsewhere always 

Si\//-//crco Is. lxv. 13 etc., eSi'^cra). 

KarrjpTjo-aTo 3 K. ii. 8 A is the Ionic form {-do-aro B is Attic). 

3. Verbs in -e'w. The classical rule that dissyllabic verbs 
in -e'co contract only £« and cei is observed in LXX in the case 

1 The only LXX imperf. ^j'tjc (as from fij/u) N. xxi. 9, Jos. iv. 14, 2 K. 
xix. 6 has some classical authority beside ^wv: imperat. $rjdi (similarly 
formed) Dan. 00 ii. 4 etc. is post-classical. 

2 Karaxpaadai appears in Egypt as early as iii/B.C beside XRV a ^ al -' 
Mayser 347. 3 Prol. 54. 

4 The reading is supported by the marginal note in Q, d'a' 5i\]/tj<t. 
a' 6,uoiws Tois 0' diipda. 



§ 22, 3] Contract Verbs 243 

of 7rAe'w, 7rv€oj, pew in the passages, not very many, where these 
verbs appear. With Seo/xtu and x cw , the Kowrj, as illustrated by 
the LXX, shows a tendency to extend the use of uncontracted 
forms still further 1 . 

A«'o|icu in several instances leaves ee uncontracted (Seercti, 
Seea-dat are attested in MSS of Xenophon, Veitch s.v.). 
In LXX : 

Uncontracted. Contracted. 

eViSe'erai Dt. xv. 8 B, IO B SeTrai Sir. xxviii. 4, Dan. O vi. 5. 

(-8fT]TaL AF bis). 

f'Se'ero Job xix. 16 (eSeelro A), ddelro Gen. xxv. 21, Est. C. 14BN, 

Jdth xii. 8 B (eSero A), Dan. O vi. 10. 
Est. C. 14 A. 

bieadai •* xxvii. 2, lxiii. 2. Seitr^ai Job xxxiv. 20. 

A mixture of forms, irregular retention of e before contracted el, 
is seen in e'Sfeiro A Job loc. at., cf. eViSeov/xeVa) Sir. xli. 2 A 
(-beofieva cett.). More striking is the juxtaposition twice over 
of a similar form beside an uncontracted ee in Dt. xv. 8 B, 10 B, 
oa-ov eVtSe'ercu, kciOoti. evSeeiTcu. Is this intended for a future 
analogous to the LXX fut. ^to -eely -eel (§ 20, 1 (hi))? 

In x«» Attic Greek had already relaxed the rule as to 
contraction in (i) the syllables -ee, which might be contracted or 
not : but (ii) -eei was always contracted. The LXX keeps the 
open forms also in (ii) in the new future ^f" x* fis X eei (§ 2 °> J )> 
which was designed to differentiate the fut. from the present : 
also occasionally in the present, eK^e'eu/ Jer. xxii. 17 (cf. present 
noielv which follows), irpoax^iv Ez. xliii. 18 and (apparently not 
to be accented as futures) Karaxici Job xli. 14, ex^e'et Sir. xxviii. 1 1, 
Xeet ib. xliii. 19. As regards (i) diversity still prevails. Contracted 
are inx^tcrBai, Ste^elro, eyxft 4 X. iv. 41, eV^ei ib. iv. 40 B : but 
uncontracted e^ee Jd. vi. 20 B, e^e'ere * Lxi. 9 BR [6' Ez. 
xxxiii. 25], and passim ivi X eev. With 8ia X euTca L. xiii. 55 A cf. 
e'vfieeirat in the preceding paragraph. 

Of fluctuation between -to and -ew (as in earlier Greek) the 
LXX affords the following examples. 

'E7rt^e'Xo/xfu and -peXovfiai are both classical : Ptolemaic 
papyri use the former almost exclusively (Mayser 347 f.). So 
enifieXeadai I M. xi. $7 NV* (-fifXelade A), but iwLjxeXoifiai Gen. 
xliv. 21 : the frequency of eTri/ieXo^fvos in the papyri supports 
the accent eTri/xe'Aou in Prov. xxvii. 25. 

'E/crrie^oiWes Ez. xxii. 29 BA (-ovres Q) has Ionic (Horn. 

1 In Patristic writings exx. of airoTrXeav, iKirvteiv, Kartppee etc. occur: 
Reinhold 84 f. 

1 6 — 2 



244 Contract Verbs [§ 22, 3 — 

TTie&vp, Hdt. TTiegevpevos) and Hellenistic authority (Polybius) : 
else in LXX niefa (-dfa, § 24). 

'Pnrrea> in pres. and impf. is classical beside pin™ : so in 
2 M. (eTripmTovvres iii. 26, i^epiirTovv x. 30) and Dan. (piir- 
rovpev -ovvTos ix. 18, 20) : in ^ lxxxiii. II B reads TrapapnTTelo-dai, 
the other uncials -eo-0ai: elsewhere pinra) epiirrov Jer. vii. 29, 
xliii. 23, xlv. 26, W. xvii. 19. 

LXX has (TTepeco (2 M. xiii. II, 3 M. ii. 33), Trpoo-K.vpovo-av 
(i M. x. 39), avyKvpovaais -ovvra (N. xxi. 25, xxxv. 4 etc.) only : 
Ptolemaic papyri have o-repopai only (class, in pres. and impf.) 
and usually irpoo-- avy- Kvpovr(a): Mayser 348. 

4. Verbs in -ow. These are as a rule regular and un- 
affected by confusion with the other types, analogous to that 
which takes place between -aw and -e'w verbs. Exceptions 1 are 

itjjXrjcra. Zech. viii. 2 N (-waa -w*ca cett), iaTpayya\r)p.evo<; Tob. 

ii. 3 AB ab (-w//.eVos B*) io-Tpayya\r}Toi n ib. : the converse change 
is seen in /Se/^apw/zeVos 2 M. xiii. 9 V (-77/x.eVos A). 

The inf. is still in -ow as in the Ptolemaic papyri 2 : the 
later -6lv only in v\polv Tob. xii. 6 B (-ow A). Cf. the substitu- 
tion of 01 for ov in o-(pr]voLo~0(D 2 Es. xvii. 3 N*. 

Ai]Xovarovaiv I Es. iii. 15 A, e-rreTr'Kr^povTO ( = -<uro) 2 M. vi. 4 A 
may be compared with the exx. of replacement of &> by ov referred 
to above (1). 

For 2nd sim, r . -ucrm -010-ai see § 17, 12. 

§ 23. Verhs in -MI. 

1. Transition to the -«> class. As a consequence of 
the general tendency of the later language towards uniformity 
and elimination of real or imagined superfluities, the com- 
paratively small class of verbs in -/xt was destined to disappear 
or rather to be absorbed into the predominant class of verbs 
in -w. In modern Greek the absorption is complete. In the 
LXX the process is only beginning and the -^ti forms are still 
well represented: the transition to the -w class is less advanced 

1 A further instance probably in dditiw/j-evrj 011 /xi] adwwdrjs Jer. xxix. 
13 BSQ (adoovpLevr) A): the pres. part., not the perfect, is usual in this 
manner of rendering the Hebrew inf. absolute. 

- Mayser 349: the earliest ex. of -oiv to which Dr J. H. Moulton refers 
me is dated 18 a.d. (BM iii. p. 136 bis). The form owes its origin to 
analogy (\t>ei : Xuetv :: 5t]\o?: drj\o7v) as explained in his Pro/. 53 n. 2. 



§ 23, 2] Verbs in -MI 245 

than in the N.T. In particular the -\xi forms in the middle- 
passive voice are almost universal. The middle -tu forms held 
out longest, no doubt, because the terminations in that voice 
differed less widely from the -w type than in the active : 
TiOerai, e.g., could be referred to either type; the comparative 
rarity of the use of the middle of these verbs, mainly in literary 
writings, also perhaps contributed to the preservation of the 
classical forms. The new verbs in -w were not always coined 
in the same mould. They might be contracts in -aw -e'w -o'w, 
or they might be mute (liquid) verbs in -«. The three forms 
of -fxi verb with infinitives -dvai -evai -6vat perhaps suggested 
the formation in the first place of contract verbs in -aw -eu -da>, 
which ultimately made way for mute verbs. Thus arose to-raw 
— (t)a-TaVw : Ti#e'w — t<$w : SiSdw — Stow. In the first of these 
pairs LXX prefers to-raw, N.T. to-raiw. 

2. The verbs in -wfu (including oXXvyn = dAw/xt) may be 
considered first because they were the first to succumb, active 
forms as from -wo appearing already in Attic Inscriptions of 
v/iv/B.c. 1 In the LXX the -/xt forms are universal in the 
middle voice (the instances occur mainly in the literary books), 
while in the active the -w forms are normal, but not quite to 
the exclusion of the older type. The distinction between 
active and middle holds good in the Ptolemaic papyri 2 . 

Active -vfu forms. Active -i>w forms. 

€iri.8e£Kvv|Ai 4 M. vi. 35 : Scikvvw Ex. xxv. 8, Ez. xl. 4, Tob. 

v7ro8Uvvfj.ev 1 Es. ii. 20 A: iv. 20 (eiri-), xiii. 6 BA : viro- 

vTroSeiKwrc Tob. xii. 6 S. fieiKvvofi€v i Es. ii. 20 B : 

SeiKvvovcnv 3 K. xiii. 12. 

eiri8ei<vvvni 4 M. xiv. 18. inrfbeiKvvev 3 M. V. 29. 

beiKvvs W. xiv. 4, xviii. 21 : deiKvvcov Dt. i. ^, imoSeiKvvovTos 

-vvras Ep. J. 3 (otKi'uoi'ras' 2 Ch. xv. 3 A, virobeiKvvovTes 

Q*) : 2 M. xv. IO (irapeiri-): Tob. xii. 6 BA. 
3 M. v. 26 v7roSeiicvvs A 
(-voov V), vi. 5 A (BiKvveisV). 

1 Meisterhans 191. In v/b.C. once dfxvvdvTuv, iv/B.C. oifivvov (but 
dfivvvcu), ii/B.C. GTpuvvvtLv and from i/B.C. onwards ojxvueiv. 

2 Mayser 351 f. 



246 



Verbs in -MI 



[§ 2 3, 2— 



Middle (all in -pi): evbeUvvcrai W. xii. 17 (-vvs X*): eVi- 
8eiKvva-0ai 4 M. i. 1 : iv-(eiri-)8ciicvvp€vos Prov. xii. 17, Dan. 00 
iii. 44, Ep. J. 25, 58, 2 M. ix. 8 A (-vovros V). 

dv€t«v-yvvo-av Ex. xl. 30 f. dvai^vyvvsiv Jdth vii. 1. 

irepLtwvvvwv ^ xvii. 33, Job 
xii. 18 A. 
But in the mid. irepi^iovvvTai ^r cviii. 19. 

KepdvvovTcs Is. v. 22 B*X*. 

This reading is to be preferred to Kepawvvres B ab X cb Swete 
(tcepavvvvres A). It may be a corruption of an older Kepawvovres ; 
just as the new-formed contract verbs in -da etc. subsequently 
developed into mute or liquid verbs, so the v in -va was 
afterwards eliminated and diroWva became dnoXi'a, deiKvva 
Sei'^fco etc. 1 

Mciyvvfu does not occur in the act., |Aicrya> being used instead 
(Is. i. 22, Hos. iv. 2 : so also impcrat. mid. o-vrcwapiaysaOe Ez. 
xx. 18 B). In the middle the -pi forms are retained: — (irpoa-)- 
piyvvrai Prov. xiv. 13, 16, dvapiyvvrai Dan. ii. 43: <rvv(av)e- 
piyvvro Hos. vii. 8: crvvavapiyvvadai Ez. xx. 18 AQ*. 

o\Xv(Ai. oXXvoj. 

aTr6Wva-i(v) Prov. xii. 4, XV. I, dnoWvei Dt. viii. 20, Job ix. 22, 



27 (e|oXX.), Eccl. vii. S B, 
2 M. iii. 39 V : drroWvpev 
Gen. xix. 13 : a7rdXXurf 
I M. ii. y]. 
oWvvtci Job xxxiv. 17. 



Eccl. vii. 8 KAC, 2 M. iii. 39 A, 
Sir. xx. 22 A : e£o\\vei Prov. 
xi. 17 BX*A (-vo-i K c - a ). 



ojtoXXv(g>!/) Jer. xxiii. 1 BA(-vvres 
KQ), Job (?0) xii. 23 N'AB ab 
(om. B*), Sir. xx. 22. 

drroWveiv Jer. i. Io=Sir. xlix. 7, 
Jer. xviii. 7. 

In the mid. the -pi forms are universal : dnoWvpai 1 M. vi. 13, 
oWvtch (-vvrai) Prov. ix. 18 etc., drroWvrai Sir. xvii. 28 : dicoWvvro 
W. xvii. 10: drroWvpevos Ez. xxxiv. 29, Prov. xvii. 5 etc. (the 
reading of A in Eccl. vii. 16 dnoWvopevos is clearly late). 

6(ivut» Is. xlv. 23 (-uwi/ X*), Bel 
O 7 : opvvei Am. iv. 2, viii. 7 : 
opvvere Hos. iv. 1 5, Jer. vii. 9: 
dpvvovaiv Jer. v. 2. 

mpwov Jer. v. 7, ^ ci. 9. 

6pvv(u>v) Is. xlviii. 1, Ixv. 16, 
Min. Proph. (5 exx.), ^ xiv. 4, 
lxii. 12, Eccl. ix. 2, Sir.xxiii. 10. 



o(xvvvt€s Is. xix. 18 B (-vovres 
N*r, -iWaiN c - b AQ) is the 
solitary ex. of an active -pi 
form. 



dpvveiv Jer. xii. 16 bis. 



1 Dieterich 221 f. 



§ 23, 3] "\crrrifii, laraon etc. 247 

The mid. in -pi: e£6pwpai 4 M. x. 3: dpwpevav W. xiv. 31 
{-vopivav C) : e^dpvvadai. 4 M. iv. 26. 

'P-rfyvvfu is not used in pres. or imperf., pr\a-o-<o taking its 
place : 3 K. xi. 31, biapprja-a-cav ib. 11. The mid. keeps the -pi 
forms: {nciTajpiYyvvTai 3 K. xiii. 3, Prov. xxvii. g, Siepprj-yvvvTo 

2 Ch. xxv. 12. 

2p€wwTi W. xvi. 17 is the only ex. of the active: in the mid. 
o-fiivvvTai Prov. x. 7, xiii. 9, xxix. 36 (0770-), iarfSevvvro 4 M. ix. 20. 

KaTao-Tpojvviwv Job xii. 23. 

New presents in -<i£a> (-aco), a natural outgrowth from the 
aor. ivKihava etc., replace those in -wpi in Theodotion and 
late versions : (for Kpepdwvpi) upepdfav Job xxvi. 7 BXC 

(Kpepvcop A) : (for -nfTavvvpi) eKTT€Td£co(v) Job xxvi. 9, 2 Es. 
ix. 5 : (for -<TKe8dvvvp,i) diacrKe8d£ei ^ xxxii. 10 (but mid. 8m- 
o-KfhdwvTcu Job xxxviii. 24). Cf. dp(pid(a (Plutarch etc.) for 
-ivwp.i (in LXX the aorist only is attested, tjpcpiaa-a -aa-dprjv or 
-eadprjv). 

There is no attestation for pres. or imperf. of nrj-yuvpi. 

For the new present aTroTiwvw see § 19, 2. 

3. Transition to the -« class of verbs in -dvcu -ha.\. 
-dvcw. "Io-tt](ii. The -fxt forms of the act. are replaced or 
supplemented by two new presents, the older contract Io-tcLo 
(already used by Herodotus in 3rd sing. pres. and imperf.) 
and, less often in LXX, the longer lordvw (the termination -vw 
became increasingly popular in the later language) which makes 
its appearance once in a papyrus of iii/B.c. 1 and is used by 
Polybius and later writers, including those of the NT. The 
abbreviated uravw found in MSS of the NT. is unknown to 
the LXX. The -/xt forms in LXX still hold their own in the 
pres. sing. act. and, excepting the participle, in the middle. 

Present, "la-r^pi (compounds included) is the only form in 
use for 1 sing.: Gen. ix. 9, xli. 41, 2 K. xviii. 12, Jer. li. 11, Dan. 

iv. 28, 1 M. xi. 57 bis, xv. 5. No form of 2 sing, occurs. For 

3 sing. Attic -[(mjai is used in the literary books (Prov. vi. 14, 
xvii. 9, xxvi. 26, xxix. 4, Job v. 18, 2 M. vi. 16), elsewhere com- 
pounds of terra: dviara I K. ii. 8, d(pi(TTa Sir. xxxiv. I BXC = 
xiii. 9, KadicrTq and pedia-ra Dan. ii. 21 2 . 2nd plur. la-Tare Jdth 

1 avdurrdveiv in the Petrie papyri (Mayser 353). Kadeiara etc. in papyri 
of 165, 160 B.C. Aristeas like LXX has both forms : ko.Qi<7t&v § 228 but 
Ka.diGTa.vtiv § 280. 

2 Probably also eiCT&MG Job xxxi. 6 A should be read as eiara p.e, but 
it does not represent the original text. 



248 



Verbs in -MI 



[§ 2 3, 3" 



viii. 12 : 3rd plur. from io-raw only viz. 8u<tto><tiv Is. lix. 2, larao-iv 
I M. viii. I, jxedio-Twaiv ib. 13. 

Imperfect from tcrraco only : an-eKa^/a-rcoi' Gen. xxix. 3, 
(jvv'uttuiv 2 M. ix. 25. 

The ^;-6'j-. z>z/! appears in 3 forms (1) the Attic KaBia-rdvai 
I M. xiv. 42, 4 M. v. 25 A {-ea-Tuvai X), (2) ixeBiarav 3 M. vi. 24, 
(3) tWai-eii/ Ez. xvii. 14, e£io-rai>eii> 3 M. i. 25. 

The ^/w. part. (1) in its classical form only in 2 M. iii. 26 
7r«pio-7-ai>res, 3 M. iii. 19 Kadeio-Tavrfs A (-rcoz/res V), (2) elsewhere 
tVra>i' with compounds is used passim, Dt. xvii. 15, xxii. 4, 2 K. 
xxii. 34 = ^ xvii. 34, ^ xv. 5, Job vi. 2, Is. xliv. 26 etc. 

A fut. -i<rrr\ar<a occurs once in A, Dt. xvii. 15 Ka6i(TTa>v 
Ka8i<TTT]<reis (/caraorija-fts' BF) : otherwise the new forms are 
restricted to pres. and imperf. 

In the middle the -fxi forms are, with the exception noted 
below, retained unaltered : the imperat. d$/o-ra) Sir. xiii. 10 is 
therefore, probably, the old poetical alternative for -ia-raao and 
should not be accented, with Swete, acpia-rm (like imperat. n^co), 
so icTTacrOe Jer. xxviii. 50 Swete (not -aade) : irapKTTaa-duy I K. 
xvi. 22 is ambiguous: the rare optat. i^avLa-Tairo 4 M. vi. 8. 
The part. -larafxevos is frequent but the compound l-iravio-Tavofuvos 
is a constant variant: so 2 K. xxii. 40 BA (but -larufxevos 4 K. 
xvi. 7 BA): elsewhere there is MS authority for both forms, 
-HTTavopevos being apparently the older reading in ^ (xvii. 40, 
49, xliii. 6, lviii. 2 etc.) and Job (xxvii. 7): the true reading 
being doubtful in Is. ix. 11, Lam. iii. 62, Jdth xvi. 17 and in 
3 M. vi. 12 [xedi(TTavofj.evovs V {-icrrajJifvovs A). 

The paradigm for pres. and impf. in LXX is therefore : 



Pres. ind. 


1 sing. 

3 sing. 

(2 plur. 

3 P lur - 


HJTrjfii 
-iarrjcn 
larare) 


or -HJTCl 
-KTTWCTIV 




Imperf. 






-lOTTtOV 




Inf. 




-MTTavai 


or -larav 


or -MTTciveiv 


Part. 




(-lards 2, 3 M.) 


USU. larav 




Middle 




-fj.i forms 




but eTrai'icrra- 

vofxevos 

(fifffiaravone- 

vos) 



§2 3 ,5] 



Transition to -Cl class 



249 



4. Transition to the -aw class, as in to-raw, takes place 
also in the following verbs. Kixpw 1 K. i. 28 BA (Lucianic 
text Kt'xp^/it), 3 sing. KLXpa Prov. xiii. n, Ktxpwv ^ cxi. 5. 
'E|jLirt((j.)pdw (no example of simplex in LXX) ev€7rt(/x)7rpa 2 M. 
viii. 6 AV, iveTTL/jnrpwv x. 36 A (so from Xenophon onwards). 
n^|nrXT]|j.i keeps the -jxl forms twice in Proverbs, but otherwise 
in the active joins the -aw class. 



Pres. ind. 


irifxiT\r](Ti{v) Prov. xviii. 20 


efXTwrXqs ^Pcxliv. 16, e/i- 
77-177 Aa Prov. xiii. 25 


Imperf. 


fvcTrifnr'kacrav Prov. xxiv. 50 

(evffj.Tri7r\. A) 


evefiTrll ^nXav 3 M. 1. 1 8 


Part. 




(e'/x)7rt(/x)7rXwi' ^ cii. 5, 
cxlvii. 3, Sir. xxiv. 25 


Middle 


-fit forms : pres. ind. Prov. 
xxiv. 4, xxvii. 20, Job xix. 
22 etc. : pres. conj. Prov. 
iii. 10: part. Hb. ii. 5, 
Prov. xxiv. 51, Eccl. i. 7, 
2 M. iv. 40 


imperf. eW7ri7rXcoi'To 
3 M. iv. 3 V (A om.) 



<I>i]|ja so far as used (it is being relegated to the literary 
vocabulary) is regular, (prjaiv and e(f>rj being the only forms 
commonly employed as the rendering of DN3 : (paalv Ep. J. 19 
(in 2 Es. iv. 17 €ip<qvr)v teal <pdaiv, subst., should be read) : i'cpaa-av 
Est. x. 1 1 : e(pt](Ta in 2 M. only (3 times) : the part. mid. (pit/jLevas 
Job xxiv. 25 is one indication among several of the translator's 
acquaintance with Homer: a part. act. is occasionally, as in 
Attic, supplied from <£uo-kco. 

Of deponents €7rio-Tap.ai and (in- €7ri-)Kpe'na,|A<H keep the -/xi 
forms except that iiria-rr] is used along with eniaraaai (§ 17, 12). 
So 8vvap.cu is regular except that-o^o/ncn 1 occurs as a v.l. in Is. 
xxviii. 20 B 8vv6fj.eda, lix. 14 X* vi '' r/di/vovro, 4 M. ii. 20 A e8vvcro: 
2nd sing. Bvvaaai, once 8vvrj (ib.). 

5. Ti0THJLt, 8t8o)(j.i. The transition to the class of contract 
verbs (nee'co, 8i86w) had already begun in Attic Greek in the 

1 So in papyri as early as ii/B.c: Par. 39. 10 [161 B.C.], BM i. 14. 22 
[160 — 159 B.C.] : in papyri dated A.D. the -co forms, dwo/xevos etc., pre- 
ponderate. 



250 Verbs in -MI [§ 23, 5 — 

imperf. sing. (iriOei^ -ei for ItiBt)<; -?7, eSt'Souv -ous -ou for wv -ws -00). 
So in LXX en'tfeis ^ xlix. 18, 20, irldet Gen. xxx. 42, Prov. viii. 
28 (the older e-ri#»7 in Est. iv. 4 A : the plur. of the impf. is 
unattested) : iStSow -ovs -ov, but the 3rd plur. is more often the 
Attic iBlSoaav (Jer. xliv. 21, Ez. xxiii. 42, Jdth vii. 21, 1 M. 
x. 41 aV-, 3 M. ii. 31) than e'oYSow, which was liable to con- 
fusion with 1 sing. : the latter occurs in 4 K. xii. 1 5 B (-ov A), 
2 Ch. xxvii. 5 B*A, 3 M. iii. 10 and is usual in N.T. 

The extension of the -w terminations to the present of these 
verbs is slenderly attested in LXX. 

From ti0€w we have only the part. en-iTiOovo-av 1 Es. iv. 30 BA : 
elsewhere -pi forms, -rlBt]pi (no ex. of 2 sg.) -ridrjo-i, TrpoarideTe 
2 Es. xxiii. 18, TrapciTi8ea<Ti Ep. J. 29, ridivai Prov. viii. 29 N c - a A, 
ridels, and throughout the middle. For present SiSow 1 there is 
some attestation in the Kethubim and Apocryphal group : 8t,8ols 
W. xii. 19 BA (8i8as «), 8180! * xxxvi. 21 BK*R (8i8mriv K c - a AT), 
«7roSi5oi Job xxxiv. 1 1 B*XC (-8i8a><nv A, an-oSot B ab ), and part. 
8i8ovvti Prov. xxvi. 8 X (8i86vn BA) 2 . Elsewhere in act. and 
mid. the -^t forms are retained, except that in the 3rd sing. 
imperf. and 2 aor. middle forms as from 8l8w (by an easy change 
of o to e) appear in late portions or texts of the LXX : imperf. 
e8l8(To Jer. Iii. 34 B*X*A (the chap, is a late appendix to the 
Greek version), Dan. 6 Bel 32 B*AQ, Ex. v. 13 A (e8i8oro AF): 
2 aor. e£e8ero i M. x. 58 AS* (-48oto K ca V and so elsewhere : 
Gen. xxv. 33, Jd. iii. 8 etc.). 

6. "Itih-i, never uncompounded in LXX, in composition 
with diro retains in the active the -/xt forms more often than 
not, whereas with avv the new forms in -w preponderate. A 
doubt arises as to the accentuation of these new forms 3 . We 
might expect, as we find with other -/xi verbs, the first stage in 
the transformation to be the conversion into a contract verb, 

1 AiSot for didwffL appears once in an illiterate epislle of ii/B.c. (Par. 
Pap. 30. 12, 162 B.C., not noted by Mayser) : otherwise the Ptolemaic 
papyri keep the -/jll forms in act. and mid., except that airodidwcri once 
replaces -Siddaai (Mayser 354). The participle of the -6u type cannot be 
paralleled till ii/A.D., avadtdovvTi OP iii. 532. 11. 

2 Mixture of diSus, 5l8ovs in 3 K. xxii. 6 A, t cxliv. 15 R is merely a 
matter of phonetic writing : cf. § 6, 34. 

3 Swete (ed. 2) is inconsistent: <rwieip 3 K. iii. 9, 11, <ivv<.<2v 2 Ch. 
xxxiv. 12 : elsewhere avviuv -Lwv etc. 



23,6] 



'Irj/xi 



251 



i.e. that the order was «7/>u — tew (like TiOew) — Tw. Evidence for 
the intermediate form is, however, wanting. In the Ptolemaic 
papyri the verb is rare and only the -/xi forms are attested 1 . In 
the N.T. -mo is shown to be right by the forms a^to/xer, 7;</uev, 



Pres. 
ind. 


In -fu 


In -w (?-&) 


iKpirjiu. I M. X. 

29 f. 32 f. 

d(pir](ri(v) N. 

xxii. 13, 1 Es. 

iv. 21, Sir. ii. 

1 1 
d(pUfj.ev I M. 

xiii. 39 


> 


dcpiw Eccl. ii. 18 
d(f)fls~ Ex. xxxii. 

d(j)iov(Ti(v) I Es. 
iv. 7, 5oB*(a- 
(fuaxriv A) 


(tvvUis Job XV. 

9, xxxvi. 4, 

Tob. iii. 8 BA 
avvUi 1 K. xviii. 

15, Prov. xxi. 

1 2, 29, W. ix. 

1 1 


I mperf. 


rjtpUis Dan. 
Sus. 53 


— 


— 


— 


Pres. 
inf. 


dcfiievca Gen. 
xxxv. 18, 
1 Es. iv. 7 A 
(d<j>eh'at B), 
I M. i. 48 A 
{-eivai KV) 


crvvUvai Ex. 
xxxv. 35, 
xxxvi. 1, Dt. 
xxxii. 29, ^ 
xxxv. 4 (avv- 
elvai N) (lvii. 
loB ab ),Is.lix. 

15 BQ (<TVV- 

Ivai N*A), 
Dan.eix. 13 




awUiv 1 K. ii. 
10, 3 K. iii. 
9 B {(Tvviivat 

A), 11, Jer. 

ix. 24 


Pres. 
part. 




avvieis^ xxxii. 
15 (-LCOV B ab 

U) : avviev- 
r(es) 2 Es. 
xviii. 3 [con- 
trast 2 o-vv- 
iav\ Dan. 9 
i. 4, oe xi. 
35> xii. 3 


dcfilcov Eccl. v. 
1 1 (Sir. xx. 7 A, 
2 Es. xix. 17 

N c.a) 


avvlmv (-LOVTOS 
etc.) passi?n : 
1 K. xviii. 14, 

1 Ch. xxv. 7, 

2 Ch. xxvi. 5, 
xxx. 22, xxxiv. 
12, 2 Es. viii. 
16 B etc. etc. 



1 Mayser 354. 

2 Contracted form of a<pUis (or afaeh) : Schmiedel (W.-S. § 14, 16 on 
the same form in Ap. ii. 20) suggests a present &<pew (evolved from -yaw). 



252 Verbs in -MI [§ 23, 6 — 

dffiLovTat. In LXX no forms occur but those which are 
common to -u> and -u> verbs 1 . We have seen more than once 
that N.T. usage represents a later stage than LXX usage : it 
remains therefore doubtful whether in LXX we should write 
a<f>L(o or depew etc., but, in the absence of attestation for d.4>iovp.ev 
etc., the forms in -iw are on the whole to be preferred. 

The following are common to the -<o and -fxi forms : imperat. 
a<puT(oaav i M. x. 33, ind. crwUre Job xx. 2 BS*C : the latter, in 
view of the table on the preceding page, is no doubt from avvia 
and, as it cannot be referred to a-vvua, it favours the N.T. ac- 
centuation for LXX. 

'Avtevat 1 K. xii. 23 B (no A text): the MSS are divided in 
4 M. iv. 10, iviovres AV ivil\rfs N. 

In the middle the -pi forms are, as usual, retained : npoUpai 

Prov. viii. 4, d(pupevr) I M. X. 31 AX ca (dfyipevr) N*V*), TTpoU- 
pev(os) 2 M. xv. 12, 4 M. xviii. 3, dvUvro Ez. i. 25 (from 6) A 
(dviovro Q : so irpoa-iovro 2 M. x. 34 V) ; to the -pi class should 
therefore be referred ambiguous forms, irpoirj Job vii. 19, avUrai 
W. xvi. 24, avUrai I M. x. 42 (d&rai X), d(pieo-0a> I M. xv. 8 A. 

Tenses. Fut. and 1 aor. act. ind. (with 2 aor. in the moods) 
are regular d<p- aw- rjaw etc. : dv- d<p- na6- avvrjKa, irapiJKav I K. 
ii. 5 : dvfj dvels dves etc. Perf. act. ~el<a is absent from LXX as 
from N.T. : perf. pass, (dvelpai Trapeipai : never, as in N.T., 
-fcopai) is common in the part. Fut. mid. and pass, npo^aopai, 
dcpeOrjo-opai. For augment in 1 aor. pass, see § 16, 5. 

7. Remaining moods and tenses of i'o-ttjjh, tiO^jai, 
SiSiofu. "I<rrr\\i.i. Perfect. The Koivrj gave up the shorter 
forms of the ind. plur. (earc^ier, earare, ecrracrtv) which already 
in i'v/b.c. had made way for ea-r^Ka/xev etc. in Attic Inscriptions 2 . 
In the inf. however it retained the shorter la-rdvat \ in the 
participle Icttt}k^<; was almost universal in Ptolemaic Egypt 3 , 
but, judging from the N.T. 4 and contemporary and later 
writings, there appears to have been a reversion to the classical 

1 Except the puzzling cyNieiTe in Jer. ix. 12 A (avveru of BXQ is 
probably right). 

2 Meisterhans 189 f. 

3 Mayser 370 f. , except that eveartbs was used along with ei/eor^/cws. 

4 'E(Ttu5s is about three times as common as eo-r^Kws in N.T. (W.-S. 
§ 14, 5) and in Josephus (W. Schmidt 481 f.) and is usual in Patristic 
writings (Reinhold 91). 



§ 23, 8] Tenses of tarrj/jLi 253 

co-rajs a little before the beginning of the Christian era. This 
(?) Atticistic reversion is apparent in later LXX books. 

In the ind. the only ex. of the shorter form is Kadea-raa-iv 
4 M. i. 18 A V (literary: -tjkcio-iv K): elsewhere always -eoT?j- 
nacnv {-iarrfKav Is. v. 29, § 17, 3). Inf. : eardvai always, with 
K.a6c.(TTavai 4 M. v. 25 X (-«rr. A), xv. 4: but in comp. with napd 
we find TvapfdTrjKivai. Dt. xxi. 5, Est. viii. 4 beside TrapecrTdvai 
Dt. x. 8, xviii. 5. Part. : eW^wt and eWco? (compounds 
included) occur in about the proportion of 95/51 ; the former is 
used throughout the Hexateuch (except ecrrmra Ex. xxxiii. 
10 BAF) as in the contemporary papyri: earas is practically 1 
confined to late and literary books, viz. Jd. B text (iii. 19 «'<£-, 
iv. 21 e£-, xviii. 16, 18: but TrapecrTrjucds xx. 28 BA), Ruth, 
2—4 K. (beside iar^Kwi), 2 Es. (xxii. 44), ¥ (exxi. 2, exxxiii. 1, 
exxxiv. 2), Dan. oe together with the literary books 1 Es., Est., 
Jdth, 2 and 3 Mace. 

The similar shortened forms from T^fivtjKa are confined to 
literary books (elsewhere Ttdvr)Kacriv etc.) : redveacnv 4 M. xii. 4N 
(for correct Attic Tedvdcri), redvdvai W. iii. 2, 4 M. iv. 22 (1 M. 
iv. 35 V), TfdvewTes Job xxxix. 30 (Bar. ii. 17 A). 

The new transitive perfect to-raKa 2 , in which the a 
seems to be taken over from the passive Icrra/Aaf, appears in 
three LXX books: I K. (dvecrraKei/ xv. 12), Jer. a (/caTeo-TaKa 
i. 10 BtfA, vi. 17 Bn*A, afpeaTdKa. xvi. 5 BQ with v.l. dcpea-rrjKa 
«A) and I Mace. (Ka^ecn-a/ca/Acr x. 20, eo-Ta.Kapi.ev xi. 34 -ip.ev n). 

"Ea-TTjua is used in present sense "I stand": for the new 
present o-nyKco which is beginning to replace it see § 19, 1. For 
plpf. (e)t<m/icetv, fo-TtJKfiv see § 16, 5. 

8. The 2nd aorist active e(nr\v (with compounds) and the 
1 aor. pass. tordOriv (the latter rare outside Gen., Ex. and 
literary books) are correctly distinguished, the former in- 
transitive " I stood " and the latter passive " was set up." The 

1 The following sporadic exx. of icrrws complete the list : r K. ii. 22 A 
(elsewhere in this book always ecrr?;\-ws), 1 Ch. xxi. 15, Jer. xviii. 21 A, 
Ez. xxii. 30, Am. ix. 1 (e<£-), Zech. i. 11 (e<f>-), iii. 1, Sir. 1. 12 BX 
(earriKivs A). 

2 So in papyri, inscriptions and literature from ii/B.C onwards : Mayser 
371, Veitch s. v. umj/u, Schweizer Perg. 185. An instance as early as 
iv/B.c. is cited from Hyperides Eax. 38. 



254 Verbs in -MI [§ 23, 8 — 

same applies to o-nfcro/Aai, 0-TaOijcrop.aL (with compounds). The 
only exception 1 in the use of the aorist is Jd. xx. 2 B iaTadrjcrav 

Kara 7rpo'craJ7rov Krpiou 7racrai ai <pv\ai (A Otherwise with eaT-q) : 

similarly o-Trycro/xat appears to be used for fut. pass, in Is. xxiii. 16 

Kat (Tvpos) 7raA.1v a7roKa,Tao"T?70-eTcu ets to apyaiov BA (-(ttolOtJ- 
o-£Tai «Qr). 

The two futures occur in juxtaposition or as variants in 
L. xxvii. 12 ovtoos (rTrjcrfTai with 14 ovtws (TTadi](rerai, Dt. xix. 1 5 
(TTTJo-eTai irav prjfia B (aradrjaerai AF), but they keep their proper 
meanings. 

In NT., on the Other hand, eo-rrjv iarddrjv with arrjaopai 
a-Tadrja: (in the simple verb) are both used intransitively (Blass 
N.T § 23, 6). 

The 2 aor. imperat. 2 sg. appears both as &vaa-TT|0i (45 
exx.) and avdcn-d (poetical: 18 exx.). 

The latter mainly in later books viz. Jd. (v. 12 B, viii. 21 BA, 
xix. 28 B), 1 K. (ix. 26, xvi. 12), 3 K. (xix. 7 B, xx. 15), 2 Es. (x. 
4 BS*), Psalms (iii. 8, xliii. 27, lxxiii. 22, lxxxi. 8), in all of which, 
except 2 Es., -(tti]Ql is used as well : the remaining exx. of -ara 
are Jer. ii. 27, Lam. ii. 19 (-o-ttjOl Q), Jon. i. 6, Dan. O vii. 5, 
Cant. ii. 10, 13, Sir. xxxiv. 21. 'Anoa-Trjidi (2 K. ii. 22, 1 Es. i. 25, 
Sir. vii. 2) and dTroara (Gen. xix. 9 ADE, Job ter) are equally 
divided : other compounds have the classical prose form only 
(cnroKaTaaTrjOt. Jer. xxix. 6, iniar-qOi Jer. xxvi. 14, napd(TTr]6i N. 
xxiii. 3, 15). 

The 2 aor. imperat. of ftaivco appears only in the forms dva- 
((caro- etc.) -firjdi -firJTco -^rjre (not avafia -/3cira> -/3are which OCClir 
in N.T). 

9. Confusion of ^o-T-qa-a and 'i<nr\v (arising from the 
3rd plur. which they have in common) occurs in 2 Es. xviii. 4 

KOI etXTTJCTiV (N* : €(TT7] BA) EcTjOaS 6 ypap.pL. €7T(. (3ijp.aTo<; £v\ivov, 

kou 1(jti]<jz.v (Btt*A) e'^o/x€va avrov MaTTa#ias k.t.X. (Lucian 
earr] . . . koI Icrrrja-av crvv olvtw), and apparently in I Es. ii. 7 B 

1 In Dan. OG vii. 4 f. ewl irodcav dvdpwwov iffTadr) k.t.X. the adjacent 
passive aorists show that the beast is regarded as a mere passive instrument. 
In Tob. vii. 1 j (B text) ov yevop.au. ovoev c35e ews dv crrriayjTe Kal (Traders 
wpbs /xi the meaning seems to be " make covenant with me and have your 
covenant ratified by me": the language has a legal preciseness. 



§ 23, 10] Tenses and moods of riOrjfjLi, BISco/xi 255 

kui KdTacmfcravTes ol dpxi<£uAoi...(A KaracrTavTes : = 2 Es. i. 5 
dve'oTTjcrav, Idp^ : in I Es. V. 47 correctly KaTaara<; 'Irjaovs). 

Cf. further Jd. vii. 21 teai eaT-qaev dvrjp ((f)' iavrco B* vitl (MT 
has plur. vb and it may be a mere slip for eVr^crav): ^ xx. 12 
l3ov\f]v r]v ov /xt) 8vv(ovtcu a-T^vai X ca AR (orfjo-ai BX*) : Sir. xlv. 23 
$Lvefs...TpiTos els 86£av iv rco ^rjXacrai avTbv...Ka\ <TTr\<jai {(TTrjvai A) 
avrbv (Swete avrov) iv rpoTrfj Xaov BX. 

Similar confusion of act. and mid. occurs in Jdth viii. 12 
Tire? ecrrc v/Aets oi...l'o-Ta.T€ virep rov Oeov ; B (icrraTai) K*A 
(tcrrao-fle K c - a ), R.V. "stand instead of God." 

10. Ti6t}|ai, 8i8w(At. Perfect. TiOtj/ju has perf. act. re9eiKa 
(not TeOrjKa. as in Attic Inscriptions) and perf. mid. TeOeL/xat 
(Ex. xxxiv. 27, 2 M. iv. 15), also used in pass, sense (re'^etrai 

1 K. ix. 24 B [A T€0£<TTai like TeTeAecrrai], TrpoTz9cifx.ivdiv Ex. 
xxix. 23, 77-poo-- Dt. xxiii. 15, 1 Es. ii. 6, Est. ix. 27, 1 M. viii. 1 A) 
where classical Greek used Kelfxai : K-ei/xat has this idiomatic use 
in 2 Mace, and occasionally elsewhere. 

Aorist. The 1st aorist forms in -«a which were used in 
the sing, in Attic (Wtjkol, c'Sw/ca) have in LXX been extended to 
the plural (for Attic 2nd aor. Wep.ev, e'So/xcv etc.) : iOr'/Ka/xev 
Is. xxviii. 15, 2 Es. xv. 10, 2 M. i. 8 Trpotd-, WijKav and e'SwKav 
passim ; e6Wav (irpo- in-) appears twice in literary language, 

2 M. xiv. 21, 4 M. viii. 13, also as a v.l. for -idrjKav in 1 K. vi. 
18 A, 3 K. xxi. 32 B. The 2nd aor. forms are retained in the 
moods and in the middle voice. 

The introduction of sigmatic aorists (drjo-a, eSaxra did not 
take place till after the period covered by LXX and N.T. ; 
Cod. A supplies an early example of each : drjo-at 1 M. xiv. 48 
{(rrfjo-ai XV), ebaxrev Sir. xv. 20 (edwicev BXC) : cf. the perf. 
beSacrav in the clause added after 2 Es. xvii. 71 by the seventh 
century hand X ca . 

Moods of the 2nd aorist of Si8co|ju. In LXX the con- 
junctive forms are regular (Sw, Sws, Sip etc.) with two exceptions: 
(i) the 3rd sing, twice appears in the strange form 817 (another 
case of assimilation to -co verbs) L. xxiv. 19 BA (8w F), xxvii. 9 



256 Verbs in -MI [§ 23, 10 — 

BA (S<3 F), (ii) -Su>s -Sw are replaced in a few instances by -Sots 
-hoi, viz. : 

as av TrapaSoi Jos. ii. 14 BF (7rapaSw A), dvTa7ro8oi 2 K. Hi. 
39 A (diro8a B), 7*77 TrapaSol * xl. 3 B '(-Sw/; NAR, -8a T), ecos 
airaTToSot Sir. xxxii. 24 X*(-Su BACK ca ), nTroSoT Ez. xxxiii. 1 5 BA 
(drroSw Q), /lit) St) TrapaSois Dan. 9 iii. 34 B (-Scus AQ), oVcos 
7rapa8oi I M. xi. 40 A (-Sep V). 

The optative 804171/ -175 etc. is replaced, as in the koivq 
generally, by [Swrjv, no ex. of ist sing.] 8(0175 (* lxxxiv. 8), 8(017 
passim. The classical forms are represented by two v.ll. 80117 
in Sir. xlv. 26 «*A, Job vi. 8 « c - a . 

Cf. the moods of eyvav, § 24. For 8wvai = 8ovvai see § 6, 34. 

11. Elju. The transformation of this verb, complete in 
modern Greek, started from the fut. Zo-ofxai : to conform to this 
the remaining tenses have gradually passed over to the de- 
ponent class 1 . The change began with the imperfect and with 
the 1 st person sing., for which a new form was required in 
order to distinguish it from the 3rd person. Hence Tjf«iv, which 
is employed throughout the LXX, as in the Ptolemaic papyri 8 , 
to the exclusion of class -qv (or r/). 

The transformation in LXX times has hardly proceeded 
further. The 2nd sing, is generally r/a6a (17 times); i^s (which 
is normal in N.T. and later became 770-0) is limited to Jd. xi. 35 B, 
R. iii. 2 (both late translations), Ob. i. 1 1 : it occurs also as a 
v.l. in Is. xxxvii. 10 K* Job xxii. 3 A, xxxviii. 4 B^C (rjada A : 
possibly the clause is from 0). 

3rd sing. f\v for which ^ is a natural slip in 2 Ch. xxi. 20 A* 
2 Es. xvi. 18 B* Tob. i. 22 K* (I cannot verify 3 K. xii. 24 
quoted in Hatch-Redpath.) 

The ist plur. soon followed the lead of the ist sing, but in 
LXX TJ|A£0a 3 is limited to Bar. i. 19, 1 K. xxv. 16 BA : in the 
preceding v. in 1 K. BA have the classical fjnev, which is also 
used elsewhere: N. xiii. 34 bis, Ut. vi. 21, Is. xx. 6. 2nd and 
3rd plur. regular. 

1 See esp. Dieterich Untersuch. 223 ff. 

2 Mayser 356. 

3 One ex. of iii/B.C in the papyri (ib.). 



3 2 3> I2 ] Et/it, et/u 257 

In the present, uniformity in the first syllable has been pro- 
duced in modern Greek by replacing ixr- throughout by ei-. 
The only approximation to this in LXX is the vulgar ■fJTw (3rd 
pers. imperat. 1 ) in * ciii. 31 (all uncials) and as a v.l. of Cod. A 
in 1 M. x. 31, xvi. 3: elsewhere «jtg>, including ^ lxviii. 26, 
i, xx '" r 7> l xx xix. 17. 3rd plur. imperat. earaxrav (classical beside 
fOTcai/, ovtcov). 3rd plur. optat. e'lrjcrav Job xxvii. 7 (class, beside 
elev : cf. § 17, 7). For e'077, eaet see § 17, 12. 

"Evi ( — i'vea-Tt), which in mod. Greek in the form elve (elvai) 
has replaced eari and elal, stands for the former, as in N.T., 
already in Sir. xxxvii. 2 ov)(l \v7rr] evi ems Oavdrov eraipos <ai (pi\os 
rpe-rropevos els e^dpav ; R.V. "Is there not a grief in it...?" 
probably lays undue stress on the preposition. (In 4 M. iv. 22 
cos evi paXicrra = " as much as possible.") 

12. Eljxi in the LXX period had well-nigh disappeared 
from popular speech, being replaced by the hitherto unused 
tenses and moods of epxa/jcai : the participle and the inf. of a 
few compounds seem to have been the last to go 2 . Literary 
writers still made use of it, though not always correctly, missing 
its future meaning : its revival in Patristic writings is rather 
remarkable 3 . 

In LXX elfu (always in composition except in Ex. xxxii. 26) 4 
is confined to (i) the literary books Wisdom, 2 — 4 Maccabees, 
Proverbs, (ii) the latter part of Exodus, with two instances 
elsewhere of iiri&v of time. 

(i) The Greek books alone use the imperf. viz. Treptf/eiv W. 
viii. 18, atrijei 2 M. xii. I, xiii. 22, 4 M. iv. 8, eio-jjfi 2 M. iii. 14, 
8ie£rj«rav 4 M. iii. 13: the inf. claUvai occurs in 3 M. i. 11, 
ii. 28, the part. i^iuvr{es) ib. v. 5, 48, aviovros 4 M. iv. 10, 
Trpoa-wvT(es) ib. vi. 13, xiv. 16, 19 bis, (01) napiovr^s) Prov. ix. 15, 
xv. 10, and (of time) 17 (niovaa (sc. rjpipa) Prov. iii. 28=xxvii. 1 = 
"the morrow." 

(ii) The latter part of Exodus (as distinguished from the 
earlier part, which uses ott- els- e£- epxeadm) has elcnovn xxviii. 23, 
ei(ri6vTi...Kai igtovri xxviii. 31, 1ra> xxxii. 26, dnioi'Tos xxxiii. 8, 10 A. 

1 It may be due to Phrygian influence, Dr Moulton tells me. Symmachus 
in ii/A.D. has Icro for Icdi. Cf. 'iaao in Sappho : the middle forms of elp.1 
occur very early in the dialects, J. H. Moulton Prol. 36 f. 

2 See the scanty papyrus evidence for iii/ii/B.C. in Mayser 355. 

3 Reinhold 87 ff. 

4 "ladi wpos Toy pL6pp.i]Ka must be read in Prov. vi. 6 with B*NA' not 
Wi A*B*b. 

T. l? 



258 Table of Verbs [§ 23, 12 — 



Elsewhere (of future time) els tov iiriovra xp^ vov Dt. xxxii. 29, 
eV rw (ttiovti eVei I Ch. xx. I. A introduces the literary word 
with correct future meaning in 3 K. xxi. 22 Xveiaiv (B dva^aiva 
is no doubt the older reading). 

13. KdOrjfxai has the regular 2 sing. KaO-qa-ai (not KaOrj), but 
the imperat. is usually Ka#ov (early comedy and late prose : 
the pres. meaning causing transition to the pres. conjugation), 
the strict Attic ncLd-qo-o appearing only in 2 Ch. xxv. 19 : the 
unclassical fut. KaOr/crofxaL is fairly common (cf. § 24). 

Kt'ifj-ai is regular. For the conjugation of olfia (with 1st aor. 
t'ldrjcra) see § 24. 

§ 24. Table of Noteworthy Verbs. 

'A-yaXXidop.ai(the act. found in N.T., not inLXX), a "Biblical" 
word, frequent in Is. and S^, replacing classical dydXkopai. Impf. 
rjyaWtwpTjv Is. xxv. 9, fut. dyaXXidaopai, aor. TjyaWtaadprjv (not, 
as in N.T., -d(o-)Or)v), § 21, 6. 

' Ayy^XXw : aor. and fut. pass. rjyyeX^v (dv- an- : for Attic 
r)yye\0r)v) dyyeXrjaopai (dv- a7r- 81-), § 21, 4- 

"AYvvfu only in composition with tear-, as usually in Attic (in 
4 M. ix. 17 read aytjat with N for atjai A) : pres. and impf. un- 
attested : aor. with Att. augment Kareatja and pass. Karedxdrjv 
for Att. 2nd aor. Karfdyrjv, § 16, 6: fut. tardea (not with aug. 
k areata as in N.T.). 

' A"yopd?w : fut. dyopco (Att. dyopdaco), § 20, I (ii). 

"A-yw 1 : aor. usually {jyayov (with varying terminations rjyd- 
yoaav, § 17, 5, eV»?yaya, § 1 7, 2: cf. impf. ^yai>, § 1 7, 4), rarely 
<rvv-(eir- dv-)rj^a § 21, I : perf. act. (iy(e)io^a, dy^o^a (for Att. 
$X a )i § J 6, 7 : perf. pass, jjy/itu regular. 

"A8w (Att. contraction, not the poetical deidco) : fut. acropm 
(Att.) and aira, § 20, 3. 

AlSeopu : aor. ySeo-drjv and once i]8(<rdpr]v, § 21, 6. 

Alve'w (eiraivtw) : fut. pass, (in St' with middle sense "will boast" 
or "glory") €7raivfa6r]aopai (for Att. iiraived.), aor. pass. iTryvidrjv 
with V.l. -ea-drjv, § 1 8, 2. 

Alpe-r^w Ionic and late for alpovpai "choose," the latter being 
rare in LXX : fut. alpfTim and as v.l. alpeTia-co, § 20, 1 (i) : aor. 
fipiTio-a and (in St', I M.) rjpeTiadprjv. 

1 A beginning of the ' Neohellenic ' substitution of cptpu for d'yw 
(fannaris § 996, 3) may be traced in some late texts, e.g. Jd. (B text) xviii. 3 
Ti's fjvtyKev ce cJ<5e ; (A ijyayev), xxi. 12 (A rjyov). 



§2 4 ] 



Table of Verbs 259 



ALpe'co mainly in composition : new fut. eXS>, iXovfiai (dv- d<p- 
etc.) for Att. alpr/ao which is dropped, § 20, 2 : new aor. ter- 
minations efAa (lXdfj.T)v (dv- etc.), § 17, 2, KadeiXoaav, § 1 7, 5: 
augment in perf. -eiprjpat (for -yp-qpai) but imperf. -rjpow, -rjpovprjv 
(like t'lpyaapai, rjpyagoprjv), § 16, 5 : augment omitted in dvr- 
avaipidrjv, § 1 6, 4. 

Al'pw : new verbal adj. dpros, § 15, 2. 

Alo-8dvo|xai : new aor. pass. ^a6i\6r\v (beside Att. flVtfd/u/i/) and 
new fut. pass. ala0r]8i)(ropat and ala-davOrja-opai (for Att. al(r8i](TopaC), 
§21,6. The late pres. aia-Oofiai occurs in one of the explanatory- 
notes which Cod. X appends to the Song of Solomon, 17 vvpcprj 
i'crdere ( = a'i<rdeT(ii) tov vvp(f>iov v. 2. 

Al<rxwo|iai : fut. alcrxwdrjaopai (for usual Attic al<Txvvovp,(u), 
§21,7: perf. fj<rxvpp.cii (Kar-),§ 18, 4 : aug. omitted in KaTaia-xwdrjv, 
§ 16, 4- 

' AKaTao-Ta,T€a> : I aor. tj KaTaa-TaTTjaa, § 16, 8. 

' Akovco : fut. aKova-opat (Att.) and rarely d/covo-m, § 20, 3 ; perf. 
pass, (post-classical) r/Kovafiai Dt. iv. 32 BF, 3 K. vi. 12 A, cf. 
§ 18, 2. 

' AXaXd^w poetical word used in prose from Xen. onwards : 
fut. dXaXd^opai and -a£a>, § 20, 3 : aor. TjXdXa^a. 

'A\ei<j>u> : perf. rjX«pa (Cod. A), rfXipnuai, for Att. reduplicated 
forms dXi)Xi.<pa, dXr]Xipp.ai, § 16, 7. 

'A\i]0a> Jd. xvi. 21, Eccl. xii. 3f. with impf. rjXrjdov N. xi. 8 in 
the koivt) replaces Attic dXe'co rjXow. the old aor. rjXco-a remains 
in Is. xlvii. 2. Cf. similar substitution of mute for Att. contract 
verb in vrjdco (LXX=Att. vea), and outside LXX Kvfjda), o-^^cu, 
yj/rjx 03 '■ Rutherford NP 240. 

'A\io-KOfj.ai: perf. 3rd plur. edXaxav X, § 17, 3: 1 aor. pass. 
(late in simplex) dXwdrjvaL Ez. xl. 1 A (dXavai cett., and Att. 2nd 
aor. idXav is retained elsewhere in LXX). 

" A\Xo|ach (d(p- iv- e'£- e(p- vnep- : a favourite word in 1 K. and 
Minor Proph.) : aor. always r)Xdp.r)v (not the alternative Att. 
r)X6p.T)v), itacism produces the readings dfaiXavro Ez. xliv. 10 A, 
t'vtlXciTo 1 M. iii. 23 V : impf. t)XX6p.T]v (aug. fXXoprjv once in A, 
§ 16, 4) and fut. dXovpai are classical. 

'A|j.apTdvco: fut. apaprrjo-opcii and (in Sir.) dp.aprr]aa>, § 20, 3: 
aor. usually ijpaprov (3rd plur. r)p.dpTo<rav, § 1 7, 5), rarely rjpdpTrja-a, 
§ 21, 1. For the trans, (causative) use of e£-(e(p-)ap.apTdv(iv 
"cause to sin" see Syntax. 

(*A|i<j)idSw) found only in aor. ^iWa, rj/xcpiaa-d^v and rjp.- 
(piea-dpTjv, §§ 23, 2 and 6, 6. 

'AvdXio-Kw is the usual pres. in LXX as in Att., dvdXow (also 
Att.) only in KaravaXoia-iv Ep. J. 9 Br with impf. dvr^Xow Dan. 
Q Bel 13 (dvi)X(ia-K.ov Q*). As regards augment (Attic writers 
seem to have used both dvrjXcoaa. and dvdXaa-a etc., Veitch) the 

17 — 2 



260 Table of Verbs [§ 24 



LXX uncials write dvi]\axra (eg-), dvr]\d>6rjv (e£-), dvt]Xu>p.ai. (e£- 
Trap-), but with the prefix (car- the aug. disappears : KaravdXiaKov 
Jer. xxvii. 7 B*Q*A, KaravdXacra I Ch. xxi. 26, Jer. iii. 24 (icarfj- 
i«iXa>0-ef X*), KaravaXtjodrjv Is. lix. 1 4 (KciTr)va\. B ab ) : SO i^avdXadrj 
N. xxxii. 13 A. The uncial evidence is, however, shown to be 
unreliable by the fact that the aug. is not written in the moods 
and the other tenses and derivative nouns, as it is^ almost 
without exception in the Ptolemaic papyri (dvrjXianeiv, di/r/Xaxrco, 
(e'7r)ai^Xcopa etc., Mayser 345 f.) : cf. § 16, 9. 
'Avoi-yw : see o'iyu). 

'Avo|i«o : impf. 3rd plur. yvopovo-av, § 17, 5 : aug. Tvaprjvopovv 
(as from irap-avopia) V cxviii. 5 1 RT (irapev. A), §^ 16, 8. 

(' AvTaw) : fut. an- crvv- vir- avTT]cropai and -avTrjarw, § 20, 3. 
'AimXovp.cu deponent as in N.T. etc. (for Att. djretXS, which 
is usual in LXX) is a variant in Gen. xxvii. 42 E, Ez. iii. 17 Q 
(dTT(i\r)0rjvai N. xxiii. 19 must have pass, meaning, cf. the citation 
in Jdth viii. 16) : the dep. SiaTreiXe'urBai Ez. iii. 17 BA, 3 M. vi. 23, 
vii. 6 is classical. 

'AiroXo-yov|Aai: aor. dne\oyt]adpr)v (not -tjOtjv), § 21, 6. 
"Atttw: pf. pass, r/ppai is used in mid. sense "touch" (class.), 
N. xix. 18, Jd. XX. 41 A, I K. vi. 9, SO avoid i^irrai Kaphas viov 
Prov. xxii. 1 5 B*C (doubtless right, though the Heb. " is bound 
up in" lends some support to the other reading <ap8ia) : fut. pass. 
dcpB^aopcu (dv-) Jer. xxxi. 9, Sir. iii. 15 N* lacks early authority. 
'Apdo(j.ai: the simplex (poet.) in the Balaam story, rarely 
elsewhere, usually in composition with <ar- (class.) or the 
stronger (unclass.) eiriKar-: fut. and aor. regular -apdaopai, 
(Ka.T)r}pa(rdfir)v, the Ionic Karr)pr](rdp.r]v once in A, § 22, 2, the aug. 
in first syllable in iKarapao-dp-qv 2 Es. xxiii. 25 B, dropped in 
fTriKarapda-aro V cli. 6 R, doubled in enacaTr]pd(raTo ib. T : aor. 
pass, (unclass.) with pass, sense Karapadflr] Job iii. 5, xxiv. 18 : 
perf. pass, with pass, sense "accursed" Kar^papai and with aug. 
and redupl. (unclass.) KiKarrjpapai, § 16, 8. 
Ap-ye'io: neut. part, dpycbv = dpyovv , § 22, I. 
'Apvcopai: aor. Tjpvrjo-dprjv (for usual Att. -r)6t)v), § 21, 6. 
'ApTrdtw: unclass. asigmatic fut. (8i)apira>pai, § 20, 1 (ii), 
beside Att. tenses dpTrdaoi, rjpTraaa, r}pirdvdr}v, rjpTrao-pai: new 
guttural pass, forms TjpTrdyr]v, 8iapTrayycropai, §§ 1 8, 3 (iii), 21, 4. 
(' Aa-Klt,(o) : fut. avv- vnep- ao-iriui with v.l. -acnrlcra), § 20, I (i). 
Avi-yeo) "shine" is unattested elsewhere: r^vyu Job xxix. 3. 
AvX(5op.at: aug. in Cod. A (vXi£cto, § 16, 4. 
Ati£dvw and avjja) are both classical, in LXX the latter is limited 
to Is. lxi. II, 4 M. xiii. 22 and to compounds in literary books 
(fVavf», o-wavtja) 2 M. iv. 4, 3 M. ii. 25, 4 M. xiii. 27 AS 
(-av£av6vTav V) : the verb retains its class, transitive meaning, 
"grow" "increase" being expressed by algdvopai, and the intrans. 



24] Table of Verbs 261 

use, common in N.T., being limited to rjv^a-av 1 Ch. xxiii. 17 
A* (T]igr]0t}(Tav cett.): the Attic fut. av&crw in 1 Ch. xvii. 10, 
while the Pentateuch uses the novel avgavw, Gen. xvii. 6, 20, 
xlviii. 4, L. xxvi. 9 : the fut. pass, ai^drja-ofiai is regular, N. xxiv. 7, 
Jer. xxiii. 3. 

AvTapKt'w, avTO(ioXe'a) : aug. omitted in avrdpKrjaa, avropoXrjaa, 

§ 16, 4- 

'A(pavi?<o : fut. d<pavia> and -law, § 20, 1 (i). 

'Axp€t.6w: 3rd plur. perf. r)xP eifOKav i § l 7i 3- 

BaSit" : fut. fiabiovpai (Att.) and, once in X, the later /3a8iw, 

§ 2 °' 3- 

Ba£va> rare in the simplex (Dt. xxviii. 56 and three times in 

literary books in perf. and pluperf.): new present -fiivva (cf. 
-0eVci>), § 19, 2 : perf. part. fiefirjKas, not the alternative Att. 
/3e/3&>y: aug. omitted in plpf. fttprjiceiv, § 16, 2 : aug. zrcicg redupli- 
cation in KareftrjKa Cod. A, § 16, 7: 3rd plur. impf. -efiaivav, 
§ 17, 4: 2nd aor. imperat. drd-(fcard- etc.)fir)di -,8ijro -^re, not 
the N.T. forms di/d/3a-/3dr&>-/3aTe, § 23, 8: 2nd aor. opt. Kara^oi 
(for -fiairi) 2 K. i. 2 1 B {KaTa^rjTco A, Karaftrj Swete). 

BdXXto: aug. omitted in plpf. -($(!3Xr)K.fiv, § 16, 2, duplicated 
in double compound TrapeavvtpiXTjdrjv, § 16, 8: aor. terminations 
efidXocrav, § 17, 5 and efiaXav -as (Hb. i'ii. 13 AK C01T ), § 17, 2. 

Bapc'u only in the old perf, part. pass, fiejUapripivos 2 M. 
xiii. 9 A (pefiapapevos V, § 22, 4) and once in perf. ind. pass. 
{BepdpTjrai Ex. vii. 14 BA (fielSdpvvTai F). Elsewhere in LXX, 
as in class. Greek, the verb is always |3apvva> (koto-), whereas 
later the contract verb became universal (mod. Greek fiapaovpai) 
and in N.T. fiapfiv (with compounds iiri- Kara-) occurs 10 times 
as against one ex. only in WH of -fiapvveiv Mc. xiv. 40. Befiapvp- 
pevoi in a papyrus of ii/B.c, no Ptolemaic ex. of fiapdv, Mayser 390. 

Bao-Td£a> : fiairrcurio and cfidoTaaa as in Attic, also ifidara^a, 
§ 18, 3 (iii), with which cf. the late fut. pass. frvv^aaraxdrjcreTai 
job xxviii. 16, 19. 

Bidtopai: fut. irapaftivpai (for Att. -fiido-opai, but see Veitch), 
§ 20, 1 (ii). 

Bipd£a> : fut. as in Attic -/3i/3&> (dva- iiri- Kara- <rvp-: mainly 
in Ez. a and Minor Prophets), elsewhere -ftiftdo-co (Xenophon), 
§ 20, 1 (ii) : aor. pass. ipiif5acr6t)v (Aristot.) : fut. pass, late dvafii- 
^Sacr6rj(Topai L. ii. 12. 

Bippuo-Ku : see eadiw. 

Biow (Sto-) rare and except Ex. xxi. 21, Sir. xl. 28, only in 
literary books : fut. fiiwo-a) for Att. fiidy<ropai, § 20, 3 : aor. e/3tWa 
for the usual Att. e'/Siwi/, § 21, 1. 

BXao-rdvu has alternative present forms ^Xaa-rdco, /SXaorect), 
§ 19, 3 and new 1 aor. e'fiXdo"n)cra with causative meaning (not 
Att. e/3Xaorov), § 21, I : perf. /3e/3X aortic a, § 16, 7. 



262 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

B\€7r« is used not only in its original sense of the function 
of the eye "to look," but also, especially in later books, = 6pai/ 
"to see," e.g. Jd. ix. 36 B ( = 6pas A), 4 K. ii. 19, ix. 17: ava- 
ftXenav besides its class, meanings " look up " and " recover 
sight" (Tob. xi. 8 K) is used causatively in dpa^X(\j/are els vyfsos 
tovs cxpdaXpovs v/xmv Is. xl. 26 (for the usual to'is ocpd.), cf. Tob. 
iii. 12 K. Fut. fJktyj/oncii (Att.) and, more rarely, /3Xe>a) («rVi-)> 
§ 20, 3. Of passive and mid. forms (unclassical except fut. mid.) 
LXX has impf. pass. (iv)(fi\itrovTo 3 K. viii. 8 = 2 Ch. v. 9 bis, 
and part. pass. fiXenopepos W. ii. 14, xiii. 7, xvii. 6, Ez. xvii. 5 
(eve-): the mid. is constant in nepieBXc^dprip Ex. ii. 12 etc., 
vTroBXenopepos " suspicious of" I K. xviii. 9, Sir. xxxvii. 10. 

Bodw: fut. Qorjcropai (Att.) and 8or)<ro>, § 20, 3 : as from Boea> 
Kara[ioovvTa>v Cod. A, § 22, I. 

Boti0€w : unclassical passive forms are introduced, BfBoi]6r]TaL 
Prov. xxviii. 18 has class, authority, but the 1st aor. pass, and 
fut. pass, are new, the uncials exhibiting a natural confusion 
with the tenses of J3oav: aor. eBor)6r]6r]p 2 Ch. xxvi. 15 (the Heb. 
shows that $or)6r)vai of A is wrong), ^ xxvii. 7, Is. x. 3, xxx. 2 
(Borjdijpai X*), fut. j3oTjBrjdr'](TOfiai Is. xliv. 2, Dan. e xi. 34 
(f3o7)dr]<rovTai Q*). 

BovXojxai : 2 sing. BovXei B and BovXtj A, § 17, 12: aug. 
efiovXtjdrjv, but impf. e'(3ov\6fir)v and rjBovXopjjp, § 16, 3. 

The pres. of ppdero-w "shake" appears in dpaBpdvaopros 
Na. iii. 2 (Att. Sparra: -BpdCa also occurs): the tenses lack 
classical authority, dpeBpaaa Ez. xxi. 21, W. x. 19, egcBpaaa 
2 Es. xxiii. 28, 2 M. i. 12, etjeBpdadrjp 2 M. v. 8. 

Bpe'xw (class. " wet " or " drench ") in LXX usually means "send 
rain" (hail etc.), being used either absolutely, Gen. ii. 5, or with 
ace. verop, xd^a£av etc., thus supplanting the class, veiv which is 
limited to Ex. ix. 18, xvi. 4 (cf. the newverfgeiv Jer. xiv. 22, Job O 
xxxviii. 26) : fut. act. and pass, are unclassical, Bpegai Am. iv. 7, 
Jl. ii. 23, Ez. xxxviii. 22, ¥ vi. 7, Bpaxwopat, Am. iv. 7, Is. xxxiv. 3. 

Tapim is limited to three instances in the Greek books 1 
where it is used correctly of the husband : aor. eyr)pa (Att.) and 
iydprjaa (Hell.), § 21, 2. Verbal adj. ya/ie7-i7 = "wife" 4 M. ii. 1 1. 

TeXdw : fut. yeXda-opai and yeXdaa), § 20, 3. 

rTjpdo-KO) : fut. yrjpdcrco (not -eropai), § 20, 3. 

rivopcu (yeiv. § 6, 24) not yiyv. except as a rare v.l., mainly 
in the A text of the Esdras books, § 7, 32 : for aor., iyepap^p 

1 The translations, partly under the influence of the Heb., use other 
expressions: of the husband yapfipeveiv (Gen. xxxviii. 8), Xappdveiv and in 
2 Es. (x. 2 etc.) the Hebraic Kadi^uv ywouKa ( = hiphil of 3B*, "give a 

dwelling" or "settlement to") : of the wife yiveadai or elvai tipi (-h rpil), 
^X eLV &v8pa : of both avpotKelp, cvvoiKlfcadai tipi. 



§2 4 ] 



Table of Verbs 263 



(iyevafirp in Jer. A text, § 17, 2) and iyevr)drjv (dialectic and late) 
are used interchangeably, § 21, 6: both forms of Att. perf. 
yeyova and yeyevrjfiai (-ew. Jos. v. 7 B, 9 lxxxvi. 6 R) are used, 
the former largely preponderating : aug. retained in iyeyoveiv, 
§ 1 6, 2 : Att. fut. yeviiaoixai apparently only in Gen. xvii. 17 bis, 
= " shall be born" (cf. tlkto> for Hellenistic rex^o-o/xcu and 
trixfyv): poet. term. iyivopecrOa, § 1 7, 1 3. 

Tivwo-kw (yeiv. § 6, 24), not yiyv. except as a rare v.L, § 7, 32, 
has the classical tenses : the plpf., apparently only in the com- 
pound difyvdxeiv N. xxxiii. 56, 2 M. ix. 15, xv. 6, seems to lack 
early authority: 3rd plur. perf. eyvaxav, § 17, 3: the 2nd aor. 
i'yvwv [aviyvoi—aveyvco 4 K. xxii. 8 B*) usually has the regular 
conj. yva, in Jdth xiv. 5 eiriyvoi B (eVi-yixu XA), while in the rare 
optat. the MSS are divided between the class, yvoi^v and the 
later yvtor/v, which occurs in Job xxiii. 3 A (yvoLi] BX), 5 B*X* 
(yvoirjv A and later hands of BX : cf. similar fluctuation in the 
moods of the 2nd aor. of 8i8wp,i, § 23, 10) : 2nd aor. inf. appears 
once as iiriyvovvcu Est. A 1 1 X* on the model of 8ovvm, so 
8tayvoipai in a papyrus of iii/B.c, Mayser 366 (for the converse 
working of analogy in 8oovai see § 6, 34) : for eyvdodrjv, yvcoOrjaopcu 
in B, vice eyvaxrOrjv, yvaad., § 1 8, 2 : verb. adj. yvaareoi', § I 5, 2. 

rVwpi£w : fut. yvoopico (Att.) and -io-a>, § 20, 1 (i). 

rpa<j>u : aug. always retained in plpf. iyiypanTo, § 16, 2, 
redupl. dropped in iniypcnrTO A (eyeypcnrro BF), § 1 6, 7 : tenses 
regular, perf. yiy pcxpa 1 M. xi. 31, 2 M. i. 7, ix. 25 (not the late 
yeypdfprjKa), aor. pass, iypdcpr/v (utt- etc. : not (ypd(p6t]i>), fut. pass. 
ypa(f)T](Topai ^ cxxxviii. 16 (not the more usual Att. yeypd\f/opai), 
aor. mid. aTreypu^dprjv Jd. viii. 14A, Prov. xxii. 20, 3 M. vi. 34. 

Tpt]yopioi(eypr]yopio}): newpres., replacing eyprjyopa,\v\ih. tenses 
eyprjyopovi', (e)ypr)yopr)<ra>, eyprjyuprjcra, eyprjyoprjdiji', found in some, 

mainly late, books of LXX and frequently in N.T., § 19, 1. 
Tpii^w : fut. ypv£a> (not ypv$jop.ai), § 20, 3. 

(AtiSu) : perf. 8e8ouca -as -a<ri -as (not Att. 8e8ta etc.) and 
pluperf. <=8(8oUeiv (aug. retained, § 16, 2: once in A r)8e8oU(tv, 
§ 16, 3) are used only by the translator of Job, excepting 
one ex. of 8e8oiKOTfs in Is. Ix. 14. 

AeiKwp.i and forms from 8einvva}, § 23, 2. The part. eVt- 
8f8(()iypevos in 2 M. ii. 26 (R.V. "taken upon us the painful 
labour of the abridgement") and 3 M. vi. 26 (Kautzsch 
"erduldeten") is used where we should expect t7ri8(8(ypevos. 
The confusion of forms from 8(Uwpi and 8ex°H- aL (^ K -) ' s perhaps 
due to Ionic influence : cf. the Homeric use of 8ciKvvo-8ai (and 
8ti8l(TKfcr8ai) = 8ix €(T ^ aL " welcome." 

At! "it is necessary": the impers. 8(1, e8ei, fut. Se^o-et Jos. 
xviii. 4, is used occasionally, 8d being replaced by the para- 



264 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

phrastic 8iov io-riv in Sir. prol. bis and 1 M. xii. 1 1 (so Polyb., 
Aristeas and papyri) : no ex. of conj. or opt. since /xe 3 of the 
uncials in Est. iv. 16 is doubtless right (not 8ei]). 

Acopai "ask": for the extended use of the uncontracted 
forms and the peculiar forms e'Sefiro, eVSearai see § 22, 3 : the 
fut. pass. 8fr]di](rofxai (iv- Trpoo—) supplants Att. 8er]aop.at, §21,7: 
eSerjdrjv (in- Trpoo--) and 8e8er]pai 3 K. viii. 59 are classical. 

Ac'xofjiai : tenses regular except that the fut. pass. 8ex.8wop.ai 
(npoo--) "will be accepted" is new, L. vii. 8, xix. 7, xxii. 23, 25, 
27, Sir. xxxii. 20 : -e8txd r l v with pass, sense is classical : pf. pass, 
with mid. sense (class.) eK(5e'8e/cTni Gen. xliv. 32 (in Is. xxii. 3 read 
8e8ep.ii> 01 elaii', A has 8e8eypevoi.), for eTri8e8etyph>os used like 
-8e8eypevos cf. 8eiKvvvai : verbal adj. e'K8eKTeov § 1 5, 2. 

Ae'w "bind" has the regular tenses 8ijo-a> i'8t]<ra e'8edr]v 8e$i)- 
a-ofiai 8e8epai : X* twice uses forms from 8ea> "want," 8er)o~eis 
Job xxxix. 10, e'8(7](Tfv ib. xxxvi. 13: the mid. is used only in 
the 1st aor. (poetical in the simplex) e8i)o-a.To Jdth xvi. 8, nare- 
8r]aaro reXapavi 3 K. xxi. 38 (the language has a Homeric ring). 

Aia\e'-yo|i.cu : aor. SieXeyiiv, 8ie\etjdp.r)v and (the usual class, 
form) SieXexQrjv, fut. 8ia\€x6wonai, § 21, 4 and 6. 

AiSdo-Kw : fut. pass. SiSa^^o-o/xai Is. Iv. 12 is post-classical. 

(Ai8pdo-K<o) only in composition with airo- 81a- : the Att. 2nd 
aor. aiT(8pav is used in 2nd and 3rd sing, and 3rd plur. -e8pas 
-i8pa -e8pa<rav, conj. dnoSpa Sir. xxx. 40, part. 8ia8pds Sir. xi. 10, 
imperat. dn68padi (post-classical) Gen. xxvii. 43, xxviii. 2 : the 
1st sing, appears as dni8pu>v in Jdth xi. 16, a form which is 
explained by an ancient writer cited in Rutherford NP 335 as 
a recognized alternative for dne8pav (to 8i dneSpav rivis t<ov 
pr]Topa>v 81a tov a> einov, dni8pu>v, dXX' dp.(ivov 81a rov a), or it 
would seem possible to take it as a new i7)iperfect as from 
dTro8pda> (the regular -e8i8pao-Kov however is used elsewhere in 
LXX) : out of the 3rd plur. of the 2nd aor. arose the new 1st 
aor. dneSpao-a which appears in Cod. N, § 21, 1. 

AC8io|Ai : beginnings of the transition to the -co (-dco) class, 
§ 23, 5 : (8a)Kav (for e8oo-av), e8coaa Cod. A, moods of 2nd aor., 
§ 23, 10: term. e'Sco/ces A, § 17, 8: aug. omitted in SeSco/ceii/, § 16, 2. 

AiKa^to has Att. fut. SiKcurco i K. viii. 20, xii. 7 B (Ionic 
8iK.dv = 8i.Kdo-€iv Hdt. I. 97), but the rare €k8ikci£co has fut. 3rd 
sing. efcSi/carat "shall take vengeance" or "avenge" L. xix. 18, 
Dt. xxxii. 43 BF (eKSucelrai A: the following nal e'ic8iKT)o-€i is 
perhaps a doublet) § 20, I (ii): in Jdth xi. 10 e/cSt/cdrat is used 
passively "be punished" and the present tense used in the next 
clause suggests that it is intended for pres. pass, as from teKSiKdco 
(cf. for similar exx. Hatzidakis 395) : the classical cK8iKd£co (un- 
represented in N.T.) has in LXX almost disappeared to make 
way for the new «k8ik€w (tenses regular : in passive -eSi/o^i/, 



24] Table of Verbs 265 

-diKTjdr/aopai, -BeBU^pai Gen. IV. 24) which with the subst. 
fKbUtjcris (Polyb.) is the ordinary word denoting vengeance or 
punishment : for a trace of an intermediate f\8t,Kau see § 22, 1. 

Ai\|»dw: tiyira (for Att. -3), § 22, 2 : fut. St^ao-w, § 18, I, and 
8i\}sr](ropai, § 20, 3, as well as Att. Sn/z-iyo-co. 

AtwKw : fut. usually §ia>£opu (KaTa8ta>£o/xat), also St&>£o> (Kara-) 
(Attic prefers the middle), but €k8i^co only, § 20, 3 : the fut. 
pass. i<8iu>x&h (T0VTal * xxxvi. 28 ARTN ca is post-classical : 3rd 
plur. imperf. e'SiWai/ in X, § 17, 4. 

AoKi[id£«> ((i7ro-): fut. doKifiS) and 8oKi/xaa-o> (Att.), § 20, 1 (ii), 
but in Sir. xxvii. 5, xxxiv. 26 8oKipa of X ( = B 8oKipd(ci) is 
probably pres. as from 8oKifida> (cf. BoKifirjarjS in a papyrus of 
ii/B.c, Mayser 459, and the subst. Soki/xtj in N.T.: the ex. of 
fut. BoKifico which Veitch and Kiihner-Blass cite from Hdt. I. 199 
also appears from the context to be present, ra 8e 7rpa>T&> 
e/i/SaXdirt €7rerat ov8e dnoBoKifia ov8eva). 

AoXioto : post-classical N. xxv. 18 and 3 times in V : 3rd 
plur. imperf. e'SoXtouo-ni', § 17, 5. 

Auvajjuu : traces of transition to the -a> class in 2nd sing. 
8vvy (usually 8Cva<rai in LXX) and variants 8w6pe6a etc., §§ 17, 
12 and 23, 4: aug. rj- (usually) or e'-, § 16, 3 : aor. r)8wrj6r]v (e'S.) 
and rj8vvda0T]v (e'8.) ib., also e8vvrja-dp.r]v (poet.) Cod. A, § 21, 7 : 
fut. 8vvr](TOfjiat and in Cod. A 8vwdr]<Top.ai, § 21, 7. 

Awajioo) (eV- vnep-) : new verb found in a few late LXX 
books and in N.T. : aug. virep^wdpuso-av (like ijowrjdrjv), § 16,3. 

Av<r<|>ope'&> ; 3rd plur. impf. e8va<p6p<0v Cod. A (for -ow), § 22, I. 

Aim, 8vvw, -8i8vo-ko). Apart from pres. and impf. the classical 
tenses of 8veiv (eiV- eVt- /cam-) u to sink" (intrans.) are for the 
most part retained: 2nd aor. i'8w (not e8ir)v, § 21, 3) with inf. 
8iivai Jd. xiv. 18 A, conj. 8vrj L. xxii. 7 AF (Xy B*), fut. 8v<ropai, 
pf. 8e8vKa : a new intrans. 1st aor. e'8vcra (evolved out of the 3rd 
plur. of e8vi>) appears twice in the compounds KaraSva-aa-iv, 
v7To8vaavres, § 21, i : the trans, fut. 8vcr<o "cause to sink" JI. ii. 10, 
iii. 15 is late in the simplex, cf. Kara8vaoy Mic. vii. 19. The 
class, fut. and 1st aor., act. and mid., of indveiv, e'v8veiv, "to 
strip (oneself)," "clothe (oneself)," are also kept, and once the 
class, impf. eve8v6prjv V xxxiv. 13: plpf. without aug. ev8e8i>Keu> 
or without reduplication ('ve8vi<eiv A (cf. eV;8u/cei Est. D. 6 B*), 
§ 16, 2 and 7 : perf. (only in the part.) ev8e8vp.fvos and e'v8e8vKws, 
the latter limited to 1 K. xvii. 5, 2 K. vi. 14 and "Ezekiel a" 
(ix. 2, 3, 11, x. 2, 6, 7, xxiii. 6 [A mid.], 12 [do.]: contrast in 
Ez. ft iv8e8vp.(vovs xxxviii. 4 BAQ). 

The pres. a?idinipf. of the ititransitive verb "to set," "sink" 
are always formed from Svvw (Ionic: in Att. prose not before 
Xen.), § 19, 3: 8vvn Eccl. i. 5, 8vvoptos 3 K. xxii. 36, 2 Ch. 
xviii. 34 A, Jos. viii. 29 (en-*-), eSvve 2 K. ii. 24, so eic8vvei 



266 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

"escapes" Prov. xi. 8 (8vveiA) : the aor. tvvavros 2 Ch. xviii. 34 B 
is late (Polyb. ix. 15 Schweigh.), § 21, 1. The reading of B*K* 
in Is. Ix. 20 011 yap SwrjcrfTai 6 fjXios (rot, (Suo-erai cett.) is remark- 
able : a fut. mid. of this form from 8vva> is unexampled, and if 
the fut. of Svva/jLai is intended the reading cannot be original : 
the two roots are elsewhere confused, e.g. 2 K. xvii. 17 and the 
readings in 1 Ch. xii. 18. 

To express the transitive meanings "put on," "put off" the 
new forms 4v- «k- 8i8uo-k<o are used in pres. and impf., apparently 
first attested in LXX (also in N.T. and Jos.), § 19, 3. 

'Edo>: tenses regular with aug. el-, except for 3rd plur. impf. 
iuxxav Jer. xli. io, beside elW elsewhere, § 16, 5 : aor. pass. 
(e)lddr]i> and in Cod. A (e)la<r6rjp, § 18, 2 : for the itacism cf. 'intra 
Job xxxi. 34 A. 

'Eyyi£w : -n-poa-- (Aristot. and Polyb. : LXX usually intr. "draw 
near," occasionally trans, "bring near" Gen. xlviii. 10 etc., as 
also in Polyb.) : fut. e'yyiw, § 20, I (i) : ijyyma, fjyyia-a. 

'Eyyvdo) : medial aug. in eveyvrjadprjv (for rjyyvrjcr.), § 16, 8. 

'E-ytipto "raise up" (no ex. of intrans. use of act.): aug. 
usually inserted in e^rjyeipofirjv l^rryepdtfv^ § 16, 4 : the two perfects 
are rare, the classical eypi]yopa "watch," "be awake" occurring 
only twice (elsewhere replaced by ypijyopeo) q.v.), the later eyi)- 
yeppai only in Zech. ii. 13 e'£- "is risen," Jdth i. 4 K Sieyrjyeppevas 
of gates raised to a certain height (Sieyeipopevas BA) : aor. pass. 
r)yepOr]v (not j)ypdpr]v), § 21, 6 : fut. pass. (e'£- eV-)eyep#r/cro/iai 
N. xxiv. 19, Mic. v. 5, Is. xix. 2 etc. is late (Babrius). 

ElXtw : I aor. (dv^lXrjaa 1 late (Att. el\a, Ep. eAcra), § 21, 2: 
perf. pass, (late in simplex, dweikripivov Hdt. II. 141, nepieikr]pivrjv 
in iii/B.c, Mayser 337) elXrjpfvos Is. xi. 5 BQ (-rjpp. XA), eV«Xr;- 
pevos I K. xxi. 9 B (-rjpp. A), KareiXrjpevos 2 Ch. ix. 20 A {-r]pp. B). 

EljAt, § 23, 1 1 : 2 sg. fut. ear] and eaei, § 17, 12 : eo-Two-av, § 17, 6. 

Etfu, § 23, 12. Ei/irov, eiptiKa etc. : see Xe'yco. 

'EKKXT|o-id£w : medial aug. in aor. e^eKXrjo-iao-a, § 16, 8. 

'EXaTTov€op.ai and more rarely IXaTrovew (-tt- not -aa-, § 7, 45) 
with same meaning "fail" etc. appear for the first time in LXX 
beside the class. IXa-rrow (-tt- and -aa--, § 7, 45) : aug. omitted 

in e'XaTTOi'uiOr], § 1 6, 4- 

'EXavvw : fut. -eXda-w (not eXa>), § 20, I (iii) : aor. and plpf. pass. 
crvveXacrdevTdiv, avvrjXaaTo late (Att. rfXdOrjv, rfXrfXdprjv), § 1 8, 2. 

'EXedw usually supplants the older eXeea, § 22, 1. 

'EX(o-o-o) : not the Ionic and late elX., except in A which has 
elXixdeir) Job xviii. 8 and verbal adj. elXiKros 3 K. vi. 13: 2nd 
fut. pass. eXiyrjaopai is post-classical, § 21, 4. 

1 The corresponding fut. only in Job xl. 21 A eiXHCeiC, a corruption 
of ei AHceic. 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 267 

"E\k»: fut. (Xkihto) e£- nap- (Ionic for Att. eX£o>) : the 1st aor. 
ttX/cuo-a (tjXkvo-ci, § 16, 5) and pass. (iK<xia-6r]v (e|- e<£-) have early 
authority (the late *fX£a, eiA^i' do not occur in LXX). 

'Efj.iro8oo-TaT€to : a new verb "obstruct": the perf. with 
irregular medial reduplication, e'pTrcn-odea-Tdr^Kas, appears in a 
corrupted form in Jd. xi. 35 A, § 16, 8. 

'Ev€xvpd£&j : aug. rjvexvpacra and evex-, § 16, 8: fut. -cicrco Dt. 
xxiv. 6 B and -« -as ib. AF* 17 B ab AF. 

'Ev0v(i€Ofj.ai : fut. (vdvfj.Tjdi']aofiai (late) and -pr](Topai. (Att.), 
§ 21, 7 : -eOvfiTjdrjv, -T(6vfir]p.ai classical. 

'Evvrrviato|i.<u : the verb appears to be Ionic (Hippocrates, 
and then not before Aristot., who uses the active) : aor. rjvvrrvia- 
o-drjv (or ev.) and T)vvTrviaadp.i]v (or eV), § 16, 4 and 8 : fut. 
ivviTviaa-Qria-ofxai Jl. ii. 28. 

'EvoTLtto-eai: verb frequent in LXX, once in N.T., unattested 
elsewhere, possibly a "Biblical" creation to render the hiphil of 
jTX : aug. fvcoTia-dprjv and r)v., § 16, 8. 

'Eiraioviot "register," "enroll" (like aTroypdfaiv), a aira£ 
Xtydpevov in N. i. 1 8 B inrj^ovova-av, § 17, 5. 

'Eirio-Tapai : aug. T]Trio-Titp.r]v and v.l. en., § 1 6, 4: 2 sing. 
tTTLO-raa-ai and enia-rr], §§ 1 7, 12 and 23, 4. 

'Ep-ya?0|iai. : fut. Karepya -arm -rnvrai (never Att. epydaopai), 
§ 20, I (ii) : aug. rjpya(6pr]v but e'lpyaap-ai (as in Att.), aor. 
■qpyacrdpj)v and elpyaadp-qv, § 1 6, 5 : the perf. is used only with 
pass, meaning 1 (in Attic it has active sense as well): fut. pass. 
ipyavdrjaopat. (class.) Ez. xxxvi. 34. 

'Epewaw and Ipauvduo, § 6, 12: 3rd plur. impf. (as from 
e'pevi'ew) rjpevvovv, § 22, I. 

'EpT]ji6w : aug., usually ?)-, sometimes omitted, § 16, 4. 

"Epirw (e£-) : 1 aor. i^p^ra V civ. 30, with causative meaning 
"produced," "made to swarm" (cf. i^apaprdveiv "cause to sin"), 
is unclassical, Att. using e'lpnvaa from epnv£<o for "crept" 
(Veitch cites elp\f/a from Dio Chrys.). 

"Epxo|«u 2 : in Att. the pres. stem in the simplex \s confined 
to pres. ind., while the moods, imperf. and fut. are supplied from 

1 Including Dt. xxi. 3 5dfia\iv...riTis ovk etprycurrai: witness the Heb. 
Pual (R.V. "has not been worked with") and the undoubtedly passive use 
of the tense in the next v. Cod. A has an active aor. r)pydo-are in 2 K. 
xi. 20, a corruption of r)yyi<raTe. 

- A common synonym in LXX and later Greek is Trapa.yivoiJ.ai, this use 
being possibly of Ionic origin : apart from Hdt. it seems to be rare in 
classical Greek. The distribution of the word in LXX is noticeable, esp. 
its absence from Dan. and books akin to 0, 2 Es. and 1 and 2 Ch. 
(except 2 Ch. xxiv. 24) : in non-historical portions its absence (& and Prov.) 
or rarity (Prophetical books) is more easily intelligible. In N.T. it is 
almost confined to Luke's writings. 



268 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

dpi : LXX employs rjpxdprjv, epx<>>pai etc. with fut. (Xevaopat 
(Epic, Ionic and poet.), eipi being now rare and literary (§ 23, 
12) : aor. ^Xdov with new terminations rjXda, eX6dru> etc., § 17, 2, 
fjXOocrav, § 17) 5? °pk cXdoicrav, § 1 7 5 7- 

'EpuTdco : aug. 7;- but eV-epovn/cra etc., § 16, 4: 3rd plur. 
impf. enqparovv Cod. A, § 22, I. 

*E<r0fo and 2<r6w (esp. in the part. ecr0<ov), § 19, 3 : fut. eSopai 
(rare outside Pent.) and Hellenistic (pdyopai, § 20, 2, with 2nd 
sing. (pdytaai and occasionally <pa-y?7, § 17, 12 ((payovp.eda Gen. 
iii. 2 Z) sil ) : terminations of past tenses k'cpaya, § 17, 2, (<f)dyo<rav, 
Karecpdyeaav, rjadoo-av, § 1 7, 5, (pdyoiaav, § 17, 7. The rare pres. 
pippcoo-Kco once in Jd. B, § 19, 3: the tenses fttftpaiKa (fiefipwKei, 
§ 16, 2), Pefjpeofiai, dftpcoOrjv (opt. ^pmQei-qtrav Job xviii. 13) are 
Ionic and late : fut. pass, ftpcodfjo-opai is new. The Att. e8rj8oica, 
e8rj8e<rpai, r/deatirjv have disappeared and the vulgar rpayyco of 
St John's Gospel is unrepresented. 

Evayy€\ij;op.cH "tell good tidings" : the act. -t'fw (as in Apoc. 
x. 7, xiv. 6) occurs in 1 K. xxxi. 9 -1£ovt(s (=mid. in the [I 1 Ch. 
x. 9), with fut. tvayyc'kico 2 K. xviii. 1 9 (mid. -ovpm in next v. and 
elsewhere) : otherwise only in the mid. -pass., aor. mid. ev-qy- 
yiKia-dprjv (class.), § 1 6, 8, and once aor. pass. (vayytXio-OnTa 6 
Kvpios pov 2 K. xviii. 31='' receive the good tidings" (cf. 
Hebr. iv. 6). 

Evapeo-T^o) : aug. (vrjpi(TTJ](Ta, § 1 6, 8. 

EvSokcu (Polyb. and papyri of ii/B.c.) : aug. omitted in 
(vdoKTjcra, § 16,4: aor. pass, evdotcndr] 1 Ch. xxix. 23=" prospered" 
(perhaps a corruption of evodooOr], cf. Is. liv. 17 A). 

Ev8t)V€<* : Ionic and late for older Attic evdcveco : once in pres. 
mid. ■*■ lxxii. 12 BX* (class.) : 3rd plur. impf. evdrp>ovo-av, § 17, 5. 

Ev0vveiv (tar-) : aug. Karevdvva, § 16, 4. 

EvXapeopai : fut. evXafirjdr/aopai only (Aristot. : not evXaftrjo-op.ai 
as in Plato), § 21, 7. 

EvXo-yeto : aug. fvXoyijaa, § 16, 4: term. (vXoyovaav, § 17,5, 
(vXoyrjdMfrav Tob. iii. 1 1 : late tenses evX6yr]Ka -T]p.ai -7]0rj<Top,ai. 

Evpto-Ko) : aug. omitted in tvpov, evprjKa, evpedrjv, § 16, 4: 
terminations evpa, § 17, 2, evpovav, § 17, 5, evpoiaav, § 1 7, 7 ( 1st 
aor. evprjcra not used, § 21, 1). 

Ev<j>pa£v« : aug. eicppuvd^v and r)v(pp., § 16, 4: fut. pass. 
ev(ppav8rjcropai (not clcppavovpai), § 21, 7. 

Evx o H- al {if poo--) : aug. usually Trpocrrjv^dpTjv, also -fu£., § 16, 4, 
and iirpo<ri}v^dp.Tjv, § 16, 8. 

"Ex<o: fut. e£a> (not tr^Vca), § 15, 3: 3rd plur. aor. eVxoo-ai/, 
§ 17, 5 : 1 aor. pass. (Ionic and late) tear- crw- ecrxfdqv, with v.ll. 
in A a-vvfdxicrdr], § 1 8, 2, and Karqcrxedr) 3 M. v. 12: fut. pass. 
-crxfOrjcropai (late: 112 B.c. is the earliest ex. in papyri, AP 31, 
6), R. i. 13 (sara-), Job e xxxvi. 8 : class, perf. ec^ica rare, Sir. 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 269 

xiii. 6 and in 2, 3 M. : the mid., excepting dvexopat ( a ug. dve<rx- 
oprjv § 16, 8), is almost confined to the part, e'xd/ievos -ov -a 



Zdw or £ijo> : fut. (ljaopai and f^o-co, the latter sometimes with 
causative sense " quicken "=£<o<i><ra> elsewhere, § 20, 3 : aor. 
(Cw a (Attic usually employed efiicov): as from £rjfu 1st sing, 
impf. e^rjv (not e^coi')and 2 sing, imperat. £t)#i (post-class.), § 22, 2. 

Zevyvuiu, ^evyvvw (ava-) : § 23, 2. 

Zt]\6(o : i(rfkrj(ra Cod. N as from -ea>, § 22, 4. 

Zwvvvw (nepi- etc.) but mid. Trepi^wvvvTai, § 23, 2 : fut. act. 
£o>o-co (post-class.) Ex. xxix. 9 : fut. mid. (uxropai (once in a 
Hexaplaric interpolation in A Trepi^vrai Ez. xxvii. 3i = 7repi- 
(axrovTai Q ib.) with aorists e(a><ra, efa(rdpr)v are classical : perf. 
pass, dv- nepi- in- ((coaptvos (Ionic : Att. efapai), § 1 8, 2. 

'Hyfopai: (1) with the meaning "lead" frequent in the part. 
rjyovp(vos=T]yep6)v : the tenses (class.) are rare, jjyeiTo Ex. xiii. 21, 
Tiyrjaerai Mic. ii. 1 3, Bar. v. 9, rjyrjo-aTo Gen. xlix. 26: (2) with 
the meaning "think," "think good" only in literary books (Job, 
W., 2 — 4 M.) with tenses rjyqadprjv and (Job) rjyipai with act. 
meaning. 

"Hk» in virtue of its perfect meaning "am come" 1 in late 
Greek adopts in the plur. and occasionally in the inf. and part, 
forms as from a perfect ^a : the conjugation in LXX as in the 
papyri (Mayser 372) is thus tJko> -eis -ei -apev -are -aaiv (the last 
very frequent : rjicov<nv only in Job xvi. 23 A) : the perf. part, 
appears once as ^kws in 4 M. iv. 2 A (rjaav XV and so elsewhere 
in LXX : the papyri show both forms, Mayser ib.) : inf. ?;k€U' 
4 M. iv. 6 (f]K(i>ai papyri) : imperat. (rare in class. Gk) r}<e 2 K. 
xiv. 32, Jer. xliii. 14, xlvii. 4 KAQ, Tob. ix. 3 N, iirdvijKe Prow iii. 28, 
ijKfre Gen. xlv. 18, Is. xlv. 20 : fut. rj£-a> frequent = " will come" not 
"will have come" (the late aor. r)£a is unrepresented). 

0dX\<o (dva-) : new 2nd aor. dve&aXov (Att. i'dr)\a, Aelian dv- 
idrjka) used intransitively "revive," § 21, 2 : the pres. dvaddWu 
(the compound is unclass.) is used transitively "make to flourish" 
Sir. i. 18 etc., Ez. xvii. 24. 

BopPca : in class. Greek "be amazed (at)," so 1 K. xiv. 15 : 
in LXX also causatively "frighten," (ddpftrjadv pe 2 K. xxii. 5, 
with pass, dapfteopat, aor. e8ap(3r]dT]v, § 21, 6. 

0avfj.d£a> : fut. davpuaopai (Att.) and -aco, § 20, 3 : edavpaadi]}', 
Oavpaadijcropai keep their class, passive meaning (duvpaadrjvai 

1 "Hkei in Eccl. v. 14 is used as an aorist "he came," answering to 
iraptyiveTo in the next v. The impf. t\k€ in 2 M. 5 times and Jdth xi. 1 S. 



270 Table of Verbs [§ 24 



Est. C. 21 is perhaps deponent), § 21, 6: perf. pass, redavpaa-- 
fxivos 4 K. v. 1 (Polyb.). 

©e'Xw, fut. 6(\r]<r<o, no longer (Att.) c8e\a>, ede\r)(Ta), conse- 
quently has the new perf. TfdeXrjKa, § 16, 7 : but the old aug. is 
invariably kept in ?'jde\ov, fjdeXrja-a, § 16, 3: term. rjdeXav in X, 
§ 17, 4. The use of eiSoiujcra in Jd. (B text) = ijd4Xt](ra (A text) 
is noticeable. 

0epi£« : fut. -ta> and -ura>, § 20, 1 (i). 

0€p(jLaiv« : aor. edeppava (since Aristot. for -rjva), § 18, 4. 

©eoipeu : as in N.T. almost confined to pres. and impf., the 
aor. edeaprjaa -x]6r]v occurring 4 times in literary books, with 
■*■ lxvii. 25 -Tjdrja-av : 3rd pi. impf. in Jdth x. 10 iOewpmv S, § 22, 1, 
edfcopovo-av A, § 1 7, 5 (2). The tenses in N.T. are supplied from 
Otdofxcu : fdtaa-dptjv in LXX is rare, and reBiapai occurs once only. 

©vtjotku) dn-o- : the Att. rule as to the use of simp/ex for perf. 
and plupf, compound for fut. and aor. is still observed 1 : perf. 
TedvrjKa -Kivai -kcos, the forms reBviaaiv ( = Att. Te6va.cn) -vdvai 
-vewTfs in literary books, § 23, 7 : plpf. redvrjKei A § 16, 2 : fut. perf. 
Tedv^opai ( = older Att. T(6vt]^u>) 3 times in the Atticising 4 M. : 
terminations dnedavav, § 17, 2, -eddvoaav -edvrja-Kocrav, § 1 7, 5. 

©pavo> : fut. pass, (late) dpavo-fiijaopai and once in B dpav- 
Brjo-opai, § 18, 2 : aor. pass, edpava-drjv is classical. 

©vfiicuo 0v|itd?a> "burn incense": pres. and impf. always from 
-no (class.) except 6vp.ia£nv<nv Is. lxv. 3 A: other tenses from 

-d£ca, fut. -d(TG>, aor. fdvpiaaa (Hdt. -irjaa) -iddrjv I K. H. 1 5 f . : 
3rd pi. impf. edvpioxrav, § 1 7, 5 : as from -e'a> dvpiovaiv N, § 22, I. 

("iTjfu) only in compounds : d(p[a> a-wiu> etc., § 23, 6 : aug. omit- 
ted in dvedrjv, dcpedrjv, but irapi'idrjaav, § 16, 5 : term. d(piJKes, § 1 7, 8. 

'Iko.v6o|j.cu : unclass., usually impersonal in the phrase l<a- 
vo\ht8(x> (vp.1v) : aor. Uavaidrjv : 2 sing. Cod. A iKavovcrat,, § 17, 12. 

'IXao-KOfj.a.1 : the simplex, in class. Greek " propitiate," 
"appease," in LXX is used not of the suppliant but of the 
Divine Pardoner, "be merciful," "forgive" ( = 1\ews yivopai 
elsewhere), in the aor. pass. iXdadrjv impt. ikdo-QrjTi ( = Epic TKrjdi 
in same sense) and fut. mid. IXdcropai 4 K. v. 18 Sis, ^ xxiv. 11, 
lxiv. 4, lxxvii. 38 (and probably in 2 Ch. vi. 30 iAach should be 
read for iach, cf. v. 27), once in the fut. pass. IXaa-drjatTai 
4 K. v. 18 A. Far commoner is the compound €^iXao-Kop.ai, fut. 
-daopai, aor. -aa-dprjv, used like the class, simplex =" propitiate" 
man (Gen. xxxii. 20, Prov. xvi. 14) or God (Zech. vii. 2, viii. 22, 
Mai. i. 9), but usually abs. "make propitiation" of the priest 
nepi tivos passim, sometimes with ace. of the thing for which 

1 E.g. Eccl. iv. 2 rovs redv-qKbras rovs 7J8r) dirodavovras. The uncom- 
pounded fut. daveirai in Prov. xiii. 14, possibly for metrical reasons. 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 271 

atonement is made 1 (apaprias etc. Sir. iii. 3 + , Ez. xliii. 22 + , 
Dan. ix. 24) and once with ace. of the propitiatory offering, 
2 Ch. xxix. 24: fut. pass. f^iXao-drjcropai (unclass.) = " shall be 
expiated" or " forgiven " N. xxxv. 33, Dt. xxi. 8, 1 K. iii. 14, vi. 3 : 
A reads etjiXdro as from -dopai in Sir. xvi. 7. The simplex has 
thus become a deponent verb " be propitious," and the causative 
sense " make propitious " must now be expressed by prefixing i £- 
(cf. et-apaprdveiv). 

"Iirrrjfu : see neropai. 

"Io~rT]fu, io-raw (lo-ravw), fut. once in A ia-rija-co, § 23, 3 : pres. 
<tttJk(x) (jrapa-), § 1 9, I : pf. forms with new trans, pf. ea-ra<a, 
§ 23, 7, kot- /«■-, § 8, 7 : aor., § 23, 8 and 9 : aug. lanjiteiv eicrr. ear., 
I 1 6, 5, double aug. an- ex are 0-7-770-0, § 16, 8 : term. -earrjKav, § 1 7, 3. 

KaSaipu) (e*- ire pi-), the class, verb for "cleanse" in literal 
and met. senses, in LXX is quite rare and restricted to the lit. 
sense in the simplex ( = " winnow " wheat 2 K. iv. 6, and fennel 
Is. xxviii. 27) and in comp. with «- (Dt. xxvi. 13 ="clear out " 
goods from a house, Jos. xvii. 15 "clear" a forest [but eKnadapitls 
i'. 18 in same sense], Jd. vii. 4 B "thin" an army, "weed out" 
the inefficient), cf. nepi- Dt. xviii. 10, Jos. v. 4, 4 M. i. 29 : aor. 
-tKciOapa (once -rjpa Jos. v. 4 A), § 18, 4. (KaOapiow in Lam. iv. 7 
is a an. Xey.) Far more frequent is the unclass. KaOapitw (e\e- 
■nepi-), mainly and apparently originally with metaphorical 
meaning, but afterwards (see N.T.) used in all senses : Deiss- 
mann BS 216 f. has shown that the ceremonial use of the word 
is not wholly " Biblical " : fut. nadapicb with v. 1. -law, § 20, 1 (i) : 
aor. enaddptcra : pass. KadapiaBijaopai. eKadapio-Brji' KenadapMrpevos : 
for fKadipiaa etc., § 6, 3, Moulton Prol. ed. 3, 56 note. 

Ka0it«»> Ka0€'£o|Aai, Ka0T)fj.ai. From icadifa (pres. and impf. 
have disappeared and the late pf. KeKaQma is unrepresented) we 
have aor. ('midio-a, used, as in Att., both intransitively " sat," 
"seated myself," and, less often, transitively "caused to sit": 
Att. fut. KadiS) is also both trans, (as always in Attic) Dt. xxv. 2, 
Jer. xxxix. 37, Ez. xxxii. 4 (eVi-), Job e xxxvi. 7 and intrans. 
Jl. iii. 12, Is. xiv. 13, xlvii. 8: fut. Kadiaw (Ion., vulgar and late) 
only in Sir. xi. 1 B (trans.). The middle is now confined to the fut. 
(Att. Kaditfo-opai) which appears in three forms : (i) KaOiaopm 2 
Dan. O vii. 26 only, (ii) Kadiovpai 1 Es. iii. 7, ¥ exxxi. 12, Hos. 
xiv. 8, Mai. iii. 3 and in the following passages (except Jd.) as a 
v.l. for (iii) a form unrecorded in the grammars Kadiop,ai 3 Jd. 

1 Cf. Deissmann B S w\{. 

- Swete prints it also in Jd. vi. 18 (Kadlo/j.ai B, Kadriao/xai A). It may be 
merely an itacistic form of /tadr/ao/nai. 

i The form appears to have grown out of the 3rd sing. Kadieirai which 
was written as tcadierai from the objection felt to two contiguous i sounds: 



272 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

yi. 18 B, 3rd plur. KaQiovrai Sir. xxxviii. ■}>}> A, 3rd sing. KadUrai 
in Cod. B, Dt. xxi. 13, 3 K. i. 13, Jer. xxxix. 5, Dan. e xi. 10, and 
in BX in Zech. vi. 13, Is. xvi. 5, ^ xxviii. 10. 

From K.a8(£onai we have the Att. fut. <a6ebovpai twice Jer. 
xxxvii. 18, Ez. xxvi. 16: the late fut. Kadeadrja-opai L. xii. 5 B 
(4 B ab F), and the late aor. Kadeo-Oels Job (? 0) xxxix. 27. 

Ka^/xni, iKaBrnxrjv are now the only pres. and imperf. for the 
verb "to sit" : 2nd sing. Kadrjo-ai (not Kadgoi N.T.), but imperat. 
usually kuBov (once Kadijao), § 23, 13 : the unclassical fut. Kcidij- 
crofiai is fairly common, ib. 

KaOi^dvw (early in poetry with intrans. sense) is used transi- 
tively in Job xii. 18 (nadlfav A), Prov. xviii. 16. 

KaCw: the old Att. kuoo 1 in Ka-qrai Ex. xxvii. 20 B, inKaei Prov. 
xiy. 5 N, Kao/xdvi] Mai. iv. i Q : tenses regular with 2nd aor. pass, 
(dialectic) e^-Kar-tKaw, fut. pass, (late) eK-KaTa-Karj(rop.at, § 21, 4. 

KaXtto : fut. KaXtaa, § 20, i (hi) : fut. perf. pass. KfKX^a-o/iru 
only as a variant for kXj^o-o/lku in Ex. xii. 16 A, Hos. xi. 12 BQ, 
c f- § J 5) 3 : au S- m enapfKciXovv, eTrpoaneKX^Tai, § 16, 8: vb. adj. 
nXrjTeov, § 15, 2. 

KaXinrro) : avaKaXv\jsa N, § 16, 2. 

Kavx<io|iai: 2 sing. evicavxq (not the later -a<rai), § 17, 12. 

Kei(j.ai : regular § 23, 13, partially replaced by redupai, ib. 10. 

KeXevw : KeXevdevres Cod. A (for -euo-#.), § 18, 2. 

(Kepawv|ii) : pres. part, tcfpawovres, § 23, 2 : perf. pass. 
KiKipacrpai (late), with doubtful authority for neKpatiai (Att.), aor. 

pass. fKepdatirjv aw- (Att. also has eKpad-qv), § 18, 2. 

Kipvdw a collateral form of Kipw}/ju : impf. enipvav V ci. 10 ; as 
the -pi forms are usually retained in the mid., p.(Tf<ipvaro W. 
xvi. 21 (Swete) should probably be pereKipvaro. 

Ki X pd« not Ki XPWh § 23, 4. 

KXauo : not Att. kXcLco, but enXaev 3 K. xviii. 45 B : fut. 
liXava-opai (not the later -<tg> of N.T.), § 20, 3 : aor. and fut. pass. 
fKkavo-drjv (-avdr/v B), Kkavadrjcropai (v.l. nXavd.) are post-classical, 
§ 18, 2 : the perf. pass, is unattested. 

KXeuo with tenses (cXe/o-w etc. (not the old Att. kX/;o> /cXr/ow 
etc.): perf. pass. KeKXeivpai and rarely (class.) -eip-ai, § 18, 2 : fut. 
pass. KXfurdr)(Topai (late in simplex: Xen. has it in comp.) ib. 

KXCvw: pf. act. nenXiica (late) Jd. xix. 9 A, 11 A (-??*-), 3 K. 
ii. 28, 4 K. yiii. 1 A, Jer. vi. 4: aor. and fut. pass. eit\i8r}v,' kXiS^- 
aopai (not enXivyv, kXivjJo:, nor the mid. aor. and fut.), § 21, 5: 
other tenses classical : the simplex is absent from the* Hexa- 
teuch, the intrans. use of it (of time Jd. and Jer. I.e., and else- 
where in other senses) is late. 

cf. raixutov— rapeiov etc., § 5 (3). Note that Cod. B keeps 3rd plur. 
Kadiovvrai Hos. xiv. 8. 

1 Mayser quotes an ex. in ii/B.C. , 104 f. 



§24] Table of Verbs 273 

Kvi£o> (poetical and in late prose) : aor. dniKvia-a and (Cod. A) 
direnviga, § 1 8, 3 (Hi). 

K<H[mo|icu : 2nd sing. Koi/iaa-ai Cod. A, § 17, 12: fut. pass. 
KoiprjOtjo-nfiai, § 21, 7, and perf. neKoip.rjp.ai N. v. 19, 4 K. iv. 32 A, 
Is. xiv. 8 are post-classical. 

KoXXaw (n-poo--) mainly in the passive with new reflexive 
sense of cleaving to a person, with tenses eKoXhrjdrjv KoWrjOrjo-npui 
K€Ko\Xr]fj,ai : aug. omitted in KfKoAA^ro, § 16, 2. 

Kolu£co : fut. KofiLco 3 M. i. 8, -loipat and -laopai, § 20, I (i). 

Ko-imo : fut. mid. Ko-^opm "will bewail" Jer.-Ez.-Min. Proph., 
3 K. xii. 24 m B, xiv. 13 A lacks early authority 1 : fut. pass. 
Konija-ofjLaL, late in simplex, = (a) " shall be cut down " Jer. xxvi. 5 
(so eKKOTTTJa. Uan. e ix. 26), (b) "shall be bewailed" Jer. viii. 2, 
xvi. 4 : the other act. and mid. tenses are classical, pf. act. 
wanting: opt. term. (KKoyj/aiaav, § 17, 7. 

Kovcf>££co : fut. -ico and -icrco, § 20, I (i). 

Kpa£w : the pres. rare in Att. is equally so in LXX, Kpd(as 
Jd. xviii. 24, else in the part. Ex. xxxii. 17, 2 K. xiii. 19, ^ Ixviii. 4, 
Jdth xiv. 17 B, and inf. ¥ xxxi. 3, Tob. ii. 13 BX, impf. eK.pa(ov 
Jd. xviii. 22 A: elsewhere the pf. KfKpaya is used with pres. 
sense as in Attic, Ex. v. 8, 2 K. xix. 28, Jer. xxxi. 3 etc. : fut. 
KCKpa^opm as in Att. (with v.l. Kpd£opai : not Kpdt-oi of N.T.), 
§ 20, 3, cf. 15,3: the aor. takes 3 (or 4) forms, the third only 
being classical: (i) usually i<€Kpa^a, (ii) i'tcpatja rarely and in books 
using pres. npd£co, but always dviKpafja, (iii) dveKpayov, (iv) 
possibly redupl. 2nd aor. iniKpayov, unless this should be re- 
garded as impf. from TKeKpa-yco, §§ 21, 1 : 19, I. Kpa\ryd£a) is 
properly used of an animal's bleat in K.pavd(eiv Tob. ii. 13 A 
(with loss of y, § 7, 30 : «.pd£e iv BX), of a human cry in eKpavyaaev 
2 Es. iii. 13. 

(Kp€p.avwpi) Kp€fia£» Kpt'jjiapai : the act. goes over to the -co 
class, K.ptp.d(a>v (Kpepvwv A) in Job 0, §§ 19, 3 and 23, 2 : in the 
mid. the Att. Kpipapai remains, § 23, 4 : fut. Kpepdam for Att. 
KptpSi : eaptpaaa -dadrjv as in Att. 

Kpi'vco : aor. and fut. pass, for mid. in the compounds 
dnfKpidrjv (with dTrenpivdpr]v) dnoKpidrjaopai, BieKpidrjv 8uiKpi- 
dyo-opai, vTvtKpiBrjv (but viTOKpivaadai 4 M.), § 21, 6: the simple 

fut. pass. Kpidrjo-opai (class.) has mid. sense "contend," "plead 
with" in Jer. ii. 9, Job xiii. 19 (-o-opfvos), pass, "be judged" Is. 
lxvi. 16: aug. in ehieicpivev N, § 16, 8: term. fKplvoaav, § 17,5: 
Cod. C writes KtKptvfv for K(Kpi<ep Job xxvii. 2. 

Kpv-rrrw and new pres. Kpvpco, § 1 9, 3 : aor. and fut. pass. 

1 In Jer. xxxi. 37 -rraaai x e 'P €S k6\{/ovtcu it appears from the Heh. to 
keep the meaning "cut" and may even perhaps stand for the passive "shall 
be cut" (cf. Or. Sib. III. 651 = 731 ovdi pit> [yap] e/c dpvpou £u\a K6\perat). 

T. 18 



274 Table of Verbs [§ 24 



(usually with mid. sense) eKpvjSrjv, KpvfttjaopaL, § 21, 4 (class. 
tKpvcpdriv, (dir)e k pv^/dprjv , {dna^Kpy^ropcu unused). 

K-ra.op.cu : 2 sing. Kracrai, § 17, 12 : class, tenses in use KeKTrj- 
pai (not e'er.), § 1 6, 7) KTrja-opai, eKTt]crdp.i]v : new fut. pass. 
KTi]dr](TovTai "shall be acquired" Jer. xxxix. 15 (B*X* incorrectly 
ktktS.) 43: verb. adj. erciKTr]TOs 2 M. vi. 23. 

K.T€ivto (d7ro- Kara-): the simplex only 1 in Prov. xxiv. II 
(unclass. passive Kreivoptvovs), xxv. 5, 3 M. i. 2 : KaraKTeiveiv 
(poet.) 4 M. xi. 3, xii. 1 1 : new pres. (beside -KreiVto) d7roKTevi/a), 
§ 19, 2 : perf. dneKTavica (late for usual Att. direKTOva) N. xvi. 41, 
1 K. xxiv. 12, 2 K. iv. 11 : -kt^vco, -eKreiva, regular: new passive 
tenses (in Att. expressed by cnvidavov etc.) are the aor. dire- 
KrdvBrfv, § 21, 5, and perf. pass, in the two forms diracTappevav 2 

1 M. V. 5 r A (-KTavpevoyv X, -KTapivuiv V*) and d7rfKToi>i](rdai 

2 M. iv. 36 V (a7reKroi'T/0-e!' A). 

KvXito, impf. €kvXioi>, replaces the older pres. in -iv8a> : the 
tenses eKi/Xiao. fveKvXlaOrjv (ey) KvXia-drjcropai have early authority. 

Krnrrto : fut. kv\^w (for -opai), § 20, 3 : perf. (KKeiiv<pa Jer. vi. I. 

(Kvpto, Kvp€») rrpoa-- rrvy- : § 22, 3. 

Kvw (kvov(tl Is. lix. 4, invopev 1 3) and kWoi (d7roKU!7<rtto-a 4 M. 
xv. 17) are both classical. 

AaXe'to : pf. i\d\rjKci in A and X, § 16, 7 : part. Xakovra X = 
-covra (for -ov'i'ra), § 22, I. 

Aap-Pavw : fut. \rjp-fyopai (\dpy\ropai), aor. pass. e\r]p(p8r]v etc., 
§ 7, 23 — 25 : perf. pass, regular KareiXrjppevos (variously spelt) 
Est. C. 12, 2 M. xv. 19: terminations eXafiav, § 17, 2, tXdpfiavav 
Cod. A, § 17, 4, iXdfioo-av eXapfidvoo-av, § 1 7, 5 : double aug. 
eKare'kaftev Cod. A, § 1 6, 8 : verb adj. dvaXrjpnTfos, § 15, 2. 

AavOavw : term. eTreXdOevro (for -ovro), § 17, IO. 

(At'-yco "collect") in comp. with in- (mid. verb only 3 ), eVi- 
crw- dir- Jdth x. 17 B*X* : perf. pass. (Att. usually -eiXeypu) in 
mid. sense eKXeXe/crai (N. xvi. 7 B ab ), 1 K. x. 24, but part, in 
pass, sense iiikeKeypivr] I M. vi. 35, fVtXeXfy/x. ib. xii. 41, so 
plpf. <Tvvt\ek(K.To Jdth iv. 3 : -X«£co (-opat) -eXe^a(-dprjv) and aor. 
pass. iicXeyivTGS 1 Ch. xvi. 41 etc., avWeyevrcoi' 3 M. i. 21 are class. 

Ae'-yw "say" is defective in LXX as in N.T., being used only 
in pres. and impf. of the act. (terminations eXeyapev X, § 17, 4, 
4\iyovav A, § 1 7, 5) and, more rarely, of the passive, with two 
exceptions in literary books: (e£)e'Xe£fi> 3 M. vi. 29, Xe^c^eVro 4 
Est. i. 18: Xf'^w \i\iypm etc. are not used. The other tenses 

1 Also an incorrect reading of A in Sir. xvi. 12. 

2 From perf. act. aweKTaKa which occurs in Polyb. 

3 Except iicXQu Ez. xx. 38 AQ (read eX^w B), e£Ae£a 1 M. xi. 23 X 
(read ew- AV). 

4 eXex6H L. vi. 5 B stands for i\eyx9y- 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 275 

are supplied (as also to some extent in Attic) by aor. elnov l (or 
etna, § 17, 2, 3rd plur. e'lnocrav, § 1 7, 5? °Pt- fiTaio-av -oicrav, 
§ 17, 7), fut. e'pcb, pf. e'lpi]<a (sometimes equivalent to aorist eiTrov, 

1 K. xx. 26 B, 4 K. vi. 7 B), and pass, pr{dr]o-opai N. xxiii. 23, Sir. 
xv. 10, 1 M. xiv. 44 (-o-d/xevos), e'lprjpai Prov. xxiv. 69, I M. xiv. 22, 

2 M. vi. 17 (etpi'/o-^co), 4 M. i. 33 (aTraprjpcvos) and eppfdrjv (for 
Att. -r]Btji') prfdr/uai prjdels, §§ 18, I : 6, 16. Cf. diaXeyopai. 

Aeiiro) (the simplex only in literary books) has the alternative 
pres. form 81a- e'yjcara- ek- Kara- Xi(j.irava>, once in A KnrHXtiji- 
fidveiv, § 19, 3: aor. act. usually eXmov, rarely the late e'Xei\//-o, 
§ 21, 1 : aor. pass, usually eXeifpOrjv, once in 2 Es. B. the late 
KareXiirrjo-av, § 21,4: the increasing disuse of the o aorist shows 
itself also in the constant reading of A etc. -eXemov vireXenroprjv 
for -eXmou -fXnroptjv of B : other tenses regular : terminations 
eyKaTeXnrav, § I 7, 2, (Xinoo-av, § 17, 5, KciTeXenrav Cod. A, § 1 7, 4. 

AevKa£v« "make white" and "be white" L. xiii. 19 (Aristot.): 
aor. eXevKava, § 18,4: fut. pass. XevK.av6i](Topai "ir 1. 9. A synonym 
is XevKaGi^w (for XevKavdt(a> Hdt. vin. 27), L. xiii. 38 f. with pf. 
pass. XeXevKcidio-pevr) Cant. viii. 5 B {-av6. XA). 

Ao-yit°|j.cu : tenses regular Xoyiovpai (Xoyiaerai L. vii. 8 A for 
Xoyia8i]<T(Tai BF) eXoyio-dprjv, and with pass, sense eXoyi<rdr]i> 
XeXoyicrpat, (A once without redupl. Xoyio-peuov, § 1 6, 7): new 
fut. pass. Xoyi(T0rja-np,ai (cruX-) is frequent. 

Aovw : <=Xov<t6>]i>, XeXovo-pat. (Att. tenses without o-), § 18, 2: 
A writes Attic Xovpevrjv in the only passage where the pres. mid. 
is used, 2 K. xi. 2, B Xovopevqv. 

Avficuvofiai, often written X01p.aivop.at, § 6, 41 : aor. eXvprjvdprji' 
(as in Att. : not eXvpav.), § 18, 4. 

Avw : term. KareXvoo-av, § 17, 5 : double aug. eb~ieXvo-apev 
Cod. X, § 16, 8. 

MaKpvvw : used in a few, mainly late, books, esp. ¥, both 
transitively=/zaKpai' dcpiardvai (so pf. pass, in Aristot.) and intr. 
=paKpdv dire^eiv e.g. Jd. xviii. 22 or="delay" Jdth ii. 13: pf. 

act. papaupvv kotow A, § 1 6, 7 : pf. pass. pepaKpvppevov, § 1 8, 4. 

MapTvpo|j.at (81a- eVi-) : fut. (not attested before LXX) diapap- 
rvpovpai Ex. xviii. 20 etc. : pepaprvpa) 2 Es. xix. 34 B, § 16, 7. 

Mdxop.ai : fut. (no ex. of simple fut.) duipaxrjcropai Sir. xxxviii. 
28 (so with -p,axeo-opat in Ionic and late Greek), § 20, 2 : aor. 
regular epaxeo-dprjv (not the late epaxeo-drjv), § 21, 6. As from 
-|iax.t£oiAcu (unrecorded in LS) 8iapepdx>-o-Tai Sir. Ii. 19. 

MtC-ywiu : for pres. and impf. act. (o-vp^lo-yu o-wepio-yov are 
used (o-vvpio-o-ei Cod. A, § 9, 5), SO o-vvavapicryeade Ez. xx. 1 8 B colT 
(-piyyeade B* sic, -piywadai AQ), whereas the -pi forms are 

1 1st aor. mid. a.irair6.p7)v (Hdt., Aristot. and late prose) Job vi. 14, 
x. 3, xix. 18 A and Zech. xi. 12. 

18—2 



276 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

usual in the middle, § 23, 2 : class, tenses used are i'p(e)it;a, 
ip.{e)ix8r]v in mid. sense "make terms" 4 K. xviii. 23= Is. xxxvi. 8, 
(en)efiiyr)v ^ CV. 35, I Es. viii. 67, 84, Ez. xvi. 37 (dva)p(piypai 
(never -pepeiypai) : 2 fut. pass, avppiyrfaovrai Dan. xi. 6 
(an-oo-u/M- A: fxiyj)crea-6at once in Horn., else late). 

Me'XXw : i'peXXov and rjpeWov, § l6, 3. 

(MeXw): impers. /n«'Xei rare, impers. perapeXrjai] Ex. xiii. 17: 
eTrifxe\ovfjiai Gen. xliv. 21 (pres. with fut. sense) and -peXopai 
are both Attic, § 22, 3, tenses e7ripe\rjaopai and iireptXrjdrjv 
regular: the tenses of perapiXopm (Att. only in pres. and impf.) 
are new viz. ptTepeXr)8r)v, ptTapeXr/drjcropai, -pepiXrjpai, § 21, 6. 

Mepitto (81a-): fut. ptpicb (Att.) with v.l. -tcra>, § 20, I (i) and 
fut. mid. peptovpai I K. xxx. 24, Prov. xiv. 18: fut. pass, p.epicr- 
8r](Top.ai N. xxvi. 53 etc. post-classical : else regular. 

Miafvw : pf. pass, pepiappevos (v.l. -ciap as in Att.), § 18, 4. 

MifjtvricrKO(iai (c7rj- 1 M. x. 46: the act. is only used in com- 
position with dva- vtto-) : the pres. (rare in early prose) = " make 
mention" Is. xii. 4, xlviii. 1, lxii. 6, = "remember" ¥ viii. 5, Sir. 
vii. 36, 1 M. vi. 12, xii. 11, with alternative unredupl. form pvjj- 
(TKOjiat, § 19, 3: class, tenses with the meaning "remember" 
fj.efxvTjp.aL, epepviipr/p Tob. i. 12, epvrjo-Brjv, pvrjadijaopai (not pep- 
prjaopai, § 1 5, 3): the aor. and fut. occasionally have passive 
meaning "be mentioned" (unclass.), ipvrprdrfv Sir. xvi. 17 B, Jer. 
xi. 19, Ez. iii. 20, xviii. 24, xxxiii. 13 A, 16 A, pvrja-drja-opai. Ez. 
xviii. 22, Job 6 xxviii. 18. 

Mio-tto : impf. epitrcov (for -ow) Cod. N, § 22, 1 : post-class, 
pass, tenses peplcrrfpai Is. liv. 6, lx. 15, pLcrrjOrjcropai Sir. ix. 18, 
xx. 8, xxi. 28, Eccl. viii. 1. 

Mvtio-Tevofiai (act. not used) fut. -aopai and perf, with pass, and 
mid. sense, pepvrjarfvpai {epv.), § 16, 7. 

Moixao(j.ai an alternative form, probably Doric 1 (first found 
in Xen. Hell. I. 6, 15 in the act. in the mouth of a Lacedaemonian), 
of the Att. /xot^evw, confined in LXX to two books, Jer. (iii. 8, 
v. 7, vii. 9, ix. 2, xxiii. 14, xxxvi. 23 — all except the last in 
"Jer. a") and Ez. a (xvi. 32, xxiii. 37, 43 A), as in N.T. to Mt. 
and Mc: it is used only in pres. and impf. (therefore e'polxevae 
Jer. iii. 9) : aug. dropped in poixdro N, § 16, 2. Elsewhere in LXX 
and N.T. the tenses of jioixevco are used, including the pres. (L. 
xx. 10, Hos. iv. 14, vii. 4, Ez. xxiii. 43 BQ), the class, distinction 
in the use of the act. of the man, the pass, of the woman, not 
being rigidly observed. 

MoXvivw : perf. pass. p-epoXvppevos and -vapevos, § 1 8, 4 : the 
fut. pass. poXwdrjaopm Sir. xiii. 1 etc, appears to be post-classical. 

N«'f«o has late sigmatic futures and aorist vepf)a-a, -170-0/nat, 
1 YVackernagel Hellenistica 7 ff. 



24] Table of Verbs 277 



KarevefMi](rdfir)i> (Att. vepa -ovpat iveipdpr)v), § 21,2: class, aor. act. 
and pass, retained in Dt. xxix. 26 dieveipev, W. xix. 9 iveprjdrjvav. 

Ni^ew 1 vulgar and late form of vu> ( = vdo> or vrjco), like d\i]d(o = 
dXico, Ex. xxxv. 25, with late perf. pass, (8ia)vevr](rp.evos, Ex. xxvi. 
31 etc. and verb. adj. vr/o-rdy, Ex. xxxi. 4 (contrast Epic fvwrjros) : 
the old aor. i'vrja-a Ex. xxxv. 26 required no alteration. 

Nitttw, the Ionic present from which the tenses are formed, 
replaces Att. vifa, § 19, 3: fut. pass. vKprja-erai L. xv. 12 has no 
early authority : pf. pass, with mid. sense vivnrrai ib. 1 1 BA 
(early in comp.): else regular: LXX prefers the simple verb 
which Attic prose avoided (0770- 3 K. xxii. 38, Prov. xxiv. 35, 55 : 
irepi- Tob vi. 3 X). 

Noe'u : 3rd plur. impf. (i<aT)evooiicrav, § 17, 5: the deponent 
fut. of the compounds always takes the pass, form eworjOrjcropai 
Sir. xiv. 21 XA (vorjd. BC), hiavorjBrio-opai Sir. iii. 29 etc., Dan. O 
ix. 25 etc. (8iavoij(rofJiai is an alternative class, form). 

No(ii£co ; apart from Sir. xxix. 4 only in literary books : verb. 
adj. vopiareou, § 15, 2. 

Nvo-<ro(iai(Kara-) : the compound with met. sense "feel com- 
punction" or of lust (Sus. 10) is not found before LXX : for aor. 
the Pent, uses Karevvxdrjv, the other books Kanvvy^v with fut. 
-vvyijaopai, § 21, 4: perf. -vivvypai. 
' Nvo-to.£<o : I'vard^a) evvo-ra^a, § 1 8, 3 (l). 

(3«voo)) : term. aTregevovcrai Cod. A (from Aquila), § 17, 12. 

-*Tjpouvco (dva- dwo-) has late fut. pass. £r]pav6rjo-opcii Is. 
xix. 5 etc. in addition to class, tenses (no pf. pass, attested). 

From jjvpt'o) or the later ivpcuo (pres. unattested : no forms 
from £vp(o in LXX) LXX besides class, e'tjvpricra, etjvpijpai, has 
the following regularly formed tenses which lack early authority : 
£vpr}<ra>, ({jvp7]dj]v, £vprjdrjcrop.ai, i^vprjadpiqv, ^vprjtropai. 

(Oi"Y«> only in the compounds) dvoi-yw, Stavo/yw, and once 
irpoo-oi-yw : never -oiyi'vpi : for the spelling avvya, § 6, 41 (i) : the 
augment (§ 16, 6) is always in the a in biavoiyco St^ot^a etc. 
(8irjve<oKTo Job xxxi. 32 C is a solitary ex. of augmented 01) and 
usually in dvoiyco, the compound nature of which is becoming- 
obscured, thus impf. ijvoiyov -dp-qv, aor. act. and pass, (i) usually 
rjvoL^a T]voi)(6i]v, less commonly (ii) Att. dvea£a dveco^drjv or (iii) 
with triple aug. r}v4(pfja ijvf(pxdr]v : the perf. pass., on the other 
hand, appears once only in the later form (i) rjvoiypevos Is. xlii. 20 
(BirjvotKTai Job 6 xxix. 19), usually (ii) Att. dvecpyp4vos or (iii) 
Tjveaypdvos, plpf. avecpKTO (rjv.) Job l.C. \ the 2nd perf. act. dv4a>ya 
once with intrans. sense Tob. ii. 10 BA : 2 Es. has late 2nd aor. 
and fut. pass, rjvoiyrjv, dvoiyijaopai, the other books 1st aor. in 

1 See Rutherford NP 134 ff. 



278 Table of Verbs [§ 24 



-X^'F with fut. dvoixdrjcro/jLac, also late (Xen. nvew^o/uai), § 21, 4. 
Hpoo-4(p£ev Gen. xix. 6 is a new compound, rather strangely used 
as the opposite of av€to£ev= u shut to" (Heb. 1JD, rendered 
antKkucrav in v. io : cf. German zumachen, aufmachen). 

0!8a in LXX, as in Hellenistic Greek generally, has the 
uniform conjugation ol8as (27 exx.) -e -apev -are -acn(v). The 
Attic forms are now an index of literary style : 2 sing, oiada 
4 M. vi. 27 and in the degenerate form 1 oia-6as Dt. ix. 2 B 
{olo-da F, ifo-tfa A): plur. tore 3 M. iii. 14 (a letter of Ptolemy), 
(icracriv Job xxxii. 9 X ca (eiciN X*: the translator, notwithstand- 
ing his usual classical style, no doubt wrote oidaaiv here as 
elsewhere). For 2 sing. ol8es in A (perhaps influenced by ei8es : 
so in later papyri from ii/A.D., Mayser 321) cf. § 17, 8. The 
plpf. is also uniform, keeping et throughout : fj8eiv (ufyv 2 K. 
i. 10 B* may have arisen out of the 3rd plur. 1st aor. ei'8?/crnv), 
jj8eis (Dt. xiii. 6) -ei -eipev -eire -fiaav : the classical forms f]8ij 
rjSrjo-da (-rjs) jjSepei' (ijafifv) etc. being unrepresented. Inf. 
ddivai, part, etficos 2 . 

The only fut. in LXX (daopai is not found) is (I8rjaa (Ionic, 
Aristotle and late writers) in Jer. xxxviii. 34 elSija-ova-iv 3 XQ 
(o18tJ(tov(tiv B, i8i]<Tov<Tii> A). A corresponding 1st aor. f'i8r)<ra 
strictly=" came to know" (Ionic and from Aristotle onwards: 
elSr)<Tai in a papyrus of iii/B.c, Mayser 370) occurs in the B text 
of Deut. : ddrjaav viii. 3, 16, xxxii. I7 b , AF reading rj8ficrav in 
each case (cf. Is. xxvi. 1 1 r), with inf. cl8r]<rai Dt. iv. 35 B (etSe'vai 
AF), Jdth ix. 14 BN*A. 

There is constant confusion in the MSS between the forms 
of ol8a and d8ov, esp. the participles cl8d>s and I8m> (cf. note 2 
below). The existence of a genuine variant form d8<i>v as part, 
of 018a can hardly be inferred from the evidence : it occurs in 
2 Es. xx. 28 A, Job xix. 14 B*X ca , Wis. iv. 14 X, with o-w(i8(av) 
1 M. iv. 21 XV* vid , 2 M. iv. 41 V*. A good illustration of the 
confusion of forms is Job xx. 7 (Heb. " see ") : el86res B, iSore s A, 
IdovTcs X, el86res 186vt(s (conflate) C. 

O!k€0) : aug. omitted in KaroiKrja-a, § 16, 4. 

OiKi£co : aug. omitted in KaroiKio-a, § 1 6, 4. 

OlKo8op.€'w : aug. omitted in oiKoSofjLrja-a, § 16, 4, retained in 
part. (OKo8ofjLTjaavTes, § 16, 9 : 3rd pi. impf. cpKo8ofioi(rav, § 1 7, 5. 

OlKTstpw : so always in B ; and usually in the other uncials 
(Inscriptions show that otKrlpa was the older form, and so X 
generally writes, but its testimony is untrustworthy, cf. § 6, 24) : 
fut. and aor. take the late forms (as from -e'w, cf. olKTeiptjfia 

1 Rutherford NPifjf. 

2 Or t'Sws: so A writes in Job xix. 19, xx. 7, xxviii. 24, Eccl. ix. 1 and 
(with X) W. ix. 9: B* has this spelling in Bar. iii. 32 only (Bar. fi, p. 13). 

3 The reading is supported by the quotation in Hebrews viii. n. 



24] Table of Verbs 279 

Jer. xxxviii. 3) otKreip^Vco, olKT(ipt](ra (never wVt., § 16, 4) : the 
class, aor. toKTtipa (oucr.) is now literary 2 M. viii. 2, 3 M. 
v. 51, and in comp. with kcit- 4 M. viii. 20 X, xii. 2 XV (A twice 
correcting to the later form), with iir- Jobxxiv. 21 A : the writer of 
4 M. employs the unclass. mid. oUrdpopai v. 33 (-jjcrco A), viii. 10. 
0!|acu 4 M. i. 2,3 (rare outside literary books), 2 sg. o'Ui and 
°*Sj § l 7, 12 > has the Attic tenses toprjv (not ao/ajv) Gen. xxxvii. 7 
etc., o)i/&7i/ Est. E. 14 (h6h K*, coH9ei A), 1 M. vi. 43 X. The 
late compound Karmopevos "supercilious 1 ' occurs in Hb. ii. 5 
(Aristeas § 122, Philo). 

Ol|ia)£a) : fut. olpa)£o) (Att. -£opai), § 20, 3. 

(Olo-rpeuo) only in the late compound Trapoia-Tpda intrans. 

"rage," Hos. iv. 16 Trapoia-Tpaxrn TrapoiaTprjaev (aug., § 1 6, 4 : 
napoiarpcoaev Q* vil1 ), Ez. ii. 6 -iqcrov(Ti(v). 

"0\\v\u aTT-di-e^-TrpocraTr- : forms as from -oXXuco in the active 
§ 23, 2 : the simple vb, confined in early Greek to poetry, in LXX 
is limited to Job, Prov. (both of which imitate the poets) and Jer. /3 
(also Jer. x. 20 ci'Xfro a doublet) : tenses regular including fut. 
a7ro\a -ovpai, whereas d7i-oX<?o-a> (N.T.) hardly belongs to LXX 
proper, § 20, 1 (iv) : dndXaXa is frequent, the trans, pf. aTroXwXe k» 
rare and with one exception confined to the part., Dt. xxxii. 28, Is. 
xlvi. 12, xlix. 20 (uTrooXfKas A, § 16, 7), Sir. ii. 14, viii. 12, xxix. 14, 
xli. 2 : term, of aor. opt. oXe o-aiaav etc., § 1 7, 7. The Job translator 
also uses the collateral Epic form oXskw, x. 16, xvii. 1, xxxii. 18. 
'OXoXvto) : fut. <3XoXu£a) (Att. -tjop,at), § 20, 3. 
"0(avi)[ai (it;6pvvpaL in 4 XI.) and usually 6|avuw, but the -/xt 
forms remain in the mid., § 23, 2 : fut. dpovpm (not the later 
6p6cru>), § 20, 1 (iv): perf. opapoKa appears in degenerate forms, 
§ 16, 7 : aor. regular mpoaa, the aug. being retained in part. 
J)p6aavTes, § 16, 9, aor. mid. only in 4 M. ix. 23 egopoarjade. 

'Ojioidw: aug. omitted in aor. opoiaaa, § 16, 4 : tenses regular. 
('OvivTj(ii): represented only by the class, fut. mid. SvrfcreTai 
Sir. xxx. 2 and the unclass. 1 aor. pass. <ovda-dr]s, § 18, 2. 

'Ojjvvto (Trap-): aug. omitted in trapoi-vvdriv, § 16, 4: no perf. 
act. or pass, attested, other tenses regular, the fut. pass. 
Trapo^vvQrpropm Dan. O xi. 10 occurring already in Hippocrates. 
'Opaw retains most of the class, forms including pres. and 
imperf., though the latter is rare and both tenses are beginning 
to be replaced by means of fiXiirui and 6ea>pa> q.v. : fut. o\j/op.ai (o\js., 
§ 8, 3 (3)) with 2nd Sg. -g and -«, § 17, 12 : pf. ewpa<a etipaKa, § 1 6, 6, 
3rd pi. (upanav, § 17, 3 : aor. «8<w or i8ov, § 16, 5 (18., § 8, 3 (3)), 
3rd pi. fi8av ('18.) and (e)i8o<rav, § 17, 2 and 5, aug. retained in 
moods ei'Sr; etc., § 16, 9. In the passive the class, aor. and fut. 
(Zcpdr/v, ocpdrja-npai are frequent : the aor. eajpddrjv (not before 
Aristot.) occurs in Prov. xxvi. 19 BX* (opadwo-iv), Ez. xii. 12 
(6pa6fi), xxi. 24 (6pa6r)vai) and in the form copddrja-av in Dan. 



28o Table of Verbs [§ 24 

i. 1 5, § 16, 6 : fut. 6pa0r]aofxai is late and confined to Job xxii. 14 
and in compos, with Trap- 3 M. iii. 9 (the comp. occurs in a 
papyrus of 113 B.C., Mayser 405 : Galen, a contemporary of e, 
is the earliest authority for this fut. in the simplex) : Att. pf. pass. 
wTrrai occurs in Ex. iii. 16, iv. i, 5, Jd. xiii. 10 BA, elsewhere the 
rather later eapapai (Isocr.) or iop., § 16, 6. The only examples 
noted of pres. mid. (pass.) are literary, 6pwp.(vos (pass.) W. xiii. 1, 
ixpopapevoi; (mid.) 2 M. vii. 24, 3 M. iii. 23, of impf. mid. irpoopa>p.r)v 
V xv. 8. On the other hand two new pres. forms for " I am seen" 
occur, 6iTTdto|xai N. xiv. 14 and oTTTdvo^ai (dmTavoprjv) 3 K. viii. 8, 
Tob. xii. 19 BA (the latter in papyri of ii/B.c, Mayser 404, and 

in N.T.). 

'OpYitojjLai, irapop-yit" : "provoke to anger" is expressed by 
the late compound Trapopyi(<o -ia -apyiaa, which appears twice 
only in the pass. (Theophr.), Trapopyicrpevrjv Sir. iv. 3 (-copy.), 
§ 16, 4, 7rapopyi(rdy]<TeTca Dan. O xi. 36: opyl£opai on the Other 
hand is confined to the passive 1 , with tenses apyladrjv, opyurdrj- 
o-o/xat (never the more frequent Att. opyiovpm), § 21, 7. 

'OpGoto: aug. in dv-Kar-opdcddrjv, § 16, 4, tnavcopdwdrjv, ib. 8. 

'OpGpi^w "rise early" (81- 1 K. xxix. 10 A), often written 
opdifa, § 7, 35, replaces the earlier opOpevw, found only in Tob. 
ix. 6 B : fut. opdpico with v.l. -icrco, § 20, I (i), aor. apdpicra. 

'Opvo-crw (St- kut-) : 2 aor. pass, (late) Karapvyr^v, the earlier 
1 aor. -(upvx&ijv once in A, § 21, 4. 

'OcpeiXto: fut. 6(pfCk^(T(o (Att.) and -eVco, § 18, 1 : 2 aor. now 
only in unaugmented form ocpeXov as particle, § 16, 4. 

jTcu£u> (ep-Kara-TTpocr-crvp-) has the late guttural tenses 
-Traitjopai (and -£co, § 20, 3), eTraifja, -TreVat^a, -TTfTraiypcu, 
§ 18, 3 (i) (for Att. waio-opai etc., Rutherford NP 91, 313 f.). 

Ilaico : see tvtttco. 

IIapoi|xid^w: aug. 7rapoip.la£ev, enap., § 16, 2 and 8. 

Ilacro-to " sprinkle," used in the simplex (poetical) and com- 
pounded with Kara-, has the late tenses Tmraa-pevos Est. i. 6 and 
aor. mid. KaT-enacrdprjv. 

IlaTdcro-co : see TV7rra>. 

IlaTeio : ttcituxtiv Cod. A for Traroiaiv, § 22, I : double aug. 
ev€Trepi(TrdTTj(ra Cod. A, § 1 6, 8. 

IIcuko (dva- iirava- Kara-) : the simplex is almost confined to 
the mid., KaTanavco almost to the act. which is used both 
transitively and intransitively, e.g. rjj i)p. rfj e/38. Karenavo-ev <di 
eTravaaro Ex. xxxi. 1 7 : tenses regular, in pass, and mid. iravo-opiu 
(not 7rav(cr)0r](Topai nor the late Trai]cropai), (Trava-dprjv with dve- 

1 A has the act. twice, but opyifci Prov. xvi. 30 is an error for bpi'gei and 
Scrot yap opyi^ovGiv Job xii. 6 for ocot TrapopyLfovaiv. 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 281 

navdrjfiev Lam. V. 5, TreTrav/xai : under the influence of the Heb. 
dvcnraveiv, Karairaveiv ru't = "give rest to" 3 K. v. 4, I Ch. xxiii. 
25, 2 Ch. xiv. 6, xv. 15, xx. 30. 

n«i0to (dva-, <rvfjL-) is mainly restricted to the 2nd perf. 
iriiroiOa (rare in Attic prose) with pres. sense " I trust," 3rd 
plur. ireTToiOav, § 1 7, 3, and plpf. ineiroiQciv {tt(7t., § 1 6, 2) : the 
paraphrastic construction of Tre-n-oidas with auxiliary eivai (or 
ylveo-dai Is. xxx. 12, Sir. ii. 5 X ca ) is frequent, especially in Is., 
7T. ei Is. xxxvi. 4, 6, xxxvii. 10 {nenoidas B), 7r. j/s and coo-ty 
ib. viii. 14, x. 20, xvii. 8, 'tadi tt. Prov. iii. 5, it. tjv, fut. n. eiropai 
2 K. xxii. 3, Job xi. 18 and 10 times in Is. : so much has inirroiBa 
come to be regarded as a pres. that a new 1st aor. eireiroiGrjo-a 
is formed from it, § 19, 1, cf. neTroldrjais 4 K. xviii. 19. The 
remaining tenses of the verb in LXX (neto-a), tireum, neldopai, 
eneidonriv, weireia-fiai, eVe/cr^f) are with few exceptions restricted 
to the literary books. 

Il€t.vdc0 has a for Att. rj in the contracted forms, § 22, 2, and 
in the tenses newacrco eVeiVncra, § 1 8, I. 

neipdopai (tt7ro-), ireipdtw (81a- e<-) : the former is used for 
"attempt (anything)" with passive tenses ineipaB-qv and TveireL- 
pa/xru with mid. sense (class.), the latter for "tempt" or "try 
(anyone)" with pass. aor. iTveipda-Or^v "be tried," § 18, 2. 

IIepi.o-o-€v<o has the new meanings "be excessive" or "severe" 
to anyone (Sir. xxx. 38) and "be superior to" "excel" (Eccl. iii. 
19), but is not yet found in causative sense (as in N.T.)="make 
to abound" : aug. regular eTrepia-a-fvcra, § 16, 8. 

(IIcTdtw) ex- replaces ireTavvvpa "spread out" in the only two 
passages where a pres. occurs § 23, 2 : aor. iniraaa {dva- 81- e£-) 
is Attic, and fut. eWerao-co is old (Att. 7rerco) : pf. act. SiaireTrerctKOTa 
2 Ch. v. 8 is post-class, and pf. pass. hiaTrenfTda/xevos (3 K., 
I — 2 Ch.) replaces Att. -TreirTapai, § 18, 2. 

rieTop-at, TreVap-ai (n-eraopat), i'-irTa(Aai "fly": (i) Attic ireropm 
occurs in pres. ind. irirovrai Job v. 7, Is. lx. 8 BX and part. 
■n-eropevos (9 exx.) with impf. inirovro Is. vi. 2 X : (ii) irirapai 
(poetical and late prose) in pres. ind. 7reVa(v)rat Dr. iv. 17, 
Prov. xxvi. 2, Is. lx. 8 AQ, part. Tj-erafxevos Is. xiv. 29 B (-opevos 
cett.), inf. Tviraa-dai (? -da-Oat) Ez. xxxii. 10 BQ, impf. iiriravTo 
Is. vi. 2 BAQr 1 : (iii) the aor. and fut. in LXX are the late 
passive forms (as from Trtrdfa) eVera'a-^r/i/ (e'£- kot-), TTfTaaSr]- 
<rofj.ai 2 {vice class, eirrofinv, TTTrjcrofiai), § 18, 2 : (iv) of the later 
irerdopai a possible ex. occurs in Ez. I.e. : 7rer&yifi/oy Zech. v. 1 
r* may be a mere itacism for -ofievos : (v) as from iVr^pt -apai 

1 'EireTCLTo \V. xvii. 21 B A is doubtless a corruption of eTrereTaro {reivui). 

2 These forms appear in Hatch-Redpath s.v. ireravvvfai, weTdfeii>, but 
with one possible exception the meaning is "fly" (Heb. f]1J?). See Rutherford 
NP 373 f. for the mixture of forms. 



282 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

we have the late pres. act. buirravTos W. v. 1 1 B* (StcnrrdvTos 
cett.) and late pres. mid. dv- <ad- iTrrdpevos Is. xvi. 2, Sir. xliii. 17, 
e^iTTTcurdai Pro v. vii. 10, as well as aor. %tttx]v (class, poetry) Job 
xx. 8 (beside eWerao-tfe'i/ in same v.), e^enTrjo-av Sir. xliii. 14 1 . 

IIi€?o> is used, as in Att., for "press" and inirUfa for "op- 
press" with regular tenses nuaa (£enU<ra iKncn-Ua-pai : the later 
contract form irie^'w in cuirugovvTes Ez. xxii. 29 B, § 22, 3 : 
matw (Doric and colloquial, mod. Gr. Tridvco) meaning "seize" 
occurs in aor. mao-are Cant. ii. 15 and fut. pass. Triaadi)(Top.ai 
(else unattested) Sir. xxiii. 21 BS : but the distinction of mean- 
ing is not always observed, ii-eiriao-fv Jd. vi. 38 B {dneTriaaev A) 
being used = " pressed out " and i&iriao-a 1 K. xii. 3 A (-Uaa B) 
= " oppressed." 

IIi|ATr\T][Ai and irifi'irXda) (e'/x-), § 23, 4. 

(IIi(p,)irpaa)) f'/x- for ipniirpr]pi, § 23, 4. 

IIivu : fut. 2nd sing. irUaai (not 71-/17), § 17, 12: 3rd plur. 
aor. enloo-av, § 1 7, 5, imperat. 7rie (Att. also niSi), inf. 7rteiV and 
ireiv (irlv), § 5 p. 64 : aug. omitted in Tren<oK.ei, § 16, 2. 

(Ilnrpao-Kw) has the class, tenses irinpaKa (3rd plur. netrpaKav, 
§ J 7> 3)> ^en papai 3 K. xx. 20, 2 M. viii. 1 4, eirpddrjv, with the 
post-class, fut. pass, npad^a-opai L. xxv. 23 etc. : the other tenses 
are still, as in Att., supplied from other verbs, pres. and impf. 
from 7rcoXea), aor. and fut. from dwoSidopai. 

UliTTia : aor. usually eVecra, not -ov, § 17, 2 : aug. omitted in 
plpf. -TreTrraKfiv, § 16, 2. 

II\avao(iai : fut. TrXavt]6r](Topai for Att. nXavr]aopai, § 21, 7. 

IIXtj0vivw (pres. pass, twice in Aeschylus = " receive the sup- 
port of the TrXrjdos") is frequent in LXX as causative of Att. 
•jt\ti0vw "abound" (the latter only in 3 M. v. 41, vi. 4 V) : tenses 
regularly formed including inXridvvOrjv, 7rXr]6vi'6r](ropai, irfTrXrj- 
dvpfiiu, § 18, 4: the verb is used intransitively in 1 K. i. 12 

(fTrXrjOvvev npoa-ev^opevT]), vii. 2, xiv. 19. 

nXtjpow : plpf. pass. (7r enXrjpcoTO (TrenXtjpmTo V), § 16, 2, also 
in Cod. A errXrjpwTo, § 1 6, 7, and eTTfTrXrjpovTO, § 22, 4. 

nXrjo-o-ft) : see tvtttco. 

nXovri^w : fut. irXovria) (Att.) with v.l. -iaco, § 20, I (i). 

Uvea) : fut. TTvev(rop,ai (Att. in compounds) and irvev(ra, the 
latter once apparently causatively " make to blow," § 20, 3. 

(IIo8i£w) : fut. crvp.Trodia> with v.l. -i<ra>, § 20, I (i). 

IloOe'a), eVi- : aor. iir66rj(ra (Att. also -ecra), § 18, I. 

Iloiew : spellings in N Trtijo-are, Trorjae, § 6, 36 and 38 : aug. 
omitted in rrfiroi^Keiv, § 16, 2 : terminations 7renoirjKav, § 17, 3, 
tTToiovcrav, § 17, 5. 

1 The Heb. corroborates eKarrjaovTai in Hos. xi. 1 r (cf. 10), e^rj^drjaav 
in Lam. iv. 19: (KirT7)<TovTai, e^irTrjaav were natural corrections suggested 
by the context. 



24] Table of Verbs 283 

no\e(j.t'co : term. eTroXtpoiarav, § 17,5: aor. pass. e7ro\eprjdr]o-av 
(class., Thuc. v. 26) Jd. v. 20 A " were fought against," fut. pass, 
late (Polyb.) TroXep^Orjo-frai Dan. O ix. 26 : the late fut. and aor. 
mid. (cited by Veitch from LXX) do not occur in the uncials. 

Iloveio : Trovecrco, (Troveaa, § 18, I. 

(TLovtCC,ii)) : fut. KaT<nTovTi<o with v.l. -l<to>, § 20, I (i). 

IIopevofj.aL has regular tenses 7ropei'(ro|iat (nopevd-qv TTtirdpevpai 
(the last, including compounds ela- eV, not frequent, mainly in 
Hex.) : the rare Tropevd^o-opat in late versions, §21,7: late 1 aor. 
mid. e7WTopevcrap.evr] 3 M. i. 4 and as v.l. 7rop(vaa>peda Gen. xxxiii. 
12 M curs., TTopevarjaBe L. xxvi. 27 A, -aafxeda I M. ii. 20 A. 

(Ilpiafiai) : iirpidp.r]v, the class, aor. to uveopcu, is still retained 
in Gen. and Prov. xxix. 34 : the later wvrjadprjv(iu>v.) is not used : 
the form TTpidaacrdm Gen. xlii. 10 A is unparalleled. "To buy" 
is now usually dyopd&iv. 

npovo|xev(i> post-class. : £irpov6pevo~a (with v.l. rrpoev.) and 
TTfnpovop.tvp.ivos, § 16, 8. 

IIpo<j)T]T€iiw : aug. tTTpocpTjTfvo-a (with v.l. TTpoe(p.), § 16, 8 : A 
once has the mid. eTrpocprjrfvovro Jer. ii. 8. 

IITO6U) : 7TT00)VTai = -OVVTCLl, § 22, I. 

(Ilvpitw) ep- : a late alternative for ipTrirrpqpi or tpTrvpeva) : 
pf. pass. ipnfTrvpio-pai and in Cod. A evenvpio-pfvos, § 16, 7. 

'Paivto "sprinkle"' (class, poetry) has fut. pavu>, aor. epava 
(eV- it poo--: class, eppava): pf. Steppcryzca is new, § 16, 7 note. 
Cod. A once has fut. paviei L. xiv. 16 as from pav(£<» (Pollux). 
The aor. pass. epavTio-drjv (eV- ire pi-) is formed from the post- 
class. pavTi^w (Athenaeus is the earliest non-Biblical authority 
cited), which also has fut. act. pavrito ¥l. 9, Ez. xliii. 2oA(7rept-). 

'Pew has classical tenses (except for the occasional omission 
of the second p) : impf. Kareppei I K. xxi. 13 (-e'pet A), rrepitpeov 
4 M. ix. 20, impf. pass. Kareppelro ib. vi. 6 : fut. pvrjaopai (otto- 
('k- : not the rarer pevo-opai nor the late pevaw), § 20, 3 : aor. pass, 
as active ippvrjv {air- St-), §21,3, but i^epdqv, § 7, 39 (not eppevaa): 
pf. KareppvrjKa Jer. viii. 13. 

The -pi forms of pij-yvvpi (Sm- Kara-) appear only in the pass., 
for pres. act. pTJo-crw is used, § 23, 2 : regular tenses prj^co, epp/£«, 
eppdyrjv (for -pp- and -p-, § 7, 39) : post-class, pf. 8upprj^cos in 
" K. (38" (2 K. xiv. 30, xv. 32, 4 K. xviii. 37), 1 M. v. 14, xiii. 45, 
Jer. xlviii. 5 AQ : the class. 2nd perf. (intr.) Zppwya (St- kcit-) in 
Jos. ix. 4, 13, 2 K. i. 2 B, Ep. J. 30, also in the form i'pprjya (Si- 
ze ar- : Doric and late) 1 K. iv. 12, 2 K. i. 2 A, Job xxxii. 19: 
with the same sense the rare pf. pass, diepprjyptvos 1 Es. viii. 70, 
Prov. xxiii. 21 and with mid. sense Jer. xlviii. 5 BX : fut. pass. 
payijo-opai (dno- Sia-) is late, Is. lviii. 8, Ez. xiii. II, xxxviii. 20, 
Hos. xiv. 1, Hb. iii. 10, Eccl. iv. 12. 



284 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

'Piirxto and ptirreio (both Attic) both occur in LXX, § 22, 3 : 
pf. act. (class. ZppMpa) only in Jos. xxiii. 4 inipK^a A, corrupted 
in B to orrep e'nra : pf. pass. ep(p)ippai (-eppipai, § 7> 40) and 
pipippai, § 16, 7 : aor. and fut. pass. ep(p)lcpr]v, pKpr/aopai (not 
eppi<pdrjv, pi(pd.), §21,4: term. virepiTrTocrav, § 17,5: for -pp- and 

-P-, § 7, 39- 

'Pvojiai (early in poetry, cf. epvopai) is common in LXX (esp. 
in ^ and Is.) having, besides the class, tenses pvaopai, ip{p)vadp-qv, 
in certain books (4 K., ¥, 1 M.) two late pass, tenses with pass, 
meaning ep(p)v<rdr]v, pva-6r)cropai, §21,5: for -pp- and -p-, § 7, 39. 

2aX.iri£<o : new fut. a-aXiTico and -1'0-co, § 20, 1 (i) : aor. ta-dXTria-a 
(for older -lytja or -t^a), § 18, 3 (ii). 

2(3€vvv|ii (a7ro- Kara-) keeps the -pi forms in literary books, 
which alone use pres. and impf., § 23, 2, and the Att. tenses 
<rft((T(o, i'afteo-a: the passive tenses are (Ionic and) late, ea(3e(rp.cii 
(also Ionic) Is. xliii. 17, Job xxx. 8, 3 M. vi. 34, (a^eadrjv (Ion.) 
Job iv. IO etc. with v.ll. ia^r]8r]v (r(3ev((r)6evTos, § 1 8, 2, o-fiecr- 
8r)<ropai L. vi. 9 et pass.: the class, -ia-^v -ia'^Ka -a-^rja-opai are 
unrepresented. 

2t]|ao,Cv<0 : aor. earjpai'a and (literary books) eanprjva -rjvdprji', 
§ 18, 4 : a-ea-qpavTai (class.) 2 M. ii. I. 

Si^aco : fut. (Tiyr/cropai and -(ra>, § 20, 3. 

Siajirda) : fut. <Ti(x>nr)<ropai and -<ra), § 20, 3 : pf. o-eo-ianrrjKa 
(class.) Job xviii. 3 : o-iwrrovvTatv for -ayvrcov Cod. A, § 22, 1. 

(2K€8avw|u) simplex unused, in comp. usually with 81a- and, 
mainly in met. sense, also aVo- 4 M. v. 11, Kara- Ex. xxiv. 8: 
pres. -p.i form once in pass. biaa-Kebavvvrai, for pres. act. -o-K€8dta> 
is used, § 23, 2 : class, tenses in use Sieo-Ke'oWa -dcrBr^v Eccl. 
xii. 5, -aapat Ex. xxxii. 25, Hb. i. 4, 3 M. v. 30 : the futures are 
post-class., -(TK(8d<ra) (Att. <xKe8a>), -(TKedao-Oijo-opcu Zech. xi. 11, 
W. ii. 4- Cf. (TKopirlfa. 

SKeirdtw («rt- Lam. iii. 43 f. and the later Versions) "cover," 
"shelter" (later Attic writers) is frequent with regular tenses 
including I aor. and fut. pass. iaMTrdadr]!', o-Ke7rao-dr)aop.ai: o-K€ttw 
(Ionic and late Koivrj) is a v.l. of A in Ex. xxvi. 7, Job xxvi. 9. 

Ekotm'o), <j-K«TrTO(iai in Attic form one verb, the pres. and impf. 
only of the former being used with tenses a-Keyf/opai, eaKc^dprjv. 
In LXX o-Koireco (eVi-) is rare and confined to the pres. 1 , but an aor. 
KareaKOTTTja-a "spied out" appears in a few passages (the Hexat. 
to express this sense uses the post-class. KaTao-Koireva)), § 21, 2. 
The stem a-neirr- in the simplex and in comp. with Kara- is, as 
in Att., restricted to fut. and aor., but tmo-Ke'irTOfiai (rweiri- 
( = "review," "inspect," or "visit," "punish": also in pass, 
apparently "be missed " = lp2 niph. e.g. 4 K. x. 19) in addition 

1 "E,ire<iK6Trri<jav 2 K. ii. 30 B is obviously a slip for tweaKeTrrjcrav. 



\ 24] Table of Verbs 285 

to (i) the class, fut., aor., and perf. inevKeppat (used both actively 
e.g. Ex. iii. 16 "visited" and passively e.g. N. ii. 4 "was 
reviewed''), is used (ii) in the pres. Ex. xxxii. 34 etc. with by- 
form €mo-K€iro(j.cu I K. xi. 8 B, xv. 4 B (so in a papyrus of iii/B.C, 
Mayser 351), and (iii) in the late pass, tenses (Trea-Ken^v em- 
0-KfTrrjo-ofj.ai, -aTK<=<f)6r]i> (Ion.), -(TKe(p8rj(Top.ai, § 21, 4. 

2Kopm£a>, Sta-: "scatter," an Ionic verb according to 
Phrynichus 1 , used by late prose writers from Polybius onwards 
and in certain portions of LXX, where it has the tenses a-Kopiriu> 
and -tVo>, § 20, I (i), ecrKopTriaa, -icrdrjv, -lapai, aKopTTia-Bijaopai. 
In LXX its distribution 2 and use as a substitute or alternative for 
§ia<nr(ipeiv in the literal sense of "scatter" are noticeable, while 
8iaa-Kf8d(pwpi) is mainly restricted to metaphorical senses. 

Siraa) : tenses regular including pf. mid. and pass, ea-rracrpevos 
(air- etc.), once in B etjeo-n-apevos, § 1 8, 2, aug. omitted in d-rro- 
anaapfvoi, § 16, 2 (no perf. act. used) : fut. pass. eKarraa-Bna-opaL 
Am. iii. 12 (81a- Xen.): the rare fut. opt. dnocnrdaoi Jd. xvi. 9 B 
is noteworthy. 

Sireipw (81a- Kara-) : post-class, tenses are pf. ecnrapKa Is. 
xxxvii. 30, fut. pass. <nraprj<ropai (with compounds) L. xi. 37, Dt. 
xxix. 23 etc., Cod. A once using a-irepfvrai with the same passive 
meaning N. xx. 5 (o-n-dpeTai BF) : A also has diecmapcrpevovs, 
§ 18, 4: cf. (rKopTTi^a. 

Ei-d^w (poetical word): the fut. ardtjw Jer. xlix. 18, Eccl. 
x. 18 BX is unrecorded before LXX, eWa£a is classical. 

2t€'XXu : terminations e^aTreo-re'XXoo-ai', § 1 7, 5, aTrearaXtces 
Cod. A, § 17, 8 (not dcpearaXKa, § 8, 5) : tenses regular except 
that the fut. mid. 81a- inro- a-reXovpat (2 Ch. xix. 10, Job xiii. 8, 
W. vi. 7, Hg. i. 10) lacks early authority. 

STepe'w (cItto-): aor. eareprjaa -rjdrjv and -eaa -edrjv, § 1 8, I: 
arepTjdijcropiii 4 M. iv. 7 is post-classical : arepopai is unrepre- 
sented, § 22, 3. 

SnipC^o) (poetical and late prose) : fut. -iu> and -icroo, § 20, I (i) : 
in the other tenses there is fluctuation between ea-r^pia-a 
(-tadprjv) and -itja, eo-TrjpixOrjv -ia6r]v, -typai -tcr/xat, -ixdr)cropai 
-i(rdt'](ropai, § 1 8, 3 (iii)- 

2Tpa.YyaX.dop.ai -6op.ai v. 11., § 22, 4- 

2Tpe<j>w : the simplex is trans, only, the compounds of uva- 
eVt- etc. trans, and intr., note Siaarpf^/en intr. 2 K. xxii. 27 A 
=¥ xvii. 27 " act perversely " : pf. act. unclass. dnea-Tpocpaa-iv 

1 2/cop7rtfeTaf 'EiKaralos ftey tovto Xeyet "\wv wv, oi 5' AttikoI crKtSdu- 
vvrai (paat: Lobeck p. 218 (cf. Rutherford NP 295). 

2 It is absent e.g. from the following portions which use 5iacnreipeii> 
instead: Pent, (except N. x. 35, Dt. xxx. 1, 3 and Gen. xlix. 7 A where 
read Stacnrcpu), the earlier portions of the Kingdom books, Is., Jer. ft and 
Ez. ft (except xxviii. 25, xxix. 13), though frequent in Jer. a and Ez. a. 



286 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

1 K. vi. 21 : pf. pass, regular -earpappm, the e of the present 
being retained in aweaTpep.p.evoi 1 M. xii. 50 A (so in a papyrus of 
ii/B.C, Mayser 410): aor. pass. earpdcpw (not the rare iarpecpdw) 
§ 21, 4, with imperat. dno- eVt- arpdcprjTi (not -qtft) Gen. xvi. 9, 
N. xxiii. 16 etc., cf. § 7, 13: fut. pass, ar pcvprjaopai (post-class, 
in the simplex) 1 K. x. 6, Sir. vi. 28, Tob. ii. 6, Is. xxxiv. 9 and 
frequent in the compounds, used both passively and to replace 
the mid. -arpeyj/opai (which is not found), e.g. ovk dnoaTpa<prj- 
a-opai avrov Am. i. 3 "reject" "turn away from": aor. mid. 
dTT((TTp(\lfdp.T]v "reject" (post-class, with this prep.) Hos. viii. 3, 
Zech. x. 6, 3 M. iii. 23. 

^Tpwvvvw (Kara- vwo-) replaces the older pres. aropwpi, § 23, 

2 : the following are post-classical, the futures of the 3 voices 
o-rptWco (class, in comp.) Is. xiv. 11, Ez. xxviii. 7, arpaaopai (v. 1. 
vtto-) Ez. xxvii. 30, KciTaaTpwdrjaopai Jdth vii. 14, also aor. mid. 
v7recrTpco(rdp,r)v Is. Iviii. 5, aor. pass. KcireaTpaOw Jdth vii. 25. 

2upii;&) : fut. avptco (in Aquila etc. avplaa : avpiy^opai Lucian) : 
aor. eavpiaa (for Att. -ty|a), § 18, 3 (ii). 

2vpw : fut. avpco 2 K. xvii. 13 and aor. mid. dvdavpai Is. xlvii. 
2 (-pe X) are post-classical. 

2<J>dX\w has 1 aor. eo-cpaXa (for Att. ea(prj\a) in Job xviii. 7 
opt. a(pdXai (c4>aAih A), to which tense should probably also 
be referred eV^dXei/ ib. xxi. 10, Sir. xiii. 22 (6C(J>aAh A), Am. v. 2 
and not to the dubious 2 aor. ead>d'kov. 



2<j>T)vow : a(piji'olcrdu> X, 



5 ^-> > 



2ul> : perf. pass. aeauxTpai, rarely Att. aeaapai, but (aadrjv, 
acodrja-opai as in Att., § 18, 2. 

Ta<r<rw and Tdrrco § 7, 46 : the 2nd aor. pass, -erdyqv with the 
fut. inrorayrja-o^ai are post-class., the class. 1st aor. eraxfyv 
(rrpoa- aw-) being confined to 3 exx. of the neut. part., §21,4: 
the fut. mid. of the sifnplex rdgopai Ex. xxix. 43 "will make 
an appointment" or "meet" is also late (Mayser 410 gives an 
ex. of 200 B.C.): pf. act. reraxa is rare, Hb. i. 12, Ez. xxiv. 7 
and with irpoa-- aw- in literary books. 

Tei'vw: the simple pf. act. rerana Prov. vii. 16 is post-class., 
cf. fKTeraKa I K. i. 1 6 (diro- is class.) : iireTaro W. xvii. 21 
appears to Stand for eVereraro (cf. ireropai). 

TtXsGK fut. reAeo-a), § 20, i (iii): pf. act. only in the peri- 
phrastic ear/ rereAeKcos Sir. vii. 25 : pf. pass, has mid. sense in 
awrereXeade Gen. xliv. 5 and in the simplex with the meaning 
^'haye oneself initiated" (class.) N. xxv. 5, Hos. iv. 14 (so 
erfXeadrjv N. xxv. 3=* cv. 28), elsewhere pass, sense : aug. 
omitted in TereXearo, § 16, 2: fut. pass. reXeaOi'}aop,at (eVt- aw-) 
is late: aor. mid. (rare in class. Gk) aweTeXeadprjv Is. viii. 8 
(-aat A), Jer. vi. 13 BN, 2 M. xiii. 8. For new pres. t€\iVko), § 19. 3. 



§ 24] Table of Verbs 287 

Ti0Ti(ii : § 23, 5 and IO : aug. in irapeKaredeTo, eawedero, § 1 6, 8. 

Tiktw : fut. rei-opai (not the rarer retja)) : i aor. pass, irixow 
(frequent in LXX. = Att. iyepofirfv) and fut. pass. TexOijaopevos 
V xxi. 32, lxxvii. 6 are late forms. 

Tipiaio : Tifiov<riv N § 22, 1 (as from -£a>). 

Tprrrtt -ojxai (ava- dno- iv- int.- pera- npo-) : the only tense at 
all frequent is the class. 2 aor. pass, -erpaTrw (imperat. ivrpdiv^Ti, 
§ 7, 1 3), to which is now added the post-class, fut. pass. rpaTr^aopai 
Sir. xxxix. 27, iv- L. xxvi. 41 etc. : the compound with iv- with 
the new meaning "be ashamed of" is the commonest form of the 
verb and is limited to these two tenses with ivrirpappai 1 Es. 
viii. 71 : other parts of the verb are rare outside literary books. 

Tpe'xw : fut. 8pap.ovp.ai and 8papa>, § 20, 3 : no perf. in use : 
«7rorpe'xo) now replaces a»rei/u=" depart," especially in imperat. 

d7rorpe^e = a7rt#e, cf. aTTOTpe^ovres dnekevaovTai Jer. xliv. 9- 

TVyxivw (literary : ano- iv- [=" entreat " " petition " as in the 
papyri] eVi- aw-): the perf. is rirevxa Job vii. 2 (rerv^r/Kws A), 
3 M. v. 35 (so throughout the papyri for Att. rei-u^ica, Mayser 
374) : avTiXi'ipyp-eoos rev^aadai 2 M. xv. 7=2 M- n - 33 A. (rev- 
£eadai V) is an example of the confusion of fut. and aor. forms 
which is paralleled by eaaadcu, irapi^aaBai etc. in the papyri, 
cf. § 6, 6 for another example from 2 M. 

Tvitttw, as in Attic, is still defective and supplemented by 
other verbs : some of the latter now appear in non-Attic 
tenses, but tvtttu itself does not extend its range, and the 
Koivrj, no less than Attic, affords no excuse to the Byzantine 
grammarians for their unfortunate selection of this word as 
typical of the verbal system. (1) Tvtttu, %tvktov are the only 
tenses used in LXX with one instance (4 M. vi. 10) of pres. 
part. pass. (2) The normal fut. and aor. act. are nara^a), 
i'vara^a 1 , this verb being confined to these tenses, except for the 
use of pres. inf. ircn-ao-o-eiv in the B text of Jd. xx. 31, 39 
(A tvttthv). (3) As aorist, g-irato-a (also Attic, mainly in Tragedy) 
is preferred by the translator of Job (5 times) and occurs 
sporadically elsewhere : from this verb we find also pres. conj. 
once (Ex. xii. 13), pres. part, four times, and perf. TrenuiKa 
(post-class, in simplex) N. xxii. 28, 1 K. xiii. 4. (4) The passive 
tenses are formed from 7r\ii<ro-eiv : aor. e-rrXriyw (i^eirXdyijv, 
KareTrXdyw : KaranX^yeis 3 M. i. 9 A), fut. TrXrjyrjaopai, pf. 
TrenXrjypevos (icara-) 3 M. ii. 2 2 f., but elsewhere ■n-enXrjya (rare 
in earlier Greek and with act. sense) is used with passive 
meaning, "am struck," N. xxv. 14, 2 K. iv. 4 etc.: the act. of 
this verb is rare in LXX, pres. (post-class, in simplex) rrXrja- 
aovai 4 M. xiv. 19 (with Kara- in Job), fut. ttXtj^w 3 K. xiv. 14 f. A 

1 See the collocation of pres. and aor. in 1 Es. iv. 8 e?7re irara^aL, 

TVTTTOVIJIV. 



288 Table of Verbs [§ 24 



(in an interpolation from Aquila), aor. tir\r]^a 1 K. xi. 1 1 A 
(possibly from same source). 

'YTro|i.vTinaTitonai„ a koivtj verb = " record," "enter a minute": 
aug. omitted in vvropvr]pdTLo-To § 16, 2. 

'Yo-Tepew (dcf)- K.a.8-) : the new features are the fut. vo-Tepijaca 
V xxii. 1, lxxxiii. 12, Job xxxvi. 17 etc., the middle varepovp,aL 
Dt. xv. 8 A, Sir. xi. 11, li. 24 B, Cant. vii. 2, and the causative 
use of the act. = " withhold" 2 Es. xix. 21 B* {ixjTip-qaav cett. 
"they lacked" with MT), so to pdwa o-ov ova d(pvo-Tepr]<Tas ib. 
xix. 20, a7rapxas . . ov Kadvo-Teprjaeis Ex. xxii. 29 (cf. I Ch. xxvi. 27, 
Sir. xvi. 13 B). 

'Ycfxuvoj: aor. vcpava (for Att. -T)va), pf. pass. (Att.) vcpao-p-evos^ 

§ 18, 4- . , • 

'Y»|/6w : post-classical verb : inf. v\j/oiv, $ 22, 3. 

4>aivw : I aor. act. eqbava and (lit.) aTrefprjva -r)vdp.r}v, § 1 8, 4: 
i aor. pass, (rare in class, prose) only in e^cpdvdr] "was shown" 
Dan. O ii. 19, 30, the Att. 2nd aor. ecpdvrjv 1 "appeared" is 
frequent : fut. (pavi)aopai and cpavovpm (both Att.), § 15, 3 : term. 
('cpaivoo-av, § 1 7, 5 : crasis irpov<pdvr)o-av, § 1 6, 8 note: no form of 
perf. in LXX. The use of eav (av) (palvrjrai (toi 1 Es. ii. 18 (cf. 
2 Es. vii. 2o) = eai> So£/ or el ho/cel is a standing formula in 
petitions in the papyri. 

(4>avo-Kw) : an Ionic and koivtj verb found only in composition, 
in LXX with Sta- and (3 times in Job) eVt-, " dawn " (of day- 
break), " give light " : LXX has this form of the pres. with aor. 
8u(pavo-a, fut. (TTicpavo-a Job xxv. 5 A (also (pavais and inrocpavo-is) : 
the alternative -<|>wcrKw (Hdt. and N.T.) -icpaxra only as a variant 
in Jd. xix. 26 B, I K. xiv. 36 A, Job xli. 9 A inKpcoo-Kerai : 
<pavcrK<D appears to be the older form, cf. Epic nKpavo-Ka. 

<i»€pw : aor. fjveyKa with part, in -as but inf. -elv etc., § 17, 2, 
once dvoio-are from (Ionic and late) aor. a>o-a §21,2: terminations 
i'(pepav, e'(pdpoo-av, iviynaio-av, § 1 7, 4, 5 and 7 : pf. pass, in LXX 
rare and literary, dnevr]vtypivos Est. B. 3 BX, eur- 2 M. xiv. 38 
(pf. act. infrequent) : fut. pass, (since Aristot.) (lo-evex0r]o-op.ai 
Jos. vi. 19, dv- Is. xviii. 7, lx. 7, drr- etc. 

«t>€\>"Y<D : terminations e<pvya (kcit-) § 17, 2, e<pvyoo-av § 17, 5 : 
€K(f)(v^aadai (v.l. -ecrOai) § 6, 6. 

4>T](j.i : § 23, 4. 

4>0dvu) \irpo-, Kar- Jd. xx. 42 A) also written <}>0avvo), § 19, 2 : 
impf. eq>6av(v (rare) Uan. 6 iv. 17 B : fut. <£0dcrco (not Att. 
cpdrjo-op-m) § 20, 3 : aor. i'cpdaaa (Att. also had ecpdrjv which is 
absent from LXX) § 21, 1 : pf. e<pdana (post-class.) 2 Ch. xxviii. 

1 (J)&NOieN 4 M. iv. 23 XV is apparently a corruption of (J)&N6ieN 
((}>&Nie A). 



24] Table of Verbs 289 

9, Cant. ii. 12 (-a-fv X), rrpo- i M. x. 23 A. As regards meaning, 
the simplex retains the original sense of anticipation in Wis. 
(iv. 7, vi. 13, xvi. 28), also in Sir. xxx. 25 (opposed to eo-^aros-), 
cf. 3 K. xii. 18 e<p8. dvafirfvai "made haste" : elsewhere (10 times 
in Dan. 6, also in the latest group of LXX books, Jd. xx. 
34 B etc.) 1 it has its modern meaning "come" or "reach," the 
sense of priority being lost. "Anticipate" is now expressed by 
7rpn<f)ddvo), but the rrpo- more often has a local than a temporal 
force "come into the presence of" or "confront" someone : in 
¥ lxvii. 32 it is used causatively, Trpocpddaet x fl P a nvrfjs t<5 
#foj = " eagerly stretch forth." 

4>op€OfjLai : fut. (pofiiidrjo-opLai (Att. (po^Tjaofxai only once in 
4 M.), § 21, 7 : pf. unused excepting for a wrong reading in 
W. xvii. 9 A : ecpofiovprjv -rjdrjv regular. The act. of the simplex, 
apart from i<f>6$ei \Y. xvii. 9, is unrepresented, being replaced in 
Dan. e iv. 2 and 2 Es. (four times) by the new form <J>op€pit<o 
(cf. (poftepLo-pos ^ Ixxxvii. 17): but <=K(pofiea) remains (chiefly in 
the phrase ovk ecrrai 6 e<(poft5>v), this prep, tending to confer 
a transitive force upon some compounds in late Greek (cf. 
e^apaprdvn} "cause to sin"). 

4>op€to : (f)ope(To>, e(p6pe<ra, § 1 8, I. 

•^pudo-o-w (-drrofKu) : post-class. = " neigh" of horses and met. 
"be insolent" or "proud": in LXX only in the latter sense, in 
the act. (unrecorded elsewhere) ecppva^av edvij ^ ii. 1, and in 
mid.-pass. (ppvarropevos (or <j>p\rrr6|j.evos A, cf. § 6, 50), 2 M. vii. 34, 
perf. part, nt^pvacrp.ivos -ayp.evos, § 1 8, 3 (Hi). The subst. 
(ppvaypa "pride" (in the group Jer. a — Ez. a — Min. Proph. and 
3 M.) is classical in the literal sense "snorting." 

^vXdcro-tt (and -drrco, lit., § 7, 46) Sta-, rrpo- 2 K. xxii. 24 : 
pf. act. n€(pv\aKa 1 K. xxv. 21 (for Att. -axa) : the pf. pass, is used 
both in its class, mid. sense (Ez. xviii. 9, cf. 2 Es. iv. 22) and 
passively, e.g. Gen. xli. 36 : the fut. pass. (pv\ax0t]<rop.(u Jer. iii. 5, 
^ xxxvi. 28 is post-class.: term. ('cpvXa^a,- Cod. A, § 17, 8: 
redupl. (pecpvXa^ai Cod. A, § 16, 7. 

•i'vTevu) : pf. act. (post-class.) wecpvrevKav. § 1 7, 3. 

"Jmjcu : the pres. act. is used intransitively (late) in Dt. xxix. 18, 
else trans. : fut. (pvrjo-a (trans.) Is. xxxvii. 31 (for class, (pvaw), 
but dva(pv(rei (intr.) ib. xxxiv. 13 (corrected to -(pvrjo-a by late 
hands of BX) : the aor. act. is absent (excepting (pva-wres 
Jer. xxxviii. 5 AQ*, an error for (pvrevo:) and the pf. act. is 



1 Including Tob. v. 19 dpyvptov rw dpy. p.'r] <p6daai "let not money (the 
deposit which Tobias is going to recover) come (or be added) to money." 
"Be not greedy to add money to money" of A.V. and R.V. is a neat para- 
phrase, but the marginal note in A.V. (not in R.V.) is needed to explain the 
construction. 

T. 19 



290 Table of Verbs [§ 24 

confined to literary portions : the act. 2nd aor. (<f>w is replaced 
by the pass, av- Trpocr- ecpvrjv, § 21, 3. 

^ut^w (not before Aristot.) "give light" and met. "enlighten," 
"instruct": fut. (pwriw and -iaoa, § 20, 1 (i): pass, tenses 
e<pa>Ti(rdr]v (^aiTicrdrjcrofxai in ty. 

XaCpto (eVt-, and once each Kara- Prov. i. 26, Trpoa- ib. viii. 30, 
o-iry- Gen. xxi. 6) : the fut. (not the class, ^ntp^rro)) takes two late 
forms (i) in the simplex x a PWopai (12 undisputed exx.), (ii) in 
compos, -xapovfim, enL- Hos. x. 5, Mic. iv. 11, Sir. xxiii. 3, Kara- 
Prov. i. 26, avy- Gen. xxi. 6 : the latter occurs also in the simplex 
in Zech. iv. 10 B*X*Q* (with v.l. -rjaovrai), ib. x. 7 though 
Xaprjcrfrai occurs in the same v., § 20, 3 : aor. exaprjv regular 
except for the loss of the second aspirated letter in the imperat. 
Xiipi]Ti, § 7, 13: perf. unattested. 

Xe'o) and once -\iv(v)vi, § 19, 2 : new fut. ^fw x eeis for ^eca ^el?, 
§ 20, 1 (iii) : contracted and uncontracted forms, § 22, 3 : pf. act. 
(post-class.) etcKe'xuica Ez. xxiv. 7 : fut. pass. x v ^W°P ai (one ex. 
with (Tvy- in Demosth.) Jl. ii. 2 and in comp. with 8ia- €<- avy-. 

Xpaofuu : inf. xPW^" 1 (Att.) and once xP^^^i § 22, 2 : fut. 
pf. K(xP 1 l (TfTa '- "shall have need" Ep. J. 58 can be paralleled 
only from Theocr. xvi. 7^. 

Xpuo : pf. pass. Kexpia-pat (with ^piV/xa) replaces Att. /ceyptpai 
(^plpn, ? xP'M a )) Dut aor - pass, exp^adrfv (? cxpyfy 2 K. i. 2 I A = 
expify) ls Attic, § 1 8, 2 : the fut. pass. xP 10 '^ ' ^^ Ex. xxx. 32 is 
post-class., as is also the pf. act. K(xP i<a l K. x. 1, 2 K. ii. 7, 
4 K. ix. 3, 6, 12 : term, evexptoaav Cod. N, § 17, 5. 

(^dw) only in the aor. pass, awe\j/rja6r]v (v.l. -rjdrjv) " swept 
away" in Jer., § 18, 2: the compound occurs in the act. in 
Ptolemaic papyri. 

^v^w is both trans, and intrans., e.g. us \/™x ei Aokko? {JScop, 
ovtojs ^^X ft KaKia avTTjs Jer. vi. 7, cf. Karay^v^are " cool your- 
selves " Gen. xviii. 4 : pf. act. (unattested in class. Gk) dve^vxora 
2 M. xiii. 11 : no pass, forms used. 

^wpitw : fut. -v/zcoptco and -laa, § 20, 1 (i). 

'I28iv«, in class. Gk confined to pres., in LXX has impf. 
(S8ivov Is. xxiii. 4, Ixvi. 8, and, as from a contract verb, diSivrjaa, 
d)8ivT)o-a (causative in Sir. xliii. 17 A) : Aquila further has 1 aor. 
pass, and mid. 

'flflew: aug., § 16, 6: the pf. pass, of the simplex, uap-dva) 
^ lxi. 4, is unclassical. 

('Hvtoficu) unused : see npiapat. 



I. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



A, Codex : see Alexandrinus 

Accusative .sing. 146 f. (-aefor-a), 176 
(-rji> for -ri), 150: plur. (-es for -as 
etc) 73, 145, 147 ft"., 150 

Adjectives, declension of 172-181 : 
comparison of 181-186 

Adjurations, use of on and el in 54 

Adverbs, comparison of 183 : replaced 
by adj. (Trpurepos) 183 : numeral 
adverbs 189 f. 

"Alexandrian dialect" 19 f. 

Alexandrinus, Codex, Egyptian origin 
of 72, 10 1, 1 10: text mainly inferior 
and secondary 65, 106, 107 bis, 
218 bis, 221 n. 2, 258: text pro- 
bably original 81 (Is.), 93 (4'), 
152 (Sir.) : Hexaplaric interpola- 
tions frequent 3 f., cf. Aquila : 
conjectural emendation of Greek 
205 n. 3 : orthography and accidence 
mainly of later date than auto- 
graphs 55 ff., 67 (Numbers perhaps 
written in two parts), 72, 74, 98 n. 3 
(introduces Attic forms), 110, 115 
(1 and 2 Es. a single volume in an 
ancestor of A), 131, 147 and 176 
(3rd decl. ace. in -av -9/v), 188 (££ 
/cat 5eKa), 212 (yevd/xevos in Jer.), 
234 (IXei7T0J' etc.), 241 (b~wqdr]aoixai 
etc.), 255 {Wriaa, e'Swcra) : fore- 
shadows modern Greek 158, 179, 
205 f. (loss of redupl.), 215 f., 241 f. 

Analogy plays large part in the koiv-tj 

21 » 73* 79 f-i 8 9> io 3 n -> l2 ° 
(5vo-ejir)s), 124 f., 127 bis, 128 (exuv), 
129 {evplaKw), 174, 178 f., 189, 
201 n., 202. Cf. Assimilation 
Anaptyxis in X 98 
Anthropomorphism avoided 44 
Aorist, 1st, extension of, at cost of 
2nd aor. 209 ff., 233 f. : sigmatic 
for unsigmatic 235 : in pass, partly 
replaced by 2nd aor. 236 f. : new 



1st aor. pass. 238 : 1st aor. pass, 
replaces 1st aor. mid. 238 ff. : mix- 
ture of aor. and fut. inf. mid. 76, 287 

Aorist, 2nd, old forms retained longest 
in inf. 210 (ivtyKeiv, UTrelv) : 2nd 
aor. pass, for 2nd aor. act. 235 

Apocalypse, style of 21 n. : SoOAos S : 
evumLov 43 n. : rel. + demonstr. 
pron. 46 n. : 240 n. 

Apostolic Fathers : see Patristic 

Appellative taken for proper name 32 f. 

Apposition of verbs 51 f. with n. 

Aquila. pedantic literalism of 9 : irepl 
XaXiSs (ir. \o-you) 4 1 : €Tri<TTpi<peLv 

53 : vto 55> '33 n - : h& e 'M< ^5- 
K&dodos 190: misc. 49, 112 n. : 
interpolations in A text from Aq. , 
mainly in 3 — 4 K., 3, 152, 157, 
190. 218, 227, 231 n., 241, 287 f. : 
(?) similar interp. in Joshua 4 

Aramaic influence on LXX Greek 
xx, 28, 34 (ya£ap7]v6s, yeiupas), 36 
(aafx^vKT] ?) 

Archaism in the uncials 60 

Archite, Hushai the 37 

Aristeas 13, 15 n., 76, 170 n. 3, 20011., 
247 n., 264, 279 (KaTolo/jiai.) 

Aristophanes 45, 81 : Scholiast on 
105 n. 

Aristotle, a precursor of the Koivrj 17, 
143 n., 144 

Article, omission of 24 f. : sing. art. 
with plur. Heb. noun 34 : loses 
aspirate 129: crasis with 138: 
Hebr. art. in transliterations, with 
Greek art. added 33 f. 

Asiatic languages and the koivt) 20 : 
Asiatic orthography 98, no, 212 n. 
(term, -av) 

Aspirate, irregular insertion and 
omission of 124ft.: throwing back 
of 126 f. (i<pLOpKtiv , oXLyos, lovdas) 

Aspirated consonant, mixture of, with 

19—2 



292 



/. Index of Subjects 



tenuis 102 : transposition of 103 : 
insertion and omission of 104 : 
omission of one of two 116, 129, 
cf. 236: doubling of 121 

Assimilation, of vowels (esp. un- 
accented or flanking liquids) 76 f., 
84, 87 f., 96 f., 16511., 176, 219: 
of consonants i3off. : of declensions 
140 f., 146: of cases 74, 147 ff., 
151 : of masc. and neut. 151, 174. 
Cf. Analogy 

"Attic" declension 144 f., 173 

Atticism 114, 1S6 n., 187, 204 (in K. 
5 ). 253 (? eo-rcjs) 

Augment 74 n. (eKadepiaa), 195 ff. 

Authorized Version 47 n. 

Autographs of LXX 55 ff., 71 

X, Codex : see Sinaiticus 

B, Codex : see Vaticanus 

Babrius 226 

Barnabas, Epistle of 76 

Baruch, the two portions a and ;8 13 : 

Bar. a by the translator of Jer.'/3 

12 : Bar. /3, date of 6, 61 n. (otfSets), 

102, 278 n. 
Bezae, Codex 188 n. 
"Biblical Greek" 16, 8011., 83, 104 f. 

Cf. "Jewish Greek," Vocabulary 
Birthplaces of the uncials 71 f. 
Bisection of LXX books 65 ff., 122 n. 
Boeotian dialect 11211., 1 29 n., 21011. 

and 213 (-ocxav) 
Byzantine epoch 109, 134. Cf. 

Koivrj, periods in 

Caesarea suggested birthplace of 
Cod. B 72 

Canon, Hebrew, translations made in 
order of viii : influence of canoniza- 
tion on Greek style 15, 30 f. 

Causative meaning of verbs in -evui 88 
(281 not, as in N.T., irepiao-evu) : 
in -iw etc., Trvevaw f^uto 2^2, 
e8\daT7]aa 234, dea/SXe^are 262, 
Svctlc 265, edd/jL^-qaa 269, iVrfpT/ca 
288, Trpo<p6a.cru} 289 : of compounds 
of €K-, i^afxapravw 259, e£%>i^a 267, 
i^i\d<7K0fj.ai 270 f., iK<pofiew 289 

Chronicles, expurgation in the original 
1 1 : Chron. LXX, the version of 
Theodotion (?) xx, 167 n. : does not 



use " Hebraic " vibs nor vapa- 
ylvo/j.<u except at end of 2 Ch. 41 f., 
267 n. : ovdds in 2 Ch. 6t 

Commerce, effect of, in fusing the 
old dialects 17 

Comparison, degrees of 23 f., 181 ff. : 
comparative for superl. 181, for 
pos. 183 (dvwrepov etc.) 

Composition, assimilation of final v 
in 132 ff. 

Compound words : see Word-formation 

Concord, rules of, violated 23 

Conjunctive, deliberate, following fut. 
ind. 91 : conj. vice opt. 193 n. : 
replaced by ind. 193 f. : conj. of 
2 aor. of 5i8w/u,i 255 f. 

Consonants, interchange of 100 ff. : 
insertion of 108 ff. : omission of 
1 1 r ff. : single and double con- 
sonants 117 ff., pp and p 118 {., 
doubling of aspirated letter 121 : 
go and tt 121 ff. : per and pp 123 f. : 
assimilation of 1 30 ff. : variable 
final cons. 134 ff. 

ConstrucSio ad sensitm 23 

Contract verbs 241 ff. : term, -ovcrav 
213 f . : short vowel in tenses 2 1 8 f. 
Cf. Mute stem 

Contracted and uncontracted forms 
98 f., 144, 172 f. 

Coordination of sentences 24, 55 

Coptic influence on the koivt] 20, 
73 n., 84 : Coptic palaeography 72. 
Cf. Egypt, Sahidic 

Countries, names of, expressed ad- 
jectivally 169 f. 

Crasis 137 f., 206 n. 

Daniel, Greek words in the Aramaic 
of 35 n. : Daniel O, a partial para- 
phrase by writer of 1 Es. 12 : 
Daniel 0, later orthography of 
132 ff. : N.T. quotations agreeing 
with G 15. Cf. Theodotion 

Dative still common 23 : cognate dat. 
c. vb. = Heb. inf. abs. 48 ff . : dat. 
sg. of 1 decl. nouns in a pure 140 ft., 
of 3 decl. 86 (-1 for -ei in B), 149, 
165 ('It/o-o?) 

David, Song and Last Words of, in 
style of O 14 f. 

Demetrius Ixion 19 



/. Index of Subjects 



293 



Dentals, interchange of 103 ff. : omis- 
sion of 116 

Deponent verbs, pass, for mid. tenses 
in 238 ff. 

Deuteronomy, slight divergence from 
Pent, in vocabulary etc. 14, 48: 
more marked in closing chapters 
8 n., 14, 39: optat. 24: oi'Seis 61 : 
dS-qaa B text 278 

Dialects, disappearance of the old 18. 
Cf. Alexandrian, Doric, Ionic, etc. 

Digamma, (?) replaced by aspirate 124 

Diminutives in -elbiov 87 n. 

Diphthongs, monophthongisation of 
71, 93 f., 141 (l unpronounced in vi) 

Dissimilation 130 

Distributive use of dvo 8vo 54 

Divine names, renderings of, in Job 9 4 

Division of labour of translators and 
scribes 1 1 f , 65 ff. 

Doric, slight influence of, on koivt) 76, 
22211.: Doric forms 143, 146 bis, 
162, 276 {ixotxiofxaC), 282 (iriafa) 

Doublets 31, 32 f., 38 (pdx«M47), 
126 (?oi)x i5ov), 228, 279 (wXero) 

Dual, loss of 22, 195 : and of words 
expressing duality 22, 45, 192 : 
8ve2v sole vestige of 92 

E, Codex 63 n. 

Ecclesiastes LXX the work of Aquila 

i3» 3 r > 6of - 

Egyptian influence on the koivt) seen 

in phonetics and orthography 20, 
100 n., 103, 111, in: in vocabu- 
lary 32 n. (150, 169): Egyptian 
origin of uncial MSS 72 

Elision 1 36 f. 

Epic forms : see Homer, Vocabulary 

Epistolary formulae in papyri 57 11. 

Esau, the blessing of 141 

Esdras, 1 and 2, subscriptions to 1 1 1 n. 

1 Esdras, a partial paraphrase 12 
(cf. Dan. 0), in literary style 161 
with n. : peculiarities of chap, v 
164 with n. 4 

2 Esdras, probably the work of 9 
xx, 13: orthogr. = 01 93, -aco-v 
common 213: r\volyy)v, KaTikltrriv 
236 f. : Trapa->:Vo/u.at unused 267 n. 
Cf. Historical books, later 

Esther, paraphrastic 15 



Etymology, mistaken popular 74 n. 3, 
/xeTo^v 77, 85, 94, 1 18, Mwuffijs 
163 n., 'lepoaoXv/xa 168, 206 f. : 
augment affected by etym. 200 

Euphony, insertion of consonant for 
1 10 f. : in combination of words 
and syllables 129 ff. 

Eupolemus 170 n. 3 

Exodus, an early version 28 : conclu- 
sion probably rather later than the 
rest 14, 257: clerical division into 
two parts 66 f., 68 n. : pyros 41 : 
oudeis 61 : r/ fj.rjv 83. Cf. Hexa- 
teuch, Pentateuch 

Expurgation in Kingdoms (LXX) and 
Chronicles (Heb. ) n 

Ezekiel, divisions of 1 1 f . 

Ez. a, akin to and contemporary 
with Min. Prophets and Jer. a 8, 
12, 73 n., 139, 273 (K6\poixat), 285 n. 
(-vKopiriiU)) : with Min. Prophets 
r 70 with n. 1, 261 (/3i/3dfw) : with 
Jer. a 167, 276 (/tax.) : with K. a, 
K. |3j3 265 (ivdeovKuis) : misc. erepos 
45, ovdeis 61, 139, eyev6fj.Tjv 239 

Ez. /3, absence of transliteration 
in 32 : misc. \&kkos (fiddpos) 37, el 
mv 83 n. 3, 139, 167, 172 m, 175 
with n., iyevrfdrjv 239 

Ez. /3/3, a Pentecost lesson 1 r 

Fall, influence of the story of the, on 
later translators 48 n. 

Feminine: see Gender 

Future, mixture of fut. and aor. inf. 
mid. 76, 287 : not confused with 
conj. 91 : for imperat. 194 : fut. pf. 
rare 194, 270 {redvfji,.) : 2 sing, 
mid. -eaai 218: Attic fut. 228 ff. : 
fut. act. for mid. 231 ff . : differen- 
tiated from pres. 230: new fut. 
pass. 240 f. (cf. § 24 pass.) 

Gender in Decl. II fluctuates between 
m. and fern. 145 f. , between m. and 
nt. 1 ^3 ff. : cf. fluctuation between 
Decl.' II and III 158 ff. 
Genealogies, interpolations in 162 
Genesis, el ixt^v ( = ?3) 54 and rj y.i\v 
83 : oi50e:s 61 : true superlatives in 
-rcn-os 182. Cf. Hexateuch, Penta- 
teuch 



294 



I. Index of Subjects 



Genitive, of quality, extended use of 
23 : gen. abs. freely used 24 : of 
age, in Hexat. etc. 41 : gen. sing. 
1 40 ff. (nouns in a pure), 149, 151, 
162 (Doric -a), 165 ('Iij<toi) : gen. 
pi. uncontracted and contr. 151 : 
c. iyylfciv 167 n. 

Geography, translators' knowledge of 
166 f. with n. 7 : geographical 
terms transliterated 32 f. 

Grammarians, ancient 19, 75. Cf. 
Herodian, Moeris, Phrynichus etc. 

"Greek books" (not translations) 
avoid translators' equivalents for 
inf. abs. 49 : avoid introductory 
iyhero 52. Cf. Literary books 

Grouping of LXX books 6 ff. 

Gutturals, interchange of 101 ff. : 
omission of 115 f. : assimilation of 
final v before 132 f. 

Haplology 114, 11511. 

Hebraisms, in Job 9 4 : reduction 
in number of supposed 266.: in 
vocabulary 31 ff., Hellenized Heb. 
words 32, 34 ff.: in meaning and 
uses of words and in syntax 39 ff. : 
stages in naturalization of Heb. 
idiom 44 

Hebrew spelling, minutiae of, re- 
flected in translation of Pent. 152 n. 

Hellenistic Greek : see Kolvtj 

Herodian 210 n. 

Herodotus 34, 35, apidfj.^ 39, 46 n., 
48, 62, 265 (SoKifidfa) 

Heterogeneity gives way to uni- 
formity 91 

Hexapla, influence of, on LXX text 2, 
14 (end of Deut.) : interpolations 
from 3 ff., 231 n., 238 (Is. B text), 
239, 269 (flop.). Cf. Aquila, Theo- 
dotion 

Hexateuch, \arpeveiv 8: avoids He- 
braic vi6s 41 f . : omits introductory 
kcll iarai 52 n. : evdris unknown to 
178 n. : vfj.Qi> avrGiv etc. 191 : 
i(TT7]Ku)s (not iaruis) 253. Cf. Pen- 
tateuch 

Hiatus, avoidance of 11 in., 134 f., 
138 f. 

Historical books, late group of 9 : in 
style of 14 : literalism of 9, 29 f. , 



did6vai = TL8ti>ai 39, 40 ff., avqp = 
'4ica<TTo<s 45, participial rendering 
of inf. abs. 48 f., iyivero ko.1 51, 
55 : transliterations in 31 : miscell. 
ev for eis 2^,irpoffidr)Ka ^3, o\i(y)ovv 
112, no place-names in -(e)ZVis 170 
n. 1, 189, term, -av 2ir, not -ocrai' 
(except 2 Es.) 213, evrdis 253. Cf. 
2 Esdras, Judges, Kingdoms 

Homer, use of, in Proverbs 152, and 
Job (q.v.) : cf. Vocabulary 

Hypereides 46 n. 

i sounds, coalescence or avoidance of 
successive 63, 84, 271 n. 

Illiteracy, indications of, ei — X 86: 
mixture of v and 01 94 

Imitation of Hebrew words in trans- 
lation 14, 36 ff. 

Imperative, 2nd aor. pass., term, of 
104: replaced by fut. 194: term. 
-aav 214 f. 

Imperfect, eyivero— HIilO) 52: term. 
-av 212, -oaav etc. 214: eXeivov in 
A text 234 

Imperial (Roman) epoch, linguistic 
characteristics of 72, 109, 112, 141. 
Cf. Kotfrj, periods of 

Imprecations, el in 54 

Indeclinable stage precedes extinction 
-cos 173, ir\7}p7)s 176: rifiurvs -av 
180 : X e 'P w > 5t5o 186 

Infinitive, frequent, use of articular 
inf. extended 24, 194: anarthrous 
inf. with verbs of motion 24 : 
epexegetic inf. frequent ib. n. : 
c. eyevero, crwi^rj etc. 50 ff. : 
c. wpoffTidevai in Min. Prophets 
53, c. tTn<TTpe<peip etc. 53 f. : vice 
participle c. (Trpo)<pdaveiv 54 : mix- 
ture of aor. and fut. mid. 76, 287 
(rev^airdai.) : old forms remain 
longest in inf. 210 (iveyiceip, elire'iv), 
cf. 257 (iVcat) 

Infinitive absolute, Hebrew, render- 
ings of 47 ff. 

Inscriptions, Greek of the 18 f. : 
ovdeis, ovd. in 58 : TecraepaKOvra etc. 
in Asiatic inscr. 62 : Attic passim 

Interpolations : passages absent from 
M.T. in which Greek style suggests 
interpolation 47 n., (70 with xx), 



/. Index of Subjects 



295 



166 with n. 4, 169 n. 5, 230, 239: 
171 sub fin. : 18411. 1. Cf. Hexapla 

Ionic dialect and its influence on the 
Koiv-q 62, 73, 7411., 10611., 107, 110, 
1 41 f., 285 (<jKopirl$u). 

Irenaeus (Minutius Pacatus) 19 

Isaiah, style good, version poor 12 : 
an early version ix, 28 : aajBadd 
(with 1 K.) 9 : avoids Hebraisms 
41 f. : erepos 45: ovdeis usual 61, 
compounds e^ovd- eijovS- unused 
105 : A text correct 81 : class, 
forms in B text 151 

Isocrates 138 

Isolation of syllables 132: of words 
136 

Itacisms 68 f. (cu and e in ^ and 
pap.), 73, 126, 177, 179 

Jeremiah, divisions of 1 1 : date of a 
and p (ovdeis in both) 61 

Jer. a, akin to Min. Prophets 9 and 
Ez. a q.v.: with K. a 253 (-iaTaKa) 

Jer. /3, 7rats8: peculiarities of 14, 
37 f., 163 n. 1, 185 (pe\ri.uv), 279 

(oWv/ULl) 

Jer. a and /3 (central chaps.), 
possible traces of compiler of n, 
88 n., 92, 226 

Jer. 7 (Hi) an appendix ii, 
70 n., 88, 93, 97, 123, 189 n., 250 

Jerome on /Sdpts 34, on iepeh 37 f. 

"Jewish-Greek" 26, 79: Jews in 
Egypt 27. Cf. "Biblical Greek," 
Vocabulary 

Job, a partial version supplemented 
from 3 f. : proem and conclusion 
contrasted with main portion 171. 
Job 0, absence of transliteration in 
32 : has class, rj fx.r\v 83 : imitates 
Homer and the poets 173, 249, 
279 (dXe'Ku), oWvfii) : eyyvraroi 
182 : iroTipov 192. For Job 9 see 
Theodotion 

Josephus, his Greek text of Kingdoms 
15: absence of Hebraisms in his 
writings 28, with one exception $y. 
orthog. 9711., 106: accidence 145, 
156, 161, 163 n., 164, 166, 169 n. 6, 
170 n., 196 n., 220 n., 234 n. 

Joshua, style of 7: date of viii, 14: 
ovdeis 61: with Ez. a and Min. 



Prophets 170 with n. 1 : -oaav 
frequent 213. Cf. Hexateuch 
Judges (B text) late: ayadwrepos 184, 
rirpaaw 187, j3ippw<TKW 226, lAeii/'d 
234, €0~T&6r]o~av 254, rjs 256, (pepu = 
&yw 25S n. Cf. Historical books 

Kethubim : see Writings 
Kingdoms, divisions of books of lof. : 
Heb. inf. abs. in 48 f. : B text of 
2 — 4 K. 78 n. : A text of 3 — 4 K., 
interpolations in, see Aquila 

K. a, aafiawd 9 : exaaros 45 n. : 
mid. TTpoaidiTo 53: ovdeis 61 : ei;0v- 
develv -ovdevovv 105: ' Apfiadaip. 168 

K. /3/3, UavTOKp&Twp 9 : eKaaros 
45 n.: Zcrei etc. 217 

K. 77, paraphrastic style of 
10: eKaaros 45 n.: ovdeis 61 : 3 K., 
orthography of 88 

K. /S5( = /37 + 75), date of 15: cha- 
racteristics of 10, 30 : Hebraic vi6s 
41 : av-fjp for e/caoTos 45 n : un- 
intelligent Atticism in 204. K. ^7, 
ovdeis 61 : fay etc. 217. K. yd 
(4 K.), eyivero Kai 51 : plur. of yrf 

143 
Koivrj, the 16 ff. : definition of 16: 
vernacular and literary 1 7 : origin 
and formative elements 17: (?) with- 
out dialects 18, 71, 11711.: slight 
influence of foreign languages on 
20 : dominant characteristics of 
21, illustrated from LXX 22 ff. : 
aims at simplification 29. Periods 
in KOLv-q (1) Ptolemaic, (2) Roman, 
(3) Byzantine 108 f. : contrast 
between early and late, Ptolemaic 
and Roman 155, 163 n. 3 : transi- 
tion period at end of ii/B.c. 58 f., 
68, 105 : other changes in ii/B.c. 72 
(131), 142, 146, 190: in i/A.D. 102, 
120, 176: in ii/A.D. 126, 129, 184, 
212. Cf. Byz. and Imperial epoch 

Labials, interchange of 105 ff. : omis- 
sion of 117 : assimilation of final v 
before 132 f. 

Latin influence on the Koiv-q 20 : in 
orthography 92 n. 

Lectionary influence seen in Ez. fi/3 
12 : synagogue lessons 29 



296 



/. Index of Subjects 



Legendary additions in the "Writings" 

15 . 

Leviticus, ovOeis 61 : written in two 
parts 66 

Liquids, the, their influence 011 spell- 
ing 73 ff ->. 77 <"•, 81, 84, 88, 97, 
165 n. : interchange of 107 f. : 
omission of 116. Liquid stern, 
verbs with 223 f. 

Lists of names, interpolations in 162 

Literary books, characteristics of 81 f., 
92, 98, 105, 122 (tt), 123 (pp), 138, 
182 (-raros), 185 (with Pent.), 242 
(e'Xeeii/), 247 (iffT-qcn), 253 (recVdecu 
etc.), 255 (Weaav). Cf. "Greek 
books " 

" Lord of Hosts," renderings of 8 f. 

Lucianic text, division of Kingdom 
books in 10 f. 

Luke, the two styles in 27 : Hebraic 
style of, under influence of LXX 30, 
40 n., 41, 49, 50 flf. (iytvero), 53 
[irpoaedero) : ivwwtov frequent 43 n. : 
ovffeis occasionally 62 : dvd0efj.a 
-drj/xa 80 : decr/xd 1 54 : ifivrjcrTev/jiei'T} 
205 : Trapaylvo/xai 267 n. 

2 Maccabees, a literary book 137, 
145, 155, 188 

3 Maccabees, literary 82 

4 Maccabees, date of 6, 61 (oi'Sei's) : 
literary and Atticistic, uses optative 
24 and 193, 81 (vXiov), 98, 137, 
148, 158 n., 179, 182, 215 bis, 241, 
270 (refti/rj^o/jLai.) : but keeps some 
vulgar forms 160 

Malachi, -rrXeov 81 

Mark, evuinov unused in 43 n 

Masculine : see Gender 

Massoretic text : see Interpolations 

Matthew, evwwiov unused in 43 n. 

Measures and weights transliterated 32 

Metaplasmus 151, 153-160, 187 

Middle fut. replaced by fut. act. 
231 ff. : middle aor. and fut. re- 
placed by pass, tenses 238 ff. 

Minaeans in Chron. 167 n. 

Minor Prophets akin to Ez. a and 
Jer. a, see Ezekiel : with K. a 
259 (aXKofxai) : with K. 77 273 
(K6\f/o/jLai) : act. irpoadrjau etc. 53 : ' 
usually ovSels 61 



" Mixed declension " of proper names 
162 ff. 

Mixture of texts 3 f. 

Modern Greek, its value for illustra- 
tion of the Koivrj 21 : misc. 25, 42 n., 
7511., 88, 106 n., 107, inn., 113 
(Xiei), 117 with n., 124, 141 n., 158, 
172, 179, i8on. 9, 181 n., 184, 187, 
188 n., iSgn., 190 bis, 193, 195 f . , 
197, 198 bis, 205 f., 209 with n., 
213, 21911. 1 and 3, 225, 233, 236, 
241, 244, 256, 257 bis 

Moeris 150, 154 

Month, numerals expressing days of 
189 

Mountains, names of, expressed ad- 
jectivally i7of. 

Musical instruments, Phoenician origin 
of names of 35 f. 

Mute stem, verbs with 222 f. : mute 
for contract verbs 259 (s. v. dXridu>) 

Nasals interchanged with labials 106 f. : 
omission of r 1 7 : effect of, on vowels 
176 

Negative, emphatic, expressed by el 54 

Neuter plurals with plur. and sing. vb. 
23: neut. of persons 174 f. Cf. 
Gender 

New Testament, words for "servant" 
8 : does not use ev ocpdaX/xois 43 n., 
nor participle for Heb. inf. abs. 49 : 
oudeis rare 62 : influence of N. T. 
quotations on LXX text 231 f. 
(aKovcruj, (3X£\J/u) : N. T. contrasted 
with LXX 142 (-pas -pr?s), 156(6*01- 
Tovrapxos -dpxys), 163 f. (Muw^s, 
declension of), 165 f. (SaXwyiii', 
spelling and deck), 193 n. (optat.), 
211 {-oaav -av), 225 (x^ w -X t '" / " a ')> 
228, 230 (6XQ, oXecrw), 231 (ZdoLiai. 
(pay.), 24 4 f. (-/« and -w), 254 (eariqv, 
earddijv), 256 (rjaOa, 77s), 260 f. 
atii-dvw (trans, and intr.), 281 (7repi<r- 
aevu) 

Nominative, drifting into the (nom. 
pendens) 23, 14911. : as name-case 
23, 161 n. 5 : relation of, to cases 
(Deck III) 149 f. : assimilation of, 
to cases 1 5 1 

Numbers, possibly written in two parts 
67 : ovSels 61 



/. Index of Subjects 



297 



Numerals 186-190: compounds of, 
156 : numerical statement placed in 
parenthesis 149 n. 

Optative rare but less so than in N. T. , 
frequent in 4 Mace. 24, 193 : re- 
placed byconj. 19311. : new termin- 
ations 215 : hwr\v 256 

Order of words in compound numbers 
187 ff. 

Origen : see Hexapla 

Orthography of uncials and papyri 
55 ft"., 71 ff. 

Overworking of Greek phrases re- 
sembling the Hebrew 29 

Palaeography of N and A 72 

Papyri, of Herculaneum 18 : Egyptian 
pap. and the uncials 55 ff. : develop- 
ments in formulae in 5711., roi n. 2, 
131 n., 288 (eav (paivTiTat) : misc. 
42 n., 47 (iv of accompaniment), 
51 n. (apposition of verbs). Cf. 
Koivr;, periods in 

Paraphrases vice literalism in early 
books 42, 43 (apeffKeiv etc.) : para- 
phrastic versions 13, 15 

Parenthesis, numerical statement in 
149 n. 

Partial translations, of Job 4 : (?) of 
Jer. and Ez. 11: of Ezra and 
Daniel 12: of the "Writings" 15 

Participle, for finite vb. 24 : part. + 
fin. vb. = Heb. inf. abs. 48 ff. : re- 
placed (with -tpd&veiv) by inf. 54 : 
-es for -as in pres. part. 149: fut. 
part, rare 194 (49) : el/M retained 
longest in the part. 257 

Particles, elision with 137 

Passive (middle) retains old forms 
longer than the active 196, 224 n., 
245 

Patristic writings 121 n., 241 n., 257 
(revival of elfxi) 

Pentateuch, variety of renderings in 
4 n. : unity and date of viii, 6, 13 f. 
61, 191: transliteration rare in 32 f. : 
iyivero preferred to ey. kclI in Gen. 
and Ex. 51 : style adapted to sub- 
ject-matter 142: renderings charac- 
teristic of 7, 13 f., 48: contrasted 
with later books by more classical 



style 9, 13, 30, 41, 43, 45 {<! t epos), 
105, 191 (correct use of ode), 218 
(4>dyr)), 224, 231 (?5o/xai). 237 [tear- 
evvxdyv) : unites with the literary 
books 185 bis, 204, 253 (eo-T&dr)t>) : 
fut. ind. + delib. conj. 91 : djxvbv 
and apva etc. 152 n. : does not use 
place-names in -aia -(e)lris 170 n. 1, 
nor -o-Kop-rricu 285 n. Cf. Hexa- 
teuch 

Pentecost lesson 1 1 

Perfect for aorist 24 : term. -a.v 212 

Pergamus, inscriptions of 62 

Periphrastic conjugation 24, 195 

Persian origin, words of reputed, p.av- 
dvas, /j.avLa,K7js 35 

Philo Jud. 28, 163 n., 164 

Phocylides, pseudo- 15 n. 

Phoenician origin, Greek words of 

34 ff- 
Phonetics 71 ft., 9411. : pronunciation 

of v 92 n., 95 : of f 108, in : of 7 

in, i26f. : influence of Egypt in 

phonetics 20, 163 n. (uu), Egyptian 

difficulty in pronouncing 7 and 5 

100 n., 103, 112 n. 2 

Photius 220, 221 n. 

Phrygian Greek 95 n. 

Phrynichus 92 n., 99 n., 104, 107, 112, 
285 {aKopirigo)) 

Physiognomical expressions in Heb. 
and Gk. 42 ft. 

Place-names : see Proper names 

Pluperfect, loss of syll. aug. in 196 f. : 
term, -eicrai> 216 

Plutarch 92, 105 n. 

Poetical passages, Pentateuch trans- 
lators use Ionic (poetical) forms in 
141 f. 

Polybius 43 (use of irpoo-wnov), 77, 92, 
154, 17011., 187, 191 n., 196m, 264 

Positive for comp. and superl. 181 

Prepositions, new forms of 25 : replace 
ace. (after the Heb.) 46 f. : a derelict 
prep. 97 n. : elision with 137 

Present tense, new forms of 224 ff. : 
historic pres. practically absent from 
K. /35 24 

Pronouns 190 ft". : substitutes for 45 f. : 
demonstr. + relat. 46: indefinite 
relative (6s eav, 5s dv) 65-68 

Pronunciation : see Phonetics 



298 



/. Index of Subjects 



Proper names, personal 160-166, 
place-names 166-17 1, do. translated 
31, gentilic 171: appellatives mis- 
taken for 32 f. : absence of elision 
before 136 f . : misc. 143, 146: cf. 
'Apibv, 'Iad,K, 'loudas etc. 

Prophetical books, dates of viiif. , 61 : 
prefer iyivero to iy. kcll 51 : cf. 
Sinaiticus, Isaiah etc. 

Prothetic vowel 97 

Proverbs, date of 16, 61, 166: extra- 
Biblical maxims in 15: absence of 
transliteration in 32: orthography 
in 94, 132 f. (late): fragments of 
verse in 15 n., 137, cf. 270 n. : 
imitates Homer 152 and the poets 
279 (6\Xv/j.i), cf. 173 (aepyds) : liter- 
ary style of 143, 15811., 249 

Psalms, absence of transliteration in 
32: division into two parts 6S f. , 
88, 135 with n., 158 n., 20011.: but 
translation homogeneous 69: late 
orthography of 132 ff. : Appendix 
to 15 : titles of xix (? later than 
original version), 32 

Psalms of Solomon 166 n., 175 

Psilosis 127 ft". 

Ptolemaic age: see Koiptj, periods of 

Pure stem, verbs with 218 ft". 

Question expressing a wish 54 

Rabbinical writings, Greek words in 

2 1 n. 
Reduplication 204 ff. : dropped in 

/j,vri<TKOfjLa.i 227 
Rhinocorura 167 n. 
Rhythm, in Wisdom 9111.: loss of 

sense of 22 
Rolls, writing of books on two 65 
Roman epoch : see Imperial, Kotvrj 

Sahidic 101 n., 10711., cf. Coptic: 
Sahidic version of Job 4 

Scribes, two per book in primitive 
mss 66 f. 

Scriptio plena : see Elision 

Semitic element in LXX Greek 25 ff. : 
cf. Hebraisms, Aramaic 

Septuagint translation, primary pur- 
pose of 28 f. 



"Servant of the Lord," renderings 
of 7 f. 

Sibylline Oracles 79 n., 273 n. 

Sinaiticus, Codex, orthography (Egyp- 
tian) of the Prophetical portion 
112 ff., 119 f., 130, 147 (cf. 176): 
difference in orthography of other 
books 113: vulgarisms in 55 ft"., 



/■=> 



78 



Sira, Ben, reference in Prologue to 
Greek versions of Scripture [5 f., 
=,9 f. : contrast in style of Prol. and 
body of work 27 : date of (oi'tfetsand 
oi»5., ii;ovd. and e£oi/5.) 61 f., 105 : 
orthography of 91 (0 and w), 94: 
possibly divided into 2 parts 122 n. : 
literary forms in 143, 149 

Song of Moses 141 

Song of Solomon, notes in Cod. K 

259 
Sophocles, vd(3\a 35,7rpoaTi#e<T#cu 52 f. 
Spirants, interchange of 108 : spirantic 

pronunciation of guttural 1 1 1 
Strabo 36 (on musical instruments), 

92, 106, n8n., 143 n. 
Style, classification of books according 

to 12 f. 
Subscriptions to books later than 

books themselves 1 1 1 n. : cf. Titles 
"Suburbs," renderings of 4 
Superlative in elative sense 181 ff. : 

for comp. 183 f. (7rp<I)Tos, etrxaros) 
Syllables, shifting of dividing-line 

between 117: isolation of 132 
Symmachus 5, 9, 257 11. 
Syncope 99 f. 
Syntax affected by imitation of Hebrew 

54 

Terminations, adjectives of 2 or 3 
172: verbal 89, 104 (-rt for -61), 
195, 209 ft. 

Testaments of the XII Patriarchs 

157 n -> 173 "• 

Test-words in grouping of books 7 ff. 

Text of LXX 1 ff. : cf. New Testa- 
ment 

Theodotion, interpolations in Job 
from 3 f., elsewhere 158 n. 5: a 
popular version 5 : affinity of style 
to that of K. /35 10, of the later 
historical books 14 f., 55, of 2 Esdras 



/. Index of Subjects 



299 



1 3, of Ez. |8j8 1 1, (?) Chron. LXX his 
work xx, 16711.: Ktipios rCsv dvvd- 
fiewv 9 : ein<TTpt(peiv 53 : £yw el/ju 55 : 
a " r VP ' 53 : n e w verbs in -dfw 247 : 
does not use rerpds etc. 189, nor 
TrapayLv 0/j.a.i 267 n. : literary form in 
Job 143, late form in do. 280 
(bpudrjuofxai). Cf. Daniel, Trans- 
literations 

Theognis 50 

" Thus saith the Lord," renderings of, 
in Jer. 1 1 

Time-statements, literalism in 39 f. 

Titles of books later than original 
work 166 n. (Psalms of Sol.) : cf. 
Psalms, Subscriptions 

Titles, official (Egyptian) 156 with n.' 

Tobit, B text, vernacular style of 24, 
25, 28 

Towns, declension of names of 167 ff. 

Trade-route, proximity to, affects de- 
clension of place-names 169 

Transcendence of God emphasized in 
later renderings 8 

Transitional forms in the koivt) 18 (ov- 
Oei<>), 213 {-cxrav) 

Translations and free Greek, contrast 
in style of 27 f. 

Transliterations, in Job 9 4, in 9 and 
later LXX books 31 ff., in Penta- 
teuch 31 f. 

Tribrach and several short syllables, 
avoidance of 87 n., 90 

Troglodytes in Chron. 167 n. 

Uncial MSS, evidence of, in light of 
papyri 55 ff. , etc., suspected 62 ff., 
77, 78, 95, 96, 109: birthplaces of 
71 f., 100 f. 

Uniformity vice variety of older 
language 193, 235, 244 

Vaticanus, Codex, comparative value 
of text for O. T. and N. T. iff.: 
orthography of (usually older than 
date of Ms) 55 ff., 68 (Psalms), 70, 
72, 78 (varies in thedifferent groups), 
86, 112, 127 ff. (perhaps late), 188: 
occasional vulgar (Egyptian) or- 
thogr. (esp. in Isaiah central chaps.) 
113, 114 (5 exx.), 147 with n. : plur. 



of yyj in 4 K. 143: text in 2 Es. 
original 237, in Is. interpolated 238 

Verbal adjectives 194 

Vocabulary, poetical 18, 187 {riTpaaiv), 
Ionic 285 (-<TKOpTrii'w), Homeric 264 
(s. v. d(:w), cf. Homer, Ionic : words 
and forms now literary, eaCs 152, 
dffffxd 154, ovupos 155, viK-rj 157: 
new kolvtj words, in -efxa 80, yivrijxa 
118, in -apx 7 ? 5 l 56> oXiyoaros 185: 
words first found in LXX and 
" Biblical " words possibly coined 
by translators, i£o\e9pe{>eiv etc. 87 f., 
atiipovv 89, 6\iyovv 112, iXaTTove'iv 
-ovv 122, 266, evdrjs 178, i^direpoi 
etc. 183, dyaWtdaBai 258, evamfe- 
adai 267 : cf. " Biblical Greek " 

Vocative 145 (Oei) 

Voice, middle, replaced by passive 

193 

Vowels 71 ff.: interchange of 73 ff. : 

prothetic 97 f., 170 f. n. 4 : contrac- 
tion and syncope 98 ff. : short vowel 
in tenses of contract vbs. 218 f. 
Cf. Assimilation 
Vulgarisms : see Illiteracy, Sinai- 



ticus 



Wisdom, literalism in 43 : suggested 
date of 62: rhythm in 90 f. n. : 
verbal adjectives in 19411. Cf. 
Greek books, Literary books 

Wish expressed by question 54 

Words, division of 129 f. 

Word-formation, retention of unelided 
vowel 130, and of unassimilated 
consonant in new compounds 132- 
134. Cf. Vocabulary 

"Writings" or Kethubim, greater 
freedom allowed in translation of 



Xenophon, a precursor of the Koiv-q 
17: (pvhaaaeadai dtrd 46: iyevero 
wore (ujs) 50 : 243 

Yahweh, abbreviated forms of, in 
proper names, —-(e)ias, -cuas 161 

Zaconic, only relic of old dialects 18 
Zechariah, x&P lTa in '5° 



II. INDEX OF GREEK WORDS 
AND FORMS 



a, mixture with e 73 ff. : 
with t] 76 f. : with o 
and at 77 : with av 
79 : for aa in proper 
names 100 : -a pure, 
nouns in 140 ff. : a 
for 77 in "Avvas etc. 
143 : -a, " Doric " 
gen. sg. of proper 
names in 16-2 : -a, 
place-names in 167 f. 

afi&K, aj3apK7)i'elv , rah 

33 f- 

A/35etot5 162 

dfiedrjpeiv 33 

'A/3pdp., 'Afipadp. 100, 
not "Afipa/jLos 1 60 f. 

dyadwavvyj 90 

dyadwrepos 184 

d7<x\(acr#cu etc. X 120 

'A>7cuos 161 n. 

a7two"iV?7 90 

dyvla 87 

a7po0 (d.7ot/p) 37 

det (alei) 7 7 

d^aos (not diw. ) 120 

depyds in Prov. 173 

d^pteos 37 

-dfw : see -£w 

ddoudrjaofxai. etc. but 
d6><pos 89, fern, -y'a 172 

01, interchanged with 
a 77 : with e 68 f., 
77 f. : as short vowel 
90 with n. 4 : al- 
loses aug. 199 f. 

-ataj, proper names in, 
G. -ov (and -a) 161 f. 

aly/j.d\ujTos X 103 

Atyviros K 116 

-aivu, verbs in, keep a 



For the Verbs see § 24. 

in 1 aor. 223 f . : pf. 
pass, of 224 
-aios and -ir-qs, gentilic 
names in 17 r : -at'a, 
names of countries in 

170 

aiperifciv to TrpoawTrov 44 
■aipui, verbs in, keep a 

in i aor. 223 
-ais -at -aiaav, opt. 

term. 215 
alaxporepos 184 
aKaWiUfxeOa X 102 
dxdv, tov (tt)v) di<uva(v) 

157 f- 

AxKapuv indecl. 169 
d/cpt/3ta 87 
d/cpo/3t'OTt'a 27 
d\dj3aarpov, to A 153 
dXaXdfeti' -ay/xos 37 
dXas, t6 and 6 d'Xs 152 
dXeets(but ctXiewi/ etc.)S4 
dXX6<£tAot and QuXicrTuifj. 

dXi'/cos (not dXiKos) 96 

dXti7T7;\-es 151 

d'Xws (only in form dXw) 

and d\uv -uvos, 6 and 

9 144 f. 

a/xa=Qn 37 
djttdfots N 157 
dp.apTrjcrop.ai, ovk 1 28 
djuaaeveit), dp.a<pe& 33 
dfif3\dKrifj.a, dp.j3\ai<La 

105 
AppaviTLS 1 70 
d^tvdj, d/xvos 152 
6Ip:7reXoj, 6 X 145 
dfJL<piTcnros (not -Ta7T7;s) 

156 
d/n<poTepoi (not dfjupui) 1 92 



df replaced by edv with 
8s etc. (not with ews, 
6Vw?, lis) 65 

oil' for idv, "if'*' 99 

-ay, 3rd decl. accus. in 
1 46 f. : verbal termi- 
nation in 209 ff. 

dvddepa -T}fxa 27 n., 80 

dva.Kvp.ipai A no 

dvd piaov 25 : di-d p.. 
tQiv io-TrepLvQv 40 

avdrreipos 83 

di'a7r?75(''et = -'jrt5. 85 

dvdffrepa -77/txa 80, -apa. 
79 n. 

d^aipaXafros -#os 104 

di«3p(e)tu>repos 182 

dve£e\tKT0S 115 

dv^p for ZKaaTos etc., of 
inanimate things 45 f. 

avdpwTros for enao-TOs 
etc. 4^ : dvdpwTTos dv- 

dptOTTOS 46 

dv^' wf 25 : in late 
books d^D 1 ' wv 6tl, 
dvd' uiv oaa 10, 25 

dvoiei X = dvoiyei 113: 
dvoiyeiv 127 

dvTapi.p.\pt.v A no 

avTitcpvs = " opposite " 
136 

'Ai'nXt^ai'os beside At- 
/3ai-os 166 f. n. 

dvvyeiv 94 

dvvTrvi.di'e(rdai X = ei>. 76 

dvvTTodeTos (for -otjtoj) 80 

dvihv7)T0i = dv6v. 90 f. 

avwTepov — dvu, once 
dvwTepoo 1 83 

airdvwdev 25, in K. /3<5 10 

aTrapTi'geiv in a' 3 



//. Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 301 



ci7ras and was 138 f. 
<nrrfKiibT7]s 128 
dwb rare as comparative 
particle 23 : c. <f>v\da- 
aeadai etc. 46 f. 
aTToypvxf/ui N 10 1 
dwoKia B 93 
a7ro(TK6i'7j of children 

(=fp) in Pent. 14 
dpa = Heb. inf. abs. 47 
dp' 01}, LXX equivalents 

for 125 f. 
'Apa^d -fitbd 32 f. 
apaacrii] replaced by pda- 

au 76 
dp6ra\o7os -\o~yia 76 
dpto7"p = "few" 39 
apicrros 185 
dpKos for apKTOS 116 
' App-adaipi in 1 K. =' Papa 

168 
dpp.ovia = jlOn 37 
dpj'a, dpvos 152 with n. 
dpovpa for 777 Ionic 142 
dppaj3uv 34, 119 
appr/i' rare, usually fip- 

(Ttjj' 123 
apxtercupos 37, 130 n. 
dpx'fi'i'OL'X 05 ) dpx^^v. 

130 n. 
apxovres = -as 149 
-apxos and -dpx??s 156 
'ApwScuos -Seirijs 171 
dpwStos epwd. 76 
'Aptbv 100 
-as (-as), proper names 

in 163 
d<Jt[ir)v AX 176 
'Aar/dwd 33 

'Ao-K-aXwi/ declined 169 
dVcrei A=&Xcret 132 
da<pa\ia 87 

'Araftvpioi', 'It. 170 n. 
aT€tx'°' Tat s 172 
dTos = aiV6s in papyri 79 
drreXe^os -Xa/3os 75 
au and ei) 78 f. : an and 
a. 79 : av- loses temp, 
aug. 200 
ai'5u3 = ai'rw 103 
Ai' , pa»'(e)trts 170 



AiV(f)iT:s 170 

ai'T6s, otiose use of obli- 
que cases of 24 : auros, 
avrov 190: avrov, iav- 
tov 190 

a0a('pe/xa 80 

d<pep.a 80 

dciecris 37 

d<popi<rna.Ta, d(pwpicr/xiva 
— "suburbs" 4 with n. 

axt 32 n. 

axoi'X' T o" > 34 
dxpeoxTjs dxpeovv (but 

a'xpe^os) 82 
axpi(s) o5 136 
dxi'P°s, 6 (A) and to -ov 

dij/ecrde, ovk i 28 

-dw, verbs in, short 
vowel in tenses of 
219: "Attic" fut. 
replaced by sigmatic 
230 : confusion with 
-ew verbs 241 f. 

|3, euphonic insertion of 
111: interchange of 
with 7r j 05 f. : with 
p. 106 f. 

BaaXeip. (BeeX-) Tip 34 

Ba/ii'Xwe declined 169 

Ba55ap7eis 1 70 n. 

fiadeov A 179 

j3ddov 159 

Paxxovpia 34 

j3dpjlapos 37 

/3ap(e)?a 1 79 : (iapews 

-60S I79 

/3dpis^ (/Sapis) 34, 150 
|3appa X = poppa 7 7 
Bacra^ejrTis 170 
ftdoavos, 6 X 145 
/SacriXeis and -eas 148 : 

paaiius 114 
fia<ji\eiov, to for 17 /Sacri- 

Xeta etc. 157 
/3aaiXei/ai' "make king" 

24 
j3dros, 6 145 
^drpaxos, 7/ A 146 
BaxX'^ 7 ? 5 ^ 121 



pdiXvypa, fiiSeK 37 

^«pa 34 
/SeXntTTOs 185 
piaov, dva A 107 
pip\el5iov 87 n. 
/3i/3Xia06pos -ay pdcpos 77 
/3t/3XiW, |3i/3Xos (/3i}/3Xos), 

Pv(3\ii>os, Bi'/3Xtos 95 f. 
/3«os 34 
fiicoTeveiv 91 
/36as 147 

/3o/3^(xet = ^OM|3. 132 
fiddpos 37 
£6Xi/3os A 106 
poppas, rarely j3opias 

(■ir/s) 123 f., 143 
B6croppa, G. -as 167 
jipdfxaTa X = /3pc6p.aTa 77 
Pvacros, fivaaivos 34 

7, omission of, between 
vowels in ff., in 
71(7)^0^01, 7i7(i')wcr/cu> 
etc. 100, 114 f., else- 
where 115: insertion 
of, in papyri lit n. : 
pronunciation of in, 
difficult to Egyptians 
100 n., 112 n : inter- 
changed with k looff. : 
7* for /c 101 

7afapr;v6s (Paf.) 34, 171 

7atat 143 

7a2cros, 6 and to -op 154 

raXaao(e)<T£S 170 

ya/j-Ppevftv 262 n. 

yapwQiv A = Kap7r. 101 

yeddovp 33 

yeiupas xx, 28, 34 

7epea"idpx'>7S 156 

yiv-qpta and yewr/fta 118 

777, plural of, and sub- 
stitutes for 143 

7%>as, G. 7?7poi'sand-ws, 
D. yr)pei and -a 149 

yivofiai and 7171'. ii4f. : 
cf. eyivero and § 24 

yivdiffKu and 717^. 1 1 4 f. : 
cf. § 24 

y\vK(e)ia 179 

yva<pivs 101 



302 II. Index of Greek Words and Forms {cf. § 24) 



yvrifj,7iv A 10 1 

yi>6(pos, 6 (and to A) 159 

ybp-op =: "omer" and 

"homer" 32 
Tb/xoppa, G. -as (not -aw) 

168 
yb/xos 32 

7<W A = ybvara. 152 
70^15 and -e'as 148 
ypa/ULiaToeicrayuiyeus 130 

n. 
ywyybs D = kvv. 10 1 

5, omission of 1 14, 1 16 : 

interchange of, with d 

104 f. : with r 100 
Bdyvovres A 10 1 
Aa/xdce/c 167 
oacrews -ios 179 
Sac/inTous for XaytL's 145 
Aai>et5 (not AajSidrjs) 

160 f. 
Seppadd 33 
-Seryi^w A 10 r 
deK&dapxos LXX, -dpxys 

Joseph. 156 : 6"e/cd- 

rapxos X 103 f. 
5e/cd5t'o and o"u)d"e/ca 187 f. 
oevbpov, G. -oi', D. -a 

and -ip 160 
Seojuai^S in Pent. 14 
deafioi and (lit.) 5ecr/j.d 154 
btaKXeTrreadai c. inf. z/zVtf 

adv. 54 
didaTe/iia -TjLia 80 
OtOoj'ai = Tidevat 39 : cf. 

§ 24 
Slbpay/xov (late mss) 103 
Steuri/xet in papyri 57 n. 
b~LKaiw<rvvq A 90 
810T1 and 6'rt 138 f. 
8i<popov 99 

5tx??XetV (not StxaXoc) 76 
5t'i/<a, St^os 157 
Siwpui- -1170s (and -i'X°s) 

150 f. 
doXela A = 8ovX. gi 
86/j.a and Wets 79 
56£ews N 158 
bovXeveii' and Xarpei/etj' 

8 



bovXla 87 

SoDXos and synonyms 7 f. 

5pay/j.rj (late MSs) = 
dpaxfJ-v 103 

Swd^ewp, Kf'ptos tw»» 9 

5wao-r(e)i'a 69 

5uo, G. bvo, D. 5t5o and 
usually Svaiv 187, or 
5i'<7t [35: lit. bvetv (-olv) 
92, 187 : 8vo Svo 54 

dvGffiris = 5fO"o". 1 20 

rJ&i'at for Sowat 91 

e, mixture with a 75 f. : 
with at 68 f., 77 f. : 
with v 79 ft'., aug. 
198 f. : with et 81 f. : 
with 1 84 f. : with 
87 ff. : with v, ev g'j 

eaXcoKvhjs H 1 40 

idv, 6s 65 ff. 

eavTOv, avrov 190: caw. 
for r and 2 sg. illite- 
rate ib. : but eavrQv 
for all 3 persons of 
pi. 190 f. 

iy for e/c 101 

iy yauTpi A 72, 131 

^77'f« J/ (cri'i'-) c. gen. 
167 n. 

eyyopos for 'iKyovos 101 

iyyvs drrb irpoawirov in 

• 9 47 

e'771/rarot, kyyiaTa 182 

eyevero eylvero etc., con- 
structions with 50 ft". 

e^vot X = ^7^w etc. 93 

eydi elp.1 with finite verb 
in late books and 
Hexapla 10, 30, 55 

'ESuijU, 'I5oi>,aaia 167 

"Efpas A in 

edvapx-ns 156 

idvov A 160 

et, mixture with e 81 ff. : 
with 77 83 f., aug. et- 
and rj- 201 f. : with I 
(1) 85 ff. : with 01 92 

et=negat. in adjurations 
54 : el (et) litiv, 7) fn)v, 
« M 54. 83 f. 



-eta and -la, nouns in 

68 f., 87 
-elas, proper names in, 

G. -ov and -a 161 f. 
et/cds and eluooTy) 189 
einbva, K<xd' 12"] 
eiKoai (not -criv) 135 
etXrjcpa aoristic 24 
ei\Kvcrev, ovk 128 
eiv (w) 32 
e'ivexev, ov 82 
et^ovffiv, yjt;ovo-iv v. 11. 85 
elprjvTj, Hebraic uses of 

40 f. 
-ets, proper names in 164 
ets (not es) 82 
ets as indef. article 54: 

ets (7rptDTos) /cat el- 

ko(tt6$ 1 89 
-eiaav for -eaav in plpf. 

216 
-et-nis -etrts : see -Ittjs -is 
en- : see e£- 
eKao~Tos for e/cdrepos 192: 

substitutes for and dis- 
tribution of 45, 192 
eKarepos 192 
eKarbvTapxos LXX, -dp- 

XV* N.T. and Joseph. 

i?6 
e\-et and 17/cet v. 11. 81 
eKelvos (not Ketvos) 97 
e'/c^es A = e'x^^s 102 
eKdpbs, eKx&p6s etc. 102 
eKKalSeKa B, e'f /cat 5^/ca 

A 188 
eKK\rjo-la first in Dt. 14 
eKirav = encnrdv 1 1 7 
eKcpev^aadat = -eadai. 76 
eKibv, ovk 128 
e'Xacra'WJ', eXdxtcrros 185: 

eXdrruiv, eXarrovv, 

eXaTTovelv etc. 121 n., 

122 
Aac/>os 37 n. 
e\a<ppiJ}Tepos 182 
e"Xeos, to and 6, and 

meanings of 158 with 

n. 
e"\eoi> = ZXaiov 78 
eX^<pavaiv 151 



II Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 303 



eXecpavrdpxys 156 

eXos and 6'pos, mixture 

of 107 
eXiris 124 f. 
-ep.a and -77/ia 79 f. 
i/xavrov, Kad' 127 
'E/xefcaxcip 33 
<rp.eV X 135, 147 
CjU p-eVa; mainly in A 

7 2 > I3 1 

e/x7re7ro5ecrrdr77 A 182 

eV, ev e/xoi = '3 in late 
books (else deo/xai) 
14 : =ets 25 : c. et>- 
5okc?>, deXecv etc. 47, 
of accompanying cir- 
cumstances ib. : com- 
pounds of, assimila- 
tion in 132 f. 
ivavTiov and ivavri 25, 

43, 68 n. 
eVaTOS (not Zvv.) 120 
evdeooiKet = -SAicet 94 
Zvebpov (and evedpa) 156 
eVe/cci, eveicev, oi) e'ivexev 
82 f., 1 ^5: oi)k i-venev 
128 
Hvt, = <zVe<rTt 257 
evtavrov, Kad' 125 
eW?7a A 81 

evraura A 1 04: evreuda 
, A 79 
evrorepos A 183 n. 

ivTpa.TT7]TI. 1 04 

evuirviov supplants 6Wi- 
'iwoTpov for 17V. 81 

evd)TTLOV 25, 42 f. 

e"£- (e'/c-), causative force 
of, in composition : 
see Ind. I Causative 

e£a/3d = e'/c Za/3d 130 

e^a/xaprdveiv 24 

e^eXedpeveiv 88 n. 

e^eXecrdai. eirl riva in Q 47 

d£epeveado.i = -epevy. 1 1 3 

e^eipvvs 78 

i^€\d)pr]crev A = -exwp'- 
ow 85 

ei;oXedpeveiv and -oXodp. 
etc. 87 f. 



e£oO = e'/c <ro0 130 
e^ovdevovp (-outfei'oOi') 
and i^ovOepeiv (-ovdev- 
elv) 105 with n. 
e^ ffK-qvupdruiv X 130 
e^wrepos, -TdTos 183 
e7raio'xi'ii'€(T^at to 7rp6o"co- 

irov 44 
eiravaarpecpeLV in Pent. 

eiravepxecrdai c. inf. 53 
eVa^u;, eirdvcodev 25 
eireXddevro 88 f., 216 
(TreffTths, eTri<TT<xTai = i(p. 

128 
eVi c. dat. = phrase with 

'3 44: c. (peideadai 

etc. 47 
£Trt(3e(37iKvlr)S 140 
eiriXeveadai = eireXevae- 

adai 1 14 
eTri(TTp€(peLV vice irdXiv 

53 

iirKpavrjv X 176 

eTrraKi 136 
epavvdu epevvdo} 78 f. 
epep.a'c~u>v A for r)p. 81 
tppwao, eppQcrOai e#x°M a ' 

in papyri 57 n. 
epurav (eVep.) els elpr\vr\v 

40 
-es for -as, in ace. plur. 

148 f. : in 2 sg. 1 aor. 

and pf. 215 f. 
-ecrai' wVt? -cv 89, 213 
"EcrSpas X 111 
-e<j-#a 218 
eaoiiai. dtoovat. 24 
ecrireXas X 108 : Zawepos 

A 157 
"Ecrpas B tii 
eVrcu, Ko.i, introductory 

formula 52 
-eararos, superlatives in, 

literary 182 
earriKviTjs X 140 
itTxa-Toyrjpus, indeclin- 
able 173 
eVxaros -of = " latter," 

"after" 184 
€<TXV Ka -> aoristic 24 



eVw (not et'crw) 82 

ecrurepos, -tcltos, eVw- 
repov = i(X03 183 

'irepos (fxrjdiT.) 192 : sub- 
stitutes for 45 

eVos 124 f. 

ei», mixture with av 78 f. : 
with e and v 97 : ev- 
loses temp. aug. 200 

evdoKeiv ev 47 

-etfetj/, verbs in, used 
causatively 24 

evdris, eidvs (tvdetos) 

177 ff- 

evOpacrros 79 

evpe/ua 80 

tvpLcTKU sic 129 

-ei/s, nouns in, ace. plur. 
of 147 f . : mixture 
with nouns in -175 

, I53 „ n- 
evaefir}v 176 

ei/r^xf' in papyri 57 n. 

ev<ppaiveiv, augment 68 

ei'wSia for evo5la 91 

e<£-, causative in e</><x- 
fMaprdven/ 259 

ecptopKetv -la 126 

ecpMTos 126 

e<pvl8ios alcp. 78 

e<povb, e<pw5 33 

e% for e/c 103 

ex^e's (not x^ J ) 97 

e'X#e0"'S = indents 103 

exdi/TTos, lit. [Sj 

exofievos for 7rapd 25 

expo? 116 

etj/efxa -rjixa 80 

-^w, verbs in, short 
vowel in tenses of 
218 f. : Att. fut. re- 
placed by sigmatic 
230 : confusion with 
-dw verbs 241 f. : con- 
traction in 242 f. : 
mixture with -w verbs 

243 f 
ews, prep., Hebraic use 

of, in 9 47 : eus adov 

in Jer. /3 14, 37 
ews, " dawn " 145 



304 //. Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 



f, altered pronunciation 
of, causing mixture 
with a 108 

feify $ = frvyr) 113 

f^Xos, 6 (and to) 158 

frifivvri 108 

108 
£1176$, 6 (and to i^yoe) 1 54 
-fw (-afw, -ij'w), new 
verbs in 194, 247 : 
tenses formed with <r 
or I 222 f. , hit. in -w 
and -o-w 228 ff. 

7? and e 79 ft"., augm. 
77- for e- 197 f. : 77 and 
« 83 f., -77 -et -acrcu 
in 2 sg. mid. 217 f. : 77 
and t 85 : 77 and v 96 f. 

17 /at?*' : see et /jltju 

■fjSvs, mixture with tdios 
126, cf. 85 

77/cei and hei v. 11. 81 : 
»7k«i» for 17V-. 128 

r)Kovp.evos A = 777. 102 

'H\(e)iot5 and 'H\(e){as 
162 

-■qixa and -e/ia 79 f. 

ijp.e'pai, Hebraic uses of 

„ 39 f - 

77/xicriis and ij/.uiavs 95 : 
becoming an inde- 
clinable, G. r)/j.icrovs 
179 f. : rifxia(e)ca 179 

ttivlko. in K. /35 10 : 771/. 
edv 65, 66 n. 

-77s and -etfs, mixture of 
nouns in 153 n. : -17s 
(-77s), adjectives in, A. 
-rjv 175 ft". : -7js, proper 
names in 163 f. 

riavxa-fciv 128 

rjTTaadai, tjttwv 121 n., 
122 

77x77, replaced by 6 (and 
to) 77x0s 157, 159 

6 interchanged with 5 
in ovdeis (p.ij6.) 58 ff., 



elsewhere i04f. : with 
t 104 : omission of 
116, in 1 aor. pass. 
(fKp\J<p7)v) 236, 237 n. : 
66 for t6 121 
Qai/j.ai'(e)cTis. 170 
OdXaaaa — PPyn 37 
6dfx.l3os, 6 and t6 158 
davdrtp dirodaveiTai 48 
6appelv and 6apaelv, etc. 

/ 2 3 

daTTov and rdx'ov 184 
davfidfetv ro wpbaiowov 

43 f. 

6avfj.auTouo-6aL c. inf. 54 

#«'>, to 34 
6i\nv iv 47 

0ewa and compounds 80 
6ep.e\ios and -of 154 
0e6s, V. 0e<? 145 
6epa7reia 33, 37 
depaneueiv 8 n. 
6epdwLov 7 f. 
6epa<peiv (-weiv) 6ap. 33 
0i/Sis 34, 150 
6vydrepes = -as 1 49: 

6vya,Trjpos H 151 
6vpewcpopos 90 
9-Di»0 and 9w0 in papyri 

163 n. 

t, mixture with e 84^ : 
with et 85 ff. : with 
77 85 : with 01 92 : 
insertion of, between 
and another vowel 
93 : unpronounced in 
diphthong w 141 

-la and -da 68 f. 

'la/ielir 33 

-las, proper names in, 
G. -lou (and -La) 161 f. 

Z/3ts (e^8.) 150 

iSeiv, d^iSeii' etc. 124^ 

i'5ios, 'id., 770., mixture 
with i}5vs 85, 126 

Idou 55 : oi'x ISov and 
oi'ik 18. 70, 125 f. 

'Idovjxaia, 'Roup. 167, 
170 

ifpaTia 87 



lepets = KHy 37 : ace. 

plur. 148 
'lepp.las 100 
'lepocroXvpa and 'Ifpoi'- 

aaX-qp. 168 
-tfw : see -fa 
'ly}p€filas 81 
'I?7<7oC?, declension of 

164 f. 
Iko.i>6s in G 4 
i'KTepa 1 60 

i'Xews = 7VPI 38 with n. : 

indeclinable 173 
i'XiKla -iluttjs A 85 
tva, elision of final letter 
of 137 : tva clause 
= inf. rare 24, 194 
'Iourids 127 : G. -a and 
■ov, and indecl. 'lovdd 
163 
' lovp.ala — ' I dovfiala 1 1 4 
iinrapxos and -dpxys 156 
i7r7re?s, ace. pi. 148 
■is, Egyptian words in 
1 50 : -is, -(e)iris, place- 
names in 169 f. 
'Itrd/c 100 
i'cros 1 26 
"laxvpos, 6 in 4 : 

'Laxvpos 127 
iTafivpLov, to 170 
-17-77$ (-«tt7s) and -alos, 
gentilic names in 171 
'Iroi'pcuoi, Toup. 171 n. 
Ix6vas (-vs) 147 
-(i')aw -httos 184 ff. 
Iuxreias,G. -a and -on 162 
Iuhttjwos, 'lwarj(pos 106 

k, interchanged with 7 
100 ff. : omission of 
115 : doubling of, k£ 
= £ 120: K + a amal- 
gamated into £ 130 

tedpos 34 

nadapifa, eKa6epi<ra etc. 

r 74 
Ka6tfj,a 80 

KadrjKviTjs in papyri 142 
Ka6i5pos 173 
Ka6i£eiv yvva'iKa 262 n. 



II. Index of Greek Words and Forms {cf. § 24) 305 



Kadodos in a 3, 190 

Kaddwiadev 104 

kclL, coordination of 
sentences with 55 : 
crasis in Kdryw etc. 99, 
137 f. : /ecu ye in K. 
/3o etc. 10, 37: /ecu 
/xdXa in K. /35 10 

/caKoi'xetV in a 3 

KaXXvvOpov 104 

KaXos for /cdXws 145 

KaXiis 7roi^creis ypd\j/€is 
(or ypd\J/as) 51 n. 

Ka.pp.ueiv 99 

/cai'oOj' 144 

Kap/xT/Xos, \epp.4X 167 : 
KapM'?X(OJ' opos 171 

/cap7rdcr«'os 34 n. 

Kapx^Swe -Somoi = Tar- 
shish 167 n. 

Kaaia 34 

KaaaihipLOV X 103 

Kara, c. ace. ^D ?]} etc. 

44 
Karc^dfeiJ' 79 
Ka.TaXr]ppa = -Xeippa, 84 
KarapaKTrjs 118 
Kardarepa 80 
Kouaxpi'/o-ea 173 
Karepd^evaev (-pepft. ) 88 
KaTopTihdr) 104 

KOLTlbTepOV — K.6.TW, KIXTll)- 
TO.TU) 183 

KeSpuii', rcSc KtdpLov, 

Xeipdppovs 38, 169 
KetpdSas in Jer. /3 38 
K^pas, declension of 149 
Kex^Pi r o 167 
K'T^i' A = 777c 102 
Ktfitords 35 
Kivvdp.up.ov 35 
/ciJ'lypa 35 

KtTieis, Ktnoi, KinaTot 
171 

KLTlhv IO3 

/fXeis /cXeiSa (not Kkeiv) 

150 
K\ij3avos (not *pi/3.) 107 

KXipa 79 

kXoios, 6 and (A) to -ov 

J 55 

KodoOVoL 36 

T. 



Ko\\(o)vpis -ifciv etc. 92 
KoXoKaiiei = KoXaKetiei 79 
Ko\6KW0a -Kvvra for 
^ -iciVtt) 104, 143 
K0P710S A 102 
K-6p77 Kdpav 142 f. 
/copos 35 

Kovcpos for Kovcprj 172 
Kpayy) H — Kpavyrj 113 
KpariffTOS 185 
Kpavr} H = Kpavyrj 113 
xpe'as 149 

Kpuacrcov, Kpeirrojv 1 2 1 n., 
122 

/epe/xa 79 

xpios 37 n. 

watfos 75 

Kvdpa (=xuTpa), KV0p6- 

irodes 103 
kukXop 25 
kvp-lvov 35 
Kvvrjyds (not -cry.) 76 : 

cf. 7W. 
Kvvopviris 140 
Ki/Trpidpx^s 156 
Kupij!'77i'5e in a' 3 

KuXveiv — «?3 38 
Kwpdpxys 156 
KW7reXdTat A for -77X. 81 

X, effect of, on vowels 
73, 76, 78, 81, 84, 86, 
88, 97 : omission of 
114, 116: X and p 
107 f. : XX and X r 19 f. 

\ayxdv€LV = ~\y? 38 
Xa7ws unused 145 
XcLKavrj A 76 
XaXias, Tept in Aquila 41 
Xap.j3dveiv to irpoaojirov 

44 » 

Xdp.7ras = T'D? 38 
\d/j.\pao~iv A = Xdij/. no 
Xa6s for Xetos 145 
XaTpeveiv and SouXetyeu' 8 
XcLTpia 87 

Xeyeiv, r(f? in a 3 : X^- 
yuv -ovres without 
construction 23 : X^- 
yovres v. 1. for Xiovres 

"3 



Xe: N, X£kl X = X^yet 
113, 102 

Aei5(e)is and Aev(e)i 164 

Xijppa — Xeipp.a 84 

Xr;pL\pofiai etc. 108 f. 

Xt]v6s, 7? (and 6) 146 

Xi/3avos 35 

ALfiavos and 'AvriXtfi. 
166 f. n. 

Xidos, 6 in all senses 146 

\lpos, 6 and 77 146 

-Xipiirdvoj (Ionic) lion. 

\iXP<j)fi-evovs = XiK. 103 

X67011, 7rep2 in a 41 : 
X670S v. 1. for Xa6s 113 

Xoipaivea6ai = Xvp.. 94 

\oip.6s -7) as adj. "pesti- 
lent" 172 

XvKvia 103 

Xi/Tpweas = Xoirr. 92 

Xi/x"ot 155 

/x, effect of, on vowels 
84, 86, 97 : p. and /3 
(t) 106 f. : omission of 
1 j 4 : insertion of, be- 
fore labial 100, 108 ff. 

-p:a and -o~is, words in 79 

Ma/3oap(e)rTisMa5/3. 170 

~Ma8iav(e)iTijs, Mo.5lt)- 
vaios 171 

Madddv etc. 121 

Ma/ceStif, gentilic name 
declined, = Megiddo 
indecl. 102, 169 

paXicrra 185 

Map./3p7j in 

pdv, /jidvva 31 

p.avad, /xaavd, navdx etc. 

33 

Mavacro-rjs and indecl. -tj 

164 
p.av8pay6pas -yopos 1 57 : 

pi. p.avdpdyopes A 158 
pavduas 35 
paviaKt]S 35 n. 
p-dpewnros -lov 35, not 

papavwLOv 96 
p.apvKao'dai but prjpvKicr- 

p.6s 76 
Md<reK 33 
pacrdds 104 
p.dffTiyi; for -i| 115, 151 

20 



306 II. Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 



p.a.X al -P a -77s -7? 141 f. 
fieya\oTrp{Tr(e)ia 69 
yU^aXiVeiv, , c. inf. 54 
fieydXws = VjJD 38 
/x£yi.<TTos, lit. and elative 

185 
Meiawp 33^ 
Metx a ' as i G. -a and -of 

162 

jaepiSapx 7 ? 5 T 56 
Meppa, G. -as 168 
yiies N 190 

p.eaowwpQi' — -iropQiv 9 1 
yuera£i'>, substitute for 25 : 

written p.eroi;v in A 77 
P-eXPh Hebraic use of, in 

9 47 : p.exp<-{s) ov etc. 

136 
fj.T]deis and p.r]dds 58 ff. 
/x-qderepos 61 n. 
/atep6s,iuiepo<pa7eiVetC. 75 

fJLlKOS H 116 

fj.tuei-rifj.KTV 180 n. 9 
juca 35 

jUo7(-y)i\dAos 120 f. 
/j.ok\6s B 102 
p.6Xij3os, p.6Xi/38os, ,116X1;- 

jSos 96, i(6: f/.6\i/j.o$ 

106 
p.oXXoi' H = p.aXXov 77 
[mov uyevrjv A 176 
/xveXos but fxvaXovv 75 
jwies, /uiyas and /aDs 147 
(xvaepos 75 
Mwa/3(e)tr£S 170 
pu>p.os = DID 38 
Mwi«r?)s and Mu>o"7?s 

163 n. : two forms of 

declension of 163 f. 

v, effect on vowels of 
84, 86 : omission of 
114, 117: vv i<pe\i<v<T- 
tlkov 134 f., irrational 
final v 135, 143 f. 
(/3oppa»X = gen.), 146, 
216: doubling of, in 
verbs in -vw 225 f. 

vdfiXa 35 

Na7f/3 33 

va6s for vecis 145 

vdpdos 35 



paOs (lit. word) i>t)6s vijas 

152 
"4&X 33 
'Nee/xias, G. -a and -ov 

162 : Neeyiuos 161 n. 
veKpofxaiov in a' 3 
viorros, veoo~<x6s, voaabs 

etc. 98 
vedirepos ( = superl.) 181, 

-wraros 182 
vrjao-os 117, 120 
p<Vcos, rd and (lit.) 77 i/i'ktt. 

'57 

vlrpov (not Xirpor) 35 

vovfi-qvia and veo/x. 98 : 

vofnjvia A 91 
vovs, G. J'oos 160 
vvvi 191 
J'cDtos, vtDrot (and vwra) 

155 

£ for k 4- <r 130 : for 0- in 
tenses of verbs in -fw 
222 f. 

£oXo#pet5w, mod. Gr. 88 

0, mixture with a 77 : 
with e 87 ff. : with v 
(ov) 91 : with ot 93 : 
with w 89 ff., 194, 
198 f. (loss of aug. ) 

'0/35etotf 162 

6'5e, uses of 191 : o'ide, 
aide in Jer. /3 14, 37 

bSrjyelu -6s (not -07.) 76 

odvpeo-dat 97 

ot, interchanged with 1 

92 : with ei 92 : with 

093 : with u 93, 256: 
with 11 93 f. : for ov 
in X 244 : ot- loses 
aug. 200 

01701' A 10 1 
otSas, oi>x 1 25 
oiV^ttis 7 

OiflflOl, OflflOL 120 

-oti', inf. in 244 

oivo<ppvyeiv 107 

-oiaav 2 1 5 

of0(e)Z 32 

6k ox K for oy/c oi)x 91 

6da B 93 



6Xe0pos (not -oO.) 88 
oXiyos 126 f. : oXi'os, 

oXtoo"r6s, oXtoDe 112: 

6X1700T6S 185 
oXoXvfeiv -vyp.6% 37 
6Xoo~<p vpTjro s 141 
dp-dpeadat 97 
'Op.p.60 33 

bp.6e6vos A for -edvrjs 1 8 1 
o/xopa 4 n. 
ovetpot 155 
o£(e)?a for 6£^a 179 
d7rio"w, frireiv, in 47 
opeiov 87 
6p#os (opdifav) = opdp. 

116 
op/iTj, 6'p/xos 38 
opveov (opvidiov) replaces 

opz/ts 153 
6'pos and e'Xos, mixture 

of 107 : opewv 151 
-os, masc. and neut., 

interchange of nouns 

in 158 ff. 
Ss dv and 8s idv 65 ff. 
-oaav 209 ff. 
ocnrep, lit. 192 
6'crrts 192 
60-Tovv -To, but offreov 

etc. 144 
6<r<ppa<xia 76 
dffcpvas (-Os) 147 
Sri in adjurations 54 : 

on and 5i6ti 138 f. 
oi', interchanged with 

and oi 91 : with v 92 
ov e'iveKev replaces ovveica. 

82 
oval — ''Mi etc. 38 
ovdeis and oi)5ds 58 ff. , 

IOO, IO4: Olldkv y)TT0V 

= Heb. inf. abs. 47 
ovk and oi'x 125-129 : 
ovk idov and oi>x i-dov 
70, 125 f. 
QvXap.pa.vs, OvXap.ais 33 
-oCs, proper names in 
i64f. : declension -oOs 
-o&ros in papyri (not 
LXX) 165 n. : con- 
tracted adjectives in 
172 f. 



II Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 307 



011s, atroKaXvTTTeiv rb 43 

-ovcrav 214 

outuj(s) 136: ovtws direr 

Kvpios in Jer. /3 1 1 
6<p0a.\fx6s, Hebraic uses 

of 43 
6<f>pvas (-vs) 147 
oxj/o/xai, oi>x 125 
-ow, verbs in 244 

w, interchanged with /3 

105 f. : with <p 106 : 

with ytt 107: euphonic 

insertion of 1 1 o 

7ra7/s, 7rcm's = nQ 38, 102 

Tr&yos, 6 and rb 159 

irddfir} X, TT&0VT) X 

( = 0drj<i7) 106 
Trat.dioi> = irebiov 69, 78 
7rcus Kupiot; 7 f. 
7rct/ds : see 7ra7i's 
waXaiaTp-Q 1 4 ; 
■waXanbrepos -wraros 182 
irdXiv, Hebraic substi- 
tutes for 52 f. 
■jraWaKT) 35 

Traf-, compounds of 134 
Trdv8es = TrdvTes 103 
7rai/otip7ei/a> (not -e'w), 

-eup.a (v. 1. -7?m<x) 96 
IlafTOKparcup, Ki'pios 9 
irdi>Tus= Heb. inf. abs. 

47 

7rapd, c. ace. in com- 
parison 23 : c. dat. 
= " in the estimation 
of" rare 43 

1rapa.yiv0p.aL, as synonym 
for ipxop-aL 267 n. 

■Kappaaiv = warp. 132 

7ras tis, substitutes for 
45 : 7ras and aVas 
138 f. : trav = iravra 
173 ff. , iravra X = 
Trap 175 

iraoxa beside (pdcreK 32 

Trdrapxos = irarp. 116 

iraTp.wfia N 106 

-rrarpLapxris 156 

Trax"i (mod. Gr.) 106 n. 

7re\u£ for TreXeicus 153 

nevreKOVTa A 81 



irevres A^^dires 75 
7re7rTW/cc6s = -K6s 90 
■wepi, substitutes for 25 : 

irepi XaXids (X6701;) 

in a 41 
■wepLKVKKLp 25 
TrepiairSpia 4 
Trepicraios X 181 
weplxiopos rod 'lopddvov 

167 
weravpov -evpov 79 
STfai/J, Tr^xeos (-ews), 

ttt/xw" (-ew) 151 
Trteii' and ^(e)?!' 63 f. 
7ri(/u.)7r,\?7|iu, irL{ix)TrprjixL 

no 
7rtpt X = 7rept 84 
irXtiwv, TrXeicTTos 185 : 

irXeov 8 1 f. 
irXevpd and -6^ 157 
irXydweiv, c. inf. (or 

part.) for adverb 53 f. 
tt\t]6vs for 7r\?70os 153 
TrXr]/j.fj.e\ia (not -eta) 87 
wX-qpris, becoming in- 
declinable 176 f. 
TrXriaifTepov • ear. - 6t. 

182 
irXolov replaces paDs 152 
irXoOros, 6 (and rd) 159 
irXwipiOi w\6ip.os 90 n. 
wba, Troia 93 

TTOilV X 93 
TToXXoffTOS 185 

7roXus, nt. in A 7roXuv 1 8 1 

TroXvTeXrjv H 1 76 
Tro/ma 79 

troppw (not wpocru)) 123 
irbrepos replaced by rts 

192 
■jrpavs, TrpavTrjs (not -os 

-6x77s) 91, i8of. : 7rpa- 

oeaif N = 7rpaeu)^ 114 
irpealivTrjs and wpecr^ev- 

TTfjs 97 
TrpodcTTia 4 n. 
wpoifxos (not Trput/j.os) 90 

with n. 
7rpos ravra 44 : 7rpos c. 

dat. with numerals 

in 2 Mace. 188 
7rpo(T)7|eiand-^etv. 11. 81 



wpoffTidevai (-ridecrdai) 

vice irdXiv 52 f. 
Trpbardfia 1 30 
TrpbaiOTTOv, davfxd^eiv 

(Xa/j./3di>eiv etc.) 43 f. 
Trpbrepos for 7rp6 183 
Trpov<pdv7]o~av 138 
irpo<f>ddvei.v, construction 

with 54 
irpwLvbs (not ^poi^os) 90 

with n. 
irpuiTOS for irpbrepos 24, 

183: e'lKOOTOS 7TpU)T0S 

etc. 189: Trp&TOS </>£- 

Xos 37 
7TTt/eX(os) 75 
7rra)X'ct 87 

7rueu/ in papyri 93 n. 
ttvXois 157: irtiXet. and 

irvXeaiv A 158 
wvppbs 123 

p, assimilating effect of, 
on vowels 73 f., 76 
to, 78, 81, 84, 86, 
88, 97, 176, 219 : on 
consonants 106 n. : 
interchanged with X 
107 f. : omission of 
114, 116: reduplica- 
tion of, (pepi/j.fj.ei'os) 
204 f. : pp and p 1 i8f. : 
pp and per 123 f. 
-pa, nouns in 140 ff. 
pdjidos, b A 145 
'Pd7a and Pd7at 168 
'Vd6vnos= Rehum 161 11. 
'Pa/xd and 'App-aOdip. 168 
pdffo~co=dpdao~u) 76 
pdxis = p"l 38 
prjpia—l^l 41 
p7?r6s in Ex. 41 
pouiv= Rimmon 38 
pvTTos, b (and rb) 159 

<r, interchanged with £ 
108: omission of 1 14, 
117, in dXa> ace. plur. 
145: final j in oi/Tw(s) 
etc. 136: irrational 
final j 216 : insertion 
and omission of, in 



20 — 2 



308 //. Index of Greek Words and Forms (ef. § 24) 



pass, tenses 219 ff. : 

aa and tt 100, 121 ff. 

aafiaud, Kuptos 9, 33 

ao.fifia.Tov -ra, D. -tois 

and -aiv, aafi fjari^eiv 

35 

o-a/3^/c 33 

-cat, 2 sg. mid. term. 
217 f. 

G&KKOS 36 

ZaXwAtuii', ZaXoiiiiV, 

~o\o/j.wv, orthography 

and declension 161, 

165 f. _ 
Za/xap(e)rrts 1 70 
aap-fivKT) 36 
'Zafxipibv I IO 
Sai'aiido'O'apos 106 
<Ta7T7rt770S X = ca.\7r. 132 
cra7r06(pos 36 : caTnreipos 

121 
aapoLKOvra, Cod. E 63 n. 
o"dpa£ X 98 
Zapa7rieror -Treio:' 64 
2apa7ris, 2epa7rts 74 
o~apa<p(Lv X 76 
caiToi", (reaifroO 190 
2ai>xa'os, 2ai>X"">7S I7 1 
Za^^di', 2a<p</>t60 etc. 1 2 1 
2e0e>aas, G. ov and -a 

162 
2(e)i5tbv, declined 169 
Seiwy in Jer. /3 38 
uevrKlov 123 
'ZetprjXd 33 
2?;oa^€(V = Zidonians 

167 
arja/xaTi = cetcr/xart 84 
fftfivvri, j"t(3. etc. 108 
aidr/pias X 173 
<r/eXos -(few (not ciaXos) 

75 : 60". and rd aie\a 

155 
aiKepa 33 
Skiytta 33 » beside Sux^/* 

167 f. 
o-iicKos (not 0-47X05) 36 
CiKvqpaTOv -riXarov 107 
cntu'oaXi? AK = ere/x. 84 
civSuv 36 

(TipUVislV 36 

-ots and -,ua, nouns in 79 



o-?tos, otra 155 
o~K\ripvveiv, c. inf. 54 
ffKvlip 106 
(TKhpoov 99 

o-/c6tos, ro (not 6) 159 
afiapaydos 108 
crfiiplrris XWos 96 
crfxvpva 108 
Z65oMa, G. -aw 168 
SoXojUuie: see HaXu/Muiv 
?L.op.6r)\os — I.ap.ovr]\ 165 

n. 
—Ofiopuv , 2,ep.epd>i> — 

^.afj.ap(e)la 90, 167 
26p beside TVpos 167 
Sot'cacca -pt;s 161 
aireipa, G. -77s 141 f. 
07r6r5i'Xos X 106 
ordSioi' -ous 155 
aradpLoi (not -p-d) 155 
0-rd/u.eos, 6 146 
(TTacpis (not dor.) 97 
crdxi's (not do-r.) 97 : 

ace. pi. ordxvas and 

-us 147 
o-T?7p for o-re'ap 153 
ot//3i, o"ti/u etc. 107 
o-rix * ( not o"roTx-)' °" rt ' 

X'S*'" 9 2 
(TTOfxa, " Hebraic " 44 
(TTpartwu, Kvpios tuiv in 

a ' 9 

av and ffoi', interchange- 
able 94 

avyyevevai 153 

avKa/J-ivos 36 

o~VKO(pa,vTeTi> 38 

avfirras (ffiycTras) 133 
with n. 

ow, in a 3 : not ^vv 
108 : compounds of, 
assimilation in 133 f. 

aw ay brff)= ?Hp 14 
cw5otdo'co = -5i». 94 
awe fir), c. inf. 52 with n. 
avvOefxa -r//j.a 80 
awiivai eiri- © 47 
awKvpovvra 4 
cvarena -rjfxa 80 
c(pvpa -77s -77 1 41 
^w/jLWptbv 90 
(Twoi = ccjjcu 172 



2wpeu»=Tyrians 167 

r, omission of 1 14, 116: 

interchange of, with 5 

100, 103 f. : with 6 

104 : tt and aa 121 ff. 
Ta.de \iyei Kuptos in 

Jer. a 1 1 
raXa/xciv A 76 
Tapaewv and TOii^to? 

63 ff- 
Tapaxv and rdpaxos, 6 

and to 159 
rdoo-apas X 76 
-Taros, superlatives in 

182 f. 
ra(pvovv A = (paTvovv 106 
Taxiov and 6&ttov (not 

rax^ Te P 01 ') '84 
rax^ce"', C. inf. 54 
W70S 117 
Teixtw and -iSp 151: 

ri'xoi' A 160 
TeKT0ves= -as 149 
reXee?, reX^ws, rAetos 

-eioPj' 82 
tAos, els = Heb. inf. abs. 

47 
Tep.ivov A 160 
Tipfiivdos, Tepe/x., TepefH. 

106 f. 
TeaaapaKovTa, reaaepd- 

KovTa 62 f., 73 f. 
TeaaapiffKaiSeKaTOS 189 
Teaaepa etc. 62, 73 f. : 

Teaaapes = T^o^apcts 

73 f , 148 f. : Tiaaepas 

=Teaaapes 74 : dat. 

Tepaapaiv A , reaad- 

pois A, T^rpaaiv 160, 

187 
TeTe\evTrjKviy] 1 40 
reTpd7rec>os -ttoSos -ttovs 

88 with n. 
r^rpas and TerdpT-q 189 

with n. 
-rt for -^t 104 
TLfiwplav in Jer. /3 38 
tis, dj-Typ replaces 45 
ti's replaces TrSrepos 192 : 

Tlvav X 147 
toioOtos, nt.-oand-oi' 192 



II. Index of Greek Words and Forms (cf. § 24) 309 



t6kos=~\D 38 

rdXfi-n" 143 

TOirdi'iov = TQ 38 

T07rdpx?7S 156 
totovtos, nt. -0 and -ov 

192 
Toupcttos, 'Ir. 171 
rdxois B = roix- 93 
Tpapariou 79 
rpiaK&s 189 
rpifios, 77 and 6 146 

TpUTKaiOeKCLTOS 188 f. 
Ti; / u.7rayoi' = 5 , |n 38 
Ti';pos and Sop 167 
Tw/3(e)i'as, G. -a and -ou 

162 
Tai/3ets -««* 164 

i>, variety in pronuncia- 
tion of, in the KOivr/ 
92 n., 236 n. : inter- 
change with r? (e) 
96 f. : with tv 97 : 
with 91 : with ov 
92 : with oi 93 f. : 
loses asp. 129 

iiaXos 75 

-i)as zvVv -vs 147 

vyieia, vy(f)ia 63 f. 

irytjjfj') (not iryta) 176 

-Orjv replaces -vv 235 

m, tunpronounced in 141 

-via, -via, decl. of words 
in 1 40 f. 

vlos, Hebraic uses of 41 f. 

Vfx(ujv) olvt{Qiv) and vp.lv 
eavrois in Hex. 191 

-vvw, pf. pass, of verbs 
in 224 

virep for 7repi 25 : in 
comparison 181 

vvrepavw 2 5 

inrepde'ii> = inrepidelv 99 

vttok&tw 25 

vwbarepa -r)p.a 80 

VTroriddia 121 

inroxpeus 173 

-i/s, -lis, adjectives in 

i)(T(T£i;7ros, 6 and 17 146 
vurepos -tcltos, rare 184 



Ci^oi' X 160 
liw, v€Tifu) 262 

and 7r, interchange of 
106: <p<p for ir<p 121 

0aKos = '12 38 

(paXayi; and <pa.pa.yi;, 
mixture of 107 

(paX^rpas 108 

(papal; X 115 

(paaeK, (pdcnx 3 2 

(par/xovv, cpdrpwpa 106 

(pdrvrj etc. , various spell- 
ings of 106 

(peidecrdai eVi 47 

cpeveiv H — (p€vy€LV 1 13 

-(pddvuv, construction 54 

<pid\rj 75: plur. 0tdXes 
A 158 

(piXoreKVUTepos 182 

(pofitiadai. dtro 47 

cpoftTjdpov -rpov 104 

(pofios, oi'K 6 129 

(popfiea 82 

<f>p<n>pcu 38 

0i»\apxos and -apx??* 
156 

<pv\a<Tcrecrdai airb 46 : 
<pv\a.TTti.v in Jer. 7 
and 2 M. n, 123 

X, omission of 114, 116: 

XX for kx 121 
XaPpaOa 33 
Xd/3peis -etc 164 
Xa\Ke(t)os 173 
Xai/aecuos, Xacdy(e)ts 

-60% Xayacfe)/, Xavac- 



61T7?S 



164, 



Xaj'(a)ay(e)rTi? = Xa- 

I'dap 170 
Xaos = US) , J 38 
Xapa^es, x^ lK€S ^ v - U. 

107 
Xappav-rj, xa/3pdi'7j 107 f. 
Xaprjrt 1 04 
Xapis, X&P"' an< i X°-P LTa 

} 5° 

Xa.pp.eis -eiv 164 
XauuiJ', x av fi&i> 36 
XftX^w 151 



Xeip.appovs(xeip.appos) 144 

X^p, Hebraic and Greek 

uses of 44 f. : x e 'P as 

X = -pes 149: x €l P <T ' LV 

151: x'poi/s X = x^'po5 

159 

Xe\u>i'77=?3 38 

X.epp.eX 167 

Xepoi'^ -e^ (-«» 33 

XtXictSes and -as, inter- 
changeable in AX 
148 f. 

XtTC> 36 

XoPs" earth," G. x oos I0 ° 

XpiVeos 173 

XvOpa = xvTpa 103 

X^a 79 

XvrpoKavXos -yavXos 102 

Xpacrdai, xPV <T ^ al - 7^ 

XiSpat as plur. of 77} 143 

\p replaced by pip 108 
xyeKas for xpaKas 75 : 

\peX° L § wv io 3 
\peXtov 75 
i/-<6a, i/'L/a 93 
\pv5rjv X 176 
i/'i'X 7 ?, G.pl. i/'ux^X 143 

w interchanged with 
89 ff., 194, 198 f. 
(loss of aug.) : with 
op 91 : with 01 93, 256 

-w, fern, names in papyri 
in 165 n. 

wdiv, i) 151 

10/xois, £<p' 127 

-uv, personal names in, 
indecl. and gen. -Qvtos 
or -Givos 1 65 f. : place- 
names in, declinable 
and indecl. 169 

-cos, " Attic " declension 
in, obsolescent 144 f-, 

„ f 73 

-iocrav, -ooaav 214 1. 

L0T10V, OLTTOKaXviTTeiV t6 43 

wv in Muwr^s 163 n. 
tlxpeXia 87 



III. INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS 



GENESIS 

i- 3 239 

ii 234 

29*"- 174 

ii. 17+ 48 n. 

23 '44 

iii. 1 182 

20 163 n. 

v. 13 E 6311. 

24 200 

vii. 11 203 

12 E 6311. 

viii. 2 238 

6+ 203 

ix- 23 155 

xi. 10 41 

xiii. 9 126 

xiv. 13 171 n. 

14+ 188 

xv. 2 33 

15 M9 

xvi. 4f., 6 43 

9 286 

xvii. 6+ 261 

12, 27 42 

13 48 

xviii. 2 216 

4 290 

7 54 

10 48 

28 E 6311. 

29 53 

xix. 6 203, 278 

xxii. 5 91 

13 33 

16 f. 54 

xxiv. 15 + 238 

57+ 44 

xxv. 1 4- 52 

xxvi. 18 53 

xxvii. 27 177 

40 141 

43+ 264 



xxvin. 19 33 

xxix. 3 248 

6 + 41 

35 16311. 

xxx. 15 157 

21 161 n. 

32 ff. 15211. 

. 3 8 > 41 '46 

xxxi. 26 54 

39 22 5 

42 A 97 n. 

xxxii. 10 218 

... 12 47 

xxxiii. 8 A 43 

xxxiv. 19 182 

26 A 161 n. 

30 185 

xxxv. 8 183 

16 33 

xxxvi. 24 33 

xxxvii. 3 149 

10 199 

xxxviii. 9 52 

1 7 ff. 119 

xl. 5 I9 2 

15 48 

xh. 7, 24 147 

13+ 52n. 

13 ff. 181 

19 184 

20 183 

54 '43 

xlii. 10 A 283 

16 54, 83 

xliii. 4 91 

7 + ... 44,48,216 
xliv. 5 286 

16 91 

20 149 

xlvi. 4 47 

xlvii. 5 217 

xlviii. 7, 22 33 

10 149 



xlviii. 22 141 

xlix. 7 A 28511. 

21 1 18 

22 182 

EXODUS 

i- 1 213 

"• 3 ff - 34. 150 

14 A 97 n. 

22 34 

iii. 2 ff. 145 

16+ 280, 285 

iv. 6 A 164 n. 

8 183 

v- 3 A 231 

3 F 20811. 

13 A 250 

22 A 216 

vii. 14 261 

19+ 150 

viii. 6 A 146 

8 91 

12 41 

16 ff. 106 

21, 24 140 

ix. 4+ 41 

14 137 

15 44 

18 262 

28 239 

x. 14 183 

xii. 5 152 n. 

8+ 231 

16 A 272 

19 34 

22 154 

43 42 

44 B 175 

xiii- 15 54 

xiv. 13 A 225 

14 232 

xv. 1 47 

9 141 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



3ii 



XV. 22 200 

23 i68n. 

xvi. 4 41, 262 

..33 H6, 177 

xvii. 14 B 165 

xviii. 7 41 

xix. 16, 19 239 

xxi. 13 128 

21 234, 261 

xxii. 6 147 

8,11 83 

29 288 

xxiii. 4 48 

5 9° 

19 128 

20 66 

xxvi. 7 A 284 

33 183 

xxvii. 5+ 1 Son. 

20 B 272 

xxviii. 17 129 

21+ 188 

2 3 + 257 

28+ 224 

35 B+ ... 103 

37 44 

xxix. 1 42 

9 269 

23 255 

27 202 

43 ^86 

XXX. 32 221 

xxxi. 15 A 35 

17 280 

xxxii. 32 251 

. 34 285 

xxxiii. 10 253 

13 '93 n - 

xxxiv. 18 231 

23 A 1 3811. 

24 66 n. 

xxxv. 5 191 

25 277 

LEVITICUS 

i. 10+ 152 n. 

ii. 2 177 

'3 152 

">■ 9 93 

v. 8 106 

vi. 5 27411. 



vi- 37+ T 3 6 

vii. 8 48 

viii. 4 207 

ix. 2 210 

x. 16 48 

xi. 21 183 

26 76 

xii. 5 B 272 

xiii. 7+ 48 

15 176 

41 ff. 104 

55 223 

55 A 243 

xiv. 16 A 283 

xv. 2+ 46 

12 237 

xvi. 2+ 183 

23 ... 94,197,205 

xviii. 3+ 200 

xix. 13 128, 230 

15 44> 232 

19 224 

36 154 

xx. 10 276 

xxi. 11 140 

xxiii. 5 40 

40 104 

xxiv. 19+ 255 

xxv. 10 232 

23 282 

27 192 

33 131 

34 4» i?2n. 

, 5 1 44 

xxvi. 9 232, 261 

16 160 

xxvii. 12, 14 ... 254 

28+ 66 n. 

NUMBERS 

i. 18 267 

ii- 4 285 

iii- 3+ 20511. 

16 44 

37+ M5 

iv- 49 137 

v. 19, 28 172 

vi. 6 140 

21 44 

vii. 20+ 177 

ix. 20 39 



ix. 22 40 

x. 35 28511. 

xi- 5 99 

8 259 

xii. 144- 48 

... 15 A 74 

xiii. 20 172 

xiv. 14 280 

23 83, 125 

xv. 5 192 

.20 137 

xvi. 22 145 

4 1 274 

46 210 

xx. 5 A 285 

14 217 

xxi. 1,34- 164 

9 24211. 

24 141 

xxii. 6+ 208 

17 47 

22 197 

28 287 

xxiv. 1 40 

11 219 

13 A 177 

22 B 98 

xxv. 3, 5 286 

13 J 72n. 

J 5 33 

xxvi. 53 276 

xxxi. 30 180 n. 

46 B+ 188 

xxxii. 13 88 

33 i8on. 

34, 37 ... 200 

xxxiv. 5 A 144 

xxxv. 2-7 411. 

. 33 271 

xxxvi. 6 43 

DEUTERONOMY 

i- 1 173 

7+ i66n. 

24 213 

» : 25 14911. 

iii. 13 i8on. 

iv. 25 43 

32 259 

35+ 278 

vii. 23 A 230 



312 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



IX. 2 2 7» 

10 A 206 

x. iff. 183 

8 + 253 

xi. 7 212 

3° I2 5 

xii. 2 179 

8, 25 43 

xiii. 5+ 191 

xiv. 8 76 

20 128 

21 B 125 

xv. 8 B 243 

10 48, 243 

18 125 

xvii. 6 44, 135 

11 44 

...15 A 2+8 

xviii. 3 81 

10 271 

xix. 9 190 

15 44 

xx. 74- 205 

20+ 217 

xxi. 3f.... 128 B, 26711. 

5 253 

7 B 128 

8 271 

n B 1 90 

13 39. 2 72 

14 48 

20 B 107 

23 208 

xxii. 6 160 

9 99 

xxiii. 8 239 

15 255 

17 228 

24 J 47 

xxiv. 3 184 

13 48 

XXV. 2 42, 27I 

l8 242 

xxvi. 13 271 

15B 125 

xxviii. 1 39 

39 218 

48 8 

50 232 

56 261 

66 220 



xxix. 16 200 

18 289 

26 235 

xxx. 1, 3 285 n. 

. 9 53 

xxxi. 16 218 

i? 214 

27, 29 184 

28 156 

xxxii. 5 214 

6 136 

10 142, 200 

28 279 

29 258 

34 125 

37 i9 6 

.. 43 26+ 

xxxiii. 6 39 

9 ... 128, 204 

16 145 

xxxiv. 5 7 

JOSHUA 

i.44- i66n. 

ii. 14 25611. 

iii- 4 '37 

iv. 14 242 n. 

v - 4 271 

5 170 

10 A 157 

vi. 4^ 234 

10 232 

18 191 

22 A+ 186 

22 B 135 

vii. 21 B 36 

viii. 7. 9 1 s^ 

18 154 

ix. 3 200 

6 17011. 

20 44 

3' 43 

x. 1 B, 4 B 200 

14 184 

40 212 

xiv. 4 4 

6 217 

10 18911. 

xv. 11 A 16911. 

60 1 7011. 

xvii. 13 B 47 



xvii. 15, 18 271 

xviii. 12 176 

244- 188 

xxi. 2-42 4 

i8ff. 14811. 

xxii. 7 A 180 n. 

20 125 

26, 28 128 

...3i "9 

xxiii. 4 192, 284 

13 102 

XXW.33A 237 

JUDGES 

i. 10 118 

16 B 1 6411. 

35B+ 151 

»• 11 43 

iii. 7 43, 216A 

194-... 225 A, 253 B 

25 150 

29B 174 

iv- 9 49 

16 24 

22 B + ... 119, 204 

v - 3+ 55. 231 

13B 84 

20 A 283 

29 239 

vi. 3 B 212 

17 43 

18 55, 272 B 

28 B 202 

30 B 4- 210 

..38 282 

vii. 3 B i49n. 

4B 175, 271 

7A 110 

12 A 197 

13 B 199 

21 B 255 

viii. 1 B 240 

3 B 201 

7B 33 

26 36 

28B4- 53 

ix. 9 ff. B 234 

'5 B 19311. 

26 A 225 

34B 187 

36B 262 



///. Index of Biblical Quotations 



313 



ix. 45 1 f> 2 

x. 10B 34 

16B 112 

xi. 20B 233 

25B + 184 

33B 136 

35 A ... 182, 208 n. 

35 B ... 159. 2 S6 

xii. 5 A 52 

xiii. 10 280 

xiv. 6 6t 

12, 13 36 

14 B 226 

17 B 208 

xv. 5 147 A, 236 B 

8A 101 

13A 186 

xvi. 9 B 285 

20+ 40 

21 ... 173B, 259 
26B ... 223, 225 
28B+ 145 

30 B 222 

xvii. 8ff. B 162 

xviii. 3B4- 25811. 

9 A 208 

15 ... 40 B, 41 A 

22 275 

22 A... 206, 273 

24 273 

27B 125 

29B 33 

xix. 9 A 4- 272 

26B 288 

28A 197 

30 B 204 

xx. 2 B 254 

28 253 

31 B, 39 B ■•• 287 

32 B 183 

34B 289 

xxi. 17 A 221 

2i A 230 

RUTH 

i. 13 238, 268 

ii- 2+ 43 

9 218, 241 

14 218 

16 222 

iii. 2 256 



iii. 10 18411. 

iv- 4 43 

7 175 

1 KINGDOMS 

i. 2, 4 T43 

12 + 54, 282 

16 172 

18+ 43 

28 249 

ii. 8 247 

14B 103 

27 49 

iii. 10+ 40 

14+ 271 

iv. 5 2 5 

12 283 

v. 1 25 

4 33. 38 

4A 102 

5 A 101 

6 235 

9 x 59 

vi. iff. 147 

18 A 255 

21 286 

viii. 3 A 212 

7 B io 5 

ix. 2 181 

15+ 43 

24 255 

x. 4+ 40 

5B 35 

xi. 8B+ ... 175, 285 

11 A 288 

xii. 3 282 

xiii. 4 287 

xiv. 30 226 

36A 2S8 

47 38 

xv. 12 253 

23 B 37 

35 240 

xvi. 11 181 

20 32 

xvii. 4 151 n. 

5 265 

33A 241 

39 220 

43 185, 186 

xix. 6 54 



xx. 3 54 

26 275 

42 89, 205 

xxi. 13 7511., 155 

xxii. 23 A 206 

xxiii. 1 145 

7 A 220 

13 221 

21 218 

22 96 

23 A 227 

xxiv. 4 183 

12 274 

xxv. 15 f. 256 

18 3 2 

20 140, 212 A 

21 289 

xxvi. 16 42 

19 223 

xxvii. 7 40 

xxviii. 2 136 

xxx. 12 197 

xxxi. 9 268 

2 KINGDOMS 
i. 2 A 283 

3 221 

6 49, 156 

10 157. 278 

18 178 

21 ... 221 n. A, 261 

ii. 13 A 213 

26 A 216 

29 212 

30 28411. 

iii. 13 217 

22 212 

25 <38 

29 122 

39 2 56 

iv. 1 201 

6 222, 271 

n 274 

v. 2+ 217 

21 213, 227 

vi. 3 212 

8 192 

14 265 

19 37 

.«> 49 

vii. 10 42 



3H 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



vn. 25 145 

27 43 

viii. 7 166 

10 40 

ix. 7 218 

x- 3 43> 235 

xi. 2 275 n. 

7 4° 

20 A 267 n. 

xii. 3 61 

, 5 42 

xiii. 6, 8 92 

10 210 

13+ 217 

15 B 18411. 

xiv. 2 f . 217 

" 53 

14 20411. 

16 231 

22+ 43 

26 52 

30 283 

xv. 14 141 

23 169 n. 

32 37> 283 

xvi. 13 160 

14 A 212 

xvii. 8 B 7811. 

19 221 

28 156 

29 121 

xviii. 3 49, 217 

11 197 

18 45 

I9» 3i 268 

19, 22 232 n. 

23 i 6 7 

33 54 

xix. 3 54 

6 ... 212 A, 24211. 

42 49 

xx- 3 39 

15 213 

18 49 

20+ 38 

xxii. 3 281 

5 269 

16 37 

27 217, 285A 

40 248 

xxiii. 20 185 



xxiii. 25 ff. 171 

xxiv. 1 237 

22 210 

31, 25. ..220, 238 

3 KINGDOMS 

i. 13 272 

ii- 1 239 

3 i 6 4n- 

8 A 242 

13 40 

26 3 

28 272 

.. 46 e 153 

iii. 4 182 

18+ 61 

iv. 7 5011. 

19 A 157 

20 A 226 

21 A, 23 153 

32 B 164 

v. 4 281 

14 B 149 n. 

vi. 2 154 

'12 A 259 

13 266 

18 39 

.33 221 

vii. 24, 29 102 

... 3i» 35 150 

viii. 1 3 

8 280 

11 225 

32 A + 90 

33 240 

37 B 175 

41 A 135 

50 A 213 

53 B ... 70, 125 

54 A 152 

ix. 5 A 102 

15 3 

25 A 190 

x. 3 204 

8 A 225 

13 i97 

21 A 206 

23 183 

xi- 3+ 149 

11, 31 247 

14 B 167 



xi. 19 A 186 

29 B+ 78 n. 

38 3 

43B son. 

xii. 4 87, 179 

4 A 155 

18 289 

24TB ... 115, 151 

xiii. 26, 29 3 

xiv. 1-20 3 

2 A 241 

4 A 149 

6 A 218 

8 A 157 

14 f. A 287 

xv. 6 A 77 

13 38 

22 175 

xvi. 9 i8on. 

23 189 

24 167, 186 

28c B... 70, 125 

.33 53 

xvii. 4 218 

12 A+ no 

16 199 

xviii. 2 B 146 

18 227 

1 9 f . 171 

32+ 37 

43 <"• i3 6 

45 272 

xx. 18 A 206 

xxi. 15 175 

22 258 

23 84 n. 

23, 25 178 

32 255 

38 ... 76 A, 264 

xxii. 10 A 158 

31... 135 B, 186 A 

35 225 

47-5o 3 

49 A 152 

4 KINGDOMS 

i. 18a 188 

ii. 8 235 

10 54 

12 A 125 

19+ 262 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



315 



u. 25 + 171 

iii. 10 A 206 n. 

18 B 172 

iv. 3 B 112 

26 40 

27 204 

32 A 273 

v. 7 51 

" 47 

H I3 6 

J 7 32 

19 33 

vi- 7 275 

20 A+ 209 

3° 5i 

vii. 2, 19 218 

6 148 

18 A 158 

viii. 1 A 272 

10, 14 49 

ix. 24 44 

27 A 102 

30 107 

34 209 

x. 19+ 45. 284 

27 92 

xi. 3 227 

10 B, 15 B ... 156 n. 

xii. 4 3 

8B 37 

15 250 

xiii. 7 A 149 

23 200 

xiv. 9 157 

M 4 2 

xv. 19 A 157 

20 174 

xvi. 9 3 

17 39 

18 154 

xvii. 7 52 

9 75 

'4 3 

20 f. 200 

xviii. 17 101 

19 281 

3° 125 

32 232 

35 143 

37 283 

xix. 4 B 84 



xix. 11 143, 238 

21 B 105 

29 A 218 

37 IIin - 

xx. 13 200 

xxi. 6 53 

7 A 132 

13 153' 155 n- 

14+ 204 

16 A 181 

xxii. 3+ 121 

12 162 

xxiii. 18 ... 45, 238 

30 102 

xxiv. 14 175 

16 B 103 

17 121 

xxv. 4 A 151 

9 3- 175 

1 CHRONICLES 

iv- 21 f. 33 

v. 10 B 151 

19 171 11. 

vi. 634- 188 

71 A 180 

x- 13 239 

xi- 19 3 8 

xii. 36 A 1 49 

xv. 3 207 

21 33 

xvi. 32 B 132 

.. 43 J 38 

xvii. 9 42 

10 138, 261 

...25 43 

xviii. 10 40 

xix. 3 43, 235 

xx. 1 258 

xxi. 15 199, 25311. 

20 A 227 

26 260 

xxiii. 17 261 

25 281 

xxiv. 17 189 

xxv. 5 A 149 

28 189 

xxvi. 27 288 

xxvii. 1 175 

21 180 

33 37 



xxviii. 9 B...115, 234 
xxix. 11 ... 94, 157 

23 268 

28 149 

29 184 

2 CHRONICLES 

v. 2 207 

11 52 

vi. 7 5011. 

28. .; 175 

30 270 

vii. 10 189 

ix. 20 61 

x. 11 B + ... 115, 151 

xiv. 6+ 281 

xvii. 9 B 95 

xviii. 7 137 

34 234, 266 

xix. 3 200 

11 175 

xx. 15 191 

37 B 198 

xxi. 8 190 

17 182 

..19 40 

xxiii. 2 B 149 

11 157 

xxiv. 24 26711. 

xxv. 18 34 

19 258 

24 42 

26 125 

xxvi. 3+ 41 

15 54- 262 

21 B 117 

xxvii. 5 250 

xxviii. 9 288 

22 53 

xxix. 3 203 

24 271 

35+ ... 104, 199 

xxx. 15 189 

xxxi. 7 154 

15 B 165 n. 

xxxii. 31 B 97 

xxxiii. 1 188 

3 53 

6+ 54 

xxxiv. 11 88 n. 

20 162 



316 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



xxxv. 3 61 

i ESDRAS 

i. 7 A 148 

30B 77 

38 173 

46 126 

53 B 82 

»• 4 223 

6 255 

7 254 

n 106 

16 161 n. 

18 99, 288 

21 237 

"i. 5+ 46, 103 B 

7 271 

iv. 7> 50 251 

30 250 

3 1 B 79 

3 2 > 34 127 

40. 43 157 

42 186 

45 B 199 

49 B 114 

v. 8 A 16511. 

16 B, 484- ... i6 4 n. 
28 B 164 

46 B 117 

70 B 114 

vi. i] 199 

19 154 

22 B 197 

26 156 

33 B 114 

viii. 35+ 188 

45 237 

58> 9 2 !5 6 

63 138 

70 283 

ix. 14 164 

2 ESDRAS 

i- " B4- 93 

ii. 2 B 161 n. 

6, 18 188 

l 5> 64 74 

36+ 165 

69 36 

iii. 74- 167, 210 

13 273 



iv. 10+ 167 

12+ 154 

17 249 

24 242 

v. 3 192 

8B 93 

vi. 9 152 

18 87 

20 B 74 

vii. 1 162 

12 197 

17 174 

20 288 

284- 233 

viii- 27 A 173 

30 210 

ix. 1 ...164, 167, 171 n. 

5 247 

8 223 n. 

144- 55 

x. 1 209 

2 207, 262 n. 

13 54 

xi. 2 B 237 

3 202 

7 K 209 

xii. 4, 17 209 

13 r 3° 

xiii. 28 183 

xv. 15 A 63 n. 

xvi. 9X 149 

xvii. 2 34 

3 •••37. 94- 

224, 236, 244 N 

65 229 

67 N 6311. 

xviii. 4 162, 254 

15 179- 2I ° 

xix. 1 189 

10 A 216 

11 B 119 

20 f. 288 

22 B 148 

30 A ......... 201 

32 B 1 12 

34 206 

38 '35 

xx. 31 230 

xxii. 44 253 

xxiii. 15 149 

19 2 36 



xxiii. 25 208 n., 260 

3i 34 

PSALMS 

ii. 1 289 

v. 8 15811. 

vii. 144- 201 

ix. 74- 15911. 

29 156 

.31 232 

xiii. 34- 82 

xv. 8 204 

xvi. 8 142 

xvii. 27 285 

30 238 

404- 248 

xviii. 11+ 38 

xx 68 

12 255 

xxi. 324- 287 

xxiv. 8 A 1 7811. 

xxvii. 24- 243 

7 262 

xxviii. 10 273 

xxx. 23 120 

xxxi. 1 201 

xxxii. 10 247 

xxxiii. 34- 219 

xxxvi. 21 250 

xxxvii. 8 93 

xxxviii. io 94 

xl- 3 2 56 

12 205 

xliii. 64-... 105, 248 

xlviii. 12 143 

1. 9 283 

li. 3 218 

liv. 124- 38 

lix. 34- 200 

7+ 238 

lxiv. 4 198 

10+ 54 

Ixv. 15 7511. 

Ixvii. 25 270 

32 289 

Ixviii. 5 225 

Ixx. 9, 18 150 

lxxvi 68 

lxxvii. 11 ... 89, 216 

23 203 

64 210 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



317 



lxxviii. 11+ ... 42 

lxxix. 14 ...224, 235 

1XXX. 2 35 

lxxxi. 2 44 

lxxxii. 11 199 

lxxxiii. 12 15811. 

lxxxvi. 1 + 154 

lxxxvii. 17 289 

xci. 15 149 

xciii. tit 18911. 

13 237 

xciv. 10 63 n. 

ci. 12 238 

20 X 160 

ciii. 5 238 

17 A 76 

3i 257 

civ. 30 201, 267 

43 B+ 101 

cv. 13+ 216 

28 286 

cviii. 23 A 200 

cix. 4 240 

cxi. 5 249 

cxviii. 51 207 

53 "7 

i°3 179 

112 A no 

127 38 

131 201 

166 241 

cxx. 3 f . 222 

cxxi. 2+ 253 

cxxiii. 4 144 

cxxv. 2 54 

cxxxi. 12 271 

cxxxvii. 7+ 232 

cxxxviii. 15 [83 

16 263 

20 150 

cxl. 4 94 

cxlvii. 7 232 

cli. 6 260 

PROVERBS 

i. 1 166 

iii. 5 281 

14 122 

16 a+ 158 n. 

28+ 257 

v. 19 85, 185 



vi. 3 207 

6 25711. 

.25 236 

vii. 2 232 

10 282 

11 128 

16 156, 286 

...22 154 

viii. 19 38 

ix. ii 232 

r8 79 

x. 13 137 

.. 17B 115 

xii. 14 A 101 

xiii. 4+ 173 

" 249 

14 27011. 

xiv. 5X 272 

.34 '22 

xvi. 23 219 

30 A 28011. 

xviii. 4 85 

16 272 

2D4- 249 

.. 23+ 94 

xxii. 8 229 

15 260 

xxiii. 1 + 47 

21 283 

2 4 47 

xxiv. 11+ 274 

'4 240 

16 136 

21 ... 61 n., 192 

22 a 47n. 

54 152 

XXV. I 166 

21 242 

23 143 

xxvi. 8 250 

l 9 279 

xxvii. 7 179 

. 25 93. 243 

xx viii. 15 A 160 

xxix. 42 36 

ECCLESIASTES 

»-7 53 

. J 4 I33»»- 

ii. 6 226 

18 251 



111. 18+ 41 

19 281 

20 160 

iv. 2 27011. 

v - 5 234 

n 251 

14 53. 269 n. 

vii. 16 A 246 

23 b 190 

viii. 10 219 

14 A 226 

ix. 18 230 

xi. 4 229 

xii- 3f- 259 

5 158 

SONG 

i-4 232 

ii. 12 289 

15 282 

iii. 8 158 

v - 2 75 n-» 259 

12 220 

13 A 158 

vii. 2 28S 

i3 I57f- 

JOB 

ii- 3 A 163 

9 A 136 

u 171 

iii. 5+ 260 

. 21 97 

iv. 64- 129 

v. 4 122 

vi. 10 A 199 

12+ 173 

'4+ 27511. 

'5+ 182 

vii. 2 287 

6+ 182 

(?©)7 53 

viii. 1 171 

ix. 33 A 92, 187 

x. 15 A no 

16+ 279 

20 126 

xi. 18 281 

xii. 6 A 28011. 

18 272 

xiii. 10 47 



3i8 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



xiii. 15 + 83 

20 92, 187 

27 A 216 

xiv. 17 223 

xv. 35 A 131 

xvii. 9 12 47 

xviii. 7+ ... 215, 286 

8 236, 266 

xix. 16 243 

H K -•• 1/3 

xx. 7 278 

©9 + 53 

xxi. 3, 5 232 

2 4 75"-- 177 

xxii. 3 A 256 

14 280 

e 16 154 

xxiii. 3 A, 5 ... 240,263 
xxiv. 6 201 

8 75n. 

617 159 

2 5 249 

xxvi. 0i 47 

e 7 ... 143, 227 

7- 9 2 47 

9 A 284 

xxvii. 1 + 52 

2 136 

5+ 223 

7 248 

8 21 C non. 

9 22 119 

xxviii. 9 16, 19... 261 

917(19)7511., 126 

9 18 276 

xxix. 2 A 123 

3 260 

14+ ... 75, 197 
18 232 

© 19 2 77 

xxx. 8 284 

.3° 38 

xxxi. 9 1 47 

6 A 24711. 

24 225 

32 A 200 

35 A 198 

4° A 19311. 

xxxii. 7 129 

9 12 47 

19 283 



xxxiii. 5 f . ... 137 

. 631 55 

xxxiv. 11 250 

9 32... 53,201 

xxxvi. 5 115 

9 8... 238, 268 

9 21 47 

xxxvii. 10 159 

12 183 

xxxviii. 4. ..217, 256 
9 26. ..129, 262 

xxxix. 2 177 

9 4 118 

68 47 

(?©) 2 7 272 

3° 2 53 

© 3' 2 39 

xl. 2 239 

5 75 

6 175 

18 240 

27 A 114 

xli. 6 96 

8 46 

9 A 288 

.14 243 

xlii. 8 44 

i7e 171 

WISDOM 

i. 8+ 62 

14 157 

ii. 3 221 

22 X 143 

iii- 2 + 43. 2 53 

11 91 

iv. 7+ 289 

9 J 49 

11 222 

19 J 37 

v. 11 282 

16 157 

17 K 15811. 

23 A 132 

vi. 8 128 

viii. 18 257 

ix. 13 240 

17 137 

x. 7 K 140 

xi. 4, 8 157 n - 

9 220 



xi. 14, 18 103 

2 3 2 4 2 

xii. 11 209 

19 2 5° 

2 3 2 34 

xiii. 9 184, 192 

14 224 

xiv. 5 185 

xv. 13 79 

xvi. 18 B 85 

19 118 

21 272 

28 A 226 

xvii. 4 A 123 

9 289 

15 78 

21 281 n. 

xviii. 2 226 

4 198 

16 197 

19 155 

SIRACH 

prol. isf., 590., 91, 264 
i. 6-r 96 

ii. 14+ 279 

iii. 12 + 149 

15 X 260 

16 209 

17 176 

iv. 3 199. 2g o 

. 2 5 r°4 

vi. 2, 25 222 

3 2 3° 

7, 19 218 

3°+ 173 

vii. 36+ 231 

ix. 10 126 

17 219 

x. 18 118 

xi. 1 271 

5 2I 9 

11 + 192, 288 

xiii. 5 218 

10 248 

22 286 

xiv. iS 179 

xv. 2 231 

4 22 3. 2 3 8 

20 A 255 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



319 



xvi. 7 A 271 

12 A 27411. 

13 288 

17 276 

20+ 240 

23+ 122 n. 

xvii. 3 127 

22 N 143 

xviii. 17 125 

xix. 13+ 53 

26 177 

xx. 7 232 

9 A 9i 

12 225 

xxi. 27 163 

xxii. 4 172 

7 A 179 

n 126 

14 A 106 

18 107 

21+ 125 

xxiii. 4 145 

11 N 151 

21 282 

27 122 

xxiv. 22 128, 231 

xxv. 6B 114 

xxvi. 17 B 103 

xxvii. 4 84 

5 **+ 265 

_ 24 199 

xxviii. 1 49, 229 

11+ 243 

15 219 

19 128 

20 173 

23 94 

xxix. 4 277 

6 229 

xxx. 25 289 

.38 281 

xxxi. 10 221 

xxxii. 24 X 256 

xxxiv. 1 + 247 

21 91 

22 105 

274- 122, 126 

xxxvi. 19 76 

26 ... 123, 151 X 

xxxvii. 2 257 

xxxviii. 7 175 



xxxvni. 13 91 

28. .91, 141,231 

xxxix. 26 A 152 

xl. 28 234, 261 

xlii. 8 173 

16 177 

21 122 

xliii. 14 203 

16, 20 232 

17 282 

17. 20 143 

26 91 

xliv. 23 186, 188 

xlv. 9 185 

23 255 

xlvi. 7 164 n. 

9 149 

20 207 

xlvii. 9 r 59 n - 

xlix. 11 130 

1- 7 9 1 

12 25311. 

16 234 

18 185 

li- 5 B r 59 

•9 275 

ESTHER 

A. 7 159 

11 X 263 

i. 6 280 

15 237 

19 122 

ii. 9 B 91 

i'i- 13+ 77 

B. 5 B 119 

iv. 4 A 250 

11 A 183 

C. 14 243 

21 24011. 

D- 6 197, 265 

vii. 3 "3 

8 197 

viii. 3 52 

4 253 

E. 7 A 182 

7- 11 192 

12 197 A, 219 K 

v "i- 15 37 

ix. 6 38 

25 233 



ix. 27 255 

30 6 4 n. 

F- 3 235 

JUDITH 

i. 4K 266 

15 Io8 

ii. 5 N 148 

5+ 188 

13 275 

v. 18 85, 126 

vi. 13 234 

15+ 164 

vii. 10 212 

14- 25 286 

viii. 12 255 

23 87 

24 223 

ix. 1 + 197 

3 240 

6 172 

14 278 

x. 6 128, 164 

10 X 242 

xi. 3 N 234 

8 96 

ro, 16 264 

224- 239 

xii. 8 243 

xiii. 5 221 

9 126 

xiv. 3 J 35 

5 263 

6 162 

15 X 202 

xvi. 8 264 

10A 143 

TOBIT 

i. 6+ 25 

15 B 207 

17 B 119, 204 

19 N 234 

20. ..143, 162 N, 222 

ii- 3 244 

10 B 120, 203 

13 A 273 

iii. 12 N 262 

18 220 

iv. 13 82 

18 172 



320 



///. Index of Biblical Quotations 



iv. 19 K+ 183 

v. 3 S 192 

5 25, 217 N 

15 2 4 

19 28911. 

vi. 13.. .16411. K, 219 B 

18 A i97 

vii. 1 iff. 16411., 25411. B 

viii. 12 209 

ix. 3 205 

6 280 

x. 2 K 238 

7 227 

IO i8on. 

xi. 2 B 216 

8 K 232 

13 K *9 2 

19 B 162 

xii. 3 176 

6B 244 

19 280 

22B 199 

xiii. 13 '°4 

16 99 N, 121 B 

xiv. 2 K 83 

4 2 37 

5 l8 3 

HOSEA 

ii. 18 125 

iii. 2 3 2 

iv. 14+ 276, 28611. 

16 200, 279 

v. 1 102, 170 

14 230 

vii. 1 201 

viii. 5 J 99 

ix. 10 A 90 n- 

xi. 11 28211. 

12 272 

xii. 11 38 

xiii. 6 89, 216 

7 76 

xiv. 1 B 121 

8 271 



'• 3 



AMOS 

286 

9A+ 187 

iii. 11 222 

12 37 



iv. 4 54 

v . 2 286 

vi. 10 229 

viii. 3 106B, 232 

11, 13 157 n - 

ix. 1 25311. 

iA 237 

3 2 34 

8 47 



MICAH 

i.6 

iv- 3 

v. 2 

vi. 14 

16 

vii. n 

12B 



38 
108 
130 
218 
109 
94 
85 



JOEL 

i. 20+ 37 

ii. 21 54 

iii. 12 271 



OBADIAH 



1. 2 
11 



ii. 4K 
ix. 6 ff. 

7 •■• 



JONAH 



39 

256 



190 
104 
143 



NAHUM 

i. 4 J 99 

^NA i33 n - 

11 K 130 

ii. 7 94 



8 A . 

11 S . 

iii. 17.... 

19 X. 



75: 



226 
221 

159 

147 



HABAKKUK 



i. 14 ^ 
ii. 5 ... 
/A 
111. 3 .. 



i47 
279 
101 

179 



ZEPHANIAH 



i. 4B i47 

18+ 158"- 

ii. 9 230 

14 106 

iii. 2 A 225 



HAGGAI 



11. 9 



1 8411. 



ZECHARIAH 

i. 3K 102 

11+ 25311. 

14, 17 2 34 

16 232 

18B+ 73". 

20N 149 

21 202 

ii. 2 192 

8 143 

13 266 

iii. 2 125, 221 

iv. 7 + 15° 

10+ 290 

13^ '-? 

v. 2 15m. 

7 X 116 

vi. 6 104 

13 2 7 2 

viii. 2 244 

x. 3 x 99 

xi. 3 9° 

7 J 7° 

12 27511. 

16 227 

xii. 11 38 

xiii. 2 X 88 n. 

xiv. 4 38 



MALACHI 



6 17211. 



1. 4 

8f. + 

ii- 3 - 

12 X 

..IS* 

iii. 2 

3 228, 2 30 A, 271 

7B 114 

14 81 



53 

44 
81 

130 

242 

93 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



321 



ISAIAH 

i. 8 107 

17 B 1 14 

25 230 

26 A+ 90 

•29 240 

ii. 4 108, 109 

13 B 114 

15 ** '75 

v - 1 42- 231 

6 B 117 

22 246 

27 222 

28 179 

29 f. 212, 232 

«• 2 135 

3 f 225 

5 I3 1 

9 2 3i f- 

vii. 3 10 r 

9 167 

22 1S5 

viii. 14+ 281 

2 1 146 

x. 3 262 

xiv. 1 34 

8 273 

n 286 

12 42 

13+ 271 

16 232 

xvi. 2 282 

5 27: 

7+ 232 

xvii. 11 240 

xviii. 2 95 

xix. 6 B 4- [51 

8 84 

10 218 

•7 104 

18 246 

xx. 2 No A. 197 N 

xxi. :o 42 

xxii. 5 K 159 

11 ... 151 B, 183 

...M '5° 

xxiii. 1 167 n. 

8 122 

9 *74 

12 171 

16 88, 254 

xxiv. iS 203 

T. 



xxv. 9 t* 102 

10 A 242 

\wi. 10 209 

xxvii. 12. ..151 B, 167 n. 

xxviii. 9 197 

1 2 K 212 

20 249 

27 271 

xxix. 2 159 

6 B 117 

8 242 

13 N 241 

19 12 5 

XXX. 2 I99, 262 

12 28l 

» 3 8 '40 

fS i3 6 

19 B ...1.13, 147 

27 K 177 

P B 196 

xxxii. 4 Si, 147 11. 

'I B 147 

xxxiii. 4 232 

6 81, 1 47 n. 

11 2 40 

xxxiv. 4 236 

13 289 

. 14 231 

xxxvi. 2 101 , 147 B 

6 137, 223 

xxxvii. 3 151 

10 vS 2^6 

11 238 

2 2 B 99 

29 '47 

31 2 89 

35 N '47 

36 K 148 

38...U6B, 156 11. 

xl. 15 75 n -> 155 

26 262 

xli. 7 141 

14 B 112 

xlii. 4 221 

II. 14 232 

20 203 

xliii. 17 284 

xliv. 2 262 

12,15 201 

26 ;.'. 248 

xlvi. 4 150 

12 279 



xlviii. 10 128 

xlix. 10 219 

20 206, 279 

26 240 

li. 20 123, 177 

liii. 7 127 

liv. 11 B 121 

17 8n. 

lv. 7 54 

Ivi. 3 47 

lviii. 5 2S6 

8 90 n. 

lix. 2 248 

14 249, 260 

lx. 6 130 

10 -f 42 

14 263 

16 218 

17 39 

20 266 

lxi. 9 221 

11 260 

lxii. 6 B hi, 227 

8 42 

Ixm. 3 17711. 

154- 208 

Ixiv. 6 1 19 

lxv. 3 241 X, 270 A 

6, 14 232 

13 233 

lxvi. 2 232 

4 127 

9 125 

11 K 158 

16 273 

23 .",5 

JEREMIAH 

i. 3 162 

io4- 128, 253 

12 224 

18 A 160 

ii. 8 A 283 

15 N "3 

20 175 

22 93 

27 155 

36 i99 

iii. 8 4- ... 197 K, 276 

16 237 

21 4- 89, 216 

24 260 

21 



322 



III Index of Biblical Quotations 



iv. 19 X 113 

3° »°7 

31 202 

v. 4 B 198 

6 224 

22 A 241 

.27 N 177 

vi. 4 272 

7 290 

8 K 192 

15 N+ '99 

17 K 132 

23 108 

25 "4 

27 39 

29 B 106 

vii. 16 127 

18 36 

viii. 2+ 273 

6 173 

7 37 

ix. 6 38 

12 A 25211. 

26 173 

x- 9 45 

20 279 

25 N 213 

xi. 16 82 

19 276 

xiii. 11 175 

xiv. 16 B 119 

22 262 

xv. 3 B 7311. 

xvi. 16 84 

xvii. 5 228 

16 217 

18 A+ 146 

xix. 1, 10 34 

xxi. 13 167 

xxii. 17 243 

19 221 

xxiii. 29 153 

xxiv. 2 A, 10 A... 90 

xxv. 16 N 76, 128 

xxvi. 5 242, 273 

18 170 

19 X 13011. 

xxvii. 2 B 100 

7 260 

25 94 

xxviii. 4«+ ... 79 

11 B 108 



xxviii. 14 A+ ... 226 

16 15911. 

40 N 229 

41 X 206 

56 X 212 

xxix. 2 144 K, 

226A... 231 

6 128 

8, 13 .. 11, 24411. 

1 1 X 197 

13A 218 

21 185, 221 

xxx. 1 1 1, 139 X 

3N 232 

10 220 

xxxi. 7 109 

9 260 

12B 92 

13 '99 

18 S 92, 94 n. 

25 202 

33 — Hi 37- 

170, 221 
31, 36 14, 38 

37 27311. 

.44 A 139 

xxxii. 7 170 

9 174 

12K 148 

16 14. 37 

19 237 

22 N 113 

xxxv. 8 143 

xxxvi. 8 X 76 

.. 23 276 

xxxvii. 6 139 

14 N 89, 216 

xxxviii. 3 A 17211. 

8 32 

9 !5i 

21 Mi 38 

28 224 

34 278 

36N 132 

xxxix. 5 272 

15 274 

27 X 227 

35 x 93 

40 B 172 

xl. 4 X 202 

xli. 3 N *59 

5 '4. 37 



xli. 6 B 81 

10 200, 214 

'6 197 

xliv. 9 287 

xlv. 26 158 n. 

xlvi. 1 f. 162 

xlvii. 74- 208 

xlviii. 5 A 283 

li. 14 221 

16 231 

19 36 

27 224 

33 120 

lii. 1, 31 ... 189 with n. 

4 88 

11 X 162 

13 B 93 

19 97 B, 121 

21 f. 151 n. 

24 B, 31 A ... 123 
34 250 

BARUCH 

i- 10 235 

iy 256 

ii. 9 224 

12 234 

19 i58n. 

2? 119 

Hi. 32 27811. 

iv. 7 199 

12 61 

25 102 

LAMENTATIONS 

i. 7, 9+ 116 

14 224 

ii. 1 5 f . 222 

iii. 8 232 

42 234 

43 f - 284 

44 82, 135 

45 A 20411. 

iv. 7 271 

16 44 

19 28211. 

EPISTLE JER. 

9 259 

10 A 117 

25 '27 

39+ x 94 



//Y. Index of Biblical Quotations 



323 



40 240 

43 128 

58 290 

6if- 237 

66 229 

69 107 

EZEKIEL 

i. 6, 8 7311. 

10A 160, 187 

26B 121 

"• 6 2 79 

10 235 

iii. 10A 206 

14 38 

20+ 276 

iv. 9 fr. 218 

vi. 9 A 89, 205 

vii. 19 A 241 

viii. 15 A 212 

ix - 1+ 234 

2 • 153 

" 239 

xii. 12+ 279 

. l6 39 

xiii. 4 A 151 

xiv. 4, 7 46 

xvi. 4 220 

7  '99 

21 A. 216 

32+ 276 

51 i8on. 

xvii. 14 248 

xviii. 7 230 

xix. 2 239 

13 212 

xx. 28 175 

3 8 27411. 

xxi. 10+ 105 

22 B 113 

3i 37 

xx »- '3 233 

26 B 120 

29 243 

3° 25311. 

xxiii. 40 107 

42 37 

xxiv. 7 290 

16A, 23A... 220 

xxv. 13 Q 4- ... 88 n. 

xxvi. 1, 17 A ... 239 

2 167 



xxvi. 18 B+ ... 120 

xxvii. 4 34 

9 96 

11 38 

12+ 116, 16711. 

30 ... 231, 286 

31 A 269 

36 222 

xx viii. 2 167 

7 286 

•3 175 

16 6411. 

25 28511. 

xxix. 4 f . 147 

13 28511. 

xxxi. 8 199 

xxxii. 21 122 

xxxiii. 8, 13 f. ... 210 

15 256 

xxxiv. 6 175 

3 r + 137 

xxxv. 5+ 172 n. 

xxxvi. 9 232 

10 175 

24 143 

34 267 

.3 6 A 55 

xxxvii. 1 ff. 144 

3 217 

xxxviii. 4 265 

21 175 

xl. 1 A 259 

16 B 34 

xli. 15 B 106 

xlii. 3 92 

xliii. 5 B 177 

!8 243 

24 A 152 

xliv. 2 61 

xlv. 10 154 

11. 13 32 

xlvi. 1 220 

9 1 7811. 

xlvii. 3 37 

10 84 

12 6411. 

14 A 132 

21 229 

DANIEL 

ii. 43 220 

>ii- I9> 94 237 



iii- 47 6311. 

6 9 159 

iv. 26 151 

3°b 24 

3°c 157 

v. 16 ... 218 

vi. 1 149 

20 2 12 

vii. 8 235 

10 203 

26 271 

28 223 

ix. 5 234 

26 283 

x. 4 189 

.18 53 

xi. 29 18411. 

36 280 

xii. 9 221 

SUSANNA 

.?o 143 

54 <9 2 

BEL 

11 150, 220 

33 220 

34 210 

DANIEL 
i-4B 115 

15 204 

ii. 21 247 

iii. 1 151 n. 

34 2*56 

iv. 2 289 

17 288 

33+ 90 

vi. 4 105 

8 103 

15 175 

18 127 

22 200 

vii. 10 203 

25 95, i8on. 

viii. 4 144 

6 38 

7 (12)... 1 19, 226 
17 f. 240 

ix. 2 95 

5 234 

11, 13 16411. 



324 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



ix. 14 224 

20 15811. 

2 5 53 

26 273 

27 18011. 

x- 3 127 

4 189 with n. 

. 7 I5 125 

xi. 6 276 

10 272 

29 18411. 

34 262 

37 175 

42 143 

SUSANNA 9 

20 220 

27+ H3 

43 218 

56 127 

BEL9 

J 3 i97» 259 

17 172 

27 153 

32 250 

34 210 

1 MACCABEES 

i- 4 233 

10, 20 189 n. 

17 + I 51, 160 

38+ ti8 

»• 9 238 

38 35 

40 184 

54, 57 i72n. 

58 15811. 

604- 238 

iii. 13 A 190 

16 185 

17 T 92 

31 A+ 181 

34.37 180 n. 

iv. 5 A 102 

13+ 1 63 n. 

38 K 202 

v. 144- 283 

38 235 

51 274 

vi. 1 [6911. 6 

8 240 



vi. 124- 227 

18 22311. 

35 107 

vii. 1 189 

41 A 148 

viii. 1, 13 248 

I A 255 

• 5 171 

ix. 6 119 

9 A 241 n. 

22 N 181 

24 + 1 46. 200 

26 241 

4 2 107 

44 V 9711. 

x. ir 88n. 

20+ 12S, 253 

3 1 A + 257 

58 250 

89 153 

xi. 2 241 

4 A 206 

10 240 

23 27411. 

..4° 256 

xii. 10 220 

II 264 

27 224 

30 209 

50 286 

xiv. 22 4- 97 

48 A 255 

xv. 27 209 

xv i- 23 151 

2 MACCABEES 

i. 104- 18911. 

15 160 

•'• 17 i57 

22 173 

26 263 

iii- 13 194 

'6. 21 50 n. 

21 242 

26 248 

30 A 206 

40 137 

iv. 12 A 106 

14 I4 r 

16 139 

26 220 

3i+ 184 



iv. 36 274 

v. 5 220 

10 192 

20 84 

214- 1S4, 188 

vi. 15 242 

17 128 

21 76, 242 

23+ 223 

vii. 7 A 241 

37 173 

41 1 8411. 

viii. 2 279 

3 241 

64- 249 

23+ 141 

24 83 

32 156 

ix. 18 125 

22 76, 127 

25 208, 248 

x. 21 212 

26 173 

38 157 

xi- 5 155. 16711. 

20 240 

21 189 

27, 37 192 

30 18911. 

..34 97 

xii. 1 156 

21 16311. 

...27 46 

xiii. 9 244, 261 

25 242 

xiv. 4 189 

13 163 n. 

16 A 132 

21 255 

25 235 

28, 31 I38 

29> 32 137 

xv. 7 287 

12 180 n. 

31 A 181 

39 220 

3 MACCABEES 

i. 2 274 

4 283 

8 273 

9 A 287 



III. Index of Biblical Quotations 



325 



i. 22 82 

25+ 248 

ii. 2 223 

1 9 105 

22 f., 33 287 

iii. 9 280 

ro 250 

M 2*78 

J 9 248 

22 138 

iv. 10 129, 160 n. 

i'7 153 

v. 2 139 

'2 238 

l6 I36 

l8 2 20 

20 24 

23 225 

32 219 

35 287 

41 + 236, 282 

46 .'... 145 

49 184 

5i 279 

vi - 2 t +5 

5V 179 

18 203 

26 263 

27 154 

34 284 

38 63 n., 189 

vii. 12, iy 138 

22 82 

4 MACCABEES 

i. 8+ 81 

18 253 

28+ 92, 187 

29 271 

35 i6on. 

ii. 10 .. 148 

11 262 

19 164 

20 249 

iv. 2,6 269 

7 285 

10 138 

13+ 215 

22 137, 253 

V- 4 236 



v. 28 232 

33+ 279 

vi. 10 287 

17 239 

20 232 

.. 27 i 4 ~, 278 

vii. 1 185 

viii. 4 240 

13 255 

19 2 4' 

23 '79 

ix. 4 15811. 

17 258 

23 279 

26 «+ 173 

x. 18 138, 241 

*i-3+ 274 

xii. 3 154, 182 

4 253 

15 232 

xiii. 22 260 

27 208 

xiv. 15 98 

19 ... 287 

xv. 5, 3° '82 

16 221 

22 192 

xvi. 9 235 

wii. 1 198 

5 223 

'2 157 

xviii. 3 A 197 

4 212 

16 197, 207 

MATTHEW 

xiii. 14 231 

\x vii. 46 1 4 5 

MARK 

'V; 28 177 

\iii. 14 89, 216 

LUKE 

xiv. 1 3, 21 83 

32 4011- 

xvi. 29 16411. 

xix. 8 1 79 

xx. 1 1 f . 53 

xxi. 5 80 



xxi. 11 1 04 

25 159 

JOHN 

iii. 29 49 

v. 4 159 

xviii. 1 16911. 

ACTS 

iii. 10 158 

iii. 11, v. 12 ... 16611. 

vii. 44 16411. 

xii- 3 53 

xvi. 26 154 

xix. 11 53 

xxiii. 14 80 

xxviii. 26 231 

JAMES 

v. 17 49 

JUDE 
4 235 

ROMANS 
v. 1 91 n. 

1 CORINTHIANS 

i. 19 23011. 

ii. 16 229 

iv. 21 47 

2 CORINTHIANS 

viii. 15 12211. 

1 Til ESS. 

ii- 8 97 

v. 3 128 

HEBREWS 

iv. 6 268 

viii. 11 27811. 

xii. 18 f. 159 

PHILEMON 
9 97»- 

APOCALYPSE 

ii. 20 2:1 n. 

iii. 18 9211. 

x. 7, xiv. 6 268 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



PA 
713 
15 
v.l 
cob i 



T& ckeray, Henry St. John 

A grammar of the Old Testa- 
ment in Greek, according to 
the Septuagint 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY