Skip to main content

Full text of "A grammar of the Pukhto, Pushto, or language of the Afghans; together with translations from the articles of war, and remarks on the language, literature, and descent of the Afghan tribes"

See other formats

















BY i 



















Br HIS lordship's 3I0ST 0BEDIE:NT humble SERVANT, 

H. G. RAVERTY, Captain 

3rd Regiment, Bombay X. I. 



In offering this Grammar of the Pushto to the Orientalist and the Student, 
as well as to those who may take an interest in the hardy, warlike, and inde- 
pendent race who speak the Af gh an language, I deem it necessary to state, 
that the idea of the following pages originated in my being under the necessity 
of making a Grammar for my own convenience, during the years 1849 and 1850, 
when stationed at Peshawer with my Eegiment, which formed part of the Bombay 
Division of the Army of the Panjab in the late campaign. 

Having a deal of leisure time on my hands, and imagining that by studying 
the peculiar and little known language of the Afghans, an Officer mi(/ht be 
considered in some measure qualified for employment where the Pushto is spoken, 
I determined to try to acquire some knowledge of this dialect, the mastery of 
which had never been attempted, except by the late Major Leech, of the 
Bombay Engineers, and (as I have since found) Professor Bernhard Dorn, of 
St. Petersburgh. 

Unable to obtain or discover anything like a guide to the grammatical rules 
of the language, a matter to which the A fgh ans of the present day appear to 
have paid no attention, I commenced my studies with the poems of Mulla ^abd- 
ur-Rahman. I did not find them very difficult, or even so much so as I had 
expected ; for I had the advantage — if such there be in knowing Oriental lan- 
guages — of possessing some proficiency in Persian, and some acquaintance with 
Arabic and other tongues. * Still there were difficulties to contend with ; and 
I was obliged to make a sort of outline Grammar, which was filled in as I 
advanced, and examples compared and selected. 

I had fortunately at the outset secured the services of an Afghan of Hasht- 
nagar, in the Doaba of Peshawer — a Molawi of the Muhammadzo'e tribe — a 

* By the Orders of the Government of India, I was awarded the sum of 1000 Rupees, by the Governor in Council of 
Bombay, for proficiency in the Urdu, Persian, Muratl, and Guzerutl languages ; in all four of which I have passed the 
Presidency Examination as Interpreter on four different occasions — somewhat superior, I flatter myself, to the so-called 
test for the " Higher Standard" Civil Examination in the Panjab. Duiiug twelve years' service, I have devoted ten to the 
study of the above, and to the Arabic, Pushto, Sindl, PanjabI, and Multanl languages. 



man well acquainted with his mother-tongue, and a first-rate Arabic scholar, and 
who was for some time Lieut. E. F. Biu'ton's teacher. I had also in my service 
a clever Mlr/a,— a native of Kandahar, who is well acquainted with the Pushto 
dialect, having been born and bred in the Western capital. 

In 1850 1 was obliged to leave Teshawer with my Eegimcnt for the Dekhaii, 
but my teachers accompanied me, and have remained in my sersdce ever since. 
Although some portion of my time was taken up in preparing for the ordeal of 
the Presidency Examinations, as Interpreter in [Murati and GuzenltT, I continued 
to persevere in my Pushto studies; and by Midsummer, 1852, I had prepared 
a somewhat copious Grammar of the language. 

This humble efi'ort I had the honour of submitting to the Most Noble the 
Governor-General in July, 1852 ; and, by His Lordship's command, it was sent 
to the late Panjab Board of Administration for that body's opinion as to its pub- 
lication. From thence I believe it reached the late Commissioner of Peshiiwer (by 
the Board's order) to be reported on by "competent Judges." 

I was not aware that Pushto had been made the subject of general study at 
Peshawer, nor that any parties, with the exception of those I have referred to 
in a former paragraph — one of whom died some ten years since, and the other, 
a resident in the Russian capital — had ever turned their attention to, much less 
pretended to such a knowledge of the Afghan language, as to render them for 
a moment "competent judges." Who these " competent judges" were — wdio must 
have grown spontaneously in that district — and the opinion they arrived at, I 
have not yet discovered. AVhat became of the MS. may be easily imagined. 

The only cojjy which I had made was forwarded about the same time to the 
Government of Bomljay, and laid before the Ilon'ble the Court of Directors. 
Nine months afterwards I received a letter stating that the Hon'ble Court had 
been pleased to direct tliat my Grammar should be printed at Bombay at the 
public expense, provided no other work of a similar nature might liave been 
already undertaken by the Supreme Government. 

It appears that an GiPicer of the Bengal Army some time previously had 
offered to prepare a Grammar of the Pushto language, and had obtained a promise 
from one of the late Lahore Board to tlic effect that it should be printed at the 
expense of Government. In January, 1853, the Officer here referred to and 
raywlf chanced to be at tlie same station, at which time he first became aware 
that I had been in tlu; Held before liim ; aud, therefore, lie lost no time in sub- 
mitting his work lo the Lahrire Authorities. For the reasons above stated his 
work was printed, and has been before the public for some months;* and con- 
sequently the instructions of the ITon'])le Court as regarded my MS. could not be 

• "A Graamar of the Pooihloo Unguago, upokcu in the TruuH-Iudus Tcnitorits uiidpr Hritinb Rule," 8vo., 104 
)«g««, pric« Fito Kopecs. Culmiu, 1854. 


carried out. His work, of course, had not to undergo the ordeal of the " competent 

Blessed, however, with some patience, and a good stock of perseverance and 
industry, I was not to be disheartened by this strange and significant procedure of 
the Lahore Board, or, at least, of one of its members, neither at the loss of the labour 
of a couple of years, — in truth, I rather rejoice now, for it has made me go deeper 
into Pushto than I might otherwise have done ; and " he who entertains the hope 
of winning a decisive battle, will not mind the loss of a few skirmishes, in order 
to arrive at the end he aimed at." I again went to work with greater industry 
than before ; and during the six years which I have devoted to the study of the 
language of the Af^ans, the materials have naturally accumulated, and have now 
assumed a somewhat bulky volume. Whether these six years have been spent 
j)rofitably or not, remains to be seen. I have at least gained the satisfaction of 
having, I trust, rescued from oblivion, and shed some light on, the language of a 
manly race, "the literary exertions of whose authors, and some of whose odes, 
would stand the severest criticism of European judges."* 

A short time since, two gentlemen connected with the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal offered, in the most handsome manner, to undertake the publication of 
this Grammar ; and one of them (whose disinterested liberality I can never forget) 
volunteered to bear any loss that might be sustained, rather than the work 
should remain unpublished. The patronage of the Government of India, of the 
ISTorth-West Provinces, and of Bombay, who have subscribed for a number of 
copies ; as well as the great support, as the list of subscribers will show, of the 
Officers of the United Service and others, will, however, preclude the possibility 
of any loss in a pecuniary point of view. 

The work professes to be a Grammar of the language of the children of 
Afghanah — whether Eastern or Western — whether Sarraban, Ghar gh asht, or Kar- 
larmi — Bar Pukhtiin or Lar Pukhtiin — Panjpa'o or Ziruk ; and is not confined to 
the ''Pooshtoo of the Trans-Indus Territories under British Eule," but applies 
wherever the Pushto may be the medium of communication. 

I have endeavoured to lay down the clearest, and, at the same time, most 
simple rules, the whole of which I have illustrated by carefully selected examples 
from the works of the most elegant — as well as the most standard — authors, both 
poetical and j^rose, the greater number of whose works are seldom to be met -^-itli 
at the present day. I have adduced nothing but what has been proved by the 
extracts given, avoiding examples made up for the occasion, not wishing to make 
the work a mere category of provincialisms. Nothing has been advanced but what 
has been accounted for and explained, as well as tested and supported by the 
^^dictum,^^ not only of a "Mulla," but of every writer in the Pushto language.t 

* Professor Dom. t This refers to some uncalled for remarks in the preface to the work before-mentioned. 



The Iiitrodiictiou contains some remarks on tlie origin and affinity of the 
Afglian to the dead hmguages of Asia, and the Hebrew origin of the children 
of Jlvibd-ur-Kashid, rattan ; together with remarks on the literature of the 
Afjihrms, and other matter regarding the language. 

lu tlie Appendix will be found a specimen translation of the Articles of War 
for the Native Army ; and a few difficult and idiomatical stories, intended to show 
the capabilities of the dialect, and the mode of construction. 

The character used is that peculiar to the language — the Naskh character of 
the Arabic ; and the types for the extra letters, exclusively Pushto, have been cut 
expressly for this volume. 

Tlie jiarticular parts of speech or matters referred to in the various examples 
in the following pages, are printed in small capitals in the English, and its corres- 
ponding Puslito word or words with a line over them. It was intended to have 
had these words jn-inted in red ink, which, although au easy matter to an European, 
is ;in insuperable difficulty to au Indian Press. 

1 must crave the patience of my readers Avith respect to the long list of correc- 
tions ; and T fear I shall scarcely be credited, when I state that each sheet has been 
revised no less than three times, and which has been the principal cause of the 
great delay in the publication of the work. 

I propose giving a Persian translation of this Grammar, for the convenience 
of natives who may wish to acquire a knowledge of Pushto, should a sufficient 
number of subscribers be forthcoming. 

The opportunity for the renewal of friendly intercourse with the Afghans, as 
advocated in tlie Introduction, page 25, has happened sooner than expected, and 
ajipears to have been cordially embraced. It cannot fail to be highly advantageous 
to both nations. 

II. G. E. 

MtLTAN, 31»T March, I85fi. 


The flattering manner iu whicli the First Edition of this work was receiA^ed 
by the public, and its rapid exhaustion, has rendered it necessary to print a 
New Edition, uniform with the Dictionar}^ and Text Book. 

I have taken the opportunit}' thus offered to correct the numerous press errors 
in the former edition, which was printed at Calcutta, and to improve the work 

The Chapters on the !N'ouns and Adjectives have been considerably extended. 

H. G. E. 

Camp, Nasak, 

21st Novembee, 1859. 




The Pushto Alphabet with the names of the letters 1 

Changes of letters, and difference of pronunciation by some Afghan ti-ibes 3 

The Vowels and other orthographical marks 4 


The different Parts of Speech o 

No Article in Puslito, it being inherent in the noun or expressed by a numerical adjective ih. 


The Nouns and their divisions 6 

Numbers of Nouns, and formation of the various cases ib. 

The Genitive Case, with examples 7 

The Dative ,, ,, ih. 

The Jxli or ' actor,' the l::-^U»i or ' attribute,' and the J^'*^ or 'object,' explained and illustrated 9 

The Accusative Case with examples ih. 

The Vocative ,, ,, 10 


The Ablative ,, „ ih. 

The Locative ,, ,, 11 

The Agent or Actor 12 

The Genders of Nouns ih. 

The Declensions of Nouns 13 

The nine Declensions with their variations , ih. 


The Adjective or Noun of quality ^1 

Must always precede the Noun 22 

Three forms — Nominative, Oblique, and Vocative, with examples ih. 

Some Adjectives undeclinable — examples ih- 

Nouns used instead of Adjectives to qualify other Nouns — examples 24 

Adjectives sometimes used alone, the Noun being understood — examples ih. 

Declined in the same manner as Nouns '^• 

Derivative Adjectives 25 

The Ordinal Numbers explained and illustrated - • • 26 




The Adjuncts of Similitude or ^^--JL;' ^^^j=>- 

Adverbs also used in construction to denote similarity ^^• 

The Comparative and Superlative degrees — examples 27 

Adjectives of Plural signification only 28 

The r**-^' z*-;^ or Xoun of Diminution 29 


nie diflFerent classes of Pronouns in Pushto 30 

The Personal Pronouns with their declensions and examples ih- 

The Personal Pronoun <SAi> also used as the Remote Demonstrative 34 

The Proximate Demonstrative Pronouns <5j: J , L\ J , ih. 

The Remote Demonstrative Pronouns 36 

First letter of i>*^ lost by elision — examples 37 

The Reflective or Reciprocal Pronoun jj^ '*• 

The Interrogative Pronouns '^^ (also used as an Indefinite) and ^^ ox S 40 

'^ used as an Interrogative as well as an Indefinite Pronoun 41 

The Indefinite Pronouns 42 

Some Pronouns admitting of composition — examples 43 

The Relative and co-Relative explained ih. 

Another form of Pronouns <^, *^, etc. used witli Transitive Verbs, with declension and examples 44 

The second form, or pronominal dative affixes 46 

The affixed Personal Pronouns with declension and examples 47 

Three forms of Prepositions used as Demonstrative Pronouns, with examples 48 


riie dilTercnt kinds of Verbs 49 

'I'he Active Voice — how formed ih. 

Causal Verbs 50 

Derivative Verbs ih. 

Compound Verbs ih. 

Intensitives ih. 

Passive Verbs 51 

The Imperfect Auxiliary, ' to be,' with analysis, conjugation, and examples ih. 

The Auxiliary or Substantive Infinitive Jjc»~^^ 'to be,' or 'exist,' with analysis, conjugation, and 

examples 55 

Analysis and Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs J-V^ and ^^^ 'to be,' or 'become,' used in 

forming the Passive Voice 57 

The thirteen classes of 1 ntransitivc Infinitives explained 63 

The twenty-four classes of Transitive Infinitives explained 66 

The "^J «>- «*-)' the Present or Imperfect Participle 72 

The J^*i^ *-»' the Past or Perfect Participle 75 

Tlie JiU the Active Participle, Agent, or Noun of Action 79 

ITif w-oU ^-j' or Noun of Fitness 81 

The TcnfiCH ,7J 

Vorba onn be conjugated on Arabic and Hebrew model ih. 


p. Key. 

Intransitive Verbs 82 

The Past Tense — analysis and examples ib. 

The Imperfect Tense „ 89 

The Compound Past Tenses „ 93 

The Perfect Tense „ il. 

The Pluperfect Tense „ 95 

The Doubtful Past Tense „ 97 

The Past Conditional Tense „ 98 

The Present Tense „ 100 

TheAorist ' „ 103 

The 1st Future or Precative Tense „ 105 

The 2nd Future Tense „ 106 

The Imperative Mood ,, 107 

Transitive Verbs ,, 108 

The Past Tense — ten classes „ 109 

The Imperfect Tense — six classes „ 116 

The Compound Tenses ,, 119 

The Perfect Tense — two classes „ ib. 

The Pluperfect Tense „ ,... 120 

The Doubtful Past Tense „ ib. 


Past Conditional Tense „ 121 

The Present Tense, with twelve methods of formation 122 

The Aorist Tense — four forms 125 

First Future or Precative Tense — three forms 127 

Second Future Tense — four forms 128 

The Imperative Mood 130 

The Potential Mood, with analysis and examples 132 

The Passive Voice — first form, with examples 134 

Second form of the Passive Voice formed from the Imperfect Tenses of Verbs, with examples 135 

Conjugation of the Imperfect and Irregular Infinitive tJ^l; ' to come,' according to the Eui-opean 

model 137 

„ „ J^ 'togo' 140 

,, ,, Irregular Intransitive iJ:;^ ' to ascend ' 143 

„ ,, Regular Intransitive JaJ-cj 'to run,' according to the Hebrew and Arabic model 146 

The Imperfect Transitive Verb J^ ' to do,' used as an auxiliary, with all its moods and tenses, 

according to the European model 148 

The Regular Transitive Verb Jj^ ' to do ' used as an auxiliary, with all its moods and tenses — 

European model 150 

,, ,, Infinitive J jj[; ' to bring' 15<' 

The Transitive Infinitive J^^J ' to fill,' formed from an Adjective by the addition of J^ — Arabic 

and Hebrew model '. 158 

The Causal Verb Jt^J^ 1 ' to cause to fly' — Arabic and Hebrew model 1 60 

The Negative and Prohibitive forms of the diff'erent Infinitives, with examples of each 162 


Adverbs and their derivations 166 

Conjunctions 170 



p,..,^..;f;.-,nc and Postpositions, with examples 171 

1 72 
1..: —example ^' 


n. r^v.rjon of Xouns 


. : Nouns '*• 

. * of I ntensity 1 ' ^ 

Dcriration of Adjectives • '*• 

Adjcctircs of Intensity, etc 176 

Patrouymical Adjectives 177 

tives formed from the Past Participles of Verbs ih. 

riic iwca of the iZ"fi7 or Ism-i-Jfaxdar, and Ism-i- IJaliah 178 

The Paat Tenses Uflod as Nouns in some instances 1 84 

Nouns firom the Imperatives of Verbs ib. 


The Cinlinal Numbers, with the names and Arabic figures 184 

The Oniinal Numbers 186 

The Numerals of Fractions ib. 

The Days of the Week ib. 

The Names of the Months 187 

The Seasons ib. 

TheCardimil Points 188 


On the Syntax — the arrangement of words in a sentence 188 

Sj-ntax of the Noun 189 

.. of the Adjective 1 90 

., of the Pronoun 191 

,. of the Verb 194 

Words of similar sound used together 197 


1. — Specimen translation from the Articles of War Hjy 

II — Stones in the Pushto character with the English 201 


" I am not willing that any language should be totally extinguished ; the similitude and derivation of languages afford 
the most indubitable proof of the traductiou of nations, and the genealogy of mankind ; they add often physical certainty to 
historical evidence of ancient migrations, and the revolutions of ages which left no WTitten monuments behind them." 

Dr. Johnson. 

In all investigations into the manners and customs of mankind, language has 
a strong claim to our attention and study. It will be found, in various ways, so 
unerring a guide that we may term it the barometer of a people's civilization or 
barbarity ; whilst, on the other hand, the derivation and affinity of diiferent tongues 
afford an indisputable proof of the origin and genealogy of the various families of 
the human race. It also adds a physical certainty to historical evidence ; and no 
authority can so indubitably determine the peculiar habits and pursuits of a people 
as the manner in which their thoughts and ideas are articulated and expressed ; for 
want of copiousness, or poverty of a language, as it may be termed, generally indi- 
cates an uncivilized state — ignorance and superstition. 

By oral means alone can a dialect be formed or extended, but its subsequent 
cultivation must depend on writing and literature ; and knowledge, on which 
civilization, refinement, and everything that tends to raise mankind above the level 
of the brute, depends, must naturally be confined within exceedingly narrow limits, 
until a written language has diffused it throughout all classes of mankind. 

Before venturing to offer an opinion as to the origin of the Pushto language, it 
will be necessary to make a few observations respecting the topography, as it may 
be termed, of the ancient languages of Asia, more particularly those from which 
we may naturally suppose the Pushto or Afghan language to have sprung : still 
all researches into high antiquity are more or less involved in darkness and per- 
plexity, and every argumentative inquiry, however ingenious, must at last rest on 
the uncertain basis of conjecture and fancy. 

We learn from the accounts given by Herodotus, and other ancient writers, that 
in certain countries of no great extent, various languages, totally distinct from each 
other, were used ; whilst, on the other hand, the same language, with slight varia- 
tions in its dialects, was spoken throughout vast regions. The first remarks are 


applicable to nearly all nioiintaiiious districts, inhabited, like Afgliruiistrin, by 
difterent tribes, for the most part independent of each other. 

Throu£^hout the boundless steppes of the Asiatic continent were spread the more 
prevalent hinguages. The limits of the various dialects also were the same stupen- 
dous ranges of mountains, and the same noble and mighty rivers, which formed the 
boundai-ies of the different territories. Between the Atjtak or Indus, the iEraan or 
Oxus, and the banks of the Dajlah or Tigris, one language appears to have pre- 
dominated ; a second from th(^ Tigris to the Ilalys or Kizil Irmjik ; and a third 
between the Ilalys and the iEgean sea. 

To commence with the language which appears to have been most widely preva- 
lent in ancient times, we find that, from tlic Caucasiau^:= range of mountains on the 
north to the Red Sea on the south, and from the banks of the Euphrates on the 
east to the Ilalys on the west, one mighty tongue was spoken, which, with some 
slight variations, retained a primitive and distinct character, known as the Semitic, 
and of which the Arabic, Assyrian, Chaldaic, Cappadocian, Ilcbrew, Sarmatian, and 
Phoenician were merely dialects. t 

From the Tigris eastward, as far as the mountain range which forms the western 
barrier of the Indus, and from the Oxus to the Indian sea, another great language 
prevailed, the various dialects of which, both in elements and construction, as also 
in vocabulary and phraseology, were so totally distinct as to preclude the possibility 
of their being of the same family as the Semitic. One peculiar feature of the 
ancient dialects of the immense tract which constituted the Persian empire is, that 
every vowel, whether short or long, has a distinct character. We are indebted to 
the lalxnirs of several eminent schohirs in Zend literature for much important infor- 
mation on this subject, particularly from the work known as the "Zend Avesta" — 
the sacred volume of the ParsTs or Gabrs, two English translations of which are 
about to be given to the world — one by a European Orientalist, the other by an 
Asiatic, and a disciple of Sapetiunn Zoroaster. From these researches we find that 
three different languages, wliicli followed eacli other successively, were spoken in 
Inint — the Zend, in which the sacred books of their religion were written; the 
Pehlavi ; and the ancient Persian, or ParsT. The date from which the Zend ceased 
to 1)0 the mt'dium of conversation is unknown; l»nt, as early as the reign of ]5ahman, 
the Pehlavi was consi<lcnMl rndc, and on this account in disrepute at the court of 
that ruler; 5 and in the reign of Pahram Gur, |1 in the fifth century of our era, was 

 TTul U to WT. what u at prwcnt known at the Caucosion range, not the Koli-i-Kuf of tho ancient Arabian authors, 
t I! ; •• 

 T • • • i ■— t, in rontrailititinctiiin to TOran or Tartary. 

 ^ ''' *'>*' Fi-rnnjr JoJi/inRiri, Hiihmrin aluo calleJ Ardaxhir, wuii son of Isfandlur, son of Kiwhtasib, son of Loh- 
'**'^' ***^' f"r liit ujirightiuiw anil jiiHticc; othcrn, that it was from his prccociousncss aa a child ; and 
'**'••'■ "-'"' ' • •'■ '  -Ml of liis iirn>.H, which wcni ho long that hin haiido rtailK'd liia kuoes. Therr 
•*••»"■ word in the work I have quoted. DaUmrm died a.u. 210. 

1 He aMviulcti tho throne a.d. 420, and reigned twenty years. 


proscribed by edict, and soon after fell into total disuse. After this event the Pars! 
became the idiom of Persia. It was divided into two dialects — the Deri, or conrt 
language, and the Parsi, which was spoken by the people at large. The Shah 
Nilmah of Ferdousi is almost entirely written in the former tongue. 

If we compare these dialects with the modern Persian, divested of the Arabic 
and Turkish, which, during a period of several centuries have crept into it, we shall 
find them differing essentially in several respects ; but at the same time, in -phvn- 
seology and construction, bearing such a striking similarity, as to prove almost 
indubitably that the dialects themselves, as also the people who spoke them, must 
have sprung from one and the same original stock. 

It is a striking fact that no convulsions of Government, no efforts of literature, 
can so alter a language as to destroy every atom of similarity between the speech of 
the present day and that of most ancient and remote origin. Nothing but the 
total extirpation of the aborigines of a country appears capable of accomplishing so 
singular and wonderful a change. For a striking instance of this we have merely 
to look to the present dialects of the peninsula of India, or, for a still more conclusive 
proof, to the modern European languages, amidst the polish and refinement of Latin 
and Greek. 

It appears, therefore, that the principal languages of the Asiatic continent, or, of 
what was considered Asia by the ancients, were the Semitic, and the Iranian or 
Persian : * the last was spoken as far as the western bank of the Indus, beyond 
which the Sanskrit and Prakrit commenced, t 

In ancient times, as in the present day, the greatest diversity of language appears 
to have prevailed in mountain tracts, generally inhabited by a number of independent 
tribes, who may either have been aborigines of those mountains, or strangers com- 
pelled to seek in them refuge from powerful neighbours, or security from invasion 
and subjection to a foreign yoke. In the absence of facilities for communication 
with other races, the languages of these mountaineers have been less liable to be 
mixed up with other tongues ; but as their more numerous tribes separated into 
smaller septs, a variety of dialects was naturally formed, which, in many points, 
differed from each other. 

The ancient languages of Persia suggest other important facts not to be passed 
over without notice, and which also bring us to the point to which these straggling 
and imperfect remarks are intended to lead — that not merely in the modern Persian 

* Heeren, "Asiatic Nations." 

t " With regard to the affinity of the language from Bactria to the Persian Gulf, it would of course follow, that the 
country being that of the ancient Persians, the Persian language would be spoken in it, varied as to dialect, but radically the 
same. If the language of Persia was Zend, this would have been in use throughout Ariana; and its strong affinity ti> 
Sanskrit would justify the extension of Strabo's remarks even to the Indians of the Paropamisus and the west bank of the 
Indus. With all the other divisions of Ariana there is no difficulty, even if the Persian of ancient did not materially difter 
from that of modern times ; for Persian is still the language of the inhabitants of the towns of Afghanistan and Turkistun— 
Kabul and Bokhara." — Ariana Antiqua, pp. 122, 123. 


territory do we find languages which still exist, mixed up with others, and only 
presei-ved from oblivion by a few written remains ; but that in the present day there 
is also a language spoken immediately west of the Indus, which is totally different 
in phraseology and construction from any modern tongue, and in all probability 
derived from the Zend, Pehlavi, and the Hebrew. The language to which I refer 
is the Puk'lito, Pushto, or A fgh an. 

Languages, though they may be cultivated by writing and literature, can alone be 
fashioned and extended by oral use ; and it is therefore certain that the dead lan- 
guages of the Asiatic continent must at one time have been generally spoken,* because 
several living languages are evidently derived from them.t They may have ceased 
to be the medium of oral communication in various ways : intercourse with foreigners, 
subjugation to the yoke of others, and such like circumstances, so affect a language 
as to produce various new dialects, which, as proved in the case of our own mother- 
tongue, are capable of undergoing still further transformation. 

There has, perhaps, never been a greater diversity of opinion respecting the 
descent of any people than in reference to that of the Afghans. Ferishtah X traces 
their origin to the Copts, whilst most Oriental WTiters are of opinion that they are 
of the Jewish family. According to Klaproth, Gatterrer considers the Af gh ans to 
be a Georgian race, and their language Georgian also. The Armenians hold the 
Afghans to be descended from themselves ; and Krusinsky, Eeineggs, and several 
other European historians, notwithstanding the want of proof, hold the same opinion. 
Major Keppel § (the late Earl of Albemarle) states that the people of Shirwan and the 
adjoining countries consider the Afghans are descended from them. St. Martin, || in 
his account of the Armenian Arghowans, is of opinion that the Afghans cannot be 
identified with them. Other authors have declared them to be descendants of the 
Indfi-Scythians, the Medians, the Soghdians, Turks, Tartars, and Monghols.lf 

The Afghans themselves persist in their descent from the Jews ; and their tra- 
ditions on the subject trace their ancestry to Saul, king of Israel.** 

The best account I have met with on the subject has lately fallen into my hands 
quite unexpectedly. It is contained in a history of the house of Saddo or Suddozo'e 
tribe of the Afghans. The work itself is written in 8vo., 640 pages of 17 lines to a 
page, and entitled Tazkirat-ul-Mulfik. It is very rare, and I imagine there is not a 
copy to be found east of the Indus, even if it has ever been heard of before by 
Europeans. Two-thirds of the entire work are occupied in the detail of events 
which have happened since the death of Ahmad Shrdi, Abdrdl. The commencement 

• I have lately heard of a seal having been found near Plnd Dudun Khun, in the Panjab, bearing an inscription in the 
aiTOw -headed character. 

t Heercn. + " Tarlkh-i-Ferishtah." § "Personal Narrative of Travels," vol. ii. page 194. 

II "Memoircs sur Armcnie," vol. i. page 213 to 226. 

IT See " TurTkli-ul-YamTnl of OtbT," " Matlaa-us-Salatin," and " Jami-ul-Tawarlkh." 

*• See Sir G. Rose's " Afghans, the Ten Tribes, and the Kings of the East," etc. London, 1852. 


alone is sufficient for my present purpose ; on some future occasion I may give a 
translation of that part which terminates with the death of the founder of the 
Durani monarchy. I may also add, that the work is written in Pushto. The 
account is as follows : — 

" The chief object of the author in writing this august work, was the compilation 
of a history of the ancestors of the tribe of Saddo, known as the Suddozo'es,* who, 
after the family of the last of the ProjDhets, (on whom be the blessing of the 
Almighty!) are the greatest and best, as well as the most generous and open-hearted 
of the children of Adam. 

" All traditions and histories agree, as to their exalted descent from the Ban-i- 
Isra-il, of whom their great ancestor is Malik Talut (Saul) of the tribe of Isra-il, 
who afterwards became the ruler of that people. From Malik Talut is descended 
Afghan, one of the greatest of God's creatures, and who in the reign of SdlTman, 
was, by that monarch, made sovereign of the Jinns and Dlws. 

" From Malik Afghan, ^abd-ur-Eashid bin Kais al Laik, who was a contemporary 
of the prophet of God, and one of his most honoured associates, is a lineal descen- 
dant. He is the ancestor of the Sarrabands, who are considered the first of the 
Afghan tribes, as also of the twelve dstimas or families who were formerly considered 
as hereditary devotees. t 

" His Highness Saddo chief of the Afghans, being the fruit of the tree of that 
garden, and a blossom of that rose tree, this account of his ancestry has been com- 
piled, to the end that their fame may be known to posterity. 

' What can wo inherit but fame beyond the limits of the tomb ? ' 

" The following histories and authorities have been consulted in the composition 
of the work, viz. : — Tarikh-i-Salatin-i-Sureah ; Tabakat-i-Akbari ; Asen-i-Akbarl ; 
Mirat-ul-Afaghanah, which work was written by Khan Jehan, Lildi, in the reign 
of the Emperor Jehangir; Tarikh-i-Shahan-i-Safawiah, Irani; Shah Jehan N.amah; 
Tarikh Alamgiri ; Furukh Seori ; Tilrikh-i-Mahommed Shahi ; Nadir Namah ; 
Tarikh Ahmad Shahi; Eassalah Akbar, Khadakah; and other information has been 
collected from the narratives of trustworthy persons. I have entitled the work, 
Tazkirat-ul-Mulijk, of the ancestry of the tribe of Saddo, the chief of the Afghans. 
It consists of one mukaddamah (preface), two asah (originals), and one Jcjfatmah 
(epilogue)." % 

* From which the kings were chosen, as being the royal tribe. 

t Both Mr. Elphinstone (" Caiibul," vol. i. page 252) and Professor Dorn (" Neamut Ullah," Part ii. page 40) have fallen into 
error respecting this fourth grand division of the Afghans, called by them respectively the Betnee, and Botni, Baitni, or 
BiitinT. ^:Jblj is not the name of a tribe, but is derived from the Arabic ,.i<»^ batin, which means, hidden, or knowing 
the hiddcn'ov concealed ; y^Guca the Almighty is often termed ^JcX^} Al Batin. 

X The contents of the whole work are : — Mukaddamah. On the forefathers of Saddo, chief of the Afghans. First 
AsAL. On the subject of those of the tribe who have ever dwelt in Afghanistrm. This Asal is divided into two Faraee or 
Parts. 1st. Respecting that branch who have ruled over the whole tribe. 2nd. On the other members of the tribe, who still 
dwell in their native country. Second Asal. On that branch of the clan who left their country and took up their abode at 


" Oi\ THE Forefathers of Saddo, Chief of the Afghan People. 

" Tlie great ancestor of this tribe is Malik Taliit (Saul) who is mentioned in the 
Kur an and other works, as descended from Binyamm bin Yasekub, bin Ish'ak, bin 
Ibrahim (may the blessing of the Almighty rest on them and on their house ! ) Taliit 
was celebrated amongst his countrymen for his wisdom, knowledge, and mightiness 
in war ; and the All- wise Creator of the Universe made him king over Isra-il, and 
commanded him to bring to perdition the infidel Jaliit (Goliath), the enemy of his 

"At this time Mehtarf Da'iid, who dwelt in the district situated between the 
territories of the rival princes, went and joined the army of his countrymen, t 
who were hard pressed by the superior army of Jaliit. § The king on this account 
issued a proclamation to the effect, that whoever would go forth to fight with Jaliit 
and kill him, should receive the hand of the king's daughter in marriage, and be 
declared heir to the throne. 

"When Tilliit went out to meet Jaliit, his troops being seized with a sudden 
panic, fled from the field with the exception of 313 persons, who by the will of 
Grod, took courage and remained with their king. 1| It was at this time that Da'iid 

Jfultaii. This is in five Faram or Parts. I. On the Khan Modud Khel. II. The history of the Bahadur Khel. III. 
Account of the Kamran Khel. IV. Account of the Znefaran Khel. V. The Khwajah Khizr Khel, who are generally known 
as the Sultan Khel, Khadakah. Kh.\timah. Account of the remaining branches of the Khwajah Khizr Khel, the de- 
scendants of Shah Dur-i-Duran, and their dispersion into various parts of India and the Panjab. 

*■ " And their prophet answered and said unto them. Verily God hath set Talut king over you, and hath enlightened hi.s 
mind, and strengthened his arm : they answered, How shall he reign over us, seeing that we are more worthy of the kingdom 
than he, neither is he possessed of gi-eat riches .^ Samuel said, Verily God hath chosen him before you, and hath caused him 
to increase in knowledge and stature." — Al Kur'an, chap. ii. 

" Now there was a man of Benjamin, whose name was Kish, the son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bechorath, the 
son of Aphiah, a Benjamite, a mighty man of power. 

" And he had a son, whose name was Saul, a choice young man, and a goodly : and there was not ajnongst the children 
of Israel a goodlier person than he : from the shoulders and upwards he ivas higher than any of the people. — 1 Samuel, 
chap, ix., verses 1, 2. 

" So Saul took the kingdom over Israel, and fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, and against the 
children of Ammon, and against Edom, and against the kings of Zobah, and against the Philistines : and whithersoever he 
turned himself, he vexed them. 

" And he gathered an host and smote the Amalekites, and delivered Israel out of the hands of them that spoiled them." — 
1 S.\MUEL, chap, xiv., verses 47, 48. 

t A lord, a prince, a great chief, a title generally applied to Israelites by Muhammadans. 

X " ^^^lercforc Saul sent messengers unto Jesse, and said, Send me David thy son, which is with the sheep. 

"And took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son unto Saul." — 
1 Samuel, chap, xvi., verses 19 and 20. 

§ " Now Saul, and they and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah fighting with the Philistines. 

" And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded 
him ; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle." — 1 Samuel, chap, xvii., 
verses 19, 20. 

II " And Talut said unto liis soldiers. Verily God will prove you by the river, for he that drinketh thereof shall not be on 
my side (but he shall be on my side who shall not taste thereof) except he who drinketh a draught of the water out of his 
hand. And they drank thereof, except a few of them. And when they had passed over the river, he and those who believed 
with him, said, We have no strength this day against Jalut and his host. But they who considered that they should meet 
(iod at the resurrection, said. How often hath a small army, by the will of God, defeated a greater one and discomfited it, for 
God is with those who patiently persevere. And when they went forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said, Oli 
Lord, pour on us patience, confirm our feet, and help us against this unbelieving people. Therefore they discomfited them by 
the Almighty will, and Du'Cid slew Jalut."— Al Kuu'an, chap. ii. 


killed the infidel Jaliit in single fight, after which, the small but brave band that 
had stood its ground, fought with such determined courage, that the enemy were 
entirely defeated and put to the rout.* 

'' After this action on the part of Mehtar Da'iid, it became incumbent on king 
Talut to fulfil the terms of the covenant which he had made, and accordingly he 
gave his daughter to Da'iid in marriage, and a patent of succession to the throne. 

"During the life-time of king Talilt, Da'iid served him faithfully, and at his 
death succeeded him. Armiah (Jeremiah) and Birkiya, Taliit's sons, were raised 
to the highest honors, became the captains of his armies, and continued in his ser- 
vice during their life-time. 

" In the common course of events, Da'iid himself set out on that journey from 
which no traveller returneth, and was succeeded by his son Siiliman. He ap- 
pointed Afghanah, the son of Armiah, to the command of his armies, and the 
government of the Jinns and Diws ; whilst Asif, the son of Taliit's son Birkiya, 
was made his principal minister.t 

" One day king Sfiliman seated on his throne, and accompanied by his minister, 
was journeying through the air, J when they passed the district of Eildali, or Eoh, 
in which is situated the lofty mountain of Kaseghar, which lies between Peshawer 
and Kandahar, and Kabul and Multan. It is near the town of Daraban and west 
of the Sindhu (Indus) river. 

" Pleased with the spot, and the salubrity of the climate. The Wisest of Men 
directed his minister to form a seat out of a stone which was at hand. This being 
almost immediately done, Suliman sat in it for some time and enjoyed the beauty 
of the landscape which lay spread out at his feet. The mountain is known at 
present as the Takht, or Throne, of Suliman. § A portion of the throne still re- 
mains, to which the people of the surrounding districts are in the habit of making 

* "And the men of Israel and of Judali arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until they came to the valley, 
and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and 
unto Ekron. 

" And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents." — 1 Samuel, chap, 
xvii., verses 52, 53. 

t " This statement will not appear so fabulous if we compare it with 2 Samuel, chap, xxi., verses 15 to 22, for Dlw and 
Jinn mean a giant as well as a demon or genii ; •J J dlw, a devil, a demon, genius, giant, spii'it, ghost, hobgoblin. The Dlws 
or Dives, Jinns, Genii, or giants of eastern mythology, are a race of malignant beings." See i^f^ also in Richaedsox. 

:j: " No name is more famous among Muhammadans than that of Solomon. According to their belief, he succeeded David 
his father when only twelve years old ; at which age the Almighty placed under his command all mankind, the beasts of the 
earth and the fowls of the air, the elements, and the genii. His throne was magnificent beyond description. The birds were 
his constant attendants, screening him like a canopy from the inclemencies of the weather, whilst the winds bore him whither- 
soever he wished to go. Every age and every nation have had their fooleries, and even many of the received opinions of 
modern times will not bear the touchstone of Truth, The sorcery laws of our country are a far more authentic disgrace to 
human nature, than all the wild, yet pleasing fables of the East." — Richardson. 

§ " In the southern part of the Wuzeerce country, where this range is passed through by the river Gomul, it is low in 
both senses, and forms tlie lofty mountain of Cussay Ghar, of which the Takht of Suliman, or Solomon's Throne, is the 
highest peak." — Account of the Kingdom of Cabul, vol. i. page 164. 

" I was told that on the top there was a holy stone or rock, the seat of a Musalinan Fakir, whose name it bears ; but I 
venture to doubt the story." — Vigne's Ghuzni, C.\bul, etc., page 61. 


'' The mountain tract of Kaseghar, and the district of Eudah, were assigned in 
feudal tenure to Afghanah. 

" The original meaning of the word Afghanah is fighan — a Persian word, which 
means 'complaint,' 'lamentation,' because he was a cause of lamentation to the 
devil, the jinns, and mankind. From the constant use of the word, the vowel 
point {-T-) Jcasrah was dropped, after which the other letters could not be sounded 
without the aid of a vowel, and alif-i-wasl was placed before the gh^ and thus made 

"Malik Afghan having taken possession of his new territory (to use the expres- 
sive words of the author), ' irrigated the land of that mountainous country with 
the water of the sword, and planted in the hearts of its inhabitants the seeds of his 
own faith. He fixed his residence at a place named Pusht or Pasjit, situated in 
tlie mountains ; and from the name of this place the people have derived the name 
of Pushtun, or Pukhtiin, and their language Pushto, or Pukhto. Some traditions 
state that the Afghans acquired their language from the Diws ; and others, that 
it is the original dialect of the aboriginal inhabitants of Kaseghar, and that the 
Afghans were in the habit of carrying off the wives and daughters of those infidels, 
and intermarrying with them,* thereby learning from them the Pushto language, 
and in course of time forgetting their own Ibrahami tongue." t 

Again, to use the words of the author, "Malik Afghan having pui-ified the face 
of the mistress of that country from the filth of the wicked infidels by the pure 
water of the sword ; and having given unto her the rouge of beneficence, and 
decked her out in the bridal garments of religion and the ornaments of Islam, 
bestowed her in the marriage of possession to one of his sons ; after which he re- 
turned to the court of king Silliman, at Bait-ul-Mukaddas, % where at length he 
died at a very advanced age. His descendants, from generation to generation, and 
from tribe to tribe, continued to dwell round about the mountain of Kase gh ar, 
and to rule over it ; and were constantly at war with the infidels, as the neighbour- 
ing people were termed. 

"At length, during the chieftainship of ^abd-ur-Eashld bin Kais al Laik, an 
event happened which was the cause of shaking the world to its very foundations § 
— the joyful tidings of the last and greatest of the Prophets, resounded both in 
Arab and in Ajam too; and -^abd-ur-Eashid became desirous of making a pilgrimage 
to Makka for the purpose of seeing him : — 

' Love ariscth not alone from seeing the object ; 
This wealth is often acquired by mere conversation.' 

" In company with several of his kinsmen and friends, he set out for the Hedjaz; 
and having arrived at Maldka, performed his pilgrimage according to the rites and 

* See the " Khullasat-ul-Ansab." f Ibrahami means the Hebrew language. 

+ (_^k^AJU.\ t-::-~»J The Sanctified or Holy Temple— the Arabic name for Jerusalem. 
§ Allowance will of course be made for religious prejudice 


tenets of the religion of his forefathers, Isra-il, Tsh'ak, and Ibrahim. "^^ He now set 
out for Madinah, and on the road fell in with the celebrated Khalid-ibn-Walid, 
'The Sword of God,' — to whom he explained the object of his journey. They 
travelled towards Madinah in company, and on his arrival there, ^abd-ur-Eashid 
became a convert to Islam. In the numerous struggles of that period, he became 
conspicuous for his intrepid bravery, which made the Prophet bestow on him the 
surname of i^\^ hatdn or (^l;;.j patan^-\ which in Arabic^ means the keel of a vessel, 
without which it cannot sail, neither can the ship of war sail along without the 
keel of battle. 

'' ^abd-ur-Eashid having acquired great renown, at length obtained his dismissal, 
and was allowed by the Prophet to return to his native land ; but was at the same 
time enjoined to publish and diffuse the doctrines of Islamism amongst his country- 
men. He departed from Madinah, and in due course reached his home in safety, 
after which he converted his family and tribe to the new faith, and taught them 
the Kur'an. He made war on the infidels with greater zeal than ever, and was 
celebrated for his piety. At length, finding his end approaching, he called his 
family and tribe around him, and enjoined them to keep their hearts fixed on the 
only true religion, and their feet firm in the path of Islam ; to show fi'iendship and 
obedience to the followers of Muliammad ; and to make war on the infidels, and 
convert them to the only true faith. After taking an afi'ectionate leave of all, the 
swallow of his soul, having escaped from the wintry cage of this world, took its 
flight towards the summer mansions of eternal bliss. 

"He was blessed with three sons — Saii, Ghaii, and Tabri. The first, known 
as Sarraban, or Sarrabarm, succeeded his father in the chieftainship, and gave name 
to one of the two great divisions of the Afghans, called Sarrabans. The second also, 
called Gharghasht, gave name to the Gharghashts. The descendants of these three 
sons constitute the whole of the different Afghan clans, with their numerous 
branches and ramifications. 

"The tribes which are included in the Sarraban division are: — AbdalT, Tarin, 
Barech, Mabanah, Gharshm, Shirani, Babarr, Kansi, Jamand, Katani, Kaliani, 
TarkanI, Khalll, Muhmand, Da'iidzo'e,§ and Yiisufzo'e. The twelve Astmahs, or 
families, who are considered sacred by the other Af^ans, from their progenitors 

* The temple of Mecca was a place of worship, and in singular veneration with the Arabs from great antiquity, and many 
centuries before Muhammad. Though it was most probably dedicated at first to an idolatrous use, yet the Muhammadans are 
generally persuaded that the Caaba is almost coeval with the world ; for they say that Adam, after his expulsion from Paradise, 
begged of God that he might erect a building like that he had seen there, called Bait-al-Mamur, or the frequented house, and 
al-Dorah towards which he might direct his prayers, and which he might compass, as the angels do the celestial one." — Sale's 
Introduction to the Kur'an, page 83. 

t He (Muhammad) conferred the title of Patan upon JEabd-ur-Eashid, as the angel Gabriel had revealed to him, that the 
attachment of the newly-converted Afghans to the Faith, would, in strength, be like the timber upon which they lay the keel 
when building a ship, which timber the seamen call Patan." — Mirat-ul-Ataghanah, of Khan Jehan, Ludl. (This is the 
work translated by Professor Dorn, under the title of "The History of the Afghans, of Neamet UUah.") 

X Written /^"^ i^ Arabic, and probably signifpng keelson instead of keel. 

§ Zo'e in Pushto means "son" — zae is a corruption of the word, and most generally used. 



having been devotees, are also included amongst the Sarrabans. The Abdali, Tarm, 
Babarr, Jamand, and Yiisufzo'e tribes have each one family ; the Khalils, three ; 
and the Miilmiands, four. 

" The different branches of the Ghar^asht division, or offspring of Ghari, are : 
the SuranT, Jailam, Worokzo'e or Orokzo'e, Afrldi, Chakani, Janki or Jangl, 
Keranl, Aormarr, Niwat, Kakarr, Naghir, Babl, Mashwani, and Tarm tribes. 

" The third son, Tabri, is the progenitor of the Ghalzo'e, LiidhT, Niazi, Lohani, 
SorbanI, Sarwani, and Klakpur clans, the whole of whom are styled Tabrins. It 
is said there was an illicit connection between one of the daughters of Tabri and 
Mast ^all, Ghorl;* and, after a short time, the fruits of this amour becoming 
apparent, the father, to make the best of a bad matter, gave her to him in marriage. 
Three sons were the offspring of this marriage — Ghalzo'e,t of whom she was preg- 
nant before the nuptial knot was tied, Lildi, and Sarwani. 

"The tribes above-mentioned are the whole of those who are of pure Afghan 
descent — the offshoots of the three sons of ^abd-ur-Eashid, Patau. He was buried 
at Kaseghar, and succeeded by his eldest son Sari, who was constantly at war with 
the Kafirs or infidels. He had two sons — Sharkabiin and Kharshabiin. The 
Sarrabans are the descendants of the former, and the Yusufzoe's, Muhmands, Khalils, 
and other tribes inhabiting the plain of Peshawer, are the children of the latter. 

"On the death of Sari, Sharkabun, his son, was acknowledged chief of the 
Af^anah. He was celebrated for his piety and wisdom. In his wars with the 
infidels he not only acquired great wealth, but also increased his territory, and 
brought many of the neighbouring tribes under his authority. During his chief- 
tainship Kandahar and Kabul were conquered by Hiijaj bin Yiisuf, Sakafi, who was 
governor of Khorasan for the Khallfah Abd-ul-Malik bin Mirwan, who reigned from 
the year of the Hijrah 73 to 79 (a.d. 692-698). This event greatly increased the 
authority of Sharkabun, and established his power more firmly than before. 

" He is said to have been succeeded by Abdal, his son. Some accounts mention 
that he was the son of Sharkabun, and others that he was his grandson, but neither 
of these accounts can be correct, as there is a space of three hundred years between 
them ; Sharkabun being a cotemporary of Hfijaj bin Yiisuf, Sakafi, before referred 
to, whilst Malik Abdal lived in the reign of Mahmud bin Sabuktagin, who suc- 
ceeded his father to the throne of Ghaziil in the year of the Hijrah 3S7 (a.d. 997). 
This great hiatus between the reigns of these two chieftains may be accounted for 
in the following manner. It often happens that the names of those chiefs who have 
been celebrated for their wisdom, bravery, piety, or numerous progeny, have been 
alone handed down to posterity, and those of mediocrity set aside and forgotten. 

* The ancestor of the Ghorian Sultans who conquered GhaznT, in 1152. 

t ^ ghal in Pushto means «a thief,' and ojj zo'e 'a son,' hence lJ<U^ Ghalzo'e, ' the son of a thief;' ij\j z5e is a 
mere corruption of the word, and is often written 'l_?j zl. 


There is an instance of this with regard to Hasham* and ^abd-ush-Shams, who were 
both sons of ^abd-ul-Manaf. The descendants of the former are still styled Ban-i- 
Hasham, whilst those of the latter are known as the Ban-i-Omeyah, from Omeyah 
the celebrated son of JEabd-ush-Shams, and thus the father's name has been dropped 
altogether. In the same manner Malik Abdal, having acquired a great name for 
bravery, equity, and generosity, and having siu'passed many of his predecessors in 
grandeiu- and dignity, his name has been handed down to us, whilst the very re- 
membrance of those of little or no celebrity is now altogether lost in oblivion. This 
is the great cause of the confusion which so often takes place in the genealogical 
histories of different tribes and people, and hence the reason why Malik Abdal has 
been called the son or grandson of Sharkabiin. 

" Malik Abdal thus became chief of the Af^anah — Sarrabans, Ghar^ashts, and 
Tabrins. During his reign the people began to pay attention to agriculture, and 
the lands about Kaseghar Avere brought under cultivation. Abdal, who was famed 
for his bravery, followed in the path of his ancestors by making war on the people 
of the surrounding parts, in the plundering of whose property his followers acquired 
great wealth. A number of the infidels who dwelt in the vicinity of the Kaseghar 
district was also, at this time, converted to the Muhammadan faith. At length the 
Afghans, having no infidels to plunder, and insufficient land to yield them a sub- 
sistence, began to take service under the Ghazniwid Sultans, from whom they 
obtained the district of Bagram, now known as Peshawer, as a feudal fief.t Of 
the countries to the north, such as Suwat and Bajawarr, w^hich were in the hands of 

* The great-grandfather of Muhammad. 

t The account contained in the i^^^-r^'] ip[j * (Gardens of Friendship), by Mahabbat Khan, differs in some respects 
from the preceding narration. He says, " Up to the time of the Prophet of Islam, the descendants of Afghanah dwelt in tlic 
Salman mountains, at which period Kais was their chief. He subsequently went to Arabia to do homage to Muhammad, 
taking with him eleven persons of his tribe, who with himself became converts to the new faith. 

" He returned to his native land, but in the following year he again returned to Arabia with seventy of his tribe, and 
joined the followers of Muhammad a short time previous to his attack on Makka, in which affair, and the subsequent 
operations, Kais behaved so well that the title of ^abd-ur-Rashid was conferred on him, and he soon after returned to his 

" After the death of Muhammad, Kais -SJabd-ur-Rashld, with a number of his people, followed the two succeeding KhalTfs 
in their wars ; and when the Khallf Osman determined on the conquest of Khorasan, he requested Kais to obey the orders of 
iEabd-uUah bin ^aCarair bin Karez, who had been appointed to head the expedition. This chief had been directed to settle the 
Afghan tribe with their families, after the conquest of that province, between it and Hindustan, that they might become 
a barrier against invasion from the latter country. Kais assisted in the conquest of Khorasan, after which the tract of country 
Ipng between Hirat and Kandahar was bestowed on him and his tribe, subject to the governor of the pro\ince. 

" At the period of the struggles between the Omeyahs and AbbasTs, which ended in favour of the latter, the Government 
of Khorasan was administered by Hujaj bin Yusuf, Sakafl, who sent an expedition into Hindustan, under his nephew Kusim 
bin Muhammad bin Tusuf, Sakafl, who was accompanied by a strong body of Afghans. They advanced through the district 
of Eoh,i and at length reached Multfrn, after annexing the former district, which was made over to the Afghan tribes, willi 
directions to keep under the refractory Hindus. From the occupation of Eoh by the Afghans they obtained the name of 

" Sabuktagin, the founder of the Ghazniwid dynasty, and father of the great Mahmiid, entertained a number of Afghans 
in his army. When that ruler died, Ismaail, his son, by the daughter of Alta'kin, the owner of Sabuktagin — for the latter 
was originally a slave — succeeded his father; but Mahmiid, another son by the daughter of the chief of Zabulistan (Kabul), 

1 The Beliichis, and other inhabitants of the Dera Ghazi Khan, and those of the southern part of the Dera Ismseil Khfm 
districts, speak of the mountain range immediately west of the Indus, to the southern boundary of Afghanistan by the name 
of Eoh. See my paper on Eoh : "Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal." 1856, 


the Kafii-s, they got possession by force of arms. They also obtained grants of land 
at Ghazni and Kabul, fi'om Sultan Malimud and his successors ; and by degrees 
began to emigrate from the neighbourhood of Kaseghar, and settled in those^places 
they considered best suited to themselves. Up to the time of Malik Abdal, the 
whole of the tribes considered and obeyed him as their head and chief; but now 
each tribe and village began to choose their own governors, and ceased to pay that 
respect and obedience to his authority which they formerly did ; in fact they fell 
lieadlong into the slough of arrogance and presumption. 

" Abdal was succeeded by his son, Malik Eajar. This prince— a second Nimrud 
—was passionately fond of the sports of the field, in which he spent the best part 
of his days and nights. He was blessed with four sons— -^sau, Niir, Khokar, and 
Makou, the first of whom, a God-fearing and just personage, succeeded him in the 
chieftainship : the others gave name respectively to the Nurzo'e, Khokari, and 
]Makou tribes. 

'^ The remainder of the Abdalis, and other clans, which had up to the present 
period continued to dwell in the Kase^ar district, near the Ta^t-i-Suliman, 
finding it too small to support so many families, began, in the hot season, to migrate 
with their flocks to the neighbourhood of Kandahar, returning again to their old 
haunts at Kase^ar in the winter. 

'' Malik iEsau had three sons — Zirak, Is'hak, and ^ali. At his death he be- 
queathed the turban of authority to Zirak, his sword to Is'hak, and his carpet for 
prayer to ^ali. From tliese two latter the Is'hakzo'e and ^alizo'e branch of the 
Abdalis are descended ; and from them is also descended the only one of the twelve 
dstdnalis^ or families, who are devoted to the priesthood, as already referred to. 

'' Zirak, who was a wise and able chief, governed his tribe with energy and 
ability. He completely rooted out the crimes of impiety, adultery, and dishonesty, 
which appear to have been but too prevalent at the period in question. 

" The five tribes which have been already mentioned as the Abdali clan, viz., 
Is'hakzo'e, ^alTzo'e, Nurzo'e, IQiwaganl, and Makou, are known as the Panjpa'o 

'' My own opinion is, that Malik Abdal \vas a cotemporary of Sultan Mahmud, 
Ghazniwid, and Malik Zirak of Shah Eukh Mirza, son of Amir Timur, Gurgani,* 

opposed him in the succession, and a civil war ensued between tliem. The Afghans, who were dependent in some measure on 
this chief, joined his son-in-law Mahmud, who defeated Ismaojil, and confined him in a fortress. 

" In gratitude for this effectual aid on the part of the Afghanah, Mahmud gave his sister in marriage to Sa'ho, the chief 
of the ti-ibc, by whom he had three sons— Salar, Mas'aeud, and Ghazi, who arc buried at BanTj. 

"When Sultan Mahmud set out on his expedition against Samniith, in Guzerat, he took with him a body of Afghans. 
Several times during the siege of that stronghold, fortune seemed to incline against the Muhammadan arms ; but at length 
the Afghans were brought to the front, who, having fastened the skirts of their garments together, attacked the Ilindus with 
sucli fury that the latter were entirely defeated, but not until the victors, as well as the vanquished, had sustained immense 
loss. In reward for this important service the ' Breaker of Idols ' bestowed on each of the Afghans the Turk! title of Khan : 
their former title of Malik was derived from Malik Taliit."— Rr.\zu-L-MAHA.BB.VT. 

* Timur-i-Lang, commonly written Tamerlane. 


between whose reigns there is a period of some three centuries. As has been 
akeady noticed, the names of the most celebrated chieftains can alone have been 
preserved by their countrymen, whilst those of less fame have sunk into oblivion. 

"The district of Eiidah and Kaseghar, as before stated, not being of sufficient 
extent to support the great number of people to which the Afghans had by this 
time increased, Malik Zirak was induced to send an agent to Shah Eukh Mirzii, at 
Hirat, for the purpose of soliciting a grant of the districts round Kandahar. This. 
request was favourably listened to by the Shah, and Zirak, in consequence, gave 
directions to the Abdali, Barech, Tarin, Jamand, Ghalzo'e, Kakarr, Kasi, Babarr, 
and other tribes — who were more numerous than the extent of their lands could 
support — to proceed to Kandahar, and settle on the lands granted by the Shah in 
that district. To each tribe a portion of land was given, in proportion to the 
number of 'families of which it consisted, and for which they had to pay a small 
tax to the Governor of the province. 

" Zirak had three sons — Popul, Barak, and Alako, from whom have sprung the 
Populzo'es, Barakzo'es, and Alakozo'es. At his death Popul succeeded him in the 
chieftainship of the whole Af^an people. Being a sagacious and intelligent chief, 
and endowed with the tact of government, he kept the whole of the tribes under 
subjection and obedience. They also were generally well satisfied with his govern- 
ment ; but, at the same time, those who showed any opposition to his authority 
were punished by the Kandahar Governors, and this tended still more to keep all 
under proper restraint. 

"Popul had also three sons — Habib, Badu, and Aiyub. The two former were 
by one mother, and the latter by another wife. Some also say that Aiyub was the 
son of the first wife by a former husband. Badil was the ancestor of the Badiizo'es, 
and Aiyub of the Aiyubzo'es. 

" At length Popul, suddenly finding his end approaching, sent for his children ; 
and, after giving them much good advice, and exhorting them to follow in the foot- 
steps of their ancestors, departed this life, leaving the chieftainship of the tribes in 
the hands of his eldest son Habib. 

"The children of Af gh anah, who had now become a numerous people, and had, 
up to this time, generally paid obedience to the authority of their chiefs, began to 
show symptoms of restlessness and dislike to the yoke of Habib' s supremacy. At 
length they commenced quarrelling amongst themselves, and the khels or clans of 
every village, having declared themselves independent, set about nominating their 
own chiefs. All was uproar and confusion ; the rich tyrannized over the poor, and 
the strong plundered the property of the weak ; might was right ; and villany, 
impiety, and depravity, reigned supreme. 

" Malik Habib endeavoured for a long time to stem this torrent of rebellion, 
and regain his lost authority over the people, but without success ; and at length 


not one tribe remained on his side. The Tarlns, Barechis, Ghalzo'es, Kakarrs, 
Shiranis and others, each set up one of their own tribe as pretenders to the chief- 
tainship, raised the standard of revolt, and commenced a civil war. The life of 
Habib was spent in civil contentions, which were entirely without avail. He had 
three sons — Bami, Ismatell, and Hasan, from whom are descended the clans of 
Bamizo'e, Ismaieilzo'e, and Hasanzo'e. 

'' Bfimi who was of a mild disposition, and possessed of manj^ excellent qualities, 
succeeded his father as nominal head of the Afghans. Sultan Bahlol, Lfidl, and his 
son Sikandar, emperors of Hindustan, were on friendly terms with him, and sent 
him from time to time various costly presents. This produced great envy in the 
hearts of the pretenders to the chieftainship, and they despatched agents with 
presents to those potentates. Their agents, without being admitted to an audience 
even, were dismissed with the answer that the Sultans neither knew of, nor recog- 
nized, any other head of the Afghans than Malik Bami. He had four sons — Salih, 
^ali, Zaiyl, and Warukah. They were fathers of large families, and their memory 
has been perpetuated in the separate clans bearing their respective names. 

"Bami died at an advanced age, and the shadow of chieftainship which now 
alone remained descended to his eldest son Salih, who became head of the Habibzo'c 
tribe, which consisted of the three smaller ones of -(33alT, Zaiyl, and Warukah, just 
mentioned, who acknowledged and supported his authority. He was a man of great 
piety and generosity ; and his threshold was never clear from the crowds of poor, 
nor his table from the numerous guests. In his lifetime Shir Shah and SalTm Shah, 
who were of the Shorkhel branch of the Afghans, sat on the throne of Delhi ; and 
the friendship which had sprung up between his father and the Ludlah Emperors 
was renewed and kept up with the former princes also. At length tlie vicissitudes 
of fortune wrested the sovereignty from the grasp of the Liidiahs, and placed it in 
the hand of the Mo^al; but when Shir Shah, in the year 951 of the Hijrah 
(a.d. 1544), sallied forth to regain the throne of his ancestors, the Afghans assisted 
him with a powerful force of their countrymen, and Hindustan was regained. 
When the agents of Malik Salih presented his letter of congratulation to Shir Shah, 
the Emperor observed to his ministers and court, that Malik Salih was not only his 
own chieftain, but that his forefathers, from the time of Malik Af^an, were the 
chiefs of his forefathers also ; and that the family of Malik Salih had no equal in 
rank amongst the whole of the Afghan tribes. Shir Shah, after thus acknowledging 
Salih as his head and chief, and treating his agents with great distinction, dismissed 
them with numerous presents for their master. 

"At length, in the reign of Shah Tahmasib, Sufawl, in the year of the Hijrah 
965, on the night of Monday, the 17th of the month Zii'lhijjah, tlie bright orb of 
Saddo rose from the eastern horizon of the black goat's hair tent of Malik Salih, 
and diffused his refulgent beams on the surrounding world." 


With the birtli of Saddo, the ancestor of the great Ahmad Shah, Abdali, the 
Introduction to the '* Tazkirat-ul-Muluk " closes. 

Sir John Malcohn's words on the origin of the Af^ans are — " Although the 
right of the Afghans to this proud descent is very doubtful, it is evident, from their 
personal appearance, and many of their usages, that they are a distinct race from 
the Persians, Tartars, and Indians, and this alone seems to give credibility to a 
statement which is contradicted by so many strong facts, and of which no direct 
proof has been produced." 

Sir William Jones was of opinion that the Afghans are the Paropamisadae* of 
the ancients ; but this is very improbable, for it is proved by the statements of 
many authorities, besides that of the work from which I have given an extract, and 
many other histories of undoubted authenticity, that the Af gh ans are not the 
aborigines of the country they at present inhabit, but have gradually advanced from 
the west of Asia ; and it is not improbable but that, during the lapse of ages, they 
might have been forced, from various causes, to emigrate from the districts in the 
vicinity of Jerusalem, as stated in the tradition I have quoted. The Seah-posh 
Kafirs are in all probability the Paropamisadae of the writers of antiquity, respecting 
whom, on some future occasion, I hope to offer some remarks.t 

According to the " Makhzan Af gh ani," after Feridiin's victory over Zohak, the 
latter was subjected to such acts of t}T.'anny that his children fled for safety to the 
mountain tract of Ghor, which at that time was only inhabited by a few scattered 
tribes of the Israelites, Afghans, and others. If Jewish families could, at that 
period, have been inhabitants of Ghor, it is equally possible that the Af gh ans them- 
selves might have come originally from the Holy Land, t 

The mountain districts of Afghanistan heard not the "Allahu-Akbar " of the 
conquering Arabs until the fourth or fifth century of the Hijrah, by which time 
the sun of their power had commenced to wane. Up to this time even, we find that 
the Kafirs or infidels inhabited the mountain districts of Ghor, and continued to 
dwell there up to the thirteenth century of our era, when Marco Polo visited those 
regions. § 

The Yilsufzo'e tribes, who now hold the whole of the districts to the north of 
the Landdaey Sind, or eastern half of the Kabul river, || were, even in the time of 

* See Quiutus Curtius'i "Life of Alexander," Book vii. 

t See my "Account of the Seah-pos^ Kafirs," iu the "Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society" for the present year. 

X In the reign of SaosJuckiuus, king of Babylon,, called in Scripture Nebuchodouosor the First (A. M. 3335, Ant. J. C. 
669), the prophet Tobit, who was still alive and dwelt among other captives at Nineveh, a short time before his death, foretold 
to his children the sudden destruction of the city, of which at that time there was not the least appearance. He advised 
them to quit the place before its ruin came on, and to depart as soon as they had buried him and his wife. The Jews, being 
at this time captives, would— if they had followed the advice of Tobit — have had, in the first place, to escape from Nineveh by 
stealth , and, having accomplished this much, where could they hope to find a more secure retreat than towards the east, and 
in the direction of the mountainous tracts now inhabited by the Afghan tribes .' See Tobit, c. xiv., v. 5-13. 

§ "Travels of Marco Polo ;" Marsden's Translation. Book I., chap, xxii., pp. 122. 

il Landdaey Sind, in Pu^shto signifies the " Little river," in contradistinction to the Aba Sind, or " Father of rivers," as 
the Indus is termed. 


Baber, but new comers ; and in this, his statement agrees with the account in the 
" Tazkirat-ul-Muluk." In another place Baber mentions the people of Bajawarr as 
" rebels to the followers of Islam ; and, besides their rebellion and hostility, they 
followed the customs and usages of infidels, while even the name of Islam was extir- 
pated from among them."* From this it appears that the people of the country 
had been converted to Muhammadanism, and relapsed again to idolatry, but were 
not A fgh ans, t 

Xowab Allah Yar Khan, son of the Nowab Hafiz Eahmat ^an, % in the preface 
to a lexicographical work of which he is the author, states that " there are two 
divisions of the Afghans, whose language also differs in many respects, so that the 
words used by some tribes are not known to, or understood by, others. They are 
termed Pushtiin and Pukhtiin, and they speak the Pushto and Pukhto respectively. § 
The former is the western dialect, having some affinity to the Persian; and the 
latter the eastern, containing many Sanskrit and Hindi words. The people who 
dwell about Kabul and Kandahar, Shora'wak and Pishin, are designated Bar 
Puslitun, or Upper Af gh ans, from ♦:> above ; and those occupying the district of Eoh, 
which is near Hind (India), are called Lar Pukhtiin, or Lower Af gh ans, from *j heloiv. 

He describes Eoh — about which there has been great diversity of opinion — as 
''bounded on the east by Suwat and Kashmir, west by the Helmund river, north by 
Kashkar or Chitral and Kafiiistan, and south by the river or sea of Bukker, called 
in Persian Nilab (the Blue Water), and Nil'aow or Aba-Sin (the Father of Eivers) 
by the Afghans." 

The author of the " Ferang-i-Jehangiri " gives a somewhat similar account of 
it. " Eoh," he says, " is the name of a range of lofty mountains, in length extend- 
ing from Suwat and Bajawarr to Slwni, or Siwa'i, which is in the district of Bukker, 
in Sind; and in breadth from Hasan Abdal (in the Sind Sagur Doaba, of the Panjab) 
to Kandahar : and in this highland range the latter city is situated." 

I have been told by Af^ans in the vicinity of Peshawer, and other places, that 
their ancestors first came from a district named Ghwari Mar^ab, which they said 
lies to the westward of Khorasan. This is, however, a mistake ; a small village, 
bearing that name, and the place referred to by them, is situated about mid-way 
between Kandahar, Shora'wak, and Girishk, which is one of the old seats of the 
Afghan tribes who now occupy the Peshawer valley. Ghor, supposed to have been 
the original district of the Af^anah, lies much to the north. It was from this 
latter place that the Ghorian tribe issued in the year 1152 a.d., when they over- 
turned the throne of the Ghazniwid Sultans. 

* "Baber's Memoirs" page 248, 

t "Although Bajour, Sewad, Peshour, and Hashnagar, originally belonged to Kabul, yet at the present time some of 
these districts have been desolated, and others of them entirely occupied by the tribes of Afghans, so that they can no longer 
be properly regarded as provinces," — Ibid, page 141. 

I The author of the " Khullasat-ul-Ansab." § Merely in substituting sh for Kh, z for gjz for/, etc. 


The diversity of opinion regarding the origin of the Afghrmah, is not greater 
than that respecting their language, of which, at the time I write, with the 
exception of a small brochure by the late Major E. Leech of the Bombay Army, no 
grammar exists.* It is to be hoped that the present work, together with the 
Dictionary which is published consentaneously with it, will enable the learned both 
of Europe and India, to give a better, and more decided opinion than heretofore on 
the affinity of the Afghan language to the languages of ancient Asia.t 

Sir William Jones's opinion was, that the Pushto or Pukhto language has a 
manifest resemblance to the Chaldaic, but Professor Klaproth vehemently denies 
this, and states, that nothing whatever is known regarding this dialect ; | that 
neither in words nor grammatical structure is there the slightest resemblance 
between Pushto and any Semitic language, and that it is unquestionably a branch 
of the great Indii-Germanic division of languages. 

I cannot refrain from remarking here, that it appears most astonishing that 
persons, who cannot possibly have had any opportunity of becoming practically 
acquainted with a language, or even with the correct pronunciation of its alphabet, 
can venture opinions, often very decided, as to its origin and similarity with other 
tongues, with which they may even be less acquainted, or of which they may have 
only a slight theoretical idea, derived at second-hand from translations alone ; for 
sui'ely no one would venture to give an opinion of a language from original MSS. 
which no one within a thousand miles can decipher ! 

"A little knowledge is a daugerous thing, Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring." 

Professor Dorn of St. Petersburgh — who some few years since published a work 
on the Pushto language § — in the preface to his translation of " Neamet Ullah," gives 
as his oj)inion, that the Pushto language bears not the slightest resemblance to the 
Hebrew or Chaldaic, either in its grammar or vocabulary ; || and he imagines the 
Af^ans may belong to the great Indu-Teutonic family of nations, and are abo- 
rigines of the country they at present inhabit. This latter opinion, however, is 
proved to be an erroneous one, from the writings of various authors, and many well 
authenticated facts. 

The Baptist Missionaries of Serampiir consider that the Pushto and the 

* Since writing the ahove, Captain Vaughan, of the Bengal Aimy, has published a short " Grammar of the Pooshtoo." 

t A copious Dictionary, and a Text-Book containing selections in prose and verse from the works of the most standard 
authors, is now published, uniform with this work, 

X It is to be hoped the Professor wiU change his opinion now as regards the latter part of this sentence. 

§ " A Chrestomathy of the Ptjshtu Language, with a Glossary." St. Petersburg, 1847. The work consists of extracts 
from a few of the best known Pushto authors, amongst which the odes of Midla iEabd-ui--Eahmun predominate. The text 
appears to have been printed from a recent and incorrect MS., and consequently is full of errors. In the Glossary, the 
meanings of many of the Pushto words are merely guessed at (!) and are very wide of the mark. 

II If we are to take the Glossary of Prof. Dorn as a specimen of the vocabulary of the Pushto, I should say the language 
bears more than a strong resemblance to Hebrew, Chaldaic, and other Semitic dialects, seeing that this Glossary contain.^ 
ninety per cent, of pure Arabic words. See pages 388, 389, and 390, in which there is not one Pushto word ; with two or 
three exceptions, they are all pure Arabic. 


Beliicli* languages form the connecting link between those of Sanskrit and 
those~of Hebrew origin ;t but, if we are to take their so-called translation of the 
:N'ew Testament (see subsequent note) as a specimen of their knowledge of Pushto, 
they are not authorities in the matter. 

M. Adelung, in his " Mithridates." vol. i. page 225, considers Pushto an original 
and peculiar dialect, but at the same time acknowledges his acquaintance with it to 

be very slight. 

Mr. Elphinstone, in his work on Kabul, vol. i. page 302, with reference to the 
Afo'han languao;e, considers that its origin cannot be easily discovered. He 
remarks, " a large portion of the words that compose it, as also most of the verbs 
and particles, belong to an unknown root, and in this portion are included most of 
those words which, from the early necessity for designating the objects they repre- 
sent, must have formed parts of the original language ; yet some of this very class 
belong to the Zend and Pehlavi, such as the terms for father and mother, sister and 
brother." He also further states, that out of two hundred and eighteen Pushto 
words, not one had the smallest appearance of being deducible from any of the 
Semitic languages ; but that a resemblance (five out of one hundred and ten words) 
can be traced between it and the Kurdish, considered to be an Indii- Germanic tongue. J 

One of the most decided proofs against the erroneous idea that the Afghans 
are the aborigines of the territory they at present inhabit, and that the Pushto 
is the original dialect of those countries, consist in the facts brought to light 
in the deciphering of the Bactrian and Indri-Scythian coins. M. Lassen, in his 
interesting and erudite work§ on this subject, very truly observes; '^ I indeed 
know that some have pretended to recognize the Af gh ans in Eastern Kabul, 
even as early as Alexander's time; hot so Mr. Elphinstone, || who rather proves 
their immigration into Kabul at a much later period. This conjecture has originated 
with Professor Wilken,f who thinks he recognizes the Af gh ans in the Assakanes. 
If these were indeed Afghans, the Afghan language would have been spoken 
throughout Kabul, and the language of the coins must be the source of the 
Pushto. Without observing that neither ancient authorities nor modern Afghan 
history** admit or require this supposition, the correct assertion of the learned 

* The Beluchkl is a mixture of Persian, Sindlil, PanjabT, Hindi, and Sanskrit, with some apparently exotic words, and 
cannot properly be called an original language. 

t They also notice the numerous pure Hebrew roots to be found in Pushto, which is not astonishing, considering that 
those roots are alike cognate to the Arabic and other dialects of the Semitic, which, being the sacred language of Islam, has 
entered largely into every Muhammadau tongue, and for which words there is generally no equivalent in them. 

X This probably refers to the vocabulary contained in the work in question, in which about one quarter of the words, or 
more, may be identified with Arabic and its cognates, and many others with Persian and Sanskrit. 

§ "Points in tut: history of the Greek and Indl-Scythian Kings in Bactria, K.vbul, and India," p. 116. 

II " Account of Caudul," vol. ii., pp. 10, 33, 44, 50, and oG. 1[ " Abhandlg. der Berlin Acad.," 1818-19, p. 261. 

** Baber does not mention anything about Afghans at Kabul, when ho took that city in the month of October, 1504 ; 
but he notices the tribe of TarkolarmT Afghans in Lamghun, a district on the northern bank of the Kabul river, and im- 
mediately west of Jelrdabfid. The TarkolaiTni tribe now occupy the country of Bajawrr, much further to the west. 


Academician himself, that the Afghans belonged to the Medo-Persic tribe, is at 
variance with it : the Assakanes inhabited a country, where even, in the 7th 
century, a.d., an Indian language was spoken." 

As the learned Professor urges — if the Afghans were the aborigines of the 
counti'ies they at present inhabit, the Afghan language must, as a matter of 
course, have been generally spoken. Had such been the case, the language on 
the coins must have been the source of the Pushto ; but no similarity whatever 
exists between them. 

The Af gh ans, although subdivided into numerous tribes, are undoubtedly 
one race, and speak one original language. Had they been the aborigines of 
the country at present known as Afghanistan, we must have heard something 
of them from ancient writers, for we find that, even in the time of Herodotus, 
Darius had sent an exploring expedition under Scylax of Caryanda and others 
as far as the Indus.* That the whole of the regions west of Jelalabad, or even 
as far west as Kabul, were peopled by a Hindu race, most ancient writers agree 
to, as also that they were of different tribes and spoke different languages. 
Herodotus says : " There are many nations of Indians, and they do not speak 
the same language as each other; some of them are l^omades, and others not."t 

Again the father of history observes : '' There are other Indians bordering 
on the city of Caspatyrus and the country of Pactyica, settled northwards of 
the other Indians, whose mode of life resembles that of the Bactrians."i The 
country here referred to — the same as Scylax and his companions started from 
on their voyage down the river — is the present district of Pakli, north of Attak. 
The Indians here mentioned are, in all probability, the ancestors of the race 
who still occupy that district, — the Suwatis, and the people of Astor and Gilgitt. 

It is therefore evident that the Afghans have immigrated into their present 
territories from the westward ; § and that the aborigines — the Seah-posh Kafirs, 

* " A great part of Asia was explored under the direction of Darius. He, being desirous to know where the Indus, which 
is the second river that produces crocodiles, discharged itself into the sea, sent in ships both others on whom he could rely to 
make a true report, and also Scylax of Caryanda. They accordingly, setting out from the city of Caspatyrus and the country 
of Pactyica, sailed down the river towards the east and sunrise to the sea." — " Melpomene," iv., p. 44. 

t " Thalia," iii., p. 98. + Ibid, iii., p. 102. 

§ The empire of the Great Cyrus extended, according to the best authorities, from the JEgcan to the Indus, and from the 
Euxine and Caspian to Ethiopia and the Arabian sea. As it was customary to transport a whole tribe, and sometimes even 
a whole nation, from one country to another, and as the Jews were ever a stiff-necked race, is it not possible that the Great 
King may have transported some of the most troublesome amongst them to the thinly-peopled provinces of the east, where 
they would be too far away from their native land and captive countrymen to give trouble in future ? Or, as I have remarked 
in another place, is it not probable, as well as possible, that those of the Jews who could effect their escape might have fled 
eastward, preferring a wandering life in a mountainous country, with independence, to the grinding tjTanny of Cyrus's suc- 
cessors and their Satraps ? In fact, there was no other direction to which they could have fled, except towards the north, 
inhabited by the Scythians, who would have massacred, or at least made slaves of them, or have sold them as such ; or east- 
ward, which, being mountainous and but thinly peopled, was likely to afford them a permanent and secure retreat. According 
to Nifematu-1-lah, Zohak's children, to escape the exterminating vengeance of Feridun, fled for refuge to the Kohistan of 
Ghor, and settled there ; and, at his time, its only inhabitants were some scattered tribes of the Israelites, Afghans, and others. 

There are a number of Jews to be found in the south-west parts of India, and in the Bombay Army there are a great 
number. Where did they come from ? and when did they come ? 

Again, in the fifth year of Darius (A.M. 3488; Ant. J. C. 516), Babylon revolted, and could not be reduced until after 


or Black-clad Pagans; the Suwatis ; and the people inhabiting the hills to the 
north-east of Suwat, on the one side, and possibly the Beluchls and Jatts, on 
the other — have been forced, by the gradual advance of this powerful race, to 
move to the north-east and south-west respectively. 

I formerly entertained an idea that some affinity might exist between Pushto 
and the language of that strange people, the Gypsies, but subsequent inquiries 
have convinced me to the contrary, and I find that no trace of similarity exists 

between them. 

Whether the A fgh an language be a dialect of the Semitic, of Zend, or Pehlavi 
orio-in or of the Indian stock, I will leave for others better qualified to decide. 
Before entering into any investigation on the subject, it must be borne in mind 
that "no efi'orts of the learned can ever so far alter a language, as to deface 
everv line of resemblance between the speech of the present day and that of 
even the remotest ancestry : nothing but the absolute extirpation of the aboriginal 
natives can apparently accomplish so singular a revolution."* As an instance 
of this, we have merely to examine the present language of Persia, and the 
diff*erent dialects of the continent of India ; or for a still more convincing proof, 
to look into the Gothic and Celtic original of the modern European languages, 
amidst the polish and refinement of the Greek and Latin. 

Before bringing these rambling remarks to a close, I must notice a few of 
the most striking peculiarities of the Pushto language, which will, in some measure, 
serve as a guide in investigations as to its origin and affinity to the other dialects of 
the Asiatic continent. It will, however, be well, first to point out the best and 
most efiectual method of ascertaining the real affinity of Oriental languages. 

Baron "William Humboldt, in an essay on this highly important subject, 
remarks : "I confess that I am extremely averse to the system which proceeds 
on the supposition that we can judge of the affinity of languages merely by a 
certain number of ideas expressed in the difi'erent languages which we wish to 
compare. I beg you will not suppose, however, that I am insensible to the 
value and utility of the comparisons ; on the contrary, when they are well 
executed, I appreciate all their importance; but I can never deem them suffi- 
cient to answer the end for which they have been undertaken. They certainly 
form part of the data to be taken into account in deciding on the affinity of 

a siege of twenty months. It is therefore probable that the Jews, of whom a considerable number remained at Babylon, went 
out of the city before the siege was formed, as the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah had exhorted them long before, and Zachariah 
very lately in the following terms : " Thou daughter of Zion, that dwellcst with the daughter of Babylon, flee from the 
country and save thyself."— Isaiah, chap, xlviii., verse 20 ; Jeremiah, chap. 1., verse 8, chap, li., verses 6,9-45 ; Zachariah, 
chap. ii. 

It also appears that Ochus, son of Artaxcrxes Mnemon, carried a number of Jewish captives into Egypt, and many others 
into Hyrcania, where he settled them on the coast of the Caspian (A. M. 3653, Ant. J. C. 351) ; might not some have been 
sent eastward also ?— See " Solin. C." 35, " Euseb. in Chron." etc. 

* Richardson's " Dissertation." 


languages ; but we should never be guided by them alone, if we wish to arrive at 
a solid, complete, and certain conclusion. If we would make ourselves acquainted 
with the relation between two languages, we ought to possess a thorough and pro- 
found knozvledge of each of them. This is the principle dictated alike by common 
sense and by that precision acquired by the habit of scientific research. 

"I do not mean to say that, if ive are unable to attain a profound hiotvledge 
of each idiom, we should on this account entirely suspend our judgment : I 
only insist on it that tve should not prescribe to ourselves arbitrarii limits, and 
imagine that we are forming our judgment on a firm basis, while in reality it 
is insufficient. 

"But further, I am convinced that it is only by an accurate examination 
of the grammar of languages, that we can pronounce a decisive judgment on 
theii- true affinities. 

" If two languages, such, for instance, as the Sanskrit and the Greek, exhibit 
grammatical forms which are identical in arrangement, and have a close analogy 
in their sounds, we have an incontestible proof that these two languages belong 
to the same family. 

" The difference between the real affinity of languages, which presumes affilia- 
tion, as it were, among the nations who speak them, and that degree of relation 
which is purely historical, and only indicates temporary and accidental connec- 
tions among nations, is, in my opinion, of the greatest importance. !N'ow it 
appears to me impossible ever to ascertain that difference merely by the exami- 
nation of words, especially if we examine but a small number of them. 

" But whatever opinion may be entertained with respect to this manner of 
considering the difference of languages, it appears to me at all events ■demonstrated : 
First, that all research into the affinity of languages, which does not enter quite 
as much into the examination of the grammatical system as into that of words, 
is faulty and imperfect; and, secondly, that the proofs of the real affuiity of 
languages, that is to say, the question whether two languages belong to the 
same family, ought to be principally deduced from that alone ; since the identity 
of words only proves a resemblance such as may be purely historical and acci- 

There are nine letters of the Arabic alphabet which never occur in pure Af gh an 
words,— tJL.', 7", .i, (^, j^. Is, ]i, 9, and L-5 ; and therefore the language really 
contains but twenty -nine letters, including five peculiar ones, to which, after a 
careful comparison of six hundred alphabets, I find that there is no similarity 
as to form or sound, either in Arabic, Zend, or Sanskrit ; but characters similar 
in sound are contained in most of the Semitic, and some Tartarian dialects. The 
Pushto letters with the corresponding ones in the languages referred to are as 
follow : — 


A. ts or ts, pronounced ise or t^e, has an equivalent in the Chaldaic <^ ts, 
Hebrew ^ tsode, Samaritan ili tsdde, Syriac ^ tsode, Ethiopic and Amharic A tsa, 
Armenian '^ ^ tsa, Palmy ren & ts, Phoenician ^ or ^ ts, Punic X ^^5 Kufic ^ ts, 
Georgian Cj ts, Mongolish " ts, Mandchu 3 tsa, Thibetan k ts, Albanian. % I ts, 
Coreau X A ^^j ^'^^ ^^^ Japanese :P ^ > tse. 

f. dz or ds, pronounced dze or dse, similar to the Hebrew T dsain, Aramaic | ds, 
Palmyren I ds, Phoenician ~Z_ ds, Kufic J ds, Syriac 1 1. dzain, the Assyrian cunei- 
form 3 ^f dz or ffe, Armenian "o^ * <^^«, Greek ^ zeta, Georgian ^ ds, Mongolish 
^ £- ds, Corean x A ^'^j Mandchu ^ ^ ds, and Japanese ^^' c?^. 

J iirray, or r/'c^, for which, with the exception, perhaps, of the harsh W "^ rli 
of the Armenian, there is no equivalent in any of the known dialects of the old 
world. Some persons, and among them Major Leech, have considered the Sanskrit 
lingual ^ as similar in sound ; * but it is merely necessary to hear it pronounced 
by an A fgh an mountaineer to convince any one of the total difference ; indeed 
it is almost impossible to give a proper idea of its sound in writing. 

^j4s Wjun or shey, bears some similarity to the > ^ li''ch of the Chaldaic, and 
with this exception, no sound like it is to be found amongst the letters of the 
six hundred alphabets before referred to.t 

J or ^ urnin or rrlin, is a combination of the sound of urjyuj and ^ niin, 
the latter nasal. It is quite impossible to acquire the real pronunciation, except 
from an Afghan mouth when using such a Avord as ^yu hUrmah, the eye-lash, 
or i^S^ liarjnaeii, stone. The ^^j run of the Sindhian language is like it in 

Pushto also, lilie the Semitic dialects, of which family I am inclined to consider 
it, has the Vli with a strong aspiration, to which sound the Persians have an 
unconquerable antipathy ; indeed, their mouths seem to be so formed as to be 
unable to utter it. Like the Jews and Egyptians, as well as the Arabs, the 
Af^ans uniformly give the hard sounds, tli, d''h, ds, dtz, dz, etc., to those 
characters which the Persians have ever softened to z and s. The pronun- 
ciation too, is somewhat difficult on account of the use of several gutturals, and 
the combinations of such letters as (w-w, ^, L^ii^, etc., which are difficult to 
enunciate. ^ 

In harshness of pronunciation, and in the declensions of its nouns, it bears 
resemblance to the Zend and Pehlavi ; and, like the former language, can be, 
and often is, written in old works, on which alone we can place dependence, by 
distinct letters in the body of each word, instead of introducing the short vowels. 
Of the affinity of the Zend and Sanskrit, at present there is no doubt ; but the 

* Pushto ^ is equivalent to Sanskrit ^ 

t See " Die ScHiiiFTZEicHEN DBS gesammten Erdkreises." Vienna. 1851. Also, " Alphabete orientalischer 
UND occiDENTALiscHER," Sprachen zum Gebrauch fiir Scliriftsetzcr luul Correctoren, Leipzig. 1850. 


Pehlavi appears to have a greater affinity to the Arabic, and to differ little from 
the present language of Persia.* 

In Arabic and Persian it is impossible to sound a consonant which may be 
the first letter of a word, without the aid of a vowel, whilst in Pushto there 
are numbers of words beginning with a consonant immediately followed by another ; 
as, ^JLishpa/i, 'night ;' ^jj rwach, 'day ;' \t> ghld^ 'theft ;' ^icX-* Mlmtah, ' below.' 

The vowels and consonants used in Pushto have the same powers as those 
of the Arabic, Hebrew, and other Semitic dialects. Like them, it has but two 
genders, — the masculine and feminine ; but the former have a dual form, which 
is wanting in Pushto. In this respect the Afghan also differs distinctly from 
the Zend and the Sanskrit, both of which have a neuter gender, but agrees 
with the Pehlavi, from which the modern Persian is derived. In common with 
the Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian, it has the peculiar separable and inseparable 
pronouns, the latter being invariably attached to some preceding word, whether 
a noun, verb, or particle. When attached to nouns they signify possession 
or propriety ; with intransitive verbs in the course of conjugation, they are 
used in the place of personal pronouns ; and, with transitives, point out the 
objective case, t This is also a peculiar feature of the Sindhian language, 
which has several letters in common with Pushto, besides its own peculiar 
ones. The inflections of the Afghan verbs too, are formed according to the 
Arabic and Hebrew system, from two original tenses only — the mcizi or past, 
and the miizdrice or aorist, the past participle being used in the construction of 
the compound tenses, with the aid of the auxiliary, to he. Another peculiarity 
is, that the intransitive verbs agree in gender with the nominative, whilst the 
transitives are governed, both in gender and number, by the objective case. In 
many respects the Pushto syntax agrees with that of the Hebrew; and I have 
no doubt but that much greater affinity will be found to exist between them, 
if compared by any one well versed in the latter language. 

The Pushto language is spoken with slight variation in orthography 
and pronunciation, from the valley of Pishin, south of Kandahar, to Kafiiistan, 
on the north ; and from the banks of the Helmand, on the west, to the Attak, 
Sindhu, or Indus, on the east — tliroughout the Sama or plain of the Yusufzo'es ; 
the mountainous districts of Bjijawrr, PanjkoraJ Suwat, and Buner, to Astor, 
on the borders of Little Thibet — an immense tract of country, equal in extent 
to the entire Spanish peninsula. 

The numerous convulsions to which the country of the children of Af^anah 

* Sir William Jones stated that " liaviug compared a Pehlavi translation of the inscription in the Gulistan on the diadem 
of Cyrus, and from the Pazend -words in the Ferang-i Jehrmgiri, he became convinced that the Pehlavi is a dialect of thf 
Chaldaic." — Asiatic Eesearches. 

t See "Hebrew Gramjiar," by Professor Lee, p. 80, Art. 153, p. 260, Art. 220. Loudon. 1827- 

X Kor is the Pui^to for ' house,' and Panj the Persian for ' five.' 



has been subjected for the last seventy or eighty years, have necessarily affected 
their language also ; hence the great variation observable in the orthography and 
mode of writing of modern Pushto works. On this account, no dependence what- 
ever can be placed on any manuscript of later date than the reign of the founder 
of the Durani empire, — Ahmad Shah, Abdali (one of their poetical authors), or, 
at furthest, of his son, Timiir Shah ; for it is almost impossible to find two copies 
of an author, unless written by one person, agreeing on these essential points. 
I have in my possession a rare prose work, which was written in the reign of 
the Emperor Aurangzeb, which I picked up in a most out-of-way place — a pawn 
shop at Bombay. The mode of writing and orthography in it, I have generally 
adopted, together with that of the Makhzan Afghani, one of the earliest works 
we know of, throughout the following pages. 

The assistance which I have derived from a knowledge of the dialects of the 
neighbouring territories, to six of which I have devoted many years, has been 
very great, indeed more than I can well express. It has enabled me to trace 
words of Arabic, Persian, Tilrki, Sanskrit, and Hindi origin, greatly garbled in 
orthography, and vitiated in pronunciation, which a person unacquainted with 
them in any way would, in all probability, set down as pure Pushto. 

As an example of this, I will mention one instance alone. M. Klaproth, 
in his apparent eagerness for classing the Beliich language, which is a mixture 
of Persian, Sindhi, Panjabi, Hindi, and Sanskrit, amongst the Indu-Germanic 
family of tongues, commits an error, from, I fancy, ignorance of the Persian 
language. He gives the following table : — * 











Now the Persian for six is ^-i* shash^ and seven is C-.Ai» haft^ which two 
words, to all appearance, have a greater affinity to the Belilch words here men- 
tioned, than to either German, Latin, Greek, or English ; in fact, they are pre- 
cisely the same words, for cJ (/) is used for and pronounced ^ {p) indiscriminately, 
and would be written exactly the same in both languages. If we consider that 
Beliichistan is merely separated from the Persian province of Kirman by a range 
of mountains, the similarity is naturally accounted for, without leaving Asia for 
that purpose, as the learned Professor appears to have done, — '' Ea sub oculis 
posita negligimus: proximorum incuriosi, longinqua sectamur." 

I think it will be generally allowed that, at the present time, a knowledge 
of the language of Af^anistan is a desideratum, holding as we do the Derajat, 

* I am indebted for this to Thornton's "Gazetteer." 


Banu Tiik, Koliatt, Peshawer, and the Samali, or Plain of the Yusufzo'es, through- 
out which districts, with the exception of Dera Ghazi Khan, nine-tenths of the 
people speak no other dialect. By being acquainted with this language, an officer 
can communicate personally with the people of the country, and give ear to their 
complaints, without the aid of moonshees and others as interpreters. In respect 
to police officers, they can thereby communicate their secret orders direct, without 
fear of betrayal by a third party. Much discontent and heart-burning is enkindled 
in the minds of the Afghans, who are by nature a proud, fiery, and independent 
race, from having to come into contact with natives of Hindustan, whom they hold 
in supreme contempt ; and their former triumphs over whom, at Paniput and other 
places, they do not appear to have forgotten. 

We have also in Sindh and the Panjab seven local infantry corps,* which contain 
at least a proportion of one half Af gh ans or Rohilas, whose native tongue is Pus^to, 
and many of whom understand Hindiistani but imperfectly from the lips of a 
qualified interpreter. A translation of the Articles of War can be easily made, of 
which a specimen will be found in the apj)endix to this Grammar. At Courts 
Martial a colloquial knowledge is indispensable ; and all officers in those corj)S, as 
well as others holding appointments, of whatever description, beyond the Indus, 
should be expected to qualify themselves in the Pushto language. The plea 
hitherto has been the want of books, but I trust that my humble efi'orts during 
the last nine years will have removed that excuse. 

The Eussians appear to have paid considerable attention to, and to have made 
some progress in, the study of Pushto, if we may judge fr^om the work (although 
containing very numerous errors) published some time since by Professor Dorn, 
of St. Petersburg, who was the first to produce a work in the language. 

The age of Dost Muhammad Khan is now so great, that in all probability a 
year or two more must terminate the earthly career of that extraordinary man. 
His death will be the signal for the commencement of civil dissensions, and doubt- 
less many astonishing changes will take place in Afghanistan. Opportunities may 
offer themselves for the renewal of friendly intercourse between the two nations, 
which should not be allowed to pass ; and trade and commerce should be encouraged 
by all and every legitimate means. This effected, there is not much fear of the 
Russians establishing themselves in Afghanistan ; although, should they even 
succeed in debouching from the Khaiber Pass on the plain of Jamrud, there is not 
much doubt but that they will merely add other heaps to the bones which have 
already whitened on that scene of numerous conflicts. 

The object of Russia, however, does not appear to be Af^anistan alone :t for 

* This force has been very largely increased within the last two years, and now amounts to some thii-ty regiments, or even 
more, many of which, consisting entirely of Afghans, behaved nobly before Dehli and other places during the late rebellion. 

t " One of the principal objects he (Prince Gortschakoff, Governor- General of Siberia,) had in view, was the organization 
of a Russian settlement through the Kii-ghis Steppes, in the direct line to Thibet. The distance, as the crow flies, from Omsk 



twelve years back we have heard of their having established a line of Cossack 
posts, provided with guns, and all the munitions of war, on nine of the twelve 
hundred versts of desert, which separates the city of Omsk, the capital of Western 
Siberia, from the Thibetan frontier. 

Peshawer, some fifty or sixty years since, was one of the principal seats of 
Muhammadan learning, and by many was considered a more learned city than even 
Bokhara itself. 

The custom is for boys and girls of from five to twelve years of age to go to 
the same school. After learning the letters, they immediately commence reading 
the Kuran in Arabic, but of course without understanding it. On its completion 
they begin to read some Pushto work, usually a commentary on the Kuran, or an 
explanation of the rites and ceremonies of their faith, such as may be found in 
the simple little work entitled Eashid-ul-By'an, or some such religious subject. 
After the twelfth year, the girls either attend a dame's school, or, if their parents 
can afi'ord it, are taught at home. Sometimes boys under twelve years of age, go 
to a dame's school with grown up girls of fifteen and upwards ; but this custom 
is only prevalent at a distance from towns, as in most large places there are sepa- 
rate schools for males and females. The scholars either pay a small sum monthly 
to their teacher, or make him a present after having completed the perusal of the 
Kuran, according to the position and means of their parents. Amongst some tribes 
a portion of land is allotted to the Mulla or Priest, who also acts as village 

to the frontier of Thibet, is twelve hundred versts : through a part of this desert the natives are on fi'iendly terms with the 
Russians. So soon, therefore, as a permanent settlement is established through the whole distance, immense advantages will 
be gained to Russian commerce. At this moment this object is accomplished in nine hundred versts, or three quarters of the 
way. A line of Cossacks is permanently formed, provided with guns, ammunition, and aU the necessaries for a fixed residence, 
which may be liable to hostile incursions from time to time. The Kirghis, however, stand in such awe of the Cossacks, and the 
benefits they derive from trading with Russia arc so great, that the caravans now go as securely the whole nine hundred versts, as 
in any part of the empire. Every summer sees some fresh point gained; and there is no doubt, that in a few years, the Russian 
dominion will only end where that of Thibet begins. They were for some time stopped by a district more desert and in- 
hospitable than the rest, which was supposed to reach to the Thibetan frontier ; but it has been discovered by a Cossack, who 
was three years prisoner in the country, that it only extends about ninety versts, and he described the other side of it as being 
fertile, well watered, and altogether different from the other Steppes. There will, therefore, probably be no fiu-ther obstacle 
to their progress, and a glance at the map will show that they are much nearer to our Indian frontier here, than by any other 
road they can take. 

" Once established as far as the boundary of Thibet, the Russians wiU have no great difficulty in obtaining a footing in it, 
and a transit for their merchandize to India would be a matter of course. 

" There is at Omsk a military school where five hundred boys are educated, who are to become soldiers, most of them being 
soldiers' children, some few Kirghis, and the sons of exiles. The establishment is admirably conducted : we went over it 
several times, and nothing could exceed the regularity and order which prevailed. There is another military school for 
Cossacks only, and the boys are destined for a different career in some respects from the others. We may safely defy any 
country in the world to produce an establishment in any way superior to this ; our only doubt is, if it is not too good for those 
who are brought up in it, considering what then- future destination is likely to be. The boys are taught drawing, algebra, 
languages, history, and fortification ; the first class, who were aU under seventeen years of age, studied principally the Oriental 
languages, and arc intended for interpreters and agents in the East. We were told by General Schramm, who has the super- 
intendence of the school, that most of those Avho composed the fii-st class understood Mongolish, Arabic, and Persian, and have 
also native youths to teach them the patois of the nomadic tribes. 

"We cannot, however, wonder, when these pains are taken in the wilds of Siberia to educate boys for the services they ' 
are to perform as men, that Russian diplomatic agents should be so superior to our own ; and the habit of thinking such a 
preparation must have created, cannot fail to give them great advantages as negotiators and general agents." — Recollections 
OF Siberia in the Years 1840 and 1841, by C. H. Cottrell, Esq. London : J. W. Parker. 


Unlike most eastern nations, the Af gh ans appear to regard women in a great 
measure on an equality with themselves, in this world at least; and the latter 
generally receive some sort of education. 

Many of the A fgh an females are famous for their knowledge of Pushto, which 
they both read and write ; indeed most of the works on religious subjects, and the 
rites and ceremonies of the Muhammadan faith, appear to be perused by them more 
than by the men. The daughter of the late Dalll Khan, Arbab, or chief of Torii,* 
is justly celebrated for her learning, and general proficiency in the Afghan language. 
Another young person dwelling in the Yusuf-zi district, supports herself, and 
also assists her family, by copying Pushto books. She writes a nice hand, and 
copies very correctly : the MS. copy from which my Text Book is printed is chiefly 
from her pen. The custom with all copyists is, to write their names, and the date 
on which they complete a work, on. the last page ; but it being considered a breach 
of delicacy for a female to sign her own name, she inserts that of her father instead. 

The young woman to whom I now refer is unmarried, and declares her intention 
of leading a single life, and devoting herself to literature. Considering the abject 
state in which the Muhammadan women are kept, I think this a very favourable 
feature in the Afghan character. 

The Afghan language, taking all things into consideration, is very rich in 
literature. There have been numerous poets, of whom JEabd-ur-Eahman, who 
flourished in the reign of the Moghal Emperor, Aurangzeb, is, perhaps, the best 
known, and, consequently, most generally esteemed. He was a Mulla or Priest ; 
and his writings, which are of a religious and moral character, are collected in the 
form of a Diwan, — a Persian term, given to a certain number of odes ending with 
each letter of the alphabet, from a to ?/. The Dlwan is the mode in which most 
of the poetical works are arranged. 

The next most popular poet, whose poems would be the more highly 
esteemed if better known, particularly in Europe, is Khilshhal Khan, the celebrated 
chief of the powerful clan of Khattak, in the reigns of Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. 
A warrior as well as a poet, he passed the greater portion of his life in struggling 
against the oppressive power of the latter Emperor; and defeated the Moghal 
troops in many an engagement, as he proudly mentions in his '' Ode to Spring." 
Some of his odes, written during his exile in India, are very beautiful, and evince a 
spirit of patriotism and love of home and country not usual in the Oriental heart, 
but such as we might look for in the Scottish Highlander or the Swiss mountaineer. 
The following verse from a poem, written during his confinement in the fortress 
of Gwalior, by order of Aurangzeb, is characteristic of the man : — 

Cheer up then heart ! I have by me, A healing balm for every thi-oe — 

That Khushhal Khan's an Afghan true, Aurangzeb's mortal foe. 

* Toru, or Tolu, is a to^vn or cluster of villages in the Yusufzo'e country, about eleven miles north of Nohshairah, and 
containing about 5,000 inhabitants. 


KliusKhal was unfortunate with regard to some of his children, of whom he had 
no less than fifty-seven sons, besides a number of daughters. One of these sons, 
named Bahram, several times attempted to obtain possession of his father's person 
to place him in confinement, and, on more than one occasion, even made attempts 
on his life, in order to get the chieftainship into his own hands. 

!N'otTsdthstanding all these troubles, however, he was a most voluminous writer, 
and composed no less (it is said by his family) than three hundred and sixty works, 
both in the Afghan and the Persian language. The names even of most of these 
are now lost ; but the following are a few which have come under my own obser- 
vation : — 1. A Diwan, or collection of odes ; 2. Kuliyat, containing an immense 
number of poems and odes ; 3. The Baz Namah, a treatise on the diseases of hawks 
and falcons, with their cure; 4. Hadayah, a work on religious jurisprudence, 
translated from the Arabic ; 5. JEinayah, on the same subject, and from the same 
language; 6. Dastar JN'amah, a treatise on the turban, and the various modes of 
wi'apping it round the head, and the prayers to be used on such occasions; 7. 
Silihat-ud-din, a medical work ; 8. Fazal ISTamah, a dispute between the sword and 
the pen, with the peculiar excellencies of both ; and 9. Eubaseiyat, a collection 
of stanzas of four lines. 

Khushhal also invented a sort of short-hand, or cipher, which was known only 
to himself and family. It is termed zanj'in^ or ' chained.' I have several speci- 
mens in my possession, but the key has been lost for many years. 

A History of the Af gh ans has been erroneously attributed to Khushhal Khian 
by Mr. Elphinstone, who is so generally correct ; as also a translation into Pushto, 
of Pilpay's Fables — the Anwari Suhaili of the Persian — and entitled ^ayar 
Danish, or ' Touchstone of Wisdom.' This is, however, incorrect. The author 
of the history in question, the only known copy of which I have now before me, 
is Afzal Khan, the son of Ashraf Khan, who, on the death of his father in the 
Dakhan, where he had been confined as a state prisoner for the last ten years of 
his life, succeeded his grandfather, Khushhal, in the chieftainship of the Khattak 
tribe. The work is very extensive, consisting of upwards of 1,600 pages in small 
folio, and is entitled, Tarildi-i-Murrassoe, or the ' Gold and Gem Studded History.' 
The translation of Pilpay's Fables is also by Afzal Khan, and was, as he states in 
the Preface, undertaken in his fifty-third year, from the abridgment of the Anwari 
SuhailT, by the celebrated Ab-ul-Fazal, minister of the Emperor Akbar, and made 
by direction of that monarch. It was entitled ' Kalilah-wo-Damnah;' and is a great 
improvement on the bombastic and long-drawn style of the original. Afzal Khan's 
work may have at first been named ^ayar Danish ; but in the Preface he says, that 
on a second revision, he determined to give his work the title of ^ilm Khanah-i- 
Danish, or the ' Science-house of Knowledge ;' or ' Kalilah-wo-Damnah' — the names 
of the two wise jackals mentioned in the work. This book is rare. 


Afzal Khan wrote a few other works, and made a number of translations from 
Arabic and Persian, chiefly historical, viz. : — Asesam-i-Kiifl, containing the prin- 
cipal incidents of the life of Muhammad; Si'ar-i-MuUa Masein; and Tafsir-i-Kur'an, 
a commentary on the Kuran. He left four sons, one of whom Kazim, surnamed 
Shaida, or ' The Lovelorn,' was the author of a Diwan, the original and only known 
copy of which, most beautifully written, with the author's own revisional marks, 
is in my possession. His style is not so simple as that of the Afghan poets 
generally — the great charm of their writings — but his poems are of a superior 
order. He uses many Persian words; and the odes approach nearer than any 
others to the polish of the poetry of the Persians. 

The literary talent, inherent, it would appear, in Khushh'l's family, is sur- 
prizing. Five of his sons are also the authors of many excellent works : — 

Ashraf Khan, the eldest son, appears to have passed a considerable portion of 
his life as a state prisoner of Aurangzeb, who probably imagined tha' KhushluiPs 
patriotism would be restrained as long as his firstborn should remain in his power. 
The name assumed by Ashraf, according to the custom of eastern poets, is ' The 
Severed or Exiled ; ' and, as might well be imagined, his poems are most pathetic in 
their style, but at the same time contain many admirable sentiments. The place of 
Ashraf's exile was Bijapur, a strong fortress in the Dakhan, and where his poem.s 
were composed : here, too, it was that he died, severed from home and friends. 

^abd-ul-Kadir Khan, who wielded his sword as bravely as his pen, wrote a 
Diwan, or collection of odes, and the love tale of Adam and Durkhana'i, so cele- 
brated throughout the Af gh an country. He also translated into Pushto, Jaml's 
poem of Yiisuf and Zulikha ; and the Gulistan and Postiln of Shaykh Sasedi ; all 
three celebrated works in the Persian language ; and a little work entitled 
Museamma, or ' Enigmas and Eebuses.' 

Sadr Khan — another son — was the author of a Diwan, and a poem on the 
popular love tale of Adam and Durkhana'i, already referred to. He also translated 
into Af^ani the well-known Persian poem of Khusrau and Shirin of Nizami, the 
first of Persia's romantic poets. 

Another son — Sikandar Khan — wrote the poem of Mihr-wo-Mushtari ; and a 
collection of odes. 

A fifth son — Gohar Khan — also wrote a number of minor poems, together 
with numerous enigmas and chronograms. 

JEabd-ur-Eahim, ISTusrat Khan, Shahzadah Sikandar, ^ajab Khan, Kamgar 
Khan, and others of the family, were also gifted with the poetical genius, but their 
compositions are not to be met with in the present day. 

Another still more singular circumstance regarding this family, and 'pav- 
ticularly when we consider the condition of females in Eastern countries, is the 
fact that numbers of the ladies of Khushhal's family were also gifted with the 


cacoethes scrihendi, and composed numerous poems ! One of KhushliaPs own wives, 
the mother of Ashraf Khan, was a poetess of no mean powers ; and although the 
mention of the females of their families is a most delicate matter with all Af^ans, 
I have been so fortunate in my researches, that, with the aid of a friendly chief, to 
whom I am imder considerable obligations, I have been able to obtain some of the 
poetical effusions of the lady referred to, who, it must be remembered, wrote 
two hundred years since. These will appear in the Text-Book ; and also in the 
translations of some of the choicest of the Afghan poems, a selection from which, 
together with the memoirs of the different authors, I hope, in the course of next 
year, to offer to the public in an English dress. 

I have also been so fortunate as to discover, since the first edition of this 
Grammar was published three years since, a collection of poems of great merit, by 
Khwajah Muhammad of the Bangasli tribe, whose work has seldom been heard 
of, much less seen, in Af^anistan itself. The author lived in Aurangzeb's reign, 
and led the life of a recluse. 

The poems of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the great founder of the Durani monarchy, 
and the conqueror of the Murathi host at PanTpat, are principally in an amorous 
and metaphysical strain. His poetry is much esteemed, more so, perhaps, than 
its merit demands. 

The next author to be noticed is MuUa ^abd-ul-Hamid, who flourished in the 
time of Timur, the son and successor of Ahmad Shah, towards the latter part 
of the last century. His odes, which are mostly of an amorous or moral tendency, 
contain many admirable sentiments, which would be creditable to any European 
author. He is the cynical poet and Shaykh Satedi of the Pushto ; and I must say 
I prefer his poems to any of the others, except those of Khushhal, whose style, 
however, is very different. Up to the present day he has certainly never been, 
neither is he likely to be, surpassed ; and the beauty of his compositions is even 
acknowledged amongst a nation so rich in poets as the Persians, by whom he is 
styled 'Hamid, the hair-splitter.' The numerous extracts I have taken from his 
works, as examples in the Grammar, will give some idea of his poems. His odes 
are entitled, Dur-wo-Marjan — 'Pearls and Corals.' He is also the author of a poem 
called Kairang-i-seishk, or ' Love's Fascination.' It appears to have been translated 
from a Persian work of the same name, the author of which was a native of the Panjab. 

The next poet in point of popularity is Mirza Khan, a descendant of the 
notorious Bayizid Ansari, the founder of the Eoshanian sect, presently to be 
referred to. His odes are highly metaphysical in their strain, and in accordance 
with the mystical tenets of the sect ; but, at the same time, I must acknowledge 
that some of them are very sublime. He has been sometimes erroneously called 
Fat'h Khan, Yusufzi, which also led me astray in my remarks on the literature of 
the Afghans, in the first edition of this work. His poems are somewhat rare. 


Kasim ^li Khan, of the notorious tribe of Afridi, is the author of a Dlwan ; 
but his odes bear the stamp of mysticism, and are of no particular merit. He was, 
however, a Hindustani Afghan, a very different style of being to the real. He 
was born at Farrukhabad, in Hindustan, in the time of Nawwab Muzaffar Jang ; 
and, according to the account given of himself in one of his odes, he was acquainted 
with Afghani, Arabic, Tiirki, Persian, HindT, and a little English. He has devoted 
an entire ode to the abuse of the English, just arrived in India, whom — fore- 
stalling the first Napoleon — he denominates " A nation of shop-keepers, who, in 
Hindustan, have turned soldiers." 

There are other poetical works of great merit in the Pushto language, now 
rarely to be met with ; such as the Diwan of Shah Sharf, of Jelalabad, which is 
said to be superior to Hamid's ; and that of Pir Muhammad of Kandahar ; the 
Diwan of ^li Khan ; the poems of Dawlat, said to have been a Hindvi ; and 
those of Mian ^abd-ur-Eahim ; Meher ^li ; Arzani ; Ghulam Kadir ; Latarr ; 
^li Khan ; Karim Khan ; Jan Muhammad ; Fazil ; Mukhlis ; Sahib Shah ; and 
Meher Shah. Shah Sharf also translated the Arabic poem, known as the Kasidah 
Bardah, into Pushto. 

Mulla Dadin, Khattak, who flourished in the reign of Ahmad Shah, Abdali, 
also composed a collection of odes, as well as a little work on theology, entitled 
Muntakhab-ul-eeakayid, from the Ai-abic. 

There are also a few living poets whose compositions are by no means deficient 
in merit, the chief of whom are Mi' an Muhammad Bakir, surnamed ^abd, and 
Mi'an Muhammad, surnamed Naghzi ; but their works have not been published. 

The romantic and interesting poems of Saif-ul-Muliik and Badri Jamal, by 
Ghulam Muhammad ; and Bahram Giir, by Fy'az, must not be overlooked. The 
authors were minstrels who sung their own compositions on festive occasions, 
much in the same manner as our bards of old. These effusions were frequently 
composed at the request of, or to be dedicated to, some chieftain who generally 
paid liberally for the honour. The other few works deserving of notice, are : The 
Tale of the Eose and the Pine ; The Jang Namah of Amir Hamzah ; Shah Gada, 
' The King of the Beggars '; and a few others. 

There are some poetical works of less importance, pretty generally known, 
viz. : The Tale of Sultan Jumjumah, by Emam-ud-Din ; Mceraj Namah, by Ghulam 
Muhammad; Eashid-ul-By'an, by Akhiind Eashid, a sort of religious Text-book 
and Catechism for women and children ; Mukhammas, * of ^abd-ul-Kadir ; 
Majmiiseat-i-Kandahari, and a few others of a similar character. 

The works of many authors are little known, because all books have to be 
copied by the professional scribes chiefly, as was the case in the dark ages of 

* A kind of verse containing five lines. 


Europe before Guttenbui'g conferred his blessing on mankind; and the charge 
for transcribing is high. It follows, therefore, that only those in comparatively 
easy circumstances can afford to purchase such expensive luxuries as books. 

The prose wi'itings are also numerous, particularly on divinity. 

The most ancient author amongst the Eastern Af^ans, that I am able to 
discover, is Shaykh Mali, a chief of the Yiisufzis, who wrote a history of the 
conquest of Suwat, and other mountain countries north of the Kabul river, by 
that powerful tribe, between the years 816 and 828 of the Hijrah — a.d. 1413 
to 1424 — and the account of the measurement by his orders of the conquered 
hmds, and distribution of them amongst the different clans and families of Yusuf 
and Mandarr, and the Kabulis, Lamghanis, and people of I^angrahar, who had 
accompanied them in their immigration into the Peshawer valley. It was Shaykh 
Mali who instituted the ivesli^ or interchange of land every three or four years, 
peculiar to the Yiisufzis and a few petty clans connected with them, referred to 
by Elphinstone in his "Account of Caubul,"* under the name oitoaish^ and which 
is, as in days of yore, rigidly observed in the present day. 

Some years subsequently, in the year of the Hijrah 900 — a.d. 1494 — Khan 
Kaju became chief of the Yusufzis ; and during his rule the conquest of Buner and 
Panjkorah was completed. Of these events he wrote an account, and included 
in it the history of the Yusufzi tribe, from the period of its departure from Kabul, 
during the reign of Mirza Ulugh Beg, grandson of Timur, down to his own time.t 

Both these works are extensive, but they are not procurable. They would be 
invaluable, as being likely to throw some light on the Suwati dynasty of the 
Johangirlan Sultans, claiming descent from Alexander the Great, and who, up 
to the conquest by the Yusufzis, held all the hill countries north of the Kabul 
river, as far west as the Indus, together with the Alpine Punjab as far east as 
the Jhilum or Ilydaspes. 

The other more important prose writings are those of Bazid, or Bayizid Ansari, 
the founder of the Eoshanian sect, whose tenets caused such a sensation throughout 
the Afghan countries, and some parts of India, during the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar. Bazid took to himself the name of Pir-i-Eoshan, or the 'Saint of Light,' 
from the Persian word ^ ro'shdn^ signifying 'light,' and hence the name given 
to the whole sect. One work is entitled Khair-ul-By'an, or ' Exposition of Good- 
ness,' written in four languages — Pushto or Afghani, Arabic, Persian, and Hindi, 
to which Akhiind Darwezah gave the title of Sharr-ul-By'an, or ' Exposition of 
Depravity ;' another, entitled Khurpan, the meaning of which word is not known 
at present, a burlesque on the word, "Furkan," as the Kuran is also called; and, 

* Vol. ii., p. 20. 

t This history is the one from which the Persian work, Tarikh Hafii; Eahmat KhanI, now in the East India House, was 
oomposed, a.h. 1184. 


like the others, is written in contempt of the Muhammadan faith; together with 
several pamphlets on the same subject. Copies of his works are exceedingly 
scarce, all having been burnt on which the Mullas could lay their hands during 
his lifetime, and at his death, and the subsequent dispersion of the sect. There are 
no doubt copies existing in the possession of those Avho still secretly follow his 
doctrines, and they are not a few, but they fear to produce them. 

Bazid or Pir Eoshan was principally assisted in his literary labours by Mulla 
Arzani, whose pen was a very sharp one. The latter was also the author of a 
Diwan, and other poetical works, which have now entirely disappeared. 

The Makhzan-ul-asrar, or Makhzan Af gh ani, as it is more commonly called, was 
written, as well as other works, by Akhiind Darwezah,* the venerated Saint of the 
Afghans, in refutation of the opinions of Pir Eoshan, who found a bitter an- 
tagonist in the Akhund, who conferred upon him the nick-name of Pir-i-Tarik, 
or the 'Saint of Darkness,' by which he is best kno^vn in Afghanistan up to the 
present day. Akhiind Darwezah is said to have been the author of upwards of 
fifty works, the greater number pamphlets probably ; but with the exception of the 
foregoing, and the Tazkirat-ul-abarar, in Persian, they are not known in the present 
day. His son Karim Dad appears to have assisted his father in the composition of 
these works. 

The other prose writings remaining to be noticed, are, the Fawa'id-ush- 
Shari'aea'h, or 'Advantages of the Laws Ecclesiastical,' a very valuable work, 
written in the year a.h. 1125, a.d. 1713, by Akhund Kasim, who was the chief 
prelate and the head of all the Muhammadan ecclesiastics of Hasht-nagar and 
Peshawer, which places, in those days, rivalled Bokhara itself, in learning ; the 
works of Babii Jan, a converted Si-ah-posh Kafir, who, having acquired a great 
name amongst the Muhammadans for his learning, again relapsed ; the Jang Namah, 
containing the history of Hasan and Husain, by Ghulam Muhammad ; another work 
on the same subject by Sayyid Hasan, written about a hundred years since ; 
the Nur Nama'h, by Jan Muhammad ; Adam and Durkhana'i, by Fakhr-ud-Din, 
Sahibzadah ; Gulistan-i-Eahmat, by Nawwab Muhammad Mustajib Khan, in the 
year 1800 a.d. ; Tafsir, a commentary and paraphrase of the Kur'an; Hazar 
Masa'il ; Hiyatu-l-Muminm ; Akhir Nama'h, and several others. Copious extracts 
from the choicest of the works mentioned in the foregoing pages, both poetical 
and prose, will be found in the Text Book, published at the same time as this work. 

Besides the translations into Pushto from the Persian and Arabic authors 

* Professor Dom in his " Chrestomathy " states that Akhund Darwezah was the first author who composed in the Afghan 
language ; but he neither states how he has arrived at this conclusion, nor his authority for such a statement. In the same 
manner he considers Khushhal Klian to be the author of Adam Khan and Durkhana'i. Both conclusions are entirely incorrect. 
Shaykh Mali, as shown in the preceding page, wrote his history about a century-and-a-half before. In the same 
manner, it is proved that two of Khushhal' s sons, each composed a poem on the love tale of Adam Khan and Durkhana'i. 
Another version, in prose, by one Fakhr-ud-DTn, was written about a hundi-ed years ago. 



already emimerated, both poetical and prose, there are a few others which have 
come under my own observation: — the Gulistan of Sasedl, translated by Amir 
Muliammad, Ansarl; Majniin and Laihl of Jam!, by Bai Khan, of Bimer; the 
Kasidah Sun'ani ; and the KasTdah Bardah, by Akhiind Darwezah.* 

There are two valuable lexicographical works, — the Ei'az-ul-Mahabbat, or 
' Gardens of Friendship,' by the Nawwab Hafiz Mahabbat Khan, compiled at the 
request of Sir George Barlow in 1805-6. It is an extensive work, but is chiefly 
devoted to the conjugation of the Afghan verbs, which are exceedingly difficult 
from their irregularity. The author, however, was a native of Hindustan ; and 
many peculiarities regarding the verbs and tenses, of which he must have been 
ignorant, have been omitted. The vocabulary is valuable. The other work, entitled 
jEaja'ib-ul-Lughat, or 'Curiosities of Language,' was written about the year 1808, 
by Nawwab Allah Yar Khan of the Barech tribe, who was also a native of India, 
but it is very valuable. 

There is a host of ballad writers, and some of their compositions, sung by the 
wandering minstrels, are very spirited, and put me in mind of those of our own 
land. During my residence at Peshawer I had several of them written out. The 
following is a specimen of one which I have attempted to turn into English ballad 
style, retaining in some measure the metre of the original. The translation is 
almost literal. 


In misery aud grief I'm plungVl, 
By nithlcss Fate's decree ; 

Alas ! that from its cruel laws 
There's no escape for me. 

He first did march to WuzTr Bagh, + 
"WTiere cypresses do wave ; 

And there he muster' d all his clan — 
They were like lions brave. 

What shall I say of Abbiis Khfui, 
That Khattak chief so bold ; 

At his sad fate I'm sorely grievM, 
And that by me 'tis told. 

He from Peshawer then did start, 
For ^azim Khan to fight ; 

And with five hundred Kliattaks true, 
He reached Nohshair that night. 

* The so-called translation into Pushto of the New Testament, made by the Serampore Missionaries in 1818, bears a 
very slight resemblance to the Sacred Writings ; in fact, it is quite painful to read. I will merely give one specimen— the well- 
known verso from the Sermon on the Mount—" Jiidffe not, that ye be not judged." The Pushto is in the following terms :— 

''Do not justice unto any one, lest justice shall he done unto you ! !" Is this Christian doctrine.' Verily, if Infidels are 
to judge of our religion from such translations as this, it is not to be wondered at that they should scofi" at it, hold our faith in 
ridicule, and call us kafirs or blasphemers. It is quite evident that, in making this translation, the English has been merely 
transposed for the Pushto, without the slightest consideration as to difference of idiom, style, and arrangement of the languages. 
I trust the other translations of the Scriptures are bettor than the Pu-s^hto one, which is the most ridiculous thing I liavc^ ever 
met with. 

t The battle of Noh;;^iairah was fought in 1823, between the Afghans under Sirdar Muhammad JE-.vmn Khan, Burakzo'e, 
brother of Dost Muliammad Klian, and the Sikhs under Runjlt Singh, in which Abbas Kluln, Kluittak was slain, besides a 
host of Yusufzo'es. 

X The Wuzir Bagh, or Minister's Garden, lies outside the city of Peshawer to the south. It contains a residence, and 
was remarkable on account of the number of cypress trees it formerly contained. The garden was laid out by Sirdar Fat'b 
Khan, the celebrated Wuzir of Muliammad Shah, and the brother of Dost Muhammad Klian, Barakzo'e, ruler of Kabul. 
The garden has since been chiefly occupied by the other brother. Sultan Muhammad Khan, and his numerous Haram. 



When morning dawn'd, the Sikhs advanc'd 

The Afghan host to crush ; 
But GhazTs* they, on Nanak's sonsf 

Did like a torrent rush. 

On Khaiher's heights, when rains do pour. 

And wintry blasts do blow, 
The little riUs, to torrents swell' d. 

All Jamrud's plain J o'erflow. 

That day they kill'd of Singhs enough 

Of heads to raise a dome ; 
But 'twas decree'd Nohshairah's plain 

To them should be a tomb. 

At eventide, the chieftain's steed 

Fell midst a heap of slain ; 
By night, his band, oh ! where were they ? 

Dead on the bloody plain ! 

Night clos'd around him, still he fought, 

All faint and out of breath : 
A Houri's § hand the Sherbet gires ; 

The Martyr meets his death. 

To spare his life, the Sikhs they did 

Pledge every sacred word : 
No Heav'n they dread^deceitful foes ! 

They put him to the sword. 

In Akorra || when this tale was told, 
The people were dismay' d ; 

And when night came, the hero's corse 
They from the field convey'd. 

It seem'd the latter day was come. 
So sore aggricv'd were they ; 

And minstrels did their rebeks break, 
Deep sorrow to display. 

Next morning from Akon-a then 

Set out a mournful train ; 
And to Peshawer bore the corpse, 

Of him so basely slain. 

The people of Peshawer wept, 
When they his fate did hear ; 

And then they laid the body in 
The grave-yard of Panj Pir. H 

Hakim ! lament for Abbas Khan, 
That Khattak chief so bold ; 

Oh where ! the like of him, oh where ! 
Shall we as^ain behold ? 

* Ghazi — one who fights against infidels, a gallant soldier. 

t Nanak — the name of the Saint of the Sikhs, and the founder of the sect. 

J "Jamrud's plain"— "After heavy rains in the mountains, the rivulets, swelled to torrents, rush from the hills with 
violence, and carry everything before them." See my Account of Peshawer: On the rivers of the Province. "Bombay 
Geographical Transactions," 1851-52. 

§ Hour! — a black-eyed nymph of the Muhammadan Paradise, of which every true believer is to have no less than 

II Akorra is a small town about ten miles west of the Indus or Attak : it is the chief town of the Khattak tribe. 

H " The grave-yard of Panj Plr" — the Zl'arat-i-Panj Pir, or the " Shrine of the Five Saints," is situated about a mile 
south-east of Peshawer. 






11 (note) 



G K ^^ M M -A. K. 















^J ^^, 



^' '^^ 

































have done, 



have done, 






caused to fly, etc. 









my water-vessel, 



^} v^W "^ 










^ < 



his own. 




it comes. 

have or has done. 

have or has done. 

Jyi. or^ 

caused to fly. 


MY water-vessel. 

^3 L^V*^ 





" In languages -wliicli have both a written and a spoken form, the usages of the former rather than the latter are held to 
detcnuinc the rules of grammar. The written is always more perfect than the spoken form of a language. The latter 
exhibits rtc^rta^ usage ; but the former exhibits also m«(;2om«/ and ?'(?;;!<tei/c usage." J. ^I. M'Culloch, D.D. 

C II A P T E Pv I . 


1. The Pu;%to, or language of the Afghans, is ^mtten in the -J^ naskh 
character of Arabic, which is of the same general use amongst the Arabs as the 
Roman in Eiu'ope.* It succeeded the Kiifik in which the Ivor' an was first written ; 
and is considered to have had a common origin with the Hebrew and Chaldaik, 
from the Semitic. t 

2. It was invented in the third centiuy of the Hijrali by Ibn Moklah, who 
was successively ivii.ur or minister to the Khalifs, Al Moktadir, Al Xahir, and 
Al Radi, who occupied the throne of Baghdad about tlu'ce huacbed years after the 
time of the Prophet — from 908 to 940 of our era ; and was subsequently altered 
and improved by Xazim and Tograi, who were respectively ministers to the Khalifs, 
Jelal-ud-Dm and Masiid. It was brought to great perfection by All Ibn Bowab, 
who flom-ished in the following century, and other celebrated caligraphists, amongst 
whom was Yakiit-al-Mostasimi, the Secretary of Al Mostasim, the eighth of the 
Abbasidis, with whom the glory of his family and nation expired. + 

3. The original Pushto alphabet, before the introduction of foreign words 
into the language, consisted of twenty-nine different sounds only, as may be seen 
by comparison with old manuscripts; but, at present, the Afghans also use the 
twenty-eight Arabian letters, Avith the addition of the extra four — j-_5, -_, J', and cJ— 

* The SindTiln language is also written in the nasMi. .f Sec Introduction, p 4. % Gibbon, vol. ii., p. 335. 



adopted by the Persians, altogether making a total of forty characters, the whole of 
which are consonants. 

4. Several letters assume different shapes according to theii* position at the 
commencement, middle, or end of a word ; the names, order, and figm-es of which 
may be seen in the following table. 














a, a, 1, u, 

As in Enghsh. 







5> » 







5) J> 




• • 

• • 



" " [to the palate. 



• • 

• • 



By reverting the point of the tongue 


• • 

• 9 



As th in thing, or lisped s. 



• * 


ts or tz. 

As i?s or ^.^-j in Hebrew IJ tsodc. 






Asj m judge. 






As in church. 







Strongly aspirated, as in donble h. 





• 4 



Guttural, as ch in Scotch loch. 







As in dear. 







Harsh, as double d, or Sanskrit ^. 








As in zeal ; by Arabs dth. 







As in run. 







As broad Northumbrian r. 









As in Enghsh. ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 






ds or dz. 

As ds or dz would be in English, or 





As s in pleasure, or soft French^'. 

( By reverting the point of the tongue on the 
1 palate. It is^a slight degree harsher than 
( the Persian j . 







As in sense. 






As sh in shell. 





Idi (E.) ( 
sh (W.) J 

Peculiar to Pushto. Pronounced by bringing 
the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth. 














s. or ss. 

As ss in dissolve. 







As in English ; by Arabs drvd. 







English t with slight asi^iration. 






[change of vowel points. 






£B or a, 

Guttural ; becomes also i, o, u, by 









i a 














k or q. 








As in king. 







As in give. 







As English /. 







)> )) 


• • 




( Pronounced rritn, a combination of the sounds 
\ of and . Peculiar to Puslito and Sindlan. 






w, ti, 0, ow. 

According to the vowel points. 

A, ^, ^ 






Slightly aspirated. 







( J, e, 1, ai, ) 

According to the vowel points. 







As another form of ali/. 

Eooks arc occasionally to be met with in whicli the letters peculiar to Pushto 
are rejected for others, either thi-ough the ignorance or affectation of the copyist. 
Thus, 1^ and I? for i^ ; ^ and ^ for ~; j for .^ ; j and j for ^ ; J for * ; and l_/ for 

lU or cJ* 

5. The eastern Af gh ans, such as the tribes of Peshawer, the Ut-miin Khel, 
the Yiisufzis of the Sama'li, of Suwat, Panjkorah, and Buner, and many others, 
often change the ^ occurring in Persian words, used in Pushto, into ^, which 
they pronounce khln, and use the letter CJ instead of . In the same manner 
the western Afghans invariably give (^ the softer sound of shey, and use in 
place of CJ. The Damanis and Ghalzis substitute ^ for ~ ; and the Ivliaiberis alter 
the place of the letters so much that at first it is difficult to understand them. 

* The system of orthography followed for the last three centuries or more, with these exceptions, was first arranged by 
Akhund Darwezah, the celebrated saint of the Afghans, and the great antagonist of Plr llo>niun, tlie founder of the 
Ro.-ihnTun sect. 


6. Altlioiigli tlie different tribes are widely dispersed, and often hold little 
or no intercoiu-se with each other, no very considerable variation exists with regard 
to the pronunciation, beyond what has been noticed above. Where such cases 
occui", the ear will be fonnd a sm-e, and at the same time, easy guide, together with 
the knowledge of the powers of the Arabian letters, with which the student is sup- 
posed to be aheady acquainted. 


L2j[^^s>. harJcUt. 

7. There are thi-ee vowels in Pushto, as in Arabic and Persian ; vi^. : (-^) 
jij zaba)\ or i^^ fat'hali ; ("T") jj zer^ or i^^J, Jcasrci'h ; and (— ) Ji^i^ ^jc^, or a^ 

8. The consonants 1, j, ^, are often found in old manuscript works, used 
instead of these vowel points ; and, in this respect, the language bears a striking 
resemblance to the Zend and Sanskrit, which express all the long and short vowels 
b)' distinct marks. This will be more fully explained in another place. 

9. The vowels, if not followed by the letters ^, j, ^j-, represent the short 
vowels «, 2, ?;, respectively ; thus <-_^ J«, c_; U^ and l-j hu ; but the consonant must 
invariably begin the syllable. 

10. Should the vowels be followed by 1, j, t_c, respectively, then the syllable 
is long, as I; ha^ i hl^ J ha ; and these tlu'ee letters ^, ., ^', are then called 
quiescent and homogeneous with their preceding vowels. 

11. When (-^) zabar is followed by ^ or ^^ the syllable then becomes a 
dipthong, asjj lau or hoiu^ <j hai., or haey. 

12. There are some cases in Persian in which j preceded by ^ having the 
vowel fafMh or zalar^ and succeeded by 1, is very slightly, if at all, sounded. 
Thus L^\^:>~ (sleep) is pronounced Wdh not khtvah^ and ij"^^ (a table) Wan, not 
khwim. It must, however, be borne in mind that it is quite the contrary in Pmhto, 
and all the letters must be sounded; for example — ^J"^^ kkwarl, 'humility,' ^4»^^^ 
khivalthcij or khvmshey, ' a wife's mother.' 

13. ^ or ", ^j=>- jazm, or i^y>- jazma'h, placed over a consonant, shows that the 
letter is quiescent and the syllable ends there ; as Vj ;;ar-^«r, ' a wound,' ^r,^*J^ 
i±ar-man, ' leather.' 

14. "-, if A^, or X*, maddali or madd, is another form of \ {alif\ and, placed over 
a letter, prolongs the sound; as ^^T as, 'a horse,' i^jiT aghzaey, 'a thorn,' and 
i^^iui^T dkhjch, ' alas ! ' 


15. -, jj juLj ta^d'id., signifies that the consonant must be doubled ; but this 
remark has a reference more to Arabic words used in Pushto than Pushto itself ; 
thus, ^y taw alia ^ ' friendly.' 

16. "^, J-.5. ivad^ serA^es to connect Arabic words, in which the Ai*abian article 
Jl (at)\^ lost in the pronunciation, if the letters be either c:j, clj, j, i,j, J, o^, 
(ji, ^^^, ^^ J or ^ ; as for example J^J^ JU Ml ar rasulu^ ' The Prophet said ;' 
jiw\ Jj Jcul-il haJcJca^ ' Speak the truth.' 

17. *, ay^ hamza'li^ is another form of alif^ as V or i «, j^* or ^ /, \' or i w. The 
Persians call it softened hamza^h. 

18. As the Pushto writings, particularly those on Theology and the like, 
contain a number of Arabic words, it is as well to mention the ^lyj tamvln, 
signifying nunnation. It is formed by doubling the terminating vowel, and 
expressed by double zabar^ zey\ and pesh C", ^, °) when they take the sound of an^ in,, 
and un respectiyely ; as '^i^j ^^^^i^j ra'etu rajulan,, ' I beheld a man ;' ^ J^j^ '-Hi/"* 
marartu hi-rajulin^ ' I went to a man ; J:?-j (^ V ,/^'<^''^'^^ rajulim,, ' A man came 
to me.' 



<uli Kalima''h. 

19. The Afghan language, like the Arabic model on which it is based, con- 
tains but three parts of speech — the ^\ ism or noun, the ^^xi ficel or verb, and the 
(«J/=>- harf or particle. Those who have studied the Persian language, and are in some 
measure acquainted with the Arabic terms of grammar, will require no explanation 
of the above ; but as it may tend to puzzle Europeans unacquainted with the rules 
of Arabian grammarians, I shall subdivide these three parts of speech into those 
with which they are more familiar. 

20. The Pushto language contains no article : the article is supposed to be 
inherent in the noun, or is expressed by the indefinite numeral jj yotv,, or the 
demonstrative pronouns, as in the following examples :— 

" He who sitteth on a throne, and may neither possess capacity nor understanding, 
Is either a lion, or a wolf, or otherwise account him an ox or an ass." 

— Khushhdl Khan, Khattak. 


^,L1/ ;^3 ^_/-«*J ^J ,J^\l ciJ ^l^J ^^ C>1/-^ ^^ t^^^^J^ 

" From whence lias the spring again retiu-ned unto us, 
Which has made the Avhole country round a garden of flowers ? 
There is the anemone and sweet-basil; the lily and sweet-herbs ; 
The jasmine and white-rose ; the narcissus and pomegranate blossom." 

— Khushhdl Khan, Khattak. 


*-ol Ism. 

21. A noun denotes simply the name of an object, as ^j^ sarraei/^ 'a man,' 
j^ kor^ ' a house.' 

22. The term ^\ (ism) inchides nouns substantive, nouns adjective, numeral 
nouns, pronoims, and the past and present participles ; but, for the reasons before 
stated, I have generally adopted the divisions and terms of grammar most con- 
venient to Em-opeans, and therefore the pronouns will be treated of separately, and 
the participles with the verbs. 

23. IS'ouns may be divided into substantive and adjective. The former are 
either primitive or derivative. 

24. A primitive noun is that which proceeds from no other word in the 
language; as, l1nIj& /lalak, 'a boy,' ^-^^ j'lna^l, 'a girl,' (^wT dSj 'a horse,' J kar, 

husbandry,' i^ bailda^h, 'abribe,'jbj u'ldr, 'jealousy.' 

2o. Derivative nouns are those which spring fi-om other nouns, or from 
verbs; as, ijL'j t'ldra^h, 'blackness,' ^^-^^ beltun, 'separation,' \u:^2vamd, 'speech,' 
i^^ Jthegarra'h or shegarra^h, 'goodness,' \jj ramrfi,'' brightness,' ^^ i^j z^rrah, 
shvaey^ ' sympathy.' 

26. Xouns are of two numbers or S\:s£.\ awddd^ as in Persian, — Ss^\» wdhid or 
singular, and ^^-^ jamace or plui^al ; and of two genders or ^l--:^ jinsdn ; viz., 
Ji's^ miimlilcar or masculine, and <J:^y muannas or feminine, the whole of which 
will be explained in their proper places. 

27. There are seven il'^/^] icerdhdt or cases ;— the nominative, or ^M Lr-Jl>- 
hhlal-i-fdwlll ; the genitive, or c^iUl l:^U hdlat-i-izdfat ; the dative, or e^U 
JjxL, hdlat-i-mafamd ; the accusative, or d.- ^^ l^U hdlat-i-mafaceid Uhi ; the 


vocative, or \jj LzJi\s^ halat-i-nidd ; the ablative, or t_^ liJIs- halat-i-jarri ; and 
the Jjli family or actor ; or, as it may be termed, the instrumental case. 

28. To form the various cases besides the nominative, several particles called 
j>- i-Jjj^ Imruf-i-jarr are used with the nouns in the inflected state. 

29. J f/rt* or sometimes aJi claJi^ the particle governing the genitive case, 
must always precede the noun, as will be seen from the following examples :— 

"The heart lamenteth at the depredations op thy beauty, 
Like as the heart of the nightingale bewaileth when the autumn is come." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

" Be not captivated by the friendship of the people of the world ! 
This shameless, faithless, immodest world." — J^abd-ul-Hamul. 

" Thou who seekest in the parterre after the rose or friendship. 
Be aware of the stump and the thorn tree of separation." — jEabd-iir- Rahman. 

30. The particle is not subject to any change in prose more than in verse, as 
will be seen from the following extract. Akhund Kasim says :— 

" To make enquiry after the sick is also the law of the Prophet, and a regidation of the 
true orthodox faith; (and) whosoever enquireth after the sick, entereth into the mercy ny 
the Almighty. ' '— Fare a i d-ush -Sharice'ah . 

31. In tliis manner I shall continue to give quotations from the various 
Afghan authors as I proceed : such examples will not only serve, in some measure, 
as specimens of the style, and be more easily retained in the memory than simple 
prose, but they will also show that the Pushto has a grammatical system as regular 
as that of most languages. 

32. There are four particles governing the dative case, — aj' tah., or <0j watah, 
and <0j J wa-watah, one ^ of which is sometimes placed before the noun, and the 
ij after it ; ^ larah ; and i^ lah. The latter is less often used, as a particle similar 
in form governs the ablative ; but the meaning is unmistakable, as will be seen from 
the examples I shall give. 

^ ^jy <^^- J^'^y ^ ^^j^ ^ } j/v 4 'U J^-^ ^ ^"^j" J 'y" ^ u^^^-^S ^^..^ 4jy 

* Alao l5 amongst the Khattaks and some other tribes. 


" They then seized theii' fire-arms and ascended to the crest of the mountain, and from that 
position called out; 'Whoever are men amongst you, come to the sword;' but veneration for the 
Khan was so predominant with every one, that notwithstanding that WTctch had given them 
directions (to seize him), yet no one could carry them out." — Afzal Khan ; TdrlMt-i-Muras^acf. 

" He who ever scrutinizes (to) the faults of others, 
Why did the Almighty make him ignorant of his own." — JLabd-ur-Raliman. 

" The greatness and dignity of the great becometh not a particle less. 
Should they at any time say unto a child, ' Come here.'" — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

" They who are in love with the world are the greatest of all fools ; 
Like the baby, they show great eagerness for the flaming fire." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

" Since it was my good fortune to conquer Hind, 
I now go to Iran both with banner and drum," — Ahmad Shah, Abddl'i. 

The following prose examples are from tlie Fawa'id-ush-Sliari'cea'li, in which 
the various particles of the dative may be seen. 

" Fourth — alms also should be given to the slave who wishes to manumit himself, that he 
may repay (to) his proprietor, and by means of it release his neck from the yoke. The fifth is 
the debtor. Alms should also be given to the debtor, that by theh assistance he may pay off his 
debts. The sixth are Pilgrims, Champions or Soldiers of the Faith, and Devotees. Alms 
should also be given to these, that by means of them they may perform theu- pilgrimage, fight 
for the faith, and carry out the object of theh vows." 

33. The particles of the dative case are often used to denote 'for,' 'for the 
sake of,' etc., and must be used or translated accordingly. Thus : — 

" If the breast of the partridge is for the falcon, 
For the spider is the breast of the fly." — j^abd-ur-Rahman. 

^J '^ ^- 3 4 J3^'j ^^ 4^^ ^ ^J uT* iJ^O ^ -/-^^ 

The anguish of love hath no such injurious effect, 
That the afflicted one desireth a remedy for it." — yEabd-id-JIamld. 

" riM 


34. Aecordiug to the Arabic system, on which the Muhammadan languages 
are based, the noun has but two variations from the nominative, (terming the latter 
J-ili family or actor) ; the eu^iU) izafat^ or attribute] and the J^xL* mafaceul^ or acted 
upon, in which the datiA^e, accusative, and ablative cases are included. Pushto has 
another or second form, as it may be termed, of the J^xi^ mafawul, or dative, similar 
to the objective case of our own language, in which the particles a;-, s^, ^, etc. are 
not expressed, but are understood. For example : 

yj^3 "Vj ^ o^' ^•'^ ^1' u5^; '^'^^ '^•■j '^ y^ 

" iEuMAR strikes Zeid's horse." 

Here jEumar, as the Jxli or actor, is in the nominative case ; Zeid^s, as expressing 
the relation of the ownership, is in the ^j:^'ilj:\ attribute, or genitive ; and Jiorse, being 
the name of the object acted upon, is in the J^^ti^ ciJU- or dative. In the pre- 
ceding sentence, the actor must be placed at the commencement, or, in other words, 
the noun or pronoun at the commencement of the sentence is the actor. For 
instance, if we merely change the iioun JEumar for horse, and vice versa, the signifi- 
cation is, " Ze{d''s horse strikes ^umae," or exactly contrary. As all verbs in the 
language agree with the object in the past tenses in gender and number, it can 
be easily distinguished ; but tliis second form of the dative is one of the difficulties 
of Pushto, and is only to be got over by practice in the language. Examples of 
this case are contained in the following couplets : — 

" The prince of prudence and reason himself sinketli his own life, 
When he entertaineth a desire towards the taxes of the conntry of love." 

— ^'Ea bd-u I- Hamld. 

" All the injustice and oppression of the world is acceptable to me, 
If God separateth me not from the object of my love. — uEabd-ur-Rahman. 

" Eyebrows like bows, eyelashes like arrows — 
Thou pierceth the lover in the heart." — Ahmad Shah. 

35. The next case is the accusative,* which remains the same as the nomi- 
native, or assumes the dative form, as : 

" I give thee much good advice, But I am not acting- on it myself." — Mirzd Khan, An^drl. 

* In old books, uouns may be found in this case inflected; as, .-. ., .j ' on a certain,' or ' on one day.' 


f > 

" If I speak to the unworthy the words of the good, 
I Hamid shall become like Manstir,* on the stake." — JEiahd-ul-Hamid. 

^ A,j>. jid- dj^ j j=sr^ ^ j b C^"^ U^ ^ 'V, '^j^ i-^^ (TJ j*:*. '"^^•^^ (♦^'^^ 

" With heart dried up, I sit all day long in the moisture of my tears ; 
In my own cell, love showed to me both ocean and land." — jEabcl-ur-Rahman. 

36. The vocative case is denoted by the Ai'abic sign ^\ ai, sometimes pro- 
nounced wj^ together with ^\ ao and j 2vo ; but the latter signs are rarely used in 
wilting, and are peculiar to Afghani. The vocative sign, when used, must precede 
the noun, which, with but few exceptions, takes ( — ) zahar after the final letter, and 
sometimes adds \ or ^ instead, as will be seen from the examples, and the declen- 
sions of nouns.t 

" Oh Rahman, first learn the song of the nightingales ! 
Then commence to praise the rosy-bodied." — yEabd-tir- Rahman. 

^\; lJ^ >rfjf"' Jl"^ t/"*^'' t-^T^ i<> LS^l? ^J ^' '3:' J "^^ u\^*-l 

"Ahmad Shah ! thou preachest a sermon to others; 
But why not, oh monitor ! caution thine own soul?" 

37. Sometimes the noun takes the final (— ) \ or a without being preceded by 
any sign of the vocative, as : 

"Ravisher of hearts! Oh, unmerciful one! Why not give one glance?" 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

38. The ablative case is governed by the particles ^ lah, or a;j dS lah nah, the 
<)J preceding, and the i,) following the noun. The noun in this case, in some 
instances takes (— ) or (— ) after the final letter, which will be seen on reference to 
the declensions. The other particles used in this case are J tar and J da or j di. 
The latter form is not common except amongst the Khattak tribe, who do not 
appear to make much, if any, difference between it and the 3 of the genitive, but 
it may generally be known from being followed by cO . The following are examples 
of the ablative case : 

* Al Mansur, a Suf! who was put to death for making use of the worcb ^I^'Ujl * I a™ God.' 

t It should be borne in mind that there is little or no difference made in Pushto between (-^), \, and i, and between 
(— ) and j_c. For example, J\^;i^^-;^^ ^■'•r^'*, i>Ji^, etc., the whole of wliich are in the vocative case. 


" In the garden from the branch of the same tree, 
Is produced both thorns and roses too." — jEahd-ur-RahndM. 

" Mention not the name of absence, Khushhal Khan ! 
Through separation my very bones are broken in pieces." * 

Khushhal Khan, Khattak. 

" He cutteth away the branch from beneath liis own feet, 
Who nurtureth in his heart malice towards his friends." — JEahd-ul-Hamld. 

39. Examples of the ablative j di are contained in the following couplets : 
as previously stated, they are not often to be met with in the writings of standard 

" I wiU consider the monitor the real cause of it, 
Should I suffer any injury from patience and long'-suffering." — /Eabd-ul-Hamld. 

" When they marched from the banks of the Ab-i-sind (the Indus), a panther suddenly 
made his appearance, which set up a roar and caused great confusion and perturbation amongst 
the horses. On this they assailed him on all sides with arrows, swords, and spears ; and the 
Emperor Babarr himself discharged an arrow at the animal, which plunged into the river, but 
he was drawn out." — Afzal Khan : Tdi-iMi-i-Murassace. 

40. The locative, which I shall include in this ease, merely substitutes other 
particles in place of <);!, 4) a.!, andy. They are aj pah or lIj pa, wliich precede the 
noun, and have various significations, such as 'in,' 'on,' 'with,' 'through,' 'by 
means of,' etc. ; and ^^^ JcJtheij or kshet/, om^^Jdjhi or kshi,-f which usually follow a 
noun preceded by <u and signify 'in' or 'within.' Other particles are also used in 
this case such as ^^L^ ao jyah-jnl-dn, ^-r-* aj pah-mi-yandz, etc. ; the whole of which 
will be found in their proper places. Examples : — 

" One man becometh merry and gay at the afflictions of another. 
Through the weeping of the dew, the rose smileth and blooms." — Baliram Gur. 

* Literally, ' I am in pieces in my bones.' \ These words are often erroneously written J^ and ^JiS i" modern MSS. 


^ ^l:;* ^ sj^,^ ^^ ^Jy>- ^>^ ^^-s- (-/>^ ^^=^ y^^ ^^J ^ j^-'^-^ '^ ^ 

" There is such deliciousiiess in the ripeness of thy lips, 
That it is impossible to find such sweetness even in the date grove." 

— Ahnad Shah, AhdaU. 

"How can my understanding remain in its proper place, Oh beloved one ? 
"When thou appliest to my lieart the viper of separation." — jEabd-zd-Hamul. 

41. The whole of the particles governing the different cases jnst described, 
remain unchanged both before masculine and feminine nouns, and in the singular 
and plural number. 

42. Before transitive verbs, in all past tenses of the active voice, the noun 
denoting the Jxli or 'agent,' takes the oblique form both singular and plural, if 
capable of inflection. Thus ^.-j sarraey^ ' a man,' becomes ^^j^ sany ; and As^ 
Jdiachali or .jha(h(i'h^ ' a woman,' ^s^ tchmhey or shadzeij. When the noun is 
iminflected, the agent remains the same as the nominative. The following are 
examples : — ai&j j Asr*?* ^^^ sarrl khacha'h nm-wahcda' h^ 'the man struck the woman;' 
iUblj J ^^ ^_^ Jrhachey sarraey wu-wdhah^ ' the tvoman struck the man ;' thus :— 

[' Since the dishevelled state of the roses became manifest unto it. 
The BUD placed its head on its knees, and smileth not." — JEabd-ur- Rahman. 

" Cruel fate hath scorched the heart of Eahman : Of its state no one hath any conception." 

43. There are two genders in Pushto, ^ jv^n mumkkar, or masculine, and cU;^,* 
7nmnna-% or feminine ; and they affect the terminations of nouns, adjectives, and verbs. 

44. The genders of many nouns can be distinguished by attention to the 
different powers of the letters s and ^, in which a great number of them terminate. 

When the former occiu's at the end of a word, it may be either y&U? ^^U {hd-i- 
m-hir) apparent or perceptible A, as in ^Svx^j^jj weshtah or weJjhtah, ' hair,' and <^ijli 
kdr-ghah., ' a crow ;' or ^k.:>- ^-U {hd-i-khafi) imperceptible, secret, or concealed A, 
as in Ls^ shacha^h or khacha'h, 'a woman,' 'a female,' and &j.i^ w~ma'' h, 'blood.' 
All words terminating in the former are masculine, and those ending in the latter 
are feminine. 

45. Words having yd-i-md-kahl-i-maf-tuh, that is ^ preceded by {—)fat-ha'h 
as the final letter, are all masculine, and take yd-i~mace-ruf\ or ^ preceded by (— ) 
kas-ra^h for the nominative plural; as, ^^ sarraey,'' n man,' ^_^..^ sarn, ' men.' The 
masculine forms of the active and past participles of verbs also come under these 
rules, and will be found explained in their proper place. 


The above form of ^ is also used as the Pushto yd-i-nishat^ to express relation 
or connexion ; as, Jjl<' Jcd-hul, ' the city of Kabul,' jj-bli Jcd-hulaet/^ ' a man of Kabul,' 

jli kd-hdl, ' men of Kabul.' 

l^ouns terminating in yu-i-mace-ruf md-l^aU-i-hamza'h-i-khafl-i-maksur^ or ^_s 
preceded by (— ) hamza'li and (— ) Jcasra'h, are all feminine, and are both singular 
and plural ; as, ^s>- jlna'l, ' a girl or girls.' It is also used as the feminine yd-i- 
nishat; '<x^^ j^,:^^^ i:)ek]umer or peJilume^', 'the city of Peshawer ;' y^j^\^i^ peshdwera'l 
or peKhdtvera''l, 'a female or females of Peshawer.' 

Many feminine nouns, amongst which will be found a great many Persian 
derivatives, terminate in yd-i-mace-ruf md-kahl-i-maksur, or 4^ preceded by (— ) 
kasrali^ which is changed to ^ preceded by (— ) hamza'h and (— ) kasra^h (explained 
in the preceding paragraph) in the plimil ; as, ^,-^ mtr-tft^ 'trouble,' 'distress;' 
^jr^t mlr-tsa'l^ troubles,' ' distresses.' 

Other nouns again, chiefly foreign words which have crept into the language, 
terminating in ^-, may be either masculine or feminine, and form their plurals by 
affixing the terminations ^1, ^iS^or ^^b for the masculine, and ^^1 or 03^^ (^^or oj-lf, 
and ^Ij or °^\i_ for the feminine; as, :;li> hd-tl, an elephant,' ,Jb f/rt'7, 'a nurse.' 

IN'ouns terminating in ijd-i-mau-kuf^ or silent ^ , are all masculine, and affix 
other terminations for the plural ; as, ^^ dzo'e, ' a son,' ^^ so'e^ ' a hare,' the 
rules respecting which will be seen from the following declensions. 

46. The gender of some noims is distinguishable from the sex of those to 
whom they are applicable; as, s^^ merrah or "-^ mcrra^ 'a husband,' <^>jjU rndn- 
cUna'h, ' a wife.' In other instances they are expressed by words totally different 
from each other; as, jlt j9/«r, 'a father, 'j^ mor, 'a mother,' jj,jj 2v''ro7', 'a brother,' 
j^:>. khor, ' a sister.' 

47. Feminine nouns are formed from masculines by the addition of s ijid-i- 
khafl) ; changing ^ into ^ ; and inserting ^ before the final letter ; as, ^JX.^\ tish or 
nkh, a w?ff/e camel,' ^^4,^^ nsha^h or ukka'h, ^ sl female camel;' ^j^j^ murghumaey^ 'a 
male kid,' ^J^4/'* mur^huma'l ^ '' a female kid;' a^^ melmah, ' a male guest, ^ ^uU-^ 
melmana'li^ ' a female guest.' 

48. Pushto nouns have nine declensions, distinguished according to the 
various methods of inflection, and the formation of the nominative plural. Several 
declensions have two or more varieties. 

1st Declension. 

49. This comprehends all nouns which inflect the oblique cases of the sin- 
gular and nominative plural. It has two varieties. 



50. The first variety consists of noiins ending in ^^ (with fat-Mh and yd 
quiescent) wliich take (^) in the vocative, the whole of which are masculine ; as, 
^^ sttiraeij, ' a man,' ^/r* m'charaey, ' a tiger,' ^^^ iiHrmjaey, ' a slave,' etc. 

51. The oblique plural of all nouns in this language, with the exception of 
those of the 9th declension, is formed by substituting ^ or {-i.) for the final letter of 
the nominative plui'al, and therefore requires no further explanation. 

52. The masculine noun J^ sarraey, ' a man,' is thus declined : 

jj--c sarraey, ' a man.' 


Norn. ^5^ sarraey, 

Gen. k_l^ t: da sarri, 

f i^ or i.!, i3 i^jMi sarri tah, larah, or lah 
Dat. I ^ ov sj, d^j ^ r-j ^ wa sarri tah, larah, or lah ; or 

\ etc. a,jj ^-m: ^ /ra sarri watah, etc. 

^.-j sarraey. 







a man. 
a man's, or of a man. 

to a man. 

a man, or to a man. 

f^j^ or ^5^ J or ^5^ t_> 




^ ai sarraey a, or ?z;6> sarraey a ; or sarraeya, 
i^ lah sarri, or /«/^ s«m ?i(z/^, 

^cj^ sarri, 


J --J J c?« sarro, 
d^ or ij, ^' }.«: sarro tah, larah, or fe/^; or 
^! or i^, <)ij ^w«j J i>i'« sc</T(> teA, larah, or /a/^; or 
etc. Aj'j j^ J ?ra sarrc* natah, etc. 
jc-u: sarri, 
J.-; orjij«j j or jij-j 4^1 «i sarro, or ?i'(? sarro ; or sarro, 
dj ^j^ a\ or jij-j ^1 fe/i sarro, or /a/^ S(*yr<? ^^(^^^j 
ji--; sarro, 

man ! 
from a man. 
by a man. 

men's, or of men. 

to men. 

men, or to men. 

men ! 

from men. 

bv men. 

53. The second variety embraces nouns which take (— ) and occasionally ^ 
{yd-i-maj-hid) in all the oblique cases of the singular, and the vocative ; as, Ji Idr^ 
'a road,' ^y^jwl, 'a maiden,' and j:^ stan., ' a needle.' They are all feminine, and 
generally inanimate. 

^ Idr. 'a road.' 


.^ Idr, a road. 





^ lari, roads. 

Ji J da lari, of a I'oud, or a road's. 

Dat. i\ or :ij, <s.j Jl lari tah, larah, or lah, to 

a road. 

Ji J da Idro, of roads, or roads'. 
A or iJ Aj j^ /«/'^ te/', larah, or /a/^ to 



Acc. Ji Idr, a road, or to a road. Jl lari, roads, or to roads. 

Voc. Ji j or ^\ ai or wo lari, road ! Ji j or ^_J\ ai, or wo Idro, roads ! 

Nhl.ij J iii or Ji dl /a/^ /aW, or la/i lari nali, ij Jl ^ oy J cd lali Idro, or lah Idro nak, 

from a road. from roads. 

Act. Ji Idri, by a road. J Idro, by roads. 

2nd Declension. 

54. The nouns of this class which are distinguished by not inflecting the 
singular oblique, take (^) in the vocative ; affix Itvvo or more letters to form the 
nominative plural ; and often reject the long vowel of the first syllable. They are 
of two varieties, and are all masculine. 

55. The first variety are those which take [J^ or i^i^ in the nominative plural ; 
as, j^Jj pldi% 'a father,' <L)Ij niydyah, 'a maternal uncle,' (j^ as, 'a horse,' ^_«,'< 
marrtvand, 'the wi'ist,' (^li ghdJch or ghdsh, 'a tooth,' J^ shjjol, 'a hedge of 

Jii pldr, ' a father.' 


Nom. j^ pldr, a father. Aj^j or ;^jjl> pldruna, oy plarunah, fathers. 

Obi. Jii J da pldr, of a father, etc. \^ij^^^ "^ dapldnlno, of fathers, etc. 

Voc. jL j or ^^1 «?', or 7co pjldra, father ! ^;^^^^ j o'' <-/^ tt'<, or /i^o pldruno, fathers ! 
Act. j^j />/«;% by a father. u^J^^. pl^'^'t^uno, by fathers. 

56. The second varietv consists of those nouns which insert the two letters 
^J before the final letter ; as, i^^L^ melmah, 'a guest,' ^^i ghohah, 'a cowherd.' 

A^L.* melmali^ ' a guest.' 


Nom. (U:^^^ 7nelma/(, & gvtest. ajUL^ melmdnak, guests. 

Obi. (^^«1*^ J c/« melma/i, of a guest, etc. Jl^^ j c/a melmdno, of guests, etc. 

Voc. <uL.« j or ^?\ a?, or wo melmah, guest ! y UL.« j or ^^^ «7", or wo melmdno, guests ! 
Act. iuL^ melmah, by a guest. yUL^* melmdno, by guests. 

57. il «/?, 'a sigh,' which is feminine amongst some tribes, takes the above 
masculine form of the plural ; but it is a Persian, not an Afghan word. 

3rd Declension. 

58. This comprises all nouns ending in a {hd-i-Miaf}, or imperceptible h) 
which is changed into ^ (jjd-i-maJJml) in the oblique singular, vocative, and 
nominative plural; as, ds*?' Jchadza'h or shadzali, 'a woman,' ^i^'* macjioghnali, 
'a sling,' :fjcJ lenda^h, 'a bow.' They are all feminine. 

dis**' Uhachali or shachci'h, ' a woman.' 


Nom. dAf*> yhachali, a woman, ^5^^ lihadzey, women. 


Obi. ^'i' 3 da Mackaey, of Siwoman, etc. ^s*** J da IJhadzo, of women, etc. 

Voces'*' j or ^\ at, or /r(9 Khadzey, woman ! ^s*** j or ^1 ai, or wo Macho, women ! 
Act. ^^ Wiadzey, by a woman. ^s*** JJkadzo, by women. 

59. There is another variety which may be included in. this declension ter- 
minating in ya4-mawnifma-kal)l-i-mafcsur^ or perceptible ^ preceded by (-r)kasra'h 
which is changed into what is Qvlledi ya-i-7naw7%f ma-J(aU4-hamza' h4-]^afl4-mak^^ 
or perceptible ^_s preceded by (-^) liamzaJli and (— ) Jcasra''h, for the singular oblique, 
and nominative pliu*al ; as, fJyfy* mlt^-tsi, ' distress,' ^^j:^^ mlrtm'l, ' distresses ;' 

j,.^^ duJchmam or diishmanl^ 'enmity,' ^:-4«j.t.> dnlthmand)~i or t/ws^w;«w«'?, 'enmities.'* 
This form is rare with regard to pure Pushto words, but includes a number of 
Persian derivative nouns. 

^j!^ mir-tfi, ' distress.' 


Nom. is*v^ tmr-tm, distress. L^yfr^ mir-tsai, distresses. 

Obi. Ls^yr?^ "^ damir-tml, of distress, etc. y^jr^ '^ ^^ mlr-ts'io, of distresses, etc. 

Voc. «a-^J or ^^1 ai,ovwomlr-tsal, distress ! yf^^-y^ J or ^^1 ai, or wo mir-tsw, distresses! 

Act. is^^ mir-tsal, by distress. y^i^ mlr-tslo, by distresses. 

4th Declension. 

60. In this declension are contained nouns which take (^) in the oblique, 
and vocative singular, and the nominative plural. They are of tAVo varieties, and 
generally masculine. 

61. The &st variety merely add the (a.) sometimes i, for the singular ob- 
lique and nominative plm-al; as, Ji ghal, ' a thief,' J^ mal., 'a companion.' 

^ ghal^ 'a thief.' t 


Nom. Ji ykal, a thief. jJx or J,i yJilcB ov yh'lxBh, thieves. 

Obi. 3-i J da gJilce, of a thief, etc. Jx ^ da gJilo, of thieves, etc. 

Voc. J-£ j or i_f^ «?', or iro yJilcc, thief ! J,i j or ^^^ «i, or 7vo gjilo, tlueves ! 

Act. J«c gKlce, by a thief. J,i gK^o, by thieves. 

62. The second variety consists of such nouns as ^^^j n^mnndz^ 'prayer,' 
^y_ ylin, 'gait,' 'custom,' etc., CJf hog or^y>' Z-o;'.?, 'a hyena,' ^SJ:^ shhirm, ' a por- 
cupine,' which change the ^ or (^) of the nominative into \ and affix i or (— ) in 
the oblique and vocative singular and the nominative pliu^al. 

* In the first edition of this work, this termination, as warranted by the system of some Pushto authors, was written 
with (-^) over the ^— thus, \^^, but the above is the more correct mode of writing it. 

t The feminine form of this word ends in ha-i-khafi^—d^ ghla' h. It belongs to the first variety of the third declension, 
and shows how the feminines of such nouns are obtaincni. 


^^ ti^ munch, ' prayer.' 


Nom. '^^ n'mundz, ])ra,jev. <)^Uj or i-'Uj nmdn^aorn'?)idn^ah,Tpvaijers. 

Obi. i-'Uj j da Timdndza, of prayer, etc. i-'Uj J da nmdncko, of prayers, etc. 

Voc. S'UJ J or 1^1 ai,OTwo n'7ndn^a,0])ra,jer\ ^l*j j or ^1 a?, or wo n'nid?idzo, prayers ! 
Act. i-'Uj n'mdndza, hj -prsijer. 1->[aj ?^'?;^aw(fe(7, by prayers. 

5th Declension. 

63. The nouns of tliis declension are not subject to inflection except in the 
vocative singular, wliich, if masculine, take (^) fat-hali, and if feminine, (— ) 
hmrcDh, sometimes written with i and ^ instead. They may be divided into four 
classes — those which take ^1, ^l^, or ^b in the nominative plui-al, and those whose 
plurals are irregular. The nouns embraced in this declension are mostly names of 
human beings, or animals ; and contain a number of exotic words which have 
crept into Pushto from the languages spoken in the countries bordering on Af gh an- 
istan, together with numerous primitive nouns. They are both masculine and 
feminine, but the former predominate. 

64. The fii'st variety includes nouns which take ^ in the nominative plural ; 
as t^y tut, 'a mulberrj^,' ^^ ti lth or uBh, ' a camel,' ^\jb hdtt, 'an elephant.' 

^^\ ti lth or uih, ' a male camel.' 


Nom. s^^ ul£i, or ush, a camel. ^J^}^ uWidn, or uskdn, camels. 

Obi. ^jl t) da uJch, of a camel, etc. uWj^ *^ ^^'' ulfhdno, of camels, etc. 

Voc. "^j^ j or ^\ ai, or ?vo ul^a, camel ! ^J^^ j or ^1 al, or wo uJfhdno, camels ! 

Act. i^^\ uWi, by a camel. u^W^^ uJchdno, by camels. 

65. Nouns of the second variety take ^1/ in the nominative pliu'al ; as ^\sj^^ 

mcmdarmu, 'a churning stick,' 1)^ jola, 'a weaver,' ^ijli kdrghah, 'a crow,' ^L^ mllu, 

' a bear.' 

jijljc^ mandmjno, or Jjljc.^ mandamm, 'a churning stick.' 


Nom. jj^jc*^ manddnmu, a churning stick. ^ISyljc^ matiddmiogdn, clim'ning sticks. 

Obi. y^'^'^^ '^ c?<2 manddrrmi, of a churning ^^^l^j^ju^ J da mandMrrnogdnu, of chum- 
stick, etc. ing sticks. 

Voc. jIjo^ j or t^l ai, or rco manddrrnu, ^^^\s:^lov^^\ ai, or wo manddrrnogdnu, 

churning stick ! churning sticks ! 

Act. ^Ijo^ manddrrnu, by a churning ^^\6:j^ manddnmogdnu, by chm'ning 

stick. sticks. 

66. The third variety contains nouns which take ^b in the nominative 
plural ; as, 1^ mulla, ' a priest,' l^^U- (diarpa, ' a quadruped.' 


';T ' r, ■TM.lV.of ' 

1^ nmlld, a priest. 


Nom. iU muUa, a priest. J^t^ mulla-yan, priests. 

Obi. 1« 3 f/« muUa, of a priest, etc. ^}^ '^ da muUa-yanu, of priests, etc. 

Voc. 1^ j or ^\ ai, or wc> midld, priest ! (^V.^'* j oi* t/^ «i or wo midla-yanu, priests ! 

Act. 1^ mulla, by a priest. e;V.^-'-^ mnUd-yanu, by priests. 

67. The fonrtli variety consists of nouns of consanguinity or connexion, whose 
phirals are inTgular ; as, ^^ mor^ 'a mother,' ^^ (ho'e, 'a son,' j^^j wWor, 'a 
brother,' ...• yor, 'a husband's brother's wife;' and a few adjectives, used substan- 
tively; as,^,j-j sor, ' a rider.' 

,»^ mor. ' a mother.' 


Nom. jy^ mor, a mother. (^'^r^ or ';?^^r-^ mendi, or mendey, mothers. 

Obi. j»^ J ffe w/pr, of a mother, etc. su^ J fi?c? mendu, of mothers, etc. 

Voc. j^.« j or ^5! «<?, or 9co morl, mother ! jc-^ J or ^^^ «i, or tco mendu, mothers ! 

Act. j^ wr)r, by a mother. Jc.--^ mendu, by mothers. 

^-^^ (^oV, ' a son.' 


Nom. ^^ dzoe, a son. eT*^ d^dman, sons. 

^ 9 y 

Obi. ^^-^ w> (/rt ^()'^, of a son, etc. ^^U. J f/fl^ dzdmanu, of sons, etc. 

Voc. j^^ j or ^\ at, or /i-6> dzdea, son ! ^'•^^ j or ^5^ (7?, or wo dzdmanu, sons! 

Act. ^i'^i ^oV, by a son. c/*^ chdmanu, by. sons. 

68. A fifth variety of this declension consists solely of nouns denoting 
sounds of whatever description, the whole of which take^b in the plm-al ; as, cL^^-J^ 
heng^ 'a groan,' ^ harnu 'a neigh,' (JJom" jz'rang^ 'clash,' 'ring,' , .J i ghuTrumb^ 

' a roar.' 

C^is heng^ ' a groan. 


Nom. <-^r^ heng, a groan. j^t^-^ hengahdr, groans. 

Obi. C^v^^ J c^a /^(3??y, of a groan, etc. ^,\^:.-.i> j da hcngahdro, of groans, etc. 

Voc. CJ^^^^ov^J\ ai, or ico henga, groan ! ^jl;Si:«.J& J or ^\ ai, ovwo hengahdro, groans ! 

Act. <-^^ heng, by a groan. ^jl^^ hengahdro, by groans. 

6th Declension. 

69. This declension contains nouns which remain unchanged in all cases 
but the oblique plural, which as before stated at page 14, para. 51, never varies in 
Pushto. They are of five different classes. 

70. The first variety embraces all nouns terminating in a {ha-i-zahir, percep- 
tible or apparent A), and which, in direct contrariety to those of the 3rd declension, 


arc all masculine ; for example, i.^\^ 2f>dJchah or waihali^ ' grass,' and ic^_^ weJjhtah 
or iveshtah, ' hair.' They chiefly ai3ply to a class, genus, or species. 

&.M>\^ vmltlmh or tmshak^ ' grass,' 


Nom. •iLi.lj Tcafikah, grass. i^\^ wdJihah, grasses. 

Obi. <Li,^^ J da JvdJJhah, of grass, etc. yi,\^ 3 da wdliho, of grasses, etc. 

Voc. <Li,lj j or ^^1 ai, or wo wobUhah, grass! ^L J or ol ai, or i'yt? wdKho, grasses! 
Act. a^lj wdWiah, by grass. ^«,1j ivdJOio, by grasses. 

71. The second variety are those which terminate in \ and are all feminine ; 
as, \y£. ghtva^ 'a cow,' Lu^l amsa^ 'a crutch,' 1* m'/«, 'the waist,' \jj rarrna, 'brightness.' 

^y^ ghwa^ ' a cow.' 


Nom. \^ ^?vd, Si cow. \y. gkn:d;(W.)i^j\js:.(^ma?vt,cows. 

Obi. \^i. J da ghwd, of a cow, etc. . jl^i J da ghmdwo, of cows, etc. 

Voc. \^ j or :^\ ai, or w(? ghvd, cow ! J^^i j or ^^1 (7?, or wo gJmdmo, cows ! 

Act. \^ ghmd, by a cow. jl^i ghwdwo, by cows. 

72. The third variety terminate in ija-i-mamruf ma Jcahl-i-hamza''h-i-Miafi-i- 
maJcsiir^ or perceptible ^ preceded by (— ) hamzcCh and (— ) kasrali^ and are, 
without exception, all feminine ; and with the exception of the oblique plural, are 
both singular and plural ; as, ^.^ fma^l^ 'a girl,' ^jL-j ■vki'l, ' a slap,' ^"« maehcCl^ 

■•Z ■•/ •■/ 

' a bee.' These words may also be written with 4_c.* 

^^ jlna'l., ' a girl.' 


Nom. i^-rPr i^^«'^ a girl. ^c'-rr^ final, girls. 

Obi. L5^=r ^ da jinai, of a girl, etc. y^s^ J dajino, of girls, etc. 

Voc. ^|:«^ j or (_?1 «?, or wojina!i, girl ! ^^^ \ oi' t-?^ '^'^^ oi' Kojmo, girls ! 

Act. ^J-r^^ jinal, by a girl. ^-*^" j'^^'^^j by girls. 

73. ^N'ouns terminating in (— ) are the foui-th variety; as, .jb harrna, 'an eye- 
lash,' '1^;^ Jduvarra, ' food,' jsr*! . Trmuhara, ' tar.' They may also be wiittcn with i.f 

.jb barriia, 'an eyelash.' + 


Nom. Jb bdrrna, an eyelash. JU bdrrna, eyelashes. 

Obi. r*^ "^ f/g bdrrna, of an eyelash, etc. x*^ ^^ (/c? bdrrna, of eyelashes, etc. 

Voc. yl) j or ^\ ai,OT7vo bdrrna, eyelash! j-*^ j "^'^^ S:^^ *^'^' or;r«9 hdrrno, eyelashes ! 

Act. Jb bdrrna, by an eyelash. „'lj bdrrno, by eyelashes. 

74. The fifth variety embraces all nouns terminating in any other consonant 

* See note (t) page 16. f Sec note (f) at page 10. 

X By the Western Afgli'ins - j\,j hnrjm, and conjugated as second vaiicty of 5th declension. 


than those mentioned for the three first varieties ; as,^--^ Uepar, ' a turnip,'^/ kwar^ 
'a wild grape,' J ju^ sldiwandar^''^ steer;' and which, in the plural, shorten the final 
vowel to (^), a sound shorter than that of fathaJi^ the nearest approach to which in 

English is w. 

.jj^js-* skhtvandar^ ' a steer.' * 


Nom. j'^^ sMiwandar, a steer. jju^.s*-' sMiwandcer, steers. 

Obi. .Ju»^r' J (lasMiwandar, of a steer, etc. jiu^ir-' J da sMiwandceru, of steers, etc. 

Voc.Jju».s-' jor tj^ ai, or 7vo skkwandara, jjuji:-' jor^^', ai, or wo sMmandceru, 

steer ! steers ! 

Act. jJuj-sr* skhwandar, by a steer. jj^J^.s*-' shhwandceru, by steers. 

Tth Declension. 

75. This declension comprehends nouns which take (^-) in the oblique and 

vocative singular, and ^^ or a;^ in the nominative plural. With the exception of 

being capable of inflection, and being names of inanimate objects, and the first letter 

becoming silent or quiescent in the oblique cases and nominative pliu'al, the nouns of 

this difier but slightly from the 2nd declension, which see. They are all masculine ; 

asyi ghar^ ' a moimtain,' '-^^ jo^ghi ' a yoke for oxen,' .T Tirr, ' an obstacle,' and Jjj^^ 

aor-bal, 'the forelock,' 

ji. ghar^ ' a moimtain.' 


Nom. jz. ghcWy a mountain. uA/"^ gJiruna, or ^%j^ gjirunah, mountains. 

Obi. js. J da gjira, of a mountain, etc. ^^J-^^da ^runu, of mountains, etc. 

Voc. ^ J or o' ai, or rco gjira, mountain ! ^^*j£. J ^J^ ai, or no ^rimu, mountains ! 

^ ^ P 

Act. .i g]ira, by a mountain. UA/"^ gKrunu, by mountains. 

8th Declension. 

76. The nouns of this declension are extremely rare. They terminate in ^ 
and are not inflected in the singular, but take jj in the nominative pliu'al ; as ^J:r-» 
siz-nl^ a swaddling band.' 

Jj-.^- slz-m, ' a swaddling band.' 


Nom. [^jrr' s!^-?2!, a swaddling band. lII/^ slz-nal, swaddling bands. 

Obi. s^jrr' "^ ^^ slz-ni, of a swaddling yj^ j da slz-no, of swaddling bands, 

band, etc, etc, 

Voc. ^Jjr^ j or ^\ ai, or wo slz-ni, swad- ^y^ j or ^\ ai, or wo s~iz-7io, swaddling 

dling band ! bands ! 

Act. ^j^ 8l.z-ni, by a swaddling band. ^y^ siz-no, by swaddling bands. 

77. There are a few feminine nouns terminating in ^ {ya-i-maj-hul) or ( ) kas- 

* The Western Afghans decline this noun as the first variety of Class 5th. 


rd)\ which may be entered as the second variety of this class ; but as they are 
generally animate objects, small in size or of tender age, or the feminine forms of 
the active and past participles of verbs, they are, properly speaking, adjectives. 
The masculine form comes under the first variety of the 1st declension, and from 
which the feminines merely differ as regards the nominative and vocative singular ; 
as, ^°^^ kuchuttef/^ or c;;-^^ kucJuitti, ' a pimy female child ;' ^J lijj zerah-garey^ or 
^ iji,j zerah-garij a female who brings good news.' 

(^jjs^ kuchuUi^ ' a puny female child.' 


Nom. '^^^^ kuchutti, a female child, i^y^ kuchutti, female children. 

Obi. ic5f^ "^ f^^ kuchutti, of a female ^;-f '^ ^^* kuchuttlo, of female chil- 

child, etc. dren, etc. 

Voc. (c5_>f^ ; or ^\ ai, or ko kuchutti, female »^y^ J or l/^ <^h oi* ^^"^ kuchuttlo, female 

child ! " children ! 

Act. ls^^ kucjiuttl, by a female cluld. ^^ kudiuttlo, by female children. 

9th Declension. 
78. There are many nouns in Pushto, which neither change in the singular 
oblique, nor in the nominative or oblique plural or vocative, which I have in- 
cluded in this declension; thus, y^ gt-su, 'a ringlet,' jbj wi-dr, 'jealousy,' ^^b 
bdr-kho^ 'the cheek,' ^'Aj zdn-go^ 'a swing or cradle,' ^^ Idn-ho^ 'act of swimming.' 
There are many foreign words included in this form ; and they are both masculine 

and feminine. 

jbj wl-dr (masc.) 'jealousy.' 


Nom. .1) J wl-ar, jealousy. jbj Kl-ar, jealousies. 

Obi. jIjj J da Wl-ar, of jealousy, etc. jIjj 3 da rcl-ar, of jealousies, etc. 

Voc. .1)^ J or ^\ ai, or wo wl-dr, jealousy ! jV.^ j or lJ^ ^^ or wo wi-dr, jealousies ! 

Act. jbj ;^'I-ar, by jealousy. jbj m-a/', by jealousies. 

C H A P T E H I Y. 


ci^itf ^\ ism-i-sifat. 

79. The Adjective, called the i-:^i^ ^\ ism-i-sifat, or noun of quality, denotes 
some property or attribute of the noun; as, ^y tor, 'black,' ^j^^ spin, 'white,' i^ 
Mah OY shah, 'good,' ^l^li ndkdr, 'bad,' j^ luwarr, 'tall,' ^i:^.A:-< mandaraey, 'short.' 
Example : — 


" There is no such weak intoxication in the wine of love, 
As becometh quenched by the sourness of admonitions." — Yumf and Zullkha. 

80. The adjective should in all cases precede the noun, as : 


Suwat is intended to give sovereigns gladness, and delight ; 
But now m the time of the Yusufzis, it is a desolate caravansary. 
On the north it is bounded by the mountains of Bilauristan ; * 
To the east lies Kashmir ; to the west is Kabul and Badakhshan. 
Towards Hindustan it has black mountains and frowning passes, 
In the ascent of which, armies will get entangled, and confusion ensue." 

— Khushhdl Khan, Khattak. 

" If on a marriage day a person dresseth himself iu red coloured clothes, if that dress be 
of cotton which was originally red, then the wearing of such garments is right and lawful." 
— Fawaid-ush- Skari ceali. 

81. The adjective admits of but three forms— the nominative, oblique, and 
vocative, in the same manner as the noun, although it has also seven cases. The 
actor is the same as the oblique, and the remainder are made up by the addition of 
the different particles. 

82. Some adjectives are undeclinable, f and are not subject to change for 
number ; with this exception, they assume the same terminations in gender, 
number, and case, as the nouns they qualify. The following are examj)les : 

" Like as by applying jfire, one setteth dry grass in a blaze, 
So doeth love to devotion, and to piety." — J^ahd-ul- Hamid. 

" Those eyes, whether they be narcissuses or almonds, 
Became sharp swords for slaughtering me. — JEahd-ur-Raliman. 

* The country of 'crystal,' from p. Jj, so called from containing mines of transparent quartz or rock-ciystal, which 
is sometimes brought to Peshawar for sale. 

t Except in the oblique plural, which is always inflected. Sec ' Nouns,' Para. 51. 



The following is the mode of declension : 


mashar zv''ror, 'an elder brother.' 









JV3 J — 


j^j% jJL^ mashar wWor, 

«0, or ^, Aj" jjjj JL^ mashar roi'or tah, larah, or laky 
j^j^ JL^ mashar wror, 
j^j^ j/L^ j or t_s\ ai, or 7vo mashara wWora, 
L or j^j^ jJL^ aj lah mashara To'rora, or 
^ j^jj y^ <J lah mashara wWora nah, 
j^j» yL< mashar ivror, 


yjjjj or jj^j^ jJL^ mashar rcWurrna, or rorurrnah, 
**-'*j} or jjj)jj ^A^ J fl?a masharo w'rurmo. 

Dat. <i.S or ^, iJ jj^j^ or Jjj^ ^^A.^ masharo w'rurrno tah, larah, or /aA, 




^j^V} ^"^ jivy y 

mashar wrurrna. 


3jiiJi or 

or J 

or ^\ ai, or wo masharo w'rurmo, 

j-'jj^ j^^ 'J lah masharo w'rurrm, or 

9 ^ 

J Jj .J or j^^«j^ j^^^^ ^ lah masharo w'rurmo nah, 


ij^3J3 01' j'3J: J*^' 

Cj.^ masharo w rurrno, 

an elder brother, 
of an elder brother, 
to an elder brother. 

an elder brother. 

elder brother ! 

from an elder brother, 
by an elder brother. 

elder brothers, 
of elder brothers, 
to elder brothers. 

elder brothers. 
elder brothers ! 

from elder brothers. 

by elder brothers. 

83. Before feminine nonns adjectives take s (ha-i-khafi), as will be perceived 
from the following conplet : 

" Ahmad Shah ! adversltv is a black calamitv : Mind ! in misfortune be a faithful friend." 

— Ahmad Shah, Ahddl'i. 

Declension of an adjective governed by a feminine noun : 

Jjs- <L>^ lo-e-a' h jcel, 'a grown up gii-l.' 




J^ AjjS lo-e-ahjcel, 
J^ ^.^ '^ (l(^ lo-e-ey jceli, 
J:?- jj^ j or ^_s^ ai, or wo lo-e-ey jceli, 
^^ LS^J ^o-e-eyjali, 





J^ ^J lo-e-ey j(Bli, 

J,^ y jl J da lo-eo jcelo, 

)js- ^..^ \ or 4?^ ^^ or wo lo-eo jcelo, 

J^ ^l^ lo-eo j<slo. 

a grown up girl. 

of a grown up girl, etc. 

grown up girl ! 

by a grown up girl. 

grown up girls. 

of grown up girls, etc. 

grown up girls ! 

by grown up gii'ls. 



84. Sometimes a noun is used instead of an adjective to qualify another 
noun ; thus : 

yiy y*f ^U i^ ^_/ ^, }i^j J\s:^ yJf^^ >^v "^^ ^rf' rr^J^ ^ ^^ 
" That tooth by means of which iron-like pulse was masticated, 
God alone knoweth what acids have blunted it." — jEabd-td-Ham'id, 

a \ ^Jl^ Jcmrnaeij z'rrah, 'a hard (stone) heart.' 



s.\ i^Jl^" kdrrnaey z^rrah, 
s.\ ^j \^ J da kdrrni z'rrah^ 
^ij ,^ Jl^ J or u?1 ai, or wo kdrrni z'rrah, 
i'j ^j l^ kdrrni z'rrak, 

a hard heart. 

of a hard heart, etc. 

hard heart ! 

by a hard heart. 


hard hearts. 

of hard hearts, etc. 

hard hearts ! 

by hard hearts. 

Nom. ^jJ.j or ^^.j ^?^ kdrrni z'rruna, or z'rrunah, 

Obi. U^jJ Jr*^ "^ ^^^ kdrrno z'rruno, 

Voc. uiiJ Jjr' ^ J °^ ^^ ^^' ^^ ^^ kdrrno z'rruno, 

Act. ij^ij J!/^ kdrrno z'rruno, 

85. Adjectives may be, and often are, used alone, the substantive being 
understood ; thus : 

" Nor footstep nor breath hath the friend of the fair : 
Behold the candle, foot-bound, and head severed ! " — yEabd-td-Hamld. 

" The locks of the beloved are the desired objects of every one. 
Whether old or young, whether great or small." — JEabd-ur-Rahmdn. 

86. Adjectives are declined in the same manner as substantives, as explained 
at paragraph 82. 

^^ ghatt {m^i&G.) i^ ghatta} h {iem.) 'stout,' 'thick.' 






(^^£ ^att, or i.-^ ghattah, 

^j..<vc J da ghatt, or ^^-i ^ da ghattey, 

j or yj\ a%, or wo ghatta, or ^^is. ghattey, 
^j^ gJiatt, or ^j^ ghattey, 


^\::is. ghaUdn, or ^ ghattey, 

j^lsi. J da ghattdno, or ^ j da ghatto, 
(^^Is^i j or 4_f 1 ai, or ??-o ghattdno, or j;;i ghatto, 
^U.i ghattdmo, or ^ ghatto, 

stout or thick. 

of stout, etc. 

stout ! etc. 

by stout, etc. 

stout, thick. 

of stout, etc. 
stout ! etc. 
by stout, etc. 


87. Adjectives having ivmv-i-maJ-hTil (concealed or imknown, as not occurring 
in Arabic) as one of its letters, and in sound like o in the English word rohe^ change 
the J to ! in the singular oblique and nominative plural, and affix ha-i-zaldr (or per- 
ceptible /^), to the final letter, but the j is sometimes retained ; as, ei^-u .^ wro8t^ 
'rotten,' pi. 6z^\ji^ wrdstah] j^:>- khoj's, 'sweet,' pi. sj\^^ khivdjzah', j^ sorr, 'cold,' 
pi. ir.L sdrrah ; .^ tnotr, ' satiated,' pi. i^U mdrmli. For the feminine form the ^ is 
dropped, and i (Jid-i-khafi) affixed, which is changed to ^^ {yd-i-maj-liul) or (-r) 
kasra'h in the singular oblique and nominative plural ; but the pliu^al oblique cases 
are the same, in the plural, for both genders. 

sorr^ ' cold.' 
^ j^^ sorr, *.Lj sdrrah. 


Nom. 5 7 /-n ^ 

( i^ sarrah KX .) j*^ °^ '^x^ sarrey, or sarri (F.) 

Ii ,L J da sdrrah, ) 

^ . . } j^ J (/a saij:o (M. and F.) 

^ or ^^ J da sarrey, or sarri (F.) ) 

/ l-j j or ^\ at, or wo sarra, \ 

Voc. ] «-j or ^^ j or ^\ ai, or /vo sarrey, \ jj^ j or ^1 <:«', or tvo sarro (M. and F.) 

\ or sarri (F.) ) 

f s.Lo sdrrah, ) 

Act. • 1 ^>t**' s<2^(9 (M. and F.) 

( .-J or ^^> sarrey, or sa/ri (F.) ) 

88. There are a number of adjectives, principally the active and past partici- 
ples of verbs, which in the masculine, terminate like the nouns of the fii-st variety 
of the 1st declension in J {yd-i-md-kabl-i-maftuh), and whose feminines take ^ {yd-i- 
maj-hul\ or {—-) kasra^h in the singular ; as ,jX}^_^ vju-ymkaey, ' a sjDeaker;' ^j-O^jlJU 
mdtedmkaey^ 'brittle,' {lit. a breaker); ^jji^^j ii'Jihataeif, or n'^shataey, 'entrapped;' 
jjJoj^y.<j tverawunkaey., 'alarming,' 'terrific;' ^j^^ kucJmUaey, 'a little child,' etc. 
Both take ^ [yd-i-maceruf) in the singular oblique and the nominative pliu^al, and J 
(ivatv-i-maj-hTil) in the oblique cases, and may be thus declined ; 

^j_0^'j iva-yimkaey ., ' a speaker.' 


( ^'v*. • wa-yunkaey, di s^Qoker, ) 

Nom. \ y^"^ _ ^ I ic^yj '"'^'^-y^^^k'h speakers. 

( iV^»J« or ulisjyj wa-yunki, or wa.-yunkey {Y.) ] ^ " 


^J^'^:\» '•i c?<z ;ya-?/M;^A'^, of a speaker, etc. »JJ>^.\» J da wa-yunhw, of sY>cakers. 

f or jc-^^.i J 0^ c/^ '^^ *^^ '^^ wa-yunkaeya, \ 

\ :'y. ' , , . _ ,■ ( ^^^.y« jo^o^ ^^^ "^J* ^^"^ wa-yunkio, 

Voc. > CSjyi^ j or ^^1 ai,orwona-yunki,or7va- , 

I ^ I sneakers - 

\ C^y'.i yfmkey, speaker ! (F.) 

Act. \S^^-i '^''(^-y^^^f^k'u by a speaker. y^^i^.; n-a-yunklo. by speakers. 



89. The ordinal munbers ^sz ^>U^1 asmW e-ceadad are declinable, and subject 
to the same changes by inflection as other adjectives ; thus, J^ ^_^j rrwibaey chal, 
' the fii'st time,' Jl^ «j.<J dweam Jccil^ 'the second year,' c::^.^!--^ ^.j'^ dreama'h ml-dsht, 
'the third month,' c^ jf cji^^ ^ P^^^^ tsaloram Jcor kJihey, 'in the foiu-th house,' 
e.j ^ ,^s^., i^ lah piruhameti Ithadzeii nah^ 'from the fifth TV^oman,' etc. Examples: 

 '' The sun's rays penetrate not through the roof of the covered buildmg : 
The heart rent and torn by one grief is good." — uEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" The Prophet of God hath said : I am overjoyed on account of three things ; first, that 
I am an Arab; second, that the Kur'an is in Arabic ; and third, that the language of Heaven 
will be the Arabian. — Fawald-iish Bharicedh. 

90. The adjunct of similitude ^l^ shdn^ is also subject to change to agree with 
its governing noun in niunber and case, as will be seen from the following examples : 
{jA (^l-i> j^j tor shan ds, ' a blackish horse ;' a^ ^[j^i ^-«-j spinah shdn dspa'h, ' a 
Avhitish mare ;' ,_5^ A4, ^Li aj U^ chcmid j^ah shdn Ichah or shah samieu, ' a good man 
like me ;' ^^^ J^^ '^j uJ^U j da halak pah shdnjlna^l^ 'a rompish giid.' Examples : 

" Like the grief of separation wliich raineth on me, 
Think ! hath any one ever seen such fire as this ?" — ^abd-ur- Rahman. 

" Thou becometh so changed from sHght hunger, 
That thou seizeth a beetle in thy avidity instead of a sloe."* — yEabd-td-Harmd. 

91. There are several words used in Pushto to denote similarity, but they are 
adverbs, and not declinable, viz. : ■a:J: ghundi, JjJ dod^ j*L tser/^lS^ laJca or iS}i laJcah 
and ^_JJLuJ^ haseij or ^j^sa hasi, which generally go together, and may be translated, 
' as,' 'so,' ' such,' etc., and the adjective ^ir* makhacjj (masc), or ^k.^ makha^i (fern.), 
but the latter are rare. Examples : 


They who like Majnun through love lose their reputation, 

Their names become renowned throughout the world." — JEabd-ul-Hamid. 


* The sloe and blackberry grow in the Khaiber mountains, and in the hills north of Peshawer. 


''Like unto Khushlial, at thy door fallen, there will be others 
Who have made thy tresses fetters on their iQ^i^ —KJmshMl Khan, Khaitak. 

" By lamentation and weeping I obtained a sight of my beloved : 
Like unto the dew, I am miited to the queen of flowers." — jEahd-ul-Hdimd. 

" The sorrows of absence reduced me to such extremity. 
As when a demon sitteth with one as a guest." — ^abd-ul-Hcmiid. 

" As sugar so is falsehood pleasant to the world : 
Like poison so it spitteth out truth." — jEahd-ul-IIamid. 

" There is no rose of such a beautiful colour as thy cheek : 
The rose shineth with one colour — thou art resplendent with a hundred." 

— jEabd-ul-Hamul. 

92. The <u!L« j J^-^iJ" t_?^-»^ asma'e-taffd wo miibdla^haJu comparative and 
superlative degrees, are not expressed by any peculiar form of adjective : the supe- 
riority of one thing over another being expressed by the addition of various particles 
and adjectives. 

93. The positive is made comparative by the particles J tar^ ^J lah, aj ^ lah 
nah^ etc., used with the object to which comparison is made ; and such words as 

y^^ dder^ 'much,' CLi\ij zi-dt^ 'more,' ^^ We^ 'gTeat,' and many others; thus, ^^j^* 
dder Whah, ^ very good,' ls} j.^ (M^^ ^^'^) '' very large,' ^-!^j4> elder landd^ ' very small,' 
^.^^ CJ^ tah spin, ' very white.' Examples : 

" Look for excellence from the good, Ahmad Shah ! Evil consider lighter than a feather." 

" Bahram said unto Shamas, go you to her : Sardasia too with her hand-maidens around her. 
All should dress themselves in royal robes ; And with them Euh Afzfi, more lovely than 

the rose." — Bahram Gur. 

94. A mere repetition of the positive is commonly used in forming the com- 
parative ; thus— 


^^ ^3 J}^ i^3i -^ii J}i ^J^ ^^-^ H ^ 

" He who miirmureth at that which hath happened, 
Talketh great nonsense : he beateth the froth bubbles on the water." 

— jEabd-td- Haniid. 

95. In forming the superlative, such words as J^ Uol^ ' all,' j.^- had^ ' boun- 
dary,' i3j^j pahor-tah or aj\.j por-tah^ ' over,' ' above,' are used in addition to the 
particles employed to express the comparative ; as ^d ^j J^5 ^ Aij daghah lah Uolo 
We daey^ Hhis is the biggest of all^^ or, ' this is the greatest','' Lu\ij 3^^- <)J lah hada 
zi-dta, 'beyond bounds;' ^fJ ^Ui^Jb^.^ <D J^ ^ t_?^ b da sarraey lah Uolo nah dder 
hosh-7jdr daey, ^ this man is the cleverest of all.'' Examples : 

" Thy oppression, Oh beloved one ! hath exceeded all bounds : 
The waves of my tears are ever rolling from the ocean of my heart." 

— yEabd-id-Hamld. 

" The Hum.a on this accomit enjoyeth the greatest rank of all birds, 
That it consumeth bones, and injureth not the feathered race." — Gidistdn. 

" Man to all appearances is the most excellent op created things, and the dog the 
MOST vile ; yet with the concurrence of the wise, a grateful dog is far superior to the man 
without gratitude." — Gnlistdn. 

96. Many adjectives have a plui-al signification only; as, fj^ ttol, 'all,' 'the 
whole,' etc. They take a (hd-i-khafj) with feminine nouns, in place of which 
{-^)fat-hah is commonly written. The following is the mode of conjugation : 

(Masc.) J^ ttol, 'all, 'the whole,' etc. 
Norn. J^5 ttol, all, the whole. 

Gen. J^ J or ^^ 3 da ttolo, or da ttolu, of all, etc. 


or i^ or i>j, &j J^ or ^^ ttolo, or Uolu tah, larah or lalt ; or ) 

aj\ J^5 or j!j5 ttolo, or ttolu watah, etc. ) 

Ace. J^j ttol, all, or to all. 

Voc. J^ or j!^^ j or ^-^ ai, or wo ttolo, or #(?//«<, all ! 

. , , ^  or J^5 or J .J aI lah ttolo, or ^c/m ; or ) 

' ^-^ J^ 01* jJ_j3 '^ 't?/^ ttolo, or ^c>/m wa/^, ) 

Act. J^ or ^l^j Uolo, or «^/?/, by all. 


(Fern.) c^J^j ttoMh. 

Nona. J^ or a!_jj ttola'k, or ttola. all, the whole. 

Gen. J^ J or ^^ J da ttolo, or da Uolu, of all, etc. 

I or ^ or ii, Aj J»j or Jjj ft6>/(? tak, larah or /aA ; or ) 
^, , [ to all. 

etc. <).Jj J^ or j^ ttolo watah, etc. ) 

Ace. J^ or i\^ ttola h, or ttola, all, (?r to all, 

Voc. Jy or ^^ j or ^^1 ai, or ti;?^ ^cifo, all ! 

|,]j or J.;* <0 lah ttolo ; or ) 

r/ V . ' from all. 

AJ Jy or y^5 «y lah ttolo nak, ) 

Act. Jy or ^y ft(?/(9, by all. 

97. The^^-juiJ (»-j1 ism-i-tasghlr used to lessen the importance of a word, or to 
convey contempt, is affixed to the noun. There are several of these particles in 
general use ; viz. ^^^ , ^^ , ^, v^^ , ^^^ , ^/j , ^/^ and the letters llj^ ^ , ^^ , thus : 
jjcj^j^ kusa'hrra'i^ ' a small goglet ;' ^^-^-^pr jwaka't^ ' a little girl ;' ^^^jV huzdrgaey^ 
' a small market ;' ^j? r-j sarrptaeij^ ' a mean fellow (here the particle ^^^ is inserted 
before the final letter); ^j^^y>- chargorraey^ 'a young cock;' ^_/j^^ Manddukaey^ 
' a small pond ;' ^^ majzak or (JjX» magak^ ' a mouse ' {lit. a small rat) ; cij^^V^ 
hahaduraejj^ 'a coward' (//^^. a small hero); and ^^jj^^^U muUdguUaey^ 'an illiterate 
priest.' Examples : 

" I once saw a mean scoundrel of a fellow, who was speaking 01 of a man of rank and 
respectabihty. I said to him : ' Oh master ! if thou art unlucky, what fault is that of a more 
fortunate man ? ' " — Gulistan. 

" The CHILD g-ambleth not in this manner with stones and shards. 
Like I stake on thee both my religion and my faith." — J^ahd-ul-Hanild. 

98. The particle of diminution affixed to a noim is also used to express en- 
dearment, as will be seen from the following extract. 

" To me this is not death, neither is it hfe— than existence, the condition of the dead I 
look upon as preferable — through love I am become dry— from anguish I am consumed. Oh 
DEAR BROTHER Mini ! 1 must See Durkbana'i."— T'fi'/f? of Adam Khan and DurMidnal. 


" When the priiice spoke these words, The kiiig and his family wept a great deal. 
The Idng said, ' Oh my dear boy ! What time is this that thou hast made this declaration ? ' " 

— Saif-ul-Muluk and Badrl Jamal. 



j^<j) mmir. 

99. The Pushto pronouns are of five different classes— the personal, demon- 
strative, reflective or reciprocal, interrogative, and indefinite. 

100. The language contains no peculiar form of relative and co-relative pro- 
nouns, but other pronouns are used instead ; the explanations of which, as also 
examples, will be found in their proper places. 

101. As the pronouns in declension admit of considerable changes, they 
require to be exhibited separately. 

102. The personal pronouns, or ^d^ii^ ji\/^^ mmW~ir-i-munfasilah, are sj zaJi, 
aj tah^ and <Ujs. haghah. 

103. The 1st person is termed A^^ mutaliallim^ the 2nd i .\:\s.'-* mukhatah 

or^lsw hasir, and the 3rd i -oli gjulijib. 

104. As it would far exceed the intended limits of the present work to give 
separate examples of each pronoim, both in the singular and plm-al number, I shall 
content myself by giving a specimen, either inflected or otherwise, as occasion may 
require ; the whole of the changes for person and case, gender and number, can be 
seen at a glance from the following declensions. 

105. The first personal pronoim ij zali is not subject to any change for gender, 

and is thus declined : 

1st Person ^j zali^ 'I.' 


Nom. ij zah, I. 

Gen. WL dzmd, mine, of me. 

_^ ( or tO, iJ, <Xj U ma tah, larak, lah ; or ) 

l*at. i , , 7 1 tome. 

\ etc. a.3j U ^ or <^j l« j wa via tah ; or, 9va ma watah, etc. ' 

Ace. U ma, me, or to me. 

Abl. <sj U aS or U <0 lah ma, or lah ma nah, from me. 

Act. U md, by me. 



^' j^^ or ^sS^:^ mimgah, or onujz tah ; or 
Dat. ' a.j ^»,« . or ^t:^ » rca mungah, or ma mujz tah, etc. ; or > to us. 

i and "Ll^* or *d^:»^ mungah, or munga ; and 

( ^^ and cLx)^ or a^j^^ mungah, ov munga {Ei.),Qxidi mujz {^.), 
Gen. j^'*^ ^^' A^:s^»^ dz mungah, or dzmiljz, our, of us. 


\ etc. <C>^ ,^« J or ti^^i.^ J ^ya mungah, or ;?;« ?;?m_^ Katah, etc. 
Ace. _,»,4 or A^i.* mungah, or ?;m^, us, or to us. 

(or ^»^ or c's^:*^ <iJ lahmunqah, or muiza ; or ) 

Abl. \ i _ 1 fro^ ^3- 

( <5J ^^^ or d^i,« ^ /(:/;/^ mungah, or mujza nah, ) 

Act. ,^^ or t)^:.^ mimgah, or 7?ew^, by us. 

The following are examples of the preceding : 

I seek assistance from tliee oh God ! grant unto me thy grace ! If with my lot thou 
grantest me thy gi'ace, thou wilt redeem me from the flames." — Malxkzan Afghani. 

106. The uninflected fonn of this pronoim is sometimes used for the dative, 
the pronominal afiix > (described at paragraph 135) with the verb, also marking 
the objective case. The following is an example : 

" The care and anguish which I suffer on account of my beloved, hath reduced me to 
skin and bone, 
Like as the tree becometh in the autumn without leaves." — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 

" Give you information to ouii spiritual guide, which is Pli' Sfdeh, that he should assist 
us ; and if he does not do this, we are tired and disgusted with his discipleship." — Adam Khan 
and Durlxhana^l. 

The follo^dng quotation contains examples of several pronoims : 

* l-L^*, or <5^!u^ as it is also written, is the Eastern or Pesjiaweri form of tlie first person plural, and jyt the 
Western dialect. I have already explained at page 3 that some tribes change the letters ^ for ^, and ^—J for^ and vice 



In the Sliaseb! it is thus stated : " A party of people in Paradise will thus say to another 
party in Hell — 'Through your instruction and exhortations we have entered into Heaven, By 
what evil destiny was it that you entered into Hell?' These will thus answer them : ' We 
gave good counsel to the world, but we did not act up to it ourselves. We interdicted others 
from evil, but we did not abstain from it ourselves.' " — Fawald-ush-Sharicea'h. 

107. 2nd Person ^ tak, ' Thou.' 


Nom. 'U tah, thou. 

Gen. \'J J or l:;--^ std. or da td, thine, of thee. 

!a! or .0, &j \: td tah. larah, or lah ; or ) 

^ to thee, 

etc. t^;. ll' . or etc. ^ Ij ^ rca td tah, etc. ; or wa ta watah, etc. ) 

Ace. Ij td, thee, or to thee. 

Voc. b j or b' o'l ai td, or 7ro td, thou ! 

Abl. ij \j aJ or b' c\\ lah td, or lah td nah, from thee. 

Act. \3 td, by thee. 


Nom. jjwb or ^b or ^^^b, ^b tdsu, tdsu, or tdsey or tdsi, ye or you. 

or (j^l::uc, ^^ stasu, stasu, or 

Gen. J ,1 _ ! yours, of you. 
I (^u-: or 1^^ stdsey, or stasi, ) 

( or aj iJ, ^' (^b or ^b tdsu, or tdsu tah, larah, lah ; or \ 

Dat. \ or ^ iJ, A3 (jwb or ^_^-b tdsey, or tdsi tah, larah, lah; or > to you. 

\ ajj ,jm\j or ^b, (j.ub, ^b tdsu, tdsu, tdsey, or i'asa 7vatah, etc. / 

Ace. ^jyjb or ^~ib and ;jwb or ^b ^asw, or tdsu ; and ^asey, or tdsi, you, or to you. 

Voc. <^^-'' ^-'^ j 01' tJ^ <"<?,. or ??'(? f'osw, tdsey, etc. you ! 

, - , ( or ^b or »-cb '0 lah tdsu, or tdsey ; or i 

ci) ^b or ^b <ij lah tasu, or tosey ?z«/^. 
Act. ^jyjb or j^b, o»^b, ^.^-b tdstJ, tdsu, tdsey, or tdsi, by you. 

" Oh Arab ! I fear thou wilt not arrive at Mekka, for the road that thou followest leadeth 
to Turkistan." — Gulistdn. 

108. In old \mtings, the dative particle is often wi'itteu with an exti-a ^ 
thus : ajj ^ of which the following is an example.* 

<J^ <^J /»L^J ^ ik'Jj [^ J tij A^ b:J XJj b J ♦l-i) ^.iiU; J.J6 i\ 

Every morning and evening I offer up a prayer for thee : 
Wherefore treatest thou me with contempt and abuse ?" — Rahmdn. 

This form of the dative is also used with nouns ; and it may also be translated—' for,' ' for the sake of,' etc. See Chap. III. 



J from her, or it. 

" You should make enquiry of the nightingale— * What sayest thou to the rose ?' " 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

109. Srd Person iMb haghah, 'He, she, or it.' 


Norn. dij> kaghah, he, she, or it. 

f <Uj& J c^tj haghah, of him, or it. 

' ^^Jcb or ax& 3 flf« highih, or o^a highey, of her, or it. 

^j <Uj& or aj, ^J, (0' axa) haghahtah,larah,lah', ov ha^ahwatak^eic. to him, or it. 

aJ, i^J, <jj ^^^ii. or ^ h'lghih, or Jdghey tah, larah, lah ; or \ 

" • • /to her 

<)Jj aiji) J or <!jj ^Jcb or diA hir^hih, or /ei^^^ watah, etc. ; or /i-a AM?7i J 

" i or it. 

watah, etc. y 

Ace. a^ haghah, him, or to him, her, or it. 

/" A3 ^o ^ or ixi> dS /«/i haghah, or M haghah nah, from him, or it. 

Abl. < aj tUA aj or a^o c^J /aA higkih, or /a/^ /^^^27i wa/^, 

V aj |^> aj or ^^^jii. aj lah higkey, or /aA highey nah, 

Act. ^^^^ or c^ or aAj& haghah, or Mghih, or highey, by him, her, or it. 


Nom. i^ haghah, they. 

W"en. «-?;*^ "^ o^ f^ ^ <^^^ hugho, or c?a hughoey, of them. 

/" <d, ^, aj (_?j*^ or ^ hugho, or hughoey tah, larah, lah ; or 


Ace. ajijj, haghah, them, or to them. 

t^jij& aj or ^ aj /aA hugho, or /a^ hughoey , or ) 

• ' • ' t .'17777 7 7 7 7 7 ( ^^"1 thCm . 

aj tj?^'^ ^ or ^ aj to/^ hugho, or ^aA hughoey nah, ) 
Act. <-i>*^ 0^' f^ hugho, or hughoey, by them. 

aJ ^y a^ J if^^jb a^ ^^ lj«jy jjl i^t ij -^U ^^ ^">f. j j*lj aj Ij ^JX'-' '^\j 1^ *''^, 

" Before the time of the Prophet, this (woman) was married to ^tik bin ^Eamir, and she 
had a daughter by him : her name was W^^2^\s..—Fawaid-ush-Sharl'(jea:h. 

110. The feminine form of this pronoun, of which the example just given is 
a specimen, is also written with a ^ instead of (— ), thus : 

The mother of the Faithful said thus to her, * Always remember death ; by means of it 

Pat. { aj" 4_f;*J& j or jxjb j wa hugho, or ma hughoey tah, etc. ; or > to them. 

ajj LJf^ J or yCb J wa hugho, or wa hughoey watah, etc. 


meekness and gentleness of heart is produced.' The counsel of Lady JEa-Isha'h took effect on 
THAT woman, and she acted up to it"— Fawa id-ush-Shari (Ba' h. 

111. The singular nominative is also used for the plural, but the inflected 
plural form is occasionally adopted ; as, 

"The Prophet said thus unto him — ' they are my vicars who act up to the rules and insti- 
tutions of my orthodox faith.' " — Fawald-ush- Shan cea' h . 

" After that he sat down beneath the couch, and did not draw his breath until such time 
as they had consummated their pleasure, and the black flag of night became inverted." 

— Kalllah wo Damnah. 

112. This pronoun is also used as the remote demonstrative, or ^J\ ism-i- 
ishara'h^ and is declined in a similar manner, as will be seen from the following 
examples : 

" Whatever kind of seed thou sowest, that wilt thou reap : 
Every tree beareth each its own peculiar fruit." — JSabd-ur- Rahman. 

" No one in the whole course of his lifetime will have experienced 
Those sorrows which my beloYed every hour inflicts upon me." 

— jEahd-ur- Rahman. 

113. The demonstrative pronouns are of two kinds, the proximate and the 
remote. The proximate demonstratives are ^ij daghah and b da^ which, when 
uninflected, are both masculine and feminine ; but in the oblique cases ^j becomes 
^j dighih, or ^ij digheih for the feminine gender ; and the final letter of b is 
changed for ^ {yd-i-majhul) or — {kasrah) in the oblique cases, but is used for both 
genders ; as in the following declension : 

<uj daghah, or b c?«, ' this' (person or thing). 


Nom. b or ^j daghah, or da, this. 

!^ -' ^ 

J J or ^j J, cLcj J da daghah, da dey, or da di, \ 

', . ^ , , \ of this. 

4_^j (J or ^^ J, <Lcj J da dighih, da dighey, or da dey, ) 


to this. 

^ \ <^ or ij , dj ^j or dj:j daghah, or dey tah, larah, or lah; or 

])at. ^ ^j ^J J or <0" ^j J wa/i fl?a^?«A tah, etc., or waA fl?a^a/i watah, etc. 

p ^ or i^, Ai- ^js or ^j, 4 J <^^;^^i/^, di^ey, or t/ey to/^, /am/^, or lah ; or i 

( ^j ^j J or <i; d^g ^ ova dighih tah, etc. ; or ma dighih watah, etc. / 

Ace. b or dJLd daghah, or ofa, this, or to thia. 

jj ( ^ or ^_> J , aji J dj /aA daghah, dey, or rfi ; or 

^Y ( ^ J or ^-j, a.ij dj (fa/^ daghah, dey, or ^/i wa^, 

F, i c/*^ or 1^ J , a^ J dj /aA dighih, dighey, or ofej/ ; or ^^^^ ^^' 

( aj ^-j or j^J, a.ij ^ M dighih, dighey, or c^ey ?2aA, 

. ^- ( «^ or ^J, ajij daghah, dey, or (^i, ) 

Act. i " \ by this. 

^- ( ci't^ or j^ J , <Lco dighih, dighey, or c/ey, ) 


Norn. <uj daghah, these. 

Cren. jjj orjjjj j or^ij j da dagho, or c?a c?^/?;^, of these. 

p. ( ''Jj ^) <'^" 5:'.'^ orjjjj, ^ij dagho, or ^^^(9 toA, /araA, or /aA; or ) 

J /to these. 

( Ajj ^ij J or JJ ^j J ?ya c?a^o toA, etc. ; or wa dagho watah, etc. ) 

A.CC. ^j daghah, these, ^r to these. 

, , ( VJ or j^t^, ^ij ^ lah dagho, or ^^/y^), ) 

i • ,' •(7777 , , ^'^0^^ ^h^se. 

\. <u ^^j or j^j, jxj ^ to/i dagho, or ae?a?6) waA, ; 

Act. ^L> or^^j^ij dagho, or flf<???;o, by these. 


" The remedy of the sick is bitter bitter medicine : 
This is a physic which becometh not only the disease, but also its cure.'" 

— ^ahd'Ur- Rahman . 

Keep thy cheek eyer moist with the waters of thy tears : 

In THESE waters can be seen the face of the gem." — JEabd-ul-Hamld. 

" Destiny will ensanguine this red flower in thy blood, 
Which itself hath placed in thy turban." — ^ahd-ul-Hamid. 

" What noise and confusion was there in the army of Bihizad ! 
It was about midnight that a tumult and cries for help arose : — . 


' Mount,' said the prince, ' to the summit of the fortress : 

What calamity has happened that up to this time no battle has ensued ? ' " 

— Bahrdm Gur. 

114. <L^U hayah^ ^^U Jia-ija^ is another, although less common, form of the proxi- 
mate demonstrative pronoun, and more emphatic in its signification than the former ; 
but it is more generally used by the Western than the Eastern Afghans. It is not 
subject to change for gender or number, but rejects the final letter in the oblique 
cases. The following is the mode of declension : 

ij\jb hd-yah, 'this.' 

Nom. ^bb hay ah. 

Gen. ^jb J da ha-ey. 

Dat. <0j ^ or Aj" ^ ha-ey tali, etc. ; or ha-ey watah, etc. 

Acc. <)oU hayah. 

Abl. Aj ^& <iJ or ^ jJ lah ha-ey, or lah ha-ey nah. 

Act. jj!> ha-ey. 

'' Everyone said unto her, ' Oh thou foolish one of little wisdom ! what resemblance beareth 
a camel to thee? and what similitude existeth between thee and a camel?' She said unto them, 
' Be silent ! for if the envious, for their own designs, should say, "this is a camel," and I 
.should in consequence be seized, to whom is the concern and trouble for my release?'" — Gulistdn. 

115. The remote demonstratives are grj daey for the masculine, and b da for 
the feminine. The latter, it will be noticed, is the same as one of the proximate 
demonstratives before described; but the difference is that the former is used for 
both genders, whilst the remote form is used only for the feminine gender. The 
])orsonal pronouns of the third person, as already noticed at paragi'aph 112, are also 
used as remote demonstrative pronouns,* and vice versa. 

^j daey, or b c?«, ' that' (persons or things). 


Nom. tj or ^d daey, or da, that. 

Gen. ^_jj J or aj J da dah, or da dey, of that. 

T. , ( <i3 or i J , aj ^^ or ij dah, or dot/ tah, larah, or lah ; or ) 

Dat. J" ^ > J , , , to that. 

\ ajj * J J or aj ^j or i j ^ roa dah, or dey tah, etc. ; or wa dah watah, etc. ) 

* These forms of the demonstrative — ^j ^j and j are apt to be used indiscriminately in conversation, particularly 
by the Eastern Af^ans. Those of the West conform more to the written form of the language in this particular. 


Acc. t J or ^^j daey, or da, those, or to those. 

. , , ( t^J or i J <d lah dah, or dey ; or ^ 

Abl. ,~ , ; ; ^ ; / ; from that. 

\ <U tJj or «L> aj /c^A aaA, or dey nan, ' 

Act. j_f J or s>^ dak, or c/fj/, w f^jii^^ 


Norn. ^jj du-l, those. 

Gen. ^jj J or ^^Jt j c?a G?^z-^, or da du-lo, of those. 

r <d or ^^J, aj ^jj or tJ)J c?^3-^, or du-io tali, larah, or lah ; or ) 

1 " } to those. 

^ "^^^^ "^^"^ J or <Jj ^ij J J wa <^M-! ^aA, etc. ; or Ka du-l watah, etc. ; 

Ace. ^j-jj du-l, those, or to those. 

.,, ( ^jj or t_5,j aj /aA 6^w-z, or du-w ; or ) 

'^'^^- i . " "(77, 7 7 ! froni those. 

I <Li ^^j or i_?jj aj lah dil-t, or cm-z6» ?«aA, ) 

Act. ^Ijj or tjj^ du-l, or (^w-!o, by those. 

" Alas, brave youth ! there is no road of escape for me : 
The employment of this life of mine is in the house of grief. 
That (demon) merely looks at me— in other respects I am safe ; 
But the world entertaineth suspicions against me." — Bakram Gur. 

"Since Khushhal Khattak has drunk nectar from the lips of the beloved, 
All the other sweets of the world are to him as nauseous poison." 

They say that these women are roses, and every person smelleth a rose. This is the 
sect of iEabd-ullah Shamrakhl. Outwardly they are Musalmans, but inwardly are infidels."— 
MaMzan Afghani. 

116. The first letter of the demonstrative ^Ui. is sometimes lost by elision, 
thns : 

" The nightingale became lost in the imagination of humanity : 
I am THAT rose which roameth about in the spring time of love." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddtl. 

117. The reflective or reciprocal prononn uLi^,» ^^ {sam'tr-i-mushtarak) 
J-^ khpul is applicable to all three persons. It is placed before the verb in the 




sentence, and must refer to the agent or nominative case either expressed or 
understood, whatcA^er it may be. The changes to which it is subject for. gender 
and by inflection will be seen in the following declension : 

(M.) J-.r^ khjml, or (F.) 4?^ Wpulali^ ' myself, thyself, my own,' etc. 


Nom. ^Lri. or J-o^ Tthpul, or khpulah, myself, self, etc. 

Gen. LiV^ '^ ^^' <-^ '^ ^^^ Mpul, or da Mpuley, of myself, etc. 

^, a), Aj ^X^ or J-s- Mpul, or yhpuley tah, larah, lah; or \ to myself, 
etc. Ajj Xf^ or J-.ri- Mjml, or Mpuley watah, etc. ) etc. 

Ace. <s,Lr=- or J-.ri- )^a/?2«^, or Mi^ulah, myself, or to myself, etc. 

' <io lJ^ <^ or (3?ri. <iJ /aA Txhpula^ or /aA khpuley nah, ) from myself, 
* <i.j ^Lrj- ^J or t!0 (3-*rU ^ fo/^ Mpula nah, or /a/e Mpuley nah, ) etc. 

Act. ^J^ °^' <-^ Mp^^h or Mi^mley, by myself, etc. 


Nom ^5^^ ^^* *-^v^ Mipul, or Mip^idey, om^selves, etc. 

Gen. jL:>- c) 6?a Mipulo, of om'selves, etc. 

(aj, ^\, A'J ^:s- Tihpulo tah, larah, or /«A; or ) 
,"-,,, , , \ to ourselves, 

etc. <Gj y-"^ kkpuio watah, etc. j 

Ace. _ji.-.:>. or ^}^ Tihp)id, or l^pulo, ourselves, or to ourselves. 

Abl. Aj ^f>~ <5i or ^jL-5- id lah Mipulo, or /«/^ Mipulo nah, from om'selves, etc. 

Act. _jLr^ Mipulo, by ourselves. 

118. The following are examples of this pronoun : 

" In the year one thousand and forty I relate, this occurrence. 
That on the people of Dakhan and Gujerat such tyranny and oppression is seen. 
In the whole of my life, since I could distinguish good from evil ; 
I never beheld after this fashion massacre with stones." — Mirzd Khan, Ansarl. 

The inflected form of the feminine may be written J^ khpuli. 

" The just claim which a wife has over her husband is this, that he should show proper 
love and affection towards his wife's brothers, her mother and father." 

— Fawaid-ush-Sharia:a'h. 


''Afterwards Durkhana'l said to liim, ' I have a request to make: pray give ear to it.' 
Adam Khan answered, 'Whatever the command may be I agree to it with all my heart.'* 
She then related to him her own sorrows in the following manner." 

— Adam Khan and DurMana'l. 

119. When no agent is expressed this pronoun denotes individuality and 
reciprocity, or may refer to either of the three persons, wliich is only discover- 
able by something that has preceded it, or comes after ; as it would be in the 
sentence i_?j JU J-ri- b. 

" "Whoever maketh a prostration before a tomb, or wisheth for anything from the defimct ; 
and he considereth the fulfilment of his wish to have been accomplished by means of the 
deceased, there is danger of blasphemy." — Fawald-ush Shariceah. 

" Concerning this my own hard fate. 
To whom shall I tell my sorrows ? from whom seek redi-ess ? " 

— Lay Id and Majniin. 

4_f J U J^-^ .. 4?^ (*r^ ^1^3 ^^^-A~£> t_f J lobV. ^ ^ trvV. -^ -^ ^^ ^'^ J^ 

^J L^L^ J ^^J^j isj\^ J_$' ^j-J_J-5 lJ'^ ^V J?^ - J'^ ^ ^J_! lSjJ 

" Those who show friendliness towards thee are not thy friends : 
The whole set of them are scorpions or serpents ! 

The whole of the sons are the plague and chagrin of their own father ! 
The daughters are all leeches — blood-suckers of their mother's brother ! 
Whether are they thy kinsfolk, or whether thy brother. 
They are all for their own selves, their own profit, their own house." 

— Khushlidl Khdn, KhaUak. 

" like as thou of thine own accord behaveth towards thine ownself ; 
No one ever acteth towards an enemy mth such iniquity and injustice." 

— ^ahd-ul-Hamul. 

120. The interrogative pronouns, *lfb.-o^ oU-j1 {asma' e-i-isUfham\ are iJJ^ 
tsok, j»/ Jco7n^ and ^ ham or i-^ kamali. 

* Literally, ' on my eyes.' 


CJ^ is applied to persons and rarely to inanimate objects. It is used both for 
the singular and plural, and masculine and feminine, and is thus declined : 

cS^ isok, ' who ? which ? what ? ' 

jSTqui. i^Cj^ tsok, who? which? what? 

Gen. U*- 3 dacha, of whom? which? what? 

/ or d] , ij , iJ \^ chd tah, larah, lah, or \ 

Dat. ] or etc. aj' U- ^ wa chd tah, etc., or ) to whom? which? what? 

\ etc. <!0j U- . wa chd watah, etc. ' 

Ace. cLi^ t8ok, whom? which? what? 

Abl. Jj U- <0 or U^ <d lah cha, or lah chd nah, from whom? which? what? 

Act. U- did, by whom? which? what? 


" Tell me who art thou ? and what is thy name, 
That this love of thine affects thy mind so much." — Bahrdm Gur. 

" The whole of my lifetime has passed in this vain hope. 
That thou wouldst ask me, who art thou ? and what ? — ^ahd-ur-Rahndn. 

121. This pronoun is also in common use as an indefinite, and is for the most 
part applied to persons, but in some instances to things also. Examples of its use 
with respect to persons are contained in the following extracts : 

" If any one taketh courage m actmg with uprightness, he will follow after it with 
aflfection and love." — MaMzan Afghani. 

" Some persons say that the Ytisufzis are a great people — they (certainly) eat victuals out 
of platters, and drink water from bowls." — Ada7n Khan and Durldidnal. 

122. The following couplet contains an example of its use with reference 
to things. 

" There is one element of water, and one element of earth ; 
And SOME fruits are bitter, and some pleasant and sweet." 

— Mirzd Khdn, Ansdt^l. 


123. The interrogative pronouns ^^ Jcom and J 1mm are both singular and 
plui'al, but they take the addition of ^ {Jia-i-Jchafi) or (^-) fat-ha'h for the feminine 
gender, and may be thus declined : 

^^ kom or S kam (M.), <Uj^ koma'h or <u^ kcwiali (Fem.), 'what?' 



or jS ov ^4 kom, or kam : or 

<u^ or <Uj^ komdh, or kama'h, 

. or *^ 3 or *»^ J (/(2 /^(9m, or ffe ^a»e ; or ) 

Gen. j r^ , ^ , r , . of what ? 

j^^ J or ^^yi ^ da fiomey, or da kamey, ) 

or aj , ^ , <)J *^ or a,^ kom, or ^«»^ ^a/e, larah, lah ; or 

etc. <iO', *^ • or ^4^ . na kom, or ?ya kam rcatali, etc. : or 
Dat. <^ ^ r ^^^ ^ y to what? 

\ or <d , ^^ , aj ^_c^ or ,<^^ komey, or kamey tah, larah, lah ; or 

V etc. 6J^ i^j^ J or ^^ J 7va komey, or wa kamey watah, etc., 7 

( or ^ or ^4" kom, or /('a??^: or ) 
Ace. r what? or to what? 

( ^^^ or tU^ koma'h, or kamey, ) 

or 1^ or >^ aj ^aA j^(9?;?«, or ^«»za ; or 

, or , ^ or , ^»^ jj /^A komey, or kamey ; or f „ , . 

Abl. < V ^ ^/ -^ -^ ' > from what? 

or <0 1*^ or *^ dl /aA koma, or /^«ma ?2aA ; or 
ij ^gy^ or j<^j^ ^ lah komey, or kamey nah, 

( or *^ or *4^ /^()?w, or kam; or ) , , r, 

Act. i J • I ^J ^'^^^ • 

( ^aS or (c^j^ komey, or kamey, ) 


" What wedding — what betrothal is there in the world, 
That cruel fate at last turneth not into wailing and lamentation ? " 

— jEabd-ur-Rahndn. 

" What horn? is it that the heart palpitates and beats ? 
It will be that horn* when the shadow of beloved faces falls on the heart." 

— Ahmad Shah, Ahddh. 

124. The pronoun <^ hah is used both in an interrogative as well as in an 
indefinite sense. Its conjugation is as follows : 

(Masc. and Fem.) i^ tmh, ' "Wliat ?' or 'a, an, any,' etc. 


Nom. <{^ tsah, what ? — a, an, any, some, etc. 

Gen. ^ J da tsah, of what?— of a, an, any, some, etc. 



f or i], bj, <iJ ^ tsah tah, larah, lah; or \ 

Dat. ■! or etc. sj a^ ^ wa tsak tah, etc. or > to what? — to a, an, any, some, etc. 

\ etc. ij^ iA. ^ wa tsah watah, etc, J 

Ace. <!;is. tmli, what? — a, an, any, some, etc. 

Abl. a.j ^ <d or <^ dl lah tmh, or lah tsali 7iah, from what? — from a, an, any, etc. 

Act. ^ tmh, by what? — by a, an, any, some, etc. 


" The party had reduced Pir Saleh to great extremity, saving — ' What art thou doing ? — 
it is now time ! we are tired of waiting !' " — Adam Khan and DurJdiana'i. 

Example as the Indefinite, *^^ ^\ ism-i-muhham : 

" If there was any chance of thy admonition taking effect on me. 
Thou, oh monitor ! wouldst then have given me advice. — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

125. ^ dzmi, ^^jj^ (Mm, or j^i zini ot Ji zini, as it is sometimes written, is 
another form of the indefinite. It is applicable to things both animate and inani- 
mate ; it is not subject to any change in termination for gender ; and is both 
singular and pliu-al. It is declined as follows : 

^^ dzini or ^^ dzini, ' Some, any, a few,' etc. 


Norn. ^ or ^^^ clnnl, or dzini, some, any, a few, etc. 

Gen. ^ 3 or yj^ S da dgino, of some, any, a few, etc. 

i aj, ^, aj' ^^ or yL, dzino tah, larah, lah ; or \ 

Dat. j etc. <u ^^^ or y^^ ^ ma dzino tah, etc. ; or I to some, any, etc. 

V etc. <C»^ 1^ or ^u^ J ma dgXno watah, etc. ) 

Ace. ^ or ^j^ chinl, or dzini, some, or to some, etc. 

(^jjS. or y^ aj lah dzino, or ) 

. ^ , I , 7 T • 7 I from some, any, etc. 

<o ^ or yjs. (U lah dzmo nah, ) 

Act. ^ or y^ dzmo, by some, any, a few, etc. 


" If a person abuseth him who may bear the name of Muhammad, or Ahmad-abul-Kasim, 
SOME say that it is not blasphemy. Others again state, that at the time of giving abuse, if his 
thoughts should be directed towards the Prophet, he is a hl^^^^hQmQxJ'—FawaU-ush-Shartcea'h. 


i>Ji \Ji ^'^ jr' jy^ <4 Jj^ '^ <tSj^j ^^:^^^3 J^, ^' j ^- y> _. 

" The decree of destiny reachetli unto every one — 
From its beginning the horseman is mounted, the footman on foot ; 
And man himself originaliy is of one race and origin ; 
Yet SOME rule empires, and some beg from door to door." — Mlrzd Khan, Anmn. 

126. Several pronouns admit of composition ; thus, (Ji^y> har-tsolc, 'whoever,' 
-a> har-tsah, 'whatever,' jj^ har-yow^ 'every one,' y^ Icam-yow^ 'which one,' or 
whichever,' etc. They are subject to the same rules of inflection and change in 
termination for gender as the pronouns from which they are derived, j-^ kam-yow 
is declined in the following manner : 

^ ^ Imm-yow (Masc), or i?^ <u^ liama^li-yowcCli (Fem.), ' Which one ?' 


Nom. ^^^ <U^ or ^ S kam-yoK, or kamdh-yoivaHi, which one. 

Gen, ^/^_ ^ i^ ov ^^ ^ iJi da kam-yowa; da kamey-yowey, of which one. 

ior d!, iji, aj ^^ S kam-yowa tali, larah, lali; or ) 

, , ' ,> 1 7 7 7,7 \ to which one. 

etc. «u, iJ, i3 ^_s^^ ,^^ kamey-yowey tafi, larah, tali ; etc. ) 

Ace. s^^ <U^ or ^^ *^ kam-yow, or kamali-yowa'h, which one, etc. 

/ ij ^i^ tS ^ ov yiS ^ lah kam-yowa, or lali kam-yowa nali, \ from which 

( dj ^^^^ j-4^ <d or ^^^^ |^_j^ <)J lali kamey-yowey , or lah kamey-yowey nah, ) one. 

Act. t_?^. ^^ or jj t^ kam-yowa, or kamey-yo7vey, by which one. 


" He quickly called the learned man to his house, and upbraided him, saying — ' Why 
turnest thou thy back on my daughter ? she is at all times a seeker after knowledge : since 
thou teachest her companions, which one of them is superior to her?'" — Adam Khan and 

" Since she feareth not that God, who is the God of all. 
By the assistance of what Deity shall I divert my friend from the keepers ? " 

— JEabd-ul-Ha7n~id. 

127. The only relative pronoun, J»**v« ^\ ism-i-mawsul^ which the Pushto 
language contains is ^ c^^7^,* which must not be confounded A^dth the interrogative 

* This particle has a great similarity to the Persian <<i>- . 


<^ tmh already explained, there being no connection between tbem. The co-rela- 
tive, J^j^« ^'^y=r jaivdh-i-mawsjil, is supplied by the demonstrative pronouns, as 
will be seen from the examples. 

128. £^ may either precede or follow after its substantive : 

" They who have been well anointed with the ashes of liumihty, 
The mirror of their hearts becometh clear and bright." — JEahd-ul-Hamld. 

" Patience and continence fly from her on all fom'S, 
When she taketh between her finger and thnmb the arrows of her eye-lashes." 

— ^abd-ul-Hamld. 

" With one kiss merely, how shall I be contented ? 
Since from the world, good fortune is only to be obtained by degrees." 

— jEabd-ul- Hamid. 

129. In addition to the regular form of the personal pronouns already ex- 
plained and illustrated, there are three other forms which requii-e a lengthened 

The first form of these pronouns is used with all past tenses of the active voice, 
to denote the agent in a sentence ; but they have no meanings separate from the 
verbs. With any other than active or transitive verbs they point out the object, 
or the possessive case, and have but these two inflections from the nominative. 
They are not affected by gender, and may be prefixed or inserted. 


1st person, * or -^ ml or mi, I, mine, to me. ^« or <u, *\ um, muh or mu, we, ours, to us. 

2nd „ L> or ^J dl or di, thou, thine, to thee. ^ or <u mah or mo, you, yours, to you. 
3rd „ iL) or ^J yey ovyah (W.), he, she, it, his, hers, etc.; and them, theirs, to them. 

130. In the following examples, the fii'st shows the actor, and the second the 
inflected form respectively : 

" /broke a hmidred vows, yet did not abandon love ; 
Therefore my faith remaineth no longer on pledges." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

" I was a rose when there were no equals to me. 
But now I become a thorn in the heart of friendsliip." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 


" When THOU didst give the colour of wine to thy lips, 
Thou didst set all on fire the houses of the wine drinkers." — jEabd-ur-Rahnan. 

•^J ^^ "-^^ iJ^j:^J^ ^4 L5^ ' J Ij tU *JS) ,^_5-^ (^^ tJ?^ ^ u*^ J^**^ '^ ^ ^'^ J ti '^ 

" Since it saw the reflection of thy beauty in its own heart, 
On this account also, my soul like the mirror is filled with amazement." 

— jEahd-ur- Rahman. 

" ••/ ' mm/ 

" Durkhana'i went to him, and having taken his hand led him in. She first sat down on 
the bed, and then seated Adam Khan on the floor." — Ada^n Khan and Durkhdnal. 

Jj ij ii; J j.^ 'iJMla: ^ ^ J^ J b ir' y* ^ j^ ^ 

" "Whatever secrets we mentioned to each other. 
There were no words spoken but those of love." — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

It is stated in the Tafsir Husaini, that the devil is your great enemy, oh true believers ! 
and will deceive you in manifold ways." — Fawald-ush-Shari (za h. 

" Our Prophet has said — * There are many persons who to all outward appearances say 
their prayers, but theib hearts are remiss.' " — Fawald-ush- Shariceah . 

" Akhtind Darwezah relates — ' I was also going in company with the Yusufzis towards the 
head of the Suwat valley ; and in the same place, on the night in question, such quantities of 
hail and rain fell, that up to the dawn of morning we entertained no hope of our lives.' " — 
Afzal Khan ; Tdn'kh-i-Murassaa). 

''Akhund Darwezah states, ' I said unto them, this book was a blessing unto you, and you 
have acted very improperly in this, inasmuch that you have taken it from those people forcibly, 
and you have sent it unto him : by this mifortunate mishap you will become ruined.' "— 
Afzal Khan, 

131. These affixes and prefixes being one of tlie difficiilties of Piislitu, the 
examples of each person given above were necessary, and will be reqnii-ed for 
those which follow. 


132. The second form of pronoun, or pronominal dative prefix, as it may be 
termed, is alone used to point out the object in a sentence. It is used with all 
verbs; but, like the preceding, has no independent meaning, and is not subject to 
change in termination for gender : it is both singular and plural. 


1st a\ \j or aj \jy dJ \j, \j rd, rd tali, rd larah, or rd lah, to me, or to us. 

2nd aj jd or ij j J, Ajjl>, jJ dar, dar tah, dar larah, or dar lah, to thee or you. 

;3rd <d J. or sj j*, cO" j*, j^ war, war tali, war larah, or war lah, to him, her, it, or tliem. 


W^ ^J ^ ^^ ^ ^J^' H J}^ ^ b C^j^ ^■/■' ^-^J '^ 

^' If I close my eye ever so little, she says unto me, — 
* When really in love, people neither slumber nor sleep.'" — JEahd-ul-Hamld. 

" Truth is bitter, but falsehood is sweet : 
It is marvellous, oh fool ! that evil is pleasant to thee." 

— Ahmad Shdh, Abddll, 

" Adam Khan ascended the ladder, swung himself off by the rope towards him, and 
Mini who was standing near (to him), received him on his shoulders and lowered him down." 
— Adam Khan a?id Durlxhdnai. 

133. These particles, particularly \j ra and j^ ivar^ are also used in the forma- 
tion of verbs, thus: \j ra, 'to me,' and J^^ w''rral, 'to cany,' becomes Jj^ \j ra- 
v)hxcd^ 'to bring;' and jj war, 'to him,' and J^ Jcawul, 'to do,' etc. — J^^j war- 
kawul, 'to give.' 

134. These same forms undergo other changes in writing and conversation, but 
particularly in the latter. The cause appears to be merely greater facility in enun- 
ciation. Thus, for ij \j ra larah they use a) ^ la larah ; aj 5 t/« lah or aj 3 da larah, 
for aj jji dar larah ; and i) ^ iva larah for sj j^ tvar larah. The following are 
examples : 

'' Give UNTO me an account of thy circumstances on paper, 
And if God so Avills it, thy wishes will be fulfilled." — Bahrdm Gur, 

" When the angel of death cometh unto thee, 
Thou mlt give up thy soul without pain." — Ahmad Shdh, Abddli. 


" Faghfur gave unto her numerous gems and precious stones : 
Forty hundred handmaids : the country became as spring (from the bloom of their beauty)." 

— Bahrdm Gur. 

135. The afiixed personal prouoims,* <)L3:;^^Uj mmtCir-i-muttcmlali^ are used 
in forming the tenses of intransitive and substantive verbs, and, with the exception 
of the six past tenses, for those of verbs transitive also. They are inseparable from 
the verbs, and have no independent signification. The regular personal pronouns 
may also be prefixed to the verbs with which they are used, but are not absolutely 
required, and not generally adopted. On reference to the conjugations, the manner 
in which these affixes are used with the different tenses and persons will be seen at 
a glance. They are as follow : 


1st person, *, am, I. J ^^, we. 

2nd „ c5 ey, thou. J aai, ye or you. 

3rd „ ^ «, he, she, it, or they. 

The following are examples : 

" /see all departing, no one whatever is to remain behind — 
On this road both young and old must travel." — ^Eabd-ur- Rahman. 

" If THOU fallest from the precipice of love, thou wilt lose thy teeth, 
Oh THOU who gnashest thy teeth at me by way of admonition ! " 

— jEabd-ur-Rak man . 

" For him whom the black demon of love strikes. 
There is no health or cure through the charms or incantations of the world." 

— jEabd-ul-Hamul. 

"CLJ jb J sj ^j^\j^^ aj U J jl) jj^ jU-i aj^i J-ci- Hj^ ^ jb ^ ij 

" When I and my beloved together make a computation of our sorrows. 
She is astonished with her lover, and I am filled with amazement at mine." 

— yEabd-ur- Rahman. 

* There is great similarity between these pronouns and those of the Arabic and Persian languages. In SindhI also 
there is scarcely a sentence spoken in which they are not used with verbs, nouns, and prepositions. 


" On tliis Mir Mam! set out in company with those horsemen ; and when he had gone 
a short distance, he said to them—' Malce you haste that you may reach the Force quickly.' " 
— Adam Khan and DurMana'i. 

" When will teey who taste of the wine-coloured lips of the fair, 
Set their hearts on the juice of the grape ? " — ^abd-ul-Hamid. 

136. There are three prepositions used in Pushto requiring explanation here, 
which are used as demonstrative pronouns. They are j tar and y par, which affix 
a ser (-7-) ; and Ij na or ij nali, wliich prefix c] tey or c:j ti in the oblique cases. 
They are used both for things animate and inanimate, are both singular and pliu-al, 
and are not subject to any change for gender. The following are examples : 

" On every sensible adult believer, to fast is a divine command and a duty. Like the 
repayment of a debt it is necessary and incumbent on him. If any one repudiates fasting, all 
acts FROM HIM are entirely vain, and he will become an infidel." — Fawald-ush-SharVcea'h . 

■' Gill Nazey said, ' This is that same Adam Khan from whom Durkhana'i has been 
carried off." — Adam Khan and DurTxhamo^l. 

" Listen, oh true believers — In our day the calamities produced by the tongue are manifold, 
since blasphemous words are uttered from it." — Mal(hzan Afghani. 

" Oh bird of the da^vn ! learn thou love from the moth ! 
That consumed one's life went, but no sound escaped prom him." 

— ^abd-ul-Hamid. 

" I said in my mind, when I reach the rose tree, I will fill my skirt with roses from it, 
as a present for those whom I love." — Gulistdn. 




Jjti Ficel. 

137. A verb is a word wliich affirms or asserts ; as ^\^ ' speaks,' ^j}=>' ' eats.' 
It may also of itself constitute a sentence, and unless it be expressed or understood, 
no sentence is complete.* 

138. Verbs are of two kinds — primitive and derivative — which may again be 
divided into six classes, the cJUJl LjI^, or substantive; ^j^-, neuter or intransitive; 
^j^ic^ , active or transitive, in which also are comprised causals ; the derivative, or 
fjJL^ Jjti ; and the passive, or J^^^s-* . 

139. Some verbs have both an active and a neuter signification ; as J^l 
' to burn.' 

" Then Ealiriim said, ' Oh sister Sardasia ! go unto Gul Andam ; 
Give unto her information respecting my name. 
Say, that consumed in the fire of thy love, 
Prince Bahram hath again returned from Eum, — Bahram Gur, 

" Majnun at that time acquired the dominion of love, 
When in the fire of affection he consumed all his worldly wealth." 

— ^abd-ur- Rahman . 

140. The active voice may be obtained from some intransitives, by changing 
the J and the Jjj of the infinitive into Jj ; as Ja-L 'to take fire,' J A.' 'to set on 
fire ;' Jj»^^-j 'to become cool,' J^.^ 'to make cool ;' Jj^J^ ' to revolve,' Jy^^-^ ' to 
make revolve;' Ja-.^'j 'to swing,' Jj^Jj 'to make swing.' Example: 

'' As much as thou art able, pain not the heart of any one ; 
Since there may be very many thorns in this path. 

* As the student, now that we have advanced so far, may be supposed to have thoroughly mastered the sounds of the 
letters, vowels, and orthographical marks, there will be no necessity for giving the pronunciation of every word in the Roman 
character, and, in case of doubt, the Dictionary can be easily referred to. 


Give assistance unto the poor and indigent in their affairs ; 

Since thou hast many matters in this world to be brought to conclusion." 

— Gulistdn. 

141. The causal verb, also termed tj-jk*:;^,* mutaceadcU, may be formed from in- 
transitives and transitives, by adding Jj in place of J or Jj^j ; thus Jj^-iij 'to run,' 
J}yi^j 'to cause to run;' ^}su:>~ 'to laugh,' Jjijk:,j>. or J^J^:^ 'to cause to laugh;' 
JjJ 'to lament,' *Jjij'" or J^jJ 'to cause to lament.' Example : 

" If thou CAUSE one to laugh, or cause one to lament, thou art the cause of all : 
Of my own accord I do not make merry, neither do I mourn nor bewail." 

— JEabd-ur- Rahman. 

142. The derivative verb, or ^A,* ^s ficel-i-mushtaM, may be formed from 
nouns, adjectives, or pronouiLS, either by alone adding the sign of the infinitive, as 
ijb^^ 'understanding,' Jo^-jj>jj ' to understand ; ' -^ 'dry,' J^^^^j 'to become dry,' 
J^j 'to make dry;' or by shortening the long vowel of the word, as ^j ' bright,' 
Jjj^jj 'to make bright;' ^^U 'a brink or side,' Jj^i 'to put aside ;' J-o- 'self, my- 
self;' J^LrL ' to make one's own,' 'to gain the affections of.' The following is an 
example : 

" It is necessary to practice every disguise to please the beloved : 
To GAIN THE AFFECTIONS of the fair, depeudeth on art and skill." 

— ^abd-ur- Rahman. 

143. Pushto also contains a sort of compound verb, which may be divided into 
two classes — nominals and intensitives. The former are formed by the mere sub- 
joining of a verb regularly conjugated to a noun or adjective; as ijjl 'sleep,' iji^\ 
^}^ 'to sleep;' ^j 'hunger,' ^dJ, ^j^ 'to become himgry;' C^:^ 'battle,' 
J^ CJ^-^ ' to fight.' These verbs being very commonly used, need no example, 
there being scarcely a sentence without one. 

144. Intensitives are obtained by adding or prefixing to a regularly conjugated 
verb two adjectives or an adverb ; thus : 

" The arrows of thy eyelashes have pierced me in the breast : 
Verily they have passed right through unto my heart." 

— JEahd-ur- Rahman. 

* This method of using a letter instead of a vowel point, in ^^^i:S:,:i>- for Jtj«^^i^, is in accordance with the ortho- 
graphical system of the Zend language. See Introduction, page 22. 


" Sometimes a man may be cheerful and happy ; 
At times, through grief, troubled and distressed." — ^abd-ul-Hamld. 

145. The passive voice is formed by the addition of the different tenses of the 
substantive or auxiliary verbs Jju^ and J^-i ' to be or become,' to the past participle 
or imperfect tense of a transitive verb, both of which are subject to the same changes 
in termination for gender as other verbs, to agree with the governing noun in the 
sentence. Examples : 

When the rose-tree is viewed without the beloved being at one's side. 

The eye-sight merely falleth on a place of thorns and brambles." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" By the time the treacle is brought from Irak,* the snake-bitten person is dead." — GuUstmi. 

146. It will be necessary now to show the inflections of the different 
auxiliaries, which are the models for the variations of the persons, and in forming 
the definite tenses of the verbs. 

147. The following auxiliary or substantive verb, called the JUjS^ ^}j rahit- 
uz-zamam) is j^lj (naJcis) or imperfect, and has no known infinitive. It is very easy, 
and should be carefully committed to memory. "Want of space will compel me to 
content myself with a single example of each tense in the conjugations of the verbs, 
unless some peculiarity requires to be more fully explained. 


To be or become.' — Infinitive unknown. 

JU. ^-^ Present Tense. 


J ^j I am. j^. lL^j^ we are. 

oj i3 thou art. ic-^^V. ^^ t^ L/^^ J^^ ^^^' 

<)^ or ,^J iJCb he or it is. ^s^ix-l or ^d ajO> they are. 

i)wi» or jj Jo«j& she is. 


Cupbearer ! bring the bowl of wine : I am overwhelmed in the ocean of grief." 

Ahmad Shah, AbdoJl. 

* The treacle of Irak is a celebrated antidote for venomous snake-bites. 


jji) J')^ ^ "jj ^V-' iCj'?'^ '"^ ''^ '? lC^ ^"^ C_?'^^'>*' ^r*-^ i.OJ^ ij-^^ '^ i^i^ ^^ i^ 

'' Since to me love's anguisli is equal to its rapture, 
If this distress of mine be lost, I shall again become wretched." 

— JEa bd-u I- Hamid. 

" Since these crooked and left-handed revolutions are occasioned by fate; 
Mount Caucasus itself should not coquet about its own weight." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

The following form of the 2ncl person plural is to be found in ancient writings, 
but it is not commonly used. It, as well as ^ , is in all probability derived from 
an obsolete infinitive jl-j or jli . 

" You, oh faithful ! are the servants of the Most Hia-h. God liveth ! death affects him 
not ! Iceep firmly the tenets of your faith, oh people of God ! " — Fawaul-ush-Sharfceah. 

icli and ^i'j are sometimes used together, but the latter seems to be merely 
added by way of emphasis. The following is an example : 

" With the glance of her dark-grey eye she enchants and charms in this manner — 
There is no one eye equal to it in Hind, not another in Bengala'h. — yEahd-ul-Hamld. 

^k* ^_j*sU Past Tense. 


/♦J ij I was. Jj l^:.^ or ,^ we were. 

^^ A'J thou wast. J^ ^[j or j^Jj you were. 

ij or j d.^j^ he or it was. M. j^ ^o they were. 

ij ^^StJi she was. F. j ^ they were. 

This tense with the prefix d<, is often used as the Conditional or Optative tense, 
of which examples will be found in their proper places. 

The following example shows both the masculine and feminine form of this 
tense, and both methods of writing the third person masculine, as above given. 

" There was a chief of the Yusufzis'— a Tahmuras*" in wealth— who was ycleped Ta'ous 

* The third Persian King of the Pishdadian dynasty, said to have been the founder of Babylon, Nineveh, etc., and the 
discoverer of fire, lie reigned about 830 b.c, although some carry him centuries beyond. 


Khan. There was also a daughter of this chieftain, named Durkhan,* and there was no equal 
to her in heauty." — Story of Adam Khan and Dm-Jthdna'l. 

" There was a learned man who was proficient in all the sciences contained in as many- 
books as required four hundred chests to hold them. — Fa?vaid-iish-Shar~tceah. 

The future tense of this auxiliary shows the very irregular and imperfect 
nature of many of the Afghan verbs. The 1st and 2nd persons are formed by 
prefixing the particle dj to the present, and the 3rd person by prefixing it to the 
aorist or future indefinite, which again has no 1st or 2nd persons. In the conjuga- 
tions of all other verbs, the 2nd future tense is formed from the aorist. 

^}Jc.JJ^ Future Tense. 


*:> i.i )i\ \ shall or will be. l? ^■•J ^-^ or ,yo we shall or will be. 

oj dj ct.j thou shalt or wilt be. or J aj ivjlj or ^^\j ) 

S?  SS- • - / } you shall or will be. 

(w.)t L^^v. ^j u-^y 

\jj aj or .^ xj <ua he, she, it, shall or will be. ^jj_^ <b or ^j A: ^Jcb they shall or will be. 


" I have such confidence in the truth of my own sighs, 
That after death even, I shall still be a companion of the fair." 

— ^abd-ul-Hamid. 

" Prince Bahram will certainly be present at that place, 
That the breeze may bring him perfume from the door of his beloved." 

— Bahram Gur. 

" In the space of thirty years there will be stability, (during this time) there will not be 
a man — not even an ant to eat up the grain." — MaMizan Afghani. 

The aorist or future indefinite tense of this auxiliary, as previously stated, has 
but one form for all three persons. It is also used in forming the doubtful past 
tenses of other verbs, as will be seen from the different conjugations. 

QjLu Aorist, or Future Indefinite. 


^"3 "^^ (_?-? "^ °^* ^"^^ ^J ^' thou, he, she, or it or ^^ ajt& or (j^Ij, i^:^ ) we, ye, or they, 

may be. ^rJj ) may be. 

* The chieftain's pearl. f (W.) refers to any peculiarity of the language as in use in "Western Af^anistiin. 



" As long" as I may have hands, or as long as I may be possessed of strength, 
I will devote my life and my existence to my beloved." — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

j\jy^::J\ ^U The Imperfect Tense, as the Conditional or Optative. 


^j ^ or (_f^j, ^_s^ ij were I. j^ aj or ^\^, ^^ lCx-« or ^^^ were we. 

, , or J. c)j or ^\^, J. twjlj or »-.lj ) 

^, aj or tjrl., ^. ^' wert thou. ^/ " " ^^ " . ^ , / were you. 

••   ^ " (W.) c^Jj ^ or ^,::^J\^ ^\i ) 

il dj or ^\», ^_J^ ijcb were he, or it. M. J, aj or ^L or t_?. ciiJb ) 

i_j iL' or ^\^, ^j iUifc were she, or it. F. ^ jj or ^^Ij, ^fj <Ui> ) 

This tense implies continuity, and, with a conditional conjunction or adverb of 
wishing, expressed or understood, is used as the Conditional or Optative, which is its 
most general form. Examples : 

" The utility of the ocean would be great, were there no apprehension of the waves ; 
The intimacy of the rose would be considerable, were there no fear of the thorn." 

— Gulhtan. 

It is also frequently used after interjections, as in the following couplet : 

'' Alas ! that there were no such thing in the world as anxiety on account of absence—^ 
That the heart were not overwhelmed in the ocean of separation." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

The following is an example of the simple past tense, with the prefixed particle 
ij used in a hypothetical sense,* as referred to at page 53. 

" Oh joy of thy father's heart ; if thou hadst been asleep, it would be far better, than that 
thou hadst commenced searching after the defects of others." — Gulistdn. 

There is no imperative mood of this auxiliary, and that of Ja---jj1 'to remain,' 
etc., is used for it. 

148. The following, as well as the preceding verb, is also used generally to 

* This should not be confounded with the 1st Future, which see. 


denote mere existence. It is like all auxiliary verbs in this language— j^U or im- 
perfect. Its conjugation is as follows : 

jjt-A^ Infinitive. 
Jju--j.l aosedal^ to be, exist, continue,' etc. 

c:^!*^ ^\ Noun of Fitness. 


j^^^\ J or Ju.-jj1 J of, or for being, existing, etc. 
Jili »^\ Active Participle. 


M. ^^s^j\ or ^jJojjk^jl F. ^^x^^\ or CSjjS^^S ; or o^^s^^\ or oCjj>-^-.\ oxister. 


M. and F, ^^s^^ or Xj^a*-jj^ existers, etc. 
JU. iju^ Present Tense. 


*-jjl }i\ I exist. 'y^%\ l^« or jj,c we exist. 

^^ Aj tliou existeth. ^^s^3^ U^^' oi' j*^^J' je, w you exist. 

^^~.;^1 i3cb he, she, or it exists. ^^ iksb they exist. 


'' I am so pleased with the pain and grief inihcted on me by my beloved, 
Like as the Salamander existeth contented in the red fire." — yEabd-ul-HamuL 

The following tense is used mth a conjunction, as the Conditional or Optative 
tense. It implies continuity, and may also be understood as the simple imperfect. 

^j\ja::^\ ^c«^U Conditional or Optative Tense. 


f>s^^\ ij were I X j a^j^ ^^ were we \ 

^jk-.-jjl ^ wert thou / s* (Y/.) l::-^-j1j*--jj1 or ^<::s^^\ o^lj' were you f ^ 

iju.-:.! or Ju-j.1 ^ were he, wit I -q M. Jj^— j^ ^^ were they \ 'p^ 

' ,, I ^ .' 1 *-• 

^ju-^j^orifjL»«jj^ axa were she / F.* ojj^^^lor Jj»-»~jj1, ^ju-<:jl or jk--<^^ 

" Were i remaining (or going to remain here), I would repair this house." 

* Instead of giving both forms of feminine words ending in ci [ya-i-mnjhTd) or (-:r) {kasra'h), I have generally adopted 
the latter throughout this work by way of distinction, and as it'is— as I have already noticed at paragraph 63 and note f 
page 10 — most generally used. 


JJoww*^ Future Tense. 


»^^ ij or Jt^j\ j dj ifj I will exist. y^j\ aj or y:j\ J ^^jy* we will exist. 

^j\ dj or ^j\ J ^ iO' thou wilt exist. ts^^^ ^- ^^' lS^^^ J ^ '^^'^ ^°^ ^'^■^ exist. 

^^^t iijor >.-^l J <xj ^ lie, she, or it will exist. ^jl ^ or ^-.-^^ J aj dJcb they will exist. 


Since the goblet of wiue has become the comforter of the whole world, 

How long SHALL I CONTINUE ill this distress and sorrow?" — ^abd-ur-Ralmdn. 

c A-si^ Subjunctive, or Aorist Tense. 


cj! or >,^^\ J ^ I may, shall, etc. exist. i-.jl or 'y^<^\ J jy* we may, shall, etc. exist. 

°^»\ or o^-^l J ^ thou mayest, etc. exist. ic-**;;^ o^ l?**"!^^ j U^^" ^^^^ ii^^7> ^t^* exist. 
^_5-jjlor^^-^l j '^■^ ^i^j s^e, or it may, etc. exist. ^^\ or ^^\ J AiJi) they may, etc. exist. 

••' m*/ aa/ aa/ 


" Existence dependeth on the drawing of a breath. 
Therefore you should be repentant on each respiration." — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 


j^\:>. j^S PrECATIVE, or IST FuTURE TeNSE. 



^^^\ or ^*\ J ^J I should exist. y,^\ or l-.^\ '^jy* '^^ should exist. 

^^\ or ^j\ j Xj thou shouldst exist. ^^^^ ^'^' ^^*"U^ j U^^ J^^ should exist. 

^^\ Jov^j\ j J ^ he, she, 6^ it should exist. ^^ j or -^-^1 j j tL<t2> they should exist. 

••/ ■•/ aa/ ,»/ 


" When the priest reads with a solemn voice, the congregation, being silent, should 
REMAIN standing. To listen to the reading of the priest is necessary and correct." 

Fawaul-ush-Shari'cecbh . 

j^\ Imperative Mood. 


i^^ aj" exist thou. ic-^?^ L^^^ exist you. 

-' "■' ^ 

^^^ J let him, her, or it exist. ^^^ j ijc& let them exist. 


" If thy mistress treat thee with asperity, Ahmad ! 
Be thou resolute in adversity and affliction. — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 


The verbs ^js^ and J^-- , used in forming the passive voice, are conjugated as 
follow. The fii'st is ^U or imperfect, and has but three tenses. 

fjxS 'To be or become.' 

Noun of Fitness. 

Ju^ J or JA-^ J of 07' for, being or becoming. 

Jls- dJu^ Present Tense. 


Ji^ or ^j^ sj I become. j£^ or j^-^ l^.* we become. 

^o^ or ^j^ <i3 thou becomest. ij^ °^* ^^J^ L/^^ ^^^ become. 

^^^^ or ^j^ dJcb he, she, c»r it, becomes. ^^J, or ^^-i" Ai^ they become. 


cr?^ ^J,J3^ J^^* 'V, t^^-^^ rV^ t''^-'y, J-'^: "^^ c^-^'-* '^ 

" A pleasant interview is like rain, by it I become refreshed ; 
But separation like fire overtakes me." — MirzcL Khan, Ansdri. 

j\j.t::^\ Ls^^'* Imperfect Tense. 


*j^ aj or aS^ bj I was becoming. jj*^ j;j or Id^^ \i.u,^ we were becoming. 

^ju^ ij or i^-^ ^'^ thou wast becoming. i_^'^^ ^. o^ ij'^if u^^'^ 1^^ ^bvq becoming. 

or isJ> or sJi ^sJCb] % / - 

^ " .(he, or it was becoming. M. jA-.i i^ or jA-i tt^ they were becoming. 
i^ jy or jL«i i^ AxJb > 

or aJx^ or :>sJ <!J(^) Ju^ ^' or sJ ^i>) , 

 „ I she was becoming. F. " " ' " ^ ^\ they were becommg. 


" In every place there were different kinds of food being cooked, 
For the guests of Sardas were a numerous crowd." — Bahram Gur. 

"After that time, every Jirga'h* that was in the habit of meeting, Durkhana'i used to 
say to Narma'i, ' bring me news from it.' " — Story of Adam Khan arid Durlxhdna^t . 

JJii.u*^ 2nd Future Tense. 



JJ ^ or *jJi ''^ ^J I will become. _^ ^ or j^ ^ j^ we will become. 

^^J iU or ^^J^ ij aj" thou wilt become. l5"^ '^ ^^ t-S"^ ^ c/^^"* ^^°^^ ^^^^^ become. 

^^i^ ij or ^j^ <sj iJt^ he, she, or it will become. ^^^ aj or ^jJ do <Ui they will become. 

* Au assembly of the heads of the different ulT/ses or dmsions of tribes amongst the Afghans, particuhirly the YusufzTs. 




" The jewel of excellence he acquired from the good God. Such never before fell to the lot 
of any one, and will never become so." — MaMizan Afghani. 

149. The conjugation of the following verb, as well as J j^^^ which precedes it, 
imports transition from one state to another, whilst the auxiliary, ' to be,' which is 
also a substantive verb, generally denotes mere existence. 

jj,^^ Infinitive. 
J^-i sj^vml^ ' to be or become.' 

c:-^iU ^\ Noun op Fitness. 
j^ J or Jyij J of or for, being or becoming. 

Jili mJ\ Active Pakticiple. 


M. o.»-i, or ^,»^ ) ^ . o o , , 

^^^^ " . \ the becomer. M. and F. ^J^Jj^ij or ^%y^ the becomers. 

F. ^j^ or tl,%^ ) ^/ "^^ 

J.jtjL* ♦-o^ Passive PaPvTiciple. 


M. and F. r^^y^ or (-5^ 5 Jj^ or jli become. M. and F. ^Jj-i or ^^ become. 

JU- Ai-^ Present Tense. 


*-i I become. ^-i> we become. 

^-i thou becomest. ^1^ you become. 

-i djcb he, she, or it becomes. J^i <Uj& they become. 


" Notwithstanding I endeavour to calm my heart, it is not soothed : 
Spontaneously i become melted like wax before the fire." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 


jLto-:! ^^U Imperfect Tense. 

Jj-i or AyL <k> or a^ I was becoming. jJ^ or j^ <^ or J^^ we were becoming. 

^yJ:i or 1^^.^ ^'J or ^^^^ thou wast becoming, ^y^ or ^Jy^ ^ or ^5^-^ you were becoming. 

<)w <u or <x-i <Ui& he, or it was becoming,M. J^-ij or i-i ^ or l..i AjtA they were becoming. 

<u^.i> or hyL <u or i^^ iUjb she was becoming. F. Jy^ or ^-i Aj or ^-i i^ they were becoming. 



" When any one of the companions of the Prophet used to omit to be present with the 
congregation for divine worship, the people condoled with him for a period of seven days ; and, 
if HE USED to fail TO BE present at the first Takbir (the commencement of the service), the 
people condoled with him for three days." — Fawald-ush-Shari cea h. 

^_^ik^ ^\^ Past Tense. 


Jj-i) or Jj-i) j ; j*^ or ^^Ji, j I became. '^^ or j!^ j ; JJi) or jy^ j we became. 

^^i or ^yL J ; ^^yj or ^^yi. J thou becamest. ^^ or ^y^ J ; ^y^ or jJl j you became. 

<!;.i or aji, j he, or it became. M. Jyi or Jyij J 5 j-- or j-i j they became. 
aJ^ or id^ j; i^i) or ^^ j she, or it became. F. Jy)i or J^ j; ^ or j-i j they became. 


" Since i became dedicated to thy mole and ringlets. 
My employment with the book became entirely relinquished." — JEabd-ul-Harmd. 

" Secondly ; — Know thou that the Almighty is all-wise, and knoweth all things that have 
HAPPENED or will happen. He is cognizant of every jot and tittle, every atom and iota, for He 
learneth nothing new, and He forgetteth nothing." — MaMizan Afghani. 

^^^_ji (c-^ti Perfect Tense. 


*j ^»-i I have become. ^ ^y^ we have become. 

oj jj^ thou hast become, (W.) c:— ju ^y^ or J -^ you have become. 

F. *J yL or t_<-j (Jj-i) he, she, or it has become. ^j ^^Ji they have become. 


" Why hast thou become thus affected by grief, oh heart of mine ? 
Since, alas ! life passeth away like the wind." — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

"The Prophet said thus unto him, 'One good work performed at Haram,* has been 
accounted equal to seven hundred thousand performed at any other place." — Fawaxd-ush- 

xm jc««U Pluperfect Tense. 


jVj yj^ I had become, j^ ^_jJ:> we had become. 

^^J jj^) thou hadst become. ^^^ ^y^ you had become. 

F. ij yL or ij ^yJ^ he, she, or it, had become. F. j -^ or J^ ^yi) they had become. 

* Harani, the sacred plain of MakLa, with the sanctuary. 



" The horses of our young' men had been also wounded, and the youths themselves were 
tired out from exertion. They seized the bridles of the horses and went to the water, and, 
having drank some, they set out for their own homes." — Afzal Khan. 

jJ\:^ j.*\ 1st Future Tense. 


^ j or ♦-i I should become. li J or i-i, we should become. 

o-i j or o^ thou shouldst become. -^ j or ^J:,^ you should become. 

J^ J Jor^^ J ijcb he,she,<?r it, should become. -.i) j J or J^ d <ua they should become. 


" Should i be raised to the gibbet like Manstir, or be stoned to death ; 
It is not this, that should make me forswear thy love and affection." 

— jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

JJa^u*^ 2nd Future Tense. 


A-i j <L' >; or *^ Aj j I will become. ^ J <)j l^:,^ or i-i ^ j we will become. 

o^ j <V ^ *^^' \°s^ ^ J ^^10^ ^il^ become. ^^^ j <0 ^j^'j or -*^ ^ j you will become. 

^i j Aj cS-rJior -i tO j he, she, wit, will become. J^ j ^ ^^JtSb or JL <u J they will become. 


" Wherefore do the possessors of beauty boast of (their) good looks ? 
They will become celebrated of their own accord, like the new moon." 

— jEabd-td-Hamid. 

" No man will become satiated without contentment. 
Even tliough his house be full of silver and gold." — jEabd-\ir-Iiahman. 

cjLLi. Subjunctive, or Aorist Tense. 


fjj> or ^ J I may, shall, will, etc. become. ii or ^ J we may, shall, will, etc. become. 

^ or j^i j thou maycst, etc. become. ^^ or J.-i> J you may, etc. become. 
^ or J^ j «Ui» he, she, it may, etc. become. J^ ^^t<^ ] ^ t^^^y may, etc. become. 



"A certain king had a difficult matter to perform. He said, if the upshot of this should 
TURN OUT according to my wishes, I mil give so many dirhams to devotees and holy men." — 

" The offspring of wolves will still be wolves, 
Even though they may be grand and powerful in the sight of men." — GtUistdn. 

iJ^M Conditional, or Optative Tense. 


o^^ >j c^ if I became. ^^y^ ^* ^ ^^ ^^ became. 

^^t^-ij 6j ^ if thou becamest. <-fV-' u^ ^ ^^ ^^^ became, 

o^^ ^^j^ ^ if he, she, or it, became. i-/^^*' ''-'^ ^ ^^ ^^®7 became. 


" No one, oh Kahman ! would take the name of the Almighty, 
If his works became accomplished by either father or brother." 

— jEabd-ur- Rahman . 
aJt^ ^^U Past Conditional Tense. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

^^ ^ or ^^ ^^ ij d if I had become. ^^ .^ l^« ^ if we had become. 

^j ^ or ^j jj^) dJ Ai if thou hadst become. oj ^y- u^^' ''"^ i^" yo^^ ^^'■^ become. 

^jj ^ or ^i;^ jj^ JiiS) ^ if he, she, or it, had ^^j ^^ dJca c-^^ if they had become. 



- '' Alas that I had not become enamoured when I fell in love ! 

Whatever has happened endure mth cheerfulness, for now it is face to face." 

— /Eahd-ul-Jlarnid. 

iJSJjLJ j^U Past Future Tense.* 


F. M. M. AND F. 

J ij yL or (jyi) I shall, or will have become. ^_ ^ ^y- we shall, or will have become., 
j^ tU ^1 or jj^ thou shalt, or wilt have J ^ .^ you shall, or A\'in have become. 

.J<iJ^or^5J^aw'ti> he, she, it, shall, or will .^ <L' .^j aAa they shall, o/- will have become, 

have become. 

* Also called the Doubtful Past Teuse. 



'' Perhaps my cleverness may have been the cause of his aversion, since the swiftness of 
the swift horse becometh the cause of his fatigue." — Kalllah wo Damnah. 

The ij of this tense is sometimes omitted, as in the following example : 

" The lustre and polish of the false muhar* may doubtless continue, 
Until the glance of the money-changer shall not have fallen on it." 

— jEabd-ur- Rahman. 
j^\ Impekative Mood. 


ai^ or di-i, j become thou. ^J^ or ^^ j become you. 

J:> J or -i) j J ^ let him, her, or it, become. ^ J or ^ J J iJub let them become. 


" In the blackest darkness, if thou desirest light. 
Become a spectator of the curls and countenance of the beloved." 

— j^abd-ul-Hamid. 

The prefixed j of this mood, like the u-> of the Persian imperative, is often 
omitted as redundant, as in the example above given. 


^_^djc^ ^ L5^J^ J^'^^ afceaal-i-lazimi wo mutaceaddi. 
jcX.^2.^ Infinitive. 

150. All infinitives in the Pushto language end in J /, JSj edal^ or Jj wul\ 
as, Jjjli. shdrhal, 'to churn,' J^^ (/addedal, 'to mix,' ^}sijj\ arwedal, 'to hear,' 
J^^"^ ddakedal, 'to fill,' Jjjy tawdmml, 'to make hot,' etc. 

Verbs which merely take J in forming the infinitive are both transitive and 
intransitive; those which take Jli are, without exception, intransitives ;t and those 
ending in Jj are all transitives. 

* An Indian gold coin. 

t The ^^J of some verbs are radical letters, and therefore should not be confounded with the aflixed Jjl) of some 
intransitives; as, for example, Jjk..>jjT 'to hear,' in which the J only is the sign of the infinitive, and '^\jj\j its past tense, 
or root of the verb. Again, in Jj^-:^,jj 'to ask,' in which Ju^X^v) J is the past tense; whilst the sign of 
the infinitive in ^}^J^ 'to fill,' is Jjj and <Li) u/^ the past tense; and in JjujU 'to break, or become broken,' 
the past tense is iJ^ tl-jL*, 



The infinitive of verbs is also used as thejju^i^ J-^U- (liasil-i-masdar) or verbal 
noun ; as in the following examples : 

" Like the rose, as much as thou concealest it, so much its perfume increaseth ; 
In the same manner, the anguish of love from endurance, becometh overpowering." 

— yEahd'ul-HamuL 



_fl^ ijJtJb 

3 ci?^ 

J ^1 J^i-\j ij^£ jj,^ djejb t> Jj_j ^J iliijlj 

" This SPEECH was exceedingly acceptable to the king, and that night he came to his 
house." — GuUstdn, 

" In the first place, what use is it paining the heart with love? 
Again, of what advantage is turning back from it at a slight obstacle?" 

— jEabd-ur- Rahman . 

151. There are in the Pushto language no less than thirty-seven classes of 
verbs, the whole of which vary in some way or other in the formation of the different 
inflections.* Of this number thirteen are intransitive, and twenty-four transitive. 

Five of the thirteen classes of intransitives are imperfect ; and, of the transi- 
tives, nineteen classes contain perfect and imperfect verbs ; and the remaining classes 
are entirely imperfect. 



152. Changes the last radical letter, after di-opping the J of the infinitive, for 
another letter, in the present tenses and the imperative mood, but retains it in the 
past tenses and the past participle ; as, Jj*-j&jj poh-edal, 'to know,' J:^T dhuatal, to 
fly,' J:i4^j ii'khatal, or Ti'shatal, 'to be enti-apped,' Jj^:^ Vwedal^ ' to fall.' 




l5^' J 


^ J 






ajjj j 

Past Part. 


* There appear to be two eras, if I may so term it, in the Pushto language. The first, of words which are evidently 
pure Afghan, and probably those used by the Afghiinah, when they first settled in their present couutry. The second, when 
Arabic, Persian, and Sanscrit became engrafted on the original stock. This is particularly apparent with regard to the 
conjugations of the verbs. 

t The past and imperfect tenses of some verbs, as above, may be written with (— ) instead of S (ha-i-zahir), particularly 
in poetry. The feminine termination is S {ha-i-Miafl), which is generally affixed to the infinitive itself; as <iJ*XJl»^ j 
wu-po-hedala' h, 'she knew,' See conjugations. 




153. Eejects the two last radical letters in the present and future tenses and 
the imperative mood, and retains them in the past tenses and past participle ; as, 
Jj.-.Uj z'ghaledal^ ' to run,' JjuiU. tsatsedal^ 'to leak or drop.' 











ajjjij j 

jj Ju^l^ 




A-AU j 

Past Part. 



154. Eejects the sign of the infinitive and the three last radical letters in the 
present and future tenses and imj)erativc, but retains them in the past tenses and 
past participle ; as J::>.-jU-.4^ Jc^ khendstal^ or k^shenastal^ ' to sit.' 



155. Drops the last radical letter and loses the long vowel by elision, in the 
present, future, and imperative, but retains it in the past ; as J Jjl^- chmv-dal, ' to 






Past Part. 









^jV j 

Past Part. 




156. Changes the last radical letter for two others in the present, future, 
and imperative, similar to Class XIX of transitives ; and merely rejects the J of 
the infinitive for the past; as Jixru khatal, 'to ascend.' 










Past Part. 


157. Merely rejects the J of the infinitive throughout; as J^ ni'rral^ 'to 
die.' * The past participle is shortened. In the present, aorist, and imperative, the 
, of this verb is changed to 












Past Part. 

* This, as well as many other verbs, often retains the (J of the infinitive in all the inflections, merely afiixing, inserting, 
or prefixing the necessary pronouns and particles to form the various tenses. The past participle may be considered an 




158. The verbs of this class take a letter after the last radical letter iu the 
present, fiitui'e, and imperative, and reject both of them in the past ; as J^ swcd^ 
' to bum.' 

Infinitive. Present. Aorist. 




Past Part 



^ - 


159. The verbs of this and the following classes of the intransitives are 
imperfect. They change the last radical letter for another, like Class I., in the 
present tense, and retain it in the imperfect and the past. The auxiliaiy Jp) shivaly 
'to become,' is required in forming the other tenses of the verb with which the 
adjective, or shortened past participle is used; as JjujU matedal^ 'to break,' Jj^j'j 
pdtedal, ' to remain,' etc. 

Aorist. Imperative. Imperfect. Past. Past Part. 










or cijU 




160. The infinitive J:i«,Uj z'gJmJjMal^ or J:;«)Uj z'ghTtstal^ 'to run,' which is a 
specimen of this class of verbs, has no present, aorist, or futiu-e tense ; but the past 
and imperfect tenses and past participle are formed in the same manner as those of 
other verbs, by merely rejecting the J of the infinitive, and afiixing and prefixing 
the different pronouns and particles. The other tenses appear to belong to another 
infinitive, at present obsolete. 










->aSj w 1 


Past Part, 



161. This class, of which Jy*^j'i drumal^ 'to go,' is an example, is similar to 
Class YI. as far as it goes ; but it is just the reverse of the preceding, having a 
present, future, and imperative, but no past tenses or past particijDle, wliich are 
taken from other imperfect infinitives. 




^V"^ i 





Past Part. 



162. Jj^J Idrral^ 'to go or depart,' is another of the imperfect verbs. It has 
merely an infinitive mood and a past tense. By using the aorist and imperfect 




of the auxiliary Jy- shtval, ' to become,' with its past tense, the aorist and impera- 
tive are formed. The other tenses are wanting. 










Past Part. 

Jj or ^- 

>d. J\j fled, ' to go,' is the only verb of tliis class, and has only an infinitive, 
and an imperfect tense, formed by rejecting the J of the infinitive; as tdj, or by 
rejecting the radical J altogether, as &j . The pronouns );, jJ, andjj are also used 
Avith it. It has a regular past participle. 





^ Jk 



dlo or ^j 


Past Part. 

^v or ^ 


164. Jiilj rdghlal, ' to come,' is the only verb of this class, and has merely 
a past tense and past participle. The pure infinitive was doubtless JJl , to which the 
pronouns referred to in the former class have been added, but without them it 
conveys no meaning. It differs from the preceding inasmuch as it adds \j to the 
imperfect tense of JIj to form its own imperfect tense, and has a regular past. In 
other respects it is similar. 
















Past Part, 
or (jAlilj 


The whole of these imperfect verbs use the tenses of others to supply the want 
of their own, as will be seen from the conjugations. The latter have been marked 
by a dash over them. 



165. The verbs of this class are the most numerous in the language. They 
reject the J of the infinitive for the present, future, and imperative, and lengthen 
the first vowel from (-^) to \ for the past tenses. The past participle is regular ; as 
J^' tarral, ' to bind,' Jjbj wahal, 'to strike,' ^}^jJ garsmvul, 'to turn.' 







Past Part 











-^j j 


<u.!j J 











1G6. The verbs of this class are also very numerous, but are iiTegular. In 
forming the present tense and imperative mood, they reject the J of the infinitive, 
and sometimes form the latter by affixing the imperative of J"^ Jcrral^ ' to do,' to the 
shortened past participle. The aorist, futm-e, and past tenses are alone formed by 
the aid of the shortened past participle prefixed to the same tenses of J^ respec- 
tively. The middle vowel of the root is lengthened from (-^) to t for the imperfect 
tense ; as Jj4*rs^ Jchakhawul, or khashawul^ ' to biuy.' 






Ijf U^ 


ij^ Ui*^ 




Past Part. 

4J U^ 


167. Changes the two last radical letters of the root for two others in the 
present, future, and imperative; as s.::.^*^ for^l in J:^.^ ghoMtal, or ghoshtal, 'to 
desire ;' c:.---.- for jj in J-i-^^iT aghiistal, 'to clothe ;' l:^^^ ^^^' J ^^ JxtiX-j s/calchtal, or 
skashtalj ' to clip ;' ^ for j^ or j^ in J^-j*jy pre-Jihowul., ov pre-showul, 'to abandon,' 












168. The verl^ of this class, after di-opping the J of the infinitive, reject 
the two last radical letters for another letter, in the present, futiu-e, and imperative ; 
as ju for * in JjJ^ mundal, 'to find;' >^:^^ for J in ^^ Vtvastal, ' to read;' and 
J-.uu.<T aJdiistal^ ' to seize ; ' and retain them in the past tenses. 







Past Part 



■^r* j 

'^r* j 






169. These verbs do not take the prefixed j, and form all the tenses and the 
imperative by the mere rejection of the J of the infinitive, the present tenses 
taking the affixed, and the past the prefixed pronouns ; as JLU bci'e-lal, ' to lose at 










Past Part. 


170. Lengthens the first vowel from ( — ) into \ in all the inflexions except 
the past participle ; as Jj^ wa-yal^ ' to speak.' 

Past Part. 


171. Lengthens the first syllable in all the inflexions in the same manner as 
the preceding, bnt with this exception, that it changes (— ) into^ for the present 
and futiu'e tenses and the imperative mood, and (— ) into \ for the past ; as Jb lalal^ 
' to call.' 















Past Part. 


Imperative. ! Imperfect. Past. 

I I 


172. After dropping the J of the infinitive, changes the last radical letter 
for another in the present, futnre, and imperative ; as J for ^ in JJjj wajz-lal or JU-^ 
vjaj-lal^ 'to kill.' The radical letter is retained in the past tenses, and the first 
vowel lengthened from (— ) to \. 




• ' * 


A 9 



Past Part. 


173. The verbs of this class are irregular, as are all the infinitives ending in 
CLJ, which reject the prefixed j, the sign of the past tense. They change the last 
radical letter for another in the present, futiu-e, and imperative ; as c:^ for * in 
^\d P^^-^^^^^1 'to unloose;' but retain it in the past. By rejecting the prefixed 
j there is no difference between the past and the imperfect in the mode of T\Titing. 
See page 87, para. 220. 

Present. Aorist. Imperative. Imperfect. I Past. Past Part. 






174. After dropping the sign of the infinitive, rejects the three last letters 
of the root for another, in the formation of the present, future, and imperative, and 
retains them in the past tenses ; as J:iAjj vhshtal^ ' to discharge.' 












Past Part. 


175. The verbs of this class reject the two last radical letters in the present 
and imperative, but retain them in the past and past participle ; as Jju:^^,^ 
pukht-edal or pusht-edal^ 'to ask,' ^^f^^J^ piraiv-dal^ 'to purchase,' Jj^jjjT ar-ivedal^ 
' to hear.' 







Past Part. 



'^i j 



• • 



Sr^V^. J 











176. Eejects the last radical letter of the root in the present, futui'e, and 
imperative, but retains it in the past. The middle vowel is also lengthened from 
(_!.) to \ for the past tenses: the past participle is regular; as Jj^J>j i-fcjzandal^ 
' to know.' 












Past Part. 


177. Lengthens the first vowel from (-:^) to \ for the present, futiu'e, and 
imperative, and uses the simple infinitive of the verb for all the inflexions of the 
imperfect and the past, with the addition of the prefixed j in all three persons, 
singular and plural ; as Jja:>- khandal^ ' to laugh.' The past participle is regular. 







Past Part. 


178. The verbs of this class exchange the last radical letter for another in the 
present, futiu'e, and imperative, and retain it in the past ; as ^ into j in j^^ 
mulchal, ' to rub.' 








- 9 

Past Part. 




or ^ji^,* 






179. The verbs of this and the following classes are all imperfect. 

The infinitive JI-j yeJchal or yeshal^ 'to place,' is an example. It has no 
present, future, or imperative, but the imperfect tense is regularly formed. It is 
generally used with the two following infinitives, which are of the same meaning 
and have no past tenses. 








Past Part. 







180. J^4«^ JceJihwaU 'to place,' is a specimen of this class. It has but one 
tense, which is used both for the imperfect and the past. J^V^ kejs-dal^ which 
again has no past tenses or past participle, is used with it to supply the tenses 
which the former infinitive requires. 







Past Part. 





181. ^}S^jz\M, 'to place,' the example of this class, has no past tenses or 
past participle, and, as before mentioned, is used to supply the wants of jJ*^ , which 
has no present, future, or imperative. The present tense is formed by merely 
rejecting the J of the infinitive, and affixing the necessary pronoims. The im- 
perative is formed in the same manner, but the past tenses are taken fi'om J^j-L^ 
and the past participle from Si^. • 











Past Part. 


182, Jj^ w^rral^ to take or carry,' which is an example, and about the only 
one of this class, is merely imperfect as regards the aorist and future tenses, which 
are taken from J-jjj yo-sal when required. The imperative is formed by merely 
rejecting the J of the infinitive, and the present by afiixing the necessary pronouns. 
The past is formed by prefixing jj to the root, which is obtained from Jj^ , an in- 
finitive nearly obsolete. 














Past Part. 





183, J^ hl-zvul, ' to take or bear away,' and J«,T aUhak or ashal, ' to knead,' 
are specimens of this class. They change the last radical letter for two others in the 
present tenses, and imperative mood, and retain it in the imperfect : the other tenses 
are wanting, but the past participle is regular. 








Past Part. 


184. The infinitives of this class which prefix the postposition ^^ kMey or 
kshey, 'in,' etc., to another verb, reject the J of the infinitive in the present tenses 
and imperative mood, and lengthen the short vowel preceding the last characteristic 
letter from (^ ) to \ for the past ; as Jj-.,>.u*.< kUhenawul, or kshenmvul^ ' to cause or 
make to sit.' The past participle is regular. 









or ijL»4^ 



or i'jl:--«i' 



Past Part. 

i^i 'r/->'^ 


185. These infinitives are the most regular in the language, merely rejecting 
the J of the infinitive, and affixing the diiferent pronouns for the present tense, 
taking the root for the imperfect, and prefixing j to it for the past ; as JjL scl-fcd, 
' to nourish,' JjLj pl-a-?/al, ' to graze.' 









Past Part. 


186. Eejects the last radical letter, and the sign of the infinitive for the pre- 
sent and imperative, and retains it in the past. The past participle is regular ; as 
Jjjij n^gharrdal, 'to swallow,' J^^^ sparrdal, ' to undo or unravel.' 




S:^J~ J 




Past Part. 


187. The infinitive J^Ji swal, ' to bum,' which is a specimen of this class, is 
used both as a transitive and intransitive. The sign of the infinitive is dropped and 



an extra letter taken for the present tenses and imperative. The past tenses reject 
the extra letter, and are regular in their formation. 







Past Part. 




j-j or ^w 

j^- j or <u j 



1 oo 

m, _ .•„£„,*x.' 

„„ t / 7„^..., 

 / * 4- v-» ■m-i *~v ■»,■» 4- .-v-*fl 

^-*.-* 7 -»-^'»' l-» ■^ ^-\ l-» >^ 


^ i^  <-j ^^ 1 j-i j~< i-M 

exceedingly irregular in the formation of the different tenses. The most regular 
form of the present is obtained by rejecting the J and the last radical letter (of 
which there are but two) for the masculine singular. It is also written l^ and Jjl^ 
for the third person, but the radical letter, lost in the third, is retained in the first 
and second. The past tenses are also irregular, and there is no change in termi- 
nation for gender. 







Past Part 





j^l^ or .Njl^ 




JjxL* J ^U- i^U-jl asmal hdllah wo mafceul. 

189. Pushto verbs admit of inflexion to form the participles, which may be 
termed imperfect or present, and perfect or past, as they notify whether the action 
of the verb be unfinished or complete. 

These participles partake of the properties of the verb, the adjective, and the 
noun ; and are intransitive or transitive according to the verbs from which they are 

The participles of intransitive and transitive verbs are formed according to the 
same rules. 

190. The present or imperfect participle is formed from the infinitive in six 
different ways. 

I.— First by dropping the J of the infinitive, and adding ^ for the masculine, 
and ij for the feminine; as Jjjjl:^ ' ^o turn away,' i'-^^j\s>- 'tui-ning away;' Joi 
'to see, to behold,' i^ 'seeing;' ^\^j 'to run,' ^j^J^j 'running;' J:S^ 'to 
read,' j^"^^ or d^zS^ ' reading.' Examples : 

^J i.^J iJ V^jr^'* J^ 'V 


,1 J ^\ J iZ^'Jl:L^ ^ 

J3 ^y^ 


^5J ^\i^\j O tljJ^j.U- 

^j)^jW ^ 


" The lover is not to be separated in any way whatsoever from the beloved, 
Whether his dwelling be sacked and pillaged, or filled with wealth and goods. 
Though one would give him the sovereignty of this world and the next, 
He would not accept it, for the beloved one is of gTeat price : 
Therefore he turneth not away, for tukning back is the act of a fool." 

— Kas'tm j^all, Afrldi. 

''Again : repeating is incumbent on thee in both of the first genuflexions ; and shouldest 
thou repeat in the last, and neglect the first, thou art not devoid of sin." — Makhzan Afghani. 

191. II.— In the second form the J of the infinitive is dropped and re- 
placed by i {hd-i-zahir) or (— ) {fafhali), if masculine, and i {ha-i-khafi) if feminine ; 
as JJj 'to wash,' ^j or Jj 'wasliing ;' J):^\j 'to sit,' &i-;l3 or l::^-.Ij 'sitting.' 

The follo\ying are examples :— 

^j*^ axi aL j^ ijys:. i^^ <d j^ ^ Jul' J Jj j^ ^ \J'i^^ ^ "^^ L/ir* ^j^ ^J H ^-i "C ^^^ 

^ ^ y « •• 

" First : washing the face from the top of the forehead as far down as the bottom of the 
chin, is a precept in ablution ; also washing that clear space which is between the ears and the 
cheek, is a duty." — Fawaid-ush-Sharicea'h. 

^ j^l:uuJ6^ a.; jL^ t) ic^\j ai3 SjJ^^ ^_s\ ^^^^ '^ ^~j (-5-^ ^J^ (..s*"^ 


Thy mode of sitting, oh sweetheart, 

Is like the perching of the falcon on the mountain top." — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

" Whenever one attends in a place of worship, for each footstep, both in coming and 
in going, twelve good actions will be written." — Famaid-ush - Sharicsah . 

192. III.-^To form the third division, it is necessary to insert an \ before 
the final consonant of the root, which in this class is generally o-', and add the 
same terminations, as in the preceding form ; thus Jo'^T ' to fly,' ^^^'\ ' flying ; ' 
JjjjU- 'to change' or 'turn round,' ^\jjU- 'changing' or 'tui-ning round;' ^_» 'to 
come out,' ajlj ' coming out.' Examples : 

••/ ••/ scj^ V- ** ** ••' "fc— 

" Behold ! the fly and the bee are of one species, but their mode of flying is difterent ; 



for the fly will fly to filtbiness and impurity, wMst many seekers are satiated with the honey 
of the bee." — Malthzan Afghani. 

" Let Khizr * become the gatekeeper of that gate and wall, 
Through which thy coming in and going out may be."t — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 

" My changing from thy love and affection is false indeed : 
Why should not my body become dust on this road?" — yEabd-ur- Rahman. 

*J <*>j|^:>;^^ ^ CJ^J ^ ^ '■^jy" ^'^ '^^ C^J ^ \j CJj^ ^J <ij\^ d3j^ J l:i-s <l>- ij ^{s>. 

" Alas, oh chief ! when I look towards thee, death to me is an abyss, and this form I make 
a PKECiPiTATiON of into it." — Adam Khan and DurManai. 

193. IV.— The fourth class is obtained by lengthening the vowel of the first 
letter from (— ) to \ after cutting off the J of the infinitive as usual, and aflSxing 
(^) or a to the final consonant of the root ; as Jiuuj ' to draw forth' or ' eject,' il::-wjb 
or dz^\i^ ' drawing forth ' or ' ejecting ;' J:uu.)jU- ' to change,' ' alter,' or ' turn round,' 
G:.-v-;l»jU- and scJ^jKs^ 'changing,' 'altering,' 'turning round.' Example : 

''At the time of making salutation (at prayer), turning the head to the right side and 
the left is desirable." — Fawald-ush-Sharicea^h. 

** Tenth : knowing Muhammad is a divine command, in this manner ; that he is the Pro- 
phet of God, on whom we have placed our faith." — Fawa Id-ush- Shaft (sa'h. 

194. Y.— The present participles of the fifth class are obtained from intransi- 
tive infinitives, formed fi-oni adjectives by dropping the Jjj of the infinitive and 
adding ^j; as Jjo^ 'to mix,' ^^^ 'mixing;' Jj.-^4 'to fill,' ^/^ 'filling.' They 
may also be obtained from pure transitives having J as the sign of the infinitive ; 
thus Jji' 'to bind,' ^jj^ 'binding.' They can also be formed from the intransitives 
above referred to, by merely rejecting the J and adding the ^j; as Jju^^ 'to fill,' 
^^jju^^ ' filling.' These forms are rare, the former particularly so. 

* Tte name of a prophet who, according to Oriental tradition, was Wuzir to Kaikobud, king of Persia. He is said to 
have discovered and drank of the water of life, and that in consequence he will not die until the Day of Judgment. 

t tOlj and aJl^ ^j may also be translated, exit and entrance. See Chapter VII., On the Derivation of Words. 


"The ASSOCIATING (mixing) of the beloved with a rival is, 
As if a person were to mix together purity and defilement." — jfEabd-ul-Hamtd. 

195. VI. — The sixth, class, wliicli consists of transitive and causal verbs, is 
foiined by dropping tlie J of the infinitive and inserting \ before the final letter of 
the root, to which ^ or <U is afiixed ; as Jyl« ' to break' or ' rend,' ^^jbU ' breaking' 
or 'rending;' JjKo, 'to kiss,' ^^JK^ 'kissing.' Example: 

" Majnun one day beheld a dog in the desert, and caressed him a thousand times. 
He kissed him on both eyes in various ways, and people became astonished with him for 
KISSING." — Adam Khan and Durldiana'i. 

196. The whole of these participles are capable of inflexion, in the same 
manner as nouns, in three different ways : 

197. Those of the first form, ending in i (]ia4-kjiafi\ such as i^^J^ "^turning 
away,' and icJ^ 'sitting,' which are all feminine, come under the first variety of nouns 
of the 3rd Declension ; those of the second, third, and fourth forms, terminating in s 
{ha-i-za-Mr\ such as <iJj 'washing,' and aj^^T 'flying,' being masculine, are declined 
as nouns of the fii'st variety of the 6th Declension ; and those of the first, fifth, 
and sixth forms, ending in j^^, such as ^^^>S" mixing,' and ^^j^ 'binding,' which 
are also masculine, as nouns of the 9th Declension. 

198. The present participle is also used as a noun ; thus i3^.f\ signifies 
'flight,' as well as 'fleeing;' ^"^yj 'falling,' also 'a fall;' and ^j^^^-j 'knowledge,' 
as well as 'knowing:' this will be more fully noticed under the head of ^,ju2^ J-tfU- 
hdsil-i-masdar, or Verbal I^oun. 

The Perfect or Past Participle. 

JjxL* *-jl ism-i-mafceid. 

199. The perfect or past participle denotes that the action of the verb is 
complete, and is obtained in three different ways both from transitives and 

200. I.— The fii'st method is by adding ^ {ija-i-m(l-kahl-i-maftuh)*' to the 
infinitive for the masculine, and ^ {yd-i-majhul) or {-r) (kasrah) for the feminine 
singular; as Jj.4^ 'to place,' ^yi<r^ 'placed;' JjJ 'to see,' jJ^ 'seen;' J^ 
' to cheat,' J^ ' cheated,' etc. The following are examples : 

* For explanation regarding the letter ^<, see paragraphs 44 and 45. 


'' Whoever emergetli in safety from the sea of love, 
I consider tliis very day bokn of his mother." — J^abd-ur-RaTiman. 

*' If one person sayeth to another that our father Adam wove linen, and he sayeth unto 
him, 'Yes, and we are weaver's children,' and his (the latter's) intention be to lower the 
estimation of father Adam, he becometh a blasphemer." — Fawaul-ush-Shariceah, 

Examples of the feminine singular, Intransitives and Transitives. 

■'A second party of people appeared to him in hell, each with a fiery collar round the 
neck, and foot bound." — Micerdj Ndmali. 

*' That STRICKEN princess through excess of love, 
Was singing these verses in her own language." — Saif-ul-Muluk, 

The plural form for both masculine and feminine is the same ; and is ob- 
tained by substituting ^^ {ija-i-mamruf\ in the same manner as for the nouns of 
the fii'st variety of the 1st declension, and the form of adjectives described at 
paragraph 88. 

jdr^ ^J^ j^JJj .Ui) ^ ^_^j ^J- wi dJ ^ jirJ^ ^'^ ^ \S* ^'^^^ ¥^ 

'' I cannot laugh and make merry with the people of the world. 
For those departed ones make me weep and lament." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

../ ^ 
" With both eyes drawn towards the path of the adored one, 
He was sitting distressed, in the intoxication of the wine of love." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

201. II.— The second form of this participle is obtained in a similar maimer 
to the first, the only difference being that the J of the infinitive is dropped, and 
the ^5, ^^, or {-r) affixed to the root for the masculine and feminine singular, and 
^_^ for both plui'als, as in the first class. They are sometimes formed fi*om the same 
verbs and used indiscriminately ; thus Jj>«;^T ' to be dressed,' ^^i:i-jy:T or ^^y^ 
'dressed;' J^\:i 'to sit,' ^ix-cU or ^-j^U 'seated;' J:^,jT 'to turn back,' ^jj^o,/ or 
^«,jT ' turned back.' Examples : 



" Consume and enjoy, oh ! thou of good disposition, and true man, 
What that one of inverted fortune collected together, but did not expend." — Gulistdn. 

" Notwithstanding I summon back this stag-eye captured heart. 
Yet like the deer it heedeth not my calling." — jEahd-ul-Hamid, 

''This Sata'i,* who consumeth herself, her intention is this — 
That CONSUMED in the fire I am content ; but not without honour." 

— /Eabd-ur- Rahman. 

" In outward dress a beggar, in words a niggard — 
Like a bright spark of fire enveloped in dust and ashes." — Allrzd Khan, Ansdrl. 

Examples of the pliu'al masculine and feminine. 

Cr' ^'^/jy ^^:^~ iJ^JJ err- Sr^j^ ''^'^ b c;-*^ J^rr (*^ 

" The whole world pluck away their vestments from near me : 
I am become like a smoke-blackened pot, though clothed in white garments." 

— jEabd-ur- Rahman ■. 

" ? 

"Another man appeared to him in hell, who was alike weeping and wailing. Clothed 
in garments of fire from head to foot, they tormented his every vein and artery— every nerve 
and bone." — Majmuceat-i-Kandahdri. 

^^j J\/i ^^\ ^U- *!.] ^^.4 ^ Jp i^bb ^• 

1.0 ^ l:^>JU 

At the Last Day they will, like an empty almond, become ashamed and confounded ; 

For many dressed out in the garments of the True Faith are infidels and blasphemers." 

— jEabd-ur- Rahman . 

The eyes of the beloved are intoxicators, turned round upon the lover to-day : 
They are balls ready prepared for striking; observe for whose spoil and plunder they are." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

* Sata'T — a woman who burns on her husband's funeral pyre. 


202. III.— The third class of past participles is formed from the irregular and 
defective verbs, such as Jj^^^ ' to fall,' and Ja-^jj ' to rot,' and those similar to ^}JJ 
'to stand,' and J::^\j or ^jx^\u^ 4o sit,' which have no regular past tense of their 
own. The past tense of the auxiliary J^-i ' to become,' is sometimes used in form- 
ing it. They appear to have originally been adjectives from which these infinitives 
have been formed, particularly those ending in Jjj . The terminations for the 
masculine and feminine are also different to the other participles,* being subject 
to the same changes for gender and number as the classes of adjectives described 
at paragraphs 86 and 87. 

The masculine singular is formed by dropping the Jjj of the infinitive; as 
^^,Jij 'to stand,' jlij 'stood;' Jj^.y 'to fall,' ci^ji^j 'fallen;' Jj--;Ij 'to sit,' u:^wjU 
'seated;' Jjk-:u^jj 'to rot,' l::^w^jj 'rotten.' Examples: 

" Hungry and thirsty, on tliy own mat fallen thou art well off; 
But not so, SEATED OH the dais in the house of another." — /Eabd-ul-Hamid. 

" Fallen over and over in red blood with fame, I am fortunate ; 
But not so without honour, even seated on the throne of red gold." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

At times, some of the participles of this class assume the form of the first class, 
by adding ^ to the infinitive, as in the following : 

^J }j^^ y^3^ ^^j^'^ '^^ is^^-j", J=r^ j^r- H 4/ 

Oh mine eyes, you should bid farewell ! you, oh palms of my hands, and arms of my 
shoulders, too, should take leave of each other ! Finally, you, oh my friends, should pass 
over (the grave) of this poor and humble fallen one !" — GuUstdn. 

To form the feminine singular, s {ha-i-Miafi) or (-^) {fat' ha' h) is affixed to the 
masculine. Examples : 

"Though thou environ thyself with a fortress of iron, 
Thou wilt not escape from the tent of death erect in every court." 

— Aflrzd Khan, Ansdri. 

* strictly speaking, the participles are not parts of the verb, as they do not apply affirmation, but are merely adjectives, 
particularly this form. 


" A waist BROKEN through the toil of industry and labour is good ; 
But not a purse of the money of unlawfulness round a man's ^^\^iy—jEabd-ur-Rahman, 

The plural masculine form of the third class of these past or perfect participles 
is the same as the singular, but the feminine plural changes the a and (^) of the 
singular into ^ {ya-i-majhul) or {-^) (kasrah). Examples : 

To-day we are proud of our existence : 

To-morrow the world will count us amongst the departed."— ^A^waf/ Skdk, Abdall. 

" I know that thou merely perfectest thyself in bloodshed, 
Seated in this manner like the falcon, with eyes veiled." — ^ahd-ul-Hamld. 

203. The past participles are capable of inflexion, and are subject to the 
same general laws as nouns ; as in the following extracts : 

" Notwithstanding I searched both in deserts and ia hamlets, 
I did not again obtain any information of those departed ones." — ^abd-ur-Rahman. 

" I know not what is written on my account : 
I, Kahman, am in anxiety concerning these written things." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

The Actor or Noun of Action. ^\ ism-i-fdwHl. 

204. The active participle, agent, or noun of action, denotes the performer 
of any action, and is an inflection of the verb, as in Arabic and Persian. It is 
transitive or intransitive, according to the verb from which it is derived ; is both 
singular and plural ; masculine and feminine ; and is capable of inflection in the 
same manner as described at paragraph 88. 

205. There are two methods of fomiing it — by dropping the J of the infini- 
tive and adding jjijj unJcaey or ^^ unaey for the masculine, and ulioj unki or ^» 
unJcey^ or ^^ mi or ^^ liney, for the feminine singular. Examples : 

■• •• " ••/ 

" Detriment and advantage, good and evil, are from God, who is the giver of kingdoms, 
and the taker of dominions : all is from God." — Fawald-ush-Shancea'A, 


" I shall be a departer from tliis world, 
As rapidly as the English discharge a cannon." — Kdshn jEali, Afridi. 

" In it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man- 
servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor the stranger a dweller within thy gates." 
~ Translation of the Pentateuch. 

" The day of judgment is also a comer ; doubt this not, oh my friends ! On that day, 
Avhat terrors and what fears will descend upon men ! " — Fawald-ush - Sh ariceah. 

'^ In the ' Jamise-i-Saghir' it is thus stated : ' Prostration (in prayer) is the cause of grief 
and affliction to the devil ; is als6 the corrector of any error or inadvertency (in prayer); and, 
moreover, is the will of Almighty God." — Fawald-ush- Sharl'ceah . 

The plural form of tliis participle is both masculine and feminine. It is 
obtained, in the same manner as the plui-al form of the past participles of the first 
and second classes, by rejecting the final jJ, ^, or (^r-) of the singular for ^ 
{yd-i-nwceruf) ', as ^j^^ or -^yx^j 'a reader,' ^y^) or ^y-^) 'readers.' 

*' I perceive all are travellers, there are no tarriers behind : 
The journeying on this road is both for young and for old." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

The following extract contains examples of the plural, both masculine and 
feminine : 

" Five things are breakers of prayer, and all are common. First, words are breakers 
of prayer, whether they may be in sleep or in waking moments, whether intentionally or inad- 
vertently, whether few or mMij."—Fawa'id-iish'Shari(Ba'h. 


NorN or Fitness. 
t.::--3U *-j^ hm-i-liyakat. 
206. The noun of fitness is merely the infinitive in the genitive case ; as, 

''Some one knocked at the door, on which lady J^^a'esha said: 'Who art thou? do not 
come in ; for this is not a fit time foe coming.'" — FarcdJul-ush-Blmri cEaJh . 

" They who lament out of season, slumber at the proper time : 
The beards of those persons are only fit to be pulled." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

There is an actiA^e participle or noun of action of intransitive verbs, but it is 
alone used as a noun of fitness. The following is an example : 

" Waste not uselessly on me thy breath and thy medicine, oh physician ! 
For I am not one to eecover, but one to die from the pangs of love." 

— jEabd-ul-Hanvid. 

j_^^ Or THE Tenses. 

207. As there is considerable diff'erence in the formation of the inflections of 
the verbs intransitive and transitive, they will require to be separately explained. 

According to the system of the Arabian grammarians, on which the gram- 
matical rules of Pushto, as well as other Muhammadan languages are based, verbs 
have properly but one conjugation, and two changes of tense — the preterite or 
simple past, and the aorist ; the other tenses being formed by the help of several 
particles, and the auxiliary verbs, 'to be,' 'to become,' 'to exist,' etc., already 
explained and illustrated. 

With the exception of the infinitive, the verbs have two numbers, — the 
singular and the plural. There are also three persons, as in other languages ; but 
the third person precedes the second, and the second the first person. 

Verbs are also divided into perfect and imperfect, regular and irregular ; tlie 
latter, and the imperfect verbs, being exceedingly numerous. 

Much variation occurs in the formation of the different tenses of the last men- 
tioned verbs, and there is also a change in termination for the feminine gender. 

208. The paradigm of a regular intransitive verb in the active and passive 
voices, according to the Arabic system just referred to, given at paragrajjhs 405, 407, 
408, and 409, shows the original tenses from which all the others can be formed. 
The active participle denotes the agent, and the passive participle the object 
acted on. 




^^j^ j^-j^ ({fa(eal-i-lazimi . 

^Ua^ ^^ Past Tense. 

209. The j^ast being antecedent to the present, according to the Oriental 
grammarians, must be first noticed. 

The past tenses of intransitives are tolerably regular in comparison Avith 
trausitives ; still there are seven methods or rules regarding them which require 
some explanation. 

I.— Most intransitives form the past tense by merely rejecting the J of the 
infinitive and prefixing the particle j, the peculiar sign of the past, which is also 
written ij and sometimes j,j ; but the j of this tense, like the c_j of the past in 
Persian, is often omitted as redundant. The last radical letter is moveable ; that is 
to say, it takes (-^) {fafha'h), or i (ha-i-zaliir) after the final letter, for the 
masculine; as JwUifc^ 'to know,' I*i&j^ j or ^a-jd^ j 'he knew.' From the third 
person five other inflections are formed, by the application of the afiixed personal 
pronouns (c^i^-;.,,. j>y^) which have been abeady described. 

II. — Are infinitives which form the past after the same manner as the pre- 
ceding, but whose final characteristic letter is quiescent; as JlJjIj- 'to split,' j^U- j 
'it split;' J-4,lij 'to run,' ci^^^Uj j 'he ran.' 

III. — Some infinitives ending in a quiescent consonant insert a j for the third 
person masculine singular, which is changed into \ for the pliu'al ; as J:;;^ ' to 
'ascend,' c:->j^ j 'he ascended.' The other persons are regular; as ♦ixrk j 'I 
ascended,' etc. 

IV.— A few infinitives reject the last radical letter as well as the sign of the 
infinitive in the past; as J^ 'to burn,' a..<j j 'it bm-nt.' This verb is used both as 
a transitive and an intransitive. 

v.— Intransitives formed from adjectives or nouns by afiixing Jj.j reject it 
again in the past, and the past tense of the auxiliaries Jj!i or Jjk-.^ is required to 
complete it; as Jj^-.jU 'to break,' d-ij ci;U 'it broke.' 

YI.— Some infinitives ending in a silent consonant, which is generally c,;, do 
not take the prefixed J, and therefore their imperfect tenses are the same as the 
past; thus ^^^^ 'to sit,' ^^:^J^^ 'he sat,' and 'was sitting.' 

VII.— Infinitives having a J as the final characteristic letter, reject it in the 
tliird person masculine singular; as Jii|^ 'to come,' ^\j 'he came.' 

Examples will be found in the following extracts : 


^L-j J jl <^J^\/. "^ J^-?'* t^ ^^^ J^ '■^J j ^ ^^ lS^ J^ ^- *^ '>ij ^' '--^■^ Jl-^ '^ J-slaw 

i t ij ^'^ <■ 

'' In short, the youth attained the summit of strength and skill, and no one had the 
power of vying or competing with him." — Gulistdn. 



'' For some time thou madest a captive of me : Thou didst plunge me into inexpressible grief: 
I ABANDONED for thee both name and fame. I constantly beat my head against the stones." 

— Yusiif and ZuViTxha. 

210. There is an exception to the above general rule in the formation of the 
inflexions of this tense; for the J of the infinitive is sometimes retained, and the 
afiixed j)i*onouns (except for the third person plural) added to it, as may be seen in 
the following couplet : 

" Notwithstanding that I went according to the precepts of custom and usage, 
I ATTAINED not to the knowledge of certainty and truth." — Mirxa Khan, Ansdri. 

211. To form the feminine singular of this tense, a (Jia-i-Miafl) must be affixed 
to the final J of the infinitive ; but sometimes the ha-i-khafi is substituted for the > 
of the masculine. The former is the most generally used. Examples : 

'^ It is the consequent result of love that the eye weeps : 
And also, that from weeping, my eye became swollen." — ^abd-ul-Hamld. 

" She took a tray in her liand and set out ; 
And with great expedition beached the -prison." — Saif-ul-Muhl/^. 

212. The thiixl person singular and pliu'al of the past tenses of intransitive 
verbs is alone subject to change in termination for gender, and the first and second 
persons merely take the j)lural form of the affixed personal pronouns for the plural 
number; as j-J^---, j 'we arrived,' J_ju-^ j 'you arrived.' 

The following is an example : 


" The hand of destiny lowered the veil of imprudence before the eye of my judgment, and 
detained behind the obscure curtain of ignorance and incapacity my far-seeing prudence ; and 
suddenly we all became entrapped in the talon of misfortune and sorrow." — Kalilah wo 

The following extract coutains an example of the plui^al form of the past 
tense, in which, as explained in a preceding paragraph, the pronoun is affixed to 
the infinitive. 

" A holy man repudiated the feigned manner of the Darweshes, and was entirely unac- 
quainted with their sorrows and atihctions. In this manner we arrived at the palm-grove of 
Ban! Hillal." — GuUstdn. 

213. The third person masculine plm-al of verbs wMcli do or do not take the 
prefixed j in the past tense, whether the tense be formed by rejecting or retaining 
the J of the infinitive or otherwise, is generally the simple infinitive with the J 
prefixed for the former, and the infinitive unchanged for the latter; thus Jj^.^l^ 
'to tremble,' Jjk.^j^.j^, j ' they trembled ; ' Jlilj 'to come,' J}!i.i.\j 'they came.' The 
pliu'al form of those which reject the ^ or drop it as redundant, will be explained in 
its proper place. The following is an example of the regular verbs : 

" When iEali Akbar and Kasim fell, their families were standing by, and were melting 
with grief; for such had been written from all eternity." — Muham7nad Hamfah. 

214. There is another form of the past tense for the masculine plui-al of the 
third person, which may be easily mistaken for the third person feminine singular, 
as it is wi'itten with the same consonants as the latter. There is, however, a differ- 
ence in the pronunciation ; yet it is difficult to describe it in writing, and even when 
uttered by an Afghan tongue, it is almost imperceptible, and requires an Afghan 
oar to distinguish it. The nearest approach is by writing (^-) over the final i, 
which vowel points give a sound equivalent to the diphthong ce^ and similar to that 
wliich occurs in the plm-al form of the nouns of the fifth variety of the 6th declension. 
It is sometimes TVTitten with (-^) only. This form of termination is used both for 
transitive as well as intransitive verbs.* The following is an example : 

* The author of the " JEjaib-uI-Lughat," in the preface to that work, remarks on this very subject in the following 
7nanncr : — " I have adopted the lexicographical system of the Persian to express the A fgh ani in this work, in order that it 
may be more easy to those acquainted with the former language ; yet, notwithstanding this, the perfectness of sound and 
(•ompleteness of enunciation is alone to be acquired by oral practice. The word Alih is an example of this. When written 
with simple r, Ti, quiescent (jh, I with the short vowel a, and unaspiratcd h, or ha-i-lhafi^ it is the third person feminine 
singular — ' she goes ; ' and when written with simple r, a, quiescent ^A, I with a short vowel approaching to a and i slightly 
soimded, and unaspirated A. it is the third person masculine plural." 


" The Imam's head remained in Saleh's court. Behold the Yazidis completely deceived ! 
Saleh, having hidden the head under his skirt, carried it away and buried it in Hasan's tomb." 
— Hasan and Husain of Muhammad Hamfah. 

215. ^ or ^ is sometimes affixed to the third person singular and plm-al of 
this as well as other tenses, for the sake of euphony, and as a respectful form in 
religious works. Examples : 

"When the light of my glory shook itself with force, a hundred and twenty-fom' thousand 
drops of perspiration fell from it." — Nur Namah. 

" Ten drops of sweat were diffused from my left hand. From the first drop, ten thousand 
rivers of pure wine flowed like torrents through Paradise ; from the second, a river of honey ; 
and from the third, a thousand sweet streams." — Malthzan Afghani. 

To form the third person feminine plural of this tense the i or {^ of the 
singular is changed to ^ or (~:^), as will be seen in the following extracts : 

" An old and respectable man who dwelt at Baghdad, gave his daughter in marriage to a 
shoemaker. The hard-hearted rascal bit her lips so, that the blood immediately flowed from 
them." — Gulistdn. 

" The other devils said unto Mm, ' Oh, master ! wherefore art thou become so sorrowful, 
that the cries of thy grief have gone out into different lands?'" — Famald-ush- Shan (2a' k . 

216. I have already observed at paragraph 209, that a great many verbs at 
times reject as redundant the prefixed j, the sign of the past tense of regular verbs, 
both transitive as well as intransitive, without any apparent reason ; thus : 

" Bishr said, ' It is my solemn oath, by God ! that the mouthful which I put into my 
mouth I KNEW was poisoned.'" — Fawald-icsh- Shanceah . 


In the following extract, whicli is an example of the same infinitive as the 
preceding one— J Juj^jj ' to know,' etc.— the j of the past is retained. 

"The family encamped on the very place, and they recognized the spot of martyrdom." 
— Muhammad Hamfah. 

111. There are also a number of defective as well as irregular verbs 
which entirely reject the j : in fact, to add that particle would render the word 
meaningless. In other respects these verbs are subject to the same changes for 
inflection as the others already described, as will be perceived from the following 
examples : 

" The companions of the Prophet came to him and represented : ' We have no water that 
we may drink, neither that we may perform oiu^ ablutions.'" — FaTvaid-ush-S/iarVcea'/i. 

" When love-making- and love-accepting came between, authority and dependence arose 
and departed." — Gulistan. 

218. When the verb has a radical J, as well as the J of the infinitive, as in 
Jiilj, JJj, etc., one is generally rejected as redundant in the inflections for the 
different tenses, with the exception of the third person feminine singular and plural 
of a few, in which both are retained. In the third person masculine singular both 
are dropped. Example : 

" The nightingales sing both in garden and in meadow— 
* The flower of the spring, the Chosen One,* has come into the parterre.' " 

— Kdshn JEall, Afridl. 

Sometimes both J 's are retained in this, as well as in other tenses of the 
verb. Example : 

" One was Nakir, the other Munkir— the whole torment was on my devoted head. 
At length they came forth— they stood before me, lookers-on." 

— Story of Jumjumah. 

* a name of Muhammad. 


219. The tliii'd persons of the past tense of some verbs, in which the letter c 
precedes the sign of the infinitive, are somewhat irregular. In the third person 
singular they take j before the c:-? ; thus, Jx:^ 'to ascend,' instead of becoming 
l::^:^^ j, becomes ci-yi. J : 

" The prmce ascended to a rising g'round to obtain a view. 
On both sides the warriors were falUng from their steeds." — Bahrdm Gur. 

For the plural, the j is changed into \ ; thus c:-?^:>- J becomes l:J\:>. j. Some- 
times, however, the past masculine pliu-al is written J:;^ j . An example of the 
former is contained in the following extract : t 

ij\^ J ^jo\=>. ^ C^ ^ {J^'y*^ ^'^ j \J^ (j;^ (♦t^T (_j4^ U'V.'^ ^"^ ^ 

" At this sight Adam Khan laid waste his heart ; and all solicitude for name and fame 
WENT OUT of it." — Story of Adam Khan and DurMianat. 

220. There are several compound + verbs, both intransitive, as well as transi- 
tive, such as Jjjjjj 'to fall,' Jjj--i*^ 'to fall into,' J:;.<jU-.^ 'to sit down,' etc., which 
are obtained by prefixing a preposition or a post-position to a simple infinitive, the 
formation of the past tenses of which is difiicult, and requires some explanation. 
Instead of placing the J of the past tense, when expressed, before the word in its 
compound state, it is inserted after the preposition. Thus the past tense of the 
infinitive Jj'^j^ , instead of becoming ci.?^^, J , is written li.jj j ^^^ ; and J;):^^^ , 
<:L2i j ^j^ . In many recent manuscript works, and in some of older date also, one 
J is omitted in writing ; and in conversation the sound of the second letter is scarcely 
perceptible. From this a difiiculty arises, if the past tense be written or spoken 
without the second j ; for then there is no diff'erence between the past and tlie 
imperfect, and consequently there would be, in some instances, a doubt regarding 


the meaning. Mirza Hian, Ansari, who is one of the oldest Pushto authors 
we know of, always makes the difference between the past and the imperfect form, 
in which I have followed liim ; thus :— 

' Of its own fi-ee will it fell into the flame of love — 
This crude and imperfect one transported its soul to perfection." — M'lrza Khan, Amdrl. 

* This is another example of the masculine plural described at page 84. 

t In this case the final letter is no longer quiescent, hut takes a or (-^^) as in the example referred to. 
X These verbs show in what manner some of the compound words in Pushto are formed. jJJj means ' to go out,' and with 
fji 'on' or 'from him,' etc., becomes ^Jj»j J 'to fall.' Again, the same infinitive with the post-position , ,-AJ*i 'in,' 
'inside,' etc., produces ^Jj^^^Xfi 'to become entangled,' 'to fall into,' etc. 



Some of the best prose authors also make use of the second j to distinguish the 
past, as in this example : 

" When this news reached Najashl, he fell from his throne ; and Abrahah fell down 
from his horse into the bii'ds' months." — Bahil Jem* 

Khushhal, Hamid, Ealiman, Shaida, Kasim ^ali, and others, write the past 
tense of this class of verbs with one ^ , but with (-^) over it ; their meanings are, 
however, not to be mistaken. The following are examples : 

-Jjj^ JU <L< ^ j^ ^^_ U^ s\^\j ^ hi jU~j1 jjaj ^_ ij ^u u:- 


It was not love, it was a thunderbolt from the heavens, 

That suddenly fell on my head and my possessions." — ^Eahd-ul-Hamid. 

'^ I FELL right into the man-devouring whirlpools of love : 
Neither can I advance, nor am I able to run back." — ^'Eabd-ur- Rahman. 

221. Another form of the past tense of intransitive verbs remains to be 
noticed. Infinitives, formed chiefly fi'om adjectives, such as Jj^:yU 'to break,' 
Jju^^ 'to conceal,' Jj^j^j 'to pass,' etc., require the past tense of the auxiliary 
J^l 'to become,' to be added after dropping the Jjj of the infinitive. Thus 
<^ ci^U 'broken,' ^.Ji, ,^^j 'concealed,' ^ jj 'passed.' The auxiliary, as 
well as the adjective, is subject to change in termination for gender and number. 
Examples : 

" Neither did I go distracted at the rumour of being separated from her, 
Nor did I become deaf : as I was, so indeed I now am." — yEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" From the time I became a captive many years passed over me, 
And thou didst not seek for any information regarding me." — Sai/-ul-Muluk. 

222. In all the inflexions of intransitive verbs, the regular personal pronouns, 
'I,' ' thou,' etc., may also be prefixed as in Persian. It is equally as correct 
to say Aj:\j xj as AJ^\j , or t^J^J j ^' as lJ>^J j ; but the affixed pronouns are indis- 

* This writer is said to have been a Si'ah Posh Kufir, who, after having been converted to Islamism, again relapsed. 
For specimen of his writings, see ' Text Book.' 


pensable, as in the language just referred to, as well as in Arabic and Hebrew, to 
whicli, in this particular, Pushto bears a remarkable similarity.* 

j\jX:^\ s^U Imperfect Tense. 

223. This tense denotes some incomplete past action, either near or remote ; 
and is obtained by dropping the prefixed j of the past; as, — 

" I USED TO ELY to deserts and mountains from the society of men, that I might not be 
occupied save in the worship of God. 
Only imagine then what my state must be at this hour, that, in a tether with brutes, I 
must endure their society." — Gulhtan, 

224. The plural is formed, as in the past tense, by changing the different 
affixed personal pronouns to the plural form ; and the third person masculine plural 
is the same as the simple infinitive. The following are examples : 

" The wrestler saw that the whole of the caravan were trembling for their lives, and 
had resigned their hearts to destruction." — GuUstdn. 

225. The same observation regarding the personal pronouns being sometimes 
affixed to the infinitive without dropping the J , as in the past tense, described at 
paragraph 212, is equally applicable to the imperfect, except for the third person 
masculine plural, which, as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, remains un- 
changed. For the feminine plural, the a or (^-) of the singular is changed to 
^ or (--), and affixed to the simple infinitive. Exami)les : 

" Through excess of sorrow King Saf 'wan fell into despair, 
And grief and aifliction returned to him with increased force. 
Again he said, ' In the first place I was not conceiving for a moment, 
That this fire would blaze up in my dwelling.' " — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

* The custom of affixing this class of pronouns probably sprung from the Semitic languages. In Sindhi they are also 
much used ; for a Sindhlan can scarcely utter a sentence without prefixing them to nouns as well as verbs. They are also used 
in Pehlavi, the mother of modern Persian. 



" The Cliikor* for this reason is sunk up to the knee in blood, 
That SHE WAS WONT TO VIE with her in walking." — jEahd-ul- Hamid. 

226. As I have already remarked at paragraph 220, the imperfect tenses of 
those verbs which do not take the prefixed j in the past, or drop it at times as 
redundant, are, in nine cases out of ten, written precisely the same as the past ; and 
the signification in many instances is only to be discovered from the context. In 
conversation, too, the difi'erence is scarcely perceptible ; and it is only by practice 
in the language that the difficulty is to be overcome. Examples : 

JLj i'jj^« J^jij jUa^ -^ j^^ U^^ ^^ ^ ^^ JJ^*^ 

" The agreement that thou hadst made with me, thou now desirest to break. I was 
THINKING, that in the present day, fidelity is a medicine which is not to be found in the shop 

of the druggist of the world." — Kalilah wo Damnah. 

" When this picture used to fall under people's observation. 
They were wont to be drawn towards it, on viewing it, as if fascinated." 

— Saif-ul-Mulilk. 

227. The third person singular and plural of this, as well as of the other past 
tenses, is alone subject to change in termination to agree with a feminine governing 
noun, whatever be the class of verb, regular, irregular, or defective, and will not 
require a separate explanation, as it has already been referred to at paragraph 210. 
I shall, however, give a few extracts as examples. 

** In tears she came to the house, and went out after him with her head bare. She was 
WONT TO WANDER about ui great distress ; and, on account of separation, used to reel and 
STAGGER." — 7(:«ya//M<:Z Ndmali. 

"The Wuzir said, 'Two pigeons were dwelling in the same nest. The name of one 
was Bazindah,]: the other Naw^azindah.'"§ — Kalilah ko Damnah. 

* The Bartavclle or Greek partridge (Perdix chukar). It is found in great numbers in the hills north of Peshawer. 
It has red legs, and is much larger than the common bird. 

t See ^ly^ in the couplet at paragraph 220, which is written in the same manner as the above word, although the 
first person singular of the past tense of the same verb. 

X Player. § Flatterer. 


" From the eyes of those which used not to become satiated with the treasuries of the 
world, the red tears of blood have now flowed like rain." — Babil Jan. 

228. The following extract contains an example of the masculine plural of the 
imperfect tense, formed according to the rules I have already explained for the past 
at paragraph 214, as being similar in mode of writing to the third person feminine 
singular, without the vowel points. 

" God became pleased at the victory of the Yezidis, and distorted the revolutions of 
destiny. His (Husain's) family were becoming sadly afflicted through anguish, and rivers of 
tears were flowing from their eyes." — History of Hasan and Husain, 

229. Although the class of imperfect verbs, such as Jju^^j, J'V''^? J'H-^' 
JixJol) , etc., have no regular past tense, and require the past of J^ ' to become,' 
to form it ; yet they have a regular imperfect, as other verbs. Examples : 

" The prince placed his shield under his head and then stretched himself on the ground ; 
After which, the thought of this danger was passing in his mind." — Bahrdm Gur. 

" Understanding and intelligence he possessed beyond bounds. In the same manner in 
his childhood, the signs of his future greatness, used to be apparent on his forehead." — 

230. Another form of this tense is obtained by prefixing the particle <o to 
the past. It implies continuity and habitude, as will be seen from the examples : 

" That grief which I bore on account of my beloved, although it was a load upon me ; 
And, notwithstanding, some used to call me mad, yet I was wont to roam ia happiness." 

— Yusuf and Zul'iM^' 

" They will say, ' These were our practices, that when the summons to prayer reached our 


ears, we used to arise to perform our ablutions, and used not to be occupied in any other 
matters.'" — Fawaid-ush-Skariceah. 

" Like unto Majnun thou wert used to wander about wildly, 
Ever making inquiries after Layla, both in deserts and in wilds." — KdsimjEall, Afndl. 

231. It will bo necessary here to notice the great imperfection and iiTegu- 
larity of some Pushto verbs, of which Jlilj is a specimen. The real infinitive 
appears to be Jii, to which the class of pronouns described at paragraphs 132 — 134 
are prefixed. Thus jLsSj literally means ' to come to me or us ;' Jii,J ' to come to 
thee or you;' and Jiijj 'to come to him, her, it, or them. Jii|^, however, appears 
to be the common form of the verb ' to come;' for jj and j^ are also used with it; 
as, IsSj <)j jj ' I came to thee or you ;' jUlj ^" jj ' we came to him or them ; ' but \j 
cannot be used with JiijJ or J}^J^j^ 

232. J:^\j ' to come,' is another infinitive similar to the preceding, but its 
principal use is to form the actor, imperfect, and conditional tenses of Jiil^ , in 
which the latter is deficient. What is most surprising, and I imagine not to be 
found in the grammatical structure of any other language, is, that the proper past 
tense of Jiiij conveys no preterite signification, and is only used as the imperfect of 
Jii|^ ; Jbj J of ^j^siJ^ ; and Jijjj of Jiijj . Several tenses in which both infinitives 
are defective, are obtained by prefixing \;, j^, and j^, to some of the inflections of 
the auxiliary ^}^ ' to become,' and will be found in the conjugations. An example 
is contained in the following : 

" Jabra'il said, ' prophet of God ! my last sight of the earth is taken, because thou wert 
the object of my desire when I used to come. Now that thou departest from this world, 
I have no intention of coming again.' " — Fawald-ush-Sharicea'h . 

233. Jb' , when used without the pronominal affixes, signifies ' to go ; ' but it 
is also imperfect, and has merely a past participle, agent, and imperfect tense. 
Examples of the masculine and feminine form of the imperfect tense of this verb are 
contained in the following extracts : 

" All alone he was going along the road — no one was with him : 
A hundred praises on such a brave and bold-hearted youth."— ^a/wa?^ Gur. 


" Nevertheless modesty became an obstacle, and with empty sighs she contented herself. 
The secret of love she was wont to keep concealed, although from her eyes bloody tears used 
TO FLOW." — Yu&uf and Zidllthci. 


234. The principal use of the past or perfect participle is in the formation of 
the compound tenses ; and, as I have already given such a lengthened explanation of 
the former, little remains to be noticed regarding the latter, which are obtained 
from them by the addition of the auxiliary verbs, or iJUjJ\ \^\^j rawahit-m-zamam, 
as they are termed by the Arabian grammarians. It will be necessary, however, to 
treat of them separately. 

_ ^^ ^\y* Perfect Tense. 

235. The perfect tenses are formed by the addition of the present tense of the 
auxiliary ' to be,' to the past or perfect participles, described at page 75 ; and, like 
the latter, are of three different classes. 

236. There is such a slight difference between the two first classes — the 
retention or rejection of the J of the infinitive — that I shall give examples of them 
indiscriminately, as both end in ^. and the terminating letter is alone subject to 
change for gender and number. Examples of the masculine singular and plui*al 
will be found in the followins; extracts : 

" Until by the stroke of death it is not turned aside, 
Make not my countenance a turner away fi'om thee." — ^abd-w-Rahmdyi. 

CJ^H^f- '^jW ^jf i^i^ ^ c^^l-^ ^^ JJ^. ^\j jljjy^ ^^ ^ ^S^^ J ^i^ ^ 

" When the morning dawned, and it was time to take wing, perplexed and irresolute in 
counsel, he began saying, * What shall I do ? shall I return, or with the purposed intention 
for which I have come out, should I take the road of amusement and recreation ? " — Kal'dah 
wo Damnah. 

237. The participle must agree with the auxiliary in gender in the formation 
of the feminine form of this tense. Example : 


" That thing, the time for acquiring which may have passed away, becometh the Phoenix of 
one's desires ; 
But the immortal bird, as yet, hath not been CAuaHT in any one's net." — jEabd-ur-Bakmdn. 

" The sound of his charming words hath gone out into every land ; and a piece of his 
composition is held as precious as a bond; as valuable as a note of hand." — Preface to the 

238. The plural form of the past participle being the same for both genders, 
the only difference in the masculine and feminine form of the tense is in the 
auxiliaries; thus: 

" We have come to you for assistance, therefore, make some such excuse, that Durkhana'l 
may show her face to us." — Adam Khan and DurMdna^l. 

"The CURTAINS of carelessness and inadvertency must have fallen on thy eyes : 
If not so, the beloved has not drawn the veil over her face." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

239. Properly speaking the auxiliary should immediately follow the participle, 
but it often precedes it, or follows after several intervening words, as in the follow- 
ing examples : 

" Since the bright luminary of his equity and justice hath set, 
The black night of oppression has set in, and filled the land with darkness." 

— u^abd-ul-Jfamid. 

" The curls of this wanton sweetheart are hanging all dishevelled ; 
Like a shadow they have overspread her lovely cheek." — Mirzd Khan, Ansdn. 

240. Like their Persian neighbours, some of the best Afghan authors are 
fond of using the past participle for the perfect and pluperfect tenses, the auxiliary 
being understood, to connect the members of the sentence, and suspend the sense, 
both in prose as well as in poetry. Example : — 


j^^^ij ay L» ^\:>. j^j c:^/4c».» O /• j)jiA--^i j^j Utfj J >» 


" Shouldst thou look towards my servants, they (have) comb to my house in a state of 
affliction and distress, covered with dust from the blowing of the winds ; searchers after my 
wHl; seekers of my mercy : they (have) come solely on my account." — Fawald-ush Shancea'h. 

241. The following are examples, both masculine and feminine, of tlie perfect 
tense obtained from the third class of the past participles of verbs, which are either 
imperfect, irregular, or have a preposition or postposition prefixed. Examples : 

" If thy face is concealed with curls, there is no cause of apprehension ; 
For the waters of immortahty, too, are concealed in total darkness." 

— jEahd-ur-PMliman. 

i^J ^^J^ ls^^ ^ ^'^ ^ i.::^»jU (^J ^^j^ ^^ <^->- (_?; ^. ^- 

S lf.j ul^ dJ j^ ^j^ \>. jb ^^ ^^^ 


" Some were saying, ' This is caused by demons who have seated themselves on this fair 
one's spirit : 
When a fiend takes possession of any one, he then sits alone, and apart fi-om others.' " 

— Yusuf and ZullMd. 

*,:oj JUj^ ^^jlui" jb J *ijj JUj |^_g4^ <-r'^=^ ^^ ^'-^ 

" I AM SUNK into doubt and pei'plexity as to whether I am awake or whether I am asleep. 
Do I see the fulfihnent of my desires, and the exceeding beauty of my beloved, merely in a 
dream ? " — Yusuf and Zulikha. 

jc»*j ^^ Pluperfect Tense. 

242. The pluperfect tense is formed in the same manner as the perfect, from 
the three classes of the past participles, to which is affixed the past tense of the 
auxiliary ' to be.' It is subject to the same changes in termination for gender and 
number as the preceding tense. 

243. Examples of the singular masculine and feminine : 

<)dJ j \^ JLi^ J jj (jaL2J5 <0 :fj <ij s^'^'^J ^ C:-^i^ ^ y, i*-* <is- ij^ yi^j^ ^\juS <d ^J^ ^f^ssT, 

" Yahya Khan, together with his younger brothers, not one of whom had, as yet, 
REACHED man's estate, girded up their loins to avenge their father. With the assistance of the 
clan, they changed the bright day of the enemy into darksome night, and wreaked vengeance 
for his death upon the foe, wliom they ruined and anniliilated." — Afzal Khan: TdriM-i- 


" Hallma'h* had gone out somewhere, and had not been apprised concerning the Prophet. 
Some one gave her information concerning him; and, through dread on his account, she 
uttered loud cries." — Tawallud Ndma'k. 

'' One day I had sat down on the throne quite happy, and without the least apprehension : 
The heat wholly overpowered me, and I became feverish, my body weak and languid." 

— Story of King Jumjumah. 

Aj^ C->-AJ (jwU-s vj ^Li ^_Sl^ iol) <5„>- 

j^^jckr; <u U.^ c_^ jjl^ <^j U.^ (jw^ ^4^- 

'' Alone I HAD LAIN DOWN OH the couch ; I had fallen asleep in tranquillity and repose ; 
When suddenly this vile slave — the faithless, treacherous ingrate — 
Laid his hand upon my person ; and put his lips unto my chin : 
Then on the fastening of my dress he placed liis odious lingers." — Yusuf and Zull^ia. 

244. Examples of the plural : . 

There were ten envoys from each country, who had arrived from time to time. 
Her father treated them with distinction ; he feasted them with magnificence." 

— Yusuf and ZullMd- 

■i^ c:.^«j,_yi j jj ^ j^ J i^*^' t^j^ '*^^r-' 'V. ^ '^ Li***:', ^j eS"^^-' »r:>^ ij^ j-^-i^ ^ ^ ^^ 

" The feet of those who had taken up a place in the midst, had stuck fast in the honey ; 
and when they wanted to fly away, their wings also became smeared with it, and they fell into 
the net of destruction and perdition."— KaMah wo Damnah. 

J"-^ j^ J^ J j^fT ^ 4/, i^^'V c-?jJ eJrj^-Hj ^'^^^!^ ^^ J^j^ '^^ 

'' Around the walls of the palace there were silken lines fastened ; 
And splendid dresses of all sorts and kinds had dropped on them."— Saif-ul-Muhik. 

* The name of Muhammad's nurse. 


245. As I have already remarked respecting the use of the past participle for 
the perfect tense by some writers, they are in the same manner partial to the use of 
the participle for the pluperfect, the auxiliary being understood. Example : 

" N. is the splendour of Muhammad, which has shone and which has been diffused on the 
whole world. 
It was the dark night of chaos and inexistence when he Hke a sun had arisen in it."' 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 
CSsJjLJ ^\^ Doubtful Past Tense 

246. This tense is also formed from the different past participles by the 
addition of the aorist tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' which may precede or follow 
the participle, and is not subject to change in termination for gender and number, 
the participle being alone affected. 

He who MAY HAVE FALLEN from mountains again ariseth ; 

But he cannot arise again who may have dropped from hearts." — J^abd-itr- Rahman. 

i^jj\ t^ ^ji^ '~?y^ J,i^ ^j^ J3 (^ iLiiJu 

" The eighth is that man whose rank and employment an enemy may have sought ; and 
having outstripped him, may have attained that ofiice, and gained the confidence of the 
sovereign who giveth ear to his tales," — Kalllah wo Damnah. 

" Before the first night as yet may have passed over a dead person, it is a regulated in- 
stitution that alms should be given on his account," — Fa7VCi~id-ush - Shanceah . 

247. Examples of the plural : 

" The cattle which for the most part of the year may have been kept in thine own house, 
and may not have grazed in the wilds, there is no portion of alms to be given on their 
account," — Fanobld-ush-Shariceoih. 

" Their eyes will have become raised towards the road of those 
Who may have in their hands charitable gifts and alms." — J^abd-nr-EahndJi. 



248. There is another form of this tense obtained by adding the 2nd future 
tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' to the different past participles. The following are 
examples : 

He MAY HAVE LAUGHED heartily, or may not. 

His heart's grief may have become beguiled, or may not. 

He may have chosen tranquillity and ease, or may not. 

Some one may have inquieed about the matter, or may not." — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 

^^^ jjj\ £j^ J.*! uj3 ^^ '•^jji, ^^. ^ ^_fi^ 3j^ y-r^ ^i 'V^ S^-? ^- '*^^-~*'^ b/ 

" See ! he may have become seated, aggrieved, amongst some asses, 
Or MAY have fallen like a ruby amongst dust and ashes." — yEabd-ul-Hamld. 

" May God confound thee, thou fly of human nature ; 
For no mouth may have been left free of thy kiss." — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

<uL^ ^^^ Past Conditional Tense. 

249. The past conditional or optative tense of the Pushto verbs is obtained 
by subjoining the imperfect or conditional tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' to the past 
participle, with which a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing must either be 
expressed or understood in the same sentence. 

250. The auxiliary remains unchanged in all three persons; and the past 
participle is alone subject to change in termination for gender and number, therefore, 
a few examples will suffice. 

" Would that 1 had never been born ! that I had nevee come into this world! 
That I had never seen grief, nor experienced this amount of tyranny and oppression ! " 

— Yusuf and Zullkha. 

" He burst into tears ; and he also complained against the folks, saying, ' if my son had 
died, half the people of Balkh would have condoled with ma^'—Famaul-ush-Shanccah. 

251. With a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing, either expressed 
or understood, the second person singular of the imperfect tense of verbs also 


conveys a conditional or optative signification similar to the preceding, but it is 
alone used for all six inflexions. The following are examples : 

" For a fool there is nothing* better than silence : were he aware of this counsel he would 
not be a fool." — Gtilista7i. 

" I HAD NOT SUNK to this degree in grief and affliction, 
If admonition had gone more or less into my heart." — yEabd-ul-Ilamid. 

" Could the hand of any one accomplish the works of the Almighty, 
No one would suffer a moment to pass without obtaining his own desu'es." 

— JEabd-m^- Rahman. 

252. The second form of the imperfect tense, obtained from the simple past 
by prefixing the particle cO, as already described at paragraph 230, is also much 
used in the construction of the past conditional tense, as will be seen from the 
following example : 

" By whatever road they were fleemg, the stones were raming on them : if they ascended 
the mountains, the dread birds followed them." — Tawallud Namah. 

253. Sometimes the condition is expressed by the simple imperfect, and the 
consequence by the second form of the imperfect above alluded to. Example : 

" Ere this, love would have burnt down the house of my body, 
If tears had not come to my assistance." — JEahd-ul-Hamid. 

254. The simple past tense is also often used in a hypothetical sense, and the 
consequence by the second future tense ; as, 

" The Kattar Kafirs will become converts to Islam, 
If the guardian (of the beloved) is softened by my tears." — ^abd-^il-Hamld. 

I WILL seize the sword of com'age and resolution, 

If grace and mercy come from that which is liidden." — Ahnad Shah, Abdall, 


255. Of the two forms of tlie conditional just explained, that obtained from 
the imperfect, which is formed from the past tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' with the 
particle <b prefixed, is alone subject to change in termination for gender and number. 

JU- ^jL-ss Present Tense. 

256. There being thirteen classes of intransitive verbs, including perfect and 
imperfect, the present tense of each is formed in a difi'erent manner, by altering, 
rejecting, or adding other letters after dropping the J of the infinitive, and affixing 
the necessary pronouns. 

257. The present tense of verbs of Class I. is formed by rejecting the J of the 
infinitive, and changing the last radical letter for another; as Jj^j 'to recover' 
(health), c^j^^j 'he recovers;' Jj"^!T 'to fly,' ^jf\ 'he flies;' Jcx^^j 'to become 
ensnared,' ^J^ 'he becomes ensnared;' Jj^r^a*^. 'to know,' etc., t^^jj 'he 


" Man neither dies on account of it, nor recovers from it : 
Let not the Almighty afihct any one with the pain of love ! " 

— yEabd-ul-J{a?nuL 

" This is not the nightingale which flieth around the roses : 
It is my soul which hath flown towards thee." — jEabd-ur-Ralimdn, 


i ^y* ^ L^ l5^^^ ^^j^ J 4 J^ ^^ J 4 d^ j^^ 3^ J^^.y* ^S^ uUi ^S^ 

" Some became prophets, and some became disciples; but they made a gentle disposition 
and good qualities a net ; they led particular persons astray ; and the public become entangled 
in the net like birds." — MaMizan Afghani. 

' In the worship of God, the sweat flows like a river ; 
But I TIRE not at mid-day from ploughing the land."— /fa^m J^al'i, Afndl. 

"The Prophet said to us, 'Do you know what this stinking smell is occasioned by?' 
The companions of the Prophet said unto him, ' We do not know what this impure smell is 
produced from.' "—FaKauUcsh-SkanceaL 


258. The present tense of the verbs of Class II. is formed by dropping the J 
of the infinitive, and rejecting the two last radical letters; as in JjJxj 'to run,' 
and J^jjl or Jjo^jj 'to rain,' Jj^-^lj 'to hang.' Examples : 

" I obtained such assistance from the potentiality of the sphit, 
That in one breath I run from Kaf to Kaf— from one end of the world to the other." 

— Mtrza Khan, A?isdn. 

" Though raia falleth on it for an age, 
The thistle will never a violet become."* — jEahd-ur- Rahman. 

" Ked with blood like unto red roses swing 
A thousand hearts in every bend and twist of thy ringlets." — yEabd-ur-EaJimdn. 

259. The \ of infinitives of some of the verbs of this class, similar to those 
of which this last example is a specimen, is rejected ; but chiefly by the Western 
Af^ans; as, Jj^j for Jj^lj 

260. The verbs of Class III. reject the J of the infinitive and the thi-ee last 
letters in forming the present tense ; as ^y:^\:^ ' to sit.' 

"The hawk said, 'When he calls out to me, I return from my flight, and I sit on his 
hand.' The cock answered, * Thou speakest truly.'" — Kalllah no Damnah. 

261. The verbs which constitute Class lY. are few in number. They reject 
the J of the infinitive and the last radical letter, altogether, in fonning the present 
tense ; and the first vowel, which is long, is lost by elision ; as in J^^«lf- ' to crack or 
split.' Example : 

" She has no equal in lovefiness, On her account, loving hearts break." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddti. 

262. Class V. drops the J of the infinitive and the last radical letter for two 
others in forming the present ; as J^^^ ' to ascend ' in the following example : 

* The violet is known as the Gul-i-Paighambar, or the Prophet's flower. 


"Through crudity and rawness, ebullition and agitation aeiseth from the pot : 
Of the heart's death, the manifest tongue giveth evidence." — ^ahd-ul-Hamid. 

263. The verbs of Class YI. merely reject the J of the infinitive, without 
altering the other letters more than substituting j for j ; as J^ ' to die.' 

" At the fountain of attainment of desire, I die with lips parched. 
From the burning inflammation of the anxiety of separation." — jEabd-ul- Hamid. 

264. Class YII. adds another letter after dropping the J of the infinitive, for 
the present tense, as in J^L ' to burn.' Example : 

" On becoming aware that Muliik btjbneth in the fire of love, 
He again began to speak his thanks and congratulations to liim." — Sarf-ul- Muliik. 

265. The verbs of the remaining six classes are all imperfect, and only two — 
Classes VIII. and X. — have any present tense ; the remainder take the present of 
other verbs to supply the deficiency. 

266. The present tense of verbs of Class VIII. is formed in a similar 
manner to that of the verbs of Class I., by dropping the J of the infinitive and 
substituting another letter for the last radical one; as in Jj^'U 'to break,' Jju.jLi 
'to remain,' JJ'^'^j 'to pass away,' etc. Example: 

t^J^' b'J'^ ^,^. kS^ ^.}^ ^ tO'^ fj*^ StM-^ ^J^ U^'J^ 

" Alas for pleasant life that passeth thus away ! 
Like a stream it floweth swiftly past, alas ! alas ! " — Ahmad Shah, Abddll, 

^bu^Uj 'to nm,' which is of Class IX., has no present tense, but uses the 
present of J.^-iij, which bears the same signification, and has been already 
described under Class II., to which it belongs. 

267. Verbs of Class X. form the present tense in a similar manner to those 
of Class VL, by the mere rejection of the J of the infinitive, and adding the dif- 
ferent afiixed pronouns ; as in J^*jjj J ' to go.' Example : 

" We used not to know, at all, ourselves, as to where we go ; 
Neither did we (then) understand what country it is or what iplsice."—Saif-ul-Muluk. 

268. J^^ 'to go,' which comes under Class XL, has no present tense, and 
uses that of J]j ' to go or depart,' which belongs to the following class. 


269. The infinitive Jb" 'to go or depart,' which constitutes Class XII. is one 
of the most irregular verbs in the Pushto language, and uses <5^ or "^ as the pre- 
sent tense, which belongs to some unknown root. Example : 

" The Prince said, ' Make ready my horse and spear, oh friends ! 
For I GO to China : I have very many stages before me.' " — Balirdm Gur. 

270. JiiU ' to come,' constitutes Class XIII. of the intransitive verbs, and is 
similar to the preceding. The prefixed \j is changed, according to the person 
referred to, for jj and j^ , the significations of which have been given in Chapter Y. 
It has no present tense of its own, and uses that of J]J , with the prefixed pronouns 
already referred to. The following is an exquiple : 

^j^j ^jj H ^* 'H cT^^ (*^^ "^ i'-^-i ^ '^^^'^ Ls^!-* V.^ ^ls^ r* 

"Again a sound came, that Ibrahim the friend of God cometh, 
Aggrieved in heart on account of Imam Husain's death. 
The lady Sa'ira'h, too, approacheth afflicted and sorrowfril ; 
Disconsolate on account of Imam Husain's death." — Muhammad Hanlfah. 

271. In works on divinity and other religious writings, ''^ or aj is very 
generally affixed to the third person singular and plural, masculine and feminine, of 
the present tense, as in the first line of the example just given. It is also added to 
the aorist, future, imperative, and the past ; and will be found explained under those 

cjl^« AoRiST Tense. 

272. Properly speaking, the present tense is formed from the aorist by reject- 
ing the prefixed j of the latter, which constitutes the only difference between them ; 
therefore, it will not be necessary to give separate examples of each of the thu'teen 
classes of the intransitive verbs, but merely to point out any peculiarities that 
may exist, and exceptions to general rules. Examples : 

" Like as a fowl may become entangled in a loose snare of a hundred nooses. 
So (her) dishevelled locks entangled me in embarrassment and perplexity." 

— u^abd-td-JIa/nuL 


'' When it comes to his recollection that ' I have not made the first kacedali^* and he be 
about to arise from his sitting posture, he should return to the same position and perform 
the kacsdah . ' '—Fawald-ush-Sharimah . 

"If I SHOULD STAND here, the crow will seize me: what is it necessary to do? He 
.said — ' The appliances of genius and prudence are invented as a remedy for difficulty and per- 
plexity.' " — Kalilah mo Damnah. 

" If a person should die, and may have repented of calumny, he will enter into Paradise 
before all the rest of the creation ; but if he should die, and may not have repented of 
slander and evil-speaking, he will enter Hell long before the rest of the -world." ^Fawald-tish- 

273. The prefixed j of this tense, like the c-? of the Persian, is often rejected 
as redundant, but the proper signification can seldom be mistaken. Examples : 

■' What cause for astonishment is it, though the Phoenix should become entangled in the net, 
(By means) of every bird-catcher who possesseth the net of sincerity and love." 

— ^ahd-u I- Hamid. 

" Wisdom also maketh this demand, that the dust of unfaithfulness should not rest on 
the skirt of any one's circumstances or afi'airs. The cock answered him — * What ingratitude, 
or what bad faith has been found in me ?' " — Kalilah no Bamnah. 

" Our God hath bestowed grace on the Faithful, that they should walk in the ways 
of Muhammad, the Chosen 0TiQ''—Fa7vald-iish-Sharicea'h. 

274. An example of the ^^ or ao prefixed to the third persons of the aorist, as 

*■ A form of sittiug at prayer. f This is an example of the particle of negation inserted. See paragraph 422. 


well as other tenses in religious writings, for the sake of euphony, referred to at 
paragraph 215, is contained in the following extract : 

^t^ Jhi^'« )i^^ J^ lJ^ 1-5'^ 

" Whether a man may smk in the water and be drowned, or may become consumed in 
fire, or may be devom-ed by wolves ; imder all these circumstances the interrogation (at the 
last day) is certain and beyond a doubt ; for He is Omniscient, and Omnipotent." — Fawaid- 

jAs^ j^\ 1st Future or Precative Tense. 

275. The first future or precative tense is precisely the same as the aorist 
with the exception that it adds the particle j to the third person singular and 
plural, whether masculine or feminine, and by which it is always distinguishable. 

276. As the aorist merely differs from the present by the prefixed j, and the 
1st future from the aorist by prefixing the j to the third persons, consequently 
it will be unnecessary to give examples of each of the intransitives, which have 
already been given for the present, as by prefixing the particles referred to, these 
tenses can be formed. Examples : 

" He should stand parallel to the head of the mausoleum, with his face towards 
Makka'h, and he should stand about three or four yards distant."— Fanald-ush-Shari (Eah. 

'' If a man by inadvertency should omit the appointed section of the Kur'an (in prayer) in 
either of the first two inclinations of the body, and, at the time of making the inchnation, it 
cometh to his recollection ; he should return to the bending position, and on that very place 
repeat the section required." — Fawaid-ush-8hari cea h, 

277. Like the preceding tense, the prefixed J of this also is often rejected 
altogether, and sometimes understood ; as in the following extract : 

" A listener to slander will become Hberated from that sin, when he shall deny it with his 
tongue, and shall refrain from it, or shall put in a word, so that the calumny be refuted ; or 
HE should rise UP from the place and release himself from hearing backbiting."— /'(2wa ic?- 



278. Wlien a personal pronoun is used with the third person of this tense, 
the J precedes the prefixed j , but when the third personal pronoun is not used, the 
j precedes the J ; as in the following example : 

'' Let not fire keach the house of any one, 
Though its brightness be the sun's or the moon's." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

JJba**^ 2nd Future Tense. 

279. The second future tense is formed from the aorist by the addition of the 
particle .u, and is subject to exactly the same rules and variations as that tense. 
Examples are contained in the following extracts : 

" Passing over the bridge of Sarat is true my friends, and you will be perturbed 
through awe. Both good and bad will assemble on it ; all actions will be weighed ; and 
every one will know the state of his case." — Fawald-ush-Sharicea'h . 


If thou dost not take pity on me, I shall die. Thou wilt not act rightly : thou wilt 
murder thy sister ! Why dost thou speak, oh deceiver ? " — Adam Khan and DurUianaJl. 

" There are some scorpions of Hell, that if they strike a mountain with their sting, it 
will burn, and become ashes." — Bdbil Jan. 

280. As in the two preceding tenses, the prefixed j of this tense also, is 
rejected as redundant ; but invariably so for those verbs which do not take j in the 
past tense, previously explained. 

^^ tO ^ tS, *^ h^ \j dj i^b fi^jj 'L-iX* ^^J dj dj 

" Depressed in mind, and altered in countenance, Adam Khan said unto Miro and Balo : 
' If this affair is not completed by my hand, I will disappear from this country. Will you go 
with me, or will you not ? ' " — Adam Khan and DurWianal. 

281. When a regular personal pronoun (J-^iai^ ^^--^j, as well as the affixed 
personal pronoun (j<^2:i^^^^), is used in this tense, the jj precedes the particle J, 
but when no separate pronoun is used, the ^ follows the j . Examples : 


" I am a longer after roses : I am burnt to the heart by separation. 
Shouldst thou put off the time to evening even, I shall become entirely consumed." 

— Yusuf and Zidikha. 

^^d-J 'l) ^ J^ *V. L^J *^' J (*^ "^ L5?'^ "l)^^-' ^_/;^^ 'V j 

" The morning of the dark night of sorrow will dawn at last !" 
The grief of separation will at length beach its termination !" — Yusuf and ZulikM. 

282. In poetry some license is taken with respect to the ij'. it is often 
inserted between the syllables of a word, and also, in the case of a compound verb, 
formed by prefixing a preposition or postposition to a sim^jle infinitive. 

" When in tliis doubt, he should look from the corner of his eye towards the congregation, 
and determine 
That *if they sit, I will also sit, and if they rise, I will also bise.' " — Rashld-id-By an. 

Several words may also intervene between the particle and the verb — one may 
be at the commencement, the other at the termination of the sentence ; as in this 
extract : _ 

" Utter not any more words of counsel or admonition unto me, 
Otherwise I will now go out to the paganism of black cm'ls." — J^abd-ul-Hamld. 

j^\ Impebative. 

283. The imperative mood is always formed in a similar manner to the 1st 
future tense, with these exceptions, that it has no first person singular or plural, and 
that it drops the affixed personal pronoun for the second persons, and is not liable to 
change in termination for gender ; but in other respects it is subject to the same 
rules and exceptions as the preceding tenses of the aorist and first future. The 
following are examples : 

" Go not towards Syria ! tubn back now ! Remain stationary in some place, if thou 
hast any affection for the Prophet." — Tan-aUud Ndma'h, 

'^ Be not deceived, oh hermit, with the asceticism of hypocrisy ! 
For the slave-girl's son and daughter will be held in no estimation." — uEahd-ul-Hamid. 


Ua. Job ^M^ ^ Hj^j js.^ <J.j' <L* UA. iAjb ^^ ^^ '■rfjT' i^^*^ ''A'.b 

" Come sometimes to my tomb, oh my beloved one ! 
Burn not my heart (even there) with the fire of separation." — Jfdsim JEal'i, Afridl. 


^j^jc^ J^^ afaceal-i-mutaceaddl. 
jiia^ ^\^ Past Tense. 

284. Under this head are included primitive and causal verbs, •which, form 
their past tenses somewhat differently from intransitives, by rejecting the J, the 
sign of the infinitive mood, and prefixing to this base or root the particle, the sign 
of the past, which is written ^, ij, and occasionally ^^ ; as J,^:.:^ 'to shake,' 'I^JU. j or 
i^jl^ j ' he shook'; JjjjST ' to cause to flj^,' ^^\^\^ or ^'^j^\^ ' he caused to fly.' When 
the first letter of the infinitive is T, the ^ of the past tense is used without the {—\ 
and thus becomes united to the T. 

285. Derivative verbs formed from adjectives by the addition of Jj reject this 
termination in forming the past tenses, thus returning to their primitive state, and 
the past tense of the verbs J^ or J^ ' to do,' must be used in forming them ; as 
i^^j^j ' bent,' J^5 ' to bend,' ii ^^-.j or <, ^J^J 'he bent ;' uliO^ ' hard,' Jylli" 'to 
harden,' j^ CS^ ' he hardened.' 

286. A few verbs derived from nouns and pronouns by the addition of Jj are 
subject to the same rules; aSjU- 'a sacrifice,' J^jl;=r 'to sacrifice,' ^jlss- 'he sacri- 
ficed ;' J-r^ ' self,' J^Lri. ' to make one's own,'^ J-^ ' he gained over.' There is, 
however, an exception to this, as in all other rules, in J^^,^ ' to frighten,' from i^;j 
' fright,' which becomes j^.l^j j or ^'^j^* J ' he fi-ightened,' thus lengthening the vowel 
preceding the final letter from (— ) to \ , which is also the rule with regard to 
most primitive infinitives terminating in J . 

287. Primitive intransitives are made transitive by changing the J of the 
infinitive into Jj, as ijsijj 'to shed,' 'to scatter,' J^Jj 'to strew,' 'to dispel;' 
JjuiCrj 'to swing,' Jj^Jj 'to make to swing;' and derivative intransitives obtained 
from adjectives are made transitive by changing the Jjj of the infinitive into J^; 
as Ja-L ' to burn,' J^ 'to consume ;' and which are subject to the rules laid down 
in paragraph 285. 

288. Transitive verbs must agree with their objects in gender and number, in 
all the inflections of the past ; and the object must be in the nominative, and some- 
times in the dative, and the aojent in the instrumental case. 

<^J M^ <J '-^^'^^ ji.^ 'H J^ i-^ j b "-^-^ ^ "'^ j"^ }^ jy* i^^V 


" The king called the boy's mothek and father, and dismissed them with many 
gifts." — Gulistdn. 

289. The affixed personal pronouns (al..2s^ j\^) are not used with transitive 
verbs in the past tense, and the regular prefixed personal pronouns in the instrumental 
case must be used instead. 

The other form of personal pronoun used with verbs to denote the agent, 
described at paragraphs 129-131, is used with transitive verbs to denote the agent, 
and may precede or follow the j the sign of the past. 

When, as in the following example, an affixed personal pronoun may be used 
with a transitive verb, it points out the objective case ; as — 

1-^3 *^* L/^^ (^ V.i ^^y^ '"^ ^ jy* ^"^^ ^i *-^r J^ 

" The whoie of this tribe assembled before Midad and Madad, saying, ' Give us informa- 
tion with regard to the future, as to what will be the condition of the tribe ; and why did you 
not INFORM us respecting the events which have passed, that we might have taken counsel in 
the accomphshment of our affairs, so that we had not sustained such detriment and injury?'" — 
Afzal Khan. 

290. The twenty-four classes of transitives, perfect and imperfect, have ten 
methods of forming the past tense, which I shall divide into as many forms. 

291. Form I. The verbs of Classes I., YI., VII., YIII., and XII. form their 
past tenses by rejecting the J of the infinitive, and lengthening the first vowel from 
(^) to 1 in the singular ; as in the following examples : 

" With what modesty and tUffidence shall I behold bashfulness and chasteness ? 
The bud hath thrown back the veil from its head for the sake of the rose." 

— jEabd-td-Hamld. 

" MuUa Karmall sent some one on before, saymg, ' Go and give mformation to 
Durkhana'i, that The Unfortunate, with people along with him, hath come to the sprmg.'"— 
Adam Khan and DurMdnal. 

292. The long vowel \ is again rejected in the plural for (— ) ; as 

^ J3J3 '''— ^ *j J^'^ ^^"1^ ^ J^ ^^. ) ^r^^ L^j-' J>^Ij l5*^, i4/ "^ '^--^ ^"^ 
" That very hour Zen Zenah sent men after Muttahb and called him ; and he entertained 
him like a brother." — Tawallud Ndmdh. 


" The NURSES SAID to her, * Oh daughter ! 
What is thy condition ? relate thy affairs unto us.' " — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

293. The first and second persons plural are the same as the third person 
masculine singular, with the plural form of pronouns prefixed ; but the third person 
masculine plural is formed by merely prefixing the j to the simple infinitive, as in 
the two examples just given. 

294. Another form of the third person plural, applicable to all classes of verbs, 
is written with the same letters as the feminine singular, and is also the case with 
regard to intransitive verbs ; * but the final letter is preceded by the vowel {±. ), 
which conveys a shorter soimd than that of the feminine i, and is equivalent 
to the diphthong m. The following extract is an example : — 

" Quickly she gave her own clothes to the king's daughter, 
And CLOTHED herself in the royal robes. — Saif-ul-Mulak. 

295. The feminine form of the past tense of transitive verbs is obtained in the 
same manner as that of intransitives, by affixing i [hd-i-khafl) to the infinitive itself, 
which is changed to ^ or (— ) in the plural. 

296. Some verbs also drop the J of the infinitive in the feminine singular, 
and substitute a (hd-i-khafl) for the i [hd-i-zd-hir) of the masculine; but not the 
verbs of this form. Examples of the feminine : 

" The HAND of desthiy and death struck the drum of departure, therefore, oh my eyes, 
you should hid adieu to the head." — Gulistdn. 

"This matter was e2:ceedingly difficult for Moses; nevertheless when he cast it (his 
staff) down, it became a fcerpent. This happened by the power of the All Powerful." — 
BaJju Jan. 

" The sage directed them to throw the slave mto the river. After he had sunk several 
times, they caught hmi by the hair and cast him back into the boat, which he seized firmly 
with his hand." — Gulistdn, 

* Sec paragraph 214 and note. 


297. Example of the plural : 

" It was in the middle of the day that they arrived near the fort. The brave fellows laib 
their hands on it by the way, and in the short space of three hours they gained the victory."— 
Afzal Khan. 

298. Some infinitives have more than one method of forming the past tense, 
and applicable both to masculine and feminine; as in Jjj 'to speak' or 'to say.' 
Examples : 

" When he (Mirmaml) delivered up Durkhana'l to him, a man who was a servant of Gujar 
Khan's was stanchng by, to whom he eelated the circumstance, on which Gujar Khan dis- 
charged an arrow at Mli'maml, but it did not take eSeci.—Adam Khan and DurMclnai. 

" The Queen spoke to her mother clandestinely; 
And with this circumstance, also, she acquainted Badri.' — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

'' Nohshadah said — ' Oh, King of the Universe ! 
In this manner I discover from the books.' " — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

299. Form II. consists of the infinitives of Classes III., IV., and X., which 
form the past tense by merely rejecting the J of the infinitive and prefixing the 
particle j, as exemplified by the following extracts: 

" In my life-time thou didst thus put me out of thy remembrance, 
Like as one forgetteth a deceased person of a hundred years." — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 

" When Abu Baki- made an exhortation, they all took liis advice, acted up to it, and 
became resolute in it." — Fawald-ushShari (Ba h. 

300. The plural of Form II. of the past is derived in the same manner as 
Form I. Examples : 


* This latter form is more properly speaking the imperfect tense, but used for the past. See paragraph 323. 


" After forty days they came into the presence of the King, 
And made their statement to him in a humble manner — 
'We have seaeched through seven eegions with great care, 
And seven generations of every person has been inspected. 
There will be a daughter born to Shahbal, son of Shah Eukh : 
Her name is Badrl Jamal — the Sovereign of the Fair.' " — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

301. Some of the infinitives of Classes III. and X. ending in clj, which are 
contained in Form II. of the past tenses, insert a ^ before the final letter for the third 
person masculine singular, which is changed to \ for the j)hu'al, the c:j then taking 
an affixed (—) or ^ ; as J.i^ 'to behold,' cj/ J 'he beheld,' <)ijl^J ' they beheld.' 
Examples : 

" Saseid saw that the prince was not seated on the throne ; 
And in his mind this matter he passed over." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

"The Goldsmith saw that his sweetheart cometh, and 
He went out to receive her, delighted and overjoyed." — Saif-ul-Mtduk. 

302. The infinitives which constitute Form II. of the past use n for the 
feminine singular termination, affixed to the masculine or to the J of the infinitive 
indiscriminately, which is changed to ^ or (— ) in the plural. 

"With all speed he there kepeated the invocation, 
And he breathed on the fair face of the beloved." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

" My mother said unto me — 'Thy grandfather divides the propitiatory offering of dates; 
ffo there : ' therefore I came and took up a date. — Fawaid-ush-Shari<sali. 

" He placed ten thousand men under each commander, 
And then he demanded boats from the boatmen. — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

303. Form III. The infinitives of Classes XI. and XIY. form the past tense 
by rejecting the J of the infinitive and prefixing the particle j as in the preceding 
Form, with the exception that the last letter of the root is accented or moveable in 
this, whilst it is quiescent in the former. 

"When Durlihana'l heard this reply with her ears, she became faint and powerless; 
she sighed, and became (as it were) bUnd and deaf. — Adam Khan and DurJcka7ia\ 


" He said — * beneath the shadow of the wealth of royalty I kept all but the en^aous^ 
pleased and contented, but they did not become satisfied.' " — GuUstdn. 

304. The feminine terminations of the infinitives of this Form are & or (^) for 
the singular, and ^ or (— ) for the plural. Examples : 

SS^»i,y J ij^^ ^j J i'J A»j ^"^ ) J^. ^*^ ^ ^ars-_j J _L»3 

" In the morning, when her father beheld her, he came to his son-in-law, and asked him 
about it, saying : 

' Oh rascal ! how sharp are those teeth of thine ? To what extent wilt thou stretch her 
lips ? they are not leather ! ' " — GuUstdn. 

"When the nurse heard this speech from him, 
They at length departed from their o^vn house." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

, ^.cJ ,1) . AS'ctj „^£, J , ^ A^ 1j tb ''.,^->- i»-i 

" When the nurse heard from her such singular and uncommon words, 
She became amazed at the circumstance, and perplexed as to its remedy." — lusii/andZullMd.. 

305. By far the greater number of infinitives in the language form their past 
tenses according to one of the three Forms already explained, for which reason I 
have given pretty numerous examples of them. The infinitives of the remaining 
Forms, being few in number comparatively, will not require so many examples to 
illustrate them. 

306. Form TV. These obtain their past tenses in a similar manner to the verbs 
of Form II. by rejecting the J of the infinitive, the last characteristic letter being im- 
movable or quiescent, but with this difference, that they altogether reject the j 
of the past, by which there is no difference in the mode of writing between the past 
and the imperfect; thus J:u]^^ 'to unloose,' l:^)/^ 'he unloosed;' Jij^ 'to take 
away,'* clj^ 'he took away.' 

"With hands folded on navel he stood before him in a respectful manner, 
And in commendation of the king his tongue he v^LOOSE-D.—Saif-ul-Mulu/c. 

" Sardasi'a unloosed her brother's bonds, which Bahram with much skill had fastened.' 

— Bahrdm Gur. 

* This infinitive is used for animate objects, and ! . , for objects inanimate. 



^U> ^_^_j^i. ^jf lSj^ ^^J ^ iJ^'^'-jy y^'j^- ^j^j ^J^^ H 


" With mucli distress and siiftering' they took us away to the prison, 
And treated us with much impropriety and disrespect." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

307. The feminine is obtained in the same manner as that of the infinitives of 
the preceding Form. 

308. Form V. drops the J of the infinitive in forming the past, the final 
characteristic letter being movable, and merely differs from Form I. (which see), 
inasmuch as it altogether rejects the prefixed j ; as ^}y^^^ ' to seat,' or ' make sit.' 

" The young woman took the prince by the hand, 
And with much pomp and grandeur seated him on the throne." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

309. The simple infinitive of this as well as other classes of verbs is often 
used for the past tense, but, in such cases, an afiixed personal pronoun in the objec- 
tive case is used with it, as in the following : 

" He called the whole of them into the assembly, 
And with much kindness seated them near himself." — Sarf-ul-Muluk. 

310. The feminine termination for this class of infinitives in the past is the 
same as for the preceding Forms. Example : 

" When suddenly that beautiful one, the beloved of the whole world, 
Was summoned to her father's presence, and seated by him at his side." 

— Yusuf and Zullkha. 

311. Form YI. consists of the infinitives which wholly reject the sign of the 
infinitive and last or final letter in the past, as J^ ' to burn' or 'consume,' <Uj j 
' he burnt.' Example : 

" I know not whether it was a man, or some other thing. 
Which entirely consumed me in the fire oiloYe''— Saif-ul-Muluk. 

312. Form VII. rejects the J of the infinitive and prefixes a syllable to the 
root, the final letter of which is quiescent. These infinitives also reject the prefixed 
j and are not common ; as Jj^ 'to remove' or 'take away,' j^^_ 'he removed.' 
Example : 

AJ'Lj ^^^jfxS j^ Aj Sj^j ^^ 3^j^ ^ ifz^ l:;-o j_. ».) Ajs^ S. ci-^lc 


" At last thine eyes cahhied away my heart from me, 
Notwithstanding I guarded it with patience and enduvfmce ."—y^abd-ul-Hamid. 

313. Form VIII. Tlio past is formed by rejecting the sign of the infinitive 
and the prefixed j, as jLb 'to pky away' or 'lose at play,' a.Llj 'he played' or 
' lost.' Example : 

"He who hath lost his life in pleasure, hath not bought anything, but hath lost his 
GOLD." — Gulistdn. 

314. The past tense of the causal infinitive J^b is often used for the past 
tense of jLb , as in the following * : 

" They who show enmity to the good friends of the Almighty, have lost their faith and 
RELIGION, and have become accounted infidels." — Fcma ul-ush- Shan ceo! h. 

315. Form IX. The verbs of this class are formed from adjectives generally, 
and obtain the past tense by rejecting the Jj used in their formation, as also the 
prefixed j of the past, and, to complete it, the past tense of ^\f or J^ to do,' 
is required ; as Jj^.^- ' to inter, '^ j^r^ ' he interred.' Example : 

" Then the Prophet said, ' Show unto me hell, for thou hast filled my heart with much 
deshe.' " — 3Iajmu(Edt-i-Kandahan. 

316. The whole of the infinitives of this, as well as Forms YL, VII., and VIII., 
obtain the plural in the same manner as those before described, and take a or {—) for 
the feminine in the singular, and (— ) or ^ in the plural. 

317. Form X. The infinitives of this class use the simple infinitive with the 
prefixed j for all tlu-ee persons, both singular and plural; as Ja:^ 'to laugh,' 
Jjc^ j 'he laughed,' etc. Example: 

"The accursed mark was visible on his breast, and on beholding it the Imam laughed. 
On this, Shimr said—' What is thy laughter at present occasioned by, now that not one grain 
of thy existence remaineth ? ' " — Hasan and JIusain. 

The above form of the past is also used for the feminine singular and plural. 

318. Form XI. J^^ 'to do' or 'perform,' wdiioh is imperfect, and used as 

* See page 67, Class V. 


an auxiliary, rejects tlie J of the infinitive and the last radical letter in the past, and 
takes the prefixed j ; as li j or a^ j ' he did.' The following is an example : 

"The Prophet made this eeply to the lady J^^a'esha'h, ' The sound of Nakir and Mimkir 
will fall as pleasantly on the ear of the Faithful as the application of a collyrium to one's eyes.' " 
— Fawa Shan (sak. 

319. The prefixed particle of the past is sometimes omitted, as in the following 
extract : 

" Notwithstanding all the force he used to remove the Imam's hand, yet he did not undo 
the fastening of Imam Husain's drawers." — Hasan and Husain. 

This verb does not undergo change in termination for gender or number. 

320. ^ or ^ is often aifixed to the third person singular and plural of the 
past tense of verbs, particularly in religious writings, or at the termination of a line 
in poetry, for the sake of euphony ; thus — 

" After that JEumar bin Based, ^Yho was a champion, and computed amongst the army of 
the Yezidis, wdth great wrath struck him with a mace, and separated the head of that 
youth from his body." — Hasan and Husain. 

j\ja::^\ j^U Imperfect Texse. 

321. After having explained the past tense so fully, the imperfect is easily 

The different methods of obtaining the imperfect may be divided into six classes. 

322. I. Out of the twenty-four classes of transitive verbs, fifteen form the past 
by prefixing the j , and the imperfect tenses of the whole of these are obtained by 
merely rejecting that prefix; as J J 'to bind,' >jIj J or^L- j 'he bound,' ^^l; orjlj 
' he was binding.' The follo^ving extracts are examples : 

" He WAS searching about for him every here and there. 
Until at last he found the prince quite beside himself" — Sa\f-ul-Muluk. 

" One of the kings of old was extremely negligent in affairs of state, and used to keep 
jiis army in arrears." — Gidistdn. 


323. Jjj 'to say,' which is of the above class, has a second form of the im- 
perfect, which is also obtained by rejecting the prefix. 

"All "WERE SAYING, ' This is a very vu-gin of paradise indeed, 
Sent out of heaven into this world ! ' " — Bahram Gur. 

324. The plural is formed according to the same rules as the past tenses 
already described. Example : 

" All round the heavens he was viewing flames which were taldng Ih'e from the stars, and 
his idols too had fallen, and were turned upside down." — Tawallud Ndmah. 

325. The feminine termination is formed in the same manner as for the past 
tense. Examples : 

" Oh thou ignorant heart of mine I take example from the dead ! 
For they that used to amass wealth, went from this world, and left it behind. 
To-day is conjunction : to-morrow is separation." — MuMammas-i-^abd-ul-Kddir. 

" Stones were falling on the heads of my rivals. 
When I WAS sprinkling the dust of thy door on my forehead." — /Eabd-ul-flamld. 

326. 11. The imperfect tenses of the four classes of infinitives which do not 
take the prefixed j are the same as the past in every way. Examples : 

^^ ^^^^ 
*' The king said, ' By this command an error has been committed by me, and in a moment 
of anger an expression has escaped me ; but under such circumstances it is necessary that thou 
wouLDST BRING* into play sucli reflection as may be suitable to the condition of a wise 
counsellor.' " — Kalllah wo Damnah. 

" He had no inclination for eating or for drinking. 
Neither did he open his eyes in any manner." — Saif-ul-Muluh. 

327. III. Two classes of verbs, III. and XXIV., lengthen the short vowid 
(_) preceding the last characteristic letter of the past for \ in the imperfect ; as 

* The imperfect tense is often used in a potential as well as an habitual sense, as in this example. 


J^:^^ 'to bury,'/ ^^ 'he buried,' jU^ or ijUri. ' he was burying;' J/ 'to do,' 
c>S 'he did,' ijl^ 'he was doing.' Examples: 

" Since they were bringing me up to suffer the pangs of love for the Fair, 
Would that in my childhood my father and mother had been childless !" — jEabd-ul- Hamid. 

"When thou didst make Fir'seawn* a ruler, who in Misrt laid claim to divinity ; the 
river Nil^ became obedient unto him, and thou for his sake didst afflict thy chosen people." § 
— Bahu Jan. 

328. lY. The imperfect tense of J^^ ' to take away' or ' remove,' which forms 
its past by prefixing ^j, and which differs from all the other infinitives in the 
language in this respect, is formed by rejecting ^^ in the same manner as the j in 
the fu'st form. 

" I saw a learned man who had become enamoured of a person, and his secret became 
known. Indeed he used to endure no end of injustice and cruelty, and show great forbear- 
ance and resignation." — GuUstdn. 

329. Y. Another form of the imperfect, used in a continuative sense, is 
obtained by prefixing the particle ^ to the past tense, as exemplified by the 
following extracts: 

(!»L»Ij i .Xsyij ^^ (j-'^J *-^^ ^ '^'^ (*r J,J ^"^^ 

" Notwithstanding I constantly weep and wail, I found no other partner in my grief than the 
I WOULD SPEAK of the circumstauces of my beloved, and he would lament on account of the 
rose." — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

^| aj Lj ^1 c:,-w.-^ \j aj j^ J^:>. aj ^] <^\^^j j j^\ ^ J^ ^jJjj&Li. j u:^^ Jci- jU««..>- ai*AR51 

" In short, the shoemaker accepted the young prince's service, and without apprehension 
he used to bring him to his own house, and take him back to the palace." — Kalllah wo 

330. This prefixed .u appears to be used indiscriminately with both the im- 

* Pharoah. f Egypt. + The Nile. \ The Israelites. 


perfect and past, as in the following extract, in wliich it is prefixed to the simple 
imperfect of one verb, and to the past of another, both forms conveying a continua- 
tive meaning. 

" Howmuchsoever a person was diseased, or his sickness were even the plague or ulcers, 
yet he would become cured of that malady when Musa would touch him with the rod ; and 
when he would strike dried up trees with it, they would become fresh, and fruit would hang 
from them." — Babtl Jan. 

331. A few imperfect verbs, which have no past tense, form the imperfect, 
when they have one, in a similar manner to those which take J in the past. 

332. The terminations for the feminine gender already explained are the same 
for all classes of verbs. 

t-^jyj ;^^ Perfect Tense. 

333. The compound tenses of transitive verbs are obtained in the same manner 
as intransitives, by adding the different tenses of the auxiliary, ' to be,' according to 
the gender and number of the governing noun, to the past participle of the verb 

334. Transitive verbs have but two forms of the past participle, which differ 
but slightly from each other — one affixing ^ with its variations for gender and 
number to the infinitive, whilst the other rejects the J of the infinitive and affixes 
it to the root; thus Js^^^j^ 'to ask,' -^Is^^y^ 'asked ;' J^-o ' to burn,' ^^ ' burnt' 

335. There are consequently but two forms of the perfect tense formed by 
adding the present tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' to the past participles, and there- 
fore a few examples will serve to illustrate it. ' 

"The scorpion said. Oh brother ! the fear produced in my heart from crossing this water, 
HATH THROWN ME iuto the whirlpool of perturbation.' " — Kal'dah wo Damnah. 

** This unembellished fh^mament became adorned with ornaments and embellishments ; 
Which the diamonds of omnipotence and power have carved." — Mirza Khan, Ansdrl. 

I have perused a hundred volumes on patience, and endm-ancc, 

But what shall I do ? I am out of patience, and distracted in heart." — Saif-ul-Mulu^ . 


336. The participle and auxiliary assume the feminine form and number to 
agree with a governing noun of that gender ; as — 

" That from which even Majnun was appalled in the grave, 

Love HATH ASSIGNED such a grievous calamity unto me." — jEabd-ul- Hamid. 

" I HAVE ENTEUSTED mito thee both my destiny and inclination ; 
In every way I will be the most humble of thy lovers." — Kdsim ^ali, Afr-ldi. 

337. The auxiliary is often rejected in this tense, as in the following extract : * 

" Thou art the apple of my eyes, and that camel on which thou art mounted, together with 
the goods loaded on it, I have given unto thee." — Tawallud Ndmah. 

s^'tj ^5^^^ Pluperfect Tense. 

338. This tense is formed in the same manner as the preceding, from the past 
or perfect participle, to which it adds the past tense of the auxiliary ' to be.' 
Examples : 

" I HAD not as yet taken the name of friendship 
When separation again assembled an army against me." — jEabd-ur-RaJmdn, 

At any time whatsoever, the Prophet had never performed any acts of enchantment, 
neither had he ever spoken falsehoods in his life-time." — Fawald-ush- Shari (Eah . 

339. Examples of the feminine : 

" Damnah said, ' A certain tortoise had acquaintance with a scorpion, and one with another 
used to breathe the breath of unity and concord ; and they had moreover laid the foundation 
of friendship and affection.' " — Kalilah wo Damnah. 


' At this dialogue Muttalib became much terrified, for by unseen liands swords had been 
DRAWN, and were gleaming all around him." — Tawallad Ndma'h. 

CSSjIjH j_^U Doubtful Past Tense. 
340. This tense is also obtained from the past participles and the aorist tense 

* Also see paragraph 240. 


of the auxiliary, ' to be,' for wliicli there is but oue form, which remains unchanged, 
in all six inflections, for both genders. Examples : 

> J' 

" What inquiry makest thou respecting Durkho and Adam Khan ? 
A person in his life-time may have clad himself in a shroud.— Aasm /Eall, Afnd'i. 


Until he may not have been shod with the shoe of madness, 

The foot of every noble steed becometh rubbed on the ground of love." — JSabd-ul-Jlamld. 

'' The amoimt of my sorrows will be within the computation of that man, 
Who MAY HAVE COUNTED OVEE every hair of hisown body." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

341. Another form of this tense is obtained by using the 2nd future tense 
of the auxiliary, ' to be,' afhxed to the past participle, as in the following examples : 

" No one in the whole course of his life will have beheld 
The trials imposed upon me every horn* by my beloved." — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

" The learned man by way of apology gave answer unto him, saying, ' My notice has 
never been drawn towards Durkhilna'i. If I knowingly may have acted unkindly towards 
her, may the Almighty make my eyes sightless.'" — Ada?n Khan and Durlshanal. 

aJUf Ji ^U Past Cootjitional Tense. 

342. The inflections of the conditional tense of the auxiliary ' to be,' with the 
past participle and a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing, gives the past 
conditional or optative tense. The auxiliary is not subject to change in termination 
for either gender or number, but the participle is liable to both. Examples : 

" If thou also hadst seen in the same manner what I have beheld, perhaps thou too 
wouldst have fled from their oppression into the desert." — Kalllah wo Damnah. 

If thy heart had found any quiet in truth and sincerity. 

Thou wouldst not have bestowed adulation or flattery on any oney—^abd-ul-IIamid. 



** Had my heart but been awake of such sorrows as these, 
I would never have taken even the name of friendship," — yEabd-ul- Hamld. 

" I would not for a moment have selected absence, 
Had any one placed death and separation for me to choose between." — /Eabd-ur- Rahman. 

JU^ iL%^ Present Tense. 

343. The twenty-four classes of transitive verbs have twelve methods of form- 
ing the present tense, the whole of which differ materially from each other. 

344. Form I. This consists of the infinitives of Classes I., II., Y., XVII., 
XYIII., XX., XXI., and XXIV., and constitutes the greatest number of verbs in 
the language, which obtain the present by merely rejecting the J of the infinitive 
and affixing the necessary personal pronouns. Examples : 

" A pampered son taketh not to discipline and morality. 
And a shaded palm giveth not ripe dates." — ^Eabd-ul- Hamld. 

" I profitlessly place a load on my head for the sake of carnal desires, 
But my waist never becometh bent for devotion or for prayer." — Kdshn jEah,' Afndi. 

345. Form II. comprises the infinitives of Class III., in which the two last 
radical letters are rejected and two others taken in lieu of them ; as ^y:^^^s: ' to 
demand' or 'desire,' ojUi 'he, she, it demands;' Jix^X-: 'to rive' or 'cleave,' 
^j-^-^ ' he, she, it cleaves.' Example : 

ef>cj ^cx^*^ iJ *j-'V i^-^ s/^-i iJ ^^V3 <4J^ H c;'^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^' 

-J <u 

" Through dread I am unable to look on the host of her beauty — 
Her eyebrows are bows ! her eyelashes rive coats of mail ! " — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

346. Form III. In forming the present tense of the verbs of this division, 
wliich includes Class IV, of infinitives, the two last characteristic letters are rejected 
and another taken in place of them; as JjJj.>i 'to find,' ^^y 'he, she, it found.' 
Examples : 

" oi 

She made this request to her father, saying, ' All those of my own age learn to read, 
give directions that I may learn to read aho."— Adam Khan a7id Durkhanal. 

*^J "^ ^^'^^ J^^j ^y ^'■i Jj ^_^ ^h^ ^. s^^^ls) ^Ux«.J& ^1)^^ 


There are many extrinsic friends in the world, 

But Rahman findeth not a friend of the \iQQxi."—yEabd-ur-Eahman. 


347. Form IV. includes the infinitives of Classes VI. and XIII., which 

lengthen the first short vowel (■^) into \ for the present ; as Jj . ' to speak,' J^ 

he, she, it, etc. speaks;' J^j 'to weep,' ^j\j 'he, she, it, etc. weeps;' J 

' to laugh,' ^_jj.3U. ' he, she, it laughs.' Example : 

" If any one asks, ' What hath happened to thee, ! mad Afridi ?' 
I LAUGH and WEEP, but I DO not tell my perplexed state to any one"—KasimyEati, Afndl. 

348. Form V. This includes the infinitives of Class VII., and is something 
similar to the one immediately preceding. It changes the short vowel (— ) for 
^ in the present ; as JL 'to call' or 'name,' ^^i ' he, she, it, etc. called.' Example: 

" Thou CALLEST God the giver of daily bread, nevertheless consider it acquired by employment ; 
Yet with all this knowledge, thou termest thyself grateful." — /Eabd-iir-Rahman. 

349. Form VI. comprises Classes VIII. and IX. of infinitives, which reject the 
last radical letter and take another in place of it ; as Jij^ ' to kill,' ^Jj ' he, she, it 
kiUs ;' J:ijU> ' to unloose,' ,^^)^ 'he, she, it unlooses.' Example : 

" What between thy eyes and thy eyelashes, I am perplexed and bewildered ; 
For one kills me with red fire, the other with sparkling glsinces."—yEabd-ul-IIamid. 

350. Form VII. The infinitives of Class X. form the present by rejecting the 
three last radical letters and taking another in their place ; as ^J:;^J^» ' to discharge,' 
Jj ' he, she, it, etc. discharges.' Example : 

" So true doth she dlscharge the arrows of her eyelashes, 
That no one escapeth with safety from the battle with her." — yEabd-ur- Rahman. 

351. Form VIII. The present tense of Class XL of infinitives is obtained by 
rejecting altogether the two last characteristic letters of the root, and the J of the 
infinitive ; as Jw\;^jT ' to hear,' ^^jT ' he, she, it, etc. heard.' Example : 

"When I hear the sound of her dog's voice, I become as delighted. 
As one becometh merry and glad at the melody of the veheck"—jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

352. Form IX. The verbs of Class XII. contained in this form of the present 
reject the last radical letter and the J of the infinitive ; as J^^o. 'to recognize,' 

jj-j ' he, she, it, etc. recognizes.' Example : 


'' And if the other sayeth unto him, ' I do not recognize the will of the Almighty ; ' or, 
' In this place the will of God availeth not ; ' or, ' The influence and power of God extendeth 
not here ; ' he becometh a blasphemer." — Fawaul-2ish-Shariceah. 

353. Form X. The infinitives constituting Class XIV. of transitive verbs 
change the final letter for another in forming the present tense, similar to those of 
Form VI., but so far differ inasmuch as the former contain but two letters in the 
root and the latter three. Example : 

" The grass which moveth not from its proper place acquheth moisture ; 
Then wherefore scourest thou the world in search of thy daily bread?" — ^ahd-ur- Rahman. 

354. Form XI. Class XIX. of infinitives form the present tense by rejecting 
the last radical letter of the root for two others; as Ju,! 'to knead,' i,i\ 'he, she, 
it, etc. kneads;' J»-j 'to take' or 'bear away,' JLj 'he, she, it, etc. takes.' 
Example : 

'* If I TAKE the steed of the heart on the road of carnal desire, 
He goeth not along, for my heart's reflection made him lame." — Ahmad Shah, Abddli. 

355. Form XII. The verbs of Class XXIII. form the present tense by affixing 
an extra letter to the root, after rejecting the sign of the infinitive ; as J^ ' to birrn,' 
^y-^ ' he, she, it burns.' Example : 

" Fire burns whatever may be cast into it ; 
In the same manner, a seeker after this world will not become satiated." 

— JEahd-ur-Raliman . 

356. It is here necessary to mention that the infinitive J/ ' to do,' included 
in the above, has two other forms of the third person, besides the regular one, viz. 
j>3l<' and l^ or <*.^, examples of which are contained in the following extracts : 

^^-j>- ^^^>~ (_jiy-i)l j,3o ^.^jt) ^^ ^lu^-^wUi> iU j^'L-j \i ^'^^ 

" Alas ! Christians exercise dominion over Hindtistan ! 
Oh ! where are those valorous swordsmen gone ? 
Shopkeepers are now becoming soldiers in India, 
And ihe great and noble of the land ask for alms." — Kdsim jEali, Afndl* 

* The Afrldis of the present day do not seem to have a more favourable opiuiou of the " shopkeepers" than our friend 
Kasim iEali in the last century. 


" Whosoever placeth his hopes on the fabric of this world, 
VoYAGETH on the ocean in a paper boat." — yEabd-ur- Rahman. 

357. The above form is often wiitten with c/, thus — 

" If the monarch maketh a boast of the imperial treasure, 
Lovers will make a boast of the cheeks of their beloved." — jEahd-ur-RaJiman. 

358. The affixed ^ or Jij, already described as being occasionally added, by way 
of euphony at the end of a line for the other tenses, is also used with the present. 
Example : 

''Act not as he says, for the whole of his advice and counsel is delusive and wTong. Sin 

is his snare — the fowler of the Faithful — and maketh them slip and slide in many ways." — 

Fafvald-ush' Shariceali, 

c iLit AoRisT Tense. 

359. The aorist or future indefinite tense of transitive verbs is formed in a 
similar manner to that of the intransitives already described, but they have also 
some peculiarities of their own. 

360. I have before remarked respecting the intransitive verbs, that, properly 
speaking, this tense is an original one, and that the present is formed from it by 
rejecting the prefixed J, whilst the present tense of those which reject this particle 
is the same as the aorist itself. 

361. There are four different forms of the aorist, which I shall describe 

362. I. Thirteen out of the twenty-four classes of transitives — L, III., IV., 
VI., VII., VIII., XL, XIL, XIIL, XIV., XIX., XXL, XXIL, and XXIIL, merely 
difi'er from the present by taking the prefixed j , as will be seen from the following 
examples : 

" Every recluse who may begin a life of devotion without a guide or director, 
In the imagmation of Khushhal Khat;_ak, is but an empty ^od."—JUms/ihdl Khan. 

"Though I MAY BEHOLD with mine eyes an hmidred wrongs at thy hand, 
Yet I shall never become convinced of thy injustice and CTueltj."—^abd-u?'-IiahmdN. 


"The world is a place of filthiness and impurity. You should keep your minds at a 
distance from it, that you may never fall head downwards into it." — Farvald-usk-SharicBaJh. 

363. The prefixed J of this class of infinitives is often rejected as redundant, 
like the <— ' of the Persian. The following is an example : 

"We are hopeful that, through the blessing of veracity and candour, both of us may 
OBTAIN redemption from the talon of grief and anxiety." — Kalilah wo Bamnah. 

364. II. Six classes of infinitives — Y., IX., X., XYL, XYII., and XX., entirely 
reject the prefixed j in the aorist, and therefore this form of the verb does not differ 
from the simple present in mode of writing. Examples : 

If I SHOULD stake and lose my head on love, then what blame is it of mine ? 

If THEY SHOULD STAKE theu' heads on thy esteem, what cause of grief is it to them?" 

— Ahmad Shah, Abdali. 

" Come now, that we may abandon the sorrow and trouble of the world ! 
That after a good fashion we may warm this companionship with wine !" 

— Saif-ul-Muluk. 

365. III. The transitive infinitives of Class II., which are formed from adjec- 
tives by the addition of Jj,t require the aorist tense of J^ and J^ 'to do,' 'to per- 
form,' to complete them ; as in the following examples of Jj^^ ' to fill,' and JjjIjj 
' to prove : ' 

" Like the moon, fate breaketh on the head to-morrow, 
The wallet of any one which it may fill to-day." — yEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" That friend and companion of mine, alas ! is now no more. 
That by him I might prove the sincerity and truth of friendship." 

— JEabd-ul- Hamid. 

366. The verb J^ ' to do,' as before mentioned, besides the regular form, has 
two other forms of the present for the third persons singular and plural. One of 
these, written d^ ^ cJ, or 1$", is also used with the addition of the necessary affixed 

* The second person plural in some works is written as above, instead of with simple ^1 

t See paragraphs 166 and 285. 


pronouns and the prefixed j in all the inflections of the aorist, both singular and 
plural, as well as the regular form of the tense. Example : 

" He who MAY CONFESS mth his tongue, and may truly venerate in his heart, 
Saying, ' I have acknowledged the One God, and the holy Prophet has been sent'— 
Verily, he becometh a Musalman, and the Musalnian is an orthodox man." 

— Rashid-ul-Byd7i . 

367. Ajli, the other form of the third person present, is also used for the aorist, 
but merely in the third persons, and with or without the prefixed j. Examples : 

" The Mu'setazilas* have said, that Musalmans who may coboiit an enormous sin, will 
doubtless depart from their faith, but it will not constitute blasphemy, and they cannot be 
termed either Infidels or BelieYers. " —Fawaid-ttsk-S/iaricsa/L 

^JoLi^\ J^^ SSuj\j d^ ^^:>- .Sb ^J^i c— .*l:xiT 'u^l ^-/ JU ^J <--:\j » l^\ 

" The brightness and lustre, will become world-conquering like the sun, 
Of every brow, which candour and probity may illumine." — jEabd-ul-Hanvid. 

^\s^ y\ 1st Future or Precative Tense. 

368. This tense, like the corresponding one for the intransitives, merely differs 
from the aorist in the mode of writing the third persons singular and plural, which 
take the prefixed j, the peculiar sign of the 1st future, and the third persons of the 
imperative mood. 

369. There are three forms of this tense, which differ slightly from each other. 

370. I. The regular verbs which take the prefixed j in the aorist, merely 
prefix the j to it for the 1st future. Example : 

"He should perform the ablutions anew; still, washing the whole body is much better. 
He should also take two clean cloths, which may be either quite new or washed, one of 
which he "should wi'ap round the loins, and the other he should throw over liis shoulders."— 
Fatvald-ush- Shan (Ba h. 

371. II. Those verbs formed from nouns and adjectives by adding Jj as 
already described, t which require the assistance of J/ or J^ ' to do,' in forming 

* a sect of Muhammadan schismatics. t See paragraphs 166 and 285. 


tlieii- different tenses, do not generally take the prefixed j in this tense, as in the 
following example : 

^ ^^ J, ^^ <J^^ i^\^ s^j c_?J J ^^-^ ^^ b c<>. ^j ^yy^ ^^ *p Ji 

^ > ** 

" Moreover, it is incumbent on every believer, that he should leabn by heart these few 
words, that he may thereby strengthen his faith." — MaM^cin Afghani. 

372. III. The different forms of the aorist of J/ 'to do,' are nsed with the 
prefixed >^ of the third persons, for the 1st future also, either with or mthout the 
prefixed J ; as — 

'' Day and night he should worship and adore ; he should abandon all sin and disobedience ; 
He should ever give good counsel to his heart ; and should keep himself according to the law. 
He should make observation to-day, for to-morrow is separation." 

— ^luMiammas of yEabd-ul-Kddir. 

»»y mm/ 

" If a man in the constant habit of praying may become afflicted with sickness, and it may be 
difficult for him to stand up. 
This is the order unto him, that he should say his prayers sitting." — Rashid-ul-Bfdn. 

373. The second person of the imperative is sometimes used with the J pre- 
fixed for the 1st future, as in the following extract : 

" In the hope of what pleasant thing art thou in the time of youth free from care ? 
May the Almighty remove thee ! oh thou ignorant Panjabi Jatt." — Mlrzd Khdn, Ansdri. 

374. The termination ^ or ^, previously described, is added to this as well as 
the other tenses of verbs for the third person, for the sake of euphony. Example : 

" It is stated in tlie Sharah Tanbih, that it is right on the part of the relations and neigh- 
bours of the defunct person, that they should send victuals to his family." — Fawald-ush- 


(J-ih^u-M 2nd Future Tense. 

375. The 2nd future tense of transitive verbs, of which there are four 
classes, is obtained from the different forms of the aorist by the addition of the pre- 
fixed -u , and are as follow : — 

It -tr 


376. I. Regular infinitives which take the prefixed j for the aorist ; as — 

You brothers will go in search of game, and will be so much taken up with your sport, 
That YOU WILL PUT him altogether out of your minds, and will become mcautious regarding liim. 
Then some old wolf will whet his fangs on him, and will tear his tender limbs asunder," 

— Yusiif and ZuhTihCi. 

377. The regular infinitives in this as well as in the aorist sometimes reject 
the prefixed J ; as— 

" The nurse said, * Oh, daughter ! now God forbid 
That I SHOULD MENTION such a secret matter to any one.'" — Sa\f-ul-Muluh. 

378. The <ij of this tense sometimes precedes the j , and vice versa^ and depends 
on whether a regular personal pronoim {j^k^^^^) as w^ell as an affixed pronoun 
{j}.^s::^ jf^'a) be used, or the regular personal pronoun omitted at the beginning of a 
sentence. If the former, the ^u should immediately precede the j, and, when no 
regular personal pronoun is used, the j should precede the a;.- . 

^jU.s»-j cJb Jjuc aj_ Jjl^ j {jL-^y yi^ J Aj^ ^l^S aj di ^ .^J (J \j 

*' He said thus unto him, ' On the great day of resurrection, when the Almighty shall make 
inquiry concerning justice ; 
I WILL INQUIRE of thee, oh ! Saleh, son of Hamid, regarding the equity and beneficence 
shown to the whole nation.'" — Saif-ul-Miduk. 

" Until he may not have become immersed like the rose in his own blood. 
He WILL not behold thy blooming rose-coloured cheek." — /Eabd-iir- Rahman. 

379. II. Infinitives, in other respects perfect, which reject the prefixed j in 
the past tense, also reject it in the aorist, and consequently in the 2nd future also. 
Examj)le : 

^l) "t—J L^ ^^ ,.\^\ "L.; ..JuwG^ 1) Ll^J, ^ i.^ ^J tLzJ U:i »i J.^ 

*' In the first place, my concern is, as to whether at the time of death I shall bear away 
my faith, or whether I shall lose \t"—FawauUish-Sha7"iceah. 

380. Compound infinitives formed by prefixing a preposition or postposition to 
a simple verb, such as J^-j*.y ' to i:»lace,' J::a*w»ui ' to seize,' etc., also reject the J and 



insert the <u , the peculiar sign of the tense, between the preposition or postposition 
and the verb, as in the following : 

" ' I certainly will not kelinquish the punishment agreeable to the laws.' The 
Darwesh said, ' You command truly, nevertheless, he who stealeth part of any property 
devoted to pious uses, it is not lawful to cut off his hand.'" — Gulistdn. 

381. III. Infinitives formed from adjectives, nouns, or pronouns, by adding 
Jj, require the aid of J^ or ^J, 'to do,' in this as well as the other tenses, and 
consequently are subject to the same rules as those verbs in forming the 2nd 
future tense ; thus — 

^^^ <^l^ CI-JU* ij \x^ ^'-^y^ ^'^ (J-^b '^jf- iJ'^ 3 ^J^ l5*^ 

*' The young' maiden said, ' Oh, youth ! wherefore hast thou come here ? 
This is an infidel, and he will break all thy bones !'" — Bahram Gur. 

" How long shall I endm'e sorrow ? There is no remedy found for this ! 
And therefore I will cut my throat with a sharp sword." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

382. IV. The infinitive J^ ' to do,' chiefly used as an auxiliary to other 
verbs, particularly those of Form III. just described, prefi:s:es the <u to its different 
forms of the aorist for the 2nd futiu-e. Examples : 

'■' What answer shall I, Rahman, give mito my beloved? 
What reply is there from the dead unto the living?" — jEabd-ur- Rahman. 

" Green parrots and nightingales fly about the parterre in disorder and tumult, 
But the autumn will now soon arrive, and will disorder the garden for them." 

— jEabd-ul-Kddir. 
*\ Imperative Mood. 


383. The imperative of transitive verbs like that of the intransitives is not 
subject to change in termination for gender, and has no first person singular or 
plural. It merely differs from the aorist and 1st future as regards the pronominal 
affixes and the prefixed w^, which is also the sign of the third person of the latter 

384. There are four descriptions of the imperative, which may be thus defined — 


I. Eegular infinitives which take the prefixed J in the past and aorist tenses, 
also use it in the imperative ; thus — 

" Then Aiirang said, ' Give ear unto me ! 
Hear the account of the battle from me, oh my guest ! ' "—Ba/iram Gilr. 

Like the l^ of the Persian imperative, the regular infinitives in Pushto ofte7i 
reject the prefixed j, as in the following example : 

" If a person enquireth — who is most discreet ? say it is he 
Who placeth not his affections on any one save the Creator." — JEabd-ur- Rahman. 

385. II. Infinitives which totally reject the J in the past and aorist, also do 
away with it in the imperative, as — 

ij\J U i.i iJ 'cj^ b 

tiJ U dJ il-'^ ''^^ i. f.«y 

" Yakub said, ' Depart and enjoy yourselves by roaming- in the forest. 
But DO NOT TAKE Yusuf from me ; for this matter is afflicting to me.' " 

— Yiwif and Zutlkhd. 

386. The imperative mood of compound infinitives also belong to this form, as — 

" The stranger leave out of the question, for verily, even though it may be a mother or father, 
Let it not happen that any one may be in need of the help of others." — jEabd-ul-IIanvid. 

387. III. Like the corresponding forms for the aorist and future tenses, the 
infinitives derived from adjectives, etc. require the assistance of J^ or J^ 'to do,' 
in forming the imperative. Example : 

ji , jsr ^j y_,> J ^yu-s^ Sjf ^^i. ^- J J.;l/ J-^ J ^ J^ y 

" Agam, for the second time, Badra'h Khatun said, ' Oh sister ! 
If thou hast any gratitude for thy mother's milk, 
One time, at least, show thy face unto thy afflicted lover ; 
Tor he has performed many toils and troubles both by sea and land." — Saif-ul-Muluk . 

388. Some of these infinitives have also another form of the imperative, for 
the second person plural, in which the last radical letter of the regular imperative is 
changed into^l , as will be seen in the folio-wing examples : 

I.. A 


j\p cO^^y^ Uy J J^.\j ^V^Ji ^^Ahj^ 4 ^ 

Go to him quickly, and transmit information regarding him ; 
And with all possible speed bring him into my presence." — Sa\f-ul-Miduk. 


'' The king commanded, saying, ' Bring you some more victuals, 
And SATIATE tliis demon in a proper manner.' " — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

389. IV. The infinitive Jj^ ' to do,' is somewliat irregular in the imperative, 
having aS", c1^ j, or a^i for the second person singular, and ^^^ witli the necessary per- 
sonal pironouns, for the third person singular and plural, i^ is changed into ^^ for- 
the plural of the second person. Examples : 

" Brmg tidings, oh fragrant zephyr of the morning ! 
Gladden the rose of my heart in the blooming garden ! " — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

" Do battle with the enemy,' oh my son ! do not retreat from them, so it behoveth." — 
Hasan and Husain, 

390. The prefixed j is sometimes retained and at times rejected. 


iJLC*^ ^k^ fighah-i-mikdnl. 

391. The Pushto has no regular potential mood, and the passive form of the 
verb is used instead, with a slio;ht diiference in the construction. 

392. There are but three tenses — the present, past, and future. 


393. Intransitive verbs have no passive voice, but a passive form — the dif- 
ferent past participles with the auxiliary ' to be ' — is used for the potential of in- 
transitives. The verb agrees with the agent, and the masculine or feminine form of 
the past participle must correspond accordingly ; but the third persons of the past 
tense of the auxiliary, like all intransitive verbs, alone has a different termination 
for the feminine gender. 

394. Therefore, whenever the passive form of an intransitive verb is met with 

in a sentence, it can be instantly recognised as the potential mood. The following 

are examples : 

JU^ Present Tense. 

" From the waves of thy love I cannot escape by any road : 
Both my hands have become powerless for the swimming of wisdom." 

— jEahd-ur- Rahman. 


i^U Past Tense. 

" I COULD NOT OVERLOOK even a straw or a splinter; 
But love hath made me disregard both life and goods." — J^abd-ur- Rahman. 

J-iiii.^^* Future Tense. 

" If, tlirough your rank, some mode of livelihood be established for me which may cause 
peace of mind, I shall not be able to emerge from the debt of gratitude as long as I live." — 


395. The transitive form of the potential is easily distinguished from the 
passive voice, as both the agent and the object must be expressed for the former ; 
whilst, in the latter, the agent is never expressed, or remains unknown. The verb 
also agrees with the object in gender and number for the former, and the agent must 
be in the instrumental or agent case in the past tense. The object is sometimes put 
in the dative, as is also the case with regard to a few infinitives which require it. 

J la- Present Tense. 

" In the same manner as an armless sleeve cannot do anything. 
So without grace and favour, man is confounded and ])ev]Aexed."—'yEabd-id-Ha}?ild. 

j^U Past Tense. 

" A holy man hath said, ' To-day that you are able to do, you do not understand ; and 
when you understand, you are unable to perform : and in the same maimer, when I could do, 
I did not comprehend ; and when I comprehended I could not perform.' "— Kalllah wo Damnah. 


Juii::-u-^ Future Tense. 

Thou WILT not BE ABLE TO BEAR the burthen of trust. 

Therefore travel light on the road of integrity, thou inexperienced one ! " 

— Mi7'za Klian, Ansdri. 



J^j^-^ Ax^ slffh ah-i-majhul. 

396. The passive voice of a verb is called J^-*, from the Arabic word signify- 
ing ' unknown/ as the agent is never mentioned. 

397. Transitive verbs, alone, have a proper passive voice, which is obtained by 
prefixing the different forms of the past participle to the auxiliaries Jp. or Ja^^ ' to 
be' or 'become,' as in the following examples : 

JU. iJi^ Present Tense. 


" It is stated in the Hujjat-ul-Islam, that if a person lig-hteth a place of worship with lamps, 
HE IS ever forgiven the sins of seventy thousand years." — Faivaid-ush - SharicBah . 

*' Every stone and every clod of earth of this world which is seen, 
All are skulls, some of kings and some of beggars." — jEahd-ur- Rahman. 

j\y^:xJ\ ^.N^U Imperfect Tense. 

" One day the Shah Nama'h of Ferdowsi was being read in his assembly, on the subject 
of the decline of the dominion of Zohak, and on the prosperity of that of Feridun." — GuUstdn. 

j;lk^ ^_5^^'* Past Tense. 

"It so happened that they were apprehended at the door of a certain city on suspicion of 
being spies, and were placed together in a chamber, and its door was closed up on them." — 

<^,ji 1^^ Perfect Tense. 

j-ic>- (^,^t^lj *j^J ^^, lJji^ ^CJy* ^ {J^ {J ^ ^y^ r^ AJUb Ji 

" If thou hast not become dead to the world before death, 
Count, oh fool ! as false and futile, all thy devotion and austerity." — Kdsim jtEali, Afndl. 

^^ c-S^^'* Pluperfect Tense. 

w^/ I' ^ ^3} J^ cr^^ ^ uVj ^ ^3 ^ ^3^ ^J J3 ^3J i^^ j^^ C^wjJ <ij i) J^.ij^ 


" During the whole of the Darwesh's life no son had been given unto him. He said, 
* If the Almighty bestoweth a son on me, save this ragged garment which 1 have clothed 
myself in, whatever else may be in my possession is an oblation to the poor.' " — Gulistdn. 

J-iiuu-* 2nd Future Tense. 

" No one should (uselessly) place a snare on the highway of this world : 
The griffin and the phcenix will not become the prey of any one." — jEahd-ur- Rahman. 

cjUi^ AoRiST Tense. 

J-^?^ j ^^ ^J,y,.i Cp„i d'a ^S }jr^ '^ ^j^^., ^^ ^^J^ ^^ Vv*^ s^^ ^^'v* J ^ ^i -' V 

'' His father said unto him, ' Oh, son ! whatever matter thou art acquainted with, do thou 

also state.' He said unto him, ' I fear I may be asked concerning that with which I am not 

familiar.' " — Gulistdn. 

lLC-Cu (j-sU Doubtful Past Tense. 

"Third— that man who may have been removed from his office or situation, and who 
may have no hope of obtaining it again." — Kal'dah wo Damnah, 

<^j^ (^^ Past Conditional Tense. 

"Would to God that this son from non-existence had not come into being! that my love 
and affection had not been placed on him ! and this weasel had not been unjustly killed on 
his account ! " — Kalllah no Damnah. 

398. There is another method of forming the passive voice by using the im- 
perfect tense of verbs with the auxiliaries, but it is peculiar to the transitive verbs, 
and is not used in forming the compound tenses of the passive. For the singular, 
the third person is used for all three persons, and the third person plural for the 
plural forms. The following are examples : 

JU- <u*o Present Tense. 

" The agony of death, although it is called so bitter and so sharp ; 
Yet, by the help of thy sweet lips, it is the water of immortality." — /Eabd-ur-ltalimdn. 

" The whole of these eight qualities (of God) are called natural, and together with the 
essence itself, are termed primitive and ^ri&iine.''—Fan-aid-ush-Shan(eah. 


j\j.i::^\ ^U IinPERFECT Tense. 

" They continued to look towards him as long as he was being seen, 
After which the king set out on his return to Egypt." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

2nd Form for the ^\s^ or Continuative Tense. 

it:dj& aj j^yU^ &^ i-i^jU- LLi-^ij |^^j^ ''>^^3'* ^'^- ^^^^^^ ^ ''>>• jj ^^^ Jy^ ^j^j^'^ jj\> <V t-?;^ 

" They will say, ' Our practices were, that we used to be present in the mosque at such a 
time, that there we always used to hear the calls to prayer." — Farcald-ush-Shari ceo! h. 

jJJa^ ;^^'* Past Tense. 

" The king became enraged and ordered a solution of the matter. So the messenger was 
seized and the epistle was read." — Gulistdn, 

J^^.^ha^* 2nd Future Tense. 

" After death an account will be required from every man, 
According to the number of the sins of this world." — jEahd-ur-Rahndn. 

c iLi,* AoRisT Tense. 

" If such a speech may be heard from any person, on which certain blasphemy ariseth, it 
is not necessary to adjudge it as such on that accoimt alone ; for it may have fallen from Mm 
unintentionally, or perhaps he may not understand its signiiication ; and therefore he does not 
become a blasphemer on that accomit." — Fawaul-ush-S>hari ceali. 

^j^ ^_5^^ Past Conditional Tense. 

" Before friendship ariseth, were but absence to be seen, 
No servant of God would become mixed up in the matter." — jEahd-ur-Eahndn. 

399. Both forms of the j)assive are occasionally to be met with in the same 
sentence; thus — 

" Or if he thus sayeth, ' In buying and selling until falsehood is not spoken no profit is 



OBTAINED,' or if he sayeth that 'there is no expedient save in falsehood and perfidy,' in order 
that that which is unlawful in the sight of God be considered trivial and trifling, he becometh a 
blasphemer." — Fanald-iish- Shari cea h. 

400. After this lengthened analysis of the Pushto verbs, it will be advisable 
to give a table of the moods and tenses according to the arrangement with which 
the European learner will be best acquainted ; although the Arabic method, which 
is the same as the Hebrew, is by far the most simple ; and I imagine that few will 
commence Pushto who are unacquainted with Persian, and the primary rules of the 
Arabic Grammar which are necessary in the study of it. 

401. It will be more particularly requisite to give a table of all the moods and 
tenses of a few imperfect and irregular intransitive verbs, on account of the varieties 
which they assume, and in order that they may serve as models for others ; but I 
shall retain the simpler method in the conjugations of the regular transitives and 

402. Conjugation of the irregular imperfect intransitive verb Jii^ raghlal, 
' to come.' 

jX.2^ Intinitive. 




JU- ^■^■ya 

Present Tense. 



tX^j 1 come. 

'^j we come. 

°J>yj thou comest. 

^^^j you come. 

^J-\j he, she, itcomes. 

A.^j they come. 

j1/^^' v^^ 





JLij or ^3\j I was coming. jlJjtj or '^\j we were coming. 

^\j or ^\j thou wast coming. jlLij or ^\j you were coming. 

M. " ij\j or l:u\j he, or it was coming. M. iij1j or Jbij they were coming. 

F. <db^ or jJji. she, 6»r it was coming. F. c^'b *^^ i^b) 

-^ ^ " " . 1 thev were commg. 

^\. or JjU ' 

2nd Form as Continuative Tense. 
sing0la.e. plural. 

^z\j ij or li.\j dj I used to come. jiliU ^_ or jli^ ^, we used to come. 

°)^\j ^. or ^UU dj thou usedst to come. ^^^ ^. or jl^^b ^. you used to come. 

M." ^\j <^ he, or it used to come. M. kj^\j jj or JU^ <o they used to come. 

F. <dii^, <u or cdiU <o she, (?r it used to come. F. °JIib 'O or °Xi^^j ^: ] 

^ - ^ • V -^  V ^ they used to come. 

Jlilj <L' or Jilj aj) 



jlls^ 1^-*^ Past Tense. 


Jlil^ or J-clj I came. 3^1; °^' J^b '^^ came. 

^liiU or (^l-c); thou earnest. i^^b *^^ tj^l' ^^^ came. 

M. i^lj he, or it came. M. ^Ij or Jii|j they came. 

F. <dli1, or alilj she, ^r it came. F. Jii)^ or JJ:\j ; ,^iUlj or ^_^lj they came. 

L^ji 1^^ Perfect Tense. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

>.j Ji|^ or ^s^\j *J Li-^L» -I- li^^^ come. 1> ^J-c-^; we have come, 

oj JiJ^ or ^^i^]; iV i^i^b ^^°^ ^^^^ come. J lJ^^J J^^ ^^^e come. 

ij JjiU or i^Lcj^ i_^j ,jIi-\; he, she, it has come. ^_^J ^i]; they have come. 

Jujt> ,^U Pluperfect Tense. 


F. M. 

f*J J^b^^i^-^b (*J Ls^-^b ^ ^^^ come. j^ cS^b ^^ ^^^ come. 

<^J Ji)^or oLc^ ^^ ijli|^ thou hadst come. ^^ t<^b you had come. 

ifj Jjilj or olilj ^J iJ-^-^b liC, she, it had come, F. _j JJi\j M.j^ ls^I; they had come. 

j^\s>. y\ 1st Future Tense. 


*<iii^ I should come. I<i1j we should come. 

o^l^ thou shouldst come. ic~^b 7°^ should come. 

^^ J \j or j^\; 4^ 'Sjtfc he, she, it should come. J:^ J \j or ,«.i[; "^ ^jf^ they should come. 

J-Ji:uu^ 2nd Future Tense. 


^ <b 1^ or J:^\j ^o ^ I will come. li <u 1j or ^^ aj l^ we will come, 

o^ dj 1^ or (^|_; 'U i3 thou wilt come. ^-i <u 1j or ^j--\; ^ (jwIj you will come, 

^.i <u 1^ or ^\j tO <Uji) he, she, it will come. Jj> <u \j or j^^)^ ^ ^^ they will come. 

i^'win Subjunctive or Aorist Tense. 


^\j I may, shall, etc. come. i-ilj we may, shall, etc. come, 

o^^^ thou mayest, etc. come. i^^j jou, may, shall, etc. come. 

-ilj he, she, it, may, etc. come. ic-'l' ^'^^ i^^-y? shall, etc. come. 

CSSJL'i ^\.% Doubtful Past Tense. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

*j aj Ji\^ aj Li_ ,jAi|^ I may have come. 1) <u ^^^^s we may have come. 

o^ <5j Jil^ 1^ aj ^/^\j thou mayest have come. J «b ^J-i); you uiay have come. 

^ ^ Ji^^ ^^ i,i ^j^\j he, she, it may have come. ^^ <u ^^^j they may have come. 


^j^ 1^^"* Past Conditional Tense. 


JJj'lj or Aj\j <^ if I had come. jiblj ov '^\j ^ if we had come. 

(^j1j or ^\j ^ if thou hadst come, (J^l> o^' Lj^b ^ if you had come. 

M. <i3\j or li-?lj i^ if he, or it had come. M. 1s^\j or Jij)^, i.'i if they had come. 

F, tOJj'J^ A^ or ^'1^ a^ if she, or it had come. F. ^^^j or °i.jij Ai j 

" ,, , •• , , > 1 if they had come. 

^\j or JJ|^ i^ ) 

^<1 Imperative Mood. 


^^j or n^Sj, ^^, <Lllj come thou. ^|^ or ^\j come you. 

and ^^ 9 1; or ^^.^ J M let him, her, it and A. J \j or <! j |^ ] 

^ , "^ . ^ . ("^ " • " I . \ "' ■- "i' " - 1 let them come. 

^^]j L? <u& or ^\j 9 <u& ) come. A.]j J <uj& or J:)\j j .Jxai j 

Jl>- Present. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

jU> JJ^; j«-^ ^[) I can come. j^ ^\j we can come, 

j^ ijj\j ^ (J-^'b tlio^i canst come. *^ Jj"|^ you can come. 

^ J^'b j^-^ (J^'b ^®' ^^®' ^* ^^^ come. ^ 1j\j they can come. 

^U Past. 


F. M. 

- *yj^ Jj\j ^y^ (J^'b ^ could come. l^ lP\j ^^ could come, 

^^y* Jjij i^^ (J-^b ^^°^ couldst come. ^^ L5^b ^^^ could come, 

if^ Jj\j <Li> ^j-ij'l^ he, she, it could come. F.j-i Jj\j M. J^-i orl^ L^b ^^^^y could come. 

J-Ji::-*^ Future. 


F. M. F. M. 

*^ dj JjJ^ or ^jJj')^ or *i) Jj'L or (j-ij'\; '^J ^J I will come. 

^^ ^ ^\j or ^j-b'l^ or o-i> Jj1j or ,j-ij"^ 'O '^' ^^^^ "^* come. 

,^ aj Jj|^ or (j-ij')^ or .JL Jjl^ or ,jJj]^ <V ''^^ "^^y she, it will come. 

M. AND F. 

1-i, aj ^1; or l.i) ig^b ''^ ^'* ^^® ^'^ come. 
^%ti aj ^'V, or ^ i5^b 'V ^^" yo^^ '^'^ come. 
J^ ij ^Xi\J or --i> ^'l^; ''^^ ^ they will come. 

••/ ••/ ••/ ••/ 

* "What I have here termed the Potential Mood is really the Passive form of the inti'ansitive verbs, which is alone used 
to express power, will, or obligation. I have already described the peculiarities of the Passive and Potential form of the verbs 
in the analysis of the different moods and tenses, which see — page 132. 



Jxli *«j1 The Agent. 




, <J*b'l, or , ■^3Xi\,\ I, J^'^J^ 

^ , , ./ , , ^ , , ^/,, the comer. M. and F. p^ . , " Jthe comers. 

b . ^,^]j or L-^:'j^\j ; ^^l) or ^^)j ) ^ ^^^ ^j  

J^-cL* mJ\ Past Participle. 




F. J^\j or ^\j M. ^i|^ 


M. and F. ,J^^j come. 

L::.-^i■lJ ^\ Noun of Fitness. 
Jijij Ij or ^\j ^j or ^Jj")^ "^ or ^\j J of, or for coming. 

403. The imperfect and irregular intransitive JJj Vlal^ 'to go.' 

jiX,a^ Infinitive. 

^^ ' to go.' 
JU- i^u^ Present Tense. 



^ I go. 
°a^ thou goest. 
^iL he, she, it goes. 

j^ we go. 
*^ you go. 
^ they go. 

j\j^^z^ ^\^ Imperfect Tense. 



*lij or Jj" I was going. 

^^i or ob' thou wast going. 

c:-> or aj he, or it was going. 

i^ or ajj she, <?r it was going. 

iUj or dj we were going. 

^jUj or *Li you were going. 

M. ^" or Jb' they were going. 

F. JJ or Jij ; oJj" or ^^11; they were going. 



2nd Form as Continuative Tense. 


^j}> J <u or *j^ aj I used to go. 
^j^ j ij or ^^ aj thou usedst to go. 
J j <o or j^ Aj he, or it used to go. 

sji j ^ or ^^ <!i.j 

j^ j ^ or j^ <U 

 4a^ j ''^ or a]j^ aj 

3j^ J -i^ or Jj <o 

she, t7r it used to go. 


Jji! J aj or jj^J aj we used to go. 
(_£i^ J '^ or -^j^ aj you used to go. 
M. "jj^ J ''y or Jj^ aj 


^^ j aj or ^^ aj 
^J j '^ or ^_^^ ^ 

they used to go. 

J I ^ or ,^ ^ ,,, , ^ 

■^ > • -^ • Uhey used to go. 

^ii^ J ^ or ^y ^ 
* JJ j ^ or Jj^ «U 



Jpia^ ^^ Past Tense. 


(^J j or (*J J ^J or ^J I went. 
(^j^ j or ^J J 1^^^ or ^j'i thou wentest. 
M. j^ j or^^ he, or it went. 


F. Jjjil j or 4i^J ij^J j or :ij 

Jj^jor Jj^ 

she, <?r it went. 

'^J j °^ jj j jli^ 0^ ii^ we went. 
J^J j 0^ ^ii^ j jli^ or -^^ you went. 
M. ^^^J j or Ij Jj^ J or J^^J they went. 


they went. 

--V^ (^^* Perfect Tense. 





M. AND F. 

jW Jij or Jj jj jjJJj or jjjj I have gone. V ^JJ^ or 15 we have gone. 

^ JiJ or JJ oj ij-lL" or jjjj thou hast gone. J JI'; or Jj you have gone. 

iJ Jij or JJ ^_f J ijJJj or ^jJj he, she, it has gone. ^J JJj or ij they have gone. 

A-.*^ ^^ Pluperfect Tense. 




^j Jill or Jj 

^^ Jlj or JJ 

»J JJj or JJ 

|Vj j^Ilj* or ^i I had gone. 
^^J ijJJj or jjjj thou hadst gone, 
ij ijJJj or ijJj he, she, it had gone. 

5j Ji'J or Jj" we had gone. 
^j llj or Ji you had gone. 
M. U lij" or jjj they had gone. 
F. ^j orj jiii; or Jj they had gone. 


J^ _^ I should go. 

^U- .^^ 1st Future Tense. 


1.2. j^ we should go. 
o^j}^ thou shouldst go. J^ J^ you should go. 

^^ J j)! or ^ j^ -J iU^ he, she, it should go. ^ ^ j^ or ^ j^J J ^ they should go. 

J-sib-w*^ 2nd Future Tense. 



jJSi <Li j^ or *ij j^ <u 4j I will go. 
oji) <sj j1 or /^.i j^ <)ij cCi" thou wilt go. 
^.i ij jl5 or ^-1 j^ Aj <Uj& he, she, it will go. 


or li j^ <o jy* we will go. 
&j Ji or «.! j^ <b ^^U you will go. 
Ji) <0 .^ or -^ ^^ iO aj^A they will go. 




cjUu Subjunctive or Aorist Tense. 


Ji) jl3 I may, shall, or will go. ^ j^ "^^ ^lay, shall, or will go. 

^<1 j^ thou may est, shalt, i|*' j^ 7^^ iii^7> shall, cir will go. 
or wilt go„ 

wi) j^ he, she, it may, shall, \^ j^ ^^^^7 ^^y> shall, or will go. 

c>r will go. 




' ^ " ,,o " ,^(1 may have gone. 

j^. <u J]j- or Ji- ' -^ ^ 

M. oj *u ^jJJj or ^jJo 

..v. ,- thou mayest have gone. 
F. oS 4^ J]j or Ji-) ^ ^ 

M. ^^ aj jjJJj or jjJj|he, she, it may have 


CSJjU j^U Doubtful Past Tense. 

V tu jJJj" or Ji we may have gone. 
J <!U J]j or Jj you may have gone. 
1^^ *J ,jJj or -Ju they may have gone. 


-^ aj Ji:; or Jj') gone. 

<uL^ 1^^ Past Conditional Tense. 



JJj or JJ ai had I gone. 
(^UJ or ^ ii hadst thou gone. 

ci^ or <0' a^ had he, or it gone. 
<dlj or <d!; J^ had she, or it gone. 

dij or d^ <^^ had we gone. 
«Uj or ^|1j ii had you gone. 
M. "ilj or JlJ i^\ 
F. J]J or JJ J^^^ ^^^y ^^"^- 


^^ Imperative Mood. 

a;a. or <U> JJ or aLl j^ go thou. ^ji or ^j-i. jj or ^^ j^ go you. 

. ^ J J or , Ji ,13 J <U&1 let him, her, , ^ J ,^ or , ^ i)! j iUa^ 

i^-J lT-*- V ^r^->* ^r^-»- .Met them go. 

J . ^ or . ^ J ajcfcj it go. " '""  '    

J ^ or ^a. o ajdbj 


JU- Present. 


F. M. 

*^ Jill *-ij 15-^' I can go. 
(^ Jij* (^ jjJij' thou canst go. 
^^ Jij -^ ^JJj he, she, it can go. 


1^ JJj' we can go. 
^ JJj you can go. 
^ lb' they can go. 



^^U Past. 


F. M. 

(•r^ JL' 1*^ ^j\}j I could go. jy, ^^ we could go. 

^r^ Jij ^^^ jlij thou couldst go. ^ ^^ you could go. 

*p» Jb' a-i jjJJj he, she, it could go. F. ^ iij M. ii "llj they could go. 

tJ*ic^*M . i> Future. 


M. AND F. 

jU. i^ ^jJij or jji, jJJj ^ ij W shall be p ^o ^ or p JJJ .u l^ we shall be 

F. p-i ij Jij' or jU> i^llJ" aj irj ) able to go. able to go. 

M.^ ^ ijUj or ^ ■JiJ ^ <G" ) thou wilt be ^ cO ^UJ or ^ JJj <o [^li" you will be 

F. ^^ aj Ji'J or 1^ JJj aj ii" j able to go. able to go. 
M.^ ^ i^^Jlf or ^ ^jJJj aj <u^ he, or it will be 

able to go. J:i a.j iiy or Ju JJj <ij ajta> they will be 

F. ^ aj JiJ" or j^ Jii aj a^iji) she, (9r it will be able to go. 

able to go. 

JxU ^\ The Agent. 


1, 1- ./.,-" ,o ^/,o the goer. M. and F. J^ or J:i^ goers. 

I' ^ •• •• 

J^jtL* *-j1 Past Participle. 


F. j5 or Jij M. '^ or ^-UJ? gone. M. and F. ^ or ^^' gone. 

iU *«sl Noun of Fitness. 

^, O x' ^, , o •- , o / 

JJ" J or Jb" J ; ^" J or ^L" J of, or for going, etc. 

404. Conjugation of the irregular intransitive ^i^ khatal^ ' to ascend.' 

jjua^ Infinitive. 

Jiisi- ' to ascend.' 

Jls^ Present Tense. 


*.sari- or ^-^ I ascend, y^^ o^ )y^ "^^ ascend. 

^ys^ or Cs'yP^ thou ascendest. ,J?^ <^^' lJJ^ ^^^ ascend. 

^^^snj>. or ^cjs^ lie, she, it ascends. ^^^^ or ^^j:ri>■ they ascend. 



j\j*:-^\ ^\^ Imperfect Tense. 


or *:ir5- I was ascending. 


oL^ or °^J>- tliou wast ascending. 
M. c:j^>- he, or it was ascending. 

F.  i\zj>. or iz^ she, or it was ascending. 

*^s>- or '^:J>. we were ascending. 



you were ascending. 



^yxd^ or 
2nd Form as Continuative Tense. 

^'Iri^ or J-:.ri- they were ascending. 

^r^ or o:irU ^ 

' , i they were ascending. 



j Jw< or ♦:;Lr^ j ''^ I used to ascend. 

1::.^;- I Aj or °^:>~ j <L> thou usedst to ascend. 


F. Aiir 

iliri- J iU or 'j:J>. j dj we used to ascend. 
^Ic^ J ij or (j::^ J ^ you used to ascend. 
:^ j dj he, cr it used to ascend. M. ^'l^ J ij or Jj^rJ- J jj they used to ascend. 

F. ^^ or |j::>r^ J ^ 
J:i£^ or ci 

aj or icj>- j ^ she, or it used to ascend. 

or^^ j ^1 

they used to ascend. 


^U Past Tense. 



♦i::^ 5 or * 

:U J I ascended. 

* or i:xj^ j we ascended. 

J or o:xiw j thou ascendedst. 


'^^ j 

he, or it ascended. 
dkrU j or aj^ri- j she, or it ascended. 



«L>- j or ^j::^ j you ascended. 
<0'l>. J or J:^^ J they ascended. 

J::^ or i.::.^^- J 

they ascended. 


4-^j^j j^'^* Perfect Tense. 

F. M. 

*j Jixri.- *.j LC-^'^^^ I ^^^^^ ascended. V (cJ'^=>^ we have ascended. 

tV J-^^^ lV Li^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ascended. J ^.J^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ascended. 

sJ J:;d- t_?j (ji.:xri- he, she, it has ascended. ^_^J lJ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^® ascended. 

j^^ (^-^^ Pluperfect Tense. 


F. M. 

(♦j Jiiri- |*j jjl'.i>- I had ascended. Jj ^_5i«;:^ we had ascended. 

^^^ J:iri- ^j (J-^^ t^^ou hadst ascended. ^^ lS^^^^ you liad ascended. 

i>} J:i:>- ij tj-^-^^^ ^^' she, it had ascended. F. j f)^^^ ^^- jj ■s^'^'^ ^^^7 ^^^^ ascended. 



U.- t-*\ 1st Future Tense. 


♦.sari. J or AJ:?^ j I should ascend. 


jrs^rk J or Jjr:^ J we should ascend. 




^>^ J 

thou shouldst ascend. 


j or ^-r^ J you should ascend. 

jcj:?^ '^^ J or ^j:^i>- j <^ 'Uto I he, she, it should^j-^ <::? J o^ i_?j^ j ':^ ^^ 1 ^^^^7 should 

J or ^^^.sn^ J l3 aijb ) ascend, 





J.Jb^.< Second Future Tense. 




Cjrr . J cj^ ^  '^\\ will ascend. 
,,»^:>- <L' J or /¥s:\^ j 

osn-ri^ dj J or j^sn^ri. J dij <xj' ) ascend. 
- j*rs.. <o j or ^%;;:>- J ^ 'i^ I lie, she, it will 
^5s^>. <u j or (fi^^j ^, ^ ) ascend. 

dj J or ,°zU:^ i dj (Hj ) thou wilt 
dj J or osn^ri. j <!,: <xj' 

jj-rL aj j or ji^ J jj ,y« I we will 

isnp^ '^ j or 3^^ j ''^ ^^ ) ascend. 

j^j*rs- ^ j or ^j;r^ j 't' u^^ ) you will 

1^^ ''^ j or (j^.^ j <>J (jwlj ) ascend. 

^yp- ''^ j or ^'y^ j <u aj^A I they will 

^j^ji" <V j or i£-=sari- j aj ajt& ) ascend. 


cj\.„a^ AoRiST Tense. 


,^ri^ j or *J*ri- j I may, or shall ascend. 3^^ J °^' jj^^ J ^^ "^^y' ^^ ^^^^^ ascend. 

^s:v>. j or ^U:>- 3 thou mayest, or shalt ascend. ^v?ar^ j or ^U^ j you may, or shall ascend. 
^sn.:>. j or ^tr^ j he, she, it may, or shall ascend. ^^^^.:>- J or ^j^ j they may, or shall ascend. 

{JSSAj , <^U Doubtful Past Tense. 



F. M. M. AND F. 

*j <o Jzj>~ *j aj ,^l:i:>- I may have ascended. V. <V ij^^ "^^ ^^J ^^^® ascended. 

V ''~' <J^^ L^ ''^ lc^'^^ ^^^°^ mayest have ascended. J ^ lj^^ y^^ ™^y ^^^^^ ascended. 

. dj J:i^ lJ^ ^- ls"^^^^ he, she, it may have ascended. ^^ ^ lJ^^^ they may have ascended. 

iUs^ ,^'^* P^ST Conditional Tense. 


Airs, a^ or *:ij>. 

a^ had I ascended. 

a«^ hadst thou ascended. 

M. *-K>^ ^ ^^^ ^^' '^'^ ^^ ascended. 

F, adiiri. a.^ or aori- i^ had she, or it ascended. 


^ had we ascended. 


jbri. a^ or ji. 

^jb^ a^ or ^d^ a^ had you ascended. 

M. al;l:5^ ao or J:ir^ aj had they ascended. 

F. ^^ or ^ri~ ^~) 

J:;:>- or L::.-^r^ a^ 

^ Miad they ascended. 


^ Imperative Mood. 

aL:sks- or a^r*^ j ; i 



or ij. 

ascend thou. 

«rsari. J or ^'r^ J ascend you. 

i^ ^ j or j:^ J J ^|let him, her, U^ J j or j^ j j ^4| 
y-^ ^ "T^ ^ V , ^ ^ T^ .Met them ascend, 

-^ri. J j or jr^^ j ^ ''^■51'' it ascend. itfSa:>> J J or jc^-=^ j ^ '^-' 

J'o>. Present. 



Ji J.i>. *Ji Li-^<^=>^ I c^^ ascend. 
^^ J:;^^ ^-1 lt^'-^^ t^ou canst ascend. 
J^ fjs^^ J^ lt^-^ ^^> ^^^' i*' ^^^ ascend. 

M. AND F. 

1^ ^::^ wc can ascend. 
*<i Jj^ you can ascend. 

J:) Lji^^^ they can ascend. 



^-tfU Past. 


*P^ J):xs>. or j*^ rc^^^^^ I could ascend. J^ i.J^^'^ ^^ could ascend. 

^p, J::c>- or ^^!i Li-^-^i^ ^^0^^ couldst ascend. J.y- ^"-^^ you could ascend. 

M. aJi, jji:;^:^- lie, or it could ascend. M. ^ ,,j^^^=^ or Jj-^ cS^"^^^ ^^^^^ could ascend, 

F. ipi) Jc^ she, or it could ascend. F. yi J:^:?- tliey could ascend. 

J-Ji::-.U'« Future. 


M. AND F. 


jj^ <0 iJ-^^^=^ or ^ (J-^-^=^ ^'^ ij ) I shall, or will be j-i lj^-^^^ '^ j^'^ | '^o shall, or will be 

F. *i <!j J:xs^ or ♦i J::>r^ <0 ^j ) able to ascend. 1^ <0 ,J^i^ or ) able to ascend. 

M. ^ ^ lJ"^-^^^ ^^' (^ (J-^^ ''^ '^' I tlioushalt, or wilt ^.i ^.^^-^^^ ''^. U^^' 1 yo^^ shall, or will 

F. o-i <0 Ju^ or o^ J:;«^ ^u tO" ) be able to ascend. ^j^ ^ <„J^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^-^^ ^^ ascend. 

, , - \ he, she, it shall, ^ lid- tU AjO) ) they shall, or will 

M. ^ Jj ^1;^ or ^ -I:;^ ^) dAib ^ ^rf^ ' 

"^  ^ ../ Sr* • ^ I ^^, ^yjll l3g able -^ Aj , li>^ or ) be able to ascend. 

F. ^^ ^ j::.:>~ or Jij J:;Lri- aj AxJb k c5. • i-?^ 

to ascend. 
Jxli wl The Agent. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

,ju^ or uli^j^:;^ ^'yx:^- or ^Jliy:^ the ascender. ijy^^ or iX'j-^ ^^^^ ascenders. 

J^xjU ,*-c1 Past Participle. 


F. Jc^d- M. iJ-i^^ ascended. M. and F. ,)^^-^ ascended. 

c:-iU >-ol Noun of Fitness. 
M. and F. c:„-v=i^ "I) or ^x6-~ j ; Ju^i- j or ^l^d- J of or for ascending. S. and P. 

405. The following is a paradigm of a regular intransitive verb, according to 

the system of the Arabian and Hebrew GrammarianSj as referred to at paragraph 

208. The active participle denotes the agent, and the passive jDarticiple the object 

acted on. The method of forming the different compound tenses by the aid of the 

auxiliary has already been explained in the analysis of the moods and tenses, which 


jj^^ Infinitive. 

Jji-iij zghaledal, * to run.' 

^^U Past Tense. 


M. ^'Nt^J J or JuLi; j he, or it ran. M. *'^^^; J or J>A-iij J they ran. 

F. ^'^•^j j or iJ^-iij j she, or it ran. F. J'^:^) J or J^-lij j they ran. 

M. and F. ^^0)Szj J or ^^^A-lij j thou didst run. M. and F. AslJ^j j or ^^-sA-i) J yoi-^ ran. 

M. and F. jJwV-Uj j or^jJ,ij j I ran. M. and F. '^-^j j or jjJxj j we ran. 


9j^"* AoRiST Tense. 


^_^Uj J he, she, it runs, or may run. ^j j they run, or may run. 

,^J j thou runnest, or may est run. ^U; I you run, or mav run. 

jj-ij J I run, or may run. jUj j we run, or may run. 

j^\ Imperative Mood. 


^^ , sT >' ^ " (let him, her, it run. ^ ' ' i^ ^T^ -J ' J let them run. 
J J^J or JJ^j c3.Ua) J lij or li ; o ^ ) 

Jij or aiij, Jij J or aiij j run thou, or do thou ^jUj or AJ^j j run you, or do 

run. you run, 

J-cli ^^ Active Participle. 


ST^ "J lTJJ •• J j-j^g runner. M. and F. "^^ " ^ the runners. 

F. ^^.xJLcj or (Jjsjjjuiij ; ' JjjJ.ij ) 

J^^-» .U-,.^ PASSIVE VOICE (used as the POTENTIAL MOOD). 

^^ Past Tense. 


M. <Li> , djuii; oricjJ.r;; he, or it could run. M. i^ or J»-w ^cjjj:;") 

^ ;■ f ", -T .-I ^ " ''they could run. 

F. ^.^ Jjk-«lij or A-Iij she, or it could run. F. .-i or J^ JaJ-cj.) 

M. j^j-i, djJ.i; or,JjJ.i;) ^(orjcjJji;) 

' o" '■ , " ", thou couldst run. M. and F. %»,^\ '"' " ^ > you could ran. 
F. ^^y- Jj..U; or j.-Iij) '^^ \ JjJ^jr 

M. ^^ ,dA-Lc; oriJjJ.i;i ^ (or^^sJ^;) 

r^ y •• ^ '• ■• ^ I could run. M. and F. J»-i -" " ^ we could run. 

F. M^ Jjk-iij or juUj) ^^ ( ^JjJxj) 

f;Ui'< AoRisT Tense. 


M. AND F. 

M. --i) ^jJjuic) or (JJ^J he, or it can run. ^ ^Jl.Uj or t^J^J they can run. 

F. Ji J-^r^; or A-i£j she, or it can run. 

M. ,o-i) ,-djk-li.; or i^jJ^j ) ,, , , , . , 

^ ^ ■• J »w •• > ) thou canst run. «-i) JjJ-r.; or icjulc; y 

F. ^ Jj^Aij or jJ^j ) <S^ ^,  J ^.  J i 

M. Ji) , djJ^; or (Jxli; ) ^ ,^11. 1 . 

r S? •• -^ "  -^ } I can run. li , JxJ^; or lcjJ-c; w( 

F. ^ Jju^lij or j.-Uj ) ^ ^.  ^ "^^  - 

^1 Imperative Mood. 


M. Jli ^jJA-lij J <^)i.^ 1 let him, or it be able ^ Li'^^^J - ''^^ ) ^^^ *^^"^ ^® ^''^^'^ *° 

^ J "jJwvUj or ) to run. ^^ J (J'^^J °^  ^""• 

F. Jii J-^A^; ^ <'J^ ) let her, or it be able 

J:, J Jj^A^J or ) to run. 
«)Li j or A^ jjJjkJjij be thou able to run. ^ j or ^ ^J'^^J ^^ you able to run. 

you can run. 

i'O can run. 


406. The following is the conjugation of the imperfect transitive verb J^ 
' to do ' 'to make,' or ' perform,' which is chiefly used as an auxiliary in forming 
the inflections of other verbs. The compound tenses are wanting. 

jJ^-j:,* Infinitive. 

J^ katvul^ ' to do.' 

JU- <U-«tf Peesent Tense. 


^^ I do. j^ we do. 

^^ thou doest. /^^ you do. 

jjl^ or l^ or ^^ he, she, it does. jjl^ or l^ or ^^ they do. 

.L,«iw-jl is^^ Impeefect Tense {Governing noun singular). 


F, <0^ etc. U M. ^CJ, ^, l^, ^)l^ ^ or <!jta>, l;, U I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. i^f etc. l^ M. uX a^, l^, ijl^ ^iJ5> or (j^l:-, l^;^^ we, you, they were doing. 

{^Governing noun plural). 


F. J^ etc. U M. J^ A-ifc or ^t>, b", U I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. J^ etc. ^^ M. J^ ^xa> or [jj^, jy% we, you, they were doing. 
Second Fokm — {Governing noun singular). 


F. ^^ etc. ^ M. li/or a^, l^, ^jl^ ^| or ^, ^ I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. ^^ etc. "y* M. cl/or <^, 1^, ijl^ ^| or y$, y* we, you, they were doing. 

{Governing noun plural). 


F. J^ etc. ^ M. J^^ ^1 or o, ^ I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. Jj^" etc. y* M. Jj^ ^ or yt, y* we, you, they were doing. 



cl/ j or l^ j, ^ J ^ etc. U or 'c/or l^, <^ <5j a^ or ^, b, U I, thou, he, it, she used to do. 


"cl/ j or l^ j, <^ j <sj etc. l^ or ^jj or l^, ^ ^ ^ or ^b", j^ we, you, they used to do. 

Second Foem. 


"cJ j or \^ j, *t^ j etc. ^_5^ aj or cL/ or l^, ^ J or o, ^_^ <u I, thou, he, it, she used to do. 



l!/ j or l^ j , ^ ^ etc. j^ <0 or ll^ or l^, a^ J or ^, j^ <u we, you, they used to do. 

jyJa^ ic^^ ^^^'^ Tense (M. and F.) 


"Liy or \i, A^ etc. U * or li/j or l^ j or .^ J, <^ or ^, li, U I, thou, he, it, she did. 


"Ll/ or l^, i^ etc.^j^ or 'Ll/ j or l^ J, ^ J ^ or ^b", l^ we, you, they did. 

Second Fokm. 


'cL/or l^, a^ etc. ^* or "c/or li, ^ J or J, ^^ J I, thou, he, it, she did. 


\L^ or l^, ^ etc. j,* or llJ' or li , ^^ J^or yi, y» ^ we, you, they did. 

-(sU.- -^\ 1st Futuke Tense. 


*^ J I should do. j^ J we should do. 

0$" J thou shouldst do. ^l you should do. 

\^ j J or jjl^ Jl L>, ^^ j J <UA I he, she, it should l^jjorjjl^jj, ^ ^ J ^Jt£> ) they should 
l^ jj or Ji3l^ JJ, ^ JJ ) do. l^ jj or jJl^ jj, 1^ J J i do. 

J-Jb.*«^ 2nd Future Tense. 



^ dj I or jS I <)j sj I will do. j^ <u j or ji j <o jj.< we will do. 

^ <ij J or j^ j aj aj thou wilt do. ^ ^ j or ^j^" J <u fj^\j you will do. 

l^ J (U or Jul^ 5 A.', , i J Aj ai& ) he, she, it will l^ J aj or Jcli i <o , , i 5 <l» <ujb ) 

-'• -^•'^-'- >'• - -^ -'^^ • they will do. 

l^ <b j or A3l^ <u j, j_g^ ^ J ) do. Is aj j or Joli <u j, ^^S ^ j ) 

tjLa^ AoEiST Tense. 


fS j I may, (?r shall do. j^ j we may, ^r shaD do. 

^ j thou mayest, or shalt do. ^ j you may, i?/- shall do. 

\^ j or JJl^ J , ^^ j he, she, it may, or shall do. l^ j or jjI^ j , ^^ J they may, or shall do. 

j^\ Impeeative Mood. 


«/ J or «/, a^ j or d^ do thou. ^/ j or ^/ or ^j3l> j, ^ '), ^ ^^ yo"- 

l^ j ^ or ^l^ j o, ^ J ^ ax^ j let him, her, ' l^ j /or ^l^ J ^, J'] ^ ^v.. j ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
\^ J j or Jol^ J j, ^^ Jj) it do. ir J j or jJli J j, ^^ j) 

^Jxlj *-;l The Agent. 


F. ,^^/ or cl5:3^/ ) ^../ ^ 

• The j (the sign of the past) is omitted at times in this tense ; but only when the verb is used as an auxiliary. 


LI j^^\ JSTouN OP Fitness. 

*^ J OTj^ J, J^ ^^ or ji^ J of, or for doing. 

iJuA^ Infinitive. 

jy k^rraly 'to do.' 

Jl^ ajt^ Pefsent Tense. 


^J I do. jj^ we do. 

^^ thou doest. ^^^ you do. 

^J he, she, <7r it does. ^J they do. 

j\j.4::^\ ig-^^ Imperfect Tense — {Governing noun singular). 


F. jJj^ or j^ or M.^^ ^ or ajtfc, Ij", U I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. (jJi^ or i^ or M. j^ ^ijfc or ^jwb', ^^ we, you, they were doing. 

{Governing noun plural). 


F. o!/ or a/ or M. ^}J> ^u^ or <UJ^, Ij, U I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. olj, or ^i" or M. Ji^ jjO) or (^.vlj', l^^ we, you, they were doing. 
Second Form — {Governing noun singular). 


F. <di' or &J, or M. i ,J or J, -^ I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. ^J> or iS 01' ^- j^ (J 01' j^> V* we, you, they were doing. 
Second Form — {Governing noun plural). 


F. A J, or ^f or M. J^ ^] or J, ^^ I, thou, he, it, she was doing. 


F. AJ, or ^^ or M. ^]J ^] or^, y« we, you, they were doing. 
Second Form of Imperfect as the Continuatite — {Governing noun singular). 


F. <ii^ j <Jj or i^ j aj or M. j^" j aj di^j or AjL*, li", U I, thou, he, it, she used to do. 


F. aj i j <ij or i^ j <u or M. ^ J a.^ yjt, or ijAj, jy* we, you, they used to do. 

{Governing noun plural). 


F. ^J ^ dj or ^^J ^ djoT M. J^ j ^ <Uj& or ^, \j, U I, thou, he, it, she used to do. 


F. AJ^ iJ or ^J ^ ^ or M. J^ j aj ^kjb or ^Ij, l^ we, you, they used to do. 


Second Foem — {Koun singular). 


F. ^^ j or i/ j etc. ^^ <u M. ^^ j J or c>, ^^ ^ I, thou, he, it, she used to do. 


F. 4/ j or i/ j etc. y. .0 M. / j J or ^•, j^ ^ we, you, they used to do. 

{Noun plural). 


^' djf 3 ^^" ^jf J ^*^- wT^V ^^- J/ J Li or t?' L5^ '^ I' thou, he, it, she used to do. 


^- dJ J °^ 4.-^ j ^^^- r* 'V M. J/ J J or J.,, j^ ^ we, you, they used to do. 
^jiia^ i^***-^ Past Tense — {For a noun singular). 


F. a!^ j or ij^ j or M. ^ j ^ or <^, b, U I, thou, he, it, she did. 


F. aJ^ j or *^ j or M. ^ J ^ or ^jj3,jy^ we, you, they did. 

[For a noun plural). 


F. ^^ j or 4{^ j or M. J/ J ^ or ^, \j, U I, thou, he, it, she did. 


^- dJ J °^ 0/ J '^^' M- J/ j ^ or u^'^yj^ we, you, they did. 
Second Foem — {For a noun singular). 


F. <d/ etc. ^ j or 2f^ etc. ^ j M. ^ J or j, ^ j I, thou, he, it, she did. 


F. ^^ etc. j.* j or sj etc. j^ j M. ^ J or ^, ^ j we, you, they did. 

{For a noun plural). 


F. ^^ etc. ^^ j or ^^^^ etc. ^ j M. J^ ^J or j, ^_^ j I, thou, he, it, she did. 


F. ^^ etc. 3^ j or ^^^ etc. y# J M. J^ ^] or ^,*, ^ J we, you, they did. 
c_-o Jj i^t* Peefect Tense — (i^or a noun singular). 


F. ij i" or M. ,_fj ^i* <U.& or <bta., U", U I, thou, he, it, she have done. 


^ 9 p 9 

F. iJ^ or M. ^_?J ij/ j*^ or (ju^l)', j^'* we, you, they have done. 

{For a noun plural). 


M. and F. ^j A ^ or aA>, \J, U I, thou, he, it, she have done. 


P 9 ^ 

M. and F. ^j^ la/^ °^ <->^^' ^* ^^' ^^^^ *^^'^^ ^^^'*^ ^^^^^' 


Second Foem — {For a noun singular). 


F, n^ jf or M. i^J y^S, (J or J, ^ I, thou, he, it, she have done. 


F. n^^ Ji or M. ^?J ^5^, ^J or^, y» we, you, they have done. 

{For a noun plural). 


M. and F. ^J -/ ,J or *_% ^ I, thou, he, it, she have done. 


M. and F. ^^J ^i* ^| or fc^, ^ we, you, they have done. 
JukXj LS*^^ Pluperfect Tekse — {The noun singular). 


F. s^J> or M. ij ^.$' dJ*^ or <Uji>, U, U I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


F. i^ J, or M. i*J ^<, ^ or j^l-, j^-* we, you, they had done. 

(The noun plural). 


M. and F. jj ^J ^ or <Ua, Ij, U I, thou, he, it, she had done. 



. and F. jj -^ ^i or ij^\j, '^■^ we, you, they had done. 
Second Form — {The noun singular). 


Y. s^ J, or M. ij ^^ ^] or J, ^^^ I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


F. ij J> or M. ij (Jj^ ^J or^, y* we, you, they had done. 

{The noun plural). 


M. and F. jj ^J, ^ or J, ,^ I, thou, he, it, she had done. 

^^ at 


M. and F. J^ ^^ ^ or y#, L* we, you, they had done. 
j^\s=^ y*\ First Future Tense. 


1*^ J I should do. j^ j we should do. 

^^Ji j thou shouldst do. ^S J you should do. 

^J ^ J or .^ j Ji iJcb he, she, it should do. ^£ j j or ^J, j J <ua they should do. 

^Ji:;,***.^ Second Future Tense. 


^^ 't^ J or ^J j dj aj' thou wilt do. -^^ ^ j or ^J j aj (juu'j you will do. 

i_f>/ ^ 3 °^' L^j^ j <!^ <^ he, she, it will do. ~J <o j ^ j ^ <u^ they will do. 


u_xXiJ ^-^^ Doubtful Past Tense — {Noun singular). 


^' ^^ J ^ ^^ ^' ^3 <3J '^ '^^ or ^, b', U I, thou, he, it, she may have done. 


^' ^ijf ^ ^^ ^' u/J ^jf ^ >** °^' U^^> jy* we, you, they may have done. 

{JVoun plural) . 


M. and F. .^ J ^ iJ^ or ^J(^ \J , [^ I, thou, he, it, she may have done. 


^ P p P 

M. and F, ^^ .^ ^j yCb or jj.ub", ^^ we, you, they may have done. 

Second Form — {Noun singular). 



^' L^3 J^ ^^^* j"* ^- °^' ^' L.^^ ij>/ "J *^^' J'*' 3^ 'V W6, you, they may have done. 


^c_j (c/ (J 0^' 9' ^5"* "^ ■'■' ^^0^' ^^^' i^' ^1^6 may have done. 


s^-J L^>/ iJ or^^, j^ aj we, you, they may have done. 
^^jJ^ LS*^^* ^^^^ Conditional Tense — {Noun singular). 


F. ^\^ or ^jj, etc. U a^ M. 4^\j or ^^^ (J^^ &Jub or aoi.a, Ij', U ^ if I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


F, ^\% or ojj^ etc.j^.-. i^ M. ^J\^ or ^ij yj^J yCb or ^Ij",^^^ a^ if we, you, they had done. 

{Noun plural). 


M. and F, ^\^ or ^^ ^J dk^ or <U.a, \J, U dS" if I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


M, and F. ^5^^ or ^^ ^J ^ia or ^^Ij", \^u.-c i^ if we, you, they had done. 

Second Foem — {Noun singular). 


F. ^\, or i^» / etc. . ^ ^ M. ^J^ or t^. ,j/ A or J, ^< aS" if I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


F, i^\j or ^jj etc, j^ (i^^ M. ^_f^j or ^^ ^^J ^] or ^*, ^^ <);^ if we, you, they had done. 

{Noun plural). 


M. and F. ^\j or ^^ .J J or J, ^^ <i^ if I, thou, he, it, she had done. 


M. and F. ^\j or ^^ ^J> ,J or^, j^ a.^ if Ave, you, they had done. 




Imperative Mood. 



ii" or ij j do thou . 
^^ J j or ^J, j J i^xk let him, her, it do. 


< J 

or ^.S" 1 J tUJs let them do. 

Uli *-j1 The Agent. 




i . ,^ or , -'S:! . ,^"" 

Li^vj Li- -?>I fthe doer. 


i or 

M. aud F 


'^^ ^^ Khe doers. 



F. / M. ^j done 

Past PAETicirLE. 





M. and F. ^^ done. 

j1 !N'oti]N' of Fitness. 
M. and F. .$' j or j i" j J^ j °^^li^ J of c»r for doing. S. and P. 

J Is- Peesent Tense. 




♦ij ^5^<' I am done, 
o-i ^JJ$' thou art done. 
^ ^^ he, she, it is done. 

M. AND F. 

i-i ^^ we are done, 
'-i ^^ you are done. 
-..i ^^ they are done. 

\ ^-^ ^jt« Impeefect Tense. 






M. AND F. 

j*^ ^ i^ I was doing'. 
i^y^ ci/ ^^^ou wast doing. 
a.<ii ^J> he, ^r it was doing. M. 

.^^-i) i^ she, <9r it was doing. F. J »Jj or j-i ^^i 

Seconb Fokm for Contintjative Tense. 

J^ ^^ we were doing. 
_^^Jb ^S> you were doing. 

' * or t ■'■ ^"^ 

J^ ^ ^-* 'they were doing. 




M. AND F. 


I used to be doing. 

J^ -c/ j '^ ^'® ^^^^ *'*^ ^^^ doing. 

^yij ^J j aj thou usedst to be doing. i^ ^^j^" J ^; you used to be doing. 

<U, i;^/ i <kj he, wit used to be doing. iIiorJ»-i ^/ J ^j) 

^••^ ^  ^ o c. V-* ^  J they used to be doing. 

jjyi) or iyi) J ^ <^ she, 6>r it used to be doing. J^i ^ ^_g^ J cU J 

(J^^ 15**^* ^^^"^ Ten 


o '• C ' 


*j^ ^^ j 1 was done. 

M. AND F. 

j^j-i ^^ j thou wast done. 
jJi) ^j^ J he, 6>r it was done. 
<Jj.i> or i^ J J she, cr it was done. 

jj-i txr j we were done. 

lJj*' tAJ j 3^°^ were done. 

'5-i or J»^ ^/ n 

^o c '^ ^[- they were done. 


r '.^- 




^st* Peefect Tense. 
F. M. M. AND F. 

^' y^ J (*^- ^3-^ <4J ^ ^^^^ ^®*^^ ^0^®- JtI ^5L^^ ^f/ we have been done. 

^y^J ^ S^J-^ 4/ ^^^°^ ^^^^*^ ^^^° ^°^^- iJ ls3'^ ^jf you ^^'''e been done. 

c_?j 4_$-^-i ^5^ he, or it has been done. j^j ^^-i ^^ they have been done, 

i J ^ ji she, w it has been done. 

wV--*.' j<«*^ Plupeeeect Tense. 


F. M. 

j*j^ ^ *j tj'^-w ^5^ I had been done. M. and F. j. ^^^ ^J we had been done. 

^ . »-i ji j^j ^yJ:> ^jf thou hadst been done. M. and F. j.^ .^ ^J, you had been done. 

il i-i>^ ij/ he, (?r it had been done. M. j» ^yL ^J> they had been done, 

s. ^-i^i' she, (9r it had been done. F. * ^^ ^J they had been done. 

-sis- ^\ 1st Futuee Tense. 


M. AND F. 

F. *1^ j M. *2 ^J ^ I should be done. ji ^^ j we should be done. 

F. iV^xJ ^^- ^ Jj^ j thou shouldst be done. J-^ c^/ j you should be done. 

M. , -i lJ/ o ^ or , -J:, ^/ ^ w^ ^•i.fe he, or it should be , c-^ ^/ W ''"-^ ) ^ , , , , , 
L^ Srivl" - ^ lT" ^?J ^ ' ^, ^s :> ^ ^l^gy should be done. 

done. ^- ^/ J J or ) 

^- ls^ j "^ ^ °^* ls"^ J i - '^^^ she, «9r it should be done. 

J}^h.^jj^^ 2nd Ftjttjee Tense. 


M. AND F. 

r^ • y^r ; J ..^ J ^ ) I ^vlll be done. ^ ^ \. > we will be done. 

F. ^-i ^^ j or jU. j^ j ^u .J ) p ^o ^/ j or ) 

M. ^ ^ 4/^ - ^^ 0/ J ^ '^^^ I ^^-- -il^' ^^ 4- ^i V ^^^ ! you -ill be done. 
F. ^<uJ^or^J^^j<ij) done. ^^ ^'. ^J ^ ^^ ) 

M. ^ ^ (i/ j 01' ^^ Li/ j '^^ '^^ lie, or it ^vill ^_^ ^J J ^J '^^ 

be done. -i 'V .g/ j oi' 

^' L^ '"•' J J °^' lS^ j ^^ iJt^ she, orit will be done. 

c, iLi* AoEisT Tense. 


■p ]yj M. AND F. 

^J } ^ 4/ j ^^°'' mayest, or shalt be done. ^^ *// J ^^^^ ^^^' ^^ ®^^^^^ ^^ ^^°"''" 

they will be done. 


LLJ^Sji.'.' ^-^\-« DOITBTFUL PasT TeNSE. 

F. M. M. AND F. 

^ <h ^ J >j aj ^^ ^J I may have been ^ ^ .^2, ^J we may have been done. 

oj <o^ j^ ^ <!U ^^i ^J^ thou mayest have ^ ^j .^2 ^^ you may have been done. 

been done. 
^ ij ^J ^ ij ^yL ^J, he, she, it may .^ ay ^^ ^J they may have been done. 

have been done. 

duL-i (<>^^'* Past Conditional Tense. 


M. AND F. 

M. ^\j or ^j ^^ y^^ ij ii\\i \ had been ,J\^ or ^^ ^^ .^ l^« J.^ If we had been 

F. t_f ^j or ^^ y^ ^ i\ ^ ) done. done. 

M. yj\^ or t_ij tjji ^J, aj a^ ) If thou hadst ^\^ or t_fj ^^ ^^ ^Ij a^ If you had been 

F. 4^1j or tjrj j-i) J> a.: ^i^ ) been done. done. 

M, ^J\^ or cs^ t/j-i ^5^" <)jt& d^" If he, or it had ^\^ or ^jj ^^ ^^ ^Jcb i^ If they had been 

been done. done. 

F. ^-Ij or tJj yii J> <Ufe a^ If she, or it had been done. 

j,%\ Impeeatiye Mood. 


M. AND F. 

M. ^ ^/ or A-i ^<, I) Jr" ^c/ i ) , 

" ^ "^, ^ ) be thou done. -' /^ \ be you done. 

F. .U^^or^/jj ^ ^/or ) 

M. , ^ ls/ J J or -i Ji" J J Aii. let him, oritbe done. , Ji. ./ J J ^vxi> ) 

^ '^^/ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ^-^Z ^ let them be done. 

F. ^ ^ J j or -1 y j J aAj> let her, or it be done. ^^ .^ J J or ) 

Jyti^ »,J\ Past Participle. 


Y. ^ J M. ^^1 ^J^^" become done. M. and F. .^JL ^J, become done. 

407. Conjugation of a transitive verb which rejects the prefix J, 

)Xn^ Infinitive. 
Jj] ^j mw-rr^^, 'to bring.' 

i_i^y^ Ai.^ ACTIVE VOICE. 
^jt* Past Tense — {Governing noun singular). 


F. i^j^]\j or ij^j\j M. j_jlj U or I:, ^x&, iScb he, she, it, thou, I brought. 


F. i^j^]\j or ij\\j M, j^''^\j jy^ or ^^Ij, ytL they, you, we brought. 


( Governing noun plural). 


F. Jj^^j ^^ JLi^J ^' ^J.i'J ^^ Jj^b ^ °^ ^^ > ^^> ^^ ^®> ^^®' ^^' thou, I brought. 


F. Jj;|; or j^U M, i(^^|^ or Jj^|^ l^:^« or j^b" , ^a they, you, we brought. 

Second Form — {Governing noun singular). 


F. ^j^^ or ij^t\j M. j^]\j ^ or J, ^J he, she, it, thou, I brought. 


F. 'Jjib or ij^\j M. j^lj ^ or ^^, ^J they, you, we brought. 
' ( Governing noun plural). 


F. Jj^b or jjlj M. Jj^l^ 1^^ or J, ^ he, she, it, thou, I brought. 


F. Jjj\; or j.^ M. Jj^l^ j^ or j^, ^^, they, you, we brought. 

cjLi^ AoEiST Tense. 


..^1^ he, she, it may bring, or brings. ^vh ^^^7 ™^y bring, or bring. 

^li^J ^^^^ mayest bring, or bringest. (Ai.?!; 7°^ ^^7 bring, or bring. 

^j^l^ I may bring, or bring. ^^^i^ we may bring, or bring. 


Li'J-J - b ^^ tXi-^b - ''^ ■^^^ ^^^ ®^^' ^^^^S- cjjb t;'' ''""^ ^^t ^^^°^ bring, 

^^b ^^ ^j-jb ''^ bring thou. ^J,3^J u^^ bring you. 

Jj:li f^\ The Agent. 


^' ^-'-^o ^ f" ''-''^'!^ I the bringer. M. and F. ^/ '^i-' the bringers. 



F. M. " F. M. 

^j^ ov s^li j^^\j ^ (Jj^b he, etc. was brought. Jj-i or^j ^^^^^ j-i> (_£i.jb they were brought. 

Apj j)^ v^yi> Lij^b ^^°^ "^^^t brought. M. and F. ^^i ^j^b i^'°" ^^^^'"^ brought. 

*yj j'^\j j*^ s5j5b ^ ^^^ brought. M. and F. j^ uxi^b ^^® ^^'^^^ brought. 

SINGULAR. Second Foeji. plural. 

F. M. F. M. 

i^ ^j^\)OTSj^\j '^jjb he, etc, was brought. J^ JiJb*^^J^b j-^ Jx*b they were brought. 

Api 4i.5b°^^J^b ^^ jib ^^^^ ^^^^ brought. ^^2 Jjib^^J^b u^^ <-li.^b 7°^^ ^^^^^ brought. 

^_ji ^^jj\j OT !(jj\j pi jjlj I was brought. j^ Jj^^ or^^l; j^-^ Jj^b ^^ ^^^^ brought. 


cjUi^ AoRisT Ten-se. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

\J^ ih (_j^ L5i?j ^^^' ^^^•' ^^ ^^°^8'^^' ^'' ^ ^j^\; they are brought, ormay be brought. 

may be brought. 

Lj--" J^b lV-* sli-^b ^^^^ ^^"^ brought, or ^ L/J^b you are brought, (prmay be brought. 

mayest be brought. 

>-ii j^^j *-ij cSj^b I ^"^ brought, or may j-i ti^jb ^^® ^^^ brought, or may be brought. 

be brought. 

Second Form. 


F. M. r. M. 

^ 4i^b^i'^j)b i5*^J^b lie, etc. is brought, etc. ^ Jjib^^J^l; c5^ Ji^b they are brought, etc. 
^ 4i?l'°^'^j-jl' (>^Jjb *^°^ ^^^ brought, etc.^ Jj^^^^Jy'b l^ Jjib you are brought, etc. 
♦-i ''^jjL' ^^' ^J^b H' jib -^ ^^ brought, etc. i^ Jj;b ^^ jjb j-^ Jj^'b ^^'^ ^^® brought, etc. 

y%\ Imperative Moob. 


F. AND M. 

M. -i J s^Jjb ^^ (_?*" S^J-^b '^ ^ -^^*^ ^^™' '^^ ^^ ^^ brought. ^^ ^jjb - ''^ ^^'^ them be brought. 
F. J:^ "^ j,^j or ic-i* j^^_; 9 ^^ let her, (9/'it be brought. -i J i^jv'b let them be brought. 
F. ^ j,^j ^ M. «iLi tii^«\; ^ be thou brought. ^ uSivb t^^" ^^e you brought. 

J^jxi^ *«j1 Past Participle. 

F. _j^ j^^ M. t_^yi (Jjjb l^rought. M. and F. .yi ^^*\j brought. 

408. Conjugation of a derivative transitive verb, formed from an adjective by 
the addition of Jj, which requires the aid of the verbs J^ or J/ 'to do,' in forming 
its different inflections. See paragraph 285. 

• Jk^^ Infinitive. 
J^4 ddakawul^ ' to fill.' 
^ij^ ^i--* ACTIVE VOICE. 
, ^t* Past Tense. 


F. i^< or i^ i^S"^ M.y cl>4i U or Ij' cs^, ^ he, she, it, thou, I filled. 


F. <i.^ or i<> d<>^ M.^ l1,<^ l^'* or ^^Ij', ^ they, you we filled. 

{^Governing noun plural). 


F. ^}J ovj CS^ M: ^J lI/^ l„ or Ij, <UJ6, ^ he, she, it, thou, I filled. 


F. ^J or J C/^ M. JiJ cLf^ l^.y* or ^Ij, y^ they, you, we filled. 



Second Form — {Governing noun singular). 


F. dJ/ or ij i^^ M.J CJ^ ^^ or J, J he, she, it, thou, I filled. 


F. i^J or ij ^^ M.^ cS^ j^ or j^, J they, you, we filled. 

{Governing noun plural). 


F. J^^ or^ C/^ M. J/ lL<^ ^ or j, J he, she, it, thou, I fiUed. 


F. J/ or^ CJ^i ^- J/ ^^ 3- or V J ^^1^7' yo"^ we filled. 

cjLi« AoEisT Tense, 


F. M. P. M, 

^jf i^^ ^J CJ^ he, etc., fills, or may fill. ^J CS^ ^J ^:J^ they fill, or may fill. 

^ ^^ ^J ^<^ thou fillest, or may est fill. ,^J ^^ j/ c/s> you fill, or may fill. 

Cl ^^ (tr ^^ ^ fi^^' ^'' ^^y ^^- ]j ^'^ 1/ '^'^ we fill, or may fill. 

j.^«^ Imperative Mood. 


M. .J J CJ^ or ^^^ ul/^ J ^ let him, or it fill. M. ^^ j ul/^ or ^ l!/^ j ^-i^ let them fill. 
F. ^<. J c^^ or ^^ c^^ J <ujfe let her, or it fill. F. ^J j u/^ or ^J CS^ j ^ let them fill. 
F. ^ij ^^ ^- M. ^^ d/^ ^- fiU thou. F. J/ l1/^ ^Ij- m". j/lL^^ ^-^l:- fill you. 

Jxli *.-;l The Agent. 


F. ^^/^ or LliO^/4 M. ^_j/^ or jili^/^ the filler. M. k F. J.^./^ or ^Jli^./^ the fillers. 

^^t« Past Tense, 


M. lL ^i (JXj he, or it was filled. M, l.^ or J^.,ij ^i^ l1/^ they were filled. 

F, iiiyL or iy^ J> ^^ she, or it was filled, F. J^ or yL ^i^ l1^^ they were filled. 

F. ^^^i^ i^^ M. ^^^ ^^^ C/^ thou wast filled. ^^ ^J lI/^ you were filled. 

F. j,^ J d^^ M, j*p, ^J/ u/^ I was filled. "jy^ ^^^ e/^ we were filled. 

Second Fokm. 


F. M. F. M. 

*^ i^J^ jJi, ijlS'^ he, etc., was filled. Jpi Jj^>i J_j-ij J/^ tliey were filled. 

^yJi) ^J^ ^^yi yjl^^ thou wast filled. j^ J^^ ^Jpj J/,^ you were filled. 

*^ i]J^ *yi, ijl^4 I was filled. jy- J/.^ j^- J/.^ we were filled. 


^■jl.^ AoEisT Tense. 


F. M. F, M. 

^j<<i^^ 1^ ^^^ Ll/i^ he, etc., is filled, etc. ^^ ^_sj '^'^ ^^ .^ l1/^ they are filled, etc. 

^ ^- ^^ ^ Li/ i^s) thou art filled, etc. ^ ^i CS^ ^ ^ i^ (JX> you are filled, etc. 

J:^ < 6^^ ^ ^^J CS^ I am filled, etc. ^ ^^ l!/^ jJi, -^ lI/^ we are filled, etc. 

Second Form. 


F. M. F. M. 

-i dJ^,^ 1^ yjl<'^ he, etc., is filled, <?r may J- Jji^ ^^ J^.^ they are fiUed, or may 

be filled. " ^ '" be filled. 

^ aJji^ o-i ijl^^ thou art filled, <?r mayest ^ J^^ ^^^Ij J^^ you are filled, or may 

be filled. " " be filled. 

»-i aJ^^ ^^ ijl^^ I am filled, or may be j-i J^^^ li J^^^ we are filled, or may 

filled. ^ be filled. 

_^1 Impeeative Mood. 

M. or ^ yj^J CJ^ 9 ^rjb\ let him, etc., be M. or ^ ^J l1/^ j ^a| let them be 

■"^ ^ L5/ ^^ ^ filled. "'^'j ^/ Lir^ i filled. 

F. or (_^j^ ^.^ J ^xii I let her, etc., be F. or ^J^ .J, C/^ t> ajtj&\ let them be 


^ ^^J ^^^ ) fiUed. l5^ ^ a/ ^'^ ' ^^^^- 

"^^ ^ be thou filled. sT '/-^ i^ be you filled. 

F, or .Li / <^^ ^j ) F. or , ---i .i Cili , J^ \ 

^ , , be thou filled. ^ ^^ . ^ be you fiUed. 

J»>tL* ^«;^ Past Paeticiple. 


Y.^J ^^ M. ^^i ^^ d/^ become filled. F. ^^ ^J ^^ M. ^^ ^ d/>i become filled. 

409. Conjugation of a regular causal verb JjjJ^T dlwuzawul^ ' to cause to fly,' 
formed from the present tense of the infinitive JJ^T ' to fly.' 

^<5^^ iJ^^ ACTIVE VOICE. 
^-it* Past Tense — {Governing noun singular). 


F. 4jJ^^^ ■^^- ^Jli^l? U or Ij", <Ui>, <ijta> he, she, it, thou, I caused to fly. 


9 9 9 

F. 4?;^\? 1'^- ^'h^^^ jy* °^ U^^' -^'^ ^^^y* ^^^' ^^ caused to fly. 

{Governing noun plural). 


^- JjlJ^^J ^' J>''>*'!^ ^ 0^ ^'' ^' ^ 1^^' ^1^®' ^*' ^^°^^' -^ caused to fly. 


F. Jjjjj!^^ M. J^ijjl^j l^ or ij-jb", ^ they, you, we caused to fly. 


Second Poem — {Governing noun singular). 


F. 4jj^^J -^^- '^jb^b ^* ^^ '^j iJ 1^^' ^^^» it' t^^oii, I caused to fly. 


F. 4jJ^Ij -'^^- '^Jli^l? 3"* '^■'" -^*' iJ t^^J' y°^' ^^ caused to fly. 

{Governing noun plural). 


F. Jj;J^\j M. Jj«J^^_j ,^ or J, (J he, she, it, thou, I caused to fly. 


F. JjiJ^jH^ M. JjiJ^^j y* or _j-*, ^ they, you, we caused to fly. 

4jLi« AoEisT Tense. 


^^j^^i he, she, it causes to fly, 6>r may cause to fly. ^^j}^^ they cause to fly, or may cause to fly. 

^ijy"* thou causest to fly, or mayest cause to fly. J.«j^!^j you cause to fly, or may cause to fly. 

j*j5JjSlj I cause to fly, or may cause to fly. hj^^i ^^' ^^^^^ **^ %' ^^ ^^7 *^^^^^ t° ^7- 


or ^M^l^ J a^) .;J j !. or , c?'*^^' ^^ ^ let them cause to fly. 

^'^^^ ^ let him, etc. cause to fly. S/^-^-^ ^ . ^^.r . ^ J 

}s^j^ or ^^J^\j do thou cause to fly. ^ijP^ ^^ J'J'J^l' ^° ^^^ cause to fly. 

Jxli A-wol The Agent. 


ci-^i'7_ Li- >>-^-r r ti^e causer to fly. M. and F. ^^^-'■'^ Jthe causers to fly. 

F. ^^.j^\ orul^^^j^O J^ij)^) 

^jU Past Tense. 


M. <L^ ,o,-JT^he, she, it was caused M. i.^ or J^ , j.JT") , 

^ ^r-^>T C ' ' ~^ ^^ "4/^^ Hhey were caused to fly. 

F. i^^ or i^ ^,\f\) to fly. F. J^-i or ^^ J_.j^ I ) 

M. ^»i , :iJ.;JT) ^ M. & F. ^-^Ji ^ J.-JT you were caused to fly. 

"c ^"-^^ [thou wast caused to fly. ^^ 4/^^ 

F. ^^ J^j^O 

M. ^»1 .ijJj^T")^ , ^ ^ M. & F. jpi J^jjJ''^ we were caused to fly. 

I -^ o " - ( I was caused to fly. ^ -"^ 

F. j*^ Jj;J.j^'3 

* Infinitives similar to the one now conjugated, wMch have \ as the first letter, add that letter to the prefixed • in the 
second form of the imperative mood, and the j follows immediately after. In the same manner with regard to the other 
inflections, the prefix takes a (— ) instead of (— )• See paragraph 284. 




Second Fokm. 







^^ b y iy '« 

 he, she, it was caused to fly. 

^^ (■thou wast caused to fly- 


i ^jj^lj) 

' o '^ fl was caused to fly. 

r. J_j-i) or _jvl JjJ^b 

- Jj!J^ 

they were caused to fly. 
•you were caused to fly. 
 we were caused to fly. 



^ ^}ji^ 




\j:..* AoEisT Tense. 


^» ;^T he, she, it is caused to fly, etc. 
o-i ^j^*j^'\ thou art caused to fly. 
^ ijJjjj^T I am caused to fly. 

M. AND F. 


L_s^ i^v '^' ' ^^^^y^ ^^^ caused to fly. 

^ Jjjj^lT you are caused to fly. 

1^ tJ*)^^ we are caused to fly. 

Second Form. 






L^ ij)j_jlT he, she, it is caused to fly. -i) Jjvij^'i' <_r^ Ja3^^'^ ^-^^^^^ ^^^ caused to fly. 


o-i ij^j^ 1 thou art caused to fly 
♦..i ^j^j^l I am caused to fly. 



^\ Imperative Mood. 

*ii Jjij^lT you are caused to fly. 
5*^ JjjJ^T we are caused to fly. 


M. or 

^^* J^ Jvf^ ^ '^ 

let them be caused to fly. 

M. & F. -i J 


M. &F. 

»i (J*)^^ b^ yo^^ caused to fly. 

<Li JjJ^l 



Jij ^Jjjj^T J ^^|let him, ciritbe 

L^^ J Li^ji^ ' ^ caused to fly. 

wi JjjJjJT 9 <Uj5>|let her, or it be 

ic*^ o ijjjj>\ ) caused to fly. 

<i-i» ^jj^T|be thou caused 

to fly. 

Jjxi.^ *«j1 Past Participle, 
F. y- J^jji'i^ ^^- Lir-' (J^jjj^''' caused to fly. M. & F. ^^ tjvj^^ caused to fly. 


410. To signify negation and prohibition, the particles ^ nah and ^« w^aA are 
used, with the verbs ; but, as their position depends on the description of the 
infinitive with which they are used, it will be necessary to give a table of each. 
The third persons singular and plural of a few of the infinitives already conjugated 
will be sufficient for the purpose. 


411. The particle of prohibition .u is alone used with the second persons of 
the imperative mood, and invariably precedes the inflection of the verb with whicli 
it is used, whatever its description. 

412. Infinitives, such as Jiil^ 'to come,' Jj'^y^ 'to fall,' J^^^ ' to bring,' and 
i}}^iA ' ^^ ^^^*'' which have a prefixed particle, place the ^ after the latter both in 
the past and present tenses. 

iJk.^* Infinitive. 

Jj^y pre-watal, ' to fall.' 

(j\l2^ 15"^^ Past Tense. 


M. ci^. d3 ^j he, or it did not fall. M. ij\» dj ^v J^'» ^ lJ-J thev did not fall. 

h ^ ^ji ^b ^'^ ^A she, or it did not fall. F. J)'^ <);j ^cj c:j. aJ- ^-y they did not fall . 

tjl-d^ AoKisT Tense. 


M. & F. or ^y^ ^ j_5^ ^.-ii^lhe, she, it may M. & F. ^jj ^J . j or ^\'^ dj ^_cj JLii> they may 

L^J J '^ o,-J. 3 not fall. not fall. 

.^\ Imperatiye Mood. 
singular. plural. 

M. & F. ^j^„ji_ <^'« do not thou fall. M. & F. ^j^.y ^« do not you fall. 

J^i,« ♦..jI Past Paeticiple. 


F. M. M. AND F. 

Jj'^_^j ^ orti-?y,^j cU jjJ.jjj^ t)j or ^-J'j:>_/^ ^ not fallen. ^J^^i.j^ ^■^ or ^*j,j <^ not fallen. 

413. Eegular verbs, whether transitive or intransitive, take the aj after the 
prefixed J , but the participle cu as before stated, invariably precedes. 

jXj2y4 Infinitive. 
JjJ.ij z' gh aledal, ' to run.' 

Jpia^ 15"^^'* Past Tense. 


M. iJ^-icJ Aj J Ju.lij a.; j he, or it did not run. M. iJ^lij aJ ^ JJ^-^,' '^^ j they cUd not rim. 
F. ^Juiij ^0 j iA-J-ijiXJj she or it did not run. F. Jj^ij <i^ j ^^^-^J ''^ j they did not run. 

c il.d^ Aoeist Tense. 


M. & F. ^X^j ij J iUj^ he, she, it may not run, etc. M. & F. lij ^ j aoti> they may not run, etc. 

j^\ Imperative Mood. 


M. & F. a^Lcj iU do not thou run. M. & F. ^jlij a.,* do not you run. 

i^yis.,-* j,J\ Past Participle. 


M. AND F. 

F. Jj^ij <0 or J^i-cj 'NJ M. ^j^-ii; .0 or (Jwulij ^0 not run. ' j^-iij nj' or yj^-Uj .0 not run. 


iJk*i2.« Infinitive. 

cli^b ' ^^ bring.' 
^ii^« c-it* Past Tense. 


bring. bring. 

F. ^>\jt Aj \j or ^^ isj \j cbtfe") she or it did not F. ^jj Aj \j or Hj^ <^ \j yCb')thej did not 
aJjj ^ b iJ ^^ 'U) "^ b iJ^ bring. <dj; a.3 1^ jj or ij^. ^ j^ (Jj bring. 

c ,l*a.« AoRiST Tense. 


M. &F. .j^ aj Ij tU.ft. he, she, it may not bring, etc. M. & F. .^j ^ U JL)t5» they may not bring. 

y»\ Imperative Mood. 


M. & F. 3^^ U ik.% do not thou bring. M. & F. \j,^j ^ do not you bring. 

Jyti,* *«j1 Past Participle. 


F. j^.|^ ^ M. (4ijb ''^ i^ot brought. M. & F. ^j^^j i^ not brought. 

414. When used with infinitives similar to J^^ to fill,' the aj follows the 
adjective or noim, and precedes the auxiliary; thus, 

iJu2,« Infinitive. 

J^S'^ ddalcawul, ' to fill.' 

^^\^ Past Tense- — {Noun singular). 


M.^ <0 ui/^ ^J ov J, A) ij/^ d;c^ he, or it did ^' j^ ^ ^'^ ij oi'j^ ^ Cfi^yCb they did not 

not fill. fill. 

F. i^ijf iJ ^^ or iJ (S^ c^^ Aia>")she, ^ritdid F. ^J aj a<'^ or aj aj ai'^ yji")they did not 

a]J Aj a^^ or iJ AJ a^^ J; not fill. <^J aj a^^ or ^ aj a^^ jj; fill. 

cjLi^ AoRisT Tense. 


M. -^ aj CS>^ ^Jcb he, cr it may not fill, etc. M. .J aj CSi^ ajt& they may not fill, etc. 

F. ^^ aj a^^ ajtjs, she, or it may not fill, etc. F. ^^ aj CSii autib they may not fill, etc. 

y*\ Imperative Mood. 


M. & F. if;^ a^ do not thou fill. M. & F. J./^ a.^ do not you fill. 

J^*A^ ♦^jI Past Participle. 


M. ^i or 4/ cr, ^ I ^^^ ^jj^^^ M. ^/ or ^/ C/^ ^ j _^^^ ^^^^ 

F. J/ or^ A^^ A3) F. ^j or ^^^ l1^^ aj 



415. In the passive voice, the past participle or the imperfect tense used with 
the auxiliary as a second form (already described at paragraph 398) may precede, 
and the ^ precede the auxiliary, or the particle of negation and auxiliary may 
precede, and the past participle and imperfect tense follow ; as will be seen from 
the following paradigm. 

jS<2.^ Infinitive. 
J-;>Aj»j ivlsh-tal, ' to thi'OW.' 

^_^2,* fe-^^* Past Tense. 


<U) ^ ^JcAjj ivij^ I he, or it was not li or J^ c'O ^h^\^ <^ i they were not 

^doAjj aj;, cO <ijtjb' throwai. Jc>Aj^ j-i or Jyij A'l ^ijb' thrown. 

i}y^ or i^ ^ l)^.^ '^ ) she, or it was not ^-ij or J^ <ij ij^*^:.3 ^^ \ ^^^J ^^^^ ^ot 

ij:^^ ^\^ or i^ aj <sJtjk) thrown. (C^-^rlj j-^ or J^ aj ^>xa>.' thrown. 

cjLi^ AoKiST Tense. 


Ji» Jj ijJjjIjj <Uii.|he, (?/• it may not be M. J:^ ^ 1-A.j^ c'oo. they may not 

^^JjjIj^ Jj> dj <Lo.) thrown. be thrown. 

Ji aj J-Aj^ d^ j she, (?r it may not be F. ^J^^i • ^ ^-' ''^ they may not 

Jj-u*j. J:^ <0 tUi,) thrown. be thrown. 

-^^ Impeeatite Mood. 


M. , ^JoAj , a,^ <u or aJL cL« , -iJj-ij . \ do not thou , ^^ <t« , l::ji..> , ) do not you be 

F. J-^Jj a..^ <U or <Lw <it« J:;>Ajj) be thrown. i^^^li iV^ '*"• ^ thrown. 

J.xi,« >-j^ Past Participle. 


M. (jliAj^ (jyii tO or ^5^ ^J-i-^,^ '^ ) iiot become -^^ (^--^rli ^ ) iiot become 

F. J^.j %-- ''^ 01" _j-^ u^i^ ^'■> ' thrown. ^J-^i} ^^ ^' ' thrown. 

416. The positions which the particles of negation and prohibition assume 
will also be seen from the following extracts : 

" I WILL NOT BEAR with this Moghla'l (tyranny) of thy g-uardian, 
If I am really born of an Afghan woman." — jEahcl-ul-llamid. 

" Every terrestrial bemg who pbactises not humility, acteth not rightly : 
Every one will be excellent according to his own manners and customs."— j€abd-ul-I{a7md. 

" Who DOES NOT CONSUME himself, and does not give to others, look not towards him ; 
That sitteth like a serpent on a hidden trename. "—JEabd-id-I{a))iid. 



'' Pious persons have said that the devil's g-reat snare is, that you should put off repentance 
until the last hour; but postpone it not, oh, children of the true MthV'— 



< ? . ,=- huruf. 

417. Under this head are included adverbs, postpositions, prepositions, 

conjunctions and interjections. They contain, besides pure Afghan, a number of 

Arabic and Persian words. 


418. The Adverbs may be divided into fourteen different classes; of place, 
time, number, quality, similitude, collection, separation, demonstration, interroga- 
tion, dubiation, exclamation, affirmation, negation, and prohibition. 

419. The}^ serve to qualify nouns, and are for the most part undeclinable ; thus, 

" Since thy ringlets have pierced the very heart of Rahman, 
Therefore, from his eyelashes the white tears flow." 

" If thy face becometh tm-ned from God unto the world, it will be also turned from heaven 
unto hell : 
Thou wilt for ever wander driven from door to door : thou wilt nowhere find a resting or a 
dwelhng-place." — JLahd-ur- Rahman. 

" When one degenerate being appeareth in a family. 
He bringeth disgrace on his lineage both present and ^k^ir—J^ahd-ul-Hamid. 

420. A number of adverbs are subject to the usual change in termination for 
the ablative case ; as in the following example : 

" The Wuzir said, ' As yet this boy has not eaten any of the fruit from the garden of his 
own existence." — GuUstdn. 

421. A few adverbs derived from nouns and adjectives are liable to the same 




chauge in termination for gender, number, and case, as the nouns they qualify. 
Thus ^;^ 'much,' becomes i^;^ in the feminine singular, and ^j^ or ^^ in the 
feminine plui-al and the oblique cases of the singular. The masculine plui-al is tlu' 
same as the singular, and the oblique plural for both genders is j j.^ 

" In love the (lover's) suit is an exceedingly diiBcult one — 
The object can only be obtained after many twists and turnings." — Kdsim ^ali, Afrldi. 

4:22. The adverbs of most frequent occurrence in the language, whether 
simple or compound, are as follows : 

Adverbs of Place. 

^ILi]^ 1^. Js zuruf-ul-makan. 
<u*w-jb or J J, a^Jj here, hither. ^ ^-j or \^ ^^ here, on this side. 

^ auito or A2.1j& there, thither. i ij»! or tO^y above, overhead, 

aj j^ or j_ji) there, thither. | ^j^ , or i::^^ under, below. 

j^lL ^f J or <^i J jJ 1 from this place, from i ^j^jj o^^ y or a^J^' 
<L^U. or ) hence. 
auU. or jjU. aotS) ^ from that place, from 

tjj^'^j^ or J»j|jj before, in front,hitherto. 

j:;l.o_^._j or ac>...o^^ behind, after. 
^y>- c^J or i.h.^ this side, hither, 
tjd- iJOi that side, thither. 
^ ijd, or Ijri- ^vxi beyond, there, on that 

\^s>. ay \^ side by side. 
L^ ij^jj on both sides. 
^\L, Jj or 'i^j r>- Jj elsewhere. 

a^ijs a,:Jj here and there. 

so far, to this degree. 

,o or 

j^ or <^j^^^ <Ui.y so far, to that degree. 
aJ^ somewhere. 
^U-_jj^Ji or aj.5^yi everywhere. 
aJ^uS) nowhere. 
^y or j^j5 near, about. 
<*w' r^ or ^\L. v somewhere or other. 
i-3j^ ji where, wherever. 
ajj J or "^^ inside, within. 
Job cX3^ above and below. 
^j^luJ upside down. 
<uj^j ^, o;! far, at a distance. 
ir-jU- round about. 

Adverbs of Time. 

^jUjJl •— li^ zuruf-uz-zaman. 

j_^_jt now, at this time, presently. 
<di ever, sometime. 

aJi" aJi" sometimes, frequently, occa- 



A^ i^ never. 

id^ J^ always. 

^ aK J& whenever. 

cui' aj dK sometime or other, 

f^j i;^ daily. 

<U-i SjSb nightly. 

J* J OYj\j '*-'. jl? 


J ^' 


JJ ^ JJ instantaneously. 

ij\j i^ ebb gradually. 

i^-u-^'_ db successively. 

^y«-j or 1^ <!U before, prior. 

(juuj after, afterwards. 

L^ to-morrow. 
TJi '^J} ^^^° *^^y® since, 
fj-? ''^-i-J "^ three days since. 
tJJ ^^J.i ^ ^ ^"^iii' days since. 

ii\^ jsr' at the dawn of day. 
d^ 1-^ or j^ ever. 

ij^i^ long since, long ago. 
^l^-j y\ji last night. 

A^yb as often, every time. 
j^ 1 or t_jj\i once, at last. 



often, repeatedly. 

jI; <0 j\^ repeatedly, often, frequently. 

L iy_ or aLl y_ once. 

^j i_fjJor<nU. ifjJ twice. 

L tJ or a.U. iJ thrice. 
••' ^ ^ 

ijJi ^ w or ci^J' instantly, quickly, without 

jU .NjU or^y jj quickly, speedily. 

Ji3 or ^jjjj shortly, soon. 
ajU. I) or ^l^lj unawares, suddenly. 
^c^ lLC^ all at once, suddenly. 

L^J>} 01' lj^J ^1'^^' ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ place. 
».;jt^ secondly. 
.:>-T at last, at length, finally, at 

the end. 
ciVi yesterday. 
Ltf ^J shortly, soon, to-day or to- 
Ljj Jj the day after to-morrow. 
jjiri-j early in the morning, be- 
times, early. 
Aj J, or JJ always, ever. 
Jj or aii" i3 Jj 
AA-,„iJb or <dj' J" 
L/^J^ y ^ L/'-^^y ^^ yet, up to the present time, 
or L_>;-=- ^j^ sometimes. 

always, continually, ever. 

Adverbs of Quantity. 




.^«^, i^^y&j or ir^^jis so much. 


jjj ij^^ii that much. 
jj»l« .v^-.,*jij this much. 
^^.-^^^^y^ as much as. 


.& howmuchsoever. 

huruf-ul-mikdar . 

I; -I J gratuitously. 

^ ^ a great number, several. 

j,^ much, in a great degree, 

by far. 

^jj-O or }, lL^ a little, a few. 



or 1^ dij, ^^^.u^ 

tlms, so, in this manner, 

-•1j or ^A*Jblj, 

^« for example. 
f^J^. that is to say. 
^IJL ^yj^ thns, in this manner. 

Adyhrbs of Similitude. 
''>*-A:Jl c_it.=- Imruf-ut-tashhlh. 
(jU) <^ij or 1j thus, in this manner, 
tl^j^i cLiJ or Ij thus, in this way. 
JjJ, a:^, i^Li, a.^Hike, as, as if, just as, 
^ or ^^, jjj ^^ ) for all the world. 
^U) tUi^ so, in that manner. 
cLx^ ijcb so, in that way. 

Adverbs of Admonition, etc. 

'U*-:;!! ( •• ,=>. huruf-ut-ta7ibih. 

"^•-J J °^' c;:'.^' J ^^ ^J^ J ^ook out ! have a care ! d^ i^j know ! recollect ! 

^ ,Lv-j be cautious ! 

Adverbs or Society and Separation. 
ij:^ij\iUi\ » c:.^^x^!\ uJj^=»- huruf-ul-macei-yat wo mufdrajcat 

Ajj jL^^-^ri- take care! mind! 

ojl^^ alone. 

•f* Ur* face to face. 

J 01' <_f;5 apart, at a distance. 

ijiji ^_sj far away, very far off. 

~j^ at the side. 

jj aj ^^ singly, individually, 

l-i) aj l.i back to back. 

J-j J-j or A^_, J-j apart, separately. 

^ tog-ether. 


i^jr^j 4? 

J .J 

besides, except. 

t_> J td djji or t^_^ 

jlj" c'j j\i separately. 
d^j <o —j uselessly. 
t^j^ \j ^j^^ on opposite sides, on both 

j>^^ H ^J^ shoulder to shoulder. 

Adverbs of Extremity and Termination. 

ti:^;*.!*!! <— ^jT*^ Imruf-ul-gha-yat. 
ij:j^_ or jj to, up to, until. ^_sj^_ ^^^ J till now, as yet. 

^5^l^ ax J or (_^j Ji hitherto, up to. 
i^ ^ or ^ until, up to. 

Ss^ 4iJ or I=- 1^ I 

•• [ beyond bounds. 

lJj^^ J^i>- y to the last degree. 

t_^l^ ajO) y so far as. 

^_Sj^ i<]^ J till when ? how long ? 

fc_^i^ ^^1 y to the end. 

ijj^ ''^-^^r'.^j J> to the last, to the extreme. 




Adverbs of Interrogation. 

(♦I^a:;-.-!^^ uJtjS- Imruf-id-htifaham. 

or j^ > ^Tt ' ^'J^ where ? whither ? 

a.^^ how ? in what manner ? 
^f*^ or ^_^;r^^ how much ? 
l::^j j*4^ or 1^ ^ since when ? 

r r > Avhence ? 

<)yl^ or t^U.) 

aK when ? at what time ? 

/♦^ ^' ^ how much longer ? 

'^■^' ^' ^ ' ^ I until when ? how long ? 
^ or ^^^^ ^^y ) 

how much ? 

1 hSj i' ..w^ a 

iS^ ^ how often ? 

AiS^or Jkj^, JU perhaps, haply 
^j ^J ^ perhaps not. 
ij; ^IjcL God knows. 

^ dj <u 1^^ why not ? 
i^(^ or*).! d^, ^^ AiL why? how? wherefore? 
^,l)j Aa. or J, for what? wherefore? 

,..Li cli, <LSJ s <^) o 1 n 

*^ ^ I m what way '. how : 

ii^ d^ tSj or ) 

Adverbs of Dubiation. 

uli^-..CAJl (—?•;=- huruf-ut-tashkik. 

-J jj may be. 
^ ^U/ <b probably. 
^c^ ^ ^ ^ci T^'^^J or may not be. 

Adverbs of Affirmation and Emphasis 
--'Isrin J j^y^ '— '^r*- huruf-ut-takld no ul-iji 

_iW ^, aL^ ^ certainly, doubtless. 
jy^,^s^, •!cJi\ necessarily. 

^ yes, indeed, yea. 
jy>- merely, only, exactly. 
fjs- right or wrong. 
Sj^ or ij^ A, t_?r?^ by no means, never. 
Us>- or L:;^^ aj really, truly. 

aI^ <^ ^^ ov (j»-\j 

}j) i-5^ '^^ by God ! 

Adverbs of Prohibition and Negation 

^jj or iiJctb, <Ujj necessarily, it behoveth. 
Jo^ lLX> or ^j^ J^ altogether, wholly, entirely. 
^ or j^>jj) never^ by no means. 

kiii only, simply. 
2s\ykr ^\j^ at all events, whether or 
not, nolens volens. 
yb ^ y^ or jjk-j exactly, quite, the very 


jjj-s- huruf-un-naffl no un-nalil. 

<U do not. 


<b or ^ no, not, nay. 


J^*?^l J u-ttL*!! (-J*^ }mruf-id-(Eatf no ul-manml. 
The conjunctions most in use are : 

^S^^, i.'i if. J^> (*^ ^Iso, even, likewise. 

^J\ although. Jj or ^^ but, yet, however. 



djji or Ij^^ besides, except. 
<u^ or aj a^ if not, unless, otherwise. 
_^wM*- <Ua> aJ then, therefore. 
<!i^ but, moreover. 
4_?u> aj i^ notwithstanding". 
^^, Jc^ unless. 

di^ or ^j^i therefore, then. 

d.>- that, because, since. 
aS ^; unless, if not. 

L::-^f5»- ^ J cU , Ax^ I 



b or 

then, because, therefore. 

J or j\ and, also. 


"The Darweshs' calling is to forsake all carnal and worldly desires; but they, through 
spitefulness, desire to rush on each other with swords and with arrows." — Makhzan Afghani. 


^yj^-* V. y?'' '— ir/*- huruf-uj-jarr yd macenawi. 
424. Besides the simple prepositions and postpositions used in forming the 
cases of nouns and pronouns, already described in Chapter III., there are other 
particles used in the same manner which require the noun, adjective, or pronoun, 
to be used in the genitive or ablative case when capable of inflection. Examples : 

"The Law is like unto a tree whose roots have gone undek the ground; and (if thou 
shouldst make use of understanding and argument) the topmost branch of it has gone up into 
THE HEAVENS." — MaMza7i Afgkdm, 

" The moth casteth away its life but once in its life-time ; 
But the candle doeth this several times in one ^mwi."~yEabd-id-Hamid. 

The chief prepositions and postpositions are : 
J of. 

or \) ^ , ^ 


ajj J or id _. J 
^yc^ aj or 1^^ in. 
X)'i J or AJ^J jj below, under. 
^-^ with. for, for the sake of. 
ij J or -^ or aj aj or aJ from. 


J to, until. 

jjb^ ory on, upon. 

^ J or J from him, her, it or them. 
a^-cbj or j^b l) over, above. 
<LsA before. 
^-rr^ ovjj^-c in, between, betwixt, 
^rr* Aj in between, in the middle. 




i\j^\ as-wat. 

ijM\i\ti or i^U^^i,. ^jyT well done ! bravo ! 
'<-ii jl^j, tLi) *,; have a care ! 
^ j^i> alas ! alas ! 
Vjjw> sorrow ! alas ! 
t^jsf^ avaunt ! get away ! 
LS-^J or ^\, j\ oh ! 

St^^J s>>j ^^^^ • ^^^^ • 

r-T ^L c/^j c_>^^ woe ! woe ! 

ijM^^\ lackaday ! 
Jl<i>li or Sjl^ would to God ! 

(_i■^J^ (_f U, 1 ^~ strange ! good God ! 

d,ib indeed ! really ! 
d^ ^j\^_, cLii ^Ji begone ! get away ! 
cLi) k—^^^, ^^ hush ! silence ! 
A^^i hollo ! oh ! ! 


These loved ones are like unto the flowers of spring, 

For in the autumn they wither and fade. Alas ! alas !" — Ahmad Shah, Ahdall. 

CHAPTER Y 1 1 1. 


426. There are a number of derivative aud compound words in the Pushto 
language, formed from nouns, adjectives, and verbs, by prefixing, affixing, or 
inserting certain words or letters. They may be considered pure A fgh an. 


427. Abstract nouns may be obtained from adjectives in eight different ways : 
I. — By rejecting the final letter of the adjective and prefixing another ; as, 

^j» 'himgry' ij^ ^"^^ji" 'hunger.' Example: 

^ly Lz-^JJlL? (Li) aj cijIj jj ^"--^jy^ ^ ^J^ '--^o "^"^ ^^^ j^. ^'^■^■' ■^0^ 

" Hunger and thirst all at once overpowered him : 
In his body no power or strength remained." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

II.— Forms the noun by rejecting two letters of the adjective for three others ; 
thus ^jj 'thirsty,' a^^ or luj 'thirst.' 

" In the contentment of the contented man, there is neither hunger nor thirst ; 
And they who acquire this alchemy will be nobles, tho' clad in rags." 

— uEahd-ur- Rahman . 


III.— Shortening the word by the rejection of . for (— ), and affixing \ ; as, 
j^V 01' gjj ' bright,' \yj or Ij^ ' brightness.' 

" By the light of it the business of this hfe cannot be perfiected; 
For this world is as the Hghtning and the light of the sky." — jEabd-ul-Hamld. 

Sometimes the word takes J , as in the following example : 

" As when the sun riseth on the world, light, and brightness cometh, 
So doth friendship and aifeetion g-ive life to both breath and hot^te^ "—yEahd-ul-Hamul. 

IV.— The middle letter of the adjective is rejected ; U inserted in its place ; 
and a {ha-i-ldiafi) or (— ) faflia^li affixed; as,jy 'dark' or 'black,' i^L; orjL; 'dark- 
ness ' or ' blackness.' 

'' The whole world became filled with darkness from this dust and vapour : 
In the heavens thunder rolled, and lightning flashed as from swords."— Sa?/-ul-MuhU\ 

v.— The final letter of the adjective is inflected from > or (— ) to ^ (/ja-i- 
majMil) or (— ) kasra^h, and i/ or ^ affixed; thns, ..^ 'good,' i^^, 'goodness.' 

"Journeying on this road is difficult to the field e and capricious : 
Consider him a man who layeth the foundation of goodness."— / j^ali, Afrldl. 

The whole of the nouns of the preceding classes are feminine ; and the follow- 
ing, with the exception of those formed by affixing Lj , \^^ , ^^, and J^ , which 
are feminine, are all masculine. 

YI. — This form is something similar to the foiu'th, being formed from the same 
adjective (which however remains unchanged) and merely takes the affix ^jJ!j ; thus, 
jy 'black,' ^\3jy 'blackness;' CS\^ 'hard,' ^U C^ 'hardness.' The final letter 
is changed to ^ in the plural, similar to the first variety of nouns of 1st declension. 

" Thy countenance was white lilve unto the sun — yea ! it was brighter than the orb of day : 
But now, alas ! it is become so black, that its blackness is like unto charcoal." 

— Yusk/ and ZuliMtd. 

YII. — The nouns of this class are formed by droi3piug the final ^ of the 
axljective, and affixing ^j ; as, ^^'^^j 'alive' or ' existing,' ^jJuj^ 'life,' 'existence;' 


^j-u^J 'captive,' 'prisoner,' ^-^^J 'captivity,' 'imprisonment.' They are cHefly 
verbal nouns. Example : 

''When shall I entertain hope for my own existence? 
Since separated from her, life itself to me is infamous." — Kdsim jEall, Afridl. 

YIII.— This class is formed by the mere addition of the affixes ^'^ , u^y , and 
U ; thus, J-j 'separate,' ^^Lj 'separation;' ^irU. 'a place,' ^^l^L'a dwelling place,' 
'a home,' 'a birthplace;' ^jJ^ 'affectionate,' <— j^--.^ 'affection,' ' love;' ^^J ' mad,' 
i-r-'j^ji^ 'madness;' j^^ 'satiated,' W"" jr* 'satiety;' j^^..^.^^ 'impudent,' L3" j^*u,*c5- 
' impudence,' 'familiarity.' Those ending in ^y and c_-.y are masculine, and those 
in Lj feminine. 

" Suddenly she awoke from her slumbers, her heart filled with love and affection. 
She sat up and gazed around, but sighed ; for she beheld not her beloved one." 

— Yusiif and ZulXkha, 

" God forbid that separation should be caused between two lovers ; 
For in separation the lover, though healthy in body, is sick at heart." — Kdsim jEall, Afridl. 

"Whereas from her presence thou didst not acquire satiety. 
Grief on her account has now satiated thee." — Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

The whole of these derivatives, when capable of inflection, are subject to the 
same changes as other nouns. 

428. Abstract noims are obtained also fi'om primitive nouns, by the mere 
addition of the affixes jjlj, c_.y, U or L:-:, ;_f^l/and jj ; thus, CS\jb ' a child,' uila 
^Jlj 'childhood;' ^5^ 'a man,' 'a human being,' L__jy ^5J-o 'manhood,' 'humanity;' 
lA^^ 'a guest,' \^p^A^ 'entertainment,' hospitality;' j^j^ 'a brother,' ^^ j^j^ 
' brotherhood ;' j*l^ ' a clan,' J^ ^♦l^ ' clanship.' The following are examples : 

''Whoever from childhood may not have walked in the path of modesty and morality, in 
the years of maturity virtue and piety departeth from him." — Gidistdn. 

" Oh son ! did not I say unto thee at the time of thy departure, that the hand of bravery, 
if empty, is bound, and the paw of lion-like intrepidity broken?" — GuUstdn. 


He said unto him, ' father I didst thou not eat of anything at the king's entertainment .'' ' 
The devotee said, ' In his sight I did not make use of anything of consequence.'" — Guiistdn. 

Arabic and Persian words, when used in this language, as may naturally be 
supposed, are generally governed by, and subject to, their own rules of grammar ; 
but in some instances the Pushto affixes and prefixes may be found used with the 
words of those languages ; thus, ^~ * generous, i^yi.^ ' generosity ;' j^j^ * niggard,' 
<-->y *j-l 'niggardliness;' ^'l£^ 'strange,' t__jy |^IsLj 'strangeness.' 

429. IN^ouns of intensity are formed by prefixing adjectives to them ; thus, 
jy 'dark,' prefixed to ^j' 'darkness,' becomes [Jjy 'total darkness;' and in the 
same manner ^y prefixed to sjLj signifies ' total darkness.' y is not generally used 
without an adjective prefixed. Example : 

" Of what consequence is it though thy countenance is enveloped in curls ? 

For the water of immortality itself is hidden in total darkness." — yEahd-ur- Rahman. 

430. The particles of exaggeration and diminution used with nouns have 

been already described under that head (page 27-29), and need no further notice 



431. Adjectives may be fonned from some nouns by the addition of ^ and 
i_f with its different modifications for gender, as described at paragraph 45 ; as, '^r: 
' night,' Jl^j ' noctm-nal ;' ^^.y ' yesterday,' J^y^ ' yestern ' or ' yester.' The following 
are examples : 

" Dabshallm, after hearing these words, related his nocturnal dream to the Darwesh, and 
also mentioned this secret to his friend." — Kalllah rco Damnah. 

d^i\sij\ ^ *J JjJ ^ dJ ^j*J AiJ cC*^ l^ Ajjyz aL.i- ^J ^S 

" ^abdullah set out to see Musea'wiyah, and when he inquhed about the chcumstances of 
the preceding day (yestern), Musea'wiyah said, ' My daughter says— Oh father! the wife of 
this ^abdullah is very handsome. When shall I appear to advantage in his sight? I declare 
unto thee that I will not have ^abdullah under these circumstances ; but if he will divorce his 
wife, then I will accept him willingly.' "—Hasan and Husain. 

432. Adjectives of intensity may be obtained in the same manner as nouns of 


intensity by the use of particles either prefixed or affixed to the word ; thus, sj^j 

'blind,' sj»j I 3 'totally blind;' ^^^^ 'white,' ^^^^ CS'j 'perfectly white,' ^^---j 

^srfyr^ ' j)iire or spotless white.' They are subject to the same rules for gender and 
number as other adjectives. Examples : 

Lovers are totally blind to the defects and blemishes of the beloved ; 
But do not thou also become wholly blind to her virtues and merits." 

— ^abd-ur- Rahman. 

Since tliou hast pierced the heart of Rahman with thy ringlets, 

From his eyelashes the pure white water flows." — JEabd-ur-Bahmdn. 


" Whoever may have washed his garments m his ow^i blood, 
Will, like the dew of the night, be ever spotless ^jii'V-E."—yEabd-ur-Rahman. 

433. Several Persian, and a few Arabic adjectives also, are to be met with 
in Pushto, differing but slightly from the originals in pronunciation ; for example, 
^'^~ 'aggrieved,' from the Arabic noim ^ 'grief,' and Persian ^j 'stricken;' and 
in the same manner ^j J--^ or ^^ J^* 'treacherous,' 'malicious;' ^J- ^^ 'feverish;' 

■:.i\ OYjj^\ 'spoiled,' 'worthless,' from the Arabic word^^l and Hebrew ^H^, signifying 
'cut short, etc. ;' j^ ij^j 'intrepid,' 'brave,' from the Pushto noim ij^j 'the heart,' and 
the Persian particle j^ signifying 'possession,' 'having;' ^j j jj' 'warlike,' 'gallant,' 
from the Afghan norm ^y^ 'a sword,' and ^j the active participle of the Persian 
infinitive ^jj 'to strike,' 'to smite.' Example : 

^r^?" e^ -J (*"^' S i"^^^ ^ t^ j2i ^ ^sri^ <*.! Jy J 1.,; j^'J ^\ l-j ^-i) (^^•>- 
" The tongue again becometh liberated, like the warrior from the thickest of the fight ; 
Although I may seize it with my teeth that it should remain &i\eiii."—jEabd-ul-fIamid. 

434. Another description of adjective is obtained by prefixing an adjective 
to a noun; as, ^^ru d^^j 'incomplete,' 'crude,' 'disappointed,' 'foiled,' etc., from the 
Persian adjective ^^ 'half,' and the Afghan noun \js^ 'desire,' 'inclination ;' thus,— 

" Behold the incomplete brightness of the lightning and be prudent ! 
The affairs requiring deliberation perform not with exceeding hsi^ieV'—jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

435. A few adjectives arc obtained by afiixing the Persian particle jc.^ and 
the Pushto corruption ^,«, and the Pushto particle jl; to Persian and Arabic 
nouns; thus, jL:- indigence,' 'poverty,' ^jL3 or wU.*jLj 'indigent,' 'poor;' c^ljj 
'wealth,'^Jjjorjc^ljj 'wealthy,' 'opulent;' cj^^r '^var,' 'battle,' Jbc-^^ 'warlike,' 


'martial;' cJ^ 'honor,' 'reputation,' Jlj cJ^;j 'honorable,' 'reputable' The letter ., 
IS also added to Persian and Pusjito nouns indiscriminately in the formation of 
adjectives; thus, ^J 'a worm,' ^.^J 'worm eaten;' ^j 'pus,' 'matter,' ^^;^. 'puru- 
lent,' 'mattery;' ^_ the Pushto for 'scab,' ^^j 'scabby;' ^.=l 'dirt,' 'filth,' ^^^ 
'dirty,' 'filthy;' ^ 'blinking,' 'purblindness,' ^^i 'a blinkard,' 'purblind.' 

436. A few adjectives can be formed by compounding two nouns, as in the 
Persian language, but they are not very common ; thus, ^'^ ^^ 'pretty,' 'delicate,' 
from , |j 'milk,' and »"• 'the face;' thus,— 

'' I once made inqiury from one of those who accounted himself amongst the Arabs of 
Ba gh dad, saying, 'What sayest thou in respect to the handsome ?' " — Gulistd?i. 

437. Relative or patronymical adjectives are for the most part obtained by 
affixing the ditferent modifications of ^^, (described at paragraj^h 45) in the same 
manner as the Persian ^ yai-i-nishut^'' to nouns; thus, Aj\<> luihulaey^ 'a native 
of Kabul;' ,Jj^U»-j peldiaweraey or peshaweraey^ 'a native of Peshawer;' ^\::.,^^S 
kohistanaey , a native of the Kohistau.' 

The word ^^y-^o, now applied to the Afghans as a nation, is really an abstract 
noun, derived from ^^ the name of the old seat of the Afghans in the Siiliman 

mountains, west of the Indus, and ^y a residence, a place of birth. 

In the districts bordering on the Panjab and Kashmir, such as Buner and 
Pakli, the affix JU (a Hindi word) is generally used; thus, Jl^^-.:o Bunerwal^ 'a 
native of Buner;' J^^A-O PaJdhval^ 'a native of Pakli.' At the same time it 
must be remembered that this afiix cannot be always apiDlied, for we could not 
call a native of Peshawer, a Pesliaweriwal ; or a native of Kabul, a Kabuliwal, 
and vice versa. 

438. The past participles of verbs are extensively used as adjectives in this 
language, both alone and with a conjimotion; thus, ^jjj^ 'pampered,' obtained 
from the infinitive J^jli 'to pamper,' formed by affixing J^, the sign of the infini- 
tive of active verbs, to the Persian noun ;U, signifying 'delicacy,' 'softness,' etc.; 
and jjJjij ^ 'of the same age,' 'cotemporary,' from the j)ast participle of the verb 
Jjj 'to be born,' with the Persian conjunction ♦a 'together,' 'with,' 'similar,' 
'mutual.' The following are examples : 

J^ J3^^ ^^ ""^ iJ^i J3^^ ^ ^3J^ <r>J j I' '■^'^- iju^ 
" Inverted destiny made me adverse and wayward, 
Since my sympathizing lover and friend became cruel and sangumary." — jEahd-ul-Hamld. 



" Durkhana'l made a request to lier father, saying', "All those of my own age learn to 
read ; pray give directions that I also may learn to read.' " — Ada7n Khan and DurJdiana'l. 

It should he home in mind that these derivatives are siihject to the same 
changes for gender, numher, and case, as other nouns or adjectives under whose 
classes they may come. 

439. The js^-* J-^l^ hUsil-i-masdar, called also the jX^.* »^\ ism-i-tnasdar, of 
the Pushto verbs, is derived from the infinitive (jX^^), the soui-ce or essence of the 
verb, by rejecting the J , the final letter of the former, and substituting ^ or ''^^. 
It is subject to the same changes as feminine nouns of the first variety of the thii-d 
declension, and changes the final i {ha-i-khafi)^ one of the signs of the feminine 
gender, into ^ {yd-i-majJml), in the oblique cases; as, JjJ^ 'to separate,' <^j juLj 
'separation;' J wU^"^ ' to grow ' (as a plant or grain), aj li^ 'growth.' Infinitives 
terminating in J, are subject to the same rules. • 

The hasil-i-masdar of the preceding infinitives, which are intransitive, are used 
as nouns ; but in case of making them transitive by changing the neuter sign or 
intransitive JIj into the active or transitive termination of infinitives Jj, the hdsil-i- 
masdar can then only be construed as a mode of action or manner of being, indefi- 
nite as to time, place, and sometimes even of person; thus, J^Lj 'to separate,' 
dj jL.» 'causing separation;' J^^^ 'to make gTOw,' ij j^^ 'causing gro^vth or grow- 
ing.' The hasil-i-masdar of a transitive infinitive terminating in jl;, of which there 
are a few in the language and exceptions to the above rule, can be construed as 
a noun ; thus, Jj^-x^j 'to ask,' <)J xc^ 'inquiry.' 

440. The ^U.*-.! ism-i-haliah or verb in its present state, similar to the 
present or indefinite participle of our language, is also occasionally used as a simple 
noun ; but chiefly in the place of the infinitive. It forms the imperfect tense with 
the affixed personal pronouns, and appears to be the source of that form of the verb, 
and is obtained from the infinitive by substituting ^ {hd-i-mhir) for the final J. It 
is masculine, and both singular and plural, and in the oblique cases the final b is 
changed to j or (— ), in the same manner as in the first variety of nouns of the 6th 
declension. Those infinitives, however, which lengthen the ism-i-hdliah by insert- 
ing \ in place of ( ^), drop it for the imperfect tense, and in the oblique cases ; as 
Ji-^T 'to fly,' i3\f\ 'flight' or 'flying,' ^^T 'he was flying.' 

This form of the verb cannot be obtained from infinitives terminating in Jj ; 
and a few infinitives on the other hand, such as ^\s:j 'to run,' and J:u-lj 'to sit,' 
form both the ism-i-hdliah and hdsil-i-7nasdar by prefixing s. In the former case, 


hd-i-zahir which is masculine, and in the latter, hd-i-khafi which is feminine ; and 
both are subject to the same mode of inflection as nouns of the same description. 

The verbal nouns of a few infinitives, both transitive and intransitive, instead 
of affixing ^ or h add ^,j to the root of the verb; as Jj^^ 'to fill,' ^,/^ 'filling;' 
J^,^'to mix, ^^^>/ ' mixing ' or 'intercourse;' J^' 'to bind,' ^^J 'binding.' They 
can also be formed by merely rejecting the J of the infinitive ; as Jj^-i"^ 'to fill,' 
(^^j^^ 'filling.' Both forms are somewhat rare. They can be used both as the 
ism-i-hdlia\ and the hdsil-i-masdar^ and also as simple nouns. See page 173. The 
hdsil-i-masdar cannot be used as the imperfect tense. 

441. These forms of the verb — the hdsil or ism-i-masdar, and the ism-i-hdliah^ 
are subject to certain rules in construction which, although appertaining more to 
the syntax of the language, require explanation here.* 

* " It now only remains to be observed that besides the infinitive, as above described, there is another species of noun in 
some measure resembling it, which the Arabian grammarians term j Ju:^.* *--j1 or the infinitive noun. Between these two 
nouns, namely, the i^Xii^ and the jJ^-^-* *~>.'l there is precisely the same distinction in point of sense as between the word 
'drink' and the participial noun 'drinking,' when used as a general term in such an example as the following: — 
' Bacchus, ever fair and ever young, Bacchus' blessings are a treasure, 

Drinking joys did first ordain ; Drinking is the soldier's pleasure.' 

"In which lines the word 'drink' might be substituted for 'drinking' without much detriment to the sense, for ' drink- 
ing joys' mean the 'joys of drinking,' or ' di-ink,' and the same may be observed of all other words of the same classes; as 
< grief,' 'grieving;' 'kiss,' 'kissing;' ' love,' 'loving,' etc. How, then, shall we ascertain the true character of these words? 
What, for instance, is 'love' as opposed to the general term 'loving?' It is certain that they are both general tcruLS descrip- 
tive of certain sensations of delight or modes of pleasure in the mind, and as such may become either the subject or predicate 
of a proposition ; but this explains nothing, and if we ask the Arabian grammarians for an explanation, they answer us by 
pointing out a mere distinction in their application. Thej^X-^^^ *~j1 they say, has no other government than that of any 
common substantive noun, but this again is controverted by the grammarians of Koofah and Baghdad, who bestow upon 
it the very same regimen as that of thejJuo^ ; and even admitting the fact, which I believe to be just, it differs nothing in 
this particular from the infinitive of a neuter verb. The essential distinction then, for some essential distinction there 
certainly is, between the infinitive and the infinitive's noun or ismo masdar, is not in my judgment simple abstraction, that 
is, making the one an abstract noun in opposition to the other ; for, as I have observed before, they are both general or 
abstract terms, but rather in the idea of action or energy conveyed by the infinitive; which action Locke observes, however 
various, and the efi"ects almost infinite, is all included in the two ideas of thinking and motion. These are his words, ' For 
action, being the great business of mankind and the whole matter about which all laws are conversant, it is no wonder that 
several modes of thinking and motion should be taken notice of, the ideas of them observed, and laid up in the memory and 
have names assigned to them ; without which, laws could be but ill made, or vice and disorder repressed. Nor could any 
communication be well had amongst men, without such complex ideas, with names to them ; and, therefore, men have settled 
names and supposed settled ideas in their minds of modes of action, distinguished by their causes, means, objects, ends, 
instruments, time, place, and other circumstances, etc' 

"The real distinction, then, between the masdar and the ismo masdar seems to be this. The ismo masefflr signifies 
simply the name of a mode, without any reference to action or energy ; the masdar denotes a more complex idea and indicates 
indefinitely the action, energy, or being of that mode. Love, for example, is a name assigned to a certain feeling of delight, 
but loving is something more, being another name by which we indicate the action or efficacy of tliat feeling called love ; and 
hence we perceive the real cause of its possessing an active or transitive government, in contradistinction to the ismo maidar, 
which, having no reference to action, has no other regimen than that of any common substantive noun. 

" Action, indeed, is applicable to every infinitive, and this the Arabian grammarians acknowledge by dividing all the 
verbs in the language into two general classes, which they term t_fijt;>"» and ^^*p , that is, verbs denoting actions transitively 
(the actio transiensoi Logicians) ; and verbs denoting actions inherent or inseparable {actio immanens) which we are accustomed 
to call neuter; and hence we perceive the propriety of the rule laid down in the Commentary, namely that the ^LiUJi j»-;l 
or active participle may be derived from either a transitive or intransitive verb, which is saying in other words that every 
action supposes an agent. 

" This idea of action is conveyed in other languages by terminations, as bcat-/w^, etc., but in Arabic, vvith a few particular 
exceptions, there is no distinguishing mark by which we can discriminate the infinitive from the infinitive's noun, so tliat wi> 


These forms of the verb are constructed in no k^ss than nine different ways. 

I. — The ism-i-masdar^ as a noun, is connected as the i__;Li,« nmmf or governing 
word, in the relation of the genitive case with an agent, the object being at the same 
time expressed in the ablative case, and the verb agreeing with the governing noun. 
Examples : - 

** Thus, the intercourse of the sweetheart with the rival is, 
As though one mix together pure and impure — holy and profane." — yEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" From destiny there is no escape for any one, 
Though he enter the sacred plain of Mekka itself." — JEahd-ur- Rahman. 

The entire construction changes, should the verb, which is intransitive in the 
preceding examples, be changed to a transitive in a past tense ; the hdsil-i-masdar 
then becomes the object, and jb and W^jj. the ^1 >_jL:^ muzaf-illeh^ or words 
governed in each of the above examples, become the agents in the instrumental 
case ; thus, 

^^ jb J, j ^J^ ^ ijUl ^ 
" The beloved eorbied such intercourse with the rival." 

" Every one effected escape from destiny." 

II. — The km or hasil-i-mmdar is used as the L_iLi< or governing noun, and 
also as the agent connected with the .ult c-iLi* or word governed, in the genitive case, 
the object being expressed in the ablative, and the verb, which is intransitive, 
being governed by the agent ; thus, 

'' Although people be enclosed in armour or in helmets, or be defended by lofty fortresses; 
yet this protection of the Almighty hath surpassed all." — Mahhzan Afghani. 

In the event of a transitive verb in a past tense being used instead of an 
intransitive, as in the above example, the ism-i-masdar as the uJLi-< would become 

must trust entirely to the context for the sense of either. Every participle, however, in our language when used as a general 
term is the just representative of an ArahicjJ»-ii^ or infinitive, — I mean every active participle formed by adding the 
termination ing to the imperative of a verb, which seems in this case to possess a similar power to the characteristic to, and 
therefore it may perhaps be said that we have two infinitives; as — 

' Drink-t«(7 is the soldier's pleasure, or to drink is the soldier's pleasure,' 
formed by annexing ing and prefixing to to the imperative in one sense, and the j^^-'^'* (*~J| 'drink,' in the other. See 
' The Miut Amil,' by Capt. A. Lockett." Notes to page 207 to 211. Calcutta, 1814. 


the agent in the instrumental case, connected mth a aJI ^JUu in the genitive, and 
the pronoun \^ would refer to the object ; as, 

" The PROTECTION of the Almighty protected him." 

The ism-i-haliah is also subject to the same rules as the ism-i-masdar, just 
explained ; and although generally used as a mode of action, in this particular 
instance it may be used as a noun also. Example : * 

tOi^:.; aJ'j lii.-; ^j^ ji_ i^ ^^ ^j^ jJi~>~ J\^o ^ j^ i'JCb J 

" May Khizr be the doorkeeper of that gate and wall, 
By which thy coming in and going out — thy entrance and thy exit take place." 

— JEabd-ul-Hamul. 
If the present tense of an active verb be substituted for ^-j^^, which is in- 
transitive, the ism-i-hrdiah, which was the i^\.J^, becomes a mere noun in construc- 
tion mth an auxiliary verb ; and the (Ull i_iLi<i , which was in the genitive case, 
becomes the agent in the nominative, as in the following sentence : 

" By which thou efFectest exit and entrance." 
The agent would of course assume the instrumental case with the verb in the 

past tenses. 

III. — The ism-i-hcdiah as the ^Lic is used in conjunction with an object in 

the genitive case, with the agent expressed in the same sentence, the transitive 

verb being governed by the object ; thus, 

^jL!T ^ tu Jul^ ,.,Lb &j^ U^ "Jj , ^.'» ^J J jj 

" Thou shouldst not take amiss, beloved one, my looking ; 
For the nightingales take flight round the rose." — JEabd-ul-Hamul. 

"With an intransitive verb the ism-i-haliah becomes the agent and the ,^Li< 
in the genitive case, and the former agent becomes the object in the abht- 
tive ; as, 

" My sight should not view the beloved one amiss." 

IV.— The ism-i-haliah is connected by the genitive case as (_JLi< to the object, 
an agent being neither expressed nor understood, having then a passive significa- 
cation, and the verb agreeing with the 4_jLi«. Example : 

* This example has been akeady given for the present participle, the ism-i-haliah, for which see page 74. 


" Knowing (or knowledge of) Muhammad is a sacred duty, in this manner, that he is 
the Prophet of God on whom we have placed our faith." — Fawald-ush-Shari mci h. 

With the present tense of a transitive verb used in place of the auxiliary ^' j , 
the ism-i-haliah as the t-jLi« would become the agent, and the object would be 
necessarily expressed, as in the following sentence : 

" Knowledge of Muhammad e-iveth religion to the believers." 

O^'^'^" xv^ixj,. 

V. — The hasil or ism-i-masdar is the i^\ c_iLic joined to the object by the 
genitive case, the agent expressed in the vocative, and the object, which is the 
t_iLu governing the verb, as in the following extract : 

'urVz-^^V, ^^ ^"^J J^/. ^^' H i^V*^ ^jy^ Li'^^^v ^ ^J^' ""^ 

" Since thou eatest the mouthful of dependence, Oh Hamid ! 
Over one wound thou placest another wound." 

If an intransitive verb be substituted for the transitive in the preceding 
example, the object in that would become the agent, and the hUsil-i-masdar, as the 
^!^ ^Lic, would convey the meaning of a simple noun ; thus, 

.. ../ ^ 

" Since the mouthful of dependence may become hard." 

YI. — The ism-i-masdar as the aJI ^l^c or word governed, is connected with 
the (_jLi« in the genitive case. The agent is not expressed, and the object governs 
the verb. Example : 

" The world is the place of acquirement, and he who has effected nothing in this, that 
world is the place of ejectment and expulsion. Therefore, oh men ! every one of you 
should weep, and not account yourselves free from sorrow and aiSiction." — Fawald-ush- 

YIL— The ism-i-masdar as the t_jLa^ is connected w^itli an object — the 
iJS ;_>Ui< grammatically, — in the dative case, but really in the genitive. The 
agent is also expressed. Example : 

'' All who were on the face of the earth or in the heavens were hopeful of, and dependent 
on him ; and for his nourishment the aflfection of all men became manifest." — Tatvallud 


VIII. — The ism-i-haliah or ism-i-masdar, may be used as a noun in construc- 
tion with an auxiliary verb, the agent being expressed, and in the nominative case, 
if the verb be in any other than a past tense, and the object in the ablative ; thus, 

aj1_j!T ^iS*' <u A3l^ ^LL ^l^ U^ ^Jj ,^j^ dj J JO 

" Thou shouldst not take amiss, beloved one, my looking ; 
For the nightingales take flight round the rose." — ^abd-ul-Hamid. 

With any past tense of a transitive verb used instead of the present tense, the 
agent JL\jt , which in the above example is in the nominative, would become ^-Aj in 
the instrumental case. 

Sometimes neither agent nor object is expressed, but is understood from some- 
thing that has gone before or will transpire ; as in the following example : 

" They neither make inquiry of, nor cast a look towards each other : 
Back to back they pass along, the friends and acquaintances of this world." — ^ahd-ul-Hamld^ 

IX. — The ism-i-hiiliah, or indefinite participle, is used as a mode of action 
indefinite as to time or place, in three different ways. 

First. — When the agent is not expressed, but understood from something 
which has jDassed or which follows, and the ism-i-lmliali is placed in the ablative 
case, whether the verb be transitive or intransitive ; as in the following extracts : 

. " Whenever a person may appear in a place of worship, for every footstep which he takes, 
twelve good actions will be written, both on coming and on going." — Farcaid-ush-Shari (Ba h . 

" I said I should flee from these to some place or other ; 
But they by running seized me very quickly." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

Second. — The ism-i-masdar and the ism-i-Mliah is the t_jLi< , or governing noim, 
in the relation of the ablative case to the ^1 i_;Ll* , the object in the genitive case ; 
as in the following extracts : 

" With much joy and delight he made a royal feast, 
On account of the arrival of that youth — Hasan Mlmundi." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

;^^ «/ j^ Hjj aj "^^^ xj i3j^^ ^^J.y>- 


" When making thy supplication raise the hands, and recall to thy heart thy sins : 
Moisten both thy eyes by shedding tears of purity and innocence." — Rashul-id-By'an. 


Third. — The ism-i-hdliah is (as I have already shown at pages 72—75) com- 
inonly used as a simple indefinite participle, at which time it is neither ^Li< nor 
jJ! _;Lu, neither inflected nor used Avith an auxiliary. The following are 
examj^les : 

"It is stated in the Siraji, that the putting aside of alms* is necessary and right, both 
to the freeman and to the rich." — FaKaid-ush-Shari cea h. 

" Although ASCENDING from earth to heaven is a weighty matter ; 
Yet this journey is attained with but one footstep of piety and sinceritj. "—yEabd-ut'-Iiahndfi. 

442. — Another class of nouns is obtained from the third persons of the past 
tenses of verbs : as, 


-^*.^Mi iU« <k> (C^^ j'^^ '^ ^'x« ii^s- ^j u:_-,sr dj cb <Li; Jj c:^-clj ^JeJi u/i) 

'^ Confound that sitting and rising, though it may be on a throne, 
Which ever riseth ^\dth jealousy, and sitteth with envy." — jEabd-id-Hamid. 

443. — The imperatives of some verbs also fiu-nish another description of 
derivative noims, and of which the following is an example : 

" Trade and traffic, buying and selling, are all in the hands of others : 
There is neither an opening or commencement here for me nor for thee." — jEabd-w- Rahman. 



Jjk£ ,_jU-;^ is^mae ceadad. 

444. — The Cardinal Ximibers with the Pushto names and the Arabic figures 
which are used to represent them, are as follows : 

The first number ^_ becomes _^j or 4^ in the oblique cases ; and before a 
feminine noun it takes a , and is liable to the same changes for number and case as 
other adjectives. The other numerals being pliu'al, take the inflected form of the 
plural, and are not subject to any other changes for gender or number. 

* The alms given on the ^du-1-fitr, after the Mubammadan Lent. 




1 \ 

2 r 

s r 

4 P 

5 e. 

6' 1(W.) 

7 V 

8 A 

9 ^ 

10 V 

11 W 

12 \r 

13 \r 

isj.\ or j.^ 

(W) ^?jj or isj^ 


(i*J tti^ or (***j ^uti) 

14 Vr ^ ^^ or ^jJ j^^ 
lo U 

16 n 

17 W 

18 ^A 

19 n (W)j^.y. orj^y 

20 r* 

21 r\ 

22 rr 

23 rr 

24 rp 

25 re 

26 r 1 l::--Aj J ^--i or cX-i 

27 rv 

28 TA 

29 r^ 

30 r* 

31 n 

L> JJ 

i^r:;:'.'^ J 


32 rr 

33 rr 

34 Tr L/V"-'^ Jy^ 

35 Tc lA^'''^ '^"'^ 

36 ri ^^j,}^J:i or (Jjlj-i 

37 rv 

38 rA 

39 ri 

40 P* 

41 f] 

42 Pr 

43 pr 

44 Pr 

45 Pt 

46 PI, 

47 Pv 

48 PA 

49 P^ 

50 6- 

51 o\ 

52 cT 

53 cr 

54 cp 

55 cc 

^^U. ,-J:,or 

-,iiJ »1^ iSj 


»sr^. .J 

56 « 1 ^_;^^js-^. J--W or (-L^--i) 

57 cv w^-. ^3}" 

5S cA ^j^^jsr^ ^^ 

59 0*1 L/"-?^' '^^ 

60 V .^^ 

61 11 '^rrr-' Jrl 

62 ir '•• -^ ' 


63 ir 

64 Tr 

65 1c 

66 11 

67 IV 

68 1A 

69 1^ 

70 V 

71 v\ 

72 vr 

73 vr 

74 vp 

75 Vc 
70 VI 
77 vv 
73 VA 

79 y] 

80 A- 

81 Al 

82 Ar 

83 Ar 

84 Ar 

85 Ac 
SQ Al 

87 Av 

88 AA 

89 A^ 

90 V 

91 ^\ 

92 U 

93 ^r 

' r^*^ 







i or 

b ,1 ^t.l 
Ljij-Ji or C^-wi 

^y y 







94 ^P 


97 'Iv 

^^ 'jj^ 

99 \\ 

^^y '^ 

95 '.0 


98 V 


^y '^'^ 

100 \" 


96 ^1 




100 y* 


•-tf dji 

ty '^^ 

200 r '♦ 



ya &j 



300 r- 

Irf .-J or _;*? jti 






bj b3^ 

400 f'' 

y^3»^ or t<^ jyJi, 




. 8,000 


Sjj <iJl 

500 6- 

%<2J^^ or^-tf ti^:;. 



bj b^ 


Q «»• 

i^J ^ 

600 V 

^ jMi or '»,\; -'■' 




!    • 

Sjj ^ 

700 V 

^^ ifjj 




100,000 \ 


1,000,000,000 I-- 


i-JJl or ^:^ 

10,000,000 1 


1,000,000,000,000 \ 



i^'scJL^ (_^U-ol is-mae mushtaka h. 
445. The ordinal numbers in this language are formed in a similar manner to 
the Persian ordinals, with the exception of the first, by afiixing ^ . The changes to 
which they are subject for gender, number, and case, have been already described at 
paragraph 89. 

Jj^ or ^^j^. or ^:^ first. 

*j ijj or aJjJ second. 

*jjj third. 
*^^ or ^jy>>>- fourth. 

^i fifth. 







*j! eighth. 


or ^ 


»aJ tenth. 


jyjS ^^U-jI is-mae kusiir. 

.Ij a quarter. 

<UJ or ♦*; a half. 
ijb or ^J J J three quarters. 

ijl) or jb Asr^ one and a quarter, 
Jv*-3 ijj or *J yi one and a half. 

ijj *^ jl> one and three-fourths. 
<^.^\ isbuic or icl:i, haftah. 
446. The Western Afghans call the days Of the week by the Persian names 



only, except Friday, which is Arabic. The Eastern names are derived from Arabic, 
Sanskrit, and Persian. 

i^:J:i or ^Jl^ Saturday. 
^-1 uJo ov j\^\, j\^\ Sunday. 
^UjJi ^d ov j^, J^ Monday. 
<LJww cU or <\ij Tuesday. 

(U:^ jU^ Wednesday. 
<u*.icsaj or J«i.i j^l) Thursday. 
<U/«^ Friday. 

Amongst the tribes north of Peshawer, Thursday is called ^»j cjjbj j ' The 
Day of Pilgrimage.' 




447. The Afghan tribes bordering on the Panjab, who are, however, but a 
small portion of the children of Afghanah, use the months of the Hindu Calendar 
when referring to matters of agriculture. The names of the Af gh an months are — 

ori..::-^.iL^ji.xJf y- 3) The Month of the Niglit 

Hasan Husain. 

The First Sister. 


d^^jj The Second Sister, 

j^:>. 'UjjJ The Third Sister. 
,^ ^jjU- The Fourth Sister. 
-i,U« ^U<^ J God's Month. 

Li^.,i!L^ '■^1/^ •^) of Destiny, 
u^-il--^ ^i^jj J The Fast Month. 

l::^^1-wi. j^l *J, J The Lesser Feast Month. 
<ijL^ The Intermediate Month. 

'j^J:X^*j^^\ ^jl J The Greater Feast Month. 

The fifth month of the Afghan year — the Third Sister — commences on the 26th 
of the month of November of the present year 1859. 



Jj^, Spring. 
jj^j or ^j^^\ Summer. 



^^* Winter. 

" Oh ! beauteous are the roses of spring", 
The rose is useless without its nightingale, 

And like nightingales are lovers : 
And Philomel without its rose." 

— Yusuf mid Zullkhd. 



ci^^l^:?- jahat. 

jjo ^ or uJJd j^ North. 

^j^ 2-4 South. 

d:As>- j^ or jy East. 
tOi^j J -^ ov j^j West. 

" The parrot said, ' Oh, raven of separation ! would to God that between me and thee 
were as much distance as there is between the East and the West.' " — GuUstan, 


j^^ naho. 

450. I have generally fully explained the different peculiarities and excep- 
tions of the various rules of each part of speech under theii- respective heads, and 
but little remains to be described beyond a few remarks peculiar to the idiom of 
the language. 

As regards the order of words in a sentence, the chief circumstances to be 
borne in mind are, that the nominative should, j^roperlj^, aj)pear first in the 
sentence, and the adjective precede the substantive. Nouns in the different 
cases, as required, and a participle or adverb may follow, but the verb should 
terminate the sentence. In poetry, and in some styles of prose also, greater 
license is taken and allowed, the Afghan poets, like those of other nations, 
varying the dispositions of the words as they consider most suitable to the 
numbers and tendency of theii' poems. 

The order and arrangement of words will be seen from the following extracts, 
as well as fi'om the numerous examples already given, and also in the idiomatical 
tales inserted in the Appendix for this purpose. 

" The nightingale opened the mouth of gratitude and gave thanks unto the Almighty. 
Then he said, * Thou hast acted kindly with me, and certainly the return of such goodness 
should also be goodness. Know that beneath this tree there is concealed a vessel full of gold — 
take it and spend it in thy necessities.' " — Kalllah wo Danmah. 


" Maiy'sarah by name, there was an old house-born slave of Miu'taza ^Eali, who was also 
called by the name of ^abd-us-Samad. When the relatives divided the goods and chattels 
amongst themselves, this (slave) fell to the lot of Husain in the distribution ; and he used to 
show great affection both towards the elders and the juniors of the family."— iTa-saw and Husain. 

451. "When noims of diiferent genders occnr in the same sentence, the 
adjective, the verb, or the participle, governed by them in common, must take 
the masculine form ; as, 

" The Prince, Nashurbanu, the Queen— all these were seated together in one apartment, 
The WHOLE NIGHT they passed together in pleasure, until the light of bxy became 

APPARENT." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

AVhenever a noun is to be used in the same sentence with another, which is 
more immediately acted upon by a verb, the former must be put in the accusative 
case,* which in Pushto is the same as the nominative ; thus, 

 " These deceivers act in this manner— they give victuals unto the people, and they bias 
THE WORLD towards themselves." — Fawald-ush-Shari cea h. 

The particle j, which governs the genitive case, generally precedes the noun 
it governs, the ^^XJl^ or governing noun immediately preceding it likewise ; but it 
may also precede the governing as well as the noun governed. Example : 

" One day the owner op the garden was sitting amusing himself by viewing the 
BEAUTIFUL ROSES, when he beheld a nightingale, which continued rubbing its face on the 
leaves of a FLOWER, and uttering loud lamentations, was separating its golden leaves witli 
its sharp beak." — KaVilaJi wo Damnah. 

When two nouns in the ablative case come together in a sentence, the (-^) »ir 
2r, the sign of the case, is only used with the last ; thus, 

* Called the /o ^\j%xL< L2^!U- by tlie Arabian Grammarians. 


" Freedom and independence, and the affairs of the world, are far distant from each other : 
Take off thy hands from the business of the world, if thou doeth anything." 

— yEabd-ur-Rahmmi. 

In jDoetry, when the length of the rhyme requires it, the ablative sign may be 


altogether omitted. 

452. The adjective must always agree with its noun in gender, case, and 
number, excejDt with an uninflected masculine noun in the pliu'al number, when the 
adjective is used in the singular. Examples : 

" Black eyes ; sable locks ; dark eyebrows ; 
These are all gloomy calamities and man-devourers." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" In the world the roses of spring are manifold in number, 
If thou lamentest like the nightingale, oh heart of mine ! — Ahmad Shah, Abddli, 

When any other than the fii*st numeral adjective is used with nouns in the 
masculine gender, it is most generally inflected, and takes (-^) or i ; but oc- 
casionally the noun takes the plural form, and both forms may even be used in 
the same sentence ; as in the following examples : 

" I then sent for the Khattak force, and the Muhmandis and Aoria Khels, to the amount 
of FOUR or FIVE HUNDRED PERSONS, Came to my assistance. It was my intention to bring 
along with me to Khwarr, the Shahi Mushak clan together with their families, so I went to 
Tliem and made them march off." — Afzal Khan ; Tarikh-i-Muraf^sace. 

" There were at a guess about seven hundred thousand horses and camels also ; 
One hundred thousand wild asses too, with buffaloes, cows, and deer." 

— Saif-ul-Muluk. 

When numeral adjectives are used with feminine nouns, the latter take the 
plural form without exception ; as, 

^J L/*l? (* LZ-'-^f^ ''^ ^., ^Ji^ U^i^ ^J L/**^"* LS"*^ iS^i^l-w ij^J} lSv^ U*^ 

■' In this manner for ten nights and days there was such a princely party : 
The whole tribe were greatly delighted at this assemhly"— Saif-ul-Muluk. 

When the first numeral adjective is used with nouns, it is subject to the same 


changes for gender, number, and case, as the noun it qualifies. The remainder 
take the plural inflected form in the oblique cases; thus, 

" If she maketh a promise of one hour in any matter, 
I have no hope of the fulfilment of the affair in a year." — ^abd-ur-Iiahndn. 


453. In the different tenses of intransitive verbs, and in the present, futm-e, 
and aorist of transitives, in Avhicli the afiixed personal pronouns (^vLii^^^Uj) are 
used, the separate personal pronouns (^&L!ia:^j\^) may be altogether omitted, as in 
Persian, Arabic and Hebrew, or may be used with them ; and when the meaning is 
clear vrithout them, they may be dropped in the thu'd person singular and plural of 
intransitives also. Example : 

" I AM lining merely on the recollection of my sweetheart : 
Alas ! I SHALL NEVER EXIST wlthout my beloved." — Ahmad Shdh, Abddll. 

In the following example, an affixed personal pronoun in the dative case has 
been joined to the past tense of a transitive verb, and the regular personal pronoun 
*j also used ; and although it refers to the same object in the sentence, it is not 
inflected. The meaning would be complete and clear without the sj , and to put it 
in the dative form aj U or ^J U would be incorrect, unless the affixed pronoun br 
removed. It must therefore be borne in mind, that in using a separate personal 
pronoun vnth. an affixed one in the dative case, which it naturally assumes when 
used mth the past tense of a transitive verb, the former must retain the uninflected 
form ; thus, 

" Grief on account of the beloved hath made me wretched ; ang-uish for her hatli made me ill 
Why should not my heart be sad? when in my mind I think of her flowmg tresses." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abddll. 

It should also be remarked that the last word of this example, ^J, is the first 
person singular of the loreunt tense^ although wi'itten precisely in the same manner 
as the past with affixed pronoun in the preceding line ; and the affixed personal 
pronoun > is in the nominative case. 

Personal pronouns may occasionally bo met with in the inflected form of the 


dative case T^'itllout the governing particles, and written in the same manner as the 
instrumental form of the pronoim. They are, however, comparatively rare. 

" I show contrition, yet I commit sin ; but Thou seest me oh Creator! 
I am a poor weak mortal ; oh concealer of faults, become Thou my screen ! " 

— Khushhdl Khan, Khattak. 

A verb is often used in construction without any noun or pronoun expressed. 
Under these cii'cumstanccs some such word as jl=- or Jl>- 'point,' 'matter,' 'affair,' 
'concern,' etc., is generally imderstood; as in the following example : 

" At all events, whatever hath been decreed by fate will happen ; 
Although a person may have never cast his eyes on destiny," — JEahcl-ur- Rahman. 

If speaking of one's-self with another, preference is given to the first person 
in the fii'st instance. The Afghans being a plain spoken race, too, use the singular 
and not the plural form of the pronoun, as in English, when referring to one person 
only. Example : 

>.' ^.s-^ ^ .^ il^ Jb I'i Aj *.« A'j ^J »j ^w*Ar^ a] i\ 

\ •• -y V V > > V i •• I V" ^ 

*'/and THOU are both the slaves of one master, and the dependents of the audience hall of the 
I am never at rest from my duty, for I am ever with my head in the desert." — GuUstan. 

When a third person is mentioned, the words of the speaker himself must be 
repeated instead of using the third person, as in English ; thus, 

''"When he recollects that 'the Kaseda'h* has not been performed by me,' if he be near 
unto the sitting posture, he should return to that posture and perform the ^2,^^2i!\^.~-Fanaid- 

" They did not know at all in their minds as to 'where we G0,'t 
Neither did they distinguish what country it is, or what place." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

The pronoun .s^ is used for the thii'd person, but generally in a demonstrative with reference to a distant object ; and by way of discrimination, the pronoun 

P A mode of sitting at prayer. f Meaning, " Where they go." 


^50, J, or L> must be used, in the same way as we use this and that in English. 
The following is an example : 

Uj J 

!*_/ ^ ^'1^^ 6^ ^^^■•'^ 'O (*r^ji 

"Musea'wiyah said, * An arrow hath jDierced my heart, and in the end the wound will give 
forth bloody water. I have neither acquired this (world) nor that, and I know not what 
answer I shall make to the Giver of all good at the last day. — Hasan and Husain. 

When the use of a second pronoun is required to refer to the same thing as 
the subject of the sentence or nominative before the verb, the common or reflective 
pronoun J-^ must be used. Examples : 

i_5J Lz-^^_U£ ^ jj^ 'V is^^ *u^> «r ; (^Ui. (J'?^ ^jji^ 

" Oh ! Mirza, He himselp glorifieth himself, 
And unto Mirza His favour and beneficence is extended." — Mlrzd Khan, Ansari. 

i^^j Uri- J-^ ij l::.-vux,« J/ aj^j^ Hj ; aj JJj j 

" It is the season of spring ; the nightingale laments and bewails ; 
His heart is filled with anguish ; the rose is inebriated with its own intoxication." 

— Ahmad Shah, Abdati. 

When a pronoun in the second number of a sentence refers to the same subject 
or thing as the nominative or subject of the verb in the first, the personal and 
particular pronoun must be used instead of the reflective or reciprocal ; thus, 

"Alas! that before death I had once reached such a river, whose waves having flowed to 
MY knees, I had filled my water-vessel according to the wish of my heart. — Gulistan. 

The common or reflective pronoun may also be used in a substantive sense, as 
in the following : 

" The strangers and her own (relations) also said unto her, ' The sending away of the 
Prophet was not necessary on thy part.' They rebuked Khadija'h, and she stood reproved 
before him." — Tawallud Ndmak. 

J-:>- is also joined to nouns and pronouns by way of identity, peculiarity, or 
emphasis ; as in the following extract : 

y mm 

7> •• •• 



"God Almighty himself hatli said, 'Whoever hath placed his hand on the Kuran, con- 
gratulate hiin, oh Faithful ! ' " — MaMizan Afghani. 

The pronoun ^, used both as an interrogative and an indefinite, although not 
applicable to persons generally, is often used to express scorn or astonishment ; as 
in the following examples : 

" Inquire not of the vulgar concerning the anxiety and care of Hamid. 
AVhat knoweth the mat-weaver regarding the value of cloth of gold ? — JEabd-ul-Hamid. 

" What unfortunate hard grain I am, I cannot imagine ; 
Since I do not become ground in the mill-stones of absence." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

It may also be used in a discriminative or characteristic sense ; thus, 

" Whether ruler or subject, or whether foreign or strange; 
The whole world is mounted on the tail of calamity and evil." — yEabd-ul- Hamid. 

The adverb aj^s- is used emphatically to denote dissimilarity, contrariety, and 
non-existence between matters or things ; as, 

" Where the lips of the beloved ? where the sorrow of heart and soul ? 
Where the nightshade's red berry? and where the ruby of Badakhshan ? " 

— yEabd-ur-Bahma7iy 

" Since people barter their faith for the world's wealth, they are fools ; 
Where is fifty days? and where eternity and everlasting life?" — J^abd-ur- Rahman. 


454. Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice must agree with 
the object in gender and number, whether it may or may not be put in the oblique 
case ; as in the follo^ving extracts : 

" Bahram released that damsel from confinement : 
He drew her out from inside the well." — Bahram Gur. 

" King Suliman opened the covering with his own hand : 
To him became apparent a portrait of his beloved mistress."— Saif-ul-Muh-ik. 


lu the preceding examples, the objects are feminine and the verbs also. 

The agent, as already explained, is used in the instrumental case, and takes 
the inflected form when capable of inflection. The agents in the preceding extracts 
were not capable of change : in the following example the agent ^Uj becomes JU; . 

" He who yesterday commiserated and condoled with my sorrow and grief, 
Destiny to-day made that friend of mine sanguinary and cruel." — jEabd-ul-Hamid. 

Pushto nouns have no particular terminations for the objective case ; it is 
distinguished merely by its position, which j)roperly is after the agent and before 
the verb, when both agent and object are used in the third person. In all other 
instances the object may be known by the gender and number which the verb 
assumes to agree with it ; and by the affixed personal pronouns, which, as in the 
Semitic dialects, point out the objective case. Examples : 

'' When Aorang made Bahram acquainted with this circumstance, 
Care and anxiety excited him : he became perplexed and distracted. — Bahram Gur. 

" At the skirt of the mountain he perceived a dark cave ; and a man of enlightened mind 
was seated at the mouth of the cavern, free from the disquietude of strangers. — Kal'dah wo 

" The slave previous to this had never beheld the sea, and had never experienced the 
annoyance and inconvenience of a boat. He commenced to weep and lament. — GuUstdn. 

Eeverse the order in these examples and the meaning is also reversed. Thus, 
in the first, *|^ would be the agent and (-L^3j^^ i^Q object ; and in the last, <— jIjjJ 
would be the agent and ^_yt the object. 

There are some transitive verbs, such as ^bj Ho speak,' and Jio 'to look at,' 
' to observe,' mth which it is absolutely necessary that the object be put in the 
dative case, without which the sentence would convey no meaning. The folloA\'ing 
are examples : 

"The Queen spoke privately unto her mother. 
And with this circumstance she also acquainted Badrl." — Saif-td-Mulu/;. 


" Adam Khan said to Balo, ' Go thou and bring him ; ' and when he went and brought 
him, the Mulla said unto him, ' Let the women go away, then I will come to thee.' " — Tale of 
Adam Khan and DurWianal. 

In sentences where there may be two objective cases, the one denoting the 
object and the other the person, the object of the transitive verb must be put in the 
dative case. Examples : 

•• " •• •• •• 

" Since I cast my eyes towards this rosy-cheeked one. 
With those eyes I shed tears of blood." — jEahd-ur-Rahnan. 

" When he caused Bahram to be decked out in a suit of clothes, 

The blaze of his beauty became greater than the sun." — Bahram Gur. 

The dative case is sometimes used instead of the genitive to express relation 
or possession ; as, 

" That curiosity which father had sent for me, 
Came to my recollection at that very hour and time." — Saif-ul-Muluk. 

" Oh thou for ever fascinated and distracted with the cares of the flesh ! 
Why awaken for thy life and soul sleeping calamity and misfortune?" 

— .Eabd-ul-I{a7nld. 
The infinitive form of the verb, besides its other uses already described, is also 
used to denote the absolute necessity of an action ; thus, 

^^ J^ 1*5/^ ^1_^ Jj ^J J^;S^ JL^ Jks^ Jj 

" Moreover, that which is legal and right it is necessary to account lawful ; 
And that which is prohibited and unlawful it is necessary to account so." 

— Rash id-ul-By'dn . 
The past tense of a verb is often used in a future sense, as in the following 
extracts : 

" If absence shall make me sad, or giief on grief shall at night attack me ; 
I WILL make thy name my helper, oh ! thou Redresser of Wrongs ! oh ! thou Selected One ! " 

— Ahmad Shah, AbddlL 


" Oh ! gentle gale ! if thou wilt bring news of the beloved ; 
Thou wilt remove the absence-burned spots from the heart." — Ahmad Shah, Abdall. 

The present tense in many instances may also be used in a future significa- 
tion ; as, 

" The rapture and bliss of Paradise will be nothing in his eyes, 
When the beloved displayeth one of the charms of her countenance." 

— jEabd-ul-Haiiud. 

*' Six brothers, together with the army, we will all go with thee ; 
And whatever tasks thou wilt impose, those we will perform." — Bahram Gur. 

" I SHALL HAVE uo coucem on account of the bitterness of death. 
If my beloved may be seated by the pillow at the head of my bed." —-jEabd-ul-Namld. 

455. The past participles of Pushto verbs are sometimes used as past con- 
junctive participles, termed <uL: uJjk*^ ^U, in the same manner as in the Persian 
language. This is a very useful form of the verb, although not very commonly 
used. It expresses the performance of something previous to another action, which 
is indicated by the verb follomng ; and serves to conjoin the different members of 
a sentence. Example : 

" How shall I now weep after the rocks and the shrubs of my country? 
Having made my parting salutation, I bade them farewell." 

— Ashraf Khan, KhaUak. 

456. Tw^o words which resemble each other in sound, are often adopted when 
one alone would be sufficient; but one of the words, generally the latter, has no 
signification, and is used merely for the sake of sound. Examples : 

" For the sake of the profit of the world, it behoveth not 
That thou shouldest rend the collar of any one's fair fiime"-'^abd-id-Bamld. 

" With the insnared heart in the noose of curly locks entangled. 
The mind maketh false arbitration regarding discretion and caution." 

— jEabd-ul'JIamld. 



a}*j^J u:^W lSj^^ ^ ^^ i^ U-5 <^ LJ'^^^ ^'^ ^ u^ Ci"imes punisliable by General 

Court Martial with Dismissal or 

^^ ^ V. j/y ^ ^j j^^j^ ^ ^^. c/J V U^ S/'^ H Suspension of Officers, or by 

. vl 1 t 1 . ^» >f' t A p J- I- General or District Court Martial 

V L/J lT •• •• -" -^ LS^J^ J ^ ^ ■•  J ^^-^1^ Dismissal, Reduction, Cor- 

i_J^ i)J ^j^y <J (J-i>jU t;;-^^ u::,^^^J b J/^^r "^ c^=^ poral Punishment, or Simple 

Imprisonment with or without 
Aj ^L^ J ^IL Aj .\ ^Jl> ^ j ^ ^^ ^3 aJ b ^ Solitary Confinement, or Loss of 

,...., I . ^1 ,1 Standing on the Roll of Non- 

.. L^  SP^ J.. . .. t^^v J t/J^J- • -. ^^J J ^ Commissioned Officers and Sol- 

*^ ^nuixjj ^jt3 Article 22. 

?• - shall, m operations m the held, 

Sj^ i^*uJ&l J JlcIS" j JX*;, a] jl 4?;:^ ^ ^j '"'^ ''^f^ 15*^ spread reports by words or letters 

calcidated to create unnecessary 
V. !r^j:^ V. k^'^liJ V. f^ 'V, '^ 4^ ^ ^ ^^i t*^^'* alarm among the troops, or in the 

^ ^J^^ U^ V. ^J,3 ^.^ ^^-^ ^ ^7:^> ^^"^^^ ''' '" *^^ ''^' °^ *^' 
"^ "' ■• ' " army ; or 

JU. ^_j jj Article 23. 

" " - V V V ously to going into action, use 

l) ^j aj j^;-^ *Jt& ^ 'iLs- Jlj <-t^ ic-uJ&U ij lLJ:^ words tending to create alaim or 

despondency ; or 

J:^ ^liAjj^ Article 24. 

^ b ^ u^i. ^ J .U J j/y J A:.- cir^ y> jl Who shall be drunk when on, 

" ■' ^r^ J . ^/J .. ^TT V r- ^ ^ ^^ ^^^, p^^^^^ ^^, ^^ Parade, or on 

-.^ J Lz^j ^ b Ja:l^« J l::-Jj <b b J^/ i^^y '^ '■^'S the Line of March ; or 



(S-»~ (*^mJ ^^^^s 

Article 25. 

^ ^ ■../../' * " Sentry ; or 

^. ^ ^r^ ^k '^ j^ (^j ^y^ ^ (.j-**^ c^ll^ .XJ 

^^^:.^ aj Jls^ aj ^J\ 

~L^ ^ (^ t'V <J/ j-^ ^'^ LS^ u3j^ vy H V. J-^^^ 

Article 26. 

Any Soldier who shall be grossly 
insubordinate or insolent to his 
Superior Officer in the execution 
of his office ; or grossly insubor- 
dinate and violent in the presence 
of a Court Martial ; or 

Article 27. 

Who, being on actual service, 
shall refuse to assist in making 
field works ; 

jli' iLf (UJS J L_. 

Shall, if an Officer, on conviction, 
be sentenced to be dismissed the 
service, or to be suspended from 
A V 1 - , c ZL As Rank and Pay and Allowances ; 

<_5J ti ti^'^ L/*^, \^ c:— jIj 'i^-'Ijj^ ei-Jlju; ic/^ ij*^j^ 

^j^ (J"" 


And, if a Soldier, shall, on con- 
viction before a General, or Dis- 
trict, or Garrison Court Martial, 
be sentenced to sufier such pun- 

(^.. i^j ishment as a General, or District, 

i^-ii au ifJU \\^ cXJ'b jlS^ibS^ iUJ. J e:.^!Ui or Garrison Court Martial is by 

these Articles of War respec- 
tively empowered to award ; 

Provided, that such Oflfender 
shall not be sentenced to Death, 
or Transportation, or Imprison- 
ment with hard labour. 

<u-i ^ jy ^ ^'jb:^1 *J c:J1j^ 




A certain Afrldl, being desirous of learning to read, went into a village to a Mulla and 
said it would be a great favour if he would teach him. The Mulla asked him whether he 
had learnt anything previously ; but the Afrldi told him that he had not as yet learned 
to read. The Mulla then asked him what he would like to commence with ; and the latter 
replied, that he would do as the tutor might direct. The Mulla then told him that, in the 
first place, he should get the Alphabet by heart, and afterwards commence reading the first 
section of the Kur'an ; to which the Afridi having agreed, he was requested to come the 
following morning. 

^Yhen the Afrldi made his appearance the next day, the Mulla, taking the Alphabet in 
his hand, pointed out the first letter, and requesting his scholar to repeat after him, said 
"Alif." "Alup," repeated the Afrldi. "That is not the pronimciation," said the teacher, 
" repeat exactly as I say, Alif." " Alup" says the Afrldi again, with the greatest innocence 
possible. "Do not pronounce it so," said the Mulla, "-call it Alif;" and the Afrldi, like an 
obedient pupil, obeying his instructor to the letter, said, " Do not pronoiince it so, call it 
Alup." The Mulla again said, "That is not correct, I say: call it Alif." "That is not 
correct, I say : call it Alup," said the Afrldi. The Mulla, who was not a second Job, now 
losing all patience, said, " Oh ! infidel, call it Alif," on which the Afrldi replied, " Oh ! 
infidel, call it Alup." The Mulla at this, becoming very angry, gave the Afridi a box on 
the ear. The latter now thought within himself, " Master commanded me to repeat whatever 
he said, and doubtless it is necessary that I should also do as he does ; " so thinking this a part 
of the lesson, he dealt the Mulla a hearty box on the ear in return. At this specimen of 
Afridiness, the latter, becoming more enraged than ever, seized the Afrldi by the throat ; and 
the pupil, obeying his master to the letter, seized him by the throat also. In this state they 
both rose from their squatting position and commenced wrestling. At length the Afrldi, 
having the advantage in strength, succeeded, with little trouble, in laying the Mulla at full 
length on his back, and seated himself on his breast, at the same time looking towards him 
in expectation that he would go on with the lesson. 

In this unpleasant situation, it struck the Mulla that his amiable pupil might probably 
have taken his words, " to imitate him," in too literal a light, and that possibly he might be 
only imitating him in this instance ; so, taking his hands ofi" the Afridi, he exclaimed, " Oh ! 
Infidel, let me go." The Afridi replied, " Oh ! Infidel, let me go," and allowed the Mulla to 
get up ; after which he said, " Master ! that was not a good lesson by any means ; it was a 
hard fight." The Mulla answered, "You speak truly; to-morrow it wiU come to swords.'' 
" If such is the case," said the Afrldi, " I will go home and fetch mine," and he set out 
accordingly. The Midla, glad of this opportunity, thought there was no time to be lost ; and 
that very night he made himself scarce. 



>> •• ^ ' ^ " f ^ " 

*jl_j J ^J A^JJ) a^ ij ^\j» Aj iJ J ^5^i <sj 1^:>~ iO U Jo- i^ J ^^ iU j^si*^ JU- ^_5J aj 

^5^Aj*j^ I* iyl^ ^5! J j aj' L5>>>jyl ^i 4*^ ^ {^^ ^5j^ JiJ U:^- ^5^3 ^|lAi djl, J ^ aj j^^li ajo> 


An old man complained to a doctor of bad digestion. " Oli ! let bad digestion alone," 
said tbe doctor, " for it is one of the concomitants of old age." He then stated his weakness 
of sight. " Don't meddle with weakness of sight," replied the doctor, " for that also is one of 
the concomitants of old age." He complained to him of difficulty of hearing. "Alas ! how 
distant is hearing," said the doctor, " from old men ! diificulty of hearing is a steady con- 
comitant of old age." He complained to him of want of sleep. " How widely separated," 
said the doctor, " are sleep and old men : for want of sleep is certainly a concomitant of old 
age." He complained to him of a decrease of bodily vigour. " This is an evil," replied the 
doctor, " that soon hastens on old men : for want of vigour is a necessary concomitant of old 
age." The old man (unable to keep his patience any longer) called out to his companions — 


" Seize upon the booby ! lay hold of the blockhead ! drag along the ignorant idiot ! that dolt 
of a doctor, who understands nothing, and who has nothing to distinguish him from a parrot, 
but the human figure, with his concomitants of old age, forsooth ! the only words he seems 
capable of uttering." The doctor smiled, and said, " Come my old boy, get into a passion, for 
this also is a concomitant of old age." 

^j <sJ ^5J jLlk.^ ^ic ^5J J a^ J j c_-«-I? Lj ^ aj|^ J ^^ '*-'jj)^ '^ J J L5;;?^=r^ W lS^^ 

i'/ ^ j**-"^ i ^^ ^^^ ^"^y. J^^b <-^^^ (j^ j ci)^^^ ^'-' i^V,'^ s^^^^ ^ ^r J j iJ ^^" ^ 

Js] ^ ajJi, aj jy l:^''' Us^ J jWj J ^rr^ aj ^] ^5r^!^JJ aj lr^^ ^ a.^ S-r^ ^^ ^-^ cr*^  ^'-^ 


I resided at Basrah, said a certain Arabian Yorick, as a parson and professor of humanity, 
and was one day a good deal amused by a strange fellow, squint-eyed, straddle-footed, lame of 
both legs, with rotten teeth, stammering tongue, staggering in his gait like a man intoxicated, 
puffing and blowing like a thirsty dog, and foaming at the mouth like an angry camel, who 
came up and seated himself before me. " Whence come you," said I, " Oh father of glad- 
ness ?" " From home, please your worship," said he. "And pray where is your home?" I 
rejoined, "and what is the cause of your journey?" "My home," he replied, "is near the 
great mosque, adjoining the poor-house, and I am come for the purpose of being married, and 
to beg you will perform the ceremony. The object of my choice is this long-tongued, impor- 
tunate, hump-backed, scarlet- skinned, one-eyed, pug-nosed, stinking, deaf, wide-mouthed 
daughter of my uncle." " Do you agree, Miss Long-tongue," said I, " to marry this Mr. 
Pot-belly ?" "Ay," said the lady (with a great deal of Doric brevity). "Then accept, my 
friend,'* cried I, " this woman for your wife ; take her home, cherish and protect her." So he 
took her by the hand and departed. 

Now it happened that, about nine months after this event, they both returned to me 
rejoicing, and they had hardly seated themselves, when my old friend Adonis called out, " Oh, 
your worship ! we have been blessed with a most sweet and fascinating child, and are come to 
request you will bless and give him a name, and ofier up a prayer for his parents." Now, 
what should I behold but a little urchin, stone-bKnd, hare-lipped, without the use of its hands, 


splay-footed, bald-headed, ass-eared, bull-necked, not possessing one sense out of the five, and 
altogether frightful and deformed ; in short, a perfect epitome of all the qualities of his parents. 
At this sight I said to them, " Be thankful for this darling boy, and call him Umbsur,* for 
truly he has all your perfections combined in himself, and that child is admirable indeed who 
resembles his parents." 

<sjj^ ^^ jy* "^ <Uyi-tf Jjj i^ i^J ^j^.'^ '^^j j '^ 

« Literally, '<The joy of his parents," being compounded of a ^\ " mother," L^\ "father," andjjj --j "joy." 

The End. <!j^ ^\aj «Uj -^-*^o^ 


Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


L 007 683 624 6 


AA 000 361 969 9